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DS 
141 
G688JE 




GORTSCHAKOFF-OUVAROFFl 
JEWS AND CHRISTIANS 





The Library 
University of California, Los Angel 



es 



The gift of Mrs. Cummings, 1963 





JEWS AND CHRISTIANS, 



FROM THE FRENCH OP 



PRINCESS NATHALIE GORTSCHAKOFF-OUVAROFF. 



WITH INTRODUCTORY NOTES, 



BY 



H. GUEDALLA, ESQ. 



LONDON : 

DARLING & SON. LIMITED. 

PRINTERS TO HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE. 
31, EASTCHEAP. B.C. 



1888. 
(Price One Shilling). 



HI 



NOTES. 



THE admirable pamphlet of the Princess Natalie Gortschakoff-Ouvaroff 
entitled " Juifs et Chretiens." which lately appeared at Paris in French, 
has already been translated into German by Dr. Adolf Blumenthal, and 
published at Mayence by Wirth. and also into Italian. 

"The Russian Censorship has authorised the free circulation of the 
book that is to say, free from the control of the censor throughout 
Russia. An impartial perusal of the work cannot fail to alter the 
opinions which the educated Russian entertains of the Jews ; and if a 
translation into Russian could be published, so as to make the Princess 
Gortschakoff's opinions more accessible to the general public, such a 
publication might play an important part in educating the masses on the 
Jewish question." 

Such is the opinion of the Editor of the JeiL'ixh Chronicle, in which I 
entirely coincide, and should like also to see it translated into Hebrew 
and extensively circulated amongst my co-religionists in Russia and 
Germany, on account of the brotherly feelings conveyed therein. The 
club scene in " Daniel Deronda " was most ably translated for me into 
Hebrew by the Editor of the Jfagid within a few days of its appearance 
in English, to the great delight of George Eliot as conveyed to me. 
Having done my part by its translation into English. I think others ought 
to carry out these two additional translations. I must bear testimony to 
the pioneer Dr. Adolf Blumenthal, whose able authorised translation into 
German has so much pleased the noble authoress. 

Several eminent Christians have conveyed to the Princess the most 
flattering marks of sympathy and approbation for her pamphlet. They 
well understood that her criticism related to a state of things tolerated, 
although blameable. A French literary Academy has requested her 
acceptance of the title of honorary member, and asked her to contribute 
to their periodical, by which it will be clearly seen that far from having 
any grudge against her for her bold outspoken, candid and truthful 
words, they have by their line of conduct stamped her action by their 
approbation. 



2096623 



I am indebted to Dr. A. Blumenthal for the following interesting 
biography : 

" Princess Gortschakoff is the second daughter of the Governor-General 
of Siberia, Prince Peter Gortschakoff, and of his wife nee Tscherevine. 
Princess Natalie came early to the brilliant Court of St. Petersburg, where 
she was universally admired for her beauty and wit. She was Maid of 
Honour to the late Empress of Russia. After her marriage with Colonel 
Alexander Ouvaroff she retired from the world, to devote herself to the 
care of her property. She soon became a widow, but was consoled by two 
daughters, Marie, Comtesse Cormani, wife of a nobleman belonging to one 
of the oldest Venetian families, and Olga. Comtesse Piolo Casselli, both 
residing at Florence. Colonel Ouvaroff's brother, Serges Fedorowitsch, a 
man of great culture, at present lives in retirement but we have reason to 
believe that the wise ruler, who directs the fate of Russia, is aware of his 
merits and intends shortly to summon him to the Council of State. 

In conclusion, I extract from the various journals some of the opinions 
of the French press. 

LONDON, April, 1888. H. GUEDALLA. 



The " FIGAEO." A work from the > pen of Princess Natalie Gortschakoff- 
Ouvaroff has this day been published at Ohio's, under the name of "Jews and 
Christians." This book will, no doubt, have as great a success as " France Jnive," 
to which it forms a reply. 

The "LOT." "Jews and Christians," a most interesting work, full of life, which 
will certainly have a great humanitarian and social influence. 

"The "KEVUE PARISIENNE." The very interesting study of Madame 
Gortschakoff-Ouvaroff, "Jews and Christians," will create a regular sensation. 

The "MEMORIAL DIPLOMATIQUE." "War against the Jews is now the cry 
of all Europe.' The work, " Jews and Christians," explains the causes of the troubles 
of the Jews. The book will have an equally great success in the Protestant and in 
the Catholic world. 

The "JUSTICE." Princess Gortschakoff s work, "Jews and Christians," is a 
very interesting study, for which a great success may be prophesied. 

The "GAZETTE DBS ETRANGERS." Protestants, Catholics, and Free 
Thinkers may, with advantage, read Princess Gortschakoff s pamphlet. 

The " REVUE CHAMPENOISE." Although we as a rule exclude all religious 
discussions from our columns, we must, however, mention Madame Gortschakoff s 
powerfully conceived and cleverly written pamphlet, "Jews and Christians." 

The " FORUM." The reasoning is deep and true ; the authoress only looks at 
the question from the religious side, while we do so from the social side. 

The "FIERAMOSCA" (Florence). We are happy to be able to inform our 
readers that Princess Natalie Gortschakoff-Ouvaroff s pamphlet, "Jews and 
Christians," which is so highly praised by the entire French Press, will short ly 
appear in the Italian language,. 



JEWS AND CHRISTIANS. 



