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Jewish Encyclopedia 



Prepared by More than Four Hundred Scholars and Specialists 


Cyrus, Ph.D. (Departments of Post- Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D. {Departments of 

Biblical Antiquities ; the fews of America). Theology and Philosophy). 

GOTTHARD DEUTSCH, Ph.D. (Department of Herman Rosenthal (Department of the Jews of 

History from 1492 to / 9 oj). Russia and Poland). 

Riuhard GoTTHEIL, Ph.D. (Departments of _ _ „ . . _ ,. 

History from Ezra to 140a; History of Post- SOLOMON SCHECHTER, M.A., LlTT.D. (Depart- 

Talmudic Literature). '""" "J the Talmud). 

Emu. G. HlRSCH, Ph.D., LL.D. (Department of Isidore Singer, Ph.D. (Department of Modern 

the Bible). Biography from 1750 to 1903). 

Joseph Jacobs, H.A. (Departments of the fews Crawford H. Toy, D.D., LL.D. (Departments 

of England and Anthropology ; Revising Editor). of Hebrew Philology and Hellenistic Literature). 

ISAAC K. FUNK, D.D., I.I..I). 

Chairman of the Board 

Secretary 0/ the Board 

William Popper, M.A., Ph.D. 

Associate Revising Editor ; Chief of the Bureau of Translation 

Protector and Managing Editor 








Jewish Encyclopedia 



Prepared by More than Four Hundred Scholars and Specialists 


Cyrus Adler, Ph.D. (Departments of Post- Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D. (Departments of 
Biblical Antiquities ; the few s of America). Theology and Philosophy). 

Gotthard Deutsch, Ph.D. (Department of Herman Rosenthal (Department of the fews of 
History from 1492 to f<poj). Russia and Poland). 

RICHARD GotTHEIL, Ph.D. {Departments of „ „ ,, . T _ . _ „ 

■o 1402; History of Post- SOLOMON SCHECHTER, M.A., LlTT.D. (Depart- 

History from Ezra to 1492 ; History of . 
Talmudic Literature) 

merit of the Talmud). 

EMU C;. Hirsch, Ph.D., LL.D. (Department of ISIDORE Singer, Ph.D. (Department of Modern 

the Bible). Biography from /?jo to 1903). 

Joseph Jacobs, B.A. (Departments of the fews CRAWFORD II. TOY, D.D., LL.D. (Departments 

of England and Anthropology; Revising Editor). of Hebrew Philology and Hellenistic Literature). 


Chairman 0/ the Board 

Secretary <'f the Board 

William Popper, M.A., Ph.D. 
Associate Revising Editor ; Chief of the Bureau of Translation 


Protector and Managing Editor 






m DCC C C n 1 

Copyright, 1903, by 

All rights of translation reserved 

Registered at Stationers' Hall, London, England 
[ Printed in the United States of A merka ] 






(Departments of l',,st-liii,li,al Antiquities ; tlu .l,wsof 
President of the American Jewish Historical Society; Libra- 
rian. Smithsonian Institution. Washington, D. C. 

[Department of from USitolBOS.) 

Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, 
Ohio : Editor of " Deborah." 


(Deportments of History from Ezra t<< 149*; History of 

Post-Talmudic l.iu roturi .1 

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; 

Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library ; 

President of the Federation of American Zionists. 

n, payrtmi r>( of llu Bfltu .1 
Rabbi of Chicago Slnal Congregation, Chicago. 111.; Professor of 
Rabbinical Literature and Philosophy, University ol 

Chicago ; Editor of " The Reform Advocate." 


tli< i«irtmi ni* itf 11, ■ ./.us ,,f England and Anthropology ; 

Hi rising Editor.) 

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of F.ngland ; 

Author ol "Jews of Angevin England." etc. 

{Departments of Theology: Philosophy.) 

President of Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio; Rabbi 
Emeritus of Temple Beth-F.1, New York. 

(Department of the Jews of Russia and Poland.) 
Chief "f the Slavonic Department, New York Library. 

(Department of the Talmud.) 

President of the Faculty of the Jewish Theological Seminary of 
America, New York ; Author of " Studies In Judaism." 


Managing editor. 

(Deixirtmcnt of Modern Biography from 1760 to isos.) 


(Departments of Hebreu riiil,,i,„jti ami lldknistic 

Literatim . 1 

Professor of Hebrew in Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.; 

Author of " The Religion of Israel," etc. 

I. K. FTJNK, D.D., LL.D. 
[Chairman of the BoardJ) 

h.. in. n-in-Chlef of the Standard Dictionary of tue English 
Language, etc. 


1 Si it-, lain a' Hi, It, „ 1 nt.) 
Associate Editor of the Standard Dictionary, "The Colum- 
bian Cyclopedia," etc. 


(Associate Revising Editor; Chief of the Bureau 0) 


Author of " Censorship of Hebrew Books." 


Rabbi of the Congregation Zlchron Ephralm; instructor In the 
Bible and In Hebrew Grammar, Jewish Theological Semi- 
nary of America, New York. 


Rabbi Emeritus of Zlon Congregation. Chicago, III.; Author of 

"A Practical Grammar of the Hebrew Language." 



Late Rabbi Emeritus ol Temple Emanu-El, New York. 


Head of the Department ol Semitic and Egyptian Literatures, 

' athollc University of America, Washington, D. 0. 

Rabbi Emeritus of iiie Congregation Etodef Shalom, Philadel- 
phia, Pa.; Author ol " Dictionary of the Talmud." 


Professor of Semitic Languages and Librarian in the University 
of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.; Author or "Re- 
ligion of the Babylonians and Assyrians, 11 etc. 


Professor "f Oriental Languages, University College, Toronto, 

Canada; Author of " History, Prophecy, and 

the Monuments." 


Rabbi of the Shearith Israel Congregation 1 Spanish and Portu- 
guesei. New York ; President of the Board "f Jewish 
Ministers. New York. 




Late i brew I Dion Colli 

lutbor of " Introduction to the Talmud." 


Professor of Biblical Literature and the History of Religions 

In Harvard i Diversity, c ambrldge, Mass.; Author oi 

■• a Commentarj on the BooS of Judges," etc 


Rabbi ol the Congregation Bene Israel : Professor of Homlletics, 

Hebrew Onion College, Cincinnati, Ohio; President of 

Hebrew Sabbath Scow i Onion of America. 


Professor of Semitic Languages and Literatures, University of 

Chicago, in.; Author of "The Monuments and 

the Old Testament, 11 etc. 


President of Central Conference of American Rabbis: Rabbi of 

Temple Emanu-El, New York. 


Rabbi of tin- ( ougregation Emanu-El, San Francisco, Cal.; Pro- 
fessor of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Uni- 
versity of California, Berkeley. Cal. 


Editor of "The Literary Digest." New York; Author of "Stories 
in Rhyme," etc. 



Coeditor of " Tin- Jewish Quarterly Review ": A uthor of " Jew- 
ish Life In the Middle Ages," etc.; Reader iu Talmudlc, 
Cambridge University, England. 

W. BACHER, Ph.D., 

Professor in the Jewish Theological Seminary, Budapest, 

M. BRANN, Ph.D., 
Professor in the Jewish Theological Seminary, Breslau, Ger- 
many ; Editor of " Monatsschrift fur Ueschiehte und 
Wlssenschafl des Judentbums." 

H. BRODY, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Nachod. Bohemia, Austria: Coeditor of "Zeitscbrift fur 
HebrSJsche Bibliographle." 


Principal of the Jewish Theological Seminary, Constantinople, 



Professor of Literal Arabic at the Special School of oriental 

Languages, Paris ; Member of the lustitut de France. 

Autboroi "Istoriya Yevreyev," Odessa, Russia. 


Principal of Jews' College, London, England; Author of "The 

Jewish Religion," etc, 


Professor of Semitic philology. University of Budapest, 


Chief Rabbi i ustria. 

si. Petersburg, i:u^ki, 


■ lef ol the Hebrew Department of tic Imperial Public Lib r;lr y, 
si. Petersburg, Russia, 


Chief Rabbi of France; President of the Alliance 

l-r. elm- i alversi lie: Officer of the I,, 
of Honor, Parts, France. 


Rabbi. Budapest, B I ponding Member of the 

Royal Academj •■; History, Madrid, Spain. 



Late Professor Emeritus of Psychology, University of Berlin; 

Meran, Austria. 


Member of the French Institute: Professor at the Free School 

of Political Science, Paris, France; Author of 

" Israel chez les Nations." 


Professor in the Jewish Theological Seminary ; Editor of 
" Reyue ties Etudes Juives," Paris, France. 


Chief Rabbi of Padua; Trofessor of Hebrew at the University, 

Padua, Italy. 


Chief Rabbi of szegediu. Hungary : A uthor of " Die Aramaiscuen 


Principal of the Jewish Tl logical Seminary; Chief Rabbi of 

Florence, Italy. 

H. OORT, D.D., 

Professor of Hebrew Language and Archeology at the state 
University, Leyden, Holland. 


Formerly Librarian of the Reale Biblioteca Palatina, Parma, 


Formerly Professor of History at the Universities of Bonn and 

Brussels; President of the Deutseh-Jiidische 

Gemeindebund, Berlin. Germany. 


Rabbi in Warsaw. Russia. 


Secretary-General of the Jewish Colonization Association, Paris, 


Professor of Philosophy. University of Bern, Switzerland : Editor 
of " Arclm fiit- Geschlchte der Philosophic." etc 

Professor of old Testament Exegesis and Semitic Lang 
University of Berlin, Germany. 


Master of St. John's College, Cambridge, England; Editor of 
" >avniL's of the Jewish Fathers," etc. 



A. — Rules for the Transliteration of Hebrew and Aramaic. 

1. All important names which occur in the Bible arc cited as found in the authorized King James 

version ; e.g., Moses, not Mosheh ; Isaac, not Yizl.iak ; Saul, not Sha'ul or Shaiil ; Solomon, not 
Shelomoh, etc. 

2. Names that have gained currency in Knglish books on Jewish subjects, or that have become 

familiar to English readers, are always retained and cross-references given, though the topic 
be treated under the form transliterated according to the system tabulated below. 

3. Hebrew subject-headings arc transcribed according to the scheme of transliteration; cross-refer- 
ences are made a-s in the case of personal names. 

4. The following system of transliteration has been used for Hebrew and Aramaic : 

X Not noted at the beginning or tin ■ i nil. of a word ; otherwise' or by dieresis; e.g., Ze'eb or Me'ir. 
2 b T z 7 I 3 with dagesh, p & sh 

} a r\ h o m t, without dagesh, j jg s 

id c i : u v ? n t 

PI l> ' .'/ D 8 p k 

\ to 3ft V ' 1 '" 

NOTE : The presence of dagesh lene is not noted except in the case of pe. Dagesh forte is indi- 
cated by doubling the letter. 

5. The vowels have been transcribed as follows: 

u —a — e \ o 

— e — e — .j iri 

— i , e — a 1 tt 
Kannv hatuf is represented by o. 

The so-called " ( 'ontinental " pronunciation of the Knglish vowels is implied. 
<>. The Hebrew article is transcribed as ha, followed by a hyphen, without doubling the following 

letter, [Not hak-Kohen or hak-Cohen, nor Rosh ha-shshanah.] 

B.— Rules for the Transliteration of Arabic. 

1. All Arabic names and words except such as have become familiar to English readers in another 
form, as Molitniinteil, h'ormi, noisi/He, are transliterated according to the following system : 

\ See 

K above 

£ Teh 

, ish j gh u " 



s ? uJ/ ff h 

l ^}t 

i fl 

J> d j k ) '" 



t i ^) ft S* 'J 

ZL i 

) z 

L- J' 


\JU s 

t (* '" 

8. Only the three 

\ o\\ els 

-a. i, u — 


represented : 


- a 


i — u 

No account has been taken of the imalah: 

i has not been written e, nor u written o. 

* in nil other matters of orthographj the Bpellfng preferred bj the 8t utdard Di< tionary has usually been followed. Typo 
graph Ii a i ■ ■■■ b have rendered occasional deviations from th< i eo wry. 


It. The Arabic article is invariably written al; no account being taken of the assimilation of the J to 
the following letter; e.g., Abu ul-Salt. not Abu-1-.Salt: Nafis al-Daiihih, not Nafis ad-Dautah. 
The article is joined by a hyphen to the following word. 

4. At the end of words the feminine termination is written ah ; but, when followed by a genitive, 

at : e.g., Risalah dhJat al-Kursiyy, but III' at al-Aflak. 

5. No account is taken of the overhanging vowels which distinguish the cases ; e.g., 'Amr, not 'Amru 
or 'Amrun; Ya'kub, not Ya'kubun ; or in a title, Kitab al-Amarutt wal-I'tikadat. 

C. — Rules for the Transliteration of Russian. 

All Russian names and words, except such as have become familiar to English readers in another 
form, as Czar, Alexander, deciatine, Moscow, are transliterated according to the following system : 

A a 













II n 





h, v, or g 












e and ye 






JK at 












II H I i 




















III in 


Rules for the Citation of Proper Names, Personal and Other-wise. 

1. Whenever possible, an author is cited under bis most specific name; e.g., Moses Nigrin under 

Nigrin : Moses Zacuto under Zacuto ; Moses Rieti under Rieti; all the Kimhis (or Kamhis) 
under Kimhi ; Israel ben Joseph Drohobiczer under Drohobiczer. Cross-references are freely 
made from any other form to the most specific one ; e.g., to Moses Vidal from Moses Narboni : to 
Solomon Nathan Yidal from Menahem Me'iri ; to Samuel Kansi from Samuel Astruc Dascola ; 
to Jedaiah Penini from both Bedersi and En Bonet ; to John of Avignon from Moses de 

2. When a person is not referred to as above, he is cited under his own personal name followed 

by his official or other title : or, where he lias borne no such title, by " of " followed by the place 
of his birth or residence ; e.g., Johanan ha-Sandlar ; Samuel ha-Nagid ; Judah ha-Hasid ; Ger shorn 
of Metz; Ismic of Corbeil. 

If. Names containing the word d\ de, da, di, or van, von, y, are arranged under the letter of 
the name following this word; e.g.,, de Pomis under Pomis, de Barrios under Barrios, Jacob 
d'lllescas under Tllescas. 

4. In arranging the alphabetical order of personal names ben, da, de, di, ha-, ibn*, of have not 
been taken into account. These names thus follow the order of the next succeeding capital letter : 

Abraham of Augsburg Abraham de Balnies Abraham ben Benjamin Aaron 

Abraham of Avila Abraham ben Baruch Abraham ben Benjamin Ze'eb 

Abraham ben Azriel Abraham of Beja Abraham Benveniste 

* When Ibn has como to be a specific part of a name, ae Ibn Ezra, such uame is treated in its alphabetical place under "I." 


[Self evident abbreviations, particularly those used in the bibliographies, are not im-luiled here. ] 

Ah \lmt. ]'u k. 

Ab. H. N Ibot de-Rabbi Natan 

"ai>. Zarah. 'Abodab Zarah 

ad frx ni the place 

a.ii in the year of tbe Heglra 

aiil'. Zeit. des Jud..Allgemelne Zeltung dee Judenthuma 
Am. Jew. Hist Boc. American Jewish Historical Society 

A Lang Ur ' > """ '■ imerican Journal ol Semitic Languages 
Anglo-Jew. Assoc. .Anglo-Jewish Assoi 

Apoc Lpocalypse 

Apocr Apocrypha 

Apost. Const Ipostollcal Constitutions 

'Ar 'A rakln (Talmud) 

Arch. isr Archives Israelites 

Arnnius Rwrestfin ' Aronlus, Regesten zur Geschlchte der Juden 
AronuiNU. gesten , in rjeutschland 

A. T Das Alte Testament 

A. V Authorized Version 

b ben <>/• bar or born 

B Amor **' Bab 'l I!; "' ll,r - Agadader Babylonlschen Amorfter 
Bacber, Ag. P&l. ' Bacher, Agada der I'alastiiiensiseheu Amo- 

Amor. I 

Bacher, \u r Tan ...Bacber, Agada derTannalten 

B. 1! Baba Batra (Talmud) 

B.0 before the Christian era 

Bet Bekorot (Talmud) 

Benzlnger, Arch... Benzlnger, Hebr&lscbe Archaologle 
Ber Berakol (Talmud) 

B «5uift er h '~' i festschrift *"'» ""ten Geburtstag Berlinera 
Berliner's liner's Hagazln fnr die Wlssenschaft des 

■ Judentbums 

Bft Blkkurim (Talmud) 

B. K Baba Eamma (Talmud) 

B. M Baba Uezl'a (Talmud) 

liliil. Hah Blbllotheca Babbh 

InAcad.HIst. j 80 ,^^,?,!, 18 " ,: " Academtoae "' »"*>ria 

n-nniB U fc_|. Biiui's JabrbQcher fur Judlsche Geschlchte 

Br """ • l '"'"' I mi. I I. Hi. Tatar 

Bulletin ah. isr Bulletin ol the Alliance Israelite t nivi 


rant Canticles (Song ol Bo) 

Cat. Angl, .-.lew. (Catalogue of Anglo-Jewish Historical Ex- 

llist. Exb I bibitlon 

Notes Bib- ' Cazes, Notes Blbllograpblquessurla l.ittcra- 

Uograpblques . . I ture Julve-Tuntslenne 

c.i mon era 

eh ihapter 01 chapt ra 

' ll ( '' 1 '; ( , \'';" l |! l l i ';[ ; " k ' [ < heyneand Black, Encyclopaedia BlbUca 

nhwntmn IiiMIbb ( Becuefl des Travaux R&Ilges en Memolre 
v , , duJublWSclentlflquedeM. Daniel ( 

""""" I son, 18(6 

0.1. a Corpus Inscriptlonum attlcarum 

c. l. o < it i in- Inscriptlonum Graecarum 

C. I. H i "i I .us Inscriptlonum Hebraicarum 

c. I. l Corpua Inscriptlonum Latlnarum 

C. I. s i orpua Inscriptlonum Semltlcarum 

i ip compare 

ii died 

It Deuteroi ist 

ii.' Gubernatls, I be Gubernatls, Dlzlonario Blograflco degll 

Hi/. Blog i Scrlttori i ontempi 

hi Gubernatls, (De Gubernatls, Dlctlonnalre Internationa] 

lour ' dea Bci Ivalna du Jour 
Hi. le Km. Juden- {. De le Roi, Geschlchte del Evaugellschen 

urn i Juden-Mlsslon 

Iiciii iii-iiiiii (Talmud) 

Darenbonra nisi ' Derenbourg, Essalsur I'Histolre el la Geo- 

ii.i, Dbourg, mst. , p^pi 1;l paiejtin, 

De Rossi, Dlzlo-j.De Rossi, Dlzlonarlo Mm degll tutor! 

iiaii.i i Ebrel •■ delle Loro 

In- Roesl-Ham-iDe Rossl-Hamberger, Hlstorischea '•'■ 
berger, Hist. buch der Judisoheu Schrlftsteller und 
tvorti ii. \ Ihrer Werke 

E Eloblsi 

i.i ' i Eccleslastea 

1 1 1 ins, -n nil in leslastlcus 

fl edition 

•F.duv 'Eduyot (Talmud) 

■Haoniumr ni.ur t Ludwig Klscllbel g's l,n.ssi-s Ulngruptllselies 

bisininrg, nmg.. u . X [ klll , ucuisciien BOhne Im XIX 

,A ' X I .lalirlilili.l. -it 

Encyc I'm BncyclopaBdla Biitannlca 

Kng English 

Eplpbanlus, Haeres. Eplphanius, Adversua Haer 

'K.r 'iiiii, in (Talmud) 

i rscband I ErschandGruber, Allgemelne Encyklopadle 

Gruber, Encyc. I der Wlssenscbafl und Konste 

is, i Esdras 

, ! -- u and fnH'iwiiiL' 

Buseblus, Hist. BccLEuseblus, Historia Eccleslastica 

i lank-i. Uebo Prankel, Mebo Ferushalml 

Fttrst, Blbl. Jud....Furst. Blbllotheca Judalca 

^^; '''* I Furat ' Geschlchte des Kariierthums 

B Bertsitofks f f Gaiter, Bevis Mai k s Memorial Volume 

( Gelger, TJrschrift und ITebersetzungen der 

Gelger, TJrschrift. -j Blbel in Ihrei \ Lnglgkeit von der In- 

' neren Entwicklung dea .ludenthums 

i .a,. ,.-i,, i y it * Geiger's Zi-itsriirift fiir Wlssen- 
' '-" »Jua.^eii. | ^. h;llI ||THl h| , h ,, n 

Gelger'sWlss. (Gelger's Wlssenschaftllche Zeltsehrlft fur 
Zeit . .1 lid. Theol. f Jiidische Theologle 

Gem Gemara 

Gea i' Geschlchte 

Gesenlus, <;r Gesenius, Grammar 

I. • -s, -I ill IS. Th (iesennis, TIli-suurLls 

Gibbon. Decline I Gibbon, History of tin- Dei-line and Fallot 

and Fall i the Soman Empire 

,..■„.,„,„,. „.,.,„ Glnsburg'a Masoretlco-Crltlcal Edition of 
i.iustiurg s liitiii .. ( , hl , ,|,, brow Blb i e 

Lit i.ittin (Talmud) 

Graetz, Hist Graetz, Historj of tin- .lews 

Gratz, Gesch Gratz, Geschlchte der Juden 

I- ,-, ,i .. ,., „ „ ,. itifldeiuann, Geschlchte des Erzlehungs- 
i. u ,i I in a n n . Wl . s ,. ns ,„„! ,|,., cuitnr der Abendlandi- 
'' sl " I s.-in ii Judeu 

Hag Huggal 

Hag Hagigah (Talmud) 

Hal i.iaiiah (Talmud) 

Hamburger, i Hamburger, Realencyclopidle fiir Blbel 

It. It. T I unit Talmud 

" uni'ie'*' "" '■ ! Hastings, Dictionary of the Bible 

Hili Epistle to the Hebrews 

Hebr Masoretic Text 

Herzog-Plitt or) Real-EncyklopSdle f ilr ProtestanHsche The- 

Herzog-Hauck, - ologleund Kirclie cm and ;id editions re- 

Real-Encyc * spectlrely) 

ith- h ni .. i v * Hirsi-li. Itlngi-uphlselies I.exlknn der Hervur- 
inis, n, iii,i r .i.e.\. ! , . ltr , .,,,,, ., > er zte AUer Zelten und VOlker 

Hut- HOrayOt (Talniudl 

Hill Hiillln (Talmud) 

ih same place 

,,/. mi same anthiir 

lsi . Letterbode tsraelltlsche Letterbode 

.1 lalivlst 

loo^iuu.kan ' .laarlMieken voor de Israelite!! in Neder- 

jaarootkLn I | . UH| 

Ine„l,« » Juenbs. !lli|llity Into the Sources . if Spanish- 

Jacobs, iMiuiiis.. ( ,,. U1>|1 n, M ,„. v 

''"lii'i'iT \nglieVud' \ Jaoobsand Wolf, lllbiiothecaAnglo-Jiulali-a 
Jabrb. Gesch. der I Jahrbuch fiir die Geschlchte der Juden und 

,iud i dea Judentbums 

,„,,„„.. ,,„., l.lastriiw, liicilnnarv of the Targumlm. Tal- 

jastrow, unt j mudlm.and Uldrashlm 

Jelllnek. is. 11 lelllnek, Bel ha-Mldrash 

.i,-w. in run lew ish Chronicle, London 

Jew. Encyc Tin- Jewish Encyclopedia 

jew. Hist. Soc. Eng. Jewish Historical Socletj ,,f England 

j! w j'ii l ! a f"..^r.'} jewisnQuarteriyEeY,ew 

jew. World lewlsh World, London 

JosephUS, Ant losephns. A iitliinifii-s of the Jews 

JoaepbUS, B. J losephns. lie ltello Jllilnlco,'|,i,ns.c,,iiirn Ap.josepbus, Contra Aplonem 
Josh loshua 

Just's Alillaleli lust's Israelitische Alinuletl 

J,, nr. mi,. I. it loiiinai of Biblical Literature 

JusUn, Dial, cum i j ugUlli Dialogusonm li v phone Judteo 

k a n t in aii n (,,- i Gedenkbuch zurXrlnnerungan David Kauf- 

denkbucb I mann 

Kayserllng, Blbl. - Kayserling.BlbllotecaEspallola-Portugueza- 

Esp.-Port.-Jud.. , Judalca 

k, i Keritut (Talmud) 

Kei Ketubol (Talmud) 

k I, . I Kurzer Hand-Corn ntar zum Alien Testa- 

B ■ I melit. ed. Main 

Kid Elddusbin i ralmud) 

Kll KUaylin IT 

km Klnnliii (Talmud 

K '\ l !i , ii'nn,'-'""". : ' 1 I Senutto Studies In Memory ot A.Zohnt 


Krauss. Lehn- i Krauss. Griechische und Lateinlscbe Lehn- 

irter ( wbrter lm Talmud, Mldrasch und Targum 

I Larousse, Grand Dictlonnalre Universeldu 
Larousse,Dtet.... , x|Xr s „ 

}.c to the place cited 

Chal. 7, Cnaldaisches Worterbuch Qber die 

WOrterb I Targumim 

. vi) ILevy, Neuhebraisches und Chaldaischea 
Levy, xeuneor. worterbucb iiber die Targumim und Mid- 

WOrterb I rascbim 

lit literally 

'-'''••''-''•'' i '-'i^nm" , ' ( '' >PnSa " r "" ''"'' '" id ' S< ' llenLi " 

i \ \ Septus 

m married 

Ma'&serot (Tab 

Ma i. Mi Ma'aser Sbeni (Talmud) 


Ma 1 monldes, I M . lilllllIllll , s Mlll , ,, Nebukim 

ui ireh k 

Malmonldes, Fad ..Malmonldes, rad ba-Hazakan 

Mak Makkol (Talmud) 

Maksb Makshlrin (Talmud) 

M:is Masorah 

tfassek Massekel 

m riinf/v-t .,n,i I McCUntock and Strong, Cyclopaedia ol Bib- 
1 '.' """" **"" linil. Theological. and Ecclesiastical Liter- 

strong, i yc ... ( , iI]]lr 

tfes Megillah (Talmud) 

M,--i M,.'iiaii (Talmud) 

Mek Mekilta 

Hen Menahoi (Talmud) 

Mid Middol (Talmud) 

Mldr Midrash 

MIdr. Teh Midrash Tebillim (Psalms) 

Mik Mikwaol (Talmud) 

M.'K Mo'ed Katan (Talmud) 

,, . ..,. ( Moiiatssehrift fur Geschichte uud Wissen- 

Monatsschrifl ( sehaft des Judenthums 

Mortara, Indie*- Mortara, Indice Alfabetico 

MiilliT, Frag.llist. I Midler, Fragments Historicorum Grseco- 

Grsec i rum 

Munk. Melanges .) Mu t n ^ rab ^ lanKes de ™losophie Juive 

Murray's Eng. Dict.A. H. Murray, A New English Dictionary 

Naz . .". Nazir (Talmud) 

n.d no date 

Ned Nedarim (Talmud) 

Neg Nega'im 

Neubauer, Cat i Neubauer, Catalogue of the Hebrew MSS. 

Bodl.Hebr.Mss. i in the Bodleian Library 
Neubauer, G. T — Neubauer, Geograpble du Talmud 
Neubauer, M. J. C. .Neubauer, Mediaeval Jewish Chronicles 

D.p noplace of publication stated 

N. T New Testament 

Oest.Wochensclirift.oestcrrcicliisclie Woehenscbrift 

oh Ohalot (Talmud) 

(ink Onkelos 

Orient, Lit Literaturblatt des Orients 

O. T Old Testament 

P Priest ly Code 

Pnoel Kino- I e» J Pagel.Biographisches Lexikon Hervorragen- 
ragei, uiog. ".s. ■) der Al . rzte des x^unzehnten Jahrhunderts 
Pal. Explor. Fund. .Palestine Exploration Fund 

Pallas Lex Pallas Nagy Lexicon 

Pauly-Wissowa, I Pauly-Wlssowa, Real-EncyclopadlederClas- 

Real-Encyc * Bischerj Altettumswlssenscbalt 

Pes Pesablm (Talmud) 

Pesh Pesblto, I'eshitta 

iv-ik Peslkta de-Rab Kahana 

Peslk. It ivsikia Rabbatl 

I'lrke r. El Pirke Rabbi Ellezer 

R.... Kali or Rabbi or Kabbah 

1{: i!i""iitai'''"'' ! , ' :il " 1 " '' '" Judisches Utteratur-Blatt 

Regesty Regestj i Nadplsl 

Rev. Bib Revue Blbllque 

lm "- \ Bevue des Etudes Julves 

Rev. Sem Revue Semittque 

R. II it, .sli ba-Shanah (Talmud) 

(Una t'slu.lios ' Amador de lOS RlOS. EstUdlOS Hist<5ricos, 

kios, Ksmaios.... , p oIiUcoa j Llterartos, etc. 

nina Hut ' Amador de los Rios, Hlstoria . . . de los 

nios, nisi l Judiosde i rtugal 

rtltter ' Hitter. Hie Erdkunde ini verh&ltnls zur 
Bitter, hrdkiii,,!, . V|)ur im( , /m li( . M , ,,„.,,„. ,,,._ Mengcncn 

Robinson. Re-j Robinson, Biblical Researchesin Palestine 
searches ■ Mt. Sinai, and Arabia Petraea . . . 1838 

Robinson, Later Robinson, Later Biblical Researchesin Pal- 
Researches ' estlneandl enl Reg - . . . 1853 

Roest, Cat. IRoest, Catalog der Hebralca und Judaica 

Rosenthal. Bibl. I aus dec L. Rosenthal'schen Blbllothek 

R. V Revised Version 

Satfeld, Martyro- 1 Salfeld, Has Martyrologium des Niirnberger 

Logium ( Memorbuches 

Sanh sanlieiiiiii (Talmud) 

s. B. E Sacred Books ol the East 

H R ., T I Sacred iio-.k~ ,,f the old Testament) Poly- 

' • "• I chrome Bible, ed. Paul Baupl 

S 'Enev!''.! Z '"' ' Schaff-Herzog, A Religious Encyclopsadla 

Schrader, ' Scbrader, i unellorm Inscriptions and the 

C. I. o. T i Old Testament, Eng. transl. 

c^i,r^,/i„^ t- i t i Sclirader, Keilinsi-liriften und das Alio Tes- 
s, nra.ur, k.A. 1. - { t . um , llt 

Schrader, K. B Scbrader, Kellinscbriftliche Bibllotheb 

aehro.i,.,- k- i' p ' s.l i la. I . t. Keili iiselnif ten und Gescbichts- 
Scbrader.K. G.F.-j torscnung 

Scbfirer, Gescb Schurer, Geschichte des Jiidischen Volkes 

Sem Semabot (Talmud) 

Shab Shabbat (Talmud) 

Sheb Shebi'it ( Talmud) 

Shebu Sbebu'ot (Talmud) 

Shek Sbekallm (Talmud i 

Ml, v limes Sibylline Book- 
Smith, Kel. of Sem. .Smith. Lectures on Religion of the Semites 

stade-szeitsehrift ' St j£«' 8 ^SSSSf t™* l '"' A1,I, ' SUlll " n '- 
I liche Wissenscnail 

Sieinselinetder, ) Steinscbneider, Catalogue of the Hebrew 
Cat. Bodl ) Books in the Bodleian Library 

steinschneider I Steinschneider, Die Hebraischen n,nd- 
. . \i,,n i V Bcbrlften der K. Hot- und Staats-Biblio- 

Cat. Munich.... | t|l( . k |n Miin ,.„,.„ 

S, Hebr h BTw er ' ! Steinscbneider, Hebriiische Bibliographie 

St H"| S ,'r h l'el'er's ' Steinscbneider, Hebraische I ebersetzungen 

ai™/.!.- n., a ' straek. Das Blut im Glaubeu und Aber- 
strack, uas Blut.. ( K , aubeI] ,,,.,. Men scnhelt 

Suk Sukkah (Talmud) 

s.v under the word 

Ta'an Ta'anit (Talmud) 

Tan Tanhuma 

Targ Targumim 

Targ. ( ink Targum Onkel. is 

Targ. Yer Targum Yerusnalmi or Targum Jonathan 

Tern Temurah (Talmud) 

Ter Terumot (Talmud) 

Test. Patr Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs 

Toh Tohorot 

Tos Tosafot 

Tosef Tosefta 

transl translation 

Tr. s,,e. Bibl. i Transactions of the Society of Biblical Ar- 

Arch I chasology 

T. Y Tebul Yom (Talmud) 

'Uk '"Dkzin (Talmud) 

l"iii\ . Isr I'n'ivers Israelite 

^ Virchow's Arcbiv fiir Pathologische Anato- 
Vircbow's Archiv, mie und Physiologie, und fiir KUniaobe 
( Medizin 

Vulg -. Vulgate 

Weiss. Dor Weiss. Dor Dor we-Dorshaw 

Wellhausen, I Wellhausen. Israelitische und Jiidische 

I.J. G I Geschichte 

Winer, B. R Winer, Bibllsches Realwdrterbuch 

Wisdom Wisdom of Solomon 

Wolf, Bibl. Hein. ..Wolf. Blbliotbeca Bebreea 

... 7 ,. ., i Wiener Zeitschrilt fiir die Kuude des 

"■ L - K - " j Horgenlandes 

Yad Yadayim (Talmud) 

" Yad *' Yad ha-Hazakah 

Yalk Yalkut 

Yeb. Yebamot (Talmud) 

Yer Yernslialnii (Jerusalem Talmud i 

Yinvii Yahweh, Jehovah 

Zab Zablm (Talmud) 

„ n ,. .. I Zeitseiirift der Deutscheo MorgenlflncU- 

*■ "• "• I selletl (iesellsehaft 

Z. D. P. V Zeitseiirift des Deutschen Palastlna-Verems 

Zeb /.eliahim (Talmud i 

Zedner. cat. Helir. ' Zedner, Catalogue of the Hebrew Books in 

Books Brit.Mus. i the British Museum 

Zeit. fiir Assyr Zeitseiirift fiir Assyiiologie 

Zeit. fiir Heb'r. Bibl. Zeitseiirift fiir Hebraiscbe Bibliographie 
Zeillin. Bibl. Post- I Zeitlin. Bitiliotlieea Heliraiea I'ost-Mendels- 

Mendels i soliniana 

Zunz, (i.S Ziniz, (iesammelte Schriften 

Zunz, G. V Zunz, Goites, lienst liehe vortrSge 

Zunz, i.iteratur- (Zunz, Literaturgeschichte der Synagogalen 

geseh i Poesie 

7,,,.., in.,,,, i Zunz. Hie Kims ,les Synagogalen Gottes- 

zunz. Kitus | lh ,.„ >u . s 

Zunz, s. P Zunz. Synagogale Poi sledes Mlttelalters 

Zunz, z. t; Zunz. Zur Geschichte und i.itenuur 

\,'i e to the Reader. 
Subjects mi which Eurther information is afforded elsewhere in this work an indicated by the 
ii-i of capitals and small capitals in the text ; as, Abba Arika; Pdmbedita; Vocalization. 


A Cyrus Adler, Ph.D. , 

President ol the American Jewish Historical 

: President ol in.- Board of Directors of 

■ i-ii ideological Seminar] ol America; 

Librarian • .( the Smithsonian Institution, 

Washington, D. C. 

A. A. G AmSlie Andre' Gedalge, 

Paris, France. 

A. Bl Armand Blocb, 

I tile! Rabbi, Brussels, Belgium. 

A. Blum A. Blumgrund, Ph.D., 

Rabin. Carlsmhe, Baden, Germany. 

A. Bii Alexander Buchler, Ph.D., 

Babbl, Kesztbely, Comltal Zola, Hungary. 

A. Buch Adolf Buchler, Ph.D., 

Professor, Jewish Theological Seminary. 

v ienna, Austria. 
A. E A. Eckstein, Ph.D., 

Babbl, Bamberg, Germany. 

A. F A. Freimann, Ph.D., 

Editor ol il"' "Zeltschrlft fur Hebritlscht) 
grapble": Librarian ol the Hebrew 
Department, Btadtblbliothek, Frankfort-on- 
tbe-Haln, Germany. 

A. Fe Alfred Feilchenfeld, Ph.D., 

I ilpal "I the Realschule, Funh, Bavaria, 


A. G Adolf Guttmacher, Ph.D., 

Babbl, Baltimore, Mil. 

A. Ge A. Geiger, Ph.D., 

i rankfort-on-tbe-Maln, Gei many. 

A. Ha Alexander Harka vy, 


£• ^ a J A. Kaminka, Ph.D., 

Itulihl ^f the Wiener Israelltlsche 

Alllanz, Vienna, Austria. 

A. Kai Alois Kaiser, 

Cam ii . Temple ' ibeb Shalom, Baltimore, m.i 

A. Ki Alexander Kisch, Ph.D., 

Babbl, Prague, Bohemia, Austria. 

A. Ko Adolf Kohut, Ph.D., 

Berlin, < lei manj - 

A. Ku A. Kurrein, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Teplllz, Bohemia, Austria. 

A. Lew Adolf Lewinsky, Ph.D., 

Chlet Rabbi, Blldeshelm, Germany. 

A. M. F Albert M. Friedenberg, B.S., LL.B., 

Counselor al Law; Oorresi lent "f "The 

Jewish Com m," Baltimore, Md.; New 

Fort I 

A. P A. Porter, 

Formerlj Issoolate Editor of "The Forum," 
N.u \ ..rk ; Revising Editor "Standard Cyclo- 
pedia," New fort 

A. Pe A. Peiginsky, Ph.D., 

Ken Y..ik City. 
A. R A. Rhine, 

Rabbi, Hoi Springs, Ark. 

A. 8. W. R...A. S. W. Rosenbach, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

A. W Albert Wolf. 

[ucs.lcn. Saxony, (iiTinanv. 

B. B Benuel H. Brumberg, 

i ontributorto " National Cyclopi dlaof Amer- 
ican Biography," New York City. 

B - f, 1 ' J B. Friedberg, 

Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germans 

B. J Benno Jacob, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Goitlngen, Germany. 

B. P Bernhard Pick, Ph.D., D.D., 

Formerly Pastor ..f st. John's Lutheran 

Church. Albany. N. Y.; New York City. 

B. R Baer Ratner, 

Wlina, Russia. 

C. de B C. de Bethencourt, 

Lisbon, Portugal. 

C. F. K Charles Foster Kent, Ph.D., 

Professor ol Biblical Literature and History, 
Fale rniversity. New Haven, Conn. 

C. J. M Charles J. Mendelsohn, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

C. L. Caspar Levias, MA 

Instructor In Exegesis and Talmndlc Aramaic, 
Hebrew i ii College, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

C. S Carl Siegfried, Ph.D., LL.D. (deceased). 

Late Professor ol Theology at the University 
ol .icna. Germany. 

D Gotthard Deutsch, Ph.D., 

Professor ol Jewish History, Hebrew Union 
College, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

D. P David Philipson, D.D., 

Rabbi, I'.'ne Israel Congregation; Professor of 
BomileUCS, Hebrew Union College. Cincin- 
nati, Ohio. 

D. S. M David Samuel Margoliouth, 

Laudlan Professor ol Arabic in the i Diversity 
,.f Oxford, England. 

D. Su David Sulzberger, 

Philadelphia, Pa, 

E. C Executive Com. of the Editorial 


E. G. H Emil G. Hirsch, Ph.D., LL.D., 

Rabbi, si 11:11 Congregation 1 Professor of Rab- 
binical Literature and Phllosophs In the 1 nl- 
venlty "f Chicago; Chicago, III. 

E. I. N E. I. Nathans, 

Philadelphia, Pa, 

E. K Eduard Kb'nig, Ph.D., LL.D., 

Professor ol Old Testament Exegesis, I'ni- 
\ersity of Bonn, Germany. 

E. Lev Ezekiel Leavitt, 

Sew York lib 

E. Li Enno Littmann, Ph.D., 

Librarian "t the Oriental Department and 
Lecturer In Semitic Philology, Princeton Uni- 
versity,, N. J. 

E.Ms Edgar Mels, 

N.w Y..ik ( in. 

E. N. A Elkan N. Adler, 

London, England. 
E. Schr E. Schreiber. Ph.D., 

Babbl, Emanu-EI Congregation, Chicago, 111. 



E Sd E. Schwarzfeld, LL.D., 

Secretary ol Jewish Colonization Association, 
Paris, France. 

E. W. B Edward William Bennett, 

New York City. 

F. Bu Frants Buhl, Ph.D., 

Professor ol Semitic Philology, University ol 
Copenhagen, Denmark. 

F. G. H F. G. Hoffmann, 

Paterson, N. J. 

F H V Frank H. Vizetelly, F.S.A., 

Associate Editor ol the "Columbian Cyclo- 
pedia" and ol the Standard Dictionary, 
n.-w Fork City. 

F. L. C F.L.Cohen, 

Rabbi, Borough New Synagogue. London, 

England ; Coeditor of " Voice ol Prayer and 

F. P Felix Perles, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Konigsberg, East Prussia, Germany. 

F. T. H Frederick T. Haneman, M.D., 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 

(j Richard Gottheil, Ph.D., 

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia 
l Diversity, New York; Chief of the Oriental 
Department, New York Public Library: Presi- 
dent ol the Federation of American Zionists, 
New Fork City. 

G. A. B George A. Barton, Ph.D., 

Associate Professor in Biblical Literature and 
Semitic Languages, Bryn Mawr College. Bryn 
Mawr, Pa. 

G. A. K George Alexander Kohut, Ph.D., 

Formerly Rabbi In Dallas, Texas; New York 

B. L Gerson B. Levi, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Dr George Drenford, Ph.D., 

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 

!_, Goodman Lipkind, B.A., 

Rabbi, London, Englaud. 

Ho Godfrey Morse, 

Lawyer, Boston, Mass. 

R G. Rtilf, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Brunswick, Germany. 

S Gabriel Schwarz, Ph.D., 

Agram, Croatia, Austria. 

. A Herman Adler, 

Chlet Rabbi ol England, London, England. 

. B H. Brody, Ph.D., 

i oedltor of the "Zeitschrilt fur Hebrfiische 
Blbllographie " ; Rabbi, Nacbod, Bohemia, 

. Bl Heinrich Bloch, Ph.D., 

Professor of History, Jewish Theological sem- 
inary. Budapest, Hungary. 

H. R. 


H. V. 
I. A.. 
I. B... 
I. Be.. 

H. C Henry Cohen, 

Rabbi, Galveston, Texas. 

H. Fr Harry Friedenwald, M.D., 

Baltimore, Md. 

H. Gut H. Guttenstein, 

NeW Fori I 

H. H Henry Hyvernat. D.D., 

Professor ol Oriental Languages and Arche- 
i:\ersityof America, Wash- 
ing!. >n. D. C. 

H. Hir Hartwig Hirschfeld, Ph.D., 

Professor, Jews' I ollege, London, England. 

H. M Henry Malter, Ph.D., 

tsslstanl Prolessor, Hebrew Union College, 
Cincinnati, < ihlo. 

H. Ma Hilel Malachovsky, 

New York ' 

I. D. M.. 

I. E 

I. H. 
I. L.. 

.Herman Rosenthal, 

chief ol the Slavonic Department "f tin- New 
York Public Library, New York City. 

.Hermann Vogelstein, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Konigsberg, East Prussia, Germany. 

Israel Abrahams, 
Cambridge, England. 

.Isaac Bloch, 

Chief Rabbi, Nancy. France. 

.Immanuel Benzinger, Ph.D., 

Prolessor of (Hd Testament Exegesis, Uni- 
verslty ofBerlin, Germany. 

I. Ber Israel Berlin, 

Chemist, New Y'ork City. 

I. Br I. Broyde, 

Diplome' de I'Ecole des llautes Etudes; for- 
merly Librarian of the Alliance Israelite Uni- 
verselle, Paris, France; New York City. 

..I. D. Morrison, 

New York city. 

. .Ismar Elbogen, Ph.D., 

Instructor at the Lehranstalt fur die Wissen- 
schaft des Judenthums, Berlin, Germany. 

. .Isidore Harris, A.M., 

Rabbi ..f West London Synagogue, London, 

..Israel Levi, 

Professor in the Jewish Theological Seminary, 
Paris, France ; Editor of " Revue des Etudes 

I. M. C I. M. Casanowicz, Ph.D., 

United States National Museum, Washington, 
D. C. 

I. m. P Ira Maurice Price, B.D., Ph.D., 

Professor of Semitic Languages and Litera- 
tures, University of Chicago, 111. 

I. p. M I. P. Mendez, 

Rabbi, savannah, Ga. 

I. S L Schwartz, 

Paris, France. 

j Joseph Jacobs, B.A., 

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical 
Society of England; Corresponding Member 
of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid ; 
New York City. 

..J. Chotzner, 

Monteflore College, Ramsgate, England 

..J. D. Eisenstein, 

New York City. 

. . John Dyneley Prince, Ph.D., 

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia 
University, New Y'ork City. 

..J. D. Perruchon, 

Paris, France. 

. Joseph Ezekiel, J.P., 
B bay, India. 

J. Ch 

J. D. E 
J. D. P... 

J. D. Pe.. 

J. E 

J. F. McC 

J. G 

J. G. L.. 

J. H. G.. 
J. Hy... 
J. Jr 

J. Kla. 

..J. Frederic McCurdy, Ph.D., LL.D., 

professor of oriental Languages, University 
College, Toronto, Canada. 
..J. Guttmann, Ph.D., 

Professor. Jewish Seminary, Breslau, Ger- 

, J. G. Lipman, Ph.D., 

Assistant Agriculturist, New Jersey State Ex- 

perimenl Station, New Brunswick, N. J. 
Julius H. Greenstone, 

Rabbi, Philadelphia, Pa. 
. J. Hyams, 

Bombay, India. 
. Morris Jastrow, Jr., Ph.D., 

Professor of Semitic Languages, Unlverelty ol 

Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 
..J. Klausner, Ph.D., 

Odessa RUSSia 


J. M Jacob Marcus, 

Elmira, N. V. 

J. So Joseph Sohn, 

rlbutor to"The New International En- 
ledla"; formerly ..( "The Borum," New 

York ( in. 

J. Sr Marcus Jastrow, Ph.D., 

Etabbl Emeritus "f Congregation Bodei Bba 
torn, Philadelphia, Pa. 

J. Sto Joseph Stolz, Ph.D., 

Babbl, Chicago, 111. 

J. S. R J. S. Raisin, 

llabbi. i.rmiluth Chesed Congregation, l"mi 
Gibson, Miss. 

J. T J. Theodor, Ph.D., 

Rabbi. Bojanowo, Posen, Germany. 

J. V Jacob VoorsanKrer, D.D., 

Rabbi. Emanu-EI ( ongregadon, Sao Francisco, 
Cal.; l'nifessor of Semitic Languucc" ;iti. ! 
Literature, University <if California, Berkeley, 

J. W Julien Weill, 

Rabbi, Paris, France. 

K Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D. , 

Rabbi Emeritus ol Temple Beth-El, New 
York; Presidenl "f the Hebrew Onion Col 
lege, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

X. H. C Karl Heinrich Cornill, Ph.D., 

Professor ol Hebrew and Old Testament Exe- 
i Diversity ol Breslau, Germany. 

K. M. C Katherine M. Cohen, 

New Fork city. 

L. A. P. Ludwig A. Rosenthal, 

Babbl, [togas n. Pi si a, Germany. 

L. B Ludwig Blau, Ph.D., 

Professorln the Jewish Theological Seminary, 
Budapest, Hungary; Editor ol "Magyar 


L. G Louis Ginzberg, Ph.D., 

Professor ol Talmud, Jewish Theological Sem- 
.( America, New York city. 

L. Gr Louis Grossman, 

Etabbl, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

L. Grii Lazarus Griinhut, 

ii Asylum, Jerusalem, Pales- 

L. La Laura Landau, 

New i ork City. 

L. N. D Lewis N. Dembitz, 

Attorney al Law, Louisville, By. 

L. V Ludwig Venetianer, Ph.D., 

: tbbl in Neupest, Hungary. 

M. B Moses Beer, 

a, '.''i many. 

M. Ba Moritz Bauer, Ph.D., 

Babbl, Gs .i. Moravia, Austria. 

M. Bl Maurice Bloch, 

Principal ol the Blschoffshelm School at 
i ';u is, 1 1 ance, 

M. Br M. Brann, Ph.D., 

Professor, Jewish Theological Seminary, 
r.: lu, Germany. 

M. Co Max Cohen, 

Attornej al Law, New Fork < it y. 

M. Da Myer Davis, 

London, England. 
M. F Michael Friedlander, Ph.D., 

Principal Jews' College, i Ion, England, 

M. Fi Maurice Fishberg, M.D., 

Burgeon to the Beti Israel Hospital Dispen- 
sers ; Medical Examiner to the 1 nited Hebrew 
Charities, New Fork city. 

M. Fr M. Franco, 

Principal ol the Alliance Israelite Cnlverselle 
School, Shumla, Bulgaria. 

M. G M. Giidemann, Ph.D., 

Chief Rabbi, Vicuna, Austria. 

M. Gi M. Ginsberger, 

Babbl, Gebweller, Alsace, Germany. 

M. Gr M. Grunwald, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Vienna. Ansa [a. 

M. K Meyer Kayserling, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Budapest, Hungary. 

M. Lev M. Level, 

Paris, France. 

M. R Max Rosenthal, M.D., 

\ Isltlng Physician, German Dispensary, New 
York City. 

M. Sc Max Schloessinger, Ph.D., 

Kabbi. New Sort City. 

M. Sel M. Seligsohn, 

Dlplome de l'Ecole des Hautes Etudes, Paris, 
France; New York City. 

M. W Max Weisz, Ph.D., 

Budapest, Hungary. 

M. W. M....Mary W. Montgomery, Ph.D., 
n.'a York City. 

M. W. R M. W. Rapoport, 

Lemberg, Gallcla, Austria. 

N. D N. Dunbar, 

Newark, N*. J. 

N. E N. Ehrenfeld, Ph.D., 

Chief Babbl, Prague, Bohemia, Austria. 

N. L N. Lucas, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, i.l'iL'au, silesla, Germany. 

N. T. L N. T. London, 

New Fork City. 

P. B Philipp Bloch, Ph.D., 

Babbl, Posen, Germany. 

P. Wi Peter Wiernik, 

New Fork City. 

R. Grii Richard Griinfeld, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Bingen, Hesse, Germany. 

R. W. R Robert W. Rogers, D. D. , Ph.D. , 

Protessorol HebrewandOId Testament Exe- 
gesis, Drew Theological Seminary, Madison, 


S Isidore Singer, Ph.D., 

Managing Editor, New York city. 

S. B Samuel Baeck, Ph.D., 

Babbl, Lissa, Posen, Germany, 

S. E Samuel Ehrenfeld, Ph.D., 

Prague, Bohemia, Austria. 

S.J S. Janovsky, 

Lawyer, st. Petersburg, Russia. 

S. K S.Kahn, 

Rabbi, Niiiies, France. 

S. Kr S. Krauss, Ph.D., 

Professor, Normal Couege, Budapest, Hungary. 

S. M S. Mendelsohn, Ph.D., 

Babbl, Wilmington, v 0. 

S. Man S. Mannheimer, B.L., 

Instructor, Hebrew i olon College, Cincinnati, 
i ihlo. 

S. M. D S. M. Dubnow, 

I lilessa, BUSSla. 

S. Mu s. Mali .n... 

char Babbl, Gratz, Styrla, Austria. 

S. Miin Sigmund Miinz, Ph.D., 

Vienna, Austria, 


S. R. D S. R. Driver, D.D., 

Regius Professoi ol Hebrew, Oxford Uni- 
. . Oxford, England. 

S. Ro S.Rothschild, 

Worms, Germany. 

S. S Solomon Schechter, M.A., Litt.D., 

Dean ol the Jewish Theological Seminary ol 
America, New rork City. 

S. Sa Sigismund Salfeld, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Mayence, Hesse, Germany. 

S. Sam Salomon Samuel, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Essen, Rhine Province, Germany. 

S. Se Sigmund Seeligmann, 

Unsterdam, Holland. 

S. S. W Stephen S. "Wise, Ph .D., 

Rabbi, Portland, Ore. 

T Crawford Howell Toy, D.D., LL.D., 

Professor of Hebrew, Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Mass. 

T. Se Thomas Seltzer, 

Philadelphia. Pa. 

U. C TJmberto Cassuto, 

Florence, Italy. 

V. E Victor R. Emanuel, 

Laurel, Md. 
V. R Vasili Rosenthal, 

Kremenchng, Russia. 

W. B W. Bacher, Ph.D., 

Professor, Jewish Theological Seminary, Buda- 
pest, Hungary. 

W. M.-A W. Muss-Arnolt, Ph.D., 

Assistant Professor of Biblical Philology. Uni- 
versity of Chicago, 111. 

W. M. M W. Max Muller. Ph.D., 

Professor "f Bible Exegesis. Reformed Epis- 
copal Theological Seminary, Philadelphia, l'a. 

W. N William Nowack, Ph.D., 

Professor ol Old Testament Exegesis. I'ui- 
versity of Strasburg, Germany. 


X. I!. — In the following list subjects likely to be sought f«>r under various headings are repeated 

under each heading. 

i ■ v < . j: 
Aaron of Lincoln, Starr of, Acknowledging Receipt of Part Payment from Richard Malebys, 1181. 

In the British Museum 108 

Abraham, Son of Maimonides, Autograph Letter of. From the < lairo Genizah plate facing 613 ssinia, Falasha Village at Balankab 829 

1 Type Of a Falasha Woman 328 

•• 'Akcdal Vi/hak." Page from [saac Arama's, Printed by Gedaliah, Salonica, 1522 581 

Almemor (Reading Desk) and Pulpil of the Florence Synagogue 418 

Ann aophis III . see Steli 

rdam, Medal Struck in Honor of Eleazar ben Samuel bj the Community of W4 

Amulet Prepared by Jonathan Eybeschutz 309 

Anthropology : see Ti pi s, Jewish. 

:> Bee Coins; Egypt; Glass; Inscriptions; Tombs, 
Architecture: see Frankfort-on-the-Main ; House; Synagogues; Tombs; Vai i ,t. 

Arithmetic, First Hebrew: Page from Elijah Mizrahi's "Mispar," Printed by Soncino, 1582 45 

Art : see Am beology ; Archttecturi Cases Costumj Key; Mani scripts; Medal; Typography. 
Bee Abraham, Sob of Maimonides; Emden, Jacob; Eybeschutz, Jonathan. 

Baltimore, Medal Presented to Leon Dyer by the Community of, 1847 38 

v, e K-nii i; , Genesis; Pen rATEt i Bt. 

Bottle, Ornamented, Found in a Jewish Catacomb at Rome 078 

si-c- also Gi las 

Cairo Genizah, Autograph Letter of Abraham, 8 fMaimonides, Found in the plate facing 612 

New S; at 07 

Plan of theCitj of, Twelfth Century (i;! 

Silver, for Etrog 363 

Cases, Olive W I, foi Scrolls of Esthi r. From Jerusalem 288 

Silver, for Scrolls of Esther 385 

Catacomb see Bon i i i. 

lonial: see Elijah, Chair oi ; Firsi Born, R) demption of, 

Chair of Elijah as Used in the monj of Circumcision 128 139 

Cbarlesof Anjou Presenting Arabic Manuscript to Fa u for Translation. From an illumination by 

I'ii Giovanni 843 

Chirograph Containing an Agreement Between Isaac of Northampton and Dame Margaret de Hue, 

1316. In the Record Office, I don 285 

Circumcision Ceremonj In Holland, circa 1725 129 

Citron : Bee ETROG. 

Coin- see Eleazar ben Simon; Elephant; Herod the Great; Nerva; Simon Maccabei 
Colophon and Printer's Mark ol Abraham Usquo on the Last Page oi Hasdai Crescas' "Oi Adonai," 

Ferrara, 1555 :! ~1 

Columbia University Library ; see Mizrahi, Elijah; Oh Adonai; 'I i n Orah Hayyxm. 

Conferet I Franco- Jewish Rabbis, Thirteenth Century, From a miniature in the Bibliotheque Na 

tionalc, Paris 157 

Cost ume, France (Thirteenth ( tentury) 457 

Frankfort on tin- Ma in (Early S< venteentlt and Eighteenth Centuries) 871 



Costume, Forth (Early Eighteenth Century) 536 

Germany (Sixteenth Century) 44 

Holland (Early Eighteenth Century) 129, 395 

Jerusalem (Modern) 49 

Nuremberg (Early Eighteenth Century) 564 

see also Dubno, Solomon; Edrehi, Moses; Palk, Hayyim; Firkovicii, Abraham ; Frank, 

Jacob; Ghazzati, Nathan. 

( Irescas, Hasdai, Last Page from " Or Adonai " of. Printed at Ferrara, 1555 371 

Deed : see CHIROGRAPH. 
Documents: see Manuscripts. 
Dress; see Costume. 

Dubno, Solomon, Russian Hebrew Scholar 7 

Dukes, Leopold, Hungarian Historian of Jewish Literature 10 

Over, Leon. Medal Presented to. by the Baltimore Community, 1*47 23 

Eagle, Reverse of Copper Coin Attributed to Herod the Great, Bearing an 26 

Edels, Samuel, Polish Rabbi 36 

Edict of Frederick the Great with Regard to the Conversion of the Jews 503 

Edrehi, Moses, Moroccan Rabbi and Traveler 42 

Education : German Jewish School of the Sixteenth Century 44 

Modern Jewish School at Jerusalem 49 

Page from the First Hebrew Arithmetic, 1532 45 

Kg'i , Akiba, the Younger, German Rabbi 52 

■ Solomon ben Akiba, German Rabbi 54 

Egypt : Israelites Building Storehouses for Pharaoh. From an early illuminated Haggadah 57 

Letter (Papyrus) of an Egyptian Rabbi to Solomon ben Judah, Twelfth Century 65 

New Synagogue at Cairo 67 

Plan of the City of Cairo, Twelfth Century 63 

Syenite Stele of Amenophis III., with Added Inscription of Meneptall. Mentioning the Israelites 56 

Tell al Yahudiyyah (The Mound of the Jews) 59 

-see also Exodus; Fishing. 

Einhorn, David, American Rabbi 7b 

Eisenmenger, Johann Andreas; Title-Page of "Eutdecktes Judeuthum," Konigsberg. 1711 81 

"El Nora Alilah," Music of 87 

Eleazar ben Samuel, Medal Struck by the Amsterdam Community in Honor of 104 

ben Simon, Brass Coin of .■■ 94 

Elephant : Jewish Coin of the Maccabean Period, < lountermarked by an Elephant, the Symbol of the 

Seleucid Kings 105 

'■ Eli Ziyyon." Music of I 11 * 

Elijah Announcing the Coming of tin- Messiah. From an early illuminated Mahzor •. . 126 

Ascension of. From a ketubbah of the early nineteenth century 121 

The Prophet. From the first illustrated printed Haggadah, 1526 125 

— Chair of. After Leusden, 1657 128 

as I'sed in the Circumcision Ceremony, rirrn 1725 1-9 

Elijah ben Solomon of Wilna, Russian Rabbi and Author 134 

Emdeii. Jacob, Page from "Tur Orah Hayyim," 1702, Bearing Autograph Annotations of 151 

Em in Pasha (Eduard Sehnitzer), German Explorer 158 

•■ En Kelolienu . " Music of 135 

Endingen, Old Synagogue at. From Ulrich, 1768 157 

Engcdi, .Mount, in Judea 160 

England: Chirograph Containing an Agreement Between Isaac of Northampton and I lame Margaret de 

Hue, 1216 285 

Map showing Towns Where Jews Resided Before the Expulsion in 1290 167 

Starr of Aaron of Lincoln, 1181, Acknowledging Receipt of Part Payment from Richard Malebys. 163 

"Entdecktes Judenthum," Titli Page of Bisenmenger's, Konigsberg, 1711 81 

Erfurl Synagogue in 1357 200 

'Erubim, Diagrams Illustrating Forms of After Bodenschatz, 1748. 204 

Esau Seeking Isaac's Blessing From the Sarajevo Haggadah, fourteenth century 207 



Esdraelon, Plain of, with Mount Tabor in the Distance 219 

Esther, Illuminated Scroll of, Eighteenth Cenl ury Frontispiect 

Olive- \V I Case for Scroll oi Esther 238 

Scrolls of Esther :l s fixed in Cases 285, 238 

Traditional Tomb of Mordecai and 233 

"'El Sha'are Razon," Music of 243 

Etrog or Oil run 202 

Citron Tree with Etrogim 261 

Copper Coin of Simon Maccabeus, Bearing tin 262 

Silver Box for 262 

Europe: Map Showing the Comparative Density of Jewish Population per, in 1900 273 

see also Costume; Emu. and: Florence; Franci . Geneva; Germany. 

Exchequer of .bus; Chirograph Containing an Agreement Between Isaac of Northampton and Dame 

Mill aret lie Hue, 1210 285 

Exodus of Israelites from Egypt. From a printed Ilaggadah, 1823 295 

The Israelites Leaving Egypt and Crossing the Red Sea. From the Sarajevo Haggadah, four- 
teenth century 294 

Eybeschtttz, Jonathan, German Rabbi 308 

Amulet Prepared by 309 

Ezekiel, Traditional Tomb of, South of Birs Nimrud 315 

Joseph, Indian I lehraist 319 

Moses, statue of "Religious Liberty," by 320 

Ezra, Site of the Traditional Tomb of 322 

Falasha Village at Balankab, Abyssinia 329 

A\ oman, Showing Full Face and Profile 328 

Falk, Ilayyim, the " Ba'al Shi m. " English Cabalisl and Mystic 881 

Familiant : Marriage License I (ranted to a Jew of Nikolsburg, 1831 337 

Family \ aull , Ground Plan of a, in Talmudic Times 339 

Pane Page from Hai Gaon's "Musar Haskel," Printed in 1503 at. The first Hebrew 82mo 340 

Faraj, Charles of Anjou Presenting Arabic Manuscript for Translation to. From an illumination by 

Friar Giovanni 342 

Faro, Part of Page from Hebrew Pentateuch, Printed at, 1487. In the British Museum 345 

Phillips. Sir George, Lord Mayor of I. Ion (1896-97) 352 

Felix, Blisa Rachel, French Acl ress 360 

Felsenthal, Bernhard, American Rabbi 861 

Ferdinand III., Key I 'resented by I he Jewish Community of Seville to 368 

. Lasl Page from Hasdai Crescas' "Or Adonai," 1555, Bearing Imprint of Abraham Usque.... 371 

Fettmilch, Vincent, Portrait of From Schudt, 1711-17 ::;s 

Riot Instigated at Frankfort on the Main. Aug. 22, 1614, by 879 

Fez, Group of Jews at 880 

Interior of a Jewish House at :'> s l 

Firkovich, Abraham, Russian Karaite Archeologist 894 

First Born, Redemption of, in Holland. Alter Picart, 1722 395 

Scenes at Redemption of. After Bodenschatz, 17 is ;i:i7 

Fi-c -us Judaic us: Be verse of Brass! !oinof Nerva. Bearing Inscription " Fisci Iudaici Oalumnia Sublata" 108 

Fishing in Assyria and Egypt 108 

Fleckeles, Eleazar, Austrian Rabbi and Author 108 

Florence, A Nook in the Ghetto of U6 

Pulpit .and Reading Desk of the Large Synagogue at, 418 

The' Large Bynagogue at 117 

Flour; Hand Mill Used in Modern Pal. -tine 120 

France, Conference of Jewish Rabbis of, Thirteenth Century i">7 

Earliest. Known Inscription Relating to Jews of , Dated Narbonne, 689 145 

Map Showing Chief Towns When' Jews Dwelt Before the Expulsion in 1894 465 

Franck, Adolphe, French Philosopher 178 

Frank. Jacob. Pseudo Messiah and Founder of the' Frankists 176 

Fr.mkei, Zechariah. German Theologian 182 

Frankfort on-the-Main, Enactment of the " Judenordnung " by Jews of . From Schudt, 1711 17 186 



Frankfort-on-the Main. Medal Commemorating the Great Fire in the " Judengasse " of, 1711 480 

Medal Struck in Commemoration of the Erection of the Synagogue in, 18.52 489 

Permit Granted to a Jew of, to View the Coronation Procession of Leopold II., 1790 489 

Plan of, in 1552, Showing Position of Jewish Quarter I s ") 

Procession of Jews of, in Honor of Archduke Leopold, May 17, 1716. From Schudt, 1714-17 487 

Riot Instigated by Vincent Fcttmilch at. Aug. 22, 11114 379 

The "Judengasse "of 490 

The " Neuschule" of, Showing Exterior and Interior. After old woodcuts 487-488 

The Synagogue on the "Judengasse" of 491 

Frank I, I.udwig August, Bitter vmi Hochwart, Austrian I 'net and Writer 495 

Franks. Isaac, i Ifficer in the American Revolutionary Army 498 

Franzos, Karl Emil, Austrian Author 498 

Frederick the Great, Edict of, with Regard to the Conversion of Jews 503 

Friedlander, David. German Writer and Communal Leader 515 

Frug, Semion Grigoreyvich, Russian Writer and Poet 524 

Fuenn, Samuel Joseph, Russian Scholar 626 

Fulda, Ludwig, German Author 527 

Fi'irst. Julius, German Hebraist and Orientalist 533 

Furtado, Abraham, French Politician 535 

Fi'irth. Jewesses of, in 1705. After an old engraving 536 

The < >M and the New Synagogue at. After an engraving of 1705 537 

Gamaliel II., Traditional Tomb of, at Jamnia 561 

( lames : Hanukkah " Trendel " or Tee-Totum 565 

Played on the Eve of Purim. After Kirchner, 1726 5ii4 

Gans, David, Gravestone of, at Prague 566 

Eduard, German Jurist 567 

Gaza, View of Modern 577 

Gedaliah, Page from Isaac Arama's " 'Akedat Yi/.hak," Printed at Salonica, 1522. by 581 

Ge-IIinnom, Valley of 583 

Gciger, Abraham. German Rabbi 585 

I Ii oesis, Illuminated Page of. From a manuscript formerly in the possession of the Duke of Sussex. 601 

Geneva. Synagogue at 611 

Genizab, Cairo, Autograph Letter of Abraham, S<>n of Maimonides, from a Fragment of the Early 

Thirteenth Century. Found in the plate facing 612 

Gerizim, Mount, from Nablus 680 

Germany: A •■Schutzbrief " of the Elector of Hesse, 1804 plaUbetvseen 632-633 

see also Exdin-gex; Erfurt; Faxiiliant: Fittmii.cii ; Fhakkfort-ON-the-Main; Frederick 

the Great; FCrth; Marriage Licbmse ; Prague; School. 

"Gesbem." Music of 644-045 

Ghazzati, Nathan. From Coenen's "Sabethai Zevi," Amsterdam, 1660 650 

Career of. From a contemporary w lent 651 

Ghetto, a Nook in the Florence • 416 

see also Judengasse of Frankfort-on-the-Main; Plans of Cities. 

Giacon, Samuel. Part of Page from Hebrew Pentateuch, Printed by, at Faro, 1487 345 

Gibraltar, Interior of the Synaj 661 

Ginzberg, Asher, Russian Hebraist • 670 

class Bottle Found in Jewish Catacomb at Rome. From Garrucci 678 

Greco-Phenician Tear-Bottle Found Near Jerusalem 677 

Tear-Bottle Found Near Jerusalem 077 

lino estone of David Gans at Prague 566 

Haggadah Illustrations: Esau Seeking Isaac's Blessing. From the Sarajevo Haggadah, fourteenth 

century 207 

Israelites Building Storehouses for Pharaoh. From an illuminated Haggadah in the pos- 
session of Karl of Crawford 57 

Israelites Leaving Egypt and Crossing the Red Sea. From the Sarajevo Haggadah. four- 
teenth century 294 

The Exodus. From a printed Haggadah, Vienna. 1823 295 



Haggadah Illustrations: The Prophel Elijah. From tin- lirsi illustrated printed Haggadah, Prague, 1526 125 

Hai Gaon, Page from "Musar Basket, " by, Printed al Fano, 1508. Theflrsl Hebrew 32mo 340 

Hand-Mill, Modern Palestinian 420 

Hanukkah "Trendel " or Tee Totum 565 

Hebrew: see Coras; Gravestoni . Manuscripts; Medal; Typography. 
Hcder: sec School. 

Herod the Great, Copper Coin of, Bearing an Eagle 26 

House, Interior of Jewish, al Fez I Modern) 381 

Germany (Early Eighteenth Century) 397, 564 

Holland (1722) 395 

Imprint: Bee Pbinter'b Mark. 

Inscriptions: see Coras; France; Gravestone; Medal; Stele. 

Blessing of, Esau Seeking, F i the Sarajevo Haggadah, fourteenth century 207 

\rama. Page from " 'Akedat Yi/.hak " of, Printed by Gedaliah, Salonica, 1522 5S1 

Isaac of Northampton, Chirograph Containing an Agreement Between Dame Margaret de Hue and, 1216 285 

tCS Building Storehouses for Pharaoh. From an early illuminated Haggadah 57 

Syenite Stele of Amenophis HI., with Added Inscription of Menepta 11.. Mentioning the 56 

Italy : see Flohj 

Jamnia, Traditional Tomb of Gamaliel II. at 561 

Jerusalem, Jewish School at 49 

Jewries: see (Jul I In. 

" Judengasse " of Frankfort-on t lie-Main 490 

Medal Struck Commemorating the Great Fire in the. 1T1 1 l s 

"Judenordnung," Enactment of the, by Frankfort .lews. From Schudt, 171 1-17 486 

Karaite ('"siuine: see Firkovich, Abraham. 

Key Presented to Ferdinand III. by the Jewish Community of Seville 363 

Letter (Papyrus) of an Egyptian Rabbi to Solomon ben J udah, Twelfth Century 65 

Maccabean Coin. Countermarked by an Elephant, the Symbol of the Seleucid Kings 105 

Maccabeus, Simon. Copper Coin of, Bearing an Etrog 262 

Malebj -. Richard i Leadi r in the York Massacres, 1 190), Starr of Aaron of Lincoln, 1181, Acknowledg- 
ing Receipt of Pari Paj menl from 163 

Manuscripts: see Ami let; Chirograph; Elijah; Faraj: Qenizah; Haggadah; Papyri s; Scrolls 

OF Esi mi:. Si \i:k 

Map of England Showing Towns Where Jews Resided Before the Expulsion in 1290 107 

of France Showing Chief Towns Where Jews Dwelt lie tore I he Expulsi i 1394 465 

— Showing the Comparative Density ot Jewish Population per 1,000 in Europe, 1900 278 

see also Plans of Citt 

Marriage Lii G inted to a Jew of Nikolsburg, 1881 887 

Medal Commemorating the Great Fire in the "Judengasse " of Frankfort on-the Main in 171 1 ... 188 

Presented to Leon Dyer bj the Baltimore Community, I s 17 '.':> 

Struck by the Amsterdam Community in Honor of Rabbi Eleazar ben Samuel 101 

Struck in < !ommemoration of the Erection of the Frankfort on the-Main Synagogue in 1852 l s '.i 

Megillah: see B I - OF Es I in tt. 

Menepta II Syenite Stele of Amenophis IH., with Added Inscription of, Mentioning the Israelites. . 56 

Messiah, Elijah Announcing the ( loming of the. From an early Mahzor 126 

Mlzrabi, Elijah. Page from "Mispar" by, the First Hebrew Arithmetic, Printed by Soncino, 1582 45 

Monuments: BeeEaYPr; Gravestone; Religious Liberty. 

Mordecai and Esther, Traditional Tomb of 288 

Morocco: see Fez. 

■■ Mound of i he. lews" (Tell al-Tahudiyyah), Egypt 59 

Mount Engedi in Judea 160 

Gerizim from Nablus ' ;: ''' 

— Tabor and the Plain of Esdraelon 319 

" Musar Haskel," Page from Hai Gaon's, Printed at Fano, 1508 840 



Music. "El Norah 'Alilah" 87 

" Eli Ziy von " 108 

En Kelohenu " 155 

-Et Bha'are Razon " 243 

•• Geshem " 044-645 

Narbonne, Earliest Known Inscription Relating to Jews of France, Found at. Dated 689 445 

Nerva, Reverse of Brass Coin of, Bearing Inscription "Fisci Iudaici Calumuia Bublata " 403 

" Neuschule," Exterior and Interior of the, Frankfort-on-the-Main 487-488 

"Or Adonai," Last Page from Hasdai Crescas', Ferrara, 1555, Bearing Colophon and Imprint of Abra- 
ham Usque 371 

Palestine: see Coens; Engedi; Esdrablon; Gaza; Ge-Hixxom; Gerizim; Glass; Hand-Mili. ; 

Papyrus, Letter on, of an Egyptian Rabbi to Solomon ben Judah, Twelftli Century 65 

Pentateuch, Part of Page from the Hebrew, Printed at Faro, 1487 345 

Permit Granted to a Frankfort Jew to View the Coronation Procession of Leopold II., 1790 489 

see also Marriage License. 

Pharaoh: see Egypt. 

Picart: see Fihst-Born, Redemption op. 

Plain of Esdraelon, with Mount Tabor in the Distance 219 

Plan of a Family Vault in Talmudic Times 339 

of the City of Cairo, Twelfth Century 63 

of Frankfort-on-the-Main in 1552, Showing Position of Jewish Quarter 485 

Portraits: see 

Dubno, Solomon. Fapdel-Phillips, Sir George. Fraxzos, Karl Emil. 

Dukes, Leopold. Fklix, elisa-r.vciiel. Friedlander, Datid. 

Edels, Samuel. Felsexthal. Bekniiard. Frug, semion. 

Edreiii. Moses. Fettmilch, Vincent. Fuenn, Samcel Joseph. 

Eger. akiba. Firkovich. Abraham. Fblda, Ltowig. 

Eger, Solomon. Fleckeles, Eleazar. FCrst, Julius. 

Einhorn, David. France, adolphe. FrRTADO. Abraham. 

Elijah hen Solomon. Frank, Jacob. Gaxs, Edcard. 

Emin Pasha. Fraxkel, ZECnARiAH. Geiger. Abraham. 

Eybeschutz, Jonathan. Frankl, Ludwig acgust. Ghazzati. Nathan. 

Ezekiel, Joseph. Franks, Isaac. Ginzberg, Asher. 
Falk. Havyim. 

Prague. Gravestone of David Gans at 566 

Printer's Mark of Abraham Usque on the Last Page of Hasdai Crescas' " Or Adonai," Ferrara, 1555. . . 371 

Procession of Frankfort Jews in Honoi of Archduke Leopold, May 17, 1716 4S7 

Pulpit and Reading-Desk Of the Florence Synagogue 418 

Purim, Eve of, I lames Played on. From Kirchner, 1726 564 

Rachel I Elisa Rachel Felix) French Actress 360 

Receipt: see Stars of Aaron of Lincoln. 

Red Sea, the Israelites Crossing the. From the Sarajevo Haggadah. fourteenth century 294 

Redemption of First-Born in Holland. After Picart. 1722 395 

Scenes:, t. After Bodenschatz, 1748 397 

" Religious Liberty " : Statue by Moses Ezekiel 320 

Riot Instigated by Vincent Fettmilch at Frankfort-on-the-Main, Aug. 22, 1614 379 

Sabbath-Day Journey: see 'Erubim. 

Salonica, Page from Isaac Arama's "Akedat Yizhak," Printed by Gedaliah in 1522 at 581 

School, German Jewish, Sixteenth Century 44 

Modern Jewish, Jerusalem 49 

Scrolls of Esther in < ) live- Wool 1 Cases 238 

in Silver Cases 235 

Sculpture : see Ri i igioi - Liberty. 

Seville, Key Presented to Ferdinand III. by the- .lew ish Community of 363 



Simon Maccatx us, Copper Coin of, Bearing an Etrog 262 

Boncino: Bee Mi/.KAi.n, Elh mi. 

Stan of Aaron of Lincoln, 1181, Acknowledging Receipt of Part Payment from Richard Malebys, After- 
ward Leader in the York Massacre, 1 190 163 

St ili • i if A mi ■ in 1 1 ili i> 1 1 1., with Added Inscription of Menepta II., Mentioning the Israelites 56 

Switzerland: see Geneva. 

Synagogues: see Cairo; Endingen; Erftjbt; Florence; Fbankpobt-on-tbe-Main j Finni; 

GeKE\ A ; GlBR U.TUt. 

Tabor, Mount, anil the Plain of Esdraelon 219 

Bottles, Ancient, Pound Near Jerusalem 677 

Tell al-Yahudiyyah (The Mound of the Jews), Egypt 59 

Title Page: Bee Estdbcktes Jodenthtjm. 

Tombs, Traditional: see Est i it: n and Mordecai; Ezekiel; Ezra; Gamaliel II. 

Tree with Etrogim or Citrons 261 

"Tur Orah llavymi," Page from, Berlin, 1702, Bearing Autograph A tations of Jacob Knxlcn 151 

Types, Jewish: seeFALASHA; Fez; Jerusalem; Portraits. 

Typography: Bee Entdecktes Judenthum; Fano; Faro; Pebraba; Gedaliah; Sonctno; 
Ti it Oraii Hayyim. 

TJsque, Abraham, Printer's Mark of, on the Last Page of Hasdai Crescas' "Or Adoiiai." Ferrara, 1555 371 

Valley of Ge-Hinnom 588 

Vase mi Coin of Eleazar ben Simon 9-1 

Vault, Family, Ground Plan of a, in Talmudic Times 339 


Jewish Encyclopedia 

ich physician; born at Stxasburg Feb. 8, i s r.': 
died May 5, 190 and after- 

ward mi the Paris Faculti de Hi dei ini . n In 
becar surgeon in 1*73, and titular physi- 

cian in 1878. He was clinic superintendent for ail- 
ments of children in i s 7!i. In 1894 he became phy- 
m al the Lariboisiiire Hospital. He was ap- 
pointed a member of the Supi rior Council for Public 

,i its formation in 1>^ S and was mainly i 
mental in securing the passage, in 1893, of the law 
pro\ i.liiiL 1 I »r< j fus Brisac is a 

member of the medical commission of the Woi 
Union of France. At the Paris Exposition ol 
be was appointed vice-presideni of the second sec- 
Mic Aid. Among bis pub- 
lications arc: ■ I > • 1 fctere H6mapbeique" (187S); 
"D I'Asphyxie Non Toxique ' rroitement 

du Diabeti . ii la Phthisic Ai 

(in collaboration, 1892) It'- is also the author of 
rs in tin- "Gazetl Hebdomadaire " and else- 
wbere, He lias been Chevalier of the Legion of 

I [onor since 1 3D 

Bibliography : Curlnler, Dictionnairt National. 

V. E. 

DRIBIN. See .M.iiiii i v GOVERNMENT. 


DRINKING-VESSELS : I I own of the 

form and material of the drinking-vessels of the 

II brews than of those of theG mans. 

I ii xxi. 15, 19; "ob," 
wxii. 19; and "nod iv. 19), made of 

the hide of the goal and the kid, and still u 
ledouins, cei tainly dates fi 
red both ii le for water and for milk 

ami as a drinking vessel. The Israelites probably 

inori i pie. The wealthy 

had metal — usually silver — ones(Gcn. xliv. 2), while 
of the kings were of gold (1 Kings x, 21; II 
Chron. i\. '.'1 | V V obably of bronze. It. 

may be safely assumed thai these metal vi 
lirst imported by the Pheuicians, and thai the Israel- 
ites learned from them how to work the metals 
I Kings vii. I2etseq. [A. V. 18]); hence it 
is probable thai the drinking-vessels of the I 

mblcd very closely those in use among the 

V —1 

In regard to form the vessels may In- divided into 
two groups; viz., (1) cups and (2) bowls. A cup 
was usually called " kos," a designation applied both 
to the cup of the poor man ( II Sam. xii. 8) and to 
thai of the king(Gen. xl. 11, 18,21). IKingsvii. 
26 Bhows thai the rim was of U n bent, and Isa. Ii. 17. 
■J'. 1 indicates that the si. Irs were bulging. In I 
xliv. 2, 12, lii etse.g. the term "gabi'a" is used to 
designate "Joseph's cup," which, according to Jer. 
xxxv. 5, seems to have been larger than a km, and 
was probably a chalii The same ap- 

plies perhaps to "kubba'at" (Isa. Ii. 17), to which 
the accompanying word "kos" is probably a gloss. 
"Kefor" (I Chron. xxviii. 17; Ezra i. 10, viii. 27) 
up," as is evident from the Assyrian 
" kapru," and from the Neo-l lebraic and Judteo-Ara- 
■• kefor " (compare Euting's com hi nation with 
"1B3 =" bulging," in Naba ription No. 27). 

The bowl, w hich w as called " Befi I," was used for 
holding milk (Judges v. 23) and for drawing v. 
(Judges vi. 88), Judges v. 25 shows that in addi- 
tion to the howls of ordinary si/e there were la 

. i vidi nily designed for guests of honor, who 
wen- served with double portions (Gen, xliii. 84; I 
Sam. ix. 28 it ■'■■', i. nol only ( ,f meat, but also of 
drink; hence the use of the phrase "sefel oddirim " 
(lordlj di 

lie word "saf" mentioned in I Kings vii, 50; II 
\ii. II; and Jer. Hi. \'.i probably refers to a 
bowl also. In Ex. ,\ii. 22 and Zech. xii. 2 a saf is 
used at the sacrifice. Thi d in 

(ant vii. :; is not a bowl for drinking, but rather 
for mixing wine with spi hem , , Sep 

int. Tin- " kail " — mentioned in Gen. xxiv. 14 et 
carried on the shoulder, ami from 
which le bi Elii zer water (Gen. xxiv. 18) — 

was used for drawing water (comp. Eccl. xii. (i) 
rather than as a drinl I (comp. "deli," I L9 

xl. 15). .1 ' also used as drinking-vessels; in 

1 Sim. xxvi. 10. l'i a "zappahat" (cruse) is men- 
tioned, probably a bulging jug i journeys 

\\ hieh has a similar 
oing, may b designated a v 

skin (1 Sam. i. 24, .\ :: etc I, hut later it undoubt- 
ben vessel (Isa. \\\ I I ; Lam. 
iv. 2). "i:akhuk" (.hi, xix 1. 10; 1 Kings xiv, 8), 
also meaning an earthen vessel, was perhaps u ■■ d for 
drinking purposes. 

i . ii \V N 



DRISSA : Russian city in the government of 
Vitebsk. The population in 1897 was 4,237, of 
whom 2,856 were Jews. There were 657 artisans 
(including 229 masters) and 158 day-laborers. Among 
its charitable institutions may be noted the Bikkur 
Holim, and among its educational institutions a 
county school with 120 pupils (7 of whom are Jews) 
and a day-school with 70 pupils (12 of whom are 

Drissa existed as early as the fourteenth cen- 
tury, and Jews are mentioned there in connection 
with the lumber trade in 1547 ("Regesty i Nadpisi," 
No. 464). Situated on the Drissa, an affluent of the 
Diina, Drissa was a center for the export of lumber 
and grain to Riga and Danzig, a trade which was 
entirely in the hands of the Jews. 

H. b. S. J.-M. R. 

Christian Hebraist; born at Southampton Oct. 2, 
1846; regius professor of Hebrew (in succession to 
Pusey), and canon of Christ Church, Oxford, since 
1883 ; member of the Old Testament Revision Com- 
pany, 1876-84. 

Together with T. K. Cheyne and Robertson 
Smith, Driver has been one of the foremost cham- 
pions of Biblical criticism in England. Driver ap- 
proached it from its linguistic side ("Jour, of Phil." 
1882, pp. 201-236). His first contribution, "A 
Treatise on the Use of the Tenses in Hebrew " (Ox- 
ford, 1874; 3d ed., 1892), has remained the most com- 
plete presentation of the subject. Driver has de- 
fended his position before several Church congresses 
(e.g., in 1883) ; his attitude has frequently been crit- 
icized from a theological point of view (see, for 
example, "The Guardian," 1890, pp. 1419 et aeq.; 
Robinson, " Early Religion," p. xii.), while Cheyne 
complains that Driver is not a sufficiently represent- 
ative exponent of modern higher criticism (" Intro- 
duction to the Book of Isaiah," p. xi). In matters 
of criticism Driver has always taken a conservative 
view, showing much moderationand sympathy with 
the orthodox position. For him "the Old Testa- 
ment is not a systematic treatise on theology, but 
the record of a historical revelation, which, just be- 
cause it was historical, passed through many suc- 
cessive phases, and was completed gradually " ; and 
the ci inclusions at which he arrives "affect, not the 
fact of revelation, but only its form. They help 
to determine the stages through which it passed, 
the different phases which it assumed, and the proc- 
ess by which the record of it was built up. They 
do not touch cither the authority or the inspiration 
of the scriptures of the Old Testament" (compare 
his "Isaiah," Preface, and "Introduction," p. vii., 
New York, 1891). He takes a similar position in 
regard to the results of archeological and anthro- 
pological research ; holding that though these results 
have taken the Hebrews out of the isolated position 
which they, as a nation, seem previously to have 
held, they "do not, in any degree, detract from that 
religious preeminence which has always been deemed 
the inalienable characteristic of the Hebrew race" 
("Hebrew Authority," p. 7). 

Driver's critical works deal with the most impor- 
tant books of the Old Testament, and his " Introduc- 

tion " is still the standard English work on the 
subject. Driver's chief productions are his contri- 
butions to "The Holy Bible with Various Render- 
ings and Readings" (together with Cheyne, 1876); 
known from the 3d ed. onward as "The Variorum 
Bible," 1888; "Notes on the Hebrew Text of the 
Books of Samuel," Oxford, 1890; "An Introduction 
to the Literature of the Old Testament," 1891; 6th 
ed., 1897; "Sermons on Subjects Connected with 
the Old Testament," 1892; "Isaiah: His Life and 
Times," in the "Men of the Bible" series, 1893; 
" Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Deuteron- 
omy," 1895, in the "International Critical Commen- 
tary " series; "Joel and Amos," 1897, and " Daniel." 
1900, in the "Cambridge Bible for Schools"; "The 
Parallel Psalter," 1898, and a critical edition of 
Leviticus, in the " Sacred Books of the Old Testa- 
ment," ed. Haupt, 1894; "Hebrew Authority," in 
"Authority and Archaeology, Sacred and Profane," 
ed. D. G. Hogarth, 1899. To the " Studia Biblica " 
(vol. i., Oxford, 1885) Driver has contributed a 
paper on "Recent Theories on the Origin and Na- 
ture of the Tetragrammaton " ; to the "Jew. Quart. 
Rev." (i. 258 et seq.), an article on "The Origin and 
Structure of the Book of Judges " ; and to Neubauer 
and Cowley's edition of Ben Sira he has added a 
glossary and some notes (" Original Hebrew of Ec- 
clesiasticus," 1897, p. xv. ; compare "Oxford Maga- 
zine," viii., Nos. 11 and 12, 1890; and "The Guard- 
ian," 1896, p. 1029). 

Driver has edited two small rabbinical works: a 
commentary on Jeremiah and Ezekiel by Moses ben 
Sheshet, London, 1871, and one on Proverbs, attrib- 
uted to Abraham ibn Ezra, Oxford, 1880. He has 
also been a collaborator on the second edition of 
Smith's "Bible Dictionary," on Basting's "Diction- 
ary of the Bible," and on Cheyne and Black's "En- 
cyclopaedia Biblica," andiscoeditor, with Professors 
Brownand Briggs, of the Clarendon press edition of 

Bim.ioORAPHY : TTno's Who, s.v.; Prominent Men of the 
Nineteenth Centwry. s.v.: Cheyne. Founders of Old Testa- 
moit Criticism, pp. 348 et seq.. New York, 1893. 
J. G. 

JOSEPH : Talmudic scholar and preacher of Stan- 
islaw (according to Ghirondi he came from Os- 
trog, Russia); died at Safed early in the nineteenth 
century. He was a pupil of Israel Ba'al ShemTob, 
and after having been rabbi and rosh yeshibah in 
several towns of Germany, he undertook a long 
journey in order to publish his works. He stayed 
for several years at Leghorn, where his books were 
printed; and then went to Palestine, where he died. 
He wrote the following works: " Emet le-Ya'akob," 
funeral dirges, 1704; "Hemdat Yisrael," a commen- 
tary on Ecclesiastes, on " Elef Alfin," and on "Alef 
Bet " of Elijah ha-Levi, 1820 ; " Pekuddat ha-Melek, " 
containing novella? on Maimonides, and funeral 
dirges, 2 vols. 

Bibliography: Steinschneider, Cat. BodX. col. 1166; Nepi- 
Ghirondi, Toledot Uednle YisraeU pp. 170, 180; Zedner, Cat. 
Hebr. Books Brit. Mus. p. 211. 
L. G. M. Sel. 

DROMEDARY : A variety or choice breed of 
the camel proper, or one-humped camel ; much taller 



and longer in the leg than the ordinary camel, of a 
more slender shape, and generally of a very light 
color. Its speed is considerable, reaching eighty miles 
a day. Zoologists include all varieties of one-humped 
camel under the name Camelua dromtdariiu, in con- 
tradistinction to the Camelva bactrianus, or two- 
humped camel. As the two species interbreed suc- 
cessfully and the offspring is able to procreate, some 
assume that they are only two varieties of one spe- 
cies; but as the Camellia dromedarius has not yet 
been found in a wild state, the question can not be 

The word "dromedary " occurs four times in the 
English versions; viz.. twice in both the Authorized 
and the Revised Version as a rendering of the He 
brew "beker" (Isa. lx. 6) or "bikrah" (Jer. ii. 23), 
and twice in the Authorized Version alone, to render 
the Hebrew "rekesh" (1 Kings v. 8 [A. V. iv. 28] 
and Esth. viii. 10). But in oeither case is the ren- 
dering correct. "Rekesh" means rather a swift 
steed, as the Revised Version has it; and "beker " 
designates the young of the camel up to nine years, 
and not any special variety or breed. 

Bdliografbt : Tristram, Natural Hiatoryofthe Bil>lr,s.\.; 
Wood, Bible A nim . - ■ . 
E. G. II. H. H. 

yer, and president oi Grs > ej born in Phila- 

delphia, Pa , March 9, 1821. Beginning life as a store- 
boy, he first learned watchmaking, and afterward 
studied law under Benjamin Harris Brewster, sub- 
sequently attorney-general of the United States. 
After his admission to the bar (in 1851) he took an 
active interest in public affairs, was t he candidate 
of the Whig party for mayor of the Northern Liber- 
ties district of Philadelphia in 1853, and. like most 
members of the party, was strongly opposed to 
slavery . 

Dropsie has been instrum< utal in the development 
of railways in Philadelphia; and after acting as 
president of the Lombard and South Street Passen- 
ger Railroad (1863-82), lie became (1888) president 
of the Green and Coates Street Passenger Railroad, 
which position be still holds (1008). 

In 18T(» hit bet Hoe chairman of the commission 
appointed by the legislature for the construction of 
a bridge over the Schuylkill River. 

Dropsie has always taken a deep interest in Jew- 
ish charitable and educational work. He has been 
a director of the Hebrew Fuel Society ; a member of 
the board of "adjunta" (directors) of the Sephardic 
Congregation Mickvc Israel; and was one of the 
charter members, and for more than forty years an 
officer, of the Hebrew Education Society of Phila- 
delphia, having acted as secretary, vice-president. 
and (twice) president. He is now (1903) an honor 
ary life-member of the board of officers. 

Dropsie was nlso president of liaimonides College 
from 1807 to 1*73, and has been president of the 
Philadelphia branch of the Alliance Israelite Uui- 
vcrsellc since 1888 Bud of Gratz College since its 
foundation in 1893. From 1850 to 1861 he was pres- 
ident of the Mercantile Club. 

Owing to failing eyesight, Dropsie in 1^5 re- 
tired from the practise of the law. He has trans 
lated and edited Mackcldev's "Handbook of the 

Roman Law " (1883), and in addition has published 
(1892) a separate work on "The Roman Law of Tes- 
taments, Codicils, and Gifts in the Event of Death 
(Mortis Causa Donationes)." 

Besides a "Panegyric on the Life of the Rev. 
Isaac I.ieser," Dropsie lias written pamphlets on 
" The Life of Jesus from and Including the Accusa- 
tion Until the Alleged Resurrection, with an Account 
of the Cross-Crown of Thorns." and " Reform Juda- 
ism and the Study of Hebrew." 

BibliocraI'HY : H. S. Murals. Tin ,]< ws »t Philadelphia, i>p. 
- and in. lex. 
a. D. Su. 



known as Arbich) : Printer of Amsterdam at the 
end of the .seventeenth and tin- beginning of the 
eighteenth century. His activity as a typesetter, 
publisher, author, and translator extends from 1680 
to 1724. He worked successively in the printing 
establishments of David Tartas, of .Moses Mendez, 
and of Asher Anshel & Co. He edited in 1690 a 
Judseo-German translation of Manasseh b. Israel's 
" Mikweh Visrael," and of the " Masse'otBinyamin " 
(Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela). lie published 
the following works: in 1706, his own "Leb Haka- 
mim " con t tuning a treatise on morals, together with 
the ethical work " Leb Tob," by Isaac b. Eliakim of 
Posen, both in Juda?o-German ; in 1711, a new edi- 
tion of the " Ze'enuli u-Re'enah " ; in 17 is, a calen- 
dar for the year 5479 ( = 1719); and in 17'J'2, Isaac 
Aboab's "Menorat ha-Ma'or," with the Judajo-Ger- 
man translation of Moses Frankfurter, which Frank- 
furter himself revised. Drucker had two sons, Hen- 
del F.lhanan and Jacob, both of whom were the 
printers and publishers of Juda:o-German transla- 
tions of various works. 

Bibliography: Btetnacbnelder and Caaael, Jiuiinhc Typo- 
oraphU una Jildiacher BuchhandeU in Ereoh and Gruber, 
/ \eue. xzvtll. 70; FOrst, BlbLJud. I. 49; ltenjncoh, 0?ar 
ha-Sefarim, pp. 254, 33S; sielnscbuekler, Cat. Budl. Nos. 
460L 7919. 
j. P. Wi. 

DRTJCKER, MICHAEL: Musician; born in 

Russian Poland Dec. 81, 1861. At the age of five 

he began the study of the violin under his father, 

and in 1875 attended the Kiev Conservatory m. Ho 

•inert director in Kiev in 1K77, and later 

i idi r of the orchestra at the operetta theater there. 
He then went to Warsaw to complete his studies. 
After making extended conceit touts in Sweden. 
Norway, Fiance, and Germany, he became concert- 
director at the Lemberg opera house (1880), where 
he remained for thirteen years. Then he removed 
to Vienna, where he is (1903) active as a virtuoso 
and music-teacher, 

lliiii.iouRAi'iiv: Klsenberg, Das UcMiac fVitn, I. 91. 

it >.. N. D. 


ant i Semitic author and former deputy from Al- 
ii born at Paris on May :>. 1844, Drumont'i 
ancestry is not Jewish, as has been sometimes as- 
erted. His ancestors came from Lille, where they 
were porcelain-painters. Drumont Btudled at the 
l.yeee. When Drumont was but sevi nteen hit 
father died, and left him to earn his own livelihood. 



He entered the Prefecture de la Seine, but soon left 

this for the profession of letters. At first he worked 
on the staff of several daily, weekly, and monthly 
periodicals. Ho was one of the chief collaborators 
on the "Liberte," "Gaulois," and "Petit Journal." 
During the seventies he published several volumes 
dealing with historical and theatrical themes. 

In lssti Drumont withdrew from the stall of the 
" Liberte " (owned by Pen ire, a Jew), claiming that 
the newspapers wire unduly controlled by the 
Jews, lie then issued his famous work in two vol- 
umes, '• l.a France Juive," :i book which may be re- 
garded as the beginning of the anti-Semitic move- 
ment in Prance. Ii ivi .1:1. nt of the Jews of 

thai country, :md analyzes the Jewish element of 
tie French nation. The work, of course, is written 
from an intensely prejudiced point of view. It 
has passed through more than one hundred editions, 
arousing wide spread interest, and was so< a trans- 
lated into several languages. Because of it, Dru- 
mont fought several duels, notably with Charles 
Laurent and Arthur Meyer. In addition, Drumont 
wmte the following books to explain his previous 
work: " La France Juive Devant l'Opinion" (18861, 
"La Fin d'un Monde " (1888), "Derniere Bataille," 
"Testament d'un Antisemite" (1889), etc. 

Meantime the Panama affair, in which several 
Jewish financiers were prominently involved, gave 
to Drumont's agitation great popularity, and in 
September, 1802, he founded the "Libre Parole," 
a daily journal of rabid anti-Semitic tendei 
For his anti-Panama articles, Drumont was con- 
demned to three months' imprisonment. In 11 
was an unsuccessful candidate for the represent:. 
tion of Amiens; the following year he retired to 
Brussels. The Dreyfus affair helped him to regain 
popularity, and in 1898 he returned to France and 
was elected deputy for the first division of Algiers, 
but was defeated as a candidate for reelection in 

BiiiLTOc.RAFiiY: Dewamin, < opeditme des 

NotabilUts (in XIXc Steele, i. 218et geq., fans. 1901; Curi- 
nier. DictUmnaire National des I 'ontemporaiiiA, i.93i 
Paris, n. il.; Nouveav Larousse tllustrfc, ni. 856; De Guber- 
natis. Victionnaire Tnternationai des Ecrivainsdu Jour, 

', Paris, n.d. 
v. A. M. F. 

speaks only once of drunkenness in its relation to re- 
sponsibility lor contractsor tor crimes; namely, in 
iln' following baraita ('Er. 65a): 

" A drunken man's purchase is a purchase ; his - 
if be commits a capital offense, they put him to death: if tie 
an act punishable by stripes, they Bog in 1.1 : in a word, be 
is deemed of sound 1 that he is tree 

from prayer [elsewhere the reel Iden 10 

the drunken man], 1: . u ai only until 

the man has in ins drunkenness as Lot went; but 
when he has gone as far as Lot, he is tree tr sverythlng.' " 

These rules are followed by all tin codi , e.g., 
Maimonides, "Yad," Mekirah, xxix. ; Shulhan 
"Aruk, Hoshen Mishpafc 222, 22. 

Speaking broadly, these principles agree with those 

of the English-American law. Compare, however, 
Fr.u n and Mistake, Law ok. 
1 .. (i. L. N. D. 

DRTJSILLA: Daughter of A: rippa I. and Cy- 
pres (Josephus, "Ant." xviii. 5. § 4; idem, "15. J." 

ii. 11, § 6) ; bornin38. She was only six years old at 
her father's death (44), and was subjected to the 
insult of having the portraits of herself and two sis- 
ters, Berenice and Mariainnc, carried into the houses 
of ill-fame of Ctesarea by the Roman soldiers, who 
rejoiced over Agrippa's death (" Ant." xix. 9, § 1). 
The sisters did not enjoy a good reputation, the 
beautiful Drusilla being even worse than her elder 
sisters. Her father had betrothed her to Epiphanes, 
son of Antiochus of Commagene; but as Epiphanes 
refused after Agrippa's death to keep his promise 
to embrace Judaism, Drusilla was married by her 
brother Agrippa II. to Azizos, King of Emesa, who 
accepted the Abrahamic covenant ("Ant." xx. 7, §1). 

Drusilla dissolved her marriage with Azizosabout 
the year 53, the newly appointed procurator of 
Judea, Felix, having fallen in love with her. With 
the help of a Cypriote magician, whose name is 
variously given as " Atoinos" and "Simon," he in- 
duced her to follow him. though a pagan, and to 
become his wife, contrary to the laws of her people 
1 Acts xxiv. 24). Envy of her sister Berenice aided 
in driving Drusilla to this step. 

By Felix, Drusilla had a son, Agrippa, who, to- 
gether with his wife, perished during the eruption 
of Vesuvius in 79 ("Ant." xx. 7, § 2). 

Bibliography: riasna£*e, Histoire des Juifs. i. 1ST: Gr&tz. 
Gesi h. 4th ed.. iii. 354. 428, 438; Gerlach. in ZeUschrift far 
Lutherische Theologfe, 1869, pp.68 el seq.; Seiiiirer, Gesch, 
3d ed.. i. 573. It is said in the Prosopographia imperii Bo- 
mani. ii. 95, Unit Tacitus, in his History I v. 9), confounds 
two wives of Felix of the name of Drusilla. 

c;. S. Kr. 

DRUTZK. See Mohii.ev Government. 

DRUYA. See Wilna. 

DRTJZHKOPOL. See Yolhtnia. 

DUAL : Fi >rm of a noun or verb indicating its 
application to two persons or things. Arabic is the 
only Semitic language that has the dual form for the 
verb as well as for the noun; in Syriac only a few 
traces of the dual have been preserved. In Hebrew 
the dual has been preserved in the case of the noun 
only, its suffix being "ayim." It is used chiefly to 
designate objects that are found naturally in pairs, es- 
l> eially members of the human body or of the bodies 
of animals. It is also us d of the teeth, because they 
form a pair of rows (" shinnayim "). In addition, 
the dual is used for tl lucts of human skill 

which are constructed ia such away that the sin- 
gular would m t apply to them; «..<•., "melkahayim" 
1," tnisparayim " (scissors). The numeral "she- 
ll " (two) is likewi ;e a natural dual, as are also 
such expressions as "kitlayim" (twofold), "kil'a- 
\im" (two kinds; corresponding to the Ethiopian 
numeral for " two"). 

But the dual i< occasionally used to indicate two 
objects not naturally connected; e.g., "yomayim" 
(two days), "shebu'ayim" (two weeks), "shena- 
tayim " (1 wo yi ars), "ammatayim " (two ells), Neo- 
Elebrew "lel'ahayim" (i wo spans). The numbers 
200 and 0,000 are also designated by the dual: "ma- 
tayim," "alpayim." A special group of the dual is 
formed by geographical names, principally those of 
ci'ie^ ending in "ayim " ; for example, " Ilamatayim " 
i.V. V. "Ramathaim"), "Horonayim" (A. V. " Horo- 
naim "), " Kiiyalavim " ( A. V. " Kiijalhaitn." " Kiri- 
athaim "), etc. lu one of such nanus the dual form 



has been contracted to "an"; namely, "Dothan " for 
" Hothayin" (Gen. xxxvii 17). To tliis group bi 
longs also the Hebrew name of Egypt, " Mizrayim " 
(A. V. "Mizraim" = Upper Egypt and Lower 
Egypt); also " Aram-Naharayim " (A. V. "Aram- 
naharaim " = thc Aram of the two rivers Euphrates 
and Tigris, or, according to a recent view, Euphrab 9 
and Chaboras). " Yerushalayim," however, the 
name of Jerusalem, according to the Ma 
ing of the name DPBOT, must not be explained as a 
dual, as it is one of several winds ha\ ing the suffix 
"ayim " that are not duals. Tims, " ma vim "| 
and " shamay im plural forms, thi 

preceding the plural ending "im" being radical. 
This was recognized by as early a grammarian as 
Abual -Walid ("Luma', M pp. 285 etseq. " Rikmah," 
pp. 173 while Abraham ibn Ezra (" Sefer ha- 

Shem,"i ; i tmentary to Gen. i. 2) holds that they 

are duals, and attempts to explain them as such 
on the ground of natural philosophy. 

Hayyuj and Abual- Walid have burrowed a term 
■ Arabic grammar foi the dual, "tathniyyah." 

Abual Walid devotes to the dual, as a variant of t he 
plural, a short chapter el' his chief work, "Lunia 1 " 
. -"Rikmah.'' pp lis,/ teg. I. Ibn 
Ezra calls the dual "leshon shenayim"; the later 
.lew ish grammarians use the term " ribbui ha-zu 
paired plural." 

Bibliography : Pbulppl, Dot Zahlwort Zvx i (m Si mttischen. 
\aZ.D. M. O. xxiil. 21-98. 
a. W. B. 

DUALISM: The system in theology which ex- 
plains the existence of evil by assuming two i 
nal principles — one good, the otherevil. This dual- 
ism is the chief characteristic of the religion of 
istcr, which assigns all that is good to Ahura- 
mazda (Ormuzd), and all that is evil to Angro- 
mainyushi Ahriman; seeZoROASTRi lnism). Against 
this dualism, which may have some basil 
in Chaldean in si r of the Exile pro- 

ing the doctrine that the Lord 
" formed the 1 ' that lie 

"is the Maker of peai e and ' 

\lv. ?). The verse has found a place i 
daily litui l.i i i'koy), but with the i b 

of the word " ta '" (evil) into "ha-kol" (all), prompted 
by an aversion to ha\ in ur " e\ il " directly associated 

With the name of G Vum. 

R. xi. 16). The same idea occurs in Lam. (iii 8 
Ilehr |: " t >ut of the mouth ol High ci 

cih there not evil and good?" No less emphatii 
the Rabbis in thi ition to the dualistic vi 

of Parseeism when they teach that both death and 
i in' evildi i king 

for the L r 1 (Gen. R. ix 89a, Bib ; 

shall 77b; Mai mom i i H binah com 

mental) : see Si-. | 

Zeller ("Gi 9 h. der Philosophic" 3d ed., iii. 350) 
mistakenly ascribes dualisl ic notions to the 1 Issenes 
(Hilgenfeld, " Ketzergesch. des LTrchristenthums," 
1884, p. 109; I. On the contrary, Philo 

("Quod Omnia Probus Liber," - that ac 

cording to them "God 01 good, 

and nothing that is e\ il." They beheld in life only 

certain contrasts— opposing tendencies of puril 
impurity, of good and evil — and, following am ii til 

Chaldean traditions, placed the one to the right (to- 
ward the light ) and the other to the left (toward the 
night) (Josephus," B. J."ii. 8, §9; "Clementine Hom- 
ilies," ii. 15, 33; xix. 12; " Kccognitioncs," iii. 24) — 
views which are found also among the Gnostics and 
the Cabalists (see Jew. Encyc, iii. 4">8, s.v. Cabala). 
Of course, the tendency toward evil was found by 
them, as well as by Philo, in matter — the things of 
the senses— in contradistincl ion to the spiritual world 
(Zeller, I.e. p. :11 s ; see Philo); but this does not 
■ i 'in rail iet i la- belief in Cod as Creator of the visible 
world. There were, however. Gnostics who would 

■ the creation of the visible world to the dem- 
iurge ("artificer"), an inferior god mentioned in 

Plato's "Timaus" (i 2D); and this doctrine of "two 

powers" (nniin Wi. frequently alluded to in Tal 
mud and Midiash (Hag. 15a; Gen. II. i. ; Keel. R. ii. 
12; see Ki.isua in \ Abuyah), actually led its fol- 
lowers to the dualistic view ascribing evil to the in- 
ferior god. Thus 1 1 nal ism became t lie chief doctrine, 
'• one hand, of the Manicheans, a sect founded 
on Zoroastrianism, and, on the other hand, of the 
anti-Judean Christian Gnostics, who opposed the 
old Testament as recording the dispensation of an 
inferior god. the author of evil (Hilgenfeld, I.e. pp. 
192,209 832 383,526; see Gnosticism; God; Mam 

i BEANS). 

Among Jewish philosophers Saadia ("Emunot 
we-De'ot," ii.) takes especial pains to demonstrate 

the untenaliilit y of dualistic definitions of the Cod- 
head. Were there two creators, it must be assumi d 

that only with the help Of the other could each 
create, and that therefore neither is omnipotent. 
Light and darkness do not prove t he contrary, for 

darknessisi ration of light (see Saadia). In 

the Maimonidean system the difficulty of reconciling 
the existence of evil with Cod's unity is solved by 
the assumption thai evil is only negative ("Moreh," 
iii. 8). ' K.-T.. G. II. 

DTJARTE, LTJIS (alias Luis Noble): Chilean 
M i oi born in Evora, Portugal, at the end of the 

sixteenth century He served for six years in the 

ii army, and, 1" - d of stealing a i 

eiiix.was imp: oned byorderof the Inquisition in 

10. A Jesuit i nd need liiui to Confess, premising 

him speedy acquittal. He, accordingly, admitted 
\u- . 161 ii his secret adherent e to Judaism, a a 

e lession to his voluntary sell denunciation, he was 

admitted to "secret reconciliation"; and was sen- 

I to do "spiritual penance." The alcaldes. 

dering this punishment inadequate, had him 

In the galleys. 

| 'I'. >!■ .hi! i al del 


G A K. 

DTJARTE DE PINEL. Seel sque, Abraham. 

DUBLIN : Chii of In land. The Jewish 
community in Dublin is one of the oldest of those 
which have been founded in Great Britain since the 
Resettlement, having been established in the first 
half of the eighteenth century. In the year I7IM 
Michael Phillips acquired some freehold ground at 
Drumcondra, opposite Ballybough Bridge, which 
lie presented totheJewsof Dublin foracemel 
Borne j eai a later i he Jews ol I lublin sought | 



niary assistance from their Polish and German core- 
ligionists in Loudon, for the purpose of building a 
wall round their cemetery. Their applications were 
refused, but they received the desired help from the 
Bevis Marks congregation, which, besides defraying 
the expenses of the work, sent an agent from Lon- 
don to supervise it. The title-deeds of the Dublin 
Jewish cemetery were then deposited at Bevis 
Marks, with the archives of which congregation they 
are still to be found. 

Toward the end of the eighteenth century (about 
1791) the Dublin community worshiped in Marl- 
borough street, "in the yard of the glass-works." 
But the congregation fell into decay, and its effects 
were seized and sold for rent. Two scrolls of the 
Law were, however, rescued, and for some time they 
remained in the possession of "the brothers Cohen." 
Other scrolls, which had been borrowed from the 
Bevis Marks congregation, appear to have been pre- 
viously returned. 

The congregation was resuscitated in 1822, when 
the few remaining families joined to open a place of 
worship at 40 Stafford street, the residence of J. W. 
Cohen. In 1829 this place of worship was enlarged, 
and about the same time "the brothers Cohen " pre- 
sented to the congregation the two scrolls of the 
l.nv \s Inch they had rescued from the former build- 
ing. Six years later the congregation removed to 
Mary's Abbey, where it had bought a meeting-house 
for £300. In 1842 the Mary's Abbey congregation 
expressed a wish to affiliate with the Portuguese 
Synagogue of London, but nothing appears to have 
resulted from the negotiations. Subsequently the 
congregation removed to their present building in 
Adelaide Road. 

Iii recent times, in addition to the principal syna- 
gogue in Adelaide Road, there have grown up a 
number of minor synagogues, or "hebrahs," of 
which at present there are five, situated respect- 
ively in St. Kevin's Parade, Camden street, Lennox 
street, Oakfield Place, and Lombard street. The 
principal ministers have been J. Sandheim, Philip 
Bender, and L. Mendelsohn. 

Other Jewish institutions are: the Board of Guard- 
ians (founded 1882), the Ladies' Benevolent Soci- 
ety, Haehnosath Orechim, and Medical Relief Soci- 
ety (founded 1888), and the National and Hebrew 
School (founded 1893), in Adelaide Road, which en- 
rolls 100 scholars. The present Jewish population 
of Dublin is about 2,700. The Dublin community 
has for many years included a large number of 
cultured Jews, who have taken the highest distinc- 
tions at Trinity College. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Law's and Regulations of the Hebrew Con- 
areaatian in Dultlin, Historical Preface, Lomlon, 1839; Pic- 
clotto. Sketches of Anoio-JevH/sh History, pp. 77, 168.325; 
Archives of the London Spanish nnd Portuguese Congre- 
gation ; Jewish Year Book, 1902-03. 

J. I. H. 

DTTBNEB, MAGGID. See Jacob ben Wolf 


DTJBNICZA: Bulgarian town; 22 miles south 
of Sofia, and on the left bank of the Jerma. In 
tracing the origin of its population by the names of 
the families at present found there, one discovers 
French, Spanish, Arabian, Hungarian, and other 
elements. It is known that there were Jews at 

Dubnicza in 1536. Among the chief rabbis of Dub- 
nicza were Solomon Moreno (1680-1750) and Abra- 
ham b. Samuel Alkalai (1793-1811). The Kirjali, 
a band of brigands that terrorized the Balkans at the 
end of the eighteenth century, occupied the town se v- 
eral times. In 1793 and again in 1794, a tribute was 
imposed amounting to 3,000 piasters on the first occa- 
sion, and 300 on the second. The share contributed 
by the wealthier Jews was determined by the assess- 
ments of Chief Rabbi Alkalai. It also appears from 
"Hesed le- Abraham " that the community of Dub- 
nicza paid two classes of taxes not demanded from 
Jews anywhere else. Abraham Alkalai (1741-1811), 
a celebrated rabbi who was born at Salonica. first be- 
came prominent at Dubnicza, where he officiated for 
twenty years. The town esteemed him so highly 
that his tomb has become an object of pilgrimage. 

Dubnicza has a population of 8,000, about 1,150 
being Jews. The latter are chiefly engaged in vari- 
ous trading and mechanical occupations, and the 
carpet-weaving industry is entirely in their hands. 
The synagogue dates from 1825. There are a boys' 
school with an attendance of 216, and two societies, 
a bikkur holim and an association of Zionists. The 
cemetery at Dubnicza contains a tombstone bearing 
the date 5330 (1569) and the name "Mosse b. Morde- 
khai Frances. " There are also some synagogue ap- 
purtenances dating from 1740. 

Bibliography : Rumanian Jewish Year-Book, Bucharest, 

d. M. Fk. 

DTJBNO : Town in the government of Volhyuia, 
Russia. According to the census of 1897 it had a 
population of 13,785, including 5,608 Jews. The 
chief sources of income for the latter are in trading 
and industrial occupations. There are 902 artisans, 
147 day-laborers, 27 factory and workshop em- 
ployees, and 6 families cultivate 90 deciatines of 
land. The town has a Jewish hospital, but no edu- 
cational institutions except several hadarim. The 
earliest date given in connection with the Jews of 
Dubno is the beginning of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. In 1650 there were in Dubno 47 Jewish and 
141 Christian taxable households. 

The following list of Dubno rabbis extends from 1600 to the 
present time: Isaiah ba-Levi Hurwitz (1600-06), author of 
"SheneLuhot ha-Berit." Samuel b. Aaron ba-Levi Hurwitz 
(1625-30), cousin of Isaiah Hurwitz. Zebi (Hirsch) b. Ozer, son- 
in-law of Abraham Hayyini Shor, chief rabbi of Satanow : author 
of n"3. Meir b. Moses Ashkenazl, the father of Shabbetbai 
Kohen (ShaK); died at Dubno Nov. 25, 1649. Judah ha-I.lasid, 

martyred 1619. Abraham Heilprin (1660-62), 
Rabbis. son-in-law of the physician Jelilel Michael 

Epstein. Nahnian b. Meir ba-Kohen Bapo- 
port (also called Nahnian Lifsches); died in 1674; previously 
rabbi of Kremenetz (Volhynia) and Belz (Galicia); took part in 
the Council of Four Lands at the fair of Jaroslaw. Moses 
h. Joseph, died at Lemberg May 22, 1684. Israel b. Mordecal 
Tt)lls (also called Israel Swinhar). Simhab b. Nahman ha-Koben 
Itapoport, died at Szebreczin July 15, 1717 ; son-in-law of Israel 
b. Mordecai ; replaced the latter in the rabbinate of Dubno from 
1082 to 1688; rabbi of Grodno to 1714, of Lublin to 1717; called 
to the rabbinate of Lemberg in the same year; he died on his 
way there. Joseph b. Judah Yudel of Lublin, died April 13. 
1706; wrote a work entitled " Ne'imah Kedoshah," containing 
moral precepts and a poem for the Sabbath. Samuel b. Shalom 
Shakna of Cracow, died at Brody June 22, 1729. Isaac b. Saul 
Ginzburg (1712-15). Eleazar b. Issachar Baerof Cracow (1715- 
1719), maternal grandfather of Ezekiel Landau. Heschel b. Ele- 
azar (also called R. Heschel "der Kleiner"), died July 25, 1729. 
/allium Ephraim b. Raul. Abraham b. Samuel Kahana, died 
1741 : previously rabbi of Brody and Ostrog (Volhynia). Isaac 


Dub now 

Moses b. Abraham Kahuna (d. 174-5). Saul h. Aryeh Lob, born 
at ReJflCho 1717: died at Amsterdam June 19, 1790; son-in-law 
of Abraham Kahana and author of "Blnyan Ariel" (1745 Ve. 
NapbtaU Berz b. Zebi HIrsch (d. May 17. 1777). Ze'eb Woll i>. 
Napbtall Herz, born at Brody 1746: died at Dubno 1800; pre- 
rlously rabbi of Radzivil. Volhynia ; his respnnsa were pub- 

llabed in the "TM'erel Zebi" of Zebi Uirsch, rab r Brodj 

(Lemberg, 18111. Nathan ba-Levi ilurwltz. I.layyim Mordecal 
Mart'aliot, brother-in-law of Nathan Hurwitz and author of 
•'Sba'are Tesbubah." Hayyim Jacob b. Ze'eb Wolf, previously 
rabbi of Eoyno, Volhynia: died Bept 25, 1849. David Zebi 
Auerbach, son-in-law of Hayyim Jacob and author of "Mal- 
bushe Taharah " (unpublished). Henahem Blende] Auerbach. 
son of David Zebi, is ihe present ( l'.ntli Incumbent.<;rai'uy : p. Pesls, *//• Dubno toe-RaoDaneho, cracow, 
1902: Reqesty I Nadrrirt. I. 889, 482, St Petersburg, 1899; 
E. H. uargolyesb, in wed, KhronUsa Voskhoda, 1887, 
p. 45. 
ii B. S. J.— M. Ski.. 

poet, grammarian, and student "I the Masorali; 
born at Dubno. Volhynia. Oct., 1738; died 

at Amsterdam .June 26, 1813. When he 
was fourteen years old his parents 
married him to the daughter of the 
Talmudist Simbab ben .Joshua of 
.in ill', ing exhausted 

the knowledge of his Yolhyii- 
ian instructors, Dubno went 
i ia. studying there lor 
il years Biblical exe 
gesis and grammar under 
the direction of Rabbi Si l 
onion of Cliolm. Dubno 
goon became proficient in 
these branches of .Jewish 
science, and was charged 
by his master with i he 

revision and publication 
of his work on the 1 [e- 
brew accents, "Sha'are 

Ne'imah" ( Frankfort-on- 
in, 1766) 
From ITDT to 1772 Dub- 
no lived at Amsterdam. 

d by iis rich col- 
lections of Hebrew books. 
On leaving Amsterdam lie 
settled in Berlin, earning a 
livelihood by teaching. Among 

his pupils was the son of Moses 
Mendelssohn, who. highly appreci- 
ating Dubno'a scholarship, became 
his patron and friend. Dubno wrote 
a commentary for Mendelssohn's 
translation of the Bible, of which only a portion — 
the "'Alim li-Terufah" (Amsterdam, 1778) — was 
published. See Jew. Enctc. iii. 192, ».v. Biiii.k 

During his stay at Wilna Dubno wrote a poem. 
preceded by a dissertation on the writing of the 
Scrolls, entitled " Birkat Vosef " (The Benediction of 
Joseph), published at Dyhernfurth, I7s:i. After the 

death of Mendelssohn, Dubno slopped for a short 
time in Frankfort -on the Main, and then returned to 
Amsterdam. There, at first feted, and later ignored. 

deriving a scanty income from the loan of the I ks 

from his rich library, he remained unlil his death. 

In addition to the works mentioned above, Dubno 
wrote the following: (1) Poems, appearing (p, 84) 

Solomon luihno. 

among those of Immanuel, published by LOb Wolf 
at Berlin, 1770; in the '"Bikkure To'elet" (pp.4, 
114), published by the Ansho To'elet Society of 
Amsterdam; and in Heidenheim's "Sefer ijero 
bot " (2) " Eliel Yahid," an elegy on the death 
of Jacob Emden, published at Berlin, 1770. (IS) A 
preface to Moses Hayyim Luzzatto's poem "La 
Vesharim Tehillah," if,. 1780. (4) A work on the 
geography of Palestine, promised by him in his 
commentary on Genesis, where he displayed a 
profound knowledge of the subject. Luncz ("Je- 
rusalem," 1*!I2. pp. KIT et feq.) identifies this work 
with the "Ahabat Ziyyon " of Dubno's father in 
law, Simbab ben Joshua; but as this is a mere 
plagiarism from the Karaite Samuel ben David's 
story of his voyage to Palestine, published in Gur- 
land's "Ginze Fisrael," it is probable that Lehren 
(" ( Catalogue," p. 247) is right in doubting the 
identification. (5) " Keshimah " (Register), 
catalogue of his library, published at 
Amsterdam, 1814. It contains 2,076 
printed works and 100 manu- 
scripts. Dubno left a great 
number of essays, poems, etc., 
which are still extant in man- 

Bibliography: De Rossi, Dtot 

>, p, 92 ! Zunz, Z.O.p.241 : 
*>... ,,.» i ,,..,,.• 

Idem, The Itiru rcwy of Rahhi 

Benjamin ■■' Tudela, ii. 891; 

Carmoiv, Ilcvue Orientate, 

11. :tlii el wq.; Delltzsch, Zur 

Gesch. tier 1'oerie, 

p. lis; steins braider. Cat. 

BodL col. ~**>:t; Auerbach, 

Gesch. <ler Israel Ge- 

meinde Balberttadt. p. 

1711 : Kavserluii.', "Monti 

MfnileUmahn, pp. 287 2su, 


l. a. I. Bit. 



VICH): Russo- Jewish 

historian; born at Mstis 

lavl, government of Mobi- 

lev, 1860. He attended the 

Jewish government school of 

his native town, and then the 

district school, whence lie was 
graduated in 1877. In search of 
knowledge and the means of sup- 
port, Dubnow moved from place to 
place, visiting Wilna. Dunaburg. 
Mohilev, and Smolensk. He earned 
his livelihood by tutoring, and at the same time 
prepared himself for university work. In 1880 
he sitiled in St. Petersburg, wlicre lie soon be- 
came a contributor to the " Busski Yevrei," pub- 
lishing his first article on the liistorical develop- 
ment of Jewish thought under the title "tilavnyye 
Momenty i/. Jstorii Yevreiskoi Mysli." About this 
lime (1881) he also assumed charge of the foreign 

news department of the Husso Jew 
His Jour- ish periodical "Ha/svyet." Disap 
nalistic proving the pan Palestinian policy of 
Activity, this periodical. Dubnow in 1882 trans- 
ferred his literary activity to the 
"Yoskliod." on which periodical he has since re 
luained an active collaborator in the field of Husso 



Jewish history and Russian Judaism in general. 
Among the more important of his early contribu- 
tions are his articles on Shabbethai Zebi, under the 
title "Sabbatai Zewi i Pseudomessianizm v XVII. 
Vyekye"(in "Voskhod," 1883, Nos. 9-12), and on 
the Frankists, entitled " Frank i Yevo Sekta Chris- 
tianstvuyushchikh " (ib. 18S3, Nos. 1-10). In 1883 
he assumed charge of the critical department >f the 
"Voskhod." He also wrote an essay on reform in 
the Jewish religion, entitled "Kakaya Samoeman- 
cipatziya Nuzhna Tevreyam" (ib. 1888, Nos. 5-8), 
which created a stir in Orthodox circles. Among 
his other valuable contributions on the Jewish ques- 
tion may be numbered his articles on the civic con- 
dition of the Jews and on the reform of Jewish 
school education in Russia, ami his critical reviews 
in "Voskhod." 1885 to 1887. Another important 
work of Dubnow 's is his monograph on the history 
of HasidismC'IstoriyaChassidizma," in "Voskhod," 
1888-93). This work is based on the study of orig- 
inal and hitherto unexploited sources. 

In 1891 Dubnow set himself to the task of creating 
among the Russian Jews an interest in their history. 
For this purpose he published a series of articles in 
"Voskhod," outlining a plan for the study of the 
history of the Jews in Russia, and advocating the 
establishment of a Russo-Jewish his- 
Dubnowas torical society. These articles were 
Historian, afterward printed in book form under 
the title " Ob Izuchenii Istorii Russkikh 
Yevreyev," St. . Petersburg, 1891. Although the 
appeal made by Dubnow did not create such a \\ ide 
spread interest as he had anticipated, his efforts were 
seconded by many persons interested in the history 
of the Jews in Russia. From the many unpublished 
documents gathered by Dubnow from libraries and 
from the " pinkeses " of Jewish communities, he pre- 
pared a series of contributions bearing the title " Isto- 
richeskiya Soobscheniya " (in "Voskhod." 1893-95). 

Among Dubnow s other historical studies may be 
mentioned his articles on the part taken by Jews in 
the French Revolution (in "Voskhod," 1889) and on 
the Jewish historian Griitz (ib. 1892, Nos. 2-9). In 
1893 he published (in "Voskhod," pp. 9-12) a philo- 
sophic historical study, "Chto Takoe Yevreiskaya 
Istoria"; a German translation by I. F. [Fried- 
lander] appeared in Berlin, 1898, and an English 
translation was published bj' the Jewish Publica- 
tion Society oi Am :ira in 1903, His "Yevrei- 
skaya Istoria," Odessa, ls97, a two-volume work 
on the history of the Jews from the beginning of 
the post Biblical period up to lss2, is an adap- 
tation of the handbooks of Jewish history by S. 
Baeck and M. Brann, but it also contains original 
contributions to tin- history of the .lows in Poland 
and in Russia. In 1900 Dubnow published a brief 
history of the Jews for the Jewish youth, entitled 
"Uchebnik Yevreiskoi Istorii Diva Yevreiskavo 
Yunoshestva, " in three parts (ib. 1900-01 1. In the 
same year appeared the first part of his larger his- 
tory of the .lews from the earliest to the present 
time, entitled " lyalstoriyaYevreiye^ 

1901). The second part, dealing with the period 
beginning witli the Babylonian captivity, is now 
(1902) appearing as a supplement to the monthly 
edition of the" Voskhod." Dubnow's recent labors, 

apart from his historical researches, consist in a series 
of letters devoted to the discussion of ancient and 
modern Judaism as regards the development of its 
national consciousness. These have been published 
in the " Voskhod " since 1897 under the title " Pisma 
o Starom i Novom Y'evreistvye." 

Dubnow's works are all characterized by elegance 
of literary style. He is also a fluent writer in He- 
brew, and has contributed valuable articles to the 
Russo-Hebrew periodicals, among them his articles 
" Ila-Hasidim ha-Rishim ba-Erez Yisrael," in "Par- 
des," ii. 201, Kiev. 1894 ; " Nabpesah we-Nahkorah," 
ib. i. 221; and "Hasidim Parze Geder," in "Ha- 
Shiloah," v. 7. He is also a contributor to Brock- 
haus 1 "Lexikon" and to Efron's "Russian Ency- 
clopedia," for which he wrote the articles on the 
Frankists and the Hasidim. 

Since 1890 Dubnow has been a resident of Odessa. 

H. R. 

DTJBOSARY: Village in the government of 
Kherson, Russia. In 1897 it had a population of 
13,270, of whom about 5,000 were Jews. A consid- 
erable number of the latter arc engaged in to- 
bacco growing, while many others are occupied in 
wine-making and fruit-growing. Dried fruits and 
tobacco are the chief articles of trade. There are 
910 artisans, 186 day-laborers, and a number en- 
gaged in agriculture and bee-keeping. There are 
the usual charitable institutions in the village, and 
a hospital and dispensary. There are also a Talmud 
Torah with 130 pupils, a private school with 580 
Jewish pupils, and 18 hadarim. 

h. r. S. J. 

DUBOVO. See Kiev. 

DUBROVNA: Village on the banks of the 
Dnieper, government of Mohilev, Russia. In 1898 it 
had s.087 inhabitants, of whom 4,559 were Jews. 
Dubrovna is known as the first and almost the 
only place to manufacture woolen tallits. This 
occupation dates back many Mars. It is known 
that in 1750 a factory for tin ir manufacture existed 
in Dubrovna, but they had been made here even 
earlier. The artisans work in their own homes, and 
are often hi Iped by their wives and children. There 
are about 000 families so engaged. Tin dyers, who 
dye the woolen thread a dark blue (" tekelet "), earn 
from eight to ten rublcsa month. The more numer- 
ous class of weavers, with the hard, incessant work 
of their families, even of children of six or seven 
years, earn less than the dyers. The launderers 
(10 or 12 families), who wash the tallits, earn more 
than the others — sometimes five rubles a week. The 
shavers (" goler " ; about 20 families), who cut the 
nap from the surface of the tallits, receive the least 
of all. The work is carried on amid very unsanitary 
surroundings. The peasants ate exploited by the 
dealers who supply them with wool and purchase the 
finished article. The dealers (there are only three 
or four of them) have agencies in all important com- 
mercial (enters, and their agents cover every town 
and village within the Pale of Settlement. The 
Dubrovna tallit was formerly sold abroad, even in 
America; but within the last ten years the machine- 
made tallit of South Russia and Lithuania is sup- 
planting that made in Dubrovna. 




The pitiable condition of the weavers has lately 
attracted the attention of their Jewish coreligionists. 
Thanks to the < peration of the Jewish Coloniza- 
tion Association, several Jewish capitalists have 
organized the " Aktzionemoye Obshcbestvo Dniep- 
rovskol Manufaktury " (a stock company for the de 
velopment of Dnieper manufactures), « ith a capital 
of 1,200,000 rubles. Two-thirds of the shares have 
been taken by the Jewish Colonizati. n Association 
The ultimate purpose of this undertaking is to n 
ganize and raise the level of the weaving industry 
among the Jews in Dubrovna and to furnish employ- 
ment to those needing work. Besides the weavers 
there are in Dubrovna 2T0 Jewish artisans and 24 
day -labor. 

The local charitable institutions arc: a socii fcy 
for the aid of the poor, founded by the governor oi 
the province: a bikkur In. I i in ; anil a lehem ebyonim. 
The Jewish children are taught in the Talmud 'I 
(72 pupils). T ty-six hadarim 

pupils), a j eshibah (60 pupils), a government si hool 
(175 pupils, part of whom also attend the yeshibah 
ie hadarim), and the distrii I school, k Ith 36 
pupils in the industrial departmi 

Bibliography: M. v.. Tevrei-Kustar, li 
Zhurnal, 1886, No. 12; O. Lurye, Dulwovt I 

tori/, 1 form, Mos- 

. 1890); N.v.i.., Duhrmv.nskaya KuMarnaya Pi 

Oct., 1890; Dr. Feieenberar, O. Dubro- 

ii. ii. 9 ■' 

DUDERSTADT: A city in Eichsfelde, | 
inc.- of Hanover. Jews have- lived there as early 
as the beginning of the fourteenth i 
pears from c al oi the prn ill ges for that 

town l.\ Duke Nov. IT. 1814. They 
; izenship, .■ 
liasizcd by the dukes Henry, Erni -t. and \\ ill 
iam in their confirmation of the privileges on July 
15, 1824. A : : . i tadt 

are mentioned in a document dated May 1 i I 
vcar 1888, according to which the Ji n Samuel 
si. hi inf.. n- tin mi i! a \ earlj ii 

that building amounting to one farthing. The 
Jews of Duderstadt wi re I in the i alam- 

whicb followed tin- Black Death 
After some decades a Jew of I 
v til.'. I again in I duderstadt, ^ ho, d 

i Is, paid on. i ■■ u ish 

protection monej ("Jodinschot"). 1 1 owed 

by other Ji nth century. In 1 185 the 

council of ii.. place made a contract with Isaac of 
Amoneburg and his gon Pivis to receive line 
the city up.. n a payment of 120 gulden; in 1 I 51 
fined the rigli I lien it 

granted certain <.f them, such as tic children of 

" Nai hi.:. .rui anil Si halain 

Hem. nt f..r three years. The number of Jews in 
Duderstadt from 1 150 to 1 WO was L2, and thi ir an 
nual payments averaged from 5 to 14 marks The 
council in 1465 received " Abraham de Jodde myt 
syncr modi r" (Abraham the Jew with hi mothi i 

for seven \ ears, ami in I Is'.i Nullum J " Na 

thanite woman," and Melr oi WDrzburg (Nathan's 

brother) for six years. A I thai time a -;. n.i 

was erected again, and its inventory for the years 
1435 42 and lino lias I. ecu preserved. A Bp 

■ was assigned to tin- .lews, which is first men- 
tioned in 1 197. There isals.. documentary evidi 
of a"Jews' Gate" (first in 1469)and of a"Joden- 
boru " (Jews' bath, 1495). Only scanty records ex 
ist for the following centuries. In 1902 the com- 
munity numbered about 100 souls. Its new temple 
was dedicated Aug 24, 1*98. 

BiBLioGRAPn Y : Job. Wolf, Gcsch and Beschrcibung der 
. i geq., GOttinjren, 1803; Idem, 

I'ni,' G i I 

zumJahre 1500, Hildesbelm, 1885, Nos. 14, 

i8 72, 11".. 285,370, i to No 370. and Nos. 190.503,510.511, 

515, .M... Supplement No. viii.; M. Wiener, in Monatstchrift, 
1. 127 it seq.; Salfeld, Da aa/ri — I def Vttrnoeroci u. 
Hurt., p. B3, note 7, and p. 284. note 5 (sei Lewinsky's! 
In Zeitsch. fur Hear. Ilild. U1.82) ; AUa.ZeU.desJud.aept. 
. i. S7. 

