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Full text of "The Jews of Illinois : their religious and civic life, their charity and industry, their patriotism and loyalty to American institutions, from their earliest settlement in the State unto the present time"

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To the Reform Advocate Subscribers 

I call your attention to my line ot special decora* 
tions, with few flowers and a gorgeous display, 
It takes original artists, which I have, and the 
best that money can secure. 1 handle (he largest 
quantity and choicest quality of cut flowers in 
Chicago, and do the business, Never do I per* 
mit myself to be undersold by my competitors 
in the same line of goods. I will pie ass you, and 
you will be pleased by giving me a trial order, 
I know I can always save you 25 per cent. This 
is my motto of doing business. 

Northeast Corner Slate 
Opp. Palmer Hguse 



51 Monroe Street 



Nothing Succeeds Like Success 

Federal Lite insurance Gonanu 


The success of the FEDERAL LIFE has been phenomenal. It is an Illinois legal reserve 
company with a cash capital of $150,000.00 fully paid. It is an institution organized on BEST 
PRINCIPLES and conducted in accordance with MODERN METHODS. Its policies are 
actuarially sound. Its methods are progressive and aggressive. Its rates are as low, and its 
policy conditions are as liberal as consistent with safety and prudence. 

Best Is None Too Good. 

The FederaJ [offers only the best, writes all standard forms 
of policies, participating and non-participating, Optional Life, 
Endowment, Annuity, and Bond; also Provident policies with premiums payable monthly. Ita 
Continuous Life Endowment Policy, copyrighted and written bv no other company, is the most 
modern and attractive policy ever written. Literature furnished on application. 

Capable Agents Wanted t following State Agencies: Marquette Bldg Chicago; 

- - - - Mack Block, Milwaukee; Carew Bldg., Cincinnati; Hammond 
Bldg., Detroit. 

D. B. AINGER, Vice-Pres. and Treas. 


J. C. DENISON, Secretary. 
R. M. WILBUR.. Asst-Sec. 


Manufacturer of 

High Grade 

| Business 
j Waggons 



j 67-71 E. 13th St. 

j Between State St. and Wabaslt Ave. 
| Telephone So. Chicago, 111. 





102 Models of 
Marvelous Merit 

including 48 straight-front and box 
effects. All creations of fascinating 
grace and surpassing excellence. 

Foremost in 
Design, Accomplishment 

and Finish. 
Retailing at from $1.00 to $5.00 

The Form R.ed\icing 


that Gibraltar among Corsets, is yet the only 
Corset in all the world that reduces a too 
high abdomen without harm or discomfort, 
and makes a straight front effect possible, so 
that it is surely best for large figures. 

Price of Form-Reducing (superb 
English Coutil) $2.50 

Bvist Perfectors 

weakly imitated, remain the only garments that infallibly 
create a faultless form, and mask every deficiency. 


CHICAGO: 200 Monroe Street NEW YORK: 388 Broa.dwa.y 




Dewing PlacHines 

ex-re the best for factory and family use 

Th New 

Hi$n speed Vertical Hook 

is a power machine un- 
equaled for Durability, 
Range of Work. Qual- 
ity of Stitch. 

Special Machines 

Special Attachments 

for all classes of cloth 
and leather work. 

Estimates given on 
power plants complete. 


for household use is 
twenty years in advance 
of all others. 

It ij tb* only locK. flitch 
machine tvithout aj huttle 

It sews one - third 
faster and one-third 
easier than any vibrat- 
ing shuttle machine. It 
makes a perfect, elastic 
stitch on all materials. 
Try one and be con- 

Wheeler & Wilson M'f'g Co. 

72 and 74 Wabash Avenue 



They Light Your Dark Rooms. 
Make Them Bright and Cheerful. 
Prices Made So You Can Afford to Buy Them. 

Head What One of Many Thousands Say: 


76 Fifth Avenue 

Chicago, June 9, 1899. 
Daylight Prism Company, 

Chicago, 111. 

Gentlemenn : I enclose you check for bill rendered, 
which please receipt and return to me. 

The Daylight Prisms which you installed in my 
building. 76 to 82 Fifth Avenue, for the offices occupied 
by the County Assessor's office, are a success in every 
sense of the word, and particularly unique in design, and 
I cannot speak too highly of the results obtained, as they 
far exceed anything which your president claimed for 
the Daylight Prisms. 

I congratulate you upon your success, and your 
business methods are to be approved most highly. 
Very truly yours, 


You are invited to ca.ll or write for information 

Daylight Prism Co. 

1114 Chamber of Commerce, Chicago 


the Light ^Problem 

Keep abreast of the times and use elec- 
tricity to light your home and the office. 
Electric Fa.ns, a summer luxury at 
small expense. New and novel effects in 
ornamental and decorative lighting-. 
Absolutely safe, no danger of its explod- 
ing, igniting costly curtains or draperies, 
or asphyxiating any member of the family. 
We supply the current for lighting or 
power. A postal card to this office and 
our representative will call. 


Phone Main 1280 139 Adams St., CHICAGO 

Established 1885 

. C. Loomi'j 

Tel. Harrison 1957 

Commercial and Architectural 


Pioneer of 

PKotog r a. p Ks 

331-333 Ave. 

Congress Street 

Mammoth 14 Foot Freight Elevator 

f lease send postal and oar Agent tviil call 



"Safe as 1he 'BanK. of England" 

No money proposition can be safer. The security is absolute. But suppose you add 
the Bank of France, and the Imperial Bank of Germany and the Bank of Russia. 
There you have the four great banks of the World. Security heaped on security. 
Yet the united of all of them is but little more than half the 
urn held for the payment of its policies by the 

MutuaJ Life 
Insurance Company 

of New York 

RICHARD A. McCURDY. President 

Bank of England, 
Bank of France, 
Imperial Bank of Germany, 
Bank of Russia, 


$ 86,047,935 


Assets of the Mutual 
Life, $325,753,152. 

On the 31st of December, 1900, the cash assets of the United States government, including the 
$150,000,000 of gold reserve, were $290,107,072, or $35,646,080 less than the assets of the flutual Life 
at the same time. 

The Mutual Life is the largest, strongest, and most progressive Life Insurance Company in the world. 

Its policies are without technicalities, their provisions are liberal, their variety meets every requirement of 
investment or protection, they provide insurance at the lowest possible cost consistent with security and mutual 
interest. The vast business of the company is conducted solely for the benefit of policy holders. Every cent 
of the profits is theirs. 

Income for 1900, $60.582.802.31 

PaJd Policy Holders in 1900, $26.361.863.83 

Insurance e^nd Annuities in force, $1,141.497,888.02 

During the 57 yea rs of its existence The Mutual Life Insurance Co. of New York has returned to 

policy holders the enormous sum of 


No more profitable field 
can be found by the man 
of energy and intelligence 
than to represent the 
Mutual Life as an agent. 

B. Carlisle* 

Tacoma Bldg. 




Any man choosing the Northwestern 
may feel confident of three things: first, 
that his money is safely and honestly in- 
vested; second, that he will receive fair and 
honorable treatment; and third, that no 
Life Company can do so much in reducing 
the cost of life insurance or making large 
returns on money invested as the North- 
western. Sincerely yours, 


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po<, orator or tage may tan of it. 
Old age it ttill old age." Longfellow, 

Yes, but how it mitigates the asperities if you have been wise, 
and In earlier years provided yourself an annual income during 
old age; thus saving yourself from being dependent on anyone. 

Refrains from the Poets 


"My days are In the yellow leaf: 
Toe flowers and fruits of love are 


The worm, the canker and the grief 
Are mine alone '." .Byron. 


"Bat an old age serene and bright. 
And lovely u a Lapland night 
Shall lead thee to thy grave." 


"When he 1 forsaken. 

Withered and shaken, "The very staff of my age, 
What can an old man do but Met" My very prop: and I will MM." 
Hooa. Shakespeare, 

Yes, It does make all the difference In the world whether you did 
or did not. Shakespeare's reference to his annuity is touching. 
A most excellent provision and the best thing obtainable in those 
days. It takes however a large lump.some cash down to purchase 
an annuity, while the new Policy Contract of the 

Northtuestern Life 

of Milwaukee, requires an annual premium equal only to a fair 
interest on the principal sum. These new Contracts may be se- 
cured in amounts from Jl.ilOO to $100,000, and secured by Cash 
Assets and Surplus, J133.00 1,003. 

The one single contract combines in itself these advantages: 

Life Insurance for wife If you die 1 
Endowment Insurance for yourself If you live I 
Arvnual Income till you die ! 
Then Annua.1 Income to wife till she dies 1 
Then full fa.ce amount to children 1 

It is in all reRpects a flexible, business-like, comprehensive 
contract. It is what you need to-day, and twenty years from to- 
day. Send your exact nge to A. W. KIMBALL, General 
Agent. C. 'D. NORTON, Associate General Agent. 8th 
Floor Chicago Stock Exchange. 



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I have been a trustee of the Northwestern 
Mutual Life Insurance Company for twenty 
years. I have several times made an examina- 
tion of its assets and investments, and know the 
manner in which the company transacts its 
business. There is not a more careful, conserva- 
tive or safe company in the country than that. ' 
I have two policies in it, and would take more 
if I could afford to carry them. 

Yours very truly, 

Associate Justice U. S. Supreme Court. 

Was an excellent showing, and I congratulate 
your company on being able to do so well for its 
customers. No other company has done so well 

for me. 

Yours very truly, 

Prest. N. W. National Bank. 


D R. IN K 


OUR TONIC Strengthens a^nd Vivifies the 

Entire Organism 

A Fine Table Beer, Family Trade Supplied 

TKe P. SchoenKofen Brg. Co. 

Phone Canal 9 

18th St. and CaLnaJport Ave. 

Conraa $eipp Brewing Co/ 






Pa.tervt Stopper 

. Beers. 

Mail and Telephone orders 
promptly attended to. 

Telephone South &69. 



Lager Beer 

Fool of 28th St. and Gro-Ocland farX. 

Telephone South 3+9 







ERNST BROTHERS, managers. 

' When merit talks the world must listen ' 

It is conceded on all sides that the celebrated and popular 
"BEERS" brewed and bottled on improved and hygienic 
principles and known as 

"Prima" and 
"Burg Brau" 

are unequaled as the finest table beers 


A highly concentrated extract of Malt, Sops and Honey. In- 
valuable to nursing mothers; gives health and vigor to the 
sick and convalescent. 

Delivered Free to a.11 parts of the city. 




Telephone Monroe 44- 

The Wackcr & Birk 
Br'.g and M'lt'g Co. 

vx v -v w w w wwww w 

The Largest Malting Concern Now In the World. 

The P. H. Rice Malting Company erected a magnificent new 
malting-house last year, which in capacity placed it well to the 
front among the great mailing-houses of the world. This fall they 
have by the stress of business been compelled to contract for the 
exact duplication of their plant, thus doubling their capacity. 
Bith P. H. Rice and his brother, T. J. Rice, are veteran malsters, 
having been in the business all their lives. They are most ably 
seconded by William P. Rice, son of Mr. P. H. Rice, who has charge 
of the entire works. Mr. Rice, jr., is thoroughly qualified for thii 
position, having been carefully trained for years. He possesses 
both a practical and a scientific knowledge of the business, being a 
graduate with high honors of the Massachusetts School of Tech- 
nology of Boston. 

With their thorough knowledge of the business and their floor 
capacity, they are enabled to produce the best malt In any market. 
First-class malt must be bright, sweet and light colored. These 
results are obtained by this company, first, by having the floor 
space to spread the barley thinly while germinating and, second, 
by drying the malt by fresh, warm air instead of over-heated air 
which invariably browns the product. The new addition to their 
plant will be finished next June. They will then have a capacity 
to make 4,000,000 bushels of malt per annum. The elevators will 
then hold, 1,500,000 bushels of barley. Even this will not be suffi- 
cient, as they can today sell more malt in a month than they can 
manufacture in a year. 


P. J. Welsh Box Co. 


Boxes, Barrels, Casks, 
Tierces, Etc 

OPPI&E and YARD, 79-S1-83 Bast 12th Street 

1315 State Street. CHICAGO. 



...Dealers in... 

Barrels and 
Boxes . . . 

Wabash Avenue 
and Peck Court 

W. P. HAPNBR, Manager 
W. B.CRAWFORD, Salesman 




Cultivates naturally ibe fashionable Straight Front Effect 
and also the erect Hgure so much desired. 

Sahlin Perfect Form and Corset combined 

Pat'd July 26, 1898. 

and Feb. 20, 1300. 

Is Identified by having NO HOOKS. NO CLASPS, xo LACES, NO STRINGS, NO HEAVY 
STEELS. Avoid Imitations and accept no substitutes. The Sahlin Perfect 
Form ann Corset combined retains all the good and avoids the evil of tbe 
ordinary corset. Nothing Is lost In style or shape. Bust will not cave In, and 
therefore padding or Interlining Is avoided. The effect as here shown Is an exact 
reproduction of a perfect form obtained only by wearing "THE SAHLIN;" no 
corset Is necessary as It Is a corset and form combined. Approved and endorsed 
DT physicians and health reformers. Only to be worn to be appreciated. Every 
garment guaranteed. Made In corset coutll, white and drab. Also white sum- 
mer Netting. Price 11.00 and II 50. ASk your dealer; IF he cannot supply von 
order direct, adding 18 cents for postage. Write for free catalogue. 


251 Franklin Street 




and Is the ONLY satisfactory process for the getting of 
special color effects, bringing out all the finer details, and 
absolutely true to life. Lithography is standard: it has 
none of the uncertainty of experiment: 

It Gives the Best Results. 

We are specially equipped to execute your Booklet and Cat- 
alogue Covers, Show-Cards, Posters, Labels, Calendars, 
Office Stationery, etc. Our prices compare favorably with 
any. We would like to show you samples of our work. 

Send for our representative before placing your next or- 
der. Good work means good advertising, that will make 
you business. 

Edwards, Deutsch & Heitmann 


Harrison 472. 

194-202 South Clinton Street 








Monroe and Market Streets 

A few of My customers 

in Chicago 

Warner Bros. Corset Co. 
Gage-Downs Corset Co. 

Mandel Bros. 
Carson, Pirie Scott & Co. 

Siegel-Cooper & Co. 
Schlesinger & Mayer, 

The Hub 

John T. Shayne 

Chicago Cloak Co. 

D. Lelewer & Sons 


Anisfleld Co. 

National Clothing Co. 

Chicago Corset Co. 

Detroit References 

Newcomb & Endicott 

Hunter & Hunter 

Siegel Bazaar 



Agent for the best manufac- 
turers of Wax Figures and Paper 
Mache Forms, and can furnish them at lowest trade prices. 

I make a specialty of renting figures 
for opening displays of Millinery, Dress- 

making, Tailoring, etc., etc. 

The Dressing of Corset and Display Figures a Specialty 
Special Attention Given to the Repairing and 

Cleaning of French Dolls 
All Work Done Under My Personal Supervision and a 

Guarantee That My Colors Will Not Fade 
Estimates on all Work In my Line Promptly Submitted 

Mrs. G. Oberlander, 40 D?rbo! 

Telephone 8818 Central 

Rooms 303-305 

St.. Chicago 






, $50O,OOO.OO 
$ 1 ,5 1 5,272.24 


E. BUCKINGHAM, President. 

J. J. MITCHELL, Vice-President. 

S. A. ROTHEKMEL, Secretary. 

S. T. COLLINS, Ass't Secretary. 
A. D. SMITH, 1. W. ROCKEY, Sup'ts of Agencies. 
E. S. WHITTLESEY, Cashier. 


Weddings and Receptions 

A Specialty 

Pure Ice Creams 

Fancy Cakes 

Fine Table Decorations, Linen , Silvers 
ware. Etc,, furnished, 

Telephone Oakland 672 
579 E. 43d Street, 722 E, 47th Street. 

1845 RECORD 1901 

The Mutual Benefit 
Life Insurance Co. 

AMZl DODD, President. 

Premium Receipts to January I, 1901, $215,271,971.95 

Of this sum there has already been returned 
to Policy Holders: 

For Policy Claims 46.2 per cent., $99,381,402.82 

For Surrendered Policies 12.8 " 27,598858.24 

ForDividends 25.8 " 55,528,928.99 

Total 84.8 per cent., $182,509,190.05 

Leaving still in the Company's possession $32,762,78 1 .90 

The Company's investments have yielded 
sufficient returns to pay all Expenses and 
Taxes, and still to add to the Policy Hold- 
ers' Fund for the fulfillment of existing 
contracts $41,548,686.35 

Total Assets, Jan. 1, 1901, Market Values, $74,311,468.25 

Strength. The Mutual Benefit's assets are over Seventy-four 
Million Dollars: insurance in force is $278,171,436. It docs nu 
foreign business 

Earnings. The Mutual Benefits interest receipts during 1900 
paid all expenses and taxes and added over $1,355,000 to its assets. 

Mutuality. The Mutual Benefit paid in 1900 in dividends to 
policy holders, over SI ,720,341 or SEVENTEEN PEB CENT of its 
premium income for the year. 

For Illustration or Agency address 
Home Office, or 

R. D. BOKUM, State Agent 

Marquette Building, CHICAGO. 

The effective way in which the 
Jews care for their poor and suffering, 
affords to other religions an example 
worthy of emulation. 

Munger's Laundry 

Applies common sense to the busi- 
ness of Laundering, and handles the 
goods of its patrons in a careful, 
painstaking manner, which is effec- 
tive in producing good work. 


2408-10-12 INDIANA AVENUE . 


5203-05 LAKE AVENUE 





Importers and Manufacturers 



189 Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 

M. SCHOSBERG. Manager. 

Seal, Sa.ble, Mink, BrosvdtaLil e^rvd JPersia.n La^mb Garments 
Our Specialty. V V V Best Facilities for Fine F\ir R-emodeling artd 
Repairing. V V V Fur Storage. NgsgNgNgsg^NgsgNgNgvgNgvgx 

Borden's Pure Wholesome Milk 

Produced from HEALTHY 
COWS, under the most hy- 
gienic principles. 

DO YOU KNOW that your 
supply is free from Contamina- 
tion, both in the country and 



Food for the In- 
fant; Nourishment 
for the Invalid. Consumed 
Daily by every member of your 



has given the production of pure milk much careful study during the past forty- 
three years, inaugui ating and enforcing principles at its dairies, located in the 

wagon passes your door every day delivering. 

Burden's (unsweetened and sterilized) Condensed Milk: Burden's Pure Bottled Milk: Borden's Rich Cream; Borden's Pure Fresh Buttermilk. 
All Bottled and Hermetically Sealed in the country into Steam Cleaned and Sterilized Jars and Bottles. 

627-633 EdSt 47th St. 

Phones Oakland 5O3 

546-554 West Van Buren SL 

1081-1095 W. Ravenswood Park. 

153 North Park Ave. 

Monroe 8S6 

Lake View 581 

Austin 21 


These marks sttvnd for Superiority. "ELK 
BRAND" and "Longley" Ha.ts are the best 






Removal Notice 


In order that we may be able to give our undivided 
attention to our large and growing family trade, we 
have concluded to dispense with our retail establish- 
ment, (wine room) and from May 1st, will transact 
our entire business in our building, 


between N. Clark St. and Dearborn Ave. , where our 
spacious cellars will be constantly stocked with the 
choicest and rarest of Hungarian Wines which for 
medicinal and table purposes are unsurpassed. 

Orders by telephone or mail will receive the 
promptest attention. Soliciting a continuance of your 
past favors, we remain Very respectfully yours, 


P. S. In addition to our Hungarian Wines we also 
carry a complete stock of Ehines. Ports and 
Sherries of our importation. H. T. & S. 

True F\imit\ire 

The existence of a class of people not satisfied with 
anything less than the best that can be made ia re- 
sponsible for the creation of 



Economical men and women, who do not SPEND 
money but who INVEST it, cannot afford to buy 
any other kind, because nothing else in furniture 
offers such real value. 

To all men the ideas of beauty and service appeal: 
Add to the rarest natural grains of wood a marvelous 
finish, and bu.ild furniture adjusted to every demand 
of climate and artificial heat constructed to last a 
century and yon have the Tobey Hand Made 
Furniture, the kind which is true economy to buy. 
To see our great store is worth a visit to Chicago. 
Send for our free booklet it tells what Tobey 
Hand Made means. 

Tobey Fxirnitvire Co. 


10.000 PeJrs of Shoes 

made daily in our factories 

Life Means Progress 

If you are a retailer, you appreciate 
the necessity of keeping abreast of 
the times. We are exclusive manu- 
facturers of shoes and sell only to 
retailers. You save the jobbers' ex- 
penses and profit in buying directly 
from us. We are near the tanneries 
and near you. The saving in freight 
charges is yours. Send for our cat- 
alogue and have your name put on 
our "Helpful Hints" list. :::::: 

C. M. Henderson ^ Co. 

Cor. Market a.nd Quincy St.. Chicago 


Can be had in all of 
the prevailing 
shapes at prices from 

$1 upward 

Ask your dealer for 
them. If he cannot 
supply your de- 
mands write to us 
for catalogue. 


262-264 5th Ave, Chicago. 



BioMGRen BROS.* co. 

Thomas & Smith 

Stea.m and Waiter 


Ve t\ t i I 

Wrought Iron Pipe, Fittings, Valves, etc. 
Heating Specialties or all kinds. 

16 North Canal Street 

The only Air Washing and Purifying Apparatus invented 
that successfully cleans and purifies the air. 




Importers and Dealers 
of fine 


202 S- Clark Street. 

Practical Instruments suit- 
able for gifts, high grfvde goods 

M. Schimmeyer 

...Manufacturer of 


And Expert fLep&lrirvg 
on V V ^ 

Pipe Orga.ns 






Music Boxes 



4th Floor 

Telephone Harrison 1372 



The crowning glory of life is HEALTH and STRENGTH. 

Use Your Body 
to Develop Your 

No Mechanical Appliance 
Whatsoever Used or Needed 

I Increase your Shoulders, 
Biceps, Chest. Limbs. 
Reduce svrvd yoxir 
Flesh, relieve you of Nerv- 
ousness, Constipation. Irx- 
somonia. and all 
troubles arvd give you Per- 
fect Form Perfect H.-;xlth. 





For Men 

For Women 

Individual Treatments only. 

Send for Pamphlet. 
Correspondence Solicited. 

S. J. SIMON, Originator, Suite II07-II08-II09 Champlain Bldg,, 126 State St. 

Treatments by Mail Also 


Market and Adams 

Chi ctxgo 

Manufacturers of 
tKe celebrated 





Send _ for catalogue 
Apply for agency 



Having modern high speed machines 
and a corps of expert operators, we are 
able to turn out your work promptly 
and in first class style. 

Special attention to mail orders 

Linden & Stevens 

Tel. Central 935 

52 State St., Chicago, 1.1. 

Reference, Cbas. A. Stevens & Bros. 



f ' * 

Telephone Calumet 2882 
I7O4 Wabash Ave., Chicago; And Lake Forest, III. 


195-197-199 State Street, CHICAGO 

Manufacturers, Jobbers, Wholesalers 

Photo Buttons Photo Jewelry 

Premium Novelties 
Advertising and Campaign Buttons 

Button Machines 
-. Findings. Etc., 'Etc. 




The Greet! "Majestic" 
MeJIesyblo Iron 

eknd Steel Range. 

Qires entire tatisfaction, because they are riveted, not bolted 
(as others). All joints are tight. Heat water more quickly 
for bath. Bake better. Use less fuel than any others. 
Call and interview our range experts, or send for booklets. 


To the "Majestic," add the Alaska. R_efrigera.tor to your 
kitchen equipment and you will be happy. The warm air 
from the provision chamber falls directly over the center of 
the ice, making the driest, coldest and most p3rfect circula- 
tion. It is the vital point of the Alaska Patent. No other 
refrigerator has it. Prices from 86.73 up. Star Refrigera- 
tors from 85.00 up. We build to order portable refrigerators 
and cooling rooms for private residences, clubs, hotels, hos- 
pitals, meat markets, etc. With over twenty-five years' ex- 
perience, we guarantee results. Send for catalogues. 

71-73 Randolph St. CHICAGO 

Ftirth <<& Co. 


Telephone ~/~oat/> 962 


Elias China Repairing Co. 



For a.11 occasions on short notice. 


....2132 MICHIGAN AVENUE.... 

Opposite Lexington Hotel 


DAV/2) H. WEI*R, 

.<. Caterer... 

Than* South 1129 

If you want to borrow China and Silverware 
get my prices. 

3O19 Michigan A-Ce. J J CHICAGO. 

TABLE BY WEIR First Prize at Chrysanthemum Show, 1895. 




The J 

and Portable 

Water Heater 

Possesses merits never before attained by 
any water heater, as you will discover 
by reading the following: 

This heater will heat water from 70 to 120 de- 
grees in one minute and keep a stream of water 
at that temperature running one gallon a minute. 

Cooler water, if wanted, can be had by in* 
creasing the flow.. Itcanbensed in the Bath- 

* room, Kitchen or Laundry or wherever there is 
gas, and can be moved readily from room to room, 

as all connections may be made with rubber hose 
W / &s shown in the picture. 

The Heater is hung on supports fastened to the 
wall by four screws; with each heater an extra pair 
of supp'.rcs is furnished free. 

Within the Heater the water passes through a 40 foot coil of 
1 inch brass tubing placed in a steel frame above a powerful 
burner. As the water does not come in contact with the products of 
combustion it is perfectly wholesome for cooking or drinking. 
There is a place for a 4 inch flue connection at the top, to be used if desired. 
The burner can bo pulled out to heat 'the room. When burning under 
the coil the water absorbs all the heat. 

The Heater is small and com part, about one foot square, and just one foot high. 
' The water connections can be made at either end. This heater will burn man- 
ufactured, natural and gasoline machine gas in ordering state the kind to be 
used. With gas at $1.00 per 1000, it costs but 2 cents to heat enough water for a bath. 

In addition toils adaptability to Bath-room, Kitchen and Laundry Uses, it is invaluable because of its prompt- 
ness and efficiency, in the Sick Hoom, Hospital, Barber Shop, Office, Restaurant, Drug Store, Buffet, Laboratory, 
Luncli Counter, Surgeon's office, the Nursery and for Dentists' use, as well as many other places. 

Three six foot lengths of cloth insertion rubber tubing and one reducer (to attach to gas fixture) are furnished 
with each heater. Any one can attach it. It can be set on floor or stand if preferred. Every one guaranteed. 

our dealer doesn't have the "Jewel" send to us and we will see that you are supplied. Illustrated 

The Chicago Chronicle 

The best "Daily fletvs paper! 

Altvays publishes all the netets ! 

Alterays preserves the best moral tone I 

Al&rays the favorite family netarspaper! 

Altvays the best for business and industrial men I 

Al&jays shotvs profitable returns to advertisers! 

It is a twentieth century netvspaper for all the people ! 

HJDMS, Grsrs, 


Telephone No. 2756 Main 




This contains a.dvertise- 
ments of some of Chicago's 
Leading Educators whom the 
Reform Advocate recommends 
to its readers a.s reliable. 

Chicago Auditorium Conservatory 

THIS institution offers unexcelled advantages for the study of Music in 
all its branches, Elocution, Modern Languages, Oratory, Physical 
Culture, Delsarte and Stage Training. Private and professional 
courses. Pupils may enter at any time. All Concerts, Lectures, Recitals, 
and Dramatic Entertainments free to students of the Conservatory. 

Frederic Grant Gleason, Director Roy Arthur Hunt. Acting Manager 


Telephone Harrison 1910 



In affiliation with the 
University of Chicago 

Organized 1837 

The academic year of the Rush Medical Col- 
lege Is divided Into lour quarters, correspond- 
ing with those recognized with the University 
of Chicago. They are designated as Summer, 
Autumn, Winter and Spring Quarters, begin- 
ning respectively the first of July, first of Octo- 
ber, first of January, and first of April, each 
continuing for twelve weeks. A recess of one 
week occurs between the end of each Quarter 
and the beginning of the neit following. In- 
struction in all departments of medcine will be 
riven in each quarter. 

The general course of Instruction requires 
four years of study in residence, with a mini- 
mum attendance upon three Quarters of each 
year. A student may begin his college work on 
the first day of any Quarter, and may continue 
In residence for as many successive Quarters 
M he desires. Credit will not be allowed, how- 
ever, for more than three successive Quarters. 
At least 45 months must elapse between the 
date of a first matriculation and the data of 

For further information, address correspond- 
ence to 

Rush fledical College, Chicago, III. 

Watson's Institute 


648 Garfield Boulevard 

(W. 55th Street) 


It will pay you to attend a private school 
where you will get individual attention, and 
more thorough instruction than in crowded 
colleges. Save time and money. Write for 
catalogue. ....... 


Telephone Harrison 1736 

Mrs. H. Harshman 

Retouching Studio 

Instructions Given 

Auditorium Building 
Room 91 








American Method of Singing 


Selrvway Hall. 


This method develops voices into tones 
the same with which Pattl, DeEeszke, 
and all great artists were born. 

Sand for Bookie; 


Who are preparing for a life of usefulness and look- 
Ing forward to a profession, or a successful business 
career, will find 


52 DEABHOKS ST., CHICAGO, a stepping stone that 
they cannot well afford to omit, opening tbe way, 
as It does, to a self-earned course In law or medicine, 
or to lucrative employment In the business world. 
Tbe school Is prepared to do all that It claims. 

H MSh School of music. 
H hi$h School of Elocution. 

Sight Singing, Unite*! Composition, Iformtl Training, 
Conducting UMurn, BteluU, ConMrl*. 



An /UuitrateJ Catalan* 
Mailtd (D). 

Number 11. 
MAY 4 1901. 

-' HE 




i ic A x x :r 


$485.000 United States of Mexico 
Government 5 per cent Gold Bonds 


The bonds are in coupon form, engraved in English, Spanish, 
French and German, and are payable principal and quarterly 
interest coupons in United States Gold Dollars at our office, 
or at the office of J. P. Morgan & Co., New York; ^.Iso in 
London, Berlin, Frankfort, O.-M., and Amsterdam. They 
can be readily converted into cash in this country or abroad, 
and we recommend them as a safe investment and as the 
cheapest bond on the market. 




182-84 La Salle Street The Temple CHICAGO. 




218-226 THIRTY-FIRST ST., near Indiana Ave. 

of \7nderlzvear and Hosiery 
ts complete in e^ery de-fail. An inspec- 
tion Refill convince you o_f -this _facl. 

Charge Accounts solicited. 

Tel. 2791 Calumet. 

Japanese Curiosity. 


We are the only compressed air carpet cleaners in this city the only 
perfect compressed air carpet cleaners in the world. The machinery and 
equipment of our Chicago plant will cost about $30,000. Our Carpet clean- 
ing machine is a wonder. They go in one side dirty and come out on the 
other side thoroughly cleaned and aired with 


The American Pneumatic Carpet Gleaning Go,, 

Telephone, Monroe 14-96. 
Cor. Lake and Carpenter Sts., CKica go. 

roy Caundry Jflacbincry 


We make a spec- 
ialty of Steam Dry- 
ing Closets for 
apartment houses 
and flat buildings. 
Catalogues upon 
application. j> ' j* 

San Trancisco 


new York 

"A characteristic which has been po- 
tent in the modernizing of Japan is 
that insatiable curiosity, an intense 
desire to see and understand anything 
new. While the present day Chinese 
attitude is tnat of contempt for any 
beings or institutions not evolved in 
China, the Japanese are eager to know 
of everything connected with our form 
of civilization, and to adopt it if -it is 
good. Sometimes their great recept- 
iveness and power of imitation and 
adoption, lead them to adopt innova- 
tions which they afterward find it 
wiser to discard. Hence the accusation 
of fickleness. A perusal of Japanese 
history shows that the people have 
ever progressed by impulses, by ac- 
tion and reaction, and that in the end, 
good judgment seems to become su- 
preme. The foreigner traveling in 
Japan is soon made aware of the qual- 
ity of curiosity. On every railroad 
platform he is surrounded by a crowd 
of people who, with their mouths as 
wide open as their eyes in their effort 
to lose no detail of interest, regard him 
slowly from head to foot, and comment 
upon him amongst themselves the 
while. These people may have seen 
hundreds of foreigners they may see 
them every day but they continue to 
act as if they had never seen one be- 
fore. I visited some Americans in 
Tokio who had lived in the same house 
with the same Japanese neighbors for 
about a year. Yet each time that we 
went out to drive, the people in the 
little Japanese house nearby would 
rush to their windows and stand there 
watching as eagerly as a small Yankee 
at the circus. This happened every 
day. It is always posible to tell whe- 
ther a foreigner happens to be in his 
garden, for a good-sized crowd of Ja- 
panese gathered about the gate an- 
nounces the important fact. I gave sev- 
eral talks and lectures to school chil- 
dren and young men and women in 
Japan. They were interpreted, I, of 
course, speaking in English, so that 
half of the address was understood by 
only a few. Yet I have never seen 
audiences more absolutely attentive. 
Not a word was lost, and the same 
concentration was shown while I was 
speaking as when the interpreter was 
turning it into Japanese. Little school 
children boys and girls sat drinking 
everything in, with their eyes popping 
out of their heads until I had finished. 
I never nattered myself that this was 
due to the fascination of my discourse, 
but merely to the great curiosity of my 
audience, their power of concentration 
and their receptiveness." Anna N. 
Benjamin in Ainslee's. 



Wickes' Refrigerators 

Porcelain-lined Inside and outside, or oak exter- 
iors, are now for the first time offered to pri- 
vate families. Can be had In all wi/>s. Tncy 
easily pay for themselves In the Raving of ice. 
The leading packing houses every where reeogr- 
nlze Wickes* system as the acme of perfection 
inrefrtgerators and all their refrigerator cars. 
This Is the best test of their merit. 


We make Billiard Tables for private home use a 
specialty. The table asillustrated above 86. with 
our guarantee that It Is equal to any of our $200 
tables for playing purposes. A smaller size, $65. 

By means of the 
table is readi 
library table. 


table top which we supply, this 
table is readily converted into a handsome dining or 


Catalogue showing different size tables on application and 
we will mail book showing 100 new "shots" on receipt of 80 
cents. Address 

Brunswick-Balke-Collender Co., Dept. D, Chicago, III. Branch oncost Hew?ort, Cincinnati. 

' ' I St. Louie, San Francisco. 





Illinois Trust Safety Deposit 
Co.'s Vaults. 

j La Sillo Ct. 4 Jackson Blvd. BOBEBT EOVD, Manager, 





Established 1871. 

First-Class Work Only. 


Carpet Cleaning and Upholstering Works. 


2551 Wentworth Avenue. 461 East Forty-Seventh Street, 

Telephone South 300. Telephone Drexel 6142. 

Reception: a Socially 

Oakland 672. 

679 E. 48d STREET* 
7B2 E. 47th STREET. 

Pure Ice Creams. 
Fancy Cakes. 




The famous Synagogue of Toledo, 
which for several centuries past has 
been used as a church, is to be re- 
stored as a Jewish house of prayer. 
The Synagogue was erected under the 
government of Don Pedros, of Castile, 
in 1357, at a time when Jewish schol- 
arship in Spain had reached its high- 
est. After the expulsion of the Jews 
the building was converted into a 
church. Recently a commission, ap- 
pointed by the Spanish Academy of 
Science and Arts in Madrid, has re- 
ported in favor of it being once more 
transformed into its original purposes. 
The Hebrew inscriptions, many of 
which are still in excellent condition, 
are to be preserved, and excavations 
will be undertaken for the purpose of 
finding the Beth Hamedrash and other 
rooms. Ex. 

Although Italy is a Catholic country 
the Jews in Florence enjoy unrestrict- 
ed social and political liberties. Its 
synagogue is one of the finest in Eu- 
rope, and its rabbi, Dr. Margulies, is 
one of the most highly esteemed of 
Florentines. Here on the beautiful 
banks of the Armoanti, Semitism is a 
thing wholly unknown. The superin- 
tendent of police is a Jew, and many 
other lucrative and honorable offices 
are held by Jews. Florence is one of 
the most progressive cities in Italy, 
and it cannot be gainsaid that the ab- 
sence of anti-Semitism has had much 
to do with this advancement. Ex. 

About two years ago a Jewish ia- 
stitution was established in Paris to 
assist young girls in finding employ- 
ment as teachers, in commerce and in- 
dustry, and to provide with a home, 
until they obtain employment, such 
ladies as have no relatives or friends 
in that city. The institution has 
proved a great success, 400 persons 
having been assisted to procure a 
livelihood. The temporary home has 
become inadequate for the den-.auds 
made upon it, and a second house has 
been rented. Among the contributors 
toward the maintenance of the borne 
fivhich is available for foreigners as 
well as for French women) are Bar- 
oness Salomon de Rothschild, Mm. 
Rothschild brothers and the Alliance 
Israelite Universelle. 


An Old and Well-Tried Remedy. Mrs 
Winslow'a Soothing Syrup has been 
used for over Fifty Years by millions of 
mothers for their children while Teeth- 
ing, with perfect success. It soothes 
the Child, softens the Gums, allays all 
Pain; cures Wind Colic, and is the best 
remedy for Diarrhoea. Sold by druggists 
in every part of the world. Be sure and 
ask for Mrs. Winslow'e Soothing Syrup 
and take no other kind. 

Twenty-Five Cent* Belli*. 





. Manufacturer of 


and expert repairing on Pipe Or* 

ifan*i. I 'latins, Violins, Guitars, 
Zithers. Mandolins. Music Boxes, 

etc - 220 Wabash Ave., 

4th floor. Ti.ephone Hirrison 1372. 





A simple, sensktlf 
modern system; no 
(hading or position 
writing. v 

Write or call for 


Day or Evening 


College of Caw 

LAW Department of Lake Foreit University. 

Hon. Thos, A. Moran, LL, D., Dean. 
Three year course leading to degree LL. B. 
Sessions each week day evening. For further 
Information, address Secretary, 

tf 01 Title and Trust Bldg., CHICAGO 





Efficacious in Nervous troubles, and 
affections of the Liver. In constipation, 
flatulence, gastric irritation, or fer- 
mentation, it will be found to go to the 
seat of the trouble. Unlike other prepara- 
tions it is not a palliative or corrective, but 
arouses the dormant juices of the liver so 
they will secrete, thereby causing the food to 
be properly assimilated. * 


Phosphate Caltsaya Co. Chicago, Aug. 12, 1900. 

Have always recommended to alt my friends your Phos- 
phate Caltsaya Compound. It is the best thin? 1 have ever 
used for Liver and Nervous troubles. 1, A. NEWSOME. 

with White Sewing Mch. Co. 

Price.. ..Small size, 50c Large size. $1.00. 

ISend your address and we will send you sample I 
package, postpaid, with absolutely no expense. | 


Phosphate Calisaya Co,, 

362 Wabash Ave., Chicago. 


Livery and Boarding Stable 


Bet. Prairie and Indiana Aves. 
The l.atrNt In Rabbr Tire Hansom Cabi 

Carriage* and Broughams. 
Telephone SOf.'TH ISO. 


Express Storage and Van Co,, 

3505 Cottage Grove Ave. 

Storage Warehouse, 17 Bryant Ave. 


Baggage checked to all depots, 
two-trips, Daily at 9 A. M. and 3 
P. M. 

Telephone. Oakland 717. 



D. H. S. Perkins gave a concert in 
Medina Temple (A. F. and A. M.) at 
Oak Park last Saturday evening by 
six juvenile performers from the Chi- 
cago National College of Music. Mas- 
ter Harry Dushoff, soprano, thirteen 
years of age; Master William McCon- 
nell, fourteen and the Mozart String 
Quartette: Hazel G. Welsh, first violin; 
Wayne Osborn, second violin; George 
Hall, violin and Ralph Hall, cello, as- 
sisted by Miss Ethel Stillwell, soprano 
and accompanist and Miss Maude M. 
Campbell, the brilliant piano student 
of the college. Master Harry and Wil- 
liam sang solos and the duet "Robin 
Ruff and Gaffer Green." These young- 
sters have fine voices and are well 
received wherever they sing. The 
string quartette plays with remarkable 
accuracy, and each one is also a solo 
performer of considerable merit. It 
is interesting to see young people de- 
veloping their musical talent so early 
in life. The Mozarts are pupils of 

A concert of far more than passing 
interest was the popular four o'clock 
concert on Sunday afternoon at the 
Studebaker by an orchestra of 50 mu- 
sicians under the direction of Theodore 
Spiering, assisted by David Bispham, 
baritone. Mr. Spiering has been known 
for many years as a violinst of most 
excellent attainments and as the leader 
of the popular string quartet bearing 
his name. Of late Mr. Spiering's am- 
bition has been in the field of con- 
ducting, and it is but just to state, that 
with the results of the concert of Sun- 
day last he has at once and for ever 
set aside any doubt as to his ability to 
conduct a large orchestral body. If 
the impressions of Sunday last and his 
recent appearance in Milwaukee as a 
conductor do not deceive, Spiering is 
destined to wield a baton in the near 
future over a body of musicians wor- 
thy of his talent and his ambition. 
There is a movement on foot to make 
the Sunday four o'clock popular con- 
cert a permanent feature of the next 
season and it is to be hoped that the 
new management of the Studebaker, 
headed by the able and popular Louis 
Francis Brown, will succeed in making 
these concerts a lasting success. Mr. 
Spiering is the right man and the only 
one in Chicago who has a right to as- 
pire to the position of conducting these 

Herr Ludwig Gero of Grosswarden, 
an important town in Hungary, has 
been appointed chief of police. He is 
the only Jew who holds so high a posi- 
tion in that district. 


Maurice Aronson 

> ii f Auditorium Bldg. 

rianiQt \ (Tower. 140t 

Recitals : musicales .- Cccturw 

For the past four years chief asssistant J| 
servatory of Music. Instruction along the pear, 
gogical ideas and methods originated by the k& 
ter. Technic and interpretation. * 

Four Competent Assistants. Wrltefor Circul' 



Klmball Hall, 243 Wabash Ave., Chicago 
Acting, Elocution, Physical Cultu 
Oratory, Fencing. Catalogue mailed 

Edward Dvorak, Director 


Boarding ?nd Day Sehoo) 

F"0a OIIiL.3. 

109 and III West 77th Street. New York 

Thorough Preparation for Colleges 

School Opens Sept. 26, 1900. 

College of 


This inst itut ion 
ranks with the lead- 
injf commercial col- 
leges of the country. 
It offers courses in 
Commerce, Business, 
Finance, Stenogra- 
phy, Typewriting, 

Young people seek- 
ing to prepare them* 
selves in a short time 
for a good position in 
business will find 
here unsurpassed 
facilities. Students 
may enroll at any 
time for a f ull or a 
partial course. 
Send for catalogue to 






Artistic Repairing a Specialty 




Call and have your eyes thoroughly examined 
with tae latest appliances. Popular Prices. Ex- 
amination Free. Dr. H. N. Meyers, feH E. Wash- 
inirton St., with Clapp A Cowl, Jewelers. 


Adams St... 
Ladies' Restaurant, 2d floor. 

Newly Decorated and Furnished. 

Schildkret'i Orchestra, 6 to 12 p. m. 
Special attention given to After-Theater Suppers 

Table d'Hote, Cafe 5:30 to 8 p. m . Ji.oo. 
German Restaurant, - - Hani's frrcbestrs. 




4652 Grand Blvd. 



Fine Carpets, Rugrs. etc., cleaned, repaired, re- 
laid, etc. Perfect work; colors restored and will 
not fade; prompt service, lowest prices. Send for 
estimates; all work guaranteed, and all gotxJs in- 
sured while in our possession. Phone Main 133. 


C. K.. JVicholj. Mgr. 

Main Office, I2OI Stock Exchange Bldg., 
HO La Salle St., Chicago. 


Most Headaches come from eye strains. 1 give 

the most scientific examination of eyes 

and correct all defects 


Dr. C. D. Strow, 




H. SPECKMANN, Proprietoi. 

JE" Braie Delicatessen 


Bet. Indiana and Prairie Aves, 

Meals at all Hours. Telephone, Oakand 480. 

A Telephone 

In the House 

permits instant speech with all 
the tradespeople with whom you 
deal enables you to converse 
with THEM at the office and store 
at pleasure. 

A Modern Convenience, 

A necessity in everv complete home. 
Business and Residence 

Telephones I6c Per Day -"p 1 ! 

The new measured service costs only 
ior outgoing calls. Ask us about it. 

PKirarfn Tolonhrmo Cn f<"*tr*rt Prpjirimpnt, 

^.mcago i eiepnone 1,0., tiaitJSSmC 

Superstition and Folklore of the 
the South. 

During a recent visit to North Caro- 
line, after a long absence, I took oc- 
casion to inquire into the latter-day 
prevalence of the old-time belief in 
what was known as "conjuration" or 
"goopher," my childish recollection of 

which I have elsewhere embodied into 

a number of stories. The derivation of 

the word "goopher" I do not know, nor 
whether any other writer than myself 
has recognized its existence, though it 
is in frequent use in certain parts of 
the South. The origin of this curious 
superstition itself is perhaps more 
easily traceable. It probably grew, in 
the first place, out of African fetichism, 
which was brought over from the dark 
continent along with the dark people. 
Certain features, too, suggest a dis- 
tant affinity with Voodooism, or snake 
worship, a cult which seems to have 
been indigenous to tropical America. 
These beliefs, which in the place of 
their origin had all the sanctions of re- 
ligion and social custom, became in the 
shadow of the white man's civilization, 
a pale reflection of their former selves. 
In time, too, they were mingled and 
confused with the witchcraft and ghost 
lore of the white man, and the tricks 
and delusions of the Indian conjurer. 
In the old plantation days they flour- 
ished vigorously, though discouraged 
by the "great house," and their po- 
tency was well established among the 
blacks and the poorer whites. Educa- 
tion, however, has thrown the ban of 
disrepute upon witchcraft and conjur- 
ation. The stern frown of the preacher, 
who looks upon superstition as the ally 
of the Evil One; the scornful sneer of 
the teacher, who sees in it a part of 
the livery of bondage, have driven this 
quaint combination of ancestral tradi- 
tions to the remote chimney corners 
of old black aunties, from which it is 
difficult for strangers to unearth them. 
Mr. Harris, in his Uncle Remus stories, 
has, with fine literary discrimination, 
collected and put into pleasing and en- 
during form the plantation stories 
which dealt with animal lore, but so 
little attention has been paid to those 
dealing with so-called conjuration, 
that they seem in a fair way to dis- 
appear, without leaving a trace be- 
hind. The loss may not be very great, 
but these vanishing traditions might 
furnish valuable data for the sociolo- 
gist, in the future study of racial de- 
velopment. In writing, a few years 
ago, the volume entitled "The Conjure 
Woman," I suspect that I was more in- 
fluenced by the literary value of the 
material than by its sociological bear- 
ing, and therefore took, or thought 
I did, considerable liberty with my 
subject. Imagination, however, can 






Personal Service 
I>ay and Night. 

t en- 

clorsementH of 



529 E. 47th St. 'Phone Prexel 7593 


Moles, Birthmarks, Red Nose, 
Pimples, Skin Diseases, Dan- ' 
druff and Scalp Affections 
cured. Book free. 

Hew York Electrolysis Co., m 
1118 Masonic Temple. CHICAGO. ILL 

MitcKell & 

a aifors, 

36 Monroe Street, Chicago. 
Palmer House. 


Imported Millinery. 

574 East 43d Street, 

S. E. Cor. Calumet Ave. 

Formerly with Mandel Bros. 

We furnish everything 
complete and make you 
a stylish costume after 
the latest Parisiennes' 
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tailored, from 

$50 up. 

or you can furnish your 
own (foods and we will 
cut, trim and make you 
costume from 

$18 up, 

Perfect fit and work- 
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Samples and selfmea- 
surement blanks mail- 
ed free to any one on 

Joseph Husak 
Merchant Tail- 
oring Co., 

192-194 Madison St., 
Cor. 5th Ave. , Chicago. 

Established 1875. 

The Goold Storage House 


Safe Deposit Vaults, 

J. E. GOOLD & CO., Proprs. 


Goods Packed for Shipment. 

Fire and Burglar Proof Vaults for Silver- 
ware and Valuable Goods. 

2219-2221 Cottage Grove Ave. 

Tel. 1222 South. 




The Best Shoes for Women. 

SorosU Shoes have ninny Imitators they have no equals. They fit and wear perfectly are 
stylish and comfortable. "A perfect shoe at a popular price," S3. 50 never more never 
less. The Sorosls Shoes are distinctly unrivaled, and are sold In Chicago exclusively by 

SCHLESINOER & MAYER. State St. Annex. 


Importers and Retailers of DRY GOODS. 
183, 185, 187, 189 and 191 THIRTY-FIRST STREET. 



FURNISHINGS. . . . . < W ClieiU Ct 





detail. We can fit any figure. All corsets purchased 
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St. Louis, Mo., Kansas City, Mo. 
Des Moines, la- 

Fine Hand Work a Specialty. 

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Condensed Milk 




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Telenbone Oakland SOS Telephone Monroe 56 

627-633 EAST 47th ST. 546-554 WEST VAN BUREN ST, 








only act upon data one must have 
somewhere in his consciousness the 
ideas which he puts together to form 
a connected whole. Creative talent, of 
whatever grade, is, in the last analysis, 
only the power of rearrangement 
there is nothing new under the sun. 
I was the more firmly impressed with 
this thought after I had interviewed 
half a dozen old women, and a genuine 
"conjure doctor;" for I discovered that 
the brilliant touches, due, I had 
thought, to my own imagination, were 
after all but dormant ideas, lodged 
in my childish mind by old Aunt This 
and old Uncle That, and awaiting only 
the spur of imagination to bring them 
again to the surface. For instance, in 
the story, "Hot-foot Hannibal," there 
figures a conjure doll with pepper feet. 
Those pepper feet I regarded as pecu- 
liarly my own, a purely original cre- 
ation. I heard, only the other day, in 
North Carolina, of the consternation 
struck to the heart of a certain dark 
individual, upon finding upon his door- 
step a rabbit's foot a good omen in 
itself perhaps to which a malign In- 
fluence had been imparted by tying to 
one end of it, in the form of a cross, 
two small pods of red pepper. 

Most of the delusions connected with 
this belief in conjuration grow out of 
mere lack of enlightenment. As prime- 
val men saw a personality behind ev- 
ery natural phenomenon, and found a 
god or a devil in wind, rain, and hail, 
in lightning, and in storm, so the un- 
taught man or woman who is assailed 
by an unusual ache or pain, some 
strenuous symptom of serious physical 
disorder, is prompt to accept the sug- 
gestion, which tradition approves, that 
some evil influence is behind his dis- 
comfort; and what more natural than 
to conclude that some rival in business 
or in love has set this force in mo- 
tion ? Charles W. Chestnutt, in Mod- 
ern Culture Magazine for May. 

The Hebrew Free Loan Association 
of New York presents a brief report of 
its activity during the three months 
since its last annual report. During 
the months of January, February and 
March of 1901, 3610 new applications 
for loans were filed. Out of these 719 
were rejected, 2891 applications were 
granted with loans amounting to $58,- 
881 as follows: January, 1901, 803 per- 
sons borrowed f 16,591; February, 1901, 
972 persons borrowed $20,365; March, 
1901, 1116 persons borrowed $21,915. 
These figures illustrate how much good 
can be done in this great metropolis, 
helping from misery and poverty with- 
out humiliation; it pictures to us that 
there is a respectable class of people, 
who can be helped and made to feel 
their self-respect. 




I am not ambitious to become a rich man; all I want is enough for a rainy day, and I 
have almost enough now. 
On the first day of May, 1901, I will open a HAT STORE, and I propose to give oneshaU 
the net profits to charity, and I agree not to draw anything for my services, directly or indirectly. 
The half donated to charity to be divided between the Masonic, Hebrew, Catholic and 
Protestant needy ones in equal amounts. 
In a few days I will name three prominent men and women to represent their respective 
charities, they to appoint an expert to examine my books on the first day of April, 1902, 
and they (not the expert) to decide to what charities the money shall be paid. 
This is not for one year only, but to be continuous. Examination and payments to be 
made every six months thereafter, and it is my intention to give, as soon as possible, one- 
half of the profits of my Furnishing Goods business to the same cause. And I will not stop 
at this. As the business grows I will give a still greater percentage to charity. 
I am prompted to do this for two reasons: 
FIRST I hope to leave behind me a well organized business, that will continue after 
my death to pay the greater share of profits to the suffering and poor. 
SECOND I trust that this example will be followed by others, more particularly, some 
of our Chicago millionaires in the mercantile business; also the millionaires of other cities 
in our great and glorious America, 
/ always do as I agree. 
With all sincerity, I am, Yours truly, 

March 8, 1901. TOM MURRAY. 
Jackson Boulevard, near Board of Trade, 



The contents of the May issue of 
Everybody's Magazine are very varied. 
They range from a superb character 
study of Chief Croker of the Fire De- 
partment, of New York, contributed 
by Lindsay Denison, to a compilation 
of opinions of prominent actors and 
managers on "How to go on the 
Stage," gathered by Franklin Fyles. 
An admirable story of deer's life, "Ter- 
ror," by Maximilian Foster, "Making 
Rain by Electricity," a study of Elmer 
Gates' curious experiments in Wash- 
ington; stories of the newspaper world, 
"Adventures in Newsgathering," by 
Allen Sangree, a study of Mrs. Piper, 
the famous medium, by Mary C. Blos- 
som. The Novel Bequests, by Eugene 
P. Lyle, Mrs. Kasebier's photographs, 
J. P. Mowbray's "Making of a Country 
Home" all will be found readable, en- 
tertaining and informative. 

The mere enumeration of the articles 
and writers that appear in the 
Woman's Home Companion for May is 
sufficient evidence of the value of the 
number without any word of comment. 
"Memorial Day in the South," by Mrs. 
V. Jefferson Davis; "The Countess von 
Waldersee," by Mabel Percy Haskell; 
"Two Meetings with Garfield," by 
Clara Morris; "A vacation Tour in an 
Old Street-Car;" "Woman's Part in 

the Pan-American Exposition;" "Two 
Odd Chicago Clubs;" fiction by Lillian 
Bell, Leroy Scott and Onoto Watanna; 
household articles by experts in every 
department, and the usual number of 
reproductions from great paintings. 
Published by the Crowell & Kirkpat- 
rick Co., Springfield, Ohio; one dollar 
a year; ten cents a copy; sample copy 

"Two Bosses: Platt ana Croker" is 
the leading article in Ainslee's for 
May. The name of the author is not 
given, but whoever he is, he knows his 
subject well and handles it masterful- 
ly. "The Men that Control Our 
Railroads," by Earl D. Berry, is 
a readable and important study of the 
eight men that control the two hun- 
dred thousand miles of railway in the 
United States. "The Word to the Water 
People," by Bliss Carmen, is an origin- 
al poem, describing the advent of 
spring in the depths of the rivers and 
of the sea. "The New Japan," by 
Anna Northend Benjamin, is a richly 
illustrated study of Japanese life from 
the viewpoint of a woman. "Rubber," 
by H. E. Armstrong, a well-written ac- 
count of this enormous industry, con- 
tains a graphic detail of tne dramatic 
career of Charles Goodyear, that pov- 
erty-stricken, ambitious Yankee to 
whom all rubber millionaires are in 
eternal debt. "Topics of the Theater" 

is unusually well illustrated; and there 
is a batch of exceedingly good fiction. 
Of these stories the best are "Money 
Maze,'' by O. Henry; "Laviny Saun- 
ders," by Mary Sherburne; "The 
Forged Suicide," by H. T. Gardner, 
and "A Wall Tent Bewitchment," by 
Gwendolen Overton. 

Modern Culture for May is a maga- 
zine for nature-lovers. "An Ohio May 
Time" by Austin Matlack Courtenay 
is a dainty bit of spring poetry full of 
the rhythmic music of the May. "In 
the Garden with Shakespeare" by Mrs. 
E. A. Matthews, "Wood-Notes" by 
Nora Archibald Smith (the sister of 
Kate Douglas Wiggin), and "Birds in 
Literature" by C. A. Urann form a tri- 
ology of nature articles of enticing 
interest to the lover of birds and trees 
and flowers. A Nature Department be- 
gins in this number also, and Mr. Or- 
lando J. Stevenson in his "Rambles 
Out of Doors" will take the reader 
with him into the depths of his Cana- 
dian wilderness through all his sum- 
mer outing. "Some American Sculp- 
tors" form the subject of N. Hudson 
Moore's art article, while the Muse of 
History is cultivated by Jane W. Guth- 
rie in the first of a series of notable 
articles on "Chillicothe the Cradle of 
a Commonwealth" and by David Gar- 
dyne in a sketch of "Daniel Boone in 
Missouri." The historic Muse inspires 



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Wedding Gifts the most 
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301 9 Michigan Ave., Chicago. 

also Florence Estelle Little, the first 
installment of whose illustrated serial 
story "The Squire" a romance of the 
.Underground Railway appears in this 
number. Vivid description and a dash 
of scientific interest give flavor to Cal- 
van Gale Home's article Pen Pictures 
of Three Eclipses," and a familiar 
problem of science suggests the short 
story "A Collection of Meteorites" by 
the Editor. , jj- J 

Paul Laurence Dunbar's new novel, 
"The Sport of the Gods," is published 
entire in the May "New" Lippincott 
Magazine. This is by far the strong- 
est and best fiction from a pen noted 
for its humor and pathos. In addition 
to the complete novel there is plenty 
of good short fiction, varied in theme, 
in the May '"New" Lippincott. A 
story of Mexico, by Edwin Knight 
Buttolph called "The Slavery of Mo- 
ses," gives a glowing instance of man's 
sacrifice for one he loves. "The Su- 
preme Court of Love," by Julia Mac- 
Nair Wright, is an amusing prose farce 
in an apartment house. Jesse Van 
Zile Belden's little story called "Tony" 
has to do with the softer side of a 
United States Senator. In this some 
violets, a lovely woman, and innocent 
little "Tony" are important factors. 
The college tale this month is in hon- 
or of Chicago. It is called "The Head 
Marshal of the University of Chicago," 
and is written by James Weber Linn, 
assistant in the department of rhetoric 
at Chicago. He has written other tales 
of undergraduate life, but none to ex- 
cel this lively one. Much has been 
told about China, but nothing has been 
written at once so dramatic and so 
convincing in regard to missionary life 
as the two incidents given under the 
title "In the Dragon's Grip." They 
are recorded by Frederick Poole, for 
many years missionary, to whom and 
his wife they befell. Mr. Poole is now 
working among the Chinese in this 
country. His signature in Chinese 
characters at the close of the article is 
typical. Poetry takes a forward place 
in the May "New" Lippincott: "Can 
Such Things Be?" a sonnet of rare fe- 
licity, is by Madison Cawein; "The 
Loss of the First-Boru," by Mabel 
Thornton Whitmore. Edith M. Thomas 
contributes "Masts in Harbor," and C. 
W. Doyle, M. D., "The Two Brothers." 
Willa Sibert Gather sings of "In Media 
Vita," and Edmund Vance Cooke, "The 
Tomb of Shakespeare." "The Monu- 
ment" is a Memorial Day Poem by Dal- 
lett Fuguet. 

Bound volumes 19 and 20 of the 
Reform Advocate are now ready for 
delivery. Two vols. bound in one, $4. 



Annual Meetlng'orjAnshaf Emeth 
Congregation of Peorla, III. 

The regular annual meeting of the 
congregation of Anshai Emeth, of 
Peorla, III., was held Sunday after- 
noon and all the old officers were re- 
elected unanimously. They are as fol- 
lows: President, Samuel Woolner; 
vice-president, David Ullman; secre- 
tary, A. Raffman; treasurer, M. Sal- 

Rev. Dr. Levy, who has been the 
pastor of the congregation for the 
past three years, was unanimously re- 
elected for another term of three years, 
notwithstanding the fact that he sent 
in his resignation several days ago. 
He is reported as still insisting on 
leaving the city for other fields, it be- 
ing said that he has received a call 
that is very hard to decline, such ac- 
tion upon his part being a great sacri- 

At the meeting it was decided by a 
unanimous vote of the congregation 
that a committee of three be appointed 
to use their best efforts to obtain the 
consent of Dr. Levy to accept the re- 
election. The chair appointed William 
F. Wolfner, David Ullman and Henry 
Schwabacher, and this committee will 
wait on the doctor during the coming 
week and endeavor to have him stay 
'with the congregation for at least 
three years longer. 

Great stress was laid upon the grand 
work performed by Dr. Levy during 
his stay here. The model Sunday 
school under his care and direction is 
second to none in the United States. 
His wise leadership has attracted a 
large number of new members to the 
congregation and his able lectures 
have edified all his lesteners. Peoria 
cannot afford to lose such a public 
spirited minister and every effort 
shoud be made to retain him in Peoria. 

The report of the officers of the con- 
gregation showed that the finances 
were in good shape and that with the 
aid of the ladies a large part of the 
indebtedness, had been paid. 

The firm of Sidney 'Wanzer & Sons, 
dealers in high-grade milk, cream and 
butter, 305 and 307 Thirtieth street, 



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Electric, Steam. Gasoline Vehicles 

Stanhopes, Drag*, Runabout*, Dondoj, Park Traps, Doctors' 
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Motor Cycles and Bike Wagons 

Manufacturers' Supplies and Accessories of AH Kinds Furnished. 
Expert Repair Men Constantly on Duty. 


293-295 WABASH AYE. 

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Six or More Races Daily. 

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ETC. ALSO REPAIR WORK. J* <* <* J* J* 4* 

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When You 
Haven't A 
Minute to 








ctrv TICKET omee 




Makers of 


Horse and Wagon 

2963-65 STATE STREET, 

Telephone South 282. 

608 E. 63 D STREET, 

Telephone, Oakland 1213. 

Chicago, is composed of Mr. Sidney 
Wanzer, Sr., and his two sons. The 
business was first started in this city 
in 1857 by Mr. S. Wanzer, Sr., and his 
long experience makes him an author- 
ity on all matters pertaining to this 
business. Their trade has rapidly in- 
creased, not from luck or chance, but 
because of the purity and high quality 
of their goods. Their plant is always 
open to the inspection of visitors, and 
family trade is especially solicited. 
The milk is delivered to customers 
right off the ice. They are now serv- 
ing over 4,000 families per day. A 
postal card will bring one of their 
wagons to your door before breakfast 
every morning. 

Substitutes for the Saloon. 

Whatever the effects of prohibition 
may be on political agents, experi- 
ence goes to show that a law aimed at 
the evils of drinking generally over- 
shoots the mark and hits feebly, if at 
all, the manufacturing brewer. To 
take the saloons away from a man 
who wants to drink does not, in my 
opinion, reform his views or make it 
appreciably harder for him to get 
what he wants to drink. In addition, 
it does not take into account the man 
who all his life has been accustomed 
to the use of alcoholic beverages with- 
out any visible harm to himself, his 
prospects, or his family, and has a 
tolerably well-grounded belief that it 
is his right to do so if he chooses, 
whether it is in the back room of a sa- 
loon or at his own table. 

One naturally turns, as public opin- 
ion seems to be turning, from the 
theory of prohibition to the question 
of a substitute for the saloon, which, 
shorn of its bad influences, will retain 
the social features that appeal to 
workingmen in their times of idleness 
and relaxation. Considerations of this 
sort, assuming that the saloon is the 
workingman's club, and that environ- 
ment and a desire for social satisfac- 
tions drive or coax men to their drink- 
ing places, is somewhat new, but al- 
ready thinking men of the human sort 
are discussing it, and it is along this 



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Sole Manufacturer of Silsby's Pleating and Button Machines, sold in all parts of the World. 





/ I A HERE) is ample justification for the claim made by THE 
1 CHICAGO RECORD-HERALD that its readers enjoy every 
day in the week, Sundays included, a news service that is without 
parallel in range and completeness. The reason is obvious the 
combination of the varied and extensive facilities of the two great 
dailies, The,Chicago Record and The Chicago Times-Hearld. In ad- 
dition to the independent news facilities of both papers, THE REC- 
ORD-HERALD receives the complete news service of The New York 
Herald, The New York Tribune and The Associated Press; and when 
it is considered that its news columns are supplemented by all the spec- 
ial features so popular in The Record and The Times-Herald it will be 
seen that THE RECORD-HERALD holds a unique place among the 
great newspapers of the United States. In the Sunday issues, especially, 
the great advantages of the combination of all the resources and world- 
wide facilities of the two papers united in the combination are 
made manifest. The world's news is covered with unexampled 
fullness, due to the fact that never before in the history of jour- 
nalism did an American newspaper possess news facilities so varied 
and extensive. 

The circulation of THE CHICAGO RECORD-HERALD is 
the largest very much the largest 2-cent newspaper circulation 
in the United States. 



Spring Medicine 

There's no season when good 
medicine is so much needed as in 
Spring, and there's no medicine 
which does so much good in Spring 
as Hood's Sarsaparilla. 

Do not delay taking it. 

Don't put it off till your health 
tone gets too low to be lifted. 

Hood's Sarsaparilla 

Will give you a good appetite, 
purify and enrich your blood, over- 
come that tired feeling, give you 
mental and digestive strength and 
steady nerves. 

Be sure to ask for HOOD'S, the 
best medicine money can buy. It is 

Peculiar to Itself 

Bad Feelings In Spring -"In toe 

spring I was feeling very badly. My blood 
was very poor. I began taking Hood's 
Sarsaparilla. It did me much good. I 
think it is a wonderful spring medicine and 
recommend it to all sick and suffering." 
KTHP. L. Brui. Baton Center, N. H. 

line that we may expect development, 
at least in our large cities. 

But one does not get very far in his 
consideration of the substitute before 
he encounters difficulties which bid 
fair to create violent partisanship and 
more or less feeling. You can substi- 
tute for the saloon warm, comfortable 
buildings, reading rooms, billiards and 
pool games ad lib., but will your sub- 
stitution of coffee or tea for beer at- 
tract the men you want to reach who 
insist on having beer? Are you com- 
promising with the devil if you give 
them beer? From "Saloons," by 
Robert A. Stevenson, In the May 

Why Jesus was Mocked as King. 

Recently some data, largely from 
papyrus finds, have come to light that 
explains why it was that the soldiers, 
after the condemnation of Jesus to 
crucifixion, mockingly derided him as 
king. The philologian and Philo-edi- 
tor, Paul Wendland, in Hermes (Vol. 
XXXIII), has drawn attention to the 
custom of celebrating the Saturnalia 
by the Roman soldiers by the appoint- 
ment of a mock king, who was then 
slain. Every year the festival of 
Kronos, or Saturn, was celebrated, es- 
pecially in the army. One of the num- 
ber was selected by lot to act as king, 
and upon him royal robes were placed, 
and for a certain number of days this 
king directed the wildest carousals of 
his subjects, after which he was put 
to the sword. Mock imitations of 
these riotous celebrations of the Sat- 

'Brand Food 'Products 

Each -the Finest of its KJnd. 

Prepared and Fully Guaranteed by 

Steele-Wedeles Company, 

Wholesale Grocers, Importers and Manufacturers. 

If your dealer refuses to supply them ask us to furnish the 
name of another in your neighborhood who will. 

urualia king were evidently a favorite 
amusement among the Roman soldiers 
in the c;.se of culprits who had been 
condemned, and, according to the man- 
ner of the times, were handed over to 
the executioner as objects of sport, as 
also in the case of other persons who 
had incurred the displeasure of the 

Philo narrates such a mock celebra- 
tion on the part of the soldiers par- 
ticipating in an anti-Semitic riot in 
Alexandria, directed against King 
Agrippa, to whom the Emperor Cali- 
gula had given the tetrarchy of Philip. 
A dirty Jewish beggar is taken from 
the street to represent King Agrippa; 
he is dressed up as a king, escorted 
by soldiers, is the recipient of royal 
salutations, while he, with a crown ou 
his head, carries a stick picked up 

from the street as a scepter, and then 
is cast out. The description is almost 
verbally the same as that of the mock- 
ery of Jesus. 

In the light of these facts, it is evi- 
dent that the mockery of Jesus by the 
soldiers of the cohort in the barracks 
was a specimen of sport which they 
were accustomed to engage in when- 
ever they could. For them it was a 
mock celebration of a festival of sport, 
and Jesus was to them a Saturnalia 
king. That just this was the favorite 
sport in the case of one condemned to 
death was natural. The Saturnalia 
king dies as the earthly reproduction 
of Saturn, who dies when his mission 
has been fulfilled. Saturn was the dy- 
ing god among the heathens, and him 
who was the dying God of the Chris- 
tians, the heathen mocked by imitat- 



All dishes, such as soups, fish, meats, 
gravy, game, salads etc. are doubly 
appetising and digestible when fla- 
vored with Lea &Perrins' sauce. 



On E.v,ry Bort ~ 





The Store of Quality, 

Scholle's occupies an unique 
position among retail stores, 

It Is the Largest Exclusive Furniture Store in this country 

A store where nothing that is 
not worthy in furniture mating 
can hare a place, and a most 
interesting place for people who 
demand the best of ererything in 
furniture making as in all else. 
It will interest the readers of this 
work, many of whose palatal homes 
hare been furnished with 

"Scholle's Good Furniture 

A broad welcome awaits visitors who come to Scholle's, to gire 
its Good Furniture Exhibit, leisurely and critical inspection. 


222 Wabash Ave. Sr/SSK CHICAGO, ILL. 

and L. M. 


Accordion, Side or 
Knife Plaitings. 

Fancy Dress Plaitings 
of All Kinds. 








Near 33d Street. 

Strictly Modern; every con- 
venience. Apply to 

V, 0, SAN60RN, 

Room 99 

140 Dearborn Street, 

Telephone Central 1692. 

ing the cultus of their dying god. 
Prof. Geo. H. Schodde, Ph. D., in Sun- 
day School Times. 

Wood carpet and parquet flooring 
is not, as many people suppose, a 
temporary floor to be laid down and 
taken up at pleasure, but is a perma- 
nent new floor on top of the old one, 
carefully fitted and firmly! nailed down 
with small brads, and when finished 
has the appearance of a thick Euro- 
pean floor. They are made up in the 
various colored hard woods worked 
in a hundred different styles and pat- 
terns. The Chicago Floor Co., 155 
Wabash avenue, this city, manufacture 
their own goods, employing competent 
workmen, and are pre-eminently in a 
position to lay and finish new floors 
and repolish old ones. A visit to their 
show rooms will delight the intending 
purchaser. Should any of our readers 
be in need of any work of this kind, 
drop them a line and they will send 
a catalogue, or if desired an experi- 
enced salesman. 

The Acme Parquet Foor Company 
are prepared to show special designs 
in hardwood flooring and grilles. Es- 
timates cheerfully submitted. They 
have on hand a large supply of hard 
wax and floor material. They will 
also take your order for renovating old 
floors. Address 4703 Cottage Grove 
avenue, or call up Oakland 1015. 



We shall continue to progress in 

Artistic Excellence. 

This year we are making permaner t 


Exquisite MINIATURES, beautifully tinted, on 
very. We also carry a line of high art novelties 
in frames of all sizes. OUR PHOTOGRAPHS 
are seen in the homes of all the first families on 
the South Side. 


Drexel Blvd 

'Phone Drexel 8562; 


l'/if ojfraplier. 




* I'D 

mw<> tin 



We might advertise It as a tonic, and you'd 
pay more for It because you were buying 
medicine. Because HOFBRAU costs only 
what you'd expect to pay for a high grade 
beer, is a.n additional reason why you should 
have It. Delivered to your door. 

Phone:! 234. Burllnfton & 16th Sts. 




to be given 
a. w a. y i t\ 


What Will *Be the Population of the 
Dominicn of Canada April 1st, 1901? 

Census noto being taf^en and completed by July 14-. 

The first prize of $5,000 

Every Subscriber to The Inter Ocea.n who takes advantage of 
the following liberal offers will be given FREE GUESSES. 

Our Offers: 

Every one who subscribes for the daily and Sunday Inter Ocean for one 
month, and pays in advance at our regular price, 75c, will be entitled to 
ONE GUESS free. You may send in your subscription for as many months 
as you wish, and you will be entitled to one free gness for every month's subscription paid in advance. 


Every one who subscribes for The Sunday Inter Ocean for three months at our regular subscription price of 65c 
will be entitled to one guess free. For a six months' subscription we will give two guesses, for a nine months' sub- 
scription we will give three guesses, and for a twelve months' subscription we will give four guesses. 

Headers who have their subscription paid in advance may take advantage of this liberal offer, and we will 
extend their subscription from present date of expiration. 


Send your orders direct to us with cash to pay for same. If you are at present taking our paper from any of 
our State Agents, please state from whom, and, if paid in advance, give us the date. We will then notify the agent 
for how long you have paid us in advance and see that his account gets proper credit for your remittance. 

The Following Is a Fvill Explanation of the Guessing Contest: 

We have made arrangements with THE PRESS PUBLISHING ASSOCIATION to enable our subscribers to 
participate in the distribution of prizes, amounting to 810,000. The 810,000 is deposited in the Central Savings Bank, 
Detroit. , Mich. , for the express purpose of paying these prizes. 


To aid subscribers ID forming their estimate we furnish the 
following data of Canadian population; 

Year. Population. Increase. Perot. 

1871 3,688,257 

1881 4,324.810 635,553 17.23 

1891 4,833,239 5'J8.429 11.19 

The population for 1901 at an increase of 12 per cent over 
the population of 1891 would be 6,413,227 

(An increase of 579.988.) 
At an increase of 15 per cent it would be 6,558,224 

(An increase of 724,985.) 
At an increase of 80 per cent it would be 6,799,836 

(An Increase of 966,647.) 
At an increase of 26 per cent it would be 6,041.543 

(An increase of 1,208,309.) 


To the nearest correct guess 85,000 

To the 2d 200J 

TotheSd 700 

To the 4th 300 

To the 5th 100 

To the 8th 50 

To the next 12 nearest correct guesses $1" each, nm't'g to.. . 120 

To the next 42 nearest correct guesses $5 each, am't'g to .. 210 

To the next 100 nearest eoi reel guesses J3 each, am't'g to... 80J 

To the next 380 nearest correct guesses $2 each, air.Vg to. . . 760 

To the next 460 nearest correct guesses $1 each, am't'g to ... 460 

Total, 1,000 prizes, amounting to J10.00J 

In case of a tie, or that two or more estimators are equally cor- 
rect, prizes will be divided equally between them. 

^When you send in your subscription you make your guess. Be sure and write your 
name, address, and guess as plainly as possible. As soon as we receive your subscrip- 
tion we ( will fill out and send you a certificate corresponding to guess made by you, which will entitle you to any prize that 
you may draw. Be sure to keep your certificate. We will file the duplicate with the Press Publishing Association. 



You will find inclosed $ , for which please send me THE. 

INTER OCEAN for months. 



My Guess State 




CHICAGO MAY 4, 1901. 





204 Dearborn Street, Chicago. 

Subscription Price, 

$2.00 per Year 

Entered at the Chicago Post-Office as Second-Class Matter. * 


The editor in ordinary of "The Reform 
Advocate" takes great pleasure in inviting the 
readers to peruse the contents of this week's 
issue. The work of gathering the data and 
of putting them into shape was done by 
Mr. Eliassoff. To him is due whatever credit at- 
taches to the labor, as he is responsible for the ac- 
curacy of the statements and the facts collected. 
By some inadvertency the statement was permitted 
to pass the scrutiny of the proof-reader, that the un- 
dersigned had edited Mr. EliassofFs paper. This is 
a mistake. Time and talent were both wanting to 
undertake the task. On the surface it would seem 
as though "The Reform Advocate," in publishing a 
detailed account of the trials and triumphs of the 
Jews in Illinois, had laid itself open to the just 
criticism of inconsistency. For all along it has con- 
tended that the Jews, their religion excepted, consti- 
tute no distinct element in our population. They are 
marked by the same traits and are under the im- 
pulse of the same helpful or hurtful influences as are 
the rest of humanity. "The Reform Advocate" does 
not propose to abandon this, its fundamental con- 
tention, but it has recognized the fact that as yet its 
opinion is not generally accepted. Perhaps under 
the circumstances now unfortunately prevailing the 
round world over it is not a work of supererogation 
to demonstrate the correctness of our thesis by in- 
voking certain indisputable facts. Our columns to- 
day speak most eloquently in corroboration of our 
proposition. One who will read this issue with un- 
prejudiced eyes cannot but come to the conclusion 
that the Jews are not peculiar either in their virtues 
or their vices. The experience of the pioneers of 
our- Jewish communities has been none other than 
that through which the pathfinders of other religious 
organizations had to pass. The story of their strug- 
gles or their gradual rise to 'comfortable affluence 
can easily be duplicated by the records preserving 
the accounts of the deeds, the failures and the suc- 
cesses of early settlers in our State, whose religious 
affinities bound them to the church, or whose opin- 
ions perhaps led them to form no connection with 
any creed or sect. 

The Jews of Illinois have no cause to blush for 
their record. They have done their full share in the 

development of our beloved State. Many of them 
took an active part, even if it was in a restricted 
circle of influence, in the debates and discussions pre- 
ceding the outbreak of "the inevitable conflict." 
Many knew personally the great men who went forth 
from Illinois to guide the nation and to fight its bat- 
tles, and in the regiments that marched out in obedi- 
ence to Lincoln's, Illinois' greatest son's, call there 
were many whose ancestral faith quivered with the 
traditions of remote Palestine. And as during this 
fateful period, so in every crisis of our political life, 
affecting the nation or the State, the Jews of Illinois 
have been found at their post of duty. Only one 
deaf to the truth and blind to its light may, in view 
of these incontrovertible proofs, maintain that the 
Jews lack in patriotism or fail to act in response to 
the calls of a delicate and active civic conscience. 

In commerce and the channels of industry the 
Jews of Illinois have also demonstrated their in- 
fluence. Many business houses witness to their en- 
terprise and attest their integrity in the management 
of mercantile ventures. Theirs has been a moderate 
share of the rewards which come to honest and de- 
voted labor. On the whole the Jews of Illinois have 
again proven that the influences of Judaism make for 
thrift, economy, temperance and independence. 

In the domain of philanthropy the Jewish citizens 
of Illinois have not been laggards. While, As their 
co-religionists always and everywhere, contributing 
to the maintenance of public institutions, under what- 
ever denominational auspices, they have never 
neglected to provide for the nearer needs of their 
own dependent classes. In certain ways the Jews of 
Chicago may claim the credit of having been among 
the first to inaugurate the better methods according 
to the truer standard of the new philanthropy in the 
dispensation of relief or the provision for the educa- 
tion of the young. The Michael Reese Hospital de- 
servingly has come to be known as a model institu- 
tion of its kind. The Jewish Manual Training School 
is on an altitude attained by none other of its class. 
It has won the recognition of educators throughout 
the world, and the prophecy is certainly not too bold 
that in very near years its system is bound to be- 
come the pattern after which our public schools will 
be re-constituted. The Jews of this city can proudly 
point to the fact that they were the first to bring 
about systematic co-operation among the various 
agencies for the administration of the charities. 

While writing these lines the report reaches us 
that one, who for many years was prominently as- 
sociated with the work of our United Hebrew Chari- 
ties, has passed to his Heavenly reward. In the his- 
tory of the Jews of Chicago Mr. Francis E. Kiss 
will always hold a prominent place. In his hands 
was, for many 3ecades, the direction of public assist- 
ance as organized under the Hebrew Charities. He 
brought to his task enthusiasm and capacity of a 



high order. Where he failed the blame was not his. 
Laboring under peculiar difficulties, incidental to 
those early days, and always more or less hampered 
by limited resources, he did his utmost to mitigate 
the evils which could not be remedied. None other 
could have done better ; most would have done worse. 
To his memory posterity owes a debt of gratitude 
which cannot be paid in words. 

Perhaps in the domain of Jewish religious thought 
the Jews of Illinois occupy a position peculiarly their 
own ; but this very fact demonstrates again the truth 
of the proposition that Jewish life is, after all, only 
a reproduction of the life of those with whom the 
Jews come in daily contact. It is not merely in the 
Synagogues that Chicago has wielded an influence 
for greater religious liberalism. Our city is the 
home of many so-called independent churches. 
Professor Swing of blessed memory wasi a Chicagoan. 
Doctor Thomas could nowhere else have found con- 
ditions as favorable for his new development as he 
did in our own city by the lake. Sinai Congregation 
and the radical tendency pervading the Judaism of 
Illinois generally is the effect in the same manner 
of the telling influence of a broad and liberaliz- 
ing spirit undoubtedly cradled in the broad 
prairies of our State. Chicago is a cosrrio- 
politan center. It extends hospitality to every 
opinion honestly held and candidly stated. It 

is hostile to bigotry, unhospitable merely to fanat- 
icism. The Jewish community is characteristically 
Chicagoan in this also, that whatever the opposition 
and the bickerings, the distrusts and the denuncia- 
tions which have assailed the positions of one or the 
other teacher among us elsewhere, within this State, 
and more particularly within our city, men of all 
shades of religious opinions agree to disagree, allow- 
ing each one to seek his own salvation as knowledge 
or conscience suggests, but co-operating in all things 
making for the better and the nobler life. 

Fifty years is but a small measure of time. What 
has been accomplished during this limited period is 
an earnest of what the next century asks 
us to bring about. If the spirit that inspired the 
pioneers and the founders of our Jewish institutions 
in this State will be transmitted to their sons and 
successors, no doubt will ever lodge in open minds 
that the unborn future will not be true to the achieve- 
ments of the remembered past. With grateful recog- 
nition of the debt which the living owe to those that 
have passed beyond, in the joy that many of the 
veterans are still among us to cheer us on while tell- 
ing us of their trials and their triumphs, let us, hav- 
ing learned of the past, turn our faces to the future, 
determined to do our share as conscientiously as did 
they who prepared the way for us, theirs. 


A Card from the Publishers! 

publication of this number of the REFORM 
ADVOCATE, containing- the history of "The 
Jews of Illinois" was unavoidably delayed for 
a few days. We therefore beg the indulgence 
of our friends and readers, and hope that the 
contents of this edition will amply repay for the 
disappointment caused by its non-appearance 
on time. 


Their Religious and Civic Life, their Cha.rity and Industry, their Patriotism and 

LoyaJty to American Institutions, from their earliest settlement 

in the State xinto the present time. 

By Hermann EUassof . 
Edited by Dr. Emil G. Hlrsoh. 


The marvelous progress of the 
American people and its rapid rise to 
national importance and political power 
have surely surpassed the most san- 
guine expectations of the founders of 
the independence of the colonies. The 
ethnological and historical develop- 
ment of nations is generally a very 
slow process. The fathers of the Amer- 
ican nation could only have measured 
institutions and events according to 
the standards established by time and 
history, and the infant nation, the 
child of the revolution of the colonies, 
broke all the records of history and 
the confines of time. The main cause 
of these unforeseen attainments was, 
without doubt, the constant influx of 
a heterogeneous immigration, which 
the young nation assimilated during 
the years of its growth. The rare ad- 
vantage of adding to the population a 
continual current of mature elements 
enabled the American people to speed 
on eagle wings in achievements of 
civilization, in national development 
and in the attainment of political pow- 
er. Each of the component parts of 
the assimilated mass of immigrants 
contributed its share of valuable 
building material for the construction 
of a vigorous national character, for 
the rearing of ramparts in protection 
of liberty and for the strengthening 
of the edifice of equality. Each com- 
ponent part helped to hasten the prog- 
ress of the young American nation. 

To the Jews of America must be as- 
signed a place among the very best 
and most desirable immigrants. The 
Jew possesses the capability of assim- 
ilation in a higher degree than many 
other people. His appreciation of lib- 
erty is keener and deeper, for his love 
of freedom was born In the flames of 
the auto-da-fe; his thirst for right and 
his hunger for justice took firm roots 
In the depths of his soul, in the dark- 

ness of dungeons, during centuries of 
cruel persecutions. Indeed, the Jew 
fitted well in the new conditions of the 
new world, and he quickly fell in line 
with the builders of the free American 
institutions, American civilization and 
commercial and industrial power. 
Peddlers though many of them 
were, in the first years of their 
settlement in America, the Jews at 
once upon their arrival rendered val- 
uable service to the undeveloped coun- 
try. As the Jew trudged along on the 
highways and by-ways of the new 
world, with his heavy peddler's pack, 
he carried civilization and commerce 
from the large cities, the market cen- 
ters, across the vast prairies, over the. 
steep mountains and through the wild 
woods, to the rural towns, to the ham- 
lets and villages, to the isolated log 
cabins and to the lonely farm houses. 
Wherever he passed, the Jewish pio- 
neer left a message of the new life 
which was unfolding itself in the 
cities; of the new industries which 
were established in the land and of 
the general progress of the nation. He 
brought hope and encouragement to 
the lonely laborer on the outskirts of 
civilization, and the recluse toiler 
worked with a new-born ambition and 
brighter prospects. So the Jew helped, 
often perhaps unconsciously, to widen 
the clearings in the forest primeval 
of the new life, to spread the bright 
light of the broader thought until it 
penetrated into the narrow sphere of 
the children of nature in field and for- 
est, on the high hill top and in the 
deep valley. 

But they were not all peddlers. The 
American Jew has made his mark in 
the history of the country of his 
adoption. The history of the revolu- 
tion, the civil and the Mexican wars, 
and later of the Spanish war, tells the 
story of the patriotism, the loyalty 
and the 'bravery of the American Jew. 
On the battlefields of the American 
nation, wherever Old Glory floated in 

the breeze, leading the American sol- 
dier to victory or to a patriot's death, 
were heard the footsteps of the Amer- 
ican Jew, as he marched along side 
by side with his American brothers, 
in the ranks, or as officer and leader, 
and like all the rest he willingly shed 
his blood and gave his life for the life 
of his country. Nearly 8,000 Jews 
served in the civil war and 4,000 
fought against Spain. 

It cannot be denied that the advent 
of the Jews in noted numbers in the 
new Republic was a severe test of the 
value of the American constitution 
and the sincerity of the young nation 
in its promise of liberty and equality 
before the law to all comers. Before 
the arrival of the Jews in large num- 
bers, the young American people, the 
austere principles and the stubborn re- 
ligious convictions of the pioneer Purl- 
tans still fresh in its midst, had to deal 
almost entirely with an immigration 
consisting of members of a kindred 
race and of sects and factions of a 
common church. The Jew came as 
the scion of an alien race and as an 
adherent of a religion considered by 
the world as a living protest against 
Christianity, the religion of nearly all 
the inhabitants of the young Repub- 
lic. The American constitution was 
only a few years old, while the preju- 
dices against the Jew, social and re- 
ligious, were hoary with the age of 
centuries. But the constitution tri- 
umphed, the young American nation 
established 'before the world its faith- 
fulness to the teachings of true liber- 
ty and the life of the American Jew 
demonstrates more convincingly every 
day that the bitter accusations of his 
enemies have absolutely no foundation 
in truth. 

When the history of the Jews of the 
United States of America will be writ- 
ten, it will positively prove that the 
Jewish genius asserted itself to the 
benefit of the country of his adoption 
wherever and whenever it found fav- 



orable opportunity. For many decades 
the Jews arrived in the new world In 
very small numbers. There may have 
been a few secret Jews, Spanish Ma- 
ranos, with Columbus. Dr. Kayserling, 
the noted writer on the history of the 
Spanish and Portuguese Jews, claims 
that there were five Jews in Colum- 
bus' fleet. The entire register of the 
men who sailed with Columbus has 
been lost, but a great many of the 
names of the men who sailed with him 
have been recovered and among them 
are undoubtedly five Jews. The inter- 
preter whom Columbus took with him, 
Luis de Torres, was a Jew. A nephew 
of the Treasurer-General of Aragon, 
Sanchez, was delegated to go with Co- 
lumbus by the special request of Queen 
Isabella. The surgeon of the ship was 
a Jew and there were two other Jews 
upon the ship. Some few Jews may 
have arrived, from time to time, from 
Brazil, Barbadoes, Jamaica, Spain and 
Portugal, who settled in New Amster- 
dam (New York), in Newport, Rhode 
Island, the Roger Williams Colony 
and in Charleston, S. C.* But the in- 
flux of Jewish immigration from 
Germany in large numbers did not be- 
gin until about the middle of the XIX. 
Century. Most of them hailed from 
the Rhenish Palatinate and from Ba- 
varia. Still almost in every state of 
the Union the Jews are today not be- 
hind their American fellow citizens, 
not only in commerce and industry, 
but also in their religious and social 
life. Their distinctive institutions and 
organizations are models of economic 
management and useful administra- 
tion. Led by the Jewish genius they 
have succeeded in a comparatively 
shorter time than many other denomi- 
nations, to reach the true American 
standard of excellence. The American 
spirit dwells in their hearts and their 
homes, and united with the Jewish gen- 
ius It helped to build up their congre- 
gations, their religious schools, their 
benevolent institutions and social or- 
ganizations on a grand and magnifi- 
cent scale. 

The first attempt to gather statis- 
tics of the Jews of the United States, 
was made by a committee representing 
the Board of Delegates of American 
Israelites and the Union of American 
Hebrew congregations. The chairma'n 
of that committee was Mr. William B. 
Hackenburg, a prominent Jewish citi- 
zen of Philadelphia. The result of the 
labors of this committee was pub- 
lished in September, 1880, by the Union 
of American Hebrew congregations, In 
a pamphlet of 59 pages entitled "Sta- 
tistics of the Jews of the United 
States." According to this pamphlet 
the Jewish population of Illinois In 

!">. B. Felsenthal, in a letter to Judge 
Duly, of New York, calls the attention of 
Jewish historians to the fact, .that while 
the Jews In the colonies were admitted 
to full citizenship already In 1740. yet In 
some of "the states" they were excluded 
from the enjoyment of the rights of cltl- 
xenshlp by constitutional provisions. He 
names Maryland and North Carolina. 
Vide Appendix II to The Settlement of the 
Jews In North America, by Judge Charles 
P. Daly, p. 1B6. 

1SSO was 12,625, ten thousand of whom 
lived in the city of Chicago. Jewish 
congregations were in the following 
five cities: Chicago, Rock Island, Peo- 
rta, Qulncy and Springfield. The total 
nurrfber of Jewish congregations in the 
state was ten, and their entire mem- 
bership 567; number of Jewish chil- 
dren attending religious schools 675. 
Two years ago the Jewish Publication 
Society of America undertook to con- 
tinue the work of collecting statistics 
of the Jews of the United States. The 
Publication Society has issued two vol- 
umes of The American Jewish Year 
Book, one each year. The "Year 
Books" are edited by Prof. Cyrus Ad- 
ler of Washington, President of the 
American Jewish Historical Society, 
and contain much valuable informa- 
tion. We thankfully acknowledge that 
the "Year Book" of 1900-1901 was of 
great help to us in compiling the data 
for this history. 

We do not claim that in this work 
we have furnished a complete history 
of the Jews of Illinois. The Jewish 
communities, their organizations and 
institutions in the state, are all yet 
too young for such an undertaking. 
Not even seventy years, the allotted 
span of life for one individual man, 
has passed since Jews first settled in 
Illinois, and this is, indeed, too short 
a period of which to write a complete 
history, with philosophical research of 
cause and effect and historical analysis 
of character. Events have not had 
time to clarify and to reach historical 
strata, and character had as yet no 
chance to become purified in the cru- 
cible of time to reflect historical light 
and luster. We have simply sketched 
a certain number of events, often in 
mere outline, venturing here and there 
also to depict the life of some leaders, 
in their relation to the development 
of communal and Institutional life, 
in a superficial biographical form, 
endeavoring in the main, to collect 
material for the future historian of 
the American Jews. 

Our aim has been to give accurate 
statements of facts and to be just and 
impartial to individuals and institu- 
tions. If we have erred In any of our 
estimates and representations, we 
must solicit the indulgence of our 
readers and critics, and request them 
to take into consideration the facts, 
that in many instances we had to rely 
entirely for our information upon the 
contradictory statements of a few old, 
very old, people, whose memory is suc- 
cumbing to the feebleness of old age. 
Especially in regard to the history of 
the Jews of Chicago prior to the great 
fire, it was a very difficult matter to 
obtain authentic information, as all 
the documents bearing upon the sub- 
ject were consumed in the terrible 
conflagration of 1871. 

We cheerfully invite impartial crit- 
icism and convincing correction, for 
the sake of truth, -syh pan na net? 

"The lip of truth shall be established 
forever." H. Bliassof. 

Chicago, March 15, 1901. 

General Review. 

The history of the Jews of Illinois 
furnishes ample evidence in substan- 
tiation of the facts, that wherever the 
Jew finds a welcome reception and 
rightful treatment, he quickly rises to 
the full understanding of his environ- 
ment and readily fulfills his full duty 
to his surroundings; that he works 
out his destiny to his benefit and to 
the profit of his neighbors. 

Not quite a century has passed 
since a part of the northwest territory 
was organized into the state of Illi- 
nois. It was in the year 1818, and to- 
day the progress of her people and the 
development of her institutions are In- 
deed the great wonder of the world. 
The vast stretch of prairie land which 
but a few decades ago was carpeted 
only with wild grass, where the 
deer and the bear roamed and played 
hide and seek, is now dotted with fer- 
tile farms, bearing a rich harvest of 
golden grain, and is studded with 
cities, like precious gems, teeming with 
a population of nearly five millions. 
The plowshare has furrowed millions 
of miles of the rich soil and God has 
blessed the toils of his children with 
the "dew of heaven and the fatness of 
the earth." The western spirit has 
imbued the sturdy inhabitants of Illi- 
nois with tireless activity and the till- 
ers of the soil and the builders of the 
cities have produced untold wealth. 
Commerce and industry have flour- 
ished beyond description; palatial 
homes have been erected in many parts 
of the state, where art brings Its ben- 
ediction and institutions established 
where learning leads and lofty 
thoughts hold sway as unrivaled rul- 
ers, where civilization points the way 
to man's higher destiny, where benev- 
olence beckons to the heart and illu- 
mines the soul with lessons of love, 
teaching to aid and assist, to encour- 
age and to redeem. 

"Wer kennt die Voelker, nennt die 


Die gastlich hier zusammenkamen?" 
Who knows the nationalities, who 
can tell the names of all the different 
denominations who came to seek 
homes and happiness in the hospitable 
boundaries of this great and glorious 
commonwealth? For nearly a quarter 
of a century the Jew was missing. But 
he, too, was at last attracted by the 
new country and the new promise. He 
came from the east and from the north 
to join hands with the sturdy sons of 
the western prairies; he came to help 
and to hope, to plan and progress, and 
although he arrived several decades 
later, and at first in very small num- 
bers, he did not lag in the rear. Work- 
ing with extra energy he soon pushed 
ahead until he gained a place in the 
front ranks of the advancing hosts. 
Today the Jews of Illinois are factors 
in the commerce and manufacture of 
the state and their financial Influence 
and power manifest themselves in 
many directions. Political life is the 
only field where the Jew gained less 
prominence than the Germans or the 



Irish people. Political ambition was 
not to his taste. The Jew shunned 
politics. The bitter experiences which 
fell to his lot in the old country were 
yet too fresh and too vivid in his 
mind. But in this direction, too, the 
Jews of Illinois are gradually emerg- 
ing from their wanted retirement. 
Their courage and ambition are grow- 
ing with their numbers and they have 
lately been recognized by both of the 
leading political parties of the coun- 
try. Mr. Samuel Alschuler of Aurora, 
Illinois, was nominated for Governor 
of the State by the Democratic party 
in the campaign of 1900, and although 
he failed of election, the extraordinary 
large vote of 518,966 which he received, 
is highly complimentary. Dr. Emil G. 
Hirsch was chosen Republican elec- 
tor at large for the state by a 
popular vote some years previous. 
Judge Philip Stein is now 
serving a second term ou the bench of 
the Superior Court of Cook County 
and Governor Yates has lately ap- 
pointed Dr. E. G. Hirsch a member of 
the State Board of Charities. The rev- 
erend gentleman has also filled sev- 
eral other posts of honor, such as a 
member of the Library Board and 
Board of Education of the city of Chi- 
cago. A number of Jews held the of- 
fice of mayor in smaller towns of the 
state. At one time the city of Quincy 
had a Jewish chief of police. The 
present city clerk of Chicago, William 
Loeffler, under the Democratic mayor, 
is a Jew, and the late Mr. Joseph Pol- 
lack, who was very prominent in Jew- 
ish congregational and charity circles 
of Chicago, was once clerk of Cook 
County and afterwards justice of the 
peace. Since his time several Jews 
held, and some are still holding, office 
as county commissioners and alder- 
men in several counties and cities of 
the state. In 1892 Abram E. Frankland 
was superintendent of compulsory 
education of the city of Chicago. Even 
as far back as the fifties Abraham 
Kohn was city clerk of Chicago. Gen- 
eral Edward S. Salomon, of Chicago, 
was clerk of Cook County and governor 
of Washington Territory. In 1883 Pres- 
ident Arthur appointed Mr. Max Pola- 
chek, a Jewish citizen of Chicago, as 
Consul General at Ghent, Belgium. 
The United States paid him the high 
compliment of confirming his nomina- 
tion, without reference to the proper 
committee, as is usually done in such 
cases. Mr. Berthold Loewenthal, now 
living in Chicago, was alderman of 
Rock Island, 111., from 1855 to 1857; 
supervisor of the South Town of Chi- 
cago from 1871 to 1873, and a member 
of the Public Library Board from 1875 
to 1882. 

Mr. Leopold Mayer was supervisor 
of the Second Ward in Chicago from 
1868 to 1S69. Herman Felsenthal was 
member of the Board of Education, and 
many others held public offices of hon- 
or and trust. Chas. Kozminski, Frank- 
cnthal and Edward Rose were a'so 
members of the Board of Education, 
and Dr. Joseph Stolz is now a very ac- 

tive member of the same board. In 
1867 Henry Greenebaum was appointed 
by Gov. Oglesby a member of the State 
Board of Equalization. 

Julius Rosenthal was Public Admin- 
istrator for many years. Adolph Kraus 
was president of the Chicago School 
Board and corporation counsel under 
the old Mayor Harrison. 

In 1818 there were only 3,000 Jews 
all told in the United States* and 
hardly any Jews west of the Alle- 
ghany mountains. Today the Jewish 
population of the United States is es- 
timated at 1,058,135 and in the state 
of Illinois it surely reaches the 100,- 
000 mark, of which Chicago takes the 
lion's share. There are at present in 
Chicago not less than 75,000 Jews, 20,- 
000 German, 50,000 Russo-Polish and 
5,000 Jews from Austro-Hungary and 
other countries, the rest of the Jewish 
population is scattered through the 102 
counties of the state. Peoria and 
Quincy have the largest Jewish popu- 
lation outside, of Chicago, the former 
city close on 2,000 and the latter not 
less than 600. In commerce and in- 
dustry, in charitable, religious and so- 
cial institutions, in attainments of 
wealth and in professional life the 
Jews of Illinois rank next to the 
Jews of New York. More than $150,- 
000 is annually collected by the Jews 
for non-sectarian institutions in the 
state of Illinois. Hardly any Jews 
ever become a burden upon the state 
and the state alymosinary institutions 
have hardly ever contained Jewish in- 
mates. The Jews of the state have al- 
ways taken care of their own poor, 
even before they entered the period of 
communal organization. The Asso- 
ciated Jewish Charities of Chicago 
alone collect over $100,000 annually 
for the support of the five main Jew- 
ish charity institutions of the city, the 
United Hebrew Relief Association, 
Michael -Reese Hospital, Home for 
Aged Jews, Jewish Orphans' Home and 
Jewish Training School. This is done 
without resort to charity balls, fairs 
and such like means for raising money. 
The Jewish residents of Illinois carry 
more than $75,000,000 life insurance, 
the Jews of Cook County alone are 
holding policies amounting to more 
than $58,000,000. Nearly $1,000,000 
were donated and bequeathed to Jewish 
charities within the last twenty years 
by Chicago Jews, besides their regu- 
lar annual contributions. ' Mr. Leon 
Mandel gave $75,000 to the Chicago 
University, the Standard Club collect- 
ed from Jews $27,000 for the same in- 
stitution and Sinai congregation 
collected from some of its members 
$5,000 more for a Semitic Library, 
making a total of $107,000. The sums 
of money expended by the Jews in the 
main cities of Illinois, for cemeteries, 
synagogues, temples, homes, asylums 
and social clubs reach away up into 
the millions of dollars. The Jew con- 
tributes liberally to all charities, Jew- 
ish and non-Jewish, and receives very 
little from outsiders, he seems to take 

As estimated by Mordecai Noah. 

it as a settled matter and does not 
expect it to be different. His Chris- 
tian friends and neighbors rarely 
think of offering a contribution to a 
Jewish institution. They, too, seem 
to take it for granted that the Jew is 
able to carry a double burden with 
ease and comfort. 

There are today in the state of Illi- 
nois 78 Jewish congregations, 45 be- 
nevolent associations, 25 ladies' soci- 
eties, for charity and social purposes, 
10 social clubs and 25 cemeteries, most 
of these institutions and organizations 
are located in the city of Chicago and 
many of them are only a few years 
old and small in membership. Most 
of the congregations were established 
by the immigrants from Russia, Po- 
land, Roumanla and Austro-Hungary. 
A commendable feature of these con- 
gregations, especially of the Russian 
Jews of Chicago, are the loan associa- 
tions, which are connected with the 
older and richer of these religious in- 
stitutions. These loan associations 
are doing much good, they save many 
a family from ruin and from becom- 
ing paupers in consequence of reverses 
in their small 'trade ventures. 

The Jews of Illinois are well rep- 
resented in the. professions. The law- 
yers, physicians, architects, engineers, 
pharmacists, professors, teachers, den- 
tists and journalists will add up into 
many hundreds and a number of them 
have been successful and stand very 
high in their respective lines. We will 
only mention a few names to prove our 
statement. Lawyers: Julius Rosen- 
thai, Adolph Moses, Adolph Kraus, 
Samuel Alschuler, Levy Mayer, Jacob 
Newman, Simeon Straus, Max Pam 
and Sigmund Zeisler. Physicians: 
Drs. Edwin J. Kuh, Joseph Zeisler,' J. 
L. Abt, Hy. Gradle, L. Frankenthal. 
Dr. Meyerowich, who is a member of 
the State "Board of Health, and of the 
younger ones we mention Drs. Greens- 
felder and Daniel N. Eisendrath, 
and some of those who passed into 
eternity, but whose names are still 
mentioned with honor by all and with 
gratitude by many, like Drs. M. Man- 
heimer and S. D. Jacobson. Archi- 
tects: Dankmar Adler, whose death 
was mourned by the entire city of Chi- 
cago and who left enduring monu- 
ments to his great talents in many of 
the public buildings of Chicago and 
other cities. Of the living architects 
we mention Simeon Eisendrath, the 
ex-building commissioner of Chicago, 
and H. L. Ottenheimer, the dainty de- 
signer of beautiful homes. There are 
in Chicago also a number of Jewish 
designers and engravers for plate 
printing and lithographing, who are 
very skillful and artistic in their work. 
The best results in the new three- 
color process printing have been at- 
tained by a Jewish firm in this city, 
consisting of several brothers. Their 
exact copies from nature and their 
wonderful reproductions of articles in 
their natural colors, havs won for them 
high admiration in Europe as well as 
in America. 



There are in Chicago at present 
three Jewish justices of the peace, E. 
C. Hamburgher, on the north side; 
Adolph J. Sabath, on the west side, 
and L. Wolf, on the south side. Ham- 
burgher and Sabath have also served 
an police justices. 

Jews have worked on the streets as 
day laborers in Illinois, and some of 
the very same Jews rose to honored 
and important positions by their own 
merit of thrift, integrity and energy. 
We have had quite a number of Jew- 
ish bankers, whose business transac- 
tions amounted to many millions an- 
nually and who reflected credit on the 
Jews by their honesty and integrity. 

The number of Jewish bankers in 
the state has decreased in the last 
twenty years, but the number of arti- 
sans, of skillful mechanics and of 
hardy handicraftsmen has greatly in- 
creased. There are even some black- 
smiths among the Russo-Polish Jews, 
in the Ghetto of Chicago, who are 
good, honest workmen, and of whom 
we may be proud indeed. 

But it is mainly in the commercial 
life of the state where the Jew gained 
the greatest prominence. In Chicago, 
Peoria, Quincy, Bloomington and other 
cities in the state Jewish brains and 
Jewish capital have- accomplished 
wonders in creating commercial and 
manufacturing establishments of great 
magnitude and immense proportions, 
giving employment to many thou- 
sands of salesmen, saleswomen, ac- 
countants, mechanics and laborers. 
Jewish business ability helped and is 
still aiding in the management of the 
"Fair," the giant department store of 
Chicago and the oldest emporium of 
its kind. From the first jabbing dry 
goods business of Rosenfeld & Rosen- 
berg, established in Chicago in 1842, 
to the present magnificent retail dry 
goods stores of Mandel Brothers, 
Schlesinger & Mayer and A. M. Roths- 
child, there was a gradual develop- 
ment which 'has kept pace with the 
city's growth. Many were and still 
are the firms and houses which have 
grown up in the intervening time and 
have gained name and fame in the 
commercial world of the country. We 
can only mention a few of them here. 
In Chicago, for instance, the following 
names will sound familiar and com- 
mand great respect: Kohn Brothers, 
Rosenbaum Brothers, Joseph Beifeld, 
Selz, Schwab & Co., Cahn, Wampold 
& Co., Bach, Becker & Co., Sllberman 
Brothers, Foreman Brothers Banking 
Co., Greenebaum Sons, Adolph Loeb 
& Son, M. Born & Co., Eisenstaedt 
Brothers, Hart. Schaffner & Marx, 
Hasterlik Brothers, Stein Brothers & 
Baumgartl, Hart Brothers, W. N. Ei- 
sendrath & Co., Stein & Ellbogen Co., 
Hyman, Berg & Co., J. L. Gatzert & 
Co., Stein, Hirsch & Co., Strouss, Ei- 
sendrath & Co., Kozmlnski & Yondorf, 
B. Kuppenheimer and N. A. 
Mayer. In Peoria there are the 
Woolners, Schwabacher, and Greenhut. 
The Lesems in Quincy and the Liv- 
ingstones in Bloomington. These 

firms represent an aggregate capital 
of many millions of dollars, they 
command the highest confidence and 
respect in the business circles of the 
entire country. There are many more 
such well-known mercantile establish- 
ments in the state and were we to 
name them all they would fill an entire 

We close our "General Review" with 
extracts from a paper entitled "Jews 
and Judaism of Early Chicago Days," 
published in the Chicago Journal of 
Nov. 14, 1899. This paper was pre- 
pared and read by Mr. Leopold Mayer, 
the well-known banker and old set- 
tler of Chicago, before the Chicago 
Council of Jewish Women, on Nov. 13, 
1899. Mr. Mayer was an eye-witness 
to many of the events of tho early 
days and his vivid description of the 
beginnings and progress of the Jew- 
ish community of Chicago will >be read 
with absorbing interest not only by 
the old, but also by the young gener- 

Mr. Mayer said, in passing: "I re- 
. late what I remember, and offer my 
reminiscences as a slight but perhaps 
not entirely valueless contribution to 
the history of the beginnings and 
progress of our people in Chicago. 

"Fifty years ago, on the 19th day of 
this month, on a cold, rainy morning, 
at about 5 a. m., with my sister and 
sainted father, I boarded a Rhine 
steamer. After some delay I reached 
Antwerp, and here, I saw for the first 
time, a Jewish burial from the syn- 
agogue, instead of from the home. The 
funeral was that of the president of 
the congregation, chief of the branch 
house of the Rothschild; otherwise, 
the rites would have been of the same 
character as in my home, a small town 
in the interior of Germany. 

"Finally, after a stormy voyage of 
65 days, I arrived on Friday, Feb. 15, 
1850, in New York. I gave my first 
exhibition of 'greenness' during the 
ride in an omnibus to see so much 
twist bread, used in Germany, only 
for the Sabbath, and I remarked that 
Jews must be numerous, as Sabbath 
bread was so in evidence. 

"How happy I was when I reached 
the promised land of freedom, where 
the laws, at least, are the same for 
Jews as for non-Jews. 

