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Full text of "Johannine vocabulary; a comparison of the words of the Fourth Gospel with those of the three"

LIBRARY 

OF THE 

University of California. 



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JOHANNINE VOCABULARY 



BV THE SAME AUTHOR 



CLUE : A Guide through Greek to Hebrew 
Scripture (Diatessarica — Part I). 

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JOHANNINE VOCABULARY 

A COMPARISON 

OF THE WORDS OF THE FOURTH GOSPEL 
WITH THOSE OF THE THREE 



BY 

Edwin A. Abbott 



" Oratio imago animi^ Language 
most shews a man." 

Ben Jonson, Syha. 



OF THE 

UNIVERSITY 

OF 



LONDON 

Adam and Charles Black 
1905 



3^ 






(JTambriUge : 

PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY, M.A. 
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 



TO 

MY DAUGHTER 

BY WHOM THE MAIN MATERIALS FOR THE WORK 

WERE COLLECTED AND CLASSIFIED 

AND THE RESULTS CORRECTED AND REVISED 

THIS BOOK IS DEDICATED 



192500 






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/? 



m 




PREFACE 

ABOUT eight or nine years ago, when writing or 
l\ revising for the press a commentary on the 
Fourth Gospel, I attempted — among ottftl^ prepara- 
tions for so manysided a task — to construct a key to 
certain verbal difficulties somewhat on the lines of a 
work that I wrote nearly forty years ago, called A 
Shakespearian Grammar, My *'Johannine Grammar" 
never went beyond a rough draft : but, rough though 
it was, it decided me against publishing my commentary, 
by helping me to understand a great deal that I had 
never understood before, and by forcing me to perceive 
that a great deal more remained to be understood. 

Studied with the aid of this rudimentary Johannine 
Grammar, the author of the Johannine Gospel revealed 
himself in a new light — as a prophet and yet a player 
on words ; one of the most simple of writers yet one of 
the most ambiguous ; with a style, in parts, apparently 
careless, parenthetic, irregular, abrupt, inartistic — an 
utterer of after-thoughts and by-thoughts putting down 
words just as they came into his mind, according to 
Mark Antony's profession, '' I only speak right on" — 
but, in general effect, an inspired artist endowed with 
an art of the most varied kind, not metrical, not 

vii 



PREFACE 

rhetorical, never ornate, yet conforming to rules of 
order, repetition, and variation, that suggested, at one 
time the refrains of a poem, at another the arrange- 
ments of a drama, at another the ambiguous utterances 
of an oracle, and the symbolism of an initiation into 
religious mysteries. 

At the same time the problem presented by the 
divergence of the Johannine from the Synoptic voca- 
bulary began to seem more difficult to explain in 
accordance with old hypotheses but more capable of 
new solutions. Biographers, though differing in the 
style and vocabulary of their comments, cannot lawfully 
differ in their reports of conversations. Yet the fourth 
or latest of these biographers appeared to differ in 
this unlawful manner from the three, and this to an 
extent that seemed amazing unless deliberate, and, if 
deliberate, only justifiable on the ground that he knew 
his divergences to be substantially in accordance with 
what he conceived to be the essential truth. Perhaps (I 
reflected) the Fourth Evangelist might be in the right : 
but, if so, what about the Three ? Did, or did not, 
Jesus of Nazareth use, and use repeatedly, such words 
as ''faith," ''repentance," "forgiveness".'^ Did He 
condemn "hypocrisy"? Did He bid men "watch" 
and "pray"? Did He hold up to His disciples the 
example of " little children " in order to answer their 
questions about "the greatest"? If He did, as 
assuredly He did, how was it possible that a Fourth 
Gospel — even a supplementary Gospel — could give a 
fair and truthful account of Jesus and set down at great 
length His discourses, both to the disciples and to 

viii 



PREFACE 



Others, without so much as mentioning (1676 b) one of 
these fundamental words ? 

In order to answer these questions I began to con- 
struct a list of Synoptic words rarely or never used by 
John, and a list of Johannine words rarely or never 
used by the Synoptists : and I found that these — when 
compared and illustrated by quotations — shewed that 
in many cases John was in reality neither so silent nor 
so divergent as I had supposed. Where he had ap- 
peared to be taking up entirely new ground, he was 
sometimes saying the same thing as one or more of the 
Synoptists, only in a different way. 

These conclusions were brought home to me more 
forcibly than ever when I recently began to prepare 
for the press a treatise on what might be called The 
Fourfold Gospel, that is to say, the passages where the 
Fourth Gospel intervenes in the Tradition of the Three. 
For the purposes of that treatise it seemed desirable 
to refer to a ''Johannine Grammar" and a ''Johannine 
Vocabulary " in print, instead of embodying large ex- 
tracts from a manuscript. I therefore decided on 
printing those two volumes at once. 

The "Johannine Grammar," which will form the 
Second Part of this work, could hardly be made 
intelligible to a reader unacquainted with Greek. But 
the "Johannine Vocabulary" stands on a different 
footing. There is nothing to prevent an " unlearned " 
reader from understanding, for example, that a differ- 
ence is intended (as Origen says there is) when the 
Fourth Gospel describes some as " believing in " our 
Lord, and others as " believing in His name " ; and 

ix 



PREFACE 



that a play on words describes the people in Jerusalem 
as "trusting in His name" whereas Jesus ''did not 
trust Himself to them" ; and that a contrast is drawn 
between *'the beloved disciple" and Thomas, both of 
whom "saw and believed" — but in what different 
circumstances ! These, and a score or so of other 
distinctions, relate to a single word (1463/^//.) "be- 
lieve," and can all be understood without any knowledge 
of Greek. For this reason I decided to publish the 
Johannine Vocabulary as a separate volume^ less costly, 
and more intelligible to the general reader than the 
Johannine Grammar which, I trust, will speedily follow. 
I am indebted to several friends — in particular to 
Mr W. S. Aldis and Mr H. Candler — for corrections 
of proof and useful suggestions of a general character, 
and to Dr Joseph B. Mayor for valuable criticism on 
points of Greek. Nor must I omit thanks, due to all 
connected with the Cambridge University Press, for 
their admirable printing of the work and their arrange- 
ment of the Vocabularies. 

EDWIN A. ABBOTT. 

Wellside 

Ha7npstead 

24 May^ 1905 



1 It must be understood, however, that Part I, though obtainable 
separately, frequently refers, on points of grammatical detail, to Part II, 
which will contain the Index to the whole work. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

References and Abbreviations . . xvi — xviii 
Introduction 

§ I The problem (1436-43) 

§ 2 How to deal with the problem (1444—9) 

§ 3 A specimen of allusiveness, "hating one's own life" (1450) 

§ 4 Another specimen, " reclining the head " (1451 — 8) 

§ 5 Inferences (1459—62) 



BOOK I 
JOHANNINE "KEY- WORDS" 

CHAPTER I 

" BELIEVING " 

§ I "Believing," or, "trusting," a key-word in the Fourth Gospel 
(1463—6) 

§ 2 Why John prefers "believe" to "belief" (1467—8) 

§ 3 " Believing," in the Old Testament (1469—71) 

§ 4 " Believing," in Philo (1472—3) 

§ 5 "Believing," in the New Testament, excluding the Fourth 
Gospel (1474—7) 

§ 6 Antecedent probability of a restatement of the doctrine of 
"believing" (1478—9) 

xi 



CONTENTS 



§ 7 " Believing," in the Fourth Gospel (1480—1) 

§ 8 " Through whom," or " what," do all " believe " ? (1482) 

§ 9 " Believing in the name " (1483—7) 

§ lo Our Lord's first mention of "believing" or "trusting" (1488) 

§ 1 1 Christ's disciples " beheved in him " (1489—90) 

§ 12 " Believing the Scripture " (1491—2) 

§ 13 " Believing," in the Dialogue with Nicodemus (1493—1500) 

§ 14 After the Baptist's last words (1501—2) 

§ 15 In Samaria (1503—7) 

§ 16 The nobleman's "believing" (1508—9) 

§ 17 " Believing" the testimony of the Father (1510—1) 

§ 18 After the Feeding of the Five Thousand (1512-9) 

§ 19 " Not believing " (1520—1) 