8. A. Lew. 

rabbi and codifier ; lived in the second half of the 
thirteenth century at Dueren, from which place 
took his name. He was one of the leading ( lerman 
Talmudical authorities of his time; and his work 
'• Sha'are Dura," on the dietary law 3, is the stand ml 
3i eral high authorities who lived after him, 
among them Israel Isserlein, Solomon I, una, Ii. Na- 
than Shapiro, and [sserles, added to his b 
and explanations, with which it lias often been pub 
lished: Cracow, 1538; Venice, 1".17, 1564; Constanti- 
1553; Lublin, 1575,1699; Basel, 1599; Jessnitz, 
1 72 I ; and many times in the nineteenth ci ntury. 

According to Zunz, Dueren maybe the I lach 
Metr he Hasid ("the Pious") who wrote "Tikkun 
Shetai'oi." a w oik containing the forms and laws of 
documents and deeds. It is still extant, in manu- 
script in the Vienna Royal Library. 

i , : / 1 -T>i ; 

. , i i , .... t, . Bfli ; /..'.in. 'i. i ut. Hebr. I'- 
ll,, ; I; / /../. ...(» i I ; Benjacob, 

i.. ... N. T. I. 

DTJKAN (pn. NJ2H): The "platform" upon 
which i li the Temple priests stoml to pronounce the 
liction i.Mid. ii. 6), (2) the Levites stood during 
their singing (hence, also, name for the Levitical 
service i impare Meg, 8a), and (3) the teacher 
or assistant teacher sat while instructing the chil- 

l; l; 21a). The name "dukan," how. 
in the course of line-, came to be applied chiefly to 
the priestly blessing. The call to the priest tor 
; was, " Go up to Ihe dukan " (Shah, t 

compare Targ, Y.r. to Num. vi. 28); hence ".in 
'..r "duchenen." Sec Blessing, Pkd h.y. 

Hull IndiAI'IIY : Levy. .Yi u/itl.r. ll'.',il,rt.,s,v.; .1 



DUKES, LEOPOLD: Hungarian historian of 

1 1 literature; I i al Pi but B 

i .ii. .1 at Vienna 8 1891 He tndii d 
Talmudical literature in the yeshibah of Moses Sofer, 
rabbi of Pri passion for Biblical stud 

i. s, which found no sympathy in his native! 
led him to the yeshibah of Wttrzburg, win 
devoted himself to the acquisition of a seculai - 
cation. After u prolong, d -lay al W llrzbut 

..I I ie; hut displeased with the manners 

oi his felloe citizens, and impelled by a thirst for 
knowledge, he visited the principal European cities 
in which there were libraries containing Hebrew 
manuscripts, He lived successively al Munich, 





Leopold Dukes. 

Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1843; 
sic, 1844: three "beitriige," 

Tubingen, Hanover, Hamburg, Paris, Leipsic, Ox- 
ford, and then spent about twenty years in London. 
Dukes was an original character, a fact due prob- 
ably to his solitary life and privations. His scholar- 
ship was extensive and exact, and his works cover 
the fields of exegesis, Haggadah, grammar, Masorah, 
the history of literature, ethics, and poetry. In 
all of these he made many ingenious and impor- 
tant discoveries; and 
his books became in- 
dispensable supple- 
ments to those of 
Zunz, Rapoport, and 

Dukes was the au- 
thor of the following 
works : 

" Raschl zum Penta- 
teuch," translated into 
German (in Hebrew char- 
art, sre) and explained, 5 
vols., Prague, 1833-38; 
'' Ehrensiiulen und Denk- 
steine zu einem Kiinfti- 
gen Pantheon Hebraiseher 
Dichterund Dicntungen,'' 
Vienna, 1837 ; " Moses ibn 
Ezra," Altona, 1839 ; "Zur 
Kenntniss der Neunebral- 
schen ReliglSsen Poesie," 
" Rabbinische Blumenlese," Leip- 
publisbed by Evvald and Dukes: 
I. "Beitrage zur Geschichte der Aeltesten Auslegung und 
Spracherklarung des A.T."; II. " Literatur-Historiscbe Mitt- 
lieilungen iiber die Aeltesten Hebr&iscnen Exegeten, Gram- 
matiker, und Lexicograplien," Stuttgart, 1S44; III. " Ueber 
die Arabiscb Geschriebenen Werke JudiscberSpracngelenrten," 
Stuttgart, 1844; "Sefer Dikduk, die Grammatischen Schriften 
des JeliudaChajjug," Frankfort, 1844; " Konteros ba-Masorah," 
Tubingen, 1845; " Kobe? 'al Yad, Handscbriftliche Inedita iiber 
Lexlcograpbie," Esslingen, 1846; "Die Sprache der Miscbna," 
i/». 1846; "Slitr'al Mot," etc., elegy on the death of Meyer 
Joseph Konigsberg, London, 1847; "Les Proverbes de Salo- 
mon" (historical Introduction), In Caheu's Bible translation, 
Paris, 1851 ; "Glnze Oxford," extracts from manuscripts, in 
collaboration with II. Edelmann, London, 1850; "Nabal Kedu- 
mim," on the history of Hebrew poetry in the Middle Ages, in 
two parts, Hanover, 1858; "Zur Rabbinischen Spruchkunde," 
Vienna, 1858; "Shire Shelomoh," Hebrew poems of Solomon 
ibn Gabirol, Hanover, 1858; "Salomo ben Gabirol aus Malara 
und die Ethischen Werke Desselben," ifi. 1860; "Phllusoph- 
isches aus dem Zehnten Jabrtiundert," Nakel, 1868. 

In addition to these works, Dukes was a frequent 

contributor to all the Jewish scientific periodicals, 

chiefly to the "Literaturblatt des Orients," which he 

enriched with numerous valuable articles on the 

history of Jewish literature. 

BmLioc.RAiMiY : Beth-El, Ehrentcmpcl Verdienter Unga- 
rischir Israeliten, pp. 127 ct seq.; II. Zirndorf, in PopulUr- 
wissemclmfUichc MonatxbUltter, 1892, pp. 137 ut 81 <;. 

s. I. Br. 

DUMAH (= "silence").— Biblical Data: 1. 
Son of Ishmael (Gen. xxv. 14; I Chron. i. 30). Suk 
( " market ") Dumah has been found in Dumat al-Jan- 
dal in Arabia, called "Jauf" to-day (Yakut, s.v. ; 
Burkhardt," Travels in Syria," p. 6G2), and compared 
with Domatha (Pliny, "Historia Nat oralis," vi. 32; 
StephanusByzantius, s.r.). The Dumathii are men- 
tioned in Porphyry. " De Abstinentia" (ii. 56), as an 
Arabian tribe which sacrifices a boy every year and 
buries him under the altar of its idol. The name 
"Dumah" seems to point, like the name " Hadra- 
maut "(ryiDtVn. Gen. x. 26), to some legend of Hades 

(compare Glaser, "Skizze der Gesch. und Geogra- 
phic Arabiens. " 1890, p. 440). 

2. Name of aland probably identical with the ter- 
ritory of the tribe of Ishmael (Isa. xxi. 11). The Sep- 
tuagint substitutes "Idumea" (see commentaries ad 
lot .andcomp.AbuaLWalid's" Dictionary,",*.;', on). 

3. Name of a city of Judah (Josh. xv. 52). The 
Ginsburg MS., the Vulgate, and the Septuagint 
have "Rouma," but Jerome's anil Eusebius' Ono- 
mastica, s.r., mention a village of the name of 
"Dumah," which has been identified with " Khirbat 
Daumah " in the neighborhood of Bait Jibrin. 

4. Name for the nether world (Ps. xciv. 17 [the 
Septuagint has *A<5i7c], cxv. IT). 

E. f>. II. 

In Rabbinical Literature : " Dumah " is the 

Dame of the angel who has charge of thesoulsof the 
nether world. According to Dozy ("Die Israeliten 
in Mecca," p. 95, note), the name was adopted also 
by the pre-Islamic Arabs (compare Wolff, "Mohara- 
medanische Eschatologie," 1871, Arabic text, p. 39; 
German trans. , p. 69, where " Kuman " seems a cor- 
niption [another reading is "Dhudat"] of "Dumah," 
as the name of the angel who has charge of the 
souls). The angel of death has to deliver all souls 
to Dumah, both the righteous, who are led to the 
place of eternal bliss, and the wicked, who are to 
meet their doom (Hag. 5a; Shab. 152b). He also 
announces the arrival of newcomers in the nether 
world (Ber. 18b). Dumah takes the souls of the 
wicked ami casts them down "in the hollow of a 
sling" into the depth of Hades, and this is repeated 
every week at the close of the Sabbath, when the 
souls, after the day's respite, must go back to their 
place of torment (Shall. 152b, after I Sam. xxv. 29; 
Pesik. R. 23; She'eltot, Bereshit i.). According to 
Midr. Teh. to Ps. xi. (see ed. Buber, 102, note), 
Dumah leads the spirits every evening out of Hades 
into H azarmay ct (the Courtyard of Death), a walled 
place with a river and a field adjoining, where they 
cat and drink in perfect silence. Many authori- 
ties, such as Jacob Tarn and Solomon b. Adret, 
have the word "Sabbath " added, so as to refer only 
to Sabbath evening (see Demonology ; compare Tan. 
Yelamdenu, Ha'azinu: "Prayer is said for the dead 
that they may not have to return to Gehinnom"). 
Dumah was originally, according to the Cabalists, 
the guardian angel of Egypt; but when flee- 
ing before the Lord's decree (Ex. xii. 12), he was 
placed in the nether world over the spirits of the 
dead (Zohar ii. 18a). Mashhit, Af. and Hemah are 
the officers of execution tinder Dumah (Recauati, 
Wayera). The name of Dumah is found also on a 
Judseo-Babylonian vase in the Louvre (see Schwab, 
" Vocabulaire de l'Angelologie," 1897, p. 707). 

" Dumah " is also the name of one of the seven 
departments of Gehinnom, and those who have 
been guilty of slander and the like are "silenced" 
there (Midr. Teh. and Yalk., Makiri, toPs. xi. ; com- 
pare, however, 'Er. 19a, where Dumah is not men- 
tioned). It is identified by R. Levi with Hazarma- 
vet (Gen. x. 26; see Gen. R. xxxvii.). "When the 
soul has been drawn out of the body by the angel 
of death, it remains seated above the nostrils until 
decay sets in ; then it breaks out into wailing, and 
it cries to God, saying: ' Whither am I brought?' 




Instantly Dumah takes it and brings it to the Court- 
yard of Death [I.Iazarmavet, seemingly the purga- 
tory mentioned in the Testament of Abraham, xiv |. 
where the spin! - red, and if the soul be that 

of a righteous one, the call goes forth : ' Make room 
fur this N N, the righteousl ' Then it ascends from 
department to department, according to its merit, 
until it beholds the face of the Shekinah. If the soul 
be that of a wicked one, it descends from department 
to department according to its demerit " (Midr. Teh. 
l.e : Jellinek, "Bel ha-Midrash," v. 43 «<«?.). 

- - K. 

VICH : Russian lawyer; born at Mohilev-on-thc- 
Dnieper, 1836, of poor Orthodox Jewish parents; 
died at St. Petersburg l v ^~. He received his first 
instruction in the beder, hut ran away from home at 
the age of fourteen, and entered the Agricultural 
School at Gorigoretzk, from which he graduated in 
1855. During this time he was left entirely to his 
own resources. By his exceptional abilities I 
tracted the attention of his instructors, who took a 
great interest in him. After leaving the school 
Dumaahevski found employment at the office of the 
I. d£d ration Committee in Odessa. Here he 
was noticed by the Russian surgeon and philanthro- 
pist Pun v. who helped him to enter the Richelieu 

Lyceum of that City; and there he studied law, 
Lab r he attended the University of St. Petersburg, 
graduating in 1862. Here again his abilities attract- 
ed the attention of the authorities, and he "as Bent 
abroad at the expense of the government to complete 
his i a , a professorship being promised him 

on his return. After his return in 1865 a new law 
was passed prohibiting Jews from occupying pro- 
rs' chairs of legal and of political science. He 
accepted a position in the Ministry of 101 m at ion, and 
lain iic served in tin- .Ministry of Justice, by which, 
for valuable services on the Committee for Reform- 
ing the Legislation of Poland, hi was appointed first 
my of the third department of the Senate. 

Dumaahevski was for many years one of the edi- 
tors, and finally the owner, of the "BudebnyiVyesI 
nib " (Messenger of Judicial Affairs), and was author 
of the following articles and works on jurispru- 
dence: " Nashe Pravovyedenie," etc., in the ".lour 
nalof the Ministry of Justice," l^c,7 ; "< teherk Frant- 
zuzskavo Orazhdanskavo Sudoproizvodstva," ib. 
l^t'i") and 1807 (published also in the "Journal of 
Judicial Affairs"); " O Predyelakh Ylasti Kassatz- 
ionnavo Dcpartainenta Senata," Wi7 ; and "<) Silye 
Cassatzionnykh Ryeaheni." His chief work is 

" Sisteniatiehi ski Svod Kvesheni K a -at .'ionnavo 

Departamenta," etc, (Systematic Collections of the 
Decisions of the Appeal Department of the Benate, 
with notes by Dumaahevski), St. Petersburg, many 

editions. Of special interest as pertaining to the 
Jewsare the articles: " Nuzhen li ZhoUXnal dlya Vev 
reyev i na Kakom YazykeV" (Do the Jews Need a 
Special Periodical, and in What Language?), pub- 
lished in " Russki Invalid " in 1S.VJ; " I'rak po Kiblcis- 
komu i Talmudichcskomu Pravu " | Marriage A cord 
log to Biblical and Talmudic Law), in "Biblioteka 
dlya Chtenlya," 1861; "Yevrel Zemledyeltzy v 
Rossi) " (Jewish Agriculturists in Russia), In " Vyest 
nik Imper, Russkavo (Jeogr. Obshchesty a. " 

Dumashevski advocated a practical tendency in the 
study of civil law, opposing the historico-philosi ph 
ical side; and at the same time he was a partizan of 
the dotrniatir- (levelopnicnt of Russian civil law. In 
his will he left 86,000 rubles to the University of St. 
Petersburg under the condition that this be entered 
as a gift " from the Jew Dumashevski. " 

tiini.iooRAPHv: N. s. RtubkowsM, Sovremennye itumko- 
Yrvrriskiye Dueyateli. part i„ Odessa, 1899; Ha-Asif, War- 
saw, 1889. 

II. R. 
DUMB. s,r Deaf-Mi mbm. 
DUNABTJRG. Sec Dvinsk. 

DTJNASH BEN LABRAT : Philologist and 
pot I of the !• nth century. For the name "Dunash. 
which Joseph Kimhi on one occasion ("Sefer ha- 
Galui," p. 62), for the sake of the rime, writes C'l^n 
("Dunosh"), si e Dunash ii;n Tamim. B Labra{" 
(EtX "O^ 1 , generally written without X, 1313?) does 
not occur elsewhere as a given name; hence "Ben 
t " may be the family name. "Labrat" has 
been explained as " Laurat" (Steinschneider, "Jew. 
Quart. Rev." xiv. 180) and as "Librat," "Librado" 
(Derenbourg, "Opuscules," p. 2). Hothof Dunash 's 
nanus, therefore, are of Romance origin. Abraham 
ibn Ezra Hebraizes "Dunash " into " Adonim " ; Du- 
nash himself employed the Biblical name " Adoni- 
jah." which is a mnemonic device containing the 
servile letters ("Criticism of Saadia," No. 6). Du- 
nash was of Lcvitieal descent (Moses ibn Ezra calls 
him " Al-Levi"), and to this origin also his pupil 
Jehudi b. Sheshel dedicated a few panegyric ■> < 
(Polemic Treatise, verses 10 Hi). Dunash 's family 
came originally from Bagdad, although he himself 
was born in Fez (Moses iini Ezra), 

While still young, though doubtless equipped 
with a rich fund of knowledge, Dunash, perhaps in- 
fluenced by the origin of his family, journeyed east- 
ward and became a pupil of the renowned gaon of 
Sura, Saadia, whom, in his tract against Mrnahem 
b. Saruk, he proudly designates as his master. 
The term employed by Dunash in this connec- 
tion ('3pT. verse 101 ; the pupils of Menahem more 
clearly expressed it as -p-n -ppr, p. 48) is responsi- 
ble for the singular belief that Du- 

Becomes nash was a grandson of Saadia; but 
a Pupil of the pupils of Menahem (p. 27) ex- 

Saadia. pressly designate him as the "least 
Important of the pupils of Saadia." 
Dunash himself relates that he submitted his Hebrew 
verses, containing the first application of an Arabic 
tie ler, to the gaon. who expressed his astonishment 
at this innovation in the words, "Such a thing has 
hitherto been unknown in Israel." Dunash was, 
therefore, still very young when he adapted the 
Arabic meter to Hebrew poetry. This innovation 
created a new epoch for Hebrew poetry, and w as 
probably inspired in North Africa, where Ibn Ku 
raish and Dunash ibn Tamim prepared 

Founder the way for a systematic comparison 

of New of the Hebrew and Arabic — a com 

Hebrew parison to which Ibn Labra\ after 

Meter. ward gave his indorsement in his trait 

against Menahem. It may be accepted 

as a historical fact that Dunash was the founder of 

tin' new Hebrew meter. He is as such regarded by 




his opponents, the pupils of Menahem, who objected 
to the innovation on the ground of its inappropriate- 
ness, although they themselves follow the example of 
Dunash by writing metrical verse. Dunash is cele- 
brated as an innovator by his pupil Jehudi b. She- 
shet, who, referring to his work, says: " He created a 
new foundation for our poetry, such as did not exist 
in the days of our fathers." Another observation 
which this scholar makes would seem to indicate that 
Dunash did not hesitate to put forward his convic- 
tions even when they clashed with those of Saadia. 
After the death of Saadia (942) Dunash returned 
to Fez, and thence went to Cordova, which city, 
under the powerful influence of the statesman Hasdai 
ibn Shaprut, was rapidly becoming a center of cul- 
ture among the Jews of Spain. Of the circumstance a 
of Dunash's life nothing further is known. He 
seems, however, to have been a man of means. 

Dunash soon found an opportunity for applying 
his knowledge, his critical acumen, and his literary 
talents to a matter of consequence. The first im- 
portant product of Jewish literature in Spain had 
appeared — the Hebrew lexicon of .Menahem b. Saruk. 
Dunash wrote an exhaustive criticism of it, com- 
posed partly in the metrical verse introduced by 
him, and dedicated this comprehensive and logically 
elaborated polemical treatise to Hasdai ibn Shaprut, 
Menabem's patron. In the opening verses Dunash 
proclaims the fame of this statesman, whose services 
in the cause of his prince and of his coreligionists 
were alike eminent. This dedication was skilfully 
interwoven with a tribute to the great 
Criticizes diplomatic successes which Hasdai 
Menahem had shortly before obtained (in 960); 
ben Saruk. namely, the acquisition of the ten for- 
tresses, and the journey of the son of 
Ramiro and his grandmother Tota to pay homage at 
the court of the califs of Cordova (Dozy, "Histoire 
des Musulmans d'Espagne," ii. 54 etseq.). The flat- 
tery of Dunash impressed Hasdai powerfully; and 
his attacks on Menahem lowered the latter in the 
estimation of his patron. The supposition is justi- 
fied that in consequence of the action of Dunash, 
Menahem not only lost the favor of his patron, but 
was treated by him in the harshi st. manner, even to 
the extent of being deprived of his freedom, as is 
known from the remarkable letter sent by Menahem 
from prison to his former patron. That Menahem, 
i Dunash intentionally emphasizes, should have 
made the respected gaon Saadia the subject of un- 
justifiable criticism, ami that he should have e.\- 
pres ed opinions which placed Saadia in the cate- 
gory of the founder of the hated sect of the Karaites 
— these were the causes which especially roused the 

resentment of Hasdai against, him. 

Concerning the further relations between Dunash 
and Hasdai nothing is known. It is probable, how- 
ever, that the former obtained the position previ- 
ously occupied b\ Menahem, Bui the pupils of the 
latter arose to defend the scientific standing of their 
teacher, who probablj died soon after his humilia- 
tion and without replying to Dunash's criticism. 
Three of them collaborated in the preparation of an 
important polemical work, in which they adopted 
the half-metrical, half-prosaic form employed by 
Dunash. In this work they opposed the views of 

Dunash and defended the honor of their master and 
of their fatherland, claiming that Dunash had sought 
to humiliate not only Menahem, but the Jewish 
scholars of Spain in general. It is certain that the 
conduct of Dunash — the foreigner, who doubtless 
boasted also of his sojourn in the Babylonian high 
schools — aroused the resentment of the native schol- 
ars. Dunash was probably too proud to reply to 
this attack in person, and therefore committed the 
task to his pupil Jehudi b. Sheshet, whose still more 
violent polemic, characterized by a coarse satire, 
undoubtedly contained many arguments inspired by 
his teacher. With this tract, which at the same 
time sounded the praise of Dunash, the literary feud 
engendered by Dunash'sattack upon Menahem seems 
to have ended. This quarrel inaugu- 

Results of rated the golden age of Hebrew philol- 

His Quarrel ogy in Spain; and one of the partici- 

witb. pants in it, Judah b. David Hayyuj, 

Menahem. a pupil of Menahem, laid the founda- 
tion of a new and wider knowledge of 
Hebrew grammar. Dunash probably did not live to 
witness this extraordinarj' development to which he 
had given so powerful a stimulus. 

Many years after the death of Dunash a second 
but uncompleted polemical treatise of that, scholar 
was discovered in Egypt (before 1140) by Abraham 
ibn Ezra. In this work Dunash had begun to form 
an alphabetical arrangement of his comments on the 
grammatical and exegetical opinions of his teacher 
Saadia. The greater part of the work, however, con- 
sisted of scattered notes. In this criticism of Saadia 
(which Abraham ibn Ezra answered by the tract en- 
titled "Sefat Yeter") the doctrine of the triconso- 
nantal nature of the weak roots already finds clear 
expression. It was the study of Arabic which 
enabled Dunash, like Hayyuj at a later period, to 
arrive at this know ledge. But the latter, upon the 
basis of his discovery, proceeds to the systematic 
elucidation of the conjugation of the before-men- 
tioned verbs; while Dunash does not go beyond the 
statement that the first, second, or third root-letter 
is weak and may be eliminated. Owing to its in- 
complete form, this second writing of Dunash's was 
never published by him; nor is there the slightest 
reference to its existence before Ibn Ezra, who 
praises Dunash by stating that "he was the only one 
before Hayyuj who awakened somewhat from that 
slumber of ignorance which, like a dee]) sleep, still 
held others in its bonds " ("Safah Berurah," p. 856; 
Bacher, "Abraham ibn Ezra als Grammatiker," p. 
87). Ibn Ezra's contemporary R. .Jacob Tarn, the 
eminent grandson of Rashi, in a very interesting 
work defended Menahem b. Saruk against the criti- 
cism of Dunash ; but Joseph Kimhi (iu"Seferha- 
Galui ") sided with Dunash. Thus were the great 
feuds that, agitated Spain during the tenth century 
revived in France two centuries later. 

The first work of Dunash was published from a 
codex of the Bodleian Library (Neubauer, "Cat. 
Bodl. Hebr. MSS." No. 1440), together with Jacob 
Tarn's criticism of it, by II. Filipowski ("Critic* 
Vocum Kecensioues," Loudon, 1855). The second 
was edited by R. Schroter from a manuscript (No. 
27,214) in the British Museum ("Kritik des Dunash 
b. Labrat, " Breslau, 1866). The genuineness of this 




treatise lias recently been contested by N Porges 

(in the Kaufmann Gedenkbuch, Breslau, 1901), but 

not on good grounds Bei I ppcnstein in "Monats- 

schrift," 1903, i. 46. | 

pp i ii 158 Bachei i 178 180; 

His D. Kolm. in "Ha-Goren," iii., 1903, 

Writings, pp s, i 89. The polemical wri 

■ ii I lunash and of the pupils of Mi n- 

ahemhave been edited bj 8. Q Stem ("Liber Re- 

Bponsionum," Vienna, 1*70). 

The poemsof Dunash ibn T.ahrat were early for 

gotten (Al Harizi, " Tahkemoni, " iv.), only a few 

ed, which .. 

tically Teveal the name of Dunash, or Dunash ha 

Levi (Mahzor Vitry, ed. Hurwitz, p. 178; Zunz, 

"Liti b."p.484). One of these (Nnp' im) 

is still included in the Sabbath si 

books (Bar's "Gebetbueh," p. 257} Perhaps il is 

Dunash, the creator of the new vei 

lion, thai Solomi m ibn t lal irol , rator of it, 

lias in mind when be prai I wi b 

tlie words, "<> Samuel, dead is Ben I. 

thou I iast taken bis place Were he living, he would 

havi 3hir Shelomoh," No. 5 

Bibliography : Bacber, Dit H 

in Winter i u Qnscl 

Idem ! ' briUschcn < ■ 

114 ; D. K"hn ' Kabana), /.'. D 

I iiibllshed by tbe . i \ 

i. Stelnberz . in), Buda- 

llimn lui'l S 

t. W. B. 

DUNASH IBN TAMIM : fthetenth 

century and pi 

peaking Ji •■> -. Ili^ Arabic name was "Abu 
Sahl"; bis surname, according to an isolated 
mem of Mi sea ibn Ezra, was "Al-Shafalgi," per 
haps after his (unknown) birthplace. The name 
mash," for which Abraham ibn I itutcs 

the Hebrew "Adonini," is probably derivi 

Latin "dominus," and nol fi the Arabian "dhu 

nas " mankind), concerning which thi 

ling to show that it was used as a proper i 

• bai e l>' en nal n e to North 
Africa ; the youi of Ibn Tamim, 

1 1 i ! ; i . born 

"( il Bodl." col. 897 ; -.1 
Rev."x.519; •! Derenbourg, " Opuscules et 
Traites d'Aboul-Walid," p. 'J 1 1 
nicni of Abraham ibn Ezra to the effect that I 

:u came from the ] from 

Babylonia, or Bn dad (on one occasion he calls him 
il of Moses ibn Ezra, n bo ■ 
him a nal - of [bn 

family of Ibn Tamim Bagdad; hut it is 

Abraham ibn I 
i the appellal ion " Babyloi a Ibn 

l.aij'.i to [bn Tamim. The ad 

m Tamim's life and 
gathered principally from his Feziri ntary 

ed below. 
In this commentary, which was written In the 
Jaadia the Gaon is mentioned 
longer living. The author refers, however, to the 
correspondence which was carried on when hi 

atj j eai sof age betwi 
b. Solomon Israeli, and Saadia, before the hitter's 
arrival in Babylonia, consequently b fore 928; hence 
Tamim was born about the beginning of the tenth 
iry. Like his teacher, he was physician inordi- 
nary at the court of the Katiniiie califs of Caiman, 
to one of these, Isma'il ibn al-Ka'im al Mansur, 
■a dedicated an asl ronomical work, In the sec- 
ond part of which he disclosed the weak points in 

rinciples of astrology. Another of his a 
nomical works, prepared for II. lai b. Isaac ibn 
Shaprut, the Jewish statesman i isted 

of thn (Ii the nature of the spheres; (2) 

ii. .1 e dcula i :; i es of the 

Btars. The Arabian author Ibn Baitar, in his I 
mple medicaments, quotes the following inter- 
irk on the rose, made by Ibn Tamim in 
■ f his medicinal works : "There are yellow roses, 
a Irak, as I am informed, al ib i ones. Tin; 
hePei ian, which is said never to open." 
The iginal of Ibn Tamim's com 

on tie rah no exists. In the llo- 

lirew translations the manuscripts are widely dis- 
similar, and contain varying statements regarding 

111 several of tie j Ibn 

Tamim is expressly n [erred to as the author; in one 

instance be is nai icd ;t with his teacher, 

while in another Jacob 1>. Ni-Miu is named, who 

I in Kairwan at the end of the tenth century. 

i certain passa 

ii, \\ bo is menl where as a 

commentator on the Sefer Yczirah, actually had a 
part in the authorship of the wi >rk. But the major- 
ity of in nts contained in 1 1 atary 
itself justify the assumption thai Ilm Tamim was 
mthor, lie must, therefore, h a i the 
ry of his teacher as his basis, while the 
finishi by Jacob b. 
Nissim (Steinschneider, "Hebr. Uebers." pp. :; 

A short n cension of tl n j (Bod 

Ician MS. No. 2250) was published by .Man. 
bei Londi m, I 
Jn tin- b i Hebrew philology Ibn Tamim 

ranks as one of the fit t representatives of the sys- 
tematic comparison of Hebrew and 
Ibn Tamim Arabic [n his " Moznayim " (Preface) 
as Gram- Abraham ibn Ezra mentions himbe- 
marian. tv a and Judah ibt 

and - pi alts i if him as the author of u 

pounded i if 1 1< brew and A rabic." N 
ibn Ezra says thai [bn Tc the tv. o 

i ling to their lexicographical, not 

their grammatical, relation-;, .and in this i 

ful than ] BH II m:i N Am lit; mum at 

a lati r pi ' iod. The latti tain 

[bn Tamim's book. In the Yczirah i 

i ■. [bn Tamim i j : "If God assi ts i tnd 

life, ] -in w hieh 

I have stated that Hebrew is the original tongue of 
mankind a ; furtherc 

■ ill show r - , .f the In o lan- 

ry pure word in tie- Arabic can 

■ ml in the Hebrew; that the Hi I in \ is a puri- 

\rahic; and that the t 

identical in both " In adding, " We have 

rinciple from the Danitcs, who have 




come to us from the land of Israel," he certainly 
alludes to the well-known Eldad ha-Dani. Abra- 
ham ibn Ezra (commentary on Eccl. xii. 6) men- 
tions the interesting detail that Ibn Tamim believed 
he could recognize the diminutive form of Arabic 
names in several noun-formations of the Biblical 
Hebrew (forinstancc, ]W3K: H Sam. xiii. 20). The 
statement cited by Saadia b. DaDan (end of fifteenth 
century), according to which the Mohammedans be- 
lieve that Ibn Tamim was a convert to Islam, is 
erroneous, and is probably due to the fact that Ibn 
Tamim is often quoted by Mohammedan writers. 

Bibliography: S. Slunk, Notice sur Abou'l-fVaU<l Merxran 
Jbn-Djanah, in Journal Asiatique, 1850, pp. 43-60; Neu- 
bauer. Notice sur la Lexicographic Hebral/hte, in ih. 1861, 
pp. 156-108; Gnitz, Qesctl. v.; Steinsehnelder, Hehr. Debers.; 
idem. ]>ie Ardbische lAUeratur dcr Judcn, p. 72; Kauf- 
mann, in Rev. EL Juivcs. viii. 126. 

o. W. B. 

DUNAYEVTZY : Village in the government 
of Podolia, Russia. It had a population (1898) of 
13,000, of whom 7,000 were Jews. The chief sources 
of income forthe Jewsare from trade and industrial 
occupations. The most important articles of com- 
merce are timber, grain, and cloth. Several of the 
merchants do a fairly large business. From funds 
collected for charitable purposes a wood-yard has 
been established, where the poor can buy wood at a 
reduced price. See Podolia. 
Bibliography : Voskhnd, 1898, No. 4. 

II. R. S. J. 


at Cracow Jan., 1833; received his rabbinical edu- 
cation at his native place; studied philosophy and 
Oriental philology at Bonn and Heidelberg. In 
1862 he was called from Bonn to the rectorate of the 
Nederlandsch Israelitisch Seminarium in Amster- 
dam. His ability soon made it famous as a school 
of Jewish theology, ancient languages, and religious 
philosophy. In 1874 he was made chief rabbi of the 
Amsterdam community and of the province of North 
Holland, and though he belongs to the strictly Ortho- 
dox party, no dissension has marred his administra- 
tion. The government recognized his ability and 
activity by decorating him with the Order of the 
Lion of the Netherlands. 

Dunner is known by his researches on the Hala- 
kah of the period of the Taunaim, and by his dis- 
quisitions on the Toscfta. According to him the 
Tosefta originated after the close of the Talmud, 
being edited by a redactor who had before him an 
ancient, or at least fragments of an ancient, Tosefta. 
He asserts that a comparison of the texts contained 
in the collections of the Tannaim with the two Tal- 
muds will substantiate his contention. Diinner has 
acquired a reputation as an orator. He has written : 
"Die Theorien liber Wesen und Ursprung der To- 
sephtha, Kritisch Dargestellt," Amsterdam, 1874; 
"Glossen (Haggahot) zum Babylonischen und Pala- 
stinensischen Talmud " (in Hebrew), 4 vols., Frank- 
fort-on-the-Main, 1896-1903; "Kritische und Erlau- 
ternde Anmerkungen zu Bedarsehi's Ohotham Toch- 
nit," Amsterdam, 1865; "Leerredenen," 5 vols., ib. 
1897-1901. Besides these works he has contributed 
to the "Joodsch Letterkundige Bijdragen," "Mo- 
natsschrift." " Weekblad voor Israeliteu," and "Is- 
raelitische Letterbode." 

Bibliography : Polat, J. B. DUnncr, lets Cit IXens 
Leven en Werken, in Weekblad voor InraMitische Huis- 

gezinnen, Rotterdam, 1899- 1900; l)e Joodsche Courant 
Nos. 18, 19, The Hague, 1903. 
S. S. SE. 

DUNS SCOTUS, JOHN: Franciscan monk, 
theologian, and scholiast; born at Dunston, North- 
umberland, England (according to some, at Dun, 
Ireland), in 1266 (?); died in Cologne, 1308. He was 
the foremost representative of the Franciscan Order, 
and founder of the Scotists, which school stood in 
sharp contrast to the Thomists, or followers of 
Thomas Aquinas, who, together with their leader, 
belonged for the most part to the Dominicans. 

In accordance with his opposition to the doctri- 
nal speculations of Aquinas, Duns Scotus professed, 
concerning the attitude that the secular authori- 
ties and the Church should assume toward the Jews, 
views which were diametrically opposed to the 
more humane and enlightened views held by Aqui- 
nas, and which represented a deplorable reaction. 
Thus, whereas Aquinas denounced the forcible bap- 
tism of Jewish children, especially on the ground 
that such a course would be a violation of justice, 
inasmuch as the child, not being possessed of its 
full reasoning powers, is naturally under the juris- 
diction of its parents (compare Guttman, "Das 
Verhaltniss des Thomas von Aquino zum Judenthum 
und zur Jiidisehen Literatur. " p. 4. Gottingen, 1891), 
Duns Scotus stoutly advocated such baptism. Such 
a procedure, he maintained, would mean a breach of 
natural justice only in the event of its being under- 
taken by a private person ; to the sovereign, how- 
ever, the right appertains. Just as the jurisdiction 
of local magistrates is limited by the authority of 
higher functionaries, so the jurisdiction of the par- 
ents ceases when it conflicts with the authority of 
God. Accordingly, it is not only a privilege, but a 
duty to take children out of the power of their par- 
ents in case the latter are unwilling to bring them 
up conformably to a true worship of God, and to lead 
them in the right way (commeutarj r in Sent. iv. 
4, 9: "Opera," ed. Wadding, viii. 275, Lyons, 1639). 

And not only the children, but also the parents 
themselves should be subjected to forcible baptism. 
Nor can the words of Isaiah (iv. 22), according to 
which the remnant of Israel shall be converted in 
the last days, be cited against such a procedure, 
since, in order to fulfil this prophecy, it would suf- 
fice to transfer a little band of Jews to some island, 
and to grant them permission to observe the Law. 

Duns Scotus, in support of his contention, refers 
to the decision of the Council of Toledo, which com- 
mended King Sisebut for his piety in compelling 
the Jews to an acceptance of Christianity (ib.). 

Duns Scotus' acquaintance with Hebrew literature 
was confined to the "Fons Vita; " of Ibn Gabirol 
(whose name takes with him, as with William of 
Auvergne, the form of "Avicebron") and to the 
" Moreh Nebukim " of Maimonides. In one place he 
makes mention of a rabbi who is unknown even 
to the greatest scholars of Hebrew literature. He 
speaks there of one "Rabbi Barahoc," who is a 
worthy counterpart to the renowned "Rabbi Tal- 
mud "; for he is indebted for this name to the Tal- 
mud tractate Berakot, out of which a certain con- 
vert of Jewish extraction communicated a passage 




to a Franciscan monk, who interpreted it in a spirit 
not very friendly to the Jews (" Qua?stiones Miscel- 
lanea-, " qu. 6, art. 21: "Opera," iii. 177). 

The influence of Gahirol's philosophy shows itself 
particularly in the doctrine which is at the founda- 
tion of one of the most important dif- 
Influence ferences between the Dominicans and 
of Gabirol. the Franciscans. As earlj as ALEX- 
ANDER of Hales, the founder of the 
Franciscan theological school, the view is expressed 
that not only corporeal, but also spiritual substance 
is compounded of matter and form. This view is 
held also by William of Lamarre, Bonaventura the 
Mystic, Roger Bacon, and Raimond Lully, who were 
all members of the Franciscan Order. Stoutly re- 
jected by the Dominicans, this fundamental concept 
of Gahirol's philosophy was adopted by Duns Scotus 
and incorporated in his system as an integral part. In 
his " De Rerum Principiis " (qu. 8, art. 4 : " Opera, " iii. 
51) he expressly declares, in opposition to Aquinas, 
in favor of a return to the standpoint of Avicebron. 

The metaphysical and cosmological system which 
is advanced in this work, presupposes Gahirol's doe- 
trine of a unitary, universal substance underlying 
all created things, both corporeal and spiritual. In 
elaborating this doctrine Duns Scotus, as might be 
expected of an independent thinker of his type, 
follows his own individual bent. But as regards 
the fundamental principles, the dependence of his 
system upon Gabirol is so marked that, in the words 
of Stockl ("Gesch. der Philosophic des Mittelaltcrs," 
ii. 808), "his work gives the impression of a running 
commentary on the metaphysics of Avicebron." 

Strange to say, Duns Scotus makes no meution 
whatsoever of Gahirol's teaching on the will. In 
his other works, which are mainly in the nature of 
a commentary on the Bible, and in which, therefore, 
then- is little occasion for a systematic substantia 
tion of his theological doctrines, Duns Scotus rarely 
refers to Avieebron. 

With Maimonides, too, Duns Scotus shows more 

than one point of contact. Like Thomas Aquinas, 

he follows the statements of Maimon- 

Influence ides concerning belief and knowledge, 

of Mai- or the relation of revelation and rea- 

monides. sou, which statements are all. in their 
essential points, trainable back to 
Saadia as their first source (see Guttmann, "Die 
Religionsphilosophie des Saadia," pp. 24-25; idem, 
" Das Vcrhaltniss des Thomas von Aquino," etc., pp. 
32 et acq.). "The doctrine concerning the- existence 
and freedom of God," says Duns Scotus, referring to 
Maimonides, " had to be imparled tOthe Israelites by 
means of revelation, although it may indeed !»■ de- 
monstrated by human reason. Such a revelation 
was necessary in view of the fact that the culture oi 
the Israelites was of an Imperfect Order, and also be- 
cause they were inclined to idolatry " (comment, in 
Sent, i., dist. 2, qu. 8, 7, v. 294; compare "Moreh 
Nebukim," ii. Iii). "Altogether, it can not but be 
helpful to a people that even truths accessible to 
reason should be authoritatively communicated to 
them; since there is a general indolence in regard 
to the discovery of truth, and the powers of compre- 
hension of the average man are limited ; and, finally, 
for the reason that errors are apt to creep into spec- 

ulations independently carried on, giving rise to 
doubts. Through an authoritative communication 
or revelation such a danger is obviated " (Duns Sco- 
tii—. /'<. p. 395; compare "Moreh Nebukim," i. ch. 
xxxiv. ; Munk, "Guide," i. 118-130). 

In connection with Aquinas' statements concern- 
ing the divine attributes, Dunsdiscusses the view of 
M iimonides, which he finds to be in harmony with 
that of Ibn Sina, and which is to the effect that the 
attributes applicable to God either refer to His activ- 
ity or else arc of a negative character (commentary 
in Sent, i., dist. 8, qu. 4, 2: "Opera," v. 751; com- 
pare " Moreh Nebukim, "i. ch. Ii., liii. et seq.). To 
Maimonides also is traceable the statement that there 
occur in the Bible designations that are applicable 
only to God — a view which the Jews held in regard 
to the Tetragratnmaton (comment, in Sent, i., dist. 
22, qu. 1,3: "Opera," v. 1053; compare" Moreh Ne- 
bukim," i. ch. lxi.; Munk, "Guide," i. 271 et seq.). 

Duns Scotus follows Maimonides also in his treat 
ment of the various forms of prophecy, not to men- 
tion other less important particulars. The highest 
formof prophecy is, according to him, that in which 
the prophet not only grasps the revelation thatcomes 
to him, but is also aware of its coming to him from 
God. Of this character was, for instance, the intui- 
tion of Abraham, who would not have been ready 
to sacrifice his own son had he not been convinced 
that the command proceeded from God ("Qua!st. 
Miscell." 6, 8: "Opera," iii. 17 1 ; compare "Moreh 
Nebukim," iii. ch. xxv. ; Munk, "Guide," iii. 194- 
195) l In the other hand, Duns Scotus combats the 
opinion that the temporal character of the world can 
not be proved an opinion held by Aquinas, and 
borrowed by the latter from Maimonides, whom 
Duns does not mention (" Quastiones in Metaphys." 
qu. 1,18: "Opera," iv. 513; compare " Moreh Ne 
btikim," ii. ch. xxi. ; Munk, "Guide," ii. 269). 

Bibliography : Guttmann, DU BezWiwngen des Johanna 
Dunt Scotia zum .hni,iii)tum, in Mntuilsscltrift. LB94, 
xxjvlll. 28-39: Idem, Die Scholastic de* Dreteehnttn Jahr- 
hundertg En uvren Besiehungt n sum Jvdenthvm und cur 

JIUlixittrn Litrratur, Itreslau, Ml2. 

i. J. G 

DUPORT, ADRIEN : French lawyer and frii ad 
of tin 1 . bws; born in 1758; died in exile 1798. Be 
became a deputy to theStati - General in 1789, and 
from the first was a member of the Jacobin party. 
After the arrest of Louis XVI. in June, 1791, Du- 
port In came a royalist. In the constitution of Sep- 
tember, 1791, the Jews of France were not remem- 
bered, although statements as to freedom of religious 
opinions were inserted. On Sept. 27, 1791, Duport 
proposed that the Jews be accorded all the privi- 
h ges of citizenship in France, and the suggestion 
was adopted despite some slight opposition. The 
National Assembly next abrogated all exceptional 
laws against the Jews. 
Biblioorapht: Tbomaa, DtcMonary of Wography t i. 87fl, 

IMlllu.telpllU. MM ; l,\ In.ili. M. 230, 

r>. A. M, F. 

DURA: A valley mentioned only in Daniel (iii. 
1). Here Nebuchadnezzar set up a golden image, to 
the dedication of which he summoned all the officers 
of his kingdom. The Septuagint (Codex Chislanus) 
reads wep(/3<5Aov(" walls surrounding a city "), and this 
may be due to the Assyrian "ibiru " (= a wall). The 
place is therefore to be looked for in Assyria, I >e 




litzsch ("Wo Lag das Paradies?" p. 216) says that, 
according to Rawlinson, "Cuneiform Inscriptions of 
Western Asia," iv. 38, 9-llb, there were three places 
in Babylon called "Dura" (see also Schrader, "C. I. 
O. T." ii. 128). In one of these places east of Baby- 
lon, according to Oppert, ruins of an ancient statue 
hi e been found. 
E. g. ii. G. B. L. 

widely scattered family, originally from Provence, 
not from Oran ("d'Oran"), as some scholars think. 
A "Mosse Duram " is mentioned in a list of Tarascon 
Jevi s. L350-1487 ("Rev. Etudes Juives," xxxix. 268). 
The Durans went first to Majorca, and finally settled 
in Africa. Some of their descendants are met with 
a late as the end of the eighteenth century, as shown 
in the subjoined pedigree. M. K. 

The principal members of the family w< re: 
Aaron ben Solomon ben Simon Duran : Day- 
van of Algiers in the fifteenth century. He and his 
brother Zemab Duran lived at one time in Majorca, 
from which they sent a responsum to the community 
ot Constantinople ("Yakin u-Bo'az," 1., No. 126). 
His name and those of his brothers Simon and Zemah 
are associated as the authors of a responsum written 
at Algiers and directed to the community of Oran 
(ib. 1., Nos. 53-55). 
Bibliography: Michael, Or ha-Hayuim, No. 316. 

M. Sel. 

Hayyim Jonah b. Zemah Duran : Published 
at Leghorn iu 1703 the first part of "Magen Abot," 
u ritten by his grandfather, Simon b. Zemah Duran. 

Moses Duran: Lived in Provence in the thir- 
teenth century. His death (1380) was lamented in an 
elegy by Abraham b. Isaac Bedersi (Zunz, "Z. G." 
pp 164, 523). 

Moses b. Zemah Duran: Elder of the Jewish 
e immunity at Leghorn in 1790. He published apart 
of the "Magen Abot" at that city in 1785 from a 
manuscript in the possession of Zemah b. Benjamin 
Duran and Zemah b. Hayyim Jonah Duran. 

Nissim Duran: Son of Zemah and brother of 
Sin* a Duran, of Majorca, v. lure be dii d alter 1395. 

Profiat Duran (called Maestre Profiat, and 
also Eibdi or Efodseus, from the initial letters of 
|tOY1 tD^Blia 'JX; real name Isaac b. Moses ha- 
Levi) : Philosopher, grammarian, and controver- 
; born in the second half of the fourteenth 
century, of parents from the south of France. It 
is not known whether lie was born a t Perpignan, 
where he lived 6 years, or in a town of Cata- 

lonia. In his youth he attended a Talmndic school 
a liorl time, but instead of confi- 
ning his studies to the Talmud, he took up philoso- 
phy and other si ii nces also, in spite of the interdic- 
tion of his teachers. Duran bi utor in the 
iniily, and during the Moody persecution 

of 1391 was forced to 1 le an ostensible convert 

I islianity. 

In order to return to Judaism, lie and his friend 
David lionet Bongoroi , to Pales- 

tine. Duran set out on his journey, but instead of 

meeting his expected friend, he received a letter 

from him stating that in consequence of the persua- 
sions of the neophyte Paul de 

ruled to remain true to the new faith, and exhorting 

Duran to follow his example. Duran 's answer was 
the famous satiric epistle called, after the repeatedly 
recurring phrase, "Al Tela Ka-Aboteka" (Be Not 
Like Thy Fathers). It was written about 1396, and 
was circtdated by Don Mei'r Alguadcs, to whom it had 
been sent. It is so ingeniously ambiguous that the 
Christians, who called it " Altcca Boteca," interpreted 
it in their favor; but. as soon as they recognized its 
satirical import they burned it publicly. This epis- 
tle, with a commentary by Joseph b. Shem-Tob and 
an introduction by Isaac Akrish, was first printed at 
tantinople in 1554, and was republished in A. 
Geigi r's "Melo Chofnajim," 1840, in the collection 
" Kobe? Wikkuhim," 1844, and in P. Heilpern's 
" Eben Bohan," part 2, 1846. Geiger also translated 
most of it into German (" Wissenschaftliche Zcit- 
schrift," iv. 451). 

Connei ted with this epistle is the polemic "Kelim- 
mat ha-Goyim " (still in manuscript), a criticism of 
Christian dogmas written in 1397 at the request of 
Don Hasdai Crescas, to whom it was dedicated. 

In 139."> Duran compiled an almanac in twenty- 
nine sections entitled "Hesheb ha-Efod," and ded- 
icated to Moses Zarzal, physician to Henry III., 
King of Castile. That Duran was familiar with the 
philosophy of Aristotle as interpreted by the Ara- 
bian philosophers, is apparent from his synoptic 
commentary on Maimonides' "Moreh Ncbukim," 
which was published at Babbionetta in 1553, at Jess- 
nitz in 1742, and at Zolkiev in 1860. 

Duran 's chief work, praised by both Christians 
and Jews, is his philosophical and critical Hebrew 
grammar, "Ma'aseh Efod," containing an introduc- 
tion and thirty -three chapters, and finished in 1403. 
He wrote it not only to instruct his contemporaries, 
who either knew nothing about grammar or had erro- 
neous notions concerning it, but especially to refute 
mistakes promulgated by the later grammarians. 
He frequently cites the otherwise unknown Samuel 
Benveniste as an eminent grammarian. See the edi- 
tion of J. Friedlander and J. Kohn (Vienna, 1865). 

Durau was also a historian. In an unknown 
work entitled "Zikron ha-Shemadot " he gave the 
history of Jewish martyrs since the destruction of 
the Temple. GrStz has shown that this work was 
used by Solomon Usque and Ilin Ycrga. 

In 1393 Duran wrote a dirge on Abraham b. Isaac 
ha-Levi of Gerona, probably a relative; three letters 
containing responsa, to his pupil Mei'r Crescas ; and 
two exegetical treatises on several chapters of II 
Samuel, all of which have been edited as an appen- 
dix to the "Ma'aseh Efod." 

At the request of some members of the Benveniste 
family, Duran wrote an explanation of a religious 
festival poem by Ilm Ezra (printed in the collection 
"Ta'am Zekenim" of Eliezer Ashkenazi), as well as 
the solution of Ilm Ezra's well known riddle on the 
quiescent letters of the Hebrew alphabet (quoted 

by Immanuel Benvenuto in his grammar "Liwyat 
Hen," Mantua, 1 557, without mentioning Duran), 
and several explanations relating to Ibn Ezra's com- 
mentary on the Pentateuch. 

Bibliography: Monatsuchrift, Hi. 820 el seq.; J. Friedl leT 

:nid J. Kohn, Ma'aseh Efod, Introduction, pp.2 12; S.Grone- 
inann. 1 >i Proflatii lhinnii Vila ax Strain*. Breslau, 1869; 
Stelnscbnelder, *'"'. Bndl. cols. 2112 etseq.l De Rossl-Ham- 
berger, Htetorisches WQrttrbuch, pp. 261 et seo.\ Gross, Gal- 
lia Jwlaudy pp. &k* ei m <;.. 47~ ; Gratz, Qesch. viii. 94, 4U3. 




Simon b. Solomon Duran: Kabbi in Algiers, 
1531; grandson of Simon lien Zemah. lit- and his 
brother Zemah are the authors of the responsa which 
appeared under the title "Yukin u-Bo'az," Leghorn, 
1782, the fifty-one responsa printed in i 1 cond 

part ("Bo'az ") being Simon's work. His liturgical 
poems (nine dirges) still exist in manuscript (Zunz, 
"Literaturgeschichle der Svnagogalen Poesie," p. 
684) M. K. 

Simon b. Zemah Duran (RaShBaZ) : Rabbin- 
ical authority; born Adar, 1361, not in Barcelona, 
as Zunz (" Zcitsclirift," p. 132) and others assert, but 
on the island of Majorca; a near relation but not a 
grandson of Levi b. Gershon ; died in 1444. He was 
a pupil of Ephraim Vidal, and of Jonah de Maestre, 
rabbi in Saragossa or in Calatayud, whose daughter 
Bongoda he married. He was also a student of 
philosophy, astronomy, mathematics, and especially 
of medicine, which he practised for a number of 
years at l'alma. 

After the persecution of 1391 (see Balearic 
lie went with his father and sister to Algiers, where, 
in addition to practising medicine, he continued his 
studies during the earlier part of his stay. In 1394 
he and the- Algerine rabbi Isaac It. Sheshet drafted 
statutes for the Jewish community of Algiers. 
After Sheshet 's death Simon was chosen as rabbi on 
condition that lie would not, like his predecessor, 
have his election confirmed by the regent. As Du- 
ran bad lost all his property during the massacre at 
Palma, he was forced against his will to accept a 
-alary from the community, not having other means 
of subsistence. He held this office until his death. 
His epitaph, written by himself, has been reprinted 
for the first lime, from a manuscript, in "Orient, 
Lit." v. 452. According to Joseph Sambari, Simon 
was much respected in court circles (" Medieval Jew. 
Chron." i. 130). 

Simon was a very active literary worker. He 
wrote commentaries on several tractate's of the Mish- 
nahand the Talmud and on Alfasi (Kos. 4, 5, 7, 11, 12, 
and 10 in the list of his works given below); be treated 
of various religiousdogmasand of the synagogal rite 
of Algiers (Xos. 5, 8, 10, If!); while in his responsa 
he showed a profound acquaintance with the entile 
halakic literature. His theologico - philosophical 
scholarship, as well as his secular learning, is eon 
spicnous in his elaborate work, "Magen Abut," in 
which he also appears as a clever controversialist 
(No. 7). The same ability is evidenced in his wri- 
tings against Hasdai Crescas, which afford him an 
opportunity to defend Maimonides (No. 2); in his 
commentary on the Pentateuch (No. 6), where lie 
takes occasion to enter into polemics with Levi b. 
Qerghon; and in that on the Book of Job (No. 1), 
especially the introduction. In his commentary on 
the Pirkc Alio! he shows a broad historical - 
( No. 7. partiv.); and it is not improbable thai the 

tradition which ascribes to hiin the historico didactic 

poem " Seder ha-Mishneh leha Rambam " (No. 9), is 
well founded. 

Simon also wrote a considerable number of poi m 

both religious and secular (Nos. 9 [V], 15); com- 
mented on the' l'esah Ilaggadah, the I [osha'not, ami 
the works of more ancient poets (Nos. 5 (<•), 13, 14); 
and was the author of numerous pamphlets. The 
V -2 

following iisl of Durans writings is arranged ac- 
cording to the lettersof the Hebrew alphabet, on the 
basis of a catalogue drawn up by the author him- 
self (Responsa, vol. iii.): 

1. "Oheb Mlshpat," commentary on the Book of Job, with a 
tbeologico-philosopbfcal Introduction, Venice, 1589 ; Amsterdam. 
1724-27 on the Rabbinic Bible " Kehillat Mosh.-I ') 

2. "or tia-Hayylm." controversial treatise against Hasdai 
Crescas' " Or Adonai." 

8. " Zobar ha-Rakla'," commentary on Solomon Ibn Gablrol's 
" Azharot," Constantinople, 1516. (Jacob Hagls [" Potll Teke- 
let"] ami Moses Pisante ["Ner Mizwab"] have reedlied this 
work, of which a shorter recension also exists.) 

4. "Huliltishe ha-RiLshbaz," uovellSB on and elucidations of 
Nidilah, Kosh ha-Shanah, Klnnim, Leghorn, 1744. ("Hlddu- 

i," novella? to Ketubot and Gittln [Kiirth, 1779], is errone- 
ously ascribed to Duran.) 

5. " Yal)in Sbemu'ah ": (a) precepts for slietiltah and bedlkab ; 
i/'i " Ma'amar Itamez." precepts concerning hamez and maz- 
zab; (c) "AfUtomen," commentary on the Pesab Haggadab ; 
'(I) "Tif'eret Yisrael." on the computations of the new moon 
("moladot"); 'n " Perush," oommeDtary on the Mlsbnah Zeba- 
hitn, eh. v. ("Ezehu Hekoman"),and tbe "Baralta de Rabbi 
yisbma'el" (taken from the sirrai subjoined thereto in the 
prayerbooK (Legborn, 1744). Part tc) appeared as " Ma'amar 
Allkomcn" with the Haggadab (ROdelhelm, 1828). 

8. "Uwyat pen," commentary on the Pentateuch; also two 
tints against Hasdai Crescas ('"Anaktin," "Ma'amar ha- 

7. " Magen Abet," consisting of four parts with special titles: 
1., "Helek Eloah mi-Ma'al"; II., " Helek Shosenu"; HI.. 
"Helek Ya'akob"; iv., " Helek Adonai 'Ammo." Part lv., a 
commentary on Abut, including a literary-historical lntro- 
ductlon on the sequence of tradition, appeared under the title 
"Magen Abot," Leghorn, 1703; reedited by Y. Kischl, Leipslc, 
is:,:,. Cnder the same title appeared parts I. -lib, with the ex- 
ception of one chapter In part il. (to. 1785). The missing chap- 
ter in ttiis edition, being a polemic against Christianity and 
Islam, was published under the title " Kesliet u-Magen " (il). 
i;s'> '.«i; reedited by Steinscbneider, Berlin, 1881). Extracts 
from this chapter, "Setirat Emiinat ha-Nozrim," are contained 
in "Mill.ieinet llobah." Amsterdam, 1710. It Is largely taken 
from Protlat Duron's " Kellmmat ha-Goyim " (" Monatsscbrift," 
o 179). 

s. "Minliagim." ritual observances, presumably treating of 
Hi.- riles in All. 

'.i. " Seller ha-Misbneh leha-Rambam." didactic poem, ascribed 
b. Duran in MS. Poc. 74 (Neubauer, "Cat. Bodl. liebr. MSS." 
No. 1971). 

10. " Periish ha-Ketubbah weha-Get." on marriage contracts 

ami ihwuves, t'oustantino|ile, f. 151C-48. 

11. " Perush Hilkot Herakot le-llarif," commentary on Alfasl's 

" Iterakot." 

I:'. " Perush Masscket "F.duyyot," commentary on 'F.duyyot. 

18. "Perush 'al ha-Hosha'not." published with the " Ilosha'- 
DOt"accordlng to the Spanish rite, Perrara, 1563. 'A short ex- 
tract from the "perush" is contained in the Spanish prayer- 

k nf 1871.) 

14. " Perush Kezat Plyyutlm." of which several pieces are 

Inserted in the Algiers Habzor, Leghorn, 1772, (The commen- 
tary mi the introduction, "[ItanikJ Asher Ishshesh." may also 
he found In B. Goldberg's " Hefes Matmonim," pp. 85 ct sea., 
Berlin, 1845.) 

1">. " Kuniras Tehlnnot u-Plzmonlm," religious and secular 
poems. (The elegy ("klnah"] on the destruction of Jerusa- 
lem, " F.ksof lc-snpper," wils published In Protlat Dtiran's " Ig- 
geret Al-Tehl," Constantinople, c. 1577; that on the persecu- 
tions in Spain in the second - dltlon nf " Magen Abot,'' I.eipslr. 
1856. A larirer collection was edited by I. Moral! In part 1. of 
bis "Znfnat I'n'aneah." Berlin, 1897.) 

HI. " Iteiiiazc I'iskc Nlddah" (distinct from No. 4). 

17. "Tlkkun ha-Hazzanlm." of which the title only Is known. 

15. " ha Kashhaz," Inserted ill part II. of the re- 
sponsa ( I'jl. and In .liidab 'Ayyash's responsa, entitled "Bet 
Yehiidab." Leghorn, 17 in. 

pi. "Tasbbaz," 802 responsa In three parts, Amsterdam, 
1738-39; title eil., if,. 1741. 

Bibliography : 11. Junius. R. Simeon /,. Zemaeh Duran. in 
UonaltsehrifU xxlll.-'il el see.: a. Frankel, Ma.> 
Jud. xxlv. 417. :■"! : Micliiu-I. "r fi.clfoi/non. p. 801 : stem- 
scimei.icr. COt, 'I'"". No. 7199; He Rossi Hamberger, Htoto 
rfeehet frdrUrbuch tier JUditchen Schriftttetter. pp. 92 el 
.»,,/,; Zedner, Cat. Hear. Books /!rif. tfti*. pp. 708 el *cq: 




Zunz. Literaturyesch. pp. 521 e( seg.; Gritte, (,c«/i. ,ld ed.. 
viii 1(10; Brody, In 7.-r. Monatsschr. 189", No. i ; I. Morali. 
Ziifnnt l'a'tiwuh,U Berlin, 1*97; Kaufmann, in Jfouots- 

MhrftdLn M.K.-H. B. 

Solomon b. Simon Duran (abbreviated XaSh- 
BaSh): Son and successor of Simon b. Zemah 
Duran; born in Algiers about 1400; died there 1467. 
In his youth he became familiar with the Talmud and 
rabbinical literature, and with a resoluteness remark- 
able for Ins time he protested against the Cabala. 
Like his father, he was the author of many responsa 
i published in Leghorn, 1742); his letter, written in 
the language of the Talmud, to Nathan Nagara in 
Constantine has been separately reprinted, with an 
index of passages (" Kerem Hemed," ix. 110 et seg.). 
ilis defense of the Talmud, written in 1437 against 
I be attacks of the convert Geronimo de Santa Fe, 
appeared under the title "Jlilhemet Hobah," and 
also the title "Setirat Emunat ha-Nozrim," after the 
second part of his father's " Keshet u-Magen." It 
was also published separately at Leipsic in 1856. His 
treatise "Tikkun Soferim," which has frequently 
been ascribed to his father, is printed as an appendix 
to the work "Yabin Shcmu'ah," Leghorn, 1744. A 
dirge written by him has been preserved in manu- 

Bibliography: Conforte, Kore ha-Dorot, p. 3">b; Kerem 
Hemed, is. 114 ct eeq.; lie Itossi-Hamberger, Huitririsches 
WOrterbuch, p. 94 ; Orient, iiiS12 et sr.q.; Griitz, Qesch. viii. Zunz, Oteraturgesch. p. 524; E. N. Adler, in Jew. 
Quart. Be». xii. 147. 

Solomon ben Zemah. Duran : Rabbi in Algiers, 
where be died after 1593; great-great-grandson of 
Solomon ben Simon Duran. In addition to some re- 
sponsa, which have been added to Simon ben Zemah 
Duran's collection, he wrote a detailed commentary 
on Proverbs, which appeared under the title "He- 
shek Shclomoh," Venice, 1623; six discourses on the 
seven kinds of wisdom; a commentary on the book 
of Esther; and a treatise on Jemperance. All these 
works were completed by the year 1591, and pub- 
lished under the title "Tif'eret Yisrael," Venice, 
(c. 1596) (Roest, "Cat. Rosenthal. Bibl." pp. 494 
et aeg.). 

Zemah Duran (also called Astruc) : Father of 

Simon Duran; went from Provence to Palma, and 

thence to Algiers, where he died in 1404. He had 

some knowledge of medicine and astronomy, and 

was preacher at Algiers (''Rev. Et. Juives," xlii. 


Bibliography: Isaac b. Sbesbet, Responsa. No. 60; Kay- 
serllng, Qesch. di rjudi n In Spanien, i. 109. 

Zemah. b. Simon b. Zemah. Duran: Great- 
grandson of the preceding; died 1590; author of a 
commentary on a liturgical poem for Puriui by Isaac 
b. Ghayyath. Tliis poem, with the Aramaic text, 
was printed in "Tif'eret Yisrael," a work written 
by his son Solomon b. Zemah Duran (Roest, "Cat. 
Rosenthal Bibl." Appendix, p. 494; Steinscbneider, 
"('.,t Bodl." p. 

Zemah. ben Solomon Duran: Great-grandson 
of Zemah Duran. 

Zemah. ben Solomon Duran: Talmudist; died 
Sept., 1604; was mourned in an elegy by Abraham 
Gavison (Nepi-Ghirondi, "Toledo) Gedole Yisrael," 
p. 49). 

Pedigkeb of tub Duran Family. 

("Cat. Bodl." eol. 2306.) 
Zemah Duran, Jonah de Maestre 

Nissim Simon, d. 1444 married Bongoda 
I I 



d. 1467 


' I 



Zemah. d. 1590 


Joseph (?) 

d. after 159:1 

d. 1604 












Havvim Jonah, 




6. M. K. 

DURESS (Hebrew, D31X) '• In law, the use of 
such unlawful force against a contracting party 
as will entitle him to rescind a contract. The rab- 
binical law on this subject goes back to the wars of 
Vespasian and Titus, when many Jews, in order to 
save their lives, gave up their lands to armed rob- 
bers (" sikarikin " = daggermen ; Git. v. 6). 

From several Talmudic passages (compare B. B. 
40b, 47b ; B. K. 62a) the standards have drawn the 
following rules: 

" If one has been put under duress until he sells, and takes 
the purchase-money, even if they hang him up till he sells, yet 
the sale is valid, whether of movables or of lands, and this 
though the price has not been accepted before witnesses. Hence 
he should make his protest before two witnesses, and say to 
them : ' Know ye that I sell this field [or this article] under com- 
pulsion.' If the seller does this, the sale may be set aside after 
many years' possession, and the buyer must make restoration. 
But the witnesses must know of theirown knowledge that force 
was used ; and when the protest is written out to be signed by 
them, it should recite such knowledge on their part. This re- 
fers only to a sale of property or to the compromise of a claim ; 
but a gift of property, or the free release of a claim, is void 
whenever the donor or releasor protests his unwillingness at 
the time, though he be not under duress at all. Beating or 
other bodily violence is not the only form of duress; duress 

may i -i-i i" the lhn-al of ani harm which It is In tlie power 

of the other party to Inflict. . . . But no protest is necessary to 
prevent the possession of land which is taken by sheer violence 
from ripening into a title by prescription. An admission made 
bj the seller after the protest does not estop ; for it is presumed 
that lie was forced to make it" (Maimonides, " Va.l." Mekirah, 
x.; much to the same effect is Shulhan 'Aruk, Iloshen Mishpat, 

What has been said as to deeds or other acts of 
conveyance would, with proper changes, apply to 
bonds or promises of payment made under compul- 
sion ; but the case of sale under duress, being that 
which occurs most frequently, has been especially 
treated here. 

i,. g. L. N. D. 

DTJRKHEIM, EMIXE : French writer ; born at 
Epinal, in the department of Vosges, France, April 




15, 1858. He was educated at the college of his na- 
tive town, and later in Paris at the Lycce Louis le 
Grand and the Ecole Normals Superieure. From 
188^ to 188? he occupied the position of professor 
of philosophy in various lycees, in 1**7 became pro- 
fessor of sociology at the Faculte des Lettres of the 
University of Bordeaux, and in 190:2 was culled to the 
Sorbonne. It was Durkheim who introduced the 
study of sociology into the French universities. In 
1897 he founded an annual, " L'AunceSociologique," 
in which he gives an ai count of the sociological liter- 
ature of France and Other countries. He has pub- 
lished the following works: u De la Division du Tra- 
vail Social," Paris, 1893; " Les 1 1, - I, s de la Mcthode 
Sociologique," Paris, 1895; "Le Suicide: Etude de 
Sociologie," Paris, 1897. Besides these Durkheim 
published a great number of essays in the "Revue 
Philosophjque," "'Revue Bleue," and elsewhere. 

Bibliography: La Grande EneycU>pedie\ JVouveau La- 
rowsac Jllustre. 


DURLACHER, ELCAN : Hebraist and pub- 
lisher; born at Karlsruhe, Germany, in 1817; died 
Dec. 21, 1889. He went to Paris in 1845 as a 
teacher of languages, and founded a Hebrew pub- 
lishing-house, which was continued, after his death, 
by his son. He compiled a Hebrew reader and an 
almanac, and wrote a small book entitled "Joseph 
and His Brothers." His two most notable works 
are a French translation of the German Mahzor, and 
another of the daily prayer book, which he made 
with the assistance of L. Wogue, whose edition of 
the Pentateuch he published. 

8. J. W. 

DURY, JOHN: English divine of the seven- 
teenth century. During his travels abroad he met 
Manasseh ben Israel in Uil I, and heard from him an 
account of Antonio dc Montesino's alleged discovery 
of the Ten Tribes in America. In 1649 he addressed 
a further inquiry to Manasseh on the subject, which 
resulted in the publication of "The Hope of Israel." 
Dury was also author of a pamphlet issued in 1G56 
entitled " A Case of I li inscience : Whether It lie Law- 
ful to Ad mil .lews into a ( Ihristian Commonwealth." 
To a question put to him by Samuel Hartleb, as to 
the general lawfulness of their admission, Dury re- 
plied in the affirmative; but from the point of view 
of expediency he considered that circumstances as 
to a particular time and place might render their 
admission unwise. 

BiBLiooitAriiv : WorthlDgton'a Dion/, 1.78, 88; JewtihChran- 
U>ndon), Feb. 10, 18W; Rev. B. Levy, in Trans. 1UM. 
Soc. /■.'";/. Iv. 

.i. G. L. 

DTJSCHAK, MORITZ: Austrian rabbi and au- 
thor; born in Triesch, Moravia, Nov. I I, 1815; died in 

Vienna July 21, 1890. lie was a pupil in Talmud 
of R. Moses Sofer of Presburg, and was for a long 
time rabbi at Gaya, Moravia. In 1*7? he bei 
preacher in Cracow and teacher of religion at thi 

gymnasium of that city. lie was 8 modi m pirn hi I 
and the author of works in the German langu 

Although engaged to deliver his sen - at the 

Temple, his sympathies were mostly with the old- 
style Orthodox people of the "Klaus." who could 
better appreciate his Talmudical knowledge Hi- 

position as preacher was thus somewhat at laloUS; 

and after several years' service he left Cracow and 
settled in Vienna, where he spent his last days in 
neglect and disappointment. 

Duschak wrote much for various periodicals, and 
was. besides, the author of the following works: 
" Mor Deror," on Josephus and tradition, Vienna, 
L864; " Has Mosaisch Talmudische Eheieeht mil lie 
sonden-r Rucksicht auf die Burgerlichen Gesetze," 
Vienna. 1864; "Gideon Brecher, erne Biographische 
Ski/.ze," Prossnitz, 1865; "Gesch. und Darstellung 

iles .liidisi hen Cultus." Mannheim, 1866; "Das Mo 
saiseh Talminlische Strafreeht," Vienna, 1*08; "Zur 
Botanik des Talmuds," Budapest, 1871; "Schulgc- 
sctzgebung und .Mcthodik der Alten Israeli ten," 
\ ti una. 1872; "Die Biblisch-Talmudische Glaubens- 
lehre." etc., ib. 1872 ; " I tie Moral derEvangelien und 
des Talmuds." Bri'uin, 1878. He also wrote "Jeru- 
slialayim ha Benuya," a commentary on the Mish- 
nah, treatise Mo'ed, Cracow, 1880. 

Bibuographt: Ba-Asif, lssu, pp. 139 140; lla-Zc firah, xvli.. 
No. 183. 
8. P. Wl. 

rist; born at Prague Jan. 18, 1843; died there Jan. 
11, 1901. He received his education at the Unter- 
Realschule of his native town, and in deference to the 
wish of his father became a teacher at theJudische 
Hauptschule. Duschenes went in 1867 to the Uni 

versity of Vienna, whence he was graduated as doctor 
of law in 1871. Returning to Prague, he was (1878) 
admitted to the bar and engaged in practise. Here- 
tired from professional life in 1*99. 

Duschenes, with Wenzel, Ritter von Belsky, and 
Carl Baretta, edited from 1890 the " Oesterrciehisehes 
Kechls I.exikon." published in Prague, which was 

also translated into Bohemian. He took an active 
part in the councils of Ihc Jewish community and 
in the political life of Prague. 
BIBLIOGRAPH v : < i, <,,,,,,/,,,/,, IVoclunvchrifb, Jan. 25, 

[901, ft'. 82, S3; Proper Tageblatt, Feb. £.', 1801; Proger 

< .< rtu Ind* zt Hung* 180L No. 3. 

s. F. T. H. 

ter; born in Siiasiiitz. Moravia, May G, 1800. He 
attended the gymnasium in Vienna, and afterward 
studied Romanic and Germanic philology at the 

universities of Vienna and Paris. Since 1892 he has 

bei n professor at the ( tber-Realschule in the seventh 
district of Vienna. The following monographs of his 
may be mentioned : "Zur Lautlehre des Franzo 

In ii " 1**7 ; "Die Technik von ' Hernial in und Do 
rothca, ' " 1888 ; " Das Stumme 'e* im FranzOsischen, 
in Prosaund Vers," 1**9; - DieAnalytische Methode 

im Sprai hiinlerrichlc " 1889 90; " Das Franzosiselie 

Verb," 1*91; "Sur le 'Misanthrope' de Mol 

■• Bhaki spi ii i i he Einfltlsse auf Schiller's 

111 "' 1898; " I'eberdie (Jiicllen von (irillparzer's 
'Esther,'" 1898; "Ueber die Quellen von deist's 
'Prinz von Bomburg,'" 1900; "TJebungsbuch zur 
FranzOsischen Syntax." 1901; "Zur Reform der 
i '..i i i/o ■ i < iii 'ii Syntax," 1901; " Gesch. des Neuphi 
lologlschen Verelnes an der Wiener OniversittLt," 
1902; " Choix de Lectures Expliqueea," L902, 


DUSSELDORF: City in Rhenish Prussia, situ- 
ated on the right hank of the Rhine. According to 
the census of 1900 it has about 2 600 Jews (600 house 




holds) in a total population of 213,767. In 1890 it 
had 1,401 Jews in a total population of 144,642. Al- 
though Dusseldorf was raised to the rank of a town 
in 1288, its Jewish community is one of the young- 
est in Germany, the history of the Jewsin theduchy 
of Julieh-Berg, of which Dusseldorf was the capital, 
dating only from L6U8; in Dusseldorf itself the first 
records of Jews are of a much later date. The synods 
or councils of the Jews of the duchy were usually 
held in Durcn, and the name of Dusseldorf is rarely 
mentioned in the records which have come down to 
us. In the "ketab rabhanut," or contract, dated 
June 6, 1746, by which It. Simson ha-Levi was chosen 
rabbi of Julieh-Berg, it is stipulated that, inasmuch 
as R. Simson had taken up his residence in Dussel- 
dorf, which is remote from some parts of Jiilich, he 
must visit central localities like Jiilich and Diiren at 
least once a year. Similar stipulations were made 
withR. Mordecai b.Eliezer Ilalberstadt, author of the 
responsa " Wa'amar Mordekai" (Brilnn, 1790), when 
he was chosen to succeed R. Simson in 1752. R. 
Mordecai had already styled himself rabbi of Diis- 
seldorf and the surrounding country, which tends to 
prove that the community was rising in importance 
in the second half of the eighteenth century. An 
interesting incident during the rabbinate of R. Mor- 
decai was the ordering by him of special pra3'ers 
after the earthquake of Lisbon (Nov. 16, 1755; see 
Carl Briseh, "Zur Gesch. d. Juden im Bergischen 
Landc," in "Israelit," 1879, No. 7). 

R. Mordecai died in 1769, at the age of 84, and 
was succeeded by R. Jacob Brandeis (d. 1775), who 
had been rabbi of Fiirth and of Darmstadt for 
twenty years. It is stated by Adolph Kohut, editor 
of the " Diisseldorfer Zeitung," that R. Judah Lob 
Abraham Scheuer of Fiirth, who died in 1821. aged 
87, was rabbi of Dusseldorf and of Julieh-Berg for 42 
years. Since the incorporation of Dusseldorf in the 
kingdom of Prussia in 1815, the community has not 
been connected with the neighboring communities, 
and later rabbis, as A. Wcdell or the present incum- 
bent, have not been "Landesrabbiner," as were their 
earlier predecessors. 

The remains of numerous members of Heinrich 
Heine's family are buried in the old Jewish cemetery 
of Dusseldorf, which is now within the city limits, 
and was closed Jan. 1, 1877. Among other promi- 
nent personages buried there are David Selig, the 
first Jewish "Stadtrath" of Dusseldorf (d. 1849); the 
mother of Ilakam Bernays (d. 1855); and Solomon 
Eichberg, who was cantor of the community for 50 
years and died aged 85. 

The anti-Jewish demonstration which occurred in 
Dusseldoif at the time of the reaction in 1819, seems 
to have been confined to "black marks and threaten- 
ing placards placed on the doors of several Jewish 
houses" (Graetz, " Hist." v. 30). After the emanci- 
pation the Jewish community of Dusseldorf soon 
rose to importance among the Jewish communities 
of Germany, and is now the home of two prominent 
Jewish national organizations — the Bildungsanstalt 
fur Israelitische Lehrer and the Verein zur Verbroi- 
tung und FBrderung der llandwcrke Untcr den 
Juden. The last-named society, founded about 1880, 
maintains a home for apprentices, and is doing 
much good work. Stadtrath Gustav Berzfeld (b. 

1828) is one of the founders, and was for a long time 
its president. The Jewish community also has 
charge of five foundations, which bear the names 
of their founders or of their dedicatees: Martha 
Horn, S. Scheuer, S. Simon, N. Franck, and D. 
Fleck. The erection of the new synagogue was 
decided on in March, 1899. Dusseldorf has the fol- 
lowing institutions: Hebra Kaddisha we-Haknasat 
Kalah; Hebrah Gemilut Hasadim; Hebrah Malbish 
'Arumim; Zedakah- Verein for general charity ; and 
Israelitischen Privatverein for the prevention of 
house-to-house begging. 

In 1901 the Regierungsbezirk Dusseldorf, which 
comprises 24 districts, had 16,032 Jews in a total 
population of 2,191,359. 

Bibliography: AU(I. Zeit. des Jiu!. 1877, p. 379; Kaufmann, 
Mi-Pinkes ha-Medinah shel K. K. DUsscldeirf, in Ozar 
h(U$ifriit, iii. 7- IB; Israelii ische Monats&chrift (supplement 
to Jlbliselie 1'ressc), 1888, No. 11, p. 43; Schulmami. Mi-Me- 
liar Yixrael (Heine's biography), pp. 15-17, Vienna, 1876; 
Aas Heinrich Heine's Stammhaum ViitcrUclierseits, in 
Alia. Zeit. des Jud. 1901, No. 30; see also the supplement 
Klenieintlehnie) to that periodical for 1898, No. 4; lor 1899. 
No. -; for 1900, No. 41; for 1901, No. 48; StatistisehesJahr- 
imeh des 1 >e>iiseh-hraetil isehen GemeindeibundeB, v. 15, 
Berlin, 1901, s.v. DOsseldorf. A Gesehiehte iler JUdischen 
Qtmi imle Diisseldnrfs, by A. Wedell, rabbi of that city, ap- 
peared in 1888 as a pah of the fieselueldc Dtlsseldorfs, which 
was published (Dusseldorf, 1S88) by its historical society in 
commemoration of the tiuOth anniversary of the foundation of 
the city of Dusseldorf. 
D. P. Wl. 

DTJSYATY. See Kovno. 

DUTCH WEST INDIES. See West Indies, 

DUTY (Hebr. "mizwah" = commandment; later 
Hebr. " hobah " = obligation) : That which is due to 
God as the Master of life, or to a fellow man, or to 
oneself. " Duty " is an ethical term ; its recognition 
as such is urged by the inner voice called conscience 
(see Wisdom xvii. 11), which tells man what he ought 
or ought not to do. It derives its sanction and au- 
thority from God. " Fear God and keep his command- 
ments, for this is the whole of man " (Eccl. xii. 13; 
A. V. wisely adds the word "duty"). "Duty" is 
too abstract a term to find a place in the Biblical ter- 
minology, but the idea of duty as inseparable from 
life is expressed in different forms in the Bible. It 
is " the keeping of the way of the Lord " (Gen. xviii. 
19); it is defined by Micah (vi. 8, Hebr.): " He hath 
told thee, O man, what is good and what the Lord 
rcquireth of thee : to do justly, to love kindness, and 
to walk humbly with thy God "; and it is summed 
up in the commandment: "Holy shall ye be, for I 
the Lord your God am holy " (Lev. xix. 2). This 
thought of duty runs through all Jewish literature. 
" Walk after the Lord thy God; as He is merciful, 
be thou also merciful; as He is kind, be thou also 
kind" (Sotah 14a). So also Philo: "Man was cre- 
ated in the image of God ; it must therefore be his 
aim to become more and more like God " (" De Deca- 
logo," § 197; " De Migratione Abrahami,"iii. §470); 
"Man's highest duty is to imitate God according to 
the best of his ability, and to neglect no opportu- 
nity to become like God " (ib. § 40). 

The Jewish conception of duty is therefore su- 
perior to that of the Greek and the Roman in that it 
emanates from a God of holiness, and life is based 
upon duties and obligations which form the contents 
of the Law, and the faithful fulfilment of which 
by the Jewish people establishes their claim to the 




title "'am kadosh " (holy people: Ex. xix. 6, xxii. 
30; Lev. xi. 44, 45; xix. 2; xx. 7, 20; Num. XV. 40; 

Deut. vii. 0; xiv. 2, 21; xxvi. 19; 

The xwiii. 9). True, in the Pentateuch no 

Extent of distinction is made between duties of 

Duty. various kinds; the ceremonial duty is 

of as great importance as the moral 
act. In Lev. xix., which may be assumed to repre- 
sent the spiritof Pentateuchal legislation at its best, 
the duty to offer sacrifices (verses 5-7) — a purely rit- 
ual obligation — is given as high sanction as the fear 
of father and mother (3), the care of the poor (10 
honesty in speech and dealing (11), respect for the 
aged (32), love for one's neighbor (18), and similar 
moral duties of the highest type. The command 
to keep the Sabbaths (3) has no more binding force 
than that requiring honesty in regard to weight anil 

measure (35). From the standpoint of the Mi 

legislation life in its various aspects is one, and do 
distinction is made between the different kinds ol 
duty enjoined ; God commanded them all, and there- 
fore they all have equal sanction. 

The prophetic conception of life, however, distin- 
guished between the various kinds of duties. To 
the Prophets duty meant chiefly to 
Prophetic do justice and to love mercy (corn- 
Hierarchy pare Isa. i. 20; Jer. vii. 5-8; Ilosea vi. 
ofDuties. 6; Amos v. 24; Zech. vii. 9, 10). This 
characteristic of prophetic thought is 
expressed very clearly by R. Simlai (Mak. 23b). 
Similarly, Bai.iva BEH JOSEPH ins PaKUDA, in his 

" Hobot ha-Lebabot," distinguishes between thevari- 
ous kinds of duties by dividing them into twocl.i 
"hobot ha-ebarim " and "hobot ha-lebabot," the i s 
tenia! religious duties and the duties of the heart, or 
the ritual duties and the moral obligations. How 
ever, though individual thinkers made these distinc- 
tions, yet Jewish tradition developed the tli' 
that all duties derive their sanctity from the Law as 
the unchangeable will of God. And hen- lies the 
danger of Legalism, inasmuch as every ceremonial 
law is regarded from this point of view as an actual 
debt (" hobah " = 6$eifo;fta) incumbent upon man. 
and of which be must, rid himself nrQin 'T NV or 
simply Xi"; Her. ii. 1, 8b, 20b; Yer. Sanh. vii. 'Jib; 
Eccl. vii. 18) by performing it. This debt is a sin 
while it remains unpaid (" hobah " | ; but when paid 
it becomes a merit ("mi/.wah " ; Yer. Her. ix. 4 — 
according to the Pharisees; compare Montefiore, 
"Hibbert Lectures," 18112. pp. te7 568; see also 
Cebemonies and tiii; Ceremonial Law; Com 


In the fulfilment of duty, possibly the chief con- 
sideration is tin' character of the motive. Why shall 
duty be performed: for reward or for its own sake? 
In this matter Jewish ethics resl on 

Motive. the highest plane. The sages taught, 

"Whether one do or little, all 

that is necessary is thai tin- in lent ion be pure" (Ber, 

17a). The classical saying of Antigonus of Sokb.0 

clearly expresses the true Talmudic ideal of the spirit 

that should accompany the performance of duty; 
"Be not like servants who serve their master for the 
sake of the reward, but be like servants who serve 
their master not for the sake of the reward, and lei 
the fear of Heaven be upon you " (Ab. i. 8), The 

usual expression for this thought of doing duty for 
duty's sake is " le-shem shamayim " (in the name of 
God), or "lishmah" (for its own sake); thus it is 
said. "Those who occupy themselves with communal 
affairs should do so in the name of God," and "Let 
all thy d.eds lie dune in the name of God" (Ab. 
ii. 2, 10). Another manner of expressing the same 
in appears in the phrase "rahmana libbaba'e" 
(G 1 requires the intention of the heart to be pure; 
■ Sanh 106b). This doctrine is clearly taught in 
passages like the following: "The w ords ' to love the 
Lord thy God, to harken to Him, and to cling to 
Him ' mean, ' Let no man say, " 1 will study so that 
people shall call me a wise man; I will learn that 
they may call me rabbi; 1 will learn that I may be- 
come an elder and preside over the academy."' Let 
him learn for the loveof learning, and the honor will 
come in the end " (Ned. 02a). So also says R. Elea 
zar, commenting upon Ps. cxii. 1; "Happy he who 
delighteth in His commandments, but not for there- 
ward that might come from observing them" ('Ah, 
Zarah 19a). Bahya (ib. Introduction) says: "I am 
convinced that all actions which are to conduce to 
the honor of God must have their basis in purity of 
the heart and of the intention ; if t he intent inn be not 
pure the ih "Is will not be acceptable, be they ever 
so numerous, as it is said in Scripture, ' If ye heap 
up ever so many prayers I will not hear, for your 
hands are full of blood; wash yourselves, make 
yourselves clean'" (Isa. i. 15, 10, llebr.). See 
Etiiii s. 

K. D. P. 

DUX, ADOLF : Hungarian writer; born at Pres 
burgOcl i 1822; died at Budapest Nov. 20,1881; 
cousin of Leopold Dukes, He studied law and phi- 
losophy a i the University of Vienna, and was con- 
ed with the "Presburger Zeitung " until 1855, 
when he became a correspondent of the "P 
Lloyd He translated Alexander Petofi's and Josef 
Botvos' Hungarian poems, and Catena's tragedy, 
"Bank Ban," and wrote" Aus l'ngarn,"and various 
stories in German under the title "Deutsch-Unga- 

s. A. Kn. 


garian clergyman; born inTemesvar, Hungary, in 
1784; died in 1797, He attended the Talmud Torah 
in Prague. Returning to Temesvdr, lie received in 

i be title of " Morenu." Tun years later, exi ib d 

mi the subjeel of conversion and distracted by n 
lous doubt, he became a wanderer, and visited I n 
den, Leipsic, Berlin, Amsterdam. Ariiheim, Wesel, 
Halle, and even London. In 1707, owing to the 
Influence of Pastor van Essen, he received baptism 

in Amsterdam. Ill 17118 he married fur the third 
time, and then St in lied theology at the I'niveisit y of 

I trecht, becoming in 1777 a preacher at Mijdrecht. 
A number of Duytsch's Bermonswere published; 
and his ei mfessioti of faith, entitled ".lehova Ver- 
heeiiijki door de Erkenning van den Waren Hessiai 

Ji'/us Chris tU8," had a large sale. His principal 

work was " Israels Verlosslnge en Eeuwlge Behou- 

denis." 8 vols., Amsterdam, 1769-98. His " Neil, r- 
lands Deborah 't Middle In Cod's Hand tol Kidding 


Dyes and Dyeing 



van 't Zinkend Vaderland " appeared in 1767, and a 
new edition in 1873.*riiY : De le Boi, Oesch. der Evangclischcn Juden- 
Mission, pp. 59-61. 
8. N. D. 

DVINSK (formerly DUNABTJRG) : City in 
the government of Vitebsk. Russia. It is situated 
on the River Dilna, at the intersection of two rail- 
roads. It was founded in 1278 by the Knights of 
the Livonian Order, and in 1561 was annexed to 
Poland. According to the census of 1897 it has a 
population of 72,231, the Jews numbering 32,369. 
The latter are engaged in commerce, industries, and 
manufacturing. The local trade is entirely in their 
hands, and the chief articles of commerce are flax, 
flaxseed, and timber. Toward the end of the last 
century the business transactions amounted to ten 
minimis of rubles annually. 

Industrial occupations are also left almost entirely 
to the Jews. According to the official census of 
industries made in 1893, there were in Dvinsk 330 
industrial establishments owned by Jews, and 99 
owned by non-Jews, while the number of Jewish 
artisans was only 741. As a matter of fact both the 
absolute and the relative number of Jewish artisans 
is much greater. According to a private investi- 
gation in 1898 there were 4,862 Jewish artisans, in- 
cluding 2,193 masters, 1,760 journeymen, and 909 

The most important of the trades followed by the 
Jews are tailoring (1,210) and shoemaking. In the 
32 local factories and workshops (match factory, 
tannery, sawmill, button factory, etc.), all owned 
by Jews, there is a total of 2,305 employees, of 
whom 1,942 are Jews. There are in Dvinsk 658 
Jewish day-laborers. 

Taking the average family as consisting of five 
persons, it appears that in 1898 thirty per cent of the 
Jewish population of Dvinsk applied for aid from 
the community. The help given to poor and desti- 
tute Jews comes from a savings and lending asso- 
ciation, and from various charitable institutions. 
The first of these, founded in 1900, was established 
as a mutual aid society. It has more than 1,200 
members, and lent in 1902 (up to Sept. 1) various 
small sums, ranging from 15 to 50 rubles, and ag- 
gregating 41,321 rubles. There is another organi- 
zation, established on charitable principles, for 
the advancement of small loans. This is a loan 
fund of 13,000 rubles founded in memory of M. 
Vitenbcrg. Loans, secured by personal . property, 
are advanced without interest. Of other charitable 
institutions there area society for aiding the poor, 
founded by the governor, with an income in 1899 
ofs, 917 rubles; a cheap diuing-hall ; a bikkur holim ; 
a dispensary; and a lying-in hospital. 

In the year 1S9M, in the genera] srhools of Dvinsk 
there were 1,203 pupils, 359 of them being Jews. 
In the schools exclusively Jewish there were 401 
pupils. The attendance in the general schools was 
as follows: scientific high school, non-Jews 344, 
Jews 36; girls' classical high school, non-Jews 240, 
Jews 140; city school, containing industrial classes, 
non-Jews 151, Jews 74; private four-class girls' 
school, non-Jews 73, Jews 76; one-class girls' school, 
non-Jews 30. Jews 33. 

In the Jewish schools: Talmud Torah, 122; Jew- 
ish school, with preparatory class, 116; three-class 
Jewish industrial school, 87; private Jewish school 
for boys and girls, 51 ; private Jewish one-class 
school, 25. 

In several of the general schools Jews are not ac- 
cepted; and those that are open to them are so 
crowded that many Jewish children can not gain 
admittance. The poor people can not even send 
their children to the "melammed," for the latter 
charges from 40 to 50 rubles a year for instruction. 
The local Zionist association opened in 1901 a model 
free heder, where about 80 children get instruction. 
Thanks to the efforts of the Zionists, there were es- 
tablished in 1900 a library and reading-room, with a 
charge of three kopeks for admission. 

BiBLiooRAPnY: Moskovskiya Vyedomosti, 1886, No. 234; 
Voskhod, 1900, No. 53 ; 1801, Nos. 18 and 28 ; 1802, No. 40. 

H. R. S. J. 


DWARF.— Biblical Data: The rendering in 
A. V. of p^ (Lev. xxi. 20, literally " thin "), denoting 
one of the physical disqualifications of 
Bible. priests for the service. In this sense 
pT is taken by Targ. Yer. (DJJ) and 
Ibn Ezra ad loc. (comp. Bek. vii. 6), but the adopted 
rabbinical tradition (see Sifra, Emor, 3; Bek. 45) 
and modern commentators explain the word differ- 
ently (see commentaries ad loc); nevertheless, the 
dwarf is declared unfit for service (Hullin 63a ; Sifra, 
I.e.; Bek. I.e. ; see Blemish). Legends concerning 
giants and dwarfs exist among all nations (Tylor, 
"Primitive Culture," i., ch. x. ; German ed., i. 379 
et seq.; comp. Wutke, "Der Deutsche Volksaber- 
glaube der Gegenwart," p. 42; Lehmann, "Aber- 
glaube und Zauberei," p. 67, Stuttgart, 1898; Sei- 
fert, "Zwerge und Riesen," in "Neue Jahrbucher 
fiir das Klassische Alterthum," etc., vol. v., part 2, 
p. 9). These legends are based mostly on primitive 
conceptions regarding the original inhabitants of a 
country. In the Bible the pre-Israelitic inhabitants 
of the Holy Laud are supposed to have been gigantic 
— a reminiscence of the prehistoric man (comp. the 
Hebrew dictionaries a. v. D , *> , QJ, p}]}; also Gen. vi. 2 
and the commentaries to the respective passages; 
Baedeker, "Palastina." 5th ed., p. 59; Pirke R. El. 
xxii.). Compared with these the Israelites regarded 
themselves as "grasshoppers" (Num. xiii. 33). 
Dwarfs are said to have been numerous in the tow- 
ers of the fortresses of Tyre (Ezek. xxvii. 10 [A. V. 

E. G. TT. 

In Rabbinical Literature : In tradition the 

dwarf (DJ3 or D3J, vivoc) is mentioned frequently, 

and the word has been adopted in the 
Talmud. Juda?o-German jargon. Onewhosees 

a giant or a dwarf should say: 
" Blessed be God, who alters, man " (Tosef., Ber. vii. 
3). The apes were regarded by many nations as 
human dwarfs (Tylor, I.e.), and strangely enough 
the Talmud enjoins that the same benediction be 
said when seeing an elephant, or apes, or birds look- 
ing like men (see Rashi on Ber. 58b). 

In opposition to the gigantic Philistines the Caph- 
torim (Gen. x. 14, D'linSD : according to Targ. Onk. 




Dyes and Dyeing 

•Cappadocians," according to modern commenta- 
tors "Cretes") are culled dwarfs (Gen. R, xxxvii. 
5). There is here, no doubt, the general legend in 
regard to dwarfish tribes and nations. Legendary 
elements may perhaps also be found in the following 
parable: The governor of a province summoned for 
ihe king the men having the necessary military stat- 
ure. A woman complained that her son, who was a 
dwarf, but whom she called "swift-footed giant" 
(uanpoehnjioc:), had been overlooked. She was an- 
Bwered: "Though he be in your eyes a makro- 
elaphos, in our eyes he is a dwarf of the dwarfs" 
(Gen. R. l.xv. 11; R. ii. 15). L. B. 

Nebuchadnezzar is frequently called in rabbinical 
literature "tin' dwarf of Babel " (Pesik. xiii. I12aj 
I'csik. R. xxxi.). or "the little one ell dwarf" (with 
nee to Dan. iv. It, 17), "the lowest of men" 
i Valk. ii. 1062); according to another tradition, 
Pharaoh was the dwarf referred to in Daniel, I.e. 
(M. K. 18a). The description "one ell the height, 
one ell the beard, and one ell and a half another 
member of his body " 
in a k e s it probable 
that the grotesque, 
dwarfish figure of 
some popular deity or 
demon, such as the 
Kirvpto Arabic Bes, 
a god of music and 
dancing which under 
the Ptolemies ap- 
peared on coins and 
structures all over 
Asia (Erman, "Zeit- 
schrift fur Numis- 
matik," 1882, pp. 296 
tt seq. ; Wiedman, 
"iEgyptische Ge- 
schichte," pp. S91 

595), was identified by the Babylonian Jews with 
either Nebuchadnezzar or Pharaoh. 

s. b. K. 

DYATLOVO. See Grodno. 

DYBOSSARI. See DrnosAiiY. 

DYER, IS ADORE: American merchant and 
communal worker; born in Dessau, Germany, 1813; 
died at Waukesha, Wisconsin, 1888. He went to 

America while young, living first, in Baltimore, 
whence in 1*40 he moved to Galveston. He was 
engaged in mercantile pursuits till 1861, when, after 

a successful business career, he retired. In 1866 be 

was elected to tin' presidency of the Union Marine 
and Fire Insurance Company of Galveston, which 
position he tilled until the company discontinued 

business in 1880. He held high place in the Odd 
Fellows' lodge, and was among the earliest of its 
grand masters. The first Jewish religious services 
In Galveston were held at his house (1856), He made 

provision in his will for the maintenance of the two 

Bebrew cemeteries, and left bequests to the Congre- 
gation P.'nai Israel ("to afford Increased pews and 
seating capacity forthe poor Israelite families who 

are unable to purchas ■ rent same"), and to the 

Protestant orphans' Home of Galveston. 

Bibliography: Records of the 00 ton, l"" 1 ~ M : 

Encyclopedia of the New West, 18 I ■' - 1 "ic Pro- 

Medal Presented U> Leou Dyer by the Baltimore Community, 

bate Qffla of Galveston, Texas. 1888; Publication* Am. 

JiU. JIM. .sue. .Ne. :.', 1S94. 

a. H. C. 

DYER, LEON : American soldier ; born at Al- 
zey, Germany, Oct. 9, 1807; died in Louisville, Ky., 
1883. At an early age he went with his parents to 
Baltimore. Dyerwas sell-educated. In the early 
part of his career he worked in his father's beef-pack- 
ing establishment (the firstin America). Asayoung 
man he enjoyed great popularity with the citizens 
of Baltimore, and filled a number of minor public 
offices. When the great Baltimore bread riots broke 
out, he was elected acting mayor, and through his 
intervention order was soon restored. While Dyer 
was engaged in business in New Orleans in 1836, 
Texas called for aid in her struggle for independ- 
ence. Dyer was at that time quartermaster-general 
of the state militia of Louisiana. With several hun- 
dred citizens of New Orleans he embarked at once 
on a schooner hound for Galveston, arriving two 
days after the battle of San Jacinto. He received 

a commission as 
major in the Texas 
forces, signed by the 
first president, Bur- 
nett. The Louisiana 
contingent was as- 
signed to the force of 
Gen. Thomas Jeffer- 
son Green, and saw 
active service clear- 
ing western Texas of 
bands of plundering 
M e x ican troops. 
Winn Santa Anna 
was taken from Gal- 
veston to Washing- 
ton, Major Dyer ac- 
companied the guard, 
and Santa Anna's autograph letter thanking Dyer 
for courtesies received on the journey testifies to the 
general's gratitude. 

liver's natural talent and strong patriotic feeling 
won him the confidence of ante-bellum statesmen, 
and in Van Buren's administration he was chosen 
to be the hearer of despatches to the Prussian gov- 
ernment. Dyer saw extended service in the United 

States army. He was on General Scott's staff In the 

Florida campaign against Osceola, the Seminole 
Chief, and was wounded in the neck in the final 
battle which ended in Osceola's defeat and suhse- 

quenl capture. During the Mexican war Dyer, 

tin ii with the rank of colonel, was appointed quar- 
ti rmaster-general by Gen. Wlnfleld Scott. 

In 1848 Colonel Oyer crossed i lie plains to Califor- 
nia, and settled in San Francisco, where he founded a 
congregation — the Srst on the Pacific coast. Bcforo 
his departure from Baltimore be had been presented 
with a medal by the community "f thai city 1 1847) 

BIBLIOGRAPHY: /.' 1888; En- 

lopediaoftht Xi»' West, 1886; Publications Am. Jew. 
Bi < 

A. II. C. 

DYES AND DYEING ( - jni¥) : Though not 
mentioned a- a special art in the Bible, dyeing was 

probably practised as in Egypt by the fullei 

Dyes and Dyeing 



the tanner. Dyed stuffs are mentioned among the 
v. Btments of the high priest and the appurtenances 
of the Tabernacle. Red, however, seems to have 
been the only dye manufactured. In fact, in several 
instances "adom" (red) is used as a synonym of 
"zrba' " (later Hebrew and Talmudic), "dye," from 
"zaba',"to dye, dip, immerse (see Ex. xxv. 5, xxvi. 
14, xxxv. 7, xxxvi. 19, xxxix. 34); in Ezek. xxiii. 
15 the word "tebulim" = dipped, is used; in Isa. 
lxiii. 1, "hamuz" = leavened; in Judges v. 30, 
" zeba'." Dyes, dyers, and dyeing, with occasional 
mention of manufactured colors, are referred to in 
the Talmud (Shab. vii. 2; Sheb. vii. 1-2; Pes. iii. 
1; Tosef., Sheb. v. 1 ; Men. 42a-44a; Meg. 24b; Yer. 
Shab. i. 8b, vii. 10c; B. K. 100b; Yer. B. K. ix. 6d). 
Abba Hoshayah of Tarya, the saint, was a fuller 
who also practised dyeing (Yer. B. K. x. 7c). Am- 
ram, the dyer, is mentioned in Git. 52b. Regarding 
the purple dyeing of the Pheniciaus see Delitzsch, 
"Iris," 1888, pp. iSetseq. ; and Pukple. Especially 
was the tribe of Zebulon believed to have acquired 
this art, together with that of glass manufacture, 
from the Pbenicians (see Sifre, Debarim, 354; Meg. 
2Ga; nerzfeld, " Ilandelsgeschichte der Juden des 
Alterthums," 1879, p. 106). According to Shab. 26, 
the Jews in the vicinity of Tyre manufactured pur- 
ple stuffs for the market (comp. Schilrer, "Ge- 
schichte," 3d ed., ii. 56, notes, and Herzfeld, I.e. 
pp. 108, 307). A Jewish gild of purple dyers is 
mentioned on a tombstone inscription in Hierapolis 
(Schurer, I.e., 3d ed., iii. 14). In the twelfth century 
the Jews of Tyre were still purple dyers and manu- 
facturers of glass (see Ben jamin of Tudela, " Travels, " 
ed. Asber, p. 30b). In St. George, the ancient Luz, 
Benjamin found one Jew to be a dyer (ib. 32b), and 
in Thebes, Greece, the Jews were the most eminent 
manufacturers of silk and purple cloth (ib. 16b). 
They were noted for being skilled dyers also in Italy, 
Sicily, and elsewhere (ib. 15a; see also Bedarride, 
"Le8 Juifs en France, Italie et Espagne," 1867, p. 
179; Deppiug, " Die Juden im>Mittelalter," German 
transl ., 1834, pp. 136, 353, 401). Delitzsch ("Jewish 
Artisan Life," p. 27) speaks of "Migdal Zeboa'ya" 
("the tower of the dyers"; Lam. R. ii. 2), and cites 
Yer. Shab. 3b to theelTectthat when walking abroad 
the dyers hung red and blue threads behind one ear, 
and green and pale-yellow threads behind the other. 
Purple was the most costly dye known to the an- 
cient Hebrews. "The blood of the purple mollusk 
is used to dye wool purple" (Menahot 44a). Each 
sh'll secreting but one drop of the dye, and the 
work of preparation being tedious, such dyeing 
was costly. Akhissar, the ancient Tbyatira, a Jew- 
ish stronghold in Asia Minor, seems to have been 
connected with the dyeing trade in the early cen- 
turies, and even to-day the crimson fez usually worn 
in the East is generally manufactured and dyed in 
that locality (Brightwen, "Side-Lights on the Bible," 
p. 47). In antiquity the tradeobtained somedistinc- 
tion, purple being the royal color. The almond- 
trees of Bethel and Luz (" luz " = almond-tree) pro- 
duced a color used in dyeing. 

.bus seem for a long time to have held the 
monopoly of the dyeing trade. In Asia they were 
especially noted as dyers, as they were also, ac- 
cording to Beckmanu, in Italy and Sicily. The 

Jews' tax in southern Europe was sometimes called 
"tincta Judreoruui," as it was levied on dyed goods 
(Abrahams, "Jewish Life in the Middle Ages," p. 
219; Giidemann, "Geschichte des Erziehungswe- 
sens,"ii. 312). 

In the itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela (c. 1170) it 
is noted that Brindisi contained ten Jews who were 
dyers (p. 45, Asher's ed.) ; that purple dye was found 
in the neighborhood of New Tyre (p. 63) ; that one 
Jew, a dyer, lived at St. George, the ancient Luz (p. 
65) ; that the dye-house in Jerusalem was rented 
by the year; that the exclusive privilege of carrying 
on that business had been purchased by the Jews, 
two hundred of whom dwelt iu one corner of the 
city under the tower of David (p. 69) ; and that but 
twelve Jews lived in Bethlehem, two in Bet Nuba, 
one in Jaffa, one in Karyateu Binyamin, and one in 
Zer'in, the ancient Jezreel — all dyers (pp. 75, 78, 80, 
87). Rabbi Petbahiah of Regensburg visited Jeru- 
salem in the twelfth century, and found only one 
Jew there, Rabbi Abraham, the dyer (" Travels of 
R. Petachia," ed. Benisch, pp. 38, 60). Nahmanides 
(e. 1250) also found in Jerusalem only one or two 
families of dyers (Graetz, "History of the Jews," iii. 

Dyeing was the occupation of the Jews in Aragon 
in the Middle Ages (Jacobs, "Sources," p. 16), and 
there were many dyers among the Jews of Prague 
in the seventeenth century (Abrahams, "Jewish Life 
in the Middle Ages," p. 248). Dr. Wolff ("Narra- 
tive of the Mission of Dr. Wolff to Bokhara," ii. 3) 
mentions that in 1844 there were in Bokhara 10,000 
Jews, "mostly dyers and silk merchants"; and 
Franz von Schwarz ("Turkestan, die Wiege der In- 
dogermanischen VOlker," p. 441) says that " the Jews 
of Bokhara devote themselves to commerce and 
industry. . . . Nearly all the dyers, especially the 
dyers of silk, are Jews. . . . The Jews of Bokhara 
have in a way monopolized the commerce with dyed 
raw silk." 

According to Errera ("The Russian Jews," p. 177), 
the Jews in Russia created the industries of dyeing 
and preparing furs. The manufacture of zizit, 
tallit, and arba' kanfot in Russia, and the dyeing 
which is incidental to the last two, have placed 
a considerable part of the dyeing business in the 
hands of the Jews of that country. See Artisans; 

Bibliography : Giidemann, Geschichte des Erziehunyswc- 
sois in Italien, p. 312, note v. 
a. H. C.-K. 

DYHERNFTJRTH : Town in Prussian Silesia, 
with 1,463 inhabitants; founded Jan. 20, 1663. In 
that year the Austrian emperor Leopold I. , desir- 
ing to reward the Silesiau chancellor, Baron von 
Dyhern, gave his estate Przig the rights and status 
of a city with the name "Dyhernfurth." To fur- 
ther the prosperity of his city its owner obtained 
permission (July 12, 1667) to establish a printing- 
house, which, however, soon ceased to exist. In 
1688, under Baron von Glaubitz, the new lord of the 
estate and of the city, the workers whom the printer 
Sbabbethai Bass had gathered about him became 
a community — the first in Silesia since the expulsion 
of the Jews from that province in 1584. The Jewish 



Dyes and Dyeing 

cemetery established by Bass in 1689 lias twice been 
enlarged (1805 and 1881) by purchase. Until 1761 
the Jewsof Breslau buried their dead in the Dvhern- 
furth cemetery. A synagogue had been established 
and maintained by Feibl Pesong, its president ; in 
1785 it was succeeded by a new temple, which was 
superseded in 1851. 

Among the rabbis who served the community of 
D\ bernfurth were: Wolf Katz [y a Cohen Zedek.) 
Schotten, who founded its hebra kaddisha; Rabbi 
Jacob Lob Falk, later dayyan in Breslau ; and Haj 
yim Kroner. A branch community existed formerly 
in the neighboring town of Auras. The community 
of Dyhernfurth has steadily diminished, number- 
ing at present only nineteen; its president is M. B 

Bibliography: GrOnwald, y.ur Qcgch. drr Jlldischen (,■- 
meiml- Dj/hernfurth, in Uebermann'fl Jahrbuch zum 
VaUuskaUnder, Brteg, 1883; Idem, Zur Oeseh. dtr Juden in 
. in il>. 1862; Brann, Qesch. des Landrabbtw 
esien, in Orlttz Jubelachrift, Breslau, IssT; Stalls- 
ttachet Jahrbuch des Dcirtsch-lsracUt. Gemeindibundcs, 
1 1 S. Si 

Typography: The earliest Hebrew printing- 
office in Dyhernfurth was established in 1681 by the 
bibliographer Shabbethai ben Joseph Bass. The 

place was well fitted for such an enterprise. East- 
ern Europe was the best market for Hebrew books, 
and. outside Prague, had no Hebrew printing office 
at that time. A further point in its favor 'was the fact 
that the books supplied by Holland werei ery expen- 
sive. The first work to be issued from the pri 
of Dyhernfurth was Samuel ben I'li's "Bel She 
muel," on the Shulhan 'Aruk, Eben ba 'Ezer (His:. 
In the same year appeared David ha Levi's commen- 
tary on Rashi to the Pentateuch; three prayers to 
be recited in the cemeteries (with a Judao-German 
translation by Eliezer Liebermann); and the mystic 
[.ravers of Nathan Xata' ben Mosesof Hanover. In 
1708 the establishment was partly destroy ed by fire. 
It was. however, soon rebuilt, and in 1712 Shab- 
bethai transferred it to his son Joseph, whose name 
appeared "ti the title pages, together with that of 
his father, after 1707. During his last ten years of 
active work, Shabbethai confined himself chiefly to 

liturgical productions. In these years he issued four 

editions of the Pentateuch ; ajurheo German edition, 
by Hayyim ben Nathan, of the historical parts of 

the Bible; four editions of the Psalms; seven of the 

Siddur; four of the Mahzor; live of the Selihot; 
and two of the Tikkwiu recited on the nights of 
1 nt and Hosh'ana Rabba. 
About this time Joseph, with his father, was ac- 
cused by the Jesuits of circulating a book containing 
blasphemies against Christianity. They were im 

prisoned, and business was practically suspended. 
The subject of the accusation was the "Slia'are Ziy- 
yon " of Nathan of Hanover, published at Dyhern 
furth in 17o.">. No works published by the Bass firm 
from 171 1 to 1718 are known to be extant. In the 

latter year business seems to have been resui 1 by 

Berl Nathan of Krotoschin, husband of Shabbethai's 
granddaughter Esther. Berl Nathan paid 5,000 
thalers purchase-money. After Nathan's death in 
17'JH. it was carried on by his widow. 

About 1780 Jehiel Michael May from Breslau 
established another print ie which, after his 

death in 1790, was managed at first by his widow 
Rachel, and his sons .Michael. Simon, Aron, and 
Joseph, but later by Joseph alone. In recent times 
a printing-office was established in Dyhernfurth by 
\\ arschauer ..v. Co. 

Although there have been issued from the Dyhern- 
furth presses many important works, such as the 
Babylonian Talmud and the Yad ha Hazakah, and 
although for a long time they .supplied Silesia and 
the neighboring territories with books, they failed, 
owing to poor type and the lack of correctness, to 
find much fa\ or. 

Bibliography: cassel and Stelnschnelder, In Ersch and 
Grulier. section li.. part 3H, p. 8" : C. F. Enger, Neutr Bu- 
chereaaL Iz. 698. xiv. til , t sen., where are Riven the publica- 
tions ol Dvhernlurih up to 1713; Brann, in Monauschrift, 

il. 474 ft s"/. 

J. I. Bn. 

DYTE, D. M.: English Jew who distinguished 
himself by saving the life of George HI. of England 
under the following circumstances: On May 15, 
1800, George III. attended the Drury Lane Theater to 
witness a comedy by Colley Cibber; and while the 
monarch was acknowledging the loyal greetings of 
the audience, a lunatic named Hadfleld fired a horse- 
pistol pointblank at his .Majesty. Two slugs passed 
over the king's head, and lodged in the wainscot of 
the royal box. The king escaped unhurt; but it 
was only subsequently realized that Hadfleld had 
missed his aim because some man near him had 
struck his arm while in the act of pulling the 
trigger. This individual was Dyte, father of Henry 
Dyte, at one time honorary secretary to the Blind 
Society. It is said that Dyte asked as his sole re- 
ward the "patent" of selling opera-tickets, then a 
monopoly at the royal disposal. 

Bibliography: Plcclotto. Sketches o/ Anglchjtwiih History, 

London, 1875 ; Howell, State Trialn. 

J. G. L. 

DYVIN : Village in the government of Grodno, 
Russia. It has a very old Jewish community, bul 
it is impossible to determine when Jews first settled 
there. When the town endeavored to secure the 
Magdeburg Law, the Jews contributed for the pur- 
pose fifty gold coins, in return for which they were 
to be allowed to avail themselves of the privileges 

and income of the town. Not withstanding this the 
burghers of i en attempted to curtail the rights of the 
Jews. In 1684 King Ladislaus IV. granted them 
certain privileges, and recognized their rights to the 

IS! f bouses, market places, the public bath 

and lands legally acquired by them. The right to 
own a synagogue and a burial ground, and to fri i 
and undisturbed conduct of religious services, was 

also recognized. They ware pei mil ted toengage in 

commerce, and to enjoy other privileges, on equal 
terms with the burghers of Dyvin. They were sub 
ject to the jurisdiction of the Dj \ in court, but had 
the right to appeal from Ibis to the judges Of the 

king's court. With the burghers, the .lews have 
often farmed various profitable portions of munici 

pal property, as, for instance, the Hour mills and 
the distillery. 

In 1656 the commissioners appointed by the king, 

on the complaint of the Jews, reaffirmed that the 
latter, having enjoyed for many years with the 

burghers the privileges and ini tes of the city, and 




having contributed to the expense of securing the 
Magdeburg Law, were entitled to avail themselves, 
to an equal extent with the burghers, of the income 
from the farming of public property. But since 
for a number of years they had neglected to avail 
themselves of these rights, the commissioners con- 
ceded to the Jews the right to share, as was done in 
other towns, in one-third of the farming privileges. 
Subsequently new differences arose between the 
burghers and the Jews in regard to the unequal dis- 
tribution of taxes for the maintenance of soldiers. 
These differences were settled by mutual agreement 
on I'. 1 1 9, 1661 

In 1S98 there was in Dyvin a Jewish population 
of 1,200 out of a total population of 10,000. Most 
of the Jews are engaged in commercial and indus- 
trial occupations; there are also 237 artisans. The 
educational institutions include a Talmud Torah 
with an attendance of 24 pupils, and ten hadarim 
with an attendance of 115. 

Bibliography : Regexty i Nadpisi, i. 365, 440, 448, St. Peters- 
burg, lS'JS. 

H. R. S. J. 

DZHTJRIN. See Podolia. 
DZIGOVKA. See Podoi.ia. 

Reverse of Cop- 
per Coin Bear- 
ing an Eagle, 
Attributed to 
Hi'rod the 

(After Madden, 

" History .>( Jewish 


EAGLE: The rendering in the English Bible 
versions of the Hebrew "nesher." The nesher, 
however, was bald; nested on high pocks; and was 
gregarious in its habits (Micah i. 16; Job xxxix. 
27, 28; Prov. xxx. 17), all of which characteristics 
belong to the griffin-vulture, but not to the eagle. 

Several species of eagles inhabit Palestine; and 
these are probably all included in the term " 'ozniy- 
yah" (Lev. xi. 13; Dent. xiv. 12; 
compare Tristram, " Natural History 
of the Bible," p. 1S1). 

The Talmud says that the eagle is 
the king of birds, but that it is afraid 
of the flycatcher (Shab. 77b). It flies 
rapidly without tiring ("1C'J3 7p = 
"light like the eagle," Ab. v. 20). 

The eagle is ranked among the 
unclean birds — a fact variously ex- 
plained by the Talmudic writers (Hul. 
61a). The nesher is found deified in 
the Assyrian Nisroeh. the vulture- 
headed god (II Kings xix. 37; Isa. xxxvii. 38), and 
in the Arabic idol Nasr. In Ezekiel (i. 10, x. 14) 
the eagle is mentioned in connection with the 
throne of Cod. In rabbinic parlance "nesher" is 
used as a title of distinction; e.g., to denote the 
Roman government (Sanh. 12a). 

On the ancient fallacy that the eagle could renew 
its youth see Bochart, " Ilierozoicon," part ii., bk. 
ii., eh. 1 (compare Kimhi on Ps. ciii. 5). 

Bibliography : J. G. Woods, Animals of the BiWe, Philadel- 
phia, 1872; I.. Lewysohn, Uic Zoologle des Talmuds, 1858. 
E. G. II. H. H. 

EARNEST-MONEY: Part payment of the 
price by tlic buyer of a commodity as a guaranty 
that he will stand by the bargain. 

Whciwcr the payment of the whole price secured 
title to property, the payment of a part of the price 
did the same. All objects, whether movable or 
immovable, could be acquired by the payment of 
money, and part payment was sufficient to make a 
sale valid. The payment of a " perutah." the small- 
est coin of Palestinian currency, on account of the 
purchase was sufficient to bind the bargain iKid. 
Ha; Maimonides, "Yad." Mckirah, i. 4; Shulhau 

' Aruk, Hosben Mishpat, 190, 2). The law regarding 
acquisition was restricted by the earlier rabbis, 
however, to immovable property. Because of cer- 
tain apprehensions, they provided that movable 
property could be acquired only by actual posses- 
sion of the object (B. M. 47b; see Alienation and 
Acquisition). Hence, where there was no delivery 
the payment of the purchase-money did not consti- 
tute a sale. It was, however, considered a breach 
of good faith if one of the contracting parties re- 
tracted after the payment of an earnest or of the 
whole sum, and the following curse (jnDC 'D) was 
pronounced upon him: 

11 He who revenged Himself on the men of the generation of 
the Flood, and on the men of the generation of the division of 
languages ["hanagah "], and on the men of Sodom and of Go- 
morrah, and on the Egyptians who were drowned in the sea, 
will revenge Himself upon him who does not abide by his word " 
(B. M. 44a, J 48a). 

In cases of hiring and letting, the payment of an 
earnest was sufficient (Hosben Mishpat, 198, 5, Is- 
serles' gloss; 198, 6; 199). 

In the case of immovable property the payment 
of earnest-money constituted a sale where local cus- 
tom did not require the formality of a deed of sale 
(" shetar "). The remainder of the purchase-money 
was then considered a loan to be paid by the buyer 
at a stipulated time. If the seller was urgent for 
the payment, and thus made it obvious that he sold 
the property because be was in need of money, 
either of the parties could retract before the pay- 
ment of the last instalment; for it was evident that 
the seller did not agree to sell except on condition 
that he receive the full amount. If, however, this 
urgency could be explained in another way — for 
instance, when the property was in bad condition 
and the seller was afraid lest the buyer find some 
excuse to retract, or when the seller wished to re- 
move to another place — then the sale was valid and 
neither could retract (B. M. 77b; Maimonides, I.e. 
viii. ; H osn en Mishpat, 190, 10-16). In cases where 
the earnest did not validate the sale, he who re- 
tracted had to submit to the conditions of the other 
party as to the manner in which the earnest-money 
should be refunded (ib.). 

A pledge, either for part or for the whole of the 




purchase-money, was not considered an earnest, and 
did not constitute a sale (Kid. 8b). 

All the laws that applied to the acquisition of im 
movable property applied also to tin- acquisition of 
slaves (see Slaves). Sec also Kinyan. 

Bibliography: Bloch, Der Vertrag, Bud . Saal- 

scnuu, Lkvs Mosaischt /,'. i Ul, 01., Berlin. 1853. 

s. s. .i. H. G. 

EARNINGS. See Masti r am> Si v.\ \nt. 

EARRING: A ring or hook passed through the 
■ f the ear. Barrings, so widely used by East- 
ern peoples, have no particular designation in He- 
brew. Tbe word DTJ is applied to both the orna 
ment for the ear and that for the nose; so that when 
this term occurs in the Bible, it may mean either. 
When the writer wished to specify, he added the 
word JTX to indicate earrings, or p,x to indicate nose- 
rings. The word DTJ ("stringed ornament"), the 
equivalent of the Arabic "nazm," induces one to 
suppose that the primitive form of the ear-pendants 
was a string of pearls, beads, etc., of a globular 
form. It is perhaps this shape which is indicated 
by the word mS'OJ (lit. "drops," Judges viii. 26). 
The references iii Ex. xxxii. 2 and Judges I.e. to 
earrings of gold, show at the same time that there 
also existed earrings of other materials. It was not 
until the time of Ezekiel that earrings acquired a 
circular form, and were then called ^jy (Ezek. xvi. 
12). It is true that this word occurs also in Num. 
xxxi. 50, bill there is nothing to indicate that it 
means "earrings." The passage in Exodus proves 
that earrings were worn by women and by the 
youth of both sexes. 

Earrings seem to have been regarded by Eastern 
nations as sacred things — some scholars even sug- 
gest as amulets — for the sons of Jacob surrendered 
their earrings with the idols which Jacob afterward 
concealed under the oak-tree (Gen. xxxv. 4). The 
Targumand the Samaritan version of the Pcntateui li 
always translate ou by N"Tp (Syriac, " kadasha " ), 
which Buxtorf ("Lex. Rab." ••>•<•. SL'Tpt supposes to 
mean "the ornament consecrated to Astarte"; but 
there is no proof that this belief in the sacrcdness of 
earrings was current among the ancient Hebrews. 
If the word D'L'Tf?, occurring in Isa. iii. 20, A. V., 
really means "' earrings," the latter are so called lo- 
calise, these ornaments being suspended from the 
cars, they arc figuratively looked upon as whisper- 
ing to the wearer 

E. O. II. M Si i 

EARTH (nOIX): The Hebrew expression for 
"earth" means primarily earth or soil as an element, 
and also the surface of the earth and plowed land, 
the latter being probably of the red color charac- 
teristic of Palestinian soil (compare Abual VI 
"Dictionary," ».«.; Credner, "Der Proph ' 
1881, pp. l-'o ft seq.). Jbsephus says that the lie 

brew for "man " (din * I, which is related to 

"earth" aci Gen ii. 7. reall] mi 

since virgin soil is red("Anl " 1.1, §2). Tie 
lana also called the earth nddtx {afa/i86 in riu 
odorct, "Qutest. 1.x. in Gen."; compare Mishnah 
Shah. viii. 6); the expression is not found in the 
other Semitic languages, surviving only in tin 

toplast Adam. The original meaning of nDIK is, 
however, not certain; Friedrich Delitzsch thinks it 

means, as in the Assyrian, "arable land " ("The He- 
brew Language Viewed in the Light of Assyrian 

Research," p. 68). Another expression for "earth," 

px. is equivalent to "terrestrial globe." in contrast 
with "the heavens." According to a rabbinical in- 
terpretation, the earth has four names, "en 
"tebel," "adamah," and "arka," corresponding to 
the four points of the compass (Cen. R. xiii. 12 
In Hebrew, "heaven and earth" together consti- 
the universe. The earth has foundations and 
pillars (I Sam. ii. 8; I's. lxxv. 4, civ. 5; Job ix. G. 
xxxviii. 6); it rests on the ocean, out of which it 
rises (Ps. xxiv. 2, exxxvi. 6); it is suspended in 
(Job xxvi. ?,; the idea of its free suspension 
in the air is especially worked out in the mystical 
"Book of Creation" (Sefer Yezirah). Like most 
peoples of antiquity, the Hebrews conceived of the 
earth as a disk(Prov. viii. 27; Job xxvi. 10; Isa. 
xl. 22); and they spoke, then-fore, of peoples like 
the Assyrians, Egyptians, Persians, and Medea as 
living at the ends of the earth (see Gesenius, Com- 
mentary 011 Isaiah, i. 247). As Ezekiel (v. 5) could 
describe the Israelites as being set in the " midst of 
the nations." so also could he speak of their land as 
being the "navel of the earth " (xxxviii. 12, Hebr.); 
for Palestine in fad occupied a central position as 
regards Assyria and Egypt, the two chief powers of 
antiquity. In later tines, indeed, it u as positively 

asserted that Palestine, or Zion, was the physical 

center of the earth (Enoch, xxvi. 1, 2; Book of Jubi- 
lees, viii.); and the Rabbis interpreted the phrase 
"midst of the nations" as referring both to Palestine 
and to Jerusalem as the center of Palestine (Tan., ed. 
Ruber, iii. 78). 

The earth was destined not, for a desert, but for 
the habitation of man (Isa. xlv. 18). In Ecclus. 
In \1 le lie- earth is called "the mother of all 
living" (comp. Targum on Job i. 24). The Biblical 
eption of the paramount importance of the 
earth prevailed down to the time of the great as- 
tronomical discoveries of Copernicus and Kepler. 
The allusions of the Prophets to a new heaven and 
a new earth (Isa, lxv. 17, lxvi. 22) were interpreted 

even as early as Maimonides in a non-physical sense 
("Moreh," ii. 29). In mystical speculations the 

earth, like the other heavenly bodies, was taken to be 
an animated being, having therefore its own genius 
(Num. R xxiii. 6), and also its guardian angels 

(Schwab, " Vocabulaire de 1'Angelologie," p. 75). 

Bibmoorapbt: (iesenius. Th, i. I5i; RosenmOJler, Handbueh 

der Itil'l. Alt' jthiiiiisl;iin<t< . 1833, i. 1, I r sou. 

Kosmogom id< r und //■ brfii r, 

i a. it. s Kb. 

EARTHQUAKE: The Hebrew word "mash." 
as well as its Assyrian ami Arabic equivalents des- 
ignating an earthquake, is indicative of a great 
or tremendous roaring. In Ps. lx\ii. 10 the 

-line word is used to describe the gentle rustlir 

* heat. It is als ipio\ el in poetrj to express the 

harmonious choral BOng of angels. It would thus 

seem that during an earthquake the Hebrew was 
most impressed i > % the rumbling connected with it, 
which In regarded as a theophanj (Pa xviii. 8 
[A. V 7]; Hah. iii 6; Nahum i, •'>. Isa \ 26) The 




trembling anil smoking of the mountains, as during 
the revelation on Sinai (Ex. xix. 18, xx. 18), the 
moving of tlic door posts, as during Isaiah's ini- 
tiation (Isa. vi. 4), accompanying great theopha- 
nics. must in the \ lew of the authors be regarded as 
earthquakes (com]). I Kings xix. 11, 12). 

Palestine was subject to frequent earthquakes, 
the volcanic nature of the region around the Dead 
Sea and the Sea of Gcnnesaret being a contributory 
cause. The earthquake mentioned under Ahab (I 
Kings xix. 11) is legendary, hut that under Uzziah 
(809-759 n.c.) is historical: time was counted 
from it (Amos i. 1; Zecli. xiv. 0). Ibn Ezra and 
R. David Kimhi refer Amos' entire prophecy, es- 
pecially Amos i.x. 1, to this earthquake (coinp. Euse- 
bius, " Demonstratio Evangelica," vi. 18). 

Josephus describes an earthquake that occurred 
in Judea during the battle of Actium. The earth 
trembled, and many animals and more than 30,000 
persons perished ("Ant." XV. 5, § 2). The earth- 
quake at the death of Jesus is mentioned in Matthew 
(xxvii. 52), but not in the other Gospels (see Cruci- 
fixion). A few years before Bar Kokba's insurrec- 
tion, the cities of Csesarea and Emmaus were des- 
trojed by au earthquake (Eusebius, "Chronicon," 
eleventh year of Hadrian). In 499 severe earth- 
quakes devastated Asia Minor, continuing until 502, 
when the synagogue of the Jews at Beirut fell (As- 
semani, "Bibl. Orient." i. 272; "Jerusalem," vi. 17). 
Antioch was visited by numerous earthquakes in 
the sixth century (Proeopius, "De Bello Persieo," 
ii. 11; Evagrius, "Hist. Eccl." v. 17, vi. 8). Bar 
Hebrseus, 'Abd al-Latif, and the "Gesta Dei per 
Francos" mention many earthquakes in Palestine 
during the Middle Ages. On Jan. 1. 1837, the 
whole province of Galilee was shaken; the cities of 
Safed and Tiberias especially suffered, 4,000 Jews 
perishing. The seismic disturbance was also fell at 
Tyre, Bidon, Beirut, and even at Jerusalem. The 
last-named city has otherwise been free from earth- 
quakes (Robinson, "Biblical Researches in Pales- 
tine," etc., iii. 500-585; "Jerusalem," v. 295). 

The Rabbis, following Joel and Amos, use the ex- 
pression JNC in the sense of " earthquake " (Yer. Ber. 
13c; Ex. R. xxix. 9). Earthquakes, according to 
them, are a divine punishment for the performances 
in the circus and theater of the heathens, or for their 
immorality. Others held that earthquakes were 
meant to remind men of their sins. An earthquake, 
like thunder and lightning, called forth the benedic- 
tion, "Praised lie Thou, Eternal One, with whose 
power and might the world is filled " (Ber. ix. 1). 
A chapter on "Thunder and Earthquake," in the 
form of a calendar, is contained in the appendix to 
"Milhemet Hobah," Constantinople, 1710. 

Bibliography: Forblger, Handbuch </. r Alten Qeowraphie, 
1.636; M. I ; :> > i r 1 1* ■ r. Ua» ErtZbeben in -''" Taaen U8W8, Id 
Monatmchrift, 1870, ilx. 241. 
E. G. II S. Kit. 

EASEMENT : An incorporeal right, existing 
distinct from the ownership of the soil, consisting of 
a liberty, privilege, or use of another's land without 
profit or compensation ; as, an easement consisting of 

a right of way, a right to running water, to free air. 
etc. According to rabbinical legislation, an ease- 
ment was acquired by mere possession, provided no 

objection was raised against it by the other parties 
concerned. The later authorities, however, dilfered 
with regard to the conditions that constitute such 
possession (see Hazakaii). If one erected a rain- 
spout from bis roof leading to his neighbor's prem- 
ises, and the neighbor did not object, he acquired 
the use of his neighbor's premises to that extent, 
while the neighbor also acquired the use of the 
water coming from the rain-spout onto his premises. 
The owner of the rain-spout could not remove it 
without the permission of his neighbor, while bis 
neighbor could not compel him to remove it after he 
had once acquired the right (B. B. 58b, 59a). For 
such a right could never be destroyed; and con- 
sequently if one acquired the right of opening a 
window or a door into his neighbor's premises, the 
right, or easement, would exist even after the house 
containing the window or door was destroyed ; and 
in rebuilding the house, he might open a window or 
a door of the same size and in the same place, even 
if his neighbor then objected (ib. 60b). One who 
possessed an easement of a window 1 overlooking his 
neighbor's premises could prevent bis neighbor from 
building in front of it and thus shutting out its 
light ; or if his neighbor were to build a wall against 
tin' window, he could compel him to remove the w all 
at least four cubits from the window (ib. 22a, 59b). 
In some cases the possession of an easement was 
not sufficient to establish a right to it. The con- 
struction of a window opposite another's window, 
even though the other did not object at first, did not 
establish an easement, for the Rabbis considered it 
indecent to look into another's house and watch his 
actions and movements (1TNT pm ; *&. 60a). The 
establishment of a baker's or of a potter's oven, 
which emitted large volumes of smoke, or of a factory 
from which much dust issued, in the immediate vi- 
cinity of another's house, or of anything that caused 
obvious" injury to another's property, although no 
objection had been raised against it at first, did not 
constitute an easement (ib. 23a). The rules which 
applied to easements in the property of individuals 
also applied, with a few exceptions, to easements 
in the common property of the community. See 
Boundaries; Neighbors; Partnership. 

Bibliography: Maiiuonides. Yad, Shekenim, vn. .\ii.: earn, 
Shulhan \lruh. Hoshen ilUhpat, 153-150 ; Bloeh, Das llc- 
sitzrecht, Budapest, 1897. 
s. s. J. II. G. 

EAST : ITHDor SPDETimtD = "rising" or "the ri- 
sing of the sun " [opposed to y^yo = " west " : Isa. 
xli. 2. 25; Ps. 1. 1, ciii. 12], or mp = [lit. "for- 
ward"] the direction of the face, west being "be- 
hind " [Tint*], north " to the left " [^N»y], and south 
"to the right" [["D": Job xxiii. 8-9; On. xiii. 14, 
xxviii. 14; Num. x. 5. 0]): Worshipers of the sun 
turned toward the east, with their backs to the 
Holy of Holies (Ezek. viii. 1G; conip. Suk. v. 4), 
whereas the Jews of the Exile prayed toward the 
Temple (Dan. vi. 11; I Kings viii. 38, 44 et scr/_ ; 
Ber. iv. 5; Sifre, Debarim, 29). For those living 
in the west, therefore, the east was the direction in 
which they were to pray (see "Kiblab" in the ar- 
ticle Mohammed). 

East is the part of the world where God planted 
paradise (Vita Ada; et Evse, 18, 22; [Lat.] Apoc. 




Mosis, i., according to Gen. iil. 24, I.X.X Accord 

Ing to the "Didascalia," prayer is offered with the 

face turned to the east God ascended to the 

heaven of heavens to the east, and because paradise 

is Bituated in the east" ("Aposl Const." ii. 57). 

This was enjoined on the earl] Christians (see 

Clemens Alexandrinus, "Stromata," vii. 7; Syriac 

< 'am ins [Teachings] oi the Apostles, i. ; Ante Nicene 

Library, viii. Otis. New York, 1890; Tertullian, 

"Apology," 16). A much older custom, which goes 

hack to very primitive limes and is connected with 

the belief that the dead go down to the land of 

Hades in the west, but will rise again with tin- sun 

in the east, is the bur_\ ing of the dead w ilh the face 

toward the east (see Trior. "Primitive Culture." 

1874, pp. 422 ttseg.). See also Mizrah. 

Bibliography : Scourer, Gesch. 3d ed., ii. i'iX Leipstc L898; 
LOW, <<< *<itnini ll< Scfirittf n, 1K1IS. iv. Itti ft .>"/. : smith ami 
Cheetbam, Dictionary of Christian Antiquities; sinitli. 
Dictionary of the Bible. 

v.. G. II. K. 

EAST INDIES. See Cochin; India.. 

EASTER (from "Eostre," "Ostara," the Teuton 
goddess of the rising day, particularly of spring): 
Xame give n by Anglo-Saxons to the Christian Pass- 
over as the Feast of Resurrection, and rather incor- 
rectly used for the Jewish Passover (Acts xii. 4, A. 
V.). Originally "Pascha,"or "Passover." was the 
name given by the Christians to the fourteenth daj 
of Nisan as the day of the Crucifixion, corresponding 

to the eve of the Jewish Passover, the season of the 
sacrifice of the paschal lamb; this was followed by 
the memorial of the Resurrection on the succeeding 
Sunday; the former was regarded as a day of fast- 
ing and penitence, the latter as a festival of joy. 
1 nder the first fifteen bishops of Jerusalem, who 
were all Jews, no difference occurred between the 
Jewish and the Christian dale-. 