"At that time, the stigma of ine- 
quality burned in me like a fiery coal, 
because I felt its sting and suffered 
its pangs. In New York, my best 
friend and former teacher, known to 
many of you, Moses Spiegel, took me 
to the first Jewish Reform temple I 
had ever visited; situated in Christie 
street, Dr. Mezbacher was Us rabbi. 
There I found the male attendants di- 
vided, one class composed of those 
with hats, the other of those with 
caps. The women were then still in 
a separate part of the temple, but 
whether they, also, were classified as 
to headgear, I can not say. From the 
observations of later years, I might 
say 'yes.' Reform Judaism deserves 
credit for the redemption of the wom- 

en from separation during the divine 
service. In Chicago, Sinai congrega- 
tion granted equality to the women 
from its inception. 

"April 23, 1850, when I came to Chi- 
cago, the Jews numbered possibly 200. 
The congregation had 28 contributing 
members, and on the very first day I 
was introduced to most of them, in- 
cluding the president and minister. 
The congregation provided for a read- 
er, a chasen, and a shochet a man 
able to kill cattle and fowl according 
to Jewish rites. The German arrange- 
ment of prayers was in vogue, but it 
was so diversified that it dften de- 
pended on the reader what prayer was 
read, although the addition or omission 
of a prayer was an infringement upon 
the religion, and so I remember that 
as late as 1858 the omission of a certain 
prayer created a row in the synagogue. 

"The duties of a minister were 
manifold. He was the reader, he had 
to perform the marriage ceremony, he 
had to be present at funerals and read 
the prayer there as well as in the 
'house of mourning, and he had to act 
as shochet. 

"Instruction in both the tenets and 
the morals of Judaism were lacking. 
Every Jew was his own teacher and 
rabbi. A religious school for chil- 
dren was not necessary, as there were 
but few children of school age here. 

"The two previous years, 1848-9, had 
been trying for the Jewish colony, on 
account of the cholera, which not only 
bore away several of its members, 'but 
left the survivors in constant dread 
of its return. A burial ground had 
been purchased from the city as early 
as 1846. It is remarkable how anxious 
the Jews are to provide a resting 
place for their dead, when, as yet, they 
have scarcely a foothold for the liv- 
ing; this is noticeable through all their 
history. To the praise of the Jews 
then here, I must say, that they clung 
together in sorrow and in joy. The 
good fortune of one was the happiness 
of the other, while the gloom of one 
cast a shadow over all. Thus, on my 
first Friday night in Chicago, I 
watched, with one of my brothers, at 
the bedside of the sick child of a 

"The place of worship was then lo- 
cated on the southwest corner of Lake 
street and what is now Fifth avenue, 
on the third floor. The narrow, unin- 
viting entrance was unpleasantly ob- 
structed by the goods of an auctioneer, 
who occupied the store floor below. 
Already at this period the Sabbath was 
more or less violated. It is true that 
most of the women and many of the 
men were regular attendants, but the 
latter, as a usual thing, left hurriedly 
for their places of business. Many 
stores were already open, and the 
younger men, engaged as clerks, were 
invisible In the synagogue. The young- 
er women, likewise, were few, and of 
children under 15 there were scarcely 

"When I left Europe, my intention 
was to seek another occupation than 



that of a teacher, out necessity com- 
pelled me to return to my first love 
among life's vocations. Encouraged by 
my friends, Messrs. Elias and Henry 
Greenebaum, who introduced me to 
the several private schools, I began to 
teach German, privately. But, alas, I 
had no means of communication! I 
could neither speak or understand 
English, and were I to tell you of my 
attempts at correct pronunciation, you 
would laugh just as heartily as did the 
young ladies that listened to them. 

"During the fall of 1850 I tried to 
organize a religious school from the 
few scholars I already had and the 
few more I might gather round me. To 
show the necessity for this, one In- 
cident will suffice. To make known 
my purpose, I went to the president of 
the congregation to ask leave to post 
on the door of the synagogue a notice 
to the effect that I would open a 
school to teach religion. In all se- 
riousness he, the president, asked me 
what I intended to teach, and I found 
that my first lesson must be given to 
the head of the congregatfon. 

"The year 1851 was important in 
the religious development of Jewish 
life. In June the first Chicago syn- 
agogue, on Clark street, between 
Adams and Quincy, was dedicated by 
Mr. Isaacs of New York. The exer- 
cises were well described by Mr. Elias- 
of in -his history of K. A. M. Mr. 
Isaacs, in his Saturday morning ser- 
mon, charged the congregation with 
neglect of the purity laws, and then 
declared that the punishment of God 
was visible in the death of young mar- 
ried women, several of whom had re- 
cently died. To the credit of the pres- 
ident be it said that he at once left 
the synagogue. 

"A second important movement was 
the organization of the young men into 
a benevolent society. The first at- 
tempts at organization had failed be- 
cause of the wish of some, to incor- 
porate in the Constitution, clauses ex- 
cluding those who married Non-Jews 
and those who would violate the sanc- 
tity of the day of Atonement. But 
among some of the young men there 
was no abandonment of purpose, and 
some months later, ten or twelve of 
them organized the Hebrew Benevolent 
Society, with those exclusive laws in 
the Constitution. Severe, was the 
struggle before the society gained in- 
fluence over Jewish Life, but under the 
prudent guidance of its President, the 
sainted Michael Greenebaum, it soon 
became a power in both religious and 
social life. Ladies, to this organiza- 
tion, we can trace the beginnings of 
Sinai Congregation. There, were united 
the youths who strove to follow the 
precepts learned in the old German 
home. But soon they observed, that to 
follow, to the letter, the Jewish law, 
meant a return to the ghetto of the 
middle ages. They quickly learned tti* 
religion is for the living and not for 
the dead, and recognized the fact that 
in order to live a religious life they 
must first lighten the ship of its bal- 
last. More-over, some had imbibed the 

progressive ideas then spreading in 
Germany and had read the minutes of 
the Convention of Rabbis in Braun- 
schweig, Frankfort and Breslau. The 
earliest serious question arose when 
candidates were proposed who were 
known to violate the sanctity of Yom 
Kippur. After a long and hard strug- 
gle the question was decided in favor 
of progress. 

"Let us now turn to the social and 
political life. Our people were far 
from being a political unit. Some 
were hard-shell Democrats and some 
were ardent Whigs; Free-soilers, there 
were hardly any. My first political 
knowledge came from the Free-soilers, 
and I readily adopted their doctrines, 
as they coincided closely with the 
ideas of liberty I had imbibed in Ger- 
many during the stormy times of '48. 

"The relations between Jews and 
non-Jews were cordial, and many of 
the former not only belonged to the 
various political and fraternal organ- 
izations, but also held offices therein. 
Numbers belonged to the volunteer 
fire department, and Henry Greene- 
baum was captain of engine company 
No. 6, when he was scarcely 21 years 
old. The balls and festivities given 
by the non-Jews were often attended 
by the Jews, who were never in the 
least looked upon as undesirable. The 
Germans, Jews and non-Jews, were 
one, and the prejudices from the fath- 
erland, if not dead, were at least hid- 
den. For myself, I must say that I 
was made welcome in every American 
household in which I had scholars or 
where I had been introduced. I was 
invited to all the parties given by the 
young people of my acquaintance, and 
it was to an American lady that I 
owed my success. 

"Among the Jews themselves social 
entertainments gradually increased in 
number as the number of young men 
and women grew. Engagements were 
still few, but the young folks longed 
for diversion. In summer, carriage 
rides and joint walks in the fields, and 
in winter, sleigh-rides were in order; 
sometimes there were even theater 
parties given. 

"The visiting day was Sunday, and 
it was always prearranged at whose 
house the following Sunday should 'be 
spent. There were no whist nor poker 
parties as yet, the ladies did not play 
cards. Dances, today called balls, 
were difficult to arrange; but we had 

"The first affair which might be com- 
pared to our present entertainments 
was arranged by the Hebrew Benevo- 
lent Society, and was held during the 
Fall Festivals of 1853. It took place 
in the State Street Market Hall, and 
was a failure owing to the death of one 
of our members on that very night. 

"Now a word to the commercial and 
financial condition of the Jews. La- 
dies, please remember, that most were 
German immigrants and that rich peo- 
ple seldom emigrate. Hence, in com- 
parison with their standing in the 
fatherland, the Jews in Chicago were 

fairly well situated. They were already 
engaged in the various branches of 
commerce. Some had dry goods, others 
clothing stores; many were engaged 
in the cigar and tobacco business, and 
there were already a plumber and 
joiner, and even a carpenter, here. 
Some loading their goods upon a 
wagon, others upon their shoulders 
followed the honorable vocation of 
peddling. Honor to them! They were 
respected and liked by their custom- 
ers, who every season awaited their ar- 
rival before laying in a stock of nec- 
essary goods. Whether or not to com- 
pare them to the renowned Yankee ped- 
dler, I leave to you. At all events, 
they made a good living for their fam- 
ilies, and while gathering money, at 
the same time established a business 
that grew with the country. At that 
time there were no millionaires among 
the Jews, but all felt independent. The 
words and acts of the charity of to- 
day were not then in vogue, for each 
lived by his 'own exertion. 

"Far be it from me to convey the Idea 
that the Jews then were uncharitable. 
They were always ready to help the 
needy and when in 1855 the Yellow 
Fever was raging in Norfolk, Va., the 
Chicago Jews within a few days raised 
in answer to Mayor Bloome's appeal, 
almost $400. 

"In order to give my picture tone 
and color, I must take up one more 
subject, the last but not the least 
the home. What had the Jews pre- 
served of the old home traditions of 
the fatherland, so often lauded and 
cited as the greatest cause of the pre- 
servation of the Jews in spite of cen- 
turies of persecution? The home was 
the cement which bound child to par- 
ent and parent to child. The bond 
between brother and sister. We might 
call It a three-stranded thread which 
could not be torn asunder. If the 
Englishman called his house his cas- 
tle, the Jew could with justice call his 
home his religion, his comfort, and 
his delight. 

"To give you an idea of the Jewish 
home in Germany, let me lead you 
into one. We will make our visit on 
neither a festive day nor a Friday eve- 
ning, for of these you have doubtless 
heard or read very often. 

"Let us step over the threshold si- 
lently, lest we disturb the inmates. 
We enter a gloomy room with but one 
light on the so-called Sabbath lamp, 
just bright enough to bring out the 

"Our first glance discloses a man of 
about 45 years, sitting at the table and 
surrounded by his children. His face 
and the silence and tears of the chil- 
dren, all express dismal grief and sor- 
row. A closer inspection reveals the 
cause of the gloom. On the bed lies 
a sick woman, emaciated by the dread 
disease, consumption. The body is 
nothing but skin and bones. Disturbed 
by our entrance, she turns to the light, 
her eyes still -bright. In a hushed 
voice, scarcely audible, she asks for 
her boy; he is not only her nurse, but 



her angel, and in her suffering her 
comfort. She desires him to com- 
mence his usual vocation during the 
long, dreary nights, to read to her. 
There, my friends, you see a Jewish 
home in distress. The oldest child, 
the staff and support of his sick moth- 
er, reading to her night after night to 
while away the dreary, dreary hours, 
when sleep does not come to relieve 
the patient sufferer whom the angel 
of death has already marked for its 
victim. Such devotion, such filial love, 
you found among the Jews of the fath- 
erland, and it is not remarkable that 
with such memories to spur them on 
the Jewish pioneers in America, to 
some degree, at least, emulated their 

"The houses in which we lived in 
those days in Chicago were modest 
one or two story frame dwellings. 
Samuel Cole was the only one occupy- 
ing a brick home, though Mr. Schu- 
bert lived over his brick store. The 
dietary laws were strictly observed 
and the Sabbath and festivals were 
celebrated with Jewish rites. Business 
houses were at no great distance from 
the homes and the men were generally 
to be found with their families after 
business hours. The women occupied 
themselves with needlework, house- 
hold duties, and reading. The chil- 
dren were reared to honor and obey 
their parents. The father had not yet 
attained to the dignity of 'governor,' 
nor was the mother mentioned as the 
'old woman.' If the Jewish home was 
not quite what it was in Germany, it 
was still founded on filial love and re- 

"Now, members of the Council, allow 
me to make but one suggestion: You, 
as mothers of Israel, should include 
among your aims, the resurrection of 
the Jewish home. Let us return once 
more to the good old times and enjoy 
once more the home life of the last 
generation! Write in capitals in the 
second article of your Constitution: 
JEWISH HOME." If you hand, 
no method of producing this end, 
search for one. It is worthy of a des- 
perate effort! Rekindle, if you can, the 
love of the daughter and the respect 
of the son, for the parent. If you ac- 
complish this, then, indeed, will future 
generations bless you and your organ- 



Prior to 1838 there were hardly any 
Jews in Illinois, at least no records 
can be found of their presence in the 
state. The first Jewish settlement was 
in the city of Chicago. The first Jew 
who settled here was J. Gottlieb. He 
came to Chicago in 1838. He was fol- 
lowed in 1840 by Isaac Ziegler, the 
brothers Benedict and Jacob Schu- 
bert and Phillip Newberg. The follow- 
ing settled in Chicago' between the 
years 1840 and 1844: H. Fuller, Jacob 
Fuller, Marx L. Mayer, Rosbach, Isaac 

Engle, B. Stern, A. Frank, Marcus 
Peisser, Levi Rosenfeld, Jacob Rosen- 
berg, Morris Einstein, the brothers 
Julius, Abraham and Moses Kohn, 
James Marks, two brothers Benjamin, 
. H. Meyer, and Mayer Klein. Isaac 
Ziegler peddled for many years in and 
around Chicago. Benedict Schubert 
was the first Jewish merchant tailor 
and he built the first brick house in 
Chicago. Ph. Newberg was the first 
Jewish tobacco dealer in the state. H. 
Meyer was the first Jewish real estate 
dealer. Mr. Meyer 'bought of the gov- 
ernment 160 acres, situated in the 
town of Schaumburg, Cook County, 
where he remained until he was ad- 
vanced in years, when he removed to 
Chicago. His brother-in-law, M. Kling, 
who lived near him, in Shaumburg, 
stayed there some years longer. 
Mayer had sold his farm and 
invested all his funds in Chicago real 
estate. The following arrived here in 
1845 and 1846: Morris Kohn, B. Weig- 
selbaum, Samuel Cole, M. Braunschield, 
M. Leopold, Louis Leopold, Martin 
Clayburg, Henry Leopold, Michael 
Greenebaum, Louis Mayer, Ben 
Schlossman and wife, Joseph Schloss- 
man and wife, Simon Schlossman, 
Samuel Schlossman and wife, Levi 
Cline and wife, Hirsch Kohn, Mrs. 
Dilah Kohn and Miss Clara Kohn, her 
daughter. Mrs. Dilah Kohn was the 
mother of the five Kohn brothers, who 
then lived in Chicago. A sixth broth- 
er, Joseph, came in 1847. In the same 
year arrived Elias Greenebaum, the 
Rubel family, consisting of the father, 
four daughters and five sons, Gabriel, 
Abraham, Isaac, Ruben and Moses; 
Isaac Luckey and wife, Isaac Wolf and 
sisters, Henry Homer, Louis and 
Samuel Haas, Jacob Friedman, Isaac 
Louis and Simon Wormser, Mr. Greene- 
baum with his sons, Leon, Abraham, 
Herman, Jacob and Moses, with three 
sisters, and their cousins Leon Greene- 
baum and Abraham Becker. The last 
two went to California, where they lost 
their lives in the big fire of 1851 at 
San Francisco. Mr. B. Barbe and family 
came about this time (1847). The 
main Jewish boarding house where, in 
later years, nearly all the unmarried 
Jews made their home, was kept by 
Mr. B. Brunemann, who died in 
New York a few years ago 
at a very old age. M. M. 
Gerstley, E. Frankenthal and Max 
Weineman came in 1848. Of the very 
first settlers only six are still living in 
Chicago and they are: Marx L. Mayer, 
Isaac Wolf, Mayer Klein, Morris Kohn, 
Elias and Henry Greensbaum. M. 
L. Mayer is a brother of Leopold 
Mayer, the well-known teacher and 
banker of Chicago. Mr. M. L. Mayer 
came to Chicago in 1843. He was born 
Aug. 7, 1817, in'Abenheim, near Worms. 
Germany. On April 20, 1897, he cele- 
brated his golden wedding surrounded 
by children and grandchildren. Isaac 
Wolf came to Chicago in 1847. Before 
that he lived in Jollet, 111., for one 
year. He came to America in 1845, 
"hen the Mexican war was in prog- 

ress. He was the first to peddle with 
a horse and wagon around Chicago, 
and was the first Jew to join the Free 
Masons in Joliet. He married a sis- 
ter of the Rubel brothers, and they 
raised a numerous family of good chil- 
dren, who are making life easy for 
them in their old age. Mayer Klein 
landed in New York on Sept. 1, 1840. 
Mr. William Renau, a cousin of his, 
who was very popular at that time 
among the Jews of New York city, 
took him into his house and treated 
him very kindly. Mr. Renau was one 
of the organizers of the Order of B'nai 
Brith in the east and his pet scheme 
was to establish a Jewish colonization 
society for the purpose of settling the 
Jewish immigrants on farms, and so 
establish agricultural pursuits among 
the Jews. He called meetings of prom- 


inent co-religionists and traveled 
through the country lecturing, en- 
deavoring to interest the American 
Jews in his plans and projects. He at 
last succeeded, the colonization soci- 
ety was organized and Mr. Henry May- 
er was sent to Chicago to find a suit- 
able location for a Jewish colony. Mr. 
Mayer wrote to New York to send 
some families; that the land which he 
bought at Schaumburg, Cook County, 
Illinois, was good and promising. A 
number of Jews came to Chicago in 
consequence of Mr. Mayer's report, 
but only two settled in the vicinity of 
Shaumburg, the rest scattered through- 
out the state and drifted back into 
their old occupation of trading. 

Mr. Mayer Klein came to Chicago in 
1S43. Chicago was then such an in- 
significant place that he did not think 
he would be able to earn a living 
there, and he soon removed to Troy 
Grove in La Salle County, Illinois. In 
Grundy County of this state, the 
brothers, Benjamin, formerly known 
under the name of Bentleben, and a 
Mr. Vogel kept general stores. They 
all moved to Chicago a short time 
after he left. A daughter of this Mr. 
Vogel married Mr. Nelson Morris, who 
became one of the richest men of Chi- 
cago. Mr. Klein was the first baal- 
tephilla, cantor, in Illinois. He re- 



lates that in 1846 he came from Troy 
Grove to Chicago for the fall holidays, 
Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur. The 
few Jews living in Chicago had no 
place of worship of their own, but they 
rented a. room where services were 
held. The brothers Kohn 'brought 
along a Sepher Torah and Mr. Klein 
officiated as reader. As just enough 


men were present to constitute a 
Minyan (ten male adults, the requis- 
ite number for public worship), the 
services had to be discontinued when- 
ever one of the congregation left the 
room, and the assembly had to wait 
until the absent member returned. Mr. 
Klein was assisted by Mr. Ph. New- 
berg at these services. Mr. Newberg 
shortly after moved to Cincinnati, 
Ohio. Mr. Klein married a sister of 
the Rubel brothers and on the 12th 
of December, 1899, they celebrated 
their golden wedding. They live with 
their children and the days of their 
old age pass quietly and peacefully. 

Morris Kohn is the only one living 
of the six brothers who came to Chi- 
cago in the early days of Jewish set- 
tlement. He was born, as were all his 
brothers, in Moenichsroth, Bavaria. 
His brothers were in the dry goods 
business. No. 85 Lake street, in the 
Tremont House building, Chicago. 


When he arrived he joined his broth- 
ers in the business which became very 
popular. He relates that he took a 
ride on the first boat which com- 
menced to run from Chicago to Joliet 
in 1848, after the Illinois and Michi- 
gan canal was completed. Drinking 
water had to be brought from the lake 
and was sold at Z5 cents per barrel. 
Only a few blocks were supplied with 
water from a hydraulic mill, corner 
Lake street and Michigan avenue, 
through wooden pipes. The country 
roads were, so bad that very few 
farmers were able to come to the city. 
The prices of produce were very small. 
Wheat sold at 37% cents per bushel 
and corn was worth 10 cents, half 
cash and half in store goods. It fre- 
quently happened that a farmer who 
brought a load of farm produce from 
some distance did not have money 
enough after he sold his goods to pay 
his expenses to return home and he 
had to borrow money for that purpose. 
The Jewish merchants generally 
loaned the money to these farmers and 
gained their confidence and their trade. 
Mr. Kohn has retired from business 
and himself and wife are living with 
their children, enjoying their old age 
in rest and peace. Some old settlers 
state that about that time a Jewish 
farmer used to come into the city with 
kitchen vegetables which he raised on 
a farm near Chicago. 

The first Jewish auction store in 
the state was kept by Edward A. 
Jessel under the firm name of Jessel 
& Co. His son-in-law, I. Jones, was 
his partner. He came here in 1855, 
opened his 'business in 1856 and con- 
tinued it to 1874. 

Mr. Edward Jessel was born in Lon- 
don, 89 years old, and today, being 
nearly 90 years old, he is a fine look- 
ing old man. He is an inmate of the 
Old People's Home of Chicago and 
seems to, enjoy life there. He is hale 
and hearty and satisfied with his lot. 
He claims to be a 'brother of Sir Geo. 
Jessel of London, who was knighted 
by the late Queen Victoria. 

There were two other Jews in the 
auction business in the early days of 
the Chicago Jewish settlement. They 
were the Levi Brothers. The auction 
store of Levi Brothers was well known 
in the city and vicinity. One of the 
brothers was stricken with total 
Kindness and they had to give up 
their business. 

The first Jewish importer of fancy 
goods was a man by the name of 
Abrahams. He imported his stock, es- 
pecially albums, direct from Europe 
and was very prosperous in his un- 

The first Jewish printers to estab- 
lish printing offices in Chicago were 
M. Hoffman and Max Stern, and the 
first binders were Kiss & Ringer. Both 
the bindery and Stern's office is still 
in existence but Mr. Kiss has long 
ago retired. Mr. Ph. Ringer is an artist 
in his line. 

In the neighboring states, Indiana, 
Michigan and Wisconsin, Jews settled 

at an earlier date than In Illinois. In 
Indiana there lived several Jews even 
as far back as 1820. A Jew by the 
name of Samuel Judah lived at Vin- 
cennes, Indiana, about 1830, and he 
was then already known as a success- 
ful lawyer and as a prominent poli- 
tician. General Usher F. Linder in 
his "Reminiscences of the Early Bench 
and Bar of Illinois" devotes a chapter 
to "Mr. Samuel Judah, a Jewish Law- 
yer of Indiana." General Linder 
writes: "Samuel Judah of Vincennes, 
Indiana, one of the oldest lawyers of 
Indiana. I don't know where he was 
born, but I know that his father was 
a Jew, and that he, himself, was a 
Jew. This was in the summer of 
1835. As a land lawyer I don't know 
that I ever knew his equal. Judah 
was once Speaker of the House of 
Representatives in the legislature of 
Indiana and I have understood made 
a good one. He died at a very ad- 
vanced age and I revere his memory 
as one of the greatest lawyers of the 

We mention this because we have 
-been informed that this Mr. Samuel 
Judah of Vincennes, Indiana, was the 
father of a prominent lawyer and poli- 
tician now living in Chicago. Both, 
father and son, married outside of the 
synagogue, and the son takes no part 
in the life of the Chicago Jewish 



With the year 1846 closes the primi- 
tive period in the history of the Jews 
of Illinois. Chicago was still the only 
city in the state where Jews lived in 
numbers sufficient to be called a Jew- 
ish settlement. There were a few 
Jews in the state outside of Chicago, 
but they were scattered in different 
towns and isolated in various country 
villages. Even in Chicago there were 
not enough Jews to make communal 
organization possible until the yea 

Religious services were held for the 
first time in the Jewish settlement of 
Chicago, on the day of Atonement, 
1845. The temporary congregation ~st 
in a private room above a store on 
Wells street, now Fifth avenue. The 
following persons were present and 
constituted just the requisite number 
of adults for public worship, the so- 
called Mlnyan: Benedict Shubert, 
Jacob Rosenberg, S. Friedheim, who 
lived at Pigeon Woods, west of Elgin, 
111., the brothers Julius, Abraham, 
Morris and Mayer Kohn, Harry Benja- 
min, Philip Newberg and Mayer Klein. 
The last two officiated as readers. 

The Judah family Is of Knglish origin, 
very old and prominent. It was well rep- 
resented In Canada and the United States. 
One of the first Jews who entered Canada 
with General Amherst In 1759, as commis- 
sary officer, was Aaron Hart, who after- 
wards settled at Three Rivers, Canada. 
He was born In London In 1724. Dorothea 
Judah was his wife. When Edward, 
Duke of Kent, father of the late Queen 
Victoria, visited Three Rivers, he was 
entertained there in sumptuous style by 
Monsieur Hart. 



The second public services were held 
on Torn Kippur, 1846, also in a pri- 
vate room, above the store of Messrs. 
Rosenfeld & Rosenberg, 155 Lake 
street The cantors this time were 
Philip Newberg and Abraham Kohn. 
Not many more persons were present 
at this service than at the first. 

In the same year the Jews of Chi- 
cago formed an organization under 
the name of "Jewish Burial Ground 
Society," of which Isaac Wormser was 
President. This was the first public act 
by which the Jews of Illinois demon- 
strated their existence in the state as 
a body corporate. This society pur- 
chased from the city one acre of 
ground for a cemetery, for which it 
paid $46.00. This parcel of ground was 
located east of the then city limits, 
along the shore of Lake Michigan and 
now part of Lincoln Park. This so- 
ciety existed but a short time as an 
Independent organization, when it be- 
came merged In the first congregation, 
which was organized soon after. 


The population of Chicago was 
growing rapidly and the Jewish set- 
tlement, too, increased in numbers. 
The desire and necessity to establish 
a congregation strongly manifested it- 
self. The leaders of the Jewish com- 
munity met to discuss the question, 
and they decided that the number of 
Jewish families was as yet too limited 
to support two institutions, a Burial 
Ground Society and a congregation. 
The members of the Burial Ground So- 
ciety, who were anxious to have a con- 
gregation established then offered to 
donate their burial ground to the con- 
gregation to be established and the 
leaders again took up their delibera- 

tions and resolved to organize a con- 

On the 3d day of November, 1847, 
about twenty co-religionists assembled 
in the dry goods store of Rosenfeld & 
Rosenberg, 155 Lake street, and 
formed a congregation under the name 


This is the first Jewish congregation 
in the entire northwest. The Burial 
Ground Society turned over its prop- 
erty to the new congregation and 
finally ceased to exist. On Nov. 4, 
1847, a constitution was adopted and 
signed by the following fourteen mem- 
bers: Abraham Kahn, Jacob Rosen- 
berg, Samuel Cole, Morris L. Leopold, 
Philip Newberg, Benedict Schubert, 
Leon Greenebaum, Lev! Rosenfeld, Ja- 
cob Fuller, M. Becker, Isaac Worm- 
ser, B. Stern, M. Braunschild, Judah 

The following oflicers were elected: 
President, Morris L. Leopold; vice- 
president and treasurer, Abraham 
Kohn; secretary, Philip Newberg; 
trustees, Benedict Schubert, Lev! Ros- 
enfeld and Leon Greenebaum. 

The president was at the time of his 
election a young man of 26 years. He 
was born in Laubenheim, Wurtem- 
berg, April 10, 1821, and came to 
America in 1839, being then in his 

*"In transcribing the Hebrew n^np 
'tWM 21JJD the mistake was made of ren- 
dering in the English wording "Kehilath 
Anshe Mayriv," instead of "Kehillath 
Anshe Maarabh," meaning "Congregation 
of the Men of the West." The charter was 
obtained for the misspelled name, which 
is the legal title of Congregation K. A. 
M. to the present day. We use the in- 
corporated name wherever It is unavoid- 
able, otherwise we render the correct 

19th year. In 1845 he married Rose 
Goodheart of Cincinnati, Ohio, and in 
the same year he moved to Chicago. 
In 1851 he returned to Cincinnati, 
where he remained until 1867, and 
then moved to New York, where he 
died October 22, 1889. His widow still 
resides in New York. He was a man 
of tact, of good administrative ability 
and he managed affairs of the young 
congregation with wisdom and to the 
satisfaction of the members. This was 
no light task, for the members were 
not all united in regard to the tenden- 
cies of the congregation. Each mem- 
ber had ideas of his own and was 
eager to see his opinions followed and 
carried out. 

Indiana Ave. and 33d Street, First Congregation Organized in the State. 

First President K. A. M. 

From the start Minhag Ashkenas, 
the ritual of the German Jews, was 
adopted, 'but it did not take long be- 
fore demands were made for a more 
reformed ritual and more modern serv- 
ices for the synagogue. The leaders 
of the congregation yielded gradually, 
granting few concessions from time to 
time. The Piyutim and Selichoth were 
first abolished, then the hymns were 
sung in the vernacular of the country, 
the organ was introduced in the syn- 
agogue and then a few more such 
slight reforms were adopted. The die- 
tary laws were still strictly adhered to 
by most of the members of the con- 
gregation and they were in need of a 
schochet, a slaughterer according to 
the Jewish ritual. The vice-president, 
Abraham Kohn, went to New York, 
and there he made the acquaintance of 
Rev. Ignatz Kunreuther, whom he 
recommended to the Chicago congre- 
gation. Rev. Kunreuther was elected 
its rabbi, shochet and reader on Nov. 
5, 1847, and remained with this con- 
gregation for six years. He was ultra- 
orthodox in his views, and although 
he was not fanatically intolerant, when 
he noticed that the congregation was 
leaning towards liberal views of re- 
ligion, he resigned his position 
and retired to private life. He en- 
gaged later in the real estate and loan 
business, and was quite successful. He 
died in Chicago June 27, 1884, 73 years 



old, and is still remembered by many 
as an unassuming and quiet old 
gentleman. His widow died a few 
years ago. Their two married daugh- 
ters are still living in Chicago. 

Mr. Godfrey Snydacker was then 
engaged by the congregation as reader 
and teacher. Mr. Snydacker was a 
man of modern education and pro- 
gressive ideas. It was to be expected 
that he would teach the children in 
his new way and imbue them with his 
new thoughts of Judaism, and his en- 
gagement was quite a step in advance 
for a congregation which was then still 
strictly orthodox. Prom Kunreuther 
to Snydacker was a long stride in the 
direction of reform; it opened new 
possibilities in the way of more mod- 
ern tendencies, of breaking away from 
old traditions and established customs 
and ceremonies, which were entirely 
out of harmony with the spirit of the 
times and the life of the new world. 
What influence Induced the congrega- 
tion to take such a far-reaching step? 
It was the influence of a man who was 
a graduate of a German teachers' sem- 
inary and who brought with him and 
within him from the mother country 
the force and power of a modern edu- 
cation and a systematic training. 

In 1850 there arrived in Chicago a 
gifted young Jewish teacher by the 
name of Leopold Mayer. He was born 
in Abenheim, Germany, a village in 
the Grand duchy of Hesse, on March 
3, 1827. He was educated in the teach- 
ers' seminary at Bensheim, and for 
four years he taught in his native 
country. His first work in Chicago 
was as a teacher of German and He- 
brew in private families. In 1853 the 
Garden City Institute was opened, and 
Mr. Mayer was taken into the faculty 
as teacher of these languages. In the 
Jewish community Mr. Mayer at once 
became a power, and he used his influ- 

form Judaism in Chicago made it pos- 
sible for later friends of reform to 
establish the "Reform Verein," in 
which society Mr. Mayer was one of 
the main moving spirits, and which 
subsequently culminated in the organ- 
ization of the Sinai Congregation, the 
strong bulwark of reform Judaism in 
America today. It was this Mr. Mayer's 
influence which induced Congregation 
Anshe Maarabh to entrust the instruc- 
tion of its children to a progressive 
man like Mr. Snydacker. 

In 1851 Mr. Mayer established in 
Chicago a religious private school, and 
for the first time in Illinois he publicly 
conferred the right of confirmation 
upon a Jewish boy, one of his pupils, 
in the Anshe Maarabh synagogue. The 
confirmant spoke his part in English, 
and the teacher addressed the con- 
gregation in German. The confirma- 
tion ceremony found great favor with 
the congregation, and Mr. Mayer was 


ence to bring about more enlightened 
and progressive conditions. To him 
must be awarded the laurel wreath for 
having paved the way for reform 
Judaism in Chicago and in the state 
of Illinois. His early, energetic and 
sincere agitation in the interest of re- 


invited in 1852 to deliver a sermon on 
the first day of the Passover and he 
accepted. In his sermon he strongly 
advocated the necessity of systematic 
religious instruction, which is of great- 
er consequence than a prayer meeting. 
He spoke in favor of introducing Ger- 
man prayers and he recommended the 
engagement of a trained rabbi. The 
first day of Passover, 1852, fell on a 
Sunday and the synagogue was crowd- 
ed, while on the previous day, the Sab- 
bath, it was deplorably empty. Mr. 
Mayer raised his voice in his 
sermon against the neglect of 
the Sabbath, and his words 
made a deep impression on the 
congregation. A religious school was 
established without delay, and Mr. 
Snydacker was engaged as a teacher 
and reader. The last two offices were 
separated from the functions of the 
shokhet and a new spirit en- 
tered into the life of the congrega- 
tion. Of course we must not deceive 
ourselves, the congregation was still 
adhering to the tenets of the regula- 
tion orthodoxy of that day and was far 
from the desire to enter the field of 
reform Judaism. We do not intend to 
create the impression that with the 
engagement of Mr. Snydaoker, con- 

gregation Kehilath Anshe Maara'bh be- 
came at once a reform congregation. 
We only anticipated somewhat in or- 
der to point out the very first attempt 
at religious freedom and to designate 
the men who gave the very first feeble 
impulse to religious emancipation in 
the midst of the Chicago Jewish com- 

The first boy who was publicly con- 
firmed in the old style niVO 13 in 
the state of Illinois was Julius New- 
berg, a son of Philip Newberg. In Jan- 
uary, 1851, he was admitted to the 
duties of an Israelite during the Sab- 
bath services in the Anshe Maarabh 
Congregation of Chicago. 

The first regular services of Con- 
gregation K. A. M. were held on the 
second floor of a 'building on the south- 
west corner of Lake and Wells streets, 
in a room which was appropriately 
fitted up as a synagogue. This room 
was soon found to be too small, and in 
1849 the congregation leased a lot for 
five years on Clark street, between 
Adams and Quincy, where the post- 
office is now being built. Here a syna- 
gogue was to be erected. 

This first synagogue of K. A. M. and 
the first Jewish house of worship in 
the state of Illinois, was dedicated on 
Friday, June 13, 1851. The auditorium 
was crowded to excess. The most in- 
fluential citizens of Chicago were pres- 
ent, and several co-religionists traveled 
hundreds of miles in order to partici- 
pate in the consecration. Rev. S. M. 
Isaacs of New York was the minister 
invited to deliver the dedicatory ser- 
mon. All the city papers teemed with 
paragraphs laudatory of his address. 
We quote from the Daily Democrat's 
report of the dedication: 

"No person that has made up his 
mind to be prejudiced against the 
Jews ought to have heard such a ser- 
mon preached. It was very captivat- 
ing, and contained as much of real re- 
ligion as any' sermon we have ever 
heard preached. We never could have 
believed that one of these old Jews 
we have heard denounced so much 
could have taught so much liberality 
towards other denominations. The ser- 
mon was appropriate and eloquent, 
and was preached from the text: 'They 
shall make unto me a sanctuary, so 
that I may dwell among them.' The 
Jewish ladles cannot be beaten in 
decorating a place of worship. The 
flowers, leaves and bushes were woven 
into the most beautiful drapery that 
Chicago ever saw before." 

The following hymn was sung at the 
dedication by a temporary choir to the 
tune of Old Hundred: 


Be thou, God, exalted high, 
And as Thy glory fills the sky, 
So let it be on earth displayed, 
Till here on earth, as there, obeyed. 

This temple to Thy hallowed name 
Is raised, Thy glory to proclaim; 
Here we our sins' forgiveness crave, 
Our hearts from secret pangs to save. 



Vouchsafe this house Thy kind regard. 
Aud to our prayers incline Thine ear: 
0, let its founders meet reward, 
And blessings its supporters cheer. 

O grant that Israel soon may see 

Jerusalem to its site restored; 

When all men's hearts, from sin set 

Shall sound Thy praise with one ac- 

The congregation prospered, the 
membership increased and the syn- 
agogue was soon too small, and it be- 
came necessary to have a larger house 
of worship.' K. A. M. then purchased 
the northeast corner of Adams and 
Wells streets, on which the building 
from Clark street was moved and a 
basement built under it for a school 
and meeting rooms. 


The day school established by con- 
gregation K. A. M. of Chicago in 1853 
was the first Jewish school in the 
state of Illinois. The building was of 
frame, the entrance to the synagogue 
was on the level with Wells street, 
which was about eight feet higher , 
than Adams street. Adams street was 
not filled up until later, and the en- 
trance to the school was on the level 
with Adams street. The school was 
conducted in three rooms, or rather 
in two rooms, one of which was very 
large and was divided into two by 
folding doors. The older scholars 
were In the east, the younger in the 
west of these two rooms, while the 
pupils of the primary class were in- 
structed in a small room to the west. 

This day school of congregation 
Anshe Maarabh existed for twenty 
years, from 1853 to 1873. A 
number of non-Jewish teachers 
were engaged to instruct in 
the common English school 
branches and Hebrew and German 
were taught by the reader and teach- 
er of the congregation. Among the 
non-Jewish teachers were Mr. Brews- 
ter and Mr. Gleason. The latter taught 
In this school for many years and is 
still well remembered by the younger 
Jewish generation of Chicago. 

In 1854 Rev. Isidor Lebrecht was en- 
gaged by the congregation as reader, 
and shochet and he succeeded Mr. Sny- 
dacker. Mr. Lebrecht was succeeded by 
Rev. Marx Moses, from Alsheim, Rhen- 
ish Hessia, who 'had charge of the 
school under Dr. Mayer Mensor, who 
was elected Rabbi of the Congregation 
in 1857. Rev. Marx was an excellent 
teacher and good Hazan. Mr. B. 
Schlossman, the President of the Con- 
gregation induced the Trustees to con- 
sent to female singing, and a new 
mixed choir was engaged, consisting of 
Misses Engal, Alschuler and H. Adler. 
Rev. Marx was succeeded by Mr. Lip- 
man Levi. 

Mr. Levi was an excellent 
teacher and under his instruction the 
school was in a very good condition. 
Dr. Mensor was succeeded by Dr. Sol- 
omon Priedlander. He was first elect- 

ed as teacher and then as Ilabbi of 
congregation Anshe Maariv. He, too, 
was a very good school man and ac- 
complished very much in the school. 
He met with a sad and sudden end 
which cast a veil of gloom on the en- 
tire Jewish community. 

In 1861 Rev. Liebman Adler came 
from Detroit to Chicago to take charge 
of the pulpit and the school of K. A. 
M., and his work and influence will 
live forever in the midst of the Chi- 
cago Jewish community. 

Under his management the school 
attained the zenith of its usefulness 
and prosperity. He trained the older 
pupils of the school to sing in- the 
choir during divine service. Teacher 
Gleason, who was an Irishman, be-- 
came the choirmaster. For weeks be- 
fore Rash Hashanah and Yom Kippur 
Rabbi Adler and Mr. Gleason drilled 
the children of the school choir in the 
Hebrew responses. The choir had to 
attend services in those days as early 
as six o'clock in the morning. It must 
have been a strange sight indeed to 
behold a number of Jewish boys and 
girls being led in chanting the Hebrew 
responses by an Irish-American. 

In that choir were among others 
Ben Goodkind, brother of Dr. Good- 
kind, Jacob and Joseph Bauland, Wil- 
liam N. Eisendrath, Joseph Bateman, 
Maurice Rosenfield, now county com- 
missioner; Moses Rothschild, Simon 
Wineman, Joseph Rosenberg, Julius 
Rosenberg, Simeon Straus, Max 
Frank, Aaron Shubert, Joseph Homer, 
Isaac Horner, Abe Adler, Charles and 
Philip Axman, Solomon Witkowski, 
Joe and Mark \veigselbaum and Joe 

Among the girls were: Emma 
Frank, now Mrs. Joseph Rosenbaum; 
Nannette Frank,, now Mrs. Eugene 
Arnstein; Rosa Fuller, now Mrs. M. 
M. Rothschild; Ida Leopold, now Mrs. 
Henry N. Hart; Paulina Wineman, 
now Mrs. Adolpli Loewenthal, Sarah 
Straus, now Mrs. Samuel Despres; 
Leah Adler, now Mrs. Joseph Weisel, 
and Lena Clayberg, now Mrs. Asa F. 

In 1873 this day school was discon- 
tinued and a Sabbath school for re- 
ligious instruction exclusively was es- 
tablished. A paid choir, consisting of 
professional non-Jewish singers, has 
displaced the children's choir some 
years previous and such a choir has 
been in charge of the musical part of 
the services ever since. It is perhaps 
a remarkable fact worth mentioning 
that since a number of years the leader 
of the K. A. M. choir, Mr. Erst, a Bo- 
hemian, and a Roman Catholic has 
been singing the Hebrew responses as 
impressively as any old Jewish Haz- 



The year 1857 marks the beginning 
of very Important events in the life 
of Congregation Anshe Maarabh. The 
consequences of these agitations, 
movements and achievements had 

much to do with the shaping of the 
subsequent religious life of the entire 
Jewish community of Chicago and 
even of the Jewish communities of the 
entire state of Illinois. 

The founders of Congregation Anshe 
Maarabh were men of deeply rooted 
religious convictions. They organized 
the congregation upon an orthodox 
basis. The flood of new ideas with 
which the rushing years deluged the 
advancing world, did not pass over 
them altogether unheeded. The pow- 
erful force of progress moved them a 
short distance in the onward march 
of humanity and at the end of the 
first decade of the life of the con- 
gregation they found themselves 
standing upon the platform of a more 
rational conservatism. To this day 
held on with main and might. They 
reluctantly made concessions to the 
wishes of the younger and more pro- 
gressive members of the congregation. 
The order of worship was improved. 
An organ and choir were introduced. 
The prayers were recited by the read- 
er in the vernacular and a number of 
other reform measures were adopted. 
But as men of prudence and circum- 
spection, they advanced slowly and 
cautiously, always endeavoring to re- 
main within the lines of conservatism, 
never losing sight of their main aim 
and their original intention, to perpet- 
uate Judaism, Jewish life and Jewish 
thought and to leave their religion to 
their children as they themselves In- 
herited it from their fathers. From 
their standpoint they were perfectly 
right, for their religious ideas and 
their conception of Judaism were 
formed by orthodox training and the 
deep impressions of their childhood 
days in the sdhools and_ synagogues' of 
the German Ghetto. But the young- 
er members of the congregation, who 
had thrown themselves with the ar 
dor of youth into the rushing waves 
of the new life in the new world, who 
drank thirstily and eagerly from the 
fresh waters of the new wells dug by 
the hands of time in the new era of 
emancipation and human liberty, were 
not satisfied. To their effervescent 
spirit this cautious conservatism was 
too slow and inadequate. They want- 
ed to ride on the wings of tne whirl- 
wind of reform, to rush onward in the 
chariot race of innovation, to create 
a new Judaism on the basis of the 
modern dispensation of the new era 
of progress. The two elements of the 
congregation could not agree on a 
compromise. The feeling of union was 
constantly disturbed, opposition par- 
ties formed themselves in the ranks 
of the members, and the continued 
agitation retarded for a time the 
growth and development of the con- 
gregation. "Reform" became the 
slogan of the day with a number of 
the members of $he Chicago Jewish 
community. Dr. Einhorn's burning 
eloquence, which he used with full 
force in the periodical "Sinai," which 
he published at that time in Baltimore, 
Md.,setthesouls of the Chicago enthu- 



siasts on fire and "Light, more light!" 
was the cry on all sides. At that time 
Mr. B. Felsenthal, a German-Jewish 
teacher, a young man of considerable 
Hebrew knowledge and rabbinical 
learning, published ihis "Kol Kore 
Bammidbar" (a voice calling in the 
wilderness), and his strong plea for 
reform aroused the progressive ele- 
ment of the Chicago Jewish commu- 
nity to feverish activity. A new con- 
gregation by the name of "Ohabe Or" 
(Lovers of Light) was formed, In 
which the brothers Leon and Samuel 
Straus were the leading spirits. They 
engaged a minister, a certain Rev. Dr. 
Cohen, and instituted a temporary syn- 
agogue in which they held public serv- 
ives. This congregation existed only 
a few months, but it helped to influ- 
ence the members of K. A. M., who 
were now divided into two camps, the 
conservative and reform parties, to 
stand in more determined antagonism 
to each other. The "Ohabe Or" con- 
gregation was the precurser of the 
"Reform Verein" and the "Reform 
Verein" became the basis upon which 
"Sinai congregation" was built four 
years later. 

The election of officers of the year 
185,7 was a very stormy one. There 
were two candidates for president in 
the field. The conservative party nom- 
inated Samuel Cole for re-election, and 
the candidate of the reform faction 
was Ellas Greenebaum. The election 
took place on the 27th of September. 
The fight was hard and bitter, for in 
those days the Jews took a warm in- 
terest in the affairs of their religious 
institutions. Finally the reform party 
won the day by electing the following: 

President, Elias Greenebaum; vice- 
president, Benedict Schlossman; sec- 
retary and first trustee, Leopold May- 
er; second trustee, Joseph Lleben- 
stein; third trustee, Bernhard Barbe; 
fourth trustee, Jacob Benjamin; fifth 
trustee, Henry Foreman. The watch- 
word of the conservative leader was, 
"Peace, Harmony and Moderate Re- 

"Equality, Reform and Education" 
was the motto of the successful can- 

In 1859 a Christian gentleman, hav- 
ing visited the synagogue of K. A. M., 
gives the following account in the 
Daily Democrat: 

"It gives me great pleasure to in- 
form you that I visited last Saturday, 
the synagogue of the Israelite Congre- 
gation.'Kelilath Anstoe Maarabh.'on the 
corner of Wells and Adams Streets, 
Chicago, and that I have 'been so well 
satisfied with the changes Which the 
mode of worship in the synagogue has 
undergone, that I feel obliged to com- 
municate this to you and the readers 
of your valuable paper. 

"The said congregation was happy 
In engaging the services of Rev. Marx 
Moses, late of New York, as minister 
and reader, who is a great musician, 
and possesses a very rich voice, and 
such an excellent manner of reading 
the Holy Scriptures, that I must con- 

fess I felt amazed about his perform- 
ance of the sacred duties. He has also 
introduced a choir of ladies and gen- 
tlemen, who sing the Psalms of David 
so sweet and beautiful that one believes 
ihimself to be within the walls of the 
Temple in Jerusalem, listening to the 
harp of the pious King. When I en- 
tered the ihall, which has been rebuilt 
and enlarged, a gentleman showed me 
to a seat and let me have his prayer 
book, which is in the Hebrew lan- 
guage, translated into English. He was 
also kind enough to point out to me 
the several prayers which were offered 
by the minister aid choir. These 
prayers manifest and contain the 
strongest wish for the welfare of man- 
kind, and the highest praise and thanks 
unto Him, the Maker of all. I can hard- 
ly describe how much I was moved 
when the reverend gentleman, aid-' 
by the president and vice president, 
advanced toward the Ark, to take out 
the scroll of parchment upon which 
the 'Torah," that is, the Pentateuch, is 
written. The sweet songs of the choir 
on that occasion, and afterwards, when 
the Torah was replaced, made such an 
impression upon my mind that I would 
wish my Christian friends would pay 
attention to the worship of said con- 
gregation, held every Saturday morn- 
ing after half-past 8 o'clock, and I am 
sure they will all feel, like me, well 
satisfied and pleased. 

"I understand tihat the new Board of 
Administration has caused all this 
change in the mode of service; when 
some time ago, a stranger, who visited 
their synagogue would hardly believe 
he was among a civilized people. The 
butcher of the congregation, who killed 
the cattle for the Jews according to 
their rites, was then the reader, and 
of course, butchered the service stil 
more. But now everything is so nice 
and acting harmoniously, that all 
prejudice against these, our fellow cit- 
izens, must give way; and my sincerest 
wish for them is that they will con- 
tinue to do as they have commenced, 
and they will soon fill their place in 
public society, since they show by their 
worship that they are 'better men than 
many think them to be. The hall is 
fine and airy, and plenty of seats are 
provided for visitors, both ladies and 

The year 1861 will forever remain a 
memorable one in the annals of K. A. 
M. In that year Mr. M. M. Gerstley 
was elected president, and Rev. Dr. 
Liebman Adler was called from De- 
troit to the office of Rabbi and teach- 
er. These two men, so well beloved 
and so highly respected, came to lead 
the congregation just in time, when 
their efficient services were most 

The question or ritual was still agi- 
tating the minds of the members. Res- 
olutions were adopted in one meeting 
and reconsidered in another. Minhag 
Hamburg was proposed by one group 
and the Merzbacher prayer-book by 
another. As a compromise Minhag 
Frankfort was re-introduced, but 

shortly afterwards again discarded. 
The reform party of the congregation 
was now restless and dissatisfied, and 
the conservative element unyielding 
and persistent. Towards the close of 
1861- twenty-six members seceded K. 
A. M. and formed a new organization 
under the name of "Sinai Congrega- 
tion." Among the withdrawing mem- 
bers were some of the brightest and 
most liberal supporters of K. A. M., 
men like Henry Greenebaum, Elias 
Greenebaum, Leopold Mayer and 
others. But Congregation Anshe Maar- 
abh stood the shock bravely. Peace 
now reigned in its midst, and under 
the guidance of President Gerstley and 
Rabbi Adler, K. A. M. started hope- 
fully on the road to new triumphs. 
The membership kept on increasing so 
that the synagogue proved inadequate 
to accommodate the many worshipers. 

In November, 1868, the congregation 
purchased the northwest corner v of 
Wabash avenue and Peck court, with 
the church building standing upon it, 
lor the sum of $50,000. The church 
was remodeled and changed into a 
synagogue, and the congregation soon 
moved into the new edifice. The or- 
der of worship was again improved, a 
new organ, an excellent choir and 
other reforms were introduced, and 
the congregation was once more 

On the 9th day of October, 1871, an 
ocean of fire swept over the Garden 
City. Churches, synagogues, privatn 
dwellings and public buildings were 
laid in ashes. Innumerable documents, 
the most valuable public records and 
registers of private possession were 
buried in the smoking ruins, consumed 
by the unchained element and irre- 
trievably lost. Fortunately the Tem- 
ple of K. A. M., corner Peck court 
and Wabash avenue, was untouched 
by the all-consuming conflagration. 
But all its books and documents were 
irrecoverably gone. The officers of 
the congregation for 1871-1872 were: 
President, M. M. Gerstley; vice-presi- 
dent, Jacob Rosenberg; treasurer, H. 
A. Kohn; secretary, Joseph Pollack. 
To the indomitable energy, liberality, 
circumspection and strict business tact 
of these men it is due that the con- 
gregation escaped with little loss. Jo- 
seph Pollack, the secretary of 
the congregation, was at that time 
clerk of Cook County; he had all the 
papers, books and refords belonging 
to the congregation in a vault in the 
Court House, and there they were 
burned with all the registers and deeds 
of the county. The books, which were 
in the hands of the treasurer, H. A. 
Kohn, were also consumed by the 
great fire, and the congregation found 
itself without any proof of outstand- 
ing indebtedness, even without a pew 
register indicating the ownership of 
seats in the temple. In spite of these, 
as it seemed, unsurmountable obsta- 
cles, order was soon restored without 
hardly an interruption in the regular 
run of the congregation's affairs. At 



a general meeting held October 29, 
1871, the second meeting after the flre, 
the members showed their readiness 
to stand by the congregation, to assist 
with might and main to bring it back 
to the usual standard of financial pros- 
perity. Mr. Jacob Rosenberg, the ven- 
erable vice-president, with his usual 
liberality, refused to accept interest 
due him on a loan which he had ad- 
vanced to the congregation; even the 
Collector of the Congregation, Marks 
Jackson, in a letter addressed to the 
board of administration, requested to 
have $200 deducted from the annual" 
salary voted to him at his last elec- 
tion. Of course this was declined, 
with thanks, but it indicates the spir- 
it prevailing at that time among all 
those who were connected with 
K. A. M. 

The question of a change in the rit- 
ual now became the main topic for 
discussion. At a meeting of the board, 
December 18th, on motion of Samuel 
Cole, it was resolved to recommend the 
adoption of Dr. Einhorn's prayer-book 
in the English translation. At a meet- 
ing of the congregation on January 
9, 1872, this was complied with, but 
action was postponed. 

On March 21, 1872, Dr. M. Machol of 
Leavenworth, Kansas, was unani- 
mously elected minister of the con- 
gregation, to take the place of Adler, 
who was released from preaching. 

On April 4, 1872, it was resolved 
that the congregation again open a 
day school. This school was discon- 
tinued in April, 1875, for want of 
scholars. School was held in a house 
on Thirteenth street, between Wabash 
and Michigan avenues, belonging to 
Lazarus Silverman. 

The Merzbacher prayer-book was 
adopted in January, 1873, and the 
same is still in use today. 

A motion to have Friday evening 
services, with choir and sermon, was 
also adopted at the same "meeting. 

The congregation joined the Union 
of American Hebrew Congregation 
January 4, 1874. 

In the second Chicago fire of July, 
1874, the congregation lost its syna- 
gogue, on corner Peck court and Wa- 
bash avenue, and was now homeless. 
The trustees of the Methodist Epis- 
copal church, on corner Wabash ave- 
nue and Fourteenth street, generously 
granted the use of their church to 
K. A. M., and j-egular Sabbath serv- 
ices were held there until the congre- 
gation had a house of worship of its 
own. In December, 1874, the congre- 
gation purchased the lot and church 
building from Plymouth Church, on 
the southeast corner of Indiana ave- 
aue and Twenty-sixth street, and 
changed it Into a synagogue. This 
property, with all furniture, etc., was 
purchased by Nathan Elsendrath for 
K. A. M. for $20,000. The lot on the 
corner of Peck court and Wabash ave- 
nue was sold for $32,000. 

The synagogue, corner Twenty-sixth 
street and Indiana avenue, was dedi- 
cated on Friday, February 5, 1875. 

On Kol Nidre Eve of the same year, 
the practice of collecting in the syn- 
agogue contributions for the support 
of the United Hebrew Charities vas, 
for the first time, introduced. 

In a meeting of the congregation 
held September 9th, Henry N. Hart 
moved that the gentleman remove 
their hats during worship, and his mo- 
tion was adopted by a good majority. 

Dr. Samuel Sale of Har Sinai Con- 
gregation, Baltimore, Md., was elected 
minister of the congregation August 
5, 1883. He assumed charge of the 
pulpit during the following month of 
September. He remained with the 
congregation for four years. He was 
then tendered a re-election, which he 
declined, and accepted a call from 
Shaare Emeth congregation of St. 

Financially the congregation was 
then in an excellent condition; it re- 
ceived more revenue in that year than 
in any previous one. 

In the month of April, 188S, Rabbi 
Isaac S. Moses of Nashville, Tenn., 
was elected minister of the congre- 
gation, and occupied the pulpit of K. 
A. M. for eight years from 1888 to 1896. 

For several reasons he declined a 
re-election, and in September, 1896, he 
organized a People's Synagogue in 
Chicago, on the basis of minimum con- 
tributions, thus creating for himself 
an independent pulpit. He is now the 
minister of Congregation Ahavath 
Chesed, in New York. 

On December 5, 1889, the southeast 
corner of Thirty-third street and In- 
diana avenue, was bought for the sum 
of $36,000, and the present temple was 
erected thereon, furnished and 
equipped at a cost of $110,000. The 
synagogue, on corner Twenty-sixth 
street and Indiana avenue, was sold 
to Congregation B'nai Shalom on 
March 16, 1890. 

The new temple was planned and 
erected under the supervision of 
Messrs. Adler & Sullivan, the well- 
known architects. It has 190 pews in 
the auditorium, 90 pews in the gallery, 
and a seating capacity of about 1,500 

According to the annual report of 
the president, submitted in 1890, the 
congregation had a membership of 
155, and 30 widow members, a total 
of 185. 

The new temple was dedicated June 
11, 1891, and Drs. Adler, Felsenthal, 
Hirsch, Stolz, Austrian, Messing and 
Norden, assisted Dr. Moses in the ded- 
icatory ceremonies. 

The congregation then had a total 
membership of 194. 

In December, 1896, Rev. M. P. Jacob- 
son of Youngstown, Ohio, was elected 
to fill the vacant pulpit of K. A. M., 
dating from March 1st, 1897, for a 
term of three years. Before his term 
expired he sent in his resignation to 
the board of directors and it was ac- 

In April, 1896, Mr. A. Sinks, who 
was teacher of the K. A. M. Sabbath 
Echool for over twenty years, was pen- 

sioned, with full salary, for life. Mr. 
Sinks removed to New York, where he 
died in 1900. 

During the absence of a minister, 
from July, 1896, to March, 1897, Mr. 
H. Eliassof, for many years teacher in 
the K. A. M. Sabbath school and then 
principal of the same, officiated as 

On November 4, 1897, Congregation 
Anshe Maarabh celebrated its golden 
jubilee. In the afternoon special di- 
vine services were held in the temple. 
An elaborate programme, consisting of 
excellent vocal and instrumental 
music and eloquent addresses by the 
president, Mr. Henry N. Hart, Rabbi 
Jacobson, Dr. Samuel Sale of St. Louis, 
Dr. E. G. Hirsch and Rabbi I. S. Moses. 
In the evening the members of K. A. 
M. and their honored guests assembled 
at the Lakeside club to partake of a 
grand- banquet, arranged by the con- 
gregation Among the guests were: 
Judge John Barton Payne, Hon. 
Thomas B. Bryan, Prof. W. R. Har- 
per, president of the Chicago Univer- 
sity, and others. Mr. H. Elias- 
sof, with the assistance of the 
venerable Dr. B. Felsenthal, wrote 
and published, under the auspices of 
the congregation, a History of K. A. 
M. This work contains a complete 
record of the organization and devel- 
opment of Congregation Anshe Maar- 
abh. It also contains an ode, on the oc- 
casion of the golden jubilee, written 
in classic Hebrew, and an English 
translation of the same by the author. 
Congregation Anshe Maarabh Is en- 
titled to a share of the credit for this 
contribution to the history of the Jews 
and Judaism of America. 

In January of this year Dr. Tobias 
Schanfarber was called to the pulpit 
of K. A. M. and on the 15th day of 
last March he delivered his inaugural 
address before a large and apprecia- 
tive audience. Dr. Hirsch, Dr. Stolz 
and a number of other rabbis of Chi- 
cago assisted at the installation of the 
new minister of K. A. M. and the cor- 
dial reception and warm welcome 


which they extended to their honored 
colleague, marked a new epoch in the 
life of the Chicago rabbis. 



was born in Cleveland, Ohio, Decem- 
ber 20, 1863. He attended the public 
schools of that city and graduated 
from the Cleveland High School in 
1881. He pursued a course of study in 
Hebrew under Rev. Dr. Aaron Hahn, 
then Rabbi of Tiffereth Israel Con- 
gregation, Cleveland. In 1881 he ma- 
triculated at the University of Cin- 
cinnati and the Hebrew Union College, 
being admitted to the highest grade 
of the preparatory department of the 
latter. He received his degree of 
Bachelor of Arts from the Cincinnati 
University in 1885 and his rabbinical 
degree from the Hebrew Union Col- 
lege in 1886. During the year 1885 the 
college authorities permitted him to 
assume temporary charge of the con- 
gregation of Toledo, Ohio, he having 
completed his course at the university. 
This is the only instance in which the 
college authorities allowed a ^tudent 
to assume charge of a congregation 
before he had finished his full course 
at the college. In 1886, he was elected 
as permanent rabbi of the Shomer 
Emoonim congregation of Toledo, 
Ohio. In 1887 he received a call to the 
Achduth Vesholom congregation of 
Fort Wayne, Ind. After remaining 
there about a year and a half, Har 
Sinai congregation of Baltimore ten- 
dered him a call to its pulpit. He 
was rabbi of Har Sinai Temple for ten 
years. While Rabbi of Har Sinai con- 
gregation he introduced Sunday serv 
ices. For five years he attended a 
course of study in Semitics under Pro- 
fessor Paul Haupt of the Johns Hop- 
kins University. In May, 1899, he was 
called to the pulpit of Shaarai Sho- 
mayim congregation of Mobile, Ala., 
having been elected without the cus- 
tomary trial sermon. He was editor 
of the Jewish Comment of Baltimore 
for five years and contributed leading 
articles to the Baltimore Sun and Bal- 
timore American. While in Mobile he 
edited and published the Mobile Jew- 
ish Chronicle. 

Dr. Schanfarber Is a scholar and a 
thinker. He is a fluent and pleasant 
speaker, an able, earnest and conscien- 
tious teacher in Israel, who deserves 
the full support and encouragement 
of the entire Jewish community of 



We devote a little more space than 
we first intended to the history of 
Congregation Anshe Maarabh, because 
we think that the first and the oldest 
congregation of the state, the mother, 
so to say, of some of the younger con- 
gregations of Chicago, is entitled to 
some extra consideration. In 'the glor- 
ious record of the proud history of 
the mother, the children will read the 
record of their own origin and the rec- 
ognition of some of their own achieve- 

The history o" Congregation Anshe 
Maarabh can never be called complete 
without th special mention of some 

of its brave and blessed leaders, whose 
manly characters and faithful devotion 
to Israel's cause have forever endeared 
them to the hearts of their brethren 
in faith. Nearly all of them are slum- 
bering in their eternal homes these 
many years, but their memories still 
linger with us and we can never forget 


them. The first of these departed 
eons of K. A. M. is 


Mr. Kohn was the third president 
of K. A. M k He was born in 1819, in 
Moenichsroth, Bavaria. He came to 
America with his brother Moses. For 
a time they lived in New York, where 
they were joined by a third brother, 
Judas, and the three brothers then 
peddled in the state of Massachusetts. 
The section of the state in which they 
peddled was mostly inhabited by Mil- 
lerites, a religious sect founded by 
William Miller of Massachusetts, hoH- 
ing peculiar millenial views. About 
1843 the millenium was expected by 
as many as 50,000 believers in the doc- 
trines of Miller. Business suffered 
very much in that section, as the Mil- 
lerites were preparing for the millen- 
ium and bought nothing. The three 
traveling merchants determined to go 
west. They read in the papers that 
far in the western country there was 
a promising town of the name of Chi- 
cago, a good point where to start in 
business. They bought a stock of 
dry goods and notions, and went to 

Abraham Kohn became very popu- 
lar in the Chicago Jewish communi- 
ty. He was a man of excellent qual- 
ities. He was a truly religious man, 
endowed with a fine mind and admin- 
istrative ability, which he cheerfully 
devoted to the service of his congre- 
gation. He received a very good edu- 
cation in his native town and was 
quite a Hebrew scholar. He was a 
diligent reader, and ruickly acquired 
knowledge of the English language. 
He was truly public spirited. All this 
fitted him admirably to be a leader 
among men. The Chicago citizens rec- 
ognized his superior abilities and he 
was elected to the office of city clerk 

in 1861, under Mayor John Went- 

In 1861, while Abraham Lincoln waa 
on his way to Washington, Mr. Kohn 
presented him with a beautiful flag 
inscribed with the following words 
from Joshua (verse 9, chapter I): "Be 
strong and of a good courage; be not 
afraid, neither be thou dismayed: for 
the Lord thy God is with thee whith- 
ersoever thou goest." Abraham Lin- 
coln was very much pleased with this 
flag, and acknowledged the receipt of 
the same in an autograph letter to Mr. 

He took an active part in arousing 
his American co-religionists to pro- 
test against the Swiss treaty, which 
excluded the Jewish citizens from the 
treaty rights accorded to citizens of 
other faiths. He was also an enthu- 
siastic advocate of the establishment 
of a rabbinical college in this country, 
and wrote several spirited articles on 
4&e subject. 

He died in Chicago in March, 1871. 
deeply mourned by the entire commu- 


Mr. Straus was born at Kirchheim- 
bolanden, in the RJhein-Pfalz, on Janu- 
ary 22, 1823. He graduated from the 
seminary at Kaiserslautern and was a 
teacher in Germany prior to his leav- 
ing for America. He came to Chicago 
in July, 1852, married in 1853, moved 
to Milwaukee, Wis., in 1855, and re- 
turned to Chicago in 1856. He joined 
K. A. M. in 1854 and was often re- 
quested by the board of administration 
to assist in reading the prayers, es- 
pecially on New Year's day and Day 
of Atonement. In August, 1853, he 
was one of the collegium of three 
rabbis who officiated at the conversion 
to Judaism of Mrs. C. F. Spiegel, wife 


of Colonel M. Spiegel. The other two 
rabbis were Rev. Isidor Kalish, who 
came to Chicago from Cleveland ex- 
pressly for the purpose of officiating 
at this ceremony of conversion, and 
Rev. I. Kunrenther, Rabbi of K. A. M. 
Mr. Straus studied law and was ad- 
mitted to the bar some years later. 
He died in Chicago July 8, 1878. He 



left two sons, Simeon and Joseph 
Straus and one daughter, Mrs. Sam- 
uel Despres. 


Mr. M. M. Gerstley, the eighth pres- 
ident of K. A. M., was born in the vil- 
lage of Fellheim, Bavaria, August 17, 
1812. He received for those days a 
good education. In early youth he 
went to his brother In Vienna, Aus- 
tria. There he became very much dis- 
satisfied with the laws restricting the 


Jews, and in 1839 he came to America. 
After living for several years in Penn- 
sylvania, chance led him to Chicago 
In 1848, and he made this city his 
home. He gave much of his time and 
attention to the various organizations 
with which he was connected. Soon 
after his arrival he joined Congrega- 


tlon K. A. M., in 1849. In 1856 he 
was secretary of the congregation, and 
for a number of years he was chair- 
man of the school board. For thirty 
years, from 1861 to 1891, he held the 
office of president, and his strict busi- 
ness methods, his great tact, prudence 
and integrity were of inestimable 
benefit to the congregation. He took 
a warm interest in charitable work, 
and was for some years vice-president 
of the Hebrew Relief association, and 
was actively Identified vith the work 

of that Institution until old age and 
falling health forced him to retire. 
In 1891 he declined to be re-elected 
president of the K. A. M. for the same 

After a long and useful life he was 
gathered unto his fathers Saturday, 
April 29, 1893. 


Rev. Liebman Adler was born on 
the 9th of January, 1812, at the town 
of Lengsfeld, in the Grand Duchy of 
Saxe-Weimar. His father, Judah Ad- 
ler, was also a teacher. Until his 
thirteenth year he received instruc- 
tion partly at his father's school and 
partly at a preparatory school in the 
vicinity, presided over by a clergy- 
man. He also received Hebrew In- 
struction from Rabbi Isaac Hess, then 
Rabbi at Lengsfeld. His later studies 
in Talmud and Rabbinica he continued 
under Rev. Kunreuther, the father of 
Rev. Ignatz Kunreuther, who was 
Rab'bi at .Gelnhausen, then at the Jew- 
isn high school, in Frankfort-on-the- 
Main, under Rabbi Solomon Trier and 
Rabbi Aaron Fuld, and later in the 
teachers' seminary at Weimar. After 
two years' study here he graduated 
as teacher and was given charge of the 
Jewish congregational school of his 
native town, Lengsfeld. In 1849 this 
school was united with the public 
school at Lengsfeld, and . Adler was 
appointed head teacher of the amal- 
gamated school. 

In the year 1854 he left his native 
country and emigrated to America. A 
few months after his arrival in this 
country he was elected preacher In 
the Detroit congregation, where he re- 
mained until the spring of 1861. In 
that year he was called to Chicago by 
Rehillath Anshe Maarabh, and here he 
preached and taught for many years, 
and became a blessing to the whole 
community. His entire activity, all 
the rich treasures of his great mind, 
his golden thoughts and his vast 
knowledge, he devoted to his congre- 
gation and to its school. He held the 
light of truth aloft, and showed the 
leaders and members of K. A. M., 
who became his warm admirers and 
faithful friends, the path of righteous- 
ness and uprightness. A whole gener- 
ation grew up to manhood and wom- 
anhood under his guiding love and in- 
struction, and their hearts overflowed 
with affection, gratitude and venera- 
tion for their true-hearted and learned 
teacher until the name of Adler be- 
came a household word in the entire 
Chicago community. He possessed the 
gift of endurance and patience In a 
very high degree, and was kind to 
every one. His spirit overflowed with 
sparkling humor, yet he could be ear- 
nest, and his words of wisdom made 
the deepest impression. He could win 
the most hardened heart with his gen- 
tleness, and soothe the weeping soul 
with the magic of his sympathetic ut- 
terances of consolation. 

Liebman Adler was a warm patriot 
in the truest sense of the word. Dur- 

ing the year of doubt and suspense, 
when the fate of the Union hung In 
the balance, and the stoutest hearts 
failed and faltered, he flashed rays 
of hope and enthusiasm into the 
hearts of his fellow-citizens. He raised 
his voice against shameful slavery, 
and spoke most earnestly for the 
cause of union and liberty. He in- 
spired the souls of his congregation 
from the pulpit with the justice of 
emancipation, and sustained with 
hope the sympathies he aroused. A 
pamphlet containing five of his pa- 
triotic speeches, delivered in the pul- 
pit of K. A. M., was published in 1866, 
and these speeches give evidence of 
his abhorrence of the institution of 
slavery and his love of freedom. The 
fact that he sent his oldest, at that 
time very young, son to enlist in the 
Union army, to offer his life for the 
preservation of the Union, is the 
strongest proof of the sincerity of his 

As a religious teacher and preacher 
he was consistently conservative, 
clinging to old-time customs and 
usages, but he never was an obscur- 
ant. His thoughts were clear and free 
from bigotry; he fully understood the 
demands of modern times, and was 
therefore tolerant to the opinions and 
claims of the young generation. He 
gathered his inimitable sermons and 
published them during the last years 
of his life In a work consisting of two 
volumes, which he called fM'im rtJ'KX 
after the name of a well-known 
religious book, which, during the last 
two centuries, had been very popular 
among the Jews of Germany and ad- 
jacent countries. The press through- 
out the country paid him a just trib- 
ute of praise for this monumental 

Rev. Adler was a frequent contribu- 
tor to the Jewish journals of this 
country. He wrote many scholarly ar- 
ticles on a variety of subjects. It is 
especially the "Deborah" of Cincin- 
nati, to which he was a steady con- 
tributor for many years, and in which 
some of his very best efforts were 

On February 20, 1872, Rev. Adler 
was released by the congregation from 
preaching, and elected as teacher and 
reader. This was done in order to 
enable the congregation to engage an 
English-speaking minister, as Rev. 
Adler preached mostly In the German 
language. In the following month of 
March, Dr. M. Machol of Leavenworth, 
Kansas, was elected minister, and he 
occupied the pulpit of K. A. M. until 
1876, and when he resigned, Rev. Adler 
was again elected minister, reader and 
teacher, which position he held until 

At a meeting of the congregation 
held November 5, 1882, the following 
resolution was unanimously carried: 

Whereas, This congregation, fully 
recognizing the long and faithful serv- 
ices performed by . Its honored and 
much esteemed minister, Rev. Lieb- 
man Adler; be it, therefore, 



Resolved, That this congregation, in 
meeting assembled, hereby pensions 
said Rev. Liebman Adler during the 
balance of his life. 

On the 15th of January, 1882, Dr. 
Adler was 70 years of age, and the 
congregation celebrated his seven- 
tieth birthday in a befitting manner. 

On the 29th of January, 1892, Rev. 
Liebman Adler, at the high age of 80 
years, closed forever his peaceful and 
blessed career on earth, to abide with 
the immortals in the realms of bliss. 
As he lived so he died, patiently en- 
during the pangs of a painful illness, 
thinking more of others than of him- 
self and uttering with his last breath 
words of submission to the will of 
God, and sentiments of love and ad- 
monition to his beloved wife and dear 

During the week preceding his de- 
mise and at a time when he was in- 
tensely suffering from very acute 
pains, Rev. Dr. Liebman Adler wrote 
a paper which he headed "Mein letz- 
ter Wille" (My last Will). The docu- 
ment is a brief one, and yet rich In its 
contents. On reading his plain but 
touching words one cannot help being 
deeply impressed with the outpouring 
of a grand soul and of a truly pious 
heart. We deem it proper to publish 
here an English translation of the 
same. K characterizes the man; it mir- 
rors clearly his inner life; it reflects his 
ideas in its simplicity. It is the magic 
melody of a dying Paganini, flooding 
the soul with joy and the eyes with 
tears. It is a work created by a mas- 
ter favored with rare inspiration, an 
idealized reality, an ideal realized. 

Our forefathers in former times 
used to call such a document nxix 
(Tzava'ah), modern writers name it 
"Last Will" or "Ethical Testament." 
Truly, Liebman Adler's Last Will is 
such an "Ethical Testament," which 
deserves to be printed here, as a 
mark of honor to the venerated teach- 
er, as a grateful remembrance of the 
departed Rabbi and as an inspiring 
word for us who are still among the 

Adler and Gerstley! The death of 
these two illustrious and faithful 
friends, leaders and benefactors of K. 
A. M., closes an epoch in the history 
of the congregation. To K. A. M. 
Gerstley and Adler are not dead. No, 
they are not mere shadows that 
flitted around for. a while and then 
floated away into the darkness to be 
heeded no longer. To K. A. M. they 
are brilliant rays of light that will 
forever shine on its path to lead it on- 
ward and upward to God's truth and 
Israel's duty. 




I desire that there be no haste in 
my interment. If there are no signs 
of decomposition sooner, the funeral 
should not be until forty-eight hours 
after my death. 

If the physician who treated" me 

should find it desirable in the interest 
of science to hold a post-mortem ex- 
amination, I would like that he be not 
interfered with. 

My coffin shall not cost more than 

No flowers. 

My funeral to be directly from the 
place of demise to the cemetery. 

No funeral oration. 

Dear Hannah: In view of your del- 
icate health, I desire that you remain 
at home and not join the funeral if the 
weather is the least inclement. 

Not more than three days' mourn- 
ing in domestic retirement. 

I cherish the kaddisch prayers of 
mourning in the synagogue of my 
sons and daughters as it deserves, but 
I do so only if you, after the expira- 
tion of the year of mourning, do not 
omit attendance at the synagogue 
without necessity. 

If financial conditions permit, each 
of my married children should join a 
Jewish congregation, the fittest being 
the K. A. M. Kehillath Anshe Maar- 
aoh, "Congregation of the Men of the 
West," corner of Indiana avenue and 
Thirty-third street. 

Those children who do not live too 
distant should, if the weather permit, 
and if it can be done without disturb- 
ing their own domestic relations, 
gather every Friday evening around 
the mother. 

My children, hold together. In this 
let no sacrifice be too great to assist 
each other and to uphold brotherly 
and sisterly sentiment. Each deed of 
love you do to one another would he 
balm to my soul. The example of 
eleven children of one father who 
stand together in love and trust would 
be to his grave a better decoration 
than the most magnificent wreath of 
flowers, which I willingly decline, but 
leave to your judgment. 

The small savings which I leave will 
come to you only after the death of 
the mother. I know you; I trust that 
you will not meet in an unfilial way 
about possession and disposition. The 
heritage which is already yours is a 
good name and as good an education 
as I could afford to give. It does not 
look as if anyone of you had a dis- 
position to grow rich. Do not be wor- 
ried by it. Remain strictly honest, 
truthful, industrious and frugal. Do 
not speculate. No blessings rests upon 
it even if it be successful. Throw your 
whole energy into the pursuance of 
the calling you have chosen. Serve 
the Lord and keep Him always before 
you; toward men be amiable, accom- 
modating and modest, and you will 
fare well even without riches. My 
last word to you is: Honor your 
mother. Help her bear her dreary 
widowhood. Leave her undisturbed In 
the use of the small estate, and assist 
if there should be want. 

Farewell, wife and children! 

Another point, children. I know 
well you could not, if you would, 
practice Judaism according to my 
views and as I practiced it. But re ; 

main Jews and live as Jews in the 
best manner of your time, not only 
for yourself, but also where it is meet 
to further the whole. 


Mr. Rosenberg was one of the four- 
teen who, in 1847, signed the first con- 
stitution of Kehillath Anshe Maarabh, 
and for over fifty years he was an able 


and faithful officer of the congrega- 
tion. He was born at Altenmuhr, Ba- 
varia, March 25, 1819, and came to 
America in 1837. He was eighteen 
years old when he arrived in New 
York. For four years he traded through 
New England and New York state, 
parts of Pennsylvania, Ohio and Indi- 
ana. In 1841 he came to Chicago. Here 
he found Lev! Rosenfeld, and with him 
formed a copartnership under the firm 
name of Rcsenfeld & Rosenberg. They 
were very successful, and in 1845, they 
were recognized as the most prosperous 
retail and wholesale dry goods mer- 
chants in the West. Mr. Rosenfeld had 
married a sister of Michael Reese. An- 
other sister, Miss Hannah Reese, came 
to Chicago to visit Mrs. Rcsenfeld, and 
in 1849, she became Mrs. Rosenberg. 
Theirs wss the first Jewish wedding 
ever known in Chicago. For ten years 
Jacob Rosenberg was a volunteer fire- 
man, mejnber of Company I, or the 
Fire King. In 1876, he was selected by 
the municipal reformers of that year to 
stand in the second ward for alderman. 
He was elected by a handsome major- 
ity and served for two years with cred- 
it He was auditor of the Chicago In- 
dustrial Exposition for several consec- 
utive years. By the will of his brother- 
in-law, Michael Reese of San Francis- 
co, $200,000 were given in trust to Mr. 
Rosenberg and Mrs. Rosenfeld, jointly, 
for benevolent objects in Chicago. They 
determined to build and endow a hos- 
pital, to be called Michael Reese Hos- 
pital. This they accomplished, and it 
If now very justly the pride of the Jew- 
ish community of Chicago. 

At a special meeting of the congre- 
gation, held July 16, 1888, Mr. Rosen- 
berg offered to donate to K. A. M. a 
tract of land in the town of Jefferson, 



containing twenty acres, for a burial 
ground, and his generous offer was 
gratefully accepted. The ground was 
properly inclosed and laid out in family 
lots. This burial ground is now known 
as "Mount Maariv Cemetery," In Dun- 
ning station, on the Northwestern rail- 

Mr. Rosenberg died March 31, 1900. 
In his will he bequeathed nearly $ 10,000 
to charity. The congregation reserved a 
large plot of ground in the center of 
the cemetery for the Rosenberg fami- 
ly. Here Mr. and Mrs. Rosenberg, his 
noble wife, who was a true mother In 
Israel, who died January 16, 1890, are 
now resting side by side In eternal 
slumber. A beautiful monument of 
white marble stands in the center of 
the lot and the Hebrew Inscriptions en- 
graved on the stone tell the story of 
their good deeds In plain but earnest 
words of truth. 

Pour children, two sons and two 
daughters, survive them. They are 
Julius, Bernard, Mrs. Dr. M. Man- 
helmer and Mrs. Maurice Rosenfeld. 


To tell the story of the past good 
life of the noble dead~and to recount 
their deeds of kindness and benevo- 
lence, is the duty of the historian 
which he owes to their sacred memory. 
But to record the unselfish devotion of 
the living leaders of Israel to Judaism, 
to Jewish life and Jewish thought, is a 


privilege and a pleasure which the 
reader shares with the writer, for the 
Interest of man is deeper and warmer 
in the achievements of the living than 
in the closed account of the once ac- 
complished deeds of the dead. 

Mr. Henry N. Hart, the present pres- 
ident of Congregation Anshe Maarabh, 
has always taken such a lively interest 
in the welfare of the congregation that 
no step of importance was ever under- 
taken in K. A. M. since he became a 
member, without his wise and watchful 
co-operation. In fact, many of the best 
and most beneficial measures which ths 
congregation has adopted during the 
last twenty-five years, were intro- 
duced or instigated by Mr. Hart. While 

he zealously watched with his fellow 
members over the preservation of the 
congregation; while he earnestly 
sought with them to retain the true 
Jewish spirit in the midst of K. A. M., 
he at the same time endeavored to 
place his beloved congregation within 
the reach of the rays of modern life, 
of progressive decorum and decorous 
progress. Truly the mantle of Elijah, 
(Gerstly), has fallen upon a worthy 

On September 6, 1891, Mr. Hart was 
unanimously elected president of K.. A. 
M. During the nine consecutive years 
he was annually re-elected to this hon- 
orable office, and often against his ex- 
pressed wish to retire. 

Henry N. Hart was born in Eppels- 
heim, Rhenish Hessia, in 1838. He 
came to America in 1854 with his eld- 
er brother, Abraham, and they settled 
in Chicago. Twenty-seven years ago 
he joined K. A. M.. Since a number of 
years he has been a member of the 
board of directors of the United He- 
brew Charities, and chairman of the 
Michael Reese Hospital Committee. 
He is also a director of the Humane 
Society and devotes much of his valu- 
able time to charitable work. 

President Hart is assisted in the 
management of the affairs of the con- 
gregation by four officers and ten di- 
rectors, who, with the president, con- 
stitute the Board of Administration. 
The present officers are: David Worm- 
ser, vice-president; Henry Gerstley, 
treasurer; Israel Cowen, recording sec- 
retary, and Jacob Newman, Jr., finan- 
cial secretary. The directors are: Jo- 
seph M. Schnadig, J. Aaron, David 
Pfaelzer, Leo Polachek, J. N. Strauss, 
Samuel Spitz, L. H. Freiberger, Louis 
Benjamin, Sig. Silberman and A. H. 




This institution was organized in 
Chicago by a number of young Jews 
in 1851. The aims and objects of the 
society can best be learned from the 
preamble to the first constitution and 
by-laws of the association. The title 
page is missing in the printed copy 
which we have before us, and we are 
therefore unable to give the year of 
its publication. The preamble reads as 


"Whereas, the hand of Providence Is 
held over us we are prompted by a 
sense of duty and brotherly love to pro- 
mote our interest and mutual assist- 
ance for the- welfare, happiness and 
protection to each other; and as the 
republican laws of the United States, 
founded on equality and toleration to 
all men, either citizens or sojourners, 
grant the right to associate for lawful 
and good purposes; therefore, we 
signers, do associate together to pro- 
vide in time of health for each other; 
for times of need and sickness to which 

the human frame is liable; and also 
to pay the last duty and homage in 
what all living must fall; and being 
anxious while we are able to do good 
and to assist our brethren and fellow- 
men while life Is granted to us; there- 
fore, we have formed ourselves into a 
body corporate by the name and style 
of the Hebrew Benevolent Society of 
Chicago, in the county of Cook, state 
of Illinois, and have agreed, and by 
these presents do agree, that the fol- 
lowing shall be our constitution and 
by-laws by which we mutually assent 
to be governed." 

Prom this document we learn plainly 
that the Hebrew Benevolent Society 
was organized for the mutual benefit 
of its members, to aid each other In 
need, to nurse the sick and to give 
proper burial to the dead. Following 
are the names of the organizers : Moses 
Rubel, Michael Greenebaum, Mayer L. 
Klein, Ellas Greenebaum, Levi Klein, 
and Isaac Wolf. 

This society purchased for $600 
three acres of ground in the town of 
Lake View, a little south of Graceland 
Cemetery and laid it out as a burial 
ground. The society was about to dis- 
solve in 1852 for want of support, when 
new members, partly of those who 
lived here for some time and partly 
new arrivals, among whom were: 
Ralph Guthman, J. Liebenstein, I. 
Greensfelder, Henry Greenebaum, A. 
Hart, B. Schoeneman, Moses Shields. 
J. M. Stine, Leopold Mayer, Lazarus 
Silberman, Julius Rosenthal, Ben and 
Aaron Caihn, L. Wampold and Mar- 
cus M. Spiegel. 

For nearly twenty years the Hebrew 
Benevolent Society was actively en- 
gaged in the good work. It was an 
essential factor in the development of 
the Chicago Jewish community. Mr. 
Michael Greenebaum was the first 
president of this society. The mem- 
bers met once a month and their meet- 
ings were well attended and orderly, 
In contrast to other Jewish meetings of 
those times. The members were ani- 
mated by an earnest desire to do good, 
to learn and to improve. The society 
became a strong support in the subse- 
quent organization and growth of the 
United Hebrew Relief Association, and 
as a promoter of Jewish reform In the 

Mr. Isaac Greenefelder, the president 
of the United Hebrew Charities of Chi- 
cago, relates that at a festival cele- 
brated at his house by the members 
of the Hebrew Benevolent Society In 
1861 one of the members, Anton Her- 
zog, bought the privilege of "Bensch- 
en," saying grace after meal, for which 
he paid $25.00. This sum was the 
nucleus of a fund for a hospital. 

The Hebrew Benevolent Society still 
owns the burial ground near Graceland 
and exists nominally. It meets once 
a year, in March, to elect officers. The 
present officers are: President, Simon 
Rubel, son of the first member, Moses 
Rubel; vice-president, Jos. R. Beiers- 
dorf; treasurer, L. E. Lebolt; secr- 


tary, L. Sonnenschein. The society 
has 123 members. 


Until about the year 1850 the Jewish 
community of Chicago consisted almost 
entirely of emigrants from southern 
Germany, Bavaria and the Rhenish 
Palatinate. In 1850 a number of Jews 
arrived, who hailed from the Prussian 
province of Posen and adjacent parts 
of Germany. Their numbers kept on 
Increasing from year to year. Among 
the first to come to Chicago were the 
following: Solomon Harris, J. Lewis, 

the Jewish settlement in Chicago there 
was no affiliation between the Polish 
Jews or the "Herzogthuemer," as the 
Jews coming from the Prussian prov- 
ince of Posen were called, and the 
German Jews as a body, neither In 
charitable matters nor otherwise, and 
therefore In May, 1852, the Posner Jews 
organized a congregation for them- 
selves under the name of "B'nal Sho- 

The second Jewish congregation was 
organized by eleven members on a 
strictly orthodox basis. The first ser- 
vices were held in a room above the 


C. Sunrmerfield, Jacob Peiser, M. Mor- 
ris, S. Marks, Jonas Moore, David Wit- 
kowski and Jacob Frost. A little later 
came: Charles Kozminski, Charles 
Cohn, J. Gelder, E. Henoch, the Hefter 
brothers, and Isaac Glogosky; after- 
wards Livingston. 

The entire population of Chicago at 
that time did not exceed 20,000, and the 
Jewish community consisted of about 
30 families and a few young unmarried 
men. Third and Fourth avenues were 
the main Jewish residence streets. Sil- 
vester Hotel, on Randolph near Wells 
treet, was the only Jewish hotel in the 
City. During the first decade or so of 

clothing store of S. Harris, on Clark 
street between Washington and Mad- 
ison streets. Rev. Alexander officiated. 
The congregation adopted Minhag Po- 
len. Mr. S. Harris was elected first 
president. Mr. Henry Greenebaum, 
who was a member of Congregation 
Anshe Maarabh, became also a member 
of this congregation for the purpose of 
filling the office of secretary. He never 
attended the services of Kehllla B'nai 
Sholom. In 1855 the Anshe Maarabh 
congregation passed a law forbidding 
its members from holding member- 
ship in any other congregation, and 
Mr. Greenebaum resigned his member- 

ship In Congregation B'nal Sholom. 
In 1855 the congregation worshiped in 
rooms over Kendall's bakery, corner 
Dearborn and Washington streets; 
they then removed to the building cor- 
ner Clark and Jackson streets, where 
the Grand Pacific Hotel now stands. 
In 1864 they bought 75 feet on Harri- 
son street, near Fourth avenue, and 
there they built and dedicated their 
first synagogue at a cost of $20,000. 
This structure was in its time the most 
beautiful synagogue in Chicago. This 
house of worship was destroyed In the 
great fire of 1871. The congregation 
rented a church on Wabash avenue, 
corner Harmon court. The congregation 
suffered much by the fire, but It rallied 
again and through the efforts of Mr. 
Joseph Peiser, at that time president 
of the congregation, they exchanged 
the lot on Fourth avenue for 75 feet on 
Michigan avenue, between Fourteenth 
and Fifteenth streets, and erected a 
synagogue at a cost of $23,000. In 1886 
they sold this property to the Russo- 
Jewlsh congregation, Beth Hamedrash 
Hagodol Ubnal Yacob, for $31,000, and 
bought from Congregation Anshe 
Maarabh the frame synagogue and lot 
corner Twenty-sixth street and In- 
diana avenue for $28,000. This syna- 
gogue they still occupy. 

The following Rabbis officiated In 
Congregation B*nai Sholom; M. Loe- 
venthal, S. Kohn, N. Havre, A. 
J. Messing, Henry Gersonl, Kauf- 
man, and again A. J. Messing. 
In 1853 the congregation bought 
one acre of ground from the Hebrew 
Benevolent Society for $400 for a ceme- 
tery, and this cemetery Is still used by 

The progressive spirit of the last 
thirty years has also reached this Jew- 
ish institution and the congregation 
was forced to yield to the reform 
movement and to make some improve- 
ments in their worship. In 1880 they 
discarded Minhag Polen and adopted 
Minhag America. A mixed choir and 
family pews were Introduced some 
time before. The congregation con- 
sists of about 100 members, and 
they maintain a Sabbath school, 
where about 125 children receive 
instruction in Hebrew, religion 
and Jewish history, on Saturdays and 
Sundays. The present officers of the 
congregation are: S. Richter, presi- 
dent; I. Peiser, vice president; Chas. 
Cohen, recording secretary; L. Living- 
ston, financial secretary, and Chas. 
G. Livingston, treasurer. Rev. A. J. 
Messing is the present minister of the 
congregation." An auxiliary society 
was organized by the ladles of the con- 
gregation in 1859 under the name of 
"B'nal Sholom Ladles Social Society." 
This society is still In existence and 
Is of great help to the congregation. 
Mrs. Chas. Cohen was the first presi- 
dent of this society. 

Shortly after the organization of 
Congregation B'nal Sholom and in con- 
nection with it, was organized a La- 
dies' Relief Society and Relief Society 
No. 2. 




Toward the end of the sixties and for 
some time during the seventies Rabbi 
Messing was a power in Chicago, espe- 
cially with his countrymen of Prussian 
Poland. At that time German was the 
language used in many of the syna- 
gogues of the country for prayer and 
for sermon. Even in New York city 
the great Dr. Einhorn, Dr. Kohut and 
many other of the bright lights' of the 


Jewish ministry in other large cities, 
preached their eloquent sermons in the 
German language. Dr. Einhorn's great 
prayer book, the ritual of many Jew- 
ish reform temples, which has touched 
and stirred thousands of Jewish hearts 
to their very depths by its inimitable 
eloquence, that burns like celestial fire 
and inspires like the outpourings of 
the undying prophets of Israel, this 
masterpiece of a master mind was 
originally written by Dr. Einhorn in 
the German language. Many of the 
Jewish school books of that time were 
also compiled in the language of the 
Fatherland. Most of the rabbis and 
preachers of the Jewish- American con- 
gregations were imported from Ger- 
many and the Jewish congregations of 
the United States were nearly all Ger- 
manized to the core. Rabbi Messing 
could preach a German sermon in a 
manner that appealed strongly to the 
sentiments of his countrymen. 
Congregation B'nai Sholom owes 
much to this once very 
popular rabbi and it has shown 
its appreciation of his services In many 
ways. He left the B'nai Sholom con- 
gregation repeatedly to accept other 
calls, but he always returned to his old 
love and the congregation was always 
happy to take him back. He is now 
permanently located In Chicago as 
minister of Congregation B'nai Sho- 
lom, where he expects to remain dur- 
ing the rest of his life. 
. Rabbi Messing is a native of Ar- 
genau, Germany, and was born on 
June 18, 1840. He is a son of the well- 
known Hebrew author, Rabbi Joseph 

Messing, who died in London in 1881, 
and is the oldest of three brothers, 
Rev. M. Messing, rabbi at Indianapolis, 
Ind.; Rev. Henry J. Messing, rabbi 
United Hebrew Congregation, St. Lou- 
is, and Simon J. Messing, a well-known 
merchant of Pittsburgh. From his 
earliest youth Rabbi A. J. Messing was 
educated for the ministry. He received 
his Hebrew education under Gutt- 
macher and Graetz, and studied in Ber- 
lin under Ettlinger and Zunz. When 
not quite twenty years of age he be- 
came minister of the congregation in 
Militch, Schlesien. After remaining in 
this position three years he was called 
to Mecklenburg Schwerln, where he re- 
mained for five years and left that 
place to accept a call from the Christy 
street synagogue In New York, to 
which position Dr. Zunz had recom- 
mended him. 

After but one year's connection with 
this last mentioned congregation, he re- 
turned to Europe, and shortly after his 
return he received a call from the 
B'nai Sholom Congregation of Chicago, 
in which position he remained for 
three years and would have remained 
with them longer, had he not thought 
best to accept a call to San Francisco, 
where he went June 2, 1870. In June, 
1873, he returned to Chicago and again 
resumed his position as minister of the 
B'nai Sholom Congregation. When 
the second fire broke out in '76 and left 
the rabbi and his congregation without 
a home he accepted a call to the Peoria 
Temple, but only remained there a 
short time, when he responded to an- 
other call from San Francisco and as- 
sumed charge of the Congregation Beth 
Israel in March, 1877. While on the 
coast he founded a number of congre- 
gations and established religious 
schools throughout California, and in 
the interest of this mission he under- 
took a journey to Australia, which was 
quite successful. Shortly after his re- 
turn from this journey he left San 
Francisco and returned to Chicago. A 
son of Rabbi Messing, Abraham J. 
Messing, is also a Jewish minister, a 
graduate of the Hebrew Union College 
of Cincinnati, who has charge of the 
Jewish Congregation in Montgomery, 


If any Jewish teacher has a right to 
be called "rabbi," Henry Geraonl cer- 
tainly was entitled to It He was a 
great scholar, a linguist, a journalist 
and especially one of the best. If not 
the best, Hebrew writers of his time In 
this country. His life, alas, was a 
failure, and he died in poverty, unap- 
preciated and unnoticed by the very 
men who should have tried their ut- 
most to help and to encourage a man 
of his genius, for the sake of his vast 
erudition, his great rabbinical learning, 
his journalistic talent and his various 
other glorious gifts of mind. If he 
was a misanthrope, quarrelsome and 
even abusive to a high degree, all 
these faults, grave as they were, were 

not fundamental in his nature, they 
were rather the effects of his many 
bitter disappointments, the total lack 
of appreciation by the Jewish leaders, 
the Jewish teachers, the popular idols 
of the day, for whom it was a very 
easy matter to crush, to humble and to 
humiliate, a deformed, weak and fee- 
ble little body like Gersonl. 

This sensitive little man, who walked 
In the midst of his people under the 
black shadow of the unfounded accu- 
sation of apostasy, was easily goaded 
by the constant call of "Meshumod," 
hurled at him from certain directions, 
as the savage hurls the poisoned arrow 
on its mission of death, into writing 
the uncalled-for articles like "Wises" 
Heder" and "Jew Against Jew," in the 
Jewish Advance, and the "Historical 
Sketch" of the Russian career of the 
sainted Dr.Lilienthal,in the "Independ- 
ent." During Gersoni's stay in Chicago, 
the writer had the pleasure of seeing 
him often and at last to become inti- 
mately acquainted with him. Gersonl 
has often poured out his aching and 
breaking heart to the writer and laid 
bare his whole past before him. We 
can testify that Gersoni was not a 
"Meshumod," that he never left the 
faith of his fathers to bend before 
strange gods. 

His first article, onn> anjn rrnoi pub- 
lished in "Hameliz," of St. Petersburg, 
Russia, while he was yet in London, 
and the second article, pvh ruya 
which Gersoni sent from New 
York to the same Hebrew journal, 
do not contain a single word of 
confession of apostasy on his part. 
If anything, every word of these 
two articles, which have been so often 
used against him, breathes the spirit 
of true love for and of unshaken loy- 
alty to Judaism and his Jewish breth- 
ren. It is due to the memory of this 
misjudged scholar to set at rest the 
rankling rumors and to wash out the 
dark stain from the name of a faith- 
ful son of Israel. Professor Marx of 
London, the venerable editor of the 
Jewish World, has testified once, that 
Gersoni came to London as a political 
fugitive from Russia, that he was 
helplessly walking the streets of the 
British Babylon in a starving condition 
and was picked up by one of the Chris- 
tian soul catchers, taken to the Chris- 
tian Bible House and given some food, 
which the hungry young man greedily 
devoured. He was set to work first In 
the bindery of that institution, and 
then at translating *he bible into the 
several languages with which he was 
familiar. As soon as Gersoni found 
out the character of the house and the 
nature of that which was expected of 
him, he at once appealed to Dr. Marx, 
for help, to be rescued from the snare 
of the fowlers. Dr. Marx immediately 
released him and helped him to emi- 
grate to America. This Is all there is 
to the whole "meshumod" story, and 
no just man will deny that Gersoni 
was to all intents and purposes as good 
a Jew in this country as anyone of us. 



Perhaps any other Jew, living among 
his own countfymen, could have easily 
outlived this unwarranted accusation. 
But Gersoni had drafted away from the 
narrow confines of the ghetto and 
sought to gain a recognition in more 
refined circles, to which he was fully 
entitled by virtue of his education, his 
tastes and his talents. But like many 
other educated countrymen of his, he 
lost the sympathy of his own country- 
men and failed to attain the apprecia- 
tion of those Jews who pride them- 
selves upon the fact that their cradles 
stood on the Main, on the Rhein or in 
the Grand Duchy of Posen. Yes, the 
greatest fault of Gersoni was, indeed, 
the fact that he was a Russian Jew. 
Taking his high education and his bril- 
liant talents into consideration, the 
fact that he was born in darkest Rus- 
sia and raised in the gloomy atmos- 
phere of superstition and fanaticism 
of the Heder and Yeshi'ba, sihould have 
redounded to his credit. But this was 
not the case. Only one great and good 
man understood him, appreciated him, 
in Chicago and helped him while he 
was fighting the wolf from the door In 
New York. This man was our vener- 
able Dr. B. Felsenthal, who has a great 
mind and a big, warm and sympathetic 

Henry Gersoni was born In 1844 in 
Wilna, Russia, he being the youngest 
child of a family of eleven children 
seven sons and four daughters. Three 
of his brothers are rabbis of different 
towns In their native country. At the 
age of six he started to go to Heder, 
studied Talmud up to the age of 16 
years, then he entered the Rabbinical 
Seminary of Wilna. In 1864 he went 
to St. Petersburg, became a student at 
the university, where he remained for 
two years. He was then appointed 
tutor to Count Uvaroff's only daughter. 
For political reasons he left St. Peters- 
burg in 1866 and went to England. In 
1869 he arrived in the United States 
and became teacher in Temple Eman- 
uel of New York, holding that position 
to 1874. He was elected rabbi of the 
congregation at Atlanta, Ga., in the 

same year, where he remained two 
years. In 1876 he accepted a call to 
the pulpit of Congregation B'nai Sha- 
lom of Chicago, holding this position 
until 1880. While in Chicago he edited 
a weekly paper ia English and Ger- 
man, called "The Jewish Advance." In 
1881 this paper was discontinued and 
Gersoni published and edited in Chi- 
cago a monthly magazine under the 
name of "The Maccabean." In 1882 he 
returned to New York, where he sup- 
ported himself by literary work. 

In 1873 he published a volume of 
stories, "Gersoni's Sketches of Jewish 
Life and History," mostly from Jewish 
life in Russia. In later years he trans- 
lated into English some of the best 
stories of Ivan Turgenieff, the celebrat- 
ed Russian writer, who was called the 
Russian Auerbach. Henry Gersoni die 
in New York on June 17th, 1897, aged 
54 years. He left a widow but no chil- 
dren. A sister and two nephews, Henry 
M. Shabad, a lawyer, and A. M. Sha- 
bad, a physician, are living in Chicago. 


Mr. Harris was the first president of 
Congregation B'nai Sholom, and the 
services which he rendered to the con- 
gregation during its struggles for ex- 
istence, were of inestimable value. Mr. 
Harris was born in 1825, at Felelhne, 
Grand Duchy of Posen, Germany. 

He came to America in 1844, and 
lived for three years in New York City. 
In 1847 he went to St. Louis, Mo., 
where he married, and in 1851 he 
moved to Chicago. 

For many years he held the office 
of president in the congregation, al- 
ways filling some office after that, and 
his interest in the walfare of Congre- 
gation B'nai Sholom never flagged. He 
became very popular in Chicago, made 
many friends and was always esteemed 
by young and old. He is a man of a 
very pleasant disposition and to hear 
him tell his reminiscences of men and 
measures of the old days of the Chi- 
cago Community, is indeed a treat. He 
seems to have known personally every 

prominent Jewish inhabitant of Chi- 
cago, from the time he came here up to 
the present day. On April 5th. 1900, 
Mr. and Mrs. Harris celebrated their 
golden wedding, at the Auditorium, 
surrounded by six children, twelve 
grandchildren and a host of relatives 
and friends. He is now retired from 
business and is leading a tranquil life, 
in company with his good and faithful 
helpmate, finding full satisfaction in 
looking back upon a past of many 
years spent in the interest of his fellow 
men, and the service of Judaism. 


Mr. Richter, the president of B'nai 
Sholom Congregation, is a son of Isi- 

President B'nai Sholem Congregation. 

dor and Hannah Richter, and was born 
Jan. 10, 1850. He came to America as 
a boy of ten years, and has since been 
in various occupations, such as clerk 
and merchant. He has been actively 
identified with congregational work 
and has been president of the B'nai 
Sholom Congregation for eleven years, 
prior to which time he served as vice- 
president and trustee. He is a contri- 
butor to the Associated Charities and 
to the Altenheim. Mr. Richter mar- 
ried Jennie Rosenthal and they have 
four children living. ' 

Institutions $ Q raanizations 




The influence for good exerted toy the 
Order of B'nai Brith upon tlhe Jewish 
communities of Illinois, was certainly 
deep and far reaching. The lodges es- 
tablished by the order in the state be- 
ame schools for citizenship, for patri- 
otism, for education and enlightenment. 
At the lodge meetings the members 
learned order and decorum, parliamen- 
tary rules and regulations, speaking 
and debating, and they were imbued 
with a higher conception of religion, 
charity and benevolence. The Jews of 
Illinois, as well as all the Jews of this 
country, owe a debt of gratitude to 
the Order of B'nai Brith, which can 
never be fully paid; for the benefits 
which the Jews of America in general 
have derived from this order cannot 
be limited to any particular line or 
sphere. They were universal and ex- 
erted their influence for many years 
over the home, social and religious 
life of the American Jews. The mission 
of the order was from its incipency, 
a lofty and ideal one. For over a half 
century the noble leaders of the order 
worked with untiring zeal for the spir- 
itual union and material benefit of 
Israel and the highest interests of hu- 
manity, and their good work is not yet 
done. The order has not yet out- 
Hved its mission. As long as the Czars 
of Russia and the tyranny of the Rom- 
anoffs will drive away thousands of 
Jews, to seek homes in this land of 
Liberty, and other enlightened coun- 
tries; as long as Anti-Semitism will 
brazenly resurrect the dead accusa- 
tions of the middle ages against the 
Jewish people; as long as the barbari- 
ans of Roumania will treat the native 
Jews of that country as aliens; as long 
as fanatics will defy the enlightenment 
of the twentieth century and persecute 
our Jewish brethren, there will be 
plenty of work for the Order of B'nai 

RAMAH LODGE, NO. 33, I. J. B. B. 

The first lodge of the Order of B'nai 
Brith established in Chicago was Ra- 
man Lodge. The facts concerning the 
history of this lodge we quote from 
a paper written by Henry Greenebaum 

and read by him before the Zion 
Literary Society of Chicago on 
Feb. 16th, 1883. In this connec- 
tion we improve the opportunity 
to extend our thanks to Mr. Greene- 
baum for placing at our dis- 
posal a book containing a collection of 
documents bearing upon the history 
of the Chicago Jewish community. This 
book has been of great help to us in 
our work. 

In regard to Raman Lodge, Mr. 
Greenebaum states: "Ramah Lodge 
was instituted June 15th, 1857. The in- 
stalling officers were Rev. Dr. Lilien- 
thal, Mr. Renau, one of the leaders of 
the order, and myself. I had become 
a member of the order two years be- 
fore that time by joining Solomon 
Lodge, No. 16, at Cleveland, Ohio, 
where I went to be initiated, and re- 
turning there again one month later, 
to receive all the degrees under dis- 
pensation. Immediately after the in- 
stitution of Ramah Lodge, I applied 
for a card of withdrawal from Solomon 
Lodge, and joined Ramah Lodge, 
whose first president and vice president 
were respectively, G. M. Cohen and 
Rudolph Rosenthal. I consider the in- 
stitution of Ramah Lodge as the most 
important factor in the subsequent 
rapid development of Judaism in Chi- 
cago, and of an incalculable influence 
upon the glorious progress since at- 
tained by the order at large. 

Under the able guidance of Brother 
B. Felsenthal, ways and means to pro- 
mote the intellectual and moral status 
of the members, and the Jewish So- 
ciety generally, were made legitimate 
objects of inquiry, at weekly meetings 
of RamaJh Lodge, which were regularly 
attended by all the members, and an 
earnestness prevailed, akin to that 
which animated the leading spirits of 
the French Revolution. Here some 
of the best minds of German and Polish 
Jews joined hands to remove the mis- 
erable provincial barriers existing in 
Chicago, and the motto of the order, 
"Benevolence, Brotherly Love and Har- 
mony," became the living motive of all 
their actions in the outside world. The 
members of Ramah Lodge co-operated 
In every true and noble movement 
that was urged, either in the Hebrew 
Benevolent Society or in the existing 
congregations; and after a term of two 


years of self-imposed preparation, Ra- 
mah Lodge had the proud satisfaction 
of uniting our existing Jewish Organi- 
zations, Polish and German, in one 
common organization. Jewish reform 
was systematically inculcated in Ra- 
mah Lodge, literary culture stimulated 
and refinement of manner cultivated. 

The idea of the brotherhood of men 
was rooted deeply in the souls of the 
members, and a determination acquired 
to battle honorably for the elevation 
and appreciation of Israel, which has 
left indelible marks on the minds of 
many of the members of the Chicago 
Jewish Community. 

All subsequent "Jewish Organiza- 
tions have been influenced by the im- 
proved and advanced spirit, that hal- 
lowed the sacred precincts of Ramah 
Lodge. This same spirit has been felt 
ever since in the councils of the order, 
state and national. 

Among the most prominent members 
of Ramah Lodge were the following: 
B. Felsenthal, Herman Felsenthal, 
Charles Kozminski, H. Goldsmith, A. 
Hart, J. L. Gatzert and L. Solomon. 
Many of the older members have since 
left the order, and some have left the 
city, some have died and ethers have 
joined other lodges in the city, in the 
interest of the order. 

Ramah Lodge is still in existence in 
the city of Chicago, and is continuing 
in the good work, which it has chosen 
for its aim from the very start. The 
membership has considerably increased 
and so has its general fund which 
amounts today to many thousand dol- 
lars. Some years ago it had created 
a special widows' and orphans' fund, 
the interest of which is devoted to 
helping poor widows of members, and 
to the education of their orphaned 

Prior to 1858, efforts were made in 
Chicago to establish different societies. 
There was also organized about that 
time a society which flourished a few 
years under the leadership of Ed S. 
Solomon, and was discontinued after 
Mr. Solomon entered the United States 
Army of Volunteers in 1861. The name 
of this society was "Young Men's Fra- 
ternity." It was a secret organization, 
and had two sister lodges outside of 
Illinois, one at Milwaukee, Wis., and 
one .at Detroit. Mich. 

In the meantime the Jewish popula* 




tion of Chicago (had materially in- 
creased by immigration from Europe 
and different states of the Union, and 
the constant additions of new comers 
Boon enabled the Chicago Jewish Com- 
munity to expand in all directions, 
and to create new organizations and 
institutions, and the Order of B'nai 
Brith found ample material for new 

HILLEL LODGE, NO. 72, I. O. B. B. 