AT a time when all the institutions of the past are 
wavering, and the people are groping about amidst a 
dissolving demagogy when human intelligence is 
led astray by the sophistry of a senseless philosophy 
and a humiliating philanthropy which has found no 
other remedy for the cure of suffering humanity than 
to discrown it, by depriving it of the responsibility 
of its acts it may not, perhaps, be useless to cast an 
attentive glance upon the only nation which keeps 
itself intact amidst these inundations of thought : 
I refer to the imperishable Jewish nation a nation 
which appears inclined to amalgamate, but which 
never will amalgamate with the surrounding nations ; 
whose members, even where accepting baptism, still 
remain Jews, like Esther, the beloved and vindictive 
wife of Ahasuerus, and in modern times, Cremieux, 
Beaconsfield, and so many others whose origin is less 
known, who," when raised to power, so efficiently 
protect their co-religionists, and whose influence is 
felt in the acts of modern legislation. 

Formerly, the thought of a Jew aw r akened in our 
minds the image of an abject being, greedy for gain, 
crouching over his gold, of which he made his God, 

A 2 



and steeped to the full amid the cares of insatiable 
avarice. But this is so no longer ; the descendants 
of Israel have made their way into many modern 
Societies, and France and Italy accept them on a 
footing of equality. 

The atheism of which the Christian boasts has 
done away with many prejudices so far as the baptized 
are concerned, but not as regards the Jews : they 
feign, when talking to us, indifference and toleration, 
and even occasionally affect to call Christianity 
reformed Judaism. At the bottom of their hearts, 
however, there is nothing of the kind : the Christian 
is always the Guim, and they are the people of God. 
Their religion is so indissolubly connected with their 
nationality that whilst they proclaim through the 
medium of the public papers at their disposal, the 
lowering of those barriers which separate races and 
peoples, whilst preaching a philanthropy of equality 
and the alliance of the nations, they carefully guard 
against any act which may definitively fuse them in 
that general humanity of which they proclaim them- 
selves the apostles. 

No matter his place of birth, the Jew will remain 
a Jew ; Jacob is his father, the Thora and the 
Talmud are his masters, the cradle wherein his 
children are rocked ; and with him, the question is 
not one of religion only, but nationality. 

From the study of those books, the Jews draw 
their imperishable vitality, -their faith and their 
trust in those future events which are to bring the 



realisation of the promises, the fulfilment of which 
they have been awaiting for so many centuries. 

In becoming a citizen of another nation, the Jew 
accepts and receives the right, but not the obligation 
to detach himself from his original nationality, he 
cannot do so without abdicating, and abdicate he 
never will. Can a man serve two masters ? The 
Jew serves God, the Go'ims serve Mammon. 

Their country is Jerusalem ; but as they are a 
race eminently capable of patriotism, whilst consider- 
ing Jerusalem as an ideal country, they are still 
capable of serving with devotion a temporary 
country and the Governments which employ them, 
without ever losing sight of their origin and common 
interests. 

Among the Eastern nationalities of Europe the 
Jew excites attention by his serious and even sad 
physiogonomy : his look seems to reveal a world of 
thoughts and indelible regrets ; it is that of the exile 
deploring the loss of his country ; it is that of a 
being in a mystic reverie ever awaiting that miracle, 
the return to the country of his fathers, the coming 
of the Messiah promised him by the writings of his 
sacred book. His very speech retains the guttural 
sounds of his Eastern origin. 

In the West the Jews are still exiles, but exiles 
who frequently no longer think of their country ; 
who have become acclimatised among the go'ims, and 
perhaps if the offer were made to them to return to 
Jerusalem, many among them, like the ten tribes in 



the time of Cyrus, would prefer remaining in the 
country whose manners and customs they have 
adopted. 

Have we not recently seen them in their exodus 
from Russia turn their steps rather in the direction of 
America than that of Palestine, to which place the 
English, seconded by Montefiore, tried to attract 
them ? 

The Jewish nation has not yet uttered its last 
word, for even when pretending to renounce all 
religion, as we have occasionally seen, and throwing 
themselves, as it were into materialism whilst 
uttering the impious cry of " Where is our God," 
we are sensible of another fibre than that of modem 
paganism ; we are conscious of the anger of the 
nation which knows itself to be the elect and deems 
itself forgotten. 

There is also the pious Jew who has not bent the 
knee before the altar of the modern Baal, who 
despising the goods of this earth, lives amid poverty 
and study, passing his days bent over the Thora and 
the Talmud, there seeking the clue to the enigma 
which the strange destiny of his people exhibits to 
his view ; if it be not vouchsafed to him to penetrate 
any deeper into the hidden sense of the prophecies, 
he is still there, at least, as the green banner of 
Islamism protecting the sepulchre of Abraham. 

It is towards such men that our interest and 
our respect are due men who bestow upon lucrative 
labour only just sufficient time to meet the strict 



necessities of existence, who, with souls raised to an 
ideal and distant future, bear, without a murmur, 
privations and contempt. 

Are examples wanted of such men ? 

Take R. vich Ech., the learned translator of the 
Talmud, who, on reaching old age, asks no more of 
life than the right to be permitted to shed tears 
once more in a distant land upon his parents' tomb. 

Take D., a Professor of Hebrew in a distant town 
in the East, the father of a numerous family that he 
maintains with his labour ; who, when his learning 
fails to furnish him with sufficient resources, devotes 
his intelligence to the art of photography, to a calling 
for which more elevated occupation has rendered him 
unfit, and in which his petty savings are soon sunk ; 
yet still, with unfailing courage when this resource 
proves futile, sets about to find another that may be 
more successful. 