§ 20 " Believing witnesses " (1522—3) 

§ 21 After the Healing of the Blind Man (1524—7) 

§ 22 The Raising of Lazarus (1528—36) 

§ 23 " Believing in the light " (1537—44) 

§ 24 The Last Discourse (1545—9) 

§ 25 The Last Prayer (1550) 

§ 26 After the Death and Resurrection (1551—61) 

CHAPTER II 
" AUTHORITY " 

§ I " Authority," in the Triple Tradition of the Synoptists (1562) 

§ 2 " Authority," in the Apocalypse (1563—4) 

§ 3 Luke's view of " authority " (1565—71) 

§ 4 Christ's " authority," how defined by the Synoptists (1572—5) 

§ 5 " Authority," in the Fourth Gospel (1576—8) 

§ 6 " Authority " to become " children " of God (1579—80) 

§ 7 The " authority " of the Son to " do judgment " (1581—5) 

§ 8 " Authority " in connexion with " life " (1586—94) 

xii 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER III 

JOHANNINE SYNONYMS 

§ I The use of synonyms in this Gospel (1595 — 6) 

§2 "Seeing" (1597—1611) 

§3 "Hearing" (1612—20) 

§ 4 " Knowing " (1621—9) 

§ 5 "Coming" (1630—9) 

§ 6 " Worshipping " (1640—51) 

§ 7 " Going away (or, back)," and " going on a journey " (1652 — 64) 



BOOK II 

JOHANNINE AND SYNOPTIC DISAGREEMENTS 

CHAPTER I 
JOHANNINE DEVIATIONS FROM SYNOPTIC VOCABULARY 

§ I Introductory remarks (1665 — 71) 

Synoptic Words comparatively seldom or never used 
BY John (1672—96) 

CHAPTER II 
SYNOPTIC DEVIATIONS FROM JOHANNINE VOCABULARY 

§ I Introductory remarks (1697—1706) 

JOHANNINE Words comparatively seldom or never used 
BY THE Synoptists (1707—28) 

Additional Note (1728 in—p) 



Xlll 



CONTENTS 



BOOK III 
JOHANNINE AND SYNOPTIC AGREEMENTS 

CHAPTER I 

WORDS PECULIAR TO JOHN AND MARK 

§ I Antecedent probability (1729—30) 

§ 2 The fact (1731—2) 

§ 3 Parallels and Quasi-parallels (1733) 

John-Mark Agreements (1734—8) 

§ 4 Jn xii. 9 " the common people," lit. " the great multitude " 
(1739-40) 

§ 5 Inferences (1741—4); Additional Note (1744 (i)— (xi)) 

CHAPTER II 

WORDS PECULIAR TO JOHN AND MATTHEW 

§ I Parallelisms very few (1745 — 7) 

§ 2 " Light of the world," " my brethren " (1748—9) 

John-Matthew Agreements (1750—5) 
§ 3 Inferences (1756—7) 

CHAPTER III 
WORDS PECULIAR TO JOHN AND LUKE 

§ I Antecedent probability (1758—9) 

§ 2 The fact (1760—1) 

§ 3 Quasi-parallels (1762—3) 

John-Luke Agreements (1764 — 75) 
§ 4 " Son of Joseph " (1776—8) 
§ 5 " The Lord " meaning " Jesus " (1779—81) 
§6 "Sons of light "(1782— 3) 
§ 7 "My friends " (1784—92) 

§ 8 " Standing in the midst " applied to Jesus (1793—7) 
§ 9 " Stooping (?) and looking in " (1798) 
§ lo What does Trapa/cwTrro) mean ? (1799—1804) 

xiv 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER IV 

WORDS PECULIAR TO JOHN, MARK, AND MATTHEW 

§ I Introductory remarks (1805 — 9) 

John-Mark-Matthew Agreements (1810—16) 
§ 2 Absence of Quasi-parallels (1817) 

CHAPTER V 
WORDS PECULIAR TO JOHN, MARK, AND LUKE 

§ I Introductory remarks (1818 — 9) 

§ 2 " Latchet," " spices," " rouse up " (1820—2) 

§ 3 Mark, Luke, and John, on "rejection" (1823—31) 

John-Mark-Luke Agreements (1832 — 4) 
§ 4 " The Holy One of God " (1835) 

CHAPTER VI 

WORDS MOSTLY PECULIAR TO JOHN, MATTHEW, AND LUKE 

§ I Verbal Agreements numerous, but parallelisms non-existent 
(1836—8) 

§ 2 " Lay the head to rest " (1839—46) 

§ 3 John-Matthew-Luke Agreements (in English) (1847—50) 

Words mostly peculiar to John, Matthew, and Luke 
(1851-66); Additional Note (1866 (i)— (iv)) 

CONCLUSION 
§ I Review of the evidence (1867—74) 
§ 2 What remains to be done (1875—7) 
§ 3 Johannine Grammar (1878—80) 

APPENDIX ON PREPOSITIONS 
§ I Introductory remarks (1881—3) ; statistics (1884—5) 

ADDENDA 

Supplement to the Vocabularies 1885 (i)— (ii) 

INDICES 

See end of Part \\^ Johannine Grammar 
XV 



REFERENCES AND ABBREVIATIONS 



REFERENCES 

(i) Black Arabic numbers^ e.g. (275), refer to subsections indicated 
in this volume or in the preceding volumes of Diatessarica : — 

1— 111=^ Clue. 
273— bb2 = Corrections. 
bbZ— 11^^ =Fro7n Letter to Spirit. 
1150—1435 = Paradosis. 

(ii) The Books of Scripture are referred to by the ordinary ab- 
breviations, except where specified below. But when it is 
said that Samuel, Isaiah, Matthew, or any other writer, wrote 
this or that, it is to be understood as meaning the writer^ 
whoever he may be., of the words in question^ and not as 
meaning that the actual writer was Samuel, Isaiah, or Matthew. 

(iii) The MSS. called severally Alexandrian, Sinaitic, Vatican, and Codex 
Bezae, are denoted by A, i<, B, and D ; the Latin versions by 
^, b^ etc., as usual. The Syriac version of the Gospels discovered 
by Mrs Lewis and Mrs Gibson on Mount Sinai called the 
"Syro-Sinaitic" or "Sinaitic Syrian," is referred to as SS. It is 
always quoted from Mr Burkitt's translation. 

(iv) The text of the Greek Old Testament adopted is that of B, edited 
by Professor Swete^ ; of the New, that of Westcott and Hort. 

(v) Modern works are referred to by the name of the work, or author, 
the vol., and the page, e.g. Levy iii. 343^, i.e. column i, page 343, 
vol. iii. 



ABBREVIATIONS 

A, B, D, and N, see (iii) above. 
Apol.= Justin Martyr's First Apology. 
Buhl = Buhl's edition of Gesenius, Leipzig, 1899. 
Burk. = Mr F. C. Burkitt's Evangelion Da-mepharreshe, Cambridge 
University Press, 1904. 

C. before numbers = circa, "about" {e.g. c. 10). 

Chr. = Chronicles. 

Chri. = /y^^ words of Christ, as distinct from narrative, see 1672"^. 

Clem. Alex. 42 = Clement of Alexandria in Potter's pages. 



1 Codex B, though more ancient than Codex A, is often less close to the 
Hebrew than the latter {Clue 33). 



XVI 



REFERENCES AND ABBREVIATIONS 

Dalman, Word^= Words of Jesus, Eng. Transl. 1902; Aram. G^.= 
Grammatik Aramdisch, 1894. 

Diatess. = the Arabic Diatessaron, sometimes called Tatian's, trans- 
lated by Rev. H. W. Hogg, B.D., in the Ante-Nicene Christian Library. 

Y.Ticy. =^ Encyclopaedia Biblica. 

Ephrem = Ephraemus Syrus, ed. Moesinger. 

Epistle, the = the First Epistle of St John. 

Esdras, the First Book of, is frequently called, in the text, Esdras. 

Euseb. = the Ecclesiastical History of Eusebius. 

Field = Origenis Hexaplorum quae supersunt, Oxford, 1875. 

Gesen. = the edition of Gesenius now being published by the Oxford 
University Press. 

Heb. LXX = that part of the LXX of which there is an extant Hebrew 
Original. 

