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Jewish Encyclopedia 



Prepared by More than Four Hundred Scholars and Specialists 


Cyrus Adler, Ph.D. [Departments of Post- Joseph Jacobs, B.A. (Departments of the Jews 

of England and A nthropology; Revising Editor). 

Marcus Jastrow, Ph.D. (Department of the 

Talmud ) . 

Kaufmann Kohler, Ph D. (Departments of 

Theology and Philosophy) . 

Herman Rosenthal (Department of the Jews of 
Russia and Poland ). 

Isidore Singer, Ph.D. {Department of Afodern 
Biography from ly^o to fgo2) . 

Emil G. Hirsch, Ph.D., LL.D. (Department of Crawford H. Toy, D.D., LL.D. (Departments 
the Bible). of Hebrew Philology and Hellenistic Literature). 

Biblical Antiqttities ; the Jews of America) . 

Gotthard Deutsch, Ph.D. (Department of 
History from I4g2 to iqoz) . 

Louis Ginzblkg, Ph.D. (Department of Rab- 
binical Literature) . 

Richard Gottheh., Ph.D. (Departments of 
History from Ezra to I4g2 ; History of Post- 
Talmudic Literature) . 

Chairman of the Board 

Secretary of the board 


Projector and Managing Editor 








Jewish Encyclopedia 



Prepared by More than Four Hundred Scholars and Specialists 


Cyrus Adler, I'lr.I). [Di-l^arlmeitts of Post- Joseph Jacobs, B.A. {Dcjtartments of the Jews 
Bibtieal Ajttiqtiities ; t lie Jews of Ameriea) . of England and Anthropology ; Revising Editor). 

Gotthard Df.utscii, PilO. ( Department of Marcus Jastrow, J'h.I). {Department of t/,e 
History from 141^2 to igo2) . Talmud) . 

Kaukmann Kohler, Pll U. (Departments of 
Louis GlNznERC, I'li.!). [Department of Rah- Theology and Philosophy) . 

hhtieal Literature) . 

Hf,rmav Rosenthal (Departmmt of the Jews of 

RlcHAun CoTTHEii., Ph.D. {Departments of Russia and Poland). 

History from Ezra to I4g2 ; History of Post- is,r,„RE SiNGER, Ph.D. {Department of Modern 
Talmudie Literature) . Biography from 1730 to igo2) . 

Emil (;. lIlRSCH, Ph.D., Ll..i). {Department of CrawforI) TI. Toy, D.I)., I.L.D. [Departments 
the Bible). of Jtehrew Philology and Hellenistic Literature). 


Chairman of the Board Secretary of the Board 


Projector and Managing Editor 







M D C C C C I I 

Copyright, 1902, by 


All rights of translation reserved 

Registered at Stationers' Hall. London, England 
{Printed in the United States 0/ A merica ] 





(Departiucnl.-i n/ I uxt-Bihlinil Antiijliiliis: lln Jewm 


President of the American Jewish Hlstoriivil Suiiely ; Liljra- 

rian, Smithsonian Institution, VVashint'lnn. I). C. 


(/ , lailiiuiil nf llnituru Iniiii l'.:)J In i:h)J.) 

Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union Coileijc', Cineinnati, 

(ihio ; Editor of " Deborah." 


{Dciiarlninil nf Ilitliliiiiinll Litj ralilir.) 

Professor of Tahnud. Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 

New York ; Author of " Die Hajrgailu bci den 



(Deparlmcrita (if Histinu 11(1111 Ezra la ;/,.''-',• JIMaruaf 

Post-TaliKiuUv Literature.) 

ProfessorofSemiticl.anifuaBes, Columbia Uniyerslty, New York: 

Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library ; 

President of the Federation of A merlcan Zionists. 


tDeiiarimeat af tlie Bihle.) 

Rabbi of Cbicai!0 Sinai Congregation, Chicago, III.; Professor of 

Rabbinical Literature and Philosophy, Uniyerslty of 

Chicago ; Editor of " The Reform Advocate." 


{Dciinrtmetxts af ll(r .Jeirs af Eatilaiid and Anthropnlagu; 

lieri.siiifj Editor.) 

Formerly PiTsldent of the Jewish Historical Society of England ; 

Author of " Jews of Angevin England," etc. 


i,D( li((rtiiielil(if tlie TalKdid.i 
Rabbi Emeritus of the Congregation Rodef Shalom, Philadel- 
phia, Pa.; Author "f "Dictionary of the Tahnud." 


{Dcijnrtmenis af Tla-aUniii: Pliilasaiilin.) 

Rabbiof Temple Beth-r.l, New York ; ex-President of the Board 

of Jewish Ministers, New York. 


(Department af tlte Jews af Husnia and I'alnnd.) 
Chief of the Slavonic Departiiiciit, New York Library. 



IDcyiartmcnt (if Madern Biagraph]i fram n.'eita i:io?.) 


{Departments (if Helirew Pliildlauii and llrlleni.'<lie. 


Professor of Hebrew in Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.; 

Author of "The Religion of Israel," "Judaism and 

Christianity." etc. 

I. K. FUNK, D.D., LL.D. 

iCIiairman at tin ll(Ktr(t.) 

Editor-in-Chief of the ST.\XDARn Dictionary or tiik Exiii.ish 

La.ngi'age. etc. 


(.Sceretariiaf ll(( Dnard.l 

As.soclate Editor of "The Columbian Cvclcipedia." and on the 

Standard Dictioxarv Editorial St^iU, etc. 



RaJibi nf the Congregation Zichron Ephraiin ; Instructor in the 
Hible and in Hebrew (irammar, Jewish Theological Semi- 
nary of America, New York. 


Riibbl Emeritus of Zion Congregation, ('hicago; Author of 
"A Practical (iranmiar of the Hebrew Language." 


Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Emanu-EI, New York. 


Head of Ihe Department of Semitic and EgjTitian Literatures, 
Catholii' University of America, Washington, D. C. 


Profes.sor of Semitic Languages and Librarian in the University 
of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. I'a. ; Author of "Re- 
ligion of the Babylonians and Assyrians," etc. 


Professor of (iriental Languages, University C<illcge, Tori>nto, 

Canada ; Author of " History. Proiihecy, and 

the Monuments." 


Rabbiof IheSbearith Israel ((ingrciralion .Spanish and I'oriu- 

guese). New York ; President of the Board of Jewish 

Ministers, New York. 


President of ilie Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Dhlo; 
Author df " Introduction to the Talmud." 



Professor of Bibliial Litenmire luul the History of Religions 

in Harvard University, t ambridge. Mass.; Author of 

" A Commentary on the Book of Judges," etc. 


Uabblof theCorigrcgjilion lltnc Isnn-1 : Pinfossor of Homiletics, 

Hebrew I'nion College, C'inrinnati. Ohio ; President of 

Hebrew Sabbat^ Vbo<»I Union of America. 


Professor of Semitic Laaguages and Literatures, University of 

Chicago, 111.: Author of "' The Monuments and 

the Old Testauient," etc. 


President of the Faculty of the Jewish Theological Seminary of 
America. New York ; Author of " Studies in Judaism." 


President of I'eulral Conferemc of .\meri. au Rabbis : Rabbi of 
Temple Enianu-El. New York. 


Rabbi of the Congregation Emanu-El, San Francisco, Cal.; Pro- 
fessor of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Uni- 
versity of California, Berkeley, Cal. 


Editor of " Tlie Literary Digest," New Y'ork ; Author of " Stories 
in Rhyme," etc. 


Coedil*irof " The Jewislnjuarlerly lieview "; .\ utlior of " Jew- 
ish Life in the Middle Agt'S," etc.: Reader of Biibbinic, 

Cauittridgc I'nivei-siiy. England. 

W. BACHER, Ph.D., 

Professor in the Jewish Theological Seminary, Budapest, 

M. BR ANN, Ph.D., 

Pn^fessor in the Jewish Theological Seminary, Breslau. Ger- 
many ; Editor of " M^matsschrift fiir Geschichte und 
Wissenschafl des Judentliums." 

H. BRODY, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Nachod, Bohemia, Austria : Coeditor of " Zeltschrift fiir 

Heliraische Bililiographie." 


Principal of the Jewish Theological Seminary, Constantinople, 


Profes.'^ur of Litei-ary Arabic at the SpcLial Scliiwl of Oriental 
Languages, Paris ; Member of the InsUtut de France. 


.\uthorof "Istoriya Vevrcyt'v." iidessji, Russia. 


Principal of Jews' ("liege, London. England; Aiilli i of "The 
Jewish Religion," etc. 


Professor of SHUiitic Philology. I iiivci-siiy ..f Huda|>est, 


chief Rablii of \'it.iina, ,\ustria. 

M. I'clcisliuil-'. KUv-iM. 


Chief of the Hehrew l)fpariinem of the |[iipenal Public Library, 
St. Peterslmrg, Ru.-^sia. 


Chief Rabbi of France: llonoiiiry Prcsulent of the Alliance 

Israelite Universelle: Ollicerof the Legion 

of Honor. Paris, Fnmce. 


R;ibli, Budapest. Huiig:iiy : i orrespoiiding Member of the 

Royal Academy of History, Madrid, Spain. 


Professor Emeritus <-if Psychology, University of Berlin ; Meran, 


Member of Uu- l-'n-uili Iti>tiiuie; rri'fes.sor at the Free School 

of Political Scient-e. Paris, France ; Authi.>r of 

" Israel Chez U^ Nations." 


Professor in the Jewish ThetUogical Seminary ; Editor of 
" Revue des Etudes Julves." Paris, France. 


Chief Rabbi of Padua; Professor of Hebrew at the Universiiy, 
Padua, Italy. 


Chief Rabbi of Szegedin, Hungary: .\uthorof " Die Ai^ainaischen 



Principal of the Jewish Theiplogical Seminary; Chief Rabbi of 
Florence, Italy. 

H. OORT, D.D., 

Professor of Hebrew Language and .\ix"heology at the State 
University, Leyden, Holland. 


Formerly Lilmirian of ilie Uealf Hil>liote<'a Palalina, Parma, 


Formerly Professor of History at the Universities of Bonn and 

Brussels ; President of the Deuts^'h-Judi.-iChe 

Gemeindehund, Berlin, Germany. 


Kabhi ill \V:ii>aw. Kussia. 

E. SCHWARZFELD, LL.D., of iht- .Icwish (>.>loiiizatioh .\s.sociation. Paris. 


Professor of PliilosM]ihy. IniM-rsiiv cif Bern. Switzerland ; Editor 

of " .\r<-lMv fill- (,(■>. lurhlo liiT rhilosophie." etc. 


Professor of old Testament E.\egesis and Semitic l.anguiiges. 
University of Berlin, Germany, 


Master of SI. John's i ollege, Camliridge. England: Editor ol 
" Sayings of the Jewish Fathers." etc. 



S u-ith dagesh, p 

B> sh 

D without dagesh, f 

t s 

X ? 

n t 

P ^ 

^ r 

A. — Rules for the Transliteration of Hebrew and Aramaic. 

1. All important names which occur in tlie Bible are cited as found in the authorized King James 
version; e.g., Moses, not Mosheh ; Isaac, not Yizha^ ; Saul, not Sha'ul or Shaiil; Solomon, not 
Shelomoh, etc. 

18. Names that have gained currency in English books on Jewish subjects, or that have become 
familiar to English readers, are always retained and cross-references given, though the topic 
be treated under tlie form transliterated according to the system tabulated below. 

3. Hebrew subject-headings are transcribed according to the scheme of transliteration ; cross-refer- 
ences are made as in the case of personal names. 

4. The following system of transliteration has been used for Hebrew and Aramaic : 

N Not noted at the beginning or the end of a word ; otherwise ' or by dieresis; e.g., Ze'eb or Melr. 

2 b 12 hi 

i g PI A 12 m 

id D < J n 

n h ^ y OS 

•\ w 3 fc V ' 

Note : The presence of dagesh lene is not noted except in the case of pe. Dagesh forte is indi- 
cated by doubling the letter. 

5. The vowels have been transcribed as follows : 

— a T u -^ a. — B ^o 

-=-c — e -s-o '~i 

-^ i : e -=; a ^ u 

Kamez hatuf is represented by o. 

The so-called " Continental" pronunciation of the English vowels is implied. 

6. The Hebrew article is transcribed as ha, followed by a hyphen, without doubling the following 

letter. [Not hak-Kohen or hak-Cohen, nor Bosh ha-shshanah.] 

B.— Rules for the Transliteration of Arabic. 

1. All Arabic names and words except such as have become familiar to English readers in another 
form, as Mohammed, Koran, mosque, are transliterated according to the following system : 

*^b O d ^J>s 

i^t J d/i ^Jod 

iJLith J r y t 

Zi ^ V^s ^ ' 

U. Only the three vowels — a, i, u — are represented: 
— a or a — t or i 

No account has been taken of the imalah; i has not been written e, nor u written o, 




fi h 


3 » 




r "* 

— M or M 

* In all other matters of orthography the spelling preferred by the Standard Dictionart has usually beeu followed. Typo- 
graphical exigencies Lave rendered occasional deviations from these systems necessary. 


3. The Arabic article is InTariably written al; no account being taken of the assimilation cf the I to 
the following letter; e.g., Abu al-Salt, not Abu-l-Salt; Aa/Ts ctl-Daukth, not A«/ts ad-Daulah. 
The article is joined by a hyphen to the following word. 

4. At tlie end of words the feminine termination is wi-itten ah ; but, when followed by a genitive, 
at ; e.g., Risalah dhat al-Kursiyy, but HVat al-Aflak. 

5. No account is taken of the oTerhanging vowels which distinguish the cases ; e.g.. 'Amr, not 'Amrv, 

or 'Amrun; Ya'akub, not Ya'akubun; or in a title, Kitab al-amandt wal-'itikadat. 

C. — Rules for the Transliteration of Russian. 

All Russian names and words, except such as have become familiar to English readers in another 
form, as Czar, Alexander, dedatine, Moscoic, are transliterated according to the following system : 



















h, V, or g 




half mute 








e and ye 



■ t 



























JI Ji 






Mm m in ffl sh 

Rules for the Citation of Proper Names, Personal and Otherwise. 

1. Whenever possible, an author is cited under his most specific name: e.g., Moses Nigrin under 

Nigri7i ; Moses Zacuto under Zacuto : Moses Kieti under Rieti: all the Kimhis (or Kaml.iis) 
under Kimhi ; Israel ben Josepli Drohobiczer under JJrohobiczei: Cross-references are freely 
made from any other form to the most specific one : e.g., to Moses T/doZ from Moses Narbo7ii ; to 
Solomon Nathan Vidal from Menahem Meiri ; to Samuel Kaii.ii from Samuel Astruc Dascola ; 
to Jedaiah Penini, from both Bedersi and En Bonet ; to John of Avignon from Moses de 

2. When a person is not referred to as above, he is cited under his own personal name followed 

by his official or other title ; or, where he has borne no sucli title, by "of " followed by the place 
of his birth or residence ; e.g., Jolianan ha-Sandlar ; Samuel ha-Nagid ; Judah ha-llasid ; Gershom 
of Metz, Isaac of Corbeil. 

3. Names containing the word d', de, da, di, or i^tin, von. y, are arranged under the letter of 

the name following this word; e.g., de Pomis under Pomis, de Barrios under Barrios, Jacob 
d'lUescas under Illescas. 

4. In arranging the alphabetical order of. personal names hen, da, de, di, ha-, fbn*, of have not been 
taken into account. These names thus follow tlie order of the next succeeding capital letter : 

Abraham of Augsburg Abraham de Balmes Abraham ben Benjamin Aaron 

Abraham of Avila Abraham ben Baruch Abraham ben Benjamin Ze'eb 

Abraham ben Azriel Abraham of Beja Abraham Benveniste 

5. In order to facilitate reference, complete groups of all persons bearing such common names as 

Aaron, Abraham, Jacob, are given in small type in a group immediately under the first key-word. 

• When IBN has come to be a epeciflc part of a name, as Ibn Ezra, euch name is treated in its alphabetical place under "I." 


[Self-evident abbreviations, particulaily those used in the bibliography, are not included liere.] 

At) Abot, Pfrkp 

Ab. It. N Aliiittle-K'ahWNatban 

*Ab. Ziirab 'Abodah Zarali 

od (oc at the place 

A. II in the yeaiof tbe Hefrira 

AllK. Zeit. des Jud.. Allgemeine ZeituiiR des Judenthums 
Am. Jew. Hist. SDcAiDeriuan Jewisli Historical Society 

■^T^nfr"' ■ '^^""'- I- American Journal of Semitic Languages 
Anglo-Jew. Assoc... Anglo-Jewisb Association 

Apoe Apocalypse 

A pocr Apocrypha 

Apost. Const Apostolical Constitutions 

'Ar 'Arakin iTalmud) , 

Arcb. Isr Archives Israelites 

art article 

A. T r>as A Ite Testament 

A. V Authorized \'ersion 

b ben iir bar or born 

Bah Babli (Babylonian Talmud) 

^ Anwr '*''' "".''' !' •^''^''''T- Agada der Babylonischen Amoraer 
Bacher, Ag. Pal. I Bacher. Agada der Palli.stinensisclien Auio- 

Amor r liier 

Bacher, Ag. Tan.. ..Bacher, Agada der I'annaiten 
Bar Baruch 

B. B Baba Batra (Talmud) 

B.c before the Christian era 

Bek Bekorot (Talmud) 

Benxinger, Arch. . .Henzinger. Hebriiische Archaologle 

Ber Herakot i Taluiud ) 

Berliner's i Beiliner's Magazin ftir die Wissenschatt des 

Magazin \ JuiieDtiiiuns 

Bik Bikkuriiu (. I'alumri) 

B. K Baba Kamma (Talmud) 

B. M Baba Mezi*a (Talmud) 

-Rniotii, i,.n,i Hiuf ' Boletin dtf la Ileal Academia de ia Histoi'ia!,t. , ,jviaj,.|£i) 

w...".n'o Tr,>,pv. I Brail's Jahrbiicher ftir Jiidiscbe Geschichte 

Bi uil s Janrn -^ ^,^^1 ijiteratur 

Bulletin All. Isr Bulletin of the Alliance Israelite Universelle 

c about 

Cant Canticles (Song of Solomon) 

Cant. R Cantit^les Uabbah 

Cat. Anglo-Jew. i catalogue of Anglo-Jewish Historical Ex- 

Hlst. Exh t hibition 

C.E conunon era 

""text.".'!'.""^: ".°.'' !• ^-""I""' "<■ "^^"apters 

'^'Encyc*' Bibi'." l*." ! <heyne and Black, Encyclopaedia Biblica 

I Cbnm I Chronicles 

II Chrcm II ('Innniclcs 

C I. A CorpUN iDsniitlionum Atticainim 

C. 1. (i Corpus liis'ii|iti(inuiii (ii-iecarum 

C. I. H Corims ltisi-ri|tni'ninii Ih-brairaiiim 

C. I. L ('oi'j>us iMMriplioiuini I.;iImi:u mmi 

C. [. S Corpus Inscriiitioiium ^emilicaium 

Col Colossians 

Cor Corinthians 

d died 

D Deuteronomist 

Dan Daniel 

De (jubernatis, / De Gubernatis, Dizionario Biograflco degli 

I)iz. Biog f Scritlori Contemporanei 

Dem l)em:ii (Talinud) 

nprpr.iinnro- ) DercMbi.urg, Eusai sur I'Histoire et la Gfo- 
uereuuourg, Hist. ^ j,r,,p,|j,. ,j^ |,j Palestine, etc. 

Deut Deuteronon)y 

Deut. U .«. . . Deuteronomy Uabbah 

E Elohist 

EccI Ecclesiastes 

Eccl. K Ecclesiastes Rabbah 

Ecclus. (Sirach) E(«'lesiasti(ais 

ed edition 

'Eiluy 'Eduyyot (Talmud) 

Encyc. Brit Encyclopiedia Britannica 

Eng English 

Eph Ephesians 

Epiphanius, Hieres. Kpipbanliis, Adversus Haereses 

'Er 'Erubin ITalmuil) 

Ersch and / Ersch and limber, Allg. Encyklopadie der 

(iruber, Encyc. \ Wissenschatt und Kiiuste 

Esd Esdras 

Esth Esther 

Esther R Esther Rabbah 

et seq and following 

Eusebius, Hist. EccI.Eusebius, Historia Ecclesiastica 

Ex Exodus 

Ex. R Exodus Rabbah 

Ezek Ezekiel 

Krankel. Mebo Frankel. Mebo Yerushalmi 

Fijrst, Bibl. Jud Fiir-st, Bibliotheca Judaica 

^"Karitei-r' ''' ''*'^ I' ^"'^'' tiest'liii'li'« des Karilerthums 

(ial Galatians 

"^'"Bevis Marks'*. !' ''"stei-, Bevis Marks Memorial Volume 

\ Geiger. Urschrift und IVbersetzungen der 
Geiger, Urschrift.- Bibel in Ihrer Ahhiingigkeit von der In- 

( neren Entwicklung des .ludenthiuns 

r'oicror'c Tfirt 7oif ' Gciger's Jiidisclie Zeit.schritt fiir Wissen- 
Geiger s jua.ieii. ■, ^^.^^.^J^ ,|^,| j^^,|,^,|| 

Geiger'sWiss. i Geiger's Wlssenschaftliche Zeitschrlft fiir 

Zeit. Jiid. Theol. t JUdische Theologie 

Gem Geinara 

Gen Genesis 

(ien. R (Jenesis Rabbah 

Gescb Geschichte 

Gesenius. <ir Gesenius, Grammar 

(iesenius. Th Gesenius, Thesaurus 

Gibbon, Decline (Gibbon, Htstory of the Decline and Fall of 

and Fall 1 the Roman Empire 

finthnro--,; Hihin t Glusburg's Masoretlco-Crltlcal Edition of 
uinsoui}, s ciuiL.. I j^i, Hebrew Bible 

Git Gittin (Tahnuill 

(ir'aetz. Hist Graetz, History of the .lews 

Griitz, Gesch (iriitz, descliicliie der Judeu 

Hab Habakkuk 

Hag Haggai 

Hag Hagigah (Talmud) 

Hal Hallah (Talmud) 

Hiimburger, ' Hamburger, Realencyclopiidie fiir Bibel 

R. B. T.. I' und Talumii 

"'iiibl'e **' ^"^'" \ Hastings, Dictionary of the Bible 

Heh Epistle to the Hebrews 

Hebr Masoretic Text 

Herzipg-lMitt or J Real-Encyklopiidie fiir rrotestantische The- 

Herzog-Hauek, - ologie und Kirche (»d and 3d editi(ms re- 

Real-Encyc — i siiectively) 
nir<oh Ri„ir T ov ' Hirsch, Blographlsches Lexikon Hervorra- 
uirscn, liiof,. Lex. , gander Aerate A Her Zeiten und Volker 

Hom Honiiletics or Homily 

Hor Horayot (Talmud) 

Hul Hiillin (Talmud) 

ill same place 

iiivni same author 

Isa Isaiah 

I.^r. Letterbode Israelitische I.etterbode 

J Jahvist 

Jaarboeken Jaarboeken voor de Israeliten in Nederland 

ia....i,u si,„,n.i.- 'Jacobs, luq u iiv liito ihc Sourccs ot Spauish- 
jacoiis, ftouries..-^ Jewish History 

''''Bibr Anglo-Jud" I ■J"™''* i"'"1 "'""• Bltillotheca Anglo-Jndaica 
Jahil). 'iesch. der ( Jahrbuch fiir die (ieschichte der Judeu und 

Jud ( des Judenthums 

inatrnix- lilrf ) Jastrow, Dlcl i. .Tiai v rif ihc Targumlui, Tal- 

jasiron,uKi ^ mudim, and Midrasliiui 

Jellinek, B. H JeUinek, Bet ha-Miilrasli 

Jer Jeremiah 

Jew. Chron Jewish Chronicle, Lomlcm 

Jew. Hist. Soc. Eng. Jewish Hist^irical Society of England 

Jew. tjuart. Rev Jewish Quarterly \i.v\ lew 

Jew. World Jewish World. London 

Josephus, Ant Josephus, Anii<|iiiiies of the Jews 

Josephus, B. J Josephus. De Itello Judaico 

''Tifl'.".'!'.'.'.'!"'™. !■ ■'"S-^Plu's. t'onti-a Apioneui 

Josh Joshua 

Jost's Annalen Jost's Israelitische Annalen 

Joui'. Bib. Lit Journal of Biblical Literature 

''"■rryilh'^""'.'.'."'" !' Justin, Dialogus cum Tryphone Jud:t>o 

K a u f m a n n Ge- 1. Gedenkbuch zur Erinneruiig an David Kauf- 

denkbuch 1 maun 

Kayserling, Bibl. ( Kayserling.BibllotecaEspanola-Fortugueza- 

Esp.-Port.-Jud.. ( Judaica 

Ker Kerilot (Talmuil) 

Ket Ketub<it (Talmud ) 

Kid Kiddushin (Talmud) 

Kil Kilayam (Tahimd) 

I^in Kiniiim (Talmud) 


Volume...?"'!.. 1 S*''iii''t' Studies in Memory of A. Kohut 
Kraiiss, Lehn- I. Kraiiss. Grieehisebe und Lateinische Lehn- 

wOrter i woner, ete. 

Lam Lamentations 

Lam. R Lamentations Rabbali 

Larousse Diet ' Larou.sse. Grand Dictionnaire Universel du 

' XIXe Sieeie 

!.c in the place cited 

Le%* Leviticus 

Lev. R Leviticus Rabbah 

TpYY Chfll ( 

Worterb.' i Le\T. Chaldaisches WOrterbuch, etc. 

Levy. Xeuhebr. (. Levy. Xeuliebraisches und Chaldaisches 

Wonerb i WOrterbuch, etc. 

LXX Septuagint 

m married 

Ma'as Ma'aserot (Talnnul 1 

Ma'as. Sh Ma'aserSheni (Talmud) 

Mace Miiccaliees 

Mak Makkot ' Talmud) 

Maksh iviakshirin (Talmud) 

Mai .Malachi 

Mas .Masorah 

Massek Miusseket 

Matt Matthew 

T\f<'riinfr>ck nnri \ MiClintixk and Stronp. Cvcloptedia of Bib- 

stmnff rv • ■, ''™l- Theological, and Ecclesiastical Liter- 

■Meg Megillah (Talmud) 

^e1 Me'ilah (Talmud) 

Mek Mekilta 

Men Menahnt (Talmud) 

3lid Midtli.t (Talmud) 

Widr Midrash 

Midr. R Midrash Rabbah 

Midr. Teh Midrash Tehillim ( Psalms) 

Mik Mikwaot (Tahnud) 

M.'K Mo'ed Kaian (Talmud) 

Mr,nit««,.hrift ' Monatss<-lirift fur Geschichte und Wissen- 
Monatsscnnit , ^.^^j^ j^^, jmienihums 

Mortara. Indice Mortara. Indice Alfabetico 

MS Manuscript 

Muller, Frag. Hist. (Muller, fnismenta Uistoriconim Groeco- 

Gr^c ) rum 

Naz Xazir (Talmud) 

n.d no date 

Ned Nedaiim (Talmud ) 

Neg N"ega"im 

Neh Nehemiah 

Keubauer. fat. / Seubauer, Catalogue of the Hebrew MSS. 

Bodl.Hebr.MSS. \ in the Bodleian Lilirary 

Keubauer, G. T Xeubauer. Geographie du Talmud 

N. T New Testament 

Num Numbei-s 

Num. R Numl>ei^ Rabbah 

Obad Obadiah 

Oest.Wochenschrift.Oesierreicbische Wochenschrift 

Oh ( (Talmud) 

Onk (inkelos 

Orient, Lit Literaturhlatt lies Orients 

O. T Old Testament 

P Priestly coile 

\ Pagel. BiographischPS Lexikon Hervorra- 
Pagel, Biog. Le.\. - gender Aerzte des Seunzehnten Jahrhun- 

/ derts 
Pal. E.xplor. Fund. .Palestine Exploration Fund 
Pauly-AVissowa. ( Pauly-Wissowa. Real-EncydopadiederClas- 

Real-Encyc (' sischen A Itertumswissenschaf t 

Pent ." Pentateuch 

Pes Pesiihim iTalnuidl 

Pesh Peshito. Pesliitia 

Pesik Pesikta de-UaO Kahaua 

Pesik. R Pesikta Rabbati 

Phil'. Philipiiians 

Plrke R. El Pirke Rabbi Eliezer 

Prov ProVerl>s 

Ps Psalm iir Psalms 

R Rabbi or Rab (before names) 

^ Li™-Blatt "*^' 1 Kahmer's Judiscbes Litteratur-Blatt 

Regesty Regesty 1 Xadpisi 

Rev. As Revue .\siati<|ue 

Rev. Bib Revue Biblique 

Rev. Et. Juives Revue des Etudes Juives 

Rev. Sem Revue Semiticiue 

R. H Rosh ha-Shanah (Talmud) 

Rios (Amador del Estmiios Historicos, Politicos y Literarios, 

los), Estudios. . { etc. 
Rios (Amador de i Hisloria . . . de los Judios de Espana y 

los). Hist ( Portugal 

T>i.>„, v,.Ai...„^^ ( Ritter, Die Erdkunde iin Verhaltnis zur 
Kitter, trdkunae. -^ j;^,^^ ^^j ^i^. Geschichte des Menschen 

Roest, Cat. (R.k-si. Calah.g der Hebraica und Judaica 

Rosenthal. Bibl. i aus der L. RosenthaPsohen Bibliothek 

Rom Romans 

R. V Revised Version 

Salfeld, Martyriv t salfeld. Das MaUvrologium des Nurnbenter 
logiuin 1 .Meiiuirbuches 

I Sam I Samuel 

II Sam II Samuel 

Sanh sanhedrin (Talmud) 

S B O T ■' 'Sacred B«.ks of the Old Testament) Polv- 
I cluwme Bible, ed. Paul HaupC 

" Encycf^^'^f!.... J Schaff-Herzog, A Religious Encycloptedia 
Schraiier, / Schrader. Cuneiform Inscriptions and the 

C. I. O. T 1 oldTestauient. Eng. irans. 

Schrader, K. A. T. ' Sdirailer, Keilinsehriflen und das Alte Tes- 

Schrader, K. B Schraiier, Keilinschriflliche Uibliolhek 

Schrader K G F ■ S<liradcr, Keilinsehriflen und Geschichts- 
■ ■ ^ ■ '■ I fiirschung 

Schiirer. Gescli Schiirer, (ieschii-hte des Judischen Volkes 

Sem SeuHihot (Talim(d) 

Shall Shabliai (Talumdi 

Shell Shchi -it ( Tahuud) 

Shebu Shebu-ot (Talmud) 

Sliek Shekalim (Talmud) 

Sibyllines Sibylline Hooks 

Smith, Rel. of .Sem.. Smith, Leciures on Religion of the Semites 
Stade's Zeitschrift ' *""'^^ Zeit.schrift fiir die Alltestameiit- 

( liche Wissenschaft 
Steinschneider, 1 Sleinscliueider, Catalogue of the Hebrew 

Cat. Bodl ) Books in the Bodleian Library 

Steinschneidei', I o» • , ■* .r . -■ . «.l., 

Hebr. Bibl...... , Steinschneider, Hebraische Bibliographie 

Steinschneider. ( c.. ■ , -j ... -, . .. .. 
Hebr. Cebers. i' Steiiis<hneider. Hebraische Leberselzungen 

Suk Sukkah (Talmud) 

s.r under the woixl 

Ta'an Ta'anit iTaluiud) 

Tan Tanhuma 

Targ Tarsrumim 

Targ. onk Targum imkelns 

Targ. Ter Tai-gum Yerushalmi or Targtim Jonathan 

Tein Teiiiur.ih (Talmud) 

Ter Terumoi (Taliuud) 

Tliess Tliessiiioniaus 

Tim Timothy 

Toh Tohomt 

tos tosiifot 

Tosef Tosefta 

transl translation 

Tr. Soc. Bibl. (Transactions of the Society of Biblical Ar- 

Aix'h ( cha^dogv 

T. Y Tebul Yom (Talmud) 

•Ik •fkzin (Talmud) 

I'liiv. Isr I'nivers Israelite 

Vulg Vulgate 

Weiss, Dor \Veis.<, Dor Dor we-Dorshaw 

Wellhausen, i Wellhausen, Israeliliscbe und Judiscbe 

I. J. (i 1 Geschichte 

Winer, B. It Winer, Biblisches Realworterbuch 

Wisdom Wisdom of Siilomoii 

Wolf, Bibl. Hebr.. .Wolf, lilblioiheca 

w 7 IT M ' Wiener Zeitschrift fur die Kunde des 

" • ■^^ **■• -^ I Morgeulaudes 

Yad Yadayim i Talmud) 

"Yad" Y'ad lia-Hazakah 

Y"alk Y'alkut 

Y'eli' Y'ebaiiiot (Talmud) 

Y'er Ycnishalmi (Jerusalem Talmud) 

Y'nwH Jehovah 

Zah Zaliim iTalinud ) 

~ „ ,, ,. I Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenliindi- 

'■• "• ■"• ^' '( schen Gesellschaft 

Zeb Zebahim (Talmud) 

Zech Zei'hariah 

Zedner. Cat. Hebr. I Zedner, Catalngue of the Hebrew Books in 

Books Brit.Mus. ( the liriiisli Museum 
Zeit. fiir .\ssyr Zeitst'hrifl fur Assyrlologie 

^"palSs"' Ver' ' Zeitsihiift des Deutschen Palastina-Verelns 
Zeit. (iir Hebr. Bibl. Zeitschrift fiir Hebriiische Bibliograiihie 
Zeitlin, Bibl. Post- ' Zeitlin, Bibliotheca Hebratca Post-Mendels- 

Mendels 1 sohniana 

Zeph Zcphaniah 

Zunz, (J. S Zunz. i;cs;immelte Schriften 

Zunz, G. V iutrz, iiciiicsdienslliihe Vortrage 

Zunz, Lileratur- (Zunz, Llteraluigescljichte der SynaRogalen 

gesch 1 Poesie 

•7,.„, nil... ' Zunz, Die Ritus des Svnagogalen Gottes- 

iiunz, Kitus ■, rtienstes 

Zunz, S. P Zunz, Synagogale Poesie des Mittelallers 

Zunz. Z. G Zunz, Zur Geschichte und Literatur 

Note to the Reader. 
Subjects on which further information is afforded elsewliere in this worlv are indicated by the 
use of capitals and small capitals in the text ; as, Abba Arika; Pumbedita; Vocalization. 


A Cyrus Adler, Ph.D., 

President ot the A iiierlciin Jewish Histoileal 
Society; President uf the Ituaid itf Trustees 
of the Jewisli Tlieolnfrirul Seminary of 
Ameriea: Lilirarian of the Smithsonian In- 
stitution, Wasiiintrton. D.C. 

A. A. G AroSlie Andr^ Gedalge, 

Paris, P'raiice. 

A. Bi A. Biach, 

iJatilii at Briix, Bohemia. Austria. 

A. Bu Alexander Buchler, Ph.D., 

Italpiji, Kesziliely, Comitat Zola, Hungary. 

A. Co A. Cowley, M.A., 

Oriental sublilii-ai'ian, Bodleian Library, Ox- 
ford Universily, o.\ford, England. 

A. F A. Freimaun, Ph.D., 

Editor of tlie "Zeitschrift fiir Helii-iiische 
Bibliographie " : Liht-arian of the Hebrew 
Department, Stadtbiblicjthek, Frankfort.ijU- 
Ihe-Main, (Teniiiiny. 

A. Fe Alfred Feilchenfeld, Ph.D., 

Principal of the Realsehule, Piirth, Bavaria, 

A. F.-G Adolph Frankl-Griin, Ph.D., 

Ratibi in Kremsier, Moravia, Austi'ia. 

A. Fl A. Fleischmann, 

N't.'W Yoik (_'itv. 

A. H. V A. Henriques Valentine, 

London, England. 

A. Ka Adolph Kamphauseu, Ph.D. , 

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis at the 
University of Bonn, lieriiiany. 

A. Ku A. Kurrein, Ph.D., 

Habbi, Teplit/, Iloliemia, Austria. 

A. M Axel Moth, LL.B., _ 

New Vnrk I'ubbi- l.ilirary. New York City. 

A. M. F Albert M. Friedenberg-, B.S., 

CofTespondent of "Tile .lewi^b Comment," 
Baltimore, Md. ; New York City. 

A. P A. Porter, 

Koi'Mierly Assoeiate Editor of "The Formn," 
New Yi irk ; Revising Editor " Standard Cyclo- 
pedia." New York City. 

A. Pe A. Pelgrinsky, Ph.D., 

New York City. 

A. R A. Rhine, 

Rabbi. Hot Springs, Ark. 

A. S. C Alexander S. Chessin, 

Professor of Mathematics. ^Vashiugton I'ni- 
\ersity, St. Louis. Mo. 

A. Sz Adele Szold, 

Baltimciie. Md. 

B. B Benuel H. Brumber?, 

Contributor to " National Cyclopedia of Araerl- 
can Biography," New York City. 

B. D Bernard Drachman, Ph.D., 

Rabbi (.f ilie Cciugri'gaiion zicliron Epiiralm ; 
Instructor in the Bible and in Hebrew Grain- 
nutr at the Jewish Theological Seminary ot 
Amerii'a, New York City. 

B. E B. Eerdmans, Ph.D., 

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, Jewish 
Religious History, Babylonian and As.syrian 
Languages, Uijks University. Leyden, Hol- 

C. Br C. Bruckmau, 

New York City. 

C. F. K Charles Foster Kent, Ph.D., 

Professor of Biblical Lileraluie and History, 
Y'ale Uni\cr-siiy, New llaveu. Conn. 

C. H. B C. H. Bjerregaard, 

Formerly Piofessor, Fivdericia College, Frede- 
ricia, Deninaik ; Librarian of the New York 
Public Libiary. New York City. 

C. I. De S Clarence I. De Sola, 

Montreal, Canada. 

C. J. M Charles J. Mendelsohn, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

C. L Caspar Levias, M.A., 

Instructor in Exegesis and Talinudic Ara- 
maic, Hebrew Union College. Cincinnati, 

C. T Charles Taylor, D.D., LL.D., 

Master, St. John's ( ollege, Cambridge, Eng- 

D Gotthard Deutsch, Ph.D., 

Professor of Jewish llistoiy. Hebrew Union 
College, Cinciiniati, Ohio. 

D. B. M. 

D. P. 










.Duncan B. McDonald, B.D., 

Professor of Semiiic Languages at Hartford 
Theological Seminary, Hartford, Coini. 

..David Philipson, D.D., 

Iliibbi of the CoiigiegaliiMi B'ne Israel ; Pro- 
fessor of Homiletlcs, Hebrew Union College, 
Cincinnati. Ohio 

David Werner Amram, LiL.B., 

Attorney at Law, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Edward Andre, 

Paris. France. 

Executive Committee of the Editorial 

Emil G. Hirsch, Ph.D., LL.D., 

Rabbi of Chicago Sinai (■ongregalioii,Chlcagio, 
111.: Professor of Rabbinical Lileraliiiv and 
Philosophy in (he Univei'sily of Chicago. 



E. Ills Edgar Mels, 

NiH- Yurk ( ily. 

E. N Eduard Neumann. Ph.D., 

I'liief liabbi of Nai-'.v-Kiiiiisza, Hungary. 

E. N. A ElkanN. Adler, 

Lonilon. England. 

E. N. S Elvira N. Solis, 

Ni-\v York l_'ily. 

E. Schr E. Schreiber, Ph.D., 

Halihi uf Couvivfraliun Enianu-EI, Cbicagci, III. 

E. Sd E. Schwarzfeld, LL.D., 

Si'cn-lai-y of Ji'wislj c.ilouization .\ssoriation, 
I'aris, France. 

F. Bu FrantsBuhl, Ph.D., 

I'nifi-ssor of Si'mitii' Philology at tbe Univer- 
sity cif Copeubagell, Deumalk. 

F. H. "V Frank H. Vizetelly , 

Associate Editor of '■The i. uliiniliian Cyclope- 
ciia," and on !STANn.\KD Dictionary Edito- 
rial staff. New Y"ork City. 

F. L. C Francis L. Cohen, 

Itablii, Borough New S>Tiagogue, London, 
England; Coedltor of "Voice of Prayer and 

F. de S. M. .Frederick de Sola Mendes, Ph.D., 

Uabbi of the \Vest End Synagogue, New York 

F. T. H Frederick T. Hannemann, M.D., 

lirooklyn, N. Y. 

G Kichard Gottheil, Ph.D., 

Professor of Seiriilic Languages. Columbia 
Univei-sity, New Y'ork; Chief of the Oriental 
Department, New York Public Library ; I^-esi- 
dent of the Fedei'atii n of American Zionists. 

G. A. B Georg-e A. Barton, Ph.D., 

.-Associate Professor in Biblical Literature and 
Semitic Languages at Bryn Mawr College, 
Bryn Mawi-, Pa. 

G. A. K Georg-e Alexander Kohut. Ph.D., 

Koniierly Rabbi in Dallas, Te-xas; now New 
Y'ork City. 

G. B. Ii Gerson B. Levi, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

G. L Goodman Lipkind, B.A., 

liahbi in Loudon. England. 

G. M G. Margroliouth, 

Assistant Custodian, Oriental Department, 
British Museum, London, England. 

G. Mo Godfrey Morse, 

Lawyer in Boston, Mass. 

G. Se G. Selikovitch, 

New Y'oi'k City. 

H. B H. Brody, Ph.D., 

Coedltor of the " Zeitsohrift fiir Hebrilische 
Bibliographie " ; Itablii at Nacliod, Bohemia, 

H. Be Henry Berkowitz, D.D., 

Chancellor Jewish Cliautauiiua Society, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

H. Bl Heinrich Bloch, Ph.D., 

Priifessor of Hi.'itorv ai the Jewish Theological 
Seminai-y Buihipcst, Hungary. 

H. G. E H. G. Enelow, D.D., 

Rabbi of the Congregation Adalh Israel, Louis- 
ville, Ky. 

H. Gut H. Guttenstein, 

New York (ily. 

H. H Henry Hyvernat, D.D., 

Professor of Oriental Languages and Arche- 
ology, Catliolic Cnivei-sity of America, >Vasli- 
ington, D.C. 

H. Hir Hartwig: Hirschfeld, Ph.D., 

Professor in Ji-ws' College, London, England. 

H. L. S Hermann L. Strack, Ph.D., 

Professiu- of Old Tesianienl Exegesis and Sem- 
itic Languages at the University of Berlin, 

H. M Henry Malter, Ph.D., 

Assistant Piotessor, Hebrew Uuiou College, 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 

H. R Herman Rosenthal, 

Chief of the Slavonic Department of the New 
Y'ork Public Librai y. New York City. 

H. S Henrietta Szold, 

Secretary of Ihe Publicaticui Committee of the 
Jewish Publication Society of America, Balti- 
more. Mii. 

H. V Hermann Vosalsteiu, Ph.D., 

Rabhi in Kdnigslieig, lieiiiiany. 

I. Aa Israel Aaron, D.D., 

Rabbi in BulTalo, N. Y. 

I. B Isaac Bloch, 

Chief Kabbi of Nancy, France. 

I. Be Immanuel Benzingrer, Ph.D., 

Profes.sor of iild ■ri'starueut E.\egesls at the 
University of Berlin, Germany. 

I.Ber Israel Berlin, 

Chemist, .New Y'ork City. 

I. Br I. Broyde, 

Diplome of tiie Ecole des Hautes Etude.s; 
Formerly Librarian of Alliance Israelite Uni- 
verselle. Palis. KT-an<-e ; now New Y'ork City. 

I. D Israel Davidson, Ph.D., 

New Y'ork City. 

I. E Ismar Elbog-en, Ph.D., 

Instructor at Ihe l.eluanstalt ffir die Wlssen- 
schaft des Judenthums, Berlin, Germany. 

I. G. D I. Georg:e Dobsevag-e, 

New York ciiy. 

I. Hu Isaac Husik, 

Tutor, (iialz College, Philadelphia, I^i. 

I. L Israel Levi, 

Professor in the Jewish Theologiral Seminary, 
Paris. France; Editor of "Kevue des Eludes 

I. Lo Inimanuel liOiff, 

Chief llalihi of Szegedin, Hungary. 

I. M. P Ira Maurice Price, B.D.,Ph.D., 

Professor of SiMuilic Languages and Litera- 
tures in the University of Chicago, 111. 

J Joseph Jacobs, B.A., 

Fornierlv Pnsnlenl of the .lewish Historical 
Society of England; Corresponding Member 
of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid: 
New Y'ork City. 


J. Co Josiah Cohen, 

Jiiilfre of the Orphan's t'niirt of Allegheny 
Ccjuuty, Pa. 

J. D. B J. D. Bravermann, Ph.D., 

New York City. 

J. D. E J. D. Eisenstein, 

New York City. 

J, E Joseph Ezekiel, J. P., 

IViiubay. India. 

J. F. McC.J. Frederic McCurdy, Ph.D., LL.D., 

Professoi- of oriental Lan^'iiaL,'e.s in the L'ui- 
versity College, Toi'outo, Canada. 

J. G. Ij J. G. Lipman, 

Assistant Agrieultiu-ist, New .lersey State E-i- 
perinient Station, New Brunswick, N. J. 

J. Hf Josef Hoff, Ph.D., 

Kulilii at Bisenz, Moravia, Austria. 

J. H. G Julius H. Greenstone, 

llabhi in Philadelphia, Pa. 

J. H. M. C.J. H. M. Chumaceiro, 

liablii in New York City. 

J. Hy J. Hyams, 

lloMihay, India. 

J. Jr Morris Jastrow, Jr., Ph.D., 

Professor of Semitic Languages, University of 
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

J. So Joseph Sohn, 

Contributor to "The New International Epcy- 
clopedia"; formerly of "The Forum," New 
York City. 

J. Sr Marcus Jastrow, Ph.D., 

Eabbi Emei'itus of the Uungregation Rodef 
Shalom, Philadelphia, Pa. 

J. T J. Theodor, Ph.D., 

Ualilji in Cojauowo, Posen, Germany. 

J. V Jacob Voorsanger, D.D., 

Kabbi of the Coiitriegation Emanu-El, San 
Francisco, Cal.; Professor of Semitic Lan- 
guages and Literatures in the University of 
California. Berkeley, Cal. 

J. W Julien Weill, 

Rabbi in Pai'is, France. 

K Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D., 

Ualibi of Temple Beth-El, New York; ex- 
President of Board of Jewish Ministers, New 
York City. 

K. H. C KarlHeinrich Cornill, Ph.D., 

Professor of Hebrew and old Testament E.xe- 
Kesisat the Cniversity of lireslau, liermany. 

li. B Ludwig- Blau, Ph.D., 

Professor of the Jewish Theological Seminary, 
Budapest, Hungary ; Editor of " Magyar Zsidd- 

L. E li. Edelstein, 

New -v. Ilk City. 

li. G Louis Ginzberg-, Ph.D., 

Professor of Tahlilid al the Jewish Theolog- 
ical Seminary of America, New York City. 

L. Gr Louis Grossmann, 

I iiicinnafi. ( ibio. 

L. H. G Louis H. Gray, 

Assistant Pi'ofessor at Columbia Univei'sity. 
New York ( iiv. 

L. HU L. Hiihner, A.M., LL.B., 

Attorney at Law, New York City. 

L. J. G Leopold J. Greenberg, 

Formerly Editor of " Israel," London, Eng- 

L. K. F Lee K. Frankel, 

Manager of the United Hebrew Charities, 
New York City. 

L. N. D Lewis N. Dembitz, 

Attorney at Law, Louisville, Ky. 

L. V Ludwig Venetianer, Ph.D. , 

Kal>bi in Neupest, Hungary. 

M. B Moses Beer, 

Loudon, England. 

M. Bl Maurice Bloch, 

Piincipalof the Bischollsheim School at Paris, 


M. Br M. Brann, Ph.D., 

Professor in the Jewish Theological Semi- 
nary at Breslau, Germany. 

M. C M. Caimi, 

( orfu. Greece. 

M. Co Max Cohen, 

Attorney at Law, New York City. 

M. E M. Elling-er, 

Editor of " The Menorah," New York City. 

M. F Michael Friedlander, Ph.D., 

Prini-ipal of Jews' ('ollege, London, England. 

M, Fi Maurice Fishberg:, M.D., 

Surgeon to the Beth Israel Hospital Dispen- 
sary; Medical E.\aininer to the United He- 
brew Charities, New York City. 

M. Fr M. Franco, 

Principal of the Alliance Israc-lite Universelle 
School, Shumla, Bulgaria. 

M. Gr M. Grunwald, Ph.D., 

Rabbi in Hamburg, Germany. 

M. J. K Max J. Kohler, M.A., LL.D., 

Attorney at Law : Recording Secretary of the 
American Jewish Historical Society, New York 

M. K Moritz Kayserling-, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Budapest, Hungary. 

M. L. B Moses Lob Bamberg-er, Ph.D., 

Itabbi at Aschallcnburg, Bavaria, Germany. 

M. L. M Max L. Margolis, Ph.D., 

Associate Professor of Seriiiiic Languages in 
tlie l-'niversity of California, Berkeley, Cal, 

M. R Max Rosenthal, M.D., 

Yisiting Physician, German Dispensary, New 
Y'oi-k C Ity. 

M. Ra Max Raisin, 

Uabbi at Portsmouth, Ohio. 

M. S Mo'ise Schwab, Ph.D., 

Librarian of Uie -Hebrew Department at the 
Bibliothec|ue Nationale, Palis, France. 

M. Sc Max Schlossinger, Ph.D., 

Heidelberg, (iermany. 

M. Schw....M. Schwarzfeld, M.D., 

Bucharest, Ituiuailia. 

M. Se M. Seiffert, 

New Y'ork City. 


M. Sel M. Seligsohn, 

lii|ilonii' nf tlie Ecole des Hautes Etudes, 
Paris, France ; now New York City. 

M. Si M. Silberstein, Fh,D., 

Rabbi of Wiesbaden, Germany. 

M. S. Z M. S. Zuckermandel, Ph.D., 

I'iofes*or at the Tliwlot-'ieal Seminary, Bres- 
lau. tieniiany. 

M. W Max Weisz, Pli.D., 

Ual>lu lu Buiiapt'st. Hungary. 

M. W. L.... Martha Washington Levy, B.A., 

Contribntor to " The New International En- 

M. Z M. Zametkin, 

Ni-w Vurk City. 

N. P N. Porges, Ph.D., 

nalibi in Leipsic. tiermany. 

N. Sc Nathaniel Schmidt, Ph.D., 

Professor of Semitic Languages and Litera- 
tures, Cornell University. Ithaoa, X. Y. 

O. S. S Oscar S. Straus, 

Funuer Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 
Plenipotentiary of the United States to Tur- 
key : Member of the Court of Arbitration at 
The Hague : New York City. 

P. B Philipp Blooh, Ph.D., 

Itabbi in Posen, Germany. 

P. Co P. Cowen, 

PublLsher of " The Amencan Hebrew," New 
York City. 

P. Wi Peter Wiernik, 

New York City. 

R. W. R... Robert W. Rogers, D.D., Ph.D., 

Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Exe- 
gesis, Drew Theological Seminary, Madison, 

S Isidore Singer, Ph.D., 

Maxauixg Editor. New York City, 

S. B Samuel Baeck, Ph.D., 

Rabbi in Lissa. Germany. 

S. J S. Janovsky, 

Lawyer, St. Petersburg. Russia. 

S. K S. Kahn, 

Rabbi in Nimes, France. 

S. Kr S. Krauss, Ph.D., 

rp'fessor.Nonnal College, Budapest, Hungary. 

S. M S. Mendelsohn, Ph.D., 

Rabbi in Wilmington, N. C. 

S. Man S. Mannheimer, B.L., 

lusiructi.r, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, 


S. M. D S. M. Dubnow, 

Attorney at law, Odessa, Russia. 

S. R S. Roubin, 

Rabbi, Woodbine, N. J. 

S. Sa Sigismund Salfeld, Ph.D., 

Uabbi. Mayeuce, He>se. Germany. 

S. Sc S. Schulman, 

Associaie Rabbi of Temple Beth-El, New 

Yurk City. 

T Crawford Howell Toy, D.D., LL.D., 

Professor of Hebivw in Harvard University, 
Cambridge. Mass. 

T. F. S Theodore F. Seward (Deceased). 

Late Editor of the " New York Musical 
Gazette," New York City. 

V. C Victor Castiglioni, 

Professor, Triesl, Austria. 

V. R Vasili Rosenthal, 

Kremenchug. Russia. 

Vi Ry Victor Ryssel, Ph.D., 

Professor of old Testament Exegesis and 
Semitic Languages at the University of 
Zurich, Switzerland. 

■W. B W. Bacher, Ph.D., 

Professor at the Jewish Theological Semi- 
nary. Budapest. Hungary. 

W. H. B William H. Bennett, M. A., 

Pixifessor of Old Testament Exegesis, New 
College, London, England. 

W. M. M. ..W. MaxMiiller, Ph.D., 

I'rufesSi'r of Bible Exegesis in the Reformed 
Episcopal Theological Semitiary, Philadelphia, 

W. N William Nowack, Ph.D., 

Professor of old Teslament Exegesis at the 
Uiiivei^ity of strasburg. Gennany. 

W. P William Popper, Ph.D., 

New York City. 

W. Rei W. Reich, 

Rabbi in Vienna, .\ustria. 

W. S William Salant, M.D., 

New York City. 

Z. K Zadoc Kahn, 

Chief Rabbi of France : Honorary President of 
the .alliance Israelite Universelle ; OfHcer of 
the Legion of Honor, Paris, France. 


N. B.— la the folliiwing list subjects likely to be sought for under various headings are repeated 

under each headiu;'. 


Agrippa II., Copper Coin of, Struck at Cssarea 487 

Al'ph as a Symbol of the Four Cabalistic Worlds 476 

Almemar of the Old Synagogue at Charleston, S. C 678 

see also Moses, Chair of. 

America: see Mkxico; United States. 

Amsterdam : see ^Meaii Behakot. 

Anthropology : see Types. 

" Arba' Turim," A Censored Page from Jacob ben Asher's. Printed by Soneino in I'tXG 643 

Archeology : see Boundaky-Stone ; Bracelet ; Camel ; Candlestick ; Captive ; C.vtacombs ; Chains ; 
CuAKioT; Coin. 

Architecture: see C^sarea, RriNS of; Caupentras; Cemetery; IIoise; . Synagogues; see also 

Ark of the Law: see Berlin, Interior of the Old Synagogue xt. 

Art: see Archeology; Architecture; Binding; Book-Plate; Border; Bottles; Ewer; Typog- 

Assyria: see Boundary-Stone; Camel; Chains; Chariot. 

Assyrian Soldiers Guarding Jewish Captives 563 

Auto da Fe: see Carar.wal, Mariana de. Execution of. 

Autographs: see Bende.mann, Eduard; Benfey, Tueodor; Benjamin, Judah Philip; Borne, 
Karl Ludwig; Brcll, Ignaz; Bcbek, Solomon. 

Babylonian Boundary-Stone, Dated 1120 b.c 343 

Bendavid, Lazarus, German Philosopher and Reformer 1 

Bendemann, Eduard, German Painter 3 

Painting of "Jeremiah at the Fall of Jerusalem "by FruHtinpiece 

Benedict, Marcus: see Benet, Mordecai. 

Sir Julius, Composer, Conductor, and Teacher of Music 7 

Benedictions; Title-Page of " .Mcah Berakot," Amsterdam, 1787 8 

Benedikt, jMoriz, Austrian Neurologist 13 

Benet. ^lordecai, Moravian Rabbi and Talmudist 14 

Benfey, Theodor, German Sanskritist and Philologist 16 

Beni Israel Family at Bombay 10 

Group of, iu Ancient Costume 18 

of Bombay 19 

Second Synagogue of the, at Bombay, Erected 1848 20 

see also BoM RAY'. 

Benjamin II., .1. J., Rumanian Traveler 35 

Benjamin, Judah Philip, Statesman, Orator, and Lawyer 29 

"Berah Dodi," Music of 48 

Berdychcv, Great Synagogue at 51 

Berlin, Exterior of the Old Synagogue at 70 

Interior of the Old Synagogue at 71 

Plan of the Interior of the Svnasrosue on Lindenstrasse 73 



Berlin, Synagogue on Oranienburgerstrasse *5 

Beiliii, Moses, Scholar and Couimuual Worker •*•* 

Berliner, Abraham, Jewish Scholar and Historian !^-i 

Beiuays, Isaac, Chief IJabbi in Hamburg !•() 

Bernstein, Aaron, German Publicist, Scientist, and Reformer 9* 

Beth El, View of 120 

Betrothal Deed. Italian, Dalcd 55.-).5 a.m. From the New York Public Library colored jilale facing 128 

Ring, Bearing Letter o for " Mazzal Tuh " 128 

with Bo.\ Containing Perfumes and Opening with a Key 128 

Scene at Nuremberg, Early Eighteenth Century 127 

• of German Jews, Eighteenth Century 126 

Bevis Marks Synagogue, London, Interior of 133 

Bible, Erfurt Manuscript of the Hebrew, with Targum on Alternate Lines. Formerly belonging to 

Johann Reuehlin 181 

First Page of E.xodus. From an illuminated manuscript, formerly in the possession of the Duke 

of Sussex 183 

First Page of Leviticus. From the first Rabbinic Bible, printed by Daniel Bomberg, Venice, 1517. 

In the collection of Hon. Mayer Sulzberger lilKte hetiretii 160-161 

Illuminated Hebrew (Gen. i.), Spain, 1476. From the Bodleian Library, coloietl plate facing 178 

Page from the Biescia Edition of the, 1494. Copy used by Luther 158 

from the Compluteusian Polyglot Edition of 1514. In the New York Public Library 159 

from the First Hebrew Edition of Psalms, 1477, with David Kimhi's Commentary. In the 

collection of Hon. Mayer Sulzberger 155 

from the First Hebrew Edition of the Pentateuch, Printed at Bologna, 1482. In the New- 
York Public Library 157 

from the Vatican Manuscript of the Septuagint Version of Exodus xix. 14-xx. 17 187 

. of the Hebrew, with Superlincar Punctuation. From the St. Petersburg Codex, 916 C.E.. . . 179 

Biedermann, Jlichael Lazar, Austrian Merchant 208 

Binding, Leather, of " 'Or Ammim," 1587, Tooled in Gold. In the collection of Hon. Mayer Sulzberger 213 

Silver, of a Hebrew Prayer Book. In the collection of J. Kauflmann of Frankfort-on-the-JIaiu. 214 

"Birkat Kohanim," Music of 246, 247 

Bischitz de Heves, Johanna, Hungarian Philanthropist 226 

Black Death: Map of Central Europe Showing Chief Towns Where Outbreaks Against the Jews 

Occurred During 1348-49 235 

Blessing, Priestly, JIusic of: see Birkat Kohanlm. 

of Moon : see Beseoictioxs. 

Blioch, Ivan Stanislavovich, Russo-Polish Financier and Economist 250 

Bloch, Marcus Eliezer, German Ichthyologist and Physician 255 

Blumenthal, Oskar. German Author and Playwright 275 

B'nai B'rith Building, New York 276 

Seal of the^Order of 276 

Bodleian Library, Ewer with Hebrew Insciiption, in the 282 

Illuminated Hebrew Bible (Gen. 1.) from the, written in Spain 1476 colored plate facing 178 

Bokhara, Interior of the Great Synagogue at 295 

Jewess, Type of a 294 

Jews Celebrating the Feast of Tabernacles 293 

Bologna, Page from the First Hebrew Edition of the Pentateuch, 1482, Printed at 157 

" Tefillot Latini," 1538, Italian-Jewish Prayers in Hebrew Characters, Printed at 299 

Bombay, Benilsrael Family at 19 

Benilsrael of 19 

Keneseth Eliyahu Synagogue at 20 

ilagen David or Sha'ar ha-Rahamim Synagogue at 21 

Second Benilsrael Synagogue at. Erected 1848 20 

Bomberg, Daniel: First Page of Leviticus from First Rabbinic Bible, Venice, 15l~ , plate beticeen 160-161 

Page from the Talmud of 1520, Printed by 301 

Bonn, Synagogue at 308 

Book-Plate of David Friedlander 314 

■ -of D. 11. <le Castro 313 

of De Pinto Family 313 



Book-PIate of Dr. Emil Simonson 315 

of L;Kly Kotliscliild 314 

of Ruben Braiuin 315 

Bordeaux, Plan of the Northwest Section of the City of, About 1450, Showing the "Rua Jutlaica" and 

the Jewisli Quarters Outside the City Walls 317 

Border, Soncino, from the Title-Page of " Sefer Yelioshua' " 321 

Borne, Karl Ludwig, German Political and Literary Writer 323 

Bottles, Goatskin, Jlode of Filling Jars from 340 

, Now in Use in Palestine 341 

Boundary-Stone at Tell-Arnamia 343 

Babylonian, Dated 1120 B.c 343 

of Gezer. with tlie Inscription lU Dim ("Limit of Gezer"), Discovered by ^I. Clermont- 

Ganneau 342 

Bracelet from Cyprus. In the Cesuola collection. Metropolitan JIuseum of Art, New VnrU 345 

Bragadini, Printers, Imprint of, on the Title-Page of the First Edition of Caro's Sliulhau 'Aruk, 

Venice, 1,'5G4 587 

Braham, John, English Singer 347 

Brainin, Ruben. Book-Plate of 315 

Brandos, Georg, Danish Author and Critic 351 

Brazen Sea of Solomon's Temple, with View of Section. Restored according to Calmet 358 

Brcal, Jlicliel, French Philologist 305 

Breastplate of the High Priest 3C0 

Breithauiit, John Frederick, Christian 309 

Brescia, Page from tlie First Hebrew liilile. 1494, Printed at. Copy u.sed by Luther 158 

Bricks, Captives Making, for the Temple of Amnion at Thebes in Egypt ))l(tle hclireen 380-381 

Bride and Bridegroom, Costumes of. Among German Jews of tlie Eighteenth Century 128 

Bridegroom and Bridal Processions of German Jews, About 1700 129 

of the Law, Procession of, on the Eve of the Rejoicing of the Law. After Picart 383 

Bristol, Plan of City of. Showing Position of Jewry, About 1350 c.e 387 

Brody, The Jewish Cemetery at 040 

Bri'iU, Ignaz, Austrian Composer 402 

■ Jakob, Austrian Talmudist and Author 402 

Nehemiah, Rabbi and Scliolar 403 

Brussels, Host Tragedy at, 1370. After the Tapestries in the Cathedral of St. Gudule, showing: 

Sale of Host 407 

Jews Represented as Transfixing Hosts 408 

Jews Dragged to Prison 407 

Martyrdom of Jews 407 

Buber, Solomon, Galician Scholar 410 

Budapest, The Tabakgasse Synagogue at 417 

Budweis, Synagogue at (Pointed Style) 421 

Bueno, Ephraim Hezekiah. From the painting by Rembrandt 422 

Burial : Carrying a Body to a Grave 434 

Slourners Throwing Grass Behind Them as They Leave the Cemetery 437 

Placing Body in a Collin 433 

Sephardic Jews in Procession Round a Collin 433 

Tlirowing Earth upon a Collin 435 

"Burning Bush, Jloses at the." From the Sarajevo Ilaggadah of the fourteenth century 439 

Buxtorf, Johannes, Cliristian Rabbinical Scliolar 445 

Byelostok, The Old Synagogue of 448 

Cabala : Correct Order of Sefirot Arranged in a Circle 470 

IJelation of the Cabalistic Spheres 474 

Selirot in the Form of a Menorah 470 

The Alepli as a Symbol of the Four Cabalistic Worlds 470 

The Setirot in Relation to One Another 475 

Cajsarea, Copper Coin of Agrippa II. , Struck at 487 

Ruins of 486 

Camel on an Assvrian Cvlinder 521 



Camel on a South Anjbian ^lonunient 521 

Camels Leil as Tribute to Shalmancser 520 

Candlestick, Karliest Known Representations of the Golden 532 

From a Gilt Glass Vase Found in the Jewish Catacombs at Rome 533 

• a Gratlito Foimd in the Jewish Catacomb at Venosa 532 

a Lintel in the Ruins of the Ancient Synagogue of Xebratein 533 

a Rock-Cut Tomb Xear Jaffa 532 

the Bottom of a Glass Vase Now in the JIuseo Borgiano at Rome 533 

the Great Mosiiue at Gaza, Discovered by Clermont Ganneau 532 

Hexagonal Arrangement of the Golden (Hypothetical) 532 

■ On a Lamp Found Among the Ruins of Carthage bj' P. Delattre 532 

On a Lamp Found at Khirbat Sammaka, Near Carniel 532 

On the Arch of Titus, as It Api>eared in 1710. After Reland 532 

On the Entrance to a Tomb at Wadi alNahal 532 

Representation of the Golden, on a Sarcophagus from the Vigna Randaniui at Rome 614 

Canterbury, Map of, Showing Position of Jewry 536 

Cantillation. ilarks: see Bible, Brescia Editios, 1494: PEXT.\TErcn. 14S2; Polyglot. 1514: St. 

PETERSBtUG CoDEX, 916. Sec also Castillatios, >[csic of. 

Music of 539-550 

Cantor, iloritz, German Historian of 3Iathematics 551 

Captive, Assyrian, iu Chains .• 659 

Captives, Jewish, in Attitude of Supplication 563 

flaking Bricks for the Temple of Amnion at Thebes in Egypt pUite beticeen 380-^1 

Carabajal, Francisca de, Torture of, at Jlexico. 1590 569 

■ Mariana de, E.xecution of, at Mexico, 1601 568 

Carmel, Mount, from the Sea 5T9 

Caro, Joseph: Title Page of the First Edition of the Shulhan 'Aruk, Printed at Venice, 18tli of 

Kislew, 5325=1564. In the collection of Hon. Mayer Sulzberger 587 

Carpentras, North Gate of the Jewry at 590 

Carregal, Raphael Hayyim Isaac, Itinerant Rabbi and Preacher 592 

Cartography ; see Ciiartoguaphy. 

Case of the Law of the Great Synagogue at Bokhara 295 

Cassel, David, German-Jewish Historian and Theologian 603 

German}-, Exterior of Synagogue at 602 

Castro, De: Arms of the Family 608 

D. H. de, Book-Plate of 313 

Catacomb: Fragment of a Sarcophagus from the Vigna Randanini at Rome, Showing Jewish 

Symbols 614 

Greek Epitaph in Hebrew Characters on a Sarcophagus in the Vigna Cimarra at Rome 616 

Inscription on a Gravestone in the Vigna Cimarra at Rome ' 614 

Inscriiition on a Sarcophagus iu the Vigna Cimarra at Rome 615 

Catacombs, Ground-Plan of the Jewish, at Venosii 617 

see also Candlestick. 

Catalan Map, The, Drawn by Cresques Lo Jiiheu (The Jew) of Majorca, 1375 .folder hetteeen 67S-679 

Caucasus Jewess and Her Children 628 

^louutaiu Jews ( ■' Bergjuden '') of the 629 

Cavaillon. The Old Synagogue at 632 

Cedars of Lebanon 635 

Cemetery, Jewish, at Brody 640 

Between Langnau and Eudingen 639 

Old, of the Community of Frankfort -on-the-Main 638 

Part of the Emanu-El Congregation, at Salem Fields, New York (Ul 

see also Bi"kial. 

Censorship: A Censored Page of Jacob ben Asher's "Arba' Turim." Printed by Soncino in 1516 6-13 

A Censored Page of the Jewish Encyclopedia 631 

An Expurgated Page from "Sefer Sha'ar ha-Shamaym " of Gersbon ben Solomon. Printed at 

Venice. 1547 645 

Holograph Apiirobation of the Censor Vincentius Mattellica on the Front Cover of Gerslion ben 

Solomon's "Sefer Sha'ar ha-Sharaayim," Printed at Venice. VAl 645 



Censorship: Russian Censor's Marks on the Title-Page of tlie Manuscript of A. B. Doljsevage's "Lo 

Dubbim AVelo Yaar " 649 

Central Europe, Jlap of, Showing Chief Towns Where Outbreaks Against the Jews Occurred During 

the Black Death, 184S-49 235 

Ceremonial: see Betrothal; Blessing of JIoox: BniUEOUooM op the Law; Bckial; CincrMci- 

siox; EwEii; Habdalaii; Siiofar-Blowing ; Tabeuxacles, Feast of. 

Chains, Assyrian Captive in 6'>0 

Chajes, Zebi Ilirsch, Talnuulist and Rabbi COO 

Chariot, Assyrian 067 

Egy ]5tian 066 

Ililtite OOG 

Charleston, S. C. Interior of the Old Synagogue at. Destroyed by Fire April 27, 1838 678 

Chartogruphy : The Catalan Map Drawn by Crcs(iues Lo Juheu of Majorca, 1375. ...folder betteeen 678-679 

Chautauqua Sociel.v, Seal of the Jewish 683 

Circumcision: see Benedictions. 

Cities, Plans of : see Bordeaux; Bristol; Canterbury. 

Coat of Arms of the De Castro Faiuih- 608 

Coffin, Placing the Body in a 433 

Scphardic Jews in Procession Rouud a 433 

■ Throwing Eaitli upon a 435 

Coin, Copper, of Agrippa II., Struck at Ca'sarea .... 487 

Columbia University Library ; see Arba" T''«i-^' ; Gershon ben Solomon's Sefer Siia'ar iia-Siia- 

MAYi.M; 5[?;aii Berakot; Tefillot Latini. 

Complutensiau Polyglot Edition of the Bible, 1514 159 

Costumes of Bride and Biidcgroom Among the German Jews, Eighteenth Century 128 

of German Jews of the Eighteenth Century 126 

of Jews of Nuremberg, 1726 127 

see also Beni-Israel; Betrothal; Bokhara; Bkideoroo.m of the Law; Brussels; Buhial; 

Caruegal, Raphael Hayyi.m Isaac ; Caucasus. 
Covers of Books: see Binding. 
Ciesques Lo Juheu (The Jew) of Majorca: see Catalan Map. 

Decalogue, Pdrtion of Deuteronomy Containing the. From the first llelirew ediiion of the Pen- 
tateuch, printed at Bologna, 1482 157 

Deed: see BETiurriiAL. 

De Pinto Family, Book Plate of 313 

Dobscvage, A. B.. A Censor's 3Iarks on the Title-Page of the Manuscript of " Lo Dubbim Welo 

Ya'ar "of (149 

Editio Princeps: see First Editions. 

Egypt: see Boundary-Stone ; Bricks; Chariot. 

Emanu El Congregation. Part of the Cemetery of the, at Salem Fields, New York 641 

Endingen, Jewish Ceuu'tery Between Ijangnau and 639 

England; see Bodleian Lihuary; Bbistol; Canteiusury; London. 

Erfurt >Ianuscript of the Hebrew Bible, with Targum on Alternate Lines. Formerly belonging to 

Johann Reuchlin 181 

Ethnology: see Camels; Captive; Chariot. 

Etrog, Representation of. on a Sarcophagus. From the Vigna Randanini at Rome 614 

Europe: see Black Death; Brody; England; Germany; Hungary; Italy; Russia. 

Ewer with Hebrew Inscription, in the Bodleian Library 282 

E.xecution of JIariana de C'arabajal at Mexico, IGOl 568 

Ex Libris: see Book-Plate. 

First Editions: Page from the Hebrew- Psalms, with David Kimhi's Commentary, 1477 155 

Page from the Hebrew Pentateuch, Bologna, 1482 157 

from the Complutensiau Polyglot, 1514 1.59 

from the Rabbinic Bible, Printed by Daniel Bomberg, Venice, 1517 plate between 160-161 

Title-Page of Joseph Caro's Shulhan 'Aruk, Venice, 1564 587 

Four Worlds, The Aleph as a Symbol of the Cabalistic 476 

France: see Bordeaux ; Carpentras; Cavaillon. 



Fraiikfort-on-ilioMain, Tlic OM Cemetery of the Communily of 638 

Fricdliiuiicr, DaviiL Book-riale c.f '. 314 

Gate, Xorth, to tlie Jewry at Carpentras 590 

Gaza, Great Mosque at. Represcntatiou of the Golden Camlleslick on the •'iSS 

Germany, Betrothal Scenes of Jews of. Eighteenth Century 12(>-1"27 

Costumes of Jews of, Eighteenth Century 129 

see also Beulix; Bonn; Budweis; Cassel; FuAXKFOKT-oN-TiiEilAix. 

Gershou ben Solomon: An Expurgated Page from "Sefer Shaar ha-Sliamayim." Venice, 1547 645 

Gezer, Boundary-Stone of, with the Inscription itj Qnn ("Limit of Gezer"), Discovered by M. Cler- 
mont -Ganueau 343 

Goatskin Water-Bottlcs. NTow in L'se in Palestine 341 

Graves: sec BriUAL; Cemetery. 

Gravestone: see Bvriai.; Cemetery. 

Greek; see Candlestick; Catacomb; Coin; Polyglot; V.^tic ax Manuscript. 

"HabdalaJi": see Bexedictioxs. 

" Halikafot "" ; Sephardic Jews in Procession Round a Coffin 433 

" Hatan Torali " : see BRiDEGnooM of the Laav. 
Hats: see Costumes. 

Hebrew: see Betrothal Deed: C.vbala; C.\xdi,e6Tick ; Catacombs; Ewer; Gezer; Grave- 

High Priest. Breastplate of the 366 

Ilittite Chariot 666 

Host Tragedy at Brussels, 1370. After the Tapestries in the Cathedral of St. Gudulc. sliowing; 

Sale of tlie Host 407 

Jews Represented as Transfixing Hosts 408 

Jews Dragged to Prison 407 

ilarty rdom of the Jews 407 

House, Interior of a German Jew's. Eighteenth Century 126 

Interior of a Jew-'s, at Nuremberg, About 1700 127 

Hungary : see Budapest. 

Illuminated First Page of Exodus. From a manuscript formerly in the possession of the Duke of 

Sussex 1S3 

Hebrew Bible (Gen. i.) Written in Spain. 1476. colored plate facing 178 

Imprint of tlie Bragadini, Printers, on the TitlcPage of the First Edition of Caro's Shull.ian "Aruk, 

Venice, 1564 587 

India : see Bexi-Israel ; Bo.MnAY. 

Int|uisit:on: see Carab.\jal. Fraxcisca de. Torture of: Caraba.ial. JIariaxa de, Execctios of. 

Inscriptions: see BouxdaryStoxe: Caxdi.estick ; Catacombs; Cemetery; Coi>i, 

Italy: see Bologxa; Ketubah; Rome; Vexice. 

Jars, Mode of Fillin?, from Water-Bottles 340 

"Jeremiah at tlie Fall of Jerusalem." Painting by Eduard Beudemann Frontispiece 

Jewish Encyclopedia, Censored Page of tlie 651 

Jewries: see Bordeaux; Bristol; Canterbury; Carpextras. 

Keneset Eliyaliu Synagogue at Bombay 20 

Ketubah. Italian, or Betrothal Deed. Dated 5555 a. M colored plate facing 128 

Kimlii, David: see Bible, First Hebrew- Editiox of. 

Lamp, with IJepresentatiou of the Golden Candlestick, Found Among the Ruins of Carthage by 

P. Delattrc 532 

with Representation of the Golden Candlestick, Found at Khirbat Sammaka, Xear Carmel 532 

Langnau, Jewish Cemetery Between Endiugen and 639 

Lebanon, Cedars of 635 

Leviticus, First Page of, from the First Rabbinic Bible. Venice. 1517 plate betireen 160-161 

Lilien, E. X. : see Book-Pl.\tes of Ruben Brainix and Dr. Emil Simonson 315 

Liturgy: see Meaii Berakot ; Tefillot Latini. 



London : Interior of the Bevis JIarks Synagogue 133 

Magen David or Slia'ar ba-Hahamim Sj'uagogue at Bombay 21 

•'Mail 2<isiitaiuiaii," jNIusic of 550 

^lauuscripts: see Betuotiiai- Deed;Bibi,e. Illuminated; Erfurt; St. Petersburg Codex ; Vaticax. 
Maps: see Black Death; Bordeaux; Bristol; Cantehhury; Catalan. 

■' Jlcali Beraliot," Title-Page of. Printed at Amsterdam, 1787 • 8 

Menorah, Sefirot in the Form of a 476 

Mexico : see Ixijuisition. 

"Moses at the Burning Bush." From tlie Sarajevo Haggadah, fourteentli century 439 

Moses, Chair of: see Bokhara, The Great Synagogue at. 

.Mountain Jews of tlie Caucasus 629 

.Mount Carniel from tlie Sea 579 

Mourners Throwing Grass Beliind Tiiem as Tliey Leave the Cemetery 437 

see also Buri.vl. 

Music. •' Beral.i Dodi " 48 

"Birkat Kohanini " 346, 347 

Cantillation 539-550 

" Mall Nishtanuali. " 550 

New York: see B'nai B'rith; Emanu-El Congregation Cemetery; see also Columbia Univer- 
sity LiBR.VRY; New York Public Library. 

Public Library : see Betrothal Deed; Pentateuch; Polyglot. 

Nuremberg, Betrothal Scene at, 1726 127 

Oranienburgerstrasse Synagogue, Berlin 75 

(Jxfurd: see Bodleian Library. 

Palestine: see Beth-El ; Bottles; C-esarea; Candlestick; C'.\rmel, Mount; Cedars of Leba- 
non; Gezer. 

Peutatcueh, Page from the First Hebrew Edition of the. Printed at Bologna, 1483 157 

Persecutions: Map of Central Europe Showing Chief Towns Where Outbreaks Against the Jews 

Occurred During the Black Death, 1348-49 235 

Picart, Bcrnhard: see Bridegroom op the Law; Burial. 

Polyglot Edition of the Bible, 1514, Page from the Complutensian 159 

Portraits: see 

Benih VII), Lazarus. Ber.n'stkin, Aaron. BkCi.l. Ic.n'az. 

Bendeman.v, KiHARn. BiEDERMAXS, -Michael Lazar. BrI'll, Jakob. 

Benedict, Sui JcLiLS. Biscimtzde Heves, Johanna. BrI'll, Nkmemiah. 

Bexedikt, Moriz. Bliocm, Ivan S. Bchkr, Siilumon. 

Bexkt. Morhecai. Block, MarccsEmezer. Bcexo, Ephraim Hezekiah. 


Benjamin II., J. J. BOrne, Karl Ludwig. Cantor, Moritz. 

Benjamlv, JrnAH Philip. Braham, John. Carreoai, Raphael Hattim Isaac. 

Berlin, Muses. Brandes, Georg. Cassel, David, 

Berliner, Abraham. Br^al, Michel. Chajes, Zebi Hih.sch. 

Bkrnavs, Isaac. Brejthacpt, John Frederick. 

Prayers, It;ilian-Jewisli, Printed in Hebrew Characters, Bologna, 1538 299 

Printer's iMark: see Imprint. 

Procession of Bridegroom of the Law on the Eve of the Kejoicing of the Law 383 

of Sephardic Jews Round a Coflin 433 

Processions of Bridegroom and of Bride, About 1700 129 

Rabbinic Bible: see Bo.mberg, Daniel. 

lic'joiciiig of the Law, Procession of Bridegroom of the Law on the Kve of the 383 

Reiichlin, .Tohaiin, The Erfurt Manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targuni, Foniicrly Belonging to. 181 

Ring, Betrothal, Bearing Letter a for " iMazzal Tob " 128 

with Bo.x Containing Perfumes and Opening with a Key 138 

Rome, see Candlestick; Catacomb; Ce.metert. 

Uothschild, Lady, Book-Plate of 314 

Russia- see Berdychev; Byelostok; Caucasus; Censorship. 

St. Petersburg- Codex of the Hebrew Bible, with Superlinear Punctuation 179 



Sarcophagus. Fnigmcnt of a, from the Vigna Raudaaini at Rome, Showing Jewisli Symbols 614 

see also Catacomb. 

Seal of the B'uai Brith Order 276 

of the Jewish Chautauqua Society 6!<3 

Scfirot, Correct Order of, Arranged in a Circle ^iG 

in Relation to One Another ■^'S 

in the Form of a Menorah ■*'" 

Sephardic Jews in Prwes-sion Round a Coffin 433 

Sepiuairint Version of Exodus xi.\. 14-xs. IT. From a page of the Vatican manuscript 1^7 

Shofar-Blowing: see Bknkuktioss. 

Shulhan Aruk, TitlePage of Caros, Printed at Venice, 18th of Kislew, 5325=1564 587 

Signatures: see Aitoorapiis. 

Simhat Torali : see of the Law. 

Simonson, Dr. Emil, Book-Plate of 315 

Soncino Border from the Title-Page of *' Sefer Yehoshua' " 321 

Spheres. Relation of the Cabalistic 474 

Symbol, The Aleph as a. of the Four Cabalistic WorUls 476 

Symbols. Jewish, on a Fragment of a Sarcophagus from the Vigna Randauini at Rome 614 

Synagogues: see Bkhdvciiev: Beiilix; Bf.vis JIauks: Bokhaua; Bombay; Boxx; Bud.apest; Bud- 
WEis; Byelostok: Cassel: Cavaii.i.os: Ciia:{LEStox. 

Tabakgasse Synagogue at Budapest 417 

Tabernacles, Feast of, as Celebrated by Bokhara Jews 2!>3 

Talmud, Page from Bomberg's Edition of. 1526 301 

Targum: seeEuFURT; Polyglot. 

" Tefillot Latini " : Italian-Jewish Prayers Printed in Hebrew Characters, Bologna, 1538 299 

Tell Arnamia. Boundary-Stone at 342 

Temple of Solomon, Brazen Sea of the, with View of Section. Restored according to Calmet 358 

Thebes: see Bricks. 

TitlePages: see JIeaii Beuakot; Sihliian 'AnrK; Soxciso Border. 

Titus, The Golden Caniliestick on the Arch of, as It Appeareil in 1710. After Reland 532 

Translations, Biblical: see Polyglot; Seitcagext; Targum. 

Tribute, Camels Led to Shalmanescr as 520 

Types, Jewish: see Bexi-Israel; Bokhara; Caucasus. 

Typography: sec Bible; Bologxa; Bomberg. Daxiel; Caro, Joseph ; JIeah Bekakot; Soxcixo 

United States: see CnAiiLESTOS, S. C. ; Chautauqua Society; New York. 

Vatican ^lanuscript of the Scptuagint Version of Exodus xix. 14-xx. 17, Page of 187 

Venice: see Bomberg, Daxiel: Shulhax 'Aruk; Sonclso Border. 

Venosa, Ground-Plan of the Jewish Catacombs at C17 

see also Caxdi.estick. 

Vinceutius Mattellica, Holograph Approbation of, to "Sefer Slia'ar ha-Shamayim " of Gerehon ben 

Solomon, Printed at Venice, 1547 •. . . 645 

"Water- Bottles, Goatskin, Now in Use in Palestine 341 

:Jlode of F"illiug Jars from 340 

Writing, Cursive : see Dobsevage, A. B. 


Jewish Encyclopedia 

HAM : Mediator, in 152G, bclwix'ii tUu JIoois uud 
the governor of SafFee and Azamor, employed by the 
Portuguese. He lived at Azanior on the west coast 
of Africa. Abraham Cazan (Hazau), the most prom- 
inent Jew of that city, was also employed in the 
same capacity. 

Bibliography: JtiSo de Souso, DiK-umrntn^ Aralii^iii* jtara 
la Hi-ituria Porlvuvcza, pp. l-W ft .>■*;'/■* Lisbon, 17H((; Kay- 
serling, Geftclt. dcr Jiiden in PitrtttfjuU p. l*il. 

«. M. K. 

BENCEMERO, ISAAC : Kelalive of Abraham 
Beneemero of Azamor; the deliverer of Nuno Fer- 
nandes d'Afayde, eommander-iu-chief of Saffee. 
When in loll tliis latter city was besieged and sur- 
I'ounded by an army of more than 100,000 men aud 
Ataydc was exposed to the greatest danger, Benee- 
mero and a certain Ismael formed the bokl jilan of 
bringing assistance to the Portuguese. At their own 
e.\pcnse they titted out two vessels, manned them 
with co-religionists, and sailed to Saffee. Eluding the 
sentinels on watch, they entered the city in the dark- 
ness of night, and thus saved Atayde and his men. 

BiBi.iOGRAPiiv: Hieronymo de Meudoi;a, Jornada de Africa, 
p. S9a, Lisbon, 1B67; Kayserling, Ocsc/i. dcrjudeyi in Portu- 
gai, p. 159. 
(i. M. K. 

BENDAVID, LAZARUS: German philoso- 
pher aud reformer; born in Berlin Oct. 18, 17(52; 
died there ^laich 28, 1833. In his younger days he 

supported himself by 

polishing glasses, and 

in his leisure time 

studied matliematics, 

in which he attained 

great piofieieney. His 

earliest published work 

was on a geometrieul 

subject, " Ueber die 

Parallellinien" (Berlin, 

1786), and attracted 

much attention. Ben- 

david .studied at the 

universities of Gdt- 

tingen and Halle and 

became a stanch adherent of the Kantian philosophy. 

After failing in his effort to enter the service of 

the Prussian government in the Department of Jus- 

HI. — 1 

Lazarus Bendavid, 

tice, Bendavid in 1793 went to Vienna and lectured 
on Kant's philosophical system in one of the liallsof 
the university. He was. however, soon comi)elled 
to terminate his lectures thei'c, but continued them in 
tlie mansion of Count Harrach, where he attracted 
large and distinguished audiences. When, in 1797, 
foreign residents were forced to leave 
Lectures Vienna, Bendavid returned to Berlin, 
on Kant, and was for several years editor of the 
"Spener'sche Zeitung," which he di- 
rected with great ability aud eiieiimspeetion during 
the dangerous times of the French domination. 

In 1806 Bendavitl became the director of the Frei- 

schule (Jewish Free School), which had been founded 

in 1778 by David Friedljlnder and Daniel Itzig. 

Bendavid brought the school to such a high stand 

ard that nearly a third of its pupils were non-Jews 

'in 1819, when the attendance of Christian children 

at Jewish schools was prohibited by the government. 

He served witliout comjiensation until the school 

was closed in 1835. His services as an expert ac- 

covmtant were much sought after by comnu'rcial and 

tinaucial institutions; and he was also employed in 

that capacity for many j-eais by the directors of the 

Royal Fund for Widows (Konigliche "Wittwcnkasse). 

The extreme simplicity of liis mode of living brought 

him Ihe nickname of " The jModi-rn Diogenes " ; while 

by his thrifty habits he succeeded in 

"The being as independent in worldly af- 

Modern fairs as he strove to be in the domain 

Diogenes." of philosojihy. He is called by Heine 

" a Siige after the pattern of antiquity." 

He never mariied. 

In philoso])liy Bendavid remained a Kantian 
throughout his life. His pulilished lectui-es. such 
as the " Vorlesiingeu liber die Kritik der Praktischen 
Vernunft" (Vienna, 179G), " Vorlesungcn uber die 
Kritik der Reinen Vernunft" (/i. 1796), and several 
similar works, are simply expo.sitions of the philos- 
ojihy of his great luaster. When new nietaphy.sical 
leaders like Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel commenced 
to dominate the world of German thought, Bendavid 
offered no resistance and engaged in no polemics 
like other Kantians, b\it withdrew from the field of 
active philosophical studies and exercised his mind 
on other subjects. 

Bendavid's influence on the development and pop- 
ularization of philosophy in his time is generally 



recognized. His " Ueber den Ursprung Unserer Er- 
kenntnisse" (Berlin, 1S02) wiis crowned by the 
Aeademy of Berlin. This work and his other inde- 
jiendent philosopliical researches, like "Beiliage zur 
Kritik des Geschniaeks" (Vienna. 171I7). " Versueh 
cincrGesehniaekslehre" (Berlin, 17!I8). and" Versueh 
einer Rechlslehre " (Berlin. 18(rJ). wliieli are now 
almost forijotten, were of inijiortance al the lime of 
their appearanee. The truths which they contain, 
now genendly accepted, had to sirugirle hard for 
recognition in those <lays: and Bendavid's lucid 
style contributed much to their popularization. He 
will always be reineudiered as one of the trio of 
Jewish ])hilosophers (the other two being JIarcus 
Herz and Solomon Maiinon) who. as much as any 
other German thinkers. helpe<l to spread the Kant- 
ian philosophy at the end of the eighteenth century. 
In the .lewish world Bendavid's inHuenco was also 
considerable, and by no means imperceptible, as is 
claimed by Griitz. In his "Etwas zur Charakter- 
istiek der .luden " (Vicnna-Leipsic. 17!)3; improved 
ed.. Berlin, 181^) he idcaded boldly for abolition of 
ceremonial laws, and is thus among the first, if not 
actually the first, advocate of jiractical religioiis re- 
form in Judaism as the only means to stem the tide 
of conversi<ms to Christianity which began to rise 
in those days with startling rapidity. In this work 
(pp. 33, 34) Bendavid pays high tribute to Moses 
Mendelssohn, who befiieuded and encouraged him 
in his early struggles. It is interesting to note that 
Bendavid was summoned before Cardiiud Jligazzi 
in Vienna to defend himself against the charge that 
he traduced Christianity in that work (see Sehreiber, 
"Reformed Judaism." y]i. 2S-31, Spokane, Wash., 

Bendavid was one of tli<' tiist radical Bible critics 
among the Jews of Germany. His "Ueber die Re- 
ligion der Ebriier vor Jloses" (Berlin, 1S12) and the 
essay "Ueber Geschriebenes tuul IMi'indliehes Ge- 
setz," which appeared in Zun/.'s "Zcitsehrift fiir 
liie Wissenschaft des .Indenlhums," 1S23, claim to 
be parts of a comprehensive critical study of the 
Pentateuch which was inobably never tinished. In 
the same |)enoilieal also ajipeaied his 
A Radical " Ueberden Glaubender Judeuaneiuen 
Bible Kiinftigen Messiah." wlierehe uses his 
Critic. knowledge of the Tabnud and rab- 
binical literature to insist on the prin- 
ciple, first brought forward by Joseph Albo. that 
the bi'lief in the connng of a Jlessiah is not essential 
to Judaism. His "Zur Bereehnung und Geschichte 
des Ji'idischen ICalenders" (Berlin, 1817) was also a 
radical departure from the usual treatment of the 
subject by Jewish writers, and called forth a vehe- 
ment rejoinder in the booklet, " Dabar Beitto," by 
MeVr ben Moses Koniick (Breslau. 1817). The last 
work p\iblished by Bendavid. which appeared in 
Berlin in 1824, was a rcjiorl on the condition of the 

hUiLiOGKAPHV : ttendavid wrote an nutobiographit-al ,sketfh 
which appeared ni Ihe Uilduiss, Ittiilm vti'}thyt> n, lierhn, 
IHOti. His bioffraphv, written bv Muritz Vril, appcan-il in the 
nimtcr fnr Lit. Vntcrli. fur ISC'. Alkiiiiniiir I fuitxeU, 
Hiiiuritiiliie. il. :!IS :«!; criilz. Cimli. ilir.iuih II. xi\. lyil; Jost, 
Hiscli. ili.i Jiiili iithiiiiix tiiiii Si nil r Sihliii. Ui. :)I8; L. 
(ieicer. (ii.-<ch.iii'r JIUI. iiimiiiuii in llirliii. pp. ItiKrt i<fii.', 
Xdt. filr (liscli. ilir Juiliii in Dcuti^ihUiiHl, iv. 7!> SU (his 
letters U> BellerinuD). 
8. P. Wl. 

)f Berlin and associ- 

FKIEDRICH : Gerniiin painter; born Dec. 3. 1811. 
in IJciliii: died Dec. 27. 1S8!», at Diisseldorf. His 
father was a i)i-omiiienl li.-iiiUer 
ated with the intellec 
tinil eiicles of the cap 
ital. His talented son 
was therefore at ;m 
earl}' age brought into 
conttict with such ce 
Icbrities as Goltfrieil 
Schadow and his two 
sons, a.s well as with 
Feli.x Mendelssohn ami 
Werder. It was, how- 
ever, the intercourse 
with Jvdius llilbucr. 
who afterward be- 
came his brother in- 
law and was then a ' 
pupil at the Berlin Academy, that iuduceel Beiule- 
mauu to devote himself to tirl. After a .short course of 
elementary study with W. Schadow at Berlin. Beude 
mann accompaiiietl him to Diisseldorf. where lie lu- 
camea memberof that celebrated fnitcridty ofart stu- 
dents iif terward designated " the Diisseldorf School. " 

As early as 1828 Bendemann had attracted attention 
in Berlin by an excellent portrait of his giaudmollier, 
which had been exhibited in that city. His next 
jiicture. "Boaz and Ruth," his first independent cre- 
ation, also met with recognition, without, however, 
giving evidence of the triumiihs that the painter 
was sotm to achieve. When, in 18;t(1. Schadow went 
to Italy, Bendemann, Karl Sohn. Th. Hildebraudt, 
and Hiibner acconiptinied him. and remained there 
for an cntii'e year, devoting themselves exclusively 
to the .study of Raffael and ^lichelangelo. 

Upon his return in 1831. Bendemann began the 

work "Jews Mourning in the Kabylonian Exile." 

now exhibited (lilUl ) in the Stiidtisches 

His " Jews .Museinn. Cologne. This work was 

in Baby- considered tlie masterpiece of the 1833 

Ionian c.vhibilioti of the Berlin Acailemy, and 

Exile." at once elevated theyoungarlist to an 
eqiiidity w ith the leading painters of 
the day. The gnmdeur and majesty of the con- 
ception, the nobility and depth of the emotions 
portrayed, the simjde aiui earnest rhythm of the 
composition, and the avoidance of the extremes of 
charaiterizalion, all cimibiued to make this picture 
remarkable in the world of art, and one that was 
welcomed with the most intense satisfaction. 

From 1831 to 1835 Bendemann jiroduct'd several 
of his best works. In the latter year the crown 
prince of Prussia, upon the recommeudatiou of 
Schadow, renounced his intention to order a copy 
of "The Jlourning Jews." and commissioned Bende- 
mann to paint a iiieture on the subject "Jeremiah 
at the Fall of Jerusilem." (See Fidutis])iece. ) This 
work, now ( li(Ol) in the I'oyal pala<-e at Hanover, was 
tirst exhibited at the Berlin Academy of Art, where 
it attracted the greatest attention. About 183.') the 
artist married a daughter of Gottfried Schadow. and 
went to live in the house of his father-in-law at Ber- 
lin. There he executed the famous painting, "The 
Arts at the Fountain of Poetry." 



Unsuccessful iu his attempt to obtain an order for 
a work of monumental iiroportions in Berlin, Bende- 
mann in 183.S accepted a professorship at the Dres- 
den Academy, and there, iu the fol- 

Becomes lowing year, he was commissioned to 

Professor ilecorate three rooms of the royal pal- 
at ace. Notwithstanding an affection of 

Dresden, the e3'e, that in 1841 compelled him to 
go to Italy, Bi ndeniann, Ihniughont a 
period of sixteen years, actively prosecuted this 
work, which to-day constitutes the greatest monu- 
ment to his .genius. I'pou the resignation I if Sclia- 
dow in 1859, Bendemann accepted the directorship 
of the Dus.scldorf Academy. This position he re- 
tained until 1867, when an affection of th<^ throat 
compelled him to resign. Among his most distin- 
guished pupils may be mentioned his son Rudolf. 
Theodor Grosse, and Peter Jaussen. 

Bendemann was a knight of the Ordrr I'liur le 
Merite, member or honorary member of the principal 
art academics nf the world, and the reciiiient of 
numerous liomirs and decoralii>ns, 

Bendcmann's principal works on liiblical subjects 
arc, besides those jilready mentioned : "TIk; Three 
Wise Men of tin; East on Their Way to Ijethlehem " 
(1833); "Jeremiah At the Fall "of Jerusalem" 
(original title, "The .Jews Led into Ca|)tivity in 
Babylon ''). The lasi-menti(jned work — perhaps 
Bendcmann's greatest — was first exhibited in 1873, 
and iu 1876 was in the National Gallery at Ber- 
lin, It is described iu the official catalogue as 
follows : 

"In tile fitn'^jnuinii, the iirttpliHi .Icreiniali is .seated uptm [tie 
ruins in spee('lile.s.s sot-row, atlendoii tiy liis faitliful pupil, 
Baruch, who kneels tieside him in prayer. Ttie prophet is com- 
pelled to hear the cni'ses of his countrymen, who, firiven int^i 
exile, accuse him of conniving: with the enemy. To the right is 
a jrroup of despairint' women and children, from whose midst a 
Babylonian warrito" has jnst seized a txjy. In 

"Jeremiah the center, Nehnchadnezzar, in royal attire. 
at the Fall of rides in a chariot drawn by two hoi-ses. He is 
Jerusalezn." accompanied l)y a frroup of jubilant women, 
and is preceded by the army, heavily laden w-ilh 
spoils. Following Nehui'hadnczzar's chariot is King Zedekiah, 
blind, and groping his way with a stalT. The latter is accom- 
panied by his wives, and followed tiy the priests hearing the Ark 
of the Covenant, and by the camels and the baggage-train. In 
the background, and somewhat to the left, are the smoking 
ruins of Yhwh's Temple." 

In addition to paintings of Biblical subjects, 
Bendemann produced numerous other couipositions, 
such as "The TwoGirlsat the Well" (1833); "Shep- 
herd and Sbe|dierdcss'" ; "Penelope" (now in the 
Antwerp Aeudeiny), and " Ivaiscr r.,(jthar" (Imperial 
Gallery of the Hiimer, Fraidifort-on-the-Main). He 
also drew the designs for the Cornelius Gallery in 
Berlin, and these were affcrwaiil executed in en 
caustic by his pupils (see lludolf Bende.mann). 

Equally noteworthy was his genius as a portrait 

painter, as evidenced by th(^ numerous pictures of 

distinguished persons painted by him during a 

period of thirty years. Among these are life-size 

portraits of the following: Quandt 

Asa HHiJO); Droysen (18.>5): Karl Sohn 

Portrait- (1858); L. Hichter (18.J9); Kietschel 

Painter. (1862); Joachim (186.j); Cornelius 

(1870); Achenbachn878); ClaraSchu- 

mann(1878); Pu Bois-Reymond (1880) ; Langenbeck 

(1880); Niels W. Gade (1881); W. v. Schadow ; the 

artist's father; and Fiirst Ant(m v. Holienzollerii. 
Bendemann's portrait of General Oberwitz and his 
wife is ranked by Pecht "among the best which has 
ever been produced in this genre"; and the .sjune 
critic considers that the siilcndid ])icture of the art- 
ist's wife (first exhibited in \»41\ would alone entitle 
Bendemann to enduring fame, .\moug the most 
jiopular illusti'ations by Bendemann are those lo 
Lcssing's "Nathan der Weisc " (187.")). 

nntLiOGi{.\rnv : Julius Meyer. .llliji-tnt-iiH's Kllnsthr-Lcj-i- 
/lo/K Kolnit, Bn'UbmIc IsrarUtischr Mflnmr inid Frtiuen, 
ix. «KI ; Kdtiilnii ilir K<''iii<lL \iili,,iinl linllrrir. Berlin, 
s. J. So. 

EUGEN : (Jciinuii |iniiilii' nf lii-.l(irjcal and griire 
pictures: son of Eduard Bendemann ; liorn at Dres- 
den Nov. 11, 18.51. He was educated at the Diissel- 
dorf Academy under the supervision of his father. 
From 1877 to 1879 he lived at Munich, and later 
made sevcial visits to Egypt. The mui-al paintings 
in the Corneliu.>* hall of the National Gallery at 
Berlin were executed by him iu ;i<'cordance with his 
father's plans, and in collaboration with Kiiber and 
Wilhelm liecUmann (187(>). Amnng his works the 
following ai'c the most noteworthy: " Frith jof und 
Ingeborg als Kinder" (1874): "Nymiihe" (1877); 
" Bieiaiis.schank " (1878) ; "Beerdigiing des Frauen- 
lob ' ; " Kin Fest im Kilen Jahrhuudert " ; "Laulen- 
sehlager" ( 1879) ; " Wirthshaussccnen in Oiicrbaiern " 
(1880); "Ausgang aus einer Moscliee in Kairo " ; 
"Schopfbrunncn in Obenigyptcn." Bendemann 
has also achieved considi'i'alile siu-ccss as a porlniit- 
paintcr.;kaim(v : J. Meyer. KtUistlcr-Lt:.i-il\fni ; Koliut. Jte- 
rlUiintf Isravlitisrfu' Milniwr nnil FniuiH. 
s. J. .So. 

Cape Town, South Africa: born al Dublin. Ireland. 
18K3; educated by his father. Rev. Philipp Render, 
fur many yeais rabbi of the Dublin congregation. 
Bender tinislicd his education al St. John's College, 
('.■imliridge, Eng.. and in 1891 was appointed rabbi 
iif the Hebrew congregation at Cape Town, South 
Afiiea, where he continues to rcsidi' (1901). Hi' is 
professor of Hebrew at the South .\frican College, 
and is a member of the council of the University of 
(4ood Hojie. Render is connected with many local 
idiilauthropic institutions besides those of his own 
congregatidU. He has conti-ibuted to the "Jewish 
Quai'tcrly Review " (vols, vi., vii.) a series of papers 
nil the burial customs of the Jews. - 

B)i);RAi'nv: .lacobs. ./niWi Vi nr nunl,. ism luen. 

jurist; burn at Frankfort .May nr Sept. 29. 1797; 
died there Sept. (i. ISHQ. He studied law at Giessen, 
where he was also lecturer from 1819 to 1823. In 
1831 he went to Frankfort to ijractise law. and five 
years later he was made a memlicr of the executive 
committee of the tariff coininission (ZolUlirections- 
rath), a position he fillid until his death. He was 
the author of " Grundriss der Deiitschen Staats- und 
Rechtsgeschichte." 1819; " Ueber das Miiudliche 
und Oeffeutliche Verfahren in ( 'riminalsachen, " 1821 ; 
"Grundsiltzc des Dcutschcii Handclsrcchts," 2 vols.. 



1824-29; "Der Frllliere iind Jetzige Zustand der 
Isnii'liten zvi Frankfurt. Verbesscrungs-Vor- 
schlilgcu," 1833: suid otlii-r works. 
Bibliography: Allgcmeim D.ii(.<f)if BiVviap''", ii. ^1. 
s. E. Ms. 

BENDEKY : District town in tin- govoruinent 
of Hissanibia. In 1898 it luul a Jewish population 
of 12,0(10 out of a total of 33.000 inliabitnuts. Com- 
nu-rce is the main occupation i>f the J<-ws theif-. only 
l.Otil of Ihcm being engaged in handicnifts(39T mas 
ters. 515 journevinenr a"^iid 149 apprentices). Ten 
Jewish families." who own about si.xty-eight acres 
of land within the city limits, are engaged in viti- 
culture. The most important among the Jewish 
benevolent institutions are the Jewish Hospital, 
which has an annual expenditure of 6.4t10 rubles. 
and the Talmud Torah. In siiecial Jewish schools 
religious instruction is imparted to 325 children, 
while at tlie public schools 240 cliildren receive such 

H. K. S- J- 

Russian pedasoiiue and Hebrew writer: l)oru in '• 
Grodno 1817:" died there March 20. 1888. After a 
careful Talmudic education in his native town lie 
was sent, while still young, to Brcslau, Germany, 
where lusfatherin-law. Reubeu Liebling, the cantor 
of the Reformed synagogue, supported him during 
his studies. There he published in lfi47 IS nDIDH 
yen n'inN ("The Denunciator"), a Polish tale, 
adapted from the German version of W, Tugend- 
liold. In 1853 he returned to Russia, and then 
tiiuglit formore than twenty yeare in the government 
school for Jewish children at Grodno, and for a 
short time in Volkovisk. In Grodno he also con- 
ducted a private school for many years. Among 
his pupils may be mentioned the Hebrew poet Kon- 
stantin Shapiro, the public spirited lawyer L. 
Kupernik of Kiev, and the jurist and writer D. 
Slonimski of 'Wilna. 

Besides Hebrew, he wrote fluently in Russian and 
German, and being possessed of an exceptionally 
retentive memory Uc knew by heart the Scriptures 
and many of the writings of Schiller and other 
German classics. 

As an esthetic writer and stylist, be could not 
approve of the Germanized Hebrew of the young 
generation, and in his preface to " Alluf Xe'urim " he 
severely criticized it. This called forth a reply from 
R, A. Braudes in an article entitled " Ha-Safah Bike- 
wodah ube 'Ozmah." which appeared in "Gan Pera 
l.iim." Wilna. 18sl. pp. 12 el xeq. Besides the work 
mentioned above, Bendetsohu published: "Ebcn 
Bohau," the princi])al rules of Hebrew grammar in 
the form of questions and answers (Wilna, 18.56>; 
"Higgayon la-'Ittim," a Hebrew adaptation of the 
•'Stunden der Andacht fiir Israeliten," by Samson 
Wolf Rosenfeld, rabbi of Bamberg (vol, i,, Wilna, 
18.5t>; vol. ii., 18(i2»: "Moda' le-Yalde Israel" 
(Frieud of Jewish Children), instriictive tales, anec- 
dotes, etc., from the lives of noble men, partly de- 
rived from Willulm Oertel's " Praclischer Unterricht 
in der Deutschen Spracbe," Hebrew and Russian 
(Warsaw, 1872); "Alluf Xe'urim," a collection of in 
structive tales for youth and a manual of elementary 

instruction in the Hebrew tongue, translated from 
the Russian (Wilna, 1879). 

As a master of classical Hebrew he ranks among 
the best Xeo-IIebniic writers, his style l)eing almost 
equal to that of JIapu, who is considered the fore- 
most classical writer of the "Maskilim," 

BiBLioiiRAPHv: nn-Ziiiinh. IS**. Nos. B8.69; Gnn Perahim, 
Wilna, ISSl : private smines. 
H, K, ^V FL, 


Bendig d'Ai-les) : 'rahiuulist at Aries, in the Pro- 
vence, probably in the second half of the fifteenth 
centuiy. He wrote the following works: (1) An 
index of all the Biblical passiiges cited in the Baby- 
lonian Talmud, including tlie "minor," and. 
the Abot de-Uabbi Nathan, with a list of the pas- 
sages in which they are cited. A later copyist gave 
the work the name "Em le-Mikra" (Scriptural 
Sources). It is manuscript No. 1637, 3, of Neu- 
bauer. "Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS.," and occurs also in 
a Verona manuscript. (2) A collection of the hag 
•radic passiiges of the Talmud, erroneously entitled 
by the copyist "Em le-Masoret" (Sources of Tradi- 
tion). It is contained in the sjimc manuscripts as 
the preceding work. In his works Bcndig carried 
out a plan of^Isiiac Nathan, aiithorof "ileir Netib," 
who also lived at Aries, but before Bendig, 

bibliography: cross, in Mmots-ochnfl. 18S0. p K3: idem. 
(iiiUm Jiiilniia, p, !KI: Neubauer, Cat. Bmll. Hebr. Hbb. 
1.. (i. 

I. Ber. 

BENDIN. See Petrikov. 
BENDIT. See Benedict. 

BENDIX. FRITS EMIL : Danish violoncellist 
and composer: born Jan. 12, 1847, at Copenhagen, 
He lirst studied with F. Ranch, and later with 
Friedrich Neruda and Fried rich Griitzmacher in 
Dresden. From 1866 to 1871 he lived in Germany, 
where he successively played in the orchestras at 
Meiningen and Cassel. He also appeared as a solo- 
ist and in chamber-music performances. On his re- 
turn to Denmark in 1871 he became a member of the 
royal orchestra at Copenhagen, and since 1887 he 
has been its leader. 

Beudix has published a book of children's songs, 
of which he composed both text and music. In 
1884 a one-act comedy of his was performed at the 
Royal Theater in Copenhagen. Another play, en- 
titU'd "En Hustru," was published by him under 
the pseudonym "Carston Hoist." 

Bibliography: SalmonsieD, Store mu^lrerede Konvcrm- 
tionsldisikon; C. F, Bricka.Daiu* Bingraftsk Lerikon. 
s. J. So. 

Danish oboist and pianist : born July 26. 1843. at 
Copenhagen; a brother of Frits Beudix. He first 
devoted himself to the study of the oboe, and re- 
ceived instruction on that instrument from Christian 
Schliemanu. He was also a pupil of Gade and Ree. 
In 1868 he received an appointment as oboist in the 
royal orchestra ; and he remained a member of that 
organization until 1880. In the mean time he had 
diligently devoted himself to the study of the piano; 
and in order to perfect himself as a pianist, he took 



a coui-sp with Theodore Kiillak at Berlin and with 
Liszt at Weimar (1873-74). 

The piiiuo now gradually became his favorite in- 
strument. For a nuuiber of years he performed at 
concerts and tauglit in Copenhagen ; but in 1H80 he 
left his native city for Boston. Mass., where he now 
occupies ( 101)2) a distinguislied position as a teacher 
and virtuoso. In the latter cajiacity he has made 
frequent tours, one of which extended as far as Sau 

BiBLiociKAPUY : Saliiionsen. Store IHii^rercile Knnvei'va- 
titmsiflisihint : C. K. Brieka. Dnusk BiograHttk Lcxikon ; 
Bakw. liiiiurai>liir(tl DM. of ilusiciiing. New York. I'Ml 
s. J. 80. 

violin virtuosi 1, ]iianisl, and conipo.ser; born May 
17, I80I. at Copeidiagcn; brother of Frit.s Bemlix. 
He early manifested a remarkable talent for music. 
From 18G7 to 18(ii( he was a pupil at the newly 
founded conservatory of music at Copenhagen. 
where he studied the piano under August Winding 
and composition under Xiels W. Gade. favor- 
ite pupil and protege he became. In association 
with Axel Liebmann, he conducted from 1872 to 
1876 the concerts of the choral society founded by 
the latter. A few years later he; became instructor 
of the chorusat the Koyal Openi. and Gade"sassistant 
at the ciiorjil rehearsals of the .Music-al Society. He 
also at this time frequently ap])eared as soloist and 
in ehambermusic recitals, and during the .season of 
1893 conducted the popular concerts given at the 
Concert Palace. 

Bendi.\ has occasionally visited Germany and other 
foreign countries, and his ccnnpositions reveal the 
influence of modiTu German romanticism. They 
are characterized by a consummate mastery of tech- 
nic, anil embrace orchestral and chamber music, as 
well as numerous songs and minor compositions 
for the piano. The following is a list of his princi- 
I)al works: "The Thirty-third Psalm," for orchestra 
and chorus, op. 7 : symphony in C, entitled " Fyaeld- 
stigning" (German title "Zur Hijlie"). publislied in 
1891; symi)liouy in I), entitled " Sommerklange 
fra Kusland " ; symphony in A (1895?): "Lystspil- 
ouverture," op. 19: pianoforte concerto, op. 17: 
pianoforte trio. op. 11: ten songs, op. 18; "Poesies 
de Victor Hugo." op. 21: "Album." ten pianoforte 

BlBLio(iR.\iMiv : Saimonseii. Sltur lUittil irrede Koiiveriia- 
tUitislfhsikiii) ; c F. Brii'ka. Dtntsh JiunfraHnk Lexiknn, 
s. J. So. 

BENE-BEBAK : A tow 11 a.ssigned to Dan (Josh. 
xix. 4')i. ll was situated on the seaeoast plain 
southeast of Joppa. and is to be identitied with 
the modern Ibn lbnik(Buhl. "Geographic." p. 196). 
The Danitcs, however, did not continue to hold the 
place, since Sennacliirili (Hawliusou. "Cuneiform 
Inscriptions of Western Asia." i., plate "u. col. ii. 
66) mentions Banaibarka as belonging to Zidka. In 
later times Bene-Biiak lucanie the seat of Akiba's . 
school (Sanli, :«ln. , 

.1 .11: G. B. L. 

BENE BERITH. See Bhith. 
BENE MIKRA. See Kar.\ites. 

scholar; born April 18, IMIM, at Xovara, a town in 
Piedmont : died Aug. 4, 1891, at Pisii. In his time the 
public schools of Italy were closed to Jews, and 
therefore Benedetti attended the only school of 
importance in Piedmont open to Hebrews — a col- 
lege founded in Vercelli by a certain Foa and 
intended more especially for the preparation of 
nibbis. After finishing his studies there and feeling 
no inclination for the ministry, Benedetti earned a 
livelihood by teaching, and by eilitorial work for 
some Piedmont and Milan papers. At this time also 
he translated, in abridged form. Adolph Franck's 
book on the Cabala. In 1844 Beneiletti was named 
superintendent of the Pie Scuole Israel itiche at Leg- 
horn. In 1848 he became one of the most militant 
participants of the JIaz7.ini faction, and took an 
active pari in the publication of the " Corriere Li- 
vornesc. " 

When the Austrians invaded Leghorn, Benedetti 
left the city in order to return to his native province. 
Piedmont. He remained some time in Turin actively 
engaged as a journalist, and when Cesare Cor- 
renti founded the " Progresso, " Benedetti became a 
member of the editorial staff of that paper. After 
its cessatiim Benedetti went back to Xovarsi, and 
after having delivered public lectures on history he 
founded and edited the paper "'La Vedetta," which 
served as intermediary between free Piedmont and 
Lombardy, then still uuder the Austrian yoke. 

In view of the changed political situation pro- 
voked by the ))olicy of Victor Enunanuel and of his 
minister Cavour, Benc(U>tli decided thenceforward 
to devote his life to science and literature. In 1862 
he became jirofessor of Hebrew at the University of 
Pisa, and n'tained the position till his death. He 
also contributed from time to time to local papers of 
his new dwelling-place. He devoted the greater part 
of his energy to scientitic publications: distinguish- 
ing himself b)' his exact knowledge of the bibliogra- 
phy of each subiect he treated, by tin- severe method 
of research that he applii-d to every topic he dis- 
cussed, and, above all. by the choice language he em- 

One of the most interesting of Benedetti"s works 
was his "Vitae^Iorte di Jlose." 1879, wherein he 
gathered and translated the legends concerning the 
great Hebrew legislator. His "Canzonieie Sacro di 
Gimla Levita,"' 1871, a translation of the poems of 
Judali ha-Levi, helped largely toaciiuaint the Italian 
])ublic with the Hebrew poetry of the Middle Ages. 
Besides the above-mentioneil works Benedetti pub- 
lished: " 11 TerzoCetitenario di Galileo," a historical 
tale, Pisa, 1H64: "DelMetododi Galileo nella Filo- 
logia," Turin, 1864: "Delia Educa/.ione Rustics, " 
Florence, 180."): ''Elisa Finocchieiti Toscanelli," 
Ilsa, 187(1; "I Teologi Xaturali " (translated from 
the Hebrew). Pissi, 1871 : " La Leggenda Ebraica <lei 
Dieei ]Martiri e la Pcrdonanza suUo Argo- 
mento. " in " Anniiario della Societil Italiana per gli 
Studj Orieiitale," ii. : "Giuseppe Levi, "a biography 
of the famous Italian poet, Florence, 1876; "JIari 
anna Foa Uziclli." biography, Leghorn, 1880: "Dei 
Presenti Studj sul Talmud e Specialmentc suU' 
Aggada," in '• Proceedings of the Fourth Congress 
of Orientalists." held in Florence. 1878. Florence, 

Benedict VIII. 
Benedict. Hoses 


1880; "LAulico TisliuiK'iito c In Lettcratiim Ita- 

li)iii;i." Pisii. 1HN.">. 

BiHi.ioGKAiMiv: AU's.siinilT"il'.Uuiiim. .NVi/rafiirc dc BeueOelli. 
in yliimi(iii<M/i7/" riiir,i:-it<i ■'<■ /'i.v<i (» ;■ C.lii/io ^ai<(c- 
IllilO, IWIl If. 

BENEDICT VIII.: P.i|ic Irom inr,' lo 1024. A 
great |ji;r.scculiiiii of iIk' .It-ws liiok place iliuiiif;- liis 
IHintilicatc. A tciiilili' eaitlKiuakc and limricuMc 
visitod tlio lily cif Hniiir i>n (luod Friday. lO'il. and 
(he followinj;' <lay, in wliicli many persons jh'I' 
islu'd. Accordinu: to the views of Iliat lime, tliis 
visitation was considered as a punisliment sent by 
God; and tlie jxipe was persuaded, by one who i)re- 
tended to have discovered tlie canse of tlie divine 
anger, that tlie Jews had insidted tlie host wliile 
the Christians were jiayinir their adoration to tlie .\n iii(|uiiy, eondueted with all the partial 
ily which cliaraclerized that ejiocli. luivinj; demon 
strated the veracity of the allesred facts, Benedict 
ordered the execnfion of the gnilly Jews. Accord 
iiig to Zunz, the selihali 131 U'ilV DK. written by 
Simeon ben Isiuic, refers to this peiseciilion. 

BiBi.iooRAi'Hv: Voirflslein ami Itif^'er. Cisi-hU-hti- ilfr Jinh'n 
ill Hinti, i. ~I1. :iV-i, :5;">4 ; Bei'linei', ffrsrhirfth ittr Juilfit in 
Hunt. ii. T: Zutiz. Lit' nituriii ■« till lil'\ |t. :;:!.'i. 
I.. 1. I'.i;, 

VEX.LES): A inonk of llic ( ■isiciviiin onler; 
<l<MTed pope Dc'C. MO, 1;«4; died April -J."), i;W.i. 
Although he (lisi)layed the fjreatest /.eal for the ex- 
tcnninalion of the Albijienses and other heretic's, he 
clieiished kindly feelinjis toward tin; Jews and pro- 
teclcd them by every means in his jiower. AVhen, in 
133f<. bloody persecutions of the Jews broke out in 
several places in (lerinany because they had been ac- 
cused of profanin^r sacraniciilal wafers. Heneilict ad 
dressed to Duke Allien of Austria a letter recom- 
inendini; him to take ineaslires for the protection 
of llie .lews. About the .same time he wrote also 
to the bishop of Passaii. in whose diocese many 
Jews had been slain on this aceusiition, direclina 
him to invcsliiiate sciniiulously the charge, which 
lie. Benedict, did not believe, and lo punish se 
verely lliosc who liaci iinentcd suili false accu- 

I1ihi,ioi;'HV : Itiirunuis. Annuifs Kl•cU,^i4lAti^'i nO Ainntnt 
MCrcXXXVIII.: Hi VIII Oriciitah: ii. 40(1: (iriitz, (Irscli. 
ill r Jmlcii, 'M ed.. vii. :c.J7. 

<;. I. Bit. 


Antipopc; lioniat .VniLHon abniil i:);34; I'leclcd Sept. 
2H, 1394; dieil at l^eniscola June 1 (according lo 
some, Xov. 29), 1424. This " unfrocked and spuri- 
ous pope," as he was lerined by the Council of Con- 
slance which deposed him (I41.~i). caused much suf- 
fcrinsr to the Jews. Zeahins for their conversion, 
he shrank from no nieasnrcs to bring about this re- 
sult. While he was still a c'ardiiml he forced Sliein- 
Tobben Isaac Shaprul loappearat Panijilona before 
an a.s.seinbly of bishops and high ecclesiastics in 
order to debate thc> (|Uestioii of original sin and 

This zeal for coiiversiou and controversy was en- 
coura.ged by the baptized Jew, the unfrocked rabbi 
Salomon Levi Burgos (calleil bv his Christian name 

Pablo de Santa ^Maria), and Benedict"*, pliysiciau, 
Joshua Lonpii, whose Christian name was Geronimo 
de Santa Fe. They iiersuaded theirmastertlnit they 
were able lo demonstrate from the Bible and the 
Talmud thai the .Messiah had already come in the 
person of Jesus. 

Benedict, who had perjured himself in order to 
save his liara. hoped to atone for his sin before 
Christendom by a splendid deed, such 
The as the conversion of tlie Jews en masse, 

Tortosa lie therefore summoned the Jewish 
Con- notables to a controversy at Tortosa. 

troversy. Twenty two of the chief 
Jews answered the summons, and as 
scmbled at Tortosa Feb. (>, 1413. At first Benedict 
tri'ated them with kindness; but seeing, in the course 
of the debates, that he could not hope to convert 
them by persuasion, he threw off his mask and 
vented his wrath on the Talmud. AVlien all means 
of converting lliem were c.xhansteci without bring- 
ing about the desired results, he dismissed them in 

The consequence of. this unprecedented contro- 
versy, which extended over a year and nine months 
(Feb. G, 1418, to Nov. 12, 1414), was the issuance of 
an anti-Jewish bull containing eleven clauses. By 
the terms of this bull the Jews were prohibited from 
studying the Talmud and Talmud- 
Bull of ical literature. All copies of the Tal- 
1414. mud were contiscated. The commu- 
nities were forbidden to build more 
than one synagogue poorly equipped. The Jews 
were not allowed to eat. bathe, or trade with CMiris- 
tians. They were not to hold any public office; not 
to follow any handicrafis, nor even to practise medi 
cine. They were com]ielled to wear a red or a yel- 
low badge, and three times a year, during Advent, 
at Easier, and in the summer, tliey were to attend 
('hristiau sermons. 

Benedict, being just then deposed by the Council 
of Constance, did n<it live to see liis bull enforced, 
bill it bore its fruits; and the sad end of the Jews 
of Spain was due to this .sehi.sniatic ]Kipe and the 
schismatic rabbi Bnrgos. 

liiBLiOGRAPIIV : Ibn Versra, ,SVi(7h( Vi'limhiit^ eel. AViener, jip. 
tiS-7;i: Halberstaimn. in jf-sc/oo-joi, vi. i~t tt seq.; Basnage, 
liititoiri: ilii< Juils^ vii. eh. xx. 5; Beu(?iiot, Leu Jnifs 
il'Occiilcnt, ]<. HIS: liedarride. Lis ./iiiCx <■;. Fiance, en 
Itiilii\ et en t^sjiniiin, p. 27ii : (iriitz, fii'fich. lii'r Juilfii. viil. 

\'^i rt si'if. 

li. I. Bh 


TINI) : Two huiidied iind tifty-fourlh pojie; born 
ai Bologna in KiT."): elecled pope Aug. 17, 1740; 
died May 3, 17."iS. This pope, who graeioiisly ac- 
cepted a dedication from V'ollaire and was full of 
amenity toward all heretics, thought it liis duty to 
pursue by all means the conversion of the Jews. In 
1747 he issued a bull regulating Jewish convei-sions. 
.Vecordingto this bull all children above .seven years 
of age could be baptized without the consent of 
their parents. A Christian nurse was allowed to 
baptize her Jewish charge against the will of the 
pareiit.s. One of the latter could baptize the child 
contrary to the wish of the other; and the grand- 
father could baptize his fatherless grandchild against 
I he will of its mother. 


Benedict Viil. 
Benedict, Moses 

By a. (U'Cici' dated Si'pt. 16 of tin- sjiiiie year. Ben- 
edict forbade converted married Jews to divorci- 
their wives aceordiuii to Jewish hiw. At the re- 
Hiiest of the Jewish coiniiiviiiity of Rome (prese-uted 
in Feb., 1751) to allow its members to fre(iiieiit 
the market and to live outside the ghetto, Bem'dict 
renewed the severe project elaliorated by the In(|ui- 
sition in 1732, aeeording to whieli a Jew was not 
permitted to pass a single night .iway from ll»' 

Notwithslaniliiig lliis, Henediet was far from be- 
ing hostile to the Jews. On all occasions, except iu 
the matter of eonvi-rsion, he showed s.vmpatliy wiih 
thenL When i)ersectitions bn)ke out in Poland he 
energetically defended the Jews and enjoined the 
Polish archbishop and primate to protect them. 

In Italy Benedict was especially hostile to Hebrew 
Ijooks. The censor Constanzi prepared in 174S a 
new list of forbidden books. Bene<lict ordered all 
those enumerated therein to be seized and confis- 
cated; and on Sept. l."). l".")!. this decree was en- 
forced. It having been rumored that the Jews 
smuggled prohibited books into the ghetto. Benedi<'t 
ordered a strict search of the houses, with the result 
that a general conlisciition ensued. Later he gave 
directions to Conslanzi to revise the ".Sefer ha-Zik- 
kuk " (Book of E.\ purgation) and to .add to it an 
Index Ejii'Dytiloniii, comprising a new series of 
books to be forbiilden. 

In Holy Week of 17r>(> llu' body of a child was 
found at Jampol, Poland, and a blood-accusation 
followed by persecutions ensued. To free them- 
selves and all other Jew s from the oft-rejieated ac- 
cusation, the Polish .Tews .sent .Jacob Selik to Bene- 
dict to procure an oHicial eX]>osure of the falsehood 
of the charge. Benedict charged the counselor of 
the holy ofiice. Lorenzo Ganganelli — later Pope 
Clement XIV. — to report on this subject; and on 
March 21, l?.^, the aiMjuittal of the .lews was 

BIBI.IOORAPHV: IJIiriitiiililiill 1I1.1 Oritiitx. 1.S41. p. iiil; Hr- 
Fue OrirulaW. iii. Ih' ; Hiriie ilt-i KliiilisJuirci, Hi. 107, IDS ; 
Berliner, Ct:ttimr uuil CitntisrntUnu p. ;i">; Vo^elstein anii 
Rieger. tle^fch, ilrr Jiultn in Itont. ii. ;Ml-247; l*opper, Ttic 
C«H«>rs/iiji t)f Hrhrni- /{.u./is. pp. 131, Vif,. 

I. Bu. 

BENEDICT, SIR JULIUS : Compcser, con- 
ductor, and teacher of music; born at Stuttgart 
Nov. 37, 1804; died in London June ,5, 1885. Show- 
ing considerable musical talent as a boy, ho became, 
at the age of lifteen. the pu|)il of Hummel at Wei- 
mar, and was introduced by him to Beethoven. In 
1821 he Went to Dresden to study nuisical composi- 
tion under Webei'. who treated him lik<' a son. 
Having tilled conductors' ])osls at Vienna from 182;! 
to 1825, he went with Barbaja to Italy in the latter 
year, and obtained an apiiointmeni as conductor at 
Naples, where he produced two of his own operas, 
"Gracintaed Ernesto" and "1 Porthocesi in Goa." 
In 1835 he went from Paris lo London, where he re- 
sided till his death, lie was conductor at the Ly- 
ceum in 1831) and at Drury Lane in 1838, where some 
of his own chief works for the operatic stage were 
produced. After vLsiting America with Jeiniy Lind 
in 18.50, he became successively conductor at Her 
Majesty's Theater and at Drury Lane. Sir .Julius 
held a prominent position in the musical world for 

upwanl of forty years, as comluctor and as teacher. 
He contributed much to the initial success of the 
.Monday Popular Concerts at St. James' Hall. lie 
was knighted in 1871 ; and. amongotherdistinctions, 
was decorated by the 
emperor of Austria in 
1S74, and made knight 
couunander of the Or 
iler of Frederick by the 
king of Wi'irttemberg. 
He was twice married. 
Among liis composi- 
tions arc: a one-act 
operetta, "L'u Anno 
cd un Giorno," pro- 
duced at the Lyceum 
in 1S:1G: "TheGvpsv's 
Warning," 18.^8; -'The 
Bride of Venice," 184:1 
" The Crusaders," 18411. 
produced at Drury 
Lane ; " L'ndine." a can- 
tata produced in 1800 
at the Norwich Festival, of which he was for many 
years conductor; "The Lily of Killarney." 1862, 
his most successful opera, the libretto to which was 
founded upon Boucicault's ■•Colleen Bawn"; an 
operetta, "The Bride of .Song," performed in 1864; 
"Richard Cu'ur de Lion," 1863. and an oratorio, 
"St. Cecilia," 1866, the last two comjiosed for the 
Norwich Festival; ''St. Peter," 1870; and "Grazi- 
ella." 1882. besides symphonies and pianoforte 
nuisic. The recitatives for the Italian version of 
Weber's "Oberon," which was produced at Drury 
Lane in 1865, were also written by Sir Julius, 

Bibliography: Dictinnaru nf Aiiliniial Bingraphu; drove, 
Diotitninni of yitmc^ s.v.; 'Lontioii newspapers, June B, 
l.SHTt; Hervev, Criehrated Musiciitn.-<. 
.1. G. L. 

Sir .luhus Ileiietiii't. 




l>h:i Al 

BENEDICT, MOSES: (Jcrnian banker and art- 
ist ; born in 1772 at Stuttgart. Germany; died there 
July 8, 18.52. He was destined for the profession of 
sculptor. With his brother Seligmaun Li'ib he was 
sent in 1785 to the Karlsschulc in Stuttgart. Later 
on ihe two conducted the banking business of Ben- 
edict Brothers. Moses showed considerable talent 
for art. and as a painter of miniatinvs was jiarticu- 
larly clever. He was an intimate friend of the 
painter Christian Gottlieb Schick, with whom he 
corrispouded for years. 
liMU.Ht<;F:.\pnv : Si'lnn'thim-lir ilinmil,. N"n\ . 1.1, 1865, 

s M. K 



BENEDICT OF YORK; Leading member of 
Ihe Jewish connuiuiity in York, England, at the end 
of Ihe twelfthcentury ; died in 1 18il. Togelherwith 
Jo.sce of Y'ork he attended the coronation of Richard 
I., and in the riot which took place on that occasion 
was forced to submit to baptism, when he took the 
name of "William." Afterw;ird he appealetl to 
the king, who permitted him to return to his 
religion, though this was against the canon laws. 

Benedict, Naphtali 


His doath occurred soon after tliis at Xorthaiiipton 
(Roger de Hovedeii. "Chronica." ed. Stubbs. iii. 14). 
where he was the owner of houses. William of 
Newbury describes Beuedicfs house at York as 
being like unto a royal palace in size and strength 
C Historia," ed. How- 
lett, i. 312). His 
widow and children 
were burnetl alive in 
it during the York 
riot of Easter, USIO. 

Jcireor Atiiji'Vin Knij- 
laml, pp. IW, ll!l. 