At Florence, a poor little Jewish School, in a 
locality that is poorer still, gives shelter to intelligence, 
to firm faith, and the disinterested thirst for Truth. 

How many others which I might quote deserve to 
attract our attention and compel our esteem, if Ave had 
only time to bestow upon them in this age of haste 
and superficiality ? 

Like every race and every individual who is richly 
endowed, the Jew is extreme, now pursuing with 
avidity the acquisition of wealth which alone has, 
hitherto, gained for him the right of equality among 
us, now plunging into the absorbing study of his holy 



8 

books, scrupulously obeying all the precepts of the 
Mosaic law, and neglecting every other interest in 
order to live solely in a prophetic vision in the expec- 
tation of the Messiah. 

At the period of the troubles raised in Europe 
through the Semitic question a pamphlet written on 
the subject concluded with the opinion that it was 
necessary to civilise the Jews in order to solve 
existing difficulties. 

My personal observation has led me to a different 
conclusion ; the Jew, as a nation, has arrived at the 
extreme limit comprehended under the Mosaic law 
for the development of humanity. 

It appears to me that what is wanted now, is to 
civilise and christianise the nations among whom the 
Jews are living. If we could lead them, if not to 
love, at least to esteem those nations and make the 
Jews witnesses of the fruits which such civilisation 
can bear, the task contemplated would then be far 
nearer its fulfilment ; hatred and contempt would 
yield to kindly intercourse, and the Jew w^ould be 
happy in recognising a brother in the Christian. 

1 am aware that it is a reproach cast upon the Jew 
that he abuses the advantages which his knowledge, 
his eastern suppleness, and his complete absence of 
vices give him over the Christian. He is charged 
with usury, and reprobated for those Stock-exchange 
speculations the secret of which is retained by him 
and his fellows in an offensive and defensive alliance 
against other nations. 



But is the Christian so scrupulous, even as regards 
his own brothers, as to have acquired the right to 
condemn the Jew ? The Christian is too often 
wounded in his material interests through the address 
and commercial genius of the Jew, to be just in 
speaking of him. In his struggle for gold the 
Christian is quite as much vanquished by his own 
vices as by the qualities of the Jew. We must not, 
therefore, lose sight of the causes which lead to his 
superiority, and not attribute it solely to avidity and 
to a want of exceptional scruples. 

In the Eastern parts of Europe, where the popula- 
tions are in a very backward state of civilisation, 
whenever the governments fail to look into their 
transactions, they inevitably fall into the hands of 
usurers. 

Do we not see the justest and most liberal measure 
ever adopted by a Government, viz., the liberation of 
the Serfs in Russia, fail to produce all the fruits one 
had reason to expect from it ? After emancipation 
from the guardianship and also the oppression of 
serfdom, the people have re-fallen, at least many 
among them, under the still more pitiless domination 
of usurers and intelligent tricksters of the same 
nationality, and generally of the same class. 

Are we to argue from this that we ought to regret 
the abolition of a degrading institution ? Certainly 
not ; but the same laws which place the protection of 
a guardianship over the years of minority and over 
the acts of men of unsound mind, ought to limit the 



10 

free-will of the undeveloped classes, more especially 
in their connection with races infinitely their superiors 
in knowledge and the conduct of affairs with the 
Jewish race in short, which, to a perfect genius for 
business unites a spirit of union and solidarity which 
transforms it into a commercial phalanx. 

The peasant would be the gainer as being preserved 
from rum ; and the Jew would avoid those sanguinary 
reprisals which the authorities have not always the 
strength and capability of repressing in time. 

Unjust in form these reprisals respond to a senti- 
ment which is not so among the populations who see 
themselves ruined without knowing how to strike a 
blow in their defence, for it must not be forgotten 
that the Jew who comes forward to conclude a bargain 
is a member of an entire community ready to lend 
him its aid and countenance : the struggle therefore 
presents no equality as regards an isolated individual. 

The Jew has no vices ; unfortunately, and, it is a 
grave reproach, he, has no scruples as to turning to 
account those of other nations, but the Christian 
shows himself still less scrupulous for he turns to 
account the vices of his co-religionists. 

In the relations of Jews with each other you will 
never find them guilty of fraud can we say as much 
for Christians ? That which may serve as an excuse 
for the Jews in many of their transactions with our- 
selves is, that during several centuries, many of the 
means of gaining a livelihood were shut against them ; 
they were the victims also of cruel persecutions 



11 

whence they freed themselves only at the price of 
gold, and that gold alone secured them an honoured, 
if not an honorable place, among the descendants of 
Japhet. 

If the Rothschilds, the Foulds, and the Ephrussi 
are courted by the flower of Western aristocracy, 
and the poor Polish Jew drags out his miserable 
existence amidst contempt and scorn, what must 
these same Rothschilds and the other Jews think of 
our religion and the loftiness of our sentiments ? 

Upon veritable Christians, or rather upon any 
Christian Society, the Jewish community would have 
no hold : our materialism, our impotent cupidity, our 
vices, and our brutal selfishness constitute their 
triumph on the one hand, and our weakness and 
humiliation on the other. 