Hor. Yi€ti. = Horae Hebraicae, by John Lightfoot, 1658 — 74, ed. 
Gandell, Oxf. 1859. 

Iren. = the treatise of Irenaeus against Heresies. 

Jer. Targ. (or Jer.) I and 11 = severally the Targum of "Jonathan Ben 
Uzziel" and the fragments of the Jerusalem Targum on the Pentateuch. 
Where Jer. II is missing, Jer. I is often indicated by Jer. 

K.= Kings. 

L.S. = Liddell and Scott's Greek Lexicon. 

Narr. = //2 narrative, as distinct from {a) speech of Christ, {b) speech 
generally (1672^). 

Onk. = the Targum of Onkelos on the Pentateuch. 

Origen is generally referred to in H net's edition, 1668. 

Oxf Cone. = The Oxford Concordatice to the Septuagint. 

Pec, affixed to Mt, Lk., etc., means peculiar to Matthew, Luke, etc. 

Philo is referred to by Mangey's volume and page, e.g. Philo ii. 234, 
or, as to the Latin treatises, by Aucher's pages (P. A.) (see 1608). 

Resch = Resch's Paralleltexte (4 vols.). 

S. = Samuel ; s. = "see." 

Schottg. = Schottgen's Horae Hebraicae, Dresden and Leipzig, 1733. 

Sir. = the work of Ben Sira, i.e. the son of Sira. It is commonly called 
Ecclesiasticus (see 20«). The original Hebrew has been edited, in part, 
by Cowley and Neubauer, Oxf. 1897 ; in part, by Schechter and Taylor, 
Camb. 1899. 

SS, see (iii) above. 

Steph. or Steph. Thes. = Stephani Thesaurus (Didot). 

Sym. = Symmachus's Version of the Old Testament. 

Tromm. = Trommius' Concordance to the Septuagint. 

Tryph. = the Dialogue between Justin Martyr and Trypho the Jew. 

Wetst. = Wetstein's Comm. on the New Testament, Amsterdam, 1751 

W.H. = Westcott and Hort's New Testament. 

A. V. xvii 2 



REFERENCES AND ABBREVIATIONS 

{a) A bracketed Arabic number, following Mk, Mt., etc., indicates the 
number of instances in which a word occurs in Mark, Matthew, etc., 
e.g. ayd-nr^ Mk (o), Mt. (l), Lk. (l), Jn (7). 

{b) Where verses in Hebrew, Greek, and Revised Version, are 
numbered differently, the number of R. V. is given alone. 



XVlll 



V OF THE 

UNIVERSITY 

OF 



INTRODUCTION 

§ I. T/ie problem 

[1436^] The first step towards helping readers of the 
Fourth Gospel to solve the problem presented by its voca- 
bulary and style is to make them see that a problem exists. 
The A.V. very frequently, and the R.V. not infrequently, 
conceal its existence. Take, for example, the Dialogue 
between our Lord and Peter after the Resurrection, in which 
the former tenderly implies a reproach for past professions of 
'Move {d'yairav)!' while the latter, penitent and humiliated, 
does not venture to say any longer that he " loves " Jesus, but 
only that he " likes {(j^tXelv) " Him. The English " like " is too 
inaccurate to be admitted (even with an apology) into the 
rendering of such a passage; and there is no one word in our 
language that can exactly give the meaning; but, since it 
implies a humble protest on the part of the Apostle that he 
still retains a lower kind of love for his Master, we may, for 
want of anything better, paraphrase it as " I still love (1716/, 
1728 m — -/)." Then the dialogue would run as follows : 

[1437] Jesus. Simon, son of John, lovest thou me more 
than these ? 

Peter. Yea, Lord, thou knowest that I still love thee. 
Jesus. Feed my lambs. 

^ [1436 d\ See References on pp. ^wx.foll. This is the fifth part of the 
series entitled Diatessarica. The fourth part i^'- Paradosis'') terminated 
with subsection 1435. 

I 2 — 2 



[1438] INTRODUCTION 



The Master now repeats His question on a lower level, 
dropping the clause " more than these " : 

Jesus. Simon, son of John, lovest thou me ? 

Peter. Yea, Lord, thou knowest that I still love thee. 

Jesus. Tend my young sheep \ 

On the third occasion, Jesus comes down to a yet lower 
level, to the standard that the humiliated disciple has himself 
adopted : 

Jesus. Simon, son of John, lovest thou me stilll 

Peter. Lord, thou knowest all things, \}ciOW Jeelest (1624 <^) 
that I love thee still. 

Jesus. Feed my young sheep I 

[1438] The words " lovest thou me more than these " are 
apparently intended to mean " more than these thy companions 
whom thou hadst in mind when thou didst say, in effect. 
Though all should desert thee, yet will I never I" The Fourth 
Gospel nowhere puts into Peter's mouth this contrast between 
what he would not do, and what '' alV might do, yet the 
Evangelist appears to imply the contrast here^ That is to 
say, the author writes allusively, alluding to tradition that he 
has not himself recorded. 

[1439] Observe, also, the thrice repeated " Simon, son of 
John." It appears to call attention to the very first words 
uttered by Jesus to Peter, when " Jesus looked steadfastly at 
him and said, Thou art [at present] Simon, son of John ; thou 

1 [1437 d\ The Syro-Sinaitic version (which will be denoted hence- 
forth by SS) has here "my ewes," and in xxi. 17 "my sheep." W.H. 
marg. and R.V. txt. have "my sheep," both here and in xxi. 17. 

2 [1437 b'\ Jn xxi. 15 — 17. A.V. makes no attempt to distinguish the 
two Greek words ; R.V. translates both by " love " in its text, but adds in 
margin that the Greek words are different. 

3 [1438 d\ Mk xiv. 29 " Even though all shall stumble yet not I." 
Simil. Mt. xxvi. '^2>' Lk. xxii. 33 words Peter's protest quite differently. 

* [1438^] Similarly he says (Jn iii. 24) "For John [the Baptist] 
was not yet cast into prison," alluding to the imprisonment as a well- 
known fact though he himself nowhere mentions it. 



INTRODUCTION [1442] 



shalt be called Cephas," i.e. a stoned From the level of that high 
and hopeful prophecy the Lord seems here deliberately to 
descend as though He had asked too much from His follower : 
he was not Cephas, after all — not yet at least — only the original 
Simon after the flesh, " Simon, son of John." Here again the 
Evangelist is writing allusively, but with allusion to a tradition 
recorded by himself. 

[1440] Lastly, although the text is somewhat doubtful, 
the three classes indicated by SS, the " lambs " and the "sheep" 
that need "feeding," and the "ewes" that need "tending," 
appear to correspond symbolically to the distinctions indicated 
in the First Epistle of St John : " I write unto you little 
children...! write unto you fathers...! write unto you young 
men." The Lord might simply have said, as St Paul says to 
the Ephesian elders, " Feed the flock," but He adopts a three- 
fold iteration with slight variations, the impressiveness of 
which can be more readily felt than analysed and explained. 

[1441] Thus, the dialogue resolves itself into a short 
dramatic poem with a triple refrain, apparently alluding to 
traditions mentioned in other Gospels but not in this one. 
Most simple yet most beautiful, artless yet in harmony with 
the deepest laws of art, it combines a passionate affection with 
subtle play on words and a most gentle yet powerful sug- 
gestion of loving reproach and helpful precept. The conclusion 
is at once pathetic and practical — that professions of love for 
the Saviour must be tested by labour for those whom the 
Saviour loves. 

[1442] This passage illustrates the Johannine use of 
synonymous words and the iterations and variations charac- 
teristic of the Fourth Gospel ; but it does not illustrate the 
Johannine use of different forms of the same word, as, for 
example, of the word "understand {^LvcaaKO)),'. which the 
Evangelist employs, in one and the same sentence (1627), first 



1 Jn i. 42. 
3" 



[1443] INTRODUCTION 



as Aorist, then as Present, to mean " understand spiritually 
and grow in understanding spiritually," but elsewhere as 
Perfect, to mean " understand spiritually and perfectly." It 
does not illustrate the subtle shades of meaning denoted by 
slight variations of a clause, e.g. " believe " with a Dative, 
meaning " believe a person," and " believe " with " into," 
meaning " fix one's belief on a person," and again, " believe 
into the name of a person " — which will be discussed in the 
first chapter of this work. Lastly, it does not illustrate one 
of the author's most striking characteristics, his frequent 
obscurity or ambiguity. 