The second lodge of the Order 
B'nai B'rith in the State of Illinois was 
Hillel Lodge, also in Chicago. Dis- 
trict Grand Lodge, No. 2, granted the 
charter for this lodge on January 28, 
1866. The following were its charter 
members: Henry Greenebaum, Isaac 
Greenebaum, Abraham Newberger, 
Mayer Hirsch, Gabriel Rubel, Moses 
Goodman, Solomon Rothschild, Levi J. 
Unna, Dr. Bernhard Felsenthal and 
Michael Newgass. The first President 
was Henry Greenebaum, who took a 
withdrawal card from Romah Lodge 
for the purpose of organizing Hillel 
Lodge. It was installed by Lewis 
Abram, Grand Nassi Ab., and other 
officers of the Grand Lodge. 

Hillel Lodge readily followed in the 
footsteps of its older sister, Raman, 
and had soon established' for itself an 
enviable reputation. It always re- 
sponded liberally to an appeal for any 
good cause. It counts among its mem- 
bers some of the most prominent Jew- 
ish citizens of Chicago, and is consid- 
ered the banner lodge of District No. 6. 
The membership of Hillel Lodge is 
now 117 and quite a number of young 
applicants are awaiting initiation. 

The present officers are: Wm. S. 
Neuberger, President; Meyer H. Eich- 
engreen, Vice-President; David A. Fel- 
senthal Secretary, and Adolph Loeb, 

As the Jewish population of the 
state kept on increasing the Order of 
B'nai B'rith gained a stronger foothold 
in Illinois and lodge after lodge was 
added to the ranks. It soon became 
necessary to establish a separate dis- 
trist for the western states, and Dis- 
trict No. 6 was consequently called into 
existence. This district now comprises 
the following states: Illinois, Michi- 
gan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa and 
Nebraska with the following lodges at 
Chicago: Ramah, Hillel, Maurice 
Mayer, Jonathan, Sovereignty, Orien- 
tal, Chicago, Northwestern, Herder, 
Alexander Hamilton, and Samuel 
Hirsch Auxiliary Lodge, consisting of 
Jewish Youths. In the state, outside of 
Chicago, are the following lodges: 
Ernes, No. 67, Springfield; Zuleika, No. 
99, Quincy; Quincy, No. 151, at Quin- 
cy; Progress, No. 113, Peoria; Island, 
No. 169, Rock Island; Humboldt No. 
180, Ottawa; Abraham Lincoln, No. 
190, Bloomington; Egypt, No. 268, 
Cairo, and Liberty, No. 294, Lincoln. 
Altogether there are twenty lodges in 
the state. 

The fraternal organizations are not 
strictly independent Illinois institu- 
tions. They are in reality branches of 

a main body belonging to different 
states. We therefore do not feel jus- 
tified to devote much space to them 
in this history of the Jews of Illinois. 
We made an exception with the first 
two lodges and this will suffice to give 
the character of the fraternal organiza- 
tions. We only mention the names of 
some of the other Jewish orders and 
lodges without entering into details. 

This order entered into the state in 
the beginning of the seventies. There 
are nine men's lodges in Chicago and 
one ladies' lodge, called Esther Lodge. 
They all belong to District No. 2. H. 
M. Shabad is the present Grand Mas- 
ter of this district. 


This order has but two lodges in the 
state, one in Chicago and one in Otta- 
wa. It flourished for a time, but of 
late has been losing ground very fast. 

Eight lodges represent this order in 
Chicago. Two are ladies' lodges. 

very strongly represented in the state. 
It has thirty-one lodges in Chicago, 
three of which are ladies' lodges, and 
two lodges in the city of Peoria. 

Is also well represented in the state 
by a number of lodges in Chicago and 
other places. 


There are three Zionist organizations 
in Chicago which are affliated with the 
Federation of American Zionists. 

The headquarters of this order are 
in Chicago. The subordinate lodges are 
in Chicago. The subordinate lodges are 
called "gates." There are six such 
gates in Chicago. 



The year 1858 marks the beginning 
of the era of Jewish Reform in the 
state of Illinois. The battlefield was 
still Chicago, and here it was, in that 
year, when the persistent, courageous 
, and valiant endeavors of the men who 
did pioneer yeomen services in the re- 
form cause, like Leopold Mayer, God- 
frey Snydacker, Henry and Elias 
Greenebaum, Raphael Guthmann, the 
brothers Samuel and Leon Straus, and 
others, culminated in the first practi- 
cal organization. This first reform or- 
ganization was called the "Reform 

In 1898, Dr. B. Felsenthal, who was 
the secretary of that organization, 
wrote a pamphlet "Beginnings of the 
Chicago Sinai Congregation, a Contri- 
bution to the Inner History of Ameri- 
can Judaism." This pamphlet which 
was published under the auspices of 
the Sinai Congregation, contains the 
history of the "Reform Verein," and 
also of the organization of Sinai Con- 
gregation, which was the consequence 
of the establishment of the "Reform 
Verein." As the esteemed author of 
this pamphlet was closely connected 

with both institutions, we deem it 
best to quote, as much as possible, 
from his reports. 

Dr. Felsenthal writes: "In April, 
1858, the present writer or let us 
hereafter call him by his proper name, 
by the name of B. Felsenthal came to 
Chicago and found employment in a 
banking house. Said Felsenthal also 
entertained reform views. Some of his 
countrymen and personal friends whom 
he met here were among those whose 
mental life was not entirely absorbed 
by their business pursuits, but who had 
kept and nourished within themselves 
the love of the more idealistic tenden- 
cies of life, and who especially wished 
another state of things in Judaism. It 
was natural that they, he and his 
friends, in their private conversations, 
often came to speak of Jewish affairs 
and how to better them, and in one 
of their private intercourses it was 
agreed to invite a number of friends 
to come together and found, if possible, 
a society for the purpose of fostering 
Jewish reform. 

"Invitations were sent out and ' in 
consequence of them a number of 
friends met on Sunday, June 20th, 1858, 
at 3 p. m., at the office of Greenebaum 
Bros. (45 Clark St.), and then and 
there the 'Juedische Reformverein' was 
instituted. The following were present 
in the memorable meeting: Gerhard 
Foreman, Elias Greenebaum, Michael 
Greenebaum, Raphael Guthmann, Isaac 
Greensfelder, Leopold Mayer, Leopold 
Miller, Samuel Straus and Bernhard 

"Mr. Leopold Mayer was elected as 
chairman, and B. Felsenthal as secre- 
tary. After an address by the chair- 
man, the secretary submitted a paper 
containing twenty-seven theses. The 
same were read and it was resolved to 
accept them as a basis for further con- 

"The secretary's theses, together 
with a preamble, read as follows: 

" 'We are deeply convinced that Is- 
rael has been called by God to be the 
Messiah of the nations and to spread 
truth and virtue on earth. In order to 
fulfill this high mission, Israel has to 
undergo a process of purification in its 
own midst. This abject will be best 
accomplished in free and blessed Amer- 
ica, where no material forces check 
spiritual progress. The special mis- 
sion of American Israel, therefore, is 
to place Judaism before the world pur- 
ified in the doctrine and conduct and so 
to become a shining example for Is- 
raelites the world over. In order to 
do our share in this work, we organize 
today a Jewish Reform Society for 
which we draw up the following guid- 
ing principles: 

" 'I. Object of the Society. 

" '1. The object of the Jewish Re- 
form Society is to awaken and culti- 
vate a truer conception of Judaism and 
a higher realization of Jewish Relig- 
ious Life, first among its own mem- 
bers, and, if possible, also in wider 

"'IT. The Religious Basis of the 



" '2. The Jewish Reform Society, as 
its name indicates, has a decidedly 
Jewish as well as a decidedly reforma- 
tory tendency. In order to explain this 
more fully the following fundamental 
views are here laid down.' " 

(Here follow a number of paragraphs 
in explanation of the foregoing.) 

"In a meeting held Jan. 30th, it was 
resolved to appoint a committee, whose 
duty shall be to submit in the next 
meeting a report on the religious basis 
of a reform congregation. 

"Many of those who have joined the 
Verein and who favored the institut- 
ing of a new congregation were mem- 
bers of Kehillath Anshe Maarabh. In 
fact, the majority of members of the 
Verein were still members of said con- 
gregation. In order to receive more 
light on the questions involved from 
an authority, who, as such was ac- 
knowledged and honored by many of 
the Chicago friends of reform, a letter 
was sent to Dr. S. Adler, the Rabbi of 
the Emanuel Congregation in New 
York, submitting to him several ques- 
tions and requesting his answers there- 
to. The first letter dated Nov. 24th, 

1858, contained the following four 

"1. Is it desirable to establish a new 
Reform Congregation here? 

"2. What do you think of Minhag 

"3. What ways are to be pursued in 
a mixed congregation, that is, a con- 
gregation consisting of members dif- 
fering in their religious views, In or- 
der to satisfy, at least the most urgent 
demands for reform? 

"4. Eventually, what ways should be 
pursued by a pure and unmixed reform 

"In a meeting held Jan. 30th, it was 

1859, Dr. Adler answered these ques- 

"On Dec. 31st, 1858. the Chicago 
friends of reform, sent a second let- 
ter to Dr. Adler, asking his opinion 
concerning Einhorn's Prayerbook. On 
Jan. 18th, 1859, he wrote his answer, 
and therein he recommended most 
warmly the new Prayerbook of Dr. 
Einhorn, "No Prayerbook in exist- 
ence can stand comparison with that 
of Einhorn," he said, and this, his 
opinion, is supported by good argu- 

"In 1859, B. Felsenthal issued his 
pamphlet, "Kol Kore Bamidbar, Con- 
cerning Jewish Reform." This pam- 
phlet was a factor of considerable pow- 
er in furthering the cause of reform in 
Chicago, and in making the plan of 
founding up a Reform Congregation in 
this city a success. 

"The little book was stirring ana 
made a great sensation. In accordance 
with a resolution passed, immediately 
after by the Reform Verein, a public 
meeting was held, April 17th, 1859, 
which was attended by hundreds of 
Chicago Jews. At that meeting Leo- 
pold Mayer and B. Felsenthal ad-, 
dressed those assembled. It was al- 
most in compliance with the resolution 
of the Verein that a second mass meet- 

ing took place on Dec. 29th, 1859, and 
Bern-hard Felsenthal addressed on this 
occasion, hundreds of his fellow Is- 
raelites, who had come to that meet- 

"During the year 1860-61 very little 
transpired in the Verein. The political 
excitements in those years were too 
intense, civil war between the North 
and South was threatening and rapidly 
approaching. The minds of all were al- 
most totally occupied by the ail-ab- 
sorbing political question. After the fall 
holidays of 1860, a considerable num- 
ber of members of K. A. M., seeing 
that their endeavors to introduce re- 
forms in their synagogue was fruitless, 
left their congregation and joined the 
Verein. In numbers and in means the 
Verein was now so much strengthened, 
that successful steps could be taken 
for establishing the congregation. A 
committee was appointed of whom B. 
Felsenthal was a member, to draft a 
constitution for the congregation about 
to be founded. In this constitution the 
name "Sinai Congregation," was given 
to the new congregation. On Feb. 17th, 
1861, it was resolved to adopt Ein- 
horn's Prayerbook as the ritual of the 
new Temple. 

"It is meet and proper that, as a mat- 
ter of history, we should record here 
the names of those who first instituted 
this Reform Verein; these were: Ellas 
Greenebaum, Michael Greenebaum, Ja- 
cob Greenebaum, Henry Greenebaum, 
Gerhard Foreman, Leopold Mayer, Leo- 
pold Miller, Raphael Guthmann, Isaac 
Greensfelder, Samuel Straus, Leon 
Straus, Bernhard Felsenthal, Nathan 
Mayer, Moses Rubel, Samuel Alschular, 
Isaac Liebenstein, Moses Schields, Laz. 
E. Lebolt, Simon Haas, Moses Hirsch, 
Henry Kaufman, L. Rubens, and Isaac 


The name of B. Felsenthal has been 
mentioned so often in these pages and 
will be alluded to frequently hereaft- 
er, especially in connection with the 
Sinai and Zion Congregations of Chi- 
cago, that it is time we should in- 
form the reader more particularly In 
regard to the antecedents, life and la- 
bors of this teacher in Israel. 

Bernhard Felsenthal was born Jan. 
2nd, 1822, at Muenchweiler, near Kais- 
erslautern, in the Rhenish Palatinate. 
His earliest education he received in 
the Elementary School of his native 
village. After he had reached the age 
of 13 years his father sent him to the 
"Kreisgewerbschule," in Kaiserlau- 
tern, from which institution he grad- 
uated in 1838. When stijl at the school 
at Muenchweiler, he was led into the 
field of Rabbinic literature 'by the dis- 
trict Rabbi, M. Cohen, who then re- 
sided at Muenchweiler. At Kaiserslau- 
tern, young Felsenthal continued his 
Rabbinic and taltnudic studies under 
Rabbi Moses Cohen, who, in 1835, had 
chosen the city of Kaiserslautern as 
the place of his residence. 

In the fall of 1838, B. Felsenthal went 
to Munich to continue his studies at 

the Polytechnic High School, and as a 
"hospitant," he heard also lectures at 
University. At that time he devoted 
himself mostly to mathematical stud- 
ies, and he had formed the plan of en- 
tering into tue Civil Service of Bavaria. 
But soon he was convinced that his 
hopes in this regard would never be 
realized. Being a Jew, he could not ex- 
pect that he would be appointed to 
some office, and so he discontinued his 
studies in Munich in the fall of 1840. 
The question now was what to do. 
Some practical course had to be taken. 


and so young Felsenthal made up his 
mind to become a teacher, and for that 
purpose he entered the Teachers' Semi- 
nary at Kaiserslautern. After a two 
years' course in this institution, he 
graduated in 1843, and soon thereafter 
he was engaged as a teacher in a small 
Jewish Congregation, in his native 
Province, the Rhenish Palatinate. 

In 1854 he emigrated to America. For 
the first two years of his American life, 
he was employed as a tutor of the chil- 
dren of a befriended family in Law- 
renceburg, Ind. In March, 1856, he re- 
ceived a call from the Jewish Congre- 
gation in Madison, Ind., to be their 
minister; he accepted the situation, 
and remained with that congregation 
for two years. 

Then he was invited by some friends 
to come to Chicago and enter into a 
new field altogether. He did so; in the 
month of April, 1858, he went to Chi- 
cago. He found employment as a clerk 
in a banking house. He led, as such, a 
retired life, devoting his leisure time 
mostly to talmudic literature, which 
always had been very attractive for 

In the summer of 1858, a number of 
younger Jewish men In Chicago, 
formed a society under the name of 
"Juedischer Reform verein;" of this so- 
ciety Felsenthal was the secretary un- 
til it dissolved in 1861. While secretary 
of the Verein, Felsenthal published his 
pamphlet (in 1859), "Kol Kore Bamid- 
bar; Ueber. Juedische Reform." This 
pamphlet did very much in promoting 
the Jewish Reform movement in Chi- 
cago. In the spring of 1861, after it 



had been resolved by the Reform Ver- 
ein to establish a 'Reform Congrega- 
tion, and the question arose, where to 
find a Rabbi for their spiritual guide 
for this congregation. The members al- 
most unanimously asked Mr. Felsen- 
thal to become their Rabbi; they urged 
aim to accept the office, and in addition 
to these urgent requests, letters from 
the late Rabbi Dr. Einhorn and the 
late Rabbi Dr. Samuel Adler, reached 
him, in which he was also urgently re- 
quested to accept the office; he hesi- 
tated no longer. 

In June, 1864, after Felsenthal had 
officiated three^ years in the "Sinai 
Congregation," he was re-elected for 
another term. A committee, consisting 
of Messrs. Schoeneman, Frankenthal 
and Gatzert, informed Felsenthal of his 
re-election. B. Felsenthal thought that 
the congregation, being otherwise sat- 
isfied with him, should make his posi- 
tion more secure and elect him either 
for life time or during good behavior. 
To this condition the congregation 
would not consent, and in consequence 
of this disagreement, Felsenthal re- 

A few weeks thereafter, during the 
summer of 1864, a number of Chicago 
Israelites founded the "Ziori Congrega- 
tion," and unanimously resolved to in- 
vite B. Felsenthal to become their min- 
ister. In September, 1864, he entered 
upon the duties of his new position. 

For twenty-two years, that is, until 
the fall of 1886, Felsenthal was the of- 
ficiating Rabbi of the Zion Congrega- 

In 1886 Rabbi Felsenthal was pen- 
sioned and retired from office. Only oc- 
casionally he has since then ascended 
the pulpit. In 1866, he was greatly hon- 
ored, by the old Chicago University, 
with a diploma as a Doctor of Philoso- 
phy. In 1868 he published a practical 
grammar of the Hebrew language. 
About a year previously ihe had pub- 
lished "Yuedisches Schulwesen In 
Amerika." In 1869: "Kritik des Mis- 
sionswesens." In 1878: "Zur Proselyt- 
renfrage im Yudenthum." In 1869: 
"Yuedische Fragen." 

He contributed often to various peri- 
odicals as "Sinai," "Jewish Times," 
"Young Israel," "Zeitgeist," "Jewish 
Advance," "Reform Advocate," "The 
Menorah," etc. Also articles from his 
pen appeared in the year book of the 
Central Conference of American Rab- 
bis, in the publication of the American 
Jewish Historical Society, etc. 

On Jan. 2nd, 1892, the members of 
the Zion Congregation, and a number 
of his friends, celebrated the 70th anni- 
versary of the birth of Dr. Felsenthal, 
by a grand banquet arranged in the 
vestry rooms of the "Zion Temple," 
and on the Saturday previous a special 
service was held at the Temple in hon- 
or of Rev. Dr. Felsenthal, who has been 
their spiritual guide for so many years. 
Dr. Felsenthal was on this occasion the 
recipient of a great number of congrat- 
ulatory telegrams, letters and Hebrew 
poems, laudatory of his fine character, 
manly virtues, and scholarly attain- 
ments as well as a faithful exponent of 

the word of God, and as a sincere min- 
ister of religion in the Chicago Jewish 

The work of Dr. Felsenthal, as a 
leader in Israel, has made an indelible 
impression and will occupy a conspic- 
uous part in the 'history of the Ameri- 
can Jews and Judaism in this country. 
Especially will his pioneer labors in 
the interest of the Reform Judaism 
claim the attention of the Jewish his- 
torians. In Illinois he was the first 
practical path-finder of Jewish Reform; 
he sowed the seeds, tilled the soil, 
worked and watched with unabating 
interest and energy until the blossoms 
appeared, the buds sprouted and the 
fruit ripened. As a man he stands 
prominently high in the esteem of his 
fellow men; as an American Citizen, 
he is 'held in great regard by his fellow 
citizens, and as a Jewish savant he is 
looked up to by scholars, as a man of 
great erudition. He is an authority on 
Rabbinical questions, on subjects of 
Jewish history and literature and one 
of the best Hebrew scholars in this 
country; he is a profound thinker and 
logical and forcible writer in the He- 
brew as well as in the German and 
English languages. 

Like the late Dr. Liebman Adler, of 
blessed memory, he 'has made many 
friends and very few enemies dur- 
ing his long and useful career 
in the Chicago Community. The 
hand of time is exhibiting the 
signs of old age on his head, 
and a host of friends ardently 
pray that our Father in Heaven may 
lighten the burden of the loss, of his 
noble, true and kind helpmate, and 
that many more years of happiness 
may be vouchsafed to this venerable 
and honored teacher of Israel. 


This association was established in 
Chicago by eleven Jewish young men 
in September, 1859. The object of the 
association was to gain a more inti- 
mate union among the young men of 
Chicago and for the promotion of lit- 
erature. The members were prominent 
business men and good speakers, and 
many a spirited debate enlivened their 

The officers were: Henry N. Hart, 
president; D. J. Boehm, vice-presi- 
dent; G. A. Levi, recording secretary; 
Martin Barbe, financial seretary, and 
F. S. Mandle, treasurer. 


About that time there was also in 
existence a Jewish club by the name 
of Excelsior. This club was noted for 
its theatrical performances and mu- 
sical entertainments. Mr. E. Salomon 
was at the head of this club, which 
had about seventy-five members. 



The population of Chicago contin- 
ued to increase very rapidly. The 
Jewish community kept pace by con- 

stant additions to its members. The 
demands upon Jewish charity were 
growing from day to day and the 
necessity of organizing some charity 
institution was very much felt in the 

In February, 1859, the leaders met 
in the vestry rooms of the synagogue 
of Congregation Anshe Maarabh, cor- 
ner Wells and Adams streets, for the 
purpose of starting a charity associa- 
tion. Six or eight meetings were held 
before a system of organization was 

For several years past various Jew- 
ish organizations of the city main- 
tained a special relief fund for the as- 
sistance of non-members. There was 
also a relief society for the assistance 
of needy co-religionists. The subject 
of a union of all these charity-giving 
societies was proposed to Raman 
Lodge No. S3, I. O. B. B., and at the 
suggestion of Henry Greenebaum, 
Ramah Lodge appointed a committee 
to wait upon the several Jewish so- 
cieties. A convention composed of 
delegates, on the basis of one for each 
ten members, from the Hebrew Relief 
society, Hebrew Benevolent society, 
Ramah lodge, Young Men's Fraterni- 
ty, Relief society No. 2, Young Ladies' 
Benevolent society. Ladies' Benevo- 
lent society, and of the presidents of 
K. A. M. and B'nai Sholom congrega- 
tions, held several meetings, adopted 
a constitution and elected an execu- 
tive board. 

The final object of this association 
was to provide for the hospital In 
which poor co-religionists shall be 
attended to when sick and for an asy- 
lum to receive Jewish widows and 
orphans without means. On Novem- 
ber 20, 1859, the executive board held 
its first meeting and elected Henry 
Greenebaum president, Isaac Greens- 
felder treasurer and Edward S. Salo- 
mon recording secretary. Of this orig- 
inal board President Henry Greene- 
baum and Treasurer Isaac Greensfeld- 
er are the only two surviving officers. 

On October 4, 1860, the board of del- 
egates held their first annual meeting 
at which the following delegates were 
present: Hebrew Relief society, M. 
M. Gerstley, A. Cohen, G. Snydacker 
and J. Cook; Hebrew Benevolent so- 
ciety, R. Guthman, J. Liebensteln, I. 
Greensfelder, A. Hart, B. Schlossman, 
M. Schields, J. M. Stine and L. Frei- 
berger; Ramah lodge, Henry Greene- 
baum, L. J. Unna, J. Greenebaum, Sr., 
B. Barbe, H. Felsenthal, Julius Ham- 
burger, J. L. Gatzert and B. Brunne- 
man; Young Men's Fraternity, Ed. S. 
Salomon, J. Biersdorf, M. Morris and 
B. Engel; Relief society No. 2, A. Alex- 
ander, A. Barnett, Anton Herzog and 
S. Levy; Ladies' Benevolent society, 
Mrs. J. Hyman, Mrs. F. Greenebaum, 
Jr., Mrs. R. Foreman and Mrs. Joseph 
Liebenstein. Young Ladies' Benevo- 
lent society, Mrs. A. Rubel, Miss E. 
Stiefel and Miss F. Salomon; K. A. M., 
President B. Schlossman; B'nai Sho- 
lom congregation, President Jonas 



Moore. The following board was 
elected: H. Greenebaum, president, 
Godfrey Snydacker, vice-president, Is- 
aac Greensfelder, treasurer, Jacob Lle- 
benstein and Julius Hamburger, trus- 
tees, J. L. Gatzert, recording secretary 
and A. Alexander, financial secretary. 
The mayor of the city, J. C. Haines, 
gave his official encouragement to the 
new society and promised his aid and 
assistance. The Michigan Central, 
Michigan Southern, Pittsburg, Ft 
\Vayne and Chicago, Illinois Central 
and the New York and Erie railroads 
offered their aid to forward passengers 
In the charge of the society at reduced 
rates, and Drs. M. B. Isham and N. S. 
Davis performed the medical services 
and Mr. Mathea, druggist, furnished 
medicines at reduced prices. The Clay 
Literary society also became a con- 
tributor to the United Hebrew Relief 
and sent the following delegates: Lew- 
is Reitler, Morris Barbe and Aaron 

On September 20, 1861, the Ladies' 
Sewing society was organized. The 
subject to organize such a society 
was first introduced by the Ladies' 
Benevolent society ana about 100 la- 
dies became members of the sewing 
society. The object of this society 
was to procure material and finish 
garments, bed quilts, etc., for the ben- 
efit of poor co-religionists, the United 
Hebrew Relief society was to see to the 
proper contribution of same. At a 
meeting of the delegates of the He- 
brew Relief association held Septem- 
ber 23, 1861, Mr. Isaac Greensfelder 
was elected president. Mr. Greensfeld- 
er has served as president, treasurer 
and trustee for forty years, and is 
still at the head of the association. 

In April, 1862, the Hebrew Relief as- 
sociation sent a check for $200 to the 
Sanitary Commission, in aid of sick 
and wounded soldiers, the heroes of 
Pittsburg Landing. 

The necessity for a Jewish hospital 
was constantly increasing. Jewish 
patients were sent to Jewish hospitals 
in other cities, which involved much 
expense and many hardships. The 
Hebrew Relief association of Chicago 
had created from the start a hospital 
fund and this fund was now increas- 
ing. The deliberations of the third 
annual meeting were mainly devoted 
to the subject of a Jewish hospital. 

What the patriotic feelings of the 
Chicago Jews were in regard to the 
Civil war, which was then raging in 
the country, was graphically expressed 
in the third annual report of the ex- 
ecutive board, from which we quote: 
"But unfortunately we are surrounded 
by circumstances, which, aside from 
charity, require great sacrifices. We 
are living in a time which, indeed, 
tries men's souls. The very existence 
of that good government, to which the 
Israelite especially is indebted for the 
enjoyment of political equality and re- 
ligious liberty, is threatened at the 
hands of a most bold and wicked con- 
spiracy. The stars and stripes, that 

emblem of justice and free institu- 
tions, have been trampled under foot 
by traitors at home, while the act, if 
not openly commended, is secretly 
cheered by desperate and crowned 
heads of tyrannical Europe. Brave 
hearts and strong arms are rushing 
to the rescue by the hundred thou- 
sands, in support of the government, 
and every loyal man is called upon to 
bring' sacrifices in a holy cause and 
nobly, yes, thrice nobly and patrioti- 
cally did the Israelites of Chicago re- 
spond in the emergency with a burn- 
ing love for country and freedom, did 
they arise, far above all selfish consid- 
eration, and praise resounded 
throughout the land for their support 
of the war, most liberal and truly 

Ten thousand dollars were raised 
in one meeting to fit out a company 
of soldiers. The Jewish ladies sub- 
scribed $150 for a splendid flag to this 

An attemept to organize a society 
for a widows' and orphans' home was 
made in 1863. A meeting was held 
August 3d of that year, in the K. A. 
M. synagogue, M. M. Gerstley in the 
chair and Rev. Liebman Adler serving 
as secretary. Fifty ladies signed their 
names to show their willingness to es- 
tablish such a society. The following 
ladies were appointed a committee to 
perfect the organization: Mrs. Henry 
Homer, Mrs. L. Rosenfeld, Mrs. L. 
Goodkind, Mrs. L. F. Leopold, Mrs. 
Isaac Lucky. 

In 1863 the following societies were 
added as contributors to the United 
Hebrew Relief, Frauen Wohlthaetig- 
keits Verein. The delegates of this 
ladies' society were Mrs. Michael 
Greenebaum and Mrs. Leah Goodkind. 
The ladies' Sewing Society sent Mrs. 
Rebecca Levi, Mrs. Henrietta Rosen- 
feld, Mrs. Mina btine, Mrs. Bertha 
Snydacker. And Chebra Kadisha 
Ubikkur Cholim sent L. Mayer, D. Wit- 
kowski, H. L. Marks and Casper Burg- 
heim. This society then numbered 
about thirty-eight members. 

Destitute Jewish families came to 
Chicago from the South and the de- 
mands upon the Hebrew association 
were greatly increased. 

In an address to the public in the 
interest of the Hebrew Relief associ- 
ation, embodied in the fourth annual 
report, we find the following foot- 
note, which is very characteristic of 
the men and the time. It was hardly 
written by the president, Mr. M. Gerst- 
ley; it was more likely the work of 
Rev. Liebman Adler, for the knowl- 
edge of talmudic and rabbinic liter- 
ature displayed in this appeal is al- 
most too much for a layman. 

"Aniye Irkha waaniye ir akhereth, 
aniye Irkha kodmin." "Baba Mezia, 
fol. 71, a. Compare Maimon, in Hilk- 
hoth Mathnoth Anlym, chap. 7, Ha- 
lakha 13; Jacob ben Asher In Tur 
Yoreh Deah, Art. 251. Joseph Karo 
in Shulkan Arukb. ibid, sec. 3. 
(Where Shabthai Cohen adds): Even 

the poor of the holy land have no 
such claims as the poor of our own 
city; same in Tur and Sh. A. Choshen 
Mishpat, art. 97, sec. 1. Compare also 
Yalkut Thorah, sec. 350 and sec. 897, 
Mekhiltha and Rashi to Exod. 22, 24; 
Sifri and Rashi to Deut. 15, 7; Aben 
Esra to Deut. 12, 11, and many other 

Surely, if the writer of this note 
would have addressed to the Rabbini- 
cal society of Chicago such quotations 
from the Rabbinical authorities, it 
would have been sufficient to gain for 
him the title Moreno and a diploma 
authorizing him to p.asken shaaloth in 
the most prominent Jewish congrega- 
tion in the country. 

The Washington Irving Literary as- 
sociation and the Zion congregation 
joined the Hebrew Relief association 
and sent delegates. From a ball ar- 
ranged for the benefit of the Hebrew 
Relief association $15,054.92 were re- 
alized and $34,000 were collected by a 
committee. In this year the Sisters 
of Peace joined the Hebrew Relief as- 
sociation and sent delegates. 

Sinai congregation also became a 
member of the U. H. R. A., and was 
represented at the annual meeting. 
The delegates were as follows: S. 
Floersheim, Moses Snydacker, Elias 
Greenebaum, Benedict Schlossman, L. 
Levi, Isaac Greensfelder, J. M. Stine, 
Leopold Mayer, Sigmond Hyman and 
Isaac Liebenstein. During that year 
the society supplied many crippled 
Jewish soldiers with artificial arms 
and limbs. 

In defining the sphere of action of 
the Hebrew Relief association, the 
board opposed a collection for an or- 
phan asylum on the ground that the 
only beneficial asylum for an orphan 
is within the circle of a private fam- 
ily. Mr. and Mrs. Isaac Lucky of 
Chicago were the first to practice this 
charity by adopting an orphan girl 
into their home. 

In 1866 the name of Hillel Lodge 
B. B. was added to the list of the con- 
tributing societies. 

A piece of ground in the north .di- 
vision of the city was purchased on 
which to build a hospital. At a mass 
meeting held on October 22, 1866, for 
the purpose of raising funds for the 
hospital, over $17,000 were subscribed. 

The Hebrew Relief association now 
comprised fourteen components with 
about 1,080 members, who sent 108 
delegates. Two hundred and sixty of 
this number were ladies. 

The hospital lot was on North La 
Salle street between Schiller and Goe- 
the streets, 130 feet front by 170 deep, 
cost about $7,000 all paid up. A build- 
ing committee was appointed at a spe- 
cial meeting held March 24, 1867, con- 
sisting of the following: Isaac Greens- 
felder, chairman, Jacob Greenebaum, 
Jr., Godfrey Snydacker, Jonas Moore, 
Lazarus Silverman, L. Rosenfeld and 
Leopold Miller. Architect F. Bauman 
was selected to draw the plans for the 



In this year a charter was granted 
the United Hebrew Hospital associa- 

On September 2, 1867, the corner 
stone of the hospital was laid. It was 
a great day for the Chicago Jewish 
community. All the Israelites, indi- 
vidually and in their organizations, 
turned out in procession, mayor Rice 
was one of the speakers. The author- 
ities of the city, county and some of 
the United States officers were pres- 
ent. Other speakers were Godfrey 
Snydacker, in German, and Henry 
Greenebaum, in English. We quote 
the following from the speeches: 

Mayor Rice said: 

"Fellow citizens, when this building 
shall be completed and tenanted by 
the maimed and sick; when wants 
shall be ministered to, by the kind 
and the capable, then will the prayers 
of its inmates implore blessings on all 
who have assisted in this noble char- 
ity, and the names of its founders 
shall remain ever bright in the rec- 
ords of Chicago, to be read with ad- 
miration by generations yet unborn." 

Mr. Snydacker remarked: 

"Union of hearts, will and purpose 
enabled us to begin this edifice; let us 
stand firmly together to complete and 
to put It in operation." 

Henry Greenebaum gave expression 
to the following sentiments: 

"May all of you live, not only to see 
this building completed, but also to 
behold emanating from its hallowed 
walls deeds of bravest charity, and 
may you also live to be gratified in 
contemplating He blissful results of 
your own efforts in your respective 
spheres of action." 

The meeting of the association was 
held at the rooms of Sinai congrega- 
tion. Concordia club placed its rooms 
at the disposal of the board for mass 
meetings free of charge. 

The U. H. R. A. limited the cost of 
the hospital to $18,000, but the speci- 
fications exceeded considerably, the 
calculated cost reaching the sum of 
about $25,000. 

A fair for the benefit of the hospital 
was held in December, 1867, and the 
sum of $11,500 netted. The hospital 
was finally opened for reception of 
visitors August 9, 1868, and patients 
were received next day. Mr. A. Lev! 
and wife were appointed steward and 
matron with a salary of 4800 per an- 
num. According to the first medical 
report the hospital contained fourteen 
inmates, twelve men and two women, 
nine German, three Polanders and one 
Bohemian, some pay and some free 
patients. Mr. Charles H. Schwab and 
Mrs. L. Lieberman furnished one room 

In April, 1869, Mr. Greenebaum re- 
signed from the office of president on 
account of a trip to Europe which he 
was about to undertake. Before leav- 
ing he became a life member of the 
hospital by paying $100, the first and 
only one at that time, creating there- 
by the endowment fund. He is still 
In possession of the certificate issued 

to him at that time and values it very 

On October 9, 1871, the red letter 
day in the calender of Chicago, the 
hospital was destroyed by the great 

In order to give a correct report of 
the conditions prevailing in the Jew- 
ish community of Chicago immediate-> 
ly after the fire, we can do no better 
than to quote from the twelfth annual 
report of the executive board of the 
Hebrew Relief association: 

"Since the catastrophy of the 8th 
and 9th of October our association has 
undoubtedly entered upon a new phase 
of its history. Your dealing with pov- 
erty and pauperism, forms henceforth 
only an insignificant part of your gi- 
gantic task. 

"It is with another class o* your 
people, relatives, friends and neigh- 
bors, men and families, that stood 
side by side with you heretofore in 
society, in congregation, in this coun- 
cil, that you have to engage your 
hearts, your minds and all your ef- 
forts. You know how they were 
turned out of their homes, sometimes 
In the middle of the night, 'by the per- 
nicious element, striking down what 
could not keep pace with its volatile 
strides. You know that in most cases 
they had hardly time to grasp* their 
wives and little ones, to flee for their 
lives, and then even to find no rest- 
Ing place except after a wearying 
stampede of ten or twelve miles with 
a cloud of fire chasing after them. 

Nothing saved, no clothes or under- 
wear, for husband, wife or children; 
no furniture, beds or bedding, no 
stove, cooking utensils or crockery; 
nothing to make home cheerful and 
what was gradually amassed by the 
industrious toils of the model wife. 

"Ah, how long will it take to make 
up these losses, or even for so much 
that will make their home tolerably 
comfortable? But this Is not all; the 
husband's business is gone with their 
homes and mostly insured in bank- 
rupt companies. Thrown out of busi- 
ness, employment or usual occupation, 
where shall he find the means to sup- 
port wife and children that he loves 
so dearly? Will he ever be able to 
raise from the grave of utter demo- 
lition? This is henceforth the Her- 
culean task that we have to shoulder. 
You can not, you dare not, rest until 
every one of these families are placed 
beyond the reach of want and need; 
aye, even there you must not rest, un- 
til they are restored to their former 
well-to-do condition. Don't under- 
rate the work before you, go into the 
details that are wanted for each of 
these families and you will find your 
aim almost beyond the extent of hu- 
man power, for the lowest estimate Is 
that 400 Jewish families share the fate 
of this utter destruction that we have 
so poorly attempted to depict. 

"Like the sun ray tearing the dark 
clouds, pregnant with mischief, af- 
fected us, however, this spontaneous 
uprise of sympathy with our distress 

throughout the civilized- world. This 
feeling of our pain, and the attempt to 
alleviate it from near and 'far, as 
though we were all limbs and mem- 
bers of one body, contributed greatly 
to our consolation. These showers of 
contributions of victuals, clothing, bed- 
ding, stoves and money were the best 
means to remove the first effect of our 
terrible disaster. We know that our 
Jewish brethern from abroad contrib- 
uted their ample share to this relief, 
intended for the benefit of our suffer- 
ers without distinction, that saved us 
from famine or worse disaster. We 
also gladly admit that our unfortunate 
co-religionists received their ample 
share of these contributions, but these 
could certainly be intended only to 
afford momentary assistance and to 
continue so to do in the worst cases 
of impoverishment during the whole 
dreary winter is the task that is be- 
fore us. 

"But in the true sense of Jewish 
charity our brethern abroad collected 
large funds for the special purpose of 
supplying their reduced co-religionists 
in Chicago with means to start again 
in business and thus protect them 
against pauperism. 

"Although the U. H. R. A. has been 
for the last thirteen years the only 
recognized organ receiving all con- 
tributions of charity and distributing 
them, we can not complain if the con- 
tributions raised within the lodges of 
the I. O. B. B. for the special assist- 
ance of their brethren went into the 
funds of the relief committee of the 
I. O. B. B. and were applied exclusive- 
ly to their benefit, however, injurious 
to the cause of Judaism and the idea 
of equality and coherence of all its 
members, it might have been in our 
opinion. But we certainly have a 
right to expect and to claim that all 
contributions not collected for the 
special benefit of the I. O. B. B. 
should have been or should be here- 
after, at least, turned over to the U. 
H. R. A. for the benefit of all poor 
Yehudim, and for the purpose of sus- 
taining the integrity and existence of 
our association that has been for the 
past and will be for the future, iden- 
tified with all Jewish institutions of 
this city In the province of charity 
and benevolence. 

"We can only ascribe it to this cir- 
cumstance of mixing up funds that the 
relief committee of the I. O. B. B. col- 
lected over $20,000, while according to 
the report of the special committee 
the U. H. R. A. has received up to date 
the modest sum of $4,384.15, of which, 
doing the best under the circumstanc- 
es, they have relieved up to date 178 
cases with the amount of $3,115.67, 
leaving a balance on hand of $1,268.48. 
Most of the families having been thus 
far relieved in accordance with our 
means ought to receive additional as- 
sistance; other families have not been 
reached at all and will be found out 
only in the course of time, as most 
of the sufferers do not apply for aid 
for themselves but must be searched 



and found out, and labor under the 
mistaken idea that their misfortune, 
although not caused by any fault of 
theirs, does not entitle them to any 
acceptance of assistance, and that this 
acceptance would degrade them and 
place them on a level with habitual 

"In order to meet all the wants of 
our sufferers during the winter and 
to prepare them for their new career 
in life which they must open for them- 
selves, we estimate that a sum of $50,- 
000 is required, and we think the sum 
can be approximated, if not reached, 
if all passion, and jealousy are laid 
aside, if there is only one head center 
to receive and distribute the contri- 
butions which come from abroad, and 
that there is only one pass-word that 
will establish the full title for assist- 
tance if otherwise worthy, 1. e., yatr 

"Earnest and constant efforts should 
be made to let our Jewish brethren 
know our wants, to let them know 
that our barriers of distinctions have 
been dropped within the pale of Juda- 
ism, that we are all B'nai B'rith, that 
is', sons of the covenant of our father, 
Abraham, and all will be well, and the 
proverbial Jewish charity will mani- 
fest itself in our sister cities in these, 
our days or trial and affliction, as we 
can expect but little in the way of 
annual contributions from the re- 
duced condition of our heretofore 
most liberal contributors in this city 
for the present winter. 

"As we stated before, the books and 
vouchers of the treasurer and finan- 
cial secretary were destroyed by the 
flre, but through the efforts of Mr. C. 
Witkowski, acting secretary, our rec- 
ords were saved, which enables us to 
present you with a correct financial 
report, showing the following result of 
the annual collections to the relief 
fund from members of the respective 
congregations and societies auxiliary 
to the U. H. R. A. 
Sinai congregation ............ $2,200.00 

K. A. M ...................... 1,150.05 

Zion congregation ............ 779.00 

K. B'nai Sholom ........... .... 789.00 

K. Ahawas Achim ............ 43.50 

Chebra Bikur Cholim ......... 62.00 

The Hospital 

was laid in ruins by the late flre, but 
owing to the efforts of Dr. Win. Wag 1 
ner, and the steward, Mr. Levy, none 
of the patients or occupants perished 
in the flames. Up to the time of its. 
destruction the hospital, under the 
special care of Dr. Wagner has been 
well patronized by free and pay pa- 
tients, irrespective of creed; with am- 
ple accommodations at our command, 
we did not make religion or national- 
ity a test. 

This report is signed by. B. Loe- 
wenthal, president, L. Wampold, Laz. 
Sllverman, Conrad Witkowsky, R. Ru- 
bel, Gerhard Foreman, Julius Rosen- 
thai, Chas Kozniouski and Godfrey 

The report of the special relief com- 

mittee is of great interest. It reads 
as follows: 

"The special relief committee for 
the benefit of the Jewish sufferers 
through the late fire, acting in concert 
with and under the auspices of the 
U. H. R. A. beg leave to submit to you 
the following report: 

J. W. Seligman & Co $1,000.00 

Cincinnati committee 1,000.00 

Nelson Morris 60.00 

Felix Marx, N. Y., through 

Abe Hart 156.85 

A poor Jew of Beimont, Ohio. 5.00 
From the Israelites of Louisi- 
ana, Mo 60.00 

From the Israelites of Marion, 

Ala 34.75 

Ladies' Hebrew Benevolent So- 
ciety, Jackson, Mich 99.75 

Mrs. I. Frankel, Oskaloosa, la. 15.00 

M. Frankel 25.00 

Froelich & Freiberger, Mt. 

Carroll, 111 10.00 

T. Alexander & Co., Browns- 
ville, Texas 25.00 

S. Bernstein, Champaign, 111. . 34.50 

M. Loth, Cincinnati 25.00 

Zadok Lodge, Salem, Ala 142.50 

Donation through B. Cahn 25.00 

Through Messrs. Bloch & Co., 

Cincinnati 34.00 

M. S. Dessauer, Montrose, Pa.. 25.00 
From the Israelites of Boston. ..1,104. 80 

J. & S. Bernheimer 300.00 

Hebrew Ladies' Bene. Soc.; 

Canton, Mass 40.00 

M. Frank, Delaware, Ohio 7.00 

Bloch & Co., Cincinnati, O., 
from diverse col 155.00 


Of this amount 178 cases have been 
relieved to the extent of $3,115.67. 

Besides this, a great many goods of 
all kinds have been distributed among 
our co-religionists. 

(Signed) B. Loewenthal, 

G. Snydacker, 

Acting Treasurer. 
E. Wikowsky, 

Rec. Secretary. 

The executive committee found its 
sphere of action largely increased in 
consequence of the flre. An attempt 
to give each applicant enough to 
start in business failed. The appli- 
cant was no longer admitted to the 
meetings of the board, but were called 
upon at their homes to receive what, 
after due investigation, the board 
deemed it proper to give. Mr. J. L. 
L. Gatzert was appointed as superin- 
tendent, who rendered faithful and ef- 
ficient services gratuitously. He was 
presented by the board at withdrawal, 
in thankful acknowledgment of his 
services, with a memorial, executed in 
the highest style of art by the talented 
penman, Mr. A. Sinks, at the house 
of the president, Abe Hart. 

Mr. Francis Kiss was engaged as su- 

B'nai Brith Order turned over sur- 
plus of $2,149.50 to treasurer of H. R., 
and harmony prevailed. 

The board decided to rebuild the 
hospital. It expected to receive a 
large contribution from the surplus in 
the hands of the Chicago Relief and 
Aid Society. The Order of B. B. made 
a very generous offer to issue appeal 
to the lodges of district for every 
member \m pay one dollar to the Hos- 
pital Fund. This offer was accepted, 
but not carried out for above reason. 

The Ch. R. & A. S. demanded a free 
bed for every $1,000 and this was 
found unadvisable, as it would have 
been an incumbrance on the property. 

Fifteen thousand dollars were again 
offered to the board by the Chicago 
Relief & Aid Society, which was only 
accepted on condition that the U. H. R. 
A. should have the privilege to refund 
whenever able. 

In 1876 the Deborah Verein, Sisters 
of Peace, Sisters of Harmony and La- 
dies' Society of West Chicago accept- 
ed the mission to bring consolation 
and material help to women who were 
left destitute by their husbands going 

The second fire, on July 14, 1874, was 
indeed a serious blow to many of the 
poor Jews of Chicago. The U. H. R. A. 
was again taxed to the utmost and it 
again helped and aided as much as it 
was possible. 

Rev. Liebman Adler was requested 
by the board to write an appeal to the 
Jews for financial supp6rt of the as- 
sociation, and the following appeal, 
prepared by Rabbi Adler, was pub- 

"Scarce two decades have elapsed 
since all the Israelites of this city wefe 
living as in the bonds of one family 
circle. Each knew the other, all wor- 
shiped harmoniously in one temple and 
shared each others woes and joys. 

"How great is the change! Thou- 
sands scattered over a space of nearly 
thirty miles, in hundreds of streets, 
divided by pecuniary, intellectual and 
social directions, provincial jealousies 
and even religious distinctions and dif- 
ferences. Separation, division, disso- 
lution, estrangement repeated and con- 
tinual, are the words which character- 
ize the history of our brothers in 
faith until now. Dissolved in the mass 
of our population, we are losing the 
consciousness of homogeny and the 
strength gained for each individual by 
concerted action. 

"Let us also consider the oftheard 
complaint that Poles and Russians ab- 
sorb a disproportional large share of 
the means of this association. 

"Brothers and Sisters: Are these 
poor ones less to be pitied, are they 
less poor, are they less Israelites be- 
cause Poland or Russia is the land in 
which they first saw the light, or rath- 
er the darkness of this world? The 
poor of those countries are doubly 
poor. These unfortunates come to us 
from a country which is the European 
headquarters for barbarism, ignorance 
and uncleanliness. In those countries 
thousands of Israelites are densely 
crowded and pressed into small towns 



and villages, and they become singu- 
lar and peculiar in their customs, man- 
ners and ideas. In conferring charity, 
it is the duty of the Israelite first to 
look to the needs and then to the de- 
serts of the recipient." 

In 1878 the Jewish young men of 
Chicago organized to contribute to the 
U. H. R. A. The leaders in this move- 
ment were: Louis Falk, Louis B. 
Kuppenheimer and Joseph Schaflner. 

In 1879 Henry L. Frank and his 
brother, Joseph Frank, trustees of a 
fund bequeathed to them by Michael 
Reese of San Francisco, Cal., ottered 
the sum of $30,000 for a hospital build- 
ing, on condition that it shall be 
known as Michael Reese Hospital. Mr. 
Jacob Rosenberg and Mrs. Henrietta 
Rosenfeld, likewise trustees of a fund 
'bequeathed to them by the same 
Michael Reese, offered to donate $50,- 
000 as an endowment maintaining the 
new hospital, to be named after the 
creator of the trust funds, Michael 
Reese Hospital. The U. H. R. A. ac- 
cepted both offers. The old hospital 
site was exchanged in 1880 for a lot 
corner Twenty-ninth street and Lake 
avenue, 208x252 feet. 

The Jewish young men of Chicago 
formed a Hospital Association, with 
the following as leaders: Louis Frank, 
Joseph Schaffner, Jonas Kuppenheim- 
er, Louis Kuppenheimer and Moses 

The cornerstone for the new hospital 
was laid on Nov. 4, 1880*, and On the 
23d of October, 1881, it was dedicated 
and opened for the admission of pa- 

The cost of the building and lot 
reached the sum of $48,521.41. The 
building committee consisted of the 
following gentlemen: Jacob Rosen- 
berg, Isaac Greensfelder, Henry L. 
Frank, Abe Hart and G. Snydacker. 

In January, 1881, the Young Men's 
Hebrew Charity Association was or- 

In 1882 twenty-two component socie- 
ties were contributing to the U. H. 
R. A. 

On Feb. 1, 1884, the Employment 
Bureau was opened and Mr. S. Barten- 
stein engaged as superintendent of the 

In their annual report, dated Oct. 
10, 1886, the executive board suggests 
the founding of a Manual Training 
School, and in their next report of Oc- 
tober, 1877, they recommend the estab- 
lishing of an Old People's Home. 

In 1888 the name of the association 
was changed from the "U. H. R. A." 
to the "United Hebrew Charities of 
Chicago," and on November 24th of 
that year the legislature of Illinois 
granted a charter under the new name. 

In 1889 the United Hebrew Charities 
bought a lot on 223 Twenty-sixth 
street and erected a commodious brick 
building for the use of the association. 
The net cost of the lot was $4,575 and 
the expense of the building was $6,400. 
In the same year they also bought a 
cemetery at Ridge Lawn. 

On Sept. 1, 1890, the United Hebrew 
Charities established a training school 
for nurses in connection with the hos- 

According to the report of the execu- 
tive board, dated October, 1891, over 
$58,000 was expended in the conduct of 
the relief office and of the hospital, 
from October, 1890, to October, 1891. 
Over 17,000 persons received assist- 

the United Hebrew Charities, other- 
wise the totals here given would have 
been much greater. 

In the conduct of the Relief Office 
there was expended nearly $19,000; in 
the Hospital, over $38,000; for the 
Hospital and Dispensary, about 11,000 
prescriptions were filled. 

One thousand and fifty patients were 
treated in the hospital, more than half 
being non-Jews, while during the pre- 
vious year there were less tha*n 800 
all told. At the Employment Bureau, 
658 applications were filed for work, of 
which 549 were provided for. 

At the Ridge Lawn Cemetery there 
were seventy-four interments, while 
last year there were forty-seven. 

Up to September 1st of that year all 
Russian refugees worthy of assistance 
were provided for by the United He- 
brew Charities. At that time the Rus- 
sian Refugees' Society was formed for 
the special care of refugees who were 


ance, this being nearly 600 more than 
during the previous year. Since the 
Chicago fire no record equal to this 
has been made. 

In this year the Russian Jews of the 
West Side established a general relief 
society of their own under the name 
of "Zedoko Kololos." This materially 
helped to decrease the demands upon 

driven from their homes in Russia and 
came here without means. The Young 
Men's Hebrew Charity Association 
contributed $6,000 to the Hospital from 
the proceeds of their ball, and the La- 
bor Bureau was exclusively supported 
by them besides. 

The Training School for Nurses, es- 
tablished about a year ago, had proven 

It is generally the custom in civil- 
ized countries, and so it is in this coun- 
try, to deposit if the cornerstones of 
public institutions a box containing a 
number of documents, such as a his- 
torical sketch of the respective asso- 
ciation and institution, copies of the 
daily press of the respective date, and 
denominational publications of the re- 
spective time. The object of this act 
is obviously to furnish data concerning 
the history of the time and the institu- 
tion to coming generations. It is a 
wise and commendable act. But we 
venture to suggest that duplicates of 

all the documents which are deposited 
in the cornerstone should also be de- 
posited about the same time In some 
accessible fireproof vault. 

The objects deposited in the corner- 
stone may remain hidden from sight 
for many, many years, but the dupli- 
cates would form the basis of a his- 
tory of the respective institution and 
society, which could be referred to at 
any time. From time to time addi- 
tions could be made to these dupli- 
cates, such as short extracts from the 
minutes, newspaper clippings and oth- 
er important papers, bearing directly 

upon the development of the respec- 
tive organization or institution. The 
accumulated minute-books generally 
become too cumbersome, and the 
main historical facts are often buried 
under such a mass of unimportant 
matter that it is difficult to get at 
them when wanted without great loss 
of time and much labor. It should be 
made the duty of the secretary to look 
after the historical department of his 
association. In this manner every in- 
stitution or organization would be 
gradually preparing and constantly 
completing a record of its own history. 



a success, and in order to increase the 
sphere of action in this school it was 
determined to erect a home for nurses 
in connection with the Hospital. This 
home was now under roof on the hos- 
pital grounds, and contained besides 
the reception and lecture rooms, li- 
brary and maternity ward. Accommo- 
dation for forty nurses was provided 
in the building. 

The majority of those who sought to 
nter the school were non-Jews. It 
was a source of regret to the board 
that not more Jewish young women 
had filed applications during the past 

The Ladies' Sewing Societies have 
been of great assistance to the U. H. 
C. Association. The South Side La- 
dies' Sewing Society expended $4,000 
for the relief of the poor; the West 
Side Ladies' Sewin-g Society, over 
$2,100; the Young Ladies' Aid Society, 
nearly $650, and the West Side Ladies' 
Aid Society about $1,000. 

An innovation was made at the hos- 
pital on Rosh Hashana; a pulpit was 
improvised in the hall of the dispen- 
sary by the superintendent, Max Salo- 
mon, and religious services were con- 
ducted by Rabbi Moses of K. A. M. 


year, and the board recommended that 
an effort should be made to teach the 
public that a trained nurse Is not a 
menial; that the calling is a profes- 
sion everywhere expected. 

The children's ward of the hospital 
proved a blessing, not only to the little 
ones treated, but to their parents, who 
had neither the means nor the facili- 
ties to give them the proper care. 
Many of the little sufferers, having 
undergone medical or surgical treat- 
ment, appreciated in a childish way 
the cleanly surroundings, the care and 
attention given them, and objected to 
be sent back to their homes. 

during the afternoon. Twenty-eight of 
the patients were able to be present 
and take part in the services. 

A fireproof vault was constructed at 
the hospital for the preservation of all 
books, papers and pamphlets connect- 
ed with the association. Mr. Jacob 
Rosenberg and Mrs. Henrietta Rosen- 
feld contributed the necessary funds to 
defray the expenses of this improve- 
ment. They also contributed, out of 
' the Michael Reese Trust Fund, the 
amount necessary to pay for the build- 
ing of the Home for Nurses. 

From October, 1891, to October, 1892, 
10,000 persons were assisted. The board 

recommended that sufficient money be 
appropriated to defray the expense of 
preparing a directory of the Jews of 
Chicago, for the purpose of reaching 
those who are charitably inclined. 

At the Labor Bureau there were 
866 applications for work, of which 777 
were provided for. At the Hospital 
1,088 persons were treated. There were 
82 Jewish pay patients and 251 non- 
Jewish, 597 Jewish charity patients 
and 159 non-Jewish. The amount ex- 
pended at the Hospital for all pur- 
poses was $39,000. Mr. B. I. David was 
appointed superintendent in place of 
Mr. Salomon. 

Thirten thousand, four hundred pre- 
scriptions were filled, 7,000 for patients 
at the hospital, 5,000 for patients out- 
side of the hospital, sent in by the re- 
lief office, and about 1,400 outside of 
the dispensary upon orders from the 
relief office. 

The contributions of the Young 
Men's Hebrew Charity Association 
during the year aggregated nearly 

Mr. S. Bartenstein, superintendent of 
the Employment Bureau, gives an in- 
teresting table of the classification of 
applicants, which we consider valuable 
as an indication of the distribution of 
trades among the Jews, and we there- 
fore copy it here. 

No. of 

Occupation. Appli- 


Peddlers 75 

Merchants 95 

Students 4 

Teachers 5 

Laborers and Porters 118 

Clerks 76 

Women and Girls 60 

Boys 42 

Bookkeepers 23 

Bakers > 4 

Bartenders , 2 

Bookbinders 5 

Capmaker 1 

Cabinetmakers 29 

Cooks 4 

Cutters 6 

Cigarmakers , . . 17 

Blacksmiths 4 

Coppersmiths 4 

Tinsmiths 10 

Locksmiths 5 

Machinists 11 

Photographers ... 2 

Painters and Paperhangers 13 

Paperbox-maker 1 

Shoemakers 21 

Tailors 53 

Cloakmakers and Operator 16 

Jewelers 5 

Printers and Typesetters 6 

Brewer 1 

Diamond Cutter 1 

Surgeons 2 

Dyers 3 

Umbrellamaker 1 

Watchmakers 7 

Iron Molders 5 

Waiters 13 

Butchers 24 

Glovemaker 1 

Pressers 12 



Bricklayers 3 

Furriers 9 

Hatmaker 1 

Farmers 3 

Tanners 11 

Soapmakers 3 

Plumbers 4 

Chemists 3 

Lawyers 6 

Glaziers . i 4 

Nurses 2 

Distillers 2 

Forester 1 

Finishers 2 

Opera Singers 2 

Engineer 1 

Weavers and Fringemakers 5 

Barbers 2 

Upholsterers 5 

Varnishmaker 1 

Harnessmakers 2 

Buttonholemaker 1 

Turners 2 

Artificial Flowermaker 1 

Pocketbookmaker 1 

Picture Frame Maker 1 

Carpet Layer 1 

Bristle Cleaner 1 

Total 866 

The annual report of the executive 
board for the year 1892-1893 contains 
the following introductory remarks 
which treat upon the scope of the work 
undertaken by the United Hebrew 
Charities: "In 1859 the United He- 
brew Relief Association, the predeces- 
sor of the United Hebrew Charities, 
was- organized. In looking back over 
a stretch of thirty-four years, in con- 
templating the growth of the chari- 
ties and the growth of Chicago, we 
have much to be thankful for. True, 
our conceptions of charitable or, bet- 
ter, philanthropic work, have changed 
since those days. We have improved 
our methods and we seek to realize 
other aims, but we may well pause and 
listen to the voice of that distant past, 
and learn many a lesson therefrom. 

"In the very first report of this asso- 
ciation, a doctrine was taught that we 
at times forget. They say, 'It has 
been just as much our aim to refuse 
all unworthy applicants, as we have 
been anxious to assist those really 
worthy of our support. You know full 
well that many Israelites, in utter 
want of even the necessities of life, 
are too proud to beg. We have used 
every exertion, by the appointment 
of standing committees of relief in 
each division of the city, to find out 
such families. We have found them 
in the midst of winter without fuel, 
and often without bread, and found 
that we had to argue and persuade 
them that it was not dishonorable to 
take what they have not asked, in or- 
der to make them recipients of our 
charities, and we have several in- 
stances where donations of this kind 
have been refunded to the association 
after the parties relieved felt able to 
do so. It is for such cases as these 
that this association has been organ- 
"And one, whom full of years and 

after a life of faithful labor, God called 
to his eternal rest, points out the idea 
of our work in his presidential report, 
thirty years ago, when he says, "Your 
officers have assumed the delicate task 
of finding out such families as were 
actually in want amongst us and came 
in peace to their assistance without 
any special notice from any source, 
saving them the heartrending neces- 
sity and the humiliating alternative of 
exposing their own misery." M. M. 
Gertsley, who uttered these words of 
love in charity work, served you 
faithfully as president, vice-president 
and trustee, during eighteen long 
years, a term succeeded but by two 
men, both members of the present 
board. Truly, his deeds will live after 

done more than ever before in every 
field. May they continue In their no- 
ble work and may their increased 
forces increase the good they spread 
about them. 

"The Younfg Ladies' Aid Society, 
too, has continued to brighten the hos- 
pital patients with flowers and delica- 
cies. Its assistance will be heartily 
welcomed in every branch of the 

The total number of cases during 
this year was 3,134, consisting of 13,- 
300 persons; $21,000 were expended 
directly in the work. Ten thousand 
yards of wearing apparel and irearly 
1,500 pairs of shoes were distributed 
and 800 school boys were clothed. No 
child attending the public school or 


him. It is impossible, however, In 
these 'busy days for the present board 
to engage in this kind of work. They 
cannot seek out the deserving, timid 
poor. Their hands are more than full ' 
in attending to the applicants for aid. 
Here, however, is a field where the 
women can do more than the men. 

"Inquisitive charity dispensers, who 
take up this work, and many others, 
too, as a fad, we cannot use; but wom- 
en, young and old, whose hearts are 
filled with a sense of human brother- 
hood and whose heads control both 
heart and hand, can render priceless 
assistance if they will work in co-op- 
eration with the relief office. 

"The Sewing Society, the Deborah 
Verein, the Jochannah Lodge and the 
Baron Hirsch Ladies' Society have 

Jewish training school was compelled 
to stay away from school for want of 
clothing or shoes. The only require- 
ment was inability of the parents to 
provide them and a certificate of a 
teacher that a child was attending 

The board recommends to the dele- 
gates that a special committee be ap- 
pointed to provide for the opening of 
rooms on the West Side, as a "Crfiche," 
where the young children of women 
who are able to work should be taken 
care of in the absence of their mothers. 
As the poor women cannot leave their 
little ones, they are therefore de- 
prived of the opportunity to earn their 

In this year the West Side Dispen- 
sary was established. 



In the report of the executive board 
for the year 1893 to 1894 the board rec- 
ommends most strongly a union of all 
Jewish societies, and the advancement, 
as far as possible, of woman's share 
in the work. 

Every branch shows an enormous 
increase. Four thousand, four hun- 
dred and sixty-two cases, comprising 
20,600 persons, were assisted. Only 
$37,000 were collected from all sources. 

That year 2,187 pairs of shoes were 
given away and 1,174 school boys were 
clothed. The direct expenditure In 
money and supplies among the 20,000 
recipients was but $31,000, a little over 
$1.50 ?or each person, or $7 in each 

The pension list of the association 
contained thirty names and amounted 
to $275 per month, which comprised 
the old, the sick and the widows with 
families. They were among the wor- 
thiest of the recipients of charity. 

The sewing societies expended over 
$10,000 not included in the report of 
the superintendent of the U. H. C., 
during the nine and one-half months of 
their existence. At the West Side Dis- 
pensary 13,500 patients have been 
treated, an average of 1,410 per 
month. Twelve thousand, five hundred 
prescriptions were filled. The Dispen- 
sary, being not a year old, was the 
second largest in the city. At the La- 
bor Bureau 1,120 applications were re- 
ceived for work and 911 were rovided 

A maternity ward was established at 
the Hospital; twenty-three nurses and 
one probationer were at the training 
school for nurses; 1,022 patients were 
treated at the hospital. In the dispen- 
sary over 10,000 patients were treated. 
The druggists prepared nearly 17,000 

In that year the Hospital received 
The widow of the late Max M. 

Rothschild $ 5,000 

The heirs of Leopold Loewen- 

stein 1,000 

Little Nelson Morris Rothschild 500 
The bequest of Mrs. Eliza 

Frank 6,000 

erected 'by Jacob Rosenberg, a surviv- 
ing trustee, at a cost of over $14,000. 
The total number of persons helped at 
the Relief office during the year from 
September, 1897, to 1898, was 10,742. 
Five hundred and ninety-five persons 
applied for work at the Employment 
Bureau and work was procured for 
534. At the Hospital were treated the 
following patients: Jewish, pay, 95; 
charity, 1,234. Non- Jewish, pay, 100; 
charity, 87. Total 1,516. In the Hos- 
pital Dispensary a total of 20,949 pa- 
tients were treated. Of these 5,490 were 
non-Jewish; 20,991 prescriptions were 
filled at the pharmacy. At the West 
Side Dispensary there were treated 19,- 
525 cases and 18,151 prescriptions were 
filled. At the Sheltering Home 100 

Henry A. Kohn 5,000 

Max Goodkind 500 

And the fifth annual payment of 100 

(From the estate of E. Gross- 
Total $13,100 

The Hospital endowment fund 
amounted to $139,900. 

The board urged that as New York 
raises $175,000 a year for Jewish char- 
ity, the Jewish Relief of Chicago, 
should raise not less than $60,000 for 
the same purpose. 

. In 1895 a Sheltering Home was 
opened by the United Hebrew Charities 
on the west side. In 1896 Mrs. Eman- 
uel Mandel donated $10,000 for a West 
Side Dispensary building. On April 18, 
1897, the children's building was 
opened In the Hospital grounds, 
children belonging to 49 families were 
kept at the Home for a total period of 
2,581 days. 

In the annual report of the Executive 
Board for 1898 to 1899 we find the fol- 
lowing remarks: 

"Complaints are heard at times, even 
today, of unjust treatment at the Re- 
lief office. Nearly every disappointed 
applicant has words of abuse and de- 
nunciation, which find only too willing 
an ear, particularly with those mem- 
bers of the community who fail to con- 
tribute to this department. We cau- 
tion you against accepting these sto- 
ries. We invite investigation. We 
urge you to visit the Relief office, to 
examine into the work, to see how the 
applicants are treated. Our records are 
open to the inspection of anyone who 
has a legitimate interest therein. In- 
formation can be obtained and will be 
willingly given at the office. Year 
after year we have repeated this invi- 
tation, and year after year we have 
kept on complaining, but you have 
failed to respond. The work is your 
work, not ours alone; we are but your 
representatives. You yourselves, are 
the representatives of the Jewish com- 
munity. An attendance at these an- 
nual meetings, a payment of an annual 
contribution, is not the full perform- 
ance of the duties which you have as- 
sumed. A personal Interest In the 
work, such as will enable you to sug- 
gest at these annual meetings neces- 
sary changes of reform, is essential. 

"As long as we are given $27,500, as 
long as we are compelled to grant as- 
sistance in 1,010 cases, as often as 2,335 
times, we cannot hope to effect aid in 
many cases. We have on our books 
today 49 persons receiving regular 
monthly assistance, aggregating $350. 
They are mostly, the aged, the sick and 
the widowed with dependent children, 
the most deserving of all our appli- 

Public exercises were held in June in 
the K. A. M. Temple at which the first 
three-year class of twelve nurses were 
graduated. At the Hospital Dispen- 
sary about 13,000 patients were treated, 
while In the pharmacy nearly 22,000 
prescriptions were filled. The Fair and 
the charity ball of that year arranged 
by the Young Men's Hebrew Charity 
Association netted the sum of $84,000. Of 

this the Michael Reese hospital re- 
ceived one-half, the other departments 
of the United Hebrew Charities re- 
ceived in all $14,250. On May 1, 1899, 
the Sheltering Home was closed. The 
West Side Dispensary building was 
erected on the 50-foot lot on the west 
side of Morgan street, south of Max- 
well. The cost of the lot was $5,000. 
We received for this purpose from the 
Young Men's Hebrew Charity Associa- 
tion $3,000, the balance of $2,000 was 
taken from the building fund. It was 
found that the plans called for a build- 
ing which would cost $1,300 in excess 
of the amount of money on hand. One 
of the trustees, Mr. Edwin F. Meyer, 
generously guaranteed that the amount 
necessary to complete the building 
would be paid when needed. The plans 
for the building were drawn by Mr. 
Dankmar Adler, one of the trustees, as 

Mr. Francis Kiss, who had been the 
efficient superintendent of the United 
Hebrew Charities for twenty-eight 
years, was retired by the board on ac- 
count of old age, and his son-in-law, 
Mr. Edward Rutoovits, elected to take 
his "place. Mr. Kiss earned, during his 
many years of service, the highest re- 
spect and appreciation of the entire 
community. The board often expressed 
their warm gratitude and full ac- 
knowledgment of the services ren- 
dered to the cause of charity by Mr. 
Kiss. He worked hard, intelligently 
and faithfully, and fully deserves the 
rest he is now enjoying. 

A new superintendent, Doctor Un- 
gerleider, was also elected for the hos- 
pital, and the United Hebrew Chari- 
ties have cause to congratulate them- 
selves upon securing the services of so 
able, zealous and efficient a superin- 
tendent for the hospital. During the 
period from September, 1899, to April, 
1900, assistance was given at the Re- 
lief Office to 1,511 applicants, represent- 
ing 7,160 persons. The hospital re- 
ceived frpm the Young Men's Hebrew 
Charity Association the sum of $5,000; 
984 patients were treated in the hos- 
pital, of whom 681 were Jewish charity 

The new building of the West Side 
Dispensary was completed and occu- 
pied during the current year. It is a 
splendid memorial to the architect, a 
late member of the board, Dankmar 
Adler, as well as a beautiful testimo- 
nial of the generosity of Mrs. Emanuel 
Mandel, who donated $10,000 to be ap- 
plied to the building of the dispensary. 

During the year 1900, an important 
step was taken in the financial manage- 
ment of the Jewish charity institutions 
of Chicago. It was resolved to put the 
collection of the necessary funds for 
all the charity institutions into the 
hands of one board or committee, 
thereby relieving the individual boards 
of the task of collecting the necessary 
funds wherewith to run the institu- 
tions. It was also hoped that thereby 
the revenue of the charity institutions 
would 'be materially increased. 

This general or associated board was 



to distribute the collected funds among 
all the charity institutions in a judi- 
cious manner. 

For over forty years the United He- 
brew Chanties of Chicago labored un- 
ceasingly, unselfishly, ardently and de- 
votedly in the cause of benevolence. 
Boards came and boards went. The 
Jewish population of Chicago in- 
creased and multiplied rapidly. The 
demands upon the patience, the intel- 
ligence and the devotedness of the dif- 
ferent boards were frequently enor- 
mous. A terrific conflagration swept 
over the city, creating a crisis of vast 
importance in the Jewish community, 
threatening life and existence of all the 
communal institutions. The United 
Hebrew Charities was found equal to 
the emergency. By reading the ex- 
tracts of the reports which we have 
given, one is amazed at the enormity of 
the work accomplished. The numbers 
of applicants treated at the Relief Of- 
fice, at the hospital and at the branch 
institutions, as the West Side Dispen- 
sary, Sheltering Home, Lying in Hos- 
pital, etc., are dazzling in their im- 
mensity. During all these years the 
United Hebrew Charities maintained 
its position as the first and the great- 
est Jewish benevolent institution In 
the State of Illinois, and it has been 
only surpassed, so far, by the United 
Hebrew Charities of New York City. 

As the years roll by and new gener- 
ations step into the places of the old 
leaders, all the complaining and fault 
finding will toe forgotten, and the 
names of the true and faithful workers 
in the ranks of the United Hebrew 
Charities of Chicago will stand out as 
shining examples of true manhood, of 
ideal benevolence, worthy of emula- 
tion. The blessings of the entire com- 
munity will follow them beyond this 
life to their eternal homes, and the 
unanimous verdict will be, "Well done, 
true and faithful servants!" 


The movement for the creation of 
the Associated Jewish Charities of 
Chicago began to take shape in Janu- 
ary, 1900. After several prelimi- 
nary meetings the work was ac- 
complished, and on April 16, 1900, 
a charter was granted to the As- 
sociated Jewish Charities of Chi- 
cago. This is the object which ths 
Associated Charities had set for itself: 
To substitute for the annual contri- 
butions to the various institutions one 
single contribution to its funds, the 
proceeds of which will be distributed 
by it among the various charities in 
aid of the Jews of Chicago in accord- 
ance with their requirements. We 
quote from the report of the United 
Hebrew Charities for the period of Sep- 
tember 18, 1899, to April 30, 1900. From 
this report we learn that during that 
time a larger sum has been subscribed 
than has heretofore been collected by 
all of the Jewish charities combined, 
including the annual charity ball, and 
that, too, among a fewer number of 

persons than have contributed to the 
relief department. Less than one 
thousand persons have subscribed over 
$ 120,000, and it is hoped that at least 
$30,000 more will soon be raised. 

Pursuant to a call issued by the tem- 
porary officers of the new movement a 
meeting of the subscribers to the Asso- 
ciated Jewish Charities was held April 
12, 1900, in the vestry rooms of Sinai 
Temple. The very large attendance 
was an evidence of the great interest 
felt in the movement. All sections of 
the city were well represented, as were 
all the leading Jewish institutions and 
organizations. Mr. Edwin G. Fore- 
man opened the meeting by making the 
following statement: 

treatment received from everyone ap- 
proached in the matter.. It did, indeed, 
seem as though the entire Jewish com- 
munity acted as a committee of one to 
further a cause which one and all con- 
sidered to be a good move in the right 

"During the time subscribers were 
being solicited, the plans which will 
be submitted to you this evening were 
formulated and carefully considered at 
meetings held by a committee of twen- 
ty-one, consisting of four members of 
each of the executive boards of the fol- 
lowing instructions namely, the Uni- 
ted Hebrew Charities, the Jewish 
Training School, the Home for Aged 
Jews, and the Chicago Home for Jew- 


"The work in connection with this 
undertaking of making one annual col- 
lection for the charities was com- 
menced about three months ago. Since 
that time we have obtained 835 sub- 
scribers, the amount subscribed being 
$115,940. Inasmuch as the United He- 
brew Charities alone had 1,200 sub- 
scribers last year, I feel safe in pre- 
dicting that there are at least one thou- 
sand more persons who will subscribe 
under the new system, while some of 
my co-workers estimated the number 
.at two thousand. 

"I am satisfied that the methods 
heretofore pursued in collecting money 
for the charities did not receive such 
generous and enthusiastic support 
nor met with such unanimous ap- 

"While the work performed has been 
great and laborious, it has, neverthe- 
less, proved a pleasant and agreeable 
task, owing to the general willingness 
to assist, and the kind and courteous 

ish Orphans, and the five members of 
the self-constituted committee, and 
these plans have also been approved 
by the boards of these respective insti- 

"Before you enter upon your delibera- 
tions this evening permit me to offer 
this suggestion namely, that you place 
the fullest and most implicit confi- 
dence in your first board of directors. 

"Do not hamper them or limit their 
sphere of action by rules and conven- 
tionalities, but leave them free to work 
out, along the lines dictated by their 
own reason and judgment, the prob- 
lems that will necessarily confront 
them. Your confidence will not be mis- 
placed. The interests of the organiza- 
tion will be the individual Interests of 
each member of the board, and will be 
fully conserved by them." 

The following statement made by 
Mr. Julian W. Mack, Secretary of the 
United Hebrew Charities, at this meet- 
ing clearly outlines the work and in- 



tentions of th,e organization. Mr. 
Mack said: 

'"For some time past it has been con- 
sidered desirable by a number of mem- 
bers of this community to adopt a new 
system of collecting and distributing 
the charitable donations of the Jews. 
At the last annual meeting of the Uni- 
ted Charities this matter was suggested 
by the report of the executive board, 
and independently, from the floor, a 
resolution was offered and adopted In- 
structing the executive board to invite 
a conference of the other Jewish chari- 
table organizations. 

"Before anything was done under 
this resolution, and entirely indepen- 
dently thereof, Mr. Edwin G. Foreman 
and Mr. Edwin F. Meyer determined 
to ascertain to. what extent a move- 
ment of this kind would be supported. 
On the 7th of January, 1900, they in- 
vited a conference of a few citizens to 
test their feelings on the subject. The 
response was gratifyingly unanimous. 

amount necessary for proper work, 
will be raised. After $100,000 had been 
subscribed the central committee de- 
cided it was time to organize. They 
invited a conference with representa- 
tives from the 'board of United Hebrew 
Charities, the Jewish Training 
School, and the Chicago Home for 
Jewish Orphans. A number or 
meetings were held by this con- 
ference. A sub-committee was ap- 
pointed to draft a charter and by-laws. 
These were submitted to the general 
conference, and after several meetings, 
at which all the questions involved 
were thoroughly discussed, the charter 
and by-laws, practically as presented 
to you tonight, were unanimously 
adopted. The by-laws adopted have 
been submitted to the board of direc- 
tors of the United Hebrew Charities, 
the Home for Aged Jews, the Jewish 
Training School and the Chicago 
Home for Jewish Orphans, and have 
been unanimously approved of. 


They thereupon associated with them- 
celves, as a provisional central commit- 
tee to take charge of the work, Doctor 
E. G. Hirsch, Messrs. Leon Mandel and 
Julian W. Mack. This committee se- 
lected a sub-committee from the vari- 
ous clubs, and they one and all worked 
with unabated zeal in soliciting contri- 
butions from their fellow members. 
The central committee invited confer- 
ences with the Rabbis and obtained 
their assistance in soliciting subscrip- 
tions from the congregation members, 
and finally when this meeting had been 
determined upon they sent out general 
circulars to the public at large invit- 
ing subscriptions. As a result of these 
efforts 870 persons have contributed 
nearly $116,000 to date. As soon as the 
organization is completed active steps 
will have to be taken to obtain sub- 
scriptions from every Jew and Jewess 
in the City of Chicago, and it cannot 
be doubted but that $150,000, the 

"Before reading the draft of the 
charter it may be permissible to say a 
few words on the functions o?the new 
organization, and particularly to em- 
phasize, what it is not expected to do. 
It is to be primarily a financial insti- 
tution, a clearing house, to collect the 
contributions and to distribute them 
among the various charities. There is 
no intention of engaging in direct 
charity work, or of competing in any 
manner with any of the existing insti- 
tutions. The officers and trustees who 
are to be elected by you to manage it 
should, therefore, be selected because 
of their ability to collect funds and to 
maintain the present collections and 
because of their well established repu- 
tations for fairness and impartiality. 

"The new society, if carried on on 
these lines, will not and cannot solve 
all the acute charity problems that 
must be solved at once by the Jews 
of this city. The chief of these is the 

amalgamation of all of the relief giving 
bodies into one central body. The new 
organization, as a distributer of the 
funds; will certainly take up this prob- 
lem immediately and endeavor to bring 
about a complete co-operation of all 
the organizations which now dispense 
direct relief among the Jews. This 
amalgamated relief body will, it is 
hoped, include all of the ladies' socie- 
ties, the relief department of the Unit- 
ed Hebrew Charities and various bod- 
ies working in co-operation with the 
Seventh Ward Bureau." 

The following officers were unani- 
mously elected to serve for the first 

President Edwin G. Foreman. 

Vice-President Harry Hart. 

Treasurer Isador BaumgarU. 

Secretary Julian W. Mack. 

A board of seven directors was also 
elected as follows: 

For three years A. G. Becker and 
L. B. Kuppenheimer. 

For one year Mrs. Hannah G. Solo- 
mon and George Frank. 

From the speeches of the President 
and the Secretary of this new associa- 
tion we believe that the reader will be 
able to form a clear conception of the 
intentions, aims and objects of the As- 
sociated Jewish Charities. The forma- 
tion of this association was a step in 
the right direction, which will be imi- 
tated by the larger Jewish communi- 
ties of this country. The officers elec- 
ted have the full confidence of the 
community, and the results of their 
work will tell a cheerful and gratifying 


Just a few words in regard to these 
two very necessary and beneficial in- 
stitutions in connection with the United 
Hebrew Charities. These institutions 
are growing larger, better and more 
useful every year. The board of direc- 
tors stands as follows: 

Mrs. E. C. Dudley, President. 

Mrs. Leon Hartmen, First Vice-Pres- 

Mrs. Charles L. Strobel, Second Vice- 

Mrs. George Bass, Secretary. 

Mr. B. R. Cahn, Mrs. Emanuel Man- 
del, Mrs. Frank M. Avery, Mrs. Charles 
Sherman, Mrs. L. Lowensteln, Mrs. H. 
C. Chatfleld-Taylor, Mrs. George W. 
Meeker, Mrs. Levy Mayer, Doctor J. B. 
DeLee, Mrs. S. B. Steele, Mrs. W. H. 
Atwater, Mrs. George E. Wood, Mrs. S. 
C. Stanton, Mrs. Charles D. Norton, 
Mrs. J. L. Cochran, Mrs. M. D. Wells, 
Mrs. L. J. Wolf. 

The objects of the institution are: 
"To provide proper medical care for 
poor women during confinement at 
their own homes; to establish and 
maintain a hospital for the care of 
such pregnant women as are without 
homes or need hospital care during 
confinement; to instruct students of 
medicine in the art of midwifery, and 
to train nurses in the care of women 
during confinement" 



The first of these objects is being ac- 
complished at the dispensary, at 298 
Maxwell street, which cares for nearly 
one thousand women a year at their 
homes. The society turns its efforts 
toward establishing the much wished 
for maternity hospital, the necessity 
for which as an adjunct to the dispen- 
sary was being more and more acutely 
felt. No case is refused at the hospital 
if there is a vacant bed Jew or Gen- 
tile, rich or poor, white or colored 
the hospital will do its best for them 
all. In September a course of obstet- 
ric training of nurses was established. 
This course is of two months' duration, 
and many nurses of the other hospitals 
have availed themselves of its privi- 
leges. The service is both indoor and 
among the dispensary patients. Its 
fame is rapidly spreading througfiout 
the training schools of the city and 

in connection with the nursery an 
Incubator Station has been opened, for 
the care of prematurely and weakly 
born infants. This is the only thing 
of the kind in the city, as is also the 
ambulance incubator used in trans- 
porting these delicate children from 
distant parts of the city and the sub- 

While this society is not exclusively 
a Jewish organization, yet so many of 
our co-religionists take an active in- 
terest in its work and so many poor 
Jewish women benefit by it, that wo 
thought it proper to give an account of 
this institution in connection with the 
U. H. Ch. 

The fact is that a Jewish physician, 
Dr. J. B. De Lee, is the very soul of 
the entire establishment and a sub- 
stantial part of the funds are con- 
tributed by Jews. 


At 298 Maxwell street the dispensary 
continues to do great good among the 
poor women at their homes. During 
the past year 889 cases were treated 
and no death is to be recorded in the 
whole service; 10,982 visits were made 
these women, representing a vast 
amount of effort. 

One hundred and six students were 
trained in the essentials of midwifery, 
and the minutiae of obstetrics and 


The South Side Ladies' Sewing So- 
ciety was organized in the fall of 
1S63, with thirty members. There 
T/as only one officer at that time, and 
that was a president. The first presi- 
dent was Mrs. Michael Greenebaum. 
The dues were ten cents per week. 
The ladies met at the homes of the 
members and sewed garments for 
poor women and children, which wore 
distributed by the Hebrew Relief As- 
sociation. From the start until the 
present day the Sewing ' Society was 
an auxiliary of the Hebrew Relief 

On the 3d of April, 1888, the Society 
was incorporated. The officers were 
then: Mrs. M. Schmaltz, president, 
Mrs. H. F. Hahn, vice-president, Mrs. 
E. Mandel, recording secretary. Mrs. 
l-i. Simons, treasurer, Mrs. J. Hirsch, 
financial secretary. When the Mi- 
chael Reese Hospital was opened the 
South Side Ladies' Sewing Society 
supplied said Hospital with all linens, 
such as aprons, comforters, etc. 

For the last few years the Society 
has employed four Jewish women to 
do the sewing, which in former years 
was done by its members, expending 
for this purpose from four to six 
hundred dollars a season. Lately the 
Society has been working in co- opera- 
tion with the Chicago Women's Aid, 
in operating the work room on Canal 
Street, the Sewing Society supplying 
all material and distributing the fin- 
ished garments. In addition to this 
the L. S. Society furnishes employ- 
ment to thirty women at their homes, 
who are unable to attend the work 

The present staff of officers consists 
of Mrs. J. Schmaltz, president; Mrs. 
A. Rheimstrom, vice-president; Mrs. 
L. Strauss, treasurer; Mrs. N. F. Leo- 
pold, financial secretary; Miss Bins- 
wanger, recording secretary. The mem- 
bership numbers 310. The annual ex- 
penditures have reached the sum of 
$4,000. The number of families sup- 
plied are about 225. 

For the last thirteen years the pies- 
Ident, Mrs. Schmaltz, has attended to 
the duties of her office with a zeal 
and devotion commanding the highest 
praise. Mrs. Schmaltz is a sister of 
Abe and Henry N. Hart, and charity, 
the strong trait of character in the 
Hart family, exercises its fascination 
and influence upon the daughters as 
well as upon the sons. Mrs. Schmaltz 
seems to grow younger every year un- 
der the benign and rejuvenating in- 
fluence of sweet charity. She is still 
vary active in her blessed work and 
with the aid of her devoted sisters in 
charity, her companion officers of the 
L. S. Society, she accomplishes a vast 
amount of good for the benefit of the 
Jewish poor of Chicago. May her 
powers never grow less. 

The other Ladies' Sewing Societies 
of the North and West Sides have af- 
filiated with the United Hebrew Chari- 


The Jochannah Lodge is one of a 
number of lodges constituting "The In- 
dependent Order of True Sisters" 
("Unabhaengige Orden der Treuen 
Sch western"), with its headiuarters 
in New York. 

Jochannah Lodge was organized 
twenty-seven years ago, on the 12th 
of February, in this city, with Mrs. 
Babbette Weise its first president. 
The charter members were: The 
above-named president, Mrs. Johan- 
nah A. Loeb, Mrs. Michael Greene- 
baum, Mrs. Leopold Simon, Mrs. Sa- 

rah Cole and Mrs. Jochannah Koeh- 
ler. It was organized for mutual 
benefit and advancement. The mem- 
bers are entitled to a sick benefit. 
There is also an endowment feature 
connected with the association. Joc- 
hannah Lodge has always bfcen close- 
ly allied with all charitable projects 
in the city. In former years it an- 
nually clothed 100 poor children, but 
for the past six years it has confined its 
work to the maintenance of a certain 
number of widows and their children. 
Its annual entertainments and festi- 
vals are undertaken for the purpose of 
raising funds to be so applied. Dur- 
ing the last year it has been work- 
ing in conjunction with the United 
Hebrew Charities, and has charge of 
about twenty-five families. Jochan- 
uah Lodge was first to organize and 
maintain a free kindergarten for poor 
Jewish children, and it points with 
pride to the fact that the present 
Manual Training School is an out- 
come of the feeble efforts of Jochan- 
nah Lodge in that direction. 

The membership at present is near- 
ly 300. 


This is a powerful adjunct to the 
society. During the year these young 
women contributed $613 to the insti- 
tution; $300 for furnishing the nursery 
and $313 for its support. In addition 
they donated large quantities of babies' 
clothes, the labor of their own hands. 
Their membership now numbers 86, 
and all are deeply imbued with the im- 
portance of their work and active in 
their efforts in furtherance of it. 

President Miss Minnie Sax. 

First Vice-President Miss Rose Des- 

Second Vice-President Miss Emma 

Secretary Miss Lulu Newman. 

Treasurer Miss Nettie De Lee. 

In charge of the work room Miss 
Rebecca Hefte'r. 


The First President of the U. H. R. A. 

In tracing the development of a 
community the historian often finds 
the foot-prints of a single individual 
deeply impressed in the sands of time, 
extending through several epochs of 
progress and achievement. From the 
faintest border lines of first attempts 
in the pioneer period to the very cen- 
ter of the movements of maturity the 
light of this individual character radi- 
ates like a brilliant star on the firma- 
ment of the communal life, leading the 
way to thrift and to triumph, to 
strength and to stability. 

In the history of the Jewish commu- 
nity of Chicago Henry Greenebaum oc- 
cupies just such an exalted position. 
He was the pioneer leader and the pow- 
erful promoter of good and noble 
achievements through many years of 
the life of the Jewish community. The 
irresistible force of his energetic indi- 


viduality gave the impulse to the cre- 
ation of many of the religious, benevo- 
lent, fraternal, educational and social 
institutions, and his enthusiastic na- 
ture and lofty idealism, tempered with 
practicability and commercial sagacity, 
helped to sustain them and to extend 
their beneficial influences. 

Henry Greenebaum was born at Ep~ 
pelsheim, Germany, June 18, 1833, and 
his parents were Jacob and Sarah 
(Herz) Greenebaum. He received his 
primary education in yie public schools 
of his native town and then took up 
the study of the classics at Alzey and 
Kaiserslautern. He came to Chicago 
October 25, 1848, where two elder broth- 
ers, Michael and Elias, had preceded 
him, and took employment as a hard- 
ware salesman in the establishment of 
W. F. Dominick. After two years he 
engaged as clerk in the banking house 
of General R. K. Swift Here he re- 
mained four years, becoming thorough- 
ly conversant with the banking busi- 

At the end of this period he opened 

First President U. H. R. A. 

a bank in partnership with his elder 
brother, Elias, who was also a clerk 
In Swift's bank. Mr. Greenebaum be- 
came president of the German Savings 
Bank, and in the time of their high- 
est prosperity the deposits of these 
banks approximated five million dol- 
lars, quite a large aggregate In the 
earlier bank history of Chicago. 

He was one of the promoters of the 
city library and Is a life member of 
the Chicago Historical Society, the 
Chicago Atheneum (to which upon his 
motion It was changed from the origi- 
nal name of Christian Union), the As- 
tronomical Society, the 82d Illinois Vol. 
Regiment of Veterans, and of several 
kindred associations. He served in the 
City Council as Alderman from the 
Sixth Ward, was Presidential Elector 
on the Douglas ticket, in 1856 he repre- 
sented Cook County on the first Equal- 
ization Board of the States and was a 
member of the West Chicago Park 
Commission during the administration 
of Governor Palmer. 

The greatest interest he always took 
In Jewish affairs. Before he was of 

age he was secretary of the Congrega- 
tion B'nai Sholom and when he with- 
drew in 1855 to join Kehilath Anshe 
Maarabh, Congregation B'nai Sholom 
elected him an honorary member. In 
1857 he assisted in instituting Ra- 
man Lodge No. 33 of the Order 
of B'nai B'rith. He was an active mem- 
ber of District Grand Lodge No. 2 for 
ten years and one of the founders of 
the Cleveland Orphan Asylum. At the 
institution of District Grand Lodge 
No. 6, in 1868, he was elected first 
President by unanimous choice and 
twice succeeded himself. He was one 
of the founders of Sinai Congregation. 
In 1864 he established the Zion Congre- 
gation on the west side and was its 
President for seven years. In 1882 he 
was again elected President, holding 
the office for two years. In the fall of 
1895 a large number of co-religionists 
living south of Tltfrty-ninth street or- 
ganized the Isaiah Congregation and 
Mr. Greenebaum was elected the first 
President. He was the father of the 
United Hebrew Relief Association, now 
known as the United Hebrew Charities, 
and was elected its first President. He 
is an honorary member of Jochannah 
Lodge, an organization of Jewish 
women devoted to charity and intel- 
lectual culture. He is also President of 
the Past-Presidents' Association of 
District Grand Lodge No. 6, I. O. B. B., 
and for thirty years he officiated in 
ZioB Temple as reader on the eve of 
the day of Atonement. 

In 1855 Mr. Greenebaum was married 
in New York to Miss Emily Hyman 
and she proved a true and noble help- 
mate to him through many years of 
his eventful life. She died in Septem- 
ber, 1899, after forty-four years of 
wedded life, lamented by a large circle 
of friends and admirers of her many 
womanly virtues. The only child born 
to them lived but one year, and Mr. and 
Mrs. Greenebaum raised several or- 
phaned children of relatives, bestowing 
upon them the loving care of parents. 
Since 1882 Mr. Greenebaum has been 
connected with the Equitable Life As- 
surance Society of the United States, 
and is now one of the managers of this 
company in Chicago. 

Mr. Greenebaum, though advanced in 
years, still retains the freshness and 
activity of youth. He is still taking 
a lively interest in B'nai B'rith and 
other Jewish communal affairs. He is 
still a student of literature and lan- 
guages and is much interested in mu- 
sic. The Jewish community honors 
him as the acknowledged leader of 
over half a century, who has fully 
earned the love and veneration of the 
past and present generations. 

Present President of the U. H. Charities. 

Among the many Jewish emigrants 
who left Germany in 1848, the year of 
revolutions In Europe, was a young 
man of 21 years, by the name of Isaac 
Greensfelder, who had learned the 
shoemaker's trade. He was born In 
Lehrberg, Bavaria, in 1827, and his pa- 


rents' names were Nathan and There- 
sa. In his native town he received a 
public school education and he had full 
confidence in his ability to earn an 
honest living in the new world. In 1853 
he came to Chicago and here he suc- 
ceeded far beyond his modest expecta- 
tions. A year ago he retired from a bus- 
iness which counted among the largest 
and most prosperous wholesale boot 
and shoe establishments of the west 
and his standing in the Chicago com- 
munity as man and merchant is in- 
deed an enviable one. 

Mr. Greenfelder has devoted almost 
his entire life to charitable work. 
From the very first day of the organi- 
zation of the Hebrew Relief Associa- 
tion, October, 1859, he was one of its 
prominent and active leaders. This 
benevolent society is now known as 
the United Hebrew Charities. For 
thirty-three years he has been an 
officer of the society and its president 
for thirty-one years, and he is still 
filling this honorable position. He is 
a charter member of Sinai Congrega- 
tion and for many years one of its di- 
rectors. As president of the United 
Hebrew Charities he also has the Mi- 
chael Reese Hospital under his official 
management, and in spite of his ad- 
vanced age he attends to his duties 
with earnest zeal and astonishing reg- 
ularity. He is also director of the 
Jewish Orphans' Home and a mem- 




ber of the Standard Club. Mr. Greens- 
felder married Miss Emilie Blum, 
and of the children born to them seven 
are living, four sons and three daugh- 
ters, Nathan, Dr. Louis, Adolph, Ju- 
lius, Thekla, Rose, and Bella. 


The town of Eppelsheim, in the 
Rhein country, is the place where Mr. 
Hart was born in 1831. He Is the son 
of Michael and Babetta (Newberger) 
Hart. In 1854 he came to America and 
settled in Chicago. He is the founder 
of the well known wholesale furni- 
ture house of Hart Bros, and is still 
the active senior partner of this firm. 
Mr. Hart is a member of Sinai Congre- 
gation and an ex-director of the same, 
also a member of the Standard Club. 

Mr. Hart is a prominent figure in the 
Jewish community of Chicago, for he 
was for many years the heart and soul 
of the most important movements 
which resulted in the establishment of 
the best Jewish communal Institutions. 
His enviable reputation as a father of 
the orphans and as a friend of the 
needy even went beyond the limits of 
the state. For eighteen years he served 
the United Hebrew Charities of Chi- 
cago. Twice he was elected President, 
twice Treasurer and four times Trus- 
tee. He is a life member of the Cleve- 
land Orphan Asylum, and for elev- 
en years he held the honorable 
position of President and twenty- 
six years as Trustee of this In- 
stitution. He is also a contribut- 
ing member of the Orphans' Home 
of Atlanta, Ga., and of the Monte- 
flore Old People's Home of Cleveland, 
O., and he still takes warm interest in 
the welfare of the inmates of the 
Cleveland Orphan Asylum. Mr. Hart 
married Miss Hannah Rosenheim and 
they have three children, Mrs. H. Levi, 
Harry R. and Milton R. 

work and was an ex-President of Sinai 
Congregation. He died April 12, 1892, 
after a successful career, honored by 
all who knew him. He married Han- 
nah Frank, and six children are now 
living Joseph, Clara, Emanuel, Ar- 
thur, Rose and "Elsie. 



Mr. Snydacker was born In Enger, 
Westphalia, September 7, 1826. He 
came to America in 1854; was German 
Consul in this city in 1857, and was 
prominently identified with the 
early growth of Chicago. He took 
an active part in Congregational 



Charles Kozminski was born June 12, 
1836, in the Prussian province of Si- 
lesia. His parents were well to do and 
educated him in the higher schools of 
Breslau. At the age of 16 he entered 
the employ of a commission house at 
Breslau and his employers had such 
great confidence in his ability and in- 
tegrity that they entrusted to him 
their entire business upon the local 
bourse. When he reached the age of 17 
he came to America and settled in New 
York City, where he remained about a 
year. He came to Chicago in 1854. 
His first mercantile venture in this 
city was in the grocery business and 
for years he conducted one of the larg- 
est retail grocery stores in the West, 
situated at the northwest corner of 
Monroe street and Fifth avenue. In 
1866 he disposed of his grocery store 
and engaged in the dry goods business 
at No. 360 State street, where he re- 
mained about three years. He then 
abandoned mercantile pursuits and en- 
tered the banking business, and was 
also general western passenger agent 
of a number of lines of ocean steamers. 

In the '50s he was the first president 
of the first German Republican organi- 
zation in Chicago, called the Washing- 
ton Club. 

In 1887 he was appointed by Mayor 
Roche a member of the Board of Edu- 
cation, and as chairman of the Finance 
Committee he proved himself an active, 
enthusiastic and useful member. He 
took great interest in the work of the 
board and was one of the main factors 
in securing the passage of the compul- 
sory education law. He was connected 
with the United Hebrew Relief Asso- 
ciation and held different offices in the 
same; he was trustee from 1869 to 1871, 
financial secretary from 1871 to 1873, 
and president from 1873 to 1874. 

His charity knew no bounds and he 
was never too busy to give advice and 

counsel. At the time of the Chicago 
fire he was actively connected with the 
different relief societies and gave up 
much time and money in aiding the 
poor. He was an active and enthusias- 
tic Republican in politics, and died on 
the platform after having finished a 
most patriotic speech nominating ex- 
Mayor Swift for Mayor of Chicago. 

He left a widow who is also very ac- 
tive in charity circles; since a number 
of years she is a director of the Cleve- 
land Orphan Asylum and secretary of 
the Chicago Auxiliary Association of 
the same institution. One son, Maurice 
Kozminski, also survives him; he is a 
well-known and prominent citizen of 
Chicago; he is a member of the mort- 
gage banking firm of Kozminski & 
Yondorf, and is also the general agent 
for the French Trans-Atlantic line of 

The Board of Education of Chicago 
paid a high compliment to the memory 
of Charles Kozminski, as a sign of ap- 
preciation of his work while a member 
of the board; they named a school on 
the west side after him, and the Jewish 
community highly appreciated this 
friendly act of the Board of Education. 



Mr. Eisendrath was born in Dorsten, 
Prussia, in the year 1823, and came to 
America in 1848. He is one of the Jew- 
ish pioneers of Chicago, and has for 
many years occupied a prominent posi- 
tion in the business world. He helped 
to establish the North Side Hebrew 
Congregation, in which he held the of- 
fice of President for several years. He 
served the United Hebrew Charities as 
oflicer for six years and for one year, 
1874 to 1875, he was president of this 
association. He is a member of Con- 
gregation Anshe Maarabh, and for a 
number of years he was one of the di- 
rectors. He married Miss Helena Fell- 
heimer of Bavaria, and nine children 
were the fruits of this union, four of 
whom are living, Benjamin W., Wil- 
liam N., Joseph N., and Dr. Daniel N. 

Some years ago he retired from busi- 
ness to enjoy in his old age the rest 
which he so well deserves. Mr. Nathan 
Eisendrath is the pioneer of the Eisen- 
drath family in the United States. 



H. F. HAHN. 


The Chicago Jewish community is 
indeed deeply indebted to Eppelsheim, 
a small town in the Grand Duchy of 
Hesse-Darmstadt. Many of its best 
and noblest members hail from that 
distant German place. There stood the 
cradles of the Greenebaums, the Harts 
and the Felsenthals, and there, too, 
the subject of our sketch first saw the 
light of day. Destiny seems to have 
dedicated him to a free and indepen- 
dent life in the land of liberty at his 
very birth, for he was born on the day 
consecrated to the celebration of Am- 
erican independence, July 4, 1841. His 
parents, John and Florin Hahn, emi- 
grated to America in 1849 and settled 
in Ohio. There Herman F. Hahn was 
educated in the public schools. Coming 
to Chicago, he engaged in the wholesale 
jewelry business and was very success- 
ful. He is a member of Sinai Congre- 
gation and the Standard Club. He was 
a member of Zion Congregation for 
many years, also Treasurer of the 
We'st Chicago Club. Since 1883 he has 
been connected with the United He- 
, brew Charities in an official capacity, 
and for ten years, from 1889 to 1899, be 
held the office of Vice-President in that 
institution. He married Miss Jose- 
phine Joseph and they have three chil- 
dren, two sons and one daughter 
Mrs. G. T. Bauer, Harry W. and Ed- 
ward J. 

His good qualities, public-spirited- 
ness, ability and integrity, were al- 
ready recognized by his fellow citizens 
when he was quite a young man in the 
state of Ohio and they bestowed upon 
him many a political honor, and the 
rich experience of a long and honor- 
able career in Chicago has gained for 
'lim the full measure of esteem due to 
a good and able man. 


Mr. Maurice Rosenfeld was born in 
Chicago in the year 1855. He was edu- 
cated in Germany at the city of Frank- 
fort-on-the-Main. His first business 
enterprise was in the wholesale dry 
goods line. At present he is engaged 
ifl the real estate business. He is 
director in three very prominent 

financial Institutions of Chicago, the 
Chicago National Bank, the Equitable 
Trust Co., and the Home Savings 
Bank. He is also director of the Chi- 
cago Relief and Aid Society and the 
United Hebrew Charities. At the last 
election he was chosen by the citizens 
as a member of the Board of County 
Commissioners. He is a member of 
Congregation Anshe Maariv, which his 
father and father-in-law, the late Jacob 
Rosenberg, helped to establish fifty- 
four years ago. Mr. Rosenfeld mar- 
ried Miss Mattie Rosenberg, and the 
fruits of this union are two very lovely 



Mr. Greenebaum, who is the senior 
partner of the popular banking house 
of Greenebaum Sons, is so well and 
favorably known in the Chicago com- 
munity that it is superfluous to preface 
this biographical sketch with any in- 
troductory remarks. His name alone 
suffices, for it is synonymous with all 
that an honorable career of a half cen- 
tury can possibly imply. Mr. Greene- 
baum was born at Eppelsheim, Grand 
Duchy of Darmstadt, in June, 1822. He 
was educated in Germany, and at the 
age of 25 (in 1847), he came to the 
United States. His first employment 
was as a clerk in a country store in 
Ohio. He soon came to Chicago and 
accepted a position as clerk in the dry 
goods store of Francis Clarke, 168 Lake 
street. He subsequently entered the 
banking house of Richard K. Swift. 
On January 1, 1855, he joined his 
brother, Henry, in the banking and 
brokerage business. In 1862 he 'joined 
his brother-in-law, Mr. Gerhard Fore- 
man, under the firm name of Greene- 
baum & Foreman. The business was 
carried on until 1874., when the firm 
was dissolved, and Mr. Greenebaum 
joined his brother Henry, entering into 
the firm of Henry Greenebaum & Co. 
In 1878 Mr. Ellas Greenebaum started 
a loan brokerage business with his 
sons, Henry E. and Moses E., the firm 
name being as at present, Greenebaum 

Mr. Greenebaum is one of the found- 
ers of the Sinai Congregation, and is 


still a member of the same. The mem- 
bers of the Congregation have 
bestowed on him the highest honors 
within their gift. He was director, 
treasurer, vice-president and president 
at different times. He was a member 
of the Hebrew Benevolent Society, the 
second oldest charity organization in 
the Jewish community of Chicago, 
and was President of the same for ten 

Mr. Greenebaum married a Miss Ro- 
sina Strauss and has three sons, Moses 
E., Henry E., and James E., and one 
daughter, Emma, now the wife of Mr. 
Nathan Guthman. 


The history of the Chicago Jewish 
community would indeed be incomplete 
without relating the life of Gerhard 
Foreman. His work and influence were 
important factors in the building up of 
a number of Jewish institutions and 
the community is indebted to him for 
much that is good and noble in its 

Mr. Foreman was born in Dermstein, 
Rheinpfalz, Germany, April 29, 1823. 
His parents were Isaac and Fannie 
Foreman. He went to school at Grun- 
stadt, Germany, and in 1848 came tO' 
America and embarked in the whole- 
sale clothing business at Delphi, Ind., 
which business was afterwards re- 




moved to Chicago. In 1857 he entered 
the banking business in Chicago and 
continued in this business until 1885 
when he retired, having founded the 
banking institution now known as 
Foreman Bros'. Banking Company. 

Mr. Foreman started life as a teacher 
and his fine education was of great 
help in his business career. 

He was a member and an officer of 
Sinai Congregation. On August 17, 
1856, he married Miss Hannah Greene- 
baum of Chicago and nine children 
were born to them. Mr. Foreman died 
August 13, 1897, and Mrs. Foreman 
died April 5, 1886; a daughter, Mrs. 
Amanda F. Ballenberg, died in 1893. 
Three sons, Henry G., Edwin G. and 
Oscar G., and five daughters, Mrs. Tillie 
F. Rosenberg, Mrs. Ida F. Fleischer, 
Mrs. Lydia F. Steele, Mrs. Florence F. 
Leopold and Mrs. Birdie F. Schwab, 
are still living. 

Socially he is well known, and is 
a member of the Standard and Lake- 
side clubs, having been director, vice- 
president and president of the latter. 
He has taken much interest in the 



Mr. Einstein was born in Germany 
in 1826 and came to America in 1843. 
For some years he lived in Joliet, 111., 
where he conducted a mercantile es- 
tablishment, he then settled in Chica- 
go, where his business prospered. For 
fourteen years he has been Irustee of 
Michael Reese Hospital. He is a mem- 
ber of Sinai Congregation and an ex- 
director of the same. He is also a mem- 
ber of the Standard Club and was one 
of its directors. He married Miss Julia 
Rosenheim and their union was blessed 
with seven children, six of whom are 
now living, Mrs. Jennie Schaffner, Ar- 
thur M., Mrs. Emma Pierce (Roches- 
ter, N. Y.), Mrs. Rose Longini, Mrs. 
Tillie Rosenfield and Miss Anna. 


Mr. Witkowsky is a son of Solomon 
G. and Dora Witkowsky, and was born 
in 1839 in Posen, Prussia. He came to 
America in 1847 and to this city in 1852 
and has since been engaged in the 
mercantile and insurance business. He 
has seen the city grow, from an unpre- 
tentious town to the present great me- 
tropolis of the west. He is a member 
of Sinai Congregation and has served 
as one of its directors. 


charitable organizations, and has been 
a director of the United Hebrew Relief 

Mr. Witkowsky is married and has 
three children living. 


Mr. Moses was born in the ancient 
city of Speyer, Germany, Feb. 27, 1837. 
He is a son of Joseph and Rebecca (nee 
Adler) Moses. He attended the public 
and private schools of his native town. 
In 1852 he came to America and settled 
in Louisiana. He is a graduate of the 
University of Louisiana, and in 1861 he 
was admitted to the bar in that state. 
He came to Chicago in 1869, (after a 
residence -of six years in Quincy, 111.), 
and his ability and legal learning soon 
placed him in the foremost rank of his 
profession. Mr. Moses is a member of 
Sinai Congregation and of the Stand- 


ard, Lakeside and Iroquois clubs. He 
is ex-President of the Lakeside club 
and for six years was a director of 
the Chicago public library. He is ex- 
President of the Grand Lodge of Dis- 
trict No. 6, I. 0. B. B. At present he 

is a member of the Executive Commit- 
tee for this district, and President of 
Covenant Culture Club. He also serv- 
ed for several years as Secretary of 
District Grand Lodge No. 6, and was 
one of the Trustees of the Cleveland 
Orphan Asylum. Mr. Moses is editor 
of the National Corporation Reporter 
(since 1891), was Vice-President of the 
Illinois State Bar Association, is a 
member of the Executive Committee of 
the Civic Federation and Director of 
the Chicago Commercial Association. 
He is the author of a number of pam- 
phlets on law and other subjects and 
has delivered many lectures before 
large and appreciative audiences, not- 
able among these lectures are those on 
the legal phase of the "Captain Dreyfus 
case," on "Haym Solomon, a Neglected 
Hero of the American Revolution," on 
"Adolph Cremieux, the French lawyer, 
and an eulogy on the life of the late 
Isidore Bush of St. Louis. Mr. Moses 


was the original organizer of the "John 
Marshall Day" celebration, Feb. 4, 
1901, which was a notable celebration 
in all parts of the United States. 