In the course of time it appears that custom and 
tradition differed in the various churches of the East 
and the West, some laying sirens upon Friday as 
the historical day of the Crucifixion, others again 
adhering more to the Jewish custom of celebrating 
the fourteenth day of Nisan; but as the anti-Judi an 
element obtained ascendency, the connection of tin- 
Jew ish and the Christian Passover was severed, and 

adhesion to the fourteenth day of Xisan by Christians 

(the " Quatrodecimani") was condemned as heresy 
Greater stress was laid, in the Western Church at 
least, on the connection of Faster with the vernal 
equinox of the sun than with the full moon of the 

fourteenth of Xisan. In other words. Faster became 
a s..iar date, when as Passoverwas essentially lunar. 
The Metonic cycle was. however, employed by both 

Jews and Christians to reconcile the calculations 
by sun ami moon respectively : Passover and Easter 

always occur, therefore, about the same time of 
the year, though they only rarely fall on the same 
(lay. At the Nicene Council in 825 it was decided 

that the Christian Passover should be celehrah d on 
the Sunday following the full n n of the vernal 

equinox (March 21 1; and in the \\ estern I Iburcb it 

was decreed that, in case the full moon falls on Sun 

day. so Unit there ari^s lie- possibility of a common 

celebration of Passover by Christians and .lews, the 

Christian Passover should be postponed until the next 

Sunday; th' reason for this given by Emperor Con- 

stanline (Socrates, "Hist. Feel." i 9) was that "it 
Seemed very unsuitable that we should follow this 
custom of the Jews, who, constantly erring in the 
Utmost degree, Celebrate the Feast of Passover a 

second time in the same year"; i.e., celebrate it 

s imeti s before the spring equinox. See Passover. 

Thus the Crucifixion day. the Friday before 
i . gradually lost its ancient paschal, or Jewish. 
character, and the day of the Resurrection assumed 
mole ami more the character of the Teutonic and 
Slavonic spring festival with all its pagan rites and 
festive symbols. Regarding the | Easter) egg tit the 
Jew ish Seder, see Si der 

Bibliography: Schaff-Herzog, Encyc; Smltb, Diet, of ( ftrto 
lian AntitpMAeK and the literature tn Herzog-Plltt's lz-ai- 
Encye. s.v. PessaA. 


EATING. SeeBANQi ets; Clean and Unclean 
Animals; Cookery; Diktaiiy Laws; Food. 

EBAL (;>3'y; Septuagint, Yaijia}. ; now called 
"Jabal Slamiyyah"): I. A bare mountain 2.900 feet 
iaigh. north of Sichetn. opposite Mt. (hri/.im. At 
the base toward the north arc several tombs. The 
higher part is on the west, anil contains the ruins of 
some massive walls called "Al -Kal'ah"; east of this 
are other ruins now called "Kunaisah." In the 
i >ld Testament Ebal is mentioned only infrequently : 
Joshua built an altar of unhewn stones there (Joshua 
viii. 31 et neq.; compare Dent, x.wii. 5-7); there 
must have been a sanctuary on this spot. Another 
account (Joshua viii. 82; compare Deut. x.wii. 1-4, 
8) rclat' a that large stone slabs whitened with lime 
were erected there with the Law inscribed upon 
them. In Deut. xi. 2i(, xxvii. 18; Joshua viii. 33, 
one half of the people wire ordered to place them 
selves on Mt. Ebal to pronounce curses against those 
who disobeyed the twelve precepts of prime relig- 
ious and ethical importance, while: the remainder of 
the tribes, standing upon Mt. Gerizim opposite, pro- 
nounced the corresponding blessings upon those 
who obeyed them. 2. Name of an Edomite tribe 
[Septuagint, I'oiii,'/; Cen, xxxvi. 23; I Chron. i. 
to, 3. Nam,- of an Arab tribe (1 Chron. i. 22: 
Gen. >:. 28); the Samaritan text has "Ebal" also. 

the Septuagint iv. ;■ • ; while the Masoretic reading 
is biyC'Obal"). 

i-;. o. u. I' Bu. 

EBED-MELECH —Biblical Data: A Cush 
ite officer at tin- court of Kinu r Zedekiah, who in 

lenedeil in behalf of Jeremiah, and was sent by 
the king with thirty (Ewald and Duhm, "three") 
men to draw up tin- prophet from I In- pit (A. V. 
" dungeon ") into which In- had been cast by order 

of the princes (Jer, xxxviii. 4-18). For thisdellv- 

eranee 101 led-iiielech was prophetically assured of 

safety in the general overthrow of Zedekiah 
n; 18). The name occurs in the Phenician inscrip 
tion, "C . I. S " i. iti. 8 (Lidzbarski, in " Randbuch 
der Nbrdsemitischen Epigraphik," p. 884; Bee also 
Grey " Hebrew Proper .Names." pp. 117. 147) 

a. o. II. G. 11 I. 
In Apocryphal and Rabbinical Litera- 
ture: Ebed-melech is tin- hero of popular legend 
According to "The Rest of the Words ,t Baruch." 

Ebed Tob 



published by J. Rendel Harris in Greek under the 

title Id l\(if)c0.n-,iu(va lep tn I ioQj/tov (Cam- 

bridge, 1889), Ebed-melech slept under a tree during 
the sixty six years which elapsed between t lie de- 
struction of the Temple in the month of Ab and the 
return of the exiles from Babylonia on the 12th of 
Nisan; during all this time the tigs in the basket 
which Jeremiah had sent him to carry to the sick in 
Jerusalem remained fresh as when first put there. 
Ebed-melech is also counted among the nine persons 
who entered paradise alive | " Masseket Derek Ere/,." 
i., ed. Taurogi, p. 8; "Alphabeticum Siracidis," ed. 
Bteinschneider, pp. 27 <t seq.; comp. "J. Q. H." v. 
409-419). K. 

There is a disagreement among rabbinical writers 
as to the identification of Ebed-melech. Jonathan b. 
Uzziel rendered the name "the servant of the king," 
considering "ha Kushi" to apply to Zedekiah. This 
interpretation was adopted by the Talmudists (M. 
K. 1Gb). But the Talmud does not state who tin- 
servant of Zedekiah was. In Pirke Rabbi Eliezer 
liii (see also Pesik. R., ed. Friedmann,131b), Ebed- 
melech is identified with Baruch b. Neriah, to whom 
the epithet "ha-Kushi" is referred. Still, Ebed- 
melech is generally counted among the nine persons 
who entered paradise alive, or among the thirteen 
who never tasted death (Derek Erez Zuta ch. i., 
end; Yalk. ii. 367; Talk, I.Iadash, g.v. pJJ »). The 
source of this legend is Jeremiah xxxix. 16, from 
which is also derived the Ethiopian legend that 
Ebed-melech, like Honi ha-Ma'gal, slept for seventy 
years (see It. Basset, "Les Apocryphes Ethiopiens, " 
fascic. \., and Syriac MS. No. 65, fols. 230b-247a in 
the Bibliotheque Nationale of Paris). 

s s. M. Sel. 

EBED TOB. See Hrha. 

EBEL RABBATI. See Skmaiiot. 

EBEN-EZER (Hebr. "Eben ha-'Ezer " = the 

stone of help): 1. Scene of two battles in which 
the Israelites were defeated byvthe Philistines. In 
the first engagement they lost 4.000 men. The Ark 
of the Covenant was then fetched from Shiloh, in 
the hope that its presence might bring victory to 
the Israelites; but in a second battle they lost 30,- 
000 men. The Ark was captured, and Hophni ami 
Phineas, the sons of Eli, were killed (I Sam. iv 

The exact site of Eben-ezer has not been deter- 
mined. It was near Aphek, and near enough to 
Shiloh for a man who had been in the second bat- 
tle to reach Shiloh the same day that it was fought 
(see 6. A. Smith, "Historical Geography," p. 223. 

2. Name given by Samuel to the stone set up by 
him betwe.n Mizpehand Sinn to commemorate the 

vieton of the Israelites ii Sam. vii. 12). 

•'■ ■'" C. J. M. 

EBER : The eponymous ancestor of the He- 
brew-, grandson of Arphaxad and great grandson 
of Shem; father of Joktan. the ancestor of the 
Arabs, and of Peleg, among whose progeny, in the 
fifth generation, was Alnam ((Jen. x. 22, 25-30; xi 

The word " Eber " signifies "the region beyond." 

Of the nine words in Genesis that designate Bhem's 

defendants, at least two, " Arphaxad " and "Serug " 
(Gen. xi. 10, 21), are identical with the names of 
districts: the former indicating the district of Arra- 
paehitis on the upper Zab, the latter the place where 
Abu Zaid of "Saruj," the hero of Hariri's " Maka- 
mat." had his home. The conclusion is therefore 
warranted that the term "Eber" originally desig- 
nated a district. 

The use of " Eber " as a " nomen appellativum " is 
common ; it denotes originally " that which is be- 
yond." This explains the fact that, in the genealogy 
of the Semites, Abraham and, especially, Israel are 
called descendants of "Eber"; for if "Eber" had 
been originally the name of a person, it would be 
strange that Abraham should have been so closely 
linked with him, since Eber was not bis immediate 
ancestor, but one six times removed. It is because 
" Eber" was originally the name of a region that it 
took so important a place in the genealogical tree. 

"Eber" designates the region occupied longest 
and most continuously by the peoples that traced 
their descent from Shem through Arphaxad. This 
is apparent in the words, "And ships shall come 
from the coast of Chittim [Kition, on the island of 
Cyprus], and shall afflict Asshur, and shall afflict 
Eber" (Num. xxiv. 24). Here " Eber " designates a 
country in the neighborhood of Assyria, and to a 
certain extent forming a part of it — the country be- 
yond the Euphrates. The importance of that river 
for anterior Asia may serve to explain the fact that 
the country beyond the Euphrates was designated 
tear' e;ii\f/n as the "region beyond." 

The Babylonian name corresponding to the He- 
brew "Eber ha-Xahar" is "'Ebir Nari" (comp. 
Winckler, "Gesch. Israel's," i. 223, note 1). It oc- 
curs in an inscription of Assur-bel-kala (Homniel, 
"Ancient Hebrew Tradition," p. 195, line 5) about 
1100 B.C. In I Kings v. 4 (A. V. iv. '.'4) "'Eber 
ha-Nahar" is descriptive of the limits of Solomon '9 

Hommel's opinion is that the region beyond 
Wadi Sirhan is indicated; but see Ed. Konig. " Funf 
Xeue Arabische Eandschaftsnamen im Alten Testa 
ment," 1901, p. 44. 

1 a. h. E. K. 

EBER BEN PETHAHIAH : Moravian schol- 
ar; lived in Ungarisch-Brod at the beginning of the 
eighteenth century. Steinsehneider indicates the 
possibility of the name being merely a pseudonym. 
It appears on the title-page of "Mar'eh ha-Ketab 
we-Rashe Tebot," a guide to Hebrew-German and 
its abbreviations (n.d.). See Hayyim b. Menahem 
of Glogau. 

Bibliography: Bteinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 901s Fiirst, 
Bihl.Jiid. L.219; Benjucob, Ozar ha-Si-farim, p. :!70 

M. Sel. 


German mathematician; lived at Frankfort -on-the- 
Main in the first half of the sixteenth century. He 
was the author of a work entitled "Sefer ha-Zifar," 
containing mathematical problems with solutions, 
which was finished Tuesday, Feb. 27, 1537. 
Bibliography : Neubauer, Cat. Budl. Hebr. MSS. No. 1271, 10. 

If. Sel. 
German jurist and author; born in Berlin Jan. 26, 



Ebed Tob 

1813; died at Amsdorf (Riesengebirge) July 7, 
1884. He was educated at the universities of Berlin 
and Bonn. In 1849 he became privat-docenl at the 
University of Breslau in natural ami criminal law, 
and in l*",i associate professor. 

Eberty's principal works are: "Die Gestirne und 
die Weltgeschichte : Gedanken iilur Raum, Z<it, und 
Ewigkeit," Breslau, 1840, 3d ed. 1874; translated 
and published in English, and retranslated into Ger 
man by Voigts-Rhetz, Leipsic, I860; "Versuch auf 
dem Gebiete des Naturrechts." Leipsic, 1852; 
"Geschichte des Preussischen Staats," T vols., Pro 
Iau,l866-73; " Walter Scott, ein Lcbensbild," 2 vols., 
Leipsic, 1860; translated into several languages, 
and reissued in 1S70; " Lord Byron, eine Biographie," 
3 vols., ib. 1862, 2d ed. i s 79; " Jugenderinnerungen 
eines Alien Berliners," Berlin. 1878. De le Roi, in 
his "Geschichte der Evangelischen J uden- Mission " 
ii. 340), eites Eberty asaconvert to Christianity. 
Bibliography : Mt '/' n K"ur> nialtiona-lA xQton. 

B. M. Co 

A Levite, descendant of Kohath, and one of the an- 
cestors of the prophet Samuel and of Heinan, the 
singer. In Exodus vi. 21 and I Chronicles vi. 22 
(87), ix. 19, Ebiasaph (Abiasaph) occurs as a son of 
Korah and brother of Assir and Elkanah; but in I 
Chronicles vi. 8 (2:3) he is stated to have been a son 
of Elkanah, son of Assir, son of Korah. 

K. M Bl I 

EBIONITES (f rom D'JVSK = " the ] ">: Sect 

of Judoeo-Christians of the second to the fourth cen- 
tury, They believed in the Messianic character Oi 
Jesus, but denied his divinity and supernatural or- 
igin; observed till the Jewish rites, such as circum 
cision and the seventh-day Sabbath ; and used a ires 
pel according to Matthew written in Hebrew or 
Aramaic, while rejecting the writings of Paul as 

e of an apostate (Irenseus, " Ad versus Ha?re 
i. 202; Origen, "Contra Celsum," ii 1; Eusebius, 
"Hist. Keel." iii. 27; Hippolytiis. "Refutatio Ha 
resiiim." vii. :!l ; Jerome, < Commentary on Isaiah, i. '■'•. 
12; on Matt. xii. 18). Some Ebionites, however, ac- 
cepted tie' doctrine of the supernatural birth of 

Jesus, and worked out a Christology of their own 

(Origen, I.e. v. t;i i. 

The origin of the Ebionites was, perhaps intent ion 
ally, involved at an early date in legend. Origen 
("De Principiis," iv. 1,22; "Contra Celsum," ii. 1) 
still knew that the meaning of the name •• Ebionim " 
was"poor," bul refers it to the poverty of their 
understanding (comp. Eusebius, l.c i, because they 
refused to accept tie- Christology of the ruling 
Church. Later a mythical person by the name 
of Ebion was invented as the founder of the sect 
who, like Cerinib, his supposed teacher, li 
the N azaiienes in Kokabe, a village in the district of 
I in -an on the eastern gide of the Jordan, and, ha 

Spn ad his heresy among the Christians who lied to 

this part of Palestine after the destruction of the 
Temple, migrated to Asia and to Rome (Epiphanius, 
" Il.erescs/' x\\. 1. 2; Hippolytus, l.c vii ■■'<. \ 22: 
Tertullian, "De Prascriptione Bsereticorum," 83 

The early Christians called themselves preferably 

"Ebionim" (the poor; comp. Epiphanius, l.c xxx. 

17 ; Minucius Felix Octavius, eh. 86), because they re- 
garded Belf-imposed po^ ertj asa meritorious method 
of preparation for the Messianic kingdom, according 
to Luke vi. 20. 24: " Blessed are ye poor: for yours 
is the kingdom of God"; and" Woe unto you that are 
rich ' for ye have received your consolation " ( Mi - 

sianic share: Matt. v. :!. "the poor in spirit." is a 
late modification of the original ; comp. Lukeiv, is 
vii. 22; Matt. xix. 21 <t .«,</., xxvi. etseq.; Luke 
xix. S; John xii. ~r. Rom. XV. 26; II Cor. vi. 10, viii. 
9; Gal. ii. 10; Jamesii. 5 etteq.). Accordingly they 

messed themselves of all their g Is and lived 

in communistic societies (Acts i v. 34 et seg.). In this 

practise the Lssenes also were encouraged, partly 
by Messianic passages, such as Isa. xi. 4, xlix. 3 
(COmp. Kx. R. xxxi. ), partly by Deut.xv. 11: "The 

poor shall never cease out of the land"— a passage 
taken to be a warning not to embark upon com 

merce when the study of the Law is thereby neg 
Iected iTa an 21a; comp. alsoMek., Beshallah, ii., 
ed. Weiss. 56; see notes). 

Origen (l.c. ii. 1), while not clear as to the precise 
meaning of the term "Ebionim," gives the more 
important testimony that all Juikco christians were 

called "Ebionites." The Christians that tied to the 

trans-Jordanic land (Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl." iii. 5, 
'■',), remaining true to their Judean traditions, were 
afterward regarded as a heretic sect of the Ebion- 
ites, and hence rose' the legend of Ebion. To them 

belonged SvMMACitfs, the Bible translator (ib. vi. 


Bibliography: Herzog-Hauck, Beal-Bneye. s.\. Ebfontten; 
Harnack, History "' Dogma, pp. 899 300, Boston, 1895; llil- 
ffealeld, Ketzergi chichte, 1884, pp. i.'l 146, where tbe leg- 

emlarv FUuori is trnite.t as it tilsturieul [.risen. 


EBONY (D'JIH): This word is mentioned only 

e in the old Testament, namely, Ezek. xxvii. 15, 

where it is stated that the Arabian merchant people, 
the Dedanites (see Dodanim), brought horns id' ebony 

lo Tyre. The genuine ebony is the wood of the 

jyiospyros Ebenum and of several kindred species. 

It is now indigenous to eastern Asia and Ce\lon, 

but is found in Zanzibar and Mozambique also, in 
ancient times ebony was brought from Ethiopia 

and this variety, which was considered superior to 
that of India, was held lobe very precious. The Pile 

nicians, Egyptians (Thebes ; see "Zeit. fin- Aegyp 

;ie," 1886, xiii.), and Babylonians ("ushu"; see 

Schroder, " K. I: " iii :;7i used ii for fashioning im 

agesof their gods and all kinds of precious vessels 

acred and profane Use Chewio thinks, with 

s • degree of probability ("Encyc. Bibl."), that 

ebony is nienii 1 also in I KiiiL's \ 'J'.', where, 

corresponding to Ezek. xxvii. 15, he reads D'jsni ;"• 

" i\ oi v and ebony," instead of D^nj"'. 

i , .'. u I. Mi 

EBRON (A V., incorrect 1\ , Hebron). See \ r. 
Hon. of which it is a variant form. 

EBSTEIN, WILHELM: German physician. 
born in Jauer, Prussian Silesia, No\ '-'■ 1886 He 
studied medicine al the universities of Breslau 
and Berlin, graduating from the last named in 1859 
In this year he was appointed physician at the 

Allerheiligcn Hospital, Breslau; in 1868, chief phy- 
i, i in ai the municipal poorhouse; in I860, privat 




docent; in 1874, professor in Gottingen University 
(which chair he still [1903] holds); and in 1877, di- 
rector of the university hospital and dispensary, 

Ebstein's specialties are malassimilation and de- 
fective nutrition, in the treatment of which he has 
introduced several new methods. He eliminate-; the 
hydrocarbons from the food almost entirely, but al- 
lows fat to be taken with adequate albumen, his 
theory being that fat contains nutritive matter 
equivalent to two and a half times that of hydro- 
carbons (see the following by Ebstein: "Die Fett- 
leibigkeit," etc., 7th ed., Wiesbaden, 1887; "Fctt 
oder Kohlenhydrate." Wiesbaden, 1885; and " Was- 
sereutziehung und Anstrengende Muskelbewegung- 
en," ib. 1885; also Oertel, "Die Ebsteinsche Flug- 
schrift liber Wasserentziehung," Leipsic, 1885). In 
this field Ebstein has become one of the leading spe- 
cialists of the world. 

Of his numerous works maybe mentioned: "Nie- 

renkraukheiten Nebst den Affectionen der Nieren- 

becken und der Urnieren," in Von Ziemssen's 

" Handbuch der Speziellen Pathologie und Thera- 

pie," 2d ed., vol. ix. ; " Traumatische Leukiimie," in 

'• Deutsche Med. Wochenschrift," 1894 ; " Handbuch 

der Praktischen Medizin," ib. 1899; "Die Medi- 

zin im Alten Testament," Stuttgart, 1901; "Hand 

buch der Praktischen Medizin," (with Schwalbe), 

ib. 1901 ; " Die Krankheiten im Feldzuge Gegen 

Hussland," ;'*. 1902; "Dorf- und Stadthygiene," ib. 

1902; "Die Medizin in Bibel und Talmud" (New 

Testament and Talmud), ib. 1903. 

Bibliography : Paget, Bingraphisehes Lexiknn.s.-v.; Meyers 
Konversations-Lextkon, s.v.; Brorkhaus, Konversations- 

Lexikim, s.v. 

s. F. T. II. 

"Ecclesiastes" — literally, "Member of an Assembly," 
often thought to mean (after Jerome) " Preacher " — is 
the Septnagint rendering of the Hebrew "Kohelet," 
apparently as an intensive formation from the root 
"kahal," with which such forms as the Arabic 
" rawiyyah " (professional reciter) have 
Name been compared. The Hebrew word is 

and Au- given by the author of the book as his 

thorship. name, sometimes with the article (xii. 
8, and probably vii. 27), but ordinarily 
without it : similar license is allowed in Arabic in the 
case of some common nouns used as proper names. 
The author represents himself as the son of David, 
and king over Israel in Jerusalem (i. 1, 12, 16; ii. 
7, 9). The work consists of personal or autobio- 
graphic matter, with reflections on the purpose of 
life ami the best method of conducting it. These, 
the author declares, were composed by him as lie 
increased in wisdom, were "weighed," studied, cor- 
rected, expressed in carefully chosen phrases, and 
correctly written out (xii. 9, 10), to he taught to the 

The fact of the author describing himself in the 
foregoing style, together with bis statements concern- 
ing the brilliancy of his court ami his studies in 
philosophy (i. 13-17, ii. 4-11), led tin- ancients to 
identify him with Solomon; and tin-; identification, 

which appears in the Peshitta, Targum, and Tal- 
mud (compare 'Er. 21b; Shab 80a), passed unques- 
tioned till comparatively recent times The order 

of the Solomonic writings in the canon suggested 
that Ecclesiastes was written before Canticles (Rashi 
on B. B. 14b); whereas another tradition made 
their composition simultaneous, or put Ecclesi- 
astes last (Seder 'Olam Rabbah, ed. Ratner, p. 
66, with the editor's notes). The fact that Kohelet 
speaks of his reign in the past tense (i. 12) sug- 
gested that the book was written on Solomon's 
death-bed (ib.). Another way of accounting for it 
was to suppose that Solomon composed it during 
the period in which he was driven from his throne 
(Git. 68b), a legend which may have originated from 
this passage. The canonicity of the book was, how- 
ever, long doubtful (Yad. iii. 5; Meg. 7a), and was 
one of the matters on which the school of Shammai 
took a more stringent view than the school of Ilil- 
lel; it was finally settled "on the day whereon 
R, Eleazar b. Azariah was appointed head of the 
assembly." Endeavors were made to render it 
apocryphal on the ground of its not being inspired 
(Tosef., Yad. ii. 14; ed. Zuckermandel, p. 683), or 
of its internal contradictions (Shab. 30b), or of a 
tendency which it displayed toward heresy — that is, 
Epicureanism (Pesik., ed. Buber, viii. 68b); but 
these objections were satisfactorily answered (see S. 
Schiffer, "Das Buch Kohelet," Frankfort-ou-the- 
Main, 1884). It was assumed that Solomon had 
taken the name "Kohelet," just as be had taken the 
name "Agur" (Prov. xxx. 1), as a collector (see, 
further, Eppenstein, " Aus dem Kohelet-Kommentar 
des Tanchum Jeruschalmi," Berlin, 1888); and 
probably the Septuagint rendering represents a 
theory that the name contained an allusion to I Kings 
viii. 1, where Solomon is said to have gathered an 

As to the age of the work, there is an indication 
of the latest date at which it could have been writ- 
ten in the fact that Ben Sira repeatedly quotes or 
imitates it (Ecclus. [Sirach] xxvii. 26, from Eccl. 
x. 8, verbatim [comp. LXX.]; xviii. 5, from Eccl. 
iii. 14, inverted, probably for metrical reasons; xxx. 
21, from Eccl. xi. 10; xxxiv. 5b, from Eccl. v. 9; 
xiii. 21, 22, after Eccl. ix. 16; xxx vii. 14, after Eccl. 
vii. 19; xxxiv. 1, after Eccl. v. 11; comp. "The 
Wisdom of Ben Sira,"ed. Schechter and Taylor, In- 
troduction, pp. 13 et xn/.. anil p. 26, note 2). Since 
Ben Sira declares himself a compiler from the Old 
Testament (xxiv. 28), whereas Ecclesiastes claims 
originality (xii. 9, 10), it seems certain, in the case of 
close agreement bet ween the two books, that Ben Sira 
must be the borrower. This fact gives some date 
about 250 or 300 ji.e. as the latest possible for the 
composition of the book in its present form; fortius 
repeated borrowing implies that Ben Sira regarded it 
as part of his canon, which would scarcely contain 
any works that had been produced in his lifetime. 
With this fact the nature of Ben Sira's language, as 
preserved in Talmudic quotations, agrees; for such 
decided Neo-Hebraisms as pDJ? ("business "), NDL"' 

("lest"), and ncnn ("authorize") are 
Date. not found in Ecclesiastes, though, had 

they been in vogue in the author's 
time, he would have had constant occasion to em- 
ploy them. He uses instead J'sn, DtD^ (vii. 16, 17; 
also used in the Phenician Eshmunazar inscription), 
and LTPK'n. Though allusions to Ecclesiastes are 




Dot common in the New Testament, Matt, xxiii. 

i; V., "These y> have done, and not 

to have left the other undone," seems clearly a 
reminiscence ol Eccl. vii 1\ It is therefore nec- 
essary i" reject all theories thai bring the 
down td a date later than 250 b.i . including that 
of Qraetz, who regarded it as Hcrodian — iu which 
he is followed by Leimdorfer (Erlangen, 1891 
who makes Simeon ben Shctab the author— and 
that of Kenan, who places ii somewhere before 
100 b.c. These theories are largelj based on con 

iral interpretations of historical allusions, which, 
though often attractive, arc not convincing. The 
Grecisms supposed to be found in the hook are 
all imaginary (for instance, DJJTS has no connec- 
tion w itli <.'"■ ; I'" ; the phrase " under the sun. " w hich 

irs bo frequently, is also found in the Estunu 
nazar and Tabnith inscriptions, not later than 800 
B.C., as the equivalent of "on earth"), and the sup 
positions as to borrowings from Greek philosophy 
which some have profi — d to detect are all fallacious 
i ids, " L'Ecclesiastc et la 
ue," 1890 
i in the other hand, there i> much in the language 
which, with the present knowledge of Hebrew, one 
should be disposed to regard as characteristic ol a 
comparatively late period. II. Grotius, in the six 

teeuth i entury, collected about, a hundred won Is and 

phrases of this sort occurring in the I k; but sev- 
eral apparent modernisms may represent 

which must have been, introduced into Palestineat 
an early period [e.g., i" for tj's. and the abstracts 
in ni. both from Assj rian), or words which may have 
largely used in ancient times (e.g., "takken." 
"to correct," also Assyrian i; and even in the case of 

s • idioms which seem especially characteristic of 

late Hebrew, the likeliest account is that thej were 
preserved through long ages in remote dialects 

(so "kdiar." "already," occurring only in this I k 

— apparently an old verb," kabur," "it is great" 

" it is :i Ion L r time since" ■ comp. the Arabic " tain-. 
certain Persisms, however (QjriS. "account" [viii. 
11], Persian "paygham"; DT1S, "park" pi. 5], 
Zend "pairidaeza," Armenian "parte/ seem to 
provide a more certain clue; and thai the I k is 

post -exilic may be assi i led with con Ii dene. 1 1 

how near the latest possible limit the date can he 

brought down can uol be fixed with precision 
Hence the Solomonic authorship (which few now 
hold) may be dismissed; nor indeed could the 

I kin,' of the dynasty have spoken of "all which 

u ere in Jerusalem before me." 

Beyond the fact that tjohelel was uncritically 
identified with Solomon, ii seems impossible to .lis 
cover any connection between the two nana s Thi 

interpret a lion of the wool " Kobe let. " as a si i list an 
live is purel) conjectural; ami though the phrase 
rendered "masters of assemblies," but mon 

ifying " authors of collections," lends some color 
to the rendering "collector," it is not frei 
grave difficulty. As a proper name, bowevet it 
might be derived from "kabal" in one ol the Arabii 

i i i hat i though its use with the ai 

would in that case constitute a difficulty; finally, 
it might be a foreign word The Talmud seems 
rightly to call attention to the importance ol th< 
V -3 

pnsi tense in i. 12; for one who s ;[N s "] tea* king" 
implies that his reign be must bespeaking 

either as a dead manor as one who has abdicated. 
Kohelet is then either a fictitious person or an adap- 

i ol si monarch, like Al-Nu'man of Arabic 

mythology (Tabari, i. s;,:;,, win., becoming eon 

- -i the instability of the world, abandons his 
throne and lakes to devotion. Similarly, I£ohelei 
appears to pass from king to preacher, though it is 
not. actually stated that he abandons his throne. 
The references to kings in all bul the earliest chap- 
ters rather imply that the author is asubject; hut 
this may he unintentional. The authors idea of a 
king would seem to he modeled on tin narehs of 

Persia, with kings and provinces subject to them 

• , ai.d the gardens with exotics ui. 5) and iiri 

parks (ii. hi are lik, |j to bi long to the same 

The Israelitish name for I hid is now. 
ployed, nor does there appear to he any refereni ■ to 
.1 in laic matters ; hence there sei msto he a possibility 

that the honk is an adaptation of a work in some 

other language. This supposition would agree with 
V l that certain of the idioms found in it arc not 
so much late Hebrew as foreign Hebrew (e.g., vii. 
24, viii. 17, xii. 9); with the frequent use of the parti 
cipial present ni ii . with the unintelligible 

character of several phrases which are apparently 
cor ru pi i, ,g., iv. IT, x. 15, much of xii I 6 . and with 
I he want of sharpness ih il e ha lad el' i/es s ( ,,,,,. ,,f the 

aphorisms i, g. t x. 9). Further, the verb JJN (xii. 9), 
which describes a process to which the author says 
he subjected his proverbs, should, on tin analog) 
of the Arabic "wazan," refer to the numbering of 
syllables; and the following phrases, apparently 
meaning "searched out and corrected " or "can 'fully 
straightened," have the appearance of referring to 
metrical correctness, though their exact import is 

not eaSJ to fix. Of any such formal technicality 

the verses of Klohelet bear no trace in their existing 

form; yet there are places where the introducti i 

words would bi re intelligible d thi author had a 

fixed number of syllables to make up (< . xii. 2, 
" while the sun or tlu UghtorWie moon or the stars 
be not darkened"). If this he so, the character ol 

the idioms noticed o g., xii. 9, "the wiser Koh. 1. i 

me, the more did he teach ") n nders h probable 
that the language of the model was [ndo < termanic 

and the introducti. f the names "David," "Israel," 

and "Jerusalem," as well as the concealment of all 
names in the case of the anecdotes which the author 
introduces (e.#.,i v. 18 la. i 14 16 is with the view 
of ac commodating the w ork to Jewish taste. 
In Ecclesiastes there are some continuous sections of 

siderable length : (1) goheli I 's au phj . i 

mi ni of the if" trim a of deter 
minismand Epicureanism, ix. L— 13; (3) a description 

Of death, xii. I 8. The 1 c-sl of I he hook is i n short 
■ rap I is or isolated aphorisms, and the author in 

xii. 11. 12 di clares that the aphorisl 

rior to the continuou a doctrine which in 

modern times has been associated with the nat 

Bat In the autobiography the author states that 

he experimented with various ion us of Btudj . i 
lire and i nterprise, in the hope ol finding the mean- 
ing of theendless chain of phenomena, bul that lie 




abandoned them in disgust. The morals thai he 
draws, however, appear to be inconsistent; since. 

while somi verses encourage the theory 
Contents, thai pleasure is the summum bonum, 

others seem to warn youth against any 
mi, I, \ iew. This inconsistency, which could proba 
blj be paralleled from the works of Oriental pessi- 
mists likeOmar Khayyam and Abu al 'Ala of Ma'ar- 
rah, attracted attention, as has been stated, in early 
limrs: bul the various attempts that have been 
to bring theauthor into harmony with himself 
are too subjective to be convincing. Tims some 
would regard all the edifying passages as interpola- 
tions (so Haupt, "Oriental St in lies." pp. 243 et aeg. I; 
■ alius u< ni ill regard the Epicun an passages as to be 
read with interrogations (so some rabbis), while it 
lias also been suggested (by Bickell, " Der Prediger " 

that the sheets of the I k have been displaced 

None ni Hi' e opinions ran be received without ex- 
ternal evidence. It seemsmore probable, therefore, 
that the author expresses the varying sentiments of 
different moods, just as the second of the writers 
mentioned above alternates between orthodoxy and 

After his personal history the author proceeds to 
give illustrations of more general experiences. In 
these he speaks as a subject rather than as a king ; 
he cites the prevalence of injustice in the world. 
for which lie had some tentative solutions (iii. 17. 
18); later, however, he relapsed into the Epicu- 
rean conclusion (iii. 22), accentuated by further ob- 
servation into pessimism (iv. 1-4). At this point he 
proceeds to introduce a variety of maxims, illus- 
trated by anecdotes, leading up to the conclusion 
(vii. ITi that the plan of the universe is incompre- 
hensible. Chapter ix. formulates the doctrine that 
men's actions and motives are all foreordained, and 
advises gaiety on the ground that whatever is to 
happen is already fixed, and that there will be no 
mom for activity in the grave. This is emphasized 
by anecdotes of the unexpected happening (11-16). 
There follows another series of maxims leading up 
to a poetical description of death, and, after some 
observations on the value of the aphorism, to the as- 
sertion that the substance of the whole matter is 
" Pear God and keep his commandments, . . . forGod 
shall bring every work into judgment " (xii. 13-14). 
The felicity, wisdom, and profundity of man}- of 
the aphorisms probably endeared the book to many 
who mighl have been displeased with the Epicurean 
and pessimistic passages. Yet without the idea that 
Kohelet was Solomon one could scarcely imagine the 
work ever having been included in the canon ; and 

had it not been adopted before tin- doctrine of the 
Kesiirreciii.n became popular, ii is probable that the 
author's views on thai subject would have caused 

his book tn lie excluded therefrom. Mystical inter- 
pretation of the hook began fairly early (sec Ned. 
82b); and the work was a favorite source of citation 
with those rabbis who, like Saadia, were philosophers 
as well as theologians. 

Bibliography: Bee, besides tin- commentaries <>f Hitzitr. De- 
Utzsch, Volck-Oettll, Siegfried, and Wlldeboer, the following : 
Ewald, Poetischi Schriftendi intents, tv.; Renan, 

L'EecUsiaste, Paris, 1882; Graetz, KnheUth, Breslau, 1871 ; 
i'. ii. ii. Wright. Tin Booh of Kohelet, London, ws:i : Bick- 
ell, Kohelet, 1886 ; Plumptre, 1 Cambridge, 1881 : 
Tyler, Ecctiatastcs, London, i -7 1 ; wQnsche, Bibliotheca 

Rahhuiiiti. Midrash Kohel< th, 1880; Cheyne, Joh and Soto 
man, London, I88i : also the following monographs on special 
points: Haupt, ih, Boohof Ecclesiastes [Oriental Studies 
of ttu Philadelphia OrU ntalClub), 1894; Euringer. Di rJfcf 
soratext des Kohelet, Leipslc, 1890; KOhler, Ueber die 
Qrundanschauungen des Buche$ Kohelet, Eriangen, 
Bickell, Der Prediger Uber den Wert des Caseins, Inns- 
bruck, 1884; Schiffer, Das Buch Kohelet Nachder .1 
sung d< i ii i In n d* s ratmuds und Midrasch, issi ; Renan, 
Histoirt dik Peuplt d'Jsrael, vol. v., cb. xv.: Piepenbring, 
Uistoin du Pi upl< d'Jsrael. fur further bibliography con- 
sult Palm, Di< Qoheleth lAtteratiir, Tubingen, 1888; and 
Siegfried, Commentary, pp.25 .',. 

j. Jii. D. S. M. 



n \1 s. 

ECIJA (n3D , X) : Spanish city in the province of 
Seville. A charge of ritual murder occurred in the 
time of the "great king" Alfonso (Alfonso X.or 
Alfonso XL). The Jew charged with the crime 
was imprisoned on the eve of the Passover. At 
the mere report the populace rose. Many Jews 
saved their lives by taking refuge in the houses of 
the nobles. In Ecija, his birthplace, the fanaticism 
of the archdeacon Ferrand Martinez found a fruitful 
soil. At his bidding the synagogue was destroyed 
i Dec. 1390, not 1395 as in Jacobs. "Sources," X... 
1318). The great Jewish massacre in 1391 spread 
from Sevilleto Ecija. where most of the Jews joined 
the Church. With no less cruelty were the Maranos 
treated in 147:3, until a few knights came to their 

Btm.IOC.RAPHY: Ibu Verira. Shrhrt Ydnuhth, pp. 25,88; 
dorde los Hi' is. Hist. 11. 611 et seq., iii. 159; Jacobs. Sourci - 

G. M. K 

ECIJA, JOSEPH DE. See Benvexistk, Jo- 
seph BEN Kl'IlRAIM HA-LeVI. 

ECK, JOHANN MAIER VON : Catholic theo- 
logian ; born at Eck, Bavaria. Nov. 13, 14HG; died in 
Iugolstadt Feb. 10, 1543. one of the most active 

antagonists of Luther, he was an equally zealous 
enemy of the Jews. Iliswork, " Verlegungeines Ju- 
deii-Buchleins, Darin ein Christ (der) Ganzen Chris- 
tenheit zu Scbmach Will, als Geschahc den Juden 
Unrecht, in Bezilchtigung der Christ -Kinder-Mord," 
an endeavor to fasten the blood accusation on the 
Jews, was published in Iugolstadt in 1542. Eck 
translated the Vulgate into German in an eflort to 
counteract the influence of Luther's version of the 
Bible. His translation, known as "Die Ingolstadter 
Bibel von 1538," is by no means as accurate or as 
well written as Luther's version. He also edited 
Haggai in Hebrew. 

Bibliography : Allgcmrinr Deutsche Biographic, r. 596; 
Fflrst. fli'M. Jud. i. 220; Gr&tz, Gesch. ix. 310 • ' Kg.; 
Berzog-Hauck, Real-Encyc., and (Vetzerand (Velte's JSTirc/i- 
. nlexikon, s.v. 
j. A. M. F. 

ED ("witness"): Name supplied by the English 

versions for the altar erected by the tribes on the 
east of the Jordan (Joshua xxii. 34). The name does 
not appear in the Masoretic text nor in the Septua- 
L r int. The Hebrew reads simply, "And the children 
of Reuben and the children of Gad called the altar, 
for il is a witness between us I hat the Lord is God " ; 
ami it would seem that the name of the altar must 
have been dropped by a copyist. 


THE .ll'.W l-ll ENI 5TCL0PEDIA 


Dillmann (Joshua ml /■»■.) suggests "Gal ed 
in Gen. \x.\i. 47 (A. V. "Gal ed 

i . <;. 11. G. B. L 

DISHA : Two Hebrew appellation 
lively "holy congregation" and " 
; the former 1" liar to the Pali stinian 

sources, while the latter is used exclusively in thi 
Ionian Talmud. They designate a Palestinian 
ciation of scholars that flourished in the second 
ury (last tannaitic generation), and of which 
ben Meshullam and Simeon ben Menasya were 
members; bu1 whether these two constituted the 
whole assoi iation, or merely formed pan of a larger 
aggregation, can only i" 1 conjectured, the purport 
of the main sources relied upon in this instance being 
ewbat ambiguous and contradictory. The Pal 
cstiniaii Talmud (Ma'as Sh. ii 53d) asserts, "By 
'Edah Cedoshah are meant R Jose ben ha Meshul- 
lam and R. Simeon ben Menasya." 

Biiti.ioiiiiAi'iiY : Zacuto, Yuhaxin.ed. FUipowsH, p. 70; Hell- 
prin,S?derha-Dorot,ll t'imb. .!/■ numm : i rankii, 

Darin ho- ilinhnah.p. 301 ; Hriill. Mebo ha-Mishnah, I. 838; 
Bacher, Ag, Van. 11. 489 d seg.; Bamburger, /,'. B. T.. ii. 


- B 

S M 


EDDINTJS: One of the three "holy singers 
.... tin' sons of Asaph" (I Esd i 15), at Josiah's 
Passover. He alone belonged to the royal suite. 
The name is a Greek equivalent of "Jeduthun." 

See the parallel passage— II Cbron. \\\v. 15, 
i . g. it E. 1 N. 

LEVI : Russian preacher ; born at Zamoscz, govern 
ment of Lublin, Poland; died at Slonim 1827, He 
«as a pupil ni Elijah Wilna, and, besides possessing 
i bomiletic talent, was a Hebraist and a Tal 
mudic scholar. Hewrote: "Safah le-Ne'emanim," 
a concise Hebrew grammar for beginners (Lemberg, 
1798); "Alike Xehudah," a collection of homilies, of 
which only the first volume, containing twentj four 
sennnns. appeared (/'>. lsir.v " Me Xeftoah," a com 
mentary on Maimonides' introduction to T° noro ' 
(ilyelostok, 1816); "Mayim Teborim a commen 
tarj on Tohorot (ib. 1817); "Iyye ha Yam," essays 
on the Haggadah, edited by his son Solomon (Os 
trog, 1835); "Yam ha-Talmud," casuistic nob 
"Redife Mayya,"on Hebrew synonyms. 

Bujlioorapiit : FOrst, BO>l. Jud. i. 230 ; Fuenn, Kenesct \TU 

. . Zi-iiiiii. B(hl. Post-Mi ndds. p. 71. 
K. M. S,:i. 

thor and editor ; born in Swislocz, Russia, 1805; died 
at Berlin, Nov. 20, 1858. He was the boh of a rab 

binical scholar.and receiveda \ d Talmudical edu 

cation, which he later supplemented bj acquainting 

himself thoroughly with ancient andi lern Hebrew 

literature. In 1839 Bdelmann published bis flrsl 
work, " Haggahot u-Bi'urim," notesand commenta 
riestothe"Me'irat 'Enayim" of Nathanson and Et 
linger, Wilna, 1889. Five years later be publi bed 
•• ■ Alim le Miliban," specimens or extracts from bis 
work on difficult passages of the Haggadah In the 
Talmudimand Midraahim, with an appendix,"Me 
eiiiat Sefer," on Purim and the Megillah, Danzig, 
1844. The following year he published in KOnigs 

berg (where, as at Danzig, he had chai rint- 

itablishment) two critical editions ol the Hag 
gadah for Passover, with introductions, annotations, 
etc. The same j ear he published, a ■ ■ ■ i ■ 

in HegyonLeb," which is commonly 

known as " I aml-hiil IT- Prayer Book." To this 
work Kill liiiann also contributed gli ineii 

dations, and nob 3. 
Edelmanu pi nl about I a land and 

was one of the first c petent scholars to examine 

the manuscripts and rare printed books of the Op 
penheim collection in the Bodleian Library, Oxl 

and to gii le world some knowledg 

ilnir contents. In ibis work he was assisted by 

Leopold Hi RES; and I bey joint ly editei I and pub- 
lished "Ginze Oxford" (with an English transla 
tion bj M II Bresslau, London, 1851). 

To Hi is period ol Edelmann'sactivitj belong also: 
"Derek fobim," ethical wills of Judab ibn Tibbon 
and Ma in ion ides ; also ancient Arabic and Greek prov 
erbs rendered into Hebn w . with English translation 
by Bresslau. London, 1852 ; "Dibre Hefez," extrai Is 
from various unprin ted v rnks, London, 1853; " Tehil- 
lab la Yesbaiiin," poem bj Moses ILn vim Luz 
/.\ttii from an Oxford manuscript, with preface by 

Edelmann, I Ion, 1854; and "Hemdah Gennzah," 

unedited manuscripts by early rabbinical authori 
ties, with a literary-historical introduction, Konigs- 
berg, 1856. Edelmann also brought out a valuable 
critical new edition of Bstori ba I'arbi's "Kaftor 
u-Ferali." Berlin, 1851, and wrote "GedullatSha'ul," 
a biography of Rabbi Saul Wahl, the alleged one 
day King of Poland, with an appendix, "Nir le- 
Dawid ule Zar'o," the genealogy of Denis M. Sam 
in I of London, a di scendant of that rabbi. Loni 
1854. In 1852 Edelmann settled in Berlin. For 
three months before bis death he was in the insane 
departmi nl of the Charite hospital of that city. 

BIBLIOORAPHT I Zelllill. Bibl. /'"•' '/• "<!• '- -. v. : .Wli;. /..' 
den Jud 1838.No.51; FOrst, Btol. Jud. I. 222. 
I ,, P Wi. 

grammarian and commentator; born in \\ ilna Jan., 

1821; died in Warsaw Dee., 1892. lie received a 

i Talmudical education at home and later at the 

yeshibahof Volozhin. Helivedin Rossein forabout 
thirty years, mainly in the employ of a rich mer 
chant of the name of Gabrilovitch, bul for a part 
of the time in business for himself. Edelmann was 
the first to discover the latent talent of the poel 
Judah Loeb Gordon, for whom ho obtained a po 
limi as teacher In Gabrilovitch 'a bouse. After the 
death of bis wife Edelmann left Rossein and lived 
for a short time in Tels (1867). Later he was em 
ployed successively in Mohilevand KOnigsberg. In 
bis latei days he was again in business for himself, 
first in Brest and then in Kovno, and at last settled 
in \\ ii saw. the home of his surviving children, whi n 
he died 

Edelmann was the author of the following works: 
"Sbosiiaiiniin." containing, 1" sides some treatises on 
grammai and exegesis, a few poems, and a commen 
tary on Canticles, Eonigsbei g, I860 "Ha Meslllot," 
in three parts, of which the first treats of the Maso 
i, m oi the Bible and of the i ban ■■ d readings 
i Ing in the Bible quotations of the Talmud 




the second is a quasi-critical commentary on 
Psalms Ixviii., xc, and c, and the third con 
tains commentaries and i xplanations on various dif 
tic ii 1 1 passagi a of the Haggadah, W'ilna, 1875; "Ha- 
Tirosh," acommentarj on Mid: bah, part 1, 

Genesis, Warsaw, 1891; ami "Doresh Reshumot" 
athing criticism of the liberal views advanced 
byWcissin "Dor"), ib. 1892. lie also contributed 
valuable articles to Puenn's "Ha Karmel" ami At- 
las' " Ha-Ki n m 

Edelmann was considered "m' of the foremost 
champions of Orthodoxy in modern Hebrew litera- 

Bibi i:\rnv: Hakam we-Dar, a biography "f s. R. Edel- 

iiianii bj ins son Hordecai Isaac Warsaw, t885 (Hebrew); 

Zeiilin, Ilihl., u,l, h. 

i g. P. Wi. 

DAH : Polish rabbi; burn in Posen, 1555; died at 
Ostrog Noi 30, 1631. He was a son-in-law of Rabbi 
Moses Ashkenazi, author of "Zikron Mosheh." Sam- 
uel bears the name of his mother -in law. Edel. In 

Slllllllel Fil.'lS. 
(from a traditl 

1585 his wife's parents founded for him a targe \ eshi 
bah, which was under his management until 1609. 
His mother in law supported the students out of her 
own money. In 1590 he was already recognized as an 
eminent scholar, and together with other rabbis, who 
were in conventionatthecity of Lublin, he signed the 
anathema against the use of money for the purpose 
of securing a rabbinical position. In Hi Hi in- became 
rabbi of Chelm, which position he held \\ it ii dis 

linetion for four years; lie was I lien elected rabbi 
and head of Iheveshibah at Lublin (1614). From 
Lublin he was called to Tictin (Tykoczin). During 

the remainder of his life Edels was rabbi and head 
of iheveshibah of Ostrog, in the Russian province 
of \ olhynia. 

Edels conceived a new method in the study of the 
Talmud. His efforts were directed toward the in- 
vestigation of the Tosafot, and the explanation of 
any passages on them which seemed to be unclear 
or to contradict the Talmud. He thus succeeded 
in producing many "hiddushim" (novelise) on the 
entire Talmud. Ilis constant desire was to discover 
something new and original, and because of his orig- 
inality discussions that were really complex and 
difficult seemed to him extremely simple. 

Edels in 1600 published part of his hiddushim 
anonymously. On learning that his new method 
had made a favorable impression upon bis contem- 
poraries, he published the remaining part in 1011. 

Edels also endeavored to apply his new method 
to the Haggadot of the Talmud. This he did in a 
work which he published in 1027 in opposition to 
the many rabbis who devoted their time to the 
Cabala, and who tried to explain the Haggadah by 
means of it. Edels considered tin' method of bis 
opponents as a mere waste of time. 

From his various works it is clear that Edels pos 
sessed a know ledge of astronomy and philosophy ; of 
the latter science, indeed, he made a dee]) and care- 
ful study. 

His published works are: novelise ou Bczah and 
Yebamot, Basel, 160(i; on Niddah and Nedarira, 
Prague, 160'.!: and ou the other treatises of the Tal- 
mud, Lublin. 1611-21; novelise on the haggadic 
portions of the Talmud, vol. i.. ib. 16'-7; vol. ii., 
Cracow, 1631; supplement to parts of his halakic 
novelise, Lublin. 1670; hymns for the Sabbath in the 
work "Kabbalat Shabbat," ib. 1630. Most editions 
of the Talmud contain Edels' novella 1 

Bibliography : Hit-X, sfler. No. 20, Lemberg, 1864 : C. N. Dem- 
bitzer. Kclihit Yofi, ii. l~(i. Cracow. lsiM: n. Frledberg, Ln- 
}i,,t yjll;ar,,ii. p. 16, Drohobkz, 1897; idem, Oasch. der Fa- 
mine Schar, p. 10, FTanfcfort-on-tbe-MaJn, 1901 ; S. A. Horo- 
iletzky. SI,, in mi-si,, murl. Drohobicz, 1875 ; s. it. Nlssea- 
baum, L,k,,r,,( ha-Yehudim be-LuWin, p. 34, Lublin, 1899; 
Steinschneider, Cot. Bodl. col. 2419: Gratz, Qeseh. Hebr. 
transl.. viii. Ill, Warsaw, lsuy; 51. Perles, ihijilhit Yuhasin, 
p. 32, Warsaw, 1899. 
i. g. B. F. 

EDEN, GARDEN OF (Hebrew, py JJ; Arabic, 
"Jannat 'Adn ". — Biblical Data : Name given to 

the "earthly paradise 1 ' occupied by Adam and Eve 
In-fore their fall through sin. The word "Eden," per- 
haps an Assyrian loan-word, is of the same root as 
the Assyrian "edinu," synonymous with "seru" 
(= field, depression; compare the Arabic "zaur." 
which is the name still given to the country south 
of Babylon and extending to the Persian Gulf; the 
nomadic tribes inhabiting it were called by the As- 
syrians "sabeedini") (see Delitzsch, "Wo Lag das 
Paradies?"). Its connection with the Hebrew word 
py is of later origin. Sprenger ("Has Leben und 
die Li lire des Mohammad," ii. 507) explains it 

h the Arabic " 'adn." 
The writer of the Biblical story of Eden (Gen. 
ii.— iii. ) is evidently describing some place which he 

conceives to 1 a the earth; hence the exact details: 

"God planted a garden eastward, in Eden," etc. 
Many attempts have been made to determine the 
precis,- geographical location. The most ancient 




tradition, going back i" Joscphus and followed by 
must of the i burch Fathers, makes Bavilah equiva- 
lent to India, and the Pison oi E its rivers, while 

Cush is Ethiopia and the Gihon the Nile. Avery 
popular theory places Eden in Babylonia. Calvin 
the Shut (al 'Anil) — formed bj tlie union of the 
Tigris and Euphrates — the river that "went out of 
the garden"; but it is now known that in ancient 
times the two rivers entered the Persian Quit 
arately. Friedrich Delitzsch also places Eden in the 
country around Babylon and south of it. a country 
which was bo beautiful in its luxuriant vegetation 
ami abundant streams that it was known as " Kar- 
Duniash, " or " garden of the god Duniash." Raw- 
linson even tried to show the identity of the nam' 9 
"Gan-Edcn" and "Kar-Duniash." This 1 
watered practically by the Euphrates alone, which is 
here on a higher level than the Tigris. The Pison 
ami the Gihon arc identified with two canals (thej 

may originally have been river-beds) 
Views of which branch out from the Euphrates 
Delitzsch. just bcl^w Babylon The for 1 to 

the west, is the I'allacopas. upon which 
l'i was situated, ami Bavilah is tli us identified w ith 
the portion of the Syrian di -■ 1 1 bordering on Baby- 
lonia, which is known to have- been rich in gold. 
The latti r, Gihon, is the shatt al-Nil, which passes 
the ruins of the ancient Kreeh, while Cush is the Mat 
Rashshi, or the norl hern part of Babylonia proper 

i uriously ei gh, this region was also called " Me- 

luha," which name was afterward transferred to 
Ethiopia. Other Assyriologists (e.g., Haupt, "Wo 
Lag das Paradies?" in "Ueber Land und Meer," 
1894 95, No. 15) do not credit the Biblical writer 
with the definiteness of geographical knowledge 
■which Delitzsch considers him to have had. 

A very natural theory, which must occur toany 
one reading the Babylonian Gilgamesh epic, con- 
nects Eden with the dwelling of Parnapishtim, the 
Babylonian Noah, at the "confluence of streams." 
This is supposed to have been in the Persian Gulf 

or Nar Marralim (" Stream of bitterness"), into which 

emptied the fourrivers Euphrates, Tigris, Kercha, 
and Karun (compare Jensen, " Kosmologie der I 
loniir." p. 507, and Jastrow, " Religion of the Baby- 
lonians and Assyrians," p. 506) It is probable, 
however, that the story as given in the Bible is a 

later adaptation of an old legend, points of which 

were vague to the narrator himself , and hence any 

attempt to find the precise location 

The of Eden must prove futile. Indeed, 

Gilgamesh the original Eden was very likely in 

Epic. heaven, which agrees with the view 

on the subject hi Id by the A rabs 

Gunkel, in his commentary on Genesis, also adopts 

this view, ami connects the Btream coming out of 

Eden with the Milky \\a> and its four brat 

Though there is no one Babj Ionian legend of the 

li n oi Eden w il h w inch the Biblical storj can bi 

compared as in tbecase of the stories of the Creation 

ami of the Fl 1, tl are nevertheless points of re 

lationship between it and Babylonian mythology. 

<>n 1 the tablets found at Tell el Amarna. now 

in the Berlin Museum, occurs the legend of Ad.ipa 
Adapa, the first man, is the son of the god Ea, by 
whom he has been endowed with wisdom, but Dot 

with everlasting life. He lives in Eridu, and i 

for the sanctuat i I >m d . . fish 

m sea the south wind suddenly arises and 

urns his boat. In his anger Adapa fights with 
nth w in. I and breaks his w ingS so that he can 

not blow for seven da- - a mi. the god of heavi a, 
hearing of this, summons Adapa before him. Ea 
gives his son instructions as to his behavior before 

Ami. among other thin-she tells him: "lire.,,! of 
death will liny oiler thee: eat not of it. Water of 
death will tiny b d I of it." Adapa 

does as he is told, but the bread and water Ann 
- to be placed before liini are of life, not of 
death. Thus Adapa loses his chance of eternal life. 

Be puis on the garment, however, which is offered 

him, following Ea's instructions. In 

The El- this storj the bread of life is parallel 

Amarna to the tree of life in the Biblical story 

Tablets. It is probable that the water of life also 

formed a part of the original story. 

and that the rivet ol Eden is a trace of it. In Ezek. 

\l\ii. 6-12 and, with some variation, in Rev. wii. 

1, 2 mention is made of a " river of water of life, . . . 

and on either side of the river was there the tree of 

life," showing that the water of life was associated 

« ith the tree of life. 

Further, in the Biblical story, as in the Adapa 

legend, man is prevented from eating the food of 

life through being told that it means death to him. 
"In the day that thou latest thereof thou shall 
surely die" (Cen. ii. 17) ; and il is Ea, who lias 
formed man. who is the means of preventing him 

from attaining life everlasting, just as it is God who 

removes man from out of Eden "lest he put forth 
his hand and take also of the tree of life, and eat. 

and live for ever" (ii. iii. 22). Jastrow (I.e.) rt marks 

that the Hebrew story is more pessimistic than the 

Babylonian, since God even begrudges man knowl- 
edge, which the Babylonian .rod freely gives him. 

Adapa. who has been endowed willi knowledge, 
puts on the garment given him by Ann. and Adam 
and Eve, after eating of the tree of knowledge, make 
for themselves garments of fig leaves. 

Bchrader("K A T. " ii. I, 528) calls attention to 
the possibility of associating the name "Adam "with 
"Adapa" The "garden of God," situated on the 

mountain, in Ezek, \w iii. bi. II. and the tall cedar 
in Ezek. \ \ \i 8, may have some connection with the 
cedar-grove of Khumbaba in the Gilgamesh epic and 

with the hi Lib cedar in the midst of t he grove In 

this connection may be mentioned the attempt to 

associal I 1 di tl w ith I he t intain in Iranian ins I Ii 

. out of which rivers Mow . or with Ihe Indian 

mountain Mam with the four rivers (Le mant) 

Jensen ("Keilschriftliche Bibliothek," \i | places 
the " confluence of the streams " in the Far West, and 
associates the island with the Greek Elysium. 

The snake in the Btory is probablj Identical w ith 
tin' snake or dragon in the Babylonian Btorj of the 
i In ation in the lb itish Museum there 
Snake and is a cylinder seal w hich has been sup 
Cherubim, posed by Delitzsch, among others, to 
i. pn sent the Babylonian storj of 
Eden (see illustration, .liw ENCYC i 174) The 
seal represents two figures, a male ami a female, 

Seated "Il opposite sides ol a tree, with hands 




stretched toward it; behind the woman is an up- 
right snake. This picture alone, however, ishard- 
|y sufficient basis for believing that the Babyloni 
ans had such a story. The cherubim placed to 
guard the entrance to Eden are distinctly Babylo- 
nian, and are identical with the immense winged bulls 
and lions at the entrances to Babylonian and Assyr- 
ian temples. Sec Cherub. 

Bibliography: Guttmacber, Optimism and Rdlaitmi i 

the Old and ,\. w Testaments, pp. 243-245, Baltimore, 1903. 
i ,.. a. M W. M. 

In Rabbinical Literature: The Talmudists 

and Cabalists agree that there are two gardens of 

Edei e, the terrestrial, of abundant fertility and 

luxuriant vegetation; the other, celestial, the habi- 
tation of righteous, immortal souls. These two arc 
known as the "lower "and "higher" Gan Eden. 
The location of the earthly Eden is traced by its 
boundaries as described in Genesis. 

In 'Erubin 19a (comp. Rabbinovicz, "VarifE Lee 
tiones,"ad loc.) Resh Lakish expresses himself to the 
following effect: "If the paradise is situated in Pal- 
estine, Beth-Shean [in Galilee] is the door; if in 
Arabia, then Bet Gerim is the door ; and if between 
the rivers, Damascus is the door." In another pari 
of the Talmud (Tamid 3'>b) the interior of Africa is 
pointed out as the location of Eden, and no less 
a personage than Alexander the Great is supposed 
to have found the entrance of Gan Eden in those 
regions which are inhabited anil governed exclu- 
sively by women. Alexander, who desired to in- 
vade Africa, was directed to Gau Eden by the ad- 
\ ice of the "elders of the South." 

A haraita Axes I he dimensions of Gau and of Eden 
by comparisons with Egypt, Ethiopia, etc. : "Egypt 
is lou parasangs square, and is one-sixtieth the size 
of Cush [Ethiopia], Cush is one-sixtieth of the 
world [inhabited earth], the Gan being one-sixtieth 
of Eden, and Eden one-sixtieth ofGehinnom. Hence 
the world is to Gehinnon in sizeas the cover to the 
put " (Ta'an. 10a). The sameuaraita in the Jerusa- 
lem Talmud defines tin- territory of Egypt as 400 
parasangs square, equal to forty days' journey, ten 
miles being reckoned as a day's journey (Pes 94a). 
The Rabbis make a distinction between (Ian and 
Eden. Samuel liar Nahman says that Adam dwelt 
only in the Gan As to Eden — " No mortal eye ever 
witness, i h. God, beside thee " (Isa. lxiv. 4, Hebr. ; 
Ber. 34b). 

The Midrash (Gen. R. wi. 7) identifies the "four 
heads" of the rivers with Babylon (Pison), Medo- 
Persia (Gihon), Greece ' (niddekel), 
Identi- Edom Rome (Perat), and regards Ha 
fication of vilah as Palestine. The Targum Yet ti- 
the Four shalmi translates " Havilah " by " Hin- 
Kivers. diki " ("Hindustan." or India', and 
leaves " Pison " untranslated. Saadia 
Gaon in his Arabic translation, renders "Pison" the 

Nile, which 11m Ezra ridicules, as " it is positively 
known that Eden is farther south, on the equator." 
Xahmanides coincides in this view, bul explains 
that the Pison may run in a subterranean p 
from the ci piat or northward. Obadiah of Bertinoro, 
the commentator of the Mislmah, in a lettei 
bing his travels from Italy to Jerusalem in 1489, re 
lates the ston of .lews arriving at Jerusalem from 

" Aden, the land where the well known and famous 
Gan Edi n is situated, which is southeast of Assyria." 
Jacob Satir, who visited Aden in 1865, describes it in 
his •• Elien Sap pit- " (ii.3)as sandy and barren, andean 
not posssibly indorse the idea of connecting Aden 
with the Eden of Genesis. The opinions of the most 
eminent Jewish authorities point to the location of 
Eden in Arabia. The "four heads" or mouths of 
the rivers (= seas) are probably the Persian Gulf 
(east), the Gulf of Aden (south), tin' Caspian Sea 
(north), and the Red Sea (west). The first river, 
Pison, probably refers to the Indus, which encircles 
Hindustan, confirming the Targum Yerushalmi. 
The second river. Gihon, is the Nile in its circuitous 
course around Ethiopia, connecting with the Gulf 
of Aden. The third river, niddekel, is the Tigris, 
which has its course in the front (]"IOTP> "f ASSUI 
(= Persia i, speaking from the writer's point of view 
in Palestine. Some explain the difficulty of finding 
the courses of tin.' rivers by supposing that since the 
I teluge these rivers have either ceased to exist, en- 
tirely or in part, or have found subterranean outlets. 
Indeed, the compiler of the Midrash ha-Gado] ex- 
presses himself as 'follows : "Eden is a certain place 
on earth, but. no creature knows where it is, and the One. blessed be He! will only reveal to Israel 
the way to it in the days of the king Messiah " (Midr. 
ha-Gadol, ed. Schechter, col. 75). 

The boundary line between the natural and super- 
natural Can Eden is hardly perceptible in Talmudic 
literature. In fact, "Gan Eden and heaven were 
created by one Word [of God], and the chambers of 
the Gan Eilen are constructed as those of heaven, 
and as heaven is lined with rows of stars, so (Jan 
Eden is lined with rows of the righteous, who shine 
like the stars" (Aggadat Shir ha-Shirim, pp. 13, 55). 
The leviathan disturbs the waters of 
Earthly the seas, and would have destroyed 
and the life of all human beings by the 

Heavenly bad breath of his mouth, but for the 
Gan Eden, fact that he occasionally puts his head 
through the opening of Gan Eden, the 
spicy odor issuing from which acts as an antiseptic 
to his bad smell (B.B.75a), Hiyya bar Hanina says 
that (bid had prepared for Adam ten canopies of 
various precious stones in Gan Eden, and quotes 
Ezek. xxviii. 13 (P.. 15. 75a). This, according to the 
Midrash. relates to the celestial Gan Eden. The Zo- 
har claims for everything on earth a. prototype al>o\ e 
(Yitro 82a). Xahmanides also says that the narra- 
tive of Eden in Genesis has a double meaning, t hat 
besides the earthly (Ian Eden and the four rivers 
there tire their prototypes in heaven (Commentary 
to Gen. iv. 13). See Paradise. 

.T. D. E. 
In Arabic Literature: The Arabic word foi- 
l-Men is - 'Adn," which, according to the commenta- 
tors and lexicographers, means" fixed residence." i.e., 
the everlasting abode of the faithful. " 'Adn." pre- 
ceded by " jannat " (gardens), occurs ten times in the 
Koran (suras i\. 73, xiii. '.':!. \\i. 33, xviii. 30, xi.x. 
62, sx. 78, xxw. 30. xxxviii. 50, xl. 8, xli. 12), but 
always as the abode of the righteous and neveras the 
residence Of Adam and Eve, which occurs in the 
Koran only under the name of "jannah" (garden), 
although the .Moslem commentators agree in call- 




i u lt ii " Jannat 'Ado " (the Garden of Eden) I 

I occur tin- words: "And we have said to Adam: 
j with thy ■« ife in the garden [" fl al-jannah 
which Baidawi explains: "The garden lure- i 
I (aral-Thawab' [The House of Ri i ompense], which 
i- the fourth of the eighl heavens." According to 
t he Koran, the gardens of Eden are in heaven, and 
form a pari of the blissful abode of the believers. 
In sura ii. 23 il gives the command: "Announce that 
the belie\ its w ill reside in delighl ful gardens," on 
which Baidawi remarks: "According to Ibnal-'Ab 

lias, there are seven gardens, <>i f which is called 

'Firdaus' [Paradise] and one ''Adn' [Eden]." 
Hence there is a difficulty as to the Eden from 
which Adam was cast out. Baidawi says on sura 
ii. '2:!: "Some people have though! thai ihis Eden 
was situated in the country of the Philistines, or 
between Persia and Karman. God created it in 
order to put Adam to the test." Mohammed Tahir 
("Majma' al-Bihar," p. 225), speaking of the tradi- 
tion that the rivers Jaihun and Jaihan are rivers 
of the garden (" al-jannah "), says: "The terms are 
figurative, implying that faith extended to those 
ons and made Hutu rivers of paradise." In 
another place (ii. p. 164) he says: "The four rivers, 
Sihan [Jaxartes], Jaihan [Gihon], Furat [Euphrates], 
and Nil [Nile], are rivers of paradise." Abu Mo 
hammed Mu'afa al-Shaibani, author of the " Uns al 
Munkati'in," states the following tradition : "When 
God created the Garden of Eden, He created in it 
thai which the eye had never seen before, that which 
the ear had never heard of before, and that which 
had never been desired before by man's heart." 
There is another tradition that God, having created 
the Gardi a of Eden, ordered it to speak. 'I'll 
den pronounced the following words: "There is no 
God besides Allah." The garden was ordered to 
speak a second time, and it added: "The faithful 
will be happy." After a third order it said; " m 
nr ]i\ pocrites will never enter me." Wahb ibn Mu 
Dabbahsays: "There is a tradition that the Garden 
1 Eden has eight gates, the porters of which must 
let anybodj come in before those who despise 
earthly things and prefer those of heaven " Ac 

cording ti i tradition the tree of life was a stalk 

of wheat— which in the days of Adam grew to the 
size of a tree- a vine, a fig tree, or a " tree that who- 
ever cats of it grows young again " (Baidawi, Com 
mental -\ mi Koran, sura ii. 88) W i il, in " Biblische 
Legenden der Propheten," gives some interesting 
traditions in regard to Eden and Satan, 

Bibliography: Hughes, Dictionary o) Telam, s.v, Eden; 
D'Herbelot, Biblinthfnui n U nta • imed 

II al-Bihar, pp. 164, 225; \ Gelgi 

and Mam, pp. 82, 83, Had] i 

i ... ii. M. Ski.. 

EDER, EDAR; 1, A placi near EphratL 
[ehem Jacob, while journeying from Bcthle 
hem in Hebron, encamped "beyond the tower ot 
Eder" (" Migdal 'edi r," Gen. \\w 21) The nam.' 
"Migdal-'edcr," signifying "tower of the flock," was 
probably derived fn in n tower used asa lookou 
robbers (comp. Micah h . s 

2. A city in Judah " toward the borderof Edom in 
the south " (Josh. xv. 21, R V l, identified by Conder 
with Kliiriiai al 'A ilar. five miles south ol G 

3. A Levite of the Merari clan, a contemporary 
: David (I ( Ihron. xxiii. 28, xxiv. 80). 

4. A Benjamite chief (A. V. "Ader," I Chron. 
viii. 15 

i g ii. E. I. N. 

EDERSHEIM, ALFRED: Christian thei 
L r ian and missionary to the Jews; born at Vienn 
Jewish parents, March 7, 1825; died at Menton 
March 16, 1889 He embraced Christianity in 1846, 
ami was for some time a missionary to the Jews in 
Jassy, Rumania. After having been successively a 
Presbyterian and a member of the Free Church, he 
joined the Episcopalians, settling al Oxford in 1882. 
His last ecclesiastical appointment was thai <>f vicar 
ot Loders, Dorsetshire, which h I in 1S83. 

Edersheim's works include: "A History of the 
Jewish Nation After the Destruction of Jerusalem," 
1856; "The Temple; [ts Ministry and Servici 
1874; " Lifeof Jesus, the Messiah," 2 vols., 1888 (his 
mosl important work); "Prophecy and History in 
Relation to the Messiah," being his Warburtonian 
Lectures; and a commentary on Ecclesiasticus, in 
\\ ace's commentary on the Apocrypha. 

BiBLiooRAPni : Tnhv m H^im. (Kdereheim'a autobiography), 
London, 1890; Diet, yattonai Biography, s.v.; Ih, | 
(London), Man b 20, 1889. 


EDESSA 1 1 rliai. 'Oopoipn)): The present I 
a citj in the vilayet of Aleppo, Asiatic Turkey. No 
mention "I the name is found in Jewish writings, 
oxcept, perhaps, in Vmna 10a (JOIN or mz'ix 
Neubauer, "G. T." p. 346; but explained bj Jas 
trow, s.v., as Warka in southern Mesopotamia). The 
nil Ter. has Din (" Edessa ") for TIN '" Gen. 
s 10, Jews certainly lived here in early times. 
One of the pre-Christian rulers, Bakru I., smi of 
Phradasht (115-112), is said to have been saved by 
a Jewess named Kutbi, whom the Mesopotamians 
afterward adored as i goddi - (( ureton, "Spicilc 
gium Syriacum," 25, 11). At the beginning of the 
first centurj c.e. a Parthian family ruled here, 

Hrsl member was Abgar VII. , son of 1/ 
son of Helena ol Adiabene, When Addai, the apos 
tie, came t'> Edessa, In 1 is sail 1 to have stayed at the 
of a Jew named Tobias, and to have converted 
many nt his host's coreligionists. The influence of 
the Jews is seen as well in the fact that the Peshifta 
translation -with its Jewish tendencies «:■< madi 
in Edessa, as in the Jewish material i" !»' found 
i.i the writings of such Sj riac Church fathers as St 
Ephraim. The old Edessan chronicle mentions at 
least two synagogues (Rnn KTOe> n*2< one ol 
which was turned by Bishop Rabbula (412) into the 
!, ipel of M.n Stephen (though Heller reads N'liy. 
a ( Ihristian seel i . the notice is repeated in psi 
Dionj siu- ol fi ii iiin' and bj Bai 1 Ii bncus The 
latter relates also (" Eccl Chron ' i 859) that the 
M,i ii in Mohammed ibn Tahir built a mosqui in s -'"> 
where formerly there had been a synagogue. The 
city was \ isited by Pedro de Texeira I ev< utei uth 
md Bi njamin II (c I860 both reporl 

the legends which i :ct the place with Uira 

because of its proximity to Harran The S 

Midrash identifies yiN with Edessa, as in 

Yet. (Budge, "The Bee," p 87; Be/.old, "DieSclmtz- 




liable," p. 154). Tin house where Abraham was 
born and the furnace into which he was thrown by 
\i mi ■ml an- still to be seen, and the great mosque still 
bears the name "Khali! al-Rahman" {i.e., "Abra- 
ham"). The bouse of Job is also to be seen, and, ac- 
cording to Julius Africanus, the tent of Jacob was 
preserved here. According to Benjamin II.. the 
fcitj had, in li is i lay. 150 Jewish inhabitants; accord- 
ing to Cuinet, the whole sanjak, of which Drfa is 
tin- capital, lias at present about :!f>T .lews in a total 
population of 143,483; the city itself 322 in a total 
of 55, 

Bibliography : Rubens Duval, Histnire . . . d'Edesse. pp. 16 
rtaeq.; i.. Hauler, UnUrsucUungen Uberdie Bdess. Chronik, 
pp.8, 106; Bonet Maun, in Rev. Hist, dea Relig. xvl. 381; 

i Asu . s.v.i. 
j. Q. 

EDINBURGH: Capital of Scotland. When the 
Jews bi gan to settle in Scotland early in the nine- 
teenth century, tbey appear to have hern attracted 
in the first instance to Edinburgh. The first regular 
sj nagoguc was established in 1*10 with twenty fam- 
ilies. This synagogue was situated in a lane off 
Nicholson street. After a year the congregation 
moved to a small hall in Richmond Court ; and here 
it remained until it acquired a synagogue in Park 
Place, the old Iioss Ihmse having been adapted 
for the purpose (1868). The congregation worshiped 
here until quite recent years. The present syna- 
gogue in Graham street waserected in 1S97. Until 
1880 there was only one synagogue in Edinburgh. 
II\ that time a number of foreign families, princi- 
pally engaged in the water-proof clothing industry, 
had settled iii the Dairy quarter of the city, and they 
formed a congregation and erected a small place of 
worship in Caledonian Crescent. 

The original cemetery of the Edinburgh Jews was 
situated near the Causeway side. This ceased to be 
used about a quarter of a century ago, when a por- 
tion of the Echo Bank Cemetery was acquired and 
railed off for Jewish purposes 

The first minister was the Lev. Moses Joel of 
London, who continued in office forty-six years. 

until his death in 1862. He was succeeded in the 
order named l>v El kan, Rosebaum, Abraham Har- 
field (1864-66), B. Rittenberg (1867-73), Albu, and S. 
Davidson. J. Fttrst, a native of Courland, educated 

at the rabbinical college of W'ilna. has been the min- 
ister since ls7!i 

Edinburgh has three Jewish charities: a benevo- 
lent loan society, a board of guardians, and a lying- 
in society. A Hebrew school is attached to the 
Graham Street Synagogue; and there is a Jewish 

literary society as well as a Jevi ish amateur orches- 
tral society. The .bus number (1903) about 2,000 
in a total population ol 31 '■ 000 

Bibliography: Edinburgh /•>, rtinfl Express, March 29, 1883: 
./, wish ) - oi Bool ■ I 
J. 1. II. 

EDINGER, MARKTJS: German deputy ; born 

al Worms Jan. II. |sos : died at Mannheim Feb. 9, 

1879 He was the first Jew summoned by the gov- 
ernment to act as juror, serving at \|a\ encc in ls47. 
It was in- who brought about at Mayence, in spite 
of the passionate opposition of the orthodox, the 

holding of regular synag services in German 

lb- took an active part in polities. In Isjs ],,. u . ls 

of ile- leaders of tin- Democratic party, and his 

services wen- acknowledged in the following year 
when lie was elected mayor, while in 1850 he was 
sent as deputy to the Upper House of Hesse — a dis- 
tinction rarely enjoyed by a Jew in thosedays. The 
success of the reactionary party in 1853 obliged him 
io retire from his office for a time, 
s. S. Ro. 

EDOM, IDUMEA (DHK, 'Uov/iim): Edom is 
the name which was given to Esau, the first-born 
son of Isaac, on the day lie sold his birthright to 
Jacob for a mess of pottage, the reddish color of which 

ui\es it its name — "Adorn" (Gen. x.w. 3u). The 
country which was subsequently inhabited by Esau 
and his descendants w as called " the field of Edom" 

(Gen. xxxii. 3. R. V.) or " the land of Edom"(Gen. 
xxxvi. 16; Num. xxxiii. 37). "Edom" in the Bible 
is also used as an equivalent for " Edomites," though 
the expression "the children of Edom" occurs but 
once (Ps. exxxvii. 7). The country had before that 
been called "Mount Seir" (Gen. xxxii. 4 [Hebr.], 
xxxvi. 8), from "' Seir" the progenitor of tlieHorites, 
who lived there previously (Gen. xiv. 6; xxxvi. 20, 
21). According to Josephus ("Ant."i. 18,§1), the 
name " Seir" is due to the fact that Esau was hairy 
(Gen. xxv. 25), but according to Gen. 
Biblical xiv. 6, the mountain was called " Seir " 
Data. long before Esau's birth. The bound- 
aries of Edom are very concisely de- 
fined: Tiie country stretched along the route 
followed by the Israelites from the Sinaitic peninsula 
to Kadesh-barnea, that is, along the east side of the 
valley of Arabah. Southward it reached as far as 
Elatli, which was the seaport of Edom (Dent. i. 2; ii. 
1, 8). On the north of Edom was the territory of 
Moab (Judges xi. 17, 18; II Kings iii. 8, 9). The 
boundary between Moab and Edom was the brook 
Zered (Dent. ii. 13, 14. 18). The ancient capital of 
Edom was Bozrah (Gen. xxxvi. 33; Isa. xxxiv. (1, 
lxiii. 1, el al ). In the time of Amaziah (S3S B.C. ). 
Selah (lifT/ia) was its principal stronghold (II Kings 
xiv. 7); Elatli and Ezion-gaber its seaports (I Kings 
ix. 26). 

Contrary to the promise of Isaac that Esau's 
dwelling would be of the fatness of the earth and of 
the dew of heaven (Gen. xxvii. 39), Edom was a 
rocky and calcareous country. Esau is described as 
a man who subsisted by hunting (Gen. xxv. '21 1 1 
piissiiu ), as his descendants, the Edomites, did, living 
amid rocky fastnesses and mountain heights (Jer. 
xlix. Ill; Obad. :!. 4). The name "Mount Seir" or 
" Mount of Esau " shows that Edom was a mountain- 
ous country, and therefore it was called by later 
writers "Gebalene" (the mountainous). 

According to the Bible, immediately after Isaac's 

death Esau settled in Mount Seir (Gen. xxxvi. 6, 8), 

where he had lived before (Gen. xxxii. 3). The 

Edomites soon became powerful enough toextirpatc 

the Horites, the former inhabitants of 

Rulers of the country (Deut. ii. 12), whose ways 

Edom. of life they adopted. As among the 

Horites, each tribe was ruled by a 

prince or chief (tpf>N), whose position resembled 

probably that of an Arab sheik (Gen. xxwi. 15-19, 

29-30). Later the Edomites organized themselves 


THE .ii;\\ l>II J.M ', ( LOPEDLA 


into a kingdom, and bad had eight kings when lin- 
king in Israel began bis n icxxvi 81 
Howi mi. :i list "i chii [s gh en after il 
tin- kings (ib. xxxvi to 18) liowsthal subordinate 
chiefs ruled under the sovereignty of the king. In 
the time of Moses both chiefs and kin ioned 
(Ex. xv. 15; Num. xx. 14). When the Kin 
■.i refused to allow the i liildn d oi [srai I to pass 
igh his land on thi ir way to the land of Canaan 
l i,i. 1 il.-, were expressly ordered not i i wage war 
upon the Edomites, but to go round their cou 
(Num. x\. 14-21; Dent. ii. 4-6). Neither did the 
King of Edom attempt hostility 9 against the Israel- 
ites, though he prepared to n sist aj irression. 

Nut hi ni; further is heard of the Edomites until their 
def< at by Saul four bundred years- later 1 1 Sam. xi\ . 
t; : forty years later David overthrew the Edomites 
in the "valley of salt," and his general Joab slew all 

their males (il Sam. viii. 18, II; I Kings XI L5, 16). 

Eadad, one of the royal family, fled to Egypt, and 
a ft. r 1 hi id's ileal h returned and endeavored to ex 
cite bis countrymen to rebellion; failing in which he 
to Syria (ib. xi. 14-22; Josephus, " Ant." viii. 
7. § To. From that time Edom remained subji ctto 
Israel. David placed over the Kiloniilcs Israelite 
ernors or prefects (D.3.M : II Sam. viii. 14), and 
this form of government seems to bave continued 
iin.ler Solomon. When Israel divided into two 
kingdoms Edom became a dependency of Judah. In 
the time of Jehoshapbal (914 B.C.) a king of Edom 
is mentioned ill Bangs iii. 9. 10, 13, 36 who was 
I rohalily a .1 in lean appointed by I In- King of Judah. 
Ii is stated further (II Chron. xx. 10-23) that the 
inhabitant si if Mount Si ir invaded Judea in conjunc- 
tion with Amnion ami Moab, ami that the invaders 

turned against one another ami were all destroyed. 
Edom revolted against Jehoram, elected a king of 
its own. ami afterward retained its independence 
ill Kings viii. 20-22; II Chron. xxi. 8). Ama/.iah 
attacked the Edomites, and Blew 10,000 in battle; 
10,000 more being dashed to pieces from the cliffs. 
Their stronghold, Sclab, was taken, Inn the Israelites 
were never able to subdue Edom completely ill 
Kings xiv. 7; [I Chron. xxv. II, 12). 

In the time of Nebuchadnezzar the Edomites took 
aii active part in the plunder of Jerusalem ami in 
the slaughter of the Jews (Ps. exxxvii 7: Obad. 
11,13,14). It is on account of these cruelties thai 
Ed wass.i violently denounced bj the Prophets 

(Isa. xxxiv. 5-8; Jcr. xlix. 7 '.''.'; Obad. /"i 

Edom is mentioned in the cuneiform inscriptions in 
the form "Udumi" (u); three of its kings are known 

from the same sourci : Kaus-malaka al the tit f 

Tiglath-pileser (c. 745), Malik-rammu at the time 
■ ■t Sennacherib (c. 705), and Kaus-gabri al the time 
of Esarhaddon (e. 680) According to the Egj ptian 
Inscriptions, the "aduma" at times extended their 
possessions down as far as the borders of Egypt 
Muller. "Asien un.l Europa," p. 13 i.ftei the 

conquest of Judah by the Babylonian; the Edom 
ites were allowed to settle in southern Palestine, 

\t (he same lime they Here driven In the Naha 
Leans from lilunna. In southern Palestine lhe\ 

prospered for more than lour centuries. Judas 
Maccabeus conquered their territory for a time 1 1 i 

h;;:. "Ant " \ii B, .':'- 1, 6} Tin j were again Bub 

bj Ji bn IP i. anus (, 125 b.i by \\ bom they 

were forced to observe Jewish ritesand laws i ib. xiii. 

9 !. xiv. 4, § 4). The} were then incorporated 

with the Jewish nation, and their coun- 

Post- try was called by the Greeks and Ro 

Biblical mans "Hum. a" Mark in s, |'i.,l 

Times. omy, "Geography," \. 16). Willi 

Aniipaier began the Idumcan d) nasty 

that i uled over Judea till iis [uesl bj the I!" 

mans. immediately before the siege of Jerusalem 

20,000 l'luineans. under the lea. l.l ship of ,I,i I in. Sim 

eon, Phinehas, and Jacob, appeared before Jcrusali m 
io fight in behalf of the Zealots n lio n i re besieged 
in the Temple (Josephus, " I!. J." iv, I 
From this time the fduiro ans ceased to be a sepa 

rale people, though the name " Iiluniea" still existed 

the ti f Jen 

A. cording to tin Law 1 1 »eul \ xiii. v . 9), the eon 
iiion could ma receive descendants of a mai 
riage between an Israelite ami an Edomite until the 
fourth generation. This law wasasubject of i 
troversy between K. Simeon ami other Talmudists, 
Mho maintained that female descendants were also 
excluded until tin- fourth generation, contrary to H. 
Simeon, who regarded the limitation as applicable 
in ...iii io male descendants 1 5Teb. 76b). 

The name " Edom " is used by the Talmudists for 
the Roman i mpire, ami the) applied to Koine everj 
passage of the Bible referring to Edom or to Esau 
In Leviticus Rabbah (xiii.) Rome, under the name of 
"Edom," is compared to a boar, and thesymbolic 
name " Seir " was used i.\ the poets of the Middle 

\ ", s not only for Home (c p I .. 

Use . lus. I. 26, II. in i, but also for Chris 

of Name, tianity (Zunz, "Literaturgesch." p. 
620) I 'a this ;e count the word 
•• Edom " was often expunge, 1 bj the censor and an- 
other name substituted (I'opper, "( 'eiisorship oi Hi 

brew Books," p. 58). In place of " Ed ," the word 

"Hazir" (swine) was occasionally used, perhaps as 
a mere term of reproach (I'm see Epstein, " Bei 
zur .link Allerthuniskunili ." p. 35). In Mi.lrash 
Tanhuma Bereshit, Hadrian is called "the King ol 
Edom " The Talmudists, however, made an excep- 
tion in favor of Antoninus Pius, whom I hey assured 

would attain paradise, because he had not acted in 
the manner of Esau ('Ab Zarah 10b). 'Abodab 
Zarah 10a, however, explaining Obadiah, vet 
says that Edom bad neither written nor spoken lan- 
This is inconsistent with Its application to 
Koine. S.e Tim \n 

liiiu.i.M.itAriiY : Buhl, DU EdomUi r,1893; NOldeke, InCueyne 
,. Btbl II. lis] ; Trumbull, Kadeali Barnea; 
Uii.'iiiL'.n. Bettrttgt ui Semit Relialnnagescft p 10: Horn 
in. i. Ancient ffefcr. Trad., Index ; Rapoport, Bitch ti 
p. 14, 

a. M si i 

EDREHI, MOSES: Moroccan cabalist and 
teacher ol modern and Oriental languages ol the 

, .1 Ii, i pat I ol I he nineteenth eelltlin ; l„,rn ill Mo 

isided in Amsterdam and in I Ingland He 

was the author of : " Sad Moshch," sermons for the 
festivals, Amsterdam, I ^i 1: > "Ma'aseh Nissini,"an 
account of the River Sambatyon, London, 1834 (of 
this a Hebrew and a German edition appeared al Am- 
sterdam 1818); " An Historical Account of the Ten 





Tribes, Settled Beyond the River Sambatyon in the 
Bast," London, 1836. Edrebi was a Una believer 

in the existence some- 
where in western 

Asia of I li c Ten 


Edrehi appears to 
have been in Edin- 
burgh in 1829, for in 
June of that year 
there appeared in 
■■ Blackwood's Mag- 
azine " one of Chris- 
top her North's 
"Noetes Ambrosi- 
an.c, "devoted in large 
measure to Edrehi's peculiarities. His long beard 
and Oriental costume, and the mixture of tongues 
be employed to convey his meaning, are all ad- 
verted to with kindly humor. 

Bmll. col. 1799 ; ZeUner, 

Moses Edrehi. 

Bibliography i Stelnschnelder, i m 
Cat. Heir. Books lint. Mus. s.v. 

G. L. 

EDREI: Ancient city in the Jordan valley, at 
present Der'at, southeast of Mnzerili. Tlie city is ap- 
parently mentioned as " ( itara " in Egyptian inscrip- 
tions. In the Old Testament Ashtaroth and Edrei 
are referred to as the capital cities of King Og (Josh. 
xii. 4, xiii. 12). According to Num. xxi. 3:! and 
Deut. i. 4, Og was defeated in a battle at this place. 
Edrei is mentioned as a boundary of the Israelitish 
conquests (Dent. iii. 10) and as situated in the terri- 
tory of Manasseh lying beyond the Jordan (Josh 
xiii 31). Then the city disappears from historical 
notice, and it is met again only in post-Biblical 
times After Pompey'sconquesl of the land, thecity 
belonged to the Roman province of Syria, later to" 
the province of Arabia. Eusebius calls it "Adraa " 
li was the scat of a Christian bishop. Part of the 
.bus whom Mohammed drove from Medina came 
to " Adra'at."as the Aral is called thecity. In the his- 
tory of the Crusades, "Adratum " is spoken of . The 
present comparatively populous city contains few 
ruins, as the old city was completely destroyed. A 
great Roman aqueduct ran from the city to Mukes. 
Extensive subterranean dwellings, forming an entire 
city, arc one of the remarkable features of Der'at. 
Bibliography: w. Max Mailer, Asten und Ennma, p. 159; 
WeLzsteln, RefucfoericM, p. IT: Schuiimclit-r, .-Inns thr Jor- 
dan, pp. 1 lis; /. /<. /■. r. xl.40; Scborer, Gesch. it. 38. 
E. G. B. F. Br 

EDRIS. See Enoch in Arabic Literature 

EDUCATION. -Biblical and Pre-Talmud- 
ical Data : The moral and religious training of the 
people from childh 1 up was regarded by the Jews 

from the very beginning Of their history as one of 
the principal objects of life. Of Abraham the Lord 
says: " I have singled him out [A. and li. V. "known 

him "1 to the end that be may command his children 
and his household after him that they keep the way of 
the Lord to do justice and judgment" (Gen. xviii 
lit, llehr.i. All the festivals and ceremonies have 
for their object the inculcati E reli dousand moral 

lessons in the children ( Ex. xii. 26 1 1 St 7 ; xiii. 8, II ; 

Deut. iv. 9 el teg. ; v\. 20 etseg ; xxxii. 7, 46) Espe- 
cially an- the fundamentals of the faith coupled with 

the admonition to teach the children and bring its 
truths by words and signs constantly and impress- 
ively to their consciousness (Deut. vi. 7, i\. 19). 

The whole Law was at an early stage utilized for 
public instruction, The Deuteronomic law, what- 
ever its contents were, was to be written "very 
clearly "on large stones on the highways, that all 
the people might read (Dent, xxvii. 1-8); and while 
each king or leader was to keep a copy of the Law 
and read therein all the days of his life (I)eul. xvii. 
18; com] 1. Josh.i.8), all the people, "the men, women, 
and the little ones," were to assemble every seventh 
year at the close of the Sukkot festival to hear and 
to learn the Law. Out of this Biblical ordinance 
was evolved the custom of completing one consecu- 
tive reading of the Pentateuch at the Sabbath serv- 
ices within every three years (probably seven orig- 
inally, later three and one-half, finally one year: 
Schtirer, "Gesch." 3d cd., ii. 455; see Pentateuch 
and Liturgy). This custom, however, of reading 
the Law every Sabbath in public is so old that Jose- 
phus("Contra Ap" ii. 17; "Ant." xvi. 2, § 4), Philo 
("De Septennario," 6), and Eusebius ("Pnvparatio 
Evangelica," viii. 7, 12) assign its origin to Moses 
(conip. Acts xv. 21). 

At any rate "Torah," denoting originally "Law " 
(Ex. .xxiv. 12; Lev. vi. 2, vii. 1, xxvi. 40), assumed 
in the course of time the meaning of "religious 
teaching" (Deut. i. 5, iv. 44; Mai. ii. 7; Ps. xix 8; 
cxix. 71, 174; Prov. iii. 1, iv. 2, vi. 23, vii. 2), 
and religion to the Jew became the synonym of 
common instruction. For a long time the priests 
and Levites, as the keepers of the Law, were the 
main instructors of the people (Deut. xxxi. 9, 
xxxiii 10, Jcr ii. 8, xviii. 8; Mai. ii. 6; II Chron. 
xvii. 7; Book of Jubilees, xxxi. 15). According to 
ancient rabbinical tradition, the tribe of Issachar 
produced many teachers of the Law (Gen. R. lxxii., 
xcix. ; Sifre, Debarim. 354. based on I Chron. xi. 
33); also the descendants of Jethro the Kenite are 
singled out as teachers (Mek , Yitro, 2; Ab. R. N. 
xxxv., after I Chron ii. 55). 

The recital of the chapters Shema' and Wchayah 
Im Shamoa' (Deut. vi. 4-9, xi. 13-21) in the daily 
liturgy instituted by the founders of the Synagogue 
impressed each father with the obligation of teach- 
ing his children. Josephus (" Contra Ap." i. 12, ii. 
is--.'.",; "Ant." iv. 8, § 12), and Philo ("Legatioad 
Caium," 10,31) point with pride to the fact that 
Jewish children were from earliest childhood in- 
structed and trained in the Law and the traditions 
of their fathers. The Books of Wisdom contain 
many pedagogic rules. Father and mother are re- 
garded as the child's natural instructors (Prov. i. 8, 
iv. 1, vi. 20, xiii. 1. xxxi. 7; Ecclus. [Sirach] x\x. 
1-13); " fear of the Lord," as the chief part or begin- 
ning of knowledge (Prov. i.7; comp ix. 10) The 
application of "the rod of correction " is often rec- 
ommended (Prov. xiii. '^4; .xix. 18; xxii. 15; xxiii. 
13; x\i\. 15, IT), though to the intelligent re- 
proof is better than a hundred stripes (xvii. 10). The 
chief admonition is to train the child at the right 
a < (xxii. 6), and the child's life itself is to be a con- 
tinual training (Prov. i. 2, 7, 8). The daughters 
probably remained under the supervision of the 
mother until their marriage (Cant. viii. 5). 




From Ibe bands of the parents, whose place in 
royal houses was taken by tutors (D'JDIN: II Kings 
\. 1. 5; comp 11 Sum. xii. 25), the child passed into 
tin- I) professional teachers (D'llb or Q^vsX 

Prov. \ 13; Ps. cxix. 99), called also "the wise" 
(Prov. \iii. 21). Tlie public teachers were also 
termed D'J'SD (Neh. \iii :. Ezra viii 16; 1 Chron. 
xxv. 8) and D^'SCO (Dan. \i. :;::. ::."•; scii. :: The 
pupils (D'TC>. Isa. vi'i. Hi. liv. 13; or D'TV^n I 
Chron. xxv. 8) were addressed as "children" (Ps. 
xxxiv. 12; Prov. i. 8; Ecclus. [Sirach] ii. 1; iii. 1. 
17. an. I frequently . see also I 'id v. ebb). 

It is int i i < —i i i ■ l: to i..ii'' thai the commandment 
"teach them diligently to thy children" (Dent. \i 
8) was referred to the instruction of pupils o k x TJ3? 
TTD?n)at atimewhen tin- propagation of the Law 
was made the chief aim of life (Sifre, Debarim, 34; 
comp. Abot i. 1-2; Peah i. 1), and the synagogues 
were called "plans for instruction" (Philo, "De 
Vita Moy sis," iii. 27) It is quite characteristic of 
Judaism that the prophetic ideal of the future is of the 
time when "tin- earth shall be full of the knowledge 
nf tin- Lord b i tin- waters cover tin- si 'a " i [sa. xi. 9), 
when all will know the Lord, "from the leasl ol 
them nut" tin- greatest of them" (Jer. xxxi. 84). 
Tin- time of King llezekiah was believed to In- of 
this kind, -when men. women, ami children alike 
studied ami knew tin- Torah (Sanh. 94b) 

Bow old the Institution of the cmon n"2- or 

"Ihouse. is, first mentioned in Ecclus. (Sirach) 

li. 23, it is difficult to saj (si e Bl T ii \ Mini; \sn). 

Bibliography i Hastings. Dtet. Bible, b.v.; < beyne and I 
Kncyc. B(bl. B.\ : Hamburger, R. B. T. s.v. Erztehuny and 

/ n( l,i ; 5 liOn '. Bi ■ h, II. 3, 419 128. 

i i. ii. K. 

In Talmudical Times: The period of 1 k 

learning or of the scribes ("soferim") has received 
Its n.i i ne i n.m the practise of transcribing and com- 
menting on the Book of the Law. In the latter 
years of the kingdom of .1 in lab. ami more especially 
under the discipline of the Exile, the religious 
teachings and the moral principles ol the Law and 
the Prophets had assumed definite shape as the be 
lief and religion of the people. After the end of the 
Exile it became necessary to preserve these teach 
tags and the documents containing them. The 
education of the people passed from the hand of the 

prophet into those of the scril • " sofer " (Mai. iv. 

4). This period is introduced by Ezra the 8cribe, 
who is extolled as the "restorer ol the Torah" 
(8uk, 20a); and jusl as a band of disciples gathered 
around Samuel, ao men gathered around Ezra who, 

following Samuel's example, read the Law to the] 

pie distinctly and explained its meaning (Neh. viii. 5 
i, Ezra belonged in the priestly casti . to w horn 
the task of education fell from this time forward, 
-i'ii the priest's lips should keep knowledge, and 
tin v should seek the law at his mouth . for he is the 
messengcrof the Lordofhosts" (Mai ii. T) [i 
the i""U of Bcribcs came from among the I i 
(Neh l.e ; II Chron. xxxv. 3, where the educational 
aeti\ it) of the Levites is by an anai lironi m I 
ferreil to an earlier period I The nun 1 1 
are designated as D'J'aO or D , ?'3B>B •'■' .expound 
era of the Torah. Here for the first time in Jewish 
history is an organized body of teachers flieProph 

eta ii-nl been replaced by the priests; these in turn 
were succeeded by the scribes, "the wisi 
l!. B. 12a, toajD =yiy Darn. The latter are des ribi d 
in Dan. sii 3 as the teachers, D^atPDJl j" thej that 
he wise shall shine as the brightness of the firma- 
ment ; and they that turn many to righteousness, as 
the stars for ever and ever." The Talmud refi rs the 
d clause to the teachers. The stud] ol Scrip 
i ' -v I., be the central point of the life of the 
people, and divided them into two classes, the erudite 
scribe ('■ bakam " or"haber ")and the unlettered i 
i" 'am ha are?"; compare Josi phus, " Ant," i . 

The 'i first restricted their educational 

activities to adults, delivering free lectures in syna 

tea and schools (see Bet ha-Midkash), while 

the eil mat inn of eh ii. ben remained, us in olden times. 

in the bands of their fathers. But as boys often 

lacked this advantage, the state employed teach 

era in Jerusalem (I!. I!. 21a), to whose 

The care the children from the provinces 

Reform of were entrusted; and as these did not 

Simon suffice, Bchools were also established 

benShetah.. in the country towns. This arrai 

ment must probably be referred to an 
ordinance of I!. Simon b. Shetah (Ter. Kit viii.. 
end), who was one of the presidents of the Sanhedrin 
during the last century of the Jewish siaie These 
district schools were intended only for youth 
sixteen and seventeen years of age who could pro 
villi- for themselves away from home. The high 
priest Joshua b. Gamla instituted public schools 

for boys si\ and seven years of age in all the cities 

of Palestine, and on this account he was praised as 
the man who prevented teaching in Israel from 
being altogether neglected. It was said that no man 
who p ret en, led to the title "Talmid hakam" ought 
to live in a place where there were no teachers foi 
children (Sanh. 17b). one teacher was employed 
foreverj twenty five boys If the number reached 

forty, he was given an assistant ("resb dukna". 

I: i; , Many rabbinical sayings indicate the 

extraordinary value placed by the Kabbis on eduea 

tion, mi the school, and on the teacher. R. Eleazar 
b Sbamua 

" Let toe honor ol thj pupil in- as mucb to thee as tblne own. 

and 'in- bonoi "f no c panlou I " baber"] as mucb astbi 

p reverence I rtlij t«ii nei as mucb 
as iin- reverence for God" (Ab. Iv. 12). " rbe -nun - 

- Ighs all "ii'i o lite s '' raanda " (Peob i. 1 ■. 

"Touch not my anointed [Ps. cv. 15]i this refers to the school 
children: and do nol offend my prophets : this refers 

era.* 1 " By the breatb from the moutb "f Bchool children 
■ lined " (Bhab. 119b). " Teaching musl w 
Interrupted even for the reestabllshmenl .-t the Banctuai 
lerusalem " (Ui.). "Instrucl thy son with tbe assistance of a 
i l text" (Pes. 112a). " The advantage ol revli 

.1 : U> I'eVleW III) tlllie- I- heller Mini i | le'.l I - " 

" As I have taugbl you without pay, says God, so 
musl you i led.38s 

The duty to give free instruction refers, however, 

onlj to teaching in the academies, nol to clem, n 

uction Women were excluded from this in 

B true tion. While, en the one hand. 

Education thej were required to be taught the 

of Women. Torah, on the other hand it was said 

by R. Eleazar that lie « ho instructs 

bis daughter in the Law is like one « ho teaches her 

indecorous things (Somali in I) 5Tcl there were 




always educated, even learned, women Theseprin- 
ciples obtained throughoul the Middle Ages. Since 
religion entered into the whole sphere of life, as in 
determining the calendar, in agriculture, etc., astron- 
omyand mathematics formed an integral part of in- 
struction. Indeed, it is said that knowledge of these 

sciences reflected h r upon Israel in the eyesof 

the nations (Shab. 7.">a, with reference to Deut. iv 
6) Furthermore, it was the duty of a father to 
let his son learn a trade not only that he might be 
able to support himself, but also because a one-sided 
intellect ual occupation with the Torah was not con 
sidered to be conducive to success, but rather a 
drawback from a moral point of view (Ab ii. 2; 
Kid. 29a). Accord- 
ing to one opinion, 
a father was in duly 
bound to have his 
son taught even 
swimming (Kid. 

With the dissolu- 
tion of the Jewish 
state, the Jewish 
system of educa- 
tion, while preserv- 
ing intact its main 
characteristics, be 
gan to be differen- 
tiated according to 
the varying sur- 
roundings and out- 
ward circumstances 
of the Diaspora. In 
Egypt and in other 
countries along I be 
Mediterranean, Ju- 
daism succumbed to 
Hellenism; but in 
Palestine the former 
conquered the latter 
so completely that 
after the destruc- 
tion of the Temple 
the scribes formal- 
ly banished Greek 
learning from the 
Jewish schools 
(Yer. I'eali i. ; B 
K 82b, 83a; Sotah 41a. Men 64b 
uncompromising attitude toward 

German Jewish School of the Sixteenth CeDtury. 

(After a contemporary woodcut.) 

99b). But this 
alien sciences " 
has never been adhered to either in principle or in 
practise. The Middle Ages furnish abundant proofs 

that the .hns took a large part in the culture ami 

learning of the nations among which they dwelt. 

Even alter the dissolution of the Jewish state, 
Palestine remained for some time the seat of the 

patriarchy, anil in consequence the center of Juda 

ism. The most momentous achievement of that 

period was the final compilation of the 

Post- Mishnab; and this became the founds 

Talmudic Hon forall the lectures and discussions 

Education, in the schools. Toward the end of 

the tilth century this compilation was 

editetl underthe name " i lemara " or " Talmud," and 
became the principal subject for study in the schools 

ot the Diaspora. Babylon contributed largely to the 
work through its flourishing academies in Nchardea. 
Sura, and Pumbedita. The schoolhouse ("sidra," 
from which the presiding officer was called "resh 
sidra") was visited by hundreds of pupils, who lis- 
tened all day long to the led urer or to his interpreter 
("met urgeman"). Gatherings, also ("kalian"), which 
attracted men from far and near, were held in the 
spring and the fall of the year At. these gath- 
erings lectures were delivered, important decisions, 
or rules of conduct, werelaid down, and rabbis were 
appointed with certain formalities and ceremonies, 
which served later as patterns for European universi- 
ties (compare Jacob Alting, "Hebrteorum Republics 

Amsterdam, 1652). 
Discourses, also, 
called "rigle." were 
delivered on feast- 
days. Every com- 
munity had. in ad- 
dition to the higher 
schools ("metid- 
tas"), preparatory or 
elementary schools 
frva; njsSix rva 

-I2D; N^13DX = ".t"- 
, i under direction 
of elementary teach- 
ers cp-m' npa; 
iMi2~-<"<^: '■■.'"). 
where the children 
were taught the He- 
hrew alphabet and 
the Bible. 

The influence of 
Arabian civiliza- 
tion in developing 
the scope of Jewish 
education is quite 
noticeable. From 
the middle of the 
seventh century the 
rector of the acad- 
emy at Sura bore 
the title "Gaon." 
The Geonim, in- 
stead of condemn- 
ing secular knowl- 
edge considered it a means for advancing and 
completing Jewish religious thought (Gratz, "Ge- 
schichte," v. 208). It is fair to assume that at. that 
time, and in the homes of the great scholars of those 
days, in both the Orient and the Occident, special 
attention was paid to the system of education. A 
proof of this is to be found in such works as the 
"Testament" of Judah ibiiTibbonof Granada (1120- 
1190). as well as in the twenty seventh chapter of the 
"Cure of Souls." by Joseph b. Judah ilm Aknin of 
Barcelona (end of twelfth century) Both writings 
give in detail a number of rules for pedagogy and 
for the course of instruction to be followed in the 
schools Joseph ilm Aknin lays down the following 
desiderata for the successful teacher. He must ha vs 
complete command of the subject he wishes to 
teach: be must carry out in his own life the prill- 

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Pagb from Elijah Uizrahi's "Mbpar,' rui Pu irew VRiTiiymc, Primtkd hi 

(|„ n, i Library, N.« Vurk.j 




ciples he wishes to inculcate in his pupils; he must 

. sacl no pay for liis Ue must look »i|n m 

his pupils as if they were his own sons, 

Qualifica- and treat them accordingly; lie must 

tions of train liis pupils t'> lead an ethical life; 
a Teacher, he must not be impatient, but come to 
his pupils with a happy countenance ; 
and he must teach his pupils according to the range of 
their intellectual abilities. The following order of 
studies to he pursued is recommended: reading, wri- 
ting. Torah. Mishnah. Hebrew grammar, poetry, 
Talmud, philosophy of religion, logic, arithmetic, 
geometry, optics, astronomy, music, mechanics, 
medicine, and, lastly, metaphysics. Joseph also lays 
down rules which the pupils arc to follow. They 
are to keep their bodies and souls pure; not to be 
ashamed to ask instruction in that in which they are 
ignorant; not to think of future gain or that their 
study has an ulterior object; to commence their 
studies by learning the elements and principles upon 
which science is built , to let no moment of the day 
or of the night pass in idleness; to make tlie acquisi- 
tion of wisdom an end in itself ; to leave their place 
of residence for some other place famous for its 
learning; and, lastly, to show their teachers even 
greater honor than their parents. 

From the thirteenth century onward the "seven 
sciences" (J"llC3n njJQB>), enumerated different]}' by 
various writers, comprised the prescribed curricu- 
lum among Jews as well as among Christians. Other 
authors who insist upon having education and 
teaching placed on a scientific basis arc: Judah b. 
Samuel b. Ahbas iu his "Ya'ir Netib" (c. 1250); 
Shem-Tob b. Joseph Falaquera (died after 1290), 
especially in his didactic novel "Ha -Mebakkesh "; 
Joseph Ezobi (c. 1250) in bis didactic poem "Ka'arat 
Kesef " ; and Profiat Duran of Catalonia (c. 1330) in 
the introduction to his grammatical work "Ma'ase 
Efod." Systematic Jewish education in Italy re- 
ceived like care and encouragement, due in pari to 
the influence of scholars from Spain and Provence 
Deserving of mention in this connection are: Jacob 
b. Abba Mari Anatolio of Provence; Zerahiah b. 
Isaac of Barcelona, who lectured at Rome; Kalony- 
mus b. Kaloiiytuus of Provence; and the native 
Italian Jews Judah It. Moses of Rome and the poet 
Immanuel. All these men, belonging to the thir- 
teenth century, stimulated interest in the "alien 
Sciences" and in the scientific treatment of Jewish 
literature. Numerous hints on pedagogy are scat- 
tered throughout their works. The "Book on 
Ethics.'' \, } Jehiel b. Jekutiel of Rome (1278), in 

which are found together with the i al teachings 

of the Rabbis maxims from Aristotle, Porphyry, 
TheophraStUS, and the emperor Frederick II., gives 
the best view of the intellectual status of the Italian 
Jews of the period. 

Side by side with this scientific trend went the 
endeavor to guard Jewish education against the in- 
fluences of the current culture in so 
In far as it was a menace to religion. 

Northern This was the special work of the Jews 

Europe. of northern France and of Germany, 

where their Christian neighbors also 

were backward in learning. This one-sidedness 

and concentration shaped the system of education 

and teaching for the Jewsof northern France and of 
Germany. The so-called "Mahzor Yitrv" of Sini- 
hah b. Samuel, a pupil of Rashi, describes i? 508) 

how a child received its first instruction— a descrip 
t i' hi that is supplemented by the contemporaneous 
"Sefer Asufot": 

(in ttie Feast i if Weeks, the day when the Law was proclaimed. 

tlie cbild was handed over to the scl I With especial ceremony. 

Having been bathed and (tressed, the boy was taken to the syna- 
gogue at daybreak, and flared before the Torah, [rum which 
was read the passage fur the day (the Decalogue, Ex. xix. in rt 
■■<!.•. Then he was led to liis teachers. While en tlie way lie 
was wrapped in a shawl or a cloak to guard him from the evil 
eye. The teacher took the child in Ins anus, and tbensethim 
down. After this he took a slab upon which were written the 
first four and the last four letters of the Hebrew alphabet and 
the sentences: " Moses commanded a law, even the inheritance 
of the congregation of Jacob" (Dent, xxxiii. t); "Let in- 
struction be my vocation "; and the first verse of Lei Iticus. This 
slab was placed at the head of the infant In his cradle when he 
v. as Darned : even in ancient times it was used for the first in- 
struction witli the idea that the slab which treated of the pure 
ohe sacriflcesl should first occupy the attention of the pure (the 
children). The teacher then pronounced slowly all the letters 
of the alphabet, tlie pupil repeating them. The last four letters 
were pronounced in their proper order as one word (nenp). and 
also backward as one word (pitST 1 ). The slab was smeared 
with honey, which the child might lick off and taste as it were 
the sweetness of instruction. There was also a honey-cake 
made of three kinds of fine flour, upon which were marked the 
Biblical verses Ezek. hi. 3; lsa. i. 4. 5: I's. oxix. 9. 11, 12, 13. 34, 
97, 130, 140. 

There was also an egg inscribed with Biblical 
verses — a supposed preventive of forget fulness. 
While reading the pupils were required to sway 
their bodies and to recite to a certain tune, which 
varied with the different parts of the Bible. The 
text was translated into the vernacular. The chil 
dren soou advanced to the Mishnah and Talmud, 
so that at thirteen years of age a boy had attained a 
certain independence and was in a position to enter 
the yeshibah or academy. Here he listened to lee 
tures on the Talmud remarkable for their depth and 
acuteness, and then took up the wan- 
The dering life of the "bahur," which re- 

Wandering sembles much that of the Christian 

Scholar, bacchant or traveling scholar (see Ba- 
hur). The constant influx of new ele- 
ments stimulated the teaching at the academies, and 
this again influenced the life of the Jewish congre- 
gation. A picture of this life is to be found in the 
" Book of the Pious," by Judah of Ratisbon. Com 
pared with the surrounding Christians, the Jews are 
seen to have been in no wise inferior to them, but, on 
the contrary, somewhat superior because their intol 
leets were sharpened by Taltnudic studies. A Chris 
tian lay preacher, Sebastian Lotzer, refers to the ad- 
vantage enjoyed by the Jews in being instructed iu 
the Law from their youth. The medieval period ends 
in France with the expulsion of the Jews from that 
country in 1395; in Germany with the persecution 
of the Jews there in 1348; and in Spain and Sicily 
w ith the expulsion of the Jews therefrom in 1492. 

The ideas on education which the Spanish Jews 
carried with them were developed more freely in 
their new surroundings. In Italy especially, under 
the influence of the revival of learning, this was 
most, apparent, as may be seen in the curriculum 
published by David Provenzale, in Mantua in 1564. 
for the educational institution which he had intended 
to found. This curriculum includes the Bible and 




the Talmud with the best commentaries, Hebrew 
grammar, Jewish philosophy, composition and cal- 
ligraphy, Latin and Italian philosophy, medicine, 
mathematics, cosmography, and astrology. Thi 
shows the intellectual status of the [taliai 
how they became thi of nearly all the He 

braists of the age of humanism. The Spanish and 
e Jew scarried their educational ideas also 
into Holland. The school at Amsterdam, which 

za attended, was admired by Shabbcthai Shei 
tel Hurwitz (" Wawe ha-' Amuddim 9 
of it -i s_\ stcmatic arrangement, and w as held up as a 

rn to th.' congregations of Germany, Austria, 
and Poland. According to Shabbethai Ilass, it com 
prised si\ classes, the curriculum being: (1) Hebrew 
reading, until the praj i 1 3 were mast ! i The 

iteuch w ith tin- tonic accents. (8) Reading and 

translation from the Bible, w ith Rashi s commentary 

upon the weekly section. (4) The 

In Am- Prophets and the Hagiographa with 

sterdam. the tonic accents. (5) Lectures on 

Hebrew grammar and discussions oi 

halakic passages from the Talmud, tin- class b 

luctedin Bebrew. (ti) The school proper, called 
"'Ez Hayyim," and presided over by the grand 
rabbi. The subjects taught in the school proper 
wi re the Talmud with Rasbi and Tosafot, responsa 
and discussions on the code of Maimonides. The 
hours of instruction were from 8 to 11 I M. and 
from 2 to 5 P.M., or until the afternoon service. 

The educational systems of the .lews in German] , 
Austria, and Poland were defective in so far as the 

grading of classes was so arranged thai pupils were 

instructed in the most difficult passage - oi tie'- Tal- 
mud even before they had mastered the Bible, and 
were thus trained to excel in seephisiie- dialectic 

Many rabbis declaimed against these C Hi ions, 

which were not improved until the beginning of the 
nineteenth century, and then only gradually. 

Even before Moses Mendelssohn, individual .1. .-. 
had attained to the general culture of their time-; 

for instance, the physician Tobiah 

Eighteenth. Nerol, who was born in Metz, 1652, 

Century, ami who, by permission of the Elector 

of Brandenburg, bail sun lied in Frank 
fort-on-the-Oder; tin' ichthyologist Blocb of Berlin; 
and others. Yet to Mendelssohn is due 1 he gi 
improvement of tin' Jewish educational system. 
lie bad many followers, who. as contributors to 
the Hebrew periodical "Ha-Meassef," were called 

" Measseflm," and were instrumental in raising their 

coreligionists te> higher intellectual planes. In Aua 
tria especially , Hart w \l' Weasel] 's I [ebrew circular 
letter, " Words of Peace ami of Truth" (1782) in 
which h'' advocated general culture, justifying it 
from the standpoint of the Jewish religion, stirred 
up the .lews to cany mil He- suggestions oi 
pcror Joseph II. for improving their school system. 

Th.' actual systematic reorganization of th'- Jew 
lab. Bystem of education and teaching dates from the 
founding of the following schools: 

(1) Tin' Jewish Free School oi Berlin, founded in 
l?Ts under the leadership of David Friedlander and 
banc Daniel Itzig. Th.' following Bubjects were 
taught: German, French, Hebrew, business technol- 
ogy, arithmetic, bookkeeping, writing, and ilia 

lie.' Wilhclm School of Brcslau, founded in 
1791, but discontinued Boon afterward. 

The' Jildische Haupt- und Freischule (Hei 
liche Franzschule) of Dessau, founded in 1799 bj an 
association of Jewish young men. 

Jacobsonsi bule(daj ami boarding-si b 
1 Beesen in the Harz Founded in 1801 by Israel 
son (born in Halberstadt 1768, 
Modern died in Berlin Sept. 13, 1828). The 
Schools in school is. in accordance with the- in- 
Germany. tent ions oi its humane founder, a non 
Be ctai iarj educational instil ution for 
bo_\s. li is still flourishing, ami was attended 
between the years 1888 ami 1867 by 1,414 pupils, 
of whom 719 wen- Christians. 

I Ri .1 und Vol ksschule der Israeli tischen 
(Jem. inde in Frankfort on the Main (Philanthropin), 
founded in 1804 by Sigmund Geisenheimer. It 

was at lir irian, but when the city came 

under Prussian rule the school was restricted to 
Jewish youth. 

6 flu Samson 'sche Freischule of Wolfenbllttel, 
including a boarding-school, founded in lsu; i,y 
Isaac Herz Samson. L.Zunzand M. Josl were pre- 
pared there the- university. 

', i Tin- Huh School at Tarnopol in Galii i i 
founded in 1813 by Joseph Perl; its normal courses 
served as models for other normal schools of Austria. 
Since the beginning of the nineteenth century the 
following governments have interested themselves 
in Jewish schools: Prussia, which introduced i 
pulsory education (comp. I. Gei er, "Zeit. fQr die 
Geschichteder J mien in Deutschland,"iii. 29«<« 
Wilrttemberg (" Mitteilungen der Gesellschafl I li 
Di utsche Erziehungs- und Schulgeschichte,"ix. 51 et 
»i q. i; 1 lanover, Bavaria, Baden, 1 [esse, etc. Since the 
emancipation of the Jews their children have entered 
the slate- or municipal schools, receiving religious in- 
struction in the same' way as the pupils of other de- 
nominations. In Austria the Jewish teachers of re- 
employed in the public sch. mis have- the same 
official Btanding as their Christian col 
General leagues, which is not the case in I'rus- 
Com- sia. Besides this, Jewish children 
pulsory receive instruction also in special re 
Education, ligious schools (Talmud Torah Schu 
li'ii). The founding of Jewish ele- 
mentary schools called for normal scl Is for Jewish 

nis. in 1809 a teachers' seminary was founded 

ii i a.- 1 1 . others are in Berlin.Hanover, Htlnster, etc 

Wiih this awakening to the need of general cul 

ture came the demand for scientifically trained rabbis. 

The following institutions provide BUCh training: 

the Jewish Theological Seminary at Breslau, founded 
by Frftnkel ; the [nstitute for the Science of Judaism 

at Berlin : the < Irthodox Rabbinical Seminary at Ber 

lin; the- Stale Rabbinical Scl 1 at Budapest; the 

Jewish Theological Institute' of Vienna. Tin last 

two institutions are supported, the first 
Education entirely, and the si cond partly, bj lie 
of Rabbis, government. Similar institutions ex 

ist in Talis. I ilon, Florence, Cincin 

nati. and New York (see Si.min \i;n s. R \i;r.i\ie \i 

\ of old, larger communities support schoolhouses 
(Bmo 'JG), where popular lectures on the Bible, 

the I a i mud, and the Midi ash are delivered. 




In the eastern countries of Europe, in Russia, Ru- 
mania, and Turkey. Jewish education is in almost 
the same condition as it was prior to Mendelssohn; 
Unit is, those countries are given over to one-sided 
Talmudic study, and hold aloof from general cul- 
ture (see Alliance Israelite Dnivekselle). The 
Russian government lias founded rabbinical schools 
—for instance, at Jitomir— which furnish the offl 
ciallj recognized rabbis. More important, however, 
are the yeshibot. The rabbis who direct these are 
remarkable for their minute knowledge of the Tal- 
mud as well as for their antagonism to culture. In 
Rumania the Jews arc not onl) curtailed in their 
civic rights, but their educational opportunities also 
are limited by the government. For education in 
other countries see Pedagogics. 
Bibliography : GOdemann, Das Judische Unterrichtswesen 
11 ,,/,,, tid d( • SpanUch-Arabvschi n Period?, Vienna, 1873; 
Idem, Bench, -i vols., Vienna, 1880-88 ; idem, QueUenschrifteii* UnterrUMs itnd dear Erziehung bei Deuisch- 
enjuden, Berlin, 1891 ; Samuel Marcus, Die POdagogih des 
Israelltischen foBres, 2 vols.. Vienna, 1877; B. Btrassburger, 
Gesch.der Erziehung and des Unterrichtx bei den Israe- 
l:i.ii. mil einem Anhang, BQMographU der Jttdischen 
Pltdagoole, Stuttgart, 1885; Ludwig Uorwitz, Gcsch. der 
Herzoglichen Franzschule in Dessau I799-1S49, in Mii- 
theUungen des Pereins fttr AnhaUi&che Gcsch. und Al- 
terthumxkunde, vi.; Ehrenbertr, Die Samsmi'gchi Frei- 
nchuh n,i WolfenbUttel.m Orient, Lit. 1844, pp. 66 et seq.; 
Ariiiii-iin. Die Jaenbsanschuli ;» Seesen. am Harz, Bruns- 
wick, 1867; Baerwald, Zur Gesch. der lictd- inn I FoVaschule 
der Isnnlitisilif a Gemeindt in l-'ntnl.tiiri-a.-M., in 
Einladungsschrift, 1869-75; Das JUdische Schuhiiehrer 
Seminarlum in Berlin, Berlin, 1840; Joseph Perl's liing- 
raphy. In Buscb's Jahrbuch, IS46-47. 

M. G. 

Trade-Schools : As soon as emancipation came 

there was a tendency among Jewish philanthropists 
to train their poorer coreligionists in handicrafts, 
though there were many difficulties in the way ow- 
ing to the existence of the gilds. Thus, Jacobson 
u ished to train Jews as artisans as early as ISO.",, and 
was encouraged by the government of Westphalia 
to do so, though he was informed thai they would 
not be allowed to enter the gilds (Ki'ilf, "Jacob- 
son," p. 11). Notwithstanding this, many societies 
for the training of Jewish boys in handicrafts 
were formed , the earliest, so far as is known, being 
that established in 1798 at Copenhagen ("Orient," 
1843, p. 58). This was followed at 
Technical Cassel in 1802; and during the next 
Training- fifty years general associations were 
Among formed in Prussia (1812), Bavaria 
Jews. (1830), Baden (1833), Saxony (1837). 
Hanover (1841), Hungary and Bohe- 
mia (1846); in many eases these general movements 
had been preceded by local associations, the success 
of which led to their spread. 

In 1888 Baron de Ilirsch gave large sums of 
monej 2,000,000 gulden) for the training of Jewish 
artisansin Galicia and Bukowina. In the preceding 
year \. Handler of Leipsic had given 100,000 marks 
for a school for Jewish boys to be trained as artisans 
("Allg. Zeit. des Jud."1888, p. 505). In 1844-45 
many private benefactors devoted their money to 
a similar purpose. In the former year II. Todesco 
founded a prize of 500 florins for every Jewish jour 
neyman who completed his apprenticeship at Vienna 
("Orient," 1844, p. 188), and 1). Massaroni of Home 
gave '.'.000 florins to the Trabotti foundation to train 
each year I wo Jewish lads as watchmakers ("Allg. 

/., i! des Jud." 1845, p. 6 

The following is a list of some towns and countries 
in which exist certain of the most effective associa- 
tions that have helped to train Jews in handicrafts 

throughout Europe in the nineteenth century. 
Countries in which general institutions exist are 
indicated by italics. 






Orient, 1843, p. 58. 



A. Z.J. 1891, No. 1-'. 

p. 2. 



A. Z. J. 1882, p. 71 ; 1800, pp. 22. vl. 



A. Z. J. 1S4U. p. 214 ; 

ISKJO, p. 115. 





A. Z. J. 1845, p. 22. 



A. Z. J. 1888, p. 165. 



A. Z.J. 1N37. p. 4. 


BadV ii 

A. Z. .1. is:j7. p. 382. 



A. /.. J. 1838, p. 497. 



A. Z. J. 1839, p. 393. 



A. Z. J. 1837, p. 1<">. 



A. Z. J. 1889, p. 550. 



Orient, 1843, p. :£.">. 



A. Z. J. 1841, p. 84. 



A. Z. J. 1841, p. 325. 



A. Z. J. 1883, p. 107 ; 
Jahrb. i. 69. 




A. /.. J. Is4:>. p. 297. 



A.Z.J. 1843, p. 324 



A. Z. J. |s4. - .. p. 47s. 



VVertheimer, jabrb. 

lit. 52. 


H u n a a r w 
Low i 


A. Z. J. 18*5. p. 748. 



A. Z. J. 1846. p. 030. 


Bayi ■( 

Univers. Isr. April 19, 1901. 



A.Z.J. 184-'. p. 114. 



Hebr. Bibl. xix. 4,'>5 


Galicia and Bu- 
kowtna (Baron 

de Hirsch) 

A. Z. J. 1888, p. 790. 

A. Z. J. = Allgemeine Zeitung des Judentuuins. 

In more recent times the Alliance Israelite Uni- 
versale and the Anglo-Jewish Association have estab- 
lished technical schools as part of their regular work 
in the East, while it is the aim of most apprentice- 
ship committees, attached to boards of guardians 
and other Jewish philanthropic institutions, to train 
in manual labor the lads entrusted to their care. 
See Alliance Israelite Uniyerselle; Anglo- 
Jewish Association. 

a. D.-J. 


EDUCATORE ISRAELITA : Monthly period- 
ical founded by Giuseppe Levi, and published by 
him, in conjunction with Esdra Pontremoli, at 
Yercelli ( 1853-74). It advocated moderate Jewish 
reform, to be brought about by the cooperation of 
all communities. Luzzatto, Delia Torre, Cantoni, 
Mortara, and Benamozegh were among its contribu- 
tors. After Levi's death in 1874 the periodical 
was continued in Casale by Flaminio Servi under 
the title II Vessili.o Israelitico. 


Educatorc, iii. 322. 

I E. 

'EDUYOT (" Evidences " of the sages on ancient 
halakot; called also Behirta ["Choice" of hala- 
kot]): The seventh treatise in the order Xe/.ikin of 

the Mishnah. When, after the destruction of the 

Temple, it became necessary, through the removal 
of R, Gamaliel II. from the office of patriarch, to 

decide religious questions by the will of the majority. 
there was produced, as the groundwork of the trea- 
tise 'Eduyot, a collection of unassailable traditions. 

• T i 

i e i 

3 S i 

<: a b 

5 *£ 


* - 1 

* g • 

— a 




From time to time more material was added to this 
groundwork, until the treatise was concluded on the 
redaction of the whole Mishnah. There is no con- 
nection between the many subjects touched upon in 
the 'Eduyot; and an exhaustive discussion of each 
is not its purpose. Even the names of the sages re- 
sponsible for the halakot provide but a loose thread 
of union. 

Following is a synopsis of the longer portions of 
the treatise: 

Chapter i.: In 1-3 a matter of dispute between Hillel and 
Shammai is again brought up for consideration ; namely, the 
chief rules to be observed in regard to uiddah, hallab, and 
mlkweh. In 711 the schools bring forward various decisions 
relating either to Levitical purity or to priestly tithes ("toho- 
rot." "zera'im"). In 12-14 a group of halakot is given in 
which the Hillelites incline to the opinion of the Shammaites. 

Chapters ii. and iii.: Insertions in which Hanina, " the deputy 
of the high priest," reports concerning certain customs in the 
Temple and other precedents at Jerusalem (ii. 1-3). Each mish- 
nah consists of three halakot, which were pro- 
Contents, pounded by Ishmael or in his school, or by 
Akiba or in his house of learning (4-8); they 
are followed by two haggadic sentences of Akiba (9-10), In 
eh. iii. space is given to Dosa ben Harkinas, who was promi- 
nent in the disputes with (iainaliel; and matters relating to 
tohorot and zera'im are treated together with a marriage law. 
in 7-12 the thread dropped in ch. ii. is taken up again : it con- 
tains four questions disputed by Joshua; three byZadok; four 
by Gamaliel (besides two groups of his teachings, each 
group consisting of three parts, which reconcile the conflicting 
opinions of the two schools) ; and three by Gamaliel's colleague, 
Eleazar ben Azariah. 

Chapter iv.: Continues i. 12-14 by giving the exceptional cases. 
Here the Shammaites appear as putting a milder construction 
upon the Law than the Hillelites (1-12). 

Chapter v.: Gives other halakot in which the Hillelites and 
Shammaites take a stand similar to that taken in the earlier 
chapters. These halakot are severally mentioned by Judah, 
Jose, Ishmael, and Eliezer (1-6). 

Chapter vi.: The opinions of new colleagues of Jose, Joshua, 
and Eliezer are given in continuation of ch. iii., partly treating 
of the same subject (1-3) . 

Chapter vii.: Joshua and Judah again appear (1-7), and Ga- 
maliel's halakot are given on the consecration of the new moon 
and of the leap-year, a subject of dispute at the time. In 8-9 the 
opinions of older colleagues are given. 

Chapter viii.: The opinions of members of the house of Beteira 
(1, 3) and of important contemporaries and older teachers (2, 4) 
are presented ; also a balakah of Akiba on a marriage law, 
already treated, and a statement of Joshua on the future mission 
of the prophet (5) . To this the opinions of other teachers are 

The tractate closes with an ethical teaching : " The wise men 
say, Elijah will not appear in order to draw 7 some nigh and to 
keep others away, but in order to bring peace into the world : 
' Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming 
of the great unci dreadful day of the Lord : And he shall turn 
the heart of the fathers to the children, and the heart of the 
children to their fathers ' (Mai. iii. 23-24 [A. V. iv. 5-6])." 

The space in this treatise allotted to each of the 
teachers is in proportion to his importance; and 
the frequent occurrence of Akiba's name is justified 
by the great conciliatory part which he took in the 
disputes of the time. 
A synopsis of some of the insertions follows: 
In 1. 4 i'i this question is put : " Why are not the names given 

of the authors of those halakot which are not a 'pted?" The 

answer is: "To show that after a clearer in- 

Insertions. sight they withdraw their opinions and do not 

abide by them stubbornly; or they are used as 

sources to serve as precedents in certain cases." in v. 6 Akiba 

hen Mahalalel is cited as having llriulv adhered to his opinion : 
but at his death he bade his son yield to the majority. In ii. 
<.i 10 and viii. 8-7 are sayings to encourage the people for the 
loss of the Temple. 

The Tosefta to 'Eduyol generally follows the or- 
der observed in the Mishnah. After the introductory 

halakot (Tosef. i. 1-3 = Mishnah i. 1-3) and the 
peace exhortations (Tosef. i. 4-6 = Mishnah i. 4-6), 
those cases mentioned in Mishnah i. 12 are taken up 
in which the Hillelites yield to the Shammaites (To- 
sef. i. 6), the disputes between the schools being 
omitted. Sentences follow (Tosef. i. 8-14 = Mish- 
nah ii. 5-10) advising a wise and moderate limitation 
of individual opinions where certainty is lacking 
in cases of dispute. After a short selection from the 

third chapter of the Mishnah (Tosef. 

The i. 16-18 = Mishnah iii. 3, 6, 7), con- 

Tosefta. sideration is given to the occasional 

milder constructions of the Shamma- 
ites and the severer ones of the Hillelites (Tosef. ii. 
2-9 = Mishnah iv. 6, 7, 11 ; v. 1, 3-5). In Tosef. ii. 
9, the exceptional opinion of Akabia (Mishnah v. 
6, 7) is considered. Tosef. ii. 10 (= Mishnah vi. 3) 
and iii. 1 ( = vii. 2) touch briefly upon the chief oppo- 
nents of Gamaliel. Tosef. iii. 2, 3 (= Mishnah viii. 
5) gives laws of purification which have reference 
to the position of Jerusalem after the destruction. 
The conclusion (Tosef. iii. 4). agrees with Mishnah 
viii. 7. Tosef. i. 7, ii. 1-2, and ii. 6 do not wholly fit 
into this treatise. The last paragraph is a fragment 
from the Mishnah of Eliezer ben Jacob. 

In general, the Tosefta took as a basis a treatise 
which dealt only with the chief questions regarding 
the day called "bo ba-yom " (that day); but the 
Mishnah of Eduyot is of a wider range. 

Bibliography: J. H. Diinner, Einifles liter Ursprungund 

Bedeutitng des Traktats'Edu)i<it, in Monatsschrift, 1871, 
pp. 33-42, .">y-77; Iiabbinowicz, Leginlation Criminate, pp. 
205-212, Paris. 1871: Scbwarz, Controverse der Scham- 
maiten und Hilhlitcn, Vienna, 1893; BruM's Jahrh. iv. 
63-64; Rapoport, in Kerem llnnrd, v. 181; Krochmal, 
Monh \tl>uhtha-Zcman, pp.' 163-164 tt passim: Kluger, 
Ueber fjenesis und Composition der Halachasammlung 
•Eduyot, Bieslau, 1895; L. A. Rosenthal, Ueber den Zusam- 
merihang der Misrhna, pp. 37-63, strasburg, 1891; idem, 
Ueher die Hagada in derMechUta, in Kohut AfemoriOI 
Volume, New York, 1897; Albert Bcheinln, Die Hoekschule 
zu Jamnia, Krotoschin, lsits ; Rosenthal, Die Misrlina: 
Aufbdu und Quellenscheidung, Strasburg, 1903. 

s. s. L. A. R. 

'EFA or HEFA: Rabbinic scholar of the fourth 
century. He was a native of Babylonia, who. al- 
though but few halakot and fewer haggadot are 
associated with his name, acquired considerable 
fame as belonging, to "the ingenious scholars of 
Pumbedita " (Sanh. 17b ; Men. 17a). His full name, 
which was"'Efa b. Rahba," appears once in the 
Babylonian Talmud (Sanh. i.e.); but in Yerushalmi 
he is always cited as "Hefa," without patronymic 
or title. 

BiBLioGRArnv : Frankel, Mebo, p. 85a; Heilprin, Seder ?io- 
Dorot, ii., s.v. 
S. S. S. M. 