[1443] A mere glance at the R.V. marginal notes on the 
Gospels will shew the reader that, in the Synoptists, the notes 
mostly suggest alternative readings^ but in the Fourth Gospel 
they suggest alternative renderings. The former imply cor- 
ruption in editors or scribes ; the latter imply obscurity in the 
author, of which the following is an instance : 

John i. 1—5 (R.V.) 

Text Margin 

"All things were made by "Allthings were made //^w?/^/^ 

him ; and without him was not him ; and without him was not 

anything made that hath been anything made. That which hath 

made. In him was life.... And been made was life in him .... And 

the light shineth in the darkness ; the light shineth in the darkness ; 

and the darkness apprehended it and the darkness overcame it 

not." not." 

" Oratio imago animi " : the specimens given above should 
suffice to shew that, in this case, the "oratio" is of a very 
extraordinary character ; that, if we can get back from the 
"imago" to the "animus," we shall discover a very extra- 
ordinary mind ; and that the attempt to get back involves a 
laborious as well as fascinating problem. 



INTRODUCTION [1445] 



§ 2. How to deal with the problem 

[1444] Many details of Johannine style may be explained 
by merely collecting parallel instances, as, for example, the 
author's use of ambiguous verbal forms (2236) capable of 
being rendered indicatively, imperatively, or interrogatively 
("Believe in God," "Ye believe in God," "Believe ye in God?"), 
of " and " to mean " and [yet] " (2136) etc. This statement 
applies to most things in his Gospel that proceed from the 
author himself, that is to say, from the author uninfluenced 
by other authors. So far, a Johannine Grammar and a 
Johannine Vocabulary would help us to solve most of our 
difficulties : and it is hoped that the reader may find such 
help further on in the Chapter of Synonyms, the Grammar, 
and the various passages indicated in the Textual Index. But 
the case is altered when we come to ambiguities, symbolisms, 
and even literal statements that have the appearance of being 
allusive. Take, for example, the phrase quoted above from 
the R.V. text as " The darkness apprehended it not," but from 
the margin as '' The darkness overcame it not." How will 
our Johannine Vocabulary or our Johannine Grammar help 
us here .? 

[1445] In the following way. In the first place, help 
may be derived from the Alphabetical Index referring to 
"Ambiguities (verbal)" at the end of the second part of this 
work. This will refer the reader to other instances where 
ambiguity arises from the twofold meaning of a word, e.g. 
where Jesus Himself is described as using language that was 
ambiguous or obscure to His disciples at the time, as when 
He spoke about " this temple," and about Lazarus as having 
" fallen asleep," and said to them, '* A little time and ye behold 
me not." In the next place, the Textual Index (on Jn i. 5), 
or the alphabetical Verbal Index, will refer the reader to a 
footnote on KaTaXafx^dvw (1735 e — h) which occurs in the 
Vocabulary under the heading of words common to Mark and 

5 



[1446] INTRODUCTION 

John. There it is shewn that the word generally means 
" catch," " take possession of," " take as a prize," and that it is 
used by St Paul in a play on words, by Philo in the sense of 
"apprehending" God, and by John himself in connexion with 
"a darkness" that "catches" people by surprise. The con- 
clusion suggested is that the primary meaning is " apprehended^' 
but that there is also a secondary meaning, " take captive!' 

[1446] If John is an allusive writer there is an ante- 
cedent probability that he would allude to the narratives of 
the Evangelists that preceded him. Indeed it would not have 
been surprising if he had quoted from them. There are, in 
fact, a few passages, more particularly those bearing on the 
Baptism, the Feeding of the Five Thousand, the Riding into 
Jerusalem, and the Passion, where John, whether quoting 
or not, does at all events exhibit a slight verbal agreement 
with the Synoptists, more especially with Mark. Manifestly, 
the first step to be taken by anyone wishing to study the 
relation of the Fourth Gospel to the Three, would be to set 
down all these passages of fourfold tradition, and their con- 
texts, in parallel columns, and to annotate the Johannine 
disagreements and agreements with each of the earlier writers. 
A work of this kind, however, would be a work by itself, far 
too bulky to form a chapter in the present volume^: but some 
of the results of this work will be found in the foot-notes 
appended to the Vocabularies given below. 

[1447] At this point the reader must be careful to 
distinguish the Triple Tradition (318) in which Mark, 
Matthew, and Luke agree, from other Traditions — Single or 
Double — embodied in one or more of the Synoptic Gospels. 
There is, for example, Matthew's story of Christ's birth and 
infancy ; and there is Luke's story of the birth of John the 

1 Under the tide of The Four/old Gospel, I hope soon to publish 
such a treatise. It was completed some time ago, but its publication 
was deferred so that it might be revised with the aid of the present 
work. 



INTRODUCTION [1449] 



Baptist, followed by an account of the birth, childhood, and 
early youth of Jesus. These two may be called Single 
Traditions, of an introductory character, in which Matthew 
and Luke contain hardly any points of agreement. Other 
Single Traditions occur at intervals in Matthew and Luke, 
as, for example, Matthew's story of Peter walking on the 
waters and the parables peculiar to Matthew, and Luke's story 
of " the woman that was a sinner," and the parables peculiar 
to Luke\ 

[1448] As to Double Traditions, there is one, com- 
paratively short, peculiar to Mark and Matthew, describing 
the feeding of the four thousand, the walking of Christ 
on the waters, related also by John, and the healing of 
the Syrophoenician's child. There is another, far ampler^, 
peculiar to Matthew and Luke, containing the Lord's Prayer, 
many passages from the Sermon on the Mount, and other 
doctrinal matters, besides the Temptation, the healing of 
the centurion's son, and the message of the Baptist to Christ, 
" Art thou he that should come ? " with its sequel. 

[1449] The bearing of these remarks will be better appre- 
ciated when the reader examines particular words in the 
Vocabularies given later on. He will find for example that 
Matthew, Luke, and John agree in using two words, " murmur " 
and " hallow " (or " sanctify "), never used by Mark. But the 
former does not occur in any important parallel passage 
of the Double Tradition, whereas the latter occurs there, 
as part of the parallel versions of the Lord's Prayer, in the 
words " Hallowed be thy name." The latter (" hallow ") is 
likely to be far more important than the former (" murmur") 
for the purpose of ascertaining whether the Fourth Gospel is 
written allusively to the Three. For there is far more reason 

^ The Single Traditions peculiar to Mark are few and comparatively 
unimportant. 

2 This, owing to its relative importance (318 (ii)), is regularly called 
"The Double Tradition" for brevity. 



[1450] INTRODUCTION 



to suppose that John would write with a desire to illustrate 
this doubly supported tradition about " sanctifying " or " hallow- 
ing" than that he would be influenced by the non-parallel 
uses of the word " murmur " in Matthew and Luke^ For this 
reason, in the Vocabulary common to Matthew, Luke, and 
John, all words found in parallel passages of the Double 
Tradition are indicated by a special mark. 

§3. A specimen of allusiveness, ^'hating ones own life'' 

[1450] Sometimes special circumstances may indicate a 
probability of Johannine allusiveness, even where a word or 
phrase is mentioned by only one of the Synoptists. This is 
certainly true {Paradosis, p. ix. preface) in many instances 
of similarity between Mark and John : but an instance will 
here be given bearing on Luke and John. Luke records 
a saying of our Lord that no one can become Hiis disciple 
unless he hates his own life. This is in the Double Tradition 
of Matthew and Luke : but the former omits the clause. 
Matthew also has in the context " whosoever loveth father 
more than me,' where the parallel Luke says that a man must 
''hate'' his father^. These facts suggest that, as we might 
have anticipated, the tradition about '' hating " one's " life " 
caused difficulty, and that Luke, though later than Matthew, 
has here retained the earlier text, which Matthew has 
paraphrased. John has '' hateth his own life',' but with a 
qualification that makes the meaning clearer : — " Whosoever 
hateth his own life in this world^!' It must not, of course, 
be assumed, on the strength of this single passage, that John 

1 [1449 «] The word yoyyv^ta "murmur," used four times in Jn, 
occurs once in Mt, viz. xx. 11, of labourers, in a parable, and once in 
Lk., viz. V. 30, of "the Pharisees and their scribes." It happens that 
Mk never uses it. Consequently it appears in the " Words common to 
John, Matthew, and Luke." But there is not the slightest reason to 
suppose that Jn alludes to either of the passages in Mt.-Lk. 