Mr. Moses still takes a warm inter- 
est in every important movement of the 
Jewish community. In 1869 Mr. Moses 
married Miss Matilda Wolf, of Man- 
tieim, Germany, and they have six 
children living. Two of his sons are 
associated with him in the law prac- 
tice, and like their father, are steadily 
ascending the ladder of popularity and 


Judge Stein was born in Rhenish 
Prussia, March 12, 1844. At the age of 
ten years he came to America and set- 
tled on a farm in Wisconsin. From 
1861 to 1865 he was a student at the 
Wisconsin State University. He then 
went to Europe and spent two years at 
the universities of Heidelberg, Bonn 
and Berlin. He was admitted to the 
bar in Milwaukee in 1868. In 1870-71. 
he was associated with Mr. Adolph 
Moses under the firm name of Moses 
& Stein, and in 1887 he became a mem- 
ber of the law firm of Kra'us, Mayer & 
Stein. He was one of the founders of 
the Standard club and its secretary for 



many years. He helped to organize 
the West Chicago Club and was Its 
President for eight years in succession. 
He is a member of the Isaiah Congre- 
gation. In 1885 he served as chairman 
of the general convention of the In- 
dependent Order of B'nal B'rith, held 
in New York, and in 1886, in a similar 
capacity at the general convention of 
the Order of Free Sons of Israel, at 
Cincinnati. He was Secretary of the 
United Hebrew Relief Association for 
a number of years. He married April 
4, 1875, Miss Emma Stein of Chicago, 
and has five daughters, one of whom is 
married to Mr. Sam Eisendrath. 

Judge Stein is now serving the sec- 
ond term on the bench of Cook county, 
and is the first Jew ever elected to the 
bench in the state of Illinois. 

Mrs. Schmaltz was born in Eppelsheim 
and her parents, Michael and Babette 
Hart, came from Hesse-Darmstadt. 
She came to Chicago in 1852 and is an 
old and respected resident, and has 


taken an active and prominent part in 
charity work. She has been president of 
the South Side Ladies' Sewing Society 
for 25 years, which office she now 
holds, and has helped many a poor 
family in time of need. Her husband, 
Mr. Jos. Schmaltz, died in 1867. Pour 
children are living Mrs. James H. 
Heller, Nathan and Jos. Schmaltz and 
Mrs. M. Rothschild. Mrs. Schmaltz 
is a member of K. A. M. and is still 
active in charity work. 

Mrs. Loeb was born in Rendsburg, 
Germany. She came to America in 
1856, with her parents, Lev! J. and 
Caroline (Moses) Unna. She was edu- 
cated in Chicago; is a member of the 
Sinai Congregation, Jochanna Lodge, 
Council of Jewish Women, and Debo- 
rah Verein. She is a director of the 
United Hebrew Charities and the only 
woman member for many years. For a 
number of years she was President of 
Jochanna Lodge, and under her able 
leadership the Lodge reached a high 
degree of prosperity, manifesting a 
very beneficial influence. She is the 

mother of four sons, Sidney, Julius, Al- 
bert Henry and Jacob Moritzy. 

Mrs. Loeb earned her high. standing 
in the community by her intellectual 
gifts, her lofty character and many 
deeds of charity and benevolence. 



Mrs. Emanuel Mandel is the wife of 
Emanuel Mandel of Mandel Bros. Her 
ancestral home is Germany, and she 
came to this country shortly after her 
husband's arrival in 1844, although at 
that time she was Miss Babette Frank. 
Mrs. Mandel has always been an active 
worker for the charity organizations, 
she has not only given much of her 
valuable time but has also contributed 
liberally in a financial way. She can 
always be relied on for cheerful as- 
sistance when her aid is asked for 
charitable purposes. Mrs. Mandel will 
ever be remembered for her many kind 
deeds and loving disposition. 



Edwin G. Foreman was born in Chi- 
cago, July 14, 1862, and received his 
early education in the schools of his 
native city. His parents, Gerhard Fore- 
man and Hannah (Greenebaum) Fore- 
man, were well known and respected 
citizens of Chicago, whose work and 
influence in connection with Jewish 

charitable undertakings was felt and 
appreciated. He commenced his busi- 
ness career in 1879 as a messenger in 
the Corn Exchange National Bank, of 
which institution he is now a direc- 
tor, and in 1882 entered the banking 
house of his father, which institution 
is now known as Foreman Bros.' Bank- 
ing Co. 

Mr. Foreman takes a deep interest 
in the growth and welfare of Jewish 
charitable institutions in this city and 
is a loyal and public-spirited citizen. 
In addition to being president of the 


Foreman Bros'. Banking Co., and a di- 
rector of the Corn Exchange National 
Bank, he is president of the Associated 
Jewish Charities, treasurer of the Sinai 
Congregation, president of the Stand- 
ard Club, treasurer of the Merchants' 
Club, treasurer of the Illinois Manual 
Training School Farm, at-Glenwood, 
treasurer of the State Fawners' Society 
at Chicago, and a member of the 
Bankers' Club. 

He was married June 1, 1887, to Miss 
Rose Kohn, daughter of the late Henry 
A. Kohn of Chicago, and has three 
sons Harold, Alfred K. and Edwin G. 
Foreman, Junior. 


Mr. Straus is a native American. 
He was born in Ligonier, Ind. His 



parents were Frederick William and 
Madelon (Goldsmith) Straus. For a 
number of years they lived in Ligonier, 
Indiana, where the father was engag- 
ed in the banking business in partner- 
ship with his brother, Jacob, who is 
still a resident of Ligonier, Ind. The 
family moved to Chicago, and Simon 
W. was educated in this city, where 
he is now conducting a bank under 
the firm name of S. W. Straus & Co. 
Mr. Straus is a member of Sinai Con- 
gregation and a director of the same. 
He is also a member of the Standard 
and Hamilton Clubs. He was direct- 
or of the United Hebrew Charities and 
is now holding the same office in the 
Associated Hebrew Charities. He mar- 
ried Miss Hattie Klee, and they have 
two children, Madeline and Louise. 


Mr. Leo A. Loeb is a son of Adolph 
and Lucille Loeb and was born June 
20, .1867, in Memphis, Tenn. He re- 
ceived his early education in the 
schools of Chicago, to which city he 
came when still a boy. Mr. Loeb has 
been actively identified with a number 
of the charity institutions to which he 


has lent valuable aid and assistance. 
He is a trustee of the Denver Hospital 
for Consumptives and is -chairman of 
the relief committee of the United He- 
brew Charities and has been one of 
the factors in the organizing of the 
Associated Hebrew Charities of Chi- 
cago. In social circles he is well and 
favorably known and is a member of 
the Standard Club. Mr. Loeb Is a 
junior member of the firm of Adolph 
Loeb & Son, fire insurance agents. He 
married Minnie of the prom- 
inent society young ladies of this 


Louis Eckstein was born and edu- 
cated in Milwaukee. He started his 
active life career when seventeen years 
old as a messenger boy with the Wis- 
consin Central Railroad. His irrepres- 
sible virility brought him within ten 
years to the position of General Pas- 
senger and Ticket Agent, of this road. 
When the offices were moved to Chi- 

cago, Mr. Eckstein came also. In 1891 
Mr. Eckstein resigned his position with 
the Wisconsin Central and associated 
with Ben. J. Rosenthal and Louis M. 
Stumer opened a business house on 
State street, known as the Emporium, 
with which he still is connected. In 
1899 he accepted the Presidency of 
Streets Western Stable Car lines. 


In charities he is one of the most ac- 
tive and effective workers in Chicago. 
He was for years a director of the 
Manual Training School and Young 
Men's Hebrew Charity Association, 
the latter of which he was President 
during its banner years. While in 
this office three years ago he arranged 
with the publishers of one of the 
evening papers to manage one edition 
for charity, by which he raised $5,000 
from advertising. This is a small in- 
cident in his active career, but it is 
a striking example of his strong per- 
sonality. He is a member of Sinai 

Mr. Eckstein married Elsie Sny- 
dacker, daughter of Godfrey Snydack- 
er. He is a member and was a director 
of the Standard Club. 

and was born, April 24th, 1869, in Bal- 
timore, Md. He attended the public 
schools and is a graduate of Notre 
Dame College. Mr. Stumer is a mem- 
ber of the firm of Stumer, Rosenthal 
and Eckstein, wholesale and retail mil- 
liners, one of the largest establishments 
of its kind. He is a member of the 
Standard and Lakeside clubs and has 
taken a great deal of interest In the 
charities, and is at present a director 
of the Chicago Home for Jewish Or- 
phans. Mr. Stumer has exerted con- 
siderable influence in raising money 
for charitable purposes. 

He is a member of Sinai Congrega- 


The subject of this sketch is a son 
of Michael and Jennie Kellner Stumer, 



Mr. Mack is a native of California, 
born in San Francisco, July 19, 1866. 
His mother was a native of Kentucky, 
her parents having come from Bava- 
ria. His father, Wm. J. Mack, was 
born in Bavaria, Germany. Julian re- 
ceived his common school education 
in the public schools of Cincinnati, 
later graduating from Harvard Uni- 
versity Law School and completing his 
course of study at the Universities of 
Berlin and Leipsic. He came to Chi- 
cago in November, 1890, and has since 
practiced law. He is also professor of 
law at the Law School of the North- 
western University, where he is held 
in high esteem. 

Mr. Mack is a member of Sinai Con- 
gregation and an active worker In the 
charity associations. He has been 
secretary of the United Hebrew Char- 
ities for eight years, was one of the 
founders and is the first secretary of 
the Associated Jewish Charities. He 
married Jessie Fox and has one child, 
Ruth J. Mack. 

Mr. Pflaum was born in Chicago, 
April 25, 1863. He is the son of Mor- 
ris and Hannah Pflaum, and although 
a young man has taken a very active 
interest in congregational and charit- 
able work. He is now a member of 
Sinai Congregation and has been a di- 
rector of the North Chicago Hebrew 
Congregation. He has also been FI- 



nancial Secretary, Director and Presi-. 
dent of the Young Men's Hebrew Char- 
ity Association, Secretary and Direct- 
or of the Ideal club, director of the 
Standard Club and of the Jewish 
Training School. In his official duties 
he has always been a hard and consci- 
entious worker, and a competent and 
valuable aid. 



Mr. Shrimski was born in Chicago, 
April 9, 1869, and is a son of Isaac and 
Rebecca Shrimski. Graduating from 
the grammar schools, he received his 
higher education in the University of 
Wisconsin and then took a course in 
law at the Union College of Law. He 
is known as an aggressive and bright 
lawyer, having an extensive practice. 
Socially, Mr. Shrimski is prominently 
identified with the Standard Club and 
has been vice-president of the Lake- 
side Club. He has taken much in- 
terest in charitable affairs, and was 
president of the Young Men's Hebrew 
Charity Association from 1898-1899, and 
is now a director. He is a member of 
Sinai Congregation. 

Jewish social organization in the State 
of Illinois. Its members were among 
the best known young men in the Jew- 
ish community. It catered mostly to 
the social part of its members, but it 
took great pride in its literary debates 
and dramatic performances, which 
were highly enjoyed and appreciated by 
the community. Among the members 

Mr. Emanuel Mandel of Mandel 
Brothers, Mr. Adolph Shire, Mr. Jacob 
Metzler, Mr. Louis Rothschild, Mr. 
Louis Oberndorf, Mr. Jacob Katz, Mr. 
Max Polachek and Mr. Jacob L. Cahn, 
who was afterwards County Commis- 
sioner. It had a very prosperous exist- 
ence for a number of years, until the 
majority of its members entered the 
state of matrimony and lost interest In 
the society, which succumbed to a nat- 
ural death. We were unable to ob- 
tain the names of the first officers of 
this society. We can only give a list 
of officers who served six years later, 
in 1866: 

J. Greenhood, President. 

M. Newberger, Vice-President. 

Jacob L. Cahn, Secretary. 

J. Kahn, Treasurer. 

J. Katz, Librarian. 

' From this list it appears that the so- 
ciety also maintained a library, the 
nature of which we are unable to 

In 1860 Dr. Isaac M. Wise delivered a 
lecture before the Washington Irving 
Literary Society, on the position of Is- 
rael among the nations. A large con- 
course of co-religionists assembled to 
listen to this celebrated Rabbi and his 
words made a deep and lasting im- 
pression almost upon the entire com- 



This society was organized in Chica- 
go in the year 1860, and was the first 


Sinai Congregation was established 
on April 7th, 1861. The first mem- 
bers were, In addition to those named 
above in the history of the "Reform 
Verein," the following: B. Schoene- 
mann, B. Schlossman, Henry Leopold, 
E. Frankenthal, J. Friedman, M. Selz, 
Charles Schwab, Abraham Hart, J. L. 
Gataert, G. Snydacker, Herman Leh- 
mann, Isaac Wolfner, Aaron Cahn, 
Nelson Morris, Moses Reinemann, A. 
Rubel, J. M. Stine, Jacob Bayersdorf, 
S. Hymen, Henry Berg, Joseph Lieben- 
stein and others, whose names cannot 
be ascertained at present, as all the 
old lists, together with books and doc- 
uments, were destroyed in the great 
fire of October 9, 1871. Mr. B. Schoene- 
mann was the first President of the 
Congregation. The Congregation, was 
chartered on July 20, by the Secretary 
of the State of Illinois, and the follow- 
ing named persons were the incorpora- 
tors: Benjamin Schoenemann, Leo- 
pold Mayer, Rapheal Guthmann, Jo- 
seph Liebenstein, Benedict Schloss- 
man and Elias Greenebaum. 

The young Congregation was fortu- 
nate enough to acquire a frame build- 

ing, a former Christian church, as a 
house of worship. This first temple of 
the Sinai Congregation, a very modest 
structure, was situated on Monroe 
street, 'between Clark and La Salle 
streets. On June 21, 1861, the temple 
was dedicated by Dr. S. Adler of New 
York. The first public divine service was 
then held by the young Congregation 
and the Einhorn Ritual, was 
for the first time, used in a west- 
ern Congregation. The secretary of 
the "Reform Verein," whose history of 
the beginnings of the Chicago Sinai 
Congregation we utilize to a great ex- 
tent, reports in regard to this temple 
as follows: "It characterizes some- 
what the religious views prevailing 
generally among our Jewish people in 
those years when in this connection we 
state, that at the time the Congrega- 
tion was negotiating for the acquisi- 
tion of its first temple, objections were 
raised by some members to the buying 
of the building proposed, for the rea- 
son that in this building the congrega- 
tion would have to sit with their faces 
towards the- northern wall, while a 
Jewish congregation for religious pur- 
poses assembled, in accordance with 
law and custom, should turn their 
faces towards Mizra'h, that is: to- 
wards the east. In order to quiet the 
religious scruples of some, the Rabbi- 
elect was asked to give his opinion in 
writing about this matter and he did 

The Congregation began its 
corporate existence without any treas- 
ury whatsoever. In its circumscribed 
condition it invited repeatedly and 
urgently B. Felsenthal to become the 
Rabbi. He did so. 

In those years the Rabbi was elected, 
as it was the custom then in aimost all 
Jewish congregations in the land, from 
year to year. Towards the end of the 
third year of his service Rabbi Felsen- 
thal thought it would be not more than 
proper that the congregation should 
now appoint him for a longer term of 
years, and he gave notice to that effect 
to the officers of the congregation. In 
May, 1864, the congregation re-elected 
Felsenthal, but for one year only with 
an increased salary. (In the third 
year of his officiating with the congre- 
gation his salary had been $1,200; for 
the fourth year he was to receive 
$1,500.) A committee consisting of 
Messrs. Schoenemann, Frankenthal 
and Gatzert, two of whom are still 
among the living and honored mem- 
bers of the Sinai Congregation, came to 
Dr. Felsenthal's house, to inform him 
officially of his having been re-elected 
unanimously for another year ,and of 
his salary having been increased, but 
Rabbi Felsenthal declined to accept. He 
asked the committee to report to the 
congregation that he would continue to 
be their Rabbi under the condition 
that he should be elected for a longer 
term of years, or if the congregation 
would prefer this, that they would se- 
cure him in his position during good 
behavior. The committee reported this 
to the congregation in a general meet- 



ing assembled on the following Sun- 
day, and a motion was made to recon- 
sider the action of the week previous. 
This a majority at .the meeting de- 
clined to do. The resolution passed in 
the preceding meeting was re-adopted. 
The consequence was that in June, 
1864, Rabbi Felsenthal retired from his 
office and ceased to be the minister of 
Sinai Congregation. On June 17, 1864, 
he preached his farewell sermon. 

During the three years Dr. Fe'.sen- 
thal occupied the pulpit of Sinai 
Congregation, the Rabbi and the mem- 
bers were bound together by ties of 
mutual friendship and esteem. His 
ministrations within the congregation 
were blessed and brought forth good 

*From 1864 until 1866 the congrega- 
tion had no regularly engaged minis- 
ter. In its efforts to secure a Rabbi the 
-congregation stipulated, among other 
qualifications, that the applicant be a 
university graduate and a regularly ac- 
knowledged Ra'bbi. As an organiza- 
tion, Sinai was always prompted to be 
abreast of modern thought. The pulpit 
meant to these early members, these 
brave and sturdy pioneers of a great 
movement, not merely a religious po- 
sition to be occupied by a ready can- 
didate but the honored place for 
an honored teacher. The vacancy in 
the pulpit did not, however, interfere 
with the holding of regular Saturday 
services. Before and after the en- 
gagement of Mr. Heiman of Milwaukee, 
who officiated as reader and teacher 
for about one year after the autumn 
of 1864, various members conducted the 
services. Enthusiasm and an honest 
love of Judaism prompted many a lay- 
man modestly to contribute his share 
toward establishing the permanency of 
the congregation. B. Schoenemann, 
Raphael Guthmann, Elias Greenebaum, 
Leopold Mayer, Godfrey Snydacker, L. 
W. Reiss, and perhaps others, offi- 
ciated. The services of these volun- 
teers, whose example cheered the ac- 
tive and whose efforts aroused the in- 
different, are recalled with pleasure 
and apreciation by the members of 
Sinai Congregation. They remember 
and gratefully acknowledge the serv- 
ices rendered to Sinai Congregation by 
the minister of Kehilath Anshe 
Maarabh, the Rev. Dr. Liebmann Ad- 
ler, of 'beloved memory, who at one 
time in 1864 left his own temple to 
preach a sermon before Sinai Congre- 
gation on Yom Kippur. 

The second Sinai Temple was locat- 

*For the facts relating to the his- 
tory of Sinai Congregation from 1864 
to 187 i, we are indebted to the histori- 
cal committee of Sinai Congregation, 
consisting of Mr. J. L. Gatzert, Chair- 
man; B. Loewenthal, Elias Greene- 
baum, Leopold Mayer and Julius Ro- 
senthal. This committee prepared a- 
written document covering that" period 
and this document, which they call 
"Contributions to Sinai's History,'.' 
they have placed at our disposal. We 
frequently copy their manuscript ver- 

ed at the corner of Third Avenue and 
Van Buren Street. The property was 
deeded to the congregation April 1st, 
1863, for seven thousand dollars. 

On September 15th, 1871, Sinai Con- 
gregation sold the above propeity to 
Benjamin Lombard for |62,500, on 
which he paid $2.500 cash, and was to 
pay $7,500 cash upon delivery of war- 
ranty deed si.vty days from October 1st, 
1871; balance in three equal annual 
payments with interest at 8 per cent 
per annum. Owing to the great fire 
of '71; Mr. Lombard failed to ta';s ths 
property and after long and tedious 
litigation the property reverted to Si- 
nai congregation. On August 20th, 
1880 the congregation sold this proper- 
ty to Rezin Lancaster for $30,000. 

The above property is the lot on 
which the Fisher Building, at the cor- 
ner of Dearborn and Van Buren 
Streets is now located. 

In the spring of 1SG3 the new temple 
at the corner of Third Avenue and Van 
Buren Street was dedicated with ap- 
propriate ceremonies by Dr. Maurice 
Meyer of New York. The music was 
rendered by a choir consisting of Mr. 
Simon Florsheim, Mr. and Mrs. Sam- 
uel Alschueler, Miss Holden and Mr. 
Bischoff, and led by Mr. John 
Molter.who was a popular organist for 
many years. Jt may be noticed in 
passing, that on this occasion all mem- 
bers, by common consent, took off 
their hats during divine services, 
thereby abolishing an oriental custom 
and establishing a uniformity of action 
in this regard. 

While Sinai Congregation from its 
beginning realized that the work in its 
pulpit must be of greatest importance, 
it conceded that for the time being the 
establishment of a Parochial School 
was necessary and therefore gave this 
matter careful attention. A special 
building was erected next to the tem- 
ple for the use of the school and sev- 
eral teachers were engaged to give 
the pupils daily instructions in the 
same branches of education as those 
which were then obtained in the pub- 
lic schools. Mr. F. Heimbach, succes- 
sor to Mr. Hyman, was the head teach- 
er for several years and until the 
school was changed from a day to a 
Sabbath school. His services as teach- 
er in the Sabbath school in connection 
with the office of reader were contin- 
ued until April 1st, 1884, when he was 
retired with a pension. 


In 1865 Mr. B. Schoneman, when in 
Europe, consulted Dr. Abraham Gei- 
ger upon the subject of securing a suit- 
able candidate for Sinai's pulpit, and 
at his advice Mr. Schoenemann went 
to Koenigsberg to see Dr. Chronic. 
Upon Mr. Schoenemann's return to 
America and his report to the congre-' 
gation, Dr. Chronic was elected for a 
term of five years, at a salary of 
three thousand dollars- per annum. 

Dr. Chronic's reputation for fine 

scholarship had preceded his arrival, 
and his professional work more than 
satisfied the expectations of a number 
of Sinai's most p.-ominent members. 
Besides attending to his official duties 
he issued a German monthly magazine, 
in the interest of Jewish reform, 
called "Zeichen der Zeit," and deliv- 
ered one or more courses of ethical lec- 
tures in the old Metropolitan building. 

At the Rabbinical Conference held 
at the home of Dr. Samuel Hirsch, of 
Philadelphia, in 1869 and attended by 
Doctors Wise, Einhorn, Adler and oth- 
er leading reform representatives of 
America. Dr. Chronic, tha delegate of 
Sinai congregation, made a motion 
without comment to transfir the Satur- 
day Sabbath to Sunday. This proposi- 
tion was referred to a committee to 
report at the next meeting which was 
to take place the following year at Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, but this meeting never 
convened; no action was ever taken 
upon Chronic's proposition. 

Probably no more accurate estimate 
of Dr. Chronic and his work can 
be rendered than that given by Mr. 
Julius Rosenthal in his interview on 
Sinai's Sunday Services, printed in 
the Reform Advocate on January 14th, 
1898. In part Mr. Rosenthal says:- 
"The memory of Dr. Chronic and of 
his sermons and lectures is still fresh 
in the minds of the living who had the 
pleasure of listening to him. As a man 
and teacher admiration for him has 
not abated. He was the one that made 
it clear to those that were as yet un- 
decided in the opinion about Sunday 
services, that it is the only remedy for 
the preservation and dissemination of 
prophetic Judaism. It was Dr. Chronic 
who made us acquainted with the 
teachings of Dr. Samuel Hirsch of 
Luxemburg, Germany, and his cate- 
chism, thereby satisfying us, that if a 
man like the latter, whose faithful ad- 
herence to Judaism cannot be doubted, 
conceded it necessary for the preserva- 
tion of Judaism to introduce a Sunday 
Sabbath, such innovation in the trans- 
fer of the Saturday to the Sunday ser- 
vice could absolutely not be non- 


A contract was made with the Rose- 
hill Cemetery Company on July 15th, 
1867, for a plat of ground to be used as 
a cemetery by Sinai Congregation. 
This was the first instance of its kind 
in Chicago where a Jewish congrega- 
tion secured burial lots in a non-Jew- 
ish cemetery. This, however, was ac- 
complished only after a considerable 
opposition on the part of a large num- 
ber of members. This contract was for 
two hundred and three burial lots, 
averaging about three hundred square 
feet each, at eleven cents per square 
foot; fifty-three of these lots were to 
be taken and paid for at once, the re- 
mainder of one hundred and fifty lots 
were to be taken and paid for at the 
rate of thirty lots per annum, bringing 
the last installment to July 15th, 1872. 
Rosehill Cemetery Company further 



extended the privilege to Sinai Congre- 
gation to purchase* -within ten years 
one hundred and fifty additional burial 
lots adjoining the original plat at one- 
half the rate at which burial lots are 
sold hy said company at the respective 
time of this purchase. 

Blocks of burial lots were subse- 
quently deeded to Sinai Congregation 
as follows: 

October 15th, 1884, 11,550 square feet, 

June 19th, 1890. S2,639 square feet, 

July 29th, 1899. 22.286 square feet, 

Mr. B. Schoenemann held the office 
of president from 1861 to 1863. Prom 
1863 to 1899. the following held the of- 
fice of president In Sinai Congregation : 

From '63 to '65, J. M. Stlne; from 
'65 to '67, Godfrey Snydacker; from '67 
to '68, Simon Florsheim; from '68 to 
'70, Elias Greenebaum; from *70 to '73, 
Gustave Eliel: '73 to '77, B. Loewen- 
thal; "77 to '78, G. Snydacker; "78 to 
'79. B. Loewenthal; '79 to '80, M. Selz; 
'80 to '83, G. Snydacker; '83 to '86, B. 
Loewenthal; '86 to '96, J. L. Gatzert; 
'96 to '99, Albert Fishell. In 1899 Mr. 
Adolph Loeb was elected, who was re- 
elected at the last general meeting. 

The following were secretaries of 
Sinai Congregation from 1861 to 187S: 

R. Guthmann, J. L. Gatzert. John 
Cahn, Simon Florsheim, L. Friedman. 

At a meeting of the congregation 
held Sept. 1. 1872. for the purpose of 
revising the constitution, a motion was 
made to strike out from the constitu- 
tion the words "Biblical Sabbath." The 
motion was lost: sixteen voted for it 
and twenty-six against it. 


In October. 1S71. just before the great 
fire, Sinai Congregation extended a call 
to Doctor Kaufman Kohler, who was 
then minister of Beth El Congregation. 
Detroit, Mich. The doctor accepted the 
call and was preparing to come to Chi- 
cago to take charge of Sinai's pulpit. 
The reverend gentleman was induced 
to come to America by the Detroit con- 
gregation two years previous; he had 
been warmly recommended to Beth El 
Congregation by European and Ameri- 
can scholars of note, especially Doctors 
Geiger, Einhorn and Lilienthal. He 
was then a young man scarcely in the 
prime of life, but already noted as a 
scholar and fine pulpit orator. But be- 
fore he completed his arrangements at 
Detroit to leave for Chicago, the great 
fire broke out on the evening of Oct. 8. 
1871, and Sinai Temple was destroyed. 
Beth El Congregation of Detroit eager- 
ly re-elected Doctor Kohler as rabbi for 
a term of years, but Sinai Congregation 
decided to rebuild at once and they 
were unwilling to release him. Doctor 
Kohler arrived in Chicago on Thurs- 
day, October 29, 1871. 

Dr. Kohler was born in Fnerth, Ba- 
varia, in 1843. Of orthodox parentage, 
he was in youth an ardent and unfal- 
tering adherent of Rabbinism. But his 
University studies, and especially the 
deepest application to and study of the 

History of Jewish institutions and 
above all of Jewish thought, soon con- 
vinced him that the Jewish Religion 
had been undergoing development 
from its earliest period, that each age 
adopted rites and symbols which ex- 
pressed these eternal truths in a man- 
ner best suited to its intellectual con- 
dition, and that it was a most dan- 
gerous fallacy to regard Judaism as 
identical with its ceremonies and 
creeds of centuries ago. 

These views were strengthened by a 
thorough critical study of the Bible 
and Rabbinical literature, and when 
his thesis for the Doctor of Philosophy 
degree, entitled "Der Segen Jakobs," 
appeared, it showed him to be one of 
the most radical, but also most loyal 
adherents of Reform Judaism and one 
of the earilest of the new school of 
Bible critics. 

Under his ministry at Chicago a new 
and larger Synagogue was dedicated 
by the Congregation and many con- 
verts to the cause of positive Reform 
Judaism were secured for it. Here Dr. 
Kohler introduced Sunday lectures in 
addition to the regular Sabbath serv- 


ices, which he labored to prevent from 
superseding the latter. His efforts met 
with great success. 

The site of the present temple, south- 
west corner Indiana avenue and Twen- 
ty-first street, was bought in October, 
1872, from Mr. C. M. Culbertson for the 
sum of $35.000, including a two-story 
frame house: size of lot, 100 feet on 
Indiana avenue by 160 on Twenty-first 

At a meeting held Oct. 27, 1872, the 
following committee was appointed to 
look into the matter of establishing 
Sunday services. Elias Greenebaum, 
Berthold Loewenthal. Godfrey Sny- 
dacker. James Mayer and J. Beiers- 

On Nov. 24. 1872. the School Com- 
mittee was instructed to confer with 
Doctor Kohler in regard to writing a 
book on Jewish Religion and History 
for the use of the Sunday School. 

Sunday services were held for the 
first time in Sinai Congregation at Mar- 
tin's Hall on the loth day of Jan., 1874; 
Doctor Kohler. minister of the congre- 

gation, officiated. Mr. Berthold Loe- 
wenthal was then president of the con- 
gregation. The congregation then .had 
about 80 members, and a fair repre- 
sentation of the membership was pres- 
ent on this auspicious occasion. A 
majority of the congregation had for 
years been convinced of the need and 
justice of Sunday services; others were 
educated up to this idea by the gifted 
spiritual leader who was then the hon- 
ored occupant of Sinai's pulpit. Up- 
held by their Jewish optimism and 
strengthened by their enthusiastic 
earnestness of purpose, their persistent 
endeavors had won for them success. 
They considered Sunday services a ne- 
cessity for the preservation of Juda- 
ism in America. With them it was & 
conviction of a religious obligation and 
all the negative views of the congrega- 
tions in America could not swerve 
Sinai's handful one iota from what it 
conceived to be its duty in the crisis 
which threatened to estrange the ris- 
ing generation from the synagogue. 

The following resolutions were unan- 
imously passed at a special meeting of 
the Congregation held September 1st, 
1872: "Be it resolved, first, that a bet- 
ter attendance at the public worship 
is henceforth expected and thereby an 
interest and progress in religion at- 
tained. Whosoever advocates Satur- 
day shall show it by example, and he 
who advocates Sunday shall not stay 
away, as an attendance will bring 
about material understanding and har- 
monious action cherished by all. 

2. It is conceded on all sides that 
the light participation in our public 
worship is a detriment and reproach 
upon the congregation and Judaism, 
and that either one change or another 
must follow, therefore, if public wor- 
ship on Saturdays is upheld by the 
members the question of a change will 
rest, otherwise it will soon come np 
again as a natural consequence. 

3. For the purpose of affording an 
opportunity to the youth to hear some- 
times a word of religion, this congre- 
gation will as soon as possible arrange 
for a periodical or Sunday service or 
lecture, and the members shall use 
their influence upon the youth to have 
them attend the same. 

At a general meeting of the Congre- 
gation held on April 6th, 1873, It was 
resolved, that the frame house 
standing on the lot purchased from 
Culbertson by the congregation should 
be moved to the rear of the lot and 
that Doctor Kohler should be allowed 
to occupy the honse as his residence. 

Martin's Hall was rented. 

During the month of November, 1873, 
Doctor Kohler sent a communication 
to the Board of Directors of Sinai Con- 
gregation complaining of the small at- 
tendance of the members at his lec- 
tures on Saturday. 

At the special meeting of the Con- 
gregation the Board of Directors sub- 
mitted to the Congregation Doctor 
Kohler's communication, with the tol- 
lowing additions by the Board: 

"The undersigned Board of Direc- 



tors beg to submit to you the following 
in connection with the communication 
of Rev. Doctor Kohler: Considering 
that the demands of Rev. Doctor Koh- 
ler in regard to the participation of 
the members in our public worship are 
just and fair, and that his position 
cannot give him any satisfaction un- 
less the congregation hears his lec- 
tures and profits by his instruction, 

"Considering further that it is of 
vital importance for you to retain the 
valuable services of the reverend 
gentleman, who, notwithstanding the 
brilliant inducements offered him from 
abroad, is willing to remain with you, 
provided he can gain the conviction 
that he enjoys your confidence, and 
can exercise a beneficial influence on 
the religious and moral education 01 
the congregation, we beg to recom- 
mend to you the adoption of the fol- 
lowing resolutions: 

"1. Resolved, That the Sinai Congre- 
gation express its full and implicit 
trust and confidence in the ability, 
learning and devotion to Judaism of 
the Reverend Doctor Kohler, and its 
wish to retain his valuable services for 
the benefit of the young and the old 
by all means. 

"2. Resolved, That we consider it the 
duty of every member of our congre- 
gation to attend promptly to public 
worship on the historical Sabbath, and 
are willing to preserve it in Its proper 
integrity, but it appears from practical 
experience that a large number of our 
members are prevented by circum- 
stances from enjoying the benefits 
thereof and In order to give them and 
to the rising generation an opportunity 
to receive religious instruction weekly, 
provision shall be made for this pur- 
pose as soon as practicable in addi- 
tion to the present worship." 

(Signed by the entire board.) 

The first resolution expressing full 
confidence of the entire congregation in 
Doctor Kohler was carried unanimous- 
ly. The second resolution pledging tp 
keep up the historical Sabbath in all 
its integrity as a duty of all good 
Israelites, and to establish a Sunday 
service, besides the regular Sabbath 
service, for those who are prevented 
from attending on Saturday, was 
amended by inserting Friday evening 
instead of Sunday. The amendment 
was upon motion tabled unanimously, 
and the second resolution was then 
carried unanimously. 

Doctor Kohler's salary was fixed 
from the beginning at the rate of $3,- 
000.00 per annum. 

The holiday services of 1874 were 
held in the Church of the Messiah, cor- 
ner of Twenty-third street and Michi- 
gan avenue. 

The corner-stone of the present tem- 
ple was laid on June 20, 1875. In the 
corner-stone were deposited the fol- 
lowing documents: History of the con- 
gregation from its organization to date, 
written by Mr. Herman Felsenthal, 
secretary of the congregation; consti- 

tution and by-laws of Sinai Congrega- 
tion; complete list of members; list of 
officers and Building Committee of the 
same; the daily papers of this city: 
Tribune and Times of date. Inter 
Ocean, Post and Mail of June 19, Jour- 
nal, June 18; Jewish organs: Jewish 
Messenger of New York, June 11, Jew- 
ish Times of New York, June 18, 
American Israelite of Cincinnati, June 
18; printed sermons of Doctor Kohler, 
delivered in August, 1873, and in Janu- 
ary, 1874; the last annual report of M. 
M. Gerstley, president of K. A. M.; 
Legal News, June 18, 1875, containing 
decision of the Supreme Court of Illi- 
nois in reference to the lawsuit be- 
tween Sinai Congregation and Lom- 
bard, affecting the congregation's prop- 
erty, corner Van Buren street and Third 
avenue; the last city comptroller's re- 
port for the year ending April 1, 1875; 
last report of Board of Trade for 1874; 
last report of Chicago Relief and Aid 
Society, and the last report of the 
United Hebrew Relief Association. The 
speakers on this occasion were Doctor 
Kohler and President Loewenthal. The 
Germania choir furnished the music. 
The total cost of the temple reached 
the sum of $128,000. 

The dedication of the temple took 
place on April 8, 1876. 

A special meeting of the congrega- 
tion was called for October 6, 1874. 
The object of the meeting was to con- 
sider the feasibility of uniting with 
Kehilath Anshe Maarabh as one body. 

It was moved and seconded that the 
Congregation is ready to unite with 
K. A. M., if it can be done upon satis- 
factory terms. This motion was car- 

It was then moved and seconded to 
appoint a committee of nine to confer 
with a similar committee of K. A. M.. 
if said Congregation should appoint 
such a committee of conference, for 
the purpose of uniting the two con- 
gregations. This motion was also 

It was moved to instruct the commit- 
tee representing Sinai Congregation 
that a consolidation with K. A. M. can 
only take place provided the Sunday 
service will be guaranteed to Sinai 
Congregation. A substitute was of- 
fered to instruct the committee of 
Sinai Congregation to endeavor to pre- 
serve the Sunday service, but if this be 
the only obstacle in the way of the 
consolidation to report back to the 

An amendment to the substitute to 
make it read: "That the committee 
be instructed to preserve the Sabbath 
and Sunday services" was accepted by 
the mover and was then passed unani- 

The following committee of confer- 
ence, of which the president was by 
motion made a member, was then ap- 
pointed: B. Loeventhal, E. Greene- 
baum, Charles H. Schwab, M. Ein- 
stein, S. F. Leopold, D. M. Lindauer, 
H. Felsenthal, G. Eliel and G. Sny- 
. The Committee on Conference re- 

ported as follows, at a special meeting 
held November 24, 1874: 

"Your committee of nine appoint- 
ed to confer with the similar commit- 
tee of K. A. M. for the purpose of ex- 
amining into the feasibility and prac- 
ticability of affecting a fusion of the 
two Congregations beg leave to sub- 
mit to you the following report: 

"Upon notice to the President of 
K. A. M. a committee of nine was also 
appointed by said Congregation to 
meet with us and to discuss the object 
in view. Three meetings of the com- 
bined Conference Committee were held. 

"While the deliberations were gen- 
erally friendly and courteous, both 
committees were bound by instructions 
antagonistic to each other. Our com- 
mittee was to insist upon the guaran- 
tee of a Sabbath and Sunday service, 
and the committee of K. A. M. was to 
oppose the Sunday service under all 
circumstances, and to make no other 
concession for the instruction of those 
who are unable to participate In the 
Sabbath service, except lectures on 
Friday and Sunday evenings alter- 

In a congregational meeting of K. A. 
M. intervening between the second and 
third meetings of the Conference Com- 
mittee no change whatever was made 
in their instructions, as far as we were 
able to ascertain. Thus we may safely 
say that your committee is utterly un- 
able to come to any understanding with 
the committee of K. A. M., and from 
all appearances a union of the two 
congregations seems impossible, 
wherefore your committee begs to be 

(Signed by the entire committee.) 

The committee was on motion dis- 

A Building Committee was appoint- 
ed consisting of the following: Charles 
H. Schwab, S. Florsheim, M. A. Meyer, 
Henry Leopold, G. Snydacker, G. Ellel. 
Charles Schwab was appointed chair- 
man and S. Florsheim secretary. 

The committee recommended the 
adoption of the plans for the new 
temple, submitted by Burling & Adler, 
architects. The recommendation was 
accepted by the Congregation. Mr. 
Leopold Miller and Jacob Friedman 
were added to the Building Committee. 

At a general meeting of the congre- 
gation held April 4th, 1876, the salary 
of Doctor Kohler was unanimously 
raised to $4,000 per annum. 

In the year 1876 a convention of Jew~- 
ish Congregations' was held in New 
York City for the purpose of consider- 
ing vital questions concerning Judaism 
in America. Sinai Congregation was 
represented at this convention by its 
secretary, Hermann Felsenthal. The 
delegate reported to the congregation 
that a Theological Seminary Associa- 
tion was created at the convention and 
upon motion the President appointed 
the following committee to consider 
the feasibility of the recommendation 
of Delegate Felsenthal that Sinai Con- 
gregation become a member of the 



Seminary Association: G. Foreman, 
B. Schoeneman and A. Hart. 

At the annual meeting of the congre- 
gation, held March 27th, 1879, Julius 
Rosenthal proposed the following 
amendment to the by-laws: 

No Hebrew shall be taught in the 
Sabbath School of the congregation. 

No action was taken on this amend- 
ment at that meeting. 

At the special meeting of the congre- 
gation, June 17th, 1879, the president, 
M. Selz, announced that the meeting 
had been called for the purpose of con- 
sidering the formal resignation ten- 
dered by Dr. Kohler. 

Following is a copy of Dr. Kohler's 
letter of resignation: 
M. Selz, Esq. President Sinai Congre- 

Dear Sir: As you are no doubt 
aware, it has since years been a matter 
of constant complaint from the pulpit 
and of sad discouragement both to the 
members of the congregation, and to 
myself, that my persistent efforts and 
pleading in behalf of a larger partici- 
pation in Divine Service and a greater 
appreciation of our sacred cause, failed 
to arouse our members from their in- 
difference and lethargy, which have 
successively been assuming a more 
alarming and critical state. Disheart- 
ened at last by such experience, I could 
not help longing for a more promising 
and fertile field of labor. When, there- 
fore, about three weeks ago, the Presi- 
dent of the Beth El Congregation, in 
New York, opened a correspondence 
with me In reference to the pulpit soon 
to become vacant by the retirement of 
my father-in-law, Dr. Einhorn, I, con- 
sidering what I owed to my own fu- 
ture, felt bound to express my willing- 
ness to accept the call although no 
material advantages were offered to 
induce me to take this step. 

The pending negotiations having 
now been brought to a close and the 
contract having been ratified by the 
Beth El Congregation enjoining me to 
enter upon my new duties by Septem- 
ber 1st, 1879, I herewith tender you my 
resignation to take effect on the last 
day of August, 1879. 

It would be a vain attempt for me to 
describe my feelings of keen sorrow 
at the thought of parting with a con- 
gregation in which I have these nearly 
eight years lived in unclouded har- 
mony working and striving in common 
with it for a great and holy cause, and 
with the members of which I have, 
while ever in sympathy, sharing their 
joys and griefs, past in cordial friend- 
ship many of the most pleasant days 
of my life, the memory of which time 
can never blot out of my mind. 

I can only give expression to my 
most sincere wish and prayer, that 
with the help of God, the congregation 
may find a leader more successful than 
I have been in promoting its material 
and spiritual welfare and in rousing 
the interest of all its members in up- 
holding the standard of radical yet 
positive Reformed Judaism, to which 
the congregation is pledged by its past 

and with which alone it will, unshak- 
en by fears and trials, grow, I trust, in 
power and influence. 

I especially regret, being obliged to 
leave here sa shortly before the au- 
tumn holidays, but hope for kind in- 
dulgence in a matter which was be- 
yond my power to alter, intending to 
continue holding regular services and 
lectures during the summer until the 
close of my term. 

Assuring you in behalf of the Sinai 
Congregation generally and individual- 
ly of my lasting sympathy and friend- 
ship, hoping and wishing that these re- 
lations will continue unaltered by my 
departure, I remain, 

Yours most respectfully, 

Dr. K. Kohler. 

On motion the resignation of Dr. 
Kohler was accepted to take effect 
June 30th. 

The free use of the parsonage was 
tendered to the Reverend Doctor for 
the ensuing months of July and Au- 

During the holidays of 1879 Reverend 
M. Samfield of Memphis, Tennessee, of- 
ficiated in the pulpit of Sinai Congre- 

On Rosh Hashanah a collection was 
taken up in the Temple for the relief 
of Memphis sufferers from the yellow 
fever epidemic. 

At the special meeting of September 
30th, 1879, a vote was taken upon the 
motion of Julius Rosenthal to discon- 
tinue instruction in Hebrew in the Sab- 
bath School, and the motion was lost, 
but a motion to adopt the recommen- 
dation of the school committee to es- 
tablish a separate class for the study of 
Hebrew was carried. 

The following resolutions were 
adopted at a special meeting held Feb- 
ruary 19th, 1880: 

"With a view of securing to this Con- 
gregation a minister whose name will 
be an honor to Judaism and of whom 
we may have reason to expect that by 
word and deed he will teach the tenets 
of our faith in full accord with the 
convictions shared by all members of 
this Congregation; and thereby inspire 
young and old with that love for our 
holy cause which to the preservation of 
our religion is essential. 

"Be it resolved, that the Executive 
Board be herewith requested to invite 
and receive applications for the posi- 
tion of minister of this Congregation 
from Jewish Theologians of modern 
reform principles and of good repute, 
who have graduated at a German 
university, with honor, are excellent 
also in all those branches of study 
which characterize the learned Rabbis 
of our day and who are good orators, 
able to preach in the German and 
English vernacular. 

"Resolved, that inasmuch as circum- 
stances over which we have no control 
prevent a large number of our mem- 
bers and young Israel especially 
from attending public worship on the 
biblical Sabbath, this Congregation 
considers it an imperative duty to 
continue to hold services on* the com- 
mon day of rest, and to this end it 

shall be the duty of the incoming min- 
ister to attend to all functions of his 
station on Sabbaths and festivals and 
to deliver lectures before this Congre- 
gation on every Sunday. 

"Resolved, that the. incoming minis- 
ter shall also take charge of our Sab- 
bath school and devote a portion of 
his time to the instruction of a class 
of young men and ladies who have 
graduated from our Sabbath School 
and are desirous of making further ad- 
vancement in Jewish lore and history." 

It was in July, the midsummer 
month, that a new star appeared on 
the firmament of Sinai Congre- 
gation. At a special meeting of 
the Congregation held July 25th, 1880, 
Reverend Dr. Emil G. Hirsch, of 
Louisville, Kentucky, the worthy son 
of an illustrious father, was unani- 
mously elected minister of Sinai Con- 

Dr. Hirsch was destined to uplift 
Sinai Congregation to an eminence far 
above many other Congregations in 

He hastened the ripening of all 
the plans and projects, thoughts and 
teachings entertained by Sinai Congre- 
gation in the interest of Reformed Ju- 
daism; he impressed the world with 
the power and potency as well as the 
everlasting vitality of the ethics of 
Israel's prophets; he turned the 
searchlight of truth upon the past and 
present life of the Jew and forced 
many of our Christian neighbors to 
recognize the true traits of the charac- 
ter of the Jew and of his misunder- 
stood religion. 

On Rosh Hashanah eve Septem- 
ber 5th, 1880, Dr. Hirsch deliv- 
ered his inaugural sermon before Sinai 
Congregation. His theme was "The 
Crossing of the Jordan" and his text 
"V'attem tissoo mim'kom'hem," "Then 
ye shall remove from your place." In 
this sermon he sounded the keynote 
of true Jewish Reform when he said: 
"The mission of reform is twofold, 
critical and constructive. It is the sa- 
cred duty of modern Judaism to con- 
struct on the eternal principles of Ju- 
daism, an all embracing philosophy of 
life. Forward! From the spot where 
we are resting. Follow me to the dy- 
ing decades of the Eighteenth cen- 
tury! A hurricane is sweeping over 
'both hemispheres; America and 
France are in the throes of a new era. 
But where does the storm bring in its 
folds life, where death? Beyond the 
ocean they defy reason but she can 
with bloody hands only tear down, not 
build up; here, on this side of the At- 
lantic, with the God of their fathers 
a living presence in their hearts, the 
sturdy champions of the Revolution, 
not only tear down, they build up. Let 
these instances suffice! Let us, too, 
heed their warning. Forward! That 
is indeed the order of the day; but 
only when the arc of the covenant 
leads the way. But on the other hand, 
let us not forget that this idea of the 
covenant which makes us kin to the 



Infinite must ever remain a living 
thought, not degenerate into a dead 
dogma. If Judaism protests with all 
the fervor, that strength and truth of 
conviction can command, against the 
dogma of materialism; it does no less 
raise its voice against the materialism 
of dogmas. Like Reuben and Gad our 
Congregation is commissioned and 
pledged to march the advance guard of 
the army and bear the brunt of the bat- 

These were powerful words, spoken 
for the first time by the new Rabbi 
in Sinai's pulpit, in a clear, resonant 


voice, and with a faultless pronuncia- 
tion of the vernacular. The Temple 
was crowded to its utmost capacity, the 
congregation was spellbound and cap- 
tivated by the earnest eloquence of the 
masterful speaker, whose words car- 
ried conviction to every soul. The 
hush and silence of the attentive lis- 
teners lingered with the audience even 
after the voice of the speaker had 
ceased to vibrate, and silently the 
vast concourse of people dispersed in 
deep communion with their newly 
awakened thoughts. Sinai became con- 
scious ' on that memorable Rosh 
Hashanah eve that it must fol- 
low this bold and brave leader, or 
otherwise, retrogress and become un- 
faithful .to the principles of Reform 

Dr. Hirsch was elected for a term of 
ten years at a salary of $3,600 per an- 

At the semi-annual meeting of the 
congregation, held September 20th, 
1881, a committee of three was ap- 
pointed, on motion of Mr. Julius Ro- 
senthal, consisting of Dr. E. G. Hirsch, 
Julius Rosenthal and B. Lowenthal to 
draft resolutions expressing the pro- 
found sorrow and the deep felt grief 
of Sinai Congregation of Chicago at 
the death of President Garfleld, the 
martyr, who fell a victim to the bullet 
fired by the hand of an assassin. The 
Committee reported as follows: 

"The Sinai Congregation of Chicago 
in general meeting assembled feel it 
their duty in presence of the mournful 
calamity, that today has visited the na- 
tion in the demise of James A. Gar- 

field, to give expression to the feelings 
swelling their hearts. 

In common with all loyal citizens 
they recognize in the departed chief- 
tain the noblest illustration of the pos- 
sibilities of the American character. 
His short administration of public af- 
fairs in the responsible office of chief 
magistrate as his sterling worth in the 
long career of public devotion had 
elicited from them their unqualified 
admiration. His heroism on the bed of 
agony has revealed to them his noble 

He is dead, and in this sad reality 
disappointing their fondest hopes and 
earnest prayers for his ultimate re- 
covery, the members of this congre- 
gation pledge themselves to emulate 
his noble example in the several duties 
of life. 

To the bereaved widow and family, 
this Congregation extend their warm- 
est sympathy in the hope that the 
knowledge that millions weep with 
them may prove a soothing balm for 
their burning wound. 

Resolved, That these sentiments be 
spread upon the minutes of the Con- 
gregation and a copy, signed by the 
Minister, President and Secretary of 
this Congregation, be transmitted to 
Mrs. James A. Garfield. 

The resolutions were adopted by a 
rising vote. 

According to the semi-annual report 
of the Board of Directors, dated Sep- 
tember 12th, 1882, the Congregation 
was in a very prosperous condition and 
a marked improvement in the affairs 
of the Congregation was noticeable in 
every department. The membership 
was increasing rapidty, the finances 
showed a prosperous and thoroughly 
satisfactory state of affairs, and what 
was most gratifying was the fact that 
Sinai was becoming a recognized re- 
ligious force in the community. The 
new members who flocked to Sinai's 
standard all occupied representative 
positions in the Chicago Jewish com- 
munity and the future prospects of 
Sinai were very bright and promising. 

At the annual meeting on March 
27th, 1883, the Board of Directors 
recommended "that in the event of a 
death in the family of any member of 
this Congregation the funeral services, 
if so requested, may be held in the 
Temple," and this was adopted. 

Mr. Leopold Mayer offered the fol- 

"Resolved, That all confirmations 
shall in future take place on the Sun- 
day preceding Shebuoth, or on the 
said Holiday if the same happens to 
fall on Sunday." This resolution was 
unanimously adopted. 

At a special meeting held April 21st, 
1884, $6,500 were appropriated for the 
building of a gallery in the Temple, 
and $4,000 for re-decorating the same. 
The building of the gallery was a ne- 
cessity for the membership kept on in- 
creasing and seats in the main audi- 
torium were nearly all sold. 

On March 26th, 1885, Mr. P. Heim- 
bach, the teacher and reader of the 
Congregation, was relieved from fur- 

ther duties and a pension of $1,000 per 
annum was voted to him for life. 

The annual meeting, March 26th, 
1885, Mr. J. L Gatzert offered the fol- 
lowing resolution: "Owing to the ar- 
duous labors devolving upon our 
worthy minister, Dr. E. G. Hirsch, this 
Congregation hereby resolves to re- 
lieve him from the duty of preaching 
on Saturdays." Action on this resolu- 
tion was postponed until the next spe- 
cial meeting held April 9th, 1885, when 
it was adopted by a vote of 28 affirma- 
tives and 15 negatives. 

At the same special meeting the 
question of the use of Hebrew in the 
services came up in t)ie shape of a 
recommendation of President Loewen- 
thal. Mr. Herman Felsenthal offered 
the following resolution: 

"Resolved, That this Congregation 
regard the reading in Hebrew of the 
time-honored "Shema" and the "Kedu- 
sha" during services as specially Jew- 
ish, and that their accents so familiar 
to the Jew of every land, shall not be 
missed in any Jewish- house of prayer. 
The whole question was referred to the 
Committee on Public Worship, with 
power to act. 

The following motion offered by Mr. 
Julius Rosenthal was unanimously 

"Resolved, That the Abrahamitic 
rite is not an essential, condition, the 
compliance with which must precede 
or . follow admittance to membership 
in Sinai Congregation." , 

The salary of the minister was raised 
to $4,500 in 1882, and in 1883 it was 
raised to $5,000. In 1885 it was raised 
to $6,000, and in 1886 to $7.000. 

Upon motion of Mr. Snydacker, 
made at the annual meeting, March 
29th, 1886, the Congregation voted $150 
to the Hebrew Union College of Cin- 
cinnati, and Alliance Isrealite $200. 

The following recommendations of 
the Executive Board were unanimous- 
ly adopted at the annual meeting of 
April 4th, 1887. First, to excuse Dr. 
Hirsch from officiating at funerals on 
Sunday mornings; to pension the sex- 
ton, Louis Mayer, for his natural life 
at $400 per annum; that the salary of 
Dr. Hirsch be raised to $7,500. 

At a special meeting of the Congre- 
gation December 25, 1887, the follow- 
ing resolutions were unanimously 

Whereas, the ministrations of our 
highly esteemed minister and teacher, 
the Reverend Dr. E. G. Hirsch, during 
the last seven years have been fruit- 
ful of the most flattering results; and, 

Whereas, under his care and guid- 
ance the aims and objects of this Con- 
gregation have been developed and 
furthered to a degree beyond our most 
sanguine expectations, and. 

Whereas, in acknowledgment of 
these facts we deem it a high privilege 
to administer to the comforts of the 
Reverend gentleman and his worthy 
family in a manner commensurate to 
their position, and, 

Whereas, the present parsonage is 
no longer suitable as a residence for 
our minister.owing to the condition and 



location of the building, necessitating 
an early and at the same time perma- 
nent change, and inasmuch as the con- 
tract of our Congregation with our 
worthy minister will expire April, 
1890; therefore, be it 

Resolved, That the trustees of this 
Congregation are herewith empowered 
and instructed to extend the contract 
of Dr. E. G. Hirsch for a term of ten 
years from the first of April next and 
that his salary shall be fixed at a rate 
of $12,000 per annum from said date, 
and his life insurance policy of $5,000 
be kept in force during the continu- 
ance of said contract. 

In the minutes of the regular meet- 
ing of the Executive Board December 
28th, 1885, we find the following: 

"Dr. Hirsch reported to the Board 
that for the reason of a lack of wor- 
shipers no service had been held on 
Saturdays for the past four Weeks, 
that on each Sabbath morning the 
Temple had been open, minister, sex- 
ton and choir were on hand, but no 


On Sunday, the 16th 'day of May, 
1886, Sinai Congregation celebrated 
the twenty-fifth anniversary with ap- 
propriate ceremonies. In the morning 
.services were held in the Temple, cor- 
ner Indiana Avenue and Twenty-first 
street, which were largely attended. 
Great preparations had been made for 
the event, which was made one of gen- 
eral rejoicing and thanksgiving. The 
pulpit was arrayed in all the gorgeous 
magnificence of the choicest flowers 
and the tasteful arrangement was 
beautiful in the extreme. Along the 
entire front of the pulpit was a pro- 
fuse bordering of lilacs, above which 
were placed vivid-hued geraniums, and 
towering behind these were a row of 
blooming calla lilies, interspersed 
with palms. In the rear of the pulpit 
was a tasteful arrangement of bego- 
nias, of varigated colors, and growing 
palms and ferns immediately behind 
the reading desk.which was ornament- 
ed with boquets of rare cut flowers.the 
flags of America and Germany were 
crossed and between the tasteful fes- 
toon were hung the silver letters "C. 
S. C." 

The organ loft was profusely draped 
with verdant festoons, and on either 
side were suspended the figures "1861- 
1886." The front of the galleries and 
the gas pendants were all adorned w'ith 
graceful festoons of green, and hanging 
baskets of trailing plants and bright- 
hued flowers. On the platform were 
seated a number of leading Rabbis, 
among whom were Dr. Samuel Hirsch 
of Philadelphia, the venerable father of 
the incumbent of Sinai's pulpit; Dr. 
Samuel Sale, minister "of Congregation 
Anshe Maarabh, Dr. Kaufman Kohler 
of Congregation of Bethel, New York; 
Dr. B. Felsenthal of the Zion Congre- 
gation, Chicago; Dr. Liebman Adler; 
Dr. Emil Hirsch, and others. Dr. 
Hirsch opened the exercises with a 
trief tribute to the day, and to the 
noble leaders of progress and reform 

in the Synagogue, he then introduced 
Dr. B. Felsenthal, the first Rabbi of 
Sinai Congregation, who delivered a 
uerman address commemorative of the 
occasion. After singing by the aug- 
mented choir, Dr. Kohler was introduc- 
ed. The learned doctor who, for eight 
years presided over the Congregation 
devoted himself to the consideration 
of the leading tenets of progressive 
Judaism. He congratulated the audi- 
ence upon the phenomenal success 
which they had achieved and trusted 
that still greater blessings were in 
store for them. The venerable Dr. 
Samuel Hirsch of the Reform Temple 
of Philadelphia then followed in an 
able address in German, which was at- 
tentively listened to. The choir then 
tendered an apppropriate anthem, after 
which Dr. Hirsch closed the exercises 
with an eloquent address. 

In the evening a banquet was at- 
tended by most of the members of the 
Congregation accompanied by their 
wives. The President of Sinai Congre- 
gation, Mr. J. L. Gatzert, presided and 
delivered an eloquent address of wel- 
come to the members and the honored 
guests. He referred to the work and 
record of the chief guests of the even- 
ing, Dr. S. Hirsch, the father of the 
present Rabbi of Sinai, he described 
as the veteran pioneer of Jewish re- 
form who, far in advance of his sur- 
roundings stood for progressive ideas 
of religion, even forty years ago. Dr. 
Felsenthal, he said, plowed the fertile 
soil from which a Sinai arose inspiring 
new hope for the perpetuation of a 
Judaism whose purity and influence 
cannot be impaired by the supersti- 
tious notions otfhe laggards in Jewish 
ranks, nor by the assumedly new theo- 
ries in ethical societies. He referred 
to Dr. Kohler's great work while in 
charge of the congregation and to his 
labors at the Pittsburg Conference, and 
in conclusion he spoke of Reformed 
Judaism, holding that retrogression 
was now impossible, inasmuch as "in- 
vestigation" and thought had taken the 
place of blind adherence to lifeless 
forms and obsolete customs." 

The toasts and responses were as 

"Chicago Sinai Congregation," re- 
sponse by the First President of the 
Congregation, B. Schoeneman; "Our 
Ministers," response by B. Loewenthal. 
"Our Sister Congregations," response 
by Dr. K. Kohler; 'The Reformed Ju- 
dahism in Europe and America," re- 
sponse by Dr. S. Hirsch; "Our Guests," 
response by Dr. Sale; "The Sunday 
Schools,' response by H. Felsenthal; 
"Our Old Members," response by G. 
Snydacker; "The Pioneers," response 
by Leopold Mayer; "Our Absent 
Friends," response by Dr. E. G. Hirsch. 

In April, 1888, Rev. Dr. Samuel 
Hirsch of Philadelphia, came to Chi- 
cago.with the view of making this city 
his home, and Congregation Sinai ex- 
tended to the father of their minister a 
royal welcome. Highly complimentary 
resolutions were passed at a special 
meeting of the Congregation, and 
he was unanimously elected an honor- 

any member of the Sinai Congrega- 

The membership continued to in- 
crease and it again became necessary 
to enlarge the seating capacity of the 

A special committee was appointed 
consisting of nine members to consider 
and devise ways and means of mak- 
ing the contemplated improvements. 
This committee consulted with Mr. G. 
Adler, the architect, who estimated the 
cost of the change to reach the sum of 
about $60,000. Some of the members 
of the Executive Board were of the 
opinion that as many of the members 
of Sinai Congregation have removed 
further south it would be advisable to 
build a new Temple nearer to the 
center, where most the members are 
located. But after the special commit- 
tee again consulted Mr. Adler they de- 
cided to. recommend to the Congrega- 
tion to build an addition to the old 
Temple, which recommendation was ac- 
cepted by the Congregation. Mr. Ad- 
ler was ordered to draw plans for the 
addition, these plans were submitted 
to the Congregation by the special 
committee, and after a thorough ex- 
amination of the plans and specifica- 
tions the recommendation of the com- 
mittee was concurred in. 

The next annual meeting of the Sinai 
Congregation was held at the vestry 
rooms of Temple K. A. M. on April 4, 
1892, as work had been commenced on 
the addition to Sinai Temple. At that 
meeting Sinai Congregation donated 
$500 to the Russian Refuge Society. 


The remodeled, enlarged Temple was 
finished in October, 1892. The Temple 
has been materially extended in area; 
new stairways and new exits to the 
building have been added and the seat- 
ing capacity largely increased. New 
and complete systems of electric light- 
ing and ventilation have been intro- 
duced, the decorations are all of the 
most complete character. The walls 
and ceilings are covered in implicate 
patterns in many colors, the whole ef- 
fect being very quiet and harmonious. 
The chief feature of the new interior 
consists of the organ loft gallery and 
its frame; the treatment of this in 
plastic ornamental work colored in 
gold is very rich in effect. The light- 
ing, which is all electric, is well dis- 
tributed and very soft in effect. The 
seven domes in the ceiling are ar- 
ranged for this purpose in a novel way, 
the result being that the lights are 
mostly hidden from view and a very 
soft and pleasing illumination pro- 
duced; new stained glass of a very rich 
character has been introduced in all 
the windows, and the equipment of the 
building from top to bottom thorough- 
ly renewed. The platform is a model 
of beauty; on each side of the pulpit 
are two fine, artistic, wrought iron 
lamps, with silk shades, the arc has 
been omitted, the scrolls of the law 
not being used in Sinai Temple. The 
wealth of originality which the archi- 
tects of Sinai Temple, Messrs. Adler 



& Sullivan, have shown in the newly 
completed interior of the building, is 
well carried out in the typical forms 
of the decorations. 

The colors which predominate in this 
building are the reddish 'browns and 
gold colors on the walls, and the light 
blue on the ceilings. The transition 
between the two is a bold one and 
gives a pleasant effect of lightness and 
atmosphere to the upper portion. 

The ceiling is linked in effect to the 
walls by means of a broad frieze of he- 
roic design the .sharp outline of 
which against the vaulted ceiling al- 
most suggests out-of-door effect. The 
shrine is resplendent with exquisitely 
worked leaf designs, the golden ivory 
tones of which bring out the lacelike 

A feature of the interior consists of - 
a. series of small domes on each side 
of the vaulted ceiling. These domes 
are decorated in a most effective and 
unusual manner, by a repetition 
around them of a species of a conven- 
tionalized growth combined with 
curved lines, and reminding one of the 
old Egyptian ornaments, in which the 
lotus was shown, with curved lines be- 
neath it, representing the ripples of the 

Over all is shed the soft, mellow light 
of the stained glass in its many varied 
.and intricate designs in which one dis- 
tinguishes as the chief motif, the star 
of David, in a variety of forms and 

The re-dedication of this exquisitely 
beautiful edifice took place on Wednes- 
day, September 21, Erebh Rosh-Has- 
hanah, 1892, when services were held 
in the Temple for the first time after 
the remodeling. The Temple was 
crowded to its utmost limit. The in- 
terior decorations enhanced by the 
tasteful floral decorations on and about 
the platform aroused general enthusi- 
astic admiration. Dr. Hirsch opened 
the services by reading an original 
poem, "Our Spell Words," composed by 
him for this occasion. This was fol- 
lowed by the choir chanting a response 
and an address by President Gatzert. 

Dr. Hirsch seemed inspired. The 
fiery eloquence of his words when he 
delivered his sermon entitled "The 
Two Books," perfectly enthralled the 
souls of his listeners. A spirit of re- 
joicing, praise and thanksgiving 
seemed to hover over all. Mr. Gatzert, 
too, seemed to be filled with the pro- 
found thought of the solemn hour. His 
address was also a masterpiece, and 
made a deep impression. Space will 
not permit u<=, we regret, to give the 
inimitably beautiful sermon of Dr. 
Hirsch in full, but we will present our 
readers with a few quotations from the 
same. Mr. Gatzert's lecture we copy 
here in full. The eloquence of Dr. 
Hirsch is well known, but the beauty 
of Mr. Gatzert's composition will be 
a pleasant surprise to many. 

Dr. Hirsch "aid: "To the sacred In- 
spiration of this hour, to the solemn 
appeal of this house, let me bid you 
welcome. We return after prolonged 
absence to our home. At the thresh- 

old meets us the New Year to usher 
us to the njw Temple. The presence of 
this herald is warning to remember 
the caution: 'Rejoice in fear.' Not 
that the conceit possesses us, that ex- 
cessive joy must be ransomed by cor- 
responding depth of grief. To such 
dread we do not slave. The fetters of 
this heritage of remote days does not 
weigh down the wings of our soul, 
though in such bondage, the brightest 
even among the Sun-kissed minds of 

the enterprise. We have reason to re- 
joice that our fondest expectations 
have been realized. And yet, mingled 
with the glad congratulations is the 
trembling tone of a more serious senti- 
ment. The New Year's tide makes al- 
ways a refrain set to a minor key. The 
first tribute it asks are tears. Its 
wreaths are wound of memories, and 
on many of their flowers glisten the 
pendants of regret. The flitting, 
shadowy semblance of life, it lays near 

I Iff I I I I I 

Indiana avenue and Twenty-first street. 

Greece were paying homage to tyrant 
fear. We know that the exultations, 
as well as the lamentations of mortal 
tongues are neither challenge nor 
charm to storm or lightning, to tide 
or wave, to fire or plague. Not by such 
modes may either their fury be 
aroused, or their ravages stayed. What 
should it matter to others than men, 
that joy abide with us? Not the gods 
are jealous, but men; and certainly in 
an hour so full of stirring thought as is 
this, the petty spite of possible envy 
cannot speed or slacken the flight of 

"We have cause to be thankful to the 
men who doubted not but did, who 
devised and carried to a successful end 

the reflective mind, and thus oppresses 
with suspicion, that vain is human 
deed, and deceptive human victory, the 
thirsting, hungry heart. Like a skill- 
ful organist playing grave and fancy 
descant in lofty figures, the natal hour 
of the New Year constructs its com- 
position on one theme, the fleetness, 
and flightiness of earthly existence. 
But this subject does not exhaust its 
store of motives. The prelude may, 
perhaps, harmonize and enunciate this 
old, yet ever new, side. But soon the 
movement passes into a more jubilant 
tempo. It sings of the permanent and 
abiding reality, to which the passing 
days, the seeming shadows, are but an 
ever changing setting. 



"Paradise Lost symbols at best idle 
contemplation; Paradise to be gained 
tests and evokes the mettle of the men. 
Its prospect Is a fitting frontispiece to 
the volume, recording what poet ca'l3 
.'God's Occasions.' Weave, chaste fan- 
cy and airy hope your garlands! Fes- 
toon the hearts with the flowers of 
dreamland! Let your palm leaf wave 
the greeting of peace and beckon on- 
ward the eager wanderer on 'life's up- 
ward path.' All stars set; all suns 

of -things, stands forth also as an ap- 
peal to Israel itself, in its own house- 
hold, to remember and to apply the 
law universal. The flower fadeth, but 
the spirit shall abide. Who would de- 
ny that many a blossom, beautiful and 
chaste, and sweetly scented, there 
grew in the garden of old Judahism; 
but these flowers fade, and when they 
have faded away they are dull to the 
message from on high. Their speech 
must be sounded by other tongues; 

' ' . V .. ..< >'..:>< 


burn out; your lamp is lit at a higher 
light. He who sails his course by your 
constellation may dare the voyage over 
life's trackless waste and be of good 
cheer. "The voice of the Lord is upon 
the waters; and the word of our God 
endureth forever.' Storms may await 
the seafarer; tears may be pressed 
from eye, and the breast may heave the 
pricking sigh. 

'Yet trouble springs not from tha 

Nor pain from chance. 
The eternal order circles round, 
And wave and storm find mete and 

In Providence.' 

"This temple, in witnessing thus to 
this conception of the u'timate reality 

their charms must be tokened by other 
buc!s. This is the emphasis which we 
lay on the spiritual factor. Judahism 
is not a mere memory; it is not a mere 
psst. Those that constantly talk about 
the ancient religion of Israel forget 
that in the procession of the years, we 
are the most aged. The nearer we 
stand to the beginning the less is the 
number of our years. The immaturi- 
ties of youth mark the religions and 
religious symbolism of our fathers. 
The ripeness of thought and the broad- 
er outlook, is characteristic of those 
periods that are a development out of 
the teachings of many predecessors. 
It is not true that what is old, and des- 
ignated by mere old age, contains more 
of truth. The spirit which abideth is 

a living force, and as it links age ^o 
age, its stfeam broadens and deepen^. 
More of that spirit is within the reach 
of new Judaism, then was in the pos- 
session of the old. In execution, then, 
of these views, our Congregation, in- 
spired by its new hall of assembly, 
will remember its own history, and ap- 
ply to its own intentions the great pre- 
cepts projected on the screen of the 
past. Ours is the conviction, that Ju- 
dahism is a destiny. The everlasting 
word of God found incarnation in Ju- 
dahism, only as a means towards its 
fuller realization in the world" at large. 
A preparation for a still more inclusive 
covenant of humanity is Judahism it- 
self. The flower fadeth; Judaism 
will fade. The grass withereth; even 
the new pasturages, along which have 
grazed the herds of Israel, will dry up. 
But the spirit of God will abide. That 
sacred word, which is echoed by the 
ages and sounded by the stars will not 
be hushed, but its peal and appeal will 
win to higher motives and nobler re- 
solves the whole human race, on that 
New Year's day when Israel's volume 
will be closed and the new tome of a 
united, redeemed humanity will be be- 
gun. We make no effort to conceal this, 
fact that for the coming of this time, 
we are not merely awaiting, but work- 
ing. This, our Temple, welcomes all 
who with us, regardless of an inte- 
rior religious affliation, or of the for- 
mulation of the faith, will co-operate 
to bring about this hope, which is the 
vital spark of Judahism." 
"Build thee more stately mansions, O 

my soul, 

As the swift seasons roll! 
Leave thy low- vaulted past! 
Let each new temple, nobler than the 

Shut thee from heaven with a dome 

more vast, 

Till thou at length art free, 
Leaving thine outgrown shell by life's 

unresting sea!" 

To this new home, this temple, "no- 
bler than the last," let me call out to 
you a welcome heartfelt and sincere! 
A welcome laden with its weight of 
thankfulness, heightened by its power 
of joy a welcome thrilling from heart 
to lips with gratitude profound to Him 
above, who spared me in His mercy, 
thus to speak it, unto you, thus lend- 
ing ear to it a welcome throbbing 
with gladness at the boon of witness- 
ing the realization of our earnest wish 
to call our own a house of worship 
with surroundings as representative as 
the advance that has marked the phe- 
nomenal career of our beloved Sinai 

We are indebted for the enjoyment 
of this great change, this marvelous 
improvement in our Temple, to the 
generous spirit that pervades this en- 
tire Congregation, as well as to the 
members who have so cheerfully ad- 
vanced the necessary funds. We are 
indebted to our leader and teacher, 
Dr. E. G. Hirsch, through whose elo- 
quent discourses, so many have joined 



our ranks, and whose aid and influ- 
ence was the most potent factor in our 
onward march. We are indebted to 
our architects, Messrs. Adler and Sulli- 
van, who in fulfillment of their prom- 
ise, have re-constructed a temple for 
us, capable of meeting all our require- 
ments for public services, as well as 
for educational and social purposes, 
and one which in point of interior 
completeness and artistic beauty com- 
pares favorably with any church build- 
ing in the World's Fair city. The con- 
tractors, too, have faithfullly per- 
formed their task, and may be justly 
proud of their participation in the re- 
modeling of this beautiful edifice. As 
Chairman of the -Building Committee, 
I feel myself especially indebted to its 
members, Messrs. Jos. Austrian, Albert 
Fishel, Lee Fox, B. Lowenthal, Edward 
Rose and W. S. Rosenthal, with Dr. 
E. G. Hirsch and Mr. Adolph Loeb as 
advisory members, all of whom have 
worked with unflagging zeal, and with 
untiring energy. Many have been their 
anxieties, many their hopes and fears, 
and constant their prayers that the 
reconstruction so generously author- 
ized might result to the entire satis- 
faction of all. To the members of the 
Executive Board and the Pew Com- 
mittee we also owe a debt of gratitude 
for their indefatigable labors in the re- 
adjustment of our pews, and for the 
happy solution of this most difficult 
problem. Sincere thanks are due, and 
are heartily tendered to the courteous 
officers and kind members of our 
Mother Congregation, the K. A. M., 
who opened wide their gates to us, dur- 
ing our temporary absence from our 
own place of worship. A word, too, in 
grateful acknowledgment to Plymouth 
Church, under whose hospitable roof 
our holiday services were held. 

It is an old and honored custom in 
Israel to recite upon certain occasions, 
a portion of the history of its institu- 
tions; what more joyful occasion than 
this of our return? What institution 
more worthy than this, our Congrega- 
tion? The most sanguine expectations 
of the original founders of this organi- 
zation are certainly surpassed by the 
sight that greets us this evening, and 
yet the very height of our progress and 
success causes memory to travel back- 
ward to that noble band of seventeen 
courageous and self-sacrificing men, 
who, true to their convictions, joined 
together to form this Congregation. 
All honor to these pioneers, who, feel- 
ing within themselves the spirit of in- 
quiry and progress, stood manfully by 
their religious ideas, and, failing ut- 
terly to introduce their views into the 
service of the Mother . Congregation, 
called Sinai Congregation into exist- 
ence on the 7th of April, 1861. Soon 
thereafter its first Temple, a very sim- 
ple, wooden building on leased ground, 
located on Monroe street, between 
Clark and La Salle streets, was dedica- 
ted by the Sainted Dr. Samuel Adler of 
New York, and a new era dawned upon 
the progressive Jewish element of this 
city. The adoption 1 of Dr. Einhorn's 
prayer-book, satisfied the men of schol- 

arly attainments and revived the Inter- 
est in Jewish, affairs among the laity. 

Sinai's first and highly esteamed min- 
ister, Dr. B. Felsenthal, did yeoman's 
service in laying the foundation upon 
which our structure is reared. It was 
indeed no easy task, to destroy the 
idols of superstition, and to erect in 
their place a religious belief to which 
the mind, as well as the heart, could 
subscribe. The Congregation's second 
temple, dedicated by the late Dr. 
Moritz Meyer of New York, In the 
spring of 1865, marked even thus early 
a decided growth in our material pros- 
perity. But stronger than this, and 
more important, a spirit of research, 
well calculated to strengthen the cause 
of reform Judaism sprang up and de- 
veloped in a limited circle under the 
able leadership of the lamented Dr. I. 
Chronek, who at that time, and dur- 
ing the five succeeding years, occupied 
Sinai's pulpit. 

Like to many thousand firms and in- 
dividuals in our community the great 
fire of 1871 proved a dire disaster to 
our Congregation from a worldly 
standpoint. Our temple was destroyed, 
our records burned, our members 
scattered and busy with re-establishing 
themselves. One fortunate circum- 
stance, however, rallied the leaders of 
our Congregation to an extent which 
made them equal to the emergency. 
The knowledge of their arrangement 
previously made with Dr. K. Kohler, 
to act as Sinai's minister from No- 
vember, 1871, re-awakened the keen 
desire within them not to lose the serv- 
ices of this eminent scholar. Dr. Koh- 
ler found Sinai Congregation, though 
much decried by orthodox factions, an 
earnest, thoughtful and upward striv- 
ing organization of some seventy mem- 
bers, well equipped to comprehend the 
spirit of Jewish Reform, and willing 
to bring sacrifices for the propagation 
of its theories and the realization of 
its ideals. Whatever the learned 
Rabbi's position may now be, we will 
ever gratefully remember that his 
logical arguments and forceful plead- 
ings for a Sunday service, aye Sunday 
Sabbath, took root in the thought-life 
of our members and flourished in the 
fertile soil ploughed by his predeces- 

"A Congregation without a home is 
no Congregation." Such were the 
words, and others of a like import that 
frequently greeted the ears of a de- 
creasing and already heavily burdened 
membership from the pulpit of the 
temporary Church, corner Fourteenth 
street and Wabash avenue, and the ros- 
trum of Martine's Hall, in which places 
Sinai Congregation held its services. 
The crucial test of loyalty to the cause 
and the self-forgetting spirit of unfal- 
tering devotion to the task assumed, 
was now supplied and Maccabeean-like 
triumphantly borne. The Temple was 
erected upon its present site, at a cost 
of $120,000, and dedicatory services 
were held in 1876. For a while mat- 
ters ran smoothly until a reactionary 
attempt to check the reform tendencies 
of our Congregation injured the at- 

tendance at our services, and thinned 
the roll of our members. The hard 
times in our Congregation reached their 
culmination in 1878. A debt of $50,000, 
a salary list of about $10,000 per an- 
num, the almost unbearable cry of 
bankruptcy from our opponents, all 
combined to dim the lustre of our pros- 
perity. These were times that tried 
men's souls; but the managers of 
Sinai's affairs were men of undaunted 
courage. With a conviction in their 
breasts that the cause of Reform Juda- 
ism as espoused by their congregation, 
could not be injured by vacillations in 
quarters least expected, nor by the on- 
slaught of unprincipled antagonists, 
they met the unrest that threatened in- 
ternal disruption by a well taught les- 
son that retrogression has no place In 
Sinai Congregation. The clouds began 
to fade from our horizon with the ad- 
vent of Dr. Emil Hirsch in the year 
1880 the seed planted in richest fields, 
varmed by the rays of his intellect's 
bright sunlight sprang into life and 
sent forth their fruitage. Under his 
able leadership our list of members in- 
creased fourfold and we now number 
280 co-workers. 

The expounding from our pulpit of 
theories of value in a practical work- 
ing-day world the various philoso- 
phies of life so clearly touched upon, 
the sound ethics so earnestly and im- 
pressively taught, must stimulate to 
greater activity in the paths of duty 
and of justice, must arouse the nobler, 
truer self, making it possible for eager 
listeners to become better citizens, bet- 
ter men and women, better Jews! 

The men who forged the principles 
tlia* support this organization through 
tiij-is, and through struggles, through 
difliculties and disasters before which 
a wea>er body would have fallen back 
dismayed, may see in the sacred beauty 
of this hour, the realization of their 
pure and noble ideals, may find here- 
in the reward of their faithful labors. 
These men insisted upon Sinai Congre- 
gation's right to manage its own af- 
fairs without let or hindrance from 
other congregations or conferences; 
these men dared to proclaim to all the 
world, that Sinai Congregation, freeing 
itself from all burdensome, and for our 
time, meaningless customs, seeks the 
perpetuation of Judaism through the 
purity of its moral idea by adhering to 
the ethical truths contained in the 
Bible and the teachings of the proph- 
ets; these men and their co-workers to 
and of the present day, saw in the es- 
tablishment of a well regulated Sun- 
day service the only means of keeping 
the rising generation within the pale 
of Judaism. All are not here with us 
in the body, some having gone home, 
to sleep the last, long sleep the busy 
brains have ceased their thinking, the 
hands that toiled are quiet in the rest 
of rests; yet in this Temple find they 
remembrance strong as immortality 
and its success shall be for them a last- 
ing monument. 

In this solemn hour, solemn, yet joy- 
ful beyond all measure, I appeal to the 
young men and young women here as- 



sembled, to crown the work of their 
parents and teachers by joining our 
ranks with a whole heart. I ask them 
to place the proper value upon the sac- 
rifices that their parents have brought 
In educating them with a lavish hand, 
and thereby fitting them out to aid in 
the upbuilding of the moral nature and 
character of our co-religionists, by rea- 
son of their own intelligence; so that, 
when their time comes to feel the re- 
sponsibility for the continued progress 
of this Congregation, an institution 
which makes for righteousness, and 
will outlive us and them the joy, the 
happiness and satisfaction which fill 
our hearts today may also swell their 
breasts with pride and with thanks- 

At the annual meeting held March 
30, 1893, the recommendation of Presi- 
dent Gatzert that the incoming board 
should devise ways and means for 
equipping the Semitic Department of 
the Chicago University with a requisite 
Library was concurred in by a motion 
of Mr. Adolph Nathan, that it is the 
sense of this meeting to raise the 
amount necessary by subscription from 
individual members, such amount not 
to exceed $5,000. 

The President also recommended 
that the Congregation assist and en- 
courage young men studying for the 
Jewish ministry by setting aside one- 
half per cent of the annual assess- 
ments. Mr. Lowenthal then moved 
that the Congregation donate a 
sum not to exceed $1,000 per annum 
but of the general fund at the dis- 
cretion of the board, and this motion 
was carried. 

President Gatzert's annual re- 
port, presented to the Congregation 
April 2, 1894, contains the following 
announcement: "The contributions 
from members of Sinai Congregation 
to the various charitable educational 
and other helpful institutions, are as 

To the United Hebrew Chari- 
ties $11,462.50 

To the Michael Reese Hos- 
pital 5,325.00 

To the Cleveland Orphan 

Asylum 3,820.00 

To the Jewish Training 

School 5,168.00 

Averaging as a whole, 58 per cent of 
the entire amounts which the several 
other organizations have collected in 
the usual manner from the Jewish pop- 
ulation in our city. Mr. Gatzert recom- 
mends to the Congregation to give to 
the United Hebrew Charities an extra 
$500 to help to replenish their empty 

According to the report of the Exec- 
utive Board the Congregation then had 
a total membership of 304. 

The following resolution was unani- 
mously adopted: 

"That the public worship committee 
be Instructed to take into considera- 
tion the propriety and expediency of 
eliminating from our service on holi- 
days the reading of lengthy prayers 
in Hebrew, and bring the services on 

holidays in harmony with our Sunday 

The Sabbath School was attended by 
175 children. Only paid teachers are 
employed and no volunteers. The 
teachers are paid a liberal salary. 

At the Executive Board meeting 
May 7, 1894, the following resoluton 
was adopted: 

"Whereas, the Congregation is the 
owner of a Sepher Thorah, the use of 
which in the services has been dis- 
pensed with; Therefore, Resolved, 
that said Sepher Thorah be donated 
to the University of Chicago as a part 
of the Semitic Library, donated by the 

The donation of the congregation to 
the United Hebrew Charities was 
raised to $600.00 for the year 1893 to 

T-he President reported that the 
Liberal Religous Congress, the first 
of its kind in the history of the 
world, had held its sessions in Sinai 
Temple on May 22d, 23d, 24th and 
25th; that said Congress was excep- 
tionally well attended and marks an 
era in their history of liberal religious 
movement; and that Sinai Congrega- 
tion can be proud of the part taken 
therein by Dr. Hirsch and the mem- 
bers of the Congregation. 

Mrs. H. L. Frank was appointed 
by the President a member of the 
Choir Committee. 

The Chicago Tribune of September 
15, 1894, contained the following re- 
port of a reception tendered to Dr. 
Hirsch on the 14th of that month: 
"An informal reception was given to 
Dr. Emil G. Hirsch by his congregation 
tion last night in the vestry room of 
Sinai Temple. Between 500 and 600 
people were present and the greater 
part of the evening was taken up in 
greetings. The main hall was deco- 
rated with flowers, ferns and flags, 
and over the rotunda was a circular de- 
sign illuminated with electric lights 
bearing the inscription, 'Sinai's 
Greeting.' In the center was a por- 
trait of the doctor. While 'Home, 
Sweet Home' was being rendered by a 
mandolin orchestra Dr. Hirsch was 
led into the room by J. L. Gatzert, 
President of the Board of Directors 
of the church. The doctor was greet- 
ed with prolonged applause and af- 
ter the quartette had sung Mr. Gat- 
zert delivered an address of welcome. 
Dr. Hirsch responded saying this was 
the first speech he had made for twelve 
weeks, and he had almost forgotten 
how to make one. He had been glad 
to get away, but was equally glad to 
get back. 

The Torn Kippur donations collect- 
ed in Sinai Congregation in 1894 for 
the United Hebrew Charities amount- 
ed to $12,000.00. 

On March 4, 1895, President Gatzert 
announced to the executive board that 
he deemed it proper to state that 
he would not accept a renomination 
as President for the ensuing year, 
being prevented by the necessity of 
devoting his entire time to his pri- 

vate affairs. The members of the 
Board expressed great regret that the 
President felt called upon to make 
such an announcement. 

On Shebuoth of 1895 subscriptions 
of the members during confirmation 
for the benefit of the Jewish Train- 
ing School were inaugurated and the 
sum of $1,518 was realized. On Kol- 
Nidre Eve $13,158.43 were subscribed 
by the members to the United He- 
brew Charities, and on Purim of that 
year the sum of $157.40 was subscribed 
for Alliance Israelite Universale. 

The regular donation to the United 
H. C. was increased from $100 to $1,- 
000. Twelve young men petitioned the 
Board of Directors for the permission 
to become members of Sinai Congre- 
gation without being compelled to buy 
pews, and their petition was granted. 
At the annual meeting of 1896 the 
Congregation appropriated $600 for a 
religious school to be established in 
the Jewish settlement on the West 
side, as requested by 'the Council 
Jewish Women's Council. 

Dr. Hirsch was unanimously re- 
elected for a term of ten years from 
the expiration of his contract at a sal- 
ary of $12,000 per annum. 

Dr. Einhorn's prayer book in Eng- 
lish as revised by Dr. Hirsch was 
adopted by the Congregation, and a 
vote of thanks to Dr. Hirsch for devot- 
ing his summer vacation to the great 
task of translating into pure English 
the beautiful and inspiring prayers of 
the lamented Dr. Einhorn. 

According to President Fishell's re- 
port April 5, 1897, the total member- 
ship was 430. The attendance at the 
services on Sunday showed by a 
closely kept record an average of 1,- 
100, notwithstanding the severity of 
the storms and inclemency of the sea- 
son. We quote from the President's 

"There is, however, one thing to 
which I beg to call your special at- 
tention, and that is, the small num- 
ber of confirmants. We take the 
child from its entrance to the school, 
carry it through from class to class, 
year after year, but when we hope to 
see it become a strong link in the 
chain of our Congregation, through 
the rite of confirmation, we meet with 

"What is the cause of this failure 
to secure the culminating advantages 
of the religious instruction imparted in 
the school? Having been closely con- 
nected with the Sabbath School, and 
having given some care and atten- 
tion to the subject, I believe I can 
point out to you the special cause un- 
derlying the motive for failure to have 
pupils of the school publicly con- 
firmed in our temple. For years past 
our esteemed Rabbi has advised and 
insisted that the young lady members 
of the class foster simplicity in dress 
on confirmation day, instead of being 
clad in expensive garments elaborately 
decorated, and this -suggestion has in 
a great measure been complied with; 
but, unfortunately, another and a se- 



rious feature accompanying the con- 
firmation, that of giving large and ex- 
pensive receptions to the confirmants, 
has gradually arisen. Another, and 
no less potent objection is urged, that 
children of rich or affluent parents 
are more favored with callers than 
those having less of the world's goods, 
notwithstanding the fact that they may 
be leading in their classes and no less 
worthy. This, when it becomes 
known to the children as it always 
does produces heart-burnings, and 
thus almost on the threshold of life 
their progress seems to be impeded by 
barriers erected by social conditions. 

"Is it any wonder, then, that under 
such circumstances a man of moder- 
ate means sacrifices his own pride 
and that of his child, and foregoes the 
gratification of having him or her 

"I would therefore suggest, as a 
remedy, that you aid in the abolition 
of all private receptions to confirm- 
ants, and instruct the incoming 
Board to tender, in behalf of the Con- 
gregation, to the conflrmants, their 
parents and friends, a reception in the 
afternoon of confirmation day at our 
vestry rooms, which are so well adapt- 
ed for large gatherings, the expense 
to be defrayed out of the contingent 
fund, and thus the day will become 
to all the children, rich and poor 
alike, a happy and a joyful one, and 
to members and friends a social re- 
union, and the objections to non-con- 
firmation will in great part be re- 
moved. Our congregation can well af- 
ford to take the first step in this di- 
rection, and I feel confident that ere 
long we will not only have the satis- 
faction of seeing the desired object 
accomplished, but that other congre- 
gations will adopt the same measures." 

"I herewith submit to you a report 
of the Sabbath School of the Council 
of Jewish Women of Chicago, which 
your generous support has enabled us 
to carry on in a most satisfactory 

"We hold our sessions on the third 
and fourth floors of 571 South Canal 
Street, having there the use of four 
well lighted, well heated and well 
ventilated rooms. These sessions take 
place on every Saturday from 2:30 to 
4:00 o'clock P. M. 

"We have enrolled about 260 chil- 
dren with an average attendance for 
this season of 240. 

"Our school consists of girls only. 
We were compelled to limit ourselves 
as to numbers, and after careful con- 
sideration thought for various rea- 
sons that this would be the wisest 

"First. The boys were receiving 
religious instructions while the girls 
with but few exceptions were entirely 
untaught in this direction. 

"Second. We thought that the les- 
sons of cleanliness, thrift, etc., taught 
to the girls might be more productive 
of good results in the home. 

"A special stress is laid on the mor- 
al and ethical lessons derived from 
the bible stories. 

"Regarding the results, I would say 
that they are more than satisfactory 
and encouraging. 

"The appearance of the children has 
changed greatly. Unwashed faces 
and unkempt heads are now the ex- 
ception; now we are always greeted 
by the sight of clean, bright and smil- 
ing faces. 

"We feel satisfied that these influ- 
ences- do not end with the Sabbath 
School, but are carried into the homes 
and lives of these children. 

Chairman Sabbath School Committee 

C. J. W. of Chicago." 

The President's recommendation in 
regard to the reception to be given to 
the confirmants on Confirmation day 
was unanimously adopted and the Ex- 
ecutive Board made the proper arrange- 

A prominent and gratifying feature 
of the thirty-seventh annual meeting 
of the Chicago Sinai Congregation, 
held April 4, 1898, was the attendance 
of a large number of the younger mem- 
bers of the Congregation and their ac- 
. tive participation in the proceedings. 

At a meeting of the Executive Board 
held October 1, 1898, it was stated that 
on the third Sunday in January, 1899, 
twenty-five years would have elapsed 
since Sunday services were inaugurated 
in this Congregation. Whereupon the 
Executive Board unanimously re- 
solved to recommend to the Congrega- 
tion that it hold suitable services on 
that day. 

At the special Congregational meet- 
ing, held to take action on said mat- 
ter, the recommendation of the Execu- 
tive Board was adopted, and a com- 
mittee of eleven members of the Con- 
gregation, part of whom were members 
of the Executive Board, was named to 
arrange and carry out plans for the 
celebration. The following persons 
composed this committee: Augustus 
Binswanzer, Leo Fox, Joseph L. Gat- 
zert, Harry Hart, Dr. Emil G. Hirsch, 
Adolph Loeb, Berthod Loewenthal, Ju- 
lian W. Mack, Leon Mandel, Edward 
Rose, Julius Rosenthal. Albert Fishell, 
ex-officio. In compliance with the res- 
olution the committee extended an In- 
vitation to the following Rabbis and 
scholars to grace the occasion with 
their presence: 

The Rev. Dr. K. Kohler, Ne^York; 
Rabbi Moses J. Gries, Cleveland, O.; 
Prof. Morris Jastrow, Jr., Philadelphia, 
Pa.; Dr. Joseph K. Krauskopf, Phila- 
delphia, Pa.; Dr. Max Landsberg, 
Rochester, N. Y.; Rabbi J. Leonard 
Levy, Philadelphia, Pa.; Dr. L. Mayer, 
Pittsburg, Pa.; Dr. Adolph Moses, 
Louisville, Ky.; Dr. Samuel Sale and 
Dr. Leo Harrison, St. Louis, Mo., and 
Dr. Gustav Gottheil of New York, 
whom old age prevented from attend- 
ing, was requested to write a letter em- 
bodying his views. 

The celebration took place on Jan- 
uary 15, 1899. Two services were held, 
one in the morning and the other in 

the evening. In the morning the spa- 
cious auditorium was filled with over 
2,200 congregants, among whom were 
all the local Rabbis and representa- 
tives of their congregations. The plat- 
form was becomingly decorated with 
flowers, plants and flags. Overhead, in 
floral letters was the motto: "Das 
neue Wissen der alte Glaube," the 
title of Dr. Kohler's first Sunday ser- 
mon. The services opened with sing- 
ing of Psalm CL. by the choir, after 
which the regular ritual services were 
read by Dr. Hirsch. Mr. Loewenthal, 
who was President of the Congregation 
in 1874, the year in which Sunday serv- 
ices were first introduced, was to be 
the first speaker, but unfortunately the 
state of his health would not permit 
him to venture the experiment. In his 
stead Mr. Gatzert was introduced by 
Dr. Hirsch, and made some very ap- 
propriate remarks. Dr. Hirsch then de- 
livered % characteristic address In 
'which he warmly welcomed his hon- 
ored colleagues to the house of God. 
He said in substance: "If ever men 
loved Judaism, Einhorn, Hirsch and 
Holdheim did; if ever men were con- 
vinced of the world-enlightening and 
world-redeeming mission of our ances- 
tral faith, Holdheim and Samuel 
Hirsch were. Let the slanderer use his 
venomous epithets to the contrary, his 
is vain babble. Before the throne of 
God, where these transfigured leaders 
and pioneers are now standing, our 
pathfinders have been crowned with 
the wreath of immortality, and in the 
book of life, whose letters shall never 
fade, is recorded as the rhythm of 
every heartbeat of theirs,- their un- 
quenchable love for Judaism and their 
unshakeable faith in the God of Israel. 
If Holdheim and Hirsch, and at one 
period of his noble life, the blessed 
Einhorn, thought it necessary to 
march on from Saturday to Sunday, it 
was because the land of promise beck- 
oned them. They felt intensely that 
not to abide in a desert of indifference 
was Israel led out from Egypt. They 
were convinced that for the promulga- 
tion of the hope, and the realization of 
the faith of a God-blessed and God- 
united humanity, God's own had come 
into the patrimony of liberty. 

"The Sabbath idea is cardinal to Ju- 
daism. Without a Sabbath, no Juda- 
ism. This is fundamentally true, and 
no one may take even as much as a 
tittle away from this root proposition. 
If Judaism had given to the world 
nought but the Sabbath, its history 
would be crowned wherever justice is 
done to service rendered and acknowl- 
edgment is made for inspiration given, 
with the lustre of having brought to 
toiling man the richest of all blessings. 
Not Rome and not Greece, not Assyria 
and not Egypt, offered to the strug- 
gling race such sweet boon. Among 
them, slavery clanked its chain, the 
scourge of selfishness lashed the back 
of brother men, lust held the sceptre, 
and thought of gain and pelf alone was 
the magnet of life. The Sabbath bride 
could never feel at home among their 
art treasures, their martial trophies. 



Her cradle was not the forum, and not 
the agora, not In the Parthenan, nor 
in the Pantheon, not at the foot of the 
pyramids, nor in the shadow of the Pa- 
goda, Not from Ganges nor from Eu- 
phrates radiated forth her light of joy 
to diffuse in home the glow of duty and 
the glory of peace in the hearts of men. 
In Jerusalem, at Sinai, across the Jor- 
dan, where liberty was written on the 
first tablet of God's communication, 
wnere light was apprehended to be the 
first audible articulation out of chaos 
seething and whirling into cosmos 
where duty was sung as the primal 
chord and the final diapason of life's 
melody and meaning where love was 
prized the universal magnet and re- 
ward there, and there alone, the Sab- 
bath lamp could shine its brightest, 
and the Sabbath law could be garbed 
with deepest import and guarded in its 
unutterably impressive importance. 

"The Sabbath is the badge of God's 
covenants with men and in blhalf of 
man with Israel. It is the sign of 
God's abiding in the world; of His 
guidance of the nations in history. 
Take it away, night enwrapts human- 
ity, Time is robbed of purpose. Ages 
lose their awful trumphet notes as 
successive heralds of the God who 
leads men from slavery to sublimity. 

The men who led our advance have 
recognized this, if they have recog- 
nized one truth. But looking into the 
life of the modern world, they soon 
apprehended that if Israel was to be 
genuinely true to its mission, if Ju- 
daism was not to ebb away as a reli- 
gion of the ghetto and to petrify into 
a ghettoized religion, it was necessary 
for the Jew td live to the full the mod- 
ern life. That modern life entailed up- 
on him, deaf to his regrets and blind 
to his romances, accommodation to 
modern institutions and adjustment to 
modern necessities. Deny this whoso- 
ever will, to this effect is the universal 
testimony of far spread experience." 

The sermons preached on that cele- 
bration day were printed in pamphlet 
form. They form a rare collection of 
pearls of thought thoughts to kindle 
the perpetual lamp of truth in the 
sanctuary of humanity and keep the 
altars aglow with celestial fire in the 
temples of religious aspiration. 

The pamphlet contains the addresses 
by Dr. Kohler, Dr. Sale, Dr. Mayer, 
Rabbi Leonard Levy, Rabbi Moses 
Gries, etc., all illustrious leaders in 
Reform Judaism in America. 

In the evening of the next day after 
a reception tendered the visitors by 
the Chicago Section of the Council of 
Jewish Women, Mr. B. Loewenthal en- 
tertained the Rabbis and other guests 
at a banquet at the Standard Club. The 
list of participants included a number 
c.' the leaders of the Congregation, and 
the presidents of the local institutions 
accompanied by their ladies. Mr. Au- 
gustus Binswanger presided as toast- 
master. Wit and wisdom flowed in 

Shortly after this event the equa- 
nimity of the Congregation was con- 
siderably disturbed by the news that 

Dr. Hirsch had been the recipient of a 
call from Temple Emanuel, New York, 
to become the Chief Rabbi of this 
the most influential and prominent 
Congregation of the East if not of the 
country. Efforts were at once made 
to induce the Doctor not to accept the 
call. Young men, to the number of 
seventy, enrolled themselves as mem- 
bers in order to evidence by this that 
there was a future in this city for the 
Doctor's work. The newspapers took 
up the matter and editorially asked the 
Rabbi not to leave Chicago. Dr. 
Hirsch had sent in his resignation, 
fully determined to seek the new field 
offered him. But after long efforts to 
convince him that it was his duty to 
remain with the Congregation and 
when the Congregation elected him for 
life, the Doctor consented to ask 
Temple Emanuel to release him 
from whatever promise the mem- 
bers of that Congregation had 
^thought he had given to come. After 
Temple Emanuel took the desired ac- 
tion, Dr. Hirsch accepted the election 
under the new terms. Did he do wise- 
ly? The opinions on this are divided. 
Perhaps he might have made his influ- 
ence tell in the larger field to much 
greater advantage for the whole com- 
munity of Israel. But this is what the 
President of Sinai has to say on this 
matter in one of his reports. 

At the annual meeting of April, 1900, 
President Loeb writes in his message: 
"The closing scenes of last year's 
events are still fresh in our minds. 
Sinai Congregation had passed 
thiough a crisis, which, to say the 
least, caused an excitement among its 
members such as is rarely witnessed by 
an organization like our. The Congre- 
gation, in tones that could not be mis- 
understood, decided under any and all 
circumstances that our minister must 
remain, and if any sacrifices were nec- 
essary to obtain this sole object, the 
Congregation was ready to make them. 
The incoming Executive Board, officers 
and all, were elected, so to speak, un- 
der these conditions and Dr. Hirsch re- 
mained. Now that a year has passed, 
it behooves us to pass the calm and 
retrospective glance and ask ourselves 
the question: 'Was our action hasty, and 
have we occasion to repent it?' The 
answer is readily found. The year just 
closed has been one of unparalleled 
prosperity. New members flocked to us 
in great numbers regardless whether 
they could get a good seat or not; the 
services .throughout the whole year 
were of the highest order. The best 
of understanding was at all times 
maintained between the Board and the 
Minister, the latter outdoing himself 
in his great efforts to furnish the Con- 
gregation with the best creations of his 
master mind and master tongue. Not 
satisfied with his efforts in the pulpit 
up stairs, Dr. Hirsch also took personal 
charge of the Sabbath School, and the 
result of his wonderful patriotism is 
apparent in that the school has at- 
tained an attendance and a standard 
never before reached. 

"We come before you tonight with a 

membership of 463, including all 

The collection from the Congrega- 
tion for the United Hebrew Charities 
for the year 1899 to 1900, amounted to 
$14,430.41, the highest figure ever col- 
lected. Munificent donations have been 
made this year to the Chicago Univer- 
sity by quite a number of the members 
of Sinai Congregation, reaching all the 
way from $5,000 to $50,000. 

The year 1900 to 1901 -was also re- 
markably prosperous for the Congre- 
gation. The President in his annual 
report says: "Our Rabbi, Dr. E. G. 
Hirsch, seems to have made it his am- 
bition to make each sermon de- 
livered on Sunday greater and 
more admirable, more instructive, 
and more magnificent, than the 
preceding one. The experiment to 
transfer the school hours from Sunday 
morning to Saturday has proven a 
great success, enabling our superinten- 
dent and staff of teachers to devote 
twice as much time to their task, and 
the result Is most gratifying, both as 
to attendance and decorum, as also ta 
the dissemination of knowledge and 
the infusion of religion into the minds 
and hearts of the young. The removal 
from the city of Miss Sadie American 
. deprived the school of an able and com- 
petent teacher, and so did also the ad- 
vancement of young Mr. Baker to the 
ministry of a sister congregation. 
Both resignations were reluctantly ac- 
cepted and their places filled by the 
election of Miss Block and Mrs. Abra- 
ham. We have now on the rolls 473 
members, which will soon reach 500,. 
according to the assurances of the 
Committee on Membership." 

President Loeb strongly recommends, 
to Sinai Congregation to join the 
Union of American Hebrew Congrega- 
tions at Cincinnati. A Young People's 
Association was recently organized 
from among the members and their 
families, in the hope that they will 
help swell the audiences at the Sun- 
day services to a degree worthy of a 
congregation like Sinai. 

In consequence of the organization 
of the Associated Jewish Charities of 
Chicago the collection of contributions 
at the service on the eve of the day 
of atonement for charities has been; 
discontinued. The amount of $677.70 
was promptly contributed by the mem- 
bers of the Congregation to assist in 
alleviating the distress of the Galves- 
ton sufferers. 

Dr. Hirsch in a letter to the Congre- 
gation, earnestly advocates the" accept- 
ance of the President's recommenda- 
tion, that Sinai Congregation join the 
Union of American-Hebrew Congrega- 
tion. He also suggests that Sinai Con- 
gregation follow the example set by 
Temple Emanuel of San Francisco and 
establish one or two fellowships in 
semitics at the Chicago University, 
each to bring every year $500 to be 
open to a graduate student, preferably 
of Rabbinics. 

The following officers were elected: 
President. Adolph Loeb; Vice-Presi- 
dent, Leon Mandel; Treasurer, Edwin 



G. Foreman; Financial Secretary, S. 
Greenebaum; Recording Secretary, Ju- 
lius Stern; Directors to serve two 
years, Harry Hart, Joseph Kahn, S. W. 
Strauss and S. J. Klein; Director to 
serve for one year, Mr. Herman Lan- 

This completes the history of Sinai 
Congregation from the day of its birth 
to the present time. We deemed it 
best to follow the records of the Con- 
gregation chronologically from year to 
year, keeping close even to the parlia- 
mentary language of the minutes. 

The wonderful success and the mar- 
velous achievements of Sinai Congre- 
gation during the forty years of its ex- 
istence, in the fields of religion and 
charity, free thought and free giving, 
will no doubt stimulate other Jewish 
congregations to emulation. Under the 
leadership of its Rabbis Sinai Congre- 
gation has emerged from the desert of 
doubt, problematic experimenting and 
halting hesitation. It aims at a 
positive, prophetic Judaism a Juda- 
ism of duty and righteousness. It is 
now also emerging from its isolated 
retreat and is seeking the fellowship of 
its sister congregations in the house of 
Israel. It is marching onward with 
flying colors towards the promised land 
of ethical and religious truth, and it 
confidingly follows the new device in- 
scribed on its banner: "Das neue 
Wissen der alte Glaube." 

As stated before, as soon as Dr. 
Samuel Hirsch resolved upon his re- 
tirement from active duties as Rabbi 
of the Reform congregation Kene- 
seth Israel of Philadelphia, to make 
Chicago his residence, Chicago Sinai 
Congregation honored itself by elect- 
ing this veteran leader of the Reform 
cause to honorary membership. Dr. 
Hirsch came to this city March 23d, 

1888. The hope that here he would 
be spared to live many more years 
and enjoy the fruitage of his teachings 
in the prosperity of his son's congre- 
gation was not realized. Only a little 
over a year did he tarry with us. Dur- 
ing this time he occupied the pulpit 
of Sinai Congregation once, on Yom 
Kippur morning, 1888, and read the 
concluding prayer in the evening. Af- 
ter a torief spell of sickness he passed 
to his reward on May the fourteenth, 

1889, and was buried in Rosehill, the 
cemetery of Sinai Congregation, on a 
lot dedicated to his memory by the 
congregation. Soon after his demise 
the Board of Sinai resolved that it was 
their duty to mark in a becoming 
manner the resting place of this noble 
teacher. An invitation was extended 
to the congregation over which he had 
presided so long in Philadelphia to 
join Sinai in this work of love, but the 
Philadelphia admirers of Dr. Samuel 
Hirsch thought it best to give expres- 
sion to their feelings in a memorial 
window in the new Temple then pro- 
posed and since erected, and therefore 
did not accept Sinai's suggestion. 
September 6th, 1890, the monument, a 
beautiful shaft, was dedicated with ap- 
propriate ceremony. Dr. Sale of St. 

Louis, at the invitation of the Congre- 
gation, delivered the dedicatory ser- 
mon, and Dr. E. G. Hirsch gave ex- 
pression to his dear mother's thanks 
for this signal mark of reverence for 
a man who had not been the minister 
of Sinai, though his principles were 
indeed fundamental to the aims of 
Sinai's members. An inscription re- 
counting the services of the great lead- 
er and a quotation from an address 
delivered by him at the twenty-fifth 
anniversary of the founding of the 
Congregation marks the beautiful 
monolith. Dr. Samuel Hirsch was 
survived by his widow only a few 
years. She died beloved by all who 
knew her, in August, 1893, and was 
carried to her resting place by the sido 
of her dear husband by the members 
of Sinai Congregation, the executive 
board acting as pallbearers. 



Dr. Samuel Hirsch was born June 
8th, 1815, at Thalfangen, Rhinish Prus- 
sia. For a number of years he attend- 
ed the celebrated Jeshibha at Metz. 
Then he became a student at the Bonn 
University. His thirst for knowledge 
was so great that he walked all the 
way to Berlin to continue his studies 
there under the great professors. His 
first sermon he preached at Bessau, but 
he was too liberal a man for the ortho- 
dox faction and they forced him out. 

In 1844 he wrote his main work "Re- 
ligions Philosophie der Juden." In 1845 
he received the title of Doctor of Phil- 
osophy from the Leipzig University. 
During that year he officiated as sec- 
retary of the Second Rabbinical Con- 
ference at Breslau. Before this confer- 
ence he advocated Sunday services and 
afterwards published a pamphlet on 

the subject. In the same year he was 
called to the postiion of Rabbi at Lux- 
emburg, where he remained until 1866. 
He then emigrated to America and be- 
came the Rabbi of Kenesseth Israel 
Congregation at Philadelphia, where 
he remained until 1888. He also wrote: 
"Humanitaet als Religion" and a Cate- 
chism of the Jewish religion, shortly 
after he removed to Chicago, and Sinai 
Congregation, whose pulpit is occupied 
by his son, Dr. Emil G. Hirsch, extend- 
ed to the venerable father of their 
minister a very cordial welcome. 