EFES, AFES, or PAS : Scholar of the third 
century; secretary to the patriarch Judah I. (Gen. 
R. lxxv. 5), and one of the last tannaim. Af- 
ter Judah 's death, while Efes conducted a col- 
lege in southern Judea, on account of which he was 
called " Efes (in Yerushalmi, " Pas ") Daromi " 
(Yer. Ta'an. iv. 68a; Eccl. R. vii. 7), he was made 
principal of the academy at Sepphoris, although the 
dying patriarch had ordered the appointment of 
Hanina b. Hama to that position. The latter re- 
fused to supersede Efes, who was his senior by 
two years and a half (Shab. 59b; Ket. 103b; com- 


THE JKWisii i:m v« LOPED] \ 


pare Yer. I.e. ; Eccl. R. I.e.). Hosha'yah Rabba was 
one of his disciples, and reported in his name several 
haggadic remarks, among them one bearing on Isa. 
U :: (Hebr.): "Nations shall walk by thy light," 
from which he argues that Jerusalem will in the 
future become a torch by the light of which people 
will walk i Pesik. -\\i. 144b). Hosha'yah reports also 
a civil law in Efes' name ( Ver. Yoma v. 43a); and 
Simeon b. Lakish applied to him for information on 
a ritualistic point ('Er. 65b; Yer. 'Er. iv. 23c). 

s did not survive Judah I. many years, lie 
was succeeded by II vmn \ i:. II wt \. 

Biiu.ioGRAPiir: Frankel, Mebo, p. 122a; Halevy, Dorot ha- 
liiflinniin, 11. 133a el tea.; Bacner, Ag. Pal. Amor. i. 91; 
Hellprln, Seder lut-lximl, ii„ s.i\\ Weiss, LXjr, lii. 44. 
8. S. S. M. 

EFODI. See Duran, Pkofiat. 

of Valencia in the second half of the fourteenth cen- 
tury. He was a contemporary of Nissim b. Reuben, 
ralilii of Barcelona, and of Simeon b. ?emah ( EtaSH- 
\W/,\. whom he consulted on rabbinical questions. 
He occupied the rabbinate of Valencia formore than 

forty years. Efratl was held in high esteem by his 

contemporaries, notwithstanding the fact that at the 
very outset of his career he had had occasion to at- 
tack certain powerful members of Ins community 
w hose act ions had given public offense. He enjoyed 
the reputation of being a great Talmudist and mys- 
is credited with a knowledge of secular 
sciences also. He seems to have been opposed to 
casuistry. In his decisions there is good reason 
to suppose that he largely followed Maimonides, 
Toward the end of his life there came to Vali 
Basdai b. Solomon, a distinguished casuist, who en- 
deavored to defame Efrati and attacked him openly. 
Efrati's literary remains consist only of a few re 
sponsa, which are to be found in the collection of 
Isaac b. Sheshet. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Weiss, Dur, v. 157-161; Aziilul, Slum hn-Ur- 
ttnlim, i. 77b. 
s. s. M. Sel. 

EGER (Czech, Cheb) : Bohemian town, on the 

righl bank of the River Eger. The population of 

r in 1890 was 17,148, including 508 Jews. The 

oldest document mentioning the Jews is dated Match 

12, 1314, and refuses them permission to inhabit a 

oi w street, near the monastery. They are again 
mentioned in a document of Oct. 28, 1822, in which 
the emperor Louis the Bavarian pledgi 9 Eger to 
John, King of Bohemia. Louis annulled all thi - 
of Abbot Gricbel of Waldsassen to the Jews. At 
that time the .Jews inhabited a special part, of the 
i ity called " Cnter den Juden." 

About 1882, under Charles IV., many rii b .bus 

settled in Eger, where they succeeded so well that 
ia a short time the Jews formed one I'm nth the pop- 
ulation of the town. They had then a high school, 
' nagogue, a synagogue courtyard ("Judenhofl "), 

a house for the cantor, and a cemetery. Their 
wealth aroused the jealousy of the other inhabitants. 

The charges against the .lews tit the time of the 
Black Death (1848) reached Eger on March 25, 
1849; and in 1850 they were suddenly attacked bj 
tin- mob, Incited by a monk 's preai bit ■ near]) 

all were massacred, their goods appropriated, and 
their books taken to the town hall, whence t hey were 
sent to the imperial Library of Prague, The strei I 
when- this occurred still beats t in' name " Mordgass 
chen." <bt May 15 the citizens were absolved from 
all guilt in the matter by Charles IV himself. It 
seems that the few survivors Bed to Kdnigsberg, a 
neighboring town, where they gave Jewish burial to 
man] of the dead whom they had carried with them. 
Some. lews returned to Eger shortly after this, for 
four "Judenmeister" (rabbis) are mentioned in 1352, 
and a tombstone of a Jewess, " Kele " (1358), is still 
to be seen. They repurchased fromAlbrecht Noth- 
heft, the "Landvogt," their synagogue, school, and 

cemetery. This pun base was continued by Charles 
Nov. 6, 1364. On Jan. 25, 1879, King Wenzel form- 
ally declared that the .lews of Eger were his serfs 

(" Kammerknechte "), and that they could be sum- 
moned only before the royal judge of the town; 
thej were thus protected against the injustice of 
the popular authorities. Two years later, May 5, 
1381, he freei 1 the . lew a of Eger (together with other 
inhabitants) from taxes forflve years in return for 
financial assistance. In 13!I0 he remitted all debts 
(hie the- Jews. He included them in t lie safe-con- 
duct given (1891) to the inhabitants of the city, so 
that they had protection within the empire and in 
Bohemia. Many documents of the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries evidence the jealousy aroused 
through their success by the "Jewish bread -thieves." 
In 1410 they had their own "Tanzhaus" in the 
" Judengasse." 

In the fifteenth century, during the Hussite troub- 
les, a deputation from Eger complained t<> King 
Sigismund (1430) that the Jews, on the strength of 
their old privileges, were not performing military 
-- i '. ice. The city council thereupon received permis- 
sion (Oct. 3) to expel all the Jews, The synagogue be- 
came a chapel. But the council soon repented, and 
in 1 184 received permission from Sigismund to allow 
as many Jews to cnter the city as business interests 
demanded. A safe conduit was given on Oct. 1. 
Each Jew ish family was to pay fifty florins " Schutz- 
geld." In 1487 there were two families, In 1457 only 

three, the last with the express permission of King 

Podiebrad. In 1468 King George .agreed to there- 
quest of the Senate to put the I i .1, .. , under the 
dominion of t be city itself. 

At, the present time the community of Eger has 
i hoe village dependencies, a synagogue, a cemetery. 
a bebra k&ddisha, a society of synagogal chorists, 
and a woman's benevolent society. See BOHEMIA 

Worthelmer, Dfi Judi n t»i Oa U rreleh, p. 
! prana, Nos. 021, 714; 

Fried] ler, WaterialicnzurQcsch.der Juden in BOhmt n, 

178; Helnrtcb Gradl, Bfonumenfci ETarano. Nos 

pp.ll 14, 17, BrOnn, 1888 ; Jacob Simon, Urkundliches Va 
Icrtai " ' Qi ch. dei Egerer JiUUnqa&e, In tfonatsachfifU 
1117.287 el 146 Salfeld, Mariyrologium, pp 

M. Ski..— G. 

EGER or EGEBS: A family established for a 

long time at Halberetadt, Germany. It appears to 
have been originally known by the name of "Gins" 
or "Ginsmann," by which appellation the tirst two 
definitely authenticated members, Mayer and Ds 
vid, arc known. |{. Akiba Eger of Posen, likewise 
called liimseli u Ginsmann " while in Priedland. To 
the same family probably belongs Jaci bl ■■ i some 




time teacher at the Training-School for Teachers in 

Biographical sketches of the foregoing and "f 
some of tlic other important members of the family 
follow the subjoined pedigree: 

The shtadlan It. Haver (Jinsmann 
(Halberstadt, Germany; d. 1874) 


Elijah Eger (J. 1705) 


Lob Eger 

(d. 1750) 

David Ginsmann (d. 1601; 
celebrated as a " harif ") 

Elitah Eger 
id. 1781) 

Sinihah Bunim Eger 
'(d. 1761) 


I 1 

Mayer Eger David Eger Akiba Eger 

(author of " Mishnat de- 
Ilabbi Akiba " ; d. 1758) 



Lob b. Eger 
(rabbi in Halberstadt ; 
d. 1814) 


Wolf Eger (rabbi 


Samuel Levin Egers 
(author of " 'Atteret 
Paz "; " Landrab- 
biner" in Bruns- 
wick; d. 1842) 

Akiba Eger (rabbi 

in Halberstadt; 

d. 1834) 


Joseph Eger (assistant 

rabbi ; d. 1854) 


Jacob Egers 
(d. 1891) 

Gitel = Moses Guens 


Akiba Eger (rabbi 

in Posen ; d. 1837) 

Bibliography : Auerbaeh. Grsch. der Israel it isehen Gemeinde 
Halberstadt, pp. 32, 33, 142, 1866. 
J. H. Gut. 

Akiba Eger (Eiger) the Younger (Akiba 
ben Moses Guens): German rabbi and champion 
of Orthodoxy ; born at Eisenstadt, Hungary, Nov. 
8, 1761 ; died at Posen Oct. 12, 1837. Akiba's mother, 
Gitel, whose family was probably from the Bohemian 
city of Eger, was the only daughter of Akiba Eger 
(d. 1758), formerly rabbi of Presburg, whose name 
was taken by his grandson, Akiba ben Moses Guens. 
At an early age Akiba show"ed great proficiency 
in Talmud, so that his uncle, Wolf Eger, later rabbi 
of Leipnik, took him under his care at Breslau. 
Akiba distinguished himself so highly that the 
wealthy Itzig Margalioth of Lissa gave him his 
daughter Glueckche and provided for his needs. 
He refused to accept a rabbinical position, bis ideal- 
istic nature being repelled by the idea of deriving 
material benefit from the study of the Law. The 
great conflagration which destroyed Lissa in 1791 
impoverished his father-in-law and forced Eger to 
accept the rabbinate of Markisch Friedland in West 
Prussia. His noble and self-sacrificing character 
and his great Talmudic learning made him univer- 
sally beloved, and won for him an international rep- 
utation among orthodox Jews. He repeatedly ex- 
pressed a desire to resign his charge and to accept a 
position as teacher, or a small stipend from wealthy 
patrons of a bet ha -mid rash, in order to escape from 
the religious responsibilities of the rabbinical office, 
but remained in deference to the entreaties of his 
congregation and family. When his daughter Sorel 
married Moses Schrelber in L813, he allowed his son- 
in-law to present his name as a candidate to the con 
gregation of Triesch (Muuz, "Rabbi Bleasar, Ge- 
naunt Bchemen Rokeach," p. 143. Treves, L895). 

For unknown reasons the change was not made, but 

,i \ car later he was called to the important rabbinate 

of Posen. Prom that time his real public activity 

began, and lasted till his death twenty-rive years 


Eger's Talmudic learning moved altogether in 

the paths of the dialecticism eorn- 

Spiritual mon among the rabbis of the eight- 

and eeuth century. An example is given 

Religious by O. H. Schorr in "He-Halu?," ii. 

Activity. 29. His mode of thinking on such 

subjects may be judged from the 

billowing quotation: 

" I saw an admirable explanation of a Talmudic saying in the 
"Emek ha-Melek.' ' The Talmud says (Hul. 69a): "Because 
Abraham said. Neither a thread nor a shoe-latchet (Gen. xiv. 
23). his descendants were privileged to wear the thread of the 
zizit aud the strap of the tenllin.' As the strap of the teOIliu, 
wound about the left arm, corresponds to the shoe-latchet, it is 
proper that we should tie the latchet of the left shoe first " 
(Notes on Shulhan "Aruk, Orah Hayyim, p. 1, Berlin, 1862). 

In casuistry he was of the ultra-rigorous type. In 
a circular, published both in Hebrew and in German, 
he appealed in the most solemn terms to his col- 

Akiba Eger the Younger. 

leagues not to allow the use at Passover of alcohol 
made from potatoes. He prohibited the writing 
of a bill of divorce upon parchment originally 
manufactured for use as a scroll. It should, how- 
ever, be added that in his decisions he was guided 
by humanitarian views, and allowed many things, 
otherwise forbidden, out of consideration for the 
poor and the widow. 

Eger was naturally a strict opponent of Reform, 
and declared the slightest change in the order of serv- 
ice inadmissible: "If one disturbed only the one- 
thousandth part of the words of our Rabbis in the 


mi: .ii.uimi ENi \t i.ui'i:i>iA 


Talmud the whole Torah would collapse" (sec 
"Eleh Dibreha-Berit," p. 07. Altona 1819). He 
was also opposed to secular learning, and one or two 
hours a day for that purpose was the utmost con 
ccssimi 1m- would make to the government when 
compulsory secular education of Jewish children 
was introduced into Prussia. He accordingly re 
buked Solomon I'm ssner, though somewhat mildly, 
fur having advocated secular schools for the Jews in 
place of the heder (Elias Plessner, "Biblisches und 
Rabbinisches aus Salomon Plessner's Nachlass," 
Hebr. part, p. 13, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1891 
Though when measured by modern standards Akiba 
Eger appears extreme in his views, compared with 
his contemporaries, and especially with his son in-law 
Moses Scil'er. he presents really one of the mildest 
types of Orthodoxy. In spite of an extremely deli 
eaie constitution he of ten spent whole nights al the 
bedside of the sick, and his conduct during the 
cholera epidemic of 1831 was recognized by Preder 
iek William III in a special royal order addressed 
tu the chief of the province. 

Of his works the following have been edited: 
•• Hilluka de-Rabbanan," not< a on Nissim Gerondi - 
novella to Baba Mezi'a, Dyhernfurth, 1822; Re 
sponsa, Warsaw, 1834, reprinted with additions, ib. 

1876; "Derushwe-Hiddush," novella 
HisWorks. on various Talmudic treatises and 

homilies, ib 1839; Glosses on the Tal- 
mud, printed in the editions of Prague, L830 B4 
and Warsaw, 1860-68; Tosafot, glosseson theMish- 
nali. in the editions of Altona, 1841-45, and Warsaw, 
1862 67; "Hiddusbe Rabbi Akiba Eger," notes on 
various Talmudic treatises. Berlin, 1858; Notes on 
the Shulhan 'Aruk, roreh De'ah, in theedition of 
Konigsbrrg, lx-V.t; Notes on Shulhan 'Aruk. Orah 
Hayyim, edited by Abraham Bleicherode, Berlin, 
1862; Notes on Shulhan Aruk, lloshen Mishpaj 
and Eben ha-'Ezer, edited by Nahum Streusand, 
Thorn, 1869; a further collection of Responsa, edited 
by Isaac Caro, Vienna. 1889. 

Bibliography : Eaempf. Btographt d< Hbchoertthmten 
Hachseligen Herrn Akiba Eger, Oberrdhbiner su Posen, 
etc', Llssa, 1838 : K. I. FOrstenthal. Ebel Fahid, Tram 
dicMaufdeii Tod des R. Jacnb Moses Eger, Breslau, 1838 ; 
Tdlednt />'. Akiba Eger, bj bis sons Lbrabam and Solomon, 
m the Berlin edition of ins note* on Orah (Jayylm, 1882, re- 
printed, Warsaw, 1875. From the latter Solomon Sofer's 
(Schrelber) Hm) ha-MeshuUasli (Pacs, 1887) Is largely taken. 

Boer's ethical will has i a published, together with that 

of Jacob Llssa, under the Htle Zaunoa'ol Ha-Qeonim, War- 

J. D. 

Akiba Eger the Elder of Presburg : German 
rabbi; born at Halberstadl about 1720; died at 
Presburg Sept. 17. 1758. When he was twenty 
years old he had adispute on Talmudic matters with 
Melr, chief rabbi of Eisenstadt. In I749he was 
elected rabbi of ZQlz (Silesia), and in 1756 "as ap 
pointed assistant to Rabbi Mosi a Harif of Pn 
burg. Eger was the author of "Mishnat dc Rabbi 
Akiba." novella- on several treatises of the Talmud, 
Fi'irth. 1781; and of Beveral Responsa, published 
In the "Bene Ahubah" of Jonathan Bybeschutz, 
Prague, 1819 

Bibliography i Stelnschnelder, In Erach and Gruber. / 
BecUon i.. pari 67, p. 845; I rankel, In OrU nl i 
i i Neubauer.ln Berliner's Magazin, I. 13; Auerhach, •■■ 
,i,, hroeltttechen Qemeind< Halberstadt, pp. 88. 71. 
i .. a. M Bel, 

Jacob Egers: German scholar and educator; 

at Halberstadt Jan. 18, 1834; died at Berlin 

Nov. 17, ls'.q He was for more than twenty years 

a n cist, a- at I In- Training-School for Teachers ("Lehr- 

erbildungsanstalt " I in Bi rlin, 

lie published the diwan of Abraham ibn Ezra to- 
gether with the latti r's secular poetry and allegory, 
"llai hen Mekiz," Berlin, 1886, some parts of which 
were translated into German by I). Eaufmann; and 
two poi ms oi Solomon ibn Gabirol with notes in the 
"/.mi/ Jubelschrift," Hebr part, pp 192 200 

Bibliography: Oester. Wochenschrift, 1891, p. 888. 

M. Si i.. 

Lob b. Akiba Eger: German Talmudist; died 
at Halberstadl 1814. In I77."i Eger was appointed 
rabbi oi the community in succession to his late 
teacher, Isaac Schwanfeld. He devoted his whole 
energies to furthering Talmudic st udiesin his native 
city, his yeshibah in consequence achieving a high 
reputation. In collaboration with his brother Wolf 
he published supplementary notes to his father's 
work, " Mishnat de-Rabbi Akiba." A funeral ora- 
tion deliver. .1 ii\ Eger on the death of Frederick 

the Great (1786) gives proof ol his oratorical attain 

incuts, a few of his sermons have been preserved 

in manuscript. Some of them denounce the fash 

ions then coming into vogue, especially the wearing 
of jewelry by women; others warn against buying 

Christian sacred vessels, c\ en when offered bj the 


BlBLIOiiliAi'iiv : Auertmeh, Ocsch. ikr Ism, I Hi.-' /,, nQemt 
Halberstadt, p. 105. 
i ,. A Pb. 

Nathan ben Abraham Eger: Bohemian Tal 
mudic scholar; lived at Prague in 1 hi ■second half of 

the seventeenth century. He was the author of 
"Gan Nata '." a commentary on the Shulhan 'Aruk, 
Orah Hayyim, Prague. 1695, and of ten reprinted. 

ituii iooraprt : Wolf, BiW. //' It. ill.. No. 1723c : Stelnscbnet- 
in ( at. BndJ. col. 2085 

M. Sir. 

Samuel Levin (Perez Sabel) Egers : German 
Tal i nudist ; horn in Halberstadt June 9, 1768; died in 

Brunswick Dec. :',. 1842 He was f themost 

brilliant pupils, and afterward an assistant, in his 
father's yeshibah. In 1809 he was appointed rabbi 
of Brunswick, and filled this position until his 

i .is was not adverse to the introducti f re- 
forms; thus he founded in 1828 an "Elemental 
sehule " iii Brunswick ; and three years later he in 
troduced the confirmation of boj a and 

In 1886 Egers became blind; but in spite of his 
re sufferings he did not relax his labors. Ln 
[g42 be gave his assent to a plan to render the 
synagogue service shorter and more intelligible. 

I ,i rorks Include : " \n. i. I Paz," novi lice on 
i. I. " Rimmon Pi rez." novella, on Eetubot, Al- 
tona, 1828; hesides several homilies. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY : llei/f.l.l. m III,;. Z, It. dtsjud. 1842, pp. 112, 
181, 762, Buppl. t.. 1843; Zunz. Z. O. i 842; luerbach, Qesch. 
i raeUtlKchrn (jcmclndi Halberstadt, p. 108. 

G i; 

Solomon ben Akiba Eger: German rabbi; horn 
i - , 1785; died in Posen Dec 22, 1852 In 1880 




he became rabbi of Kalisch, Russian Poland, and on 
the death of his father (1837) he succeeded him in the 
rabbinate of Poscn, 
which charge he held 
till the year of his 
deal h. 

His published works 
arc: notes on the work 
of B. Alfasi. Wilna, 
1560; a biography of 
las lather, Berlin, 1862; 
Notes <>ii the Talmud, 
|.V \',i " *&■ Wilna, l^o. Notes on 

the Shulhan 'Aruk, 
5 oreh De'ah, Konigs- 

Lewysohn, VbUstUndiQi 
Biographte dee 7». Akiha 
Eger. p. 35, Posen, 1 ST."> : S. Jewnin, Nahlat 'ulamini, p. 11, 
Warsaw, 1882s S. Sofer, Hut harMeshulldsh. p..">la, Munkacs, 


Solomon ln'ii Akiha Eger. 

i.. a. 

IS. Fr. 

Wolf ben Akiba Eger : German Talmudist ; 
lived in the second half of the eighteenth century. 
He was born in Halberstadt, and married the daugh- 
ter of Joseph Teomim, the rabbi of Breslau, where- 
1 1 1 ii ii i he took up his abode in that city. He con- 
ducted a school which attracted great numbers of 
youth possessed of a desire for Talmudical study. 
After 1780 he was called as rabbi to Leipnik, which 
position he held until his death. Together with his 
brother LOb he edited his father's "Mishnat de- 
Rabbi Akiba.'' and added to it a supplement of 
his own, Fiirth, 1781. 

Bibliography : Auerbach, Gesch. der Israelltisehen Oemeinde 
HalberstadU p. 103; Lewysohn, VoUgtitndlge Biographie 
del 11 Akiba Eger, pp. 1-16, Posen, 1881; Walden, Shem 
harOednlim he-J^adash, 1. 29, 
i.. G. A. Pe. 

EGESIPPTJS. See Joseph b. Gorion. 

EGGS (nS'3).— Biblical Data: The Old Testa- 
ment refers to eggs of birds^Deut. xxii. 6) and of 
vipers (Isa. lix. 5, A. V.. "cockatrice"), and to the 

well known fact that the ostrich leaves the egg in 
the warm sand and allows it to come to maturity 
through the heat of the sun (Job xxxix. 14). The 
humane command is given not to take away the 
dam together willi the eggs from the nest (Dent. 
I.e.). The custom of collecting eggs which had 
been left inathe nest is made use of in the fine im- 
agery of Isaiah (X. 14). 

In Rabbinical Literature: According to the 

Rabbis (IIul. 64a), the eggs of birds suit-able for eat- 
ing have one end oblate and the other pointed, and 
the while- surrounds the yolk; whereas with the 

eggs of impure birds the ends are either both pointed 

or both oblate, while at times the yolk is outside the 

while. In the eggs of amphibious animals the yolk 
and white are intermingled. Impure birds may sit 
upon and hatch the eggs of pure birds, and rice 
versa (IIul. 188b). The male bird sometimes sils 
upon the egu's. as in thecaseof the partridge; accord 
ing lo sonic authorities both the eggs and the siller 
may then be taken, though seemingly in opposition 
lo Dent. xxii. 6 (//-.). The development of the egg 
proceeds from the chalaza of the oblate end, which 
is supposed to represent the original seed (IIul. 64b) 

— a mistake opposite to that of Aristotle, who traces 
I he development from the chalaza of the other end. 
The strength of the shell was known to the Rabbis, 
who stated that it was used sometimes to support a 
bedstead (Bezah 3b). The egg of the ostrich was 
sometimes used as a vessel (Kel. xvii. 14), and iis 
membrane was used in medicine (Shah. 110b); the 
hens egg was used as a liquid measure (Yoma 80a; 
'Er. 83), of which 144 went to a seah. For the egg 
of the phenix see Bab Yokni. Unclean birds and 
their eggs are alike prohibited ; therefore the above 
criteria are used in the halakic textbooks (see Shul- 
han 'Aruk, Yoreh De'ah, 66, 86). 

In Jewish Ceremonial : A roasted egg is 

included among the objects placed upon the 
Seder table on the eve of the Passover to repre- 
sent the " hagigah," or burnt offering, offered at 
the three chief festivals (ih. Orah Hayyim, 476). 
Eggs are also to be eaten first of all at the meal 
of the Seder, the reason given for this by some 
authorities being that all joyful occasions should 
have a touch of the mournful, as indeed the Ninth of 
Ab always falls upon the same day of the week as 
the first day of Passover (Isserles, adloc). Eggs 
mixed with ashes are used on the eve of the Ninth of 
Ab as a sign of mourning. It is possible that this 
identification of eggs and mourning is due to the 
fact, that the mourners' meal always includes an 
cgL r , perhaps to suggest the idea of the resurrection, 
as soaie u i iters, hold. Yet eggs are associated with 
the joyful festival of the thirty-third day of 'Omer, 
when they are used, like Easter eg^s, to amuse chil- 
dren; the one custom is probably derived from the 
other. It is usually said that the egg at the Pass 
over represents life and creative force, but this is 
not borne out by the common view given above. 
< in the occurrence of the egg in creation-myths see 

Modern Superstitions : In Russia a bride, to 

be blessed with children, carries an egg in her bosom 
while going to the huppah. In the Orient the bride 
steps over a fish roe with the idea that this will 
give fecundity. He who gets the roasted egg of the 
Seder on the morning of the second day of Passover 
will lie specially lucky, and will gain whatever he 
wishes while eating it. If you steal an egg you 
will have seven years of poverty, and after death 
your body will roll round in the grave. A childless 
woman who is lucky enough to find an egg with a 
double yolk will, if she eats it, surely bear children. 

Bibliography: Lampronti, Paluul Yizhak, 16a, 17a; I.ewv- 
suim. Zoologit dea Talmuds, 88 is. 183,240'. 

s. s. J. 

EGLAH c heifer"): Mother of Ithream, David's 

sixth son (I Chron. iii. 3). The expression "wife 
of David " (II Sam. iii. 5) probably means the favor- 
iie wife of David. According to the Targum, Eglali 
is identical with Miehal. the daughter of Saul, and 
David's favorite w ife 
i ■. o. ii. E. I. N. 

lali "): A place mentioned in ancient oracles against 
Moab (Isa. xv. 5, R. Y. : Jer. xlviii. 34, R. V.), to- 
gether wiih Zoar, Luhith, and Horonaim. It lias 
been identified with the ' \)u'/'/n mentioned by Jose- 




plms ("Ant." \iv. 1, | li in connection with Zo 
bar as an Arabian town, while others bave claimed 
it ti. be the Ajlun, a mountain range, district, and 
city north of Jabok. The former identification is 
the more likely. Theremusl bave been th; 
kin>«n as"Eglah"l Ueifei , the ordinal numeral 
: added, :is is also the custom in Arabic nomen- 
clature, to distinguish them. Misled by the nu- 
meral, some commentators havi that three 
bonis of a mountain near Zoar were known us 
"Ik ifris." taking the name as an appellative. Most 
of the commentators bave translated " Eglath-Sheli- 
. "the three year-old heifer" (A. V., Tai 
Rashi, Kimlii. i E. G. H. 

EGLON : A king of Moab, who overcame the 
and captured the "city of palm 
which is probably meant Jericho (Judges Hi 13). Be 
bi Id the Israelites in subjection for eighteen ; 
and they were then delivered by Ehi i>. who assas- 
sinated Eglon ( ii 15 -26) 

J. .in G. A B 

Talmudisl ; lived at Constantinople during the six- 
teenth century. Be was the author of "Gal shel 
sim," expositions on Genesis, published al Bel 
vedere, near Constantinople. Be also edited the 
responsa of the Geonim, comprising 400 numbers, 
Constantinople, 1575. 

Biri i'.m'iiv: Fiirst. Bilil. Jittl. i. 234; Steinscbnelder, Cat. 

i: n i col. 1726. 

B. P 



A I I 111 ISM. 

Austrian rabbi ; born in Galicia 1733 ; died al Pres- 
burg Sept. 21, 1785. Egra's father was of Buczacz, 
Galicia, but Meshullam Egra was at Brody as a boy 
of nine. At about that age he delivered a casuistic 
homily in the large synagogue of Brody, and 

bad a discussion with its rabbi, Isaac llurwitz. 

whose son-in-law he became, Be was a contempo- 
rary of Sender Margoliouth, with whom be discussed 

ritual laws, and the master of Jacob Lissa, author 

ol " Derek ha Bayyim." Egra was al first rabbi of 
Tusmenetz, becoming rabbi of Presburg in 177"' 
Be wrote "She'elot u-Teshubot RaMA" (the lasl 
word of the title being an abbreviation of " R. Me 
shullam Egra"), responsa, Czemowitz,1862;andan 
unpublished work on Maimonides. 

Bibliography : Walden, Shem ha-OedoUm h< ii-i-i.i u. 

i M Bel. 

EGYPT.— Ancient and Biblical: The vallej 
of the Nile north of the first cataract, havii 
area of 9,000-12,000 square miles of arable ground. 

Al si rainless, the country depends upon the in 

undations of the Nile and artificial Irrigation (comp. 
Dent. ,\i. 10; Zech. xiv. 18), although the narrow 
valley and its triangular prolongation of alluvium, 
the Delta or Lower Egypt, possess au extremely 
fertile soil Egypt had in early timi Invited 

tlora, which, like its fauna, was of an entirely Alii 
can character. The same may be said of its popu- 
lation, which, quite in agreement with Gen. x., 
formed a brani b of the great white African or 
Bamitic family. 

Tradition has preserved the recollection of the 
early ili\ ision of Egypt into two kingdoms, (a) that 
of the red crown in the north, whose capital was 
(i) that of the white crown in the south, 
with its capital at Eileithyiaspolis, the modern El 
Kit , and in literary style Egypt is always d< 
nated as "the two countries " (comp. "Mi?rayim," 
dual, but s<e below Jet these formed one king 
dom «'' i n bt fore Eing Met oul 8500 b i 

whom the later books of history considered as the 
first historical king. The division of the country 

into about 1 bitty (thirty si\ v ; later, forty two) Homes 

unties points to a still more primitive period, 

indicating that many independent tribes may have 

inhabited i be land. 

Some very primitive traits always adhere even to 

the later, highly developed culture. The ch.n, 

was remarkably scanty long after 3 i.e. j and the 

iv of metals, although these were known very 
early, forced not only priests (in analogy with the 
old Israelii ish custom referred to in Kx. iv. 25 and 

Josh v. 2), but also sculptors, masons, and other 
craftsmen, generally to use stone implements nearly 

up to 1 > ii i . The religion above all remained 

most primitive: it never concealed that its hun- 
dreds of local divinities, iis sacred animals, lues, and 
stones, had their most perfi v and origin in 

the fetishism or animism of the negroes, although 
even in prehistoric time higher ideas, partly of un- 
doubtedly Asiatic origin (especially traits of that 
astral mythology of which the clearest expression is 
found in Babylonia), mingled with it. The language 
and the nice remained \ <■> j < onsistent. 

The history of Egypt can be best divided after 
the system of Mahetho, using his scheme of thirty 
royal dynasties from Menes to Alexander. Although 
these groups of kings do not represent genealo 
ally correct divisions, and are often quite conven 

tional, the uncertainty of chr logy, especially 

before 2000 b.c . forces the Btudent to use that ar 

incut. Dynasties 1 6 are called the ancient 

empire, dynasties 11-18 the middle empire, and dy 
nasties is 26 the new empire. 

The tombs of Manetbo's"Thinitic"d3 nasties l and 

2 have recently been excavated near This Abydos 

specially Petrie, " Royal Tombs," 

The OOQetseq.) Whether that of the half- 

Ancient legendar) Menes is ai z them re 

Empire, mains disputed, but some of the tombs 

ma) be e\ en earlier. The ails and 

architecture were even then highly developed at 
tbi royal court; and that the system of hieroglyphic 

vv riling was perfectly established as early as liulll) 
B.C. is shown by I he inscriptions The resid 
of those ancient kings seems to have been partly 
ii This, partly in the ancient capitals of Upper 

Egypt, the twin cities Bieraconpolis and Eileithy- 
iaspolis. Less well known al present is dynasty 8, 

which moved the capital not far south of Memphis. 

The earliest known pyramid (in steps, becausi 
finished), near Bakkarah, was built by King Zo» i oi 

this dynasty, who Seems to have lirsl exploited the 
mines near Sinai, which furnished the COppei 

and weapons. Dj nasty i (from ab i 

is famous for the construction of the three i 
est pyramids, those of Cheops (Kbufu), Chepbren 




(Kha'f re'),andMycerinus(Men-ka[u]-re')nearGizeh 
—monuments which the successors did not try to imi- 
tate. Bnefru(i), the first kin;:, seems to have waged 
extensive wars in Nubia and Palestine. From dy- 
nasty 5 remainders exist of several gigantic monu- 
ments in the form of huge obelisks (not monolithic!) 
on platforms, dedicated to the sun-god Re' (see 
Pillars). In dynasty King Pepy (pronounced 
"Apopy"?) I. (e. 3450 n.c.) was a great builder; he 
founded Memphis prop- 
er. With dynasty 6 
closes the period called 
conventionally the an- 
cient empire. Of its liter- 
ature only religious and 
magic texts (chiefly from 
the funerary chambers of 
the pyramids in dynas- 
ties 5 and 6; comp. Mas- 
pero. " Inscriptions 
des Pyramides de Saqqa- 
rah." 1*94) have been 
preserved. Egyptian 
sculpture reached its 
acme of perfection at 
that time. 

Afier the sixtli dynas- 
ty the centralization of 
the government broke 
down, and 
The Middle the nom- 

Empire. archs or 
counts be- 
came independent 
princes. The long wars 
which they waged over 
their possessions or the 
crown of the whole 
country, led to the es- 
tablishment of two rival 
kingdoms, one (dynas- 
ties 9 and 10) at Her- 
acleopolis, the other (dy- 
nasty 11) at Tin 1 1 - 
The younger Theban 
family finally united 
Egypt again under one 
scepter (ft 2150 B I 
Much more important is 
the 12th (Theban) dy- 
nasty (e. 2000 to 1800 
B.C.) of seven kings — 
four of whom were called 

Amen em-he't, and three 

I vi rtesen (or Ba-n usor- 
et)— and a queen. The fertile oasis of Fa(i)yum 
was created by diking off (not excavating! tin- 
lake called ". Moeris" (after Amen-em-he't III.). 
Nubia to above the second cataract was conquered; 

but a powerful Canaauitish kingdom prevented con 
ipiests in Asia— only Usertesen III. records an ex- 
pedition to Palestine. 

The following peril id 1 13th and 14th dynasties) soon 
developed the former decentralization, together with 
civil wars and anarchy. One hundred and fifty kings 
— i.e., aspirers to the crown — are recorded. This 

Miii'-pt:ih II. Mi-nti' 
I . :,, Flinders P.-lri.-, '* 

explains the ability of a Syrian power, the so-called 
I Iyksos (better "Hyku-ssos" = " foreign rulers," mis- 
translated "shepherd kings" in Manetho), to con- 
quer Egypt (ft 1700?). On this family of (7?) rulers. 
in whose time, after Ex. xii. 40, the immigration of 
Israel into Egypt is usually assumed, see Arornts. 
Most scholars consider them as Canaanites, some- 
what after Josephus' confusion of "Hykussos" and 
"Israelites"; but it seems that those kings were of 
non-Semitic (northern! i 
origin (comp. " Mittheil- 
ungen der Vorderasiati- 
schen Gesellscbaft," 
1898. p. 107). The nom- 
archs of Thebes re- 
volted against t h e 
foreigners (»■. 1630B.C.?), 
and af tera long struggle, 
especially around the 
stronghold of the for- 
eigners, Hat-wa'ret 
(Auaris) (near Tanis'/), 
expelled the Hykussos 
soon after 1600. 

These circumstances 
gave to the new dynasty 
(the 18th) a warlike 
The New Following 
Empire. the claims 
of their 
predecessors, its kings 
conquered and held 
about two-thirds of 
Syria; the north seems 
to have been under the 
control of the Mesopota- 
mian kingdom Mitanni, 
and it withstood, there- 
fore, the Egyptian 
attacks. Amosis (A'h- 
mose) I. began those con- 
quests. Amenophis 
(Amen-hotep) I. died 
after a short, peaceful 
reign. Thutmosis 
(Dhut[i]-mose) I. pene 
trated to the Euphrates 
(after 1570). Thutmosis 
II. 's reign was filled ap- 
parently with internal 
disturbances connected 
with the question of 
succession. Thutmosis 
III. (c. 1503) stood for 
twenty-two years under the control of his aunt 
Ma'-ka-re or Ha't-shepsut (who has commemorated 
in her beautiful terrace-temple at Per al Balm a 
commercial expedition to Punt, i.e., the incense re- 
gion east of Abyssinia). His independent rule 
is marked by fourteen campaigns, reaching as far as 
northern Mesopotamia, and by great constructions 
(the temple of Karnak, etc.). Amenophis II., Thut- 
iiinsis IV., and, less successfully, Amenophis III. 
(ft 1436) maintained the Asiatic, conquests ; Ethiopia 
as far as Khartum had been subjected and, unlike 

II. wiili Added Inscription of 
inlng the Israelites. 
Six Temples at Thebes.") 




i, which was merely tributary, had be< n made 
a province by the first kings of dynasty is. 

A iiii-ii< iphis IV tr. 1400) is a most interesting |" r 
son. He attempted a great religious reform; ma 
king the sun-disk his chief god, and persecuting 
the cult of several gods, especially that of the 
Theban Amon, the official god of the empire, with 
such hatred that he even changed his royal name 
and his residence. At his new capital, the modern 
Tell el-Amarna, the famous archive of cuneiform 
despatches has been found, which shows him cor- 
responding with all the important kings of western 
Asia, but unable to control his Syrian possessions 
owing to the great struggles which his innovations 
had caused in Egypt. Alter his death (c. 1383) his 
reforii overthrown, especially by his fourth 

successor. Har-em-heb(e). The religion, mummified 
again, kept its deplorable slate of contusion forc\ er. 

dence for Israel's stay in Egypt. Me(r)neptah 
warded off a great invasion of Libyans allied with 
pirates from Asia Minor and Europe. The nineteenth 
dynasty ended with several short-lived, powerless 
rulers, among them a Syrian (officer?) as usurper. 

Setnakht(e) reunited the country and established 
a n< u dynasty (the '-20th) somewhat before 1200. His 

son Rameses III. tried to imitate 

The Rameses II. , especially as builder, He 

Ramesides. fought with the Libyans, who pressed 

more than before on Lower Egypt; 
with tin northern pirates; with the Philistines, who 
had just settled in Syria: with the Amoritcs; and 
with small llittite princes. His successors, the 
Ramesides (Rameses IV. XII.), had short, inglori- 
ous reigns; Palestine and Phenicia were freedfrom 
the c lit ion of an Egyptian dependency, which had 

been their lot for more than -100 years. The priest- 

israki.itks Building storehouses tor Pharaoh. 

(from si, 111 nated bacgadah In Ifaa ponMrioa of the F.»rl ofCrawford.) 

The 19th dynasty begins with Rameses I. (after 
I860?). Sethos (Setoy) I. and Rameses II. main- 
tained only the smaller half of Syria against the 
aching empire of the Hitiiies. Both were v< iy 
active as builders; Rameses II. (the "Sesostris" of 
the Creeks, reigning 67 years from about 1830?) was 
undoubtedly the greatest builder of the Pharaohs, 
even after taking into account the many cases where 
he appropriated monuments already in existence. 
Under his son Me(r)neptah (c. 1268' l oi i urs the lirst 

mi mental mention of Israel apparently dwelling 

rebellious nation in Palestine. Ex. i. 11, on the 
other hand, seems to fix upon Rameses II as the 
Pharaoh of the oppression (see Rameses) while 
\h ■ mept.di is generally considered as the Pharaoh 

Of the Exodus. How to fit the new monumental 

data in with the Biblical chronology is yi I an open 
question, then- being no certain monumental evi 

hoed had become so wealthy by numerous donations 
that the royal power vanished, and finally the high 
priests of Thebes became kings. They had soon to 

3 ield to the twenty-first (Tanitic) d.\ nasty (c. 1100). 
Its seven kings wife hemmed in by their Libyan 
mercenaries, whose generals gained great influence. 
Therefore the Pharaohs were unable to interfere 
in Syria, where the Philistines were waging war. 

Solomon's Egyptian wife (1 Bangs ix, 16, 34; xi. 1) 

would seem to have been a daughter of the follow- 
ing ruler (comp. ib. ix. Hi, which states thatGezer 
was her dowry I. 

Shoshenk I. (the Biblical " Shishak " i, a descendant 
of Libyan generals, who founded the twenty second 
• I llubastile dynasty (c, 950 B.C I, cheeked the Phi 
list i ins. arranged the division of the Israelii ish king 

ill mi. evidently in favor of Jeroboam (comp, I Kings 
xi. 18), and ransacked Palestine (ti xiv. 25; II Chron. 




xii.i. On the Edomite Hadad (I Kings xi. 17-22) 
see below. Shoshenk's successors, however — 3 
Shoshenks. 2 Takelots, 3 Osorkona (Wasarken), 1 
Pemay — could not maintain this influence in Asia. 

After 800 B.C. Egypt was again practically divided 
into about twenty kingdoms ruled by the generals of 
the larger Libyan garrisons. The new kingdom of 
Ethiopia was thus able to occupy Thebes; about 
750 the Ethiopian king P-'ankhy even tried to con- 
quer all Egypt. Only his grandson Shabako was, 
however, able to accomplish this and to subject the 
most powerful of the many princes, the ruler of 
SaYs and Memphis (Bocchoris or Bok-en-ranf. the 
son of Tef-nakite), somewhat before 700. Neither 
lie nor his successor Shabatako seems to have been 
able to interfere in Syria, finding it difficult to main- 
tain Egypt It lias been shown conclusively by 
Winckler (especially in " Mittheilungen der Vor- 
derasiatischen Gesellschaft," 1898, p. 1; comp. also 
Schrader, "K. A. T." 3ded., p. 145) that the king 
So with whom lloshea had conspired against Assyria 
ill Kings xvii. 4) was Sib'e, viceroy of Musri, i.e., 
northwestern Arabia (not Mizraim-Egypt, cunei- 
form "Misri"), and that various other conflicts be 
t ween Assyria and Egypt ( V) refer rat her to this Musri 
(which curiously had a king, Pir'u, 
Musri and formerly understood as "Pharaoh"). 

Mizraini. Few scholars, however, have accepted 
in all its conclusions the inference 
drawn from this, namely, that a great many Bib- 
lical passages originally refer to this Musri, not Miz- 
raim-Egypt (thus Gen. xiii. 10; xvi. 1, 3; 1. 11; 
I 8am. xxx. 13; II Sam. xxiii. 21 ; I Kings iii. 1, xi. 
1 1 1 1 aeq. ; Hadad's and Jeroboam's exile [see above] ; 
and even Israel's servitude in Egypt). 

The third king of the twenty-fifth (Ethiopian) 
dynasty. Taharko (see Tiuiiakaii), hadasharein re- 
bellions of the vassals of Assyria, especially in the 
rebellion of Tyre, which led to two expeditions of 
Esarhaddon against Egypt. It was conquered in 
the second campaign and -divided among twenty 
princes, descendants of Libyan generals. Taharko 
and his successor Tandamani repeatedly disputed 
without success the possession of Egypt by the 
Assyrians (comp. Nahuni iii.); about 660 B.C. 
Psam(m)ethik I. (son of Necho I.), a descendant 
of the .Mill dynasty, nominal reign 664-610, 
made himself independent of Assurbanipal's sov- 

The new Baltic dynasty (the 26th) brought the first 
centralized government tiller several centuries, and 
new prosperity, which was demonstrated by a re- 
markable archaizing revival of art. The enterprising 
Necho (Nekau) 11. (610-594) undertook the conquest 
01 Syria, which, however, was frustrated by his 
defeat at Carchemish by Nebuchadrezzar. He 
built a fleet, dug the first connection between the 
Nile and the Red Sea, and sent Phenician sailors 
around Africa. After Psamdn icthik 

Saitic 11.(594 588), Apries or Uaphris ( Pha- 

Dynasty. raoh hophrah. 588-569), seeking to 
check the Babylonians who menaced 
Egypt, instigated and aided the Jews (Jer. xxxvii. 
5; comp. Ezek. xxix. 6) and Tyrians and received 
their fugitives (Jer, xli. 17). This policy seems to 
have been continued by his successor, the clever 

usurper Amasis (A'hmose II., 564-526), who still 
warded off the destruction threatened in Jer. xlvi. 26. 

But when the Babylonian empire had been su- 
perseded by the Persian, PsanMmietliik III. could 
not maintain himself any longer. In 535 Egypt was 
conquered by Cambyses, and remained a Persian 
province notwithstanding various rebellions, led 
by the half-Libyan soldiers, in 4*7, 460, and most 
successfully in 414. The period of independence 
(414-350V) was filled by internal struggles and by 
wars of defense against the Persians. The Mace- 
donian conquest brought Egypt independence under 
the dynasty of the Ptolemies. But Egyptian cul- 
ture was sinking fast; thenative population (which 
rebelled repeatedly against the foreign rulers, led 
again by the old soldier class of Libyan descent) was 
reduced to the position of heavily taxed pariahs; 
and the kings in Alexandria considered their empire 
a^ a part of the Greek world. The annexation by 
Rome (31 B.C.) aggravated this decline of an old 
civilization, though temples were repaired or built 
by the Roman government and decorated with 
very poor hieroglyphics till about 300 c.E. The 
condition prophesied, that Egypt should be with- 
out native rulers, can, however, be traced back, as 
an actuality, as far as the tenth century B.C. (see 

For the political history of the Ptolemies down to 
Ptolemy XVI. and the famous queen Cleopatra VII., 
see Ptolemy. The great development of African 
commerce by Ptolemy II. and the building of the 
Jewish temple at Leontopolis under Ptolemy VI. 
may be mentioned. Palestine was an Egyptian 
province until 198 B.C., when Antiochus III. the 
Great conquered it. The attempt of Ptolemy VI. 
Philometor to regain it (I Mace. xi. 1) was ended by 
his death in 145 B.C. 

The Biblical name (land of) "Mizraim," or (in 
more poetic style) "Mazor," is Semitic ("Misri" is 
the earliest Babylonian form) and may have some 
connection witli that of the neighboring Musri (see 
above). The Biblical (dual?) form was usually un- 
derstood as an allusion to the prehistoric division 
of Egypt, but, although the Hebrew (and Assyrian) 
has a speeial name for Upper Egypt, "Pathros" 
(Isa. xi. 1; Jer, xliv. 1; Ezek. xxix. 14, xxx. 14), 
the ending "ayim" is now considered as a locative 
by scholars. The common Egyptian designation 
was "Keme[t] "= "black." i.e., "fertile land." 
The classical name " vEgyptos " seems to be con- 
nected with the old name of Memphis, "(H)a(t)- 
ka-ptah." The Bible calls Egypt also "land of 
Ham" (Ps. cv. 23, 27; comp. Ps. lxxviii. 51, cvi. 
22), or contemptuously "Rahab," i.e., "boasting 
monster." The fertility of the country is men- 
tioned in Gen. xiii. 10; Ex. xvi. 3; and Num. xi. 
5 (see Deut. xi. 10 on the necessity of laborious 
irrigation). That the country depends on the Nile 
(the abundance and overflowing of which are prover- 
bial ; see Nile) is indicated by the Prophets, who 
threaten Egypt often with its drying up (e.g., Isa. 
xix. 5; comp. also the kiue of Pharaoh's dream 
rising from the river [Gen. xl.J). On other disad- 
vantages of the country see Plagues. 

The monuments furnish several examples of per- 
mission given to large numbers of fugitive or starv- 




j n g - iii the land, as Gen. \lviii. 

Traders had always free access, as Gen 
x\\i ii. 25 and xlii. "-' imply. Hence aftei i 700 b < 
Egj pi had i onstantly a large Semitic 
Biblical element of population.especially along 
Keferences. the eastern frontier of the Delta (comp. 
Isa. xix. 18 on five cities speaking the 
language of Canaan). The Egyptian cities mentioned 
in the Bible all belong to this pari of the country. 
Thebes) and Syene show, however, that the 
land south of Memphis also was well known in Pal 
More Jews and Samaritans immigrated in 
the Ptolemaic time, settling especially around Alex 
andria. The heavy taxation of the Egyptian pi-a-,- 
antsaml their serfdom, from which only the priests 
exempted, are mentioned in Gen. xlvii. 20 26; 
tin' hard socage of the Israelites in Egypl was tin- 
usual one of royal serfs, into the condition of whom 

"durrah") were especially characteristic products 
of the fields (Ex. ix. 31-32, R. V.). 

In morals, tin- marriage of brothers and sisters as 
a regular institution was the principal difference. 
Women bad greater liberty even than In Babylonia 
(comp Gen. xxxix.). The Egyptianswere very in- 
dustrious (as their gigantic constructions attest), but 

neither enterprising (hence they never made good 
sailors or trailers) nor warlike. From the earliest 
period they preferred to employ foreign mercenaries 
(comp. Jer. xlvi. 9; Ezek. xxvii. lit). Heme Egypt 
a conquering power only on a rather limited 
scale (comp. on its military weakness II Kings xviii. 
21; tsa. xxxvi. 6). The country exercised a strong 
influence in the development of Eastern culture 
chiefly bj its remarkable art and industries, less by 
science because of the national writing, the hiero- 
glyphs, which could nol be adapted toother lan- 

TeU al-Tahudtyyab (The Mown] of the Jews), Egypt. 

(Ftom "Mctnobt t,£ Eg>pt BxploraUoD Kuo.i.") 

the colonists of Goshen had to enter. The most im- 
portant industry, the weaving of various kinds of 
linen (of which"buz" [byssus] and " sheah. " kept 
their Egyptian names with the Bcbrews), is alluded 
to in [sa. xix. 9; Ezek. xxvii. 7; and Prov.vii. 16. 
of Egyptian customs, the shaving of the heard and 
(sometimes) of the head (which, however, the better 
9, except the priests, covered again by a wig), 
incision, the laws of clean and unclean (almost 
as complicated as those of Israel and often quite 
analogous), the custom of embalming the dead by 
along process (mummification), and the long mourn 

big are alluded to in Gen. xli. II; Joshuav. 9(?); 

\liii. :vi, xlvi. ;S6, 1. 2-3, respectively. Other- 
wise the customs did not differ very much from those 
of the Syrian peasants! heer largely replaced wine, as 

cast ii, etc., did the olive oil, and linen the woolen 

clothing of Syria). Flax and spelt (the I lern 

guages (what the Greeks called hieratic writing 
was merely t he cursive form ; the demotic was a kind 
of stenography, developed from that cursive after 
700 b.c). 

Of the enormous number Of local divinities (usu- 
ally arranged in triads -father, mother, and child — 
as in Babylonia) the Bible mentions only the god of 
Thebes, since the l*th dynasty the official deity of 
Egypt (see Amon); for the sun god (with whom later 
religion tried to identify almost all ancient local gods) 
Bei I '.i . i ii-siii:mi sn. For the reputation of Egyp- 
tian learning see an allusion in 1 K in l; s i\. 80; for 
magic. Isa. xix. :i: Ex. vii. 11. The magic litera 
ture is. indeed, endless. Modern scholars consider 

Babylonia as generally more advanced in science (ex 

cept, perhaps, medicine, which wasan Egyptian spe 
cialty). Contrary to a popular erroneous view on 
the character of the Egyptians as gloomy, they were 




extremely superstitious, but less serious than any 
branch of the Semites, as a very remarkable enter- 
taining literature and their non-official art demon- 
strate. Their massive architecture forms no contra- 
diction, being relieved by polychromy. 

Bibliography: Bistory: Flinders Petrie, Bistonj of Egypt, 
I895et sea.; Wiedemann, Aeguptiscln <;. ■-«■ I i.l.sst; E.Meyer, 
i,,-,l,„l,t, des Ait, 11 Aegyptens, Berlin. 18S7; Maspero, 
History "f tin Ann, m <n u nl, 3 vols., French and English, 
1895 99 

Contact between Egypt and Uia: W.Mas Miiller, ^tsicn 
urn! Europa, 1893; Idem, in Hi r All, orient, 1901, No. 4. 

Egypto-BibllcaJ questions: Ebeis, Aegypten and die 
Willi, r Monte, 1887 (antiquated); Brugsch, Steininschrift 
in,, t Bibt Iwort, 189] (requires caution). 

Language: la man. i:,jin,ti,in Grammar, German and 
English. 1894; Brugscb., Hieroglvphtech-DemottBeha W6r- 
t, , h, 1861 BO. For lie I optic, Stern, KoptiscJie Qrammatik, 
1880; SteindortT, ai the Porta Liuguarum Orientalium, 
1894; Peyron, Lexicon Coptic um, lSK. on the Egyptian loan- 
words from Semitic Bondi, /'</a Hebrtf&jcft-P/iontetecften 
Sprachzweige AngehOrige LennwOrter, etc., 1886. 

Mania as and customs: Erman, Aegypten und Aegyp- 
tisches L, bt n. 1883 (Eng. ed., 1894); Brugsch, X»ie Aegyptu- 
logie, 2ded„ 1897. 

Religion: Wiedemann, JDie Religion der Alien Egypter, 
1890 I Eng. transl., 1896); Brugsch, lieligiun und Mythotogie, 
1884 88; Maspero. ia Mythnlogie Egypt iennc, 1889; Lan- 
zone, I>izi,,miii,i di Miii'liigin Egiziana, 1881. 

Names : Proper names, Liebleiu, Ho roghiiihiscln s Pi ami n- 
iriirhii,. 1871-4K; ancient geographical names. Brugscb, i>ic- 
tiiiuiiuiii Qeorgraphigue, 1877-80 (witb much caution). 

Literature: Translations in i;ni,ids,if the Past; Griffith, in 
T/o World's Besi Ltteratui-e, 1897; Petrle, Egyptian Tales, 
1893; Maspero. Cnntes Populaires, 1883; W. M. M idler, .Die 
l.t, i„ <i„„*i, der Alien Aegypter, 1899; Wiedemann, in J>er 
Atte Orient, lii., part 4: the so-called Booft or' the ZJeircf, 
ed. Naville, 18S6; transl. by Le Page Renouf, 1896 ef seg. 

Deciphernient of hieroglyphics : Brugscb, X)ir Aegypto- 
logie, Leipsic, 1881. 

A rt : Perrot and Chipiez, Eng. ed., 1S83 ; Maspero, Egyp- 
tian Archeology, Eng. transl., 1893 ; Flinders Petrie, Egyp- 
tian I >, .niiiiir, Art, 1895; Roseiiini, Monumenti del Egilto, 
184£ et st'/.: champollion, Monuments, 1835-45; Lepsius, 
Denhniiil, i ans Aegypten, 184!*-58; annual publications of 
the Egypt Exploration Fund and Survey of Egypt. 

Repertories on Egypt in general: Jolowicz, llihtintheca 
JEgyptieica, 1858-61.; Ibraliiui-Hilmy, Tlte Literature of 
Egypt and tin Sudan, 1886-88. 
e. g. it. W. M. M. 

In Medieval and Modern Times : * The 

history of the Jews in Egypt during the Greek and 
Ptolemaic periods centers almost completely in the 
city of Alexandria (see Jew. Encyc. i. 361 el seg.). 
As early as the third century B.C. there was a wide- 
spread Jewish diaspora in Egypt. In addition to 
those in Alexandria a colony of Jews existed during 
the Ptolemaic period at Athribis in Lower Egypt, on 
the Damietta arm of the Nile (ib. ii. 273). An in- 
scription in which the Jews dedicate a synagogue to 
Ptolemy and Berenice has recently been found near 
the canal which connected Alexandria with the Ca- 
nopic mouth of the Delta (T. Heinach, in R. E. J. 
xlv. 161; Mahaffy, "Hist, of Egypt," p. 192). 
Farther to the south, on the west hank of the Nile, 
was Fayum. identified by Saadia (to Ex. i. 11) with 
Pithom. A papyrus of the year 238-^237 B.C. men- 
tions a certain [onathas of this city (Mahaffy, "The 
Flinders Petrie Papyri," part ii., pp. 15, 23). An- 
other papyrus of the same date records that the 
Jews ami Greeks in a place called "Psenyris" had 
to paj a special tax fortheslaves in their possession 
(compare idem, "Hist. of Egypt," p. 93; T. L. Z. 
1896, 2. p. 35); and in a third papyrus a place called 
"Samareia" in the Fayum is mentioned, together 
with a number of names, among which is that of a 
certain Sabbathion, a Jewess according to Schurer 
{ib 20 p. 522) and Reinacb (R. E. J. xxxvii. 520). 
Another papyrus of the third century b.c. (Grenfell, 

* For the titles of works cited under abbreviations, see Bibli- 
ographs at tin- end "f the article. 

"The Oxyrhyuchus Papyri," i. 74) mentions a Jew- 
named " Danooul. " For the Roman period there is 
evidence that at Oxyrynchus (Behneseh), on the easl 
side of the Nile, there was a Jewish community of 
some importance. It even had a Jews' street (R. E. 
J. xxxvii. 221). Many of the Jews there must have 
become Christians, though they retained their Bib- 
lical names (< .g.," David "and "Elisabeth, "occurring 
in a litigation concerning an inheritance). There 
is even found a certain Jacob, son of Achilles 
(«. 300 C.E.), as beadle of an Egyptian temple. A 
papyrus of the sixth or seventh century c.B. con- 
tains a receipt given to Gerontius, quartermaster of 
the general Theodosius, by Aurelius Abraham, son of 
Levi, and Aurelius Amun, sou of David, hay-mer- 
chants. To the same century belongs a papyrus 
detailing an exchange of vinegar for must between 

Apollos of the Arab village in the Arsinoe m 

(i.e., Fayum) and the Hebrew Abraham, son of Theo- 
ilotus (s.c also Wessely in "Sitzungsberichte der 
Kaiserlichen AkademiedcrWisscnschaftenin Wien," 
1902, pp. 12 it trnj. For a Hebrew inscription at 
Aiitinoe, in Middle Egypt, see Jew. Encyc. i. 630, 
s.v. Antinoe). 

Knowledge of the history of the Jews in Egypt 
from the time of the Arab invasion is still very frag- 
mentary. There are a few scattered notices in the 
Hebrew chronicles and travels of later 
From the periods; but the best information 
Arab comes from the fragments found in 
Conquest, the Cairo genizah and in part pub- 
lished by Neubauer, Schechter, Hirsch- 
feld, Margoliouth, Kaufmaun, and others. To these 
may be added occasional references in Arabic works 
on Egyptian history and topograph)'. No attempt 
has yet been made to put this material together. 

During this period, Egypt was known to the Jews 
by its old name D ,_ iVD; for which, at times, was 
substituted tp JTDT'D (Ezek. xxx. 13) or D^'ID D13^D 
(Ezek. xxix. 10; see Ahimaaz Chronicle, 128, 7). It 
was also known as "the Diaspora" (n?13, Al-Harizi, 
§46; M. xli. 214, 424; J. Q. R. xv. 86, 88;' riV?3 
ib. 88). In the Ahimaaz Chronicle N'JlfjUQ is per- 
haps used once (126, 2; see Z. D. M. G. Ii. 437). 
This last is derived from p33. a name given to Fostat 
(M. V. p. 181; J. Q. R. ix. 669; synonymously, 
"llOf. ib. xv. 87), which was known to Strabo and 
other Greek writers as well as to the Arabs, who, 
for the sake of distinction, often called it "Babylon 
of Egypt" (Pauly-Wissowa, "Real-Encyc." i. 2699; 
Z. D. M. G. Ii. 438; L.-P. p. 3). The name "Bab- 
li-on" (Heliopolis) was popularly con- 
Cairo, nectcd with Babylon (Lane-Poole, 
"Cairo," p. 214). Cairo itself (Misr 
al-Kahirah, "the victorious") is called 1VD, or, as in 
Arabic, sinxp^N "IVD (S. 118, 7); it wasanew city, 
founded by the vizier Jauhar in 969 for the Fati- 
mites. The older city was farther to the southwest. 
It was called "Al-Fostat" (the camp), and was 
founded by 'Amr ibn al-'Asi in 641 (B. p. 341). It 
remained the official capital for three centuries, and 
the commercial capital up to the time of the cru- 
sading King Amalric (1168), when it was burned. 
Its Hebrew name was DKDDS, D'lVD DNDDD (Z. D. 
M. G. Ii. 451 ; Kaufmann Gedeukbuch, p. 236), 
"IVD LDNDDQ (8. 118, 5); or "the older M.," D'ISD 




n:: M, n (G. p. 34), np'njfn D'-rso (or np'njfot tus, 

B 136, 29). Synonymously, Fostal was culled 

DI^'J VlSt' or D'lVD T12L", iu accordance with 

tin- translation of T"i2l" (Jer. xliii. 10); by the 

dtes D'lVD fra'a 1 I L. notes, p. 61 ; compare Jer. 

xlvi. 30). Another Dame for Fostat wis ;j,>v (Zoak), 

r~VT |VX (Al-Harizi, "Tahkemoni," j -Hi; S. 118, 

i for the inhabitants ;yvniJ3 (J. Q. It- xiv.477; 

compare p'S mJ3. Curiously enough, Benjamin of 

Tudela uses the name "Zoan" for a stronghold 

between Cairn and tin' .Mukattani Hills. 

Alexandria was identified with the Biblical so 
ptJK (Nahum iii. 8) and so called by Ibn Salir 
("Elien Sappir," i. 2a), though the Greek name was 
used, DnvtD b'" N"nJD2^X (Conforte, "Kore 
ha Dorot," p. 5a); and. following the Arabic, the 
tile adjective ,_ n:rDS or ,_ nj2D (see Neubauer, 
Bodl. llehr. MSS."No. 146). Theregionof 
the east arm of the Nile was called by its Arabic 
CX'OI. i.e., Damietta; or, symbolically, 'X 
iinD3. *11D23 ("Abiathar Megillah" and Benjamin 
Of Tudela; see J. Q. R. xv. bil). In the letter of Al- 
Afdal's ex-minister of finance (see below) occurs the 
, DS , Ot3 , t3t; i, N= f 'f ™ 'IW'DB, Tamiathis, i.e., 
Damietta Z. D. M. G. li. 447). The Fayum was 
rally identified with the Biblical "Pithom" 
(D1JVD) and so called (Dunash b. Tamim; compare 
, "Gesch." llehr. transl., iii. 465). The gentile 
form was tJin'SPl (M. J. C. i. 40); or, according to 
d)ic, 'DVB?R(«-0., Saadiaand Xathanael). 
idia was naturally well acquainted with Egyp- 
tian topography. In liis translation of Gen. x. 13, 
14 he has the following identifications: 

dhv? = Inhabitants of Tanls. 

D - ::? = " " Alexandria. 

O'DnS = " " Behneseh. 

E-nrcj = " " Farama (Yakut, iii. SS2). 

D'Diro = " " Itiyama <u/< //*, i. 899). 

y rh02 = " *' Sa'id. 

D'lrc; = " " Damietta. 

Jerome was in Egypt iu the year 400; be mentions 
five cities there " which still speak the Canaanitish 
[»'.«., the Syriac] language." This perhaps refers to 
Aramaic — not to Coptic, as Krauss believes — and 
may very well have been due to the large colonics 
ot Jews in the land (J. Q. It. vi. 217). The part 
taken by the Jews in the Arab invasion of Egypt is 

not clear. In addition to the Jews sett led there from 
times, some must have come from the Arabian 
peninsula. The letter sent by Mohammed to the 
Jewish lianu Janha in Malum near Aila ( Wellhau- 
sen, "Skizzcn," iv. 119) in the year 
The Jews 630 is said by Al Baludhuri to have 
and the been seen in Egypt ; and a copy, writ- 
Arabs, ten in Hebrew characters, has been 
found in the Cairo genizah (.1. (J I!, 
xv. 173). Hebrew papyri tire found in the Theo- 
dore Graf collection covering the period 4S7-909. 
Tie- .lews had no reason to feel kindly toward the 
former masters of Egypt. In 62'J the emperor Her- 

aelins I. had driven the Jews from Jerusalem (Bury, 
"Later Roman Empire," ii. 215). According to Al- 
Makrizi, substantiated by Eutychlus, this was fol- 
lowed by a massacre of Jews throughout the empire 
— in Egypt, aided by the Copts, who had old scores 
against the Jews to wipe out, dating from the Pel 

sian conquest of Alexandria at the time of Emperor 
Anastasiusl. (502) and of the Persian general Shahin 
(617), when the Jews assisted tie conquerors against 
the Christians (P.. pp. 82, 134, 176). The treaty of 
Alexandria (Nov. 8, 641), which sealed the Arab 
conquest of Egypt, expressly stipulates that the 

.lews are to he allowed to remain in that city ( B. p. 
320); and at the time of the capture of that city, 
Ann, in his letter to the calif, relates that he found 
there -10,0110 Jews. 

Of the fortunes of the Jews in Egypt under the 
( linmiad and Ahbassid califs (641-868), the Tulunids 
(863-905), and the Ikhshidids. next to nothing is 
known. One important name has come down from 
that time, viz., Mashallah (770-820), the astrologer, 
called " Al-Misri" or " Al-Alaksaudri " (B. A. §18). 
The Fatimite 'Ubaid Allah al-Mahdi, who founded 
the new Shiitic dynasty in 909, is said to have been 
the son of a Jewess, or to have been a Jew adroitly 
exchanged for the real heir. This is probably noth- 
ing more than an invention of the Sunnites tending 
to discredit tin- Alid descent of the new house (Weil. 
"Geschiehte der Califen," ii. 600; Becker, "Beitrftge 
zur Geschiehte Aegyptens," p. 4). During the ear 
Her period of this dynasty lived the gaon Saadia 
(892-942). whose teacher in Egypt was a certain Abu 
Kathir mentioned by Al-Mas'udi (Griitz. "Gesch." 
v. 282). 

The Fatimite rule was iu general a favorable one 
for the Jews, except the latter portion of Al-Hakim's 
reign. This is directly confirmed by the iaudatory 
terms iu which the dynasty is spoken of by the au- 
thor of the "Abiathar Megillah" (discovered by 
Schechter, J. Q. R. xv. 73). From this time on 
Jews are found prominent in the service of the 
califs. Isaac b. Solomon Israeli, the physician (d. 
953), was recalled to Egypt from Kairwan and en- 
tered the service of 'Ubaid Allah; he was still in the 
royal service at the death of Al-Mansur (952). Al- 
Mu'izz (952-975) had several Jews in 
Rule of the his service. The Bagdad apostate 

Fatimite Ya'kub ibn Killis, who bad been the 
Califs. right-hand man of the I khshidid Kafur 
(966), was driven by the intrigues of 
the vizier Ibn al-Furat to enter the service of Al- 
Mu'izz. He was probably with Jauhar when the 
latter led the calif's forces into Egypt, and he 
became vizier under the calif 'Aziz. This Jau- 
har, who lor some time was practically ruler over 

Egypt and Syria, has been identified by DeGoeje 

with Paltiel, of whom the Ahimaaz Chronicle speaks 

with much enthusiasm (Z. D.M. G. Iii. 75). Jauhar 
is known to have been brought from South Italy; 
hut the identification is still very uncertain. The 
first fifteen yearsof Al 'Aziz's reign were dominated 
by Ibn Killis, whom Kaufmann has endeavored to 
identify with Paltiel; these were years of plenty and 
quiet. A Jew, Manasseli, was chief secretary in 
Syria (J. Q. R, xiii. 100; B. A. § 60; L.-P. p. 120). 
Hoses h. Kleazar. his sons Isaac and Ishmael, and 
his grandson Jacob, were in the service of this calif 
ii; A. ; 55) 

The foundation of Talmudic schools in Egypt is 
usually placed at this period, and is connected with 
the story of the four captive rabbis who were sold 
into various parts of the Diaspora. Sheniariah h 




Elhanail is said to have been taken by the Arab ad- 
miral Ibn Rumahis (or Damahin) to Alexandria and 
then sent to Cairo, where lie was redeemed in the 
tenth century (Ibn Da'ud, ed. Neubauer, M. J. C. 
i. 68). A letter from him is published by Sehechter 
(J. Q. It. vi. 222, 596), and one from Hushiel to him 
(t8. xi. 044). That he was settled in Fostat is proved 
by a legal document, dated 1002, in his own hand- 
writing. His cosignatories are Paltiel b. Ephraim, 
Solomon b. David, Aaron b. Moses, and Jalib b. 
Wahb. He is here termed " rosh" (ha-yeshibah ; 
J. Q. R. xi. G4S; "Teshubot he-Geonim," ed. Har- 
kavy, p. 14"). Early responsa sent to Egypt are 
made mention of (Hi. pp. 20, 142. 140), and one by 
Samuel b. Hofni (?) to Shemariah is likewise men- 
tioned (J. Q.'R. xiv. 401). 

That the mad calif Al Hakim (996-1020) during the 
first ten years of his reign allowed both Jews and 
Christians to remain in the somewhat exceptional 
position which they had obtained under the tolera- 
tion of A1-' Aziz is proved by the fragment of a versi- 
fied megillah, in which the ealif ^>X "101X2 fin (Al- 
Hakim bi-Amr Allah) is lauded as "the best of ru- 
lers, the founder of hospitals, just and equitable" 
(J. Q. R. ix. 25; Z. D. M. G. li. 442). But the 
Jews finalty suffered from the calif's freaks. He vig- 
orously applied the laws of Omar, and compelled 
the Jews to wear bells and to earn - 

The Pranks in public the w len image of a calf. 

of the A street in the city, Al-Jaudariyyah, 
Mad Calif, was inhabited by Jews. Al-Hakim, 
hearing that they were accustomed to 
mock him in verses, had the whole quarter burned 
down; and, says Al-Makrizi, "up to this day no 
Jews are allowed to dwell there " ("Al-Khitat," ii. 
5). According to Al-Kalkashaudi (" Subh al-A'sha," 
transl. Wustenfeld, p. 73) the Jews then moved into 
the street Al-Zuwailah. Both of these streets were 
in the northwestern part of the city, not far from 
the Darb al-Yahud of to-day. 

During the reign of Al-Mustansir Ma'add (1035- 
1094) the real power was wielded by his mother, a 
black Sudanese slave, who had been sold to Al-Zahir 
by Said, a .lew of Tustar. This Said had two sons, 
Abu Sa'id. a dealer in antiquities, and Abu Nasr 
Barun, a banker. Through the intrigues of Abu 
Said the vizier 11m al-Anbari was deposed and his 
place taken by an apostate Jew, Abu Mansur Sada- 
kah ibn Yusuf. After nine months Sadakah, fear- 
ing the power of Abu Sa'id, had him put to death 
I \\ ustenfeld, " Fatimiden," p. 230). To the eleventh 
century belongs the papyrus litter sent (1046) from 
Egypt t.i the Palestinian gaon Solomon b. Judah 
(" Mittheilungen aus der Sammlung der Papyrus 
Erzherzog Kainer," 1892, p. 127). It seems that an 
Egyptian community had been rent asunder by the 
presence in the synagogue of Solomon Sabik, a haz- 
zan who had been excommunicated by the bet din of 
Ramleh for witchcraft. Sabik's letter of recom- 
mendation from the Palestinian gaon was considered 
a forgery; and a new letter from the gaon was 
demanded (R. E. .1. x\v. 272: .1. Q, R. xv. 82). A 

papyrus deed of gift, dated 1089, names Abraham b. 
Shemaiah as head of the rabbinate .at Fostat, his cob 
leagues being Samuel the Spaniard and Halfon b. 
Shabib, the hazzan ("Fuhrer durch die Sammlung 

der Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer," p. 266). At this 
time there lived also Ephraim ibn al-Zafan (Za' fa- 
ran; died 106S), a noted court physician, from whom 
Al-Afdal once bought a library of 10,000 volumes, 
and who, when he died, left more than 20,000 books 
(B. A. § 142). 

At the beginning of the twelfth century a Jew, 
Abu al-Munajja ibn Sha'yah, was tit the head of 
the Department of Agriculture. He is especially 
known as the constructor of a Nile sluice (1112), 
which was called after him "Bahr Abi al-Munajja" 
(Ibn Dukmak, "Description de l'Egypte," ii. 46, 
Cairo, 1893; Al-Makrizi, I.e. i. 72, 477; Ibn Iyyas, 
"Bada'ial-Zuhur.'Mi. 109, 182; Al-Kutubi,"Fawat," 
i. 89; Al-Kalkashaudi, I.e. p. 27). He fell into dis- 
favor because of the heavy expenses connected with 
the work, and was incarcerated in Alexandria, but 

was soon able to free himself (J. Q. R. 

Jewish xv. 73). A document concerning a 

Ministers, transaction of his with a banker has 

been preserved (J. Q. R. xv. 168). 
Under the vizier Al-Malik al-Afdal (1137) there was 
a Jewish master of finances, whose name, however, 
is unknown. His enemies succeeded in procuring 
his downfall, and he lost all his property. He was 
succeeded by a brother of the Christian patriarch, 
who tried to drive the Jews out of the kingdom. 
Four leading Jews worked and conspired against 
the Christian, with what result is not known. 
There has been preserved aletter from this ex -minis- 
ter to the Jews of Constantinople, begging for aid 
in a remarkably intricate poetical style (J. Q. R. ix. 
29, x. 430; Z. D. M. G. li. 444). One of the physi- 
cians of the calif Al-Hafiz (1131-49) was a Jew, Abu 
Mansur (Wustenfeld, p. 306). Abu al-Fada'il ibn 
al-Nakid (died 1189) was a celebrated oculist (B. A. 
§ 151). 

In this century a little more light is thrown upon 
the communities in Egypt through the reports of 
certain Jewish scholars and travelers who visited 
the country. Judah ha-Levi was in Alexandria in 
1141, and dedicated some beautiful verses to his 
friend Aaron Ben-Zion ibn Alamaxi and his five 
sons of that city. At Damietta Ha-Levi met his 
friend, the Spaniard Abu Sa'id ibn Halfon ha-Levi. 
About 1160 Benjamin of Tudela was iu Egypt; he 
gives a general account of the Jewish communities 
which he found there. At Cairo there were 2,000 
Jews; at Alexandria 3,000, with a R. Phineas b. 
Meshullam, who had come from France, at their head ; 
in the Fay um there were 20 families ; at Damietta 200; 
at Bilbais, east of the Nile, 300 persons; and at Da- 
mira 700. At Mahallahf Yakut, iv. 428), now Mahallat 
al-Kabir, half-way on the railroad line between Alex- 
andria and Damietta, Benjamin found 500. Sam- 
ban (119, 10) mentions a synagogue here (n^TO^N). 
with a scroll of the Law (seen as late as 1896 by S. 
Sehechter) in a metal case, which was used only on 
Rosh Hodesh, and which was supposed to entail the 
death of any one who swore falsely after having 
touched it. Benjamin also found 200 Jews at Sefl 
tan and 200 at Al-Butij, on the east bank of the 
Nile. Sambari (156, 16) speaks of Jews also at 
Reshid (Rosetta), where Samuel b. David saw two 
synagogues (G. p. 4). 
The rigid orthodoxy of Saladin (1169-93) does 




not seem to have affected the .lews in his kingdom. 
,\ Karaite doctor, Abu al Bayyan al Mudawwar(d. 
who had been physician to the last Fatimite, 
treated Saladin also i B.A. § 158): while 
Mai- Abu ab.Ma'ali, brother in law of Mai 

monides. monides, was likewise in bis service 
L55). In 1U!<) Maimonidea wen! 
to Egypt and settled in Fostat, where he gained 
much renown as a physician, practising in the 
family of Sal 
adin and in that 
of his vizier 
Kadi al-Fa<J il 
al - Ba i sami . 
The title " Ra'is 
al Tmma"or"al 
Millah" (Head 
of the Nation, 
or of the Faith), 
was bes to w ed 
upon him. In 
Fostat, he wrote 
his" M i sh no h 
To rah" (1180) 
and the " Moreh 
N. bukim," both 
of which evoked 
Opposition even 
from the Mu- 
ll b in in e il a n s, 
« ho commented 

Upontle ill i.l o. 
R.Vi.218). From 

this plaCC hesent 

man) li ttei 3and 

OSS ; I </.. to 
Jacob, son of 
Nathaniel al- 
l-\i\ J Mini, on the 
do- Messiah 
in South Arabia, 

and to R. Hasdai 

ha - l.e \ i. i he 
Spaniard, in Al- 
exandria ("Te- 

Ol In Kiln 
ham." p. 

In 1178 he for 
warded a rc- 
quesl to the 

i A l ric an 
communities to 
■id in releasing 
a number of cap- 
The origi- 
nal of the lasl 

inent ha s 
been preserved (M. xliv. 8). He caused the Karaites 

removed from the court (J, Q l: xiii 104). He 
also served Saladin's successors as physician. 

Maimonides' presence in Egypt a1 ibis time was 
quite fortunate. A certain /ui.i. also called " 5Tahya," 
had supplanted the nagid Samuel for sixty four 

'lays Samuel, however, was reinstated. Zuta 
hoarded up much wealth, and when tin- nagid died 
(before 11(19). denounced bis manner of collecting the 

Plan if the CM i of I ;ni". Twelfth Century. 
(Afi.T La Pool*, " M ' 

revenues. Though the accusation was proved tube 
false, Zuta induced Saladin to sell him the dignity, 
anil under the name of " Sar Shalom ha-Levi " be 
greatly overtaxed the people for four years— prob 
ably from 1 IS") to 1189, two documents written 
during his tenure of office bearing these dates re- 
spectively (.1. Q. R. viii. 555). Maimonides, with 
the aid of R. Isaac, whom Harkavy and Neubauer 
connect wit li Isaac b. Shoshan ha-Dayyan, succeeded 

in driving Zuta 
OUtof office; and 
he and bis son 
were put under 
the ban for t la- 
de nunciations 
which they had 
burled right and 
left. The mat- 
ter was even 
brought to the 
attention of the 
vizier ( "]f>0). A 
megillah ("Me- 
gillat Zuta ") re- 
counting these 
events was writ- 
ten in rimed 
prose by Abra- 
ham bau Hit,-, in 1190 (.1. 
Q. R. viii. 541, 
iv 721, xi. 532; 
W e r t b e i m e r, 
"Ginze Yerusba 
layim,"i. 87; see 
also Harkavy in 
"Ha - Mi/pah," 
1885, ii. 5 13; 
Kaufmann, in M. 
xli. 460, and. I. Q. 
R. ix. 170). 

The severe 
pest that visited 
Egypt in 1201- 
1202 in conse- 
quence of an ex- 
ceptionally low- 
Nile, and which 
is graphically de 

scribed by the 
physician 'Abd 

al l.atif, is also 

described in a 

lb blew frag- 
ment which is al 
present in the 

possession of A. 

Wolf of Dresden (Z. I). M. Q. li. 448) 

It was during the nagidahip of Abraham Maimoni- 
des, who was physician toAl Malik al Ixamil (1218 
88), that Al ll.iri/i went to Egypt, of 

Al-Harizi's which he speaks in the thirty sixth 

Visit. and forty-sixth tnakamahs of his " Tali- 

kiuioiii " The former is supposed by 

Kaminka to be possibly a satire on Zuta (M. xliv. 

220; Kaininka's e.l . p xxix.; but DW3D niust refer 




to South Arabia). In Alexandria Al-Harizi mentions 
R. Simhah ba-Koben, the Karaite I toadiah (the royal 
scribe) and his sou Joseph, R. Hillel, and R. Zadok, 
thehazzan. In Fostat he mentions especially the day - 
yanMenahemb. R. Isaac. He also met Abraham Mai- 
monides; and in Egypthe began to write his "Tah- 
kemoni " At the beginning of the thirteenth century 
there lived Jacob b. Isaac (As'ad al-Din al-Mahalli), a 
renowned physicianand medical writer (B. A. § 163). 
A letter to Hananeel b. Samuel (p. 1200), author of 
commentaries to the Talmud, has been published by 
Horwitz (Z. II. B. iv. 155; compare B. A. § 160). 
In 1211 a number of French rabbis, at the head of 
whom were the brothers Joseph and Melr ben Baruch, 
emigrated to Palestine, and on their way visited 
Abraham Maimonides, who mentions them in his 
"Milhamot Adonai " (ed. Leipsic, p. 16a; see R. E. 
J. vi. 178; Berliner's "Magazin," iii. 158). 

Under the Bahri Mamelukes (1250-1390) the Jews 
led a comparatively quiet existence; though they 
had at times to contribute heavily toward the main- 
tenance of the vast military equip- 
Under the ment, and were harassed by the cadis 
Mam- and ulemas of these strict Moslems. 
elukes. Al Makrizi relates that the first great 
Mameluke, Sultan Baibars (Al-Malik 
al-Thahir, 1260-77), doubled the tribute paid by the 
"ahl al-dhimmah." At one time he had resolved to 
burn all the Jews, a ditch having been dug for that 
purpose; but at the last moment he repented, and 
instead exacted a heavy tribute, during the collec- 
tion of which many perished (Quatremere, " Histoire 
des Sultans Mamelukes," ii. 104). Under Al-Nasir 
Mohammed (three times sultan, 1293-1340) the trib- 
ute from Jews and Christians amounted to 10 to 25 
dirhems per head (L.-P. p. 304). 

An account is given in Sambari (135, 22) of the 
strictness with which the provisions of the Pact of 
Omar were carried out. The sultan had just re- 
turned from a victorious campaign against the Mon- 
gols in Syria (1305). A fanatical convert from Ju- 
daism, Sa'id ibn Hasan of Alexandria, was incensed 
at the arrogance of the non-Moslem population, par- 
ticularly at the open manner in which services were 
conducted in churches and synagogues. He tried 
to form a synod of ten rabbis, ten priests, and the 
ulemas. Failing in this, he endeavored to have the 
churches and synagogues closed. Some of the 
churches were demolished by the Alexandrian mob; 
but most of the synagogues were allowed to stand, 
as it was shown that they had existed at the time of 
Omar, and were by the pact exempted from inter- 
ference. Sambari (137, 20) says that a new pact 
was made at the instance of letters from a Moorish 
king of Barcelona (1309), and the synagogues were 
reopened; but this probably refers only to the reis- 
suing of the Pact of Omar. There are extant several 
notable fetwas (responsa) of Moslem doctors touch- 
ing this subject ; e.g., those of Ahmad ibn 'Abd al- 
l.Iakk, who speaks especially of the synagogues at 
Cairo, which on the outside appeared like ordinary 
dwelling-houses — a fact which had occasioned other 
legal writers to permit their presence. According 
to Taki al-Din ibn Taimiyyah (b. 1263), the syna- 
gogues and churches in Cairo had once before been 
closed. This fanatical Moslem tills his fetwas with 

invectives against the Jews, holding that all their 
religious edifices ought to be destroyed, since they 
had been constructed during a period when Cairo 
was in the hands of heterodox Moslems, Ismailians, 
Kannatians, and Nusairis (R. E. J. xxx. 1, xxxi. 213; 
Z. D. M. G. liii. 51). The synagogues were, however, 
allowed to stand (Weil, I.e. iv. 270). Under the same 
sultan (1324) the Jews were accused of incendiarism 
at Fostat and Cairo; they bad to excidpate them- 
selves by a payment of 50.000 gold pieces (Quatre- 
mere, i.e. ii. 16). The dignity which Moses Maimonides 
had given to Egyptian-Jewish learning was not 
maintained by his descendants. In 1314 the French 
philosopher and exegete Joseph Caspi went on a spe- 
cial mission to Egypt, where he hoped to draw in- 
spiration for philosophical study ; but he was much 
disappointed, and did not remain there for any 
length of time (Gratz, "Gesch." vii. 362). During 
the period just referred to lived Abu al-Muna al 
Kuhin al-Attar, who compiled a much-used phar- 
macopoeia (ed. Cairo, 1870, 1883; B. A. § 176). and 
the apostate Sa'd ibn Mansur ibn Kammuna (1280), 
who wrote a number of tracts on philosophy and an 
interesting controversial tract on Judaism, Christi- 
anity, and Islam (B. A. § 178). 

Under the Burji Mamelukes the Franks again at- 
tacked Alexandria (1416), and the laws against the 
Jews were once more strictly enforced by Sheik al- 
Mu'ayyid (1412-21); by Ashraf Bars 
In the Bey (1422-38), because of a plague 
Fifteenth which decimated the population in 

Century. 1438; by Al-Zahir Jakmak (1438-53); 
and by Ka'it-Bey (1468-95). The last- 
named is referred to by Obadiah of Bertinoro (O. p. 
53). The Jews of Cairo were compelled to pay 
75,000 gold pieces (Muir, "Mamluks," pp. 136, 154. 
180). During this century two travelers visited 
Egypt — namely, Meshullam of Volterra (1481) and 
Obadiah of Bertinoro (1488), just mentioned — and 
they have left accounts of what they saw there (see 
Bibliography, below). Meshullam found 60 Jewish 
householders in Alexandria, but no Karaites or Sa- 
maritans; there were two synagogues, a large and a 
small one. Fostat was in ruins; but he mentions 
the Elijah and the Damwah synagogues. In Cairo 
he found 500 Jewish householders, 22 Karaites, and 
50 Samaritans; six synagogues, and a royal inter- 
preter of Jewish descent, one Tagribardi. Of other 
prominent .Tens he mentions ]{. Samuel "pi a rich 
and charitable man, physician to the sultan, and his 
son Jacob; R. Joshua "I0r6x and Zadakah b. n31J> 
(M. V. pp. 176-187). 

Obadiah was protected in Alexandria by R. Moses 
Grasso, interpreter for the Venetians, whom he men- 
tions sis a very prominent man. He speaks of only 
25 Jewish families there; but there were 700 Jews 
in Cairo, 50 Samaritans, and 150 Karaites. The Sa- 
maritans, he says, are the richest of all the Jews, 
and are largely engaged in the business of banking. 
He also met there Anusim from Spain (O. p. 51). 
The Jewish community must have been greatly aug- 
mented by these exiles. They were well received, 
though occasionally their presence caused strife, as 
in the case of Joseph ibn Tabul, who insisted upon 
joining the Sephardim, though he really belonged 
to the Arabic community. Sulaimah ibn Uhna and 



— ■ 

I r,ANR*m..T0 8 ■■B.Jl-UAH.TW.UmifHtTOEr. 

■ \ 






Hayyim Vital interfered, and copies of their letters 
to iini Tabu! have been preserved (Frumkin, "Eben 
Shemuel," p. 7>. Amoug their number may be 
mentioned Moses b. Isaac Alashkar, Samuel Sidillo 
(1455-1530), 1 >avid ibn Abi Zimra (1470-1572), Jacob 
Berab (whocame IV.. in Jerusalem in 1522; Frumkin, 
p. 30), and Abraham ibn Shoshan, the last three 
holding official positions as rabbis. Moses de Cas- 
tro, a pupil of Berab, was at the head of the rabbin- 
ical school at t 'airo. 

On Jan. 22, 1517, the Turkish sultan, Salim I., de- 
feated Tuman Bey, the last of the .Mamelukes. He 
made radical changes in the affairs of the Jews, 

abolishing the office of nagid, making 

Under the each community independent, and pla- 

Turks. cing David ibn Abi Zimra, at the bead 

of that of Cairo. He also appointed 
Abraham de Castro to be master of t lie mint. About 
this time David Re'ubeni was in Cairo (1523?); he 
-peaks of the Jews' street there I D'TinTI r6"DD = 
"Darb al-Yahudi"), of their occupation as gold 
smiths, and of Abraham de Castro, who, he says, 
lived as a pseudo-Mohammedan (M. J. C. ii. 141). 
It was during the reign of Salim's successor, Sulai- 
iniiii II. , that Ahmad Pasha, Viceroy of Egypt, re 
venged himself upon the Jews because De Castro 
had revealed (1524) to the sultan his designs for in- 
dependence (see Ahmad Pasha; Abraham de Cas- 
tro). The "Cairo Purim," in commemoration of 
their escape, is still celebrated on Adar 28. 

The text of the raegillah read on that day has been published 
by Lowe in " Ha-Maggid," Feb. 14, 28, ism;, and. from a jrenizah 
fragment, in j. Q. it. viii. :'. 7, *>ll. The short report <>f an eye- 
witness, Samuel b. Nahman. is given in Neubauer, "Aus der 
Petersburger Bibliothek," p. 118. Secondary sources : Ibn Ver- 

ga, Addita ma. p. Ill : s. 145, 9 (see .1. Q. I!, xi. 656); Josepb 

ha-Kohen, " 'F.mek ha-Bakah," pp. 76,95; fctem, " Dibre ha- 
Yamim," p. 73. 

Toward the end of tbe sixteenth century Talmudic studies in 
Egypt were greatly festered by Bezaleel Ashkenazi, author of 
the " Shittah Mekubbezet." Among bis pupils were Isaac Luria, 
who as a young man had gone to Egypt to visit a rich uncle, the 
tax-farmer Uordecal Francis (Azulai, " Sbem ba-Gedolim," No. 
and Mnahaui Monson (1594k Isbmael Eohen Tanujl fin- 
ished his " Sefer ha-Ztkkaron " in Egypt in 1543. Joseph ben 
Hoses >li Tranl was in Egypt for a time (Frumkin, I.e. p. 69), as 
well as Hayyim Vital Aaron ibn Hayyim, the Biblical and Tal- 
mudlcal c mentator (1609; Frumkin, (.c pp. 71, 72). 01 Isaac 

Lima's pupils, a Joseph Tabul is mentioned, whose son Jacob, 

a pi itnent man, was put to death by the authorities ("Sar she! 

Miziayim"; Conforte, " Kore ha-l)oi,,t,'' 40b). 

According to Manasseb b. Israel (1656), "The 

viceroy of Egypt lias always at his side it Jew with 

the title 'zaraf bashi,' or 'treasurer,' who gathers 
the taxes of tin' laud. At present Abraham Alkula 
l^l^^s] holds the position." lie was succeeded 
by Raphael Joseph Tshelebi, the rich friend and 
protector of Shabbethai ?ebi (Gratz, "Gesch." x. 
34). Shabbethai was twice in Cairo, the second 

time in 1660. It was there that lie married the ill 

famed Sarah, who bad been brought from Leghorn 
(ib. p. 210). The Shabbethaian movement naturally 

Created a great stir in Egypt. It was in Cairo 

that Miguel (Abraham | C lrdoso, the Shabbethaian 
prophet and physician settled (1703), becoming 
physician to the pasha Kara Mohammed. In 1641 
Samuel b. David, the Karaite, visited Egypt. The 
account of his journey (G i. t) supplies special in- 
formation in regard to his fellov sectaries, lb de 
scribes three synagogues "I the Rabbinitesat Alexan- 

dria, and two tit Rash id (G. i. 4). A second Karaite, 
Moses b. Elijah ha Levi, has left a similar account 
of the year 1654; but it contains only a few points 
of special interest to the Karaites (/A). 

Sambari mentions a severe trial which came upon 
the Jews, due to a certain "kadial-'asakir" ( = " gen- 
eralissimo,'' not a proper name) sent from Constanti- 
nople to Egypt, who robbed and oppressed the/n, 
and whose death was in a certain measure occasioned 
by the graveyard invocation of one Moses of Dam 
wah. This may have occurred in the seventeenth 
century (S. 120, 21). David Conforte was dayyan 
iu Egypt in 1671. In Sambari's own time (1672) 
there were Jews at Alexandria, Cairo, and Damanhui 
(R. Halfon b. 'Ula, the dayyan); at D'3^13 or D'sha 
(S. 133, 11; 136, 18;R. Judah ha-Kohen. the dayyan; 
this city is perhaps identical with Bilbao's, though a 
genizah fragment in Cambridge mentions the city 
DUTO in 1119); at Mahallah (R. Perahiah b. Jose. 
the dayyan), at Bulak (S. 162, 7), and at Rashid iS. 
136, 10), where he mentions Moses ibn Abu Darham, 
Judah ^XifL''D, and Abraham ibn Zur. Sambari 
gives also the names of the leading Jews in All \ 
andria and Cairo. His chronicle (edited in part by 
Neubauer, and reprinted by Berliner, Berlin, 1896) 
is chiefly valuable for the history of the Jews in 
Egypt, his native country. From 17(59to 1773 Hay- 
yim Joseph Azulai was rabbi in Cairo (J. Q. R. 
xv. 333). 

Solomon Hazzan gives the following list of rabbis at Alexan- 
dria during recent times: Jedidiah Israel (1777-82), his nephew 
Israel (1802 23), Solomon Hazzan (Is::.'.' 36), Israel M,.ses Hazzan 
(1862), Nathan Amram Use,:.' 73), Moses Pardo (1873 74>, and 
Elijah Hazzan (1888). Israel Yom-Tob, who was nominally chief 
rabbi of Cairo, died April s, 1892, and was succeeded by Aaron 
ben Simon i " tsraelit," 1892, p. 639). 

Two Jewish travelers have left an account of the 
condition of the Jews iu Egypt about the middle of 
the nineteenth century. Benjamin II. found in Al- 
exandria about 500 families of indigenous Jews and 
150 of so-called Italians. Each of these communii ii 9 
had its own synagogue, but both were 

In tbe presided over by R. Solomon Hazzan, 
Nineteenth a native of Safed. In Cairo also he 
Century, found two Jewish communities; the 
indigenous numbering about 6,000 
families and the Italian 200. Both were presided 
over by Hakam Elijah Israel of Jerusalem. Benja- 
min speaks of their eight synagogues, one of which 
is called "the Synagogue of Maimonides. " In Fos- 
tat. or old Cairo, he found 10 Jewish families, very 
poor, anil supported by their richer brethren in Cairn 
In Damietta there were 50 Jewish families, and be- 
tween that place and Cairo several scattered Jewish 
communities which had lapsed into a dead state of 
ignorance (Benjamin II., "Eight Years in Asia and 
Africa," pp. 230 et Beg.). 

Ibn Safir ("Eben Sappir." pp. 26 ct an/., Lyck. 
1 still) gives a more detailed account. He says that 
most of the Jews at present in Alexandria went 
there in recent times, after the cutting of the Mali- 

mudiyyah Canal. A number had gone from Rashid 
and from Damietta, so that only a handful of .lews 
was left in those places. The number in Alexandria 
In estimates tit 2,000. Among the synagogues « ere 
the Kauisal 'Aziz, a small one, and the Kan is Sarda- 
hil, a large one. The Elijah synagogue had been 




rebuilt three years before his arrival. He speaks also 
synagogue with Sephardic ritual for the Italian 
Jews, numbering 100, and of a special synagogue 
for 50 Jews who had come there from eastern Eu- 
rope. Of .lews in other parts of Egypl he mentions: 

Tanta, between the Rosettaand Damiettaarms 
of the Nile, with a synagogue; 40 families in Man- 
surah; 20 families in Mahallah, with a synagogue 
. 20 families in Bet Jamari (V); 5 families at 
Ziftrli, on the left bank ol the Damietta arm, 10 
.lews at Benha, ami only 1 in Fayum (p. 25a). In 

i In' f • > 1 1 i i ■ 1 600 families of native Jews and 60 of 
Italians. Turks, etc., following the Sephardic ritual. 
and 150 Kami i '■ families living in a separate quarter. 

New Synagogue al Cairo, Egypt. 

(Alt.. , 

Tin' Jews live in the northwestern pan of the city 
in a special quarter called " Darb al Yalnuli." The 
lanes are narrow, but the houses are large. The Jews 
ii to-do and are engaged largely in the banking 
business. The cemetery is two hours distant from 
tlir city, and the mans arc not marked by anj 
There is. however, a monument to accle- 
brated pious man. R. Hayyim 'D1B3, to which the 
Jews make pilgrimages, taking off their shoes as 
they approach it. Kapusi (?) must, have lived to 
waul the end of the sixteenth and at the beginning 
of the seventeenth century. Heis mentioned in a 
document of the year 1607, together with Abraham 
ro, Benjamin '; - ;np ('J'JNp, Confortc, l.e p 
41b), and Moses Arragel (Hazzan, "Ha-Ma'alot ii 
Bfoelomoh," p. 12a), and by Conforte (/'».). 

The head of the Egyptian Jews outside of Ales 
ainlria was l{. Elijah Israel b. Isaac of Jerusalem, 
Whose power over the community was considerable. 
Ibn Saiir mentions as leaders of the communit] 

i "in Tni i b. Elijah Israel, a judge; Jacob - s iiai 

the Ya'hrz family ; Jacob Catawi ; Saadia ; and Abra 
liam Rosana. In the ruined citj of Fostat be found 

twelve Jewish families, whose number was increased 
during tlir summer by the rich Cairo Jews who go 
i here for a time (" Eben Bappir," p 20a i. 
Blood accusations occurred at Alexandria in 1S44 

I.I. .St. "Neuele ( ll :SI 111. lit e. " ii. 880), in L881 (Jew. 

Eki re. i 366), and in Jan., 1902 (see "Bulletin All. 
far." 1902, p. -J4 1. In consequence of the Damasi i - 
\m vin. Monteflore, Cremieux, and Solomon Munk 
\ i-ite.l Egypt in 1840; and the last two did much to 
raise the intellectual status of their Egyptian In. t h 
nil by the founding, in connection with Rabbi Moses 
Joseph Algazi, of schools in Cairo (Jost, I.e. p. 
368; idem, "Annalen," 1840, p. 429). 

In 1892 a German -Italian congregation was 
formed at Port Said under Austrian protection ("fa 
raelit." L892, p. 1620), When Khartum fell into the 
hands of the Mahdil 1885), seven or eight Jews were 
found, among them Neufeld. They weri 
however, all foreigners . 

According t<> the official census published in 1898 

(i., xviii.), there were in Egypt 25,200 Jews in a total 

population of 9,734,405. Of these, 12,693 were 

ptiansand 12,507 strangers. Their distribution 

in the various cities was as follow s 

NO. "f .tews. 

Sot . i norat*. 












PrOt .... ..v. 



t pper 








:.'.". :.i < i 

The Alliance Israelite [Jniverselle, together with 
the Anglo-Jewish Association, maintains al Cairo a 

hoys' and a girls' school, founded in 1896. There 
aie Zionist societies in Cain.. Alexandria. Mausiirali. 
Suez, Damanhur, .Mahallah. Kobra, and Tanta. The 
Zionist society liar Cochba in Alexandria founded 
ih. o a II. l.i. •« school in 1901; it issues a journal, 
"l.e Messager Sionist," which in 1902 superseded 
the " Mebassereth Zion." 

The Egyptian communities were presided over 
for many centuries by a nagid, similar to the " rcsh 

galuta" in the East. < Ine of the i arli 
Con- est references to the Egyptian nagid is 
stitution ; to be found In the .Midi ash Agadal Be 
the Nagid. reshit (p. 1 10, Warsaw, 1876), Bis full 

title waspN dj) I'M (compare the title 
of Simon .■.■....■»./ = ^x DJ? Itfi '• Mace. xiv. 28), or 
hSjd Qi» TJJ (MS. Cambridge Add. No. 8124, Da 
vi.l Maimoni.i.s. 1396), or perhaps D^BTI IB* (Ben 




jamin of Tudela; compare /. I> M '• lii 446; J 
(J K ix 118); and Sambari (1 16, 20; 133, 7)speaksof 
him ;i- ^xil"- S; nv !,, ; N'L"J His authority al times, 
when Syria was a part of the Egyptian Mohammedan 
empire, extended over Palestine; according to the 
Ahimaaz Chronicle (130 5), even to the Mediterra 
nean littoral on the west. Ln one document ("Ixauf 
mannGedenkbncb,"p. 236) the word is used as syn- 
onymous with " padishah. " The date is 1209; but 
the term may refer to the nou Jewish overlord. In 
Arabic works he is called "ra'is al-Tahud" (R. E. 

.i xxx 9); though his c lection with the "shaikh 

al-Yahud," mentioned in many documents, is not 
clear Meshullam of Volterra says expressly that 
his jurisdiction extended over Karaites and Samari 
tans also; and this is confirmed by the official title 
ol the nagid in the instrument of con\ eyance i>t' the 
Postal synagogue. At tines he bad an official vice- 
nagid, called by Meshullam tjj *jnvi (M. V. p. 
187, 5); in Hebrew, DnBTl mojH-J- Q. R. x. 163). 
'I'd assist him he had a bet ilin nf three persons (S. 
133, 21) — though Meshullam mentions four judges 
and two scribes, and the number was at times in- 
creased even in seven— and there was a special 
prison over which lie presided (M. V. p. 186). He 
had full power in civil and criminal affairs, and 
could impose tines anil imprisonment al will (David 
ilin Alii Zimra, Responsa, ii.. No. 622; M. V. ib. ; O. 
p, IT) He appointed rabbis ; and the congregation 
paid his salary, in addition to which he received cer- 
tain fees. His special duties were tocollect the taxes 

and to watch over the restrictions placed upon the 
further construction of synagogues (Shibab al Din's 
"Ta'rit," cited in R. E. J. xx.x 10). Even theolog- 
ical questions — regarding a pseudo-Messiah, for ex 

ample— were referred to him (J. Q. R v. 500. X. 
1 4Ui On Sabbath be was escorted in great state 
from his home to the synagogue, and brought back 

with similar ceremony in the after] n (S 116, 8). 

On sinihiit Torah he had to read the Pentateuchal 
lesson and to translate it into Aramaic and Arabic. 
Upon his appointment by the calif his installation 
was effected with much pomp runners went before 
him: anil the royal proclamation was solemnly read 
see E X A. Her in .1 Q Ii. i\ 717) 

The origin of the nagidship in Egypt is obscure. 
Sambari and David ibn Abi Zimra (Frumkin, "Eben 
Shemuel." p. is) connect it directly with a daugh- 
ter of the Abbassid calif Al Tat (974- 
Orig-in of 991), who married the Egyptian calif 
the Office. 'Ailmlal Daulah (977-982). Bui 'Adud 
was a Buwahid emir of Bagdad under 
A I Muktafi . and, according to Ibn al-Athir ("Chron- 
icles," viii 521), ii was Idud's daughter who mar- 
ried Al Ta'i. Nor does Sambari give the name of 
the nagid sent from Bagdad On the other hand. 
the Ahimaaz Chronii ■ i the Paltiel who was 

broughl by Al Mu'izz to Egypl in 952 the title of 
"nagid " (125, 26; 129, 9; 130, I); and it is possible 
that the title originated with him. though tin ac 
counts about the general .lauhai ma) popularly have 

been transferred to him. If this i„ . ... f ] 

lowed by hi- -on. R. Samuel (Ahimaaz Chronicle, 
130,8) who ictions, especially to the Jews in 

the Holy Land, are noticed. This musl lie the Sam 

ucl mentioned as head ol the Jews many hundred 

years previous b) Samuel b. David, and claimed as 
a Karaite. The claim is also made by Firkovitcu, 
and his date is set at 1063. lie is said to have oh 
tained permission lor the Jews to go about at night 
in the public streets, provided they had lanterns, and 
to purchase a burial-ground instead of burying then 
dead in their own courtyards (G. pp. 7.61). The 
deed of conveyance of the Rabbinite synagogue at 
Postal (1038), already referred to. mentions Aim 
(Ibn?) Imran Musa ibn Ya'kub ibn Isliak al-Isra'ili 
as the nagid of that time. The next nagid men- 
tioned is the physician Judah b. Josiah, a Davidite 
of Damascus, also in the eleventh century (S. llti. 
20; 133, 10); a poem in honor ol his acceptance oi 
the office has been preserved (.1. (I I! 
Succession viii. 566, ix. 360). In the same cen- 
of tury lived the nagid Meborak b 

Nagddim. Saadia, a physician (J. Q. R. viii. 
557): he is referred to in a. contract 
dated 1098 (ib. ix. 38, 115), in the epistle of tin-ex- 
minister of finance of the vizier AlAfdal (Z. I). M. 
(j. lii. 440), and in a Lewis Gibson fragment (.1. Q. 
I! ix. 116). lie was maligned by the ex i larch Da- 
vid, and was forced to take refuge for a time in 
Fayum and Alexandria (ib. xv. 89). 

It is uncertain whether there was a nagid named 
Mordecai; the expression "Mordekai ha-Zeman" 
is probably appellative (ih. ix. 170); but the frag- 
ment of a poem (see "He-Haluz," iii. 153) ad- 
dresses him as " Xcgid 'Am El," which is quite dis 
tinctive (J. Q. R. viii. 553). His full name would 
then be Mordecai b al-Harabiyyah. He was suc- 
ceeded by Abu Mansur Samuel b. Hananiah, who 
was nagid at the time of Judah ha-Levi (1141). Ib- 
is not to be confused with Samuel ha-Nagid of 
Spain, as he is even in Sambari (S. 156, 24; see. I. 
(j. U. ix. 170, xiii. 103; M. xl. 417). He was living in 
1 157, but not so late as 1171, as he is not mentioned 
by Benjamin of Tudela When Benjamin was in 
Egypt the nagid was Nathanael (Hibat Allah ibn 
•laini. a renowned physician; B. A. SJ 145). This 
can be seen from Benjamin's description, though 
the title is not used (despite Neubauer, J. tj. R. viii. 
553) He is mentioned in 1104 in a marriage con- 
tract published bv Merx ("Doc. Paleogr." 1894; M. 
xxxix. 150, xli. 214: .1. Q. R. xiii. 103; B. A. § 145). 
During the time that he fanned the revenues the 
usurper Zuta must have held office (M. xli. 463) 
Zuta was ousted by Maimonides, though whether 
the latter took bis place as nagid, and what was 
his relationship to Nathanael. are not clear. A ke- 
tiibbah, dated 1172. in the library of the late I). 
Kaufmann, seems by its wording to indicate that 
Maimonides did hold the offioe (Z. D. M. <1. Ii. 451 : 
M. xli 125,463). Maimonides induced many Kara- 
ites to id urn to Kabbinisin (Unit/.. "Gesch." vi. : 

The dignity of nagid was vested for some time 
in the family of Maimonides; Abraham (1186-1287; 
a document from his bet din is published by D. W. 
Aniram in "The Green Hag," xiii 339, Boston, 
1901); his son David (1212-1300; S. 120, 15; 134. 
29 M. xliv. 17; " Kerem Hemed," ii. 100; "<>r 
Mcir." p. 31); the latter's son Abraham Maimonides 
11. (1246-1310); and Abraham's son Joshua b 
Abraham ib 124s 

In regard to the fourteenth century there is no 




Information. In the fifteenth occursa Nagid Amram 

(I41fl>. to whom a letter was sent (preserved by the 

Italian stylist Joseph b. Jndah Sarko) introdui 

rtain 1! Elias, who was < » i > a mission to Beek the 

Ten Tribes (J. <,> K. iv. 303). I.ipmatm of 

lhauscu mentions ll Hire in his ■• Nizzahon" 

Amsterdam, p. 96). In 1481 Meshullamof Vol 
terra mentions Solomon l>. Joseph, h hose father be 
fore liim had also been nagid. Solomon was physi 
to the sultan Al-Malik al-Ashraf EVil Be] (11 
V. p. 186); his dayyauim were Jacob b Samuel ri33 
fl31?), Jacob n"13KD7K. Samuel b. Akil, and Aaron 
\l appe. He was followed by Nathan Kohen Sholal 
(seen by Obadiah of Bertinoro, 1488), who was born 
in the Maghreb and had formerly lived in Jerusalem 
(0. p. 52). Nathan was followed by bis nephew, 
Quae Cohen Sholal (1509; S. 157, 1). A letter from 

his bet din is menti id, among others, bj Conforte 

" ly.n- ba-Dorot," p. 31a; compare Frumkin, I.e. 
p 20, and A/ulai, "Shem ha Gedolim," N'n. :i',''J. i. 
4">:i i Fora time he was deprived of his rank: but 
he returned to Egypt in 1500 (Samuel de Avila in 
Frumkin, -Eben Shemuel." p. 18; Brilll's " Jahrb." 
vii. 123). Abraham de Castro (1524), the mint-mas- 
ter, is given the title '' nagid " by Sambari (145, 10; 
!0 ; his nephew, Jacob de Castro (d. L610), 
i rabbinic authority. The same source men- 
tions (S. 157, (ii as i he last dignitaries Tjxn (TJNTI 
and Jacob ibn Hayyim. From the time of the Os- 
manli rule, says Sambari (116, 22), the nagid dynast v 
was no longer in the family of David, bul was given 
to the one preeminent for wisdom and riches. He 
ent to Egypt by the Jewish notables of Con 
Btantinople. The pretensions of Jacob ibn Hayy im 
bim disliked (116, 25). He was put under the 
ban bj Bezaleel Ashkcnazi, and driven from the 

I I- i ii" ' "i Qagid "as suspended about the mid- 
dle "i the sixteenth century (according to A/ulai. 
Gedolim," i. 16, by Bezaleel himself), the 
chief rabbi being given the title "tshelebi." David 
ibn Abi /.iniia was chief rabbi o I Egypl for many 
1570), and his decisions were widely fol- 
lowed throughout the Orient ("Ma'alol li-Shelo- 
moh " p I8h The title "nagid " given to Berab 

insa, Qi 30, i 87) is purely Ii rifle. 

The following is a tentative list of the negidim, 
as far as tin \ can at present be determined: 

Tenth i 'i ntUi y 
PUtlel sa I (?) 

Eleventh I ■ tituru 
uli al Ism lli Meborak b. Saadla 

JMali i- (Mordeoal b rI ii ... 

til ('■ ill inn. 
Bamiiel h m. i.. Nail in i lllali 


lecMth Centura 
mi'« i, Lbnuuun M aides ll 

"i' Joshua I. \ Mnlm. nn. I. - 


I i 

Soloi i I.. Josepl 

ViIiniii K'.h.n Slmlitl 
[saac Koben sh,,|jii 

Si . /, enth i '■ hi m ii. 
Abml.i, [624) -i-jN- 

Jarob Ibn Hayyim 

Tin question of the relation of the religious lead- 
ership (gaonate) to the more worldly nagidship is 
extremely difficult ol solution on account of thi 
paucity of documents. The Egyp- 
Gaon and tians seem to have recognized the au 
Nag-id. tin nit y of tin- Bnl>\ Ionian geonim; for 
i hoy addressed questions to them (Har 
kavy, "Teshubot ba-Geonim," p. 342 1. and oven 
helped the declining fortunes ol the Eastern schools 
Schechter, "Saadyana," pp. 117 et seg.) The head 
of tin- soli. i. .Is in Egypt was called, as in Babylon, 

"rush ha yoshiliah." or "nasi" — a title which was 

much misused, to judge from a responsum of Abra- 
ham Mai ides (" Teshubol ba-Rambam," p. 50a). 

The quarrel between the Babylonians and the Pales- 
tinians regarding the right to fix the religious calen- 
dar each year could not have been passed unnoticed 
in Egypt. All the fragments dealing with the con 
troversy between Saadia and Bi.\ Mi iu that have 

been found of recent years have c from the 

Cairo genizah (see R. K. .1. xliv. 230). There is evi- 
dence that the question became acute for the Jews 
in Egypt also, during the califate of Al-Mustansir 
Billah (1036-94). This evidence is the so-called 

W.iathar si roll " It seems as if a new Palestinian 
gaonate bad begun about 1045 with Solomon b. Ju 

ilah. Abialhar was a sei la Palestinian priestly 

family . I lis father Elijah and a certain Joseph (be- 
fore 1054) claimed jurisdiction over the Jews both 
in Palestine ami in Egypt under the title of " gaon. " 
They wen- bitterly opposed by a member of the ex 
i larch's family, Daniel b. Azariah. "the Nasi," who 
had come from Babylon. Joseph was supported bi 
the government; he died in 1054, and Daniel ruled 
for eight years without opposition (il. 1062). On 
hisdeatb, Elijah (d. 1084) held the office for nearly 
twenty-three years, in pis-.> this Elijah called a 
synod ai Tyre, ami ordained his son Abiathar as 
gaon. But about 1081 David b. Daniel, a descend- 
ant of the Babyloniau exilarch, aged 20, had gone to 
Egypt (Damira?), and in 1088 was in Fostat, where 
his claims were supported i>.\ the government, es 
p. eially by the nagid Meborak and by a relative ol 
his. Josiah ii. Azariah, the head of the school then 
in whom the title "gaon" is also given (J <,) R. \\ 
86) \t times the title does nol seem to have been 
distinctive of any office. 

Tin- Babylonian gaonate had died out with Heze 
k i. 1 1 1 . and the idea was to renew itinEgypt. David 
was declared exilarch ; and lie exercised power over 
the Jewish communities in Alexandria, Damietta, 
and Fostat, which he oppressed with taxes. He also 
had power over the Jews in Ashkclon, Csesarea, 
Haifa. Beirut, and Byblus, and over Tyre . o 
when it came again under the power of Egvpl 
(1089), causing the gaon there to flee. Daniel then 
lis own n prcsentatn c to t lie city In 1093, 
in opposition to Abiathar, David endeavored to be 
made "rosb gelayol " over all Israel I lis harshness 
caused Meborak to support Abiathar; and in 1094 
Meborak assisted in having Abiathar's power as gaon 
w i. tlged i.l i,i I! \iv 1 19, xv. 91). A defense 
of tin pretensions ol David by the school in Fostat 

n published by Si liei btei i ib siv, 476). Abia- 

ihai was probably succeeded as gaon by his brother, 
Solomon ii. Elijah, who had been "ab i» I din 




xiv. 481). Solomon was followed by bis son Maz- 
liah (c. 1131) Following a notice of Benjamin of 
Tudela, Bacher believes tbal the gaonate was then 
transferred to Damascus(i&. xv. 95). Tbis givesthe 
following list of Egyptian geonim: 

Solomon (1047) 
Joseph d L054) 
Elijah id. 1084) 

Mazllalj (c. 11815 

It is not known bow early tbe Karaites commenced 
to settle in Egypt. The polemics against them of 
Saadia Gaon (before ti'- >s i sbow tbat at that time 
their numbers must have been large; ami his activ- 
ity in this respect may have won for him his position 
at Sura (J. Q. R. x. 240). It was in Egypt that he 
wrote his polemical work against Anan, "Kitabal- 

Rudd " (915), and his " Kital. al-Tam- 
Karaites yi/. " (926). His " Emunot " was writ- 
in Egypt, ten in 933. Four years afterward Al- 

Kirkisani wrote his " Kitab al-Anwar." 
in which be gives an account of the Jewish sects of 
his day. Among these he mentions the " Kar'ites " 
(JVjnpTJN). so called because they used vessels made 
of gourds. They resided near the Nile, 20 parasangs 
from Fostat, and traced their descent from Johanan 
the son of Kareah (Jer. xliii. 4). who had emigrated 
to Egypt. They celebrated Sunday in addition to 
Saturday (ib. vii. 704). Saadia even had personal 
disputations with Karaites, notably with Abu al- 
Sari hen ZutalM. xli. 204). Of his adversaries in 
Egj pt, mention may be made of Solomon b. Jeroham, 
author of Karaitic commentaries to the Bible and 
of ( ontroversial tracts (B. A. § 40), and of Menahem 
Gizni of Alexandria, who wrote polemics against 
Saadia. and of whom a poem and a letter to the 

Karaites of Fostat have been preserved (L., Notes, 
p. 50). The oldest Egyptian Karaitic document pub- 
lished is a bill of divorce dated Fostat, 1030 (E. N. 
Adler in J. Q. R. xii. 684). Present knowledge of 
Karaitic scholars and communities commences really 
with the twelfth century. Cairo and Alexandria 
became, after Jerusalem and Constantinople, their 

chief centers; and Karaites were to be found in 
Egypt wherever Jews dwelt. Most of the Karaitic 
manuscripts in the Paris and St. Petersburg libra- 
ries have come from Egypt (Neubauer, "Ausder 
Petersburger Bibliothek," p. '.'It. At theend of the 
twelfth century there lived in Egypt the Karaite 
poet Moses Dak'i : Israel b. Daniel al-Kumisi (about 
1 162), who wrote a " Sefer ha-Mizw ol " (J. <}. U. viii. 
7ui . B. A. ? 70); and David li. Solomon (Sulaiman 
b. Mubarak, 1161-1241), who is described by his con- 
temporary, 1 1 hi Ahi Csaidia, asan excellent physician 
and teacher in the service of the Avyuliiil Aim Bakr 
al 'Adil, and as being connected with the hospital 
Al-Nasiri in Cairo (J, Q. li xiii. 103; B. A. § 154). 
llin al-Hiti, in his literary chronicle, mentions in 
Ramlcb the sheik AH b. Abraham al Tawil, and es 
pecially the nasi Solomon, who wrote on forbidden 
marriages (J <^ li ix. 140). i if Karaites in the fol- 
low ing centuries mention may be made of Yalith b. 
Saghir, author Of a "Sefer hi! Mizwot"; Solomon 

Kohen (Abu Mansur Sulaiman ibn Raf as), writer on 

t lieal subjects (B. A. ;:' 194); and Yatilh ibn Alii 

al Hasan al-Kai kaniani. polemic — all of the thir 
teeilth century ; Israel I). Samuel lia-Ma'arabi (1310), 

who also wrote a "Sefer ha-Mizwot " (B. A. i 184); 
Samuel b. Moses ha-Ma'arabi (1434), author ol - A 
Mushid," on the laws and commandments, as well 
as of commentaries to the Bible (15. A. § 199). 

Lit t le is known about the organization of the com 

munal life of the Karaites. The} - claim to have hail 

at the head a "ra'is," whose seat for a time was in 

Fostat; though Saadia (Commentary 

Karaite to Ps. 119, end) expressly states that 

Or- the Karaites agreed to have no nasi in 

ganization the Diaspora (L. , Notes, p. 52). This 

in Egypt, head was called "nasi" or "rosh ha- 

golah." A list of the nasis is given 

in Karaitic manuscripts, carrying their genealogy 

back to David, which fact at once raises suspicions 

For Egypt the following are given: Saadia, 980; 

Solomon; Hczekiah; Hasdai; David; and Solomon 

Abu al-Fadl — (sec Fi'irst, "Gesch.des Karaerthums," 

ii. 192; Notes, p. 77; J. Q. R. ix. 441). 

The fact of there being such a head can hardly lie 
doubted, since several of those cited above are men- 
tioned regularly with the title attached to their 
names. Samuel b. David gives a description of his 
Karaite brethren in Egypt in the seventeenth cen- 
tury, and paints their condition in glowing culms 
(G. p. 5; transl. in Neubauer, I.e. p. 40). He stayed 
in Cairo with the nasi Baruch; and he mentions espi 
cially one Abraham Kudsi (i.e., "of Jerusalem") 
This latter, together with the physician Zachariah, i< 
mentioned by Moses b. Elijah also (G. p. 34). Sam- 
uel relates further that many of the Karaites were 
goldsmiths, but that in his day the wealth of the 
community was reduced (p. 5). Ibn Satir likewise 
speaksof the Karaitic goldsmiths. In his day Mos< 9 
ha-Levi of Jerusalem was their hakam and Elisha 
their "rosh." Reference has already been made to 
the number of Karaites in Egypt at various times. 
Occasionally many were converted to Rabbinisnr, 
notably by Abraham Maimonides in 1313 (S. 131. 
15; " Kaftor u-Ferah," p. 13b; J. Q. R. xiii. 101). a 
fact due, perhaps, to the mild and considerate man- 
ner in which they were treated, especially by Moses 
Maimonides (see his "Teshubah," No. 153, ed. Leip- 
sic, p. 3ob). A similar policy was pursued by Jo 
seph del Medigo, who, being in Cairo in 1616, en- 
tered into friendly relations with their hakam, .lac lb 
Alexandra (Geiger, "Melo Chofnajim," p. xxxii.). 
According to a report in Jost's " Annalen " (iii. 84 
they numbered loo in Cairo in 1841; while E. N. 
Adler speaksof 1,000 in 1900 (J. Q. R. xii. 674). A 
Karaitic Haggadah, with Arabic translation for the 
use of the Karaites in Cairo, was published at Presburg 
in 1879 by Joshua b. Moses ("Hebr. Bibl." xix. 2). 

Tbe Samaritans also settled in Egypt at an early 
date, though very little is known of their actual bis 
tory. For Alexandria, see Jew. Encyc. i. 3GG; and 
for the Dosithean sect, ih. iv. 043. The Samari- 
tan chronicle published by Ni ubauer 
Samaritans (.1. A. 1869, No. 14) gives the nam 

in Egypt, the high priests and of the chic 

maritan families in Egypt. He men 
tions Helbah b. Sa'adah, who went to live in Egypt 
and was the progenitor of the 11a Mora and Helbah 
families (idem, offprint, p. 74); Garnakah b Relet', 
progenitor of the Garuakah family (p. 75); Raid/ h. 
Shafar, the first to go to Egypt bj sea, Joseph b. 




Sadakah ha-l.Iiii. progenitor of the 

ll:i;i family at Cairo (p. 77); and in 1504 oneja- 

tbc family l'ukah, who is called "King of 

" and "Abrek " (compare " He-Halu?," iii. 153, 

ud wbom the writer praises for his numerous 

i p. 80 In the fifteenth I ?)century lived 

Abu Sa'id al-'Afif, one of the best-known physicians 

■ airo, and a writer on medical subjects (B. A. 

Mention musl also be made of Muhadhdhib 

al Din Yusuf al-'Askari, author of a " Sef er ha-Mi?- 

wot " 

In 1481 Meshullamoi Volterra found 50 Samaritan 
families in Cairo, with asv nagogue (p. 185). A hang- 
ing for the Ark with a Samaritan inscription and com- 
ing from this synagogue was presented to the congre- 
a of Wiililin or to that of < Mm in the sixteenth 
ry. Samaritans are also mentioned by David 
ibnAbiZimra ami by Joseph del Medigo, whosaw 
them at disputations « iih AM ibn Rahmadan (Brull's 
"Jahrb." vii. 44). Of Samaritan literature inEj 

as yet known. Miiller and Kaufmans 
■ i that a papj rus fragment containing part of 
an acrostic litany is of Samaritan origin (" Mitthei- 
lungen aus der Sammlungder Papyrus Erzherzog 
Rainer," i. 39). The use of 1 [ebrew script by Samari- 
i- not, as Harkavy t li i n U^ (see "Allg. Zeit. des 
Jud." 1891, p. 57), peculiar. One of the Arabic Penta- 
teuch manuscripts described by I >c Sacy (" Memoire 
Bur la Version Arabe a I'Usage des Samaritains," 
i was bought at Cairo, and seems to have been 
written then- at the time of the Circassian sultan Al- 
Ashraf Kansuli al-< Hiuri i beginning of the sixteenth 
century) by one Sadakah b. Joseph D'STDDfl C'CV 
C'"VT2 C'wTIpn; ib. p. 17. compare a similar ex- 
pression, EHpn 3n3Dn B»Ot5>,in the colophon of a 
Cambridge Samaritan Pentateuch, .1. Q. K. xiv. 28, 
1- 8; 352; xv. 75). The Scaliger manuscript, from 
which Juynboll edited the Book of Joshua I Leyden, 
1848 came from the Egyptian Samaritans in 1584. 
[t was written upon the skin of the Passover Iamb 
(Juynboll, "Commentarii in Historiam Gentis Sam- 
aritanae," p. 33). 

The importance of the Jewish communities i" 
Egypt may be seen from the number of synagogues 
which formerly existed in and around 
Syna- Cairo. Arabic topographers of Egypt 
gogues in have even given accounts of them; 
Cairo. e.g., Ibrahim ibn Mohammed ibn 
Dukiiiiik (1850-1 106; " Description de 
I'Egypte," ed. Vollers, 1893, p. 108) and Al-Mak- 
ri/i (■• Al I li t:ii " ii. 164 i. These accounts are fo! 
lowed by Sambari (S. M s , 136; sec Schreinet in Z. 
D M G xlv. 296). There were at least ten syna- 
Mesiiullani of Volterra (M. V p. 185) de 
ix of them. The Karaite Samuel b, David 
ks of thirty one, besides 6fty ni" ,_ ipn T13 
iblc foundations "), of « hich there 
originally as many as se\ent\ i( J. p. tii. Following 
i of the s, ■ 

I. TheDamwa synagogue in fiizeh, on the west ban! 

Nil-, "i Kite Fostat : ain IS, 120, 4), ion (O. p. 18 and a MS 

In "Or Men." p. :;r. • :- M V. p. 183; Bee 

the spot I., which Moses Is Bald to hn m Bays 

thai ii '.' imiii fortj years aftei the desti u< tlon if tin 

ttreetherel taldl bo rowi I ol Moses 1 rod. Al- 

Kakrizl relates tha I made pilgrimages to this syna- 

gogue ■ a 1 1 ' i of Revelation. Sambari states that thei 

.lews Wei.- ;iei'llst I tO incite I heir tilellireil (rnlll Jill pails - ,f 

Egypt to come there on Adar : (Death "f Muses., the day fol- 
lowing being celebrated with feasting, n w;is also called 
" Moses' Synagogue " ( " Kanlsat Musa"; s. 130, 137; Benjai 
of Tudela, ii. 235); but InSambari's time it was in ruins is. 119. 
30; 187, iii. According to Benjamin of Tudela, the overseer of 
the synagogue was called " Al-Sbalkh abu Nasr" (p. 98). Berti- 
ooro speaks also of a Karaite synagogue In the place. 
'*. The Jaubar synagogue, bull! upon the Boot where both EII- 

jahahd I'l us Ii. Kliezei were born I " Al-Hitat." ii. 47). This 

i- in ruins (S. 121, 15). 

3. The AJ-Masasah synagogue In Cairo, built In the yeai 815, 
Beleucldan erat=8-4 c.e.], and restored under Omar ibn al- 
Khattab (816); situated In the Darb al-Karmah. 

4. The synagogue "f the Palestinians (" Al-Sbamlyyin "), In 
a section of Cairo called Kasr al-Sbam ; according to Ibn imk- 

mak, in the K:m ui Rum. A w ten tablet oyer i he rate says 

that it was limit in 336 >>f the Seleucidan era. forty-five years 
before the destruction of the Temple; but Hoses hen Elijah (G. 
p. 34) gives the date as 1531 (= 1291, If, as he thinks, this is 
according to the Seleucidan era). It is called after Elijah is. 
Us, Hi, win, is saiil to have appeared in the si mtheast corner 10. 
p. |si. About Its: the- sultan Ka'il Bey. or his vizier (-| K nn), 

wished tore ve the columns of the building for use in his own 

palace. He was Imiu-'lit nil with l.non imld pieces in. ih.i. In 
the northeast corner was a platform, on which was a celebrated 

Tnmh scroll, said to hav.- I n written by Ezra, and to which 

magical powerswere attributed (S. 118, 137; O. ib.). Moses 
b. Elijah speaks ot the many inscriptions and psalms which cov- 
ered the walls and the "nekal," as well as the names, written 
or cut in, of the many visitors to the synagogue. Benjamin II. 
calls it also " Kenisai Eliyahu " (Engl, ed., p. 233). It Is stand- 
ing in-day 1 1903); and E. x. Adler holds that it was origlnallj ;< 
church "f the third or fourth century, the titular saint of which 
was Michael (J. Q. R.ix.670). Samuel b. David tries to make 
out that ii was In former times a Karaite synagogue (G. p. 60). 

The best description of the synagogue is given by Ibn Safli 

(i.C. pp. 20 el si '/.I. He calls il l he " sv nani'Sine "f Ezra," mi the 

tbeorj that II was founded bj him Etosh Hodesb [yyai is cele- 
brated with nnich pomp here, and .lews flock from Cairo and 
other places with offerings. [bnSafli also mentions the many 
Inscriptions and names to be found upon the walls: the room 

in the southeast corner Where Elijah is said to have appeared; 

the cupboard In the northeast cornet containingthe Ezra manu- 
script; and especially the Genizah, to which he ascended by 

in- i ,f a ladder, lint found little "f value there. 

5. In the same pari ot the city (Ibn Imkluuk. again, has Kasr 
al-Kimn, in the "Jews' Lane' ("Zukak al-Yahud") was the 

synagog if the Babylonian .lews (" Al-'Iraklyyin "). In Sam- 

iian's time ii was iii ruins. Benjamin ll.musl referto iins In 
speaking of the synagogue " Al-Karkujan " is. p. 233). 

6,7. Ai-.Makrizi mentions two Karaite synagogues; one that 

of Ibn Shamikb (new [3 'ajS. EtT. 11). This is the onlj 

referred to by Sambari, In the district B"d':toSi< (I.e., the street 
Al-Khuruntush In the northern part of Cairo ; Makrizi. I.e. it. 27 : 
Ai-Kalkushandi.p72); It is now in ruins. Ibn Dukmak mentions 
in in Masmiima, In a small alley of the Darb al-Karmah (see 
The Karaites, however, speak of two; one, large and 
spacious, for the Jerusalem Karaites, with fourteen marble pi 

ani taininguve bekalot, fourteen scrolls, and man; Arabic 

S iraltic manuscripts; the 8 nd, smaller and private, situated 

in the courtyard ol a certain Aaron (G. pp. 6, 84). 

s. \ Rabblnlte synagogue Inwhlcb Sambari worshiped, "Ka- 
nlsat al-Musta'rab " (S. 156, 5; npare Conforte, "Kore hu- 

aa),forthe Arabic Jews. The deed of conveyance 
of the synagogue (1038) speaks ol II as situated in the Darbal- 
Banadlt In the Zuwallah quarter, n was closed at one timi 
Ellezei Skandati In 1580, bul had been closed 

for fortj veins before Sambari wrote (8. 160, 10). A si tally 

ited Bible codex, called " Al-Sunba{l," was brought i" the 
[623 from the i "vim hi v Ulage "f Sunba| : a licht 
kept burning before it, andon SImhat Torah It was carried 
und the synagogue is. [19, I ; perhaps the " i 
gambukl "; Bee Jew. Eni i i . Iii. 179). 

9. Synagog il-Hudroh (Al Makrizi). This also wasin the 

i quarter, In the Darb al-Ra'Id. 
in. a Samaritan synagogue ' ll-Makrlzl; M. V. p. 185) 
in addition, Sambari mentions a synagogue of the Wesl 
can Jews (ainc p*P St? niPM; 134,9), In which Malmonldes 
was burled beforehls bodj was taken to Palestine, and a i 

i,i [ K. Sedlllo, still standing in his day (S. 145, 16 ; bul 159, i 

has n"--:? Sevllla?). In the middle ol the nineteenth cen 
tury Ibn Safli (1 p. p. Ba found ten old synagogues In Cairo 
propel m mentions the following: (1) Synagogt ( 




H. ishmael, rebuilt, in which most of the Franks (European 
Jews) worshiped. Utached to U wasa Bchool for orphans and 

[ ,■ chl Synagogue Mizrayim, the oldest of all. 

aDO ui i" berebulll 13 Synagogue of the Portuguese, rebuilt. 
li Synagogue of B. Moses (Malmonides), still standing ; on the 

north side was n small r n before which a perpetual light 

burned. This must be Sambari's Maghrabl synagogue. (5) 
Synagogue ol II. Zlmrab (David ibn Abl Zlmrah). (6) Synagogue 
of R. fjayyim "Did; (seebelow). (7) Synagogue of tie " Ba'al 
ba-Nes"; who he was is unknown. (8) Turkish Bynagogue; 
wry old, and In which various mlnyanlm prayed 

Of the literary ability of the Egyptian Jews the 
old Cairo genizah is continually giving further evi- 
dence. The old Bible fragments still to be found 
there me minutely described by Ibn Safir, I.e. pp. lib 
etseq.; the standard Bible codex of Aaron b. Asher 
was brought to Egypt and used by Maimonides 
("Yad," Sefer Torah, p. 3, end). A codex of the 
year 1008, written in Egypt, was corrected by 
means of this standard manuscript (M. XX. 8). 
Maimonides found there portions of the Gemara 
which lie thought were 500 years old (" Yad.'' Mal- 
weh, xv. 2). Many of the writers and scholars 
Whose names have become famous have already been 
mentioned. All departments of Jewish literature 
are represented; but it was especially in poetry of 
various kinds that they excelled. This was prob- 
ably ilue to their intimate personal and 

Literary literary acquaintance with Arabic ;m 
Pro- thors. Mention may be made here 

ductions. of the dedicatory poem to the nagid 
Judah (J. Q. R. viii. 556, ix. 360); the 
" Makamah " of the historian Abraham b. Ilillel (ib. 
ix. 168), which shows also the influence of the Span- 
ish-Hebrew poets; the involved and extremely well- 
executed "Tarshish " (Arabic. "Tajnis") of the pro- 
fessional scribe who wrote the letter of the ex -minister 
of Al Afdali//.. ix. 29, x. 430); the verses of Abraham 
Maimonides, mentioned even by Sambari (S. 134, 
16); and the prose with occasional lapses into piy- 
yut, many specimens id' which have been found by 
Schechter. Themegillah form was generally used 
for historic;! I records, cither in prose or in poetry :<..'/■ . 
the Cairo Purim, the Zuta, and the Abiathar Me- 
gillol (ib. \iv. 449). From Egypt have come nearly all 
the fragments of the Hebrew original ot'P.en Sirach 
(Ecclesiasticus) Thenumberof the manuscripts of 
tins text testifies that it was widely read. Many pri- 
vate libraries of large extent must have existed in 
Egypt — e.g., those of Bezaleel Ashkenazi and David 
ibn Abi Zimrah; and the fragments of catalogues 
which have been preserved show the wide scope 
of the literary interests of the times (Schechter, 
■• Saadyana," p, 

The material used for writing was at first papyrus 
(for an example of the eighth century seeChwolson, 
"Corpus." p. 121; for a marriage contract of the 
ninth century see "Puhrer Durch die Papyr. Erz- 
lierzog Raiier." p. 262; see also 2'6. p. 234; "Aegyp- 
tische Zeitschrift," \\xiii. 64; "Magazin," vi. 250); 
later, parchment and paper were employed. The 
Egyptian Jews wrote in Arabic as frequently as in 
Hebrew, and wrote well. Sambari's remark to that 
effect (S. 120, I) is borne out by recent discoveries 
At tunes they even went so far as to write their He- 
brew in Arabic characters; - g., the Karaite Bible 
manuscripts described by Hornle c British Museum 
Karaite VISS." London, 1889), and the fragments 

published by Hirschfeld (J. Q. R. xv. 168). The;, 
busied themselves also with Arabic literature, frag- 
ments of which have been found written in Hebrew 
characters (ib.). 