We are, according to the evangelical parable, the 
issue of a race of maimed and halt, the gates of 
the banqueting house have been opened for us 
on the refusal of the first invited guests and though 
Christianity were entrusted to make us whole and 
cure our infirmities, all the glories of the golden calf 
would fail to attain the end, even should a new Moses 
cause us to swallow the ashes thereof. Let us not 
forget that Shem is our brother, not only when he 
bears the name of Rothschild or Fould, but also 
when he is poor and persecuted ; that he is liable to 
the same weaknesses, and that the insults which we 
have so long heaped upon him form an excuse for 
his hatred and our vices for his contempt. 



12 

Unhappily, the clergy of every country busies 
itself almost exclusively with dogmatic discussions 
and the material interests of that religion whose 
essence is to despise them. It neglects all spiritual 
interests and allows millions of souls to escape, 
which the materialistic philosophy of the age hastens 
to entice into its nets. Therefore, whilst admitting 
that Christian morality is infinitely more lofty than 
that of the Jews, we still have to deplore the fact 
that Jewish morality is infinitely superior to that of 
the Christians. 

The immorality of the Christians is so notorious 
that it is the chief reason why the Jews hold in such 
slight esteem those among them who go over to 
Christianity, assigning to such conversions no other 
incentive than the desire to abandon themselves with- 
out control to unlimited licence. Family ties among 
the Jews are worthy of our admiration ; the children 
always keep up, as regards their parents, a dependence 
of love and respect. Those acts which are self-styled 
" sommations respectueuses" or formal requests of 
consent to marriage made to parents by a person 
of legal age are totally unknown among them, and 
the new families, formed by the marriage of the 
children, are bound to the parents by the indissoluble 
ties of filial sentiment. 

In spite of the Mosaic laws and the regulations of 
the Talmud, occasionally bearing but too strongly the 
impress of Eastern trammels, the position of woman 
among the Jews is full of dignity, whether as daughter, 



13 

wife or mother. During a recent stay at Heidelberg, 
I was witness of the veneration which Jewish families 
display towards their aged and infirm parents. From 
my balcony which overlooked the premises of an 
Israelitish family, I could observe a woman of some 
ninety years the object of special care and attention. 
Everything connected with her personal service was 
performed by a young girl of some eighteen summers 
her granddaughter. In the morning, I could see the 
snowy hair of the grandmother dressed by those 
young, affectionate and tender hands. Later on, 
leaning on the arm of her son-in-law, she walked 
about the garden and took the post of honour at the 
family meal. Every tender thought and respectful 
care were reserved for the infirm and aged grand- 
mother. M. C. had lost his wife, and this was the 
mother of the deceased. How many Christian families 
might have followed such an example ! I have 
known many, and among the highest ranks too, where 
the old age of a mother was the object of mere 
contemptuous compassion and impatient toleration ! 

The vice of drunkenness, that plague spot of the 
northern nations, is completely unknown among the 
Jews ; they are equally temperate as regards their 
food, and the custom which leads them to very early 
marriages, preserves them from unlawful connexions 
and other irregularities. But we do not see that 
these early marriages interfere with their material 
prosperity. The education which is bestowed upon 
Jewish children is founded upon stable principles, 



14 

having for its basis the knowledge of God, whose will 
is their law. At the present time, the West scarcely 
admits the existence of a Creator, but certainly not of 
a Deity ; the Jewish nation stands alone in that His 
holy will is accepted by him as a law, violated often 
it is true by human weakness and human passions, but 
always adored and admitted, and it is only among 
the Jews that the true connexion is revealed which 
should exist between man and his God. The first 
virtue taught to them in infancy is obedience, towards 
which the weakness of the child instinctively leans. 

Obedience towards their parents leads the children 
to the obedience and adoration of God, the creator 
and father of man, and not a creator, more or less 
impersonal, according to the degree of philosophy of 
so-called Christian parents. The first books placed 
in the hands of children are the sacred ones, whose 
contents, impressed upon the memory from the very 
outset of life, leave an indelible mark throughout the 
entire existence of the learners. Their law expressly 
forbids them the use of derision, that malice which 
makes of words so formidable a weapon, of a nature 
to exasperate the weak and not unfrequently sting 
them into crime. Modesty is obligatory ; jests and 
allusions of an indecorous character are interdicted, 
and thus it is that the Jew maintains during his 
entire life a bearing full of wisdom and reserve which 
is often in strong contrast to that of the Christian. 
While quite young the Jews learn that they form a 
community : while quite young, they know that they 



15 

constitute a family among the other nations. They 
are aware that wealth and poverty are mere accidents 
which must never be allowed to dissolve their 
fraternity. It is true that they do not understand 
that broader and more generous application made by 
Christianity of the principle of human fraternity, but 
which the Christians themselves too rarely practise. 
But at least among them the tie of a powerful and 
aifectionate solidarity is never broken. Has it not 
been said : " If a Jew falls, there are thirty ready to 
pick him up " ? Might one not add : " If a Christian 
falls, there are thirty ready to trample him under 
foot"? 