2 Mt. X. 37, Lk. xiv. 26. ^ Jn xii. 25. 

8 



INTRODUCTION [1452] 



is alluding to Luke's Gospel'^ ; for he may have known the 
saying from other sources. But it is almost certain that 
John is alluding to the saying contained in Lukes Gospel^ with 
an intention of explaining it, not by altering the Lord's hard 
word "hate" (as Matthew appears to have done) but by 
adding something in the context to justify the "hating." 

§4. Another specimen, ^'reclining the head'' 

[1451] In the Greek Vocabulary of words common to 
Matthew, Luke, and John will be found (1858) KXivw with 
a footnote calling attention to the phrase kXlvco fC€(f)aXijv 
"recline the head." This might escape the notice of a reader 
unacquainted with Greek^: but it is of great interest as 
pointing to the conclusion that John knew the Double 
Tradition of Matthew and Luke, and occasionally alluded 
to it. This was made fairly probable by the apparent 
allusion ("hating one's own life") mentioned in the last 
section. If a second instance can be produced, the two will 
be mutually strengthened. 

[1452] The only instance of " recline the head " in 
Matthew is in the well-known saying of our Lord (Mt. 
viii. 20) " Foxes have holes and birds of the air have nests : 
but the Son of man hath not where to recline his head," 
where no one denies that the meaning is "recline the head 
in sleep." The only instance in Luke (ix. 58) is in a parallel 
tradition agreeing with this passage of Matthew not only in 
meaning but in word, verbatim, and the meaning is equally 
indisputable there, " recline his head." 

1 Probably he is alluding to it ; but the probability cannot be 
demonstrated without a comparison of a great number of passages in 
the Gospels. 

2 Such a reader would, however, find references to the explanation of 
the phrase if he turned to the Textual Index, and also in the Verbal 
Index, under "head": the latter would refer him to the footnote on 
kXiVq) K€(fia\r]v as well as to this section. 



[1453] INTRODUCTION 



[1453] The only instance of " recline the head " in John 
is in the description of our Lord's death as follows (xix. 30) 
"When, therefore Jesus had received the vinegar he said, 
It is finished, and (lit.) having reclined his head he de- 
livered up his spirit!' The parallel Mark and Luke have 
simply " he expired {e^eirvevaevy Matthew has " He let go 
(or, sent away) (d(j>rjKev) his spirit." Taking the conservative 
and orthodox view that these three accounts of the Synoptists 
were accepted as authoritative by Christians several years 
before the end of the first century, we assume that the Fourth 
Evangelist knew these expressions, and preferred to describe 
the act otherwise. As regards the last part of his version 
(" he delivered up his spirit ") an obvious reason for his 
preference suggests itself. The Johannine phrase brings out, 
more clearly than those of the Synoptists, the notion of 
martyrdom or self-sacrifice. But what as to the " reclining " 
of '' the head " ? Some may at first assume (as perhaps R. V. 
" bowed his head ") that the physical act of bending the head 
(" inclining,'' not " reclining ") is mentioned as typical of 
resignation or worship (1462 a). Their second thought may 
be that resignation and worship are not so prominent in the 
Johannine conception of Christ as the higher feeling of absolute 
and unalterable filial devotion. 

[1454] In fact, however, neither that first assumption about 
" inclining " nor that second thought about antecedent prob- 
ability ought to have come so soon into our minds. The 
first thought should have been, What does kXlvo) Ke(f)aXr}v 
mean elsewhere in Greek literature and more particularly 
in any Greek literature likely to be studied by John ? Here 
a surprise awaits us. For Stephen's Thesaurus gives no 
instance of the phrase, under either of the two Greek words. 
The phrase is also absent from the Concordance to the LXX, 
though each of the two words, singly, is extremely common. 
There is indeed abundant mention of " bowing " in the Bible, 
but the LXX and other translators never use this phrase for it. 

10 



INTRODUCTION [1456] 



One reason appears for its non-use when we find Luke 
describing certain women as "bending (k\lv(o) their /aces" 
to the ground ; for this suggests that " face " would be used 
in mentioning the '^ bending forward " or " bowing," whereas 
" head " would be used in " bending backward'' or " reclining." 
" Recline," indeed, is the most natural meaning, because the 
verb is used so frequently in Greek for " reclining on a couch, 
or bed," the active, KXivw, being sometimes used to mean 
" cause to lie down V' and the noun, kXlvt], being frequently used 
in N.T., as well as elsewhere, for " couch." 

[1455] From the grammatical and literary point of view, 
then — which is also the scientific point of view — the phrase 
should mean "recline the head'' in sleep, and there is not a 
particle of literary evidence for any other conclusion. But 
it may be urged that " from a common sense point of view " 
this meaning is out of the question, because "reclining the 
head in sleep " cannot possibly be intended by John, and 
" bowing the head in meek submission " is absolutely re- 
quired. 

[1456] This may be " common sense," but it is certainly 
not in accordance with the Johannine " sense " of what is fit 
and seemly for the Messiah. For where, in the whole of the 
Fourth Gospel, shall we find Him doing anything in " meek 
submission"? He i?> not " meek V'. not at least in the usual 
sense of the term. Nor does He ever " submit " to the 
Father's will. It is His "food^" to do it. The first words 
of the Evangelist's Prologue tell us that the Logos was " with 
God," and its last words identify the Logos with " the Only- 
begotten," who is 'Hn the bosom of the Father'' Almost every 



^ Eurip. Ah. 268 ixedere jxedeTe fi rjdr}, KXivare /i', " /^/ me lie down^"* 
Orest. ii.'j kXivov /i' es evvrjv, "lay me down on the bed." 

2 [1456 d\ Where Mt. xxi. 5 quotes Zech. ix. 9 "meek and riding upon 
an ass," Jn xii. 15, quoting the same prophecy, omits "meek." 

^ Jn iv. 34. 

II 



[1457] INTRODUCTION 



subsequent page contains some doctrine suggesting that the 
home of the Son is the home, or immediate presence, of the 
Father ; that He came from this home to do the Father's 
will; that He is "going to the Father" because the work 
is on the point of completion ; and that He was from the 
beginning, and is, " one with the Father." What more 
natural, then, not indeed for a common-place writer, but for 
such a one as we are considering, that he should connect the cry 
" It is finished " with the statement that the Son, in finishing 
the Father's work, found at last that perfect rest which He 
could never find on earth ? Other martyrs, such as Stephen, 
might be described as " falling asleep," but this would have 
been inappropriate for the Johannine character of the Son 
of God, the Strength of Israel, who can " neither slumber nor 
sleep," but who might well be described as laying His head 
to rest on the bosom of the Father. 

[1457] Chrysostom's interpretation, though it does not 
expressly say that the phrase means " rest," does clearly 
distinguish it from bowing the head in token of submission ; 
for he mentions it as an indication that our Lord acted " with 
authority!' Moreover he contrasts the action with that of 
ordinary men who, as he says, " recline the head " after 
breathing their last, whereas Christ did it before^ : and surely 



1 [1457 a] Chrysost. ad loc. Aa^cov ovv (f)rjai, TeriXeaTai. El8es drapdxois 
Koi fier i^ova-'ias Travra tt pdrrovra ; Kal to i^rjs Se tovto 8r]\ol.. 'ETreifij) yap 
Trdvra aTrrjpTicrdr], Kkivas r^v KecfiaXrjv (ovSe yap avrr] irpoa-r}\o)To), to rrvevfia 
d(f)r]K€, TOVT€(TTiv, dne-^v^f. KatVoi ov p.€Td to kXIvul ttjv KC(f)aXr}v to eKTrvevaai • 
ivTavda de TovvavTiov. Ovde yap eTreidrj e^eTrvevaev, ckXivc ttjv <ecf)a\^Vj 
OTTcp e^' Tjpcov yiveTai' dX^' eVeiSi) €K.\ive ttjv K€(f)a\r]v, t6t€ e^eTTvevae. 
Ai' wv TrdvTcov edrjXaxrev 6 evayyeXLCTTTjS oTi tov ttovtos Kvpios avTos rjv. 