As regards typography, one Jewish work only is 
known to bear the imprint "Mizrayim" (Cairo) — 
Ilayvim Vital's ritual book in t\\ o volumes, " link le- 
Yisrael" (1740). It waseditedb) Isaac Baruch and 
published by Abraham Zaddik. The establishment 
in which it was printed was owned by Abraham ben 
Moses Yatotu. whose workmen were Solomon Sa 
chata ben Samuel. Aaron ben Isaac Nnhmius, Israel 
ben Jacob Kimld, and Gershon ben Solomon. The 
book was approved by NissimSolomonal-Gazi, rabbi 
at Cairo, and Moses Israel, rabbi at Alexandria. 

With the exception of this one work, it is only 
quite recently that Hebrew books have been printed 
in Egypt, notably by Fa raj Hayyim Miz.rahi in 
Alexandria, lie has published the following Works: 

By Solomon Hazzan : n^ s » ,s nSysn 'B, a companion to the 
" Shem ha-Gedolim," dealing with Eastern authors (1891); 
anpmytt>'D (1895); rri'DDBl "a'D (1893); hdSs» p, an alpha- 
betic collection of ritual ordinances (19(10). By Elijah Hazzan: 
-,k... ni3 / D ^ 0Q ^ ne peculiar religious observances and customs 
of the Alexandrian Jews (1894). By Meborak Berheut of Trip- 
olis: vrs>B ay nns S:- rnjn 'd (1898). 

In addition, the following works have been print- 
ed in Alexandria: 

"n3N *ptfl, with commentary of David Maimonides (1901). 

mjn (1888); -cjirSs (1887). By Abraham Eestin : pec ■'idS: 1 
>x-OJ). "Hebrew (Iramraar for Arabic-speaking Jews" (1896). 

nx'?Di b&v pvn km (1880). 

■venn miay, prayer-book, Egyptian rite. 

P|DTP-| D "IDS'. 

The peculiarities in the liturgy and religious ob- 
servances of the Egyptian Jews have been indicated 

by Zunz ("Ritus," p. 55), and for Al- 
Liturgy. exaudria they have been explained at 

length by Elijah Hazzan in his" Newell 
Mi;iioin" (Alexandria, 1894) ; see also Ibn Safir, pp. 
1(1 1 1 seq. In the Siddur of Saadia there is given 
probably the earliest form of the Egyptian order of 
service (see the account, by Steinschneider in "Cat. 
Bodl." cob 2203, and 15. A. §62); but it seem- 
doubtful if this order was observed for any length 
of time. Maimonides found little occasion to make 
changes; though his decisions in such matters I" 
Came authoritative for the greater part of the I 
As the Palestinians and Babylonians had their own 
synagogues, so they preserved some of their pe- 
culiar customs; e.g., the Babylonians preserved the 
yearly cycle in the Reading of the Law ; the Pales- 
tinians, the triennial — an arrangement not touched 
bj Maimonides ("Yad," Tefillah, xiii. li. and of 
\v hich Abraham Maimonides complains (J. (J. 1! \ 
120; M. xli. bit; Benjamin of Tudela, p. 98; S. 118, 
25) The buying of certain mizwot was a het 
tary privilege. The " Kol Nidre " prayer was not 
recited in Cairo (Geiger's"Zeitschr." ii. ','"i4: M. xli. 
Mill. On special occasions, when more than seven 

were called to the Law on a Sabbath, certain por- 
tions were repeated. On week-days the Sabbath 

portion was read, but without the llaftarah (Samuel 
b. David, ed. Gurland, p. 6). According to Con- 
forte (I.e. p. 14a), David Maimonides' Midrashot to 
the Torah were read in some of the Egyptian con- 
gregations every Sabbath. 


THE .IKYWMI l.\( M l.ol'EDIA 


Some Egyptian liturgical texts have been found 
in the Cairo genizah, ami their peculiarities noted 

-. hi i liter (J. <,! R. \. 654). From tin se fra 
incuts hi' the Passover Haggadah have been pub- 
lished by I. Abrahams {ib. p. 41), in which the 
■ tnl reference in the "Memra" or "Logos" dis- 
- peculiar Egyptian traits. The first attempts 
to illustrate the Haggadah are also found in the 
ili fragments (Kaufmann, ib. p -! s l). Pecu- 
liarities in connection with the rile of circumcision 
are described in the letter of Moses b. Elijah (ed. 
Gurland, p. 85); but it is not said whether these are 
Karaitic. It was customary in Egypt toputaref- 
ereuce to the ritual bath (" mik weh ") in theketub- 
bah, a point upon which Maimonides, having the 
Karaite s\ stem in view, iusisted with rigor (" Tesku- 
liut." Nn. 1 Hi) ; also tn insert a promise from the man 
that he would not marrj an additional wife (ketub- 
bah of 1396;MS. Cambridge Add. No. 3124; compare 
"2 *w"D. i 94). It was also customary to carry the 
dead to Palestine for burial (Abi Zimrah, Responsa, 
11, 7IH. According to Ibn Safir (p. lib), in 
every synagogue in Cairo there is a small en pi maul 

li .1 also 73\1) in which an old copy of the Bible 

in book form, or portions of it, is kept, ami before 

which a light i> kept, burning (see above). 

Biimioguai'iiy: Many of the genizah fragments mentioned have 
been republished bj Schecbter, Saadyana: Qeniza Frag- 
ile, 1903. Compare, especially, Bacber, Ein 
\. ,.. r* fid -•■ n. - i >,■■'' ( di / ./"-'. '.■ si '/ in ./. ',i. /.' xv. ,:i 
eteeq.: Berliner, DU NagUt-Wilrde. in Jtagazin, xvil 50el 
s.-,- further Stelnschnelder and CasseU in Brscb and 
Gruber, Enci/c. section II., pint 28, p. 64. 

'tin- following is ii kej to the abbreviations used in this 
artli'le: B. = Butler, Iron Conquest o) Egypt. B. I. 

eider, Bibliotheca Arabica Judaica. Frankfort, 

1902. G Gurland, (iinzt Tisrael: New Denkmalei del 

Jlld. Lit, niiur. part I. I.v.-k. 1865. J. 1,1. It. = Jewish Quar- 

L - I'lnsker, i.ii.i. ni, l£admoniyyot, Vienna, 

I860. L.-P. Lane Poole, -I Hist'oryo) Egypt In "'• Middli 

1901. M. Monatsst hi i/i M i C. - Me- 

■ -. m. \ . Meshulla i Volterra, In 

Luncz, Jerusalem, i. O. = Obadlah ol Bertinoro, In Neu- 
baui-r. Zu-i i Bi teft I bad all s, Lelpsic 1863. K. E. J. = He- 
fuiv, S. sambari, ed. Neubauer, In M. J. 
0.1. T. L. Z.=Theoh>gischi Literaturzeltung. Z.D.M.G 
Zeitschrift det Deufschen Morgenlitndischen <;< >> Uschaft. 
z. H. B. ■■ Zeitschrift fur Hebrllischt Bibliographic, 


EB.AD MI YODEA' ("due; who knows?"): 

Initial words of a Hebrew nursery rime which, with 

I.I mi ( • mi \. is recited at i he close of the Sedi i on 

iver eve. It consists of thirteen numbers, and 

probably recited originally as a dialogue, if not 

in chorus. 

Question: "One whoknows?" Answet : "One i i 

hi I in beavena earth. 1 ' 

Question: "Two— whoknows?" Answer: "Two— [kj 
Ibe two tables of the Covenant." Choi ourGodln 

Question: "line,, who knows?" Answer: '"tin., i 
know: the three patriarchs." Chorus: "Two tables •■< tin- 

in. i in-- is our lb 

tion:"Four whoknows?" Answer: " Four — I know : 
i in- r- . i j r mothers In Israel." I horus: " rnree patriarchs, Two 
r hm- Covenanl i me I our God In beaven and on earth." 
Question: "Five whoknows?" Imnver: "Five- Iki 

tiw Ove l ks i>r Moses," Chorus: "Fourmothers In Israel, 

. . ." 

"si\ whoknows?" Answer: "six I know: 

thi MIshnah." Chorus: "Fivel ksol Mo ea 

l'"tir . . . ," 
Question: "seven who knows?" I i icei "8even I 

know: the seven da ol the week." Oiorus: "six ka 

of the MIshnah, Five . . . ." 

Question: "Eight who knows?" Answer: "FJghl I 
know : the elghl days of circumcision." Chorus: "sevendays 

Of ill,- \\.-ok. six . . . ." 

Question :" Nine whoknows?" .i nsti 1 1 •; "Nine [know: 
the nine months ol child-bearing;." Chorus: "Eight days ol 
rir-iiiii-'isi.-n. seven . . . ." 

Question: "Ten who knows?" Answer: "Ten— Iknow: 
the Ten Commandments." Chorus: "Nine months of child- 
bearing, Eight . . . ." 

(ion: "Eleven -win. knows?" Answer: "Eleven i 

know: ihe eleven stars" tin Joseph's dream: Geu. xxxvii. 9). 

"Tea Commandments, Nine . . . ." 

Question: "Twelve— whoknows?" Answer: "Twelve— I 

know: Hi.' Twelve Tribes of Israel." Chorus: " Eleven stars. 

Ten . . . ." 

linn: "Thirteen who knows.-" Answer: "Thirteen 
— I know: tii-- thirteen attributes of i,,.,i" (Ex xxxlv. *» ?>. 
; "Twelve Tribes of Israel, Eleven . . . ." 

This song, stated by Zunz in "G. V." p. 133 
to occur only in German Pesah haggadaha since the 
fifteenth century, was later found by Zunz him 
self in the Avignon ritual as a festal table-song 
for holy-days in general ("Alls. Zeitung des Ju 
dent hums," iii. 4('i'J). The theory, therefore, ad- 
vanced by Zunz, and worked out, in detail by 
Perles ("Gratis Jubelschrift," 1887, pp. 37 et seq.; 
BrQll's" Jahrb."iv. 97et seq.), that it is an adapta- 
tion of a German folk-song, must, be revised, not- 
withstanding the striking parallels brought by the 
former from Sinirock's" Die Deutschen Volkslieder" 
1 1851, p. 520), w here it is shown that what was orig- 
inally a peasants' drinking-song was adapted by 
monks, and the numbers (one to twelve successively i 
declared to signify : one, the Lord God who lives in 
beaven and earth ; two. the tabids of Moses; three, 
the Patriarchs; four, the Evangelists; live, the 

w oil nils of .1 1 si is; si\, the jugs of wine at I lie wed 
ding of ('ana; seven, (he sacraments; eight, the 
beatitudes; nine, the choruses of angels; ten. the 
Ten Commandments; eleven, the eleven thousand 
Virgins; twelve, the twelve Apostles. Other Gel 

man parallels are given in I,. Geiger's "Zeitschrift 
fiir die < li si hh hie di r Juden in Deutschland,"iii. 93, 
234 I not,- . 288; w bile Sander (" Has Volksleben der 
Neugriechen," 1844, p. 828) has compared an old 
Greek Church song; Kohler, in Geiger, "Zeitschr." 
/ .-. p. 239, an English Church song; and Green, in 
"The Revised Hagada," p. 98, London, 1897, a 
Scotch nursery rime. 

A peculiar feature of Kl.iad Mi Vodea' is that it 

proceeds to the unlucky number thirteen (see "I). M. 
I., '/.." \.\i\ p. 684, note), ami slops there as if to 
make the .lew feel that with him thirteen (= Srix) is 
a holy, and then lore lucky, number. The origin of 

the numerical folk- or riddle-song has been traced 

by Kohler (/..■ ) to ancient Oriental sources (eomp. 

( losquin, "Contes de Lorraine.'' i 

Bibliography Kohler, Sage und Sang m, SpiegelJIldisehen 

i ., i>, ns, in I.. (o-iL'-'i 's Zi it si in iii i r, i ,ii, Qesch. der Juden 
in Dcutschland. 1889, Ili. 234 '.'to, 


known as Zbarazer) : Galician ^' ii lilissli poet; born 
in Zbaraz, Galicia, about 1812; diedaboul l^ - -' He 
spent many years in Rumania and southern Russia 
wandering from place to place, and singing his songs, 
sometimes extempor lously composed, in cafes and 

similar resorts. Some of his poems were written 
down by his hearers, and given lo him lor revision 

when he was in better condition lor such literary 

work. lit was a real loll, poet, and bis sonus are 

siiii sung by the Jewish masses of Gnlicin and south 




em Russia Some of them are reproduced in Dal- 
man's "Jttdiscb Deutsche Volkslieder aus GalizieD 
uml Russland," pp. 29-42, 2d ed . Berlin, 1891. 

His first published poem, written in Hebrew and 
based on a Talmudical parable, appeared in " Kokebe 
Yi/h.ik," xii. 102-103, Vienna, 1848. His next work, 
•• Hazon la-Mo'ed," a satire on the Hasidimand their 
rabbis, is also in Hebrew (Jassy, 1855). His Yiddish 
songs were published with a Hebrew translation 
in four parts, under the collective name "Makkel 
No'am" (Vienna, 1865, and Lemberg, 1869-78). A 
new edition in Roman characters appeared in Braila, 
Rumania, 1902 (see "Ha-Meliz," v. 42, No. 125). 
1 lis - Makkel Hobelim " (ISO!) I and "Sifte Yesheuah " 
(1*74> appeared in Przemysl. 

Bibliography: L. Wiener, History of Yiddish Literatun in 
tin Nineteenth Century, pp. 77 BO; HoShahar, ii. 204-206; 
i . 387, 368. 

P. Wi. 

rabbi; born at Brody, Galicia, 1818; died at Rome 
Dec. 27, 1899. Having graduated from the gym- 
nasium of his native city, Ehrenreich. attracted by 
the reputation of Samuel David Luzzatto. went to 
Padua to study at the Istituto Rabbinico, where he 
received the rabbinical diploma (May 10, 1845). He 
immediately began teaching at Gdritz. where he 
became friendly with Isaac Reggio, whose daughter 
Helena he married later on. After a short stay at 
Triest, lie became rabbi at Modcna, and in 1861 rabbi 
at Casale, Piedmont. In 1*71 he was teacher in the 
families of Guastalla and Malvano at Turin, and in 
1882 he was called to the principalship of the Tal- 
mud Torah in Rome, shortly afterward becoming 
chief rabbi of the Italian capital. It was through 
bis efforts and under his direction that the Collegio 
Rabbinico Italiano was reopened in 1*^7. In ]s!i4 
the infirmities of old age compelled his retirement 
from the rabbinate. 

His chief literary work consisted of the part betook 
the translation of the Bible into Italian under the 
direction of Luzzatto, for which he translated Hosea, 
Micah, Daniel, Ezra, and Nehemiah. He also wrote 
a biographj of his father-in-law, Isaac Reggio. He 
was a member of the committee of the society of 
Meki/.e Xirdamini from its reestablishment in 1885 

Bibliography: Alia. de» Jud. 1900. p. 20; Vustttol*- 

I. E. 

EHKENTHEIL, MORITZ : Hungarian edu- 
cator and writer; born at Szilagy-Nagyfalu in 1825; 
died a1 Bud ipe I Di c. 21 1894 After teaching in 
various cities, he established himself in Budapest 
I devob d his time to literarj n ork. 

His published works are: a Hungarian grammar, 
written under the pseudonym "Erenyi Mor"; 
- Kli ine Di in-' iii Bprachlehre " Budapest, 1865; 
"JOdische Charakterbilder," Sfiros Patak, 1866; a 
Hebrew-Hungarian dictionary to tin ive bo 
Mosi - i itak,1868:"JlldischesFamilienbuch," 
Budapest, 1888; " Di r Gi isl des Tali lssy : 

"Rezeption uml Orthodoxie," ib 1892 Id 
edited them igazines " Jiidische Volksschul Vrad) 
Das Trail it ionelle, Indent hum "(Budapesl , the 
latter under the pseudonym "Dr. Preund." 

Bibliography: Petrlk, KOnyreszet; Kl^s aV.u, .1/ 
Nepiskolai Tanilat TOrtenete, p. 322. 

s. L. V. 

ABELE) : Russian educator and rabbi; born in 
Mitau. Courland, Sept, 20, 1837. In 1858 he becami 
teacher of the Hebrew language and religion at the 
Jewish government school in Priedrichstadt, Cour- 
land. In 1861 he studied at Berlin under Michael 
Sachs, who employed him as teacher for his chil- 
dren. He spent three years at Berlin University, and 
in 1868 received his degree of Ph.D. from Halle. 

He then taught at the Religionsschule in Berlin 
until 1870, when he became rabbi of Neudenberg 
East Prussia; eighteen months later he returned to 
his old post in Berlin; in 1872 he was elected gw 
eminent rabbi of Riga, but the election was not con- 
firmed ; and iu 1876 he was placed by the Russian 
government at the head of the Jewish school in Riga. 
This position he held for about twenty years. Ehr 
lich is now (1903) rabbi of TiKit, Prussia. 

Ehrlich has written: '"De Judicioab Aristotele do 
Republica Platonica," Berlin, 1872; " Vaterland and 
Landesvater," three sermons, St. Petersburg. 1883; 
"Le-Regel ha-Yeladim," a Hebrew primer. Wilna, 
1883; and " Entwickelungsgeschichte der Jiidischen 
Gemeiudeschule zu Riga, ein Beit rag zur Culturge- 
schichte." St. Petersburg,1894. He has also written 
critical notes to the " Be'er Mikael " of his teacher, 
Michael Sachs. 
Bibliography: Sefi r Zikkaron, pp. 81-83, Warsaw. 1891. 

ii. n. P. AVr. 

EHRLICH, ARNOLD: Bible critic; born in 
Volodovka, near Brest-Litovsk, Russia, Jan. 15, 
1S48. Educated at the universities of Leipsic and 
Berlin, he later became assistant librarian of Orien- 
tal books in the Royal Library iu Berlin. In 1 S 7S 
he emigrated to the United States, settling iu New 
York city, where he still (1903) resides. 

Since 1898 Ehrlich has devoted practically his en- 
tire time to his commentary on the Hebrew Bible, 
entitled "Mikra ki-Peshuto." The first volume, on 
the Pentateuch, appeared in Berlin in 1899; the 
ond, on the prose books (including Ruth, but nol 
Esther), has the subtitle " Dibre Soferim " (ib. 19 
the third, entitled "Dibre Nebuah " (ib. 1901), in- 
eliidesall the Prophets; and the fourth and last vol- 
ume, on the poetical works of the Old Testament, is 
in course of preparation. 

Bibliography: w. Frankenberg, in G6ttingischi 
Anzeigen.v. 162,333-338; Hebrew Standard. May 9, 1902; 
Ha-Maggid, 1901, Nos.23 26; Ha-SftOoaft, v.546 562. 
II. R, P. Wi. 

EHRLICH, HEINRICH: German composer, 

pianist, and musical critic; born at Vienna Oct. 5, 
1822; died Dec. 20, 1899. lie began his musical 
career at Bucharest and Jassy. and for some years 
>vas court pianist to George V. of Hanover. From 
]s.V> to lsilj lie lived successively at Wiesbaden, in 
England, and at Frankfort-on the Main. Thenee he 
removed to Berlin, where he became teacher of piano 
at the Stern Conservatorium, and musical critic on 
the "Tageblatt," the "Gegenwart," and the "Neue 
Berliner Musikzeitung " In 1875 the title of pro- 
fessor was conferred upon him. 
Among Ehrlich's noteworthy compositions are 




■• Konzertstuck in Ungarischer'Weise," " Variationen 
Qberein Originalthema,"anda sonata for violoncello. 

]|> ■ was hi f the foremost writers on music; his 

chief work in 1 1 1 i — . line im ludes the texl books " Der 
Husikalische Anschlag," " Wie Uebl Man EQavier?" 
u Musikst udien beini Klavierspiel," " I tie Ornamen 
,ik in Beethoven's Sonaten," "Die Ornamentik in 
stian Bach's Klavierwerken," and the works 
"Schlaglichter und Schlagschatten a us der Musik 
"Aus Allen Tonarten," "Lebenskunst und 
Kunstlerleben," "Modernes Musikleben," "Dreissig 
e Ktinstlerleben." He wrote besides mam 
novels and stories. His autobiography was pub- 
lished posthumouslj in the "Berliner Musik- und 
Theater- Welt " (vol iii.,Nos. 21, 22) bj Ad. Kohut, 
i also published the letters addressed to Ehrlich 
In Hector Berlioz, Roberl Frank. Clara Schumann, 
and others. Ehrlich embraced Christianity in mid- 
dle life. 

A. Ko. 

EHRLICH; MESHULLAM : Polish philolo- 
born at Lublin 1818; died at Paris 1861. He 
was one of the leading Talmudic scholars of his time, 
as well as a master of Oriental and modern Ian 
guages. His numerous works all remain in manu- 
script, with the excepti if one containing re 

lies in the field of Hebrew philology, published 
under the title "Heker Millim u-Sefat Kodesh," 

Pari-. 1868. 

■ 'hy: Ha-Karmel. Russian Supplement, 1861, No. 6 ; 
Z«IUIn, Bibl. Pimt-Mi ndi U. s.v. 

ii, u. M, R 

EHRLICH, PAUL: German physician; born 
at Btrehlen, Prussian Silesia, .March 14, 1854. He 
studied medicineat the universities of Breslau, Frei- 
burg-in-Baden, Leipsic, and Strasburg, being grad 
uatcd from the last-named in 1878. After holding 
minor appointments, he became privat docenl 
at Berlin University in 1887, and in 1890 assistant 
professor and assistant to Koch in the laboratory 
for infectious diseases. In 1896 he was appointed 
director of the laboratory for serum examination 
ilnsiifnt ftlr Scrumforschung und Serumprllfung) 
at Btcglitz, near Berlin; and when in 1899 this labo 
was transferred to Frankfort-on-thc-Main, 
Ehrlich became its director, resigning hi- university 
position. Ehrlich is the author of various essays 
ami treatises relating to his profession 

Bibliography: Papel, /t<<<<i. Lcr. s.v. and Appendix, Vienna, 
1901; Mcucrs Kmivevitatinn Lcri/foii, • 111 

F. I II 

EHRMANN, DANIEL: Austrian rabbi ; born 
Muttcrsdorf, Bohemia, in 1816; died at liriinn 
Nov. 15, 1882. After studying at Budapest ami 
in lie i" came rabbi nud preacherat Kuttenplan 
! Mm i maul iii 1843; amla year later succeeded 
ham Kill i n in Ilohenems. He was rabbi al Boh 
Ii Lei pa l nun 1852 to 1860, when lie resigned his 

und, removing to Prague, engaged in tin- I I 

business. In Prague and Brunn lie edited for many 
Jewish pel iodical " I 'as A bend] ind " In 
|si;; I,,- was < idled as teacher of religion to liriinn, 
where in- remained until bis death Ehrmann's 
works include : " Betrachtungen Ouer JUdischc Ver 
btlltnisse ' i Budapest, 1841) "Gebete Fllr I 
I i.Hi. ■n/iiiiiii. i ' i Prague, 1845) ; " B< 

eiiiei- Geschichte der Schulen und der Kultur TJnter 
den Juden" (Prague, 1846); " Geschichte der Israc 
liten von den Uraltesten Zeiten l>is auf die Gegen 
wart," ',' vols. (Brunn, 1869; 2d ed., 1871); "Aus 
I ',i la -i ina und Babylon : lane Sammlung vonSagen, 
Legenden, Allegorien, Fabeln, Erzahlungen, Gleich- 
nissen, u. s. w. aus Talmud und Midrash" (Vienna, 
1880). lie also wrote a story, "Die Tante"; and 
contributed to the "Orient," "Kokebe Vi/.hak." 
and other periodicals. 

s. M. K 

EHUD. ^Biblical Data: Second judge of Israel; 
a Pen janiiie. the sun n! Gera. Concealing undei his 
garment a two edged sword, he carried a present to 
Eglon, the Moabitc king who had held Israel in sub 
jection for eighteen years. Alter delivering it he 
requested a private audience, which was granted. 
Being left-handed, Ehud was able to draw his 
weapon without suspicion, and he plunged it 
through the In iilv nf the kins, who was too surprised 
and too corpulent to resist. Ehud made his escape 
to Seiiath. and gathering an Israelii ish army, slew 
the whole Moabite forces numbering 10,000 nun 
(Judges iii. 14-30). See Eglon. 

j. jr. ('. J. M. 

— Critical View: The storj of Ehud was taken 
from one of the oldest sources of the Book of Judges, 
into which it had possibly been put after having 
passed from mouth to mouth as a folk tale. The 
beginning of the tale has been displaced by the prag 
matic introduction of the author of Judges (com- 
pare Moore, Commentary on Judges, pp. 89 et seg 
"Judges,"in "S. B, 0. T." pp. 6 et seq ; and Budde, 
"Die Bllcher Richter und Samuel, "etc., p. 28). The 

author of Judges has taken the narrative of a local 

incident and transformed it into a deliverance of all 
Israel. The story is mil quite homogeneous, but is 
not so composite as Winckler (" ITntersuchungen zur 
Altorientalischen Geschichte," pp. 55 etseq.) believed. 
Recent critics accepl Kb ml as a historical character, 
[n addition to references above, compare Budde, ib. 
pp. 98 et seg 
a. jr. Q A. B. 

EIBENSCHUTZ, ALBERT: ( banian pianist; 
born in Berlin April 15, 1857; studied pianoforte 

under Reinecke and < iposition under Paul at the 

Leipsic Conservatorium. He was professor al the 
musical institute at Khaikof, Russia, until 1880, and 
then teacher al the Royal ( Conservatorium al Leipsic 
until i s ^:!. when he accepted a professorship at the 
Cologne Conservatorium, [n 1893 he became director 
of the Cologne Liederkranz, and in is'.iti first pro 
lessor of piano at the Stern Conservatorium in Berlin. 
Two years later he became the owner and director 
of t lie ' onsen ntorium al Wiesbaden. 

\s a pianist EibenschUtz is distinguished bj a 
brilliant technique, richness of tone, and remarkable 
d precision of touch. 

Bini ii vnn Ehrlich, Celebrated Pianists, p, Bl, Leipsic, 

I -.a ; Rleniann, Musik-Li i •< m\ 

B. J, So 


ibbi and author ; died in Safed, Palestine, i s r_' 

II. ■ was a pupil iii Rabbi Moses ?ebi Heller, author 

of "Geon Zebi " and occupied the position of rabbi 




in Buzhanow, Soroki (Volliynia), and Jassy,(Ruma- 
n j a \ prom the lasl named city he went to Palestine 
; ,n,l remained there till his death. He was the 
author of mam cabalistic and Talmudical works, 
which still exisl in manuscript. He also wrote 
•■ Lebushe Serad," in two pails. The first part con- 
tains a commentary on the Shulhan 'Aruk, Oral? 
II n vim. witli comments on David b. Samuel's 
-Tun' Zahab" and Abraham Abele Gumbinner|s 
- \la-en Abraham"; at the end of this part is 
added the plan of the Temple as described by Eze 
kiel (Mohilev, 1818, and frequently). The second 
pari is en Shulhan Aruk. Yoreh De'ah (Mohilev, 
1812). His"Nc'ot Deshe " is a compilation of 138 
responsa, in two pans, the first of which was pub- 
lished in Lemberg, 1861, while the second is in manu 
script. " ' Arhc Xahal" isalso in two parts, the first 
being a treatise on the Pentateuch, the second con- 
sisting of sermons (Kopust, Sdilkov, 1835; Kro- 
toschin,1840; Jitomir, 1850; Leinbcrg, 1856). 

Bim [OGRAPHY: Eliezer Kohn. Kin'nl Soferim, p. 90: Fuenn, 
Kiryah Ne'emanah, p. 223; Benjacob, 0?ar ha-Sefarim, 
pp. 255, 391, U9. 
t. G. N. T. L. 

EIBENSCHUTZ, ILONA : Hungarian pian- 
ist; born at Budapest Mays. 1872. She received 
her first instruction in music from her cousin Albert 
Eibenschutz; Liszt is said to have played at a con- 
cert with her when she was only five years old. She 
later si udied with Carl Marek, and from 1878 to 1885 
at the Leipsic Conservatorium under Hans Schmitt. 
At her debut in Vienna her remarkable playing cre- 
ated a sensation. After attaining her twelfth year 
she annually made aconcert tour through Germany, 
Austria. Frame Russia, Denmark. Norway, and 
Sweden; playing before the Queen of Denmark at 
Copenhagen, before the Czar and Czarina of Russia 
at the Cats, hina Palace, and before the Emperor of 
Austria at Vienna, by whom she was granted an im- 
perial stipend for five years. 

From 1885 till 1890 she was taught by Clara Schu- 
mann, and then resumed her concert tours, playing 
with great success in London 
Bibliography: Ebrlich, Celebrated Pianists, p. 93. 

.1. So. 


-, M IT/,. JOJi VIIIAN, 

philanthropist; born Nov. 14, 1 7^<I in Copenhagen; 
died there Noi 25 1856 He left a fortune amount- 
ing to about 1,700,000 Danish crowns; a part of the 
income was to go i" his nearest relatives, provided 
tiny continued in the Jewish faith, but by far the 
iter part was to go to Jewish and municipal in- 
stil me, I is. The income of the sum bequeathed to the 
Copenhagen University Library was to be devoted to 
the purchase of Hebrew and Oriental works. Equal 
-.urns were bequeathed to the Polytechnic Institute 

:, in I to tin- \, ;u I, to \ "i \rts in Copenhagen, on 

ditifm that they receive without compensation two 

Jewish youths annually, and thai the Academy of 

Arts employ the income of it- share to establish a 

prize fora work of art. tie subject of which must 
l„ ,ieii\ e,l from tie- < >ld Ti stament. 

niBt.i mil',: Ally. Zrll. • /,.- J ltd. xxi. 104: Fnrtegnclse 

over* Legater, p. 113, Copenhagen, 187S nsk, Bing 


M, K, 


Roskw w,t>. Julia 

G. Mo 
See Weillkb, Pw- 


EICHBERG, JULIUS: Violinist, director of 
music, and composer; born in Diisseldorf, Germany, 
.June 13, 1824; died at Boston. Mass.. Jan. 18, 1893 
[n his youth he had the benefit of the best musical 
instructors in his native town and at Mayence, and 
he becamea favorite of Reitz and Mendelssohn. Bo 
also studied at the Conservatoire in Brussels, and 
upon his graduation received the first prize for vio- 
lin playing and composition. Soon afterward he 
became I he director of an opera troupe at Geneva, 
Switzerland, where he remained for eleven years. 

In 1857 Eichberg went to New York, and two 
years later removed to Boston, where he was engaged 
its director of music at the Museum. At this time 
he wrote the operetta "The Doctor of Alcantara " 
which had a favorable reception, and is even now 
frequently played in America. His other composi- 
tions include the operettas "The Rose of Tyrol " 
"The Two Cadis." and "A Night in Rome," besides 
trios and quartets for strings, violin pieces, and 

After serving seven years as conductor of the or- 
chestra at the Boston Museum he established the Bos- 
ton Conservatory of Music, and about the same time 
\sas appointed general supervisor and director of 
music in the high schools of tl ity. 




EICHENBAUM, JACOB: Russian educator, 
poet, and mathematician; one of the pioneers of 
modern education among I he Russian .Jews; born in 
Krasnopolie, Galicia, Oct. 12, 1796; died at Kiev 
Dec. '-',. 1861. He showed extraordinary ability in 
Hebrew and mathematical studies, in which latter 
he was assisted by his father, Moses Gelber. 

In 1815 Eichenbaum settled in Zamoscz, Russian 
Poland, in which city time was a circle of progress- 
ive Jewish youthswho were followers of the -'Ber- 
lin culture." Here he gave himself up to his li 
vorite work, occupying himself with the rational 
interpretation of the Bible, and with the study 
,,f Hebrew, German, philosophy, and mathematics, 
especially the last named. In 1819 he translated for 
his own use Euclid's "Elements" from German into 
Hebrew. Jacob, who had assumed the family name 
,,f " Eichenbaum," soon entered on a period of wan- 
dering and of hard struggle for his daily bread. He 
became a private tutor, and lived in different to 
of southern Russia, leaching Hebrew subjects and 
mathematics in the houses of wealthy people. In 
is:;.", at Odessa. » liich was then the educational 
t,r ,,f the south-Russian Jews, he opened a private 
school for Jewish children on the lines of the Ger- 
man Jewish scl Is. In 1836 he published at Leip- 
sic, un.le. the title " Kol Zimrah,"a series of Hebrew 

poems. This little book was one of the first pro- 
ductions of Neo-Hebrew poetry which received its 
inspiration from Mendelssohn's school. 
The verse making talent of Eichenbaum is stri- 




kingly evidenced in his "Ha l£erab," London, I s in 
in which arc described the moves in thi 

Ossip) Rablrinovicz translated this 
ii. i i Russian verse (Odessa, 1847; 2d ed . it>. 

In l lit- course of a few years the pedagogic and 
lileran labors of Eichciibaum attracted 
linn of the Russian government, which in 1844 ap- 
pointed him overseer "I Hie Russo-Jewish school in 
Kishinev, and six years later chief inspectoi of the 
new rabbinical school opened by the Russian goi 
ernuu'ul in Jitomir(1850). He retained this position 
until his death. 

In the later years of his life be published a texl 
book of arithmetic in Hebrew, "Hokmat ha-Sbi'u- 
riin," Warsaw, 1857, and an allegorical poem, " 11a- 
£osem," iu "Ha-Meliz," 1861 (also in book form, 

Bibliograph) : Tarnegol, J Eichenbaum, In Razsvyet, 1861, 
!; Fueiin, Safah le-Ne'emanim, % 101, wllna, 1881; 
Idem, Kt "»-. I Viitrm (, s.v.; Ha-Mifpah, Iv. 15-18, St, Peters- 
bun;, 1888; lu'-i )',:!, ,,i correspondence of I. B. Levin- 
pp. 81. 9 ■. \\ ur-.iv. . ] -■n 

ii k s. M D 

Orientalist and Biblical scholar bornat DOrrenzim- 
iiurn. in the principality of Hohenlohe-Oehringen, 

16,1 752; died at GOttiiigen June 27, 1827. Aitei 

ying theology and Oriental languages under 
Johann David Michaelis ni the LTniversit) of GiJI 
tingen, he was appointed professor of Oriental Ian 

es at Jeua in 1 T 7 -"i . Later ( 1 7ss ( he became pro- 
of philosophy al GOttingen Alter Michaelis' 
death i I 794) he succeeded his former teacher as pro 

ir of Old Testament literature. This post heoc 
CUpied until his deatli. 

The diversity of Eichhorn's studies and labors is 
remarkable, but his lasting merit lies in the field oi 
old Testament research. His "Einleitung in das 
Lite Testament" (8 vols., Leipsic, 1780-82) marks 
an epoch in the study of the Bible. Accepting tin 

tl ies advanced bj Herder, Eichhom attempts to 

i just appreciation of the poetry and religion 
din Hebrew literature. His work, which passed 
through four editions and was of ten reprinted, com 
bines vividness of exposition « it Ii greal scholarship, 
although the criticism is often immature, and is di- 
d mure to .'in esthetic enjoyment than to a real 
solution of the difficulties. Eichhorn's second 
I is " Die Hebrfiisi ben Propheten " (:s vols., 1816 
a poetical translation, with a short exposition, 
lie prophetic literature, arranged in chronolog 
ordi i Here for the first time an important and 
esl i\ •■ problem was seriously deall « il Ii, al 
though it was nol solved. In 1777 B6 Eichhorn 
published a " Repertorium fi'ir Biblische und Moi 
tndische Litteratur,"and in 17s; 1808 appeared 
his " Allgemeine Bibliothek der Riblischen Littera 

Bibi iiii.iunn : All, t h, utn I,, BiourapMi 

\- 731 737. 

K II i' 

EICHTHAL, GUSTAVE D' : French publicist 

Hellenist , born at Nancj March 22, L804 died 

u Paris April 9, 1882 At the age of thirteen he 

i" i e,, men to Roman Catholicism, and when 

le lei i tl,,. |. N , ,,. Henri IV. in 1822, lie becami i ■ IU 

ciple ol Auguste Comte, who initiated him into the 
iirs ,,i Saint Simon, to the propagation of 
ii he devoted a pari of his fortune. 
In 1882 D'Eichthal went to Greece, and on his re- 
turn tn Pans in 1836 published "Les Deux Mondes 
containing his reflections mi the Orient. He now 
began to advocate the use "i Greek as a universal 
language, and published many works, among which 
were. " Les Trois Grands I 'cup les Mediterraneans et 
le Christianisme," l*;u is. 1864; "Origines Boud 
dhiques de la Civilisation Americaine," in the "Re- 
vue Archeologique," Sept.. 1864, ami April, 1865; 
ami "Texte I *i ii iii i if" dti Premier Recil de la (.'re 

ation," Paris. 1875; reprinted alter his death under 
the title " Melanges de Critique Biblique." 

D'Eichthal was one of the chief founders (1881) 
of 1. 'Assn.. iai ion pour l'Encouragement des Etudes 
Grecques, Alter his death his son published his 
"La Langue Grecque," Paris, 1887. 

Bibliography: La OrancU Encuclopidie, s.v.; Liirousse, 
in, i. s.v. 
b. V. E. 

mudisi ; born before 1725; died May 17, 1786, at 
Prague, Follow ing the custom of the time, be con 
ducted a Talmud school in his dwelling, and, besides 
teaching his pupils gratuitously, he aided them h ith 

his small means to such an extent that he impover- 
ished himself. Nevertheless, he continued to pay 
the same Jew-tax that had been apportioned to him 
ill his better (lavs Only when he was actually un- 
able to pay the sum did he bend to the entreaties ,,| 
his friends and stale his case to the " primalor. " 
Urael Frankl Eidlitz, however, refused the roll of 
ducats that the latter sent him. Frankl, desiring 
lo force the modest rabbi to accept the money, de 
clared that he could not remit the tax if Eidlitz was 

iieli enough to refuse such a sum of i y. and the 

rabbi was finally forced to yield. Alter his death 
the roll of ducats was found among his lew po.s.scs 
si. uis, with a note requesting his family to restore the 
money to its Original owner, Frankl. 

Eidlitz wrote jucrin nDX^>D. a manual of arith 
untie in Hebrew, Prague, 1775; and Q'-tw'v 11X. 
baggadic discourses, ib, 17s,y 

r>84; I.m- 

BIBLIOORAPHT ! Steuwliiiei.lcr. Cut. Ilndl. c»l 

ben, '•'"' "/'.'it. p. 02; German ed., pp. 66 el hbq. 



Momii ESREH. 

ISRAEL LEYSER: Polish rabbi : born in Posen 
about l"i7b; died in AllSterlitZ, Moravia, in 1('>'.':{ 
His lather gave him a thorough training in the Ta) 
mud. From Posen Eilenburg went to Prague and 
entered the yeshibah of Rabbi Liva. After stud} 

im; there for a few years, he returned to Posen and 
. ontinued his studies in the yeshibah of Rabbi Moi 

.!. i ii Jafe. 

About 1600 Eilenburg became rabbi of the city 
and district of GOritZ, and about 1620 rabbi of Aus 

terlitz, Moravia 

Eilenburg's works an- ■■ Be'er Sheba'," coinmen 
taries on the treatises of the Talmud upon which there 

are no tOSafol (Venice, Hill) This work is divided 
into seven parts, namely (1) ' Ner Mi/wuh." on 




Horayot ; (2) " Ner Tumid. " on Tamid ; (3) " Ner 

Adonai," on the first and last chapters of Keritot ; 

(4) - N< ii El.iliim." on two chapters of Sut.ih ; (5) 

"Ner Yisrael," on the last chapter of Sanhedrin ; 

(6)"Ner Hora'ah," on parts of Hullin ; (7) "Ner 

Torah," nu\ ellse and responsa. Eilenburg also wrote 

"Zedab la-Derek," supercommentary on Rashi to 

the Pentateuch (Prague, 1623-24). 

Bibliography: Azulal, Shem ha-Gedolim, i. 115; s. Wiener, 
Bihl Friedlandiana, No. 1052; Roest, I 'at. Rosenthal. Blbl. 

l.'g. B. Fit. 

EINBECK : Town in the province of Hanover, 
Prussia. That .lews lived there at a very early dak- 
is shown by the fact that some Einbeck .lews were 
burned at the stake iu 1298. In a document of 1355 
a Jews' street and a "schole der Joden" are men 
tioned, and an "old Jewish cemetery " is referred to 
in a document dated 1454. An old and mutilated 
tombstone still exists to record the interment of a 
Jewess in the year 5160 (= 1400). It appears from 
an assignment of Duke Erich of Brunswick to his 
wife Use (Elizabeth), dated July 14, 1405, and from 
a letter of Duke Philipp to his brother Ernst, dated 
1502, that the Jews of Einbeck paid a yearly tax 
which formed part of the revenues of the castle of 
Grubenhagen. When the dukes Wolfgang and 
Philipp of Grubenhagen forbade all Jews not under 
their protection to pass through the principality, the 
envoys of the " Gemeine Jfidischheit " petitioned 
Emperor Maximilian (Feb. 25, 1570), who annulled 
their decree. A few years later, in 15T9, when the 
fanatic Magister Johann Velius, pastor of the Jacobi- 
or Marktkirche at Einbeck, raised a storm of public 
feeling against the Jews of the town, the latter were 
expelled. They reappeared, however, after the 
Thirty Years' war. 

In 1718 the elector Georg Ludwigof Hanover was 
forced to restrict the influx of Jews in the interest 
of the Christian merchants. During the French su- 
premacy ( 1S00-1M) the district contained forty Jewish 
families, nine of which lived at Einbeck. On Aug. 
31, 1896, a new synagogue was dedicated by Dr. Le- 
winsky, to which the banker Bernhard Me\ ersfeld of 
Brunswick, a native of Einbeck. contributed 20.000 
marks. In 1902 the community of Einbeck included 

1 10 pels,, us 

Bibliography: Harland, Gesch. der Stodf Einbeck, Einbeck, 
1854 59; Wiener, Jahrb. Pttr du Gesch. di r Juden, I860, i. 
17c; et sea.; Idem, in Monatsschrift, 1861, pp. "4:: i 1 si a., 251 
it 8i q.x Idem, In '/,* Itschrift des 7fi.-<("/-. Vereina filr Nieder- 
sachsen, 1861, pp. l'is et seq.; Salleld, Martyrologium, pp. 
28 et seij.; Max. Gesch. des FlXrstenlums Grubenhagen, 
1888 63; t'c-isc-. Y.ur Gesch. der Juden in Einbeck, in Win- 
becta i Zc Itunp, 1803, Nos.23c r si cj.; Z, itschrift des Histor. 
Vereina ftir Niedersachsen,18S6, p. 339; L. Horwitz, Die 
Tsraeltten Unter dem KOnigreich WestphaUn, pp.9, 99; 
Monatsschrift, 1901, p. 568. 

d. A. Lew. 

EINHORN, DAVID; German rabbi, preacher, 

and theological writer; leader of the Reform move- 
ment in America; born at Dispeck, Bavaria Nov 
10, 1809; died iii New Fork Nov. 2, 1879. A dis- 
ciple of R. Wolf Hamburger and R. Joshua Moses 
Falki-naii in l-'urth, he received the Moreim title in 
his seventeenth year, and pursued his philosophical 
studies in Wllrzburg and Munich. When the con- 
gregation of Wellhausen mar (Jffenheim elected him 
rabbi in 1838, the Bavarian government would not 

David Elnborn, 

confirm the election on account of his liberal views. 
In 1S42 he became rabbi of Hoppstadten and chief 
rabbi of the principality of Birkenfeld. Though 
be ated Reform as represented by Geiger 
(see " Rabbiuisehe Gutachten fiber die VertrSglich- 
keit der Freien Forschung mit dem Rabbineramte," 
pp. 125-139, Breslau, 1842), he strenuously opposed 
the radical tendencies of the Ref ormverein in Frank- 
fort-on-the Main, which, as he wrote, "instead of 
regenerating Judaism upon a historical basis and 
with full recognition 
of Israel's priestly 
character and .Messi- 
anic mission, desired 
to create a schism in 
Judaism under the 
pretext of Reform, 
denying the very es- 
sentials of the Jew- 
ish faith " (" Allg. 
Zeit. des Jud." Dec. 
5, 184-1). 

At the rabbinical 
conference at Frank- 
fort in 1845, Einhorn 
pleaded against Z. 
Frankel iu favor of 
the vernacular in the 
liturgy and the elim- 
ination of all prayers 
referring to the res- 
toration of the Jewish state and Temple, but insist- 
ed on the accentuation of the universal character 
of the Messianic hope. At the Breslau conference 
in 1846, he was appointed chairman 
His of the committee on the dietary laws 

Principles, i see Dietary Laws). Iu 1847 Einhorn 
succeeded Holdheim as chief rabbi of 
Mecklenburg-Schweriu. In the same year he was 
charged with heresy by Franz Delitzsch, then pre 
fessor at Rostock, for having pronounced the blessing 
over an uncircumcised Jewish child in the synagogue ; 
but be refuted the charge by referring to rabbinical 
authorities who declared that the child of Jewish 
parents iseutitled to all Jewish rights and privileges 
(see "Sinai." Nov., 1857 et scq.; L. Donath. "Ge 
schichte der Juden in Mecklenburg," pp. 237-244, 
Leipsic, 1874; and CrRCTtMcisioN). 

Opposed by the Conservatives, Einhorn found 
his position becoming perilous under a reactionary 
government, and he accepted a call as rabbi of the 
Reform congregation at Budapest in Oct., 1852. But 
the Austrian government also was opposed to the 
Reform movement, and, despite the protestations and 
personal entreaties of Einhorn, the temple was, after 
a brief period, ordered closed. 

Einhorn determined to continue his career in 
America. In 1855 he became rabbi of the liar Sinai 
Congregation of Baltimore, and was soon the leader 
i if the radical Reform clement, issuini: 
Einhorn in a protest against Wise, Lilicnthal, and 
America. Cohn, who, under the title " American 
Sanhedrin." had. at a rabbinical con- 
ference held in Cleveland, declared "the Talmud to 
be the only legally binding interpretation of the 
Bible," and endeavored to organize an American 




-\ 1 ..ii that principle. Soon afterward he started, 

in Hi.- interest "i radical Reform Judaism, a monthly 
magazine in German under the name "t "Sinai." 
In 1858 his prayer-book, "Olat Tamid," appeared; 
it was at once recognized as the standard Re 
form liturgy in America. Afterward its princi- 
pal contents were, though in a somewhat altered 
form, embodied in tin- Union Prayer-1 k (see Ri 

Jl |.',]-M I. 

Annul (if resolute character and well-defined prin- 
s, Einhorn impressed friends and antagonists 
alike by his consistency and courage. When the 
Civil war broke out in 1861, he denounced the de- 
fenders of slavery so unsparingly that to stay in 
Baltimore became dangerous in the extreme. The 
mob threatened his life, and he fled on the night of 
April 22, 1861, guarded by friends, to Philadelphia, 
where he became rabbi of the Congre- 

Opposes gation Keneseth Israel. Philadelphia 

Slavery, had hitherto been the bulwark of con- 
servative Judaism; Einhorn, from his 
pulpit and in his periodical "Sinai," •which he con- 
tinued until 1863, fought for m. .re liberal views. 

In August, 1866, Einhorn became rabbi of the 
A. lath Yeshurun congregation in New York. Here 
he worked, in common with Dr. Samuel Adler, rabbi 
of Temple Emanu El, and with his successor in Phil- 
adelphia, I>r. Samuel Hirsch, for the propagation and 
better comprehension of the views and aims of Re 
form Judaism. In lWJa rabbinical conference was 
held in Philadelphia, at which be was the leading- 
spirit (sec Confer] m es, Rabbinical). 

At the approach of his seventieth year he resolved 
to retire; his farewell sermon was delivered on July 
12. 1 S ?'J. In 184-1 Einhorn had married Julia Ochs 
Of Kreu/nach, and of this union wen- born five 
and four sons, the third daughter man \ - 
tog Dr. K. Kohler. and the fourth Dr. Emil G. 

Einhorn wrote: " Princip des Mosaismus uml Des- 
ign Verhaltniss zum Heidenthum un.l Rabbinischen 
nthum," Leipsic, 1854 (written in Budapest; 
'.olurnc only completed) ; "Ner Tamid," a relig- 
ious catechism in German, stating concisely the fun- 
damental principles of Re form Judaism ; and many 
roversial articles on the religious questions of 

the time in " Allg. Zeit. des Jud,," "Israelii des 
XIX. .lahrhunderts" (1842-46), "Sinai," and "Jew 
ish Times." 

Bibliography: H.S. Morals, Eminent Israelites ol ttu Wine- 

Uenth Century, pp. 66-71, Philadelphia, 1880 \DavidEin- 

Fiorn'i duagewtthlu Predigten und Reden.ed. t>r. K. K<>i.- 

li-r. New V.irk, 1880; Dcr Zeitgeist, Nob. 1 and ". Milwaukee, 

inn in TirraelUe, Supplement, Nov., ls?»; PublU 

Im. ./. w. Hist. Soc. v. 147-151. 

A. K 


Hungarian preacher and political economist; born 

I. fjjhely Sepi. 25, 1825; died at Budapest 

2, 1ST.,.' He was educated at the Talmud 
schools at Xeiitra. Presblirg, and Prague, and at 

the I Diversity of Budapest. In the last named 

lie began his journalistic career, contributing 

to the "Pester Zeitung," the " Allgemeine Zeitung 

dee Judenthums," and " Der Orient." 

InisiTlie began to preach in the temple of the 

new community of Alt Ofen, and lie also edited the 

first Juda o Hungarian year book. A year later ap 
peared bis "Zur Judenfrage in Dngarn," Alt-Ofen, 
1848. In April. IMS he founded at Budapest the 
weekly "Der Dngarische Israelii," which gave the 
first impulse toward the formation of the Reform con 
gregation there. Einhorn became the lirst preacher 
of this new i ongregation. 

In religion as in polities Einhorn was a decided 
liberal. He took part in the Hungarian struggle foi 
liberty, first as a revolutionary speaker at Budapest, 
and then as ,,u army chaplain at Koinorn, a position 
to which he had I. en appointed by General Klapka. 
After the capitulation of Vilagos he returned home: 
but not feeling secure there, he went to Vienna and 
then to Prague. Siill pursued by the police b 
finally went to Leipsic (March, 1850), where he re- 
mained for tvi o years. There he published under the 
pseudonym of "Eduard Horn," which he had as- 
sumed since the Revolution, the pamphlets " Arthur 
GiJrgey," "Ungarn im Vbrmarz, ''and "Zur Unga- 
risch-Oesterreiehisehcn C'etitralisationsfrage." lie 
wrote for Brockhaus' " Konversations-Lexikon " the 
articles relating to Hungary. He also wrote in 1851 
"Die Revolution und die Juden in Ungarn." His 
"Ludwig Kossuth " (1851), which was immediately 
confiscated and led to the publisher's imprison- 
ment for two years, again directed the attention 
of the Austrian police to Einhorn. To escape c\ 
tradition to Austria ami consequent imprisonment, 
he went to Brussels, and thence, destitute of all 
resources, to Amsterdam, where he published his 
"Spinoza's Staatslehre zum Ersten Male Darge- 
stellt" (1852). Returning to Brussels, he devoted 

himself to the study of the French and English lan- 
guages. He also studied Belgian affairs with such 
success that in ls.jli and 1854 he was aide to publish 
two works: " Statistisehe (Jemalile des K.'inigr. iehs 

Bclgien," and " Bevolkerungswissenschaftliche Stu- 
dien aus Bclgien." 

At the time of the Paris Exposition of 1856 he 
went to the French capital as correspondent of sev- 
eral German periodicals. There Michel Chevalier 

secured him for the "Journal des Dehats." In 1863 

be became one of the founders of'L'Avenir Na- 
tional." From Paris he directed a persistent liter- 
ary war against the policy of the Austrian govern- 
ment. King Victor Emmanuel appointed him a 

Knight of the Order of Saint Maurice and Saint 

Lazarus. In 1867 he published "L'Economie Poll 
tique Avant les Physiocrates," which was crowned 
with the " Grand Prix " of the French Academy. 

In 1869 Einhorn was enabled to return to Hun- 
gary. Hi' was cleclcd a. member of the Reichstag 
from and some J ears later from the most 
populous district of the capital. lie founded the 
■' Nine I'r.i.' Lloyd," hut it had a short existence. 

Iii Judaism, in the struggle between the Orthodox 
and Reform parties, which was conducted with great 
bitterness, he sided with iiie former, although he 
had been a liberal theologian, He was appointed 

assisianl secretary of Commerce, hut had held (his 
post for si\ months only when he died. 

His brother, Moritz Einhorn, an able mathemati- 
cian, foUL-'hl in the Hungarian civil war under Gen 
eral Bem in Transylvania, and was killed beside his 




Anton Einhorn (Horn), who had been editor of 
the "Journal de Si Petersburg " for several years, 
Fought in I lie same war. 

Bibliography: Ungarn'e tf«?mei tier Zeit, parts l and 2; 
KHch. liit-IA. i. 194 it eeq.; Pester Lloyd, Nov. :.',::, L875; 
\, «i /■';, f< ;•;. sue, Nov. 2, it, 1875. 

M. K. 

EINHORN, MAX: Physician; born Jan. 10, 
1862, a1 Grodno, Russia; studied medicine at the 
universities of Kiev and Berlin, graduating as M.D. 
from the latter in 1884. 

Einhorn worked for a time with Ehrlieh and Sal 
kowski, and then went to America, settling in New 
Vni-k city. In 1885 he was appointed house physi- 
, i an iii the German Hospital at New York, but re- 
linquished tin- post in 1886 to engage in private 
practise. In lss? la 1 returned for a few months 
to Berlin, where be acted as Ewald's assistant. 

On his return to New York Einhorn occupied 
himself with questions relating to the pathology of 
digestion. In isss the New York Post-Graduate 
Medical School appointed him instructor in diseases 
ol the Stomach anil intestines, aial in 1898 he was 
appointed assist aid professor at that institution, and 
in 1809 professor. lie has also for Several years 
been physician to the German Dispensary of New 

Einhorn is the inventor of many new inslru- 
nients and pieces id' apparatus which have become 
well known throughout the medical world, such as 
tin' fermentation saccharometer, the stomach-bucket, 
the gastro-diaphane, the deglutitive stomach elec- 
t ii ule, the stomach spray apparatus, the gastrograph, 

Einhorn's literary activity has embraced nearly 
the whole domain of stomach pathology. 

II. R. 

EINSTEIN, EDWIN: Born at Cincinnati 
Nov. IN. 1842; educated ill New York city; re- 
ceived the degree of master of aits at Union Col 
legi Schenectady, New York. Einstein was a rep- 
resentative from New York city in the Forty -sixth 
Congress; was the Republican candidate for mayor 
of New York in 1892, receiving the greatest number 
of votes ever polled for the mayoralty nominee of part) ; he acted as commissioner and treasurer 
of the department of docks from 1895 to 1*9*. and 
was a director of the Mi Sinai Hospital from 1 xtc. 

to 1S7S. 

EIRAGOLY. See K,,\ \o 


\iiti -.lew ish author; born in Mannheim 1654; died 
in Heidelberg Dec. 20, 1704. The son of an official 
in the serviceof the Elector of the Palatinate, Eisen- 
menger received a good education, and distinguish- 
ing himself at the Collegium Sapientia; at Heidel- 
berg by his zeal for Hebrew studies, he was sent by 
the elector to England and Holland to continue 

them there. In Amsterdam he met three Christians 

who had been converted to Judaism, and this tilled 
him with indignation. As a further cause of Ids 

hatred of Judaism, hit claims II therwise unknown 

attacks against Christianity which he heard from 
the mouth of David Lida. then (1681) rabbi of Am- 

sterdam. For nineteen years he studied rabbinical 
literature assisted by .lews, first in Heidelberg and 

afterward in Frankfort-on Hie Main, 
Studies pretending that he desired to be con- 
Rabbinical verted to Judaism. Having collected 
Literature, from rabbinical literal tin' all that was 

calculated to bring it into disrepute 
and to give justification for anti-Jewish prejudices, 
he put dished his " Entdecktes Judenthum " (Judaism 
Unmasked), which has remained the arsenal for de- 
tractors of Talmudic literature down to the present 
day. The full title of the book is interesting and is 
given in the facsimile on page 81. The work, in two 
large quarto volumes, appeared in Frankfort on 
the-Main in 1700, and the prince elector took great 
interest in it. appointing Eisenmenger professor of 
Oriental languages in the University of Heidelberg. 
The Jews, who feaied that the publication of this 
book would give additional strength to the prejudice 
against them, denounced it as a malicious libel ; and 
the fact that only a year previously riots against 
the Jews had occurred in the diocese of Bamberg, 
and that in the same year (July 21) a mob had sacked 
the house of the court Jew Samuel Oppenheimer in 
Vienna, made their opposition all the stronger. Op- 
penheimer was chiefly instrumental in procuring an 

order of confiscation from the emperor, 

His who commanded that the whole edi- 

"Entdeck- tion of 2,000 copies should be placed 

tes Ju- under lock and key. With him others 

denthum." worked for the same end, including 

Jospa von Geldern. the great-grand- 
father of Heinrich Heine's mother. There was also 
Roman Catholic influence at work, as Eisenmenger 
was accused of anti-Catholic tendencies. 

The Jews had offend Eisenmenger the sum of 
12,000 florins (55.000), if he would suppress his 
work ; but he demanded 30,000 florins, and the 
transactions led to no result. Eisenmengcrdied sud- 
denly of apoplexy in 1704. Meanwhile two Jewish 
converts to Christianity in Berlin had brought 
charges against their former coreligionists of having 
blasphemed Jesus. King Frederick William I. took 
the matter very seriously, and ordered an investiga- 
tion. Eisenmenger's heirs applied to the king; and 
the latter tried to induce the emperor to repeal the 
injunction against the book, but did not succeed. 
He therefore ordered a new edition of 3,000 copies 
to be printed in Berlin at his expense, but as there 
was an imperial prohibition against printing the 
hook in the German empire, the title-page gave as 
the place of publication Konigsberg, which was lie 
j ond the boundaries of the empire. Almost forty 
years later I lie original edition was released 

Of the many polemical works written by Chris 
tians against rabbinical literature, Eisenmenger's lias 
become the most popular one, and since the begin 
ning of the anti-Semitic movement it has supplied 
anti-Semitic journalists and the authors of anti-Sem- 
itic pamphlets with their main arguments. Eisen- 
menger undoubtedly possessed a great deal of knowl- 
edge, but he was blinded by prejudice. His work is 
best characterized by Siegfried, who says ("Allg. 
Deutsche Biographic," 8.v. " Eisenmenger "): " Taken 
as a whole, it is a collection of scandals. Some 

passages are misinterpreted; others are insinuations 

BofjannBnfcreci Bifemmnaetf/ 

ProfefTorg t>Ct OrientalifcI)cn<gptad^CU bet) Dcr 


Wbtam mhntyuw 

©&CC * 

frttablfc&er uitb 8a{)vt)aPer gleridjt/ 


©ie t>erf?ocf te guton We ^wtfocflfee IBwCim'gf eftf 

$€)ft S8af er/@ofcn unD ^)ctl.©ci|l/crfc()rccf lidKf SBcife laffcm 
unfc frerunc&rw/ bfe £cfl. Sautter £br<fi( wrjtymaben/ bag 9ftu< 

§efh»tnettf / tie Sttangeliften unO SlpofWn/ Dte £f>rtftfKf>e Suliflion 

fpbKiftf;burcb$kf)en f unb bie aanfsc <£f>riff<nf)eitauf batfaufferftt 

»cracf)ttn unb txrfludjen; 

if a^et) necb t>iel antw/ bifbm unfa ben SlOriffm 

cnlnoc2>cv gar nic|>t/ o&cr nur 511m Sfcljetl bcfanf gdwfcne ©wgc 
unb a,r off* 3rrtbum<bcr 3ubif<b<n9Wi(Won un&XbfOlegU'/ 

njfeaud) oid lacbcrlfdxuut) futijn>ci(ig< ftobeln/ unD an&ete 
un9«rnmte©(Kf)cn an ben Sag fomnwn. 

SlUetf au$ tfjren eigenctt / unb pat fcljr welcn mit gtoffcr ?S>?uf>t 
unb umjerbrojfemm 5Wjjbur#kfenen33utbeni/mft $(u*3(eiiun0 

D« £tf Paifcj>en SCorti/ unD Deter rrcuenUb«fa}unfl in Dw£«uffd?r 
©prad)/ frafftiglicfc crtsicfen ; 


Sit Uiwflen HlKilett 

fccrai jeter fane bet>6rifl< / alkmal von titut gnciffa Vthtmt 

aupfubrlicfe; banOrin&e Capicel entbAit. 

alien Wffcnjur treiu)er#am 9tabri(bt wrfentyet/ unb mft 

BoWommenen ?Kvg:ftern »crfehcn. 

TO ©etner $&maj* 9J?aWr<lf m Skeuffen Stffergnd^tgffm 

JSkwutft i« Ki>»i>4|dh^in prcuffcn/im Jabnwil? <Spct|tt®(twt 17m 


(In tbt 

\ . 6 




based on one-sided inferences ; and even if this were 
not the case, a work which has for its object the pre 
sentationof the dark side of Jewish literature can 
not give us a proper understanding of Judaism." 

The incorrectness of many of Eisenmeuger's trans- 
lations is shown by Delitzsch in his "Rohling's 
Talmudjude." Through Rohling's " Talmudjude " 
Eisenmenger's work hail again become popular, ami 
from Rohling many other libelists copied these 
charges, notably Sir Richard Burton in his "The 
.lew, Gypsy, and El Islam." Much earlier an English 
adaptation had been made by J. P. Stekelin under 
the title "The Traditions of the Jews, with the Ex- 
positions ami Doctrines of the Rabbins," etc., 2 
vols., 1732-34. A new edition of the "Entdecktes 
Judenthum" was published by F. X. Schieferl, 
Dresden, 1893. 

Eisenmenger edited with Leusdeu the unvocalized 
Hebrew Bible, Amsterdam, 1694. and wrote a " Lex- 
icon Orientale Harmonicum," which was not pub- 

bibliography: schudt, Jlidischc MerckwBrdigkeUen, i. 426- 
4:ss. iii. 1-8, iv. 286; i.riitz. Gesch.3d "l.. x.-'Tii; LOwenstein, 
in Berliner's Mwiazui, 1891, p.209; Kaufinann, An.- Heinrich 
II, ni, 'i Aim, usual, p.til; Eckstein, i.'isrii. der Juden Cm 
Fiii-tlu.-tnni. p. 42, Bamberg. 1898: Berzog-Hauck, Real* 
Eneuc -.*■: Wetzer anil Welte, A" in In nl, i il.mi ; Allg. 
Deutschi BUygraphie. From a polemical point of view: Ft. 
Delitzsch, Ronlino-'a Talmudjudi Beleuchtet, Lelpsic, 1881; 
J. S. kopp, Aktenstllcke sum Prozesse Bohlina-Bloch, Vi- 
t'lina. lss2; A. Th. Hartmann, Johann Andrea* Etsen- 
in, mil :r mi, l Seine Jihli.-chm OegTier, Parchim, 1B84; Con- 
stantin Bitter Cholewa von Pawlikowski, Hunderi Bnaenaus 

Mihiuls h'iinflmtnhtl Allen Ulnl Xtiien Illiiln ill lllni 
,h, Judi ii .\.i" ii <li ii Christen, Freiburg, 1858. 


EISENSTADT (Hungarian, Kis-Marton ; 
Bebr. ^pon TJ?) : City in the county of Oedenburg 
(Sopron), Hungary. The Jewish community of 
Eisenstadt is the only community of Hungary that 
has an independent political existence with an or- 
ganization of its own, though the neighboring Mat- 
tersdorf (Nagy-Marton) was on the same footing 
until 1903. Unlike other Hungarian communities of 
the present day, Eisenstadt has the right to elect its 
own mayor in addition to its president, although 
both offices can be, and generally are. held by one 
and the- same person. 

Eisenstadt, which once belonged to the"Sheba' 
Kebilloi ;" (Seven Communities), is among the old- 
esl communities in Hungary. It is mentioned as 
early as IHKK. .Many of the Jews of Oedenburg fled 
in 1520 to Eisenstadt. Leopold I. expelled the Jews 
from the lily in 1671; but Prince Palatine Paul 
Esteiha/y settled a number ol Nikolsburg .lews 
at Eisenstadt, which belonged lo his dominions, anil 
granted them an interesting privilege (Jan. 1, 1690). 

He designated the outer citj dairy ("Stadtmelerbof ") at Eisen- 
stadt ms their dwelling-place, where he bulll twenty houses tor 
them, the .lews contributing from 30 to 50 florins each. In return 
for the yearly protective I i allowed the tree exercise 

ol their religion. They paid thirty pounds of pepper a year for 
their cemetery. Thej might electa Jewish Judge and officials 
tor the community according to the Jewish law. the candidates 
being confirmed by the government, to whom the retirement of 
the officials had to be reported. They were allowed to maintain 
a Jewish inn and a slaughter-house, paying for thelattei two 
hundredweight of tallow a year; they might sell kasher meat to 
Christians, but not wine or beer. They wen- allowed to keep 
horses and cattle; but thej had tul that theeattleof 

the overlord were not injured in the pasture. 

On Informing the bailiff they might Intermarry with Jews 
from other towns, hut net port a wedding ent 

One of the florins. They might buy and sell distilled liquors, 

the director of the estate Axing the tax. They might work as 
tailors, shoemakers, lacemakers, furriers, barbers, pbysii 
and jewelers. Any one who opened his shop before ten o'clock 
on Sundays or festivals, when the people were going to church, 
was fined two florins. Their lawsuits were settled according to 
the Jewish law. They were not allowed to sell or take in pawn 
stolen objects. When anything was stolen, the owner reported 
the loss to the Jewish judge, who proclaimed the theft. Any 
one who had bought the stolen articles before this proclamation 
had to return them at the pi ice paid ; if they were bought after- 
ward, the buyer had to restore them without compensation, and 
was also fined. The Jews might not smelt coins without in- 
formiiiL' (lie lio\ eminent olllcials. lest they should he susj': 
of making stolen goods disappear in this fashion. 

No Jew from another town was allowed to settle in the com- 
munity without the knowledge of the government. An noneal 
able person, against whom the community had no obje. 
paid an initiation fee of six florins. A Jewish traveler was al- 
lowed to stay only three days in the community, and wasoblisred 
to report his country and his origin. Whenever a rich Jew left 
the district, he paid fifteen thalers to the government; one of the 
middle class paid ten thalers ; and a pi m a- Jew five thalers : and 
each of them paid to the community whatever sum the presi- 
dent named. Whoever did not keep his house and grounds ,,r 
his poriion of the street clean was flned two pounds of pep> 
per. Chimneys had to be swept every four weeks ; and every 
one was required to help in case of Are. The government sold 
the Jews wood for fuel. They were protected against tbe 
blunders of the officials. 

During the Kurucz wars the Jews of Eisenstadt. 
terrorized by the enemy, were forced to leave their 
homes; but when peace was restored the community 
entered upon a period of prosperity. At the census 
of 1735 about 112 Jewish families (600 individuals) 
were living at Eisenstadt. Several persons employed 
at Vienna had become members of the community, 
and it owed its development to the fact that it. was 
tbe fictitious legal residence of many Viennese .li 

The Cabala was much cultivated in Eisenstadt in 
tbe seventeenth century. The false Messiah Mordr- 
eai Mokiah lived there, us did also MeVr ben Ilayyitn, 
who wrote glosses to Hayyim Vital's "Sefcr ha- 
Gilgulim," and Simeon b. Ephraim Judah, the 
author of •' Helek Shimeon" (Prag, 1687). Tta 
most famous rabbi of Eisenstadt was Mi-.'in 
Isaac (d. June 7. 1744), authorof "Pauim Me'irot." 
From 1851 to 1869 Israel Hildesheimer was rabbi of 
Eisenstadt, and his yeshibah became a prominent 
factor in Orthodox Judaism. The present rabbi 
(1903) is Solomon Kutna. 

d. A. Bti. 

EISENSTADT : Polish family which, when the 
Jews were compelled to adopt family names, 
lected the name of Eisenstadt, a town in Hungary, 
where some of the family became rabbis. 

Abigdor Eisenstadt, or Abig'dor Sofer (ben 
Moses): Died 24th of Ab. 1591. He was the author 
of a translation from Polish into German of th 
tival pravers (Cracow, 1571) and of a prayer-book (rt. 

.,. II. Cut. 

Abraham Hirscb b. Jacob Eisenstadt of 
Byelostok : Russian rabbi; born in 1812; died in 
KOnigsberg 1868. He was a rabbi in Ottymia ('.'I, gov- 
ernment of Kovno. He began at an early age to 
write his important work, "Pithe Teshubah," which 
is the most popular and useful index to the re- 
sponsa and decisions of later authorities on the sub 
jects treated in the Shulhan Aruk. Eisenstadt 's 
great merit consists in having collected all the ma- 
terial given in the works of his predecessors, and in 
having added to il an almost complete collection of 




references toresponsa of all the later eminent rabbis. 
of little value are the novella? which Eisenstadt 
added to the "Pithe Testiubah" under the title 
"Nabalat Zebi." The pan of the "Pithe Teshu 
bah " on Yoreh De'ah was published at Wilna in 

(republished Jitomir, 1840, and Lemb 
that "ii Eben ha-T.zer. in 1862; and, after 

uthor's death, that on Hoshen Mishpat, in 
Lemberg, 1876 (republished in Wilna. L896). Eisen 

is also the author of a commentary on the 
i.iiiin wa-Halizah," by Michael ben Joseph 

icow, Wilna. 1863, 2d ed. 1896. 

Bibliography : Fuenn, Keneset FferaeJ, p. l»; Bentacob, Cteai 
Sefarim. p. 586; Zeiiner, Cat. Hebr. Bonkx Brit. Mus. 
I : prefaces of toe author t<> Torch Di 'ah and Elu n 
\ i, N. 1. Jj. 

Benzion ben Moses Eisenstadt: Russian He- 
braist; bom at Kletzk, government oi .Minsk, March 
18, 1878. Eisenstadt devoted himself to Neo-He- 
brew. At eighteen he was in correspondence with 
Jewish scholars like Slonimsky, Buber, and Reif- 
niann. Though comparatively young, Eisenstadt 
lias written: "Ziyoni," a collection of poems (War 
saw, 1895); "Dor Rabbanaw we-8oferaw," a bio- 
graphical dictionary of contemporary rabbis and 
Other scholars (part I, ib. 1895; parts 2-4, Wilna. 

1902); "Rabbane Minsk wa-Hakameha," a his 
lory of the rabbis and scholars of Minsk (Wilna, 
1899); " We-Zot li-Yehudah." a supplement to the 
r.'sponsa collection "Noda' bi- Yehudah " (ib. 1901) 

-tacit is now (1903) resident in New York. 
ii B. M. Six. 

Israel Tobiah Eisenstadt: Russian biog- 
rapher; born in Rushony, government of Grodno; 

in St. Petersburg Jan. 13, 1N!K). Descended 
from Tobiah Bacharach and Israel ben Shalom, who 
were executed in his native city Sept. 19, L659, On 
an accusation of ritual murder brought against the 
entire community, Eisenstadt published their history 
in his "Da'at ijedoshim, " the material for which 
was largely taken from the Friedland library, after 
I presented to the Asiatic Museum of St. Pe 
i >urg. The unfinished work was completed 
by Samuel Wiener (Si Petersburg, 1897-98), who 
added several appendixes. The work contains gene 
alogies of the Eisenstadt, Bacharach, Gunzburg, 
Friedland, Katzenellenbogen. Rapoport, and other 
Bbuoorafrt: Ba-Zefirah, 1898, No. 7": Joseph Kohen-Zede$, 

tn Ha-Ethkol. 111- -"■'> 220. 

ii. ii. P. Wi 

Jacob Eisenstadt: English scholar; lived in 
London, England, in the eighteenth century. lie 
wrote bomiletic explanations on the Talmud and 
portions of the Bible, under the title of "Toledo! 
Ya'akob," London, 1770. This book bears the ap- 
probation of the Sephardic haham of London, Moses 
de Azevedo ha Eohen, and was the Brsl Hebrew 
honk printed for a Jew in England by Isaac b 
Jedidiah ha-Levi, Muses b. Gerson, and Jacob b. 
Issachar Cohen, who had secured typesetters from 
Holland and occupied a shop in the house of \V. 
Tookc. an Englishman. 

BDLIOGRAPBT : FOrat, lliiil. Judaiea, s.v.; Stelnscbnelder, 
Oat. Bod/, col. 1206. 
.. A. R. 

Jacob ben Eliezer Eisenstadt: Horn in S/.id- 

lowca Poland, about 1730. lie was the author of 

"Toledot Ya'akob," explanations on the Haggadah 

and on difficult Biblical passages, London, 177(1. 

Bibliography : Elsenstadt-WIener, Da'at Kedoshim.p. 194, St, 
Petersburg, 189! 98; Gaster, History o/ the Ancient Syna- 
gngtu of Su Spanish and Portuffuew .'' »•.«. p. in. London. 

i B. Fu. 

Meir Eisenstadter (also known as Meir Ash 
[compare Jewish Encyclopedia, ii. 176], and, after 
his later rabbinates, Meir Gyarmath and Meir 
Ungvar) : One of the greatest Talmudists of the 
nineteenth century ;diedatUngva>, Dee. 2. 1H61. He 
was called in 1807, while still a young man, to 
the rabbinate of Baja, where he directed a large 
yeshibah. lie was the intimate friend of Gijtz 
Schwerin, who was then living at Baja. When 
Schwerin was, through the ruin of his father-in-law, 
compelled to seek a rabbinate, Eisenstadt volunta- 
rily resigned to him the office at Baja, and, on the 
recommendation of Moses Sofer, obtained a position 
at Gyarmath in 1816, removing later to Ungvar, 
where he died. His responsa were published after 
his death by his son, under the title [•* K nOX, 
Ungvar, 1864. 

Bibliography: Samuel Kobn, QOtz Schwerin, In Maamr 
Z8idb-Sz£mle,j.v. 125,310; Preface to Imre Bah. 
s L. V. 

Meir ben Isaac Eisenstadt : Lithuanian rabbi ; 
born in l iiT<> ; died at Eisenstadt (Kismarton), Hun- 
gary, June 6, 1744. After having been dayyan 
at Sachtschewar, province of Posen, and rabbi at 
Szydlowiec, government of Radom, be went to Ger- 
many and settled at Worms. Through the inllu- 
ence of Samson Wekthetmer, Eisenstadt was ap- 
pointed lecturer on Talmud in a bet ha niidrash. In 
1701, Worms having been taken by the French, he 
went to Prossnitz, .Moravia, where he was appointed 
rabbi. Among the innovations introduced by him in 
that community was the issuing of bills of divorce, 
although Prossnitz. is not situated on a river large 
enough to meet rabbinical requirements. Among 
his disciples in Prossnitz was Jonathan Eybeschutz. 
In 1711 he again tilled the office of rabbi at Szydlo- 
wiec, but did no) remain there long, receiving, before 
1714, a call to Eisenstadt, Hungary. Here he 
adopted the name of " Eisenstadt." In 172:j he was 
obliged to Bee from this city. According to Zip 
er ("Orient, Lit." viii. 187), he returned eight 
months later. But. the pinkoses of Eisenstadt (see 
Eisenstadt- Wiener, " Da'at Kedoshim," p. 190) show 

that he was absent for three years, and that his son 

Jacob officiated in his place. Meir Eisenstadt was 

widely recognized as an authority in rabbinical law, 
being consulted by the rabbis of Turkey, Italy, and 
Germany, lie was the author of: "Or ha-Ganuz," 
novella) on Cetubot and notes on Yen Nesekof the 
Yoreh De'ah (Furth, I7i;r,) ; "Panim Me'irot," re- 
sponsa and novella- on various Talmudic treatises, 
iii four parts (part 1, Amsterdam, 1715; part 2, Sulz- 
bach, 1788; part 8, ib. 1788; part. 4, /A. 1789); " Kot 
not Or," homiletic commentary on the Pentateuch 
ami the Five Scrolls, published, with the"Or lb' 

dash" of bis grandson. Kleazar Kalir, under the title 

•■ Me ore Esh," the latter word being an abbreviation 
of " Eisenstadt " (Forth, 1766). 




RiRiinoRAPHV izulai. Slum ha-Gedoiim, l.,s.v.MelrA8li- 
n !»'■ foroelit. 1867, Nos. 19, «, -t ■ 

M. Sl.l.. 


Moses Eisenstadt ben Isaac: Lived in the be- 
ginning of the eighteenth century; died in Prague 
g e ^ the author of a compendium of arithmetic 
(Dyhernfurth, 1712) ; a German translation of the 
•■Kb,.,, Bohan" by Kalonymus ben Kalonymus 
(Sulzbach, 1715); a dirge on the plague of 1713 in 
Pesth i Pragui . L713). He also translated into Yid- 
dish the - Diwan " (Mahberot) of Immanuel Romi. 
, H. Gi t 

Russian-American writer; bom in Meseritz, govern- 
ment of Siedlec, Russian Poland, Nov. 21, 1850. He 
emigrated in 1872 to the United States, and settled in 
New York, in a hich city lie still resides. Eisenstein 
was the first to translate into Hebrew and Yiddish 
the Constitution of the United Stairs (New York. 
[891) Other writings of His are: "Ma'amare Bik- 
korn ,"/V,. L897, and "The Classified Psalter "(Pesuke 
de-Zimrah), Hebrew text with a new translation 
(1899). He also made an attempt to translate and 
explain a modified text of the Shulhan 'Aruk. 

Eisenstein took a prominent part in the contro- 
versy concerning the Kolel Amerika, a society for 
the collection of funds for the l r Jews of Pales- 
tine, and was one of the leaders in the movement to 
arrange that the money contributed in the United 
States should go primarily to former residents of 
America. In" Ha-Modia' la I.Iadashim" (New York) 
for 1901 he published, under the title "Le-Koro1 
Gole Russiya be Amerika." a sketch of the history 
of Russo-Jewish emigration to America. His " His 
n.i v of the First Russo American Jewish Congrega- 
tion " appeared in No. 9 of the " Publications of the 
Am. Jew. Hist. Soc," 1901. 

a. a. P- Wi. 


EISLER, LEOPOLD: Austrian rabbi: born 
Feb. 11. I s '-'"'. at BoskowitZ, .Moravia: studied Tal- 
mud under Rabbi Abraham Plaezek. and Oriental 
languages at the University of Prague. In the latter 
city he also attended lectures by s. L. Rapoporl 
[n 1856 he was chosen rabbi of Eiwanowitz, and 
in 1892 of the newly organized community of 
WIschau. lb- has since acted as rabbi for both 

Eisler is the author of " Beitrage z'ur Rabbinischen 
Sprach- und Altertumskunde," in 4 parts, Vienna, 
is;-.' 90; and "Dibre Yehuda ha Aharonim" (1900), 
containing studies and criticisms, revisions and ad- 
ditions (1903) S. 

EISLER, MORITZ : Austrian educator and 
philosophical writer: born at Prossnitz, Moravia, 
Jan 20, 1823; died at Troppau, Silesia, Dec. 21, 1902. 
He studied philosophy and Oriental languagesat the 
Dniversitj of Prague, ami in 1853 was appointed 
teacher of religion at the Piarisl gymnasium, and 
director of the communal choo in Nikolsburg. 

In ls(>2 he organized a society for the care of in 

valid teachers and the widows and orphans of 

teachers, which gave rise to the Moravian-Silesian 

Hebrew Teachers' Association (Mahrisch-Schlesisch- 
[sraelitischer Lehrerverein), whose president I 
was until 1898, when it was transformed into the 
Kaiser FranzJoseph i. JubililumsstiftungzurUnter- 
stutzung von Lehrerwittwen und -Waisen. 

Beside, essays in various literary reviews. Eisler 
lias published "Vorlesungen liber die Judischen 
Philosophen des Mittelalters," 3 vols.. Vienna, 16 

In June. 1893, after forty years of active service, 

Eisler withdrew from public life and retired to 


Bibliography: Mithrm's Milium- der Gegcnwart, Briton, 

He Gubernatis, Ecrivaim ilu Jour; Hinncnsen, Dot 

JjUerartiChe Deutschtoid, Herlin, 1SS7; Joseph Wytzlik. 

Deuticht Diehter und Schrifbstelier-Charaktere, Vienna, 


EISLER, RUDOLPH: Austrian writer; born 
in Vienna Jan. 7, 1873. He was educated at the 
universities of Berlin. Vienna, and Leipsic, gradu- 
ating from Leipsic as doctor of philosophy in 1894, 
In 1899 Eisler settled at Vienna, in which city he has 
since resided. He is editor of the " Wissenschaf tliche 
Volksbibliothek " and author of the following ea 
and works: "Der Psychophysische Parallelismus," 
Leipsic, 1*94; " Psychologic im Umriss," ib. 1895, 
3d ed. 1899; "Elemente der Logik," ib. 1898; 
"Einfuhrung in die Philosophic." ib. 2d ed., 1901; 
•■ Worterbuch der Pbilosophischen Begriffe und 
Ausdriicke, Quellenmassig Bearbeitet," Berlin, 
1900; "Has Bewusstsein der Aussenwelt." Leipsic, 


s F. T. 11. 


trian colonel ; born at Piesling, Moravia, 1832. He 
entered the Austrian army at the age of fifti 
and took part in the campaigns of 1848, 1849, 1859 
and 18(5(5. The following orders were conferred upon 
him: the Order of Leopold, the Order of the Iron 
Crown, the Order of Elizabeth Theresa, and the Or- 
der of the Sword; and he also received two medals 
for meritorious military service. Von Eiss retired 
in 189(1. lie is an ardent Zionist. S. 

EJECTMENT: An action to recover the imnic 
diate possession of real property, with damages fur 
wrongful withholding. 

The general principle governing all cases of pos- 
session of real estate in Jewish law was npirU V\>1? 
nO"P ri^ja (" Real property is presumed to bi 
to its owner," as distinguished from its tenant or 
possessor). Mere possession, while of great w 
in cases involving personal property, was not i, 
ni/ed in connection with real estate, exoep t w lieu 
such possession continued for an uninterrupted 
period of at least three years (see HAZAKAH) 
Hence, one who claimed title to real property w Inch 

known to belong to some one else had to 
stantiate his claim with good proof; and any doubl 
arising in such matters was always resolved in favor 
of the owner (B. M. 102b; Ket. 20a; Tos. and 
Asheri, ad he.; Shulhan 'Aruk, Hosheu Mishpat, 
225, 21. Isserles' gloss i. 

No writ of ejectment was necessary to reinstate 
the rightful owner in possesion of his property. 
The owner, if powerful enough, could personally 




: the holder of tlie properly and take possession 
nf it. Even if the property passed through many 
bands, and the owner losl all nope ("yi'ush ")oJ i 71 i 

lining it, ii was still in the sum.' status, and 
.'. 1 1 1 - 1 1< ■ \ er a la\ orable oppoi I u 
niiv presented itself (B. K. 27b; Slaimonides, 
-mil. ii. 12; Hoshen Mishpat, I and 381). 
Any damage caused to the property by the occu- 
pant, or an} bcm til derived by him from il during 
his tenure, beca i debt which the owner could 

cl by a regular legal procedure. II', however, 
the damage was caused through no fault of theoi 

int— for instance, if water overflowed a field, 
or tiers were burned down— lie could not be held 

onsible for it, since the land was legally in the 

ession of the owner all this time. In the case 
of improvements being made on the property b\ the 
occupant, the courl estimated such improvements 
and the money expended on them. If the amount 
ded exceeded the value of the improvements, 
the owner had to pa\ only for the value of the im- 
provements. If the value of the improvements ex 

led the amount of the expenditure, the occupant 
received the amount he bad expended (B K. 95a; 
B. M. 14b; "Tad," Gezelah, ix. ; Hoshen Mishpat, 
371, 874). 

A tenant holding real property for a specific period 

of time might I"- ejected immediately after the ex- 
piration of such time. < me holding property under 

an indefinite leas.- at SO much per I it li might not 

be ejected unless notified by the land- 
Ejectment lord thin \ days previously. Nbeject- 
at Ex- ineni mighl be proceeded with in the 
piration. winter from Sukkol until Passover. 
In large cities notice had to be s i\ i d 
twelve months before ejectment mighl be effected. 
A tenant holding a shop bad to be notified twelve 
months, and in some cases three years, before lie 
mighl beejected. Just as the landlord had tonotify 
the tenant bi fore he might eject him. so the tenant 
had to notify tin- landlord that he wished to leave 
ami the length of notice was the same in either case. 
The amount of rental was regulated by the mar 
ket value. If rent had risen during the period of 
tenure, the landlord might demand the higher price, 
and ejei i the tenant if be refused to pay it. If rent 
became cheaper, the tenant might demand a reduc 

t ion. or leave i in mediately. If the landlord's dwell 
ing was destroyed, so that he had no plan- in which 
to live, he might eject the n nam without any notice. 
laws governing the relations of landlord 
and tenant remained in force if in the meanwhile 
the landlord sold his property to another (B. M. 
101b; - Yad. ' Sekirut, iii. ; Hoshen Mishpaj 

The king had a right to eject a person from his 
property and to give il lo any one he desired I 

however, differences of opinion among later 

tators regarding this right (Sanb 20b; Tos. 

Melcli " . "Yad," Mi lakiui ii 5, iii S i omparc 
the incident of Xaboth in I Kings \\i , and Kiniln 
ad foe. i. 

ectment in consequence of a mortgage mighl 
only be proceeded with after the necessarj steps of 
(1) " aihakta," tracing the property, (2) " tii-fa." 
re of propi rtj sold after the loan, ai d (8 

"shunia." appraisement of tin- property by thi 
court, had been taken (see Debts; Procedi bj i 

Bibuogb vi- in : Bloch, CivClproct 88-Ordnunfl, Budapest, 1882; 

-i, ii,. Bi - .■■-'.. ii-. 18OT. 

.J. H. G. 

Midrash on Lamentations, like Bereshit Rabbah and 
the Pesikta ascribed to Rab Eahana, belongs to the 
oldest works of the Midrashic literature. It begins 
with thirty six consecutive proems forming a sepa 
rate collection, certainly made by the author of the 
Midrash. They constitute more than one-fourth of 
the work (47b-52b in the Venice ed., 1545). These 
proems and, perhaps, most of the annotations, which 
are arranged in the si rjuence of the verses (52c-66b), 

originated in the discourses of Which, in olden times, 

the Hook of Lamentations had been the subject. 
The haggadic explanation of this book — which is a 
dirge on the fall of the Jewish state and the extinc 

tion of the national splendor — was treated by schol- 
ars as especially appropriate to the Ninth of Ab, lo 
the day of the destruction of the Temple, and to the 
eve of that fast day (comp. Fer. Shab. 15c; Lam .R. 
iv. 20; Ver. Ta'an. 68d el aeg.). 

The sources from which Verushaltni drew must 
have been accessible to the author of Ekah Rabbah, 
which was certainly edited some time after the com 

pletion of the former, and which probably borrowed 
from it. In the same way older collections must 

have served as the common source for Ekah Kabbah, 
Bereshit Kabbah, and especially for the Pesikta de- 

Kab Kahana. The haggadic comment on llosca vi. 
7 appears earlier as a proem to a discourse on Lamen- 
tations, and is included among the proems in this 
Midrash (ed. Buber, p. 8a) as a comment on Gen. iii. 

9 Ber. R. xix.). The close of this proem, which 
serves as a connecting link with Lain. i. 1, is found 
also in the Pesikta as the first proem to pericope 
\v. (p. Ililal to Isa. i. 21, the llaftarah for the 

Sabbath before llie Ninth of Ab (c p. Miiller, 

"Einleitung in die Responsen," p, 88). The same 
is the ease with the second and fourth proems in the 

Pesikta, which an- identical with the fourth and 
third (according to the correct enumeration) of the 
proems to Ekah Rabbah; the fifth in the Pesikta 

( 1 '.'llli- 121b), which corresponds to the second in this 

Midrash, has a detective ending. With a change ill 

the final sentences, the first proem 

The in Ekah Kabbah is used as a proem in 

Proems, the Pesikta pericope \i (110a), and 

with a change of the proem text and 

Ol Us close, proem III I'.l) of Ekah Kabbah is found as 

a proem in the Pesikta pericope \i\. (187b). tin the 

oiler band, there is found embodied in the exposi 
lion of I. am. i, '.*, "she wccp.lh son- in tin- night." 
etc., a whole pro, m, lb,- text of which is |»s Kxvii. 

7 1 1 teg., "1 remember mj lute playing in the night," 
Hebi I; this proem contains also the final sen- 
tence w Inch serves as int rod i let ion to t be sect ion Isa 
\lix. II (ed. Buber, p. 80a), and il is known from 

the Pesikta pericope xvii. (129b et seg.) to be a proem 

10 a discourse on this section, which is intended for 
the second "consolatory Sabbath" alter the Ninth 

ol Ab From this ii becomes evident that the col- 
lector of the Ekah Kabbah used the haggadic expo- 
sition found in the Pesikta fulfilling its original 

El Nora 




purpose — as a comment on Lam. i. 2. The same is 
true of the commentary to Lam. i. 21 (ed. Buber, p. 
17a), for which there was used a proem on tie Pi 
sikta section fea. li. 12, intended originally for the 
fourth Sabbath after the Ninth of Ab, and a section 
which had for its texl this verse of Lamentations 
(pericopexix., p. 138a); and also in regard to the 
comment to Lam. iii. 39 (ed. Buber, i>. 68a), which 
consistsof a proem of the Pesikta pericope xviii. (p. 
130b) But theauthor also added lour proems from 
Kkali Rabbah itsi If (29, is. 19, 31, according to the 
correct enumeration) retaining the introductory 
formula nns . • • *i. as acommentary to Lam. iii. 1. 
11. 15; iv. L2(ed. Buber, pp. 61b, 64a, b, 74b). The 
opinion set forth in the introduction to Buber's crit- 
ical edition that the arrangement of the proems at 
the beginning of the work was made by a later 
editor, who included the marked comments of the 
Midrash as proems, and who. after prefixing the in- 
troductory formula to a comment on the Midrash Ko- 
lieletxii. Vetseq. used it as a proem for Lam R. xxiv. 
(xxiii.), is entirely wrong. There can be no doubt 
that precisely the opposite process has taken place. 
The entire interpretation in Eccl. R. xii. 1-7, which 
consists of two versions, is composed of two proems 
— that in Wayikra Kabbah, ch. 18, beginning, and 
lie proem in this Midrash. The numberless proems 
originating in the synagogal discourses of the earli 
esi times must be regarded as the richest source upon 
which the collectors of the midrashim could draw 
(comp. "Monatsschrift," 1880, p. 185; Maybaum, 
•• Die Aeliesteii l'hasen in der Entwickelung der .Iii 
dischen Predigt," p. 40i. Thecharacter of the inter 
pretation in that partof the midrash which contains 
the running commentary to Lamentations is on the 
whole the same as in the Bereshit Rabbau. Side 
by side with the simple interpretation of sentences 
and words, and with various midrashic explanations 
dating from different authors, whose comments are 
placed in juxtaposition, the Midrash contains hag- 
gadic passages having soirte son of relation to tin' 

verse; as, for instance, in connection with the verse 
"at the beginning of the watches" (ii 19) is intro- 
duced the whole discussion of Ycru 
Relation to shalmi, Ber. 2d, on the statement of 
Bereshit the Mishnah, "to the end of the tirsi 
Babbah. watch": in connection with the words 
"let us lift up our heart with our 
hands to Com] in heaven" (iii. 41) is introduced a 
story from Yer. Ta'an. 65a, telling how 1?. Abba b. 
Zabda preached on this verse during a fast-day serv 
ice. It is not strange that for simitar expressions, 
such as -en lo . . . " and "lo maz'ah manoah " oc- 
curring in Lain. i. 2, \\ and Sen. viii. 9, xi. 30, Ekah 
Rabbah (ed. Buber, pp. 31a etaeq.) uses the explana- 
tionsofBer R. xxx viii. and xxxiii., end; or that in 
the Ekah Rabbah thesame haggadah is found three 
times i pp 23a Mia. 56b)— i.e., in explaining the three 
passages I. am. i. 1, ii. 4. and ii. 5. in each of which 
the word "like" occurs; or that the same comment 
is applied to iii. 53 anil iii. ."ill; or that a sentence of 
K. Simeon b. Laki-h is used Ave times — namely, to 
iii. 3, 18, 22, '.'ii. ::-.'; or that the explanation forre- 
versing the order and putting the letter B before J) 
is given twice— namely, to ii. it; and iii. 46. 

Only a few verse-, in ch. iii. are entirely without 

annotations. To some verses (ii. 20, iii. 51, iv. 13, 
18, 19) are added the stories to which they were re- 
ferred, even though they are also found in the large 
collections on ii. 2 and i. 1(1; "For these things I 
weep: mine eye. mine eye runneth down with 
water." These collections, as well as the long 
sageon i. 5 ("her enemies prosper"), giving so main 
accounts of the sufferings of Israel, including the 
times of the First and Second Temples and the fateful 
revolt under Bar Kokba, an' the most impressive in 
the Midrash to Lamentations; they form an integral 
partof the work, like the interesting sagas and stories 
to Lam. i. 1 on the greatness of the city of Jerusa- 
lem and the intelligence of her inhabitants. Jeru- 
salem and Athens are contrasted in ten stories. The 
Scriptural words "the populous city, the city greal 
among the nations." are vividly interpreted in the 
Midrash as meaning "great in intelligence." In 
connection with iv. 2. "the sons of Zion. the splen- 
did ones" (Ilebr.). the Midrash tells of social and do- 
mestic customs. The stories of Ekah Babbah fill 
over fifteen columns of the Venice edition (about 
eleven in the tiist chapter), and include more than 
one-fourth of the midrashic comments (without the 
proems). Without these stories the differences in 
size of the several chapters would have been less ap- 
parent, even if (as was perhaps the case) the first 
chapter, in the form in which the author knew it, 
offered more opportunity for comments than did the 
other chapters. From this it is erroneously con- 
cluded in the " Gottesdienstliche Vortrage" that 
" the last sections were added later " ; and, further 
more, " that the completion of the whole work 
must not be placed before the second half of the 
seventh century," because Zunz concludes that the 
empire of the Arabians is referred to even in a 
passage of the first chapter. 

According to a reading of Buber 's edition (p. 39a I, 
which is the only correct one as shown by the con- 
text, Seir, not Ishmael, is mentioned in connection 
with Edom in this passageto i. 14. The other argu- 
ments of the "Gottesdienstliche Vortrage" like- 
wise fail to prove such a late date for the Mid- 
rash, especially since Zunz himself concludes that 
tin- authorities mentioned therein byname are not 
later than Yerushalmi. All that can be definitely 
slat.d is that Lamentations Kabbah was edited after 
the completion of that Talmud, and that Bereshil 
Rabbah must also be considered as of earlier date, 
not so much because it was drawn upon, as because 
of the character of the proem collection in Ekah 
Rabbah. Like Bereshit Rabbah, this Midrash is also 
of Palestinian origin, and rich in foreign words, espe 
eially Greek. It certainly is not strange that the 
" Vive doniine imperator! " with which R. Johanan 
b. Zakkai is said to have approached Vespasian in 
his camp, should have been reproduced. The sane 
phrase was likewise transmitted in Aramaic and He- 
brew form, in Buber's edition and in the 'Aruk. 
The Midrash is quoted, perhaps for the lirst time, by 
li. Hananeel under the name " Agadat Ekah." Many 
passages are quoted by R. Nathan, who invariably 
calls the work "Megillat Ekah." The term "Ekah 
Rabbati," which is general even now. is used to di 
nale tin- many extracts in Yalkut which have been 
included with the other Biblical books. In Ekah 




El Nora 'Alilah 

Rabbah itself tbesoun es arcalmosl always mis 
The names "Alidrasb Ekah," "Midrash Cinol 

Hegillal Kinot," are also found in the old authors. 
In Yalkut there arc likewise long extracts from 

. Midrash on Lamentations published ler the 

name "Midrash Zuta" (Berlin, 1894) l<> Solomon 

Bibliography : Earliest editions nf the MUlranli Ekah in the 
in 'in Five MeRiilot, Pesaro, 1519 ; i onstantinople, 

1580; in the i plete editions of the Rabbol to Pent and Me- 

i. ■ 145; Cracow, 15Si : Salonica, 1594; Ekah Rab- 
Bub. i. specially valuable for n< commentary and in- 
troduction. Wilna, [899: Hi'' texl differs largelyfrom thatoi 

previous editions in being inferior, havlnpr at tl sthechar- 

recens w] passages being summarized 

■ -. ises: on other MSS. compare Buber, fntroductfon, 

|i|» /unz. G. I', pp. ITU 181; Rapoport, 

■I. pp :::>: et k<v/.: w.-iss. nor Dor we~Dorshaw, lfi. 

el fteq.; Winter and Wunsche, Dii JUdiectu Litteratur, 

i. 549-654: Bacher's work mi the Haggadah, See notices 

editions and commentaries in Jew. r:\r\.\ ill. 82, s.v. 

ll. refhU It'tlilmh. 

.1 T. 

EL -ELYON (;vi?j; NS). -Biblical Data: The 
most nigh God (Gen. six, L8-20, 22, A V.; R. V 
"God mosl high"), as whose priest Melehizedek 
iilcssis Abraham (compare "Urusalem," in the El 
Amarna tablets; Schrader, " K. I'.."iv. I80,25e<*e?.; 
I s :!. II; 185) lie is further characterized :is the 
■■ |„,„,„,,, [or" i reator"] of heaven and earth "(Gen 
\i\ . 19). As mm epithet nf the Deity, " 'Elyon " oc- 
curs wiili "El" in Ps. Ixxviii. 35; with " Ynwn " in 
Ps. \ii. is. xlvii. :;. xevii. 9; with "Elohim" in Ps. 
hii. 8, Ixxviii. ")ii; and without additional noun in 
Num. x\iv. Hi; Driii. xxxii. 8; Ps. ix. 3. xviii. 14; 
Isa. xiv. l-l; Dan. vii. 18—25 (compare Hoffmann, 
" PhOnizische Inschriften," pp. 48, 50). Among the 
Phenicians '"Elyon" was an appellation of God. 
The plural. D3?N ("gods"), is found on an inscrip- 
tion of Kshmun'a/ar (Bloch, " Phttniziscbes Glossal'," 
p. 13). The name is old, anil analogous to "El- 


Con spirito. 



Refrain. El no - ra 

Ooil, might - u 




uo - 








,-> ■ 

deeds ; 




ham - zi la - nn me - hi 
grant for - nine - ness Ml - to 


be - sha - 'at 
<if this hour 


ne - 'i - lah. 
clo - sing prayer. 




Verses. 1. Met i- mis - pur 
/. They fete 





ke - ru' - im 
have been styled, 




•a - yin 

/'/,'• their 


• * 


se - im, 

note raise, 
Da capo al fine. 

—I H . 




n - mesnl - tedim 
unit ex - ult 


hi - lah, 
their pain, 


EKRON (]np5J; I. XX 'kKKapim; probablj the 
modern Akin One of the five cities belonging to 
the Philistines (Josh xiii 3), situated in the maii 
lime plain. It is mentioned in connei tion with the 
Ark in I Sam. v. in. vi. I 8 Ekron was noted for 
ItB sanctuary of Haul zebub (II Kings i '.'. 8, 6, 16). 
In later days it is merelj named with the other cities 
of the Phili tines in the denunciations of the Proph 
OtS i.l. r. xxv. 20; Amos i, 8; Zepll. ii. I ; Zci ll 
In the Apocrypha it appears as " Accaron " 
(I Mace \ 89), and was bestowed with its borders by 
\l. nandi t Balas on Jonathan Maccabeus as a reward 
for his sen ices, Eusebius i " ( inomasticon," ed. I * 
p 218) describes Accaron as a large Jewish 
tillage i» t n . . n Ashdod and Jabneh. According to 
- ii . Tunis Stratonis (Ccesarea) was Identified b) 
some w ill, Accaron. 

i ... n B P 

be - sha - 'at ha - ne - - i - lah: 

at this hour of do - sing prayer: 

Shaddai," "El'Olam," and the like. See God, 

M Wll.s III 

Critical View : The Melchizedek episode is 
regarded as a post-exilic interpolation, the term 
"El 'Elyon" being compared to the formula l>.\ 

which the Maeealiean priests were designated as 
•• priests .,1 the most high God " (Josephus, "Ant 
xvi 6, -' compare also Assumptio Mosis, vi. 
1 1. This view is maintained, among others, by Hoi 
zinger in Marti, "Kurzer Handkommentar," under 
Gen. xiv. Gunkel ("Genesis," p. '.'lilt maintains 
thai the foregoing assumption disregards the fact 
that an old tradition connected Melchizedek with 
Jerusalem, and that the possibility is not excluded 
that in remote days the God of Jerusalem was known 
as "El "Elvon." ' i: G. 11. 

sli VMOI 

See II kZK Vim N 1 


El Shaddai 



hymn attributed to Moses ibn Ezra, and chanted, in 
the Sephardic liturgy, before the commencement of 
the "Ne'ilah" or closing service of the Day of Atone- 
ment. Ii is sung to spirited tunesby English-speak- 
ing, Dutch, and Italian Sephardim. The Italian 
melody is of a modern character, but thai of the 
northern Sephardim has some claim to the Peninsu- 
lar origin attributed to it. The six Verses, contain- 
in-- the acrostic prn n - . - ";. arc sung with the refrain 
from which the hymn takes its name. 

Thestirring Spanish melody lias been further util- 
ized for the Scriptural verses which conclude the 
section "U-ba' le-Ziyyon" and immediately precede 
the ■' Ne'ilah" prayer in the Ashkenazic liturgy. The 
transcription given on page ST follows the tradition 
of Bevis Marks. London. 

Bibliography: ne sola and Aguilar, Ancient Melodies, No. 
Oayo) Atonement (West London Synagogue 
music books), p. 195; Cohen and Davis. Voice "f Prayer and 
Praise, No.ZTif; Pauer and Cohen, Traditional Hi br< w Melo- 
dies, No. 19. 



F. L. C. 

LEIA, TELA): Palestinian scholar of the third 
amoraic generation (third and fourth centuries). 
In one form or another, his name frequently appears 
in both Yerushalmi and Babli, mostly in the field 
of the Halakah. He was so distinguished that his 
contemporary and friend Zera I., admiring Ela's 
acumen, exclaimed, "The very air of Palestine im- 
parts wisdom " (B. P.. loSli). On two 

"Builder other occasions the same Zera applied 
of the to him the epithet "Bannaya d'Ora 
Law.'" ita " (Builder of the Law: establisher 
of fine legal points ; Ver. Yoma iii. 40c; 
Yer. Git. vii. 48d). 

He carried his theoretical knowledge into actual 
life, so that the very appointments of his house af- 
forded object-lessons in rabbinic rites (Yer. Yoma i. 
38c; Yer. Meg. iv. 75c). It is related that when 
on a certain Friday his duties detained him at col 
lege till late into the night, and, returning home, 
he found the entrance barred and the people asleep, 
rather than desecrate the Sabbath by knocking al 

the vale for admission, hi- spent the night on the 

steps of his house (Yer. Bezah v. 63a). 

In halakic exegetics Ela laid down the guiding 
rule, "Every textual interpretation must respect the 
subject of tin- context" (Yer. Soma iii. 40c ; Yer. 
Meg. i. 72a). Another and tin- most" frequently cited 
of his exegetic rules is, " Wherever the Bible uses 
any oi the terms 'beware,' 'lest,' or 'not,' a pro- 
hibitory injunction is involved " ( Men. 99b, and par 
allels), Quite a number of exegetical observations 
applied to halakic dedui tii in preserved under 

Ela's name (Ver. Shah. i. '.'I«, etc I, and lie reports 

like interpretations by his predecessors (Yer. Ma'as. 
Sh. v. a.idi. tn the field of the Haggadah, also, Ela 

is often met (Yer. Shah, i ; yer. Yoma v. 

r.'h. etc. ). hut as a transmitter of the homilies of 

others he appears only rarely (Ver. Peali i. Ilia. 

Sanh. -l la). That psychological ti si of human char- 
ed in the passi,,ns produced " by the 
cup. by cash, and by choler" (1DM31 ID'22 lOlsa, 

Er. 65a; compare Derek Ere? Zuta v.), which some 
ascribe to this Ela (Ilai), others ascribe to Ilai the 
tanna (second century). 

Eulogizing R. Simon b. Zebid, Ela skilfully inter- 
weaves several verses from the Book of Job, to 
\s liieh he adds simply their application to Simon's 
death, thus: "' Where shall wisdom be found? and 
where is the place of understanding?' (Job xxviii. 
12). 'The depth saith, It is not in me: and the sea 
saith, It is not with me ' (ib. Hi. 'It is hid from 

the eyes of all living, and kept e 
Exegesis of from the fowls of the air ' (ib. 21). The 
Job xxviii. four objects necessary to man, if lost. 

may he replaced; for 'there is a vein 
for the silver, and a place for gold where they 
tine it. Iron is taken out of the earth, and brass is 
molten out of the stone' (ib. 1-2); hut when a 
scholar dies, who can take- his place'.' We have lost 
Simon: whence shall we procure his like?" (Yer 
Ber. iii. 5c, and parallels). 

Bibliography: Frankel, Mebn, p. 75b : Weiss, Dor, iii. 101: 
Brull, Mebo ha-MishnaJi, i. 139; Bacher, Ag. Pal. Amor. 
iii. 699. 
s s S. M. 

ELADAHdi. Y. Eleadah) : Son of Tahath and 

father of Tahath. found in the genealogical list of 
Ephraim in I Chron. vii. 20, but not mentioned in 
the list in Num. xxvi. He met his death in a raid 
upon Gath. 

i. g. ii. G. B. L 

ELAH : King of Israel; son of Baasha, \\ ho 
seized the throneof northern Israel after the murder 
of Xadab. the son of Jeroboam, its first king. Bi 
fore he had reigned two years a conspiracy was 
organized against him within his corrupt court at 
Tirzah. and he was slain by Zimri, "captain of half 
his chariots, ... as he was . . . drinking himself 
drunk in the house of Arza, steward of his house" 
(I Kings xvi. 8-10). Josephus stales that Zimri 
struck his blow when the army, which was the 
king's defense, was absent fighting at Gibbethon 
("Ant " viii. 12. S 4). The family of Elah. expe- 
riencing the treatment usual in that semibarbaroUB 
age, found no mercy at the hands of the conspir- 

j. jr. C. F. K. 

ELAH, THE VALLEY OF (Hebr. "'Emek 
ha-Elah " i : Scene of the combat between David and 
Goliath (I Sam. xvii. 2, xxi. 9). It is identified with 

the fertile Wadi al-Sant, rich in oaks, terebinths, 
and acacias. The older as well as the newer name 

relets tO the trees gri iw ing in the valley. The | 
cut name is tut exact equivalent for an older desig- 
nation, if Wellhausen's plausible suggestion is cor- 
rect, that the valley of Shittim, mentioned in .Pel 
iv. (A. Y. iii.) is. is t<> be found in Wadi al-Sant 
, llehr. "shittah" = Arabic "sant "). 

i ... ii. F. Br. 

ELAM (dW) : The great plain north of the Per- 
sian Gulf and eastof the lower Tigrisand the moun- 
tainous districts by which it is enclosed on the east 
and north. It is the " Elamtu " of the Babylonians and 

Assyrians and the " Elymais " of the Creeks — who 
also called it " Susiana" from the capital Susa (Shu- 



El Shaddai 


-ham — and corresponds nearly to the modern Kim 
ristaa The name may have originally signified 
"the front." that is. "theeasl country ." in the Bab3 
Ionian language; bul as theeasl was to the Baby- 
lonians also the mountainous region, a popular ety 

mology 1 nected it with "high land," and this is 

t l, e n raph employed to designate 

it. Elam is menti id frequently in some of the 

very oldest Babylonian insi riptions Southern 
was known as Anshan from the earliest times 
he days of the Persian empire. 

The political importance of Elam depended upon 
ttitude toward theempiresof the Euphratesand 
Tigris. Long before the rise of the city of Babj Ion 
Id city-states ofAccad and Lagash held for a 
time part of the Elamitic territory, and border war- 
fare was very frequent. 

Two well marked eras must be specially noted. 

One is the period in the twenty-third century B.C., 

when the Klamites conquered the city of Ellasar 

Larsa) and subjected the whole of Babylonia. At 

this epoch two expeditions were made to Palestine 

under the leadership of Elam (referred to in Gen. 

The other era is marked by the prolonged re 

inceofferedby ElamtotheAssyriansintheeighth 

and seventh centuries B.C. Assurbanipal, after he 

had crushed and annexed Babylonia, put au end to 

the independence of Elam itself by taking the Capital 

(645 B.C.) and making the whole country one 

• ■t his many provinces. After the downfall of As 

-yria. northern Elam became subject to the victori 

Vledes, and - -what later southern Elam was 

occupied by the Persians, so that Anshan was the 
hereditary domain of Cj rus the Great. 

In Gen. x. 22 Elam is madeasonof Shem along 
with Asshur, but the Elamites were not Semites 

either in rac : language. The allusion in Isa. 

wii. 6 is also obscure. 

The subjection of Elam by Persia is predicted in 
Jer. .\li\. 84-39. In Isa. xxi. 2 Elam is mentioned 
with Media as about to subvert Babylon. Here 
"Elam" is put by synecdoche for " Anshan " before 
the title of - King of Persia" had been assumed by 
Cyrus. Other references t<> Elam arc Jer. xxv. 25. 
Bzek. \x\ii. 24, and Ezra iv. '.1. 

Bduorrapiit: Frledrtcti Delltzsch.Wo hew dot Parodies 'pp. 

:oi 329; Tiele, Baliyl.-Assur. Qesch. pp. net sea., 10 t< 

I,".', 131,863, 391,399, Bo, Gotha, 1886; Uommel, Qesch, />'•'<"/ 
loniensuiid Assyrtens, Berlin, 1885; Wlnckler, Qesch. Baby- 
hnn i pslc 1892 : Mc< urdy, Histoi I/, 

Prnphtcy. and ttu Monuments, New Fork and London, 
IBM; Rogers, Hlstoryo) Assyria and Babylonia. 

ii J. F. McC. 

EL'ASAH : Amora, whose epoch i- uncei 
tain; known chiefly on account of a controversy 
which he hail with a certain Philippus (or a philos 
opher), Tlie latter remarked: " Does not the prophet 
rning Edom (Mai. i. 4). 'They shall build, 
but I will throw down 'V And yet, behold, what- 
rtheybuilded still stands 1" Thereupon I 1'a ah 
Said: "Scripture does not mean material building, 

but machinations. As much as ye plan and devise 

i -t ii-. to upbuild yours. Ives and to destroy us. 

the Holy One- blessed be He!— annihilates it all." 
■• \s thou livest," then admitted the first, "so it 
reallj i- We often make attempts to destroy you. 
but - i elder appears and prevents our accomplish- 

anything" (Midr. Teh. ix. 7; Yalk., Mai. 
ids "Eliezer"). 
Bibliography : Bacher, Au- P«<- Amor. ill. 76L 

s. s. iS- -'*- 

ELATH (rh'ti or JYlKx ; in the Sinaitic inscrip- 
tions ni"S) : Wumean port at the northern end of 
the .Elanitic Gulf, the later Aila. According to the 
Old Testament, the name of the place is also El- 
[n Dent. ii. 8 it is mentioned with Ezion- 
[i. I Kings ix. 26; 11 Chron. viii. 17) 
hi Solomon's time the city came into the possession 
of the Israelites, butafterward ii was probably taken 
from them. Later Uzziah reconquered it (II Kings 
xiv. 2','; II Chron. x.wii. 2), but under Aliaz it was 
again lost (II Kings xvi 6). The old city owed its 
name to the abundance of palms in the vicinity. 

Bliii.mi.k vi'iiv : Itoliinsmi. llililiinl I: relit* in Palestine, 

i 280; Wetzsteln,inDelItzsch,Hiob, p. 118; Buhl, Qesch. der 
Edomttt n. p. 38. 
; ,.n F. Btf. 

ELBOGEN, ISMAR : German scholar; born at 
Schildberg Sept, 1, 1874. Educated by his uncle, 
Jacob Levy . author of 1 he " N'euhebraischcs WOrter- 
buch," ami then at the gj mnasium and the Jewish 
Theological Seminary in Breslau, he received his 
degree from the Breslau University. He 
obtained his rabbinical diploma in 1899 and was ap- 
pointed lecturer on Biblical exegesis and Jewish his- 
tory at the Collegio Rabbinico [talianoin Florence. 
In 1902 he became privat-docent at the Lehraustalt 
fiir die Wissenschaft des Judentums, Berlin. Elbo- 
gen's writings include: " Der Tractatus de Intellec- 
tus Emendatione und Seine Stellung Innerhalb der 
Philosophie Spinoza's," Breslau, 1898; "In Com- 
memorazione di S. I>. Luzzatto," Florence, 1901; 
"Die Neuestc Construction der Jiidischen Ge- 
schichte," Breslau, 1902 S. 

ELCESAITES : A Juda i >-< Ihrisl ian sect of Gnos- 
tic tendencies, whose period of influence extended 
from a boul 100 to 100 The Church Fathers, who 
alone mention the sect, derive the name from the 
alleged founder— '11/;. < i l.pipliauiusi, 11/ faaai (Hip 
polytus), or Etoeoal (Eusebius, Theodoretus). Epi- 
phanius. who mentions as Elkesai's brother a man 

called i - " lla i. -. -," \i\. I), explains the name 
as being derived from the Hebrew [Aramaic] ">n = 
agth" and JOD3 "hidden"; with which the 
name i a N'DD !T corresponds, both names 
designating their owners as the teachers of the " hid- 
den power" and "the hidden God." At the lime of 

Epiphanius the " saints " of the Elcesaites were two 
women- Martha ("mistress") and Marthana ("our 

The Elcesaites based their doctrine on a book 

which they claimed either had fallen from heaven. 

or bad been given by an angel to 

The Holy Elkesai at Serse Parthia, Elkesai then 

Book of the gi vim 1 it to So/Jiai ("the Baptist"; 

Elcesaites. fromjDV). Fragments of this book. 

found in the works of the ('lunch 

Fathers, have recently been collected by Hilgenfeld 

ii l.iini Fragmenta," in his edition of " Hennas 

Pa tor," 1889, pp, 228-240) But the date of the 1 k 

is uncertain: Kitsehl and Harnack assign it to the 

second half or the closeof the second century, while 
others, following the statement of Hippolytus (I.e.) 




place ii about 100 Hie I k is characterized by 

Epiphauius as containing the doctrine of persons 
•• u lid arc neither Jews nor Christians nor pagans, 
inn hold a middle position between these " (" Hoere- 
ses," liii. I); and in fact the creed of the Elcesaites 
contains such a mixture of Jewish, Christian, and 
pagan elements that a classification of the sect is <\ 
tremely difficult. They must be regarded as Jewish 
because they expressly insisted on "the rule of the 
Law," and held that "the faithful must be circum- 
cised and live according to the Law " (Hippolytus, 
" 11a rises," i\. 1 1). Special emphasis was laid on the 
observance of the Sabbath {I.e. i\. 16), and the turn- 
ing of the face toward Jerusalem during prayer (Epi- 
phanius, I.e. xix. 3). At the same time they asserted 
that sacrificing had not been enjoined upon the Pa- 
triarchs, and condemned it altogether (compare I'hl- 
liorn, "Homilien und Recognitioiien," p. 396). 

The Christo-Messianology of the book is verj 
ambiguous. The Messiah is conceived, on the one 
hand, as an angel of giant, dimensions, a concept that 
recalls Suite Komati in the Cabala, and Adam in 
the Haggadab ; and, on the oilier hand, the doctrine 
of the continuous incarnation of the Messiah from 
Adam to Jesus (see Adam K!ADMON)is taught. A 
strongly marked naturalistic-pagan element is found 
in the prescribed ablutions which among the Elcesa- 
ites answered to the Christian baptism. "Water was 
In lil sacred by them — an ancient pagan 
Elcesaite conception widely spread, especially 
Baptism, in Babylonia (Ariz, "Ursprung des 
Gnostizismus," pp. 99 et seq.); hence 
the Elcesaites preached not only forgiveness of all 
sins with the new baptism, but also enjoined ablu- 
tions against madness, consumption, and possession 
During baptism they invoked, besides God and His 
son, the great king, also heaven, earth, water, oil, 
and salt, representing the five elements, according 
tn the ancient Semitic conception. It may also be 
gathered from Hippolytus' quotations from the 
book of the Elcesaites that astrology and magic 
were prominent in their religion. The doctrine of 
Elcesai is as follows: "There exist wicked stars of 
impiety. This declaration is now made by us: O ye 
pious ones and disciples, beware of the power of 
Hie days of the sovereignty of these stars, and en- 
gage not in the commencement of any undertaking 
during the ruling days of these." The Sabbath is 
important as "one of those days during which [ire- 
vails the power of tiiese stars." Fni a similar astro 
logical reason no work must be begun on the third 
day from the Sabbath— Monday (Hippolytus, I.e. ; 

compare Astkiii.ocy ; M \M>. i:\ns). The asceticism 

of this sect, which forbade the eating of meat, but 

maintained the sarn tit\ of marriage, must be noted 

According to Epiphanius, Elcesai and bis brother 
Jexai had joined the Ossteans, prob- 
Relation ably identical with the Essenes, who. 
to Other as well as the related sect of the Naz 
Judseo- arites, recognized Elcesai's authority. 
Christian They lived in the region beyond the 
Sects. Jordan, offering no sacrifices, and con 
demnirig the use of meat. The El- 
cesaites, then, represent the stage of transition from 
those Jewish sects to the Christian heresy of the 
Sampsaeans— as a section of the Elcesaites was called 

al the time of Epiphanius — and to those circles in 
which the Clementine Homilies originated, the doc 
trines of which are very similar to those of the El- 
cesaites; but while the pagan and Jewish elements 
preponderate over the Christian among the Elce 
saites, in the Clementine Homilies the reverse is the 
ease (compare CLEMENTINA; EbIONITES; Jmi.eo- 


Bibliography: Harnack, Dogmi ngi sc7i.3d ed., 1.288 293; 1 1 11- 
genfeld, Ketzergesch. pp. 433-435; idem, Judentum undju- 
aenrChristentum. pp.99efcseQ.; Ritschl, Ucherdit Sekiedei 
Elkesaiten, in Zett. fttr Historinche Thenlogie, xxiil 
5&1; idem, Entstehung der Altkatholiechen Kirclie (see 
Index); Seeberg. Dngmengesch. i. 51-52; Ulilhnrn, Homilien 
me/ Recognitionen, pp. 392 et eeq. ; idem, in Herzug-Hauek, 
ttecH-Encyc s.v. ElkeeaiU ". 
k. L. G. 

ELCHE : City in the former kingdom of Valen- 
cia. When Don Jaime I. of Aragon took the city 
from the Moors, he gave housesand land to the Jews 
he found there, as lie did to the other Jewsof Valen- 
cia, and appointed a special street forthem. In 1410 
Vicente Ferrer came to Elclie to carry on his work 
of conversion. Those Jews who remained true to 
their faith tied to Italy and Turkey. Abraham 
Rondi (perhaps Gerondi) lived here, and corresponded 
with Isaac ben Sheshet. 

Bibliography: J. Amador de los ltios. Htetoria •!< /•»« Judiot 
de E*pana, i. 403. ii. 425; Isaac b. Sbeshet, Responses Nos. 
:«!, it:,:!: .lacobs. Stmrrrx, No. s:;;. 
G. M. K. 

chant and traveler of the ninth century. He pro- 
fessed to have been a citizen of an independent Jew- 
ish state in eastern Africa, inhabited by the tribes of 
Dan (hence his name, " ha-Dani " = " the Danite"), 
Asber, Gad, and Naphtali. Starting from this al- 
leged state, Eldad visited Babylonia, Kairwan, and 
Spain, causing everywhere a great stir among the 
Jews by his fanciful accounts of the Lost Ten Tribes, 
and by the halakot which he asserted he had brought 
from his native country. These halakot, written in 
Hebrew, deal with the slaughtering and subsequent 
examination of animals. They differ widely from 
the Talmudic ordinances, and are introduced in the 
name of Joshua ben Nun, or, according to another ver- 
sion, of Otbniel ben Kcnaz. Eldad's accounts soon 
spread, and, as usual in such cases, were remolded 
and amplified by copyists and editors. There are no 
less than eight versions with important variations. 
The following isasummary of Eldad's narrative ac- 
cording to the most complete of these versions: 

On leaving the land "on the other side of the river ot Kusli," 
F.lilad traveled with a man of the tribe of Asher. A great, sturm 

wrecked the boat, but God prepared a plunk 

His Alleged fur him and liis companion, mi which they 

Travels. tloated until thrown ashore among a cannibal 

Ethiopian tribe called "Romroni." (As to the 
existence in former times of such a tribe, see Metz in " Das Jfl- 
diache Litteraturblatt," 1877, No. 41.) Tin- Aslierlie, who was fat. 
was immediately eaten, while Eldad was put Into a pit to fatten. 
Boon after a tire-worshiping tribe assailed the cannibals, and 
Eldad was taken pris mer. He remained in captivity during 
four years, when his captors brought him to the province of Aza- 
nian (according to another version, to China i. where he was 
ransomed byaJewisb merchant for thirty-two pieces ot gold. 
I Idad continued his journey, and fell In with the tribe of Issacbac 

dwelling I ng high mountains mar Media and Persia, their 

hunt extending ten days' ]ourne\ mi even siile. They are at 
peace with all, and their whole energy is devoted to the study 
of the Law; their only weapon is the knife for slaughtering 
animals. Their judge and prince Iscalled " Nahsbon," and they 
use the four methods ot capital punishment. 


THE JEWISH f m .clopedia 


The i ri t » - ol ZebuUm im'i ii s the land extending from tbe 

euiii the ltlver Euphrates. Behind the moun- 
ai hi the tribe "f Reuben faces them. Peace n 
, se Iwo tribes: they war :is allies and divide the 
. , possess ii"' Hible, the Mlsbnati id, and 


: of Mai . dwell in the 

i M.ii'i.i. I are very warlike. 

and the other half "f Manasseh are Ii 
Chi They take tribute from twenty-eight klng- 

and inanv Mobaminedans are subjected to them. 

Dan i ed to the land "( gold, Havllah 

(Kusb), shortly after the separation of Juduli and Israel. The 

- of Kaphtall, i.a'i. and Asher joined the Danltes later. 

palled Uliel ben Malkiel, a prince bj the 

of Elizaphan. of the house of Rllhab. and a Judge hut i 

e power to inflict the four capital 
punishments prescribed In the Law. The four tribes lead a 
die lid-, and are continualls al war u Ith the flye neighbor- 
ing Ethiopian kings. Each ii ii"- is In the Held three months, 
i remains hi the saddle without dismounting 
ibath to the next. Thej possess the entire Scrip- 
tures, but they do nol read the Roll of Esther (nol haying been 
the miraculous salva i mentl 1 in it) nor Lam- 
avoid us disheartening influence). They bave a 
pure Hebrew, l>ul none of the Talmudic teachers la 
mentioned. Their ritual is introduced In the name of Joshua, 
who had received it from Moses, who En his turn had heard its 
i in the Almighty. Theyspeak only Hebrew (Eldad 
II professed nol to understand a word <.f Ethloplc or 

"the other side <>f the river of Kush" dwell the Bene 

eh (tribe of Levi). The River Sambatlon encircles iln-lr 

land, ii rolls sand and stones iiui-inu tiie six working days and 

Sabbath. Fi the first moment of Sabbath to the 

Ire surrounds the river, and during that time no human !«■- 
Ingcan approach within half a mile of either side of it. The four 

'i s communicate with the Bene Mosheh from the boi 

if the river. The Bene Mosheh dwell in beautiful houses, 
and no unclean annual is found In their land. Their cattle and 
:! as their Qelds hear twice a year. No child dies 
during tbe lifetime of its parents, who live t'> seea third and 
fourth generation. They do not close tln-ir bouses al niLiit, for 
ao theft or wickedness among them. Theyspeak lie- 
brew, and never swear by the name of I. 

This fanciful narrative, the origin of •which is in 
be found in the liaggadic literature, of which Eldad 
must have had a very extensive knowledge, « aa ac 
cepted by his contemporaries as true. 
Reception The inhabitants of Kairwan wire, ii 
of is true, troubled by the differences 

His Story, between his halakot and thoseol the 
Talmud, and by sum,' strtniL'. Be 
brew expressions used l>.\ him; but the gaon Ze 
mali ben Hayyim of Sura, whose opinion they 
bad asked, tranquilized them by saying thai there 
was nothing astonishing in the four tribes disagree 
lug with the Talmud on some lialakic points. More 
[ Eldad's personality, asserted the gaon, was 
known to him through Isaac ben Mar and R. Sim- 
kali, with whom (lie Dauite associated while he was in 
Babylonia. Hasdai ibn Shaprut, cites Eldad in his let- 
ter to the king of the < luazars, and Eldad's halakol 
were used by both Rabbinites and Karaites asweap 
"in in defense of their respective i rei d Talmudic 
authorities like Rashi, Abraham ben David(RABaD), 
Abraham ben Maimon quote Eldad as an unques 
ed authority ; and lexicographers and gramma 
interpret some ITebrew words according to the 
ining piven them in Eldad's phraseology. 
Tlic influence of Eldad's narrative extended be 
1 Jewish circles. It was the source of the apoc 
i . phal letter of the ao called " Prester John," which 
appeared in the twelfth century. Intending to re 
lute Eldad's assertion of the existence of independ 

cut Jewish states— an assertion contrary to the teach- 
ing of (in- Roman Church— the Christian writer told 
of a priest who ruled over the great 
Source of kingdom of Ethiopia, to which were 
■'Prester subject Borne Jewish tribes, including 
John." the Bene Mosheh who dwell beyond 
the River Sambation. The only writ- 
ers of the .Middle Ages who expressed doubts as to 
enuinenessof Eldad's imitative ami his hala 
kol were Abraham ibn Ezra (Commentary to Ex. ii. 
23) and Men- of Rothenburg (Responsa, No. 193). 

Modern critics are divided in their opinions con- 
cerning Eldad. Pinski r, Gr&tz, and Neubauer saw 
in him a Karaite missionary endeavoring to discredit 
the Talmud by his statement thai the four tribes did 
nol know the names of the Tannaim and Amoraim, 
and that their halakot were different from those of 
the Talmud. This opinion was refuted by Schorr 
and Jellinek, who observed thai Eldad's halakot 

ci i n lain rules concerning the exam illation of slaugh- 
tered animals which are nol accepted 
Modern by the Karaites, P. Frank! regarded 
Opinions. Eldad as a mere charlatan whose say- 
ings and doings are nol worth atten- 
tion. Reil'maiiii denied outright the existence of 

Eldad, and considered the letters of the community 

of Kairwan ami of Zemab ben Hayyim of Sura to 
be forgeries. MetZ was the lirst to analyze the con- 
tents of Eldad's book in the light of the reports of 
other travelers. A. Epstein followed Metz's method, 
ami came to (he conclusion that Eldad's hook is 
somewhat of thenatureof a historical novel in which 
truth is mixed w ith imagination. The halakot are, 

according to him, genuine, and were in use among 

the countrymen of Eldad, either in a province of 

eastern Africa or in Yemen, where the Jews at that 

time knew Hebrew, but not the Talmud. For Eldad 
could not have been a native of Abyssinia, the conn 
try of the Falashas, since there only Geez is spoken ; 
and no trace of this dialect appears iii Eldad's 
Hebrew ; then- are, however, some traces of Arabic, 
which Eldad must have known, although be as- 
serted the contrary. 

Eldad's travels have been published from the vari- 
ous existing versions: Mantua, 1480; Constan- 
tinople, 1516; to.1519; Venice, loll. 
Editions. 1605, 1648; Furth, with a Judseo-Ger 
man translation by S. II. Weil, 1769; 
Zolkiev, 1772; Jessnitz, 1772; Leghorn, 1828 ; in Jel- 
linek's "Bet ha-Midrash," iii., vi. ; Presburg, ism 
(ed. by Abraham Epstein). As to the differences be- 
tween the various versions, see I). II. Miillcr, "Die 
lleci nsionen uml Veisiouen ties Elclail ha Dani," in 

" Denkschxiften der Kaiserlichen AJcademie der Wis 
senschaften" (vol, xli. Vienna, 1892) Eldad's nax 
rative was translated into Latin bj G. Genebrard 
(Paris, 1584), and also, anonymously, into Arabic 
(St. Petersburg MSS. Nc-9, 674, 708) and Into Ger 
man (Dessau, I7(>0; Jessnitz, 172:!). Extracts of the 
I hi. n\v i. ai are given by Bartoloccl (" Bibl, Rab.," 
i 100) ami by Eisenraenger ("Entdecktes Juden 
tliiim," ii. 527). 
liiiu.iiH.i; kPHT; Plnsker, l.n.hnir gadmnniwiot, p. lOOj Schorr, 

in//' //"/" .M HI ; I' IMiliM'. Ill .Vniel/ss, In ,11. Is,.;. ,,. till ; 

Neubauer, In ■'"»> ""' Asiatiquc, 1861, 8d ed., v. 289 el sea.; 

m./'ie Quart. Rev i 96,111 Ml: Gratz, Oeftch.ll.4T8; 

\ Epstein, Eldad ha-Dani (Hebr.1, Pres g, 1891 ; Idem, In 

Eldad and Medad 



R.B.J. xxv.; Ueifuiann. in Ha-Karmcl. vin.; BerUners-Mn- 
i;-i -i», xv. Bo; Metz, in Das JUdtsche LMeraturblatt.wn, 
do in- i asset, in Ersch and Gruber, section Ii., pan -.. p. 
166; Stelnscnneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 923. _ _, 

g. !• Br. 

ELDAD AND MEDAD (Modad according to 
. Two men who prophesied in the 
camp during the wanderings in the wilderness 
(Num. xi. 26-29). According to an old rabbinical 
tradition, they predicted the war with Gog and 
Magog. "The king from the land of Magog will 
unite all the hosts of the heathen in awarfareon the 
soil of Palestine against the Jews returning from the 
Exile at the Messianic time, but the Lord [D'Tp = 
Ki - . | will be ready in the time of distress and slay 
them with the lire issuing forth from His throne, 
and their bodies will fall upon the mountains of the 
laud of Israel and be eaten up by the wild beasts and 
the birds of heaven. Then will all the dead of the 
people of Israel be revived and partake of the bliss 
prepared for them from the beginning" (Targ. Yer. 
to Num. xi. 26; comp. Sauh. 17a; Tan.. Beha'alo- 
teka, ed. Buber, 22). According to the fragment of 
Targum Yer. (ib.), the heathen will fall into the 
hand of the Messiah (comp. Bacher, "Ag. Tan." i. 
88, ii. 119; "Monatssehrift," 1857, pp. Sifietseq.). 

This Messianic prophecy of Eldad and Medad 
seems to have been made the subject of a special 
work, consisting of 400 lines, which circulated in 
the first Christian century ; it is quoted in the "Shep- 
herd of Hernias," vision ii. 3, as containing the sen- 
tence found also in the Targum : "The Lord [Ki>pioc] 
is nigh to those in distress." See Schilrer, "Oeseh." 
3ded., iii. 266. 

E. G. II. K. 

ELDER, or ZAKEN : In primitive times age 
was ii necessary condition of authority. Not only 
among the ancient Jews, but also among other na- 
tions of antiquity, the elders of the nation or of the 
clan constituted the official class. The institution 
of elders existed among the Egyptians (Gen. 1. 7), 
among the Midianites (Nurm xxii. 7). and later among 
the Greeks o pat) and Romans ("pa- 

nes" or "senatus"). Although the Talmud (Yoma 
28b) points to the existence of such an institution in 
the time of Abraham, no distinct mention is made of 
it in the Bible until the period of the Exodus. Moses 
is commanded to assemble the elders of the people, 
and to assure them of a spicily redemption from 
Egyptian bondage Ex. iii. 16, 18). Afterward the 
elders occupied an important position in the com 
munal as well as in the political affairsof the Jewish 
people. Ii is not certain that they were elected by 
the people, although they wen- considered their rep- 
resentatives, and were frequently identified with the 
'"am" (people) itself in the Bible (Ex. iv. 29; six. 
7,8; xxiv. 1: Josh, xxiii, ■!,t,i!.). 

The position and function of the elder ate nowhere 
clearly defined. " What there was of permanent 
official authority lay in the hands of the elders and 
heads of tin- houses; in times of war they com 
manded each his own housi hold, and in peace they 
dispensed justice each within his ,,« u circle » (Well 
hausen). Tin > were the defenders of the interests 
of their constituents, and were especially powerful 
in local or municipal affairs (Deut. \ix. 12, xxi. 2. 
xxii. lo. v xv. 7. 'osli \\. t. Ruthiv. 2). Togi 

v. ith the priests, they sometimes participated in cer- 
tain sacrificial rites (Lev. iv. 15, ix. 1). In national 
affairs they held a very important position. It was 
at the request of the elders that Samuel consented to 
a monarchical form of government in Israel (1 Sam. 
viii. -4). It was through their intervention that 
A t>n, ■]■ succeeded in appointing David king over 
Israel (II Sam. iii. 17). The elders u ere accomp 
in the conspiracy of Absalom (II Sam. xxii. I 
them Rehoboam first turned for advice (I Kings xii. 
6), and they were also a prominent factor in 
proceedings brought against Naboth by Jezebel 
(I Kings xxi. 8-13). 