This trait does not escape the Jew and perhaps 
more than anything else binds him to his faith, for it 
must be admitted that many Jews have applied 
themselves sufficiently closely to the study of the 
Scriptures to recognise in our Saviour the great 
prophet announced by Moses. Between that and the 
Christian religion there is but one step. But those 
whom we call Christians are frequently no other than 
individuals who have been baptised, and are altogether 
wanting in that impress of mutual love which should 
make them recognisable. The unfortunate converted 
Jew who abandons his community and his religion 
falls into a chaos where the ties of blood are as little 
respected as the community of religious beliefs. 
Habituated, as the Jews all are, to that solidarity 
which gives support to those venerated family ties 
which are so great a consolation amid the tribulations 



16 

of existence, and which during so many centuries 
have constituted their strength and their life. What 
is to become of them amid their new surroundings ? 
Scandalised at every step, abandoned, just as every 
Christian is abandoned during times of misfortune, 
they require a faith and a strength superior to those 
of the early martyrs in order to maintain unflinch- 
ingly the struggle against the evil which has been let 
loose upon the universe. After this, one ceases to 
feel surprised if the English clergyman, if the Roman 
Catholic missionaries, if the Orthodox Greek priests 
fail in their w r ork of conversion, and we often witness 
the spectacle of an unhappy wretch who has been 
temporarily led away, abjuring his new faith and 
re-entering the bosom of Israel ! 

The care bestowed upon the education of Jewish 
children is in strong contrast to the moral carelessness 
which presides over that of Christian children. The 
Hebrew child is invariably up to the age of seven 
years - subject to the discipline of passive obedience, 
and no toleration is extended to independence of 
mind or insubordination. Later on, with the 
development of reason, the sentiment of responsibility 
and of duty is inculcated ; and this being freely 
accepted, enchains the moral being and gradually 
raises the child to the dignity of manhood. The 
death of a father occasionally converts a youth of 
fourteen into the head of a family. I have known 
more than one who, starting at that age, have fought 
their battle bravely, bearing the immense responsi- 



bility of the destiny of their mother, brothers and 
sisters, whom they have had to maintain and establish 
in life. And yet they have performed these tremendous 
duties with no less energy than success. 

The Jewish youth, even among the lowest classes, 
never exhibit those phenomena of immorality which 
tend to become more and more frequent among 
Christians. For the education bestowed upon the 
Jewish child has a solid and moral basis, in strong 
contrast to that which is given to the Christian, and 
that more frequently than not excites the passions, 
leads to insubordination and encourages every species 
of covetousness. So it happens that the Christian 
youth too frequently exhibit the spectacle of un- 
natural appetites which their physical weakness will 
not permit them as yet to satisfy, but which must 
alarm every human being who observes and who 
reflects. 

Modern education requires greater firmness, more 
forethought, and above all more faith in fundamental 
principles ; and at the same time, more veritable 
affection. Instead of this, what do we behold ? 
A vast amount of slothful indulgence and a no small 
share of perfect indifference. The parent spoils his 
child, and abdicates his rights w r hile he abandons his 
duties ; authority becomes illusory and even con- 
temptible, owing to the negligent hands which 
wield it. We go further still ; we even find amuse- 
ment in the evil and precocious tendencies that crop 

out in these little creatures who are too young for the 

B 



is 

performance of certain acts ; until to our horror we 
find the strength to carry them out united to the 
desire which has for a time been powerless. Formerly 
colleges for boys and convents for girls were asylums 
where youth was respected. Nowadays, w r hen all the 
passions have assumed such extraordinary license, 
childhood itself is no longer sheltered and preserved, 
and we observe youth coolly calculating upon the 
immunity which the law accords him to escape from 
chastisement. We see with terror the frequency of 
the crimes with which youth is soiled and which cause 
pain and trouble in the family circle before the 
misery extends to society at large. And what is to 
be done ? Governments have ceased to take much 
interest in the matter, the heads of families have been 
deprived of their power to apply a remedy, and the 
future of modern society is fraught with peril ! 

Generally speaking the Jews read but little, and 
but rarely devoting themselves to literature, escape 
the dangers which the perusal of immoral trash lends 
to those subversive ideas which, at the present time 
are a veritable workshop of corruption. It would be 
desirable if upon this point, Governments should 
establish a moral censorship. Wherein would such a 
measure be more contrary to the spirit of liberty than 
the interdiction of certain plays or the prohibitions 
which extended to gambling houses ? It is said, I 
am aware, that books are written with a view to the 
public and according to public taste ; but is it not 
the mission of literature to elevate and purify that 



19 

taste ? Depraved tastes are a symptom of disease 
and should be treated accordingly. A complete 
want of moral sense, of religious aspirations and an 
ardent thirst of material enjoyment are everywhere 
perceptible in the education or rather the top-dressing, 
so to speak, now bestowed upon youth. And thus it 
is that the law, impotent in the repression of crime, 
has called in to its aid medical science, which can only 
inventory and classify the existing monstrosities 
under the names of psycopthia, hysteria, neuropathia, 
and derangements in general. 

In the majority of instances, all these evils derive 
their origin less from physical disorder than the 
absence of equilibrium between the moral and 
intellectual part of the individual. The moral being 
is steeped in the slumber of death ; the intellectual 
and physical being is immeasurably over excited. 
Hence that pride which holds the first place among the 
symptoms of insanity, and can we not see how every- 
thing in modern education tends to develope this trait ? 
That which the schools have begun, the daily papers 
undertake to finish. No one can deny that there is 
more true respect for childhood in shutting it away 
from vice, than in granting it a senseless liberty which 
must tend towards its ruin. Christianity which has 
over all moral questions so vast a superiority ought 
perhaps to have retained some few of the traditional 
customs of the Hebrews, and more especially those 
connected with education, whereon the Mosaic law has 
so justly bestowed its care. That race, which the 

B 2 



20 

Deity himself had raised up through the voice of its 
prophets, had attained a degree of moral civilisation 
which ought to have rendered it more apt to 
assimilate to itself the Christianity which it rejected, 
but which the Gentiles were in no way prepared to 
receive. 