[1457^] It may, however, be urged against Chrysostom that the 
position of a man lying, or sitting up, in bed, is quite different from that 
of one crucified, and that, in the latter case, the head must be inclined 
forward in death. I have seen one modern French realistic picture 
of the Crucifixion representing the head so bent down that the face is 
hardly visible. But (i) that attitude, as far as I know, is quite exceptional 

12 



INTRODUCTION [1459] 



it must be admitted that the usual course with a dying man 
(1462 a — c) would be that his head would bend backward or 
sideward^ not forward m the act of"' bowing" 

[1458] Possibly it may be objected that the universally 
admitted usage of Matthew, and of Luke, and the apparent 
interpretation of Chrysostom, do not constitute sufficient 
evidence of the use of kXIvco K6^a\7]p in the sense " lay one's 
head to rest" to establish the conclusion that John used it 
thus. But the reply is that the evidence, so far as it goes, tends 
indisputably to that conclusion, and that tkere is no evidence 
at all derivable from Greek literature to justify the supposition 
that he tised it in any other sense^. The verdict " insufficient 
evidence" on the one side is, therefore, met by the verdict 
" no evidence at all " on the other. The right course would 
seem to be, either to mark the passage as corrupt and leave it 
untranslated, or to translate it in accordance with such evidence 
as at present exists. 

§ 5. Inferences 

[1459] From the facts above stated it follows that, 
whereas the grammar of the Fourth Gospel may be in large 
measure studied by itself, the vocabulary of that Gospel — 
though often capable of being illustrated and elucidated from 

in the pictures of the Crucifixion ; (2) it seems possible that the head — 
being, as Chrysostom says, "not nailed to [the cross]" — would have 
freedom to droop backwards, or at all events sidewards, under the 
relaxing touch of death, in an attitude of rest as distinct from an attitude 
of submission : and that is all that is needed to satisfy the linguistic 
requirements, namely that kXlvco means "bend in rest," not "bend in 
resignation." 

^ [1458 rt:] The only basis for the hypothesis that John may have used 
kX/i/o) K€cf)a\r]v to mean "bow the head (in resignation)" is that which may 
be obtained from translations of the Greek. It is very natural that 
translators should take the phrase to mean " bow." Such a view would 
harmonize with the spirit of Roman imperialism. It might also seem to 
some to suit the Synoptic character of Christ. But it certainly does not 
harmonize with the Johannine character. 

13 



[1460] INTRODUCTION 



Johannine sources alone — will sometimes not be fully under- 
stood without reference to the vocabulary of the Synoptists. 
Hence we shall proceed to study John's use of words from 
two points of view, first the Johannine, then the Synoptic. 

[1460] We shall begin with one clue-word, so to speak, 
" believe " — which pervades the whole of the Fourth Gospel 
in such a way that to follow the Evangelist's use of it is to 
trace, in brief, the development of his doctrine as well as the 
methods of his style. From a summary of passages about 
" believing " we shall try to gain a general view of the writer's 
use of words — his repetitions of the same word in the same 
phrase, his repetitions of the same word in a slightly different 
form of the phrase, his repetitions of the same (or nearly the 
same) phrase with a slightly different form of the word. 
From "believe" we shall pass to other words, and especially 
to those that are synonymous, treating them in the same way 
and always keeping in view the author's general intention 
in the use of the word as well as the meaning of the particular 
passage under discussion. 

[1461] In the next place we shall compare the vocabulary 
of the Fourth Gospel with those of the Triple, Double, and 
Single, Traditions of the Synoptists. As regards the Triple 
Tradition, this will be done negatively, as well as positively. 
That is to say, we shall shew what words John does 7tot use 
though they are frequent in the Synoptists, as well as what 
he does use although the Synoptists rarely or never use them. 
The statistics of these uses must of course be expressed by 
bare numbers : but the footnotes to many of these numbers 
will quote passages of importance containing the words, and 
will adduce facts bearing upon their interpretation. Some of 
these footnotes will be intended to suggest research rather 
than demonstrate conclusion. 

[1462] For example, under the head of " Remission of 
sins," connected by Mark and Luke with John the Baptist, 
it will be shewn (1690 a — A) that Matthew omits it there ; 



H 



INTRODUCTION [1462] 



that he also substitutes " debts " for " sins " (the same Hebrew 
word having either meaning) in his version of the Lord's Prayer; 
and that the Greek word Aphesis^ or Remission, was the word 
regularly applied to the Remission of Debts in the Sabbatical 
Year — contended for by Jeremiah and Nehemiah, but recently 
abrogated (so it is said) by Hillel the venerated head of the 
Pharisees. In its bearing on the Fourth Gospel this detail 
is not of great importance (except as explaining why the 
author may have avoided the term, deeming it to be obscure 
or misunderstood). But it might have important bearings on 
the history of the origin of the Church, and possibly — for us 
now — upon its prospective development \ 

^ [1462 d\ As regards Jn xix. 30 (R.V.) " bowed his head," it should 
be noted that "bow" and "head" together, in the English O.T. Con- 
cordance, occur six times, and always in connexion with worship 
expressed or implied : " bow down " and " head " occur four times 
similarly, and once apparently in a bad sense (Is. Iviii. 5) "to bow down 
his head as a bulrush." 

[1462 b'\ I have not found kX/vo) K€(f)a\rjv in the very copious Indices 
to Aristotle and Lucian. The suggestion that the phrase simply meant 
"the head drooped in death " appears to me to ignore two considerations. 
(i) If a Greek author meant this, he would have used — as I/iad xi'ii. 543 
iKkivOrj d' irepaxTe Kaprj — the passive, and all the more certainly because 
the passive may mean {Iliad vii. 254 iKklvBr]) "bent his body," so that 
the active is only used in very few instances to mean " lay on a couch," 
"lay to rest," "lean anything" etc. (2) Even if kXiVo) Ke(f)aXr]v could 
mean " I droop my head," such a phrase — appropriate enough in Homer 
or Virgil, Hippocrates or Galen, to describe the death of a warrior or 
a patient — could not have been used by the author of the Fourth Gospel 
to describe the outward sign of the spiritual departure of the Son of 
God to the bosom of the Father. 

[1462 c] In 1457 <z, the extract from Chrys., after eKirvevo-at, prob. om. 
by error (Cramer) yiverai, dWa fiera to eKTrvevaai to KXivai. We may 
fairly presume that Chrys. — when saying (in effect) " the act occurred with 
Him, before death; with us, it occurs after death" — repeats icXtrat for 
brevity, to denote the "«<:/," though, strictly speaking, the act of Christ 
was KXti/at, the act with us is K\i6r\vai (not indeed being an " act " at all,, 
but a passive relaxing of the muscles). 



A. V. 15 



BOOK I 
JOHANNINE " KEY-WORDS " 



17 3—2 




CHAPTER I 

" BELIEVING " 

§ I. ^'Believing" or, "trusting,'' a key -word in the 
Fourth Gospel 

[1463] The Johannine use of the word ''believe" deserves 
a separate consideration for two reasons. In the first place, 
in a work dealing with Johannine grammar and vocabulary, 
the word is of special importance because the Evangelist uses 
it in various phrases and with various constructions in such a 
way as to throw light upon his general style and method of 
composition. In the next place, he exhibits "believing" in 
so many different phases, attributes it (in different phases) to 
so many persons and classes, assigns so many sayings about 
it to our Lord Himself, and makes so many evangelistic 
comments about it in his own person, that a summary of the 
Johannine dicta about "believing," amounting almost to a 
summary of the Gospel itself, may give a clue to its scheme 
and motive. 