(Hebrew. "Berakot"); 
Blessings, or prayers 
of thank.sgiving and 
praise, recited either 
during di\ine service 
or on special occa- 
sions. They were, 
according to rabbin- 
ical triidition (Ber. 
33a), instituted and 
formulated by the 
founders of the syna 
gogue, the "Anslic 
Keneset ha-Gedolali " 
(Men of the Great 
Synagogvie), "the 
hundred and twenty 
elders" at the head 
of the comnionwealtli 
in the time of Ezr;i 
(Meg. ITa: Ycr. Ber. 
ii. 4d; compare Yad 
ha-Hazakah, Tetillah 
u-Birkat Kohaiiim, i. 
4;Ber. i. 5). Thanks 
givings in the form 
of "Baruk Yiiwii " 
(Blessed be the Lord • 
were ociasionally of- 
fered in the time i>r 
the Patriarchs, the 
Judges, and I li e 
Kings (see Gen. x.\iv. 
27: E.\. xviii. 10; 
Ruth iv. 14: I Sam. 

XXV. 32; II &»m. .wiii. 28; I Kings i. 48: 
21; viii. 15, 5(>; I Chron. .\vi. 36; fl Chron. 

nrtytyi mg P rrma t erm paQJ ^ll?!! 

Title-Page of "Meah Berakot." Anisierdani, 1787. 



11, vi. 4) and by the Psalmists (Ps. xxviii. C. xxxi. 
22 [A. V. 21]. and elsewhere): and in the form of 
"Baruk Attali Yiiwii" (Blessed be thou. O Lortl: 
I Chron. xxix. 10; Ps. cxix. 12); also in the prayer 
of Azariah(Song of the Three Holy Children, verse 
3; Tobit iii. 11: viii. .5. ].5: xi. 14)." 

In the time of Ezni public worship was begun 
with the call. "Biireku et Adonay " (Bless ye the 
Lord! Nell. ix. 5). each thanksgiving Ix-ing fol- 
lowed by the congregational response Amkx (Xeb 
viii. 6) or a longer doxology, "Baruk . . . Amen" 
(Ps. xli. 14; Ixxii. 18, 19; cvi. 48). Thenceforth the 
designation "Berakah." or benediction, becaiue the 

standing name for each individual thank.sgiviug 
in the service. Accordingly, the ancient Mishnah. 
R. H. iv. 3, calls the service "Seder Berjikot" 
(Order of Benedictions). Thus eight benedictions 
are mentioned in Yoma vii. 1. which are recited by 

the high priest in the 
Temple service on 
the Day of Atone- 
ment, namely; (l)on 
the Law, (2) the 
Abodah, (3) the 
tliank.sgiving, (4) the 
forgiveness of sin, (5) 
the sanctuary. (6) Is- 
mel, (7) the priestly 
blessing, and (8) the 
closing prayers. 

The recitation of 
the SiiE.MA' every 
morning in the 
Temple was pre- 
ceded by one benedic- 
lion, and followed by 
three benedictions, 
which consisted of 
E.MET we-Y'azlb, the 
AiiODAu, and the 
Priestly Bi.essikg 
(closing with "Sha- 
lom "=peace: Tamid 
iv. 1). In the sj'na- 
gogue the Sliema' is 
precedeil by two 
benedictions, one for 
the light of day: 
"Vozer-Or" (see 
LiTiUGY), closing 
wilh "Blessed be He 
who created the 
lights!" and one for 
the Law: Auabah 
Raubah, ending 
with "Bles-sed be He 
who 1 o v e t h His 
people Israel I " and 
follow(>d by one ben- 
ediction beginning 
w i t h E .M E T w E - 
Yazih and closing 
wiih "Ga'al Yisrael 
"(Blessed be He who 
liath redeemed Israel!), after which the eighteen (or 
seven) benedictions follow. The Shenia' in the eve- 
ning is preceded by the benedictions " Ma'arib 'Ara- 
bim, "concluding with "Bles-Scd be He who bringeth 
on the twilight! " and Ah.ujat ' closing with 
" Bl('s,sed be He who loveth His people Israel!" 
and followed by two benedictions, namely: " Ga'al 
Yisrael," as in the morning, and "Hashkibenu" 
("Grant us peaceful rest in the night !"i. ending 
with "Bles,scd be He who guardeth Israel!" or, on 
Sabbath and holy days, with "Blessed be He who 
sprea<lcth the tabernacle of His peace over Israel!" 
The prayer (Shemoneh 'Eskeh) in the daily ritual 
of the .synagogue consists of eighteen benedictions 
(Ber. 28b); tlie corresponding festival prayer, of 


Benedict, Naphtali 

seven (Tos. R. II. iv. 11); the ouc on fast-days, of 
twenty-four, six special benedictions being added 
to tlie eigliteen of tlie daily praj'er. each being fol- 
lowed by the response "Amen " (Ta'an. ii. 2-5). 

A special benediction was also offered ]>y Ezra be- 
fore the reading from the Book of the Law, the assem- 
bly responding with "Amen! Amen!" (Neh. viii. 
6.) Hence it became the regular practise in both 
the temple and the sj-uagogue to recite a benedic- 
tion before reading the Law, with the introductory 
"Bareku " (Bless ye the Lord), and after the reading 
with the closing formula, "Blessed be He who gave 
the Law," followed by the response " Amen " (Yoma 
vii. 1, p. 69b ; " JIasseket Soferim," xiii, V, cil. Mi'illcr, 
p. 178). The benedictions recited at the reading 
from the Prophets, the Haktakaii, one befon- and 
three or four benedictions after the rcailing on Sab- 
bath and holy days, have the same character. Thcj' 
are thanksgivings for the words of comfort and of 
Messianic hope offered by the prophetic writings 
as interpreted by the Ilaggadah. Originally these 
also were accompanied b)' congregational responses 
("Masseket Soferim," xiii. 9-14, ed. Mi'dler, pp. 181- 
185). Similarly the reading of the Hali^kl Psalms 
on the New Moon and holy days is preceded and 
followed by a benediction; the latter 
TIpon known in Mishnaic time as " Birkat ha- 

Beading Shir" (Benediction of the P.salm, Pes. 
from .\. 7). To the same categorj' belong 
Scripture, the benediction Barik siie-Amar. 
which precedes, and the Yishtabah 
(with or without the Nishmat), which follows, the 
reading of Psalms iu the early morning si^rvice; the 
benediction in each case closing with "Blessed be 
Thou, O Lord, who art extolled by praises! " (Com- 
pare Ps. xxii. 4 |:^] and E.x. xv. 11.) The corre- 
sponding evening benediction " Baruk le 'Olam " ap- 
pears originally to have been also a benediction on 
the Psalms (see S. Baer, " 'Abodat Yisrael." p. 109; 
and Kohler, "The- Psalms and Their Place in the Lit- 
urgy," Graetz College Publications, 1897, i. 31. 

The benedictions recited over the meals are of 
very ancient origin. As early as the Book of Sam- 
uel people would not eat before the blessing liad 
been offered over tlie sacrifice (I Sam. ix. 13). Ac- 
cordingly, the words in Dent. viii. 10, "When thou eaten and art full, thou shalt bless the Lord thy 
God for the good land which He hath given thee.'' 
are referred by the Kabbis to the benediction over 
the meal, to both the grace before the meal and the 
threefold benediction after it (Ber. 31a, 48b; Tos. 
Ber. vii. 1; compare Sibyllines. iv. 2,"); .lo.seijhus. 
"B. J." ii. 8, S 5; Letter "of Aristeas, § 184; Matt. 
xiv. 19, XV. 30, xxvi. 20; Acts xxvii. 35). "Seeing 
thee eat without washing the hands and without 
saying the benediction, I took thee to be a heathen," 
said an innkeeper to his brother Jew (Num. R. xx.). 
"Whosoever eats or drinks or enjoys some pleasure 
of the senses without offering a benediction commits 
a sacrilegious theft against God " (Ber. 35a, b). 

Especially .solenui, accompanied with re- 
sponses in accordance with the number of the par- 
ticipants, is the GiiACii AT jMicai.s, consi-sting of tJu'ec 
benedictions, later increased to four. According to 
Ber. 48b, the first "Ila-zan et ha-kol" (Blessed be 
He who giveth food to all!) was instituted by 

Moses; the second, "Nodeh leka" (closing with 
" Blessed be Thou for the land and for the food! "), 
by Joshua, who led Israel into the land ; 
Before and the third, " Bid.iem na "(closing 
and After with "Blessed be He who rebuihleth 
Meals. [buildeth] .leru.salem "), by King .Solo- 
mon; while the fourth, " Ha-tob we-ha- 
-Metib" (Blessed be He who is good and doeth good!) 
— recited as a rule whenever new wine is served to 
cheer the guests — is ascribed to the rabbis of Jainnia 
in Bar Kokba's time. All meals having had a dis- 
tinctly social rather than a mere domestic character 
in olden times, the benedictions recited at the table 
were accordingly, like those in the synagogue, in- 
troduced by an exhcntatory call, "Zimmun," and 
accompanied by responses (Ber. vii. 1, 2; Geiger, 
"Urschrift," p. 123; Kohler. /.-■. pp. 34, 35). 

Gladdening wine as a social element served on 
such occasions gave rise to benedictions connected 
with the Sabbath and the fe.-ilival meals, the KiD- 
iitsii (the sanctiticaticm of the day, Mek., Yitro, 
vii.; Pes. 106a) an<l HAnnAt.Aii ("the leave-taking 
from the holy day "), which formed originally the 
conclusion of the Sabbath meal (IJer. viii. 1 ; Geiger. 
"Zeitschr." vi. llti); the Passover Seder (Pes. x. 6); 
also to a benediction now no longer in use at the new- 
moon meal ("Mas. Soferim," xix. 9); to the seven 
benedictions recited at marriage festivities (Ket. 7b; 
compare Tobit viii. 6-17). which lasted a full week 
ortwo; the benedictionsatciicumcision (Shab. 137b; 
Tosef., Ber. vii. 12, 13); and the benedictions at the 
mourners' meal, which were still in use in Euroi)e in 
the eleventh century (" Ma.s. Sof<'rim," xix. 11, ed. 
Midler, p. 276; Ber. 46b; Seinahof xii., xiv.; "Sid 
dur Rab Anuam," i. .55; iNIahzor Vilry, No. 348). 
Every new enjoyment offered at the festal table, such 
as various kinds of fruits, or perfumes, gave rise to 
another benediction (Ber. vi. viii.; Tos. Ber. vi.). 
"To God belongs the earth and all its produce, ac- 
cording to Ps. xxiv. 1 ; but when consecrated by a 
benediction it becomes man's privilege to enjoy it, 
according to Ps. cxv. IB," says K. Levi (Ber. ijGa). 

Besides these three forms of benediction, a fourth, 
bearing a more per.sonal character, came into tisc 
in ancient times — a thanksgiving for the manifes- 
tation of divine goodness experienced in one's life. 
The one lumdred and seventh Psalm has been cor- 
rectly understood by rabbinical tiadition to refer ti> 
four different kinds of thanksgiving for benelits re- 
ceived from God ; (1) for escaping the dangers of a 
journey through the desert (verses 4-9) ; or (2) being 
rescued from jirison (10-16); or (3) recovering from 
a grave illness (17-22); or (4) having gone .safely 
through the perils of a sea voyage. .Ml who have 
undergone^ any of tln'se experiences are bidden to 
offer loud thanksgiving to the Lord in the midst of 
worshiping assendilies. Out of this developed the 
"Birkat ha-Gomel" (Bh'ssed be the 
Thanks- Lord, who bestoweth l)enefits upon 
giving for the undeserving), the benediction re- 
Personal cited by men m ho are calU'd uj) to the 
Benefits. Law the first time I hey appear in the 
synagogue after deliverance from dan 
ger; the congregation responding: "May He who 
hath bestowed all good tipon thee, further bestow 
good unto thee! Amen." As a matter of course. 




each niiraculims csciipc or iitlifi- joyous I'xpcrifiiic 
gave rise to anolhcr ln-iiodiclion. In fact, iiiaiiv 
Psalms are the outpouringof such thanksgiving (Ps. 
xxii. 26 [A. V. 25], xl. 11 [A. Y. 10], ciii. 1-5). 
Y'ct not only experiences of joy. hut also severe 
trials, prompted the sjiints ti> otl'er thanksgiving, a-; 
in the case of Job. "The Lord gave, and the Lonl 
hath taken awav: lilessed lie the name of the Lord" 
(.lob i. 21). 

Every manifestation of divine proleition and la-lp 
became an opiiortunity for tlie pious Israelite to 
offer up thanksgiving in the usual form of a bene- 
diction; thus, after the victory over Nicanor the 
people exclaimed: "Blessed be He who hath kept 
His holy place undetiled " (II Mace. xv. 34). A 
similar benediction is given: " Blessed be Thou, the 
truthful Judge who disclosest the things hidden " 
(/*. xii. 41). Not only did the experience of mirac- 
ulous help from I'rovidence give an opjiorl unity for 
thanksgiving, as when Jetliro exclaimed. "Blessed 
be the Lord, who hath delivered you out of the baud 
of the Egyptian" (Ex. xviii. 1(1; Ber. 54a). but the 
very season or i)lace which lecalled the wondrous 
event to the memory of the people or of the indi- 
vidual gave rise to !i liene<liclion : "Blessed beThdu 
who wroughtest a miracle unto me." or "unto our 
fathers of old." There is an instriKtive passage in 
the Book of Enoch: " Each time Enoch beheld some 
of the wonders of nature, he blessed the Lord of 
Glory, who had made great ami glorious wonders 
to show the greatness of His work to the angels and 
the souls of men. that they might praise His work 
and all Ilis creation . . . and bless Ilini for ever. " 
Obviously, at the time Enocli was written, the Hasi- 
dim had already made it a custom to 
Develop- s;iy a benediction at the sight of every 

ment of great jdienomenoii of nature, " 'Oseh 
Bene- ma'aseh Bereshit " (Blessed be the 

dictions. Worker of Creation) (Ber. 54a: com 
pare Ben Sira [Eeclus.] xliii. 11. "Look 
upon the rainbow and praise Him that made it "). 

In the course of time all these benedictions as- 
sumed a stereoty|)ed form; and the ride is given by 
Kab that, to be regaided as a regular benediction 
(Ber. 40b), every benediction must t'ontain the name 
of God, and by K. Johauan that it must contain the 
attiibute of God's kingship. It was always the 
Nam<! that called forlh tla- response, since the verse 
Peut. xxxii. 3 (Hebr. ). "When I call upon the name 
of the Lord, ascribe ye greatness imto our God." 
was interpreted in this sense by the Habbis(see Sifre. 
Dcut. 30fi). In view of this response in the syna- 
gogue, "Amen": in the Templi'. "Baruk Adonaj- " 
(Blessed be the Lord the God of Israel from everlast- 
ing to everlasting), particvdar stress was always laid 
upon the closing formula ("liotcm berakot") (Misli 
nail Ber. ix. 5; Ta'anit ii. 3; To.sef.. Ber. vii. 21. 22: 
Tosef., Ta'anit i. 10-13): whereas full freedom as to 
the form of the main br'nediction was granted to the 
individual who oll'ercd the jirayer or praise. It has 
been suggested that I'salms. such as exxxvi.. cxlvii., 
cxiviii., or oilier Biblical verses, originally formed 
the basis of each benediction (si'c Isidore Loeb. " Li- 
terature des Pauvres," p. 1.58: Mi'iller. " JIasseket So- 
ferim," p. 228; Kohler. I.r. pp. 32-34). A specimen 
in the Airocryphon to an old beuediction witli choral 

response is given in the Song of the Three Children 
( verses 29-34, 39-67). Out of the recitative benedic- 
tions spoken in a.s.semblies. as seen in the prevalent 
use of the plural, developed at a much later stage the 
solitary prayer without the element of responses 
(Ber. viii. 8). which had previously been essential. 

Great importance was laid, however, on the exact 
Iraditioiial form of the various benedictions. Only 
a recognized scholar ("Talmid hakam ") was pre- 
sumed to know them to a reliable degree; whereas who comjiiled them for common use were, in 
Mishnaic time, regarded with susiiicion. "Those 
who write down the benedictions are equal in mis- 
chief doing to such as burn the Law " — ostensibly 
because they infringed the rights of those authorized 
to olTer the benediction (.see Tosef., Ber. i. 8; Sliab. 
xiii. [xix.] 4 ; Ber. 38a. 50a; Shab. 115b). Neverthe- 
less it was from sucli wiitten collections of benedic- 
lions that compilations like those enumerated iu 
^lislinah Berakot ix.. Ta'anit ii.. Tosef.. Ber. vii., 
and elsewhere were made. At any rate, by the 
second century they were already fixed as to form 
and number, since R. Me'ir declares it to be the duty 
of every one to say one hundred beuedictions daily 
(!\Ieii. 43b); and U. Yose says: "He who alters the 
f(irm of benedictions fixed by the wise has failed to 
fultil his obligations" (Ber. 40b; Yer. 
One Ber. vi. 2. lOb). According to Num. 

Hundred K. xviii. (compare Tan., Korah, ed. 
Bene- Vienna, 1853), it was King David who 

dictions instituted the one hundred daily bene- 

Daily. dictions. These hundred benedictions 

re((uircd dail)' by R. Me'ir are shown 

l)y Abudrahini in gate iii. ("Birkat ha-Mizwah ") of 

his commeutary to correspond with the beiudic- 

tions given in the daily prayers. 

JIaimonides (Yad ha-IIa/akah, Berakot. i. 4) di- 
vides the benedictions into three classes: (1) for en- 
joyments; (2) for the privilege of the performance 
of a religious duty ; and (3) forms of liturgical thanks- 
giving and praise. Abudrahim. in Hi I kot Berakot, 
divides them into four classes: (1) such as are com- 
prised in the daily ])r.ayer; (2) such as precede the 
jii'rformance of religious duties; (3) such as are of- 
fered for enjoyments; and (4) such as are offered on 
special occasions of thanksgiving and praise. 

The following is a list of benedictions prescribed 
in the Talmud and adopted in the liturgy; each of 
them licginning with the formula " Blessed art Thou, 
O Lord, our God, King of the Universe!'" 

fl> tJt'ft)rf ivtirinir to rest at nijrlit : "... whn makes tJie 
l)auds of sleep full iipou mine eves ami sluinbe'' upon mine eye- 
lids. May it be Thy will, (i Lord, to make me lie down in ^teaee 
and rise up u^ain in peiiee. Let not my thought.s nor evil 
dreams nor evil Imaginations trouble me. but let my bed he 
spotless before Tbee, and yive lifTht apain to mine eyes lest I 
sleep tbe sleep of death" il's. Niii. 4 fA.V.:!]i; " for it is Tliou 
who ffivest light to the apple of the eye " ( Ps. xvii. 8). " Blessed 
art Thou who givest light to the whole world with Thy glory " 
(lier. HOh). ■ 

I") In the morninp. before reeitinsr any l)enedietion, one has 
to wasli the hands and say; "... who hast .sanctified us by 
Thy eonnnandments and enjoined us to wa-sh the hands" 
("Netilat Vadayim," "lifting up the hands"); compare Targ. 
to I's.'e.xxxiv. a (lier. ."kSb). 

Ctt After the perfonnan<'e of the functions of the Itody: 
"... who has formed man in wisdom and created many t>ri- 
Ilces and vessels, upon the opening or closing of which life 
depends." "... Iwho healest all tlesh audi who hast made 
man wondrously " latter I's. c.\.\.\i.\. Id. 




(4) After awiikenjnfr from the niM'lJt's sleep (wliich wns w- 

parded as the returninjr of the soul to the body) sonierahbis 

pie.'^criltr tlie lienediitiiiii : " . . . who revi- 

Moruing: vest tlie iti-ad " i Ver. llei-. iv. :•. Td*; hut the 
Bene- Uniu (■oiiinumlv adoiiied is: "My Lord, the 

dictions. soul whieh Thou hast driven lue is pure. Thou 
hast created ami formed it. and Thou ilidsl 
hreathf it iuto nie and preservest it withiu me :ind wilt one (lji> 
tiike it from rnc and restore it unto me ln'reafter. So Uiuu a.s 
the soul is within me, 1 will jrive thanks unto Thee, o Lord my 
(ii>d. Sovereign of all works. Lord of all souls, . . . who i-estur- 
e>t the souls unto dead bodies." 

'"ii On heariuM' the cock crow, one says: "... who hast 
Kiven the cock intelligence to distinifuish between <)ay and 
'-liirhl/'' (Job xxxviii. :Mi). Compare " Apost. ("(mst." viii. ;i4. 

d») (In openintr the eyes In the morninjJT : "... whr>npenest 
the eyes of the blind " (after I's.exlvi. iS). 

movni)^ on 
I I's. cxlvi. 7). 
. who clothesl 

'7i When sittiufT up and 
loosest them that are bound " 

(X) When divssintr: " . . 
rxlvi. SI. 

liti When standintr erei-i : 
:ire down " (compart* 
mer, p. 77;. When slttinir U| 
I'.w" tih.). 

'lOt When steppinp: up"n tlu- yn)und : 



Ihi* naked" (IS 

' . . . who raises! up those that 
llalakni (iedolot," ed. Hildesliei- 
" Who liftesl up thosi- that are 

who spreadi'st 

IPs. cxxxvi. ti). 

who hast made llrn 

\\ ho hath supplied me 

who ifird- 

forth the earth above the waters' 

'111 On steppi?!}? forth t^i walk 
Ilie steps of man " (Ps. xxxvii. 'ZU 

' l~l When puttUiiJ on shoes: " 
with every want." 

ii;i) When irirding the bell alnnd oneself: 
est Israel with might " Uer. xiii. II ; Ps. xlv. 7). 

(14 1 When putting on a head-coveiiniE: : "... who erownesl 
Israel with glory" (Isa. Ixi. lU; "ind = "glory," name ftu- 

"The following alternative is not found in the Talmud, and is 
disallowed in Shuihan *Aruk. orah Hayyim, xlvi. (»: "... 
who givest strength to the weary.") 

(!')) When washing the face: "... who i-eniovest sleep 
from ndne eyes and slumber fi'om nune eyelids." 

Here follows a prayer foi- a da> free fnmi sin ami temptation 
an<l grated by favor of (iod and nian. whirh closes thus: "... 
who bestowest Uning-kiMdness " (late addition. *" upon Thy 
peo[»le Israel "). 

'It'M Every one must offer three biMiedictions daily, namel> : 
"... who hast made me an Israelite (<ii' who hast not maile 
iiir a lieathem"; "... who hast not made nie a woman"; 
"... who not made me a slave |or a boor]" (T'wef.. 
Ber. vii. IH; Yer. Ber. ix. :.', p. Kib; Men. 4:!b; " Halakot (Jedo- 
lot/'p,?". Persian and Creek parallels aiv given by Joel, " Blicke 
indie Religionsgeschiciite." i. Hit; Kautmann. "Monatsschrift," 
pii. 14-lH). For Woman the benediction is substituted: "... 
who hast made nie accoiiiing to Thy will." 

Ttie following benediction adopted in the I'rayer-Book is. ae- 
conling to Yer. Ber. ix. 2, ]iieserved in full in Yalkut, Wa'etha- 
nan, KJti, offered by the angels at the time when the Shema" is 
ret-ited by Isniel : "Tlum wast one ere the world was created; 
Thou hast been the same sim-e the world hath been created. 
Thou art the same in this world and tin- same in the world to 
is!i;i, come. Sanctify Thy iiiuiie through those that sanctify it, 
. . . who sanctiUest Thy name among the multitudes." 

'17l Before and after the reading <pf the I*salms in the inorn- 
fng service: Bari'K siik-Amai: and Yisiitaiih.vh. 

lis, 1*1) llefoii' reading Shema' in the morning, " Yozer Or" 

ail'l AllAHAH Uaukah. 

'~tii After Shema', Emkt \vk-Va/.iii. 

C'l-^Rh The " Wmidah." seven <oi- cigbtei-n, increased latei- 
oil to nineteeni, benedictions, consisting of three principal 
lieriediclions of pi-aise at the i)egiiuilng. three at the close, and 
twelve or thirteen ion week-ilays; on Sal)baih and holy days 
only one) inserted in the middle (see Siikmoxk 'KstiKI. In 
case of need one benediction. HAHtNKNir. containing the con- 
Innts of the twelve, is olTered as substitute for week-days also 
nier. ^la). 

140) Before the reading from the Law two dilTerent bene- 
dii'tions were in use in the third century, and both have been 
adopted in the Prayer-Book ; one bi-ginning. " . . . who teach- 
esl the Law txi Thy people Israel." and emling with. " . . . who 
liiu-it commanded us to occupy oui-selves with the words of the 
Law " : the other. "... who hast chosen us from all peoples 
and hast given us Thy Law." and closing with, "... who 
gayest the Law." After the reading; "... who given 
us tbe Law of trutli and hast planted everUisting life in our 

midst"; and closing with, "... who gavesi the Law" (see 
Ber. lib: "Massekei Soferim," xiii. S). 

(41) The benediction "Hashkibenu" in the evening prayer 
has been mentioned above; this is followed on week-days liy : 

(4:ii " Baruk .\douay le-*Olain," Psalm verses corresponding to 
the "Baruk she-Amar," which are concluded with the bene- 
diction referring to the Messianic kingdom : " . . . the King 
who will reign forever and aye over all His creatures." 

(4:{) Before and after the recitiiiion of Hai.lki, a.s mentioned 

(44) "Miisaf" consists of .seven lienedictions. with the excep- 
tion of that of New- Year, which has three mon-. 

(4o) The benedictions before and after the Haktakah, men- 
tioned above. 

(4(») To the same category a.s the preceding belong the bene- 
diction i)efore aufi that after the recitation of the Megillah or 
scroll of the Book of Esther <»n Puriin (Meg. :ilb). 

i47t The benediction t»ver the reading of the four scrolls 
Canticles, on Passover: Rnth. on Shabu'ot; Ecclesia.sies, on 
Sukkot ; and Lamentutions, on the Ninth of Ah, mentioned in 
"Mas-seket Sofeiim," xiv. ;J. has fallen into disuse, as has also 
the bcncdiciion over the reading of the Hag4<igrapha (i7i. 4). 

(4S, p.)( (m puttincron the udlit andthe teilllin (tn the arm and 
the forelH-ad respectively (Ber. tajb ; Yer. Ber. ix. :.', Ua : T(»sef.. 
Ber. vii. 10; and Men. '.itiii, 42bt. 

(511) Benediction for the Aaronites when they olfi-r the priestly 
benediction (Sotah 'i'.hi). 

<.'di on kindling the lights on Sabbath and festival eve 
("Vaii," shabbat, v. 1: Hagahot Maimuni referring to Yer. 
Ber. ix.i; see Bl.KssiNc, Pkiksti.v. 

(.'i:*) (»n kindling the Hanukkah lights. Willi the additional 
benediction: "... who done wundei-s to our fathers in 
ilays of old at this season " (Shab. 'JHnK 

t-W, 54) KlPPl^sM and Habkalaii, q.v. 

(5.'>-4J2) (in alllxing a Mk/.tzah to a diKtrptist: "... who 
hast sanctitted us by Thy commandnienls and enjoined us to 
a nix the Mezuzah." Similarly, on imililing the l>att]ement for 
the roof prescribed in iJeiit. xxii. M; on the consecniti<m of the 
Hai.lah. or Teruimdi ; on the 'F;iu"B; at the performance of 
the ritual slaughtering, and the covering of the blood, special 
blessings are said, as also at the removal of the leavened bread 
before Passover and the eating of the 'M\'/.y..\n ; at the cotniting 
of the days of 'OMKK : ai the inepiiration for and IIinI entering 
into the StrKKAii ; on the blowing of tlie suofakou New-Year'a 
[>ay; at the performance of the rite of ablution of peiNons and 
vessels (Yer. Ber. ix. 2. p. 14a: Tosef., Ber. vii. 9-10; " Yad," 
Berakot, xi.; Baer's Prayer-Book. pp. rj7()-o71; Ber. 5Ia). 

Mwt. (U) On betrothai and marriage, see Bkthothai. and 


(t>5) on circumcision, see riKcvMcisioN. 

((»»>) On redeeming the Hi-st-born, see Pidvon 11a*Ben. 

(117) over the mourners' nieal (Ket. Sb).see Ft'NKRAi, UiTKS. 

(fiH) On the arrival of a new season, or of any j«)yous event in 
erne's life : " . . . who hast kept us in life and pivservetl us and 
permitted us to reach this season." 
Thanks- (09) Blessing over the bread; "... who 

g-iving- for hast brought forth bread from the earth" 
Bnjoyments. (Ber. vi. I, -iSu, after Ps. civ. 14). 

(7(1) Over the wine : " . . . who hast created 
the fruit of the vine" (Ber. vi. 1). 

()li over food other than breail prepared of thuir : " . . . who 
hast created various kinds t)f food " (Ber. 'Mb). 

(7^) (bleating fruit which grows on trees : "... who hast 
created the fruit of the tree " (Ber. vi. I). 

(7:{) On eating fruit which grows on the ground : "... who created the fruit of the gr<nind " (Ber. vi. I). 

(74) After having Onished the meal, see (Jkack AFTKK MKAL. 

(7.'>) A benediction <'ontaining in abridged form three of the 
n.sual gnu-es after meals, after having eaten such fruits as the 
Holy Land is especially blessed with, such as grapes, dates, flgs, 
ami pomegranates, or after having taken wine or partaken of 
other food than bread. 

(7(>t i)n eating food that does not grow on the ground, or drink- 
ing water, or other liijuor: "... by whose word all things 
have been maile to exist" (Ber. vi. 3). 

(77) After partjiking of any of these, or of fruit: "... who 
hast created beings and what they need. For all that Thou created to stistain therewith the life of each living being, 
blessed be He who livest forever " ( Ber. vi. S ; Tos. Iv. Ki ; ae- 
cording Ut It. Tarfon, before the eating. Yer. Bei-. lOb). In 
Yer. Ber. I.e., anil Tosef. Ber. iv. 4 other benedictions over spe- 
cial kinds of food are given ; but these were not a<lopted by tlie 

(7H) On smelling: "Blessed art Thoii who created fra- 




(mint wixKls," ■■ fnijirniiil spUfs," anil "ti'Ufrraut oils," '■uiliir- 
ous plants," and "Oilonms fniilii'' (Ber. -tibK 

(79) On seeing IlKhtiiim;, falling stars, lofty mountains, Kreal 
deserts (also the sun at the iH'pinninj; of a new lycle of twenty- 
eight years!, or the sky in all its beauty: 
Upon Seeing "... who hast made Creation" (Ber. Ix. 2: 

Natural Tosef., Ber. yii. 6 : Her. iiiUii. 
Phenomena. iSU) on hearinir thunder, or wllnessing an 
earilK|Uake or hurrieane: "... whose mipht 
and power nil the worhl " (Her. i.t. ~'i. 

(81) At the sight of the sea : " . . . who hast made the great 
sea" (ift.). 

(S3) On swing blossoms hudding for Ihe tlr^t Inue in the 
spring: "... who nuide Th\ world lucking in naught, 
but hast pi\)dured goodly cn-atures and goodly Ir-es wherewith 
to give delight to the ehildivii of men " (Her. 4;!h: li. H. 11a). 

(S}) On seeing beautiful persons, trees, or animals: "... who 
hast such as these in the wiprld" iBer. .">8b: Tosef., Ber. vii. 4). 

(»tl On seeing strangely formed lieings such as giants and 
dwarfs, or elephants and apes : " . . . who variest the totms of 
Thy creatures" (Ber. (.c; Tos. vii. 5). 

(tVi) On seeing persons stricken with blindness, lameness, or 
loathsome diseases, or holy places in a state of desolation, or on 
bearing evil tidings : "... the true Judge " (Ber. Ix. 3 
and I.e.). 

(8ti) On hearing good tidings or witnessing joy: "... who 
art good and dispeusest good " (Ber. I.e.). 

(H7) On seeing the rainbow : " . . . who rememberest the 
covenant, art faithful to Thy covenant, and keepest Thy prom- 
ise " (Tosef., Ber. vii. ■"» : a composite prayer, see Ber. 59b) . 

(88) On seeing holy places restored after long desolation,: 
"... who reestablishest the border of the widow " (Ber. 58b, 
after Prov. xv. 3.^1 . 

(89) On seeing a friend after a year's separation : " . . . who 
revivest the dead" (Her. ">8b ; compare Pirke U. F.I. xxxi.). 
When restored from a dangerous sickness: "... Blessed b*' 

tile Meiiiful who gave Thee back to us and 
On Seeing not to the earth " (Ber. .Mb). 
RemarkalDle (9(b On seeing a scholar or sage of dislinc- 
Fersous. tion : " . . . who hast imparted iif Thy wis- 
d<Mu to Oesh and Idood " (tVi.i. 

(91) On seeing a king or ruler of a country : " . . . who hast 
imparted of Thy glory to and blood " (ib.). 

(92) On seeing the myriads of Israel gathered tugether: 
" Blessed be He who knowest the secret thoughts of all these " 
(Ber. (.c). 

(9:}) After having esi-aped perils, see (ioMKt. Be.N'siien. 

(94) On entering a burial-ground : " Blessed be the Lord who 
bath formeii you in judgment, and nourished and sustained you 
in judgment, and hath brought death on you in judgment. He 
knoweth themmiberof you in judgment and will hereafter r(>- 
store you to life in judgment. . . . who revivest the dead " 
(Ber. .5Shl. 

(9.5) On seeing a place where a nnnicle happened to Israel of 
old : " . . . who hast performed miracles for our fathers at 
this place " (Ber. Ix. 1). 

(91!) On seeing a place from which idolatrous imictises have 
been remned : "... who bast removed iilolatry from this 
place" (i7).i. On seeing a place where Idolatry is practised: 
"... who showest long-suffering to those who transgress Thy 
will" (Ber. .5Tb). 

(i)7) On the appearance of the new mfxm, see Nkw Moo.\. 

BlBLioiSRAPiiY : Sifer Almilrahiiii : Maimonides, Yad lia-lln- 
ziikali. Jlirdhiit; Baer, 'Abodnt Yi.trael; S. Singer, yjiii()/ 
I'raiicr-Hnnli. pp. 387-393: Landshnth, //fj/j/oii icli; M. 
Bloch. ItiatitiitioiiiH il<s ,Tuih)ilhuins,V<<i; I. H. Weis.«. in 
Kobak's Jiselnirun, 18(i4, ii. part 1, pp. :jT-44. 
A. K 

surj;i'(iii ;it SiiriiKiiii, Dtili li (Iiiijitni, ahnut 188(1. 
Notliiiii; is UiKiwiiof his life nor <if his lilciury activ- 
ity other tliaii tlichaiv fait tliat he imtilishedat Para- 
maribo in ls:i() ( y) a tract (Icscribing tlic o])eratinii 
i)f circuimisiiin, tDirelher with a series of (|Ueslioiis 
iiiiil answers for use in e.xainining ojuiditlates for 
the office of mohel. The liook is extremely nirc. 
The Hebrew i|iiot;ilions oreiirriiig in tin- tt'.xt are 
filled ill l)y tlic aiilhiir in liis own writing, as tliere 
was probably no Hebrew type to be liad in Pani 
maribo at tliat time. Tlie title of tlie book is 

"E-\ameu voor den Nieiiw aan te Neraen MoBl of 
Besuijder der IsiaOl. Kinderen. Hierbij Gedeellc- 
lijk hel Manneli.jk lid Oiitleed, ook Leersaine Be- 
schrijving der Besnijdenis eu Circitui Ciaione Openx- 
tie ... in Vragen en Aiitwoorden." 

Biui.ioiiRAPnv: M. Roest, "'2D^ ^'2, p. 202, n. 3S01, Amster- 
ilam, IsiiS; (i. A. Koluit, in I'lililieatinns nf the AinerUnii 
Jt trisli IIi.-<tnrieitt Sneitiii. iii. l:il, iv. 7. 

c. G. A. K. 

BENEDIKT, EDMUND: Austrian jurist: 
born at Dobliug, near Vieiiiui, Oet. 6, IH.')!. He 
studied law at the University of Vienna, and after 
graduation became the [mblishcr of the ".Iiiri.stische 
Blatter." In addilion to his editorial labore he wrote: 
"Reform des hichadenicelits bei Ehrenbeleidignii- 
gen,'' 1885; "Reformation der Konknrsordniing." 
1887: "Eintliissdcs Schwtii-genclils anf ihis Materi- 
elle Strafreeht," 1888: and " Bemerkimgen i'lber das 
Urheberreeht midden Gesetzeutwiirf der Oesterrci- 
chischeu Regiening," 1893. 

BiBLiouKAPny : Kiirschner. Z)i(((.sc/t(r Litrrattfr-Kalen(i4't\ 
1898. p. 75: liKll. p. 78. 

E. Ms. 

BENEDIKT, MORITZ : (ii riiian, 
publisher, and editor of the Vienna "Neiic Freit? 
Presse " ; born at Gnatscliitz, Moravia, May 27. 1849. 
On attaining his majoiity he chose jonrnalisin as a 
profession, eoutiibiitiug with considerable success 
to vaiiims dailies and jieriodicals in Germany. In 
1873 he joined Ihe start of the "Xeiie Freie Presse," 
becoming editor of the economic .section in 1879. The 
two years following he devoted to the publication 
of ;{ series of articles on ecnnomic, commercial, and 
financial subjects, which articles attracted consider 
able attention. In 1880 he l)ecame chief editor. 

Bim.IoiiKAPIIV: /)(!.< f;(i»(i|;c )I'i< II, p. 27 : Kohut, Bil-W)iili»r 

Israelitischc Miitniir timi Frauen. xii. p. i:j9: Kfirschner, 
Deutiieher Lit. KaietHl(tt\ p. 78. 

s, E. Ms. 

BENEDIKT, MORIZ : Austrian neurologist; 
born ;ii Eisenstadt. Hungary. July 6, 1835. Upon 
his graduation from the University of Vienna, 
where he hail jirepai-ed 
liim.self for his iiro- 
fcssional career under 
Ilyrtl. Briicke. Skoda. 
Oppol/er, Aril, and 
Rokitaiisky, he re 
ceived, in 1850, tin- 
degree of doctor ol 
meilicine and surgery 
and immediately eti 
listed in the Austrian 
army — the war then 
going on with Pittnci' 
and Italy demanding 
the services of stirgeon 
volunteers. .\t the of the ctimpaign that was so disastrous to 
.\ustria, Benedikt was sippointed privat-docent at 
the University of Vienna, first delivering lectures 
on electrotheraiieiitiis and litter iidding a course on 

In the mean lime, in I86(!. .Vuslria became in- 
volved in another war, this time with Prus.sia and 
Italy, and Benedikt again volunteered his services 
to tlie iirmy. At the conclusion of tliat short but 

Mori/ Bftitnlikt. 




bloody contest wliieh resulted in the establishment 
of the dual stale of Austria-Hungary, Benedikt, 
who took an active part in llie reorganization of the 
Democratic part}' in C'isleithania (that is, Austria as 
distinct from Hungar}'), was, in istis, offered a chair 
of neurology at the University of Vienna. He has 
remained in that position to the present time, serving 
also as chief of one of the departments of the poli- 
clinic of the Austrian metropolis. 

The greater part of Benedikt's professional work 
appertains undoubtedly to the domains of neurop- 
athy and electrotherapeutics, but while his inves- 
tigations in tliis special field form an imjiortant ad- 
dition to the progress of medicine, and would alone 
entitle him to a prominent position iu the medical 
world, they in no waj' overshadow his researches in 
other lines, esjiecially his important 
A Pioneer psychological and anthropological 
Crim- studii^s with regard to criminals. In- 
inolog'ist. deed, it may be said that he is one of 
the pioneers of modern criminology, 
which seeks to base its tlieories directly on anthro- 
pological and psychological data. 

Among his contributions to the .study and treat- 
ment of nervous diseases the following deserve first 
mention: "Electrolherapie." Vienna, 1868; and 
"Nervenpathologie und Electrotherapie," Leijisie, 
1874-75 — two treatises embodying the lectures de- 
livered by Benedikt at the University of Vienna. 
In the field of psychology, both normal and jjatho- 
logical, two works from his pen have met with 
marked .success: nameh', "Seelenkunde des Meii- 
schen" (also translated into Polish) and "Hypno- 
tismus und Suggestion " (also iu Italian). 

Among his anthropological studies dealing for the 
greater part with craniometrio and cranioscopic in- 
vestigations, especially with regard to criminals, 
may he mentioned " Kraniometrie und Kephulo- 
metrie " (also in French). Another important con- 
tribution to modern criminology — namely, his 
"Anatomische Studien an Verlirechergehiruen." 
Vienna, 1870 — has been trau.slated into English un- 
der the title "Stu<lles on the Brains of Criminals." 

Besides the above-named larger works, Benedikt 
has contributed a great number of important pa- 
pers on anthropolog}' ; on normal. 
Wide comparative, and pathological anat- 
Range of omy ; on physiology and neurology ; 
Con- on normal, pathological, and criminal 

tributions. psychology ; on ophthalmology and 
otiatrics. Among these contrilnitions, 
scattered throughout various periodical publica- 
tions, the following are noteworthy: 

"Experimentelle Studien iiber die Wirkung von 
Jod, etc., auf's Nervensystem." in " .lahrbucji der 
Gesellschaft der Aerzte," Vicuna, 1801; "Beitriige 
zur Neuropathologischeu Casuistik," iu "Deutsehes 
Archiv filr Klinische Mediciu," i.v. and xiii. : "Zur 
Pathologischen Auatoniie der,"' in " Virchow's 
Archiv," Ixiv.. Ixxii. (and in the "Wiener Medic. 
Presse," 1874); "Ueber die Innervation des Plex. 
Choroid. Inf.," ih., lix. ; "Zur Lehre der Ent- 
zlindlichen Kernwucherung." in "Centrall)l. fiir 
Medic. Wissensch.," 1874; " Zur Lehre des Raubthier- 
typus am Menschlichen Gehirne," ih. 1876; "Der 
Hinterhauptstypus der Saugethiere," ib. 1877; 

"Zur Frage des Vierwindungstypus," ib. 1880; 
" Ueber Lymphorrhagie in Granulardesintegra- 
tion," in " Mittheilungen des Aerztlichen Vereins." 
Vienna. 1874; "Ueber Katalep.sie und Mesmeris- 
mus," in "Wiener Klinik," 188tJ; "Zur Lehre von der 
Localisiition der Gehirnfnnctionen," rt. 1883; "Die 
Elektricitiit iu der Mediciu," (V<. 1884; ireber Einige 
Grundformeln des Neuropathologischen Denkens." 
ib. 1886, A number of important papers, which 
have appeared in the pages of the " Wiener iMedi<-. 
Piesse," between the years 1869 and 1882, deal with 
neuropathic cases observed by Benedikt. and with 
electrotherapeutic methods, either 
Ophthal- demonstrated or invcnte<I by him. 
mology, Among his contributions to ophthal- 
Otiatrics, niology and otiatrics should be men- 
Physics, tioned: "Studien uber xVugeumus- 
kellilbmungeu," in "Griife's Archiv," 
vol. X.; " Der Daltonismus bei Sehnervenatrophie," 
ib.\ "Die Theorie der Neurotinotis." in "Pester 
Medic. Presse." 1867; "Horuerven." in "Wiener 
Medic. Presse," 1870. 

Benedikt has also labored in the field of pure 
physics, and among the many papers that have 
appeared over his name in the " Sitzungsberichte 
der Wiener K. K. Akademie der Wissenschaften " 
for 18.57 are : " Ueber die Aenderung des Magnetis- 
mus Durch Reibungselectricitiit " and "Ueber die 
Abhangigkeit des Electrischen Leitungswider- 
standes von der Gro.sse und Datior des Stromcs." 
In the second of these papers the author announces, 
for the first time, the fact discovered by him, that 
the resistance of a conductor is affected by the cur- 
rent itself. 

In the midst of his various professional duties and 
extensive scientific research, Benedikt found time to 
write on social and political questions of the day, 
and on moral philo.sophy aud esthetics — his arti- 
cles appearing in French. Italian, and English, as 
well as in German. At the beginning 
Politics, of his professional career Benedikt 
Ethics, devoted himself to the study of mod- 
Literatui-e. ern literature, and his first published 
work was one on dramatic art in Aus- 
tria, written while he was still a medical student 
at the university, entitled "Studien iiber Oestcr 
reichische Dranuitische Dichter," Vieiuia, 1854. 
Benedikt is a champion of woman's rights, and was 
the first male president of the Vereiu fiir Erwei- 
tcrte Frauenbildung in Vienna. His valuable pro- 
fessional services have been recognized by different 
governments as well as by numerous scientific 
bodies. A recipient of the degree of LL. D. (IioudHh 
causa) from several iirominent universities, he has 
also been decorated with various orders and crosses. 
He is corresponding member of the academies of 
medicine of Paris and of Pome, and member of a 
great many medical and .scientific societies in Europe 
and the United States. 

BiBLioORAPHY: Binqrfiphi.'*ch€''* Ijfxihon iln- He rrnrra^jen- 
iien Aerzte Aller Zeiten und Volker, ciiiii'd »)v Wfrnich and 
Hirsch, Vienna and Leipslc,»t8; Ludwje EisiMilierg, In 
Daji GeMi'ie IVien, Vienna. 1.^9:j ; and privule sutures, 
s. A. S. C. 

BENEDIKT, RTTDOIiPH: Austrian chemist; 
born at Dijbliiig .July 12. 1853; died in Vienna Feb. 
6, 1896. He was ediicated at the Polytechnic (High 




School) of Vieuiui, wIuti' iu IST'J he was appoiiiti'il 
ail assistant leeturiTof tecliuical clu'iuisliy. lu 187l> 
lie was nominated to a similar post iu connection 
with the studies in analytical cheniistrv, and in 1890 
was appointed full professor. His principal work 
is "Pie KUnstlichen Farbstolfe." 1883. Among his 
articles in technical journals are: " I'eher Salze und 
Borsiiure," in " Vortrag. Getreben in der Deut.schen 
Chemischen Gesellschaft." Berlin, 1874; and " Ilalo- 
genderivate ■' in "Sit/.ung-Berieht der Kais. Akade- 
mie der Wisscnseliaften," Vienna, 1884. 

Bibhooraphy: Pucirenilcirf. Bhui-Lit. Hiiiidw<iilii))tuh. 
1898, Hi. 11)7. 
s. E. .Ms. 

CUS BENEDICT): Talinudisl and chiL-f rabbi 
of Monivia: born in 1753 at Csurgo, a .small vil 
lage in the county of Stuhhveisseuburg, Hungary; 
died at Carlsbad Aug. I'i. 1829. As Benct's parents 
were very poor and consequently unable to engage 
a teacher, tliey sent their son when only five years old 
to his grandmother at Xikolsburg. There Gabriel 
Markbrciter provided for the tuition of the gifted 
ihild for a period of si-\ years, and then sent him to 
Ittingen, Als;ice, the rabbi of which place was Jlark- 
breitcr's brother-in-law. The latter became Benet's 
teacher, and took great delight in his 
A Gifted pupil's wonderful devclo))mcnt. At 
Child. Benet's "bar nii/.wah'" (religious ma- 
jority) celebration his teacher showeil 
the guests, to their great astonishment, three of the 
b()y's manuscripts— a commentary on the Penta- 
teuch, a commentiiry on the Passover Haggadah. 
anil novelUt on the Talmud. 

From his thirteenlli tn his tifteeutli year Benet de 
voted himself exclu 
sively to the study of 
the Bible, with the aid 
of the Jewish com- 
mentaries and of the 
Haggadali in Talnuid 
and Midrash : and his 
strictly halakic studies 
he completed later in 
theyesliibah of Joseph 
Sleinhard at Fi'irth. 
where he remained 
three years. He thin 
went as a "haber " lo 
Plague, where Mei'r 
ICarpeles started a pri 
vate ■■ klaus " for him ; 
and though Ezekiel Landau eoudueted a large yeshi 
bah in the same city, a number of able Talmudists 
came daily to hear Benet's discourses. After stay- 
ing at Prague two years he married Sarah Finkel 
(died 1828). the daughter of a prominent well-to-do 
citizen of Fi'irth, and settled at Nikolsburg (1773), and 
within a year was made "ab bet din '" (eeclesiastiea! 
assessor). Thirteen years later he accepted the rab- 
binate at Lundenburg in Moravia, whi< h he held for 
si.v months, when he resigned to become rabbi at 
Schh)s.sberg. Hungary. His stay in his native eoun 
try was short; and in 1789 he was made nibbi of 
Nikolsburg and chief rabbi of Moravia. Later on 
he received offers also from Presburg and Cracow, 

Mordecai Benet. 

but yielding to the solicitations of his congregation, 
he remained at Nikolsburg. Overstud}', however, 
had brought on a nervous affection in his youth, 
which clung to him throughout life, and was the 
cause of his death, which, as stated, took place at. 
Carlsbad, whilher he had gone for treatment. His 
body was buried temporarily at Lichtenstadt. near 
Carlsbad, but seven moiilhs later was permanently 
interred at Nikolsburg in accordance witii his will. 

Although Benet s works are neither numerous nor 
exhaustive, they are among the classic products of 
Talmudie literature in the eighteenth century. They 
are (1) " Biur Mordecai " (The Commentary of Morde- 
cai). Vienna, 1813. a commentary on 
His 'Works. Mordecai b. Hillel's compendium; 
(2) -'Mageu Abot " (Shield of the Fa- 
thers), Zolkiev. 183.'). a treatise on the forty-nine 
acts prohibited on the Sabbath; (3) "Har lia-Mor'' 
(Mountain of .Myrrh), respousii, with allusion to the 
rabbinical explanation of the name ■"Mordecai" by 
■■ Mara dakya '" {— yime myrrh): (4) " Parashat Mor- 
decai " (The Explanations of Mordecai), Szigeth, 
1889. responsa; and (.5) "Tekelet Mordecai" (Mor- 
decai's Purple Garment). Lemlierg. 1892, halakic 
and liaggadic discourses. 

All these works clearly show Benet's keenness, 
wide knowledge of ndibinieal litei-ature, and, what 
is still more important, his logical and strictly scien- 
tific method. In coutrsjst to his friends Moses Sofer 
and Akiba Eger. who were casuists, Benet avoided 
casuistry iu discussing involved halakic questions; 
gaining his ends by means of a purely critical ex- 
planation and a systematic srrangement of the mat- 
ter. An excellent example of Benet "s criticism is 
his letter to the chief rabbi of Berlin. Zebi Hirsch 
Levin, whom he tries to convince of the spuriou.sness 
of the collection of respoiisfi " Besiimim Kosh. " This 
collection was published by Saul BiCRi.ix, Levin's 
son. as the work of Asher b. Jeliiel ("Parashat Mor- 
decai." No. 5; "Literaturblatt des Orients." v. 53, 
')■>. 140). A comparison of Benet's criticism on the 
work withZiin/.'s remarks on it(" Hitus," pp. 22(5-238) 
can not fail to excite adminition of Benet's method. 
Benet's works differ in other respects from those 
of his contemporaries. AVhile his style is clear and 
elegant, and his language a purc He- 
Superiority brew, the style of his colleagues is 
of confused and barbarous, and their lan- 

His Style, guage an incorrect Hebrew mixed 
with the corrupt Aramaic found in 
rabbinical literature. Moreover, Benet's attitude 
toward the strict orthodoxy of his friends and col- 
leagues was exce]itioual. and may be attributed to 
his knowledge of modern thought (compare his let- 
ter to Zebi Hirsch Levin in " Literaturblatt des Ori- 
ents," v. .")4). These characteristics gave him an 
independent positiim in the struggle between ortho- 
doxy and the so-called "spirit of enlightenment." 

Though Benet's course in this struggle was in ac- 
cordance with his early training and station in life, 
he was probably the only orthodox 
Benet and rabbi who thoroughly understood the 
the Reform new current of thought, into which 
Movement. Jews as well as non-Jews were being 
drawn at that time. He knew the 
enemy that confronted him, and realized the futility 




i)f employing for defense the rusty weapons of the 
Talmud. It is true, lie avoided the name of Men- 
delssohn in his approbation (dated Nov. H, 1816) tn 
the new edition of tlie Pentateuch with Mendels- 
sohn's translation; but the very faet that he aji 
proved a German translation of the Bible at all 
shows that he ought not to be elassed with men like 
Moses Sofer. He opposed tlie attemjited reforms of 
Aaron Choriu ; but he did it quietly and temperately, 
contenting himself with the remark that something 
more than pliilosophical study is required to decide 
theological cpiestions. 

Frequently Benet showed an insight lacking in 
his opponents. In his memorial to the government 
on the education of ral)bis (printed in "Toledot Mor- 
decai," pp. 8.1-37), he remarked that if the course of 
studies which th<' gyninasium demanded of can<li- 
dates lor all other ju'ofessions Mere reciuired of a 
ral)binical candidate, the latter would be fit for any- 
thing except the rabbinate. Still, far 
Views on from ol)jccting to a secular education 
Education, for rabbis, as he was vmdei'Stood to do 
(see LOw, "Gesammelte Sclu-iften." ii. 
190 111 sri/.), he favored it; but he thought that a 
rabbi should tirst of all possess suHicient knowledge 
of rabbinical matters ; and he proposed that a ralj- 
binical candidate should devote his time chiefly to 
Jewish subjects until his eighteenth year. His 
opinions concerning the duties of a rabbi, espe- 
cially in regard to the instruction of children, show 
the strong influence that modern views had upon 
him. He wrote a cateehism for religious instruction 
and submitted it in manuscript to the government. 
'I'o judge from the letter accompanying it. Bend's 
views on the education of the young were sensible 
and in accordance with llie spirit of the time. 

Nevertheless, Benet, conscientiously opposing the 
new tendency, declared every reform in religi(uis 
observance to be wrong and harmful. Thus, in a 
letter to the government concerning the introduction 
of German into divine .service {»/;. pp. 38-42), he 
wrote in favor of the preservation of Hebrew. His 
attitude is significant in view of the fact that, many 
years later, Zacharias Prankel used the 

Opposes same arguments in the convention of 
Religious rabbis at Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1845; 

Reform, and evc'uts have proved the truth of 
the prophecy made by Benet, that if the 
)uaj'ers ai'e saiil in another language fi-w Jews will 
care to study Hebrew, and familiarity with the He- 
brew Scripture will gradually cease. 

Altliough Benet was independent in his attitude. 
his learning and high cliaraeter gained for him many 
faithful friends among young and old. Even the Ila- 
sidim respeete<l him ; and Baer Sclmeiersohn. the so- 
called "middle rabbi." speaks highly of him in a 
letter now in the possession of .1. L. Sossnitz of New 
York. 'Weiss. "Zikronotai," pp. 77-81. 

Th(( comnuuiities of Lic^htenstadt and Nikolslnu'g 
contended for the honor of interring his mortal re- 
mains; and the dispute which later arose over the 
exhumation of the body was fought with the weap- 
ons of learning, and figures in the responsa literature 
of the timi'. 

HiBi.iOGKAPny : J. A. Benet. Tulethit Mmdevai Benet. Buda- 
IKSt, 1833; Berditschewsky, In Ha-Asif, 1887, Iv. ei-dl; 

Ehrenlheil, JlUlitit-he Charahtcilnlihr, 18*i7 ; Kaufniauo, in 
Ha-Asif. V. 12!) ( ( .«(<,.; Fiirth. Siiiinuim, ii. 301-ais. 

L. (', 

MORDECAI : .Vulhor and rabbi ; born at the end 
ot tlie eighteenth century; died October. 1857, at 
Schafa, Moravia, where he was rabbi. He was the. 
author of the following works: (1) "Berit Jlelah" 
(Covenant of Salt), Prague, 181(i. a collection and 
explanation of the precepts in regard to the laws 
of salting th<' meat, in order to remove the blood 
(Yoreh De'ah, 09-78); (2) " .Misped Gadol " (Great 
Mourning), Vienna, 1830, a eulogy on the death 
of his father, Mordecai Benet ; (3) "Emuuat Yisrael " 
(Israel's Faith), Prague, 1832, a Jewish catechism in 
Hebrew anil German; (4) " Imre Sliefer " (Goodly 
Words, Gen. xlix. 31), Presbuig, 1840, a funeral 
oration on Moses Sofer; (5) "'Torat Dat Moslieh 
we-Yisniel" (Doctrine of the Law of and 
Israel), Prague, 1820, on the principles of the Jew- 
ish religion. 

The catechism became very jiopular and iiassed 
through several editions. Though Bend's stand- 
point was strictly orthodo.x, he did not carry his 
orthodoxy to extremes, as can be seen from a corre- 
spondence with Isaac Samuel Keggio on the ques- 
tion of future ininishment (" Kerdu Ilenied," i. 9), 
in which he shows himself vacillating on this point. 

Benet's "Torat Dat Moslieh we- Yisrael " is also 
written from a moderate ortliodox point of view ; 
but he accepted his father's views in opposing the 
Reform movement, and assails Aaron Chorin as a 
man actuated by personal motives in advocating 
Bibliography: Fiirst, Bihl. J mi. i. in:!; Zeiluer, Cat. Hehr. 

JSuiihs Brit. Mm. p. S!. 

L. G. 

BENEVENTO : City in southern Italy; capital 
of the province of the same name; about 32 miles 
northeast of the city of Najiles. Benjamin of 
Tudela visited it about 1165, and found there 200 
Jewish families, having at their head three par- 
na-sim; Kalonymus, Zerah, and Abraham ("JIas'ot 
Binyamin," <'d. Asher, p. 13). This unimportant 
community increased after the exile. When 
King Ferdinand conquered the kingdom of Naples 
(1504), he established the Imiuisition at Benevento 
in order to exterminate the Spanisli and Portuguese 
Marauos who had settled there in somewhat large 

BiBi.iooRAPHV : lin'uc f}}-icutnlf. u. : (iriilz. fiesrh. dir 
Jwlcn.'iUi cd., vi. :!:itt ; p. M. Lonurdu, iili Khrt-i a Bcnevcutu. 


I). I. Bit. 

BENFELDEN: Town in Alsace, 17 miles from 
Strasburg. It was here, in the year 1348, when 
Europe was devastated by the Black Death (the 
sjiread of which was ascribed to the Jews), that a 
council was held of the representatives of the towns 
in Alsace to con.sider the projier course to be adopted 
with reference to the Jews. One of the leading 
spirits in the C(nineil was Bishop Berthold of Stras- 
burg, who firmly demanded that the Jews be entirely 
destroyed. Tlie representatives from Strasburg 
maintained a gallant struggle against the supersti- 
tious bigotry that sought .some scapegoat for the 
evil that had befallen the land, and against the cupid- 
ity and rapacity that scented a prosjiect for plunder. 




The struggU' was \isclcss. am) it was dfculod that all 
the Jews should be banishi'<i from tho citit-s of the 
upper Hhiue. The results of this decision of the 
Council of Beufeldeu constitute one of the most 
tragic diaplers in the gloomy history of the perse- 
cutii>n I'f the Jews. 


BENFEY, THEODOR: Ccrman Saiiskritist 
and cdiiipanitivc iihilologist; burn at Xorten. Han- 
over. Jan. is. l(S(l!l: became a convert to Christianity 
in 1M4(!<; died June Sti, ISSl. His father, who had 
seven ciiildren besides ThetRlor, was a Jewish mer- 
chant deeply versed in the Talmud. Tlieodor re- 
ceived his preliminary traiuing at the gymnasium 
in Gottiugen. which he left at the age of si.xteeu for 
the university of the sjime city. As a imivcrsity 
student he devoted himself to cla-isiial philolog}'. 

Mf& A-. 

and remained in GOttingen— with the exception of 
the year 1827, spent at Munich— until 1830. On Oct. 
34, 1828. he received the degree of Ph.D.. and the 
year following became privat-docent. He left GiH- 
tingen in 1830 and lived in Frankfort-on-the Main 
for two years. Here he occupied himself with a 
translation of Terence, his only printed contribution 
to classics; and. what was of far more importance 
for his life-work, devoted himself seriously to San- 

In 1832 he left Frankfort for Heidelberg, where 
he contemplated teaching Sanskrit, but his love for 
his alma mater was too strong to permit him to be- 
come a member of the faculty of another univei-sity. 
Accordingly, in 1834, he returned to Gottingen. 
where he began his teaching rather in classical than 
in Oriental or comparative philology. Gra<luall3-. 

however, he concentrated his energy on Sanskrit and 

comparative linguistics. Benfey 's teaching covered 

a large range within his chosen limits. In addition 

to his regular work he lectured on 

His Wide Indian antiquities, on the Avesta, and. 

Range. going farther atield, gave courses in 
ethnography from the linguistic point 
of view (1843). and in Bengali and Hindustani (18t>3- 
64). It is interesting to note that, in 1843. he 
lectured on the affinity of the Egyptian and Semitic 
groups of languages. This single series of lectures, 
together with the book which was the result of the 
course — " Ceber das Verhiiltniss der Aegyptischen 
Sprjiche zum Semitischen Sprachstamni." 1844 — is 
his only important work that deals with Semitic 

His literary activity began comparatively late. 
Before 1839 he published very little. Even his doc- 
torate dissertation. " De Liguris." and his disseita- 
tiou to obtain the nnia Icgemli. " Observationes 
ad Anacreontis Fragmenta Geuuina. " remained vm- 
printed. Besides the translation of Terence in 1837, 
already referred to. and a few reviews, his only 
work i)ublished prior to 1830 was one written in 
collaboration with Moritz A. Stern, " Ueber die 
Monatsnaraen Einiget Alten Yolker," 1880. 

The silent years before 1839 had been a time of 

preparation, but after that period his contributions to 

linguistics were numerous. His"GriechischesWur- 

zellexikon," 1839^2. won the Volney 

Sem^itic prize. The year 1840 saw the appear- 
and ance of his article on "India " in Ersch 
Sanskritic and Gruber"s " Encyklopadie der Wis- 

Works. senschaften und Kiinste," and his 
Semitic contribution, already noted, 
was published in 1844. In 1847 he brought out the 
first German edition of the Old Persian Inscriptions, 
basing his work mainly on Rawlinson's results, 
which hail appeared the previous year. The year 
1848 was the date of Benfey 's edition of the Sauia 
Veda, with iutroductioi;, glossary, and translation. 
He published in 1852 his " VoUstiindige Grammatik 
der Sanskritsprache." and followed this the next 
year with his valuable "Chrestomathieaus Sanskrit- 
werken." and in 1855 with his "Kurze Sanskiit- 
grammatik." His two English books — the "Prac- 
lieal Grammar of the Sanskrit Language" (1863-66), 
and the "Sanskrit -English Dictionary." 180G — were, 
as he himself recognized, less creditable to his schol- 
arship than were his earlier works. 

The resultsof his studiesin comparative literature 
were summed up in his translation and commentary 
on the Panchatantra, which appeared in 1859. and is 
still a standard. In the preface of this work, which 
comprises the entire tirst volume, he 
His Last traces the development of the various 
Important Indian tales through other Oriental 

Works. literature to European collections of 
beast fables and stoiies. partly through 
the intermediation of Jewish translators (see K.M.iiuV 
w.\-Dnt>A). His last great work was the "Ge- 
scliichte der Sprachwi.<.sensehaft und Orientalischen 
Pliilologie in Deutschland." 1869. Here he traces 
the history of Oriental research in Germany, both in 
Scmitics and in Indo-Irauian. down to his own time, 
with a thoroughness which makes the work still one 




of value. After 1869 he published no books, al- 
though he continued to write reviews and maga- 
zine articles. At his death he left material, which 
lie had been gathering for j-ears, fur a grammar of 
Vedic Sanskrit. This he hail hoped to make the 
thief production of liis life. Unforttniately this 
work was h'ft in such a chaotic state that it is im- 
possible to edit it or to know what the author's con- 
ciu.sions were to have been. 

Hcnfey's rise was by no means rapid, yet he never 
lost patience, even when those inferior to himself in 
age or ability were promoted over him. Beginning 
his work at (iiUlingcn in 1834 as privat-doccnt, he 
waited fnurtecn years before he became assistant 
professor without salary, in 1848. after 
Silent which a second period of fourteen 

Heroism years elapsed before he was appointed 

and |>rofessor in 1862. Under these cir- 

Influence. cumstanccs he made .several cfl'orls to 

gain a more profitable position else- 

whiTi' liiil all liis endeavors in this direction were 

in vain. 

As a leaehi'r IJenfey was broad, and his interests 
were manifold. Few men have exercised an influ- 
ence over more jnipils, for he was a teacher as well 
as a savant. This breadth of view explains tlie rea- 
son why he founded no school, and trained no pupil 
who can be said to have succeeded him to carrj' on. 
unchanged, his method and tradition. He estab- 
lished a periodical. "Orient imd Occident," in 1862, 
t« defend his scicntitic principles, and both he and 
his .students contributeil to it numerous articles. 
Unfortimatcly the magazine had to be discontinued 
in 1866. 

He hift the .lewish faith in 1848, and with his 
family joined the Evangelical Church. His change 
of religion was prompted solely by the social ]irivi 
leges that wvn- tlKTi jiossessed by Christians alone. 
The result of his abandonment of Judaism was not 
what he had ex))ected. It was a positive disadvan- 
tage to him, and accounts in part for his slow rise to 
full professorship. 

Bini.iooRAriiv: A life iif Bmifey is niven by Ills daiarhler Mitii 
In the edition «f Ills Kkimn: Sehriften, edited hy Hezzi ii- 

8. L. H. G, 

BEIfGAZI (.r BENGHAZY : City of Trip 
oli, Africa, on ilie east cdust of the Guff of Sidra. 
Little is known of the tirst settlement of the Jews 
there; according to local traditions, they can\e orig- 
inally from Tri|inli. 

The chief nibliis of the community in llic nine 
teenth century wcic: Moses Ilakmon, Lsaac Moharon, 
and Kahamim Farju of Tripoli; the last, installed 
in 1871, still holds oHicc (HtOl). As rabbinical au- 
thor must be mcntioiK'd Eli j.-di Labi, a centenarian 
(1783-1883). He wrote the "'Sefer Ge'ullat Adonai " 
(Book of Gods Deliverance) (Leghorn, 1864), in He- 
brew, and the "Orah Yesharim " (The Path of the 
Upright) and " Mcnuhali le-Hayyim " (Rest for the 
Living) (Leghorn, 1ST2 and 1SS2), in Jud.-eo-.Vraliic ; 
i.e., in rj;dibinic cliaract<'rs and in Araliic-Tripdlitan 

As a bit of history must he uicnlioncil the kidnaji- 
ing of a young .Tcwish girl hy Arabs, in 1868, an 
affair that was (ndv adjusted by the intervention of 
III.— 2 

the Alliance Israelite Universelle and the European 

In 1901 the community numbered 3,000 Jews, in a 
total population of 38,000. It has two synagogues 
— the Low Synagogue, which is said to be verj- old; 
and the High Synagogue, of more recent date — and 
four Talmiid Torahs, "attended by 200 pupils. The 
community is governed by a supreme judge (Abra- 
ham Habib in 1901), in addition to the rabbi and by 
three syndics ("gabbaim"). The .Sidaries of these 
oflicials are paid from the meat-ta.\, amounting an- 
nually to 3,000 francs. There are two societies: 
the Hebra Kaddishah, a burial society, and the Bik;- 
kiirHolim, which furnishes medicine and physicians 
to the poor. 

The Jews of Bengazi are prosperous. The major- 
ity trade in wool, barley, and butter. Others follow 
trades, as jewelers, tinsmiths, carpenters, etc. A 
Jew, Hamus Komani, is one of the higher oflicials of 
the Serail, or administration of the department. The 
richest families are those of Tchuba, Y'oueli, and 
Hakmon. There are very few poor. Some of the 
Jews have very curious names; e.<j., as "Schima," 
"Touajir," "Bedoussa," etc. 

Buu.iographt: nuUclin of the Alliance IsnulUe I'niver- 

fifltt\ lss."> ; private snurres. 

i>. M. Pk. 

BENHAM, ARTHUR: Diamatic author; born 
1S7.J; died at Brighton, Eng., Sept. 8, 189.5. He 
was a plajwright of considerable promise, and 
was the author of two plays, "The County" and 
"The Awakening" — the latter produced for a short 
run at the Garrick, and the former at Terry's Thea- 
ter — when he was only twenty yi'ars old. He died 
of consumiition when scarcely past his twentieth 
year. Ilis sister was the actress Estelle Burney, 
who collaborated in his plays, and was his tender 
nurse <luring his long illness. 

BiHi.TocRAPiiv: Jewish Clirrmicle, Sept. n. l.sft'i; Die .sTtetch, 

si-pi. IS. isir,. 

.1. G. L. 

BENI-ISRAEL: Native Jews of India, dwell- 
ing mainly in the presidency of Bnmbayand known 
formerlj- by the name of Shan var Telis ("Saturday 
t)il-Pressers") in allusion to their chief occupation 
and their Sabbath-day. The Beni-Israel avoided tbe 
use of the name " Jew," probably in defci-cnce to the 
pi'cjudicc of their Mohammedan neighbors, and pre- 
ferred the name Beni-Israel in reference to the favor- 
able use of the term in the Koran (sura ii. 110). Ac- 
cording to their own traditions, they are descended 
from the siuvivors of a band of Jews 'fleeing from 
persecution who were wrecked near the Ilenery and 
Kenery islands in the Indian ocean, fifteen miles 
from Cheul, formerly the chief em])orium of the 
tiade between Arabia and India. Seven men and 
seven women are slated to have been saved frmn 
drowning; and from them arc descended the Bcui- 
Israel. This is said to have been from si.xteen hun 
died to eighteen hundred years ago. Benjamin of 
Tudela appears to have heard of them in the twelfth 
( entury, and JIarco Polo in the thirteenth ; but they 
were first brought to the knowledge of Europeans, 
simultaneously with the White and Black Jews of 
tlociiiN on the Malabar coast, by C!hristian mission- 
aries in India, like Drs. C. Buchanan and Wilson, 




at tbc beginuiug of the uiui-k'eutli ceiitary. l)u 
the advent of the Sassoo.n fimiily at Bombay, more 
direct interest was taken in the Bcni-Isiiiel by 
Western Jews, and much educational worli lias 
since been done anionir them. 

The Beni-Israel themselves refer to two religious 

revivals among them during their stay in India: the 

first, iilaced by them about 900 years ago, due to 

David BAiiAiii. and anotlier. about the year 179t). 

due to Samuel DivKKAit. According 

Internal to tradition. Raliabi was a Cochin Jew. 

History, whose family had come from Egyjit. 
and on visiting the Beni-Israel lie 
found among them several customs similar to those 
current among Jews, and to test them he gave tlieir 
women some tish to 
cook, including some 
that had neither fins 
nor scales. These 
they separated from 
the others, saying 
that they never ate 
them. Bahabi was 
thereupon satisfied 
they were r c a 1 1 y 
Jews, and imparted 
instruction to them. 
After the attention 
of the European Jews 
had been called to 
the Beni-Israel, the 
rites and ceremonies 
of the latter were as- 
similated to those of 
the Sepluudic Jews, 
and ]irayer-books in 
Mahrati, their vernac- 
ular, have been pro- 
vided for them. Pre- 
viously, however. In 
this their festivals 
and customs dill'ered 
considerably from thi- 
rest of tlie Jews both 
in name and in cere- 

The festivals of the 
Beni-Israel. before 
they became ac- 
quainted with the 
ordinary religious 
calendar of modern 
Jews, had only 
native names, one set of which was in JIahrati and 
the other in Hindustani. The latter are attributed 
to the reforms of David Raliabi. JIany of the names 
in the former end in " San," meaning "holiday," and 
among them arc the following: 

Navyacha San ("New-Year liolklay"), kept im the Urst 
day of Tisliri, tlie seamd-day observatiee not l>piiip liiiowii 
anion); the lleni-lsnn'l. 

Khiricha San ("Pudding liollday"), on tlie evening of 

the fourth of Tishri. Tliis \ fplebrated liy eating "lihir." a 

sort of pudiiing made of new corn nii.xed with 

Festivals, cwtinut-jnire anil sweets; a censer with buru- 
inf frankiiu'eiLsc hfini; pluied near tliedisli. 
Thi- lihir was i-alen hv tlie family after sayinp tlie Slienia'. 

Carfalnicba San ("Closing-of-doors holiday"!, on the 

(iroup of lieni-Tsrael in Aneient I'osluine. 



tenth of Tishri, during which they tasted from five o'clock in 
ttie evening until the ne.Kt evening at seven. During it they 
did not stir out-of-dooi-s, nor touch nor speak to people of other 
denondnations. Tliey dres.sed themselves in white, and he- 
lieved that departed souls visited their liahitations on the pre- 
ceding day aud left them on the following day, called Shila 
San {"Stale holiday"', on which day they gave alms to the 
poor and visiled tlieir friends. 

Holicha San, on the thiileenth and fourteenth of Adar: 
the former kept as a fast, ami the latter as a feast, on which 
they sent honie-tnatle sweetmeats to one ani>ther. This corre- 
sponds to I'urim ; hut the ISeni-Israel did not observe the second 
day or "Shiishaii Pmiui." 

Anasi Dakacha San (".\nas-cIosing holiday "), on llie 
fourteenth and twenty-llrsl of N'isan. This was celebrated by 
<'losing an earthen chatty or pot containing a sour liiiuid coui- 
nionly used as sjiuce. This festival corresptinded to Passover : 
itut. fis the Hindus generally did not use any leaven with their 
rice, the object of the ceremony seems to have been forgotten. 

Birdiacha San 
(" Binia-curry holiday ",i, 
on the niiuU of Ab, on 
which they ate nothing 
but rice with a curry of 
"birda" or pulse. This 
was served on plantain- 
leaves. During the pre- 
ceding eight days no meat 
was eaten. This corre- 
sponds toTish'a be-Ah, in 
memory of the destruction 
"f the Temple; but thei-e 
does not seem to have been 
any conscious recognition 
of that fact. 

The other festivals, 
chiefly known by the 
name of " Roja" (fast- 
ing), appear to have 
been of later intro- 
duction, and aie con- 
netted with the 
reforms of David 
Ualiabi. These are 
a^ t'dllows: 

Ramzan, a fast held 
ihniiigliout the month of 
i:Ud; the name is doubt- 
:.-ss derived from liie 
.Mohammedan month of 
faslimr. "Raniazan." 

Navyacha Roja 
{" Xew-Vear fast "), on 
the third of Tishri, cor- 
responding to the fast of 
(iedaliah, but not associ- 
ated with his murder. 

Oorus I "The fan- of 
Klijah the I'rophi't"!, to 
celebrate the ascension 
of Elijah on that ilay at 
Khandalla in the Konkau. 
Various kinds of fruit 
"malida" (pieces of ru'e. 
censer of burning frankin- 

were placed on plates, together with 

Itread besmeareii \vilh sirup), and 

cense. The fruit was eaten by the family. 

Sababi Koja, a fast on the seventeenth of Taminuz. a rem- 
iniscence of the siege of Jerusalem, hut not known as such by 
the Beni-Israel. 

From this enumeration of the festivals it will ap- 
pear that the Bi-ni-Israel retain from the earliest 
times (as indicated by their JIahrati names ending 
with "San") the New-Year, Day of Atonement, 
Purim, Passover. Ninth of Ab, tind in addition a 
form I if Tabernacles which has been transferred to 
the Fourth of Tishri. Later on they introduced, 
doubtless under the influence of David Raliabi (as 




is shown by the Hindustani names), the fasts of 
Gedaliah, Tebet, ami Tanimuz, together witli the 
New-Year of the trees, associated with the name of 

Beni-Israel of Bombay. 

(From Wilson, " .,f tht^ Bible."; 

Elijah llie Prophet; while still later the custom of 
fasting throughout the whole mouth of Elul seems 
to have been borrowed from the Mohammedans. 
The feasts of Pentecost and Hanukkah seem to 
have dropped out of use, It would appear tliat be- 

fore the second revival under Samuel Divekar the 
only other remains of Judaism current among the 
Beni-Israel were the strict observance of the Sabbath, 
circumcision, and the reading of the Shema", which 
is the sole piece of Hebrew retained by them. The 
latter was said at every meal, at wedding-festivals, 
at burial-feasts, and indeed on all sacred occasions. 
The only animals eousidercil (it for food were fowl, 
sheep, and goats. The IJcni-Isi-ael probably re- 
frained from beef, in order not to olTend their Hindu 

It is ditlicult at this time to determine with any 
degree of accuracy the relative age of the customs 
they follow. Even before the religious revival of 
179(5 the Beni-Israel customarily removed the sciatic 
nerve from animals used for food, and they salted 
ihi- meat in order to abstract tlie blood from it ; 

otherwise they dill not observe the 
Customs, law of shehilah and bedikah. They 

also left a morsel of bread or rice in a 
little dish after they had dined. Among them the 
l)irth of a girl was eelebratcJ on the .si.xth night, 
iind that of a boy on the si.\th and eighth ; and on 
tlie latter day the rite of circumcision was per- 
formed. Girls were iisually betrothi'd some montlis 
before marria.ire; and imtil the wedding they wore 
the hair flowing from their shoidders. At the 
betrothal ceremony the intende<l bride and bride- 
groom sat face to face and dined together, sweetened 
rice being served to the assendily. On the day 
when the marriage ceremony was to take place the 
bridegroom, who had been crowned with a wreath 
of flowers, was led in procession on horse- 
hack to tlie bride's house, and the ceremony 

Beni-Israei. Famu.y at Bombay. 

{From \ pbolnpraph.) 




took phipp uiiilcr a bootli. At the fi-iist licUl before 
the wedditifr took place a ilisli eontaiiiins; a pieee of 
leaven <-ake, tin- liver of a sroal, fried esgs, and a 
twig of "stibja" was placed with burning frankin- 
cense on wliite cloth, and alter the Shema' had been 

Kenesetb Eliyabu SynaKDiruf. Bmubuv. 

(From K photo^rn)ili.> 

repealed the dish was taken inside and, with the ex 
ception of five jiicces of the cakes an<l liver, wliich 
were set aside for the person olliciatiug as priest, the 
food was eaten. Polygamy is allowed, and in some 
cases divorce is given according to the civil law: 
but the ISeni Israel did not practise "get," "yib- 
bum," or "lializah " An adulteress and her issue 
are regarded as "Rlack Israel." 

After burials the mourners wash both themselves 
and their clothes, and on the third day the house is 
cleansed; the ceremony being known as "Tizova," 
or the "Third-Day Cleansing." When a person died, 
all the water was emptied from the jiots in tin- 
house, and the body was buried with the head 
toward the east. (Jrape-juiceor milk was drunk by 
those visiting tin- mourners in the evening during the 
days of mourning. It was customary for relatives 
and friends to bring "meals of condolence" to the 
house of mourning. On the seventh day after burial 
there was a mourning ceremony known as the 
".laharulh," in which a dish, containing eakes and 
pieces of liver, and a glass of li(|uor, was placed on 
a white .sheet. Afti'r repeating the Shema' about a 
dozen times, the contents of the glass were drunk 
in honor of the dead: and after the food was eaten, 
the chief moinner was presented with a new turban 
by a relative, .bdiaruth was also observed on tin- tirsi . 
sixth, and twelfth months. If a boy w<ic born after 
a vow made by the mother, his hair was not shaved 
for six or .seven years, after which jieriod it was 
completely ,shaved and weighed against coins (gold 

or silver), to be given in charity. The shaved hair 
was thrown into the sea and not burned. A feast 
was held in the evening, at which the mother was 
informed that she was free from her vow. 

Formerly the Beni-Israel wore turbans, but now 
they use mainly the Turkish fez. The women 
adopt the Hindu dress, and arc accustomed to wear 
anklets and nose rings. Most of the Beni-Israel 
nami-s have been changed from Hebrew to Hindu 
forms: thus. " Ezekicl" into "Ilas- 
Costume ssiji": "Benjamin " into "Bunnajee" : 
and "Abraham" into" Abajee"; "Samuel" 

Names. into " Samajee " ; " Elijah " into " EUo- 
jee": "Isaac" into "Essajee"; "Jo- 
scpli '" into " Essoobjee " ; " Moses " into " Moosajee " ; 
" Kidiamin\ " into " Ramajce " : " David " into " Da- 
wdodjcc." and "Jacob" into "Akhoobjee." Their 
surnames are mostly derived from neighboring vil- 
lages; thvis. those who resided at Kehimwcre called 
" Kehimker. " and those who lived at Pen were named 
■ IVnker," 

.Vbout 17!>."> Sam\i(l Kzi-Uiil |)i\ i-:K.\ii. a Beni- 
Israel soldier in the East India (diuiiany's service, 
was captured by Tipu Sahib. He 
Later made a vow that if he esca])ed he 
History, would build a synagogue at Bombay. 
He succeeded in escaping, and built 
the synagogue JIagen David, now called Sha'ar Ha- 
Ital.iamim, at Bomliay, and introduced the Sephardic 
rilual from Cochin. The Bcni-Isracl shortly after- 
ward attracted the attention of t'hristian mission- 
aries at Bombay, who about 1812 brought Mi(;hael 
S.MiooN from Cochin, who, though a convert to 
i Christianity, op<'ned schools for tlie Beni Israel in 
Bombay. Rebdanda, and I'alle for over thirty years; 
explaining to the children jjarts of the Old Testa- 
ment, and rarely, if ever, speaking of Christianity 
to them. 

The chief instrument iu introducing the fidl 
knowledge of Judaism to the Beni-Israel was Shcl- 

SiTiinil lieni-lsraul S>iiiit;ugiii.-, liuiutm.v, Krei-tetl 1.S4S. 

(From a )>lii<tf>^apb.) 

lomo (Solomcm) SnfRii.\ni. who was w-recked near 
Bombay about 1830, and for twenty years acted 
as religious instructor of the community. Owing 
to his influence several new synagogues were built 




in the vicinity of Boinba)', and a general interejit in 
their religion was shown by the Beni-Israel. The 
advent of the Sassoons at Bombay brought the Beni- 
Israel into connection with the real life of Israel ; 
and the family, as well as Christian missionaries, 
liberally supported religious, philanthropic, and 
educational establishments for the benefit of Beiii- 
Israel. A.special school for them was established 
in July, 1875, which, owing to the support given 
by the Anglo-Jewish Association, was enlarged in 
1881, and now accommodates about 270 children. 

As their native name implies, the original Beni- 
Israel were mainly oilmen or oil-pressers; but during 
the existence of the East India Company many of 
them adopted the career of soldier and obtained the 

MaL'eu t)aviil ur Sha'ar Ha-Raliaiuim Synagogue. Bombay, 

(From ft phologrnph.) 

highest rank, that of sirdar bahadur. Owing to the 
spread of education among them several have gone 
into learned professions and become engineers, doe 
tors, and teachers. 
The following are the chief places where Beni- 
Israel are to be found, with the popu- 
Statistics. lation as given by the last accessible 
census (1801): 

Bo.MB.w Presidkscy. 

Ahmadabad 110 I Pen 183 

Alibag 9(1 1 Poinad +i) 

Ambepore 39 i Puna 350 

Bombay .i.(ei | Hahoon 191 

Borlai .51 Revadanda 193 

Karachi i:)0 Koha Ashtann 333 

Panwell 301 1 

Of recent years many works suitable for instruc- 
tion have been translated into Mahrati for the ben- 
efit of the Beni-Israel. chiefly by the exertions of 
Joseph Ezekiel, whose works cover the whole cycle 
of Jewish ritual and liturgy, besides treatises on 

the Jewish religion and text-books of Hebrew 
grammar. In addition to these, sev- 
Mahrati cral newspapers in Mahrati were ptdj- 
Literature. lislied. amimg them the "Bene Israel- 
ite" (Lamp of Judaism). 
The task of determining with any degree of ex- 
actness the amount of Jewish blood that at present 
pervades the Beni-Israel is a very difii<ult one. In 
appearance theydilTer but slightly from their lU'igh- 
bors. They themselves are proud of their juirity of 
descent, and jxiint to the care taken by Jews of 
Cochin to separate the Black Jews, or pro.selytes. 
from the White. The use of the word " Hamzan " f(jr 
the feast of the month of Elul nn'glit seem to indicate 
that they were originally Moliammedaus. and were 
converted to Judaism bj- David Uahabi: but. on the 
other hand, it may have been the word only that was 
adopted, the custom of fasting during that month 
liiing derived from the Sepliardi<- ritual, which is 
that current in Cochin. If originally Jews, the 
Beni-Israel retained very little of Jewish cu.stom 
luitil the revival under I)ivikar, except the institii- 
ti(m of the Sabbath, the repetition of the Shema', 
and the rite of circumcision: but in this they re- 
semble the Jews in China, who appear to have 
kept their purity of descent almost up to the pres- 
ent time. For a full discussion of this que.stion, 
see Cochin. 

Biiu.iO(iRAPHY : Wilson, Apijrnt for the nirixtian Kilucalinn 
of tin- Bciii-Isrnct. IWlti: Idem. Laiiils of the Bihh. II. titiT- 
liTK; Benjamin II., KigM Ytarx in .^.tio, cb. xviii.-xix.; 
Hitter, KnlUnmh. Axirti II., § v., i. .WMKIl : J. Sappliir. llin 
Snilr. 1S75, ii.; liiiwhan Gazellccr. xvHi. .T(lti-,T.3ti. Puna: K. 
Si-hhigintweit, in Westeniiann's Itltistrirte Lkutmhe 3/o- 
iintKirhrift ; JeirUi i'lin:tiitk, Aug. 31, Sept. 7, (let, 13, WsS; 
H, Samuel, slirlrli nf Hi iii-lsmr.l, Issil; Jwobs. JcH'i.s(i Yidr 

Hunk. 19I«>-1, pp. .•il«i-.iU0. 

.r. J. E.-J. 

BENISCH, ABRAHAM: Jouiiialist and theo- 

liigiaii; born at Dnisau. a small town eight miles 
southwest of Klattau, B(jhemia. in ISH; died at 
Hornsey Rise, a suburb of London, England, July 
:^1, 1878. lie studied surgery in Piague about 
1S3() — while a commentary on Ezekiel which he 
had written was being ])ublished — with a view to 
preimring himself for a journey to Palestine. To- 
gether Avith his fellow-students, .\lbert Liiwy and 
Moritz 8teinsehneider, he was inspired by the lofty 
mis,si(m of restoring Jewish independence in the 
Holy Land; and while still a student at the Univer- 
sity of Vienna, he had attiacted round him a large 
numberof his coreligionists, to wJKim his scheme for 
the liberation of his Jewisli fellow-countrymen com- 
mended itself. Largely through his etfilrts a secret 
society was formed, of which Benisch was aj)- 
I)ointed to act as emissary and visit ceitain foreign 
lands with a view to finding a suitable basis for the 
liberation and emigration .scheme. The main reliance 
for support in the carrying out of the idans was 
|)laced on the English Jews. In 1841, in pursuance 
of his mission, Benisch came to London, where he 
submitted the essential part of his jjioposals to vari- 
ous persons, who opposed them unanimously. Al- 
though temporarily compelled to lay aside his plans, 
he never completely abandoned them. Soon after 
his arrival in London he devoted himself to Jewish 
journalism and literature, and acciuired considerable 
iufluence in Jewish and Christian circles. 




Wlu'U amonj: Cliristians Btiiisch stremiously coiii- 
bati'd tlic once rampant ciin%ti-sii)U idea. In 1854 
lie became editor of the "Jewish Chronicle." which 
position he held till 18fi!t; resuming the editorship 
again from 1870 till the year of his death. His 
editorial influence was e.verted in favor of a mod- 
erate orthodo.xy. He made quite a feature of the 
correspimdence colunms of the pajier. Benisch took 
an active part in comnumal alTairs. and helped 
to found several learned societies, including The 
Biblical Institute and its allies. The Syro-Egyp- 
tian and The Biblical Chronological societies. 
These three were afterward fused into the Society 
of Biblical Archeology. In IffifiO. when the Alli- 
ance Israelite was started. Benisch's hopes and ideals 
were revived, and by suggesting and aiding the 
inauguration, in IMTl. of the Anoi.o-Jkwisii Associ- 
.\Tiox, he hel|>ed tOAvard the realization of many of 
the hopes and as])iriitions of his youth. 

Benisch wrote numerous works in the domain of 
Bible studies. biograi>liy. travel, the defense of Juda- 
ism: and weekly articles contributed to the pages of 
the "Jewisli Chronicle" during a period of nearly 
forty j'ears. He left the copyright of the paper to 
the Anglo-Jewish Association, which, shortly sifter 
his death, sold it. His most important works were: 
(1) "Judaism Surveyed. Being a Sketch of the Rise 
and Develoinuent of Judaism from Jloses to Our 
Days," 1S74; (2) "Why I Should Remain a Jew," 
thirty -three letters contributed to the " Jewish Chron- 
icle," and published posthumously. He also wrote: 
"Two Lectures on the Life and Writings of Jlairaon- 
ides," 1847: "A Translation of the Old Testament. 
Published with the Hebrew Text," 18.")1 : " An Esssiy 
onColenso'sCriticisuiof the Pentateuch and Joshua," 
1863. Benisch also published an "Elementary He- 
brew Grammar," in 1852: and a "Manual of Scrij) 
ture History," in 1853. 

BiBLiOGR.kPnv : Jeir. Chnm. May. and Jul.T 31, 1S79: Nov., 
1891 (jubilt* numlx'rl ; Diet, nf Nat. Bioy. 
■T G. L. 

liogi-aplier, author, and publisher: born in Uamgola, 
near Wilna, Jan. Id, 1801 : died in Wilna July 2, 
1863. His parents moved to Wilna when he was 
still a child, and there he received instruction in 
Hebrew grammar and rabbinical lore. He began to 
write early, and coraiioscd short poems and epi- 
grams in |)ure Biblical Hebrew which are among 
the best of their kiuil in Xeo Hebraic literature. For 
several years he lived in Riga, where he was engaged 
in business, always studying and writing in his lei- 
sure hours. Later he became a imblisher and book- 
seller and went to Leipsic, where he published his 
first work, "Aliktamim we-Shirim" (Epigrams ami 
Songs), which also contains an important essay on 
epigrammatic composition (Leipsic. 1842). Of the 
other works which he jndilished there, his corrected 
edition of R. Bahy;i ibn Pakuda's "Hobot ha Leba- 
bot," with an introduction, a short commentary, 
and a biography of the author, togelher with notes 
and fragments of Jo.sei)h Kimhi's translation by H. 
Jellinek. is the most valuable (Leipsic, 1846: Ki'migs- 
berg, 1859, without the introduction). 

In 1848 Benjacob returned to Wilna, and for the 
next five years he and the poet Abraham Bar Leben 

sohn were engaged in the publication of the Bible 
with a German translation (in Hebrew type) and the 
new " Biurim " ( Wilna. 1848-53. 17 vols.), which did 
much good as a means of spreading the knowledge 
of German and a proper understanding of the He- 
brew text among the Jews in Russia. When this 
work was done he brought out his corrected and 
amended edition of Hayyiiu Joseph David Azulai's 
"Shem ha-Gedolim" ^Wilna. 1853: Vienna. 1862), 
which is still the standard edition of that important 
work. In 1862 B<'njacob announced his intention 
to begin the publication of popular editions of clas- 
sical Hebrew works which had become rare or high- 
priced. He died soon after the appearance of the 
first volume of A/.ariah dei Rossi's "Jleor 'Ena- 
vim." with which he stsirted the series (Wilna. 

In his later years Benjacob was one of the leaders 
and representatives of the Jewish community of 
Wilna, and took an active part in all communal af- 
fairs. In his conespoudence with Isaac Bar Lewin- 
sohn, which is partly published in "Ha-Kerem" 
(pp. 41-62. Warsaw, 1888), Benjacob throws much 
light on the condition of the community in the be- 
giiming of the second half of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, and especially on the lamentable condition of 
the Ralibiuer Schule (Rabbinical Seminary) which 
the government established there and in Jitomir in 
1848. and closed in 1873. Benjacob himself was 
originally destined to be one of the teachers of the 
Wilna Seminary, but never filled the position: and 
later he became one of the severest critics of that 
institution. These letters are also interesting on ac- 
count of the idea they give of the perplexities of the 
old Maskilim of the Mendelssohuian school in Rus- 
sia, like Benjacob. who w ere being swept aside by 
the younger generation which had the advantage of a 
Russian training. He could not speak Russian, and 
most of the representatives of the community suf- 
fered from the siime disability, excepting a few mer- 
chants who cared little for the fate of the seminary : 
and the older members were at a great disadvantage 
when pitted against the young students, who could 
gaiu whatever they desired from the authorities on 
accovmt of their correct Russian accent. 

Benjacob corresponded with Jewish scholars in 
Western countries, and was known during his life- 
time for his great achievements as a bibliographer,' 
although his monumental work, the "0?ar ha- 
Sefarim. Thesaurus Libroruiu Hebra-orum tam Im- 
pressorum quam Manuscriptorum," did not appear 
till seventeen years after his death (Wilna, 1880). 
It was published by his sou .Jacob, and contains 
17.000 entries of Hebrew printed and manuscript 
works, with valuable notes by M. Steinschneider. 
An author-index to the work together with addi- 
tions has been promised by Steinschneider ("Hebr. 
Bibl."xx. 73: "Festschrift," p. vii.). It is the great- 
est Jewish bibliographical work in the Hebrew lan- 
guage, and is still the standard bibliography of 
printed books down to 1863. 

Besides other minor works and articles published 
in various Hebrew periodicals and collections, Ben- 
jacob also commenced a German-Hebrew dictionary 
and a Mishnaic-Tahnudic dictionary with a German 
translation, both of which were left unfinished. 




Bibliography: Fiirst. BihI.Jutl. i. lii:)-l(W isee also vol. hi.. 
Preface, p. vii.): BtuU'< ./nliiliiiiiu r. v. »'1T : Miniatssdirift, 
.\xx. 37.5-3&1, 570-.')?:-'; Kwiii Ifrmi'l. v. S; Fuenn. Kemnct 
l'is)-ae;, pp. o97-.59!J; Ihi-MaiMiil. v il. '^U: Ha-KarmcU iU. 
365, 36«. 
G. P. \Vl. 

BENJAMIN.— Biblical Data: Yimngcst son 
of Jacob by Rucliol. wlio died ou the road between 
Bethel and Ephrath, while giving him birth. She 
named him "Ben-oni" (sou of ray sorrow); but Ja- 
cob, to avert the evil omen, called liim "Ben Y'amin," 
son of the right hand; that is, of good luck (Gen. 
XXXV. 17, 18). 

Benjamin stayed with his fatlicr when his brothers 
went down to Egypt to buy corn during the famine, 
but Joseph insisted that he should come down with 
them on their second visit. Jacob being afraid to 
let him go from his side, as he was the only remain- 
ing son of Rachel, Jvidah vouclieil for his safety, and 
finally obtained his father's permission to take him 
along (Gen. xlii.. xliii. 8-10). Joseph received his 
younger brother witli marks of special attention ; 
but as the time came for the brothers to return to 
their fatlier with the newly bought corn, he put 
them severely to test by laying a traji and bringing 
the charge against Benjamin of having stolen his 
silver cup, in punishment for whicli he wanted to 
keep him as a slave. Judah, faithful to his pledge, 
stepped before Joseph, begging to be taken as a 
slave instead of Benjamin, whose failure to return 
would cause his father to go down in sorrow to 
Sheol ; whereupon Joseph, seeing that tlie brothers 
were not so cruel toward one of Racliel's sons as 
they had been to hini, made himself Iviiown to them 
(Gen. xliii., xlv.). Benjamin, until that time spoken 
of as "a child" (Gen, xlii. 13, xliv. 20), moved to 
Egypt with his father, Jacob, himself being the 
father of ten sons (Gen. xlvi. 21). 

The tribe of Benjamin is described in Jacob's 
blessing (Gen. xlix. 27) as warlike; "Benjamin is a 
wolf that raveneth; in the morning he shall devour 
tlie prey, at evening he shall divide the spoil." In 
the desert, where Benjamin formed ]>art of the camp 
of the sons of Joseph, the tribe counted 35,400 war- 
riors, and later on 45,600 men (Num. 
The Tribe i. 36; ii. 22, 23; x. 22-24; xxvi. 41). 
of In I C'hron. vii. 6-11, 59,434 men arc 

Benjamin, given. The astute and pugnacious 
nature of the Benjamites is evidenceil 
by the fact that they were drilled as left-handed 
warriors to attack the enemy unawares (Judges iii. 
1.5-21, XX. 16; I Chron. xii. 2). They were known 
as brave and skilled archers (I Chron. viii. 40, xii. 
2; II Chron. xiv. 7). A cruel act of inhospitality 
by the men of Gibeah, reminding one of the Sodom- 
ites, brought the whole tribe under a ban ("herem"); 
and a war followed in whicli all the other tribes 
very nearly exterminated the little tribe; moreover, 
they took an oath not to give to the Benjamites any 
of their daughters in marriage. Only at the last 
moment, when all but6(X)mcn had been slain, a wa.y 
was found to provide the; survivors with wives in 
order to prevent the tribe from dying o\it (Judges 
xix.-xxi.). Still the little tribe of Benjamin was 
destined to a prominent place in the history of Israel. 
It gave the nation its first king, in the person of 
Saul, son of Kish(I Sam. ix. 1); and when Saul died. 

his son, Ishbosheth, reigned for two years over 
Benjamin and the other tribes, except Judah (II Sam. 
ii. 8, 9). In fact, Benjamin considered himself the 
N'ounger brother of .loseph long after David had uni- 
ted all other tribes with his own of Judah (II Sam. 
xix. 21 [20]). 

But the tenitoty of Benjamin was so favorably 
situated as to give it prominence beyond its numer- 
ical proportions. Bordering on Joseiih's to the 
nortli and on .Tudah's to the .south, it touched on the 
Jordan; and, lying on the line leading from .lericho 
to the northern hills of Jerusah'm, it included such 
cities as Gibeah, Gibeon, Bethel, and, 
The according to rabbinical tradition, a 

Territory, part of the Tcmjih^ district (Josh, 
xviii. 11-21; .losephus, "Ant." v. 1. 
^ 22; .Sifrc, Wezot ha-Berakah, 352). Reference is 
made to this excellent locality in the blessing of 
Jloses; "The beloved of the Lord shall dwell in 
■safety by him; he covereth him all the day long, 
and he dwelleth between his shoulders "(Dent, xxxiii. 
12). At the secession of the northern tril)es, Benja- 
min remained loyal to the house of David (I Kings 
xii. 21), and therefore shared the destinies of Judah 
at the time of the restoration (Ezra iv. 1, x. 9). 
Mordecai, the loyal Jew, was a descendant of Saul 
of the tribe of Benjamin (Esth. ii. 5); and Paul, 
whose Hebrew name was Saul, also claimed to be a 
Benjauiite (Rom. xi. 1 ; Phil. iii. 5). On the other 
hand, it is hardly admissible that Jlcnclaus and Ly- 
siraachus should have been allowed to officiate as 
high priests if the}' were descendants of the tribe of 
Benjamin, as II Mace. iii. 4 (compare iv. 23, 29) 
seems to indicate ; it is much more probable that the 
name "Benjamin " in this place is due to a copyist's 
error, and the passage should read ; " Simon was of 
the [priestly] tribe of Miniamin," if "Bilgah " is not 
the proper reading. Compare Suk. 56a and art. 
Bii.G.vii ; also Herzfeld, "Gesch. des Volkes Jis- 
rael," 1863. i, 218. 

a. K. 
In Rabbinical Literature : The name " Ben- 
jamin " is given various meanings by the Rabins. 
According to some, ]'D'J3 is equivalent to D'D' p 
("son of days"), because Benjamin was born to his 
father in his old age (Testament of the Twelve Patri- 
archs, Benjamin i. vloc //uepijv; Midrash Lekah-Tob; 
and Rashi, ed. Berliner, on Gen. xxxv. 18). Other 
rabbis interpret the name Benjamin as " son of the 
South," since he was the only son born to Jacob in 
Palestine, the others having been born in Mesopo- 
tamia, north of Palestine (Rashi ud loc. ; "Sefer ha- 
Yashar," Wayishlah, ed. Leghorn, p. 56b). Benja- 
min was not granted to his parents until after Rachel 
had prayed and fasted for a second son a long time 
(Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs, Lc. ; Num. R. 
xiv. 8), and not until Jacob was one hundred years 
old (Testament of the Twelve Patriarch.s, /*. ; "Sefer 
ha-Y'ashar," Wayishlah, ib.; compare IIeili>rin, 
"Seder ha-Dorot," i. 52, ed. Warsaw). 

Benjamin, Joseph's brother, took no part in the 
selling of Joseph (Sifre, Deut. 352); and in order to 
comfort Benjamin concerning his brother's fate, God 
showed him, while awake, Joseph's form and count- 
enance (Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs, Ben- 
jamin X. ; compare Tan., ed. Buber, Wayesheb, 8). 

Benjamin II. 



When Benjamin was detained as the alleged thief 
of the cup, Joseiih pretended tliat Benjamin bad 
been instigated by his brothers. But Benjamin 
swore: "As truly as my brother Joseph is separated 
from me. as truly as he has been made a slave. I liave 
not touched the cup. and my brothers did not want 
to make me steal." When asked for a proof that his 
brother's memory was so sjicrcd that Joseph must 
believe this oath. Benjamin told Joseph how he had 
given his ten sous (Gen. .\lvi. 21) names which re- 
ferred to the loss of his brother. The first was called 
Belah (yi)D). because Joseph had disappeared (j;f)3. 
"swallow "): the second, Becher (n33), because Jo- 
seph was his mother's lirst-born (1133); the third. 
Ashbel (^3B'N). because Joseph was made a captive 
(riSK'. '"tapturc"): the fourth. Gera (N13). because 
he lived in a foreign {"M) land: the fifth, Xaaman 
(pyj). ou account of Joseph's graceful speech (DyiJ. 
"grace"); the si.\th. Ehi (TIN. "my only full broth- 
er"); the seventh, (E'Nl. "the older"); the 
eighth. Muppim (D'SD). liicause Joseph taught 
Benjamin the tliiutrs he himself had learned from 
his father (D'SID" double mouth "); the ninth. Hup- 
pim, " whose wedding (nSJin) I have not seen " : and 
the tenth, Ard, because Joseph was like a rose (T51). 

Benjamin's oath touched Joseph so deeply that 
he could no longer preten<l to be a stranger, and so 
revealed himself to his brother (Tan., cd. Buber. 
Wayiggash. 7 ; the meaniugs of the names are also 
given in Sotah 3()b: Gen. R. xciv. 8). According to 
another Haggadah (known to so early a work as the 
Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs. Benjamin ii.). 
Joseph makes himself known to Benjamin before 
his reconciliation with the other brothers. The 
".Seferha-Yashar" (Mikkez 89) narrates that Jo.seph 
caused a kind of astrolabe to be brought, and asked 
Benjamin whether he could not discover by means 
of the instrument the whereabouts of his lost brother. 
To Joseph's astonishment Benjamin declared that 
the man on the throne was bis brother, and Joseph 
revealed himself to Benjamin, telling him what he 
meant to do with the brothers. Ilis intention was 
to try them and thus to learn whether thej' would 
act in a brotherly manner toward Benjamin if he 
were in danger of losing his liberty. 

The Kabbis lay stress on the name, " beloved of the 
Lord," by which Benjamin is distinguished (Deut. 
xxxiii. 12 ; Sifre, I.e. ). He is counted among the four 
men who died by the poison of the serpent in Para- 
dise; i.e., without sin of his own, the other three 
being Amram, the father of Moses; Jesse, the father 
of David ; and Kileab, the son of David (Shab. 55b). 
His comparison to the ravening wolf (Cant. R. to 
viii. 1), " who devours his enemy " (Gen. xlix. 27) is 
referred to the men of Shiloh who stole their wives 
(Judges xxi.) or to Ehud or to Saul. By others it 
is referred to ilordecai and Esther (Gen. R. xcix. 
and Tan., Wayehi. 14; so also in the original text of 
the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs [Benjamin 
ii] ; whereas a Christian interpolation refers it to 

One interpretation refers the bles.sing to the early 
ripening of the fruits in the territory of Benjamin, 
and the great fertility of the region of Jericho and 
Beth-el, and another refers the expression "wolf" 
to the altar of the Temple, which devoured the sac- 

rifices in the morning and in the evening (Gen. R. 
I.e. ; Targ. O. and Yer. ). 


The erection of the Temple on Beujamitic ground 
is explained in several ways. It is related that Ben- 
jamin (Sifre, Deut. 352, ed. Friedmann, 
The Tribe 146a) was privileged to have the She- 
of dwell in his territory l>ecause 

Benjamiii. all the other tribes (that is. fathers of 
the tribes) had tsiken part in the selling 
of Joseph. For God said: "If they — the Israelites 
— build me a Temple in some otlier place and seek my 
mercy. I can show them as little mercy as they 
showed their brother Joseph." Origen ClnGene- 
sim." slii. 6), gives another reason, probably based 
on Jewish tradition (compare Esther R. on iii. 4), 
viz. : Because Benjamin did not bow down before 
Esau as did his brothers and his father (Gen. xxxiii. 
;3-7), nor before Joseph (ih. xlii. 6). his territory 
was reserved for the worship of God. 

The descendants of Benjamin, it is true, did not 
always show themselves worthy of their ancestor, 
especially in connection with the inciiient at Gibeah 
(Judges xix.). In spite of their wrong-doing the 
Benjamites were at first victorious (Judges xx. 21- 
2o); but this was due to God's anger against all 
Israel because they had attacked all Benjamin on 
accoimt of the crime of an individual, and at the 
same time quietly tolerated the idolatry which Micah 
(Judges xvii.) was .spreading among them (Pirke R. 
El. XXX viii.). At first the intention of the other 
tribes was to efface Beujuniin completely, since the 
number of twelve tribes could be preserved through 
Ephraimaml Manasseh; but the}' remembered God's 
promise to Jacob shortly before Benjamin's birth 
(Gen. XXXV. 11), that "a nation and a company of 
nations shall be of him " ; and they decided that the 
existence of the tribe of Benjamin was necessary 
(Yer. Ta'anit iv. 69c; Lam. R.. Introduction, 33). 
The day ou which the reconciliation took place be- 
tween the tribes is said to have been the fifteenth of 
Ab, and for this reason il was matle a festive day 
{ib. ; compare An, Fifteenth D.\y ok). On an- 
other occasion, however, the Benjamites showed 
themselves worthy of their pious ancestor. When, 
at the Red Sea, all the other tribes stood in despera- 
tion only the tribe of Benjamin trusted in God and 
leaped into the sea (Jlekilta, Beshallah. Wayiljira 5 ; 
Sotah 36b). 
.J. SK. L. G.— K. 

In Stohainiiiedan Literature : In the Koran. 

Benjamin is not mentioned by name. The story of 
Joseph is told in sura xii. , and reference is made 
repeatedly to a particular brother of Joseph. Thus. 
e.g., in v. 8. the other brothers say, "Verily, Joseph 
and his brother are dearer to our father than we." . 
Baidawi explains that Benjamin is so specified 
because he was brother to Joseph on both sides. 
Again, in v. 69, "And when they entered to Joseph, 
he took his brother to him." Baidawi explains this 
that he made him sit at meat with him or live with 
him in his dwelling. He adds, as a tradition, that 
Joseph made his brothers sit two by two : so Benja- 
min remained alone and wept and said, " If my 
brother Joseph had been alive he would have sat 
with me." "Then Joseph made him sit at his table. 



Benjamin II. 

Thereafter he assigned houses to his brothers, two 
by two, but took Benjaniiu to liis own house. And 
he said to Benjamin, " Would you like if I were 
your brother in the stead of the brother who is lost?'' 
And Benjamin re|ilied. " Who ran find a l>rother like 
to you? l)ut .Jaeob did not beget you, nor Raehel 
bear you." 

o. D. B. M. 

Critical View : The story of Benjamin in (ieii- 

esis is drawn from tlirce different sourees: The Elo- 
hist, who wrote the story of Benjamin's birth (Gen. 
XXXV. ]6-3'2), makes Keul)en vouch for Benjamin 
(Gen. xlii. 37); whereas the Jahvist assigns this act 
to Judah (xliii.-xliv.), Tlie latter makes Joseph 
give vent to his brotherly feeling at the first sight 
of his younger brother Benjamin, and give him 
five times as many presents, without, liowever, 
betraying himself (.\liii. 30-84), and afterward, at 
the ref^ognition scene, sliow ids affection for him 
without reserve (xlv. 14): while the merely 
rt^lates at the end that Benjamin was distinguished 
by receiving five times as many presents as the 
others (xlv. 23). The genealogical chapter which 
represenis Benjamin as the father of a large family 
(xlvi. 21) is of a far later date than the rest. (In 
the older sources he apjiears to be a young child 
[xlii. 4, IT); xliv. 20].) The blessing of Jaeob, in 
which Benjamin — who, after Joseph, was the last of 
the .sons — is described as being warlike, as was the 
tribe in the time of Deborah (.lodges v. 14), yet with- 
out any allu.sion to Satd's kingdom, is best ascribed 
to the time of the Judges (Dillman, C'onunentary). 
The story of the war at Gibeah (Judges xi.\.-xxi.), 
which bears evidences of very lute composition and 
has many legendary features, such as exaggeration 
of nunibeis and modes of warfare, has been rather 
too rashly declared to be a late invention inserted 
with the intention of covering up atrocities jierpe- 
trated by llie tribe of Judah under King David 
against the kinsmen of Saul (Glidemann, " Monats- 
sehnft," 1W69, p. 357: Geiger, "Jiid. Zeit." 1SU9, p. 
284; (Jratz, "Gesch. der Juden," i. 3,51 et mq. ; Well- 
hausen, " Kompositiou des Hexateuchs," p. 237; 
Kuenen, " Hi.storisch Kritische Untersuchung liber 
dieEntstehung und Samndungder Bilchcrdcs Alteu 
TestanK^ids," ii. 103). Hecent critics think it far 
more ijrobable that it rests on a historical fact 
(Moore, (Jonunentar}- on Judges, pp. 400-408 ; Ilogg, 
in Cheyne and Black, " Encyc. Bibl."; Nijldeke, 
(juoted 1)V the latter on p. .'536. note 3). This indeed 
seems to account for the sudden change in the char- 
acter of the tribe (see (JiMi;.\li). 

In the lime of David the tribe of Benjamin fol- 
lowed the leadership of Joseph or Ephraini, consid- 
ering itself closel_v related to the latter, and there- 
fore jealous of Judah's rising power (II Sam. xix. 
21 [20]). The blessing of Moses (Dent, xxxiii. 12), 
which represenis Benjamin as per- 
Koses' fectly identified with Judah's interests. 

Blessing, is probably the product of the time of 
Jeroboam II. (Driver, Commentary, 
pp. 387 et acq.). Stade (" Gesch. des Volkes Israel," 
i. 161; idem. "Zeitsehrift," i. 114) and Hogg 
("Encyc. Bibl." a.v. "Benjamin") explain the name 
"Benjamin " as a derivative of " Yemini " (compare 
I Sam. ix. 1, "Ish Yemini," and I Sam. ix. 4, "Erez 

Y'emini "), denoting the people living to the soutli 
or right of the Ephraimite highland ; the story of 
Benjamin's birth in Canaan being taken as reflecting 
in mythical form the fact of its having branched off 
from the tribe of Joseph after the other tribes had 
settled in their various territories (.Judges i. 22, 23, 
35). The house of Joseph, according to Moore, in- 
cludes Benjamin. Stade (" Gesch. des Volkes Israel," 
i. 138) thinks tliat the account of Benjamin was lost. 
The report that the large number of 280,000 archers, 
said to be the tribe of B<'njamin, belonged to King 
Asa (II C'hron. xiv. 7; compare xvii. 17) is re- 
garded as unhistorical. Regarding the listofBen- 
jamite towns in Josh, xviii. 21-28, belonging to the 
late priestly writer (P) and the one in Neh. xi. 31-35, 
which lielongsto ihe lat<' chronicler, see Palestine.'nv: Hastings, Diet. Bilite; Cheyne and Black. 
Emui-. BihL; Winer, B. U.: Hamhurger, H. B. T. s.v. Ben- 
jnmin: (ieiger, JUit. Zeit. 18119, pp. 2«4-2a2; Stade, Gcvch. 
den Toifccs Israel, 1. KiO-lfiS. 
G. K. 

BENJAMIN II., J. J. (real name, Joseph 
Israel): Bumunian traveler; born at Foltieheni. 
.Moldavia, in 1818; died at London May 3, 1864. 
Married young, he engaged in the lumber business, 
but losing his modest fortune, he gave up com- 
merce. Being of an adventurous disposition, he 
adopted the name of Benjamin of Tudela, the fa- 
mous Jewish traveler of the twelfth century, and 
toward the end of 1844 set out to search for Ihe Lost 
Ten Tribes. He first 
went to Vienna, and in 
January, 1845, started 
for Constantinoi)le, vis- 
iting several cities on 
the Mediterranean. He 
landed at Alexandria 
June, 1847, and pro: 
cecded via C!airo to 
Palestine. He then 
traveled througli Syria, 
Babylonia, Kurdistan, 
Persia, the Indies, 
Kabul, and Afghanis- 
tan, returning June, 
and thence to Vienna. After a short stay in the last- 
named city, he went to It<ily, embarking there for 
Algeria and Morocco. On arriving in France, after 
having traveled for eight years, he [irepared in He- 
tirew Ills impressions of travel, and had the book 
translated into French. After sulVering many trib- 
ulations in obtaining subscriptions for his book, he 
issued it in 1856, under the title "Cinq Annecs en 
Orient" (1846-51). The same work, revised and 
enlarged, was subsequently pul)lished in German 
under the title " Acht Jahre in Asien und Afrika'' 
(Hanover, 18.58), with a ]ireface by Kayserling. An 
Englisli version has also been published. As the 
veracity of his accounts and thi^ genuiueni'ss of 
his travels were attacked by some critics, he amply 
defend(;d himself by producing letters and other 
tokens proving his journey to the various Oriental 
countries named. Benjamin relates only what he 
has seen; and. although some of his remarks show 
insufficient scholarship and lack of scientific method, 

iii-ujauiiu II. 

BenjEunin, R. 
Benjamin b. Ihi 



liis truthful ami simple imiTiitivc iraimd the ap- 
pDval of eminent scholare like lluniboUlt, Peter- 
mann. ami Hiehter. 

In lt*")a Benjamin undertook another joumej-, 
this time to Ameriea. where he stayed three years. 
The result of liisohservations there he published on 
his return, under the title "Drei Jahrc in Amerika" 
(Hanover, lH(i3). The kings of Sweden and of 
Hauover now conferred distinctions upon him. En- 
couraged by the .sympathy of sevend .scientists, who 
drew up a plan and a series of suirjrestions for his 
guidance, he determined to go again to Asia and 
Africa, and went to London in order to raise funds 
for tin's journey — a journey which was not to be 
imdertaken. AVoni out by fatigues and privations, 
which had c!iu.sed him to grow old before his time 
and gave him the ap|)earance of age. he died poor 
in London ; and his friends and admirers had to ar- 
range a public subscription iu order to save his wife 
and daughter from misery. 

In addition to the works mentioned above, Benja- 
nun published "Jawan Me/.ula, Schilderung des 
Polnisch-Kosakischen Krieges und der Leiden der 
Judcn in Poland Wiilirend der .lahre i648-.53, Bc- 
richt eines Zeitgenossen nach einer von L. Lelewel 
Durchgeschenen Fnin/.osischen I'ebersetzimg. Iler- 
ausgcgeben von .1. .1. Benjamin II.," Hanover, lti63, 
a German edition of Kabbi Xathan Xata Hanover's 
work on the insurrection of the in the sev- 
enteenth century, willi a preface by Kayserling. 
BiBLiOGR-VPHv: Jr)ri.ili Chrnnicli; Mav i:i. ISW. 

s- E. Sd. 

BENJAMIN, B.: A tanna of the second centurv. 
conlemporary of H. Klca/.ar ben Shanimu'a, with 
whom he carried on some halakic controversy (Ket. 
84a). He is also mentione<l in connection with Svm- 
machus (Xiddah 211)); and elsewhere (Sem. ix.) lie 
reports a Hahikah iu the name of H. Akiba. In one 
halakic controversy, the participants in which leave 
no doubt as to his identity, his name appears as 
"Minyamin" (Yer. Sotah i. 16c), "Polimo'' (Pahe 
mon. Sotah 4a; Tan., Xaso, 7). and "Peuimon" 
(Xum. H. i.v. 10). The last-mentioned form is also 
found in Yer. Ter. iii. 42b as "Abba Peuimon." 
where the context i)ermits of the assumption that 
it is meant for " H. Benjamin." (For the identity 
of Benjamin and Minyamin. see Ann.v Bkn- 
.[.\Mix: •'Pelimo" and " Penimon " appear to be Ilel- 
lenizationsof "Benjamin.") R. B<'njamiii may like- 
wise be identified with Abba Benjannn. who. in a 
group of homilies (Ber. 'th ,t Kcf/.). remarks. "Were 
thehumaueye permitted to perceive them no human 
being would be able to live because of the evil spirits 
which fill the imiverse." He also teaches that no 
prayer is acceptable e.xcept that otfered in the public 
house of worship. This he bases on I Kings viii. 28 
"... to hearken unto the song and unto the 
prayer": where the song is heard there prayer will 
be heard (compare Tos. on 'Ab. Zanih 4b, s.'e. n<3) 
J- f'" S. M. 

BENJAMIN BEN AAKON : Hasidic writer; 
lived tiiwanl tin- i iid of tin- eighteenth century. 
He was a pupil of Israel Ba'al Shem-Tob, and 
of Baer of Mcseritz. Later, in 1T90, he was a 
preacher at Zlazitz. He was the author of the fol- 

lowing works: (1) "T"rf Zahab" (Golden Neck- 
laces), Mohilev, 1816, homilies on the Pentateuch, 
Lamentations, and Esther: (2) "Aliawat Dodiin " 
(The Love of Friends). Lemberg, 1795, homilies on 
the Song of Songs: (3l " Amtahat Binyamin" (Ben- 
jamin's Sack), Minkowicz, 1769, on Ecclesiastes ; 
(4) "Helljat Binyamin" (Benjainin's Patrimony), 
Lemberg. 1793. a conuueutary on the Passover Hag- 

BiiiLloGRAPiiy: Ouir ha-Sefarim, pp. 18, 44, 198,675; Wal- 
den. Shun ha-CiihiUin hc-tlailash. s.v. 
I., i;. 1 Bkr. 


Soi.xiK, Ben.i.\.mi.n A-vitoN 1'.. ABi{.\n.\.M. 

AxAw. Ben.i.\mix li. Ar.i!AiiA>t. 

TAL. Sic Vital. BEX.JAMtN Alessaxdiui Kohen. 

BENJAMIN B. 'ASHTOB: A Palestinian 
halakist of tlie third amoraic generation, contem- 
l^orary of R. Hiyya b. Abba and senior to R. Heze- 
kiah (Y'er. Bik. i 64a). He is also cited as simply 
Bar 'Ashtor. withotit his pra'nomen, ('/'. 

.1. SK. S. M. 

sician "): A Babylonian rabbinic .scholar of the third 
and fourth amoraic generations (fourth century), 
contemporary of Rab Joseph and Raba. and founder 
of a school named after him, Debe Miuyomi Asya. 
It is reported that the disciples of his school spoke 
disrespectf ullj' of the Rabbis, saying, " Of what ben- 
efit are the rabbis to us'? They have never proved 
it to be lawful for us to eat the raven, or to be un- 
lawful to eat the pigeon!" (meaning to sa}- that, 
in spite of their disputations and hair-splitting aigu- 
ments, the Rabbis have no authority to alter or 
abrogate a Biblical precept [Sanh. Qdhetseg.] ). Raba 
obtained from Benjamin some medical informa- 
tion; and when on one occasion he publiclj- lectured 
on the subject before the people of Mal.uiza. Benja- 
nun's sons or disciples, who seem to have formed a 
medical gild, resented this publication of their pro- 
fessional secrets (Shab. 133b ; ' Ab. Zarah 28b). Ben- 
jamin Asya is probably identical with Jlinyomi b. 
Xihumi, the contemporary of Amemar I. (Ket. 69a), 
to whom Abaye appealed from a decision of Rab 
J().seph (ill. 81b). Brull identifies Benjamin Asya 
with Bar Xathan Asya, who once manifested his 
disregard for rabbinic enactments by traveling on 
the second day of the Feast of Weeks from Beram 
(sorne read "Be Rab " = school) to Pumbedita. on 
which account Rab Joseph excommunicated him 
(Pes. 52a; see Dikduke Soferim. ad loc.). Brull dis- 
covers in thisschool the origin of KaraismC'Jahri) " 
i. 225). 

'• ^" S. M. 

Melbourne: born at London in 1836. At the'age of 
nme he accompanied his parents to Victoria. Asso- 
ciating himself at first with the firm of Benjamin & 
Co., merchants, he subsequentlv entered into part- 
nership with the late Hon. Edward Cohen. In 1870 
I'LT'f ^ '■"'■'■''■'^ member of the Citv Council : and in 
1881 became an alderman of the ward he had hitherto 
represented. Notwithstanding heavy municipal 
labors. Sir Benjamin always took a livelv interest 



Benjamin, R. 
Benjaniin b. Ihl 

in communal affairs. l\v identified liimsell largely 
with the growth of the iMelbourue Hebrew Congre- 
gation and its various edueational and charitable in- 
stitutions, on the boards of wliich lie was a most 
active worker. He is a trustee of the Jewish Phil- 
anthropic Society and the Ladies' Hebrew Benevo- 
lent Society ; a representative of the Melbourne 
Province in the Legislative Council: and a ju.stice 
of the peace, both for Victoria and New South 
Wales. He was elecle<l mayor of JMelbourue iu 
October, 1887; and so admirably did he perforin the 
duties of his otiice that he was uuanimously re- 
elected. In May, 1889, the honor of knighthood was 
conferred on him in recognition of his distinguished 
municipal services. 
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Jiirixli Clir<iiiiili\ May :!l, ISK9: Peiiple iif 

the Period. 1K97. 

G. L 

BRIDGE : English lablii : disciple of Rabbi Tiiiii : 
died at the beginning of the tliirteeutli century. 
He is mentioned in the list of medieval rabbis drawn 
upby Solomon Luria(seeGr!Uz, "Gesch. der Juden," 
vi. 36.5). Onlj' one halakic decision of his is known : 
it forbids the purchase of milk from a Gentile unless 
a Jew be preseut when it is drawn (Mordecai, 'Abo- 
dah Zarah, ii. 826). But a certain number of notes 
liy a Rabbi Benjamin on Joseph Kiinhi's "Sefer 
ha-Galuy " have been attributed liy Matthews, 
the editor of Kimhi's book, to Benjaniin of Canter- 
bury ("Jewish Quarterly' Review, "ii. 327). Benjamin 
seems to have been a member of the English school 
of Masorites and grammarians, including Moses ben 
Isaac, Moses ben Yoin-Tob, Bereeliiah ha-Nakdan, 
and Samuel ha-Nakdan, the last of whom he quotes. 
It is possible that he came from C'ambridge rather 
than from Canterbury, the transliteration of the 
former {X''3"l30p) being sufliciently near to that of 
the latter (XnUDJp). For while there is no Benja- 
min mentioned as living at Canterbury in the twelfth 
century, there is a rather distinguished "Magister 
Benjamin " of Cainltridge mentioned in the Pipe 
Roll's of the fifth year of John (1304). Berechiah 
ha-Nakdan, in his commentary on .lob, refers to 
"my Uncle Benjamin," who was probably the same 

Bini.ioORAPHY : Jarohs, Jt'ivn of Aniirriii Ki\Qla)if1, pp. 54, 
281, 2H2; Eppeiisteiii, in Monatsschrlft, xl. 17S, xli. 232. 

BENJAMIN, DAVID: Communal worker; 
burn in London iu 181.<; died there June 2.5, 189.3. 
In 183.5 he emigrated to Australia; and, while in 
Tasmania, assisted iu founding a synagogue. Soon 
afterward he settled in Melbourne, joining his 
brother Solomon, who is justly regarded as the 
founder of the Melbourne Jewish community. The 
firm of Benjamin Bros, was among the early pio- 
neers of the British settlement in the colony of Vic- 
toria. The firm prospered greatly. Inlying crude gold 
direct from the aborigines, and making large pur- 
chases on which the banks were reluctant to venture. 
Benjamin had also a large interest in the Bank of 
New South Wales. He endeavored to maintain the 
Jewish spirit of ob.servance in the colony, and per,son- 
ally attended the Jewish sick in Melboiirne. In 1854 
he returned to England, where he devoted him- 

self entirely to the community, becoming connected 
with the Jewish Board of Guardians, the Bayswater 
Synagogue, and the Jews' Hospital and Orphan 
Asylum. Benjamin was treasurer of the Bayswater 
Synagogue from 1865 to 1871, and warden from 
1871 to 1875. He was a life memlier of the council 
of the United Synagogue from its foundation, and 
was one of the seven elders of the United Syna- 
gogue. He was a prominent worker on behalf of 
the Jewish Board of Guardians. labored untiringly 
in its cause, and was very munificent in his dona- 
tions to charity. 

lliBi.UMiRAPiiY: Jeicinh Chrnnirh- ami JricMi IVorlit, June 
:j(i, iKiKi. 

•I G. L. 

Bi;.N.i A.MIN i;. Davu) 

Bk.n.ia.min is. Ei.i.iaii. 

A Palestinian amora of the fourth generation (fourth 
century), conteraiiorary of R. Aha III. (Yer. Ma'as. 
Sh. V. .56b; Yer. Yeb. i. 2b). His name is but rarely 
met with in the Talmud, and then only in the Hala- 
kah (Yer. Ma'as. i. 49a; Hul. 12.5a). It is probable 
that he was the son of Giddel b. Benjamin (Min- 
yomi) and therefore of Babylonian descent. 

•I. sii. ■ S. M. 

(Jazaka in Media Atropateue); A Babylonian scholar 
of the third century, coutemporary of Mar Sam- 
uel. All that is known of him is that death 
overtook him when he was on the point of de- 
ciding a ritual question in accordance with the views 
of Rab, as opposed to those of Samuel. Hearing of 
this circumstance, Samuel thanked God, who had 
prevented the promulgation of an erroneous deci- 
siim; and to the prime mover thereof, his friend 
Rab, he applied the Scriptural saying (Prov. xii. 
21), "Ther<> shall no mischief happen to the just" 
(Yer. Ber. ii. ob). In Babli (Niddali 6.5a) the name 
appears as " Min3'amin Sakasnaah " (of Sacassana. a 
province of Armenia). 

■I. sit. S. M. 

BENJAMIN, HILLEL: Polish architect of 
the second half of the eighteenth century ; born at 
Lasko. He was the builder of the synagogue at 
Liitomierz, which was constructed during the reign 
of the last kiug of Poland, Stanislaus August I. Ben- 
jamin seems to have studied in Germany. He en- 
joyed in his fatherland a certain reputation; for in 
the documents he is always callcil " architect. " After 
finishing the synagogue at liUtomierz, he was com- 
missioned to construct one at Zloczow, which, how- 
ever, he did not In examining the roof he 
fell to the ground and died. He is buried in the 
cemetery of Zloczow. 

BiDLiOfiRAPiiY: Mathias Bersohn, A'iUiiT .sV.iic, |inrt ii., p. 31; 
<M u»(l IVext, tail. No. 4, p. 2S(;. 



Babylonian scholar of the second and tliird ainoraic 
generations (third century); brother of Abbahu b. 
Ihi, the disciple of Samuel. Both brothers, while 
intensely exclusive and diffident, so that they would 
have no dealings with Gentiles (Meg. 28a), were 

Benjamin b. Isaac 
Benjamin, Judah 



very coiisiik-iato toward tlieir scrviiiits. Udi- of the 
bri)tlRTs aiiaiigtd tlml they should iccuive one dish 
from their nmsler's tal)lc: tin- oilier would have 
them partake of every dish. I,egeiid states tliat the 
latter brother was therefore deemi'd worthy of re- 
ccivinjr visits from the jiropliet Klijah (Ket. Ola). 

.T. .<!!. ' S M. 

SONNE : This scholar is kiiou ii only b}' liis trans- 
lation from l.alin iiilo llelinw. tiuder the title of 
"E/.er Eloah " (Divine Help), of the work of Jean 
de Boiirsiogne. of the province of Liefje, ou tin- cor 
ruption of the air by the plague. This work, which 
contiiins in the appendix many empiric remedies 
against divers ills, is preserved in manuscript iu the 
Bibliotheque Nationalc of J>aris (No. 1191, fol. 141b 
194a); only one other nianuseripl copy being known 
to exist, and that is in the library of Baron D. de 
GUnzburg. Of the original, which was jxTliaps 
written in French, hanlly any tifues are left; that 
is, of the treatise described as "On the Kpidemic, in 
Prose," Xo. 853 of the Library of the Louvre, or the 
private library of Charles V., king of France. This 
is undoubtedly the lillle book, says Leopold De- 
lisle (MSS. de la Hibliollivnue Nationale, 1S91, iii. 
153, note 1), of which there is a copy at the end of 
MS. Fraii(;ais 12,;«:i. under the title, "The Treatise 
Which the Masters of Medicine and the Astron- 
omers of Pan's Wrote of the Plague Which Physics 
Calls the Epidemic, in the Year of Our Lord, N. S. 
MCCC^XLVHL" or perhaps the little book wiitten 
in 13()5 by Master Jean de Bourgogne, surnamed 
"With the Beard," professor of medicine, and citizen 
of Liege (Delisle, "(Observations sur Plusieurs MS8. 
de la Collection Barrois," p. 55). 