He died in Chicago at the residence 
of his son. May 14th, 1899, and was bur- 
ied by Sinai Congregation at Rose Hill 
Cemetery. In 1890 Sinai Congregation 
erected a magnificent monument In" 
honor of his memory, over his grave at 
Rose Hill. The monument is an 
obelisk of Barre granite, extending 18 
feet high on a symmetrical base, meas- 
uring more than seven feet square at 
the ground. On the shaft appears in 
raised letters "S. H." in monogram, 
and the name "Samuel Hirsch" is on 
the base. The die bears the following 
inscription in polished letters: 

"Erected by Chicago Sinai Congre- 
gation, the first to adopt without com- 
promise or hesitation the principles he 
taught, and consecrated to the memory 
of Dr. Samuel Hirsch. Born in Thal- 
fangen, Prussia, June 8, 1815, he died in 
Chicago, May 14, 1889. For fifty years 
of active life as rabbi, both in Europe 
and in the United States, he was the 
most fearless and consistent champion 
of enlightened, liberal Judaism, and by 
words of mouth and pen never tired of 
holding its tenets as fundamentally the 
doctrine destined to be the religion of 
humanity, looking neither to the right 
nor to the left, but confident of the in- 
vincible power of truth. Those who 
now lag behind will follow, and those 
who now oppose will indorse our 

Dr. Hirsch was thirty years in the 
Jewish ministry in his native land, and 
for twenty three years he preached 
progressive Judaism in this country. 
His contributions on the philosophy o.f 
the Jewish religion and his text books 
on the tenets of Judaism, rank among 
the best of their kind. 



Benjamin Schoeneman, the first 
President of Sinai Congregation, was 
born July 6th, 1825, at Hainsforth, 
Germany. He was liberally educated 
in his native country. In 1849 he emi- 
grated to America, and in 1852 he came 
to Chicago, where he engaged in the 
packing business in which he was very 
successful. He was versed in Jewish 
literature, was a man of progressive 
ideas and a warm champion of Jewish 
reform. From 1863 to 1867, he was 
Chairman of the School Board of 
Sinai Congregation. From 1862 to 
1863, he was Trustee, and from 1867 to 
1868, Financial Secretary of the United 
Hebrew Charities. 



First President Sinai Congregation. 

He married Miss Eliza Unger of 
Koeln (Cologne), Germany, who was 
his second wife; his first wife was her 
sister. His wife and four children sus- 
vive him: Mrs. Eliza Stein, Simon, 
Frieda Katz and Leo Schoeneman. 


In the year 1873, there arrived in 
Chicago a man whose refined manners 
and lofty character at once won for 
him the love and esteem of his fellow 
citizens, especially that of his Jewish 
co-religionists. Almost immediately 
he became an active member of the 
Jewish community and his influence 
soon manifested itself in Jewish cir- 
cles. In his southern home he was 
prominent in B'nai B'rith affairs, and 
the leaders of district No. 6 received 
him with open arms. He was elected 
Grand Secretary for the district, which 
office 'he held for ten years. Those 
who know something about the history 
of the Jewish community of Chicago 
for the last quarter of the past century 
will easily recognize our friend Adolph 
Loeb, in the short pen sketch which 
we have drawn. 

Mr. Loeb was born in the old historic 
city of Germany, Bingen on the Rhine, 
in the year 1839. The family of Loeb 
has been prominent in Germany for 

Present President Sinai Congregation. 

several generations. At the age of 
14 he came to America and spent his 
youth in the city of New York. From 
there he went south and for a number 
of years he lived in Memphis, Tenn. 
Very early in life he started in the in- 
surance business, became an expert in 
his line, was very successful and re- 
mained in this business to this day. 
Mr. Loeb is manager of the North Ger- 
man and Transatlantic Insurance Com- 
panies of Hamburg and Vice-President 
and Western Manager of 'the North- 
German Insurance Co., of New York. 
Several years ago he admitted his son, 
Leo, into his business and the firm 
name now is Adolph Loeb & Son. 

Mr. Loeb was the President of the 
Russian Aid Society, established for 
the benefit of the Russian refugees, 
and existed for two years, from 1892 
to 1894. For twenty-five years, up to 
last year, he was a member of the 
Board of the United Hebrew Chari- 
ties and during the last twenty years 
he frequently held important offices in 
the Standard Club, of which he is a 
charter member. At present he is 
President of the Sinai Congregation, 
Grand President of District No. 6, 
B'nai B'rith, President of the Jewish 
Agricultural Aid Society of America, 
Trustee of the Cleveland Orphan Asy- 
lum, a member of the Art Institute, of 
the Civic Federation and of the Citi- 
zens' Association. 

All these high honors and distinc- 
tions Mr. Loeb carries with dignified 
modesty, always finding a kind word 
and a pleasant smile for the humblest 
as well as for the most influential. 


Mr. Florsheim was born in Ronerad, 
Germany, May 28, 1837, and his par- 
ents' names were Isaac and Marian 
(Weiler) Florsheim. He came to Am- 
erica in 1853 and to Chicago four years 
later. He first engaged in the insur- 
ance business and became secretary of 
the Germania Insurance Company, 
then he embarked in the wholesale hat 
business and now he is the proprietor 
of the Chicago Corset Company, with 
offices in Chicago and New York, fac- 
tory at Aurora.Ill., where 900 operators 
are employed. He is also Vice-Presi- 
dent of the Aurora Automatic Machin- 
ery Company, where about 250 ma- 
chinists are employed, Mr. Florsheim 
is the inventor of the Ball corset and 
several other mechanical devices. For 
a number of years he was a leading 
member of the Underwriters and 
Treasurer of Fire Insurance Patrol 
and a member of the Patrol which he 
helped to organize. He is now treas- 
urer of the Protection Mutual Fire In- 
surance Company. He was a member 
of a vocal quartet, which started the 
first singing society in Chicago, the 
at one time well known Concordia 
Maennerchor. He is a member of Sinai 
Congregation, of which he was Direct- 
or, Secretary, Treasurer, Vice-Presi- 
dent and for many years member of 
the choir. For two years, from 
1896 to 1898, he was a director of 
the United Hebrew Relief Association. 

He is a member of the Standard and 
Hamilton Clubs, and an ex-Director of 
the first. He married Miss Elizabeth 
Friesleben and of the children that 
were born to them six are now living. 
Mrs. Flora Altman, Norman,- Sidney, 
Isaac, Leonard and Isabel. 

Mr. Florsheim was the youngest 
President ever elected in Sinai Con- 


gregation, being but 27 years old. He 
organized the first choir for the con- 
gregation and sang in it for 15 years 
as basso. 


In the congregational, charity and 
social circles of the Jewish commun- 
ity, as well as in the financial world, 
municipal affairs and public life of 
Chicago in general, the name of Ber- 
thold Loewenthal occupies a place of 

Mr. Loewenthal was born in Mueh- 
ringen, Wurtemburg, Germany, August 
6, 1830. His parents were Joseph and 
Yetta Loewenthal. He was educated 
in the public schools of his native 
town. At the age of twenty he came to 
America, and settled in Rock Island, 
111., and for two years, from 1855 to 
1857, he served as Alderman of that 
town. In 1863 he moved to Chicago. 
He was a member of the Board of Di- 
rectors of the United Hebrew Charities 
for a number of years, and President 
from October, 1870, to January, 1872. 
In December of 1871 he was elected 
South Town Supervisor on the Fire 
ticket (non partisan) and for two 
years he served creditably without 
compensation. From 1875 to 1882 he 
was a member of the Board of Direct- 
ors of the Chicago Public Library, es- 
tablishing for himself an excellent rec- 
ord. From Sept. 1, 1890 to Feb. 21, 
1898, he was President of the Interna- 
tional Bank, when its business was 
transferred to the Continental National 
bank, and he became a director of the 
last named institution, a position 
which he continues to hold at the pres- 
ent time. 

Mr. Loewenthal is a member of Sinai 
Congregation and for ten years he was 
President of the same, and held the 




position of Director and Treasurer for 
fully 25 years. He is a member of the 
Standard Club, and also of this insti- 
tution, he was President for two years. 
He is a member of the Board of Di- 
rectors of the Home for Aged Jews 
and has been its Treasurer ever since 
the Home was organized, to the pres- 
ent day. He married Miss Nannie 
Kaufman, and they have two children, 
a daughter, Julia, the wife of Mr. A. 
H. Wolf, and a son, Julius W. 


Mr. Gatzert was born in Hofheim, 
near Worms, May 6, 1836. His parents 
were Abraham and Sarah Gatzert. 
His ancestral home was at Alsbach, in 
the Rheinish Palatinate. He received 
an excellent education in his native 
country. In December, 1852, he came 
to America and settled in Chicago, 
where he engaged in merchandising, 
and was very successful. Being of a 
charitable disposition, a man of tact, 
refinement, and possessing adminis- 
trative ability to a high degree, he 
soon became a prominent figure in 
Jewish communal life of Chicago. He 
early identified himself with the Jew- 
ish charities, rendering valuable ser- 
vices to the good cause. For his 
faithful gratuitous services as super- 
intendent he received a highly artisti- 
cally executed testimonial from the 


Board of the United Hebrew Relief 
Association. From October, 1860, to 
1862, he was recording secretary, and 
from October, 1864, to 18(i5, he was 
financial secretary. From 1873 to 
1874, and again from 1896 to 1898 he 
was a director of the charities. He 
stood at the cradle of Sinai Congrega- 
tion and was materially instrumental 
in the successful development of this 
.great 'religious institution. In. <the 
midst of men of progress and enlight- 
enment the liberal-minded Mr. Gat- 
zei't found himself In a congenial 
sphere, and he soon became the lead- 
er par excellence. The members of 
Sinai recognized his superior ability 
and gladly followed his brilliant and 
devoted leadership. In 1886 he was 
elected president of Sinai Congrega- 
tion and for ten consecutive years he 
stood at the helm guiding the craft 
entrusted to his care with a elear 
mind, faithful heart, eagle eye, and 
a master's hand, achieving triumphs 
and victories and covering Sinai and 
himself with endless glory. Repeat- 
edly have his business affairs com- 
pelled him to decline a renomination, 
but he always yielded to the will of his 
fellow-members who were reluctant 
in dispensing with the guidance of a 
capable and successful leader, and 
when in 1896 the demands of his busi- 
ness became too imperative and he was 
forced to positively decline a re-elec- 
tion, the members of Sinai Congre- 
gation relinquished their claims with 
strong disappointment and deep re- 
gret. Highly complimentary resolu- 
tions, speaking of his services to the 
congregation in glowing terms, were 
unanimously passed at that annual 
meeting and his faithful friend, Rev. 
Dr. E. G. Hirsch, whose high esteem 
Mr. Gatzert was fortunate to win, 
ciommiented in an editorial of the 
Reform Advocate of April, 1896, as fol- 
lows, upon his retirement from the 
presidency: "The voluntary retire- 
ment from the presidency of Sinai 
Congregation, after a continuous in- 
cumbency of a decade, of Mr. J. L. 
Gatzert, is an advent in the history 
of the congregation and Jewish com- 
munity calling for more than a chron- 
icling note. Under Mr. Gatzert's care- 
ful guidance, Sinai Congregation has 
in undisturbed peace and harmony, 
without beating of drums and clarion 
blasts pursued the even tenor of its 
upward path, growing in numbers, in 
influence, in devotion to principle, in 
appreciation of its duties within and 
without Judaism. In these days of 
'bossism,' of revived arrogance of 
'Parnassim,' it is a gratifying fact 
that Sinai and its president and its 
board remained loyal to the tradi- 
tions of the best congregations, re- 
garding the rabbi as a fellow-member, 
rather than as a 'hired' servant. To 
be the successor of a man of so much 
tact and such singleness of purpose, in 
the presidency, is an honor which the 
best might prize. The writer of these 
lines will ever remember with more 
than pleasure, with genuine" pride, 

the ten years of official co-operation 
with his president and friend, Sinai's 
trusty representative, the true man 
and citizen without reproach, Joseph 
L. Gatzert. Many more years of ac- 
tive interest in all that makes for 
the better life be vouchsafed unto 
him by a kind Providence." 

Mr. Gatzert is also a member of -.he 
Standard Club, an officer of the Jew- 
ish Training School, and other soci- 
eties. He married, in Chicago, Miss 
Henrietta Hart, a sister of Abe end 
Henry N. Hart. They have two 
daughters, Mrs. Max Leopold and 
Miss Blanch. He made it his highest 
aim to give his children a most liber- 
al education, and has the satisfaction 
of seeing them numbered among the 
brightest daughters of Israel in the 
Chicago community. 


Julius Rosenthal was born on the 
17th of September, 1828, in Liedol- 
sheim, in the grand duchy of Baden. 


Since his 12th year he was a pupil of 
the Lyceum at Rastatt. He afterwards 
studied law at the universities of Heid- 
elberg and Freiburg, with the inten- 
tion to emigrate to America at the 
completion of his studies. 

In April, 1854, he landed at Port- 
land, Maine, and went directly to New 
York City, where he became a peddlar 
in Yankee notions. Scarcely a few 
months in this country, he was fortun- 
ate in making the acquaintance of 
Mr. R. K. Swift, a prominent banker of 
Chicago, who took a friendly interest 
in the young man and offered him a 
position in his business, and when Mr. 
Rosenthal gladly accepted, stating at 
the same time that he lacked the neces- 
sary money to defray his traveling ex- 
penses from New York to Chicago, Mr. 
Swift advanced to this young man, 
who was a total stranger to him, the 
necessary amount with instructions to 
follow him to Chicago as soon as pos- 
sible. A week later, in the beginning 
of July, 1854, Julius Rosenthal arrived 
in his new home andwas installed in 
his new office in the banking house of 
Mr. Swift, where he served his employ- 
er honestly and faithfully until 1858. 



Then he gave up his position and es- 
tablished an independent office as a 
conveyancer, for which calling he 
gained the necessary knowledge during 
his work in the bank. 

In 1859 he became a citizen of the 
United States, notary public, and pub- 
lic administrator of Cook county, and 
these two offices he retained honorably 
and to the greatest satisfaction of the 
public for a long time. 

In the beginning of 1860 he was ad- 
mited to the bar. His first partner was 
the well-known Chicago citizen, Law- 
rence Brentano, and he was followed 
by E. W. McTomas, ex-lieutenant gov- 
ernor of Virginia, then 'by William A. 
Hopkins and finally, on the 9th of Octo- 
ber, 1866, by Mr. A. M. Pence. 

His fellow citizens of Chicago held 
him in such high esteem and appre- 
ciated his thorough honesty and prac- 
ticability that he was elected to differ- 
ent positions of trust and confidence. 
Especially he became prominent in 
charity circles. At the time of the fire 
he was director of the German Aid So- 
ciety, the United Hebrew Relief Asso- 
ciation and the Chicago Relief and Aid 
Society. Whoever is not familiar with 
the work of these associations will 
hardly be able to estimate the tremen- 
dous effort, the hard work which fell 
to the lot of a member of these asso- 
ciations during the terrible time of the 
year 1871 (the year of the fire) and for 
some time after that. It suffices to Bay 
that Julius Rosenthal was a very ac- 
tive member of these different associa- 
tions, and although he himself was a 
heavy loser he gladly sacrificed his 
time in order to help others. 

His constant endeavors to uplift the 
religious spirit among his co-religion- 
ists, to spread religious toleration and 
emancipation among his Jewish breth- 
ren, has contributed much to bring 
about the better conditions now pre- 
vailing in the midst of the Chicago 
Jewish community. He took a very 
active part in the work of the Russian 
Refuge Society established by the Chi- 
cago Jews in the 'beginning of the '90s 
for the purpose of assisting the unfor- 
tunate exiled Russian Jews who came 
to seek homes here, bereft of their 
means and possessions by the iron 
hand of tyranny. 

His wisdom, humanity, learning and 
practicability were of great service to 
the community. 

In the year 1867 he was elected li- 
brarian of the Chicago Law Institute, 
and for nine years he stood at his post 
with unflagging energy, rendering very 
efficient services to the institute, in 
recognition of which he was then elect- 
ed president of the same. Twice he ac- 
complished the gigantic task, first 
when the library was instituted and 
then again after the great fire, of build- 
ing up a model library. In April, 1872, 
Mayor Medill appointed him as a mem- 
ber of the library board, and in 1874 
Mayor Colvin extended his appoint- 
ment for three years longer. 

Julius Rosenthal has been a stanch 
Republican since 1856. He was the first 

secretary in Chicago of the first Fre- 
mont Club. 

Mr. Rosenthal is a great reader and 
his reading is done systematically, so 
that he is able to store up in his bril- 
liant mind a vast treasure of useful 
knowledge. He is a learned man and 
recognized as a deep thinker. 

As a lawyer he is the possessor of 
great legal knowledge and stands high 
in the esteem of the members of the 
bar of the entire state. He is secretary 
of the state examining board for ad- 
mission to the bar. In probate and 
real-estate questions he stands fore- 
most in his profession. He is the pos- 
sessor of an extensive library. 

Mr. Rosenthal married in the year 
1856 Miss Yette Wolf of Chicago. He 
is a member of the Sinai congregation 
and an intimate friend of Dr. Emil G. 
Hirsch, the minister of that congrega- 
tion. He is an indefatigable worker, 
which is the secret of his success in his 

His son Lessing is now associated 
with him as a member of his law firm. 



In Blowitz, Bohemia, on June 13, 
1844, a son was born to Leopold Fish- 
ell and Rebecca Fishell, nee Gutwil- 
lig, and they gave him the name of 
Albert. Leopold Fishell was a lead- 
ing merchant, at one time mayor of 
his native city, and highly esteemed 
by his fellow-citizens. 

Young Fishell was educated in the 
Pilsen "Real Schule," the Academy 
of Commerce in Prague, and also at- 
tended a series of lectures at the St. 
Charles University in that city. At 
the age of 18 (in 1862), he began his 
business life as an employe in the 
manufacturing department of the 
large banking and manufacturing 
establishment of L. Forchheimer 
Sons. He remained there three 
years, and became manager of 
the manufacturing department. In 
1865 he became manager of the oil 
works of Mr. A. Hartman, in the cele- 
brated mining city of Kuttenberg, 
Bohemia. A year later he determined 
to seek his fortune in the new world, 
and removed to the United States, 

where he soon accumulated money 
enough to begin business on his own 
account. Associating himself with a 
Mr. Loth, under the firm name of 
Fishell & Loth, he opened a general 
store at Pittsfield, 111. In 1870 he 
withdrew from mercantile life, and, 
associated with Judge Atkinson and 
others, organized the Bank of Pike 
County, of which he was elected cash- 
ier, which office he filled from June, 
1870, when the bank was opened, un- 
til December, 1883, when it was com- 
pelled to make an assignment. 

Mr. Fishell then took a position 
with the New York Life Insurance 
Company as general agent, at a sal- 
ary of $5,000 per annum. The assets 
of the Pike County Bank were insuf- 
ficient to pay the creditors in full, but 
Mr. Fishell paid the shortage out of 
his salary and every creditor of the 
bank received one hundred cents on 
the dollar, with interest. 

During Mr. Fishell's connection 
with the New York Life Insurance 
Company he was forced to remain 
most of his time in Chicago, where 
he became largely interested in real 
estate transactions, and in connection 
with some capitalists he consummated 
some of the largest deals recorded in 
Chicago realty. At the expiration 
of his contract with the New York 
Life Insurance Company, 1889, he be- 
came \manager of the western 'de- 
partment of the United States Credit 
System Company, which comprised 
eight states, and through Mr. Fish- 
ell's able management has advanced 
from a very small beginning until it 
has become one of the strongest and 
largest guarantee companies in this 
country. In April, 1890, Mr. Fishell 
removed his family to Chicago, and 
was enabled to take the members of 
his household to their own handsome 
residence at 3448 Wabash Avenue. 

Besides his interest in the United 
States Credit Company he had large 
interests in Chicago real estate, the 
Atlas National Bank and other enter- 

While a resident of Pittsfield Mr. 
Fishell was very prominent in edu- 
cational and literary matters. The 
Pittsfleld Public Library was founded 
largely through his exertions, and for 
several years he was president of the 
library, and also of the Board of Ed- 
ucation. He was also county com- 
missioner, city treasurer and treas- 
urer of the school board at different 
times. In politics he has always been 
a democrat and has at various times 
represented his district in the several 
political conventions throughout the 

Mr. Fishell firmly believes that Ju- 
daism must be progressive. He is a 
radical reformer and a member of Si- 
nai Congregation. In April, 1896, he 
was elected president of said Congre- 
gation and held the office for three 
consecutive terms, to the highest sat- 
isfaction of the Congregation, and is 
now a member of the Board of Di- 



On October 8, 1870, Mr. Fishell was 
married to Miss Annie Sicher, of St. 
Louis. They have five children, Elk- 
ins Washington, Daniel Webster, Leo 
K., Regina S., and Josephine '). The 
oldest son is a practicing dentist, one 
of his sons is a lawyer in Chicago, 
and the third son is in the manufac- 
turing business in the same city. His 
daughter, Regina, is the wife of I. 
L. Libermann. 

Mr. Fishell has devoted much of 
his time and money in aiding the 
Russian refugees. He was a director 
of the Russian Refugee Society of 
this city and has helped to make mary 
good citizens. 

Mr. Fishell's record throughout his 
entire career is thoroughly American. 
In religion and politics his ideas are 
most liberal; he believes implictly in 
.the great principles of American lib- 
erty, free thought and free speech. 

brew Charities. Kis wife was a Miss 
Carrie Vogel, and two children, Ida 
and Elbin are now living. 



Mr. Binswanger is a son of Emanuel 
and Elsie Seligman Binswanger, and 
was born in Baltimore County, Mary- 
land, Jan. 19, 1844. He received his 
early education in the private schools, 
later attending Yale university. Mr. 
Binswanger lived in St. Louis from 
Oct., 1867 to Oct., 1888, and while there 
attained prominence in his profession 
as attorney. He is considered an able 
lawyer, is a fluent talker and is an 
honor to the profession which he has 
chosen for his calling. Always a busy 
man he has taken the time to identify 
himself with Jewish institutions and 
organizations. He was one of the 
founders of the United Hebrew Relief 
Association of St. Louis, and of the Old 
People's Home of that city. He was 
secretary of the former for 13 years, 
and of the latter for five years, and was 
lor many years a director of the Con- 
gregation Shaare Emeth. Since his re- 
moval to Chicago in 1888, he has con- 
tinued in his profession, meeting with 
marked success. Mr. Binswanger has 
taken an active interest here in charit- 
able and congregational affairs and 
was director and recording secretary 
of Sinai Congregation and has also 
been identified with the United He- 



Mr. Leon Mandel is a son of Frank 
and Caroline Klein Mandel and was 
born in Kervenheim, Bavaria, in 1841. 
He is a member of the dry goods firm 
of Mandel Bros., and is one of the pub- 
lic spirited citizens of this city. His 
gift of $75,000 to the Chicago Univer- 
sity is only one of the public acts with 
which he has been credited. Mr. Man- 
del is vice-president of Sinai Congrega- 
tion in which he has always taken an 
active interesf. He is a member of the 
Standard Club and is married to Belle 
Foreman. Mr. Mandel is a liberal con- 
tributor to all of the charities and is an 
honored and respected member of this 


Mr. Hart was born in Eppelsheim, 
Rhenish Hessia, Feb. 17th, 1850. His 
parents were Jacob and Minnie Hart. 
In 1858 he came with his parents to 
America and was educated in the pub- 
lic schools of Chicago. He is a mem- 
ber of the well-known wholesale cloth- 
ing firm of Hart, Schaffner & Marx. 
He is vice-president of Sinai Congre- 
gation and a member of the Standard 

and Hamilton Clubs, a director of the 
Home for Aged Jews and vice-presi- 
dent of the Associated Jewish Chari- 
ties of Chicago. He married Miss Ad- 
die Klein of Chicago, now deceased. 
Six children were born to them, four 
of whom are living Mrs. Louis H. 
Kohn, Mrs. William Lowenbach, Lillie 
and Jacob. 

The extensive business interests of 
Mr. Hart do not prevent him from de- 
voting much time and attention to the 
work of charity and congregational 
affairs, and in the councils of the Jew- 
ish communal institutions his practical 
suggestions and business methods are 
readily heeded and willingly followed. 


Among the early settlers of Chicago, 
Mr. Bernhard Mergentheim may be 
mentioned, as he arrived in this city 
in 1856, although he had been a resi- 
dent of America since 1848. Born in 
Luebbeck, Westphalia, December 25, 
1825, his ancestral home being Mergen- 
theim, Germany, he came to this coun- 
try when a young man 23 years old. 
His parents were Aaron Mergentheim 
and Pauline (Luerbach) Mergentheim. 



After coming to Chicago he engaged in 
the leather business which was his vo- 
cation, until his retirement a few years 
ago. Mr. Mergentheim has been prom- 
inently identified with charitable, re- 
ligious and social organizations, hav- 
ing been secretary for twelve years, 
treasurer seven years and chairman of 
the house committee for three years of 
Sinai Congregation. He is a member 
of the Standard Club and has been a 
director, and has also been a member 
of the board of United Hebrew Chari- 
ties. He married Bettie Hirsch and 
has five children living, Aaron, Moses 
B., Mrs. Ida Caspary, Mrs. Emma Loeb 
and Mrs. Ella Seligman. He is one of 
Chicago's retired and venerated busi- 
ness men. 


Mr. Fox was born in Oettingen, Ba- 
varia, Feb. 2, 1844, and his parents' 
names are Moritz and Babetta Fuchs. 
He was educated at the public schools 




of his native town. At the age of 13 
he came to America, and settled 
in Oregon. He was a merchant and 
then a woolen manufacturer. He came 
to Chicago in 1887, and was elected 
Vice-President of the International 
Bank, which liquidated several years 
ago. After the affairs of the bank were 
wound up, Mr. Fox retired from busi- 
ness. He is a member of Sinai Congre- 
gation, and has been one of the direct- 
ors for ten years. He is also a member 
of the Standard and Sunset Clubs. He 
is Treasurer of the Jewish Training 
School, to which office he was elected 
ten years ago. He was Director of the 
United Hebrew Charities, and Treas- 
urer of Congress of Religions. He mar- 
ried Miss Ella Liebenstein. 


Mr. Hartman is a native of Bohemia, 
where he was born Aug. 30, 1846. He 
is a son of Simon and Ludmilla Hart- 
man and received his early education 
in the schools of his native country. 
He came to America April 1, 1867,since 
which time he has been engaged in 
various civic occupations, such as 
teacher, bookkeeper and traveling 
salesman. He is now senior member 
of the Hartman Trunk Company, one 
of the most prominent concerns of its 
kind in this section of the country. 
Mr. Hartman is actively interested in 


congregational work and is a trustee 
and chairman of the School Board of 
Sinai Congregation. He formerly re- 
sided in Milwaukee, coming to Chi- 
cago in 1890. He is a member of the 
Board of the Standard Club, of which 
he is an honored and respected mem- 
ber. His wife was a Miss Laura Heller 
and they have five children Jiving 
Belle, Sam, Henry, Hugo and Mildred. 


This club was organized in the be- 
ginning of 1862. For several years it 
occupied rootas in the building on the 
east side of Dearborn street, between 
Washington and Madison, and subse- 
quently it moved to larger quarters in 
the Lombard Block, situated on the 
west side of the Postofflce building, 
(now First National Bank), corner 
Dearborn and Monroe Streets, until the 
building was burned in 1871. Mr. Hen- 
ry Greenebaum was the first president 
and Joseph Frank the first secretary. 
The club had a regular course of lec- 
tures, vocal and instrumental concerts, 
a well conducted amateur stage and 
reading room. Hops and full dress 
balls were frequently given. Their 
puerim-masquerades were magnificent 
affairs. The Club maintained a liberal 
policy in granting the use of its hall 
to different Jewish societies for meet- 
ings, social gatherings and entertain- 
ments. It fostered patriotism in the 
hearts of its members during the war, 
cultivated a public spirit and with ?he 
assistance of the Jewish non-members, 
it raised a company of volunteers for 
service. The company was sworn in in 
the hall of the club; elected Jacob La 
Salle captain, and M. Frank lieuten- 
ant, and marched from the club with 
banner and music to the Chicago & 
.Alton railroad depot on their departure 
for Camp Butler, near Springfield, to 
be incorporated in the 82nd Ills., Fred 
Hecker, Colonel, who was succeeded in 
command by Col. Ed. S. Solomon. 

The club aided materially in the 
raising of the means for the establish- 
ment of the first Jewish hospital in 

The fire having destroyed all the 
central portion of the city and the 
"Standard" having already been organ- 
ized to meet a demand south of 12th 
Street, the "Concordia" was not reor- 
ganized after the fire. 

Mr. Silberman, one of the presidents 
of Concordia Club, was formerly May- 
or of Port Washington and a state 
senator in Wisconsin. 


This congregation was organized in 
the summer of 1864. It held first di- 
vine service on the eve of Rosh ha- 
Shanah 5625 (September 30th, 1864). 

The first house of worship was lo- 
cated on Desplaines Street, between 
Madison Street and Washington Boule- 
vard. Before that it occupied a Baptist 
Church on the West Side. 

The first executive officers of the 
congregation were: Henry Greene- 
baum, president; David Simon, vice- 

president; Joseph Haas, treasurer; 
and Moses Rubel, secretary. Dr. 
B. Felsenthal was the first Rabbi 
of the congregation. His sermons were 
delivered principally in the German 
language and occasionally in the ver- 

From the start Dr. Einhorn's Ger- 
man prayer book, "Olath Tamid," was 
adopted by the congregation as its 
ritual and the same is still used by the 
congregation today. 

In 1869 the congregation sold its 
temple and purchased a lot at the cor- 
ner of Sangamon and Jackson streets 
and erected thereon a new temple. It 
was the first and only reform congre- 
gation on the West Side. The Jewish 
population of Chicago increased very 
rapidly and many prominent Jews 
moved from the south to the West 
Side. A number of them joined ZIon 
Congregation and it was very prosper- 
ous and became influential. Under the 
superintendency of Dr. Felsenthal the 
congregation built up an excellent Sab- 
bath school, which was attended by 
about 150 pupils. One of the most 
faithful and enthusiastic teachers of 


that school was Mrs. J. W. Strauss, a 
convert to Judaism. Mrs. Strauss en- 
tered with her heart and soul into Jew- 
ish life and made it her special aim to 
post herself in the teachings of Juda- 
ism and to become thoroughly ac- 
quainted with the Jewish history of 
the Jewish people. In the school room 
she developed a remarkable zeal and 
ability. The work was a labor of love 
with her and her influence upon the 
children was always beneficial. She 
instructed for a number of years and 
her services were recognized and ap- 
preciated by the entire congregation. 
She was highly beloved and respected. 
Tributes which she fully deserved. 
Mrs. Strauss is still living in Chicago, 
but we are sorry to state .that since a 
number of years she has been a con- 
firmed invalid. Two of her daughters, 
Misses Carrie and Nona, also instruct- 
ed classes at the Zion Sabbath school 
until they married. Other teach- 
ers of that Sabbath school were the 
late Mr, Francis Kiss, who afterwards 
became superintendent of the United 
Hebrew Relief, and who died in Chi- 



cago on Monday, April 29th, 1901. Mr. 
Edward Rubovitz, well known in 
B'nai Brith circles of District No. 6, 
the successor of his late father-in-law, 
Mr. Kiss, as superintendent of the 
United Hebrew Charities, also was 
teacher of the Zion Sabbath school for 
a number of years. Mr. H. Eliassof 
was for ten years from 1873 to 1883, 
assistant to Dr. Felsenthal in the 
school room, and for many years as 
reader in the Temple. Miss Miriam 
Del Banco, the well-known poet, also 
instructed in the Sabbath school for a 
number of years. 

In 1885 the congregation built in one 
of the choicest locations of the West 
Side, corner Ogden Avenue and Wash- 
ington Boulevard a beautiful temple, 
as the old temple on Green street had 
become too small for the growing con- 
gregation. During the construction of 
the new temple the congregation wor- 
shiped in a hall on West Lake Street. 

In 1884 Rabbi Max Heller, a gradu- 
ate of the Hebrew Union College of 
Cincinnati, was elected associate rabbi 
to Dr. Felsenthal. He remained with 
the congregation for about two years. 
Dr. Heller is now Rabbi of the congre- 
gation in New Orleans, La. 
In 1886 Dr. Felsenthal, on account of 
advanced age, was pensioned for life 
and Rabbi Joseph Stolz, also a gradu- 
ate of the Hebrew Union college, was 
elected his successor. 

During all these years, Zion Congre- 
gation was one of the most influential 
and one of the strongest numerically 
in the city. 

Within the last decade very many of 
its members have moved to the SoutJi 
Side and under the spiritual leader- 
ship of Dr. Stolz, who had previously 
resigned his Rabbinate in the Zion 
Congregation, organized a new congre- 
gation under the name of "Isaiah." 
Zion Congregation suffered consider- 
ably from this exodus of its best mem- 
bers to the South Side. For two years 
Dr. Emil G. Hirsch of Sinai Teple oc- 
cupied the pulpit of Zion Congregation 
on Friday evenings, and Rabbi Joseph 
K. Arnold officiated as his assistant on 
Sabbath mornings. Rabbi Arnold then 
took full charge of the Rabbinical 
office and continued as Rabbi of Zion 
Congregation for two years, when he 
resigned his position. 

The present incumbent, Dr. Jacob 
S. Jacobson, was elected his successor 
in September, 1900. 

Divine services are held regularly on 
Sabbaths and holidays. The Sabbath 
School is under the superintendency of 
Dr. Jacobson, and he is assisted by five 
teachers. About one hundred children 
are in attendance. 

Among the earliest members of Zion 
Temple were as far as we can ascertain 
their names, the following: Henry 
Greenebaum, S. Solomon, J. W. 
Strauss, David Simon, L. J. Unna, Ja- 
cob Schram, Herman F. Hahn, Adolph 
Kraus, M. M. Hirsch, S. Daniels, L. 
Buxbaum and Edward Rubovits; also 
the late Samuel Powell, Joseph Haas, 
Moses Rhineman, Isaac Weichsel, the 

Rubel family, Meyer Hirsch, Herman 
Felsenthal, Jacob Greenebaum, Jr., 
Abraham Wise, Michael and Isaac 
Greenebaum, S. Birkenstein, Roths- 
child, J. Stein and Jabob Greenhut. 
David Simon and M. M. Hirsch held 
the office of president for many years. 

The present officers of the congrega- 
tion are: R. Gerber, President; L. W. 
Abt, first vice-president; Jacob 
Schram, second vice-president; Adolf 
Stein, treasurer; E. Levit, secretary, 
and the following board of directors: 
Louis Schram, Harry Berger, E. Harz- 
feld, J. W. Strauss, A. Block, Ben Katz, 
Bernhard Stein, Meyer Eichengreen. 

The Woman's Society of Zion Tem- 
ple, organized for purposes of social 
culture among the general membership 
of the congregation and their friends, 
is composed nearly of one hundred 
members, and is in a flourishing con- 
dition. The Society gives regular 
monthly literary, musical and social 
entertainments. Its officers are: Mes- 
dames Adolf Stein, president; N. Her- 
zog, vice-president; K. Eichengreen, 
treasurer, and Rabbi Jacobson, Hon- 
orary Secretary. 



Rev. Jacobson was born in Rends- 
berg, Schleswig-Holstein, October 4, 
1840. His parents were Samuel and 
Caroline Jacobson, natives of Schles- 
wig-Holstein. . He received his educa- 
tion abroad, and was a teacher at 
Flensburg 1862-1863, coming to Am- 
erica in 1865. In 1866 he was elected 
Rabbi of the Washington Hebrew Con- 
gregation at Washington, D. C., where 
he remained until 1870. From 1870- 
1872 he was Rabbi of B'nai Jeshurum 
Congregation of Paterson, N. J., and 
from 1873-1881 of B'rith Scholem Con- 
gregation of Easton, Pa. He was Rab- 
bi of Congregation G'miluth Hesed of 
Atlanta, Ga., from 1881-1888, and of 
Congregation B'nai Israel of Natchez, 
Miss., from 1888-1896. He has recently 
been elected Rabbi of Zion Temple, Og- 
den Ave. and Washington Boulevard. 
Rev. Jacobson married Miss Rosa Han- 
nah Ulman and has six children living. 


President Zion Congregation. 


Mr. Gerber is a native of Prague, Bo- 
hemia, and was born in 1855. He is a 
son of Joseph and Judith Lowe Gerber, 
is married and has three children liv- 
ing, Jay J., Norman J., and Judith J. 
On arrival in this country in 1867, he 
came direct to Chicago, engaging in 
the commission business, which is his 
present occupation. 

Mr. Gerber has always taken consid- 
erable interest in congregational af- 
fairs, and was director of Zion Congre- 
gation for three years and for the past 
four years has been its President. , 

As a business man he typifies one of 
Chicago's successful and enterprising 

A. M. 

Chicago Lodge was instituted under 
dispensation in 1864. . It became neces- 
sary on account of an unfortunate dis- 
agreement in the old LaFayette Lodge, 
No. 18. While we cannot designate 
this Masonic lodge as a strictly and 
exclusive Jewish institution, yet, a.a 
mostly Jews were instrumental in the 
establishment of Chicago Lodge and as 
the majority of its members during all 
the years of its existence were co- 
religionists, we consider it proper to- 
give a short account of this lodge 
among the other Jewish institutions of 
the state of Illinois. 

According to a list of officers from 
the very beginning up to the year 1894, 
published as an addition to the By- 
laws of Chicago Lodge, the first wor- 
shipful master of this lodge was 
Charles Cohen, who continued in of- 
fice during the years of 1866 and 1867^ 
and was again elected to this honor- 
able position in 1878 and in 1882. An- 
other co-religionist who held this hon- 
orable office seven different times, is 
Adolph Shire. Joseph Spiegel waa 
elected five times to this honorable 
position. Among those who filled the 
chair in the east in Chicago lodge were 
Moses Shields, Edward Rubovits, Jo- 
seph B. Schlossman, Henry N. Greene- 
baum, Emanuel J. Kohn, Simon W. 
Strauss, Charles E. Rothschild, Benja- 
min I. Greenebaum, Mr. Wilhartz, Da- 



vid Birkenstein, Julius B. Furth, and 
others. Since many years ago Mr. Na- 
than Hefter has been the efficient sec- 
retary of Chicago Lodge. Many of the 
best and most permanent members of 
the Jewish community of Chicago and 
vicinity have joined Chicago Lodge, 
and quite a number of our leading 
Jews are today active members of the 
same organization. 

This institution has sustained 
through the many years of its exist- 
ence a bright record of noble deeds of 

Mr. Charles Cohen, who has taken a 
considerable interest in the workings 
of the Masonic order, is considered an 
authority on Masonic lodge law. He 
is frequently consulted by members 
and is always ready to lend his assist- 
ance in the preparation for and con- 
ferring of the degrees. The lodge has 
always highly esteemed Brother Cohen 
and has on several occasions manifest- 
ed its great appreciation of his ser- 


In the year 1867 the necessity became 
apparent of having a Jewish congrega- 
tion on the North Side. Thirty-two 
enthusiastic Israelites banded together 
and formed the North Side Hebrew 
Congregation. They leased a lot on 
Superior Street, near Wells street, and 
erected thereon a frame synagogue, an 
unpretentious building, but sufficient 
for the wants of the congregation, both 
as a house of worship and a place for 
the religious education of the young. 

The following were among the 
founders of the congregation: M. Eis- 
endrath, B. Gradle, Wolf Levy, Samuel 
Glickauf, Julius Jonas, N. M. Plotke, S. 
Swartchild, P. Weinred. 

Among the founders living in other 
parts of the city and belonging to sis- 
ter congregations, who joined the 
North Side Hebrew Congregation to 
lend a helping hand to the young or- 
ganization were: Nathan Eisendrath, 
Henry Regensburg, Michael Cohen. S. 
Dreschfield, H. Friedman, Cossman 
Eisendrath and Herman Goldsmidt. 

On the 27th of September, 1867, the 
little temple was dedicated by the Rev. 
A. Ollendorff, who was called to the 
ministry. The cost of the synagogue 
was $6,000. Mr. Moses Shields was 
president and Mr. Samuel Glickauf 

After two years service Rev. Ollen- 
dorff severed his connection with the 
congregation. For a year the congre- 
gation was without a rabbi and some of 
the members, as Mr. Nathan Eisen- 
drath, Mr. Moses Eisendrath, and 
others, officiated at divine service. In 
1870 Rev. A. Norden was called from 
Baltimore and took charge of the con- 
gregation. He delivered his inaugural 
sermon on the 17th of October of that 

On that eventful night, from the 8th 
to the 9th of October, 1871, when Chi- 
cago was visited by that terrible con- 
flagration, the entire North division 

fell a prey to the raging element. The 
little temple was laid in ashes; the 
members became homelesss and scat- 
tered all over the city. The minister 
was obliged to seek another field of 
activity. He found a congenial con- 
gregation in Natchez, Miss. The sum 
of $800, the balance in the treasury at 
the time of the fire, was kept as a 
trust fund by Mr. Samuel Glickauf. 

The North Division was slowly re- 
built. The old north side pioneers re- 
turned again to their quarters. In 1875 
Messrs. Samuel Glickauf, Jacob Glick- 
auf and H. A. Kaufmann deemed it op- 
portune to reorganize the congrega- 
tion. An appeal was issued, a meeting 
held and the re-organization effected. 
Mr. Samuel Glickauf was elected presi- 
dent, and the Rev. A. Norden at the 
time in Europe, was recalled to his for- 
mer field of labor. For nine long years 
the congregaton worshipped at different 

a more suitable location. The com- 
mittee consisted of George Frank, S. 
Eichberg, and Adolph Shakman. To 
their indefatigable zeal it is due that 
the congregation has erected a temple 
on one of the best, most suitable and 
most valuable sites of the north divis- 
ion of the city, corner LaSalle Avenue 
and Goethe Street. The purchase 
price of the lot was about $25,000, and 
the temple building incurred an addi- 
tional cost of about $40,000. 

Mention must be made that among 
those who served the congregation in 
an official capacity were Messrs. H. 
Elkan and Samuel Eichberg, who held 
the office of president and manifested 
great interest in the welfare of the 

At the time of the erection of the 
present edifice, the officers of the con- 
gregation were as follows: A. J. Frank, 
President; Bernard Gradle, vice presi- 


churches. In 1882 a fair was held and 
quite a large sum was realized through 
the efficient management of the chair- 
man, Mr. A. Shakman, and the general 
interest taken by the members of the 
congregation. With the proceeds of 
the Fair a lot was purchased an the 
corner of Rush Street and Walton 
Place, for the sum of $6,000. The first 
story was erected thereon and served 
as a place of worship for eight years. 
This synagogue was dedicated on the 
22d of August, 1884, the Rev. A. Nor- 
den delivered the dedication sermon. 
Addresses were also delivered by Dr. 
B. Felsenthal and Rev. A. Ollendorff. 
Mr. B. Gradle was president at that 
time. Mr. Samuel Glickauf was chair- 
man and Mr. Adolph Shakman was 
secretary of the building committee. 

After eight years of occupancy the 
congregation did not deem it prudent 
to finish the building on that lot. The 
property was sold and 18,500 realized. 

A committee was appointed to secure 

dent; E. C. Hamburgher, treasurer; 
Charles S. Bloch, recording secretary; 
Felix A. Norden, financial secretary; 
directors, Henry Elkan, David Roths- 
child, Moses Kaufman, August Yon- 
dorf and Louis Baer. The building 
committee consisted of: August Yon- 
dorf, Chairman; George Frank, Her- 
man Gradle, Adolph Shakman, Louis 
Baer, Samuel Eichberg, Harry Pfiaum, 
Rev. A. Norden, Secretary; S. S. Be- 
man, architect; H. S. Godfrey, super- 
intendent of building. The member- 
ship at that time was about 120. 

*The above facts concerning the 
North Side Hebrew Congregation we 
copied from a brief historical sketch 
prepared in the year 1894 by the Rab- 
bi of the Congregation, Rev. A. Nor- 
den, assisted by the late Mr. Samuel 
Glickauf and Rev. A. Norden. A copy 
of this sketch was deposited among 
other documents in the corner stone of 
the temple, when it was being built. 


34 a 

Ever since the reorganization In 
1875 the congregation enlisted under 
the banner of Reform Judaism. Its rit- 
ual is "Minhag Einhorn." 

To the great fire of 1871, it may be 
attributed that the congregation had to 
endure an unenviable fate. It has to 
lead a sort of nomadic existence, wan- 
dering from church to church, depend- 
ing upon ajid enjoying the kind hospi- 
tality of our Christian friends. 

In 1898 Rev. A. Norden, Rabbi of the 
Congregation, was pensioned and Rev. 
Abraham Hirschberg, a graduate of the 
Hebrew Union College of Cincinnati, 
was elected his successor. 

The Congregation maintains a Sab- 
bath School with an attendance of 
about 175 children. 

During the many years of its exist- 
ence the North Side Hebrew congrega- 
tion has accomplished much good 
among the Jews of the North Division 
of the city. Its labors in the interest 
of a progressive Judaism fully deserve 
the prosperity which it now enjoys, 
and the full support of their co-relig- 
ionists who have made their homes on 
the North Side. 

The present officers are A. I. frank, 
President; E. R. Weil, Vice President; 
S. Eichberg, Treasurer; H. Seligman, 
Recording Secretary; L. J. Strauss, 
Financial Secretary. Trustees: David 
Berkenstein, H. Elkan, A. Yondorf, F. 
Griesheimer, E. C. Hamburgher and L. 
Baer. Members and seatholders num- 
ber about 165. It owns a plat of ground 
in Rosehill cemetery which it uses for 
burial ground purposes. 

The Auxiliary Societies of the North 
Chicago Hebrew Congregation are 
Young Peoples Union and Baron 
Hirsch Ladies Aid Society. The pres- 
ent officers of the latter are: President, 
Mrs. H. Lewis, Vice-President, Mrs. C. 
L. Lowenthal and Mrs. H. Friedman; 
Treasurer, Mrs. H. Roth; Secretary, 
Mrs. L. L. Aaronson. This Society is 
affiliated with the United Hebrew Char- 



Reverend Aaron Norden was born in 
Lissa, Prussian Province of Posen, 
June, 8, 1844. He attended the Ele- 
mentary Schools and Gymnasium in 
his native town. His early Rabbinical 
education he received from Rabbi 
Hirsch. A barbanel.Rabbi of Lissa, and 
of Rabbi Elias Gutmacher, of Graetz. 
Rabbi Norden came to America in 1865, 
and until 1869 he was assistant to Dr. 
H. Hochelmer, in Baltimore, Maryland. 
In that year he accepted a call to the 
North Chicago Hebrew Congregation, 
came to Chicago and remained with 
them until 1898. Since that time he is 
Rabbi Emeritus, of that Congregation. 

Rabbi Norden was interested in 
charity work and during the many 
years of his connection with the North 
Chicago Hebrew Congregation he ac- 
complished much good. He has always 
been prominent in B'nai B'rith circles, 
and served one term as President of 

District No. 6, I. O. B. B. He also 
officiated as secretary of the Russian 
Refugee Society, and of the Covenant 
Culture Club. He is the present secre- 
tary of the Rabbinical Association of 
Chicago and is actively engaged in the 
good work of aiding the Roumanian 
Jews, who are driven to our shores by 
the inhumanity of the Roumanian Gov- 

Reverend A. Norden was married in 
1866 to Rosalia Gabriel, of New York, 
qnd they have seven children, three 
sons and four daughters. One of the 
sons is a practicing physician in Chi- 
cago and one of the daughters, Mrs. 
Schlossmann, is a noted singer, and 
for a number of years has been a mem- 
ber of the choir of Sinai Congregation. 


Rabbi Hirschberg was born August 
uated from the University of Cincin- 
nati, and from the Hebrew Union Col- 
lege in 1898, receiving the title of B. A. 
from the former institution, and B. H. 
B. D. and Rabbi from the latter. In 
the same year he was elected Rabbi of 
the North Chicago Hebrew Congrega- 
tion, where he has since been preach- 
ing and teaching to the satisfaction of 
his congregation. He is also a post 
graduate student of the University of 

Rabbi Hirschberg is the secretary of 
the Home for Aged Jews. He is a 
young man of talent and promise. 

Present Rabbi of N. C. H. C. 


Mr. Fraak was born in Zuvalck, Po- 
land, April 19, 1838, and is the son of 
Levi and Amelia Frank. He came to 
America in 1851, and has been in the 
mercantile business in this city for 
many years. He has been very active 
in congregational work and is at pres- 
ent president of the North Chicago He- 
brew Congregation. -He Is also a di- 
rector of the Ideal Club and a contribu- 
tor to the Associated Charities. Mr. 
Frank is married and has three chil- 
dren living, Mannie, Le Roy and Syd- 

President N. C. H. C. 



Of all the Jewish Clubs of Chicago 
to-day, the Standard is the oldest, most 
prominent and most influential. It 
was organized April 4, 1869, and on 
July 7th of the same year it was incor- 
porated as the Standard. It started 
with 69 members and held its meetings 
at Brunswick's Hall, on Washington 
street, between Clark and La Salle 
streets. In February, 1870, the club 
rented and occupied the building espe- 
cially erected for it, on the southwest 
corner of Michigan Avenue and Thir- 
teenth street. After the great fire of 
1871 General Sheridan took possession 
of the house and for several weeks es- 
tablished therein the headquarters of 
the Federal troops sent here to main- 
tain order. Upon their removal the 
building was seized by the relief so- 
ciety, and it was finally arranged that 
the entire premises with the exception 
of the basement and ballroom, which 
were retained for club purposes be let 
to them for one year. 

With the membership growing be- 
yond the capacity of the quarters, the 
club in February, 1889, moved into its 
own home, the present building at the 
southwest corner of Michigan Avenue 
and Twenty-fourth street. On Febru- 
ary 14, 1887, the old name "The Stand- 
ard," was given up. The club was re- 
organized and incorporated under its 
present name "The Standard Club of 

The incorportors are: Jacob New- 
man, Louis B. Kuppenheimer, Abra- 
ham G. Becker, Joseph Gerstley, Alfred 
M. Snydacker, Bernhard Mergentheim, 
Morris Selz, Emanuel Frankenthal, 
Moses Bensinger, ^.narles M. Leopold 
and Leopold Bloom. 

The first officers were: President, 
E. Frankenthal; Vice-President, L. 
Wampold; Treasurer, D. Stettauer; 
Recording Secretary, Philip Stein; Fin- 
ancial Secretary, H. Goodman; Direct- 
ors: Joseph Austrian, Henry Frank, 
Gerhard Foreman and J. B. Schloss- 
man. The present officers are: Edwin 
G. Foreman, President; Alfred S. Aus- 
trian, Vice-President; Benjamin R. 
Cahn, Treasurer; Byron L. Glaser 
Secretary. Directors: William N. Eis- 



endrath, Alfred Oppenheimer, Joseph 
F. Hartman, H. Abt and Milton L. 

The "Beefsteak Club" forms a part 
of the- Standard. The membership is 
confined to the members of the Stand- 
ard Club, and the object of the club is 
to discuss at the monthly "Beefsteak" 
dinners questions of interest. The or- 
ganization is a great benefit to its 
members. The spirit of democracy per- 
vades it. The Beefsteak Club gave its 
inaugural "broil" on Tuesday evening 
February 23, 1892, and the following 
officers presided: Leo Wampold, Louis 
A. Cohn, Milton R. Weinman and a 
board of directors, consisting of Milton 
Foreman, Norman Florsheim, Martin 
Calm and Henry Strauss. 

Many distinguished persons, men of 
national reputation, have been the 
guests of the Standard Club and many 
famous speakers have addressed the 
members. Some weighty subjects of 

the Sabbath day was sadly felt among 
the Jewish population of that part of 
town. However, even those who heart- 
ily wished that a congregation should 
be established, lacked the confidence 
that an undertaking in that direction 
would succeed, and, when on Hol-Ha- 
rnoed Pessach 5633, the late Mr. M. 
Oesterricher, together with his broth- 
er-in-law, Mr. A. Pam, went among the 
Jewish inhabitants of the southwest 
side to induce them to put their names 
to a call for a meeting to form a con- 
gregation, many a one, while subscrib- 
ing his name to the paper, expressed 
his doubts as to the possibility of car- 
rying into effect the good intention. 
But the work so earnestly undertaken 
was not in vain. Already, on the 7th 
day of that very Passah Feast (March 
13th, 1873), divine services were held 
in Klein's Hall, corner 14th and Hal- 
sted streets. A little band of twenty- 


municipal and even national import- 
ance have been discussed at the 
"broils" of the Beefsteak Club. The 
discussions are generally led by dis- 
tinguished scholars and orators, who 
are the invited guests of the club. 


Thirty-one years ago (in 1870) the 
B'nal Abraham Congregation was 
called into existence through the ef- 
forts of a few brave and enthusiastic 
Jews of the southwest side of our city, 
who considered It a sacred duty to es- 
talblish a place of worship where serv- 
ices should be held, not only during 
the fall holidays, but throughout the 
Sabbaths and festivals of the whole 
year. There was at that time no per- 
manent congregation on the southwest 
side of the city, and the want of an 
institution that would afford the op- 
portunity to attend divine services on 

six men united themselves for the pur- 
pose, as they expressed themselves in 
their call for the first meeting, "to 
hold divine service, to teach the young 
the tenets of Judaism and to practice 
Jewish charity." 

The following first officers were 
elected: Henry Orthal, president; Jos- 
eph Goldberger, vice-president; Moritz 
Oesterreicher, financial secretary; H. 
Wolf, recording secretary. The Rev. 
Mr. Janko (now in his 82d year, living 
at the Home for Aged Jews on Drexel 
boulevard, and still officiating at the 
chapel of that institution on Friday 
nights, Saturday mornings and on 
holidays) conducted the services and 
superintended the religious school of 
the congregation. 

Of the first members of the congre- 
gation but one is today on the list of 
membership. Trustee Mr. Simon Pick 
is the only one of the starting mem- 

bers still active in Congregation 
B'nai Abraham. Those who are yet 
among the living but have removed 
from the city or from the vicinity are 
A. Pam, P. Olf, Ignatz Lederer, M. 
Heinrich, J. Goldtoerger, Max Peabody, 
Charles Guthman, Joseph Zuckerman, 
William Tausig, Emanuel Kohn and 
others. Of the earliest members of 
the congregation we mention Albert 
Weil, Ignatz Lurie, A. S. Fischer, C. B. 
Hefter and Ignatz Stein. 

The congregation worshiped in a 
rented hall; first in Klein's, then in 
Westphal's, on Halsted street, and 
then again in Klein's hall. Dur- 
ing the fall holidays, when -it was 
found that the hall was too small to 
hold all those who desired to worship 
with the congregation a church was 
secured for the purpose of holding 

When Mr. Oesterreicher was elected 
president he at once took it upon 
himself to build a house of worship 
for the congregation. The congrega- 
tion was small in number and finan- 
cially quite weak, yet Mr. Oesterricher 
was not dismayed. He appointed a 
committee to look about for a site. The 
committee consisted of Messrs. A. Pam 
and Charles Guthman, with Mr. Oes- 
terreicher, ex-offlcio, as chairman, and 
in the summer of 1S76 the committee 
recommended the corner lot at John- 
son and Wright streets, which the 
congregation purchased. The funds 
were exhausted in paying for the lot, 
and the 'building of the house of wor- 
ship would of necessity have been de- 
layed for some years had it not -been 
for Mr. Joseph Stein, who at that time 
became treasurer of the congregation. 
Mr. Stein declared himself ready to 
advance the necessary funds if the 
congregation should decide to build at 
once. This was the incentive for im- 
mediate action. A building committee 
was appointed consisting of Mr. Joseph 
Stein, Mr. Albert L. Klein, Charles 
Guthman, Ignatz Lederer, Adolph 
Weiskopf and President Oesterreicher, 
who rendered valuable services as the 
head of that official committee. Plans 
for the building were secured and in 
the spring of 1877 the erection of a 
synagogue was begun. Mr. Albert 
Weil was elected .recording secretary 
and worked very actively for the in- 
terest of the congregation. 

The temple was dedicated on De- 
cember 2d, 1877, with appropriate cer- 

During the next following years the 
congregation was very prosperous, 
gaining in membership and doing good 
work as a congregation. Rev. Isaac 
Fall was called to the pulpit, and he 
remained two years. He was succeed- 
ed by the late Dr. Ignatz Grossman, 
the father of the two well-known 
young rabbis, Dr. I. Grossman of Cin- 
cinnati, the successor to the lamented 
Dr. I. M. Wise, and Dr. Rudolph Gross- 
man, who was first assistant to Dr. 
Kohler in the Beth-El Temple of New 
York, and is now rabbi of Rodef Sho- 




lorn congregation of the same city, 
both are graduates of the Hebrew 
Union College, Cincinnati. Dr. Ignatz 
Grossman officiated as rabbi of con- 
gregation B'nai Abraham for five 

During this time he labored suc- 
cessfully as teacher and preach 3r 
among the Jewish population in the 
southwest side of the city. 

In 1881 the congregation gave a 
masque ball, by which it raised $700 
for the Michael Reese Hospital. 

The congregation suffered a great 
loss in the demise of Joseph Stein, 
who died in 1880. He was succeeded 
as treasurer 'by Mr. Win. Peabody, 
who served in that office until 1883. 

In the fall of 1884 the congregation 
inaugurated several reforms. A rad- 
ical change was made in the mode of 
worship. "Minhag America" was sub- 
stituted for the old ritual. This caused 
a little stir at first, but soon quietness 
and peace led the congregation on the 
way to prosperity. 

In 1885 Dr. Grossman retired from 
the pulpit of the congregation and Rev. 
Jacobson became his successor. Dur- 
ing the same year the congregation 
.suffered the loss of its beloved pres- 
ident, Mr. Moritz Oesterreicher, who 
was suddenly called to his eternal rest 
on November llth, 1886. He was in 
the elevator of his cracker factory 
when the cable broke and the elevator 
fell with a crash. The heavy weights 
striking the unfortunate man, mang- 
ling and maiming him in a fearful 
manner. He died shortly after the ac- 
cident. Mr. Oesterreicher had served 
the congregation from the very begin- 
ning, and for nearly thirteen years as 
president he labored indefatigably 
to establish the congregation on a sure 
and safe basis. In the annals of con- 
gregation B'nai Abraham no name will 
tie remembered with greater love and 
esteem than the name of Mr. Oester- 
reicher. As long as B'nai Abraham 
will exist the memory of this faithful 

founder will be honored and blest. 
During the many years of his office 
as president the following were as- 
sociated with him as vice-presidents: 
L. A. Klein, Max Peabody, A. Cohn, 
A. S. Fischer, Charles Guthman, Wolf 
Lederer, I. Guthman and C. A. Weis- 
senbach. As secretaries there were 
associated with Mr. Oeserreicher, Sam 
Stein, Joseph Falk, Edward Klein. L. 
Kahnweiler and Sig. Langbein. 

After the death of Mr. Oesterreicher 
Mr. C. A. Weissenbach became presi- 
dent of the congregation and served 
for three years in that capacity. His 
administratiin was a very prosperous 
one for the congregation. 

In May 1888 Dr. A. R. Levy was 
called to the pulpit of the congrega- 

In the fall of the year 1889 C. B. 
Hefter was elected president of the 
congregation and he acted in this ca- 
pacity for two years. During this 
time the congregation purchased the 
site on Marshfleld avenue, upon which 
the temple now stands, and the prop- 
erty on the corner of Wright and John- 
son streets was sold. In September, 
1891, I. S. Lurie became president of 
the congregation, and he served dur- 
ing the entire period when the present 
temple was being erected. The pres- 
ent temple was dedicated on the 9th 
of September, 1892. The cost of the 
lot and building complete, with organ, 
furniture, carpets and hangings was 
$37,760.00. Of this sum but $13,435.00 
had been paid at the time, and during 
the following five years the congre- 
gation has been enabled to reduce the 
indebtedness to $17,325.00 

Mr. Charles Klausner, who was 
elected president of the congregation 
in 1892, when the temple was dedi- 
cated, served the congregation for over 
four years, and to his zeal and able 
management, as well as to the wiling- 
ness of all the members of the congre- 
gation, it was due that the liquidation 
of the sum of $7,000.00 of the indebt- 
edness was made possible during the 
times of business stringency of which 
the country suffered since 1892. Mr. 
Klausner was succeeded in 1897 by 
Mr. Ignatz Bick. 

The religious school of the congre- 
gation held two sessions weekly, 316 
children were enrolled as pupils. The 
school was divided Into eight classes, . 
the superintendent, Dr. Levy being as- 
sisted by volunteer teachers. There 
was also a Hebrew school connected 
with the congregation, where Instruc- 
tion In Hebrew reading and transla- 
tion was given exclusively. The con- 
gregation owns a cemetery at Wald- 
heim. It has two lady auxiliary so- 
cieties Ladies' B'nai Abraham So- 
ciety and Sewing Circle. 

At the last annual meeting held Sun- 
day, January 20th, 1901, a very encour- 
aging report of the executive board 
was submitted to the congregation. 
The congregation has been eminently 
prosperous in every part of its activ- 
ity. The membership has increased 

during the past year, and numbers 
now 130 active members and 86 seat- 
holders, a total of 224. The Income 
for the year has been $6,111.70, and 
the expenditures were $5,148.60, so that 
the treasury shows a balance of $963.10, 
almost a rare thing for Jewish con- 
gregations, who, with few exceptions, 
generally have the balance on the 
wrong side of the ledger. The Sab- 
bath school of the congregation has 
on its rolls 326 pupils and the at- 
tendance at the school during the year 
has been eighty per cent. A "Bible 
Class," composed of young people, 
many of whom are university gradu- 
ates, is active in the study of Jewish 
history and literature, and is doing 
good work. The weekly Sabbath ser- 
vices at the temple are well attended 
and the capacity of the house of wor- 
ship is taxed to its utmost on special 
and holiday services. 

The present officers are: President, 
I. S. Lurie; first vice-president, J. 
Fantl; second vice-president, S. Baer; 
recording secretary, S. Klausner: 
financial secretary, A. Steindler; 
treasurer, . Chas. Klausner; trustees, 
Gustave Kassowitz, Sig. M. Lederer 
and Joseph Hirsch. 

The good influence of B'nai Abraham 
congregation goes beyond the imme- 
diate neighborhood. It reaches even 
the heart of the Ghetto, for although 
Congregation B'nai Abraham is far 
removed from being an orthodox con- 
gregation, and should rather be count- 
ed among the conservative congrega- 
tions of Chicago, many of the Russian 
Jews frequently attend the services, 
which fact cannot fail to wield a ben- 
eficial influence. 



DR. A. R. LEVY. 

Rabbi Levy was born at Beerford, 
Province of Starkenburg, Duchy of 
Hessia, October 24th, 1858. He began 
at an early age to prepare for the min- 
istry. From 1869 to 1873 he attended 
the Gymnasium at Mayence, and stud- 
ied Hebrew under Dr. Lehman, the 
pillar of German-Jewish orthodoxy and 



the editor of the "Mainzer-Israelite." 
He lived one year at Frankfort on the 
Main and went to Berlin in 1874. There 
he entered the seminary, which was 
then under the directorship of Prof. 
Horwitz, and graduated from that in- 
stitution in 1876. For the next two 
years Rabbi Levi was instructor in 
the Preparatory School in connection 
with the Rabbinical Seminary at Ber- 
lin, and while occupying that position 
he continued to study Rabbinica at 
the Seminary. 

Dr. Levy officiated for one year at 
Frankisch Crumbach, Hessia-Darm- 
stadt. In 1879 he came to America 
and succeeded Dr. Fluegel at the 
K'nesseth Israel Temple at Erie, Pa., 
where he remained for two years. In 
the fall of 1881 he entered the Uni- 
versity of Georgia at Athens and grad- 
uated with the class of 1884. His 
thesis was on "Medicine in Early 
Times," a succinct research into the 
earliest times of the science of medi- 
cine, dealing with the subject as we 
find it among the Ancient Egyptians, 
among the Hebrews, the Greeks and 
the Romans. 

The essay was at the time printed 
in the University Journal, and has 
since been re-printed twice; in the 
Digest's Journal of Philadelphia, of 
the year 1884, and as a supplement to 
the report of the Medical Society of 
the State of Georgia. While a stu- 
dent at the Georgia University he offi- 
ciated before the Congregation B'nal 
Israel at Athens, remaining with that 
congregation until 1885. 

On June 28th, 1885, he married Miss 
Carrie Seligman of New Orleans, and 
from that time until his coming to 
Chicago, in May, 1888, he lived in 
Texas and officiated as rabbi of Con- 
gregation Rodef Scholom of Waco. 

In May, 1888, he was called to the 
pulpit of B'nai Abraham Congrega- 
tion of Chicago. 

Rabbi Levy has also written a se- 
ries of articles on "The Development 
of Written Language." His articles 
were published in the American Israel- 
ite during the months of May, June 
and July, 1886. 

The career of Dr. Levy in Chicago 
is well known. He Is a true friend 
of the poor, diligently studying their 
wants and always ready to help to 
the utmost of his ability. He has 
made charity his life's aim and his 
means and his might are always at 
the service of his poor brethren, who 
come to him for counsel and help in 
all their troubles and trib_ulatipns. He 
devotes much of his time to this kind 
of work and his house is very fre- 
quently thronged with poor people, 
who seek his aid. He willingly and 
readily listens to their appeals and 
always has a kind word, a good advice 
and practicable suggestions for every- 
one. He is an enthusiast on the ques- 
tion of Jewish farming. During the 
influx of Russian Jewish immigrants 
to this country he served for a time, 
gratuitously, as superintendent of the 

Russian Refugee Society, working with 
great zeal and indefatigable devo- 
tion for the betterment of the condi- 
tion of the poor refugees. He succeed- 
ed in placing a number of them on 
farms and has continued to take an 
active interest in their welfare up to 
the present time, helping them with 
advice and money whenever called 
upon by his proteges. 

He recently paid a personal visit to 
a number of farmers who mainly 
through his instrumentality were en- 
abled to establish themselves on prom- 
ising farms and was happy to find that 
his labor in their behalf was not in 
vain. Through his efforts the Jewish 
Agriculturists' Aid Society of America 
was established in Chicago, of which 
he is the corresponding secretary. His 
devotion to the idea of Jewish agricul- 
ture in America is so deeply rooted in 
his soul that his only hope is to be 
able to retire to the country as soon 
as possible and to make his home in 
the midst of Jewish farmers, to lead 
them to success in their agricultural 
pursuit and to guide them spiritually 
to a better, purer and clearer under- 
standing of Judaism. The practical 
business man may call him a dreamer, 
a wild enthusiast, but all these epithets 
cannot wipe out the positive facts, the 
real accomplishments of the so-called 
dreams of Rabbi Levy. The results of 
his work speak for themselves if only 
the too materialistically inclined 
doubters would once condescend to 
heed their import and evidence. 

Fortunately his congregation seems 
to understand him, to appreciate his 
endeavors in behalf of his poor breth- 
ren, and encourages him in his good 
work. He is highly respected and be- 
loved by his congregation, and he en- 
joys the full confidence of the entire 
Jewish community of Chicago. 

Pres. B'nai Abraham Congregation. 


Mr. Lurie is a son of Solomon and 
Kattie Lurie, and was born Sept. 6th, 
1854, in Bohemia, where he received 
his early education, later attending the 
schools in Chicago. He came to Amer- 
ica at the age of fourteen. He 

was married to Miss Julia Dubetz 
and has two children living, Harry 
and Willie. He has taken much 
interest in congregational work, hav- 
ing served as secretary and at present 
is president of B'nal Abraham Congre- 
gation. He is a member of the B'nai 
Brith and Free Sons and a contributor 
to the Associated Charities of Chicago. 
Mrs. Lurie is president of the B'nai 
Abraham Ladies' Association, and is 
an active worker for the charities. 


Up to the year 1871 there was no 
Jewish congregation in the entire 
northwest side of Chicago, although 
quite a Jewish population dwelt in 
that part of the city. The nearest 
synagogue to the the Jewish people liv- 
ing in that division was Temple B'nai 
Scholom, Fourth avenue and Harrison 
street, and thither those who felt in- 
clined, went to worship. But the 
transportation facilities in those days 
were by far not so comfortable as they 
are today. Moreover, the synagogue 
on Fourth avenue was not large 
enough to accommodate all who came 
to worship there, especially on the 
great fall holidays, and so the Jews of 
Milwaukee avenue and adjacent streets 
decided to organize a congregation of 
their own. 

On the 7th of October, 1871, a small 
number of Jews met by agreement at 
the house of Mr. Moses Hirsch, on Mil- 
waukee avenue. Rabbi Norden, min- 
ister of the North Chicago Hebrew 
Congregation, happened to be present 
and kindly recited the evening prayer 
before this small congregation. On 
Simhas Torah eve of that year, the 
very night of the great Chicago fire 
which consumed the greater part of the 
city, those present at these services 
at the house of Moses Hirsch, organ- 
ized a congregation under the name of 
Rodef Scholom, the name of which was 
afterwards changed to Beth-El. The 
following were present at this meet- 
ing: Moses Hirsch, L. Schwartz, J. Tau- 
sig, M. Tausig, Z. Sinsheimer, D. S. Eis- 
endrath, L. Weil.L.Schulhof, Schandig, 
B. Schram, S. Richter, Simon Klee, Abe 
Klee, J. Gruener, M. Solomon and Her- 
man Renberg, only the last five of 
whom are still living; the rest sleep 
in their silent graves. The first officers 
were, as follows: President, Moses 
Hirsch; Vice-President, Z. Sinsheimer; 
Treasurer, David Eisendrath; Secre- 
tary, Herman Renberg. The first serv- 
ices of the new organization were held 
the following Saturday at the house of 
Mr. Ohnstein and a Sepher Torah, the 
scroll of the law, a present of Mr. D. S. 
Eisendrath, was then dedicated. Two. 
weeks later the congregation rented a 
hall on Peoria and Ohio streets, where 
regular Saturday services were held, 
and six months later the little but 
zealous congregation purchased a 
double lot on May and Second streets,' 
upon which they moved a frame church 
building which they bought from a 
Norwegian congregation, which church 



stood on the corner of Huron and May 
streets. For the next two years the 
congregation had no regular minister. 
Rev. Ignatz Kunreuther, who lived on 
the North Side, and frequently walked 
the long distance on Saturdays and 
holidays to attend the services at the 
Rodef Sholoin synagogue, volun- 
tarily officiated, and a Mr. D. Gottlieb, 
an old Bohemian lamden, also officiat- 
ed from time to time. 

In March, 1873, H. Eliassof, the 
writer, came to Chicago from Ogdens- 
burg, N. Y., where he was officiating as 
minister and teacher during the year 
1872. Mr. Eliassof was then a very 
young man, hardly 25 years of age. 
Upon the recommendation of Rev. Dr. 
Machol, the Rabbi of Congregation 
K. A. M., Mr. Eliassof was elected as 
the first Rabbi of Congregation Rodef 

From March until June of the same 
year the affairs of the congregation 
continued very satisfactorily. The 
membership was increasing and the fu- 
ture prospects seemed very promising, 
indeed. But on the 22nd of June, 1873, 
all the rosy hopes and the promising 
prospects of Congregation Rodef Sho- 
lom were completely destroyed almost 
in the twinkle of an eye. 

It was on a Sunday afternoon; the 
day was bright and the sky was clear. 
The trustees of the congregation were 
assembled in meeting in the syna- 
gogue. They had just finished their 
business and were filing out of the 
structure, they had hardly reached the 
sidewalk when suddenly a violent wind 
storm arose. With almost the force of 
a cyclone it caught the synagogue at 
the base, lifted the structure from its 
foundations and hurled it a distance 
away reducing it to splinters. It was 
the work of a short moment and the 
trustees who witnessed the demolition 
of their synagogue could hardly real- 
ize it. It was, indeed, a calamity for 
the little congregation, for all the 
storm had left them was an indebted- 
ness of $7,000. But the little band of 
men who had the courage to undertake 

courage. That very evening a meet- 
ing was called at the house of the 
treasurer, D. S. Eisendrath, and by 
voluntary subscriptions a fund was 


to establish a congregation in defiance 
of a sweeping conflagration that laid 
the city of Chicago in ashes, was not 
so easily daunted. The members, 
though few in numbers, did not lose 


First Rabbi of Rodef Sholom Beth-el- 


raised for the building of a new tem- 
ple. Under the conditions the congre- 
gation was unable to pay the contract- 
ed salary to its minister, and Mr. 
Eliassof voluntarily relinquished his 
claim and canceled his contract with 
the congregation. 

The new temple was erected at the 
corner of May and Huron streets. The 
congregation changed the name to 
Beth-El and at the same time it issued 
bonds of ten dollars each, which found 
ready sale among the members, though 
such bonds are not very popular on 
the Chicago Stock Exchange. 

A modest frame structure was soon 
raised on its present site and ever sinc 
Congregation Beth-El held their serv- 
ices there. The following gentlemen 
ministered to the spiritual needs of the 
congregation after Mr. Eliassof severed 
his connection with them: Lippman- 
sohn, Bonheim, Bien and Danek, the 
last named of whom served the con- 
gregation up to March, 1891, when he 
died in the prime of his useful life, 
deeply mourned by all the members 
of Beth-El. During all these years it 
required a heroic struggle on the part 
of the members to keep up their be- 
loved congregation. When the pres- 
ent incumbent of the pulpit of Con- 
gregation Beth-El, Rabbi J. Rappaport, 
took charge, in July, 1891, the congre- 
gation had a very small membership, 
but gradually the membership has been 
increased. The indebtedness accumu- 
lated through a number of previous 
years has been paid off. A cemetery 
valued at $800 has been bought and 
paid for. The congregation has seven- 
ty-five members today and the syna- 
gogue property is clear of all incum- 
brances. Three lots on Crystal and 
Hoyne avenues have been bought and 
paid for, where the congregation con- 
templates erecting a new temple in 
modern style. The present location is 
nearer to the center of the Jewish pop- 
ulation of the Northwest Side, and it 

is hoped that the congregation will add 
considerably to its membership by 
having their temple in that location. 
The plans for the new synagogue have 
been drawn and the congregation is in 
good hopes soon to begin building. 
The congregatoin consists mainly of 
southern German and Bohemian Jews; 
and has drifted from orthodoxy to- 
wards a rational conservatism. 

Beth-El Congregation had from the 
start family pews, and though organ 
and choir were introduced in 1889, 
Minhag Ashkenaz with the Roedel- 
heimer Tephillah was retained until 
1892, and then, in the face of a strong 
opposition, "Minhag America" was 

On Sim'hath Torah evening, Tues- 
day, September 29th, 1896, Beth-El 
Congregation celebrated its twenty- 
fifth anniversary, with a jubilee service 
and a banquet. 

Rabbi Julius Rappaport of Congrega- 
tion Beth-El has suggested to his con- 
gregation a novel idea of disposing of 
the old edifice to be abandoned when 
the congregation moves into its new 
house of worship on Chrystal street. 

After consulting with the Board of 
Trustees it was decided to dispose of 
the 'Old church property by raffling it 
off at $1.00 a chance, using enough 
numbers to realize $10,000. 

The present officers of Beth-El Con- 
gregation are: President, H. Molner; 
Vice-President S. Kaufman; Treasurer, 
M. Drozdowitz; Secretary, I. Gottlieb; 
Financial Secretary, B. Klatscher; 
Trustees, M. Friend, H. Nathan and 
R. Gottlieb. 



Rev. Rappaport was born January 
10th, 1863, in a little Hungarian vil- 
lage near Debreczin, to which latter 
place his parents removed soon after 

Beth-el Congregation. 

he was born, and where they still re- 
side. He was sent to "Heder" at the 
age of five years, where he learned to 
read Hebrew, to interpret the Bible and 
the Talmud. In addition to this he was 



Instructed by his father, who was a 
highly learned Talmudlcal scholar, 
every evening and morning before and 
after "Heder" to augment his knowl- 
edge in Talmud. At the age of ten he 
was sent to the "Jeshiba," where 
he was a very diligent stu- 
dent, and having good teach- 
ers, he progressed very rapidly. 
Among his teachers were Meir Perls 
and Dr. M. Diamant. Dr. Diamant was 
a man of academic training, and he 
helped the young student in the study 
of Hebrew grammar, the Hungarian 
language, history and mathematics. 
His father objected to his studies and 
sent him away to Pressburg the mec- 
ca of the Hungarian Bachur. Stealthily 
he continued his secular studies even 
there, not neglecting his Talmudical 
studies, and at the age of nineteen he 
received there his "Moreno," also a 
Rabbinical diploma. In the meanwhile 
his time to serve in the army had ar- 
rived, he was summoned before the 
military commission for conscription 
and was pressed into active service, 
though on the strength of his certifi- 
cate of graduation from the Pressburg 
Rabbinical school, the only one offi- 
cially recognized institute, he only 
served one year in an infan- 
try regiment. This was suffi- 
cient to invalidate him further 
as a Rabbinical aspirant, and he emi- 
grated to America. For some time he 
lived in New York, and when a Chica- 
go friend of his urged him-to apply for 
the vacant Beth-El pulpit in Chicago, 
he applied for the position and was 
elected. Here he went to work with a 
will, gradually introducing changes in 
the mode of worship. He induced the 
congregation to adopt "Minhag Amer- 
ica," the trl-aanual cycle of reading 
the Torah, and he hopes to continue 
the improvements. 

Rev. Rappaport is the favorite Rab- 
bi on the Northwest Side, very popu- 
lar and respected. He has earnestly 
applied himself to the study of the ver- 
nacular arid has advanced very quick- 
ly. Sevural articles from his pen have 
appeared in the Reform Advocate and 
they were well written. 


The Deborah Verein, a ladies' benev- 
olent association, was established in 
Chicago in 1872. The first president 
was Mrs. L. Schoenfeld. During the 
twenty-nine years of its existence it 
has done much good among the poor 
Jews of Chicago. It was always a 
great assistance to the United Hebrew 
Charities. The society is now contem- 
plating the opening of a "Creche" in 
co-operation with the U. H. Sewing 

The present officers are: Mrs. H. 
Brady, President; Mrs. L. Newberger, 
Vice-President; Mrs. A. Hoefeld, Sec- 
retary; Mrs. C. Hefter, Treasurer, and 
Mrs. A. White, Financial Secretary. 


As the name of this association in- 
dicates, it is a society whose members 

are Rabbis in Chicago. The association 
numbers at present seventeen mem- 
bers. It was founded in the fall of 
1873 and was established for the pur- 
pose of fostering friendly sentiments 
between the colleagues, of deliberating 
on matters of general Jewish interest, 
of acting co-jointly, and as a body, in 
practical Jewish matters whenever ne- 
cessity arises for such a united action, 
and for other kindred objects. 

The association meets during the 
winter season once in every month. 
For the first year of its existence Dr. 
B. Felsenthal had been elected as 
president and Rabbi A. Norden as sec- 
retary. Since then both these gentle- 
men have been re-elected annually, 
and they are still occupying their re- 
spective offices. 


This order was established in 1875. 

They have adopted the following 

"We, the members of the Indepen- 
dent Order Bickur Cholem Ukadishu, 
have adopted the following cardinal 
doctrines, for the furtherance and 
maintenance of its time-honored prin- 
ciples. The moral support of all means 
tending to educate and elevate the 
Hebrew race, charity and universal 
benevolence, and we adopt as our 
motto: 'Truth, Love and Justice.' In 
order to carry out the above doctrines 
we have adopted the following: . 

"1. To unite socially all acceptable 
Israelites between 21 and 50 years of 

"2. To provide means from the pro- 
ceeds of dues and assessments of its 
members wherewith to assist its sick 
and disabled members, and for the re- 
lief and aid of the families, widows 
and orphans of its deceased members. 

"3. To encourage them in the pursuit 
of their professsions, business, trade or 

"4. To hold entertainments, and to 
give moral, instructive and scientific 

, The first ofiicers were N. J. Stern, 
Moses Harris, Nathan Davis, Jacob 
Williams, L. Lewinsohn, A. Bernstein 
and W. Holdstein. The membership 
numbers 165. The society meets every 
first and third Sunday in each month. 
The present officers are: President, 
Abe Bernstein; Vice-President, Thos. 
Piser; Recording Secretary, Simon S. 
Ziv; Financial Secretary, B. Lyon; 
Treasurer, M. Gutkowsky; Superinten- 
dent, Ben Greengard; Monitor, Joseph 
Werb; Assistant Monitor, Louis Stup- 
ner; Guide, Louis Raike; Outside 
Guard, S. Nierman; Inside Guard, A. 
Harris; Trustees, Moses Hecht, Jonas 
Ziv and W. Goldstein. 

A similar association under the name 


was established' in Chicago November 
24th, 1861. The older Chebra has a 
membership at present of eighty-three. 

It meets the first Sunday of the month. 
It provides doctor and medicine for 
sick members and buries the dead. Its 
present officers are: President, Henry 
S. Goldsmith; Vice-President, Ignatz 
Weinfield; Secretary, D. Brown; Fi- 
nancial Secretary, H. Hirsch; Treasur- 
er, Sam Witkowsky; Trustees, I. Van 
Baalen, Henry Cohn, Chas. G. Fox and 
Adolph Klein. 


In September, 1876, a number of 
high-minded Jews of the Chicago Jew- 
ish community established this asso- 
ciation for the purpose of fostering 
Jewish learning in the midst of the 

Dr. Kohler, minister of Sinai Con- 
gregation; Dr. B. Felsenthal, Rabbi of 
Zion Congregation; Rev. Liebman Ad- 
ler, of Congregation K. A. M.; Rev. A. 
Norden, of the North Chicago Hebrew 
Congregation, and a number of other 
prominent Jews issued a printed ap- 
peal to the Israelites of Chicago In 
which they urged the necessity of such 
a society. 

The following is a copy of this ap- 

"Israelites of Chicago! When, with 
their thousands and tens of thousands, 
our fathers were assembled around 
Mount Sinai to receive the Law, God 
as the Rabbis tell us wanted to have 
security for the sacred treasures, 
whose guardians they were to be. They 
pointed to Abraham and Isaac,^ Jacob 
and Joseph, their noble ancestors, but 
God refused to take them as security, 
saying: 'I want witnesses for the fu- 
ture, not for the past. I want to see 
prospects of a good growth, not mere 
seeds.' Whereupon the people held 
forth their children and said: 'Let 
these young ones vouch for the main- 
tenance of the Law! Let them warrant 
for the future!' And God was satisfied, 
and ever since the strength of Judaism 
consisted in the instruction of the 

To the Roman Emperor besieging 
Jerusalem, Rabbi Jochanan ben Sak- 
kai said: "Take the city with its gor- 
geous temple, but leave me a place, 
where I can teach the Jewish religion," 
and, this having been granted, Juda- 
ism outlived Rome. The teaching of 
the children, being imposed as a sacred 
duty on every Jewish parent, 
shielded our people and the purity of 
our religion against the fiercest on- 
slaught of a barbarous world. The 
propagation of knowledge of the Law, 
amidst centuries of abhorring vice and 
ignorance, once made of every Jew a 
brave soldier in the warfare for truth 
and of each Jewish household a fort- 
ress of virtue. To raise children well 
versed in the Jewish lore was the 
highest ambition of the Jewish mother, 
while the ignorant was a disgrace to 
his family in spite of his wealth. The 
pursuit of knowledge, fostered private- 
ly and publicly, made the Jews a peo- 
ple of thinkers, instead of blind be- 
lievers. Hence their enlightenment 



and progress in religion as well as 
their material success and prosperity. 
And if Judaism has, as we believe, a 
mission to fulfill, and truths to teach 
unto mankind, its force and redeeming 
power surely lies in the thorough 
knowledge of its religion and of its 
world-wide history. Without it, it 
sinks to the level of a small sect, in- 
stead of widening into the religion of 
humanity. For Hebrew literature is 
the key to the mysterious shrine of 
religion, entrusted to Israel. 

Israelites of Chicago! What have 
you done for preserving our faith and 
transmitting the noble bequest of ages 
to posterity? True, you have in the 
different parts of this city formed con- 
gregations and erected beautiful houses 
of worship, redounding to the honor of 
the God of our fathers. You have min- 
isters preaching to you every Sabbath 
and festival day, well accredited by 
the surrounding world. You have Sab- 
bath schools and teachers, besides, to 
imbue the youth with all the elements 
of Jewish religion and history. But 
are you satisfied thereby to have done 
all in your power to maintain the re- 
ligion of our fathers in its pristine 
glory and purity? True, you have 
raised your children as Jews, but do 
you believe, that they, after having at- 
tended the Sabbath school up to the 
time of their confirmation, will be able 
to expound and to defend Judaism be- 
fore the world? Or do you know of 
any one of them desirous of pursuing 
the study of Jewish lore and history, 
in order to know what Judaism is, and 
what it has accomplished in its won- 
derful march? And suppose there are 
such people, what opportunities have 
they of studying the Hebrew and ac- 
quiring the knowledge, indispensable 
for a thorough understanding of Juda- 
ism? Where are the schools, from 
which you expect your future Rabbis 
and teachers and the well-read lay- 
men to come? The latter can certainly 
not be imported from the old country 
for the purpose of upholding your Jew- 
ish institutions. 

Indeed, indifference and dissension, 
ignorance and shallowness have long 
enough eaten the very marrow and 
root of our sacred inheritance. Com- 
pare the zeal and devotion, the gener- 
osity and sympathy manifested in 
Christian Churches by young and old, 
with the indolence and lethargy, which 
have estranged the, young particularly 
to our holy cause, so as to make every 
attempt of enlisting their interests fail 
at the very outset. Christian Mission 
Societies send forth their soul-hunting 
agents to ensnare Jewish young men 
and to tear them away from the breast 
of their mother religion, while the 
Jewish community, for want of reli- 
gious education and protection, leaves 
them to spiritual starvation. 

You are, no doubt, aware of the call 
issued, both in the East and West, for 
establishing a Jewish Theological Sem- 
inary, in response to which several 
congregations of this city have joined, 
either the one or the other movement. 
Yet this undertaking must be regarded 

premature as long as in the various 
'centers of American Judaism, there are 
neither pupils imbued with the spirit 
of Jewish lore, so as to feel induced to 
enter upon a theological career, nor 
high schools, where talented youths 
could prepare themselves for such a 

We must have a Jewish High School 
in every large community, where es- 
pecially gifted young people from their 
eleventh or twelfth year are to be ad- 
vantageously taught in Hebrew litera- 
ture and Jewish history, in addition to 
the various branches of a general high 
school training, the Hebrew forming 
an organic part of the entire school 
system; where, moreover, lessons in 
Jewish Religion, History and Litera- 
ture are given twice or thrice during 
the week to such young people, who 
are anxious to receive information 
about Judaism, while pursuing their 
mercantile or scientific course during 
the day. 

In view of this urgent need, several 
members of our different congregations 
met and consulted about the feasibility 
of establishing such a school in this 
city, and after due consideration of the 
matter, organized a society for this 
purpose, under the name of 


Israelites of Chicago! A great and 
noble, though difficult task is before 
you, and only by united efforts, and 
by the good will and generous support 
of each and every one of you, it can 
be accomplished. Setting aside your 
views differing in regard to the modes 
of worship, or the higher conception 
of the demands and aims of Judaism at 
the present age, we expect you, 
whether members of Reform or Ortho- 
dox Congregations, whether married or 
single, old or young, to unite and co- 
operate in the work before us. 

Let us bring the necessary sacrifices 
for the good cause. Let no one fail to 
join this society. Ladies and gentle- 
men, young and old, are alike wel- 

"It is time to act for God, as destruc- 
tion threatens thy law." 

The Committee on Publication. 

Chicago, Sept. 15th, 1876. 

The undersigned members will be 
pleased to receive your subscriptions: 
Rev. Liebman Adler, Dr. B. Pelsenthal, 
Dr. K. Kohler, Rev. A. Norden, M. M. 
Gerstley, B. Loewenthal, D. Simon, B. 
Schoeneman, L. Buxbaum, Henry Hart, 
Henry L. Frank, Dr. Gustave Fisher, 
Tobias Goldschmidt, H. Felsenthal, 
Julius Rosenthal, H. Snydacker, O. 
Foreman, Ellas Greenebaum, M. A. 
Meyer, L. W. Reiss, S. F. Leopold, Ab- 
raham Hart, D. Lissberger, M. Hirsh, 
F. Kiss, J. Pieser, Henry Greenebaum, 
Jacob Roseberg, Lazarus Silverman, 
Nathan Eisendrath, L. F.' Leopold, C. 
Kozminski, L. Hefter, August Blum, 
Adolph Moses, M. Cornhauser, L. Salo- 
mon, N. Hefter, E. Rubovits. 

The object of the society was more 
clearly set forth in a number of arti- 

cles of organization which were adop- 
ted at the regular meeting held August 
31st, 1876. The three sections of Ar- 
ticle 2, which we copy below, will give 
the reader a clear idea of the scope of 
the work laid out by the organizers for 
the Educational Society: 


Sec. 1. The object of the society shall 
be: To establish a school at Chicago, 
in which, in addition to the regular 
branches taught in our grammar and 
high schools, also instruction be given 
in Hebrew language and literature, 
and in Jewish religion and history. 

Sec. 2. To encourage the establish- 
ment of Sabbath schools, and to assist, 
if necessary, in the establishing and 
maintaining of such schools in those 
parts of the city where heretofore re- 
ligious instruction had been utterly 

Sec. 3. To create a system of instruc- 
tion, by means of lectures, lessons, dis- 
cussion and the like, and to devise 
other means by which our youth can be 
interested for Judaism. 

The writer was a member of this as- 
sociation, and at one time he received 
a letter from the late Herman Felsen- 
thal, one of the directors, in which he 
was requested to become a candidate 
for the position of instructor in the 
school to be established by that asso- 
ciation, but the school was never es- 
tablished. Several meetings were held 
afterwards and suddenly the associa- 
tion died a natural death and nothing 
was heard of it. 


One of the most important and most 
influential literary associations In the 
city of Chicago in Jewish circles, from 
the time of the origin of the Jewish 
settlement up to the present time was 
the Zion Literary Society, which was 
formed in 1877. The first officers were: 
Michael Greenebaum, who might just- 
ly be called the father and founder of 
this once popular organization. To him 
belongs the credit of having given the 
first thought and impetus for its cre- 
ation. For nearly thirteen years the 
Zion Literary Society was the great 
social and literary feature of the Chi- 
cago Jewish community. 

The first board of directors was: 
Miss Hannah Greenebaum, now Mrs. 
H. Solomon; Mr. H. Solomon, A. G. 
Becker, H. Ci. Frank, Lev! Mayer, Mrs. 
T. Klein, Flora Unna, Mary Greene- 
baum, now Mrs. Chas. Haas, and To- 
bias Ruborvlts. It had about 100 mem- 
bers, and met every Friday evening at 
the old Zion Temple, corner Green and 
Sangamon streets. The programs were 
very carefully arranged and the de- 
bates, lectures, musical numbers, and 
readings were of a nature tending to 
instruct and elevate. The refining In- 
fluence of this model association was 
felt even for many years after the so- 
ciety had ceased to exist. The lectures 
delivered before the association by men 
like Salter, Adler, Felsenthal, Henry 
Greenebaum and later by our inimlt- 



able Dr. Hirsch were a joy and a de- 
light, and when this society went out 
of existence it left a void which was 
never filled to this day. 

The writer was, from the beginning 
to the last year of the existence of the 
Zion Literary Society, an active mem- 
ber of it, and to this day he regrets 
that we have no such institution in 
our midst, and this is the prevailing 
sentiment among all who ever belonged 
to the Zion Literary Society. Why a 
community like Chicago should not be 
able to maintain an institution of such 
importance is hard to understand. 
Other cities have their Young Men's 
Hebrew Associations, and their liter- 
ary societies; they are forming cen- 
ters where the Jewish young men 
can cultivate their minds and become 
acquainted with the illustrious masters 
of Jewish thought, with the priceless 
pearls of Jewish literature, with the in- 
imitable effusions and creations of Is- 
rael's bards, singers and minstrels. 

The Jewish community of Chicago 
alone seems to be impotent to estab- 
lish and to maintain even one institu- 
tion of this nature. What is the cause 
Of this deplorable inability? Do the 
Jewish young men of Chicago possess 
less capacity for union, less social co- 
hesiveness, or less understanding and 
desire for such lofty aims? No, this 
cannot be the cause. 

Congregation K. A. M., with its 
galaxy of noble rabbis who have 
taught the love of Judaism for over a 
half century, and her daughter con- 
gregation, Sinai, with its lofty aims 
and aspirations in the field of enlight- 
ened and progressive Judaism, with its 
great expounder of Jewish thought and 
learning, Zion Congregation and all 
the other rabbis and teachers, 
cannot have worked these many, 
many years in vain. Surely, their 
teachings must have made a deep 
impression. What, then, is the cause 
of this lethargy and indifference? Is it 
not time for us to do something in this 
direction and give a satisfactory an- 
swer to the world and to our sister 
cities who look inquiringly and won- 
deringly at our inactivity and neglect- 
fulness? Perhaps when Dr. Hirsch will 
succeed in establishing a central syna- 
gogue in the downtown district, things 
will change for the better. For the 
present we have only so many congre- 
gations in so many different parts of 
the city for a certain small number of 
members who are able to* pay their 
dues, rent a pew and vote at the an- 
nual or semi-annual elections, caring 
very little for the outsider, for the one 
who has no desire or is unable to join 
a congregation. Is it not to the inter- 
est of our congregations to endeavor 
to create a Jewish sentiment among 
our Jewish young men and not to per- 
mit them to lose all connection with 
and understanding of Jewish life? If 
Judaism is to endure in the midst of 
American Israel, if the Jewish institu- 
tions are to continue to exist in the 
future, must we not raise and influence 
men to be In sympathy with us, men 

who will have the desire to follow in 
our footsteps and carry on our work 
with the same devotion and the same 
enthusiasm as their fathers did? Ah, * 
the anxiety and fear, perchance the 
sons will desert the ways of the fath- 
ers, perchance the younger generations 
will not have the love for Judaism as 
we would like them to possess, is find- 
ing expression in almost every Jewish 
pulpit in the land. It is the burden 
of every thought of the true friend of 
Judaism today, and still we fold our 
hands in inactivity and do not even 
make the attempt to ameliorate con- 
ditions! Whose fault will it be, then, 
if, God beware, our fears and anxieties 
are realized? Who will be to blame for 
it but ourselves and our lamentable in- 
difference? For Judaism to endure 
there must be a union of Israel, a un- 
ion of fundamental thoughts and cardi- 
nal principles. Young and old must 
alike stand within the pale of this un- 
ion. Only then the future of Judaism 
can be safe. Have our congregations 
succeeded in establishing such a union 
in America? It is doubtful. A thou- 
sand congregations working in the 
narrow and limited way we are doing 
today will never unite the House of 
Israel. A disjointed, disunited, and dis- 
rupted house will never endure. We 
may continue to have congregations, 
but no united Israel that stands ready 
to defend Judaism, the light of the 
world, from annihilation, as our heroic 
fathers did in days of yore. To ac- 
complish this, other institutions whose 
fundamental purpose and paramount 
aim and object is to instill in the minds 
of the young, respect and love for Jew- 
ish sentiment; Jewish life and Jewish 
literature, must be established. If we 
are in earnest in our wish for the per- 
petuation of Judaism we must establish 
such institutions without hesitation. 

The writer has often heard the foun- 
der of the Zion Literary Society ex- 
press his ardent wish that the associa- 
tion may succeed in establishing such 
a union among the young Jewish gen- 
eration of Chicago, and he used his in- 
fluence to bring about the consumma- 
tion of his desire and to turn the work 
of the leaders of Zion in that direction. 
Perhaps if the Zion Literary Society 
would have continued to exist the re- 
sults would have been more gratify- 
ing. But we have preached too long; 
we must return to the history of the 
Zion Literary Society. 

Among those who succeeded Michael 
Greenebaum in the office of President 
were: Henry L. Frank, Jacob New- 
man and Lev! Mayer. 

One of the literary features was the 
weekly newspaper, edited by Mr. Levi 
Mayer and Mrs. Henry Solomon. 

The public entertainments given by 
the Zion Literary Society were very 
popular and attended by the leading 
citizens of Chicago. They enjoyed the 
same popularity as did later the 
Young Men's Hebrew Charity balls. 

The Zion Literary Society was con- 
nected with, and was, so to say, a 
branch of the Zion Congregation, and 

no Temple society of this city ever 
equaled the Zion Literary in number 
of members or in general features. 



Michael Greenebaum, the first pres- 
ident of the Hebrew Benevolent Soci- 
ety, fully deserved a place of honor in 
the history of' the Jewish community 
of Chicago. At home, in Germany, 
he had learned a trade and supported 
himself by the work of his hands. He 
was a son of Jacob Greenebaum, who 
had given to Chicago five good sons, 
all of whom became prominent mem- 
bers of the Chicago Jewish communi- 
ty. Michael Greenebaum did not have 
the opportunities for a liberal edu- 
cation like his other brothers, especi- 
ally Henry, but he never lost sight 
of the intelligent Greenebaum family 
traditions. He loved education and de- 
voted much of his time to the work 
of spreading enlightenment among his 
co-religionists in Chicago. 

He came to America in 1845 and set- 
tled in Chicago a year later. He helped 
to establish the Hebrew Benevolent 
society and became its first president. 
He was a member of the Anshe 
Maarab and Sinai congregations and 
one of the first to join the Zion congre- 
gation, in each of which he held office. 
He was one of the first to advocate 
Sunday services in Jewish congrega- 
tions. He was also the originator and 
the first president of the Zion Literary 
society, which flourished in Chicago 
for twelve years, contributing much 
during its existence to intellectual 
progress, education, enlightenment and 
refinement in the midst of the Chicago 
Jewish community. 

Mr. Greenebaum married Miss Sarah 
Spiegel at New York and when they 
died they left ten children, four sons and 
six daughters, Moses S., Gustave M., 
Ben and Henry, Mrs. Theresa S. Les- 
em, Mrs. Henrietta Frank, Mrs. Mary 
Haas, Mrs. Hannah Salomon, Mrs. 
Helene Kuh and Mrs. Rose Eisen- 
drath. He gave all his children a lib- 
eral education and some of his daugh- 
ters he sent to Germany to the private 
school of Mr. Herman Reckendorf, at 
Frankfort-on-the-Main. This Mr. 
Reckendorf gained some fame as a 
writer by his work, in six volumes. 
"Die Gehelmnisse der Yuden" (The 
Mysteries of the Jews). One daugh- 
ter of Mr. Greenebaum, Mrs. Hannah 
Salomon, is the president of the Coun- 
cil of Jewish Women of America and^ 
is considered one of the brightest 
daughters of Israel in the State of Ill- 


Congregation Emanuel was estab- 
lished in 1880. It first worshiped in a 
hall corner Blackhawk and Sedgwick 
streets. It was started with fourteen 
members. The first President was 
Zacharius Sinzheimer. From the 
start it was an orthodox congregation. 



In 1886 they bought a church building 
from a Swedish congregation at 280 
Franklin street, for which they paid 
410,500. The membership had grown 
to the number of thirty. The services 
were gradually reformed, and in 1889 
Minhag America was introduced. In 
1893 Mr. Adolph Krauss was elected 
President. Minhag America was su- 
perseded by Minhag Jastrow. In 1894 
Congregation Or Chodosh (New Light) 
joined in a body and amalgamated with 

In the spring of 1897 the congrega- 
tion found that many of its members 
had moved further north, and that the 
location of the temple was no longer 
desirable. The congregation therefore 
rented the Baptist church, corner Bel- 
den avenue and Halsted street, where 
they still worship. 

In 1893 the congregation adopted the 
Binhorn prayer book and resolved 
to worship with uncovered heads. In 
April, 1899, Mr. Leopold Sonnenschein 
was elected President which office he 
still holds. In the fall of 1896, a 
site for a new temple was purchased 
on the southeast corner of Burling and 
Belden avenue. It is the intention of 
the congregation to erect upon this site 
in the near future a modern temple. 

Since 1885 the congregation owns the 
cemetery at Waldheim. The present 
membership consists of about 130 
names. During the first years of the 
congregation's existence Messrs, Red- 
lich and Sinzheimer officiated as read- 
ers, during divine service. In 1890 
Rev. Mr. Austrian was elected minister, 
and he was succeeded by Rabbi E. 
Brown, whose successor was Rev. Ju- 
lius Newman. In November, 1899, Dr. 
Emanuel Schreiber, the present incum- 
bent of the pulpit was elected and was 
installed in his office by Dr. Emil G. 
Hirsch of Sinai Temple. 

Dr. Schreiber immediately inaugu- 
rated Friday evening services, follow- 
ed by English discourses. These serv- 
ices are very popular and are attend- 
ed by the young people and all those 
of the congregation who cannot at- 
tend the Saturday morning services, 
when the services are conducted and 
the sermon delivered in the German 

The membership of the congregation 
is steadily increasing. The Sabbath 
school is in a very prosperous condi- 
tion. Since Dr. Schreiber has taken 
charge the number of pupils has almost 
doubled. About 150 children are 
in attendance. The Rabbi who is su- 
perintendent of the school is assisted 
by six teachers and a faithful school 
board is always in attendance. 

Since last fall the post-confirmation 
class meets twice a month for instruc- 
tion by the Rabbi in Jewish history 
and literature. 

At the last annual meeting the fol- 
lowing officers were elected: Presi- 
dent, L. Sonneschein; Vice-President, 
G. Stein; Treasurer, L. Franklin; 
Secretary, S. Espen. 

Connected with the congregation 
are two societies, first the Eman- 

uel Gemeinde Frauenverein, which 
was established in 1897, anl 
is in a flourishing condition. 
Mrs. M. T. Strauss was presi- 
dent for three years, and was succeeded 
by Mrs. S. Schulhof. This society has 
eighty- members. In January, 1900, the 
Emanuel Auxiliary Society, consisting 
of thirty young people, was established. 
This Society is doing excellent work 
for the congregation. 



Dr. E. Schreiber was born December 
13th, 1853, in Leipnik, Maehren, a his- 
toric seat of Jewish learning. After a 
thorough preparation in Hebraicis by 
his learned father Herman and grand- 
father Levi Schreiber, he attended, at 
the age of 11, the then flourishing Je- 
shiba (Rabbinical school) of his native 


town, presided over by Moses Bloch, 
the present venerable director of the 
Landes-rabbiner seminar In Budapest, 
and he received from him, at the age 
of 13, the title of "Chabar." Rabbis 
Klein, Kremsier, where Dr. Schreiber 
attended the Gymnasium, Dr. Hilde- 
sheimer, Eisenstadt, Hungary, and 
Rabbi Hirsch, Altofen, at present chief 
Rabbi at Hamburg, were also his teach- 
ers in Talmud. In 1870, he finished his 
studies in the Gymnasium and went to 
Berlin. There he attended the Uni- 
versity and for a short time also the 
Rabbinical school of his former teach- 
er, Dr. Hildesheimer. Becoming dis- 
satisfied with Hildesheimer's orthodox 
school of theology, he left and attached 
himself to the school of Abraham Gei- 
ger and reform. He first attended the 
lectures on science of Judaism in the 
Ephraim-Veitel Heine Lehranstalt, 
held by Lebrecht, M. Steinschneider, 
Aub, Geiger, Haarbruecker and D. 
Cassel. On May 6th, 1872, the Hoch- 
schule Fuer die Wissenschaft des Ju- 
denthum's was opened. Felix Adler, 
New York; Immanuel Loew, Szegedien, 
and Schreiber, were the first three stu- 
dents matriculated. His contact with 
Felix Adler and Rosenfeld of New 
York, and particularly with Emil G. 

Hirsch, who came a little later to Ber- 
lin, ripened then already his plan to go 
to the United States. After receiving 
the Doctor diploma, July 1873, he con- 
tinued for another year his theologi- 
cal studies in Berlin, and received his 
diploma as Rabbi from Geiger, Lazar- 
us Adler, chief Rabbi of Hessen Cas- 
sel, and Ellas Greenebaum, district 
Rabbi of Landau-Pfalz. In 1874 Dr. 
Schreiber accepted the position of pro- 
fessor of modern languages, history 
and Latin at the Samson-Schule in 
Wolfenbuettel, which is historic 
through Zunz and Jost, who were edu- 
cated there. 

In 1875 he received a call as Rabbi 
to Elbing, West Prussia, and three 
years later to the old, renowned con- 
gregation of Bonn. Through his out- 
spoken advocacy of reform and especi- 
ally on -account of his introduction of 
the second edition of Geiger's prayer 
book (1871) which is more radical than 
the edition of 1854, Dr. Schreiber en- 
countered a strong opposition in Bonn, 
and antagonism on the side of the 
press and Rabbinate of Germany. This 
was aggravated by the publication of 
books and his weekly paper, "Die Re- 
form," which, under great difficulties, 
he continued for five years. In No- 
vember, 1881, Dr. Schreiber came to 
this country as Rabbi of Mobile, Ala. 

Prior to his arrival in this city he 
was Rabbi in Denver, Los Angeles, Lit- 
tle Rock, and Toledo, where he un- 
swervingly and consistently labored In 
the cause of reform. The doctor has 
been a fertile author in the German 
and English languages. Among his 
larger works are: "Die Principien des 
Judenthums verglichen mit denen des 
Christenthum's" (Leipzig, 1877), "Ab- 
raham Geiger" (1879), "Die Selbst- 
kritik der Juden" (Berlin, 1880, Second 
Edition Leipzig* 1890) , "Graetz' Gesch- 
ichtsbauerei" (Berlin, 1881). This 
book, strongly criticising Professor 
Graetz' historiography on account of 
its biased and unjust treatment of Re- 
form Judaism, has been endorsed by 
leading Jewish scholars. "Reform Ju- 
daism and Its Pioneers," (1892). From 
1893 to 1896, he was editor of the "Oc- 
cident" of this city. Dr. Schreiber has 
been a prolific contributor to the Jew- 
ish press of the country, particularly 
to the Reform Advocate. He is consid- 
ered a forcible speaker. 



The Free Sons' Cemetery Associa- 
tion was established by the Chicago 
Lodges of the Independent Order of the 
Free Sons of Israel on November 2d, 
1875. The first trustees of the Associa- 
tion were: Simon Greenebaum, Abra- 
ham Abrams, Henry Greenburg, H. 
Eliassof, Abraham Diamond. 

The original purchase at Waldheim 
comprised five acres, to which six and 
a half acres were recently added. The 
ground is used for the burial of mem- 
bers of the Order and their families 
in Chicago. The present membership 
in Chicago today is eleven hundred. 



The cemetery is under the supervision 
of four officers and five trustees, each 
of the nine local lodges elect three del- 
egates to the Association, who in turn 
elect annually officers and trustees. 

The officers elected at the last an- 
nual meeting are: President, B. C. 
Hamburgher; vice president, I. R. 
Gardner; secretary, Adolph Pike; 
treasurer, Louis Levin; trustees, M. 
Pflaum, R. Feidelberg, A. Cappels, J. 
Moll, B. J. Frank. 


About fifty years ago, or perhaps 
earlier, there settled on a farm in the 
neighborhood of Lincoln, Ills., a Hol- 
landish Jew toy the name of Hinrich- 
sen. He was of the sturdy old stock, 
a hard worker, economic in his ways, 
and naturally he was successful. He 
developed a model farm, took to him- 
self for a wife a daughter of a Gentile 
neighbor, raised an interesting family 
and was highly respected by the entire 
neighborhood. Until advanced in years 
he attended strictly to his agricultural 
work and lived the life of a genuine 
farmer, not wishing to be anything 
else. One of his sons, G. Hinrichsen, 
applied about the year 1888 for admis- 
sion to the B'nai B'rith Lodge at Lin- 
coln, 111. Some of the members ob- 
jected to him on account of the mixed 
marriage of his father, claiming that 
according to the laws of the order 
only sons whose parents were both 
Jews and married according to Jewish 
rites are eligible to membership in 
the order. 

The friends of the candidate finally 
brsught the question before the Court 
of Appeals of the Order and the court 
decided in favor of Mr. Hinrichsen. 
He was admitted and ^initiated and is 
now a good standing member of the 
Order of B'nai B'rith. 

We understand that the son is con- 
tinuing to work on his father's farm, 
and has met with the same success. 
The family is noted for their hospital- 
ity, as no one is turned away who ap- 
plies at the Hinrichsen farm for a 
night's lodging, a meal, or any other 
help that is within their power to ex- 

Perhaps it would be a good thing if 
the consent of Mr. Hinrichsen could 
be obtained to place with him a few 
Jewish boys to learn farming. We 
believe it worth while to try. 