Thus it happens that our manners, notwithstanding 
the waters of baptism, still retain many traces of 
paganism, just as the physical body of modern man 
still displays the traces of a degenerate leprosy which 
medical men find, under other names, in our con- 
stitutions. Paganism, which has been latent and 
concealed during so many centuries, has again a 
tendency to invade with impetuosity the entire 
western hemisphere. Not, it is true, under the 
material form of the divinities of the past, but under 
that of a more and more exclusive worship of matter 
and of the enjoyments of the flesh. The animal 
gratifications of the savage are less degrading than 
the refinements of voluptuousness placed at the 
service of vice by modern society. It would seem 
as if the baptised nations had hitherto made but a 
trial of Christianity, and that true Christianity will 
make its appearance upon the earth the day that 
Israel places at its service her ardent faith and her 
indomitable energy. The Jew has hitherto held 
aloof from these allurements and regards the Goim 
with pity, indeed, but not unmixed with contempt. 

The moral superiority of the Jew being proved, 
what are AVC to say of the mixed marriages, towards 



21 

which the Jews are led by vanity and pride and the 
Christians by the still less noble sentiment of avidity ? 
One would say that good sense, as well as religion, 
should prohibit them. The law of the Jews more- 
over prohibits them not only from contracting 
marriage, but all intimate social connection with 
strangers ; our religion, with equal wisdom, does not 
admit of such alliances. And, in fact, what moral 
union can exist under conditions of permanent 
hostility, where the most lofty sentiments of the soul 
must be continually galled ? So much for the union 
when considered from the religious point of view. 
As regards those marriages where the two contracting 
parties profess an equal indifference to their faith, the 
Western laws have supplied a means of realisation 
through the instrumentality of the Mayor a channel 
which is found to satisfy a goodly number of 
Christians among themselves. AmoDg Jews and 
Christians it is the only admissible arrangement : it 
is to be feared, however, that a tardy religious 
awakening may bring trouble and disunion into the 
household ; the birth of children may also sound 
another note of discord. 

Whilst admitting the rare qualities of the Jews, we 
may observe that the Western nations are perhaps 
wanting in the instinct of self-preservation by inviting 
them, through the medium of election, to govern the 
people. The direction which they will infallibly 
impress upon our laws will be contrary to the spirit 
of the people, and opposed to our fundamental ideas. 



22 

The ties which should unite Christian nations, can 
never be held fast by the Jews, and hence will arise 
perpetual wars and endless revolutions. 

The Jews nowhere take root in the soil. They are 
strangers to the history of the nations among w r hom 
they dwell look upon themselves as mere temporary 
sojourners in their midst, and consequently cannot feel 
bound to look upon their institutions as solid. Their 
fortunes, which consist habitually of personalty, adapt 
themselves admirably to all the migrations necessitated 
by revolutions. Deeply attached to their own worship, 
they entice the Christian on to the neutral ground of 
equality and religious indifference, without however 
themselves venturing upon it, for their own religion 
and the law r of their fathers form, in their hearts, the 
object of the profoundest love. All confessions are 
equally good, says modern philosophy ; should we 
believe him who said : All men are brothers therefore 
let us abolish " the family " ! In this abdication of 
faith and of family ties, towards which Socialistic ideas 
are so insolently tending, we may foresee a future of 
degradation for man and the certainty of the most 
abominable selfishness. If humanity once accepts 
these shameful bases as its moral future, it will sink 
never to rise again. And who should bear the 
responsibility of such a result, if not our own imbecility ? 
Here is the rock of peril in order to avoid it, the 
Christian has but to renew his strength through the 
aid of his own laws and he will reconquer his failing 
dignity and find the true road it is incumbent upon 
him to follow. 



23 

The existence of the Kahal, the secrets of which 
have been revealed to us in a recent work, but which 
every attentive observer might have already foreseen 
for himself, is an indubitable sign of the state of mis- 
trust, excusable enough besides, which the Jews 
experience among us. It is less an aggressive code, 
whatever people may say, than certain regulations, 
having the force of law, in use among the tribes of 
Israel, to assist one another and secure those ad- 
vantages which the laws refuse them in other 
countries ; it is a religious and social institution, 
intended to protect its members and fortify the ties of 
their solidarity. The means used, are far from being 
always legal, occasionally, indeed, they fall short of 
the strict prescriptions of morality, but every popu- 
lation, subject to the arbitrary will of a foreign 
Government, will exhibit the same features of an 
offensive and defensive league. 

If it be perhaps difficult to look upon the Jew 
altogether as a compatriot, at least, it would be 
desirable to cease to act with hostility towards him, 
and to grant him the same rights and the same pro- 
tection as are extended to other strangers. For the 
rest, the institution of the Kahal deserves to be 
studied apart, as it cannot lind a place in these pages. 

I am not acquainted with the Rothschilds, the 
Ephrussi, or any of the other Jewish potentates, nor 
am I desirous of such acquaintance, for I presume, 
that as regards eternal form, they do not sensibly 
differ from the rest of humanity, and as to the 



24 

millions or billions of francs they may possess, they 
scarcely inspire in me more respect than would the 
aspect of a single coin. The interest I feel, concerns 
chiefly the learned Jew and the poor Jew, and not 
such individuals as are placed by fortune in 
exceptional positions. 