The date of the Hebrew work may therefore be 
fixed, at least approxiinat<dy. The second book of 
Jean was written in 1305, and was translated by 
Benjamin a few years later. al)out 1370. Now, the 
author had said in the [ireface, asfar asonecan.iudge 
from the Hebrew version, that alreaciy in the "year 
22," when the plague broke out for the first time. 
he had written a similar beginning with the 
words »^X '7S (" ^ly Cod, my God ") (Steinschneider. 
"Hebr. rebels." p. 804). With what does the num- 
ber 22 correspond? Steinschneider acutely remarks 
("Hebr. Uebers." I.e.): "The date 22 |p>li)J could 
only mean 122 [=1302]"; but that does not tally 
with the lirst outbreak of the IJlack Death, in 134s. 
Doubth'ss a Jewish era was substituted in the trans 
lation, probably through a copyist's mistake. Could 
Jean have meant that he wrote this book twentv 
two years before? Then this treatise was written 
in 1370, as staled by Amplon ("Autre Fonds de la 
Bibliothi^que Bodlciemie," No. 192^). This tallies 
with the note cited by j\I. Delisle. The doubt as to 
the date dctra<-ts in no wise from the interest of this 
medical treatise, which was .saved fiom oblivion by 
the version of Benjamin of Carcassonne. 
liiDLiofiiiAPnv: Slclnselineli'.er, In Z. D. M. O. xxix. ItU; 

idem. In MdiKizin.xH. Wi; Idem, llchr. [Icbers. p. S0( ; 

Ecrinnii.1 Juifs, xxvll., ItW, T.j:;, iiiiil x.xxl. 723; Gross, Unl- 

lia Jmlaica, p. 617. 

o. M. S. 

BENJABnN B. JAPHET : A Palestinian 
scholar of the third amoraic generation (third cen- 
tury), disciple of R. Johanau and senior to R Zel'ra 

I. (Ber. 33a, 38b; Kot. 77a). He cultivated both the 
Halakah and the Hagga<lah ; in his halakic deliver- 
ances, however, he was not considered very reliable. 
Thus wlien, ou one occasion, Hiyya b. Abba and he 
differed ou a traditional decision by their master, R. 
ZeYra remarked. "What does \i. Benjamin b. Japhet 
amount to compared with R. Hiyya b. Abba? "(Ber. 
38b; Yer. Ber. vi. 10a; Y<r. Pes. ii. 29c). Never- 
theless, this same R. ZeYra had occasion to thank 
Benjamin for communicaliug to him a Halakah in 
the name of R. Johanau (Shah. 53al In the Hagga- 
dah. Benjamiu wasa follower of R. Eleazar b. Pedat, 
whose expositionsand s;iyiiigs he frequently reports 
(Meg. 10b; Sanh. 7a; compare Ex. R. xli. ; Lev. R. 
X.). — [Yer. Ber. iii. Od ; Yoma29a; Y'er. Sanh. i. 18a; 
Shebu. 18b; Hul. 52b (correctly quoted iu MS. M); 
Pesik. vii. 03b, viii. 08b; Pesik.R. xvii. ; Midr. Teh. 
xxii. ; Gen. R. xliii. ; Tan., ed. Btiber, Ixik Leka, 

BiBLiO(iRAPHv: Kranki'l, Mtlm. p. lilla; Heilprin, Seder ha- 
Jhiritt^ ed. Wilna, ii. S.T ; Luncz, Jerusalem, i. KU, in which 
Benjaiiitn's jcrave is said to be at Safed. 
.1. su. S. M. 


TalmudisI ; lived at the l)cgiuniug of the seventeenth 
century. He was the author of "Gib'at Benjamin " 
(Benjamin's Height). Lublin. 1017, an alphabetical 
index to Jacob b. Asher's four Turiin. The book is 
\-ery rare, never having becfii reijrinted. although it 
is an excellent index to the Turini. 

Hini.ionKAPiiv: .Aziilai. Shcm ha-0(diiliiu, ni. Wilna, ii. 33; 
Michael, Or ha-Hatfj/im, Xo. 591. 

L. G 

BENJAMIN BEN JOAB (called also De Syn- 

agoga, accoidiiig to Zunz): Payyetan; lived at 

Monlalcino in the fourteenth century. His printed 

poems arc: (1) A metrical introduction to the"Nish- 

mat " for Passover. Every strophe of this poem has 

ten lines of seven syllables. (2) A selihah of Ave 

stiophes, with a refrain ending with the words 

a: nn'?Sn C'Oh, give us prosperity ").;RAPHY: Zunz, Literalurtii-M'h. p. :ia5; Landshuth, 
Ammiult lia-'AlMdah,p. 17. 

1 <'■ L Bk. 




stalcsmau and lawyer, liorn at Si. Croix, West In- 
dies, in 181 1 ; died in Paris, May 6, 1884. His parents 
were Knglisli. Jews who. some years befoie his birth, 
had removed from London to St. Croix, then a 
British island, in the hope of improving their fortune 
in the New World. A few years after his birth, his 
family removed from St. Croix to reside in Wilming- 
ton, N. C, and young Benjamin soon afterwani 
was sent to school at Fayetlevillc. Subsequently 
he spent three years at 'Yale College. His parents 
sevend times changed their residence, until they 
finally settled in New ( )rleatis. La. There Benjamin 
served as a notary's clerk for some time, taught 
school, studied law, and on Dec. 10, 1832, was ad- 
mitted to the Louisiana bar. 

Louisiana had been acquired by the United States 
from France but a short time previously, and its 
language and legal system were still largely those 



BeAJainin b. Isaac 
Benjamin, Judah 

<if France. Tlie broadening intluences of tlie 
necessary niasLery of different sj-stcms of law and 

literature left their mark upon Benja- 
Practises inin. and can be traced in the breadth 
Law of gras]i. |ildloso|iliical reasoning, and 

in New wide readinjr to which lie subsequent- 
Orleans, ly attained. Nor should uotice bo 

omitted of certain other formative in- 
tluences. which the London "Times" (Atay 9, 1884) 
commented upon in a sympatbclically worded obit- 
uary; his inheritance of "' that elastic resistance to 
<;vil fortune which preserved Jlr. IJeujaniin's ances 
tors through a succession of exiles and phuiderings. 
and reappeared in the Minister of the Confederate 
cause, together with the same refined apprehension 
of logical problems which inl'orMiedtbc subtleties of 
the Talmud." 

Benjamin's smei'ss at tbe l,niiisi;iiia liar was re 
markably rapi<l. At first he had found time to pre 
pare, for his own, a "Digest of the Heported 
Decisionsof the Supreme Court of the Lale Territory 
of Orleans and of the Supreme ('ourt of Louisiana," 
which was the earliest digest of Louisiana law. 
Tog(!ther with liis friend Thomas Slidell, he edite<l 
and prejiared this for publication in 1H34. Hoon, 
however, liis law practise liecanie more engrossing: 
and. asoneof the recognized leadersof the Louisiana 
bar, lie rapidly ac(|iiircd a comiietence which en 
abled him to withdraw from tlu! legal arena, pur- 
chase a sugar-plantation near IS'ew Orleans, and 
devote himself to sugar-planting and seii'ntiticexpo 
sitions of the hest methods of eNtracting saccharine 
matter from the cane. 

Politics also actively interested lieujainiii, and 
troiii liiiK' to time he was elected to various local 

ollices. Thus, he was one of tiie most 

Sugar- active and influential members of the 

Planter and fjouisiana Constitutional (Convention 

Politician, of 1S44-4.'), and of that of lK,-)3. In 

1H49 he was a successful presidential 
elector at large for the state of Louisiana, and as 
such cast his l)allot for General Taylor as presid<'nt 
of the United States. Originally a Whig, Benjamin 
became, during the clijuigc of parly tii-s. a distin- 
guished Democratic leader. Meanwhile, however, 
tlie destruction of his properly by inundations had 
driven him back to the active practise of law, where 
success onc(! mon: awaited him. 

That the iiumberof Benjamin's famous legal cases 
was very large is evidenced by an examination of 
the law reports of the period. Particularly notable 
was his conduct of the cases which grew out of the 
attempt to recover insurance for a cargo of slaves 
lost by reason of an insurrection on board the "Cre- 
ole," and his connection with enormously valuable 
California lanil-title cases, in one of which his fe(^ is 
said to have been !?'i">,(l()(l, a very larg(^ sum for thai 
day. During the October ( 1S48) term of the Su- 
preme Court of the I'liited States he was admiltcd 
to practise before that body, and soon became om 
of the leaders of the federal bar. Benjamin's legal 
talents were so generally recognized thai Presideiil 
Pierce tendered him the jjosifion of associate justice 
of the United Stales Supreme Court; but he pre- 
ferrcii his activitiesat thebar and in iiolilios. I're- 
viously, when President Taylor's cabinet was being 

formed, Benjamin's name had been under considera- 
tion for a cjibinet portfolio. In 18r)2 he was elected 
to the United States Senate from Louisiana, and was 
reele<'tcd at the expiration of his term, six years later. 
In l.S.iti Benjamin was one of a small 
United group of senators that succeeded in 
States securing the nomination of Buchanan 
Senator. for president, as against Douglas, and 
he enjoyed great iiitiuence with the 
liuchaiian administration until inimediately before 
the outbreak of the Civil war. 

In t he Senate he was soon recognized as one of tl^' 
alilest debaters; and Charles Sumner con.siderid liim 



(l^j> Q^' 

the most brilliant orator in the United States, His 
readiness in debate was remarkable; and he gener- 
ally spoke on the sjiur of the moment without 
preparation. An examination of the "Congres- 
sional (Jlobe" of the time shows that almost invari- 
ably friends and foes alike were so much impressed 
by his orat<ir_y as to feel obliged t<i pay tribute to him 
on the spot. Of his farewell address, upon leaving 
tli(' Senate when his state, Louisiana, seceded from 
the Um'on, Sir George Cornewall Lewis said to Lord 
ShiMbidokc: "Have you read Benjamin's si)eech? 
It is better than our Benjamin | meaning Disraeli] 
could have done." 

Benjamin was fre(iiiently called upon to <leliver 
addresses and orations on national liolidays and 
other non political occasions; and comp(!tent judges 
declare that he was even happier at these times than 
in his political addresses and argunients. His right 
to b(,' regarded as one of the greatest of th(! world's 
orators is no longer open to dispute It was recentlj' 
forcibly evidenced by his inclusion, w ilh appropriate 
examples of his style and comment, in the com- 
prehensive and judiciously edited series of "The 
World's Best Orators" {x 117-1 10) as well as in "The 
Worhl's Best Orations " (i. 398), the former edited by 
Prof. Guy Catleton Lee. and the latter by Justice 
David J. Brewer. Henry [,. Dawes, surely no in- 

Benjamin, Judah 
Benjamin. Michael 



different judge, 1ms well cliissed Beujamiu with 
Sumner and Bceeher, Wendell Phillips, Yaneey, and 
Breekinridjre, asliavinir "stirred multitudes, aroiised 
jjassions. and tired the puhlie heart in terms not less 
eloquent than the loftiest jiroduetionsof Foxor Pitt, 
of Patriek Henry or .lohn Adams." 

In the Senate IJenjamin's constitutional and legal 
arguments ever attracted iiartieular attention, and 
made him the leader //(/;• fjvcWfVirc in the defensi- of 
slavery and, later on. of seees.sion. He never ac- 
tively identified himsilf with .lewish eonununal af- 
fairs; but his views and actions led to much unjus- 
tified identification of American .Tews generally witli 
the pro-slavery cause (see Anti-Si. .vvkuv JIovk- 
MENT IX America). Thus, one of his most iiower- 
fvil pro-slavery outbursts provoked 
Pro- Senator Wade's sjitirical reference in 

Slavery the Senate to " Israelites with Egyp- 
Advocate. tian prinei]iles'": and even more pro- 
nounced attacks in the Senate and in 
the Northern press generally, on the Jews as favoring 
slavery, followed, when Benjamin became so promi- 
nently identified witli llie cause of the Confederacy. 

The late Isjiac M. Wise, in his "Reminiscences." 
gives an account of an interesting discussion between 
Benjamin. Daniel Webster. Jlaiiry tlie scientist, and 
himself, relative to tlieir religious faiths, in the course 
of which Benjamin declined to pernut his Jewish 
religious views to be desciibed as Unitarian. a.s 
Webster had claimed the faiths of all four were in 
their essence. In 1S.')4 he presented to the Senate, on 
behalf of iVmericau Jewish citizens, a petition calling 
for governmental action against Swiss anti-Semitic 
discriminations recognized in a treaty with our gov- 
ernment ; thus acting as spoke, iian for the American 

Upon the organization of the Confedeiate govern- 
ment, r^csideut Jefferson Davis immediately called 
Benjannn into his cabinet as attor- 
Jefferson ney-.gencral (Feb. 2."i. l.'SGl), to which 
Davis' position was ad<led that of acting sec- 

Kight- retary of war (.Sept. IT. 1861). On 
Hand Man. Nov. 21, 18(51, he bi-came secretary of 
war, resigning the portfolio of the De- 
partment of Justice: and Uv retained this position 
till Jlarch 17, 18()'2, when he becjime secretary of 
state, which office he retained till the collapse of the 
Confederacy in 18()5, 

Throughout, Benjamin was Jetlcrson Davis' most 
intimate ami most iiitluential adviser, and was gen- 
erally described as the "brains of the ('onfedeiaey." 

James Schouler, in his "History I'f the United 
States" (vi, WM, remarks: 

" ContemiKiraries liail sniil at tlii" outset that T(Kinibs wius the 
brain of tlie ConfederHcy : but tlial title, as events developed, be- 
longred rathf^r to Attoriiey-(.ieneral Iteujaiuih, the ablest, most 
versatile, and most constant of all Uavis' civil counselors, who 
acted as serreiary of war after Walker's ivtin'inem in S4'|iteiii- 
ber, and was then by the followitu; Manh installed secretar)- of 
stale, to roniain premier I'.ntil the bitter end, siui^iine and 
serene in bearing, through all nuilations of fortune and niis- 

During much of this time, particularly (luting his 
incumbency of the secretaryship of war. Benjamin 
was extremely unpopular: but President Davis never 
for a moment lost confidence in him. He resigned tin- 
war port folio on aicount of the Confederate reverses 

in connection with the Roanoke Island campaign in 
18(j2, for which he was commonly held in a largo 
degree responsible; but, in spite of censure from the 
Confederate Congress, President Davis promoted 
him to the secretaryship of state. 

This circumstance has recently been cleared up. 
through evidence that Benjamin was in noway to 
blame for these mishaps, but patriotically sacrificed 
himself, with President Davis' knowledge, by inten- 
tionally withhokliiig his justification from tht- Con- 
gressional committee. Disclosure of the true facts 
would have involved an exposure of Confederate 
dearth of aiiuiumitiidi, which might, through gen- 
eral publication, have seriously jeopardized the 
Confederate cause at the time. 

Benjamin's most important labors were, however, 
rendered in connection with the diplomatic activities 
of the Confederacy. Unfortunately, a thorough 
study of the diplomacy of the Confederacy has not 
yet been published, nor any adeciuate biography of 
Beujamiu, of which that would be the principal 
chapter. But by such a publication it would be 
shown how near the Confederacy came to securing 
European intervention — particularly through the 
aid of Napoleon III. — by the tempting and states- 
maidike efforts of the Confederate state department 
under Benjamin's direction, and to the probable 
transformation of an insurrection into a successful 
revolution in consequence. Even published data, 
however, not to mention oral reminiscences, justify 
the conclusion of the late I. M. Wise, who in an edi- 
torial in the " American Israelite," May l(j, 1884, said 
that "he was undoubtedly the most distinguished 
statesman of the Jewish family in this (19th) century 
and country." 

At the close of the Civil war Benjamin fled to the 
West Indies and then to England, losing his Ameri- 
can property by confiscation. Here, at the age of 
fifty-flvt, he had to commence bread-winning anew. 
Early in 1866 as a British subject he entered as a 
law .student at Lincoln's Inn, and in 
Begins Life June of that year was called to the 
Anew in English bar. the usual term being cur- 
England, tiiiled by reason of his jiast eminence 
and acumen, through the influence of 
distinguished English judges. In is(it( his work on 
"The Law of Sale of Personal Projierly " sippeared, 
and immediately had a marked success on both sides 
of the Atlantic. It has gone through edition after 
edition, and may well be descrilied as the most suc- 
cessful and classical legal text-bookof the latter half 
of the nineteenth century. His success at the Eng- 
lish bar, after a brief interval during which he had 
been comi>elled to take up editoiial work on the 
London "Daily Telegraph,'' was remarkable, partic- 
ularly in ciiuuectidii with colonial appeals. His in- 
come for a nutidjcr of years juior to his retirement 
fnmi the bar (December, 1882) is said to have Ixxni 
upward of .$200,000 jier annum. In 18T2 he attained 
the rank of Queen's Counsel. 

.V farewell dinner was given in Benjamin's honor 
by the bench and bar of England in the hall of the 
Inner Temple, London, on June 30, 1883, under 
the presidency of the attorney general. Sir Henry 
James. His standing as the unqiiesticmed leader of 
the British liar had been generallv recognized for 



Benjamin, Judah 
Benjamin, Michael 

some years prior to his retirement. He died at Paris 

May 6, 1884, his wife and a daughter — Xinctte. wife 

of ("apt. Heuri de Ikmsignac of tlie 

Is Leader 117tli regiment of the French line — 

of British surviving liim. IJenjamiu married in 

Bar. New Orleans, at a time when tliei'e 

was no organized Jewish congregati(m 

tliere. a Catholic lady of the name of Natalie St. 

Martin. Investigation has failed to confirm the 

rumor that lie abandoned the Jewish I'iiilli on his 


BiHi-iOGKAPHV: H. ('. Tompkins, Juildli P. ISriijiuiiiii iAIa- 
haiiia State Bar Asuii. lirport^ IHiHi, pp. <-.\x.-exxxvn.); .1. 
A. Hamilton, in Diil. of Natiitnal Biniiiaiiliii,iv. liSi; Sriitt. 
I>MitiOUis}nil Aiiirriraii Lainicrs, pp. 4:j-.'j0; Thr (rvcfa 
Ban, '. *W, »»■■ ; 'I'lif Laip Tilitis. Ixxv. IRs, Ixxvli. 47 (iiliitu- 
ary from tlK^ Lotiiion 'jlinc^): Fi'am-is Lawicv, in The Attie- 
mnuii. May l.'^, ls>«. i. VM; I. M. Wisi', cHilnrial in Aiiinieaii 
iKrailih, Mav 111, ls.s): idem, Itriiii iiisr, ii,',.<. I'.KII ; i;ini-lMW, 
J'V.l;;r'.' mill tin I'miU'lfnitr Siirii: ISullock, Srelit Si I rice 
of the CiiiileiUvtieit ; Baron Pollncl^, /;* iiiiiiisriiin^ in Fnrt- 
nUllillll 111 I'i' "', lxix.:i'i4; Sabin's Diitimiin-ii ut ;!i«.;,.v i,V- 
laliiiij t" ^iKii iiid, vol. ii., 64: Ham-rofl's Litr uf Williatii 
U. Si-iraril ; B. H. Wise. Life of IIi iiiii .1. H'isi . since the 
foregoinjj \v:i.s written. .1. M. Callahan's \alualile stndy. The 
IHploniiitir Histoni of the Southern Coiifeileroeji (Balti- 
more, llifll]. ha.s been pulilished, thiovviiij,' mucli light on 
certain phases of Benjamin's career. 

A. M. J. K. 



BENJAMIN B. LEVI, R.: A Palestinian 
amora of the fourth century (third or fourtli geneni- 
tion), junior contemporary of R. Ainmi and R. Isaac 
(Yer. Peah i. 1.5a), and senior to Abin II. (Yer. Pes. 
vii. 34c; Yer. Hor. i. 46a). His name is connected 
with several Halakot (Yer. Tcr. i. 40b; Yer. Pes. ii, 
28d; Yer. 'Ab. Zarah ii. 43a, where his patronymic 
reads " Leva! "), but more frequently with liomiletic 
remarks. On God's message by Jeremiah (x.xiii. 24), 
"Can one hide himself in secret places that I shall 
not see him [" er'ennu "] ? " he observes, " When one 
sittcth in a corner and oecupicth himself with the 
study of the Law, I show him [" ar'ennu "] to the pub- 
lic, or when he hides himself for sinful purposes of 
apostasy, I expose him to public gaze" (Ex. R. viii, ; 
Tan., Wa'era, 9; comimre Num. R. ix. 9). Accord- 
ing to him, when the time for Israel's restoration shall 
come, there will be a change in the order of nature; 
at present when the north wind blows no south 
wind prevails, and when the south wind prevails 
tliere is no north wind; but when God .slnill restore 
the exiled. He shall produce an "argestes" (see Jas 
trow, "Diet." p. ll.")b), when both winds shall do 
service, as it is written (Isa. xliii, (i), "I will say to 
the north. Give up, and to the south. Keep not back , 
bring my sous from far," etc, (Esther R, to i. 8; 
Cant. R. to iv. 16; Lev. R. ix. ; Num. R. xiil.).— 
[Gen. R. Ixxxvii. ; MIdr. Teh. Ixxxvii. 3; Peslk. 
xiii. 113a, xviii. 137a; Peslk. R. .xviil. ;Lev. R. 
xxviii.; compare Eccl. U. to i. 3.] 

Bibliography : Franliel, Melm, e9b ; Baeher, Ay. Vol. Amor. 
iii. 6«l et scry. 
.T. SR. S. M. 

a large colli'<tl(iii of resiionsa; tiourislied in Turkey 
in the first half of the sixteenth century. His oc- 
cupation was that of a merchant (" Benjamin Ze'cb," 
p. 14b), but lie also served as a member of the rab 
binical college of Arta (vilayet Yanina). In rabbin- 

ical literature he is known chiefiy through his 
disputes with many of his contem])oraries, which 
were caused by the great Independence he very often 
dls])laycd in his decisions on legal questlon.s. an 
iiiileiiendence that greatly oflfendcd the rabbinical 

His collection of responsa, "Benjamin Ze'cli " 
(Venice, 1539), which he published partly in self- 
justification, was not at all well received by the 
Italian and Polish rabbis of the time (compare Solo- 
mon I). Jehiel Luiia, In "Yam Shel Shelomoh," 3b on 
B. K. viii.. No. 73). The work, containing 4.50 re- 
sjionsa on the diverse subjects, throws an in- 
teresting light on the Intellectual as well as the 
social status of the Jews of that time in European 
Turkey and in Asia Minor. For instance. Benja- 
min's ordinance against men and women dancing 
together met with great resistance, many j'oung 
people refusing to obey this puritanical precept 
("Benjamin Ze'eb." pp. 338b <■/ «y/.). It should be 
noted that " Benjamin Ze'eb " is the title of the book, 
and not the appellation of the iiuflior, wliose only 
name was Benjamin. 

Bibliography: Aznlai, Slirin hn-iieiloliin. \. :K; t'onlorte, 
Kore ha^Dorot. ed. Ca.ssel. pp. ;Hh. 4iia ; Michael, Or lia- 
jliiiniiiii. No. mn -. Briill. in his Jiihrhlleln r. i. S!). 

L. G. 
BENJAMIN BEN MEIR : Polish Talmudist 
and preacher; lued at Biddy, Galicia. in the first 
half of Ijie nineteenlh cent my. He wrote " Imre 
Binyainin " (The Words of Benjamin), a homiletic 
commentary upon the first three books of the Penta- 
teuch (Tarnopol, 1814). 

BiBLiOGRAPnv: Benlarab, ()zar ha-Sefariin, ji. 43; Zedner. 
Cat. Heln: Boolm Brit. Muk p, Wi. 
I., o. I. Beu. 

REMBERG : Kiilibl at Saloulcaat the heglniilng of 
the sixteenth century. Although German by birth, 
beluga descendant of .lacoli Moi.ix. he was greatly 
esteemed by the Spanish Portuguese Jews of Salo- 
nica, and was sent by the cut Ire Jewish po]nilallon of 
that city on a diplomatic mission to Constantinople. 
The coutein]iorary responsa col lections contain some 
of Benjamin's decisions. lie also wrote lexical ex- 
planations on the Alahzor of the German rite, which 
were printed in the Salonica editions of 1:536 and 
15.5.5-56. The last-named edition also contains some 
of Benjamin's elegies, among them one upon the 
occiislon of the great fire at Salonica in 1.553. 

BliiLionRAPHY: S. I). Lnzzatto. in fi. I. Polak's-Dutoh transla- 
li<m of the Mahziir, ISIjll, p. 4; Miehael. Or hn-Hiv/i/im, No. 
tm ; Steinschneider, Cat. BoiJl. cols. 370, 7(11. 

L. G. 

African jinlltleiaii ; linni in Lmnjou In 1^33; died 
June 11, 1879. 

Early In life Benjamin went to Cape Colony (;djout 
the yetir 1H49), and for ten years resided at Graalf- 
Keiiiet, where he was the promoter of several useful 
iiislltutlons. Thence he removed to Port Klizabeth, 
which town he represented in the (lape Legislative 
Assembly from the year 1864 ; and he was also a jus- 
tice of the peace for the colony. He worked hard to 
secure the passing of the Eastern District Courts' 
Bill, and hisexteusiveacquainlance wllh commercial 

Benjamin, Moses 
Benjamin b. Samuel 



raattere made his opinions curry coiisitierabk- iiutlior- 
ity in the House. Benjamin successfully introduced 
t lie Stamp Act into the Lejiisliilive Assemlily, and was 
one of the founders of the Standard Bank of British 
South Africa. Hilurnin;; to Kngland about 18(i!l, he 
actively inleresltd hini.self in a number of communal 
iBstilutious. becoming a member of the committee 
of tlie Tnilcd SynaKoiiue. the Anglo-.Iewish Associ- 
ation, and the IJoard of Deputies: and sittingon the 
committeesof various London synagogues and pub- 
lic si'liools. 
BiBUOGRAPHY : Ciipf -1 >m(K. June, iS19: Jew. Chrn/i. .Iiine 

13 : Aiii?. 15, 1H79; Jcir. World, June 13, 1879. 

.1. C. L. 

BENJAMIN, MOSES : Hini Israel ndlitary 
ollicir; born in ls:j(l: dicil at Bombay in December, 
1807. The son of a subedar (captain), he joined the 
Twelfth Bombay Native Infantry as a private. 
While a non-conunissioned oflicer he was eutrusled 
with the responsible duty of watching over the 
wives and chihlren of European ollicers of the regi- 
ment left at during the Mutiny of lS~u. He 
was present at the siege and capluro of Kotjih, the 
actiou of Burnass. and the batth' of IMeanee (1843). 
Rising by dint of industry, he was gazetted as a 
comnnssioned ollicir (jemidar) in 18G1. In 1805 he 
was made a subedar. in which capacity he superin- 
tended the work of the regimental lines, then in 
course of erection at Dharwar. In February, 1878, 
he was promoted subedar major ; in Novend)er, 1878. 
he became bahadur. He was a very intelligent 
oflicer, remarkably versed in ndlitary ndnuti.e. As 
a reward for his services the governor of India 
appointed him sirdar-bahadur (,Iune. 1881). and in- 
vested him with the Order of British India of the 
first class. After having served for over thirty-two 
years, be retired on a pension, and went to Bombay: 
and the Benilsniel Old Synagogue Congregation in 
that city, in ap|>reciation of his capacities, appointed 
him their chief warden and treasurer. In February. 
1892, the governor of Bond)ay appointed him a jus- 
tice of the iieace. 
BiBLiOGRAPnv : JiWirih ('Inniiiili, liw. 10, imrr. 

.1. G. L. 

BENJAMIN BEN MOSES: Italian scholar: 
lived at Koiiie at the li(i;iriiiing of the tifleentll cen- 
tury. He took an active part in the adnunistration 
of the Jewish community of Kome, and was one 
of the delegates to the as.sembly of the Italian .Jew- 
ish communities held at Forli in lA'X. Beiijanun is 
the author of a polemical work entitled " Teshuhot 
ha-Nozrim Jlikol ha Mikra inne He'iyyot liaDa'at" 
(Refutations of Christianity on Biblical and J^ogical 
Grounds). The work is still extant in manuscript 
(Neubauer, "Cat. Bodl. llebr. .MSS." No. 2,408, 3: 
Code.x Halberstamm. ;S2). 

Bibliography: Neulmiier. a.s above: Viiirelsicin and Kieper, 
(ifsvh. tier Jmlin in l{nm, i. 4^>2. 
c. I. Bis. 


Karaite scholiir and pliilox.phei . Ilourislied al Nalia- 
wend, Persia, at the end of the eighth century ami 
the beginning of the ninth. .Vceording to the Ka- 
raite historian Solomon ben .Jeidhain — the contempo- 
niry of Saadia Gaon — Karaisni began properly with 
Benjamin, who surpassed even Anan in learning 

(Solomon ben Jeroham's commentary on Psalm \\i. 
1). But this assi'ition can not be ventied. Benja- 
mins work is, for the most part, known only in 
,|Uotations made by subsequent Karaite writers. 
But his personality imist have been very important, 
since he was considered by all the Karaites to be 
as great an authority as the founder of Karaism, 
Anan himself. 

As stated by .laphct l)en Ali in the introduction 
to his commentary on the nnnor prophets. Benjamin 

wrote the following works, mostly in 
His Arabic: (t) a conuneutary on the Pen- 

Works, tateucli. in which he frequently refers 

to Oriental customs; (2) a commentary 
on Isidali ; (3) a commentary on Daniel, in which the 
word •'yannin" (days)— in t he verse " Blessed is he 
that waiteth. and cometh to the thousand three hun- 
dred and five and thirty days " (.\ii. 12)— is explained 
by "years," pointing thus to the year 1010 as the 
epoch of the arrival of the Jlessiah; (4) a commen- 
tiiry on Ecclesiastes and Song of Songs, or, as Piii- 
sker thinks, on all the Five Rolls; (-5) "Sefer Miz- 
wot" (Book of Precepts); ((i) "Sefer Dinim," or 
" Miis'at Binyamin " (Book of Laws, or Gift of Ben- 
jamin), written in Hebrew, and published at Kos- 
lov(Eupatoria)in 1834 — contjiiiiing civil and crimi- 
nal laws according to Holy Writ. 

In the last-named work Benjanun approached in 
many points the R:ibbiuites. He adopted many 

rabbinical ordinances, which, how- 

Adopts ever, he left to the free choice of the 

Rabbinical Karaites to reject or adopt. In order 

Or- to enforce obedience to the laws. Ben- 

dinances. jamin introduced a special form of in- 

ti'i'dict. differing but slightly from 
the excoinmuuicution of the Raljbiuitcs. When an 
accused person refused to obey the summons served 
tin him he was to be cursed on each of seven suc- 
cessive days, after which excommunication was to 
be pronounced on him. The interdict consisted 
ill the prohibition of intercourse with all the rnem- 
liers of the community, who were also forbidden to 
greet him. or to accept anything from him ("Mas'at 
Binyamin." 2a). 

Benjamin at times appriKuhed the Rabbinites in 
Biblical exegesis also, and combated Anan's inter- 

pretalions. Thus he maintained with 

His the Rabbinites. against Anan. that the 

Biblical obligatiim to marry the widow of a 

Exegesis, childless brother extended only to the 

brother of th<' deceased and not to his 
further relations. He adojited the Talmudical in- 
lerpretation of the Biblical words concerning the 
Sablialh — "Abide ye every man in his place" (Ex. 
xvi. 29) — maintaining that the iirohibition herein 
expressed has reference, not t(> the residence, but to 
a distance beyond 2,000 yards of the town (compare 
Elijah Bashyazi, ".^ddeiet," ]). 63). 

However, in spite of many concessions to Riib- 
binism. Benjamin adhered tirinly to the principle, 

expressed by Anan, of penetmting 

Freedom in research of the Scripture. In Benja- 

Thought. mill's opinion one ought not to tie 

oneself down to the authorities, but 
to follow one's own convictions: the son may differ 
from the father, the disciple from the master, pro- 



Benjamin, Moses 
Benjamin b. Samuel 

vided they have reasons for their different views. 
Inquiry is a duty, and errors occasioned by inquiry- 
do not constitnte a sin (compare Japliet's commen- 
tary, cited in Dukes's "Beitriige." ii. 26). 

Benjamin seems to have written a work in whieli 
he expounded the pliilosopliical ideas contained in 
the Bible. Jud.siug from the quotations made by 
later Karaite writers, such as Jacob al-Kirkisani, 
Japliet ben Ali, and Hadassi, Benjamin betrayed the 
influence of Philonic ideas, while he adopted the 
Motazilite theories on the divine attributes, free-will, 
and other questions of a like character 
Philosophy expounded before by Anan. God, 
of the he holds, is too sublime to mingle with 
Bible. the material world ; and the idea that 
matter proceeded directly from God is 
inadmissible. God created first the Glory (" Kabod"), 
then the Throne ("Kisse"), and afterward an Angel. 
This Angel created the world, in which he is the rep- 
resentative of God. God Him.self never came in 
contact with men, nor did He speak to Israel on 
Mt. Sinai. The Law and the commuuications to the 
Prophets proceeded from the Angel, to whom are 
referable all the anthropological expressions con- 
cerning God found in the Bible (Hadassi, "Eshkol," 
25b). The soul forms a part of the bod}', and is 
therefore perisliable. The Biblical references to re- 
ward and punishment can be applied only to the 
body (Saadia, "Eraunot we ha-Dc'ot," vi. 4). 

This theory of an intermediary power, and the 
syistera of allegorizing all the Biblical passages con- 
cerning God, upon which Benjamin insists again 
and again in his commentaries on the Bible, were 
borrowed from the writings of the sect Magari- 
yah (Men of the Caves). This sect, the establish- 
ment of which, in consequence of a contusion in the 
text of Shahrastani, has been wrongfully attributed 
to Benjamin, is identified with the Essenes by Har 
kav}-, who shows that they were called "The 
Men of the Caves," because they lived in the de-sert 
("Le-Korat ha-Kittot," in the Hebrew translation 
of Gratz, iii. 497). Benjamin wrote his halakic 
works in Hebrew, his commentaries probably in 

BinLiOGRAPny: Furst, Gcsch. rtc.t Karfierlliumf, i. 71-70; 
Piusker, Likkute lyadmintiiit^ pp. 44, 73. 199; Jost, Gesch. 
{Its Jwlrnt}tum!i tnul Srhirr Srkteit. ii. 344: Gratz, Gcvch. 
dir JjHirn, V. 191-irrj; NHuinuier, Au,-^ der PeUrshurutt' 
liiltli(ithil,\ pp. ii, 107 ; Frankl. in Ersch and Grnber's kn- 
Ciifdiiin'iilit, wxiu, 14. 1.5; Steinsclineider, Pojrmisehe intd 
Apiil'Hi^tisrlh L(U:ratur, p.'.Wtx Shahrastani, Geniian trans- 
lation, i. ^■>7 ; Imlif.s and Ewald. Beitriige, il. 3ti ; Mnnli. in 
Jost's Aiiiudcn, 1841, p. 7B. 

K. I. Br. 

Naijon, Ben.i.vmin. 

mudist; died at Zolkiev May 25, is 10. He was 
rabbi in Clementow, and afterward head of the 
yeshibah at Zolkiev. He wrote "Eben Ozer" 
(Stone of Salvation), published b}' his grandson, 
Aaron b. Loeb of Pintschew (Zolkiev, 1792). It con- 
tains novelUe to a large portion of the Talmud and of 
Alfasi, as also to Maimonidcs' " Yad " and A,sher b. 
Jehiel'scommentai'v. He also wrote novella' on the 
Sliullian 'Aruk, Orahllayyim, wliicli, under the title 
of "Eben Ozer," are appended to the Amster- 
dam edition of the Shulhan 'Aruk. The later Russian 
III.— 3 

editions (Dubnow, 1820; Wilna, 1884, and others) 
also give these novelise. 

Bibliography : Buber, in Ha-Eshhol, Ii. 178. 

L. G. 



BENJAMIN, SAlSnJEL: French soldier in the 
Carlist expedition against Madrid in 1837 ; distin- 
guished for bravery and remarkable devotion to 
Boulan de Brie, a lieutenant in the regiment in 
which he served. When De Brie was mortally 
wounded Benjamin carried him first from the field 
of battle, and afterward from the hospital where he 
had been left at the mere}' of the enemy after the 
C'arlists' hurried departviie from Huesea. De Brie 
died in Benjamin's arms; and the faithful servant, 
gratefully remembering the kindness with which he 
had been treated by the lieutenant's wealthy mother, 
was disconsolate, and exposed himself recklessly 
in the most dangerous engagements, performing 
remarkable acts of valor. Benjamin was a scrupu- 
lously religious Jew, and observed all the laws 
of his religion as far as was possible under the 
circumstances of the campaign. 

Bibliography: Stilamith, vol. 11., No. 3. quoted from Col. L.'s 
article in Die Eieuatite Welt on the CarUsts' expedition 
against Madrid in 1837. 

s. P. Wi. 

TANCES : Talmudist and French liturgical poet 
of the first half of the eleventh century. The name 
of the place of his residence, Coutances (department 
of the Manehe, Nonnand}), was formerly Cou- 
stances, in Hebrew 'jtoDIp; and Griitz ("Ge.sch. der 
Juden," 3d ed., vi. 53) incorrectly transfers thisBen- 
jamin to Constance on the Lake of Constance. Tlie 
old .scholars conferred on Benjamin the honoraljle 
title " payyetan " ; for he was one of the most prolific 
and most gifted of the payyetanim. In the various 
ritual collections thirty-one of his liturgical pieces 
are preserved. 

The fact that most of his poems occur in the 
French ritual, while the old German and Polish 
rituals contain each but one of his poems, suffices 
to show that Gratz's conjecture is wrong. Benja- 
min wrote in the main for the three festivals and 
New-Year's Day, and some few poems for the Day 
of Atonement. It is doubtful whether certain lit- 
urgies containing "Benjamin" in acrostic are to be 
attributed to him or to his younger contemporary, 
Benjamin b. Zerah. 

Benjamin was considered, also, a great Talraudic 
authority; and one of his decisions, cited by Isaac 
ha-Levi, Rashi's teacher, is of some importance. In 
this he shows the connection between Midrash and 
piyyut, explaining that both originated in public 
readings, and drawing the conclusion that the op- 
position to the insertion of piyy utim in the prayers is 
unfounded. Benjiunin's preference for Akiba's 
"Alphabet," which he uses in his liturgical poems, 
reveals a certain inclination toward mysticism. 

BiBLiOfiRAPHY : Fuenn. Keiiesel Yisrarl, p. 174 ; (iros-s, (iallia 
Jtitkiica. p. .5.53; Kolin, Mniilrnii h. Hillrl, pp. 10:!, 1.53, 
Breslaii, 1878; Landshuth, 'Ainiiiwie lia-'Ahadtilt, p. .5.1; 
Michael, Or /i(«-^a;/!(im. p. HK); Kapoport. in Ilililsiirc ha- 
'Utim, X. 131 ; Zunz, Literatmvesch. pp. 11.5-1-V, 340. 

L. G. 

Benjamin the Shepherd 
Benjamin Wolf 



who lived in HabyUinia at llie liei;iniiingof the third 
century. The Tahiiud has transmitted the formula 
of a blessing of which he was the author. Benja 
miu, who possessed no knt>w ledge of Hebrew, and 
was therefore unable to recite the prescribed grace 
after meals ("blrkat hamazou"). substituted the 
following brief ejaculation in Aramaic ; " Blessed be 
the All-Merciful, the owner of this bread" (Ber. 
40b). This prayer is still taught little children who 
are unable to recite the "birkat ha-mazon." Com- 
pare "Ba'er Heteb" to Sluilhau Aruk, Orah 
Hayyim, 187, 1 ; Bacher. in Brody s " Zeit. fiir Hebr. 
Bibl." V. 154. In Yer. Ber. vi. lOb, bottom, the same 
story is related of "some Persian"; in both places 
Rab is cited as approving the plain man's prayer. 

.1 M! 1^ G- 

BENJAMIN, SIMEON (also known as Benja- 
min, Levi) : English Hebrew grammarian, who 
published in 1773 at London " Da'at Kedoshim " 
(Knowledge of the Holy), a short Hebrew grammar. 
It deserves attention as one of the earliest works 
composed by an Ashkena/.i in England. 
BiBLiocR.vPHv: Zedner. Catal'niuc, p. 87: Jacobs and Wolf, 

Bihli'ithrin. No. -JIlTS. 

who, when the emperor Heraclius in 628 went to 
Jerusalem during the Persian war, was accused of 
hostility toward the Christians. This accusation 
probably implied that he sided with the Persians. 
Kotw'thstanding this charge, however, the emperor 
became the guest of Benjamin, who provided both 
for him and for his army. Reproached by Hera- 
clius for his hostility toward the Christians, Benja- 
min frankly declared: "The Christians, also, are 
enemies of my religion." When the emperor pun- 
ished the Jews after his victory, he spared Benjamin 
on condition that the latter would consent to bap 
tism. and perhaps with the further understanding 
that he Wduld emigrate to Egypt. 

BiBLiOGR.^PHY ; Theophanes. Chrouitfiraphia, ed. Bonn. i. 
504: Jost. Go«/i. licr Israelite n,\-. aO: iiriv/.. Gescli. der 
JuiUii. 3d ed., v. 'S. A pas-^jre from Elia Rablm iS19) has 
been reopntlv referred to our Benjamin; see Friedmann, 
"Elia Riibba," p. 101, Vienna, \W2. 

G. S. Kr. 

BENJAMIN OF TtTDELA : A celebrated trav- 
eler of the twill'tli century. Beyond his journey, 
no facts of his life are known. In the preface to his 
itinerary, entitled " Massa'ot shel Rabbi Binyamin " 
(Travels of Rabbi Benjamin), the information is fur- 
nished that he came from Tiulela in Navarre, and 
Uiat his father's name was Jonah. This descriptive 
work, written in an easy, fluent Hebrew, is compiled, 
as the preface states, from notes made by the trav- 
eler on the spot and brought back by him in 1173 to 
Castile. The unknown author of the preface prob- 
ably compiled the account for Benjamin from these 
notes, retaining the traveler's own words in the first 
person, but omitting much. Benjamin, for instance, 
claims to have noted down everything that he saw 
and all that lie heard from the mouths of men of 
established reputation in Spain. His notes, there- 
fore, may have contained at the sjtme time the 
names of his informants; but in the book as pub- 
lished only Abraham the Pious is mentioned by name 
as having given information in Jerusalem. 

Benjamin, who probably traveled as a merchant, 
evinced keen interest in all things, and possessed 
a clear insight into the conditions and history of the 
countries he traversed. His journey occupied thir- 
teen years: setting out from Saragossa 
Travels in 1100. he was back again in Spain in 
Occupy 1173. He made long stays every- 
Thirteen where, taking plenty of time to collect 
Years. his information and to verify or dis- 
prove accounts given him. Being an 
intelligent Spanish Jew, he tookan appreciative inter- 
est not only in Jewish affairs in the lands he visited, 
but also in the general conditions prevailing and in 
the various historical and educational facts related 
to him. His account contains numerous valuable 
details of the political history and internal develop- 
ment of countries and nations; and the history of 
commerce must always coimt Benjamin's itinerary 
as one of its earliest and most valued sources. The 
commercial importance of Barcelona and !Mont- 
pellier, of Constantinople and Alexandria, as centers 
of international trade is vividly depicted. The sit- 
uation of soiue cities — as, for instance, Amalfi — is 
described in terse but graphic words. He gives a 
clear picture of the peculiarities of the republics of 
Genoa and Pisa, in which every house was a fortress. 
His characterization of the Greeks is accurate: wa- 
ging war by means of mercenaries, he says, they liad 
come to have no warlike spirit themselves and had 
become women. He is struck by the significance of 
the victorious progress in Europe of 
His the Seljuks, whom he calls Turks. 

Accuracy He treats of the Assassins and Druses 
and w ith great shrewdness, as well as of 

Shrewd- the Wallachians, who were invading 
ness. Greece by way of the Balkan passes. 
He made the intimate acquaintance 
of the most important functionaries of the Byzan- 
tine empire, and has much to s:xy likewise about the 
calif in Bagdaii. whom he compares to the Christian 
pope. Many more of these little details of infor- 
mation could be adduced to show Benjamin's acute- 
ness of observation and critical understanding of 
affairs, both Jewish and non-Jewish. 

But Benjamin's chief interest undoubtedly cen- 
tered in the conditions of the Jewish congregations 
of the countries he visited, and about which he 
has registered so many and such important and reli- 
able accounts that his " Travels " are considered a 
source of the first importance for the history of the 
Jews in the twelfth century. With the sole excep- 
tion of the "Sefer ha-Kabbalah." written about the 
same time by Abraham ibn Daud of Toledo, there 
is no work which compares with Benjamin's in 
value. His accounts, moreover, cover the majority 
of the countries then inhabited by Jews. In a spe- 
cies of panoramic view, he gives full descriptions of 
the Jews living in all those lands, with accurate 
data about them, their civil standing, their occupa- 
tions, their schools, and their leading men. 

Benjamin's route to the East took him through 
Catalonia, southern Prance, Italy, Greece, the islands 
of the Levant. Syria, Palestine, and Mesopotamia, to 
Bagdad. Arrived at that city, which was then 
again the residence of a Jewish exilarch, he gath- 
ered information concerning countries which lay 



Beigamin the Shepherd 
Benjamin Wolf 

Still farther east and north, and concerning the large 
Jewish congregations of Persia and of the countries 
beyond the Oxus. His homeward journey lay 
through Khuzistan, the Indian ocean, and Yemen, to 
Egypt, where he stayed a long time; thence by way 
of Sicily back to Spain. Some remarkable notes are 
given at the end of the book concerning the Jews of 
Germany, as also those of the Slavonic lands east of 
Prague. Likewise northern France, with its incom- 
parable scholars, hospitality, and fraternal feeling, 
is not forgotten. Benjamin did not himself visit 
these latter countries, and so was not personally ac- 
quainted with any of their leading men. In other 
places Benjamin — probably not a scholar himself, 
but possessing a profound respect for scholarship — 
always enumerates the principal men and the heads 
of the Jewish communities. His book thus contains 
the names of no less than 248 of those he knew, 
among them many well known to history. 

Of especial importance are his statistical data; 
and it is from his accounts that the tirst accurate 
representation of the density of the Jewish popula- 
tion in certain districts and cities is obtained. He 
furnishes also important and reliable accounts of the 
civil occupations of the Jews. From 
His him it is learned, for instance, that the 

Statistical Jews of Palestine and of some other 
Data. countries extensively practised the art 
of dyeing; that the large Jewish con- 
gregation of Thebes, in Greece, was employed in the 
manufacture of silk and purple; that there were 
Jewish in Antioch and Tyre; that in 
the last-named town there were also Jewish ship- 
owners; that among the Druses of Lebanon, Jewish 
workmen were domiciled; and that in Crissa, at the 
foot of Parnassus, a large colony of Jewish peasants 

Benjamin also gives valuable particulars concern- 
ing Jewish sects. He tells of the Karaites in Con- 
stantinople, Ashkelon, and Damascus ; of a peculiar 
sect upon the island of Cyprus which fixed the begin- 
ning of the Sabbath not oa Friday evening, but on 
Saturday morning ; of the Samaritans in Ca'sarea, Se- 
baste, Ashkelon, Damascus, and cspe 

Jewish cially in Nablus (Sheehem). He calls 
Sects. the Samaritans " Samaritan Jews," and 
describes peculiarities of their worship 
and language. His accounts of the Jews in Bagdad 
and other cities of the East are very full; and most 
interesting is his description of the grave of Ezekiel 
the prophet, and the solemn ceremonies there. His 
account of the pseudo-Messiah, David Alroy, who 
appeared shortly before Benjamin's journey, is the 
chief source of information cimcerning that remark- 
able episode of Jewish history. 

The details mentioned above will suflice to give 
an idea bf the rich contents of Benjamin's book of 
travels, which, though perhaps not altogether free 
from fiction, is preponderatingly marked by sobriety 
and clearness of narrative and a concise style, avoid- 
ing mere verbiage. 

Benjamin's itinerary, jmblished in Constantinople 
in 1543, has been reprinted as follows: Ferrara, 1556; 
Freiburg in Breisgau, 158.3; Leyden, 1633 (with 
Latin translation); Amsterdam, 1697; Altdorf, 1763; 
Sulzbach, 1783; Zolkiev, 1805; Lemberg, 1859; War- 

saw, 1884. The work was published in Latin by 
Arias Montanus (Antwerp, 1.57.5), and by C. I'Em- 
pereur (Leyden, 1633); in German, by Mordecai 
ben Moses Drucker (Amsterdam, 1691 ; Frankfort- 
on-the-Main, 1711, perhaps following the Latin of 
L'Empereur) ; in French by Bergeron ("Recueil des 
Voyages," The Hague, 173.5, following the trans- 
lation of Arias Montanus; also Paris, 1830), and by 
J. Ph. Baratier (Amsterdam, 1734) ; in English in 
1635 (London, from the Latin of Arias Montanus), 
1744 (S. Harris, "Collection of Voyages," vol. i.), 
1784 (ed. R. Gerrons), 1808 (Pinckerton, "General 
Collection," vol. vii.); by A. Asher, London, 1840; 
and in part by M. N. Adler ("Pal. E.xplor. Fund 
Quarterly Statement," October, 1894, pp. 388 et xcq., 
from a manu.script in the British Museum); and in 
Dutch by Jan Bara (Amsterdam, 1666). A new 
edition has been prepared (1903) by Grilnhut in 
Jerusalem.;raphy : E. t'iirmoly ami L. Lelewel. \iilki- Hi«tiiri(iue 
srtr Benjamin tlr TuthHc, Brussels, 18.52 (alsn putjlished an 
part of vol. iv. uf Leiewel's 'V<'o(yr((;y/(ic dit Miiyrn-Au'-V. R. 
Lurla, SnW Itincrariii tli Benuuiiinit da Tuilttii, iu l'f.s.-,(7/o 
hnielitieti^ -xxxvi. .5tl ; Zunz, fJtsnnuitiUr Stltriitrny 1. H);i; 
Stelnschneider. I'at, B<"U. N'n. 4-'>7i': (,rutz, Gijith. iltrjtnlnt, 
vi. note 1(K 
G. AV. B. 

BENJAMIN, WILLIAM (commonly called 
" Bill Bainge ") : English pugilist ; boruat North- 
leach, Gloucestershire, England, in 1836. Benja- 
min's first match was with Tom Sa3'ers, the cham- 
pion of England from 1857 to 1860, for £300 a side, 
the battle taking phwe on the Isle of Grain, in Kent, 
Jan. 5, 18.58. Sayers disposed of his opjionent in 
three rounds. A .second match, for the Siune stakes, 
was arianged, and took place at Ashfonl, April 5, 
1858. On this occasion Benjamin made a strong 
defense, but was counted out in the eleventh round, 
despite his protest at being forced from the ring. 
This encounter somewhat retrieved Benjamin 's repu- 
tation, which had been lowered b}' his poor show- 
ing in the tirst battle. That he ultimately became 
a capable boxer is shown by the fact that on July 
39, 1861. at Home Circuit, he fought Dick James of 
Aberdare, against whom he hail been matched for 
£100 a side, and beat him in two rounds. 

Bibliography: American Jrvn' Annual for 5647(1886-87), 
pp. 112-113. 
.1. F. H. V. 


Chomsk, government of Grodno. Russia. He pub- 
lished " Nahlat Binyamin " (Benjamin's Iliheritance), 
festival sermons and a homiletic commentary on 
the Passover Haggadah (Cracow, 1643). 

BiBi.iOfiRAPHT: St#insphneider, Cat. Bodl. p. 789; Michael, 
Or ha-Hainiim, No. 277. 

I,. (;. I. Ber. 


BKN.I-\.MIN WciI.F. 


Cabalist; lived at Leitmeritz, Bohentia, in the mid- 
dle of the seventeenth century. He is the author of 
a work, " Ainarot Tehorot " (Pure Words), explain- 
ing the difficult words of the Zohar, published by his 
son Saul, Lublin, 1745. Another work of Ben- 
jamin, entitled " Torat Mosheh " (The Teaching of 

Benjamin Wolf Rapoport 
Benoliel, Don Judah 



Moses), is still extant in nuinuscript (Oxford, >o. 
1171) It contains explanations of the thnteen art.- 
cles of belief aceording to tl.e .ml Hagg=v 
dot- theologieal and nietapliysical articles extraete.l 
frL the tvorks of Spanish, Freneh. and German 
scholars, with additions of his o«u ; and histoneal 

K. • • 1 


r»T»iiit'r Kh N.T \MIN ^\ ' •' ^ 


Ju.hv,.-Gernmn writer; liv.d in the vighfenlh een- 
turv in Gernianv. He was the author of "Seier 
ha-ileshek" (Book of Desire), a .TvKheo-Gernian col- 
lection of medieal prescriptions (Hanau, 172b). Com- 
pare Naphtali ha-Kouen; Joei, Heilprin. 
BIBLIOGKAPUY : WoU, Bill. Hehr. iv. 797. ^^ ^ 

Jerusalem who lived al Bordeaux ; said to have been 
one of the authors of WEiir Kahim, recited in the 
morning prayers on Mondays and Thursdays. 
BiBiiiKiLpnY": Zunz, Lilcratumych. I>. 17: Gross, GaKin 
JiuUliiiU p. 7-') , gjj 


■ BENJAMIN HA-ZADDIK ("the pious"): A 
philanthnipist of the tauiiaitie period. According 
to a Baraita, he was manager of certain charitable 
funds. Once there appeared before him a woman 
ben .rini' alms, but Benjamin protested that the treas- 
urrwa's exhausted. The poor, despairing woman 
thereupon exclaimed, "Rabbi, if thou wilt not aid 
me, a woman and her seven children will perish of 
starvation!" Benjamin then undertook to support 
the family out of his own means. After the lapse 
of some "time Benjamin became sick unto death. 
Then, legend savs, the ministering angels addressed 
the Lord, saying, "Master of the universe. Thou hast 
said. Whosoever preserves a single being in Israel 
is in Thy sight as if he had preserved the whole 
world : shall Benjamin, who has preserved a mother 
and her seven children, die at an early age?" 
Thereupon the decree of death was annulled, and 
two-andtwenty years were added to Benjamin's 
allotted period of life (B. B. 11a). 

.1. SK. S. M. 

NEB. Sic UoMANEU. Ben.iamin Zeebb. Samvel. 
Talniudist; lived al the end of the eighteenth cen- 
tury; reputed pupil of Elijah b. Solomon of Wilna, 
and of the hitter's pupil, Hayyim 1). Isaac of Yolo- 
zhin. He wrote a number of letters, published under 
the title "Mazref ha'Abodah " (Purifier of the 
Ritual; Konigsberg. 18.1S; Munkatsch. 1S9()). con- 
taining an alleged eorrespondenee between Benjamin 
and tlu' friend of his youth. Joseph of Nemerow. on 
the subject of Hasidism. In the first letter Benja- 
min asks his friend for information concerning the 
movement, his investigations not having enabled 
him to understand how Hasidism conld presume to 
change the old laws, and to eonlorm them to the 
rules of the Cabalists, partiiularly of Isaac Luria. 

The friend-s "answer" follows with a detailed ac- 
^ unt of the relation of the Cabala to the Talmud, 
nnd sotes how far the former may claim to be au- 
thor tUveven when in conflict with the Talnuul 
Su.i"' "«t letter, a ntost interesting piece o 
wo gives in the form of a dialogue ("wikkuah 

etw;en himself and a Ilasid, the arguments for and 
a'ainst Hasidism. showing his thorough knowledge 
of t le l.rincit.les which distinguish the Hasidim and 
tl e opplments. Therein the opponent of Hasidism 
raises nineteen objec-tions, which his anonymous 
Hasid me<'ts, in almost every case satisfactonly. His 
friend Josi-pl' of Nemerow then succeeds in couvin- 
cin<^ Benjamin completely of the truth of Hasidism. | 
A vervsli"ht examination of the letters is sufli- - 
cient to" show their fictitious character and to de- 
monstrate that they are written for the purpose of 
illustrating the truths of Hasidism by an imaginary 
conversion of a pupil of Elijah of Wilna; an im- 
pression that is confirmed when, although alk-ged 
to have been written in 178T, they speak of Elijah 
as deceased (13b, etc.), whereas he died a decajle 
later Furthermore, a work of Elijah is cited (1 .a) 
which was not published until 1819. Whether the 
name " Benjamin of Slonim" is also fief itious can not 
be ascertained, nor is there any clue that might give 
information concerning the author of this clever 
apologetic for Hasidism. 

BiBLiOGRAPnv :, ^I'fl^O"*''':-}'!-!:"^' xtZ^ 'A 
Zimir' irizim. Introduetion. p. 1), eonsiders Juaan rsac i- 
Sehto he Ihe autliorcf the Maznf hn-'Al^^dah. but with- 
out sufflelent evideuie. , .-, 

BETHAI: Dayyan at Pinczow in the latter half 
of the seventeenth and at the beginning of the eight- 
eenthcentury. HeeditedtheShull.iau 'Aruk.Hosheu 
Mishpat, with notes that are a digest of the works 
of the rabbinical authorities of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, to which he occasionally adds his own views 
or those of his contemporaries. The book was pub- 
lished in Beriiu in 1712 under the title "Jlisgeret 
ha-Sliulhan " - "Border of the Table " (see Ex. xxv. 
2.5). with a preface by his son Shabbethai. who lived 
in IIall)erstadt in the house of Judah Loeb, the son- 
in-law of the local rabbi, Abraham bex Judah 
Berlin, a patron of rabbinical studies, who seems 
to have defrayed the expenses of the printing of 
this work. B"enjamin's father, Shabbethai, was a 
brother of Samuel Romaner, and Benjamin was 
therefore a cousin of Benjamin, the rabbi of Dessau 
and author of "Ir Biiiyamin." In an appendix to 
the work are printed "Tekanot ha-Borehim." the 
laws on bankrupts passed by the Coukcil of the 
Four Lands. 

BiBLKic.RAPiiv: Michael. Or lii:i-Jfnmii>». V- 27S, and the liibll- 
ouraphieal works, s.r. 
1.. o. D. 

BENJAMIN BEN ZEBA?; : Payyetan ; lived 
in southeastern Europe in the middle of the eleventh 
century. He is called by the later payyetanim 
" the Great." and also " Ba'al Shem " (Master of the 
Name), on account of the numerous names of God 
and angels used by him in his piyyutim. He wrote 
1.5 poems (" yozerot ") for the Sabbaths preceding the 
feasts, and 40 selihot. published in the Mahzor of 
the Cterman rile. 



Benjamin Wolf Kapoport 
Benoliel, Don Judah 

His piyyiitim have an easy, elegant style. Paral- 
lels with Kalir are frequent. .Tudging from his 
selihali, 7Xn n XJK (" I beseech thee, Lord God")— 
in wliieh lie plays ou tlie name.of God— consisting of 
22 letters, and his "Ofan," in which he gives the 
names of angels, Benjamin was inclined to mys- 

BiELiOfiRArMY: Zunz. Lilcraluriirsdih-litc, pp. 120, 1 nil- 14.3; 
idPin. Z.<i. p. :iTtJ; Landsliuth. 'AnunlKle lin-'Aliiiil<(h. p. 
.52; Michael, Or ;m-Ha;/(/im, p. 278 ; Fuvun, Kciicsii Yisratl, 
p. 167. 
L. (i. 

I. 15r. 

BENLOEW, LOUIS: French philologist ; born 
at Erfurt Nov. 1."), I.^IS; died at Dijon February, 
1900. He studied at the universities of Berlin, Leip- 
sie, and Gottingen. and went to France in 1841, 
where he taught modern languages at Nantes and 
Bourges successively. He became librarian at 
the Sorlionne; received the degree of " Docteur es 
Lettres" in 1847: was appointed professor of ancient 
literature at the University of Dijon in 1H49; be- 
came dean of the faculty of that institution; and 
was pensioned in 1882. He was a knight of the 
Legion of Honor. Besides his gradual ion theses on 
the style of Sophocles compared with that of ^Es- 
chylus and Euripides ("De Sophocle.'c Dictionis 
Proprietate cum .Eschyli Euripidisque Dicendi 
Genere C'omparata") and the accentuation of the 
Indo-European languages (" De I'Accentuation des 
Langues Indo-Europeennes "), Bcnloew was the au- 
thor of the following works; " AperQU General de la 
Science Comparative des Langues," 18.58; "Precis 
d'une Theorie des Rythmes," 1862; •'Recherches 
sur I'Origine des Noms de Nombres .Japhetiques et 
Scmitiques," 1862; " Les Semites a Ilion, ou la 
Verite sur la Guerre de Troie," 1863; "Essai sur 
I'Esprit des Litteratures." 1870; " Un Dernier Mot 
sur les Prosatem-s," 1871; "La Gr^ce Avant les 
Grecs," 1877; "Analyse de la Langue Albanaise." 
1879; " Les Lois de THistoire," 1881. He pub- 
lished an edition of Sophocles, and. in collaboration 
with H. Weil, " Theorie Generale de rAccentuation 
Latine," 1885. 

s. .T. W. 


fii'st conforming .lew olitaining a degree in a British 
university; born at Hamburg about 1800; died in 
1869. He .settled in Dubliu in 1829 as teacher of 
languages; entered the university after a course of 
]>rivate studv in 1832; olitaineil his degree of B.A. 
in 1830, and'of M.A. in 1846. He held the ixwition 
of deputy professor of German and French at the 
Dublin University from 183!) till 1842. 

Benmohel comjiosed. Tint never publishe(l, the 
following works; (1) "Orthograpliia ITebr;eo-An- 
glicana," 1830 — a new system of writing English in 
Hebrew current handwriting, after the usage pre- 
vailing in Germany; (2) "An Essay in Verse, To- 
ward a Comparison Between the History of the Chil- 
dren of Israel During their .Jovimeys from Egypt to 
the Promised Land, and That of the Reformation"; 
(3) "Primitive Ethnology, Tending to Be a Guide. 
Basis, and Tributeto ' Sammlung Altdeutseher ICigen 
namen ' " (incomplete). He died in Dublin. 

BiBLioiiRAPMV: Aiwlo-Jcwifli Exhihition Caiahtmic, 1SS7, 
pp. 22, «. 02. 
J. G. L. 

BENNETT, HENRY : Sergeant in the British 

army; born in England 1863; killed inaction during 
the war with the Afridis, Novemljer. 1897. He was 
a grandson of Solomon Bennett, the engraver, w'ho 
translated the Hebrew Bible into Englisli in 1841. 
Bennett was at first articled to a firm of solicitors; 
but in 1882 he enlisted in the army — joining 
the first battalion of the Dorsetshire regiment — and 
went to Egypt, where he saw active service during 
the events occurring in connection with Arabi Pasha. 
He assisted in drilling some of the black troojis up 
the country, and his knowledge of Arabic was con- 
sidered by the authorities to be of great value. He 
returned with his regiment to England, and when 
subsequently it was ordered to India he went out 
with it. After participating in the engagements at 
the front, he was killed on the retreat from Warren. 
BiBLiooRAPHY: Jcicidi Chrimicle, Nov. 2ti, 1S97. 
.1. G. L. 

BENNETT, SOLOMON: English theologian 
and engraver; born in Russia before 1780; died after 
1841. He wrote a considerable number of works 
ou Biblical topics, among them " The Consistency 
of Israel," 1812; "Discourses on Sacrifice," 181.5; 
"The Temple of Ezekiel," 1824; "Critical Remarks 
on the Authorized Version," 1834. 

Bennett began to publish a complete revised trans- 
lation of the English Bible in 1841 ; but only two 
numbers, containing Gen. i.-.xli., appeared, and the 
project was abandoned. His "Temple of Ezekiel " 
contains as a frontispiece a portrait of himself en- 
graved by Bennett after an original painting by Fra- 
zer. Bennett was in Berlin 1790-99, but spent the 
latter part of his life at Bristol. 

BiBLioiiRAPHV : .lueotif; and Wolf, rtihliathccaAnglo-Jutlaica, 
Nos. WIS, WMi. lSii7, I'Mi, lilU, 192:i; Den Chaimtm. iv. 1861. 
No. 1 : Nairler, KUihithr-Lexihtm, s.v. Bcnnrtt. Salomn ; A. 
Wolf, in Kdiifmann Ucdcitkbuch, 1901, p. 629. 


BENOLIEL, JOSEPH: Portuguese translator; 
lived at Lisbon. He wi-ote the small l)Ook, "Porat 
Yosef " (Joseph's Fruitful Bough ; see Gen. xli.x. 22), 
containing Spanish translations of the sayings of 
the Fathers, the Pesah-Haggadah, the Song of Sol- 
omon, the Books of Ruth and of Esther, Lamenta- 
tions, and of some Ilaftarot (Lisbon, 1887). 
BiBLKXiRAPHY: Kayserlinp, Bihh Ei'p.-Port.-JwL, pp. 27 et 

I,, v.. M. K. 

BENOLIEL, DON JUDAH: Jloroccan and 
Austrian consul at Gibraltar; president of the Jew- 
ish conmiunity thei'c. and of the chamber of com- 
merce; died in 1S39. When Sardinia sent a fleet 
agaiijst Morocco. Benoliel was enabled, in his consu- 
lar capacity, to settle the differences amicably. He 
earned special ci-edit by his services to the Jewish 
community of Tangier. On accoiuit of a quarrel 
that had taken place between two .lews in a syna- 
gogue of that city, the governor, with the sultan's 
con.sent, had all tlie synagogues of the city demol- 
ished. When the sultan Muley Abd al-Rahman vis- 
ited Tangier two years later, Benoliel, who was 
much respected by him, declining all lionorsfor him- 
self, secured permission for the reerection of the 
synagogvu's. In memory of this n()ble .self-denial, a 
special memorial jirayer is offered on every Day of 





Atonement in the synagogues of Tangier. Jiidah 
Benoliel also possessed the full eontidenee of Cardi- 
nal Mastui-Kerretti. afterward Pope Pius IX. When 
the latter returned to Italy from Chile he entrusted 
Benoliel with large sums of money. 

Repiirt of till- Ani/ht-Jcichh Associatinti, 

l!C7-TS. p. IIH. 

M. K. 

BENSCHEN: A Judieo-Germaii word meaning 
either to siiy a l)lessiug or to bless a person. It is 
derived from the Latin "lienedicere"; German 
" benedeien " : old Spanish " beueicer " : Portuguese 
"benzer"; Provencal " bene.sir. " "beneir": French 
" benir." Benschen is used specifically for the sjiying 
of grace after a meal. " Gomel Benschen '" means to 
recite the benediction of thanksgiving after having 
escaped a great dangi>r either in illness or in im- 
prisonment, or after some perilous trip by sea or 
through the desert, the benediclioii containing the 
word "ha-g<miel "; "BlcS-Sed be thou. O Lord, who 
bestowcst (ha-gomel) mercy upon the undeserving" 
(Ber. 5-lb). See Bexedictiox. 

■' Benschen " is used for the blessing of God — " Der 
Bore [Creator] wirddich benschen." See"Ka\>-ha- 
Yashar, " in Grlinhaum 's ■' .ludisch-Deutschc Chresto- 
mathie," liS82, p. SSS. for the blessing of the children 
on Saljbath. festival days, and other solenm occa- 
sions. Benschen is also resorted to in cases of great 
sickness when there is little hope of recovery; the 
rabbi or saint is then requested to offer a prayer, 
often with a change of the name of the sufferer so 
as to avert his apparently impending fate. See 
X-\.MK, Cn.\XGE OF; and Superstitious Customs. 
"Benschen" is used also euphemistically for "slap- 

BiBLioGRAPHT: Tendlaii. Sprio/iirrtrtor unti Ralrnsarten 
l>eut!.eh-Jil(lmhir Vnrziil, imi. pp. 4.S5, mi. T4;3. .Sfe. lOl'.t- 
Grunbaum. JUdisch-Dfiitfche Chres-iumtillik. ISSS, p. iV> 


BENSHEIM, SIMON : Member of the grand- 
ducal Obeirat (Upper House) of Baden; born at 
Mannheim Oct. 14. 1823; died there Oct. 26, 1,S98. 
E.xtremely active in congregational and philan- 
thropic matters, he was aimually elected by unan- 
imous vote a member of the synagogal council, 
and tiually its president. The grand duke recognized 
his worth as a communal leader and as a public- 
spirited citizen by conferring upon him the Ziih- 
ringer LOwen-Order of the second class. As a mem- 
ber of the gmnd ducal Obirrat he won for himself 
the respect and esteem of all classes of people. 
BiBLiooR.vpiiv: nrr Gemeimlihnle. p. 2, ia Allgemeine Zei- 

tlltiu il'K Jiiiknthuins. 1S9S, .No. 49. 

M. Co. 

BENTWICH, HERBERT: English lawyerand 
coniniun;il woikir. hnin ii, l.ondiin 18.5fi; educated 
at University College and the University of London 
(LL.B.). One of the founders of the Hampstead 
Synagogue, he is also nne of the chief pro- 
moters of the Chovevei Zinn Association in Eng- 
land, and assisted in allilialing it with the Zionist 
movement unrler Dr. Herzl. In that capacity he 
attended the Basel Congres.s of 1.><!(S. in which he 
was a member of the presidential council. 

Later, when the simiewhat diverse aims of the 
two associations became apparent. Bent wich severed 

hisconnection with the English Zionist Federation. 
He organized the Jlaecabean Pilgrimage to Pales- 
tine. 1897. Bentwich is an authority on copyright. 

BiBLIOGR.\pnv : Hurris, Jewish Year Bm*. 1901. p. 2»t>. 


BENVENISTE (Hebrew. nC*ja33, in Catalan, 
Benvenist : The name of an old, rich, and schol- 
arly lamily of ^Sarbonne. the numerous branches 
of which were found all over Spain and the Pro- 
vence, as well as at various places in the Orient. It 
is still borne by certain families in Bulgaria. Servia. 
and Vienna. It was also used as a piwnomeu (see 
Steinschneider. "Cat. Bodl." So. 7348: Loeb. in 
"Hev. des Etudes .Juives." xxi. 1.53). 

1. Abraham Benveniste: Statesman and chief 
rabbi (or ■court rabbi ") of Castile during the reign 
of .luan II.. 1406—54. He was entrusted with the 
public finances, and. as he himself has stated, he 
controlled, in conjunction with the constable Al- 
varo de Luna, the entire administration of Castile. 
He was rich and learned and an influential represent- 
ative of the Jews at court, being called thither by 
various events, of which the most important was 
the following: On the occasion of a malicious charge 
of ritual murder ]ireferred against the Jews inacitv 
near Ecija, Abraham Benveniste, together with Jo- 
seph ha-Xasi, the chief farmer of the ta.xes, and Abra- 
ham ibn Shushan, repaired to the palace in order to 
expose the falsity of the accusation and to prevent 
further danger to the Jews. In compliance with 
tlie desire of the Jewish scholars, and the petitions of 
all the Jewish connnunities of Ca.stile. the king. or. 
more strictly speaking. Alvaro de Luna, appointed 
Benveni.ste in 1432 chief judge of the Jews and 
court rabbi (Rab de la Corte). 

In order to con.sider the laws is.sued against the 
Jews, to further the neglected study of the Talmud, 
and to put a check upon the prevalent immorality and 
the practise of informing. Benveniste, immediately 
after his appointment, called a synod at Valladoliii. 
It was composed of rabbis, scholars, and other iirom- 
inent men, and met, not as Graetz has it, in the 
royal ])alace, but in the chief synagogue, situated 
in the Jews' quarter. Under the presidency of Ben- 
veniste the synod drew up a statute called the "Te- 
kanah," which was to serve as a basis for the admin- 
istration of the communities. It dealt with the di vine 
service, with the glorification of the study of the 
Law, with state taxation, and with the welfare 
and progress of the communities. It is divided into 
five s<-ctions ; namely : (1) concerning the study of the 
Liw: (2) the choice of judges and, other function- 
aries; (3) the practise of informing: (4) taxes and 
duties: and (3) apparel. The statute was to remain 
in force ten yeai's. 

In lS(i9 yi. Kayseriing translated this statute into 
Girman from a manuscript in the national librar\- 
in Paris: under the title "Das Castilianische 0."- 
nieinde Stilt ut " it appeared in the ".lahrbucli fiir 
die Gesch. der Jud. und des Judeutlnims." iv. 262- 
334. The Spanish edition by Francisco Fernandez 
y Gonsjiles is entitled. •■Ordenamiento Formailo por 
los Procunidores de las Al jamas Ilebreas ... en la 
A.scmblea Celebrada en Valladoiid en el Afic 1432 " 
Madrid. 1886 (see "Revue Etudes Juives," xiii. 187 
it feq). 




Abraham is renownerl for having reinstated the 
study of the Law and for liaviug, by his liberality, 
kept many Jews from conversion. 

Bibliography: Shihet YehmJah. ed. Wiener, pp. 2.i, Ilii 
pt sell.; Abrabam Zacuto, Yiihimi>, ed. Filipowski, p. 2"-'t;; 
Kavserling, I.e. pp. 283 et serj.; Gratz, Gcsch. der Jwlcit.'M 
ed., viii. 141 ft .st'y., 417 ft sfij. 

2. Abraham Benveniste : A scholar known 
also as "Abraham Benveniste the Elder," to 
distinguish him from hisgiaudsou of the same name. 
He was born in 1433, in Soria. iirovince of Caceres, 
Spain, and at his circumcision Joseph Albo made a 
•swech. Together with his elder brother Vidal, he 
furtnered the study of the Law and encouraged Jew- 
ish scholars bj' his support. 

Bibliography : .\braham Zaouto, I'HJia.sin, ed. Filipowski, p. 
ZXi, ed. Cracow, p. l.'Jla; Griltz, Oesch. (ler Juden, 3d ed., 
vlU. 417 et scq. 

3. David Benveniste : Rabbi of Salonica in 
lo~)lt; menlioned as a rulibiuieal scholar by his con- 
temporarirs (Conforte. "Kcnc ha-Donit." |). 38a). 

4. Hayyim ben Israel Benveniste: Habbin 
ical authority; born 1603 at Constantinople; died 
Elnl 17, 5433 (Sept., 1673), He was a pupil of J. 
Saineiro, but more particularly of Jo.seph Trani. 
who was much attached to him, and who eventual- 
ly brought about his marriage to the daughter 
of a wealthy man. Hayyim became rabbi at Con- 
stantinoide, and later at Smyrna (16.'5.5), where he 
took a prominent part in the Shabbethai Zebi move- 
ment. Although his attitude toward the new Mes- 
sianic pretensions was at tirst somewhat skeptical, 
he soon became an adherent of Shabbethai Zelii — a 
step which later he deeph' regretted and sought to 
efface from his memory by penance. It is uncertain 
to what extent he was concerned in the dismis- 
sal from office of his rabbinical colleague Aaron de 
la Papa, and whether he hindered the reinstatement 
of the latter. On his deatli, the funeral sermon was 
preached by Daniel Gerasi (see his "Odeh Adonai." 
No. 2, Venice, 1682). His hitherto unknown epitaph 

^p'lVT nL":a33 Q"n -n no nhi^j l'"-i ■^^^^n -ind 

Benveniste was a man of astonishing learning. 
At the age of twenty-one he had already begun his 
commentary to the "Semag" O'Scferha-Mizwot") of 
Moses di^ Coucy. This was followed by the notable 
work " Keneset ha-Gedolah,"a cominentaiy in eight 
parts on the four codes of the Law, of which the 
following were published during the lifetime of the 
aiitlior: "Oial.i Hayyim" (Leghorn, 1657) and "She- 
yare " ( = Addenda), ih. 1671 ; 2d ed., Constantinoiile, 
172!): botli included in 2d ed., Leghorn, 1791-92; 
"Iloslieii jMlsliiiat," Smyrna, 1660; 2d ed. in two 
parts, ill. 1734). The remaining ])ortions of tlie work 
were publislicd. 1711, 1716, 1717. 1731, in Constanti- 
nople, wliere the " Dine de-Hayye " (Laws of the 
Living), or commentary on the work of Jloses dc 
Coucy, aiipeared in two parts, 1742. The re- 
sponsa of Benveniste were published at Constantino- 
ple in 1743, anil another collection of them, dealing 
with the " Yoreh De'ah " and the " Eben lia-'Ezer," 
appeared in four parts under the title "Ba'e Hayj'e " 
{Necessaries of the Living) at Salonica, 1788-91. In 

Gruher, EnrnlilirpiMie, 3d section, 
1 JtiiVf^^ xiii. 272; Steinscbneider, 

addition to these there exist " Pesah Meubbin," pray- 
ers and rites for the first two evenings of Passover; 
an extract from the "Keneset ha-Gedolah." Venice, 
1692; and " Hamra we Hayye " (Wine and Life), on 
the Babjionian treatise Sanhedrin, Leghorn, 1802. 

Bibliography: Conforte, ^me )ia-Dnrnt, p. .51a: Azulal, 
Sliem ha-Gfitolim^ i. .54b : Ztir Gfsch. Shabhethai ZfhVs, 
in KoJifZ \il I'flj, Sammelnchrifi des Vfreiyt^ Mr^Kize 
Xirdiimi'ni, Berlin, 1899, pp. 4 ft .scr/.; Gratz, Geifch. dir 
Judfii. M ed.. X. M2; Michael. Or hn-Hnuj/im. No. m2. 

5. Immanuel Benveniste: Noted printer and 
publisher in Amsterdam from 1640 to 1660. He 
published several rituals and larger works, among 
which ma)' be mentioned " 'Aruk," "Shulhan 'Aruk," 
"Sh'ne Liihot ha-Berit," and a valuable complete 
and still popular edition of the Talmud. The last 
named, owing to a lack of inirchasers, was otfen-d 
for sale, soon after publication, at si.x imperials or 
less. From his workshop issued several well-known 
printers, notably the firm of Judah Giimpel and 
Samuel Levi, as well as L'li Phudiiis Levi. In a 
measure the fame of Amsterdam Ilelirew priming 
can be traced back to Benveniste's influence. Sev- 
eral works issued by him are known by tlie borders 
of liis title-Images forming a doorway, or by his de- 
vice of star, lion, and castle. 

Bibliography : Ersch and 
x.xviil. !}."> : Rfvitf Etudea 
Cat. Biidl. .No. 789.3. 

6. Isaac Benveniste: Nephew of A.MtON and 
of Pijim:ii.\s v.. JosiiPii iia-Lkvi of Montpellier. 
Ho was perhaps the author of a ritual work entitled 
"Likkute ha-Dinim " (Collection of Laws), contain- 
ing 118 short decisions. It is still extant in manu- 

Bibliography : Zunz, Z. G. p. 474: Neubauer, (\it. Bndl. 
Hrlir. MSS. p. l.W, No. 7.S6. 

7. Isaac Benveniste (Zag) : Son of Joseph, 
(11); fatherofSheshet Benveniste (No. 19). He was 
phj'sician in ordinary to the king of Aiagon in tlie 
earl)' part of the thirteenth century, and lived at 
Barcelona; such was the esteem in which he was 
held tliathe was distinguished by the title of "Nasi" 
(prince). In 1215 he summoned a meeting of dele- 
gates from all the Jewish communities of southern 
France, from Xarbonue to Marseilles, to convene at 
St.-Gille.s. The convention, of which the influential 
Levi b. Moses of Narbonne was chairman, met for 
the purpose of electing delegates to Home in order 
to frustrate the plans of Pope Innocent III., and to 
hinder any measures that the Laterau Council might 
devise against the Jews. The efforts. of the dejiu- 
ties, however, were fruitless; for the Laleran Coun- 
cil decided that the Jews were to wear a special 
badge. It is due in large measure to the efforts of 
Benveniste that the provisions of this law were not 
strictly enforced in Aragon. On the recommenda- 
tion of Jaime I. and with the consent of the bishops 
of the land. Pope Honorius sent a diploma to Ben- 
veniste, exempting him, in recognition of his serv- 
ices, his abstention from usury, and his title of 
"catholicorum studiosus," from every indignity. 
It was further stipulated that the Jews of Aragon 
were not to be forced lo wear badges. 

Bibliography: Ibn Verpa. fihflift Yehudah. ed. Wiener; 
p. 114; Griitz, Gc.f(7i. 'fir J»</i)i,'vi. 403; vii.21,ai: lievue 
Etudes Jitivfs, xvii. 92, xxxix. thi. 

Benveniste b. ^iyv^'' 



8. Israel ben Eliezer Benveniste : Ktlativo 
of IIayvim ^No. 4) and ci| Jdsih a hkn Iskaki. Bkx- 
VEXISTE (Xo. 13): aresitii'iitof C'oiisUvntinople; died 
1677. He wrote "Bet Yisrael " (House of Israel), a 
eollertionof sermousand funeral orations, published 
by liis son(Coustantino|il('. 1678: Azulai, "Sliemha- 
Gedolini." ii. 4lii, 

9. Joseph Benveniste : Son of the court rabbi 
Abraham Benveniste (Xo. 1 ) ; lived in Castile in 1450 : 
and is sjiid to have been wealthy, philanthropic, and 
a patron of Jewish science (Zacuto, " Yuhasin," p. 

10. Joseph Benveniste: Of Segovia; lived in 
Smyrna toward the end of the sixteenth century; 
son of Moses Benveniste. and disciple of Elias Galigo 
and of Samuel Useda. Of his writings nothing re- 
mains but a fragment on the Talmudie treatise Git- 
tin, published by his grandson Solomon Algazi in 
the work entitled " Dobeb Sifte Yeshenim " (causing 
the lips of those that are asleep to speak, Cant. vii. 
10), Smyrna, 1671. 

BiBLiofiRAPIlT : .^zulai, Shcm hn-Gfdoh'm. i. 77, ii. 2!>; Steln- 
solineidiT, ('<i(. Bmll. Nos. .5;*<8, 6437; Benjafoli, (jiar liii- 
Se/arim. p. lOS, No. llifl. 

11. Joseph ben Benveniste : Grandson of Zera- 
hiah Geruiidi, and grandfather of Aaron ben .loseph 
ha-Lcvi: lived about llilO at Jlontpellier (Gross, 
"Gallia Judaiea." pp. S'iO et stq.). 

G. M. K. 

12. Joseph ben Ephraim ha-Levi Benve- 
niste: C'astilian minister of liuance, and councilor 
of Alfonso XI. : born at Ecijaat the end of the thir- 
teenth century : died at Toledo in 1337. The Infante 
Don Philip being captivated by Bcnveniste's great 
abilities, pleasing manners, and talent for music, 
recommended him to his nephew Alfonso XI. The 
latter, not less charmed than his uncle, appointed 
Benveniste not only minister of finance (tilmoj-arif), 
but also contidenlial councilor {privado). Bcn- 
veniste's position was a very influential one. He 
rode out in a stjite carriage, knights escorted him on 
his journeys, and giandees dined at his table. This 
greatness coidd not fail to e.xcite envy; and Ben- 
veniste had to struggle against the plots of his ene- 
mies, under whose attacks he finally fell. 

As a token of his contidence. Alfonso sent him to 
Valladolid to bring his sister, Doiia Leonora, to 
Toledo (13'.?8). When the Infante was about to set 
out, a mob, instigated by Bcnveniste's enemies, at- 
tempted to kill him and his attendants. His life 
was saved by the princess. She asked the leaders 
to let him accompany her to the Alcazar of the city, 
where she promised to give him up. But, when 
there, she ordered the gates to beshutand refused to 
deliver him to the rioters. Alfonso on learning what 
had happened marched against Valladolid, besieged 
it. burned many houses, and would have destroyed it 
entirely, had not more moderate persons dissuaded 

The plot having failed. Bcnveniste's enemies had 
recourse to slander. Many complaints against his 
administration were made to the Cortes of Valladolid ; 
and the king, fatigued at last by these constant com- 
plaints, dismissed Benveniste from the council and 
the position of almoxarif. 

Bcnveniste's downfall was. to some extent, due 
to himself. Samuel ibn AVakar, Alfonso's physi- 
cian, stood high in the royal favor. Alfonso en- 
trusted him wiUi the farming of the revenues derived 
from the importation of goods from the kingdom 
of Granada. Benveniste, jealous of his coreligion- 
ist's influence, offered a higher sum for the right 
of farming the import taxes. Samuel, in order to 
avenge himself, privately persuaded the king to stop 
the c.xportations by the JIoois. regardless of exist- 
ing treaties. This was followed by a war with the 
floors. Alfonso's treasury being exhausted, Gon- 
zalo Martinez, who had served under Benveniste 
and had become influential through his recommenda- 
tion, proposed to buy from the king ten of the prin- 
cipal Jews, for whom he would pay 800 lb. of silver. 
The king, compelled by his need of money, con- 
sented: and Martinez hastened to seize his former 
benefactor and to throw him into prison, where he 

Bibliography: Ibn Verga. Shchvl Ychudah, ed. Wiener, 
pp. 30-33 : Clironica dc Alfonso XT. 1. 83 et uq.; Lindo, His- 
tiiriiiif the Jcuv of Spain and PorlugaU pp. 133 et seq.; 
Gratz, Gcsch. der Juden, 3d ed., vii. 266 el seq. 

o. I. Br. 

13. Joshua ben Israel Benveniste : Rabbi in 
Constantinople toward the end of the seventeenth 
century; brother of Hayyim Benveniste (Xo. 4). and, 
like the latter, a disciple of Joseph Trani. He was 
a physician and rabbi at Constantinople in 1660. and 
was the author of the following works: "Ozne Ye- 
hoshua' " (The Ears of Joshua), sermons for the Sab- 
bath and special occasions (Constantinople, 1677); 
" Sedeh Yehoshua'" (FieUl of .loshua), a commen- 
tary on several tracts of the Talmud Y'erushalmi(('J. 
1662. 1749); " 'Abodah Tamniah " (Perfect Service), 
a commentary on the ' Abodah for the Day of Atone- 
ment (('6. 1719-20); "Seder ha-Gct," on the formula 
for divorce, written at Bru'fei and published at Con- 
stantinople, 1719. Bcnveniste's collection of re- 
sponsa,"Sha'ar Yehoshua'" (Gate of Joshua), was 
destroyed by tire; but several of his responsa are 
included in the collections of Moses Benveniste and 
Joseph Trani. 

Benveniste prepared (1) " Mishmeret ha-Mizwot " 
(Observance of the Commandments), a metrical ver- 
sion of the Azharot, with commentary: and (2) "I^e- 
bush Malkut " (Royal Garment), a hymn in the style 
of Gabirol's "Royal Crown." of which medical sci- 
ence constitutes the foundation. Azulai claims to 
have seen both of these writings in manuscript at 
the house of a rabbi in Constantinople. 

Bini.ioGRAPiiv: Conforle, Knre ha-Dnrnt,5la; Azulai, Shcrn 

hil-lliiliilini. i. 711. 

14. Judah Benveniste : Son of Abraham Ben- 
veniste (Xo. 2), iiiid grandson of the court ral)bi of 
the siime name (Xo. 1). He immigrated to Salonica 
with Samuel Franco and the other Spanish exiles, 
ami with them founded the Sephardic community in 
that city. He succeeded in preserving a share of his 
gix'at patrimony sufticient for the purchase of a large 
collection of books. Several experienced scribes 
were always employed in copying the Mishnah. the 
Talmud, and other works at his home, which was 
the center of the scholarly Spanish exiles. Bcn- 
veniste's library was always at the disposal of 



Benveuiste b. Hiyyah 

scholars; antl many, among them Jacob ibn Habib, 

made good use of it. 

Bibliography : Jacot) ibn Habib, Intrnduoilon to 'En Ya'aknh ; 
C'oronel. Quinquc Dccittuiitcs^ p. vii.; Micljael, Or ha-Hay- 
llini. No. it72. 

15. Judah Benveniste: Di.sciplc of Asher lia- 

Kohen ben Ardot and contemporary of David 

Conforte ; lived at Salonica, wliere he occupied the 

position of rabbi. 

BiBLiOGR.iPHT; Michael, Or hn-Hniniim, p. 448, No. 973; 
Conforte, IZore ha-Dornt, pp. in<i, .50/*. 

16. Meir ben Samuel Benveniste: Lived at 
Salonica, where in November, 1.5.59, he completed 
his work," 'OtEmet" (The Letter of Truth), contain- 
ing correctionsof thete.xtof theSifra, Sifre, Jlekilta, 
Midrash Kabbah, Yalkut, etc., as well as of the Se- 
phardic prayer-book (Salonica, 1.'564; Prague, 1624). 
In these books Benveuiste modestly styles himself 
" corrector. " 

Bibliography: Steinsohneider, Cat. Bo(U. No. 6394 ; TViei t, 
Bihiiothcca FrUiJlamiinna, p. 69, No. .>*b. 

17. Moses ben Nissim Benveniste : Grandson 
of Abraham b. Hauaiiiah, rabbi at Constantinople; 
was living in 1671, He corresponded with his rela- 
tives, Hayyim (No, 4) and Joshua Benveniste (No. 
13), and with others of his contemporaries. He pub- 
lished "Pene Mosheh" (Face of Moses), a tripartite 
collection of responsa on the ritualistic codes (Con- 
stantinople, 1671; 3d part, ib. 1719). His work 
*' Rab Leshonot " (Many Languages) has been lost. 

Bibliography: Azulai, Shcm ha-GedoUm, i. 132; Steinschnei- 
di-r. Cat. DiM. No. 114:!^. 

18. Samuel Benveniste : Dwelt in Tarragona 
in 1333, and was living iu 13.56, contemporaneously 
with Maestro Leon Jledico, ^lacstro Mose Medicci, 
and Maestro Yu(;ef Avendagot (the last mentioned 
being Identical with Joseph ha-Rofe ibn Abu-Ay- 
yub), Benveniste resided at the court of King Pedro 
of Aragon, as physician in ordinary to Don Manuel, 
the king's brother. Huttingerand Benjaeob say that 
he translated into Hebrew B<iethius' " De Consolatione 
Philosophiie," a work much read by the Christian 
scholars of the Middle Ages, but nothing is known 
about the manuscript. He also rendered into He- 
brew from Latin the work on asthma by Maimonides. 

Bibliography: Hehr. Bilil. viii. 8.5. 12.=;; i.\. 91 ; x. K4: .stein- 
schneider, Hchr. Uchtrs. pp. 4ti(i, 767 ; erroneously in Landau, 
Oesch. (Icr JUd. Acrzic, p, 39, who follows Carmoly, Mi'de- 
ciiisjuifs, p. 101. 

19. Sheshet ben Isaac ben Joseph Ben- 
veniste: Physieian and writer; lived in tin- latter 
half of the twelfth century. Like Isaac (Zag) Ben- 
veniste (No. 7), who is supposed to have been his 
father, he was styled " Nasi " (prince). He received 
his education at Narbonne, his probable birthplace; 
afterward he lived at Bai'celona, and later at Sara- 
gossa, in wliich city he died about 1309. It is said 
that he owed his high position to his knowledge of 
Arabic. He practised medicine, and was the author 
of a medical work, manuscript copies of wliicli are 
still extant at Oxford and ^lunich. Such was his 
reputation as a physician that patients came long 
distances to consult hiin, and some are said to have 
journeyed even from Mayence {c.f/., Solomon ben 
Ilanauel). Benveniste, whose generosity is praised 
by Al-Harizi, was poetically gifted and composed 
several liturgical songs. Even in his old age lie 

remained a friend of free investigation, as the fol- 
lowing epigram on Me'ir Abulafia shows: 
" You ask why 'lustrous' he is named, 

Though he the light so cheaply rat«d; 
Because the dusk we ' twilight ' name : 

By language-contrasts thoughts are mated." 
Benveniste directed a letter to the congregation of 
Lunel, in answer to the epistle of Abulafia to that 
congregation, in which he freely himself 
upon the value of Maimonides' " Yad ha-Hazakah," 
because it enabled the laity to control the judgments 
rendered by the Rabbis. He carried on a lively cor- 
respondence with Nasi Kalonymus b. Todros and 
with Levi li. Moses of Narbonne, where his brother 
.loseph also resided. He lost his three sons in their 

Bibliography: Steinsohneider, Hehr. Bibl. xiii. lOti et srq.; 
liriitz, Gesch. der Jiuhn. vi. 1, note 1; vii. 41 ; idem, Scliiclict 
BcnveniMc iibcr MaimunVs ^Virhsamkeity in ^^lontits- 
adirift, XXT. -509 f( scQ. (the letter is reprinted in (iratz, 
Hchr. tr. V. Appendix, p. 11); Revue Etudes Juives, xxxix. 
62 ci sc^., 217 ct »eq. 

20. Solomon Benveniste (called the Elder) : 
A prominent scholar and contemporary of MiiifK ben 
Joseph; lived at Narbonne about the middle of the 
twelfth century (Zacuto, " Yuhasin," 85a). 

21. 'Vidal Benveniste: Lived at Saragossa, 
Spain, in the fifteenth century. He was elected by 
the notables of the communities of Aragon chief 
speaker at the disputation of Tortosa (1414), because 
of his knowledge of Latin and his reputed wisdom, 
Benveniste wrote a refutation of the seeming evi- 
dences of Jesus as the Messiah, called "Kodesh ha- 
Kodashim. " which is still extant in manuscript. He 
is not identical with Don Ferrer of Gerona or with 
Vidal b. Labi de la Caballeria, as claimed bj' some. 

liiBLiOGRAPHV: Ihn Verga, Shrhet IV/nir/n/i, ed, Wiener, pp. 
tiSft scq.: (iriitz, OcxiU. der Juileti, 3d ed., viii, 414 et xeq.; 
Michael, Or liii-Hiimiim. No. sot. 

22. 'Vidal Benveniste : Possibly a brother of 
the court rabbi Abraham Benveniste (No. 1); lived 
in Aragon at the beginning of the fifteenth century. 
He was the autlior of the poem, " Melizat 'Efer we- 
Dinah,"an allegory on pleasure (published, together 
with a number of Midrashim, at Constantinople, 
l.")16, and at Rimini, 152.5) composed as a diversion 
for the Puriin festival (Steiuschneider, "Cat, Bodl," 
col. 2706). 

23. 'Vidal Benveniste: Elder son of Joseph 
Benveniste (No. 9) and grandson of the court rabbi 
Abraham Benveniste (No. 1). Like the latter, Vidal 
^vas a promoter of Jewish science (Zacuto, " Yuha- 
sin," p. 336). 

"• M. K. 

DAYYAN (caUed also Al-Yasis [the El(l( r| or 
Ibn al-Yasis) : Physician and religious poet of 
the tliirtcentli century. Zunz mentions three met- 
rical "bakkashahs" (supplications) written by him. 
At Bi'iiveniste's request. Jacob ben Eleazar under- 
took the translation of "Kalilah we-Dimnah " from 
the Arabic into Hebrew. To the preface of this 
translation Jacob prefixed a few verses laudatory of 

BiiiLioGRAPiiv : Steinschneider, Citt. Biidl. col. 27IC1: Idem, 
Helir. I'lliern. p. S79: Zunz, Lilereitiiriiexeh. p. 'M; I.ands- 
hulh. 'AmmtKte hit-Wnxiah. p. .il ; J. Derenbourg. Deux 
Vertiitinx Hthralquei^ du Livrc de KiiUhVi et Dimndh, p. 
.3i:j, Paris, 1S81. 
G. M. K. 

Benveniste b. Jacob 



BENVENISTE BEN JACOB: Oucof tlieoffi- 
eiTs..f tiKsocictv Uikkur l.lnliniof the Spanish syn- 
agogue in Veniee Knvaril the end of the seventeenth 
centtirv. He was of Spanisli liescent. and is men- 
tioned together with Raphael ben Solomon Silvaand 
Isjiae hen Banuh Carvalho in the ^L" HpHpT nSC 
EfSJ (•• PiiUherrima In<iuisitio Anim;e"), prayers for 
the sick and dying used by the members of the 
above-mentioned society (Venice, Bnigadin. 1685). 
Furst wrongly attributes the partial authorship of 
these prayers to Benveniste ('-Bibl. Judaica," i. 106: 
Bi'njacob, "Ozar ha Sefarini." p. 608, No. 1199): 
but see Steinschneidcr. "Cat. Bodl." No. 3333. 

L. G. ^ 

BENVENISTE B. LABI (S'^!^: also known 
as De la Caballeria) : A ,kwish Maccnas: son of 
" Prince " Solomon ibn Labi de la Caballeria : lived 
at Sanigossa. later at Alcaniz. where he died Nov. 30. 
1411. He was wealthy, learned, and greatly re- 
spected, and often took "the part of !iiscoreli.gionists. 
He corresponded with the most eminent men of his 
time: among others with Meir Alguadez, who. at 
Bcnveniste'srciiuest, translated Aristotle's "Ethics" 
into Hebrew: with Hasdai Crescas: with Isitac b. 
Sheshet: with Joseph Orabuena. cliief rabbi of Na- 
varre; and with the physician Astruch Remoch 
Dios, or, as he called himself when he became a 
Christian, F^ncisco Dios Carne. 

Benveniste was a patron of science and of schol- 
ars. For him Zerahyali ha-Levi (Don Ferrer Sala- 
din) translated Gazzali"s "Tahafat al-Filasafah" 
into Hebrew : and at his reiniest Joshua b. Joseph 
ibn Vi^as Lorki wrote the work (probably now 
lost) on the virtues and function of foodstuffs, which 
was afterward translated into Hebrew by his sou 
Joseph Lorki. Benveniste died at Alcaniz and was 
buried with great honors. In memoriam services 
were held at Saragossa. Calatayud, Daroca. Soria, 
and other places. 
BiBLiOGRAPHT: JoTJiioiiii. e<i. Kobak, ix. Set feq.: see Stein- 

sohnelder. Hehr. Vehcrx. pp. 211, 3T8. 762; Gratz. Gc^^eh.(kr 

Jiuleii. 3d eti. vlii, 410 e( xctj. 
G. M. K. 

PORTA : Bailie ("bayle ") of Barcelona, Spahi. and 
brother of Nahnianides (whose secular name was 
Bon Astruc de Porto; see Gratz, "Gesch. der 
Juden." vii. 38; "Jewish Quarterly Review," viii. 
492, 710). Benveniste was an important capitalist 
of Barcelona and advanced money to King Jaime 
I. of Aragon, mainly on the security of the 
municipal dues owed to the king. Thus on Dec. 
IT. Vio'. he advanced :^,863 sueldos on the dues of 
his bailiwick (Jacobs. " Sources," No.l34) : and on the 
1.5th of the following month he received the right 
to sell the dues of Barcelona and Gerona for two years 
(ih. No. 142). The total indebtedness of the king 
was no less than 1!)9,48:5 sueldos (ili. No. 144). 
which Benveniste was allowed to recover by taking 
the dues of Leri<la and other places of his bailiwick 
{ih. 162). Part of the |iayineut was made by the 
Jews of Barcelona themselves, who were ordered to 
hand over 12,000 sueldos to Benveniste (i'j. No. 16Ra). 

Jleanwhile the king continued his applications to 
Benveniste for funds, drawing a check on him for 
5.000 sueldos June 12. 1200 {ib. No. 170a); while 

two vears later the king acknowledged Ins indebted 
ness"to Benveniste of 15.221 sueldos for payment 
made on accoimt of the Infanta Donna Juana. May 
21 1262. In return for the advance, the dues of 
Villafranca (i«. No. 205). as well as 20 squares of 
laud there (il>. No. 232), and the dues of the Balearic 
islands {if>. No. 257) and of Perpignan {ib. No. 239). 
were granted to Benveniste. The latter continued to 
act as' banker for the king, since a record is found 
of acknowledgment of a debt of 15,000 sueldos. paid 
by Benveniste" to the bishop of Barcelona when pro- 
ceedin'T on an embassv to France Jan. 1. 12.54 {ib. 
No. 355): and as late as Feb. 1. 1268, the dues of 
the Jews of Gerona were assigned to Benveniste {ib. 
No. 681). 

Altogether Benveniste stood high in favor with 
King Jaime— no doubt for value received— and 
when on Mav 29. 1364. his brother Nahnianides was 
pardoned, two-thirds of the fine he had incurred for 
the allescd crime of vituperating Jesus in the cele- 
brated controversy of 1263 was remitted, the king 
expresslv stating that the pardon was given "amore 
Benveniste de Porta, fratris tui " ("Sources," Ap- 
pendi.x, No. 4. p. 130). 

BiBLioi;aAPHT : Jacobs. Inquini into the Sourctsof Spaiiish- 
Jiwish Hisf"!)/. as above. 

<;. J- 

BENZION, BENEDIX: Russian physician and 
missionary to the Jews; born in a small town in the 
government of Kiev. Russia, in 1839. He spent sev- 
eral years in Rumania, and was baptized in Berlin 
in 1863. Benzion studied medicine and was gradu- 
ated by the Tniversity of Wurzburg in 1867. He 
went to England, and having entered the service of 
the British Society for the Conversion of the Jews, 
was sent out to Rumania in 1874 as a medical mis- 
sionary to the Jews. Transferred to Odessa, Russia, 
in 1876, he remained there for ten years, acquiring a 
considerable reputation as a medical practitioner and 
as a missionary. He left Odessa for Constantinople 
in 1886, but was not known as a missionary after 
1888. He now lives in the United States. 

Benzion is the author of "Oiah Zedakah," a col- 
lection of proverbs and parables in the style of Ec- 
desiasticus (Odessa. 1876) : " Kol Kore el Bet Israel " 
(translated from the English by Dr. Benzion, Lon- 
don, 1868); a translation into JudieoGerman of Jos. 
H. Ingraliam's "Prince of the House of David." 
under the title "Tiferet Yisra'cl" (Odessa, 1883-86); 
and a translation into Judieo-German of Silvio Pel- 
lieo's drama, "Ester d'Engedi," tinder the title 
"Der Falsche Kohengodel." which has been played 
at the Jewish theaters of New York. 

HiBi.iOGR.vpnv: J. F. A, (leLeRni, rtcichiehte (J.r Eranofli- 
s(lu)t JuilenmissUm. ii, 27l>-272. 2S1. Leipsic. 1S99: ZeitUn, 
Bilil. Hthraica, p. 27; Van Straalen, Cat. Uchr. Bnoka 
Brit. Mux. s.v. 

n. K. 

P. Wi 

JACOB HA-LEVI: Talmudist ; lived probably 
in Galicia in the middle of the eighteenth century. 
He was the author of "Et Razon " (Time of Grace), 
containing essays on morals, intended for the first 
part of the ilinhah prayer of Sabbath (Zolkiev, 
1777). lu the introduction to this work. Benzion 
mentions two other works written by him ; but these 
have not been published. 



Benveniste b. Jacob 

Bibliography; Benjacob. Ozar ha-St:fnrinu pp. 4o;j. 454 ; 
Furst, mhliiithccn Judaica.'i. 109. 

L. (i. I. Br. 

BENZION, SAMUEL. See Endler, Samuel. 
BEOBACHTER, DEB. See Periodicals. 

BEOB, : 1. Father of Bcla. king of Edon (Geu. 
x.\.\vi. •d-.i; I Chron. i. 43). 2. Father of Balaam 
{Num. x,\ii. 5; x.\iv. 3, 15; x.vxi. 8; Deut. xxiii. 
4; Josh. xiii. 22; Micah vi. 5). II Peter ii. 15 gives 
tlio name as "Bosor. " 

o. G. B. L. 

BEftTJEST : A gift of personal jiroperty in a last 
will and testament. Modern English law and 
American law distinguish between a beiinest and a 
devise; tlie former being a testameutaiy gift of 
personal property, and the latter one of real estate. 
This distinction, however, is based upon the feu- 
dal law, and does not exist in Jewish law. Real estate 
and personal estate ma\be the subjects of a bequest 
in Jewish huv ; and although there is .some distiuc- 
tion recognized between these two classes of prop- 
erty b)' reason of the fact that one 
Definition, is movable and the other immovable, 
both of them may be bequeathed in 
the same manner. Subject to certain well-detincd 
exceptions, modern law requires the be(iuest to be 
in writing. Jewish law jias no such requirement : 
and an oral bequest may be entirely valid. 

The ma.\im of the law is, "The words of a sick 
man arc like those written and delivered " (Git. 13a; 
B. B. 151a); that is to say, the oral bequest of a sick 
man is in effect equivalent to a gift of immovable 
property by a deed in writing, or of movable prop- 
erty by delivery of the object. The alisence of the 
usual formalities required in tlie transferor real and 
personal property does not invalidate a bequest. 
The Jewish law calls a bequest "the gift of one 
lying on a sick-bed" ("mattanat shekib mera' "'), 
and distinguishes it in several points from the gift 
of a person in good health (B. B. 153a; IMainionidcs, 
" Yad." Zi'kiyahu-JIattanab.viii. 2; Shulhan 'Aruk, 
Hoshen Mishpat, 2.50, 5, 8). 

Inasmuch as the validity of a bequest may depend 
upon the condition of the testator's health at the 
time when he made it, the law attempts to define 
the degreesof sickness. A blind, lame, or mutilated 
person, or one who is suffering pain in the head, 
eyes, hands, or feet, is for testamentary imrpo.scs the 
same as a person iji good health ; but if his entire 
body is weakened through sickness so that he can 
no longer walk about, and is obliged to take to his 
bed, he is technically a "sick man" (Maiiiinnides, 
th. viii. 1, 2). 

The law considers a further distinction ; namelv, 
between oiu^ on his siek-ljcd and one on his death- 
bed; and this distinction also has certain important 
legal consequences. >Some authorities are of the 
opinion that a pers(m on his sicklied isa "sick man" 
during the Hist three days of his illness; and that if 
the illness lie prolonged beyond that pericid. or if he 
be suddenly stricken with a dangerous illness, he is 
to be considered as a man on his death-bed, and his 
bequest under such circumstances will be suIijimM 
to certain special regulations (Shulhan 'Aruk, 
Hoshen Mishpat, 2.50, 5). The law of bequests is in 

fact a subdivision of the law of gifts, a bequest 
being to all intents and purposes a gift, distin- 
guished, however, from an ordinary gift in that the 
strictness of the procedure is relaxed in favor of 
carrying out the intention of the testator. 

A distinction must be noted bitween a testament 
wherein the property is bequeathed by wa}- of in- 
heritance and one wherein the prop- 
Bequest erty is bequeathed by wa}' of gift. 
by Way of By the former, (mly those persons may 

Gift, etc. be made legatees who would naturally 
take the pifiperty as heirs of the de- 
ceased; under the latter, however, any person may 
be made a legatee. 

The law of testamentary succession, as laid down 
in the Bible (Num. xxvii. 8-11 ; see A(;x.\tes). is un- 
alteralde; and any attempt made liy the owner of 
property to bequeath it as an inheritance to those 
who would not naturally inherit it is null and void. 
No one can be maile an heir cxeeiit such pensons as 
are mentioned in this Biblical law; nor can the prop- 
erty be lawfully diverted from the heirs by the sub- 
stitution, either orall)' or in writing, of some other 
jierson asheir (Jlishnah B. B. viii. 5); but the owner 
of property has such control over it that he may dis- 
pose of it by sale or gift to any person, to the exclu- 
sion of his heirs. This important distinction, there- 
fore, nnist be noted, that a bequest by way of 
inheritance to persons other than the legal heirs is 
null and void, whereas a be(|uest by way of gift is 

Although the testator can not make a stranger his 
iK'ir, he may divide the inheritance among the heirs 
in shares different from those prescribed by the law. 
This right is dedticed by inference from the text, 
"And on the day when he shall cause his sons to 
inherit " (Deut. xxi. Ifi), imiilyiug the right on his 
part to divide the estate among them as he pleases. 
The heirs may not be excludeil by the use of nega- 
tive jihrases; for instance, if the testator says. "My 
first -born .son shall not have a double share of my 
estate." or "My son shall not inherit with his 
brothers." such expression is null and void; but 
if lie says, "My son A shall have half of mj' prop- 
erty and my other sons the other half," this is valid 
(B.B. VMkit't mj. ; Hoshen Jlishpat. 281. 1, 2). 

This rule aiiplies only to bequests liy way of in- 
heritance. A person in a state of health can not af- 
fect the succession unless he does so by a gift with 
all proper formalities (Hoshen Mishpat, l.r. 5, 7). 

If one bequeaths his property to a stranger under 
the belief that his .son is dead, the bequest is invalid 
if the son afterward returns, because it is presumed 
that the bequest would not have been made to a 
stranger if the father had known that his son was 
living; but if the bequest is only of a portion of 
the jiroperty, it is valid, upon the presumption that 
it was intended to be a gift (B. B. 14(iti; Hoshen 
Mishpat, 240, 1). '" 

If a ))erson bequeaths his entire iirojierty to one 
of his children, such one takes it as trustee for the 
benefit of all. and is entitled merely to an e(|ual 
share with them; but if the father has beciueathed 
to him a portion only of the property, or if the in- 
strument on its face shows that it was intended to 
be an absolute gift, he holds it free from all trust, 

Berab, Jacob 



as liis sole nu<l cxclusivo iiroporty (B. B. 131b, 
150b; "Yad." Zckiyah u Maltanali. vi. 2; IJoshen 
Mishpat. 24G, 4). 

The subject of be<nicsts by way of inheritaiiee 
is treated more fully under Ixukhitance and Wii.i.s. 
The present artiele iseoneerned more especially with 
bequests by way of gift. 

As above slated, by a bequest in the form of a 
gift the testator may practically disinherit his lawful 
heirs; hence, if a sick man in making a disposition 
of his property says distinctly, "I give this not as an 
inheritance, b\it as a gift." it is a valid bequest, even 
though it excludes the lawful heirs (Hoshcn Jlish- 
pat. 248, 2). 

Although the right of the owner of property to 
bequeath it totheexclusion of his heirs is recognized 
by the law, it is contrary to its spirit 
Dis- and is deemed a moral wrong. The 

inheriting Mishnali (B. B. viii. 5)S!iys: "If one 
the Heir, deeds his goods to strangers and ex- 
cludes his sons, his act is lawful, but 
the spirit of the sages takes no dcliglil in him." R. 
Simon ben Gamaliel said: "If. however, his sons 
were unworthy, his act is praiseworthy. ' Mar Sam- 
uel went so far as to say that the father can not'dis- 
inherit a wicked son in favor of a good one (B. B. 
133b). This, however, isnot the law. The Shulhan 
'Aruk, after citing the general opinion of the Jlisli- 
nah, says (ih. 282, 1): "It is the practise of the very 
pious not to witness a will by which the inheritance 
is taken from the heirs, even though it is taken from 
an unworthy son an<l given to another son who is a 
learned and upright man"; and H. Moses Isserles 
{ib. gloss) adds: "If one leaves general directions 
tliat his executors shall dispose of his property ac- 
cording to the best that can be done with it, they 
ought to give it to his heirs; for there is nothing 
better than this." 

A bequest becomes valid only upon the death 
of the testator (B. B. 187a: "Yad," Zckiyah u- 
Mattanah, viii. 8; Hoshen Mishpat, 2.52, 1): hence, if 
the bequest is coupled with conditions which are 
inipo.ssible of fulfilment after the death of the testa- 
tor, it is invalid. Thus, if the testtitor's bequest is 
in writing, and the instrument contains the usual 
formula that symbolic seizure ("Ijinyan") has lu'cn 
made, but in fact this formality has not been com- 
plied with, such beiiucst is invalid; because it is im- 
possible that the legatee should perform the cere- 
mony of symbolic seizure with the testator after the 
latter's death (B. B. 152a; Hoshen Mishpat. 2.50. 17). 

A distinction, alluded to almve. in cases of be- 
quests requires further amplitication. The be<|Uest 
may be either on<' in which the testator makes no 
mention of his death, or one in which he does ex- 
pressly mention hisd<:ith (B. B. lolb; "" Zcki- 
yah u-Mattanah, viii. 17-23; Hoshen .Mishpat. ?.<•. 7). 
In the latter case, the Ix'iiuest. whether made orally 
or in writing, requires none of the formalities of a 
gift among living persons; all that 
Death-Bed is neccs,sary is the simple declaration 
Bequests, of the dying man, which is carried 
into elTect through the maxim. "The 
words of a sick man are like those written and 
delivered" (B. B. 147b; Iloshen Mishpat, I.e. 1; 
"Yad," i.e.). 

Where the testator makes no mention of his death, 
a further distinction is to be noted : namely, whether 
he has bequeathed his entire property or only a por- 
tion of it. If he has bequeathed his entire property 
without retaining anything for himself, the pre- 
sumption arises that he has given it on account of 
his anticipated death, and therefore it is a death- 
bed bequest: otherwise, it is presumed that the tes- 
tator would not have given away his entire prop- 
erty. If, on the other hand, he has not bequeathed 
allof his property, but has retained a portion of it. 
a contrary presumption arises; namely, that he does 
not expect to die of this sickness. Such a bequest, 
therefore, is treated like a gift among living persons, 
and requires symbolic seizure in order to give it 
validity (B. B. i.">lb; "Y'ad," Zckiyah u-Mattanah, 
XV. lO"; Hoshen Mishpat, 250, 4-7). 

If a sick man uses such expressions as "A shall 
have the whole of my property," or " a part thereof," 
or "shall acquire it." or "shall enjoy it," or "shall 
take possession of it," each of these expressions in- 
dicates a bequest by way of gift. If, in making 
the bequest to an heir, he says, " A shall be inscribed 
in my genealogical register," or "shall inherit from 
me according to law," it is valid as a bequest by 
way of inheritance according to the conditions 
above stated; but if he says, "Let A enjoy my prop- 
erty " or " Let him stand in it " or " rest in it," A ac- 
ipn'res no property rights in it. If he says, "I leave 
my property to A." this is a gift: if he says, " Jly 
)'ro|)erty shall fall to A." this is an inheritance (B. 
B. 148bi7 .ie(/. : "Y'ad." Zekiyalui-Mattanah, ix. 3, 4; 
Hoshen Mishpat, 2.53, 2). 

A bequest of " my movable property " includes 
everything with the exception of wheat, barley, and 
other grain. A bcqtiest of "all my movable prop- 
erty " includes all things except those which are 
fastened to the ground and not intended to be 
moved, such as the lower millstone. Technically 
these are fixtures, and go with the real estate. A 
bequest of "all my property that may lie moved" 
is held to include even sucli fixtures (B. B. 1.50a; 
"Yad," Zckiyah u-.Mattanah, xi. 12-14: Hoshen 
Jlishpat. 248. 10). A bequest of "my goods" in- 
cludes all decedent's movable and immovable goods 
("Yad," I.e. xi. 15; Hoshen Mishpat, ^48, 11). A 
bequest of "a piece of groimd, and as incidental 
thereto, all my movable jiropcrty, gold, silver, ves- 
sels, clothing" — in .short, everything tliat may be de- 
nominated either money or goods — does not carry 
with it any other real estate, or slaves, or scrolls of 
the Law, Ijccause these are not acquired as an inci- 
dent to other things. The use of the phrase "inci- 
dental to"("aggab") is extremely technical. All 
sorts of ]iersonal jiroperty may be acquired withimt 
any special ceremony of symbolic seizure as inciden- 
tal to land; but lanil can not be acquired as inciden- 
tal to perscmal property (Iloshen Mishpat, 248, 12; 

Where a bequest is made to A for life, and after 
his ilcath to B, the latter is entitled to take only 
what is in existence at the time of A's death (B. B. 
137a): but if A is a lawfiil heir of the testator, B 
receives nothing, because! a gift made to an heir is 
inesumed to be given as an inheritance, and an in- 
heritance can not be diverted from the lawful heir 



Bequest • 
Berab, Jacob 

ami his descendants (B. B. 129b: Hoslien Misli- 
pat, 248, 1). If the bequest is to A, and after him 

t(j B, and after B to C, the}" succeed 

Bequest for one another; but if B dies during tlie 

Life, and lifetime of A, the heirs of A inherit. 

"on If B, however, is living at the time of 

Condition." the death of A, he takes the property 

because A is entitled to its use for life 
only. If A has sold the property, he is guilty of a 
moral, but not of a legal, wrong; because, although 
he is only entitled to its use for life, B's riglit in tlie 
remainder is not a vested right, but is contingent 
upon the exislencc of the property at the time of 
A"s death (Iloshen Mislipat, 24IS, 3). If, however, 
the gift is specitically to A for a definite period, 
and after that to B, a purchaser from A takes no title 
to it, and at tlie e.xjiiration of the fixed period, B may 
recover the property from such purchaser (/i. gloss). 
If a bequest is made "on condition," the condition 
must be fulfilled before the legatee is entitled to the 
bequest. If the testator says, "A shall marry my 
daughter, and he sliall be given two hundred dol- 
lars," the condition is a coudition precedent, and A 
can not receive the two himdred dollars before he 
marries the daugliter (Hosheu Mishpat, 2.53, 12). 

A specific bequest may be given to an heir in ad- 
dition to that which he would otherwise inherit; if 
the sick man says, "Giveniyscm A two hundred 
dollars that belongs to him," heisentitled to thissum 
as a specific bequest in addition to any other rights 
he may have in his father's estate (" Yad, " Zekiyah u- 
Mattanah, xi. 10; Hosben Mislipat, 253, S). and he 
may reclaim it if it lias lieeu disposed of by the heirs 

(Hosheu jMishpat, 252, 2, gloss); but if 

Specific the legacy was not specific and the 

and lieirs were merely charged with a 

Demonstra- moral obligation to carry out the will 

tive of tlie testator, their disposilion of the 

Bequests, property is valid {ih.). If the testator 

hasgiventhree legacies, and the estate 
is not sutlicieut to pay them all, tliev abate j>ro rata 
(B. B. 138a; "Yad,"" Zekiyah u-5Iattanah. x. 13), 
unless he has indicated tlie order in which they 
shall abate (Hoshen Mislipat, 253, 9). 

If one bequeaths a siieciflc sum of mouey, to be 
]>aid to the legatee out of a certain claim which is to 
be collected from a debtor to the estate, the bequest 
need not be paid until the debt is collected; this is a 
demonstrative legacy jiayalile out of a certain fund 
{ih. 11). A specific becjuest of two hundred dollars to 
the poor, or a .scroll of the Law to the synagogue, is 
presumed to be intended for the poor of the com- 
munity to which the testator belonged or for the syna- 
goguewbich he was in the lialiitof attending (ih. 23). 
A specific beipiest of a "share" of the testator's 
goods is generally taken to mean one-sixteenth, or, 
according to .some authorities, one-fourth (ih. 24). 

If one during his sickness has bequeathed his en- 
tire property to sacred or charitable uses, or has 
abandoned it all {see HtKKEiO and retained nothing 
for himself, and he afterward recovers, his acts are 
all voidable; but if he has retained anything for 
himself, his bequest is equivalent to, and subject to 
the laws of, an ordinary gift an<l can not be revoked 
("Yad," Zekiyah uMattauah, ix. 19; Iloshen Mish- 
uat, 250. 3, 4). 

A bequest of a claim against ;inother person, or of 
an instrument of indebtedness held against another 
person, is valid even though none of the formali- 
ties required in cases of assignment of claims has 
been performed; provided, however, that the be- 
quest was made in contemplation of death, or the 
testator parted with all his estate (B. B. 147b; 
"Yad," Zekiyah u-Mattanah, x. 2; Hoshen Mishiiat, 
253, 20; see Assign.ment). 

A bequest is revocable either b_y express words or 
by implication. Where the testator, after having 
bequeathed certain property to A, bequeaths the 
same property to B, the former bequest to A is ini- 
jiliedly revoked. If, however, the article bequeathed 
has been delivered, or symbolic seizure has been 
taken by the legatee, the bequest is irrevocable (B. 
B. 151a; Hoshen Mishpat, 2.50, 13). 

A bequest made by a testator under the belief 

that he was about to die is revocable, no matter how 

formally made (Hoshen Jlishpat, 250, 14; "Yad," 

Z(^kiyah u ]Mattanah, viii. 23). But in 

Rev- some cases it has legal effect even 

ocation. though it is revocable: thus, if the tes- 
tator bequeathed his entire property 
to his slave, he may, upon recovery, revoke the 
bequest; but the slave remains a free man, because 
through the gift he has become free, and freedom once 
acquired can not be lost (Git. 9a; "Yad," Zekiyah 
u-Mattanah, viii. 22; Hoshen Jlish pat, 250, 15; see 
commentary, "Beer ha-Golah." ad hr.). In case, 
however, the slave takes the beijuest under the fol- 
lowing form, "I bequeath my property to you from 
this day, in case I die," and tlie testator afterward 
recovers, the slave has not aciiuired his freedom; 
because the beiinest was made specifically on con- 
dition of death, and, the condition not having been 
fulfilled, no property rights pass to the slave (" Beer 
ha-Golah." I.e.). 

If a man is about to go on a sea voyage, or into 
the desert with a caravan, or is being led to a place 
of execution, or is suddenly stricken with a sickness 
that steadily grows worse, his bequests ma<le under 
such circumstances are subject to the rules of death- 
bed be([uests. If he dies, his bequest is valid ; but 
if his life is lu'cserved, it is revocable by him even 
though there has been "kinyan,"and even though 
he has not parted with all of his jiroperty ("Yad," 
Zekij-ah u-Mattanah, viii. 24). 

Bmi.iooR.vPHv: SIiiiUkiii 'Anih. 7f.w)i< ii ^^i.■>ll|ul^. 88 a'iO-2,'ki, 
281 t:t fieii. : Vad ha-lltizttkiiJi.yAkimiJi n-Mtittfiiitili, vi.-xli.; 
ib. i\'(()l(r('if, vl.; Sii;ilsi-lijit'z, /)ir.< Sliisnixili, Hiilil. pft. XHti- 
S39. Berlin, lK."):i; Ulocb, Das MiimL^ili-Tiilniuili.ii-hi Kih- 
rccht, pp. 49-TII, Budapest, tSflO; .MiiviT, Die Hir)iif tier 
iKi-aclUni, Atliiiicr viid ROmer, ii. 47s , ( .viy.; I.eipsic, ISHti; 
Moses Mi'nilels,sohn, l{itualiie.iel2e dtr Judiii. Hi., Berlin, 
1778; lioilenlu'imer, iMw Te.itamfnt. frefeld, 1847. 

.1. si{ D. W. A. 

BBRA : Kiii.g of Sodom; one of the five kings 
constituting the confederacy under Amraphel 
(Gen. xiv. 3). Ber. Babbah" 42 playfully inter- 
prets the name as though contracted from "ben ra' " 
(evil son). 

r, G. B. L. 

BERAB, JACOB [B. MOSES ?] : Talmudist 
and ralibi; liorn at Mo(|ueda near Tnledo. Siiain, in 
1474; died at Sated April 3, 1540. He was a pupil 
of Isaac Aboab. When he fled from Spain to Tlem- 




9en, then the chief town of the Barbary states, the 
Jewish commiiiiity there, consistiug of 5,000 fami- 
lies, chose him for their rabbi, thoudi 
Chosen he was but a youth of eighteen {Levi 
Rabbi at ibn I.Iabib. ••Hesponsii." p. 298b). Evi- 
Eighteen. deme of the great respect tliere paid 
him is affordeii by the following lines 
of Abraham Gavison (" " Omer lia Shikhah "): 
" Say not that the lamp of the Law no lonser in Israel bumetb ! 
Jacob Berab hath come back— once more amon? us he sojoum- 

It is not liuown how long Berab remained in Al- 
geria : but before 15'22 he was in Jerusjilem. There, 
however, the social conditions were so oppressive 
that he did not stay long, bat went with his pupils 
to Egypt (Palestiiie letter, dated 1.522. in Luncz, 
"• Jeriisalem. '' iii. 98). Some years later (1527) Berab. 
now fairly well-to-do, resided in Damascus (Levi ibn 
Habib, "Responsa." p. llTa); in 1.533 he became 
rabbi at Cairo ((V<. 33a); and seversjl years after he 
seems to have linally settled in Safed. which then 
contained the largest Jewish commimity in Pales- 
tine. It was there that Berab conceived the bold 
idea which made him famous, that of establishing a 
central spiritual Jewish power. 

Berab's undertaking, to be judged correctly, must 
be considered in connection with the whole current 
of tliought of the j'ounger generation 
Flan for of Spanish exiles. The overwhelm- 
Ordination. ing catastrophe of 1492. which, in view 
of the wretched condition of the Jews 
in Germany and Italy, had threatened the very ex- 
tinction of Judaism, produced phenomena which, 
while apparently opposite in character, were but 
natural consequences. Imaginative and sentimental 
persons thought that the promised Jlessianic time 
was approaching; they regarded their great suf- 
ferings as the process of purgation, as the 'pan 
n't."D. the eschatologic "birth-throes," of the Mes- 
sianic era. The main representative of this mystical 
tendencv was Solomon Molcho, whose tragic fate 
by no means extinguished these fond hopes and the 
desire for martyrdom. But the delusion had (juite 
a different effect upon more practical natures. Ac- 
cording to yet another view, the chief advocate of 
which was ^Maimonides, the Jlessiah would not ap- 
pear suddenly: the Jews would have to prepare for 
him ; and the chief pre|)aratory step needed was the 
establishment of a universally recognized Jewish 
tribunal as their spiritual center. 

Although the hopis of a ilessiah, cherished espe- 
cially in Palestine, were fundamentally wild and ex- 
travagant, they afforded the right person an excel- 
lent opportunity to create for the Jews a recognized 
central authority, spiritual — and perhaps, in time, 
political — in character. There is no doubt that the 
man for the purpose was Berab; he was the most 
important and honored Talmudist in the Orient, and 
was endowed w ith jierseverance amounting to ob- 
stinacy. His plan was the reintroduction of the 
old "Semikah" (ordination); and Safed he held 
to be the best field for his activity. The lack of 
unity in deciding and interpreting the Law must 
cease. IS'o longer should each rabbi or each student 
of the Law be allowed to decide upon the gravest 
matters of religion according to his own judgment. 

There should be only one court of appeal, to form 
the highest authority on subjects relating to the 
eompri^hension and interpretation of the Torah. 

Thouirh this idea seemed new, it was not without 
precedent. The Sanhedrin in tannaitic times was, 
in a certain sense. Berab's model. But the Sanhe- 
drin consisted of such men as could trace their ordi- 
nation back to Moses; yet for a thousand years no 
such men had existed. Berab, however, was equal 
to the diflicuUy. ^Maimonidcs. he was aware, had 
taught that if the S!\ges in Palestine would agree to 
ordain one of themselves, they could do so, and that 
the man of their choice could then ordain others. 
Although Maimonidcs' opinion had been strongly 
opposed by Xahmanidesand others, and JIaimonides 
himself hiul not been quite positive in the matter, 
Berab had so much self-reliance that he was not to 
l>e deterred from his great undertaking by petty 
eonsiderations. Jloreover. the scholars at Safed had 
contidence in him. and had no doubt that, frotn a 
rabbinical standpoint, no objection to his plan coidd 
be raised. Thus in 1338 twenty-five rabbis met in 
assembly at Safed and ordained Berab, giving him 
the riirht to ordain any number of others, who would 
then fcirm a Sanhedrin. In a discourse in the syna- 
gogue at Safed. Berab defeniled the legality of his 
ordination from a Talmudic standpoint, and showed 
the nature of the rights conferred upon him. On 
hearing of this event most of the other Palestinian 
scholars expressed their agreement, and the few who 
discountenanced the innovation had not the courage 
to oppose Berab and his following. 

To obtain the good-will of the Jews of the Holy 
City, the first use that Berab made of his new dig- 
nity was to ordain the chief rabbi at Jerusalem, Levi 
b. Jacob ibn Habib. Since the latter 
Dispute had for many years been a personal 
with Ibn opponent of Berab, and the two had 
Habib. had many disputes in regard to rab- 
binical (iecisions and approbations, 
Berab's ordination of Ibn Habib shows that he 
placed general above personal interests. Moreover, 
the terms in which Berab officially announced Ibn 
Habib's ordination were kindly ones. Berab, there- 
fore, expected no opposition from that quarter; but 
he was mistaken. Ibn Habib's personal animus was 
not appeased, but rather stimulated, by his ordina- 
tion. He considered it an insult to his dignity and 
to the dignity of Jerusjilem that so important a 
change should be effected without consultation of 
the Jerusalem scholars. He did not content him- 
self with an oral protest, but sent a commimicatiim 
to the scholars of Safed, in which he set forth the 
illegality of their proceeding and declared that the 
innovation involved a risk to rabbinical Judaism, 
since the Sanhedrin might use its sovereign author- 
ity to tamper with the calendar. 

Although Ibn Habib's tone was moderate, every 
one could read between the lines that he opposed the 
man Berab as well as his work. An illustration of 
this is alTorded by the remarks made by Ibn Habib 
when he maintained at length that the scholars of 
Safed were not qualified to ordain, since they were 
not unprejudiced in the matter, and when he hinted 
that Berab was not worthy to transmit ordination. 
Berab was surprised by the peril in which his 




undertaking was now placed ; and, embittered by Ibn 
Habib's personal attacks, he could not adhere to a 
merel}' objective refutation, but indulged in person- 
alities. In answer to Ibn Habib's observation, that 
a sacred ordination must not proceed from learning 
alone, but from holiness also, Berab replied: "I 
never changed my name: in the midst of want and 
despair I went in God's way" (Ibn Habib, "Re- 
sponsa," p. 2!i8b) ; thereby alluding to the fact that, 
when a youth, Ilin Habib had lived for a year in 
Portugal as a Christian under an assumed name. 

The strife between Berab and Ibn Habib now 
became wholly personal, and this had a bad effect on 
the plan; for Berab had many admirers but few 
friends. Moreover, Berab's life was endangered. 
The ordination had been represented to the Turkish 
authorities as the first step towaril the restoration of 
the Jewish state, and, since Berab was rich, the 
Turkish officials would have ,showed him scant 
mercy in order to lay hands on his wealth. Berab 
was forced to go to Egypt for a while, but though 
each moment's delay might have cost him his life, 
he tarrieil hmg enough to ordain four rabbis, so that 
during his absence they might continue to exercise 
the function of ordination. In the mean time Ibn 
Habib's following increased; and when Berab re- 
turned, he found his plan to be hopeless. His death 
some years later put an end to the dispute which 
had gradually arraj'ed most of the Palestinian schol- 
ars in hostile lines on the question of ordination. 