The Jewish Orphans' Home or the 
Elizah Frank Orphan Society should 
make an attempt to interest Mr. Hin- 
richsen in this matter. 


Congregation Anshe Dorom, or the 
South Side Hebrew Congregation, was 
organized Sept. 10th, 1888. The fol- 
lowing are the names of the charter 
members: L. Marks, L. Rosenbaum, 
Louis Levin, N. Levy, F. A. Somerfeld, 
A. Josiephi, S. Mendelsohn, M. S. Co- 
hen, H. Silver, A. L. Katlinsky, A. 

Swarts, H. Levy, M. Cohen, M. Brun- 
newasser, John Markus, L. Brenner, M. 
H. Ephraim, M. Ephraim, George H. 
Rosenbaum, Ben Davis, Ike Levy, J. 

The congregation at first had ser- 
vices in rented halls. Subsequently a 
lot was acquired for the erection of a 
synagogue on Indiana avenue, near 

who has accepted a call to the South 
Side Hebrew Congregation of Chicago, 
is only 27 years of age and has lived 
in America but ten years. He has re- 
signed an excellent pastorate in Terre 
Haute, at a sacrifice of about $700 per 
year, and comes to Chicago, where he 
will be enabled to attend the Univer- 
sity of Chicago. He was born in Rus- 


Thirty-fifth street, and ground was 
broken in March, 1899. The corner- 
stone was laid in May of the same 
year. The exterior of the building 
was finished about October, 1899, when 
a 'bazaar was held in the vestry room 
to raise the necessary funds for the 
clearing of all debts. Since then the 
congregation has been holding its ser- 
vices in this vestry room. The con- 
gregation expects to finish the interior 
during this summer. In 1893 the con- 
gregation purchased one and a quarter 
acres in Forest Home to be used as a 
cemetery. The Rabbis who have been 
connected with this congregation are: 
Rev. Farber and Rev. Ungerleider. 
The present incumbent is Rabbi S. N. 
Deinard. Its present officers are: 
President, L, Rosenbaum, who has 
been at the head of the congregation 
from the time of its organization to 
the present day; vice-president, K. 
Lewis; secretary, L. Levin; treasurer, 
Herman Hirsch; trustees, B. Rosen- 
thai, B. Davis, J. Lang, G. Hitzel and 
M. H. Ephraim. 

Rabbi S. N. Deinard of Terre Haute, 

sia in 1873, and spent his early boy- 
hood in Jerusalem, where he studied 
Jewish theology. After coming to 
America he entered the Dixon Univer- 

S. S. Hebrew Congregation. 

sity, at Dixon, Pa., completing the 
course about four years ago, when he 
accepted a call to Terre Haute, Ind. 



He is a very able young minister, ami 
is master of several languages. The 
South Side Hebrew Congregation 
has erected a new church build- 
jng on Indiana avenue, near Thir- 

L. Wedeles, Max Mayer, A. H. Wolf, 
Joseph Weissenbach, Max J. Riese, 
3. B. Kohner, Win. B. Wolf, M. J. Slo- 
man and Max Aaron. 
The Lakeside entertainments are fa- 


ty-fifth street, and chose Rabbi Dein- 
ard a year ago, when he visited Chi- 
cago and conducted services in the 
South Side synagogue, which had been 
vacant for about three months. Rev. 
Deinard is now Rabbi. 


This Club was organized for social 
purposes in 1883 with Dr. Simon 
Strausser as president, William Loeb 
as vice-president, Jacob Metzler treas- 
urer, and E. C. Hamburger secretary. 
The present officers are Benjamin M. 
Engelhard, president; Jacob H. Mahl- 
er, vice-president; Henry Waterman, 
secretary, and Sol Kingsbaker, treas- 

The Club is situated on the North 
Side, at 300 LaSalle avenue. 


Tb.e Lakeside, the second Jewish 
Club on the South Side, ranks next to 
the Standard in membership, influence 
and importance. It was chartered 
June 2d, 1884. The first board was: 
Officers, Morris Beifeld, president; S. 
W. Rosenfels, vice-president; Jacob L. 
Cahn, treasurer; Samuel J. Kline, re- 
cording secretary, and N. A. Mayer, 
financial secretary. Directors: Jacob 
Weil, Max Wolff, Conrad Witkowsky. 
E. B. Pelsenthal, Martin Meyer and 
Charles Liebenstein. 

The present officers are: Samuel 
Despres, president; Adolph Hirsch, 
vice-president; Solms Marcus, treasur- 
er; L. Witkowsky, financial secretary, 
and Leo W. Wheeler, recording secre- 
tary. Directors: M. L. Freiberger, E. 

mous for their elegance and other fine 
social features. 


This society was organized in the fall 
of the year 1888. Its object is to en- 

G. Hirsch, vice-president; Adolph 
Moses, treasurer; Rabbi J. Rappaport, 
recording secretary, Rabbi A. R. Levy, 
corresponding secretary. Board of di- 
rectors: Israel Cowen, Dr. B. Felsen- 
thal, Marcus Freund, Henry N. Hart, 
Dr. Emil G. Hirsch, Samuel Klausner, 
Abraham R. Levy, Adolph Loeb, 
Adolph Moses, Julius Rappaport and 
Jacob Simon. 

We quote from the report of the 
secretary of the society the following 
in order to give the reader a plainer 
idea of the work of this organization. 
The secretary says: "In the fall of the 
year 1888 four families were assisted 
to purchase each eighty acres of virgin 
prairie land in Southwestern Minne- 
sota and locate there as farmers. 
Since that time we have encouraged 
and assisted from two to ten families 
annually to leave the enslaving sweat- 
shop or unpromising and degrading 
"peddling" in the city and start out as 
farmers. During the twelve years of 
our operations we have dealt with 
seventy-six individual parties. These 
came to us on their own initiative. We 
encouraged and assisted them in their 
endeavor, and, with but one single ex- 
ception, they are all today engaged in 
their new and chosen vocation, some 
more and some less successful, but all 
alike putting forth their best efforts 
to establish themselves and their fam- 
ilies as agriculturists. 

"One man, the head of a family, died 
on his farm in Minnesota and his 
widow and children joined the Hirsch 
Colony in Canada. Others, who at 
first located on small tracts of land 
near Chicago, have gone farther west 


courage and aid Jewish people to em- 
bark as agriculturists in any section of 
this country and in the Dominion of 
Canada. The officers of the society 
are: Adolph Loeb, president; Dr. Emil 

and have located on larger and more 
extensive farms. In this connection 
special mention must be made of the 
families Nudelman and Lloyd. They 
went from Dakota westward and lo- 



cated in. Smith's Valley, Lyons county, 
Nevada, where they are successfully 
working a large farm. With a capital 
of about $100 Joseph Nudelman started 
farming in Dakota some twelve years 
ago, and when he went west eight 
years ago he had a capital of less than 
$600. Today his livestock consists of 
thirty head of cattle and from forty 
to fifty horses and colts. He has all 
the implements and machinery neces- 
sary to work a large farm. His lands 
and the water rights he owns are val- 
ued at $20,000 and on all of that there 
is an incumbrance of about $14,000. 
Sam Nudelman, the son of the farmer, 
and Jacob Lloyd are also successful 

these homesteads there are high priced 
berry and fruit farms, for which was 
paid from $100 to $150 per acre. 

There are, secondly, lands which 
have been under cultivation when pur- 
chased by our people and which were 
purchased as "ready farms," and third- 
ly, farms made by our people from vir- 
gin prairie or wood lands, purchased at 
low figures, from $5 to $8 per acre. 

After giving an exhaustive account 
of the homesteads established, of the 
present needs, of the struggles and 
hardships, and dwelling upon the 
higher benefits derived from the move- 
ment, pointing out the favorable con- 
ditions the enthusiastic secretary en- 

happy and contented life? The an- 
swer to this question must come from 
those who are able to give financial 
aid to the work of promoting agri- 
cultural pursuits among the poor Jews. 
Hundreds of poor Jews, physically 
and mentally well fitted for the pur- 
pose, desire to become farmers. They 
are anxious to leave the city and try 
to make homes for their families in 
the country, by either filing a home- 
stead claim on government land or by 
purchasing at a reasonable price -a 
piece of good fertile soil, and work 
on the same as agriculturists. Will 
they be assisted to carry out their good 
intentions? Will the work which has 


Jewish farmers located in Smith's Val- 

Seventy-one of our Jewish farmer 
families, comprising 314 persons 151 
adults over the age of sixteen years, 
and 163 children and youths are lo- 
cated in the middle-west in the states 
of Illinois, Michigan, Iowa, Wiscon- 
sin, Minnesota and the Dakotas. Eight 
of .these families are working rented 
farms; twenty-four filed homestead 
claims on government land, and the 
other thirty-nine families are located 
on thirty separate homesteads. These 
homesteads, an aggregation of 2,987 
acres of land, have been purchased by 
the respective owners at a cost of 
$38,980, and with the improvements 
put in by our people the lands today 
represent a value of $63,970. Among 

deavors to point out the duty of the 
American Israelite, and he says: 

"With these changed conditions in 
favor of the work in hand, may we 
not look for a favorable answer to the 
question of farming among the Jews 
as at least a partial solution of the 
economic- problem that confronts us 
now? Can the Jew make a farmer? 
This has been demonstrated, though in 
a small yet in a most effective way by 
our farmers. Will the Jew make a 
farmer? Will the many who push and 
cut and crush one another in an un- 
promising struggle for a livelihood 
carried on in the over-congested quar- 
ters in our cities 'be helped to seek 
the wide and open country and there 
find the God-blessed avenue that leads 
through honest and useful labor to a 

for its purpose the assisting of these 
people in their endeavor, be upheld? 
Surely, if pre-eminence in usefulness 
entitles any undertaking to marked 
consideration, this work of assisting 
our poor Jewish brethren to become 
farmers makes good its claim." 


The name of this association should 
be written in gold and its praises 
should be sung in rhythmic rhyme. 
The plain every-day prose which alone 
stands to our disposal is too feeble to 
do justice to its glorious achievements. 
Since January, 1881, the time when 
this society was established, until the 
year 1900, when the Associated Char- 
ities were called into existence, this 



association has raised and distrib- 
uted among the charity institutions of 
Chicago, without distinction of creed 
and nationality the munificent sum of 
nearly a quarter of a million dollars. 
And all this was done without much 
ostentation, but with great dignity, so 
that every act reflected honor on the 
Jewish name. What more should there 
be said, and what more could we say 
in commendation of an institution 
whose members acquitted themselves 
so gloriously, as citizens, as Jews, and 
as champions of sweet charity. We 
are satisfied under the circumstances 
to let their acts speak for themselves. 
We will only mention a few of the 
names of the leaders. The first presi- 
dent was Mr. D. Heidelberger, and the 
first secretary Mr. James Rosenthal. 
Among those who have always taken 
an active interest in the work of the 
association are the following: Louis 
Kuppenheimer, Levi Mayer, Jacob 
Newman, Joseph Schaffner, Maurice 
Rosenfield, Bernard Cahn, Herbert L.' 
Hart. Sydney Lowenstein, Oscar J. 
Friedman, Norman Florsheim, Alfred 
M. Snydacker, David Prank, Louis M. 
Stumer, Harry Pflaum, Henry X. 
Straus, Edward A. Rosenthal, A. H. 
Kohn, Frank E. Mandel, Sydney Loefa, 
Sol DeLee, Simon W. Strauss, Jacob 

Although the institution of the As- 
sociated Charities has to a certain ex- 
tent taken the work out of their hands, 
yet the very young men who danced 
for charity at the famous annual balls 
arranged by the Young Men's Hebrew 
Charity Association .have not folded 
their hands In idleness. They still 
carry a heavy part of the burden, anJ 
still work in the interest of benevo- 
lence in the ranks of the newly formed 
association, and it is their zeal, their 
devotion that are helping and will 
help to make the Associated Charities 
a grand and glorious success. 

j._ * I, 


The Jewish Training School of Chi- 
cago was founded >by a number of no- 
ble-minded and intelligent people, 
Jews of Chicago. Its main purpose 
was "to foster self-help and self-re- 
liance, to enable the needy to lift 
themselves beyond the need of an- 
other's assistance, to educate the poor 
in thrift and honesty, independence 
and self respect; to lend a helping 
hand to 'those who begin the struggle 
for existence handicapped by adverse 
circumstances. There existed, indeed 
a great need for such an institution 
on account of the thousands and 
thousands of Jewish emigrants from 
the most benighted and degraded sec- 
tions of Europe. 

The school was dedicated and opened 
on October 19th, 1890. It consisted 
from the beginning of three depart- 
ments kindergarten, primary and 
grammar departments. The schools 
received pupils of tooth sexes and all 
nationalities, between the ages of three 
to fifteen years, furnishing them free 

education, the course covering a period 
of eleven years. The institution is 
unsectarian. There are about 700 
children enrolled in school and kinder- 
garden; admitted are only the children 
of the poor. 

The intention, however, is to estab- 
lish trade school for boys and girls 
after they have graduated from the 
school, and have shown and developed 
their innate faculties. One branch of 
trade school has been established al- 
ready a school for gold and sil"- 

The expense of maintaining this in- 
stitution are about $25,000.00 annually. 
The school is located at 199 West 
Twelfth place, right in the center of 
the Jewish settlement. 

The first meeting for the establish- 
ment of this school was held at Sinai 
Temple in 1888, and Sinai Congrega- 
tion is to a great extent the father of 
this institution. A number of tho 

tects, and is well adapted for its pur- 
pose. It is a four-story brick struc- 
ture, 60x110 feet in dimension. It 
has two entrances and stairways, and 
its twenty-two rooms, capable of seat- 
ing 800 pupils, are all light and airy, 
and furnished with the latest and most 
improved school apparatus. The ma- 
chine shop, in which thirty boys can 
work conveniently, is arranged in reg- 
ular workshop style, and is supplied 
with the lathes, benches, vises and an- 
vils necessary for wood and metal 
turning. The joining shop, in which 
thirty-five boys can work simultane- 
ously, is equipped with a complete 
outfit of the best tools and latest Im- 
proved vises. The molding, drawing, 
sewing and kindergarten rooms are 
furnished with the best of the neces- 
sary appurtenances. The laboratory is 
supplied with the apparatus and chem- 
icals commonly used in schools to il- 
lustrate the principles of elementary 


members of Sinai Congregation and 
others have donated large sums of 
money to this institution. During the 
year 1888 to 1889 Mr. Leon Mandel 
gave $20,000.00, Emanuel Mandel $5,- 
000.00, H. A. Kohn $5,000.00, Max A. 
Mayer $10,000.00, Charles H. Schwab 
$5,000.00. The Young Men's Hebrew 
Charity Association gave $9,500.00. 

The first officers were: President, 
Charles H. Schwab; vice-president, 
Mrs. Emanuel Mandel; treasurer, J. L. 
Gatzert; recording secretary, Rabbi 
Joseph Stolz; 'financial secretary, Mrs. 
J. Wedeles. Directors: Henry L. 
Frank, Henry Greenebaum, Dr. E. G. 
Hirscb, H. A. Kohn, Julius Rosenthal, 
Mrs. M. Loeb, Mrs. B. Loewenthal, 
Mrs. Harry Mayer, Mrs. Lee Mayer, 
Mrs. Joseph Spiegel, Mrs. M. Rosen- 

The building located on Judd street 
Jefferson and Clinton streets, was de- 
signed by Adler & Sullivan, archi- 

physlcs and general chemistry. The 
large assemibly-room is fitted for ex- 
hibitions and gatherings, and the 
class-rooms contain the usual school 
appliances. There is an ample supply 
of wash and bath rooms. Pasteur fil- 
ters purify the drinking water, and a 
thirty-horse power horizontal engine 
drives the machinery and furnishes 
power for supplying the building with 
heat and ventilation. 

The school was opened October 20th, 
1890, with a corps of twenty paid 
teachers and five volunteers, under the 
superintendence of Prof. Gabriel Bam- 

At the opening of the school 1,600 
children, ranging from three to fifteen 
years of age, applied for admission. 
Only 1,100 were accepted, though the 
seating capacity was but 800. The 
classes were, however, so overcrowded 
that it was found absolutely necessary 
to dismiss about 200 more and such 



were then chosen for dismissal and 
sent to the neighboring public schools 
as were, 'upon careful investigation, 
found to be generally in better circum- 
stances. Of these about 150 were re- 
cent arrivals from Russia, who had 
never before attended an English 

The aim of the school's instruction 
is to unite training in the industrial 
and mechanical arts with the very 
best methods of teaching the usual 
school studies, in order to develop har- 
moniously the mental, moral and phys- 
ical powers of the pupils, prepare 
them for the active duties of life and 
fit them for good citizenship. To re- 
alize this aim the course of study de- 
signed to cover twelve years is divided 
into three departments, namely: the 
Kindergarten, the Primary department 
and the Grammar department. 

The secretary, Dr. Joseph Stolz, fin- 
ishes the executive report of that year 
with the following words: "We need 
the best teachers we can get, and the 
'best appliances to assist them, and 
these teachers and appliances cost 
money. The building stands. The 
school is thoroughly organized and in 
excellent working order. The pupils 
have shown a marked moral and in- 
tellectual progress. The girls have 
shown skill in dress-making, and those 
whose environment has not been such 
as to foster manual labor, have shown 
aptitude in the handling of tools. The 
difficult lesson of cleanliness has been 
learned and through mothers' meet- 
ings we have won the confidence and 
co-operation of the parents. The 
Night school, that, under the charge 
of our superintendent and in our 
building educates some 300 adults in 
the elements of our language and in 
the history of our country as well as 
In bookkeeping, has accomplished in- 
calculable good. Everything augurs 
well for the future. What has been 
done is but a pledge of what can be 
done and we appeal to your love of 
humanity to aid us. We need your 
co-operation. We need you to help us 
secure a sufficient number of patrons 
and members to put the institution on 
an independent footing. 

This is more than sentiment this 
Is duty. We owe it to the unhappy 
children of Russia that have found a 
home in our midst. We owe it to 
those most needy of all the needy, 
those of our co-religionists who are 
now groaning under the heartless 
tyranny of the Czar, many of whom 
will soon be with us. We owe It to 
that "New Education" whose cause we 
have espoused. We as Jews, pioneers 
in the cause of humanity, owe it to the 
world that when two years hence peo- 
ple will flock hither from every coun- 
try and clime, we shall be able to di- 
rect them to the model educational in- 
stitute of this city, the Jewish Train- 
ing School. 

What the Jewish Training School has 
accomplished during the twelve years 
of its existence among the children of 

the poor, what benefit and what bles- 
sing the work of the very able super- 
intendent, Prof. Bamberger and the 
efficient corps of teachers have been 
to thousands and thousands of the 
dwellers of the Ghetto district, can 
hardly be told In the limited space 
which we have at our disposal. Suf- 
fice it to say that it is the best institu- 
tion of the Jewish community and en- 
joys the moral and financial support 
of the very best and the most intelli- 
gent classes of the Chicago Jews. 

Superintendent of the Jewish Training 

Professor Gabriel Bamberger, one of 
the foremost educators of this coun- 
try, was born in the small village of 
Angerod in the Grand duchy of Hes- 
sen-Darmstadt, on June 3d, 1845. One 
of a large family of professional peo- 
ple, his father being a successful teach- 
er and his sisters and brothers in that 
or allied professions, the young lad 


also was destined to a similar calling. 
The profession of Rabbi was chosen 
for him and for this purpose, after 
having received instruction in the ele- 
mentary schools of his home, he was 
early sent to Breslau to take prepara- 
tory work in the famous Rabbinical 
Seminary of that city. But the career 
of Rabbi was very shortly abandoned, 
as the 'boy showed other tastes. He 
entered the Gymnasium of Breslau, 
from which he was graduated. 

Prof. Bamberger enjoyed the privi- 
lege of being a pupil of the great edu- 
cator, Wilhelm Curtmann, in the Ped- 
agogical Seminary of Friedberg, Hes- 
sen. After graduating from there he 
continued his pedagogical work by 
taking a post-graduate course in the 
University of Giessen (Hesen). Im- 
mediately after finishing his prepara- 
tions as an educator, the professor be- 
came one in actuality. He entered the 
services of the German government 
and soon was made the principal of a. 
preparatory and business college in 

In 1879 a call from across the ocean 

was sent to the rising young peda- 
gogue. He was asked to and did or- 
ganize and become principal of the 
Workingman's School of New York, 
which was maintained by the Society 
for Ethical Culture of that city. In 
doing so, Prof. Bamberger became the 
first pedagogue in this country to in- 
troduce Manual Training in the gram- 
mar and primary grades. He gave the 
first exhibit of Manual Training work 
of these grades at the annual meeting 
of the National Educational Associa- 
tion in Saratoga in 1883, and was en- 
couraged in his propaganda by but 
three men of the whole assembly. But 
those men were Col. F. Parker of Chi- 
cago, Dr. Woodworth of St. Louis, and 
Dr. H. H. Fick of Cincinnati. 

Whatever strides Manual Training 
has taken in the country at large since 
then owes its first impetus to Prof. 
Bamberger's pioneer work. 

In 1890, after being principal of the 
Workingman's School for eleven years, 
Chicago demanded the services of this 
exceptional educator. The Jewish 
Training School of Chicago, at whose 
head he now is, owes its whole suc- 
cess and its superior rank as a school 
almost wholly to Prof. Bamberger. 

What Prof. Bamberger has done for 
the school is another story and could 
not possibly be confined to the short 
space of this sketch. Suffice it to say 
that Prof. Bamberger has taken an 
active part in all the important educa- 
tional associations of the country as 
well as being a somewhat prolific 
writer of pedagogic literature. He 
has written and published many pam- 
phlets and 'brochures on subjects of 
Manual Training, as well as many 
other phases of education. A Phonetic 
Reader, the first of its kind in this 
country, was written and published by 
him, as also a course of Manual Train- 
ing now published in book form under 
the name, "Head, Heart and Hand." 

However, Prof. Bamberger's field of 
education has 'been even broader than 
his activity in the lines mentioned 
above. He has also 'been a power in 
the religious education of the Jewish 
youth of this city. Always a deep and 
scholarly student of the literature of 
his people, Prof. Bamberger is an au- 
thority upon the methods of imparting 
such knowledge. To this end he has 
written much, most notably a series 
of articles on the way to teach Bible 
History, which appeared in the pages- 
of the Reform Advocate some years 
ago, as well as many other articles in 
our American Jewish papers. 

But 'better than writing of the way 
to teach Prof. Bamberger has done the 
actual teaching and became a living 
example for all to follow. 

He has been a most valuable adjunct 
to Sinai Temple's well-conducted Sab- 
bath School and as a leader organized 
and was the president for many years 
of the Jewish Sabbath School Teachers' 

It is to be hoped that the professor, 
who is admired and beloved by all who 



have had the privilege of knowing 
him, will be spared for many years to 
help the community of Chicago in 4ts 
onward march toward the highest civ- 


In the month of November, 1890, an 
unique conference of Jews and Gen- 
tiles was conducted in the main hall of 
the Methodist Episcopal church block, 
corner Clark and Washington streets. 
The instigator of that meeting was the 
Rev. Wm. E. Blackstone, a well-known 
missionary of the Christian church. 
We have before us a copy of the pro- 
gram of this conference, which con- 
sistd of four sessions, the first meet- 
ing taking place on Monday, November 
24th, in the afternoon. The second 
session was held in the evening of the 
same day at 7:30 p. m. On Tuesday 
afternoon the third meeting took place, 
and the fourth and last session was 
held in the evening of that day at 7:30. 
Rev. Mr. Blackstone makes a state- 
ment in this program in explanation of 
the object of this conference in the 
following words: "The object of this 
conference is to give information and 
promote a spirit of inquiry therefor on 
the basis of mutual kindness between 
Jews and Christians. 

Admission free. Israelites and 
Christians cordially invited. (Signed) 
Wm. E. Blackstone, chairman of com- 

The writer attended all the sessions 
of this strange conference and could 
perhaps give a lengthy account of the 
proceedings and transactions, but pre- 
fers to give an exact copy of this pro- 
gram, as it is in his estimation a very 
rare document in the history of re- 
ligion. In course of time many meet- 
ings have taken place where disputes 
between Jews and Christians on re- 
ligious topics have been the main fea- 
tures. But none of these conferences 
of former days were anything like this 
one arranged by Rev. Blackstone. The 
following is a copy of the program: 
on the 

Past, Present and Future of Israel, 

To be held in the 

Corner Clark and Washington streets. 

Chicago, 111. 

24TH AND 25TH, 1890. 

Jews and Christians to Participate. 


Monday, Nov. 24th. 

Chairman Wm. E. Blackstone. 

Afternoon Session. 
2:00 Psalm 122. Prayer by Rev. Dr. 

C. Perren. 

2:15 Address, Rev. E. P. Goodwin, 

D. D. 

"The Attitude^ of the Nation and 
of Christian People Toward the 

3:00 Address, Rev. Dr. B. Felsenthal, 

"Why Israelites do not accept 
Jesus as their Messiah." 

Evening Session. 
7:30 Psalm 25. Prayer by Rev. Lieb- 

man Adler. Rabbi. 

7:45 Address, Rev. Dr. E. G. Hirsch, 

"The religious Condition of the 
Jews today and their attitude 
toward Christianity." 
Song, Mr. Joseph J. Schnadig. 
8:30 Address, Rev. J. H. Barrows, 
D. D. 

"Israel as an evidence of the 
truth of the Christian reli- 
Aaronic Benediction. 

Tuesday, Nov. 25th. . 
Afternoon Session. 
2:00 Psalm 53. Prayer by Rev. Chas. 

M. Morton. 
2:15 Address, Joseph Stolz, Rabbi. 

"Post Biblical History of Israel." 
3:00 Address, Rev. J. M. Caldwell, 
D. D. 

"Jerusalem and Palestine as they 
are today, and the restoration 
of Israel." 

Song, "The Hebrew Captive." 
3:45 Explanation of maps and charts. 

Evening Session. 
7:30 Psalm 98. Prayer. 
7:45 Address, Prof, David C. Marquis, 
D. D. 

"Israel's Messiah." 
8:30 Address, by an Israelite. 

"The Anti-Semitism of Today." 
9:00 Address, Prof. H. M. Scott, D. D. 
"Israelites and Christians. Their 
Mutual Relations and Welfare, 
or Lessons of this conference." 

The Lord bless thee, and keep 


The Lord make His face shine 
upon thee, and be gracious 
unto thee; 

The Lord lift up His countenance 
upon thee, and give thee 

A selection of ten hymns from the 
church hymnals were printed with 
the programme and sung by the audi- 
ence. The address of Dr. B. Felsen- 
thal was afterwards published in pam- 
phlet form, reprinted from the Reform 
Advocate by the Publishers, Messrs. 
Bloch & Newman. The Doctor prefaces 
the printed address with the following 
remarks: "A few years ago, on No- 
vember 24th and 25th, 1890, a confer- 
ence of -Israelites and Christians was 
held in the First Methodist Church in 
the city of Chicago, and each of its 
four sessions was very largely attend- 
ed. It was mainly Mr. William E. 
Blackstone, by whose efforts this con- 
ference was brought about. Among us 
Jews it was not known at that time 
that Mr. Blackstone is actively en- 
gaged in missionary work among the 
Jews, and so he succeeded in persuad- 

ing some Chicago rabbis to take part 
in his conference. To me Mr. Black- 
stone has assigned the subject indi- 
cated in the question at the head of 
this discourse. Upon the request of 
some friends my discourse is here 
again published." 

A Hebrew paper, under the title of 
"B'akharith Hayamim" (in the last 
days, a dialogue between Father anclSon 
concerning Isreal's hopes), was pre- 
pared for the occasion by Rabbi A. 
I. G. Lesser, Rabbi of congregation 
B'eth Hamidrash Hagodol Ubnai Ja- 
cob. This paper was later translated 
at the request of the author by Her- 
man EJiassof and was published in 
book form, English and Hebrew, in 
1897. The Rabbis who participated in 
this Conference learned with regret 
that it was more the missionary than 
the messenger of peace who arranged 
this conference. 


The Home for Aged Jews of Chicago 
was established in 1891. The first an- 
nual meeting of patrons and members 
was held May 8th, 1892. The Presi- 
dent, Mr. Morris Rosenbaum, read his 
report, from which we quote the fol- 

"To Abraham Slimmer is due the 
gratitude of the community for his 
munificence and liberality, for his 
lofty example and for the privilege of 
joining him in this noble work." 

And he was right, for it was Mr. 
Abraham Slimmer of Waverly, Iowa, 
who by his donation of $50,000.00 for 
a home for the aged Jews in Chicago 
on condition that the -Jews of Chicago 
raise an equal amount made it 
possible for this home to become a re- 
ality. Mr. Slimmer was an intimate 
friend of Mr. Rosenbaum, and when 
he one day confided to his friend, Ro- 
senbaum, his intention of donating a 
large amount of money to some insti- 
tution, for the purpose of erecting a 
home for aged Jews, Mr. Rosenbaum 
at once advised him to make the Chi- 
cago Jewish community the recipient 
of his bountiful gift. Mr. Slimmer 
took the advice of his friend and made 
the offer, on condition that the Chi- 
cago Jews raise an equal amount. 
Mr. Rosenbaum interested a num- 
ber of the rich members of the 
Jewish community and the necessary 
$50,000 were soon raised. Mrs. Elizah 
Frank donated $10,000, Nelson Morris, 
$5,000, H. A. Kohn, $5,000, Jacob 
Rosenberg and Mrs. Henrietta Roseu- 
feld each donated $5,000, Mr. M. Ro- 
senbaum and his brother Joseph Ro- 
senbaum each gave $1,000, and a num- 
ber of others smaller amounts. 

The Israelitische Altenheim Verein, 
a society of Jewish ladies, established 
some years previous for the purpose of 
aiding in the founding of a Home for 
Aged Jews, turned over $3,000 to the 
Board of the Home. 

On the 6th of April, 1891, the follow- 
ing officers and directors were elected: 
Mr. Morris Rosenbaum, President; 
Mr. E. Frankenthal, Vice-president; B. 



Loewenthal, Treasurer; H. E. Greene- 
baum, Recording Secretary; Mrs. Irv- 
ing S. Bernheimer, Financial Secre- 

(To serve one year.) 
Henry L. Frank, David A. Kohn, A. 
Loeb, Nelson Morris, Simon Mandel, 

May, 1897, there were 54 inmates, 26 
men and 28 women, representing the 
following nationalities: Germany, 32; 
Hungary, 6; Russia, 5; Bohemia-Aus- 
tria, '4; Galicia- Austria, 3; Holland, 2; 
Poland, 1, and America 1. 

The expenditures of the fiscal year 
ending January, 1899, amounted to 


H. A. Kohn, Mrs. J. K. Frank, Mrs. 

Henry Kloffer, and Mrs. Aaron Stern. 

(To serve two years.) 

H. E. Greenebaum, Bernard Cahn, A. 
Kuh, B. Loewenthal, Joseph Rosen- 
baum, Mrs. I. S. Bernheimer, Mrs. Max 
Hart, and Mrs. M. A. Meyer. 
(To serve three years.) 

Morris Rosenbaum, Abram Slimmer, 
B. Kuppenheimer, Harry Hart, E. 
Frankenthal, Mrs. L. Newberger, Mrs. 
Chas. H. Schwab, and Mrs. B. J. Da- 

The board secured the services of 
S. B. Eisendrath, architect, who sub- 
mitted plans for a building. The plans 
were adopted and the contracts let. 
The following (building committee was 
appointed: E. Frankenthal, Chair- 
man; Henry L. Frank, Bernard Kahn, 
Joseph Rosenbaum, and Harry Hart. 
The lot on which the building was 
to .be erected was bought on the north- 
west corner of Sixty-second street and 
Drexel avenue, having a frontage of 
347 on Drexel avenue and 207 on Sixty- 
second street, with a 16-foot alley. The 
Home was dedicated on Sunday, April 
30th, 1893, and seven applicants had 
been admitted to the home. 

During 1893 there were 44 inmates 
at the home. According to the Re- 
port of the Superintendent, Mrs. B. J. 
David, dated May 12th, 1895, donations 
to the Home had been numerous and 
liberal. The Women's Home Society 
were very zealous in their endeavors 
in behalf of the home during the year. 
The Young Men's Hebrew Charity As- 
sociation rendered generous material 
assistance. The largest number of in- 
mates at any time up to May, 1896, 
was 49. 

At the time of the annual meeting, 

J14.912.64. The number of inmates at 
the home was 71. The library of the 
home gained about 175 volumes of 
excellent literature. 

The officers elected at the last annu- 
al meeting, January, 1900, are the fol- 
lowing: M. Rosenbaum, president, re- 
elected; Mrs. Chas. H. Schwab, vice- 
president; Rabbi Abram Hirschberg, 
recording secretary; Herman Hefter, 
financial secretary; B. Loewenthal, 

The Home for Aged Jews is a neces- 
sity in a community like Chicago. The 


Chicago Israelites know it, and have 
taken good care of this institution. 
The management is in good hands, and 
the future of the Home. is assured. 


Morris Rosenbaum was born in 
Schwabach, Germany, January 20, 

1837, being the son of Jacob and Ba- 
bette Rosenbaum. He received a lib- 
eral education. In the schools of Ger- 
many and being of a studious turn of 
mind made rapid progress in all his 
studies. At the age of thirteen he was 
obliged to leave school, and came to 
the United States in July, 1850, cross- 
Ing the Mississippi river at Dubuque, 
Iowa, in December, 1850, at which place 
he made his home until the year 185S. 
Obtaining a position in a large grocery 
store, he at once acquired the good 
will, confidence and respect of his em- 
ployer and his employer's family, by 
his energetic and attentive application 
to the interests of his employer. Dur- 
ing Mr. Rosenbaum's service in the 
grocery business he made the acquaint- 
ance of Mr. A. Mularky, from Cedar 
Falls, Iowa, whose confidence and 
friendship won for Mr. Rosenbaum the 
start of his business life, as Mr. Mu- 
larky sold to Mr. Rosenbaum in 1858 
the entire stock of merchandise, of 
about ?3,600, and this all on credit and 
without any security. 

At this time Mr. Rosenbaum was a 
poor lad of but twenty-one years, but 
he possessed that untiring energy, push 
and modesty that go so far in making 
the successful man. 

With a determination and a will that 
knew not of failure, he started in this 
new enterprise by giving his brother 
Joseph (then not 20 years old) a third- 
interest in the business, and to his 
Dubuque benefactor (who had been 
swamped during the financial crisis of 
1857), one-third interest, retaining for 
himself one-third interest. Such is the 
disposition of the subject of this sketch 
and these the sterling qualities that 
characterize his every action all 
through life. 

From Cedar Falls Mr. Rosenbaum 
moved to Nashua, Iowa, in the year 
1867, and established himself in the 
banking business. In 1874 he came to 
Chicago and established the grain com- 
mission business which is now carried 
on under the firm name of Rosenbaum 
Bros., of which Mr. Morris Rosenbaum 
was at the head, and is to the present 

Mr. Rosenbaum is a Royal Arch Ma- 
son, a member and ex-director of Sinai 
Congregation and a member of the 
Standard Club. Mr. Rosenbaum has 
always been interested in all charities, 
giving liberally to anything that per- 
tained to the comfort and welfare of 

In the spring of 1891 Mr. Rosenbaum 
induced Mr. Abram Slimmer of Iowa 
to donate $50,000 for a home for Aged 
Jews in Chicago, this liberal donation 
being the start for others to follow, 
and thus was this worthy institution 
founded. Mr. Rosenbaum has been 
president of the home since its incep- 
tion, and through foresight and care- 
ful management the sinking fund has 
never lost a dollar of its principal, and 
through the personality of its presi- 
dent the Home for Aged Jews has a 
large following and today ranks among 



the best and most worthy institutions 
of Chicago. 

Mr. Rosenbaum married Miss Sophia 
Bloch, October 11, 1871. They have 
four daughters Etta (Mrs. Edward L. 
Glaser), Stella (Mrs. M. W. Kozmin- 
ski), Maude (Mrs. Dr. D. N. Eisen- 
drath), and Miss Alma. 

Mr. Rosenbaum has preached and 
practiced, in his home and elsewhere, 
the motto of "Plain living, and high 
thinking," of modesty and unostenta- 



The Society in Aid of Russian Refu- 
gees , was established in September, 
1891. Officers of the Executive Com- 
mittee were as follows: Adolph Loeto, 
President; Jacob Rosenberg, First 
Vice-President; Henry Greenebaum, 
Second Vice-President; Oscar G. Fore- 
man, Treasurer; Rev. A. Norden, Sec- 
retary. Members of the Executive 
Committee: Dr. B. Felsenthal, Dr. E. 
G. Hirsch. Dr. I. S. Moses, Julius Ro- 
senthal H. A. Kohn, Nelson Morris, 
Abraham Hart, Jos. Beifeld, Abrahm 
Kuh, Adolph Kraus, Sam Nathan, Au- 
gust Gatzert, Advisory Board: Leo 
Schlossman, Chairman, Dr. B. Felsen- 
thal, Dr. Jos. Stolz, A. J. Frank, Is- 
rael Cowen, J. Lewis, J. Berkson, D. 
Godstein, Albert Weil, Adolph Bondy, 
L. Zolotkoff, A. Bernstein, Dr. A. Levy, 
Superintendent; H. Eliassol, Manager. 

On the 4th day of September of the 
above year an office was opened on 
Jefferson street, right in the heart of 
the Ghetto district and close to the 
Sheltering Home. The office was 
placed in charge of Supt. Dr. Levy and 
Manager H. Eliassof. From the very 
start it was understood that the offi- 
cers in charge of the office of the Ex- 
ecutive Committee should work hand 
in hand with the officers of the Shel- 
tering Home, which was established 
and maintained for some time before 
the Executive Committee organized, 
in that district. When the new ar- 
rivals had rested for a few days the 
Executive Committee was to attend 
to them. A short time after, the of- 
fice was removed from Jefferson street 
to 82 Wilson street. The work was 
carried on in such a manner that ev- 
ery cent disbursed, every move made, 
every order given, and every step 
taken in the interest of the Refugees 
was thoroughly accounted for. The 
manager had to present at each week- 
ly meeting of the Advisory Board and 
Executive Committee a written statis- 
tical report, which had to be approved 
by both bodies. During the first five 
and a half months of the existence of 
this Association the number of appli- 
cations received at the office was 309. 
These applications came from 150 fam- 
ilies, comprising 250 adults and 350 
children, 85 married men who left 
their families in Russia, 67 single men, 
7 unmarried women, and 12 widows, 
a total of 671 persons. Eighty-one per- 
sons were sent away to other cities, 

where they either had relatives who 
were willing to take care of them, or 
were given letters of recommendation 
to parties who had agreed to look out 
for their interests; 102 persons were 
provided with work. The children of 
the widows and some orphan children 
who came along with some of the 
families were provided with homes 
and their board paid out of the funds 
of the committee. Some of the men 
who had learned a trade were provided 
with tools, some with sewing machines, 
and others were sent to learn a trade, 
and the committee paid for the teach- 
ing and also for the board of the 
applicant for several weeks. Nearly 
all the families who remained in Chi- 
cago received the necessary furniture, 
stoves, and one, or in some instances, 
several months' rent. During the cold 
weather many of the families living 
here received coal. Hundreds of bun- 
dles of warm clothing for men, women 
and children were received at the of- 
fice of the Executive Committee from 
all parts of the city, and distributed 
among the needy applicants. Shoes 
were also given to a great many who 
were in need of them. The kind- 
hearted Jewish physicians of the 
neighborhood had volunteered their 
medical services, and the Executive 
Committee paid for medicine. Dr. 
Levy having resigned the office of 
Superintendent, Mr. H. Eliassof was 
appointed his successor. 

The writer could fill a large volume 
with the heart-rending stories told by 
the Russian Refugees of the inhuman 
treatment they had to undergo at 
their so-called homes in darkest Rus- 
sia. In most of the cases the state- 
ments of the Refugees were support- 
ed by documents and witnesses whose 
veracity could not be doubted. During 
the entire time of the existence of the 
Society, which was once reorganized, 
thousands of unfortunate Refugees 
were helped and aided to become self- 
sustaining. It was the aim of the en- 
tire committee, as well as the paid 
help, to exert a beneficial influence 
upon the Refugees, and to help them to 
become good American citizens. There 
were among them many good, honest, 
hard-working men, whose happiness 
knew no bounds when they were in 
the course of a few months able to pay 
back to the Society the money which 
they had received, even in small in- 
stallments. The sum expended by tho 
Society in this good work reached 
nearly $30,000, the greater part of 
which was collected from the good and 
benevolent Jews of Chicago. 

President Loeb in his final report 

"Glancing at these figures we have 
every reason to be proud of our Chi- 
cago Jewish community, who have re- 
sponded so magnificently to our call, 
and I may add that our resources 
were iby no means exhausted, and if 
the emergency would have been con- 
tinued I think the donations would 
have been duplicated by a great many, 

and those who have not been ap- 
proached at all would have come for- 
ward with their gifts." 

In regard to the services of the Su- 
perintendent, Mr. H. Eliassof, Presi- 
dent Loeb makes the following state- 

"It is a well-known fact that criti- 
cal times produce the mea who can 
cope with them, and so in our case. 
The Society has been exceedingly for- 
tunate in finding a man like our su- 
perintendent, who was in every way 
fitted to this most responsible, and, I 
may say, awkward position. It took 
a man of nerve, tact, patience and en- 
durance, one who could understand 
the language of the exiles, and know 
their habits and their vices and their 
virtues. I am free, on this occasion, 
to say, and the Executive Committee 
will join me in it, that Mr. Eliassof 
has served the Society conscientiously 
and faithfully. He has sacrificed much 
personally, but when he accepted this 
position I knew that he did it more 
for the cause than for the remunera- 
tion that was attached to it. He is 
entitled to the gratitude of the com- 
munity whom he served so well." 


The Sisters of Aid was organized 
November 15th, 1891, with a member- 
ship of 15, and the following officers: 
Mrs. Hyman Rosenbaum, President; 
Mrs. Morris Ephraim, Vice-President; 
Mrs. Henry Rosenbaum, Secretary; 
Miss Anna Stiner, Treasurer. The So- 
ciety now numbers 80 members, with 
the following officers: Mrs. N. Mos- 
kovitz, President; Mrs. H. Stone, Vice- 
President; Anna Stiner, Secretary; 
Mrs. L. Levin, Treasurer. 

The Society was formed for the ob- 
ject of assisting the South Side He- 
brew Congregation and for general 
charity work. 


One of the youngest beneficiaries of 
the Young Men's Hebrew Charity As- 
sociation was the Chicago Home for 
Jewish Orphans. It was during the 
latter part of 1892 that a number of 
Jewish women who constantly visited 
the office of the United Hebrew Chari- 
ties saw the necessity of establishing 
an Orphans' Home in this city, and not 
to continue to rely any longer upon 
the overtaxed home in Cleveland to 
take care of its orphan children. The 
late Mr. Kiss, superintendent of the 
Hebrew Charities, encouraged and 
urged these women to accomplish the 
work, and upon the advice of Mr. A. 
Slimmer of Waverly, Iowa, who has 
proven a true friend of the cause, they 
organized and applied for a charter in 
the spring of 1893. The charter mem- 
bers were: Mesdames: Radzinski, 
Newberger, Hamburger, and Yondorf. 
An enthusiastic meeting was held 
April 7th of that year, and the first do- 
nation of $100 was received from -Mr. 
Peabody of New York. The member- 
ship of the Orphans' Home Society 



steadily increased, and at the end of 
the year 400 names were enrolled. It 
was then decided to rent a house, fur- 
nish it and take care of as many chil- 
dren as their means would permit. 
This was done, and the home was op- 
ened in the house No. 3601 Vernon ave- 
nue, October 7th, 1894. The Society 
made this .beginning free from debt, 

following: Directors' Room, Baron 
Hirsch Ladies' Aid Society; Study 
Room, Free Sons of Israel; Sewing 
Room, Orphans' Helpers; Parlors, the 
Deborah Verein; Assembly Room, 
North Side Ladies' Sewing Society; 
Gymnasium, Mr. Lowenberg; Manual 
Training Room, I. Baumgartl; Indus- 
trial Kitchen, Mrs. M. Hecht; Library, 


and with a cash balance in the treas- 
ury. Rev. A. Lowenheim and his good 
wife were engaged as superintendents. 
Soon 30 children were in their charge, 
and healthier and happier little ones 
were seldom seen. 

Two years later a piece of property 
was donated to the Home by Mr. 
Henry Siegel and others. Through the 
activity of its officers and Board of 
Directors the membership had stead- 
ily increased, and it then reached 700. 
Mrs. L. Newberger again sought the 
advice of our friend, Mr. A. Slimmer, 
who offered to donate $25,000, provid- 
ed a like sum be collected in Chicago. 
The energetic and indefatigable Presi- 
dent of the Association, Mrs. C. L. 
Strauss, and a very able committee, 
soon collected the stipulated amount, 
and the Home was built on the Drexel 
avenue site, and dedicated on Sunday 
afternoon, April 23d, 1899. 

Simeon B. Eisendrath was the suc- 
cessful architect. The present home 
consists of three dormitories, and 
cloths linen and mending rooms, etc. 
The attic contains a large Assembly 
Hall, with a seating capacity of 500; 
also necessary cloak, toilet and other 
accessory rooms. 

The Hospital Annex is equipped 
with the necessary nurses' rooms, phy- 
sician office and dispensary, diet kitchen 
and other essential accessories, includ- 
ing a separate small laundry for hos- 
pital use only. 

The rooms and the persons and so- 
cieties that have endowed them are the 

Mrs. C. L. Strauss; Office, Mrs. A. I. 
Radzinski; Reception Room, Mrs. F. 
W. Strauss; Physicians' Main Office, 
Mrs. H. Steele; Superintendent's Room, 
Mrs. E. C. Hamburgher and Wendell 
family; Dining Room, Mrs. Chas. 
Schwaib; Chapel, Sydney Mandel and 
Mrs. Solomon Klein; Care-takers' 


Rooms, Mrs. Leo Strauss; Care-takers' 
Room, Mrs. Max L. Falk; Care-takers' 
Room, Mrs. Ignatz Stein; Care-takers' 
Room, Mrs. J. Hess; Physicians' Room, 
North Side Auxiliary; Diet Kitchen, 
Congregation Rodfay Emunah Diet 
Kitchen, Mrs. Leopold Loewensteln; 
Dispensary, Mrs. Tobias Newman; 
Nurses' Room, Mrs. Rose Steele; 

Nurses' Room, Mrs. E. Rheinstrom; 
Two Sick Wards, Mrs. Frank Vogel; 
Girls' Sick Ward, Miss Florence Lu- 
cile Siegel; Boys' Sick Ward, Mrs. 
Isaac Wedeles. 



Mrs. Strauss was born in Germany, 
May 11, 1847, and her maiden name 
was Meyer. She was two years old 
when her parents brought her to 
America, in 1849. She was reared and 
educated in Philadelphia. She retains 
the membership of her departed hus- 
band in Sinai Congregation and is also 
a member of the Deborah Verein. She 
has always found pleasure and satis- 
faction in charitable work, but since 
the death of her husband she has par- 
ticularly espoused the cause of the 
Jewish Orphans' Home, which she 
helped to organize and to carry to suc- 
cess. For four years she was its Pres- 
ident, and when she surrendered the 
reins of office to masculine hands she 
had the great gratification of seeing the 
Orphans' Home established on a 
sound and firm basis. She is still In- 
terested in its welfare, and her moth- 
erly influence is a blessing to the in- 

Mrs. Strauss has six children Mil- 
ton, Albert, Leis, Dennie, Morris and 
Mrs. Edward Hillman. 


The Jewish citizens of Chicago 
showed their liberality by substantial 
subscriptions to the stock of the 
World's Fair Company. The Jews 
were represented on the Directory by 
Mr. Adolph Nathan and A. M. Roths- 
child. A very Interesting feature of 
the many congresses, conferences, and 
gatherings, which took place during 
the time of the Exposition, was the 
Jewish Denominational Congress, 
which took place in the Memorial Art 
Palace, from August 27th to 30th, 1893. 
The joint committee of the World's 
Congress Auxiliary of the Jewish De- 
nominational Congress consisted of the 
following: B. Bettman, Cincinnati, 
President; Hon. Jacob H. Schift, New 
York, Vice-President; Adolph Moses, 
Chicago, Vice-President; Julius Frei- 
burg, Cincinnati, Vice-President; Isi- 
dore Busch, St. Louis, Vice-President; 
Hon. Solomon Hirsch, Portland, Ore., 
Vice-President; and Rabbi Joseph 
Stolz, Chicago, Vice-President; Judge 
Simon Rosendale, Albany, N. Y.; Hon. 
Oscar W. Strauss, New York; Hon. 
Simon Wolf, Washington, D. C.; Josl- 
ah Cohen, Pittsburg, Pa.; Mayer Sulz- 
berger, Philadelphia; Gen. Lewis Sea- 
songood, Cincinnati; Rabbi Isaac M. 
Wise, Cincinnati; Rabbi Joseph Sil- 
verman, New York; Rabbi Tobias 
Shanfarber, Baltimore; Rabbi Emil 
G, Hirsch, Chicago; Rabbi Isaac S. 
Moses, Chicago. 

The next grand feature was the 
World's Parliament of Religions, In 
which a good many of the Jewish Rab- 



bis of the country participated, and 
'Chicago was well represented. 


The Maxwell Street Settlement was 
opened November 18th, 1893. Jesse 
Loewenhaupt and 'Jacob J. Abt, two 
noble Jewish young men, were the 
first residents. They settled In the 
house, 185 Maxwell street, and 
were joined in February, 1894, by 
Moritz Rosenthal, of the law firm of 
Moses, Rosenthal and Kennedy. 

These were highly educated young 
men, fresh from college, and filled 
"with p. noble ambition to serve their 
fellowmen and to use their utmost 
endeavors to lift up the lowly and help 
wherever their aid was needed. 

The Settlement was neatly fitted up 
and it was made the social rendezvous 
for young people of the neighborhood. 
Evening classes were introduced for 
working boys and girls. Mr. Abt lived 
there until February, 1898, but Mr. 
Loenwenhaupt left December, 1896. 
Mr. Rosenthal stayed until April, 1897. 
Then Mr. Aaron E. Rosenthal, from 
Cincinnati, lived there for awhile with 
Joseph Weisenfoach. 

About 15 non-resident workers as- 
sisted the residents, led classes, and 
helped generally. A circulating li- 
brary was introduced, containing 
mostly books for children. Isaac Sol- 
omon Rothschild officiated as librari- 

From a paper written by Mrs. Abt 
we quote the following, which will give 
the reader a good insight in the nature 
of the work and the beneficial results 
of the same. Mrs. Abt says: "My ex- 
perience has 'been limited to the Max- 
well Street Settlement, which, as you 
Tcnow, lies well within the Ghetto. It 
is an indisputed fact that the Russian 
Jew has a highly developed intellectual 
sense, so you must understand that a 
great many young people who fre- 
quent the house are as well educated 
as we are, and almost all of them have 
a tremendous capacity for assimilat- 
ing knowledge. A number of our boys 
are University students. One has re- 
cently passed the civil service exami- 
nation and is now employed in the 
Postoffice. One young neighbor of ours 
teaches the sixth grade in Grammar 
School, teaches night school, and at- 
tends afternon classes at a Univer- 
sity as well. One young man who 
came to the house as a sign painter 
was urged and encouraged to develop 
a marked talent for art, and now holds 
a good position as illustrator on one 
of the New York newspapers. 

I think you will be interested In the 
history of a young man who has been 
closely associated with the Settlement 
for the past six years. One evening, 
in the second year of its existence, a 
boy twenty or twenty-one years old, 
came to the Settlement and asked in 
broken English whether he could learn 
medicine there. When told no, he 
-started to leave immediately, but was 

stopped by one of the residents and 
asked what foundation he had on 
which he could ibuild a study in medi- 
cine. A few questions showed that he 
had received nothing in the way of an 
education but the usual Russian boy's 
knowledge of the Talmud. He was 
at this time making a living by ped- 
dling rags and old iron, an occupa- 
tion thoroughly uncongenial to him. 
He was all alive with the desire and 
determination to learn and had chosen 
medicine as his profession. He was 
easily convinced that some prepara- 
tion was necessary, and consented to 
come to the house. A faithful, earnest 
worker and a regular evening atten- 
dant, he was, the first year, put 
through elementary mathematics, al- 
gebra and geometry, and given a fail- 
start in English grammar. At the end 
of this time he took his examinations 
for Lewis Institute and was admitted. 
His work was so satisfactory the first 
year that his tuition was remitted the 
second. At the end 1 of this time he 
grew restless and in spite of advice to 
the contrary he determined to try for 
admission to Rush Medical College, 
and to the surprise of his friends passed 
very creditably. His reports during 
the year were remarkable. In anato- 
my, which students consider the hard- 
est and dryest subject, his average was 
99. The second year and at the begin- 
ning of this, his third year, he was 
permitted to work off $100 of his tui- 
tion. During all this time of study 
he supported himself by keeping books 
for a small ragdealer on Canal street, 
earning from $3 to }4 a week. Out of 
this he paid board to a poor brother, 
with whose numerous family he lived, 
clothed himself and bought his books. 
You can imagine how poorly clothed 
he was, yet he refused to accept any- 
thing that was not absolutely neces- 
sary to the continuance of his stud- 
ies. Until three months ago we were 
under the impression that he was do- 
ing some clerical work to pay his way 
through college, and it was only 
through some outside way that we 
learned that all this time he had been 
scrubbing four hours a day. It was 
impossible to let him continue for fear 
of his health breaking down. Recently 
a South Side physician has become In- 
terested in him and has given him 
enough employment in his office to per- 
mit him to give up the scrubbing. He 
still does his bookkeeping, travels ev- 
ery day to the West Side to college 
and works or studies most of the night. 
Who can doubt that such effort will 
meet with success? 



Mr. Abt is a son of Lev! and Henri- 
etta Hart Abt and was born in Wil- 
mington, 111., Dec. 18, 1867. He re- 
ceived his early education in the pub- 
lic schools of Chicago, completing his 
course of study at Yale University. 

Mr. Abt has taken considerable inter- 
est in charitable work and was one of 
the instigators of the Maxwell Street 
Settlement. He lived at the settlement 
up to the time of his marriage, and his 


educational work among these poor 
people was of great value and assist- 
ance to them. He is a member Df 
Sinai Cong, and the Standard Club. 
Mr. Abt married Mildred Shire of this 
city and they have one child, Marlon 
Maxwell Abt. 


This grand organization was estab- 
lished September, 1893. It has now 
49 sections in 18 states of the Union, 
and one section In the Dominion of 
Canada. The membership has reached 
the number of 5,000. 

The aim and abject of the Society 
can be learned from the following 
Preamble to the Constitution: 


"We, Jewish women, sincerely be- 
lieving that a closer fellowship, a 
greater unity of thought and purpose, 
and a nobler accomplishment will re- 
sult from a widespread organization, 
do therefore -bind ourselves together in 
a union of workers to further the best 
and highest interests of humanity In 
fields religious, philanthropic, and edu- 

Three of our Chicago Jewish women 
are main leaders in this great organi- 
zation. Mrs. Henry G. Solomon has 
been President for a number of years, 
and Miss Sadie American Is Recording 
Secretary, and Mrs. Leo Loeb, Audi- 

The Chicago section of the Council 
of Jewish Women, of which Miss Julia 
Felsenthal is President, has a large 
membership, consisting of the best 
daughters of Israel in the community. 
Their meetings are well attended and 
their programs highly entertaining 
and instructive. They meet in the 
vestry rooms of Sinai Temple and Dr. 
Hirsch has frequently lectured before 
them on Hebrew Biblical topics, and 
other speakers have delivered address- 
es on economical and kindred ques- 



tions. The Society Is becoming more 
influential and more prominent as the 
years roll by. They may yet prove a 
blessing to Judaism in America. 



Mrs. Solomon is a native Chicagoan. 
Her parents were Michael and Sarah 
(Spiegel) Greenebaum, two of the early 
Jewish residents of this city. Mrs. 


Pres. of the Council of Jewish Women. 

Solomon Is one of the best known 
women in Chicago and perhaps in the 
United States. She has been identified 
prominently with numerous literary 
and women's organizations in which 
she has always been considered a lead- 
er. She is a woman of considerable in- 
tellect, has an excellent flow of lan- 
guage and her words are always lis- 
tened to with interest. She was one of 
the founders of the Zion Literary So- 
ciety and has been a member and offi- 
cer of the Chicago Women's Club. She 
served as vice-president of the Illinois 
State Federation of Women's Clubs, 
and is now treasurer of the Women's 
Council of the United States. Mrs. 
Solomon is also one of the found- 
ers of the Council of Jewish Women of 
which she was the first president, con- 
tinuing in office up to the present day. 
She has exerted great influence in this 
organization and her efforts have ad- 
ded materially to the success of the 
council. She is vice-president of the 
Jewish Publication Society and a mem- 
ber of the executive board of the Civic 
Federation. She has also taken an ac- 
tive part in charitable societies and is 
today the only woman member on the 
board of the Associated Charities and 
of the Seventh Ward Bureau of Chari- 
ties. No woman is more deserving of 
public appreciation than Mrs. Solo- 
mon, and perhaps none is held in 
higher esteem by all who know her. 


was established by members of the 
Council of Jewish Women for the pur- 

pose of creating a center for the wom- 
en of the different organizations for 
charitable purposes. The money was 
first raised at a festival which netted 
about $1,200. The Council contributed 
$1,000 at one time and $427 at another 
beside sufficient for the work room 
for one season. The rest of the money 
was contributed directly, as well as 
were clothing, coal and groceries, or 
other necessities. It was not intended 
that this Bureau should be a Relief 
Office, as will be readily seen by the 
financial statement that no more than 
$2,000 was expended per year, out of 
which salaries were paid to two em- 
ployes, rent, fuel and other incidental 
office expenditures. The district, ac- 
cording to a census taken by the of- 
fice, contains about 19,000 Jews, and 
as the majority of these were very 
poor, much could be done without 
money. The Bureau finds its work in 
the following lines: Legal aid This 
included support cases, suits to recov- 
er damages against different compa- 
nies, lodges, children and women who 
had been deserted, criminal cases, jus- 
tice and police court cases, juvenile 
court cases. But little money was ex- 
pended for these directly, as our law 
work was always done for us free of 
charge, we paying costs, 'but in many 
instances emergency relief while cases 
were pending was necessary. The Ju- 
venile court work has during the last 
year grown so large that it requires 
the attention of three employes and a 
number of volunteers. From January, 
1901, to May, 1901, more than 125 boys 
were placed under our guardianship. 
These are dependents or delinquents. 
Law investigations All cases for the 
Women's Loan are investigated by our 
Bureau. Their capital is $1,300 and 
the business large. 

Investigations for the School Chil- 
dren's Aid. 

After Christmas this organization 
will supply the needy children with 
clothing. We have five schools in our 
District for which we investigate. In 
addition the teachers are constantly 
seeking our assistance for the unruly 
boys and habitual truants. 

Investigations for the distribution 
in our district of coal given away by 
Mr. Lytton. 

Investigations for the Social Settle- 
ments, with which we co-operate Hull 
House and Henry Booth House. 

Summer outings Last year 125 out- 
ings were secured for our district at 
the Evanston camp. 

Securing relief through the proper 

We co-operated with the Association 
for Improved Housing, the Small 
Parks Commission and other organi- 
zations attempting improvement in the 

Personal Service A large part of our 
work consists in friendly visiting. 

Legislation We have endeavored to 
secure better laws and in enforcing 
those that exist to decrease need for 

The Work Room connected with the- 
Bureau was an outlet lor many wha 
needed assistance. It was not a work- 
shop which gave a means of earning 
a living, but a charity, and was con- 
ducted as such. It was economical, 
because it utilized the waste of ona 
part of the community to supply the 
wants of another, bought the best at 
lowest prices, and did not give more 
work to anyone than would supply 
absolute necessities. This obliged the 
beneficiaries to seek work at other 
sources part of each week. 


The Phoenix Club was incorporated 
by the sons of South Side Jews. The 
clubhouse was located first at Calu- 
met avenue and Thirty-first street. The 
membership gradually increased and 
larger quarters were sought. The mem- 
' bers then rented a 'building on Michi- 
gan avenue, near Fortieth street, aft- 
erwards amalgamating with the Boule- 
vard Club under the name of the 
Phoenix-Boulevard Club. Some of the 
nicest affairs for young people in this 
city were given by the Phoenix Club, 
and for a long time it was considered 
the leading social club for young peo- 
ple. After its amalgamation with the 
Boulevard Club a number of married 
men were admitted, and talk of a down- 
town club was prevalent, and subse- 
quently the quarters of the Iroquois 
Club in the old Columbia Theater was 
rented for a clubhouse. The new 
venture was not as popular as was 
expected, and the Phoenix could not 
survive the heavy cost of maintaining 
down-town headquarters, and it was 
finally wound up after considerable 
difficulty, and nothing remains of the 
club but the memory of its early days, 
which often recurs to the younger gen- 
eration as the scene of many an en- 
joyable evening. 


The West Chicago Club was the first 
Jewish Club formed on the West Side 
and for years the clubhouse on Throop 
street was the scene of many an en- 
joyable social and literary function. 
Among the early members of the club 
were such well-known people as Judge 
Stein, Adolph Kraus, M. M. Hirsch, 
and many others. When the exodus to 
the South Side began, most of the 
founders and energetic workers of the 
club removed to that section of the city 
and the membership grew smaller as 
time passed. Many of the early resi- 
dents of the West Side will long re- 
member the West Chicago Club House, 
the many enjoyable evenings spent 
therein, the entertainments, amateur 
and professional, for the pleasure of its 
members, its convenience as a meet- 
ing place, and the cozy parlors and 
ballroom in which many of the West 
Siders were married. 


While this club is no longer in ex- 
istence it at one time had a large mem- 



bership, comprised largely of the Jews 
living on the Southwest Side. Enter- 
tainments and hops were given at fre- 

mum amount was $10 and the mini- 
mum amount of loans was $3, but 
during the last year they have raised 


quent intervals, but like most of the 
West Side social institutions it also 
suffered from removals, and eventual- 
ly was obliged to wind up. 


The Woman's Aid Loan Association 
was organized in December, 1897, for 
the purpose of loaning money to needy 
deserving persons, thus assisting them 
to become self-supporting, and at the 
same time repay the loan in small 
weekly installments without interest. 
The association works in the district 
covered by the Seventh Ward Bureau 
of Associated Charities, who investi- 
gate all applications for loans, as well 
as the guarantors. With but few ex- 
ceptions the organizers of the loan so- 
ciety were residents of the West Side 
and had been connected with the Wom- 
an's Aid, a charity society which ex- 
isted for two years, as there were a 
great many charity organizations 
working independently of each other 
in the same district, they left the field 
and confined themselves to loaning 
money, with the result that in 1898 
they loaned $748 without any loss, and 
in 1899 $1,020, with a loss of $7, and 
in 1900 $2,915, with a loss of $18. The 
money used was raised by several suc- 
cessful entertainments given by the as- 
sociation, and on October last they 
received $500 from the Associated Jew- 
ish Charities. 

During the first two years the maxi- 

the amount, and in exceptional cases 
they loan as much as $25. 

The officers in 1898 were: President, 
Miss Jennie H. Norden; vice-president, 
Miss Fannie Dattelbaum; correspond- 
ing secretary, Miss S. L. Berman; 
financial secretary, Mrs. D. J. Seilin; 

October last the association changed 
its name from the Woman's Aid Loan 
Association to the "Woman's Loan 
Association." The loan committee 
meet severy Monday evening from 7:30 
to 10 o'clock in the Porges Building, 
195 Maxwell street, where applications, 
loans and payments are made. Miss 
M. P. Low, who is one of the found- 
ers of the association and superintend- 
ent of the Seventh Ward District of 
Associated Charities, investigates both 
the borrower and guarantor, as loans 
are made on notes only, and must be 
signed by two people. Loans are pay- 
able in twenty weekly installments. 
The officers serving at present are: 
President, Mrs. B. Pirosh; vice-presi- 
dent, Miss Lena Barren; correspond- 
ing secretary, Miss Minnie Lippert; 
financial secretary, Mrs. D. J. Seilin; 
treasurer, Mrs. Joseph Werb; chair- 
man of loan committee, Mrs. I. J. Rob- 
in; secretary of loan committee, Miss 
Jennie H. Norden. 

It is pleasant to note the change that 
has taken place in the attitude toward 
the needy. When the Woman's Aid 
Loan Association was organized friends 
of the members insisted that the associ- 
ation would be bankrupt within a year, 
thinking they would not be able to col- 
lect the amount loaned. The figures 
quoted above show, that, given a 
chance, our Jewish poor will be able to 
get along and in time be self-support- 
ing, and that they appreciate aid given 
them in a way in which they are not 
robbed of their self-respect. 


Isaiah Congregation, the offshoot of 
Zion Congregation, was organized Oc- 
tober 24, 1895, and the following offlc'ers 
were elected: Joseph Stolz, rabbi; Hen- 
ry Greenebaum, president; E. Rubovits, 
vice-president; Simon L. Rubel, secre- 


treasurer, Mrs. A. I. Movitt. These, 
with Mrs. I. J. Robin as chairman, con- 
stituted the first loan committee. 

tary; Fred Oberndorf, financial secre- 
tary; M. Haber, treasurer; S. Daniels, 
Jacob Hart, L. Buxbaum, Mark Simon, 



Jacob Dreyfus, A. Well, L. Wessel, Jr., 
S. M. Becker, directors. 

The first services were held Jan. 4, 
1896, at the Oakland Club Hall, corner 
Ellis avenue and Thirty-ninth street, 
addresses being delivered by Rabbis 
Stolz and Hirsch and by Rev. Jenkin 
Lloyd Jones. For three years services 
were held in this hall on Saturdays and 
Sundays, and during a few months the 
congregation worshiped in the Oakland 
Methodist Church, corner Oakwood 
boulevard and Langley avenue. In 
May, 1898, the lot on the corner of 
Vincennes avenue and Forty-fifth 
street was purchased for |12,500 cash. 
Sept. 11, 1898, Dr. Isaac M. Wise laid 
the corner-stone of the temple designed 
by the architect, Dankmar Adler; Jan. 
14, 1899, the schoolhouse was dedicated, 
and March 17, 1899, Dr. Wise of Cin- 
cinnati dedicated the handsome temple, 
which cost about $50,000. Rabbis 
Stolz, Felsenthal, Hirsch, Arnold, Mes- 
sing, Norden, Hirshberg, Moses, Rap- 
paport, Jacobson of Chicago, Berkowitz 
of Philadelphia, Heller of New Orleans 
and Revs. J. L. Jones, A. R. White, W. 
W. Fenn, S. J. McPherson and A. Mc- 
Intyre of Chicago participated in the 
dedicatory services, which spread over 
three days. 

The congregation now numbers 205 
members; the Sabbath school has 320 
children enrolled; the annual budget 
is $10,000. The present officers are: 
Dr. Joseph Stolz, rabbi; Adolf Kraus, 
president; E. Rubovits, vice-president; 
Rudolf Wolfner, secretary; Jacob 
Frank, financial secretary; S. M. 
Becker, treasurer; L. Buxbaum, J. 
Franks, D. May, A. Weil, M. Haber, S. 
G. Harris, Joseph M. Wile, J. Dreyfus, 

The rapid growth and prosperity of 
the congregation are largely due to the 
active and zealous co-operation of the 
Isaiah Woman's Club, whose officers 
are: Mrs. Garson Meyers, president; 
Mrs. Bertha Powell, vice-president; 
Mrs. S. G. Harris, treasurer; Mrs. Jo- 
seph Stolz, secretary. 


Dr. Joseph Stolz, Rabbi of Isaiah 
Congregation, was born at Syracuse, N. 
Y., November 3, 1861. After campleting 
his studies at the Syracuse High School 
and receiving private Hebrew instruc- 
tions from Rabbi Birkenthal, he en- 
tered the Hebrew Union College in 
1878. He received his degree from the 
University of Cincinnati in the class of 
'83, and in 1884 the title "Rabbi" was 
bestowed upon him by his Alma Mater, 
and in 1898 he was honored with the 
degree of "Doctor of Divinity." Three 
years he served the B'nai Israel Con- 
gregation of Little Rock, Ark., as Rab- 
bi, and in 1887 he was called to Chicago 
to succeed Dr. B. Felsenthal in Zion 
Congregation. Since January, 1896, he 
has been in charge of Isaiah Congrega- 
tion which was organized for him by 
his former West side members. 

Dr. Stolz Is vice president of the 
Jewish Publication Society, and Di- 
rector of the Jewish Chautauqua So- 

ciety, the Central Conference of Amer- 
ican Rabbis, the Sabbath School Union, 
the Liberal Congress of Religions, and 
the Home For Aged Jews. For ten 



years he was secretary of the Jewish 
Training School. In 1898 Mayor Har- 
rison appointed him a member of the 
Educational Commission, and in 1899 a 
member of the Board of Education to 
serve three years. 

Mr. Kraus was born in Blowitz, Bo- 
hemia, and at the age of 15 came to 
the United States. He began 
life in the new world as a 
farm hand and in Connecticut he 
worked as a factory hand, finally go- 
ing into a dry goods house as a clerk. 
In 1871 he came to Chicago, just when 
the great fire left it in chaos. Here he 
again worked as a clerk and saved his 
money. Studying at odd hours in his 
time as a salesman and then working 
in a law office he succeeded in passing 
the supreme court examination in 1877 
and was admitted to the bar. He was 
then the only Bohemian lawyer in 

Pres. Isaiah Cong. 

Chicago. His first partner was William 
S. Brackett, now of Peoria. After Mr. 
Brackett left the firm Mr. Kraus first 
took in Lev! Mayer, then Philip Stein 

and then Thomas A. Moran and the 
law firm of Kraus, Mayer, Moran and 
Stein became one of the most promi- 
nent in the West. In January, 1900, Mr. 
Kraus withdrew from the firm and as- 
sociated himself with C. R. Holden. 
Last February he admitted into the 
firm Sam Alschuler of Aurora, the last 
Democratic candidate for governor of 

In 1881 Mr. Kraus was appointed to 
the school board, where he served until 
1887, being president of that body for 
two years. His services to the schools 
of Chicago were of great value, his 
judgment gaining in one instance an 
annual income of $42,000 for fifty years 
to the school fund. In 1893 Mr. Kraus 
was campaign manager for Mayor Car- 
ter H. Harrison, and when Mr. Harri- 
son was elected he appointed Mr. 
Kraus as corporation counsel. 

When the elder Carter H. Harrison 
decided to buy the Chicago Times in 
1891, Mr. Kraus 'became financially in- 
terested. When Mr. Harrison was as- 
sassinated Mr. Kraus took editorial 
charge of the paper. 

In 1897 Mr. Kraus was appointed 
president of the Civil Service Commis- 
sion, but finding that the unsettled 
condition of the law prevented him 
from accomplishing all that which he 
set out to do, he resigned. 

Mr. Kraus is President of Isaiah Con- 
gregation, a member of a number of 
the most prominent clubs of Chicago, 
political as well as social, and a con- 
tributing member of nearly all the 
charity organizations. He was married 
in '1877. His wife was Miss Matilda 
Hirsch of Chicago, and they have four 
children, Paula, Albert, Harry and Mil- 


Congregation Temple Israel was or- 
ganized Sunday after Yom Kippur, 

1896, at Oakland Music Hall, same be- 
ing the outcome of divine services con- 
ducted by Rev. I. S. Moses on the pre- 
vious Rost Hashonah and Yom Kippur. 
At said meeting the following officers 
were elected: President, H. Kahn; 
vice-president, H. Hart; secretary, 
George Werthan; treasurer, A. L. 
Weil, and a board of fifteen directors, 
including the officers. 

At the same meeting by-laws and a 
constitution were adopted and applica- 
tion made for a charter, which was 
granted September, 1896. 

The dues for membership were made 
at $1 a month, and Rev. I. S. Moses 
was elected minister, and from that 
day divine services were held every 
Friday evening and Saturday morning 
and the holidays at the Oakland Music 
Hall. First directors' meeting took 
place Oct. 21, 1896. August 1, 1897, the 
Baptist Memorial Church was rented 
for a place of worship and same was 
continued there until the dedication of 
the temple. March, 1897, five acres of 
ground were purchased for cemetery at 
Dunning. General meeting, April 18, 

1897, elected H. Salomon, president; H. 
Hart, vice-president; A. L. Well, treas- 



urer; Sam Gerstly, secretary; B. Zach- 
arias, finansial secretary. Three-year 
officers were elected April 10, 1898: 
Sam Schweitzer, president; H. Hart, 
vice-president; S. S. Jones, secretary; 
I. M. Solomon, financial secretary; S. 
Wise, treasurer. 

May 10, 1898, the congregation de- 
cided to purchase a lot for a temple 
and a proposition from the Bank of 
Commerce for the property at Forty- 
fourth street and St. Lawrence avenue 
was presented and finally accepted, the 
price being $12,500. June 22, 1S98, a 

choir and organ. Services are held 
every Friday evening at 8 and Satur- 
day morning at 10. Sabbath school 
every Sunday morning at 10, about 120 
children attending. 


Was born at Erie, Pa., Aug. 18, 1875; 
graduated from Erie high school in 
1893; came to University of Chicago in 
1894; during college life he was the re- 
cipient of many honors; was president 
of the Junior College Council; presl- 


building committee was appointed, 
with Max L. Wolff as chairman, and 
the contract was let. Corner-stone W3S 
laid Sunday, July 3, 1898, and dedicated 
Friday before Rosh Hashannah, same 

The first congregation meeting in the 
temple was held Oct. 2, 1898, S. 
Schweitzer presiding, and the dues 
were raised from $1 to f2 a month. 

The annual meeting on April 2, 

1899, elected the following officers: S. 
Wise, president; A. L. Weil, vice-presi- 
dent; I. M. Solomon, financial secre- 
tary; H. Wagner, recording secretary; 
Max L. Wolff, treasurer. April 15, 

1900, new officers were elected as fol- 
lows: L. Lewinsohn, president; H. B. 
Stern, vice-president; M. Cohn. treas- 
urer; I. M. Solomon, financial secre- 
tary; H. Wagner, secretary. 

Dec. -16, 1900, Rev. I. M. Moses re- 
signed. Dec. 27, 1900, President Lew- 
insohn resigned. 

At a special congregation meeting, 
Feb. 10, Sam Schweitzer was elected 
president and Mr. E. M. Baker was 
elected minister. 

The congregation has 82 members; 
owes $10,000 on the temple, valued at 
$25,000; owes $1.500 on cemetery, worth 
$7,000. It has no other debts. Serv- 
ices are conducted according to the re- 
form ritual, the Union prayer-book 
being used. The congregation has a 

dent of the University Debating Club; 
twice in open competition won uni- 
versity prize in debating; represented 
university in two inter-collegiate de- 
bates; was chairman of executive com- 
mittee of senior class; was class orator 
and graduated in 1898 with honorable 
mention. Spent 1898 and 1899 in busi- 


ness at Erie, during that time being 
also teacher of Sunday school and sec- 
retary of the congregation. Returned 
to Chicago in September, 1899, to pur- 
sue Semitic studies at the university 

and special work under Prof. Hlrsch. 
In April, 1900, was chosen to succeed 
Prof. Cohn on the Sinai Congregation 
teaching staff; assisted Dr. Hirsch at 
Sinai temple at holiday services; on 
Feb. 15, 1901, he was installed as Dr. 
Moses' successor at Temple Israel, Chi- 
cago. He is still pursuing post-gradu- 
ate work at the university. 


The Jews from the Slavic countries 
of Europe, who emigrated to America 
in great numbers since 1881, have set- 
tled in many towns in the state of Il- 
linois. Wherever they settle they soon 
establish their religious institutions, 
and in many a town even where they 
are in the minority in regard to their 
co-religionists who came from other 
countries, they are the first to have 
their little shul, their hazan and their 
shokhet. 'In Chicago they now form 
the majority of the Jewish population 
and they have a large number of in- 
stitutions and organizations which in 
regard to membership, financial stand- 
ing and usefulness will favorably com- 
pare with many of the institutions of 
the Jews of other nationalities. The 
best thing to prove our assertion Is, in 
our. estimation, to simply give a sum- 
mary of their institutions and organi- 
zations, and tell what we know about 
them. Facts are convincing and deeds 
speak louder than words. 

Congregation Beth Hamidrash Hag- 
odol Ubnai Jacob. This congregation 
was started and a charter obtained in 
March, 1867, with the following offi- 
cers: President, Marks Simon; vice- 
president, B. Stern ; secretary and treas- 
urer, I. Weinberg; trustees, N. B. Et- 
telsohn, B. Oinsburg, S. Feldstein; 
rabbi, Todras Ticktin. 

The congregation is an amalgama- 
tion of the Chebra B'nai Jacob and 
Chebra Beth Hamedrash Hagodol. 

Cong. Ohavai Sholom Mariampol. 
This cong. was established in 1870. The 
synagogue is. located corner Canal and 
Liberty streets, and their property is 
estimated to .be worth $30,000. They 
also own a large burial ground. In 
the synagogue is to be found an ex- 
tensive library of Hebrew books. A 
loan association is connected with the 
congregation, which is doing much 
good. The first president was Mr. 
Louis Levin, and the present is Mr. 
J. M. Berkson. They have also an en- 
dowment clause in their constitution, 
according to which the widow of a 
member is entitled to the sum of $300 
from the treasury of the congregation. 

Congregation Mlshna Ugmoro. A 
charter was granted to this congrega-- 
tlon in 1899. B. Sager was the first 
president. The congregation is com- 
posed of members who are learned in 




the Mlshna and the Gemarah, which 
they study every evening under the 
leadership of their learned rabbi, H. S. 
Album. It is the most strictly Jew- 
ish orthodox congregation in Chicago. 
. A loan association is also connected 
with this congregation, which loans 
money to worthy Jews on their note 
without interest. They have a capital 
of $3.000. 


Congregation Anshe Kenesseth Israel 
The place of worship of this con- 
gregation is in the synagogue corner 
Clinton and Judd streets. It was es- 
tablished in 1875. In 1896 it united with 
Congregation Suvalk. The latter turn- 
ed over to the first a burial ground in 

Ohavay Emunah. 

Tifereth Israel, Anshe Luknik. 

Anshe Kalwaria. 

Ahavath Achim. 

Bnai Yitzchok. 


Shomre Hadas. 

Bnai Israel Anshe Zitomir. 

Bais Joseph. 

Anshe Tels. 

Poalay Zedek. 

Agudas Achim Anshe Ungarn. 

B'nai Abraham Kehillas Sefardlm. 

Anshe Wilna. 

Bais Hakenesses Hagodol. 

Ezras Israel. 

B'nai David. 

Nussach Sforad. 

B'nai Moshe. 


Waldheim and several Sphorim. Con- 
gregation Kenesseth Israel has now 
over 200 good standing members. Four 
auxiliary societies are connected with 
the congregation. Their synagogue li- 
brary contains 16 complete sets of the 
Talmud and a great number of other 
valuable Hebrew books. The first pres- 
ident was Marks Swartz and the pres- 
ent is H. Kaplan. 

These are the main congregations and 
following is a list of the rest of the 
congregations and some of their char- 
ity institutions in the different divi- 
sions of the city. 


Anshe Kenesses Israel. 
Ohavoy Sholom Mariampol. 
Ohel Jacob Kowno. 
Anshe Drahitzin. 

Englewood Congregation. 

Ohev Zedek. 

B'nai Israel. 

Anshe Ernes. 

Ahavas Zion Anshe Tiktin. 

Tiferes Zion. 

Dorshey Tov. 

B'nai Abraham. 

Breighton Park Congregation. 

B'nai Jechezkel. 

Bais Israel. 

Bais Jacob. 

Rodfay Zedek. 

Anshe Shavel. 


Gomlay Chessed Shel Ernes. 
Moses Montefiore Hebrew 

Lechem Lorealvlm. 
Rabbi Yitchok Elchanan. 
Gemllas Chassodim. 



The Beth Moshab Zkentm of Chi- 
cago was organized Sept. 7th, 1899, 
after a call issued by twelve public- 
spirited Jewish citizens of the West 
Side, who had previously met in the 
office of H. S. Wolf of the "Jewish 

The first officers were: President, 
Harris Conn; vice president, Jacob 
Berkson; treasurer, Joseph Phillip- 
son; recording secretary, Wm. Cohn; 
financial secretary, S. E. Newberger. 

The object of the association is to 
establish and maintain a home for 
po'or and helpless aged Jews, which 
shall be conducted according to the 
requirements of traditional or ortho- 
dox Judaism. 

This is primarily a movement of 
Russian-Polish Jews to assist those 
who would rather suffer great hard- 
ships than transgress the laws that 
they have adhered to throughout their 
lives. They desire to publicly contra- 
dict the assertion that they are only 
recipient of charity; they have enlisted 
the co-operation of some noble men 
and women of other nationalities. The 
membership increased rapidly and 
branch organizations were formed for 
the purpose of spreading a knowledge 
of the movement more effectually. In 
January, 1900, a northwest side branch 
was formed, and in May a south side 
branch was started, which did much ta 
popularize the movement. 

Two ladies' Societies, the Queen Es- 
ther Old Age Benevolent and the 
Malbish Arumim also assisted the 
movement materially. 

June 5th, 1900, a site was purchased 
corner of Albany and Ogden avenues, 
opposite Douglas Park, for $5,125. This 
was fully paid for before the stipulated 
time and Sept. 30th, 1900, the ground 
was dedicated, amid great, enthusiasm, 
to its noble purpose. The income up 
to Jan. 1st, 1901, when the annual re- 
port was issued amounted to $9,368.51, 
and consisted of donations from city 
and country, from orthodox congrega- 
tions, lodges and societies, of dues 
from members and offerings at the ded- 
ication and elsewhere. After paying 
for the site and other expenditures 
there remained in the treasury a cash 
balance of $1,351.86. 

A bazaar for the purpose of raising 
funds for the erection of a building 
took place from Dec. 22d to 31st, 1900. 
Strenuous exertions had been made by 
the Board of Managers to present 
something unique and the result was 
the "Streets of Jerusalem," in which 
the booths were located. The net pro- 
ceeds were over $11,000 and this grat- 
ifying result was largely due to the- 
untiring energy of Louis Ziv, chair- 
man; H. Agat, assistant; Mrs. Benj. 
Davis and H. S. Wolf, press and pub- 
lication; Dr. Kate Levy, corresponding 
and financial secretary; Moses Kreeger, 
donations; Mrs. M. E. Gordon, raf- 
fles; Miss R. Kanter, refreshments; J. 
Negrescon, reception; Myer Lesser, 
printing; S. Rosenthal, treasurer, and: 
Alex. L. Levy, architect. 




The present year opened auspicious- 
ly for the B. M. Z. Association, with a 
new and excellent 'board of directors, 
with nearly $14,500 in the treasury and 
property valued at $5,500 and with a 
paying membership of about 1,500, 
which is continually increasing and 
will probably reach 3,000 as soon as 
building operations are begun. 

The officers for the current year: 
President, Harris Cohn; vice presi- 
dent, Rev. S. N. Deinard; treasurer, 
B. Baumgarden; secretary, H. Agat; 
corresponding secretary, Mrs. Benj. 
Davis; trustees, A. J. Frank, Moses 
Kreeger, Joseph Rothschild. 


This club is toe outgrowth of the 
former Concord* Club, which, at its 
annual meeting in January, 1897, voted 
to disband. In the month of January, 
1897, former members of the Concordia 
organized under the leadership of Joe 
Straus the present Unity Club, its first 
officers being: Joseph Straus, presi- 
dent; Dan Guthman, vice-president; H. 
J. Eliel, secretary, and G. L. Klein, 
treasurer. The present officers of the 
Unity Club are: B. B. Bonheim, presi- 
dent; D. Davis, vice-president; Louis 
E. Sostheim, secretary, and Max L. 
Wolff, treasurer. 



The last chapters of the history of 
the Jews of Illinois were written by 
the author under tremendous pressure 
and in a great hurry. The publishers 
were very anxious to meet their con- 
tract obligations to issue this special 

number of the Reform Advocate in 
time, and they rushed the work with 
might and main. A number of sub- 
jects which we intended to treat more 
elaborately had to be abbreviated.many 

facts could not be stated at all. We 
will therefore mention here briefly a 
few items which should not be left en- 
tirely unnoticed. 

In the rush two pictures were Inad- 
vertently omitted. One Is the por- 
trait of Rabbi Henry Gersonl and the 
other of Mr. Isaac Wolf. Rabbi Ger- 
soni left a number of friends In Chi- 
cago who will be glad to behold an 
imprint of his intelligent countenance 
in the pages of this journal. Mr. Isaac 
Wolf is an old settler in this neighbor- 
hood, and it was upon our urgent re- 
quest that he had his picture taken, 
specially for this work. These half- 
tone pictures appear here In order to 
complete the articles written about 
these men in the main part of the 

In regard to Jewish papers published 
in Chicago, we will state that the first 
Jewish paper published In Chicago in 
the English language, was the "Occi- 
dent." It was started In the begin- 
ning of the seventies by Hoffman & 
Silversmith. Mr. Hoffman soon re- 
tired and Mr. Silversmith became the 
sole owner. For a number of years he 
was the publisher, editor, advertising 
agent, collector, and a good many other 
things, which we cannot now re- 
member, all in one person. He was 
surely entitled to use the pluralis 
majestatis of the mighty ruler of the 
editorial sanctum. In later years he 
was compelled to engage editors to 
write decent articles for his paper. Dr. 
E. Schreiber was editor of the Occident 
for a number of years, and so was the 
writer. When he could no longer In- 




duce respectable writers to take charge 
of the editorial pages of his publica- 
tion, the "Occident" died a quiet and 
peaceful death. Nobody mourned and 
nobody wept over its death: silently 
it went to its grave, and no one ever 
missed it. 

About the same time the Occident 
was started, there appeared here an- 

"Jewish Advance" was a well-edited 
Jewish paper. Had Gersoni been left 
unmolested and unattacked, he would 
perhaps not have filled his pen with 
such bitterness, but be this as it may, 
the "Advance" could not exist and 
Gersoni had to quit. He tried it with 
the "Maccabean," a monthly magazine 
which he published for five or six 


other Jewish paper in the jargon, un- 
der the name and title of "Israelit- 
ische Presse." It was published on 
South Clark street by a Mr. N. D. Et- 
telsohn. Sometimes an article or two 
written in Biblical Hebrew would ap- 
pear in the pages of this little weekly. 
It was indeed a "weakly" paper. All 
we can remember about it is that it 
once contained a bitter and malicious 
attack on our esteemed Dr. B. Felsen- 
thal. The writer of this history sent 
an article, written in Hebrew, to the 
publishers, in which he defende.d Dr. 
Felsenthal against the brutal and un- 
called for attack. Well, our article 
was published in the "Israelitische 
Presse," a fact which caused us much 
regret for many years after. For in- 
stead of attacking one, this paper now 
attacked two, and all the invectives, 
curses, vulgar scolding and ugly names 
of the powerful jargon vocabulary 
were thrown with doubled force at the 
head of poor Dr. Felsenthal and our 
humble selves. We fully believe the 
paper died of its own venom a short 
time after. 

In 1878 Henry Gersoni issued the 
first number of his "Jewish Advance," 
a weekly paper of which Gersoni was 
the editor and Max Stern the pub- 
lisher. Gersoni wielded a pointed pen, 
his wit was keen, his sarcasm bitter 
and 'biting. He was always fighting 
someone. But his editorials were 
scholarly and -well written. In fact, 
it was the opinion of many that the 

months, and was then compelled to 
discontinue it for lack of support. 

Then came the "Chicago Israelite," 
issued by Leo Wise of Cincinnati, pub- 
lisher of the "American Israelite." Dr. 
Julius Wise, a son of the late Dr. Wise, 
has now charge of this paper. Dr. 

succeeded in keeping up the excellent 
standard and has attained a wide in- 

The "Reform Advocate" made its 
first appearance in February, 1891, and 
no other venture in the line of Jewish 
journalism was made since. The "Re- 
form Advocate" and the "Chicago Is- 
raelite" are the only two Jewish pa- 
pers in the English language published 
in Chicago. In the jargon there appear 
here "The Daily and Weekly Jewish 
Courier," "Der Blumengarten" and the 
"Jewish Press." The former was es- 
tablished here many years ago by Leon 
Zolotkoff, who subsequently sold it to 
Messrs. Sarahson & Son of New York. 
It is still owned by the New York pub- 
lishers and printed here under the 
management of Mr. H. S. Wolf. ' 

In 1889 the Hebrew Literary Asso- 
ciation of Chicago, a society organized 
by a number of Russo-Jewish "maski- 
lim," so-called reformers, in the inter- 
est of the Hebrew language and liter- 
ature, made an attempt to publish a 
monthly magazine in Hebrew. Two 
numbers of this magazine appeared un- 
der the name ot "Keren Or" (Ray of 
Light). These two numbers contained 
articles written by Dr. Felsenthal, Mr. 
Peretz Wiernik, H. Eliassof, and oth- 
ers. But it seems that no Hebrew pa- 
per can exist for any length of time 
in this country. Even in New York 
City not one of the many Hebrew 
journals and magazines reached the 
age of maturity. They all died young, 
some even in their infancy. 

In Chicago appeared for several 
years a Hebrew weekly by the name 
of "Hapisgah" (The Summit). This 
journal was ably edited by the well- 
known Hebrew writer, Mr. W. Schur, 
but this journal; too, had to succumb 


Julius Wise was formerly a promi- 
nent physician at Memphis, Tenn. 

The "Reform Advocate" is the lat- 
est addition to Jewish journalism of 
Chicago, and although it was th 
youngest paper, it at once assumed the 
dignified tone and the imposing posi- 
tion of a hoary-headed mentor. It has 

at last. It was discontinued last year 
and is no more. 

A new Jargon daily and weekly un- 
der the name of "The Jewish Call" 
was started here a few months ago 
in the Jewish settlement on the West 
Side. Morris Rosenfeld, the celebrated 
poet of the Ghetto, was engaged by 



the publisher to assist in editing the 
new paper. Mr. Rosenfeld carne to 
Chicago, and here he wrote a number 
of good editorials, and some of his in- 


imitable poems. The name of Rosen- 
feld and his poems gained for the pa- 
per a good circulation. But we hear 
that Mr. Rosenfeld had a disagree- 

ment with somebody connected with 
the paper and has left Chicago. 


Of general Jewish publications, be- 
sides those which have ibeen men- 
tioned before, appeared here the fol- 
lowing: Israelitlsche Tempel Gesaen- 
ge, Hymnen, Otto Loeb, in 1876; second 
edition In 1887. Mr. Loeb was for 
many years the organist of the Zlon 
Congregation. He returned to Europe 
about 12 years old. "L'ma-an Yilme- 
doo," a Hebrew Reader, Dr. B. Fel- 
senthal, In 1886. "Songs of Zlon," 
Souvenir of Jewish Women's Con- 
gress, Rev. Alois Kaiser and Rev. Wm. 
Sparger, In 1893; T. Rubovits, pub- 
lisher. Sabbath School Hymns, I. S. 
Moses, 1894. "Hebrew Primer," second 
edition, Aaron J. Messing. "Torath 
Emeth," Catechism for Instruction in 
the Mosaic Religion, Third Edition, 
Aaron J. Messing. "Souvenir of the 
Centennial Anniversary of the Birth of 
Sir Moses Montefiore," a Hebrew 
Poem, H. Eliassof. 1884. "In Memori- 
am." Address delivered at the memo- 
rial service held in Zion Temple, Feb. 
25, 1894, in memory of Abraham Gott- 
lieb, Rabbi Joseph Stolz. "Mizrakh," 

an explanation of the mizrakh picture, 
H. Eliassof. There appeared besides 
a number of sermons of the Chicago 


Raibbis and sonre Hebrew works which 
are of great interest to scholars. We 
must not forget to mention Dr. Kohl- 
er's "Jewish Reader," for Sabbath 
schools, which appeared in 1876, In 
several parts. 

The J e 

f o_f Illinois. 

fart Second. 

Communities Outside o_f Chicago. 


The very early history of the Jews 
of Peoria cannot be ascertained. 

The earliest authentic Information 
that can be obtained is that in about 
the year 1847 Simon Lyon, Hart 
Ancker, Abraham Frank, A. Rosen- 
blatt; A. Ackerland and Arnold Good- 
heart came to Peoria, about in the or- 
der mentioned. 

At that time there had been several 
Jewish families here, but their names 
cannot be ascertained, and they took 
no prominent part in any Jewish af- 

In 1848 Jacob Liebenstein came to 
Peoria, and in 1849 rfenry Ullman and 
Leopold Rosenfeld arrived here. These 
were about all the Israelites in the 
city of Peoria at that time. In 1851 
Abraham Schradski and Leopold Bal- 
lenberg arrived, and in 1852 the Ull- 
man brothers, consisting of Aaron, 
Harry and David Ullman came to the 
city of Peoria. 

Simon Lyon is supposed to be the 
first Israelite who arrived in 1847 in 
the city of Peoria, as far as is known. 
He did not engage in active business. 
His wife still lives here, and also his 
two sons, Louis and Henry Lyon; his 
two daughters, one now a widow, and 
the other the wife of Mr. Jacob Schwa- 
bacher, reside in Chicago. 

With Simon Lyon came his brothers- 
in-law, Sol Solomon, Wolf Solomon 
and Joe Solomon. Senator Solomon pf 
the Illinois legislature was born in 
Peoria and is a son of one of these 

His sons are engaged in the grocery 
business in this city, and are prosper- 
ous in business. 

The first Jewish firm in business 
was Myer & Ackerland in 1848. Myer 
died of cholera in 1849. A. Ackerland 
moved to Cincinnati soon afterward 
and became a prominent Jewish citi- 
zen of Cincinnati. Associated with 
them was Jacob Goodheart, who lived 
in Cincinnati. He sent to Peoria in 
1847 his brother, Arnold Goodheart, 
who took charge of the business, and 
he and his brother, Wolf Goodheart, 
continued the business until about 
about 1857. John Warner, a Gentile, 
was associated with Meyer & Acker- 
land here. He became Interested in 
the Jews. Having made considerable 
money with Myer & Ackerland, he 
made it his business to help all the Jews 
he could. Any number of later set- 
tlers owe their start to John Warner. 
He either gave them goods or went se- 
curity for them for goods which he did 
not have. He was a great friend of the 
Jews. John Warner was elected 
mayor of Peoria at least ten different 
times, almost always through Jewish 
influence, and can at any time get the 

support of every Jew for his past as- 
sistance to them. 

Hart Ancker lived in this city for 
some twenty-two years, and died Jan. 
10, 1871, leaving surviving him his 
widow and several children. His 
widow is still alive, and now resides 
with her daughter in St. Louis, Mo., 
and is about 87 years old. Her maiden 
name was Brinah De Young; they 
were married at Richmond, Va., In the 
year 1836, and subsequently moved to 
Shelbyville, Ky., and from thence to 
this city. Their oldest daughter, Vir- 
ginia, was born In Richmond, Va., 
Sept. 27, 1837, and was married in Pe- 
oria to Mr. Henry Schwabacher, one of 
the leading citizens of Peoria, on the 
9th of September, 1859. He had quite 
a number of other children, none of 
whom now reside In Peoria. Mrs. 
Henry Schwabacher bears In her stat- 
ure the true English type of the beauty 
of her ancestors, although 64 years of 
age. She has been a true Jewess, reg- 
ular attendant at services, a member 
of all the Jewish charitable societies, 
and also a prominent member in all 
sectarian societies outside of the Jew- 
ish. She Is a good, true, loving mother 
of nine living children, and is a de- 
voted wife. 

Abraham Frank, one of the pioneers, 
remained in Peoria until about 1864. 
His family has become renowned in 
the commercial world, Frank Brothers 
of Chicago being among them; and the 



youngest, Nathan Frank, who has been 
elected as a representative in Congress 
from St. Louis, and a leading lawyer 
there, was among the first Jews born in 
this city. 

Jacob Liebenstein was married in the 
city of Cincinnati to Rebecca Berg- 
man in 1848. The result of that mar- 
riage was seven sons, all of whom oc- 
cupy first-class positions, and a num- 
ber of whom still reside in the city of 
Peoria. His widow, Rebecca Lieben- 
stein, now Rebecca Lowenthal, has 
been one of the most ardent workers 
in congregational affairs in the city of 
Peoria ever since her coming to Peoria, 
following the example of her husband, 
whose soul was imbued with the ideas 
of true Judaism. As he worked for its 
cause, so, during his life and after his 

holidays at various halls, which seiv- 
ices were conducted by various mem- 
bers of the commmunity; and this 
continued until 1859. During that year 
there arrived in the city of Peoria a 
"little giant" named Max Newmman; 
enthusiastic in the cause of Judaism, 
willing to serve that cause with his 
time and energy. He had been here 
but a few months when he aroused the 
minds of the Israelites residing here 
to the necessity of building a house of 
worship. Being a brother-in-law of 
the various Ullman brothers, he found 
in them ready assistants in calling that 
edifice into life. With the assistance 
of Leopold Rosenfeld, the Ullman 
brothers and Abraham Frank, he 
started out, and in one day raised $1,- 
500 towards the erection or purchase 

the congregation and a very valued of- 
ficer. He has been connected with ev- 
ery Jewish charity and also every 
other charity, almost, in the city of 
Peoria. On the death of Henry Ull- 
man, his brother-in-law, a few years 
ago, he was appointed by the mayor 
of this city a director of the public li- 
brary. He and Harry Ullman, his 
brother-in-law, who have been co-part- 
ners since 1859, and are today the old- 
est original firm in the city of Peoria, 
without any change in the firm. He is 
an honored and respected citizen of 
this city. Stands high, not only in the 
Jewish community, but in the general 
community, and the appellation of "Lit- 
tle Giant" is still applied to him, be- 
cause of the soundness of his views 
and his indomitable will in carrying 


death, did she follow in his footsteps. 
In anything that was Jewish Mrs. Re- 
becca Lowenthal was the first, and by 
work and act encouraged and did ev- 
erything within her power to support 
and maintain the Jewish congrega- 

He was the first to instigate the idea 
of a Jewish burying-ground in this 
city, and through his persuasion the 
first cemetery was purchased. 

In the year 1852, mainly through the 
efforts of Jacob Liebenstein and his 
brother, who came to this city after 
him, the first Jewish cemetery 
was purchased, and was deeded in trust 
to Leopold Rosenfeld, Hart Ancker -and 
Abraham Frank. This was the begin- 
ning of Jewish organization in the city, 
and all of the above-named persons 
were members of that society. After 
that time services were held during the 

of a temple. At that time the Jews of 
this city were very poor, and it re- 
quired the confidence of the Christians 
to assist them. In this task, our "Lit- 
tle Giant" came to the front, and be- 
fore he had been here one year, he had 
raised sufficient money to purchase a 
church building for $3,000 and had the 
same all paid for. This was known as 
Anshai Emeth Congregation. 

Max Newman was the son of Abra- 
ham Newman of Wurtemberg, Ger- 
many. He was born May 28, 1834, and 
was educated at Bamberg, Bavaria. He 
came to America the 17th day of June, 
1856, and has ever since that time, up 
to the present, been engaged in mer- 
cantile pursuits. From 1859 until 1879 
he was secretary of the congregation 
without compensation, and as such did 
noble work for the cause. Since that 
time he has always been a trustee of 

out whatever is good and noble, both 
for the community and for charities. 

After the organization of the congre- 
gation in 1859 the Rev. F. Rosenfeld 
was elected the Hahzen of the congre- 
gation. He was followed by Rev. 
Isaac Moses, who in turn was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. J. Block. Then Rev. 
Dr. David Stern and subsequently Rev. 
F. Becker officiated as the ministers of 
the congregation about the year 1871, 
and the congregation flourished in a 
way until 1880. 

Along about the year 1872 quite a 
number of orthodox Israelites had 
gathered in the city, largely from Rus- 
sia, Hungary and Poland, and, being 
dissatisfied with the reform ideas of 
congregation Anshai Emeth, held serv- 
ices in a hall, and in January, 1873, 
purchased a cemetery, the trustees 



thereof being Israel Bennett, Jacob 
Conigisky, Levy Meiers, Lewis Brln 
and Aaron Mittenthal. 

These trustees continued to hold 
such cemetery for the orthodox Jews 
until about the second day of October, 
1874, when congregation Beth Israel 
organized as an orthodox congregation, 
was formed, and the said trustees con- 
veyed said property to the trustees of 
said congregation. This cemetery is 
still used by the orthodox and is under 
the charge of I. Levinson as superin- 
tendent of the Peoria Hebrew Relief 
Society. They continued to worship in 
halls during holidays until about 1879, 
when some of the members of the 
Anshai Emeth congregation, dissenting 
from certain views of that congrega- 
tion, and especially from certain views 
maintained by the then minister, Rev. 
David Stern, left that congregation, 
and, together with a large portion of 
what was called the Beth Israel con- 
gregation, arranged to build a temple 
for themselves, which they did, at a 
cost of something like $4,000. Minag 
America formed the ritual, and Rev. 
Dr. I. M. Wise of Cincinnati was called 
to dedicate the temple. Rev. M. Mes- 
sing, now of Chicago, was its first min- ' 
ister. He was succeeded by his 
nephew, Rev. Henry Messing, now of 
St. Louis, and he, in turn, by Rev. P. 

About the year 1879, congregation 
Anshai Emeth, having served in a lit- 
tle church for twenty years, seeing the 
need of advancement, became enthu- 
siastic in the establishment of a better 
house of worship, and they, too, 
started out for the purpose of building 
a new edifice. This was accomplished, 
through David Ullman and others, and 
in the year 1880 both congregation 
Anshai Emeth and Beth Israel dedi- 
cated their temples. Rev. David Stern 
presided over congregation Anshai 
Emeth and Rev. Fisher over Beth 

Dissensions arose then In Jewish 
ranks. The strictly orthodox wor- 
shiped in halls. Each of the other two 
congregations were pulling and at- 
tempting to extract members from the 
other. Dissensions grew further, until 
they entered the social life; so much so 
that the Israelites of the city were so 
divided as to .be at daggers' ends. Sev- 
eral attempts had been made to settle 
the difficulties. The dissensions then 
entered into the B'nai B'rith organiza- 
tion, which at that time was composed 
of the members of both congregations. 
The officers of the District Grand 
Lodge were called to Peoria for the pur- 
pose of settling the difficulties, but of 
no avail. While they quieted them for 
a time, it was impossible to create 
peace and harmony. Finally Rev. 
Fisher left Beth Israel congregation. 
For the holidays there was called here 
for the year 1886 a student of the He- 
brew Union College, young Ed. N. Cal- 
isch, and to the glory of the Jewish 
cause of this city, Edward N. Calisch 
was sent here. He became the peace- 
maker. Through his efforts, assisted 
by tact, Isaac J. Levinson, Henry Ull- 

man and Samuel Woolner, peace was 
restored in the Jewish community, and 
the following year, upon the consecra- 
tion of Edward N. Calisch as minister, 
and through his efforts, the two con- 
gregations united, and Rev. Edward N. 
Calisch was elected as minister of the 
joint congregation. Since then, peace 
and harmony have prevailed, both in 
congregational and social life. The 
temple of Beth Israel Congregation 
was sold, the proceeds turned over to 
the Congregation Anshai Emeth, and 
but one reformed congregation was in 
the city of Peoria. And so it has re- 

In the year 1896 the temple of Anshai 
Emeth Congregation was destroyed by 
fire. For two years various Christian 
houses of worship were used by the 
congregation to hold its services. 
Finally, through the urgent persist- 
ency of Henry Ullman, who 
had for about twenty-five years been 
the president of Congregation Anshai 
Emeth, assisted by that noble philan- 
thropist, Samuel Woolner, and his 
brother, the noble-hearted Jacob Wool- 
ner, the present magnificent temple 
which is now occupied by the congre- 
gation was erected at a cost of upwards 
of $35,000. 

On March 2, 1898, the corner-stone of 
this new edifice was laid. It was at- 
tended by hundreds of Christian 
friends, besides the members of the 
congregation. Though a heavy snow 
was falling during the entire ceremony, 
the weather in no way interfered with 
the services nor (he audience. A canopy 
covered the platform, and the exercises 
proceeded as though the sun were 

Worthy President Henry Ullman had 
just recovered from a sereve illness 
and was unable to act in that capacity. 
He, however, introduced Mr. Isaac J. 
Levinson, who delivered the historical 
address in behalf of the president as 

"My friends: The honor of occupy- 
ing this sacred position upon such an 
occasion is one little dreamed of by 
me. To be delegated as the represent- 
ative of your worthy president, who 
for twenty-five years has presided over 
the destinies of this congregation, 
who, during that time has met every 
manner of the vicissitudes of congre- 
gational life, and has never swerved 
from the path of duty, is an honor that 
neith my labors for the congrega- 
tion nor the zeal for my religion has 

"Unfortunately for you, the indispo- 
sition on the part of your worthy 
president throws the mantle of his of- 
fice, for today, upon me. Would to 
God that I possessed a heart so full of 
love and devotion to our congregation 
as he, so that it would inspire within 
me eloquence to speak to you as he 
would speak to you, in words of fire to 
kindle your hearts to renewed activity 
in completing this grand edifice so 
nobly begun, and place it when com- 
pleted, in the hands of the trustees, un- 
plastered with a mortgage. This is the 

burning heart's desire of our worthy 

"This congregation was organized in 
the year 1859, when but a handful of 
Israelites, inspired by the energy and 
zeal and work of our "Little Giant," 
Max Newman, they built and paid for 
the house of worship erected on Fulton 
street in this city, and occupied the 
same for a period of seventeen years. 
They worshiped there under the old 
orthodox doctrines, forms and cere- 
monies. Enlightened by the true light 
of liberty, they were soon transformed 
from the orthodox and became a part 
of American Judaism. They have kept 
up with the rapid stride, and when the 
new ritual and the Union prayer-book 
was presented it was immediately 
adopted by the congregation, being one 
of the first in this country to adopt the 

"Through the noble efforts of our 
ladies, particularly assisted by David 
Ullman, a magnificent temple was 
erected on Liberty and Jefferson 
streets, where the congregation wor- 
shiped for fourteen years. This build- 
ing was destroyed by fire Jan. 10, 
1896. Since that time we have been 
homeless wanderers, beggars, for a 
house of worship. The zeal, energy 
and devotion of our venerable presi- 
dent, assisted by the noble Samuel 
Woolner and his brother, Jacob Wool- 
ner, and that Prince of Jews, William 
Wolfner, soon pushed the building of 
the temple to a completion. 

"And now, my friends, at the laying 
of the cornerstone of this edifice, erect- 
ed to the Most High, it behooves us, 
like all others about to enter upon new 
work, to lay out our plans. Let us do 
so by means of firm resolution engraft- 
ed into our hearts. Let us first, then, 
resolve that this edifice shall be the 
house of God. Let it be a house of 
prayer. Let it be a house of rest for 
suffering humanity, whether mentally 
or physically afflicted. All shall be 
welcomed under its roof and partake of 
its ever-flowing blessings. 

"Let it be a home of peace; within 
its walls let no discord enter. Let it 
be a house in which we will all con- 
gregate weekly and oftener, to offer our 
thanksgivings to Him, the Giver of all 
Good. Let it, above all, be a home, 
devoted and consecrated to the en- 
lightenment of the world, wherein 
shall be taught the one cardinal prin- 
ciple of Judaism one God, one Hu- 
manity; and until that day will Israel 
ever strive." 

The ceremony of the dedication and 
also the prayer were delivered by Rab- 
bi J. Thorner of Davenport, Iowa, in a 
most feeling address. 