But, by way of answer to the criticisms of which 
they have recently been the object, I beg every 
impartial person to give his attention to a beneficent 
institution they have created and endowed, namely, 
the Jewish Hospital, into which the poor are admitted 
gratis, and which is provided with all the means and 
comfort that money and science can procure. And, 
what is more serious still, a fact worth pondering on 
this Jewish Hospital, full of veritable compassion 
for those on whom it bestows shelter, adds to the care 
which disease requires, thought for the souls of its 
inmates, sees that the rites commanded by the 
Judaic law are performed, and watches over those 
last moments wherein the soul may still prepare itself 
to appear before its Creator. The confession of the 
dying man is taken ; the minister prays with him ; 
prays for him when all is over, and the expenses of 
the whole are met out of the hospital funds. 

What is being done in this particular among 
civilised nations ! 

Everything connected with religion is expelled ; 
its representatives are replaced, to the great detriment 
of the patient, by lay attendants, and not only is all 
spiritual consolation ignored, but it is not sure that 



25 

the patient would obtain it, even if he made the 
request. A Jew, unfortunately but a poor believer, 
once said to me : " Be under no alarm on my account : 
at the time of my death the whole Jewish community 
will hasten to obtain my confession and pray around 
my bed." In the West, a watch is not unfrequently 
set to bar the entry of the priest who comes to offer 
spiritual consolation. 

I had occasion, in a town beyond the. Rhine, to 
visit a sick Frenchman whom certain charitable 
persons had placed in a lay hospital. It was the 
best in the place, and kept with remarkable order 
and cleanliness. After a night, however, passed in 
the establishment, the poor fellow begged me to take 
him out and have him removed to a Catholic hospital. 
And yet he was a freethinker. The laughter, how- 
ever, and noisy jokes of the nurses, male and female, 
excited his nerves and increased his pains. He died, 
alas ! in revolt against God, whom he represented to 
himself in the image of man, who had caused him so 
much suffering. The place which religion should 
have occupied in that establishment was vacant, and 
the care of the body and the consolation of the moral 
being suffered in consequence. In Italy, in the 
hospitals I visited, the patients would often say to 
me " Siamo custoditi da birbanti" 

One may say and do what one will, but the care 
of the sick is not a profession, it is a vocation. 
Everything to its place : the domain of tender 
compassion and of the cares which suffering demands 



26 

belongs only to religion. It is the task of others to 
perform the functions which require merely precision, 
activity and experience. The excessive contempt of 
which religion is unfortunately the object produces at 
times most singular effects. 

Domestic servants have been known, with a view 
to enhance their value, to declare that they never go 
to church. I once knew a Jew, to whom an Italian 
servant woman made a similar profession of faith, 
reject her on the ground that he required of his 
servants the fulfilment of their religious duties 
according to their mode of worship. 

What are we to say, and what to think ? The Jew 
certainlv is not and never will be indifferent to 

* 

religious matters, although he may occasionally assume 
to do so to place himself on a level with miserable 
modern ideas. And how, after this, can we feel 
astonished at the depth of contempt which exists in 
the soul of every Jew ; a contempt so profound that 
he goes so far as to deny to the (H-oirn the possession 
of a soul. And in fact does he who holds no store 
by the possession of a soul deserve to have one ? 

I have seen Jews shed tears at the remembrance of 
a father who has been dead for thirty -five years, and 
it is not they, most certainly who would make use of 
the word governor as is done in England, in order to 
lower the rank of paternity. When one has been in 
a position to admire all those fundamental qualities 
of the Jews, their respect for the law of God under 
the numerous phases which ennoble the family ties, 



97 



and which cause misfortunes and persecutions to be 
accepted with resignation, when one has witnessed 
the minute observance of the practices which form 
the letter of the law, a tribute of homage and respect 
towards their great legislator, one turns one's eyes 
with sadness on the West, where the people are 
voluntarily plunged in utter darkness, where man 
accepts so willingly the decree of his decline in 
renouncing his belief in immortality, and one feels 
tempted to call aloud once more to Israel, while 
repeating Christ's words : " Salvation cometh of the 
Jews ! " and to await with anguish the moment when 
the Jews will discover the truth amidst the confusion 
and shaos presented by Christian Societies and turn 
to Christianity which is the most ideal expression of 
their law. 

The dead levelling of all character, that moral 
anemia which renders man indifferent alike to good 
and evil which do not touch him personally, does not 
exist among the Jews. They are susceptible of dis- 
interested indignation and also of sincere admiration, 
who then at the present day would understand those 
words of Caesar on receiving his death blow: " Et tu 
Brute" and that profound grief of the father which 
renders him indifferent to the blade of the poignard 
and after which he veils his face. 

Modern legislation tends more and more to restrict 
crime to its material side and to detach it from what 
forms its essence, viz. : the share which morality has 
had in it. 




28 

We are left therefore with the desire that Christian 
nations, instead of seeking out the faults of the Jews, 
would endeavour to imitate them in their relations 
with one another and in their fidelity to their faith. 
Their most ancient canticle, the hymn of Moses, 
declares that they have received their lot, in view of 
the other sons of Adam. The commentaries of the 
Talmud explain these somewhat vague words by 
saying that their mission, bestowed by God himself, 
was to spread monotheism among the nations. Now 
that that first mission has been fulfilled is it not the 
object of their presence among us to re-kindle the 
sentiments of morality and family affection which are 
becoming more and more feeble ? By studying what 
it is which makes their strength, we can only be the 
gainers ; by allowing ourselves to be led by them, we 
shall be the losers, not because they are incapable, but 
because their point of view is different from ours. 