It is known positively that Joseph b. Ephruim 
Caro and Jloses of Traui were two of the four men 
ordained by Berab. If the other two were Abraham 
Shalom and Israel de Curial, then Caro was the only 
one who used his privilege to ordain another, Moses 
Alsheik, who, in turn, ordained Hayyim Vital Cala- 
brese. Thus ordination might be traced for four 

With the exception of some short contributions to 
the works of others, the only one of Berab's numer- 
ous works ever published was his " SheOlot u-Teshu- 
bot" (Questiousand Answers), responsa, Venice, 1663; 
but the Amsterdam edition of the rabbinical Bible 
(1724-28) contains notes by Berab on Isaiah and 

BiBLiOKRAPnT : Azulai, *;)ic?ii ha-Gedolim, ed. Wilna, i. 815; 
Confurte. Kore ha-Ditrot^ see Index in ed. Cassel : Frumkin, 
Eben Yerushakiim. pp. 'M-W. Wilna, 1874 ; Fiienn, in Hii- 
Karmrl. il. 4SU-404, r>7i;-oS(); idi-iii, K' msii Yisnul, pp. 539, 
.54(); (iriitz, Gcsi-h. tier JiiiIdi. M i-d., 1.\. lu', •.",l((-398;, 
Gc^ch. de!* Jiuliutinons utnl Sciiifr Sr],liu, iii. 1:.*8, 129; 
Michael, Or iM-lhniuiin. j). KKii); Stwnschni-idHr, ('<i(. ItiM. 
col. 1194; Zedncr, Cut. II, Ur. iJ.wA.s llrit. Mus. p.iitiT; Zunz. 
Z. O. pp. 2riii, ~hil. Tlif must important source of iiiforniHtinn 
fur tilt' disinite about ordination is Levi b. Jacob ibn Habib, 
Rfsi)niis,i. pp. 277a, 32.8a, Venice, 156.5; S. P. Rabbinowitz, 
Muzai^i Golulu see Index. 

L. G. 

BEBACHAH ("blessing"; A. V., Beracali) : 

1. A Benjamite who came to David and joined his 
forces at Ziklag (I Clii-on. xii. 3). 2. A valley 
where Jehoshaphat and his men assembled after hav- 
ing despoiled the Ammonites and Moabites (II Chron. 
XX. 26). It is identical with the modern Berekut, 
west of Tekoa (Buhl, " Geographic des Alten Palil- 
stina," p, 97), 
G. G. B. L. 

Jewish soldier who was killed in the battle near 

Moscow, in the Polish war against Russia in 1610. 
He was the son of Aaron ha-Kadosh (" The Martyr ") 
of Tishovitz (probably Tyshovtzy, government of 
Lublin), and served in the cavaliy, "on three horses." 
In the responsa of Rabbi Meirof Lul)lin, and of .Joel 
Silrkes (n 3). detailsare given concerning his bi'averv 
and daring, which gained for him the admiration of 
the Cos.sacks, who suruamed him "The Hero." A 
reckless rider, he made manj- attempts to break the 
enemy's line, but was struck and killed by a bullet. 
The Cossacks much lamented his death, afteiward 
burning his body; when on the following day the 
Poles, aidetl by the Cossacks, won the battle against 
the Mu.scovites, they recaptured his horse and helmet 
and quarreled among themselves for the possession 
of his effects. 

These facts came to light through the testimony 
of Moses ben Joseph, who, in the name of eleven 
Jews who accompanied the army (probably as sut- 
lers), testified in the case of Berachah's widow 
(" 'agunah ") before the rabbis. 

BIBLIOORAPHV: Meir of Lublin, licn/Mnsa, No. 137; Joel 
Siirkes (n-3), Responsa No. .57. 

H. R. 

BERAH DODI (nn ma): Three piyyutim 
forming the Gkul.\h in the morning service of the 
first two days of Passover, and of Saturday between 
the first and the last days of this feast (^iin riDt," 
lyion). Each of these piyyutim begins with the in- 
itial phrase of Cant. viii. 14, having regard to the 
association of the Song of Solomon with the Festi- 
val (see Megillot). Poems in this form were writ- 
ten in various epochs by Benjamin ben Samuel of 
Coutance, Prance, eleventh century ; Shalibethai ben 
Moses of Rome, 10.50; Moses ha-Sofer ben Benjamin 
of Rome, thirteenth century; Menahem ben Abi;i- 
hani of Imola, fourteenth century; and Joab ben 
Nathan ben Daniel of Rome, fourteenth century. 

The melody to which the verses are recited in 
some German congregations is that of "'Al ha-Ri- 
shonim " ; but in the more extended " " use, the 
melody sung is one of the most effective of all the 
rhapsoilies emanating from the wandering precen- 
tors of two centuries past. Although clearly of 
such comparatively late origin and undoubteilly 
coming from a Jew of northern Europe, it pre- 
sents that combination of the European minor mode 
with the second Byzantine ecclesiastical mode (often 
called the "Oriental chromatic") frequently to be 
noticed in the finer folk-songs of the Levant, parlic- 
\ilarly in those which bear the impress of an artistic 
influence (see Boui'gault-Ducomlray, "Trente Melo- 
dies Populaires de Grece et d'Orieut,"- ji. 84, note). 
The figuration, too, is the same as that in many 
Levantine, and also Arabic and Persian, songs (see 
music on p. 48). 

BiBLKKiRAPiiv: Baer, Ba'al TeftUah, No. 788; iKracI, Iv. 44. 

F. L. C. 

BERAKAH. See Benedictions; Synagogue 

BERAKOT ("blessings"): The name of the first 
treatise of Seder Zeraim, the first Order of the Tal- 
mud. By the term "Berakot" a special form of 
prayer is understood, that begins with the words 
" Blessed art thou, O Lord, our God, King of the 
Universe." The treatise consists of Mishnah and 




Gemara; tlic latter in two forms, the Babylonina 
(Habli) and the Palestinian or Wcslciu (DiBcue Ma- 
'aniba), lirtlcr known by tlu' name " Ycruslialnii." 

Tlir !Mislinali. without any intiixliiitorv ivmarks, 
without any ]>ievious statrmcnt that the Law de- 
mands the reading of the Shenia' in tlie evening, be- 

((•) blessings (ni313t- Of the nine chapters of the 
treatise the first three are devoted to the Shema', the 
next two to jirayer, and the last four to blessings, as 

Chapter i. : Detemilnps the time and the manner of tlie rejul- 
iug of Shema' i"Keriat Shema"") in the evening and in the 


Andante assai modercdo. 

Be ■ rah 
Be - lov 

do - di! 'at! shet-teh-poz 
ed!... haste; Do thou come hack 

a. - ha - bat k'lu - le 
un - • to... Thine own;. 




^ h f* 





> * 



Ta - wau ha - re - sha - 'ah sho - be - nu to - la - le - nu: ha - 

of pow - er, with • out heart, how e - vil they en - treat us : des ■ 









we - ka - 'a - ke 
and root them up. 


a' biz - za 
from . . 


mit - til - 
our. . . . 


->— V- 

IS ^ 


r*— *— ^ 


le - nu: ha - kem tu 

sa - cred site: raise up Thy strong 
mnentoso. ~. 

re-ka nag - gen she-ti - le - nu, . 
hold, that we once more may sing. 

gins with the question," From what time is it allowed 
to read the evening Shema'?" By adopting this 

method the author or compiler of the 

The Mishnah, Judah haXasi, clearly re- 

Mishnah. fleets the general opinion of the Tal- 

mudic teachers that the Torahwith its 
traditional interpretation is the undisputed ba.sis of 
the oral law. Another imjiortant principle is im- 
plied in this question ; namely, that the religious 
day is reckoned by the Law fr(uu evening to eve- 
ning, and that the reading of the Shema' of the eve- 
ning is therefore the tirst religious duty of the day. 
The !Mishnah Berakot treats of the three eleiuentsof 
the ritual: ((0 Shema' (yoL"). (*) prayer (nSsri'. and 

mornin?. and the number of blessings which precede and follow 
the readlnir. 

Chapter ii.: On "kawwanah" (intention and attention i; in- 
tention to fullll a divine command 1" mizwab "), and altentit)n 
to the words read. 

Chapter iii. : On verses of total or partial e.xemption fmm this 

Chapter iv. : On the prayer ( " TeflUah," " 'Aiiiidah," or " Shf- 
inoneh "Esreh") of the daily and the additional serrtci-s 
("musaf "). 

Chapter v. : On the necessity of prepnilnp for prayer and 
guarding against error, especially with regard to additions to or 
deviations from the ordinarj- form of the prayer. 

Chapter vi. : Blessings before and after partaking of any kind 
of food. 

Chapter vli. : Form of grace for a company consisting of three 
members or more. 




Chapter vili. : On various differences between the schools of 
Shammai and Hlllel with regard to certain reg-ulations at meals. 

Chapter ix. : Blessings relating to events which cause awe, 
joy, or grief. 

In a few places, such as tb. ii. 6, 7, and ix. !>, tlieso 
subject.'! have been interrupted by appaientl_v for- 
eigu matter. In reality, however, there is alway.s a 
certain relation between these interpolations and the 
principal theme of the chapter. The interpolations 
are oiiginal, like the rest of the Mish- 
Interpola- uah, and do not nccessarilj' belong to 

tions Are a later- period. Z. Frankel, however. 

Original, is of the opinion that ii. .5-8 was added 
by later authorities; but his argument 
is not conclusive (see preface to Talmud Yerushalnii, 
ed. Z. Frankel, Vienna, 1874, aud his "Darke ha- 
Mishuah," p. 364). The treatise fitly concludes with 
the following two regulations: (1) the name of God 
to be employed iu ordinaiy greetings, in order to 
emphasize the belief in the existence of God, the 
Creatorand Ruler of the universe; (2) in the responses 
the phrase " from world to world " to be substituted 
for the phrase " from [the beginning] of the world," 
in order to emphasize the belief in the existence of 
another world or life beyond the present one. The 
present division of the treatises into chapters and the 
order of the chaiJters seem to be the same as fixed 
by Judah ha-Nasi, since with few exceptions the 
Palestinian and the Bab3ionian recensions of the 
Talmud have the same division and order. Hence 
the rule, " there is a fixed order of the Jlishuah " 
(njE'D^ IID K"), is a principle adopted in the Tal- 
mud. As regards the treatise Berakol, Raslii seems 
to have had in his copy of the Talmud the order of 
ch. iii. and iv. inverted (see Tos. to Bab. Talm. 17b, 
beginning iriDL" 'O). The subdivision of the chaj)- 
ters into paragraphs or Mishnahs does not seem t(j 
have ever been fixed (Z. Frankel, "Darke ha-Mish- 
nah," p. 265). 

The Mishnah contains biit a few semi-haggadic 
elements (i. 5, ii. 2, v. 5, and ix. 5); and noteworthy 
are the midrashic remarks on Deut. vi. 5; Ps. cxix. 
136; and Prov. xxiii. 22. 

Tlie Tosefta Berakot has tlie same order as the 
Mishnah. Following the division of chapters in the 
edition of Zuckermandel, ch. i. corresponds to ch. i. 
of theMislinah; ch. ii. toch.ii.-iii. ; ch. iii. to ch. iv,- 
V. ; ch. iv. to ch. vi.-vii. ; ch. vi. to ch. viii. ; ch. vii. 
to ch. ix. There remains only ch. v.. 
The which does not correspond to any eha|i- 

Tosefta. ter in the !Mislinah; it contains regu- 
lations with regard to the "kiddush " 
(sanctification) on Friday evening, in case the meal 
commences in the afteinoon, and rules for the guiil 
ance of guests at a banquet. The Tosefta includes 
more haggadic elements than the Mishnah (com- 
pare end of ch. i. :ch. iv. 14-lG). Tlie Palestinian Ge- 
mara seems to expound the Tosel'ta as well as tlie 
Mislinah, as is illustrated by the following instance: 
"In Jlislmah i. 4. ' in the morning two blessings are 
recited before the .Shema', a long one and a short one 
..." AVhere they [the sages] ordained a long one, 
it must not be shortened; and, vice versa, a short 
one must not be rejilaced by a long one. Where a 
blessing witli a concluding formula has been or- 
dained, that formula must not lie oniilted; and 
III.— 4 

where it has not been ordained it must not be added." 
This Jlishnah is duly expounded in both the Baby- 
lonian and the Palestinian Gcmaras. The Tosefta 
(i. 5) adds : " Where they ordained to bow down, this 
must not be neglected; and the bowing down must 
not take place where they have not ordained it." 
This paragraph is not noticed in the Babylonian 
Gemara. but is fully discussed in the Palestinian 
(\er. i. 3c et se(j.). (See Adou.\tion.) Another in- 
stance is the jiaragraph on the blessings before the 
performance of a divine command (mizwah) in ch. 
vii. of the Tosefta and the corresponding section on 
the same subject inch. ix. of the Palestinian Gemara 
(Yer. ix. 14a). 

The Gemara supplements and fully discusses the 
laws (Halakot) mentioned in the Jlishnah, and em- 
ploys to a much wider extent the method of intro- 
ducing extraneous matter whenever 
The the subject under discussion gives oc- 

Gemara. casion for such interruptions by a text 

quoted, a name mentioned, or a lesson 

taught. This characteristic of the Gemara is more 

apparent in the Babylonian than in the Palestinian 


Of the haggadic topics thus interpolated in the 
Babylonian Gemara the following may be mentioned : 

(1) On the divine sympathy with Israel (p. Sal. 

(2) On sufferings, which are dirided into those sent as pun- 
ishment, and undeserved sufferings stent as trials, termed " suf- 
ferings of love" ("yesurin shel ahaliah") (3a). 

(3) On ini-isible evil agents ("niazzlkin ") (Bal. 

(4) On the method of divine retribution (Ta). 

(.5) On the relation between God and Israel, based on mutual 
love. Israel expresses this feeling by communing with God in 
prayer and by wearing the Tefillin containing the declaration 
of God's unity and sovereignty. Accordingly the idea of God's 
love toward Israel is lltruratively described in the dictum, "(Jod 
prays— desires to show iirti-v— and lays teflllin, containing 
declarations of Israel's ilistinctiou " (tia, 7a). 

(6i On the status of the dead, and their intercourse with the 
living (18b). 

(7) The temporary deposition of the nasi Riibban Gamaliel In 
Jamnia (p. 27). 

(8) Midrashic account of the prayer of Hannah, and the inter- 
cession of Moses for Israel Cila, b). 

(9) King Alexander Janna?us and Simon ben Sheteh (48a). 

(10) Midrashic account of Og, king of Ba-shan (o4b). 

(11) A legendary illustration of the dictum, " All dreams fol- 
low the interpretation given to them " (55a, b). 

(12) Death of R. Akiba (Bib). 

(13) On hospitality (6.3b). 

With regard to the text of the Bible, remarks are 
met with on the dots over each letter of the word 
K">17, Ps. xxvii. 13 (4a); on tlie absence of a verse 
beginning with the letter " nun" in Ps. cxlv. (p. 4b); 
on the division of the Psalms (!)b). T(.-.xts wrongly 
quoted are: Gen. vii. 23. nona ^\]}^ DTXD. instead 

of nona nyo-iNOip- 6ia); anainL"snniSnjpKx-iS. 

instead of njlDin njp^N l^'V I 'Sam. ii. 11. Here 

probably the words "to Hamah to his 

Books liouse " are taken as identical with the 

Cited iu jihrase "after his house." Besides the 

Bab. Bible, other booksare mentioned in the 

Gemara. Babylonian (it iiiara : A Book of Hag- 

gadot (NmJST N1DD). 23a; "Hilkot 

Derek Erez " (Rules of Good .Manners), 32a, and 

"Sefer Refu'ot" (Book of I{cniedie.s). 10b. 

The Palestinian Gemara includes a short accotint 
of the temporary deposition of the nasi Rabban 
Gamaliel (iv. 7c et seq. ; somewhat differently 




Darrated in Bab. 276): the legend of Mt-uahera ben 
Hezekiah (the predestined Messiah) and his mother 
(ii. 5a); the meeting of King .Janna?vis and Simon 
ben Slietah (vii. lib: paralleled in Bab. 48a), on 
■which incident the Palestinian Talmud (vii. lib) 
qufites from the Book of Ben Sira (Ecclesiasticus). 
"la'tnn D-T:3 pai ICOnni rri'Di'D C e.xalt her, and 
she will raise thee and give thee a place between 
princes"), where Bab. (Ber. 48a) quotes from Prov- 
erV)s (iv. 8) ; the controversy between 
The R. Simlai and the Minim on the use of 

Palestinian the plural in the phrase " Let us make " 

Gemara. (Gen. i. 26) (Ver. Ber. viii. 12d); and 
the death of R. Akiba (ix. 14b et seq., 
pandlel to Bab. 61b). 

Both Gemaras include a goodly number of original 
pra}"ers, most of which have found a place in the daily 
pniyer-book. It is noteworthy that in the Yeru- 
shaimi the form for niVOn m313 (blessings prece- 
ding the performance of divine precepts, "mizwot ") 
is given, Ijul is omitted in the Babylonian Gemara. 
The prayers do not diJTer essentially in the two 
Gemanis, either in form or in substiince (compare 
Wiesner, ■"Gib'at Yerushalayim," pp. 7 et seq.). 
Each Gemara closes with the dictum, " Scholars in- 
crease peace in the world," etc. 

As to the Halakah, the dictates of the Mishnah 
seem to ha\e been followed in Palestine more rigidly 
than in Babylonia. Thus with regard to the reading 
of the evening Shema', which, according to the 
Mishnah (i. 1), must not take place before the com- 
mencement of actual night, if it have been read before 
that time, it must, according to the Yerushalmi, be re- 
peated at the proper time (Yer. Ber. i.. beginning); 
no indication of this is given in the Babylonian Ge- 
mara (see Rashi on Ber., beginning). 

There are no signs in the treatises of later inter- 
polations. Wiesner, however ("Gibeat Yerusha- 
layim," p. 8. Vienna. 1871). suspects Karaite inter- 
polations in the Yerushalmi (ii. 5a) for the purpose 
of revealing the Rabbiuites in a bad light, as pray- 
ing without devotion. If his argument be correct, a 
pa.s.S!ige in the Babylonian Gemara (]). 6). in which 
certain pious acts seem to be ridiculed as resulting 
in no good, may likewise be suspected as of Karaite 
origin. See Bexedictios. 

Bibliography: Z. Frankel. Dnrkc ha-3Iishnah {Hodogetica 
in Migchiiam), Leipsic, 1859 : Mem. ■c'':'ii-n ni3;d {Intro- 
tiuctio in Tdlm. Hi€ir>goli/niitaiitim),\>^~0: •':;S2'i"»^ '^icS."', 
ed. Z. Frankel. with commeDlary. 1871 : J. E. Wiesner, r^2i 
C'^UM-\-, 1S71: Thr Mishnah: Eiiflitctn Treatisfs, trans- 
lated liy D. .\. De Sola and M. J. Raphall, London, 1S4.5; Bera- 
hnt. With (Jennan translation and commentary l>y E. M. Pinner. 
Berlin. 1.S4- '( «'</.: Priisjwi'tuit ami !<jifi-inirn of an Eng- 
liV/i Transhitiim iif the Mi:<1tnah. by S. S. K<ibn. Cambridge, 
Mass., U-S. .\.; Berakot. translated into (lennan by I.J. 
Rat)e, Halle, l.i"; .-i:-»3 rrD'2 <Tituhi.< TalnuutiirU!-: i'n ywo 
Agitur Oe Bene)iictianihn.t. ((<•., Atijccta Ver^itmc Latina. 
Oxford. Vmi; I. H. Weiss. ri:-<D 'D- rvy.:':. Vienna, ISttt; 
LihlfUte Ma^etJnt. eonlaining Bcraknt. Pcah. and Altot., 
Rejrgio. IsOfl: •rS-.rn* -iic^* riD-'3 . with commentary by 
Solomon Sirilio. ed. M. Lehman, Mayence, IST.i; B. Bather. 
Ahohal ^iiin ire-1'erufhalaiiim "Berahut," Wilna, 1901. 

.1. SH. M. F. 

on early Hussian-.Jewish history ; born at Krichev, 
government of Mobile V, 1865; died at Moscow Aug., 
1889. Up to the age of fourteen he received a 
strictly Orthodox education in the house of his 
uncle, where he became familiar with the Hebrew 

language and literature. He then entered the Agri- 
cultural School at Gorigorgetzk, and after gradua- 
tion studied at the High School of Minsk and the 
Polytechnicum of Riga. In 1888 he became par- 
alytic, and was sent for treatment to Moscow, 
where he died. 

Berchin's historical researches are valuable con- 
tributions to early Jewish-Russian history. Hepuli- 
lished : " Istorieheskaya Zamyetka, " dealing with the 
sect of Shabbethai Zebiaud with Galiatovski's book. 
"Messia Pravedny," in "Voskhod" for May and 
June, 1883 ; " Iz Davno Minu vshavo, " in " Voskhod " 
for July, Aug., Xov., Dec, 1883; "Yevreiski 
Dokument," etc., in " Kievskaya Starina," Det , 
1884: "Sozhzhenie Lyudei v Rossii v XUI.-X^'III. 
Stolyetii," in "Russkaya Starina," 1885, p. 45;■'Izv- 
yestie o Yevrejakh v Kievye," in Voskhotl " for 
July and Aug., 1887; "D'va Vracha Yevrei pri 
Moskovskom Dvorve," in "Voskhod" for !March, 

Bibuographt: S. VengeroT, Kritiku-Biiigraficheslii Shn-ar, 
ill.. S.V., St. Petersburg, 18SB. 

H. R. 

BERDYANSK: District town and seaport in 
the government of Taurida Ciimea, Russia, on the 
northwestern coast of the Sea of Azof, at the Berdy- 
ansk estuary, near the mouth of the rivulet Berd\ ■ 
anka. It was built b^' the efforts of Prince >[. > 
Vorontzov in 1827, and soon became a lively litti, 
port, the trade to a considerable extent, especially 
the export of grain, being in the hands of the .lews. 
In 1892 the Jewish population of the town was 1,6.53 
and the Karaite population 243, of a general total 
of 21.9.59. In the district the Jews numbered 3,416 
in the general total of 227,780. 
Bibliography: Entziklopedicheski Slovar, St. Petersburg. 

n. R. 


city in the government of Kiev, Russia: in histor- 
ical and ethnographical relations part of Volhynia. 
It has one of the largest .Tewish communities 
in Russia, and is often called the "Jerusalem of 
Volhynia." It is difficult to determine the time 
when Jews tirst settled there. From the sixteenth 
century till the end of the eighteenth, Berdychev 
was under the dominion of Poland; and the Polish 
family of Tishkewitz, the hereditary owners of that 
domain, ruled over it as thcj' pleased. In 1593 it is 
, stated that the owners of the "new town" of Berdy- 
i chev farmed out to a certain Jew the mill- and 
i bridge-taxes. In the eighteenth century the Jewish 
I population increased considerably, and a Jewish 
I " Kahal " (government of the community) was estab- 
lished, as in other large cities of Poland. A trade- 
] union of Jewish tailors was formed in 1732 with 
the permission of the lady of the domain. Tereza 
(Theresji) Zawisha, who granted them autonomy and 
exemption from the rule of the Kahal. In 1794 
Prince Radziwill permitted the Jews to elect their 
own civil judges in addition to the ecclesiastical 

In 1765 King Stanislaus of Poland decreed that 
some great fairs be held during each year at Berdy- 
chev ; and from that time the city became a com- 
I mercial center, attracting the Jews from all parts of 




the country. At tlie government record office of 
Kiev some statistical data concerning the Jewish 
population of that period are preserved, according 
to which the numbers of Jews at Berdychev were: 
in 1765, 1,320; in 1784, 1,819; in 1787, 1,.504; in 
1789, 1,951. According to their occupations, 246 
were liquor-dealers, 452 house-owners, 134 mer- 
chants, 188 artisans, and 150 clerks, together with 
56 idlers. These figures may be considered too low ; 
the taxes of the Polish government being heavy, as 
many persons as could possibly do so avoided lieing 
placed on the registers. 

At the end of the eighteenth century, when the 
movement of the Hasidim among the Jews of Poland 
was at its height, Berdychev Ijccame the metropolis 
of the Hasidim of Volhyuia, owing to the fact that 
about 1780 the celebrated "Zaddik," Levi-Isaac, the 
author of "Kedushat Levi" {The Holiness of Levi), 

of 62,283. There were seven synagogues and sixty- 
two houses of prayer. 

Bibliography: Rcycftji i A'ndpfei, No. 694, St. Petershiirg. 
1899; Balinski i Lipinski. Staroziitna Pnlsha. il. ite la'j ; 
Arcldv Yiqid Zaixuliioi linssii, v. 53, UK, 6118, Kiev, 1S)(I; 
Bolshaya, Entziklopcilia Pod Redaktziel Yuzhakoca, iii. 
74, St. Petersburg, 1901. 
H. I!. S. M. D. 



Hebieu- aulhcir; born in 1865. He represcnls. lo 
some e.\tent, the Nietzsche school of philosophy in 
the Hebrew literature of the present day. The .sou 
of the rabbi of Bershad, Podolia, Berdyczewski re- 
ceived a Talniudical training at home and later at the 
jeshibah of VoLOznix, of which institution he 
wrote a sliort history ("Ha-Asif," iii. 231-241) and a 
somewhat fantastic description ("Ha-Kerem," 1888, 


(From a photopraph.) 

made it his headquarters. He created a great com- 
motion by his teachings and by his quarrels with the 
"Mitnagdim." It is probable that the above-men- 
tioned permission for tlie election of separate judges, 
given by Prince Radziwill in 1791, was secured by 
the Hasidim, who sought to emancipate themselves 
from the jurisdiction of the Kahal and the rabbis of 
tlie Jlitnagdim. Great masses of people then flocked 
to Berdychev to see Levi-Isaac, who ruled there 
until 1810. At this period a printing-establishment 
for Hebr<-w books was in existence in the city. 

In 1793, at the second division of Poland, Berdy- 
cliev, with other cities of Volhynia, came under 
Russian domination. During the reign of Emperor 
Nicholas I, , Berdychev was tlie largest commercial 
center in the Jewish pale. Afterward commerce di- 
minished, and the poverty of the Jews there increased 
accordingly. Of all cities in the pale, Berdychev 
has the largest proportion of Jewish inhabitants. In 
1899 there were 50,460 Jews in a total population 

pp. 63 1'< «('/.). His acquaintance with modern litera- 
ture, which ho formed clandestinely in his younger 
days, soon led him to abandon his former conserva- 
tism and to become a freethinker. Berdyczewski, 
who now resides at Charlottenburg, near Berlin, and 
is engaged mainly with literary a prolific 
writer, wliose productions, though not always clear, 
have exerted a certain influence among the young 
Hebrew nationalists. He is incensed against his 
former favorites, the Talniudical sages, because 
they thought more of the ycsliibah or high school 
of Jariinia than of the fortress and citadel of 
Jerusalem. He thinks that King Herod was the real 
" I'ebermensch," the intellectual giant who could, 
by his aggressive and magnificent plans, have regen- 
erated Israel if he had not been thwarted by the 
dwarfed religious scruples of the rabbis of his time. 
Even the last Biblical liberators, Ezra and Nelie- 
miah, displease him, because they obtained the de- 
liverance of their nation by tears and fasting (see 




review of Berdyczewski's latest works— which were 
published in Warsaw bv a soiiety of Berlin students 
—in "Allg. Zeit. d. Jud." Xov. 9. 1900; also 
Tn Proph6te Neo-Hebreu," iti '•L'Univers Israe- 
lite." V. 5G). 

Besides the works above mentioned and articles 
scattered throughout the Hebrew periodical litera- 
ture for the last twelve or fifteen years. Berdyczew- 
ski also wrote two novels. '•Mahanaim," — in which 
he seems to have described himself; ami " Mibayit 
u-Mil.uiz " ; both published by the Tushia Society 
in Warsaw, 1900. He was also for some time editor 
of the " Bet Midrash " a supplement to the ~ Bet 
Ozar haSifrut." which had several enlightened rab- 
bis among its contributors. 

Berdyczewski wrote in Gerniiin a philosophical 
work. " L'eber den Zusammenhaug Zwischen Ethik 
und Aesthctik " (in the series " Berner Studien zur 
Philosophic und Ihrer Geschichte." published by 
Ludwig Stein, vol. is.), Bern. 1897. 

BiBLiOGRAPHT : Scfcr Zikkaioii. p. 8, Warsaw, 1890; Allg. 
Zeit. d. Jud. Nov. 9, IStti; L't'uirers Israelite, vol. v- 

No. 12. 
H. R. 

P. Wi. 

BEREA : Place where Bacchides encamped (I 
Mace. i.\. 4). From the context it would seem to' be 
near Jerusalem, though some scholare have identilied 
it on unsatisfactory evidence with Beeroth (Josh. ix. 
17 : I Esd. V. 19). 

J. JR. G. B. L. 

BEBEBI (<3l3and '3^3: in Greek, ,3vpf,J'. " Sit- 
zungsberichte der Akademie zu Berlin." 1885, p. 681). 
Title of learning in the period of the Tannaim, con- 
ferred especially" upon scholars who Avere the sons of 
scholars, or upon members of the family of the pa- 
triarch. The explanation of the word as a com- 
pound of »3 (•' house") and '31 ("rabbi"), meaning 
" belonging to the school of an eminent teacher " 
(see Jastrow, "Diet." «.r.). is not obvious; for one 
could not think of the patriarch Rabban Gamaliel 
as being addressed by the title "student." which is 
■what "Berebi" would thusreally signify (Kid. 32b\ 
It may be assumed that " Berebi " is a compound of 
T3 ("son") in Palestinian Arsimaic, and '3T 
("rabbi"), a formation analogous to "ben horin " 
(son of a free man) for "a free man," In the same 
way "son of a scholar" is here used instead of 
"scholar." One must distinguish from this word 
"Berelji." as a title, the phrase occasionally used 
"Had Berebi " (a student), which actually does mean 
"one of the school." It is found only in the time of 
the Amoraim; while Berebi as a title is tannaitic. 

Among the scholars who bore the title "Berebi," 
Bar Kappara must be specially named. He is given 
the designation "Berebi" whenever mentioned by 
his first name, Eleazar, in order to distinguish him 
from his father, who bore the sjime name (Hul. 2Sb. 
56b, 84b, etc.). Yalkut Deut. 923 tjuotes from Hul. 
lib and Mak. 5b once "Eleazar ha-Kappar." and 
once '313 (so it must be read instead of '3^, or T'3, 
as ed. Salonica has it); whereas in the two Talmudic 
passages referred to the name of the tainia has 
dropped out, and only '313 or '3^3 remains, which 
has misled some scholars to assume the existence of 
a tanna bv the name of Berel>i. 

BIBLI0C.R.4P1IV: Chajes, in Zeilschriftfllr Wi»<emehaftUc)ie 
Thoihiiiie. xliii. *«. 281; Heilpriu, Seder lia-D<iivt. eU. 
Wilua, U. (*>; Jastrow, Dicd'niui!/. p. IsSI (the Taliuud pas- 
sage quoI<Hl here— B. M. )wa— Uties not speak of the bestowal 
of the title "Bervbi," but of tlie oomiuon ordination of a 
rabbi ; the letter 2 in '3iD is dependent on ttie prvieding 
verb ^TtDNi; Kohut, in'Arucli OimiAettim. ii. ISi; Levy, 
Xeuhelir. WOrterhuehx idem, ChaldiiixclieK nTtrterhuch, 
i. 2<iU: Euting. in Sitzungi-beriehte, I.e., p. BtO; J. Mendels- 
sohn, in H.I i.v7i/io(, i. l.^t^lSO. 
.1. SK. L. G. 

BERECHIAH I., R.: A Palestinian scholar of 
the second amoraic generation (third century), al- 
wavs cited without the accompaniment of patro- 
nvmic or cognomen. Once only (Lev. R. i. 4) is he 
iiuoted as Berechiah Saba (the Elder), by R. Abin 
III., the coutemponiry of Berechiah II. ; and in tliis 
instance tlie designation "Saba" is used to distin- 
guish between the namesakes. Nothing is known 
of Bereehiah's life, and comparatively little pre- 
served of his teachings, though it is quite probable 
that some of his sayings are attributed to his later 
and more renowned namesiike (compare Frankel, 
" Mebo." 69b). A discussion of his with R. Hiyya of 
Kefar Tehumin is reported on the merit of the stud}- 
of the Torah. One of them teaches that the whole 
of this wt)ild does not equal the value of a single 
passage of the Law; and the other argues, "Even the 
discharge of all the Biblical commandments is not 
equal to the merit of mastering a single passage of 
the Law " (Yer. Peah i. 15d). Rabbah b. Xahmau. a 
contemporary of Rabbah b. Huna. transmits in the 
name of Berechiah a homily on the continuance of 
the protective influence of patriarchal merit ("zekut 
abot"; Yer. Sanh. x. 27d; compare Lev. R. xxxvi, 
6. where the names of the rabbis are badly cor- 
rupted). R. Tanhiim b. Hanilai, the disciple of R. 
Joshua ben Levi (B. K. 5.5a), too, reports Haggadot 
in the name of Berechiah (Tan., Tazria', 9; Pesik, 
R. xxi. 110a). Bacher denies the existence of this 
Berechiah, and to sustain his opinion changes the 
chronological order in the passages quoted (" Ag. 
Pal. Amor." iii. 351. 354. note 3; 6~28, note 7). 

BIBLIOGRAPHT: Frankel, J/fN>, 69b; Weiss, Dor, iii. 91, note 
J. sit. S. il. 

BERECHIAH II., R.: A Palestinian amora of 
the fourth century. In tlie Talmud he is invariably 
cited by his pnenomen alone; but in the Midrashiiu 
he is frequently cited with the addition of " ha- 
Kohen," and sometimes with the further addition of 
the title " Berebi " (compare Pesik. ii. tJla. xii. 107b; 
Pesik. 3 [ed. Friedmann. p. 8a]; Num. R. xiv. 3; 
Pesik. R. 3 [ed. Friedmann, p, 9a]; Xum. R /.<•.: 
Tan., Beha'aloteka. 5; Xum. R. xv. 7); and accord- 
ing to at least one Midrash (Lev. R, xxx, 1). his 
father's name was Hiyya (see also Tan,, ed. Buber. 
Hayye Sarah, 6, note 35). 

While Palestine may justly claim him as a citizen. 
Berechiah is probably a Bal)ylonian by birth, since 
he not only cites teacliings of Babylonian scholars 
("Rabbanan de-Tamman," Gen. R. hi, 11, xcviii, 3: 
Esther R. i. 1; compare Gen. R. xxxvii. 3. where 
this expression is converted into "Rabbi Hanin." 
and Mid. Teh. cv,, beginning, where "de-Tamman " is 
omitted), but also shows himself quite familiar with 
the private history of Babylonian families (Yer, Kid, 
iii. 64c; Lev. R, xxxii. 7). Judging, however, from 
the insignificant number of his savings recorded 




in tlie Baliyloniiin Talmud as compared witli his al- 
niiist iimumL'rable teachiugs preserved in tlie Pales- 
tinian Talmud and the Palestinian ^lidrashim, and 
cimsidering also that his acknowledged masters were 
Pulesliniaus, it is safe to say that he was in Pales- 
tine at an early age. Berechiah's acknowledged 
master in the Haggadah was R. Helbo (Yer. Kil. ix. 
32t; Lam. R. on iii. 23; Cant. R. on 1. 2); Ijut it 
seems that lie personall}' knew R. Helbo's predeces- 
sors, Levi and Aliba b. Kahaua, and witnessed a 
healed exegetical coutrovei'sy between them (Gen. 
R. xlvii. 9). If this be so, Berechiah must have lived 
to an advanced age, for he was in a legal contro- 
versy with R. Mana (the Younger) (Yer. Kid. iii. 
64d)" Rapoport ("Briefe," ed. Grilbcr, p. SO) makes 
him a teacher of Jerome. 

Berechiah is cited in both the Babylonian Talmud 
(Bit. 55a; YomaTla; Ta'anit4a; Sotah 13b) and the 
Palestinian, in the field of the Ilalakah (Yer. Ber. 
vii. lib; Yer. Peah i. 15a; Yer. Ma'as. v. 52a; Yer. 
Suk. ii. 53a; Yer. Sotah vii. 21b; Yer. Kid. iii. 64d; 
Yer. Saidi. xi. 30b) and in that of the Haggadah ; 
but it is the latter which he cultivated mainly. 
Few names appear in tlie Jlidrashic literature as fre- 
quently as does Berechiah's. In Pesikta alone he 
is cited sixty -eight times, either as originator or as 
transmitter; in Pesikta Rabbati sixty-one times (sec 
Friedniann, Introduction, p. 18), in Tan. (ed. Buber) 
seventy-three times (Buber's Introduction, p. 46), in 
Jlid. Teh. eighty-five times(Bubcr's Introduction, p. 
2H), and correspondingly numerous are his remarks 
preserved in the other Midrashim. Some specimens 
of his teachings are here subjoined. 

In accordance with the oneirological views of his 
days, he asserts that dreams, though realized parti}', 
are never realized fully. " Whence do we learn this? 
From Jo.scph, who dreamed (Gen. xxxvii. 9), 'Be- 
hold, the sun, and the moon, and eleven stars made 
oliiisance to me ' ; and at that time his mother, tyjii ■ 
fied in his vision by the moon {ib. 10), was no more 
among the living" (Ber. 5."ia). He thus construes 
the Psalmist's saying, "The Lord knoweth the way 
of the righteous, but the way of the ungodly perish- 
eth"(Ps. i. 6): "When the Holy One— blessed be 
He! — came to create man, He foresaw that pious and 
impious men would descend from him, and He said, 
'If Icreate him, the impious will descend from him; 
if I create him not, how will the pious descend from 
him'!" Whatdidthe Holy One— blessed belle!— doV 
He removed the waysof the impious out of His sight, 
and by means of His attribute of mercy ["midilat 
ha-Rahanum"! II« created man. This is the mean- 
ing of the Sciiptnrc, ' God knoweth ["holdethin 
view "] the way of the righteous '" (Mid. Teh. on l.r. ; 
Gen. R. viii. 4). In commenting on Ecel. vii. 17, "Be 
notovermnch wicked," he says: "The Bibledoesnot 
mean to teach that it is permitted to sin a little; but 
it means to .say, if thou didst sin a little, say not, ' I 
am under the wrath of God onaecoimt of this little. 
and can be no worse off for sinning more ' " (Ecel. H. 
on I.,:: Mid. Teh. on i. 1; compare Shab. 31b). 
With reference to the Scriptural saying (Ps. xxxii. 
1). "Happy is he whose transgression is forgiven" 
(literally, " who is lifted above transgression "), he 
cites R. Simon [Samuel?] b. Ammi as remarking, 
" Happy is the man who is master over sin, that sin be 

not master over him " (Gen. R. xxii. 0). In the 
same strain is Berechiah's remark on Solomon's say- 
ing, "There is a time to be born, and a time to die" 
(Ecel. iii. 2): "Happy is he whose hour of death is 
like his hour of birth; who, as he was pure and 
innocent in the hour of his birth, is also innocent at 
the hour of hisdeath" (Yer. Ber. ii. 4d; Ecel. R. on 
I.e. ; Deut. R.vii. 6). 

BiBLiOGRAPIIV: Bacher, Au. Pnl. .Ini. iii. ;JU-396. 

•'■ SH. S. M. 

GOETZEL: A grand.son of Brrcchiali b. Isaac; 
rabbi and preacher of Klemcntow, Poland, and 
Jaworow, Galicia; lived toward the end of the sev- 
enteenth century and the begiiunng of the eight- 
eenth. He was a very sincere preacher and suffered 
nuich for his outspokenness. The government pro- 
hibited the publication of his sermons, only those 
covering the book of Genesis being ludjlished (Halle, 
Saxony, 1714), under the title, "Zera' Bcrak She- 
lishi" (third part of "Zera' Bcrak"); and "I.Iiddu- 
sliim," novelUe on the first portions of Berakot. deal- 
ing esjiecially with the Haggadot. Many contem- 
porary rabbis gave their approbation to this work. 

Uim.iociRAPnY : Michael, (;;• ha-Hamiim, No. 647. 

h. c. • >[. H 


Galiciun preacher; died in l(j(U at I'oiistanlniopk'. 
He was educated by Nathan Shapira, rabbi of Cra- 
cow, and was appointed preacher of that city, where 
he spent most of his life. He ultimately ieft for 
Jeru.salem, but diedat Constantinople. Ilissermons 
on the Pentateuch, the Megillot, and the Passover 
Haggadah were collected and ptdilished in two 
volumes tuider the title, "Zera' Berak." The first 
was iiublished in 1G40 at Cracow. Api)ended to it 
was " 'Aterct Zebi," by Zebi llirsch ben Shalom 
Mebo, the brother-in-law of Berechiah anil son-in- 
law of Lipmann Heller. The second volume was 
published, together with a secoml edition of the first 
one, in l(i(i2, and itself went into a second edition, 
Amsterdam, 1730. 

Biiii.iouRAiMiY : Mli-liael, Or lia-Hauiiim, No. li-lij. 
I., o. M. B. 


(called also YIZHAKI): Payyetan; lived in liic 
twelfth century, pi'obaldy at Lunel. Although he 
wrote nothing on the Ilalakah, his brother Zerahiah 
Gerundi, in his " Sefer ha-Maor," cites him as an au- 
thority on the treatise Gittin (to lob). Berechiah's 
lioems, the greater part of which are jirinled in the 
Mahzorim of diverse rites, are: (1) "Kerobah," a 
form of iiiyyut for the Sabbath following the feast ' 
of Purim ; (2) Aziiarot, for the feast of Tabernacles, 
in which all the ju'ecepts concerning this feast are 
enumerated; (3) introduction to Kaddish; (4) poems 
for Purim; (5) prayers for Atonement ; ((>) a poem 
on the Ilabdalah. 

liMU.iiiiiUAiMiY : Zunz, Lilcmturuc'vli, pp. Wt. 49.'> ; I.ands- 
\nuh^ "Amnuidr }ui-Aho{hih^ pp. 5*i, 63,117 

Juilnica, p. 2.V). 

(iross, Hallia 
I. Bn. 

HA-NAKDAN: Fabulist, exegetc, ethical wri- 
ter, grammarian, and translator; probably identical 
with Benedictus le Puncteur, an English Jew 




menlioucd as contributing lU Oxford to a doniim 
to Hiclmrd I., in 1194. Jliuh discussion 1ms taken 
place concerning the date and native country of this 
writer. Zun/. ("G. S." iii. 237) jilaeing liiin about 
1260 in Provence, with which conclusion Renan- 
Xeubauer (" Les Rabbins Fraufais." p. 491) and 
Steinschneider (" Hebr. Bibl.'' xiii. S3) agreed. 
Joseph Jacobs, during certain investigations on the 
medieval history of the fable, arrived at the conclu- 
sion that Berechiah shoidd be located in England 
toward the end of the twelfth century (Jacobs, 
"Failles of jEsop," i. 175), and this was confirmed 
by Xeubauer's discovery that, in the preface to 
his fables, Berecliiah refers to the " turning of the 
wheels of fate to the island of the sea [= England] 
for onetodieand the other to live" ("Jewish Quart. 
Rev." ii. 522), clearly a reference to the English 
massacre of 1190. The earlier view of Bcrechiah's 
date was based on a misreading of a colophon of his 
son Elijah, which was shown to be date<l Wednes- 
day, Oct. 22, 1233 (Jacobs, " Athenanim," April 19, 
1890). Steinschneider, however, is still doubtful 
as to the identification ("Hebr. Uebers." p. 961). 
The point is of some importance on account of Bcre- 
chiah's connection with the history of medieval 

Berechiah is known chiefly as the author of a set of 

107 (113) fables, called " Mishle !>hu-alim" (Suk. 28a). 

probably in imitation of the Talmudic "Jleshalot 

Shu'alim." Manuscripts exist at the Bodleian (Neu- 

bauer. "Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS." No. 

His Fox 1466, 7, originally belonging to Cotton, 

Fables. and 1421, 5, with six additional fables) 
and Munich (207 written before 1268). 
The first edition appeared in Mantua, in 1.557; an- 
other with a Latin version by JI. Ilanel, Prague. 
1601; other editions at Berlin, 1706; Lemberg, 1809; 
Grodno, 1818; Sklov, n. d. ; Warsaw. 1874. 

The fables themselves give in rimed prose most of 
the Beast Tales passing under the name of ^Esoj) 
during the Middle Ages; but in addition to these, the 
collection also contains fables conveying the same 
plots and morals as those of Marie de Fi'auce, whose 
date has been placed only approximately toward the 
end of the twelfth century. It has been suggested 
that these additional fables were derived by Bere- 
chiah from Marie, but this is impossible, as Bcre- 
chiah's versions are closer to the original and in at 
least one case (No. 28) he did not make a mistake 
made by her. The following table exhibits the re- 
lationship between Bcrechiah's fables and those of 
Marie, as well as their connection with the "Romu- 
lus," the Latin prose translations of the medieval 
.iEsop. From this it will be seen that Berechiah has 
only one-half of the additional fables given by 
Marie, and that he has as many (about 30) which 
are not fount! in her collection. Some of these are 
from Avian, others from Oriental, sources; and it has 
been suggested with some reason that both col- 
lections are derived from an Arabic series con- 
taining 1.54 fables, most of which could be traced 
to clas.sical antiqidty, and others from the East. 
The question can not be .said to be settled ; but 
neither Neubauer nor Steinschneider will admit 
that Berechiah knew Arabic ("Jew Quart. Rev." 
xii. 607). 


IN JI-\I!ie de Fr.\nce, and "Rom- 
.\BBRKViATio.NS: Ber.=Berecliiali : Marie=Marie de France, 
"Fables"; Bora. = " Romulus" (medieval prose *sop, ed. 
Oesterley, 18731; App. or A. = Appendix to Rom.; Av. = Avlan, 
" Fabulse." ed. Ellis. Missing numbers liave no parallels in 
Marie or " Romulus." 












A. 36 





Av. 18 










A. 18 





Av. 12 

6 [Talmudic Ber. 61b] 



iv. 19 





. . 1 Av. 2!l 





(same as 26) 






iii. 14. 15 





iii. 13 



ii. 8 







iv. 10 

■ 13 




(Mule's Pedigree) Halm 









1 ..1 Av. 35 





(Man and Pit) Kalila. 



iv. 19 


tPartrid.sre, Monke.v, and 



iv. 21 

Elepliauti "Iataka,"tr. 



App. 60 

b.v Rhvs-Darids, 310. 






iv. 18 



ii. 10 



iii. 7 



ii. U 



iv. 13 



iv. 12 





iL 1 



A. 37 



A. 31 



iv. 8 


A. 18 



iii. 17 



A. 61 



ii. 9 



ii. 16 



A. 22 

32 (Chicken and Fox) Gu- 



A. 35 

bernatis. ' 

Zool. Mytli." 



A. 25 





A. 32 



Av. 11 



A. 71 


73 (88> 

A. 28 


Av. 27 



iii. 4 


A. 13 



Ii. 9 




A. 24 




ii. 4 


(Lion's Traces) Halm 157 


Av. 15 


1 98 1 A. ai 



iii. 14 


(Man and Tool) KaUla. 



ii. 2 


(Foxand Fleas). Aristotle, 



ii. 2 

" Rhet." ii, 20, 



A. 27 


Av. 7 


Av. 5 


Av. 23 


ii. 14 

As an example of his fables, the following may be 
given as one of those which has a parallel in Marie 
de France (No. 73), and is derived from an Oriental 
source, probably the " Vaka Jataka " (Folk-lore Jour- 
nal, iii. 359): 

The Wolf axd the a.vimai.s. 

Tbe Wolf, the Lion's prince and peer, as the foe of all Hesh 
did appear ; greed.v and sjrinding. he consumed all he was find- 
ing. Birds and beasts, wild and tame, l>.v iheir families urged 
to the same, brought against him before tlie Lion an accusation, 
as a monster worthy of detestation. Said His Majesty, "If he 
uses his teeth as you say, and causes scandal in this terrible 
way, I'll punish him in such a way as to save his neck, if I may, 
and yet prevent you becoming his prey." Said Lion to Wolf, 
" .attend me to-morrow, see that you come, or you'll come to 
much sorrow." He came, sui-e enough, and the Lion spoke t> 
him harsh and rough. "What by doing this do you mean ■ 
Never more I'aven the living, oi- live by ravening. What You 
shall eat shall be only dead meat. The living you shall neither 
trap nor hunt. And that you may my words obey, swear me 
that yoti'll eat no tle,«h for two years from to-da.v, to atone for 
your sins, testified and seen : 'tis my judgment, you had bi'iter 
fulfil it, I ween." Thereat the Wolf swore right away no flesh 
to eat for two years from that day. OfT went 8ir Wolf on his 
way. King Lion stopped at coui-t on his throne so gay. Nothing 
that's fleshy for some time did our Wolf eat, for hke a gentle- 
man he knew how his won! to keep. Hut then came a day 
when he was a hungered and he Imiked hither and thither for 
meat, and lo, a fat sheep fair to look on an<l goodly to eat ((ieii. 
iii. 6). Then to himself he said, " Who can keep every law ? " 
and his thotiglits were bewihlered with what he saw. He said 
to himself. "It overcomes me the longing to eat, for two vears 




day by day must I fast from meat. This is my oatb to tbe king 
that I swore, but I've thought how to fulBl it as never before. 
Three sixty-flve are the days in a year. Night is when you close 
your eyes : open them, then the day is near." His eyes he 
opened and closed straightway. It was evening and it was morn- 
ing, one day ((jen. i. ti). Thus he winked until he had num- 
bered two yeai-s, and bis greed returned and his sin disappears. 
His eyes flx the goat (sic) they had seen and he said, "See be- 
forehand I have atoned for my sin." and he seized the neck of 
the goat, broke it to pieces, and filled up his throat as he was 
wont to do before, and as of yore his hand was stretched out to 
the beasts, bis peers, as it had been in former days and years. 

This is nearer the original source than tlie version 
of Marie, which gives a Cliristian turn to tlie whole 

Berechiah was also the author of an ethical trea- 
tise entitled "Sefcr Mazref " (MSS. at Munich and 
Parma). The treatise is divided into thirteen chap- 
ters: i. Introduction, ii. Lust, iii. Affection, iv. Re- 
straint of the Will, V. Justice, vi. Misfortune, vii. 
Poverty, viii. Honor, ix. Position, x. Rank, .\i. Soul, 
xii. Hope, xiii. Immortality. In it he quotes R. Abra- 
ham ibn Daud (diedabout 1198) without the formula 
for the dead, so that it is quite probable that the 
book was composed before 1180. He does not quote 
Maimonides' "Moreh," finished in 1191, known in 
Provence shortly after that date and in north France 
about 1204. Prof. Gollancz has pul)iished an edition 
of the "Sefer Mazref" (London, 1903). 

In addition to these, Bei'echiah wrote a commen- 
tary on Job (MS. in the Cambridge University Li- 
brary, S; Schiller-Scziness}', "Catalogue," pp. 40-42, 
245). He was acquainted with most 
His Other of the grammarians of the eleventh and 

Works. twelfth centuries, and his " Uncle Ben- 
jamin," whom he quotes, has been 
identified with Ben.jamin op Cantebbcry. The 
writer of the commentary on Job was also the author 
of a commentary (m the whole Bible, pas.sages from 
which are quoted in a Lej'den manuscript. 

Berechiah was certainly a translator, his version 
being extant of Adelard of Bath's " Qu»stiones Nat- 
urales" (MSS. at Munich, Leyden, Oxford, and Flor- 
ence), as well as of a "Lapidaiy " containing a de- 
scription of 63 species of stones (MS. in Bodleian). 
Besides these works, Berechiah is also said by Zunz 
to have contributed to the Tosafot (Sanh. 20b), and, 
as his name implies, was probably an expert in He- 
brew grammar, for which reason he is quoted by 
Moses ben Isaac of England, in his "Sefer ha-Sho- 
ham." As this work was probably written before 
121.5, these references confirm the date and place 
suggested above. 

Bei'echiah was one of the most versatile writers of 
the Middle Ages, and if he can be claimed for Eng- 
land, it raises the literary position of that country, as 
regards Jewish literature, to a considei'able height. 

Formerly some confusion existed between Bere- 
chiah and another Krespia Nakdan, the coijyist of 
certain manuscripts and supposed translator of Saa- 
<lia's "Emunot we-Deot" (see Khespia Nakdan). 

lirui.ioGRAPHY : Zunz, O. S. iii. 237, SIS, Renan-Neubauer, 
LiK liiilihuts Frinn;ais, pp. 490-499 (containing full previous 
bililiogniphyi; Stcinschneidcr, Hebr. BihI. xiii. >^l et seg.: 
Jac(.hs, Fahhs n( .Eso]), i. lil,H-irs ; idem, .Irim af Angevin 
Kiifihiii:!, pp. lii.vlT:i, i;ii-.-li|'.i, 3TS-2SII; NeuliaueranrtJacobs, 
JriK. {{unit. Hiv. ii. 32;^:«i, .52()-.")ai (coTiipare i/iiii. vi. 3C4, 
37.")) ; Steinschneider, Hebr. Uebers. pp. 95S-863 ; Gross, Gallia 
Jiidaiea, p. 180, 

0. J. 

known as Magister Benedict fil Mosse de Lon- 
dres): English Tosatist; died after 12.56. He was 
of the well-known Hagin family, and son of Itabbi 
Jloses ben Yom-Tob of London. He was the rab 
or chief rabbi of Lincoln (the Norman -French name 
of which was "Nicole"), and probably lived in the 
house now known as " the Jews' house " in that city ; 
for this was in the possession of a certain Belaset of 
Wallington in 1287, and there is a deed which speaks 
of Belaset, daughter of the rab Berechiah (Davis, 
•■Shetaroth," No. 156, p. 398). It has been conjec- 
tured that it was to attend the marriage of this Be- 
laset and to do Berechiali honor that tlie Jews of 
England assembled at Lincoln toward the end of 
August, 12.55, when the body of Little Huon of 
Lincoln was discovered, and all the Lincoln Jews 
were sent up to London for complicity in a so-called 
ritual murder. Berechiah was released earlier than 
the rest of the Jews, on Jan. 7, 1256 (Rymer, " Foe- 
dera," ed. 1816, i. 346). 

His subsequent fate is unknown; but there are a 
number of decisions of his in the ritual literature of 
the time, which sliow that lie was considered an au- 
thority in ritual matters. Thus, in Mordecai, Ber. 
iv. 90, he decided that tlie evening prayer might be 
said an hour and a quarter before the legal time of 
night. On another occasion he declared that nuts 
prepared by Gentiles might not be eaten by J<'ws 
("Shilte ha-Gibborim " on Mordecai, 'Ab. Zarah ii. 
831). There is likewise an exegetic remark made 
by him in "Miuhat Yehudah," 89b. 

Bibliography : Zunz, Z. G. p. 97 ; Renan-Neubauer, LesRah- 
bins Francais, p. 441 ; Jacobs, in Trans. Jew. Hi«(. .S'oc. 
England, 1. 103-111. 
G. J. 

BEBED: 1. Asonof Ephraim (I Chion. vii. 20). 
In the genealogy of Num. xxvi. 35 his place is taken 
Ijy Becher. It may be that Bered and Becher are 
the same. See Becher. 

2. A place given in the story of Hagar (Gen. xvi. 
14). Beer Lahai Roi is there located between Ka- 
desh and Bered. Targumim Onkelos and Yeru- 
shalmi regard Bered as Sliur; Onkelos rendering it 
"Hagra," which is his usual equivalent for "Shur" 
(Gen. xvi. 7), while the Jerusalem Targum renders 
it "Hahiza," which is also " Shur" (Ex. xv. 22). 
The site has not been identified. 

,j. .iH. G. B. L. 

BEKEK, JOSELOVICH (called also Berko) : 
Polish colonel under Kosciusko and Napoleon I. ; 
born at Kretingen, government of Kovno, Ru.ssia, 
in the second half of the eighteenth century; killed 
in the battle near Kotzk, government of Syedletz, 
Russian Poland, 1809. He was an agent of Prince 
Ma.ssalsky, the owner of Kretingen and bishop of 
Wilna, who often sent him withcommi.ssions abroad, 
where he learned the French language. In 1794 he 
was commissioned by Kosciusko to form a light - 
horse regiment from among the Jews of Warsaw. 
Berek revived the courage of his coreligionists in the 
struggle for the fatherland, and fought bravely with 
his 500 men, especiallj- in the defense of Warsaw. 
In the siege of Praga (a suburb of Warsaw) by 
Suvarov he lost almost all his soldiers. He then 
served under Napoleon, in the Polish Legion 




commanded by Geni'nil Dombiowski, and was killed 
in an encounter with Austrian hussars near Kotzk, 
as before stated. There tlie people raised a mound to 
his memory ; and until 18;il his widow and son re- 
ceived a pension. 

Berek was a knight of the Polish Gold Cross 
and Die Virtuti Militari. 

BiblI(h;r.\piiy: VfisUhnd, (k-t. IM);. p. 87; .S)/H lierha Jnsk- 
loriid. Suiiplement to Swial. Cracow, 1889: Eiilziklopcdi- 
chtuhi Shn-'ir. iil.. St. rettrsburp. ISitt. s.f.; S. orgelbrand, 
EncuklouKlia Pnwszcchna, ii.. Warsaw, 1898, s.r. 

H. 1?. 

BERENDSON, MARTIN : German publisher ; 
born at IL.iiiburg in 1S-J4; died June 24, 1899. He 
was the head of the well knowu bookselling and 
publishing firm of liis native city, "Gebri'ider Be- 
rendson." Berendson devoted mucli of his leisure to 
Jewish communal affairs and filled several honorable 
offices in the Hamburg Reform congregation. He 
was ahso a prominent Freemason and held high posi- 
tion in the councils of that fraternity. 
Bibliogr.vphy: The Jewish r/ir'iiiMc June 30. 1809. 

8. P. Wt. 

man geologist : born in Berlin Jan. 4, 1836. He 
studied the science of mining; and in his work, "Die 
Diluvialablagerungen der Mark Brandenburg, lusBe- 
sondere der Umgebung von Potsdam," Berlin, 1863, 
gave the first geological map of this province. He 
also prepared and issued maps of a part of the Harz 
mountain range and of eastern and western Prussia. 
Having settled in KiJnigsberg, he was, in 1872, made 
there e.xtraortlinary professor: subsequently be- 
coming district geologist and chief of the depart- 
ment for the Lowland in the Prussian Geological 
Institute at Berlin. Being made professor at 
the Berlin University in 1875, Berendt distinguished 
himself by work on the geology of the North German 
Lowland; and was among the first to recognize the 
glacial theory in geology. He further issued a 
geological map of the vicinity of Berlin, and a 
geological plan of the city of Berlin. His work, 
"Die Theorie Darwins und die Geologic," GUters- 
loh, 1870, contains a repudiation of Darwinism. 
Among his other productions on geology, the more 
important are: " Geognostische Blicke in Alt-Preus- 
sens L'rzeit," Berlin, 1872 ; " Die Umgegend Berlins," 
Berlin, 1877; "Spuren einer Vergletscherung des 
Riesengebirges," Berlin, 1892; "Der Tiefere Unter- 
grund Berlins," Berlin, 1899. He contributed a 
large number of essays on the same subject to 
the following periodical publications: "Zeitschrift 
der Deutschcn Geologischen Gesellschaft." Berlin; 
"Neues Jahrbuch fur Mineralogie, Geologic, und 
Palaontologie," Stuttgart; " Schriften der Physisch- 
OekonomischeGesellschaft,"Konigsberg, and others. 

BiBLiOfiR.vPHV: J. C. PoggendortT's Bingraphisch-Litera- 
risches Haiitlwrirlerhneh ziir Gfsr/i. ttrr Exacten VTissen- 
achaftcn. ill., Leipsic, 1898 ; yieyeT.Kunversations-LeTikrui. 
B. B. B. 

Narbonue in the eleventh century. In the midst 
of the important wars of that century waged for the 
assertion of their temporal power, the popes still 
found time to protect the Jews. Alexander II. was 
their enlightened and zealous protector against any 


injustice. Animated by such sentiments, he praised 
the viscount Berenger of Narbonne for having ener- 
getically interfered in their favor at a time when 
their persecution was threatened. At the same time 
Alexander wrote a letter to the bishop Wifred of 
Narbonne (1063), asking him to protect the Jews no 
less actively in future than had Berenger, if similar 
circumstances should arise. 
Bibliography : Vogelsteln and Rieger, Die Jitden in Rom. i. 

M. S. 

BERENICE (formerly Hesperides) : City of 
the Cyrenaic Pentapolis, at the eastern extremity of 
the great Syrtis, near the river Lathon. The settle- 
ment of the Jews in Berenice, as in the other towns 
of the Greek colony "Cyrenaica," dates from Ptol- 
emy I. Although enjoying the rights of citizen- 
ship, the)' formed an independent municipal com- 
munity. But instead of having an ethuarch at their 
head, as in other places, the Jews in Berenice formed 
a separate " politeuma," and were governed by their 
own archons. A Greek inscription found in Berenice, 
dating from the year 13 B.C., according to Bockh's 
calculation, gives the names of the nine Jewish 
arclions. These are; Cleanthropos, Stratouieos, Eu- 
phani<les, Aristonos. Sozigenos, Sosippus, Androma. 
chus, Marcus, and Lailaos. 

Bibliography: Josephus, Ant. xiv. 7, §2; C. I. G. ed. Aug. 
Bockh, No. 5361, p. 557 ; Schurer, Gesch. iil. 35, 42, 43. 
G. I. Bu. 

BERENICE: Daughter of Costobar and Salome. 
sister of Herod I. Her marriage with her cousin 
Aristobulus was unhappy. The husband, being 
proud of his JIaccabean descent by his mother, Mari- 
amne. taunted his wife with her low birth. Berenice 
thereupon complained to her mother, and this fact 
intensified their mutual bitterness. When, shortly 
after the marriage (6 B.C.), Aristobulus was assjis- 
sinated, Berenice was believed to have had a share 
in his death. 

Being now free, Berenice married Theudion, the 
maternal uncle of Antipater, son of Herod I. Her 
second husband was put to death for participation 
in a plot against the life of Herod ; and Berenice 
then married Archelaus. With him she went to 
Rome to solicit of Augustus the carrying out of her 
father's testament, and remained there until her 
death. During her sojourn at Rome she gained 
the favor of Augustus and the friendship of Antonia, 
wife of Drusus, who later paid the debtsof Agrippa 
I., the son of Berenice, owed by him to the treasury 
of the emperor Tiberius. 

Bibliography : ScliQrer, Gcsch. des JUdischcn Vnlhefi. 1. 4.56, 
li. 151. 153; Brann, Aorippa II., in Moitatsschrift, 1870, pp. 
333-444, 530-5*8, and 1871, pp. 13-28; Gratz, Gesch. der 
Judcn, 3d ed., iii. 332. 
G. I. Bu. 

BERENICE: Daughter of Herod Agrippa I. 
and of Cypros, the daughter of Phasael; born in 28. 
She was first married to Marcus, son of the alabarch 
Alexander of Alexandria. Her husband dying within 
a short time, her father married her to his brother 
Herod of Chalcis (Josephus, "Ant." six. 5, § 1). 
Berenicianus and Hyrcanus were the children of 
this union ("Ant." xx. 5, § 2: "B. J." ii. 11, § 6). 
Again a widow in the year 48, Berenice went to her 




brother Agrippa II., with whom it was whispered 
she lived in incestuous relations ("Ant." xx. 7, § 3; 
Juvenal, " Satires." 6). These rumors may not have 
been unfounded, since Agrippa tried 
Her to stop them by betrothing Berenice 

Marriages, to Polemo, king of Cilieia. The lat- 
ter, won by her wealth as much as by 
her beauty, embraced the Jewish faith and was 

Berenice, Iiowever, soon left her third husband to 
return to her brother, resuming apparently their old 
relations. In 60 she went to Citsarea with Agrippa 
II. to welcome the new governor, Festus, and took 
part in the proceedings against Paul (Acts xxv. 13 
el seq., xxvi,). When, in C6, the governor Florus 
had l)y his measures provoked a riot in Jerusalem, 
Berenice, who was then in the city to fulfil a Naza- 
rite vow, implored him on her knees to stoj) the blood- 
shed and to spare the town. But Florus was deaf 
to her prayers, and, being in danger of maltreat- 
ment, she liad to .seek refuge in her palace ("B. 
J." ii. 14, §§ 6-9; 1.5, S§ 1, 3). Ber- 
Pleads for enice appeared with Agrippa before 
Jerusalem, the proconsul Cestius Gallus to com- 
plain of Florus. Later, when Agrippa 
in a speech tried to dissuade the people from going 
to war with the Romans, Berenice stood near him to 
protect him by lier popularity (" B. J. " I.e. ). Agrip- 
pa's attempts to maintain jieace were unsuccessful. 
In the ensuing conflict at Jerusalem between the war 
party and that advocating peace the latter suc- 
cumbed; and the palaces of Agrippa and Berenice 
were demolished by the infuriated populace("B. J." 
ii. 17, ^ 6). 

Berenice and Agrippa now opeidy went over to 
the Romans. After Vespasian had been made em- 
jieror by the Egyptian and Syrian legions, Bere- 
nice, who was a strong supporter of the Flavian 
party, sununoncd her brother Agrippa to Palestine to 
take the oath of allegiance (Tacitus, "Historian," 
ii. 81). Vespasian seems to have held her in high 
esteem; for only her intercession saved Justus of 
Tiberias from being beheaded. 

About this time Berenice entered into relations 

with Titus that lasted for many years, although she 

was much older than lie — according to 

Beloved Wilcken, no less than thirteen years. 
by Her beauty, however, was still irresist- 

Titus. ible, and, perhaps in the eyes of Titus, 
her vast wealth was even more attract- 
ive (compare Tacitus, "Ilistorifc," ii. 3). These 
relations continued at Rome, whither Berenice had 
gone with Agrippa in 75. Titus and Berenice lived 
on the Palatine Hill ; and it was generally supposed 
that he would soon marry her (Suetonius, "Titus," 
vii.). So jealous of her was Titus that he caused 
the Roman general Ciecina, .whom he suspected of a 
secret intrigue with Berenice, to be assassinated 
(Aurelius Victor, "Epitome," x. 7). Fully expect- 
ing Titus to marry her, Berenice tried to hasten the 
event (Dio Cassius, Ixvi. IT), §4); but when she pub- 
licly appeared as the wife of Titus he was com- 
pelled, much against his will, to separate from her, 
the liatred of the Jews by the Romans being too 
intense to tolerate such a union (Suetonius, I.e. ; 
Dio Cassius, I.e.). Still Berenice did not give up 

the hope of sharing with Titus the throne of the 
Roman empire. At the news of Vespasian's death 
(June 33, 79) she hastened to Rome; but Titus sent 
her back (Dio Cassius, Ixvi. 18). 

Nothing is known of the later life of Berenice. 
It may be remarked that Berenice on her journeys 
between Palestine and Rome seems to have formed 
connections at Athens, as may be gathered from the 
inscription published in "C. I. A." iii. 1, No. r>T>f>. 

BiBUOCRAPiiv: Wilcken, in Pauly-Wissowa, Rfal-KiicukJn- 
pitdie (Irr CItiK.'imiicii AUcrtlmmswii<.ieii!<chaft, ill. ceil. 2H7 ; 
(iriUz, Gcsfli. ilcr Judcn, iii. passim ; Scbiirer, Gaicli. 1. 470, 
49:1, .503, tHKi. 

G- H. Bl. 

BERENSON, BERNHAKD : Art critic and 
historian ; born at Wiliia. Russia, Jime 26, 186.5. He 
was educated in America, and in 1887 was graduated 
at Harvard. Foi' some time Berenson has been in 
Italy investigating Italian art, and heisregaiiled as 
one of the leading authorities on its technic, follow- 
ing the methods of Morelli in testing the reinited 
authorship of early paintings. Berniiard Berenson 
is a contributor to the New York " Nation " and 
to various French and German reviews of art and 
archeology. Among his publications in bocjk form 
are: "Lorenzo Lotto," an essay in constructive art 
criticism, 1895; "Central Italian Painters of the 
Renaissance," 1897; and "The Study and Criticism 
of Italian Art," 1901. 
Bibliography : Wlur.t TDio in Aiinrirn. 1!KH. 

■^- M. W. L. 

UEL : Dutcii rabbi; Ijoru in Leeiiwardeii, Ibillaiul, 
1808; died in The Hague Dec. 13, 1893. He was 
the son of Ralibi Samuel b. Berish BEnENSTEiN, 
chief rabbi of Amsterdam, and was a dayyan of 
that town at the time of his father's death in 18:38, 
continuing in that position for the following ten 
years. In 1.S48 he became chief rabbi of The Hague, 
succeeding R. Joseph Asher Lehmaiis, who had died 
six years before. He held the latter position for 
forty-five years, during which time he ccmtribvited 
much to the building up of communal institutions, 
such as an orphan a.sylum and a Jewish hospital; 
he was also the organizer of a Jewish historical and 
literary society. Berenstein's services were recog- 
nized by the government, and he was decorated with 
the insignia of the Order of the Golden Lion. He 
died at the ripe old age of eighty-five years, highly 
honored and respected, and was mourned by the 
entire itoinilalion of the Dutch capital, irrespective 
of race or religion. 

BlBLiOfiRAPiiv: /.snicd'tof Mn)/cncc,1803,No.I0:i; IDN'nN niV 
iAIiimiaf (\iti-mlun tor the year 563.5 (1894-95), p. 459. 

s. ' p. ^vt. 

BERISH: Dutch rabbi; born in Hanover aliout 
17(57; died in Amsterdam Dec. 21, 1838. He was 
the descendant of a long line of distinguished rabbis, 
his father and his grandfather, R, Aryeh Loeb— who 
was the son of Rabbi Jacob Joshua of Cracow, 
Lemberg, and Frankfort (author of the "Pene Ye- 
hoshua ") — having been rabbis of Hanover, liabbi 
Samuel Berenstein was educated as a rabbi, and for 
many years held that office at Groningen, Holland. 
He was probably the first rabbi of Holland to preach 




in the Dutch language, ami a speech which he 
delivered in 1805 to aiousi' sympathy for those 
who were ruined by the great tire that almost des- 
troyed the city of Leyile" iu that year is preserved 
in a Hebrew "trausUitiou (" IlaMeassef," 180!). pp. 
291, 343; 1810. pp. 40 et seq.). Later he became 
rabbi of Lceuwardeu. Friesland. and remained 
there till 181.->, when he was elected chief rabbi 
of the Ashkeua/.ic community of Amsterdam, to 
succeed his fathcr-iu-law. Jacob Moses Liiwenstamm. 
who had held tlial position since 1T90. There isatra- 
dition that K. Samiiel was a trifle too liberal to 
suit the taste ot his zealous father-in-law. and that 
there were many differences of opinion between them 
during the time of liberal innovation early in the 
nineteenth century. A letter addressed by Samuel 
Berenstein to Israel Jacobsohn, whom he calls 
"friend of my youth," against the introduction of 
German prayers iu the synagogue (B. H. Auerbach, 
"Geschichte der Isiaelilischen Gemeinde Halber- 
stadt," pp. 323-225), is couched in remarkably 
courteous and liberal terms. Still, neitlier his or- 
thodoxy nor his skill as a Talmudist is open to 
the slightest suspicion, as can be seen from a re- 
sponsum dated 1819, addressed to him by R. 
Moses Sofer of Presburg. Tliat uncompromising 
O|)pouent of progress in any form calls R. Samuel 
"Geon Yisrael," "Ner Yisrael," "'Ammud Im- 
Yemoui," "Patish ha-Hazak," "Kebod Kadosh 
Shemo Tifarto " (see " Hatam Sofer " ; " Eben ha- 
Ezer," part ii., responsum 139): the last being an 
appellation which is used only in the case of the 
greatest and most pious rabbis. 

Berenstein is not known to have contributed any- 
thing to ralibinical literature; besides a few sermons 
in the Dutch language (" Leerreden," mentioned by 
Kayserling, in "Jlid. Literatur, " p. 103. where it is 
wrongl}' stated that he died in 1808) — one of which, 
delivered in Amsterdam. 1832, is preserved in the 
British Jluseuni — and a Hebrew prayer against the 
cholera (Roesl's "Catalogue of the Rosenthal Li- 
brary "), he left nothing for ]iosterity . He will always 
be remembered in Holland as one of the fii-st rabbis to 
favor the spread of a knowledge of the Dutch lan- 
guage among the Jews of that country. In this re- 
gard he was a true followerof his great-grandfather, 
who also advised the Jews of his time to study the 
languages of tlie countries in which they live (see 
S. Bloch's preface to his translation of Menasseh b. 
Israel's "Teshu'at Yisrael," Vienna, 1813). After 
the death of R. San\uel, his son R. Issachar Baer. 
who was a dayyan in Amsterdam, failed in the ef- 
fort to succeed him, and the office of chief rabbi re- 
mained vacant for a quarter of a century, until the 
election of tlie present incumbent, Dr. Diiuner. 

BlBL10GR.\PIIV: L. Lanrishuth. Tidnhtt Anf:hr hn-filiem. p. iii., 
Berlin, ll«4 : G. Falk. in Hn-K(iriiiil. N... 4ii; JI. L. Malbim, 
Aratt lia-Haiiuim, Brt'slau. ISiT lapiiroliatimii. 
s. P. Wl. 

BERERAH.— In Talmudic Law: The con 

cept "Bererah." known to the later Babylonian 
Amoraim, is a development of the law of joint prop- 
erty, and, just as in Roman law, this branch of the 
law presents very great difficidties. Girtauner. iu 
" Jahrbiicher fiir Dogmatik," iii. 239 ( edit <■(! liyGerben 
and Ihering), .says, "Ihering calls it the filigree of 

jurisprudence. " In his " Die Rechtstellung der Sache 
und der Eigenthumsbegritl." etc., p. 242. Girtauner 
further says: "Joint property contains a contradic- 
tion to the concept of property. There is no object 
to which the right of property of the joint proprie- 
tor attaches, but it must be assumed as existing, al- 
though it is not actually existent." A. Rumelin 
("Die Theilung der Rechte," p. 100) says: "The 
several dicta of the Roman law con- 
Its cerning joint property can not be 

Concept, brought together imder a uniform 
principle, and they seem to exist inde- 
pendent of one another." It is not, tlierefore, sur- 
prising that the Talmudists formed no clear idea of 
Bererah. by which they attempted to explain the 
texts of the Mishnah and Tosefta concerning joint 
property; more they did not limit 
this idea to joint property, but extended it so as to 
include other matters. Contradictions arose because 
the Tannaimand the Palestinian halakistsiu general 
knew nothing of the concept of Bererah. which was 
a later development of the Babylonian Halakah and 
modilied the stricter ideas of the Palestinian. 

In eases of joint proi^erty the ijuestion arises. Is 
the proprietor that is u.siug the joint property to be 
considered for the time being as sole proprietor or 
merely as owner of part, and as exercising the right 
of use of the part owned by the other? Further- 
more, in cases of division of the joint property, do 
the joint proprietors receive their original property, 
or do they receive new propert)- through exchange ? 

The various answers to these questions result in 
important ditfereuces both from the religious and 
from the juridical point of view. For instance: 
One vows not to enjoy the property of his partner. 
If he, as joint jiroprietor using joint projierty, is 
looked upon as sole pro]irietor, this vow has no effect, 
because he is simply using his own propertj', and not 
that of his partner; but if he is considered, as to a 
part of it, simply as exercising the right of use of 
property belonging to the other, the joint proprie- 
torship must be dissolved, or he nuist assign his 
right to another i)erson. In Nsd. v. 1, a controversy 
ot the Tannaim is reported: If two joint proprietors 
vow not to enjoy the property of each other, accord- 
ing to the general view, neither of them may enter 
upon the estate which they own in common, whereas 
one of the Tannaim, R. Eliezer ben Jacob, main- 
tains that each of them may say, " I am entering 
ui>on my part." Accordingly, therefore, the Baby- 
lonian Gemara (B. K, 51b), assuming that the joint 
property is indivisible, concludes that this contro- 
versy of the Tannaim can be explained only througli 
the legal principles Yesh Bererah and En Bere- 
rah. The Gemara assumes that R. Eliezer applied 
the iMinciple Yesh Bererah ; namely, that each of 
the joint pi'opriefors may choose to consider the joint 
property as his sole property during the time tliat 
he is using it. It is an implied legal condition {m/i- 
dilio juris) that "during the time in which I use the 
joint property, it is my property; during the time 
that you use it. it is your property." or, as it might be translated. "That which formerly was unde- 
termined is now — by the partner's act — looked upon 
as determined " (R. Nissim on Nedarim. I.e.). The 
Gemara furthermore assumes that the opponents 




of R. Ellezer applied the principle En Bererah; 

namely, that the exercise of such choice is not to be 

presumed; or (according to Nissim) 

Yesh that whicli was undetermined before- 

Bererah. hand is not considered as determined. 
and En What is said here concerning the use 

Bererah. of an indivisible estate is also ap- 
plicable to the use of any fruit-bearing 
projiertv. Each takes of it what is then considered 
as having belonged to him according to the principle 
of Bererah, and therefore the Gemara applies to the 
use of a common well the arguments in the above- 
mentioned controversy (B. K. I.e. ; Bezah 39b ; against 
R. Nissim comijare R. Solomon Luria, in " Yam Shel 
Shelomoh"). Another example may be taken from 
the case of fruits. In Syria the fruits of the fields 
belonging to Jews were subject to tithes and heave- 
offerings, but fruits of a Gentile bought by a Jew 
were not. Now, in case a Jew and a Gentile are 
joint owners of a field in Syria, if each of them is 
considered the sole projirietor, then, upon division, 
each receives his original property, and the fruits of 
the Jew, therefore, are liable for tithe and heave, and 
those of the heathen are not; but if the division is 
considered as an exchange, then in the share of both 
the fruits of the Jew and of the Gentile are mixed. 

Concerning this case, there is a controvers}' be- 
tween Rabbi and R. Simon ben Gamaliel (Bab. Git. 
47a and b; Hul. ]35b). R. Simon ben Gamaliel per- 
mitted the division so that each received his sole 
property ; Rabbi was of the opinion that each re- 
ceived mixed projierty; and from these opinions it 
is presumed that R. Simon ben Gamaliel maintained 
file principle Yesh Bererah, and Rabbi that of En 
Bererah. lu this manner, the Babylonian Talmud 
('Er. 30b et seq.) explains the Jlishnah Dcmai vii. 4. 
In the case of uutithed fruit, a part of which is in- 
tended for tithes and heave-offerings, thei-e is a min- 
gling of sacred portions and profane (" hullin ") ; the 
profane portions may be taken away and used, and 
the balance remains as tithes and lieave-offerings. 
The aforesaid Mislinah as well as Mishnah Demai 
vii. 1 reflect the principle Yesh Bererah. According 
to the principle of En Bererah, both Jlishnahs would 
be different, and would forbid the use of the fruit 
until after the titlie and heave had been removed. 

In the Babj'lonian Talmiui, Raba, who favored 
the concept " Bererah " (see Tem. 30b), if indeed he 
was not its author, takes pains to prove that not 
only R. Me'ir, but also R. Jose, R. Simon, and R. 
Judah accepted the principle Yesh 
Extension. Bererah (in 'Er. 3f)b "Ritba" reads 
"Raba," and not "Rab"; so also the 
Munich manuscript; see Rabbiuowicz, " Dikduke 
Soferim," ad Inc., and compare Rail's opinion in 
Yer. 'Er. iii. 21b) who does not accept the concept 
of "Bererah." In the Babylonian Talmud itself 
Samuel ignores Bererah, B. K. 9a; while R. 
Nahman, the teacher of Raba, accepted En 
Bererah (Git. 48a; see R. Nissim to Ned. 45b). 
Raba explains the case in Mishnah 'Er. iii. 
.5 by means of Bererah. One may say, " If the 
instructor [hakam] comes to this side, my 'erub 
[removal of residence on Sabbath for 2,000 ells] 
shall be on this side; but if he goes to the other, the 
'erub shall be on the other side; if one comes to this 

side and the other goes to the other side, tlien that 
'erub shall be valid which I shall determine upon to- 
morrow." From this passage Raba seeks to deduce 
the principle Yesh Bererah, because the localit}' of 
the residence ('erub) was uncertain at the time when 
the condition according to which it was to be de- 
termined was made. If the decision is made on the 
Sabbath, it is retroactive to the period of the com- 
mencement of the Sabbath; just as in the case of 
the division of joint projicrty where the presump- 
tion is that an actual division liad already been made 
(lb initio; hence this is a ease of Yesh Bererah. 
Most of the commentators take this view (treated 
later in this article), but there is a distinction be- 
tween these two cases. In 'Erubin, there is an ex- 
press condition after the fulfilment of which the 
matter is absolutely decided; whereas in the case 
of the division there is no express condition made 
beforehand, and it is not absolutely determined even 
afterward, which part, from the beginning be- 
longed to the one joint owner, and which part to 
the other. 

This led the Tosafists to distinguish between dif 
ferent kinds of Bererah. Some accepted Bererah 

where an express condition had been 

Kinds made, others where a doubt is resolved 

of Bererah. afterward (Tos. to Git. 48a); on the 

other hand, in the case of the division 
they adopted the principle En Bererah. Raba did 
not recognize these distinctions; he considered tlie 
division conditioned even if the condition was not 
expres.sed (coniUtio juris); see Schl'irl ("Theilbarkeit 
als Eigenschaft von Rechten," p. 30), who also calls 
it conditioned. Abbayi, opposing Raba, calls atten- 
tion to another distinction. He says the condition 
" if it shall be mj' will " can be referred back to 
Bererali, but not the condition "if this will hajipen." 
or "if it shall be tlie will of another" (nvia n^in 

D'inx nvi3 n^ini iDVj;."iii'i'''"''put "f hisown win " 

and " depeuden t on the will of others" ; Git . S.'ia et seq.). 
In the latter case the retroactive effect of the con- 
dition is generally accepted ; the former cases are 
such instance of Bererah, concerning which there is a 
controversy. According to Windsclieid, i. t$ 93. the 
condition, "if it shall be m}' will, "hasno retroactive 
effect. Raba, however, takes i)ains to prove that 
the Tannaim who accept Beierah in the one case 
also maintain it in the other cases, and vice versa. 
He does not recognize any distinctions, therefore, in 
the concept Bererah. The commentators ask. " What 
difference is there according to Raba between the 
concept Bererah and the retroactive force of a condi- 
tion'? " Such a difference must exist because the re- 
troactive force of the condition is generally accepted 
on the ground that lie who sjiys"on condition " is 
like him whos;i\-s "fromnowon." Hashi((»it. 2.")b), 
who raises this question, is of the opinion that only 
conditions within man's power to fulfil or not to ful- 
fil have retroactive effect according to 
Ketroactive general opinion, but not such condi- 
Force of tionsasare in the power of him who is 
Conditions, master over life and death, as. for ex- 
ample, "if Idle from this disease." In 
these cases retroaction can only be adopted on the 
principle Yesh Bererah. But in this case Bererah 
contains the idea of predestination; that which has 




attually occurred has already been pretieteiiiiined by 
Providence. But it is clear that such a view must 
be kept out of the field of law. Xahmanides sets up 
the following distinction between Berenih and the 
retroactive force of a condition : Simple conditions 
ha\c retroactive force even according to the princi- 
ple En Bererah. whereas a doul)le condil ion works 
retroactively only according to the iirinciple of Yesh 
Bererah. The ilistinction is clear. If one makes a 
simple condition, his will is directed toward some- 
thing defiuite which merely requires the fultilment 
of the condition; but if one makes a double condi- 
tion, he wants eitlier one thing or another, he vacil- 
lales, and tlienfore the idea of Bererah must be 
brought intorcMiuisition in order to cause retroactive 
effect This view of Xahnianides, however, is not 
satisfactory, and therefore his distinction between 
"Bererah" and the "retroactive force of the condi- 
tion" is rejected (see Luria. I.e.); but the idea of 
Tsahraanides is correct and merely requires amend- 
ment : it is the only correct one, following the 
view of Raba. If one Sitys to a woman, "I marry 
you on condition that your father cou.sents." the act 
is an alternative juridical act. If the condition is 
fultilled. the marriage is valid ; if the condition is 
not fultilled, the union is unlawful: but it has cer,- 
taiu legal consequences, for .Jewish law does not 

recognize the maxim " Pater est quern 

Bererah nuplitu demonstraut." In this case, 

and therefore, there is a double condition, 

Coudition. and, nevertheless, after being fultilled. 

it has retroactive force e.\actly as in 
the case in ilishnah Deniai vii. 4. where one may 
eat only on condition that that which was last taken 
out is )i resumed to have been " terumah " from the be- 
ginning. The opponents of this view who maintain 
that the marriage is valid in any event, even if the 
lather does not give his consent, must assume the 
principle En Bererah, because it is possible to con- 
sent only to something detinite. In a like manner, 
there is a double coudition in tlie case, " Here is your 
bill of divorce, to take effect if I die from this dis- 
ease," if the view is accepted that the wife remains 
a lawful wife up to a moment before the death of 
the husband. The conditions are first, " Y'ou shall 
remain my wife up to a moment before my death," 
and second, "The bill of divorce shall be effective a 
moment before my death." His will, therefore, is 
divided, and nevertheless there is a retroactive effect; 
hence, the principle Y'esh Bererah is in action. If 
his will were only directed toward the divorce, the 
effect would be that the marriagi; would be in stis- 
peimo; and since that is not the ease, it follows that 
the principle Yesh Bererah is invoked. In this man- 
ner, it seems, Haba has distinguished " Bererah " from 
"the retroactive force of a condition," and only in 
this manner can the etymology and translation of 
the word be li.xed. 

Since the commentators joined in the views of 
Bashi concerning the discrimination between the 
]iersonal and the elementary nature of the conditions, 
they necessarily must find nothing else in the word 
" Bererah" than " retroactive force of condition." Be- 
rerah is, according to this view, a special form of the 
retroactive force of conditions which is accepted by 
some and rejected by others. The word, therefore, 

must be e.xplained through the assistance of other 
words: J,nS?2^ '\2'\r\ "nain. "the matter has been 
made clear with regard to the past " ; and the trans- 
lation of the word would imply its sec- 
Etymology ondary meaning, because tna means, 
and in the first place, "to choose," "to 

Transla- select": as for instance, ^31« Till 
tion. n^lDSnimtD. "toselecttheedible from 
till' iii(ilil)le." luitsderived meaningit 
also means "clear." "clean." "positive." Bererah 
might be translated " certainty " ; i.e., that which was 
formerly doubtful is now certain; but this idea is 
also contained in the notion of the retroactive foi'ce of 
condition, and the word " Bererah " would not cover 
that special meaning which it was intended to ex- 
press. In the Jerusalem Talmud, there is a phrase 
which covers " retroactive force of condition " (Deniai 
vi. 0.-id. and elsewhere), nyCO 1^ V'W^ Ip^n nr 
HjICNI. "this, his share, was his from the first mo- 
ment." According to Rashi, the word "Bererah" 
ought to be trauslatetl as predestination ; but this 
idea is not in the word. But. in fact, " Bererah, " de- 
rived from 1-13, "to choose," "to select," means 
"choice." "Y'esh Bererah" means "he has the 
choice " : that is to say, one can make a double con- 
dition and afterward choose one or the other; or 
through the fultilment of the condition, whichever 
it niaj' be, one thing or the other is determined. 
" En Bererah " means that one can not make a double 
condition, so that afterward one of the two may be 
determined. This was the view of the Babylonian 
Talmud as shown in Y'oma (oob). Avhere it is argued, 
"let him ciioose four zuzim," etc. Likewise in an- 
other place (Tern. 8(1a : Bek. 57a), "let him take one 
out, and the others will be permitted." It is true 
that Levy and, following him, Kohut explain the 
word to mean "choice," but this translation of the 
word will not be of help in the Gemara, unless the 
above-explained view of Xahmanides is borne in 
mind. Jastrow, therefore, gives a twofold transla- 
tion, "choosing or a subsequent selection"; "retro- 
spective designation." According to the above- 
mentioned explanation, the word "choice" is suffi- 
cient. The fact that a condition is retroactive is 
assumed, and is not expressed in the word; since 
this is characteristic of all conditions. 

Undoubtedly, in practise, Raba has applied the 
concept of Bererah without distinction. Riibbi 
Isaac, the Tosafist. maintains that in 
Ap- every case a decision can be rendered 

plication in according to Raba ; namely, on tlie 
Practise, jirinciple Y'esh Bererah. R. Tam at 
first also decided in this manner, but 
later he departed from it (see Tosafot to Tem. 30a, 
and parallels in marginal notes). In the Gemara 
(BezahS'ihct sefj.). MarZutra isof the opinion that in- 
asmuch as there is a difference of tiiiinion concerning 
Bererah, the rule of decision should be " In Biblical 
commands. En Bererah ; in rabbinical commands, 
Y'esh Bererah " ; and in this manner ]\[aimonides also 
decided ('Er. viii. 7). although many contradictions 
appear in his work that can not all be reconciled by 
his interpreters (see Luria, ib. .36b: and "Sha'agat 
Aryeh," Xo. 89). Rabbi Joseph Caro (Shulhan 'Aruk, 
I.e.) also notes this division ; namely. "In rabbinical 
commands, Y'esh Bererah, and in Biblical commands, 




Eq BtRTiib. " One rather illogical exception is made 
ill the case of a Biblical command ; namel_y , in the case 
mentioned in Ned. (I.e.). because it is said to differ 
from other casesof Bererah (see R. Solomcm LriiiA). 

The Palestinian Ilalakah is closer to Roman legal 

concepts than is the Babylonian, and in spite of all 

separation from that which was for- 

Unknown eign, Roman legal concepts current 

in among the people unconsciously forced 

Palestinian their way into the Palestinian Hala- 

Halakah. kah, althougli the rules of law of the 

two s.vstems differed. 

In Roman law, the difference lietween movaljle 
and immovable propertj- shows itself in the concejit 
of divisibility of propert^y. Immovable property 
can be divided, and movable property can not ( piii:9 
pro iHcini). pni:i pro indin'so). In the case of immov- 
able property an actual division is possible; in the 
case of movable property only a theoretical or ideal 
division can be made. Actual division of quantities 
jmd genus is likewise pos.sible {iii/meiv ft cfirhin). 
because the value of equal parts remains the same ; 
(see Waechter, " Archiv fiir die Civilistische Pra.xis,'' 
XXV. 1.5.5 et ser/.); but this rule applies only to obli- 
gations and not to joint property. The division of 
joint property, is looked upon as an exchange (per- 
iiiiitiitio). In place of the formerlj- undetermined 
jiroperty, each of the joint proprietors receives from 
tlie other, by exchange, certain determined i)roperty 
<see Savigny, "Obligationenrecht," i. § 30. and 
likewise other well-known jurists quoted in " Monats- 
schrift," 1900, l.r.). 

The Palestinian Ilalakah likewise distinguishes 
between joint property in divisible and in indivisi- 
ble things. This distinction is fo\md in the above- 
mentioned controversy, in the case of a vow of ab- 
stinence by the joint proprietors from any enjoyment 
of each other's property; and in the other contro- 
versy, concerning tithes and heave-offerings in the 
case of joint property of Jew and Gentile in Syria. 
The Babylonian Talmud uses these as its principal 
supports for tlie controversy concerning Yesh Bere- 
rali and En Bererah. In Yer. Demai vi, 2.5d the 
latter controversy is discussed, and the Halakah is as 
follows; In case of a division of heajis of sheaves or 
even the threshed grain, it is undisputed that in each 
stalk or each grain there is common property, but in 
the case of a division of growing grain, there is a 
controversy between Rabbi and R. Simon ben Gama- 
liel. The former maintains that in this case also 
the conununity of property exists in every single 
stalk, and the latter maintains that each joint pro- 
' prietor obtains his separate property. 

H. Simon ben Gamaliel's principle is the follow- 
ing; The field being divisible (purs pri> diriso; (see 
Joint Owners), there is an implied condition (condi- 
tio jiirix) among the joint proprietors that whichever 
of the two halves falls to the share of either one 
shall be presumed to have been his from the begin- 
ning. This is an alternative condition with retro 
active force. This is the meaning of the maxim; 
"This, his share, was his from the first moment." 
The Palestinian Ilalakah has not distinguished the 
condition " if it slmll be my will '' from other condi- 
tions. Koppen (" Jahrbuch fiir Dogmatik," xi. 280) 
maintains that acecmling to Roman law such a con- 

dition has retroactive force; so also Derenbourg 
("Pandekten." p. 3.58, g 108, Berlin, 189(i). Thus 
(Yer. 'Er. iii. 21b) the condition. "I may go whitlier- 
soever I may desire," is considered a condition with 
retroactive force. In Yer, Git. iii. 44il, the case 
cited in the Mishnah — a bill of divorce written for 
one of two wives of the same name to be determined 
at the will of the husliand — is considered invalid, a bill of divorce may, tinder no circum- 
stances, be written conditionally, otherwise the 
maxim of the law wouhl apply, " tliat it was written 
for her from the first moment"; to wit, the condi- 
tion has retroactive force. In the case of the divi- 
sion of a field, R. Simon ben Gamaliel held such 
condition to be necessarily implied. Rablii does not 
consider such condition valid even if it is actually 
expressed, because, according to him, the joint prop- 
erty exists not only in that part which is divisible, 
but in each separate stalk, whereby division becomes 

impossible. R. Simon ben Gamaliel 

Case of therefore had to admit that in case 

Joint a division of a heap of grain is at- 

Property. tempted, the joint property continues 

in every stalk or in every grain, 
whereby actual division becomes impossible. 

In Roman law. ttie rule is, If the grain of two proprietors Is 
mixed with their ooDsent. '* coniuiuiiio " exists, and it cainiot 
be divided. "Quod si frumentuiu 'ritii fruniento tuo iiii.\tum 
fuerit, si quidem e.\ v(.)luntatevestra coiiiniune est, quia sin!,'Mla 
corpora, id est singula grana, quie eu.lusi4Ue propria fuerunt ex 
consensu vestro communicata sunt"; § 3S J. de reruiu divlsluue, 

The same controversy would exist even if there 
was joint propert}' in two separate etiual heaps of 
grain, or two equal pieces of the same kind of prop- 
erty, because, in this case, we have piiiii:'i pro dirim ; 
each part being a body for itself. R. Johanan and 
R. Eleazar dispute couceruing this case (Yer. Kid- 
dushin i. 60d; compare Demai, I.e.). II. Johanau 
decided, like Rabbi, that, even in the case of divisible 
things, community remains in every single jiiece or 
heap. R. Eleazar decides like R. Simon ben Gama- 
liel, "This, his share, was originally his." But it is 
undisinited that if there is joint property in a single 
heap of grain, it is indivisible, because the joint 
property exists in every grain (compare Yer. Demai 
vi. 2.5d). The same relation exists in the case of a 
courtyard held in common. Here, also, a distinction 
is made whether it is divisible or indivisible. Ac- 
cording to Yer. Ned. v. 39a, it is undisputed that if 
the courtyard is indivisible, the joint propiietors 
that have through vows mutually resolved to ab- 
stain from enjoyment of one another's property may 
not step into the courtyard (Mishnali Ned. v. 1). 
The conflict between the general opinion and the 
view of R. Elie/.er ben Jacob exists only if the luop- 
erty is divisible. According to the former view, 
every siiiiare inch of the courtyard is joint property, 
and therefore may not be di vided. In order that I hey 
may step into this courtyard, joint iiroprietors must 
transfer their right to a thii'd person. R. Elie/.er 
ben Jacob is of the opinion that each joint proprie- 
t(U- has an undetermineil half-interest in the entire 
property, and, through conditio jurix. each joint pro- 
prietor obtains, after the division, his original prop- 
erty. This controversy is exactly like that bi'tween 
Ral)bi and R. Siinou beu Ganiali<'I. 





Mishnah Demai vii. 2 is explained in Ter. 26b 
without controversy on the principle that the condi- 
tion liMS retroactive force (nnL"SL"3? laao)- 

The Habylonian Ualakah. by sctlinjr up the con- 
cept Berenih, went far beyond the Palestinian and 
read this concept into the controversy of the Tan- 
naini. According to the Jerusalem Talmud, the di- 
vision of indivisible things in the case of joint prop- 
erty is not permitted; according to the Babylonian. 
it is jiermilted in the case of rabbinical prohibitions 
(see an example in " Sha'agat Aryeh," I.e.). Accord- 
ing to the Jerusidem Talmud, such a distinction can 
not be dniwn because, following it. the division of 
indivisible things contains a contradiction, which 
makes its application equally impossible for rabbin- 
ical and Biblical law. Moreover, the controversy 
between Babbi and B. Simon ben Gamaliel actually 
refers to a rabbinical prohibition. 

But although the IJabylonian Talnuul's interpre- 
tation of the contioversy of the Tannaim must yield 
to that of the; Jerusalem Talmud, the concept Bere- 
rah, as such, is nevertheless juridically and logically 
justitiable. Bomau law is not abstraelly logical. 
The Roman law, it is true, establislies the proposi- 
tion " Dominium plurium in soli<lum esse non potest, " 
and most of the jurists, starting out with this propo- 
sition, take the stand that according to Roman law. 
in the case of joint property, the right is divided 
and the division is looked upon as emptio. Goppert 
explains this \iew clearly and con- 
Boman and vinciugly ("Beitriige zur Lehre vom 

Modern Miteigenthum." Halle. 18IU). Other 
Law. doctors of the law. such as Steinlceh- 
ner. Wiudschcid. and Eisele, explain 
joint property as separate property even according 
to Roman law. AVithout venturing to express an 
opinion on Roman law, theslatemenlof Uuger seems 
convincing that there was an evolution in the law. 
He writes (" Jahrbuch fi'ir Dogmatik." xxii. 289): 

" A twofold point of view is possible : either tlieoretieally 
divided pmperty and divided security, or joint property and 
joint security. In tlie tli-st case, it is assumed that there are 
sevenil joint pn»prietoi-s pro iiirfirfVo; in the latter ca,se, that 
all together as one {xmiiis }cico) have property in the thing. 
The first point of view was that of the older Roman law, the 
latter is that of the later Roman law and of modern law, so far 
as it recognizes suretyship in cases of joint property," 

A similar evolution took place in Talinudic law. 
The Palestinian Halakah takes the point of view 
that the joint proprietor, particularly of indivisible 
things, has a theoretical share in the article. It con- 
siders division as a purchase or an exchange. In 
the later Babylonian Halakah (through Raba) the 
joint iiroprictor is looked upon as sole jiroprietor 
who after the division receives his original property. 
It did not assume in joint property, consisting of 
many similar units, that each unit was joint prop- 
erty and had to be divided — division of the prop- 
erty and division of right are the sjune — but consid- 
ered that the one-half of the bulk belonged to the 
one. and the other half to the other, and each one 
while using the joint property was presumed to l)e 
using his own property, and on division received 
what was always his property (Tos. Git. 48a). 

The dilTerence between the views of the deciders 
of the responsa and the oliler authorities is particu- 
larly noticeable because the former say that in the 

case of indivisible joint estiite. the vow of the joint 
proprietor has no force because they have assumed 
the obligation that one may use the share of the 
other; but. according to the older conception, the 
partnership relation contains no such idea of obliga- 
tion and can be ended at smy moment. This is the 
idea of the Jerusalem Talmud. 

The concept Bererah is known in French law. 
Goppert (ih. pp. 64. 63) states: "In French law. the 
essence of the division of joint property did not con 
sist in a mutual changeable contiact, but rather in 
an iicte detenu i mil if, by which it was established 
what portion of the joint property the joint heir 
really inherited, from which arose the legal presump- 
tion that the property which fell to his share at the 
division was deemed to have been his from the be- 
ginning. A remarkable coincidence! There being 
no inherent contradiction in the concept Bererah, 
the Babylonian Halakah, modifying the older view, 
established the compromise that in Biblical com- 
mands the principle En Bererah is followed, and 
in rabbinical commands Yesh Bererah. But the in- 
terpretation of the Babylonian Talmud of the dicta 
of the Tannaim contains innumerable contradictions, 
and is a shoreless ocean in which the commentator is 
lost. By distinguishing between the Palestinian 
Halakah and the Babylonian, it is believed that the 
matter has been made clear, 

mBi.ioGR.»PHV : R, Nissiui to iVoi. 4.51) : Solomon Luria. in his 
work l"(i»i Slid SheUinuih to B, Is. 31, pp. 34-411. Sdilk..«. 
I.s;i6. At the end he enumerates thirty cases i>*fcrrinL^ \" 
Uererah and ai'ransres them in fi>urcla.sses. R. Judah Uen.j;i- 
min Rapiiport, in liis work SimUil llmjaiiun. pp. :;i--'7. 
Dyhenifurlh, 17.50, criticizes 1, aria's dist|uisition. R. Isaac Laiii- 
pronti, in his work, Fitluid Yizlntfi. Venice, ITttt, .sm\. enumi-t - 
ales uuist of the passages of tlie liiiliylonian Tahund, and al- • 
retei-stothe literature of the responsa. R. Banich Bcnedii i 
Coitein, in Kefcf XihUar, l.emliei^, l.sijT, classilies anil rh^- 
cusses most of the passages together with the codes of Mai- 
monides and Shulhait 'Artili, and he finally distinguishes 
three classes of Bererah. R. .\braliam Tiktin wrote a com- 
prehensive article ()nthis subject in liis ho.ik l\f'ih fni-Iimiit, 
pp. li>t)-™a, Dyherufurth, s:iO: he goes iiit^i detailed disrn>>i<in 
and attempts "to solve nnmemus contnidictions by ptlpulistic 
methods of argument. R. Jacob Zebi Joliesch, in his book 
Mthi lH!-R'i'iin, Warsiiw, issn, has* gathered ail the material 
and has mentioned the various rabbis that adopted the princi- 
ple Vesh Bererah and those that adopteil the principle 
En Bererah. Aryeh I-ow. the author of Sha\mat Arihh, 
Briinn, 1797, treats of Bererah in numbers 89 to 93, pp. (»7-7it ; 
finallv R. Elijah Wilna, on Omh Ifiiiinim. 413, 1, has an ex- 
cellent summary of the various' views concerning Berenih. 
He is the only one of all the alnive-named connneiuators and 
authors of resiionsa who snguests the differeuet> in the con- 
ception of Bererah between the .lernsalem and the Babvlonian 
Talmud {Yurch D('n/i,331, 27); Jfoii(i(,«c(in/(, Isil'.i, pp.:!i'.:i- 
37"; .\uerbach, Diw JUiIi.<vht' OltUtiationetiri'vht, Berlin, 
1H7(I, pp. 529 ft scq., lytXl, p, 5(1, note 1 (note 2, ih., must be 
corrected according to the above views). The lexicons of 
the Talmud ts.r.) of Levy, Kohut. and Jastrow. 

.1. SR. M, S. Z. 

BERESHIT. See Genesis. 

BERESHIT RABBAH (called also by the an- 
cients Bereshit derabbi Osha'yah [Hosha'yah], 
Bereshit rabbah derabbi Oshaya [Hoshayiah] , 
Bereshit derabbi Hosha'yah rabba, Baraita 
derabbi Osha'ya) : Expository ilidrash to the tirst 
book of the Pentateuch, assigned by traditirni to the 
amora Iloshaiah. commonly Osha'yah, who nourished 
in the third century in Palestine. The Miditish 
forms a haggadie commentary on the whole of Gen- 
esis, in keeping with the character of the Midrasliic 
exegesis demanded by that age. In a continuous 
sequence, broken only toward the end. the Biblical 
text is expounded verse for verse, often wind for 




word; onlj- gencalogic passages, and such as fur- 
Dish no material for exposition (as the reiterated ac- 
count of Abraham's servant in Gen. xxiv. 35-48), 
are omitted. 

The Bereshit Kabbah contains many simple ex- 
planations of words and sentences, often in the Ara- 
maic language, suitable for the instruction of youth ; 
and also the most varied haggadic expositions popu- 
lar in the public lectures of the syna- 
Its gogues and schools. According tr) 

Simplicity the material or the sources at the dis- 
and posal of the editor of the >Iidrash, he 

Sublimity, has strung together various longer or 
shorter explanations and haggadic in- 
terpretations of the successive passages, sometimes 
anonymously, sometimes citing the author. Again, 
he adds to the running commentary longer haggadic 
disiiuisitions or narratives, connected iu some way 
with the verse in question, or with one of the ex- 
planations of It — a method not unusual in the Tal- 
mud and iu other Midrashira. The lirst chapters of 
Genesis, on the creation of the world and of man, 
naturally furnished especially rich material for this 
mode of exegesis. Whole sections are devoted to 
conmients upon one or two verses of tlie text. Slany 
references to contemporary philosophical thought 
are made with the purpose of refuting the opinions 
of the heretics. References to contemporaneous con- 
ditions and historical events also occur; indeed, it is 
characteristic of the Midrash to view the personages 
and conditions of the Bible b}^ the light of con- 
temporary history. Though the stories embraced 
in Genesis furnished little occasion for comments on 
legal topics, Bereshit Rabbah contains a few short 
halakic sentences and quotations taken from the 
Mishnah and other sources. This Midrash is emi- 
nently rich in sublime thoughts and tinely worded 
sentences, iu all kinds of parables, in foreign words, 
especially Greek, used freely and intentionally for 
the sake of elegance of diction. Some Greek words, 
to be found nowhere else in Jewish literature, have 
been preserved in the Bereshit Rabbah (e.;j., TvHJlp. 
(C(Sv(JfXof, section i. in 'Arukand MSS. ; cSlSlinvSN. 
'EX£i'fl(:«o77oA(f, section xli. (xlii.)in 'Aruk, corrupted 
in editions). 

This extensive and important Jlidrash, which 
forms a complete commentary on Genesis, and ex- 
emplities all points of Midrashic exegesis, is divided 
into parashiyot (sections, chapters); 
Form. and derives its pecidiar character from 
the proems which head these sections; 
it is by these means distinguished from the tannaitic 
Midrashim to the other books of the Pentateuch, such 
as MckiU.a, Sifra, and Sifre. Every chapter of the 
Bereshit Rabbah is headed by the first verse of the 
passage to be explained, and is introduced, with few 
exceptions, by one or more prefatory remarks starting 
from a verse taken from another Biblical passage as 
text — generally from the Hagiographa. B\' various 
explanations of these texts a transition is effected to 
the exposition of the particular verse of Genesis 
heading the parasliah. There are in the Bereshit 
Rabbah (i.-xcvi.) about two hundred and thirty of 
these passages. A part of them — about seventy — 
are cited witli the name of the haggadists with whom 
they originated or whose explanation of the verse in 

question was used as an introduction to the para- 
shah of the Bereshit Rabbah ; as in section i. the six 
prefatory passages of R. Osha'yah, R. Huna in the 
name of Bar Kappara, R. Judah b. Simon, R. Isaac, 
R. Joshua of Siknin, iu the name of R. Levi, and 
K. Tanhuma. 

The greater number of these passages are anony- 
mous and may perhaps be ascribed in part to the 
author of the Bereshit Rabbah; they 

In- begin with the verse of the text, which 

troductory very often stands at the head of the 
Passages, proem without any fornmla of intro- 
duction — more frequently so in the 
best manuscripts than in the editions. The struc- 
ture of the prefator)' passages is as various as their 
execution and their extent. In some only tlie intro- 
ductory text is given, its application to the verse of 
Genesis to be expounded being self-evident or being 
Ic-ft to a later working out. The single prefaces, of 
which there is a large number, contain explanations 
of their text which refer entirely or in its last part 
to the verse or passage of Genesis to be expounded 
in that parasliah. The composite introductions con- 
sist of different expositions of the same Biblical 
verse, bj' different haggadists, stnmg together in 
various ways, but always arranged so that the hist 
exposition — the last link of the introduction — leads 
to the exposition of the passage of Genesi-s, with the 
lirst verse of which the introductions often close. 
For these introductions, which are often quite 
lengthy, the material for the several expo.silions was 
ready at hand. The original work on tlic^se passages 
consisted principally in the eombiniugand grouping 
of the several sentences and expositions into a coor- 
dinate whole, always so arranged that the last mem- 
ber forms the actual iutroductiou to the exposition 
of the parashah. Definitely characterized as they 
are iu their beginning by these introductions, the 
parashiyot of the Bereshit Rabbah have no formal 
ending, although several show a transition to the 
Biblical passage that is expounded in the following 

In the manuscripts, as well as in the editions, the pa- 
rashiyot are consecutivel.y ninubered ; in very many 
quotations iu the 'Aruk tlu- passage of 

The the Bereshit Rabbah is mentioned by 

Principle the number of the parashah. The 
of Division, total number of the parasliiyot, both in 
the manuscripts and in tlu'cdilions, va- 
ries from 97 to 101. Nearly all the manuscripts, how- 
ever, as well as the editions, agree in counting 96 chap- 
ters, up to the exposition on Gen. xlvii. 38 ct «y/. 
inclusive (beginning of the pericope Wayehi) ; and to 
this point the best manuscripts, as well as the "Aruk 
and Yalkut, differ only in a few parashiyot from the 
division of the chapters iu the editions. Hence the 
counting by chapters or sections is to be considered 
UHich older than has been assumed. The principle 
of division followed in the parashiyot of the Bereshit 
Rabbah was evidently that of the Biblical text itself 
as fixed at the time of the compilation of this Mid- 
rash, in accordance with the "open " (nimns> and 
■• closed " (niDinO) liaragraphs of Genesis. There are 
separate parashiyot in the >Iidrash to almost all 
these sections as they are still found in Genesis, with 
the exception of tlie genealogical passages. But 




tbere are iiarashiyot that bear evidences of relation 
to the pericopes (" sedarim ") of Iho Palestinian trien- 
nial cycle, and a careful investigation of these may 
lead to tlie discover)- of an arrangement of sedarim 
different from that heretofore known from old regis- 
ters. However, there are jiarashiyot. as mentioned 
above, especially in the begiuuiug of the Jlidrash, 
in which only one or a few verses at a time are ex- 
pounded. The sedarim of the customary one-year 
cycle are not regarded at all in the divisions of the 
Bereshit Kabbah, neitherare they marked in the best 
manuscripts or in the editio princcpn of the Midrash; 
the parashiyot. therefore, can not be regarded as mere 
subdivisions of the sedarim. as which they appear 
in later editions of this Midrash. 

Far more difficult than any question concerning 
the outwai'd form of the Bereshit Kabbah is that of 
deciding how much of its present con- 
Haterial. tents is original material included in it, 
and how much of later addition. The 
parashiyot formed the framework that was to con- 
tain the exposition of a number of Biblical verses in 
continuous succession. 

But with the construction of the 
haggadic exegesis it became easy to string together, 
on every verse or part of a verse, a number of ram- 
bling comments : or to add longer or shorter hag- 
gadic passages, stories, etc., connected in some way 
with the exi)osition of the text. This process of 
accretion took place quite spontaneousl)' in the 
Bereshit Kabbah, as in the other works of the Tal- 
mudic and Midrashic literature ; between the begin- 
ning and the completion of these works — if ever they 
were completed — a long period elapsed dui'ing which 
there was much addition and collection. 

The tradiliim that K. Hosha'yah is the author of 
the Bereshit Kabbah may be taken to mean that he 
began the work, in the form of the running com- 
mentary customary in tannaitic times, arranging the 
exposition on Genesis according to the sequence of 
the verses, and furnishing the necessary complement 
to the tannaitic Midrashim on the other books of the 
Pentateuch. The ascription of the Mekilta to R. 
Ishmael and of the Jerusalem Talmud to K. Johanan 
rests on a similar procetlure. Perhaps the conunents 
on Genesis were originally divided into parashiyot 
that corresponded with the above-mentioned sections 
of the text, and that contained the beginnings of the 
simplest introductions, as indeed the first traces of 
such introductions are found also in the tannaitic 
Midrash. But the embellishment of the parashiyot 
with numerous artistic introductions — which points 
to a combination of the form of the nmniug commen- 
tary with the form of the linished homilies follow- 
ing the type of the Pesiktaaml Tanhnma :Midrashim 
— was certainly the result of the editing of the 
Bereshit Kabbah that is now extant, when the ma- 
terial found in collectiosn and traditions of the hagga- 
dic exegesis of the period of the Amoraim was taken 
up in the Midrash, and (he Bereshit Kabbah was 
given its present form, if not its iire.sent bulk. Per- 
haps the editor made also of different collections 
on the several parts of Genesis. The present Ber- 
eshit Kabbah shows a singular disjiroportion between 
the lengtli of the first sidra and that of the eleven 
others. The sidra Bereshit alone comprises twentv- 

nine parashiyot, being more than one-fourth of the 
whole work. Is there not a po.ssibility that the pres- 
ent Bereshit Kabbah is a combination of two Mid- 
rashim of unequal proportions; and that the twenty- 
nine parashiyot of the first sidra — several of which 
expound only one or a few verses — constitute tin 
extant or incomplete material of a Bereshit Kabbah 
that was laid out on a much larger and more compre- 
hensive scale than the Jlidrash to the other sidroty 

The worlv may have received its name. " Bereshit 

Kabbah." from that larger Jlidrash at the beginning 

of Genesis, unless that designation was 

Origin of originally used to distinguish this Mid- 
Name, rash from the shorter and older one, 
which was ascribed to K. Hosliayah. 
The opinion that the name of the Midrash finds its 
explanation in the first words, "R. Hosha'yah rab- 
bah began," etc., as if the word "rabbah " belonged 
originallj- to the name of the amora. and that the 
name of the work, "Bereshit Rabbah," is an abbrevi- 
ation of '■ Bereshit derabbi Hoshayah rabbah," is un- 
tenable for the reason that in the best manuscripts — 
and in a very old quotation — the name "R. Hosha- 
yah" stands without the addition "rabbah" in the 
first preface at the beginning of the Midrash. It 
would be singular if the authorial designation had 
been lost and yet the attribute had remained in the 
title of the Midrash. 

It is difficult to ascertain the exact date of the 
actual editing of the Bereshit Rabbah; it was prob- 
ably undertaken not much later than 
Date. that of the Jerusalem Talmud. But 
even then the text was probably not 
finally closed, for longer or shorter passages could 
always be added, the number of prefatory passages 
to a parashah be increased, and those existing be 
enlarged by accretion. Thus, beginning with the 
sidra Wayishlah, extensive passages are found that 
bear the marks of the later Haggadah, and have 
points of connection with the Tanhuma homilies. 
The passages were probably added at an early date, 
since they are not entirely missing in the older man- 
uscripts, which are free from many other additions 
and glosses that are found in the present editions. 
In the concluding chapters the Bereshit Rabbah 
seems to have remained defective. In the jiarashiyot 
of the sidra Wayiggash the comment is no longer 
carried out verse by; the last parashah of this 
]>ericope, as well as the first of the sidra Wayehi. 
is probably drawn from Tanhuma homilies; the 
comment to the whole 48th chapter of Genesis is 
missing in all the manuscripts (with one exception), 
and to verses 1-14 in the editions; the remaining por- 
tion of this sidra, the comment on Jacob's blessing 
(Gen. xlix.), is found in all the manuscripts — with the 
above-mentioned exeeption.s — in a revision .showing 
later additions, a revision that was also used bv tlw 
compiler of the Tanhuma ^Midrash edited by Buber, 

The best mannscrijit of the Bereshit Rabbah i^ 
fouud in the Codex Add. 2T,lti9 of the Britisli Mu- 
seum, London; it was used for the critical edition 
issued by J. Theodor. 

On this and other manuscripts compare: J. Tlieo- 
dor. "Der Midrash Bereshit Rabbah," in "Mouats- 
schrift," xxxvii. 1G9 it mj.. ih. 211 et seq.. 4-V3 it »f/. ; 
xxxviii. 9<'/,«<Ty, : xxxix. \OGetseq.: variants of the 




Beivshit Rabbah in ' Aruk, Yalkut, and MSS. ; on the 
division into chapters, ib. xxxix. 481. 

Oldest editions: Constantinople, 1513 (Midr. R. on 
Pentateuch) (Ber. Rabbah), Venice, 1567; collective 
editions on Pent, and Meg., Venice, 1545; Cracow, 
1587; Salouica (1544?). 1594. 

Oldest commentaries: Commentary ascribed to 
Bashi (appeared first in the Venice ed., 1567; com- 
pare Epstein, in "Magazin fi'ir die Wissenschaft des 
Judontliums," 1887, pp. 1 etseq.); commentary by 
R. Naphtali Herz b. R. Menahem, Cracow, 1569 ; com- 
mentary by Ashkeuazi Baerman b. Naphtali ha- 
Kohen (appeared first in the Cracow ed., 1587); com- 
mentary " Yefeh To'ar." by Samuel Yafe Ashkenazi, 
Venice, 1597 ; Prague, 1689 ; Fiirth. 1692 ; more recent 
valuable commentaries bj' Wolf Eiuhorn, David 
Luria, Sam. Straschun, and others in the Wilna ed. of 
the Midrash. Compare further, for editions and com- 
mentaries, Steinschneider, "Cat. Bodl." No. 3753 f^ 
«y. ; Jelliuek, "Kuntres ha-Maggid," 1878, pp.7 
it seq., W et seq. ; " Kuntres Taryag," 1878, pp. 47 ei 
»eq.; "Kuntres ha-Rambam," 1878, pp. 33 et seq.; 
Benjacob, "Ozar ha-Sefarim, " 1880, pp. 301 et seq. 
Translation : German by Aug. Wiinsche, Leipsic, 

Bibliography : Zunz, G. V. 1st ed., 1832, pp. 173 et seq., 354 ct 
i<eq.: Rapoport, Erch MiUin, 1H52. pp. 171 et seq.: Frankel, 
Mrlio Jiit-Yeriislinjmi. 1.^70, pp. .5Ut tt srq.; Friedmann, in 
lutrniliiciii.n to liis ptiiiioii of Ml i.ill'i, ls7n, pp. ixxv. et seq.; 

J. Tl 'ior. ZAti ro/iijio.Md")! lire Aiiiulisehi ii HaiiiiUen, in 

Moniilssrhyift. 1S71I, pp. 112 et s.y.; M. Joi-1, Bliekc in tlie 
Beliiii"ii.-:iiisi liiilile. i. ]sm; Leraer, Anlaiie tnul ejuillni 
dc.f Uni.-iliil Uiil'^-^; H. L. Struck, article Miilrash, 
in I'nili.'<t(uiti.-<elic li'iil-Eiiciillnii/liIir. 2d ciL. ix. 74t) et 
feq.; Weiss. D<ir. ISK;1. iii. 2ri2 <•( ,m <;.; 1SK7, iv. 22. 2(IS et seq.; 
J. Tlieiidor, Die jMidrii.<rliiin ziiiii I'ciitdteueli iiiul der 
PaUI.''line)}ie Dreijiiliriiir i'l/elits. in Mniial.^.^rfirift, 
188.5-S7; Ph. Bind), Stuiiirii ziir ^Ii/i/kJ.i. in .Muiiiilx- 
sehrift, 1S.H.5. pp. W> el seiy. Winler and WiiiLschc, iJii JihI. 
Litteeiitur srit AlisrhluKs ilrs Kminiis. 1«!)4, i. Wu et seq., 
488 (•( 8(1/.; W. Bacher, Ai.i. I'dl. .iiiinr. 1S99, iii. ,")03 et seq.; 
Immauuel Low. in Kraiiss. llrieehi■•^e}lr niid Lateinische 
■ Leh>m'6rtei: 1H99, ii. ti2U et sea; a. Mayljaum, Die Aettesteii 
Pliaiien in dcr Entwickelnng der Jud. Prcdiqt, Berlin, 1901. 
.1. sn. ,J. T. 

BEREZA (Cartuskaya Bereza) : Town in the 
<iistriet of Pruszhany, guvenimciit of Groduo. Rus- 
sia; situated on the river Jazelda, on the road be- 
tween Brest-Litovsk and Bobruisk. The Jewish 
population in 1890 was 850, out of a total of 2,625. 

Jews fli'st settled in Bereza in 1629, as is evident 
from a document registered by Sohjmon Michaile- 
vieli, superintendent of the Jewish congregation of 
Brest-Litovsk, at the city hall of that place, April 
18. 1680. In this document Grand Duke Sapieha 
(1.557-1633), hetman and chancellor of Lithuania, 
declares to his officials of Bereza and to his heirs 
that, as he desires that Jews shall .settle in Bereza, 
he grants them the privilege of buiUling there a 
house f)f prayer where they can hold their divine serv- 
ice undisturbed. They shall have the right to 
build houses and ornament them according to tlieir 
desire, and shall enjoy all the privileges granted to 
the Jewish inhabitants on his other estates, as Roz- 
liana and Kosov. All these rights are also to be 
granted by his heirs. After the signature of Leon 
Sapieha on the original document is added a confir- 
mation of the contents in the handwriting of his son, 
Cazimir Leo Sajiieha (1609-56). 

Bmi.iofiRAPnv: Al.lii Wilrnshni AreheridraHeheslioi Kimi- 
missii, V. 142; /.■..;.k(i/ i Xihlpisi, No. 78l ; Patniatnaiia 
Kiiiiin Uei)iliieiifhiii liuhernii iirt 1890. 

H. R. 

III.— 5. 

BEREZINO : Village of Russia, in the govern- 
ment of Minsk, having a population (1898) of 1,900, 
almost exclusively Jews (1,824). About 25 per cent 
of them are artisans and laborers, chiefly loaders. 
Twenty-four Jewish families are en gaged in garden- 
ing. The general economic condition is bad. LTpon 
the introduction (June 14, 1897) of the government 
monopoly in the wine trade, 99 Jewish families were 
left without means of subsistence; 1.55 families de- 
pended upon cliarity for fuel; 210 applied in 1898 
for charity during the Passover of that year; and 
the number of such applicants increases annually. 

n- «■ S. J. 

BERG: An independent duchy until 1815; at 
present jiart of the Prussian Rhine i)rovince. Jews 
settled here at an early period. In 1298 Count Wil- 
helm of Berg protected them against the hordes led 
by RiNDFLEisCH. At the time of the Black Death 
in 1349 many were killed by the Flagellants. Many 
of the Jews driven from Cologne settled in Berg. 
The rabbi of Cologne, "Pruno Soeskind." .settled at 
Deutz, others went to Siegburg, and still others to 
Mulheim-ou-the-Ruhr. A synagogue was at that 
time organized at Deutz, the cemetery being outside 
of the "Severiuthor" of Cologne until in 1629 the 
electoral government presented to the Jews a 

Even in early times a community had existed at 
Siegburg, wliich paid to the abbot a certjiin sum as 
protection money (Geleitrjeld). the Jews being also 
required to take part, like other citizens, in guarding 
the gates. The chief of the community acted as its 
judge, only criminal cases being brought before 
the abbot. The Jews of Siegburg were slain in 1287 
on the acctisation of having killed a boy, Johan- 
uekeu, who was afterward canonized bj'the Church. 
Often to their detriment the Jews of Siegburg aided 
the archbishop and the city of Cologne with money. 
In 1334 Archbishop Walrain killed Meyer of Sieg- 
burg and his son Joelmau. and confiscated their 

The ghetto anil synagogue at Ml'ilheiin lay in the 
lower part of the city, on the Rhine; the Jews bury- 
ing their dead at tirst in the cemetery at Cologne, and 
afterward at Deutz. Since 1774 they have had a ceme- 
tery of their own. The settlement at Kaisers- 
wcrth also dates back to an early period. During 
the "Soest quarrel " 1,445 horsemen from Cleves in- 
vaded Jliilheim and Deutz, plumlering and carrying 
off the richest Jews. About 1.400 Jews of Siegburg 
barely escaped annihilation, a gipsy woman having 
accused them of a murder. In 1588 tlie community 
of Deutz sutfered by fire. In 1583 they lied before 
the troops of Archbi.sbop Truchsess von Waldenburg 
(who tried to regain his diocese, from which he had 
been deposed) to Cologne; again, in 1631, before the 
Swedes, and were temporarily received back on pay- 
ment of large sums of money. In 1665 some stu- 
dents plundered the Jewish hiuises in Deutz. In the 
seventeenth centurj- the Jews of Siegburg were 
forced to entertain troojis contrary to the stipulations 
of their charter. A Jew, David, was comi)elled in 
1663 to pay the regular taxes, in adilition to the eight 
gold guldens, iiroteetion money, he was already pay- 
ing. The community of Deutz paid one-seventh of all 




the taxes : that of Mlilheim, as much as any one 
who owned three "moigen" of land. Lazarus van 
Gelderu becain<' court factor at the court of the 
priuiipality of Jlilich-Berg in 1737. In 1755 the Jews 
suffered by a violent earlliquakc, and in 1784 by the 
floods of "the Rhine, duriui; which the synagogue 
was destroyed. A new synagogue at Deutz was 
consecrated In 17SG, and one at Miilheim two years 
later. On the advent of the French anny all the 
restrictions placed upon the Jews, such as poll- 
ta.x and protection money, were abolished. In 1808 
there were 3.905 Jews at Diisseldorf, 1,2G4 at Co- 
logne, and 1,5.52 at Cleves. 

Rjibbi Stisskind. mentioned above, was succeeded 
bj- Vivis, well known from his opposition to the 
resolutions of the synod of Bingen, under Seligmann 
Bins Oppenheira, at the beginning of the fifteenth 
century. Vivis was also physician to the duke of 
Berg. The seat of the district rabbinate was trans- 
ferred from Deutz to Bonn in thesi.\teeuth century. 
At this time there also lived at Deutz the physicians 
Sander (who had permission to visit Cologne) and 
Solomon ben Isaac Joseph (1.560-1631). Thelatter's 
son, also a physician, died in 1657. In the seven- 
teenth century the physicians Judab Loeb ben Na- 
than (died 1670), Jacob ben David (died 1688), Jere- 
miah ben Solomon of Coblenz (died 1688), and a 
woman physician named Vi'igele (died 1731) lived at 
Deutz, as well as the scholars Kossmann Levi of 
Essen, and Moser. The latter w-as the son-in-law 
of Rabbi Judah Maehler of Cologne, and author of 
several works. 

Among the rabbis of Diisseldorf ma.y be mentioned 
Samson Levi Frohlich (1706-50), Jlordecai Halber- 
stadt (1751-69), Jacob Brandeis (1769-74); and 
Judah Loeb Scheuer (1779-1831). Isaac Bonem 
Rappoport was district rabbi. Jacob Kopenhagen 
wrote a small book on the floods of the Rhine in 

Bibliography; Rrlsch, In IsracUt, 187!), Nos. 4, 6-8 ; Wedell, 
Gcteh. OcrJudtn in DUsscklnrf, pp. W-»i. 
D. A. F. 

BEBGAMO : City in northern Italy. Here, as in 
other cities subject to the government of the Vene- 
tian republic, the right of residence was granted to 
Jews, who were chiefly engaged in money-lending. 
Documents relating to the Jews, and dating back 
to 1479, are preserved in the City Library and in the 
municipal archives. But Jews were certainly in 
Bergamo before that time. They are found in the 
large neighboring village, JIartincngo, whei-e they 
could own land and houses ("Archivio di Stato 
Veneto, Senato, Terra," re//. 16, curie 25). In 1.507 a 
decree was issued compelling Jews to wear a yellow 
girdle or a red hat. Neither in Bergamo, in Marli- 
nengo, nor in any other of the surrounding places 
are they known to have formed a congregation. 
They maj' have had a synagogue and a cemetery, 
but no traces of these remain. There are no longer 
any Jews at Bergamo. 

D. V. C. 

BERGEL, JOSEPH : Neo-Hebraic writer of tlie 
tirst part of the nineteenth century. He was a pri- 
vate teacher at Prossnitz, Moravia. In 1826 and 
1827, he published some articles and poems in the 
annual "Bikkure ha-'Ittim" (vi. 40, 50; vii. 3, 123, 

183, 135). The best of these are the articles, " Hash- 

'arat ha-Ncfesh " (The Immortality of the Soul) in 

vii. 3-12. and the poem '"Al Keber Abi" (On the 

Grave of My Father) in vii. 123. He translated a 

few of Confucius' sayings into Hebrew from the 


BIBLIOC.RAPHV : Steinschneider, Cat. BniU. nil. 197; Delitzsih, 
Zur Gesch iclite der JUdinctien Poesie, p. 1U9. 
s. I. Bei{. 

BEBGEL, JOSEPH : Juda?o-German writer, 
probably of the seventeenth century, He was the 
author of "Kin Schon G5ttlich Lied," a religious 
poem. It seems to have been printed at Prague in 
the seventeenth century as an addition to the poem 
"Jiidischer Stamm " by Joseph ben Judah Ileil- 
BiBLiOGRAPHT: Steinsohneider, Cat. Biidl. ool. 563. 

G. I. Ber. 


physician and author; born Sept. 3, 1803, at Pross- 
nitz, died 1885 at Kaposvar. He was well versed in 
rabbinical and modern Hebrew literature, and at- 
tempted to introduce a new meter into Hebrew 
poetry in a work he published under the title "Pirhe 
Leshou "Eber" (Hebrew songs). Gross- Kauizsa, 1873., 
In the German language he wrote; "Studien liber 
die Naturwissenschaftlichen Kenntuisse der Talmu- 
disten,"Leipsic, 1880 ; "Die Eheverhilltnisse der Al- 
ten Juden im Vergleich mit den Griechischen und RO- 
mischen," i'J. 1881 ; " Deri limmel und Seine Wunder, 
cine Archiiologische Studie nacli Alten Jiidischen 
Jlythografien," which was also published in Leipsic 
in the same year under the title "Jlythologie der 
Alten Ilebriier," 1882. His most important work is 
"DieMedizin der Talmudisteu " (Leipsic and Berlin, 
1885), with an appendi.x on anthropology as it is 
found in ancient Hebrew writings. These works 
are not very profound, but they bring togetlier a 
certain amount of useful information. Bergel also 
wrote "Geschichte der Juden in Ungarn," published 
in 1879 in Hungarian and German. 

BIBLIORRAPIIV: Lippe, BihUngraphischti' Lericrm, v. 1. ;: 
Kavseiimg, Jlhli.iclie Litteratur, p. 131 ; Revue Etmha 
Juirts, X. 2156, 267; Ha-Zefirah. 1885, No. 13. 

s. ■ P. Wi. 

BEBGEL, YOM-TOB : Merchant and com- 
munal worker of Gibraltar; born in 1813; died at 
Gibraltar Oct. 14, 1894. He was one of the wealth- 
iest and most respected merchants of the Gibraltar 
Jewish community, and for thirty years held the 
position of president of the Hebrew community. 
He rendered many communal services; reorganized 
the Hebrew Poor Fund when it was in a very jire- 
carious state; and as one of the trustees of the Jew- 
ish estates in Gibraltar acquired, by his efforts, val- 
uable possessions for the benefit of the poor among 
his coreligionists. Bergel was one of the first mem- 
bers of the Board of Sanitary Commission, a mem- 
ber of the Exchange Committee, and took an active 
part in the management of the Relief Fund at the 
time of the cholera epidemic in 1865. 