But a short time afterwards, at the 
following meeting of the congregation, 
held in the month of April, President 
Henry Ullman, owing to ill health, was 
forced to decline a re-election as presi- 
dent, and Mr. Samuel Woolner, who 
had been vice-president since 1887, was 
elected in his stead. An appropriate 
solid silver water set was, on behalf of 
the congregation, presented by Mr. 
Samuel Woolner to the retiring presi- 



dent, and the following resolutions 
were adopted: 

Whereas, Our venerable president. 
Mr. Henry Ullman, has, owing to poor 
health, declined a re-election as presi- 
dent of the congregation, and 

Whereas, The said Henry Ullman for 
more than twenty-fire years guided the 
welfare of this congregation, and has 
sacrified his time, money and health 
for the congregation, and has with 
earnest zeal and with the utmost in- 
tegrity, midst the greatest of hard- 
ships, successfully devoted himself to 
its welfare; therefore, be It 

Resolved, That we, as a congrega- 
tion, recognize the sterling worth of 
onr worthy president, and of the many 
obligations that it owes to him for his 

Resolved, further, that this congre- 
gation extends to him its utmost sin- 
cere thanks and best wishes. May the 
all-wise Providence in his supreme 
mercy guide him in health and pros- 
perity throughout life. May his de- 
clining years be full of happiness, 
health and plenty. May his devotion 
to this congregation and the cause of 
Judaism never cease. And be it fur- 

Resolved, That a copy thereof be 
engrossed and presented to our es- 
teemed president, and that a copy 
thereof be spread upon the records of 
this congregation, and when the same 
are presented to him, the Board of 
Governors of this Congregation shall 
do so, together with a substantial and 
suitable token of the recognition of 
this congregation, and be it further 

Resolved, That a copy of these reso- 
lutions be printed in The American 
Israelite and The Jewish Guide. 



Elaborate preparations were made 
for the dedication services of the tem- 
ple, which occurred on Sept. 9, 1897; 
but a few days, however, before these 
services, the venerable ex-president of 
the congregation, Henry Ullman, was 
called to his last resting place. This 
created a deep mourning over the en- 
tire household of Israel in this city. 
His funeral sermon was preached by 
Rev. Dr. Edward N. Calisch of Rich- 
mond, Va., and Rev. Dr. Charles S. 
Levi of this city, who had just been 
elected the minister of the congrega- 
tion, the former having been the in- 
strument who, with the deceased and 
a few others, united the reformed 
Israelites into one congregation in this 
city. The obituary of his life will be 
found hereafter. 

Midst the deep sorrow of the con- 
gregation, the day having been set for 
Sept. 9 and the approaching holidays 
so close, it was decided that the dedi- 
cation services should be carried out, 
and the temple was dedicated with due 

That venerable grand old rabbi, I. 
M. Wise, for the third time, appearing 
in the city of Peoria for the purpose 

of dedicating the Jewish temple. As 
he. in the eighteenth year of his age, 
towered before the public, though tot- 
tering and bent with years, yet. with a 
clear voice, gave the benediction to the 
congregation, it was a sight that will 
never be wiped out from the memory 
of those who heard it Dr. Wise was 
assisted in this Work of dedication 
by Rev. Dr. Edward X. Calisch and 
Rev. A. Messing. Montgomery. Ala., 
both of whom had been ministers of 
the congregation, and the Rev. Charles 
S. Levi, the newly elected minister of 
the congregation, participated. 

Rev. Edward N. Calisch was the 
first minister of the united congrega- 
tion, and served for four years, and al- 
though re-elected for a further term of 
three years, owing to illness and seek- 
ing a warmer climate, he determined to 
leave for Richmond, Va.. where he still 
remains at the .head of Congregation 
Beth A'Hava. 

His administration in the city of 
Peoria was a glorious one. Services 
were well attended, his eloquence 
drawing crowded audiences. and 
brought to the Jews of this city a name 
which the effect of time cannot efface. 

He was followed by Rev. S. Green- 
field, and he, in turn, by Rev. L. Isen- 
berg, each of whom served for two 
years. Rabbi A. Messing, ripe from 
the Union Hebrew College, was then 
elected, but owing to the fact that the 
congregation had no home, having 
been burned out, he, at the end of the 
first year, resigned and accepted the 
position at Montgomery, Ala. 

Rev. Charles S. Levi, the present 
minister, took charge of the congrega- 
tion at the completion of the temple. 
His term of office has been a very 
fruitful one for the congregation. 
When he entered the pulpit the con- 
gregation numbered about fifty, but 
since has a membership increased to 
ninety-four, consisting of almost every 
reformed Israelite in the city young 
and old. His Sabbath school has be- 
come a model one, and being a learned, 
conscientious, energetic and faithful 
rabbi, he has become beloved and en- 
deared to all the members, as well as 
the whole community. He is assisted 
in hi? Sabbath school work by five lady 
teachers anc Dr. Sandor Horwitz, who 
teaches Hebrew. The Sabbath school 
is attended by upwards or ninety chil- 
dren. All the children of the orthodox 
school attend his Sabbath school. Offi- 
cers of the Sabbath school: 1886-1896, 
L J. Levinson, president; 1896-1900, 
Henry Woolner, president; present of- 
ucers. W. B. Woolner, president; Mil- 
ton Newman, secretary; A. Raff man 
and Henry Wooiner. The congrega- 
tion maintains a paid choir, consisting 
of a quartette, at a t-o^t of $1,200 per 
annum; .md is composed of the best 
voices in the city. It hag a debt of 
about $7,000. which the Ladies' Auxil- 
iary Society is attempting to pay off, 
having paid during the past two years 
$1,000 yearly. 

The present officers of Congregation 
Anshai Emeth are as follows: Samuel 

Woolner. president: David Ullman, 
vice-president; A. Raff man, secretary; 
M. Salzenstein, treasurer; Jacob Wool- 
ner, William F. Wolfner and Jacob 
Heim, trustees. 

The Sabbath school library was 
founded in 1899 by tnp children of the 
school. The nam>b of the lady teach- 
ers of the Sabbath school are Mrs. I. L. 
Fraxer, Mr^. \V. B. Woolner, Mrs. M. 
Xevman an<! Miss Hattie Ullman. 


was organized in Sept., 1897. It is a 
strictly orthodox congregation, minhag 
Poland. It has about thirty-five mem- 
bers and about 115 additional 
seat holders, who attend services 
during the holidays. They hold 
regular services twice daily and 
also on Friday evening and Saturday 
morning. Mr. Charles Brill acts as 
Hazan and Shochet, and is assisted by 
' Julius Frankel and Max Oppenheim in 
services. The congregation purchased 
a church building, formerly occupied 
by one of the Christian churches, on 
Monso street, in this city, in Septem- 
ber, 1897, for $3,000. They renovated 
and improved the same at a cost of 
$1.200. The building is all paid for 
except about $700, which they owe. 
The congregation is about to purchase 
the cemetery of the old Beth Israel 
congregation, which they now use. 

The first officers of the congregation 
were: Julius Frankel, president; Max 
J. Cohen, vice-president; Abraham 
Jacobson, secretary; Jacob Conigisky, 

The present officers are: Nathan 
Friedman, president; P. Blumenthal, 
vice-president; Samuel Lanski, secre- 
tary; Marks Gumbiner, treasurer. 

There are probably six or eight mem- 
bers of this congregation who are also 
members of Congregation Anshai 

In connectitn with Agudas Achim 
Congregation are two charity societies, 
one composed of the male members, 
known as the Home of Shelter, who at- 
tempt to take care of all the traveling 
poor who come to the city, giving 
night's lodging and meals to them 
temporarily. They also loan small 
sums of money, without interest, to 
some of their poor. Considering that 
they are themselves composed of the 
poorer classes, they are doing good 
work in that line, and are quite an as- 
sistant to the Peoria Hebrew Relief As- 
sociation, which does the main Jewish 
Charities of the c'ty. 

The officers of this society are: Ju- 
lius Frankel, preEident; Nathan Fried- 
man, secretary and treasurer. 

The Ladies' Hebrew Aid Society, 
also an adjunct of that temple, was or- 
ganized about the same time as the 
congregation. Its officers are: Mrs. 
Max J. Cohen, president; Mrs. N. 
Friedman, secretary; Mr. S. Lidwin- 
oski, treasurer. 

This society expends considerable 
money, and is among the active char- 
ity societies of this city. 

While speaking of charities, in addi- 
tion to those already mentioned, and 



as adjuncts of the Anshai Emeth Con- 
gregation, are the Sisters of Peace, a 
society organized in the year 1876, 
largely through the influence of those 
three sainted women, Mrs. Rosa Wool- 
ner, Mrs. J. Schradzki and Mrs. I. A. 
Weil, who, thank God, still is alive. 
This society has been foremost in the 
charitable work of this city of any of 
the ladies' societies. The founders of 
this society were true, noble Jewish 
women, who devoted their time and 
money, seeking naught else but the re- 
lief of the poor. Inspired by the ex- 
amples of these noble women, it has 
protected and cared for hundreds of 
families during its existence, and is 
now about to celebrate its twenty-fifth 
anniversary. The najnes of the above, 
its founders, are used in every-day 
life, with expressions of gratitude for 
their noble work. 

This society was originally organized 
when Congregation Beth Israel was in 
existence, and its membership formed 
from the wives and daughters thereof. 
Its present officers are: Mrs. Jacob 
Woolner, president; Mrs. I. Steckel, 
secretary; Mrs. A. Schradzki, treas- 


organized from among the wives 
and daughters of the original Congre- 
gation Anshai Emeth, has also done 
good and noble work, both for the con- 
gregation and for the poor. For many 
years it devoted itself entirely to the 
welfare of the congregation, but in 
later years has become a general char- 
ity society. Mrs. Henry Ullman, who 
has been its president almost since the 
society has been organized, 1861 the 
widow of the lamented Henry Ullman 
has done noble services, not only for 
this society, but has been an active 
solicitor for the Cleveland Orphan 
Asylum ever since the orphan asylum 
was built. She has been active in con- 
gregational work, and a personal 
worker among the poor of this city. 
Its present officers are: Mrs. Henry 
Ullman, president; Mrs. S. Silver- 
stone, secretary; Mrs. Max Newman, 


was organized ten years ago. 
Its members devote one afternoon each 
week for the purpose of sewing for the 
poor. It has distributed all the clothes 
necessary for poor women and children 
that have been required by the various 
relief societies during that time. It 
counts among its members our wealthi- 
est as well as our poorest ladies, all of 
whom actively engage in the work of 
sewing weekly. Its present officers 
are: Mrs. William B. Woolner, presi- 
dent; Mrs. A. Schradzki, vice-presi- 
dent; Mrs. S. Horwitz, secretary; Mrs. 
H. V. Finkelstein, treasurer. 

In addition to the societies before 
mentioned, there is also a ladies' so- 
ciety, known as the Ladies' (Anshai 
Emeth) Auxiliary Society, who give 

entertainments and bazars, etc., for the 
benefit of the congregation. At the 
head of this society is Mrs. W. B. 
Woolner, a daughter of Samuel Wool- 
ner, Esq., through whose labors, as- 
sisted by Mrs. L. Lowenthal and other 
members of the society, the congrega- 
tional debt has been reduced upwards 
of $2,000 within the past two years. 
During the last Christmas week this 
society held a doll bazar in one of the 
leading stores in the city, and in one 
week realized from dolls alone, up- 
wards of $300. The noble work of the 
present officers of this society is 
worthy of emulation. It is now con- 
templating a grand fair, to be given 
during the next spring, at which time 
they intend to wipe out a large portion 
of the debt. Mrs. W. B. Woolner is 
ever active and loses no chance to get 
money for the congregation. 


was originally organized in the 
year 1881, at the time of the Russian 
immigration to this city. Prior to 
that time the main charities of the city 
had been done by Progress Lodge, No. 
113, I. O. B. B., which acted up to that 
time as the relief society of this city; 
but, when some twenty odd families of 
Russian Jews came to this city, it was 
found necessary to start a separate or- 
ganization, and through the instru- 
mentality of the late Adolph Woolner, 
assisted by Isaac J. Levinson, this so- 
ciety was organized, and a fund of 
over $1,500 raised at once. Mr. Adolph 
Woolner was elected president and Mr. 
Isaac J. Levinson superintendent and 
secretary. During the first four years 
of its existence it required much of the 
time of the officers to take care of 
these poor, but the president and su- 
perintendent of the organization, de- 
voted to the cause of charity, never al- 
lowed a case to go unheeded. At day 
or night, no matter how inclement the 
weather, they were always ready to at- 
tend to the duties, which as president 
and superintendent of such organiza- 
tion were demanded of them, and when 
the funds of the society were inade- 
quate for the relief of these sufferers, 
the president was ever ready to supply 
the necessary means. 

In every case it has been the rule of 
this society never to give alms except 
for an emergency, but to endeavor to 
place every poor man upon a self-sus- 
taining basis, so as to prevent pauper- 
ism, and no matter what the cost, if 
the proper end could be attained, poor 
people were kept from pauperism. 

This society continued ever since 
1881, and the two original officers re- 
mained at the helm until the death of 
Adolph Woolner, in 1891, when Wil- 
liam F. Wolfner was elected to succeed 
him as president, and has continued as 
its president ever since. 

The requirements of this society 
after the Russian immigrants were 
established were not very great, owing 
to the fact that each poor person was 
put upon a substantial footing. 

During the past year the calls upon 
the society funds have been large, 
greatly owing to the immigration of 
the Roumanian Jews. Some fifteen 
families, or heads of families, arrived 
here, and through the work of the 
superintendent, assisted by the presi- 
dent and Dr. Charles S. Levi, the sec- 
retary, all of them have been placed 
upon a substantial basis. Notwith- 
standing that the winter has been 
harsh and a great many of our older 
poor Peoria citizens were out of work, 
all have been provided for. A night 
school was established for their benefit 
under the auspices of the superintend- 
ent of the society, and a paid teacher 
employed, where the English language 
is taught to them free of charge, at the 
expense of the society. This society 
has collected annually about $900, and 
in off years as high as $1,500, all of 
which has been used in the directions 
indicated. It has largely been assisted 
by the noble women in our midst, 
among whom may be mentioned 
Mrs. Clara B. Greenhut, Mrs. Jacob 
Woolner, Mrs. William B. Woolner, 
Mrs. Samuel Woolner, Mrs. Henry Ull- 
man, Mrs. Tillie Newman, Mrs. Max J. 
Cohen and Mrs. Ida Z. Frazer, who not 
only by their donations; but by hard 1 
work, have helped the society in carry- 
ing out its work. Present officers: 
William F. Wolfner, president; Max 
Newman, vice-president; Rabbi Charles 
S. Levi,secretary;I. J. Levinson, super- 
intendent; Jacob Woolner, treasurer. 
Mrs. Frazer was born Christian, but, 
inspired by the love of truth and devo- 
tion to what she considered her duty, 
under the teachings of Rev. Edward N. 
Calisch, and afterwards of Rev. S. 
Greenfield, this noble woman left the 
city of Peoria some seven years ago, 
went to Richmond, Va., and there, in 
Temple Beth A'Hava, under Rev. Ed- 
ward N. Calisch, was confirmed and 
became a member of the Jewish 
faith. No more devoted Jewish wom- 
an lives. Entirely wrapped up in 
our religion, and desiring to devote her 
life to its cause, teaching the Sabbath 
school, a worker for all Jewish charity 
organizations, she devotes her life to 
everything that is good and noble. 
She lives at home with her Christian 
husband, yet her candles are burning 
every Friday evening. No services at 
the temple are unattended by her. No 
sick or poor who are not visited by her. 
She is an honor, and should be an ex- 
ample to many of our Jewish women. 
She is the best-informed Jewess is Pe- 


Officers: Isaac J. Levinson, presi- 
dent; A. S. Kreisman, vice-president; 
Abraham Jacobson, secretary; Charles 
Gumbiner, treasurer. Organized Au- 
gust, 1868, first lodge under District 
No. 6. David Ullman first president; 
Jacob Helm, secretary. Has 115 mem- 
bers. Within the last year 68 were 
admitted, principally young men. . 

Samuel Woolner is an ex-president 
of District Grand Lodge- No. 6, so was 
Henry Ullman. 



I. J. Levinson was ten times elected 
president of court of appeals of the dis- 

This lodge bears the record that no 
member has ever been suspended from 
the lodge because of inability to pay 
dues or assessments, the lodge paying 
for each poor member until such mem- 
ber could pay himself. 

LODGE NO. 2, I. O. B. B. 

Officers: Miriam Szold, preceptor; 
Nathan Weiss, vice-preceptor; Max 
Woolner, financial secretary; Sadie 
Cohen, recording secretary; Jerome- 
Levinson, treasurer; Isaac J. Levinson, 
mentor. Organized June, 1900, through 
efforts of I. J. Levinson; has 32 mem- 
bers between 15 and 20 years. Gives 
monthly entertainments devoted to 
Jewish essays and history, also lec- 
tures and music. Gave a Purln 
play and dance March 5 for benefit of 
Jewish Orphan Aslyum and Denver 
Hospital for consumptives. They are 
doing nicely. 


Officers: Mrs. Milton Newman, presi- 
dent; Mrs. Samuel Woolner, vice-presi- 
dent; Mrs. S. Horwitz, secretary; Mrs. 
Samuel Jellinek, treasurer. First 
organized under the auspices of Coun- 
cil of Jewish Women, but dissented, 
and about a year ago left the mother 
organization and became independent. 
They devote their time to study of 
Jewish history and literature and char- 
ity. They also assist in temple work. 
They include almost all Jewish ladies 
of both congregations. 

Regina Wise was born in the year 
1803, in Steingrup, near Ager, Bohe- 
mia. Died at Peoria, 111., June 11, 
1880. Her mother's name was Regina 
Wise; her husband's name was Leo 
Wise. She came to Peoria in 1871 and 
resided with her daughter, Mrs. Caro- 
line Korsoski, up to the time of her 
death. She was the mother of Rev. 
Dr. Isaac M. Wise, and is now 
buried in Mount Sinai Cemetery, 
Springdale, Peoria, 111., upon the fam- 
ily lot of John Korsoski, and among 
the other members of Anshai Emeth 

True Fit Manufacturing Company, 
manufacturers of overalls, pants, etc., 
employs over 150 girls and women. It 
is owned by Solomon Bennett and his 
son-in-law, H. T. Bloom. Mr. Ben- 
nett came to Peoria in 1860 with his 
father, mother and family. He was at 
one time the leader in business and 
charity affairs In the city. Misfortune 
In business overtook him in 1888 and 
since that time he has not taken any 
active part. He is a member of Anshai 
Emeth, I. O. B. B. and Peoria He- 
brew Relief. He has raised a 
large family of orphans, rela- 
tives of his, all. of whom 
are honorable citizens in this commun- 
ity. He was married to Delia Freiden- 
berg in 1865. He has two children, 
Charles Bennett and Gertie Bloom. 
Charles is connected with the business. 


On the 5th inst, Sept. 5, 1898, there 
passed away in Peoria, 111., one of the 
most respected members of the whole- 
sale liquor trade, Henry Ullman, of 
Ullman & Son, whose demise is sin- 
cerely mourned by a wide circle of 

Mr. Ullman was born July 16, 1832, 
in Wurtemberg, Germany, and came to 
this country when fourteen years of 
age, settling first in Lacon, 111., where 
he was engaged in the clothing busi- 
ness. He removed to Peoria in the early 
sixties (1856), and carried on business 
there until about twenty years ago, 
when he became the head of the house 
of Ullman & Co., taking in as part- 
ner his brother David. 

He left a widow, two sons and two 
daughters. One son, Edward H., is 
engaged in business in Chicago, and 


the other son, Morris, has been asso- 
ciated with his father in business. 

The deceased took a deep interest in 
the development of the Jewish peo- 
ple, in which he enjoyed a national 
reputation. He was at one time presi- 
dent of the grand lodge of the B'nai 
B'rith, and for twenty-five years presi- 
dent of the Congregation Anshai 
Emeth; of the public library he was a 
director from the foundation, and, in 
short, there was no good and benevo- 
lent cause in which he was not warm- 
ly interested. He was a true type of 
the large-hearted and public-spirited 

As showing the esteem in which he 
was held by his fellow citizens, we 
cannot do better than give the closing 
words of a eulogy to his memory by 
the Peoria Evening Star: "He was 
very popular, for he possessed one of 
those natures that made him the very 
genius of benevolence. Sincerity and 
honesty were stamped upon his feat- 
ures. He took a fatherly interest in 
his friends, and when misfortune over- 
took any of his acquaintances he was 
one of the first to come to their as- 

sistance. There was no deception 
about Henry Ullman. He was deeply 
religious, not in the narrow view that 
limited his acts to a set and particular 
creed, but in the larger and loftier 
sense of looking upon all men as breth- 
ren, so that while he kept the faith of 
Israel, he exhibited in his own walk 
and conversation a widespread char- 
ity that embraced mankind itself. 
The sentiments of his soul shone in his 
face, for his very lineaments exhibited 
benevolence, uprightness, charity and 
kindly feeling. He was, in the lan- 
guage of the scriptures, 'a very present 
help in time of trouble.' There was 
about him a noble disinterestedness 
that sympathized with misfortune and 
gave him a moral power that encour- 
aged the weak and imparted new 
strength to the downcast and sorrow- 
ful. While he was a good business 
man, he was not so absorbed In the toil 
for gain that he had no leisure for the 
living. His house was the abode of sen- 
sible and healthful happiness. The 
domestic virtues were daily exemplified 
at his abode. He enjoyed all that life 
can give a man as the reward for his 
own right living an affectionate help- 
meet, a family of loving and appreci- 
ative children, troops of friends, an 
honored place in the community, and 
the respect and confidence of the whole 
city. We have known Mr. Ullman in- 
timately for almost forty years, and 
we write these lines with sadness at his 
death, but with the feeling that after 
all his was a perfect life, for all that 
is joyous in existence he obtained with 
fewer clouds than fall to the lot of 
most of us, and now he has solved the 
last and greatest problem, for he has 
been gathered to his fathers. Hail 
and farewell." 

He was married to Miss Clara 
Newman, sister of Max Newman, 
in August of that year, and they lived 
happily together ever since, celebrating 
their forty-second anniversary on Aug- 
ust 12th last. Mr. Ullman leaves be- 
sides his sorrowing widow, two sons. 
Edward H., who is engaged in business 
in Chicago, and Morris, who has been 
associated with his father in business, 
and two daughters, Misses Hattie and 

Mr. Ullman was a man of the strict- 
est integrity, of positive convictions 
based upon a pure conception of right, 
self-made, but of rare refinement and 
self-acquired intellectual attainments. 

In social circles he was an acknowl- 
edged leader, as also in charitable 
work, and in his religion he always 
took the keenest interest, having been 
the president of the Congregation of 
Anshai Emeth for over twenty-five 
years, only a few months ago insisting 
upon his declination of a re-election in 
consequence of his enfeebled physical 
condition, though not relaxing his in- 
terest in the completion of the new 
temple, to assist in the dedication of 
which, an all-wise Providence denied 
him. He was one of the directors of 
the Peoria Public Library, when it 



was established, and has continued 
ever since, a respected member of that 
board. His advice was frequently so- 
licited, and was freely given. His 
judgment was appreciated, and his dis- 
position was universally kind. So he 
left no enemies, but all who knew 
him were his friends. He assisted in 
organizing Schiller Lodge, A., F., & A. 
M., of which he served as master in his 
customary able manner, as he acquit- 
ted himself in any function which he 
ever undertook. He was universally 
spoken of as a most exemplary hus- 
band and father, and his memory will 
long be fondly cherished. 

Peoria City Lodge No. 138. 

Officers: -I. Weinstein, President; I. 
Meyers, Vice-President; Dr. S. Hor- 
witz, Secretary; Harry Frankel, Treas- 

I. Weinstein, who was formerly a 
member of the organization in St. 
Louis, came to Peoria and organized 
the Lodge in March, 1893. There are 
now fifty-four members of the organi- 
zation. It is a purely insurance or- 
ganization, and charitable among its 
members. It insures both the mem- 
bers and their wives. 

Twice since that time has the organi- 
zation been called upon to pay an as- 
sessment of five hundred dollars each, 
for the wives of members. None of the 
members have been unfortunate 
enough to die. They provide sick 
benefits and funeral expenses for mem- 
bers and their family. 


Officers: J. Weinstein, President; 
Mrs. Brotha Cohen, Vice-President; 
Mrs. S. Horwitz, Secretary; Mrs. N. 
Meyer, Treasurer. 

This association was organized about 
two years ago; has about thirty 
members, the wives of the Order Brith 


In the year 1871 Adolph Woolner, de- 
ceased, secured a patent through the 
department at Washington, for cook- 
ers' uses in the manufacture of whis- 
ky. This patent was somewhat incom- 
plete, lacking a few of the scientific 
ideas necessary to make it perfect, but 
it formed the nucleus in the distilling 
business o making full quantities of 
whiskey out of a bushel of corn. Thir- 
teen quarts of whisky was considered 
in those times, a large quantity to be 
made from a bushel of corn. Through 
the assistance of a scientific machinist, 
the invention of Adolph Woolner added 
to the production of upwards of fifteen 
quarts to the bushel. Estimated In 
dollars and cents, amounted to at least 
ten cents on every bushel of corn. In 
Peoria alone there was distilled at least 
twenty thousand bushels a day, making 
an average gain of at least two thou- 
sand dollars a day for the corn at that 
time distilled in Peoria. 

This revolutionized the entire whis- 
ky business, and though Adolph Wool- 

ner's patent in itself he not being a 
scientific man did not alone do this, 
yet the ideas for the scheme arose 
from his brain, and he was recog- 
nized as the theoretical distiller of 
America. As soon as the patent was 
fully developed, he became the recog- 
nized head in distilling interests. Upon 
the formation of the whisky pool, he 
was its acknowledged head, but owing 
to his bashfulness, Buffalo Miller was 
placed as its president. He conducted 
the business of the association with a 
great deal of zeal. Adolph Woolner 
was the Vice-President; Buffalo Miller, 
President, received the credit, but in 
all of the work, Adolph Woolner was 
the fountain, and when the whisky 
trust was started, Adolph Woolner was 
elected its Vice-President; J. B. Green- 
hut, President, and his conservative 
ideas and thorough practical knowl- 
edge of the business did more for the 
promotion of the whisky rfrust than 
any member thereof. He was indeed 
the power behind the throne, and his 
wise judgment made more money for 
the members of the whisky trust than 
they have ever made since his death. 

Unfortunately, while in the zenith of 
his career, he was cut off, and died in 
May, 1891; just at the time when the 
whisky trust was in its glory and mak- 
ing very much money for its stock- 

Adolph Woolner was a noble, gen- 
erous soul, a friend and adviser to 
everybody, a member of every Jewish 
organization, a liberal donor to charity, 
and president of Peoria Hebrew Relief 
Society for ten years. 




Rev. Chas. S. Levy was born in Lon- 
don, England, May 20, 1868. He was 
educated in the schools of Cincinnati, 
Ohio, graduating from the Hebrew 

cepted a call to Peoria, 111. He acted as 
secretary of the Central Conference Of 
American Rabbis, compiling all of the 
year books from 1889 to 1898, and is at 
present treasurer of the organization. 
Rabbi Levy was secretary of the He- 
brew Sabbath School Union of America 
for nine years prior to 1898. Since oc- 
cupying the pulpit of Anshai Emeth he 
has been invited to contribute a num- 
ber of articles on Jewish history and 
literature for the Jewish encyclopedia. 


Mr. Samuel Woolner was born 
March llth, 1845, in Szenitz, Hungary. 


Union College as valedictorian and 
from the University of Cincinnati with 
high honors in 1889. He was elected 
associate Rabbi to Dr. I. M. Wise and 
assistant professor at the Hebrew 
Union College in 1889, in which office 
he continued until 1898 when he ac- 


His parents were Solomon and Sallie 
Woolner, both natives of Hungary. 
After receiving his education in the 
schools of his native city he left his 
ancestral home to come to this coun- 
try, arriving here in 1867. He has 
since lived in Peoria, where he has 
played an important part in the build- 
ing up of that city, having erected the 
Woolner building (in connection with 
his brother Adolph), the largest office 
block in Peoria, several distilleries and 
a number of dwelling houses. Also 
has been, and is now, active in a good 
many enterprises in this city. He is a 
member of the Board of Trade of Pe- 
oria, and at one time had been its 
president, and has been a member of 
the city council for four terms. He is 
vice-president of the German-Ameri- 
can National Bank, director of the Na- 
tional Bank of the Republic of Chi- 
cago, and vice-president of the Stand- 
ard Distilling and Distributing Com- 

Mr. Woolner has always taken a 
great interest in congregational, char- 
itable and benevolent society work,and 
is now the president of the Anshai 
Emeth Congregation of this city, vice- 
president of the Union of American 
Hebrew Congregations, a director of 
the Denver Hospital for Consumptives, 
trustee of the Cleveland Orphan Asy- 
lum and ex-president of the Sir Moses 
Monteflore Home of Cleveland, Ohio. 
He is past president of Progress Lodge 
No. 113, I. O. B. B., and the past presi- 
dent of the Grand Lodge No. 6, I. O. 


B. B., as well as of the Grand Lodge 
No. 4, O. K. S. B. He has given in- 
valuable aid to the charities and is an 
honored and respected member of the 
community in which he lives. His wife 
was a Miss Miriam Sternbach, and 
they have two children living. 


Mr. Ottenheimer was born in Yebea- 
hausen, Germany. His parents came to 
America in 1859 and he received his 
early education in the schools of Cin- 
cinnati. He has been for some years 
a resident of Peoria, in which commun- 
ity he is well known and held in high 
esteem. Mr. Ottenheimer was secre- 
tary of Anshai Emeth Congregation 
and of Progress Lodge No. 113, I. O. 
B. B., and was one of the first and 
youngest trustees of the Cleveland Or- 
phan Asylum. In business life he Is 
associated with his brother, Mr. S. W. 
Ottenheimer, in the clothing business. 
Mr. Ottenheimer married Millie Weil 
of Evansville, Ind., and has one child, 
Clifford H. Ottenheimer. 

Mr. Schwabacher is a native of 


and has been an active and influential 
member of Anshai Emeth congrega- 
tion, assisting materially in the build- 


Felheim, Germany, and was born Jan. 
11, 1829. He came to America in 1850 
and embarked in the business of whis- 
ky distilling in Peoria in 1856, since 
which time he has been eminently suc- 
cessful. He is a trustee of Anshai 
Emeth Congregation, and a member of 
the Peoria Hebrew Relief. In 1875 and 
3876 he served the city as alderman, 
and is considered one of the public 
spirited citizens of Peoria. He is a di- 
rector of the Electric Light Works. 
Mr. Schwabacher is married to a Miss 
Virginia Anker. 


Mr. Woolner is a native of Hungary, 
and was born in Buda Pesth, thatbeau- 
tiful modern city on the Danube. He 
came to America in 1873 going direct to 
Peoria, where his younger brothers had 
preceded him. They embarked in the 
distilling business and have been emin- 
ently successful. Mr. Woolner has 
done a great deal of work for charity 


ing of the new temple, which was dedi- 
cated in September, 1898. He is also a 
member of B'nal Brith and 
be relied on to lend his aid for char- 
itable or other work necessary for the 
general good. He is an honored and 
respected member of the community in - 
which he lives. 


About 150 Jews live in Joliet. The 
first Jewish settlers in Joliet were Joe 
and Morris Einstein and Isaac Wolf, 
who staid there only a few years and 
then moved to Chicago. Prominent 
Jewish business men of Joliet are the 
following: Henry and Robert Alexan- 
der, M. A. Felman, David Rosenheim, 
B. Weiner, A. Adler and Dr. Chas. 
Kahn. The name of the congregation 
is "the Jewish Congregation of Joliet." 
It was established in October, 1900. The 
first officers were Henry Alexander, M. 
Robinson and S. Berger. Present 
membership is 40. There is one La- 
dies' Society under the name of Debo- 
rah Society. 



The first Jewish settler was a Mr. 
Stern, who came about 1850. He was 
followed by Samuel Livingston, In 
1856. He died in 1892, and left two 

sons, now living in Bloomington, 
Aaron and Abraham. Samuel Living- 
ston was followed a year later, in 1857, 
by his brother, Aaron, who died in 
1881. Then came Meyer Heldman, Ja- 
cob and Nathan Heldman, who have 
since moved to Cincinnati. 

The next was Michael Livingston, 
who is a farmer near Bloomington. 
Then came Aaron Livingston, in 
1865, a cousin of the aforementioned 
Livingstons. He is still living, but 
afflicted with illness. His two_sons 
are in the dry goods business in 
Bloomington. His brother, Resiel Liv- 
ingston, who came to Bloomington 
about the same time that Aaron did, 
is now living in Michigan. Other pio- 
neer settlers of Bloomington were: 
Morris Nathan, who now lives at Farm- 
er City; another, Mr. Alex. Alexander, 
is a farmer near Bloomington. 
Wolf Griesheim came in 1864; Sigmund 
Heldeman, 1866, both living; Emanuel 
Gantz, 1865. Then came the father of 
all the Livingstons, Hirsh Livingston, 
from Danbringen, Hessen Darmstadt, 
Germany, in 1881, and this same year 
his other two sons, Myer and Isaac 


Livingston, now living in Blooming- 

The first congregation, "Moses Mon- 
tifiore," was started in 1882, with 
eighteen members. Isaac Livingston 
served as reader for some time; 
others who took charge of the congre- 
gation were C. Livingston, Sig. Held- 
man et. al. Oscar Mandel now has 
charge of the congregation. They 
have a fine choir; the leader is Sam 
Livingston, son of Aaron Livingston. 

Aaron Livingston, then living in the 
south, was drafted into the confederate 
army. In the late civil war he was cap- 
tured by the federal troops, enlisted 
and served the union cause until the 
close of the war. Mr. Nathan was also 
a union soldier in the late civil war; 
also Samuel Hammerslag was a union 
soldier. Wolf Greisheimer has been a 
county supervisor for ten years. 

Fannie Livingston, sister of Myer 
and Isaac Livingston, is living in 
Bloomington, she is the widow of Isaac 
Strauss, now dead. 

The congregation has no regular 
Rabbi at present, but during the holi- 



days a senior student from the Hebrew 
Union College takes charge of the 
congregation. The present member- 
ship of the congregation is 33. 

Regular Sunday school is taught 
hy Mattie Bacharach, Miss Cora 
Griesheim, and Guida Livingston. The 
Abraham Lincoln Lodge of B'nai Brith 
is in a flourishing conditon, with about 
sixty members. There is also a Jew- 
ish Ladies' Benevolent Society, of 
about 15 members. The B'nai Brith 
Lodge has taken care of and placed in 
good circumstances many Roumanian 
and Russian Jewish immigrants. 

The first 16 members of Moses 
Monteflore Congregation were: Hirsch 
Livingston, D. Winter, Resiel Living- 
ston, Sigmund Heldman, Jacob Held- 
man, William Freeland, Sam Altmann, 
J. Friedmann, Wolf Griesheim, Michael 
Livingston, Jacob Freeland, Sam Liv- 
ingston, Aaron Livingston, S. E. Bias, 
S. Marks, Myer Livingston. 

The first services were according to 
Minhag America and took place New 
Year's day, 1882, in the Unitarian 
church. Later services were conducted 

who lived at Pleasant Plains, Eli at 
Saulsbury, and Louis at Athens. Mr. 
M. A. Lange came in 1864. Mr. B. A. 


in the Independent church May 1st, 
1899. The temple cost $15,009. 


The Jewish population of Springfield 
will not exceed 150. Three brothers, 
Julius, Louis and Edward Hammer- 
slaugh, came here about 1856 and start- 
ed in business under the firm name of 
Hammerslaugh brothers. The next one 
was Mr. S. Rosenwald, who arrived in 
1860 or 1861. Mr. Hirschbach also 
came about that time. This Mr. 
Hirschbach was private secretary to 
the War Governor Richard Yates. Then 
came Mr. Louis Benjamin. Congrega- 
tion B'rith Sholom was started in 1863. 
Mr. Julius Hammerslaugh, now living 
in New York, was the first president. 
The first members were: Chas. Stern, 
S. Leon, Wolf Bergmann, Chas. Kusel, 
Morris Myers; also a number of Israel- 
ites from adjacent villages, notably the 
numerous family of Salzenstein. Jacob, 


Lange, who had kindly furnished us 
the information, came in 1866. D. 
Gottlieb, from Hanover, was grand 
president of District No. 6 I. O. B. B., 
in 1884, and treasurer of the con- 
gregation for the past twenty-five 
years. He came from Hamburg, Ger- 
many. Congregation B'rith Sholom 
worshiped in a rented hall until 1876, 
when the temple was dedicated before 
the fall holidays by Dr. Wolfenstein, 
then of St Louis, and now su- 
perintendent of the Cleveland Or- 
phan Asylum. The first ritual 
adopted by the congregation was 
Minhag Jastrow. Two years ago 
it was changed to Minhag Einhorn. 
The congregation has a membership of 
about 50, including some of the resi- 
dents of some of the suburban villages. 
The following gentlemen officiated as 
Rabbis in Congregation B'rith Sho- 
lom: Schaffner came about 1856, the 
next one was Rev. B. Deutsch, he was 
succeeded by Chas. Austrian, who died 
in Chicago. The next one was A. Ru- 
binstein, then came Sugenheimer, and 
he was succeeded by Sigmund Frey. 
Then Joseph Leiser occupied the pul- 
pit. The present minister is Rev. A. 
Traugott. The congregation owns a 
cemetery, which was bought in 1863. In 
1866 an addition to the cemetery was 
purchased and again an addition in 


The first Jewish settler in Moline, 
111., was Simon Hirsch, a native of 
Germany, who came to this city in 
1866, and there is no record of any 
other Jewish-resident until 1881, when 
Louis Rosenstein made Moline his 
home. The present Jewish population 
numbers twenty people, most of whom 
are members of Congregation B'nai 
Israel of Davenport, Iowa. The Jew- 
ish residents of Moline are contributors 
to the charitable organizations of Rock 

Island and Davenport, having no local 
societies of their own. Two children 
attend the Sabbath school of the Dav- 
enport Congregation. 


The first Jewish families that settled 
in Pontiac were the Greenebaums and 
Bruckers, who came to this city in 
1856. They came from Gelnhausen and 
Allsie, Germany. There is at present 
a Jewish population numbering 48 
people, among whom are the following 
busines men: J. Spiro, cashier of the 
National Bank of Pontiac; Max Dia- 
mond, in the boot and shoe business; 
M. Rose and S. H. Herzberg, clothing; 
M. H. Greenebaum Co., investment 
bankers, and H. G. Greenebaum, attor- 
ney. While the Jewish population of 
Pontiac is small* nevertheless they oc- 
cupy an important part in the busi- 
ness community of Pontiac. There are 
no congregation and no organizations 
or societies that we can learn of. 


The first Jewish settler of Aurora 
was one Jacob Alschuler. Three sons 
of this first settler are now living in 
Aurora. They are Charles, Harry and 
Louis, of the firm of Alschuler Bros. 
Mr. Leon Hirsch, uncle to Samuel Al- 
schuler.candidate for governor.came to 
Aurora about 1861. Mrs. Jacob Al- 
shuler, mother of Sam Alschuler, and 
Mrs. Leon Hirsch are sisters, and both 
are still living in Aurora. The first 
Jewish service took place in Mr. Wolf's 
house, in 1868. Through the efforts of 
this Mr. Wdlf the Jews of 
Aurora closed their stores- and 
held services on New Year's 
day and the Day of Atonement. 
Mr. Leon Hirsch and Jacob Alschuler, 
father of Samuel Alschuler, and Isaac 
Wolf and Morris Henoch, the latter 
now living in La Porte, Ind., officiated 
during the holidays. The following at- 
tended the services and constituted the 
necessary minyan: Leon Hirsch, Ja- 
cob Alschuler, Nathan Goldsmith, Sam 
Goldsmith, David Goldsmith, Isaac 
Wolf, Arnold Wolff (now living in Chi- 
cago), Morris Henoch, Simon Felsen- 
held, Herman Felsenheld, Aaron Gold- 
smith, now a prominent attorney in 
Cincinnati; Mark Aronson and a 
young man named Goldsmith, who was 
clerking for Mr. M. Hirsch. Mr. Isaac 
M. Wolff was aided in his endeavor to 
induce the Jews to close their stores 
during New Year's and Day of Atone- 
ment, by Messrs. Henoch, Alschuler and 
Hirsch. Some of the Jews objected to 
that as it was a very unusual proceed- 
ing in that town, at that time. 

In Cairo, Urbana, Champaign and 
Frankford Station are also a number 
of Jews. Mr. M. B. Saddler of Cairo, 
was once mayor of Centralia, Ills., for 
seven consecutive years, and Mr. Solo- 
mon was Mayor of Duquoin, Ills., for 
two or three years in succession. Mr. 
Michaells, a co-religionist, is- now 
postmaster in Mound City, Ills. Solo- 
mon Bernstein came to Urbana in 1855 



and was at that time the only Jew in 
Champaign county. He came from 
Cincinnati, Ohio. Thirty-two Jews are 
now living at Urbana, J. Blng and son, 
Nathan H. Cohen, M. Lowenstern and 
son, and L. L. Bing are well known 
business men of Urbana. In 1866 a 
burial ground association, under the 
name of "Ahavath Achim," was estab- 
lished. The first officers were, M. Eich- 
berg, President; S. Bernstein, Secre- 
tary; M. Lowenstern, Sr., Treasurer. 
The society does no longer exist. 
There Is one B'nai Brlth lodge in the 
city and a ladies' social circle. A co- 
religionist by the name of Nathan H. 
Cohen is president of the Illinois State 
Fish Commission. 


The Congregation Bnai Shalom of 
Quincy, 111., was organized Oct. 20, 


1864, by a small number of Jews who 
desired to establish Reform. In Sept. 
1869, the young society had purchased 
a site for a temple and called upon the 
Rev. Dr. I. M. Wise from Cincinnati, 
Ohio, to lay the foundation. That was 
a gala day for Quincy. The Masonic 
fraternity took a prominent part in the 
exercises. Sept. 22, 1870, the new Tem- 
ple was dedicated by the resident Rab- 
bi, Rev. Dr. Fluegel. In 1871 the Or- 
thodox Congregation that had existed 
here since 1857, joined Bnai Shalom. 
Oct. 11, 1895, the congregation celebrat- 
ed its twenty-fifth anniversary. It was 
the last time that Hon. Isaac Lesem, 
who presided over the destiny of the 
congregation since Oct. 2, 1870, officiat- 
ed in his capacity as president. He 
died in Europe in 1897. 

The following rabbis officiated in 
Quincy since the dedication of the 
Temple: Rev. Drs. M. Fluegel, S. Ros- 
enspitz, I. S. Moses, V. Caro, E. Epp- 
stein. Rabbi Eppstein, the present in- 
cumbent, was called to the rabbinate 
Sept. 1, 1890. 

Among the very prominent Jews of 
Quincy the brothers Jonas occupied a 

very high position. There were five 
of them Abraham, Joseph, Samuel, 
Edward and George. Abraham was 
born in Davenport, England, Sept. 12, 
1801. He came to Quincy in 1843, and 
died there June 8th, 1864. Joseph was 
born in Teignmouth, England, May C, 
1792. He was the first Jew to cross 
the Alleghany mountains. He lived for 
a time in Cincinnati, Ohio. He died 
in Mobile, Ala., May 5th, 1869. Samuel 
was also born in Davenport, England, 
August 6, 1807. Died in Quincy March 
20, 1878. Edward was born at Tergu- 
mouth, England, Jan. 29, 1817. He 
died in Quincy, Oct. 13, 1867. George 
was born in Davenport, England, Sept. 
22, 1813, and died in New Orleans, La. 
He was a prominent lawyer, and if we 
are not mistaken he was U. S. senator 
for that state. 

We also mention Dr. Lewin Henry 
Cohen, who was a prominent physician 
of Quincy, at one time a member of 
the National Board of Health. He 
was born at Glasgow, Scotland, Sept. 
5, 1842, and died in Aiken, S. C., Sept. 
27, 1888. 

MR. J. D. LEVY. 

Mr. J. D. Levy was born in Hechin- 
gen, Hohenzollern, Germany, where he 
received his early education and was 
considered an excellent linguist. He 
came to America -in 1850 and in 1870 
settled in Quincy, where he became a 
highly esteemed and respected member 
of the community. He was an active 
member of several large business en- 
terprises and always took a great deal ' 
of interest in religious and charitab'.e 

J. D, LEVY. 

institutions. He was in his 67th year 
when he was called to his final rest, 
leaving a widow and ten children. His 
demise was mourned by all who knew 


Monteflore Congregation was organ- 
ized November 4th, 1894, with the fol- 
lowing officers: President, H. Meyers; 
Vice- President, A. Marx; Secretary, 
Abe Messing; Treasurer, Mrs. Leo 

Levi. Services were to be, conducted 
every other Sunday evening at 7:30 
p. m. by Mr. B. Sadler. All the Jew- 
ish citizens of Cairo became members 
of the Congregation. The meetings 
were held in Bristol Hall. In May, 
1897, the Congregation was chartered 
and Mr. B. Sadler re-elected as the 
regular rabbi. In 1899 Mr. Sadler was 
elected a member of the Central Con- 
ference of American Rabbis upon the 
recommendation of Rabbis I. M. Wise 
and Dr. H. G. Enelow of Paducah, Ky. 
There is a good attendance at every 
one of the services, many traveling 
men, staying here over Sunday, par- 
ticipating in the same. On the high 
holidays of the autumn many non- 
Jews come to attend the services, 
which are then generally held in the 
Cairo Baptist Church, the hall being 
inadequate to seat all the attendants. 
The congregation has contributed to 
the Hebrew Union College endowment 
fund and also to the relief of the Rou- 
manian Jews, and, considering the 
limited number of Jewish families re- 
siding in Cairo, has done much good 
work for the cause of Judaism and hu- 
manity. Prominent rabbis who ad- 
dressed the congregation were: Rev. 
Dr. E. G. Hirsch (on the occasion of 
a High School commencement to 
which he was invited as orator); Mr. 
Alexander H. Leismar, Rabbi Joseph 
Leiser, and Dr. Hyman T. Enelow, of 
Paducah Ky. 

There exists also a B'nai Berith 
Lodge, Egypt Lodge No. 168, which 
was organized in 1876, and which meets 
the first and third Sunday afternoons 
of each month. This lodge owns tho 
Jewish burial ground, which was 
transferred to it by an, orthodox con- 
gregation, Benai Israel, that was start- 
ed here during the war, when as many 
as 75 Jewish families resided here; 
after the war most of them left and 
the congregation was dissolved shortly 
after the organization of the lodge. 

Monteflore Congregation maintains 
a Sunday school, attended by about 
18 children every Sunday afternoon. 
Mr. B. Sadler is the superintendent. 
Miss Stella Cohn, assistant. 

The present officers of the congre- 
gation are: President, S. K. Cohn; 
Vice-President, Sam White; Secretary, 
I. Cohen; Treasurer, F. S. Haas, Di- 
rectors, M. Hyman, A. Kaufman and 
J. Solomon. 

There are a few Jewish families re- 
siding in Mound City, 111., about six 
miles north of Cairo, and a few in 
Murphysboro, Du Quoin, Anna and 
Centralia, 111., but none are members 
of the congregation and but few of 
them take any interest in Jewish af- 

There are Jews almost In every little 
town or village In the state, but in most 
of those places there is as yet no per- 
manent congregation nor a house of 
worship. These smaller places we can 
only mention briefly, giving a few names 
here and there, and once in a while a 
few brief outlines of incidents and facts 
which are of especial interest. 




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lowing railroads for 
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& Omaha Ry. ; Chica- 
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cy Ry. ; Great North- 
ern Ry. ; Boo Line; 
Wisconsin Central; 
Northern Pacific; 
Pennsylvania Ry. ; Il- 
linois Central; Union 
Pacific, and the Pull- 
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N o contaminating 
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While Enamel Refrigerator Co. m Dearborn St., oid colony BU { . Chicago. 

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Elevator Compaivy 

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has a greater circulation than any other 
newspaper in the United States nearly 
300,000 a day. 

'Printer's Ink/' 

the well-known journal for advertisers, has 
pronounced The Chicago Daily News to 
be the newspaper "that gives advertisers 
the best service, in proportion to the price 
charged, among all the publications of what- 
ever name or degree among the entire twenty 
thousand which are put forth in the territory 
embraced in the United States.' 1 

fart Ghird. 


The most prominent names of Jew- 
ish soldiers who have lived or are still 
living in the state of Illinois are: Gen. 
Edward S. Solomon, Col. Marcus M. 
Spiegel, Capt. Mayer Frank, Capt. Mil- 
ton J. Foreman, Capt. J. Lyons and 
Lieut. Max Polachek of Chicago and 
Capt. J. B. Greenhut of Peoria. There 
were many others, such as Frederick 
B. Hart, First Lieut. Adolph Rosen- 
thai, Lieut. Benjamin J. Moore, Capt 
Alexander M. Daniels and Capt. Fred- 
erick E. Koehler. We can only give 
here short biographical sketches of a 

Was born in Abenheim, Germany, in 
1829. His parents' names were Moses 
and Regina. In his native country his 
father was a religious teacher. In 1848 
he came to America and settled in New 
York city and from there he moved to 
Union Town, Ohio. He moved to Chi- 
cago in 1855, with his wife, who was 
a Miss Hamlin, born and raised in 
Christianity. In Chicago his wife was 
converted to Judaism by a regular rab- 
binical court of three men versed in 
the law. Col. Spiegel clerked here 


with Francis Clark. He helped to 
start the Hebrew Benevolent Society 
in Chicago, and was one of those who 
bought the society's cemetery in Grace- 

land. He moved from here to East 
Liberty, near Akron, Ohio, and en- 
gaged in the dry goods business. When 
the civil war broke out he raised a 
company in Homes county, Ohio, and 
became the captain of the same. He 
served all through the campaign of the 
Southwest, was present at the taking 
of Vicksburg, and was then promoted 
colonel of the 120th Ohio regiment, 
for bravery on the battlefield. He was 
sent home wounded, but was too brave 
to stay away from the scene of the war 
and returned to active service. He was 
then sent on the Red River expedition 
to reinforce Gen. Banks. He was on 
the boat City Belle as commander of 
the troops, when a bullet from the en- 
emy ended his life. At the time of his 
death he was recommended to the war 
office at Washington for promotion for 
his great bravery and the papers pro- 
moting him to a brigadier generalship 
were just ordered to be made out when 
he died. One of his daughters married 
Mr. Martin Barbe, a well-known Jew- 
ish citizen of Chicago, and Col. Spie- 
gel's widow is now living with her 
daughter, Mrs. Barbe. A son, Hamlin 
L., is now representing the 5th sena- 
torial district of Chicago in the legisla- 
ture of the state of Illinois. 


Mr. Greenhut is a son of Benedict 
and Minna Greenhut, and was born In 
Feinitz, Austria, coming to this coun- 
try in 1852. He is a man of consider- 
able education and marked executive 
ability. He married Clara Wolfner 
and three children have been born to 
them, Fanny, Ben. J., and Nelson W. 

There is perhaps no epoch in Mr. 
Greenhut's life of which he is more 
proud than his army record. He en- 
listed as a private at Chicago in April, 
1861, In the 12th Illinois Infantry, and 
was the second Chicago man enrolled. 
He was promoted to sergeant in Aug. 

1861, and in 1862 was appointed Cap- 
tain Company K, 82nd Illinois Infan- 
try. He participated in the memorable 
battle of Gettysburg, under the com- 
mand of Brig. Hecker, being appointed 
Adjutant General of the Brigade. Mr. 
Greenhut was shot in the right arm at 
the battle of Fort Donaldson in Feb. 

1862, which caused his retirement un- 
til August of the same year, when he 


joined the 82d. While with this regi- 
ment he passed through the various 


campaigns and battles in Virginia. 
Capt. Greenhut resigned his position 
in the army in 1864, after three long 
and hard years of service, since which 
time he has resided in Peoria. He is 
now in the distilling business and is 
one of the most prominent men In the 
state. Mr. Greenhut has played an 1m- 


portant part in the building up of Peo- 
ria. He Is a liberal contributor to all 
charities and is an active and honored 
man in society. Mr. Greenhut had the 


distinction of entertaining at dinner at 
his residence in Peorla, President Mc- 
Kinley and his entire cabinet during 
their visit at Peoria, Oct. 1899. Presi- 
dent McKinley and Mr. Greenhut have 
been close personal friends for many 


Brigadier General E. S. Salomon en- 
listed at Chicago and marched out -with 
the company which he raised. His 
bravery on the battlefield soon won for 
him the admiration of his superiors, 
and was recognized at Washington. 
He quickly rose to the high rank of 
brigadier general, and after the war he 
was appointed governor of Washing- 
ton Territory. 


Simon Wolf of Washington tells In 
his book that Capt. Mayer Frank was 
elected lieutenant of Company C of the 
Eighty-second regiment, in which he 
served about two years, when he was 
promoted to captain. He enlisted at 
Chicago. He was at Chancellorsville 
and Gettysburg from first to last. Sub- 
sequently he was appointed brigade 
inspector and ordered West. He took 
part in the battle of Wauhatchie and 
at Missionary Ridge, commanding the 
Eightieth. He went with Sherman to 
Knoxville to relieve Burnside. Capt. 
Frank's deeds entitle him to a place 
among the ibravest captains in tho 
service of the United States. Whe 
Capt. Frank volunteered to dislodge 
Confederate sharpshooters, his whole 
company to a man followed him. It 
was subsequent to this act that he was 
appointed brigade inspector. Two 
horses were shot from under him at 
the first day's battle at Gettysburg. He 
scouted for some time in Georgia, Ten- 
nessee and Alabama against guerrilla 
chief "Roddy." 


Mr. Polachek was born in Kaschau 
(Hungary) in the year of 1840. He re- 
ceived his education in the Gymnasi- 
um of his native town, had passed his 
examination for admission to the Uni- 
versity in 1856, entered the Polytech- 
nic School at Vienna in the same year, 
and graduated in the year 1859. In the 
same year the war rumors between 
Austria and Italy had induced him to 
escape military conscription, and emi- 
grate to America, where he arrived in 
April, 1859. After a hard struggle for 
existence in this country he was 
engaged to teach the German language 
in a private school in Cleveland, Ohio. 
When the civil war began he enlisted 
In the thirty days' service, and after 
the expiration, he was commis- 
sioned second lieutenant in the 58th 
Ohio regiment. The regiment seemed 
to be long in filling up its rank, and 
he was transferred to the Ninth Ohio 
regiment. He had just arlrved in camp 
when the first battle was fought 
which gave victory to the Union arms. 
This was the battle at Somerset, Ky., 

where Gen. Zollikofter, the first rebel 
general, was killed. After several 
months of service he was com- 
pelled to resign his commission on ac- 
count of sickness, being confined in 
the hospital for over three months, re- 
turning to Chicago in January of 1863, 
establishing himself in business as op- 
tician, continuing successfully in busi- 
ness until the year of 1883, when he 
was appointed U. S. consul general to 
Zanzibar (Africa). The climate of Zan- 
zibar frightened his family to such 
an extent that he was compelled 
to resign his commission, yet after a 
few months he received again an ap- 
pointment as U. S. consul at Ghent 
(Belgium), where, he was during 
the administrations of President Ar- 
thur and Cleveland, receiving the offi- 
cial commendation of the secretary of 
state for the proper discharge of the 
onerous duties of the U. S. consulate. 


Milton J. Foreman was born in the 
City of Chicago, January 26, 1863. His 


father, Joseph Foreman, had emigrated 
from Germany to seek his fortune in 
the city which had attracted so many 
of his countrymen. His mother Mary 
Hoffman, is a native of Philadelphia. 

The necessity of assisting to provide 
for his family cut short his schooling 
at the age of thirteen, when he had 
completed his course at the public 

He entered the employ of Keith 
Bros., a wholesale hat concern, as er- 
rand boy, and in the intervals allotted 
for rest the boy could be found, 
book in hand, trying to improve his 
mind. He remained with Keith Bros, 
almost twenty years, and from the po- 
sition of errand boy, he worked his 
way up through all the stages until he 
became the most prominent salesman 
in the concern and hold an interest in 
the corporation. 

At a time of life when most young 
men consider themselves too old, Major 
Foreman commenced the study of the 
law and after the required period of 
study, passed with credit his examina- 
tion to the bar. While he was still 

studying law, the call came from Pres- 
ident McKinley for volunteers to es- 
pouse the cause of down-trodden Cuba. 
Mr. Foreman, who at that time was a 
captain in the First Illinois Cavalry, 
enlisted in the United States volunteer 
army, being commissioned captain and 
quartermaster. It was while he was 
gtill with his command at Springfield, 
waiting for the call to go to the front, 
that the bar examination took place, 
and he was granted leave of absence 
so as to take such examination. After 
seven months' service in the volunteer 
army, at the close of hostilities, he re- 
turned to Chicago. 

When President McKinley was look- 
ing for officers to send to the Philip- 
pines, without any solicitation on the 
part of Major Foreman, and solely on 
account of his record in the depart- 
ment, he was offered the position of 
captain in the 30th United States in- 
fantry. The offer was a tempting one, 
but Mr. Foreman was just starting In 
the professional work which he had 
so long desired to engage in, and was 
compelled to decline. Soon after his 
admission to the bar he associated 
himself with Mr. Eli B. Felsenthal, 
and is now a member of the firm of 
Felsenthal and Foreman, which firm 
occupies a conspicuous place at the Il- 
linois bar. 

In 1900 he was elected major of the 
First Calvalry, Illinois National Guard. 
He was elected as alderman of what 
is now the Third Ward in the city of 
Chicago in 1899 and re-elected this 
year. He has received the unqualified 
indorsement of the Municipal Voters' 
League, of his constituents and of the 
public press of the city. Possessed of 
an excellent mind, great activity and 
fearlessness, he has made his influence 
felt for good in the City Council. He 
was elected chairman of the judiciary 
committee, one of the most important 
committees in the City Council. He 
was also made chairman of the Street 
Railway Commission, a special com- 
mittee engaged in solving one of the 
most difficult problems now confront- 
ing the city the question of intra- 
mural travel. 

Major Foreman is a member of Sinai 
Congregation, and of the Standard, 
Union League.Hamilton and Marquette 
Clubs, having been at one time vice- 
president and director of the Standard. 
He has always taken a deep interest 
in Jewish charities and occupied the 
positions of president, vice-president 
and director of the Young Men's He- 
brew Charity Association, and was a 
director of the Jewish Training School 
and Home for Aged Jews. 

Added to his ability, restless activity 
and fearlessness, Mr. Foreman pos- 
sesses undoubted qualities of leader- 
ship. This combination of qualities, 
together with his public record as al- 
derman and in the army, have won for 
him the confidence and esteem of his 
fellow-citizens, and a still more bril- 
liant future is predicted for him. 





The two families of Austrian and 
Leopold have been prominent In Chica- 
go for many years. They came to 
Chicago from the Lake Superior region 
and formed the Lake Michigan and 
Lake Superior Transportation Co., en- 
gaging in freight and passenger trans- 
portation on Lake Michigan and Lake 
Superior, to Mackinac, Sault Ste. Marie 
and Duluth and did an extensive busi- 
ness. For a number of years, until re- 
cently, their luxuriously furnished pas- 
senger boat, Manitou, has been exten- 
sively patronized by summer pleasure 
seekers, who wished to enjoy the cool 
and delightful climate of the Lake Su- 
perior region. The boat was then sold 
to a company, in which Mr. Nathan F. 
Leopold still holds the largest interest. 
Mr. N. F. Leopold is the son of one of 
the Leopold brothers who settled in 
Mackinac in the early forties, and were 
the first Jews in that region. He 
married a daughter of the late Mr. 
Gerhard Foreman, who is related to 
the Greenebaum family, and who was a 
prominent banker of Chicago, the 
founder of the Foreman Bros. Banking 
Co., a. very popular financial institution 
of today. 

The history of this old Jewish fam- 
ily, favorably known as successful mer- 
chants in the Lake Superior region and 
in Chicago, appeared in 1866, in the 
Portage, Mich., Gazette, and was copied 
in the American Israelite under date 
of April 13th, 1866. We believe that 
the history of this popular and high- 
ly respected family will be read with 
interest by their many relatives and 
friends, and we therefore publish it 
here. They were brave, honest and 
upright business men, and the story 
of their pioneer life in a sparsely set- 
tled region, of their struggles, hard- 
ships and ultimate success.will serve as 
^n enouraging example for many a 
young beginner. 

Following is their history as we find 
it in the Amerian Israelite: 

Dissolution of the Oldest Merchant 
Firm on Lake Superior The Leo- 
pold Brothers Sketch of their Op- 
erations A Pioneer History. 
In our last issue we made a brief no- 
tice of the dissolution of the well 
known firm of Leopold & Brothers, do- 
ing business in Hancock, Chicago and 
Eagle River, the oldest business firm 
on Lake Superior af*er a successful 
existence of over twenty years. The 
firm has been composed of Louis F. t 
Henry F., Aaron F., and Samuel F. 
Leopold and Joseph, Julius and Samuel 
Austrian, the latter being the last ad- 
mitted partner, and not so intimately 
connected with the history of the firm. 
From the very inception of business 
transactions within the wilds of Lake 
Superior down to the present day, the 
firm of the brothers has been identified 
with the struggles, hardships, success- 
es, and all the varyinglnterests of the 
country, have participated with its 

good and ill fortunes, many times car- 
rying burdens that less confident com- 
petitors shrank from bearing; never 
once fearing that all would be well in 
the end, and after gathering a rich re- 
ward retired from the field, leaving an 
untarnished history, and brilliant rec- 
ord as an incentive to their successors. 

The Messrs. Leopold are natives of 
the little town of Rlchen, in the Great 
Duchy of Baden, Germany, and there 
received the . elementary education 
which fitted them to become the 
shrewd and successful merchants they 
have proven to be. They first began 
business life as clerks in an ordinary 
country store, as it may not be inaptly 
termed, as .Richen was but a small 
place, having a less population than 
either Hancock or Houghton, here on 
Portage Lake. 

Early in the year 1842, Louis, the 
elder brother, who has since become 
the '"father" of the firm, left his home 
to try his fortunes in the New World, 
with a stout heart, and but a very 
moderate amount of means whereon 
to build up a fortune, upon arriving in 
this country he very shrewdly foresaw 
that the great West, then but just at- 
tracting attention, was the most prom- 
ising field for men of enterprise and 
limited capital, and instead of joining 
in the precarious struggle for position 
and existence, even so peculiar to the 
crowded cities of the Eastern states, 
he at once wended his way to Michi' 
gan, then considered one of the West- 
ern states. 

Early in the year 1843 he opened a 
small depot for fishermen's supplies on 
the island of Mackinac, providing for 
them provisions, salt, barrels, etc., and 
purchasing the fish caught, and for- 
warding them by vessels to better mar- 
kets. The business could not have 
been a very extensive one, for when 
joined by his brothers three years 
afterward, their united capital is stated 
as being but little more than $3,000, 
but which has since been increased by 
their energy, prudence and foresight, 
at least one hundred fold. 

In the year 1844, Louis was joined by 
his brother Henry (Aaron and Samuel 
serving their time in the store of Rich- 
en), who for a short time became his 
assistant at Mackinac. At that time 
there was but one steamboat plying on 
the headwaters of Lake Huron and 
Michigan, the old General Scott, which 
made regular trips between Mackinac 
and Sault Ste. Marie. 

Shortly after his arrival at Mackinac, 
Henry conceived the idea of going to 
La Pointe with a small stock of goods, . 
and attending the Indian payment, an 
enterprise never before undertaken by 
a trader from below the Sault. At 
that time Lapointe was a much larger 
place than it is now, was the principal 
station of Lake Superior, of the Ameri- 
can Fur Company ^and the leading 
business point above the Sault. Every 
fall, the government disbursed among 
the Indians some $40,000 to $50,000, 
which before the arrival of the Leopold 
Brothers found its way almost entirely 
into the coffers of the Fur Company. 

In the latter part of the spring the 
brothers left Mackinac on the old Gen- 
eral Scott, and went to the Sault with 
their goods, and after much difficulty 
succeeded in chartering the schooner 
Chippewa, Captain Clark, to take them 
to Lapointe for $300. There were but 
four small schooners on Lake Superior 
that season, the Chippewa, Uncle Sam, 
Allegonquin and Swallow. The trip 
from the Sault to Lapointe occupied 
some three weeks, but one stop being 
made at Copper Harbor, which was 
then beginning its existence. The 
building of Ft. Wilkins was then go- 
ing on. Little or no thought of mining 
then occurred to the inhabitants, and 
did not until two or three years sub- 

Arrived safely at Lapointe, they at 
once opened a store in opposition to 
that of the Fur Company, and were, 
much to the surprise of the latter, the 
first white traders who undertook an 
opposition trade with the Indians. 
They sold their goods for furs, fish, 
etc., and prospered well. In the fall 
they were joined by Julius Austrian 
(now at Eagle River) and Louis leav- 
ing him with Henry, returned to 

In the summer of 1845 Henry also re- 
turned to Mackinac, leaving Julius to 
attend to the business at Lapointe. He 
remained in Mackinac until the year 
1846, when Aaron and Samuel came out 
from Germany and joined them at that 
place. The four brothers at once 
united their fortunes; in fact in all 
their business career they do not ap- 
pear to have thought of dividing them. 
Everything they had was, from the 
outset, common property, and each 
labored for the genera 1 ! welfare. They 
appeared to have fully understood the 
truthfulness of th adage, that, in 
"Unity there is strength," and however 
varied and scattered may have been 
their operations, the profits went into 
the general fund. 

In the season of 1846 Henry and 
Samuel went to Green Bay, and opened 
a store in Follett's block, remained 
there until early in 1848, but did not 
succeed as well as they anticipated. 
Green Bay was then a miserable place 
in comparison with what it is now, 
and its growth very much retarded 
by the grasping policy of the site own- 
ers, John Jacob Astor and Mr. Whit- 
ney, a brother of the present postmas- 
ter. They would not sell lots at any- 
thing near what was considered a rea- 
sonable figure, and the result was that 
after many vain endeavors to secure 
property very many business men left 
for other places, holding out better in- 
ducements for settlement. While at 
Green Bay, Samuel began tjie study of 
the English language, under the tute- 
lage of a young Methodist minister 
who considered himself liberally re- 
warded by return instruction in the 
German language. 

Early in 1847, Joseph Austrian, the 
subsequent brother-in-law of the Leo- 
polds, came out from Germany, and 
joined his brother, Julius, at Lapointe, 
where he remained until the next 



spring, when he joined Henry Leopold 
at Eagle River, who had opened a 
small store In an old stable, the habita- 
tion of one cow. A partition was put 
up, and about two-thirds of her lady- 
ship's parlor fitted up for the sale of 
dry goods, groceries, etc. The shanty 
stood on the lot now owned by John 
Hocking, the second from the corner 
in the turn of the road down to the 
old bridge across Eagle River. 

There was then but one opposition 
store in Eagle River, that of Messrs. 
Senter and Mandlebaum, with whom 
Henry and Joe entered into lively 
competition for the trade of the place. 

The same season Samuel joined Aaron 
and Louis at Mackinac, where their 
business had materially increased, 
and remained there until the season 
of 1855, when they left and returned 
to Lake Superior. Louis had previous- 
ly left and established himself at 
Cleveland, where he remained until he 
went to Chicago in the fall of 1862. 
During this period he acted as the pur- 
chasing agent of the brothers on the 

In the fall of 1855 Samuel started a 
branch store at Eagle Harbor in a 
small shanty not more than twenty 
feet square, situated on the lot now 
owned by Hoffenbecker, and the shan- 
ty now forms a part of his building. 
At the time there were five mines 
working in that vicinity, as follows: 
Copper Falls, S. W. Hill, agent; North- 
western (Pennsylvania), M. Hopkins, 
agent; Summit (Madison), Jonathan 
Cox, agent; Connecticut (Amygdaloid), 
C. B. Petrie, agent. 

The Copper Falls and Northwest 
were the two great mines of the Dis- 
trict, the others doing but little beyond 
exploration at that time. 

In 1856 Samuel bought out Upson 
and Hoopes, who had been doing a 
good business in the building now oc- 
cupied by Messrs. Raley, Shapley & 
Co., and was that season joined by 
Aaron, who, since leaving Mackinac, 
had been spending his time with Louis, 
in Cleveland. Samuel was appointed 
postmaster at Eagle Harbor, and ac- 
ceptably filled the office till his depart- 
ure in 1859. 

The three brothers, Henry, Sam- 
uel and Aaron, and their brother-in- 
law, Jos. Austrian, might now be said 
to be operating in the same field with 
the elder brother, Louis, at Cleveland, 
as their ever wide-awake purchasing 
agent. For a year or two they pros- 
pered as well as they could desire, but 
the hard times of 1857-8 tried them 
pretty severely, but by the most adroit 
management they came through safe- 
ly. At Eagle River, in 1857, 
there were four mines at work, 
the Garden City, Phoenix, Bay State 
and Cliff. This was after the great sil- 
ver excitement at the Phoenix, and 
when the reaction had fully set in. 
The assessments were grudgingly paid, 
if at all, and the workmen at the mine 
that winter were paid in orders on Leo- 
pold Brothers, who paid them in goods 
and currency. To enable the company 

to get along as easily as possible they 
took thirty day drafts on the treasurer 
in Boston, which were paid when due 
and presented. As the winter passed, 
the time of the drafts were extended 
from thirty to sixty, ninety, and finally 
to one hundred and twenty days, and 
in the spring, the firm was astonished 
by a notification that the drafts had 
gone to protest. The mine then owed 
them about $20,000, a large sum, especi- 
ally when it is considered that they 
were also carrying nearly $10,000 for 
the Garden City Mine, which was also 
struggling along like the Phoenix. 

The first news received by the pub- 
lic of the protesting of the drafts was 
communicated by the clerk of one of 
the steamboats, and created no small 
amount of excitement, especially 
among the employes of the mine, who 
naturally became fearful and clamor- 
ous for their back pay. The Leopold 
Brothers told them to go on and work, 
and they would be responsible for their 
pay. This quieted them, and the work 
of the mine continued as before. 

Upon receiving information of the 
protesting of the Phoenix drafts, Sam- 
uel was at once dispatched to Boston 
to consult with the company about 
their payment. To secure themselves 
they could have attached the mining 
property, improvements and machin- 
ery, but such was their confidence in 
the integrity of the agent, Mr. Farwell, 
President, Mr. Jackson, and Secretary, 
and Treasurer, Mr. Coffin, that this 
was not done. Upon his arrival in 
Boston, Samuel found that Mr. Far- 
well had held a consultation with the 
Directors, and in his most emphatic 
manner demanded that Messrs. Leo- 
pold should be reimbursed the money 
they had advanced for the mine. 

Another meeting was called and 
Samuel presented a statement of the 
amount due his firm, and inquired 
what they intended to do. It was dif- 
ficult for them to say, and after many 
long consultations no definite course 
of action was decided upon. Believ- 
ing that delays were dangerous Samuel 
proposed that he and his brothers 
would take the property in satisfaction 
of their demand, pay off the Company's 
indebtedness, amounting to nearly 
$10,000, and perjiaps pay them a few 
thousand dollars on the head of the 

Another consultation followed this 
offer, and it was finally concluded that 
if a merchant firm considered the prop- 
erty sufficiently valuable to pay there- 
for nearly $40,000, it must be worth 
at least that much to the company. 
Some three thousand shares of Phoenix 
stock had been forfeited for the non- 
payment of an assessment of $1.50 
per share, and these shares were offer- 
ed Mr. Leopold in satisfaction of his 
claim. He, of course, declined, saying 
he would take the whole property, or 
nothing. Another* consultation was 
held and a meeting of stockholders was 
called, an assessment was levied and In 
a few days enough paid in to liquidate 
his demands, and he started for home 

mentally determining that in future 
the Phoenix should give sight drafts 
for all. future orders, and that they 
would no longer assume, or be identi- 
fied with its obligations. It required 
no small amount of finesse to make the 
discouraged stockholders of the Phoe- 
nix believe that there was a sufficiently 
valuable property to further advance 
$2 or $3 per share on its stock, but the 
cool offer to take its property for its 
indebtedness, completely assured them 
and saved the Messrs. Leopold their 

But it is said ill fortune never comes 
singly; and this was true of the af- 
fairs of Leopold & Brothers. Samuel 
had scarcely arrived in Cleveland 
when Louis informed him that their 
Garden City drafts had been protested 
and the same night he hurried on to 
Chicago to provide security for the in- 
debtedness. Arriving there he did not 
find the Company as tractable as the 
Phoenix, and after much parleying 
found the best they were willing to do 
was to give him a mortgage on their 
stamp mill, as security for the $10,000. 
Very correctly deeming this insuffici- 
ent, he returned home, and got out an 
attachment for the whole property of 
the Company. This had the desired ef- 
fect, and the claim was secured by a 
mortgage and the attachment with- 
drawn. Shortly afterward the mine 
passed into the hands of a new party of 
men, with Judge Canton at their 
head, and in a short time the claim was 
satisfactorily adjusted. 

In 1858, the firm had much difficulty 
in collecting their orders on the mines 
in the vicinity of Eagle Harbor, and it 
was finally determined to sell out their 
store and build up a business else- 
where. S. W. Hill, Esq., had then left 
the Copper Falls and assumed the 
direction of the Quincy Mine here at 
this place. He foresaw that Portage 
Lake, possessing as it did so many 
natural advantages, would eventually 
become the grand business point or 
the copper region, and with his accus- 
tomed energy began the laying out of 
the town site now occupied by the vil- 
lage of Hancock. Soon after this was 
done he wrote to the Messrs. Leopold, 
urging them to come over and open a 
store there, but they did not give the 
offer much consideration that year, as 
nearly everybody in Keweenow Coun- 
ty ridiculed the idea of Portage Lake 
ever becoming anything of a place. 

That year, however, they sold out 
their business at Eagle Harbor, and re- 
moved to Eagte River, where Samuel 
was for the second time appointed 
Postmaster, and their business con- 
ducted by him and Jos. Austrian. Their 
present store site at Eagle River had 
been previously purchased, and addi- 
tions annually made to their main 
building, as their business demanded, 
until they were of a much greater ex- 
tent than the original frame. 

In the summer of 1859, Jos. Austrian, 
who was the building man of the firm, 
came over from Eagle River to Han- 
cock with Geo. D. Emerson, C. E., and 



selected a site for their new store, and 
chose the lots on which now stands the 
Mason House and the Congregational 
Church, and the dock front now owned 
by Little, Heyn & Eytenbenz, but 
Louis, who came up about that time, 
changed to the present site, deeming 
the other too remote from what would 
be the business center of the town. 
This was judged from the line of the 
road coming down from the mine, and 
the location of the Stamp Mill, around 
which he naturally concluded the 
workmen's dwellings would cluster. 
In this he was slightly mistaken, 
though the real difference was unim- 
portant; we give it merely to show 
how easily the most careful and cal- 
culating men may make a mistake. 

After the site was determined upon, 
building was commenced, but as their 
faith in the future growth of the place 
was small, they did not propose to 
erect a large store, or even construct a 
substantial cellar underneath. Mr. 
Hill, hearing of their intention, at once 
paid them a visit and strongly protest- 
ed against it. "This is going to be a 
leading town," he said, "and I want a 
good large store, and a stone cellar 
underneath it." He carried the day, 
and a larger building was completed, 
which two years afterward was too 
small for the business, even with the 
addition of a large warehouse for stor- 
ing additional supplies. 

As soon as the building was com- 
menced, Louis began to send up goods 
from Celeveland, and Aaron came over 
from Eagle River to take charge of the 
new business. He scarcely reached 
here before the goods arrived, and were 
stored in the building before it was 
closed in, and he for several weeks had 
to make his bed on the goods virtually 
in the open air. As this was in the 
fall of the year, it was not pleasant, as 
may be at first supposed. Since then 
their principal business has been done 
at Hancock, the old head concern at 
Eagle River having been a branch. 

In the fall of 1861, Aaron concluded 
to visit his home in Germany, to at- 
tend the golden wedding anniversary 
of his parents, and Samuel came over 
from Eagle River to take his place in 
the store. The celebration of the gold- 
en wedding was the grandest event 
which had happened in the little town 
of Richen for fully one hundred years, 
and, probably, will not be equaled in 
the present century. It would be im- 
possible within the limits of this ar- 
ticle to give a full description of the 
proceedings on that festival occasion, 
suffice it to say, that all ihe inhabi- 
tants of Richen and the neighboring 
towns, to the number of full five thou- 
sand assembled, and under the guid- 
ance of the mayor and municipal offi- 
cers, for three days kept up a continu- 
ous round of merry-making and re- 
joicing. On the anniversary wedding 
day a procession over a mile in length 
waited upon the "happy couple," and 
escorted them to the church, where ap- 
propriate and imposing services were 
performed. In the name of his broth- 
ers Aaron presented the church with a 

copy of the Sacred Writings, beauti- 
fully engrossed on parchment, which, 
with its ornamented silver case, cost 
over |600. All the halls and hotels 
were opened to the public, where for 
three days and nights they feasted, 
drank and danced without intermis- 
sion and free of expense. The celebra- 
tion of this golden wedding cost the 
brothers over |5,000, but which they 
rightfully considered the grandest 
event in their history. 

In the fall of 1862, Joseph Austrian 
joined the firm at Hancock, and Louis 
removed from Cleveland to Chicago, 
which point they had concluded would 
soon monopolize the trade of Lake Su- 
perior. In the spring of 1864 he com- 
menced a shipping business in that 
city, and early in the following winter 
was joined by Jos. Austrian, and the 
purchase of the propeller Ontonagon 
effected, and a forwarding and com- 
mission business regularly organized. 
Lately they have purchased the light- 
draft propeller Norman, intending it 
to run in connection with the Ontona- 

In 1862 their branch house at La- 
pointe was given up, and Julius Aus- 
trian returned to Eagle River, and, in 
connection with Solomon, conducted 
the branch at that place. The firm 
now is composed of Solomon and Jul- 
ius Austrian and Moses G. Hanauer, 
who for several years has acted as 
bookkeeper for the firm, under the 
firm name of S. Austrian & Co. The 
Hancock firm is composed of H. F. 
Leopold, Joseph and Solomon Aus- 
trian, under the title of Leopold, Aus- 
trian & Bro. The Chicago firm is 
composed of L. F. Leopold and 
Joseph Austrian, under the name of 
Leopold & Austrian. Mr. S. F. Leo- 
pold will return to Germany, upon 
the opening of navigation, and spend 
a year in pleasure and relaxation, 
which he certainly merits after twen- 
ty years constant labor. Aaron will 
remain here during the coming sum- 
mer, and in the fall will go below 
and establish a wholesale business in 
Detroit, where it is probable he will 
be joined by Samuel after his return 
from Europe. 

That the Messrs. Leopold have been 
more than ordinarily successful in 
their mercantile career of over twenty 
years is made evident from the extent 
and variety of their business transac- 
tions within the past five years, and 
the very large amount of capital re- 
quired to carry it on successfully and 
properly. We feel confident that the 
joint capital of $3,000, with which they 
commenced business in 1843, had been 
increased one hundred times by tha 
close of the past year, and we should 
not be surprised if it had augmented 
even more than that. It has been the 
result of no particularly good fortune, 
but of persistent application in one 
direction, and the only exception to 
the ordinary course of operation 
which can be said to have contributed 
to their success, has been the remark- 
able unity which has pervaded all 

their business transactions, whether 
located at Mackinac, Green Bay, La- 
pointe, Eagle River, Cleveland, Eagle 
Harbor, Portage Lake or Chicago, 
each member of the firm has labored, 
not for his benefit alone, but that ot 
the whole brotherhood. 

And at this partial termination of 
their active associations, it is with a 
pride which but few firms experience 
after so long connection, they can 
say that in all their twenty years' re- 
lation with each other there has never 
been a disagreement to mar the har- 
m6ny and unity of their operations. 
Whatever has been done by one, even 
though it did not result as anticipated, 
has met with the immediate sanction 
of the others, who had unlimited con- 
fidence in the integrity of his inten- 
tions to benefit them all. Until now 
there has been no division of the ac- 
cumulated profits; a.11 has been placed 
in one general fund, from which each 
has drawn as the wants or exigencies 
of their business demanded. Neither 
of them have indulged in any private 
outside investments or speculations, 
the profits of which has resulted to his 
own pecuniary benefit. Profit and 
loss has been shared alike by them 
all. Such unanimity of action is very 
rarely to be met with, especially In 
these modern days of "every man for 
himself and the devil take the hind- 
most," and is, therefore, jthe more 
commendable. Although nominally 
dissolved, at present, we are of the 
opinion that after S. F. Leopold has re- 
turned from his vacation in Europe the 
old order of things will again prevail, 
for, after such a lengthy and intimate 
association, it will be difficult for 
either of them to operate independent 
of the rest, after such a practical veri- 
fication of the truthfulness of the ad- 
age on which they founded their busi- 
ness existence, that "In union there is 

We also copy the following letter, 
which, in our estimation, forms a part 
of and belongs to the history of the 
Leopold family. We understand that 
the son of whose birth the writer of 
the letter to the "Israelite" speaks, 
was the first Jewish child born in 
the northern region of Michigan: 

"Chicago, July 18, 1863. 
"Editor of The Israelite: 

I have just now returned from 
Lake Superior, where I have found all 
my brothers and friends and the read- 
ers of The Israelite and Deborah in 
perfect good health. I cannot refrain 
from giving you a little history of a 
very noble act, the fruit of which in 
hereby enclosed, being a draft for $30, 
which you will please to appropriate 
to the purpose for which it has been 
destined, namely at a Berith which 
took place on a child of my brother at 
his house in Hancock, Lake Superior. 
After about forty participants had 
done justice to a very luxurious din- 
ner, with the permission of Mr. Hoff- 
man of Cleveland, the operator, a mo- 
tion was made that the saying of grace 



should be sold, and the proceeds appro- 
priated to some charitable purpose, 
whereupon Brother Samuel made an 
amendment that the proceeds should 
be sent to Dr. Wise of Cincinnati, to 
be appropriated by him for the monu- 
ment to be erected for Dr. Rothen- 
helm; the sheriff, Mr. Fechheimer, sec- 
onded the motion, and the same was 
unanimously carried. Brother A. F. 
was the last bidder with $30, conse- 
quently he was the lucky purchaser, 
and bestowed the honor on your hum- 
ble correspondent. 

The act is worth imitating, and if 
you think it worth mentioning you 
may give it publicity in The Israelite 
and Deborah. 

"Yours truly, 

"L. F. Leopold." 




The careless wanderer through the 
woods often suddenly reaches a garden 


spot in a clearing where his eye feasts 
on nature's beauties, the dainty child- 
ren of the forest, the laughing flowers 
of the field. His refreshed eye discov- 
ers in a rare retreat a budding rose 
hidden among the foliage, diffidently 
turning its princely petals to the light 
and sunshine. Unconsciously its pow- 
erful perfume attracts and pleases, and 
the wanderer can hardly turn his gaze 
away from its enchanting beauty. 

Such a feeling of delight the writer 
experienced when for the first time the 
great pleasure was his to make the ac- 
quaintance of the young man whose 
name stands at the head of this arti- 
cle. The rare intellectuality of the 
man at once exercised its powerful at- 
traction, making a pleasant impression, 
and awakening regret at the parting. 

Mr. Rei witch is a busy man; he is 
the city editor of a great dally news- 
paper in this metropolis .of the west, 
yet, in the midst of all the noise and 
bustle of a great newspaper office, he 
finds a cordial greeting, a friendly 
word and a pleasant smile for every- 
body. This is a rare gift of tempera- 
ment betokening a sweetness of the 

soul, seldom granted by nature's boun- 
ty to mental workers. 

Mr. Reiwitch Is a self-made man in 
the truest sense of the word, who rais- 
ed himself to the honorable position he 
now occupies by the strength of his 
own will, by his daughty determina- 
tion, by hard work, and constant appli- 
cation, aided by many glorious gifts 
of mind. He deserves to shine in wider 
circles, but a diffident nature seems to 
keep him confined within the sphere 
of his activity and the limits of his 

By perusing "the fragments of his 
life," as he called it, when he reluct- 
antly related to us the few facts which 
we have endeavored to join together, 
the reader will at once feel that he is 
becoming acquainted with the life of 
a rising man. 

Mr. Reiwitch was born December 
25th, 1868, near Odessa, Russia. He 
came to this country at the age of five 
years. His father had preceded his 
mother and this son of two or three 
years. Reiwitch spent his boyhood in 
New York city, and was compelled to 
quit school at the age of eleven, for 
he had to help feed the young mouths 
who were making their appearance, 
and who finally numbered four girls 
and a boy. He came to Chicago at the 
age of 14 and for a little while was an 
A. D. T. messenger. He then found 
a job in the Tribune office as office boy, 
carrying "copy" from the editors to the 
printers. This was the school where he 
trained himself in journalism. A year 
and a half later Mr. R. W. Patterson, 
then managing editor of the paper, 
urged him to try reporterial work. He 
was shockingly young, almost a child, 
but as he found himself in deep water 
he resolved to swim. He was given a 
start and put out in the street. He was 
often sent to see people who couldn't 
believe that the youngster who came to 
interview them was really a reporter; 
he was such a babyish looking boy. 
One of his encounters was with the 
jovial Bob Ingersoll, who was so im- 
pressed by the courage of the young 
stripling that he wound up by giving 
him a good interview. 

In 1886, when the eight-hour labor 
troubles reached their height, he was 
labor reporter for the Tribune, and the 
duties of his post carried him through 
the convulsions of that year in Chica- 
go. He was a spectator In the "Black 
Road" and "Haymarket Square riots," 
and he took part in the last act of the 
tragedy, when he was assigned to the 
hanging. Miscellaneous work followed 
these assignments, including some 
hard labor at the Johnstown flood, and 
Louisville cyclone; then came police 
work. For three years he was hidden 
in this shadowy side of life, and he 
thinks that this is perhaps the most 
fascinating side of newspaper work for 
one interested in sociology. He left 
this work reluctantly to become copy- 
reader, and after ten years of service 
on the Tribune, he left to take a better 
position on the Herald, now the Rec- 
ord-Herald. After a year's service as 
assistant editor he was made city edi- 

tor, being then the most youthful city 
editor Chicago had had. This was in 
the fall of 1893, and he was then under 
25 years of age. He has been there 
ever since. His work is executive. 

His personal tastes have run to pic- 
torial art and music, neither of which 
he has been able to indulge much. His 
newspaper work having been too ex- 
acting to permit any time for the culti- 
vation of ornamental accomplishments. 
He tried to attend night school at the 
Art Institute, but had to abandon that 
owing to lack of time. Still he did not 
give up entirely his musical studies, 
for which art he has quite a talent, and 
he may be called an accomplished 

Socially he is not very ambitious. 
He prefers a quiet interchange of ideal 
with unpretentious people. He is not 
a club man, although he is one of the 
old members of the Press Club. 

His home life has the greatest fas- 
cination for him; there his whole 
pleasures are concentrated. There he 
finds recreation, inspiration, invigorat- 
ing entertainment and refreshing 
amusement, in the company of four 
sisters, good-natured, sensible and 
keen-witted; in the love of a solicitous 
mother and in the appreciation of a 
witty father. These and a few good 
friends are his paradise. 



Dr. Abt is a native of Illinois, and 
was born in Wilmington. He is a son 


of Levi and Henrietta Abt of this city. 
His early education was in the schools 
of Chicago and in 1886 he entered 
Johns Hopkins University, completing 
his preliminary course in medicine in 
1889. He graduated from the North- 
western University Medical School in 
1891, and was resident physician of 
Michael Reese Hospital for eighteen 
months subsequent to graduation, and 
afterwards pursued a post-graduate 
course in Vienna and Berlin. 

Dr. Abt is professor of diseases of 
children at the Northwestern Univer- 
sity Woman's Medical school, Assist- 
ant Clinical Professor for diseases of 



children at Rush Medical College, at- 
tending physician, diseases of children, 
in Michael Reese Hospital, Cook Coun- 
ty Hospital, and Chicago Home for 
Jewish Orphans, and consulting physi- 
cian for diseases of children in the 
Provident Hospital. His wife's maiden 
name was Lena Rosenberg, and they 
have one child living, Arthur Abt. 


Dr. Kuh was born in New York city, 
June 20, 1858. His parents were Isaac 
and Mathilde Kuh. He was educated in 


the public schools of New York, Swit- 
zerland and in Germany, attending the 
Universities of Heidelberg, Leipzig and 

He is a member of a number of mu- 
sical societies and author of many 
valuable articles on medical topics. He 
is a member of the Society for Ethical 
Culture. He married Miss Jennie 
Cahn of Chicago, and they have three . 

Dr. Friend was born in this city, 


where he received his early education, 
graduating from the High School and 
Rush Medical College. Later he went 

abroad, studying in Heidelberg, Berlin 
and Vienna, completing his education. 
Returning to Chicago he ibegan his 
practice here, which has since become 
very large and lucrative. The doctor 
is the author of various medical papers 
and is at present instructor in surgery 
at Rush Medical College, attending sur- 
geon to one department of Michael 
Reese Hospital, and pathologist to the 
Michael Reese Hospital, attending sur- 
geon to the United Hebrew Charity 
Dispensary, clinical assistant professor 
of surgery at Rush Medical College, 
and a member of various medical so- 

Dr. Friend is unmarried, and is a 
son of Berman and 'Hannah Friend, 
both living in Chicago. Although 
a young man, he is known as one of 
the city's prominent physicians. 


questioned. He is an excellent public 
speaker and deep thinker, and a man 
whose council is always sought by his 



Mr. Alschuler was born in Chicago, 
Nov. 20th, 1859. His parents, Jacob 
and Karoline came from Grunstadt, 
Bavaria, and when young Samuel was 
but two years of age they removed to 
Aurora, where he has lived ever since. 
He received his early education in the 
public schools of Aurora and when 
still a young man became prominent in 
public affairs. He was elected a mem- 
ber of the legislature from his district 
and made such a good and efficient rec- 
ord that he was soon recognized as a 
leader in the lower house in this state. 
He has been re-elected several times 
and in the eyes of his constituents no 
office is too good for him. He was cho- 
sen by the Democratic party as their 
nominee for Governor in the last Gu- 
bernatorial election, making a most re- 
markable run against overwhelming 
odds. His popularity ran him many 
thousand votes ahead of his ticket and 
his defeat was only caused by the over- 
whelming majority obtained by Presi- 
dent McKinley in this state, which car- 
ried the balance of the ticket with him. 
Mr. Alschuler is a man of sterling 
quality and his honesty has never been 


party. He is a recognized leader of 
the Democratic party in this state and 
his friends and admirers are to be 
found in every county of Illinois. He 
recently associated himself with Mr. 
Adolph Kraus, and this new law firm 
witji the immense prestige of both of 
these gentlemen, forms one of the 
strongest law firms in Chicago. Mr. 
Alschuler still retains his residence in 
Aurora, coming to and fro every day. 
He is still a young man and a great 
future is predicted for him. 


Israel Cowen was born in Houston, 
Texas, December 12, 1861. He received 
his early education in the public 
schools of Texas and completed his 
education in Germany. On his return 
he commenced the study of law in Den- 
ver, Colo., coming to Chicago later, and 
continuing the study at Union College 
of Law. 'He graduated therefrom In 
1881 when 20 years of age. Studied 
code practice in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 


until he reached his majority; then re- 
turned to Chicago and was admitted to 
the bar, January 4th, 1882. He was 



appointed master in chancery of the 
Superior Court of Cook county, Illi- 
nois, and served in that capacity from 
May, 1896, until March, 1899. He was 
the Democratic nominee for judge of 
the Superior Court of Cook county at 
the election held November 6th, 1900. 

He has been identified prominently 
in B'nai B'rith circles, being a past 
president of District No. 6, and a dele- 
gate to the Constitutional Grand Lodge 
of the Order for the last twelve years. 
He instituted the intellectual advance- 
ment feature of District No. 6, and has 
been chairman of the committee on in- 
tellectual advancement of said district 
for the last 11 years. 

Mr. Cowen has been closely identified 
with Jewish interests. Is secretary of 
K. A. M. and is a member of the Board 
of Delegates on Civil and Religious 
Rights of the Union of American He- 
brew Congregations. Has been a mem- 
ber of the executive committee of the 
Sabbath School Union of America and 
of the Jewish Chautauqua Society. He 
was also a member of the executive 
committee in aid of Russian refugees, 
at the time the society was in exist- 
ence, and of the Roumanian Aid So- 
ciety. Is now a member of the Board 
of Directors of the Home for Aged 
Jews of Chicago, and also of the Or- 
thodox Home for Aged Jews, now be- 
ing projected, and of the Jewish Agri- 
culturists' Aid Society. 

Mr. Cowen was married to Miss Al- 
ma Desenberg of Kalamazoo, Mich., 
March 15th, 1897, and has one child. 
Though yet a young mail, he has given 
much attention and time to charitable, 
Jewish and public affairs. He Is a 
member of the Lakeside Club, the Sun- 
set Club and the Iroquois Club. 


Is a native of Iowa. His father was 
Samuel Hirschl. The ancestral home 
of the Hirschl family was Bohemia; 
one branch of the family removed to 
Hungary and another branch to Han- 
over, Germany, and subsequently from 
there to England. The celebrated Sir 
William Herschl was of this branch of 
the family. 

Samuel Hirschl, the father of the 
subject of this sketch, went to Hun- 
gary and married Theresa Kohn, a na- 
tive of Vienna. When the political 
agitations began in Hungary they em- 
igrated to the United States, settling 
at Davenport, Iowa, where Andrew J. 
was born. 

A. J. Hirschl received his academic 
education at Griswold College, Iowa, 
and later the full course at Amherst, 
taking the Bachelor of Arts degree. 
His legal education was obtained at 
the Iowa State University. He prac- 
ticed law for a tintfe in his native city, 
Davenport. In 1891 he" came to Chi- 
cago and associated himself with the 
now well-known firm of Rosenthal, 
Kurtz & Hirschl. 

Mr. Hirschl Is the author of "Consol- 
idation of Corporations." While a res- 
ident of Iowa he held a lecture chair in 

the Law Department of the Iowa State 
University. After coming to Chicago 
in 1891 he assumed a like responsibility 


in the Chicago College of Law, which 
position he still holds. Mr. Hirschl 
is classed among Chicago's ablest law- 
yers. He is a Republican in politics, 
and always a worker for his party, but 
has never held public office. Lately 
he has been much talked of for a judge 
of the Superior Court. 

Mr. Hirschl has an interesting fam- 
ily, consisting of wife, daughter and 
two sons. 


The subject of this sketch is a speci- 
men of the native Chicagoan, having 
first seen the light of day July 14, 1858, 
in the "windy city." His father, Her- 
man Felsenthal, came to this city in 
the early fifties, and his mother, then 
Miss Gertrude Hyman, a year or two 
later. He attended the public schools 
of Chicago, later becoming a student 
in the old University of Chicago, grad- 
uating with the degree of B. A. in 1878. 
After a further course of two years at 
the Union College of Law, he received 
his sheepskin, together with the Hor- 

gaged in the practice of law and to- 
day his name appears high up in the 
list of prominent attorneys. He is a 
member of Sinai Congregation, of the 
Union League, Hamilton and Stand- 
ard Clubs, and has been one of the 
board of trustees of the University of 
Chicago since its inception. He is a 
liberal contributor to our Associated 
Jewish Charities and has always taken 
a keen and active interest in public af- 
fairs and politics. 

Mr. Felsenthal married Miss Gold- 
smith of New York in 1883 and five 
children, Agatha, Edward, Gertrude, 
Herman and Robert, tend to make 
their home life serene and happy. 


Mr. Rosenthal is a native of Chicago, 
where he was born on April 10th, 1859. 
Here he attended the public schools, 
and after graduating from the Western 
Division High School, he went to New 
Haven to finish his education at Yale. 
He chose law as his profession, in 
which he has been engaged since 1885. 
He -was a member of the Board of Edu- 
cation, one of the organizers of the 
Y. M. Hebrew Charity Association and 


ton prize for the best thesis his sub- 
ject being "Limited Partnerships." 
Since then he has been constantly en- 


its first Secretary. He is a member of 
Hamilton and Sunset Clubs, and of 
the Citizens' Association. He married 
Miss Emma Friedman, a Chicago girl 
of high attainments. 


Mr. Pam was born in 1865 in Tep- 
letz, Bohemia, which is the ancestral 
home of his parents, Alexander and; 
Cecelia Oesterreicher Pam. He came to 
Chicago when still a boy and received 
his early education in this city. He 
chose law as his profession, passing 
the bar examination at the head of his 
class. He has since attained a promi- 
nent position in the legal world, at- 
tracting public notice by his ability, 
which has earned for him a very high 
standing. He is attorney for some of 
the largest corporations in this coun- 
try and has engineered the amalgama- 
tion of some of the large trusts recent- 
ly formed. Mr. Pam finds little time- 
for social duties, and while not active- 
ly identified with charity institutions,. 



he is always ready to contribute liber- 
ally and give such of his time as he 
can spare for this kind of work. He 


is stHl a young man and is destined to 
become one of the shining lights of his 


Chicago is the place where Mr. Weis- 
senbach first saw the light of day. 
He was born April 18, 1875. He 
was educated at the grammar school 
and at the West Division High School, 
afterwards studying law at the Chicago 
College of Law and at the office of 
Chytraus & Deneen, the senior member 
of which firm is now judge of the Su- 
perior Court of Cook County and the 
junior member the present States At- 
torney of the same county. On Decem- 
ber 7, 1896, Mr. Weissenbach was ap- 
pointed Assistant States Attorney un- 
der Mr. Charles Deneen and this office 
he filled very creditably until Decem- 
ber 31, 1900, when he resigned and 
formed a co-partnership with Willard 
M. McEwen, who was Chief Assistant 
States Attorney under Mr. Deneen. 
Mr. Weissenbach is the author of a 
work entitled "Crimes and Litigations 

Jewish Training School of Chicago. 
He was Financial Secretary and is now 
Director of the Lakeside Club. On 
February 11, 1901, he married Miss 
Minnie Klein of Chicago. Mr. Weissen- 
bach is a member of the Masonic Or- 
der, of the Elks, B'nai B'rith, K. of P., 
D. O. K. K., and Royal League. 

In all of these organizations as well 
as in his profession, he has gained for 
himself an excellent standing, and al- 
though young in years, he has already 
won the respect and confidence of a 
large number of admirers and friends. 



Dankmar Adler was born at Langs- 
feld, in Saxe-Weimar, on July 3, 1844, 
and arrived in this country ten years 
later with his parents, who settled in 
Detroit. In 1859 he came to Chicago, 
where were spent the active years of 
his life. His death, which occurred on 
April 16, 1900, was due to a 
stroke of apoplexy, which came 
upon him about ten days pre- 
vious, and which was the first 


of the Russian Jew In the United 
States." He is a member of Sinai and 
Isaiah Congregations, Secretary of the 


serious illness of his life. He 
began his professional career in the 
office of E. Willard Smith in Detroit. 
After serving with the First Illinois 
until the close of the war, he returned 
to Chicago and entered the office of O. 
S. Kinney.and at the latter's death took 
charge of the office, with A. J. Kinney, 
a son. In January, 1871, he formed a 
partnership with Edward Burling, and 
the firm designed many buildings 
erected immediately after the flre. 
Among these structures were the old 
First National Bank, the Tribune 
building, Grace Methodist Church, 
Sinai Temple, Borden block, Marine 
Bank, Kingsbury, Manierre, Dickey, 
and Ogden buildings. 

Separating from Mr. Burling in 1879, 
Mr. Adler practiced alone until 1882, 
when he formed a partnership with 
Mr. Louis H. Sullivan, under the firm 
name of Adler & Sullivan. It was during 
the existence of this firm, which ended 
in 1895, that his most important work 
was done. Among the prominent 
buildings which they designed were 

the Chicago Stock Exchange, the Schil- 
ler and the Auditorium in Chicago, and 
the Union Trust, the Wainwright 
buildings, and the Saint Nicholas Ho- 
tel in St. Louis. Among other struc- 
tures with which Mr. Adler was con- 
nected were the warehouses of the Chi- 
cago Dock Company on Taylor street, 
the Pueblo (Colo.) Opera House, which 
was the first large theater in which no 
columns were used to support the gal- 
lery, the postoffice and Dooley block at 
Salt Lake City, the Standard clubhouse 
in Chicago, and the synagogues of Si- 
nai, Zion, Anshe Maariv and Isaiah 
Congregations. He was connected with 
either the erection or remodeling of 
all but two of the downtown theaters 
in Chicago, was consulting architect in 
connection with the Carnegie Music 
Hall in New York, and was architect 
to the Republican national committee 
in connection with the last three con- 
vention halls. During the past few 
years he had been associated with his 
son, Mr. A. K. Adler. 

Mr. Adler was a fellow of the Amer- 
ican Institute of Architects and was a 
member of the Illinois Chapter, A. I. 
A., and of the Chicago Architects' 
Business Association. At various times 
he had been president of the Western 
Association of Architects, of the Illi- 
nois Board of Examiners of Architects, 
of the Illinois Chapter, A. I. A., sec- 
retary of the American Institute of 
Architects, and a member of the board 
of architects of the World's Fair. Mr. 
Adler contributed from time to time 
to the leading architectural and en- 
gineering journals and at the time of 
his death had in preparation an article 
on the construction of theaters for the 
new architectural encyclopedia which 
the MacMillan Company is about to 


Simeon B. Eisendrath, the well- 
known architect, was born in Chicago 
In 1868. He received his early edu- 
cation in his native city. 


While a student of the High School 
he was elected by the teachers to re- 
ceive the honorary scholarship of a 



full course at the Chicago Manual 
Training School. 

After two years' attendance at the 
latter institution he entered the Mas- 
sachusetts Institute of Technology at 
Boston, where he took the course In 
architecture. He then returned to 
Chicago and spent fwo years in the 
office of the leading architects of the 
city, Messrs. Adler & Sullivan. 

In 1890 he opened an office and be- 
gan the practice of architecture, and 
in a few years he built up an extensive 
business, becoming quite prominent in 
his profession. During the first years 
of his Independent practice he had 
erected a number of buildings in Chi- 
cago and neighboring cities. 

In the first year of his practice Mr. 
Eisendrath was engaged as an expert 
by the county, rendering valuable as- 
sistance in the successful prosecution 
of Cook county's famous "boodle case, 
in which fraudulent contracts in con- 
nection with Cook county building op- 
erations were exposed, saving the 
county many thousands of dollars. 

In 1889 Mr. Eisendrath was appoint- 
ed lecturer in the architectural branch- 
es in the Chicago Evening High 
Schools, which position he retained un- 
til 1893, when, owing to the increase 
of his private business he was obliged 
to decline reappointment. He built 
the Michael Reese Training School for 
Nurses, Michael Reese Hospital annex 
for women and children, the Home for 
Aged Jews, and the Chicago Home for 
Jewish Orphans, gaining by the suc- 
cessful completion of these buildings 
the high acknowledgement of the lead- 
ers of said institutions. 

Among the structures of a private 
nature, designed and erected by Mr. 
Eisendrath, are a number of apartment 
buildings, private residences, etc. The 
most important of which are "St. Ger- 
maine," the "Lee," and the ten-story 
fireproof office touifding known as the 

In the year 1893 Mr. Eisendrath was 
appointed by the Mayor of Chicago as 
commissioner of buildings. 

As the head of the building depart- 
ment of Chicago Mr. Eisendrath in- 
stituted many practical and important 

In 1894 he resigned his office as 
Building Commissioner on account of 
the pressure of private business. " The 
press of Chicago commented editorially 
very favorably on the services which 
he rendered to the city and expressed 
their regret at his resignation, stating 
that the city loses an honest and capa- 
ble official. 


Mr. Ottenheimer was born in Chi- 
cago, Nov. 10, 1868, and the names of 
his parents are Leopold and Lena Ot- 
tenheimer. He was educated in his 
native city and chose architecture as 
his profession. For five years, from 
1884 to 1889, he worked at the office of 
Adlor & Sullivan, the celebrated Chi- 

cago architects, and then he spent 
three years at Paris, France, in dili- 
gent studies of the works of the 
world's famous masters. Mr. Otten- 
heimer has been practicing his profes- 
sion in Chicago since 1893, and was 
connected with the Designing Depart- 
ment of the World's Columbian Ex- 
position as assistant to Mr. Charles B. 
Atwood. During the time he was with 
Messrs Adler & Sullivan, he worked on 
the drawings for the Auditorium build- 
ing, the Standard Club, the Sinai Tem- 
ple, and other prominent buildings. 
During his own practice in Chicago he 
has erected residences for the follow- 
ing: James E. Greenebaum, Leon 
Hartman, Herman Oberndorf, Charles 
Yondorf, Dr. Zeisler, Moses E. Greene- 
baum, Robert Hart, C. Samuels, S. F. 
Leopold, Jacob Straus (Ligonier, Ind.), 
George Frank, Sol Wedeles, L. S. Loeb 
(Duluth, Minn.), and Levi Windmuel- 
ler. Apartment buildings for the fol- 
lowing: Simeon Straus, Sol Wedeles 
and Dr. Jacob Frank. Business build- 
ings and factories for the following: 
Steele, Wedeles & Co., Adler & Obern- 
dorf, Gretman & Co., and W. N. Eisen- 
drath and the following public build- 
ings: St. Martin's church, St. Boniface 
school, Town of Whiting school, Doug- 
las Hotel (Houghton, Mich.), postoffice 
building, (Houghton, Mich.), St. Pet- 
er's church (Niles Center, Mich.), St. 
Paul's School House. 
Mr. Ottenheimer is an active mem- 

world, she heard little Fannie Bloom- 
field play and pronounced her a pian- 
istic genius and advised her parents 
to send her to Leschetizky, which ad- 


ber of the Y. M. Hebrew Charity Asso- 
ciation, also a member of Sinai congre- 


Fannie Bloomfleld Zeisler was born 
in Bielitz, in Austrian Silesia, and 
came to this country with her parents 
when she was less than two years of 
age. Her musical talent showed itself 
when she was about six years old, and 
several years thereafter she fell under 
the notice of that enthusiastic mu- 
sician. Carl Wolfsohn, of whom she 
received instruction until she went to 
Europe in 1877. When Madam Essi- 
poff, the great pianist, toured the 


vice was followed, and in the summer 
of 1878 she went to Vienna, where for 
five consecutive years she studied un- 
der this great master. In the fall of 
1883 she returned to America and soon 
began public playing in this country. 
Up to the spring of 1893 shs appeared 
on the concert stage every winter, and 
has frequently been the soloist of all 
the prominent orchestra organizations 
in this country. Everywhere and al- 
ways she was pronounced a pianist of 
extraordinary attainments, but not be- 
ing satisfied with the position assigned 
to her by the American critics, she 
went to Europe in the fall of 1893 and 
appeared at Berlin, Vienna, Leipsic, 
Dresden and other German cities, and 
was in all those places recognized by 
the press and public alike as the great- 
est of woman pianists, and as one of 
the greatest pianists of either sex, and 
of all times. She was engaged for a 
tour all over Europe through the win- 
ter of 1894 and 1895, everywhere car- 
rying away her audiences and winning 
triumph upon triumph. In 1895 she 
returned to this country, playing in 
all of the large American cities, giv- 
ing eight concerts in San Francisco, 
each surpassing its predecessor in 
point of popularity and the enthusiasm 
of the audiences. 

In the spring of 1898 Mrs. Zeisler 
went to England and completely cap- 
tivated the London public in a series 
of recitals. While there she was ac- 
corded the honor of an invitation to 
be the piano soloist at the annual 
Lower Rhine Musical Festival, which 
took place at Cologne May 29-31st, 1898. 
Playing there before the most critical 
audience in the world, in the presence 
of the most celebrated musicians and 
critics of all Europe, she won a most 
singular triumph and was unanimously 
declared to be one of the world's 
greatest pianists. While her technique 
is well nigh perfect, she always subor- 
dinates it to, and makes it only a 
means of musical expression. She 



seems to be able to enter into the 
spirit of all composers alike. She has 
withal a great individuality and makes 
all performances new creations rather 
than recreations of the compositions 
she plays. She has often been com- 
pared to Rubenstein, who was a great 
admirer of her art. Many critics have 
called her the "Sarah Bernhardt of the 
piano," referring to the temperamental 
side of her artistic career. Mrs. Zeis- 
ler's home is on the North Side, in this 
city, where she has a high social po- 
sition. She is an honored member of 
the Chicago Women's Club and of the 
Amateur Club of Chicago. She is mar- 
ried to Mr. Sigmund Zeisler,.a promi- 
nent lawyer and citizen of Chicago, 
and their union has been blessed by 
three sons. 