It is not known whether all the officers of tbc 
commonwealth were chosen from the body of elders 
(compareEx. xviii. 25 and Num. xi. 16). As judges, 
however, and as the chief representatives of the 
people, the elders enjoyed their authority for a long 
period. The Mishnah speaks of the elders as the 
recipients of the oral law from Joshua (Abot i. 1), 
and as the forerunners of the Sanhedrin (Sauh. 3a . 
The institution of elders flourished during the period 
of the Babylonian Exile (K/.ek. viii. 1, xiv. 1, xx. 1), 
and continued in Palestine during the Persian and 
Greek periods (Ezra v. 5, 9; vi. 7. 14; x. 8; I Mace. 
vii. 31; xii. 6, 35; xiii. 36; Judith vi. 21, vii. 28, 
viii. 33, x. 6 ; and in Susanna). See Jcdge ; Patri- 
archal Family ami Altiiority; and especially 


BIBLIOGRAPHY: Hastings, Diet. Bible ; Hamburger, /,'. B. 7".: 
Wellhausen, I. J. U.; Driver. Deute>»n»mn, Pl>- 199, it!. New 
York, 1895 : Saalschiitz, Das Mnsaischi !!■ cht, chap. ni.. Ber- 
lin, 1853; Ewald, Tlie Antiquities nf Israel, Index, K 
isrii; McCurdv. History, Pmpheeu. and the Mnnum 
index. New York. 1894; Amrain, Xekenim, in Jour. Bih. 
Lit., June. 191X1; Reifmann, Sanhedrin (in Hebrew), Ber- 
dyi'hev 1888: \. Bucbler, Das Siinhcdrvm in Jeru 
pp. 163, L68, Vienna, 1902. 

J. H. G. 

elder who deties the authoritative rabbinic interpre- 
tation of the Mosaic Law. In the period when the 
Sanhedrin flourished this was a capital offense, pun- 
ishable by strangulation (Sanh. xi. 1 1. This is based 
on Deut. xvii. 8-13. and according to the Talmud 
refers not to an ordinary man who refuses to abide 
by the decision of the priest or the judge, but to a 
regular ordained rabbi, or a judge or an elder over 
the age of forty, or one of the twenty-three jurists 
constituting the minor Sanhedrin of a city or town. 
If such a judge dared to defy the decision of a ma- 

jority of the major Sanhedrin, he I ame liab 

the penalty of strangulation. K. MeTr, howe 
would convict only an elder whose opposition con 
cerned a criminal act which, if committed uninten- 
tionally, would entail a sin offering, or, committed 
intentionally, would be punished with exci 
(=JT"G). According to R. Judah, the elder could 
be convicted only of a schismatic decision concern- 
ing a law which had lis origin in Scripture, hut the 
interpretation of which was left to the Soferim. 

The modeof procedure in such cases of contumacy 
is related in the Mishnah. There were three tribu- 
nals (in Jerusalem), one al the foot of the Temple 
hill (Mount Moriah), another :it the entrance to the 
court of the Temple, and another at the granib cor 
rldor (=JV»n ri2t;6i of the Temple. Tin- associate 

judges, with the accused, came before the tribunal 


THE JEW 1M1 EN< U mi'LlUA 

Eldad and Medad 

at the fool of the Templehill. Theaccused pleaded : 
■■Til us and so have 1 expounded the Law, and 
,,,,1 so have nn associates; thus and thus have I 

l>li', and tlms ha\ r my associa 
The judges of tlic tribunals, if they had any tradi- 
tion bearing upon t In- ease, gave their opinion; if 
>k themselves to the tribunal al the 

mce tc the court of the Temple, where the 

! eding was repeated. Finally, they all 

appeared before the highest tribunal at the granite 
hall of the Temple, whence came the interpretation 
of the To rah. The Great Sanhedrin rendered a de 
Should the elder still maintain a schismatic 
and persist in asserting it, he became liable 
to punishment. In this event he was brought bi 

the supreme court for trial, conviction, and ex- 
ecution. Accordingto K. Akiba, theexecution took 
place on the first festival following his conviction, 
when, as a rule, the people were gathered together 
in Jerusalem, so "thai the people ma} hear and 
fear." R. Mei'r thought such :i delay cruel, and 
would have had the culprit executed immediately 
after his conviction, which would be followed by a 
proclamation announcing the execution. The re- 
bellious elder was classed with three other offenders: 
one who incites to idolatry ( : IVDD), a rebellious 

and a perjured witness. In all these cases the 
ex« ut ion was publicly announced (Sanh. 89a 

The question whether the supreme court might 
pardon the rebellious elder and overlook the insult 
done it by hisdissent is a controverted point, and the 
opinion of the majority was that pardon was not 
permissible, as this would increase the number of 
schisms in Israel (Sanh. 8t)a and b). 
- s .1. ]). ]■:. 

ELEAD : A descendant of Ephraim, found in 
the genealogical list in I Chron. vii. 21. He joined 
a party ol raiders to take away the flocks of Gath, 
[vas killed by the Gittites. The name doesnol 
in the genealogical list in Numbers. 
i . ... ii. G. B. I. 

ELEALAH : Town of the Moabite plateau, eon 
quered by Gad and Reuben and rebuilt by the latter 

(Num. xxx ii. 3, 37). It is menti id, together with 

town of Heshbon, in the prophecies concerning 
Mo;iln|sa. xvi. 9). Klealah was si ill known in Roman 
times, and is to day identified w ith the mound of de- 
called " Al-'Al" about a mile north of Heshbon. 
o. n. E. I. N. 

ELEAZAR: 1. Highpriest; thirdsonof Aaron 

o i Idi i brothers, Nadab and Abihu, had 
suffered death for offering strange fire before the 
. Eleazar became his father's chief assistant, 
with the title "prince of the princes ol tin Levites" 
(Num. iii 32), in- functions including the supervi 
of the oil for the seven branch d i indli stick, 
the incense, ami all that pertained to the inner sane 
tuary (ib. iv. 16) shortly before Aaron's death 
i i lothed in his lather's official gai n 
ignifj that he wns Aaron's successor (ib. \\ 
God's commands were now addressed to Moses 
and Eleazar (ib. xxvi. I), and Eleazar is mentioned 
as God's second representative in Israel, beside 
Moses i/A. xxxii. 28), and even befon bo hi i(Num 
Kxii 28 xxxiv. 17; Josh xi\. I. svii I \i\ 51, 

wi. 1 1. Be was the progenitor of most of the high 
priests, He was buried "in Gibeah, of Phinehas his 
son, which was given him in the hill country of 
Ephraim" (Num.* \.\iv. 33, II. V.). 

Eleazar is said to have added to the Book of 
Joshua the section xxiv. 29-32 (B. B 15a, 1.27), 
and his son I'hinehas, verse 83. 

I.e. II. E. K. 

2. A son of Dodai, an Ahohite (II 8am. xxiii. 0, 

R. V i, or oi Dodo the Ahohite (I Chron. xi. 12); 
one ol the three principal captains of David's army. 

3. Fourth son of Mattathias and brother of Judas 
Maccabeus; si 1 man led " A varan" (I Mace. ii. 5. Avap&v; 
ib. vi. 43, Savap&v for Avap&v; Josephus, " Ant." xii. 
6, ; i. lipdi i. lie distinguished himself by a coura- 
geous act at the battle of Bet Zekaryah (162 n.c), 

when the Jews Under Judas Maeealieus were hard 

pressed by the large Syrian army commanded by 
Lysias and encouraged by the presence of the youth- 
ful king Antiochus Eupator. Eleazar, seeing among 
the enein\ s elephants one that was armed with 

royal breast plates, and thai was taller than the rest 

concluded thai it carried the king. Wishing to put 

hi end to the misery of his people, and being desir- 
ous of gaining everlasting fame for himself, Eleazar 
fought his way through the ranks of the enemy, 
and, creeping under the elephant, speared it from 
beneath, t be animal crushing him in its fall (I Mace. 
vi 43-46; Josephus, J.c. xii. 9, §4; idem, "B. J."i. 1, 
§5). Because of this deed K lea/a r is especially men- 
tioned in a midrash (Rashi to Deut. x xxiii. 11 ; comp. 
"Megillat Antiochus," ed. Gaster, verses 63, 64). 

II Maccabees does not mention Eleazar ; and Jose- 
phus modifies the account in his "Wars," follow ing 
the story of 1 Mace. vi. 43 only in his " Antiquities 

Kleazar is included a ng the seventy translators of 

the Bible that are mentioned in the Letter of Aris 
teas (§ 50); and scholars have assumed that this 

fictitious name w:is taken from that of the MaCCS 
I nan i U end land, in Kaul/.scb, " Apokryphcn," ii. 3). 
In the Syrian document, however, the name reads 

"Eliezer" (Wendland, "Aristeas," p. 143, Leipsic, 

Him. mi. ii inn : Gritz, Oesch. II. 383; Scburer. Gesc/i. 3d ed., 
1.213; Wlllricb, Judaica. j>. U9, Gottlngen, 1900 ; Krauss. in 

Rev. i:i Jmre, .\w. -.'iii: for the na "Avaran" see 

I'litsi-he. i\ i> i ge) a ^ttes Exegi li» hi • Handbuch to I Maec. 
II. 5, and ZOckler, Kin gefasstes i »m mentor, ibid. 
i o. ii. E K. — S. Kit. 

4. Son of Ananias, the high priest. Though be 
ng toa family which strove to maintain friendly 

terms with the Romans, he induced his priestly col- 
Leagues to discontinue the daily sacrifice for the em 
peror, and to decline presents from the pagans (" 1>. 
J." ii. 17. §§ 2-4), thereby causing a rupture with 
the Romans The rebels, under the leadership of 
Eleazar,, took possession of the lower city and the 
Temple, and fought for seven days with the peace 

parly The Sieatii Under Meiiahem attacked the 

peace party, killing Ananias and his brother Heze 
kiah. This led to a conflict between the parties of 
Menahem and Eleazar, in which the former was 
defeated and driven from Jerusalem. Eleazar also 
attacked the Roman garrison that had retired to 
the fortified towers -Hippicus, Phassslus, and Ma 
riamne; the Romans capitulated and surrendered 
their arms on condition of free retreat, but wen- all 

Eleazer II. 



massacred by the rebels (Josephus, " B. J." ii. 17, §§ 
2-10). Meg. Ta'an. 11 refers to thisevent. 

The Romans retired from Judah and Jerusalem 
onthel7thof Elul. It seemsthat Eleazar had coins 
Struck in his name, with the inscription: "The First 
Fear of the Liberation of Jerusalem." On the organ 
ization of the rebellion Eleazar, with Jesus b Sap- 
phias, was appointed general of [dumea ("B. J." ii. 
20, § 4, reading 'Avaviov instead of vlav Slav). Gratz's 
opinion that Eleazar is identical with Eleazar b. 
Anauiah b. Hezekiah Garon is inadmissible. In Yo- 
sippon, ch. 95-97, Eleazar b. Ananiah is confounded 
\\ ith Eleazar ben Jair (see Albinos; Ananias). 

Bibliography: Gratz, Geseh. 4th ed., ill. 453, 471: Schurer, 
Gesc/i.3ded., i.602; Schlatter. Zur Topographic uml Gexch. 
Palilstinas. p. 368; Madden. History of Jewish Coinage, 
pp. 161-166; Lew. Beach, dcr JlMisehen MUnzen, p. 88: 
Agadat Shir ha-'Shirim. ed. Sehecbter. pp. 47, 96. 

5. Priest and treasurer of the Temple of Jerusa- 
lem. Eleazar, anxious to save the costly curtains of 
the Temple from the greed of Crassus, who had 
seized the treasure of the Temple amounting to 2,000 
talents, gave him a golden beam weighing 300 min«, 
the existence of which was unknown to the other 
priests on account of its wooden casing. He made 
Crassus swear to spare the rest of the Temple. Cras- 
sus, notwithstanding his oath, took all the gold of 
the Temple (Josephus, "Ant." xiv. 7, § 1). 

6. Leader of the Zealots iu the war against Ves- 
pasian and Titus ; son of Simon (Josephus, "B. J." 
ii. 20, § 3 ; iv. 4, § 7 ; for uidc Viuvoc read Ziuwoc). He 
belonged to a noble priestly family. After the de- 
feat of Cestius, Eleazar seized the abandoned impedi- 
menta of the Romans and the treasure of the Tem- 

Brass Coin of Eleazar ben Simon. 

Obverse : pun ItjrJN— " Eleazar the Priest." A vase ; in field 
to right a palm-branch. Reverse : [Sn]ie" mSn] 1 ' pns rw 
—"The First Year ol the Redemption of Israel," round a 
cluster of grapes. 

(After Madden, " History of Jewish Coinage.") 

pie, and employ ed the Zealots as armor-bearers ("B. 
J." ii. 20, § 3). He found an ally in the priest, Zacha- 
rias, son of Amphikalles. with whose help he sup- 
planted the peaceable high priest Ananias and his 
party, and admitted the Idumeans into Jerusalem 
(*&. iv. 4, § 1). When the patriot Johannes turned 
from Giseala to Jerusalem after the subjugation of 
Galilee, Eleazar would not submit to him, but re- 
tired to the court of the Temple with his friends 
Judah b. Helika and Simon b. Ezron. During the 
Passover Eleazar's men opened the gates of the 
court of the Temple, whereupon the followers of 
Johannes stole in among the pilgrims, overpowered 
Eleazar's people, and drove them from the court (70 
C B ■ if', v. 8, § 1 ; Tacitus, v. 12). 

Hibliographt: Gr;ltz, Geseh. 4th ed.. tit. SOS), 528; S.-nOrer. 
Gescft. 3d ed.. i. 633, 62o ; Schlatter, Ztir Ti>pographU 
Gcsch.PaliMiuns. p. :16>> : K.inach, '[• rtcx d'Auteur* Greet 
et Rnmains, p. 320: Prnxopographia Imperii Roman 
EU • 

7. Martyr in the days of Antiochus Epiphanes. 
In the religious persecution under Antiochus, Elea- 
zar, a scholar of rank, "and of a noble counte- 
nance." at that time " well stricken in years," was 
compelled to eat pork, his mouth being opened by 
force. When offered the alternatives of death or re- 
nunciation of his faith, he chose the former, iu or- 
der to set a "noble example to the young." The 
king's followers desired to protect him, and im- 
plored him at least to pretend to obey the commands 
of the king. Eleazar refused, and died the death of 
a martynlT Mace. vi. 18-311. In Antioch (I V Mace. 
v.. vi.), Eleazar's edifying martyrdom, with that of 
the seven Macea! >ean brothers, was honored by th- 
Roman Church (Origen. " Exhortatio ad Marty- 
rium," ch. 22-27; "Comm. in Ep. ad Rom." iv. ch. 
10; C'hrysostom). Cardinal Rampolla's investiga- 
tions have proved the historical character of the ac- 
count despite the fact that while the seven martyrs 
are mentioned in rabbinical legend, Eleazar seems 
to be unknown to the Rabbis (■' Marty re et Sepulture 
des Macchabees," Bruges, 1900). Gratz had already 
declared it to be substantially true ("Geschichte.'' 
'-Med., ii. 317). Herzfeld's supposition ("Geschichte 
des Volkes Jisrael," ii. 75) that Eleazar is identical 
with Eleazar ben Harsom is untenable. 

S. Kr. 

ELEAZAR I. (LAZAR) (Eleazar b. Sham- 
mua' ) : Mishnaic teacher of the fourth genera- 
tion, frequently cited in rabbinic writings without 
his patronymic (Ab. iv. 12; Git. iii. 8, incorrectly 
"Eliezer"; compare Gem. Git. oll>; Ycr. Git. iii. 
45a, MishnahandGem.). He was of priestly descent 
(Meg. 27b; Sotah 39a) and rich (Eccl. R. xi. 1), and 
acquired great fame as a teacher of traditional law. 
He was a disciple of Akiba (Zeb. 93a, 110b), but ow- 
ing to the Hadrianic proscriptions of Jewish observ- 
ances, was not ordained by him. After Akiba's 
death, however, R. Judah b. Baba ordained Eleazar, 
together with Me'ir, Jose b. Halafta, Judah b. Ila'i. 
and Simon b. Yohai, at a secluded spot between 
Usha and Shefar'am. The ordainer was detected in 
the act and brutally slain ; but the ordained escaped, 
and eventually became the custodians and dissemi 
nators of Jewish tradition (Sanh. 13b; 'Ab. Zarah 

Mention is made of a controversy between Eleazar 
and R. Mei'r at Ardiska (Tosef.. Naz. vi. 1 ; see Ncu- 
bauer, "G. T." p. 106). He also maintained halakic 
discussions with R. Judah b. 'Illai and R. Jose 
(Tosef., Zeb. v. 4, x. 10), and quite frequently wiih 
R. Simon b. Yohai (Shek. iii. 1 ; Yoma v. 7) ; but be 
never appeared with them at the sessions of the San - 
hedrin at Usha. Hence it may be assumed that lie 
did not return to the scene of his ordination. When- 
ever he settled, he presided over a college to which 
large numbers of students were attracted ("Er. 
Yer. Yeb. viii. 9d; compare Mek., Beshallah, Ama 
lek, i), among whom are named Joseph or Issi ha 
llabli (Tosef. , Zeb. ii. 17; Men. 18a), and the compiler 
of the Mishnah, R. Judah I. ('Er. 53a); and thus, 



Eleazar II. 

while his name does not appear in rabbinic lore as 
often as the names of his colleagues at the ordination, 
ii- bad an ineradicable influence on the devel- 
opment of the Talmud. Abba Arika styles him "the 
must excellent among the sages" (mm XiUlO. 
Set. 40a; Git. 26b), and 1!. Johanan expresses un- 
bounded admiration for his large-heartedness ('Er. 

Eleazar's motto was, "Let the honor of thy pupil 
be as dear to thee as that of thy colleague j that of 
thy colleague, as the reverence of thy master; and 
the reverence of thy master, as that of the Mosl 
High "(Ah. iv. 12; Ab. K. X. xxvii. 4). His disci- 
ples once requested him to tell them 
His whereby lie merited unusual longev- 

Motto. ity, when he replied, "I have never 
converted the Synagogue into a pas- 
sageway [for the sake of coii\eiiienee|; have never 
trodden over the heads of the holy people | /.,■., eonie 
late to college and stepped between the rows of atten- 
tive Students; compare Aishax]; and have never 
pronounced the priestly blessing before offering the 
liction preceding it" (Meg. 2Tb; Sotah 89a). 
When asked what merits will save man from the 
tribulations which are to precede the Messianic 
epoch, he replied, "Let him engage in the stud] oi 
the Law and in deeds of benevolence " (Sanh. 98b). 
according to Eleazar, children as well as pious 
adults share iu the glory of Cod (Midr. Teh. xxii. 
81). He also taught that the world rests on a single 
pillar, the name of which is "Righteousness"; as 
the Bible says (Pro v. x. 25, Hebr.), "The righteous 
is the foundation of the world " ( Bag. 12b). 

The following anecdote concerning Eleazar is 
twice told in the Midrashim (Lev. R. xxiii. 4; Cant. 
R. ii. 2): R. Elea/ar visiteil a certain place where 
be was invited to had the people in prayer, but lie 
avowed inability todoso. " What ! " cried the aston- 
ished people; "is this the celebrated R. Eleazar? 
Surely he deserves not to be called 'Rabbi'!" Klea- 
car's face colored with shame, and he repaired to his 
teacher Akiba. " Whyart thou so crest fallen Y" in 
I Akiba; whereupon Eleazar related his un- 
pleasant experience. "Docs my master wish to 
learn?" asked Akiba; and, on receiving Eleazar's 
affirmative answer, Akiba instructed him. Later, 
Eleazar again visited the seem- of his mortification, 
and the people again requested him to lead them 
in prayer. This time he readily complied with their 
it, whereupon the people remarked, " R. Elea- 
zar has become unmuzzled " (DDniVK. from QDn = 
" to muzzle "), and they called him " Eleazar Hasina " 
(compare Geiger, "Schriften," iv. 34;!). The hero 
Of this anecdote is doubtless the subject of the preS 
eat. article, and not, as is gi norally assumed, Klea- 
Ear llisma. The latter was never Akiba's pupil. 
Indeed, he was Akiba's senior, and in the accountof 
a halakic discussion between him and Eleazar b. 
Azaiiah and Akiba, bis name precedes that of Akiba 
(Keg. vii. 2; Sifre, Dent. 16). Eleazar I. was an 
acknowledged disciple of Akiba, and the Midrashim 
icitly state thai he" went to Akiba, his teacher." 

BffiLiOfiRAPHY: Baeher. Aa. Tan. II. 275e< >e(j.i nn'itt. Sfebo 

hn-Mtthnah, 1. 186 et neo.; Frankel, Darki ha Vishnali, pp. 

< ; -. Hellprln, Sccler ha-Dornt, It., *.».; Weiss, Dor, II 

164 ft xc'/.; ZacUtO, I'uliuxin, eil. Kllipnwskl. |i[>. I i, 

S. 8. S M 

ELEAZAR II. (LAZAR) : Palestinian amora 
of the third century (second and third genera 

ii hum In the .Midrashim be is frequently cited with 
his patronymic, Eleazar b. Pedat, but in the Tal- 
mudim only occasionally so Be wasa Babylonian 
by birth (Ter. Ber. ii 4b; Yer. Shek. ii. 47a) and of 
priestly descent (Ter. Ber. v. 9d; M. £. 28a). In 

his nat \\ e eon nl r\ he was a disciple of Samuel ('El 

66a; B. B, 82b), and more especially of Rab (B. B, 
135b; Bui. lilhi, whom be in after years generally 
cited by the appellation "our teacher" (<;it. 9b; B. 
B. 152a), and whose college he revered above all 
others, recognizing in it the "lesser sanctuary " of 
the Diaspora, spoken of by Ezekiel (xi. Hi) as prom 
ised to the exiles in Babylonia (Meg. 20a; Talk., 
Ezek, 352). When and why he left ids native 
country is not. stated; but from the data extant it 
appears that his ardent love for "the land of Israel" 
(I\et. Ula), and the superior opportunities which 
Palestine afforded forreligious practises (Yer. R. H. 
ii. 58b; Ket.ll2a), impelled bim to emigrate thither 
and at a comparatively early age, since some of 
Kabiii's contemporaries were still alive and active 
(B. B.87a; II nl. 110a). Indeed, it seems thai for a 
time Eleazar even attended the lectures of R. Hiy- 
yah (Ter. Ket. i\. 88b; For. B. M. x. 12c) and of 
U. Boshaiah (Ter. Feb. iv. 5d). This was for him 

a period of bard study, which gave rise to the homi- 
lelie remark that the Biblical saving (Prov. v. 19), 
"Be thou ravished always with her love." was well 
illustrated by Eleazar b. Pedat at Sepphoris, who 

was so absorbed in his studies as to be unconscious 
of all worldly needs (Er. 54b). 

Eater, Eleazar became attached to the college 

founded by Ii Johanan at Tiberias (Yer. Ber. ii. 4b; 

Tem. 25b; Ker. 27a), where his scholarship procured 

him great honors. In the city he was 

At associated wilh Simon b. Eliakini in 

Tiberias, the office of judge ( B. K. 1 17ln, and at 

the college he occupied the position of 

colleague-disciple (TO^TIl "DPI) of Johanan (Yer. 

Sanh. i. 18b), who himself repeatedly admitted that 

Eleazar had enlightened him (Yer. Meg. i, 72c; Ter. 

Sanh. iii. 21b), once declaring that, "the son of Pedat 
sits and interpi rtsthe Law as did Moses at the direct 

inspiration from the Almighty " (Yeb. 72b). After 
the death ol Simeon b. I.akish, Eleazar was chosen 
to lill the position of assistant, to Johanan (B. M. 
84a). When Johanan became disabled through 

grief at Simeon's death, Eleazar presided over the 

College (Ter. Meg. i. 7'.'b). and after the death ol 
Johanan succeeded him in the olliee of head master. 

The fame of Eleazar as an expert, expounder of 
the Eaw having reached Babylonia, his most promi- 
nent content pora i ies t hi ire addressed to him intricate 

halakic questions, to which be returned satisfactory 
answers (Bezah 16b; Ter. Kid. i. 60c; B. B. 185b; 
Bui. stib). This happened so often that he became 

known in his native country as the " master [Ai . 

legal authority] of the land of Israel" (Toma 9b; 
Git- 19b; Niddah 20b); and anonymous decisions 
introduced in the Babylonian schools with the state 
men) ono in?L"("They sent word from there"; Be 

z.all 4b; (lit. 7:la) were Understood, as a matter of 
course, to emanate from Eleazar h. Pedat (Sanh 17b). 

Eleazar was averse to the study of esoterics (Hag. 

Eleazar H. 
Eleazar b. Azariah 



13a) With reference to this study, he would cite 

tin- saying of Ben his. [Sirach] iii. 21), 

"Si i k not things t liar are too hard for 

His Views thee, and search not out things that 

on Study, are above tlrj strength" (Yer. Hag. ii. 
He prized knowledge above all 
things; therefore he remarked, "He who possesses 
know ledge is as greal as ii I tie T< rnple were rebuilt 
in his days " (Sanh. 92a); and from Job w 21 he 
teaches that he who does not contribute toward the 
support of scholars will not he blessed in his prop- 
erty (/A.). Eleazar was exceedingly p \ and often 

lacked the necessaries of life (Ta'an. 25a). He fre- 
quently sang the praises of charity. "The practise 
oi charity," he was wont to say. "is more meritori- 
ous than all oblations; as the Bible sa_\ s (Prov. xxi. 
To do justice [Hebr. npIV] and judgment is 
acceptable to the Lord than sacrifice' [Suk. 
[9b] He who practises charity secretly is greater 
[in the sight of God] than Moses himself ; for Moses 
himself admitted (I)eut. i\. 19), ' I was afraid of the 
auger.' while of Secret charity the Bible says (Prov. 
\\i. 14), 'A gift in secret pacineth anger ' " (B. B. 910. 
Benevolence and acts of loving-kindness, riv'DJ 
D'lDn. extending to both rich and poor, are. accord- 
ing to Eleazar's interpretation, even greater than 
charity; as the Bible says (Hosea x. 12), 'Sow to 
yourselves in righteousness [Hebr. np"IV?]. reap 
in mercy [TDnl" With reference to npiV. the 
Bible uses "sowing," indicating an operation that 
Laves it iu doubt whether the sower will or will 
not enjoy the fruit; while with reference to mercy 
"reaping" is used, an occupation that renders the 
enjoying of the results very probable (Suk. 49b). 
From the same Scriptural expression Eleazar draws 
i in hsson, " Charity is rewarded only in proportion to 
tin kindness in it." (//<.); that is, the pleasant and 
thoughtful way in which it is given, and the per- 
sonal sacrifice it involves. 

Poor as he was, Eleazar would never accept any 
gifts, or even invitations to the patriarch's table. 
When anj were extended to him, he would decline 
them with the remark, "It seems that ye do not wish 
nic to live long, since the Bible says (Prov. xv. 27), 

He that hateth gifts shall live'" (Meg. 28a; Hul. 
llln His scant earnings In- would share with other 
need} scholars; thus, he once purposely lost a coin 
in order that poverty-stricken Simon b. Abba, who 
was following him, might And it. When the latter 
did find it and offered to restore it. Eleazar assured 
him that he had renounced its ownership and for- 
i all rights thereto, and that consequently it 
was the property of the finder (Yer. B. M. ii. 

8c) It is also reported as his custom first to of- 
fer a mite to tin- poor, and then to offer prayer to 
God (I!. Ii. 10a). Ev.n to impostors be would 
never refuse charity. "Were it not for the ex- 
istence of impostors, not a -ingle refusal of char- 
ity could ever be atoned for; we therefore ought 
to show gratitude to them" (Yer. Peah viii. 'Jib; 
Ket. 68a) 

There are no data to show how long Eleazar sur- 
vived R. Johanan, but the probability is that he died 

about 379 i t 

Bibliography: Bacher, Ag. Pal.Anun U. letseq.; Frnnkel, 
Vebo, ]'i>. llli' ■' seq.\ Heilprln, Seder lia-Dorot, ti.,s.v.; 

Weiss. //")'. iii. 85 et seq.; Zacuto, Yuhasin, ed. Filipowski. 

el'. 113a et seg. 

s. s. S. M. 

ELEAZAR B. ABINA : Palestinian hagga- 
ili-it of the fourth amoraic generation (fourth 
turyc.B.); junior contemporary of Aha II I., in n 
name he repeats some homiletic remarks (Pesik. R. 
xiv. 60b, xxi. 109b), and senior of R. Yudan, who 
reports in his name (Midr. Teh. xxxi. 7), 

One of the homilies bearing Eleazar's name at ! 
that the observance of the Sabbath is tantamount 
to all other commandments combined, which he 
tries to prove from passages iu each of the three 
di\ isions of the Bible — the Pentateuch (Ex. xvi. 28, 
29), the Prophets (Ezek. xx. 13), and the Hagio- 
grapha(Neh. ix, 13. 14). 
Bibliography: Bacher, Agada <l< r PalcstinensUchen Amo- 

r.e r, ill 69*) et >''•/. 

s. s. S. M. 

ELEAZAR, ABRAHAM: Fictitious author of 
an ancient work on alchemy published in Leipsic 
iu 1700, and bearing the title " R. Abrahami Elea- 
zaris Uraltes C'hy miseries Werk." The real author 
seems to have been Julius Gervasius of Schwarz- 
burg, whose name is given as the editor on the 
title-pageof the first part. In the preface itis stated 
that Abraham took not only his alchemislic notions. 
but also the illustrations, from the copper tablets of 
Tubal Cain. The edition of 1760 is said on the title- 
page to be the second. The second part also pre- 
tends to be by Abraham Eleazar, who asserts that 
he merely reproduces what was engraved upon 
the copper tablets byacertain Jew, Samuel Baruch. 
It is further stated that the original was written in 
Latin, Arabic, Chaldaic, and Syriac. 

Bibliography: Steinsehneider. Schach ln-i den Jicden.p. 183: 
idem, Hebr. Uebers. p. 006; Fiirst, Bihl. J ml. i. 231 ; rompare 
Berthelot, La Chimie au Moyen Agi . i. 230. 


ably identical, according to Bacher ("Ag. Tan." ii. 
553), with Eleazar b. Mahbai or Mahbai, atanuaofthe 
second century, contemporary of Judah b. Bathvra 
and Aha I. (Tosef.,Yeb. xiv. 4). He is cited but 
twice under this name. His most important remark 
is with regard to the Pentateuehal expression 10XP 
("saying"; literally, "to say"), which frequently 
follows the statement, "God spake to Moses," and 
which he explains as implying that God 
Moses not in Moses' interest, but in that of Israel: 
He spake to Moses to say to the people (Sifra, Wa- 
yikra, ii. 13; compare Yalk., Lev. 431, where the pa- 
tronymic is "Dehabai "). 

s. 8. 9. M. 

ELEAZAR BEN 'ARAK : Tanna of the 
ond generation (first century c.e.). Being first am 
the disciples of R. Johanan ben Zakkai (Ah. ii. 
s . Ab. R. X. xiv. 3), he delighted his master with 
his wisdom and penetration, so that the most ex- 
travagant encomiums were lavished upon him. It 
was said, " Were all the sagesof Israel placed in one 
scale, and Eleazar b. 'Arak in the other, he would 
outweigh them all "(AbV.e. ; Ab. R. X. xiv. 4), while 
his great master styled him " Rising Well " or "Gush- 
ing Stream" (e\vw }n:. -njrisn pyo. «'*.). The 
master once propounded the question, "Which ac- 



Eleazar II. 
Eleazar b. Azariah 

ipnsition is best for man to strive after? " Several 
solutions were handed in, among them one from 
Eleazar, who suggested, "A good heart " <y\D 2^1; 

1 Johanan remarked, "I prefer Eleazar's 

solution to all of yours, since yours are included in 
b . ii. 9; Ab, R, \. xiv. 5). Again, the master 
propounded, "Which is the worst characteristic that 
man should shun?" In this case, also, Eleazar's 
reply. "An evil heart," was accepted by the teacher 
(ii.). Compare Beruriah ; Consolation. 

In the mystical interpretation of the Scriptures, 
also Eleazar distinguished himself, and to such an 
Btenl as to call forth his master's ecstatic ex- 
clamation. "Happy art thou, () father Abraham, 

from whose loins sprang Eleazar b. 'Arak" (Yer. 

Jag. ii. 77a). To his counsel, often sought and al- 

- beneficial, was applied the Biblical expression 

i 8), "Whatsoever he doeth shall prosper." 
Beneficiaries of his counsel in their ad mi rat ion st vied 
him "Prophet"; whereupon he remarked, "I am 
neither a prophet nor the son of a prophet, but my 
teachers have communicated to me the traditional 
verily that every counsel subserving the promotion 

of the glory of God realizes g 1 results" (Midi. 

Teh. i, 3. |. His motto was. •■ Be diligent in the pur- 
suit of study ; be prepared to answer the Epicurean, 
and realize for whom thou laboiest anil who thy 
employer is." 

Eleazar's name is connected with but fewhalakot, 
and w it li only one halakic midrash. The reason for 
this disappointing paucity of doctrines and sayings 
is found in the story of the period immediately sue- 
lie death of Johanan b. Zakkai. The disci- 
ples chose Jabneh for their scene of 
Eleazar in activity, while Eleazar went to Em- 
Eramaus. mans, the residence of Ids wife — a par- 
ticularly healthful place, blessed with 

water, a pleasant climate, and warm bath-. 
Separated from his colleagues, his faculties became 
stunted; and he is said to have completely forgotten 
all he h.d ever learned (All. ]{. N. xiv. 6; Eccl. R. 
vii. Ti. In later years he was pointed out as a warn- 
ing to the self-opinionated; the Talmud applying 
to him the motto of li. Nehorai: " Inter thyself in a 

■a In re the Law is studied, and think not that 
it will seek thee; fur only thy colleagues will per- 
petuate it in thy possession: rely not on thine own 
understanding " (Shab. 147b; Ab. iv. 14) 

Bibuoorapht: Bacher. Ag. Tan I 74 et teq.; Brail, .V. /... 

; Frankel, Dark< (... kftoftnoft, p. 91 ; Ham- 

burRer, ft. /:. i: It. 155; Hetlprin, Sedei ha-Dorol,ll. s.v.; 

Weiss. Dor Dor we-Durshaw, il. 80; Zacuto, l'»lin.i», ed. 

rskl, p. 35b. 

S. M. 

ELEAZAR B. ARYEH. See Low, Ei i \z.ut. 

ELEAZAR B. AZARIAH: Mishnaic scholar 
"f the second generation (first centur] i 

r contemporary of Gamaliel II., Eliezer b, 

II ■ 'i anus, and Joshua b. Hananiah. and Senior "I 
Akilei i sili-,.. Deut. 32; Sanh. 101a) He traced his 
or ten generations back to Ezra (Ber 27b; 
Yer. Veh i. 3b), and was verj wealthy (Shab. 54b; 
Bezah 23a; compare Kid. mi.. Tin se Circum- 
stances, added to his erudition, gained for him greal 
popularity. When Gamaliel II.. in consequence ol 
Id- provoking demeanor, was temporarily deposed 
V -7 

from the patriarchate, Eleazar. though still very 
young, was elevated to that office bj t lie deliberate 
choice,.!' his colleagues. lie did not, however, oc- 
cupy it for any length of time, for the Sanhedrin 

reinstated Gamaliel, lb- was retained as vice-presi- 
dent ("ab bet din"), nevertheless, and it was arranged 
that Gamaliel Should lecture three (some say two") 

Sabbaths, and Eleazar every fourth (or third) Sab 
bath (Her. 27b tt seq. ; Yer. Ber. iv. 7c etseq.; Yer 
Ta'an. iv. 67d). 

In company with Gamaliel, Joshua, and Akiba, 
he journeyed to Rome (Kallah 1!. vii.; Derek Ere? 
R v. ). Neither the object of the journey nor the 
resultof the mission is stated; but that affairs im- 
portant as pressing were involved is apparent from 
the season at which the journey was undertaken: 
they celebrated tile Feast of Booths aboard the ship 
(Sifra, Emor, xvi. 2; Stik. 41b). With the same com- 
panions Eleazar once visited the ruins 
Journey to of the Temple at Jerusalem (Sifre, 
Rome. Deut. 43). (in a visit to the aged 
Dosa b. rlarkinas the latter joyfully 
exclaimed, " In him 1 m-c the fulfilment of the Scrip- 
tural saying (Ps. xxxvii. 25): 'I ha\c been young, 

and now am old; yet have I not seen the righteous 
forsaken, nor his seed begging bread '" (Yeh. Ida; 

Yer. Yeii. i. Sc 1 1 seq. i. by which he probably alluded 
to Eleazar's great learning and his proverbial wealth. 
The latter was amassed by dealing in wine, oil 
(Tosef., 'Ab. Zarah, v. 1 ; B. 11. 91a), and cattle 
(Shab. 54b; Bezah 23a). Subsequent generations 
entertained the belief that dreaming of Eleazar b 
Azariah presaged the acquisition of wealth. 
With Eleazar's accession to the patriarchate the 

p. .rials of the academy were opened wide to all who 
Bought admittance. It is said that three hundred 
benches had to be added for the accommodation of 

the eager throngs which pressed into the halls of 

learning. Under his presidency, too. a review of 

undecided points of law was undertaken. To Elea 
/.ir rabbinic homiletics owes the introduction of the 
rule called patOD (= "contiguous"), by which one 
Scriptural passage is explained or supplemented by 

another immediately preceding or succeeding it. 

Thus. Eleazar declares that the slanderer and the 

listener and the false witness deserve 

His to be thrown to the dogs. He derives 

Exegetic this idea from the juxtaposition of the 

Principle, expression (Ex. xxii. 80 [A. V. 31]), 

" Ye shall cast it to the dogs," and {il,. 
xxiii. I) the prohibition against raising false reports, 

bearing false witness, and associating with the false 
witness (Pes. 118a; Mak. 23a) 

In his homilies he generally aims to bring out 
some ethical or practical lesson. With reference to 
lie I lay of Atonement the Bible says i Lev. xri. 30), 
"On that day . . . ye may be (dean |llebr. Iinon 
shall cleanse yourselves "| from all your sins 
before the Lord." Therefrom Eleazar draws the 
lesson that theellicac\ ..I the <la\ extends only to 
sins against (hid, while sins against man are not 

forgiven unless the offended partj has first been 
reconciled (Yoma viii, 9; Sifra, Ahare Mot. viii 2). 
The Bible says (Deut. \\iii. 8 [A. V. 7J), "Thou 
shalt not abhor an Egyptian . . . because thou wast 

a st, anger in his land." Thereupon Eleazar re 

Eleazar b. Azariah 
Eleazar ben Jose 



marks, "Tin- Egyptians admitted the Israelites out 
of self-interest ; nevertheless God accounts their act 
as one of merit. Now, if he who unintentionally 
confers a favor is accorded a token of merit, how 
much more so he who intentionally doesagood deed " 
(Sifre, Deut. 252; compare Ber. 63b). Similar is his 
deduction from Deut. xxiv. 19, which says, "When 
thou cuttest down thine harvest in thy field, and 
hast forgot a sheaf in the field, thou shalt not go 
again 1. 1 fetch it : it shall be for the stranger, for the 
fatherless, and for the widow: that the Lord thy 
God may bless thee in all the work of thine hands. " 
"Here," argues Eleazar, "the Bible promises bless- 
ings to him by whom a good deed is done uninten- 
tionally ; hence if one unwittingly loses money, and 
a needy one finds it and sustains life thereon, God 
will bless the loser for it" (Sifra, Wayikra [Hoba], 
xii. 13; Sifre, Deut. 183). 

Eleazar was independent in his Biblical interpre- 
tations. He often rejected Akiba's opinions, re- 
marking. "Even if thou persist the whole day in ex 
tending and limiting [see Hkhmeneitics], I shall 
not barken to thee" (Sifra, Zaw, xi. 6; Men. 89a), 
or, "Turn from the Haggadahand be- 

Biblical take thee to the laws affecting leprosy 
Inter- and the defilement of tents" (D'VJJ 
pretations. ry6nXl ; Hag. 14a; Sanh. 38b). Above 
all, he strove to be methodical. When 
one applied to him for information on a Biblical 
topic, he furnished that; was he called upon to ex- 
plain a mishnah, a halakah, or a haggadah, he ex- 
plained each point. Eleazar wasopposed to frequent 
sentences of capital punishment. In his opinion 
a court that averages more than one execution in the 
course of seventy years is a murderous court (Mak. 
i. 10; see Capital Punishment). 

In the following few sentences is comprised Elea- 
zar's practical philosophy: 

" Without religion there is no true wisdom ; without wisdom 

there is no religion. Where there is no wisdom there is no fear 

of God ; where" there is no fear of God there is 

Wisdom, no wisdom. Where there is no discernment 

there is no learning ; without learning there 

Is no discernment. Where there is a want of bread, study of 

the Corah can not thrive; without study of the Torah there is a 

lack of bread. 

" With what is he to be compared who possesses more knowl- 
edge than good deeds? With a tree of many branches and but 
few mots. A storm comes and plucks it up and turns it over. 
Thus also Scripture says (Jer. xvii. 6), 'He shall be like the 
heath in tin- desert, and shall not see when good cometh; but 
shall inhabit the parched places in the wilderness, in a salt land 
and not Inhabited. 1 But what does he resemble who can show 
more good deeds than learning ? A tree of few branches and 
many n>nts. Even should all the winds of'heaven rage againsl 
it, they could not move it from its place. Thus, the Bible says 
(I.e. 8), 'lie shall be as a tree planted by the waters, that 
spreadeth out her roots by the river, and shall not see when 
lieat COmeth, but her leaf shall be green : and shall not be care- 
ful in the year of drought, neither shall cease from yielding 
fruit ' " ( Ab. iii. 17 ; Ah. K. N. xxii. 1 ). 

While he lived he enjoyed the encomiums of his 
famous colleagues, who said, "That generation in 
which Eleazar l>. Azariah flourishes can not be 
termed orphan" (Hag. 8b; Mek., Ho. xvi.V, and 
when lie died the learned said, "With the death of 
K. Eleazar b. Azariuh was remo\ ed the crown of the 
gages" (Tosef., Sotah. xv. 3; Sotah 49b; Yer. Sotah 
i\ 34c) 

Bibliography : Bacher, Ag. Tan. i. 319 el sen.; Brull, itfebo 
ha-Mishnah, i. 88 et seq.; Frankel, Darke ha-Mishnah. pp. 
91 ct seq.; Grate. Gcsch. 3d ed., iv. 37 ct seq.; Hamburger. R. 
II. T. ii. 1.% et seq.; Heilprin, Seder ha-Dorot, ii., s.t'.; Weiss. 
Dor, ii. 94 et seq.; Zacuto, Yuftasin, ed. Fllipowski, pp. 39b 
ct seq. 
s. s. S. M. 



ELEAZAR B. DAMA. See Ben Dama. 

ELEAZAR B. DIN AI : Leader of the Zealots 
(35-60, C.E.). When the Jews of Persa had bound- 
ary disputes with the pagan population of Philadel- 
phia, the procurator Fadus killed Annibas, one of 
tin- three leaders, and banished the other two, Am- 
ram and Eleazar. The latter may be identical with 
Eleazar b. Dinai. When Jewish pilgrims traversing 
Samaritan territory were killed by hostile Samari- 
tans, the Jews in self-defense called Eleazar b. Dinai 
down from the mountains, and he ravaged Akraba 

The procurator Felix succeeded by cunning in 
capturing Eleazar and his band, sending him in 
chains to Rome (Josephus, " Ant." xx. 1, § 1 ; 6, § 1 ; 
8, §5; "B. J."ii. 12, $ 4; 13, § 2). 

Rabbinical sources also mention Eleazar. The 
Midrash to Cant. iii. 5 says that in the days of 
Amram and (Ben) Diuai the Jews prematurely at- 
tempted liberation. Mention is also made of a com- 
panion of Eleazar, Tehina ben Perisha by name, 
probably the Alexander mentioned by Josephus. 
Through the example of these two men murders 
became so frequent that the sacrifice of atonement 
for an unknown murderer (Deut. xxi. 1-8) was abol- 
ished (Sotah ix. 9; Tosef. xiv. 1; Bab. 47b; Yer. 
24a ; Sifre, Deut. 205). The wife of Eleazar b. Dinai 
is also mentioned (Ket. 27a). 

Bibliography: Gratz, Gesc?i. 4th ed., ill. 431, 436 ; Schurer. 
llexeh. 3d ed., i. 570; Biichler, Das 6 rogue Siincilrion in ■>>■ 
i Kgatem, P- 1*3. Vienna, 1902. 
g. S. Kb. 

ELEAZAR B. DTJRDAIA: A famous peni- 
tent, quoted both as a warning against debauch- 
ery, which leads to death, and as an encouragement 
to repentance, which leads to eternal happiness. It 
is related of him that, after leading a life of licen- 
tiousness, he at last bethought himself of his latter 
end. He mentally sought intercessors among the 
elements, beseeching them to appeal for his pardon 
and future peace; but none was found competentto 
act for him, they themselves beiugfinite, and doomed 
to annihilation. Concluding that his future de- 
pended solely on himself, he prayed and wept until 
he died. Thereupon, legend adds, a Bat Kol an- 
nounced that Eleazar was assured of happiness in 
the hereafter. When Rabbi (Judah I.) heard this 
story, he exclaimed, "Verily, some procure eternal 
happiness only after toiling manyyears, while others 
obtain the same result in a short time" ('Ab. Zarah 
b.s. B. M 


See Bab KaI'I'ARA. 


scholarly contemporary of 'Akabia b. Mahalalel and 
Gamaliel II. According to the statement of Judah 



Eleazar b. Azanah 
Eleazar ben Jose 

b. 'Illai, it was tliis Eleazar, and not 'Akabia. who 
was excommunicated by the Sanhedrin for the 
reason thai he quibbled about the rabbinic regula- 
tions concerning "cleansing of hands" ('Eduy. v. 6). 
Nothing more is known of him; but the fact of his 
being cited in connection with 'Akabia, ami the 
explicit declaration of the transgression which 
prompted the august tribunal to excommunicate 
him. evidence his prominence in his day. Probably 
because of excommunication, in which suite he 
ended his earthly existence (i/>. ), none of ins doctrines 
was discussed in the academies or recorded in rabbinic 

Bini.iocRAPiiv : Melri, Introduction I" Abot,ed. Stern, lll»; 
Mendelsohn, In Rev. El. Juivi -, xll. 39 • ( 81 ■<• 

- - S. M. 

scholar of tin- fourth amoraic generation (fifth cen- 
tury); juuiorof Aha b. Jacob and Kaba (b. Joseph), 
lb- is mentioned twice in the Babylonian Talmud, 
anil both times in connection with extraordinary 
circumstances. Once lie incurs divine punishment 
for assuming rabbinic authority at a place over 
which extended tbe jurisdiction of Aha b. Jacob 
('Er. (ilia ; and then again lie is represented as hav- 
ing dreamed an ominous dream. It was a season of 
drought at Hagronia ( Agranum ; Neubauer, " G. T." 
p. 317) when Raba happened to visit tbe town. He 
ordained a day of fasting and player, but no rain 
came. Then he inquired, "Did any one have a 
dream last night?" Eleazar had bad one, and at 
Raba's request he told it as follows: "There was 
said to me in my dream, 'Good greetings to the good 
teacher from the good Lord who, in His goodness, 

docth g I to His people.' " On hearing this Raba 

remarked, " This betokens that Heaven will lie pro- 
pitious " Thereupon prayer was again offered, and 
soon rain descended (Ta'an. 34b) 

S. - S. M. 

of the second and third generations (second 
century); disciple of Joshua b. Hananiah and Ga- 
maliel II. (Hag. 3a; Hor. 10a). In their use of tbe 
word "ben" in connection with his cognomen "His- 
ma" or "Hasina" (see Geiger, "Schriften," iv. 343, 
and Strack, "Einleitung in den Thalmud," 2d cd., 
p. 81), the sources are inconsistent ; its insertion, 
however, seems justifiable. "Hisma"is not an ad- 
jectival cognomen (see Eleazar I.), but a locative, 
the place probably being identical with Hi/.meh 
I. unc/, "Jerusalem," vi. C7 ; Hastings, "Diet. 
Bible," \.,s.v. "Azmaveth"); hence "ben Ilisma" 
means "son of [="native of " | Hisma " (compare 
R. II. 17a; Meg. Ilia; Kid. ii. 3). 

Several halakot are preserved under Eleazar's 
name in the Mishnah (Ter. iii. 5; B. M. vii. 5), and 
he i-. nut with in halakic controversies with Eleazar 
b. Azariah and Akiba (Neg. vii. 2; Sifra, Ta/ria'. i. 
ind with Eliezerb. Jacob 1. 1 Pes. 82a; Yalk. U 
and to him is ascribed die economic rule that 
the employee is not entitled to a proportion of Ins 
employer's produce greater than the amount of bis 
wages(B. M. vii, 5, 92a; Sifre, Deui 266 

Bome haggadol also ale ascribed to him (Mek., 
Beshallah, Wayassa', I ; ib. . Amalek, I . Yoma 19b). 
Conjointly with R Joshua, lie gives an allegorical 

reason for Amalek's attack on Israel (Ex. xvii. 8 et 

ki-'j.) just at the time it occurred. Citing Job viii. 

11, "Can a rush grow up without 

Specimen mire? Can the flag grow without 
of water?" he remarks, "Even so is it 

Exegesis, impossible for Israel to flourish with- 
out the Law ; and since they had neg- 
lected the Law [see Ex. xvii. 1-7], an enemy was 
ordered out to war against them " (compare Yalk. 
to Kx. I.e., § 202; anonymous in Yalk. to Job I.e., 
§ '.io4). Again, be cites Isa. xliii. 22. "But thou hast 
not called on me, O Jacob," and applies it to those 
who arc not devout in their prayers, but while re- 
citing the "Shema' " communicate with their neigh- 
bors by sign language (compare Yalk. to Isa. I.e., 
§ 318). 

Not only was lie possessed of wide rabbinic learn- 
ing, buthe was also an adept in the sciences. Joshua, 
introducing him and Johanan b. (Gudgada) Nuri to 
the notice of Patriarch Gamaliel II., remarked of 
them that they could approximately calculate the 
number of drops contained in the ocean (Hor. 10a). 
As they were very poor, Gamaliel appointed them 
to remunerative offices in the academy (Sifre, 
Dent. 14; Yalk.. Deut.902; Hor. I.e.). Probably 
ii was here — because the academicians sought from 
him instruction in secular science — that Eleazar re- 
marked, "The laws concerning birds' nests and those 

C lining the incipient uncleanness of woman are 

elements of the Law, while astronomy and geom- 
etry are only condiments of wisdom" (Ab. iii. 18; 
Ab. R. N. xxvii. 2). 

Bibliography: Bacher, Aa. Tun. i. :t74; Briin. Itebo ha- 
Mishnah, i. 148; Frankel, Darkeha-Mishnah, p. 134 ; (ieiger, 
SchriftA n, Iv. 843; lleilprin. Seder hOrDorot, ti.. >.i\; Weiss, 
Dor, ii. I" 1 "-: Ziu'iito, Ynhdsin, ed. Flllpowski, p. 41b. 
s. s. S. M. 

ELEAZAR B. JACOB. See Eliezer B. Jacob. 

ELEAZAR B. JAIR : Leader of the Sicarii, the 
remnant of whom, driven from Jerusalem about 70 
by Eleazar b. Ananias, retired to MaSADA. Eleazar 
was a descendant of Judah, the founder of the party 
of Zealots. Besieged by the Romans, Eleazar ex- 
horted bis fellow warriors to prefer death to slavery, 
and, when it became necessary, to kill first their 
families and then themselves. This speech, together 
with a dirge on the fall of Jerusalem ascribed to 
him, is found in Hebrew in Yosippon, eh. 97. though 
the hero is here erroneously called "Eleazar b. Ana- 

Bibliography: Gr&tz, Oeseh. 4th ed., ill. 4uo, 549; Schflrer. 
Bench. 8d ed., L 889. 

o. S. Kit 

of the fourth and tilth generations (second cen- 
tury). He was second among the live learned 
sons of Jose b. Halafta (Sliab. 118b; Yer. Yob i. 
5b and the father repeatedly reports opinions which 
he had heard from Eleazar (Sifre, Deut. 148; Pes 
117a; Yuma 67a), while the latter transmits bala 

kol in his father's name (Men, 54b; IVsik i l:i i 

He is often cited in the Tosefta, though never in the 
.Mishnah. He accompanied Simon b. Ynhai on a 
visit to Rome, with the object of appealing to the 

government for the abrogation of the renewed Ha 

ill ianio decrees, which seriously impeded I he religious 

Eleazar ben Jose 

Eleazar ha-K.appar 



life of the Jews. On the way Eleazar was attacked 
by a dangerous illness, but he recovered and pro- 
ceeded on the journey (Me'i. 17b; see Rashi). The 
mission was successful (Me'i. 17a</«v. : see Simeon 
b. Yohai), and at Rome Eleazar met the organizer of 
the first Roman Jewish academy, Mattai b. Heresh, 
with whom lie discussed halakic questions (Yoma 

Nit, ; Me 1. 17:0. 

Of this and other journeys Eleazar reports some 
experiences. In Rome he saw the curtain of the 
Holy of Holies and the high priest's golden head- 
band, which Titus had carried thither from Jerusa- 
lem (Yoma 57a; Suk. 5a). In Alexandria he learned the ancient Egyptians bad tilled in with Jewish 
bodies unfinished places in the walls: he iseven said 
to have actually seen evidences of those cruelties 
(Sanh. Ilia). Twice he reports controversies with 
Samaritans (Sotah 33b [Yer. Sotah vii. 21a reads 
"Eleazar b. Simon"]; Sanh. 90b). 

Eleazar lays great stress on philanthropic works, 
saying, "Charity and benevolence are intercessors 
for Israel: they effect peace between God and the 
people" (Tosef., Pes. iv. 18: B. B. 10a). He fur- 
ther sa\ s, " Whoso sinnethand repenteth, and there- 
after leadeth an upright life, obtaincth immediate 
pardon; but whoso saith, 'I shall sin and then re- 
pent, 1 three times will he be forgiven, but no more" 
(Ab. R. N. xl. 5). 

Bibliography: Bacher, Ag. Tan. ii. 412: Brtill, Mebn ha- 
Mishnah, i. :.'l>i; Heilprin, Seder ha-Dorot, ii., vr.: »Vbs, 
Dor, 11. 187; see also Gratz, Oesch. 2d ed., iv. 208; Vogel- 
Bteln and Ilieger, Gesch. der Juden in Bom, i. 31. 

s. s. S. M. 

tinian amora of the fifth generation (fifth century i ; 
senior of Nahman II. and Aha III. (Pesik. v. 55a). 
Most of his utterances are remarks which he had 
directly or indirectly heard from Abbahu, Hauiiia 
Ic Abbahu, Tanhum b. Hiyya, and others (Yer. Ber. 
vii. 11.1: Yer. Ma'as. i. 49a, ii. 49c; Yer. 'Er. iii. 
23d; Lam. R. iii. 17); but he also expresses his own 
views. both doctrinal and homiletical (Yer. Shab. 
xvi. 15d; Yer. Kil. viii. 31a; Yer. Hallah, ii. 58b; 
Ex. R. xxiii. 5; Lev. R. xi. G; Pesik. I.e.). His 
father. Jose II., seems to have been his principal 
teacher, for frequently it was before him that Elea- 
zar propounded his views (Yer. Ber. i. 3d, iv. 8a; 
Yer. Ned. iv. 38d); and it is related that his father 
often chilled him for lack of zeal. Quoting tin- state- 
ment (I Chron. ix. 20), "In time past the Lord was 
with him [Phinehas]," lie used to say, "As long as 
Phinehas was zealous for the Law, the Lord was 
with him; but when he ceased to be zealous the 
Lord forsook him " (Yer. Yoma i. 38d ; Yer. Meg. i. 
72a . Yer. llor. iii. 47d>. 

e - S M. 

TOTA) : Scholar and philanthropist of the third 
tannaitic .< aeration (first and second centuries); dis- 
ciple of Joshua b. Ilananiah. and contemporary of 
Akiba (T. Y. iii. 4. 5; Tosef., Bek. vii. 6). Some- 
times the cognomen is omitted (compare Tosef., 
Zab. i. 5, and Zab. i. 1 1, and si the patro- 

nymic (All. iii. 7). While his name is connected 
with but few halakot, and with still fewer mid- 

rashim. he has established for himself an indelible 
name in the list of the charitable. His motto was. 
"Give Him of His own: thyself and what thou 
possessest are His, as David says (I Chron. xxix. 
14): 'All things come of thee, and of thine own have 
we given thee ' " (Ab. iii. 7); and he lived up to his 
motto. It is related that he was so extravagant in 
his benevolence as to give away all that he possess* d; 
wherefore the collectors for the poor would avoid 
meeting him (Ta'an. 24a). In illustration of this 
characteristic, the Talmud (ih.) cites the following 
instance: "Eleazar's daughter was to be married. 
While making purchases for the occasion, he espied 
the collectors, who were hiding from him. He over- 
took them, and begged them to acquaint him with 
their mission. They informed him that they were 
soliciting for a marriage portion for a couple of 
orphans, whereupon he exclaimed, 'Verily, that 
couple takes precedence over my daughter ' ; and he 
gave them all that be bad about him." Legend 
adds that he retained one zuz, and with that lie 
bought wheat, which be carried home and put away 
in the storeroom. When his wife soon afterward 
tried to open the room in order to see what Eleazar 
had brought, it was found to be full to overflowing 
with grain. lu the meantime Eleazar had repaired 
to the academy, and thither his daughter hastened 
with the joyful tidings, remarking, "Come and see 
what thy friend has done for thee"; but when be 
had heard her story, be consecrated the grain also to 

Bibliography: Bacher, Ag. Tan. i. 443; Briill, Mebo ha-Mieh- 
nah, 1.142; Frankel, Darke lia-Mishnah, p. 134; Heilprin, 
Seder ha-Dorot, ii., 8.U.; Zacntn, l'uha.*in, vd. Kilipuwskl. i>. 
s. s. S. M. 

MTJS OF WORMS: Talmudist and cabalist; 

born, probably at Mayence, about 1176; died at 
Worms in 1238. He was a descendant of the great 
Kalonymus family of Mayence, and a disciple of 
Judab he-Hasid, who initiated him into the study of 
the Cabala, at that time little known in Germany. 
According to Zunz, Eleazar was hazzan at Erfurt 
before he became rabbi at Worms. In 1233 be took 
part in the great Synod of Mayence which enacted 
the body of regulations known as "Takkanot ShuM " 
(D)t?=" Speyer, Worms, Mayence "). Eleazar under- 
went great sufferings during the Crusades. On t lie 
night of 22 Kislew, 1196, he was engaged on his 
commentary on Genesis (be relates that he had 
reached the parashah Wayesheb), when two cru- 
saders entered his bouse and killed his wife Dulcina, 
his two daughters Belat and Hannah, and his son 
Jacob. His wife had conducted a business in parch 
meat scrolls in order to support the family and en- 
able him to devote all his time to study. 

Eleazar developed a vigorous activity in many 
directions. On the one baud, he was a Talmudist 
of vast erudition, a liturgist gifted with a clear and 
easj style, and an astronomer, and was well versed in 
the sciences open to the Jews of Germany at that 
time. On the other hand, he was a cabalist swayed 
by hallucinations: he saw legions of angels ami 
demons, and exerted himself to spread cabalistic 
systems which went far beyond the conceptions of 
tlie authors of the Cabala. In bis cabalistic works 



Eleazar ben Jose 
Eleazar ha-Kappar 

he developed and gave a new impulse to the mysti- 
cism associated with the lettersof the alphabet. The 
philosophical Cabala of tin school of Isaac the Blind 
is replaced by arithmetical speculations. Bj tin 
gematria and notarikou systems of interpretation 
1 in tin- Talmud, Eleazar invented new combi by which miraclescould In- performed. The 
adic anthropomorphism which In- had com 
I in his earlier works ("Ha-Rokeah," "Sha'are 
id weha-Yihud") occupied later the forei 
in his cabalistic writings. Eleazar's great mei ii 
lies not in his new cabalistic system, but in his ethical 
works. In these he shows greatness of soul and a 
piety bordering upon asceticism. Though so se 
vercly tried by late, In- inculcates cheerfulness, pa- 
tience, and love for humanity. 

Eleazar's ethical works are: (1) "Ha Kokoah," on 
the numerical value of the word npin. corresponding 
'"that of -liviJK (= 308). Itisdivided 
Ethical into 41)7 paragraphs containing kala- 
Works. kot and ethics ; first published at Fano, 
1505. ('-') "Adderet ha-Shem," still 
eitanl in manuscript in the Vatican Library. ('.)) 
reh llattaini," or '"Seder ha-Kapparot, " on 
tence and confession of sin, first published at 
Venice. 1543. This work, which is included in the 
Ililkot Teshubah of the "Ha Rokeah," has been re- 
produced many times under various titles. It 
appeared under the title "Darke Teshubah" at the 
if the responsa of Mclr of Rothenburg in the 
Prague edition ; as "'Inyane Teshubah," or " Seder 
Teshubah," in the Sephardic ritual of 1584; as 
" Vesod Teshubah," with additions by Isaac hen 
M ses Elles, first published in 1583; as " fore 
(a'im ba- Derek " ; andas "Seferha Eapparot." The 
title adopted here is the same as that given in the 
" Kol Bo," in which the work was reproduced. 
(4) "Sefer ha Hayyim," treating of tin- unity of 
God, of thi' soul and its at tributes, and of the three 
recognized by the ancients as "plant, ani- 
mal, and intellectual ") in man's life. (5) "Sha'are 
d ha Vihud weha Emunah," a treatise on the 
unity and incorporealily of God, combating the 
anthropomorphism id' the Haggadah (published by 
Jellinek in the " Kokabe Yi/hak " collection [xxvii. ]. 
Eleazar's mystical works are: (1)" Yir'al El," still 

■ in manuscript in the Vatican Library, con- 
taining mystical commentaries on Psalm Ixvii., on 
the Menorah, and on Sefirat ha-'Omer. (2) "Sefer 

ha Kabod." mystical explanations of 

Cabalistic various Biblical passages (Neubauer, 
Works. "Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS." No. 1566, 
1). (3) " Yavin ha Rekah," mystical 
commentaries on the five Megillol Those on Ruth 
and the Song of Soul's published at Lublin, 
1608. ih A commentary on I'salm exlv. (MS. lie 
Rossi No U38). (5) A commentary on the prayers 
mentioned 1>_\ Joseph I>i Imedigo in his " Mazref la- 
Pokmah" (p. 14b). (6) "Ta'ame we Sodot ha 
Teflllah" (Neubauer, t'i No.1575.) (7) "Perush 'al 
Siiir Ye/irah," a commentary on the "Yezlrah," 

being extracts from Shabbetliai Donnolo's common 
tarj fragments of this work were first published 
at Manilla in 1562, later in several Other plaCI B 

complete edition was printed at Przemysl, I s1 -'.* 
(8) "Mid rash we-Perush 'al ha-Torah," cabalistic 

commentary on the Pentateuch, mentioned by Azu- 
lai. (9) "Sha'are Binah," in which, interpreting 

Biblical verses by the system of getnati iyyot, he 
Shows the Origin Of many baggadot of the Talmud. 

This work is frequently quoted by Solomon al- 
Kabiz in his "Hanoi ha Lewi." (10) "Shi'ur Ko- 
inali," a commentary on the "Shi'ur Komah," the 
"Pirke de-Rabbi Yishma'el," and the "Merkabah" 
(MS. Michael). (11) "Seferha 1 1 ok mah," cabalistic 
treatise mi the various names of God and of angels, 
and on the seventy three " Gates of theTorah" (nyc 
mini- (12) "Sefer ha-Shem," mystical dissertations 
on the names of twenty -two letters, with a table of 

permutations (Neubauer, t'i. No, 1569,4). (13)"'Eser 
Shi-mot," commentary on the ten names of God 
(MS. Michael. No. 175). ( I t) A commentary on the 
piyyut "Ha Ohoz." (15) Six small cabalistic Ilea 
tises entitled "Sod ha -Ziwwug," "Sefer ha Nee- 
lam." "Sefer Mal'akim," "Sefer Tagim." "Sefer 
Pesak," and "Sefer ha-Kolot," all of which are still 
extant in manuscript (Neubauer, ib. No. 1566). (16) 
" Likkutim," cabalistic fragments, mentioned by Re- 
canate. (IT) "Sode Raza," a treatise on the myster- 
ies of Cabala, particularly on the "Merkabah." Part 
of this work was published at Amsterdam in 1701. 
under the tit le "Sefer Razi'el ha-Gadol." In the in- 
troduction the editor says that he decided to publish 
this book after having seen that the greater part of 
it. had been produced in French under the title 
"Images des Lett res de 1' Alphabet." 

In addition to these works, Eleazar wrote tosafot 
to many Talmudical treatises, referred to by lie/a 
lei Ashkenazi in his "Shitiah Mekubbczet"; a com 

minlaryon "Shekalim" in the Palestinian recension. 
cited by Asheri in his commentary to that treatise in 
the Babylonian Talmud; thirty-six chapters on the 
examination of slaughtered animals (MS. Michael 

No. 307). Zunz enumerates fifty-five liturgical 
poems and dirges composed by Eleazar and oc- 
curring in the Ashkenazic mahzorim, kiuot, and 


Bibliography: Zacuto, Yuhasin. p. ■*,;] ; Zunz, Z. a. p. 13] ; 
Idem, /.('' /"'"' (/< sch. p. 818; Gr&tz, Oesch. vil. 29; stein- 
schnetder, Cat. Bodl. col. t'ls; Landsnutn, 'Ammiuli- ha- 
'Abodah.v. 25 : Epstein. Id MonaUischrtfL, x xxvii. 75: 1 Hikes, 
in i tru al. I. it. 1844; idem, Zur Kenntntes der ReligUisen 
Poeste. p. Its; Renan-Neubauer, /.is Rabbins Frangate, pp. 

184 .' *"/.; Mli-liael. Or hill lnili/im, NO. 187, 

k. I. Bn. 

Tanna of the fourth generation (second century); 

father of BaH K \it \h.\. who is sometimes cited by 
the same name. Eleazar is quoted in the Mishnah 

(Ale i v ','1 I, where he says, " Envy, lust, and am hi 
lion shorten man's life" From him the Mishnah 
(ib. 22) also preserves the following exhortation: 

"The born are to die. and the dead to revive, and 

the living io be judged; in order to know, and to 

notify and that it maybe known, that lie is the 
Kramer, and lie the Creator, and lie the Judge, and 
lb the Witness, and lie the Complainant, and He 
with whom there is no iniquity, nor forget fulness, 
nor respect of persons, nor taking of a bribe, foriill is 
His. is ;i bout to judge ; and know that all is according 
to His plan. Let not thy ' ye/.er ' [evil inclinations] 

- thee thai the grave is an asylum; Cor perforce 
thou wast created (Jer icviii 6), and perforce thou 
wast born, and perforce ti livest, and perforce 

Eleazar Lasi 
Eieazar ben Samuel 



thou diest, and perforce thou art about to give ac- 
count and reckoning before the King of Kings, the 
Holy One, blessed be He ! " Elsewhere (Sifre, Num. 
42; compare Num. R. xi. 7) he says. "Great indeed 
is peace : it is the end of all blessings " (see Num. 
vi. 26). For other ethical lessons from him see Ab. 
R. N. xxix. 4; Derek Erez Zuta ix. 1. Some of 
his teachings are probably to be ascribed to his son. 

Bibliography: Bacher, Ag. Tan. ii. 500: Heilprin, Seder ha- 
Dorat. i i . . >.'.: C. Taylor, Saifingi of the Jewish Fathers, 2d 
ed... pp. 76 et sea. 

s. s. S. M. 

Talmudist; born in Berlin Sept. 24, 1740; died at 
Hamburg Jan. 22, 1814. He studied under Tebele 
Scheuer, rabbi of Bamberg, and later in the yeshi- 
bah of Schwersenz under R. Gedaliah. After his 
marriage he settled at Posen, where he wasappointed 
dayyan under R. Raphael b. Jekuthiel ha-Kohen. 
In 1781, after the latter had been appointed rabbi at 
Altona, Lasi removed there also. He filled for some 
time the office of dayyan at Wandsbeck, and was 
appointed "rosh bet-din " of the three communities 
of Altona, Wandsbeck, and Hamburg. Eleazar 
Lasi wrote: "Mishnat de Rabbi Eli'ezer," commen- 
tary on Shulhan 'Aruk, Hoshen Mishpat, the first 
part of which was published by his son JMoses (Al- 
tona, 1815) ; a similar commentary on Eben ha-'Ezer ; 
the anonymous " Kontres," a criticism of Saul Ber- 
lin's "Mizpeh Yokte'el." His glosses and novelise 
on the Talmud, as well as his commentary on the 
Pentateuch and a treatise on the benedictions, are 
still in manuscript. 

Bibliography: Steinschneider, Cat. Btull. col. 461: Zedner, 
Cat. Hebr. Books lirit.Mus. p. 2S1: Furst, Bib]. Jiul. i.233; 
Fuenn, Keneset TUsraeU p. 12o; Michael, Or ha-Hayyim, p. 
L. G. A. PE. 

ELEAZAR B. MAHBAI. See Eleazau b. 

ELEAZAR B. MALAI : Palestinian scholar 
of the fourth century, whose name is mentioned 
but once, in the Babylonian Talmud, and then only 
as the reporter of a homily of Simeon b. Lakish, 
which reproves the wickedness of the courts with 
the following words: " ' Your hands are defiled with 
blood ' (Isa. lix. 3) refers to the judges, whose hands 
are ever open to receive bribes; 'your fingers with 
iniquity ' (ibid.) refers to the judiciary's scribes, who 
write false or specious documents; 'your lips have 
spoken lies' refers to the lawyers, who misconstrue 
the law, or instruct their clients how .to plead; 'your 
tongue hath muttered perverseness ' refers to the 
litigants, who plead falsehood" (Shab. 139a; Rashi 
ad loe.). It is not certain, however, that "Malai" 
was Eleazar's real patronymic, some editions read- 
ing "Simlai " instead (see Rabbinowicz, " Dikduke 
Soferim" to Shab. I.e.), 

B- 8. S. M. 

Tanna of the third and fourth generations (second 
century); contemporary of Hananiah b. Hakinai, 
Ben 'Azzai, and Simon of Teman (Tosef,, Ber. iv. 
18). It is staled that, together with Halafta and 
Hananiah, he examined the stones which, by order 
of Joshua, tin- Israelites brought up from the Jordan 

and pitched in Gilgal (Josh, iv.), and approximated 
their weight (Tosef.. Sotah, viii. 6). Eleazar was a 
disciple of R. Tarphon (Tosef., Ber. I.e.; compare 
Mek., Beshallah, 5), and is met with in scholastic 
disputations with Judah b. 'lllai and Simon b. Yohai 
(Tosef., Pes. vi. 2; Pes. 79b etseq.). According to one 
report, he and Hananiah were " the disciples " present 
at the dispute between R. Mei'r and the rabbis; 
(Yer. Ma'as. Sh. ii. 53d); according to another, they 
were among the four expert linguists of the Jamnian 
Sanhedrin (Yer. Shek. v. 48d ; compare Sanh. 17b). 
From the Scriptural dictum (Lev. v. 1), " If a soul 
sin, and hear the voice of swearing," he argues that 
one is subject to hear the voice of swearing because 
of his having sinned. Accordingly, he teaches, 
" Whoso witnesses a transgression was doomed to 
see it; and whoso witnesses a good deed has de- 
served to see it " (Tosef., Shebu. iii. 4). He is men- 
tioned once in the Mishnah (Yeb. x. 3), and several 
times in baraitot, in connection with halakic contro- 

Birliograpiiy : .Bruit. Mebn ha-Mishnah. i. 141; Frankel, 
Darke ha-Mishnah, p. 133; Weiss, Dor, 11. 123. 
s. s. S. M. 

ELEAZAR B. MENAHEM : Palestinian 
scholar of the fourth amoraic generation (fourth 
century). No halakot and but few haggadot are 
connected with his name. Commenting on the 
Biblical expression (Ps. xxxvi. 9 [A. V. 8]), "Thou 
shalt make them drink of the river of thy pleasures" 
n'Jiy. lit. "thy Edens"), he remarks, "Since the 
Bible says not ' thy Eden,' but ' thy Edens,' it im- 
plies that every pious soul has an [apartment in] 
Eden for itself" (Tan., Emor, ed. Buber, 9; Lev. R. 
xxvii. 1 ; Midr. Teh. xxxiv. 23 reads "Isaac b. Sleu- 
ahem"). From the expression (Gen. xiii. 3), "He 
[Abraham] went on his journeys," Eleazar infers 
that Abraham returned from Egypt by the way he 
had traveled thither, to liquidate the debts he had 
previously incurred (Gen. R. xli. 3). 

Bibliography : Bacher, Ag. Pal. Amor. lit. 097 ; Heilprin, 
Seder ha-Dorot, ii., s.w 
s. s. S. M. 


Scholar of the second tannaitic generation (first and 
second centuries); disciple of Johanan ben Zakkai 
(B. B. 10b), and contemporary of Joshua ben Hana- 
niah and Eliezer ben Hyrcanus (Mek., Beshallah, 
Wayassa', 3 etseq.). He was an expert haggadist, 
and frequently discussed exegetical topics with his 
distinguished contemporaries. Gamaliel II. often de- 
ferred to Eleazar's interpretations, admitting, "The 
Moda'i's views are still indispensable " (Shab. 55h 
As his life embraced the period of Hadrianic perse 
cutions and of the Bar Kokba insurrection, many of 
his homilies refer, explicitly or impliedly, to exisl 
ence under such conditions (Griitz, "Gesch." iv. 7!), 
note). Eleazar expressed his confidence in Provi- 
dence in this comment on the Scriptural statement 
(Ex. xvi. 4), "the people shall go out, and gather 
a certain rate every day" (lit. "the portion of the 
day on itsday." 1DV3 DV ~\Tl): "He who creates the 
day creates its sustenance." From this verse he also 
argued, "He who is possessed of food for the day, 
and worries over what he may have to eat the next 



Eleazar Lasi 
Eleazar ben Samuel 

day. is wanting in faith; therefore the Bible adds 
[ib.], 'that I may prove them, whether they will 
walk in my law, or no " (Mek, I.e. 2) 

Eleazar's last days fell in the dark period of the 
Insurrection headed by Bar Kokba, and he ended 
his life in the then besieged city of Bethar. Of these 
days rabbinic tradition relates as follows; 

"During the Roman sieue It. Eleazarof Hodi'hn fasted and 
prayed dally that God might not strictly Judge the people that 
dijnor surrender tbe cit\ to the enemy, because of the sins of 
the Inbabitanis. The siege being protracted, and do Immediate 
conquest being in prospect, the Roman commander meditated 
on withdrawing, when :i Samaritan persuaded him to wait a 
while, and offered his services to aid In subduing the apparently 
unconquerable Jews by stratagem— by creating a suspicion ol 
Irascbery among the besieged against Eleazar. "For.' argued 
he, 'as long as tins hen wallows In ashes [as lone as Kleazar In 
Ids prayers encourages in the people the hope of God'sprotec- 
tlon], so long will ltethar remain impregnable. 1 Thereupon he 
smuggled himself into the city through some subterranean ducts, 
and. approaching Klea/.ar, who was engaged In prayer, pretended 
to whisper into his earn secret messatre. Those present, regard- 
ing this mysterious movement with suspicion, Boon reported it 
i Kokbu, and declared, ' Kleazar intends lo establish peace 

en the citj and Hadrian." liar Kokba had the Samaritan 
brought before him and interrogated him on the import of his 
- rsatlon with the safe; hut the Samarium replied, 'If I 
reveal the royal secrets to thee, the commander will kill me; 
and if I refrain, thou wilt kill me. 1 would rather kill myself 
than betray my king's secrets.' Bar Kokba then summoned 
Eleazar and questioned htm ; but Kleazar protested that he had 
been absorbed in devotional exercises, and had heard nothing. 
This Increased liar Kokba's suspicion of meditated treason, and 
aroused hltn to such anger that he kicked Kleazar. in conse- 
quence of which the aged sage, enfeebled by fasting and prayer. 
fell dead." 

The story adds that a "batkol" thereupon pro- 
flounced the immediate doom of the chief of the in- 
surrection and of the beleaguered city, which soon 
came to pass (Yer. Ta'an. iv. ti8d ; Lam. K. ii. '-.' ; 
sec Bar Kokba i. 

Bibliography : Bacher, -If/ Tan. i. l'.H : liriill. Mcbo ha-itish- 
noh.l. i:Ui; Fmtikei. Darkeha~Mi8hnah,p. 127; Hamburger, 
Ii. It. T. II. 161; HeUprln, Seder ha-Dornt, II.. s.».; Weiss, 
Dor, II. I'm; Zacuto, 1 uharfn, ed. FillpowsH, p. 88a, 
B. 8. S. M. 

ELEAZAR B. NATHAN. See Ei.if.zi.u B. 

II. (Lazab). 

tin 1 third generation (second century); junior con- 
temporary of Eleazarof Modi'im (Tosef., Sanh. i\ . 8; 
Yer. Meg. i. Tie) ami of .lose the Galilean (.Mek,. 
Yitn., Bahodesh, ?}. He lived through the period 
win n, according to a younger contemporary, the 
performance of circumcision "as punished by the 
Romans with the sword; the study of the .Jewish 
law. with the stake; the celebration of Passover, 
with crucifixion; and the observance of the Feast 
of Booths, with the scourge (Mek. I.e. 6; Lev. K. 
xxxii. 1). Still, Eleazar faithfully adhered to Hie 
teachings of his religion. Once he was arrested and 

into prison, where he met Ilananiah In n Ti ra 
lie tried to inslil hope into his fellow pris- 
a breast, because there was only one charge 

us! him, that of teaching Hie Law. while hiiii- 

he considered lost, because there were five 

counts against him. Ilananiah, mi tin- contrary, 

though! thai Bleazar's chances of escape were bet- 
ter than his own; and the sequel proved thai he 
was right Ilananiah was condemned to a terrible 

death, while Kleazar was acquitted ('Ab Zaiah 

Eleazar's studies embraced both Ilalakah and 
Baggadah, mostlj the latter. One of Ins homilies 
warns against calumny in these words: "Observe 
how mijrhty are the consequences of the evil tongue. 
Learn them from the fate of the spies [see Num. x i ii. 
et ■-"/ .]. Of the spies it is related [ib. xiv. 37], 
'Those men that did bring up the evil report upon 

the land, died by the plague before the Lord.' And 
of what had they spoken evil? Of trees and of 
atones [see ib. xiii. 82], If, now, those who slau- 
di Ted dumb objects wire punished so severely, how 
much greater must, be the punishment of him who 
traduces bis neighbor, his equal!" (Tosef.. 'Ar. ii. 
11; 'Ar. 15a). 

lie draws practical lessons also from Scriptural 
texts. On a certain Sabbath some prominent core- 
ligionists, having just learned that the Romans were 
seeking them, applied to Eleazar for legal advice as 
to the permissibility of flight from danger on the Sab- 
bath. Kleazar referred them to Scriptural history. 
" Why do you inquire of me?" said he. " Look at 
Jacob [sec' Hosea xii. 18 (A. V. 12)], at Moses [Ex. 
ii. 15], and at David [I Sam. xix. 10, 18], and see 
what they did under similar circumstances" (Tan., 
Masse'e, i. ; Num. H. xxiii. 1). 

s. s. S. M. 

the second and third centuries; grandson of Elea- 
zar hen Perata I. ; sometimes designated as "Eleazar 
b. Perata, the grandson of Eleazar b. Perata ha 
Gadol" (Kct. 100a; Git. 83a; Yer. Meg. iv. 75b), 
and also without the addition of his grandfather's 
name (Yer. Suk. iii. 54a; Suk. 39a). He confined 
his studies mainly to the Ilalakah, and was a con- 
temporary of R. Judah I, (see Suk. I.e. ; Yer. Meg. 

Bibliography: Bacher, An- Tun. I. 403; Briln, afebo ho- 
Mishnnh, i. 140, 236; ileiiprin. Seder ha-Dorot, II., 8.U 

8. s. S. M. 

ELEAZAR BEN SAMUEL: Rabbi; born at 

Cracow about lOlio; died at, Safed, Palestine, 1742. 
On the completion of his studies he became dayyan 
of Cracow. In 1T0S he accepted the rabbinate of 
Rakow, Poland. From there he went to Brody, 

where he became rabbi (1714). In 17:!5 he went to 

Amsterdam ill response to a Call from the Ashke- 

nazici gregation there. A medal was designed in 

his honor, one side of which exhibited bis head 
in relief, surrounded by the words: "Eleazar ben 
Samuel, Rabbi of Brody," the other side containing 

chosen verses from the I'sabns. I', lea /a t was one of 
those who placed Moses llavyim Luz/allo tinder 

In Kit) Eleazar decided to go to Palestine. He 

look up his residence at Safed. where his life, how 

ever, "as not of a peaceful character, It came to 

his k now ledge thai many of the most respected eiti 

zens of the place were reading the works of Nehemiah 
llayyun and of other adherents of Shabbethai ?ebi. 
Eleazar vigorously endeavored to eradicate this 
tendency, but his efforts were in vain. I lis life i in is 
became embittered, and he was seriously contem 
plating a return to Europe, when death intervened. 

Eleazar ben Samuel 



Eleazar, besides being a greal Talmudist, was a 
profound cabalist and an able darshan. 
His published works are: "Arba' Ture Eben 
, Rows of Stone), containing responsa and no- 
vellas on M a i 
monides' " Yad" 
and on the Tal- 
mud (Lemberg, 
1789); "Ma'aseh 
Rokeah" (Work 
of the Ointment- 
Maker), a caba 
list ic commen- 
taryon the Mish 
nuh (Amster- 
dam, 1740); 
■■ Ma'aseh Roke- 
ah," on tin 1 Pen 
tateucb (I. ''in 
berg, 1789). 

Medal Struck by tin- Amsterdam Community in Honor of Rabbi Eleazar ben 


(In ttie collection <>f Albert Wolf, Dresden.) 

B Mi I. I OGR i I'll V : 
Friedberg, Gescli. 
der Fam'ilie 
Schor, p. 16: 

Idem, LahotZik- . 

Ha/ron. v- 52; Michael, Or ha-#aj/yim, p. 239; I. I. Eisen- 
stwlt. [ni'iil Kfiliishim, p. 181. 
i.. g. B. Fr. 


(also known as RAM) : French tosafist; died 1198. 
He was a pupil of R. Tarn, and is often quoted in 
tosafot— sometimes as "RAM," sometimes as "R. 
Eleazar." He wrote commentaries on Nedarim, 
Berakot, and I.Iullin, the last two of which Azulai 
saw in manuscript. His commentary is probably 
referred to in the Tosafot to Nedarim, where 
■ Eleazar" is frequently quoted. The ascription to 
him of the authorship of the " Shiran Mekubbezel " 
(Berlin, 1859), a collection of tosafot on Nedarim, is 
erroneous, as its author mentions Judah ben Yakir 
as his brother, and speaks of the death of Simon of 
Sins, a junior anil survivor of Eleazar. Resides the 
above non-extant works, Eleazar wrote the"Sefer 
Zera'im," on the teachings of the Pentateuch, di- 
vided into twelve parts in imitation of Gaon 
Judah's "Halakot Gedolot." It is preserved in 
manuscript in Paris, but an extract by Benjamin 
ben Abraham was printed at Venice (1566), and has 
been several times reprinted. 

Bibliography: Azulai, Shem ha-Qedolim, 1. 24 ; Michael, Or 
im ll.tiniuti, p. :.'17: cress, iii Monatsschrift, xxxiv. 506; 
Idem, QcAlia judaica, p. : ; 1T : Zomber, in Mnnat£8chrift, 
1861, p. l:.'l ; Znnz. X. G.pp.St, 162; Steinschnelder, Cat. Bodl. 
col. !»!:;. 

i .. A. Pi'.. 

I (Lazar). 

ELEAZAR SHEMEN. See Low, Eleazah. 

ELEAZAR BEN SIMON : Tanna of the 
second cent ury. He was the son of Simon b. Yohai, 

and since he participated in many of his father's ad- 
ventures, history and legend have woven an almost 
interminable tissue of fact and fiction concerning 
him (see ]',. M. 8Zbetseq ; Pesik. x. 88betseq.). His 
youth In- spent with his father in a cave, hiding 
from the Roman persecutors of the .lews, who 
SOUghl his lather's lite; and there he devoted him- 
self to the studj of tin- Torah (Shab 38b; Gen. R. 

lxxix. 6, and parallel passages; compare Yer. Sheb. 
ix. 38d). After the death of Hadrian, when events 
took a somewhat more favorable turn for the Jew ^, 
father and son left the cave and returned to the 

busy world. Ele- 
azar, grown tou 
zealous during 
his protracted 
hermitage, often 
cursed those 
who devoted 
their time to 
things secular, 
and his father 
found it neces- 
sary to interfere, 
appeasing them 
and mollifying 
him (Shab. / < I, 

After Sim 
death Eleazar 
entered theacad- 
emy of the Pa- 
triarch Simon b. 
< Jumaliel II., and became the colleague of the patri- 
arch's son, Judah I., the compiler of the Mishnah; 
but no great friendship seems to have subsisted be 
tween these two scholars. 

Unlike his father, who hated the Romans and 
their rule, Eleazar accepted office under their gov- 
ernment. In consequence thereof lie grew very un- 
popular, and one of the rabbis remonstrated with 
him, saying, " Vinegar product of wine [= " Degen- 
erate scion of a distinguished sire''], how long will 
thou continue to deliver the people of God to the 
hangman?" Eleazar, however, continued in office, 
excusing himself with the averment, "I but weed 
out thistles from the vineyard." His mentor an- 
swered that the weeding ought to be left to the 
proprietor of the vineyard — that is, that God Him- 
self would visit punishment on the idlers and evil- 

Later in life he regretted the part he had taken 
under the hated government, and is said to have im- 
posed on himself the most painful penance. Still, 
fearing that the aversion engendered in his people 
by the aid he had rendered their persecutors would 
prompt them to deny him the last honors after hi- 
deatli, lie enjoined his wife not to bury him imme- 
diately after dissolution, hut to suffer his remains to 
rest under her roof. He died at Akbara, in north 
ern Galilee, and his faithful wife carried out his in- 
junction to the letter. Legend relates many niira- 
cles performed by the dead rabbi, one of which was 
that litigants plead theircases in the rabbi's house. 
and the "verdict was pronounced from the mortuary 

After many years bis former colleagues resolved 
to bury him, but a new difficulty arose. The In- 
habitants of Akbara, believing that 
Place of the sage's remains miraculously pro- 
Burial, tected them against incursionsof wild 
beasts, refused permission to remove 
the body. Ultimately, bow ever, in compliance with 
the request of the rabbis people from the nearby 
town of Biria carried it off by stealth, and it was de- 



Eleazar ben Samuel 

posited at Heron beside that of his father (I!. M. 
84b). In consideration of his varied learning, Ids 
surviving colleagues cited the Scriptural verse 

t. iii. <i). " \Vln> is it that cometh oul of the 
wilderness like pillars of smoke, perfumed with 
myrrh and frankincense, with all powders of the 
merchant?" and answered, "II is Eleazar b. Simon, 
who united in himself all noble qualities, he having 
In , a well versed in Scripture and in traditional law, 

having been a [liturgieiil| poet, a leader in 
prayers, and a preacher " (Lev. R. xxx, 1; Cant. R. 

Bibliography: Bacber, .1*/. 7'.m ii. 100 el acq.; Brull, i/ 
Hishnah, i. 236; Franket, Darki ha Mislmali, p. 199; 
HamtiurpT. /;. 11. T. il. 1">'.I; .liistmw, in M"ii<Usst lirift, 

pp. [93 et sea.; Weiss, Dor, ii. 185; Zacuto, Yiify 
ed. Flllpowskl, p. 52b. 

S. M. 

ELEAZAR B. ZADOK. See Ei.ii/.i i; B 


■ rally cited as Ben Zita or. more correctly, 

Ben Zuta) : Karaite Bible exegete ; lived probably 

in Egypt in the tenth century. He supported the 

rigid, ascetic, and Sadducean doctrines advocated by 

i and other Karaites, though at limes he op- 
I Allan's teaching. 

It is not at all certain that he ever wrote any 
work, or that Saadia compiled any reply to Ids 
views. His disputes with Saadia seem to have been 
oral. All that is known of Hen Zita comes from 
Abraham ibn Ezra, who probably derived the infor- 
mal ion from Saadia's commentary to the Pentateuch. 
Ibn Ezra mentions Ben Zita several times iii his com- 
mentary to Exodus. 

[bn Ezra also mentions Hen Zita in his "Sefer ha 
'Iliimr" (7a), in regard to the question whether the 
method of determining the monl lis and the festivals 
is to be found in the Bible. Ben Zita »as the firsl 
tociteOen.i. 14;Num. xxviii. 14; andPs. civ. 10 as 
such proof. A marginal note to a Bodleian manu 
script (No. 11 Hi) of K im Id's ci mi men I :i i \ to Ezokii I 
published by Neubauer in " Jour. Asiatique," 1861, 

p. 280, also contains a reference to Ben Zila's refuta- 
tion of Anan's quaint interpretations of Ezek. x\ iii. 
il , but Israelsohn has shown that, the passage is 

quoted not from Ibn Janah, bu1 from Judah ibn 

en's commentary to Ezekiel. The name " Aim 

al Aii." found in the Bodleian manuscript and ac- 

i| by Neubauer, Kiirst, and (ieiger, is a mistake 
for " Abu al-Sari." 

Bie I'inn GelRer, In Jttd. Zett. li. 151; Plnsker, /,.<■ 

Ana, „,,,,, ,,„,,/. p. 13; Filrst, Gesch. des Ka/rttert. 1. 100, 
11.83; Israelsohn. In Rev. Etudes ./io>> -. xxiii. 182; Poz- 
ii:tnski. in Ifonoti si in (ft, xll. 2<I3. 

K.- G. 

ELEGY. See Ki\ mi 

ELEPHANT: A pachydermatous mammal ol 

the family of the ElephantidoB. It is now commonly 

ed that the el. phani (Elephas indicus) is Indi- 

. mentioned in a passage of the Hebrew Bible. 

In I KinL's x. 22 (II Chron. ix. 21), namely, it is 

■aid that Solomon had a navy which everj three 

brought gold, silver, ivory (" ahenhabbim "), 

apes, and peacocks. The word " shenliahliini " is 
evidently a compound word, the lirsl part of which 
Is well known as meaning fi tooth or ivory (I Kings 

x I s ; Cant. v. 11, vii. 14). The second element has 
long been a puzzle to etymologists; but now it is 
well-nigh certain (see, however, EBONY) that it 
means " elephant.'' and is probably derived from the 
Assyrian "alap,'' with the assimilation of the lamed. 

"app" :" abb" (see Hommel, " teamen der SSuge 
thiere." p. 324, note I). 

How and when the Hebrews became acquainted 
with ivory can not !»■ determined. In the Tar- 

gums of Jonathan and of Jerusalem it, is said that 

the sons of Jacob laid their father in a coffin inlaid 
with " shendephin " (Hen. 1. 1) — probably a substi- 
tute for "shenilephil." the accepted word for ivory 

in the East, " pil " meaning "elephant." 

The presence of the elephant in Palestine is not 
recorded before the lime of AntiochuS Epiphanes. 

who used the animals in the war against the Jews 
(I Mace. i. Mi. 17; vi. 30). These elephants carried 
each a u ooden t urret strapped to its back, and hold- 

,iru i^h coin ol iii.- .M:i,i':iiie:ui Period, Countermarked t>y an 

Elephant, the Typeol the Beleucid kjiiks. The Reverse 

is fruin a similar Coin. 

| \n r Uaddeo, " History of Jewish Coinage.") 

ing a guard of from three to live men (I Mace. ii. 37, 
"thirty-two men " being certainly a wrong number) 
and a guide, called the- Indian." A special officer, 
the elephantarch, was in command of this branch of 
the military service ( 1 1 Mace. xiv. 1','). Before bat- 
tle the animals were given intoxicating drinks to 

make them furious ami thus more dangerous, as 
tin \ wire intended to carry confusion in lo I he ranks 
of the enemy (II Mace. xv. 20; III .Mace. v. 2). 

The Talmudic and NTeo I tebrew name for elephant 
is t&'B, 7^2-' plural, D'^BCBer. 55b, 56b), which is 

the common na also in Syriac and Arabic, and 

is the Assyrian "plru " (see Lewy, "Griech. Fremd- 
ui'nier,"p. 5). The elephant's favorite food is the 
vine leaf, for which reason Noah laid in a large 
supply of vine branches (Gen. It. xxxi. ; Ser. Shab. 
xviii. 16c, middle; Shal.. 128a). 

The time of gestation is given as three Mais (Bek. 

8a), 'I'o see an elephant in one's dream was not a 

I mum n (Ber. 57b); bul a proverb expressive of 

impossible things sa\s: "None is shown in his 

dream a golden date-tree, nor an elephant that goes 
through a needle's eye" (Ber. 55b). In other con- 
trasts, too, the elephant appears as the extreme 
in si/e (see examples given in "Zeitschrift I'i'ir Alt- 
testamentliches Wissenschaft," xvi. 205; e.g. p 
^sn nyi f nim = "from the gnat to the elephant"; 
compare in Shab. 77b: ^sn tjj? rum nro'X r "the 

D nil is the terror of the elephant " ; and in Maimoni 

des, Introduction to Zera'im: D'j^nn iy D'^sn p 

= " from the elephants In the worms"). 




BiBLioiiRAmv: Tristram, Natural History oj the I utile. Urn- 
don, 1889 ; J. G. Woods, BibU Animals. Philadelphia, 1872; 
a. Pictet, Sur les Original at Quekrues NomsdeVElephant, 
In Jour. Aeiatique. Sept,-Oet., 1843; Lewysobn, ZoologU det 
Falmwls, pp. 148,288, Franklort-on-the-Mato, 1858; Bochart, 

H. H.-E. G. II. 

ELEUTHEROPOLIS : Greek name of a city 
called "Bet Gubrin" in the Talmud ami "Baito- 
gabra" by Ptolemy. In the Old Testament the 
name can not be identified, but it probably occurs 
in a corrupted form (see Josephus, " B. J." ed. Niese, 
iv. s, § 1). From II Chron. xiv. 9 it is likely that 
the city had no existence in ancient time. Later 
the Hebrew aame came to the front as Bait Jihrin, 
a village with some ruins, twenty minutes to the 
north of Merasb, the old JIaresah. The immediate 
vicinity is rich in natural and artificial caverns. As 
"Ik ■rim" means "caverns" in Hebrew, and "hor" 
also signifies "free," the Greek name is founded on 
a confusion of, or a conscious play upon, words. 

Bibliography: Robinson, Bihlieal Researches In Palestine, 
11. :til et sea/. 610, 66] : Pal. Exptor. Fund Memoirs, hi. 217. 
2tS6; Pal. Explor. Fund Quarterly Statement, 1879, p. 138; 
Neubauer, U. T. p. 122. 
E. G. H. F. BU. 

ELHA'IK, TJZZIEL : Rabbi and preacher in 
Tunis, of which place he was a native; died there 
1812. He left two works which were printed long 
after his death: one, "Mishkenot ha-Ro'im," Leg- 
horn, 1860, a collection of 1,499 responsa, relating 
to the history of Tunisian Judaism during the sev- 
enteenth and eighteenth centuries; the other, "Ilay- 
yim wa-Hesed," ib. 1865, a series of twenty-two fu- 
neral orations delivered by Elha'ik on the deaths of 
rabbis of Tunis (Cazes, "Notes Bibliograpbiques," 
pp. 169-173. Tunis, 1893). 

s. M. Fr. 

ELHANAN i " God is gracious"); 1. Accord- 
ing to II Sam xxi. 19, R. V., the son of Jaare- 
oregim, the Bethlehemite, who in a battle with the 
Philistines at Gob killed Goliath, the Gittite. Ac- 
cording to I Chron. xx. 5, lie was the son of Jair, 
and killed Lahmi, the brother of Goliath. The orig- 
inal traditions had it that the death of Goliath was 
brought about by Elhanan; but when David be- 
came the central figure of heroic adventures it was 
attributed to him instead, and to Elhanan was cred- 
ited the death of Lahmi, Goliath's brother. The 
discrepancy is arbitrarily harmonized by the Tar- 
gum, which identifies Elhanan with David, and 
lakes "oregim " literally as " who wove the curtains 
for the Temple." 

2. Another Bethlehemite, son of Dodo, and one 
Of the "thirty" of David (II Sam. xxiii. 24 = 1 
Chron. xi. 26). 

k a. n. G. B. L. 

Polish scholar; lived in Posen in the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries. Be was the author of a 

work called "Kin at Hannah," a commentary on 

Pirke Abut (Prague, 1612). 

BIBLIOGRAPHY: sniiw tmeider. Cut. Iiiull. col. 920; Michael 

I II li'l-lhlil'l'iii. p, 157, 

L- o. ' M. Ski.. 


writer; lived at Frankfort -on-the-Main at the end of 
the seventeenth century and the beginning of the 
eighteenth. Elhanan published in Juda-o-Gcrman 
an ethical work, "Simhat ha-Nefesh " (Frank Inn -on- 
the-Main, 1707). The book enjoyed great popular 
ity and was reprinted many times. The eminent 
woman preacher VOgele der Maggid frequently re- 
ferred to the book, and Berthold Auerbach mentions 
it in his "Dichter und Kaufmann" (ed. 1855, p. 54 
Twenty years later Elhanan published under the 
same title a work containing poems and music 
(Filrth, 1727). lie occupied himself also with Bib- 
lical exegesis and published "Hiddushim," novella 
on the Pentateuch (Offenbach, 1722). 

Bibliographt: Steinschneider, Cat. Budl. col. 920; Grun- 

baum, Jlldisih-lii uiselii ilni sUmuiihii , pp. 238 it seo..; 
Michael, t tr ha-Hayuim. p. r>7. No. 46. 
K. I. Bit. 

PIERRE: Tosalistand liturgist; martyred in 1184 
(Solomon Luria, Responsa, No. 29; see Azriel). 
He was on his grandmother's side a grand-nephew 
of R. Jacob Tarn. One of his pupils was Judah Sir ■ 
Leon of Paris. It has been suggested that Elhanan 
is identical with the Deodatus Episcopus of the 
English record (see Jacobs, "The Jews of Ange- 
vin England," p. 412). He has left numerous tos- 
afot, to which his father, who outlived him, added 
glosses. Luzzatto speaks of his tosafot to 'Abodah 
Zarah up to folio 61 of that tractate, and then makes 
the following remark : "Here terminate the tosafot 
of R. Elhanan b. Isaac of Dampierre; from here 
onward are those of Judah b. Isaac of Brina." 

The great authority of Elhanan is attested by 
Joseph Colon (Responsa, No. 52). Elhanan also 
wrote: "Tikkun Tefillin," a casuistic treatise on the 
phylacteries, mentioned in Tos. to Ber. (60b) and in 
Mordecai (" Halakot Ketannot," § 932); " Sod ha-'Ib- 
bur," on the intercalary days, mentioned in the 
"Minhat Yehudah," section "Wayera"; Responsa, 
some of which are quoted in "Shibbole ha-Leket," 
ch. i, and in Maimonides' "Hafla'ah," ch. 4; sev- 
eral "pizmonim" for the eighth evening of Pass- 
over, which give the acrostic of his name; a com- 
mentary to the Pentateuch. 

Bibliography: Gross, Gallia Judaiea, pp. 165-1US; idem, In 
Berliner's Mafjazin, iv. 191 ; Kaufmann. in Rev. Ft. Juices, 
Iv. 210-212, 2-J1 : Conforte, Km e ha-Dorot, 14a, 15b, lsa : Azu- 
lai, 8hem lia-Oedolim, i.. s.».; s. D. Luzzatto, in Polak's 
HaUkot Kedem, pp. 45. 4fi; Zunz, Z. G. pp. 34, 80; idem. 
Literature seh, pp. 287-288; idem. S. /'. p. 249 : Landshuili. 
'Ammude ha-'Almdali. p. 13; Michael, Or lin-ILiiiuiin, pp. 
157-168; Graetz, Hist. til. 404 ; Fuenn. Ki neset Fterael, p.SB. 
o. M. Sei.. 

ligious writer in Hebrew and Judseo-German ; lived 
in the second half of the seventeenth century and at 
the beginning of the eighteenth in Prossnitz, Mo- 
ravia, where he was shammash, cantor, and sofer. 
lie was the author of the following works: "Zot- 
Hanukka Buchl." Juda?o-German verses for the 
Feast of Hanukkah, Frankfort-on-the-Oder, 1702; 
" Mar'eh le Hitkashshet Bo." and the same in JudffiO 
German, under the title "Zierspiegel Anzuhftngen 
an der Wand." ethical sentences, Dyhernfurth. 1693. 
He translated into Jud.eo-German tlie selihot of 
n n D'2 21L" (the eight weeks in which are read the 
eight sections of Exodusfrom " Shemot " to " Tezaw- 




web "), Frankfort-on-the-Oder, 1703, and Berlin, 
1712. Besides, he published the work of an anony- 
mous author entitled " Sha'ar ha Hazlahah," prayers 

for jin ispcrily . Prague. Hist. 

Bibliography: Stelnscnnelder, Cat. Bodl. cols. 446, 607, 922; 
Benjacob, Ofarha-Si farim, pp. 122. 598. 

i .. o. I. Ber. 

ASHKENAZI : Rabbi of Scbottland, near Danzig; 
bom in 1713; died Sept. 27, 1780. At the age of 
eighteen he became rabbi of Pordon, Prussia, and 
in 17"i2 first rabbi of Scbottland. He wrote vari- 
ous Talmudic commentaries and "hillukim," or 
discussions, as well as commentaries to the four 
"Turim." but, with the following exceptions, they 
have not been published: "Sidre Tohorah," novelise 
on the laws of Niddab in the Yoreh De'ah; "Hid- 
dudHalakot," novellas cm the Niddab.; "Shiyyure 
Tohorah.'' novell.e on the laws of " teliilah." or im 
mersion, in the Yoreh De'ah (all published by Judah 
Liib b. Elhanan, Berlin, 1783). The " Or ha-Yashar " 
of Aaron Simeon 1>. Jacob Abraham contains two 
osa of Elhanan b. Samuel. 

Bibliography: Stein. In Mnnatsechrlft, vl. 324 325; Frinkel, 
in Orient, Lit. \ia. 363; Michael, Or ha-Jfayuim, p. 158. 
i.. o. .M. Sel. 

Talmudist; flourished in the tenth and eleventh cen- 
turies. He was the son of Shemariah b. Elhanan of 
Kairwan, who left Egypt some time after his son 
Elhanan. who remained behind, had reached matu- 
rity. He wrote many responsa, which he addressed 
to Hui Gaon, and he corresponded with Jacob b. 
Nissim of Kairwan. 

Bibliography: A. Harkavv, ZVikaron la-Iiixhonim, 1y. 2, 842, 
890,361,387, Berlin, 1878 ; Neubauer, In J. Q. R. vl. 222-224. 

k. M. Sel. 

ELHANAN B. SIMON. See Andbkab. 

ELI ('?!') : High priest at Shiloh and judge over 
[grael (] Sam. i. 3, iv. 18, xiv. 3; I Kings ii. 27). 
He was a descendant of Aaron's fourth son Ithamar 
(Lev. x. 12), for it. is stated that Abiathar (I Sam. 
ixii. 20; I Kings ii. 27) was of the line of Ithamar (I 
Chron. xxiv. 8), and Abiathar was the son of Ahim- 
elek, the son of Ahitub (I Sam. xiv. 8), Eli's 

Eli held a twofold office: he was high priest at the 
ral sanctuary of Shiloh, where the Ark of the 
aunt was kept (ib. i. 8, 12; iii. 2), and he was 
a judge in Israel, as is expressly stated in ib. iv. 18. 
Eli had two sons, Hophni and Phinehas, whose 
wickedness brought grief and disgrace upon him 
and his family (ib. ii. 12-17, 27-36). 

Eli lived in a sad period of Israel's history. 
Shortly before, the armies of the Philistines, proba- 
bly strengthened by reenforcements (Guthe, "Ge- 
schiehte des Volkes Israel." 1899, p. 65), had begun 
to overrun the central districts from the southwest 
era border of Palestine (Josephus, "Ant "v. 8, § I) 
Samson had arisen "t.odeliver Israel out of the hand 
of IIm- Philistines" (Judges xiii. o); but after his 
death the attacks were renewed, and Israel was 
Obliged to take up arms (] Sam. iv. 1). In order to 

assure themselves of God's help the Israelites brought 

the Ark from Shiloh to the seat of the war, w here it 

was carried by Eli's two sons. But God had not de- 
creed victory to His people. They were first to be 
punished by disaster. Therefore the Israelitish army 
was defeated; Eli's two sons were killed, and the 
Ark was lost. When the messenger who brought 
the news of the battle told of the capture of the Ark 
Eli, who was ninety-eight years old, fell from his 
seal and died [ib. iv. 10-18). 

The only specific Old Testament reference lo the 
term of Eli's life is in the words, "And he had 
judged Israel forty years" (ib. iv. 18). Some 
scholars, like Kesslcr ("I)e Chronologia Judiouin 
el I'rituorum Regum," pp. 20 el sen.) and Nowack 
("Riclitcr-liuth." p. 19), have inferred that the forty 
years of the Philistine oppression mentioned in 
Judges xiii. 1 are synchronous with the twenty 
years ascribed to Samson (Judges xv. 20, xvi. 31) 
and with Eli's forty years. But this assumption 
does not tally with the words of the Old Testament; 
the years of Samson's judgeship are set forth in the 
same way as those of Eli's. The Book of Judges, 
moreover, always mentions the years of oppression 
in contrast to the period of a judge's dispensation; 
and, finally. Eli's forty years do not, as a whole, 
appear to have been a period of oppression. 

Biblical criticism has advanced few new theories 
in regard to Eli's life. The only point that has 
been made with some probability is mentioned by 
H.P.Smith (" Samuel." in "International Critical 
Commentary," p. 20): "An earlier source on Eli's 
life contained originally some further account of Eli 
and of Shiloh, which the author [of the Hooks of 
Samuel] could not use. One indication of this is the 
fact that Eli steps upon the scene in i. 3 without in- 
troduction." H. P. Smith also admits that great 
difficulties are encountered "in assigning a definite 
date to either of our documents." 

Bibliography : H. I'. Smith, Samuel, in Int* motional Crit- 
ical Commentary, lsiiii; II. Guthe, Seech, deg Volkes Israel, 
1899, pp. 58, 67 ; linns Kessler, lit Chronologia Judicum el 
Pri/morum Reigum, pp. 12, 29 el sea., Lelpslc, 1882. 
E. a. ii. E. K. 

ELI B. JTJDAH. See Judah b. Ei.i. 

ELIZIYYONQri'^N): The alphabetical hymn 

closing the series of "kinot " chanted in the northern 
rituals on the morning of the Fast of Ab, where it 
conies as a comparative relief to the series of dirges 
which precede it. The tune is not older than the 
later Middle Ages, and is probably of South German 
origin. As the most prominent melody "f the 
"Three Weeks" (i.e., the time between the Feast of 
Weeks and the Ninth of Ab), in the chant of the 

officiant it is taken as the representative theme fore- 
casting and recalling that period (compare JEW. 
Encyc. i. 187, 802), and as such is utilized very 
generally for the refrain to the hymn " Lekah Dodi." 

(See music on following page). 

Bibliography: Sulzer, Shir Zlon, No. us; Baer, Ba'ol Tc- 
hii.ih. No. £18; Harbsobn and Wolf, Svnaooaale-Melodien, 
N<>. 16; Cohen, Id Fauna Israel, i. 188. en the hymn a.s a 
■■ representaUve theme,' 1 compare Baer, I.e. n<>. 327 : Hast, The 
!><rin< Si i i'n i . i. 89, 162; Cohen and Davis, Poici of Prayer 
on, i Praise, p. Hi. 
v P. L. C, 

ELIAB (ax^N: "God, "or "my God isFather"): 

1. Son of llelon and leader of the' tribe of Zebulun 
at the time when the census was taken in the wil- 
derness (Num. i. 9; ii. 7; vii. 24. 29; x. 16). 




2. A Reubenite, the son of Pallu or Phallu, father 
of Nemuel, Dathan, and Abiram (Num. xvi. 1, 12; 
x.\ vi. 8; Dent. xi. 6). 

3. One of David's brothers, the eldest of the fam- 
ily (I Chron. ii. 13; I Sam. xvi. 6; xvii. 13, 28). In 
1 Yhron. xxvii. IS mention is made of a certain 
Elihu as one of the brothers of David. But " Elihu " 
is probably a variant for "Eliab" (comp. Jerome, 
" Qusestiones Hebraic*," adloe.). 

4. A Levite in the time of David who was both a 
porter and musician (I Chron. xv. 18, 20; xvi. 5). 

5. One of the warlike Gadite leaders who came 
to David when he was in the wilderness (I Chron. 
xii 9). 

6. An ancestor of Samuel the Prophet , a Kohath- 
ite, son of Nahath (I Chron. vi. 12 [2?]). In I Sam. 
i. 1 the name appears as " Elihu," and in I Chron. vi. 
19 (34) as "Eliel." 

7. Son of Nathanael, an ancestor of Judith 
(Judges viii. 1). 

k. a. ii B. P. 

ELIADA. See Beeliada. 

ELIAKIM (DV^S = "El [God] sets up," corre- 

predecessor was a "sensuous" man (nNJH 7JJ2: 
Sauh. 26b). At the invasion of Sennacherib (II 
Kings xviii. IS = Isa. xxxii. 3) Eliakim appears as 
the chief diplomatic emissary of Hezekiah, while 
Shebna is mentioned as his secretary. Eliakim 
sprang from a family of no social standing: his ele- 
vation to dignity conferred distinction on his 
"father's bouse " (Isa. xxii. 23, 24,). Some commen- 
tators have construed the words of the prophet to 
imply a resentment of Eliakim's nepotism as bound 
to end in the downfall of the family. But nepotism 
is so common at Eastern courts that it would be 
strange for Isaiah to advert to it specifically. The 
whole matter hinges on the interpretation given to 
verses 24 and 25 ; the prediction may refer to Elia- 
kim or to Shebna, or the verses may be an in- 
terpolation. Certain it is, that the Biblical docu- 
ments nowhere mention the deposition of Eliakim 
from office. 

2. The second son of King Josiah, who. upon his 
elevation to the throne by Pharaoh-nechoh, was com- 
pelled to take the name of Jehoiakim (II Kings xxiii. 
34; II Chron. xxvi. 4) 

3. A priest at the time of Neheuiiah (Neh. xii. 41). 


Andante moderaio. 








E - li Ziy-yon we - 'o 
Let Zi - on weep, and all 

re - ha, ke - mo ish - shah be - zi - re - ba, we - 

her towns, as sheds a moth - er pain -drawn tears, or 

gu - rat sak 
suck - cloth clad 


ba - 'al 

ne - 

■u - 










sponding to Sabean ^SDpn. and ijXDpV 'ETuanei/i): 
Name borne by three Biblical personages. 1. Son of 
Hilkiah; appointed successor of Shebna, the "treas- 
urer" (R.V. "scribe," margin "secretary") of Heze- 
kiah (Isa. xxii. 20 etseg.). The office to which he suc- 
ceeded is described as TV2T\ ?J? (= "over the house- 
hold"), according to Delitzsch and others a "major 
domus" (comp. I Kings iv. 6, xvi. 8, xviii. 3; II 
Kings x. 5, xv. 5), the incumbent carrying the title 
pD, connected with the Assyrian "saknu"(a high 
officer: Cheyne,"The Prophecies of Isaiah." i i. 153). 
This designation occurs also in the feminine form 
I"03D (= "caretaker"), used of Abisbag (I Kings i. 
2, I), and it is met with on a Pbenician inscription 
("The Suken nl the Xe W City": "C. I. 8." I. i. 5; 
Hastings. " Diet. Bible," p. 685b). 

Eliakim is clothed with long tunic and girdle: the 
kej of the house of David is laid on his shoulder 
(comp. Rev. iii. 7), and he is proclaimed "father 
of the people." According to R. Eleazar ben Pedat, 
"tunic and girdle" were the insignia of the high 
priest's Office (Lev. R. to v.). But R. Eleazar 
not regard "soken" as a title. From the double form 
"soken" (masculine, Isa. xxii. 15) and "sokenet" 
(feminine, I Kings i. 2) he concludes thai Eliakim's 

Bibliohrapuy : Marti. Kurzer Handkommentar :nm Ruche 
Jexaja (1900); Ad. Kamphausen, Isaiah's Prophecy Concern^ 
ina the Majnr-Domo of King Hezekiah, in .1 in. Jmir. The- 
ology, l!»ll, pp. 43 rf seii.: Diliilii, 
Giittingen, 1002; the commentari 
and L'ueyne. 
E. G. II. 

ri .i i.irni, in . i in . u •"' i ■ a 'ii 

, Dim llm-h Jesaidh, 2d ed, 
i of Dillmann, Delitzsch, 

E. K. 

ELIAKIM : A Palestinian scholar of the third 
century. His name is connected with no hala- 
kot, and with a single haggadah only. He con- 
strues the Psalmist's saying (Ps. i. 6), "The Lord 
knoweth the way of the righteous; but the way of 
the ungodly shall perish," as teaching that God 
causes the ways of the wicked to be lost out of sight 
for the sake of the righteous, that the latter be not 
misled by them (Midr. Teh. I.e., ed. Buber, p. 22; 
comp. BEitEcniAn II. on same verse). Eliakim is 
probably identical with the better known Jakira 
(the first syllable being dropped to avoid the fie 
quent and unnecessary repetition of "El" [God], 
as in 'Anani from 'Ananiel ). Jakim was father of 
Ashian b. Jakim, who once applied to K. Jesa (Assi 
EL) for a ritualistic decision (Yer. Yeb. xi. 12a). He 
was senior to Ammi, the hitter explaining an ob- 
servation of the former. 

Eliakim classes the Jewish people among the 




most stubborn of the animal kingdom, which Ainini 
tins as referring to Jewish pertinacity in relig- 
ion; thai the Jew would submit to crucifixion rather 
than live as an apostate (Ex. K. xlii. 'J , in Bezah ~'>\i 
Simeon ben Lakish makes a remark very similar to 
Jakim's). Elsewhere (Pesik. R. xxi. 107a) Eliakim 
imd to differ with Judah (b. Shalom) in sur- 
reying the scope of the prohibition (Ex. xx. 17), 
"Thou slialt not covet." Judah argues thai its 
transj n >ion leads to the violation of the seven pro- 
hibitions contained in the Decalogue; viz., in the 
id, third, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, and 
tenth commandments. Eliakim asserts thai he who 
violates the prohibition, "Thou shalt not covet thy 
neighbor's wife," is as if be had violated all the ten 
This declaration is followed in the 
Pesifeta (I c.) by citations illustrating Eliakim's doc- 

trim . 

S. M 

grammarian; lived al London in the eighteenth and 
nineteenth centuries. His works are; "'Asarah 

Ma'amarot," a collecti f ten essays; "Milhamot 

.ii." on philosophy and religion; "Binah la- 
'Ittim." on the computations of the periods enumer- 
ated in Daniel; "Zuf Nbbelot," an abridgment of 
Joseph Delmedigo s cabalistic " Nobelol Hokmah " 
"Ma'yan Gannim," an abridgment of Joseph Gika- 
tilla's cabalistic " Ginnat Egoz " ; "'En ha Kore,''on 
Hebrew vocalization, an endeavor to justify the 
German pronunciation; "Be'er Mayim Hayyim," a 
treatise on "Azilut"; "Ma'yan Haium." Luria's 
notes on the " Sefer Tezirah" ; "Dibre Emet," on 
da; "Sha'ar Heshbon," on cabalistic computa 
lions; •• Aiv.oi ha-I.Iayyiin." Biblical and Talmudical 
annotations. Of these the first three were published 

in London (1794-99), and the essay on Hebrew vocali- 
zation in Berlin (1803). In addition to these works 
he published a Hebrew grammar, entitled "'En 
Mishpaf (Rodelheim, 1803). 

Eliakim was a cabalist of \asi erudition, and was 

endowed with a fine critical sense. In the "Zuf 

Nobclot," not content with giving Delmedigo's texl 

In abridged form, he frequently emended it. Hi is 

chiefly noted among the modern cabalists for the 

lopmenl of the theory of p«D L'" ("creatio ex 

nihilo") — the stumbling-block of many religious 

thinkers. Through God'ssclf concentration (DTCDX), 

Eliakim in the firsl chapter of the "?ui Nobe 

originated space or the primal air, which, 

though considered as nothing (]<N) in regard to the 

- hi i Bof " (God), i-- the foundation of the world 

Bibliography : Stelnschnelder, Cat. Bod?, col. 969; Zedner, 
Cat.Hthr. Bmiki Brit. Mus. p. 219; Puenn, Keneset Tlx- 

, |i. i;t3; J. .el, In. /,', le./ii,,, /,/,,/, .,),/,,, . 

ISO, n 
K. I. Bll. 


'I i idic scholar; lived at Yampol in the eighteenth 

n\ . II, was senl by the Polish Jews 1 1757 I to 

Rome to defend them againsl the bl 1 accusation, 

and presented a petition to Pope Benedict XIV., 
who commissioned Cardinal Ganganelli Mater Pope 
Clement XIV.) to examine the ea u Thi lattei eon 

led in his report thai the bl 1 accusation was 

frivol,, us Clement XIII., who had in the meantime 

succeeded Benedict XIV.. dismissed Eliakim b. 
Asher with honor, and ordered Cardinal Corsini to 
recommend him in his name to Bishop Visconti of 
Warsaw. August 111., King oi Poland, issued in 
consequence a decree exculpating the .lews, stating 
that inability to prove the truth of the accusation 
rendered the accuser liable to capital punishment. 

In Ganganelli's memoir, as well as in Corsini 's 
letter of recommendation, the Jewish deputy is 
called "Jacobs, 1, eh " or "Selek ''(Griitz, Furst, and 
Levisohn have '•Jacob Jclek ''). He probably sim- 
plified his name designedly; but in a long letter 
which he wiote from Home to Samuel Gallichi 
(probably the chief of the community) he calls him- 
self "Eliakim b. Asher Selig Of Yampol." In the 
same letter he stated that he met at Home Rabbi 
Shabbethai Piana. with whom he discussed several 
rabbinical laws. 

Bibliography: Gratz. Gescfc. 3d ed.,x. 891; Isidore Loeb, in 
/.' E.J. .will. 179; Hortara, in Educator, leraclita.x. 257 
270; Vogelsteln and Rieger, Qeseh. der Juden In Rom, 11. 
246 'JIT ; Berliner's Magazin, xv. (Hebr. pari | 9 It ; FOret, in 
in U ni. Lit. 1840, p. 38 : Levisohn, Bfa Damim, p. 91, War- 
Baw, 1890. 
u. k. M. Ski.. 

BURG : < lerman Talmudist ; lived in the sixteenth 

and seventeenth centuries. He was a descendant of 

Mi ir of Rothenburg, and, according to Michael, the 
son of Raphael ben Eliakim of Rothenburg If 
.Michael is comet, Eliakim was identical with the 
Swabian rabbi of the same name who with Isaiah 
HorwitZ (She La II) and Azriel Miihlhausen signed in 
Kill the halakic decision incorporated in Horwitz's 
Responsa (s 118). Eliakim was the author of a 
commentary to theTargumon the Megil lot, entitled 
'• ( le'ullat ha Ger," published anonymouslyal Prague 
in 1618. The author says iii the introduction that 
he composed a commentary to the Targum on the 

Bibliography WoltBiW. Hebr. 111.877; Zunz, Z. Q. p. 293 ; 

Stelns,linel,ler. ( nl. /{,»//. ,', ,1. WIS ; Michael, t)r Illl-Hdllllim, 

No. 170. 

k. I Br. 

cantor, teacher, and translator; born at Komarno; 
died at Amsterdam before 1709. He was the au- 
thor of " l.eshon l.iniinudini," a guide to letter 
writing in Hebrew (Amsterdam. liiM'n , " Selihot," in 
Judaeo German, recited by the community of Frank- 
fort on the Main (ib. 1688); "Refu'ot ha Ncfesh." 
precepts, devotional prayers for the sick, and regu- 
lations in regard to funerals (/A. 1692) He translated 
into Judseo-German Manasseh b Israel's "Mikweh 
Visra'el" (ib. 1691); Ibn Verga's " Shebet "t ehudah" 
(ib. 1700); the daily prayers (//, 1708); the Tehinnot 
(ib. 1703); the selihot of the Lithuanian rile (ib 
1706); " Melamnied Siah," Jud.i o-German vocabu 
larv to the Pentateuch and the Five Scrolls (»fl 1T10), 
and the German selihot (ib. 1720) Eliakim also 
edited Ben jainin's " Massa'ol " (ib 1697) and Samuel 
Auerbach's "Hesed Shemu'el" (ib 1699) 

i'. m:i RAPm i oi i si. Blbl. .h" i. 1.340; Stelnschnelder. Cat 

Bodl. col. 989; Zedner, < at. li> br. Bnoks Hni. Mug. v- 219. 
K. M. Sir 

mudist; nourished in the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries. In his youth, at Posen, he devoted him 

Eliakim ben Meshullam 



self to the study of the Talmud, afterward accepting 
the position of rabbi in the neighboring community 
of Schwersenz, where about 1(579 he wrote his hag- 
gad ie commentary. Prom there he was called to 
Hildeaheim, but maintained close relations with the 
congregation of Posen. In the closing years of the 
century, passing through Posen on his way, prob- 
ably, to Palestine, he joined a delegation to Prague 
to collect money for the support of the congregation. 
In 1701 he went to Posen as dayyan, but according to 
Michael he left Hildeaheim to take the post of rabbi 
at Luzk. He wrote: "Rappeduni be-Tappuhim," 
cm the stories of Rabija bar bar Hana, published by 
his son Samuel, Berlin, 1712; "Eben ha-Shoham " 
and "Me'irat 'Enayim," responsa, published by his 
son Mei'r, Dyhernfurth, 1733. His novella? on Tal- 
mud and Bible are not published. 

Bi myography : Walden, Shcm ha-Gcdnlim he-Hadmh, p. 25 ; 
Michael, Or ha-Bayyim, p. 220; Perles, in Monatescnrtft, 
xiv. 127, 133; Steinschneider, Cat. Boilh s.v. 
L. G. A. Pi:. 

LEVI) : German Talmudist and payyetan ; born 
about 1030; died at the end of the eleventh century 
in Speyer, Rhenish Bavaria. He studied at the yeshi- 
bot in Mayence and Worms, having Rashi as a fel- 
low student. Eliakim himself founded a famous 
Talmudical school in Speyer. He wrote a com- 
mentary on all the tractates of the Talmud except 
Berakot and Niddah (see Solomon Luria, Responsa, 
No. 29, and Asher ben Jehiel, Responsa, Rule 1, § 8), 
which was used by scholars as late as the four- 
teenth century. At present there exists only the 
commentary on Yoma, in manuscript (Codex Mu- 
nich, No. 216). Ritual decisions by Eliakim are 
mentioned by Rashi ("Pardes," 42a, 44c, 48a). He 
was the composer of a piyyut commencing )V"0 JTlN. 
to be read when a circumcision takes place in the 
synagogue on a Saturday. 

Bibliography: Azulai, Sfcem ha-Gtdolim, i. 28; Michael, Or 
hft-Hayinm. No. 82] ; Landshut-h, '.liiiiniiiit 1 ha-'Abotlah, p. 
24; Berliner, in Monatsxchrift, 1888, p. 182; Griitz, Gesch.vl. 
:H>1 ; Epstein, in Steinechn&iaer Festschrift* pp. 125 et seq.; 
idem, Jtldische AlU rthrnttt r in W'urms mid Spelter, pp. 4, 

L. <; 

I. Ber. 

ELIAKIM BEN NAPHTALI : Italian ethical 
writer; livid in the fifteenth century; author of 
"Tob Shcm Tob," selections from the Talmud and 
Midrashim, treating of the retribution, the suffering 
in the tomb, and the resurrection. The work, di- 
vided into 11 chapters, was published by the son 
of the author, Venice, 1606. Eliakim mentions 
another of his works, entitled "Eben Shetiyyah." 
which is no longer extant. 

Bibliography: Nepi,ZeJee» Zaddikim.p. 19; steinschneider. 
Cot. Bodl. col. 970; Michael, Or lta-gayyim, p. 221. 
K. I. Br. 

ELIAM: 1. One of David's heroes (II Sum. 
xxiii. 34); son of Ahithophel the Gilonite (comp. 
1 Cliroii. xi. 'ill). 

2. Father of Bath-sheba (II Sam. xi. 3). In I 
Chron. iii. 5 the name occurs transposed as "Arn- 
miel " Q^ba is found in the Phenician inscription 
"C. I. S." 147, 6 (Lidzbarski, " Handbuch der Nord- 
Bemitischen Epigraphik "). 

k. o. ii. G. B. L. 

ELIANO, VITTOBIO : Jewish convert to Chris- 
tianity ; grandson of Elijah Levita ; lived in Italy in 
the sixteenth century; became priest and canon. 
Well versed in Hebrew literature, he was appointed 
censor of Hebrew books, first at Cremona, afterward 
(1567) at Venice. In this capacity he permitted 
(1557) the publication of the Zohar, and edited (1558) 
the T ur - Elijah was prominent in the denunciation 
of the Talmud, which was publicly burned April 17, 

Bibliography: Gratz, Gesch. der Juden, ix. 326, 335, 360; 
Wait. Bibl. Hebr. i. 131 ; Neubauer, Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS. 
No. 1547 : Vogelsteln and Rieger, Gesch. der Juden in Rom, 

d. I. Br. 


ELIAS, JULIUS: German author; born at 
Hoya, Hanover, June 21, 1861. He was educated at 
Dorotheenstadt industrial school, Friedrich Werder 
gymnasium, and Munich University, taking his 
Ph.D. degree in 1888. He is the author of "Chris 
tian Wernicke," 1888, and has edited the following 
works: "Briefe der Elisabeth Charlotte," 1889; 
"Johann Gottlieb Regis' 'Fragmente einer Shake- 
speareiibersetzung, ' " 1893; and, with G. Brandes 
and P. Schlenther, the collected works of Ibsen. 

Since 1891 Elias has been editor-in-chief of the 
" Jahresberichte f iir Neuere Deutsche Litteraturge- 

Bibliography: EisenberK, Dag Geistiae Berlin, i. 94-95. 
8. N. D. 

ELIAS LEVITA. See Levita, Elijah. 

ELIAS, NET : British consul-general at Meshed, 
Persia, and explorer; died in London May 31, 1897. 
At an early age he found his way to China, and in 
1871 conceived the daring project of returning to 
Europe overland, across the entire continent of Asia. 
The report of this journey was recorded in the 
".Journal" of the Royal Geographical Society, from 
which it appears that he crossed the desert of Gobi 
by a hitherto unexplored route, traveled amid the 
opposing factions of the great Mohammedan rebel 
lion of that time, and traversed the breadth of Situ 
ria to Russia. 

After this, Elias accepted service under the In- 
dian government and was sent to Yunan, and after- 
ward to Ladak. Later he was despatched on a 
political mission to Chinese Turkestan. 

In 1885 he traversed the entire length of the 
Pamirs, traveled through Badakhshan and Afghan 
Turkestan to the neighborhood of Herat, and re 
turned to India by way of Chitral and Gilgit. For 
this he was made a CLE. In 1889-90 Elias demar- 
cated the frontier between Siam and the Shan States 
of Burma ; and in 1891 he was appointed consul- 
general at Meshed, in Persia. 

Bibliography : Times (London), June 2, 1897 ; Jew. Clirniiicle 
(London), June 4, 1897. 

.i. G. L. 

ELIAS PASHA. See Cohen, Elias. 

ELIAS SAMUEL : English pugilist, popularly 
known as "Dutch Sam"; born April 4, 1775, in Lon- 
don; died July 3, 1816. After successful contests 
with Tom Jones (July 3, 1801), Caleb Baldwin (Aug. 
7, 1804), and Britton of Bristol (April 27, 1805), Elias 
was easily beaten by James Brown (June, 1805). 



Ehakim ben Meshullam 

Of three lights with Tom Belcher of Bristol, Eliaa 
loel the tirst (Feb. 8, 1806); the second (July 28, 1807) 
was declared off ; and the third (Aug. 31, 1807) Elias 
won in 36 rounds. 

Elias followed these encounters with two other 
rictories, defeating William Cropley, May 10, 1808, 
and Benjamin Medley, May 31, 1810; then ho rested 
for four years; but be reentered the prize-ring Dec. 8, 
1814, when he was defeated by William Nosworthy, 
of Moulsey, in 38 rounds. By his contemporaries 
Elias was considered the hardest hitter the prize ring 
had ever seen; he originated what in pugilism is 
ideally known as "the upper cut," which he in- 
troduced in his fight against Caleb Baldwin. Elias 
retired from tin- ring with a ruined constitution, and 
died i" abject poverty. 

Bibliography: .1. B. Pancratia, A History of Pugilism, pp. 
188, 114. London, 1811 ; Bnxiana : Shetchesof Ancient and 
Minlnn I'lifiilism. i.oniliui. 1S12; Miles, PuailUtica, vol. 1. 
193, l'n, 802, London, 1S80. 
j. K. II. V. 

siau Hebraist ; born at Ivenitz 1800; died at. Minsk 
1847. Under the title "Marpe le-'Am," with a sup- 
plement entitled "Kontrcs Reshit Da'at," be trans- 
lated from the Polish into Hebrew the medical work 
of Friedrich Pauliczki (2 vols., Wilna, 1834; 2d ed., 
Jitomir, 1868). 

BIBLIOGRAPHY : Fuenn, Keneset Yisrael.p. 190; Zeitlin, Bihl. 
Fost-Jffi ml' Is. p. ,,. 

H. R. 

CAI : Russian rabbi; born in Kovno 1850; died in 
Yolkovisk. government of Grodno, Nov. 20, 1898. 
His tirst rabbinate was in Pumpian, government of 
Wilna, and he afterward became rabbi of Mariam- 
pol, government of Suwalki. Like his father he be- 
one of the leaders of the Zionist movement in 
Russia; and Samuel MoHTLEVER, who found in him 
a very able lieutenant, was instrumental in securing 
for him the rabbinate of Volkovisk, in order to have 
him nearer to himself. Eliasberg was the author of 
a rabbinical work entitled " Darke Hora'ali," Wilna, 
1884, of which a part is devoted toTalmudic weights, 
measures, and coinage. He was also the author of 
lire, which wire appended to liis father's work 
"Terumat Yad,"and of "Toledot Mordekai."a biog- 
raphy of his father, which he published in the lat- 
ter's'" ha-Zahab," Warsaw, 1897. 

Bibliography: A hiaeaf, 5660, p. 381; Alm.l ha'Am I aaber 
Glnzberto. '.It Panixhal iJirakim, 2d ed., pp. Ilia 111. 
Berlin, 1902. 
i G P. Wl. 

Russian rabbi; born in Chaikishok, government of 
Grodno, Feb., 1 si 7 ; died in Bausk, Courland, Dee 
II, 1889. Ilis father-in-law, who had Bettled in 
Kovno ms so. ,n as Jews wen- permitted to dwell 
there, established him in that city as a dealer in 
grain and spices. Eliasberg acquired a knowl- 
' of German, and made several business jour 
to Riga. He there made the acquaintance of 

Mi-. I. n. H vi ii u., and lie. nine interested in his edu- 
cational Bchemes, the two corresponding for some 
lime afterward. Following the advice of his erst 
while teacher, Kalischer, Eliasberg retired from buai 
iiess and devoted himself exclusively to rabbinical 

studies. In 1852 he became rabbi of Zezmer, gov- 
ernment of Wilna, and remained there for six years, 
until his wife's illness forced him to return to 
Kovno. About 1861 he became rabbi of Bausk, 
where he officiated until his death, having declined 
the more important rabbinate of Suwalki, which had 
been offered to him in 1876. 

When the Zionist movement began to spread in 
Russia, Eliasberg became one of its most ardent ad 
vocates. He gave his decision, as a rabbinical au- 
thority, permitting the colonists in Palestine to 
sow their fields in "shemittah " (fallow year), which 
gave rise to a heated controversy with the rabbis of 
Palestine and other opponents of colonization. Elias- 
berg's part in the discussion was conducted with 
mildness and broad-mindedness. 

Of the twenty-four works which Eliasberg wrote 
on various subjects, only one, "Terumat Y'ad," a 
collection of responsa, was published during his life- 
time (Wilna, 1875). His "Shcbil ha-Zahab," which 
was published posthumously (Warsaw, 1897), deals 
with questions of the day in a highly interesting 
manner, giving the truly r Orthodox view on many 
important subjects. Besides being an eminent Tal- 
mudist, he was also a profound thinker and a dili- 
gent student of history. Eliasberg contributed to 
Hebrew periodicals, especially to "Ha-Maggid," 
usually signing his articles y"'30 (Mordecai b. 
Joseph Eliasberg) 

BIBLIOGRAPHY : Jonathan Eliasberg, Toledot Mordckai, pre- 
ilxeii to the Sin lot ha-Zahab; Ahad ha- 'Am (= Asher 
berg), 'Al Parashat Dcrakim, 3d ed., pp. 68-73, Berlin. 1902. 