[1464] Look at the Gospel as a drama, and you will find 
that few of the leading characters are not placed at some 
time in such circumstances as to shew us — or make us ask — 
what, or whom, and how, and why, they " believed," or why, 
and what, and whom, they were exhorted to believe. The 
Baptist himself, though he soon disappears from the scene, is 
connected with the very first mention of the word because his 

• 19 



[1465]. "BELIEVING 



rudimentary work was to produce "belieP." After that, 
Nathanael is gently reproved — apparently for believing too 
easily^. Then came the " glory " of Christ at Cana, and " his 
disciples believed in him^" Many at Jerusalem "believe," or 
" trust," because of His signs ; but — a strange play upon the 
word — Christ " did not trust himself to them"*." Nicodemus 
and the Samaritan woman are instructed in believing or 
exhorted to believed The nobleman, pleading for his sick 
child, is told that people in his condition " will not believe " 
without " signs and wonders." But he does believe — " himself 
and his whole house^" Then Peter makes his confession, 
" We completely believe and know." He says " we," and 
speaks in the name of " the Twelve." Yet Christ has said to 
the disciples "there are some of you that believe not"; and 
now He declares that one of the Twelve " is a devil'." After 
this, " many " of the multitude, " many " of " the Jews," the 
man born blind, Martha, " many even of the rulers " (after a 
fashion) — all, in turn, believe or avow beliefs In the Last 
Discourse, Philip and the disciples are stimulated to believe ; 
and they confidently protest their belief just before their 
Master warns them that they will abandon Him^ It is also 
said that the world is to be judged because men "do not 
believe^*'." Finally, in His Last Prayer, the Lord declares 
that the disciples " have believed " and prays that the world 
" may believe"." 

[1465] Speaking in his own person, and describing the 
Passion, the Evangelist breaks off from his narrative to 
protest that he " sayeth true" "that ye also may believe^V 
After the Resurrection there is a curious repetition of tra- 
ditions about " seeing " and " believing." It is said that " the 

1 i. 7. 

2 i. 50. 3 ii 11;.^ 4 ii^ 23—4. ^ iii. 12, iv. 21. 

« iv. 48, 53. ' vi. 64—70. 8 vii. 31, viii. 30, ix. 38, xi. 27, xii. 42. 
» xiv. I— 12, xvi. 30—1. 1^ xvi. 9. " xvii. 8, 20 — i. 



12 



xix. 35. 



20 



"BELIEVING" [1467] 



other disciple" (but not Peter his companion) ''saw and 

believed!' Thomas says "If I see not I will not believe'' \ 

and Christ's last use of the word is in a solemn combination 
of blessing and warning, " Blessed are they that have not seen 
and believed^!' Then immediately follows the Evangelist's 
statement, "These things have been written that ye may 
believe... and that, believing, ye may have life in his name'*": 
and this is the Evangelist's last dictum about " believing." 

[1466] Almost the only leading characters not connected 
with the word " believe " are Mary the sister of Lazarus and 
Mary Magdalene. These are not said to believe in anyone or 
in anything nor do they ever use the word. But both "weep^'* 
in the Lord's presence. And the weeping of one precedes the 
weeping of Jesus and the Raising of Lazarus ; the weeping of 
the other precedes the first manifestation of the Risen Saviour 
Himself Do not all these widely differing facts converge to 
the conclusion that the Evangelist recognises many kinds and 
shades of believing and desires to subordinate it, even at its 
highest, to some still higher process of receiving spiritual 
truth ? 

§ 2. Why John prefers " believe " to " belief" 

[1467] The Synoptic Vocabulary shews that John never 
uses the noun " faith," " belief," or " trust," but that he com- 
pensates for this by an abundant use of the verb " have faith," 
"believe," or "trust." His reason for doing this may be 
illustrated by two passages in Mark. One of these gives, as 
part of Christ's first public utterance, the words " Believe in the 
Gospel" not repeated in any shape by the parallel Matthew or 
Luke and unique in N.T.^ Another is (lit.) " Have [thel 
faith of God" where the context refers to the uprooting of 



1 XX. 8, 25, 29. 2 XX. 31. 3 xi. 33, XX. II. 

4 Mki. 15, SS ''his {i.e. God's) Gospel"; b and/om. "in," and so 
does Origen (Huet ii. 150). 

21 



[1468] "BELIEVING" 



trees or mountains and teaches that everything — but possibly 
the meaning is every spiritual thing — will be granted to faiths 
Here again the other Synoptists deviate from Mark. Matthew 
omits the words " of God," and says " If ye have faith": Luke, 
in a different context, has "If ye have faith as a grain of 
mustard seed I" 

[1468] These textual divergences are very natural. The 
influx of wonder-working faith into the Christian Church must 
have been felt much more definitely than it could be ex- 
pressed. Men were conscious that " faith " had led them from 
death into life. Yet some found it difficult to explain to 
others precisely why they had " faith." The First Epistle of 
St Peter bids converts be ready to " give a reason " for the 
" hope " that was in them : so, the Fourth Evangelist might 
naturally desire to help Christians to " give a reason " when 
they were asked to explain or describe the faith that was in 
them : " Why, and what, or whom, or in whom, or to whom, 
or to what, do you trust.?" This he does by substituting the 
verb for the Synoptic noun and by adding various objects or 
modifying phrases answering these questions. 

§ 3. "Believing" in the Old Testament 

[1469] The Hebrew verb, "trust," or "believe," is radi- 
cally connected with the words " support," " nourish," " foster- 
father," "foster-mother," "nurse," "pillar (of a house)l" In 
the Passive, it means "supported," "confirmed," "steadfast." 
In the Causal, it means " stand firm," " trust," " believe" — but 
" believe " in a moral sense, not a mere act of the intellect. 
The best (or least inadequate) rendering is often "trust," 



^ Mk xi. 22 e)(eT€ nicmv deov : a and k om. ^foC, D has el e^^re ttiotiv 
Tov Oeov, ^ a b etc. ins. et — conforming the text to Mt. or Lk. 

2 Mt. xxi. 21 eav exV'^} L^- xvii. 6 ei fxere. 

3 For these and the following facts relating to the Hebrew forms see 
Gesen. $2/0//. 

22 



BELIEVING " [1470] 



because our English " trust " is connected etymologically with 
" true," and with words suggestive of firmness and confidence. 
The Hebrew aman, "support," is connected with our amen 
(an utterance of " confirmation ") and with the Hebrew emeth, 
" truth," and dmoun " master-workman," the word applied 
in Proverbs to the Wisdom that cooperated with God in the 
Creation\ This Hebrew "trust" differs widely from that 
kind of belief (upon more or less of evidence) which we mean 
in English when we say " I believe it is about half past two." 

[1470] In Hebrew, one may trust (i) absolutely, (2) " to " 
a person or thing, (3) "in" a person or thing, or (4) "that" 
a statement is true. The third of these constructions is 
usually employed in describing trust in God^ e.g. "And he 
[Abraham] trusted in the Lord and he counted it to him for 
righteousness." But the LXX— rendering Abraham's "trusting" 
by 7rt<7T6uft), which is never followed by a preposition in classical 
Greek^ — has " he trusted the Lord " (dat). This often-quoted 
passage reveals the general inability of classical Greek to 
represent Semitic traditions about ^' trust'' in God. Now and 
then, especially with a negative, the translators of O.T. use 
" in " to denote that Israel did not " stand fast, or trust, in 
God^"; but, as a rule, they are content with the dative to 
represent both of the Hebrew prepositions. As for the Greek 
" to," " trust tol' iricTTeveiv et?, it is never thus used by 
the LXX. 



^ Prov. viii. 30. 

'-^ Gesen. 53a "the usual construction with God Gn. xv. 6." 

'^ Steph. 

* [1470 a] With negative in Ps. Ixxviii. 22 " because they trusted not 
m (3) (eV) God and hoped not in (2) (cVi) his salvation,'" Jer. xii. 6 "trust 
not in (2) them" (comp. Sir. xxxii. 21 "Trust not m (H) the way," firj 
TTKTTeva-rjs iv obai) ', without negative in Ps. cvi. 12 (R.V.) "then believed 
they his words," Dan. vi. 23 (Theod.) R.V. " because he had trusted in his 
God"(Aom. eV). 

[1470 <^] 'Etti never occurs with ir. in LXX except in Wisd. xii. 2 
IT. eVi (re (i.e. God). 