Mr. Liebling is acknowledged to be 
one of Chicago's greatest pianists and 
instructors. He has appeared in pub- 
lic many times, winning the highest 
praise from tooth press and public. In 
referring to a concerto, played by Mr. 
Liebling as soloist for the Chicago Or- 
chestra, the Times-Herald makes the 
following statement in its columns: 
"Inspired by the occasion and moved 
by the remarkable consequence of the 
work, Mr. Liebling surpassed himself 
in a performance full of solid schol- 
arship and excellent interpretation. His 
fine effort was rewarded by spontane- 
ous outbursts of applause, intended no 
dou'bt to express admiration both for 
the composition and the performance." 

The Chicago Tribune, commenting 
on Mr. Liebling's playing at the second 
concert of the Mendelssohn Club last 
season, refers to him as follows: "Mr. 
Liebling achieved really spontaneous 
success in Moszkowski's E major, con- 
certo opus 59, which received its ini- 
tial American performance .upon this 
occasion. Mr. Liebling's performance 
was of a decidedly brilliant order, and 
he acquitted himself in an admirable 


fashion, giving the scintillating beau- 
ties of the scheroz with technical deli- 
c-cy and musical charm." We could 
go on quoting from all of the great 

dailies of this city and the acknowl- 
edged musical journals of the country, 
all of which have sung the praise of 
Mr. Liebling's success as a performer. 
The numerous pupils who under his 
instruction and guidance have become 
known for the excellence of their work 
is also a tribute to Mr. Liebling, which 
places him in the front rank of piano 
teachers in the West. 


Mr. Homer was b-jrn in Bohemia in 
1819, and came to Chicago when this 
city was still in its infancy, in 1847. 
He was the founder of the present 
wholesale grocery house of Henry 
Homer & Co., which is the oldest 

known member of society. His son, 
Maurice L., Jr., was the little fellow 
who proved himself a hero in the fire 



business of its kind in Chicago. He 
was also one of the founders of K. A. 
M., of which he was one of the early 
presidents. He was a man of consid- 
erable intellect, a deep thinker and a 
man of recognized business ability 
Mr. Homer exerted great influence il 
early congregational life and also man- 
ifested much interest in charity work. 
His wife's name was Hannah Dem- 
burg and eleven children were born to 
them Dila, Levy, Joseph, Isaac, Angel, 
Mrs. Minnie Yondorf, Charles, Maurice 
L., Mrs. Dora Yondorf, Harry, Albert 
and Mrs. Mattie Strauss. Mr. Horner 
died in this city in 1879 after an hon- 
orable career of sixty years. 


Mr. Horner is a son of Henry and 
Hannah Horner and was born in this 
city in 1863, attending the private and 
public schools of his native city. He 
has been identified with the wholesale 
grocery house of Henry Horner & Co. 
since he was a young man and assumed 
the management of this extensive es- 
tablishment in 1893. He is the In- 
ventor of the bicycle package holder, 
and in the business world has attained 
a position of prominence. Mr. Hor- 
ner is a member of K. A. M., and is 
a director of the Working Women's 
Home Association, and is also a mem- 
ber of the Standard Club and a well 


in his father's residence, March 6, of 
this year, jumping out of the second- 
story window and afterwards returning 
to the burning building and saving his 
nurse. He is but 8 years of age and 
this daring deed attracted considerable 
notice in the public press. 


Mr. Horner is also one of the sons 
of- Hannah and Henry Horner, and is 
also identified with the grocery house 
of Henry Horner & Co. He was born 
in this city in 1855, and received his 
education in the public schools of Chi- 
cago, later attending college. He is a 
member of K. A. M., and is an ex-direc- 
tor of the Standard Club. Mr. Horner 
has taken considerable interest in pub- 
lic life and was alderman of the Sec- 


ond ward for four years, during which 
time he made a very creditable record. 


Mr. Straus was born in Laufersweil- 
er, Germany, Feb. 28th, 1833, and came 
to America in 1849. He settled in Lig- 
onier, Ind., where he was first engaged 
in mercantile lines and afterwards 
opened a bank, which he conducted 



for many years, enjoying the full con- 
fidence of the public. He organized the 
Jewish Congregation, holding the office 


of president for thirty years. The cit- 
izens of the city and county honored 
him many times by electing him to 
public offices of trust, in which he al- 
ways served with honor and credit. 

In 1883 he removed to Chicago and 
engaged in the mortgage loan business. 
He was in this, as in his previous un- 
dertakings, very successful. He joined 
the Sinai Congregation and at once 
took an active interest in the Jewish 
charities. Mr. Straus married Miss 
Madelon Goldsmith and their union 
was blessed with nine children Mrs. 
S. H. Regensburg, Mrs. Max Living- 
ston, Mrs. M. J. Spiegel, Hattie, Simon 
W., Samuel J. T., and Arthur W. 
Straus surviving him. 

Mr. Straus died on Feb. 9, 1898, and 
his two sons, S. W. and S. J. T. Straus, 
succeeded him in the mortgage bank- 
ing business. His widow lives in Chi- 
cago, surrounded by her loving family. 

Mr. Ellbogen was born in Austria in 


1846 and was educated in his native 
country. His parents were Joachim 
and Esther (Fischer) Ellbogen. At the 

age of 17, in 1863, he came to America 
and settled in Chicago. He first found 
employment with Mr. B. Berlizheimer 
in the dry goods line, then with Man- 
del Bros, and S. Klein. In this line he 
remained until 1868, and then entered 
the wholesale jewelry establishment of 
Mr. John Kahn & Bro. as traveling 
salesman. In 1872, at the death of 
John Kahn, went to Wendell & Hy- 
man. In 1877 formed co-partnership 
with Mr. Sigmund Stein, a fellow- 
salesman, and the wholesale jewelry 
house of Stein & Ell'bogen soon gained 
a high standing in the commercial 
world. Several years ago the business 
was incorporated and Mr. Ellbogen 
was chosen president of the corpora- 
tion, a position which he still holds. 
Mr. Ellbogen makes frequent trips to 
London, Paris and Amsterdam to pur- 
chase stock, has become an excellent 
judge of gems, and the diamond cut- 
ting plant of the Stein & Ellbogen 
company is now the largest west of 
New York. Mr. Ellbogen is vice pres- 
ident of the Jewelers' Association of 

He is a member of Sinai Congrega- 
tion and the Lakeside Club. He is a 
liberal contributor to the charities and 
every good and beneficial undertaking 
by the community is sure of his en- 
couragement and support. He married 
Miss Leah Eisendrath, a Chicago girl 
of high attainments, and they have six 
children, Harriet, David, Celia, Albert, 
Margaritt and Charles. 


The life of Herman Felsenthal fur- 
nishes a noteworthy example of the in- 
fluence for good that may be wielded 
in a community like ours by a single 
man of force and earnestness, more es- 
pecially when to these qualities are 
added the advantages of a broad and 
liberal education. 

Mr. Felsenthal was born in Offen- 
bach, Germany, May 19, 1835, and came 
to America in 1852, at the age of 17 
years, finishing his education at the 
German Gymnasium at Rochester, New 
York. His parents were Benjamin and 
Agatha Felsenthal. 

He -arrived in Chicago in 1854 and 
shortly thereafter embarked in the 
commission business, his venture met 
with success, and a few years later he 
formed a co-partnership with Mr. 
Charles Kosminski in the banking 
business. This enterprise was also suc- 
cessful, and the bank prospered for 
many years. When this partnership 
dissolved, Mr. Felsenthal established 
The Bank of Commerce, of which he 
became president and in which capa- 
city he served until shortly before his 
death. Under his guidance, the insti- 
tution weathered many financial 
storms, including the panic of 1893. In 
1898 the business of The Bank of Com- 
merce was merged in that of the Union 
National Bank, which institution has 
in turn been absorbed by the First Na- 
tional Bank. 

Mr. Felsenthal was a member of 
Sinai Congregation and for many years 

its- secretary. He was an active mem- 
ber of Raman Lodge, I. O. B. B., and a 
leader in B'nai B'rith circles. He was 
past president of District Grand Lodge, 
No. 6, of this order and one of the 
founders of Covenant Culture Club, of 
which he was president at the time of 
his death. He was trustee of the He- 
brew Relief Association for two years, 
from October, 1883, to 1885, and was 
at one time a member of the Board of 
Education of this city. During his 
membership of this board he was in- 
strumental in introducing the study of 
German in the Chicago public schools. 
He was always deeply interested in the 
cause of education, and at various 
times endeavored to establish a Jew- 
ish high school in our city. The Board 
of Education of this city has recently 
honored him by naming the school now 
in course of erection^ at the corner of 
Forty-first and Calumet avenue "The 
Herman Felsenthal Shool." 

His marriage to Miss Gertrude Hy- 
man occurred in 1853, the result of the 
union being two sons and seven daugh- 
ters viz., Eli B., Herbert S., Leah 
(wife of Benjamin Bissinger), Judith 
(wife of Samuel J. Kline), Flora (wife 
of P. R. Newhouse), Hannah (wife of 
Rabbi Jos. Leiser, now at Sioux City, 
la.), Emily (wife of Max W. Pottlitzer, 
LaFayette, Ind.), Rose and Mathilda, 

The death of Mr. Felsenthal occurred 
on September 3, 1899, but the memory 
of his worth and his deeds will contin- 
ue to abide in the hearts of our Jewish 
fellow citizens. 


Mr. Karpen was born in Wongro- 
witz, Prussia, in 1858. His father was 
Moritz Karpen and his mother Jo- 
hanna (Kohn) Karpen. Solomon Kar- 
pen came to America when 13 years of 
age, landing in Chicago late in 1871, 
just after the great fire. He began the 
manufacture of upholstered furniture 
in a basement on Milwaukee avenue 


the following spring with one helper. 
From this small beginning has grown 
the present great firm of S. Karpen & 



Bros., who are the largest manufac- 
turers of upholstered furniture in the 
United States. The industry employs 
700 factory hands, and its goods find 
a market in all parts of the world. 

Mr. Karpen resides on the North 
Side, and is a member of the North 
Chicago Hebrew Congregation; also of 
the Ideal Club. He is one of the most 
liberal contributors to the Associated 
Jewish Charities, and equally liberal in 
all other charitable affairs. He, with 
his brothers, has built up a great in- 
dustry, and are rated among Chicago's 
leading business men. 


Mr. Nusbaum was born in New York 
city in 1861. His parents, Emanuel 
and Regina (Sternberg) Nusbaum 
came to America from Germany. He 
received an academic education in the 
State of New York and then chose a 
mercantile career. He moved with his 
parents to Plattsfield, N.Y., where they 
resided for a number of years, doing a 
prosperous business. In 1881 they 
moved to Chicago, where they opened 
a wholesale furnishing goods establish- 
ment, and Mr. Aaron Nusbaum was a 
member of the firm. He is now treas- 
urer and general manager of the cele- 
brated mail order house of Sears, Roe- 
buck & Co., where 2,500 people find 
employment. Mr. Nusbaum is a mem- 
ber of Sinai Congregation, of the 
Standard Club and of the Associated 
Jewish Charities. He married Miss 

its treasurer. He is an active member 
of the Associated Charities, and has 
been a director of the Jewish Training 
He married Miss Rose Loewenstein, 


Lottie Rosenfield and their union is 
blessed with a son, Edward A. 


Vice-President of the American Hide 
and Leather Co., is a native Chicagoan. 
He was born Dec. 5, 1853. His father, 
Nathan Eisendrath, now a retired capi- 
talist, is a pioneer and one of Chica- 
go's most respected citizens. 

William was educated at the public 
schools and a college preparatory 
school in this city, from which he went 
to Brussels to finish his education. 

Mr. Eisendrath has been a member 
of Sinai Congregation for the past sev- 
enteen years. For two years he was 


an accomplished Chicago girl. Five 
children have been born to them, three 
of whom are living, Carl, Edwin and 


Joseph Beifeld, one of our best 
known cloak manufacturers, was born 
in Hungary in 1853. He came to 
America and settled in Chicago in 
1867. Here he went for one year to 
the grammar school, then he took a 
position as clerk with O. L. American, 
where he remained until 1869. In that 
year he entered the employ of Field, 
Leiter & Co., the predecessors of 
Marshall Field & Co., remaining with 
them until 1878. Then he went into 
business for himself. He is a bright 
and smart business man and succeed- 
ed in building up an extensive busi- 
ness, which is favorably known 
throughout the country. He takes a 
warm interest in the charities and 
served as vice-president, and for a 
time as president, of the Russian Ref- 
ugee Society, where his business tact 
and general ability were of inestima- 
ble service. 

Mr. Beifeld has married a Chicago 
girl, owns a beautiful home, and is the 
father of an Interesting family. 

Mr. Schram was born in Milwaukee 
in 1846, and came to this country when 
a boy. He attended the public schools 
here. He had been in the manufac- 
turing business for years and has met 
with considerable success. His parents 
were Samuel and Babette Schoen of 
Schram, whose ancestral home was in 
Austria. Mr. Schram was the first pu- 
pil who attended the Anshe Maariv 
school in 1851, and has been connected 
with congregational and charitable 
work all his life. He has been presi- 
dent of Zion Congregation for ten 
years and an officer of the same for 25 
years. Mr. Schram has always taken 

an active interest in public affairs and 
has served as president of the sechool 
board. He is a man of intellect and 
while burdened by the cares of busi- 
ness life he always finds time to devote 
to charitable work. He married 
Esther Heller, and they have five child- 
ren living. Mr. Schram is a living pro- 
test against the charge that Jews are 
only in the clothing business, as he 
was one of the first to begin the manu- 
facturing of picture frames, moldings, 
etc. From the success he has achieved 
it can easily be seen that there are 
other vocations than clothing in which 
the Jews are successful. 

He will also contribute a number of 
articles to the Jewish Encyclopedia, 
now in course of publication. 


Mr. Lehman was born in Bavaria, 
Germany, in 1856. His parents' names 
are Henry and Louise Lehman. He 
was educated in his native country. In 
1871 he came to America and settled 
first in New York, then in Kansas. He 
moved to Chicago in 1891, and is now 
President of the Gage Down Company, 
manufacturers of corsets. Mr. Lehman 
is a member of Sinai Congregation of 
the Associated Jewish Charities, 
and of the Standard Club. He married 
Miss Hattie Bing, and their happy 
home is brightened by two children, 
Louise and Bruce. 

A. D. NAST. 

Mr. Nast is one of the youngest 
members of the New York Stock Ex- 

A. D. NAST. 

change, and is a shining example of 
what an energetic and enterprising 
young American is capable of. He was 
born in Milwaukee 29 years ago, and 
attended the schools of that city, later 
pursuing an academic course at the 
University of Wisconsin and Cornell 



College. He became identified with 
Hayden Stone & Co., stock brokers of 
Boston, in which firm he worked up an 
extensive business in copper stocks. 
With untiring energy he rapidly forged 
to the front and formed a co-partner- 
ship with his brother, Mr. Samuel Nast 
under the firm name of A. D. Nast and 
Co. They purchased memberships in 
the New York and Chicago Stock Ex- 
changes, and are given credit for doing 
the most extensive business in copper 
stocks in Chicago. Their New York 
and local business has increased in 
large proportions and they are today 
one of the most successful young firms 
in the city. Mr. Nast is a sonof Dan- 
iel and Esther Nast, is prominent so- 
cially and is a member of the Standard 


In the beautiful Hungarian city of 
Pesth stood the cradle of Mr. Baum- 


gartl. There he was iborn March 29, 
1860. At the age of 11 years, October, 
1871, he came to America and settled 
in Chicago, when the city was still 
smoldering after the big fire. He re- 
ceived uis education partly in Chicago 
public schools, later graduating from 
the Dyrenfurth College. At the age of 
17 he started his apprenticeship in 
business with the firm of Joseph Stein 
& Co., wholesale liquor dealers, and in 
1S79, on the death of the senior mem- 
ber, he was admitted to the firm, form- 
ing the co-partnership of Stein & 
Baumgartl. In 1882 a consolidation 
was effected, with Adolph and Charles 
Stein establishing the firm of Stein 
Bros. & Baumgartl. The new venture 
was highly successful. In 1889 he, to- 
gether with his old associates, formed 
the Calumet Distilling Co., and built 
the distillery at New Chicago, a suburb 
of this city, and founded a small vil- 
lage surrounding the plant. The dis- 
tillery was operated at its full capacity 
by the firm until the Whisky Trust 
purchased it in 1891. In October of 
that year, again in company with his 
old associates, he incorporated the 
Monarch Brewing Co., erecting a large 
plant at 21st street and Western ave- 
nue. This was operated with such 

success that, in 189.8, the plant was 
purchased by an American syndicate, 
and together with twelve other brew- 
eries formed the United Breweries Co. 
The syndicate induced him to accept 
the management of the United Brew- 
eries Co., and he was elected president 
and general manager. He is still at the 
head of this vast organization. 

In 1900, again with his old associ- 
ates, he incorporated the Art Wall Pa- 
per Mills and erected a plant covering 
an entire block opposite his old brew- 
ery, and as president of the new en- 
terprise he is bending his energies, 
to make it the foremost wall paper 
mill in the United States. 

His vast interests, notwithstanding 
he finds time to attend to charity work. 
He was a member of the Board of Di- 
rectors of Zion Congregation, and Is 
now a member of Isaiah Congregation. 
He is treasurer of the Associated Jew- 
ish Charities and a member of the 
Standard and Lakeside Clubs. He mar- 
ried Miss Bertha Wilhartz of Chicago 
and five children 'brighten their happy 
home Clara, Lily, Leroy, Olga and 


Abraham B. Newman was born in 
Milwaukee, August 7, 1871, and is a 
splendid type of America's progressive 
and successful young men. He was 
connected with the Northwestern Life 
Insurance Co., of Milwaukee for some 
years, and came to Chicago for that 
company a little more than a year ago, 
since which time he has achieved emi- 
nent success and is today considered 
one of the foremost insurance writers 
in this state. This is certainly a brilliant 
record for a young man. Mr. Newman 
is well known socially and is a mem- 
ber of the Standard Club and is also a 

province and now belonging to the 
German Empire. Emanuel Heyman 
was educated in his native town and 


liberal contributor to the Associated 


Mr. Heyman was born in New Or- 
leans, La., June 12th, 1855. His pa- 
rents were Samuel and Julie Heyman, 
who emigrated to America from Lor- 
raine and Alsace, a former French 


there he embarked in the mercantile 
and life insurance business, winning 
the sweet smiles of success. In 1879 he 
came to Chicago. He is a member of 
Sinai Congregation and of the Stand- 
ard Club. Since 1892 he has been spe- 
cial executive agent of the New York 
Life Insurance Co., and his marked 
business ability has placed him very 
high in the estimation of his employ- 
ers. For years he has led all other rep- 
resentatives of the company through- 
out the country in procuring personal 
business. He married Miss Cora Feibel- 
man, and two children add to the hap- 
piness of their life Madelaine Cora 
and Dorothy Sylvain. 


Mr. Keim is the secretary- of the 
Siegel, Cooper & Company corpora- 
tion, and is now 41 years old. He was 
born and educated in Chicago, and has 
taken a prominent part In business, 
social and charitable affairs. He is a 
member of Sinai Congregation, a di- 
rector of the Jewish Training School, 


and a member of the Standard and 
Lakeside Clubs, having been treasurer 
of the latter for three years. His wife 



was Miss Yetta Pfaelzer, and his pa- 
rents Zacharias and Eva Keim. Three 
children, Hazel, Melville and Edward 
have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Keim. 


Mr. Mandel was born in Kervenheim, 
Bavaria, February 17, 1844. He came to 


this country when a boy of 13 years of 
age. He received his early education in 
this city, and has since achieved a re- 
markable success as a merchant. He 
is one of the firm of Mandel Bros., one 
of the largest and most successful dry 
goods stores in America. Mr. Mandel is 
a member of the Standard and Iroquois 
clubs, and is vice-president of the lat- 
ter. He married Babette Frank and 
they have three children, Frank E., 
Edwin F. and Mrs. Rose Louer. 

Mr. Oscar G. Foreman is a native of 
Chicago, where he was born Novem- 
ber 1, 1863. He here received his early 
training and a Ifberal education. His 
parents, Gerhard and Hannah (Greene- 
baum) Foreman were well known in 


Jewish communities and were time- 
honored citizens of Chicago. 

Mr. Foreman is a member of Sinai 
Congregation, of the Standard, Union 
League, Iroquois and Bankers' Clubs 
and the vice-president of the Chicago 

Home for Jewish Orphans. He was 
married September 28, 1893, to Miss 
Fannie Mandel, daughter of Mr. and 
Mrs. Leon Mandel, of Chicago, and 
their union has been blessed with two 
children, Gerhard and Madeline. 


Louis Benjamin was born in St. 
Louis in 1850. His parents, Jacob and 
Janet Benjamin, are natives of Bava- 
ria. They came to America in the 
early forties and settled in St. Louis. 
He was educated irfthe public schools 
of St. Louis and New Orleans. Mr. Ben- 
jamin chose a commercial occupation. 
He began with the organization of the 
Block-Pollak Iron Co., seventeen years 
ago, and has been actively connected 
with it to the present time. When tue 
company was incorporated, seven 
years ago, he became its secretary. 

Mr. Benjamin is a director of Anshe 
Maariv Congregation and active in all 
charity work. "He married Miss Julia 
Kattwitz. They have three children 
living, one son and two daughters 
Sadie L., Blanche B., and Jack A. 

Mr. Benjamin is a member of the 

the office of recording secretary. He is 
also a member of the Lakeside Club 
and a contributing member of the Jew- 
ish charities. He married Miss Hen- 


Standard, Lakeside and Hamilton 


Judge Sabath is a native of Bohemia 
and was born in Zabor, April 4, 1866. 
His parents were Joachim and Babette 
Sabath. He came to Chicago in 1881 
and has since acquired considerable 
prominence in politics, and is at pres- 
ent a justice of the peace. The Judge 
is a member of B'nai Abraham Cong, 
and the Lakeside Club. His record on 
the bench has won for him the confi- 
dence and-esteem of the bar of this 


Mr. Newman was born In Dornmo- 
schal, Rheinpfalz, in the year 1850. 
His parents' names are Solomon and 
Frederik Newman. In 1861 he came to 
America and to Chicago in 1881. 

He is a director of the Anshe Maariv 
Congregation and also its financial sec- 
retary, and for a number of years held 


rietta Bauland, and they have one son, 
Harry B. 


Mr. Kesner is a son of Louis J. and 
Sarah, Kesner and was born Dec. 30, 
1865, in London, England, coming to 
America when he was but three years 
of age. He attended the public schools 
and in 1878 was employed as cash boy 
in the Fair, since which time he has 
been gradually promoted until in 1894 
he was made general manager, a posi- 


tion he now holds. He is a member 
of Sinai Congregation and the Stand- 
ard and Lakeside Clubs. Mr. Kesner 
married Bettie Frohmann, and they 
have one child living, Lucille. 


Mr. Selz was born in Wuttenberg, 
Germany, Oct. 2, 1826. His parents 
were Jacob A. and Hannah Selz. He 
came to America in 1845 and here he 
followed different occupations. First 
he clerked, then he worked in a mine, 
and traded in various merchandise un- 
til he came to Chicago and started in 

96 ' 


the shoe business. He was the founder 
of the firm of Selz, Schwab & Co., of 
which he is the senior member. This 
firm is known today as the largest 


manufacturers and wholesale dealers 
in boots and shoes in the west. He is 
a member of Sinai Congregation and 
of the Standard Club and ex-president 
of both institutions. He married Miss 
Hannah Kohn and they have three 
sons J. Harry, Emanuel F., and A. K. 


Born, raised and educated in Chica- 
go, Mr. J. Harry Selz is a representa- 
tive business man of the city. He is 
a son of Morris and Rosa Frank Selz, 
toth of whom are prominent members 
of the community. 

Mr. Selz is identified with one of the 
largest boot and shoe business houses 
in America, being second Vice-Presi- 
'dent of the corporation of Selz, 
Schwab & Co., and he is also a direc- 
tor of the Illinois Manufacturers' As- 
sociation, Western Shoe Jobbers' As- 
sociation and the Merchants' Associa- 
tion of Chicago. He married Bertha 
Austrian and has two children living 
Austin and Frank. In the social world, 
Mr. Selz takes a prominent part, and 


Mr. Hirsch is a native of Chicago, 
and is the son of Myer and Fannie 
Hirsch. He is president of the Amer- 
ican Cutlery Company, one of the 
largest concerns of its kind in this 
country, and has been with the com- 
pany since he was 13 years of age. 
Socially he is well known and is a 
member of the Standard Club. Mr. 
Hirsch contributes liberally to the 
charities and takes much interest in 


congregational affairs, and is a mem- 
ber of Isaiah Cong. He recently mar- 
ried Florence Waixel. 


The ancestral home of Mr. Strauss 
is Bavaria, from whence came his pa- 
rents, Nathan and Jeanette Strauss, 
but he was born, raised and educated 
in Chicago. As a business man he is 


is a member of the Standard Club. He 
is a member of Sinai Congregation and 
a liberal contributor to the charities. 


well and favorably known, his voca- 
tion for many years being the dry 
goods business. Socially he has taken 
a prominent part in club life, and it 
was largely through his efforts, that 
the new Lakeside Club building was 
erected. He was president of the club 
for four terms, his services adding 
much to the most successful years of 

tB* club. He is also a member of the 
Standard Club, a director of K. A. M., 
and the Home for Aged Jews. Mr. 
Strauss married Miss Laura Rosenberg, 
and when business cares are not too 
pressing, devotes much of his time to 
social pleasure and charitable work, in 
which he is always ready to assist. 


Mr. Emanuel J. Kohn is a son of 
Joseph A. and Julia Kohn, and a 
grandson of Abraham and Dorothy 
Kohn, the founders of the prominent 
Kohn family of Chicago. He was born 
in Chicago, Dec. 23, 1864, and here 
he was educated. He is a member of 
the well known firm of Kohn Brothers, 
manufacturers of clothing. He is a 
director of Sinai Congregation and a 
member of the Standard Club. He is 
very active in charity work and a gen- 
erous patron and supporter of benevo- 
lent institutions. He is a member of 
the Board of Directors of the United 
Hebrew Charities, vice-chairman of 
the Relief and Employment Bureau 
and Secretary of West Side District. 
Connected with this institution was 
Financial Secretary of the Y. M. H. 


Charity Association, and is a Trustee 
of the National Jewish Hospital for 
Consumptives of Denver, Col. He is 
also Past Master of Chicago Lodge A. 
F. & A. M. 


Mr. Joseph A. Kohn, the subject of 
this sketch, is a son of Mr. Abraham 
and Dorothy. He was born in Yeben- 
hausen, January 26, 1828, and came to 
America in 1848. He is a member of 
Congregation Anshe Maariv. He mar- 
ried Miss Julia Levi, a Chicago girl, 
daughter of Rev. Lipman Levi, who 
was teacher and reader in the K. A. M. 
congregation, and they have eight 
children, Mrs. Cora Ederheimer, Mrs. 
Jennie Kaiser, Mrs. Nellie Schwab- 
acher, Mrs. Florence Cahn, Mrs. Maude 
Spiegel, Mrs. Daisy Hahn, Emanuel J., 
and Albert W. 

As Mr. Kohn is advancing in years 
he is gradually withdrawing from 



Business, leaving the vast interests of 
the firm to the management of the 
younger and stronger generation, who 


are worthy descendents of worthy an- 


Mr. Deutsch is a son of the Rev. Dr. 
Solomon Deutsch and was born in Bal- 
timore, Md. He received his education 
in the schools of Hartford, Conn., and 
since he attained his majority has been 
In the printing and lithographing busi- 
ness. His father, the late Rev. Dr. 
Solomon Deutsch, was one of the most 
prominent reformers in this country, 
and was a colleague of Einhorn.Hirsch, 
Wise and other prominent reformers. 


Mr. Joseph Deutsch has been particu- 
larly prominent in the Masonic Order, 
having taken all of the degrees in the 
various chapters. He is president of 
Edwards, Deutsch & Heitmann, litho- 
graphers of this city, and is married 
to Anna Christiana Gressinger. 


Martin Emerich was born in the city 
of Baltimore, Maryland, in 1847. His 
parents were Phillip and Rachel Em- 
erich. He was educated at the public 
schools in his native city. He served 
(or four years on the staff of Gov. 

Hamilton with the rank of colonel and 
took an official part in the centennial 
celebration of the battle of Yorktown. 
He also served for four years on the 
staff of Gov. Jackson. 

He is an ex-president of the Phoenix 
Club and a member of the Standard 

In Chicago he was a county com- 
missioner in 1892-1893, serving as 
chairman of the finance committee. 

For the past seven years he has been 
engaged in the manufacture of brick. 

He was married in 1871 to' Lena 
Straus, daughter of Martin L. Straus, 
a prominent citizen of Baltimore, who 
was president for 25 years of Lloyd 
Street Synagogue. The issue of this 


marriage is three sons and one daugh- 
ter, B. Frank, Leonard, Melvin L. and 
Corinne D. 


Mr. Loeffler was born in Choden- 
schloss, Bohemia, Jan. 1st, 1858. His 
parents were Frank and Wilhelmina 
Loeffler. He was educated at Prague, 
the capital of his native country. He 
came to America in 1874. He is a 

City Clerk. 

member of Congregation B'nai Abra- 
ham and the Lakeside dub. He was 
elected alderman in 1892 and served 

with credit for two years. In 1897 
he was elected city clerk, under Mayor 
Harrison's first administration, and he 
still holds this position, having just 
been re-elected. He married Miss 
Francis Hanel and they have one son, 


Mr. Wolff was born in Mecklenburg, 
Germany, November, 1862. He received 
his early education abroad, coming to 
this country in 1879 and to Chicago in 
1889. His first venture was in the real 
estate business, which he soon aban- 
doned for the legal profession, and is 
now a justice of the peace. He is treas- 
urer of Temple Israel and is an ex- 
president of the Unity Club, of which 
he is now treasurer. He is also a 
member of the -Hamilton Club and an 
ex-president of Montiflore Council, Na- 


tional Union. Mr. Wolff married a 
Miss Mary Cohn and they have two 
children living, Otto and Henry. 

Mr. Wormser is a son of Babette and 


Mortlz Wormser and was born and ed- 
ucated in Landau, Rheinpfaltz, Ger- 
many. He came to America in 1874, 
arriving in Chicago four years later, 
since which time he has been engaged 
in the mercantile business in this city. 



He has taken considerable interest in 
congregational affairs and is now vice- 
president of K. A. M. Mr. Wormser 
is an ex-president of the Standard 
Club, of which he is now a member. 
He married Frida Falk and has two 
children living. 


Mr. Keefer was born in Hanlein, 
Germany, and came to this country in 
1863. He is a son of Marion and Aaron 


H. Keefer, whose ancestral home is the 
city of Mr. Reefer's birth. Mr. Keef- 
er is one of the first men who 
went into the cattle business in the 
stock yards of this city, since which 
time his business has attained large 
proportions. He is a member of the 
firm of Doud and Keefer, one of the 
largest shippers of cattle in the yards. 
He married Esther Kraus, and seven 
children have blessed their union, Min- 
nie, Edward, Flora, Cora, Arthur, 
Edna and Ruth. Mr. Keefer is a mem- 
ber of the Standard club and a liberal 
contributor to the charities, and an 
honored and respected member of this 


Mr. Stein is a native of Bohemia, 
where he was born Sept. 27, 1853. He 
received his education abroad and 

came to America in 1869, since which 
time he has been largely engaged in 
the liquor business. He is treasurer 
of Zion Congregation and a contribu- 
tor to the Associated Charities. Mr. 
Stein is an ex-president of the West 
Chicago club and is well and favorably 
known. He married Emma Freiler.and 
ten children have blessed their union. 


Mr. Grossman was born in Chicago 
28 years ago, receiving his education 
in the public schools and the Univer- 
sity of Notre Dame. His parents, Ben- 
jamin and Rosa Grossman, now de- 
ceased, were among the early settlers 
of Chicago. Mr. Edward B. Grossman 


is one of the city's progressive young 
business men and is at the head of a 
large mercantile establishment. He 
married Florence L. Florsheim and has 
one child, Edward B., Jr. He is a 
member of the Standard Club and a 
contributor to the Associated Chari- 

Mr. Pfaelzer's ancestral home is Ba- 



den, where his parents Moses and Han- 
nah resided. He was born Nov. 23, 
1853, at Laudenbach, and received his 

early education in Weinheim. He 
came to America in July, 1872, and for 
a number of years has been engaged in 
the wholesale clothing business. He is 
an active member of K. A. M., of which 
he is one of the 'board of directors and 1 
superintendent of the Sabbath School. 
Mr. Pfaelzer is a contributor to the As- 
sociated Charities and is a member of 
the Standard Club. He married Au- 
gusta Daube. 

Mr. Eisendrath is a son of Levi and 


Helena Eisendrath and was born io 
Germany. He came to this country 
when still a boy and received his edu- 
cation in the American schools. He- 
has been a prominent merchant for 
years and is one of the firm of Strouss, 
Eisendrath and Drom. Mr. Eisendrath 
is a member of Sinai Congregation and 
the Standard Club and is a contributor 
to the Associated Charities. He mar- 
ried Hannah Strouss and they have 
three children living Mrs. Blanche 
Spiesberger, Joseph and Leon Eisen- 


Mr. Silberman was born in Germany, 
June 20, 1851, and is a son of Amelia 
A. and Heinrich Silberman. Coming 
here as a boy he attended the public 




schools and has resided in Chicago 
since 1886. He is one of the firm of 
Silberman Bros., wool merchants. Mr. 
Silberman is an active member of K. 
A. M., and is now one of the board of 
trustees of that congregation. He is 
a liberal contributor to the charities 
and has been a director of several 
charitable institutions. He is a mem- 
ber of the Standard and Hamilton 
Clubs. Mr. Silberman is married and 
has six children living. 

Mr. Meyer was born in New York. 
His parents were Heyman and Agatha 
Meyer. He attended the public schools 
in New York City and came to Chicago 
when still a young man. He is a mem- 


ber of the firm of the Kennedy Furni- 
ture Co., of Chicago, a new but suc- 
cessful business which is rapidly com- 
ing to the front as one of the leading 
retail furniture houses of Chicago. Mr. 
Meyer is an ex-director of the Lakeside 
club, and is a liberal contributor to the 
Associated Charities. He married Min- 
nie Keefer, a popular Chicago young 
lady, and they have three children liv- 
ing, Norman B., Evelyn H. and Doro- 
thy A. Meyer. 


Mr. Bensinger is a native of Louis- 
ville, Ky., where his parents, Nathan 

and i.i nali Bensinger located when they 
left their ancestral home, Mannheim, 
Germany. Mr. Bensinger ia president 
of the Brunswick-Balke-Collender Co., 
the leading billiard table manufactur- 
ers of the world. He has been actively 
identified with Sinai Congregation of 
which he has been director and also 
takes a great deal of interest in charit- 
able work, having served as direator of 
the- Michael Reese Hospital. He is an 
ex-president of the Standard Club, so- 
cially has a large acquaintance, and his 
friends are legion. He married Ellen- 
orah Brunswick and they have three 
children living, Mrs. Cora Hyman, Ben 
Bensinger and Mrs. Edna Fish. Al- 
though Mr. Bensinger is advanr'" 
years his vitality and strength would 
do credit to most young men. 


Mr. Leopold Strauss was a native of 
Worms on the Rhine. He came to 
America in 1848 and shortly thereafter 
to Chicago. He was a member of the 
wholesale clothing house of Strauss, 
Ullman & Yondorf, now out of exist- 
ence. He was a member of Sinai Con- 
gregation and of the Standard Club, 
and took a warm interest in charity 
work. He died several years ago, leav- 
ing a w^idow, Mrs. Carrie Strauss and 
six children five sons and one daugh- 

Mr. Strauss is remembered in the 

an active Interest in congregational 
work in that city and was a trustee of 
B'nai Sholem Congregation. He is a 
liberal contributor to charities and was 



Chicago Jewish community as a man of 
the best qualities, as a business man of 
great integrity, as a citizen of true 
loyalty and as a Jew who loved his 
people with heart and soul. 


Mr. Lesem is only a recent resident 
of Chicago, coming here from Quincy, 
111., where he resided for many years 
and was one of the prominent mer- 
chants and manufacturers of that city. 
His parents were Solomon and Rebec- 
ca Lesem of Rheinish Bavaria. Mr. 
Lesem was born Sept. 25, 1847, at Hop- 
kinsville, Ky., and received his educa- 
tion in the schools of Quincy. He took 


president of the Quincy Club. He was 
a member of the staff of Gov. Tanner 
and is one of the well-known citizens 


of the state. He married Hattie Bern- 
heimer and they have one child living, 
Mrs. Maurice B. Steele of this city. 








You Get More for Your Money 

when you buy- Quaker Oats more food value more easily assimilated 
food elements. You get more brain food more brawn food. You get a 
better balanced ration more of everything you need more digesta- 
bility more quality. 

At all grocers'. In 2-lb. packages only. 

Cook exactly .according to directions on the package. 



Carson, Pirle Scott, & Co. 

Careful management and broad- 
gauge methods are the essentials that 
have placed the firm of Carson, Plrie, 
Scott & Co. among the leaders in the 
wholesale dry goods business in the 
world. Chicago can proudly boast of 

being the birthplace of this great firm. 
Established in 1845 in very modest and 
unpretentious quarters, the growth was 
healthful and sure, and today you see 
by the accompanying illustration the 
Chicago home of this gigantic estab- 
lishment. Slowly and surely it devel- 
oped until they now have branches in 
many cities of the world and especial- 
ly Germany, France and Japan. Car- 
son, Pirie, Scott & Co. stand today as 
a monument and is proudly pointed to 
by the citizens of Illinois as an ex- 
ample of the enterprise which one of 
the greatest states of our republic can 

Something of Interest to the Build- 
Ing Public. 

It would be of interest to our readers 
who are contemplating building to get 
estimates on work from the well- 
known firm of H. B. Dodge & Co., 
108 LaSalle street, Suite 525. Their 
business consists of erecting window 
and sliding blinds, rolling partitions, 
steel coiling shutters, Venetian blinds 
and window screens. Below are a list 
of a few references: S. B. Eisendrath, 
Sehlesinger & Mayer, Mandel Bros., 
the Fair, Siegel, Cooper, and the di- 
rectors of the Isaiah Temple. 

Baker & Smith. 

To our readers belonging to the 
building public, wishing to employ 
steam heating and ventilating en- 
gineers, we can recommend none bet- 
ter than the old well-known firm of 
Baker & Smith Co., established as early 
as 1858. They have continued to in- 
stall their apparatus for such concerns 
as the following: C. H. McCormick est, 
Standard Club, Pullman office building, 
Pullman & Wagner Palace cars, ordi- 
nary coaches, ordinary houses, etc , in 
Chicago and elsewhere. 


We beg to call your attention to the- 
class of display advertising which this 
number contains. You will observe 
that each firm is representative in its 
respective line. As we were particular 
in accepting only such houses as we 
deemed reliable and worthy of repre- 
se.ntation in this, the greatest number 
of The Reform Advocate ever before 
attempted, we can therefore recom- 
mend them to you. - 

Yours very truly, 

Bloch & Newman. 


The Troy Laundry Machinery Co. is 
known throughout the world and its 
machinery and supplies- are in use in 
almost every land. Its latest cata- 
logue, a handsome piece of typography, 
shows a surprisingly large variety of 
appliances for the laundry. There are 
cylinder washers, sterilizing and dis- 
infecting machines, extractors, tum- 
blers, wringers, collar, cuff and shirt 
starching machines, dryers, dampen- 
ers, manglers, collar, cuff and shirt 
ironers, neckband and sleeve ironers, 
folders, shapers, smoothing and polish- 
ing machines, gas iron heaters, starch 
cookers, laundry stoves, etc., etc. 

Most of these appliances are for use 
in large establishments, such as hotels, 
hospitals, asylums, public institutions, 
etc. Hardly any institution but is 
equipped with this company's laundry 
helps, and every modern home has a 
steam dryer. Architects and contract- 
ors' will serve their clients best by 
specifying the Troy Laundry Machine 
Company's manufactures. The local 
offices are 389-401 Fifth avenue. 

Superfluous hair is an excessive and 
abnormal growth of hair on the fe- 
male face, seen most conspicuously on 
the upper lip, chin, cheeks and throat. 
It also grows superfluously between 
the eyebrows, on the forehead, neck, 
arms, and in moles and birthmarks. 
Some ladies have also a superabun- 
dance of hair on the neck, which gives 
the hair an untidy appearance, as it is 
difficult to keep the short bairs regu- 
lar. This humiliating growth of fe- 
male facial hair is surprisingly preva- 
lent. There is 'but one process by 
which to rid yourself forever of this 
obnoxious growth, and that is by elec- 
trolysis (the electrical needle opera- 
tion). It is a slow but sure process. 
The prices are not unreasonable, when 
you take into consideration the fact 
that you are forever ridding yourself 
of a lifetime blemish. Consultations 
art free. Write to Dr. H. P. Fitzpat- 
rick, M. D., 1118 Masonic Temple, Chi- 
cago, for a book on Facial Blemishes 
and Skin Diseases and other valuable 

Moone, 2221-2223 Wabash avenue. Be- 
sides keeping a first-class livery, Mr. 
Moone has on sale at all times fine 
horses, which can be seen daily at his 
place of business, if you 'desire any- 
thing in the way of fine livery call up 
South 532. 

Faithorn's wagons make three reg- 
ular trips daily for all orders of bak- 
ery goods, and special trips for any 
special orders. Catering for weddings, 
receptions, etc., a specialty. Fine 
table decorations: and linen can be fur- 
nished at all times. Your order is re- 
spectfully solicited. Address A. 
Faithorn, caterer, 579 E. Forty-third 
street, or 722 E. Forty-seventh street, 
or call up Oakland 672. 

The firm of S. Berliner, Desplaines 
avenue and Twelfth street, Harlem, 
Postofllce, Oak Park, I1L, are well 
known for their artistic work in mon- 
uments and head stones, in granite, 
marble and all etone used for this 
purpose. They do all kinds of ceme- 
tery work and are prepared to furnish 
the best of references. It will pay you 
to send for their estimate before giv- 
ing out any work of this kind. 

One of the most successful eyesight 
specialists is Dr. C. D. Strow, 1316 
Masonic Temple. A call at his office 
and a glance through his list of ref- 
erences demonstrates that fact thor- 
oughly. Among others are found such 
names as Hon. George E. Roberts, di- 
rector of the United States mint; Hon. 
M. D. O'Connor, solicitor of the United 
States treasury, and U. S. Senator Jon- 
athan P. Dolliver, all of Washington, 
D. C. Dr. Strow is most successful in 
relieving headaches and all irregulari- 
ties by correcting defective eyes by 

Telephone: Oakland 588. 


Successor to JOHN L7HCH, 


611 E. 47th St., Cor. Vincennes Av. 

Prescriptions accurately compounded and 
promptly Oelivered. 


Safes of Everv Description for Business 
ana Residence Use. 


1.1. C, 


The first premium at the World's 
Fair, awarded for the best pair of 
coach horses, was given to W. D. 

The Standard for Excellence, 
Leading Grocers Sell Them. 

40 a 


Geo. H. Phillips 



Telephone Harrison 2113. 

231-233 Ri-.\lt;> Building. 

Branch Offlco-187 South Clark Street. 

BEN BLOCK. Manager. 

The most delicious of all 




Absolutely pure and healthful. 






8954 Cottage Grove Ave. 





South. Division 


Fell, Composition and Gravel 




Free Estimates on New and Old Work. 

Telephone Main 3582. 


Edwin Charles Rowdon has been 
pronounced by not a few competent 
musical authorities to be the greatest 
baritone in the country. His voice is 
remarkable for its range and quality, 
sincerity to all and any composer and 
conspicuous for artistic development. 
His efforts bear the stamp of musical 
loveliness. As a student he was a bril- 
liant ornament and as an artist has a 
stanch iband of personal admirers. Mr. 
Rowdon has been identified with Jew- 
ish choirs for several years; now 
holds the position of baritone soloist 
and choir director of the North Side 
Hebrew Temple. Under his faithful 
and zealous direction the most excel- 
lent results have been realized. Mr. 
Rowdon's repertoir covers all the 
standard oratorios, and to these must 
be added an exceeding large list of Ger- 
man, Irish, Italian, English and Amer- 
ican songs. He is most prominent 
among those lending distinction to 
Irish songs. From this incomplete list 
we are convinced of the truth of his 
industriousness and of his faithful de- 
votion to the highest and most en- 
nobling in art. 


The season of building and renovat- 
ing having commenced, one of the 
thoughts uppermost in the minds of 
most persons connected with the build- 
ing public is to have their various 
building enterprises constructed right 
up to date and complete. In deciding 
your choice for a large and reliable 
heating and ventilating firm it would 
speak well for the judgment of -any 
builder who called on the well-known 
West Side, Chicago, firm of Thomas 
& Smith, 16 N. Canal street. 

This firm have installed and are 
proud of the fact, for various Jewish 
concerns. Being very 'broad-minded, 
they set. aside every year certain 
moneys for charitable purposes, Jew 
and non-Jew alike, and as long as said 
yearly appropriation is not exceeded 
they are ever willing contributors, as 
many charitable institutions well 
know. The firm has also installed 
and continues to install their apparatus 
for some of the best concerns in Chi- 
cago. For the benefit of our readers 
we understand they do very, and have 
for several years, fine work to the sat- 
isfaction of their customers as a whole. 

R. L. Wanger has introduced a sys- 
tem of acquiring health and strength 
which has been pronounced a positive 
and permanent cure for dyspepsia, in- 
digestion and insomnia. He has rec- 
ommendations from hundreds of our 
best known citizens and guarantees in 
fifteen minutes a day and steady prac- 
tice for one month, to give a pupil ab- 
solute control of his muscles. Call or 
send for his catalogue. Address suite 
502 and 504 Grand Pacific Hotel. 

Mr. Wanger is considered one of the 
greatest instructors of scientific cul- 

We Do Work 

of this kind: 




SKIRTS made to order. 

Experience and finest nrk 
have won us our reputation. 

Mail orders promptly t- 
tended to. 



Stewart Building RoomKL 

Telephone, Central 22N. 


Steam, Hot Water and Gas Fitting, Sewerage 

Estimates Furnished. 
Tel. Oak 891. _ 535 47th 8T. 


Hard Wax and Floor Material. 

Designs and estimates submitted on Hard' 
wood Floors and Grilles. 


4703 Cottage Grove Avenue. 


Furniture Storage 



Cartage Free if goods are long 
in store. 


237-245 E. Thirty-Ninth St. 

Telephone Oakland 639. 



Goods delivered at all hours. 

Prescription Work a Specialty. 

4TtH St. & Bills Ax e. 

Tel. Oakland 5O. 

Tel. Oakland 355. 

Hyde Faru Tel. No. dtt. 


Select Livery 

Special attention paid to /{onrdera. 
Commission Dealers In High-Class 

Ooach and Drlvlog Horses. 

For Style & Quality 
Have no Equal. 


Send for Haihlon Plate. 




Special L/ist. 

185-7 Wabash Ave., Stores and Floors 

147 State St., 5 Floors, 30x145 

148 State St., 2nd Floor, 24x90 

214 State St., Fine Corner Basement 
190-2 Dearborn St., Stores &Bank Floor 
167-9Madison St. .Singleor Double Store 
184 Madison St., 2 Floors, 25x100 
211-13 Monroe St.,Bldg.5Floors.45xl80 
126 Fifth Ave., Floors, 20x80 
148 Fifth Ave., Floors, 20x85 
148 So. Water St., Rooms $10.00 up 
Power Floors and Rooms 
1807-9 Clark St., 10,000 Feet, $75.00 
167-9 Madison St., 52 Room Hotel 
Offices in 19 Modern Buildings 

Send for Complete List of Stores, 
Buildings, Lofts, Offices, etc., in Central 
Business and Wholesale Districts. 






We Hwe Moved To 

46 Madison St. Main 883. 

atabllshed 1869. 

Incorporated U94 



Gtncrtti ComblaU 
Curb ind Bifflir, lnl 
Alplllt Flwrt ut 

Expert on Prescription Work. 


S. B. Cor. Indiana Ave. and 35th St. 
TeL, Oakland 85 and 63. Open All Night. 

Finest Pharmacy on South Side. 

No system of shorthand has gone 
to the front as rapidly as that of the 
Gregg Shorthand School. Its success 
is due largely to a combination of sim- 
plicity and power which enables the 
writer to use speed and still have copy 
that is legible. The school has re- 
ceived testimonials from many educa- 
tors, teachers and reporters, all of 
which bear testimony to the excellence 
of this method. To anyone desiring 
to study shorthand for any purpose 
whatsoever, no better method could 
be found for practical purposes than 
is offered by the Gregg Shorthand 
School, located at 57 Washington 
street. A call is cordially invited or 
by dropping a postal a catalogue giv- 
ing full particulars will be sent. The 
school is open both day and evenings 
and an investigation is cordially in- 

The Leonard Mandel Dry Goods 
Company, 218-226 Thirty-first street, 
near Indiana avenue, are displaying 
a full line of spring goods. Their win- 
dows are filled with the latest novel- 
ties in dry goods and ladles' and gents' 
furnishing goods, which gives one only 
a limited idea of the extensive stock 
they carry. Charge accounts are so- 
licited and a telephone is also at the 
disposal of patrons. South Side resi- 
dents will have no reason to take the 
long ride necessary to the shopping 
district, as their wants can be fully 
supplied at this store. 

The Chicago Fur Co. have removed 
to larger and more convenient quar- 
ters and are now located at 189 Wa- 
bash avenue. The new store is in the 
heart of the retail shopping district 
and is in every way adapted to the 
needs of an ever-increasing business. 
A full line of novelties is ready for 
inspection, In addition to which a spe- 
cial feature will be made of high-class 
millinery at moderate prices. Call 
and see the attractive display of 
trimmed hats. 

We desire to call the attention of 
our readers to the advertisement of 
E. W. Silsby. Mr. Silsby is the in- 
ventor and sole manufacturer of the 
Silsby pleating and button machines, 
also of pinking, tucking and cording 
machines. All of the machines rnacU 
by him are of the latest patterns and 
thoroughly up-to-date. They are in 
use in all parts of the world, and the 
high reputation attained for them pre- 
cludes any risk in buying. The ad- 
dresses of the various offices of Mr. 
Silsby are given in the advertisement 
on another page. 

Rev. Dr. A. J. Messing has removed 
from 3708 Wabash avenue to 3567 
Forest avenue. 



i III MUUnCi ;,/i'iij#v~-~~- 

Tel. 8.532. ZOH1 Wabash Avvnue 


High Class Livery and Boarding Stables. 

3508-10-18-14-16 Indiana Ave., In rear 

AND Yondorf 


Loaned on 
Real Estate 






Cor. 47th St. and Si. Lawrence Ave. 
Physicians' Prescriptions Accurately Filled. 

Telephone-Oakland 5. 
Free Special Messenger Service. 



161 Twenty-Second Street,, 

Telephone South 209. CHICAGO. 



By James A, Davis, Industrial Com- 
missioner Atchlson, Topeka and 

Santa Fe Ry. 

To own a 'home, to control a means 
of livelihood and accumulation, to, in 
fact, acquire the independence of full 
proprietorship, is the ambition of the 
majority of mankind. Labor is never 
granted a greater reward. It is, and 
always will be, when granted, how- 
ever, a reward of degrees. The de- 

California have had enormous addi- 
tions to their agricultural population. 
Opportunities to secure moderately 
priced land, favorably situated, are 
growing less daily. But great progress 
has been and is being made in reclaim- 
. ing by means of irrigation great 
stretches of the arid west, notably in 
Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, South- 
ern and Central California, where im- 
mense acreages of the most fertile 
soil with an assured and abundant 
supply of water have been wrested 



sires of men differ as men differ. En- 
vironment, circumstances and expe- 
rience fix the point of view and hori- 
zon the ambition. Men may differ in 
their desires as to a home, one may 
require more for a livelihood than 
another, appreciations of fortune 
may not be the same, no two men 
agree as to the adequacy of estate, but 
the great majority would consider the 
home, the living, the possible accu- 
mulations and the acres in fee of a 
successful farmer all that anyone 
could or should desire. The real suc- 
cess as outlined in the opening of this 
article is oftener the reward of the 
farmer's toil and thrift than it is of 
the labor of the toiler in any other in- 
dustry. The farmer is the most suc- 
cessful and independent of all the 
world's army of workers. 

It is a fact that cannot be gainsaid 
that good agricultural land is rapidly 
advancing in value. The unprecedent- 

from the desert. It is a well-known 
and long-proven fact that such soil 
under irrigation is the most produc- 

on the marvelous. Its efficacy is fully 
established. It has been the means of 
transforming Southern California from 
a desert to a veritable Garden of Hes- 
perides. There were twenty thousand 
cars of oranges shipped from Califor- 
nia this year, and every orange was 
raised on irrigated land. Irrigation is 
a means by which not only insurance 
against failure through drought or ex- 
cessive rainfall is gained, but the land 
is continually refertilized as well by 
the silt which carry decayed vegetable 
matter and mineral ingredients is de- 
posited by the water on the soil as 
the Nile enriches its valley. Worn- 
out irrigated land is something un- 
known. It is a means by which in- 
tensive cultivation of the soil, some- 
thing comparatively unknown In this 
country, will reach Its highest devel- 
opment. It is the great boon of the 
small farmer. A man on ten acres can 
earn by this system of farming as 
good a living and surplus over, as he 
could on an eastern 80-acre farm. He 
can accomplish in agriculture and hor- 
ticulture all his ability and ambition 
inspire him to attempt. The advan- 
tages of irrigation are always supple- 
mented by a favorable and healthy 
climate. It is only employed in this 
country in the west where sunshine is 


tive known. Such opportunities now 
await the man. 

Irrigation is not an experiment Its 
practice in Egypt began before writ- 
ten or traditional records. Its adop- 
tion with the American agriculturist 


ed emigration to the west during the 
past two years has appreciably les- 
sened available low-priced farming 
land within the humid or rainbelt 
area. Oklahoma, Texas, Nebraska and 

began with the Mormons in Utah and 
Southern California. It was practiced 
by the Indians and early Spanish set- 
tlers many years before. What has 
been accomplished through it borders 

almost perpetual, and where the cli- 
matic conditions are not only con- 
ducive to out of door pursuits and 
health, but to a greater diversity of 
products as well. It is a principle ex- 
tremely simple in application. It re- 
quires only good judgment and an ap- 
preciation of the moisture necessities 
of the crop under cultivation, governed 
by economy and timeliness in distrib- 
uting it. 

The most typical, the richest, furth- 
est advanced, most productive and suc- 
cessful irrigated section of the west, 
outside of Californiai, is the Arkansas 
Valley of Colorado on the Atchison, 
Topeka and Santa Fe Ry. Imagine a 
region where droughts and excessive 
rainfall are unknown, where out-door 
exercise is possible all the winter, 
where 340 days of the year are cloud- 
less, where the soil is from twenty to 
thirty feet deep and possible of cul- 
tivation in almost every farm product 
of this country. If it is possible to so 
imagine, some conception may be had 
of the Arkansas Valley of Colorado. 



This valley once constituted a large 
portion of what was known as the 
Great Plains. It extends along the Ar- 
kansas river from Canon City to Holly, 
Colorado, on the Colorado-Kansas 
state line. In extent it is about two 
hundred miles long by fifteen miles 
wide. The altitude varies from 5,260 
feet at Canon City to 3,450 feet at Hol- 
ly. The soil in character and quality 
is the same the entire extent. It is a 
rich, sandy loam, noted for its depth 
and productiveness. Irrigation of this 
valley began in the vicinity of Canon 
City many years ago and was followed 
by the building of irrigating ditches 
about the middle of the valley at 
Rocky Ford, the home of the famous 
canteloupe which bears its name. Af- 
ter the 'building of the Rocky Ford 
ditch irrigation systems were con- 
structed at Manzanola, Fowler, Las 
Animas, Lamar and other points in 
the valley, culminating in what is 
known as the Great Plains Water Sys- 
tem, now just completed in the east- 


ern end of the valley. This system is 
the largest in the United States, and 
there is only one larger in the world. 
In construction and completeness it 
has no superiors. It was not begun 
until the land "west of it had proven 
its possibilities under irrigation. Its 
completion creates an assured water 
supply for 125,000 acres. Its cost was 
over $1,500,000. The five water storage 
reservoirs of the system cover an area 
of 13,000 acres and store 11,525,702,948 
cubic feet of water, or 264,827 acre feet 
that is to say, a capacity equal to 
flooding 264,827 acres one foot deep. 
There are in the system in addition 
to the reservoirs, 311 miles of canals. 
With a soil proven to be extraor- 
dinarily rich, a climate of almost con- 
tinual spring, with moisture at his 
command, a farmer ought never know 
a failure in crops, and the short rec- 
ord of actual results which follows 
fully justifies the statement that here 
is a wonderful opportunity for the 
man who would fight out the battle of 
life with the odds in his favor. 

In the spring of 1900 the American 
Beet Sugar Co., more generally known 
as the Oxnards, completed a thousand 
ton beet sugar factory at Rocky Ford. 
Its first campaign last year was the 
most successful for a first year ever 
known. The Mormons were the first 
cultivators of beets under irrigation. 
Their success at Lehi was, however, 

C. W. Fenlason reported that two 
acres netted him $72 per acre. 

D. V. Burrell says: My early beete 
paid me $50.00 per acre. The first ten 
acres delivered averaged 18 1-3 ton* 
per acre, three acres made thirty tons 
per acre, nineteen to twenty per cent 
sugar. Hail does not hurt the crop. 

Joseph Wycoff: Ten acres, fifteen 


surpassed at Rocky Ford, not only in 
the yield per acre but in the sugar ' 
contents and richness of the beets as 
well. The Rocky Ford factory con- 
tracts for beets at all points in the 
valley, paying the same for them at 
the railroad station as they do the 
farmers who deliver in wagons at 
their door. In other words, the fac- 
tory pays the freight. As it was the 
first year of the factory every en- 
deavor was made by the farmer to 
avoid the mistake of undertaking a 
greater acreage than he could handle. 
Their experience last season has en- 
abled them to increase their acreage 
threefold this. year. 

In addition to above 13 growers re- 
ceived more than $90.00 per acre, 26 
above $80.00, 35 above $70.00, 67 above 
$50.00 and 80 above $40.00. To a dis- 
interested committee sent to Rocky 
Ford by another district in Colorado, 

tons per acre. I think next year can 
make one-half more by doing better 

A. P. Kouns: Five acres; yield thir- 
ty-two tons per acre, fourteen to eigh- 
teen per cent sugar, average sixteen 
per cent. 
Value of crop, 160 tons at $4.35 

per ton $696.00 

Cost of raising 295.50 

Gave me net profit on 5 acres. .$400.50 
Or on one acre $80.10' 

J. G. Lackey: Twenty acres, aver- 
age yield twenty-five tons to the acre, 
test eighteen per cent sugar, received 
$5.00 per ton. My beets will net me 
$90.00 per acre; cost of raising, $35.00 
per acre. 

The culture of sugar beets as a prof- 
itable crop in this section can be stated 
as an unqualified success. 

The farmers of Rocky Ford origi- 



the farmers of which wanted to en- 
gage in beet culture, the farmers of 
the Arkansas valley were a unit in 
reporting the sugar beet the most 
profitable of crops they ever cultivat- 
ed, particularly in view of the fact 
than an overproduction was impos- 
sible. Extracts from the statements 
of a few of the farmers follow: 

nated the famous canteloupe bearing 
its name. The profits from the culti- 
vation of that luscious melon are very 
great. Unlike the sugar beet it has its. 
limitations as to market and is a per- 
ishable product, but the profit from its 
cultivation will always be large. Some 
instances of individual profits are as 



One farmer near Rocky Ford gath- 
ered from five acres in 1897 305 crates 
per acre, for which he received 76 
cents per crate delivered at the station. 
This is an unusual instance, however, 
the average yield being nearer 90 
crates per acre. There are many in- 
stances, however, of profits as high as 
^150.00 per acre, and very few lower 
than |50 per acre. The growers are 
organized into associations for the 
purpose of avoiding overproduction, 
and to better market their output. 
There were 560 cars shipped from 
Rocky Ford last year, and about 250 
from the other stations in the valley. 

The immense crops of alfalfa for 
which this valley is noted have caused 
it to become one of the foremost cat- 
tle and sheep feeding localities in the 
west. There are at this time over 
300,000 lambs being fed there. The cat- 
tle and sheep industries when con- 
ducted under competent management 
have yielded large and sure profits to 
all engaged in them. Alfalfa grows 
profusely, yielding in four cuttings 
per season from 6% to 7 tons per acre. 

Another industry depending upon 
the alfalfa crop, and one that is com- 
ing into prominence in profit as well 
as volume, is the production of honey. 
The bee finds in the blossom of alfal- 
fa an exquisitely flavored ingredient 
which makes the honey produced from 
it not only the most delicious in taste, 
but the clearest in color of any pro- 
duced in this country, and superior to 
the Swiss product. Although a com- 
paratively new industry in the valley, 
there were ten cars shipped last year 
to the east. As to earnings from this 
Industry the following instances will 
serve to show that it pays handsomely: 

A. P. Kouns gives the following as 
his start in the industry: "In June, 
1895, I hived nine colonies. These in- 
creased by August of that year to 
twenty-eight colonies. I sold twenty- 
one of these for $167.00, receiving for 
the honey $40.00 in addition, making 
my total receipts $207. The entire 
cost of bees, hives and handling 
amounted to $28.00, making the net re- 
turns on investment in a little more 
than two months $179.00, leaving me 
besides seven hives to begin on again. 
My bees earn an average of $7.50 per 
live per annum." 

Mr. Hales, who owns ninety stands of 
bees, sold from them last fall $525.00 
'worth of honey at 11 cents per pound. 
He paid $50.00 for the care of them 
during the season. 

All vegetables do well. The soil is 
especially adapted to the production of 
the potato, both sweet and Irish. Irish 
potatoes give a profit of from $60.00 
to $100.00 per acre. Records are at 
hand of a yield of potatoes at the rate 
Of 220 bushels per acre. Tomatoes 
yield gross from $90.00 to $150.00 per 
acre. Cabbages, celery, cucumbers, 
beans and peas all do well. , 

Among the fruits the most profitable 
are the apple, prune, peaches, cherries, 
pears and strawberries. The apple 
reaches its highest "and most perfect 

development in this valley. In eight 
years trees attain a size and bearing 
capacity equal to trees of nearly twice 
that age in the Mississippi valley. A 
single acre apple orchard six years 
old at Canon City yielded $520.00. An 
eight-year-old orchard of five acres 
produced $5,780.00. 

The climate of the Arkansas valley 
is nowhere exceeded in equability. In 
summer, though the sun is hot, the 
rapid evaporation of perspiration keeps 
the body at normal temperature. The 
unpleasant effects of humidity are 
never felt. The nights are always 
cool. Animals never evidence fatigue. 
Winters are mild. On an average 
there are not thirty days in the year 
when plowing cannot be done. Build- 
ing and general outdoor operations go 
on through the winter with no more 
than a week's intermission at one 

The prices of land vary in accord- 
ance with location; land in the older 
sections of the valley being highest. 
Good land, with an assured water sup- 
ply, can be had for $35.00 per acre, 
and from that it goes as high as $150.00 
to $200.00 per acre, a number of sales 
having been made recently at this lat- 
ter price. Values are rapidly advanc- 
ing and it will not be long before it 
will be impossible to secure good land 
with a sure water supply at as low as 
$35.00 per acre. 

A book might be written on the ad- 
vantages of this particular section, and 
expanded into many volumes if the his- 
tories of the successful farmers who 
went there broken in health, and al- 
most destitute were included. The 
writer knows the history of many who 
today own their own farms, a good 
house, have a bank account and above 
all else perfect health; who when they 
located In the valley were almost ob- 
jects of charity, the change in their 
condition being brought about in a 
comparatively few years. 

It is in such a favored spot, made 
so by Irrigation, and wrested from the 
desert's grasp, that any man can make 
the start which will place him in a po- 
sition of absolute independence. 

The manufacture of fine varnishes 
is an art little known to the general 
public, and the base of this beautiful 
material still less so. Were our read- 
ers to visit the offices of the Chicago 
Varnish Co. they would there discover 
a collection of what would appear at 
first glance to be gems of rare form 
and beautiful appearance. On closer 
examination, however, these would 
prove to be specimens of "Fossil 
Gums" surpassing in number, size and 
beauty all the collections of the world. 
The most extensive museums of Eu- 
rope and England possess no such ex- 
hibit, and there are a number of speci- 
mens in the collection which have no 
known duplicates. Here one may see 
not only the delicate insect in amber, 
but the giant beetle of past ages pre- 
served for all time in a mantle of 
rarest beauty. But what connection 

have these rare gems with varnish, you 
ask? The most intimate, we answer; 
for truly fine varnishes are made of 
these fossil gums, the finest specimens 
of which are preserved in this splendid 
collection. But why are they called 
fossil gums? Because they are the 
resins of extinct forests which have 
lain buried for unknown ages in the 
earth, ripening for the superb and deli- 
cate coatings now applied so univer- 
sally to secure the most beautiful ef- 
fects in rare and costly woods, to pre- 
serve the delicate colors on coaches, to 
protect the handsome exteriors of rail- 
way cars and to beautify the interiors 
of our dwellings. The cheap and com- 
mon varnishes are made from "rosin," 
which is extracted from growing pines 
of the South, and which have little 
beauty and durability. The extensive 
works of Chicago Varnish Co. are de- 
voted to the manufacture of the finer 
and more durable goods. Their prep- 
arations for hard wood floors and other 
house woodwork, for fine cabinet work, 
for hospitals, asylums,public buildings, 
offices and other similar constructions 
are unsurpassed for beauty and dura- 
bility and hence appeal to the most 
advanced ideals on the side of econ- 


The Reform Advocate recommends 
the Balatka Musical College to its 
readers. This well-known institution 
was founded in 1879 by the late Hans 

Balatka, whose fame is world-wide as 
a musical educator.- His son, Chris- 
tian F. Balatka, conducts the business 
and is assisted -by his sister Anna, and 
many eminent instructors from both 
sides of the Atlantic. This musical 
studio occupies two floors in Handel 

The American Laundry Machinery 
Company, whose advertisement ap- 
pears in this book, are furnishers of 
complete outfits of laundry machinery 
for public and private institutions and 
custom laundries. They furnished the 
plants for the Chicago Home for Jew- 
ish Orphans, also the one for the 
Michael Reese Hospital. Their refer- 
ences are Mr. S. B. Eisendrath, and a 
majority of the largest and best insti- 
tutions throughout the country. They 
will be pleased to mail their illustrated 
catalogue on application. 




-x tfL 




A Fine Country Soil and Climate 

Unexcelled What a Traveler 

Saw There in June, 


We left A - 9:44 p. m., on the 
Illinois Central R. R. limited and ar- 
rived in Memphis, Tenn., about 8:30 
a. m., changing there to the cars of 
the Yazoo & Mississippi Valley R. R. 
at 9 a. m. 

Just below Memphis, we entered the 
great Yazoo valley, the largest body 
of fertile, alluvial soil in the world. 
It embraces that part of the Mississip- 
pi valley bottom lands lying east of 
the Mississippi river between Memphis 
and Vicksburg as the extremis of the 
sector of an arc of a circle, the sector 
being two hundred miles in length and 
the hills from Memphis to Vicksburg 
making the arc. The widest part 100 
miles south of Memphis is 50 miles 
from arc to sector, or from hills to Mis- 
sissippi river, where is located Cleve- 
land, a thriving village which was 

is beautifully located near the bank 
of the Sunflower, where the river's 
course for about two miles is directly 
east. The banks of the Sunflower are 
slightly higher than the land as you 
recede from the river. The perpendic- 
ular height of the banks above low 
water is about 30 feet, but the slope is 
at an angle of 45 degrees and over- 
grown with small trees, cane and vari- 
ous vegetation to the water's edge. 

I was surprised to see the extent of 
and the number of recently improved 
farms or plantations all along the rail- 
road on our way from Memphis. More 
than half of the land in cultivation was 
covered with heavy timber five or six 
years ago. 

Our friend came here four years ago 
last January, with two car loads of 
horses, cattle, hogs and farm imple- 
ments with little money and' has, un- 
aided, opened one of the prettiest little 
farms I ever saw. His cotton crop 
alone brought him ?1,500 for last year. 
He could retire and live fairly well 
on the rent of his land. Land rents 

last year voted to be one of the loca- 
tions for the Bolivar county dual court 
houses. It is on the Yazoo valley 
railroad, a branch of the Illinois Cen- 
tral, diverging from the main line at 
Fulton, Ky., thence south through 
Memphis to Vicksburg. The Illinois 
Central railroad has diverging from 
this main branch extending through 
the center of the valley, or as it is 
called, the Yazoo Delta, tributary to it. 
800 miles of railroad. 

There is also a beautiful little river 
rising at the north extremity of the 
Delta and meandering nearly parallel 
in its general course with the railroad, 
emptying into the Yazoo near Vicka- 
burg. It is the prettiest river I ever 
saw, navigable for steamboats to 
Clarksdale, about 35 miles up the rail- 
road. Cleveland is half way between 
the Mississippi river and the hills, or 
25 miles from each, 3 miles west from 
the Sunflower river. 
Our friend's residence on his farm 

readily at $7 per acre. Although more 
corn can be raised here per acre than 
in Illinois, the farmers prefer to buy 
corn at 50 cents per bushel to raising 
it, as cotton pays better. This is the 
banner region of the United States for 
cotton. My friend has raised two bales 
per acre or 1,000 pounds of clean cot- 
ton. He sold his crop at 10 cents per 

One hand with one mule will put in, 
cultivate and pick 10 acres of cotton. 
The farm implements used here are 
crude and what you in Illinois would 
term primitive. But when the stumps 
are all removed, better facilities for 
farming will be brought into requisi- 
tion. At present, while there is so 
much unimproved land, the range is so 
good that no kinds of stock are fed 
anything except what and when they 
are worked. Cattle, horses and hogs 
keep fat all winter in the woods with- 
out other feed. 

The soil is not so tenacious when 

wet as Illinois prairie soil, it does not 
adhere to shoes nor wheels of vehicles. 
Any kind of a metal plow will scour 
in the soil at any time. The soil seems 
more porous, water does not stand long . 
on the surface. 

I doubt if there is anywhere outside 
of the Mississippi bottoms, that a man 
with a small capital -can so soon make 
a competence. My friend paid $6 per 
acre for his land five years ago and 
says he could not afford to take |50 
per acre if he had to invest anywhere 
else to make the same per cent on the 
capital, as he can make here. Any- ~ 
thing that grows in Illinois does equal- 
ly as well here and many things grow 
more luxuriantly. He has potatoes as 
large as goose eggs and cabbage are 
heading up. Raspberries are ripe and 
peaches turning. Peaches never fail. 
I see no reason why any grasses that 
grow in Illinois, will not grow here 
as well. I saw yesterday a small plot 
of blue grass that looked as nice as 
Illinois blue grass. The abundance of 
outside forage for stock in this coun- 
try has obviated the necessity of en- 
closed pastures and none have been 

I have taken more outdoor exercise 
since I have been here, five days, than 
I had taken in years for the length of 
time, and I have not slept so well in 
years. The temperature of the weather 
does not get so high here as farther 
north, seldom above 90 degrees, and 
never a time that a person cannot get 
cool in a shade. The days are not so 
long by nearly an hour and the nights 
being nearly an hour longer here, the 
air is cooled off, as the sun's heat in 
the day has not time to heat the atmos- 
phere so high as in the North. Hence, 
you seldom ever hear of a sunstroke in 
the South. There is no time a person 
cannot work in the sunshine. The 
short seasons of the North necessitate 
warm nights as well as warm days to 
mature crops before frost. The black 
soil of the North which absorbs more 
heat is also an advantage in facilitat- 
ing vegetable growth, but vegetation 
grows as fast here and as luxuriantly 
as in Illinois. 

This country is leveler than the prai- 
ries of Illinois, with draws or bayous 
nearly parallel with the river and 
about five feet lower than the land ad- 
jacent which will some day serve as 
outlets to tiles. It is not uncommon 
to see a cypress tree six feet in diam- 
eter and 100 feet to a limb. Timber is 
very tall and straight. Some oak trees 
are six feet in diameter. Gum, hickory, 
elm, sycamore and ash are the most 
common, next to oak, and there are 
some sassafras two feet in diameter. 

Here is the timber that cannot be 
excelled for the saw mill and lumber- 
man, and the land, soil and climate 
for the farmer who would grow rich 
in a few years, on a small capital that 
would not buy him a farm of 20 acres 
in Illinois. For full information re- 
garding these lands, address E. P. 
Skene, Land Commissioner, Central 
Station, Park Row, Room 450. 



Balatka Musical College 



gg] Christian F. Balatka, 









A complete faculty 
of competent instruc- 
tors of international 
reputation. To those 
desiring a thorough education in all branches of Musical and Dramatic Art, we 
recommend the perusal of our catalogue, mailed free on application. 

Thurber's Art Galleries 

210 Wabash Avenue 



We have an Expert Artist for Cleaning, Restoring and Backllnlng Valuable Painting*. 

hine on! 

not only gi\et a high, glowlng.dur- 
tble poliih to all meUli.but the polish 

Bar Keepers Friend 

lasts-, It will ihlne onl It benefit* all metaU, mineral! o 
wood while cleaning them. -.""- 1 Ib box. For ule by drag 
giti and dealeri. Send '2c stamp fnr lamplo to Qeorgt 
William Hoffman, 295 L. \Vahington St .liidlanapolU, Ind 

Will be the popular route 
this summer to the Pan- 
American ...A position at Buf- 
falo. The excellence of its 
service is well recognized 
by the traveling public, and 
the reputation of its train 
employes in their uniform 
courtesy to passengers, is 
well known. No excess 
fares are charged on any of 
its fast express trains. No 
line offers lower rates. For 
full information, reserva- 
tion of sleeping car berths, 
etc., address 

JOHN Y. CALAHAN, Cen'l Agent 
III Adams Street 
Phone Cant. 2O57 




the World's Columblin Exposi- 
tion si Chlcsgo. 

GRAND PRIX (highest swsri) 
st Brussels. 


( highest swsni) at Luxembourg. 

it Ghent. 

GRAND PRIX (outnnklnt ill 
medits) II Paris.' 


American ' Exposition, at ( 

327 Broadway, New York. 




With the opening of the Illinois 
Theater, October 15th, 1900, came the 
initial opening of the "Wellington 
Limited," as illustrated above. 

It was not presumed by Mr. Gage 
when he conceived the idea of build- 
ing this train of three beautiful cars 
that they would become so popular 
and so much in demand. To use his 
language at that time: "I want a 
bright light to show opposite the 
theater more as an advertisement than 
for use. In fact, it cannot do business 
enough in five years to pay for itself." 
A recent call on Mr. Gage brought 

forth this information: "The Welling- 
ton Limited? Why, it's a wonder! We 
run it only for special parties, engaged 
in advance, either two, four, six seats, 
drawing rooms, single cars, or the en- 
fire train, and some of the most de- 
lightful social events in the history 
of this city have occurred here in the 
past few months, showing that the 
people of Chicago need something of 
merit only brought to their notice and 
they will appreciate and patronize it, 
as our great retail stores prove." 

The success of the Wellington is the 
pleasure of its patrons. 

Have your carpets cleaned by the 
new compressed air system introduced 
by the Pneumatic Carpet Cleaning Co., 
corner Lake and Carpenter streets, 
Chicago. Carpets and rugs go in one 
side of the machine soiled and dirty 
and come out on the other side thor- 
oughly cleansed and aired, nap raised 
and colors brightened and nothing Is 
frayed or torn. .Orders receive prompt 
attention. Tel, Monroe 1496. 

There is nothing of more importance 
to the residents of a great city like 
Chicago than the purity of its milk 
supply. For years Chicago was sup- 
plied with milk in cans gathered pro- 
miscuously wherever it could be found 
and left in pans, pitchers or cups with 
the housewife. The result of this can 
be readily imagined and the Innova- 
tion introduced by the Bordens in 1892 
of delivering milk in clean, sterilized 
glass bottles is an improvement so ap- 



3530-3532 MICHIGAN AYE. 


A choice selection at FRESH CUT FLOWERS con- 
stantly on band. Floral Designs of every desciption. 


2918 Cottage Grove Ave* l% * 

Telephone, south 346. 6as Fitting and Sewerage. 

parent that ' the method will become 
universally used. While the glass 
bottle is not in itself a guarantee of 
pure milk, it becomes essentially a 
guarantee when the milk itself comes 
from a reliable firm. A scientific study 
of food, environment, the cows and the 
method of handling them, has cost the 
Borden's Condensed Milk Co. both 
time and money, with the result that 
with the absolute supervision and 
practical control of the methods and 
utensils used in handling and in the 
delivery of the milk to them, they are 
prepared to furnish and guarantee an 
absolutely pure milk and cream In, 
bottles filled and sealed at their own 
bottling plants in the country. 

The company operates a number of 
plants in the best dairy sections of 
Illinois and Wisconsin, in which 
abound springs and streams of pure 
water, where the atmosphere is con- 
' ducive to a healthy condition of the 
cows, where fhe soil is productive, 
and where the general surroundings 
are by nature particularly adapted to 
the production of the highest grade 
of milk. Visitors to these plants are 
impressed with the thorough sanitary 
methods employed and with the per- 
fect cleanliness in and around all of 
the buildings. All of the bottles are 
thoroughly cleansed and sterilized at 
a very high temperature. 

The milk intended to be delivered 
in its natural state in bottles is, after 
cleansing and aerating, taken to the 
bottling room. The sterilized bot- 
tles are placed on a long table, rapid- 
ly filled, covered with a specially pre- 
pared cardboard and hermetically 
sealed. From this table the bottles 
are packed in cases, covered with a 
bountiful supply of cracked ice, and 
loaded into refrigerator care for ship- 
ment into the city. 

This milk is delivered daily every- 
where throughout the city, and orders 
can be sent by mail or telephone to 
the Borden's Condensed Milk Co., 627 
East Forty-seventh street Telephone 
Oakland 503, or 546 West Van Buren 
street, Telephone Monroe 856; 153 
North Park avenue, Austin, Telephone 
Austin 21, 1085-1091 West Ravenswood 
Park, Telephone Lake View 524. 

There is no greater pest than vermin 
in one's home or place of business. 
If you are troubled, why not drop a 
line to W. P. Martin & Co., 2954 Cot- 
tage Grove avenue, Chicago, 111., and 
they will make a contract guaran- 
teeing to rid your premises of cock- 
roaches and waterbugs. The paste 
used by this firm is infallible and they 
give an absolute guarantee and are 
prepared to show testimonials from 
hundreds of well-known patrons. A 
trial is cordially invited and satisfac- 
tion is assured. 

Half-heartedness means whole fail- 
ure usually. 




Twentieth Cervtxiry Building 

The building wfll be twelve atoriea 
The approach to the building will 
be through a magnificent entrance 
of marble and mosaic, containing two 
broad, easy flights of stain to the 
second floor. 

The entire bonding wfll be finished 
in mahogany, the corridors will have 
mosaic floors and marble wainaeot- 
ing. Every room will bare outaida 
light and air, making it the best 
lighted building in the city. 

Seven Hydra, ullc 

of the best and most rapid type and 
equipped with the most approved 
form of safety devices wfll give access 
to the upper floor*. Large freight 
elevator will be placed in the rear 
with access from the alley. 

The first floor wfll be finished in 
stores. The second floor wffl be suit- 
able for financial institutions requir- 
ing large space and vaults, and wfll 
have mosaic floors. The third and 
fourth floors will be occupied entire- 
ly by The Tribune Company. The 
upper eight floors wfll be divided in- 
to offices, and. if applications for 
space are made in time, the rooms 
will be arranged to suit tjmnt 

Hot and cold water, vaults, and 
coat closets wfll be supplied with each 
suite of offices. Storage space can be 
had in the attic for the use of ten- 
ants. Further information can be 
obtained by applying to the agents, 

85 W&sMngton Street. 

ITOTICE. Dnrtng the eonatraettaa at 

the newbatldlnz THE TBIBTJXE butBaaa 
office wffl be IB the premise* BOW occupied 
by the Chicago Nation*! Bank. Dearborn 
and Monroe ttreeta. The removal will take 
place on May 1. The editorial room* win 
alao be t the corner of Dearborn and Man- 
toe stoeeta. bat the osloe at the anaarbw ed- 
itor, Ike city editor, aW in the newa depnrt- 
meatt of the paper wffl heat m tol Market 
iliuel. where the meehasdael wart: of the 

: , 
mafflm, wm be . 

The New Tribune Building, to be erected on the site of the present building. Southeast 
corner Dearborn and Msxdison Streets, and to be ready for occupancy about April 1. 19O2. 

The Chiccvgo Tribune Lea.ds All CKicatgo Morning Newspapers 

In the Number of Agate Lines of Pa. id Advertising. 
Record for twelve months, ending December 31, 19OO. Compiled from measurements made by the Chicago Dady Newa. 





Over 1899 








j.. ->.->.. -5 : 













8,553, 118 




Tne Svinda.y Tribvine Leads tKe World 

Record of advertising for the year ending December 31. 19OO. 


3,448,699 Agate Line* 
S.O56.6O7 " 


Complied from measurements made by a Nevr York and a ChlcaJCo Evening Newspaper. 




Concert Afternoons and Evenings 

Cor. Evanston Ave. fSL 
Clark St.,1800Diversey 


We will open a beauti- 
ful Summer Garden about 
May 20th. Refreshments 
of all kinds and lunches 
will be served. We cater 
only to the best class of 
trade and we are pleased 
to say that our patronage 
is composed of the better 
class of people only. 

Trusting you will give 
us a call, I remain, 
Yours truly, 

Despres (&L Co. 

The readers of this issue of 
invited to send us their orders 
for anything they may need 
in the way of 


for USP in their homes. Our 
personal attention will be 
given to such orders. 

Prices as low as consistent 
with PURE goods. 

We handle all kinds of 

Imported and Domestic 
Wines, Liquors and 

Sole agents for the sale of 
the Celebrated Rhine Wines 
of A. Guthmar, Darmstadt, 



193-195 E. Van Buren Street. Chicago 

Telephone Harrison 344 




163 E. Adams Street 


**!* +++++**++++!+*+***+*********** 



The Wanger System is a. posi- 
tive and permanent cure for 
constipation, dyspepsia, indi- 
gestion and insomnia. not 
occasionally, b\it in every 
instance. ^ <A <A ^ 

Chicago, April 6, 1901. 
E. L. WANOKB, Esq., 

Grand PaciBc Hotel, City: 

Dear Sir: After a course of your training 1 1 am 
pleased to say that I think it most excellent for busy 
men with but little time to devote to their physical 

Yours truly, 



Dr. G. E. Richards 
Alexander H. Revel 
H. N. Higinbotham 
Geo. Lytton 
W. Vernon Booth 
Potter Palmer, Jr. 
Honore Palmer 
Stanley McCormfck 
Medill Me :ormick 
Marvin Hewitt, Jr. 
Angus S. Hibbard 
J. H. Van Vlissengen 
Frank Hibbard 
Chas. W. Gillett 
Byron Smith 
Lloyd Milner 
John J. Abbott 
Chas. Counselman 
E. M. Lacey 


Dr. N. S. Davis, Jr. 
Fred Upham 
Harry M. Stevenson 
Howard F. Gillette 
Orville E. Babcock 
Ben). Carpenter 
David A. Noyes 
Harry M. Tuttle 
Dunlap Smith 
Edward B. Lewis 
Garlield King 
F. C. Farwell 
F. S. Gorton 
C. D. Hamill 
Edward B. Case 
Frank W. Scott 
Joseph L Lombard 
Syrus Bentley 
Hugh Johnson McBurney 
0. f. Aldis 


Shoxilder 3 to 5 

Expansion 2 to 6 

ForeLrm */i to 1 

Chest 2to4 

Upper Arm 1 to 2 

Waist, decreased 2 to 8 



R. L. 

Sxiite, 500, 502 and 504 Grand Pacific Hotel 

HatJe My Manager Call and Ejcplain My Method 

or Write For Free -Booklet. 




Also a full 
line of 
stock sizes 
ready for 
For Res!- 

Hotels. Etc. 
The Me- 
Cray Sys- 
of pure 
oola air; 
dry; never 

For eco- 
use ot Ice it 
has no 
men, hos- 
pitals and 
ums en- 
dorse the 


Built to order for A. J. Wellington, Newton, Mail. 


McCray Refrigerators Speak For Themselves 

Catalogues and estimates furnished free upon application. Catalogues: No. 
sr, for Residences ; No. 4r, f r Public Institutions, Hotels, and Cold Storage houses ; 
No. 55 for Groceries aud II -at Markets. 


Chicago Office: SSWabash Avo. 
Main Office and Factory. 182 Mill Street, Kendallvllle, Indiana. 





79 Lake Street 

T5he Plume & Atwood 

MaLi\ufaLct\irin.g Co. 

Mills: Thomaston, Conn. 9 Factories: Waterbury. Conn. 

199 Lsvke Street. Chicago. Illinois 


German Silver and Copper 

Brass, Copper and German Silver wire. Copper 
and Brass Rivets and Burrs. Iron and Brass 
Jack Chain. Brass Hinges. Escutcheon Pins. 
Upholsters' Nails. Brass Ferrules. Curtain 
Rings. ........ 


Jewelers* Metal and Printers* 
Brass a Specialty 

Cutlery and tsoolj "Refrigerators 

Telephone Harrison 13OO 

S. J. Stebbins Co. 

"Builders' Hardtvare 

74- Van "Buren Jft. 


Phone Me^in 58 

Established 1858 

Jobbing nrvd Repairing 
Neatly Done 

Baker (L Smith Co, 

Stea.m a.nd Hot Water Heating 

in all its branches 

A Complete Line of 
Material always on hand. 

Out of town and High 
Pressure Work a Specialty. 



Heimmill Fire Escape Co, 

Office. 1008. 112 Clark Street 
Chicago Opera House Block 

Our style of standard escapes 
have proved of service so many 
times in saving lives, that they 
are universally admitted to be 
indispensable on every large 

We make a specialty of designing L---J 
and erecting fire escapes for 'ft? 
Schools, Colleges, Seminaries, ] 
Dormitories, Hotels, and large 
buildings. Write for circulars 
and estimates. 

We have erected work for S. B. 
Eisendrath, Architect; Falkenan 
Construction Co.; Mandel Bros.; 
Stumer, Rosenthal & Eckstein, 
Standard Club, and on many of 
the finest buildings in Chicago 
and the west. 

Work Erected in Any Pa.rt 
of the United States. 

Sketches a.r\d Plans furnished. 
We mnJce special designs of Rail- 
ings, ar\d car\ make them as 
ornamental as desired. 
Write for Estimates. 


Phone North 1031 

Nos. 160 a^nd 162 East Superior Street. Chicago 

We are catering to the army of Students of Modern advertising, and offer them our assistance in making the 
proper selection and getting the new ideas in signs. We have at our disposal the best medium of today to reach the 
public quick a.nd direct and we keep our aim before them da.y and nitfht with 


and we never experience short circuits 

We reproduce ma.rks, execute any sign in script and make original designs. If interested write us we 

. . 

will give you prompt attention and furnish you a design of the sign as you should have it. 


0*4- *TO 







Grdvit Philadelphia 
Training School for 


Personal Service Day and Night. 
BVHighest endorsements of 

Philadelphia, Rabbis. 

t 529 E. 47th St. 'Phone Drexel 7593 

Thonrve^s J. Dee & Co. 

Gold a.nd Silver R.efii\ers, 

Ass-Ayers e^rvd Sweep 
Smelters V V V V V V 

67 and 69 Washington Street, 

Bullion Bought and Sold. 


of superior 

and copper 





Sweet. Dempster & Co. 

Manufacturers, Importers 
and Jobbers of 

ftats, Caps and Gloves 

232-234 Monroe St.. S. W. Cor. Franklin 


OUR SPECIALTIES Soft and Stiff Hats to retail 
~$1.6O. $2.OO and $3.0O. 



+T Manufactarerj and Jobbers 

MITTENS. .......... 

239-24-1 Jackson St.. Chicago 



Teeth Extracted Absolutely Without 

Best Set 
of Teeth 

$5.00 Good Set Teeth $5.00 

Teeth Without Plates our special- 
ty. : : Fine Gold Filling at 
half usual rates. : : Open 
evenings till 10. :::::: . 

"I had sixteen teeth extracted entirely without pain." Mrs. 
Kate Hughes, 190 Seminary Avenue 

McCKesney Brothers. 

Corner Clark and Randolph Sts. 

'Phone Central 2047. 

Special Rates to Professional People. 




\S*\.^.7f^'V m 

Facrrn PUREST 

^^ r MILK 





A Grea.t Boon in Infant 
a.nd Invalid Feeding 

Produced from tuberculin tested cows and under the 
rery best sanitary conditions. 

Guaranteed to contain from 4 to 4 2-10 percent fat at 
ill times. 

We also furnish a CERTIFED CREAM contain- 
ng 16 per cent fat for home modification of milk. 
Samples of this milk and cream were sent to Paris, 
where it arrived in fine condition after being seventeen 
17) days in transit. 
Clover Farm won Gold and Silver Medal* at the 
Paris Exposition. 
Write for descriptive circulars. 
Recommended by leading Physicians. 





National Life Insurance Co. 

Of the U. S. of A. 

This Illustration rep- 
n-srms the new of- 
Uoe building of the 
National Life Insur- 
ance Co. of tbe U. S. 
of A., now in process 
of construction at 
157-108 La SulleSt. 

The National was 
organized in 1868 by 
Special Act of Con- 
gress and is the onl j 
company in t b 6 
United States hav- 
ing a charter grant- 
ed direct by the 
Government. The 
National writes sUl 
approved forms of 
life Insurance poli- 
cies. The company's 
assets on Jan. 1, 1901, 
amounted to 12.515,- 
147.82. The officers 
and directors are 
prominent Chicago 
financiers and busi- 
ness men. Hon. O. 
D. Wetherell, Ex- 
City Comptroller 
and Prest. of the 
<;:oi>t- National 
Bank, is President, 
and R. E. Sackett Is 
the Secretary and 
General Manager. 

The company oc- 
cupies temporary of- 
fices at 119-121 La 
Salle St.. pending 
the completion of 
the new building. 
Anyone desiring insurance in a progressive and thoroughly relia- 
ble company will do well to correspond with the National. 

M. J. CLARK, President. 

N. J. OABT, Sec. & Treas 

Utica Cement Manufacturing Co. 


J. P. BLAKESLEB, General Manager. 

M. J CLARK, President 

N. 3. CAR*. Sec. it Tress. 

Manufacturers of the Celebrated 

Utica Hydraulic Cement C. 


Manufacturer* of 

Hydraulic Cement 



This ha been In use throughout the United States for upward of forty years. 
Especially adapted for Tunnels, Gas Works, and works for the supply of water. 

and for sewerage and drainage. It has been exclusively used for thirty-five 
years In the construction of nearly 800 miles of sewers In the city of Chicago, and 
in all the celebrated water supply tunnels under Lake Michigan, and In the sev- 
eral Gas Works and the numerous office buildings In the same city. Also In the 
construction of the Locks on the Hennepln Canal during the years 1895-1900 In- 
clusive. Utica Cement Is universally acknowledged to be the best brand on the 
market. Capacity of mill, 1800 barrels dally. 


General Sales Agents, 308-9 Chamber of Commerce, CHICAGO, ILL. 

Manufacturers of the Celebrated CLARK BRAND of 

Utica Hydraulic Cement 

Capacity of nil), 2,000 Barrels Daily 

With superior facilities for the prompt and careful shipment of our cele- 
brated hran.l of Hydraulic Cement, we are enabled to meet every demand upon 
us promptly, and we believe to the entire satisfaction of the trade. 

Utica Cenicni Is extensively and satisfactorily used In all the principal S'.wera 
and public works of Chicago, St. Louis, St. Paul, Indianapolis and: throughout the 

During the season of 1896, 1' 0.000 barrels of Utica Cement was used on tbt 
Drainage canal. Quality always guaranteed. Sales In 1900, 390,000 barrels. 


General Sales Agents 308-9 Chamber of Commerce. CHICAGO 


American Trust 


3 Per Cei\t 

on savings accounts 

2 Per Cer\t 

oo checking accounts 


Che continental 
Rational Bank 

Statement of Condition at Close 
of Busioess April 16, 1901. 

r ~ : 


- ^_ 

Commercial National Bank 




Foreman Bros. 
Banking Co. 





x " ,^r-'.- 





J. H. CAMXBOS, Ant-Cashier B. M. McKrssir, Second Ast-Cashiei 



WBI bore Its " T 'n r Tf "n Hi __ 


148 to 154 MONROE STREET 

On or before May 1st. 


f +* 



83 and 85 Dearborn Street 


A General Banking Business Transacted. ; 

Loans on Real Estate and the Sale 
of First Mortgages a Specialty. 
Drafts and Letters of Credit avail- 
able everywhere. 


The Bankers 
National Bank 





tttrcft 1st. 1896. 

Uircl 1st, 1897, 

Mirei 1st, 1898. 

Mirch 1st, 1899, 

Utrek 1st. 1900, 

March 1st, 1901, - 

- $3.034.563.38 

- - 4.761,810.78 


- - 1,040.416.64 


EDWARD S. LACY, President 
GEO. S. LORD, Vice-President 
J. C. CRAFT, Cashier 
FRANK P. JUDSON, Asst. Cashier 
J. C. McN AUGHTON . Asst. Cashier 

Nei Business Desired aid Uieicelled Facilities Offered. 



The New Building to be occupied by 


on May 1, 1901. 





Fire Insurance Underwriters 

205 La Salle Street. N. W. 
Corner cf Adams 


Hamburg= Bremen Fire Ins. Co. 



174 LaSalle Street Chicago, III. 

W1TKOWSKY & AFFELD, General Agents 



Western Bank Note Co, 

Madison Street and Michigan Avenue, 





Vice Pres. & TrCM. 

Steel Plate and Lithographic 
Engraving and Printing, 

For Railways, Towns and Cities; Real 
Estate Bonds; Bonds for Street Rail- 
ways, Water-Works, Gas Companies; 
Certificates of Stock, Drafts, Checks, 
Letter and Bill Headings, Etc., for 
Railways, Banks, Merchants and Cor- 

Bank Checks and Drafts, 

Bonds and other Securities Engraved by this Company ac- 
cepted on the New York and Chicago Stock Exchange*. 


Established 1865 
2OI La Salle Street 

Insure everything insurable, writing 






Representing THE HOME of New York 



Other Things Being Equal fist- 

"The struggle between orthodox Ideas of marriage within the racial 
lines, and the charming love Btory which Is so complicated, Is as powerful an 
Incident as anything In modern novel writing." PutiHc Ledger, Philadelphia 

. Of Booksellers Generally or th.- Publishers, 


The First National Bank ' hlc . ro 

Capital and Surplus, $8,000,000 


James B. Forgan, President; David R. Forgan, 
Vice Pres't; Geo. D. Boulton, Vice Pres't; 
Richard J. Street, Cashier; Holmes Hoge, Ass't 
Cashier; August Blum, Ass't Cashier; Frank 
E. Brown, Ass't Cashier: Chas. N. (illicit, Ass't 
Cashier; Frank O. Wetmore, Auditor; Emlle 
K. Bolsot, Manager Bond and Foreign Kxrli. 
Dept. ; John K Gardln, Ass't Manager Bond 
and Foreign Exch. Dept. 


Samuel \V. Allerton, William L. Brown, James 
B. Forgan, Samuel M. Niokerson, George 
T. Smith, John H. Barker, D. Mark. Cummings, 
David R. Forgan, Eugene S. Pike. John A. 
poor, Geo. D. Boulton, Chas. H. Conover, Nel- 
son Morris, Norman B. Beam, Otto Young. 

Established 1856 




Manufacturers of 


Telephone Main 2423 

117-123 Market St.. 

(Near MadUon) 




John M. Stiles 


269 35th Srreet 
Tel. Oakland 379 




....A Specialty 

Many of the finest residences 
in Chicago are specimens of 
his artistic skill. Also does 
large buildings, among which 

Ft. Dearborn Building. 
Mandel Bros.' New Building. 
Y. W. C. A. Building. 
The Federal Building. 

A. P. Little 

American Laundry Machinery Co. 


- iV trSocT i TT-. ??; 

Complete Outfits for Public and Private Institutions 

Telephone t 
Harrison 3076 



Manufacturer of Type- 
writer Supplies formerly 
at 161 La Salle Street, 
now at 

100 Jackson Blvd. 

N. W. Cor. Monadnock 
Block, opposite new post 
office, Chicago. Largest 
dealer in 

New and Second-Hand 


Typewriters, Rented, 

Bought eind Sold3 





Heat Regulator 

No coal wasted. 






40 Dearborn Street, CHICAGO. 


^^ E F KENNEDY, ^^^f L. H. MEYER, 


Sec'y and Treas. 







J/4&//6 WABASH AVE. 


(lolit Bdlt ,l*d llr) 

Kills the germs of, 
and cures all 
Throat (A Lung 
Troubles and Catarrh also 


AND V V * V 


in the early stages and affords relief and 
rest in the more aggravated cases. 


Builds up tKe we-ste tissues &.r\d 
gives strength. Try them and recover 
your health. 

Inhaler sufficient for 60 days $1.0O 

Extra Solution sufficient for 180 days. 1.00 

Buildup sufficient for 30 days l.OO 

Or sent express paid any oSflce in United 

States for $1.25 each 

Sold by drug and supply houses and by the 

Roya.1 Inhaler Mfg. Co, 

30-36 LaSalle St., CHICAGO, ILL. 

The Rrftirm Advocate reronmenda 
, thU H* ft meritorious rrtned* 

70-72 SteLte St. 


Hair Goods Mas8age 



Hair Dyes 




mmmmM ' 

122 LA 5ALLE 5T. CHICA60C. 



13+ Michigan B/orf. 





The Most Humorous Book 
of the Times. Just Pub- 
lished. Price, $1.00. : : : 

"An amusing volume with flavor of mild and 
genial 'roast,' peppered with flings at existing 
conditions. Generally witty." Detroit Frtt 

"Vice-President Roosevelt will doubtless enjoj 
the funny book written at hl expense, entitled, 
The Adventures of Theodore.' "Chicago 

"Full of very clever humor, and If boomed like 
'David Uarum' and 'Eben Uolden* no reason why 
Its sales should nut reach their amazing figures. 
Chicago Chronicle. 

"This handsome little book Is what might be 
called a strenuous burlesque on the Vice-Presi- 
dent's recent trip." Chicago Pott. 

"Mark Twain and Artemn* Ward have been 
ucceeded by a new humorist come out of the 
west. Not a dull line from coyer to cover." 
Four O'clock. 

All Dealers. Sent Postpaid. 

H. J. Smith &Devereaux (o,, 


334 Dearborn St., Chicago, III. 


and Cottages 


Hartland P. O., Wis. 

Miles from Waukesha. lend foi 
terms and circulars. 



H. B. Dodge & Co. 

108 La Salle Street 
Suite 525 Tel. Main 2985 

Rolling Partitions, Steel 
Coiling Shutters, Hygienic 
School Wardrobes, Vene^ 
tian Blinds, Sliding Blinds 

and Window Scccns. A.'A^ 

Fitted to Store Fronts, 

Prt Tlew of itore front of Stem Bro., New York. Tbeie Shutters he been in constant uie for over yer. 

Why Use Poor Milk? 











1 IS the marvel of the age for preserving finish, keeping it from 
orazijag and checking. It stands to reason that finish checks, and 

ieu. .asacifiincr ir, na s no equal. It removes ny-specks. Ink stains and all kinds of dirt, and at 
the same time polishes with less work than any other article ever produced. It leaves no greasy, 
sticky substance, but leaves the finish in the same condition that it was left In at the factory. 
With LUSTRE there Is no trouble of keeping your furniture clean and glossy. 

When for the SABI 
UONE7 you can get it 





delivered in sealed 
bottles, by railing 
up Tel. South 817, 
or sending postal to 

305 30TH ST. 



In the operating department of the "Alton Road " are 
required to pass mental and physical examinations 
calculated to secure absolute safety to passengers and 
freight. Fidelity, promptness, and accuracy are re- 
arded by the merit system, the result being that one 
of the safest railways In the world 's 



<V \,.,,, ll 1 IMM-,, 

. J". 

Metal Roofing.CorHices and sty Lights 








rianufacturvri of 



Rcadstoncs i 


and STONE. 

All Kinds of Cemetery 

Desplaines Avenue 
and 12th Street, 



_ ;j 


fomii mums'- 




40 Dearborn St.] 

Witliifl W. DC Wees, Muaem. 


Standard of Excellence 

Made In 18 Beautiful Tints. Pure White and Black. Is DU R. ABLE. 
LUSTROUS AND ELASTIC. Specially prepared for use on Baih 
Rooms. Interior Decorations, Furniture, Iron Beds, Lawn Chairs, 
Store Fronts and all Decorative Work. Covers about as well as 
best yixi'd Faints and dries hard over night. Prices and sample 
card upon application. 


MAIN -f 
1333 ' 


JL /Xejui /Mo/son 




! . <'.' 


National Surgical Institute, 

Suite 908-909 Masonic Temple. 


Club Feet, Lateral Curvatures, Hip Diseases, Spi- 
nal Diseases, Diseased Joints, Paralysis, Rectal 
Diseases, Crooked Limbs, Chronic Diseases. 
Send for- Booklet. 




N, E. Cor, 31St St and INDIANA AVE., 

lelephon* 81O8. 




Any man choosing the Northwestern 
may feel confident of three things: first, 
that his money is safely and honestly in- 
vested; second, that he will receive fair and 
honorable treatment; and third, that no 
Life Company can do so much in reducing 
the cost of life insurance or making large 
returns on money invested as the North- 
western. Sincerely yours, 




" Whatntr poet, orator or taye may tati "fit, 
Old age it ttill old age." Longftllov, 

Yes, but how It mitigates the asperities it yon have been wise, 
and in earlier years provided yourself an annual Income during 
old age; thus saving yourself from being dependent on anyone. 

Refrains from the Poets) 


"My days are In the yellow leaf: 
The flowers and fruits of lore are 


The worm, the canker and the grief 
Are mine alone!" Byron. 

"When he Is forsaken. 
Withered and shaken, 
What can an old man do bnt aiet" 

WITH SOCK novuiov 
"But an old age serene and bright. 
And lovely as a Lapland night 
Shall lead the* to thy grave." 


"The very staff of my age, 
My verr prop: and I will KM." 

Yes, It does make all the difference in the world whether you did 
or did not. Shakespeare's reference to his annuity Is touching. 
A most excellent provision and the best thing obtainable In those 
days. It takes however a large lump, some cash down to purchase 
an annuity, while the new Policy Contract of the 

fforthtueftern Life 

of Milwaukee, requires an annual premium equal only to a fair 
Interest on the principal sum. These new Contracts may be se- 
cured in amounts from Si. 000 to 1100,000, and secured by Cash 
Assets and Surplus, JKW.OO >,000. 

The one single contract combines in itself these advantages: 

Life Insurance for wife If you die 1 
Endowment Insurance for yourself If you live I 
Annual Income till you die ! 
Then Annuixl Income to wife till she dies 1 
TKen full face amount to children 1 

It is in all respects a flexible, business-like, comprehensive 
contract, It Is what you need to-day, and twenty years from to- 
day. Send your exact age to A. W. KIMBALL. Genertxl 
Agent, C. D. NORTON. Associate General Agent. 8th 
Floor Chicago Stock Exchange. 


I have been a trustee of the Northwestern 
Mutual Life Insurance Company for twenty 
years. I have several times made an examina- 
tion of its assets and investments, and know the 
manner in which the company transacts its 
business. There is not a more careful, conserva- 
tive or safe company in the country than that. 
I have two policies in it, and would take more 
if I could afford to carry them. 

Yours very truly, 

Associate Justice U. S. Supreme Court. 

Was an excellent showing, and I congratulate 
your company on being able to do so well for its 
customers. No other company has done so well 

for me. 

Yours very truly, 

Prest. N. W. National Bank. 

Fifty-sixth Successful year of increasing 
strength aurid prosperity of the 

New York Life 
Insurance Company 

346-348 BroaLdwecy. New York City. 
JOHN A. McCALL, President. 

The Great International Life Insurance Company 

Doing business in and under the immediate supervision of 

Assets over $262,000,000 

Consisting exclusively of the very 
highest class of BONDS and GILT EDGE 
SECURITIES, market value several mil- 
lions in excess of company's statement. 

Paid for business in force Dec. 

31, 1900 $1,202,156,665 

New insurance issued and paid 

for in 1900 232,388,255 

Gain in new insurance in force in 

1900 140,284,680 

The only company in the world publishing "A Detailed Annual Statement" 
showing HOW and WHERE the Policy Holder's Moneys are invested. 

(A copy of detailed statement furnish.- 1 on application.) 
Other reasons why every mart should insure in the New York Life Insurance Co. 


It is supervised by K2 distinct governments to 
whom it must make sworn reports, and which 
governments endorse and certify officially to the 
absolute correctness of same. And 


The spirit of mutuality worked out in practice has 
made the New York Life Insurance Co. what it is 
today WITHOUT A PEER! A company of the 
people, for the people, and by the people, to whom all 
of the assets, surplus and earnings belong. And 


He who takes a policy in the New York Life Insurance 
Co. today virtually makes a bargain with all the civ- 
ilized governments of the world, thev in turn agree- 
ing to watch his every interest, safefrunrd his invest- 
ment, and protect him thoroughly. And 


It has over $31 .OOO.OOO held in trust as a liability 

with which to pay dividends on policies now in 
force, and in addition thereto over ?4,280,000 as an ad- 
ditional policy reserve, and over $10,000,000 additional 
reserved for all other contingencies. And 


Its policies are absolutely Incontestable from 
date of issue, non-forfeiting and free from all re- 
strictions, whether in time of war or in time of 
peace, and without conditions as to travel, occupa- 
tion, mode of living or manner of death, thereby guar- 
anteeing a legacy instead of a lawsuit. And 


It gives a grace of one month in paymi nt if premiums 
and lends you money on your policy if you wish it at 
5 per cent per annum after your policy has been in 
force two years. And 


Your policy automatically endorses itself as paid np 
for the full amount in case of lapse and will pay the 
face of the policy without deducting the de- 
faulted premiums should death occur within the con- 
tended period. And 


It is the only large company having the right by 
charter to act as "TRUSTEE," thug enabling one 
to make absolute provision for his female dependants 
throughout a period of years, which fund being spe- 
cifically protected by the entire assets of the com- 
pany, is safe against all comers, and cannot be 
assessed, assigned, converted or levied upon by 
creditors, or disturbed by the beneficiaries 
themselves. And 


Of the foregoing unequaled facts to the public, it is 
the only co iipany qualified to meet tue condi- 
tions of the 2Oth century. And 


You should have the very best policy issued, with the 
fewest restrictions, the most privileges, and the 
strongest guarantees, and the New York Life's 
Investment accumulation policy furnishes it. 


22 Vesey Street 


35 Dearborn Av, 


209^211 Pearl St 



MANUFACTURERS OF<*^ T 7 A 1^1 "K. TIY^T ~*** 


For Architectural Purposes, Coach 
Builders, Railways, Etc-, Etc* 

Send for our book 

on Treatment of Floors, 





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