Bibliography: Jctvish Chronicle, Oct. 26, 1894. 

J. G. L. 

BEBGEB, EMILE DE : Austrian oculist and 
medical iiuthor; born at Vienna Aug. 1, 1855. He 
received his education at the University of Vienna. 




From 1883 to 1887 he was lecturer at the University 
of Gratz, aud from 1890 to 1896 professor of opli- 
thahnology at Paris. Bcrger, who, in 1883, was the 
inventor of an ophthalmoscope having an automatic 
action of two Rekoss disks, won the Prix Montyon 
in 1888, and the Prix Remusatiu 1893, for researches 
in this line of work. He was also the president of 
the ophthalmic congress held in Paris in 1894. 

Berger is the author of: " Gehirn und Retina der 
Authropciiden," 1878; "Der Hornhautspiegel," 1886; 
'■ Krankheiteu der Keilbeinhiihle und des Siebbeiu- 
laliyrinthes," 1886; "Beitritge zur Anatomic des 
Auges, " 1887; "C'hirurgie des Sinus Sphenoidalis," 
1800; ■■ Les Maladies des Yeux dans Leurs Rapports 
iivec la Patliologie Generale," 1893. 

BlBi.iiiGR.VPHY: Rcmte BibUn(iraijhi<iitcs des jyatahiliti'is 
Fntnmixcs ContemiXjraUtcs, ill. 
s. E. Ms. 

BERGER, ERNST : Austrian painter ; brother 
:if the oculist Baron Emile Berger; born at Vienna 
Jan. 3, 18.57 ; educated at the gymnasium, the com- 
mercial high school, and in 1874 at the Academy of 
.4.rts of his native town. Though intended by his 
father for a commercial career, he soon turned to the 
itudy of painting. He became the pupil of Pro- 
fessor Eisenmenger and the painter Hans Makart. 
Under the hitter's direction Berger painted the pic- 
tures " Fondaco de' Tiirchi in Venedig," exhibited 
It the Vienna Klinstlerhaus in 1883; "Burial of 
Sarah in the Cave of Machpelah"; and"Rebckah 
Leaving Her Father's House." Since 1883 Berger 
lias lived aud worked in Munich. His chief pro- 
luctions are "Traum voin Jungbrunnen," 1886, 
which obtained the silver medal at the Melbourne 
Exhiljition, and " Altvenetianische Brunnenweihe," 

Berger is also the author of " Beitritge zur Ent- 
ivicklungs-Geschichte der Maltechnik," 1893-97; 
'Katechismus der Farbenlehre," 1898; and the arti- 
cles "Van Eyck's Technik," in "Zeit. fiir Bildende 
Kunst." 189.5, and "Pflegeder Bilderin Gemitldegal- 
ericu," in "Kunst fiir Alle," x., etc. 

Bibliography : AlUlcinciiics Kllnstlcrlcrikon, s.v. 


BERGER, OSCAR: German electrotherapist 
uid medical author ; born at Miinsterberg, Silesia, 
!Jov. 34, 1844; died at Ober-Salzbrunn, Silesia. 
Inly 19, 1885. He was educated at the gymnasium 
if his native town aud at the universities of Berlin, 
^'iemia, and Breslau, receiving his degree as doctor 
if medicine in 18G7. In 1869 he engaged in practise 
19 a physician in Breslau, making electrotherapy his 
specialty. In 1873 he became privat-docent at the 
L^niversity of Breslau, being the first at that institu- 
;ion to lecture on nervous diseases. Five years later 
ic was elected assistant professor. lu 1877 he was 
ippointed chief consulting physician and medical 
nspector of the Breslau poorhouse. 

Berger made a special study of neuralgia of the 
oints, of the relation of neuralgia to diabetes and 
lephritis, of neuralgia of the face and of the geni- 
als, of the relation of syphilis to tabes, and (with 
leidenheim) of hypnotism. 

A very prolific writer, he contributed many articles 
m neurology and electrotherapy to technical jour- 
lals, and was one of the editors of the "Neurolo- 

gisches Centralblatt." For Eulenburg's "Encyklo- 
piidie der Gesammten Heilkunde" he also wrote 
many articles, including "Epilepsie," " Besehafti- 
gungsneurosen," "Paralysis Agitans," "Tetanic," 
etc. His best-known works are "Die Liihmung 
desNervus Thoracicus Longus," Breslau, 1873; and 
"Zur Lokalisatiou der Corticalen Sehsphilre beim 
Menschen," Breslau, 1885. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY : Hirscl], BiiiurnphiKrliis Lvxiknn, s.v., Vienna, 
1884; PaRel, Biimraphiiclicx Lexikuii, s.v., Vienna. I'JOl. 

>^- F. T. H. 

BERGER, PHILIPPE : Christian professor of 
Hebrew; member of the Academic des Inscriptions 
at Belles-Letties; born at Beaucourt, Haut-Rhin, 
September, 1846; brother of Samuel Berger. Grad- 
uating at the University of Strasburg, he settled in 
Paris, where he became professor of Hebrew in the 
Faculte de Theologie Protestante (now a part of the 
University of Paris), and sublilirarian of the Insti- 
tut de France. 

Disciple and intimate friend of Renan, whom he 
succeeded in the chair of Hebrew at the College de 
France, Berger devoted himself to the study of 
Semitic epigraphy, for which his friend and master 
had a predilection. He collaborated in tlie redaction 
of the "Corpus Inscriptionum Semiticarum," pub- 
lislied by the Academic. 

Among Berger's numerous writings two are of 
special interest for Jewish scholars: (1) "L'Ecriture 
des Inscriptions Semitiques," Paris, 1880; and (3) 
"Essai sur la Signification Historiquc des Noms des 
Patriarches Hebreux," Paris, 1887. 
BiBLiOGRAPilY: La Grande EncychipnUc, vl. 1506. 

T. I. Bk. 

BERGilR, SAMUEL: French professor of 
Protestant theology ; secretary and librarian of the 
Faculte de Theologie Protestante, Paris; born at 
Beaucourt, Haut-Rhin, May 3, 1843; brother of 
Philippe Bergf-r. He attended the lectures on liter- 
ature at the Sorbonne, and studied theology at the 
University of Strasburg, whence he graduated. 
Among Berger's writings the following are interest- 
ing for the study of the Bible: (1) "La Bible an 
XVI. Sif'cle; Etude sur I'Origiue de la Critique," 
Paris, 1879; (3)"De Glossariis Biblicis Quibusdam 
Medii ^Evi," Paris, 1879; (3) "La Bible Fram^aise 
au Moyen Age ; Etudes snr les Anciennes Versions de 
la Bible Ecrites en Prose de la Langued'Oil," Paris, 
1884; (4) "Histoire de la Vulgata," Paris, 1893. 
Bibliography: La Grande Enciieh)i)t<Ue, vl. ;Wfi. 

T. I. Bu. 

BERGSON, MICHAEL: Musician; born in 
Warsaw 1818; died at Loudon iMarch 9, 1898. He 
was a member of an eminent Jewish family of War- 
saw, with which city he always preserved connec- 
tion. Early in life he became a pupil of Chopin, 
und afterward settled in Geneva, where he became 
professor and later on principal of the Conserva- 
toire de Musitiue. Professor Bergson resided for 
the greater part of his working life in Switzerland, 
and in the principal cities of France and Italy ; but the 
last twenty-five years of his life he spent in London. 
He was, as a pianist, one of the personal inheritors 
of the Chopin tradition ; but he also attained to some 
distinction as a composer, many of his productions 




t'xhiliiting inventive power, taste, and charm. He 
■R-rote two operas: "Louisa de Montfort " ami "Sal- 
vator Rosa." Among liis many hundreds of songs, 
the "Two Hearts." the "Better World." and the 
"Serenade Moresque," as well as tlie clever piano- 
forte sketch, "A Storm on the Lagoons." were very 
widely known and admired. His more technical 
productions, too, liave received much commenda- 
tion, especially the " Douze Grandes Etudes," op. 
63. and the " Ec-ole du Mecanisme." op. 65. Mention 
should also be made of his "Flute vSonata," of his 
"Concert Symphonique," and his "Polonaise He- 
roique." due of his best -known pieces is the " Scena 
ed Aria" for clarinet, played by militsfry bands 
throughout the world. 
Bibliography: Jewish Chrimich and Jtiii.«7i TToi/rf. March 

J. G. L. 

BEKGTHEIL, JONAS: Pioneer of Natal, 
South Africa; born in England about 1815; died 
1902 ; emigrated to South Africa about 1844, at a time 
when the resources of the country were scarcely 
known, and the mode of living extremely primitive. 
Settling among the Boers as a farmer, Bergtheil 
was treated by them with religious tolerance. He 
served in their government as a member of the Leg- 
islative Council from 1855 for eleven years, being 
four times reelected and resigning office only on his 
return to England iii 1866. During a visit to Eng- 
land in 1847, he advocated, unsuccessfully, emigra- 
tion to the Cape; then, passing to Germany, his 
arguments were more successful, and he took with 
him forty families, who founded a settlement in 
"Xew Germany," which trained some excellent col- 
onists. Bergtheil was a large landowner in Cape 
Colony, possessing at one time nearly 200.000 acres, 
when land was estimated at the rate of threepence 
an acre. 

Returning to England in 1866, Bergtheil identified 
himself with the communal institutions in London, 
serving as warden of the Bayswater Synagogue and 
as president of the Bayswater Jewish schools, retir- 
ing from the latter in 1900. 
Bibliography : Jewish Oironicle, Sept. 7, 1900, 

.T. G. L. 

BERI AH : 1 . A son of Asher, representing, 
however, not an individual, but a clan (Gen. xlvi. 
17; Xum. xxvi. 44, 46). A member of the clan was 
called a Beriite (Xum. xxvi. 44). The name is also 
foimd in the genealogical list. I Chron. vii. 30, 31. 

2. A clan of Benjamin (I Chron. viii. 13). 

3. A clan of Ephraim (I Chron. vii. 21-28). The 
chronicler here adds an explanation of the name, 
"because it went evil with his [lather's] house." 
It has been supposed by some (Bertheau, Commen- 
tary, adloc.) that Xos. 2 and 3 are identical, and that 
Beriah of Benjamin was associated with Ephraim 
because of its services to that tribe. 

4. A Levite of the Gershon line (I Chron. xxiii. 
10, 11). 

o. o. n. L. 

World of Creation) : Cabalistic expression for the sec- 
ond of the four celestial worlds of the Cabala, inter- 
mediate between the World of Emanation (Azilut) 

and the World of Formation (Yezir.^h), the third 
world, that of the angels. It is, accordingly, of the 
purest essence and without admixture of matter. 

Bibliography: Joel, Di( Beligionsphilosttphie des Sohar. 

pp. •Mi. 27!< t ( »<j. 


BERIT MILAH. See CiRcrMCisios. 

IBN ABU AL-HASAN (called Al-Isra'ili al- 
Iskandari) : Physician and author ; lived prob- 
ably in the tiret half of the thirteenth century, and 
wrote for an emir (Mansur?) a treatise on hygiene 
iu ten chapters, called in the preface: ni'XpDSs 

n'jiaijx nnvi>N can 's rr'jDnokx. There is a copy 

of this medical work in manuscript in the Imperial 
Library of Berlin, and Steiuschueider has given an 
exhaustive description of it in his "Catalogue." 
Steinschneider rejects the identification of Berkamani 
with one Jefet b. Sa'id of the twelfth century; 
though at one time he held him to be the piobable 
author of a respousum (naiC'D) in Codex Peters- 
burg 625 (compare Xeubauer. " Aus der Petersburger 
Bibliothek," 1866, pp. 25, 118, note xxi.). In the 
preface to this work it is stated that the treatise was 
compiled at the request of an Alexandrian states- 
man, whose name is conjectured to be either Al- < 
JIuhsin or Al-Mansur, and to whose personality ref- ; 
ereuce is made on page 91b of the manuscript. The 1 
fact that he mentions no earlier author than Maimon- 
ides, whom he calls '3C"ipi'S "Dm (Moses of Cor 
dova), makes the tentative date, above given, all the 
more probable. It would seem from his familiarity 
with medical literature that he was a physician. 

Bibliography: Steinschneider, Pulemischc ton? Jjxi!. , 
tifche Littratur. pp. SHI, SI, note 2, c, Leii>sic, 18,, : idem, 
Hebr. BihI. xxi. St, 8.5: idem, Hchr. I'llicrs. p. iU2. note 
3tH: VcfzeichiUA-f der Hehriiischen HamUchriftcii [<icr 
Ki'iniaUeheii Bihliutlich zu Berlin], ii. 103-104, 137: xiil. 
No. 230. 
G. G. A. K. 



BERKOVITS, LAJOS: Hungarian violinist; 
born at Budapest iu 1874. Here he passed through 
the schools and finished his musical education. He 
was graduated from the Xational Academy of 
Music, where his teachei's were Jeno Hubay and 
David Popper. In 1895 he went to Paris, where he 
entered the celebrated Lamoureux orchestra as first 
violinist, iu which capacity he made a tour through 
England. As a soloist his appearances were frequent 
and invariably successful. In 1896 he received an 
engagement in the royal orchestra of the opera at 
Budapest, and he is still a member of that body as 
well as of the well-known Grunfeld quartet. 

Bibliography : Pallas Lexikon ; PcMcr Lloud, 1896, 
s. 5I. W. 

BERKOWICZ, JOSEF : Officer iu the Polish 
army; sou of Colonel Bkukk (Berko). He took part 
in the battle of Kock, in 1809. in which his father 
was killed. When he quitted the military service in 
1815, he was appointed forester of the government 
forests of Troki. and in 1826 chief forester of the 
district of Bielsk. 

'During the Polish revolution of 1830 Berkowicz 
served under General Rozycky as chief of squadron 




if the Fifth Regiment, and at the end of the war lie 
emoved to Besan^'ou, Fi-auce. Soon after lie set- 
led perniauently in England, where he wrote his 
lovel, "Stanislaus, or the Polish Lancer in the Suite 
if Napoleon fiom the Island of Elba," which was 
iiiblisiicd in 1840 by his family after his death, 
le left two sous. Leon and Josef, and his widow, 
irlio retvirned to France, where she died in poverty. 

liBi.iiHiR.vPMT : A. Kraushar, Bioiirafja Bcrka i Jcgn Sunn, 
in Siriic, 1H89; S. Orgelbrand, Encyclnpccija Pou'szccluia, 
Waisiiw, ISHS, 11., s.r. 

II. R. 

SLIAHU: Russian Hebrew scholar; born July 23, 
S03; died at Wilua May 11, 1879. He is the author 
f the following works devoted to the stud}' of the 
"arguni Onkelos: (1) "'OtehOr," Wilna, 1843; (2) 
Lehem we-Simlah," 2 vols,, ib. 1850-55; (3) "Hali- 
ot Senialot," supplement to vol. ii., ib. 1874; (4) 
Abne Ziou," ib. 1877, addenda to Nathan Adler's 
omnieutary on Onkelos. 

Beikowitz's contributions to the stud}' of the 
)nkelos are very valuable, their merit being ac- 
iDowledged by such scholars as Berliner and other 
pecialists on the Targum. He also contributed to 
he Hebrew periodicals "Pirhe Zafon," "Ha-Kar- 
lel," "Ozar Hokinah," and "Ha-Maggid." 

iinLior.RAPHY: Fuenn, Kcncnet Yisracl, p. 174; Berliner, 
Tartiuin Onkclas, p. 197; H. N. Steinsctineider, 'Ir Wilna. 
h. <i, H. R. 

BERKOWITZ, HENRY : Russian-English 
iliuatiir; born at Warsaw in 1816; died in Gravcs- 
nd April 5, 1891. He came to London in 1841, and 
ttracting the notice of Chief Rabbi Adler, he was 
inde a member of the hitter's household. He aftcr- 
I'ard opened a school at Gravesend, and by liis cn- 
rgy and zeal gradually obtarined for it an established 
losition and reputation. Among his scholars were 
limbered some of the most prominent men in the 
cinunuuity. Berkowitz was held in high esteem in 
on-Jewish circles in Gravesend, made friends among 
11 classes and creeds, and local honors were be- 
towcd on him in abundance, among them that of 
ustice of the peace, until, in 1887, he was elected 
layer of Gravesend. He was concerned in almost 
very philanthropic movement of the town. 

llBLIOfiRAPiiY: Jewish Chrouiclc, April, 1891. 
.1. G. L. 

BERKOWITZ, HENRY: American rabbi; 
lorii at Pittsburg, Pa., .March 18, 1857. He was 
ducated at the Central High School of his native 
ity, at Cornell University, and at the Hebrew Union 
.'oUege of Cincinnati, O. Berkowitz has held the 
losition of rabbi of the Sha'are Shamayim congrega- 
ion in Mobile. Ala., 1883-88; of the B'nai Jehnda 
ongregation in Kansas City, Mo.. 1888-92; and of 
lieRodeph Shalom congregation, Philadelphia, Pa., 
incc 1892. He is the founder and chancellor of the 
Ewisii Cii.vt T.\UQUA Society since 1893, one of 
he board of governors of the Hebrew U^nion Col- 
?ge, and a member of the publication committee of 
he Jewish Publication Society. He is a member of 
he first or pioneer class of Jewish ministers that 
;raduated from the Hebrew Union College. The 
mblished works of Berkowitz are as follows: 

"Bible Ethics," 1883; "First Union Hebrew Read- 
er" and "Second Union Hebrew Reader," 1883; 
"Judaism and the Social Question," 1888; "The 
Pulpit Jlessagc." 1892; "The Open Bible." 1896— 
a guide to a choice of reading from the Old Testa- 
ment, taking account of the critical standpoint; 
"Kiddush: Sabbath Sentiment in the Home," illus- 
trated, 1898. Berkowitz has contributed many 
papers to various Jewish and secular journals. 

A. S. 

diutiir and composer; burn at Amsterdam May 21, 
1817; died there Jan. 10, 1870. He wrote nine 
operas, seven ballets, an oratorio ("Moses auf 
Nebo "), a symphony, a cantata, a mass, several 
overtures, chamber-music, etc. Of these his sym- 
phony, performed by Spohr at Cassel, 1857, is un- 
doubtedly his best work. Berlijn was a skilful con- 
trapuntist, and his compositions are distinguished 
by grace and brilliancy, though their popularity 
Wiis contined principally to Holland. 

During his long service as conductor at the Royal 
Theater at Amsterdam, he was held in high regard 
by the king, who in 1800 bestowed upon him the 
decoration of the order of merit of the king of Hol- 
land. In addition to this he received the gold medal 
formeritof the king of the Belgians (1845), and simi- 
lar decorations from the kings of Denmark (1845). 
Greece (1840), and Sweden (1848), the emperor of 
Austria (1848), Prince Frederick of the Netherlands 
(18.58), and the grand dukes of Saxe-Coburg (1804) 
and Nassau. Berlijn was also a member of the St. 
Cecilia Society of Rome, of the Archcological So- 
ciety of Athens, etc. 

BIBI.IOORAPHT : Balier, Dirt, of Musicians, New York, 1900; 
Mendel, MiLiikali-iiliai Konmrsations-Lexikon. 
s. J. So. 

BERLIN ; Capital of Prussia and of the German 

empire. Though mentioned as early as the year 
1225. it was an unimiiortant place during the whole 
of the Middle Ages. Not much is known of the Jews 
there during that period, yet there is enough to 
show that they shared the same fate as their core- 
ligionists of that time in other cities and countries. 
At the beginning of the fourteenth century the 
" Reichsgriilin " (countess of the empire) A.gnes 
IMCsented the Jews of Berlin to the magistrate. 
They were expelled during the Black Death, and 
their synagogue was given to a Christian citizen 
(1350); but in accordance with the spirit of the Mid- 
dle Ages they were allowed to return in 1354. They 
were not, however, permitted to have a public syn- 
agogue, but had to content themselves fora number 
of years with worshiping in private houses. There 
is no further mention of the Jews until the begin- 
ning of the sixteenth century. In 1509 the Jews of 
the neighboring Bernau were accused of desecrating 
the host, and thirty-eight of them, alleged to have 
committed the crime, were publicly burned by order 
of the elector Joachim I. (July 19, 1510). Only two 
acceiited baptism, and these were beheaded, the sen- 
tence of death at the stake having been commuted 
to this as "an act of grace." As the usual eonse- 
(im-nceof such occurrences, the Jews generally were 
expelled; but they apparently were received again 
within a very short time, for in the fourth decade 




of that century tlie magistrate again complained of 
them. Ahoutthe same time, the court Jew Lippold, 
favorite of the elector Joachim II.. became especially 
Important, he having been entrusted by the latter 
•with the superintendence of all Jewish affairs. 
"When Joachim died suddenly (1571), his successor, 
Johaun Georg, accused Lippold of liaving murdered 
the elector. Lippold's admissions on the rack, and 
the books on magic found in his possession, furnished 
to his enemies sufficient evidence to procure his con- 
demnation and execution (Jan. 28, 1573). Again an 
expulsion of the Jews followed. 

The real history of the Jewish community of Ber- 
lin does not begin until the year 1671. When the 
Jews were expelled (1670) from Vienna, under Em- 
peror Leopold I., the great elector, who previously 
had shown his unprejudiced attitude toward the 
Jews by admitting two Jewish students to the Uni- 
versity of Frankfort -on-the-Oder (See Tobias MosE- 
NiDEs), signified 
his willingness 
to receive a 
number of Jew- 
ish families into 
his dominions, 
and ordered his 
resident at Vi- 
enna, Andreas 
Neumann, to 
open negotia- 
tions with the 
Jews of that 
city. The edict 
of admission 
was published 
May 21, 1671. 
The emigrants 
could freely en- 
gage in com- 
merce; but 
usury was for- 
bidden. They were exempt from tolls in traveling, 
but had to pay a yearly protection tax of eight thalers 
per family, and one gold florin for' every mar- 
riage. In civil cases they were to be 
The Great judged by the mayor, in criminal 

Elector, cases by the elector. They were 
not permitted to have a public syn- 
agogue. These privileges were at first granted for 
a period of twenty years. A few months later the 
Austrian fugitives arrived at Berlin and went to 
their quarters near the city walls. As the court 
Jew Israel Aaron was afraid of the competition of 
the immigrants, he succeeded in having a decree is- 
sued. Sept. 6. 1671, under which no Jews would be 
received in Berlin except after a careful investiga- 
tion into their financial condition. Instead of the 
anticipated number of letters of protection, one com- 
mon writ of privileges was issued to the Veil and 
Eiess families, in which they were expressly for- 
bidden to compete with Aaron. That day (Sept. 
10, 1671) is the birthday of the Jewish commu- 
nit}- of Berlin. In 1673 a cemetery was bought 
for the new comnnmity, and in 1676 a burial 
society was founded under the name "Gemiluss 

Exterior of the Oki Synagotrue, Berlin. 

(AfWr 3u en^avinp.) 

The fear of competition forced the new immigrants 
to protect themselves against the influx of other 
Jews, whom they attempted to keep away by 
threats of excommunication. Though they were 
forbidden to put this measure into force, the author- 
ities agreed to come to them for information con- 
cerning every new Immigrant, the signers to such a 
reference being then held responsible for the person 
named. This measure did not prevent many " un- 
vergleitete Juden " (Jews having no "Geleiisbrief," 
or residence permit) from entering Berlin surrepti- 
tiously, thus furnishing cause for endless legislation 
in the electorate of Brandenburg; and 
Privileges the evil was not wholly remedied even 
Granted, liy stringent measures. The great 
elector faithfully kept his promise to 
protect the Jews. On .Ian. 3, 1676, a decree was 
issued iu which occurred the following: "die Juden 
in Berlin in ihren Fn-yheilen und Privilegieu nicl'.t zu 

turbireu, uuch 
zu kriiuken.son- 
dern sie vicl- 
m e h r d a Ij e y 
geblireud zu 
schiitzen" mot 
to disturb 'r 
worry the Ji'.vs 
of Berlin iu their 
grants and priv- 
ileges, but to 
protect them 
properly). But 
when, nine years 
later, an accuser, 
Bendix Levi, 
rose out of the 
midst of the 
Jew-s them- 
selves, making 
the most violent 
against them, he gained the ear of the great electMi. 
who ordered that every Jew should give bouds t<' 
the amount of 1,000 thalers (Sept. 8, 1685). 

The great elector died in 168S, and was succeeded 
by the elector Frederick III., who became king of 
Prussia Jan. 18, 1701. Even in swearing to the 
coronation oath the council brought up complaints 
against the .lews. As the twenty years f<u' which 
the jirivileges of 1671 were granted were di-awing to 
a close, Frederick instituted a commission to examine 
the letters of protection (May, 1688), before which 
every Jew had to appear, and to receive confirma- 
tion of his privileges on payment of a certain tax. 
Most stringent measures were taken against the 
"unvergleitete Juden," but- all to no avail. A spe- 
cial commission was instituted to determine the 
rights of the Jews (Jan. 24, 1700). The number of 
.lewish families for the whole electorate was fixed 
at fifty. Instead of the per.'ional protection-tax 
(eight thalers). the whole community was taxed in a 
yearly sum of 3,000 thalers: and a poll-tax was in- 
stituted. Another decree was issued (Dec. 7, 1700), 
which revoked the poll-tax, fixed the protection- 
money at 1.000 ducats, and placed some restrictions 
upon commerce. At the request of the shopkeepers' 




gild, for Instance, Jews were forbidden to keep pub- 
lic shops and stalls. A report on the execution of 
this measure, however, says : " 1st leyder nicht eiu 
Buchstabe von dieser heylsamen Verordnung in 
Acht genommen worden " (Unfortunately not a jot 
of this wholesome measure received an}' heed). 
Other restrictious followed. Peddling had been for- 
bidden (Aug. 17, 1692), and now also living in vil- 
lages (Oct. 16, 1706). 

Aversion to the Jews began to show itself also in 
other matters. Franz Wentzel brought forward the 
accusation that 
the Jews during 
the 'Alenu 
prayer jumped up 
and spat in deri- 
sion of Je.sus. In 
consequence a se- 
vere edict was is- 
sued against the 
praj-er in Septem- 
ber of the year 
1700. An investi- 
gation was insti- 
tuted, to which 
delegates of the 
Jews were called, 
and as a result 
there was issued, 
Aug. 28, 1703, the 
"Edict wegen des 
J u d e n g e b e t h s 
'Aleuu, und das 
sie einige Worte 
auslasseu, nicht 
ausspej-en, noch 
darbey hinweg- 
springen sollen " 
(Edict concerning 
the Jews' prayer 
'Alenu, and that 
they shall leave 
out some words, 
shall not spit nor 
jump up during 
its recital). This 
decree was often 
renewed. Accord- 
ing to it the 
prayer was al- 
lowed oulj- to be said in the synagogue and in a 
loud voice; and a Christian ofticial was appointed 
to see that this injunction was carried out. It was 
only after many years that the degree 

'Alenu was revoked, at the instance of Closes 

Prayer. Mendelssohn. About the same time ap- 
peared Johann Andreas Eiscnmenger's 
book, "Das Entdeckte Judenthum" (Frankfort -on- 
the-Main, 1700). Owing to the efforts of the Jews 
the book was forbidden by Emperor Leopold I., and 
continued under that ban, in spite of the repeated 
objections of the Prussian king Frederick I., who 
thereupon had it reprinted at Berlin in 1711. 

In 1708 a standing commission (which had charge 
of Jewish affairs until 17.50) was instituted, the 
Jews themselves taking only a very small part iu 

their own government. The " elders " — most of 
whom were chosen by the community for a period 
of three years, subject to confirmation by the gov- 
ernment, though some were nominated for life — 
supervised mainly the collection of the ta.xcsand the 
carrying out of the regulations pertaining thereto. 
Among the elders at the beginning of the eighteenth 
century were Jost Liebmaun and Marcus ]\Iaguus. 
Personal enmity between these two grew into a 
communal quarrel which divided the Jews into two 
camps and was attended with dire results. Lieb- 
maun, who mar- 
ried the widow of 
Israel Aaron, suc- 
ceeded the latter 
in his position at 
court also, and ac- 
quired a large for- 
tune by furnish- 
ing diamonds. 
After Aaron's 
death the ai)])oint- 
ment was con- 
ferred upon his 
widow. She 
gained the favor 
of the king, who 
placed her in a 
po.sition entirely 
independent of the 
Jewish commu- 
nity .signifying his 
esteem by jiresent- 
ing her with a 
gold chain. While, 
however, the Lieb- 
mann family en- 
joyed the favor of 
the king, Magnus 
was the special 
favorite of the 
crown iirince. The 
latent disharmony 
between the twf) 
families became 
a p p a r e n t at a 
trifling occurrence 
during worship. 
Marcus Magnus 
insisting tliat Lieb- 
maun had offended him. A bitter lawsuit re- 
sulted which lasted for two years, and was ended 
only by a royal order (May 7, 1710) commanding both 
parties, under pain of heavy punishment, to meet 
henceforth peacefully and quietly (" bey Vei'meidmig 
eruster Bestrafung hiuf uhro f riedtlich und ruhig sich 
zu begegneu"). The quarrel. how- 
Family ever, soon became a couuuuual matter, 
Quarrels, occasion for dispute being found in the 
conditions of worship. It has already 
been mentioned that the Jews had never been permit- 
ted to have a public synagogue, the services being 
held in private houses. One of these was iu the house 
of Veit and Riess, But Liebmann also insisted on 
having a synagogue and a bet hamidrash ; and his 
nephew and son-in-law, Aaron Benjamin Wolf, was 

Interior of the Old Synagogue, Berlin. 

(After an tngraiing.) 




appointed rabbi. In 1684 Liebmann's synagogue 
■was declared to be the onlj' ofticial one. Neverthe- 
less, the synagogue of Veit and Ricss continued, and 
in 169-1 was even officially recognized. In order to 
prevent tlie undesirable consequences of such a split. 
and more especially to injure Liebmann's widow, 
Marcus Magnus insisted on the necessity of a com- 
mon public synagogue. The widow of course ob- 
jected; but, in spite of her protests and of all the 
quarrels and intrigues of both parties, it was resolved 
to build the synagogue ; aud the corner-stone — in a 
cavity of which was placed a prayer for the royal 
faniify, enclosed in a small copper box— was laid 
lyar 3, 5473 (May 9, 1T12). On New- Year's Day, 
1714, the synagogue was solemnly dedicated in the 
presence of the king and his court ; and for many 
years thereafter 
it was considered 
the most beauti- 
ful building of 
its kind in Eu- 

Under the new 
king, FVederick 
'William I., in- 
ternal improve- 
ment in com- 
munal affairs 
kept pace with 
external better- 
ment. On Ma3' 
20, 1714, the king 
issued a decree, 
for which the 
Jews paid 8,000 
thalers, revoking 
that of 1700. 
The Jews were 
again permitted 
to keep public 
shops and to ask 
a higher rate of 
interest ; and it 
was made easier 
for them to en- 
gage in trade. 

Each privilege was extended to the first child; for 
the second and third a certain svim had to be paid 
accoi'ding to the financial ability of the parents. The 

merchant gild protested as usual 
Under against the amelioration of the con- 
Frederick dition of the Jews. A new com- 
'William I. mission, which was instituted Nov. 

29, 1717, tried to introduce some re- 
strictions, among them the prohibition against 
keeping ]iublic shops. As the Jews protested, tliese 
restrictions were not carried into effect, and the com- 
mission was dissolved. Thereupon the merchant 
gild of Berlin revenged itself by introducing into its 
by-laws of 1716 the following malicious paragraph: 
"Alldieweil die Kauffmannsgi'ildeaus ehrliclien und 
redlichen Leuten zusammengesetzet, also soil kein 
Jude. strhfbarer Todtscliliiger, Gotteslilsterer, Mor- 
der. Dieb. Ehebrecher, Meineidiger, oder der sonst 
mit ijffentlichen groben Lastern und Siinden be- 
flecket und behaftet, in unsererGi'ildenicht gelitten, 

Plan of the Interior of the Synagogue in Lindenstrasse, Berlin. 

sondern davon ganzlich ausgeschlossen sein und 
bleiben" (Since the merchant gild is composed of 
honest, upright people, therefore no Jew, punishable 
homicide, blasphemer, murderer, thief, adulterer, 
perjurer, or any one else who is otherwise spotted 
and stained with manifest heinous vices and sins, 
shall be suffered in our gild, but shall be and remain 
entirely excluded). In 1721 a curious occurrence 
roused the especial anger of the king against the 
JeW'S. In that year the purveyor for the roj'al mint. 
Levin Veit, who had been considered a verj' rich 
man, died, leaving not only no property whatever, 
but a debt of 100.000 thalers to the royal mint. The 
king held the whole Jewish community of Berlin 
responsible for the disappearance of the money, and 
revenged himself in a very peculiar way. On Aug. 

15 all the Jews 
of Berlin were 
summoned to the 
which was sur- 
rovmded by sol- 
diers, and were 
placed under the 
ban by the offici- 
ating r.ibbi, Mi- 
chael Hasid, in 
presence of the 
court preacher 

On SlaVch 16, 
1722 (and in a 
revised form on 
new "Aeltesten- 
reglenieut" (Con- 
stitution of the 
Jewish Com- 
mimity) was is- 
sued, wliich was 
intended to do 
away with the 
evils that had be- 
come apparent in 
tlie administra- 
tion of the com- 
munity, and which, in order to bebro\ight home more 
thoroughly, was to be read every year in the syna- 
gogue. Under this constitution the administration 
consisted of two permanent chief elders, five ciders, 
four treasurers, and four superintendents of the poor, 
and assistants ; new officers were to be elected every 
three years by seven men chosen by lot from among 
the community. The committee were to meet every 
week in the room of the elders, and to keep the min- 
utes of their proceedings; resolutions, passed by 
them, becoming law by a majority vote. The ex- 
clusion of a member of the community from the 
Passover was made dependent on the unanimous 
vote of the committee ; the ban could be pronounced 
only with the consent of the rabbi; aud both of 
these measures were to be subject to ratification by 
the Jews' commission. The elders were held re- 
sponsible with their own money for the proper col- 
lection of the taxes, but could proceed against delin- 
quent pa3-ers. Every year the entire board had to 




report to a committee of five chosen by the commu- 
nity. The college of rabbis was to consist of a chief 
rabbi, with the title pT n'^ 3S. a vice-rabbi (C'Kl 
I'T n'3). anil two or three assessors. Other taxes 
were soon added to the existing ones ; e.g. , on pawn- 
shops, and calendar mone}' for the Royal Society 
of Science, and marriage licenses. The income 
from the last was paid into the treasury from 
which enlisted men received their pay, and its 
amount (4,800 thalers a year) soon became a perma- 
nent tax upon the whole community. A new decree 
was contemplated in 1727, to contain various re- 
strictions on trade and commerce: but as the .Jews 
protested against it, it was abandoned. After 
lengthy discussions with them there appeared, Sept. 
29, 1730, the "Generalprivilegium und Reglement. 
wie es wegen der Juden in seiner Koniglichcn Maje- 
stiltLanden zu halten " (General privilege and regu- 
lations to be observed concerning the Jews in his Ma- 
jesty's dominions). The number of Jewish families 

in Berlin was limited to 120, but 

"General- they soon numbered 180. A royal 

privi- order that appeared suddenly, April 

legium," 26. 17.S7, commanded the families in 

1730. excess to depart; the king insisting on 

the measure in spite of all the protests 
of the imfortunate ones and of some of the authori- 
ties. He even declared that he would rather lose 
the remaining Jewish families together with their 
yearlj' tax of 20.000 thalers than permit the ruinous 
oppression of his subjects. 

The precarious condition of the Jews appeared 
also in other directions. When the soldiers com- 
plained of the filthy barracks that had been assigned 
to them, the .Jews were forced to give up to them 
their own rented houses and to move into the bar- 
racks at a rental arbitrarily fixed by the authorities 
(Oct., 1737). In the same year the electoral cham- 
ber passed new regulations for the Jews of Berlin, 
which contained more stringent mea.sures. having 
in view the gradual diminution and ultimate extinc- 
tion of the community; the death of Frederick Will- 
iam I. (May 31, 1740) prevented their being put into 

The condition of the Jews was not improved under 
his successor, Frederick the Great (1740-86) ; indeed, 
in many respects it grew worse. The " philosopher 
on the throne " showed, even then, that a philosoph- 
ical and liberal view of the world is not a sufficient 
protection against prejudice, when Jews arc in ques- 
tion. In 1747 he limited the right of residence to 

one child of every familj', and decreed 
Frederick that every Jew who became bankrupt 
the Great, should lose his right to protection. 

An atteni|)t to determine the rights of 
the Jews in general was undertaken on the advice 
of the fiscal-general Uhden. The Jews were divided 
into "ordinary" and "extraordinary" Jews. The 
former after death could be succeeded in their rights 
and privileges by their first-born child (either son or 
daughter); the remaining children, like the extraor- 
dinary Jews in general, enjoying the right of pro- 
tection for themselves only, and being prohibited 
from registering their children. A law was passed 
embodying these conditions, but when it was about 
to go into efifect (1750), the Jews, dissatisfied with 

it, and fearing that the restrictions therein contained 
would ruin their credit with other countries, prayed 
that it might not be made public ; and in fact it was 
not published until six years later. 

In order to stimulate manufacturing in his domin- 
ions, Frederick the Great tried by various and even 
forcible means to press the Jews into the industries. 
As he disliked any increase of the Jews, either by 
birth or by immigration, he decreed (Oct. 29, 17r)7) 
that no Jews should receive new privileges, unless 
they promised to start factories. On the same con- 
dition tlicy were each permitted to register an addi- 
tional child. In general, the king looked upon the 
Jews merely as a source of income, and imposed 
taxes in various ways. For instance, they had to 
furnish silver amounting to 8,100 marks a year; 
and the protection-money was increased from l.j,000 
to 2.5,000 thalers. More curious still was the so- 
called porcelain-tax, which obliged every Jew, when 
applying for anj' concession, to buy a certain amount 
of porcelain in the royal porcelain-factory, and to 
sell it beyond the frontier. As the cost of transpor- 
tation was very large compared with the value of 
the goods, such transactions involved considerable 
loss. The king was especially strict in carrying out 
the principle of communal responsibility, holding 
the elders pecuniarily liable for any tlu^ft committed 
by a member of the community. The first case of 
this kind occurred in 1769. when the king decided 
that the law must be upheld, in spite of the protests 
of the elders and the entreaty of the directory- 
general ("Generaldirectoriura "). In 1784 this com- 
munal responsibility of the elders was extended to 
cases of bankruptcy of members of the community. 
Thus the philosophic king endeavored by extreme 
measures to turn the Jews of his country into 

While these medieval measures still fettered the 
Jews externally, a movement was in progress that 
in an incredibly short time was to change their 
whole life and character and to prove once more that 
in the history of the Jews s])iritual infiuences are 
more potent than brute force. Their regeneration 
came through German literature, which at that time 
began to flourish anew. In spite of its seclusion the 
Jewish ghetto also felt the breath of the fresh cur- 
rents that revivified the intellectual life of Germany. 
Even before Mendelssohn. Aaron Sidomon Gum- 
pertz appeared, devoting himself to the sciences, 
and being one of the first Jews to receive a doctor's 
degree. But the real representative of this period 
is Moses Mendelssolin (1729-86). Hemodestly sought 

admi.ssion at the gates of Berlin as a 

Moses ])o(ir "Talmud baliur, " and within a 

Mendels- short time counted the whole of the 

sohn. cultivated classes of Germany among 

his readers. His translation of the 
Bible, together with the regenerated Hebrew litera- 
tvu-e, was pressed into the service of the new illu- 
mination. Actuated by the same spirit, David Fried- 
lilnder and Isaac Daniel Itzig founded a frei^ school, 
under the name D''">VJ T^n. and, in connection with 
it, a Hebrew printing-establishment and book-store. 
German Judaism was entirely transformed as if 
by magic. Not so long before, a Jew who had dared 
to trim his beard had, at the instigation of an 




eminent member of the community, been commanded 
by a direct order of the cabinet to spare Ins locks : 
and the progenitor of the Bleichrijder family had 
been drivtii from Berlin because a German book had 
been found in his jmssession. Now, the Jews were 
in the front rank of the promoters of German cul- 
ture. Tlie Berlin physician JIarcus Hkrz was an 
eager apostle of the philosophy of his teacher Kant, 
with whom he stood in close personal relations; and 
the lectures on jihysics. which he delivered at liis 
house, were attended by the minister Zedlitz, and 
even b}' the crown prince. The salon of liis wife. 
Henriette Herz, became the center of attraction for 
the most brilliant jK-ople of Germany, and for many 
of those of other continental countries. With the 
increase of enthusiasm for German culture, the indif- 
ference to and neglect of the religion of tlie Fathers 
increased also. While Jlendelssohu himself and his 
circle still clung to their Judaism, even in the midst 
of the new movement, the younger 
Relaxation generation tried to get riii of it as 
of (juickly as possiljle. !More than one- 

Discipline, half of the Berlin community is re- 
ported to have been baptized within a 
short time. The elders strove in vain to stem this 
flight from Judaism by a law, which they were'in- 
strumental in having passed, to the effect that serv- 
ants and children could be baptized only after pro- 
ducing the certified permi.s.sion of their masters and 
parents respective!}', and that strangers must be 
taken to their native places for the ceremony. 

In 1793 the Gesellschaft der Freunile, an associa- 
tion of "the high-thinking and lil)eral against ortho- 
doxy and immorality," was formed. In 1799 ap- 
peared the circidar letter addressed to the "Very 
Reverend Chief Councilor of the Consistory and Pro- 
vost [Probst] Teller at Berlin by some heads of fam- 
ilies of the Jewish religion," in which the anon3'mous 
author (David Friedlauder) signitied willingness, in 
his own name and that of others, to be baptized, if 
they would not be obliged thereby to believe in the 
specificall}' Christian dogmas. Teller emphatically 
refused his recpiest. The new generation was keenly 
sensitive to tlie lower civic status of the Jews. 
Hence all its efforts were united against the old 
general jtrivilege, and in favor of emancipation, 
which had seemed to be more nearly within the reach 
of the Jews when Frederick William II. came to the 
throne (17.S6). The description of these efforts be- 
longs to the history of the Prussian Jews. It is suf- 
ficient to mention here tliat the Jews of Berlin, with 
David Friedliinder at their head, were among tlie 
pioneers in that movement; and they found a ready 
advocate of their efforts in the prime minister Har- 
denberg, who came into ottice June 6, 1810. The 
edict of March 11, 1812, conferred citizenship upon 
the Jews living in Prussia and eujoy- 
Edict ing any concessions, and made them 
of March, subject to military service. On March 
11, 1812. 18 the Jews sent" to the king a letter 
of thanks which was signed by the 
elders David Ilirsch, Bendi.x, Friedlauder, and 

But this by no means ended the struggle ; for even 
the rights previously granted were either curtailed 
or revoked, and new restrictions were introduced. 

In spite of their sacrifices and the patriotism dis- 
played by them during the wars of liberation, the 
Jews were thwarted in various ways. A strong anti- 
Jewish movement ajipeared also in the literature of 
the time. In 1.824 the newly instituted provincial 
estates convened and took up the (juestion of the 
position of the Jews, the estates of Brandenburg and 
of some of the other provinces being in favor of 
restricting their rights. The memorial which the 
elders presented to the Jlinistry of the Interior re 
ceived no answer. Thus uU efforts had again to be 
united in the struggle to obtain justice. The battle 
was waged more or less successfully, and ended 
finally in favor of the Jews, when the year 1,848 
lirought the proclamation that all Prussians were 
equal before the law. 

During tnose years of conflict the intellectual life 
of the Jews was not neglected. In 1819 the Vercin 
f I'lr Kultur und Wissenschaft der Juden was founded 
by Gans, Moser, and Zunz, Heine also belonging 
to it. The jieriodical of the society appeareil in 
1823, edited by Zunz. But the society was dissolved 
in the following .year, owing to the indiffei-ence of 
the members; and its founder, Gans, together with 
many members, soon thereafter renounced Judaism, 
The onlyrenmant of this vain attempt 

Striving was the "Science of Judaism," which. 
After lepresented by Zunz, proniised a rich 

Culture. harvest for the future. The educa- 
tion of the Jewish youth in accordance 
with the new spirit received especial attention. 
Aside from the free school, of which Bendavid be- 
came tlie director in 1806, a private school, founded 
by Bock, was continued by Jost and S. Stern. In 
1823 Zunz presented to the directors, in the name of 
the Verein fiir Kultur und AVissenschaft der Judeu. 
a memorial advocating a reform. A commission, 
including Zunz, Moser, and Bendavid, was insti- 
tuted for the pur])ose of organizing a communal 
school. On Oct. 3, 1825, was laid the corner-stone 
of a building which on Jan. 3 following was ojiened 
as a public school of four classes, under the direc- 
tion of Zunz. In 183,5 a school for girls was organ- 
ized upon similar lines. In IS.'JG a religious school 
was founded. Training-schools for teachers were 
also organized. In 1840 a seminary for teachers was 
opened under the direction of Zunz ; but it was 
closed nine years later by the elders. In 18.58 a 
training-school for teachers was established under 
the rectorship of Horwitz. 

Philanthropy also received the attention of the 
comnumity. In 1804 the Brtiderverein, a society for 
the relief of unmarried merchants, was founded. 
Several of the older relief societies still existed, as 
that for dowries (since 1721 ; the new by-laws being 
drafted by Jlendelssohn); for circumcision (171.5); 
for sick relief (1703); for burial (1672; see above); 
also an asylum for the aged (1828). In 1838 the 
community instituted a commission for the purpose 
of supervising the relief given to the poor, who had 
greatly increased since 1812. In 1833 the Baruch- 
Auerbach orphan asylum for bovs was founded ; ten 
years later the asylum for girls; in 1836 the institute 
for orphans in memory of Closes Mendelssohn ; and 
in 18.58 the hospital. For other institutions see list 




Tlie chii'f place in the inner development of the 
community is occupied by the struggle for ritual 
reform, in which both parties engaged with great 
bitterness. Shortly after the edict of 1812 Fried 
liluder issued a pamphlet demanding reforms in the 
religious services, and sent it to the liing, who gave 
an unfavorable auswer. although the prime minister 
Ilaidenberg advocated FriedUindcr's propositions. 
The i-eforms were soon caiTied into effect, however; 
for the wealthy Jacob Herz Beer (the father of 
Meyerbeer) organized private services according to 
the new principles, at wliich Zunz also officiated as 
preaelier. Israel Jacobsohn, the former president of 
the Westphalian consistory, imitating Beer's exam- 

Synagogue on Oranienburfrerstrasse, Berlin. 

(From a phi itopraph.) 

pie. preached himself, and confirmed his son (Pente- 
cost. 1815). But in 1817 tliere appeared a royal 
order which, falling back on the old " Generalprivi- 
legiuni," commanded the closing of pi'ivate syna- 
gogues. As the pviblic synagogue 
Struggle was iu need of repair, the temple of 
for Reform. Beer was designated as a temporary 
S3'nagogue. The Orthodo.x members, 
headed by their rabbi, Meyer Simon Weyl. protested 
against the order, and continued to worship in the 
half-completed synagogue. The government now 
decreed that the ancient Hebrew service shoidd he 
followed by German prayers and a sermon in Ger- 
man ; but at tlie instance of the Orthodox members 
a new royal order was issued, Dec. 9. 1823. to the 
effect " that the religious services of tlie Jews shall 

be lield only in the present synagogue, and only ac- 
cording to the customary ritual, without the least 
innovation in the language or the ceremonial, the 
prayers and songs, entirely in accordance with the 
ancient custom." This regulation was so strictly 
carried out that when Rabbi Oettiuger, at the dedica- 
tion of the new cemetery iu 1827, delivered an ad- 
dress in German, the police saw therein a forbidden 

Culture societies were organized in 1841 under the 
direction of Siegmund Stehn, whose lectures in 18-45 
on the tasks of the Judaism of that time again stirred 
up tlie Refoini movement. On March 10, 1843, a 
meeting was held under the leailershiji of Stern and 
A. Behnstein, which resolved "that rabbinic Ju- 
daism is on the whole and in its parts not in har- 
mony with our scientific convictions and the de- 
mands of tlie present life." The Genossenschaft filr 
Reform des Judenthuins, founded in 184(), organized 
services under the leadershij) of its rubbi, Samuel 
Hoi.DiiEiM. were held on Saturdays and 
Sundays (afterward onlj- on Sundays), and their 
chief feature was the total exclusion of the Hebrew 
language. At present (1902) the chief community 
of Berlin supports, besides the above-mentioned 
Reform pulpit, live chief synagogues, two of which 
observe the old ritual and three a modernized one. 

The matter of securing suitable rabl)is was an es- 
pecially dithcult one, iu view of the strong dill'er- 
enccs of opinion obtaining in the comnuiiiity. This 
became apparent .soon after the death of Chief Rabbi 
Hirschel Levin in 1800; these iliH'erences then were 
so great that no chief rabbi could be agreed upon. 
A further attempt was made to fill the office, in 
1842, when Zacharias Fr.^nkel was cli<isen. As 
he, however, decliued the appointment, notwith- 
standing certain a.ssurances from the minister Eich- 
Iiorn, the office remained vacant. Hirschel Levin 
was succeeded by the assistant rabbi, Jlej-er Simon 
Weyl, who was given the title " Vice-Oberlandes- 
Rabbiner." After his death (182r>) Jacob Joseph 
Oettiuger (until 18fi0) and Ellianan Roseiistein (until 
18()<i) were the acting rabbis, Jlichael Sachs being 
associated with them as assistant rabbi after Frankel 
had refused the chief rabbinate. After Sachs's death 
(1864) the controversy again broke out. Finally, in 
1866 Joseph Aub was chosen, who in the .same year 
consecrated the new synagogue and introduced a 
new order of prayers. In 1869 Abraliam Geiger was 
chosen, togetlier with Ungerleiiler as assistant rabbi. 
For incumbents of the rabbinate in 1901 see below. 

It became necessaiy to change the administration 
of the community in accordance with tlie altered 
conditions. As early as 1793a new constitution had 
been instituted, which, for the first time, did not 
jiroceed from the government, but was the result of 
the deliberations of acommunal committee of fifteen. 
When the Jews' taxes were revoked by the edict 
of 1812, the duties of the elders were materially 
changed. As the government was slow to offer 
suggestions, the elders themselves went to work and 
drafted a set of rules for choosing the representa- 
tives. These were adopted Jlay 20. 1849, by a vote 
of the community, and the election iu accordance 
with the new statute was held June 24. The gov- 
ernment, however, refused to recognize it, and 


Berlin Congress 



ordered a new election in aecordauee with tlie gen- 
eral remilatious of IToU, which was held April 11, 
1851. It was not till 1S.j4 that the government rec- 
ognized the new rules of 1849. On Feb. 23 of that 
year reiireseutatives were elected in accordance with 
those rules and were confirmed by the government. 
After much deliberation the "'Statut fiir die Jii- 
dische Gemeinde in Berlin " was determined upon 
(Aug. 31, ISliO), which is still in force (1903). Ac- 
cording to this statute the Jewish community of 
Berlin consists of all the Jews in that city and the 
neighboring places. The community is represented 
by a directorate and a college of representatives; the 
latter consisting of twenty-one members and fifteen 
substitutes, chosen every three years by a ballot of 
the whole community. Tlie representatives choose 
the directorate, consisting of seven elders and three 
substitutes. The resolutions of the representatives 
are confirmed by the directorate. DilTereuces are 
decided by a committee of the comniunit_v or by the 
board of supervisors. Different branches of the ad- 
ministration are in the hands of special commissions, 
with a member of the directorate in the chair. The 
ministers, readers, and all officials who iierform re- 
ligious functions are chosen by a two-thirds majority 
of the representatives. 

Non-Jewish sources mention (1) a certain Cain 
(meaning probably "'Hayyim ") as tlie first rabbi of 

the mark of Brandenburg, under whom 

The the Jews emigrated from Vienna. His 

Rabbinate, privilege for the whole electorate was 

issued "Feb. 20, 1673, He probably 
did not live at Berlin, but at some other town of the 
mark, perhaps at Landsbergon-the-Warthe. 

(2) Isaac Benjamin Wolf Liebmann succeeded 
Hayyim May 11, 1685. He lived at Landsberg-on- 

(3) Shemaiah, called Simon Berend, appointed 
Aug. 23, 1687. He lived at first at Frankfort-on- 
the-Oder, then in Berlin; died on the last day of the 
Passover, 5469 (April 3, 1709). He was a high 
Talmudic authority. 

(4) Aaron Benjamin Wolf, son of Isaac Benja- 
min Wolf Licbniann, nephew and son-in-law of Jost 
Liebmann, 1709-21. 

(5) Michael Hasid, appointed May 17, 1714, who 
also succeeded to the rabbinate of Frankfort after 
Aaron Benjamin Wolf's death. (On the ban which 
Michael pronounced against the Jews of Berlin at 
the command of Frederick William I., see above.) 
His works have only partially been printed. He 
was considered a great Talmudist and also occupied 
himself with the Cabala, being called by the Jews 
the "great Calialist." One of his sons embraced 
Catholicism, and lieeame professor of Oriental lan- 
guages at Vienna, \mder the name " Aloys AViener 
von Sonnenfels." Michael Iliisid died Feb. 21, 1728. 
During his rabbinate Marcus Abraham was chosen 
(1726) as the first rosh liet-din (director of the school- 
house), superintending as such the Talmudic instruc- 
tion of the Jewish youths. 

(6) Moses Aaron of Lembei'g. formerly rabbi in 
Leipnik. He was chosen contrary to tlie wishes of 
the community at the command of Fri'derick Will- 
iam I., who issued his order in spite of tlie protests 
of the elders. In consequence the new rabbi had 

violent quarrels with the community. The elders 
bought for the sum of 4,500 marks permission to 
choose another rabbi (May 37, 1730). :\Ioses Aaron 
was forced to accept the rabbinate of Frankfort-on- 
the-Otler, with the condition to pay 300 marks a year 
to the rabbi of Berlin. From Frankfort he went to 
Nikolsburg, where he died, Tebet 17, 5518 (Dec. 38, 

(7) Jacob Joshua of Cracow (born 1680), chosen in 
the fall of 1730; a high Talmudic authority; author 
of the celebrated Talmud commentary, " Pene Ye- 
hoshua'. " He hail previously been rabbi of Leniberg. 
as the successor of Hakam Zebi. Though he gained 
the love of the community by his independent and 
energetic character, he gave such offense hy deciding 
a case against the influential and powerful Veitel 
Ephraim that he was forced to leave Berlin, 1735. 
He went to Metz, where he wrote his commentary, 
and thence to Fraukfort-on-the-Main. He died 
8hebat 14, 5516 (Jan. 16, 1756). 

After Jacob Joshua's resignation, the office was 
filled by the rosh bet-din jMarcus Abraham (mcn- 
tionerl under 5), with whom Naphtali Herz was as- 
sociated as assistant rabbi. After his death (1743) 
the community decided to call a younger man, and 

(8) David Friinkcl, who, having been born (1704) 
at Berlin and educated there, was especially accept- 
able to the community. Previously he had been 
chief rabbi at Dessau and at Frankfort-on-the-Oder. 
As he had manj' relations in Berlin over whom he 
could not, according to the law, exercise his office 
as judge, his brother-in-law, Veitel, agreed to pay a 
yearly sum for a substitute. Friinkcl achieved fame 
by his commentary on Yerushalmi, and was the 
teacher of Closes Mendelssohn. He died suddenly 
Nisan 12. .5533 (April 5, 1762). 

(9) Aaron Hirsch, chosen 1763. Author of the 
" Jliuhat Aharon." He went from Berlin to Schwa- 
bach in 1772, and died in 1780. Ilis name "Aaron 
Mosessolm " was appended to the thanksgiving ser- 
mon written by Mendelssohn after the peace of Hu- 

(10) Ilirschel Levin, called also Hirschel LObel; 
elected 1773; died Aug. 26, 1800 (see Ilirschel 
Levix). By the time of Levin's death the differ- 
ences of opinion in the communitj' had grown to be 
so great that it became impossible to liave one cen- 
tral administration. The changes in the rabbi ques- 
tion since then have been mentioned above. 

The various activities of the Berlin Jewish com- 
munity may best be summarized under the heads 
of (I.) worship, (II.) education, (III.) philanthropy, 
(IV.) miscellaneous. 

(I.) Worship: Berlin possesses the following 
synagogues and temples: (1) Alte Synagoge, Hei- 
dercutergasse ; (2) Neue Synagoge, Oranienburger- 
strasse ; (3) synagogues in the Kaiserstrassc, Linden- 
strasse, and Liitzowstrasse; (4) Adas Yisroel, 
Gipsstrasse (314 families), rabbi Dr. Esra Munk, 
preacher Dr. M. Hildeslieimer; (5) Schiineberger- 
Ufer, rabbi Dr. Petuchowski; (6) Aha was Reim, 
Prinzenstrasse(100 families), rabbi Dr. I. Bleichrode; 
(7) Beth Zion, Brunnenstrasse (150 families), rabbi 
L. Hoxter; (8) Ahawas Scholom, Luisenstrasse, 
rabVii Dr. Stein; (9) Neweh Scholom, Lothriuger- 




Berlin Congress 

Strasse (180 souls), rabbi H. Gruenfeld; (10) Westeu, 
Passauerstrasse (144 members) rabbi Dr. Pli. Knmer ; 
(11) Moabit, Lessingstrasse (500 families), rabbi Dr. 
Wiukler; (13) Jewish Reform Cougregatiou. Jolian- 
nisstrasse (130 families), rabbis Dr. M. Levin, Dr. P. 
Klemperer, Dr. I. Oppeuheimer, Dr. JcisUi ; (13) 
Oliel Yizl.iak, Oranieuburgerstrasse (150 families). 
Dr. Liebermanu; (14) Lippmami-Tausz Syuagoge, 
Ciolliiowstrasse (180 families). Dr. I). Lipschiitz; (15) 
Wiiltr'selie Ez Hayyim, Laudsbergerst rasse, Dr. S. 
Oriiiifeld (80 families); (16) Abawath Torah, Lausit- 
y.erplatz(50 families), Dr. Janowitz; (17)Adat Jeschu- 
riiii, Alte SchiJHhauserstrasse, rabbi A. EUeubogeu. 

Habljis of the Jewish community: Drs. S. May- 
bauin, A. Roseuzweig, J. Stier, S. Weisse. Esehel- 
baelier, Blumentlial. 

There is also a Union of Orthodox ("Traditious- 
gesetzestreue ") rabbis. 

(II.) Education : Ilochschule, now called Lebr- 
anstalt, fi'ir die Wisseuschaft des Judenthums, 
founded by Dr. Abraham Geiger: teachers, Dr. 
E. Bauet, Dr. Maybaum, Dr. Sehreiuer. Rabbinical 
Seminary, founded by Dr. I. Hildesheimer, 1.HT3 ; 
rector. Dr. D. Hoffmann; teachers. Prof. J. Bartli, 
Dr. A. Berliner, Dr. II. Hildesheimer, Dr. I. Wohl- 
gemuth. Veitel-Heiue Ephraim Lehranstalt ; lec- 
turers, Prof. M. Steiuschneider, Prof. I. Bartli. 

Schools for religious instruction are attached to 
all the various congregations, and register from 93 
up to 453 pupils of both sexes. The Gemeiude- 
Knabenschule lias 603 boys, the Miidchenschule 403 
girls. A training-school for teachers has 45 students. 
In addition tlie Zunz-Stiftung, founded 1864, is for 
Jewish teachers, and there are a " jMadcheiilieim " 
(Home for Girls) and a technical .school (domestic 
arts), also for girls. 

(III.) Philanthropy : Homes for the Aged, 
Reieheuheira Orphan Asylum, Baruch Auerbacb 
Orphan Asylum, Jloses Mendelssohn Asylum, Pan- 
kow Asylum; Deaf -Mute xVsylum, Neu-Weisseusec; 
various local relief societies ; and. in addition, numer- 
ous societies for aiding the respectable poor, furnisli- 
iiig Passover supplies and food to Jewish lU'isouers; 
for assisting travelers, furnishing clothing, for aid 
at circumcisions, lying-in relief, rent aid, fresh-air 
colonies for children, fuel association, marriage 
dowry, loan society (founded 1846); free burial so- 
ciety. Jewish nurses' association, kosher meat soci- 
ety, people's kitchen. Sabbath observance associa- 
tion, etc. 

(IV.) miscellaneous: Committee for 
Against Anti-SemiticAttacks (Komitee zur Abwehr 
Anti-Semitischer Aiigriffe) ; Central Verein Deutscher 
Burger Jiidischen Glaubcns; Zionists' Society; Ezra 
(for agricultural aid in Palestine); Palitstina (for aid- 
ing Jewish farmers); B'nai B'rith, Grand Lodge of 
Germany, oltice WillieUnstrasse 118; lodges, Ver- 
eiiiigte Deutsche Reichs-Loge, Leopold Zunz. 
Brrthold Auerbach, Montefiore; society for fos- 
tering trades and agriculture among Jews of Rus- 
sia, founded 1813; society for furthering agri- 
culture among .lews of Germany; military society. 
Deiitsches Vaterland; several students' societies. 
Tinu.ioGKAi'iiv : stem. Quelle iiliuniJe; Oeiger, Gcsch. tier 

Jiiiirn ill Berlin, Berlin, 1870; Landsbat, Annhc Shcm, 

lierliu, 188i. 

D. A. F. 

BERLIN CONGRESS : A meeting of the great 
European powers at Berlin between June 13 and 
July 13, 1878, to settle questions arising out of the 
Russo-Turkish war ; by it many of the former prov- 
inces of Turkey were enfranchised and made inde- 
jiendeut. In several instances the congress made 
the grant of full civic and political rights to Jews a 
condition for the recognition of independence, and 
it has therefore an important bearing upon tlie his- 
tory of Jews in the southeast of Europe in recent 

Articles of identic form were inserted in the final 
treaty, requiring that religious cimviction should 
form no cause of exclusion from any civic position 
in anj' of tlie countries liberated by tlie Congress of 
Berlin — sections v. (Bulgaria), xxvii. (Montenegro), 
XXXV. (Servia), xliv. (Rumania). 

The question was tirst raisetl at the sitting of June 
38, 1878, when Waddington, on behalf of France, 
required that religious equality should be made a 
condition of the independence of Servia. Gor- 
tschakoff, on behalf of Russia, protested against the 
question being introduced without previous notice 
to the congress, but Waddington was supported by 
Bismarck and De Launay (Italy) (Biitisli Blue Book. 
p. 138), and section xxxv. was inserted in the draft 

At the sitting of July 1 Messrs. Bratianu and 
Cogalniceanu presented a note claiming indeiiend- 
ence for Rumania, without any reference to the 
Jewish question ; but Waddington, on belialf of 
France, demanded that the same conditions be im- 
posed on Rumania as on Servia. He was supjiorted 
by Andrass3' (Austria- Hungary), Beaconstield, Do 
Launay, and even by Gortschakolf (Russia), notwith- 
standing his protest three days before; and the fol- 
lowing clause was inserted in tlie final treatv (British 
Blue Book, p. 153): 

Article 44: In Rumania, diflerence in religious lieliefs and 
confessions shall nut be brought against any one as a ground 
for e.xcliision or unUtness as regards the enjoyment of civil and 
piiliticiil rights, admission to puhlic oltlics. fum-tions. and honors, 
or tiM* cxtTrisc of various professions :inil i mi list lies in any place 
whatever. Freedom in outward observain-e of all creeds will 
be assured to all subjects of the Rumanian sljile, as well as to 
strangers, and no obstacle will be raised cither to the ecclesias- 
tical organization of different bodies, or to their intercourse 
with their spiritual heads. 

The citizens of all states, whether merchants or others, shall 
he dealt with, in Rumania, without distiuction of religion, on 
the basis of perfect equality. 

Bulgaria and Servia loyally carried out the coiidi- 
tiinis of the treaty, but Rumania evaded it, claim- 
ing that a sudden emancipation of the Jews would 
be deleterious to the interests of tint country. A 
convention was summoned by the Bratianu ministry 
to ih.'termiue how far the constitution was to be 
revised, and this suggested the following clause 
vii. of the Rumanian constitution instead of sec- 
tion xliv. of the Berlin Treaty, which Lord Salis- 
bury had proposed to be inserted en Mor into the 
Rumanian constitution; 

Article 7 : Difference in religious beliefs and confessions does 
not constitute, in Rumania, an obstacle to the obuiinment of 
civil and political rights, nor to the e.\ercise of these rights. 

1. A foreigner, without distinction of religion, and whether a 
subject or not of a foreign government, can become naturalized 
under the following conditions : 

(a) He shall address to the government an application for 

Berlin Cong-ress 
Berlin, Isaiah 



naturalization. In which he shall indicate the capital he pos- 
sesses, the profession or craft which he follows, and his abode m 
Uuiiiaula. . .. „ 

ib) He shall reside, after this application, ten years in the 
country, and prove. h\ action. liiat he is of service to it. 

2. The foUowiiiir may be exempted from the mtermediary 

*'*lnrThose who have brought into the country industries, use- 
ful Inventions, or talent, or who have founded large establish- 
ments of coinuieive or industry. 

I),i Th.Kc who, lioru and bred in Rumania, of parents estab- 
lished in the c.uinrv. have never been subjected, either them- 
selves or tlieir parents, to any protection by a foreign jxiwer. 

Ici Those who have served under the colore during the war 
of independence: these may be Qaluralized collectively by 
government decree, by a single resolution, and without any 
further formality. 

:i. .Naiuralization can not be given except by law. and indi- 
vidually. , • , , 

4. A special law shall determine the manner in winch for- 
eigners may eslabllsli tlieir home on Rumanian territory. 

.3. Only Rumanians, and those who have been naturalized 
Rumanians, can buy runil estates in Rumania. 

Rights already acquired shall remain In force. 

International agreements at present existing shall remain in 
force in all the clauses and terms therein contained. 

In tlie summer of 1879 Borcsfu was sent on a dip- 
lomatic mission to the cotirts of western Europe to 
iuiluee tliem to accept tlie new clause vii. of the 
constitution instead of the Berlin Treaty. Austria 
had no objection, since her own Jewish subjects 
were protected by a special treaty ; Russia could 
scarcely object to restrictions, having iu view her 
own attitude toward the Jews; and Turkey was not 
in a position to make any protest. Italy deiuanded 
full liberty of conscience for the Jews, but Wad- 
dius^tou. on behalf of France, gave way on the 
assumption that gradual emancipation would be 
granted, and on Feb. 20, 1880. an identic note of 
Germany. France, iind Great Britain agreed to the 
independence of Rumania on condition that clause 
vii. be made part of the constitution. For the 
manner in which Rumania has utilized the restric- 
tions of clause vii. to disfranchise the Jews of 
nearly all the rights of human beings, see Rumaxi.v. 

BiBi.ioiiRAPHV : ?.. Sincerus. Lo' Jiiifx dc RoKmniiir, London. 
IMl: .4. d'.wril. yiyticuniuii.'i Urlatires an Tniitr ile Bfi- 
liii, Paris, 18Si; Frcneh Ydhiw Bunk. Paris. ISTSI Liffaircs 
Etraiiiicres, DtiftmienU Diiihnnntitiws. (JiitntiiDis dc la 
Reeoituaixttanve dc la RoumanU) ; EimJit^h Blue Botik 
iPnrliaiiu)itani Papers. 1S7S; Trentu nf Berliii): .\non., 
Aus dem Tdijehiich KarU I. run HoiimiiiiiiH, vol. iii. 
D. O. S. S. 

BERLIN, ABRAHAM. See Abraham ben 

JiDAi! Berlin. 

BERLIN (sometimes called also Berliner), 

(icrmaii, Low Mayer) : German rabbi ; burn 1738 
at Fiirth. Bavaria; died at Cassel !May 21. 1814. 
When ((uite young Berlin was dayyan in his 
native city, and at the same time rabbi of Baiers- 
dorf. Bavaria. In 1789 he was appointed cliief 
rabbi of Bamberg, where he remained until 1794. 

During the time he remained in Bamberg. Berlin 
was involved in a lawsuit which threatened to ruin 
his reputation. In his capacity of civil judge of the 
Jews, he was entrusted with the division of an es- 
tate valued at ItlO.OOO fl. (841.000). and was accused 
by one of the heirs of having utilized his judicial 
power for his personal interest. This was the more 
painful because the judicial procedure and practises 
of the rabbis had never before been assailed in the 
courts of Bamberg. The specific charges against 

the rabbi were that he accepted illegal fees and failed 
to account for certain small sums. In the mean time 
Berlin was elected to the chief rabbinate of Ilesse- 
Cassel ; and ditlieulties were placed by his opponents 
in the. way of his leaving for the new post. How- 
ever, he was never put under arrest, and subse- 
quently was acquitted of all the charges of dishon- 
esty and was sentenced only to pay a certain sum as 
a tine, in settlement of an account which seems to 
have been more entangled than dishonest. The docu- 
ments relating to the trial are now publishctl by 
Eckstein, showing that the charges against Berlm 
were groundless and that only personal hatred sup- 
plied "the motives. In the summer of 179.") he left 
Bamberg for Cassel toeuterupon his new functions. 

When the kingdom of Westphalia was founded, 
with Cassel as its capital, Berlin gave proof of his 
loyalty to the new regime b^' a sermon which he 
delivered in Hebrew in the Great Synagogue of 
Cassel. welcoming the new king. Jerome Bonaparte; 
and by composing a Hebrew song for the same oc- 
casion'. Both were published, with a German trans- 
lation, under the title "Dabar be-'Itto Mali Tob" 
("RedeamFreudeufcste." . . . Cassel. 1807). This 
work is errouc(Uisly ascribed by Benjacob, in his 
■• Czar ha-Sefarim." to Judah Lob Karlberg. When 
the Jewish consistory of AVestphalia was organized 
on the model of the French consistory (October, 
1808). Berlin was made chief rabbi, and in 1809 was 
elevated to the dignity of " Consistorialrath." As a 
director of the consistory he was in accord with its 
president. Israel Jacobson. and assented to the dec- 
laration that it is permissible to use pulse, tea, and 
sugar on Passover, against which view the conserv- 
ative rabbis of the time vigorously protested (see 
Stern, "Gesch. des Judenthunis," pp. 107, 1G8). 

Berlin wrote annotations to the Talmud which 
appeared iu the edition of Furtli, 1829-32, of which 
only the first three volumes were published. The 
Talmud, ed. AVilna, 1895, contains his marginal notes 
lo the tractate Shebu'ot, those to the si.xteeuth vol- 
ume of Rabbinowicz's "Dikduke Soferim." and to 
the treatise Hullin. Some of his novelhe appeared 
as an appendi.x to the work '"Aze Almuggim" 
(Sulzbach. 1779). by his brother, R. Noah Hayyim 
Zebi Berlin. The latter died when his work, " Jla'- 
yau ha-Hokmah" (Riidelheim. 1804), was in the 
"hands of the printer ; and Berlin superintended the 
publication of his brother's work. 

UiBLiOGRAPiiv ; Eckstein, Gefscli. der Jtideii in . . . Bnm- 
hriii. ISiiS. pp. lT6-lT(t; Idem. Xnelitrihie. lt*!l!l. pp. 3-14; 
SiiUiniitli. iv. i»\: (iriitz. Gesch. der Jiideii. M ed.. pp. 2S1. 
374: Eliezer Kohu. Kinat Soferim, pp. 179, KSO. Lemberg, 

P. ATI. 


Rabbi of the three united congregations, Altoua, 
Hamburg, and Wandsbeck; born probably at Eiscn- 
stadt, Hungary, in the second half of the seventeenth 
century; died at Altona March .5, 1771. Very little 
is known of his life, although he doubtless was a 
great Talmudic authority, for otherwise he could 
not have been rabbi of these three congregations. 
His brother. Isaiah Berlin, and his brother-in-law, 
Joseph b. Menahcm Stciuhart. praise him particu- 
larly, and his epitaph also— communicated by Witt- 
kower, " Aggudat Perahim," p. 288 — mentions his 

I.. <•• 



Berlin Congress 
Berlin, Isaiah 

scholarship and his great piety. The responsa col- 
lection, " Zikron Yosef, " by J. Steinhart, contains two 
of Berlin's responsa (pp. 74d, 82a), and the Bodleian 
Library contains some of his homilies au<l novelhc on 
the Talmud. Berlin was at first rabbi in Dessau, 
and from 1768 to his death rabbi of the three congre- 
gations mentioned above. 

Bibliography: Berliner, lesnja Berlin, 187^ p. 8; Fuenn, 
Kciieict ilsmcl. pp. 337. 33B; Neubauer, Cat. Boill. Hclir. 
MSS. No. 536. 

L. G. 

BERLIN, FANNY. See Berlin. Moses. 


(called also Isaiah Pick, after his falher-iu-lawi : 
The most eminent critic among the German Tal- 
mudists of the eighteenth century ; born in Eisen- 
stadt, Hungary, about October, 172.5; died, while 
rabbi of Breslau, May 13, 1799. 

Berlin was the scion of a famous family of schol- 
ars which counted among its members Y'oni-Tob 
Lipman Heller and Jleir b. Jacob Schiff. The 
father of Berlin also was a high Talmudic author- 
ity, and by him the sou was initiated into rabliinieal 
studies, which he later continued in Halberstadt 
with R. Hirsch Bialeli (also called Hirsch Harif), 
whoe.xercised considerable influence on Berlin'slaler 
methods of teachiug. 

In 17o0 Berlin occupied an honorable position in 
the commvmity of Breslau ; and it may therefore be 
assumed that he had settled there some time previ- 
ously. About five years later he married Fromet 
(born 1730; died June 13, 1802), daughter of the rich 
and respected merchant. Wolf Loebel Pick. Until 
1787 Berlin lived a comparatively private life, en- 
gaged in business with a Christian furrier ; but in 
that year he became a member of the rabbinate, and 
on Kov. 17. 1793, was elected rabbi of Breslau, re- 
ceiving eighteen votes out of a total of twenty -one. 
His election was preceded by a bitter cor.test be- 
tween the few bvit rich liberals and the majority of 
the community. The former (as recorded in an offi- 
cial document) woidd have preferred to see Berlin 
appointed as a "msh bcsen" ("rosh bet din," or 
head of the court), so that he would be unable to act 
so strictly as a rabbi in regard to ceremonials, and 
would have a smaller stipend from the Breslau com- 
munity, while exercising less influence on the rural 

Berlin, in his humility and unpretentiousness, 
looked upon the titles and rights withheld from him 
as of no account, though his salary 
His was smaller than that of his predeces- 

Character, sor, from the fact that he had to divide 
the income from city and countrj' with 
the assistant ral)bi and the rabbi of Sulz. Wolf 
Ginsberg, his pupil during many j'cars, relates, as 
evidence of Berlin's ascetic mode of life, that the 
latter rested only during the nights of the Sabbath 
and on festivals, devoting all his other days and 
nights to study. His lilierality is revealed in the 
fact that he wrote and printed one of his works, 
"She'elat Shalom" (Peaceful Greeting), for the sole 
purpose of offering help to the publisher, an indigent 
Talmudic scholar. 

Berlin was greatly admired, even by persons who 
differed with him in religious views. Joel Brill. Aaron 

Wolfsohn, Judah Bensew, and many oilier Mas- 

kilim of Breslau often visited him to seek advice 
on scientific questions. As the Maskilim always 
carefully avoided wounding Berlin's religious feel- 
ings, he on his part met them half-way in many 
things. On the occasion of the Peace of Basel, for 
instance (May 17, 1795), he lield a solenm service in 
the synagogue and exceptionally permitted the use 
of instrumental music, he himself delivering a 
discourse which was highly praised by the press 
("Schlesisehe Zeitung." 1795, No. 59). Thus Ber- 
lin, by his learning an<l his character, conciliate<l the 
hostile elements of his congregation, and liis death 
w-as mourned equally by all. 

In order fully to appreciate Berlin's literary activ- 
ity it must be mentioned that he had the habit of 
annotating almost every book he read ; mentioning 
the sources, or noting parallel passages and variant 
readings. Such glosses by Berlin have been pub- 
lished on the following books: the Bible (Penta- 
teuch, Dyhernfurth, 1775; the other books, ib., 

1807); the prayer-book, ed. Tikkim 

His Shelomoh (ih.. 1806); Maimonides' 

Literary Yad ha-Hazakah (ih., 1809); Alfasi 

Activity. (Presburg, 1836); the "Hinuuk." by 

Aaron ha-Levi of Barcelona (Vienna, 
1837); Malachi b. .Jacob's melhodology, "Yad Mala- 
chi" (Berlin, 1825); Elijah b. de Vidas' book 
of morals, " Reshit Hokmah " (Dyhernfurth, 1811). 
Although the terse yet clear notes contained in these 
volumes reveal the immense learning and critical 
insight of their author, yet Berlin's lasting place of 
honor among the pioneers of Talmudic criticism 
rests on the following works which treat principally 
of the Talmud: (1) " 'Omcr ha-Shikhah " (Forgotten 
Sheaf), Konigsberg, 1860, containing a large num- 
ber of Ilalakot on the Talmuil not noted by the 
codifiers; (2) " Ozar Balum " (Full Treasure), in the 
edition of Jacob ibn Habib's"'En Ya'akob." pub- 
lished at Wilna in 1899, tracing all the Talmudic 
passages quoted without sources in the difTeriTit 
commentaries on the haggatlic elements of the Tal- 
mud; (3)"Haggahot ha-Shas " (Notes to the Tal- 
m\id). textual corrections and notes on the origin of 
parallel passages (Dyhernfurth. 1800, and in nearly 
all the editions of the Talmud); (4) "Ilatla'ah She- 
l)a-'Arakin" (Detached Orders) (part i.. Breslau, 1830; 
])art ii., Vienna, 1859), containing, as the title indi- 
cates, explanations and glosses on the 'Aruk; (5) 
•• Hiddushe ha-Shas," novelliB on the Talmud (Ko- 
nigsberg, 18(50, and in several editions of tlie Tal- 
mud); (6) "Mint Targuma" (Dessert Dishes), I?res- 
lau, 1831, remarks on the Targum Onkelos (the word 
"Targuma" signifying botli "Targum " and "des- 
sert," eiiuivaleut to the Greek 7p(i;;///n) aiul on the 
Palestinian Targum; (7) " Kashiyot Meyushab " 
(Dilliculties Answered), Konigsberg, I860, treating 
of the Talmudic passages which end witli K'l"P. and 
written by Berlin in fourteen days; (8) " Rishon le- 
Zion" (The First for Zion ; Dyhernfurth, 1793; 
Vienna, 1793, and several times reprinted, the title 
being a play on p'V. " Zion, " and pi'V. " index"), a collec- 
tion of indexes and parallel jiassages in the j\Iidrash; 
(9) "She'elat Shalom" (Greeting of Peace), Dyliern- 
furth, 1786, a commentary on Aha of Shubha's 
"She'iltot." Berlin's responsa collection and hia 

Berlin, Jacob 
Berlin, Naphtali 



commentary on the Tosefta deserve especial mention, 
tliougli nothing is known of their late. 

The tirst iilace among these worl« must be ac- 
corded to the remarks and explanations on the Tal- 
mud. Although they can not compare in acute- 
uess and power of combination with 
Character- the similar work of Elijah of Wilua, 
istics yet these two books of Berlin laid 
of Berlin's the foundation for a critical study of 
Works. the text of the Talmud, in view both of 
tlie numerous textual corrections con- 
cerning the minutest details, and of the many paral- 
lel passages adduced either directly from the Talmud 
or from the old authors, in support of new readings. 
Berlin, furtliermore, was the tirst— at least among 
the Germans — who showed an interest in the history 
of post Talnuidic literature; and it was he. also, 
who opened tlie Kalir questiou (compare his letter 
to his brother-in-law, Josepli b. Menahem f>teiuhart, 
in the hitter's "Zikron Yosef," No. 15). Although 
Berlin's historical remarks have been superseded 
bj' modern criticism, the immense material which he 
accumulated in all his works will always remain of 
inestimable service to the student. 

Bibliographt: Auerbaoh, Gi'sch. rier I^r. Grmeiiide Hal- 
heiftaM. 1H86, p. 71; A. Berliner. h:t(ij(i Biiliii. Berlin. 
1879; reprint from Berliner's .ViTyaziii. vi.; Brann, in Ji(l)f!- 
fclirift zum 70sten GchurtMmie i'"» GriUz, pp. 262-2ta; 
BruU's Jahrh. v. iiSi, 229; C'armoly, Rev. Oriciitak, iii. 31(1; 
Neubauer, Vat. Bwll. Hehr. ilSS. lOlB. 

L. G. 

BERLIN, JACOB (called Yokob) : German 
Talmudist; Imru ITOT. probably at Berlin; died 1749 
at Fiirth. Bavaria. He was a pupil of Jacob ha- 
Kohen, author of "Sheb Yaakob." and later (not 
after 1734) settled at Fiirth, where he lived as a well- 
to-do private citizen. Of his seven works the fol- 
lowing were published posthumously: "Bc'er Ya'a- 
kob " (Well of Jacob), a selection of respousa. with 
an appendix, on the terminology of the Talmud, 
published by his brother Isaac ami his son Abndiam, 
and edited by Isaac b. Me'ir of Pfalzburgand Fiirth. 
1707; and "Zikron Ya'akob" (Memory of Jacob), a 
homiletie commentary on the Pentateuch iib. 1769). 

Berlin is not related to the well-known Berlin 
family of Fiirth. 

Bibliographt: Frankpl, Litcrnturhlatt ilcs Orients, viii. 
4211-422; Steinschneiaer, Cat. BmlX. p. 1195; Isaac b. Meir's 
Introduction to Berlin's Be'er Ya'akitb. 
L. G. I. BeR. 

BERLIN, LEO: Russian lawyer; son of Moses 
Berlin; Imrn at Vitebsk Xov. 2'2. 1854; received his 
education (1863-7'2) at a private school in St. 
Petersburg. He studied law at tlie Uuiversity of 
Bern, Switzerland, whence he was graduated in 
1878. In 1881 Berlin received tlie degree of doctor of 
criminal law from the University of Moscow. Soon 
afterward he became engaged to Amalie Hering, 
M.D., daughter of the physiologist Ewald Hering, 
who, on account of her (Koman Catholic) relig- 
ion, was refused a license by the Russian govern- 
ment to marry a Jew. She accordingly joined 
the Protestant Church; but even then it required 
the intervention of the poet Turgeuef to secure the 
requisite permission. Berlin is (1902) the head of 
the law firm of Berlin Brothers in St. Petersburg, but 
resides in Brussels. He has published many trea- 

tises on criminal law in the "Zhurnal Grazhdans- 
kavo i Ugolovnavo Prava " and other periodicals. 
A rare Torah scroll, which has been in the Berlin 
family for centuries, is now in his possession. 
Bibliographt: Private sources. 

■yiCH) : Scholar, communal worker, and govern- 
ment iirticial; born at Shklov, Russia, 18'21; died in 
St. Petersburg March 2."), 1888. He received a good 
home education ami then was sent abroad, where he 
studied philosophy and philology at the universities 
of Konig.sberg and Bonn. In 1845, while at KiJnigs 
'oerg, he published ''Metab Iliggayon." a philosoph- 
ical treatise in Hebrew with the Latin title "Ars 
Logica," with an introduction in Latin bj' Professor 

Returning to Russia in 1849, he received a position 
as teacher in the government Jewish school of Mohi- 
lev, and in 18.53 was appointed by the minister of 
the interior as adviser 
on Jewish affairs to 
the governor-general 
of White Russia. 
Berlin was trans- 
ferred to St. Peters- 
burg in 1856 and 
attached to the de- 
partment of public 
worship as adviser on 
foreign creeds, with 
the title " Uchony 
Yevrei " (A Learned 
Jew). In this posi- 
tion Berlin was fre- 
quently called upon 
to participate in the 
framing of laws con- 
cerning the Jews. 
At the same time he 
assisted to a consider- 
able extent Count M. A. Korff in organizing and 
arranging the Imperial Public Library of St. Peters- 

In 1859 Berlin publislied "Byedstviya Vremion. " 
a Russian translation of D'nj?n pIV. the work «f 
Jeshua ben David of Samosc. This translation a]i 
peared in vol. i. of the " Transactions'' of the 
Moscow Society for the Study of the History and 
Antiquities of Russia ("Trudy Moskovskavo Ob- 
shchestva Istorii i Drevnostei Rossii"!, and also in 
book form. In recognition of this work Berlin was 
elected corresponding member of the society. He 
published in 1861 " Ocherk Etnografii Yevreiskavo 
Xaseleniya v Rossii." This work on the ethnog- 
raphy of the Russian Jews was composed at the 
instance of the Imperial Russian Geographical So- 
ciety, which elected him an active member. In 
1862, in reply to Aleksandr Aksakov's attacks on 
the Talmud in the journal "Den," Berlin published 
"Bugulminski Talmudist" and other articles on the question. 

Berlin was very active in the Jewish community 
of St. Petersburg, and was a member of the two 
Jewish delegations to Alexander II. in 1868 and to 
Alexander III. in 1881 respectively. 

Mijscs Etrliu. 



Berlin, Jacob 
Berlin, Naphtall 

His son Leo Berlin is a distinguished lawyer. 
His daughter Fanny Berlin Kaufmann (born at 
Vitebsk Nov. 8. 1850; died at St. Petersburg 1896) 
graduated from the women's g3-mnasium of St. 
Petersburg, studied law at the University of Bern, 
and was graduated thence as doctor of lav,' sn/iniia 
cum Idtide. She married Prof. Hilarion Kaufmann. 
and became prominent in the higher society of St. 
Petersburg. Her bust by Professor Zalello is exhib- 
ited in tlie Imperial Academy of Fine Arts at St. 

Bibliography: L. Gordon, in Vengerov's Kritiko-Biografi- 
cheskl Slavar, iii. s.u.; Khronika VoMioda, 1888, No. 12. 

H. K. 


polemical writer against reform; lived at Lissa, 
Germany, at the end of the eighteenth and the l)e- 
ginning of the nineteenth century. His literary 
activity was wholly devoted to the cause of ortho- 
do.xy, opposing steadfastly and systematically all 
the attempts at the reform of Judaism, which were 
so marked a characteristic of his time. To tliis pur- 
pose he wrote the fallowing polemical works; " 'En 
Mislipat" (The Critical Eye of Judgment), directed 
against the editors of the Hebrew periodical "Ha- 
lieassef," and especially against Aaron Wolfssolm 
(Berlin, 1796); "Keter Torah" (The Crown of the 
Law), an introduction to the"Hawwot Da'at " of 
Jacob b. Moses of Lissa (Dyhernfurth, 1810); "Ju- 
dali," against the innovators (Berlin, 1818); "Kad- 
dur Katan " (The Small Globe), against several 
■works by different reform writers (Berlin, 1819) ; 
"'Et le-Dabber" (Time to Speak Out), on the tradi- 
tions of oral law, as well as on the necessity of hav- 
ing the prayers in Hebrew (Berlin, 1819); "Simhah" 
(Joy), a call to unity in religious affairs (Berlin, 

Bibliography : Fiirst, Vihliothcca Jmlaicn, 1. 110. 
L. G. M. B. 


(known also as N. Z. J. B.): Head of the yeshi- 
bah of Volozhin, Hu.ssia; born at Mir, in the gov- 
ernment of Minsk, in 1817; died at Warsaw Aug. 10, 
1893. In 1831 Berlin, who was a descendant of a 
scholarly family, married the daughter of Isaac b. 
Hayyim, the head of the Volozhin yeshibah. After 
the death of Isaac in 18.51 his elder son-in-law, Eliezer 
Isaac, became principal, and on the death of the lat- 
ter in 1854, Berlin succeeded him. He followed the 
path of learning laid out by Hayyim, the founder of 
the yeshibah, according to the plans of Elijah of 
Wilna ; viz., plain logical reasoning, instead of em- 
ploying the PiLPUL. 

A minority of the yeshibah students who culti- 
vated a taste for pilpul seceded and elected as their 
principal Joseph Baer Soloweitchik, well known as 
an acute pilpulist and a grandson of Rabbi Isaac. 
This division created discord between the students 
of the two factions; and the Russian rabbis sent a 
delegation to Volozhin to investigate the matter. 
They quelled the disturbance and established a 
union headed by Berlin, who was installed as the 
one head of the yeshibah. 

Berlin's whole life was devoted to the welfare 
of the yeshibah, and all his energy was directed 
HI —6 

toward increasing the number of the students, and 
caring for their support and comfort. He ap- 
pointed and sent authorized agents (" meshuUahim ") 
to different parts of the world for voluntary con- 
tributions to assist in maintaining the yeshibah. 
A large share of the income came from America. 
Under his guidance the number of the students in- 
creased from 100 to over 400; and he also erected a 
three-story brick building with rooms for study and 
a library. 

However, the "Maskilim," who then advocated 
the Semi-Reform movement in Russia, opposed the 
3'eshibah on general principles, and 
His demanded the introduction of secular 

Opposition science and modern im-thod of teach- 
to Secular ing. In answer to their demand Ber- 
Sciences. lin wrote an open letter to the editor 
of "Ha-Meliz" (No. ix., 1885). ex- 
plaining his standpoint. He called attention to 
the failure of the rabbinical seminaries in Germain', 
and even those of Russia, to produce a single 
Talmudic rablii in the full sense of the term: while 
such rabbis from the Vohizhin graduates were nu- 
merous. This reply did not satisfy the Maskilim, 
who advocated the abolition of the yeshil)ah as a 
dangerous institution and as being an obstacle in the 
waj' of general education to the rising generation. 
Many derogatory articles in the Hebrew and Rus- 
sian-Jewish press attracted the attention of the gov- 
ernment, which in 1879 decreed to close up the ye- 
shibah. In 1881. however, through diligent and 
extraordinary efforts. Berlin succeeded in obtaining 
the government's permit to reopen the yeshibah, 
which he conducted with renewed energies till 1891, 
when its doors were again closed by the government 
as a result of the false acctisation that the students 
were connected with the Nihilistic movement. 

Berlin never ceased his endeavors by every means 
— even visiting Warsaw to obtain the necessary in- 
fluence — to induce the government to revoke the 
edict; but they were without avail, and his failure 
hastened his death. 

His contributions to rabbinical literature are of 

great value, particularly his commentary " Ha'amek 

She'alah" (Deep Research) on the 

His "Sheiltot" of Aha ok Sii.\I5H.\. It 

Literary was left for Berlin to tlirow light on 

Activity, the complicated and obscure jtassages 
of this most importjiMt halakic work 
of the gaonic period, which was little known among 
the Talinudists. His commentary shows not only 
his phenomenal knowledge of the Talmiidim and 
old rabbinic literature, but also a tine critical mind. 
Berlin didnot occupy himself with the later rabliinic 
literature, but spent all his life in the study of the 
old authorities, devoting himself especially to the 
Verushalmi and the halakic ;Midrashim. It is Siiid 
that at the a,ge of twenty-three he compiled a com- 
mentary on the Jerusalem Talmud. 

Berlin's unselfishness is shown by the notice in 
his introduction (S 5, part ii.): "Whoever desires to 
reprint this book, either in this or in another coun- 
try, has my permission to do so without any money 
consideration, and is entirely welcome, as it is my 
wish to disseminate the teachings of our master 
(Aha of Shabha) of blessed memory. All I request 

Berlin, Noah 
Berlin, Saul 



of the publisluT. if he does so during the lifetime of 
myself, or my son Hayyim Berliu. is that he will 
notify either of us. in order tliat I or my son may 
add, amend, or correct the style or rearrange the 

Berlin's commentary on the Pentateuch. "Biur 
ha-Amel>"' (Deep Interpretation), was published 
with the text (Wilna, 187y-bO). His commentary 
on the Song of Songs, " Metib ha-Shir Bekizzur " 
(The Essence of the Poem), with an extract from the 
same appeared at Warsaw ISSS. His opinion on 
Ecclesiastcs is tliat it summarizes the arguments of 
the naturalists and scientists of that age, and that 
onlv the conclusions were inspired (by the Holy 
Spirit), whereas the Song of Songs and the Proverbs 
were all inspired (preface to "Sheiltot," parti.. ^ 2). 
His e.xegetical works are of little value, although 
they claim to be Peshat. 

The responsa of Berlin were numerous. Slost of 
his letters end with mny3 DIOJ? 'JJH ("I am 
burdened with work "), as if in haste to finish. 
Of his respousa. "Meshib Dabar" (Word of Re- 
sponse), (Warsaw, 1894), si.x are addressed to Amer- 
ican rabbis of New York, Baltimore, Cincinnati, and 
Charleston, on various religious questions (see pp. 
13. 15. 19. 93, 117, 136). 

Bibliogr.\phy: Katesct Ti-^rad. il. 136-142, Warsaw, 18»>, 
biography and portrait: Ahiasaf (Calendar* for 5655, pp. 
450, : Ihr Ixntetit. p. U15, Mavence. 1893 : X. Sokolow, 
Ha-AMf. 1S8T, pp. 231-242: M. Reines, .4/.v«aiiii/o( S/ifl Ti'rah. 
U Cracow, im). 
-L. G. .J. I). E. 

miuiist and rabbi; born at Fiirth 1T37; died at 
Altona March 5, 1802. He was the son of a well-tn- 
do and learned merchant at Fiirth. who died Jan. 7. 
1780, and whom Jacob Berliu regarded as a Talinud- 
ist of some merit. The boy, together with his 
brother Loeb Berlin, received his education from 
his father, and became dayyan in Fiirth in 176.5. 
He also was appointed rabbi of Marktbreit. Bavaria, 
and the surrounding villages; and in 1780 became 
rabbi at Mayence. When Raphael ha-Kolieu, rabbi 
of the three communities of Altona, Hamburg, and 
Wandsbeck, resigned his position, Berlin received a 
call to be his successor (1799). Affairs in these com- 
munities were very unsettled at that time, and it 
required much skill and tact to reconcile the various 
elements struggling for leadership. Berlin sjitisfac- 
torily solved the problem; and being far removed 
from the fanaticism of his predecessor, he even suc- 
cessfully avoided wounding the susceptibilities of 
the latter, who continued to reside privately in 
Altona (compare Berlin's letter to Ha.vyim of "\'olo- 
zhin in the responsa collection " Hut ha-Meshullash." 
Wilna. 1880). 

Berlin was the author of the following works: (1) 
" Aze Arazim " (Cedar-Trees). Fiirth, 1790, an e.\ 
haustive commentary on Joseph Caro's Shulhan 
'Aruk. Eben ha-'Ezer, which, however, covers only 
one-third of the work; (2) "Aze Almuggim" (aI- 
mug-Trees), Sulzbach, 1779, a commentary on 
those precepts treated in the Shulhan 'Aruk which 
are not of Biblical origin; namely, on the washing 
of the hands ("netilat yadayim"). Sabbath-limits 
{""erubin"), and the marriages forbidden by the 

Soferim C'sheniyot la-'arayot ''); (3) "^layan ha- 
Hokmah " (Source of Wisdom) (RodeUieim, 1804, and 
reedited several times), the six hundred and thirteen 
injunctions and prohibitions in metric form, and ex- 
haustive casuistic explanations on the individual 
precepts; (4) "Tiferet Zebi " (Glory of Zebi), the 
first part published at Warsaw, 1807, the second at 
Warsaw, 1818, the third at Josephov, 1867; (5) mar- 
ginal glosses on the Talmud treatises Berakot. 
Shabbat (Fiirth, 1829-32), and Shebuot (Wilna, 

The chief characteristic of Berlin's work is that 
he pays more regard than any other German Tal- 
mudist to Yeruslialmi; and he gives many happy 
explanations of it. Moreover, he possessed numer- 
ous works by Sephardic scholars which were un- 
known to the German and Polish Talmudists: and 
his teachings were strongly influenced by the Seph- 
ardim. Although Berlin, in accordance with the 
spirit of the times, was a great master of "pilpul," 
and could represent the pilpulistic method skilfully 
and intelligibly, he had clear reasoning powers- 
In his respousa, especially, he separated sophistry 
from true logic. 

It is of interest to note that Berlin not only knew 
Azariah del Rossi's works (he cites them imfavora- 
bly in "Aze Almuggim." 193b), but had also read 
the Xew Testament, which was a very remarkable 
thing in the circles to which Berlin belonged. In a 
passage of " 'Aze Almuggim " (191a) he speaks of 
Paul as " hakam chad mehakmehem " (one of their 
[non-Jewish] sages), and he displays ingenuity in 
trying toidentify him with a certain "Min," a neigh- 
bor of Gamaliel, spoken of by the Mishnah (Er. vi. 1). 

Many of Berlin's explanations of the piyyutimare 

foiind in Wolf Heidcnheim's commentary on the 


Bibliography: Filrst, BiM. Jiulaica, p. 397: Xepi-Ghinm.i: 
T'dcihit Gahih- Yifnicl. pp. KB, U«: Fuenn, A"t)i. - 
Yi^raeU p. 'Mti; Et-kstein, yachtriige znr Gfschichti: 
Juden ill Btiiiilicrg. 1^■!I9, p. 5: Arba' Ko^ot, a funeiul 
sermon on Berlin, delivered by Abraham Isaac b. Joseph, 
Altona. ISiK. Berlin's epitaph is to be found in Wittkower, 
Agmlat Perahim. p. 293, Allona, 18.'*0: Zunz {Mnnatstage, 
p. 121 should be corrected according to this. 

L. G. 

BERLIN, RUDOLF: German ophthalmolo- 
gist; born May 2. 1833. at Friedland, Jlecklenburg- 
Strelitz ; died at Rostock Sept. 12, 1897. He re- 
ceived his education at the gymnasium of his native 
town and at the universities of Gottingen, Wiirz- 
burg. Berlin, and Erlangen, and was graduated from 
the last-mentioned as doctor of medicine in 18.58. 
For the following three years he was assistant to 
Pagenstecher at Wiesbaden, and in 1861 established 
himself as a specialist In ophthalmology in Stutt- 
gart, opening a private hospital there. 

In 1870 he became privat-docent in physiological 
optics at the technical high school at Stuttgart, and 
in 1875 was appointed professor of comparative 
ophthalmology at the veterinary college in that city. 
In 1889 he became professor of ophthalmology at the 
university at Rostock, assuccessor to Von Zehender; 
and under his supervision the new ophthalmological 
hospital was built and opened in 1897. 

Berlin was the first to treat ophthalmology sys- 
tematically in a comparative way. Among his nu- 
merous works may be mentioned ; " Ueber den Gang 



Berlin, Noah 
Berlin, Saul 

(k'l- in don GlaskiJrpcrraum Eingodrungenen Fremd- 
korpiT," in " Archiv fiirOphthalmologie," vol. xiii. ; 
"Ufber SehnervL'ndurchschufidung, " iu "Mittlioi- 
lungsblatt ftir Augenlicilkunde," vol. ix. ; "Krauk- 
hoiteu dcr Orbita," in Graefe-Samiscli, "Handl)ucli 
dcr Augculu'ilkunde" (1880): and jointly with Roni- 
bold. " Untersuchungen iibcr den Eintluss des Schrci- 
biMis auf Auge und KOrperhaltung der Schulkinder," 
Stnttgart, 1883. 

In 1882. together with Eversbusch, ho founded the 
"Zeitschrift fi'ir Vcrgleichendc Augenhcilkuude," in 
winch he publi.shed many interesting articles; e.^r., 
on the eye of the horse, about glaucoma, etc. 

Bnii.ifxiRAPHV: Piipcl, Biograpliifelies Lcxikon, s. v., Vienna, 
liKil; Meyer, Kiinrersati<ins-Lexikon, s.v.; Brorkhiuis, 
KiiHiriMtidm-Lcxikon. s.v. 
s. F. T. H. 

BERLIN, SAMUEL: German jurist; born at 
Bambei-g Oct. 11, 1807; died at Fiirth Dec. 31, 18915. 
He was a son of Loeb Berlin, of Bamberg, and 
afterward " Landcsrabbincr " at Cassel, whose otiier 
sonjla.v was also a jurist, and became "Oberlandes- 
geriehtsrath " at Nuremberg, being the first Jew to 
fill a judicial position in Bavaria. Samuel was the 
first Je\\ ish lawyer in that kingdom. He com- 
menced practising law in Gerolzhofen, where he 
became the intimate friend of another young at- 
torney, who afterward was "Kultusminister " and 
"Ministerpnlsident," Dr. Freiherr von Lutz. Dr. 
Berlin himself became "Hofratb," and was at one 
tune iu the " Vorstaud " of the "Gemeindecolle- 
gium " in Ansbach. 
Bliii.ioi;RArEiv: KdIuU, BciUIimtt: Isr. Mi'hnicr. .tvi. 293. 

8. M. Co. 

after his father, Zebi Hihsch [Hikschei,] Levin): 
German Talmudist, and one of the most learned 
Jews of the Jlendelssohnian period ; born (at Glo- 
gau?) 1740; tiled in London Nov. 16, 1794. He 
received his general educatiim princijiallj' from 
his father, who was chief rabbi of Berlin, and one 
of the few rabbis of the time who combined Tal- 
Duidic learning with secular culture. He conse- 
quently educated his gifted eldest son along the 
same lines. In Berlin and Breslau (whither the 
young man frequently went to visit his father- 
in-law, R. Joseph Jonas Friinkel) he came into 
personal contact with the representatives of the 
movement for progress in Judaism, and became one 
of its most enthusiastic adherents. His antecedents, 
education, and calling, as rabbi in Frankfort-on-the- 
Oder, made it almost impossible for him openly' to 
renounce the old rabbinism; and he consequently 
endeavored to advance his ideals anonymously or 
under a pseudonym. 

Berlin began his literary career with an anony- 
mous circiUar letter, " Ketab Yoshcr " (An Ejiistle 
of Justice) (printed in Berlin, 1794, after the death 
of the author), which Hartwig Wessely warmly de- 
fended in his own contention with the rabbis while 
pleading for German education among the Jews. 
With delightful humor, and in a florid though racy 
style, Berlin describes the absurd methods of the 
Jewish schools, and points out how the rabbinic 
casuistry — which then constituted the greater part 
of the curriculum — injures the sound common sense 

of the pupils and deadens their noblest aspirations. 
In this work Berlin already betrays a morbid tend- 
ency to vilify those whom he dislikes for general 
or personal reasons, thereby injuring the cause which 
he desires to further. 

This tendency is still more evident in his pseu- 
donymous work, "Mizpeh Yoktel " (The Watch- 
Tower of Yoktel) (published by David Friedlander 
and his brother-in-law Itzig, Berlin, 1789), a polemic 
against the "Torat Yekutiel " of H.\pii.\el ha- 
KoiiEN. The latter, one of the most zealous advo- 
cates of rabbinic piety, was a rival candidate with 
Levin for the Berlin rabbinate, a circumstance which 
induced Levin's son to represent ha-Kohen as a for- 
bidding example of rabbinism. Under the name 
"01)adiah b. Baruch of Poland," Berlin attempted 
iu this work to ridicule Talmudic science, and to 
stigmatize one of its foremost e.vponeuts not only 
as ignorant, but also as dishonest. The publishers de- 
clared in the jirefaee that they had re- 
Ridicules ceived the work from a traveling Po- 
Talmudic lish Talmudist, and had considered it 

Science. their duty to print it and submit it to 

the judgment of specialists. In order 

to secure the anonymity more thoroughly, Berlin 

and his father were named among those who were 

to pass upon it. 

Had Berlin been content to illustrate from Ra- 
phael's work the senseless methods then current in 
Talmudic studies, he would have performed a meri- 
torious task, and one for which he was especially 
fitted by his very great Talmudic learning and 
his lucid style of exposition. But the entirely un- 
founded attack upon the honor and honesty of his 
opponent, whose incorruptibility and firnmess of 
character were admired even b_v his enemies, onl}- in- 
jureil Berlin and bis cause. As .soon as it reached 
Altona and Hamburg, where Rjiphael was chief 
rabbi, the work as well as its author was placed 
under the ban. The dispute that thereupon arose 
concerning the validity of the ban turned entirely 
U|)on the (juestion whether a perscmal element, like 
the attack upon the rabbi of Altona, justified such 
a |iuinshment. 

Witli the exception of Ezekicl Landau, chief rabbi 
of Prague and a near relation of Berlin, only a few 
Polish rabbis declared the ban to be invalid ; and 
even they censured the action of Berlin, who had 
been forced to acknowledge the authorship. 

Before the excitement over this atTair had sub- 
.sided, Berlin created a new sensation by another 
work. In 1798 he published at Berlin, undi'r the 
title "Besamim Rosh " (Incense of Spices), 392 re- 
sponsa purporting to be by AsnEii n, Jeiitei,, with 
many glosses and conuncuts which he called " Kassa 
de-liarsna " (Fish Fare). A few examjjles will illus- 
trate the true character of these responsa. Berlin 
says, for instance, that (No. 257) an insight into the 
principles of the Torah and its commands can not 
be gained directly from it or from tradition, but 
(Uily by means of the philosophico-logical training 
<lcrivcd from non-Jewish sources. This opinion is 
coolly ascribed to Asher b. JehicI, who condenuied 
the study of philosophy and even of the natural 
sciences as being un-Jewish and pernicious (com- 
pare No. 58 of Asher's genuine responsji). The 

Berlin, Saul 
Bermann, Issacbar 



following edifying opiiiious are ascribed to the uco- 
Talimidists of the thirteenth century; "Articles of 
faith [creed] must be adapted to the times; and at 
present the most essential article is that we all are 
utterly worthless and depraved, and that our only 
duty consists in loving truth and peace and learning 
to know God and His works" (I.e.). R. Asher is 
also alleged to be the author of the two responsa 
concerning the moditication of the ceremonial laws, 
especially of such as were burdensome to the Berlin 
j-outh. Thus, for instance, it should be permitted 
to shave (Xo. 18). to drink non-kosher Aviue. "ya- 
yin nesek " (No. 36), and to ride on Sabbath. Ber- 
lin aroused a storm of indignation by thus fraudu- 
lently using the name of one of the most famous 
rabliis of the Middle Ages to combat rabbiuism. 

Mordeeai Benet first attempted to prevent the 
printing of the book in Austria, and then mercilessly 
scourged the deception in a circular letter addressed 
to Berlin's father, by critically analyzing the re- 
sponsa and proving them to be spurious. Levin 
tried in vaiu to defend his son. Berlin resigned his 
rabbinate, and. in order to end the dispute which he 
had aroused, betook himself to London, where he 
died a few months after his arrival. In a letter 
fo\md in his pocket he warned everybody against 
looking into his papers, requesting that they be sent 
to his father. He expressed the curious wish to be 
buried not in a cemeterj-, but in some lonely spot, 
and in the same garments In which he should hap- 
pen to die. 

In order to do justice to this unique personality, 
it must be borne in mind, as a miidern historian re- 
marks, that in Berlin were united as in a focus the 
rays of a sinking and of a rising period in Jewish his- 
tory. Being a really great Talmudist. he knew- better 
than any other person the weaknesses 

Berlin's of rabbinism. and was filled with a 
Character, burning desire to lead his people to- 
ward intellectual freedom. Meudels- 
sohn"sand Wessely's timid attempts to inaugurate 
a new era did not appeal to him. With his youth- 
ful ardor he could not imderstand that the develop- 
ment of the popidar consciousness is a slow process. 
An open championship of his ideas, however, would 
have meant a breach with father, wife, and children — 
in short, with all his associates; it being after all 
doubtful whether his sjicrifices W(Hild have helped 
his cause. His anonymous and pseudonymous au- 
thorship was a measure of policy and not of cow- 
ardice. He coidd not. however, escape the conse- 
qtiences of such a mode of warfare. It is debasing 
and embittering to attack secretly those whom one 
is forced to praise in jniblic: hence Berlin became 
personal in his polemics, and nervous and dissatis- 
fied with himself and the world, because he knew 
himself to be niisimderstood through his own fault. 

Besides the works mentioned aliove. Berlin is said 
to have written a large mnnbei- of rabbinic works, 
including notes to the whole Talmud. 

BIB1.I0GRAPHT: Aziilai. flhem hit-n,t1nlim. eil. Wilna li 
'M. 21 : Benet, In Litrrntiirhhitt d..-- iiri, ntf. v. .>i_^i, uih 
141 (fniiunuent of his alHive-mfiitinneil lettenoLevinj; Brami 
iu the (jrillz Julul.-ii-hrii't. IK'il. pp. 2.i.V3.i7: I'amicilv Hii- 
■llnhim ti-Bim Yi,nnli. iip.;5iMl: Chafes. .Vi»/i,i( Kcnwit. 
pp. 14.21: Gratz, (iifih. tier Juihit. .\i.89, l.M-l.W; Hurwitz 
In Kilmd ha-Liliiiiwii. x.. part 4. pp. 3-9; Jost. (it.^i/i. des 
Judcnthums uiid Seiner SeMen, iti. 396-l(Xi (curiously 

enough a defense of theauthenticit.v of the responsa collection 
Besamim Bit^)t)i Landshut. T"hi1ot Analtf }ta-S}tim, pp. 
84-106, 109; M. Straschun, in Fuean, Kiniah yccmaimU, 
pp. 295-398; Zunz, Hitus. pp. 336-338. vrho thinks that Isiiac 
Satanow bad a part in the fabrication of the responsa. 

L. G. 

man tUcDlogian; historian; born iu Obersitzko. prov- 
ince of Posen. Prussia. Jlay 2. 1833; received his 
first education under his father, who was teacher in 
Obersit zko. He continued his education under vari- 
ous rabbis, preparing himself at the Siime time for 
the University of Leipsic. where he received the 
degree of doctor of philosophy. 

After serving for some time as preacher and 
teacher in Arnswalde, Berliner was called (186.5) to 
Berlin as superintendent of the religious school 
maintained by the society fer Talmudic studies 
(Hebrat Shas); and in 1873, when Israel Hildes- 
heimer opened the rab- 
binical seiuinaiy in 
Berlin, Berliner was 
elected professor of 
Jewish history and lit- 
erature. In this posi- 
tion, as well as in that 
of author, he has dis- 
played an untiring ac- 
tivity. His edition of 
Rashi's commentary to 
the Pentateuch (18661 
first made him known 
as a scholar; and he 
added to his reputation 
by various historical 
works, the result of his 
studies in the archives 

and libraries of Italy, which country he frequently 
visited, subventioued by the German government. 

Berliner edited for two years (1874-75) the scien- 
tific periodical "Jlagazin fiir Judische Gesehichte 
und Literatur." which from 1876 to 1893 he, to- 
gether with his colleague. David Hoft'mann, con- 
tinued under the title " Magaziu fiir die Wisseuschaft 
des Judeuthums." It was due to his zeal that the 
society Jlekize Nirdamim, for the publication of 
works of the older Jewish literature, which had been 
discontinued for several years, was revived in 1885; 
and since then Berliner has acted as its director He 
further acted as the apologist of Judaism in a pam- 
phlet against Lagarde (" Prof. Paul de Lagarde. nach 
Seiner Natur Gezeichuet." 1887). who denounced all 
Jewish scholars as dilettanti; and when the blood 
accusiUion was revived, he republished (1888) the 
opinion of Cardinal Ganganelli — afterward Pope 
Cleiueut XIV. — to prove the falsity of this charge. 

AVhile orthodox in his religious views. Berliner 
was never a fanatic. He not only a.ssociated in his 
scientific work with the liberals, but also paid a 
high tribute to the merits of M. Steinschneider on 
the occasion of the hitter's seventieth birthday 
(1886). by compiling a bibliography of that eminent 
scholar's works. 

The following is a list of Berliner's works; (1) 
"Raschi. Commentar zum Pentateuch." 1866; ("2) 
" Aus dem Inueren Leben der Deutschen Juden ini 
Mittelalter,"1871; 2d ed., 1900; (3) "Pletat Soferim: 

Abraham Berliner. 



Berlin, Saul 
Berznann, Issachar 

Beitiilge zur Jiidisdien Scnriftauslegung im Mittel- 
alter," 1873; (4) " Ycsod 'Olani, das Aelteste Be- 
kanute Dramatische Geilidit in Hcbr. Sprache, vou 
Mdsc Sacut, " 1874; (5) " DieMassorah zum Targum 
OnUelos," 187r., 1877; (6j"Migdal Hananel, Uebcr 
Leben uud Schrilteu R. Chananel's in Kairuau," 
1876 : (7) "Eiu Gang Durch die Bibliothekeu Italiens," 
1877; (8) "Rabbi Jcsaja Berlin; Eine Biographisclie 
Skizze," 1879; (9) " Beitiilge zur Hebraisclien Gram- 
matik im Talmud iind Jlidrasch," 1879; (10) "He- 
brilischc Grabschriften in Italieu," 1881; (11) " Per- 
sonlitlie BezielnnigenZwischcn Juden und Christen 
im Mittulalter," 1883; (13) "Beitrilge zur Geographic 
uiid Ellinographie Babyloniens im Talmud und Mid- 
rasch," 1884; (13)Targum Onkelos (now the standard 
edition), 1884; (14) "Aus den Letzten Tagen des 
Riimischen Ghetto, "1886; (15) " Censurund Confisca- 
tion HebriUseher Bilcher im Kirchenstaate," 1891; 
(Ki) '■ Geschiclite der Juden in Rom, von der Aeltcsten 
Zeit bis zur Gegenwart (30.50 Jahre)." 3 vols., 1893; 
(17) "Ueber den Einfluss des Erstcn Hebritiseheu 
Buehdrucks auf den Cultus und die Cidtur der 
Juden," 1896; (18) "Aus Meiner Bibliothek, 
Ein Beitrag zur Bibliographie und Typographie," 

Bibliography: Sokolow. Scfer Zikkaron, p. 13; Warsaw 
18»i); Relnes, Dnr u'c-Hakamail'. 
s. D. 

BEBLIXEB, EMIL: American inventor; born 
in Hanover, Germany May 30, 1851. He was edu- 
cated at the jiublic schools of his native place and 
at the Samson Schule, Wolfcnbuttel, whence he was 
graduated in 1865. In 1870 he emigrated to Amer- 
ica, settling in Washington, D. C, where he has 
lived since 1883. He invented the loose-contact tel- 
ephone transmitter, or microphone, known as "The 
Berliner," and now universally employed in the tel- 
ephone and of the utmost importance in its practi- 
cal use. He is also the inventor of the gramophone 
and other valuable devices. Berliner is a member 
of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 
and since 1879 has been a frequent contributor to 
scientific publications in the United States an<l Ger- 
many. He is, besides, the author of "Conclu.sions." 
Philadelphia, 1899. In 1881 he married Cora Adler 
of Washington, D. C. 

BiBi.iOfiRAPHY: Willi's Whij in America, 1899-1900, and 
private sdurces. 


BERMAN, JEKUTHIEI, : Russian-Hebrew 

novelist; born in lS3,j; died in Moscow about 1889. 
He held for over thirty years a responsible position 
in the emjiloy of the Jewish railroad magnate Samuel 
PoHakov, and devoted part of his leisure to literary 
conii)ositiou. Between 1870 and 1880 he lived in 
Tver and later in JIoscow. A stroke of paralysis in 
1887 rendered him incapable of continuing either 
Ills vocation or his favorite literary labors. 

The first novel by Berman, " Shenot Rainu Ra'ali" 
(The Years Wherein We Have Seen Evil), which de- 
scribes the life and sufferings of the Cantonists or 
[•hild-recruitsin the time of Emperor Nicholas I., ap- 
peared in the first volume of "Ha-Meliz " (1860). 
Another novel, "Pescl Jlikah " (The Graven Image 
of Micah), appeared in vol. x.x., Nos. 19-43 of the 
same periodical (1884). "Hashodedim be-Zahara- 

yim " (The Noonday Robbers) was first published in 
vol. viii. of "Ha-Shahar" (1877) and afterward 
appeared in book form. The fate of his fourth 
novel, "Ha-Yetomim" (The Orphans), is somewhat 
singular. The first instalment appeared in Zeder- 
baum's monthly, "Ha-Mizral.i," of which only four 
numbers were published in St, Petersburg in" 1886. 
Ten years later another part ajipcared in "Ner 
ha-Ma'arabi," a Hebrew monthly pul)lislied in New 
York, which was also soon discontinued. 

Berman is one of the purists in modern Hebrew, 
who insist that no strange words or foreign idioms 
shall be used by the writers of what is supijosed to 
be the language of the Bible. An eloquent letter 
from his pen on this subject, and a clever reply by 
R. A. Braudes of Wilna (now of Lemberg) favoring 
expansion and modification of the language, are 
imblishcd in Meisach's "Gan Perahim " (Wilna, 
1881), pp. 9-31. 

BiBi.ioc.RAPHT: ZeitUn, BiM. Hehraica: Llppe's BihUuum- 
ltliinr)iry Lr.rihnn. I. ; Hn-Shahar, vl. 313. 
II. H. P. Wl. 

HERMANN, ADOLF (pen-name, Kobor 
Tamds) : Hungarian writer: born at Presburg in 
1.867. After completing the study of law he became 
an employee of the Hungarian Credit I5ank. Under 
the influence of his brother-in-law, Jo.sejih Kiss, the 
well-known writer of ballads, he early began to 
develop his talent for belles-lettres, and to-day en- 
joys a wide celebrity in Hungarian literature. His 
novels and romances — all satires upon present social 
conditions — are extensively read. 

s. L. V. 

HERMANN, FRANCO. See Fr.\nco Ber- 
man n. 

lanthriipist ; lioiu at Ihilberstadt Nisaii 34. 1()61 ; died 
there Tammuz 34, 1730; son of Judah Lelimann. At 
an early age he displayed great comiiu'rcial enter- 
prise. He afterward went to Hanover, and there 
became a.ssociated with the chief court agent Liep- 
mann, who, appreciating Bermann's abilities and 
integrity, gave him liis confidence. In this way 
Bermann had access to many jirinces, and several of 
them, such as those of Dessau, of Brunswick, and of 
Saxonj% soon addi'essed themselves directly to him 
in their financial transactions. Bermann was in es- 
pecial favor with Friedrich Augustus II., elector of 
Saxony and, later, king of Poland, to whom he ren- 
dered many services in the capacity of banker and 
as diplomatic agent in Poland. For these .services 
he was rewarded with the title of " Resident " of 
Poland and Saxony, by which title he is mentioned 
in the Polisli chronicles. 

Bermann u.sed his prestige for the good of his 
coreligionists; and his intervention with the Polish 
lords saved many Jewish lives. The special protec- 
tion that Halberstadt enjoyed during the reigns of 
Freidiich I. and Friedrich Wilhelm I. was due to 
Bermann's active infiuence. Generous by nature, 
his delight was to protect Jewish learning ; an<l to 
effect this he built a synagogue at Halberstadt, 
where many Jewish scholars found sujiport, and 
tlicir works were printed at his expense. 

In 1696 Bermann obtained the permission of Fried- 
rich Wilhelm to edit the Babylonian Talmud, copies 

Bermann, Uoriz 
Bernal, Isaac 



of wbicli hail become very scarce. The expense of 
this eilitiou (Frankfort-on-the-Ocler), amounting to 
§50.000, was defrayed entirely by Bermann; and 
most of the 5,000 copies printed were presented to 

BinLiiir.RAPHY : Auerbach, Gesch. der JMischcn Gemeinde 
Halliastadt.pp.Uct seq.; Ha-Maggid. ii. To; Faena. Kcne- 
«(■( nsrael. p. ISt. . _ 

G. I- ^f- 

BERMANN. MORIZ (pseudonyms, Berthold 
Mormanu, Moritz B. Zimmermann, Louis 
MUhlfeld, and Julius Marlott) : Aiustriau au- 
thor: l>oru at Vienna March 10. ISiS: died there 
June 12. 1895, Bermann, who came of a family 
of publishers, was educated for a musical career; 
but after the death of his father he devoted himself 
for a time to collecting autographs. He soon be- 
came known as the owner of one of the finest bio- 
eraphical libraries in Europe. Shortly after the 
Hungarian Revolution he began (1851) what was 
intended to be a twenty-volume work, "Oesterrei- 
chisches Biographisches Le.xikon," etc.; but, owing 
to the condition of unrest in Austria, it proceeded 
no farther than the letter A, 

On .Jan. 1, 1856, Bermann became editor of the 
" Wiener Courier " and developed into a remarliably 
prolific writer of sketches, historical novels, plays, 
and even dance-music; writing under the pseudo- 
nvms mentioned above. Among his works are: 
"bunkle Geschichten," 1868; '-Maria Theresa und 
der Schwarze Papst," 1870; "Das Schwarze Kabi- 
net " ; " Schone Simderin '' ; " Die Kaisertochter als 
Br.tute," 1890; and the historical comedies "Ein 
Stundcheu auf der Karlsschule " and " Die Eutfiih- 
rung aus dem Auge Gottes." 

Bibliogr.xpht: Das GeiMige Wien. pp. .32,33: Wurzbacl), 
Biogr. Lexikon dcg Kaiscrthums Ocsterriich, i, 3i!-:333, 
S. E, Ms. 

BERN : Capital of the Swiss Confederation. 
Jews resided within its territory as early as the sixth 
century, but the first documentary evidence of Jew- 
ish iuhabitautsin Bern is for the year 1 ■259, Though 
luider the protection of the city, with the emperor 
as their real liege lord, they were usually in an un- 
protected state. In the separate Jews' street in 
which they lived, near the present Casino, was also 
their cemetery, which, after their expulsion iu 1394, 
became private property ; and in the " luselgasse " — 
as the Jews' street was called after the convent built 
by the "Inselsch western" — there was found iu 1888, 
wlien the " luselspital " was torn down, the tomb- 
stone of a .Jew, dated 1293 (Studer, iu " Archiv des 
Historischen Vereins des Ivautons Bern," iv. 1, 38: 
iv. 2, 15; viii. 56, 212), 

The Jews of Bern devoted themselves exclusively 

to banking and pawnbroking. As in Basel and 

Zuiich, the rate of interest fixed by the goverumeut 

was 43j, two pennies per week in the 

.Tews pound; later it was reduced to 30'?. 

Bankers All classes — the clergy and the nobles, 
and Pawn- the burghers and the peasants, as 

brokers. well as the convents and the towns — 
regarded the .Tews as their brokers; 
and iu order to protect the Christians, the city coun- 
cil decreed, at Easter in 12SB, that the term set for 
repayment should be limited to one year. Through 

their money transitetious the Jews earned the hatred 
of the populace, and as the citizens of Bern were 
deeply iu debt to the Jews and, through various cir- 
cumstances, were reduced to financial straits, they 
cast about, shortly after the death of Emperor Ru- 
dolf, for means of acquittal. 

A pretext for action against the Jews was soon 
found. In 1294 they were accused of having kid- 
najjed and killed a boy named Rudolf (Ruff). This 
accusation, which was also made at about the same 
time against the Jews of Colniar and >[ayence, suf- 
ficed to start a persecution. The Jew Joel (FiJli), 
who was regarded as the real offender. 

The Jews and all other Jews of Bern, women as 

Tortured well as men, were seized and mal- 
or treated, and either tortured or driven 

Expelled, from the town. This event has been 
wrongly assigned to the year 1287, 
diuing the reign of Emperor Rudolf (Stettler, 
"Schweizer Chrouik," i. 20; Justinger, "Berner 
Chronik," pp. 38 et seq.; Ulrich, "Schweizer Ge- 
schichten," pp, 144 et seq. ; '" 'Emek ha-Baka," p. 56; 
Zunz, "S. P." p. 33, etc.; compare "Annalcs Col- 
niariens." 28, for the year 1294: "Judan Bernenses 
Puerum nt Dixeruut Occidenmt " ; Tillier, " Gesch. 
des Freistaates Bern," i. 72; on the murder of the 
Ijoy Rudolf, see Stammler, in " Katholische Schweiz- 
erblatter," 1888). 

King Adolf, perhaps appealed to by the Jews 
themselves, appointed a commission to iuvestiL: 
the matter, cotuposed of the liishop Peter of Ba- 
the knight Gottfried von Merenberi:. 
Their governor of the realm in Burgundy , 
Claims Cuno von Berglieim, and Hart maun 

Forfeited, von Ratzenhausen. This commissiou 
decided. June 30. 1294, that the Je« -, 
male and female, should f<irfeit all their claims 
against the mayor, the council, the community, ami 
every one living iu Bern up to the time of the de- 
cree; that they should give up all their securi; 
and pledges; and that, iu addition, they should p _ 
to the couuuunity one thousand marks in silver, and 
to the mayor of Bern live hundred marks iu silver 
— according to the standard of weight in Bern. King 
Adolf confirmed this enactment Aug. 1, 1294, in 
Frankfort-ou-the-Main. The Jews assigned to the 
mayor iu payment of his share their claims against 
the Knights of St, John, the monastery of luterlaken, 
Ulrich von Thor, and others, A characteristic ex- 
pression is found in the receipt of the mayor, Jak' 'li 
von Kienl>erg: "Pro occasione pueri, videlicet b. 
Rudolfi quem dicti Judei, ut dicitur, occiserunt " 
The .same cautious pliraseology, "ut dicitur, " was 
employed by King Albrecht six years later, when In 
confirmed the decree. April 29. 1800 ("Solothunii i 
Wocheublatt," 1828, pp. 192 et seq.). The Bern. - 
immediately attached the property of the Jews. A 
woman, Berchta von Hiibstetten, was forced to give 
up a chest filled with gold, silver, ornaments, veils, 
etc., that had been confided to her by the Jew Vivi 
iin and his partner (document of Aug, 14, 1294, 
•'Monatsschrift," xiii. 49 it scq. ; Stohlie. "Die Judeu 
in Deutschland," p. 283, which reads "1494" instead 
of "1294," and "Bertha" instead of "Berchta"). 

E.xpelled from Bern, the Jews returned befor.' 
the middle of the fourteenth century ; and wlieu tli.- 



Berznann, Moriz 
Bernal, Isaac 

Black Death swept the country iu 1349, the people 

of Bern aud of Zotingen gained the questionable 

reputation of fanning everywhere the 

Persecu- hatred against the Jews, burning or 
tion banishing them and destroying evi- 

Benewed. dences of indebtedness to them, as at 
the former persecution. 

Twenty -five years later there were again Jews at 
Bern. In 1379 Master Isaac von Tanne, who lived 
thei-e, loaned to the city of Freiburg 1,470 gold 
gulden. This "modest man," probably from Thann 
iu Alsace, was, like Master Mathys Eberlin and his 
wife, Esther Merliuou, a money-lender. 

At the end of the fourteenth century the Bernese 
showed a positively friendly feeling for the Jews, 
not only permitting them, for linaucial reasons, to 
settle in Bern, but naturalizing them for periods of 
si.x years, iu consideration of a J'carly tax of si.xty 
schiltfrankeu iu gold. The}- were not 

Natural- restricted in their worship; on their 

ized and festival days the}- were not to be called 
Patronized, into court ; matters of dispute among 
themselves could either be decided 
according to Jewish law or be brought before tlie 
Bernese courts; butchers were enjoined to sell the 
meat killed according to Jewish ordinance, at the 
same jirice as other meat. About this time Chris- 
tians also engaged in the money-lending business 
iu rivalry with the Jew-s. 

As soon as the Bernese were easier financialh', the 
old hatred against the Jews revived, stimulated 
by Justiuger, author of a Bernese chronicle, who 
was also a notary public, and as such carried on 
money transactions. His proposition to exjiel the 
Jews found no lack of supjiort, for 

Banished. " the Council and the Two Hundred of 

tlie City " decided unanimously. Jlay 

10. 1427, to drive the Jews forever from thecitj- and 

the couutr}'. This decision was carried into effect, 

aud matters continued thus for several hundred j-ears. 

Not until about 1820 did Jew-s again settle at 

Bern, and coming, as they did, main!}- from Al.sace 

as French citizens, they were given 

Beadmis- alisolute religious freedom. In 1S6.5 

sion and Bern had twenty-seven Jewish fami- 

Freedom. lies, which, having had a synagogue 
since 185.5, formed themselves into an 
association for worship ("Cultusverein"). In 1875 
the community numbered 286 persons; in 1897. 348. 
It had a religious teacher, a burial society (hebrah 
Ijaddishah), and a fund for sick women. The canton 
of Bern had iu 1874 1,000 Jews; in 1897, 1.195. The 
University of Bern was the first to appoint Jews as 
pi'otessors. The well-known physiologist, G. Val- 
entin, who was the first Jew to be naturalized, oli- 
tained a position there as early as 1835. Later on 
the university numbered among its professors Laza- 
riLs, Munk, the two Schiffs, Ludwig Stein, aud 
others. In the federal offices J, Dreifus of En- 
diugen occupied, in 1901, a most respected position. 

BlB1.10GR,\PIIY: Kopp. Gexrli. ihr Kiilrifnnssixi-lini Iiili}'h\ 
ill. 1, IW; Tolilcr. /.ur lirxih. ilerJuih ii iiii All in Ihrii. in 
Arelih' dtx llialiirisrlirii Vcri'inx, xll. S3ii cl mi;.; KaysiT- 
line. Die Juilen in Bern, in Monatfschrift, .xiii. 4ti f( .so/.; 
Sliitulin (Irs (^nllusvereins clcr IsracUteti in dcr StcuU 
Jiiin, Bern, 18tj5. 
G. M. K. 

BERN.MAXIMILIAN: German author : 
born at Kherson, South Russia, Nov. 18, 1849, where 
his father practised medicine. On the hitter's death 
Bern and liis mother went to Vienna that he might 
complete liis education. The loss of liis fortune 
forced him to abandon his studies at the university, 
and in 1873 he became private tutor to the appren- 
tices at an equestrian school. 