Their regards are retrospective and dwell on the 
past of their national history ; we Christians are 
compelled to look forward. They are still bound by 
the narrow ties from which Christianity must free the 
world in order to bring it within that course of broad 
ideas which, sincerely applied, will give to humanity 
a victorious flight. 

As regards the conversion of the Jews, a question 
which appears of such interest to the English, it 
would easily be effected by itself, if we were only 
united, for supposing we converted them, are we to 
turn them into Roman Catholics at a time when a 



29 

recent dogma has just created a fresh obstacle to 
Christian unity, and are they to recognise the in- 
fallibility of a Pope, so often in contradiction with his 
predecessors ? Are they to become Protestants, with 
all the latitude of faith and personal interpretation, 
rejecting all authority, all tradition, and are they to 
style their brother Catholics, idolaters ? Are they to 
be Orthodox Greeks ? But Eastern orthodoxy does 
not seek to make proselytes any more than ancient 
Judaism. More tolerant, undoubtedly, and more 
charitable perhaps, it fears that responsibility which 
the other Christian confessions so willingly accept. 
It is satisfied, like the Archbishop of Kieff in an anti- 
Semitic tumult, to make the words of peace and 
conciliation heard by the over-excited and troubled 
peoples. 

It is a reproach cast upon Jewish genius that it 
has never otherwise than feebly contributed to the 
discoveries of science, but man for the most part 
labours with a view to solve any difficulty of his 
existence that may arise, and the complete code which 
embraces the entire fife of the Jew places him outside 
such difficulties. 

Labour and the obligation of repose wisely balanced, 
preserve him from those heavy household cares which 
drive men crazy or exhaust their strength in the 
flower of their age. The relations between the rich 
and the poor Jew are fixed in a way to stave off 
extreme misery. Charity is a duty of the rich, 
greater even than a right of the poor. 



30 

The Jew has but to open his ancient books to find 
therein an answer to all the problems of his life. It 
would be the same with ourselves if we were to con- 
sult the book of our new law, which should complete 
that of the Jews. We should then find a pacific 
solution of the social questions which at this very 
moment are troubling the nations of Europe. 

Unfortunately, the very saddest use has been made 
of all the discoveries of modern science. The railways, 
which might have contributed so largely to establish 
fraternity among the peoples, serve to convey troops 
and carry war into countries which their distance 
from each other formerly protected. The telegraph 
favours those stock-exchange operations which enrich 
the speculator at the cost of a host of wretched 
victims. Printing, which should spread abroad the 
light and place truth within the grasp of all, has 
become too frequently an instrument of vice. New 
books are ever coming forward to teach every possible 
turpitude to those whom chance has hitherto 
preserved from corruption. Journalism, by whetting 
the hatred of mankind, paves the way to wars abroad 
and revolutions at home. Natural science incom- 
pletely studied draws erroneous conclusions from its 
discoveries, in order to cast back the entire man into 
the dust whence his body alone arose. We are 
preparing a generation of madmen and unhappy 
wretches. We are urging man on to suicide, and already 
advanced old age and early childhood pay it a frightful 
tribute. And all humanity is drifting thither with a 
rapid current. 



31 

Man has sought to accumulate every enjoyment 
and he has lost happiness in the effort. 

In the foregoing lines whereby I am far from 
having exhausted the sum of my personal observations 
upon the Jews, I have merely sought to indicate the 
salient traits which constitute their moral, rather than 
their social difference with the Christians. 

The evil which we attribute to them is our own 
work. The good we have to admire in them is owing 
solely to themselves. 

The Christian sells his kind to the Jew ; if the 
latter profit by the bargain is he more culpable in 
consequence ? In Poland, a ukase of the Emperor 
Nicolas was necessary to prevent landowners from 
farming out their serfs to the Jews ! ! ! 

Even in our own days, in the western provinces of 
Russia, the rapid dilapidation of territorial fortunes 
sprang from no other cause than the impossibility of 
carrying out an honest administration ; the landowner 
betrayed by his stewards is reduced to effect ruinous 
sales. In order to save something from the wreck he 
parts with the patrimony which remains at prices 
that are simply ridiculous. The magnificent forests 
of Lithuania are thus daily melting away piece by 
piece, through the ill-advised fellings of their pro- 
prietors. And it cannot be said that the Jews are 
the primary cause of this stripping of the forest land 
so fatal to Russia. 

It is the dissolution of manners and morals which 
leads to this recourse to the Jews' hordes of gold a 



32 

proceeding which is ruining entire families. But it is 
their activity which induces governments to apply to 
them in moments of crisis and financial bankruptcy, 
for the Christians would be less capable of giving aid 
and would not be more honest in yielding it. 

We complain of the Jew. But at the present time 
are we not witness to the shameful financial war 
which tw r o Christian nations have entered into in 
order to ruin a third, with which they fear to measure 
themselves in arms ? This monetary league will 
naturally turn to the profit of the Jew, but at whose 
door will the fault lie ? 

Ah ! if the Jews had only one quarter of our vices 
their very name would, long ere this, have been 
erased from earthly records. 

For the rest, I greatly doubt whether my candour 

the only merit of these pages will have the 

slightest success, for it will always be easier to 

persecute thousands of Jews than to correct a 

single Christian. 



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