L. Q. P. Wl. 

ELIEZER ("God is help"); 1. Servant of Abra- 
ham; mentioned by name only in Gen. xv. 2, a pas 
sage which presents some difficulties. Eliezer is 
described by Abraham as ptyo p (R. V. "possessor 
of my house") and as pt."DT (R. V. "Dammesek- 
Eliezer "). According to Eduard Konig (" Syntax," 
§ 306h) p here, as frequently, has the force of an 
adjective or participle, and the phrase " lien ineshek " 
.steward, comp. ptTDD. Zeph. xi. 9, and -p'D, Job 
xxviii. 18) is the subject of the sentence, which reads 
"and the steward of my house is this Damascene 
[Onk. and Pesh.] Eliezer," "Damashek " being used 
intentionally for the adjective " Dainashki " on ac 
count of the assonance with" meshek " (Iviinig. "Sti 
listik." 1900, p. 291). llolzinger ("Genesis") and 
Gunkel (" Genesis ") think the Masoretic text of xv. 

2 has no meaning, and Clieyne and Black ("EncyC. 

Bibl." col, 1269) condemn it as absurd and incorrect, 

but no satisfactory emendation has been suggested. 
That Abraham, on his way from llaran, passed 
through Damascus is certainly not i ill probable. Nah- 
manideS connects him with that city, as do various 
traditions (Justinus, "Historia)," sxvi, 2; Judith v 
Qetseq.; Josephus, "Ant." vii. 1, viii. 2; Eusebius, 
"Prseparatio Bvangelica," ix. 7 etseq.). He may 

there have acquired this servant, who is also spoken 
Of in Ion. xxiv., though the name is not given, in 
connection with the commission to choose a wife for 

Isaae Still, even the Rabbis felt the difficult ies 
of the present text, as their various interpretation- 
of PL"DT show. According to Eleazar b. Pedath, 

it denotes Eliezer as one "thai draws and gives 
others to drink" (nptjt31 11711) -that is. imparls to 


Eliezer ben Hyrcanus 



others the teachings of his master (Yoma 18b; comp. 
Rashi ad /i>c). Others found in the word " meshek " 
an allusion to his coveting (ppic) Abraham's pos- 
sessions. In pw"] lies the indication that Abraham 
pursued tin- kings (Gen. xiv.) to Damascus, and 
the Targum Pseudo- Jonathan and Yerushalmi read : 
"through whom many miracles were wrought for 
me in Damascus" (comp. Gcu. R. xliv.). 

That Eliezer took part in that battle, or was, per- 
haps, the only combatant at Abraham's side, the 
Rabbis find indicated in the number (318) of the sol- 
diers (Gen. xiv. Ill, the numerical value of the let- 
ters in -lTJT^K being 1 + 30+10 + 70 + 7 + 200 = 
318 (Gen. R. xliii., xliv.; Pesik. 70a, b; Ned. 32a; 
Shoher Tob to Ps. ex. ; compare Ep. Barnabas ix. ; 
it is the classical illustration of Gematiua under the 
twenty-ninth Exegetical Rule of Eliezer, the son of 
Jose the Galilean). Modern critics (Hugo Winck- 
ler and Gunkel) have held this "318" to refer to the 
number of days in the year that the moon is visible. 
The rabbinical cryptogram for "Eliezer" rests cer- 
tainly on as solid grounds. 

Bibliography: Elttel, Gesch.derHebrtler,li.l2i; Holzlnger, 
Kurzer Handkomniciitar zvr Genesis, p. 144; H. Winckler, 
Geseh. dts Volkes Israel, 1900,11. 27; Gunkel, Handkom- 
in: ii((ii- jiii' <■' nesis, pp. 104, 231, 259. 

E. G. H. 
In Rabbinical Literature: Eliezer was pre- 
sented to Abraham by Nimrod. Once Eliezer savi d 
Abraham's life by disclosing to him the devices for 
his destruction prepared by Nimrod (Pirke R. El. 
xvi). At Sodom Eliezer saw a native maltreating 
a stranger: taking the part of the wronged man, he 
was himself severely wounded. He brought suit 
against his aggressor, but the judge condemned 
Eliezer to pay to the native of Sodom a certain 
amount of money for having been bled. Thereupon 
Eliezer inflicted a severe wound upon the judge, 
saying: "Pay to the man who bled me the amount 
you owe me for having bled you." The men of 
Sodom used to place a guest, on abed, and if his 
length exceeded that of the bed they cut off the ex- 
cess, but if the man was shorter than the bed he was 
stretched (comp. the Greek legend of Procrustes). 
Asked to lie in the lied. Eliezer replied that at the 
death of his mother he had vowed never to sleep in 
a bed. Another custom iu Sodom was that he who 
invited a stranger to a wedding should forfeit his 
coat. Once Eliezer, being very hungry, entered a 
house where a wedding was being celebrated, but 
could get nothing to eat. He then sat down next 
one of the wedding guests; on being asked by him 
who had invited him, he replied: "By you." The 
latter, fearing to lose his coal, left the house precip- 
itately. Eliezer then sat near another, on whom he 
played the same trick, with the same result, until 
at last he had succeeded in driving all the guests 
out of the house. He then secured the meal for 
himself (Sanh. 109b). 

Eliezer is credited with having acquired all the 
virtues and learning of his master i Yoma 28b). It 
is even said that his features resem- 
Eliezer and bled so closebj I hose of Abraham that 
Abraham. Laban mistook him for his kinsman. 
When Abraham led Isaac to Mount Mo- 
rtal! to offer him as a sacrifice, Eliezer cherished the 
hope of becoming Abraham's heir, and a discussion 

on this subject arose between him and Ishmael 
(Pirke R. El. xxxi.). On completing the mission of 
selecting a wife for Isaac he was freed, and God re- 
warded him with the kingdom of Bashan, over 
which he reigned under the name of "Og." It was 
he who refused to allow the Israelites to go through 
his territory on their way to Palestine (Masseket 
Soferim, end). His size was so vast that from one 
of his teeth, which he had lost through fright when 
scolded by Abraham, the latter made a chair on 
which he used to sit. In the treatise Derek Erez 
Zuta (i. 9) Eliezer is counted among the nine who 
entered paradise while still living. 
s. s. I. Bh. 

2. The second son of Moses; mentioned in Ex. 
xviii. 4; I Chron. xxiii. 15, 17. The name is ex- 
plained (Ex. I.e.) to mean "the God of my father 
was mine help" (the 2 of the predicate; see Koe- 
nig, "Syntax," $ 338). Rashi, quoting thcMekilta, 
relates a miraculous incident to account for the 
choice of the name, while Urn Ezra makes it express- 
ive of the joy of Moses upon hearing of the death 
of the Pharaoh who had proscribed him. The his- 
torical existence of this son has been doubted. Ex. 
ii. 22 and iv. 25 mention only one son — Gershom. 
Ilm Ezra felt the difficulty, but concluded that the 
one son mentioned in iv. 25 is Eliezer; while Nah- 
manides argues that there was another son, but that 
there had been no occasion to mention him befi ire. 
Ex. iv. 20 indicates that Moses, before leaving for 
Egypt, whether with his family (Ex. iv. 20) or with- 
out it (Ex. xviii. 2), had more than one son ; and the 
reading r"U3 = " her son " (iv. 25) may be a miswriting 
for IVJ3 = "her sons," agreeing with xviii. 3. 
Baentsch (" Exodus-Leviticus ") holds that " Eliezer " 
is a double for "Eleazar," the son of Aaron, while 
Holzinger ("Exodus," p. 7) accounts for the uncer- 
tainty by arguing that in view of Judges xviii. 30 
P intentionally omitted all reference to the sons. 

E. G. H. E. K. 

3. A prophet, the son of Dodavah of Mareshah. 
who opposed the alliance of Jehoshaphat with Aha- 
ziah (II Chron. xx, 37). 

4. Son of Zichri, made captain of the Reubcnites 
by King David (I Chron. xxvii. 16). 

5. A priest who acted as trumpeter before the 
Ark when it was conveyed to Jerusalem by King 
David (I Chron. xv. 24).' 

6. One of the chief men sent by Ezra (Ezra viii. 
16) to secure ministers for the Temple at Jerusalem. 

e. g. n. E. I. N. 

ELIEZER: Palestinian amora of the fifth cen- 
tury; contemporary of Abdimi (Yer. 'Er. x. 26a) 
and of Berechiah U. (Gen. R. lxxvii. 3; Yalk., Gen. 
132). Conjointly with Abba Mari and Mattaniah, 
he permitted Jews to bake bread on the Sabbath for 
the Roman soldiers under Ursicinus (Yer. Bezan 
i. 60c; compare Jastrow, "Diet." 124b, s.v. DJ"pD"lX; 
Frankel. "Mebo," 55b et seq.). He was more of a 
halakist than a haggadist (see, in addition to pas- 
sages cited, Yer. 'Orlah ii. 62b; Yer. Pes. viii. 36a). 

s. s. S. M. 

German scholar of the sixteenth century ; author of 
"Ge H' zza y° n ," au astrological compilation from 




Eliezer ben Hyrcanus 

Hebrew, Arabic, and Latin sourcesi Neubauer, "Cat. 
B<xil. Hebr. MSS." No. 2066). He quotes Abra- 
ham bar Hiyya ha-Nasi, Ibn Ezra, Andruzagar, Al- 

bumnzar. 'Ali ibn Rid wan, ' A li ibn Rajil, I pold 

of Austria, Johannes, Guido Bonatti.and, according 
to Dukes, Copernicus. In the introduction Eliezer 

he began a greal work on astrology, a chaptei 

rhich, entitled "'Reshil Hokmah" (quoted by 

Neubauer, I.e.), isdevoted to Ibn Ezra. Whetherthe 

Goralot" (Vatican MS. No. 216), bearing 

name "Eliezer ntinn," is by the same author is 
not known. The same uncertainty prevails regard- 
ing Vatican MS. No. -177. which contains a com 
military on Ptolemy's "Centiloquium," and which 

ti, ais the name "Eliezer." 

Bibiioiihapiiy : Fflrst, In OrU lit, Lit. xi. 81 ; Dukes, H>. p.818 ; 
Inscnneider, in '/.. I). M.O. XXV.3KI; idem, Heln I ,:>. , - 

,, I. Br. 

gete of the twelfth century; horn at Beaugency. 
capital of a canton in the department of Loiret; 
pupil of Samuel ben Mei'r, the eminent grandson of 
Rashi. Eliezer was one of the most distinguished rep 
tatives of his master's school and of the exege- 
sis of northern Frame. I lis chief concern was to find 
the connection between successive verses and the 
sequence of thought, a method that is also charac- 
teristic of the system of interpretation employed 
by Samuel as well as Joseph Caro. Not concerned 
with grammatical observations or daring criticisms. 
he reached very happy results in explaining certain 
itive passages in accordance with the meta- 
phors employed in the context. He often used 
French terms to express his thoughts more clearly. 
His interpretation is entirely free from midrashic 
admixture. Of his works there have so far been 
published only the commentaries on Isaiah (ed. 
Nutt, 1S7!») and llosea (ed. S. I'o/.nanski, in " 11a- 
Coreii," iii. 98-127). There still exists in manuscript 
ft commentary on the other Minor Prophets and on 
Ezekiel (Neubauer, "Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS." No. 
llti'i). Extracts from his commentary on Job are 
-.taut ; and he himself refers to his commentary 
on Genesis. 

Bibliography: dross, Gallia Judaica, p. 116; Poznanski. 
Ha-Qoren, in.. 98; Ziinz, Z. O., p. B2. 
T. I. E. 

niudisl of the thirteenth century. Gross identities 
him with Eliezer ben Aaron of Bourgogne, one of 
the six rabbis to whom Me'ir Ahulalia sent his lei ter 
on the doctrine of the resurrection Eliezer was the 
author of a Tal mm lie work no Ion ircr ex taut, entitled 
"Sha'arlia Penim," mentioned by Aaron ha Cohen 
of I, unci in his "Orhol l.Iayyim." 

Bibliography : Gross, Gallia Judaica, p. 109. 

A, iv 

ELIEZER BEN FARUH : Jewish mathematd- 

said by certain Mohammedan authors to have 
first established the Jewish calendar. He is men 

ti I by Al Biruni (972-1048) in his'TIn ilogy 

of Ancient Nations"; and this account is repeated 
almost word lor word, in Al Makri/.i's (i:!iil lll'.'i 
topographical history of Egypt, Steinschneider 
has connected him with a certain Andrazzur ibn 
V.- 8 

Zadi Faruli. a famous .lew ish astronomer mentioned 
by Al-Kabisi, the tenth century Moslem astrologer, 
and by Abraham ibn Ezra in his "Sefer ha-Te'a- 
mini." The firsl name seems to indicate thai he was 
a Persian by birth; and it occurs in such varying 
tonus as " Andruzagar." " Alezdegoz," "Alendruz- 
gar." It has been suggested thai there is a confu 
sion here either with Eliezer ben Hyrcanus or Elca- 
zar ben 'Arak. Sachau reads nns (I Kings iv. 17). 

Bibliography : Sachau, Z7i< Chronology of Ancient Nations, 
p. 68 (Arabic text. p. 58); De Sacy, ChrestomathU Arabe, i. 

■.it ■ Ai-Makn/o; Delitzsch, Anelsdota varGesch.derWt- 

telalt. Scholdstik, p. :!;"> (for Urn Ezra); compare steinsehnei 
iler in Berliner's Matiazin, iii. 199; Monatsschrift, xxxili. 
479; Ha-Tonah, p. is; Steinschneider, Hebr. Uebers. pp. 
631,854: Idem, Arab, Lit. der Judcn, p. 301. 


ELIEZER B. HISMA. See Eleazar b. 



One of the most prominent tannaimof the first and 
second centuries; disciple of R. Johanan hen Zak- 
kai (Ah. ii. 8; Ah. R. N. vi. 3, xiv. 5) and col- 
league of Gamaliel II., whose sister he married (see 
Imma Shalom), and of Joshua b. Hananiah (Ab. 
I.e. ; Ab. R. N. I.e. ; li. B. 10b). His earlier years 
are wrapped in myths; but from these latter it may- 
be inferred that he was somewhat advanced in life 
when a desire for learning first seized him, and im- 
pelled him. contrary to the wishes of his father, to 
desert his regular occupation and to repair to Jeru- 
salem to devote himself to the study of the Torah. 
Here he entered Johanan 's academy and for years 
Studied diligently, notwithstanding the fact that he 
had to cope with great privations. It is said that 
sometimes many days elapsed during which he did 
not have a single meal. Johanan, recognizing Elie 
zer's receptive and retentive mind, styled him "a 
cemented cistern that loses not a drop" (Ab. I.e.). 
These endowments wen- so pronounced in him that 
in later years he could declare, "Ihave never taught 
anything which I had not learned from my masters" 
(Suk. 28a) 

His father in the meantime determined to disin 
herit him, and with that purpose in view went to 
Jerusalem, there to declare his will before Johanan 
ben Zakkai. The great teacher, having heard of 
Hyrcanus' arrival ami of the object of his visit, in- 
structed the usher to reserve for the expected visitor 
a seat among those to he occupied by the elite of the 
city, and appointed Eliezer lecturer for that day. 
At tilst the latter hesitated to vent in v on Johanan 's 
placi . bul, pressed by the master and encouraged 

by his friends, delivered a discourse, gradually dis- 

plaving wonderful know ledge. Hyrcanus having 
recognized in the lecturer his truant son, and hear- 
ing the encomiums which Johanan showered on him, 

now desired to transfer all his earthly possessions to 
Eliezer; but the scholar, overjoyed at the reconcili 
alion. declined to take advantage of his brothers, 
and requested to be allowed to have only his pro- 
portionate share (Ab. K. N. vi. 3; Pirke K. El. i. U 

seq.). Be continued bis attendance at Johanan'scol 

until mar the close of the siege of Jerusalem, 

when he and Joshua assisted in smuggling their 
master out of the city and into the Roman camp 

(see Jon \n w ben Zakkai). 
Subsequently Eliezer proceeded to Jabneh (Ab. 

Eliezer ben Hyrcanus 
Eliezer b. Jacob 



R. N. iv. 5; Git- 50), where be later became a mem- 
ber of the Sanhedrin under t he presidency of Gama- 
liel II. (Ab. R. X. xiv. 6; Banh. 17b). though he had 
established, and for many years afterward conducted, 
his own academy at Lydda (Sauh. 36b). His fame 
as a great scholar had in the meantime spread, R. 
Johanan himself declaring that Eliezer was un- 
equaled as an expositor of traditional law (Ab. R. 
N. vi. 3); and many promising students, among 
them Akiba (ib. ; Yer. Pes. vi. 33b), attached them- 
selves to his school. 

Eliezer became known as "Eliezer ha-Gadol"( = 
"the Great"; Tosef., 'Orlah, 8; Ber. 6a, 32a; Sotah 
13b, 48b, 49a ; generally, however, he is styled simply 
" R. Eliezer "), and with reference to his legal acumen 
and judicial impartiality, the Scriptural saying 
(Deut. xvi. 20), "That which is altogether just |lit. 
"Justice, justice "] shalt thou follow," was thus ex- 
plained: "Seek a reliable court: go after R. Eliezer 
to Lydda, or after Johanan ben Zakkai to Beror Hel," 
etc. (Sanh. 32b). Once he accompanied Gamaliel and 
Joshua on an embassy to Rome (Yer. Sanh. vii. 25d : 
Deut. R. ii. 24). 

Rabbi Eliezer was very severe and somewhat 
domineering with his pupils and colleagues (see 
Sifra, Shemini, i. 33; 'Er. 63a; Hag. 3b; Meg. 25b), 
a characteristic which led occasionally to unpleas- 
ant encounters. The main feature of his teach- 
ing was a strict devotion to tradition : 

Eliezer's he objected to allowing the Midrash 
Conserva- or the paraphrastic interpretation to 
tism. pass as authority for religious practise. 
In this respect he sympathized with 
the conservative school of Shammai, which was 
also opposed to giving too much scope to the inter- 
pretation. Hence the assertion that he was a Sham- 
maite, though he was a disciple of R. Johanan ben 
Zakkai, who was one of Hillel's most prominent 
pupils. This brought Eliezer into conflict with his 
colleagues and contemporaries, who realized that 
such conservatism must be fatal to a proper develop- 
ment of the oral law. It was also felt that the 
new circumstances, such as the destruction of the 
Temple and the disappearance of the national inde- 
pendence, required a strong religious central au- 
thority, to which individual opinion must yield. 

At last the rupture came. The Sanhedrin deliber- 
ated on the susceptibility to Levitical uncleanness 
of an 'aknai-oven (an oven consisting of tiles sepa- 
rated from one another by sand, but externally plas- 
tered over with cement). The majority decided that 
such an oven was capable of becoming unclean, but 
Eliezer dissented. As he thus acted in direct oppo- 
sition to the decision of the majority, it was deemed 
necessary to make an example of him, and he was 
excommunicated. Still, even under these circum- 
stances great respect was manifested toward him, 
and the sentence was communicated to him in a 
very considerate manner. Akiba, dressed in mourn- 
ing, appeared before him and, seated at some dis- 
tance from him, respectfully addressed him with 
"My master, it appears to me that thy colleagues 
keep aloof from thee." Eliezer readily took in the 

situati mil submitted to the sentence (B. M. 59b; 

Yer. M. K. iii. 81&etseg.). Thenceforth Eliezer lived 
in retirement, removed from the center of Jewish 

learning; though occasionally some of his disciples 
visited him and informed him of the transactions of 
the Sanhedrin (Yad. iv. 3). 

During the persecutions of the Jewish Christians 
in Palestine, Eliezer was charged with being a mem- 
ber of that seel, and was summoned before the penal 
tribunal. Being asked by the governor, "How can 
a great man like thee engage in such idle things? " he 
simply replied, "The judge is right." The judge, 
understanding thereby Eliezer's denial of all connec- 
tion with Christianity, released him, while Rabbi 
Eliezer understood by "judge" God, justifying the 
judgment of God which had brought 
Relations this trial upon him. That he should 
with Chris- be suspected of apostasy grieved him 

tianity. surely ; and though some of his pupils 
tried to comfort him, he remained for 
some time inconsolable. At last he remembered that 
once, while at Sepphoris, he had met a sectary « li > 
communicated to him a singular halakah in the 
name of Jesus; that he had approved of the halakah 
and had really enjoyed hearing it, and, he added, 
" Thereby I transgressed the injunction (Pro v. v. 8), 
'Remove thy way far from her, and come not nigli 
the door of her house,' which the Rabbis apply i" 
sectarianism as well as to heresy " ('Ab. Zarali llih; 
Ecel. R. i. 8). The suspicion of apostasy and the 
summons before the dreaded tribunal came, there- 
fore, as just punishment. This event in his life 
may have suggested to him the ethical rule, " Keep 
away from what is indecent and from that which 
appears to be indecent" (Tosef., Hul. ii. 24). It is 
suggested that his sayings, " Instructing a woman 
in the Law is like teaching her blasphemy " (So tall 
iii. 4); "Let the Law be burned rather than entrusted 
to a woman" (ib.); and "A woman's wisdom is 
limited to tin; handling of the distaff" (Yoma 66b), 
also date from that time, he having noticed thai 
women were easily swayed in matters of faith. 

Separated from his colleagues and excluded from 
the deliberations of the Sanhedrin, Eliezer passed 
his last years of life unnoticed and in comparative 
solitude. It is probably from this melancholy period 
that his aphorism dates: "Let the honor of thy 
league [variant, "pupils"] be as dear to thee as thine 
own, and be not easily moved to anger. Repi at 
one day before thy death. Warm thyself by the 
fire of the wise men, but be cautious of their burn 
ing coals [= "slight them not"], that thou be di i 
burned ; for their bite is the bite of a jackal, their 
sting is that of a scorpion, their hissing is that of a 
snake, and all their words are fiery coals " (Ab. ii. 
10; Ab. R. N. xv. 1). When asked how one can de- 
termine the one day before his death, he answered : 
" So much the more must one repent daily, lest be 
die to-morrow ; and it follows that he must spend 
all his days in piety " (Ab. R. N. I.e. 4; Shah. 158a), 

When his former colleagues heard of his approach- 
ing dissolution, the most prominent of them hastened 
to his bedside at Coesarea. When they appeared 
before him he began to complain abort 
His Death, his long isolation. They tried to mol- 
lify him by professing great and tin 
abated respect for him, and by averring that it was 
only the lack of opportunity that had kept them 
away. He felt that they might have profited by his 



Eliezer ben Hyrcanus 
Eliezer b. Jacob 

ling. Thereupon they besought him to com- 
municate to them traditions concerning certain moot 
points, particularly touching Levitical purity and 
Impurity. He- consented, and answered question 
after question until all breath left him. The last word 
he uttered was ''tahor" (=" pure"), and this the 
considered as an auspicious omen of his purity ; 
whereupon they all rent their garments in token of 
mourning, anil K.Joshua revoked the « nti-ncr of 

Eliezer died on a Friday, and after the following 
bath his remains were solemnly conveyed to 
l.vdda, where he had formerly conducted hisacad 
emy, and there he was buried. .Many and earnest 
were the eulogies pronounced over his bier. R. 
Joshua is said to have kissed the stone on winch 
Kliezer used to sit, while instruct ing his pupils, and 
to have remarked, "This stone represents Sinai 
[whence the Law was revealed]; and he who sat on 
it represented the Ark of the Covenant " (Cant. R. 
i. 3). K. Akiba applied to Eliezer the terms which 
Eliaha had applied to Elijah (II Kings ii. 12), and 
which Joash subsequently applied to Elisha himself 
siii. 14), "O my father, my father, the chariot 
of Israel, and the horsemen thereof" (Ab. K. N. 
ix v. 3). 

Though excommunicated, Eliezer is quoted in the 
Uishnah, the Baraita, ami the Tahnudim more fre- 
quently than any one of his colleagues. He is also 
made tie' putative author of 1'ikki: de R. Eliezer or 
Baraita ok K. Eliezer, though internal evidence 
conclusively proves the late origin of the work. 

Bibliography: Bacher. .If/. Tan. i. 100-160; isriill, .1/./... ha- 

Mi lina/i, I, 75-82; t'rankel, Darke ha-Miehnah. J>p. 75-B3; 

i.nitz, Qexch. 2d ed., tv. K> et sea.; Hamburger, B. B. V. U. 

168: Bellprtn. Seder ha-Doroi, it., s.u.; Oppenbelm, Bet 

raid, lv. 311, 332, 360 ; Weiss, Dor, li. 81 et seq.; Wlesner, 

'at ) • i uxhalaylm, pp. 61 1 1 seq.\ Zacuto, ruha&in. ed. 

Fulpowskt, pp. 50a et seq.; G. Deutsch, Z7ie Theory of Oral 

Tradition, pp. 30, 34, Cincinnati, lsmi. 

6. 8. S. M. 

OF TARASCON: Member of a family of scholars 

ilished in that city since the lirst, half of the 

thirteenth century. Although he wrote several 

works, only his correspondence with K. Samuel of 

(France) is now extant. He was the teachei of 

minican convert Pablo Christian!. 

Bibliography: Renan-Neubauer, Lei Rabbins VYancato, pp. 
518,663; Griltz, Hatch, vll. 143; dross, ijulliu Jutlnica, p. 

6, S. K. 

ELIEZER B. ISAAC. Sec Dei, Ben ic. Hum. 


Ician and Talmudic authority; born at Rome at 
the beginning of the sixteenth century ; died, prob- 
ahly at Sienna, Oct. Hi, 1590. He was a brothel 

in-law of the physician and Talmudist David de 
Pomis, and, like him, distinguished iii both medicine 
and rahhinieal literature. A halakic decision of bis 

on " Ilali/ah " is quoted by Isaac Lampronti ('* I'ahad 

Yizhak," ».». n^pn); and Moses Provencal, in his 

responsa, cites him as an authority and gives him 
the title "Ha Kohen ha-Gadol." in 1587 the nmi 

muiiity ot Bologna consulted Eliezer regarding an 
ignorant shohef. 

Eliezer is believed to be identical with Theodoro 
de Sacerdotibus, the physician of Hope Julius III. 
It is probable that the " Librum de Duello." credited 
to Isaac Yiterlio by Bariolocci i " liihl. Rabb." iii. 891) 
followed by Wolf ("Bibl. llehr." i. 651, No. 1176), 
was the work of Kliezer. Late in life Eliezer settled 

at Sienna. The high esteem in which lie was held is 
shown by the elegy composed at his death by Jacob 
of Tivoli (Neubauer, "Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS." No. 


oorapby: Marlnl, Dealt Archiatri Pontifleii, i. 41V : 
Carmoly, Histdirt des M&aectns Juifs, In /,vrm Orientate, 
II. 134; R. E. ./. x. 185; AUg. Zett. des Jud. 1842, p. 631 ; 
Vogelsteln and Rleger, Qesch. der Juden in Bom, 11. 144, 
359, 862. 
K. I. Bit. 


Great ") : German rabbi of t lie eleventh cent ury. He 
was a pupil of his cousin K. Simon ha-Gadol of 
Mayenceandof 1.'. Gershom Me'or ha-Golah. David 
Conforle, reiving on the statement in the tosefta 
to Shab. 54b, says that Eliezer ha-Gadol was the 
teacher of Rashi(" Kote ha-Dorot," p. 8a); but Rashi 

himself, in citing Eliezer (Pes. 7(ib). does not say so. 
[n Rashi's quotation he is sometimes called Eliezer 
ha-Gadol and sometimes Eliezer Gaon, which in- 
duced Azulai (" Shcm ha-Gedolim," p. 12a) to con 

sider them as two Separate persons. According to 
Menahcm di l.onsano ("Shete Yadot," p. 123a), 
Eliezer ha Gadol was the author of the well known 
"Orhot Havyim" or "Zawwa'al K. Eliezer ha- 
Gadol," generally attributed to Eliezer b. Hyrcanus. 

As to tie- authorship of the selihah "Elohai Basser 

'Anuneka," recited in the service of Yom Kippur 

Kaionanil attributed to Eliezer by Michael ("Orha- 
Hayyim." pp. 205-207), see Landshuth, "'Ammude 
ba-'Abodah," p. 20. 

Bibliography: Azulai, Shan ha-Oedolim. I. 12a, ii, s.r. 
D"n mrnN; Zunz, Z. O. pp. 17 et -"/. : Jelllnek, /(. II. ill. 
27, 28 of the Preface ; Fuenn, Kenesei Yisrael, P. 124; Stein- 
Schneider, Ctot, Bods. cols. 957-858; Furst, Bihl. ./»./. i. 283. 
<;. M. St 1, 

ELIEZER D'lTALIA: Printer of .Mantua at 
the beginning of the seventeenth century; estab 
li led a printing-office in Mantua in ltil2 after 

an interval of fifteen years during which no lie 

brew printing-establishment had existed there. In 
that year he issued the "Ayyelel ha Shahar," a col 

lection of liturgies by iMordecai Vale; " Yashir 
Moshch," a Puriin poem by Moses of Corfu; and 

Abraham Portaleone's "Shilte ha-Gibborim." 

Bibliography: rarat, JBIbl. .hm. 11. 168; Zunz. z. O. p. 259; 
Stelnschnelder and Oassel, JHldische Tupographie, InErach 
and Gruber, Encye. section 11., part 26, p. it. 

J. M. Si r 

1. Tanna of the first century; contemporary of 

Eleazar h. Ilisma and Eliezer b. Hyrcanus, and 
smior of 'Illai (Pes, 82a, 89b; Yalk., Lev. 638). Of 
his personal history nothing is know 11, except that he 
had seen the Temple at Jerusalem and was familiar 
with the Specific purposes Of its many apartments, 
a subject on which he was considered an authority 
(Yoma 16b; See MtDDOT). Sonic of the details. 

however, he eventually forgot, and was reminded 

of them by Abba Saul b. Hatuit (Mid. ii. 5, v. 4). 

Eliezer t>. Jacob 
Eliezer ben Joseph 



Simon b. 'Azzai, Akiba's contemporary, relates thai 
be had discovered a genealogical roll wherein was 
stated, "The Mishnah of R. Eliezer b Jacob is only a 

kab' [small in proportion], bul clear" p 2N"i J")JL"D 
'pjl 3p, Yci>. 49b), wherefore subsequent genera- 
tions generally adopted Eliezer's \ lev, s as law (Yeb. 
60a; Bek. 23b) 

In the Haggadah, too, he is mentioned. Accord- 
ing to him, what the 1 1 i t > 1 • - says (Deut. xi. 13), "To 
serve him with all your heart and with all your 
soul," is an admonition to the priests that, when 
officiating, tiny shall entertain no thought foreign 
I., their duty (Sifre, Dent. 41). 

2. Tanna <>f the second century, quoted among 
Akiba's younger disciples who survived the fall of 
Bethar and the subsequent Hadrianic persecutions: 
Judah b. 'Illai, Mc'ir, Simon b. Yol.iai, Eliezer b. Jose 
ba-Gelili (Gen. R. 1 xi. ;!; Cant. R. ii. 5; compare 
Ber. 63b; feb. 62b). With most of them he main 
tained halakic disputations (Neg. x.-l: Tosef., Yeb. 
x. 5; ib. B. K. v. 7, ih. Ker. i _ 11; H>. Parah, iii. 10). 
lie was the founder of a school known in the Talmud 
after his name. Debe If. Eliezer b. Jacob, '\vhieh 
sometimes opposed the Debe R. Ishmael (Sanh. 90b; 
IIul. 132a; Yoma 45b; see Hanina b. Minyomi). 

Like his older namesake, Eliezer is quoted in both 
the Halakah and the Haggadah. From the Penta- 
teuchal injunction (Deut. xxii. 5). "The woman shall 
not wear that which pertaineth to man, neither shall 
a man put on a woman's garment," he maintains 
that a woman must never handle arms or go to war. 
and that man must not use ornaments which women 
usually wear (Sifre, Deut. 220; Nazir 59a). Eliezer 
taught; "Whoso performs a pious deed gains for 
himself an advocate [before heaven], and whoso 
commits a sin creates an accuser against himself. 
Penitence and pious deeds constitute a shield against 
heavenly visitations" (Ab. iv. 11). 

It is related of him that he once gave up the seat 
oi honor to a poor blind man. The distinction thus 
conferred ou the visitor by so eminent a man induced 
the people thereafter bounteously to provide for 
tin- needy one, who. when he realized the cause of 
his good fortune, thanked its author. He said, 
"Thou hast shown kindness unto one who is seen, 
hut can not see; may lie who sees, but can not be 
seen, harken to thy prayers ami show thee kind- 
ness" (Yer. l'eah \iii. 21b). 

Bibliography: Bacher, .In, Tan. i. 67 :-'. it. 283-291; Brull, 
Itebo ha Mishnah, i ;i ei sea.; Frankel, Darke ha-Migh- 
ntili, pp. 78 e( seg.; Heilprin, Seder ha-Dorot, ed. Warsaw, 
1897, ii. 57b ef see/.; Weiss, Dor, it. 41 et set/., letter wi;.; Zacuto, 
1 uhasin.ea. Flllpowski, pp. 31b et seq„ 51a. 
B- B. S. M. 

KEN AZI : German scholar of t he seventeenth cen- 
tury, lie prepared a calendar (" Ibronot," Lublin, 
11115) based upon the work of Jacob Marcaria (Riva 
di Trento, 1561), and improved by the addition of 
a circular tabic, which facilitated the determination 

of holidays and other important dates. It was re- 
printed at Lublin (1040) and Frankfort-on-the-Oder 

Bibliography: Michael, Or ha-tfayirVm, p. 204; Fuenn Kene- 
lef I Israel, p. r_";;; Zarfatj. m Jost'a Annaltru 1840, p. 344; 
Stelnsctmelder, I 'at. Bodl. col. 958. 

M. Sit. 


German Talmudist ; born probably at Bonn 1100-05; 
died about 1235. He belonged to a German family 
of scholars; his father, Joel ben Isaac ha-Levi, was 
a prominent teacher of the Talmud, and his mater- 
nal grandfather was Eliezer b. Nathan, perhaps the 
greatest Talmudist of Germany in the early part of 
the twelfth century. Eliezer's first teacher was his 
father; he then attended the yeshibot of Metz, Ma- 
yence, and Speyer. His teachers in Mayence and 
Speyer were Eliezeh b. Samuel and Moses b. Sol- 
omon ha-Kohen, two pupils of Jacob Tain. Isaac b. 
AstiFit II. of the yeshibah at Speyer is often desig- 
nated by him as liis teacher. Eliezer settled first at 
Bonn, whence he went to Biugen, where he and his 
family barely escaped a massacre at New-Year. On 
this occasion he lost all his property, including his 
books and manuscripts. 

In 1200 he succeeded his father as chief rabbi of 
Cologne, his assistants being Menahem b. David and 
Shealtiel b. Menahem; he conducted at the same 
time a large yeshibah. He took part in the Synod 
of Mayence (1220 or 1223), which had for its object 
the amelioration of the moral, religious, and social 
condition of the communities. His daughter's son 
Hillel was the father of Mordecai B. Hillel, and 
among his pupils may be mentioned Isaac n. .Moses, 
who frequently quotes his teacher in his" Or Zarua'." 

Eliezer displayed a many-sided literary activity. 
His comments on tiie Bible and his glosses show 
that he was influenced by the German mysticism of 
his time. Like his colleague Eleazar of Worms, he 
attached great importance to gematria, though many 
of his glosses are grammatical and lexicographical. 
The four liturgical poems by Eliezer 
His Works, that have been preserved voice tin- 
sorrows of Israel, of which he himself 
had ample experience. They are distinguished by 
wealth of thought and perfection of form, and are 
among the best German piyyutim. He, however, 
devoted himself chiefly to the Talmud and the Hala- 
kah. He wrote tosafot to various Talmudic trea- 
tises, those to Baba Kamma, Ketubot, Ycbamot, and 
Nedarim beingquoted by later authorities; but the] 
are little known, as he lost the manuscripts at 
Bingen. Hischief productions, " Abi ha-'Ezri " and 
" Abi Asaf ," deal with ritualistic problems and ac- 
quired great authority in Germany. Both follow 
mostly the arrangement of the treatises of the Tal- 
mud, the authorfirstexplaining the several passages 
of tin' Talmud with especial reference to the halakic 
Midrashim Sifraand Sifre, and to the Jerusalem Tal- 
mud, and then laying down the rules for religious 
observances, adding his own or other responsa rela- 
ting to the subject. 

Eliezer, like most German scholars, lacked skill iu 
presentation, and the works in which he attempted 
to codify the laws regulating daily life are more oi 
less chaotic in arrangement. The "Abi ha T'./ii" 
contains most of the material discussed in Berakot, 
in Seder Mo'ed, iu Hullin, and in Niddah, and also 
treats of " issur we-hetter " (that which is forbidden 
aud permitted), and some parts of the marriage laws. 
The "Abi Asaf " contains the material referring to 



Eliezer b. Jacob 
Eliezer ben Joseph 

the orders Nashim unci Xc/.ikin, hence the larger part 
of tlie marriage laws, and the Talmudic-rabbinical 
low. Notwithstanding these methodological defects, 
Eliezer's works enjoyed the highest reputation dur- 

the Middle Ages, and are abundantly praised b/j 

intcmporaries. So far only a small fragment of 

t lie "Abi ha-'Ezri," under the title FT "'Sin "IDD 

.'. . 1882), has been published, while the whole 

work is preserved in manuscript in tin- Bodleian 

Library (Ncubauer, Jsos. 637-639) and in several 

raries. A/ulai saw part of the "Abi Asaf " 

in manuscript, and the work may still be extant. A 

treatise by Eliezer on the legal ordinance of Ketubab 

is also extant (MS. I'e Rossi, No. 568). Long ex 

tracts from "Abi Asaf" are found in Isaac b. Moses' 

"Or Zarua'," in Melr of Rothenburg's responsa, 

in "Mordecai," in Haggahot Maimuniyyot, and in 

Asher 1). Jehiel's Halakot. They are not only of 

il value for the study of the Halakah, but are 
also of great interest for the history of Jew ish liter- 
ature. Eliezer's responsa give information on au- 
thorities and works otherwise little or not at all 
known. These extracts also give an adequate idea 
nf Eliezer's personality. He himself rigorously 
•.c'd the religious practises, even keeping the 
Day of Atonement two days in succession, while at 

- nne time he was lenient toward others. He 
permitted, for instance, non-Jewish musicians at 
weddings on the Sabbath. But he was inflexible in 
disputes relating to morals. He enforced rigorously 
Itabbcnu Gershon's decree against polygamy, not 
• ven permitting a husband to marry again in the 

f the wife's incurable insanity . 

Bibliography: Dembltzer, In the Introduction to bis edition 
of tin- n"*3K"i; Gross, In Monatsschrift, xxxlv. xxxv.: Mi- 
chael. < >r ha-Hnuyim. s.v.; Zimz. S. /'. pp. 328 i:.'T. 

I. (1. 


of the fourth generation (second century); one of 

Akiha's later disciples (Her. 68b; Cant R. ii. 5; 

Keel. 1!. xi. r>. see Eliezer b. Jacob). While he 

cultivated both the Halakah (Somali v. 8; Tosef., 

Sanh. i..2; Sanh. 3b) and the Haggadah, his fame 

mainly on his work in the latter lie Id Indeed, 

with reference to his homiletics, later generations 

-aid. "Wherever thou meetesl a word of R. Eliezer 

Jose ha-Gelili in the Haggadah, make thine 

tsa funnel (Hul. 89a; Vcr. Kid. i. tild. IVsik. 

K. x. B8b; compare .la-trow, "Dict."».j>. FIDOISX)- 

For, even where he touched on the Flalakah, heal 

- brought exegesis to hear upon the matter. 
Thus, arguing that after legal proceedings are closed 
the court may not propose a compromise, he says. 

"The judge who then brings about a settlement is a 
-inner; and he w ho blesses him is a blasphcmi I of 

wl i it may be said (Ps. .\. 8) n J»KJ "|"Q JWI31 

["The compromiser he blesseth; the Lord he con 
■■•■tli "; A. V. " Blesseth the covetous, whom the 
Lord abhorreth "]. The Law must perforate the 
mountain (f.i , musl not be get aside under anj con- 
l; for thus the Bible says ( Deut. i.17), ' Ye 
shall not be afraid of the face ol man. for the judg- 
ment is God's'" (Tosef., Sanh. I.e. ; Sanh 6b; in 
Sanh. i. I8bl lie compiled a set oi hermeneutic 
rules as guides in interpreting the Scriptures (see 
Baraita op the Tithity-two Rules), some ol 

which are adaptations of those of his predecessors, 
ami in so far applicable to Halakah as well as to 
Haggadah. Those specifically homiletical are has. d 
on syntactical or phraseological or similar peculiari- 
ties of the Biblical texts which constitute the sub- 
stance of the Midrashim. 

Like his colleagues, at the close of the first aca- 
demic session after the Bar Eokba insurrection. 
Eliezer publicly thanked the people of LTsha. He 
said, "The Bible relates ill Sam. vi. 12), 'The Lord 
hath blessed the house of Obed-edom, and all that 
pertaineth unto him, because of the ark of God.' 
Is this not very significant? If. for merely dusting 
and cleaning the Ark, which neither ate Dor drank, 
Obed-edom was blessed, how much more deserving 
of blessings are they who have housed the scholars, 
have furnished them with meat and drink, and have 
Otherwise shared with them their goods!" (Ber. 
68b) Elsewhere (Cant. K. ii. 5) this is attributed 
to another speaker, while Eliezer is credited with 
the following. "It is recorded ill Sam. XV. 0), ' Saul 
said unto the KenitCS . . . Ye showed kindness unto 
all the children of Israel, when they came up out of 
Egypt.' Was it not to Moses alone to whom Jethro 
| " the Kenite" : see Judges i. 16, iv. 11] had shown 
kindness? But the Bible here implies the rule that 
whoso deals kindly with any one of the spiritual 
heads of Israel, to him it is accounted as if he had 
done so to the whole people" (compare Lev. I{. 
xxxiv. 8). With reference to the Biblical statement 
(Josh. xxiv. 32), "The hones of Joseph, which the 
children of Israel brought up out of Egypt, buried 

they in Shechem," he remarks, "Was it not Moses 
who brought up those bones (Ex. xiii. 19)? But 

this teaches that where one starts a u 1 deed and 

fails to bring it to a finish, another party performing 
the unfinished part, the « hole deed iscredited to the 

latter" (Gen. Ii. Ixxxv. J!; compare Solah 13b; 
Tan . T'.keb. (I). Ho counsels that one should ad 
vance or postpone a journey in order to enjoy the 
company of a good man; and likewise to avoid the 
Company Of a bad one (Tosef.. Shah. xvii. [xviii. 1 

2, 3; ib. 'Ab. Zarah i. IT, 18). 

Bibliography : Bacber, Ag. Tan. II 292et Geo.; BriMl, Mtbo 
ha-Mishnah. I. 212: Frankel, Darki ha-Miehnah, \>. 186; 

tleilprin. Soh r ha-uornU ii.. -v.; Weiss, /><t. ii. 167; Zacuto, 

)'nh<lsin. ed. FlUpOWSk], I». ''T;e 

s. s. S. M. 

French Talmudist ; born about 1255; martyred on 
the Jewish New Year. Sept. 25, 1821; a pupil of 

Perez hen Elijah Of Corbeil, whose sister he mar 
ried. Estori Farhi. Eliezer's pupil, in his " Kaftor 
\\a Ferah." mentions a work by his teacher, emit led 

•■ Halakot," which, how ever, has not been preserved. 
Eliezer is known chiefly by his correspondence and 

controversies. (| E the latter refers to the Tal 

muilic law that a document predated is void. The 

1 1 1 lest ion ar whether this law was applicable ton 

i Iced of gift ; after a e I deal of correspondence it 

was decided in Eliezer's favor by Solomon ben 
Adret. Eliezer suffered death during the terrible 
persecutions of tin' lepers, Joseph, the father of 

Eliezer, was a prominent rabbi and scholar; accord 
ing to Zunz, Naiiiam i. OK Chinos was the lathe) 
of Joseph; this, however, is doubtful. 

Eliezer ben Judah 
Eliezer of Toulouse 



Bibliography: Gross, Gallia Judaica, p. 584; Zunz. XAiera 
turgesch. p. 363; Renan-Neuhauer, Lcs Rabbins Frontalis. 

I.. G. A. Pe. 

ELIEZER BEN JUDAH. See El-bazar ben 


LEVI BRODY: Cabalist of Galicia in the eight- 
eenth century; author of two cabalistic commen- 
taries: one cm the Psalms. "Migdal Dawid," with a 
general introduction under the title "Tal Orot," pub- 
lished together with the text, Vienna, 1792: and one 
on the Proverbs, "Bet Shelomoh," with an introduc- 
tion entitled " Petahha-Bayit," Zolkiev, 1788. 

Bibliography: Fiiisi, 1lih].Jwl. i. 133: steinsiimeider. Cat. 

Boil. col. 959; Walden, Shem ha-Qedolim he-Hadash, ii.13. 

K. I. Br. 

Pinsk, Russia; flourished in the second half of the 
eighteenth century. He wrote : " Siah ha-Sadeh," Pen- 
tateuchal homilies arranged in the orderof the para- 
shiyyot (Sklow. 17S(!i; " Kcah ha-Sadeh," a continua- 
tion of the preceding, with the same arrangement, 
and with two homilies for each parashah (if/. 1795). 

Bibliography: Fuenn, Keneset Yi*r<t*:l, p. 126; Fiirst. Bibl. 
.Iiul. 1. 233. 
L. G. M. Sel. 

STERNBURG : Talmudist of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. He was the author of "Petah 'Enavim," an 
index to Biblical passages found in the Zohar and 
Tikkunim (Cracow, 1B4T ). republished with the Zo- 
har (Sulzbach, 1684). He also revised (1019) the 
"'En Yaakob" of Jacob b. Habib 

Bibliography: Steinschneider, Cat. BtuH. col. 962. 
L. G. M. Ski,. 

FORT. See Treves, Eliezer b. Naphtali. 

(pSO = RABaN) : Halakist and liturgical poet; 
flourished in the fust half of the twelfth century. 
He was the son-in-law of Rabbi Eliakim b. Joseph 
of Mayence, a fellow student of Rashi. Through 
his four daughters Eliezer became the ancestor of 

several learned families which exerted a great influ- 
ence upon religious life in the subsequent centuries. 
One of his great grandsons was R. Asher b. Jehiel 
(ROSH), father ol R. Jacob, author of the "Turim." 
The following table represents the genealogy of 
the family: 

Eliezer b. Nathan m danghtet 
ef Eliakim ben Joseph 

1st daughter 2d daughter 3d daughter— 4th daughter 
m. R. Samuel b. m. B. Joel b. m. K. Uri m. R. Eliakim 
Natronal, one ol Isaac ha Le\ I 

the authors \\ in 

oCTosafot" '| 

It. Jehiel 
(1210 1264) 

It. Asher 

in Toledo 


it. Eliezer ha-LevI (Jri 
(R uu vii i. rabbi (martyred 
ae 1216) 

onedaughtei Joel 

it. Hillel, grand- 
father ol R. Mi 

R. Jacob, au- 

tlior ef the 
" Turim " 

Eliezer maintained a scholarly corresp lence 

with his noted contemporaries, R. Tarn and Rash- 

bam (Jacob and Samuel b. Mei'r). who esteemed him 
very highly, and in conjunction with whom, at the 
head of a synod of 150 rabbis from France and Ger- 
many, he had directed important measures. His 
ritual and juridical decisions were eagerly son 
The most important of his responsa he included 
in his principal halakic work. This book, which, 
playing upon the initials of his name, he terms 
"EBeN ha-'Ezer," is cited by his great- grandson 
Rosh, and by R. Solomon Luria. under 
" Eben the title of "Zofnat Pa'aneah." The 
ha-'Ezer.'' author attempts in this work to ac- 
count for certain traditional customs- 
to offer solutions of complicated legal questions, and 
to throw light on the significance of ritual observ- 
ances. The work is therefore necessarily lacking 
in unity. The first and smaller part, mainly in 
short chapters of varied contents (in the printed text 
extending up to No. 385). contains answers to qui - 
tions from pupils and contemporaries: while tin- 
second and larger section presents elaborate halakic 
discussions arranged according to subjects, corre- 
sponding to the Talmudic tractates. Since the de- 
cisions as well as the scholarly treatises often ecu 
tain personal reminiscences, observations regarding 
customs and usages, names of scholars, and miscel- 
laneous literary data, the work is a storehouse for 
the student of Jewish history in that century. The 
various Hebrew paraphrases of German and French 
words which occur in the work are of importance 
for linguistic research. 

Eliezer proves himself conscientious and careful 
in his decisions. Unlike R. Tarn, he possessed little 
self-confidence, and in his humility and reverence 
for tradition he is inclined to extremely rigid inter- 
pretations of the Law. Solomon's injunction (Prov. 
i. 8), "Forsake not the teaching of thy mother," he 
interprets as meaning, "What the older rabbis have 
prohibited we must not permit" (No. 10). The 
chapterson civil law contain many an interesting doc- 
ument, and also a statement of commercial relations 
oi casioned by various trials. They contain precise 
statements of the pricesof goods and accurate infor- 
mation concerning commercial usages in the Rhine- 
land and in distant Slavic countries; e.g., concern- 
ing the gold trade in Strasburg and Speyer (fnl. 
145b); the coinage of the time (Zunz. "Z. O." p, 
5b); and the export trade with Galicia and southern 
Russia (No. 5). Slavic customs and character are 
also discussed in connection with ritual man 
Among the decisions are some containing interpreta- 
tions of Biblical and Talmudic sayings; one of them 
(No HOieven presenting a connected commentary 
on Prov. xxx. 1-6, in which R. Saadia's view is i 
— namely, that Ithiel and L T cal were the name-. 
two men who addressed philosophical question! 
Agur ben Jakeh. 

The work mentions the year 1 152, and must I ll 
fore have been completed alter that date. The ] 
1247, which occurs on two copies, may be credited 
to later transcribers. In the subsequent centuries 
Eliezer came to be regarded as a great authority, 
but his work was little known. Not until its im- 
portance had been specially urged by the most in- 
fluential rabbis of Poland — Mordeeai Jafe, Samuel 
Eliezer Edels (Maharsha), Solomon Ephraim Luut- 



Eliezer ben Judah 
Eliezer of Toulouse 

achitz, among others, in a formal appeal issued from 
ii in 1009— was its publication undertaken. The 
first edition, Prague, 1610,. has, up to the present 
time, remained the only one. 

Eliezer w rote numerous yozerot, selihot, and other 
piyyutim: very few of them, however, have been 
incorporated in the German and Polish 
As liturgy. The " Akapperah Pene Melek" 
Liturgical in the selihot to the musaf of the l>;iy 
Poet. of Atonement, is an example. His 
poetical productions are valuable only 
as an index to his devout nature and to his estimate 
of the importance of the liturgy. They are distin- 
guished for neither originalit j , elevation of thought, 
nor elegance of diction. With their allusions to 
haggadic interpretations, their employment of pay- 
yetan phraseology . acrostics, rimes, and similar me- 
chanical devices, they differ little from many oilier 
liturgical productions. Some of these poems he 
Beemsto have written on special occasions. Thus. 
one piyyut composed for a circumcision occurring 
on the Sabbath bears at the close the cipher" ABX." 
and the words "Long live my child Eliakim." 
Altogether twenty-five piyyutim of his are known 
of his selihot depicts the persecutions of tin- 
First Crusade (1096); another, those of 1146. 

To Eliezer is attributed the commentary on the 

Malizor published in Ostroh in 1830. Some of Elie- 

zer's expositions are mentioned in a 

As Com- commentary on the festal prayers 

mentator. called "Korban Aharon." Mention is 

also made of a commentary on Abot, 

from which Jehiel Morawtschik, in his "Minhah 

Padashah," written in 1570 after a manuscript of 

the year 114."). makes quotations 

Eliezer is also supposed to be the author of a his- 
tory of the terrible events of 1096, the year of the 

First Crusade. The persecutions of 
As the Jewish communities in the towns 

Chronicler, along the Rhine, the horrible butch 

eriea thai were perpetrated, are faith- 
fully depicted here in chronological order. In this 
work various acrostic verses contain the name 
"Eliezer b. Nathan." In deference ton passage in 
I -. pli ha-Kohen's " Emek ha-Baka," p. '-'>\ . which 
makes a certain Eleazar ha-Levi the author, some 
writers (as Landshuth and Gratz) have denied Elie 
zcr's authorship of this chronicle. This \ iew, how- 
ever, has recently been refuted. The chronicle was 
tiist edited by Adolph Jellinek ("Zur Geschichte der 

EreuZZtlgc." Lcipsic, l s al>; ami was republished as 

" llehriiisehe Beriehte iiber die Judenverfolgungen 
\\ Mirend der KreuzzQge," by Neubauer and stern. 
her wit ha German translation, in the "Quellen 
zur Geschichte der Juden in Deutschland," ii , Bet 
lin, 1892 

Bini.iooRArnv: haudshutn, 'Ammudeliar' 

I ael, in h.i-lhiHuuii. pp. -I! 215; GQdemann, Q< w h. dot 
. ...... ii,., ,1 in, ii ,/, i Cuihii. i.. pawrtm; Zunz, l/i 

Itraturgench. pp. 259-282; Gross, In Monal cJ 

810; H. Bresslau, In Neubauei and Stern, Quellen, II., xv. xwl. 
... o A. K 



ELIEZER BEN SAMSON : Rabbiand litui 
of Cologne, of the twelfth century ; n relative oi the 
I. Eliezer I). Nathan ; Btudied at Spcyer 

under R. Isaac b. Elhanan. and at Mayence. He 

was i me of the leaders of the " u teat s\ nod " in w hii h 
one hundred and fifty rabbis took part under the 
guidance of R. Jacob Tain and his brother Samuel 

(Rashbam). He is mentioned, and one of his re- 
sponsa is cited, bj Mordecai (Ket. 219; Shebu. 761; 
Kid. 515); another responsum is cited in "OrZaro'a" 

iShab. 45). Two of his piyyutim are extant: (1) 
for the second evening of the Feast of Tabernacles, 
a piznion of seven stanzas, six verses in each; (2) 
"Reshut" to the " Haftarah,'' in Aramaic, consist- 
ing of thirty t wo verses which rime in "raya." Both 
pi\ j mini give the acrostic of the author's name. 

Bibliography i Michael, Orha-&amim,p.ZL8; Zunz, Litem- 
turgesch. p. 176; l'ueun. Keneset Yisnul, p. 133. 
i .. M. Ski.. 

ZER B. S\mi i i 


Italian tosatist; lived about the beginning of the 
thirteenth century. He was it disciple of Rabbi 
Isaac the elder, of Dampierre, and grandfather of 
the philosopher and physician Hillel of Forli. He 
had sanctioned the second marriage of a young 
woman whose husband had probably, though not 
certainly, perished by shipwreck. But Eliezer ben 
Joel ha Levi refused to indorse the permission, and 
a protracted cont roversy resulted, into which other 
rabbis were drawn. Eliezer ben Samuel is often 
quoted i m Biblical and halakic questions. Mordecai, 
in speaking of Eliezer, calls him "Eliezer of Ver- 
dun." though undoubtedly meaning "Verona." 

nun im.i: wiiv : Aziilai. Shem ha-Qedolim, i. a<; Zunz, <:. S. 
lil.250; Monatsschrift, .\.\.\iv. 520; Gross, OaUia Judaico, 
p. 207. 
r. ... A. I>e. 

ELIEZER B. TADDAI : Tanna of the sec- 
mid century; contemporary of Simon b. Eleazar 
(Tosef., 'Er. vii. [v.] 9); and quoted in some barai- 
tot iii connection with halakot and with haggadot 
(Tosel . shah. xvi. [xvii.] 10; Mek., Beshallah, 
Shirah, i : Tan.. Beshallah, 11). Nothing is known 
of his history, and. as is the case with many others, 

the exact version of his proenomen cannot be ascer- 
tained. The Toseitat/..- i reads "Eleazar," and so 
does Verushalmi (Shab. iii. ."id.; 'Er. vi.38c); while 
the Babylonian Talmud (Shab. 128a; 'Er. Tib) and 
the Midiashim i/ ■ n-nl "Eliezer." See also Tosef, 
Shab. I.e. ; Kabbinowicz, "Dikduke Soferim " to 
Shab. and ' Er. / C, 

S. M. 

ELIEZER OF TOLEDO : Rabbi in Constanti- 
nople in the tirst half of the nineteenth century and 
a contemporary oi IJiyya Pontremoli. lb- was the 
author of " Mishnat de Rabbi Kli'czcr." a collection 
of one hundred and thirty-four responsa on the civil 
laws of lloshcn MKhpat (Saloniea. 1858). 

Hun jncin veil v : Fiieiiii. Kims, I Yismel, p. I "I ; W'aMen, 
Shem ho-GedoKm he-ljadash, 1. 2i. 
k. M. Sel. 

ELIEZER OF TOULOUSE : French tosatist; 
diedabout 1234. In his youth Eliezer was a tutor 

in the house of I he wealthy scholar llezekiah ben 

Reuben oi Boppard. His tosafol on Be?ab are 
quoted by Zedekiah Anaw in his "Shibbole ha- 

Eliezer of Touques 




Lrkrt." and other quotations often made in his name 
may also have been taken therefrom. 
Bibliography: Gross, Qailia Judaica, p. 211; Zunz, Z. G. 
p. 39. 

,,. ,;. A. PE. 

tosatist; livid at Touques in the second half of the 
thirteenth century. He abridged the tosafot of Sam- 
son of Sens. Samuel of Evreux. ami many others, 
and added thereto marginal notes of his own, enti- 
tled " Gilyon Tosafot, "or" Tosafot Gillayon." This 
abridgment, together with the notes, after under- 
going many alterations and receiving several addi- 
tions from later authorities, was called "Tosafot 
Tuk " ; it forms the foundation of the Tosafot now 
printed with the Talmud (see Hillel ben Mordecai, 
'Ab. Zarah, § 1295; Judah ben Eliezer, "Minhat 
Yeliudah," 58a; R. Nissim to Alfasi, Git. viii.; and 
Bezalel Ashkenazi, "Shittah," pp. 47-49). Gershon 
Soncino, who printed Eliezer's tosafot for the first 
time, says, in the preface to Kimhi's " Miklol " edited 
by him (Constantinople, 1532-34), that he collected 
them in various places in France, especially in 
Chambery, Savoy. Eliezer was also the author of a 
commentary on the Pentateuch, mentioned in a list 
of worksappended to the manuscriptof Ibn Janah's 
"Sefer ha-Rikmah," now in the Bibliotheque Ra- 
tionale, Paris (No. 1216). 

Bibliography: Azulai, Shcm ha-Grdnlim, ii., s.u. piddi- : 
Zunz, Z. G. p. 39; <;rnss, Qailia Jiulaiia. \>. 3W; Babblno- 
wtcz. Ma'tiiiiiii-'alHadfamt)<a-Talmu<l,]i. 23, Munich, 1S77; 
Michael, Or ha-Hayyim, No. 4^4. 

k. 1 Br. 

eliezer (eleazar) b. zadok : 1. 

Tanna of the first century; disciple of Johanan the 
Horonite (Tosef., Suk. ii. 3; Yeb. 15b). He traced 
his descent from Shinhab or Senaah of the tribe of 
Benjamin ('Er. 41a; Ta'an. 12a). In his youth he 
saw tin- Temple in its glory (Mid. iii. 8; Suk. 49a; 
Sanh. 52b; Men. 88b). and later witnessed its de- 
struction by the Romans (Tosef., Ket. v. 9; Lain. 
U. i. 5). During his residence in Jerusalem he. in 
partnership with Abba Saul b. Batnit, conducted a 
wine ami oil business (Tosef., Bezah, iii. 8). He is 
reported to have acquired from some Alexandrian 
.lews a building formerly used as a private syna- 
gogue (Tosef., Meg. iii. [ii.] 6; Yer. Meg. iii. 72d). 
The partners were generally applauded for their 
Fairness and piety (Tosef., Bezah, I.e.). 
After the destruction of Jerusalem, Eliezer is 

found at Aero (Acre), where, as he himself relates, 

be witnessed the distress of his vanquished people. 
There he saw the daughter of the bnce fabulously 
rich Nicodemus b. Gorion of Jerusalem risking her 

life at the I fs of horses to pick up the grains 

which they bad dropped (Ket. 67a; Lam. R. i. 16; 
compare Yer. Ket. v. 30b et seq.). Another promi- 
nent Jewish woman, Miriam, the daughter of Simon 
b. Gorion (perhaps Giora, the leader of the Zealots, 
who surrendered to Titus; see Josephus, "B.J." vii. 
2), Eliezer saw tied bj her tresses to the tail of a 
horse, ami thus dragged behind the Roman horse- 
men (Yer. Ket. v. 30c; compare Lam. R. I.e.). 
Later he is found at Jabneh, a frequent visitor at the 
residence of Patriarch Gamaliel II. (Tosef., Bezah, 
ii. 13 et seq.; Pes. 87a; Bezah 22b), and a member of 
the Sanhedrin (Shab. 11a; Niddah 48b), where he 

frequently related personal observations which he 
had made in the days of Judea's independence 
(Tosef., Pes. vii. 13; compare Yer. Pes. viii. 36b; 
Tosef., Suk. ii. 10; Tosef.. Meg. iii. 15; Tosef.. 
Sanh. ix. 11; Tosef., Kelim, B.B.ii.2); and on some 
of his reports the Sanhedrin founded halakot (Pes. 
x. 3, 116b; B. B. 14a; Men. 40a). 

The frequency of his reminiscences in Talmudic 
literature forms the strongest argument for the as- 
sumption that he was the first compiler of a now lost 
treatise on mourning called "Ebel Zutarta" (see 
Brull, "Jahrb." i. 16-26; Klotz, "Ebel Rabbati," 
pp. 3 et seq.). How long he remained in Jabneh is 
not stated ; but he did not end his days there. Ac- 
cording to a Talmudic notice (M. K. 20a; Sem. xii.), 
he died at Ginzak (Gazaca) in Media, far away from 
his family; and his son, Zadok II., learned of his 
death only after the lapse of three years. 

2. Grandson of the preceding; flourished in the 
fourth tannaitic generation (second century). He is 
often met with in halakic controversies with the later 
disciples of Akiba (Kil. vii. 2; Kelim xxvi. 9; Mik. 
vi. 10). Like his grandfather, he spent many years 
in Babylonia, where Abba Arika's father studied 
under him (Suk. 44b; see Aibu, 1). Unlike his 
grandfather, in whose name no practical decisions 
are on record, he decided questions submitted to him 
(Suk. I.e.): and his own acts are cited as illustra- 
tions in ritualistic law (ib. ; Tosef., Suk. ii. 2; Yer. 
Sanh. vii. 24b; the illustration of the Tosefta is 
anachronistically ascribed to the elder Eliezer h. 

Bibliography: Bacher, Ag. Tan. i. 50-55; Brull, Hebu ha- 
MisliiKih. i. 91-93; Frankel, Darke Im-Misltindi, pp. 97-99, 
178; Hellprin. Seder ha-Dornt, ed. Maskileison, ii. 59a. 
list,; Weiss. Dm', ii. 121; Zacuto, Yuhantn, ed. Filipcwski, 
pp. 2iia. 58a. 

s. s. S. M. 

bi; lived about the middle of the eighteenth centinv. 
He was the author of two works: (1) " Imre Shefer," 
containing sermons, Poryck, 1786; and (2) " Daiiinie- 
sek Eli'ezer," containing novella? on Talmud and 
Tosafot, ethical sermons, a commentary on Ps. exx- 
exxxiv., and various other explanations and homi- 
lies, ib. 1790. 

Bibliography: Fuenn, Kenenet i'israel, p. 133 ; Van Straaien, 
Cat. Hebr. Bonks Urit. Mus. p. 70. 

i.. a. I. Br. 

ELIHU: Name of several Biblical personages 
It hastwo forms— tttrp^K and lri^N— and its meaning 
is "He is my God," i.e., "He remains my God and 
does not change," not as G. Hoffmann (" Hiob." 1891, 
p. 23) renders it: "Heismy God," i.e., "My God is 
the only true God." The mosl famous bearer of 
this name is found in the Book of Job (xxxii. 2-6, 
xxxiv. 1, x\xv. 1, xxxvi. 1), where he is described 
as the son of Barachel 6k3"0). and a descendant of 
Buz (tu). Since the latter, according to Gen. Mil. 
21, was a son of Abraham's brother Nachor and a 
brother of Huz (yijf), the ancestor of Job, it follows 
that Elilm, the Buzite, was a distant relative of Job. 
The Assyrian equivalent of the land of Buz is 
" Bazu, "designating a region probably east of Damas- 
cus (Friedrich Delitzsch, "Assyrische LesestUcke, 
4th ed., 1901, p. 192). Elilm is therefore described aa 



Eliezer of Touques 

anon-Israelite living during the patriarchal period, 
like Job and other personagesof the book named 
after him. Eliliu is tin: speaker in eh. xxxii.-xxxvii , 
and liis argument is as follows: Qod is the educator 
of man kind, who punishes only until the sinner bas 
atoned for his sin and recognizes his wrong-doing. 
Then Cod has attained His object, to "bring back 
liis soul from the pit, to be enlightened with the 
light of the living" (xxxiii. 17-30). Elihu, there- 
fore, holds a middle ground, maintaining that Cod 
neither "takes away judgment," nor sends suffering 
merely as a punishment, but acts as the educator 
and teacher of mankind (xxxiv. •"">. \\w. I, 14; 
\xx\i. 10,22). As regards the relation of Klihu's 
Bpeeches to the Book of .Ioi>. see Job, Book of. 

Among the Israelites the following bore the name 
of Elihu: (li Samuels ureal grandfather il Sara 
i. 1); (2) a brother of David (I Chron. xxvii. 18); 
(3) a chief of the tribe of Manasseh, who joined 
David when the latter Med to Ziklag (I Chron. xii. 
20); (4) one of the Korhites (I Chron. xxvi. 7i. 

n. E. K. 

ELIJAH (irri>X).— Biblical Data: The name 
in'^N means " Vnwn is (my) God," and is a confes- 
sion that its bearer defended Yuwii against the wor 
sbipers of Baal 
and of other T|IE Ascension of Elijah. 

It has From an illuminated ketubah of the early nineteenth century, 

there fore been CI" <>>' D. s. ntfoul Mumm, w„hin 6 t UD , D. Ca 

led that the 
prophet took 
this name him- 
self (Thenius, in 
Sandbuch zu I 
Konige," xvii. 
1). Elijah was 

a prophet in Is- 
rael in the firsl half 
the ninth pre-Christii 
tury, under Kin 
Kings xvii. 1 and X3 
jail is called -the T 

probably because he 
(ora family > by the i 
place of that name I 
aries of Naphtali (i 

the Hebrew « ords 

a place in Gilead (see, however. Targu 
M isoretcs and Da\ id Kimhi ad loc I 

Elijah, then lore, came from the land easl oi 
I lie .Ionian, to wage war, in the name of the God oi 

his fathers, against the worship of Baal. He was 
marked as an adherent of the old customs bj his 
simple dress, consisting of a mantle of Bkins girl 
alioui the loins with a leather bell ill Kings i. 8). 
He began bis activities with the announcement thai 
the drought then afflicting the land should nol cease 

until he gave the word (c p. Joseph us, "Ant." 

viii. IS, §2). 

This announcement, addressed to Ahab and his 
wife, marked the beginning of a life of wandering 
and privation for the prophet. He fled from hiding 
place to hiding-place, the flrsl being >>\ the brook 

Cheritb ijvo>. Since Robinson's explorations in 
Palestine (ii. 533 et teq.) this brook has been identified 

with the Waili el Kelt, which dis 
Ahab and charges into the .Ionian near Jericho. 
Elijah. Bui the resemblance between the two 

names is really less close than ap- 
pears, for it must he remembered thai. "Kelt" is 
pronounced with the emphatic " k." Moreover.since 
the expressions n^ip and pTn 'JETpy refer to the 
land east of the Jordan, the brook Cherith must have 
been there, even if there is no modern river-name 
with which to identify it. After the I nook Cherith 
had dried up, the prophet was forced to seek refuge 
beyond the boundaries of Israel, and found it in the 
Phenieian Zarephath, about four hours' journey 
south of Sidon. where a widow sustained him. She 
was rewarded by the prophet's miraculous benefits 
(I Kings xvii. 9-24). 

The greatest achievement of Elijah's life was his 
victory over the priests of Baal at Jit. Carmel. 
Having heard that the other prophets of Yuwii 
were also persecuted, lie requested King Ahab to 

gather the | pie of Israel, the 450 priests of Baal, 

and the 400 prophets of Ashtaroth on Mt. Carmel. 
Then he asked Israel the famous question: "How 
long do ye halt on both knees •' ' (A. V. : "How long 

halt ye between 
two opinions?"), 
meaning. "How- 
long will ye be 
undecided as to 
whether ye shall 
follow Yhwh or 
Baal?" The pen 
pie remaining si- 
lent, he invited 

the priests of 

Baal to a con- 
test, proposing 

thai he and I hey 
ould each build an 
and lay a burnt of 
ereon, and that, the 
should send down 
Mn to consume flu; 

be ai cepted as the 
various unsuccess 
a la\ orable answer 
■ prophets of Baal, 
■d with subtle in.n\ 
ire from heaven to 
consume his offering. Yuwii was recognized 
by Israel, and the pilosis of Baal were slain near 

the brook Kisl (I Kings xviii. 40). 

But this victory brought no rest to Elijah. He 
had lo leave Israel in order to escape the vengeance of 
Jezebel (ib. \i\. :'• it teg.), and fled to the place where 
Israel's Law had been promulgated by Moses. As 

he lav under a juniper I ree, exhausted 
by his journe\ . he was miraculously 

provided with I I: and on reaching 

I lurch, the mountain of God, he beaul 
the voice of the Lord exhorting him 

to patience. This is the sense of the famous pas 
saL'e (ib. xix. 11-18). Cod manifested Himself 

neither in the great wind that rent the mountains, 


at Mount 





nor in the earthquake, nor in the fire, but in the 
'•still small voire." The three following measures 
suggested: the appointing of a foreign enemy 
of israel; the anointing of an Israelitic rival king 
to Ahab's dynasty; and the anointing of Elisha to 
continue the spiritual work of the prophet. This, 
the chief work of the prophet, Elijah himself car- 
ried on to the end of his life. After the election of 
Elisha (xix. 19-21), he prophesied both punishments 
and promises (xxi. 17-28; II Kings i. 3 et seg.), and 
lift the field of his activities as suddenly as he had 
appeared (II Kings ii. 11). 

Elijah is also mentioned in later Biblical and apoc- 
ryphal passages as follows. II Chron. xxi. 12 et 
seg. ; Mai. iii. 24 ; Ecclus. (Siraehl xlviii. 1; I Mace, 
ii. 58; Isaiah's Martyrdom, ii. 14 (in Kautzsch, "Die 
Apokryphen und Pseudepigraphen des Alten Test- 
aments." 1898, ii. 125). 

E. G. H. E. K. 

In Rabbinical Literature: Elijah, "let him 

be remembered for good," or "he who is remem- 
bi red for good" (Yer. Sheb. iii., end); or, as he is 
commonly called among the Jews, "the prophet 
Elijah" (Eliyahu ha-nabi'), has been glorified in 
Jewish legend more than any other Biblical per- 
sonage. The Haggadah which makes this prophet 
the hero of its description has not been content, as in 
the case of others, to describe merely his earthly life 
and to elaborate it in its own way, but has created a 
new history of him, which, beginning with his death 
or "translation," ends only with the close of the 
history of the human race. From the day r of the 
prophet Malaehi, who says of Elijah that God will 
send him before "the greatand dreadful day" (Mai. 
iii. 23 [A. V. iv. 5]), down to the later marvelous 
stories of the Hasidic rabbis, reverence and love, ex- 
pectation and hope, were always connected in the 
Jewish consciousness with the person of Elijah. 
As in the case of most figures of Jewish legend, so 
in the case of Elijah the Biblical account became 
the basis of later legend. Elijah the precursor of 
the Messiah, Elijah zealous in the cause of God, 
Elijah the helper in distress — these are the three 
leading notes struck by the Haggadah, endeavoring 
to complete the Biblical picture with the Elijah 
legends Sim . according to the Bible, Elijah lived 
a mysterious life, Hie Haggadah naturally did not 
fail to supply the Biblical gaps in its own way. In 
the fust place, it "a~. its aim to describe more pre- 
cisely Elijah's origin, since the Biblical (I Kings 
wii. 1) "Elijah, who was of the inhabitant; of 
( Ulead," w as too vague. 

Three differ) nl theories regarding Elijah's origin 
are presented in the Haggadah; (1) he belonged to 
the tribe of Gad (Gen R. lxxi.); (2) he was it Ben- 
jamite from Jerusalem, identical with the Elijah 
mentioned in 1 Chron. \ iii. 27; (8) he was a priest. 
Thai Elijah was a priest is a statement which is 

made by many Church fathers also (Aphraates, 

"Homilies," ed. Wright, p, 314; Epiphanius, 

■ Hares " Iv. :;, passim), and which was afterward 
rally accepted, the prophet being further iden- 
tified witli Phinehas (Pirke R. El. xlvii. ; Targ. Yer. 
on Num. \ w I-.', Origi o, ed Migne, \i\ 

Mention must also be made of a statement which. 

though found only in the later cabalistic literature 

(Yalkut Reubeni, Bereshit, 9a, ed. Amsterdam; 
seems nevertheless to be very old (see Epiphanius. 
I.e.), and according to which Elijah was an angel iu 
human form, so that he had neither parents nor 
offspring. See Melchizedek. 

If the deeds which the Scripture records of Phine- 
has be disregarded, Elijah is first met with in the 
time of Ahab, and on the following occasion: God 
bade the prophet pay a visit of condolence to Hiel. 
who had suffered the loss of his sons because of his 
impiety. Elijah was unwilling to go, because pro- 
fane words always angered and excited him. Only 
after God had promised to fulfil what- 
In ever words the prophet might utter 

the Times in his righteous indignation did Elijah 
of Ahab. go to Hiel. Here the prophet met 
Ahab and warned him that God fulfils 
the maledictions of the godly, and that Hiel had 
been deprived of his sons because Joshua had anath- 
ematized the rebuilding of Jericho. The king de- 
risively asked: Is Joshua greater than his teacher 
Moses? For Moses threatened all idolaters with 
hunger and distress, and yet he — Ahab — was faring 
very well. At this Elijah said (I Kings xvii. 1): "As 
the Lord God of Israel liveth," etc. ; thereupon God 
had to fulfil His promise, and a famine came in con- 
sequence of the want of rain (Sanh. 113a; Yer. 
Sanh. x.). God sent ravens to supply the wants of 
the prophet during the famine. Some think " 'ore- 
bim " (ravens) refers to the inhabitants of Oreb (Gen. 
R. xxxviii. 5; Hul. 5a; so also the Jewish teacher 
of Jerome in his commentary on Isa. xv. 7). The 
ravens brought meat to Elijah from the kitchen of 
the pious Jehoshaphat (Tan., ed. Buber, iv. 165; 
Aphraates, I.e. p. 314; different in Sanh. 113). God, 
however, who is merciful even toward the impious, 
sought to induce Elijah to absolve Him from His 
promise, so that He might send rain. He according 
ly caused the brook from which the prophet drew 
water to dry up, but this was of no avail. God 
finally caused the death of the son of the widow in 
whose house the prophet lived, hoping thereby to 
overcome the latter's relentless severity. When 
Elijah implored God to revive the boy (compare 
Jonah in Rabbinical Literature), God answered 
that this could only be accomplished by means of 
"the heavenly dew ," and that before He could send 
the dew it would be necessary for the prophet to 
absolve Him from His promise (Yer. Ber. iv. 9b; 
different in Sanh. 113a). Elijah now saw that it 
would be necessary to yield, and took the opportu- 
nity to prove before Ahab, by a second miracle, the 
almighty power of God. He arranged with the 
king to offer sacrifices to God and Baal at one and 
the same time, and to see which would turn out to 
be the true God. 

The bulls, which were selected for sacrifice by 
lot, were twins which had grown up together. But 
while Elijah brought his bull quickly to the | 
of sacrifice, the 450 priests of Baal labored in vain 
to induce the other to move a step. The animal 
even began to speak, complaining that while it was 
his twin brother's glorious privilege to be ofl 
upon the altar of Cod. he was to be offered to Baal. 
Only after the prophet had convinced him that his 
sacrifice would also be for the glorification of God 




could the priests of Baal lead bim to the altar (Tan . 

Buber, iv. 165). They then commenced to i try 
"Baal! Baal!" but there was no response, [n order 
to confound them utterly, "God made the whole 
world keep silent as if ii were void and waste"; so 
thai the priests of Baal might not claim that the 
eoice <>f Baal had been heard (Ex. R. xxix., end). 
These proceedings consumed much time, and Elijah 
found ii necessary to make the sun stand still: "In 
der Joshua thou stoodsl siill !<>r Israel's sake; do ii 
now that God's name be glorified!" (Aggadat Be- 
rt-shit, lxxvi.). Toward evening Elijah called his 

pie Elisha and made him pour water over liis 
hands. Then a miracle took place: watercommeni i d 
to flow from the fingers of Elijah as from a fountain, 
so that the ditch around the altar became full 

na debc Eliyahu R. xvii.). Theprophetpi 
id God that He would send fire down upon the 
altar, and that the iir.iiilcinii.dii see the miracle in 
its proper lighi and uot regard it as sorcery (Bet 
In his prayer he spoke of Ins mission as the 
precursor of the Messiah, and petitioned God to 
era nt Ins request that he might be believed in future 
(Midr. Shir ha-Shirim, ed. Gr'unhuth, 25a; Aggadat 
Bereshit, lxxvi.). 

In spile of Elijah's many miracles the great mass 

1C .1eU isli pee] lie re I nail led as godless u- before 

they even abolished the sign of the covenant, and 
the prophet had to appear as Israel's accuser before 

Pirke I! El. xxix.). In the same cave where 

-nee appeared to Moses and revealed Bimseli as 
gracious and merciful. Klijah was sumn :d to ap- 
pear before God. By this summons he perceived that 
he should have appealed to God's mercy instead of be- 
coming Israel s accuser. The prophet, 
Elijah's however, remained relentless in his 
Zeal zeal and severity, so that God com 
for God. manded him to appoint his successor 
(Tanna delie Klnahii Zuta viii.). 
The vision in which Cod revealed Himself to Elijah 
gave bim at the same time a picture of the destinies 
of man. who has t,, pass through "tour worlds." 
This world was shown to the prophet in the form 
of the wind, since ii disappears as the wind; storm 
(CJTO is the day of death, he Pin- which man trem- 
bles (L"1'T< ; fire is the judgment in Gehenna, and the 
m 59 is the last day (Tan . Pekudc, p. 128, Vienna 
Three years after this vision (Seder 'Olam R. 
xvii.) Elijah was "translated." Concerning the 
place to which Elijah was transferred, opinions 
differ among .Tews and Christians, 1 ml tin- old view 
that Elijah was received among the heavenlj 
inhabitants, win re be records the deeds of men | Kid 
Ber. ii. xxxiv. 8), a task which according to 

the apocalyptic literature is cut rusted to Enoch. 

But ns early as the middle of the second century, 

i In notion of translation to heaven was abused 

l liristian theologians, the assertion was made 

that Elijah never entered into heaven proper (Suk, 

I 1 1 Ratner on Seller '( Ham R. \ vii.) ; 

in later literature paradise is generally designated as 

the abode id' Elijah (compare Pirke R. El. xvi t, 

hut since the location of paradise is itself uncertain, 

the last two statements may he identical. 

It is one of the duties of Elijah to stand at the 

roads of paradise and to lead the pi.. us tothcil 

proper places to bring the souls of the impious out 
of hell at the beginningof the Sabbath, to had them 

hack again at the end id' the Sabbath, and after 

they have sniveled for their sins, to bring them to 
paradise forever | Pirke R. El. I.e.). In mystic liter- 
ature Elijah is an angel, whose life on earth is eon 
ccived of as a merely apparitional one, and who is 
identified with Sandalfon. The cabalists speak 
t the struggle between Klijah and the Angel 
ol Death, who asserts bis right to all children of men, 

and who endeavored to prevent Elijah from enter- 
ing heaven (Zohar Ruth, beginning, ed. Warsaw. 
1885, 76a). The taking of Elijah into heaven or 
supramundane regions did not mean his severance 

from this world; on the contrary, his real activity 

then began. Prom Biblical times there is his let- 
ter to Jehoram, written seven years after his trans- 
lation (Seder 'Olam ]{. xvii,; compare, however. 
Josephus, "Ant " i\. 5, j 2). and his interference 
in favor of the Jews after Hainan had planned their 
extinction (see Habbona; Morjdecai). But it is 
mainly in post-Biblical times that Elijah's inter 
est iii cartlih events was most frequently mani 
tested, and to such an extent that the Haggadah calls 
him " the bird of heaven " d's. viii. 9, Hebr. |, because 
like a bird he rlies through the world and appears 
where a sudden divine interference is neecssan 

(Midr. Teh. ad loc. ; see also Ber. 4b; Targ. onEccles 
x. 20). His appearing among men is so frequent 

that even the irrational animals feel it: the joyous 

barking of the does is nothing else than an indica- 
tion that Klijah is in the neighborhood (B. K. 60b). 
To men he appears in different forms, sometimes 
while they are dreaming, sometimes while they are 
awake, and this in such a way that the pious fre- 
quently know who is before them. Thus he once 
appeared to a Roman officer in a dream and admon- 
ished him not to be lavish of his inherited riches 
lieu. It. Ixxxiii.). ( luce a man came into a strange 
city sh,,rtl\ before the beginning of the Sabbath, 
and not knowing to whom to entrust his money 
(which he was not allowed to carry on the Sabbath), 
he went to the Synagogue, where he saw some one 

with phylacteries on his forehead, praying. To this 

man he gave all that In- had for keeping, but when 
he asked lor its return at the end of the Sabbath, he 
I ou ml that he had to deal with a hypocrite and iin 

pOStor. When the poor man fell asleep Elijah ap- 
peared to him, and showed him how to obtain bis 
'. from the wife of the swindler. When la- 
awoke he followed the advice of Elijah, and not only 
received his money back, but also unmasked the 
hypocrite (Pesik. K. xxii. ; Fer, Ber. ii.). 

Klijah appeared to many while they were awake, 
ami this iii various ways. He often elected to ap- 
pear in 1 he v hi-. . .1 an Arab ('3TIJ>) or. more exactly, 
in thai i •! an Aril, of the desert K«J)H (see ARABIA IN 

RabBINII \i. Kill i: \ ti in c In 1 his m icr hi e 

appeared toapoor but pious man, and asked him 
whether he wished to enjoy the six good \ ears which 

■ appointed him now or at the end of his life. 
The pious man took him fora Son erer, and made no 
reply. But when Elijah came the third time the 
man consulted his wife us to what he should do. 
They com lu. led to tell the Arab thai the} wished 

to enjoy tie- good years at once; they had hardly 




expressed their wish when their children found a 

greal treasure. The pious couple made good use 

of their riches, and spent much money 

Elijah in for benevolent purposes. A tier six 
theGuiseof years the Arab returned and told them 

an Arab, that t lie end of their prosperity had 
come. The woman, however, said to 
him: " [fyou ran find people who will use with more 
conscientiousness what you give unto them, then 
lake it from us and give it to them." God, who well 
knew what use this pious couple had made of their 
wealth, left it in their hands as long as they lived 
(Midr. Ruth Zuta, ed. Buber, near end). 

To the pious. Elijah is in many cases a guardian 
angel, for whom no place is too remote, and who 
leaves nothing undone to help them in their distress 
or to save them from misery. Thus, Nahum of Gim- 
zo was once sent on a political mission to Rome and 
given certain gifts to carry to the emperor; on the 
way he was robbed of these, but Elijah replaced 
them, and procured for Nahum riches and honor 
(Sanh. 109a). He saved the tanna Mei'r from the 
persecuting bailiffs. During the religious persecu- 
tions under Hadrian he saved another tanna, Eleazar 
ben Prata, from the Roman government, which 
wished to sentence him to death, by removing those 
who were to testify against him and by bringing 
him to a place 400 miles distant ('Ab. Zarah 17b). 
He acted as witness for the amora Shila, when he 
was accused of exercising jurisdiction according to 
Jewish law (Ber. 58a), and appeared as comforter to 
Akiba when the latter was in distress (Ned. 50a). As 
physician he helped Simi b. Ashi (Shab. 109b), and 
R. Judah I., whose awful and incessant pains he 
stopped by laying his hand upon him. This healing 
had at the same time the effect of reconciling Rabbi 
with Iliyyah, for Elijah appeared to Rabbi in the 
form of Hiyyah, and caused him thereby to hold Hiy 
yah in great respect (Yer. Kil. ix. 32b). Elijah was 
a daily guest in the academy of Rabbi, and on one 
occasion he even disclosed a^great celestial mystery, 
for which he was severely punished in heaven (B. 
M B5b). Elijah, however, is not only the helper 
in distress and the peacemaker, but he acted also as 
teacher of Eleazar ben Simon, whom he taught for 
thirteen years (Pesik., ed. Buber, x. 92b; see Akiba 
ins Joseph in Legend). 

The following is an Elijah story which was very 
widely circulated, and which was even given a place 
in the liturgy : To a pious but very poor man Eli- 
jah once appeared and offered himself as servant. 
The man, at tirst refusing, finally took him. He 
did not keep him long, however, for the king 
needed a skilful builder for a palace which he was 
about to build ; Elijah offered his services, and the 
pious man received a high price for his servant. 
Elijah did not disappoint his new master, but prayed 
to God, whereupon suddenly the palace of the 
king stood there in readiness. Elijah disappeared 
(Rabb. Nissim, "Hibbur Yafeh meha-Yeshu'ah," 
near end). This story has been beautifully worked 
over in the piy yut " Ish Ilasid," which is sung, ac- 
cording to the German-Polish ritual, on Sabbath 
e\ ening. 

In olden times there were a number of select ones 
with whom Elijah had intercourse as with his 

equals, they being at the time' aware of his identity. 
In Talmudic-Midrashic literature are the following 
stories: Eliezer ben Hyrcanus was brought by Eli- 
jah to Jerusalem to receive instruction 
Elijah the there from Johanan In n Zakkai (Pirke 
Friend of R. El. i.). In the great controversy 
the Pious, between this teacher and his col- 
leagues, Elijah communicated to 
Rabbi Nathan what the opinion concerning this con- 
troversy was in heaven (B. M. 59b). The same 
Nathan was also instructed by him with reference to 
the right measure in eating and drinking ((Jit. 70a). 
A special pet of Elijah seems to have been Nehorai, 
whom be instructed with reference to Biblical pas- 
sages, and explained to him also some of the phe- 
nomena of nature (Yer. Ber. ix. 13c; Ruth R. iv). 
Another teacher, called " Jose " I probably not Jose b. 
Halafta), was so familiar with Elijah that he was no: 
afraid to declare openly that Elijah had a rough 
temper(Sanh. 113a). The wordsof Elijah to Judah. 
the brother of Salla the Pious, read: "Be not angry, 
and you will not sin; drink not, and you will not 
sin " (Ber. 29b). Besides this friendly advice the 
pious Judah received important instructions from 
Elijah (Yoma 19b; Sanh. 971)). Rabbah ben Shila 
(Hag. 15b), Rabbah ben Abbahu (Hag. 15b; B. M. 
114b), Abiathar (Git- 6b), Kahana (Kid. 41a), Bar He 
He (Hag. 9b), are also mentioned as among the pious 
who personally communicated with Elijah. Besides 
these, some others whose names are not given are 
mentioned as having been in friendly relations with 
Elijah (B. B. 7b; Yer. Ter. i. 40d ; see also Ket. 61a). 
What kind of people Elijah selected may be seen 
from the following; Of two pious brothers, one al- 
lowed his servants to partake only of the first course 
at meals, whereas the other allowed them to partake 
of every course. Elijah did not visit the first, 
whereas he frequently visited the latter. In liki 
manner he treated two brothers, one of whom served 
himself first, and then his guests, whereas the other 
cared for his guests first (Ket. /.<•.). The demands 
of Elijah upon his friends were very strict, and the 
least mistake alienated him. One of his friends 
built a vestibule, whereby the poor were at a disad- 
vantage in that their petitioning voices could be 
heard in the house only with great difficulty; as a 
result Elijah never came to him again (B. B. 7b). 

Very characteristic- of Elijah is his relation to the 
Babylonian amora Anan. A man brought Anan some 
small fish as a present, which he would not acct p 
because the man wished to submit to him a Ian 
for decision. The petitioner, however, sooner than 
have the rabbi refuse his gift, decided to take his 
ease elsewhere, and requested Anan to direct him 
to another rabbi ; this Anan did. The rabbi before 
whom the case was tried showed himself very 
friendly toward the man because he bad bcenrecom- 
mended to him by Anan, and decided in his favor. 
Elijah, till then Allan's teacher and friend, deserted 
him from that moment, because, through bis care- 
lessness, judgment had been biased! Ket. 105b). The 
Midrash Tanna dehe Eliyahu, in which Elijah often 
speaks of himself in the tits! person, recounting his 
experiences and teaching many lessons, is likewise 
associated with Anan, who is said to have compiled 
the work from Elijah's own discourses. 




None ol the pious could boasl of such a close rela 
tii hi t<i Elijah as could Joshua b. Levi, to fulfil \\ hose 
wishes Elijah was always ready, although he some 
times slum ed himself very severe toward him (Tei 
viii. 4b; Ver.Sheb.ix.81u; Mak. 11a). Elijah 
brought ubout mi interview between Joshua and 
\|i — i r 1 1 l ( s.inh. 98a i, al „i ii e also showed Joshua 
precious stones which, according to the words 
be prophet (Isa. Iiv. 11, 12), shall replace the 
in giving liu'lit to Jerusalem (lVsik. xviii. llllia). 
But mure precious than these sacred 
Joshua revelations were the lessons which 
b. Levi and Joshua received from Elijah, espi 
Elijah. cially the doctrine of the theodicy, 
which Elijah tried to explain to his 
frienil by means of illustrations. Joshua once asked 
ih to take him along on his journeys through 
the world. To this the prophet yielded on condition 
that Joshua should never question him concerning 
the causes of his actions, strange as thej might ap- 
pear; slmiilil tliis condition be violated, the prophet 
would be obliged to pari from him, Both sel oul 
upon their journey. The first hall was al the house 

I r man who owned only a cow, bul who, 

with bis wife, received the strangers must kindly, 
and entertained them to the best of bis ability. 
Before they continued their journey next morning, 
tin- rabbi heard Elijah pray that God might destroy 
the p"or man's cow, and before they had left the 
hospitable house the cow was ■ l<-:i< i Joshua could 
not contain himself, but in great excitement said to 
Elijah: " Is ibis the reward which the poor man re- 
s for bis hospitality toward us? " The prophel 

reminded bim of the c lition upon which they had 

undertaken the journey, and silently they continued 
on their way. Toward evening they came to the 
bouse of ii rich man \\ ho ili«l not even look at them, 
iii the} had to pass the night without food ami 
drink. In the morning when they left the inhos 
pitable bouse, Joshua heard Elijah pray that God 
would build up a wall which had fallen in oneof 
tin- rich man's houses. At once the wall stood erei t. 
This increased the agitation of the rabbi still more ; 
but remembering the condition which had been im- 
posed upon him, he kept silent. On the next evening 
they came to a synagogue adorned with silver and 
gold, none of whose rich members showed any con 

for the i r traveli rs, bul dismissed them with 

and water. Upon leaving the place Joshua 
beard Elijah pray that God would make them all 

rs ('• brails" i. Joshua was about lo break his 

1" ise, but forced himself to goon in silence again 

In the next citj they met very generous people who 
vied with one another in performing acts of kindness 
toward the strangers. Great, then, was the surprise 
of Joshua when, upon lea^ ing the plai e, be heard 
the prophet pray that God might give them onlj 
"one head." 

Iwa could nol refrain any longer, and asked 
Elijah to explain to bim bis strange actions al 
though he knew that by asking he would forfeit 
prophet's companionship. Elijah answered 
"he poor but generous man lost bis cow because of 
my prayer, for 1 knew that bis wife was about to 
die and I asked God to take the life of the cow In- 
of that of the wife. M.\ prayi r for the heart 

less i],i, man was because under the fallen wall was 

n ii treasure which would have conn- into t In- 

hands of this unworthy man had he 

Elijah Ex- undertaken to rebuild it. It was also 

plains His no blessing which I pronounced upon 

Actions, the unfriendly synagogue, foi a 'place 

which has many beads will not 1 1 

long duration ' j on the other bam 1. 1 wished for the 

others, the g I people. ' one head, ' that union and 

peace may always beamongthem." This is a widely 
circulate. I legend, 6rst found in Nissim ben Jacob's 
"Hibbur Yafeh," 1886, pp. 9 12, and reprinted in 
Je'llinek's "Bel ha Midrash," v. 188-135(vi. 131-133 
gives another version). For Judseo-German and 
other renderings of this legend see Zunz, "G. V." 
sMeih. p. 138. The an- 
tiquity of the legend 

may be seen from the 

fact that Mohammed 
mentions it in the Ko- 
ran, sura xviii. 5!I-S^! : 
compare also " R. E. .1." 
x iii. 69 73 

Besides Joshua ben 
Levi, Elijah showed 
another rabbi, Baroka 
In n. one, that things 
must not be judged 
from outward appear- 
ances. Once they were 
in a lively street of a 
great city, when the 
rabbi asked Elijah 
whether there were any 
in the multitude who 

would have a place in 

theworld to come. The 

prophet could give an 
affirmative answer in 
regard to three men 
only : a jailer and two 
jesters — the lirst, be- 
cause he saw to it that 
chastity and morality 

prevailed among the inmates of the prison ; the lat- 
ter, because they tried by their jests to banish all 
anxious thoughts from the people (Tn'an. 22n). 

The Tannaim and Amoraim are not the only ones 
whocould boast of the special favor of Elijah. The 
mystics and cabalists of all times frequently ap- 
pealed to Elijah as their patron. Among them was 
the gaon Joseph, of whom ii was said that Elijah 

wasa daily visitor at bis academy (First Epistle of 

Sherira, ed. Neubauer, p. 82). The introduction of 
the Cabala to Provence is traced directly to Elijah, 
who revealed the secret doctrine to Jacob ha Nozer. 
Similarly Abraham b, Isaac and Abraham ben David 

of I'osipiicrcs are mentioned as privileged ones, to 

whom Elijah appeared (see Jellinek, "Auswahl 
Kabbalistiseher Mystik," pp.4, 5). The pseudon 
vinous author of the " Kanah " asserted that he had 
received his teachings directlj from Elijah, In the 

/.ohm. Sim. hi ben Vobai ami his son Elea/ar are 

mentioned as among those who enjoyed the special 

friendship Of Elijah. This work, as well as the 

Tikkun Zohar and the Zohar l.lailasb. contains much 

The Prophet Elijah. 

i ft primal PftK-.nv.-r Hu^gftilfth, 
Prague, 1526J 




that is ascribed to Elijah (compare Friedmann, "Se- 
der Eliyahu Rabba we-Seder Eliyahu Zuta." pp, 38- 
41). When, toward the middle of the fourteenth 
century, the Cabala received new prominence in Pal- 
estine, Elijah again took a leading part. Joseph de 
la Regna asks Elijah's advice in his combat with 
Satan. The fatherof the new cabalistic school, Isaac 
Luria. was visited by Elijah before his sou was born. 
In like manner, the lather of Israel Ba'al Sheni-Tob 
received the good news from Elijah that a son would 
be born unto him, " who would be a light in Israel " 
("Ma'asiyyotPeliot,"pp. 24, 25, Cracow, 1896, which 

notion prevailed that Elijah's office was "to bring 
peace and adjust all differences" (ib.). It was 

peeled that all controversies and legal 

Elijah as disputes which had accumulated in the 

the course of time would be adjusted by 

Forerunner him, and that difficult ritual questions 

of the and passages of Scripture seemingly 

Messiah, conflicting with each other would be 

explained, so that no difference of 

opinion would exist concerning anything (Men, 

40b; Ab. K. N. xxxiv. ; Xum. R. iii., near the end; 

compare also Jew. Encyc. i. 637a). The oltiee of 

Elijah AxxorsciNO the Coming of the Messiah. 

fFtom an illuminated Mahzor in the town hall of Frankfort-on-lhe-Main.) 

eon tains an interesting narrative of Elijah's meeting 
with the father of Ba'al Shem-Tob). 

The climax of Elijah's activity is his appearance 
shortly before the Messianic time. "He isappoiuted 
to lead aright the coming ages, to restore the tribes 
of .laeob," says Ben Sira of him (Ecclus. [Sirach] 
xlviii. 10, 11). In the second half of the first Chris- 
tian century it was expected that Elijah would ap- 
pear shortly before the coming of the Messiah, to 
restore to families the purity which in the course of 
time had become doubtful ('Eduy. viii. 7; this is the 
opinion of Johanan b. Zakkai). A century later the 

interpreter of the Law he will retain forever, and 
in the world to come his relation to Moses will be 
the same as Aaron's once was (Zobar, Zaw, iii. 87, 
bottom). But the notion which prevailed at the time 
of the origin of Christianity, that Elijah's mission 
as forerunner of the Messiah consisted mainly in 
changing the mind of the people and leading them 
to repentance, is not unknown to rabbinical litera- 
ture (Pirke R. El. xliii., xlvii.i. His real Messianic 
activity — in some passages he iseven called "go'el" 
( = " redeemer "; compare Friedmann, I.e. pp. 25, 26) 
— will commence three days before the coming of 


THE .n;\\ isn EN( M LOPEDIA 


the Messiah. On the first day he will lament ovei 

the devastation of Palestine, but will close with the 

words: "Peace will now cpme over the earth"; cm 

the second ami third days lie will speak words "I 

comfort (Pesik. |{. xxxv. 161; Elijah as the "good 

messenger of salvation" is a frequent figure in 

the apocalyptic midrashim). When the archangel 

Michael Mows the trumpet, Elijah will appear with 

the Messiah, whom In' will present to the Jews 

i ha Mashiah," in Jellinek, " Ii. 11 ." il. 62, 125; 

-in \ loi iii.v). They will ask of Elijah, as an 

Station of his mission, that he raise the dead 

before their eyes and revive such of the dead as 

personally knew (Shir ha-Shirim Zuta, ed. 

Buber, 38, end ; compare also Syriac Apocalypse of 

Baruch; Bousset, "The Antichrist Legend," p. :M3i. 

But he will do more than this, in that he will per 
form seven miracles lie lore the eyes of the people: 
(1) lie will bring before them Muses and the genet 
ation of the wilderness ; (2) he will cause Korah ami 
his company to rise out of the earth; (Is) he will re 
rive the Messiah, the son of Joseph ; (4) he will slum 
them again the three mysteriously lost sacred utensils 
of the Temple, namely, the Ark, the vessel of manna, 
and the vessd of sacred oil (see Antichrist); (5) he 
will show the scepter which he received 
The Seven from God; (6) he will crush mountains 

Miracles, like straw; (7) he will reveal the great 
mystery (Jellinek, /.<■. iii. 72). At the 
bidding of the -Messiah, Elijah will sound the trump 
• t, and at the first blast the primitive light will ap- 
pear; at the see. mil, the dead will rise; and at the 
third, the Divine Majesty will appear (Jellinek, i.e. 
v. 128). During the Messianic reign Elijah will !>■ 
oneof the eight princes (Micah v. 1), and even on the 
Lost Day be will not give up his activity. He will 
Implore God's me icy for the wicked who are ill bell, 
while their innocent children who died in infancy ou 
account of the sins of their fathers, are iu paradise. 
Thus he will complete his mission, in that God, 
moved by his prayer, will bring the sinful fathers 

to their children in paradise (Eccl. R. iv. 1). lie will 

hrin^ In an i ml his glorious career by killing Sam 
lei at. the behest of God, and thus destroy all evil 

i Valkut lladash, ed. [iadawil, 58a). Compare Eli 

J Ml S I'll A I It. 

Bibliography: Bousset, The Antichrist Legend, b.v.; Prled- 

munti. S< a, ; Eliuahu Rabba we-Sedei Eliyanu Zut<i.\>\>. 

1 44, Warsaw, 1902; 8[amuel] K[otm], Dot Prirphei Elifl fn 

!.•'!' n<i>, in MonaUachrift, xil. 241 etgeQ.,801 et BCQ.\ 

' '. Haggadabeiden KirchenvOtern, 1. 76-80. 

8. 8. L. G. 

In Mohammedan Literature : Elijah is men- 
tioned in the Koran as a pin phe I I ii;' el he I' W illl /.eel] 

Brian, John, and Jesus (sura. vi. 85); while in sura 
wwii, 123-130 it is said: "Verily, Elijah [Ilyas] 
of the prophets, when he said to his people, 
' Will ye call upon Baal and leave the best of oiea 

Qod, your Lord? ' " In verse bin be is called 
" [lyasin " : "Peace upon Ilyasin, thus do we rew an I 
Chose it hi. do well." 

According to Baidawi, the people to whom Elijah 
was sent were the inhabitants of Baalbek In Coeli 

Syria When Elijah made his appearance as a 

prophet the king (Ibn al-Athir says thai the king's 

name wasAhab, but places him alter Ezekiel) be 

lie veil in him, though the people did not The king 

made Elijah his vizier, and both worshiped God. 

lint the king s apostatized, and Elijah separated 

Ii.. m him. The prophet then afflicted the country 

with famine, and no one save himself had bread to 
cat ; so that if one mil iced the odor of bread lie said : 
" Elijah must have passed this way." 

One day Elijah <aine into the house of an old 

woman who bad a paralytic child named Elisha ibn 
I kht ub. Elijah (aired the child, who remained 
with the prophet, and, after Elijah's translation, be 

came his successor. 

The Jewish tradition that Elijah is identical with 

Phinehas is current ai gthe Moslems also. They 

have, moreover, another tradition borrowed from the 

.lews. Elijah, they say. will appear on the last day, 
and either he or oneof his descendants will await, 
in the interior of a mountain, the second coming of 
the Messiah. 

Certain Islamic authorities confound Elijah with 
Al-Khidr ( = "the green " or "fresh one"), famous in 
Mohammedan literature on account of his having 
discovered the fountain of perpetual youth. Even 

their names have been combined in " K h id r Ilyas "or 

"Khidralas." Other authorities, among them the 
authorof the "Ta'rikh Muntahab," distinguish Eli- 
jah from Al-Khidr, whom theyidentify with Elisha. 
They believe that, while the latter is the guardian ol 

the sea, Elijah is the guardian of the desert (the 
idea originating, doubtless, in the fact that Elijah 
hid himself in the desert ; I Kings xix. 4). 

Elijah's translation is thus described by the Mos 
bins : God had (old Elijah in a vision to go out ot 
the town and to mount anything which be might 
see before him. lie departed with bis disciple 
Elisha, and, seeing a horse, mounted it. God cov- 
in -I him with leathers, enveloped him with lire, 
took away from him the desire of eating and drink- 
ing, and joined him to His angels. According to 
[bn al-Athir, God made Elijah of a twofold nature: 

man and angel, earthly and heavenly. 

Bibliography: rbn al-Atblr, Al-'l'a'rii.ii aUKa/mU,\. 90, 
in. Cairo, 1891-98; Tabarl, Chroniquee (French trans], of 
Zotenberg), 1. 374, 381, 409-411 ; Rampoldl, AnnaH Muxul- 
in, an. Iv. 191, vi. 549, Milan, 1823-25: E. R&dlger. In Erscb 
and Gruber, t&ncyc. section i.. part 38, p. 324 ; D'Herbelot. 
BibHotheque Ori» ntaie, 111. 34.">, s.v. Ilia; Haglies, Diet. ■■< 
Islam, s.v. 

I .. O. II. M. Si l 

— In Medieval Folk-Lore : Owing to bis 
ubiipiitoiisiiess and to the universal belief that he 
remained after bis departure from the earth the 

ever-ready helper of the Jew, Elijah the prophet be 
eanii the prototype of the Wandering Jew. Mam 
characteristics of wandering deities and heroes like 

those of Buddha, Of Zeus, and of Thoraml W'odan 

who were believed to wander about the earth to test 
the pietj and hospitality of the people, hence also 

tho 6 Of Khidr, the Arabic legendary hero, were in 
cor) .oral ed in the history of Elijah. He was accord 
ingly expected to appear from time to time, ospe 
cially on solemn occasions, as "the angel of the 
covenant," the genius of Jewish home sanctity who 
keeps a record Of e\ cry mesalliance (Kid. 70a). I b- 

was believed to be present as the angel of the cove 
nant at the circumcision (see Elijah's Chair), or to 

appear as a guest at I he Si 1 >i it ami as plot eel or of 

the Jewish household whenever the door was opened 

on thai night. Every Sal unlay evening bis blessed 




intervention was invoked for the work of the new 
week . hence the manymystic formulas in the caba- 
listic liturgy for the close of the Sabbath. 

He «as often identified with oilier heroes of Jew- 
ish legend to whom immortality was attributed, 
such as Mi.i.i iii/.kdkk, who had no lather or moth- 
er, and Enoch Metatron. who is said to have been a 
shoemaker by profession (Yalk. Reubeni, Bereshit, 
27a and '.till, and this seems to explain the original 
story of tin- Wandering Jew. 

Bibliography : \. Tendlau, SprichwOrter und Bedensarten 
li, utsch-Jlldist hi r Vorzeit, pp. Ur-16, FranilorUm-the-Maln, 
I860; idem, Das Bitch der Sagen iukI Legenden Judischer 
Vtyru it, notes to Nos 8, 28, Frankfort, 1873 : L. Geiger, Zexl- 
schrift f-Ur die QeschichU der Juden in Deutacmand. iii. 
■.".•: : Mannbardt, Gi rmanischt Mythen, pp. lis, TS, lierlin, 
ls.-,s ; N,,rk. Etymolonisches Mytfwlogiichee wOrttflnuih, 
s.v. Elias. 


Critical View : The stories of Elijah are not 

all derived from the same author. This is evident, 
first, from the fact that the longer form of the name 
(irP^K) is used (about sixty times) everywhere ex- 
cept in II Kings i. 3-12 and (in reference to other 
persons of the name) iu I Chrou. viii. 27; Ezra x. 
21, 26. Then, too, there is a signifi- 

Sources. cant disagreement between I Kings 
xix. 15 et urn., where Elijah is com- 
missioned to anoint Kings Hazael and Jehu, and II 
Kings viii. 7 et seq., ix. 1 et tun., where it is said that 
these two kings wire appointed by Elisha. Neither 
of these stories, however, bears marks of exilic or 
post-exilic origin, for the compound prepositions 
^ TJJ (I Kings x viii. 19) or '"JS^D (\xi. 20) are not a 
proof of such origin, although the latter preposition 
is often used by preference in the post-exilic period. 
It is also obvious that the mention of the sacrifice 
(I Kings xviii, 36) does not stamp the story as post- 
exilic (contrary to G. Ros'ch, "Der Prophet Elia," 
in "Theologische Studien und Kritiken," 1892, pp. 
557 el set?. ; comp. Ed. K6nig, "Einleitung ins Alte 
Testament," p. 2134). 

Many scholars, nevertheless, consider the stories 
legendary ; and, although something extraordinary 
must have happened at Jit. Carmel, it can not be 
denied that the miraculous incidents of the prophet's 
career may have been magnified as they passed on 
from generation to generation. The account of the 
destruction of the two captains and their soldiers 
may be taken as an example of this; and, indeed, 
the fact that tin shorter form of the prophet's name 
is used proves the account to be undoubtedly of later 

Some modern scholars regard the stories as myth- 
ological — Hugo Winckler, for instance, iu his"Ge- 
schichte Israels" (1900, ii. 273). 

Three other persons by the name of Elijah are 
mentioned in the Old Testament: a Benjamite who 
lived before Hi.- time of Saul (I Chron. viii. 27). and 
two persons of the post-exilic period (Ezra x. 21, 26). 

Bibliography : The various histories of Israel, including those 
of i, ii Hi,- (1899) and Winckler (1900); ii. Gunkel, /». r Propht i 

Etta, in Pr< n'-i.-rh, .litlirhihlur, 1897, pp. 18 et seq. 
>■■■ '■• ii. E. K. 


i.Yi'Tic 1,1 ri i; vniiK. 

ELIJAH'S CHAIR: At every circumcision 
Elijah, "the angel of the covenant," as he is called 

in Malaclii (iii. 1), is supposed to 1«- seated at the 
right hand of thesandek, upon a chair richly carved 
and ornamented with embroideries ( " kisse shel Eli- 
yahu"). Even iu the salutation to the child to be 
circumcised (X3H "jro) is read the invitation to 

Elijah (son = irr^N N3 run). 

When, under the influence of Jezebel, circumci- 
sion in the northern kingdom was about to be abol- 
ished, Elijah is said to have retired to a cave. 
There he prayed to God (I Kings xix. 10), and com- 
plained that Israel had forsaken the covenant of tin- 
Lord; whereupon God ordained that no circumcision 
should take place except in the presence of Elijah. 
Some consider this to be a commendation of Elijah 
for his zeal; others, again, take it to be a measure 
of protection for Israel, in that Elijah is in every 

Elijah's Chatr. 

(After Leusden, " Philologus Hel.rnw ftlixtufl," 1657.) 

instance to be satisfied that the covenant is not be- 
ing broken. Accordingly, the Shulhan 'Aruk, Milah. 
265, 11 (comp. Kol Bo, 73), orders that a distinct 
seat upon the bench, or a separate chair, be reserved 
for Elijah. To this the circumciser (mohel) refera 
in the prayer preceding the circumcision, as well 
as in the piyyut for the Sabbath on which a cir- 
cumcision occurs. When the chair of Elijah is 
made ready, the words "This is the chair of Elijah" 
(invN ND3 int) must be said in a loud voice. Be- 
fore the circumcision takes place the child is placed 
upon the chair. The chair is left in position for 
three days, not, as said by some, to give Elijah, the 
wanderer, time for rest, but because the first three 
days after circumcision are a period of danger for 
the child, 

Elijah being the guardian of the little ones, is 
represented as such iu the amulet for the lying-in 




chamber, aud, indeed, it is in this capacity thai he 
is invited to the circumcision. 

In Regensburg R. Judah £he I'ious was once en- 
trusted with the office of sandek. The child was 
brought in and greeted by all with the custom- 
ary formula, but Judah remained silent. Being 
questioned, he said: "I do not see Elijah seated at 
my side." As he said this a venerable old man ap- 
peared at the window, and to him he referred the 
loners. To them the old man declared that 

le -tol> " musi be cried aloud i.Mcir benGabbai, "Tola- 
'at Ya'akob") is also found in the Zohar(Lek Leka; 
comp. Wayiggash, and Terumah, HiOa). 

In some of the representations of the circumcision 
ceremony (asin Kirchner and Leusden) Elijah's chair 
is incorrectly placed at the left of the sandek; in 
others (as in Buxtorf's "Synagoga," the Amsterdam 
Pesah Eaggadah, etc.), it is not pictured at all. See 
Bibliography: a. Lewysobn, IStHj/m Minliagim, Berlin, 

Elijah's cuais, as dsed in thk ckbehoni of cihi i ucision in Holland, 

■ ii , i .. i U ■ i "Rltl, 

h refused to come because the child would one 
ibandon Die fail h of his forefathers, The proph- 
ecy Wo 

Lipman of MUhlhausen, in his "Nhjzabon," deals 
with the objection thai Elijah could not possibly 

present at different circumcisions at the 
time As the sunlight aud the Angel of Death arc 
omnipresent, so can Elijah be, The precepl that 
the Formula"Zeh ha-kisse' shel Eliyahu zakur le- 
tob"or"/,h ha-kisse' shel Eliyahu ba-nabi' zakur 
V.— 9 

1848; i'. LCwIn, Hntam l£ocUdu Cracow, 1892; Joh. Buxtorf, 

Sync ■ i, Basel, 1661 ; a i plete literature on the 

riven In \. T. Glassberg, Zvsron Btrtt la-Bisho- 
■: 178, 180, 281, 286, Berlin, 1892. 

s. s, M. Gb 

ELIJAH BEN ABRAHAM: Karaite scholar 
of the twelfth coutun lie was the author ol a 
work entitled "Halukko' ha Kara'im weha-Rabba 
nim." on i le- coni roversj between Karaites and Rab 
binites (published by Pinsker in his " l.ikUutc Kad 
moniyyot," Supplement, pp w 106). Elijah was 

Elijah b. Abraham ha-Levi 
Elijah ben Menahem 



the only Karaite who quoted a work of Saadia's— 
the " Kitabal-Rudd 'ala 'Auan," according to Pius- 
ker (ib. p. 19). That Elijah lived not later than the 
twelfth century is shown by the fact that the last 
Karaite scholar quoted by him was Japheth ben ha- 
Maskil, a contemporary of Judah Hadassi. Piusker 
identifies Elijah ben Abraham with Elijah b. 
Jl dab Tisitm. supposing that he was only the 
copyist, not the author, of the " Halukkot. " 

Bibliography: Piusker, Likkutc gadmoniyt/ot, pp. 19, 225; 
Stelnscbnetder, Jewish IAteraiure, p. 312, note 21 : idem, 
Hebr. liihl. v. 52-53; Gottlober, Bikknrct le-Toleih>t Ini-Kn- 
ra'im, p. 157. 
k. M. Ski.. 



ELIJAH HA- 'ADEN! : Rabbi and payyetau of 
Cochin, India; dates of birth and death unknown. 
He was a native of Aden, and was therefore called 
"Ha-'Adeni," that is to say, "the man of Aden." 
He wrote "Azharot," a piyyut on the 613 com- 
mandments, which is read by the Jews of India and 
chiefly by those of Cochin on Shemini 'Azeret, or 
the eighth day of Sukkot (Amsterdam, 1688). 

Bibliography : Wolf, Bibl. Hebr. ii., p. 1306. iii., No. 239b; 
Steinschneider, Cot. Bndl. col. 925; Dukes, Zur Kenntniss 
der Neuhebr. Relig. Poes. p. 141; Orient, Lit. vii., col. 
677 ; Michael, Or ha-Hamjim, p. 174, No. 373. 
L. G. M. Sel. 

ELIJAH ALAMANNUS : Spanish physician 
and diplomat of the fifteenth century, and court 
physician of the Duke of Bourbon (probably Louis 
II. of France). Alfonso V., King of Aragon, con- 
fided to him a mission to Pope Martin V. He went 
to Rome in charge of a letter to the pope (Sept. 
8, 1420). under safe-conduct for a year. A few years 
later " Magister Elijah," while at Avignon, had a 
bull, issued in favor of the Spanish Jews, legalized 
by the notary of the Curia. 

Bibliography: Togelstein and Rieger, Qesch. derJuden in 

limn, ii. 6, 7. 

G. M. Sl.l.. 

marian and author, died after 1748. He wrote; 
"Ma'aneh Eliyahu," rules for Hebrew reading, 
Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1704; "MikraKodesh," rules 
of Hebrew grammar, Berlin, 1713; "Miktab me- 
Eliyahu," a commentary on the "Or Torah" of R. 
Menahem diLonsano, Hamburg, 1738; "ZoriGilead," 
a tale in verse, Rddelheim, 1748; and "Kine'uteh 
de -Eliyahu," novelise on "Toral Hatta'ot. "Amster- 
dam, 1711. 

Bibliography: Kuenn, Kirjiah Ne'cmauah, pp. 103, lul; 
Bteinschnelder, Cat. Bndl. No. 1942. 
g. N. T. L. 

rabbi; born in 1550; died at Cliclm. Aboul 1565 
he entered the yeshibah of Rabbi Solomon Luria of 
Lublin, and, after receiving the rabbinical ordina 
tion, became rabbi of ('helm, which position lie held 
until his death. Elijah Ba'al Sliem was one of the 
mosl eminent Talmudists of bis generation. To- 
gether with his teacher he signed the " piske dinim " 
(laws) relative to tin- '.Vol NAH. lie also studied 
Cabala, and, according to his grandson Zebi Ash 
kena/i, be was able to create a golem by means ,,f 
Cabalistic agencies. 

Bibliography: Friedberg. Lulu it Zikkaron, p. 32, Drobobycz, 
1897; Emden, MeaUlat Sefer, p. 4, Warsaw, 1896; Horodetr 
zky,Kerem Shiimnnh, p. 33, Drohobycz, 1896; Ha-Mcwxef, 
p. 157, St. Petersburg, 1902. 

k. B. Fit. 

ELIJAH HA-BABLI. See Tanna debh 
Ei.iyaiii' R 

ELIJAH BAH UK. See Levita, Elijah. 

THAI (Elijah di Sabbato ; also known as Elihe 
Saby and Elia Giudeo) : Italian physician; born 
in Germany at the end of the fourteenth century. 
He settled in Italy, where the Senate accorded him 
citizen's rights in Viterbo, and, in 1405, in Rome; 
confirmed by Pope Innocent VII. Feb. 6, 1406. He 
was exempted from toll, from forced service, and 
from wearing the Jewish garb, and was allowed to 
carry arms. Pope Martin V. made him his private 
physician, which position he retained under Mar- 
tin's successor, Eugene IV., who (1433) confirmed 
his citizenship and pension. Elijah was among 
those who signed (Dec, 1443) an agreement between 
the pope and the Italian Jews concerning their re- 
ligious freedom. 

Bibliography*: Vogelstein and Itieger, Gesch. der Juden In 
Bom, i. 320 el seq., ii. 6 el scq.; Zunz, G. S. iii. 92, 173: stern. 
t'rkiiwlliilic JBeitriifte, pp. 25, 45 ; Berliner, Gasch. der Ju- 
den in Bom, ii.. part L, p. 121. 

g. M. Sel. 


Turkish rabbi ; flourished in Constantinople in the 
sixteenth century, lie succeeded one of his teach- 
ers, Elijah Mizrahi, as rabbi in Constantinople 
(1526). Elijah made the first collection of prayers 
for the Mahzor Romania (editio princeps, Constanti- 
nople, 1510), to which he added many poems of his 
own. He wrote: "Tanna debe Eliyahu," contain- 
ing 451 responsa, of which only a part have been 
published, under the title "Zekan Aharon" (Con- 
stantinople, 1734); "Ma'amar Kol Dai," an asniak- 
ta, published in Benjamin Motal's "Tummat Yesha- 
rim" (Venice, 1622); "Liwyat Hen," "Me Zahab," 
"Shebet Musar," "Tokahat Megullah," still unpub- 
lished ; and a collection of poems. Berliner ascribes 
to him a commentary which accompanies various 
piyyutim in the Mahzor Romania. 

Bibliography : Benjamin Motal. Introduction !■> Zekan Aha- 
ron; Steinscbneider, Cat. Bndl. col. 933; Zunz, L'it, mtur- 
gesch. pp. 388 et scq.; Berliner, Aus Meiner Bibliothek, pp. 
3 et $eq. 
I.. Q. II. B. 

SIM : Oriental scholar of the second half of the thir- 
teenth century. He translated an Arabic makamah, 
similar to the "Assemblies" of Hariri, into Hebrew 
under the title " Megillat ha-'Ofer." A manuscript 
copy is in the Bodleian Library. The beginnii 
this work was published by Steinschneider in " Ha 

Bibliography: Steinschneider. Jewish Literature, p 
Idem, Hebr. Uebers. p. 884; idem, in Ha-Karmel, vi 

,-,. M. Si i. 

ELIJAH B. ELIEZER. Sec Delmedigo. 
Elijah i; Eliezer. 

ELIJAH BEN EZEKIEL : Rabbi of Byel- 
gorai, Poland, in the eighteenth century. His father, 
Ezekiel, was rabbi of Ostrovtsi, Galicia, and be was 



Elijah b. Abraham ha-Levi 
Elijah ben Menahem 

himself a friend of Hayyim Rapoport, rabbi of 
Lemberg. He wrote: "Har ha-Karmel," responsa, 
arranged in the order of the four parts of the Shul 
han 'Aruk (Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1782); "Rosh 
ba-Karmel," novella- on Pesahim and other Tal- 
mudic treatises; "Eshel ha Nehalim," a kind of 
index to the Shulhan Anik, lloshen Mishpat ; Re- 
sponsa. The tirst three works are mentioned in his 
i lo " liar ha-Karmel." 

Bibliography: Michael, Or lia-Hani/ini, p. 178 : Azulal, Sh< m 

ha-IJediiHin, s.v. II. n tia-Karmel ; ffulden. Sin™ ho-Geoo- 
Urn lu-l.kukisli, II. 25. 

l. o. M. Bel. 

ELIJAH OF FERRARA : [talian Talmudist 

and traveler of the earlier part of the fifteenth ci n 
tury. He was engaged in 1437 as lecturer and 
teacher in Jerusalem, where he arrived after a 
stormy voyage, during which he lost his son and 
grandson. He wrote Beveral letters to his wife and 
children, whom he had left behind in Ferrara; only 
one of these epistles, dated 14:ls, has been presen ed. 
This "Iggeret," written in rimed prose, has been 
published in the collection " Dibre Hakamim," .Met/, 
1858, and translated by Carmoly (" Itinerates," 
pp. 331-337) under the "title "Ahabat Ziyyon." In 
tliis he gives a description of Jerusalem, recounts 
the legends current about the "children of Israi I, ' 
the Ten Tribes, and the River Sambation, and states 
his intention to visit other parts of Palestine and to 
send a description of what he sees there. A frag- 
ment of another letter lias survived, published by 
Isaac Akrish in his "Kol Mebasser" (Constantinople, 
1 •"• 7 7 ) . From remarks contained in the latter in ref- 
erence to medical practise in Jerusalem it may be 
inferred that Elijah was also a physician. 

Bibliography: stelnsclmelder. Cat. Bodl. col. 929; Luncz, 
Jerusalem, m. 48; Munk, Palestine, p. 843; Carmoly, Itini- 

rairo. I'p. -"I a::; ; i.mtz, (Jcsch. 2<1 ed., vlll.277. 

o. M. Si a 

ELIJAH GAON. See Elijah b. Solomon 


izzano, Elijah Hayyim. 
French Talmudist ; flourished in the first half of I lie 
thirteenth century; progenitor of the lie Latas, or 
Lattes, family. lie took the name of the city in 
which he was living, his son Jacob afterward adopt- 
big the name of "Lattes." Isaac b. Jacob Lattes, 
the author of "Sha'are ?iyyon," speaks of these two 
ancestors of bis, and ascribes to one of them, in a 
hit nils, are reference, the authorship of sev- 
eral works. Mil hael and Zun/. think that Isaac in- 
tended to designate Elijah as the author, while 
that he meant' Jacob. 

Bibliography: Michael, Or lia-Ha;/i/fm, p. 17s; Zunz, 7.. a. 

-■ in-,. 

p. 47s; Gross, QaUla Judalca, pp. ZM, 611 
L G, 

A. Ph. 

ELIJAH BEN JACOB: Rabbi and cabalisl of 
Dlianov, Qalicia; lived in the eighteenth century, 
lie was a contemporary of Jonathan EybeschUtz, 
and sided with him in his quarrel with R, Jacob 

Kinden. Elijah, obliged to flee, t"ok a long v<» 
and passed through Italy and Turkey. Toward the 
end i,i his life he settled at Amsterdam. He was 

the author of " Iiirkal Elivaliu," novella; on several 

treatises of the Talmud (Wandsbeck, 1738). At the 

end of this book there are some passages in defense 
of the customs of the Ashkenazic Jews. It was pref- 
aced and published by Moses I.Iagis. 

Bibi iography: Nepl-Gnlrondi, Toledot Oedole PisraeLp. 11; 
sieinseiineider. Cot. Bodl. col. 930; Fiienn, Keneset Ftsraei, 

p. 112: Waldeu, Sin in ha-Oidnlim In -lladash y i. 22. 
||' M. Sel. 

ELIJAH B. JOSEPH. See Kola, Elijah b. 

ELIJAH BEN JOSEPH: Turkish Talmudist 
and commentator; lived at Salonica in the sixteenth 
century. He wrote: " Kol Teru'ab," liomilies on 
the Pentateuch, Salonica, 1562; and an unpublished 
commentary on Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Daniel. Ezra, 
and Chronicles, entitled "Scfer ha-Tikkiinhn." 

Bibliography: Michael, Or ha-Hauuiin, No. 383; steln- 
schnelder, c 'at. Bodl. col. 830. 
k. M. Sel. 

Elijah b. Joseph. 

NITZ: Polish rabbi and author; died in 1715. At 
an early age he left Poland and went to Fulda, 
Germany, where he became rabbi. He wrote: a 
commentary on Shekalim ( Ver. |, w ith quotations of 
parallel passages, Frankfort on the Main, 1710; a 
commentary on Berakot (Yer.) and part of Zcra'im, 
with notes, published with the second edition of 
Shekalim, Amsterdam, 1710; a commentary on 
Baba Kamma and Baba Mezi'a (Yer.), Offenbach, 
1729. This last work, with a commentary on Baba 
Batra (Yer.), was republished at Frankfort-on the- 
Main in 1742. 

lam a i n. i: a en v : Mli'liai'l. Or liu-Jlaniiiin. p. 176; Zedner, Col. 
ll.i.i. Bnohe lint. Mus. p. 229; Levensteln, Dor l>.n mi 
Donshaw, p. Id. 
k. N. T. L. 


Talmudist of the twelfth century, often quoted by 
later Talmudistsas an important authority. He be- 
came well known through his controversy with H. 
Tarn as to whether the tefillin-knot should be re- 
new ed e\ ery day. A legend arose in connection with 
this controversy to the effect that Elijah left bis 
grave In order to assert himself once more against 
R. Tain. Elijah is the author of two piyyurim writ 

ten for the Feast of Weeks, Dmaan DV ]'D1X and 

-|niy Dy 31-13. 

Bibliograpri : Gross, QaMia Judaica, p. 516 ; Zun/. Liinu- 
■ ch. p. 158. 
I . 8. A. Pe. 

scholar; lived at Lublin in the seventeenth century. 

lb- was the author of a commentary on the Penta- 
teuch, entitled "Adderel Eliyahu," published at 
Frankfort on-the-Main, 1649. 

Bibliography: Btelnschnelder, Oat, Bodl. col. 931; Michael, 
Or fta-Hai/|/im, p, 188; Zedner, Cot. Hebr. Boohe lint. 
Mus. p. 229. 

L. O. I. Bit. 


Elijah Hayyim 

French liturgical poet; nourished iii l.e Mans In the 
eleventh century, According to Solomon Luria 
(Kesponsa, No 29), he was the son in law oi Sherira 

Qaon. Fi'lisl doubts thai Elijah Was of I.e. Mans, la 

Elijah Mizrahi 
Elijah ben Solomon 



king the aame spjotobe the popular name of his fa- 
ther, MeDahem. Elijah was the pupil of Rabbenu 
Gershon, and companion of Joseph Tob-'Elem (Bon- 
fils), with whom he discussed the recitation of the 
"Jferobah" between the first three of the eighteen 
benedictions ("Shibbole ha-Loket," No. 11). He 
w rote: (1) " Azliarot," a poem on the 613 command- 
ments, containing 176 four-line strophes. This poem 
may lie divided into several smaller poems, giving to- 
gether with the acrostic " Eliyahu Hazak," in one in- 
stance an acrostic of -13"3N, in another one of p"l"K>]l 
These "azharot" were known to the Tosalists and 
an- quoted in several places (Suk. 49a; Yoina 8a; 
B. B. 145b; Mak. 3b; Niddah 30a). (2) "Seder ha- 
Ma'arakali," Biblical passages arranged for recita- 
tion on each day of the week in the same manner as 
the " Ma'amadot " | Mss. ( (ffenbacb., No. 38). Jelli- 
nek ("Orient, Lit." xii. 546) identifies the author of 
the "Azharot " with the cabalist Elijah ha-Zaken, 
who is frequently quoted by Moses Botarel in his 
commentary to the "Scfer Yezirah." 

BlBLIOGRAPHT: Znnz, TMeraturgesch. pp. 126-129 ; idem, S. I'. 
p. 97; Idem, Z. (.'. pp. 47, lie ; Orient, Lit. ix. 51, note; 
\i. 19 et 8eg. ; Landshuth, 'Ammuih- ha-'Al>u<lali, pp. 
13 15; .xzukii, Shem ha-Gedolim, i.,8.ti.; II., s.v. nnnm; 
Gross, Gallia Judaica, p. 383; Steinsclmekler, Cat. liinll. 
col. 949. 
K. M. Ski.. 

ELIJAH MIZRAHI. See Mizuai.". Elijah. 

ELIJAH BENMORDECAI: Payyetan of the 

eleventh century, possibly a native of Italy. Of his 

poetic productions a "kerobah " for theMinhahof the 

Day of Atonement (-|rU10X VSi! ;rVX) is extant in 

tie- ( iermau-Polish liturgy. Eliezerben Nathan wrote 

a commentary on Elijah's piyyutim. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Ziinz, Literal ii rgesch . p. 142; Landshuth, 
*A.mmude ho^Abi iilah, p. l.">; Michael, Orha-Hawiiin, p. Is..'. 

G. II. B. 

eenth-century Polish physician, mathematician, ami 
Talmudist; lived at Pinezow, government of Eielce, 
Russian Poland. He wrote: " Meleket Mahshcbet." 
in two parts: the first called " Tr Heshbon, " on arith- 
metic and algebra; the second, "Berure Middot," 
on geometry (Zolkiev, 1758; Frankfort-on-the-Oder, 
part i.. and Berlin, part ii., 1765; Ostrog, 1806); 
" Ma'aneh Eliyahu," novelise on Baba Mezi'a and Be- 
zah, decisions, and responsa (Zolkiev, 1758); "Had- 
rat Eliyahu." ten homilies on Talmudic subjects 
(Prague, 1786); "Nibhar me-Haruz," a compendium 
of Joseph Albo's " Ikkariin." in the form of dia- 
logues, lie edited "She'elot ii -Tcshubot Geone Bat- 
ra'e." a collection of responsa of R. Vnin-Tuli Lipp- 
riiann Heller, Joel Sirkes, Joshua Palk, anil others 
(Sudilkov, 1795). 

Biblioorapht: Farst, Biol. Jud. 1. 287 ; Fuenn, Keneset Fia- 

r.ui. pp. lis ii:i; zeltlin, Ttihl. Post-Mendel*, p. 11. 

o- M. Bel. 

ian rabbi; born at Jerusalem: died al Alexandria 
Jan. 7, 17sc. i„ 1763 he became rabbi of Rhodes, 
and was later offered the chief rabbinate of Alexan- 
dria. Though a prolific writer, few of his works 
have been published. Among these are: •• Kol Eli- 
yahu," responsa, arranged in the order of the four 

Turini and containing some responsa of his brother 

Abraham Israel and of his son .Moses Israel (Leg- 
horn. 1792); "Kisse Eliyahu," glosses and novella' 
on the Shulhan 'Aruk, Orah llayyim, fragments of 
which appear at the end of Azulai's " Wa'ad la- 
Hakamim"; "'Uggat Eliyahu," responsa (Leghorn, 
1830); "Shene Eliyahu," twenty-rive homilies (/A. 
1806); "Ar'a de-Yisrael," on the methodology of tin' 
Talmud, printed, together with "Debar ha-Melek," 
a commentary on Maimonides, at the end of the 
" Sha'ar Asher " of Asher Covo (Vienna, 1821). Be- 
sides these Elijah left in manuscript eight other 
works ou Talmudic-rabbinic literature. 

Bibliography: Michael, Or lut-IIauithn, pp. 185-186; Hazan, 
Ha^Ma'alot li-Sfn lomoh, p. 4b.' 

L. G. 

M. Si.... 

at Sated in the sixteenth century; pupil of R. 
Moses Cordovero. He went to Poland, but returned 
to Palestine, and died at Hebron. He is the author 
of " Reshit Hokmah," a book on morals divided into 
live parts ("she'arim "): fear of God; love for God ; 
repentance; holiness; humbleness (Venice, 1578, 
1593; Cracow, 1593; Berlin, 1703, etc.). In this 
book are gathered all the moral sentences scattered 
through the Talmud, Midrashim, andZohar; to these 
he added five chapters of the "Menoratha-Ma'or"of 
Israel ben Joseph Alnaqua; "Huppat Eliyahu 
Rabbah," and " Seder Eliyahu Kabbah, " moral say- 
ings and admonitions ; "Or 'Olam," the first chapter 
containing all the moral sayings of the Talmud be- 
ginning with the word " le'olam, " the second those 
beginning with "gadol" or "gedolah." He later 
abridged the "Reshit Hokmah" uuder the title of 
"Toze'ot Hayyim" (Prague, Cracow [n. d.]; Am- 
sterdam, 1650). Another abridgment was made by 
Jacob b. Mordecai Pavieti ("Kizzur Reshit Hok- 
mah," Venice, 1600). David de Lara translated into 
Spanish the "Sha'ar ha-Yir'ah." treating of the fear 
of God (Amsterdam, 1633). 