Bern soon tired of this occupation aud turned to 
literatui'e for a livelihood. His novel, "Auf 
Schwankem Gruude, " met with considerable suc- 
cess, though in this, as in fact in most of his wri- 
tings, Bei'u is inclined to the gloomy desi)air of the 
majority of Slavonic w-riters. The success of liis 
first novel enabled him to visit Berlin, Hamburg, 
Leipsic, Dresden, Fi-ankfort, and Jlunich. at all of 
which places he studied assiduously. In 1886 ho 
went to Paris, and a year later married a young 
Austrian acti-ess, Olga Wohlbriick. In 1888 he 
settled in Berlin. Bern is the author of : "Gestriipp," 
1876; "Deutsche Lyrik seit Giithe's Tode." 1877; 
"Meine Geschiedene Frau," 1878; "Sich Selbst im 
Wege." a sketch of stage-life, 1877; "Eiu Stummer 
^Musikant," 1879; "Liliput." 1879; "Anthologie fiir 
die KinderstuVie," 1879 ; " Illustrirter Hausschatz fUr 
die Jugend," 1880; "Aus der Gesellschaft," an al- 
manac," 1881-82; "Am Eigeneu Hei-d." 1886; "De- 
klamatorium." anthology, 1887; " LustigeSlimdeu," 
1887; "Himmelaul" 1889; "Christlieiies Gedeuk- 
buch," 1893; " Evangelisches Deklamatorium." 1895. 

Bibliography: Das Gcistigc Berlin, pp. 21,22; Kiii'schner, 
Deutscher Literatur-Kaleuder, p. 89. 
s. E. Ms. 

BEBN, OLGA i/n'r Wohlbriick): Austrian 

author; wife of Maximiliau Bern; born at Vienna 

July 5, 1865. She went on the stage under her own 

name, Wohlbriick, and while at the Odeon, Paris, 

in 1887, married the German auth(5r Bern. She 

abandoned the stage for literature iu 1888. She is the 

author of "Aus Drei Liimlern." 1890, short stories; 

"ruausloschlich und Andere Novellen." 1S92; "Car- 

rifere." 1892; "Gliick," short stories, 1893; "Das 

Kecht auf Gliick, " a drama, 1893 ; aud " Vater Chaim 

und Pater Benediktus," a novel. 

Bibliography : Das Geistiye neilin. pp. 22,2:i. 
s. E. Ms. 

martyr; burned at the stake by the Imiuisiiion of 
Cordova May 3. 1655. His martyrdom is ci'lcbrated 
in a work published by Jacob Beriial (Amsterdam, 
16.55). entitled "Elogios que Zelozos Dedicaron a la 
Felice Menioria de Abraham Nunez Bernal que fue 
Quemado Vivo, Santifieando el Nombre de su Cria- 
dor," etc., and dedicated to Senor Elian Nunez Ber- 
nal. The work contains, among other items, a ser- 
mon in Beriial's honor iireached liy Isaac Aboab. and 
poems bv Daniel a Ribera. Eliakim Castriel, Joseph 
Frances "of Hamburg, .Tonali Abravanel. Samuel de 
Castro, and Jacob de Pina. 

Biblioc;raphy: Zunz, .s. P. p. ati: KayserlinB. .<!(•))'""•<*"'>. 
|)p. am. 354: idem, Bihlinteca E^pan.-Puil.-Judaiea. pp. 


MEYDA: Spaiiislj martyr ; lioru iu Moutilla 1633; 
burned at the stake in St. lago de Compostclla 

Bernal, Uaestro 
Bernardiuus of Feltre 



(Galicia. Spain), in the month of March. 1655. at the 
age of twenty-two. He was a nephew of Abraham 
Nunez Berxal. AVhen only seventeen (1650) he 
had been thrown into the prison of the Inquisition 
at Vallatiolid. Daniel Levi de Barrios mentions 
Bernal in his "Goviemo Popular Judayco" as a rela- 
tive. In the volume entitled "Elogios" (see Abra- 
ham Nunez Bernal) there is a " Kelacion del felice 
martirio del invicto Ishack de Almeida Bernal que 
murio vivo en fuego siiutificando el nombre del 
Senor . . . " : as well as poems in honor of Bernal 
by Daniel a Ribera, Jonah Abravauel. Jacob de 
Pina. Samuel de Castro, Abraham Castanho, Isaac 
Israel. Daniel Arango, and a sermon by Jacob 
D. G. 

BEKNAL, MAESTRO : A :Marano. ship-phy- 
sician on the tirst voyage of Columbus to America. 
He had lived in Tortosa and had undergone public 
penance in October, 1490. as an adherent of Juda- 
ism. Columbus, by his arrogant conduct, aroused 
the enmity of the physician, who instigated a con- 
spiracy against the admiral in Jamaica which seri- 
ously affected his destiny. 

Bibliography: M. KayserlinE, Chrlstnphcr Culumbm, pji. 90, 
133, New York, 18W; see also AMERICA, The Discovert bF. 
G. A. 

BERNAL, RALPH: Politician and art-col- 
lector; died iu 1S54. His ancestors were of Spanish- 
Jewish origin. His father was Jacob Israel Ber- 
nal, a West-Indian merchant, who in 17-14 refused 
the office of giibny (treasurer) of the Portuguese con- 
gregation because he decided to marry Josebeth 
Baruh. a "Tudesca" or German Jewess, which he 
was only allowed to do under humiliating conditions 
(Picciotto. "Sketches of Anglo-Jewish History," p. 
167). Ralph was entered at Christ's College. Cam- 
bridge, where he took his degrees of B.A. and M.A. 
in 1806 and 1809 respectively." In 1810 he was called 
to the bar as a member of Lincoln's Inn, but inherit- 
ing extensive property in the West Indies, he pre- 
ferred a iiarliaincutaiy to a legal life. For thirty- 
four years (1818-52) he had a seat in the House of 
Commons, where he represented the city of London 
from 1818 to 18':20. and Rochester from i8'30 to 1841. 
During that period he spent £66.000 in election con- 
tests. In the latter year he contested the constitu- 
ency of Weymouth, and was seated on petition. 
After representing that borough from 1&41 till 1847, 
he returned to Rochester, continuing to sit for it 
until his retirement from political life in 18.52. Ilis 
parliamentary career was uneventful, although 
throughout he was prominent in the rjtnks of the 
Whigs, and from 1830 till 1850 acted as chairman 
of committees. Though brought up as a Christian, 
he recognized the claims of his Jewish ancestrj- by 
supporting the bills for the removal of Jewish dis- 
abilities, introduced while he was in the House. He 
was known in his day chiefly as an art -collector in 
antique china and plate; and at his death an at- 
tempt was made to secure his collection for the na- 
tion, but it was imsuccessful. and the collection was 
sold in 1855. Two catalogues of his works of art 
were issued. He was twice married, and had issue by 
both wives. 

Bibliography: Diet. yat. DifO-: Sir H. Cole, Biographu; 

Picciotto, Sketches uf Auglij-JewMi Histoni, PP. 2S!>-291: 
Gentleman's ilagazine, ISSJ and 1854. 
J. G. L. 

BERNARD, ABRAHAM: Russian physician ; 
born in 1702. He studied at London in 1789; 
practised medicine in Hasenpoth, Courland. Russia; 
became district physician in Shawli, government 
of Wilna ; was subsequently appointed inspector of 
various military hospitals in Lithuania ; and in 1809 
was made chief surgeon of the hospital of Slonim. 
He also received the title of court councilor; prac- 
tised at Jlitau in 1810-11; and then settled in Mos- 
cow. He has published : " Griinde f lir die Inokula- 
tion; dem Lithauischen Landvolke Gewidmet," 
Mitau. 1799; " Observations sur I'Enterrement Pre- 
mature des Juifs," Mitau. 1799; and a German trans- 
lation of this last, under the title "Bemerkungen 
iiber das Friihe Beerdigen der Jlidischen Leichen," 
Mitau, 1802: " Medicinisch-Chirurgische Beobacht- 
ungeu in den Kriegshospitalern zu Kobrin und 
Slonim Gesanimelt." n. d. ; and " Behandlung eines 
Epidemischen Wurmlicbers, das im Jahr 1796 in 
Kurland Herrschtc," in Hufeland's "Journal fttr 
Praktische Arzneikunde," 1797, iv. 4, Ko. 5. 

Bibliography : Eecke and NapiersH, AVgcmeinrs Sehrift- 
steller uud Gelehrtcn-Lcxihun tier Pnivimeti Liev-, Esth- 
und Kurland, vol. i., s.c, Mitau, 1827 ; R. Wimderbar, Gesch. 
der Jtiden in den Provimen Liv- und Kurland. pp. 66- 
67 ; ib. 18.53, where " Bernard " is (tiven as " Bemliard." 

H. R. 

known as St. Bernard) : Church father; born 1091, 
near Dijon. France; died at Clairvaux Aug. 20, 
1153. He was originally a monk of the Cistercian 
order at Citeaux ; but, on being appointed abbot 
of Clairvaux, he founded a branch order known by 
his name, 160 monasteries of which came into exist- 
ence during his life. He vigorously opposed Abe- 
lard in 1140, as well as the introduction of the dogma 
of the immaculate conception. 

St. Bernard is distinguished for his activity in 
forming the second crusade in 1145-46, during which 
he traveled through France and Germany, preach- 
ing the crusade. One of the consequences of this 
was a succession of massacres of the Jews through- 
out the Rhine valley. This called forth an energetic 
protest by St. Bernard, which was sent to England, 
eastern France, and Germany (Bouquet, "Recueil," 
XV. 606). In this letter he laid down the general 
lines of policy with regard to the Jews by which 
the Roman Catholic Church has since been guided; 
and his arguments are those generally given, though 
without his name, in more recent pronouncement^ 
According to St. Bernard. Jews are not to be dis- 
turbed or destroyed, because they are living symbols 
of the Passion ; for which they are to be punished 
mainly by dispersion, so that they shall be witnesses. 
But they will ultimately be converted. How can 
this be if they are ground down? At the same time 
St. Bernard approves of the papal policy which de- 
clares that all usury on debts due by Crusader- 
shall lapse during their absence in the Holy Land. 

Bibliography : Neander. Der Hei'liyc Bernhard und Sein 
Zeitaller, Berlin, 1813; Cotter Morrison, Life and Timfs of 
St. Bcrna rd. London, 18»>3 : literature cited in Herzog- 
Hauei's Rcal-Encu. u. 623; Gratz, Geschichte, vi. 148, 151, 
G. J. 



Bernal, Maestro 
Bernardinus of Feltre 

BEBXABD (also Domeier), ESTHER (nee 
Gad) : German poetess ami authoress; born at Bres- 
lau, Silesia, about 1T70; died about 1814, On her 
mother's side Bernard was a granddaughter of Jona- 
than EybeschtUz, the famous rabbi of Prague and 

At the age of about twenty she was married to 
a certain Bernard, with whom she removed to Berlin. 
She preferred the latter plaee to Breslau for the 
reason she herself gave in a letter to Jean Paul Rich- 
ter in the following words: "Dortwird man iiber 
den Menschen nie den Juden vergessen ; und besttsse 
ich die grijssteu Verdienste, so wurde ich doch in 
Eure bessereu Zirkel nicht aufgenommen werden " 
(There [in Breslau] the Jew is never forgotten in the 
man, and were I to possess the highest merit, I 
should never be admitted to j'our higher circles). Her 
marriage with Bernard must have been unhappy, for 
after a few years she obtained a divorce and married 
Dr. Domeier of London, with whom she went to live 
in Malta. 

Even in lier girlhood Esther Bernard showed great 
talent for poetry and literature. Before her mar- 
riage to Bernard she contributed many poems to 
"Plumken's JIagazin" and Rausch's "Unterhalt- 
ungen." To the latter she contributed also a short 
story in English, "Marcus and Monima," 179.5. 
While the wife of Bernard she wrote "Beschreil)ung 
einer Wasserreise von Aussig Nach Dresden " (in 
"Deut,sche Monatsschrift ") ; "Eine Nachricht iiber 
das Drcsdener Museum " (in " Archi v der Zeit, " Nov. , 
1799, p. 445). Shewasalsoacontril)utorto"DerCos- 
mopolit" (June, 1795, pp. 577-599), and "Backer's 
Erzithlungen " (1798, iv. 372) for which she wrote 
some poems. "Backer's Almanach " for 1800 con- 
tains two poems by Bernard, one of which has been 
set to music by Ncuman, "Ueber Schiller's Picco- 
lomiui," in "Merkwurdigkeiten der Mark Branden- 
burg," March, 1800, p. 383. 

In Berlin, Bernard made the acquaintance of Com- 
te.sse de Genlis, the authoress of " Les Meres Ri vales, " 
whicli she translated into German under the title 
"Die Beiden Mutter," 2 vols., 1800. 

After her marriage to Dr. Domeier she wrote 
"GesammelteBliltter,"Leipsic, 1805; "BriefeWiih- 
rend Meines Aufenthaltes in England und Portu- 
gal," 2 vols., Hamburg, 1803; "Kritische Ausein- 
andersetzungen Mehrerer Stellen in dem Buclie 
der Frau von StaSl iiber Deutschland," Hanover, 

At the erection of the AVilhelmsschuIe in Breslau, in 
1791, for the instruction of Hebrew children, Esther 
Bernard celebrated the event in a poem in which she 
hailed the dawning of an era of freedom and equal- 
ity for the Jews of Silesia. 

Bibliography: Sulamilh. v. 2.i2-2.W, 2.S.5 ; Sehummel's Brr.'i- 
louer Almanach, 1., 18U1; Kayser's BUcher Lcxiknn, i. l^.'j, 

s. S. R. 

BERNARD OF GORDON : Christian physi- 
ciiin ; born probably at Gordon in Guienne, depart- 
ment of Lot, France; professor of medicine at Jlont- 
pellier about the year 1300. His " Lilium Medicina- " 
was much read by Jews, and several Hebrew trans- 
lations of it are extant ; e.g., that by Jekuthiel b. 
Solomon (Maestro Bonsenior) of Narbonne in 1387 

(nXlDin It'lB'); and another by Moses ben Samuel 

of Koquemaure (Gard), 1360 (riNIDin mS). 

BiELiOciEAPiiy : Slfinschnelder, Hchr. Ucben. p. 785; Renan- 
Neubauer, EcrieahisJuifs, p. 386. 

G- M. S. 

BERNARD, HERMANN : Teacher of Hebrew 
in the University of Cambridge, England; born of 
Austrian parents at Uman, or Human, a small town 
in southern Russia (at that time Poland), in the year 
1785. His father being a converted Jew, he was 
brought up as a Christian. He went to England in 
1835; settled in C'ambridge as a private teacher in 
1830 ; and was appointed " Praiceptor Lingua Sacra; " 
in the university on Oct. 18, 1837, succeeding Josc- 
phus Crool. He died at Cambridge, aged seventj'- 
two, on Nov. 15, 1857, after teaching there with 
marked success for twenty-seven years. 

Bernard published the following works: "The 
Creed and Ethics of the Jews E.xhibited in Selec- 
tions from the Yad ha-Hazakah of Maimonides"' 
(1833); and "Ha-Menahel" (The Guide of tlie He- 
brew Student), 1839. During Bernard's blindness 
in 1853 appeared "Me Meuuhot" (Still Waters), an 
easy, practical Hebrew grammar, in two volumes, 
by the Rev. P. H. Mason (afterward fellow and pres- 
ident of St. John's College) and Hermann Ber- 
nard. Bernard's lectures on the Book of Job, edited 
by his former pupil, Frank Chance (afterward a 
member of the Old Testament Revision Committee), 
appeared in one volume in 18(>4, but the editor's 
promised appendix was never published. 

J. C. T. 

friar; bnru at Feltre, Italy, in 14:i9; died Sept. 28, 
1494. He was one of the bitterest enemies the .Tews 
ever had, and openly advocated their utter exter- 
mination. He traveled throughout Italy preaching 
a crusade against them, the burden of his sermons 
being: "Let Christian parents keep a watchful eye 
on their children, lest the Jews steal, ill-treat, or 
crucify them." As a worthy disciple of Capistrano, 
whom he held up as the type and moilel of a true 
Christian, he knew that his eloquence 
His woulil be of no avail among the aris- 

Preaching. tocracy, the members of which, guided 
by their interests, iirotected the Jews. 
He therefore endeavored to inllame the lower classes 
and to arouse the ill-will of the populace against the 

Because certain Jewish capitjilists had been suc- 
cessful, he depicted all Jews as vampires and extor- 
tioners. In his sermons he was wont to say: "I, 
who live on alms and eat the liread of the poor, shall 
I be a dumb dog and not howl when I see the Jews 
wringing their wealth from Christian poverty'? Yea! 
shall I not cry aloud for Christ's sake'? " 

These sermons bore fruit. At Ravenna Bernardi- 
nus incited the populace to such a degree that he 
was enabled to ex]iel the Jews with violence and to 
send deputies to Venice to solicit a legal sanction for 
the expulsion. The authorities of Florence were 
constrained to order Bernardinus to quit the coun- 
try, so that a rising which was imminent might be 
prevented (1487). At Campo San Pietro Bernardi- 
nus expelled a Jewish pawnbroker and established 
a gratuitous pawnbroking institution. 

Bernardinus of Feltre 
Bernays, Jacob 



All Jewish occupations and enterprises were 
equally tlie obiects of Bernanlinus' reprobation. The 
inhabitants of Sienna engaged a Jewish physician. 
Beruardiiuis delivered a series of sermons in which 
he reiirochiced all the idle tales spread among the 
people respecting the hatred that the Jews nourished 
toward Christians. He related that a Jewish pliysi- 
cian of Avignon on his death-bed recalled with 
delight the fact of having killed thousands of Chris- 
tians through his drugs. The consequence of these 
sermons was that the lower classes and tlie women 
abstained from liaving recourse to the Jewish physi- 

These partial successes notwithstanding, the ef- 
forts of Bernardinus mostly failed of effect. The 
Italian pi'ople were actuated by good common sense, 
and the authorities sorel}' hindered Bernardinus in 
his Jew-baiting. It was in the Tyrol that he suc- 
ceeded in bringing about a bloody persecution. 

^\'hile Bernardinus preached in the city of Trent, 
some Christians called him to accoimt for his hatred 
of Jews, remarking that the Jews of Trent were 
worthy jieople. "Ye know not." replied the monk, 
"what niisfortime these folks will bring upon you. 
Before Easter Sunday is past they will give you a 
proof of their extraordinary goodness." Chance 
favored him with a good opportunity. 

During Holy Week of the year 147.5 a Christian 
child named Simon, who was three years old, was 
drowned in the Adige, and his body 
Simon was caught in a grating near the house 
of Trent, of a Jew. The Jew gave notice of 
this occurrence to Bishop Hinderbach. 
The body was removed to the church and exhiljited, 
and Bernardinus and other hostile jiriests raised an 
ontcry against the Jews, .saying that they had put 
the child to torture and then slain him and thing 
him into the water. The bishop ordered the impris- 
onment of all the Jews, who, with one exception, 
when subjected to torture confessed. Thereupon 
all the Jews of Trent were burned, and it was deter- 
mined that thereafter no Jew should settle in the 
city (see Simon of Tkent). 

Bernardinus endeavored to make use of tins occur- 
rence to bring about the ruin of the Jews. At his 
instigation the corpse was embalmed, andcommendid 
to the people as a sacred relic. Pilgrimages to the 
remains were made by thousands of ])ersons, and be- 
fore many days several of them claimed they had 
seen a halo about the body. This new miracle was 
announced from every chancel, and fomented the 
excitement of the rabble against the Jews to such a 
degree that even in Italy they dared not go outside 
the towns, in spite of all that the doge and the 
Senate of Venice as well as Pope Sixtus did to stem 
the tide of hatred. Gregory XIII. canonized both 
— Bei'nardinus as a prophet, and Simon as a martyr. 

nini.ioRRAPHY: Adn Sianctnrum. vll. 28 Sept.; Berne Ori- 
entate, ii. 40, 41 ; Criitz, (lescli. (ter Juilen, viii, 2.'» et »eq. 
o. I. Bit. 

BERNAYS, ISAAC (known as Hakam Ber- 
nays) : Chief rabbi in Hamburg: born 17t»2 at Ma- 
yenee; died Mux 1, 184!), in llambuig. Aflerhaving 
finished his studies at the University of Wi'irzburg, 
in which city he had been also a disciple of the well- 
known Taliuudist R. Abraham Bino, he went tn 

Munich as private tutor in the house of Herr von 
Ilirseh, and afterward lived at Mayence as a private 
scholar. In 1821 he was elected chief rabbi of the 
German-Jewish community in Hamburg, to till a 
position where a man of strictly Orthodox views but 
of modern education was wanted as head of the con- 
gregation. After personal negotiations with Lazarus 
Rie.sser (father of Gabriel Riesskis), who went to see 
him in Mayence, Beruays accepted the office on 
characteristic tenus; naniel.v, that all the religious 
and educational institutions of the community were 
to be placed imder his personal direction ; he wanted 
to be responsible to the government oulj-. Besides 
this he required a fixed salaty, inde|iendent of inci- 
dental revenues, and wished to be called "clerical 












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Isaac Bemays. 

functionary "or "hakam," as the usual titles, "moreh | 

zedek" or "rabbi "did not seem to him highly es- 
teemed at that time. 

In 11-122 he began the reform of the Talmud Torah 
school, where the poorer children of the communiiy 
had till then been taught Ilelirew and arithmetic. 
He added lessons in German, natural science, geog- 
raphy, and history as iiuportant parts of the curric- 
ulum, and by l.S2~ what had formerly been merely 
a religious class had been changed toagood elemen- 
tary public school, which could well prepare il- 
jnipils for life. In spite of this great progress the 
council of the community wanted to take a greater 
]iart in the supervision of the ccnu'.se of instruction, 
and in consequence of differences with the hakam 
resulting from claims, they withdrew the sub- 
vention of the school in 1830; but through the inter- 
vention of the senate of Hamburg this was again 
granted in 1833, though Bernays was denied the 
presidential seat he had till then (iccujued in the 
council of the school and was made instead "epho- 
rus" of the school. In 1849 he died suddenly of 
apoplexy, and was buried in the Grindol cemetery. 



Bernardinus of Feltre 
Bernays, Jacob 

Bernays possessed wide philosophical views, a 
rare knowledge of the Bible, Midrash. and Talmud, 
and an admirable flow of language: he was indeed a 
boin orator. He was the first Orthodo.x German 
rabbi who introduced the German sermon into the 
ser\ice. and wlio tried to interpret the old Jewish 
feeling in modern form and to preserve the ancestral 
creed even in cultured circles. His antagonists were 
tlierefore to be found in the ranks of the ascetic 
fanatics of the "klaus" as well as among the adher- 
ents of the "Temple," a reform synagogue founded 
in 1819, against whose prayer-book Bernays had 
pronounced an anathema. B}' lectures on the 
Psalms, on Judah ha Levi's "Cuzari." etc., he tried 
to strengthen and to deepen the religious life of the 
community, the institutions of which he supervised 
very carefully. His influence is still felt in the 
Hamburg community, where Jewish traditions and 
the study of Jewish literature are often found united 
with modern education. 

Bernays left no literary works. A small anony- 
mous essay, "Der Bibelscbe Orient" — of great lin- 
guistic learning and original and wide historical 
views on Judaism — was supposed to have been 
wiitten b_v him in earlj- j'ears: l)ut he denied the 
authorshi)). and never in later life showed any con- 
formity with the views of the little book. Of his 
sous the ci'lebrated philologist Jacob Bernays, pro- 
fessor and chief librarian at the University of Bonn, 
kept faithful to the religious views of liis fatlier. 
while the well-known literary historian Michael 
Bernays. who was only fourteen years old on his 
father's death, was converted to Christianitv- Ber- 
nays' best pupil was Samson Raphael Hiitscii, the 
well-known leader of modern Orthodoxy.;H.vpnv : Hiiarbleicher. Zirt'i Kpnchrn aus der Ge~ 
scJiklilr lUr Lhutsvli-l!<ritditisclien Gemeiude zu Hamlntrg. 
Hanihurc, 18U7: T. Uoldselimidt, The Talmud Torah School 
I'lidei- the Chacham Bernaus (inedlted). 
I). A. Fe. 

BERNAYS, JACOB : German philologist ; born 
at Hamliuig Sept. 18, 1824; died at Bonn May 26, 
1881. He was the eldest son of the hakam Isaac 
Bernays, who carefully guided his elementary edu- 
cation until he was sent, in 1844, to Bonn to attend 
the university. There he studi<'d philology under 
G. 'Welcker and F. Ritschl, becoming particularly 
attached to the latter. His philosophical studies he 
pursued under Brandis. It was during his four 
years' career at the universitj' that in competition 
foragold prize he stibmitted a treatise on Lucretius, 
which won for him not only the juize. but also the 
ailiniration of Ritschl, who strongly advised him to 
devote him.self to a professional career. The work 
was afterward published under the title " Die Aus- 
gabedes Lucretius" (Leipsic, 18.')2). Bernays grad- 
uated in 1848, and in the same year issued his " Her- 
aclitea" (Bonn, 1848). In the following year he 
lieearuc privat-docent at his alma mater, and in the 
same year published at Bonn his "Florilegium 
Renaseentes Latinitatis." He was also engaged 
in editorial work on the " Rheinische Museum." 
fotmded by Niebuhr, and conducted by Welcker 
and Ritschl. 

The serious work of organizing the Jewish Theo- 
logical Seminary at Breslau, the funds for the 
establishment of which had been provided by Jonas 

Friinkel, was actively begun in 1853, and the work 
was practically of a pioneer nature. Bernays was 

among the first to be called upon to 

Organizes be associated with Zacharias Frankel. 

Jewish Graetz. and Jofl in this task of out- 

Theo- lining the plan and method of study 

log'ical to be pursued in the new seat of learn- 

Semiuary. ing, where rabbis were to be trained 

in accordance with the scientific edu- 
cational ideas of the time, instead of with the anti- 
quated methods of they eshibah. Bernays was indeed 
peculiarly fitted to cooperate in such an un<lertaUing ; 
for, besides his profound classical learning and his 
university experience, he was a thorough Hebrew 
•scholar and, moreover, was intensely Jewish in 
thought, feeling, and mode of life. 

When the seminary was opened (Aug. 10, 18.')4) 
Bernays began his actual teaching; his subjects 
including not only regular in Greek and 
Latin, but sjiecial as well in the history of 
German literature, history of Hebrew poetry, the phi- 
losophy of religion, ilbistrated by the "Cuzari" and 
" Moreli Nebukim." In addition he condncted ex- 
ercises in German style. The annual rejiorts of the 
seminar}- were enriched each year with some treatise 
prepared by one or another of those connected with 
the institution. Bernaj's contributed three of these 
during the twelve years of his association with the 
faculty: "Uelier das Phokylidische GedichI " (Ber- 
lin, 18.")6): "Die Chronik des Sulpicius Severus " 
(Berlin, 1801); and "Theophrastos' Schrift Uber 
Friinunigkeit" (Berlin, 1866). These were after- 
ward published separately. 

Bernays' activity during his sojourn at Breslau 
was not. however, confined to his work at the semi- 
nary, as he had at once connected himself with the 
University of Breslau as privat-docent with re- 
markable success. As a consequence his genenil 
literary productiveness was considerable and note- 
worthy. In 1855 there appeared in Berlin " Die 
Lebensbeschreibung des Joscjih J. Scali.irer. " Two 
j'cars later was produced the work tipon which, 

jirobably more than on any other one 

His I if his writings, his claim upon the 

Activity at notice of scholarly posterity will have 

Breslau. to rest, "Grundzi'ige der Yerlorenen 

Abhaudlung des Aristoteles i'lber die 
Wirkung der Tragodie " (Breslau. 1857). As late as 
1882. in his report on the Aristotelian literature in 
the" Jahresberiditf i'lr die Alt ert hums- Wisscnschaft." 
Dr. Su.s<'milil of Greifswald speaks of the deluge of 
writings called forth by tlu' "GrundzUge" as not 
having even then s\ibsided. Another contribution 
to Aristotelian literature by Bernays during this 
period is "Die Dialoge des Aristoteles im Verlulltuiss 
zu Seinen Uebrigen Werkeu " (Berlin. 186:)). 

From his alma mater there came at last the recog- 
nitiiin that was his due. Ritschl left his iinsition at 

Bonn University in 1866; ami the call 
Called to was sent to Bernays to fill the place 
Bonn of assistant profes.sor an<l chief libra- 
University, rian. With the greater responsibilities 

now thrust upon him, however, he 
still fotmd time for the iiroductiou of some of 
the best and most scholarly of his writings. "Die 
Ileraklitischen Briefe " was published at Berlin in 

Bernays, Michael 
Bernhardt, Martin 



1869. In 18T2 appeared his " Uebersetzung der Drei 
Ersten BiUher von Aristoteles' ' Politik." " "Ucber 
die unter Philo's AVerken Stehende Scliiift: ' Uebcr 
die Unzerstorbarkeit des Weltalls ' " was issued in 
1876, and "Liiciau iiud die Cyuiker" in 1879. In 
1880 there appeared "Zwei Abhaiullungeu liber die 
Aristoteliseho Theorie des Dramas," whicli is a 
republication of the "Grundziige" of 1857 and tlie 
"Ergiiiizinitren zu Aristoteles' Poetik." His last 
work was " Phokiou und Seine Neuern Beurteiler" 
(Berlin. 1.S><1). 

Suddenly, amid this congenial activity, Bernays 
was stricken with sickness, which very soon and 
unexpectedly en<led fatally. He was but liftysevcn 
years of age: and the grief felt at bis early demise 
was profound and wide-spread, alike among profes- 
sors and students and his coreligionists. Though 
fifteen years away from the Jewish Seminary at 
Breslau. he still remained devoted to it. and be- 
queathed to it his Hebrew library. 

Bernays' collected writings, edited by Usener, 
were published in two volumes, Berlin, 1885. 

Bibliography: Brockliaiis, ConvcrfatUnis-Lcxikoju s.v. 
s. M. Co. 

BERNAYS. MICHAEL : German historian' of 
literature; born at Hamburg Xov. 27. 1834; died at 
Carlsruhe Feb. 25. 1897; sou of Hakam and brother 
of Jacob Bernays. He attended the Johanneum in 
his native city, where, principally under tlie guid- 
ance of Adolph Kraft, he devoted himself to the 
study of the classics. In a performance of "Antigo- 
ne." arranged at the gymnasium by Topfer. Ber- 
nays apjieaied as Kreoi). and is said already at this 
time to have excited admiration by the originality 
of conception revealed in his rendering of the lines. 
A few months later he entered the University of 
Bonn, where at first he devoted himself to the study 
of law. but soon abandoned it for that of classical 
philology, which, notwithstanding many unfavora- 
ble external circumstances, he thenceforth prose- 
cuted with unflagging perseverance. After com- 
pleting bis course at Bonn he went to Heidelberg, 
where he became a pupil of Gervinus and Holtz- 
mann. Shortly after his arrival there Bernays, 
although then scarcely twenty-one years of age, lec- 
tured ou Shakespeare before a literary student soci- 
ety which ho had founded, and whose members had 
bestowed upou him the title of " master." In 1855 
he received his doctorate and prepared to qualify 
himself for a professorship, while at the same time 
prosecuting his manifold literary labors. 

In 1859 Bernays published a festival ]ilay for the 

one hundredth anniversary of Schiller's birthday. 

and in 1864 he composed verses on the 

Literary tricentennial celebration of the birth 

Labors. of Shakespeare. Shortly afterward 
he wrote an explanatory text to Bee- 
thoven's music to "Egmont," which was not only 
frequently spoken, but produced so lasting an im- 
pression that, thirty years later, the directors of the 
Carlsruhe Theater ordered from Bernays a similar 
prologue for Mozart's " I{e(|uiem." Despite these 
occasional literary productions, however, Bernays 
steadily pursued his studies; and he even refused 
an offer from Treitschke to participate in the editor- 

ship of the •• Preussische Jahrbucher." fearing that 
the duties of such a position might divert him from 
his main purpose. In the same year. 1866. he pub- 
lished his first celebrated work. "Zur Kritik und B 
Geschichte des Goetheschen-Textcs," in which he i' 
once for all established the necessity of applying the 
methods of classical philology in the criticism of the 
modern masters. 

Shortly after the Franco-Prussian war. which so 
powerfully stimulated the general interest in the 
national poetry. Bernays received a call to the Uni- 
versity of Leipsic, and such was his popularity as 
a lecturer there that within a very short time after 
his arrival the largest hall of the university was in- 
adequate to accommodate the audience. It was the 
enthusiasm thus aroused that now induced the art- 
loving king of Bavaria, Ludwig II., to found a spe- 
cial chair of German literature — the first to be estab- 
lished — at Munich, and to summon Bernays thither 
as extraordinary professor, who thus, at the age of 
thirty-nine, ahead)- beheld the fulfilment of his 
dearest wishes. After an activity of eighteen 
months Bernays received a regular professorship, 
and this position he held until his resignation in 
1889, when he removed to Carlsruhe. 

In striking contrast with many university pro- 
fessors. Bernays rarely confined himself to the writ- 
ten copy before him ; for he was gifted, above all, 
with a marvelous memory. It is sjtid 
Professor that he could recite lengthy poems 
of German and dramas, such as " Hermann und 
Literature. Dorothea " and " Tasso, " from begin- 
ning to end without faltering or be- 
traying any evidence of fatigue. With this faculty, 
which he had cultivated from early youth. Bernays 
united an unusually extensive yet accurate knowl- 
edge of the literature of ancient and of modern times. 
Thus he constantly enriched his discourse with copi- 
ous and pertinent citations refiectiug the inmost 
nature of the author under discussion. When to 
these qualifications are added a voice of exceptional 
flexiliility and power, and a carefully studied elo- 
quence of gesture, the great popularity of the lec- 
turer can be readily understood. 

In his published works Bernays aimed to transfer 
the methods of classical philology to the domain of 
modern literary history and criticism. 
As Author, and endeavored to elevate these studies 
to an equality with the other academic 
sciences. Among his most popiular writings, besides 
those mentioned, are; "Briefo Goethe's an F. A. 
AVolf." Beriin. 1868; "Zur Entstehungsgeschichte 
des Schlegelschcn Shakespeare." Leipsic, 1872: "Der 
Junge Goethe " — a collection of the poems and let- 
ters of Goethe during the years 1764-76 — 3 vols., 
Leipsic. 1875; "Goethe und Gottsched " — two biog- 
raphies — Leipsic. 1880; an introduction to a revised 
edition of Schlegel and Tieck's translation of Shake- 
speare. Berlin, 1871-72; an introduction to a cen- 
tenarv edition of Voss's translation of Homer, Stutt- 
gart, "l881. 

Apart from his literary activity. Bernays was fre- 
quently called upon to officiate on public occasions; 
as. for examiile, in 1883. when he was requested by 
the city of Munich to preside at the public dinner 
given in celebration of the emperor's birthday; and 



Bernays, Michael 
Bernhardt, Uartia 

in 1893 at Carlsrulie, whon lie delivered the dedica- 
tory address at the unveiling (if the Scheffe! monu- 
ment {see Bettelheim, "Biogruphisehe Blatter," 1895). 
In contradistinction to his brother Jacob, who strict 1}' 
observed the ordinances of Judaism, Michael Ber- 
nays early embraced Christianity. 

Bibliography: Bettelheim, Biniiraphi.icheK Jnlnhnch wid 
DeutKCher Nekrahiu, 1S97; Mllncheuer AlMieineint Zei- 
tuna, Feb. 28, 1897; Brockhaus, ConverxatUins-Lexikiin, s.v. 
s. J. So. 

BERNBURG. See Anhai.t. 

BERND, JTJLITJS D.: American merchant and 
pliilanthroiiist ; l)(>in in 1830: died at Pittsburg, Pa., 
Kov. 30, 1893. Bernd was a successful business 
man and highly esteemed by his mercantile associ- 
ates in Pittsburg. He was a member of the cham- 
ber of commerce. Being actively interested in phil- 
anthropic work, he was a directin' of the Gusky 
Orphanage and Home of Western Pennsylvania, an 
earnest worker for the Humane Sociely, and a mem- 
ber of the Kodef Sholer.i congregation. By his will 
he left a large amount to various charities, particu- 
larly to the Union of American Hebrew Congrega- 
tions, the Hebrew Union College, and the Gusky 
Orphanage. After giving to everj' charitable insti- 
tution in tlie county of Allegheny, without regard 
to creed or color, he bequeathed the residue of his 
estate, sliare and sliare alike, to the Hebrew Union 
College of Cincinnati, O., an<l to the city of Pitts- 
burg, Pa., the bequest to the city being conditioned 
on its creating a ilepartment or alcove in the Car- 
negie Library of Pittsburg, to be known as the " J. I). 
Bernd Alcove," which was accordingl)' instituted. 

\. J. Co. 

BERNFELD, SIMON : German publicist and 
rabbi; born in Stanislau, Galicia, Jan. (>, 18G0. His 
father, who was a good rabbinical scholar and also 
well versed in secular knowledge, was his first ui- 
strnctor. He took to writing Hebrew very early ; 
and at the age of thirteen he translated a German 
novel into that tongue. His first article, "About 
the Expulsion of the Jews from Nuremberg," was 
publislied in " Ha-Maggid " of 1879 (No. 23), as were 
various other contributions from his jieu. 

In 1879 Bernfeld went to Kiinigsljerg, where he 
hehl for sfnne time an editorial ])osition on JI. L. 
Rodkinson's Hebrew weekly, "Ha-Kol." In the 
fall of 1880 he left Konigsberg for Breslau, where he 
spent several months in great distress. Early in 1881 
he went to Lyck, Prussia, to become the assistant of 
David Gordon, editor of " Ha-Ma,ggid." He re- 
mained there for nearh' a year, and conliiuied tocou- 
trilnite articles and editorials for that iieiiodieal for 
several years after Iciiving Lyck. He returned to 
Konigsberg late in 1881, and after a year's prejiara- 
tion entered the university of that city, where he re 
maiiieii until the summer of 1888. 

A brigliter period in Bernfeld's life began with 
his arrival in Berlin in the summer of 1883. He en 
tered the university of thi' German e:ipital, and at the 
same time attended the Ilochschule fur die Wissen- 
sehaft des Judenthums. In 188.") lie became a regu- 
lar contributor to " Ha-Meliz " (St. Petersburg), and 
in the same year obtained his doctor's degree. In 
March, 18,S6, he was elected chief rabbi of the Span- 
ish and Portuguese community of Belgrade, the caji- 

ital of Servia, and director of the Jewish school in 
that city. This position be held for about seven 


Bernfeld now resides at Berlin, and occupies him- 
self mainly with writing in Hebrew and German. 
He is a German writer of varied and considerable at- 
tainments. His "Juden uud Judeiithum iin Neun- 
zehntcn Jahrhundert" (Berlin. 1898), which forms 
vol. iii. of the series "Am Ende des Jahrhunderts," 
edited liy Dr. Paul Bornstein, is a work of merit, 
and the same can be .said of his essay, " Der Talmud. 
Sein Wesen, Seine Bedeutung, und Seine Geschichte" 
(ISerlin, 1900). His new translation of tlie Bible, 
now in course of publication, has also been highly 
praised (.see " Allg. Zeit. des Judenthums," 1901. Xo. 
13). His chief signiticance. however, lies in thetield 
of Neo Hebraic literature. He belongs to the younger 
class of clear and forceful writers who have brought 
new life into modern Hebrew literature and have 
lifted the journalistic part of it to an eminence which 
it hiid not before attained. A clever journalist, 
Bernfeld writes on various subjects. In addition to 
innumerable articles in various periodicals, he has 
comiiiled pojuilar works on history, philo.sophy, and 
kindred subjects; while in the held of the history 
of the Jews, of which he made a sjiecial study, he 
has done valuable original work. 

The most important of his works arc: "Da'at 
Elohim " (Knowledge of God), a history of the relig- 
ious philosophy of the Jews from rudimentary phil- 
osophical s.ystcmsof the Bible down to that of Asher 
Ginzbcrg, the thinker of modern national Judaism 
(Warsaw, 1897); "Dor Tahapukot," a monograph 
on the Mendelssohuian period (ib. 189(5-98); and 
biographies of S. L. Kapojiort (1899), of Michael 
Sachs (Berlin, 1900), and of Gabriel Kiesser (War- 
saw, 1901). 

Bibliography : SifirZikhdrfiii, pp. i;!l-I3;! (autoliloKrapliloal 
slieti'li); I.ipiH", IlLliUiiiir.Lcxiliun,il.,Ui:ii.v.; Zeitlin, Bi'Wi- 
otheca HiUraica, s.v. 
8. P. Wl. 

BERNHARDT, MARTIN : German neurojiath 
and medical author; boruat PotsdamApril 10, 18-14. 
He was educated at the gymnasium of his native 
place and at the University of Berlin, where he .stud- 
ied under Virchow and Traulie. After graduating 
as 51. D. in 1867, he was aiipointed assistant to Ley- 
den at the Universitiits-Klinik at Kiinigslierg; and 
two years later, phj'sician at the Charite (free dis- 
liensary and hospital) at Berlin under Westphal. 
The Franco-German war interru|ited his clinical 
work, for he went to the front with the Landwehr. 
receiving a medal for bravery uiuler tire. On his 
return in 1873, he was appointed privat-docent of 
medicine and as specialist for neuropathy at the 
University of Berlin, and, ten years later, assistant 

Bernhardt, in addition to contributing numerous 
articles to medical publications, has been the editor- 
in-chief since 1885 of the "Centralblatt filr die 5Iedi- 
zinischen Wissenschaften," and Ihecorrespomleut of 
neuro|iathy and electrotherapy for Virchow-IIiisch's 
"Jahresbeiichte." He is also one of the collabora- 
tors of Eulenburg's " Realencyklopildie der Mc- 
dizin." His principal works are: "Die Sensibili- 
tiitsverhaltnisse der Haut," 1873; "Beitrage zur 

Bernhardt, Sarah 
Bernheim, Ernst 



Symptomatologk' und Diagnostik der Hirngc 
schwulste." 1881; "Elcctrieitalslehre flir Medizin." 
1884. in collal)oration with Professor Rosentbat: 
"Erkrankungon der PeripUeriscben Nerven," 1895- 

BIBLIOGRAPHT : Hirech, Biog. Lex., SSi, i. 421: Pagel, Biog. 
1901, p. 151. 
g h. .^l^. 

NARD): Frendi actress: born :it Paris (let. 32, 
1844. of Dutcb Jewish parentage. She was received 
into the Roman Catholic Church at the request of her 
father. Her early years were spent at the Convent 
Grand-Champs. Versailles, where she remained until 
fourteen years old. when she was received into the 
Conservatoire, where she studied dramatic art under 
Prevost and Sanson. Though, like Rachel, natu- 
rally inclined to comedy. Bernhardt won a prize for 
her work in tragedy. On Aug. 11. 1862— four years 
after beginning her dramatic studies — she made her 
debut at the Comedie Fran^aise in " Iphigenie. " Her 
success was but partial: and the e-\periment — for 
such it really was — resulted in further study and a 
short trip to Spain. On her return to Paris the 
young actress went to the Theatre du Gymnase. the 
Porte- Saint-Martin, and the Odeon (1864). and. a 
year later, back again to the Porte-Saint-Martin. 
Tliere she appeared as Armnnde in "Les Femmes 
Savantes," as Cordelia in " King Lear." and in her 
first male role, Zanetto, in Francois Coppee's "Le 
Passant" (1869). 

The outbreak of the Franco-German war inter- 
rupted her career for a time, the interval being 
spent in study and nursing the wounded. Her ne.\t 
appearance was on Nov. 6. 1872. when she played 
Mile, de Beth-Me at the Comedie Frangaise. For 
the next seven j'ears Bernhardt remained a member 
of this famous institution, of which she became a 
"societaire " in 187,5. Her greatest artistic triumphs 
were achieved there in " Phedre " ; " Andromaque " ; 
"Zaire"; "Alcm^ne": "'Ruy Bias" {Marie de Seu- 
bourg); "La Fille de Roland" (Btrthe); "Rome 
Vaincue" {Posl/itimia, the blind woman); "Le 
Sphinx " ; " LEtrangere " ; and in the classic plays 
of Racine and Corneille. 

In 1879 Bernhardt s eccentric behavior and temper 
led to a severance of her associations with the Comedie 
Fran^aise : and on a civil suit the actress was ordered 
to pay damages amounting to 100.000 francs. After a 
tour to London, Copenhagen, and America (1880-81) 
with a company of her own. Bernhardt returned to 
Paris, where she assumed the direction of the Theatre 
Ambigu (1882). The same year she was married to 
the actor Jacques Damala (died 1889). and played 
Pierrot at the Trocadero in a pantomime written by 
Richepin. She afterward leased the Theiitrc Vaude- 
ville, which she opened Dec. 11, 1882. with "Fe- 
dora," playing the title-role herself. Soon after, she 
returned to the Porte-Saint -Martin, which she opened 
Sept. 17, 1883. with "Frou-Frou." This was fol- 
lowed by "La Dame aux Camelias." "Nana Sahib." 
and "Theodora." During the season of 1886-87 she 
toured the United States, and on her return to the 
Porte-Saint-Martin appeared in "La Tosca." She 
revisited America in 1888-89. and on her return 

played at the Porte-Saint-Martin in "Jeanne d'Arc" 
and" "Cleopatre" (1890). 

Then followed an interval during which the ac- 
tress toured Europe. Returning to Paris, she en- 
gaged in 1893 the Theatre de la Renaissance, pro- 
ducing "La Femme de Claude." Lemaitre's "Les 
Rois,''^Barde's "Medee." "Magda," Rostand's "La 
Samaritaine" and his "La Princesse Lointaine" 
(189,1), and T:eil in D'Annunzio's "La Ville Morte" 
(1898). While leasing this house. Bernhardt gave the 
use of it to Duse, who played the French actress's 
role in "La Dame aux Camelias," while Bernhardt 
played the title-riile in "Magda." 

Her latest and most successful lease of a theater 
was when she took the Theatre de I'Opera Comique, 
formerly known as the Theatre Municipal des Na- 
tions, and converted it at considerable cost into the 
Theatre de Sarah Bernhardt (Jan. 18. 1899). Here 
she first essaj'ed Hamlet and latei' the Due de Reieh- 
stadt in Rostand's " L'Aiglon." In 1900-01 sheagain 
toured the L'nited States, with Coquelin. 

In addition to being an actress. Bernhardt is a 
dilettante sculptor and author. Her bust of Sardou 
attracted attention. Her writings consist of a book, 
"Dans les Nuages" (1878). and "L'Aveu.".a play 
produced at the Odeon in 1888. She has also written 
a rather frank autobiography, evoked by Marie 
Colombier's attack on Bernhardt in her notorious 
pamphlet "Sarah Baruum." 

As an actress. Sarah Bernhardt is the embodiment 
of the theatrical; every pose, every movement, 
every intonation of her voice being the result of 
careful, patient study. She belongs to the intellec- 
tual school of actors, splendidly intelligent, but 
rarely touching the heart, Bernhardt is always ad- 
mirable, l)ut neveraught save Bernhardt. Her voice 
is remarkable for its flexibility and timbre, and her 
grace of movement is one of her chief attractions. 
Whether she pla3'S the blind Posthumia. or Frou- 
Frou. or HainUt, or the Due de Reichit^dt . her per- 
sonality is always preponderant and she ever remains 
the French actress, Sarah Bernhardt. 

Bibliocrapht: Trc«(?)iiii.s(f)- Bcvieie. Ix. 301 ct sen.; La 
Grantle EnciidiniMie. s.v. ; The Critic, xxxv. 8.38-640; 
FnrtnightUi Review (new series), xlvi. 113-123; Harijer^s 
Magazine, lii. 63-68; youreau Larnusse lllustrc, u. 15. 
s. E. Ms. 

lologist and historian of literature; born at Lands- 
berg in the Neumark, province of Brandenburg, 
March 20. 1800; died at Halle May 14. 1875. His 
father was a merchant who had been successful and 
prosperous, but who in Gottfried's childhood had a 
series of business reverses that left him in a position 
where he had to struggle for the bare necessities of 
life and with but little prospect for providing the 
boy with a libera! education. At this juncture when 
the lad was about nine years old, two well-to-do 
brothers of his father, living in St. Petersburg, ar- 
ranged to provide the means for his schooling, and 
he was entered at the Joachimsthal Gymnasium, 
Berlin, where he remained six vears. being admitted 
to the Berlin University in 1817. Here in the pur- 
suit of his philological studies, to which he now es- 
pecially applied himself, he had the good fortune 
to study under F. A. Wolf — though the latter was 



Bernhardt, Sarah 
Bernheim, £rnst 

already in the declining years of his life — as well as 
under B5ckh and Buttmann. He received his desree 
as doctor of philosophy on Oct. 30, 1823, and in the 
same year published his first work, "Eratosthenica," 
a collection of the widely scattered fragments of the 
early Alexandrian astronomer. 

In 1823 he became privat-docent in philology at 
his alma mater, and two years later was appointed 
associate professor. He received a call from Halle 
in 1829 to assume the position of full professorship 
in tlie university there, and that of director of the 
philological seminary. This call he accepted, and 
Halle was the sphere of his activity for the rest of 
his life. During the two years from 1841 to 1843 he 
oOiciated as prorector of the university, and in 1844 
he was appointed chief librariiin, the duties of which 
position he fulfilled in additiim to his work of in- 
struction — not in any perfunctory fashion, but by 
reorganizing the library of the university in a com- 
plete and systematic manner. 

From the very beginning of Bernhard3-'s profes- 
sorial career he prosecuted his literary labors as 
well. During the lirst year of his advent to Halle, 
there appeared his " Wissensehaftliche Syntax der 
Griechischen Sprache. " In 1830 the tirst edition of 
his " Grundriss der Romischen Litteratur " was pub- 
Hshed. Of this successive revisions were issued in 
the years 1850, 1857, 1865, and 1872. The "Grund- 
liiiicn zur Encyklopadie der Philologie " was issued 
iu 1832. In the following year, work was begun on 
his version of Suidas, but the apjiearance of Gats- 
ford's great edition at O.xford necessitated a change 
of plan, and the work was not completed until 1851. 
Upon its pulilicatiou the king of Prussia conferred 
an order upon Bernhardy. The first jiart of the 
"Grundriss" — comprising the prose literature — was 
published iu 1886, subsequent editions being issued 
in 1861 and 1867-73. The poetical portion, consti- 
tuting the second part, was published in 1845. This 
went into a second edition in 1856. and was again 
republished in 1859 and 1867-72. Bernhardy began 
the editing of the " Bibliotheca Scriptorum Latino- 
rum " in 1838; but the work was not continued be- 
yond the first volume, as his contributors resented 
his extraordinary methods of revision by voluminous 
additions and amendments. His last literary work 
was the collecting and editing of the minor writings, 
both Latin and German, of F. A. Wolf, which were 
issued in two volumes in 1869. 

Bernhardy had always manifested a deep interest 
in all the local educational work at Halle, and had 
frecjuently been active in supervising the examina- 
tions. In 1867 the city of Halle honored him by ap- 
pointing him a memljer of the Curatorium of the 
newly erected gymnasium. Five years before he 
liad been appointed privy councilor (.Geheimer Re- 
■/ienntf/K-Hfith). The fiftieth anniversary of his doc- 
torate was enthusiastically celebrated in Oct., 1872 
—professors, students, and civil authorities joining 
in making the event notable and worthy. His 
former students, in honor of the occasion, collected 
1 fund of one thousand thalers to establish a Bern- 
liardy fund to aid students of philology. 

He was married in 1829 to Henrietta Jleyer of 
Berlin (died 1853). It is .said by Le Roi— who, how- 
;ver, gives no data as to time or place — that Bern- 

hardy lived during the later period of his life as a 
Christian, and suggests that he was possibly con- 
verted during his student life. He attained the age 
of seventy -five years, dying in honor amid the scenes 
of his great activity. Professor Beyschlag delivered 
the funeral oration. 
BIBLIOGRAPHY: EQ^stem.inAUgcmeine Deutsche Diographie, 

s- M. Co. 

BERNHEIM, ABRAM C: American lawyer; 
born at Xew York city Feb. 1, 1866; died there 
July 34, 1895. Bernheim was educated in pub- 
lic schools of his native city and later in the Colum- 
bia College, subsequently taking a course of in- 
struction at the University of Berlin. During his 
attendance at Columbia College he was twice selected 
prize lecturer on the political history of the state of 
New York, and in 1894 was made permanent lec- 
turer in this branch. 

Bernheim contributed money and books to his 
alma mater, and took deep interest in free art exhib- 
its on the east side of New York and in the Univer- 
sity Settlement Society, of which latter he was one 
of the founders and the treasurer. He was also sec- 
retary of the Tenement House Building Company 
for the improvement of the dwellings of the poor. 
He was a member of the Stock Exchange and of 
the Chamber of Commerce. 

In addition to his philanthropic work, Bernheim 
wrote a number of articles on sociological and polit- 
ical subjects, among them being: "The Relations 
of the City and the State of New York," in the 
" Political Science Quarterly, " Sept. , 1894 ; " A Chap- 
ter on Municipal Folly," in the " Century Magazine," 
May, 1895 ; " Results of Picture Exhibitions iu Lower 
New York," in the "Forum," July, 1895. 

p. 75; Jewish 

BIBLI0GR.4PHT : The Critic, Aug. 3, 
Chrtmicle. Aug. 16, l,si).5, p. 6. 

A. Sz. 

BERNHEIM, ERNST: German historian; 
born at Hamburg Feb. 19, 1850. On completing his 
elementary and preparatorv studies, he attended the 
universities of Berlin, Heidelberg, Strasburg, and 
Qottingeu. It was from Strasburg that he received 
his degree as doctor of philosophy, having offered 
as his thesis a study on "Lothar III. und das 
Wormser Konkordat." This was published in that 
cit.y in 1874, and though the production of a youth 
of but twenty-four years, which frankly stated the 
occasion of its preparation, it was at once received 
as something more important than an ordinary 
doctorate dissertation. It was in fact a scholarly 
pursuit along the line of research undertaken by 
Friedberg, whose demonstration of the historical 
errors based on the "Narratio dc Electione Lo- 
tharii " Bernheim confirms by a mass of newly 
discovered evidence. He shows, too, that Lothar's 
election was mainly the work of Archbishop Adelbert 
of Mayence. 

In the year after the appearance of "Lothar III." 
he was appointed privat-docent at the University of 
GiHtingen (187.5). Here he produced " Zur Gesehichte 
des Wormser Konkordats"(Gottingen,187S), in which 
he pieces together from original sources a picture of 
the party struggles of 1123, the extremist tendencies 
of the papal and imperial factions, and the devel- 

Bernbeim, Hippolyte 
Bernstein, Aaron 



opment of a compromise which was ultimately 
embodied in the Concordat. He shows, too. how 
Henry V. strove to free himself from the limitations 
of the Concordat. This production firmly fixed his 
place among the historical scholars of Germany. 
Two years later appeared his " Ge.schiclitsforschung 
und Geschichtsphilosophie," Gottingen, 1880. lu 
1882, wliile still at Gottingen, he joined Weizsiicker 
and Quidde in the task of editing the "Deutsche 
Reichstagsacten unter Kupreeht." which was pub- 
lished under the supervision of the Historische Kom- 
niission in Munich, and the third volume of which 
was published at Gotha in 1888. The work is in- 
deed monumental, covering as it does only the first 
decade of the fifteenth century. Fully three-fourths 
of the material had never before been published. 

In the mean time. Bernheim had received a call to 
the University of Greifswald as assistant professor 
of history (1883). Upon his marriage (1885) he em- 
braced Christianity. Here, besides his work in the lec- 
ture-room, he eoutiiuied his labor on the " Reichstags- 
acten," and wrote his"Lehrbuch der Historisclien 
Methode," Leipsic, 1889. lu the same year he was 
promoted to be professor ortliiiary of history. Two 
years later, in conjunction with AVilhelm Altmann, 
he completed "AusgewiihlteUrkunden zur Erliiute- 
rung der Verfassungsgeschichte Deutschlauds im 
Mittelalter," Berlin, 1891, Considerable stir was oc- 
casioned in university and general pedagogic circles 
by the appearance of his eighty-page pamphlet, 
" Der Universitiits-Unterricht und die Erfordernisse 
der Gegenwart," Berlin, 1898. In this treatise he 
attacks the German system of university instruction, 
and insists that the lecture method should be modi- 
fled by providing some efficient S3'stem of exercises 
in connection with the lectures. 

In 1899 Bernheim was elected rector of the Uni- 
versity of Greifswald, and in the following year the 
Order of the Red Eagle was conferred upon him, 

BIBIIOGRAPHT: Meyer, Kunvcrsatinns-Leziknn^lSS!. 
6, M. Co. 

cian and neurologist; born at Mulhausen. Alsace. 
He received his education in his native town and at 
the University of Strasburg, whence he was gradu- 
ated as doctor of medicine in 1867. The same year 
he became a lecturer at tlie university and established 
himself as physician in the city. AVheu, in 1871, 
after the Franco-Prussian war, Strasburg passed to 
Germany, Bernlieim removed to Nancy, in the uni- 
versity of which town he became clinical professor. 
When the medical faculty took up hypnotism, about 
1880. Bernlieim was very enthusiastic, and soon be- 
came one of tlie leaders of tlie investigation. He is 
a well-known authority in this new field of medicine. 

Bernheim has written many works, of which the 
following may be mentioned here: " DesFievresTy- 
phiques en General." Strasburg, 1868; "Le^on de 
Clinique Medicale, " Paris, 1877; " De la Suggestion 
dans rfetat Hypnotique et dans I'fitat de Veille," 
Paris, 1884; "De la Suggestion et de son Applica- 
tion a la Therapeutique," Paris, 1887, 

Bibliography : Papel. Biiniraiihincfun Lcrihoii. Vienna, 
1901, S.V.; La Gianilc EiiciicliipnUe,s.\\ 
S. F. T. H. 

BERNICH, SOIiOHON (called also Berenicus 
and Berenicus) : Scholar, poet, and adventurer of 
doubtful origin, who appeared in Holland about 
1670 and attracted much attention. He spoke Greek. 
Latin, Italian, French, and Dutch with equal facil- 
ity, and was able to recite by heart whole classical 
works and to put into verse on the spot anything 
that was told to him in prose. He was thought by 
many to be an escajied monk from France, but 
Yung (■■ Alphabetische Liste Aller Gelehrten Judeii 
. . . ," Leipsic, 1817) states that he was a Jew, 
a native of Eger, in Bohemia, who was educated in 
Vienna and in Italy, Bernich, or Berenicus, desjiiscd 
conventional scholarship and all the restraints nf 
cultured life, and chose to associate with the lower 
classes ; working sometimes as a chimney-sweep, am 1 
sometimes as a grinder of knives and scissors, l\v 
was found dead in a swamp, in the outskirts of Rut- 
terdam, into which he had probably fallen while in 
a state of intoxication. Two works from his pen — 
one a collection of Latin poetry with a Dutch trans 
lation (Amsterdam, 1692; 2d ed., ib. 1716), and tlie 
other called "'Georgarchontmachia," with a biog- 
raphy of the author by B. Borremansius — are in tlic 
British Museum general catalogue under the name 
'■ Beronicus. Petius Joannes. " 

BiBLiOGRAPHT: Larousse, Dictinnnaire Vttircr^cl. s.v. lii- 
reiiictis; G. D. J. Sohotel. Biographiscli Woordenbuck der 
Xcdcrlandcn, pp. 136, 137. 
s p. Wi. 

BERNOT, JULIE. See Judith, ]Mme. 


Russian sculptor ; born at Riga April 2(.i. 18.59. At 
the age of thirteen he entered the studio of Prof. 
D. Jensen at Riga, and at fourteen the Imperial 
Academy of Fine Arts of St. Petersburg, where he 
was awarded the highest prizes. In 1883 he made a 
number of busts of celebrated Russians, among them 
being those of Dostoyevski, Rubinstein, Fonvisin, 
and Iv. Brandt. This established his reputation as 
a portrait-sculptor, and within the next two years 
he made about thirty busts of various representa- 
tives of Russian art, science, and literature. 

After a sojourn in Rome (in 1884), where he sup- 
ported himself by making portraits from photo- 
graphs, Bernstamm went to Florence, and there 
continued his studies under Professor Rivalti, At 
this time he exhibited in Rome his "Neapolitan 
Fisherman," "David," and "Head of a Monk," all 
of which received high commendation. In 188.5 he 
settled in Paris, where he won the friendship of Dr. 
Labadie-Lagrave, He soon became famous by his 
sculpture-portraits of eminent Frenchmen, such as 
Renan. Sardou, Flaubert, Halevy, Coppee, Derou- 
lede. Zola, and many others. In 1890 Bernstamm 
exhibitid his works at the galleries of George Petit. 
The exhibition attracted considerable notice, and was 
visited by President Carnot. It consisted of a col- 
lection of charming statuettes, reproducing in an as- 
tonishing variety of costumes all foreignere that had 
come to Paris during the Exposition of 1889. 

Since 1887 Bernstamm has exhibited every year at 
the salon of the Champs-Elysees, at which he has 
manifested his talent on a larger scale in such works 
as " Au Pilori." "The First Arrow," and "The Ex- 
ecutioner of John the Baptist." In 1889 he was 



Bernheim, Hippolyte 
Bernstein, Aaron 

/ awarded, by the jury of the Exposition, a silver 
medal for various groups and busts. He also pro- 
duced "Floquel." a plaster cast ; "La JloiUstic," a 
marble bust bought by Count Torclli. chamberlain 
of the king of Italy in 1S91 ; " Christ and tlie Woman 
Taken in Adultery" (1894): and "Jules Cheret." 
bronze bust (1895). In 1896 he was called to Tzars- 
koe-Selo to make busts from life of the emperor 
Nicholas II. and the emjiress of Russia. For the 
Exposition of 1900 he tiuished a group intended for 
the czar: "Peter the Great Embracing Louis XV." 
lu 1901 he produced the statue of Rubinstein ordered 
by the St. Petersburg Conservator}'. Some of liis 
works were bought by Czar Alexander III. and 
some by the Italian government. Bernstamm was 
made chevalier of the Legion of Honor in 1891. 

Bibliography: Dictionnaire Biofjraphiqnr,; Bulgakov, 
yaslii Khudozhnilsi, vol. i., St. Petersburg, 1890; private 
H. R. J. G. L. 

nym, A. Rebenstein) : German publicist, scientist, 
an<l reformer: born April 0,1813, in Danzig: died Feb. 
12, 1884, in Berlin. His was one of the most versa- 
tile and productive Jewish minds of the nineteenth 
century. Intended by his parents for a rablii, he 
received a thorough Talmudical education, wliich 
made him a formidalde adversary in the controver- 
sies on religious reform in whicli he later partici- 
pated (Holdheim. "Gesch. der Entstehung . . . der 
Jlidischen Refornigemeinde in Berlin," p. 54, Berlin. 
1857). At an advanced age, when he was recognized 
as one of the great political leaders of Germany, he 
could still write in the style and the s]iiritof an old- 
time Polish rabbi (" Ha-Zefirah," 1875, ii.. No. 2). 

He went to Berlin at the age of twenty, and by 
his own efforts, without the help of school or uni- 
versity, familiarized himself with the German lan- 
guage and literature. He soon began to write on 
many and diverse subjects, and attracted attention 
bj' his graceful and lucid style as well 
Early as by his force and originality. For 
Debut as a some years he w-as an antiquarian book- 
Writer, seller in Berlin; but his literary labors 
absorbed most of his attention ; and 
finally he took up writing as a profession. 

His earliest works, luost of which appeared under 
his pseudonyiTi, are : A translation of the Song of 
Songs, with critical notes and a bibliographical pref- 
ace by Zunz (Berlin, 1834): "Plan zu einer Neuen 
Grundlage flir die Philosophic der Geschichte " (ih. 
1838); "Novellen und Lebensbilder " (ib. 1840): 
"Eine Abhandlung iiber die Rotation der Planeten " 
(ih. 1843). In the same year appeared his anony 
mous pamphlet. "Zahlen Frappieren," a defense of 
the Prussian Ministry of Finance against the attack 
of Blilow-Cummerow. It created a senssilion in 
political circles, and was thought by many to have 
been written by the luinister of finance himself. 

His scientific and political studies did not prevent 
Bernstein from taking an interest in Jewish affairs; 
and he became the principal coutrib\itor to ^^"ilheIm 
Freund's monthly magazine, "Zur Judenfrage," 
which appeared in Berlin from July, 1843, to June, 
1844. Bernstein was one of the leading spirits in 
the inception of the movement for religious reform 
III.— 7 

Aaron Bernstein. 

in those days, and his great rabbinical knowledge 
and his conciliatory spirit made even the opposition 
respect him. One of the most acute and objective 
writers against the Reform moveiucnt .said that of 
Rebenstein 's attacks on Judaism it might be said 

" Faithful are the woiuids of a friend " ; 

Active while the remainder of the verse (Prov. 

in Jewish xxvii. 6), "but the kisses of an eneiuy 

Affairs. are profuse," was appropriate to the 

defense of it advanced by some of his 
contemporaries (see Phineas JI. Heilprin, " Teshubot 
be-Anshe A wen," Frankfort-on-the-JIain, 184.5, let- 
ter I). 

Bernstein was one of the committee appointed 
j\Iarch 10, 1845, to work out a plan for a line of prog- 
ress in .Jewish religious affairs, A fragment of a 
remarkable speech which he delivered at the meeting 
which chose that com- 
mittee is preserved in 
Holdheim's above- 
mentioned work, 
where, by the way, 
Bernstein is considered 
to have been the onlj' 
" theologian " present. 
He agreed with Dr. 
Stern in recognizing 
the iiuportauce of the 
Talmud and in deplor- 
ing the arrest of its 
development along the 
lines of the exigencies 
of practical life. Bern- 

.stein was chosen to edit and amend the "Entwurf " of 
the commit tee ; and he is one of the principal authors 
of the famous " Aufruf " for the organization of a re- 
ligious Reform movement among the Jews in Ger- 
man}', which appeared in the Berlin newspapers early 
in April, 1845. He and Dr. Stern were the authors 
of the prayer-book for the newly organized Reform 
congregation of Berlin; and while Bernstein refused 
to become its rabbi, it seems that he often officiated 
in that capacity before a regular rabbi was engaged. 
He was also the editor of the monthly "Reform- 
Zeitimg: Organ fiirden Fortscl;ritt im Judenthum," 
which appeared in Berlin in 1847. 

In 1849 Bernstein founded the " Urwahlerzeitung," 
a political monthly which advocated the principles 
of political reform in the same conciliatory but de- 
termined spirit that had characterized his advocacy 
of religious Reform in Judaism. It soon gained a 
large circulation and brought the editor much fame ; 
but it also brought him into inevitable conflict with 
the authorities, which resulted in a sensational trial 

under the press law, with a sentence 

Imprisoned of four months' imprisonment for the 

Under editor. In the same year when the 

Press Law. "Urwahlerzeitung" was suppressed 

(1853), Bernstein "founded the Berlin 
dailj' "Volkszeitung," which soon attained a large 
circulation, and of which he remained the chief edi- 
torial writer for more than a cimirter of a century. 
In that paper first appeared Bernstein's valuable 
popular scientific essays, which later were published 
in book form as "Naturwisseuschaftliche Volks- 
biicher" (4th ed., Berlin, 1880, 21 vols.), and were 

Bernstein, Aaron 
Bernstein, Hugo 



translated into the principal European languages. 
A Hebrew translation, entitled "Yedi'ot ha-Teba' " 
(Knowledge of Nature), appeared in Warsaw, 1881- 
91. It was prepared iiaitly by P. Rudermann (see S. 
Bemfeld's autobiographical sketch in " Sefcr Zik- 
karon" (Book of Remembrance), but mostly by D. 

Bernstein also wrote two novels of Jewish life, 
" Vogele der Maggid " and "Mendel Gibbor," which 
tirst appeared in Josef Wertheinier's " Jahrbuch fiir 
Israeliten " and then in book form (Berlin, 1860; Tth 
edition, ib. 1892). They were translated into many 
languages, even into Russian (St. Petersburg. 1876), 
and place their author among the most important 
ghetto novelists, second only to Kompert (Kayser- 
ling, "Jiidische Litteratur," p. 171, Treves, 1896). 
These novels were, imlike the ghetto stories of to- 
day, written for Jews only, and therefore employ 
the German-Jewish idiom to an extent that almost 
brings them into the class of dialect stories. Bern- 
stein's "Ursprungder Sagen von Abraham, Isaak, 
und Jakob " (Berlin, 1871) is a valuable contribution 
to Biblical criticism, although Wellliausen ("Prole- 
gomena zur Geschichte Israels," i. 31) objects to its 
political tendencies The most important of Bern- 
stein's political essays and articles appeared in book 
form under the title "Revolutions- und Reaktions- 
geschichte Preussens und Deutschlands, von den 
Marztagen bis zur Neuesten Zeit" (Berlin, 1883-84, 
3 vols.). He also wrote numerous other less impor- 
tant works on a great \'ariety of subjects. 

The achievements of Bernstein as a practical scien- 
tist are also worthy of notice. As early as 1856 he 
patented an invention by which two 
A Practical distinct telegraph messages could lie 
Scientist, sent over the same wire at the same 
time. He was one of the first to ad- 
vocate the laying of telegraph wires underground, 
and was also the inventor of an automatically closing 
gate for railroad crossings. He was, besides, an ex- 
pert photographer ; and he taught photograpliy free 
of charge to many striving young men. thus ena- 
bling them to earn tlieir livelihood. 

Bernstein enjoyed great popularity in his later 
years, and when lie died was mourned as one of the 
great popular teachers of the German nation. The 
degree of doctor of philosojihy was conferred on 
him by the University of Tiibingen in 1876. Julius 
Bernstein, now professor at Halle, is his eldest sou. 

Bibliography: Meyer, Kimi-crsatinnf-Lexikn)): Brockhaus, 
Kiiiivenations-Lexihtin. 13th edition; Stem, Gf»c/i. iles 
Jttdenthinns, xvi.; Fuenn. K^iusrt Yif>racl^ pp. 7.5-76; (ieiger. 
JIUliwhc Zritmhrift, 1S«9, vii. 2Si-*it); lUtistrirte Ziituny. 
March 1, IS.*! iwith pnrtraiti. 

s. p. Wi. 

BERNSTEIN, B^LA: Hungarian rabbi and 
author; liorn in \'arpalota, Hungary, 1868; was 
graduated as Ph.D. at Leipsic, 1890, and as rabbi 
at the Budapest Seminary in 1893 ; since 1894 has offi- 
ciated as mbbi at Szombathely (Steiu-am- Anger). He 
published "Die Schriftcrkliirung des Bachja ben 
Ascher," Berlin, 1891, and collaborated in a Hun- 
garian translation of tlie Pentateuch, publislied by 
the Jewish Hungarian Literary Soeietv, 1898. A 
monograph upon the Hungarian Revolution and the 
Jews was also published in Hungarian by the same 

association in 1898; "Die Toleranztaxe der Juden in 
Ungarn," Breslau, 1901, 

s. L. V. 

BERNSTEIN, BERNARD: Actor; born at 
Warsaw in 1861. He sang in the chorus of the Po- 
lish opera of that city, and appeared there as a come- 
dian (1882) in the role of Griind)i(other J(ichi>e m K. 
Goldfaden's comedy, " Die Zauberin." He playetl in 
.several Jewish theaters in Russia, and when the 
Jewish theater was forbidden in that country (Sept. 
14, 1883), he went to Galicia, in Austria, and tlien 
to Rumania, where he played in various roles, usu- 
ally comic. In 1892 he was engaged by Podls 
Theater of New York, wliere he appeared first as 
Ziiigitiing in Goldfaden's "Shulamitli," and later in 
many other plays. He was especially successful in 
the roleof Slminai in "The Jewish King Lear," by J. 
Gordin. Bernstein now (1902) resides in New York. 

H. u. M. Sk. 

BERNSTEIN, EDUARD : Socialist leader. 
editor, and author ; Ixirn in Berlin 1850. Begin- 
ning life as a clerk in a bank, Bernstein's mind 
became early imbued with socialistic ideas. In 
1872 he joined the Social-Democratic party, and 
in 1878 gave up business to assist in editing, in 
Switzerland, the part_v organ. " Die Zukunft." which 
became afterwaril " Das Jahrbuch der Sozialen Wis- 
.senschaft." When the anti-Socialist law of Bis- 
marck endangered the party's existence, and it be- 
came necessary to establish abroad a socialist organ 
to sustain and direct the young movement, Bern- 
stein was entrusted with the editorship of the new 
organ. "Der Sozialdemokrat," published at that time 
in Zurich. When he was expelled from Switzerland 
and removed to London, the publication of " Der 
Sozialdemokrat" was also transferred thither (1888), 
and continued till it became unnecessary, after the 
downfall of Bismarck and the revocation of the anti- 
Socialist law in 1890. Since then he has acted as 
London correspondent of the Berlin "Vorwiirts," 
and has written for the " Xeue Zeit," " Sozialistische 
^lonatshefte," and other periodical publications. In 
England he contribtited a number of es.says to the 
" Progressive Review " and " The Xew Age." Bern- 
stein's sketch of Lassiille — contributed to an edition 
of his speeches and writings — has been translated 
into English and edited by him (3 vols., Berlin, 1893) 
under the title, "Ferdinand Lassalle as a Social Re- 
former." London. 1893. Bernsteinis the author also 
of " Communistische und Demokratisch-Sozialistische 
StrOmungen Wiihrend der Englischen Revolution 
des 17. Jahrhunderts," published in a collection of 
essays on the history of Socialism, entitled "Vor- 
liiufer des Xeueren Sozialismus," Stuttgart, 1895. 

The latest of Bernstein's productions, " Die Yor- 
aussetzuDgen des Sozialismus und die Aufgaben der 
Sozialdcmokratie," Stuttgart, 1899, has roused gen- 
eral controversy throughout Europe. Professor 
Diehl. though not himself a Socialist, characterizes 
Bernstein as "one of the most talented, most learned, 
and clearest adherents of scientific Socialism," which 
opinion is sliared by even the extreme Socialistic 
opponents of Bernstein— Kautsky and Mehring. 
Bourdeau regards this book as the most important 
that has appeared on Socialism since !Marx's "Das 
Kapital." In this book. Bernstein, after having 



Bernstein, Aaron 
Bernstein, Hugo 

been for more than twenty years a champion of so- 
called " orthodox " Marxism, comes to the conclusion 
that many of Marx's views no longer corrcsiioud to 
the facts of modern social phenomena, and must be 
replaced by others more in consonance with modern 
society. Of the views peculiar to Marx, he does not 
place so much value upon the piu-ely economic con- 
ception of histor}' ; he minimizes the importance of 
the theory of value, and repudiates the Hegelian 
dialectic method, though at the same time he claims 
that he still adheres to tlie spirit and evolutionary 
principles of Marx. Bern.stein further emphasizes 
tlie great importance of cooperative associations, 
and urges the Socialist parly to free itself from revo- 
lutionary phraseology and illusory hopes of the im- 
mediate downfall of bourgeois societ}', and to Wfirk 
hand in hand with all the democratic elements that 
tight for social reforms. Bernstein even concedes 
that the Social Democracy is jiractically acting on 
tlie proposed lines; but he wants a more consistent 
policy, as it seems to him that the remains of former 
conceptions still prevail in the party and hamper the 
progress of Socialism and the gradual realization of 
its ideals. In 1901 Bernsteiu was allowed to return to 
Germany, and in March, 1902, he was elected to the 
Reichstag on the Socialist ticket from Breslau, to 
succeed Dr. SchOnlank, deceased. 

HrHi,ioiiii,\p[iY: K. Kautskv, Brnmtiiii iiml ihin !\iizinlilemri- 
linitisilir frogramm, Stiiti(.':irt, ln'M: I'lntuhnll niur die 
VirhtiiiiUuttfjcn iU^ Partritdiic.'; ih r SnzuthU iiuihnili-^clteu 
I'nrtfi Drut^cJtlawi'^. Ahfit lii'tUm Z}i }Iiuun>rf r rmn '.>. hin 
lU. OcIiiIki; Iw/7. Bt-rlin, ls«l, pp. l)I-^'44; F. Mclirini.'. Ge- 
xchichle (/()■ Di<ils<)u n Siiziiihlciiinkntl i>\ Stultpirt, imiS, ii. 
;ii.i el aeq.; The Lahnr AdidkiI, Lcmilnii, 1<«](I, p. 1.50; J. 
Bourdeau, La Crjwe du SaeiaU.^nu, in lii rue dcs Deux 
-ViDKte, civ. 341-264; G. Sorel, iix I'liliiiiiiiiieK snrVInter- 
pn'tftlinu du Marxi!^uie, in lii rue Juterunliomde de ^eici- 
iilnifie. I'aris, liKKi. viii. ;;il-' :;m. ;t4s {iti'.i; A. l.iibriolii, Bern- 
sleiu it (( Siieiiilixme, in La Herue Sneiidislr, l':iris, 1H99, 
x.\i.\. (iii:Hi;'.l; R. Dlelil, m./iilirhUelier fllr Ntil inuiilfik<ino- 
inie uiid sl.diKtili. Jena, IM'.W, l.x.xiii. !IK-Iir, ; (i. Maier, 
Kdiiiiril I{erU!<teitt und die NfUesle Itewegunu lliuerfialh 
der S(izi(ddeuviliiatie, in Die (rexelhchnft, Leipslc, 1899, ii. 
333-3«l ; Jew. Clirun., Nov. 24, 1899, p. 21. 
s. B. B. 

BERNSTEIN, ELSA (pseudonym, Ernst 
Rosmer) : German dramatist; daughter of Heinrich 
I'orges, the friend of Richard Wagner; liorn at 
Vienna; educated at Munich; and, for a short time, 
on tlie .stage. An attliction of the ej'es forcing her 
lo retire, she thenceforth devoted herself to dramatic 
literatui-e. Shortly after her marriage in 1892 to 
-Max Bernstein, she wrote, her tirst play, " Wir Drei," 
which created considerable discussion. It was really 
a dramatized version of the matrimonial and sexual 
views of Taineand Zohx. Her iie.xt plays fell rather 
flat; "Diimmerung," 1893; "Die Mutter ]Maria," 
1894; "Tedeum,"i896; "Tliemistokles," 1897; and 
"Daguy Peters." But unbounded admiration was 
elicited by "Die Kiinigskinder," 189.5 — a dramatic 
fairy-tale. Though its plot was simple, the beauty 
of the theme and its poetry were such as to class it 
with Pulda's "Der Talisman." 

Bibliography: Das JUngstc Dcutschland, pp. 317-320; 
Kurschuer, Deutscher LUteratur-Kalendcr, 19(11, p. 91 ; 
Lexikon Deutscher Frauen der Feeler, i. 61 ; ih. il. 203. 
s. E. Ms. 

can writer; born Sept. 20, 1876, at Shirwindt, Russia. 
When he was seven 3'ears of age his parents moved 
to Mohilev on the Dnieper, and Hermann was edu- 

cated at the Jewish free school of that city. In 1893 
the family emigrated to America and .settled in 
Chicago. At first Bernsteinstruggled hard to make 
a living. In 1897 he engaged in literary work in 
New York, and was soon successful. He has made 
translations from the Russian, among them "Foma 
Gordeyev," by Gorki, New York, 1901; and has 
written "The Flight of Time, and Other Poems," 
1899. A series of ghetto stories by Bernstein ap- 
peared in the New York "Evening Post." in "Ains- 
lee's Magazine," and in "The Scroll," and these 
were reprinted in book form under the title " In 
the Gates of Israel," New York, 1902. 
II. u F. T. H. 

BERNSTEIN, HIRSCH : Russian-American 
editor and publisher; born in Vladislavov (Neu- 
stadt-Schirvint), government of Suvalki, near the 
Prussian frontier, March 2o, 1846. He received the 
usual Jewish education and learned to write Hebrew 
fluently. He emigrated to the United States in 1870, 
settling in New York, where he still (1902) resides. 
While following from the first commercial pursuits, 
he has continued his Hebrew studies in his leisure 
hours. In 1870 he started "The Post," the 
Juda'o-German or periodical in America; 
but, like many subsequent publications of that 
nature, it had but a short existence. In the same 
year he founded the " Ila Zofeh be' Erez ha-Hadas- 
hah," the first publication in the NeoHebraic lan- 
guage in America. It appeared weekly for live 
years and contained many interesting contributions, 
which throw light on local and contemporary Jew- 
ish history. Bernstein was at one time a constant 
contributor to "Ha-Maggid," "Ha-Lebanon." and 
"Ha-Karmel," and, after Ch. G. Vid.wkh, was 
probably the first regular American correspondent 
to European Hebrew periodicals. 

11. n. P. \Vi. 

Karl Hugo): Hungarian dramatist ; born in Buda- 
pest 1808; died at Jlilan 1877. He began the study 
of medicine, but lacking means sufiicient to con- 
tinue it, he entered the army, where within twenty 
months he succeeded in la.ving by a sum that en- 
abled him to (lualify himself for medical examina- 
tion. In 1830 he served during the Polish insur- 
rection as army surgeon at Warsaw, whence he 
proceeded lo Budapest, where he ])ractised as homeo- 
path. In 1839 he went to Paris, whither he had 
been called by Hahnemann. This was a turning- 
point in his career. The cosmopolitan French capi- 
tal with its numerous theaters reawakened hisyoulh- 
ful inclination for the stage and for poetry. He 
proceeded to Hamburg, where, in 1840. he pulilisbed 
"Die Sehnsuchts-Klange eines Hagcslolzeii." It 
was here, also, that he wrote the plays " Brutus and 
Lucretia," "Das Schauspiel der Welt," and "Der 
Stein derWeisen." In 1844 he returned to Buda- 
pest, wliere he resumed the study of the Hungarian 
language, which by this time he had almost forgot- 
ten. Here be published his " Psalmeu eines Armen 
Poeten," "Egy Magyar Kiraly," and the well- 
known " Bankier und Baron." He also wrote two 
French dramas, "La Comedie Infernale " and 
"L'lliade Fluie." In Berlin he was arrested for 

Bernstein, lenacy 
Bernstein, max 



U\se niajestf . because of a book published by him 
under the title " Huso Amber Bernstein, oder Das 
Verkannte Genie"; he was. however, released upon 
the plea of insanitv. Though a genius, he was pos- 
sessed l)y the idea that he alone had been appomted 
to revoliitionize art. science, and religion— ui short. 
the entire iiitellcetual life of man. 

s. ^- *• 

BERNSTEIN, IGNACY : Polish bibliophile 
and writer on proverbs; born at Viunit/.a. govern- 
ment of Poilolia, Jan. 30, 1S36. where his father 
Samson had an important banking business. He 
was educated by the learned .Moses Landau, son of 
Habbi Samuel and grandson of U. Ezekiel Landau 
of Prague. In Iboti he married i:iiza. the daughter 
of Mefr Edler von >Iises of Lemberg; and in 18.58 
he i-emoved with his parents to Warsaw, where he 
still resides, ranking among the prominent members 
of the Jewish community. In 1881. at his instance, 
a library of Jewish books was founded in connection 
with tlie Grciit Synagogue of Warsaw. Bernstein 
from the beginning took an active part in the man- 
agement of the library and is now its chairman. 
He did much usef\il work in collecting proverbs of 
all nations. In 1888-89 his " J iidische Spridi worter " 
—a collecticm of Juda?o-German proverbs— we're 
published in the '-Hausfreund." Warsaw; and iu 
UKH) he p\d)lished a remarkable illustrated catalogue 
of his library of about 4,800 works on proverbs, 
folk lore, ethnography, etc., accompanying the list 
with valuable explanatory notes. This catalogue 
is unique in its way, being also a typographical art 
book. Many titles and ornaments of the more an- 
cient works are reproduced from the originals. The 
full title of the catalogue is " Katalog Dziel Tresci 
Przyslowiowcj Skladajacych Biblioteke Ignacego 
Beriisteina," 3 vols.. AVarsaw. He is now (1902) 
preparing a new and enlarged edition of his Jiuheo- 
Gennan proverbs. 

BIBLIOGUAPHV : S. orpelliraml. Kiiruldiipedja Pi)U'szei')nia, 
ii.. Warsaw. 1S9S; and private sciuri-es. 


Russian railroad engineer: born in Kremenetz. gov- 
ernment of Volhynia. 1846; killed July 5. 1900. on 
the steamship "Otlessa," between Harhin and Cha- 
barovsk. He was educated at the high school of his 
native town, and at the St. Petersburg Institute for 
Engineers, from which he graduated. 

In the eighties, while yet a student, he was re- 
ceived by the czar as a delegate from many Jewish 
families "who petitioned for a restoration of their right 
of settlement outside the pale, of which they had 
been unlawfully deprived. Bernstein pleaded their 
cause so earnestly that the czar granted their request. 
After serving as assistant district engineer on 
various railroads, Bernstein was in 1896 appointed 
first engineer at Vladivostok, and in the following 
year was sent to Tzitzikar. where ho was given the 
direction of the fifth district of the Eastern Chinese 
Railway. On July 2 he sailed for Chabarovsk. 
When the vessel was three days out it was attacked 
by Chinese Bo.xers, who killed thirteen of the pas- 
sengers, Bernstein being one of the victims. A 
memorial service was held Aug. 19 iu the Great 
Synagogue at St. Petersburg. 

Bibliography : Ftwfchort, Nov. 5, 1900, No. 82, p. 13 ; private 
sources. „ „ 

BERNSTEIN, ISRAEL : Russian Hebrew 
publicist; born about the middle of the nineteentli 
century at Vclizh, government of Vitebsk; studied 
pharmacy at ^Moscow, and worked as a druggist in 
the colony Shchedrin. near Bobruisk. Bernstein's 
•'Ha'Atudim ha-t)lim 'al ha-Zon " (The Gouts 
Which I-eaped upon the Flock), in " Ha-Shahar " (vi. 
366-;!82, 401-4ir)). is a severe and vindictive attack ou 
the misdeeds of the " Melammedim." the rabbis and 
the leaders of the Jewish communities (kahal), es- 
pecially in tlie smaller towns. Ills " Binyan Zeke- 
niin u-Setirat Yeladim " (How the Old Build and the 
Young Destroy), which occupies over forty pages of 
vol. v\i. iu the above periodical, is written in the 
same spirit as the first ; but here the author tries 
more to glorify the •' Ilaskalah." or pi'Ogress. and to 
point out the probability that the vivacious and 
active Hasidism of southern Russia will regenerate 
itself sooner than the dry scholarship and pedantry 
of the north or Lithuania. 

In his third important article. " Le-maher Ge'ulah " 
(To Bring About Speedy Redemption), in "Ha- 
Shahar." X. 230-241, 288-^97, Bernstein tries to prove 
that the great necessity of the times is that the rabbis 
and the I'ich Jews shall cease to use unlawful and 
revolting means to save their sons from being drafted 
into military service. This last article was written 
late in 1880i shortly before the great changes which 
took place after the assassination of Emperor Ai.EX- 
ANUKK II. in the following year. 

Like all progressists who did not join the new 
nationalistic movements, Bernstein remained silent 
for a long time, and in a "letter to the editor" 
(■• Kencset Yisrael." i. 7, Warsaw, 1886), Bernstein ad- 
mits that the persecutions of the last five years have 
shattered all his former optimistic views and the 
hopes that the Jews of Russia by imiu-oving their 
conduct will obtain equal rights and be recognized 
as men and brethren. He admits his mistakes, and 
is overwhelmed by the despair which has seized 
most of the advocates of progress and assimilation 
in these trying chauvinistic times. 
i mniiiHimriiY: Eisenstadt. Rahlianc Jlitisk. p. HI. WUna, 

'•"*'*• P Wl 

11. u ^- "'• 

BERNSTEIN, JOSEPH (" JOE") : American 
ilist ; born in November, 1877. in New York city. 
He'^first aiipeared iu the ring in 1894, during which 
vear he gained no less than five victoiies. In 189.5 
iie won four fights and drew two. thus establishing 
himself as a featherweight of acknowledged prow- 
ess. In succeeding years he added greatly to his 

Probablv no other adept in boxing of his age has 
appeared "in the ring so often as Bernstein, who has 
f(night nearly 80 battles in seven years. Of these 
he has won 44. drawn 26. and lost 7. and in one ease 
there was no decision. He ilefeated Jack Connors. 
J'lmcsLarkins. William O'Donnell. and Solly Smith. 

F. H. V. 


BERNSTEIN, JOSEPH: Polish physician; 
born at Warsaw in 1797; died there in 1853. After 
graduating from the AVarsaw Lyceum in 1815. he 



Bernstein, lunacy 
Bernstein, Max 

studied medicine at the Berlin Universitj-, from 
which be was graduated in 1822. Aflerliisreturn to 
Poland he was for a year assistant physician at the 
university clinic of Warsaw ; in 182!) he was ap- 
pointed house-physician of theAVarsaw Jewish Hos- 
pital; and in 1834, chief physician. He is the au- 
thorof "De Phthisi Pulnionum," published in 1818. 

BiBLiOfiRAPnv: S. Orfrelbrand, EncilMoiieilja Powszechna, 
U., Warsaw, 1898. 

H. R. 

BERNSTEIN, JULIUS : German physiologist 
and medical writer; born at Berlin Dec. 8, 1839; son 
of Aaron Bernstein (1822-84). He studied at the 
University of Berlin, whence he was graduated as 
doctor of medicine in 1862. In 186.1 he was admitted 
as privat-docent to the medical faculty of Heidel- 
berg, and became in 1869 assistant profcs.sor of phys- 
iology. Two years later he obtained the ajjpoint- 
ment of professor of physiology at the University 
of Halle, a position he still (1902) occupies. In 
1898 he received the title of "Geheimer Medizinal- 

Bernstein is one of the leading physiologists of 

the day. Besides contributing numerous articles 

regularly, since 1865, to technical journals (" Archiv 

fiirdic Gesammte Phy.siologie des Menschen und der 

Thiere"; " Archiv fiir Physiologic " ; "Archiv fiir 

Anatomic und Physiologic " ; " Archiv fiir Patholo- 

gischc Anatomie und Physiologic und fiir Klinische 

Medizin," etc.), he, since 1888, has edited the "Un- 

tcrsuchungcn aus dem Physiologischen lustitut in 

Halle." He has written; "Untcrsucliuugen liber 

den Erregungsvorgang im Ncrvcn- und Jfuskel- 

System," Heidelberg, 1871; "Die Fiuif Sinne des 

Menschen," Leipsic, 187.5 and 1900; "Lehrbuch der 

Phy.siologie," Stuttgart, 1894 and 1900. 

Bibliography : Poggendnrf, Bii>(j.-Lit. Hanilwiirlerhnch. 
1898, fii. 114: Pagel, BiViy. Li.r, Vienna, 1901, s.r.; Meyer, 
Knnvei-!tatiini.-<-Lcj'iko}i, s.v.; privatf^ sources. 

s. F. T. H. 

jurist, professor of Roman law ; born at Odessa .Jan. 
13, 1842; died at Berlin in 1894. He belongs, on the 
maternal side, to a Jewish family that has produced 
several noted scholars. He graduated fi-om the 
Odessa Gymnasium in 1857, and after studying the 
ancient languages in Dresden, he attended succes- 
sively the universities of Halle, Heidelberg, and 
Berlin, under Professors Vengerov and Gneist, who 
exercised great influence over him. In 1.S64 he ob- 
tained the degree of doctor of law from the Univer- 
sity of Berlin, being the tirst Jew to receive it from 
that institution. 

For two years Bernstein attended the sessions of 
t)ic Halle circuit court, in order to familiarize him- 
self with the luactise of law. Toward the end of 
1865 he returned to Rus.sia with the intention of lec- 
turing on Roman law, but found that he was de- 
barred b}' his religion from holding a professorship 
in Russia. He thereupon applied him.self to the 
study of Russian law, and subsequently practised 
it at Odessa and St. Petersburg successively. Bern- 
stein continued his theoretical studies, and in 1871 
presented at the University of St. Petersburg a thesis 
on Russian civil law, obtaining the degree of master 
of law. 

In 1873 Bernstein married Felice Leonovna, a 
daughter of the Russian banker Leon Rosenthal, 
and after a prolonged tour through Europe perma- 
nently settled in Berlin. For eight years (1878-86) 
he lectured on Roman law at the University of 
Berlin as a privat-docent; in 1886 he was appoint(<l 
associate professor; and in 1887 professor. In the 
latter year lie renounced his allegiance to Russia and 
became a German subject. About this time there 
was establislied in connection with the tuiiversity 
an institute for the instruction in Roman law of 
Russian students sent abroad by their government 
to jireparc them.selvcs for profcssorshijis, and Bern 
stein was appointed one of its directors. 

Bernstein always took great interest in .lewish 
affairs. Wlien the exodus of Russian Jews to the 
United States began, in 1881, he was an active mem 
ber of the Berlin colonization committee, and tor- 
many years corresponded with ^Michael Heilprin 
on colonization mattens. 

Most of Bernstein's writings were published in 
various law periodicals; but some were issued in 
book form. His tirst published work was " De Dele- 
gationis Natuiw," Berlin, 1864. A Russian transla- 
tion, under the title "O Suslichestvye Delegatzi po 
Rimskomu Pravu," was published in St. Peterslnirg 
in 1871. In this di.ssertation the author's views re 
fating to delegation and novation anticijiated tlmse 
expressed in the famous treatise of Salpius. Bern- 
stein's "Ucheniye o Razdyelitelnykh Obyazatelst- 
vakh po Rimskomu Pravu i Noveisliim Zakoiiam," 
St. Petersburg, 1871, was the first attempt ever made 
to apply the principles of Roman and common law 
to Russian legislation. Its leading idea was further 
developed in "Zur Lehre von dem Alternativeii 
Willen und den Alternativen Rechtsgescliiiften. 
Abtheilung I. : der Alternative Willed und die Alter 
native Obligation." Bernstein was also the autlior 
of the following works: "Zur Lehre vom Legatuni 
Optiouis," in"Zeit. derSavigny-Stiftung," 1880, pp. 
151 et sctj. ; " Ueber die Subjectiven Alternativen 
Recht.sgesch;ifte von Todeswegen," ih. 1883, iv. ; 
" Die Alternative Obligatio im Riimischcn und im 
Modernen Rechte," in "Zeit. fi'U' V'crglcichendc^ 
Rechtswissenschaft," ii. ; an analysis of Pescatore's 
"Die Sogenannte Alternative Obligatio," in"Zeil. 
fiir Haiidelsrecht," xxix. ; "Zur Lehre von den Datis 
Dictis," in "Pestgabe fiir Beseler," Berlin, 1884. 

BiBLiOGRAPnY: Vengerov, Kritikn-BUmraMie»ki Slmar, 
iii., .St. Petersburp. 1892: KiilziklniieilU-hrKhi Slovar, lit., 
St. Peter.sbur(r, 1892; and private sources. 


BERNSTEIN, MAX (iiseudonym, Silas Mar- 
ner) : German author; born May 13, 1854, at Fiirtli, 
Bavaria; now (1902) practising law at Munich. His 
literary activity is directed mainly to the The 
most noteworthy of Bernstein's comedies ar<': 
"Ca-ur-Dame," "Mein Neuer Hut," "Ritter Blau 
hart," "Unbefangen," "Alles in Ordnung," "Kin 
Guter Mcnsch," and "Ein Dunkler Piiiikt." Of his 
dramas may he mentioned: "Dagmar," "Ruth," and 
"Gold." He also wrote a collection of short stories: 
"Kleine Geschichten," "Die Plaudeiei," and "Ein 
Kuss," as well as numerous miscellanies that have 
appeared either in newspapers or in book form. 
'While Bernstein's works are very po|iular among 

Bernstein, Naphtali 
Berr, Michel 



the general reading public, they are little noticed by 
the critics and tlie litenwy historians. His wife is 
the autlior Elsa Bernstein. 

BiBLiOGRiPHY: KOncbueT. Deut^her Littcratur-Kalender, 
*;^- I. Ber. 


thor; lived in Russia about tlielirst half of the nine- 
teenth century. Being engaged in business, he de- 
voted his leisure houre to study : applying himself 
especially to Biblical subjects, and writing much 
thereon, "without, however, publishing any of his 
work His defense of the Talmud, under the title 
" Eder Hakamim " (Mantle of the Wise), Odessa, 1S68. 
was published after his death by his son, and edited 
by S. I. Abramowitsch. Bernstein wrote this little 
work in London (where he resided for several years), 
as a reply to MeCauls attack on the Talmud and 
ralibinical Judaism, and dedicated it to Solomon 
Herschel, the chief rabbi of England. In his de- 
fense he deals chiefly with the general principles 
underlying the Talmud, without touching upon the 
several points of McCaul's work, a fact which 
greatly lessens the value of his apology. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY : Introduction to Eaer ffahamim. 

L. Or. 

sian physiologist; born at Biody, Galicia, in 1836; 
died in Odessa Feb. 9, 1891. He received his 
first education from his grandfather, the eminent 
Solomon Eser, chief rabbi of the province of Posen ; 
and, on the'removal of his parents to Odesiwi in 1849, 
entered the gymnasium of that place, from which he 
graduated in" 18.53. He studied medicine at the Uni 
versity of Moscow in lS.53-58. where he was awarded 
a trold medal in 18.57 for his treatise. "Auatomia i 
Fiziologia Legochno-Zheludoch-navo Nervu." In 
1861 he became consulting physician of the city 
hospital of Odessa, and associate editor of the Rus- 
sian-Jewish periodical "Sion." until its suppression 
by the government in April. 1862. In 1865 he was 
appointed instructor of anatomy and physiology 
at the newly established Xew-Russia University at 
Odessa; and from 1871 lectured there on anatomy 
as assistant professor, but was not confirmed 
in this position by the government. He devoted 
much of his time to the Society of Physicians of 
Odessa, having been secretary of it for two years. 
vice-presidentJor eight years, and president for four- 
teen years. He was analderman of the Odessa city 
council, director of the Talmud Torah, director of 
the city hospital, and honorary justice of the peace. 
His works appeared in the following publications: 
the •' Moskovskaya Meditzinskaya Gazeta," 1858; 
""MoskovskoeObozryenie," 18.59; "Biblioteka Medit- 
zinskikh Xauk," 1859; -'Sion," 1861-62; '"Medit- 
zinskiYiestnik," 1864; "Sovremennaya ileditzina," 
1863; "Arkhiv Sudebnoi Meditziny," 1864; "Ga- 
zette Medicale de Paris." 1865; and many other 
medical periodicals. Of his manual on physiology, 
entitled •' Rukovodstvo Chastnoi Fiziologii." two 
parts were published at Odessji in 1868, 

BIBLIOGRAPHY : yengerov. Krilihii-Biograficheiki Stnvar. 
vol. iil.. 1892 ; roskdod. No. o. 1891. 

H. K. 

ally called Sinaieff ) : Russo-French sculptor ; bom 
at "Wilua Nov. 22, 1868. He studied drawing in his 
native town, and at the age of fourteen settled in 
Paris. As a student under Dalou. his first exhibited 
work was a bust at the salon of the Champs Elysees 
in 1890. Since then he has produced busts in bronze 
and marble of many distinguished persons, anion.' 
whom were Count Waldeck. Raiiibaud. Nicholas (ii 
Giers, the Russian ambassador, and Leon Reynier, 
the violinist. One of his masterpieces is "Ezra 
:Mournin2." This statue, in plaster, became the 
property^of the state in 1892. and was given to the 
museum at Sens; in 1897 it was reproduced in 
marble. At the Paris Exhibition of 1900 this 
and other statues, portraits, groups, and mortuary 
monuments were exhibited; and they received a 
medal. Among other distinctions conferred upon 
him. Sinaieff was created a chevalier of the Legion 
of Honor in 1901. He is at present (1902) engaged 
upon a bust of Tolstoi. 

H. K. "^ 

COUNT OF: Danish ami Prussian statesman: bom 
April 3. 1769. in Copenhagen; died March 28. 1835. 
As early as 1787 he entered the diplomatic service 
throusrh the influence of his father. Count Andreas 
Berustorff. From 1789 to 1794 he served in Berlin, 
first as secretary of legation, then as ambassador, 
and was finally sent to Stockliolm in the same capac- 
ity. On the death of his father, in 1797. he was ap- 
pointed secretary of state, and in 1800 prime minis- 
ter, which positii.n he held till 1810. He represented 
Denmark at the court of Austria from 1811 to 1815. 
and participated in the Congress of Yienna (Sept., 
1814, to June, 181.5), where, in behalf of his govern- 
ment, he advocated the emancipation of the Jews of 
H.>lstciu. From 1817 to 1818 he represented Den- 
mark at the court of Beriiu. When, in Sept.. 1818. 
Lewis Way presented his memorial in behalf of the 
Jews to Alexander of Russia, then at Aix, Bernstorff 
declared himself ready to give any information with 
regard to the question of the emancipation of the 

In 1818 Frederick William HI. of Prussia ap- 
pointed Bernstorff Prussian minister of foreign af- 
fairs, in which capacity he served till his retirement 
in 1832. 

bibliography: AUgemeiiie Deutsche Biyraphie-.BToe^- 
hau* Kimvermtinnf-Lerikon : Graetz. Histnni of the Jeios, 

^^''■'^- A. R. 



BERCEA : Identified with the modern Haleb or 
Ai.EiM-o, the scene of the death of Menelaus, wh^ 
was killed by being smothered in ashes in one of it- 
towers said" to be" 55 cubits in height (II >Iacc. 

J. JR. G. B, L. 

BEROTBLAH (BEROTHAI) : A city of Had;i 
dezer. from which David oVnained much brass sub- 
sequently used by Solomon in making the brazen 
sea, pillars, and vessels of brass (II Sam. viii. 8). In 
the' paiBllel account of I Chron. xviii. 8 it is called 



Bernstein, Naphtali 
Berr, Michel 

Chun. In Ezekiel's ideal Israel (xlvii. 16) it was 
located on the northern border. 
.1. .11!. G. B. L. 

BERR, CERF JULIA. See Epstein, Julia 


BEBR, EMILE : French journalist; born at 
Luneville, France, June 6, 1855. Having finished 
his classical studies at the Lyceum of Vanves and 
afterward at the Louis-le-Grand Lyceum in Paris, 
he engaged in a commercial career from 1875 to 1880 
and attended to exchange transactions from 1880 to 
1886. During the latter period he made his debut 
in journalisiu. writing for "La France du Nord," 
and contributing essays on economic questions to the 
"Xouvelle Revue," which was tlien just founded. 
In 1886 he gave up his business career altogether, 
and thenceforth devoted himself to journalism, 
working first on the "Petite Republique Frau^aisc," 
then on the "Petit Parisien" — on which latter he 
applied himself especially to economic questions — 
and in July, 1888, on the "Figaro," with which he 
has since been identified. He has contributed also 
to the following: "Figaro Illustre," "Illustration," 
"XlXme Sificle," "Liberie," "Revue Bleue," "Vie 
Parisiennc." In the last-mentioned weekly he pub- 
lished between the years 1893 and 1894 some notes of 
travel under the pseudonym "Guy," and in 1898 a 
series of comments on topics of the day under the 
title "Confidential Letters," which latter attracted 
niMch attention. He also published in this journal 
his notes on Norway, which appeared in book form 
under the title "Au Pays des Nuits Blanches," 
Paris, 1900. 

Berr has done much work as foreign correspondent 
for his paper, interviewing personages of high polit- 
ici'l and social standing ; and for this purpose imder- 
took several trips to England, Switzerland, Belgium, 
Tunis, Bulgaria, Bosnia, Russia, and Alsace-Lor- 
raine. He represented the " Figaro " in Asia Minor at 
the opening of the railway from Moudania to Broussa . 
and then, in 1891, he had an interview with Stam- 
buloff at Sofia, which was commented on by the 
European press. In 1894 he was appointed chief of 
the auxiliary service of the "Figaro," and in this ca- 
pacity edited its literary supplement. In 1896, when 
the "Figaro" was enlarged to six pages, Berr re 
sumed his place in its editorial office, where (1903) he 
writes sometimes under his own signature and some 
times under the pseudonym "Fabien." Since 1885 
B<MT has been a member of the Societe d'Economie 
Pnliticiue. and also of the Societe des Journalistes 
Parisiens. In 1900 he received the cross of the Le- 
gion of Honor. 

s. L B. 

BERR, GEORGE : French actor and dramatist ; 
born at Paris July 31, 1867; brother of Emile Berr. 
He was educated at the lycemns of Vanves and 
Charlemagne, but, yielding to an irresistible love for 
the stage, he, at the age of sixteen, left his classical 
studies for the Conservatoire, and became the pupil 
of Got. In 1886 he won the first jirize for comedy 
in a scene from "Les Plaideurs," and joined the 
Comedie Fran^aise. In 1892 he was nominated a 
member (societaire), and since then has acted the 
comic parts in the classical and modern repertoires. 

Berr is equally excellent in purely lyrical works. 
He interprets the " Romanesques " of Edmond Ros- 
tand with the same superiority as the "Gringoire" 
of Theodore de Banville, in which he is considered 
to equal Coquelin. the creator of the role, who 
has never been replaced since lie left the Theatre 
Fran(,-ais. It is in this wide range of characters 
that the originality of Berr's talent manifests itself. 
In 1901 he succeeded M. Worms in the Conservatoire 
as professor of declamation. 

As a dramatist Berr is known by the pseudonym 
" Colias," which is an anagram of his mother's name, 
"Ascoli." It is therefore probable that the Berrs 
are connected with the family of Chief Rabbi Ascoli, 
and M. Ascoli, who took part in the centennial com- 
memoration of the Institut de France. 

Berr has published two volumes of comedies: 
" Pour Quand on est Deux " and " Pour Quand on 
est Trois." In 1899 he, together with JIaurice 
Froyez, staged in the Theatre Cluny a farce-comedy, 
" Plaisir d'Amour," which was a great success. He 
is the author of a great number of unpublished liu- 
moristic songs, which were circulated in manuscript 
among Ids colleagues. 

s. I. B. 


French manufacturer; born at Nancy in 1744; died 
at Turique, near Nancy, Nov. 5, 1828. He came of 
a rich and estimable family ; received an excellent 
education, especially in Hebrew and rabbinical lit- 
erature— in the latterfrom Jacob Perle, chief rabbi of 
Nancy. Inheriting the title of syndic of the Jewish 
comnumity of Nancy, bestowed upon his father in 
1753 by King Stanislaus, he took an active part in 
the direction of the affairs of the conununity. 

In 1789 he was elected bj- the Jews of Alsace dep 
uty to the States-General, where he was admitted to 
plead for Jewish emancipation before the Assembly. 
At about that time he published a pamphlet in 
which he refuted theanti .lewish discourse delivered 
by De la Farre, bishop of Nanc}'. Berr was ap- 
pointed successively member of the Assembly of 
Notables and member of the Sanhedrin ; and he co- 
o]KTated effectively in the organization of Jewish 
worship in France and in Ital.y. In his old age he 
retired, [lensioued b)- the king, to one of his estates 
called "Turifjue" — the name of which he added 
to his own with the royal permission. 

Berr was the author of the following works: (1) 
"Discours des Deputes des Juifs des Provinces des 
Eveches d'Alsace et de Lorraine, Prononces a la 
Barre de I'A.ssemblee Nationale," Paris, 1789; (3) 
" Lettre du Sieur Berr Isaac Berr a Monseigneur 
l'Eve(HU! de Nancy." Paris. 1790; (-3) "Lettre d'un 
Citoyen." Nancj', 1791; (4) "Reflexions sur la Re- 
generation Complete des Jinfs en France," Paris, 
1806; (5) "Lettre du Sieur Berr Isaac Berr a Gre- 
goire, Senateur." Nancj', 1806; (6) "Discours du 
Sieur Isaac Berr," Paris, 1806. 

Bibliography: Reime Orientale. 11.62-^: Gratz, GiKch.iler 
Juiirn, xi. 184 et scq.: Kahn, Les Juifs de Parin Pen(la)U 
}a Rfmlution, p. 2" ; Tama. Recuetl de Proces-Vcrhaur. pp. 
19 et sen. 
s. I. Bk. 

BEBR, MICHEL : The first Jew to practise in 
France as a barrister; born at Nancy 1780; died 

Berr, Michel 



there July 4, 1843. His father, Isaac Berr de 
TtJRiQUE, who made himsilf known bj- his great 
ability as a writer and us ;i rhampion of Jewish 
emancipation, intended his son to continue his work. 
With this end in view, he had liim carefully educated 
by the most eminent masters. The poet Wesscly 
recommended to liim as a teacher a learned young 
man of Breslau, Benjamin Wolf, who in France 
assumed the name of " Louis. " Under the direction 
of this Louis, Jlichel made rapid progress in the 
study of the Hebrew and German languages and 
literature. With no less success he attended the lec- 
tures of the central school of Nancy. At Strasburg. 
where he studied law, being at tlie time scarcely 
twenty years old, he began his career 
An Author as an author with a pamphlet entitled 
at Twenty. " Appel a la Justice des Nations et des 
Rois." or" Adressed'un Citoyen Fran- 
<;ais au Cougres de Luneville, au Nom de Tons les 
Habitants de I'Europe qui Professent la Religion 
Juive." This was an eloquent protest against the 
oppressive anti-Jewish laws tlien existing in the 
greater part of Europe. 

On graduating from the university Berr returned 
to Nancy, where he pleaded brilliantly in several 
celebrated cases. At the same period he addressed 
to the minister of public worship observations on the 
speeches delivered by the latter on the law of Ger- 
minal 18, tenth year: he protested eliieflv against 
the omission of any mention of Jewish worship in 
the Concordat. 

About 1803 Berr accompanied his father-in-law, 

Berr-Bing, to Paris, where he soon made himself 

known by several literary articles in the " Decade 

Philosophique." Three years later he was elected 

deputy to the Assembly of Jewish Notables, and in 

the following year was appointed secretary of the 

Grand Sanhedrin. Through this hou- 

Secretary orable title and the French transhi- 

of tion he made of the Hebrew poems 

Sanhedrin. of Kargan, Cologna, and Jleyer in 

honor of the emperor, he gained the 

favor of the government and was called to the post 

of chief of division in the ^linistrv of tlie Interior in 

the new realm cif Westphalia. There he made the 

acquaintance of the Swiss historian Johannes Miiller. 

who, in his letters to his brother, speaks of Berr in 

most eulogistic terms. 

On his return home, in 1809, Berr was appointed 
head of the office at the prefecture of Meurthe. At 
this period he published his " Essai sur la Vie et les 
Ouvrages de Bitaube, " and many pajjers on various 
subjects mentioned in the memoirs of the Academy 
of Nancy. In 1813 he returned to Paris, and. giving 
up his practise at the bar, devoted himself to litera- 
ture. For three years he collaborated 

Leaves with the "Mcrcure de France," "Mer- 

Law for cure Etranger," and "Magasin Ency- 
Literature. clopedique." In 1816 he lectured on 
German literature at the Athenee 
Royal of Paris, and translated into French the trag- 
edy "Luther" by Werner, accompanied by notes. 
His competence as a translator was much appreci- 
ated ; and in 1817 he was appointed translator of the 
German papers at the Foreign Office, a post which 
he occupied until it was abolished in 1823. 

The great reputation that Berr enjoyed excited 
the hostility of the envious; and attacks in the 
press made by his adversaries affected him deeply. 
He was jiartieularly disheartened by his unsuccess- 
ful candidature for membership of the Central Con- 
sistory, this position being one that he greatly 
coveted. In 1836 he went to Brussels, and devoted 
himself to polities. On his return he wrote on the 
works of Salvador, and contributed to the "Gazette 
des Cultes." In 1837 he left Paris and settled at 
Nancy, where he quietly worked until liis death. 

Besides the above-mentioned works, Berr contrib- 
uted numerous articles to scientific journals. The 
most important for Judaism were: (1) "Notice Lit- 
teraire et Historique siu' le Livre de Job" (Paris, 
1807): (2) "Notice sur JIaimonides" (Paris, 1H16); 
(3) "Du Rabbinisme et des Traditions Juives" 
(Paris, 1822); (4) "De la Litterature Hebraique et 
de la Religion Juive " (Paris, 1829): (5) "De I'lm- 
mortalite de I'Ame chez les Juifs Anciens et Mo- 
dernes " (Paris, 1822) ; (6) " De la Fete du Nou vel An 
et du Jefine des E.xpiations. ou Grand Pardon chez 
les Juifs" (Paris, 1829); (7) "Nouveau Precis Ele- 
mentaire d Instruction Religieuse et Morale, a 
rUsage de la Jeunesse'Franeaise Israelite" (Nancy, 
1839); (8) "Riteet Regleiuent pour le Culte Israelite 
de Metz" (Nancy, 1842). 

BiBi.iOGR.\PHY : Revile Oricntah. iiu 62 ct scq. ; Gratz, 
iler Jiulen. xi. 320. 352, 278, 280, 323. 
s. L Bu. 

uit ; born at Rouen Nov. 7. 1681 ; died at Paris Feb. 
17.j8. He was tlie author of a work entitled "His- 
toire du Peuple de Dieu," Paris, 1728, a history of 
the Jews from the earliest times to tlie birth of 
Jesus, according to the Bible, and a critical study 
of the Gospels and the Epistles. This work, writ- 
ten in a non-religious spirit, and interspersed with 
hazardous observations, provoked the indignation 
of tlie Church leaders. The discussions it called 
foith made it popular, and numerous editions and 
translations of it appeared. 
Bnii.iOGRAPHT: Ltx Granilc Enciiclopedie, s.v. 

T. I. Bu. 

BERSHAD : Town in the district of Olgopol, 
ju-ovince of Podolia, Russia, on the road between 
Olgopol and Balta. at the rivers Dakhna and Ber- 
shadka. In 1900 the Jewish population was 4,500, 
out of a total population of 7,000. The Jewish arti- 
sans numbered about 500. The community pos- 
sessed one synagogue and six houses of juayer. In 
June, 1648, during tlie uprising of the Cossacks 
under Climielnicky. the most bloodthirsty of his 
leaders — Maksim Krivonos — conquered Bershad and 
slew all the Jews and Catholics. S. A. Bershadski, 
the celebrated historian of the Russian Jews, de- 
scended from a Cossiiek family at Bershad, where 
his great-grandfather ofiieiated as a Greek Orthodox 

Bershad was famous in the middle of the nine- 
teenth century for its Jewish weavers of the " tallit '" 
(scarfs used by the .lews during praj-er in the day- 
time). But at the end of the century the demand 
decreased, and the industry declined, leading many 
of the weavers to emigrate to America. 



Berr, Kichel 

BiBLior.RAPHY : Eyitziklopedicheslii Slavar, vol. Hi., «.«., pub- 
lished Ijy Broekhaus and Efron, St. Petersburg, 1893; N. 
Kostomarov, Btiadau Chmielnicliy, i. 335: and private 

rl. K. 

VICH : Russian historian and jui'ist; bnin at Ber- 
dyanslv Mai'ch 30, 1850; died iu St. Petersbui-g 1896. 
He graduated from the Gymnasium of Kerch in 
1868, and from tlie University of Odessa iu 1872; lec- 
tured at the University of St. Petersburg on tlie his- 
tory of tlie philosopliy of jurisprudence, from 1878 
to 1883; and was appointed in 1885 assistant pro- 
fessor. At the Lyceum lie delivered lectures also on 
the history of Russian jurisprudence; and at the 
Military Law School of St. Petersburg, on general 
jurisprudence. His famous work on the Lithuanian 
Jews, "Litovskic Yevrei." published in 1883, is the 
first attempt in this field of historical investigation. 

Bershadski's father was a Greek Orthodo.x priest, 
while his great-grandfather on his mother's side, 
Kovalevski, was a hetiiuin of the Cossacks. The 
Cossack traditions of his family found expression in 
his violent prejudice against the Jews. He states, 
in his autobiographical notes, how in his childhood 
he learned of the horrors of the times of C'iimiei,- 
NICKY in connection with the "homicidal Jews." 
From the old blind bandore-player (bandurist) at 
tlie fairs, from the reaper in the field, and from the 
peasant girls at the spinning-wheel on long winter 
evenings, he had heard the same tale of the Jew as 
"the defiler of the sanctuary." This incited him to 
make a study of the Jewish question. "I started," 
he declares, "as a confirmed .Icw-hatcr. " His Jew- 
ish colleagiies at the universit}' remember how he 
used to threaten them, saying, " Wait, some day I 
will expose you!" He went to the Archives and 
there began to search for material for his threatened 
exposures. The re.sult was his work, "Opyt Novoi 
Postanovki Nyekotoiykh Voprosov po Istorii Yev- 
reistva v Polshye i Litvye," an attempt to put into 
a new light .some questions concerning the history 
of the Jews in Poland and Lithuania. To the sur- 
prise of some of liis friends this appeared in the 
" Yevreiskaya Bibliotcka. " And their surjirise grew 
when they read its important and on the whole 
favorable statements. The result of • further re- 
searches appeai'ed soon after in the " Voskhod," and 
in the " Russki Yevrei," both of them Jewish pub- 
lications, and the name of Bershadski became so 
closely connected with Jewish topics, that most of 
the readers of these periodicals were firmly con- 
vince<l that this so-called "Jew-hater" was a Jew 
himself. Soon afterward appeared his principal 
work, "Dokumenty 1 Regesty," etc., containing 
about 700 original documents and records from the 
early period of Jewish settlement in Lithuania, 1388- 
1569. Russian historiography shows no other in- 
stance of an equal collection devoted to one special 
subject. About the same time he published his 
"Historj' of the Lithuanian Jews." Though this 
work covers a period of only two liundred years, it 
endeavors to depict the entire course of Lithuanian- 
Jewish histoi-y. 

Bei'shadski's chief characteristics as a writer are a 
keen historical eye and truthfulness. He has the 
merit of having been the first impartial historiog- 

rapher of the Jews in Lithuania. His published 
woi-ks are: (1) "Litovskie Yevrei, Istoriya ikh 
Yuridichcskavo i Obshchestvennavo Polozheniya v 
Litvye," St. Petersburg, 1883, being a history of 
the legal and social conditions of the Jews at Lith- 
uania in 1388-1569; (2) "Dokumenty i Regesty k 
Istorii J,itovskikh Yevreyev," St. Petersburg, 1882, 
bearing upon thi^ history of the Jews in Lithuania; 
(3) "A. E. Rebiichkovich, Podskarbi Vclikavo Knya- 
zhestva Litovskavo," Kiev, 1888; (4) "Yevrei Korol 
Polski," St. Petersburg, 1890, concerning a Jew 
king of Poland. Many articles on Jewish-Polish 
and Jewish-Lithuanian history in the periodicals 
were contributed by him in "Yevreiskaya Biblio- 
tcka," "Voskhod," "Russki Yevrei," and other peri- 

Bibliooraphy: Vengerov, Kritiho-Bingrafichfshi Slovnr, 
vol. lii., .s.t'., St. Petersburg, ISSB; A. B., tiirshMlski Kak 
Monk Riis^kikh Ycvrfyei\ in VoshluK}^ 189ti, iv. 1(11-131, 
xi.-xii. 99-110; M. Vinnaver, in Viixkhud, 1897, v. 49 et wq. 

H. R. 
BERSHADSKY, ISAIAH (pseuilonym for 
DOMOSHEVITZKY) : Russian novelist;' born in 
Saiuiosclia, near Slonini, government of Grodno, 
1874 ; now a teacher in Yekaterinoslav. Bershadsky 
is one of the youngest Neo-Hebraic writers of fiction 
in Russia, and one of whom much inaj' be cxjiccted. 
His "Zikronot Tugah " (Sad .Memoiies), in"Ha-Slii 
loah." vi. 405-416, is the story of a Talmudist who 
went into business, imitated the vices and exiiava 
ganccsof the rich, and, after lieing ruined by living 
above his means (a fault conuuon to old-style Russian 
merchants), is a mental and physical wreck at fifty- 
five, with adevotcd wife whodid not share his plcas- 
ui'es but comforts him in his despair. The author 
shows power and keen insight into human nature, 
and has Ihe sympathy for his erring characters which 
denotes the tiue artist. In his silhouettes, "Ma'asim 
be-Kol Yom" (Every Day Occurrences), which ap- 
peared in the " Ahiasiif " calendar for 1901, he 
places before the reader with a few masterly strokes 
types and incidents which are not easily forgotten. 
The best of them is pi-obably "HaShemu'ah " (The 
Report). This describes the agony of a liberal Jew 
when he learns from his sons, whom he has estab- 
lished iu business in a great city, that the)' are com- 
pelled to embrace Christianity iu order not to be 
ruined by expulsion. The anomalies of religious life 
are presented in their most cruel phases; for the au- 
thor states that the old man was liberal and c-areil 
little about the religious conduct of his sons, some- 
times even encouraging transgression in small things, 
but that he is crushed by their conversion, which is 
to some extent the outcome of their training under 
his supervision. 

In his novel, "Be'en Mattarah " (Without Ainu. 
Bershadsky ably describes the life of progressive 
Hebrew teachers in Russia, and the supeiiority of a 
Zionist idealist over a bi-illiant cyuic, Adamnrich. 
who is the hero of the novel, and who has no aim in 
life. These novels as well as two others, " Dcfusim 
u-Zelalim" (Types and Shades) and " Neged ha- 
Zerem" (Against the Current), were published in the 
last two years by the "Tuschia" of Warsaw. Ber- 
shadsky also contributed several short sketches to 
H. R. P. Wi. 




BEBSOHN, MATHIAS : Polish bibliographer. 
archeoloicist, aiui writer ou fine arts; born at War- 
saw 1820. He is the owner of a choice library 
■which contains a valuable collection of rare books 
and manuscripts. Among other works he wrote: 
(1) " W. Stosie," 1870; oT-'Tobias Kohn." Cracow, 
1873, the biography of a Jewish physician of the 
seventeenth century, the author of "Maase To- 
bia" ; a supjilemcnt, taken from a work entitled 
"Metryka Koronna." giving important documents 
on the history of the Jews of Poland, is added to 
'■Tobias Kohn": (3) "Marcin Teotil Polak." 1889; 
(4) " Studcncy Polacy na Universytecie Colonskim 
xvi i xvii, w " — a pamphlet on old South-Russian 
synagogues; and many articles in the Polish period- 
icals ■' Tygodnik Illustrowany " and " Biblioteka 

Bibliography: S. Orgelbrand, Encyklopedja Powszechnn, 
ii., .-■.!'.. Warsaw. 1898. 

H. R. 

teacher and translator ; born at Odessa at the end of 
the eighteenth century; died there 1859. He re- 
ceived a careful education iu the school of Basilius 
Stern, and for nianj' years was a teacher of lan- 
guages in Odessa. Berteusohn contributed to- the 
"Odesski Vyestnik" and otlier periodicals, and in 
1841 tran.slated into Russian L. Philippson's novel, 
"Die JIaiannen." 
Bibliography: Voskhml. 1884, iv. 146. 

H. u. V. R. 


Russian courl-physiciau; born at Nikolaiev, govern- 
ment of Kherson, in 1835. He received Ids early edu- 
cation at tlie g.vmnasium of Odessa, whence he was 
graduated in 1849; studied at the Richelieu Lyceum 
in Odessa, at the University of Kharkov, and then 
at the University of Dorpat, from the latter of which 
he graduated in 1857 with the degree of doctor of 
medicine. In 1859 he was appointed plij'sician of 
the city liospital at Vitelisk. He went abroad iu 
1861 and attended the lectures of Virchow, Traube, 
Skoda, and Helmholtz. In 1863 he became attached 
to the medical department of the Ministry of the In- 
terior, and soon after was appointed a member of the 
St. Petersburg board of health. He assumed the 
editorship of the "Arkhiv Sudebnoi Meditzinj- 
Obshchestvennoi lligieny " in 1865. The municipal 
government of St. Petersburg entrusted him, in the 
following year, with tlie management of the Cholera 
Asylum, which in 1867 was transformed into the 
First City Hospital. To his efforts were due the 
establishment of a field-hospital and a 
for medical assistants. Bertensohn is still director 
of these institutions, the first of their kind in Russia. 
In 1875 lie established a free dispensary, which was 
named iu honor of Grand Duchess Maria Alexan- 
drovna. During the Franco-Prussian war he accom- 
panied the celebrated surgeon Pirogov to the battle- 
field. From there he sent a series of valuable articles 
on military hygiene. He is a privy-councilor, an 
honorary physician to the Russian court, a member 
of many learned societies, and an honorary member 
of the medical associations of Vitebsk, Kiev, and St. 
Petersburg. His works on various questions of 
public hygiene and sanitary reform have been of 

great practical importance. Berteusohn was one of 
the most ardent propagators of Pirogov 's advanced 
ideas and has done a great deal toward their reali- 
zation. Besides numerous articles contributed to 
medical periodicals, be has published the following 
works: (1) "O Gliermafroditismye. etc., v Sudebno- 
Meditzinskom Otnoshenii"; (2) "Barachuj'e Laza- 
retz V Voyenuoe i Miiube Vremya," St. Petersburg, 
1871; (3) "Baraki St. Peterburgskavo Damskavo 
Lazaretnavo Komiteta," St. Petersburg, 1872; (4) 
" L'Hopital Baraque Etabli parle Comite des Dames 
de St. Petersbourg, d'Ordrcde S. M. I'lmperatrice." 
St. Petersburg, 1874. 

Bibliography : Vengerov, Khtikn-Biofirafichcshi Slnvar, 
lii., St. Petersburg, 1892 ; EMziklnpetUchaski Slovar, ixi., 
St. Petersburg, 1892. 

H. R, 


Russian physician ; Ijorn at Aug. 10, 18.50; 
son of Bernard and nephew of Joseph Bertensohn. 
He graduateil in 1867 from the Larin Gymnasium, 
St. Petersburg, and in 1873 from the St. Petersburg 
Jledical Academy. He was assigned to duty in the 
clinical military hospital, under Eck and Eichwald. 
From 1876 to 1887 Bertensohn lectured at the Rozh- 
denstvenskaya Hospital on the diagnosis and treat- 
ment of diseases. In 1887 he was appointed, by the 
minister of crown domains, president of the com- 
mission for the improvement of the mineral springs 
system of the Caucasus. Bertensohn published his 
chief work on balneology in 1873. under the title 
" Jlineralnye Vody, Gryazy, i Morskiya Kupanya v 
Rossii i Zagranitzei," being assisted therein by Dr. 
Voronikhim. Among his other works may be men- 
tioned "Pseudoleukemia Prinyalaya za Tif," 1879 
(reprinted in German in " St. Petersburg Medicinische 
Wochenschrift," 1879, No. 12). Berteusohn also 
published in the "Meditziiiski Vyestnik," in 1883, 
an article on Turgenef, who, in his closing years, 
was treated by Bertensohn. With Ivauov Berten- 
sohn translated Kiintz's "Lehrbuchder Praktischen 
Medicin." and with Dr. Popov he issued a work on 
the Caucasian mineral waters. " K Voprosu ob Us- 
troistvye Kavkazskikh Mineralnikh Vod," 1887. 

Bibliography : Veogerov, Kritikn-Biiigranchcuki Slovar, ill. 
126, St. Petersburg, 1892; Bokhaya Eutziklnpediya, ill., ib. 
n. E. V. R. 

VICH : Ru.ssian agriculturist ; born in Odessa Sept. 
12, 1860. He belongs to the hereditary nobility, his 
father, Dr. Aleksei Vasilievich Bertensohn, having 
been a state councilor and knight of the Order of St. 
Vladimir. Vasili graduated from the technical high 
school of Odessa in 1879, studied for a year at the 
Imperial New-Russian University at Odessa, and then 
at the Petrovsko-Razumovskoye Agricultural Acad- 
emy in Moscow, whence he graduated in 1884. 
From 1885 to 1894 Bertensohn was attached to the 
Department of State Domains, and was stationed at 
Odessa as adviser to the superintendent of the govern- 
ments of Kherson and Bessarabia. He was at the 
same time secretary to the Odessa committees on 
phylloxera and sericulture, and undertook several 
agricultural commissions for the department. 

In 1889 Bertensohn was commissioned to western 
Europe for the purpose of studying the conditions 




of sericulture and viticulture. In 1893 he was ap- 
pointed agricultural expert to the soutliern govern- 
nieuts, and commissioned to investigate the needs of 
sericulture und other agricultural problems in those 
districts. The following jear, Berteusolm was made 
an extra official in the Department of Agriculture and 
State Domains, in addition to his other appointments. 
In 1900 he liecame chief expert on agriculture to the 
governments of Podolia and Volhynia, and chief 
expert on sericulture in South Russia. He is the 
representative of the Department of Agriculture and 
State Domains in connection with the various agri- 
cultural institutions of Odessa; and was commis- 
sioned by his ilepartment to inspect the agricultural 
section of the Paris Exposition of 1900. 

Bertensolm is an aulic councilor and knight of 
the orders of St. Stanislav and St. Anne. He was 
also decorated by Emperor Alexander III. with liis 
"commemoration" medal; and Bertensohu's depart- 
ment has awarded him a special medal for his serv- 
ices to agriculture. In connection with Jewish 
cliaritable institutions Berten.solm has been very 
active. Tlie farm of the Odessa Hebrew Orphan 
Asylum was organized on lines proposed by him. 
and he superintended it for a considerable time. In 
1898. at the invitation of Baron de Hirsch, he vi.sited 
Paris and London for the purpose of joining in the 
delibei-ations on the proposal to establish Jewish 
colonies in the Argentine Republic. He was offered 
the position of superintendent of the agricultural 
sections of these colonies, but did not accept it. 

Berten.sohn has been a prolitic contributor to the 
agricultural journals " Zemledyelcheskaya Gaz- 
eta," "Zemledyelie," and the " Odesski Vyestnik,"as 
Well as to several periodicals. On agricultural edu- 
cation, in connection with the Jewish question, he 
has published essays in the "Voskhod " and "Odes- 
ski Vyestnik." Many of these have been issued in 
pamphlet form; among them " Vinogradarstvo na 
Peshchanuoi Pochvye," "Shelkovodstvo v Kherson- 
skoi, Bessarabskoi i Tavricheskoi Guberniakh," and 
" Polskaya Pshenitza. " 

Bibliography: Vengerov, Kritikri-Bi'itirafichcshi Sliwar, 
ill., St. Petersburg, 1892; and private sources. 

H. R. 

BERTHEATT, ERNEST: Biblical and Oriental 
scholar; born Nov. 23, 1812, in Hamburg; died Ma.y 
17. 1888, in Gottingen. In 1843 he was appointed 
ordinary professor in the University of GOttingen, 
where he lectured on Oriental languages, Biblical 
exegesis, Hebrew archeology and history. Ber- 
theau was the author of the following works: (1) 
"Die Sieben Gruppen Mosaischer Gesetze," Got- 
tingen, 1840; "ZurGesch. derlsraeliten," Gottingen, 
1842 ; and (in the " Kurzgefasstes Exegetisches Hand- 
buch zum Alten Testament") commentaries on 
Judges and Ruth, Leipsic, 184.'i; Proverbs, Leipsic, 
1862; Chronicles, Leipsic, 1854; Ezra, Nehemiah, 
and Esther, Leipsic, 1862. Noteworthy also is his 
edition of the smaller Syriac grammar of Bar- 
Hebraetis, Gdttingen. 1848. 

BiBLKKiRAPHV : Brockhaus, Konversations - Lexiknn ; La 
(rninilr Encyclopedic. 
T. B. B. 

and itinerant preacher; born about 1220; died in 

Regensburg (Ratisbon) Dec. 14, 1272. This most 
celebrated popular preacher of the Middle Ages, 
known to the people as "Rusticanus." traveled 
through Bavaria, the Rhine Provinces, Alsatia, Aus- 
tria, Moravia, Hungary, Silesia, and Bohemia, and 
exercised an enormous influence upon the populace 
by his fiery speech and his lofty moral ideals. The 
last part of his life-work was spent in the interest of 
the Crusades. 

It is supposed that in his many journeys he came 
in contact with the Jews, though there are no direct 
data on this point. In his numerous .sermons, how- 
ever, occasional references to the Jews show that he 
belonged to those ecclesiastics who, though good 
churchmen and brought up in the traditions of their 
church respecting the Jews, were lilii'ral-iiiinded 
enough to treat them as human beings to wliom the 
state owed a certain amount of protection. Some 
qualities, which Berthold must have observed 
among the Jews who came under his notice, ap- 
pealed strongly to him; and on one occasion he 
warned his hearers to be constant in their morning 
and evening prayers, adding, "In this the Jews put 
you to shame." On another occasion he used the 
same expression in regard to the holiness of family 
life. It is more surprising, however, to see how 
forcibly he speaks against what in his time was be- 
coming the fashion of the day — the altemiit to com- 
pel the Jews to become Christians. He declares it 
to be foolish to forcibly push the Jews into the 
water. He is also very decided in his distaste for 
another method then growing common ; namel}', 
that of forcing the Jews to see the error of their 
ways. The many disputations, which from that 
time on were held, were regarded by Berthold as 
quite useless; for he says: "You all desire to have 
a dispute with the Jews. You are ignorant; they 
are learned in Holy Writ. Tliey know well how to 
out-talk you; and because of this you always 
emerge the weaker." In regard to the position of 
the Jews before the law he has this to say: "Kings 
ought to guard the Jews as the)- guard the Chris- 
tians in respect of their persons and their chattels, if 
taken in during time of peace; and he who kills a 
Jew must stand for it as must a Christian, when the 
emperor has received them in time of peace." He 
then quotes tli(" usual reasons given by the Church 
for permitting Jews to live among Christians: 
"First, because they are witnesses that our Lord 
was by them crucified . . . ; secondly, because 
those of them who shall be living at the time of Anti- 
christ will all have become Christians before the last 

There are, however, many indications that, despite 
these liberal expressions, Berthold was still the child 
of his day, and his ecclesiastical dislike of the Jews 
was increased liy the great horror which he had of 
usury in any form; but it must be remembered that, 
like Bcrnhard of Clairvaux (1146) and the minne- 
singer Rumelant (thirteenth century), he is as vigor- 
ous against Christian usury as against Jewish. This 
popular prejudice is seen in his speaking of "des 
stinkenden Juden falschen Geschwiltz," and men- 
tioning them in connection with thieves, robbers, 
heathens, heretics, and perjurers. On one occasion 
lie did not scruple to say : " Mr. Jew, the devil had 




long ago broken thy neck, had it not been for the 
angel tliat watches over thee." 

Bertholil is also of interest iu the history of mys- 
ticism; for in him is seen the close connection be- 
tween Christian and Jewish mysticism of the thir- 
teenth century. He believed in a most elaborate 
angelology ; and even the mystic value of the letters 
of the alphabet was not unknown to him. 

BiBLior.R.vPHY : The passages dealinjr with the .lews are Quoted 
in GiUlHinaun's '.;'.<i7nV;i/( Jc.s Erzkhuiiii.-<ni-<i:iis uiiil ihr 
Cidtuv iltr Jutliii in Fraithrrich iiixi />« »f.v(/Wfi/M/. Inde.\. 
s.v. BerthiiUh Vienna, ISSI. The literature uu Beithold will 
be found in Ilaui-k"s licalenaihlnpiidic fUr Prntc.itantisvlie 
Theiih'iiii tiiKl Kirchr, ii. (Hi), Leipsii", lf97. 


ABRAHAM tcalled also Bartinoro): CeUbiated 
rabbi ami inmmeutator on tlie Mishiiah; lived in the 
second half uf the fifteenth century in Italy ; died in 
Jerusjilem about 1.500. lie was a piiijil of Joseph b. 
Solomon Colon (sec the latter's Responsa, Xo. 70. ed. 
Venice. G'h\). and became ralibi in Bertinoro, a town 
in the province of Flori, whence he derived his by- 
name, and iu Castello. The desire to visit tlie Holy 
Land led liim to Jerusalem; and he arrived there 
March 2.5. 1488, having conimenced his journey Oct. 
29, 1486. His advent in Palestine marked a ilew 
epoch for the Jewish community there and indeed 
for the whole coimtry. The administration of Jew- 
ish communal affairs in Jerusalem had fallen into 
the handsof iniquitous officials who tyrannized over 
great and small. The poor were pitilessly ta.\ed for 
the Jlohammedan government; tlie rich were simi- 
larly treated and driven from the city by exorbitant 
demands upon tliem, so that the Jewish community 
was on the brink of ruin (see Jervs.\i.em). 

Bertinoro's strong personality, his eloquence, and 
great rejiutation as a scholar led to his being ac- 
cepted its the spiritual head of the community im- 
mediately upon his aiTival. His first care was to 
raise the intellectual plane of the community, and 
for this imrpose he interested the younger genera- 
tion in the study of the Talmud and rabbinical lore. 
and he delivered sermons every other Sabbath in 
Hebrew, although the vernacular language was 
Arabic, one which Bertinoro never 

Influence acquired. His connections in Italy 
in supplied him with money for the sup- 

Palestine, port of the jioor, which also added not a 
little to his iutluence. He succeeded in 
securing the abolition of the annual ta.\ of 400 ducats, 
which had sifforded such opportunity for oppression 
and injustice; iu lieu a simple poll-tax payable di- 
rect to the government was instituted. When, on 
the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492, many 
of the exiles settled in Jerusjilem. Bertinoro became 
their intellectual leader. These Spanish Jews, far 
superior in intelligence, culture, and learning to the 
Arabian Jews of Palestine, presented Bertin(ii'o witli 
a site for a yeshibah in Jerusijlem, which he fotmded. 
more than a thousiind years after the extinction of 
the last academy in Palestine (see Ac.\demies in 
P.\lestine). Considerable support for the main- 
tenance of the yeshibah was given by the Jews of 
Egypt and Turkey at Bertinoro's written solicita- 
tion. Isaac b. Mathan ibn Shulal, naggid or prince of 
Egypt, was especially helpful. 

In tlie decade during which Bertinoro thus con- 
trolled the best interests of the Jewish community 
at Jerusalem, a radical change for the better de\el- 
oped. Shortly after his arrival lie had actually 
been compelled upon one occasion to dig a graM- 
l"'cause the commuuitv had jirovided no one to pc i 
form that labor; a few years later there had coiif 
into existence such benevolent institutions as lios|ij. 
tals. charitable relief societies, and similar assoeiu 
tions. all under excellent management. His faii^ 
and reputation spread to all parts of the Orient 
and he came to be looked upon as a rabbinical :iu- 
thority of highest eminence; even the Moliammiihin 
population frequently called upon him to decide 
judicial cases. His scrupulous conscientiousness 
and moral earnestness were especially reeognizi il. 
For instance, he harshlj^ reproved the rabbis fur ex- 
acting fees for services at weddings and divorces, a 
custom then general in Germany, and did not liisi- 
tate to style them robbers (commentarj- on Bekorot, 
iv. 6). He believed it their duty to perform relig- 
ious ceremonies without monetjiry remuneration. 

Bertinoro is usually known as the best commenta- 
tor of the Mishnah; the importance of his commen- 
tary is illustrated by the fact that since its appear- 
ance (Venice. 1.549) hardly an edition of the Mishnah 
has been printed without it ; even Surenhuis in his 
Latin translation and commenlavy upon the IMisli. 
nah (Amsterdam. 1098-1703) translated Bertinoro. 
Its excellence lies iu the fact that he 

Literary selected the best afforded by Rsislii 
Activity, and Maimonidesand gave this in clear 
and easily comprehensible fashion : iu 
the matter of originality, however. Bertinoro does not 
approach his distinguished predecessors, nor even 
his successor in this department, Yom-Tob Lipmanu 

Bertinoro is also the author of a snpercommentary 
upon Rashi's Pentateuch commentary (publislieil 
under the title " 'Amar Xaki " [Pure Wool], Pis;i. 
1810; reprinted in the collective work "Rabbotenu 
Ba'ale ha-Tosafot." Warsaw. 1889). His commen- 
tary upon Abot is, as Jellinek showed, only an ex- 
tract from Simon Durau's work upon that book 
("Monatsschrift." iv. 119, and an appendix added 
to a few copies of Jellinek's edition of Duran's 
Abot-commentary, Leipsic, 1855). Some liturgical 
productions 1)V Bertinoro exist in manuscript in the 
Bodleiau Library. Oxford (Nos. 1061; 2266, 6; in 
the first the name of his father is menfione<l). He 
also wrote descrijitions of his travels; and his letters 
to his relations in Italy, althougli intended only 
as private communications, are of great historical 
value. Most interesting iu these letters (first pub- 
lished by S. Sachs in the " Jahibuch f iir Gesch. der 
Juden." 1863. iii. 19.5-224) is the fund of informa- 
tion concerning the social and intellectual conditions 
of the Jews in Greece. Egypt, and Palestine. He 
shows himself therein not only a close observer, but 
a conscientious and unjirejudiced chronicler. For 
example, he studied attentively the conditions of 
the Karaites in Alexandria, and did not hesitate to 
praise them for the possession of the very virtues 
which the Rabbinites denied to them, such as gen- 
erosity and liberality (I.e. p. 208; the text is to be 
emended according to the manuscript mentioned in 




Steinschneider, "Hebr. Bibl." vi. 131). His descrip 
tion of tlu' SiUiiaritaus in Egypt (I.e. pp. 200-208) is 
oiu; of the most valuable and reliable of medieval 

His letters liave been trauslated into German by 
Ncubauer. " Jahrbucii, " I.e. pp. 225-270, and sep- 
arately, Leipsic, 1863: into French by M. Schwalj. 
"Lettres d'Obadiah." Paris, 1«66; into English 
ill the "Miscellany of Hebrew Literature,"!., 1ST2, 
No. 7. All these translations. how- 
Letters, ever, are baseil upon a very imperfect 
manuscript (see Steinschneider, I.e. vi. 
131. xiii. 124, who gives many emendations from 
another manuscript). The Hebrew edition, pub- 
lished by M. T. Schwerdscharf, Kolomea, 1S86. is 
simply a reprint of the same text. Collated pas 
sages from another manuscript, as well as a short 
letter by Bertinoro, were published by Steinschnei- 
der in " Yehudah we-Yeruslialayim," ii. 1878. The 
Almanzi lihrary coutaineil Bertinoro's novelUv upon 
Moses of Coucy's work, "Sefer ;\Iizw(>t ha-Gadol " 
C'Semag") — see Luzzatto, in "Hebr. Bibl." v. 14.): 
the work is now very probably in the British Mu- 

BiBi.iocRAPHY: Azulai, Shem ha-Geiloliiii, i.")3, ed. Ben- 
Jnrob; tVjnforte, Kiire ha-Di>rnt, Wa, 24a, 38b, 30b. ert. 
Cassipl: Liini'Z. Jerusalem. 1. 113; Ii. 2.s-;i3; ili. 2, 3; Stelii- 
si-hnelder, Citl. Bii(». 21)72-2073; Zunz, (,'. .S. i. 177. 

L. G 

BERTOLIO, ABB^: French cleric: member of 
the Commune of Paris in 1790. The National Assem- 
bly conferred citizenship upon the Jews of Bordeaux, 
Bayonne, and Avignon Jan. 28, 1790; but deferred 
granting it to those of Alsace and Lorraine. Hence, 
when the Jews of France petitioned the Assem- 
bly, Dec. 24, 1789, delegates from Paris appeared 
before the General Assembly of the Commune 
with the request that it pledge itself to support 
the petition of the Jews. On Jan. 30, 1790, 
tlie latter Assembly listened to the report of Abbe 
Bertolio, who, whilefavoring the Jews' retjuest, pro- 
]iosed that the Assembly should take no steps in 
their belialf before consulting the districts and hav- 
ing obtained their approbation of the pleilge re- 
quested. His proposition was adopted, anil on Feb. 
28 a deputation from the Conuiume, with the Abbe 
Mulot as spokesman and Bertolio as a member, ap- 
peared before the National Assembly, requesting it 
to extend to the Jews of Paris the decree giving 
citizenship to those Jews known as Portuguese, 
Spanish, and Avignonese. As is well known, this 
intervention of the Commune was not immediately 

s. I. L. 

TURE: Protestant clergyman and Ileliraist ; Ixini 
at Thouars. France, in 1531 ; died at Lau.sanne. 
Switzerland, 1594. He studied at Poitiers. Paris. 
Toulouse, and Cahors. Learning, in the last -men- 
tioned citj', that the authorities had received an 
order to massacre all the Protestants, he lied to 
Geneva, where, in 1567, he became jirofessor of Ori- 
ental languages in the university. Among many 
valuable works he wrote the following on Hebrew 
matters: (1) "Gal 'Ed" (Heapof Testimony). "Com- 
paratio Grammatics? Hebraica; Aramaicie." Geneva, 
1574; (2) "De Politia Judaica tarn Civili quam Ec- 

desiastica," Geneva. 1580. a work on Hebrew insti- 
tutionsand history, which enjoyed great iiopularity, 
and passed through many editions; (3) "Gratnma- 
tica Hebraica et Arabiea," Geneva, n. d. ; (4) "Lucu- 
brationes Frankentallenses, sen Specimen Exposi- 
tionum in Dilliciliora Utriusque Testamenti Loca," 
Frankenthal, 158G. Bertram also published a trans- 
lation of the Bible very much appreciated at that 
time, Geneva, 1588. In this translation he followed 
Sebastian Munster and Tremclius; and very often 
he made use of rabbinic commentaries. 

BiBLiofiRAPHY : Haajf,' La France Protegtante. Ii. 229-Sl ; 
Dreux du Radler, Nntive de C. B. Bertram, in Bibllothecnie 
HiKtnrii/ue et Critique de Poitou. iil. 1 et seq. ; Steinscbnei- 
diT, BiMioi/raptmclies Uatidhucli. p. 22. 
r I. Br. 

BERURIAH ( = probably Valeria) : Daughterof 
the maityr K. Hananiah ben Teradion, and wife of K. 
Mei'r; l)orn in the tirst quarter of the second cen- 
tury, she lived at Tiberias after the Iladrianic per- 
•secutions. Ilertraitsof character, gleaned from Tal- 
mudic passages, show Iier to have been a helpmate 
worthy of her great husband, and to have possessed 
a personality corresponding to the emergencies of 
the troublous times following upon the failure of 
Bar Kokba's insurrection. They betray intellectual 
qualities and attainments as well as womanly ten- 
derness and stanch virtues. It is said that she 
studied three hundred Talmudic subjects daily (Pes. 
62b), and K. .fudah endorsed a decision of hers, on a 
question about clean and unclean, in which she 
went count<'r to the view of " the wise " (" hakamim ") 
(Tosef., Kelim, B. M. i. 6). 

Her womanly tenderness is shown by a Biblical 
interpretation (Ber. 10a): Her husband, grievously 
vexed by wicked ncigliliors. pra3'ed for their exter- 
mination. Beruriah exclaimed: "What! do you 
dare pray thus because the Psalmist says: 'Let 
l.iataVm be consumed out of the earth"!* (Ps. civ. 35) 
Observe that he does not say hote'i'm ["sinners"], 
but hataim ["sins"]. And th<'n look to the end of 
the 'And the wicked will be no more.' Once 
sins are rooted out, there will be no more evil-doers." 
Of her readj' wit the following is a specimen (ib.): 
In a dispute between Beruriah and a sectary, the 
latter quoted Isa. liv. 1: "Sing, O barren, thou that 
(liilst not bear," and mockingly asked whether bar- 
renness is cause for singing. Beruriah directed him 
to look to the end of the verse: " Jlore are the chil- 
dren of the desolate than the children of the married 
wife." The princi|)le upon which both interpreta- 
tions rest. "Look to the end of the verse" (p'BB' 
NIpT iTa'Di)). became an exegetical rule current 
among the later Talnuidical sages. 

In 'Er. 53b ct seq. there are other examples of 
her knowledge of Jewish Scriptures and her al- 
most coquettish playfulness, coexist- 
Her 'Wide ing in her with a capacity for right- 
Knowledge eous indignation, displayed when it 
of v,as ]Udposed, for her father's sake, 

Scriptures, to pay funeral honors to her scape- 
grace brother. Father, mother, and 
.sister alike denounced his conduct, the last applying 
to him Prov. xx. 17 (R. V.). "Bread of falsehood is 
sweet to a man ; but afterward his mouth sliall be 
tilled with gravel" (Sem. xii. ; "^.am. H. iii. 16). 




Beruriali's life fell in calamitous times. Not ouly 
did sbe lose lier father through the Hadrianic perse- 
cutions, but her mother at the same time suffered a 
violent death, and her sister was carried off to Rome, 
or perhaps Antiocli, to lead a life of shame under 
coercion. At Beruriah's instance, R. Meir set out 
to save her sister's honor, and succeeded (' Ab. Zarah 
18a; Sifre, Dent. 307; Ecd. R. vii. 11). In conse- 
quence he had to flee to Babylonia, and Beruriah 
accompanied him. 

Beruriali is best known in connection with the 
touching story of the sudden death of her two sons 
on the Sabbath, while their fatlier was at the liouse 
of study. On his return, at the conclusion of the 
Sabbath, he at once asked for them. Their mother 
replied tliat they had gone to the house of study, 
and. feigning to disregard her husband's rejoinder, 
that he had looked for them tliere in vain, she lianded 
liim the cup of wine for the Habdalah service. His 
second inquiry for them was evaded by a similar 
subterfuge. After R. Me'ir had eaten liis evening 
meal. Beruriah asked formally for permission to put 
a question to him. "Rabbi," she then said, "some 
time ago a deposit was left with me for safekeep- 
ing, and now the owner has come to claim it. Must 
I return it '? " " Can there be any question about the 
return of property to its owner?" sjiid R. Me'i'r, half 
astonished and half indignant that his wife should 
entertain a doubt. " I did not care to 
Sudden let it go out of my possession wifliout 

Death of your knowledge," replied Beruriah, 

Her Two seetningly in excuse, and. taking him 
Sons. by the hand, led hira into the room in 
which the bodies of their two sons 
were lying on the bed. When slie withdrew the 
cover, R. Mei'r broke out in tears and plaints. 
Gently Beruriah reminded liim of his answer to her 
question about the return of a treasure entrusted to 
one for safe-keeping, adding the verse from Job (i. 
21): "'The Lord gave, and the Lord hatli taken 
away; blessed be the name of tlie Lord." This 
story, which has found a liome in all modern litera- 
tures, can be traced to no earlier source than the 
Talkut (Prov. 964, ijuotation from a Midrash). 

AVith Beruriah's deatli is connected a legend men- 
tioned by Rashi CAb. Zarah 18b). To explain R. 
Meir's flight to Babylonia, the commentator relates 
the following: 

" Once Beruriah scoffed at ihe rabbinical saving, ' Women are 
Upht-mlnded " (Kid. Wbi, and her husband warned her that her 
own end migrht yet testify to tlie truth cif Ihe words. To put 
her virtue to the test, he charged one of his disciples to endeavor 
to seduce her. .\fter repeated efforts she yielded, and then 
shame drove her to commit suicide. R. Meir, tortured by re- 
morse, fled from his home." 

The historical kernel of this story can not be dis- 
engaged. As told, the narrative is wholly at vari- 
ance with what is known of Beruriah's character and 
that of R. Me'i'r. Beruriah probably died at an early 

BlBLioGR.vrnT : Adolf Blumenthal, Rabhi Me'ir. pp. 108-lU ; 
M. KavserUnp, Di*' JiUUsihcu Fruueti iu ihr Gc.<chichtc, 
Literntur mid Kun«t. pp. 13r>-124 : Henry Zlrudorf, Soiiif 
Jewish JT'onifH, pp. 162-17:5; Bacher, An. tail. i. 4(10, ii. 5. 
J. SK. H. S. 

BER'CrSH. See Baer of Meseuitz. 
BERYL (!;"L'nn) : A stone, ranging in color from 
blue to pale yellow and found all over the world; 

three kinds are to be distinguished — beryl, aqua- 
marine, and emerald. According to Ex. xxviii, 20 
and xxxix. 13. the beryl was the first on the fourth 
row of the breastplate of the high priest . It is also 
mentioned frequently in the apocalyptic literature; 
e.g., Ezek. i. 16. x. 9. xxviii. 13; Dan. x. 6). , 

J. JR. G. B. L. « 

BERYTXJS. See Beirvt. 

BESALTT (Latin. Bisuldum) : City in Catalonia, 
Spain. Its small Jewish community had the same 
privileges as that of the neighboring Gerona. and 
was taxed together with it. A number of docu- 
ments dealing with taxes of the Jews of this place 
are preserved in the archives of Aragon at Barce- 
lona. Besalu is the birthplace of the family Caslar 
(called in Jewish documents Descaslars, "INijcpcn). 
of Abraham b. David Caslar, Joseph ibn Zabara, and 

BiBLiofiRAPHY: Jacobs, Sources of the History of the Jews 
ill Siniin. p. 246. 
G. M. K. 

BESANQON : City and county of France, in the 
ilepartmeut of Doubs. Although no mention is 
made of this city in Jewish sources, it is known that 
it had a prominent part in the history of the Jews 
and was also of some importance even from a liter- 
al}- point of view. By his marriage witli Jeanne of 
Burgundy, Philip the Tall, king of France, became 
ruler of this province in 1316. In a letter of Dec. 
14, 1021, he gave to the queen the spoils from the 
Jews, who he had driven from his territory. Some 
years afterward they were recalled, but when in 
1348 the Black Plague broke out, the inhabitants ac- 
cused the Jews of being the cause, persecuted them, 
and had many of them executed, and finally (1360) 
the wretched survivors who had escaped the massji- 
cres were exiled from the province by a decree of 
Princess ilarguerite. 

There is no mention of Jews in the city of Besan- 
^on (which is the capital of the county) before 1320, 
when, in the depth of winter, they were driven from 
the environs, and knocked at the gates of this free 
city, which was tmder the patronage of the emperor 
of Germany. Five of them, on account of previous 
commercial relations, having succeeded in entering 
the city, asked permission to remain at least until the 
end of the winter. The leading men of the city, 
in order to please the barons D'Arlay, who were 
favorably inclined toward the Jews, gave their con- 
sent that the fugitives should reside among them. 

The new inhabitants of Besanc<m. however, paid 
for their light to remain by many and burdensome 
obligations. They were required to pay a heavy 
poll-tax every mouth to the city treasury, were for- 
bidden to appear in the city without a white and red 
cloth attached to the breast, and were ordered to 
dwell in a specified street, the gates of which were 
closed every evening. The street which they inhab- 
ited is now called "Rue Richebourg"; and it is 
said the Jews' sojourn there gave rise to this name. 
A piece of land, chosen by the leading men of the 
city, was assigned to them as a burial-place. The 
Jews acquired free access from the city and prov- 
ince only after the French Revolution. 

As a matter of interest to the student of Jewish 




history, it may be mentioned that tlie library of tlie 
city contains a manuscript copy of tlie Hebrew Bible 
(3 vols, folio) with curious illuminations, showing 
that the manuscript, which is not ilated, and is writ- 
ten in square characters, emanates from the four- 
teenth centur}'. Jloreover, it appears from a Judteo- 
Arabic inscription on the initial page that the 
manuscript was sold in Yemen in lyyar, 5253 (Jlay, 
1492). After various transfers it came during the 
Revolution from the Benedictine abbey into the city 
library of Besan^'on. 

As regards administration, the Jewish community 
of BeSfinQon belonged formerly to the jurisdiction 
of the eonsistorial district of Nancy, having as its 
spiritual head Solomon Wertheimer. Since 1858 it 
has been reattached to the jurisdiction of the district 
of Lyons which in that year was made a eonsistorial 
department. Since the death of Wertheimer, in 
1865, J. Ausclier has served as pastor, first with the 
title of rabbi, and later as eonsistorial chief rabbi ; for, 
in 1872, after tie emigration of the Jews from Alsace 
and the redistribution of the districts following the 
Franco-German war, the community of Besan^on 
became the seat of a consistory. It now (1002) in 
eludes the following Jewish communities: Dole, 
Baume - les - Dames, L'lle sur Doubs, and Mont- 

BIBLIOGRAPHT : Alfred L^w, Lcs Isr. de la Frmiche-Cnmte 
au XlVe Siede, in Arch. Isr. xxx. 182 et sfq., 214, 345; J. 
Auscher, Les Isr. tl€ Besani;on^ et de la Comte, ih. xxsA. 
440,472,592; Catal. General ties MSS. (les DeparteiiienU, 
xxxil. 1 ; Rev. El. JtUves, xlii. 111-118. 
D. M. S. 

BESANT, SIB WALTER: English writer; 
novelist; born at Portsmouth Aug. 14, 1836; edu- 
cated at King's College, Loudon, and at Christ's Col- 
lege, Cambridge; died in London June 11, 1901. Be- 
sant was among those persons who helped the Russian 
and Polish Jews who flocked to the East End of Lon- 
don. He lived to see at least one of his many novel 
views on social subjects and aspirations realized- 
the Palace of Delight, which figured in his "All 
Sorts and Conditions of Men" (1882), having given 
rise to the People's Palace in the East of London. 
While this was not meant exclusively, or even par- 
tially, to benefit Jews, yet it did so, owing to its sit- 
uation, which was in the center of a large Jewish 

From 1868 to 1885 Besant acted as secretary of the 
Palestine Exploration Fund. During this period he 
wrote in collaboration with E. H. Palmer, the Orien- 
talist, a " History of Jerusalem " (1871), and acted as 
editor of "The Survey of Palestine." In 1893 he 
published his novel, "The Rebel Queen," in which 
the heroine and many of the minor characters were 

1895, p. 72; 
E. Ms. 

BESCHAU. See ilAitniAC.E Customs. 

BESCHREIEN (compare English "bcslirew"): 
A JuiUeo-German word for lauding a person or 
thing to such an extent as to him or it to be 
harmed by malevolent spirits. This superstitious 
belief is of old German or Teutonic origin. Grimm 
("Deutsche Mythologie," ii. 864) enumerates various 
terms, such as "berufen," "beschwatzeu," "be- 

BIBLIOGRAPHY : Men and Women of the Time. 
n'/io's Who, 1901, p. 156. 

schworen," besides beschreien, comparing them 
with "incantare" (whence "enchanter"), "carmi- 
nare " (whence the English " charm "), all of which 
denote the exertion of evil power by means of cer- 
tain words. Wuttke (" Der Deutsche Volksglaube," 
p. 155) casts more light on the subject ; stating that 
what the evil eye is for the beautiful object exposed, 
evil speech is to persons or things lauded for some 
good quality. The svperslition, he says, is rooted 
in the universal pagan fear of a deity begrudging 
man's perfect happiness, rather than in that feeling 
of humbleness which restrains man from boasting 
of his health, wealth, or the like. Little children 
especially are exposed to the evil influence of loud 
praise; wherefore it is customary, when children are 
lauded for their beauty, strength, or intelligence, to 
add the word " unbeschrieen " or " unberufen" — 
which means, " Let that not cause them to be be- 
witched." There are special formulas in use against 
such beschreien (see Wuttke, I.e. pp. 163, 264). 
Some use as a prophylactic measure the formula: 
"God protect him!" "Behiit's Gott!" The Jews 
adopted both the expression and the superstition from 
the Germans in the Middle Ages (see Giidemann, 
"Gesch. d. Erziehungswesens imd der Cultur der 
Juden in Deutschland," p. 205). It has been claimed, 
however, that the ancient Hebrew greeting, "The 
Lord bless thee!" offered by the passer-by to the 
laborers in the cornfield at harvest time (Ps. cxxix. 8; 
Ruth ii. 4 ; Judges vi. 12) originated in a similar view, 
the blessing being intended to avert the evil in- 
fluence of a begrudging glance or speech. 
A. K. 

MEDZHIBOZH). See Baal Shem-Tok, Is^kael. 

BESOB : A wadi or river-bed where two hun- 
dred of the followers of David stopped while the 
rest of the force pursued the Amalekites (I Sam. 
xxx. 9, 10, 21). Guerin (" Judee," ii. 213). identifies 
Besor with the modern Wadi el-Gliazza. which has 
an outlet into the Mediterranean sea, southwest of 

.1. .in. G. B. L. 

BESSARABIA : Government in southwest Rus- 
sia; separateil by the Pruth and Danube from Ru- 
mania on the west, by the Dniester from Podoliaand 
Kherson on the north and east, and bordering on the 
Black Sea from the Sulina mouth of the Danube to 
the estuary of Ovidiopnl. The population in 1889 
was 1,628^876, the Jews numbering 180,918. In 
1897 the population was 1,936,392, of "whom 225,637, 
or 11.65 per cent, were Jews. According to statis- 
tics of the Jewish Colonization Association, the 
.Jewish population in the cities in 1898 was 173, (i41. 
Official documents show that Jews first emigrated to 
Bessarabia from Poland and Germany in the six- 
teenth century. They settled there in great niun- 
bers, not being permitted to live in the neighboring 
principality of Moldavia. At the present time a 
considerable part of Bessarabia is forbidden ground 
for the Jews, the May Laws of 1882 being adminis- 
tered in a hostile spirit by the local authorities, who 
have officially declared their towns to be " villages" 
in which no Jews may reside. Moreover, many 
places in Bessarabia are situated within a distance 




of fifty versts (33 English miles) from the frontier: 
and here only such Jews are permitted to live as were 
registered there before the issue of the edict of 1858. 

Bessarabia excels among the Russian governments 
in the culture of the vine; and in this, as in the cul- 
tivation of tobacco, large numbers of Jews are em- 
ployed. The chief articles of e.\port are grain, 
fruit, and wine. 

Until the middle of the nineteenth century most 
of the local commerce was in the hands of the 
Jews. JIany Jews also were engaged in agriculture 
on leased lauds, while many were innkeepers and 
farmers of post -stations. The May Laws and the 
introduction of the liquor monopoly by the govern- 
ment reduced many Jewish families to a deplorable 
condition. Zashchuk, who endeavors to foster the 
view that Jewish commercial activity is harmful to 
the general population, admits that, owing to the 
indolence and incapacity of the Bessarabians. the 
Jews are indispensable to the development of all 
branches of trade. From statistics gathered by the 
Jewish Colonization Association, the artisiin class in 
1898 comprised 20,976 persons; viz., 8,580 masters, 
7.075 iourneymen, and 5,321 apprentices. A small 
number of the Bessarabian Jews live as agriculturists 
iu colonies founded between 1836 and 1854. '(See 
AGmcrLTrR.\L Colonies ix Russi.\.) The Bessara- 
bian colonies are established on parcels of land leased 
from private proprietors. There are six colonies in 
the distiicts of Soroki and Beltzy: Dombroveny, 
Bricheva, Valya-Lui-Vlad. Vertinzhany, liUbliu, 
and Markuleshty. Their present condition is as 


of Farms. 

ol Colonists. 


















The following table shows the number of Jews in 
the district and the percentage of the total popula- 
tion : 

Government of Bessak.vbi.^ (Census, 
Jewish Popri-vTiON. 






Per Cent 
of the To- 
tal Popu- 



















Total for Govt... 





Bibliography : Statisties collected bv the St. Petersbure branch 
of the Jewish Colonization Association; S. J. Zashchuk. 
Bcs.'^arahxhiujd ohIaM dc SI. Piterslmnj. 1862; Russian 
Census. 1897 (by courtesy of Baron David GUnzburg). 

H. R. S. J. 

In the 3-ear 1840 David Zelensky of Krementchug, 
Joseph RabiuDvitch of Pavlograd, and Jacob Gold- 
enweiser of Umau presented a petition to Count 
M. S. Vorontzov asking for his cooperation in the 
realization of their plan for the founding and organ- 
ization of a Jewish agricultural ct)lony in Bessarabia. 
The unsatisfactory condition of Jewish agricultural 
colonies established before that time was due. they 
said, to the social and religious conditions of the 
Jews, to the habits forced upon them by many cen- 
turies of artificial life, and to the deep-rooted preju- 
dices against them. The petitioners did not ask for 
material aid, but for the moral support of the gov- 
ernment, and for the privilege of buying from the 
government 5,000 deciatines of laud iu Bessarabia 
suitable for the founding of a model Jewish agricul- 
tural colony, purposing "to awaken among other 
Jews the incliuation to agricultural occupations; to 
pay due attention to the industries relating to agri- 
culture, such as cattle-breeding, gar- 
Proposed deniug, and truck-farming, as well as 
Colony of sheep-raising, bee-keeping, the breed- 
1840. ing of horses, the development of tlie 
silkworm industry, and of wine-ma 
king." The number of the first settlers was to lie 
limited to 50 families; each family was to possess at 
least 4.50 rubles lor traveling expenses and estab- 
lishment, and was to promise to pay off in twenty 
years the price of the land assigned. Vorontzov 
enthusiastically seconded the efforts of the organi- 
zers, and called for expression on the subject from 
the military governor of Bessarabia. Lieutenant- 
General Feodorov. who was at that time acting in 
this capacity, replied that there was no single piece 
of unoccupied territory of 5.000 deciatines available 
for the purpose. Vorontzov, therefore, was obliged 
to inform. the petitioners of his unsuccessful efforts, 
and the proposed phm was never realized. 

The more liberal spirit of the reign of Alexander 
II. brought with it the extension of the rights of his 
Jewish subjects, and the privilege of 
Jewish purchasing lan<led property within the 
Agricul- pale of settlement. Seventeen Jewish 
tiirists. colonies, which had been founded be- 
tween the years 1836 and 1854, covered 
an area of 9.305 deciatines. These colonies (Dom- 
broveny, Markuleshty, Vertinzhany-Rogojeni, Mere- 
shevka-Lankantzi, Bricheva, Nemew vka-Lublin. Ka- 
preshti, Xovie Tcleneshti, ZgiiritSii. Aleksandreni, 
Valya Lui-Vlad. Lomitchanets, Koustantinovka, 
Jchenkar, Ivanos-Nikolaevka, Shibko, and Roma- 
nooka) were, under Alexander II. , in a comparatively 
prosperous condition. Moreover, Bessarabia was at 
that lime the only region complying with the re- 
quirements of the law prohibiting the Jews from 
acquiring other than unoccupied land, and many 
Jews were accordingly attracted to the Bessarabian 

The first Jewish landowner in Bessarabia was 
'• Ilonoi-aiy Citizen" Joseph [Jevzel] Giinzburg, the 
progenitor of the present Baron Giinzburg. He pur- 
chased in the districts of Jassy. Soroki, Akerman, 
and Bendery 14.004 deciatines and 76,000 falechs 
of land for a sum of 287,209 rubles. This led to the 
presentation of two different and opposing petitions 
to the government within the same year. On the 




out haud. a group of Jewish capitalists in St. Peters- 
burg petitioned for permission to purchase land oc- 
cujiied by freednieu, and fiu- all the privileges con- 
ferred upou non-Jews through the territory w itliiu 
the pale of settlement, with the provision that neither 
the Jewish owners nor any of their coreligionists 
should sell spirituous liquors. On the other hand, 
the nobles of Bessarabia petitioned the government 
to enforce the old laws prohil)iting Jews from pur- 
chasing or owning an}' land in Bessarabia. A. G. 
Stroganov at tirst decided the case against the Jew- 
ish petitioners, and the military governor. General 
Ilyin.sUi, also reported unfavorably. Kotwithstaud- 
iug this, liowever, the czar (March, 1859) decided in 
favor of the Jews, who showed that the land had in- 
crea.sed in value. 

The timber trade, which, at the beginning of the 

nineteenth century, was not an unimportant factor 

in the life of New Russia, owed its 

Foreign growth and prosperity to foreign 
Jews. Jews. Notwithstanding the decision 
of the government (1824) forbidding 
the settlement of foreign Jews in Russia and even 
ordering the expulsion of those that had already be- 
come Russian subjects, the government gave un- 
stinted support to the pioneers in this new branch 
of commerce, in the hope that the example of the 
foreign Jews would inspire their Russian coreligion- 
ists to give up their petty commercial transactions 
fur those of a Ijroader character and greater useful- 
ness to the community. 

At the beginning of 1840 the petition of eight 
Austrian Jews, for the privilege of retail trade in 
timber along the entire course of the Dniester river, 
was transmitted to the minister of tinances, who 
called for a report on the matter by the governor- 
general of New Russia. M. S. Vorontzov. Voront- 
zov answered that "since there was great need for 
timber all along the lower Dniester, and the supply 
from Aiistria insullicieut. he thdught it advisable to 
iwrmit the petitioners, as well as all foreign dealers 
in timljer floating their merchandise from Austria 
down the Dniester, to sell it unhindered all along 
the course of the river." This expression led to 
the decision of the committee of ministers, indorsed 
by the emperor, to grant for three years (1840-43) the 
privileges solicited. Tlie favorable result of tliis 
petition encouraged another group of Austrian Jews 
to ask for similar privileges along the river Pruth. 
These were granted as an ex|ieriment for two jears, 
and iu 1842 were extended for an additional four 
years. When the additional four years had come to 
an end (1847), the merchants petitioned for at least 
one year for the li(iuidation of their business. The 
matter was referred to Feodorov, governor-general 
of New Russia, and received his favorable comment; 
whereupon the government gi-anted the petition of 
the Austrian Jews, and was so favorably impressed 
with the results of their enterjirise that six years 
were granted them instead of the one year re- 

I". H. J. G. L. 

BESSELS, EMIL: German-American Arctic 
explorer and naturalist; born at Heidelberg June 2, 
1847; died at Stuttgart March 30, 1888. At the 
imiversity of his native place he studied medicine 
III.— 8 

and znology. In 1809, under the encouragement of 
Petermannof Gotha, he made his first j<niruey to the 
Arctic ocean, during which he traced the intluence 
of the Gulf Stream to the east of Spitzbergen. 
In 1870 he joined the German army as a military 
surgeon, and received public commendation from 
the grand duke of Baden for his services. A year later 
he voluutewed to go as a surgeon and naturalist 
with the Hall expedition, which sailed on the 
"Polaris" from the Brooklyn (N, Y.) navy -yard. 
Nothing of moment took place until the ship reached 
82' 9' north latitude, when Captain Hall, who had 
been on a short hunting expedition, relurned to the 
ship, i)artook of a cup of coffee, and shortly after 
became violently ill (Oct. 24, 1871). Bessels treated 
him; but the patient several times disregarded the 
physician's advice. About Nov. 2 Hall .showed 
signs of insanity, refusing to partake of food, and 
having the idea that he was being poisoiu'd. He 
died Nov. 8, 1871. 

Upon the return of the members of Iheexpcdilion 
iu 1873, after numerous mishaps and disasters, Mor- 
ton, second mate of the "Polaris," brought a charge 
of murder against Bessels, alleging that the latter 
had administered morphine instead of quinine to Cap- 
tain Hall. The secretary of the navy directed an 
in(juiry, which was conducted by Surgeon-Gen- 
eral of tlie Army J. K. Barnes and Surgeon-General 
of the Navy J. Beale, who reported "that Captain 
Hall died from natural causes — viz., apoplexy — and 
that the treatuu-nt of the case l)y Dr. Bessels was 
the best practicable \mder the circumstances." 

Bessels, after this, spent some years at the Smith- 
sonian Institution. Washington, in preparing for 
publication the seientilic results of the voyage, the 
most striking of which was the proof of the insular- 
ity of Greenland deduced from tidal observations. 
His most important work was " Seientilic Results of 
the United States Exploring Expedition Steamer 
' Polaris,' " Washington, 1870. He published numer- 
ous papers on general natural-history subjects (see 
"Royal Society Catalogue of Scientific Papers." vii. 
104;"ix. 229, 230). Later Bessels joined an ethno- 
logical voyage on the U. S. S. "Saranac'- to the 
northwest coast of America; but the vessel was 
wrecked in Seymour Narrows, B. C. 

BiBLIOCRAPHT: Rpar-Ailmiral C. H. Davis, U, S. X., .VioTn- 
tivciiflhe Xiirth Pnlur E.r]n:Ulinti. r. s. Sliiii /'.i/dnX 
Ctipt. t'haiii!^ Fr(t)iris HaU CunnnniHUtui, WashiU'.'tcn, 
187H: W. H. Dall, In Bi(»cf/(i "f the I'hihisiipliical SuLictu 
tif Wnshiiitjtim, xl. 4f« ft seij.: Xnv Yurh TillH».^>ct. 18, 
isra. p. 1, col. :t: Afic YiTh Hcrnlil. UH. 1, p. 6, ools. 1-5; 
ih. Oct. a, p. 5, cols. 1-4; Brockbaus, Konvcrfatwns-Lexi- 
liiin, s.v. 
A. E. Ms. 

BET : The second letter of the Hebrew alphabet. 
Its numerical value is two. wherefore the bet in the 
word pnV'3 (Gen. xxi. 12) is interpreted as an iUlu- 
sion to tlie two worlds Isaac is destined to inherit — 
this world and the world to come (Yer. Ned. iii. 
38a), or iu the existence of which Isaac and his de- 
scendants believe (Gen. R. liii.). According to Bar 
Kajjpara, the Torah begins with the letter bet iu 
allusion to the present and the future worlds (Gen. 
R. i. 14); according to R. Levi, in order to suggest 
by its shape (3) that men should not pry into the 
secrets of what is above or beneath or behind, but 
simjily inquire into the work of creation that lies 

Bet Beltin 
Bet HiUel 



open before them (ib. i. 13). See also Akiba bex 
Joseph, Alphabet of. 

BlBLiOGR.\PHT : Biixtorf, Titieriaf. xiT., xvlU. On the aricin 
of tie letter, see 1. Tavlor. The Alpluibct. 18*3: A. J. Evans. 
Primitive Piclngraphs. lS9t; Crftan Piotoyj-ajjds. l)Sti5: 
Further Difenveries. etc., l«tT. lt*9S ; anil the works named 
in Xos. 1 anil 2 in the bibliography of ALPUABET. 
T. K. 

BET BELTIN (JTlija n'3) Ccalled also Bati 
Baltan, Biltin, ami iu the Talmud Beram) : A 
steep hill above tlie Euiihrates. on which is built 
the raotleru town of Bir; lat. 37^ 3 X., long. 3S" E. 
Travelers and caravans from Aleppo to Diarbekir, 
Bagdad, and Portia cross the Euphrates at this 
point. According to the Mishnah (R. H. ii. 4), Bet 
Beltin was the extreme point of Palestine to which 
messengers came from Jerusalem to announce the 
new moon. This they did by kindling fires on the 
summit of the hill. 

Bibliography: Sohwarz. Das HciJiflc Land. p. 55: Ritter, 
Erdkumle. x. 935 ; Neubauer, G. T. pp. 342, 3.54. 
J. su. I. Br. 

BET DIN (p n'3; pi. batte din) : Rabbinical 
term fur court-house or court. In view of the 
theocratic conception of the law, which pervades 
Biblical legislation and is stiictly carried out bj- 
rabbinical Judaism, including both civil and relig- 
ious law, the bet din is not only a civil, but also a 
religious authoritj-. 

The "Bet Din ha-Gadol." or Great Sauhedriu at 
Jerusjilein existing during the time of the Temple, 
was called also " Sanhedrin Gedolah " or. briefly, 
"Sanhedrin" (Sotah i. 4, ix. 11; Sanh. i. 6; Shebu. 
ii. 2.) According to the Talmud, this bet din rep- 
resented the supreme court of the country men- 
tioned in Scripture (Deut. xvii. 8-13), and acted 
chiefly as court of last instance in legal or ritual dis- 
putes, in which case its decisions had to be obeyed 
on pain of death (compare rebellious Eldeu). It 
also had a certain voice in the affairs of the state — 
no war of offense (nit,""in n?2n7D) could be under- 
taken without its permission — and it was in charge 
of civil affairs to the extent of appointing the judges 
of the country. The principal passages regarding 
this bet din are; Sifre, Deut. 15'3-1.5.5; Sanh. i. 5, 6; 
Hor. i. 1-5. The president, who bore the title 
"Nasi," was in a way the supervisor, but not a 
member of the court, which consisted of seventy 
members, corresponding to the seventy "elders" 
appointed by Moses (Num. xi. 25). The most 
learned and important of these seventy members was 
called " Ab Bet Din," a title similar to that of vice- 
president (see ZrooT). It is highh- improbable that 
there was a bet din of this class in Jerusalem before 
the destruction of the Temple (compare Sanhe- 
drin). The detailed description of 
The Great such an authority found in the Tal- 

Bet Din. mudic works is probably theoretical 
even in its chief points, and may have 
had its origin in the fact that the bet din instituted 
after TO was considered the ideal by the Rabbis, and 
that they were reluctant to omit it from the earlier 
periods of Jewish communal life. Hence the Tal- 
mudic sources speak very freely of a bet din that 
existed from the time of ^Moses to that of the Rabbis 
(R. H. ii. 9), mentioning even the bet din of Gideon, 
Jephthah, Samuel (Tosef., R. H. ii. [i.] 3), or those 

of Shem, of Samuel, and of Solomon (Mak. 23b), 
which they imagined similar to a later rabbinical 
court. And, furthermore, since the conditions in 
heaven were supposed to be analogous to those on 
earth, they likewise spoke of the heavenly bet din 
(n^VO hi:' n n'3) iMak. i.e.). calling it the "Great 
Bet Din" (nai NJ'T '31 (Sotah 22b). 

The bet din as the highest religiousas well as civil 
authority of the Jews can only be proved to have ex- 
isted for the jieriod between 70 and the end of the 
third century. It was R;ibbaii Johanan b. Zakkai 
who made his bet din the intellectual center of the 
Jews when the destruction of Jerusiilem deprived 
them of their bond of unity. He could not, of 
course, give his bet din the political importance of 
the old Sanhedrin; but, considering the new condi- 
tions under which the Jews were living, he suc- 
ceeded in investing it with greater powers than any 
authority liad before possessed. It had entire charge 
of the calendar system, and hence became the relig- 
ious and national center not only of Palestine, but 
also of the Diaspora. Its power and influence in- 
creased under Rabban Johanan's successor. Rabban 
Gamaliel II., culminating under Judah 

Bet Din ha-Nasi I., whose grandson, Judah 
at Jabneh. Nesia. may be regarded as the last 
person under whom the bet din was 
the real center of the Jews. Hence the Talmudic 
sources speak of Rabban Gamaliel and his bet din 
(Tosef., Ber. ii. 6), and of R. Judah ha-Nasi and his 
bet din ('Ab. Zarah ii. 6), meaning thereby the cen- 
tral body representing the highest civil as well as 
religious authority of the Jews. 

On the death of Judah ha-Nasi the bet din of the 
Nasi lost its importance in consequence of the rise 
of Jewish scholarship iu Babylonia toward the mid- 
dle of the third century, as well as the increasing 
oppression of the Palestinian Jews under the Roman 
rule. Although the dignity and, also, to some ex- 
tent, the power of the Nasi continued until the end 
of the fifth century (compare Origen. "Epist. ad 
Africanuin," xiv.), the bet din was no longer an in- 
tellectual center. According to Talmudic somces, 
decrees (T.vkkanot) binding for all Judaism were 
issued by the patriarchs before and during the time 
of Judah Nesia; but his successors had not such au- 
thoritj-. In Babylonia no bet din was ever consid- 
ered a central authority, even for Babylonia alone, 
although, of course, the higher the reputation of 
a scholar, the greater was the authority of the bet 
din under him. Similar conditions obtained there 
even in the time of the Geonim, for no central bet 
din could exist on account of the rivalry of the two 
academics. From about 500 there was not even 
any formal and authoritative ordination, and mem- 
bers of an actual bet din must be ordained at least. 
Alfasi made an attempt to reestablish the former 
central bet din, considering his bet din the highest 
ecclesiastical authority, and claiming for it preroga- 
tives which belonged to the Bet Din ha-Gadol (R. 
H. iii., beginning; compare Nahmanides, "Milhe- 
met," on the passjxge). If Jacob Berab had suc- 
ceeded in reintroducing ordination, his bet din would 
have achieved the position of that of Rabban Jo- 
hanan ben Zakkai; but he encountered too much 



Bet Beltin 

Bet Hillel 

Aside from the Bet Din ha-Gadol and the simi- 
lar bet din of the Nasi, the term was applied to every 
court, consisting either of 23 mem- 
Other bers. who sat only in capital cases — 
Classes of mC*2J 'J'T, or of three (according to 
Batte Din. some, five), who decided in monetary 
aSairs— nuioa 'JH (Sauh. i. 1-1: 
Tosef., ib. i. 1). Yet even in Talmudic times it was 
usual to have at least 11 scholars present at court 
(Sanh. 7b). a custom observed in later times also, 
at least in difficult cases. A scholar of standing 
(nnOID) required no assistant for holding court 
(Sanh. 5a), so that, during the Middle Ages as well 
as in modern times, the local rabbi aloue frequently 
represented the bet din. In larger communities, 
however, there is a bet din consisting of at least 
three members, which sits daily except on Sabbath 
and holidays, and decides ritual as well as legal 
questions. The local rabbi generally presides, but 
in large communities the direction of the bet din is 
an office in itself, the incumbent of which bears the 
title "rosh bet din." Tlie associate rabbi of a place 
has the same title, while among the Ashkenazim, 
and especially among the Polish-Russian Jews, the 
rabbi proper is designated as "* ab bet din " and 
"resh mata." Compare Avthoritt, Courts of 
Justice, Judges, K.\n.\L, Nasi. 

J. SR. L. G. 

"School (literall}-, "buuse") of Hillel" and the 
"School of Shammai " are names by which are desig- 
nated the most famous antagonistic schools that 
flourished in Palestine during the first century (first 
tannaitic generation), and which more than others 
contributed to the development of the oral law. 

Down to the advent of Hillel and Shammai, who 
were the founders of the great schools bearing their 
names, there were but few casuistic differences 
among the schools. Between Hillel and Shammai 
themselves three (or, according to some authorities, 
five) disputes are mentioned in the Talmud (Shab. 
15a; Hag. ii. 2; 'Eduy. i. 2, 3: Xiddah i. 1); but 
with the of their disciples disputations in- 
creased to such an e.vtent as to give rise to the say- 
ing, •' The one Law has become two laws " (Tosef. , 
Hag. ii. 9; Sanh. 88b: Sotah 47b). 

The prevailing characteristics of the disputes are 
the restrictive tendency of the Shammaites and the 
moderation of the Hillelites. Three hundred and 
sixteen controversies between these two schools are 
preserved in the pages of the Talmud, affecting 221 
Halakot, 29 halakic interpretations, 
Dis- and 66 guard-laws ("'gezerot "); and 

cussions out of the whole number only 55 (or 

Between about one-sixth) present the Sham- 
the maites on the side of lenienc}'. 3Iore 

Schools, over, even where the characteristic 
tendencies appear to have changed 
masters, the practical result remains the same : being 
the logical and consistent resultants of some opinions 
expressed elsewhere, and in line with the natural 
tendencies of the respective schools: and some of 
their restrictive views the Hillelites subsequently 
rejected, adopting what were exceptionally the more 
moderate views of the Shammaites ('Eduy. i. 12 et 
«e?. ; compare Weiss, "Dor," i. 179 et seq.). That 

the latter, as a school, ever receded from their stand- 
point to join the ranks of their more moderate an- 
tagonists is nowhere indicated : though individuals 
of that school, like Baba ben Buta, sometimes ac- 
knowledged the unreasonableness of their party by 
deserting its standard for that of Bet Hillel (Bezah 
20a; Yer. Hag. ii. 7Sa). Hence it is that the Mish- 
nah introduces some of their controversies with the 
remark, "These are of the lenient views of Bet 
Shammai and the restrictive views of Bet Hillel " 
(Eduy. iv. 1; Tosef., 'Eduy. ii. 2). 

The reason assigned for their respective tenden- 
cies is a psychological one. The Hillelites were, like 
the founder of their school (Ber. 60a; Shab. 31a; 
Ab. i. 12 tt seq.), quiet, peace-loving men, accom- 
modating themselves to circumstances and times, 
and being determined only upon fostering the Liiw 
and bringing man nearer to his God and to his 
neighbor. The Shammaites, on the other hand, 
stern and unbending like the originator of their 
school, emulated and even exceeded his severity. 
To them it seemed impossible to be sufficiently 
stringent in religious prohibitions. The discipks of 
Hillel, " the pious and gentle follower of Ezra " 
(Sanh. 11a). evinced in all their public dealings 
the peacefulness, gentleness, and conciliatory spirit 
which had distiugui.shed their great master; and by 
the same characteristic qualities they were guided 
during the political storms which convulsed their 
country. The Shammaites, on the contrary, were 
intensely patriotic, and would not bow to foreign 
rule. They advocated the interdiction of any and 

all intercourse with those who either 

Character- were Romans or in any way contrib- 

istics. uted toward the furtherance of Roman 

power or influences. Dispositions so 
heterogeneous and antagonistic can not usually en- 
dure side by side without provoking serious mis- 
understandings and feuds; and it was owing solely 
to the Hillelites' forbearance that the parties did not 
come to l)lows, and that even friendly relations 
continued between them (Tosef., Yeb. i. 10; Yeb. 
14b ; Yer. Yeb. i. 3b), for a time at least. But the 
vicissitudes of the period exerted a baneful influence 
also in that direction. 

When, after the banishment of Archelaus (6 C.E.), 
the Roman procurator Coponius attempted to tax 
the .Jews, and ordered a strict census to be taken 
for that purpose, both schools protested, and the new 
measure was stigmatized as so outrageous as to 
justify all schemes by which it might be evaded. 
The general abhorrence for the system of Roman 
taxation manifested itself in looking with distrust 
upon every Jew who was olBcially concerned in 
carrying it out, whether as tax-collector ("gabbai ") 
or as customs-collector ("mokes"); these were 
shunned by the higher ranks of the community, and 
their testimony before Jewish courts had no weight 
(B. K. X. 1; ii. 113a; Sanh. iii. 3; ib. 25b). About 
this time the malcontents held the ascendency. 
Under the guidance of Judas the Gaulonitc (or Gali- 
lean) and of Zadok. a Shammaite (Tosef., 'Eduy. ii. 
2; Yeb. 15b), a political league was called into ex- 
istence, whose object was to oppose by all means the 
practise of the Roman laws. Adopting as their 
organic principle the exhortation of the father of the 

Bet Hillel 

Bet ha-Midrash 



S the Zealots, found -PP>^ -^^ XtvS "^e 
r, . fa -U c ka "ue, an<l" as the Hillelites became 

tt, l."t *vs of Jermalm's si™l!S'« ttey broke oul 
""i*,U°U.'=°™.>o». .™»<i J.»l» -* ™"~ 

t,ou between _^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ .^^^ ^^_^^. ^,.„,i, ^f food 

Relation ov drink from ^^'^^^^^-'^^^f^^^ 

tn TTfternal The Hillelites, still modeiate m tliui 

* WcxTd religious and politieal views^ .^•.«dd 

^ not asree to sueh sharply dehned ex- 

rhisiveness- but when the Sauhedrin was called to- 

Sb^:S"r,i3of is: ;= 

the dav Eleazar ben Ananias invited the 'l'-"pk 
o lot schools to meet at his house. Armed men 
t Itioned at the door, and i-tructedto p^m 
pverv one to enter, but no one to leave. Duimg the 
dscussk.n that were carried on under these circum- 
S:^ r, anv Hillelites are said to have been Med; 
and there and then the remainder adopted tlie le- ^ 
strk-tivc propositions of the Shamma.tes. known in 
? TMnmd as "The Eighteen Articles." On ac- 
00 inT til violence which attended those en- 
.c ens. an.l because of the radicalisin of the 
:, tments themselves, the day o^. -^"'^^^J^, 
Shammaites thus triumphed over t Je H Ue tes 
^•as thereafter re.srarded as a day "^ ™:'^' "'';'' 
(Tosef.. Shab. 1. 16 et seq.; Shab. 13a, l.a, \er. 

^'Bet Shammai and Bet HiUel continued their dis- 

^ fter he destruction of the Temple, or until after 
ti;' or 'anization of the Sauhedrin under the presi- 
den-v of Gamaliel II. (80 C.E.). By that tune all 
p "it cal schemes and plans for the recovery of e 
^ .t libertv had become altogether foreign to the 
IS of he spiritual leaders; and 
o hcHillelites once more gained the ascendencj^ 
All disputed points were brought up for re ie« 
fs" S;Lt..) ; 'and in nearly every case the opinion 
of the Hillelites prevailed (Tosef.. ^f->- l^ \l', 
t^. 3b ; Gratz, " Gesch. der Juden ' 2d ed iv^ ^ ^ 
note 4) Thenceforth it was Siiid; A\ heic Bet 
Shamiiai is opposed to Bet HiUel. the opinion of 
S S Cmai "considered as if not incorr.>ni^ in 
theMishnah" ("Bet Shammai bimekom Bet Hilkl 

enah Mishnah --Ber. 36b; Bezah lib, Yeb. 9a); 
^'oV:he";mole7otthese schools tUereisnovecor^^ 

^.::Ls. 1^" Talmud (Sul.^ carnal 
gives the number of HiUel s aiscipies 
,, eighty, while the Palestinian Talmud (Yer^>, eel 
V. 39b) makes of them as many P""-^;,fh source 
mention two of them by name, Jonathan ben L zm 
Zd Johanan ben Zakkai;and it is added tha 
Jonathan was the greatest and ^^^^'^ 
amou-the whole number. Iso such traditions are 
r "orded of the Shammaites. Of their schoo thiee 
:^:"^^i.^edbyname; viz.. BababeuButa (Be,ah 
30a , Dositai of Kefar Yetma COriah u. o). an^ Zad J. 
rTosef 'Eduy. ii. 2) ; but they are mentioned simplj 
Scans; though Shammaites. they sometimes up- 
S th; views of the Hillelites. See Hillei. and 

^H.\MMA1. ... ^. ^, 

B,Btioc.R..PUT: Gratz Gc.W,. *^ JMfS.=^el^j,;;;;.r,«„7m,i 

tnKlSn»ci;*rt(Ui.i.*l _ u. trau ^ irr-lsT; idem, 

pp. ioSi: ■SVeiss, Dot Djn 'i;-^^^''-^^'",, ,,a.iiisUmih. pp. 
J, trod, to -Vf"-/--/'*^?;; T« ;<«(-. i. 14-2.5: Sol.warz. 
tfdX^'r^"'^^!^'^^^^^''"^'' micUU'U cans- 
rulie, 1S»3. g M. 

^ET HA-MIDKASH: High school; literally, 
iji^i ^ ., ,.,^.,,,vhere the students of tlu- 

S :« h^S-listen \o the Mib.ash the diseours. 
or expos ion of the Law. It is used in contrad,.- 
rincrion to the Bet ha-Sefer, tl-' P-""'->- ^^ -■ . 
Xh children under tWrteen attend.^ o^ka.n^ 
^criiitures Thus it is said m Gen. K. Km. 10 t>. u 
and']acobwent together to the bet ba-sefer un 
nun- had finished their thirteenth year, when the> 
par ed the former entering the houses of idols, and 
fhelanerthe batte ha-midrashot." Elsewhere t^^ 
stated '-There were 480 synagogues (bat e ken. 
n 'n T . • salem each containing a bet ha-sebr 
Si-v h'Srt^llscripturesVandabetTalnu.. 

(«m asbet ha-midrash), for ^Lf study of the L 
D the tradition; and Vespasian destroy tnl th m 
aU" Yer. Meg. iii. 73d; Lam. R., Introduction 1 
ii o.^Pesik. fiv. 121b; Yer. Ket. xim 3oc. ^^ 1. 

•' 460" is a clerical error). The same u . - 
Meaning, dition is given somewhat differently m 
meaning ^^^^ ^^^ ^^.^ ^^^^.^^ hun.lred and 

nine.v-four courts of justice were ^^^.rns^^^^;^ 

ns inanv synagogues, "batte ha-midrashot (hig i 

ho"^ :nd -MWte soferim; (Prinuiry schools 

According to Yer. Ta'anit iv. 7. p. 69a ; Lam. H^ n. 
o ^i%l there were 500 primary schools in Betar, i 
^.'smuS;"f which had no less tlian 300 pupjs 

compare Sotah 49b, Git. 58a. which speak of 400 
schools each with 400 pupils). Tl.e number o 
schoos'(480) in Jerusalem besides the one in tl^ 
Temple is derived by gematria from the word-nS^ ^ 

^The Ka^nl^ash in the Temple hall_(Luke il ' 
46 Kx l.xxi. 37; Matt. xxi. 23. xxvi.oo; Join 
t^iU 20 is called the "bet ha-imdrash h.-^dol 
^he .-reat high school (Tanna debe Eliyahu U. ix^ [v]. 
xi i" and elsewhere). It formed the center of learn 



Bet Hillel 

Bet ha-Midrash 

ing, ami was, of course, the oldest one, standing in 
close relation to the "Bet Din ha-Gadol," the high 
court of justice in the Temple. Its history can not 
well be traced. A "bet wa'ad," meeting-place of 
scholars, existed as early as the days of Jose ben 
Joezer of Zereda. the martyr of tlie Maccabean time, 
who teaches: "Let thy house be a bet wa'ad for 
the wise " (Ab. i. 4). The name " bet wa'ad " is met 
with also in Sotah i.x. 15; Yer. Ber. iv. 7c; Yer. 
Ta'anitiv. 67d, and elsewhere. The hearers or dis- 
ciples were seated on the ground at tlie feet of their 
teachers (Ab. I.e.; Lulvc x. 39; Acts 
Its x.xii. 3). In the first century, schools 

History, existed everywhere at the side of tlie 
synagogues (Acts. xix. 9, "the school 
of one Tyranuus "). The primary school, bet ha- 
sefer, was, however, instituted at a later time, first 
by Simeon ben Shetah, abo\it 100 b.c. at Jerusalem 
(Yer. Ket. viii. 32c), and later introduced generally, 
for thebenelit of all children, by Joshua b. Gamlain 
the first century (B. B. 21a; see Educ.vtion). Tlie 
Haggadah reflects a later mode of life wlien speali- 
ing of a bet ha-midrasli of Shem and Eber wliicli was 
attended by Isaac, occasionally also b_y Rebekah, 
and regularly by Jacob (Targ. Yer. to Gen. xxii. 19, 
xxiv. G3, XXV. 22 ; Gen. U. Ixiii. ; Tauna debe Eliyaliu 
R. v.); of that of Jacob at Suliliot, whieli Joseph 
frequented (Targ. Yer. to Gen. xxxiii. 17, xxxvii. 
2; Num. xxiv. 5); of that which Judah was sent to 
build for Jacob in Egypt (Gen. R. xcv. ; Tan., 
Wayiggush, xi.); or of that of, where Moses 
and Aaron and his sons taught the Law (Targ. Yer. 
to Ex. xx.vix. 33; compare Num. R. xxi. : "Jo.shua 
arranged tliecluiirs for the scholars attending tlie bet 
wa'ad of Closes "). Similarly tlie propliet Samuel had 
his " liet ulphana" (Aramaic for " bet ha-midrash") in 
Uaniali (Targ. to I Sam. xix. 19). Solomon built 
synagogues and sclioolhouses (Eccl. R. ii. 4). King 
Hezeliiah furnished the oil for lamps to burn in tlie 
synagogues and schools, and threateneil to have 
killed by the sword any one wli(5 would not study 
the Law; so tliat s<ion there was no 'A.Mir.v-AnEZ to 
be found in tlie land, nor a child or woman unfamiliar 
witii all the precepts on Levitical purity (Sanli. 94b). 
Especially tliose of the tribe of Issacliar devoted 
tlieir time to tlie study of the Law in the bet ha- 
midrash, Zebulun tlie merchant furnishing them tlie 
means of supjiort (I Chron. xii. 33; Deut. xxxiii. 
18; Gen. R. Hi., xcix. ; Targ. Yer. I.e.). 

Jetliro was promised that his descendants would 
never see the sclioolhouses (batte ha-midrasliot) dis- 
appear from among them (Tanna debe Eliyahu R. v. ; 
compare Mek., Yitro, 'Amalek, 2). 

In Jlisliiiaic times (Sliab. xvi. 1) it appears that 
pulilic discourses were lielil in the bet ha-midiasli; 
but Targ. Yer. on Judges v. 9 indicates that it was 
used later for the study of the Law, and the popular 
discourses were delivered at the synagogue. 

The first liet ha-midrash of which tliere is authen- 
tic record is the one in whicli Shemaiah (Samcas) and 
Abtaliou (Pollion) taught, and which 

Earliest Hillel. when a youth, could attend only 

Forms, after having paid admission-fee to the 

janitor (Yoma Zhh). Whether or not 

this charge of a fee, so contradictory to the maxim of 

the men of the Great Synagogue (Abot i. 1), "Raise 

many disciples, " was a political measure of the time, 
it seemingly stands in connection with a principle 
pronounced by the Shammaites (Ab. R. N.. .1. iii. ; 
B. iv., ed. Schechter, p. 14), that "only those who 
are wise, liumble, and of goodly, well-to-do parent- 
age should be taught the Law." On the otlier 
hand, the Hillelites insisted that "all, without ex- 
ception, should partake of tlie privilege, inasmuch 
as many transgressors in Israel, when brought nigh 
to the Law, brought forth rigliteous, pious, and 
perfect men." Against the Hillelite principle, R. 
Gamaliel wanted to exclude all those who liud not 
stood tlie test of inner fitness. He was outvoted, 
with tlie result that 400 (or, according to some au- 
thorities, 700) cliairs were necessarily added in order 
to .seat the newcomers (Ber. 28a). The custcjiiiary 
seating of the pupils on chairs marivs an improve- 
ment, and this new feature gave to the schoollinuse 
tlie name " veshibah " (Abot ii. 7) or "metibta" (B. 
M., 8.5a, b). " 

The bet ha-midrash of .labneh was catleil "vine- 
yard," either because it stood in a vineyard (Selii'irer, 
"Gesch." 3d ed., ii. 32o, note 49) or, as rabbinical 
tradition asserts, because it was built in semicircular 
shape, thus resembling a vineyard (Ket. iv. 6; 
'Eduy. ii. 4; Yer. Ber. iv. 7d). At all events the 
name "vineyard" became the usual appellation for 
the bet ha-midrash; hence Song of Songs vii. 13 (A. 
V. 12), "Let us get up early to tlic vineyards," was 
aiiplied to tlie bet lia-midrusli ('Er. 211j). 

It is frequently reccmimended as highly meritori- 
ous to be one of the first to come to the bet ha- 
midrash and the last to leave (Shab. 127a; Git. 7a; 
Jleg. 15b; Suk. 28a; Sanh. 3b). 

It was believed to bring misfortune to sit at 
meals during the time that tlie discourse was being 
liekl in the bet ha-midrash (Git. 38b). It was for- 
bidden to sleep in the bet ha-midrash 

Rules of (Tanna debe Eliyahu R. xiii., xiv.). 
the Bet ha- In Babylonia, where scholars spent 
Midrash. their whole time in the school, ex- 
ception was made to this rule (Ber. 
25a; Jleg. 28a). Jlothers won special merit by 
training their children to go to the bet ha-.sefer. and 
wives by waiting for the return of their husbands 
from tlie bet ha-midrash (Ber. 17a). Every session 
at the bet ha-niidrash was expected to offer some 
new idea to the student; hence the frequent ques- 
tion: "What new thing was offered at tlie bet ha- 
midrash to-day'?" (Tosef., Sotah, vii. 9; Hag. 3a; 
Yer. Git. v. 47d; and elsewlierc). The bet ha- 
midrash ranks higher than the syna- 
Im- gogue; consequently a synagogue 

portance of may be transformed into a bet ba- 
the Bet ha- midrash; but the latter can not be 

midrash. changed into a house of worsliip (Meg. 
26b, 27a). "He who goeth from the 
synagogue to the bet ha-midrash — that is, from the 
divine service to the stud)' of the Law — will be 
privileged to greet the majesty of God ; for so says 
Ps. Ix.xxiv. 8 [.V. V. 7]. 'They go from strength 
to strength, everyone of themappeareth before God 
in Zion ^" (Ber."64a>. To the bet ha-keueset (syna- 
gogue) and the bet ha-midrash in Babylonia are re- 
ferred the words of Ezek. xi. 16, Hebr. : " I will be to 
them as a little sanctuary in the countries wliere they 

Bet ha-Midrasb 



shall COUR-" (Meg. 29a). The Haggatlah tiuds allusions 
to the bet ha-niidrash in Ps. xc. 1 : " Thou hast been 
our dwclliug-iilace in all generations"; and Ps. 
Ixxxii. 1. Hebr. : "God standeth in the midst of the 
congregation of [those -nho seek] God" (ib.: Gen. 
R. xlviii.); and also in Balaam's words (Num. xxiv. 
5): "How lovely are thy tents, O Jacob, thy taber- 
nacles, O Israel" (Targ. Yer. to Num. I.e. ; Sanh. 
10,M)); likewise in Cant. viii. 10: "I am a wall and 
my breasts like towers " (Pes. 87a), and Cant. ii. 8. 
9, refer to the synagogue and the schoolhouse: 
"The voice of my beloved! behold he cometh leap- 
ing . . . : my beloved is like a roe," meaning that 
God proceeds from one synagogue to the other, and 
from one bet ha-midrash to the other, to bless Israel 
(Pesik. V. 48b). 

God also has His bet ha-niidrash in heaven, and 
teaches the Law to the righteous (Tanua debe Eli- 
yahu 1{. i.. iii., iv., v., viii., ix.); it is called the "up- 
per yeshibah " or " mctibta " (B. M. 86a ; Ber. 18b ; 
Ta'anit 21b). "He who accustoms 
The himself to go to the bet ha-keneset 

Heavenly and bet ha-midrash in this world shall 

Bet ha- also be admitted into the bet lia-keue- 
Midrash. set and bet ha-midrash of the world 
to come " (Joshua b. Levi, in Deut. R. 
vii. ; Midr. Teh. to Ps. Ixxxiv. 5 [A. V. 4]). 

The name " bet ha-midmsh " recurs in the Arabic 
"madrasah," for school; and Jews under the influ- 
ence of Arabic life called the bet ha-midrash also 
midrash (Gi'ulemann, "Gesch. des Erziehuugsweseus 
und der Kultur der Judeu in Frankreich und 
Deutschland," i. 92 <;**<■}., 265; "Quellenschriften 
zur Gesch. des Unterrichts," p. 99). A system- 
atic plan of education of the thirteenth century, 
published and translated by Giidemauu, I.e., pro- 
poses to impose on each member of a congrega- 
tion in the whole country or district the old half- 
shekel tax for the maintenance of the great bet 
ha-midrash or high school to be built in the capital 
near the synagogue, and for primary schools to be 
in each town, where the disciples, together with the 
teachers, should live during the week, separated 
from their parents and removed from all contact 
with the outside world. During the Middle Ages 
the bet ha-midrash was open day and night for both 
public discourees and private studies. It contained 
usually a large library for the use of the students, 
and became an attractive center and meeting-place 
also for scholars of other cities. Inevitably this 
privilege was freciuently abused, and the bet ha- 
midrash often became the resort of idlers and poor 
homeless strangers who spent their time in gossip 
rather than in study. The official name given by 
non-Jews to the bet ha-midrash in Nuremberg (1406) 
is "Judenschule" (see Gudcmann, "Gesch. d^Erzie- 
hungswesens und der Kultur d. Abendljind. Juden," 
p. 67. note 10). Whether the same name, "Juden- 
schule," for the synagogue, given to it by the Chris- 
tian population (GVulemann, I.e. p. 94, note 2), oriiri- 
nated from the use of the bet ha-midrash also as a 
place of worship by the students, customarv as early 
as Talmudical times (Ber. 8a). or from other causes, 
the proverbial " noise of the Judenschule " seems to 
refer to the lively discussions which took place in 
the bet ha-midrash (though at times the synagogue 

was used also for learned disputations), and not 
to any disorder in connection with the divine 

The number of hearers or disciples at the bet ha- 
midrash was not limited as was the case in the 
Heder, or primary school (Abrahams, " Jewish Life 
in the Middle Ages," p. 349). The rabbis or or- 
dained teachers, as a rule engaged by the community 
to take charge of the studies in the bet ha-midrash, 
often dwelt in the same house; thus in Germany 
where the bet ha-midrash received the Latin name 
Clausa (Claus = cloister), also called " Claus Rab- 
bis" or "Clausner." The synagogue and bet ha- 
midrash were often in the same bvulding or adjoin- 
ing each other. For the course of studies and other 
regulations concerning the bet ha-midrash, see the 
articles Education and Teacher ; also Academies. 
Bahur, Heder, and Yeshibah. 

BiBLioGR.\PHY : Giidemann, JlhUftches VnterrichtitH'esfn 
^yiihrcm1 ihr Spanii^fh-Arahij^t'ht'n Periode, 1873, p. 7i*l ; 
idem, Ge.tclu dt.-* ErzUhuiigt^ieesens und der Kultur dt:r 
AbindUiiid. Juden. I. KvSi.i, III. 1888 (see Inilexl: idem. 
Quelienftchrtften zur Ge.-^eli. dei^ Vnterriehts und di:r 
Erziehung hei den Deut.^ehen Juden, 1891 (see ludexi; 
Abrahams, Jetri.'ih Life in the Middle Age^, IS96, pp. 34, 1349 
et .vry. ; Hamhurper, H. B. T. ii., s.v. Lehrhaii.^^ ; Weber. 
Smtem der Altfti/nagogalen Thcnlngie, 1880, pp. 34,127- 
'M); schQrer, he.; Jacobs, Jcu'$ of Angevin England, pp. 
343-351, 343-344. 
,1. SR. K. 

BET-TALBTCTD : Hebrew monthly review, de- 
voted to Talmudical and rabbinical studies and liter- 
ature; founded in 1881 by Isjxac Hirsch Weiss and 
Meir Friedmaun, at Vienna, and published bj- the 
former imtil its discontinuance in 1886. 

Besides the editors, among the contributors to this 
monthly were such scholars as Buber, Brllll, A. Ep- 
stein, Giidemann, Reifmann, Schechter, and many 
others prominent in the domain of Jewish learning. 
Some of the articles published in "Bet-Talmud" 
were also printed separately. 

L. G. I. Br. 

BETERA, BENE. See Bathtra. 

BETH-ANATH : A Canaanite city in the terri- 
tory of Naphtali, the name of which contains, as one 
of its elements, the name of a god, Anath. Though 
the Israelites did not succeed in conquering this 
city, the Canaanitish inhabitants became tributary 
to them (Josh. xix. 38; Judges i. 33). The city is 
mentioned several times in Egyptian inscriptions ( W. 
Max Mliller, " Asien und Europa," pp. 19.5, 220). The 
exact location can not be definitely ascertained. It 
is generally supposed to be on the site of the pres- 
ent village 'Ainitha. in a fertile valley southeast of i 
Tibniu in Galilee; but it is doubtful whether an im- [ 
pregnable fortress could have stood there. Since j 
Rameses II. speaks of a mountain Beth-anath, W. 
Max Milller holds that the city itself lay in the valley. 

J. JR. F. Br. 

BETH-ANOTH: City in the hills of Judah 
(Josh. XV. ,59). It has been identified by both Con- 
der and Buhl ("Geographic," p. 158) with the mod- 
ein Beth Ainvin. 

•I. .iR G. B. L. 

BETH-ARABAH ("house of Arabah"): A 
town situated, according to Josh. xv. 61, in the wil- 
derness of Judah. It was a border-town between 
Judah and Benjamin, and hence is credited to the 
former (Josh, ib.): while in Josh, xviii. 22 it is enu- 



Bet ha-Midrasb 

merated among the towns of Benjamin. Lying to 
the south of Beth-hoglah in the Jericho plain, indi- 
cations point to its identification with the modern 
'Ain al-Feshkha, as proposed by the late Robertson 
Smith. In Josh, xviii. 18 the name is given as 
" Arabah." 
.7. jr.. G. B. L. 

BETH-ABAM (Josh. siii. 27) or BETH- 
HAKAN (Xum. xxsii. 36): A city east of tlie Jor- 
dan. The Talmud speaks of it as " Bethramta '' 
(nnO"in''a) ; Eusebius as " Bethramphta '' ; and Jose- 
phus as "Betharamatha." Herod the Great built a 
palace there which was destroyed after his death. 
The city was rebuilt bj- Herod Antipater and called 
" Julias. " in honor of the wife of Augustus. As the 
original name of the empress was Livia. Eusebius 
and others called the town "Livias." The site is 
indicated by the ruins on the hill Teller-Rameh, in 
a fertile part of the Jordan. 

J. JR. F. Br. 

BETH- ARBEL : Mentioned only once (Hosea x. 
14) as a city destroyed by Sbalman. Opinions varj- 
both as to the location of the place and as to the 
identitication of Shalman. The most probable loca- 
tion is that of the modem Irbid on the east side of 
the Jordan (G. A. Smith, '"Historical Geography of 
the Hilly Land "). As for Shalman, Schrader (" K. 
A. T.." ii. 440-4-12) says he is a Moabite king, Shala- 
manu. Conder favors Shalmaneser III. : Wellhausen 
(■• Kleine Propheten '") and Xowack (Commentary) 
Shalmaneser IV. A solution may be found in the 
Septuagint reading, " Beth-Jeroboam " fc^r " Beth- 
arbel" and "Shallum" for "Shahnau." The pas- 
sage would then refer to the destruction of the house 
of Jeroboam by Shallum (II Kings sv. 10). 

J. JR. G. B. L. 

BETH-AVEN : A city on the border of Benja- 
min in the wilderness (Josh, xviii. 12), east of Bethel 
(Josh. vii. 2) and west of Michmash (I Sam. xiii. 5). 
It was the scene of a battle between Saul and the 
Philistines, in which the latter were defeated (I Sam. 
siv. 2.S). 

In Hosea iv. 1.5. v. 8, x. .5, Beth-aven is probably a 
disguise for Beth-el, particularly in x. 5, where calves 
of Beth-aven as objects of idolatry are mentioned. 

J. JR. G. B. L. 

BETH-AZMAVETH. See Azma\-eth. 

BETH-DAGON : The name of several places 
apparently in ancient Palestine. The second ele- 
ment is the name of the Philistine god Dagon. In 
the Old Testament mention is made of a city called 
"Beth-dagon," allotted to the tribe of Judah (Josh. 
XV. 41: compare Tosef., Oh. iii. 9): and within the 
territory of the tribe of Asher there was also a Beth- 
dagon (Josh. xix. 27; compare Tosef., Sheb. vii. 
13). Sennacherib also mentions a Bit-daganna on 
his inscriptions (see Schrader, "K. B." ii. 92; De- 
litzsch. "Wo Lag das Paradies?'' p. 2S9) which 
appears to be a third distinct locality. Beth-dagon 
occurs at the present day as the name of various 
places in Palestine; but it is doubtful whether 
any ancient cities can be associated with them. 
The Beth-dagon southeast of Jaffa is probably too 
far north for the Judean citv mentioned in Josh. 

XV. 41; the Beth-dagon in the district of Acre, 
mentioned by Scholz, answers the required con- 

J. JK. F. Br. 

BETH-DIBLATHAIM : City of Moab (Jer. 
xlviii. 22) identical with Almok diblataim. 

J. JR. G. B. L. 

BETH-EXi : A city famous for its shrine, on the 
boundary between Ephraim and Judea — the site of 
the present little village of Beitin, on the southern 
slope of the Ephraimitic mountains. (See illustra- 
tion on page 120.) Originally the town was called 
Luz (Gen. xxviii. 19); but this name was displaced 
by that of the shrine, Beth-el ("house of God"). 
According to Gen. xii. 8, Abram erected an altar 
east of Beth-el ; but the erection of the shrine — that 
is, of the holy stone — is ascribed to Jacob (Gen. 
xxviii. 18; compare Gen. xxxv. 6, 14). Since in 
these narratives (Gen. xxviii. 19, xxxv. 7) Beth-el, 
"the holy place," is distinguished from the city Luz, 
the shrine must have been outside the city. A suit- 
able place would be the hill to the east of Beitin, 
where now are the ruins of a small fort. But 
Schlatter ("ZurTopographie Paliistinas," pp. 286 et 
scq.), who thinks that the name Beth-aven in the Old 
Testament (Hosea iv. 1.5 et nq.) is merely a sarcastic 
disguise of " Beth-el " (so also the Talmud ; Xeubauer, 
"G. T." p. 15.5), concludes from Josh. vii. 2 (com- 
pare Gen. xii. 8) that the shrine must be sought 
somewhat more to the east at Deir Diwan. The 
statement in the text of Josh. vii. 2, and Josh. xvi. 
8, also, which places Beth-el, together with Luz, on 
the boundary -line of Ephraim, can not, for textual 
reasons (compare the Septuagint reading), be taken 
as a conclusive proof that the shrine was at a great 
distance from the city. According to Judges xx. 
18, 26 et seg., the shrine was of great importance in 
the days of the Judges; still more so after the divi- 
sion of the kingdoms, when Jeroboam made it the 
chief Ephraimitic shrine (I Kings xii. 'i9etse'j. : com- 
pare II Kings X. 29), "the king's chapel." as it is 
called in Amos vii. 13. At the time of Elisha there 
was a communitj- of prophets at Beth-el (II Kings 
ii. 3). The oldest prophets name Beth-el as one of 
the centers of degenerate Israelite cult (Amos iii. 
14, iv. 4, V. 5; compare Hosea iv. 15, v. 8, x. 5). 
Amos came into the city at a great feast, and raised 
a storm of indignation among the priesthood and 
the people by his merciless condemnation of Israel 
(Amos vii. 10 et seg.). 

Even after the conquest of Ephraim the shrine of 
Beth-el retained its importance (II Kings xvii. 28). 
When Josiah took possession of this old part of the 
Ephraimitic dominions he uprooted the illegitimate 
cult (II Kings xxiii. 15). After the Exile, Beth-el 
belonged to Judea (Ezra ii. 28). At the time of the 
JIaccabees it is sometimes named as the seat of 
Syrian ganisons (I Mace. ix. .50). Otherwise, the 
place is only mentioned by the first Christian topog- 
rapher, the Pilgrim of Bordeaux, and by Eusebius, 
as a small country town. In Lam. R. ii. 3 it is 
stated that Hadrian placed a guard at Beth-el to 
capture Jewish fugitives. 

Bibliography : F. Buhl, Ga^graphic dt' Alten PalSstina, 
Index. s,v. Beth-cl : G. A. Smith. HiMnrical Geography of 
the Holu Land. etc.. pp. 250 et seq., 290 et seq.: A. von aall. 




Altifiachthclu Cult^tattin : Benzinger. Arch. pp. 3i3-391 ; 

commentaries >■( Dllluiann. LieUizscli, StracR, Holzinger. and 

Gunkel on l.en. x.wiii. and xxxv. 

.1. .IK. F. Be. 

BETH-EMEK : A towu on the border between 
Aslier auil Zihuluu. belongiug to the latter (Josh. 
xi.\. -il). It lay to the east of Acco; but its exact 
location has not been determined. 

J. JK. G- B. L. 

BETH GX7BBIN : Xarae of a city mentioned in 
the Talmud aiul in the Midrash (Xeubauer, " G. T." 
pp. Hi itseq.). called " Betogaboa " by Ptolemy and 
others. It does not occur in the Old Testament; 
but Reland shows that it was one of the Idumean 
forts captured by Vespasian (Josephus. "B. J." iv. 
8, g 1). It was also called "Eleutlieropolis," under 

coincides with the so-called "Mount of the Franks" 
(Jebel Furedis). a high peak south of Jerusjilem. 
But since it was on this hill that Herod tlie Great 
built a fort called "Herodion," it could hardly have 
become a mere village in the days of Jerome. It the 
statement of Jerome be true (and there is no suffi- 
cient reason to doubt it), Beth-haccerem can not be 
the 'X\u Karim. west of Jerusiilem. as Cheyne 
("Encyc. Bibl." i. 556) has it. This latter is rather 
to be identilied with the " Kereni "" mentioned in the 
Septuagiut to Josh. xv. 59. However, the village 
Beth-Kerem. which, according to the Mishuah (Xid- 
dab ii. 7), had a reddish color, may be identical with 
the Biblical Beth-haccerem. 
J. JR. F. Br. 

View of Beth-el. 

which name it is often mentioned by Eusebiiis. 
In his time it was tlie capital of the province within 
wliich it lay. The site of the ancient city is deter- 
mined by the present village Bet Gibrun in south- 
western Judea, that contains some ruins. In the 
vicinity are many natural caves, artificially en- 
larged ; hence it is thought that the name " Eleu- 
theropolis," that is, "free city," arose through a 
confusion between "hor" (cave) and "hor" (free). 
The original name, which was not supplanted by 
the Greek form, is found in even the oldest Moham- 
medan writers. 

■'■ JR. F. Bv. 

BETH-HACCEREM : According to Xeh. iii. 14, 
a Judeau city ; described in Jer. vi. 1 as a high place 
visible at a great distance. Jerome (on the passage) 
speaks of Beth-haccerem as a village still existing 
on the road between Jerusalem and Tekoa. This 

author of a book of "Travels." Madras, 1833, the 
lirst work by a Jew published in India. He de- 
scribes his travels through India, but is otherwise 
of little importance. 

Bibliogsaphy: Catalogue nf Anglo-Jewish Exhibition, }io. 


BETH-HORON : Name of two villages at the 
western end of the Ephraimite mountains, called re- 
spectively "upper Beth-horou" (Josh. xvi. 5) and 
"nether Beth-horon" (Josh xvi. 3. xviii. 13; I Kings 
ix. 17). They are nowadays spoken of as the two 
villages "Bet 'iir et-Tahta" (the lower) and "'Bet 
'ur elFoka" (the upper). They were situated on 
an old road leading from Gideon to the plain on the 
coast; this is mentioned in the Old Testament as 
a difficult and steep road between the villages of 




Betli-horon (Josli. x. 10; t} avdSasic Baiffo/pui', I. Mace, 
iii 16), or Morad Bt-thboron (Josh. x. 11 : ti; rij nnra- 
paijti 'Baiflupuv. I. JIac(\ iii. '^4). In aueieut times 
the road was the principal highway between the 
mountains and the plain. Here the Canaanites fled 
from Joshua (Josh. x. Kictseq.); and by this road 
the Egyptian king Shisbali probably invaded the 
country, since Beth-horon is mentioned in the 
inscription relating his victory (W. Max Milller, 
"Asieniiud Europa,'' p. 166). It was for strategic 
reasons that Solomon fortified the lower Betli-horon. 
In Grecian times the Syrian general Seron attempted 
to force an entrance by Beth-horon into the country, 
but was repulsed by Judas Maccabeus (I Mace. iii. 
\^ et Kq.). Kicanor afterward met with the same 
fate (I Mace. vii. 39 ct scq. ). When Bacchides be- 
came master of the Jewisii country he strongly for- 
tified this important point. It is again mentioned 
wlien the Romans under Cassius sustained heavy 
losses there (Josephus, "B. J." ii. 19. s- 8). It may 
also be gathered from the Old Testament that these 
two villages were binlt by the daughter of Ephraim 
' r Chron. vii. 24), and tliat Sanballat, the adversary 
"f Xeliemiah. came from tliere (Xeh. ii. 10, 19; xiii. 
•J'<). For the form " Horoni " compare 'Qpuviv; i.e., 

■ Iloronaim " in Septuagiut of Josh. ix. 10 and 11; 
■^iim. xiii. 24. Several of the Talmudic scholars 

■ iiiue from Beth-horon (Xeubauer, "G. T. " p. 1.54). 

.1. .II!. F. Bu. 

BETH-JAAZEK: According to the Jlishnah 
(R. H. ii. 4|, a large court in whicli the Sanhedrin 
awaited tlie announcement of the new moon. The 
Palestiuiau Talmud ascribes its name to the fact that 
the calculation of tlie calendar was settled (ptj?) there. 

•r. .JR. F. Bu. 

BETH- JESHIBIOTH : Town in the district east 
^'f the .Jordan, allotted to the tribe of Reuben ac- 
cording to Xum. xxxiii. 49 and Josh. xii. 3, xiii. 20; 
but in Ezck. xxv. 9 it is mentioned as a Moabitish 
city. Josephus calls the city "Besimoth " ("B. J.'' 
iv. 7, § 6). Eusebius speaks of it as " Bethsiniuth." 
and states that it was situated on the Dead Sea, 10 
Rinnan miles southeast of Jericho. Its exact site is 
said to liave been on a sandy hill southwest of 
Beth-haran. From this it appears that the Tal- 
mudic assertion that Beth-jeshimoth is 13 miles 
distant from Abel-shittim is not correct (Neubaiier. 
"0. T."p. 2.-51). 

.1. .II!. F. Bu. 

BETH HA-KENESETH. See Synagogue. 

BETH-LEHEM-JUDAH (I Sam. xvii. 12; 
Judges xvii. 7, xix. 1): The modern Bait, sit- 
uated about .5 miles south of Jerusalem, some 1.5 
minutes' walk east of tlie road to Hebron, on a range 
of hills surrounded by fertile and beautiful valleys. 
The city was also called "Ephratah" (Josh. xv. 60, 
LXX. ; Micah v. 1 [A. V. 2]; Ruth i. 2, iv. 11; but 
hanlly Gen. xxxv. 16, 19: xlviii. 7). In I Chron. ii. .50 
et seq. , i V. 4, Ephratidi is the wife of Caleb from whom 
Betli-lehem descended. Beth-lehem is mentioned 
among the cities of Judah in Josh. xv. 60, in a pas- 
.sage which is missing in the Hebrew text, but which 
has been preserved in the Septuagiut. 

In the epic stories of the Book of Judges neither 
Beth-lehem nor any other city of Judah is mentioned. 

In the additions to this book it is named as the home 
of the Levite who migrated to Ephraim (Judges 
xvii. 7). Beth-lehem is also the scene of the idyl of 
Ruth. It was through David, whose family lived 
at Beth-lehem, that the little country town achieved 
an unexijccted fame. The characteristic story told 
in II Sam. xxiii. 13 (t scq. shows how much David 
was attached to his native city. But lie did not re- 
main there. He chose a larger ca|)ital. and tlius 
Beth-lehem could continue undisturbed in its quiet 
ways. According to II Chron. xi. 6, the town was 
fortified by Rehoboam. Micah (v. 1) predicted tliat 
Beth-lehem, Epliratah or (omitting "lehem ") Beth 
Epliratah would be the birthplace of a new Mes- 
sianic David. 

Xothing furtlier is found in the Old Testament 
concerning this country town, that was probably 
nothing more than an insignificant village, except 
that a number of its citizens returned to Judah after 
the Exile (Ezra ii. 21). It is not mentioned in the 
Book of ^Maccabees, nor in post-Biblical times by 
Josephus. But it became of world-historic impor- 
tance as the traditional birthplace of Jesus, and as 
sucli is still the goal of pious pilgrimages. Hadrian 
built here a shrine to Adonis, in order to irritate the 
Christians; this shows how imporUint the town liad 
become to the Christian world. As early as the 
second century a stable in one of the grottos close by 
the town was pointed out as the birfhjdace of .Jesus 
(Justin Martyr, "Dial, cum Trypli." pp. 70, 78). 
Constantine built a splendid basilica in Beth-lehem, 
substantially the same church whicli is still admired 
by modern travelers. Below the church is the 
grotto regarded as the birthplace of Jesus. Jerome 
occupied a grotto near by when translating the 
Bible. During the Crusades Betli-lehem suffered 
greatly from Jlobammedan violence. To-day it is 
a flourishing town, inhabited only by Cliristians. 

BiBLIOfiRAPHV: J. .\. Smith. HM. Gcngritjihii iif Pnhstine, 
pp. 318 (7 .sv;«/.; liutil, ijC'njraphie (h-a AJti'n I'<ih'lstinti, ]ip. 
lit, 15.5-15(5; Tobler, Bctlilchcm; Palmer, Uds Jcfzr'yi' Beth- 
lehem, In Zeits. lies Dcutsch. Palilet. Vcreins, xvii. S9 et seq. 
J. JR. F. Be. 

BETH-PEOR : A place in the valley of the 
.Jordan which, in Josh. xiii. 20, is apportioned to the 
Reubeuites. In Deuteronomy (iii. 39, iv. 46, xxxiv. 
6) it is stated that the people were in tlie valley of 
the Jordan, opposite Beth-peor, when the Deutero- 
nomic law was ]3romulgated. Ho.sea (ix. 10) proliably 
means the same place when he speaks of Baal-peor. 
According to Eusebius ("Onomastica," ed. Lagarde, 
ccxxxiii. 78; ccc. 2), the city was situated 6 Roman 
miles from Livias (or Beth-haran) near Mount Peor 
(compare Num. xxiii. 28). According to another 
statement of Eusebius ("Onomastica," ccxiii. 47), 
this mountain lay on the road from Livias to Hesh- 
bon; and according to Jerome (if>. ex v. 1), it was 7 
miles distant from the latter. But no place corre- 
sponding to these descriptions has as yet been found. 
The references to Beth-peor in the Talmud, collected 
by Xeubauer, "G. T." pp. 253, 2.53, prove that the 
place survived the destruction of the Second Temple. 

.1. .in. F. Bu. 

BETH-KEHOB . i REHOB : An Aramaic city 

which sent reenforcements to the Ammonites during 
the war with David (II Sam. x. C, 8; compare 




I Sam 14. 47. LXX.>. According to Judges xviu. .8. 
he c tv of Dan was built in the plain otBetli-relmb 
The laher is also mentioned as the northern front^ 
place of Palestine (Num. xiii. 21)^ Robmson tned 
io identify I?eth-rehob with the f,.rt Hunen along 
the westeni border of the upper Jordan ^^lley ; but 
iudging from the statements in the Old Testament, 
it must be a place east of the Jordan. It is possible 
that Beth-rehob is the ancient name of Banias, assu- 
ming that this place is not to be identified with Hasar 
Enan (compare Baal-o.\^d). 

t . ijt . 

J. JR. 

BETH-SHEAN or BETH-SHAN : Fortified 
town of Canaian. The Baisau of to-day. in the lower 
part of the Jalud chasm. 120 meters below the level 
of the sea The Israelites did not succeed in cnn- 
ouering this citv. which was strongly fortified by 
nature (Josh. .xvii. 16; Judges i. 27). Whether it 
Tvas conquered by the Philistines or whether the 
Canaanites opened their city to them is not clear 
from the stories of I Sam. xxxi. 10 and II Sam. xxi. 
1" But like all the other cities that had not been 
vanquished, Beth-shean had fallen into the hands 
of the Israelites liy the time of Solomon (I Kings 
jv 12) In Greek times it was Helleuized and named 
Skypthopolis (Judges i. 37. LXX.; II :Macc. xii. 29; 
Judith iii. 10; Josephus, and elsewhere). But the 
Hebrew name is used not only in I Mace. v. 53, xii. 
40 et seg. . but also in the Talmud (sec Neubauer, •• G. 
T." pp. 174 it feq.). and has entirely supplanted the 
Greek name. At the time of Hyrcauus the city 
again fell into the hands of the Jews, but became 
free under Pompey and belonged to the league 
Dekapolis. During the war for independence Beth- 
shean was taken by the Jews, but it was soon recap- 
tured by the pagans, who took bloody vengeance on 
the Jew's. Interesting ruins of temples, bridges, a 
theater, etc., bear witWss to the flourishing condi- 
tion of the city in Gra>co-Roman times. The Tal- 
mud speaks of'the fertile surroundings of this town, 
and of the strictness with which the Jews living 
there fulfilled the Law (Neubauer, " G, T. " ih.). The 
forms Beth-shean and Beth-shan rest upon slightly 
variant spellings of the Hebrew form, "shan" 
TCDresenting a natural contraction of "sliean." 
J. .,R. ■ F. Br. 

BETH-SHE'ARIM: According to rabbinic ac- 
counts, the Sanhedriu was destined to pass through 
ten exiles during the period 30-170, and to be com- 
pelled to wander from place to place. One of its 
stations was to be the city of Beth-she'arim. in which 
P. Judah I. resided for a long time (R. H. 31b; 
Sanh. 32b; Kct. 103b). Asthenext placeof sojourn 
was Sepphoris, Betb-she'arim is identified with El- 
.Shajerah (Al-Shajarah), south of Sepphoris (Neu- 
bauer, "G. T." p. 200). From the etymology of tlie 
name. nyt;'=K1J'n. Schwarz ("Das Heilige Land," 
p. 138) identifies it with the modern village Turan at 
the Jebel Turan northeast of Sepphoris (Fischer and 
Guthe's Map of Palestine, c. 3). 

According to Tosef., Ter, vii. 14, Johanan b. Nun 
also dwelt in Beth-she'arim ; and, as the same place 
is called "nc TCI iu Yer. Ter. viii. 4Ga. the two names 

must be identical. The latter name of the place is 
used also in Yer. Kil. ix. 32b and Yer. Ket. xii. 35a: 
thither was conveyed the coffin of R. Judah I., who 
died in Sepphoris" "nt" TVI is also mentioned as a 
place of burial in Yer. M. K. iii. 82c. Certain texts 
of the latter, however, substitute Bet-bin m the 
neighborhood of Ca;sarea. 
mnTiO(iRAPHV : Kohut. Arwh Cimpletum, 11. S7: Hildes- 

beimer a'Trf/ac zur Ge.mmiMc P«I{_te(i»a\-, p. 39; Buhl. 

Gaiyraplile ilcf AUcn PaKMina. p. il.. ^ ^^ 

xix. 41).— Biblical Data: A city of the hill-country 
i)i-tween Judea and the coast on the .southern side 
of Wadi Sarar, called to-day 'Ain Shems. Ac- 
cording to Josh. xix. 41, it was one of the cities 
of Dan, and according to Josh. xv. 10. it was 
on the boundarv-line of Judea. In Josh. xxi. 
Ifi it is named as a Lcvitic city. The Ark of the 
Covenant of Ynwn remained here for a time after it 
had been released by the Philistines (I Sam. vi. 9 et 
geq.). At the time of Solomon, Beth-shcniesh was 
the seat of one of the royal oflicers (I Kings iv. 9). 
Later on Amaziah, king of Judea, incurred a serious 
defeat there. Under Ahaz, Beth-shemesh was con- 
quered by the Philistines (II Chron. xxviii. 18). 
Nothing further is heard of the town, although it 
still existed at the time of Eusebius. Another Beth- 
shemesh was situated in the territory of the children 
of Naphtali (Josh. xix. 38; Judges i. 33). There 
seems t<i have been still another Beth-shemesh, men- 
tioned in Josh. xix. 22. Neither of these latter two 
has been identified. The Beth-shemesh of Jer. xhii. 
is generalhrsnpposed to be the Egyptian Heliopolis, 
which is called On in the Old Testament. On ac- 
count of this discrepancy Winckler (" Alttest. Un- 
tersuchungen," p. 180) would strike out Beth, and 
translate shemesh "pillars of the sun." 

J. .JR. F. Be. 
In Rabbinical Literature : Various explana- 
tions are otlered for the di-saster which, according to 
the Masoretic text, befell fifty thousand people in 
the very moment of their rejoicing over the return 
of the iloly Ark (I Sam. vi. 19). Josephus explain'^ 
("Ant." vi". 1, § 4) that they sinned in presumin:; 
not being priests, to lay their hands upon the Ark of 
the Law. The Talmud affirms that the inhabitant- 
of Beth-shemesh were irreverent, greeting the ap- 
pearance of the Ark with the cry, "Who angend 
thee that thou wert wroth, and who then hath a)'- 
peased thee that thou art kindly dispo.sed tow;inl 
us? " Another account is that these people perished 
because they were so sordid as not to pause in their 
work in the fields at the appearance of the Ark. 

The somewhat curious wording of the passage (I 
Sam. l.r.). "He smote of the people seventy men, 
fifty thousand men " (" and " does not appear in the 
Hebrew text), is explained by rabbinical authorities 
as indicating that this enumeration refers to two 
classes of people : the learned, whose number sev- 
enty represents the Sanhedrin, and the ordinary 
people, represented by the larger number. Other 
expounders, no doubt referring to the Septuagint 
reading which mentions only the seventy men, inter- 
pret this as meaning that only the members of the 
Sanhedrin perished, but that on account of their 




prominence their loss was equal to the loss of fift_v 
tliousand of the plain people (Sotah 35a, b: Yer. 
Sanh. ii. 20b; compare also the Targum and pseudo- 
Jerome. "Quiestiones," upon I Sam- vi. 19). 

L. G. 

BETH-SHITTAH (" place of acacia-trees ") : A 
place near Abel-meholah. To it the Midianites fled 
wlien jiursued by Gideon (Judges vii. 23). The name 
occurs only here ; the place has not been identified. 

J. JR. G. B. L. 

BETH-ZTTB : A city in southern Judea (Josh. 
sv. r>ii; I Chron. ii. 45; Neh. iii. 16) which was for- 
tified by Rehoboam (II Chron. xi. 7). It was a 
strongly walled place, situated on the eastern liound- 
ary-line of Judea. The town was repeatedly be- 
sieged during the time of the JIaccahees (I Jlacc. iv. 
2S(t.'<eq., vi. 50, ix. 52, x. 14, xi. 65). Its situa- 
tion is indicated bj' the ruins near a hill of Bet-sur, 
or Burj-sur. 

.T. JR. F. Be. 

BETH ABABA: An unidentified place men- 
tioned in John i. 28. According to Origen's reading, 
the name is brouglit into connection with the He- 
brew " 'abarali " (crossing), and is supposed to refer 
to one of the many fords of the Jordan. Another 
reading is "Bethany" (Beitiavia), but no place of this 
name east of the Jordan is known. Grove, Wilson. 
and Cheyne combine both readings into 'Briffavalipa— 
that is. "Beth-nimra " in the Jordan valley, northeast 
of the Dead Sea. 

J. JR. F. Bu. 

BETHANY (Bifiavia): A place referred to in the 
Gospels, and proliabl)- also in the Talmud, under 
the forms 'J'-TTa, 'JIX n''3. 'J'S IT'a, and i^n n'3, but 
not mentioned in tlie Olil Testament (Pes. .")3a ; Tosef . , 
Shebi'it, ed. Zuckerraandel, 30, 71). According to 
John (.\i. 18), it was " nigh unto Jerusalem, about fif- 
teen furlongs off " ; according to Jerome (" Onomas- 
ticon." ccviii.), "in secundo ab ^Elia milliario '' (at the 
second mile-post from Jerusalem). This is the site of 
the village El-Azariych on tlie southeastern slopes of 
the Mount of Olives. The identification is estab- 
lished by the name "El-Azariyah," which is the 
Arabic form for " Lazarium," as Bethany was some- 
times called by the Christians. The village, with its 
olive-, fig-, almond-, and carob-trees, is a little oasis 
in that barren region. The figs (Hebr., "te'enah"), 
whicli arc also mentioned in the Talmud, probably 
gave the place its name. 

J- JR. F. Bn. 

BETHAR : City in Palestine, scene of the war 
of Bur Kokba (132-135), and mentioned as sucli in 
Jlishnah Ta'auit iv. 6; Yer. Ta'anit 69a; Babli 
Ta'auit 26b, 29a; Lam. R. to chaps, ii. 3 and iv. S; 
Yer. Ber. 3d; Tosef., Yeb. xiv. 8; Bab. Yeb. 122a; 
Sanh. 171); R. H. ISI), as well as in many other pas- 
sages in Talmud and Midrash. The name is written 
in various ways: usually -in'!, but in tlie Cam- 
bridge and Hamburg MSS. (Ta'anit iv. 6), -inn'3; 
so also in "Halakot Gedolot," ed. Hildeslieimer. 
p. 189, and Sherira's" Letter," ed. Neuba\ier ("Medi- 
eval Jewish Chronicles," i. 4, MSS.); but ih. ii. 109, 
in n'3. the reading in Kohut, "Light of Sliade," p. 
41 ; "in TT'a. in Cant. R. to chap. ii. 17, but im D'a. 

Neubauer, ib. i. 171. These sources indicate that 
Bethar was a town of importance as early as the time 
of the destruction of Jerusalem, and was, moreover, 
the seat of a Sanhedrin; its inhabitants, who fre- 
quently suffered at the hands of the Jerusalem pil- 
grims, are said to have rejoiced exceedingly over 
the fall of tliat city. Bar Kokba made Bethar the 
chief base of the uprising against the Romans: and 
upon its suppression. Bethar— witliiu the walls of 
whicli large of Jews had souglit refuge — was 
closely surrounded by the Romans under Julius 
Severus, and was besieged for two and a half years 
(132-135) ; see concluding jiart of Seder '01am R. 
compared witli Yer. Ta'auit 69a, and Lam. R. ii. 2, 
according to which this period of time does not refer 
to the duration of the war, but to that of the siege 
of Bethar; tlie war itself, according to Jerome (on 
Dan. i. 9, end), lasting three years and six months. 
During the war Bethar afforded slielter to an enor- 
mous popvilation, which fact gave rise to exagger- 
ated labltinical accounts that Bethar had several 
luindred schools for children, and that the school 
youth boastingh- declared that thej- could overtlirow 
the enemj' with their pen-reeds. When the stream, 
Yoredet ha-Zalman, ran drj' in summer, the city 
began to suffer from want of water. The Samaritan 
Book of Joshua (ed. Juynhnll, xlvii.) relates that the 
provisions, which were secretly ccmveyed to the 
town, suddenly, as if by miracle, ceased to be sup- 
plied. It is said that there were two subterranean 
passages leading from the city to Jeridio and Lydda ; 
that the Jews made use of them for the transporta- 
tion of provisions: and that the Samaritans betrayed 
this secret to the Romans and thus brought about 
the fall of Bethar. Rabbinic sources (Yer. Ta'anit 
68d; Lam. R. to chap. ii. 2) also speak of a 
Samaritan's treachery that, furthermore, caused 
the death of the pious R. Eleazar of Modin. 
Hence it may be concluded that Bethar was situated 
close to the Samaritan territory, and that the story 
of the underground passages to Jericho and Lydda 
can not be credited, for they are plainly features of 
the siege of Jerusalem, transferred to Bethar. Neu- 
bauer is therefore incorrect in locating Betliar in the 
vicinity of Beth-sheraesh, basing his opinion on the 
BniSap of tlie Septuagint on II Sam. xv. 24; for this 
place is not found in the Masoretic text, and thus 
no light is conveyed from that source as to its local- 
itj'. Eusebius ("Hist. Eccl." iv. 6) calls the city 
BW8)/pa (variant BfrtW/)o, Br/Hr/p) — which agrees with 
the above-cited spelling, "inn'3 ; and he states that 
Bethar lay in the vicinit}- of Jerusalem. On this 
account Schi'irer and others (Ritter, Tobler, Deren- 
bourg, Reuan) identifj- Bethar with the modern Bit- 
tir, which is situated at a distance of three hours 
southwest from Jerusalem and contains the remains 
of an old fortification on a steep neck of land. The 
B'l-rdpic of Josephus ("B. J." iv. 8, § 1) is said to be 
different from this Bittir. If, however, Bethar had 
Ijeen situated near .lerusalem, it is inconceivable 
that Jeru.salem should have taken no part in the 
war. Griitz ("Gesch. der Juden,"3d ed., iv. 144), on 
the otlier hand, declares the statement of Eusebius 
to be erroneous and locates Bethar north of Antipa- 
tris, four Roman miles south of Cn'sarea. This 
would put Bethar in the neighborhood of Samaria. 




Lebrwht (iu " Magaziii ftir ilie 'NVisseusch. ilfs Judeu- 

thums," iii. 1876) also places Betliar in this region— 

tliat is to say. at a great ilistanoe uorthwani from 

Jenisjilem — and endeavors to prove that Bethar is 

identical with the Roman Castra Vetera of Seppho- 

ris: in'3 "">« sjiid to he the equivalent of '•Vetera" 

(compare HotTniann. " Magazin,'' 1878, p. 188). Tliis 

view is followed by Kohut. Flirst. and Krauss in 

their Talnuidic dictionaries. Nevertheless, the site 

of Bethar must still he considered doubtful. From 

the Talmud it can be determined only that tlie town 

was situated near the sea (Git. 57a: compare Yer. 

Ta'anit G9a), for the blood of those killed is sjiid to 

have llowed into the sea. Bethar was destroyed on 

the same day as .lerusjtlem. on the Ninth of Ab 

(Ta'anit iv. (i: compare Jerome on Zech. viii., where 

instead of " Bethel" read "Bethar"): the killed 

("in'3 'jnn^ were left to decay in the open lield : and 

only after the hatred of war had abated was it made 

possible to give them burial. 

BiBLiocR.iPHV: Herzfeld, in JJnuatf^'hiift. ISoii, p. Ifti; l.v- 
\>rv(.lxt. Vie Sloill Bellicr. tin l''-liiimhrtj<llniii(!f Miivvd- 
sfiViKdii.*.-, in Motiaziii, iii. iT if .-f;. iiilso iis a si™rate pam- 

fihlet, Berlin. I.s77i : Xeubauer. Gii'i/nip/iiV cdi Tnlmiiil. pp. 
IS!-1H : Schiirer. Gesch.. 3A e<l.. i. i>!« i ( ftq.-. tiratz. Gi.-c/i. 
<iir Juitciu iv,. 3d ed., p. 144; Biideker, PMMiiiti uiiil gii- 
rieii. 3tli ed., p. 16. 
G. S. Kr. 

[In favor of the identitication with Bittif. how- 
ever, it might be mentioned that in 1874 C'leriiiout- 
Ganneau discovered there a Latin inscription men- 
tioning detachments of the tifth iMacedonica) and 
the tenth (Claudia) legions, tlie very ones which had 
been called from the Danube to put down the revolt 
of Bar Kokba. A Roman garrison was left at Bit- 
tir just because of its stmtcgic importance. See 
Clermont-Ganneau. iu "Academic des Inscriptions. 
Comptes Rendus." 1894. pp. 149 it xnj. : Ilanauer, in 
"Pal. E.xplor. Fund, Quart, Statements," 1894, p, 
149; Buhl. "Geogr, des Alten Paliistiua," p, 1()3; 
Cheyne. in "Encyc, Bibl," i. oo.").— «.] 

BETHEL, cr DE SYNAGOGA (i?xn*2 ;0. "of 
the hn\iM- ol G"d"i: An Italian -Jewish family, 
several members of which are known as liturgical 
poets and copyists. According to a family tra- 
dition, it was one of the four piomincnt Jewish 
families deported by Titus to Rome after tlie de- 
struction of the Temple. The name "Bethel," how- 
ever, seems to be derived from Casiidio (= house of 
God. "beth-el"!, probably their place of origin. 

Traces of this family are found as early as the 
twelfth century. By the middle of the lifteenth 
century the name had almost disappeared, and 
the family had assiimed the name of An.\w. of 
which family the Betlielides had ahvays been a 

The following membei'S arc best known to fame: 

Ismael ben Moses Bethel: Physician; lived 
in the niiildle of the sixlientli century. 

Jehiel ben Mattithiah Bethel : Physician : 
liveil at I'isii in the ImuUciuh century (.compare 
"He-Haluz," i\., part 2, p, .jO). 

Jekuthiel Bethel : Sou of the preceding: copy- 
ist : lived at Rome at the beginning of the lifteenth 
century. The library of Parma possesses a "Mal.i- 
zor" written by him for Xethaneel ben Abraham 
(see Steiuschneider. " Hebr. Bil)l." vii, 115), 

Joab b. Benjamin Bethel: Liturgical poet; 
lived at Rome at the end of the fourteenth century 
and the beginning of the lifteenth. He was the au- 
thor of a " Kaddish " iu 8 strophes (.compare Znnz, 
"Literaturgeschichte," p, 490; Liindshut, "'Am- 
mude ha-'Abodah," p. 80). lie is mentioned by 
Rieti in his " Paniiliso." p. IDo. 

Joab ben Nadan ben Daniel Bethel : Litur- 
gical poet : lived at Rome in tlie fourteent century. 
He was the author of a " Reshut " on " Xishmat " 
for the Feast of Pentecost (compare Luzzatto, 
"Mebo." p. 23). 

BiBUoCRAPHV : Zuuz. G(«-inimtltc iiclirifttn. iii. Hi7 itsci;, ; 
-Monani, Iiiilicc Alfalxticn, p, S; Vogelstein and Kieger, 
licfdi. ilcrJinkii in n»m. i. m. 307, 332. 
G. I. Bn. 

BETHESDA : A pool iu Jerusalem. According 
ti> John V. ■,; — tlic only passirge wherein it is men- 
tioned — it was "by the sheep market," hence on the 
north of the Temple-hill. Its e.\act location can not 
be definitely fixed. The Pilgrim of Bordeaux 
(about 33o) and also Eusebius ("Onomaslicou," 
cdx., cd. Lagarde) describe it as a double pond 
with reddish water, surrouniled by five C(>lonnades. 
Hence it might be identilied with the two ponds be- 
low the convent of the Sisters of Zion. During the 
Jliddle Ages. Bethesila was supposed to be the pond 
on the western side of the French church of St. 
Anne (compare "Palestine E.\ploKition Fiiud." 1888, 
pp. 115 (7 .v<'7.). There is a later tradition, entirely 
without foundation, that identities Bethesda willi the 
Biiket Israel, a large basin at the northeastern corner 
of the TempIe-hillT 

J. JK. F, Bu, 

BETHPHAGE : Town mentioned iu several pas- 
Siiges of the New Testament (Matt, x.\i. 1; Mark 
xi. 1 ; Luke xix, 29), in all of wliich it is brought 
into connection with Bethany, or the Mount of 
Olives. It was. therefore, on tlie road to Jericho, 
near Jerusalem, and outside of the wall. Tins is 
known also from Talmudic;il references, where it is 
given as the Sabbath distance limit (Xeubauer. ~G. 
T." p. 147). According to some passjiges of tlie 
Talmud, also, it would appear that Bethpliage (Tos, 
Pes, viii. ) was near, yet outside, Jerusalem "JS ri'3, 
Sotah 4.5a), Yet it is referred to as surrounded by 
a wall (Pes. H3b, 9Ia: Men. 78b). which description 
does not exactly correspond to any known locality 
in the immediate neighborhood of Jerus;ileni. The 
exact location, however, has not been determiniil 
(see Buhl, "Geographic des Alten Pahlstiua," p. 

,T. ,11!. G. B. L. 

BETHSAIDA: A town in northern Palestine 
not mentioned in the Old Testament, but referred to 
in the Gospels, and by Josephus. Pliny, and others. 
According to Josephus ("Ant." xviii. 2. § 1 ; 5. § 6; 
" B. J. " ii.9. s 1 : iii. 9. § 7). Pliiliji transformed the vil- 
lage Bethsiiida — situated on the Jordan where it dis- 
charges into the Sea of Galilei — into a large, flour- 
ishing city. Avhicli he called Julias. The Gospels 
mention the village Bethsaida; Jesus sometimes 
stayed there; and Philip. Andrew, and Peter came 
from there (Matt. xi. 21; Mark vi. 45: viii. 22. 2(); 
Luke ix. 10: John i. -W, xii. 21). It has been falsely 




assumed from some of these passages that there was 
a Bothsakla west of the Jordan. The statement of 
John (xii. 21) that Bethsaida hiy iu Galilee is not 
couviuciug. as Josephus aud otliers sometimes con- 
sider jiortious of the eastern coast of tlie lake as be- 
longiug to Galilee (compare Buhl, "Geographie des 
Alten Palilstiua." p. 242). But one must probably 
make a distinction between Buthsaida-Julias and the 
fishing village Bethsaida mentioned iu the Gospels. 
The latter was probably close by the lake, while the 
city of Philip lay higher up, near the little plain of 
J. .m. F. Bu. 

BETHUEL.— Biblical Data : 1. According to 
Gen. xxii. 22. a descendant of Arjihaxad (compare 
Gen. xi. 13-22). He was the son of Xahor and 
Milcah, and father of Laban and Rebekali. Since 
in Gen. xxv. 20 and xxviii. 2, 5, Bethuel is 
called "the Syrian [Aramean] of Padan-aram," 
he must have been, according to this source, a 
descendant of Aram, the brother of Arjihaxad 
(Gen. X. 22; compare Budde, " Urgesehichte," pp. 
421-420). In the story of Rebekah's marriage (Gen. 
xxiv.) he is only mentioned once, as taking au active 
part in events (verse 50, "then Lal)an and Bethuel 
answered "). Some critics omit his name here, aud 
assume thai Bethuel was already dead at that time 
<Ball, "S. B. O. T." lid he; Holzinger, Commen- 
tary to Gen, p, 170). Other critics (c.f/., Dillmanu. /(( 
locii) supp<ise that throughout Gen. xxiv. tlie name 
"Bethuel "is a later addition. Guukel (Commen- 
tary to Gen. i)p. 226, 229) finds here two traditions, 
jind supposes the Bethuel of verse 50 to be a younger 
brother of Laban, Some critics think that Bethuel 
may have been the name of an Aramean tribe in 

2. Xante of a town in the tribe of Simeon (Josh, 
xix. 4; I Chron, iv, 30), the site of which has not 
yet been identified. 

J. .JR. B. E. 

In Rabbinical Literature : Bethuel, being 

king of Ilarau, exercised the./".« prima; iioetis in his 
dominions. The people consented, only on condi- 
tion that he should this privilege also toward the 
members of his own family. God. therefore, let him 
die suddenly when Eliezer wooed Hebekah for Isaac, 
in order to spai'c her the dreadful ordeal. This 
explains why. in the Biblical account of Eliezer's 
wooing (Gen. xxiv. 50), Belhuel is at first mentioned, 
but afterward only Rebekah's motlier and brother 
are referred to, Bethuel having died during tlie night 
(Yaik, i, 109, probably from the lost Midrash 
Abkir), Another legend states that Betliuel intended 
to kill Eliezer when he saw the treasures which the 
latter brought with him, and, not being able to 
carry out his purpose, ou account of Eliezer's great 
strength (see Eliezer, in R-vbisinical Litera- 
ture), he mixed poison with his food. The angel 
who accompanied Eliezer changed the plates, 
however, so that Bethuel ate the poisoned portion 
which he had intended for Eliezer, and died tliere- 
from (Yalk. J.c, Midrash Aggadah. ed. Buber, 
Vienna, 1894, i. 58, .59). Acconling to the old Slid- 
rashim, Bethuel refused to give his daughter in 
marriage, aud for that reason God caused Iiiiu to die 

suddenly, while Eliezer was staving in his house 
(Gen, R. Ix. 12), 

L, G. 

BETHULIA (BaiTov/.ota, SairovAia, Bfn/oi/a, 
Bn/n/oii;; Vulgate, Bethulia) : Name of the city 
which, according to the Book of Judith, was besieged 
liy Holoferucs; the home of Judith. In the shorter 
version of the legend published by Gaster ("Pro- 
ceedings of the Society of Biblical Archeology," 
1894, xvi. 156 et sef/.), Jerusalem is the besieged 
city. The name "Bethulia" may, therefore, be 
assumed to be an allegorical one, meaning per- 
haps "Bethel " (house of God), or it may lie a word 
compounded of "betulah" and "Jah" ("Yiiwii's 
virgin"). In the better-known longer version, 
however, the whole context points to the situation 
of the city as having been on tlie mountains to 
the south of the large plain of Jezreel. Bethulia is, 
moreover, spoken of iu a way to distinguish it de- 
cidedly from Jerusalem. It may therefore be ac- 
cepted that iu the longer version the story has been 
connected with a definite tradition current in that 
looality. The original allegorical name, however, 
may have been applied to a place in that region; 
liut it has not yet been possible to find traces of the 
name in the region to the south of the large jdaiu. 
The name "Mataliye." a place on a hill south of the 
small fertile plain Merj-el-Gharak, conies nearest to 
if ; but this point is too far soutli to correspond to the 
details given in the Book of Judith. Thisobjectifm 
applies even more strongly to the fort Sanfir, ^vllich is 
still farther south, and to which, among others, 
Guerin refers it, Marta (" Intorno al Vero Sito de 
Betulia," 1887) has tried to identify the city with 
El-Bared, west of .Jennina, a location that, topo- 
graiiliically considered, is quite possible. According 
to Willrich ("Judaica," 1900), "Bethulia" is a cor- 
ruption of "Bethalagan." 

,T. su. F. Bu, 

BETROTHAL (pOITX in Talnmdic Hebrew): 
Tlie term " betrntlial " iu Jewish law must not be 
understood in its modern sense; that is, tlie agree- 
ment of a man and a woman to marry, by which the 
parties are not, however, definitely bound, but which 
ma_y be broken or dissolved without formal divorce. 
Betrothal or engagement such as this is not known 
either to the Bible or to the Talmud, and only crept 
in among the medieval and modern Jews tlirough the 
influence of the example of the Occidental nations 
among whom they dwelt, without sectu'ing a definite 
status in raliliiiiical law. 

Several Biblical passages refer to the negotiations 
requisite for the arranging of a marriage (Gen. xxiv. ; 
Songof Songs viii. 8; Judges xiv. 2-7), 
In which were coiulucted liy members 

the Bible, of the two families involved, or their 
deputies, and rec|uired usually the con- 
sent of the prospective bride (if of age) ; but when 
the agreement had been entered into, it was definite 
and binding upon both groom and bride, who were 
considered as man aud wife in all legal and religious 
aspects, except that of actual cohabitation. 

The root L""lX ("to betroth"), from wiiieh the 
Talmudic abstract ['DIIX ("betrothal") is derived, 
niust be taken iu this sense; i.e., to contract an ac- 
ttial though incomplete marriage. In two of (he 




p.issjiscs in which it occurs the betrothed woman isili- 
rtcilv'^desi snared as " wife" (II Sam. iii. 14. " my wife 
whom I have betrothed" ("erasti"). and Deut. x.xii. 
24, where tlie betrothed is designated as "the wife 
of his neishbor"). In strict accordance with tliis 

was allowed to pass before the marriage was com- 
pleted by the formal home-taking ("nissu'in," "lik- 
kuhin '■). In case the bride was a widow or the 
groom a widower, this interval was reduced to thirty 
ilavs (Ket. v. 2; Shulhan 'Aruk, Eben ha-'Ezer, 56). 

SCENE AT A Betrothal of German- Jews, Eighteenth Centcbt. 

vFroai B^xienKhau. " Kirchliche Verfassung.*'} 

sense the rabbinical law declares that the betrothal 
is equivalent to an actual marriage and only to be 
liissolved by a formal divorce. 

After the betrothal a period of twelve months 

After the disperssil of the Jews had brought them 
into contact with the 'Western peoples, this arrange- 
ment was felt to be inconvenient and out of harmony 
with the prevailing views. It therefore became 




customarj' to perform the entire marriage ceremony, 
betrothal and home-taking (" erusin" and " nissu'in"), 
at one time; and an affiancing or 
Betrothal engagement similar to that prevail- 
andHome- ing among non-Jews was introduced. 
Taking. Tliis was not an entire innovation, as 
its roots already existed in the cus- 
tom of "shiddukin " or consent to marry, which ex- 
isted in the days of the Talmud and probably also 
in the Biblical age. It was considered indispensable 
bv the rabbis that a man should gain the good-will 
and consent of his prospective bride before entering 
upon a contract of marriage. Rah, tlie Babylonian 

There is now no legal duration of time between 
betrothal and marriage, the length of the engage- 
ment being left entirely to the option of the parties 
concerned, except that the marriage may not take 
place in less than seven days after the agreement 
to marry has been reached (Nld. 66a ; Shulhan ' Aruk, 
Yoreh Deah. 193). 

In Talmudic days, as in modern times, gifts 
formed an important feature of betrothal and mar- 
riage customs. These were of several kinds. The 
gifts which the groom sent to his bride were called 
"siblonot" or "sablonot," a term which Benja- 
min Musatia and Kohut explain as derived from 

Betrothal Scene at Nuremberg. 

(From Kirchner, " Judisfbes Certmnniell, " 1726.) 

amora, was accustomed to punish severely any one 
who married without lirst having persuaded and 
gained the consent of his wife (Kid. 13a ; Yeb. 52a 
et al.). 

What was in the Talmudic age a mere personal 
matter became in later times a formal custom, which 
wascelebrated with much pomp. At these occasions 
it was customary to make out a formal contract to 
marry and to stipulate that a penalty should be im- 
posed upon either party who should fail to fultil 
his or her part of it. Such agreements were known 
as ■' shiddukin " (consent to marry), and also as " te- 
naim " (conditions), or among German-speaking Jews 
"kenas-mahl " (penalty-feast), because of these stip- 
ulations and penalties. They are still customary in 
many countries in modified form. 

the Greek <76/i/3o;^ov (" a gift or payment made as a 
sign or a mark by which to infer something; a 
token ") (" 'Aruk ha-Shalem," vol. vi., 
Gifts. s.i\ niJl5'3D). This derivation is cor- 
roborated by the fact that the Talmud 
(Kid. 50b) debates the question whether the sending 
of siblonot can be consideied a proof of marriage 
or not. Jastrow, liowever ("Diet." s.c. jl^aD). de- 
rives the term from ^30 ("to carry"), corresponding 
to the Biblical "massa" and "masset." It was also 
customary for the male friends of the groom to send 
gifts, which sometimes took the form of money 
donations and were useful in assisting the groom to 
defray the expenses of the wedding. These presents 
were termed "shoshbinut" (friendship-gifts), from 
the Aramaic "shosbbina" (friend or neighbor). 




supposed by Musafia and Kohut to be derived from 
the Greek aiamrvof ("cue living in cue's tent: mess- 
mate; but see PayueSmith, 
"Thesaurus,"*, r.). Sacbs 
(••Boitriige zur Spracb- und 
AltertUuuis -Forschung,'' 
18oi. pp. 82 ct f^i.) derives 
the wc.rd from K3L"nt,", the 
mvrile - hearing comi)anions 
of the bridegroom. 
JmI' v^HR Betrothal in its legal sense 

■9/ "'^^B C'erusin") is performed in 

jBB wK ] the following manner: After 

^^ mmj the ordinary benediction over 

^^^^^^^ wine, the person performing 

,•'' ' the ceremony continues as 

follows: ''Blessed art Tliou. 
O Lord, our God. King of 
6ilver-GmB.>rr.MiKURin!r, the universe, who hast sane- 
Bearing Letter : for titled US with Thy command- 
"Mazal T"'i." ments and triven us com- 

(From thi- Victoria and All^crt ^ • c 

Mtis^uiu, lobjol.) mandmeuts coucernmg tor- 

bidden connections, and bast forbidden unto us 
those who are merely betrothed, and permitted 

seven wedding benedictions forms the completion 
of the wedding ceremony. See Wedding. 

Bibliography: Per- 
les. Vie Jihli^che 
Hmhzeit ill 2\nch- 
hihU.tclur Zcit. in 
Frankel's J/oii<its- 
gehrift, ix. Leipsic, 
181)13: the same in 
English : Jc ivish 
3/nri*i((i/t' in Pi*st- 
Bihliail Tiincf. in 
Ht))r(ir rUnrac- 
ti'riiitii's^ New York. 
lST.i: Mielzlner. The 
Je i( i."/! Lit w o/ 
Marriaije ami Di- 
niree, Cincinnati, 
18SJ ; C(iTi>el, Le 
J u i1 a i .->' Ml »■ . Mul- 
bouse. 1.ST6 : Du- 
seliak. Da.t Mnsa- 
Ehencht. Vienna, 
l!MH: Israel Abra- 
bams. Jewish Life 
ill the MiiliUc -lyts, 
London. 1S96. 
J. SR. B. T>. 

Betrothal Rinpwith Box Containing 
Perfumes and Opening with a Key. 

(From the British Museum.) 

BETTELHEIM : Xame of a Hungarian fam- 
V. The tirst bearer of it is said to have lived 

(After K&but. '• Geschichte der DeulSL-hru Jujcn.") 

unto us those lawfully married to us through 
'canopy' ["huppah'] and 'betrothal' ["kid- 
dushiu"]. Blessed are Thou, O Lord. 
The Legal who sanctiliest Thy peojde Israel 
Ceremony, through huppah and kiddushin. " 
after which the groom hands to the 
bride a ring or some object of value (not less than 
a perutah, the smallest current coin), saying. "Be 
thou betrothed luito uie with this ring [or object] in 
accordance with the laws of !Moses and Israel " 
( " kedat Mosheh Ave-Yisrael "). 

As stated above, this act of betrothal is at present 
combined with the rite of home-taking; and after the 
placing of the ring upon tlie finger of the bride, 
the marriage contract (Ketcbah) is read, to form 
an interval between the two acts. The recitation of 
another benediction over wjue and of the customary 

toward the second half of the eighteenth century, 
in Piesburg. To account for its origin the follow- 
ing episode is related in the family records: 

There was a Jewish merchant in Presliurg. whose modest de- 
meanor gained for him the esteem of his fellow-tmvnsmen. Ht- 
was poptUarly called " Ein ehrlich Jud " (honest Jew i . His wift 
was a woman t>f surpassing beauty, and many magnates of iht- 
(Country, bearing of her charms, traveled to Presbui"g to see her. 
C'cpunt Bethleu was particularly pereisteut, and. failing to 
attract her attention, be decided to abduct her. Mounteti on his 
charger, he appeared i^'Ue day in the oi>en market, where the 
vinuous Jewess was making purchases, and. in the sight of hun- 
dreds of spectators. Ufted her on bis horse, ami, heedless of her 
cries of entreaty, was about to gallop off with her. when her 
husliand appeared on the scene and. after a fierce personal com- 
bat, succeeded in rescuing her. 