Bibliography: Fiirst, Bihl. Jud. Hi. 477; Steinschnelder, 
i 'tt.Bodl. col. 950; Fuenn, Keneset Yisrael, p. 106; Aziil;ii, 
Shem hOrOedolim, p. 11; Zedner, Cat. Hebr. Books BrtU 
Mas. pp. 230, 231 ; Michael, Or ha-Biayyim, p. 184. 

0. M. Sel. 

ELIJAH OF PESARO: Italian Talmudist and 
philosopher of the sixteenth century. After a long 
residence in Venice as Talmudic teacher, he started 
for Palestine (1563). Arrived at Famagusta, in Cy- 
prus, he heard that the cholera was devastating the 
Holy Land and decided to go no farther. He wrote 
a number of works which are preserved in the Bib- 
liotheque Nationale at Paris (MS. No. 24). They 
comprise a commentary on Job, an allegorical expla- 
nation of the Song of Songs, a philosophical treatise 
on the Talmud and Midrashim, a funeral oration on 
the death of R. Mordecai Kunavoti, a fragment of 
his commentary on Jonah, a number of sermons, and 
a letter written from Famagusta to his relatives at 
Venice in which he described his journey to the for- 
mer place. It has been translated into German by 
JostC'Jahrbuch fur die Geschichte der Juden," 1861) 
and into French by Moi'se Schwab (" Revue de Geo- 
graphic," is?;. 

Bibliography: S.J. Fuenn. Keneset Pisrael,p. 118; Carmolr, 
in Revui Oriental r. I. !K; stciiischiicidi-r, Jewish Litera- 
ture, p. 257 : Orient, Lit. ii. 444. 

1. (i. M. Sel. 



Elijah Mizrahi 
Elijah ben Solomon 

TISHBI) : Karaite scholar; died about 1584. He 
wrote in 1579 at Constantinople a work called 
"Pe'er" (="Perush Eliyahu H;ilibi-mi '' i. a super- 
commentary on the first part of Aaron ben Joseph's 
Biblical commentary "Ha Mibhar." Moses of Zu 
nidi, Elijah's son-in-law, revised this work in 1585. 
One copy is found in Leyden (No. 54) and another 
in Ox lord (Neubauer, "Cat. BodL Hebr. MSS."No. 

BlBLIOCRAPnT: PlnsklT. I.ll.hnl, K.I, lint, lull, f'1. p. 199 ; Gott- 

r, Btkjforei Ic-TolertM l,'i-K,na' u,,, p. 156; Steinschnei- 
der, J 1 1> i.-li Lit, rature, p. I'-'i : Idem, Hebr. Bibl. xi. B. 
K. M. Ski.. 

rabbi; died a1 Hebron, Palestine, 1785. lie- became 
rabbi of Byala, and later, after residing for some 
time at Brest-Litovsk, of Eibenschutz, Moravia. In 
olil ago he removed to Hebron. Elijah was the 
author of "Yad Eliyahu," responsa, Amsterdam, 

BiBi.iORRAriiY : Michael, itrlui-IJiniiii'n, l>. l ( *i: Azulat, Shetn 
Ini Qcdolim, i. 22, ii. 59, 137; LevenstelD, Dor l>'<r nr-Dor- 
thaw, p. IT ; E. L. Rabbinowlcz, Tr Trhillnh, pp. 32, 186. 
i o. N. T. L. 

OF STEPHANOW : Bulgarian exegete and poet; 
lived in the second half of the fifteenth century. 
probably first at Widdin, and later at Constanti- 
nople, lie maintained a correspondence on scientific 
Bubjects with Moses Capsali, Elijah Mizrahi, and 
oilier Talmudical authorities. Joseph Colon men- 
tions him as having lived at Constantinople (lic- 
Bponsa, No. 8?>). Elijah wrote in 14(j'j a grammat- 
ical and allegorical commentary on the Pentateuch, 
entitled "Sefer ha-Zikkaron" (Book of Memory) 
(Neubauer, "Cat. Bodl. Hebr.MSS." No. 251). The 
commentary is followed by poetical pieces com- 
posed by the author, twelve of which are liturgical 

BIBLIOORAPITT: Zunz. Lit* r<tttii[i> xlt. p. :1S7 ; Michael, Orlul- 
Hdt/iiim, No. II 1. 

I. Bu. 

ELIJAH BEN SHEMAIAH : Italian rabbi 
and liturgical poet; lived at Ban in thetwelfth cen- 
tury. He was one of the teachers of Samuel b. 
Nutronai; and his signature, with those of many 
other rabbis, is appended to a responsum found in 
Samuel's novella- on Maimonidea ("Tad," [shut, 
xxiii. 11). Elijah b. Bhemaiah is especially known 
as a composer of hymns. Besides a "reshut" to 
Johanan's " IJcrobol " for Vom Eippur, Elijah com- 
posed a great number of sclihot. Zunz ("Liters 
turgesch." pp. '.'II 846) enumerates no less than 
thirty six, arranged cither in the alphabetical or in 
the reversed alphabetical order, and giving the 
acrosl ic of his name. 

[>hy; Zunz. Ltteraturgesch. pp. 139,244 246; Idem, 
0. V. p. 393; Idem, S. P. p, 206; Michael, O) ha-lfamjim. 
No. 41—; Landsbutb, 'AmmucU liii-'Ai><>,i>ih, \>. 17. 
K. M. Si i 

ELIJAH BEN SOLOMON (also calk tl Elijah 
Wilna, Elijah Gaon, and Der Wilner Gaon) : 
Lithuanian Talmudist, cabalist, grammarian, and 
mathematician; bom at Wilna April 28, 1720; died 
there Oct. 9, i?'.i7. He gave evidence of the posses- 
lion of extraordinary talents while still a child. At 
the age of seven In was taught Talmud by Moses 

Margalit, rabbi of Kaidan and the author of a com- 
mentary to the Jerusalem Talmud, and was supposed 
to know several of the treatises by heart. From the 
age of tenhe continued his studies without the aid of a 
teacher, When he reached s more mature age Elijah 
wandered in various parts of Poland and Germany, 
as was the custom of the Talmudists of the time. He 
returned to bis native town in 17 IS, having even 
i hen acquired considerable renown ; for when he was 
hardly twenty years old many rabbis submitted their 
balakic difficulties to him for decision. Since Elijah 
liad never studied at any yeshibah, he had tin'- ad 

vantage, that his mind was never biased by preju- 
dice Or by the perverted methods of study then in 
vogue. He tlius escaped casuistry, his mind re- 
maining open to the plain and simple peshat. 

Elijah's chief merit consisted in this fact, that he 
applied to the Talmud and the cognate literature 
proper philological methods. Heeven 
His made an attempt toward a critical ex- 

Methods of animation of the text ; and thus, very 
Study. of ten with a single reference to a paral- 
lel passage, or with a textual emenda- 
tion, he overthrew all the castles in the air elected by 
his predecessors. But. besides the two Talmuds and 
the other branches of rabbinic literature which he 
bad very soon committed to memory, he devoted 
much time to the study of the Bible and Hebrew 
grammar, as well as to the secular sciences, enrich- 
ing the latter by his original contributions. His 
pupils and friends had to pursue the same plain and 
simple met hods of study that he followed. He also 
exhorted them not to neglect the secular sciences, 
maintaining that Judaism could only gain by study- 
ing them. Elijah was also attracted to the study 
of the Cabala; but from his controversy with the 
Hasidim it would seem that be was not prepared to 
follow the mystics to the full extent of their teach 


Elijah was very modest and disinterested ; and he 
dec lined to accept the office of rabbi, though it was 
often offered to him on the most tlattering terms. 
In his later years he also refused to give approba- 
i ions, though this was the privilege of great rabbis: 
he thought too humbly of himself to assume such 
authority, lb- led a retired life, only lecturing from 
time to time to a few chosen pupils. Hut in spile 
of his desire to avoid publicity bis fame was soon 
widely spread, and in 1755, when Elijah was only 
thirty-five, Jonathan Eybeschutz, then sixty live 
years old, applied to Elijah for an examination of 
and decision concerning his amulets, which were 

a subject of diseonl between himself and Jacob 
Emden. Elijah, in a letter to Eybeschutz, Btated 

that, while in full sympathy with him, he did not 

believe that words coming from a stranger like 

himself, who had not. even the advantage of old 

i/ould be of any weighl with the contending 


Tie on I •■■ i i -ion upon which Elijah threw oil his 

reserve and nude his authority fell was the appeal 

ance of the Hasidi tin' Btage of Jewish history. 

Winn the latter became more audacious, and even 

began to make proselytes in his native town, which 
had always remained proof UgainSl all kinds of in- 
novation. Elijah, joining the rabbis and heads of 

Elijah ben Solomon 



the Polish communities, took the necessary steps to 
check the Basidic influence. In 1777 the first excom- 
munication was launched at Wilna 
His An- against the Hasidim, while a letter was 
tagonism also addressed to all the large corn- 
to the munities, exhorting them to deal with 
Hasidim. the Hasidim after the example of 
Wilna, and to watch them until they 
had recanted. The letter was acted upon by several 
communities; and in Brody, during the fair, the ex- 
communicatiou was pronounced against the Hasidim. 
In 1781, when the Hasidim renewed their prosely- 
tizing work under the leadership of their rabbi, 
Shneor Salman of Liadi, Elijah excommunicated 
them again, declaring them to be heretics with 
whom no pious Jew might intermarry. Elijah also 
accused Shneor Salman 
and his adherents of hav- 
ing accepted a pantheistic 
system. After this. Elijah 
went into retirement again, 
and the Hasidim seized the 
opportunity to spread a ru- 
mor that Elijah sided with 
them and that he repented 
of having persecuted 
them. Elijah then sent 
two of his pupils (17%) 
with letters to all the com- 
munitiesof Poland, declar- 
ing that he had not 
changed hisattitude in the 
matter, and that the asser- 
tions of the Hasidim wire- 
pure inventions. Still, Eli- 
jah had seen beforehand 
that all the excommunica- 
tions would be of no avail, 
and that they would not 
stop the tide of Hasidism. 
Except in this instance, 
Elijah never took part in 
public affairs; and, so far 
as is known, he did not pre- 
side over any great school 
in Wilna. He was satis- 
fied, as lias been already slated, with lecturing in 
his bet ha-midrash to a few chosen pupils, whom 
he initiated into his scientific methods. He taught 
them Hebrew grammar, Bible, and Mishuah — sub- 
jects which were largely neglected by the Talmud- 
isls of that time. He was especially anxious to in- 
troduce them to the study of the pre-Talmudie 
literatim — the Sifra, Sifre, Mekilta, Tosefta, Seder 
'Olam, and the minor treatises — which were very lit- 
tle know n b\ i lie scholars of his time. He laid special 
stress on the stud} of the Jerusalem Talmud, which 

had been al si entirely neglected fur centuries. 

Being convinced that Hie study of Hie Torah is the 
very life of Judaism, and that this study in usl lie 
conducted in a scientific and not in a merely scholas 
tic manner, he encouraged his chief pupil. Rabbi 
Hayyim, to found a college in which rabbinic litera- 
ture should be taught according to his master's 
method. Hay vim did not carry out the injunction 
of his master until some years after the death of 

Elijah ben Solomon of Wilna. 

(Krnin ii lr ,.| 1 1 ),>„:, I port i 'lit.) 

the latter. The college was opened at Volozhin in 
1803 (see Hayyim b. Solomon and Volozhin). 

Elijah led an ascetic life. He interpreted literally 
the words of the ancient rabbis, that the Torah can 
be acquired only by abandoning all pleasures and 
by cheerfully accepting suffering ; and 
His Ascetic as he lived up to this principle, he was 
Life. revered by his countrymen as a saint, 

being called by some of his contempo- 
raries "the I.Iasid." Elijah once started on a trip to 
the Holy Land, but did not get beyond Germany. 
While at Konigsberg he wrote to his family a letter 
which was published under the title " 'Alim li-Te- 
rufah," Minsk, 1836. Various reasons were assigned 
for his change of mind, the most probable one being 
the impossibility on board ship of observing strictly 
the dietary laws. Elijah 
was a voluminous author; 
and there is hardly an an 
cient Hebrew book of any 
importance to which he 
did not write a commen- 
tary, or at least provide 
marginal glosses and 
notes, which were mostly 
dictated to his pupils; but 
nothing of his was pub- 
lished in his lifetime. His 
works may be best classi- 
fied according to the dif 
ferent branches: 


Adderet Eliyahu, a commen- 
tary on the Pentateuch, in which 
he endeavored to give the exact 
meaning of the verses, showing 
that there is not a single super- 
fluous letter. Dubrovna, 1804. 

Commentary to the Prophets 
and Hagiographa. The only 
parts published were Proverbs 
isklow, 1798); the portion of 
Joshua containing the descrip- 
tion of Palestine and that of 
Ezekiel containing the descrip- 
tion "f the Temple, under the 
bile of "Zurat ha-Arez" (ih. 
1802); JonaJHWUna, 1800); Isaiah 
i.-xiii.: Habakkuk ami Chroni- 
the Song of Songs (Warsaw. 1S42I; and Job 

rles 1,7,. 1820); 
i.-vii. (Hj. 18541 


Sbenot Eliyahu, long and short commentaries on Zera'im, re- 
vised by his pupil Hayyim of Volozhin. Lemberg. 1799. 

Eliyahu Rabbah, on Tohorot, compiled by his pupil Melr of 
Wilna. Briinn. 1802. 

i ommentary on Abot. Sklow, 1804. 

Commentary on Kodashim and a mystical commentary on the 
Biblical passages quoted in the Mishnah, both extant in manii- 

F.fat Zeilek. glosses i" the Mekilta. Wilna. 1844. 

Commentary ami glosses to the Sifra. 

1,1c ism's lo the Sifre. 

Tohorat ha-Kodesh (also called "ZerZohab"), commentary 
onTosef., Tohorot. Zolkiev, 1804. 
(iliissis to Tosef.. Zera'im, Mo'ed, and Nashim. Wilna. UB7. 


Commentary on the order Zera'im. 

Mishnat Eliyahu, glosses to the treatise Shekalim, printed in 
the " Taklin Hadtin " of bis pupil Israel of Sklow. Minsk, lsl~. 


Hagabot ba-GeRA (ba-Gaon Rabbenu Eliyahu), being a se- 



Elijah ben Solomon 

lection from glosses to the whole Talmud written by Elijah ; 
published In the Vienna edition of the Talmud. 1806. 

■ hi vuan and Co the small treatises; 
print''. I with his commentary to aim. Sfclow, 1801 
■ Use on eight treatises of the Talmud. 

umentary on the four p;irts of the Shulhan 'Aruk. namely : 
or.di Hayyiui. Sklow, 1808; Voreb De "ah, Grodno. 1808: Eben 
ha-'Kzer, Wllna, 1819; Hoshen Mishpaf, KOnigsbeqr, 1856-88. 
Collectanea on Maimonldes. 
• on Asherl. 


— to I'irki- Rabbi Ellezer. Warsaw, is:;:;. 

( nentarv and glosses to the Seder 'Olam Uabbah and Seder 

Zuta. sklow, 1801. 
Glosses t" the Pesikta. 


i "n: man h. the sef.r Yezirah. Grodno, 1806. 

i niMinentary to the Sifra di-Zcni'uta. Wilna, 1820. 

i ommentary to the Zohar in eleven volumes. .>( which onlya 
■mall part was published. lb. 1810. Tins commentary Is a < ni- 
ade many corrections in the text and indicated 
Hi-- - wnes whieh served the later cabalists. 

Commentary on the Tikkune Zohar. 5 vols. 

Commentary "h the Hekalot. '.' vols. 

Commentary on Ra'ya Hehemna. 1 vols. 

Commentary mi both Idrot. 

Commentary on the Mldrash ha-Ne'elani. 

Commentary "ii tin- Zohar tjfadash. 

Hadrat Kodesh, cabalistic collectanea. 

■ abaUstic commentary to the Pesab Eaggadah. Grodno, 1806. 

Scil.M B ami Grammar 

Ayil Mesbullash. a trnatisi- on trigonometry, geometry, and 
Borne princlplea of astronomy and algebra; containing 4<ni rules. 
\\i:.i . 1834. 

Treatise on astronomy. 

Treatises on the tekufnt ami moladot. 

Ijiklnk Eliyahu, a Bhort Hebrew grammar. lb. 1838. 

ftfa'aseb Toreh. a ' "ileriion of notes on different subjects. 

Bibliography: JosbuaHesbel Levlnand Nahman of Grodno, 
'Allmiot Eliuahuia biography of Elijah Wllna), Wllna, 1856; 
Fuenn, Kit unit \ e'emanah, pp. 188-155; Qratz. Qesch. 2d ed., 
xi. 108-115; Zunz's notes In Benjamin of TudU la, II. 281; I,. A. :. in Wertbelmer'sJahrcuch, xl.357 ; 3. Schechter, Stud- 
ies (n Judaism, pp. IB 77. 81-92, 96, V7: ith-m. hi. Hi, I. Litte- 
raturblatl. xix. i:.'; s. Nsscher, 0>. xxll. 56, 73, -i. 100. 
s s .M. Ski.. 

HA-KOHEN: Dayyan of Smyrna; almoner ami 
preacher; died 1729. Elijah produced over thirty 
works, of which tin' principal, according to Wun- 
derbar (" Orient, Lit." p. 579), areas follows: "Mid- 
rash Eliyahu," eleven funeral sermons and a com- 
mentary on the Talmudic sayings relative i" the 
Roll of Esther (Constantinople, 1698); "Midrash ba 
Izmiii." homilies (i'4. 1695); "Midrash Talpiyyot," 
md comments taken from three hundred 
winks :iml continuing 926 (the numerical value Of 
the word "Talpiyyot") paragraphs in alphabetical 
order: only the lirst part, from "alef " to *' leaf," was 
published (Amsterdam, 1698); "Me'il ?edakah," a 
treatise on charity (t'J. 1704); "Shebet Musar," on 
. the best known of Ins works, divided into 
flftj two chapters corresponding to the weeks of the 
year, ami taken forthemost pari from the "Or Kad- 
mini" of Moses l.lagis, the "Tokahot" of the Bpan 
lah poets, the "Orhot Hay vim." and the "Rofceah 
of Eleazarof Worms (Constantinople, 1712) ; " Megal 
lea Zi'fimot." cabalistic treatises (Porizk, i7 s ."o. 
"She'elol u-Teshubot," response (Sudilkov, 1796); 

"Minimi Eliyahu," sermons (Salonira, 1824); "Si 

mukim lc 'Ad." homiletic treatise on the parashij yo( 

(a 1826); "We Lo 'Od Ella," a treatise on the Tal- 
mudic and Midrashic passages beginning with these 
words (Smyrna, 1853). 

Elijah'sother works are not yet published. They 
include: a commentary to tin- Psalms, "Ezor Eli 
yahu," a commentary to Abut and to the Pesah 
Haggadah; "Tannic ha-Mizwot," a treatise on the 
613 commandments ; " Sheloslmli Mahadurot," a com- 
mentary to the Pentateuch; "Sliittah,"on the'Abo- 
dahZarah; a commentary to the difficult passages 
iu the Ta'anit; a commentary to the Haftarot; 
"Hiddushim Nifradim", " Yado ba-Kol," compri- 
sing commentaries to the Song of Songs, Ruth, and 
Esther, each under a different title; mystical glosses 
to the Song of Songs and Esther; a commentary to 
Lamentations; commentaries to Pirke Rabbi Elie- 
zer, Otiyyol de-Rabbi Akiba, Kallah, Semahot, 
Derek Erez Rabbah and Zuta. Tanna debe Eliyahu, 
and Tikkune ha-'Aberot; one treatise aud three 
sermons ou repentance; a commentary to various 
prayers; a commentary to the Haggadah of the 
Jerusalem Talmud. 

BlBLIoi.l'.M'HV : Aznlai. N/i. m ha-Ui ifnlim. I. 22: Michael, Or 

lut-llawiii". No. 407 Jellinek, li. H. I. 16, Preface; Stein- 
sebneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 933; Furst, Bibl.Jud. i. 23M; irie- 
denstein, 'Ir Gibborim. 

k M. Sel. 

ELIJAH WILNA. See Elijah b. Solomon. 

ELIJAH OF YORK (also known as Rabbenu 
Elijah the Saint) : Tosaflst ; supposed to have been 
killed in the York massacre of 1190 In Tosef., 
Vonia, 27a, he is called Elijah of pVQ'X, and in 
Tosef , Zeb. 14b, of Np'IVOK, which Gross ("Gallia 
Judaica," p. 22) identifies with "Everwic" (Latin, 
"Eboracum"), the medieval name of York. The 
word " ha Kad.ish " (the Saint), which follows his 
name (Tosef., Zeb. 14b), being generally the desig- 
nation of a martyr, the supposition is thai he was 
one of those who were killed in 1190. Elijah was a 
pupil of the tosaflst R. Isaac ha-Zuken, and, accord- 
ing to Zunzc'Z. G." p. 49), also of R, Samuel b. 
Solomon, known as Sir Morel of Falaise. 

Hini.inoRAPiiv : Michael, Or ha-Hnuiiim. p. 159; Jacobs, Jetoa 
nf Angevin Enotand, p. lift; Kenan-Neubauer, Leu llabbins 

/nil ". pp. in'.. 1 16, 

.1 M. Sel. 

ELIM : The second camping place of the Israel- 
ites on the inarch from Egypt It had twelve 

springs and seventy palm-trees (Ex. xv :2?. xvi. 1; 
Num. xxxiii. 9, 10). It is usually, but by no means 
u ii Ii certainty, located in Wadi Gharandal. 

Bibliography: Dlllmann-Ryssel, Commentary to Ex. sc. S7; 
Gall, .wii.-i'i'ii'i.-riii CuUhtttten, p. 23 ; llommcl, Aufstitze 
iiinl J bhandluntji n, p. 293. 
i. ... II. F. Bl 

ELIMELECH ("r^N = [my J "God is King"): 

A man of the tribe of .ludah. living in Bclhlchem- 

judali at the time of the Judges (Ruth i. 2). Scar- 
city of food compelled him to emigrate with his 

family to Mnali, where lie died, and where one of 
his sous married Ruth (ib. i. Ii, 4). As a relative of 
Boaz (ib. ii. 1, iv. 8), be was of the family of the 
Ile/ronitcs. But according to ]{ab(I5 15.91a), Klim- 
' Ii i h, Salmon (the father of Boaz), Peloni Alinuni, 
and the father Of Naomi were the sons of Nahshon 
in ii Ainiinnlaii R Simon ii contends (i6.) 
thai Elimelech was one of the chiefs of Israel, and 




that liis premature death was his punishment for 
having left the Holy Land and having settled in the 
land of Moab. 

E. o. ii. M. Ski.. 

ELIPHAZ : Tin- first of the time visitors of Job 
(Job ii. 11), surnamed "the Temanite"; supposed 
to have come from Teman, an important citj <>l 
Edom (Amos i. 10; Obad. 9; Jer. xlix. 20). Thus 
Eliphaz appears as the representative of the wis- 
dom of the Edomites, which, according to Obad. 
8. Jer. xlix. 7. and Baruch iii. 22, was famous in 

The name " Eliphaz" fortbe spokesman of Edomite 
wisdom may have been suggested to the author of 
Job by the tradition which gave this name to Esau's 
son, the fatherof Thcman (Gen. xxxvi. 11; I Chron. 
i. 35, 36). In the arguments that pass between Job 
and his friends, it is Eliphaz that opens each of the 
three series of discussions. His one thought is that 
the righteous can not perish ; the wicked alone suf- 
fer, and in measure as they have sinned (Job iv. 7-9). 
See Job. 

Later tradition makes Eliphaz King of Yemen ; 
e.g., the additions to the Arabic translation of the 
Book of Job (comp. Michaelis, "Einleitung in die 
Gottliche Schrift des Alten Testaments," p. 18). 

E. K.— E. G. H. 

ELIPHELET ("God is deliverance"): 1. The 
last of the eleven sous born to David in Jerusalem 
(II Sam. v. 16). In I Chron. iii. 6, 8; xiv. 5, 7, two 
sons of this name (A. V. "Elpalet" and "Eliphalel " ; 
R. V. "Elpelet" and "Eliphelet") are mentioned, 
together with a son named Nogah, making the total 

2. The son of Ahasbai (II Sam . xxiii. 34), iden- 
tical with Eliphal, the son of Ur (I Chron. xi. 35), 
one of David's " thirty " warriors. 

3. The third son of Eshek, a descendant of Jona- 
than (I Chron. viii. 39). 

4. One of the clan of Adonikam, who returned 
from the Exile (Ezra viii. 13 = "Eliphalet," I Esd. 
viii. 39). 

5. A Hashumite, married to a foreign woman 
(Ezra x. 33; I Esd. ix. 33). 

E- g h. E. I. N. 


Learned Jew at the court of Murad I. at Brusa and 
Adrianople during the second half of the fourteenth 
century. Afteratime he lost favorwith the sultan, 
and was disgraced and exiled. He is identified by 
Franz Delitzsch with the author of the "Graecus 
Venetus" (see Jew. Encyc. iii. 188). His contem- 
porary, Gennadius, complains that he was an unbe- 
liever (Zoroastrian), probably because of his philo- 
sophical bent. Eliseus was the teacher of Georgios 
Gemistus Pletho (b. 1355), the teacher of Cardinal 
Bessarion, who presented the manuscript of the 
"Graecus Venetus" to the city of Venice. 

Bibliography : Delitzscb, in preface i<> Oroecue Penettw,ed. 
bardt, Lelpsfc, [875; Bwete. Introduction i,. thi Septu- 
O0int,p.S6; l>. r. Kninki. In Xonatsschrift, xxiv. 424, suir- 
gesta Ibat the author was a Christian. 


ELISHA.— Biblical Data: Successor to the 
prophet Elijah. The name (in the LXX. 'EAwd, 
'Ehcoti ; inLukeiv. 27 'K> ic[a \aloi i seems to denot 

"God is salvation," corresponding to the Sabean 
S^Jjn. and thus be in meaning identical with "Eli- 
shua " (II Sam. v. 15); though the latter name may 
also be interpreted as "God is opulence," which sig- 
nificance Konig prefers for "Elisha." 

The sonof Shaphat, a wealthy landowner in Abel- 
meholah, Elisha grew up on the farm until he, 
though not one of the "sons of the Prophets," was 
summoned from the plow by Elijah. Thereupon, 
after kissing his father and mother, and making a 
sacrificial feast of his oxen for the people, he fol- 
lowed Elijah, his "master" and "father," upon 
whose hands he poured water (I Kings xix. 1G, 
19-21; II Kings iii. 11), i.e., as a servant. 

By the other followers or disciples of Elijah he 
was soon acknowledged as the successor of the de- 
parted master, who in fact had designated Elisha as 
such by leaving his mantle with him (II Kings ii. 
13-15), so that his wish for "a double 

Succeeds portion " of the older prophet's spirit 

Elijah. (ib. ii. 9), in allusion to the preference 
shown the first born son in the divi- 
sion of the father's estate (Deut. xxi. 17), had been 
fulfilled. Elisha's activity was exhibited in polit- 
ical matters as well as in private life, as the follow- 
ing facts show: 

In the expedition against Mesha, King of Moab (II Kings tii. 
4), the Israelitish army was saved through Elisha's advice from 
perishing by thirst ; and Moab, mistaking, under the glare of 
the sun, the water in the trenches for blood, was lured to an 
ill-conceived attack and defeated. 

During the Syrian war Kb. vi. 8 et seq.), Elisha's counsel de- 
feated the strategy of the hostile king, who, desirous to capture 
the prophet, sent out horse and foot against him, only to And 
that the would-be captors were themselves tricked to accompany 
their expected captive into Samaria. 

Samaria, besieged by the Syrians and in dire distress from 
famine, was cheered by his prediction of the raising of the siege 
Kb. vii. 1-2). Elisha, by announcing to Hazael his impending 
succession to the throne, was perhaps the innocent cause of 
Benhadad's assassination Kb. viii. 7 ft ftcq.). By his direction 
one of the sons of the prophets anointed Jehu as king, with the 
purpose of dethroning Joram and of destroying Ahab's dynasty. 
His last act was his prediction to King Joash, who visited him 
when on his deathbed, that he would be victorious over the 
Syrians (ib. xiii. 14-19). 

Of miracles which he performed by virtue of his 
prophetic power, the following are recorded: 

The healing of the waters at Jericho Kb. il. 19); the cursing 

of the little children at Beth-el because they had mockingly 

called after him " Baldhead ! " whereupon two 

Miracles, she-bears fell upon the little ones and tore 
forty-two of them Kb. ii. 23); the ailing of the 
poor widow's vessels with oil (ib. iv. 4); the reviving of the Shu- 
uammite woman's son whose birth he had predicted as a reward 
for her hospitality to him (ib. iv. 8); the rendering innocuous 
of the wild gourds Kb. iv. 38); the feeding of a multitude on an 
insufficient quantity of food, much being left over after their 
hunger had been satisfied (ib. iv. 42); the healing of Naaman, 
the Syrian captain, of leprosy (ib. v.); the punishing of Gehazl 
for covetousness ; and the raising of the iron ax which had 
fallen into the water (ib. vi. 1-7), After his death the very 
touch of his bones revived a man buried by accident in the 
prophet's sepulcher (II Kings xili. 20, 21: compare Eo 
tious [Sirach] xlviii. 13-15). 

Elisha resided for the most part in Samaria, pay- 
ing Jericho and Bethel, where the prophetic settle- 
ments were, an occasional visit (ib. ii. 25, v. 3). 

In Rabbinical Literature : Elisha having 

received a double portion of the prophetic spirit, is 
held to have worked twice as many miracles (16) as 
Elijah (Kimhi to II Kings ii. 14) While Elijah 




restored one person from death, Elisha restored 
two -the son of the Shunammite woman, ami Naa 
man, who, being a leper, was considered as one dead 
illul. 7b; Sanh. 40a). From the incidents of Eli- 
sha 's life a number of halakic piece pis are derived, 
[ndeed, both Elijah and Elisha are considered great 
rabbinical masters. Thus, on their last journey to 
r they held converse, according to one rabbi, 
on the Shema' ; according to another rabbi, on the 
olations for Jerusalem. Others assert thai their 
conversation concerned the mysteries of creation; 
the majority maintain thai they were discussing 
the mysteries of the chariot (Yer. Her. 8d; comp. 
Sotab 49a). This was in due observance of the rah 
hinieal dictum that "two students who walk to 

gether without discussing the Torah deserve to he 
hurried " (Sotah49a). Indeed, an angel had been sent 
to destroy master and pupil, but finding them oc- 
cupied in the study of the Torah, the Prophets, the 
Hagiographa, the Mishnah, the Halakah, and the 
Haggadah, he lost his mastery over them (Tanna debe 
Eliyahu, v. 

Anger deprives a prophet of his divine gift, as 
Elisha experienced (II Kings iii. 14, 15). God's 
spirit rests only upon those whoareina peaceful and 
joyful mood (Pes. 60a, 1 l?a ; Yer. Suk. 55a, bottom). 
The harp that induced Elisha's inspiration played, 
it would seem, without the touch of the musician 
(Pesik. I! , ed. Priedmann, p. 80a). Prom Elisha's 
refusal to receive the King of Israel it is deduced 
that one should not look upon the face of a wicked 
man (Talk, to II Kings iii. ; Meg. 28b). His having 
"poured water upon Elijah's hands" is made the 
text for enlarging on the benefits derived by disci 
pies from ministering to great masters (Ber. 7b). 
The hospitality of the Shunammite woman is re- 
ferred to as typical (Cant. K. ii. 5), and as showing 
that a woman always knows the character of a 
guest better than a man does (Ber. 10b). The Rab- 
bis take pains to account for his calling the bears 
to devour the children, by ascribing the coming of 
the hears anil the appearance of the woods which 
had not been seen before to his miracle working 
power (Sofah 46b, 47a, Yalk. toll Kings ii. 21). The 
offenders were not children, but were called so 
("ne'arim") because they tacked (" meno'arin ") all 
religion (Sotah 40b). The number (42) rent by the 
hears corresponds to the number of the sacrifices 
(42) offered by Balak. Had the Bethlehemites shown 
hi indue courtesy by sending him on his way attend 
id in a manlier befitting his dignity, this incident 
would not have occurred (Sotah 18a). Yet Elisha 
was punished fortius act as well as for his rude 
treatment of Gchazi (Sanh. 107b). The man whom 
he revived from death, according to some, did not 

live for more than one hour; this was toshow that 

tin' wicked should not be buried with the righteous 
(Sanh. 47b; Pirke R. El. xx x iii i. Shalom ben Tik 
wah was the name of the man revived by Elisha's 
hones ; according to some he did not die immediately 
after, but lived (II Kings xxii. 1 1 1 and begot a son, 
Hananicel xxii. 7). Elisha was a prophet for 
over sixiy years, according to Seder 'Olam xix. and 
Yalk. to II Kings xiii 20. 

Pirke K. El. (I.e.) reports, in the name of R. Joshua 
ben Karhah, that an\ w. mian who saw Elisha would 

die. The Shunammite was the sister of Ahishag, 
the wife of lihio, the prophet. When she repaired 
lo Mount Carmel to seek the intervention of the 

prophet in behalf of her son, Gehazi, struck by her 

beauty, took undue liberties with her. Elisha sent 
his servant with his staff bidding him not to speak 
wilh any one; hut Gehazi, being a skeptic and a 
scoffer, disobey ed the injunction. 
s. s E. G. II. 

Critical View: As in the case of Elijah, the 

critical school holds that the account of Elisha's life 
anil activity is taken from an old cycle of Elisha 
slories current in various versions before incorpo- 
rated into the Books of Samuel-Kings. The con- 
tents an- characteristic not of a book of history, but 
of one of legends, miracles being the main preoccu- 
pation of the prophet. The purpose of some of the 
accounts is clearly that of exalting the authority of 
the prophetic order and of inculcating obedience to 
and respect for it. The Elisha cycle is a clear imi- 
tation of the Elijah book. The miracles performed 
by Elisha have the appearance of being duplicates 
of those which are credited to his master, with obvi- 
ous efforts at heightening them. Of this kind are 
the willow's oil, the revival of the child, and the 
anointing of Ila/.ael and Jehu. Even from a literary 
point of view the Elisha biography reveals the hands 
of imitators. Each of the prophets is ostentatiously 
designated as the "man of God"; the names of the 
kings are mentioned only incidentally ; and in the 
few cases where they are found, it is probable that 
they were inserted later. This is characteristic of 
legends: names are always secondary considerations. 
The Elisha cycle is a bundle of anecdotes loosely 
strung together. Contradictions therefore occur, as 
might be expected ; e.g., II Kings v. 1 contradicts ib. 
vi. 8. Peace is said to he between Israel and Damas- 
cus in the former, war in the latter passage; v. 27 
makes Gehazi a leper; nevertheless in viii. 1 heap- 
pears without any further ado before the king. The 
shifting of Elisha's places of residence point s in the 
same direction, and so does the cir- 
Incon- cumstance that Gehazi is now a very 
sistencies important personage (iv. 8, viii. 1), 
of Elisha and now of little consequence (iv. 8, 
Cycle. v. 1). Again, some of the stories are 
altogether without historical material, 
while others, notwithstanding their legendary char 
actor, give historical notes of value (iii. 1, vi. 24, 
viii. 7, ix. 1). This Elisha cycle, therefore, can not 
lie considered as a coherent production of one au- 
thor. Such anecdotes arise spontaneously among 
the people, and are later compiled, without great 
care to harmonize the discrepancies. Further, the 

redactor of Kings may have drawn I nun t wo or more 
versions of Elisha's doings. 

To regard them as historical is chronologically 

impossible also. The events almost all take place 
under .loram. But between II Kings iv. 10 and iv. 
is an interval of at least seven to eight years is pre- 
supposed; then follows the famine, continuing for 

another seven years. .loram, however, reigned only 

twelve years (iii, 1). To distribute the happenings 

over tin reigns of .loram. Jehu, .lehoaha/.. and Joash 

might he admissible, but the story itself nowhere 
gives a definite clue as to time, legend being as 

Elisha ben Abraham 



indifferent to accuracy in dates as it is to definite- 

ness of places and names. 

Bibliography: The commentaries "f Klostermann, Thenius, 
and Benzinger; the histories of Ewald, Klltol. and Stade; 
the Bible dictionaries bv Cheyne, Hastings, Scnenkel, Itiehm, 
and Vigouroux: Herzog-Hauck, ReaJ-Encyc. s.v.; the Intro- 
ductions and F.inleltungen by Driver. I)e Wette, Schroder. 
Strack. Znckler, Kdnig. Baudissin, isieek-Wellhausen, and 
Coruill ; P. Cassel, Der Prophet Elisha, Berlin, 1860. 

E. K.— E. G. H. 

Talmudist; flourished at the end of the fifteenth 
century. He was the author of " Magen Dawid," 
a vindication of David Kimhi's grammar against 
the strictures of Efodi and David ben Yahya (Con- 
stantinople, 1517). The book is prefaced by an 
acrostic poem, giving the author's name. 
Bibliography: Michael. Or ha-Jjfayyim, p. 2X2; Steinschnei- 
der. Cat. Bodl. col. 96S; Dukes, in Cn-ient, viii. 182. 

L. G. M. Sel. 


Russian rabbi; died at Grodno July 1, 1T49. He 
was rabbi and chief of the yeshibah of Lucicz, Vol- 
hynia, Russia. Elisha was the author of "Kab we- 
Naki," a short commentary on the Mishnah (Am- 
sterdam, 1697), and he annotated and published, 
under the title "Pi Shenayim" (Altona, 1735), Asbe- 
ri's commentary on the Mishnah of Zera'im. Ac- 
cording to Benjacob ("Ozar ha-Sefarim," p. 382, 
No. 2489), the first edition of the "Kab we-Naki " 
was published in 1664; from this fact it may be con- 
cluded that Elisha lived to be more than a hundred 
years old. 

Bibliography: Nepl-Ghirondi, Toledot Gedole Yisrael, p. 7; 
Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 967 ; Fiirst, Bibl. Jucl. i. 339. 
k. M. Sel. 

ELISHA BEN ABTJYAH (called also by the 
Rabbis Aher, "the other") Born in Jerusalem be- 
fore 70; flourished in Palestine at the end of the 
first century and the beginning of the second. At one 
time the Rabbis were proud to recognize him as of 
their number; but later their opposition to him grew 
so intense that they even refrained from pronouncing 
his name, and referred to him in terms used to desig- 
nate some vile object (" dabar aher, " lit. " another 
thing "). For this reason it is almost impossible to de- 
rive from rabbinical sources a clear picture of his per- 
sonality, and modern historians have differed greatly 
in their estimate of him. According to Griitz, he 
was a Karpotian Gnostic; according to Siegfried, a 
follower of l'hilo; according to Dubsch, a Christian; 
according to Smolenskin and Weiss, a victim of the 
inquisitor Akiba. 

Of Elisha's youth ami of his activity as a teacher 
of the Law very little is known. He was the son of 
an esteemed and rich citizen of Jerusalem, and was 
trained for the career of a scholar. His praise of 
this method of education is the only saying that the 
Mishnah has found worth perpetuating. Accord- 
ing to Abot iv. 25, his favorite say- 
Youth and tog was, "Learning in youth is like 
Activity, writing upon new paper, but learning 
in old aire is like writing upon paper 

which has air 1\ been used." Elisha wasa student 

of Greek; as the Talmud expresses it," Aher's tongue 
was never tired of singing Greek songs " (Yer. Meg. 
i. 9), which, according to some, caused his apostasy 
(Hag. 16b. below). Bacher has very properly re- 

marked that the similes which Elisha is reported to 
have used (Ab. R. N. xxix.) show that he was a man 
of the world, acquainted with wine, horses, and ar- 
chitecture. He must have acquired a reputation 
as an authority iu questions of religious practise, 
since in Mo'ed Katun 20b one of his halakic decisions 
is recorded — the only one in his name, though there 
may be others under the names of different teachers. 
The Babylonian Talmud asserts that Elisha, while a 
teacher in the bet ha-midrash, kept forbidden books 
(" sifre minim") hidden in his clothes. This statement 
is not found in the Jerusalem Talmud, and if at all 
historical, may possibly mean that he also studied the 
writings of the Sadducees, who, owing to changes . 
made bj r the censors, are sometimes called "minim." 
The oldest and most striking reference to the 
views of Elisha is found in the following baraita 
(Hag. 14b; Yer. ii. 1); 

" Four [sages] entered paradise -Ben 'Azzai, Ben Zoma, Aher, 
and Akiba. Ben 'Azzai looked and died: P,en Zoma went mad; 
Aher destroyed the plants ; Akiba alone came out unhurt." 

There can be no doubt that the journey of the 
"four" to paradise, like the ascension of Enoch 
(in the pre-Christian books of Enoch) and of so 
many other pious men, is to be taken literally and 
not allegorically. This conception of the baraita is 
supported by the use of the phrase D112? DJ3J 
("entered paradise"), since j; 3"> D33J 
The Four ("entered the Garden of Eden " = par- 
Who adise) was a common expression (Derek 
Entered Ere? Zuta i. ; Ab. R. N. xxv.). It 
Paradise, means that Elisha, like Paul, in a mo- 
ment of ecstasy beheld the interior of 
heaven — in the former's case, however, with theeffei t 
that he destroyed the plants of the heavenly garden. 
The Talmud gives two different interpretations of 
this last phrase. The Babylonian Talmud says: 

"What is the meaning of 'Aher destroyed the plants'? 
Scripture refers to him (Eccl. v. 5 [A. V. 0]) when it says: 'Suf- 
fer not thy mouth to cause thy flesh to sin.' What does this sig- 
nify ? In heaven Aher saw Metatron seated while he wrote 
down the merits of Israel. Whereupon Aher said: ' We have 
been taught to believe that no one sits in heaven, . . . or are 
there perhaps two supreme powers?' Then a heavenly \"ice 
was heard: " Turn, O backsliding children (Jer. hi. 14), with the 
exception of Aher.' " 

The dualism with which the Talmud charges 
him has led some scholars to see here Persian, 
Gnostic, or even Plutonian dualism. They forget 
that the reference here to Metatron — a specifically 

Babylonian idea, which would prob- 

The Tal- ably be unknown to Palestinian rab- 

mudic Ex- biseven five hundred years after Elisha 

planation. — robs the passage of all historical 

worth. The story is of late origin, as 
is seen from the introductory words, which stand in 
no connection with the context, as they do in the 
parallel passage in the Jerusalem Talmud. This 
latter makes no mention of Elisha's dualism; but it 
relates that in the critical period following the re- 
bellion of Bar Kokba, Elisha visited the schools and 
attempted to entice the students from the study of 
the Torah, in order to direct their energies to some 
more practical occupation ; and it is to him, there- 
fore, that the verse "Suffer not thy mouth to cause 
thy flesh to sin" (Eccl. v. 5) is to be applied. In 
connection with this the Biblical quotation is quite 



Elisha ben Abraham 


intelligible, as according to another haggadah (Shab. 
3th; Eccl. R. v. 5) "flesh" here means children — 

spiritual children, pupils — whom Elisha killed with 
his mouth by luring them from the study of the 
Torah. The Babylonia amoraimmus) have known 

this story, from which tiny took the concluding part 

ittached it to another legend. The Jerusalem 
Talmud is also the authority lor tin- statement that 
Elisha played the part of an informer during the Ha 
drianic persecutions, when the Jews were ordered to 
violate the laws of the Torah. As evidence of this 
it is related that when the Jews were ordered to do 
work on the Sabbath, they tried to perform it in a 
way which could be considered as not profaning the 

>ath. But Elisha betrayed the Pharisees to the 
Roman authorities. Thus it is probable that the 
antipathy of Elisha was not directed against Judaism 
in general, but only against Pharisaism. The rea 

given for his apostasy is also characteristic. 
He saw how one man had lost his life while fulfill- 
ing a law for the observance of which the Torah 
promised a long life (Dent. xxii. 7i. whereas another 
man who broke the same law was not hurt in the 
least. This practical demonstration, as well as the 
[rightful sufferings of the martyrs during the Hadri- 
anic persecutions, strengthened his conviction that 
there was no reward for virtue in this life or the 
next. These Statements of the Jerusalem Talmud 
are no doubt based on reliable tradition, as they are 

confirmed by tin' Babylonian Talmud (Kill. 39b). 

jig in mind what is said about Elisha, therecan 
he little doubt that he was a Saildiieee. 

The harsh treatment he received from the Phari- 

n as due to his having deserted their ranks at 

such a critical time. Quite in har- 

Elisha an mony with this supposition are the 

"Epicu- other sins laid to his charge; namely, 

rean " that he rode in an ostentatious manner 

through tin- sin its of Jerusalem on a 

l>;i\ of Atonement which fell upon a Sabbath, ami 

that he was bold enough to overstep the "tehum" 

(the limits of the Sabbath-day journey). Both the 

Jerusalem ami the Babylonian Tiib Is agree here. 

ami cite this as proof that Elisha turned from l'har 

isaism to heresy . [t was just Buch non observance of 
customs thai excited the angi rof Akiba(Sotah 27b). 
The mention of the "Holy of Holies" in this passage 
is not an anachronism, as GrStz thinks. For while 

it is true that Eliezerand Joshua were present as tin 
geonim par excellence at Elisha's circumcision — 

K bich must, therefore, have occurred after the death 

Johanan hen Zakkai (80 o.i..)— it is also true 

that tin- " Holy of Holies " Is likewise mentioned in 

connection with Rabbi Akiba (Mak., end); indeed, 

the use of Ibis expression is due to the fact that the 

Rabbis held holiness to he inherent in the place, not 
in tie- building i Feb. 6b). 

Tin- same passage from the Jerusalem Talmud re 

feis to Elisha as being alive "hen his pupil I; Mejr 
had bi come a renovt m d b acher. According to the 
assumption made abovi he must have reached his 
entieth year at that time. If Elisha were a Sad 
ducee, the friendship constantly shown him bj R 

Mir could be undent I This friendship would 

have been impossible had Elisha been an apostate or 

a man of loose morals, as has been asserted. Sad- 

dun is and Pharisees, however, lived in friendly in- 
tercourse with one another I for example, liabban 

Gamaliel with Sadducees; 'Er. 77b) For legends 
concerning Elisha see Johanan ben Natpaha; 

MkIk; compare also GNOSTICISM. 

Bibliography : Grata, QnotUetamua und Judenthum. pp> 

5i". 71 ; I'. S lenski. Silmintlivlie Hi >7,e, II. 26! 278; A. Jel- 

llnek. Eliecha b. Abuia. Lelpslc. 1*17: I. 11. Weiss, In>r. il- 
140 143; M. Dubsch, In He-Bgluf. v. 86-72; Siegfried, Pftito 
non Alacandrien, pp. 285-287; Bacber.^.0. Tan. 1.482-486; 
Hoffmann, Toledai EUscfiab. Abuja, Vienna. 1880; 8. 
Rnbln, Fitzlfc., ShetomoH, pp. 17-2X, Cracow, 1MK>: M. Fried- 
tander, Forchristlich. Jlhl. OnmticUmus, 1898, pp. 100 et 
Reg.; Back, Eltachn h.Aluiin-Ailu r. Frankfort-im-the-Maln, 
IS'.H. ('(.inpim- nisi. M. Letteris' Hebrew drama Ben Ahuja, 
an adaptation of Goethe's Faust, Vienna, 1865 ; B. Kaplan, In 
Open Court, Aug., 1902. 

L. G. 

ELISHAH : Name occurring in the so-called table 
of generations, Gen. x. 4 (comp. I Chron. i. 7) and in 
I .x.xvii. 7. In Gen. x. 4 Elishah is one of the 

four sons of Javan ; therefore a people or a country 
related to the lonians. In Ezek. xxvii. 7 the name 
designates a region in the Mediterranean Sea, whence 
Tyre is reported to have imported purple. Various 
explanations and identifications have been proposed. 
Halevy ("R. E. .1." xiii. 14) and others regard it as 
the Peloponnesus, which in fact was celebrated for 
its purple murex, the name being an echo of " Elis," if 
not of " Hellas " An old tradition (Josephus, "Ant." 
i II, ^ 2) regards Elishah as >Eolis (see Yer.Targ. to 
Gen. x. 4). II. Derenbourg ("Nouveaux Melanges 
Orientaux," pp. ZZ&etseq . English transl. in " He- 
braica." Oct., 1*!)7, p. 7), I.eiiormant. (" Les Origines 
de l'Histoire d'apres la Bible," etc., ii. 2, 34). Dill- 
mann (Commentary, lien. x. 4). and Eagarde ("Mit- 
theilungen," ii. 261) regard it as denoting Sicily or 
the lower part of Italy, which view is supported by 
theTargumtoEzek. (S'^C'K njna)- Carthage, the 
city founded by Princess Elissa, has been suggested 
as identical with this Biblical Elishah (Ed. Meyer, 
"Gesehiehte des Altertums," i 282; Stade, "De 
Populo Javano," pp. 8 it .in/.). This latter view, 
declared to be very attractive in Gesenius, "Th." 
».r., is exposed to the objection that the Carthagin- 
ians never called their city by the name of the 

Princess Elissa. < if all these suggestions, that which 

identifies it with Sicily has the strongest element of 
probability. "Javan" in the table, and elsewhere 
in the old Testament, stands for the mainland of 
Greece. His "sons," therefore, are Creek colonies. 
Elishah is named w il h Tarshish i soulhu est coast of 
Spain I, K it I i in. and Dodaniin |C\ puis and Rhodes), 
and thus must have been another Creek colony. 
that namely, in the south of Italy or Sicily. The 
Hebrews, through Phenician sources, had certainly 

heard of this region, as they bad heard Of the much 

more remote Tarshish, 

E. G. il. 

ELIZABETHGRAD. See Ym.iswi pgrad. 
ELIZABETHPOL. See Yki.isavki cm. 
ELIZAPHAN ("Cod has protected"); Bono! 

I //id ; prince of the Kohalhites who bore the sane 

tuary and its furniture during the wandering in the 

wilderness (Num. iii. 80, 81). His descendants 
helped to bring the Ark to the city of David (1 
Chron, XV. N), and aided in the cleansing of the 
Temple for Hezekiali (II Chron. xxix. 13). 

B, o. ii. E. I. N. 




ELKAN, MEIR. Bee FiJRTH, Mi in b. \- 


ELKAN, MOSES : Russian physician and He- 
brew scholar; born at Tulchin, government of Po- 
dolsk; died at St. Petersburg Jan. 31, 1822. He 
wrote: a "shir," a hymn in Hebrew and French, 
addressed to Czar Alexander I., Munich,1811; and 
a manual, in German, of the history of the Jews, 
accompanied by a geographical sketch of Palestine, 
for the use of Jewish schools, later translated into 
Russian by Z. Minor, Moscow, 1880. 

Bibliography: Voakhod, 1881, ii. 41; Zeitlin, BOA. Pust- 
MendelB. p. 77. 
h.'k. M. Sel. 

ELKAN AH : Father of Samuel, livingat Hamuli 
(I Sam. i. 19, ii. 11; comp. xxviii. 3), in the district 
of Zuph. Hence in I Sam. i. 1 his ancestral line is 
carried back to Zuph (comp. I Sam. ix. 5 et seg.). 
The word D'EIV in I Sam. i. 1 should be emended to 
'BlVn ("the Zuphite"), the final mem being a ditto- 
gram of that with which the next word, "iriD, be 
ginsjas the LXX. has it, Zeupa. Elkanah is also rep 
resented in I Sam. i. 1 as hailing from the mountains 
of Ephraim, the word TTISN here denoting this 
(comp. Judges xii. 5 ; IKings xi. 26) — if indeed TPBN' 
is not a corruption for "Ephraimite" — and not, 
as in Judges i. 2 and I Sam. xvii. 12, an inhabitant 
of Ephrata (see LXX.). His genealogy is also 
found in a pedigree of the Kohathites (I Chron. vi. 
3-15) and in that of Heman, his great-grandson (///. 
vi. 18-22). According to the genealogical tables, 
Elkanah was a Levite, a fact otherwise not men- 
tioned in the books of Samuel. The fact that Elka- 
nah, a Levite, was denominated an Ephraimite is 
analogous to the designation of a Levite belonging 
to Judah (Judges xvii. 7). 

e. g. n. E. K. 

ELKIN, BENJAMIN : Prominent reformer in 
the London community ; born at Portsea, England, 
Jan. 9, 1783; died in London Jan., 1848. At the 
age of twenty-one he emigrated to Barbados, where 
he plied his trade as a watchmaker. 

After a visit to England in 1810, he abandoned 
his occupation for that of a general merchant. In a 
few years he became one of the most opulent mer- 
chants in Barbados. Elkin then devoted himself 
to the improvement of the internal affairs of the 
Barbados congregation. 

In 1830 Elkin returned with his family to Eng- 
land, and joined the Great Synagogue. He joined 
heartily in the movement for the establishment of 
a new synagogue in the metropolis, with new fea- 
tures tending toward greater decorum in 'the service, 
and wrote some able pamphlets in its defense ; ami 
his " Rejected Letters" had considerable influence on 
the Reform movement. Hisaction, however, in pub- 
lishing a translation of "Eighteen Treatises of the 
Mishnah " without revision or consent of the transla- 
tors was repudiated by them. Elkin published a 
pamphlet on the subject, disclaiming any intention 
of offense. 

The synagogue was consecrated in Jan., 1 «-!'.'; but 
Elkin was not excluded from his membership of the 
Great Synagogue, in spite of the decree of excom- 
munication which had been issued against the Re 

Bibliography: Jewish Chronicle (London), Jan. 1 and 14, 
1848 : Jacobs anil Wnif, Bihliutheca A nvht-Judaica, Nos. 7U4, 
7iio, London, 1S88. 

J. G. L. 

sian physician and anthropologist; born in Mohilev- 
on-the-Dnieper in 1869; graduated (M.D.) from Mos- 
cow University in 1893. Having paid particular at- 
tention to anthropology, the Society of Friends of 
Natural Science, Anthropology, and Ethnography 
delegated him to investigate the physical anthro- 
pology of the inhabitants of Russian Poland, and he 
has produced the following works as a result of his 
investigations: "Privislyanskie Polyaki. Antropolo- 
gicheski i Kraniologicheski Ocherk, " in " Trudy An- 
tropologicheskavo Otdyela," xviii., 1896; " Yevrei," 
ib. xxi., Moscow, 1903. The latter is the largest, 
and most comprehensive work ever published on the 
anthropology of any section of Jews. 

"• R. M. Ft. 

ELKOSHITE 0:."p;>Nn) : Obscure ethnic or 
patronymic name of the prophet Nahum (Nahum 
i. 1). According to Jerome, Elkosh, the birthplace 
of the prophet, was the name of a village in Galilee; 
according to others, of a village to the east of the 
Jordan. Peiser ("Zeitschrift filr die Alttestament- 
liche Wissenschaft," vii. 349) thinks the name is de- 
rived from "Kosh," name of an Assyrian divinity. 
Kimlii and Ibn Ezra explained it as being either 
ethnic or patronymic; in the latter case "Elkosh'' 
may be compared with " Kish," the father of Saul (I 
Sam ix. 1). 

k. g. ii. 51. Sel. 


Polish rabbi of the sixteenth century; author of 
" Yesod Emuuah," a treatise on the dogmas of Ju- 
daism, Cracow, 1582. He also wrote "Y'esod ha- 
Tcshubah," on repentance, extracts from other 
works, and chiefly from the "Yoreh Hatta'im" of 
Eleazar b. Judah of Worms, ib. 1582. 

Bibliograpiiv: Nepi-Ghtrondl, Taledot Qeaole Florae?, p. 247; 

Stelnschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 1139; Fiirst, Bibl.Jvd. I. 88. 

k. M. Ski,. 

ELLINGER, MORITZ : American journalist, 
born in Fiirth, Bavaria, Oct. 17, 1830. Emigrating 
to the United States in 1854, he became interested in 
in American municipal and communal affairs. In 
1866 he received a congressional nomination. From 
1873 to 1876 he was appointment clerk in the finance 
department of the city of New York; from 1876 to 
1881 he held the office of coroner; and from 18S8 to 
the present time (1903) has been record clerk and 

Ellinger has been prominently identified with the 
[.( ). B. 11. ; he has held the position of secretary of its 
executive committee (1869-79), and for many years 
he edited its organ, "The Menorah." Healsoedited 
"The Jewish Times.'' Ellinger is a member of the 
Society of American Authors. A. 

<>r jnj) BAR YOSPA (epv) : German rabbi; born 
177-,': died July 4, 1839, at Bingenon-the-Rhine. 
According to the archives of Mayence. he and his 
brother Lob were rabbis of Mayence in 1808. From 
1809 to 1821 Nathan was director of the Talmud 
school at Hamburg; and from 1821 till his death, 




rabbi at Bingeu (sec L5wenstein, "Geschichte der 
Juden in der Kurpfalz," p. 17-', note 2). Several 
Talmudic manuscripts written byEllingerare in the 
Bodleian Library, Oxford (Neubauer, "Cat, Bodl. 
Hcbr. MSS " Nos. 528-532, 862, 966). In the He 
morbuch of the community of Bingen (No. 073) lie 
is called "ha-kadosh weha-tahor," although other- 
wise only martyrs are mentioned as kndosh. 

Ellinger's brother, Lob Ellinger, rabbi of Ma- 

e, was born in 1770; he died 9th Ab, 1847. He is 

called" LiJb Si bnadig" (from " Schneittach ") in the 

obituary of the Memorbuch of Mayence. Carmoly 

has u ritten his biography. 

There are also Ellingersin Prankfort-on-tbe Main. 
who came originally from Filrth (see Horowitz, 
"Inschriften," Nos. 1884, 2034, 3041, 5648). The 
Mayence register of 1763 mentions a Moyses Low 
Ellinger, designating him as "neuer [».< . 

a newcomer] who was placed under protection." 
The "Guide de la Ville de Mayence " of the year IX. 
of the French Republic mentions various members 
Of the Ellinger family. 

M. Gr. 

man; born in London Jan. 24, 1823; died al 
i) June 20, 1887; son of S. II. Ellis, for some time 
treasurer of the Great Synagogue, London. After 
matriculating at the University of London in 1889, 
he had a distinguished career at Haile} bury < lollege, 
and then entered the civil service of the Bombay 
presidency, in which he remained for thirty three 
\ ears, being employed mainly in the revenue branch 
of the administration. 

His various appointments culminated in his being 
Dominated in 1862 an additional member, and in 1865 
an ordinary member, of the Bombay council. Five 
years later he was promoted to the viceroy's coun- 
cil. In 1875 Ellis returned to England ami was made 
K C.S.I, and a member oi I lie Indian council in Lon 
don, from which he retired in 1885. On his return 
he was likewise' elected a vice-president of the 
Anglo-Jewish Association, chairman and later vice 
president of the council of Jews' College, and vice 
president of the United Synagogue. 

B1BLIOOHAPMV : Vtiirr nf Jiirnh, Julv, 1st'!; Time.t (London I. 

June 24, L8Si ; Times of India, June W, 1887. 
.i G. L. 

ELLOJI SHAHIR ("Elijah, the Ballad-Sin 
er r ): Beni Israel poet of the eighteenth century . 
born and lived at Bombay, British India; his natal 
name was " Klloji Nagawkar." He was of the I I 
nt the Kalgiwallas, which is privileged to carry a 
pi nine or crest in the t urban. It is said that he im 
provised many religious and moral poems, both in 
M iinatianil Hindustani, in the form of ballads 
of which arc still extant, and that he was invited 
to the curt of the Peshwa at Poona to exhibit his 

.i J. Ih 

ELLSTATTER, MOETTZ : Ministerof flnam e 
pi I he grand duchy of Baden; horn Match 11, 1827, 
al Carlsruhe, where his father was a furniture 
manufacturer, Prom 1846 to 1850 he studied at 
Heidelberg and Bonn, devoting himself mainly to 

law. In 1854 he was made " Referenda! . " and aftei 

preparing for the position of " Anwalt " (counselor 

at law) went to Berlin (1850) ami entered a banking- 
tiouse. Here he became known to Mathy, 
quently minister of finance. In 1859 he began to 
practise law in Durlach, and soon came to the front. 
The last barriers which bad kept .lews from the 
bight r public offices being removed (1862), he was 
appointed district court assessor in Mannheim (1864). 
In the following year he was made counselor of the 
district court (" Kreisgerichtsrath "). In 1860 Mathy 
became ministerof finance, and at once appointed 
Ellstatter as legal referee, entrusting him with the 
control of important financial matters. On Feb. 12, 
isos. after the death of Mathy. Ellstatter was en- 
trusted with the affairs of the ministry of finance, 
despite the racial prejudice which still existed. He 

controlled Baden's financial policy during the diffi- 
cult years that followed the Franco-German war, 
ami his « ise \\ stem of taxation is still followed 

In 1871 Ellstatter became a member of the Bundes- 
rath, in which position he drew up the reports of 
the committee on the proposed legislation of the 
coinage system. lie became councilor of state in 
isi'.': privy councilor of the first rank in 1876; and 
director of railways in 1881, when the railroads came 
under the supervision of the finance department; 
ami iveeh ed the title of minister of finance in 1888. 
As director of railways he rejected many useless 

schemes originated by interested deputies. He re- 
tired from public life in 1893 on account of illness. 
Ellstfttter has taken little interest in Jewish affairs. 

s. A Blum. 

ary chief rabbi of Mogadoi .Morocco; horn at Rabat 

in L809; died in London .Ian '.», 1886 He removed 

to Mogador at the age of seventei d, ami, devoting 

himself to theological study, was elected in 1840 
chief rabbi of the community In 1881 be added 
to lus clerical functions the calling of a merchant. 
lie also held the honorary post of Austrian vice- 
consul, ami in 1873 was decorated by the Emperor 
of Austria with the Order of Francis Joseph. His 
influential position enabled him to render valuable 
Services in mitigating the persecution endured by 

the Jews. Elmalefa was a valued correspondent 

oi i in- A.nglo-Jewish Association, ami the establish 
mint of a Jewish girls' school at Mogador was due 
to his perseverance. 

Elmaleh was the author of "Tokpo slid Yosel," 
a treatise on Jew ish legislation. lie introduced into 

Gibraltar the "Importa National," an annual tax 

paid h\ Jews for the benefit of the poor, ami levied 
on trade at the rale of 1 per cent 

Bibliography Jewish Chrnnich and Jewtsh World (Lon- 
don), .tan. I.".. 1886. 

.i. G. L. 

ELMIRA: City in the state of New York. The 
first settlemenl of Jews dates from about 1851 In 
1860 twelve families organized a congregation under 

the name "Children of Israel," the services being 

conducted by Jacob Stahl. In 1885 Or. Adolph 
M Radio became rabbi, ami introduced the Jastrow 

prayer hook. In 1**0 a new synagogue was deili 

. ated The successors of Dr. Radin were Rabbis 

Koplstein. I'oseinan, ami Jacob Man us the last 

named is the present 1 1902) incumbent, The congre 




gation now includes about sixty families. Since 
1881 Russian Jews have settled in Elmira and have 
funned two Orthodox congregations: Shomre Ha- 
dath. founded 1883, and the Chevra Talmud Torah, 
organized 1888. Elmira has a branch of the Council 
of Jewish Women, lodges of the Order of the B'nai 
B'rith and B'rith Abraham, and several benevolent 
societies. The Jewish population is about 1,200. 
Jacob Schwartz, who died in 1891, aged 38, was the 
leading lawyer of the city. A. Anhalt is the overseer 
of the pour, and Dr. Jonas Jacobs the city physician. 

The New York State Reformatory at Elmira has 
(1902) 180 Jewish inmates. They are between the 
ages of 16 and 29, are taught trades, reading, and 
writing, and may regain their liberty in twelve 
months by good behavior. A small Jewish library 
is provided for them, and Jewish services are con- 
ducted at the Reformatory every other Sunday and 
on Jewish holidays. Twenty-four Jewish Confed- 
erate prisoners are buried in Woodlawn Cemetery. 

A. J. M. 

ELNATHAN ("God has given"): 1. An inhab- 
itant of Jerusalem, and the maternal grandfather of 
Jehoiachin (II Kings xxiv. 8), probably identical 
with the sou of Achbor, who was sent to conduct 
the offending prophet Urijali back from Egypt, and 
who entreated Jehoiachin not to "burn the roll" 
(Jer. xxvi. 22; xxxvi. 12,25). 

2. Three men of this name are mentioned in the 
list of those sent for by Ezra (Ezra viii. 10) when 
he encamped near Ahava on his journey to Jerusa- 
lem. Two are " chieftains " (D'tJ'KI), and the third 
isone of the D'JUD ("teachers"); I Esd. viii. 44 
names only two. 

E. G. H. E. I. N. 

ELOHIM. See God. 

ELOEIST : Assumed author of those parts of 
the Hexateuch characterized by the use of the He- 
brew word "Elohim" (= "God "). The term is em- 
ployed by the critical school to designate one (or 
two) of the component parts of the Hexateuch. 
Jean Astbuc (d. 1766), in his "Conjectures sur les 
Memoires Originaux " (Brussels. 1753), was the first 
to call attention to the occurrence in Genesis and in 
Ex. i. and ii. of two names for the Deity, "Elohim " 
and "Yhwii," and to base upon this fact a theory 
concerning the composite character of the first 
Mosaic book. II is hypothesis was developed by 
Johannes Gottfried Eichhorn ("Einleitung in das 
Alte Testament," 17SO-S3), and again elaborated by 
Karl David Ilgen (" Die TJrkunden des Jerusalem- 
ischen Tempelarchivs,"1798), who coined the term 
"Elohist," applying it to two sources in which the 
Deity was consistently designated by "Elohim," 
distinct from a third in which " Yiiwii " was used. 
This theory was adopted by Hupfeld (" Die Quellen 
der Genesis," 1853), whose acceptance of "Elohist" 
as a recognized term was followed by almost all 
Subsequent writers on the Hexateuch from the 
critical point of view, though the connotation of 
the term was not definitely fixed at first. In earlier 
Hexateuchal analysis "Elohist" appears for the 
" Grundschrift " attributed to the first Elohist, and 
subsequently called the "Priestly Code" (Riehra, 
"Die Gesetzgebung Mosis im LandeMoab," 1854; 

Noldeke, " Untersuchungen zur Kritik des Alten 
Testaments," 1869; Dillmann, "Hexateuch Kom- 
mentar," 1875); but after Graf (taking up the sug- 
gestions of De Wette, Ed. Reuss, Wilhelm Vatke, 
and J. F. George), Julius Wellhausen and Kueuen, 
the symbol E (Elohist) has come to designate cer- 
tain historical portions of the Hexateuch, while the 
so-called " Grundschrift " is referred to by the symbol 
P (Priestly Code). 

In the views of the critical school E forms part of 
the "prophetic strata" (Kuenen) of the Hexateuch, 
which, known collectively as JE, are held to be de- 
rived from two originally independent histories, 
with only occasional references to legal matters; the 
symbol J (= Jahvist) applying to passages in which 
the name "Yhwii" is predominant. 
Pe- The work of E has not been preserved 

culiarities as extensively as that of J; in many 
of E. parts of JE only fragments of E are 

extant, while J on the whole presents 
a well-connected narrative. It is a moot point 
whether E originally contained the story of Creation; 
but it seems certain that a goodly portion of the 
Elohistic patriarchal history has been lost, the first 
large section from E being Gen. xx\, which clearly 
supposes some preceding account of Abraham's 
career. In the biography of Moses, E again is used 
very sparsely. It is apparent from Ex. xxxiii. 6-11 
that E must have given an account of the events at 
Horeb, though Josh, xxiv., which seems to beasum- 
mary of E, makes no allusion to them. E names 
Aaron and Miriam along with Moses, and to a cer- 
tain extent assigns to the two former the position of 
opponents. Joshua in E is preeminently the servant 
of Moses. As such he commands the military 
forces, and is also Moses' house-mate (Ex. xvii., 
xxiv). It is clear that E regards Moses as the 
priest of the oracle and Joshua as his predestined 
successor. Aaron plays a subsidiary part through- 
out. 'Whether E regards Moses as the lawgiver 
depends upon whether the Book of the Covenant 
(Ex. xx. -xxiv.) formed a part of E or not. The 
more recent critics incline to the opinion that it did 
not (see Holzinger, "Der Hexateuch," pp. 176-177, 
Leipsic, 1893). 

The use of " Elohim " for " God " is the most nota- 
ble characteristic of E. " Adonai " and " El "occur oc- 
casionally (Gen. xx. 4, xxx. 20, xxxv. 
Lin- 7, xliii. 14). " Yhwii " was unknown 
guistic before Moses (Ex. vi.). E loves such 
Character- combinations as "Elohe abi," "Elohe 
istics. abika," and also employs "ha-Elo- 
him " and " Elohim " as a nomen pro- 
prium even after, according to its own theory, 
" Yiiwii " had been revealed as the proper appellation 
(comp. Gen. xxxi. 5,29,-12; xlvi. 1,3; Ex. xviii. 4). 
The aboriginal population of Canaan is designated 
as "Emori" (Gen. xlviii. 22; Num. xiii. 29). "Ke- 
oa'ani " never occurs in E (see E. Meyer in Stade's 
" Zeitschrift," i. 189). " Horeb " is the name for the 
" mountain of God " (Ex. iii. 1, xviii. 5). Jacob, not 
Israel, stands for the third patriarch; "Jethro" and 
"Jet her" for Moses' father-in-law. "Ha-ish Mosheh" 
is peculiar to E. Other linguistic peculiarities are: 
the use of "amah " (maid) where J has "shifhah"; 
"ba'al"in its various significations; "gadol" and 



Eluat hull 


" katou " in the meaning "older" and "younger " re- 
spectively; "dibber" with the preposition 3 (to 
talk against: Num. xii. 1, 8; xxi. 5, 7); "dabar" as 
object of dispute (Ex. xviii. 16-19, 26; xxii. 8); "dor 
dor" (Ex. iii. 15); "derek nashim " where J has 
"orah nashim"; "hennah" (hither); "zud"(toact 
arrogantly); "hizzak leb"; "hokiah" and "nokah" 
as a judicial procedure; "yelcd"(boy, child); "le 
ball"; "luhat ha-eben " ; "mush"; " mahaneh " for 
temporary camp; " ma/.a' " (to meet, to encounter); 
"ni/.mc zahab"; "nokri" for stranger; "nissah"; 
"ni/./.el" (to take away and injure); " natan " (to 
allow); "ha'aleh" (to bring the people out [of 
Egypt]); "paga'" (to meet one); "hitpallel"; 
"panim el panitn"; " pahad Yizhak." Other ex- 
pressions in addition to these have been urged as 
distinctive of E's vocabulary. For a complete list 
see Holzinger, I.e. pp. 183-190. Certain grammat 
ical peculiarities arc also ascribed to E, e.g., the in- 
finitives -halok"; "de'ah"; " redah" (HYl f or mi) ; 
"re'oh"; full forms of the suffixes, e.g., "kullanah " 
(Gen. x lii. 30); " lehaddanah " (Gen. xxi. 29). The 
si vie of E is loose, disjointed ; such forms as "wa 
yehi ba'et ha hi'" (Gen. xxi. 22), "wa-yehi ahar 
(abate) ha-debarim ha elleh " (often), indicate this, i; 
also indulges in long formulas of address. The 
name of the person addressed is repeated (Gen. xxii. 
11, xlvi. 2; Ex. iii. 4). Stereotyped introductions 
of dreams occur rather frequently ("ba-halomi we- 
hinneh"; Gen. xl. 9, 16; xli. 17, 22). E compared 
with J is prosaic; bul he introduces poetic quota- 
tions (Ex. xv. ; Num. xxi. 1 I. 2T). Secondary de- 
tails mark his descriptions; for example, he uses 
names of no particular consequence to the narrative 
(Gen. xv. 2, XXXV. 8; Ex. i. 15); likewise learned 
glosses (e.g., in Gen. xxxi. 20, 24, "the Aramean" ; 
in Ex. i. 11, " Pithomand Rameses"); and fragments 
of Egyptian speech ("Abrck," "Zofnat Pa'neah," 
Gen. xli. 43, 45). Chronological schemes are affected 
by E: "three days," (Gen. xl. 12-19; Josh. i. 11, ix. 
16; Ex. iii. 18, v. 3, viii. 23, x. 22, xv. 22). E also 
displays a certain theological bias, in illustration of 
which may be noted the consistency with Which 
" Ynwii " is avoided before "Moses." 

The work of E is popular in character. It takes 
no exception to the popular not ion that the localities 
involved in the patriarchal biographies are places 
of worship. "Ila-makom" is one of E's special 
terms for such sacred places (Gen. xxviii. 11). God 
Is without hesitation anthropomorphized (Ex. xxv. 

1,9-11; xxxi. 18; xxxii. 16; xxxiii. 

General 7-11; Num. xii. 8; Ex. iv. 17-20; vii. 

Character- 17; ix. 22; x. 12; xiv. 10; xvii. 5, 9; 

isticsofE. Num. xx. 8, 11). E speaks of matters 

pertaining to I he cull us in a very naive 
way (sacrificial meals with non-Israelites: Gen. xxxi, 
64; Ex. xviii. 12, xxiv. 11). "Mazebot" are very 
frequently mentioned as though legitimate. Idols 
arc known, and Rachel steals those of her father. 
llolv trees tire recognized (Gen. xxxv. 4; Josh. 
wi\. 26). The "nehushtan" (brazen serpent) is 
connected with .Moses (Num. xxi. 4-9). B maintain 
n sympathetic attitude toward popular religion 
Still the making of the golden calf is clearly re 
proved (Ex. xxxii.), Human sacrifice is condemned 
(Gen. xxii.). Notwithstanding these leanings I" 

ward popular conceptions, the Elobist takes the 
view of the early (literary) prophets. Ynwii is 
explained as "chyeh ashcr ehyeh" (Ex. iii. 14). 
Providential purpose is assumed in the course of 
human affairs, as happenings, for instance, in Jo- 
seph's experience (Gen. xlv. 6-8, 1. 20). God is with 
the fathers even in a strange land (Gen. xxxi. 13). 

In the miracles as related by E a certain super 
naturalism is unmistakable. The plagues are signs 
to accredit Moses as God's agent. They are to a 
large extent wrought by the staff of Moses, without 
the intervention of natural forces as in J (Ex. xvii. 
ietseq.). The role ascribed to the Ark in E par- 
takes also of the miraculous (Num. xi. 33), and the 
conquest of the land is accomplished not so much 
by the bravery of the tribes as by the miraculous 
designs and devices of God (Josh. xxiv. 12; Ex. 
xxiii. 28; comp. Josh. x.). The relations between 
Israel and God are of a moral character. The sinful 

nation forfeits God's g 1 will (Ex. xxxiii. 3b). 

God's rc\ i -hit ions are in E transmitted in dreams and 
visions (Gen. xv. 1; Num. xii. 6). God's angel, the 
usual medium in J, speaks, in E, from heaven (Gen 
xxi. 17, xxii. 11). The superhuman conception of 
the Deity is thus accentuated. Moses alone was 
dignified by direct divine communications (Num. xii. 
et 8eq.). The chiefs of Israel in E are pictured 
by preference as prophets. Abraham is a "nabi" 
(den. xx. 7). Moses is the " 'cbed Adonai" par ex- 
cellence (Num. xii. 7) ; he is the " man of God " (Josh, 
xiv. 6). He mediates between the people and God 
(Num. xi. 2, xxi. 7). Justice and morality arehighl} 
valued in E (see the Decalogue and the Hook of the 
Covenant). The elders are repeatedly mentioned 
as guardians of the right (Ex. iii. 16, 18; iv. 29; 
xvii. ."i; xviii. 12; xix. 7; xxiv. 1-14). In E, how- 
ever, sympathetic interest in sacerdotal institutions 
is also manifest (Ex. xxxiii. 7-11; Num. xii. 4). 
Tithes are historically accredited ((Jen. xxviii. 22). 
E belongstothe Northern Kingdom. Patriarchal 
aphy is localized in the northern districts. 
Reuben is the magnanimous brother of 
Locality Joseph (Gen. xxxvii. 22, 29; xlii. 37). 
and Epoch Shechem plays a prominent role i Hen 
ofE. xxxv, I ; Josh. xxiv.). Beth-el is rec- 
ognized as a sanctuary (Gen. xxviii. 
22). Some Aramaic expressions (ruin. Ex. xxxii. 
I6;rnn, Ex. xviii. 9;NB1,comp. Hosea v, 18, vi. 1, 
vii. 1) confirm the impression. Kuenen and Cornill 
distinguish a North-Israelitish Elohist and another 
of Judaic tendi in ies (E 1 and E ! ; see Kuenen, " llis- 
toriseb Critiscb Onderzoek," etc., t; 18; Holzinger, 
I.e. p. 214; Cornill. "Einleitung in das Alte Testa- 
ment," pp, 17 19). 

By the earlier critics E wasconsidered to antedate 
.1 : lint after Wellhausen (" Gesch. Israels," i. 870 et 
teg i had pleaded for the contrary view, his opinion 
was accepted by E. Meyer. Btade, and Holzinger, 
while Dillmann and Kittel continued to defend the 

former position. The dale of E is thus variously 
given. K. Sehrader makes him older than llosea 
and later than Solomon and the building of the 

Temple. Dillmann assigns him to a period prior to 

the decline of the Northern Kingdom, that is. to the 

first half of the ninth century b.c. Kittei is virtu 

ally nf I he same opinion. 




Kuenen assigns what be calls E ' to 750 B.C. ; E 5 
to 650 B.C. Stack (" Geschichte des Volkes Israel," 
i. 58, 583) holds that E can not be older than 750 
B.C. Lagarde regards 732 B.C. as the earliest possi- 
ble date; but, following Steiudorff's arguments 
based upon the Egyptian phrase "Zofuat Pa'neah " 
(forms not occurring in Egyptian before the twenty- 
second dynasty, and becoming usual only after 663 
and C0!i B.C.), suggests 650 as the more nearly cor- 
net date. Cornill gives for E 4 650 B.C., and for E ' 
750 b.c, the same as Kuenen. 

bibliography: Holzinper, Der Bexataich, Lelpsio, 1899; 
BteueTnageUAUgemeineEinleitunfi in den Hezateuch, GOt- 
tingen, l'.Kiti; Dillmann, Numert, Deuteronvmium, 2d ed., 
Lelpslc, ls^t; ; Driver, Introduction t» the Literature >•} the 
Old Testament 9th ed., New York, 1902; CornlU, Einleittrng 
in ria< Alte Testament, Freiburg, 1891; the commentaries, 
etc., of Kuenen, Kiin-i, Schrader. Bantsch, Budde, Reuss, and 
others; Wellhausen, Composition des Hejnteueli*. Berlin, 
1889 ; Byssel, lie ElohisUB Pentateuchici Sermone ; Carpen- 
ter and Battersby, The llejaieueh, pp. 42-48, London, 1900. 
j. E. G. II. 

ELON. 1.— Biblical Data: The tenth judge 
of Israel, lie was a Zebulonite, and succeeded 
Ibzan as judge. He judged Israel for ten years, 
when lie died and was buried in Aijalon in the coun- 
try of Zebulun (Judges sii. 11, 12). "Elon" (fl^N) 

and " Aijalon " (jii^N) differ merely in their vowels, 

and it is generally thought that they should be con- 
sidered the same. The Septuagint renders both 
j. Jit. C. J. M 

Critical View : Eion is one of the rive minor 

judges whose names are given together with a few 
statistics about them, but who are connected with 
no historical exploits. The others are Tola, Jair, 
Ibzan, and Abdon. Elon is, in Gen. xlvi. 14 and 
Num. xxvi. 36, a clan of the tribe of Zebulun. Since 
Tola and Jair are also clans; since Ibzan and Abdon, 
from the number of their posterity, are probably 
likewise; and since the narratives of the minor 
judges are late additions to the Book of Judges, it 
is probable that Elon is a personified clan and never 
bad historical existence as a judge (compare Moore. 
"Commentary on Judges," pp. 270 et seq., 310 et 
»eq., and Budde 's Commentary to Judges, p. 78). 
.i. jr. G. A. B. 

2. A Hit lite; father of Esau's wife. Bashemath 
or Adah (Gen. xxvi. 34, xxxvi. 2). 

3. One of the three sons of Zebulun; he was the an- 
cestor of the Elonites (Gen. xlvi. 14;Num. xxvi. 26). 

4. A city on the border of Dan (Josh. xix. 43). 
The place has not yet been positively identified. 
Some consider it the same as Elon-beth-hanan (I 
Kings iv. 9), v> hieh is mentioned as belonging to the 
second taxing district, of Solomon, ami according to 
Schick (in "Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palastina 
Vereins," x. 137), is identical with Khirbat Wadi 
Alin.east of 'Ain Shams. Elon-beth-hanan, on the 
Other hand, is sometimes taken as representing two 
places (compare LXX. and Vulgate: the former has 
xai 'E/Ujk «jc Btfiavar; the latter, " et in Elon et in 
Bethanan"). In Josh. xix. 42 "Aijalon" (AY 
"Ajalon ") occurs, and perhaps "Elon" in the next 
verse is a dittography, the two words having the 
same consonants (compare Elon, 1). 

J. JR. C. J M 

EL-PARAN. See Elath. 

ELSENBEKG, JACOB: Polish teacher; born 
in 1817; died at Warsaw July 10, 1886. He was 
educated at the rabbinical seminary of Warsaw. 
Elsenberg devoted all of his time to the education 
of Jewish children, and he published many text- 
books for beginners, which were introduced into 
the public and private schools of Warsaw. He was 
the first one to write in Polish a catechism of the 
Jewish religion and a prayer-book. He held the 
positions of secretary of the curator of the Warsaw 
public schools and of the trustees of the Reform 

Bibliography: lla-Asif, p. 118, Warsaw, 1888. 

H. It. 

ELTEKEH or ELTEKE : One of the towns 
allotted to Dan, mentioned twice in Joshua — npn?N 
(xix. 44) and Npr6x (xxi. 23). Eltekeh with its 
suburbs was given as a residence to the Kohathite 
Levites. This town, called in Assyrian "Al-ta- 
kn-u," was destroyed by Sennacherib on his way to 
Timnah and Ekron, after his defeat of the Egyp- 
tians (see Prism Inscription iuSchrader's " K. A. T." 
2d ed., pp. 171, 289, 292). 

E. G. H. M. SEL. 

ELVIRA: The ancient Illiberis; capital of the 
province of the same name, situated on a hill north- 
west of Granada, Spain, and now in ruins. It was 
the cradle of Spanish Christianity, and the seat of 
the celebrated Illiberian Council which first raised a 
barrier between Jew and Christian. This council, 
held not about 320, as Gratz thinks, but at the time 
of the persecutions under Diocletian, in 303 or 304, 
forbade Christians, on pain of excommunication, to 
intermarry witli Jews or to have the produce of their 
fields blessed by Jews, to the end "that the blessing 
of the Church might not seem void or useless." 
They were also forbidden to eat or have any inter- 
course with Jews. 

Bibliography : CoUectio Canonum Ecclesitv IJispanitr, part 
i.: Cone. Eliberitanum, 1808; Deloa Rlos, lliit.delosju- 
ili"s. i. 7:-' el 8CG>; oratz, Qesch. v. 70 et seq. 
G. M. K. 

ELYAS OF LONDON (also known as Elyas 
le E vesk) : Presbyter of the Jew T s of England 1237- 
1257; died in London 1284. He succeeded Aaron OB 
York, represented London at the so-called "Jewish 
Parliament" at Worcester in 1240, and in 1249 was 
allowed to have Abraham til Aaron as his assistant. 
Henry III. exacted from him no less a sum than 
£10,000, besides £100 a year for a period of four 

Elyas headed the deputation which asked the 
king's permission to leave the country in 12.13. In 
1255 he was imprisoned as a surety for the tallage 
of the Jews, and two years later he was deposed 
from office, being succeeded by his brother Hagin 
(Ilayvim). In 1259, according to Matthew Paris, he 
was said to haie been converted, and confessed to 
having prepared poison for certain of the English 
noliles; but in 1266 he was again treated as a Jew, 
and compensation to the amount of £50 was granted 
him for losses he had incurred during the Barons' 
war. He still remained one of the most important 




Jewsol London in 1277, being one of the few who 
were granted permission i<> trade as merchants 
though they were not members of the Gild Mer- 
chant. He appears to have been a physician of 
Bomenote, for his aid was invoked by Jean d'Aresnes, 
Counl "f Hainault, in 1280, and he obtained permis 
sion to \ isit the count in that year (" R. E. J." xviii. 
356 1 1 " v '. 

At Elyas' death an inquest made upon his estate 
declared him t" !"■ possessed of personal property i<> 
the value of 400 mai ks, ami of houses of the yearly 
n ntal of 100 shillings. These his widow, Fluria, was 
permitted t" retain en payment to the king of -4 < j< ► 
murks. One (if his houses appears in have been lo- 
cated cm Sporier street, mar the Tower, and at the 
expulsion in 1290 was granted to the prior of (hick 

Elyas was an expert in Jewish law, being sum- 
moned before the king t«i decide questions (" Selecl 
Pleas." etc. , p. 86). A responsum of his is quoted 
in one of the manuscripts of i he " Mordekai " (see A 
Berliner, "Hebraische Poesien Melrs aus Norwich," 
1'. ::. London, 1*87). 

Bibliography : Prynne, Short l>< mitrrer, part 11., sub annU , 
Jacobs, in Papers 0) ih> Anol&Je/w. Hist. Exh^rm. 22, 45, 
19-51: M. Paris, Chronica Majjora, v. 398, 441, 730 ; Seiecl 

/ /. cm <>' the .1' wish /-.'" hi >n'i r, ed. Rtirt-'. pp. x.wiii.. 86, 88, 

130. I.micion, VAC; Jambs, in II. E. J. *vM. 859. 

G. J. 

ELYMAIS i Generally denoting the 

Persian province of Elam (D?'J7). li occurs in two 
places (I Mace. vi. 1; Josephus, "Ant." xii. 9, | 1) 
as the name of a rich city besieged by Antiochus 
Epiphancs. But the other historians who relate 
this even 1 do not mention any town of Uiis name. 
The existence of such a town has beeD denied, the 
name in I Mac. vi. 1 being explained (see Vaihinger 
in Herzog's " Real Encyc." iii. 749) as a mistransla- 
tion of an original "be 'Elam ha Medinah " (comp. 
Byriac and Arabic versions). On the Talmudical 
1'0?y. Identified with Elymais, seeNeubauer, "Geo 
trraphie (in Talmud," p. 881. 

I'.. Q. II. M. Si i . 

'ELYON. See Coil. 

ELZAS, ABRAHAM : Minister and author; 
born in Elbergen, Holland, in 1835; died at Hull, 
England, 1880. He was educated in Holland, and 
went to England from Russia about 1867. He trav- 
eled extensively, visiting for scholastic purposes 
many parts of the world. In 1871 he removed from 
Leeds to Hull, and there became master of the He 
brew school, and for some years filled the post of 
minister to the congregation. Owing to failing 
health he w as obliged to resign his positions in 1*77. 
For some years previous to his death he was occu- 
pied in literary as well as scholastic pursuits; and 
lie published translations of several hooks of the 

Bible, including "Proverbs," 1871; "The Book of 
Job," 1872; ".Minor Prophets," 1873-80, with crit- 
ical ii' i 

Hun iiiiiiiapiiy : Jtwtih World (London), Aug. 8, 1880; Hull 
anil l.ini-olii.iliirr. Time*. A hi-., Ixsu ; Jamba and WoU, Bibli 
oUuca dngln-Judaica, Nos. 1957, I960, 1983, London, 1888. 

j. G. I.. 

rabbi; born at Eydtkuhnen, Germany, 1867; edu 

V.— 10 

cated at Jews' College (1880 'Jit). University Col- 
lege, London (" Ilollicr Scholar." 1886), and at Lon- 
don University (B.A., 1885). Elzas moved to To- 
ronto, Canada (1890), where he entered the univer 
sity and graduated (1893). He entered the Medical 
College of the Slate of South Carolina (1896), and 
graduated in medicine and pharmacy (1900-01). 

His first ministerial charge was over the Holy 
Blossom synagogue, Toronto, Canada (1890); thence 
he went to Sacramento, Cal. (1893). In 1894 he ac- 
cepted the call of the ISeth Elohim congregation of 
Charleston. S. (.'., of which he is still the incumbent. 
Elzas published "The Sabbath-School Companion" 
1 1895-96), to fl inch he contributed a number of arti- 
cles, which have been collected and reprinted under 
the title; "Judaism: an Exposition," Charleston, 
1896. lie has recently (1908) printed pamphlets on 
"The History of K. K. Beth Elohim of Charleston " 
and " The Jew s of South Carolina." 

a. F. II V. 

EMADABUN (A. V. Madiabun) : A Levite, 

and one of (he overseers at the restoration of the 

Temple (I Esd. v. 58). Probably a mere doublet of 
" Eliadun," the name is omitted in the Vulgate and 
in the parallel passage (Ezra iii. 9). 
i ■■. H. E. I N. 

EMANATION (Hebrew, yat>, nystrn; in caba- 
listic literature, DI^VX) : The doctrine that all exist 
ing things have been produced not by any creative 
power, but as successive outflowings from the Cod- 
head, so that all finite creatures are part and parcel 
of the Divine Being. This pantheistic doctrine. 

which was i lie basis of many Oriental religions and 
was professed by the Gnostics, attained its highest 
development in the Alexandrian Neoplatonic schools. 
By it the Neoplatonists endear ored to surmount the 
threefold difficulties involved in the idea of creation: 
1 1) the act of creation involves the assumption of a 
change in the unchangeable being of Cod; (2) it is 
incomprehensible that the absolutely infinite and 
perfect could have produced imperfect and finite 
beings; (3) "creatio ex nihilo" is unimaginable. 
A vicenna introduced the doctrine of emanation into 

Arabic philosophy, and Jewish thinkers of tin- clev 

en ih century, of whom the most authoritative repre- 
sentative was Ibn Gabirol, made it the basis of their 
speculations (see Ir.N GABIROL). 

Bahya, in his"Ma'ani al-Nafs," adopts a scale of 
emanation: the creating spirit ; the universal soul. 

which moves the heavenly .sphere, 
According nature; darkness, which at the begin- 
to Bahya. ning was but a capacity for receiving 

form; the celestial spheres ; the heav- 
enly bodies; lire; air; water; earth ("Toral ha- 

\etesh," cd. Broyde, pp. 70. 75; see Jew. Encyc. 
ii. I'll. s.v. I! w.iy \ ia \ Joai en. 

With the development in the twelfth century of 
tin 1 pure Aristotelian Perlpateticisro the doctrine of 
emanation was abandoned by tin- Jewish philoso- 
phers. It was opposed not only by .ludah ha Levi, 
w ho was adverse to all philosophical speculations 
r'Cii/.ari," v. III. but also by Abraham ibn Da'ud. 
who professed an unbounded admiration for I he 

theories of Avice i ("Emunah Ramah," p. 62). 

Maimonides, too, though attributing it to Aristotle. 




set forth many objections to it. and showed that it 
does ao) solve the difficulties inherent in the idea of 
"Aristotle holds thai the first Intelligence is the cause of the 

second, the - I of. the third, and so on to the thousandth, if 

we assume a series of that number. Now, the 
Views of first Intelligence is undoubtedly simple. How 
Maimonides. then can the complexity of existing things 
come from such an Intelligence by fixed laws 
of nature, as Aristotle assumes? We admit all he said concern- 
ing the Intelligences, thai the farther they are away from the 
tlrst the greater is their complexity, in cousequence of the 
greater number of the things comprehended by each successive 
Intelligence: but even after admitting this, the question re- 
mains: By what law ..f nature did the spheres emanate from 
them'.'" C'Moreh," ii. 22). 

But while rejected by Jewish philosophy, the 
doctrine of emanation became the corner-stone of 
the Cabala. The motive which led the cabalists to 
adopt it seems to have been, in addition to that fur- 
nished by the Neoplatonic conception of God, the 
necessity of assigning a definite place for the Seflrot 
in the production of the world, for in the " creatio 
ex nihilo " hypothesis they are superfluous. As early 
as the twelfth century appeared the cabalistic " Mas- 
seket Azilut," in which the doctriue was outlined. It 
was considerably developed in the thirteenth century 
by the Bahirists, especially by Azriel. After having 
given the Neoplatonic reasons why the world could 
not have proceeded directly from God but must 
have been produced by intermediary agents, he ex- 
pounds his doctrine of emanation, which differs from 
that of the Neoplatonists in that, instead of Intelli- 
gences, the Seflrot are the intermediaries between 
the intellectual and material world. The first Sefi- 
rah was latent in the En Sof (cabalistic term for 
"God") as a dynamic force ; then the second Sefirah 
emanated as a substratum for the intellectual world ; 
afterward the other Seflrot emanated, forming the in- 
tellectual, material, and natural worlds. The Seflrot 
are thus divided, according to their order of emana- 
tion, into three groups: the first three formed the 
world of thought; the next three the world of the 
soul; the last four the world of corporeality. 

Isaac ibu Latif, although upholding the principle 
of the beginning of the world, still professes the 
doctrine of emanation of the Seflrot. The first im- 
mediate divine emanation is, according to him, the 
"first created," an absolutely simple Being, the all- 
containing substance of everything that is. A new 
element was introduced into the doctrine of emana- 
tion by the Ma'areket group. It was the principle 
of a double emanation. From the three superior 
spiritual Sefirot, which mark the transition from 
the purely spiritual to the material, proceed a posi- 
tive and a negative emanation. All that is good 
comes from the positive; all that is evil has its 
source in the negative. This theory is highly de- 
veloped in the Zohar. 

Bibliography, Mimk. Melanges dt Philosophic Arab* ti 
.Imvf, p. 227: Guttmami, hit PhUosophie dee V>n Gaftirof, 
1889; idem, I h, Philosophy des Abraham ilm Hand; JoB, 
Dot QabiroVs Bedeutunq fiir die Oeseh. <i< r Philosophies 
Worms, Die Lehre von derA\nfa/ng8loaigT66iider Wevtbei 
den Araiiisriim PhiZosophen, in Tseitrtigt zur Qesch. der 
Philosophy dee MittelaUers, vol. 111., part*: Franck, La 
Kahhnh ; Earppe, t'Jinh sur lesOHginesetia Naturedu 
Zohar. p. :ui; etir. I). (MiizDurg, The Kabbalah, London, 
]sn">; (fyer, Qabbalah, Philadelphia, 1888 ; Ehrenprels, Die 
Entwickelung der EmanatUmslehrt in der Kabbalahdes 
XIII. Jahrhundei-ts. 
K. I. Br. 


EMANU-EL : A weekly journal published in 
San Francisco, Cal. The first number was issued in 
May, 1805. Jacob Voorsanger is the editor. It is 
devoted especially to the interests of Jewsand Juda- 
ism on the Pacific coast. , 

G . A. M. F. 

EMANUEL, LEWIS: Secretary and solicitor 
to the Board of Deputies of British Jews; born at 
Portsmouth May 14, 1832; died in London June 19, 
1898. He was educated at Ramsgate, and in 1853 
was admitted to practise as a solicitor. He was a 
commissioner for oaths and affidavits for South Aus- 
tralia, New Zealand, and British Columbia, and in 
1881 published a pamphlet on "Corrupt Practises at 
Parliamentary Elections." 

His legal ability and communal zeal secured his 
election as secretary to the Board of Deputies in 
Jan., 1869. In the course of the thirty years during 
which he served the board he came to be completely 
identified with its interests. For nearly twenty 
years he took an active part in the work of the 
Jewish Board of Guardians, and was a member of 
the council of the Anglo-Jewish Association and of 
the committee of the Maccabaeans' Club. 

In politics Emanuel was a Liberal, was a mem- 
ber of the council of the Liberal Unionist Associa- 
tion, and took a leading part in the London Munici- 
pal Reform League. 

Bibliography: Jewish Chronicle and Jewish World (Lou- 
don), June 24, 1898. 
J. G. L. 

EMBDEN (EMDEN) : A family deriving its 
name, perhaps, from Emden, Germany. Carl Adam 
Emden, privy councilor and high bailiff of Prime 
Salm-Salm, was ennobled in 1791. It is probable 
that Eleazar Solomon von Embden (who lived in 
London about 1817) was a descendant of this family. 
Henry (Hertz) Heine (1774-1855) married Henriette 
Embden(1787-1868). See Heine; Schiff. There- 
cent descendants of the family are as follows: 

Moritz Embden = in 1822 Charlotte Helne(1800-99), sister 
1 1790-1866) of the poet, daughter of Samson Heine 
(1764-18281 and Bene Heine, nee van 
Ueldern (1771-1859) 

Marie Embden = in 1854 Michael Hirscb = Helen I.udwlg, 

(b. 1834) Prince de la Rocca Embden Frelherr 

d'Aspro (1827-89) von 

| Embden 
Carlo Maria, Prince _ 189(1 Ida de le 
de la Rocca (b. 1856) Torre-Loinbardinl 

Michael Christoforo 
(b. 1891) 

Maria Yvonne 
(b. 18%) 

In Paris there lives at present Louis K. Emden, 
who married Miss Van der Heym. There are also 
Von, or Van, Embdens to be found in Surinam, 
heirs of J. G. van Embden (E. and A. J. van 
Embden, wealthy planters: "Surinaamsche Alma- 
nak," 1S99, 1900). The following were students at 
Leyden, Holland: 

1609. Philip ab Embden, 25 years, jurispru- 

Johannes Lsevinus ab Embden, 21 years, 




1771. Solomon von Embden, 25 years, tnedi 
cine. This is undoubtedly the above-mentioned 
Eleazar Solomon von Embden, who, therefore, must 
have been born in 174H 

There is also a family of the name of Emden in 

BiHLior.RAPHT: Horowitz, Inschriften, pp. 7"t el *■':■■ Frank- 
forton-the-Maln ; Album Studiosorum Acad. Lugd. Bat. 
pp. ay 1105, 1218, 1308, llic': Almanachdi Gotha, 1903, p. 
1st; Qesch. 1807, p. '■<■'•' i Kneacbke, Adels-LexOcan, 
lit. 102; Kurpeles, Beinrieh Heine, 1899, p. 12; Bettelheim, 
Deut»i hi i Xi krnl. 1900, p. 138. 
,i. II. Gut. 


See Heine, 


1 [l ENRICH. 

(Eliezer Leser Levi) : German physician and trav- 
eler; bora at Emrich, near Cleves, between 1770 and 
1780; graduated at Frankfort-on-the-Oder in 1800. 
From 1804 to 181G lie lived in England ; he then set 
tied in Hamburg, and in 1S3S returned to England. 
After amassing considerable wealth in Brazil he re- 
turned to Europe, and took up his residence in Al- 
tona. He was a contributor to I In (Viand's •'Journal 
of Practical Medicine," and published "TheConti 
nental Medical Repository " (Hamburg, 1817). With 
[saac Met/ he compiled a catalogue in Latin and 
Hebrew of the celebrated Oppenheim collection, 
under the title " Ci >1 lectio Davidis " ( I tamburg, 1826), 
to which Embden contributed the Latin part. 

Ruti.ioc.RAPiiY : Jrir. Climn. Jan.. 1900; Steinsebnelder. Cut. 
Bodl. '.171 ; idem. JJebr. BOA. Till. 44. 

j. <;. L. 

EMBEZZLEMENT: The fraudulent conver- 
sion to one's own use of goods or money entrusted 
to one's care and control. The offense differs from 
theft in that in the latter the possession itself is 

The Mosaic law provides a penalty for embezzle 
ment in a very restricted case. Lev. v. 20-20 (A 
V. vi. 2-7) deals with several forms of dishonest] . 
• ■/ , where a man denies to his neighbor goods or 
money entrusted to him, or something robbed or 
wrongfully withheld, or goods lost by his neighbor 
and found by him, and where he has, moreover, 
taken an oath to his false denial. He is then required 
to make restoration in full, to add one-fifth in value 
to the principal, and to bring, moreover, a ram 
without blemish as a guilt -offering to the priest, 
who thereupon shall make atonement, and the sin 
shall be forgiven. 

The Mishnah treats this subject in Slicbu. viii. It 
lays down these principles: (1) That where the vol- 
untary or hired keeper, hirer, or borrower swears to 
an untrue statement as to the loss of the article, but 
is not liable on other grounds, lie can not be pun- 
1 in this way for the false oath. (2) That where 
he swears to a mode of loss which would exoni rate 
him, but he has consumed the deposit (< g , eaten an 
ox), and Ibis is established by witnesses, he is liable 
for the single value ; but if he confesses, he pays the 
principal, with one fifth in addition, and brings bis 
guilt-offering. It is supposed thai he confesses will 
iiiL'ly. although it costs him more, in order to gain 
the promised forgiveness of bis sin (8) When the 
voluntary keeper swears to a cause of loss which 
would excuse him, and witnesses show that he stole 

the thing himself, he pays double as a thiei . but if 
he confesses, he pays only the principal, with one 
fifth in addition, and makes the guilt-offering. It 
uiusi here be remarked that when the voluntary 
keeper seeks to excuse himself on the ground that 
the deposit has been stolen from him, and he is 
shown to have kept it for himself, he is treated as 
the thief, and is held to double payment, under Ex. 
xxii. 6. This is a case in which embezzlement is 
punished like theft. (4) When he swears to a cause 
of loss which would excuse him, and the loss arose 
from a cause which makes him liable, he pays the 
principal and one-fifth in addition, and makes the 
guilt-offering (5) [f he denies outright the loan or 
deposit under oath, he pays in like manner, though 
the loss have arisen from a justifying cause. 
The matter is finally condensed in this form: He who 
changes (in his oath) from liability to liability, from 
excuse to excuse, or from excuse to liability, is free; 
but he who changes from liability to excuse is pun- 
ishable. See Bailments, for the modes of loss 
which excuse a bailee of one or the other kind, and 
for what losses he is liable. 

s. s. L. N. D. 

EMBROIDERY: Ornamental needlework on 
cloth, more frequently on linen, often executed in 
variegated colors and designs. Among the Egyp- 
tians and Assy ro-Babylonians this art was highly 
developed, and Biblical texts make mention of the 
fact. The mantle that tempted Achan (Josh. vii. 
21, 24) was of Babylonian make, i.e., according to 
Josephus ("Ant." v. I, § 10), embroidered in gold. 
Ezekiel speaks of embroidered byssus from Egypt 
(Ezek. xxvii. 7). If the chapters of Exodus relating 
the preparations for the Tabernacle and its erection 
are contemporaneous with the events narrated, proof 
is established that the Hebrews at an early period 
of their history had attained a high degree of skill 
in the embroiderer's craft. Wilkinson ("Manners 
and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians." ii. 166) sees 
adaptations of Egyptian models in the hangings of 
the Tabernacle (Kx. xxvi. 86, xxvii. 16. xxxvi. 37, 
xxxviii. 18) and in Aaron's coat and girdle (Ex. 
xxviii. 89, xxxix. 29). On the Other hand, Delit/sch 
C Babel und Bibel "), among others, assumes that in 
this and many other things the Babylonians must 
be regarded as the teachers of the Hebrews. At till 
events, in the early days of the Israelitish invasion 
and occupation of Canaan, embroidered cloth was 
\ aluable because rare enough to be coveted as boot) 

in war (Judges v. 30). 

In lb-brew three words tire employed to connote 

the craft and the finished product: (1) "Tashbez" 
and its derivative forms are used exclusively in 
Exodus ( xxviii. 4) in connection with sacerdotal 
garments (A. V. " broidcred " ; R, V. "checkered"). 
The root also occurs in the description of the 

princess' dress, Ps. xlv. 14, where the R. V. has 
"inwrought with gold." In the Mishnah the root 
stands for smoothing and ornamenting wood or 
metal (Hiil. 25a. b). (2) " Itakam " (whence "rik 
mail "and "rokein") means to embroider in colors 
with the needle; to variegate (Judges v, 80; Ezek. 
xvi.10, 18, 18; xxvi. 16; xxvii. 7, 16 [comp. Cornill, 
"Ezekiel," text]; Ps. xlv. 15). It is used also of 
i In colors of feathers (Ezek. xvii 8) and of stones 




[ < liron. xxix. 2). In the Targum the derivative 
noun NTlOpi stands for colored dots; while in 
m riac KTIDp "III means "freckles " " Rokem " isthe 
name of the craftsnjan (Ex. xxvi. 36), generally as 
aociated with (3) "hashab" (whence "hosheb"; I!. 
Y "the cunning workman"). According to Yoma 
72b, "hosheb " designates the designer of thecolored 
pattern, which the rokem followed and executed 
with t lie needle. But R. Nehemiah is probablj 
in. iit exact in sa\ ing that the rokem works with the 
needle, ami hence variegates only one side of the 
fabric; while the hosheb is a weaver who works his 
pattern on both sides (see Kimhi to Judges v. 30; 
idem, in "Sefer ha-Shorashim," *.■». iiDpi; Moore, 

••Judges." p. 171, with reference to Judges v. 30). 

Figuratively. '" rakam " is used both in the Bible 
(Ps. exxxix. 15) and in later Hebrew (Yer. Bezah i. 
60a . Lev, R. xxix. : Niddah 24b) for the forming of 
i he embryo, undoubtedly because the veins and arte 
riesgiveit the appearance of an embroidered pattern. 

E. G. II. 


EMBRYO (1311') : The young of a mammal while 
still connected with the body of its mother. The 
child "en ventre sa mere" of English law was a sub- 
ject of dispute between the ancient and t lie new Hala- 
kah, the former considering it a separate living being, 
and the latter as only a part or a limb of its mother. 
Tin- view of the ancient Halakah was subsequently 
followed by the Samaritans and Karaites, while the 
new Halakah was represented mostly by the Phari- 
sees and Rabbinites, though there is reason to be- 
lieve that the school of Shammai, known for itscon 
servative tendencies, tried to carry out the tradition 
of the old Halakah. But apparently even the Rab- 
binites were not always consistent. This contro- 
versy concerned mostly ritual questions, as, for in- 
stance, whether the embryois qualified as permitted 
food in the slaughtering of the cow. According to 
the ancient Halakah, which considers it as an inde- 
pendent being by itself, it would require special 
slaughtering, and. as this is impossible, all embryos 
are thei. tore forbidden for food. The point would 
also concern the criminal law, as in tin- case id' a man 
causing the death of the embryo by injuring its 
mother. According to the old Halakah he would be 
considered as a murderer; according to the new he 
woidd only be treated as a man injuring a limb. 
Another instance would be the execution of a preg- 
nant woman condemned to death by the court. Ac 

Cording to the first view the execution could not take 
place until the child was born; according to the lat- 
ter, the embryo, as part of her being, has to suffer by 
the deatli of the mother. With regard to civil ques- 
tions it is considered as a living child in some cases, 
but not in all. 

The still-born child does not inherit from its 
mother, so as to transmit her inheritance to its 
brothers on the father's side. But if the child lives 
bill an hour after the mother, it does transmit her 

It is doubtful whether a gift or legacy to an mi 
horn child can be made valid at all. It is admitted 
that, if the words of the gifl or legacy are "in pra - 

senti"itdoesnot take effect, as the child "en ventre" 

is incapable of receiving a benefit ; if the words are: 
"When such a woman gives birth, 1 give to the 
child," it is still disputable, unless the embryo is the 
child of the giver himself, in which case the gift or 
legacy is valid. 

The child unborn at the father's death, but coin- 
ing to life afterward, does not diminish the share of 
the first horn son. This position of the Talmud 
(B. B. 142a, b) is illustrated by Rashbam (who here 
takes Rashi's place) thus: If Jacob, dying, leavi a 
120 minas of silver and two sons — Reuben (first) 
and Simeon (second)— aud his wife is afterward de- 
livered of a third son, Levi, Reuben gets one-third 
of the whole (= 40 minas) and one-third of the re- 
mainder; that is, he receives altogether 66$ minas ; 
the remaining 53 J- minas are divided equally between 
Simeon and Levi, who each receive 20$ minas. 
Should Levi die afterward, Reuben would get one. 
third of the whole ( = 40 minas) plus one-half the 
remainder; that is, Reuben and Simeon would have 
respectively 80 and 40 minas. just as if Levi had not 
been born. 

As has been mentioned under AGNATES, a pos- 
thumous first-born son does not receive a double 

Bibliography: Maimonldes, I'm/.z. Myyah, Mil. .">: lb. Naha- 
tot, li. 3; Jfoshen Mithpat, ZK, 5; -77, :>. 5; Geiger, I'r- 
schrifi, p. Siti; idem, Nachadaseent Schriften, v. (1st 
Abtheilung, Hebrew, pp. 112, 115-120); Monataschrift, 1859, 
p. 400. 

s. s. L. N. D. 

EMDEN : Prussian maritime town in the pro\ 
ince of Hanover. It is not known when Jews first 
srii led there. In the sixteenth century David Gans 
mentions ("Zemah Dawid," 1581, ii.) Jews at Em- 
den. In the letter of complaints (.March 9, 1590) 
against Count Edzard I. and "the magistrate," ad- 
dressed by the citizens of Emden to the imperial com- 
missioners, who had come to Emden to settle the 
difficulties between the sovereign and his subjects, 
the citizens included as a grievance the fact that the 
Jews were permitted the public exercise of their re- 
ligion, and that they wore no distinctive badge. 
The commissioners dismissed this complaint, and 
the Jews continued in the city as heretofore. En- 
no's son, Urich II., received Jews at his court; and 
once a Jewish couple was married by a rabbi in the 
presence of the whole court. This aroused the ire 
of a zealous Lutheran. clergyman, Walther, who ex- 
pressed himself as follows: "In the presence of 100 
devils one pair of devils has been coupled by an 
elderly devil; people have no regard either for God 
or for myself." In the memoirs of Gluckel of IIa- 
mki.n (1645-1719) mention is made of a rabbi of 
Frisia, of David Hanau, and of other Jews of 
Emden. In 1744 Emden, with East Friesland, be- 
came part of Prussia, and the Jews in these districts 
came under Prussian regulations. At that time the 
\ early sum paid for protection by the Jews of Bast 
Friesland amounted to 776 thalers ; in Emden itself 
the regularly protected Jew had the right to be- 
queath this protection to one son, on payment of 
so thalers. - 

On May 30. 1702, there was an uprising against 
the Jews of Emden. who were accused of having 
caused the depreciation of the coinage; and the 
magistrate did not succeed in dispersing the mob 




until the houses of four of the mosl wealthj Jews 
had been destroyed, though noi sacked After the 
peace of Tilsit, in 1807, Napoleon incorporated East 
Friesland with the kingdom of Holland, under his 
brother Louis Bonaparte, who freed the Jews from 
their restrictions and granted them (Fib. '-':;. 1808) 
the same rights and privileges us the Jewsof France 
—that is, equal citizenship. Heavy payments for 
protection were no longer exacted. 

Under At thai time there were about I 364 

French Jews in the Emden arrondisscmenl 
Protection. Of that number there were not more 
than 500 in the city of Emden, and of 
these about 100 were in indigent circumstances 
After the consistorial organization of the six new 
(Motrins under the central consistory of Paris in 1811, 
Emden became the seal of the- synagogue for the 
departmental localities of < lester-Ems 1 1,500 Jews), 
Wesermundungcn 1 1. 129), ami Oberems (1,076). 

After ila- wars hi liberation, Emden came under 
the dominion of the kings of Banover, ami the Jews 
thrown back under former conditions, limn 
which they wire not liberated until 1*42. Since 
1866 Emden, with Hanover, lias belonged to Prussia. 
The community of Emden numbered in 1902 about 

Emden has been I'm' centuries the home of famous 
rahhis. Tin- following may he mentioned: Mcna 

hem b. Jacob ha [Cohen; .Muses sin b. Nathan 

ba-Kohcn id 1668); Simon ba-Kohen (d. 1725); 
Jacob Emdex; Abraham b. Jacob (d. 1758) ; Abra- 
ham Moses Kelmy ha Levi; Baruch Koslin; MeYi 
Qlogati b. Aaron (d. 1809); Abraham b. Aryeh L5b 

b. Hayyim LoAvensta i; Samson Raphael Hirsch 

(isil 47); Hermann Hamburgerfd. 1*70); I'. Buch 
hnl/ el. 1892); Dr. Lob, district rabbi of Emden, in 

A magistrate of Emden is credited with granting, 
In 1649, privileges to Portuguese Jews which were 
■., ,| in 1 703, ami in virtue "I' which they 1" 

came full citizens. Among the Portuguese al 

Emden may in- menti d the physician Abraham 

German (1 752), formerly living at Amsterdam ; Isaac 
render Hock (1753); Isaac de Leuios (1765); ami 
c Aletrino (1782). They were favorably n 
i .1 in the tow n. because, as the magistrate di 
clared, " People of this kind are useful, and even in 
dispensable, for carrying on the West-Indian trade." 
Four of Emden are mentioned among those 

who all en. lei 1 the fair a I Leipsic ill 1690, ami a largi 

number are mentioned in the responsa of J 

Emden (lies] n ii., Nos. '-'1 et seq.) and in bis 

a biography ("Megillat Sefer," ed. Kahana, pp 

819 et 

Bibliography : Nosing, Qe» ft. d°< rStadt ' mVei 

gmnfJelfnuhUl ■ ■ pp. ft, note a, 303, Emden, 1848 ; Schudt, 
WerrkivUnllukf.Uen, t.315 : Jttd. Litt ralurblatt. 
1881. N,i. :;•.'. p. 153 In, BlOW r fffli JUd. G< ■< ft. und 

LUi rattir, 1902, 111., No.4,pp.39ee8e9.; LewIn..Driiii;mrtene> 
Memorl imh, In IVeintimann'a Wmiatsschrlft, Jan., 1890, p. 
i ,i... i 90, il 33; i.i.e !, >■■ i ft. 3d ed., Ix. 479, nnd note II ; 
i.i unwalri, Pot M craufDi utschi r El rfi 

burg, 1902, pp. 142 151, and A. Lewinsky's review ol till 

in Ml;. Zelt. des Jud. 1802, No. 45, p. 640; v chrift, 

1901 p. I'.; : Roest, Car. Rosi nthal BOA i . ' I IM 

»nd Supplement, p. 191 b.Ofai ir(m, 

p. 812. 

d A. Lew. 

man engraver and photographer; bornal Frankfort 

mi the Main Oct. is. 1815; died there Sept. 6, 1875 
I | evincinga love for art and unable to afford an 
academic education, he entered an engraving and 
lithographic establishment asan apprentice, endear 
oring especially to perfect himself in the artistic side 
of his work. In is;;:; he left Frankfort and went 
to Hersfeld, Darmstadt, and Bonn. Ilis portrait 
engra^ ing of rope 1'ius IX. and his views of Caub, 
Bornhofen, and the Maxburg belong to this period. 
He also turned his attention to photography, then 
in its infancy, ami was one of the first to establish a 
studio at Frankfort on ihe Main. He made his rep- 
utation as photographer by the work " Der Horn zu 

Mainz und Seine Deiikmaler in 36 OriginalpllOtO- 

graphien," to whit h Lilbke refers several times in 
his "History of An " Emden was the first to com 
pose artistic photographic groups ("Die Rastatter 
Dragoner," "Die Saarbrtlcker Ulanen," etc I, and 
« as also among tlie first to utilize photography for 
Ihe study of natural science. 

A. W. 
ASHKENAZIi ya'ABeZ); officially called JACOB 
HERSCHEL) : German Talmudist and anti shah 
bethaian; born al AltonaJune4, 1697; died there 
April 19, 177U. Until seventeen Emden studied Tal- 
mud under his father, known as "llakani Zebi," 

first at Altona, then (1710-14) at Amsterdam. In 
1715 he married the daughter of Mordecaiben Naph 
tali Kohen, rabbi of Ungarish Brod, Moravia, and 
continued his studies in his father-in-law's yeshibah. 
Emden became well versed in all branches of Tal- 
mudic literature; later he studied philosophy, 
( 'abala. ami grammar, and made an effort to acquire 
the Latin and Dutch languages, in which, however. 
he was seriously hindered b) his belie! that a .lew 

should occupy himself with secular sciences only 

during the hour of twilight. He was also opposed 
to philosophy, and maintained that the "Moreh" 
could not have been written by Maimonides (" Mit 
pahai Befarim"). Hespent three years al Ungarish- 
Brod, where he held the office of private lecturer 
in Talmud. Then he became a dealer in jewelry 
mil other articles, which occupation compelled him 
to travel. He generally declined toaccepl the office 
of rabbi, though in 1728 he was induced i" accept, 
the rabbinate of Emden, from which place he took 
his name. 

In 1738 he returned to All e where he obtained 

the permission of ihe Jewish community to possess 
i p hate s\ nagogue. Emden wasat Bret on friendly 
terms w ith Moses Hagis, the head of the Portuguese 

miii ii Altona, who was afterward turned 

against Emden bj S calumny. Ilis relations w il Ii 

Ezekiel Eatzenellenbogen, ihe chief rabbi "f the 

Qen niiiiiiniiy, were strained from the very 

beginning, Emden seem t" have considered everj 
in 'i , or ol his I ai her as an intruder, A lew yea is 
later Emden obtained from the King of Denmark 
ihe pri\ ili • ■ i « tablishing at Altona a printing 
press, lie was goon nttacked for his publication of 
the "Siddur 'Ammude Shamayim," being accused 
of having dealt arbitrarily wiih ihe text Hi 
pun. nis did noi cease denouncing him even after he 
hid obtained for his work ihe approbation of the 
chief rabbi of the German communities. 




Emden is especially known for his controversial 
activities, his attacks being generally directed 
against the adherents, or those he supposed to be 
ents, of Sbabbethai Zebi. < >f these control er 
vies the most celebrated was that with Jonathan 
Eybeschiltz, who in Emden's eyes was a convicted 
Shabbethaian The controversy lasted several years. 
continuing even after Eybeschiitz's death. Emden's 
iss, rtion of the heresy of his antagonist was chiefly 
based on the interpretation of some 
Emden- amulets prepared by Eybeschiltz, in 
Eybe- which Emden professed to see Shah 
schiitz betlmian allusions (see EvBESCHUTZ, 
Con- Jonathan). Hostilities began before 
troversy. Eybeschiltz left Prague ; when Eybe- 
schiltz was named chief rabbi of the 
three communities of Altona. Hamburg, and Wands 
beck (1751), the controversy reached the stage of 
intense and bitter antagonism. Emden maintained 
that be was at first prevented by threats from pub- 
lishing any thing against Eybeschiltz. He solemnly 
declared in his synagogue the writer of the amulets 
to be a Shabbethaian heretic and deserving of ex- 

The majority of the community favoring Eybe- 
schiltz, the council condemned Emden as a calumnia- 
tor. People were ordered, under pain of excommun- 
ication, not to attend Emden's synagogue, and he 
himself was forbidden to issue anything from his 
press. As Emden still continued his philippics 
against Eybeschiltz, he was ordered by the council 
of the three communities to leave Altona. This he 
refused to do, relying on the strength of the king's 
charter, and he was, as he maintained, relentlessly 
persecuted. Ilis life seeming to be in actual danger, 
he left the town and took retime in Amsterdam 
(May, 1751), where he had many friends and where 
he joined the household of his brother-in-law, Aryeh 
Lob b. Saul, rabbi of the Ashkenazic community. 
Emden's cause was subsequently taken up In the 
court of King Frederick of Denmark, and on June 
:!, 175i, a judgment was given in favor of Emden, 
severely censuring the council of the three commu- 
nities and condemning them to a fine of one hundred 
thalers. Emden then returned to Altona and t ook 
possession of his synagogue and printing-establish 
ment. though he was forbidden to continue his agi 

tation against Eybeschiltz. The latter's partizans, 
however, did aot desist from their warfare against 
Emden. They accused him before the authorities ol 
i ontinuing to publish denunciations against his op- 
ponent. One Friday evening (July 8, 1755) his 
was broken into and his papers seized and 
turned ovi r to the " Ober-PrSsident," Von Kwalen 
Six months later Von Kwalen appointed a commis- 
sion of three scholars, who. after a close examina 
tion. found nothing w hich could inculpate Emden. 
Emden was undoubtedly very quick-tempered 
and of a jealous disposition. The truth or falsity 
of his denunciations against Eybeschiltz can uot bi 
proved, but the Facl remains that he quarreled with 

almost all his contemporaries. lie considered thai 

> man who was Dot for him was against him. 

and attacked him accordingly. Still, he seems to 

have enjoyed a certain authority, even among the 
Polish rabbis, the majority of whom sided with 

K\ In schiitz, and hud once even excommunicated 
Emden upon the initiative of Hayyim of Lublin 
(1751). Thus in 1756 the members of the Synod of 
Constantinov applied to Emden to aid in repressing 
the Shabbethaian movement. As the Shabbethaians 
referred much to the Zohar, Emden thought it wise 
to examine that hook, and after a careful study he 
concluded that a great part of the Zohar was the 
production (if an impostor (see "Mitpahat Scfarim "). 

Emden's works show him to have been possessed 
of critical powers rarely found among his contem- 
poraries, who generally took things for granted. He 
was strictly Orthodox, never deviating the least 
from tradition. e\ en when the difference in time and 
circumstance might have fairly been regarded as 
warranting a deviation from the old custom. In 177',! 
the Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin having issued a 
decree forbidding burial on the day of death, the 
.lews in his territories approached Emden with the 
request that lie demonstrate from the Talmud that 
a longer exposure of a corpse would be against the 
Law. Emden referred them to Mendelssohn, who 
had great influence with Christian authorities; but 
as .Mendelssohn agreed with the ducal order. Emden 
wrote to him and urged the desirability of opposing 
the duke if only to remove the suspicion of irrelig 
iousness he (Mendelssohn) had aroused by his asso- 

Emden was a very prolific writer; his works fall 
into two classes, polemical and rabbinical. Among 
the former are : 

Torat ha-Kena'ot, a biography (if Sbabbethai Zebi, and criti- 
cisms of Nebeniiab Hayyon, Jonathan Kybeschiitz, and others. 
Amsterdam, 1753. 

'Edut be-Ya'akob, on the supposed heresy of Eybeschiltz, and 
including Iggeret Shuui, a letter to the rabbi* 
His Works, "f the " Four Lands." Altona. 1756. 

Sbimmush, comprising three smaller works: 
Shot la-Sus and Meteg la-Hamor, on Die crowing influence of 
the Shabbethaians, and Shebet le-Gew Kesilim. a refutation of 
heretical demonstrations. Amsterdam, 1758-63. Luhot ha- A wen, a refutation of Eybeschiitz's " I.iihot 
•Edut." Altona, 1759. 

Sehok ha-Kesil. Yekeb Ze'eb. and Gat Derukab, three polemical 
works published In the ** Hit'abbekut " of one of his pupils. Al- 
tona, 1763. 

Hereb Piflyyot, Iggeret Purim, Teshubot ha-Minim, and Zik- 
karon be-Sef er, on money-changers and bankers (unpublished). 

His rabbinical works include: 

I.ehem Shamayim, a commentary mi the Mishnah, with -i 
treatise in two parte, on Maimonides* *'Yad," Bet ba-Behlrab. 
Altona, 1738; vTandsbeck," 1733. 

Iggeret Bikkoret, responsa. Altona, 1783. 

She'elat Ya'abez, a collect! ( :S7:; responsa. Altona, 1739-69, 

Siddur TeQllah, an edition of the ritual with a commentary, 
grammatical nuns, ritual laws, and various treatises, in three 
parte: Bet-El, Sba'ar ba-Shamayim, and Migda] 'Oz. It also 
Includes a treatise entitled Eben Bohan, ami a criticism on 
Menabem di Lonzauo's "'Abodal Mikdash," entitled Sedei 
Abodah. Altona, 1743 is. 

•i> \t.nt. a c mentary to Abot, with Lehem Nekudim, a 

matical notes. Amsterdam, 1751. 

Sha'agat Aryeh, a sermon, also Included in his Kishsbuiim 
le-Ta'akob. Amsterdam, 1755. 

Seder 'Olam Rabbab we-Zuta, the two Sedei '01am and 
gillat Ta'anlt, edited with critical notes. Hamburg 

Met' u-Ke/i'ali. novelise en the ( H'.ili Hayyim, ill two 
the first part, Mltpahal Sefarim, being an expurgation of the 
Zohar: the second, a criticism mi "Emunat Hakamim" 

"Mishnal Hakai ." and polemical letters addressed 

rabbi "f Konigsberg. Altona, 1761 68. 

Zizim u-Ferahim, a collection of cabalistic articles arranged 
in alphabetical order. Utona, 1768. 

Luah Eresh, grammatical notes mi the prayers, and a criticism 
uf Solomon Hena'a "Sha'are reflllah." Altona. 17H9. 

N X 

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PROM VUK oi.m llmnl. ISiuiim. U'TOGRAPH ANN01 ElIABN. I'm 

ill, ' i rk.) 




Sbemesb Zedakah. Altona, L7T2. 

Pesah Gadol. TeflUal resharim, and Holi Ketem. Altona, 
Sha'are 'Azarah. Altona, 1776. 
Dlbre Emel u-Mlshpal Shalom (n. d. and n. p.). 

His unpublished rabbinical writings are the fol 

lowing : 

Kislislnirim le-Ya'akob, collection "f sermons. 

Za'akat Damlm, refutation "I Hie blood accusation In Poland. 

Balakab Pesu^ab. 

Hilkcui [i-Meshiha, responsum to K. Israel LipscbiTtz. 

Mada'ab Rabbab. 

Gal-'Ed, commentaryto Rasbiand n> the Targum of the Pen- 

Em la-Binah, commentary to the whole Bible. 

Em la-Mlkra we la-Masoret, also a commentary to the Bible. 

Marginal novellas on the Talmud ol Babylon. 

Megillal Sefer, containing biographies oi himself and of his 
(al her. 

Emden also annotated the following works: 
Saadia Qaon's "Sefer ha-Pedut we ba-Purkan"; 
Elijah Levita's "Meturgeman"; Estori Farhi's 
"Kaftoru Ferah"; Caro's " Kereti u-Peleti " ; Isaac 
b. Judah ha Levi's "Pa'aneah Raza"; Isaac Abra- 
vancl's " Rosh Amanah " ; Maimonides' "Iggerot"; 
Moses Graf's "WayakhelMosheh"; Benjamin Musa- 
fia's "Musaf he-'Aruk." Wagenaar, in his "Tole- 
dot Vicuiii/" attributes to Emden the cabalistic 
•• Marina} im." 

Bibliography: <;riitz. Gesch. R«l ed., x. :m 388; Megiilat Se- 
:,, (Emden's autobiography), Warsaw, 1896; Wagenaar, Z'o- 
ledol Ya'ahez, Amsterdam, MS*; Azuhii. ShemhOrQedoUm.i. 
86; FOrst, in Orient. Lit. Til. 442; Halberstamm, in Berliner's 
Magazin. v. 203, ix. 173; D. liaufmann, In Moncdsschrift. 
xl. 330-331, xli. 333 336, 362-369, 426 429; Furat, llihl. Jud. i. 
240 214. On the controversy between Emden and Eybeschutz 
see ll<t-shithiii; w. :u:i ,1 «■■;., xii. lsl-litt, r>4K-.V>2, mc' till). 
646 652, 686-692. 
B, s. M. Ski,. 

EMERALD. See Gems. 

EMET WE-YAZZIB: The initial words of the 
morning benediction following the Shema' and clo- 
sing with the Ge'ullah ("Redemption"). Recited 
in the priests after the Shema' in the morning sei \ 
ice in the Temple hall, " lishkat ha-gazit " (Tamid v. 
1). ir lias retained its place in the service ever since, 
and the rule afterward was made not to interrupt 
the connection between the last two words of the 
third portion of the Shema', the chapter on zizit, 
and "emet,"asif the words, " the Lord your God" 
"is true." formed one sentence (coinp. Jer. \. 10; 
Ber. ii. '.'; Ma. b). Zunz ("G. V." p. 383) thinks the 
original benediction contained only forty-five words, 
hut the fact that if had the name "Emet we-Ya??ib" 
in the earliest times upsets his theory of the original 
simplicity of the benediction. The first sentence, 
"True and firm, established and enduring, right and 
faithful, beloved and precious, desirable and pleas- 
ant, revered and mighty, well ordered and accepta- 
ble, g I and beautiful [a strange mixture of lie 

brew ami Aianif .in words], is Thy word unto us 
forever and ever," refers to the Shema' as a solemn 
profession of the unity of God. This is follow ed by 
two other sentences, beginuing with " Emet," refer- 
ring possibly to the two oilier sections of the 
Shema'. while the other sentences beginning with 
"Emet" the German liturgy has three, the Sephai 
die live arc addressed to God, and lead on to the 
idea of God as Redeemer. 

Thai the " Emel wc-Yazzib " should contain refer- 
ences io God's kingdom, to the redemption of Israel 

from Egypt, and to the wonders of the Red Sea, is 
a rule made as early as the tannai tic time (Tosef., 
Ber. ii. 1; Yer. Ber. i. 3d). Zunz (i.e.) assigns the 
latter part, describing in poetic and partly alpha- 
betic-acrostic form the wonders of divine redemp- 
tion, to payyefanhu of the geonic age. The tone, 
however, of exuberant joy at Israel's redemption, 
the accentuation of the " humble," and the special 
reference to the Song of Moses as the hymn of 
"great rejoicing," indicate a Hasidean origin (comp. 
l'hilo, " DeVitaContemplativa"; Rev. xv. 3). Still. 
the concluding formula was not fixed before the 
geonic time (see Zunz, I.e. ; Rapoport, "Kalir," p. 
146; Liturgy). 

Bibliography: Abudraham, Siddur Shnhnrii : Landsbut,in 
Edelman's Hegyon Leb, p. 60. Konlgsberg, 1845; Beer, Abo- 
tint Yisracl, p. 84, Rodelsheim, 1868 ; Herzfeld, Gesch. deg 
Volke* Israel, iii. 196, note 1. 
A. K. 


EMIM ("terrible ones"): A name applied (Deut. 
ii. 10) to the original inhabitants of Moab, though 
the Scptuagint reads for it, 'Ofi/tiv. The name is used 
(Gen. xiv. 5) to designate also the inhabitants of the 
plain of Kirjathaim. Here the Scptuagint calls them 
'0/i/taioi, but in both passages tin Vulgate supports 
the Hebrew text. 

They are described (Deut. I.e.) as the former pos- 
sessors of the land, and are said to be "a people 
great, and many, and tall, as the Anakim, which also 
were accounted Rephaim " (A. V. "giants"). 

Kirjathaim, with which they are connected in 
Gen. I.e., was north of the Arnon, among the towns 
taken by the tribe of Reuben (Num. xxxii. 37; 
Josh. xiii. 19; and G. A. Smith, "Historical Geog- 
raphy of the Holy Land," pp. 567, note 1 ; 568, note 
1). It is now called "Kurcyat." 

The name "Emim" was probably given in conse- 
quence of the terror inspired by these better-nour- 
ished inhabitants, who, to the underfed, undersized 
men of the desert, seemed giants. 

j. jr. G. A. B. 

THEODOR SCHNITZER): German explorer; 
born at Oppeln, Prussian Silesia. .March 28, 1840 
killed at Kinena Station. Kongo Free State, (Jet. S3 
or 24, 189'3. When he was only two years old his 
parents moved to Neisse, where in 1846 the boy was 
baptized into the Protestant Church. Al'ler finish- 
ing his studies at the Neisse gymnasium, he studied 
medicine at Breslau, KOnigsberg, and Berlin, pass- 
ing the M.D. examination in 1864. From childhood 
it was his ambition to travel. This desire had such 
a strong hold on him that he left the university in 
ism before passing bis slate examination, and went 
to England, then to Italy, and finally to Turkey. 
In 1865 he was appointed quarantine medical offi- 
cer at Antivari near Constantinople, which posi- 
tion he held for four years. In 1*70 he became 

physician to Hakki Ismail Pasha, after whose death 

lie paid(1874)a brief visit to bis home, and, trav- 
eling through Germany, Austria, and Italy, went 
to Egypt. He arrived in Khartum Dec. '■', 1875, 

joined Gordon Pasha, then gover ■ of the Equa 

torial Provinces, at. Lado, became bis physician, 
taking the name of "F.inin," and \\ as often entrusted 





Eiulu Pasba. 

with responsible political and administrative duties. 
When Gordon became governor-general "t the Su- 
dan, he appointed Emin Bej governor of the Eqna 
torial Province-. | 1878). 

Emin explored and inspected his province with 
Indefatigable zeal. In the meantime the Mahdi 
uprising bad begun, and Haul' Pasha, the successor 
lordon, bad himself been succeeded bj Abd el 
Kader in 1882. In the spring of that year Emin 
Bey went to Khartum. Returning toLado, be found 
(hat the rebellion had spread to his province. II- 
had endeavored to keep control of Equatoria, but 
the su : the Mahdi made it increasingly dif 

tieult In 1883 the lasl steamer with merchandise 

and new s ait i \ ed 
from Khartum. In 
1885 Khartum fell 
and< lordon was slain. 
Emin was forced to 
retire to Wadelai Re 
bellion broke out in 
his ou n camj). and to 
Insi; he received the 
news officially that 
the Egyptian govern 
mi m had abandoned 
the Sudan. Emin Pa 
|P sha w as gh en " un- 
limited freedom ul'ae 
tion, and permission 
to lei real upon En 

lisli territory, if nec- 
essary." For i be fi il 
lowing two years news from Emin was scanty, but 
he still held his province and cared for it as best lie 


After Gordon's death, interest iii the Mahdi up- 
rising centered around Emin Pasha, and men like 
Wilhelm Junker, Karl Peters, Dr. Schweinf