That a Jew should engage in a h.ind-to-hand en- 
counter with a nobleman of the rank of Count Beth- 
len %vas so unprecedented, and the deed itself was 











mN3 'DtiSiuDi-ip inj hy Kjnn k/io vjn na ym VK\r yjah oSijrn nNnaV lyani 
, — i'-\3r -iH'ds oanon mjon p 3io Sro omax -(nbs -(pTM ^KJ^n^ -nnan sa 

•' — 7 'innj 'D^p ip'y K" -nnb^ sSsran ain Snjoi nyo Sn jn -"Non na/iao 
D2^r>2 'JVT npaHiDjisNi [ttki TpiKi rhsK ^^a n jni Sk-iu^'i rvK'o ma uunS 
y< ja'n'i Nur pa pn'c'J ;t pnaai j'DJiflai pjTi fnpioi ^^rhsi |"»<nir\' f nan 
O'mV Sym 'a'piflp>'a'rtiD3i 'a*jwai 'a'V irm pxa 'nr e^pa •a'Snra in» 'a'*? 
M;jnj N-nirtJK'^n'S mm nop ni Kn'5ir)3n'7'L3J'jrnDnK'axiKj7->N'?3 n-»»o 
ii' am bra omaKinba 'avi qny cjwSr j-nu'S fnu;}; niaK 'aan''? J^Syjm 
KT KT^aina map syoj c^ny cjoaSiy f 'lU'S f n;yy n'jiaoa rh c)'D5hi fji pn 
-lar^-iambiTm pnTp«aoiac)nyqpa'?tt'fnu;S pyaiKHJianir^i n^jnjpa 
KV)-ij NT Nriaipo "luf ^aim nmnN pn fnn w • aiu bra Dn">3x inaa n jb 
j-U'jpi ppaj J^N njii' Saa Ny-li)n^^'? 'N?jia 'Kr>T Sj?i 'Vy n'S'ap Npspmi 
-id;:/ f injD y-isab pNp'msxi pxaiy i pK-in« pn' jinSian rimpN jirt'?;)''?! 
s'51'ja'hNniaai "na 'NsraSyiNa'bj p ib'SNiNnspim s'jnjKT N/jama 
-ino3 r4j Sap Knspir»i s*jnj nt xjiama "»t3t/ laim pmnw obybi f jt 
r^'Smaa 'J'n jn maira '■^uv Sa naini nmnNa f jt pn ly* aiu bra omaN 
>;S-iiNr)D»PK3 xS-i Vr'n 'jipnSaa p'lf ynrintyomj^iyijyn Sn-)v:/' 
an->3K -inoD td KnnS 'O'nn-i nnp px NJVpi '-»u;i'T 'Dfliiaa 
r~-~>i3TS p-n j-r>n nriSr nVjKtjJifl n— ^st -inba p w' aiu Sro 
Ml NnSiP3nJ'Oipirvytt"->">n''DaranS'UJ'jn-»0 irho n-naan 
O'pi i-Tv:; Sam n'a K"jpob ■>\:'aT NjDab'yS t/TflOU'riaT 'Na Sa Sy roa 










so daring in view of tlie social status of the Jews of 
those times (wliicli remained unclianged until the 
liberal laws of Emperor Joseph II. were promul- 
gated), that the populace thenceforth styled'the hero 
of the storj- "Bethlen-Jude." This name clung to 
bim until the royal edict, l)iddiiig Jews to assume 
family names, went into force, and then the name was 
clianged to "Bettelheim." Among the family relics 
preserved by a scion of the house in Freystadtel, on 
the Waga, isan oil-painting which dejiicts the daring 
rescue of the Jewess from the hands of her abductor. 

Of the descendants hearing the name of Bettel- 
heim the following are the most |)rominent: 

1. Albert (Aaron) Sieg-fried Bettelheim: 
Rabbi and Hebraist ; liorn in Hungary April 4. 1830; 
died at sea Aug. 21, 1890. At the age of eleven he 

of London journals, and acted as private tutor 
('• Ilofmeister ") to Count Forgacs, then governor of 
Bohemia, and afterward Hungai ian court-chancellor. 
In the early lif ties Bettelheim removed to Temesvar, 
Hungary, where he was director of the Jewish 
schools and editor of a political weekly called 
"Elore" (Forward). In 1856 he became the "offi- 
cial translator of Oriental languages and cen.sor of 
Hebrew books "at Czernowitz. where, 
Becomes in 1858, he married Henrietta Wein- 
Censor of traub, the first female Jewish public- 
Hebrew school teaclier in Himgary. In 1860 
Books. he became rabbi at Komorn, Hungary, 
where he was appointed superintend- 
ent of all the schools— the first Jew to gain such a 
distinction. Thence he went to Kaschau, where he 

Processio.ns of Briderroo.m Axn or BRmn, Circa ITiiu. 

(From Kinhner, " Judischea Cereinontt-11," 1-26.) 

entered the yeshibah of Presburg, and afterward 
studied in the Talmudical schools at Leipnik, jNIora- 
via. and Prague; enjoying the tutelage of S. L. 
Hapoport, from whom, at the age of eighteen, he 
obtained his rabbinical diploma. Bettelheim offici- 
ated for a short time as rabl)i and religious teacher 
at Miinchengratz, and then returned to Prague to 
enter the university, whence he graduated with the 
degree of Ph.D. 

In 1850, and for .several years thereafter, Bettel- 
heim was the Austrian correspondent of a number 
III.— 9 

oflieiateil as rabbi until 18G2. While at Kaschau he 
edited a Jewish weekly, "Der Jude " (jargon), to 
combat the views of the Jewish Congress, then 
holding animated conventions at Budapest. There, 
too, he edited a political weekly, whose progressive 
ideas were discountenanced by his congregation and 
held to be prejudicial to Judaism. The fanaticism 
of his people became so pronounced that, being 
threatened with excommunication l)y one of the col- 
leagues of his former domicile in Komorn, he decided 
to emigrate to America with Ids family. 




In 1867 Bettelheim was elected nibbi of the Crown 
street congregation (now Beth Israel) of Philadel- 
phia, and became a professor at the Maimonides 
College. In 1869 he became rabbi of congre- 
gation Beth Aliabah, of Richmond, Va., where 
he established and edited a German weekly, "Der 
Patriot" (afterward diangcd into a 
Emigrates daily, with the title "The State Ga- 
te zette "). AVhile in Richmond he en- 
America, tend the Medical College, and was 
graduated witli the degree of 31.D. 
He intended to write a work ou Jewisli medicine, and 
has left behind a number of nifmographs and other 
documentary material not yet published. 

Though assured of a remunerative practise as a 
physician, Bettelheim. at the solicitation of his con- 
gregation and of clergymen of other denominations, 
whose lumorcd associate he was, did not forsake 
the pulpit. In 1S75 he was elected rabbi of the 
Ohabai Shalom congregation of San Francisco, 
Cal. . where he became chairman of the Societ_v for 
the Study of Hebrew, composed entirely of Chris- 
tian clergymen, and director of the Societj- for the 
Suppression of Vice. He held other p-iblic offices, 
and delivered the baccalaureate sermon at various 
high schools and colleges. He occupied the pidpits 
of the Unitarian and Baptist churches in San Fran- 
cisco, and afterward in Baltimore, where, in 1887, he 
became rabbi of the First Baltimore Hebrew Con- 
gregation, an office he held till his death. In Bal- 
timore he became identified with a number of public 
institutions and charitable organizations, and in- 
structed some uon-.Jews in the elements of the He- 
brew language. 

While on the homeward voyage from a visit to 
Europe, he died on lioard ship, and was buried Aug. 
21, 1900. Two Catholic priest.s, whose acquaint- 
ance Bettelheim had made on the voyage, read the 
Jewish buiial service and recited the " Kaddish " as 
the body was lowered into the sea. 

Bettelheim's literary activity was of the most 
varied kind. Besides the items enumerated above, 
it may be noted that he was the art critic of a prom- 
inent San Francisco journal: coeditor of the "Jew- 
ish Times " (now the "Jewish Times and Observer ") 
of San Francisco, from 1880 to 18S6: a regular con- 
tributor to the "'Argonaut " of that city ; a frequent 
contributor to the ".Jewish Exponent" of Philadel- 
phia, and the "Menorah Monthly" in 
His New York. He was the author of some 

Literary charming ghetto tales and stoiies of 
Activity. Jewish life, two of which — " Yentil the 
Milk-Carrier" and "The Baal-Milha- 
mah-Rabbi " — were translated into German, Hun- 
garian, and Hebrew. He was at work for over 
twenty years on a Revised English Bible, about 
three-fourths of which he had completed in manu- 
script at the time of his death. JIany of his 
suggestions and scholarly notes are incorporated 
in the last two volumes of Kohut's "AruchCom- 
pletum. " 

BiBLiOGR.iPHV: Baltimore American and Baltiimire Sun ol 
Aug. and Sept., ISW; George Alexander Kohut, Rer. Dr. 
Aaniji Siegfricil BetteVuini : a Bimiraphieal Sketch, in 
Jewixh EriiiDiiiit. Philadelpliia. 1880; idem, in Jeteish 
rummciit. Baltimore, Aug. 17, 1900. 

s. G. A. K. 

2. Anton Bettelheim : Austrian critic and jour- 
nalist: born at Vienna Nov. 18, 1851. He studied 
law, and for some time was engaged in active pr.ic- 
tise, but abandoned the profession for a literary 
career. Although he had received his degree of 
"doctor of law." he attended the lectures of 
Giesebrecht and M. Bernays at Munich ou literal y 
subjects. Fired by the eloquence and enthusiasm 
of the latter, he undertook the study of Beau- 
niarchais' life and writings, and. to this end, resolved 
to make original investigations in the libraries ot 
London, Paris, The Hague, Carlsruhe, and Spain. 
.\fter an extended tour through Germany, Franc e, 
England, and Spain, Bettelheim became, in 1S.'<0, 
the feuilleton editor of the Vienna "Presse." He 
retained this position until 1884, when he became 
editor of the "Deutsche Wochenschrift." In is.^6 
he joined the editorial staff of the " Deutsche Zei- 
tung," which position he resigned shortly after to 
ptiblish the "Biographischen Blatter." subsequently 
issued as " Biographisches Jahrbuch und Deutscher 

Bettelheim's works are: " Beaumarchais, " a biog- 
raphy, 1886; a translation of Little's " Wie Ich ^lein 
Worterbuch der Franzosischen Sprache zu Staude 
Gebracht Habe," 1887: " Volkstheater und Lokal- 
blihue 1887," 1887; "Ludwig Auzengruber, der 
Mann: Sein Werk. Seine Weltanschauung." 1891; 
"Die Zukunft Unseres Volkstheaters," 1892; "Deut- 
sche und Franzosen," 189.5; "Acta Diurna, Gesain- 
melte Aufsittze," 1899; and "Fuhrende Geister." 

Bettelheim is also one of the editors of Anzen- 
gruber's complete works, published by Cotta, 1890. 

Bibliography: Kursohner, Deutscher Literatur-Kalcnder, 
1S«1. pp. 98, 99; Da« Gciftige Wieii. 1893. p. 3t. 
s. E. Ms. 

3. Caroline von Bettelheim-Gomperz (also 
called Tellheim) : Court singer and member of 
the royal opera. Vienna; born June 1. 1845. at 
Pesth. She studied piano with Karl Goldmark. and 
singing with Laufer. At the age of fourteen she 
made her debut as a pianist, and two years later ap- 
peared for the first time in opera at Vienna. She 
eventually obtained a permanent engagement at the 
Royal Opera in that city. She has occasionally 
starred in her favorite roles in other cities of Ger- 
many as well as in London. She is the wife of 
Julius Ritter v<m Gomperz, president of the Aus- 
trian chamber of commerce and member of the 
Upper House. 

s. J. So. 

4. Felix Albert Bettelheim : Physician and 
surgeon of Panama: liorii in Fri-ystadtel, on the 
Waag. Hungary, Sept. 2, 1861; died in Baltimore, 
Md., April 4, 1890. He was the son of the rabbi 
Aaron Siegfried BETTELnEiM, and emigrated to the 
L^nited States in the sixties. In his seventeenth year 
he was graduated from the L"uiversity of California 
with high honors, and three years later from the 
iledical College in San Francisco. From 1880 to 
1881 he was resident i)hysician of the San Quentin 
state prison: from 1881 to 188.3, ship's surgeon of 
the Pacific >Iail steamship " Colima " ; 1883-89. sur- 
geon-general of the Panama Railroad and Canal 




Company. Through his efforts the first hospital in 
Panama was built ; and he became one of its stalf of 
physicians. He held several high offices and re- 
ceived a number of medals and testimonials from 
the government in recognition of his services. 

Bettelheim was the discoverer of a new germ 
peculiar to tropical countries, an account of which 
is given in medical records. In 1889 he studied 
clinical metliods in the great Eui-opean cities. On 
his return to America he died from a tropical liver 
complaint which was held by American autlioritics 
to be unique and was described by Professor Osier, 
of Johns Hopkins University, in a London medical 
journal. He was a frecjuent contributor to the 
"Lancet "and other periodicals, and left a posthu- 
mous work, "Outhe Contagious of Trop- 
ical Countries, " still unpublished. A te.\t-book by 
Dr. Thorington of Philadelphia, on tlie diseases of 
the eye, is dedicated to Bettelheim's memory. 

BIBMOCRAPIIY : The periodical .Jewish press of April and May, 
189(1; Baltimiire Amerkau. ApriI5aud7, ISiW; Sim Fran- 
cisco Kvamiiicry April 8, 189U. 

A. G. A. K. 

5. Jacob Bettelheim (pseudonym, Karl Tell- 
heim): German dramatist; born at Vienna I let. 2(1, 
1841. He attained considerable prominence bv his 
first attempt in the field of literature, "Elena Tace- 
ano,"a romance. This he followed with "Iiitime 
Geschichten " (novelettes) and a drama, "Nero," 
written in collaboration with Von Schonthanin 1889, 
the year in which he married Fraulein Brentano. 
A farce, "Die Praktische Frau," was his next pro- 
duction, after which came in quick succession " Gift- 
mischer" and "Vater Moriu," two plays; two 
dramas, "Ehellige" and "Sein Bester Preund " ; 
"Madame Kukuk,"a farce; "Syrenen," a drama; 
"Seine Gewesene," farce; "Aus der Elite," farce, 
1894; "Der Millionenbauer," drama, in collabora- 
tion with M. Kretzer; " Verkliirung," drama, 1897; 
"Verklilnmg," farce, 1898; " Der Retter," comedy, 
1898; "Onkel .Jonas," a popular drama, in collabo- 
ration with O. Klein, 1898; " Victorinen's Hochzeit" 
(translated from George Sand's ])lay), 1879; "Mar- 
guerite" (from Sardou), 1886; " Der Erbe " (from 
De Maupassant), 1894; and "Im Verdacht " (from 

niBLTOGRAPHY: KUrschner, Dcutscher Literal ur-Kaktul,r, 
19()1, p. 98. 

s. E. Ms. 

6. Karl Bettelheim: Austrian physician; born 
at Pre.sburg, Hungary, Sept. 28, 1840; died July 27, 
189.5. He received his medical education at tlie 
University of Vienna, where he studied \uuler Hyrtl, 
Bri'icke, Rokitansky, and Skoda. In 1868. two years 
after obtaining his doctorate, he was appointed as- 
sistant t(5 Op]i()lzer, and served in that capacity 
until 1870. Thiee years later he became docent of 
medicine (Iniiere Medizin) at the University of 
Vienna. From 1870 to 1878 he was editor of the 
"Medicinisch-Chirurgi.sclie Rundschau," and for sev- 
eral years was chief of the department of in- 
ternal diseases at the Polyclinic, and physician-in- 
chief of the Rudolfinerhaus at Unterdobling, near 

The scientific investigations of Bettelheim arc 
chiefly on the pathology of the heart and blood- 

vessels. His experimental researches on mitral insuf- 
ficiency and on the mechanics of the heart following 
compression of the coronary arteries are considered 
of great value. 

Bettelheim's writings comprise a number of 
papers on diseases of the blood and circulatory 
organs, on certain affections of tlie alimentary canal, 
and reports of interesting clinical cases, which he 
published in the leading medical journals. His 
most imiiortant contributions are; " Ueber Bewe;:- 
liche Korperchen im Blute," and " Ueber einen Fall 
von Phosphorvergiftung," in the " Wiener Medici- 
nische Presse," 1868; "Ein Fall von Echinocoecus 
Cerebri," "Stenose eines Astes der Pulmonalar- 
terie," and " Bemerkungen zur Diagnose des Masen- 
carcinoms," in " Vierteljahrschiift fiir Psychiatiie "; 
"Die Sichtbare Pulsation der Arteria Brachialis, ein 
der C'irculatioiisorgaue," iu the " Deutsches Arcliiv 
fur Klinische Medicin," 1878; "Die BandwUriner 
beimMensclien," in the "Sammlung Klinischer Vor- 
tritge," 1879. He translated from the French R. 
Lepin's "Pneumonia Lobviii." Vienna, 1883; and 
"Diseases of the Spinal Cord," by the English neu- 
rologist Gowers. Bettelheim also described the 
origin of the second sound in the carotid artery 
("Entstehung des Zweiten Times in der Carotis." in 
"Zeitschrift fiir Klinische Medicin," 188.3). 

Bibliography : L. Eisenhersr, DanGcintine Wieii, ii.2tl; Hirscli, 
Biiiaraiiliixclux LcxikDii, i. 440; Pagel, lliinirapliistlieii 
Lcxikiin, p. liil. 
s. W. S. 

7. Leopold (Meyer Leb) Bettelheim: Hun- 
garian physician; born iu the second half of th(( 
eighteenth century. He was not only eminent in 
his profession, but was considered a Hebraist of 
some im]i(irtaiice. He lived in Freystadtel, on the 
Waag, and there held the responsible oHice of 
cian-in-ordiiiaiy to Count Joseph ErdiMly, the iiillu- 
ential court chaucellor of Huiigaiy, in whose 
private residence are still prest'rved the surgical 
instruments used by Bettelheim in saving the lives 
of the count and his family, together with docu- 
ments recording some remarkable cures elTecti'd by 

In 1830 Bettelheim was the reciiiient of a gold 
medal of honor from the emperor Franz I. for distin- 
guished services to the roj'al family and to the 

8. Samuel (Shemuel Zebi) Bettelheim: Son 
of Leopold (No. 7); pliysieiaii, mnrhanl, anil iiolit- 
ical agitator during the troublous years iireceding 
the Revolution of 1848; afterward served in the 
army. His wife, Eva, was a woman of unusual 
scholarly attainments, and an earnest student of the 
Bible and its cnmmentaries. She was an excellent 
Talmudist and wrote a number of disi|uisitioiis on 
learned rabbinical i|Uestions. The faiiKuis reformer 
Hodza, an evangelical pastor and organizer of a vio- 
lent Slavonic movement in northern Hungary in 
1848, was her instructor iu classical and modern 

Bibliography ; (Iriil ErdOdu Jfyisei Krimikaja (printed for 
private oirciilaticm "iilyl, pp. 84-86; Pnzfinnii Kuzlunti, IStSi, 
p. 6; a tninscnpi from old family records supplied for this 
biography by Iir. Joseph Bettelheiin in Budapest. 
8. G. A. K. 

Bevis S 




BETTING : The mutual agreement of two par- 
ties as to gain and loss upon a certain contingency. 
It seems to have been unknown iu Biblical times. 
There is no mention of it iu the Scriptures, unless an 
allusion to this kinil of easy gain is iuteuded iu such 
proverbs as the following: 

• He that tillelli liis land shall have plenty of bread, but he 

tbat folluwfth after vain thinps [A. V. "vain persons"] is void 

of understanding" (Prov. xli. 11). "Wealth 

Possibly gotten by vanity shall be diminished, but he 

Alluded to that gathcreth by labor shall have increase " 

in Provei'bs. (ib. xiii. 11, .\. v.). " He that maketh haste to 

be rich shall not beunpunisheil" ti/j. .\xviii.20, 

A. V.)- "He that hasteth after riches hath an evil eye, and 

knoweth not that want [or disgrace] shall overcome him" Ub. 

xxvili. 22, Hebr.). 

An interesting case of bettiug is related iu Ab. R. 
N. XV. and Shab. 30d el scg. : "Two men (A and B) 
bet whether it was possible to provoke Ilillel to 
anger. One of them (A) said, ' I can do it. ' The}' 
agreed that, if he did provoke Ilillel to anger he 
shmdd receive from the other (B) 400 zuz [the alter- 
native of the bet. that iu case of failure he was to 
(lay to B the same amount, is not mentioned]. He 
tried his best, but failed. Then he exclaimed: 'If 
thou art Ilillel, the prince of Isrsiel, I hope that there 
are not many iu Israel like thee; for through th'ee I 
lose 40U zuz.' Ilillel replied: " Learn to control thy- 
self ; the lesson learnt by Hillel's patience is worth 
even twice the stake.' " 

If two jiarties have bound themselves by a bet, 
however blamable the act of bettiug may be, they 
have to act in accordance with the moral precept, 
"That which is gone out of thy lips thou shall ob- 
serve and do " (Deut. xxiii. 24 [K. V. 23]). They 
are at least morally bound: but it is not certain 
whether the lo.ser is also foi'Ced by la.w to abide by 
the agreement. In the Mishuah (R. II. i. 8; Sauh. 
iii. 3) betting seems to be among the vices that dis- 
qualify those addicted to them from givingevidence. 
The passage runs thus: "The following are distjual- 
ified from givingevidence: He who plays at dice 
[■'mezahek be-kubia "] or lends on interest, or bets 
on pigeons." The original for the last expression is 
"mafrihe yoiiim" (literally, "causing pigeons to 
tly ") and is thus explained in the Gemara (Sanli. 25a) : 
" If thy pigeon comes before the other " [supply] 
"then I pay thee so and so much." Another cx- 
]ilaiiation is olVered by Hama, who can not adopt 
the first definition of "mafrihe yonim," because the 
principle of betting is already mentioned in the 
phrase " playing at dice." 

Two reasons are given why a betting mtiu can not 

be heard as witness: (1) Rami b. Hamasaj's: "The 

winner has no right to take the money 

Bettors of the loser ; and if he taki^s it, he is 
Dis- guilty of robbery." (2) Ra.b Shesliet 

qualified as says: "A person addicted to betting 
'Witnesses, wastes his time in idleness, and does 
not fulfil his duty as a human being 
of contributing by his work his share to the welfare 
of mankind" ["eno 'osek beyishsbuboshel 'olatn"]. 
Both agree that betting disqualifies a person from 
giving evidence, but with this diiference: Rami b. 
Hama declares a betting man guilty of robbery, 
and therefore dis(|ualified even if he bets only oc- 
casionallv : while Rab Sheshet would not declare 

him disqualified, unless betting is his sole occupa- 
tion (Sanh. 24b). 

"Whether a betting man is guilty of robbery or 
not depends on the legal value of the betting trans- 
action. Two parties frequently agree to certain 
conditions, because either party hopes to gain by 
them, and thinks only of the one eventuality that is 
favoralile to him. The reverse seems to him to 1m 
out of question; and neither party is actually pn- 
pared for the loss. Such a transaction is calletl 
"asmakta" (see Asmakta). Rab Sheshet denies that 
the rule of asmakta apiilies to the of mezahek 
be-kubia, or playing at dice. The Tosafot. iu dis- 
cussing this subject, come to the conclusion that 
when a certain sum of money is laid on the table 
with the understanding that the wiimer shall take 
it, the transaction is legally valid: but that games 
which aie played on credit are asmakta, and the 
stake is not recoverable by law. 

IVIaimonides, in his commentary on the Mishnah, 

speaks of the immoralit}' of the above-named games 

as follows: "He who indulges in this 

Mai- game spends his time iu things which 

monides' do not contribute to the well-being of 

'Views. his fellow-man; and it is one of the 
principles of our rcligiim that mtin 
ought to occupy himself iu this world either with 
the study of the Torah, iu order to perfect his soul 
in the wisdom of the Torah, or iu some useftil work 
or handicraft or trade; but so that he finds sonic 
time for the study of the La w. " In the same sense In- 
speaks, in his Yad ha-Hazakah, Gezelah wc-Abed;ili. 
vi. 11: "Oin- sages declare many things as forbidden 
because they involve robbery; viz., playing at dice, 
and the like, and even where the term ' robbery ' 
does not ap])ly, it is forbidden as a useless occujia- 
tion " (" 'osek bi-debarim beteliin "). There are some 
authorities who consider a game at dice less serious, 
and allow it as harmless (compare Shulhan 'Aruk, 
Hosheu Mishpat, 207, 13, note). 

Bibliography: Besides the authorities quoted in the article, 
Maiaumides, Yad litt-Hazakiih^ 'K(/i/t. xi. 4 ; SlntUuin ^Anik, 
Hotihen Mifthual^ ;34, iti; PhJuul i'izhali, s.v. N."^icON. 
j. SR. ■ " ' M. F. 

BETURIA, PAULINA: Roman proselyte to 

.Tudaism (about the year 50), known under the uann 
"Sarah," who, according to her Latin epitaph, w:i- 
cighty-six years and six months old at the time ot 
her death. For sixteen years she was a Jewess, a 
mother of the synagogues ("mater synagogarum ") 
of the Campesian anil Volunmian communities in 
Rome. A jirosclyte variously mentioned in Talnuidic 
sources as Beluryah, Berurvah, Beliirit. and Beruzia, 
who was learned in the Jewish law, and who in- 
duced her slaves to become proselytes (Mek., Bo. 15: 
R. H, 1Tb; Yeb. 46a; Geriin ii. 4). is perhaps iden- 
tical with Beturia. 

Bibliography: Gratz, Oescli. ilrr Jinten, 'M ed., iv. 102; Vo- 
gelstein and Rieger, Gcsch. derjmien iu /^>»^, i. 74, 
G. S. Kr. 


French statesman and si-liohir; born at Bar-siir- 
Aube :March, 1797; died at Paris March 15, 1865 
Originally he adopted the profession of advocate, 
but soon abandoned it in order to devote himself en 
tirely to the study of history, and especially the his 
tory of the Crusades. He was scarcely thirty-five 



Bevis Marks 

years old when he was elected member of tlie Aca- 
demie des Inscriptions et Bclles-Lt'ttres. 

Among many vahiable works he wrote, "Les 
Juifs d'Oceident, ou Rechcrciies sur I'fitat Civil, le 
Commerce, et la Litterature des Juifs en France, en 
Espagne, et en Italie Pendant la Duree du Moyen- 
Age," Paris, 1824. This essaj' is not free from errors 
such as are common to those that obtain their infor- 
mation from secondary sources. In the preface, 
in which he passes in review the period of the strug- 
gles of the Jews with the Romans, and the state of 
the Jews exiled unc er the Roman emperors, Beu- 
gnot betrays .scant knowledge of ancient Jewish his- 
tory. Thus he asserts, contrary to the most au- 
thentic documents, that Julian the Apostate never 
granted to the Jews permission for the rebuilding of 
the Temple. Nevertheless, the work contains much 
information on the history of the Jews of France, 
Spain, and Ital}', which has proved valuable to later 
histoi-ians. The author, who was a Catholic, does 
not attemj)! to extenuate the horrors of the persecu- 
tion of the Jews in the Middle Ages. 

BIBI.IOORAPHY: H. Wallon, Ehigex Aidih'iiiiqucs, Paris, 1882, 
i. 1-58; Darn, Lc Onntf Bf'uiimit, in the Correvpiindant, 
April, 1.S0.5 ; La Grande Enctji'liipalii, s.v. 

s. I. Br. 

BEUTHEN : City of Prussian Silesia. No pre- 
cise information is forthcoming as to when Jews 
first settled in 
the city. The 
mention of 
Beuthen in the 
buch (year 1331) 
is uncertain ; 
but it is known 
that Jews lived 
tliFie as early as 
1421. The first 
evidence rela- 
ting to the Jews 
from the year 
1613. In 1617 
there was one 
Jew there, 
Mauth Areuda- 
tor by name ; 
and in 1639 two 
more Jews were 
admitted to 

residence. In 1640 a Jew named Kretscham re- 
eeivcil from Count Gabriel Hentzel the privilege of 
estahlisliing an inn, and in 1653 another received the 
right to sell li(juor. In 1656 a court Jew resided 
here; anil in the following year an investigation as 
to the nmnber of Jews was made for the of 
increasing the taxes. The of Mcnahem 
Krochmai in 1657 mention the rabbinate of Beuthen. 
The Jews were often ill-treated aud sought protec- 
tion from the count, who, in 1688, wrote in their 
behalf to the city authorities. 

In 1715 there were only four families in Beuthen; 
in 1733 the Jews received a plot for a cemetery, the 
oldest tombstiine still in existence dating from the 

year 1743. The number of families had in 1782 
increased to twenty-three; and in the same year the 
tirst prayer-meetings were held in the house of the 
Boehm family. These were followed by the first 
synagogue in 1809; the second being inaugurated 
in 1869, when also the first reader and shohet were 

In 1808 a Jew had been elected member of the 
conunon council. The community, which in 1811 
consisted of 255 persons, had increased in 1855 
to 1,110, in 1885 to 3,390, and in 1901 to 3,036 

The first rabbi, Moses Israel Freund, omciated 
from 1790 to 1813; the second, Mendel Cohen, until 
1829; the third, Israel Deutsch, author of several 
writings, until 1853; the fourth, Jacob Ezekiel 
Levy, until 1864; while the fifth, Ferdinand Ro.sen- 
thal, served from 1867 to 1887, being succeeded in 
1889 by M. Kopfstein. 

BIBLIOORAPHV : Kopfstein, Gesch. cler Swmgngen-Qemeimle 
in Baillien, Beutlieu, 1891; Salfeld. MarUirologium iks 
NUrnhei!iirMiinorbuehei<,p.ilW; Brann, Gescli.dtrjjidcn 

in Sclilrsini. i. 37. 

« A. F. 

See Peuiodic- 


Interior of the Bevis Marks Synagogue, London. 

(After a plioti'grajih,) 

cially as the Synagogue Saar ha-Samayim) : 

The oldest Jew- 
ish house of 
worshi]) in Lou- 
don ; estalilished 
by the Sephar 
die Jews in 1698, 
when Rabbi Da- 
vid Nieto took 
spiritual chargi' 
of the congrega- 
tion. At that 
time the wor- 
shipers met in a 
small s y n a ■ 
gogue in Cree 
Church lane; 
but the consid- 
erable influx of 
Jews made it 
necessary to ob 
tain other and 
com mod ions 
quarters. A<'- 
c o r d i n g 1 y a 
committee was appointed, consisting of Antonio 
Gomes Serra, Menasseh Mendes, Alfonso Hodrigues, 
Manuel Nunez Miranda, Andrea Lojiez, and Ponta- 
leao Rodriguez, It investigated matters for nearly 
a year, and on Feb. 12, 1699, signed a contract with 
Joseph Avis, a Quaker, for the construction of a 
building to cost £2,750 (•?13,335). On June 34 of 
the same year, the committee leased from Lady Ann 
Pointz (alias Littleton) and Sir Thomas Pointz (alias 
Littleton) a tract of land at Plough Yard, in Bevis 
Marks, for sixtj'-one years, with the oj)tion of re- 
newal for another thirty-eight years, at £120 a year. 
Avis begau building at once, incorporating in the 
roof a beam from a royal ship presented by Queen 




Anne herself. The structure was completed and 
dedicated in 1702, and, with the exception of the 
roof, which was destroyed by fire in 1738, and re- 
paired in 1749, is today as it was 200 years ago. In 
the interior decorations and arrangement the influ- 
ence of the great Amsterdam synagogue of 1677 
is apparent. In 1747 Benjamin Mendes da Costa 
bousht the lease of the ground on which the build- 
ing "stood, and preseuteil it to the congregation, 
vesting the deeds in the names of a committee con- 
sisting of Gabriel Lopez de Britto, David Aboab 
Ozorio, Moses Gomes Sena. David Franco, Joseph 
Jessuruu Rodriguez, and Moses Mendes da Costa. 

The Bevis Marks Synagogue was for more than a 
century the religious center of the Anglo-Jewish 
world, and served as a clearing-house for congrega- 
tional and individual tmuldes all the world over; 
e.g.. theajipeal of the Jamaican Jews for a reduction 
in ta.xatiou (1736); the internecine quarrel among 
the Barbados Jews (1753); and the aiding of seven 
year-old IMoses de Paz, who escaped from Gibraltar 
in 1777 to avoid an enforced conversion. 

The synagogue formed the center of the Sephardic 
community of London till the foundation of the 
Bryanstone Street Synagogue, in 1866. after which 
the attendance at the functions declined so much 
that in 1886 the "yehidim " contemplated selling the 
ground and the building ; but a Bevis Marks Anti- 
Demolition League was founded, under the aus- 
pices of H. Guedallaand A. H. Newman, and the pro 
jjosed demolition was given u|i. The synagogue held 
its bicentenary celebration with great pomj) in 1901. 

BiBLiocEAPHT : Picciotto. SJictchcsnf Aiwhi-Jewish Hixtnrir. 
A. H. Xtwraan. A Cliiiiitfr of Anqhi-JcicixJi Hi.i(i>rM. 18^; 
Jacobs and Wolf, BiliUatlicm Amihi-Judaica, No. 780. p. 
lit) : No. 1:j32, p. 155: Jew. Chran. May 31 and June 7, 1901 : 
Gaster, Hi^storu itf the Anvietit Synag'Hjnc of the Spanish 
aud Jcir.s, 1901. 
J. E. Ms.— J. 

BEZAH ("Egg "): Name of a Talmudic treatise 
of Seder Mo"ed, the second of the six " sedarim " or 
oi'ders of the Talmud. Its place in the Seder is not 
fixed. In the Babylonian Talmud it occupies the 
fourth place and follows immediately after Pesa- 
him. This arrangement coincides with that of the 
Pentateuch, where the law concerning the hol3-daj'S 
is directly connected with the descrijjtion of Pass- 
over (Ex. xii. 16). 

In the Jlishnali and Talmud Yerushalmi another 
method is followed, and the treatise occupies the 
seventh and the eighth place respectively. The 
name " Bezah " has its origin in the fact that the 
treatise begins with this word; a solitary instance 
among the treatises of the Talmud, it has a parallel 
in the name " Eykah " for Lamentations, in the He- 
brew names of the five books of the Pentateuch, 
and in the names of the chapters of each treatise of 
the Talmud. Instead of " Bezah " the treatise is fre- 
quently called "Yom-Tob" (Holy Day), in accord- 
ance with its contents. Tlie general 
Frequently rule laid down in the Bible in the 

Called words ■' No servile work shall be done 

"Tom- in them, save that which every man 

Tob." must eat, that alone may be done of 

you" (Ex. I.e.), is assumed as clear 

and known ; and this rule was held to constitute the 

difference between "all servile work" (naxiiO ^2 

rni3y'. prohibited on holy days, and "all manner of 
work" inDxi'D^ai. prohibited on the Sabbath. But 
certain problems resulting from these principles had 
to be solved: and these are discussed in the five 
chapters of this treatise. 

Chapter i. : The main theme of this chapter is the 
law of "mukzeh," "a thing laid aside" so as not l'^ 
be used for the present. The opposite of mukzeh i- 
"mukan," "a thing kept ready " for use. This dis- 
tinction is based on the divine command (Ex. xvi. 
5), "And they shall keep ready [U'^Hl] what they 
bring in " — in reference to the manna, which had to 
be kept ready for the Sabbath from the sixth day. 
Traditional interpretation generalized the idea ex- 
pressed in this commandment as follows: A thing 
which before the commencement of the Sabbath or 
holy day was not intended for use on these days is 
mukzeh, and must not be used or handled on these 
days. There are various degrees of mukzeh; e.g., 
"mukzeh mehamat issur" — mukzeh on account of 
some forbidden act which its use would necessitate; 
"nolad" (born), that which has not existed on the 
eve of the Sabbath or ha\y day, and is therefore 
mukzeh. There is a difference of opinion between 
the schools of Shammai and Hillel as to the force of 
the above law of mukzeh. The preparation of food 
liermitled on holy days sometimes necessitates the 
carrying of things out of the house, or fetching of 
things from outside into the house — an act forbidden 
on the Sabbath, under the title of "hozaah" (taking 
out) (Mishnah Sliab. vii. 2), as "taking out," one of 
the thirty-nine kinds of work included in the precept 
"Thou slialt do no manner of work." The applica- 
tion of this prohibition to holy days forms a point of 
difference between the aforenamed schools. 

Chapter ii. : The permission to prepare food on 
holy days is restricted to food required for those 
da_vs ; but if a holj- day is closely followed by the 
Sabbath, the food for the Sabbath may be prepared 
on that holy day, provided such preparation lias 
commenced on the eve of the festival. This first in- 
stalment of the preparation for the Sabbath on the 
eve of a holy day is called "'erub ta1)shilin," "the 
link that unites the cooking " for the Sabbath on the 
eve of the holy da)- with that done on the holy day, 
and causes the latter to be permitted. The ne.\t 
point discussed in the chapter is the question 
whether things other than the preparing of food, if 
required for the celebration of the festival, or for the 
well-being of man — such as slaying certain sacrificial 
animals, or warming water for a foot-bath — may be 
done on a holy day. 

Chapters iii.. iv. : The permission to prepare on a 
holy day the food wanted for the da.y does not in- 
clude hunting, fishing, or the purchase or fitting of 
implements required for the preparation of food {e.g. , 
whetting the slaughtering-knife, burning charcoal, 

Chapter v. : On certain acts which are prohibited, 
not as "servile work," but as a preventive ("geze 
rah") against breaking any of the divine laws cou- 
{■eruing the holy day. Such ijrohibitions are termed 
" shebut " (abstention from doing), commanded by 
the Talmudic sages. 

The Tosefta calls the treatise "Yom-Tob," and 
has four chapters, contracting chapters ii. and iii. 




into one. The treatise occupies the place between 
Sukkah and Rosh ha-Shanah, as in tlie Mislinah. The 
Gemai'a, both Palestinian and Babylonian, discusses 
the laws contained in the Mishnah with but a few 
short digressions, such as those in Bab. 4b; remarks 
on Yom-Tob Shcni, or the second da3-s of festivals; 
(t'A. lob) Rabbi Eliezer's censure on those who left 
before his lecture was concluded ; (16a) how Sliam 
niai and Hillel, each in his own way, showed their 
gratitude to God for the enjoyment of good food ; 
(dob) on good manners in taking food ; and otiiers. 

Of special commentaries on the treatise of Bezah 
the following two are noteworthy: "Shittah Me- 
kvibbezet," by Rabbi Bezalel A.shkenazi, and the 
commentary of Rablji Menahem Mei'ri. 

Bibliography : Z. Frankel, Hmhifietica in Mishnam. Leipsic, 
IStiT ; Wallerstein, Lrtter nf Hnlilnnw Sherira, Krotoschin, 
18H1 ; Hiililiixlie lin-Hnli llll-^[,i)■i on Bezah, Berlin, IH.W ; 
AshkfiKizi, Sliittiih Mihiilihizi i,s]ifcm\ ed'. on iitjii/i, lluda- 
pest, is;;il: Malii'ioniiles, ^ri.■<iln^ll Torah, iii.; iiriiiiiiiiin, 
Hilknt l'<jm-Tiih; Slndhan 'Aruk. Omh Hayjiim, Wo-.WT. 
J. SI!, ■ M. p. 

BEZAI : A family, 324 of whose members re- 
turned witli Zerubbabel (Ezra ii. 17, and the par- 
allel account, Neh. vii. 23). The name also occurs 
in the list of those who signed the covenant with 
Nehemiah, and may tliere be identilied with the 
leader of the clan (Neh. x, 19); who in I Esd. 
V. 16 is called Bassai. It is interesting to note that 
the name "Be.sai" occurs on a clay tablet found at 
Nippur (Ililprecht, "Pal. E.xplor. Fund, Quarterly 
Statement," Jan., 1898, p. 55). 

.1. .TK. G. B. L. 

BEZALEL (A. V., Bezaleel).— Biblical Data: 
In E.\. .\.\xi. 1-6, the chief architect of the Taber- 
nacle. ELsewliere in the Bible the name occurs 
only in the .genealogical lists of the Book of Chron- 
icles, but according to cuneiform inscriptions a vari- 
aut form of the same, "Zil-Bel," was borne by a 
king of Gaza who was a contemporary of Heze- 
kiah and Manasseh. Apparently it means "in the 
shallow [protection] of El." Bezalel is described 
in the genealogical lists as the son of Uri, the son of 
Htu-, of the tribe of Judah (I Chron. ii. 18, 19, 20, 
50). He was said to be highly gifted as a work- 
man, showing great skill and originality in engra- 
ving precious metals and stones and in wood -carving. 
He was also a master-workman, having many ap- 
prentices under him whom he instructed in the arts 
(Ex. XXXV. 30-35). According to the narrative in 
Exodus, he was definitely called and endoweil to di- 
rect the construction of the tent of meeting and its sa- 
cred furniture, and also to pi-epare the priests' gar- 
ments and the oil and incense required for the service. 

J. -in. C. F. K. 

In Kabbinical Literature : The rabbinical 

tradition lelates that when God determined to ap- 
point Bezalel arcliitect of the desert Tabernacle, 
He asked Moses whether the choice were agreeable 
to him, and received the reply : " Lord, if he is ac- 
ceptable to Thee, surely he must be so to me! " At 
God's command, however, the choice was referred 
to the peoijle for approval and was indorsed by 
them. Moses thereupon commanded Bezalel to set 
about making the Tabernacle, the holy Ark, and 
the sacred utensils. It is to be noted, however, that 
Moses mentioned these in somewhat inverted order, 
putting the Tabernacle last (compare Ex. xxv. 10, 

xxvi. 1 et seq., with Ex. xxxi. 1-10). Bezalel sagely 
suggested to him that men usually build the house 
first and afterward provide the furnishings; but 
that, inasmuch as Moses had ordered the Tabernacle 
to be built last, there was probably some mistake and 
God's command must liave run differently. Moses 
was so pleased with this acuteness that he com- 
plimented Bezalel by saying that, true to his name, 
he must have dwelt "in the very shadow of God " 
(Hebr., "bezel El"). Compare also Philo, " Leg. 
Alleg." iii. 31. 

Bezalel possessed such great wisdom that he could 
combine those letters of the alphabet with which 
heaven and earth were created ; this being the mean- 
ing of the .statement (Ex. xxxi. 3): "1 have filled 
him . . . with wisdom and knowledge," which were 
the implements by means of which God created the 
world, as stated in Prov. iii. 19, 20 (Ber. .":.■:.;). By 
virtue of his profound ^^ isdom, Bezalel succeeded 
in erecting a sanctuary which seemed :v fit abiding- 
place for God, who is .so e\idted in time and space 
(Ex. R. xxxiv. 1; Num. P. xii. 3; Jlidr. Teh. xci.). 
The candlestick of the san-tuary was of so compli- 
cated a nature that c^iuld not comiireheud it, 
although God twice showel him a heavenly model; 
but when he described it to Bezalel. the latter un- 
derstood immediately, and made it at once; where- 
upon Moses expressed his Mlniiration for the innck 
wisdom of Bezalel, saying :;gain that he must have 
been "in the shadow of God" (llebr., "bezel El") 
when the heavenly models were shown him (Num. R. 
XV. 10 ; compare Ex. R. 1. 2 ; Ber. I.e.). Bezalel is said 
to have been only thirteen years of age when he 
accomplished his great work (Sanh. 69b); he owed 
his wisdom to the merits of pious parents ; his grand- 
father being Hur and his grandmother Miriam, he 
was thus a grand-nephew of Moses (Ex. R. xlviii. 3, 
4). Compare Ark in Rabbinical Literature. 

L. G. 

BEZALEL : Palestinian amora of the fourth cen- 
tury, who is known in Jlidrashic literature only as the 
author of haggadistic sentences. Two of these have 
been handed down by Berechiah, the well-known 
haggadist and transmitter of haggadistic traditions. 
In Pesik. xxi. 145b (where the name is corrupted, 
but easily recognizable) Bezalel interprets the pecul- 
iar form " kehahallonot " (nUl^nna) (Ezek. xl. 25) by 
saying, " The windows of the Temple were ' kehot ' 
[dull] (nins) ; they were opaque, narrow within, and 
widening toward the exterior, in order to send light 
forth to the world." The second saying reported 
by Berechiah in the name of Bezalel is a simile re- 
ferring to Ex. XXV. 40 (Cant. R. iii. 11; in Pesik. i. 
4b, and in other parallel passages the name is mis- 
written or has dropped out). A third sentence con- 
tains anallegoricexplanation of Ilosea ii. 7 [A. V. 5). 
"Her ' mother ' is theTorah, which, like a harlot, be- 
comes an object of contempt among the ignorant, 
when those who are engaged in its stiuiy make the 
Law contemptible by their conduct." Bezalel .gave 
this explanation in answer to a question which the 
above-mentioned Berechiah asked him (Ruth R. i. 1 
[parashah 1], where the name of Berechiah has been 
omitted by mistake). 

BIBLIOGKAPUV: Bacher, A{l.Pal. Amur. iii. Wa. 
J. SR. 

yv. B. 




Talmuilist ami ralibi al C)ili>, govirument of Grodno, 
at tlif begimiiiig of tiie nini'teculh ceuturj-. He is 
the author of ac-olKctioiiof responsa, which be pub- 
lislied iu 1807 at Byclostok. 
BiBLiOGRAPiiT: Bfiijaciili. nziir ha-Scfarim, p. 555; Zedner. 

Ciil. Hihr. D"i'l,f lliili-'li .i/ii.Miim, p. 95. 

I,, u. I. Bki!. 

KIEV : Polish Talmuilist of the secoud half of the 
eighteeuth ceutuiy. He wrote a commentary to the 
sayings of the fathers (Frankfort-on-the-Oder, 1781), 
entitled "Bezalel."' 

Bibliography: Zedner. Cat. Hcbr. Books British Museum, 
p. 95; Benjacob. f^znr /tn-.NV/arini, p. t>8. 
I.. <; I. Beh. 


mudist; born at Wilna. Russia, .Jan. 14, 18'^0, where 
he died April 13. 1878. He was a competent Tal- 
inudist at the age of eighteen, and felt himself qual- 
ified to criticize the "^lishkenot Ya'akob" of Jacob 
b. Aaron of Karlin, one of the chief Talmudisls of 
the time, in a letter addressed to him. In 1840 
Bezalel became ecclesiastical assistant in Wilna. 
and held the position until his death. Although the 
title was a subordinate one. Bezalel was in reality-^ 
at least from 1860 to 1878 — the sjiiritual head of the 
large comuuinity at Wilna. Jloreover, he not only 
cared for this community, but answered religious 
questions directed to him fnmi far and near. Con- 
sequently many of BezaUl's answers to the ques- 
tions, which were theoretical as well as jiructical in 
their bearing, are to be found in the responsa litera- 
ture of the time. Eipially numerous were Bezalel's 
contributi(nis to the works of others, especially those 
printed iu Wilna. His independent work, longer 
than the others, is " Reshit Bikkurim " (Firstlings), 
Wilna, 1869, respon.sji and treatises on Talmudic 
topics. The Ronim edition of the Talmud contains 
marginal glo.sses on many of Bezalel's treatises. 

Bezalel dilTered from his more narrow-minded col- 
leagues in showing an inclination for secular sciences. 
He had. also, a tine historical and critical feeling for 
rabbinical literature, and s.>me of liis historical and 
critical notes possess considerable value. His wide 
reading in modern Talmudic literature is remarkable, 
even if conditions in Russia be taken into account, 
religious study there being limited almost entirely 
to the Talmud. Bezalel's extraordinary modesty 
and active goodness are still freiiucutly praised. 
Bjbi.iosraphv: Kuenn. Knicxil Yisnul. p. 10(1. 

L. G 


Preacher at Slutzk, government of Minsk. Russia: 
later at Boskowiiz. Moravia: died before 1659. He 
was the author of the following works: (1) " 'Amu- 
deah Shib'ah " (Her Columns Are Seven), containing 
homilies on the Bible: divided into seven part.s, each 
of which bears the title of a Bil)lical e.\pies.siou con- 
nected with the name of Abraham, Lsaac. Jacob, 
Moses, Aaron, David, or Solomon (Lublin, 1666). 
This work was iMiblished by the order of the 
Council of the Four Lands and of the Lithuanian 
Rabbinical Assembly, held at Lublin in 1666. (2) 
"Korban Shabbat " (Sacrifice of Sabbath), on some 
ritual laws and religious customs concerning Sab- 

bath ; divided into thirty-nine chapters (Dyhernfurth, 
1691). (3) •• Pelah ha Rimmon " (The Piece of the 
Pomegranate), containing twenty explanations of 
the forty -nine which bad been wiitten by Bezalel on 
a difficult ilidrashic passage (Amsterdam, 1659). (4) 
"Habazelet ha-Sharon " ( of Sharon), com- 
mentary on Psjilm cxix., mentioned in the introduc- 
tion to the preceding work. ('>) "Zayit Ra'anau " 
(Green Olive-Tree), homilies on the Pentateuch. (6) 
■■ Einek ha Baka " (Vale of Tears), commeiitory on 
Lamentations. The last two works are still extant 
iu manuscript. 

Bibliography : Azulai, Slum ha-GeiinUiiu i. 19, il. lis ; Fuenn. 
K" l'i.s/'0(:^ p. 191: Micbael, Or ha-Hauffini, No. iii;t; 

Steinsehneider, Cat. Botll. col. 799; Zed'ner, Cat. H*ln'. 
B(ii>hs Brit. Muf. p. 95; S. Dubnov, in To.vA(e«/, lt<96, vji. i. 

H. R. 1. Bll. 

BEZEE: 1. The scene of battle between the 
tribes of Judali and Simeon, and the Canaanites and 
Perizzites (Judges i. 4-6). 2. Place where Saul col- 
lected his forces for the fight against the Ammonites 
(I Sam. .\i. 8). Identified with the modern KhirlKt 
Ibzig, 14 miles southwest of Beisan (Moore, com- 
mentary to Judges i. 5). 

•T. jr! " G. B. L. 

BEZER: A city of refuge in the territory of 
Reuben (Deut. iv. 43: Josh. xx. 8). It was also 
one of the cities allotted the Levites by the tribe of 
Reuben (Josh. xxi. 36, Septuagint; I Cbion. vi. 63 
[A. Y. 78]). In theilesha inscription it is a Moabite 
city, probably the same as the Bozrabof Moab men- 
tioned in Jer. xlviii. 24. Bezer has not yet been 
identified with any of the cities whose ruins are 
found in the plateau of Moab. It must be distin- 
guished from Boson or BosoR.\. 

.T. ,11!. F. Br. 

BEZETHA : According to Josepbus. the name 
of a hill north of the Temple-mound, and separated 
from the latter by a valley. After the erection of 
the third wall it became part of tbe city of Jerusa- 
lem. Josephus ("B. J." ii. 15, § 5; ii. 19, § 4; v. 4, 
§ 3; V. 5, § 8) gives the meaning of the name 
as "New City," according to which "Bezetba" is a 
strange transcription of Nmn n'3- A more correct 
rendering is "house of olives" (Nn'T D'Q) It is not 
certain whether this place is identical with "Bezetli" 
in I Mace. vii. 19, where Baccbides pitched bis tents 
after leaving Jerusiilem. In " Ant." xii. 10, § 2 it is 
called Mr/nZr/Hu (variant reading, i7jti^i/6u), and is re- 
ferred to as a village. 

J. JU. F. Br. 

BEZIEBS (tomieriy Bediers, Beders, Besers, 
ami Bezares ; Hcbr.. L"l~n3. L'""n2. ^'ina. Cm"!. 
L""L"a. L""l:"3. L'-'NTa, w"iai. fna. t;nn3): Town of 
France iu the department of Herault. The date of 
the settlement of the Jews in Beziers is lost in antiq- 
uity. Two letters of Sidonius Apolonarius and the 
canons of tbe council held at Agde in .506 establish 
the existence at that time of numerous and prosper- 
ous Jewish communities in the province of Langue- 

doc (Yaissete. i. 243; Sidonius Apolo- 
Earliest narius. iii.. epistle4:iv., epistle5). The 
Mention. Jews of Beziers did not escape the fate 

of the other .Jewish communities in 
this province, which had to endure the most violent 
persecutions during tbe reign of the Visigoths. After 




the defeat of the Saracens bj' Charles Martel in 732, 
the condition of tlie Jews of Beziers, as that of those 
of otlier towns, became more favoi-aljle; and this 
state lasted during the reign of the Carlovingians. 
In the eleventh century the Jews of Beziers were 
affected by the persecutions that broke out in west- 
ern France, 

But the Jews of Beziers were fortunate in com- 
parison with those of other towns. The viscounts 
cherished the must kindly feelings for them, and the 
greater part of the Christian inhabitants, being Albi- 
genses, lived on friendly terms witli 
Albigenses. their Jewish fellow-citizens. Even the 
restrictions gradually disappeared and 
were transformed into ta.\es imposed for the bene- 
fit of the princes or of the bishops, which they 
had to pay in addition to the poll-tax common to all 
the inhabitants. Thus, through the intervention of 
the viscount Raymond Trencaval, the bishop Guil- 
launie abolished, in 1160, the custom of throwing 
stones at the Jews during Holy Week, and substi- 
tuted a yearly payment of two hundred melgoriau 
sousancl a yearly tax of four livres of the same coin- 
age. The good-will of the viscounts of Beziers dis- 
played itself far beyond mere toleration; they even 
entrusted the Jews with important public offices. 
The Jews, on their side, were attached by bonds of 
gratitude to the viscounts and did not participate in 
the plot whicli, in 1167, brought about the assas- 
sination of Raymond Trencaval. They were there- 
fore excluded fi-om the massacre of the inhabit- 
ants that Roger II., with the help of his Aragoniau 
allies, perpetrated in order to avenge this crime. 

Roger II. gave the Jews numerous tokens of 
his confidence and favor. He took the notables 
among them under his personal protection. Thus in 
1172 lie interceded in behalf id' the Talmudist Abra- 
ham ben David (RABaD), and, having taken him 
from the prison into which the lord of Posquieres 
had thrown him, granted him shelter in Carcas- 
sonne. The functions of bailiff, under his govern- 
ment, were often entrusted to Jews. A Jew called 
Nathan figures with the title of bailiff as a witness 
to a deed of Roger II. Raymond Roger, the suc- 
cessor of Roger II., followed the example given by 
his father and assigned for his Jewish bailiffs a dis- 
tinguished rank among the barons of his court. A 
Jew of Beziers, called Samuel, figures, together with 
th(' barons, on a deed by which Raymond Roger 
granted the bishop many rights. 

The prospects of the Jews of Beziers darkened in 

the thirteenth century. In the bloody crusade that 

the pope undertook against the Albi- 

In the genses, the Jews had their shai-e of 

Thirteenth suffering. The ambitious Count Simon 

Century, de ilontfort marched against Ray- 
mond Roger, wlio was doubly hated 
by the pope for his secret friendship with the Albi- 
genses and his protection of the Jews, On July 22, 
1209, Beziers was stormed and the inliabitants mas- 
SJtcrcd. Two liundred Jews lost tlieir lives in this 
ma.s.sacre, and a large number were driven into cap- 
tivity. In eonse(juence of the victory over Ray- 
mond Roger, the Church acquired a supremacy which 
it often used to molest the Jews. The council of 
Avignon (1209) and the Lateran council (1215) liad 

prescribed various restrictions upon the Jews; and 
the council held at Beziers in 1246 prohibited tliem 
from practising medicine. But these restrictive meas 
ures were not always carried out, and the Jews of 
Beziers could evade them more easily than those of 
other towns, since the Christian inhabitants of Beziers 
were more accustomed to tolerance; l)ut as that eva- 
sion recpiired heavj- pecuniary sacrifices, this for- 
merly flourishing coinnumity became gradually im- 
poverished, and Philip le Bel in banishing them, 
Sept., 1366, in order to get hold of their properly, 
must have been disappointed. 

Beziers was a focus of Jewish learning. Abra- 
ham ibu Ezra visited it, and about 115.) wrote there 

his work, "Sefer lia-Shem " (Book of 

Jewish the Name), in which he mentions the 

Scholars, names of the scholars Abraham ben 

Hay^'im and Isaac ben Judah. to the 
latter of whom he gives the title "Prince." Ben- 
jamin of Tudela, who visited Beziers in 1 165, praises 
the scholars Solomon Halafta and .loseph Nathan. 
The Talmudist MeshuUam t)en, the author of 
"Sefer iia-IIashlauiah" (Book of Completeness), lived 
in Beziers in the first half of the thirteenth century. 
In a responsum drawn up at Beziers, Solomon ben 
Asher and Joseph ben Gerton are mentioned as col- 
leagues of Meshullam. Solonum ben Joseph ilm 
Ayub settled at Beziers at the request of several 
notables of the town, and translated from Arabic 
into Hebrew many philosophical works. The caba- 
list Jacob Cohen of Segovia stayed at Beziers at tlie 
end of the thirteenth century. Poetry was re])rc- 
sented therein the persons of Abraham ben Bkdeksi, 
who derived his name from the t<iwn, his son Jedaiah, 
D(m Astruc Eleazar Azobi, an<l Meshullam Azobi. 

Bibliocraphy: Vaisst'te, Hint. <!en. ilc Lnnguedni-, i. 274, 
3M. 3B(i, r>ii ; li. ].".), 418 ; iii. 119, Paris, ir;*l-174.i ; Salge, Leu 
Juifs (Jii Laiiiluediic, pp. T7 t'( w;. ; Gralz, (Jcuvli. <kr 
J«<(6H, vl. 17.1, an, vli. 9, 37,48: Ilm Verjra. SItelief I'f/iii- 
ilah, ed. Hauuvsr. p. 112; Gross, GuUia Jmliiiva. pp. 96-1115, 

G, I, Br, 


Israel soldier; born near Bombay, India, about 1790. 
He entered the Fourth Bombay Kegimeut on Fel>. 
2, 1811. In 1813 he served with the Poona Brigade 
under Colonel Cooke, and in 1814 was engaged in 
Katyawar and on the banks of the Ruim against the 
Waghurs; in 1815 in Guzerat. at Bhuj, in Katyawar 
and Ookamundul; was present at the ca|iture of the 
forts of Anjor, Kunkote, Dhingkee, and Joonkee; in 
1816 was at Janmuggur and Dwarka, and at the 
taking of Deesa. Palampur. Veenmipur. and Kur- 
runjah; in 1817-18 ,served in the whole of the cam- 
paign in Malwain pursuit of Holkar. and in 1819 was 
at the ca))ture of the forts of Newtee and Raree in 
the southern Konkan. %rom 1821 to 1827 he was 
employed on various field services in Guzenit, at the 
taking of the fort Limbuj, and at Dongerpur, and 
subsequently in the southern Konkan on several 

Bhorupkar was promoted to the rank of a jemi- 
dar Jan. 9, 1828, and to that of subedar on Dec. 2«. 
1833; was appointed subedar-major on Jan, 1, 1839; 
was admitted to the S<'Cond Class Order of British 
India, with the title of bahadur, on March 24, 1841 ; 
and retired from service Feb, 3, 1847. 

J. J Hv. 




BIACH, ALOIS : Austrian pbysiciau ami med- 
ical writor; Iidiii iu Lettowitz, Moravia, Austria, May 
1, 1849. Ill- was cducatt'd at tlio gymnasium at 
Briinn and at tln' University of Vienna. After grad- 
uating as il.D. in 1873, be estal)lislied himself iu 
Vienna, where lie was a|ipointed a member of the 
board of health. Iu 1883 he became privat-doceut 
of medicine (Iiinere Mediein) at the university in 
that city. Biach has occupied the position of secre- 
tary to the .society of physicians of Lower Austria. 

Iu addition to his work on "Die Neuereu Autipy- 
retica." Vienna, 1889, he is the author of many es- 
says, of which the following may be mentioned: 
" Leber Aucurysmen an den Herzklappen," iu 
'• Jahrbiicher der Gesellscbaft der Aerztc in "Wieu," 
1878; "L'eber Jaboraudi und Seine Alkaloide," in 
'■Jlittheilungen des Vereins der Aerzte in Nieder- 
Osterreicli." 1879; "Versuche fiber die Pliysiolo- 
gisclie Wirkung des Cliiuolins," iu Vircbow's " Ar- 
cbiv flir Patbologische Auatomie und Physiologic 
und fiir KlinisclieMediziu," 1881 ; " Cirrhosis Hepatis 
mit Wandstilndiger Thrombose der Vena Portrc uud 
Vena Me.seraica Sujierior." iu " Mittheiluugen des 
Vereins der Aerzte iu Jsiederosterreich,'' 1884; "Eut- 
wicklung vou Krebs des Mageus auf der Basis eines 
Ruudeu Jlagengescbwiirs," in " Wiener Medizinis'che 
Presse," 1890. 

s. F. T. H. 

BIAL, KTTDOLF: Violinist, conductor, com- 
poser, and manager; born at Habelschwerdt, Silesia, 
Aug. 26, 1834; died at New York Nov. 13, 1881. 
He began his career as a violinist iu an orchestra at 
Breslau, and then made a tour of Australia and 
Africa with his brother Karl, a piauistof distinction. 
On his return to German}-, Bial settled iu Berlin, 
where he successive!}' became orchestral director at 
Kroll's Theater; the Wallner Theater (1864), where 
many of his operettas, etc., were given; of KroU's 
Opera House, where, for several years, the most 
distinguished artists of Europe sang under his man- 
agement. Later, Bial was a concert agent iu New 

Bial was a prolific composer of operettas, farces, 
orchestral pieces, and dances; and several of his 
compositions enjoyed considerable popularity. 

Bibliography: Baker. Biographical Diet, nf Musicians, 
S.V.: Adolph Kobut, BerUhmte Isi-aelitische Miinner mid 
Fraucii, 1. 76. 
S. J. So. 

BIALA. See Russr.\. 

TALI HERZ '(called Harif, "the keen"): Rabbi 
and Talmudist ; born about 1670 at Lemberg, Gali- 
cia; died Sept. 25, 1748, at Halberstadt, Prussia. 
He conducted a Talmudic high school in his uati\'e 
city until 1718. when he received a call as chief rabbi 
to the rich conimunity at Halberstadt. His human- 
ity, gentleness, and unselfishness won him the love 
and admiration of the people as well as of his col- 
leagues ; and he became known as a Talmudic au- 
thority throughout Germany. Bialeh was particu- 
larly fond of teaching, and when he left Lemberg 
to go to Halberstadt eighteen of his pupils went 
with him. His attitude toward them was that of a 
brother; and he possessed a certain tolerance for 
the secular sciences, the study of which was then 

beginning to make headway among the young Jew8 
of Germany. Among his numerous pupils were 
Elhanau Ashkeuazi, Isaiah Berlin, and Meir Barbi. 

Bialeh was restrained by modesty from publishing 
any works; but he left several manuscripts, which 
are iu the possession of some private persons in 
Halberstadt ; and some of his approbations appeared 
in the works of his pujiils and colleagues. Both in 
his wiitings and oralh' he denounced the prevalent 
exaggeration of the pilpulistic method; as, for in - 
stance, iuhisapjirobationto Jehiel Michael's "Nezer 
ha-Kodesh." Iu general he seems to have followed 
the logical method, and to have preferred the simple 
interpretation of tiie Talmud (see his responsum iu 
Samuel ben Elkauah's "Mekom Shemuel," No. 5). 

His sous were: Solomon Dob Berush, rabbi at 
Glogau; Naphtali Herz, ralibi at Dubuo; Abra- 
ham, rabbi at Rawitscli; Samuel, assistant rabbi 
at Halberstadt; and Simhah, rabbi at Dessau. 

Bibliography: Auerbaoh, Gcsr/i. der Jlidischcn Gemciudc 
Halberstadt. pp. m-76, Halberstiidt, 1866; Walden, She in 
ha-Gedolim hc-Hadash, p. 37; Eleazar ba-KoheQ, ^inat 
Soferim, fol. 73, Lemberg, 1893. 
I.. G. I. BeR. 

MANN FRIEDRICH : Jewish convert to Chris- 
tianity ; born April 9. 1799, at Pattensen, near Han- 
over;" died March 28, 1868. at ^Uilden-on the-AUer. 
Bialloblotzky studied Christian theology and philos- 
ophy, and received the degree of D.D. at the L^ni- 
versity of Gottiugen in 1824, the subject of his 
thesis being " De Legis Mosaicfe Abrogatioue. " He 
wrote several works on Christian theology, and pub- 
lished the following on Jewish subjects: (1) "The 
Chronicles of R. Joseph beu Joshua Mei'r, the Seph- 
ardi," a translation of Joseph ha-Kohen's " Dibre 
Hayamim." published by the Oriental Translation 
Fund, iu two volumes, London, 1834-36; (2) "Ozar 
ha-Shorashim, Le.xicon Radicum Hebraicarum," in 
Hebrew and Latin, Loudon, 1843; (3) "Sefer ha- 
Shorashim," a lexicon of the Hebrew roots, in He- 
brew and Euglish, ib. 

Bibliography: Winer, Handlmch der Thenloiiischcn Lt- 
teratur, i. 499; McCllntock and Strong, Citcl<wa:dia, XI. Suj>- 
plement, p. 484; Zedner, Cat. Hebr. Boofr.s Brit. AfM.**. p. 
9.5; idem, Auswahl Hi.^toj-ischer StUclic aus HebrUiscJien 
Schrift.'itellcni, p. 55, note ; Fiirst, Bihl. Jud. i. 11.5. 

J. I. Br. 



(Bibaz and Bibas-Vivas are corruptions of th? 
name): Spanish religious philosopher and preacher; 
born at Saragossa ; resided in 1446 at Huesca, and 
was still living in 1489. At the court of John II. of 
Aragon, he was, as he himself relates, engaged in 
controversy when only a young man with "a re- 
nowned Christian sage " on the dogma of the Trin- 
ity. Like Joseph beu Sliem-Tob, his older country- 
man, he was familiar not merely with the euti:e 
Arabo-Judean philosophj'. but also with Christi:'-u 
theology as presented in Latin. He studied tlie 
latter so as to be able to defend the Jewish faith 
in a scholarly manner. Bibago was not "a mere 
preacher who wrote philosophical homilies," as 
Griitz saysC'Gesch. der Juden," viii. 227), nor "an 
opponent of philosophy," as Renan represents him 




to be in his " AverroSs et rAverroVsme" (3ded., p. 
19S), but a rational believer censuring in unsparing 
language those zealots that "cling only to the shell 
but reject the kernel, and pose as pious while vilify- 
ing a thinker such as JIaimonides. " 

The writings of Bibago include: (1) "Derek Emu- 
nah" (The Path of Faith), his chief work, written 
toward the close of his life, and printed in 1521 at 
Constantinople. Like all his writings, it has, ac- 
cording to Steinschneider, not received the full rec- 
ognition it deserves. It is, as the title suggests, a 
presentation and, at the same time, a 
His defense of the Jewish religion as lead- 

Defense of ing man to the highest knowledge of 
Judaism. God and to eternal happiness. It is 
divided into three treatises, which are 
sulidivided into divisions or parts (called "gates") 
and chapters. The first treatise deals with : (gate 
1) the doings of God; (gate 3) His knowledge; and 
(gate 3) His providence The second treatise deals 
with: (gate 1) the intellect; (gate 2) its nature 
and object; (gate 3) man's highest object ; (gate 4) 
tlie blending of faith and knowledge — which to])ic 
is but slightly touched; (gate 5) the problem of 
matter and sin ; (gate 6) the question whether Moses 
sinned; and (gate 7) the true faith. The third trea- 
tise deals with: (gate 1) the fundamentals of faith; 
(gale 2) miracles; (gate 3) creation of the world; 
(gate 4) ethics; and (gate 5) the special articles of 
faith. In the fifth part he warmly defends tlie creed 
of Maimouidcs against his antagonists; andhisargu- 
nients -w-ero subsequently literally reprodnced by 
Aliravanel in his " Rosh Amanah." In this work, in 
which many Bil)lical and rabbinical passages are ex- 
plained, he takes cognizance of Christian and Mo- 
hammedan theology. He quotes Greek philosophers 
like Plato, Aristotle, and Pythagoras; also Euclid 
and Ptolemeus, Galen and Themistius, as well as 
Arabic thiidiers like Averroes, Avicenna, Alfarabi, 
and Gazzali, and even the fable-book "Kalila we- 
Dinma. " Of Christian writers he quotes Eusebius; 
and of Jewish writers often not only Maimonides, 
Nahmanides, and other philosophers, but also cab- 
alistic works like the "Bahir," the "Zohar," "Sefer 
Yezirah,"and the "Hekalot." He indorses a saying 
of a sage that "Reason and Religion are the world's 
two luminaries" ; and he strouglj' opposes prayers 
"addressed to angels or to the departed, a practise 
customarj' among the Christians." 

Isaac Arama, Bibago's contemporary, used the 
book freely. Joseph Solomon del Medigo, the well- 
known physician and writer, speaks with warm 
praise of the work, though he comjilains that the 
Cabala had crept into it. But the fact must be taken 
into consideration that, as Steinschneider saj'S, " the 
cabalists at the close of the thirteenth century had 
made philosophy the handmaid of the Cabala, and 
this catised the philosophers on their part to take 
into consideration the writings and the ideas of the 
Cabala that ha<l grown into prominence." It is true 
that Jacob ibn Habib. in his " 'En Ya'akob " at 
the close of Berakot, censures Biliago for putting 
constructions upon the Biblical te.xts that they 
could not bear; nevertheless he praises "the beauty 
of these interpretations, which insinuate themselves 
into our hearts. " 

(3) "Ez Hayyim" (Tree of Life) deals with crea- 
tion, and has for its object the refutation of the 
arguments advanced by Aristotle, Averroes, and 
others in favor of the eternity of the world. The 

author quotes this treatise three times 
Other in the "Derek Enmnah"and gives a 
Works. fair insight into it. (3) A homily on 

Gen. v. 29, "Zeh Yenahamenu," pub- 
lished at Salonica in 1522, treats also of creation and 
the Sabbath; but is not, as is stated by Michael 
(" Or ha-Hayyim "), part of " Ez Hayyim " (see Stein- 
schneider, "Monatsschrift," 1883, p." 9,5). (4) From 
quotations in the "Derek Emunah " it appears that 
Bibago wrote a work under the title of " iMahazeh 
Shaddai," treating of the belief in resurrection. 
(5) A work on sacrifice as means of communion 
with God. (6) A refutation of the objections raised 
liy Nahmanides against Maimonides. (7) "Ma'amar 
'al Ribbui ha-Zurot, " a treatise on "The Plurality of 
Forms, Particularly in Man" — Paris manuscript 
1004, though without his name. (8) Two philo- 
sophical letters to Moses Arondi. (9) A compen- 
dium of tlierapeutics after Galen; besides a number 
of philosophical works in the form of commentaries 
to Averroes. (10) A commentary on Averroes' work 
on logic, "Demonstration" (nsiD), written at Iluesca 
in 144(), exists in manuscript, Vatican and Paris. 
In this work Bibago defends Averroes against Levi 
ben Genson. (11) A commentary on Averroes' 
"Physics," referred to in (12) a commentary on 
Averroes' "Metaphysics" — still extant in manu- 
script at Munich. In the introduction he deplores 
the lack of philosophical research among his core- 
ligionists, who are imable to defend their faith 
against Christian scholars that study philosophy and 
science in their schools; and in view of this defi- 
ciency he undertook the explanation of Aristotelian 

metaphysics, however inucli opposed 

En- it was to the pure and sacred ancestral 

courages faith. This work shows familiarity 

Philo- not onlj' with all Arabic philosophers, 

sopliical but also with Boethius, with the works 

Study. of Duns Scotus and Occam, known to 

him probably through the translation 
of Elijah Habillo, and with Nicholas Bonettus. a 
Spanish monk who lived in 1486. Without origi- 
nality of thought, Bibago nevertheless represents, 
says Steinschneider, " that class of learned and pro- 
ductive writers which Spanish Judaism produced at 
the close of a brilliant epoch. " 

Bibliography : SteinsrhneirtiT, In Mnnatssclirift, ISSi, pp. 
7fl-'.«), 125-H4; Idem, Hi hi: Ci /it'rs. 1893, pp. 89 i( «•((., ItiS 
f( .vri;.; Micliael, dr ha-Hiniuim, No. a'» ; Munk, Pdiliwo- 
lihif utid PhiliiMiphische Si-hriftMeller derJwleii (German by Beer), 1853, pp. 36, 83, 117; Grtttz, Oench. der 
Jiuleu, viii. 319-337. 
K. S. B.-K. 

of which only two numbers appear«d (Munich. 
1821), these being supposed to be edited by Isaac 
Bernays. Its object, as stated in the first announce- 
ment, April 24 (the second bears date of Aug. 12, 
1812 [1821]), was " to exhibit the spirit of the sacred 
books in all their purity and clearness, but without 
any learned verbosity, and to determine the rank 
of these fiery utterances from olden times as well- 
defined expressions of the human soul, aside from 

Bible Canon 



their stiimgly marked jxculiarities aud their value 
as important historieal doiuments. " 

"Der Uibel'sche Orient. " wliose style is dark, 
mystical, ami confused to a degree, carries mythol- 
ogy into the Scriptures: it betrays the influence of 
Sciielling's ([Uaint philosophy. While regarding the 
BibU' and the development of the Jews from a 
world-liistorieal i^oiut of view, its editor comes to 
the conclusion that all religions can manifest them- 
selves only by e.xerting reformatory influences. 
Though looking with coutemiit upon Jlendels- 
sohn and his disciples, tlie author was even more 
in favor of the Keform movement than were the 

"Der Bibel'sche Orient" attracted considerable 
attention upon its first appearance, but was soon 

BiBi.iocR.vniv: Zunz. Zcil^chrift fllr die Wisxciiscliaft rifx 
juiUidhiiiits. pp. ITT-llKi; Griilz. Gtscli. der Juiicii. il. 43>i. 
«. M. K. 


Russian soldier, administrator, and statesman; born 
1T92; died 1870. In 1^37 Bibikov was appointed 
military governor of Kiev, and governor-general of 
Volhynia and Podolia. During the fifteen years of 
his administration of the southwestern provinces, 
he more than ouce resorted to harsh nieasures with 
regard to the Jcavs who were directly or indirectly 
involved in the Polish agitation, for the sup)iression 
of whicli he was responsible. Hence his marked 
animosity, especially toward the Jews of Berdy- 
ehev. which city was at that time one of the centers 
of Polish revolutionary intrigues, aud iu which a 
secret branch of the Polish national bank was es- 
tablished. While attacking, Bibikov nev- 
ertheless manifested on many occasions a spirit of 
consideration for the ediu'ated Jews. It was due 
to his remoust rations with the government of Nich- 
olas I. that several sevei'C restrictive laws were re- 
laxeti iu behalf of the Jews. Such were the meas- 
ures allowing Jewish residents of the government of 
Kiev to visit that city for business purposes; that 
annulling the order of the Jitomir authorities whicli 
prohibited the Jewish blacksmiths in Jitomir from 
following their Irade; tliat permitting the Jews of 
Starokonstantiuov. Zaslav. Ostrog. and Kovno to 
obtain iiassports and gild certificates from the 
local district treasuries instead of procuring them 
from Novogradvolyusk; that granting to Jewish 
merchants of the first gild the right to farm inns 
in crown dominions of the western provinces; aud 
that pernntting the Jews to elect from their own 
number city brokers and notaries public iu places 
wliere the population cousisted of both Jews aud 

Iu 185-> Bibikov was made minister of the interior, 
which post he filled until 1855. It seems that iu 
this capacity he became more than ever imbued with 
the prevailing anti-Jewish spirit of Nicholas' regime. 
In one case, at least, his name is mentioned in con- 
nection with a measiu'e prohibiting the Jews from 
living in certain parts of Jitomir, the restriction 
being promulgated in compliance with Bibikov's 
proposition. His brother. Ilia Gavrilovich Bibikov. 
governor-general of Wilna, was favorably disposed 
toward the Jews, and was interested particularly in 

their educational affairs. The Hebrew poet Abra- 
ham Baer Lehensohn compo.sed a poem, "kol 
Ne'urim." commemorating his visit to the Wilna 
Talmud Torah. which was published in his "Shire 
Sefat Kodesh," ii. 85, Wilna, 1809. 

BuiLioGR.vrnv: Oimplfte Rii.tfiViii Oidf, 2d ed., xviii.. No. 
17.:«.">. x.xi. No. ai.iei. xxiv. No. 23,411(1, xxv. No. 34,677, xxvi. 
No. 2."i..vV.i. .\xix. No. isiiTSI; V, O. Levauda, I'uhiy KhnmiiUi- 
ijhicltishi Shnniil, ZiiliOttov i Pit1tiz}teui KH6iliniiihc}i ikhstia 
Ytenini'. Nos. 4,si. .>tO. tiltB. im, H-'tli. 71.i. St. Petei-slmrK, 
1874; i. «. lirslianski. Rufxkne Zahoii'uhitelMo' o IVri-f- 
!/(i/i)i, p. 193. SI. Petei-slnirg, 1877 : RtisKktnid Stariiui, Aiiril, 
19(11, pp. 119-121; V. Kashpirev, Pamtiidnilii Auciii li'ii.'wfcoi 
Ixtiirii. i. lia-123, St. Petersburg, 1871. 
IT. R. B. B. 

BIBLE CANON: §1. The Greek word naruv. 
meaning primarily a straight rod. and derivatively 
a norm or law. was first ap]ilied by the church 
fathers (not earlier than 360) to the collection of 
Holy Scriptures, and primarily to those of the so- 
called Old Testament (Credner, "Zur Gesch. des 
Canons," pp. 58-68). But although the older Jew- 
ish literature has no such designation for the Bib- 
lical books, aud it is doubtful whelher the word was 

ever included in the rabbinical vocab- 

Meaning' ulary, it is (luite certain that the idea 

and Scope, expressed by the designation "cauon- 

ical writings" (j/Dnoni Kavm'iKai). both 
as inchnling and as excluding certain books, is of 
Jewish origin. The designation "Apocrypha " af- 
fords a i>arallel instance; the word is Greek; the 
conception is Jewish (compare the words "Genii- 
zim. " "Geuizah "). 

The idea of canonicity can only have been sug- 
gested at a period when the national literature had 

progressed far enough to possess a 

Origin of large number of works from which a 

Idea. selection might be made. And the 

need for sudi selection was all the 
more urgent, since the Jewish mind occupied itself 
in producing exclusively writings of religious im- 
port, in which category, however, were also in- 
cluded various historical and didactic works. Which 
writings were included in the recognized collection, 
and in what manner such collection was made, are 
questions belonging to the Iiistory of the canon, and 
are discussed in this article ; the origin and com- 
position of the separate books come under tiie his- 
tory of Biblical literature. 

§ 2. The oldest and most frequent designation tor 
the whole collection of Biblical writings is D'lSD- 

"Books." This word, which in Dan. 

Des- ix. 3 means all the Siicred writings, 

ignations. occurs frequently in the Mishnah. as 

well as in traditional literature, with- 
out closer definition. The expression CHpn '"1£3D 
(" Holy Books ") belongs to later authors, ll is em- 
ployed first by the medieval exegetes; for instance. 
Ibn Ezra, introduction to "Yesod Month" and 
" M'ozne Lashon ha-Kodesh"; see also Neubauer, 
"Book of Tobh," 43b, Oxford, 18T8; Gratz, "Gesch. 
der Juden," 3d ed., vii. 384; JIargoliouth, "Cat. 
Hebr. and Samaritan MS8. Brit Mus.." Nos. 181. 
193: and elsewhere infrequently, but never in Tal- 
mud or Midrash. This fact goes to show that the 
ancients regarded the whole mass of the national 
religious writings as equally holy. The Greek 
translation of the term is -a jiiffMa, which (as may 



Bible Canon 

be seen from the expressions ml -a 7,onTa tuv (iifSXiuv 
ami Ka) TUV MXuv Tvarpluv i^ij3'/.lcjv) is used by the 
grandson of Siracli in tlie introduction to Ecclesfas- 
ticus (Siraeli) to designate the whole of the Scrip- 

The Ciiniinical books, therefore, needed no S|>eeial 
designation, since originally all were holj-. A new 
term had to be coined for the new idea of non-holy 
liooUs. The latter were accordingly called D'nao 
D'JIVn ("outside" or "extraneous books"); tliat is, 
Ijooks not included in the established collection 
(Mishnali Sanh. x. 1) — a distinction analogous to 
that aftcrwai'd made, with I'eference to the oral law 

it.self, between " Jlisluiah" and "Out- 

" Outside" side-Mishuah"(njt'aan(l njiv'n mCD. 

Books. or its Aramaic equivalent xn""l3. 

"Baraita"). Possilily this designation 
was due to the fact that the Aiiocryplia, which in 
popular estimation ranked nevertheless with relig- 
ious works, were not included in the libraries of the 
Temple and sj-nagogues (for illustration of this see 
Hooks, and Blau, "Zur Einleitung in die Ih-ilige 
Schrift," i. et seq.). Another designation. NTpD 
("that which is read"), applied to the whole of 
Scripture, is founded upon the custom of reading 
the Holy Scriptures to the people on Sabbaths and 
l]oli*lays; it is a term frecpieully opposed In njCD 
and L'mD, which designate oral teaching (Xed. iv. 
:i; Kid. i., end; Abot v., end). A third designalion 
i-^ L'npn "'ana ("Iloly Scriptures," Sbab. xvi. 1; B. 
B. i., end, and elsewhere), the Greek equivalents of 
which are }ija<pnl h,iai (Kom. i. 2) and iepa -ypd/j/mra 
{II Tim. iii. 1.5). This term indicates, not the wri- 
tings belonging to the .sanctuary, nor of Israel 
(Cieiger, " Nachgelassene Schriften," iv. 13), but 
iioly writings in contrudistinctiou to profane works 
(L'npn 'nns and tomn '3n3, To.sef., Yom-Tob, iv. ; 
ed. Zuckennandel, p. 207, 13), perhaps works in- 
si)ired by the Holy Spirit. This interpretation is also 
favored bj' the expression 7ra(T« yp'Kpr/ deoizvtvaTn^ (II 
Tim. iii. 16; compare Eusebius, ''Ecloga' Propheti- 
ca?," ed. Gaisford, p. 106). 

A fourth designation for the entire Bible is min 
("Law") (Jlek., Beshallah. 9; ed. Priedmann, pp. 
341>, 40b; Pesik. R., ed. Friedmanu. 9a, and else- 
wliere), also found in the New Testament under the 

form vu/iih: (.John x. 34; II Esdras xix. 
"Torah." 31). This designation owes its origin 

to the opinion that the entire Holy 
Writ is the Word of God, and that the Prophets and 
the Hagiograjilia are included in the Torah {.see be- 
low). It is also possible that, since "Torah" was 
the title of the first and principal part of the Bib- 
lical writings, it was transferred to the entire col- 

The fifth designation, 3103 (literally, "it is writ- 
ten "), trc(|Uently found personified (as, for instance, 
"lOiS 3in3n, etc.) ("the ' Katub ' saith"; compare 
Barlicr." AeltcsteTerminologie der.Iiidischen Schrift 
auslegung," p. 90), is, strictly speaking, an abbrevi- 
ation, and should be supplemented with the name 
of the book in which "it is written." The Greek 
equivalent is )i>n<f>ii; Tzana yoa<fifi (II Tim. iii. 16), a 
translation of ainan ^3. which, strange to say, is 
found in the works of Profiat Duran. though cer- 
tainly it isveiyold. The sixth designation is i''nW;}/(;/ ; 

("covenant"), from which the term -a/.wa SiaftiiKri 
( Vettis Tegtamenttim = Old Testament) in the Chris- 
tian Church has been derived. Even 
Testament, in Ecclus. (Sirach) xxiv. 33 the Pen- 
tateuch is called ,3';J/')r 6(af)i/Kr/r, and 
the term nnan -130 ("Book of the Covenant," 
Ex. xxiv. 7; II Kings xxiii. 2. 31) is similarly trans- 
lated in the Septuagint, Though "diatheke," like 
"Torah," came to be applied to Holy Writ (first by 
Paul, II Cor. iii. 14; compare Matt. xxvi. 38). tlie 
expres.sion nnan IDD ("Book of the Covenant") is 
never found with this significance in Jewish tradi- 
tion, excejit in an ajjparently polemic utterance of 
Simon ben Yohai (about 1,50), where a reference to 
the name "diatheke" for the Torah occtu-s (Yer. 
Sanh. 30c; Lev. R. xix.). In all iirobability this 
designation, which, like the term "Old Testament." 
involves a Christian point of view, was used very 
rarely. In post-Talmudic times other designations 
were employed; <■.,'/., DnSD nyaiNI Dnt'J? ("The 
Twenty-four Books") (see G. .Margolionth. "Cat. 
Hebr. and Samaritan 3ISS. Brit. JIus." i. 33b, 35a. 
27a, 35a); inno ("the cycle," in the Masorah ; in a 
codex of the year 1309; and in Ginsburg, "Introduc- 
tion," p. ,564); K'cnpo n'::npD (Glnslturg, l.r. p. 
748). Medieval authors called the Holy Writ also 
pIDS. which originally meant "verse" 
Other Ex- (Bacher, "Rev. Etudes Juives." xvi. 
pressions. 378). Another very common designa- 
tion is 1'j'n. the initials of D'X'33 min 
D'airiD ("Law, Prophets, and Holy Writings"), an 
expression frequently occurring in Talmud and Mid- 
rash. A similar acrostic name is "] 3 X, an abbrevia- 
tion of the words 'ri3 D'X^aj ND^IIN. In the Middle 
Ages these mnemonic terms were conveniently re- 
garded as real words, and received translations; 
namely, "ear-tips" and "plumb-line " respectively. 
In the Mishnah (compare Yad. iii. 5) the canonic- 
itj- of the Hoi}' Books is expressed indirectly by the 
doctrine that those writings which are canonical 
"render the hands unclean." The term connoting 
this (piality. DTH flK fSDCD. thus comes very 
near to the technical equivalent for the word "canon- 
ical." The nature of the underlying conceit is not 
altogether clear. It is most likely that it was meant 
to insure greater caution against the i)rofanation of 
holy scrolls by careless handling or irreverent 
(Yiid. iv. 6; Zab. v. 13; Shab. 13a. 14a). It is an open 
question whether this capacity to render "the hands 
unclean " inhered in the scroll kept in the Temple. 
It appears that originally the scroll in the Temple 
rendered food unclean; while only outside the Tem- 
ple were hands made unclean (Kelim xv. 6; H. 
Al.dba, Pes. 19a). At all events, the term DN NDDD 
DTn was extended to all the writings included in 
the canon, and designated ultimately their canonical 
character or its effects as distinguished from non- 
canonical books (Yad. iii. 2-51 ;iv. 5, 6; Tosef., Yad. 
ii. 19; Blau.^.e. pp. 21, 69 <<»('?.; Friedmann, "Ha 
Goren," ii. 168, but incorrect). 

§ 3. The Jewish canou comprises twenty-four 
books, the five of the Pentateuch, eight booksof the 
Prophets (Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings. I.saiah, 
Jeremiah. Ezekiel, the Minor Prophets), and eleven 
Hagiographa (Psiilms, Proverbs. Job. Song of Solo- 
mon, Hulh, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther, 

Bible Canon 



Daniel, Ezra, and Chronicles). Samuel and Kings 
form but a single book each, as is seen in Aquila's 
Greek translation. The "twelve" 
Contents prophets were known to Ecclus. (Si- 
and raeh) as one book (.\lis. 10), and the 

Divisions, separation of Ezra from Xehemiah is 
not indicated in either the Talmud or 
the Ma.sorah. A Bible codex written in Spain in 
1448 divides Samuel, Kings, and Ezra into two 
books each (Giusburg. I.e. p. 586). These books are 
classified and arranged into three subdivisions, 
"Toi-ah," "Prophets," and " Hagiographa '" ; Greek, 
louof Kai npoofjrat ko'i a/./.a ,h3'"a (Ecclus. [Sirach]). 
In Yalk. ii. 702 they are styled as alistracts. " Law, 
Prophecy, and Wisdom," nD3n nSU3 min: com- 
pare Yer, Mak. 31d. below, and Blau, I.e. p. 21. note. 
The division of the Prophets into D":iL"X"i D'X'aj 
("Earlier Prophets") and D'jnnX D"N'3J ("Later 
Prophets) was introduced by the 3Iasorah. By the 
former expression the Talmud under- 
Earlier stands the older Prophets, such as 
and Later Isaiah, as distinguished from the later 
Prophets. Prophets, Haggai, Zeehariah, and ^Mal- 
achi (see Sifre, Deut. ii. 27, 357 ; Yer. 
Ber. 8d, 23, etc.). In contradistinction to the last 
three, Samuel, David, and Solomon are sometimes 
called the old Prophets (Sotah 48b, top). The en- 
tire Holy Writ is also designated by the term "Torah 
and Prophets" (R. H. iv, (5; compare Meg. iv. 5; 
Tosef., B. B. viii. 14: Sifre, Deut. ii. 218), and the 
same usage is found in the Xew Testament (5Iatt. 
V. 17. vii. 12. xxii. 40: Luke xvi. 16, 29, 31). The 
abstract terras "Law and Prophecy " are found once 
in Pesik., ed. Buber, Ilia. 

Another division is that into " Torah and Kabba- 
lah '" found in Ta'an. ii. 1; Tosef., Niddah, iv. 10: 
Sifre, Xum. i. 112, 139; "Kabbalah" signifying tradi- 
tion, which is regarded as having been carried on by 
the Prophets. The Aramaic equivalent for ni?3p 
is XnOPt'N. the Masoretic name for the Prophetical 
Books, and Heliraized into DI^Jj;' by Ben Asher 
("Dikduke ha-Te'amim," p. 2). 

Still another division is "Torah" and "Jlikra." 
In Sifre, Deut. ii. 317 "Mikra" is used as a general 
term for the Prophets and the Hagiographa — a 
usage which may also underlie Gen. R. xvi. (ed. 
Wilna, 75b) and Cant. R. xvi. 6. below (see. how- 
ever, Bacher, "Aelteste Terminologie, " cxviii. 7). 
The 3Iidrash on "plena et defectiva" opposes 
"Torah" to "Jlikra" (Berliner, "Peletat Soferim," 
p. 36), as does also Ben Asher (Blau, "Masor. L^nter- 
suchungen," p. 50). The Masorah and Spanish au- 
thors use the word in the same sense (Bacher, I.e. pp. 
W^etseq. ; also in "Hukkeha-Torah." in Giidemann, 
"Gesch. der Cultur der .luden in Deutschland," p. 
268), and it probably came to have this meaning 
because it is abbreviated from the expression "IKC 
NIpD. " the remaining >Iikra. " 

The third division, "the Holy Writings," may 
have received its name in a similar way. Originally, 
the whole Bible was called "Holy 
The Hagi- Writings." but subsequently men per- 
ographa. haps spoke of the " Law and the Proph- 
ets," and the "other holy writings," 
and finally briefly of the "Holy Writings." Simi- 
larly, the current name " Ketubim " (Writings) is 

probablj' also an abbreviation of the fuller expres- 
sion, "the other writings." or the "Holy Writings." 
This etymology is supported by the usage of 
Sirach's grandson, who calls the Hagiographa rd 
hii-a Tuv fiiJ'/.iuv, and of Ben Asher a thousand years 
later, Avho speaks of "the Law, the Prophets, and 
the other books " (I.e. 44 : emended text in Blau, " Zur 
Einleitung," xxix. 3). This is not the only instance 
of Asher's fidelity to older traditions. Characteris- 
tic evidence of the threefold division may be noted 
in the following citations: 

"In the New-Tear's prayers, ten passages of tbe Bible (from 
the Torab, Propbets. and Hairiographa) must be iutrodueeii at 
least three times" (Tosef.. R. H. iv. 6). "Ben Azzai connei-ted 
the wortis of the Torab wiib those of the l*rv>phets, and ibe 
latter with those of the Hagiographa" (her. R. xvi. 3). "This 
is the progressive method of studying : flrsl, a primer (passages 
of the Peutateurhi is read: then the Book (isD, Torabi. then 
the Prophets, and anally the Hagiographa. After completing 
the study of the entire Bible, one took up the Talmud. Hala- 
kah. and Haggadah" (Deut. R. viii. 3). "To l»e considervd con- 
versant with the Bible one had to be able to read accurately the 
Torah, PiMphets. and Hagiographa" CKid. 49a). "Just as the 
Torah is threefold, so Israel is threefold, consisting of priests. 
Levites. and Israelites" (Pesik., ed. Bul*er, lU5a>. "Blessed be 
God, who gave tbe threefold teachings to the threefold nation, 
by three persons on the third day of the third month" iShab. 
S$<i). In answer to the question of the Sadducee. concerning the 
Biblical basis for the belief that God causes the dead to rise. 
tbe patriarch Gamaliel sought prtK>f " in Torah, Prophets, and 
Holy Writings" (Sauh. 90b). This doctrine is written in the 
Torah. repeated in the Prophets, and a third time in the Ha- 
giographa (Meg. 31a : compare Mak. Idb. 1.5 1. Hanina set up the 
rule that " kesef " (silver) means simply a "selah " in the T^rah. 
a "litra" in the Prophets, and a "talent" in the Holy Writings 
(Bek. .jOa : Yer. Kid. 59d ; see also M. K. 21a : Ta'an. 30a ; Sanh. 


For passages of similar import from the Jerusalem 
Talmud and from the Midrash, see Blau, ''Zur Ein- 
leitung," xxii. 5, xxiii. 1. 

§ 4. Tannaite literature makes no mention any- 
where of the number of the Biblical books, and it 
does not seem to have been usual to 

Number pay attention to their number. This 

of Books, was felt to be of importance only 
when the Holy Writings were to be 
distinguished from others, or when their entire range 
was to be explained to non-.Jews. The earliest two 
estimates (about 100 c.e.) diflfer. II Esdras xiv. 
44-46 gives the number as 24; all variant readings 
of the passage (94, 204, 84, 974 books) agree in the 
unit figure. 4. 

Epiphauius' division of the number 94 into 72 + 
22 (" De Pondeiibus et ^Mensuris Liber." in Liigarde. 
"Symmicta." ii. 163) is artificial. Josephus ex- 
pressly puts the number at 22. as does Origeu 
(Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl." ii. 25h while Jerome (Prcf 
ace to Samuel and Kings) mentions 22. but never- 
theless counts 24. Since both of these church 
fathers studied under Jewish teachers, it is probalile 
that some authorities within the synagogue favored 
counting 22 books: and the hesitation between 22 
and 24 can be explained by a Bitraita (B. B. lob), 
according to which each book of the latter two divi- 
sions (Prophets and Hagiographa) had to be written 
separately as oif roll. Since Ruth with Judges or 
with Psalms (Jerome, and Baraita B. B. 14b) might 
form one roll, and Lamentations with Jeremiah an- 
other, the rolls would be counted as 22, while the 
books were actually 24, That there were 24 books 
will be apparent from the classical Baraita on the 



Bible Canon 

question (see § 5 of this article). But in more 
than ten passages of the Midrasli 24 boolis are ex- 
pressly mentioned; and the authorities adduced are 
exclusively araoraim. Simeon ben Lakisli (abt>ut 
250) compares the boolvs with the 24 oriiameuts of a 
bride (Is!i. iii. 18-24): saying that just as the bride 
must be decorated with 24 ornaments, so the scholar 
must be adorned with the knowledge of all the 24 
books (Ex. R. xli. 5; Tan., Ki Tissa, xi., ed. Buber, 
p. Ill; Cant. R. iv. 11). R. Berechiah compares 
them with the 24 divisionsof the priestsaud Levites 
and with the 24 nails driven into sandals (Xum. R. 
.\iv. 4, XV. 22; Eccl. R. xii. 11; Pesik. R. ix. a, ed. 
Friedmaun); while, according to Phineas ben Jair 
(beginning of third century), the 24 books (Num. 
R. xiv. 18) correspond to the 24 sacriticial animals 
(Xum. vii.). 'J"he fact tliat the24 books of the writ- 
ten Law and the 80 of the oral tradition make up 104 
(Xum. R. xiii. 16) recalls the number of the books 
mentioned in II Esdras. Counting the Minor Proph- 
ets as 12, the number 35 is obtained (23-|-12), 
as in Xum. R, xviii. 21 and Tan., Korah, ed. 
Stettin, 5.52. 

For the understanding of the cfiiice|)t of a canon, 
the following passages, literally rendered, are espe- 
cially important: 

Et'cl. :\n. 12 teaches : " And further, my son. )te admonished hy 
tlje.>iH [underetood as reading "against more than these, my son, 
be cautioned against confusion"; the Hebrew "mehemah" 
(more than these) being read "mehumah" (confusion)] that 
he who brings more than twenty-four Itoolis into his liouse 
brings confusion. Thus, the books of Ben .Sira or Ben Tigia 
may be read, ttut not to the degi'ee of ' weariness of the flesh ' " 
(Eccl. R. on the passage). 

"And further, by these, my son, be admonished," saitb God ; 
'Twenty-four books have I written for you; take heed to add 
none tliereto.' Wherefore ? Because of making many books there 
is no end. He who reads one verse not written in the twenty-four 
books is as though lie had read in the 'outside books'; he will 
Ondnosalvation there. Behold herein the punishment assigned 
to him who adds one book to the twenty-four. How do we know 
that he who reads them wearies himself in vain? Because it 
says, "much study is a weariness of the flesh' (Eccl. xii. 12), 
fnjm which follows, that tlie body of such a one shall not 
arise from the dust, as is said in the Mishnah (Sanh. x. 1), 
' They who read in the outside books have no share in the future 
life'" (Num. R. xiv. 4; ed. Wilna, p. 117a; compare also Pesik. 
U. ix. a and Yer. Sanh. xxviii. a). 

The chief difference between these two passages is 
tliat in the first oulj' the "weariness of the flesh," 
that is, the deep study (but not the reading) of other 
than the Holy Writings, which were learned by 
heart, is forbidden ; while in the second jiassage the 
mere reading is also forbidden. The r>ldcr point of 
view is undoubtedly the milder, as the history of 
the book of Ecclus. (Siracli) teaches. The Babylo- 
nian teachers represented the more liberal view (com- 
pare Sanh. 100a and Yer. Sanh. xxviii. a, 18). 

There is probablj' an allusion to twenty-four 
books in Yer. Sanh. xx. d, 4 and Gen. R. Ixxx., be- 
ginning. The Babylonian Talmud (Ta'an. 8a) men- 
tions '24; Targ. to the Song of Solomon v. 10 does 
the same. Dosa ben Eliezer, in a 
The very old IMasoretic note; Ben Asher 

" Tiveuty- (" Dikduke," pp. 5 [line 12], 56); Nissim 
four" of Kairwan (Steinschneider "Fest- 
Books. schrift." Hebrew section, p. 20, be- 
low); and many medieval writers and 
codices count twenty-four books. The number 24 
was also known in ancient times in non-Jewish 

circles (Strack, in Herzog, " Real-Encyc. f iir Protes- 

tantische Theologie uud Kirche," ix.= 757). 

§ 5. The classical passiige for the sequence of the 

books is the Baraita in B. B. 14b. With 

Sequence, the exclusion of interjected remarks 

chronicled there, it runs as follows: 

"The sequence of the Prophets is Joshua. Judges. Sauniel, 
Kings, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Isaiah, the 12 [minor] prophets: lliat 
of the Hagiographa is Ruth, Psalms, Jotj. Proyert»s. Ecclesiastes, 
Song of Solomon, Lamentations, Daniel, Esther, Ezni. Chron- 
icles. Who wrote the hooks y Moses wrote his book, tlie 
.section of Balaam and Job; Joshua wrote his l)ook. and the last 
eight verses of the Torah : Samuel wnite his liook. Judges, and 
Ruth ; David wrote the Psalms, by the hand of ihe ten .Anilenis; 
namely, through .Idam ( Psalm cxxxix. Ki. perhaps also xcil.), 
through Melchizedek, Ps. ex.: through Abraham. Ps. Ixxxix. 
('miti.n jr-N explained to = Abraham); thi-ough Moses, Ps. xc- 
c; through Heman. Ps. Ixxxviii.; through Jeduthun. Ps. Ixii.: 
perhaps Ixxvii.; through Asaph. Ps. 1., Ixxiii.-lxxxiii.; and 
through the three sons of Korah, Ps. xlii. xlix.. Ixxviii.. Ixxxiv., 
Ixxxv., Ixxxviii. [The question whether Solomon should l)e 
included among the Psalmlst.s is discus.sed in Tosafot l.ia.] 
Jeremiah wrote his book, the Book of Kings, and; 
King Hezekiah, and his council that survived him. wrote 
Isaiah, Proverlis, Song of .Solomon, and Ecclesiastes; the men 
of the Great .synagogues wrote Ezekiel, the Twelve I'ropheis, 
Daniel, and Esther Ezra wrote his book and the genealogy of 
Chronicles down to himself." 

From the fact that in this account of the autlmrs 
Moses is mentioned as the author of the Torah. 
it may be inferred that in the collection frmn 
which the Baraita is cited the sequence also 
of the five books of the Torah was probably 
given. But it is also possible that the Pentateuch, 
from its liturgical use in the synagogue, was so 
familiar as to be regarded almost as a single book, 
of the separate parts of which no enumeration was 

The most striking sequence in this passage is 
that of the Prophets, given as Jci-emiah, Ezekiel, 
and Isaiah, a sequence commented on 
Prophets, in the Talmud. There it is explained 
tli;it this is because the Book of Kings 
ends with destruction, Jeremiah begins and closes 
with destruction, Ezekiel begins with destruction 
and ends with consolation, while all of Isaiah con- 
sists of consolation. Thus, destruction apiudpri- 
at ely follows upon destruction, and consolation upon 
consolation. The artificiality of this interpretation 
needs no explanation ; but it must be remarked that 
such sequence is not chronological. The clearest 
explanation is that of Strack. who claims that the 
Baraita evidently arianged the prophetical books 
according to their size, a principle apparently fol- 
lowed also in the arrangement of the Mishnah trea- 
tises. According to their length, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, 
Isaiah, and the twelve Prophets stand to one another 
in the ratio of 41, 36, 32, and 30. The same princi- 
ple is apparent in the sequence of the older Hagiog- 
rapha, whci'e the insertion of Job between theP.salms 
and Proverbs (the works of father, David, and son, 
Solomon) is particularly noticeable. Since the Baraita 
regarded Closes as the author of Job, this book might 
quite appropriately have been placed at the head 
of the Hagiographa, as was indeed recommended by 
the Talmud. Now, according to their lengths, the 
Psalms (with Ruth), Job, and Proverbs stand to 
one another in the ratio of 39, 15, and 13 ; and Job. 
therefore, follows Psjilms. The sequence of the 
three Solomonic books, wherein the ])laciug of 


Bible Canon 



Ecclfsiastes before the Song of Solomon is especiallj- 
remarkable, illustrates the same principle of arrange- 
ment, the largest being placed tirst. 

The author of Ecclesiasticus(Sirach) has the chron- 
ological order of the modern Bible: Isaiah, Jere- 
miah, Ezekiel, and the twelve (Minor) Prophets (see 

miah, and Ezekiel; three manuscripts agree with 
the Talmud, while two have the following pecul- 
iar order, Jeremiah. Isaiah, and Ezekiel (Ginsburg. 
I.e. p. 6). 

Ginsburg (I.e. p. 7) has collected, iu the following 
table, eight varying sequences of the Hagiographa: 

Varyikg Sequexces of the H.\giographa. 









Talmud and 
si.x MSS. 

Two MSS. 


and London 

Add. 15352 


Debariin and 

three MSS. 

Ar. Or. 16 

Or. 21526-28. 

Or. 2301 

Five early 




































Song of Sol. 



Song of Sol. 

Song or Sol. 




Song of Sol. 


6 Sone of Sol. 



Song of Sol. 

Song of Sol. 










Song of Sol. 
















Esther ■ 























Eccliis. [Sirach] xlviii. 22; xlix. 6, 8). Since the 
Baraita does not enumerate the books according to 
the .succes-sion of their origin and their age (even 
within the divisions of Prophets and Hagiographa). 
it must have considered only the order of Biblical 
writings so far as they belonged to the same section 
and were therefore to be written in one roll. Since 
(as is apparent from B. B. 13) the question which 
books weic permitted to be included in one roll, or 
whether each book had to be written separately in 
one roll, was much discussed iu the second century, 
the above-mentioned Baraita, which was also cur- 
rent iu Palestine (see Yer. Talmud. Sotah v., end), 
may well be assigned to the second century : and 
there is no justitieation for considering it of older 
date. But this much is surely ascertainable from 
this Bitraita. that the first half of the prophetical 
canon (Joshua-Kiugs) had a fi.xed sequence dating 
from piecediug times, and concerning which there 
was no doubt. That is »o say, these four books 

follow one another and, continuing the 
The story of the Pentateuch, form a con- 

Earlier secutive narrative of .lewish history. 
Prophets. This is seen fiom II Mace. ii. 13, 

where, in mentioning the books "con- 
cerning the Kings and Piophets," the prophetical 
canon is divided into two parts. In post-Talmudic 
times, also, there is no variation iu relation to the 
sequence of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings: 
while the order of the Greater Prophets is ii'rcgtilar, 
the only uniformity preserved being in placing the 
Minor Prophets invariably at the end. 3Iost of the 
manuscripts (including the St. Petersburg codices, 
which, dating from the years 910 and 1009, are the 
oldest known), and the oldest five editions, have the 
generally adopted chronological order, Isaiah, Jere- 

A closer examination of the table reveals that actu- 
ally three arrangements only are given: for Nos. i., 
ii. . iii. . and vii. differ only in regard to the position as- 
signed to the Five Rolls, and represent the Talmudic 
arrangement : the five early editions also follow this 

sequence, but have the Five Rolls in 

Hag'iog- the order followed in the liturgy, and 

rapha. put the Psalms, instead of Job. after 

Pi-overbs: Xos. iv. and v. vary only 
in regard to Ruth. No. vi.. however, is entirely 
unique, ajiparently arranging the books accortliug 
to their size, if Ezra and Nehemiah be considered 
as two books. 

The Five Rolls, however, form a class by them- 
selves, and follow the order, in which they are em- 
ployed on successive festivals, in the liturgy. Leav- 
ing out of account this last-mentioned sequence, 
two types remain: the Talmudic and the ^Masoretic. 
The most striking point of diffeience is the position 
assigned to the books of Chronicles, which are placed 
in the Talmud at the eud, but in the Masorctic te.xt 
at the beginning. The Talmudic sequence is chron- 
ological ; the Masoretic consideis the size of the 

books. In regard to the Five Rolls 

The (nit'JD con; of which Ginsburg [l.r. 

Five Rolls, p. 4] gives a taVile showing five lists 

of varying order), it should be noted 
that, in reality, they show only two sequences: one 
following the chronology of the authors; the other, 
the liturgical custom of the synagogue ("'Jew. 
Quart. Rev." xii. 223). These variations in the order 
of the last Prophets and of the Hagiographa — par- 
ticularly the latter — are significant for the history of 
the canon: for they show that these writings ac- 
quired canonical importance at a later period than 
the first Prophets and the Law. Owing to the 



Bible Canon 

earlier canonization of these latter, their sequence 
was so firmly established as never to give rise to 

§ 6. The most radical criticism agrees that the 
Toi-ali is the lirst and oldest part of the canon. The 
narrative of Neh. viii.-x., which describes an actual 
canonization, is of prime importance for the history 
of the collection of the Holy Writings. 
Collection. It is thus generally agreed that ia the 
middle of the fifth century B.C. the 
tirst part of the canon was e.xtant. There is no 
foundation for the belief that, according to Neh. 
viii.--\., the Pentateuch was not fullj- completed 
until that date. The opinions of the synagogue will 
be discussed later; here only e.xternal testimony 
concerning the canonization will be considered. 
Perhaps the last three verses of the Book of Malachi, 
tlu' last prophet, are to be considered as a kind of 
canonization. The warning concerning the teach- 
ings of Moses, and the unusually solemn w-ords of 
comfort, make it seem probable that herein is in- 
tended a peroration not only to the sj.ieeches of tlie 
last prophets, but also to the whole twofold canon, 
the Law and the Prophets. These verses could not 
have come from ilalaclii ; but they may very prob- 
ably have been added by another anonj'mous 
prophet, or by some appropriate authority, in order 
to let the words of the Holy Scriptures conclude 
with a Divine reminder of the Torah, and with a 
piomise of great comfort. Another example of 
what may be called "canonical ending " for the en- 
tire Holy Writ niay be seen (N. Krochmal, " Moreh 
Nebuke ha-Zeman," viii.. No. 11) in the last three 
verses of the Book of Ecclesiastes. This declama- 
tion against the makers of books sounds like a canon- 
ical closing ; and it was really considered such by 
the oldest Jewish exegetes (see above, § 4). The 
admonition to keep the Commandments, and the 
threat of divine punishment, may be compared to 
the reminder of the Torah and the idea of punish- 
ment in Malachi. 

While there are no other evidences in Holy Writ 
itself of a collection of the Holy Writings, there are 
some outside of it. which, in part, may 
Evidences now be mentioned in chronological 
of order. The author of the apocryphal 

the Canon, book Ecclesiasticus (Sirach) was a con- 
temporary of the high priest Simon 
— either the first or the second of that name — who 
Hved at the beginning oratthe end of the third cen- 
tury B.C. He knew the Law and Prophets in their 
present form and sequence; for he glorifies (ch. 
xliv.-xlix.) the great men of antiquity in the order 
in which they successively follow in Holy AVrit. 
He not only knew the name D'N'3Jn "IfJ? D'JC 
("The Twelve Prophets"), but cites Malachi iii. 23. 
and is acquainted with by far the greatest part of 
the Hagiographa, as is certain from the Hebrew 
original of his writings recently dis- 
Evidences covered. He knew the Psalms, which 
of Sirach.. he ascribes to David (Ecclus. [Sirach] 
xlvii. 8, 9). and the Proverbs : " There 
were those who found out mtisical harmonies, and 
set forth proverbs [A. V., "poetical compositions"] 
in writing" (xliv. 5). An allusion to Proverbs and 
probably to the Song of Solomon is contained in his 

words on King Solomon: "The countries marveled 
at thee for thy songs, and proverbs, and parables 
[or "dark sayings"], and interpretations" (xlvii. 17); 
the last tliiee words being taken from Prov. i. 6, 
while the Song of Solomon is alluded to in "songs." 
He would have had no authority to speak of " songs " 
at all from I Kings v. 12; he have known 
them. While he had no knowledge of Ecclesiastes, 
his didactic style ju-oves that he used Job. as is also 
indicated by the words DmSD2 Tt;' 'D3n (xliv. 4. 
and afterward, D'^C'IDD- Ecclesiastes, Esther, and 
Daniel are not included in his canon (see Halevj-. 
"Elude sur la Partie du Texte Hebreux de I'Eccli- 
siastique," pp. 67 et serj.. Paris, 1897) ; he considers 
Chronicles and Ezra-Nehemiah as Holy Scripture 
(xlix. 12 = Ezra iii. 2; xlix. 13 = Neh. iii. and vi. ; 
compare Neh. vi. 12); he mentions distinctly "the 
laws and prophets" (xxxix. 1); in the following 
sentences there are allusions to other writings; and 
verse 6 of the same chapter leads to the sujiposition 
that in his time only wisdom-writings and prayers 
were being written. 

The grandson of Sirach (132 B.C.), who translated 
his ancestor's wisdom from Hebrew into Greek, tells 
in his preface no more about the canon than is ap- 
parent from the book itself; but he tells it more 
clearly. He mentions three times the Torah, Proph- 
ets, and "other writings;" he knew no "terminus 
techuicus" for the canon's third i>art, as one was not 
coined until two hundred years later. In the origi- 
nal these passages are respectiveh' as follows: iia 
Tov vdfiov Ktit Tuv Tvpiitpijiuv Ka'i Tciv a?JMV Tuv Kaf avToi'^ 
r/K0?iOvfif/K6Tui' (Sf()oHPi'(jv . . . eif re ryv tov v6fiov Kai 
Tuv :Tf}otf)//Tuv Kal T(jif a'AXuv irarpiuv lit^}.'iuv ... 6 vdfxo^ 
Kac (If- Trpn(!)r/ut. Kal ra Tioiira ruv (itfi'^iLiv, 

Intlie Second Book of Maccabees (12^13.0. ; Niese, 
" Kritik der Beiden Makkabiierliucher "), written only 
a few years later than the Greek Sirach, the follow- 
ing is stated: "The same things also were reported 
in the records, namely, the memoirs of Necmias; and 

how he, founding a library, gathered 

II Mac- together the books concerning the 

cabees. kings, and the projihets, and those of 

David, and the epistles of the kings 
concerning holy gifts. And in like manner also 
Judas gathered together all those books that had 
been scattered by reason of the war we had, and 
they are with us. If now possibly ye have need 
thereof, send such as will bring them unto you " (II 
Mace. ii. 13-15). The Torah is not mentioned; its 
general circulation rendered its "collection" unnec- 
essary. The second part of the canon is unmista- 
kably intended by " books concerning the kings " 
(Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Iviugs) and by 
"prophets" (Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the 
Minor Prophets). Since the Hagiographa had not 
yet received a definite name, they are mentioned as 
" those of David " (the Psalms), as the first and most 
important book — a custom followed in the New 
Testament even at a time when there was no doubt 
concerning the existence of collected Hagiographa. 
The expression, "the books of the kings concerning 
holy gifts," seems to refer to the royal letters men- 
tioned in Ezra and Nehemiah, and if this be so, 
then the Hagiographa do find mention; viz.. Psalms 
and Chronicles, their first and last books. 

Bible Canon 



It should also be noted that Nehemiah and not 
Ezra is named : a circumstance which indicates the 
age of these statements: since the son of Sirach like- 
wise gloritied Nehemiali and made no mention of 
Ezra, whereas even the oldest rabbinical authorities 
consider Ezra as a writer far superior to Nehemiah, 
the aristocrat. 

Philo, in his extant works, makes no mention of 
Ezckiel, Daniel, or the Five Rolls. Since, however, 
even Sirach mentions Ezckiel, Philo's 
Philo. silence about him is undoubtedlj' ac- 
cidental ; consequently, his failure to 
name the other books can not be taken as a proof 
that they were not in his cauon. Moreover, the 
Laws, Prophets, Psalms, and other books are re- 
ferred to by title in his "De Vita Contemplativa," 
§ 3. It is true, Lucius ("Die Therapeuten," Stras- 
burg, 1880) doubts the genuineness of this work ; but 
Leopold Cohn, an authority on Philo ("Einleitung 
uud Chronologic dcr Schriftcn Philo's," p. oT, Leip- 
sic. 1899; "Philologus," vii., supjil. volume, p. 421), 
maintains that there is no reason to do so. Conse- 
quent!}', Siegfried's opinion ("Philo," p. 61, Jena. 
1875) that Pliilo's cauon was essentially the same 
as that of to-day, is probably coi-rect (H. E. Ryle, 
"Philo and Holy Scripture," London, 1895). 

The New Testament shows that its canon was 
none other than that which exists to-day. None of 
the Apocrypha or Pscudepigrapha is 
New ever quoted by name, while Daniel is 

Testament, expressly cited in Matt. xxiv. 15. 
Matt. xiii. 35 (= Luke xi. 51) proves 
that Chronicles was the last canonical book. The 
statement, "That upon you may come all the riglit- 
eous blood shed upon the earth, from the blood of 
righteous Abel unto the blood of Zacliarias," con- 
tains a reference to II Chron. xxiv. 20. The three 
chief divisions are enumerated in Luke xxiv. 44 — 
"Law," "Prophets," and "Psalms" — as they are in 
Philo. Usually, however, only the Law and the 
Prophets are mentioned (Matt. v. 17; Luke xvi. 16); 
but by them the three divisions are intended just 
as the Talmudic teachers include the Hagiographa 
under Prophets (see g 3). This usage is to be at- 
tributed, on the one hand, to the lack of a current 
technical term for the Hagiographa, and on the 
other to the opinion that the collected books of the 
Holy Writings were written by the Prophets. In 
view of these facts, the silence of the writers of the 
New Testament concerning Canticles, Ecclesiastes, 
Esther, and Ezra has no bearing on the question 
whether these writings were or were not included 
in the canon (see Strack, I.e. p. 750). 

Josephus (c. 38-95) enumerates 23 books, which 
he divides as follows: 5 books of Moses; 13 his- 
tories, containing the history of Israel from Moses' 
death down to Artaxerxes I., written by the Proph- 
ets; and 4 remaining books consisting of hymns 
and admonitions. "It is true our history hath been 
written since Artaxerxes very particularly, but hath 
not been esteemed of the like authority with the 
former by our forefathers, because there hath not 
been an exact succession of prophets since that time : 
and how firmly we have given credit to these books 
of our own nation is evident bv what we do; for 
during so many ages as have already passed, no one 

hath been so bold as either to add anything to them, 
to take anything from them, or to make any change 
in them" ("Contra Ap." i. 8). It is evident that 
Josephus, instead of counting Ruth and Lament ;i- 
tions as separate books, combined them with Judges 
and .leremiah, respectively. As historical books he 
considered all that narrated anything historical, and 
thus included Job. He considered Psalms, Prov- 
erbs, Song of Solomon, and Ecclesiastes non-histor- 
ical. No other arrangement would have been pos- 
sible for Josephus; for it is known from Talmuilic 
and Midrashic literature that in his time, when the 
Taunaitcs flourished most, all the now familiar bonks 
were considered canonical. For various interpnta- 
tious of Josephus' narrative, sec Strack, I.e. p. 7o'>'. 

The evidence of the church fathers, such as 
Melito of Sardis (about 170; in Eusebius, "Hist. 
Eccl." iv. 26) and Origen(died 253: in 
Church Eusebius, I.e. vi. 25), both of whom 
Fathers, count 22 books, but mention 24, is un- 
important; since they invoke the au- 
thority of their Jewish teachers, whose canon is 
known from the tannaite literature. Of still less 
weight is the evidence of Jerome (died 4'20), wlm 
also had Jewi,sh instruction, andsimply repeats what 
was current opinion among the Anioraim ("Prologus 
Galeatus " and preface to Daniel). 

§ 7. In addition to the written evidence mentioneil 
above, the circumstance that the Samaritans (who 
considered themselves Jews) accepts 1 
The Pro- only the Pentateuch and part of 
phetical Joshua is of great importance in de- 
Canon, termining the historical develojiment 
of the canon. It brings out the mo- 
mentous fact that a recognized canon of the Proplicts 
did not exist in the middle of the fifth century n.t . ; 
while, on the other hand, it is certain from Sirach 
(see ^ 6 of this article) that the prophetical canon 
was completed by 200 b.c. at the veiy latest. Since 
Sirach considered prophecy as long since sileuceil. 
and had no recollection of any authoritative close of 
this canon, the view that the list of the Prophets 
was completed at least one hundred years before his 
time is very plausible. Consequently, the prophet- 
ical canon must have been closed, at the very latest, 
at the beginning of the era of the Scleucids (312i 
Zunz ("G. V." ed. i., p. 14) says with reason: "The 
holj- books, containing the Law and the Prophets, 
must have been collected a few generations after 
Nehemiah. Theirageextends back far be3-ond that 
epoch. The decided predilectiou shown toward this 
part of the Biblical books, .still visible in later times 
and in all religious instituti(nis, must be explaiued 
by the fact that it had long been honored as the only 
surviving monument of the Jewish state at a time 
when the latter no longer existed, and other national 
writings, whether of earlier or later time, were at- 
tracting attention" (compare also ib. p. 33). Ryle 
("Canon of the Old Testament," p. 123) assuiiies 
that the prophetical canon was completed during 
the high priesthood of Simon II. (219-199 B.C.). He 
adduces in proof the prophetical books themselves, 
which, according to him, contain many additions of 
a late date, showing that previous to this period they 
had not been canonized; K. JIarti (commentary on 
Isaiah, in " Kurzgefasstes Handbuch ") even argues 



Bible Canon 

that in Hillel's time the canon was not yet closed. 
However, the fact that Daniel is not included in the 
Prophets is of importance, and demonstrates that 
the prophetical canon must have been closed before 
165 B.C. ; for the best of criticism is agreed that 
Daniel belongs to the Maccabean era ; it would have 
been included in the Prophets had at that time the 
canon still been open. 

§ 8. While Sirach (see § 6) knew and made use of 
most of the books of the Hagiographa, his chapters 
contain no allusion whatever to Ecclesiastes, Esther, 
or Daniel. It does not follow from this that he did 
not know these books, but that he 
Determina- simply did not consider them Holy 
tion of Writings; moreover, it is certain that 
theHagiog-in 200 B.C. the canon of the Hagiog- 
rapha. raplia did not e.xist in its present 
form. A second f(mndation for this 
theory would be the date of the Book of Daniel, 
which in its present form, and with its allusion to 
Antiochus Epiphanes, was not known before 165. 
A third argument is deduced fiom the fact that 
while the translator of Sirach in 133 knew no tech- 
nical name for the Hagiographa. he nevertheless 
speaks plainly of a third part of Holy Writ. Ac- 
cordingly, there is no sound reason to doubt the 
statement in II Mace. ii. 14 (see t5 6 of this article) 
that Judas Maccabee collected the books scattered 
during the wars. 

No doubt, the Syrians iu their persecutions had 
diligently searched for scrolls of the Torah, and 
(since they knew no difference between the various 
Hebrew writings) for other Biblical books (I Mace. iii. 
48). Under the circumstances, it is quite compre- 
hensible that the warlike Maccabean and his pious 
followers took special care to collect the Holj' 
Books. On the other hand, under the rule of 
the princes wlio followed Simon, most of whom 
sided with the Sadducees, circumstances were un- 
favorable for determining a canon for the third por- 
tion of Scripture by agreement as to which books 
should be included and which excluded. It was im- 
possible to determine the canon in the post-Macca- 
bean period, because then the various schools of 
tradition began to tloiu'ish. So important a matter 
as the canon would not have been easil}' settled, as 
the controversies of 65 and 90 c. E. show (sect? H), and 
indeed there are no traces of a discussion of the sub- 
ject. In view of all these circumstances, one is 
warranted iu assuming as most probable that not 
long after the Maccabean wars of freedom the Jew- 
ish community had reached an agreement as to the 
books of the third canon. 

Everything points to the con'ectness of the opin- 
ion of Zunz {I.e. p. 34) "that long before the de- 
struction of the Temple, and not long after Sirach 
was translated, the Holy Writings comprised the 
present cycle." Ryle {I.e. pp. 184 et ser/.). also, be- 
lieves that the Hagiographa were completed before 
the death of John Hyrcanus (106 B.C.). To l)e sure, 
he distinguishes two periods: that from 160-105 u.c. 
for the admission, and that from 90-110 c.E. for the 
final ratification of the complete canon. But this 
distinction makes no difference as to the principal 
matter in is.sue. 
§ 9. Jewish tradition adopts the view that every 

word of Holy Writ was inspired by the Divine 
Spirit. This Spirit is believed, in every case, to 
liave rested upon a prophet ; and, consequently, 
every Biblical book was said to have been written 
by a prophet. The chronicler attributes the author- 
ship of the Book of Samuel, which he 
Principle designates as "the acts of David" (I 
of Canoni- Chron. .\xix. 29) to Samuel, Nathan, 
zation. and Gad. The oldest Baraita (see 
above, § 3 : B. B. 14b), dealing with 
the sequence and authors of the Biblical writings, 
assumes the author of every book to have been a 
prophet, and finds him cither in the titles or the 
sequence of the books themselves. Moses, Joshua. 
Samuel, Ezra, and the Prophets wrote their own 
books ; Moses wrote Job, the hero of which was his 
contemporary; Joshua wrote the last eight verses of 
the Pentateuch (" so Moses, the servant of the Lord, 
died," etc.); Samuel wrote Judges and Ruth; Jere- 
miah the Books of Kings, which preceded his own 
book, and Ezra the Chronicles (see Blau, I.e. p. 33). 
There is thus an unbroken chain of prophets from 
Moses to Malaciii; the chain of tradition in Abot i. 
1 mentions prophets but no priests: " Forty eight 
prophets and seven prophetesses propliesied for 
Israel. None of them took from or added anything 
to the Law, except the reading of the roll of Esther " 
(Baraita Meg. 14a; compare "Seder '01am," xx., 

Not only the Patriarchs, but David and Solomon 
also were considered prophets. Thus the Psalms, 
written by David- Proverbs, Canticles, and Ecclesi- 
astes, written by Solomon ("Seder 'Olam," xv. ; 
compare Cant. R. i. 35 ; Lam. R. xi. 1 ; and B. B. I'm) ; 
Ruth, by Samuel; Lamentations, by Jeremiah; Dan- 
iel, by Daniel ; and Chnmicles and Ezia-Nehemiah, 
by Ezra (who is identified with Malachi, Meg. 1.5a), 
are all of prophetic origin. Estheralone apparently 
is without a proplietic author. For this reason. " Se- 
der Olam " (end of ch. xx.) considers tliat Mordecai 
was a prophet who, contemporary with Haggai, 
Zechariah, and Malachi, prophesied at the time of 
Darius; while Daniel (who in Esther R. iv. 5 is 
identified with Hatach), according to his own book, 
lived as earl)' as the reign of Nebuchadnezzar, 
.losephus — -who believes that prophecy ceased in the 
time of Artaxerxes I. — considers as divine only the 
books written by prophets (see the passage, "Contra 
Ap."i. 8, quoted above; compare Griltz. "Monats- 
sclirift," XXXV. 281 et serj.). Thus only works re- 
garded as having been inspired by the Hcjly Spirit 
were included iu the canon. Neither the Talmud 
nor Midrash knew the difference between i)rophccy 
and the Holy Spirit, as drawn in the Middle Ages. 
Take the following examples; 

Estlier was a prnji^iffcs." ; for It Is said (Esther ix. 29): 
"Esther wrote " ("Seder 'Olam," i.e.). Cliajes ("Torat Nebiim.'' 
last page, Zolkiev. 18:!fi) bas rightly inferreil fnira this passage 
that, according to tradition, every written word was of prophetic 
origin. Rabbi Levi says: "Formerly, if man did anything of 
importance, a prophet ratiie and wrote it down : but now ..." 
(Lev. n. .t-txiv. »). David prays in I'salm xix. l.'> (A. V. Hi: "Let 
the words of my mouth he acceiilable " : that is, " may they be 
transcribed for later generations, ami may the latter not read 
them as Homer is read, but let them nieditate upon them and he 
rewarded for doing so. as they are for studying Nega'ini ami 
Ohalot (Midrash Shohar Tob. i. S. ed. Buber. p. Sal. Of Ps. xlll. 
!j it is said ( Lam. K. In'troduclii in, p. 34) : " There were tiCKJ.lXKI or 
even L2lltl,U00 prophets. Every prophecy which was of iiuiwr- 

Bible Canon 



tance for Its own time or later generations was published ; but. 
on the other hand, those prophecies havln? sifxniBcance for their 
own, liut not for future times, were not published " (Cant. R. vi. 
11 ) . " God said to Moses, • copy the Torah, Prophets, and Hagiog- 
rapha, that .vou may have them in writing ' ; Halakot, Midrash, 
Hagpadot, and Talmud, however, are to lie preserved only ver- 
l)ally " lE.x. R. xlvii. l,>lal. R. Isaac considered that "all that 
the prophets foretell in every generation, they learned on Mt. 
Sinai ■' ( ill. .\xvlii. llKIa i. " The entire Holy Writ is really the 
word of (iod, so that the authors are to be considered merely as 
media." " When Haggai. Zachariah, and Malaolii died, the Holy 
Spirit left Israel " (Tosef ., Sotah, xiii. 2 ; Yer. Sotah, end ; Sanh. 

Therefore, whatever is iu the Holy Writ must 
Imve been written, at the very latest, duriug the 
time of these last three prophets, frecpieutly men- 
tioueii in Talmiul and ^Jliiirash. The Great Syna- 
gogue hail many prophets among its members, and 
therefore had the right to have the Esther seroU 
written down (Shab. 104a; Meg. 3a; Yoma 80a; 
Tern. 15b). 

§ 10. It was due to the piinciple referred to in 
the ]irceeding seetion that the Wisdom of Sirach 
(Eeclesiastietis), which was used as a 
Ben Sira sehool-book many centuries after the 
and Other completion of the canon (hence called 
Apoc- nn(i!(i;u;.<'if. whence the .Jewish "Al- 
rypha. pliabets" of Ben Sira). either found no 
place in the canon, or was excluded 
from it. Since, in his work, the author names him- 
self and the high priest Simon, the post-prophetic 
origin of the work was evident: 

In IheTosefta it is stated (Yad. ii. 13, ed. Zuckermandel, p 
tiJvJl : " Neither the books of Ben Sira nor any of the books 
written thereafter [that is, in post-prophetic times] render the 
hands uniMean, ' [that is, are canonical]. The Mishnah (Sanh. 
X. i) adduces this dictinu in the name of R. Akiba : " He who 
ivadsthe outside books lE^Jiii^n D^"tDa) shall have no share 
in the life to come." To this the Palestinian Talmud adds : " for 
example, the books of Ben Sii'a and Ben La'ana." But the 
reading of Homer and all other books written thereafter shall 
be accouiUed as the reading of a letter. On what ground? 
Thev may be read, but not to weariness" (Sanh. 3!*a). This 
piissage is usually considered incomprehensible. In the first 
place, its severity against Ben Sira is not intelligible : secondly, 
it is not clear why the books of Homer should be preferred to 
Eccleslasticus ISirach); thirdly, in one of the Baraitot (Sanh. 
Itliai it is said that the books of heretics are meant (S^J^C ^"iDC), 
aud only Joseph, a Babylonian amora