23 



[1471] "BELIEVING" 



[1471] Besides this inadequacy in Greek construction 
there is inadequacy in the Greek verb itself to represent 
the moral meanings of the Hebrew verb in its different forms 
and its associations with firmness and stability. When Isaiah, 
playing on these shades of meaning, says " If ye be xvoX. firm 
[in faith] ye shall surely not be made firm [in fact]" (i.e. "if 
ye will not believe ye shall not be established") the LXX has, 
for the latter clause, "ye shall surely not understand^": and 
a similar saying in Chronicles ''Believe in Jehovah and ye 
shall be confirmed" (lit. '' Be firm in Jehovah and ye shall be 
made firm ") is rendered by the LXX " Trust in Jehovah 
and ye shall be trusted" perhaps meaning " ye shall h^ proved 
trustworthy ^" 

§ 4. " Believing" in Philo 

[1472] Philo, being a Greek in language but a Jew in 
faith and theological tradition, shares in the linguistic in- 
adequacies of the LXX (which seemed to him an inspired 
version of the Hebrew) but shews a Jewish sense that 
Abraham's "trust" was something more than Greek "be- 
lieving." Traces of this appear in his frequent mention, or 
implication, of the instability of all other " trust " as compared 
with the firmness or stability of trust in God : " It is best to 
trust completely {ireiricrrevKevai) to God and not to the misty 
reasonings and the unstable imaginations [of men]. Abraham, 
at all events, trusted to God and was esteemed righteous^": 
"He [Abraham] saw into the unfixedness and unsettledness of 
material being when he recognised the unfaltering stability 
that attends true being, to which [stability] he is said to 
have completely trusted*." The praise of Abraham's faith is 
justified, he says, because nothing is so difficult or so righteous 

^ Is. vii. 9 ovbf /xj) a-vvrjre, Sym. dtajxevelTe, Theod. Tria-revBeirjTe. 
^ 2 Chr. XX. 20 ev7ri(rT€v6r)o-€(r6€, comp. Sir. i. 15, xxxvi. 21. 
^ Philo i. 132 quoting Gen. xv. 6 as diicaios evofilaBr). 
* [1472 rt] Philo i. 273 ".dvldpvTOV koi dararov Karelde rrfv yevecriv ore 
rfjv irepi to ov avevboiacrTOv eyvco jSe^aiorriTa " § Xc-yerat TreTTtcrreu/cci'at." 

24 



BELIEVING " * [1473] 



as " to anchor oneself firmly and unchangeably upon true 
BEING alone\" In the course of a long eulogy on it, he says 
that ** the only good thing that is void of falsehood and stable 
is the faith that is toward God " or " the faith toward true 
BEING^." Elsewhere he calls this faith "knowledge," and 
again connects it with stability : — not that Abraham could 
obtain the knowledge of God's essence, he says, but he 
obtained clearer impressions of His Being and Providence, 
" Wherefore also he is said to have been the first to have 
* trusted God! since he was the first to have an unaltering and 
stable conception, how that there exists One Cause, the 
Highest, providing for the world and all things therein. And, 
having obtained knowledge, the most stable of the virtues, he 
obtained at the same time all the rest^" 

[1473] All these extracts bear on one passage of 
Scripture — that which describes the faith of Abraham. But 
they suffice to shew that, in the middle of the first century, 
a non-Christian Jew would have great difficulty in conveying 
to Greeks all that was meant by the Hebrew " trust " when 
it meant "trust in God." This difficulty would be greatly 
increased by the influx of so stupendous a revelation as the 
Incarnation ; and we have now to see how the earliest 
Christian writers grappled with it. 

Man gey prints xi as the object of tt. : but we might read ^ Xeyerai " ireirLo-T- 
€vic€vai" "in which respect he is said to have 'believed.'" For the perf. 
(here and i. 132) comp. Demosth. 2 Philipp. § 6 01 Oappovvres koL 
TTeTTia-TevKOTes avrco and (Steph.) Philostr. Epist. 40 TreiriaTevKas a-eavrff 
KOL reddpprjKas, i.e. "trust absolutely." 

^ Philo i. 486 TO eVi p.6vcd tco ovtl jSe/Sai'o)? /cat aKKivas opfxelv. This 
illustrates the use of eVt quoted above (1470 <^) from Wisd. xii. 2. 

^ Philo ii. 39 p,6vov ovv d-^evbes Koi ^e^aiov dyaObv rj Trpos tov 6c6v 
TTiVrts, and rr^v Trpos to *0v itiotiv. 

^ [1472^] Philo ii. 442 koI ov rrpoTepov dvi]<€v rj rpavoTepas Xa^elv 
(f)avTa(rLas...Trjs VTrdp^eoiS avTOv kol npovoias fj diKaiov. Aio koi TriCTTevaat 
Xe'yerat Ta dea rrpSiTos, eVeiSi; koL TrpwTos dK\ivr] koi ^e^aiav €(r)(€v VTroXrj'^iVy 
ays ecTTiv ev avriov to dvcoTUTOij kol Trpovoel tov T€ Kocrfxov ical rail/ eV avTO. 
KTr]crdp.evos de eTTKTTrjfxrjv ttjv dp€Tci)v ^e^aiOTaTrjv, crvveKTOTO /cat tcls aWas 
andaas. 

25 



[1474] "BELIEVING" 



§ 5. '' Believing^ I' in the New Testament, excluding 
the Fourth Gospel 

[1474] The Epistles to the Thessalonians and the Corin- 
thians rarely use irLo-revai except absolutely^, and never with 
'' Christ," " in Christ " etc. : but the Epistle to the Galatians, 
before quoting the words about Abraham's ''trust" and 
righteousness," says " We trusted to {eU) Christ Jesus that we 
might be made righteous {hiKaiwdcofiev) from trust in Christ 
(e/c TTiarecof; Xpiarov) " and then quotes " Abraham trusted 
God (dat.) and it was reckoned to him for righteousness^" 
The Epistle to the Romans begins by quoting the text 
"Abraham trusted God (dat.)..."; it then speaks of him as 
" trusting on {iiri with accus.) him that maketh righteous the 
ungodly," and then, " But {^having regard or looking'] to {eh 
he) the promise of God he doubted not through trustlessness 
but was filled with power by trust... but it was written... also 
for our sakes...who trtist on {iiri with accus.) him that raised 
Jesus our Lord from the dead^" Later on, quoting Isaiah, 
" He that trusteth shall not make haste," the Apostle twice 
follows a version of the LXX in an erroneous insertion " He 



^ The active alone is discussed in the following pages : Trcareveadai, 
"to be believed" or "to be entrusted with," is not considered. 

2 [1474 <2] It is always absolute in these Epistles except i Thess. 
iv. 14 "If we trust that Jesus died and rose again," 2 Thess. ii. 11 "that 
they should trust a lie," ii. 12 "those who have not trusted the truth," 
I Cor. xiii. 7 "trusteth [in] all things (iravTo)." 

3 [1474^] Gal. ii. 16, iii. 6. In the early portion of this chapter — for 
the sake of indicating the differences of Greek phrase, and the different 
shades of meaning of the Greek verb — TriaTcveiv will be rendered "trust" : 
TT. avra, "trust him,'' tt. eV avrov (or, rarely, avra) "trust on him," tt. els 
avTov, " trust to him." But the reader must be warned that " trust untOy 
or into him " would be a more adequate rendering of tt. els, if only it were 
English. It implies "looking trustfully unto" or perhaps sometimes 
"passing mto" (1475, 1517). 

* Rom. iv. 3, 5, 24. 

26 



BELIEVING " [1475] 



that trusteth on him (dat. eV auroJ)^"; but, speaking in his 
own person he says, " How shall they call on him to (eh) 
whom they have not trusted^?'' and he tells the Philippians* 
that to them "it is given not only to trust to (ek) him but 
also to suffer for him^" 

[1475] In what sense does the Apostle use " to,'' or " into'* 
with " trust," contrary to Greek usage ? Does he mean that, as 
a convert is baptized into Christy so, by the spiritual act of 
" trust," his pevsonsdity passes into that of Christ ? Or does he 
mean that the convert "trustfully looks to Christ," — a thought 
that seemed to be implied in the statement that Abraham *' [look- 
ing-] to the promise of God... was filled with power by trust" ? 
The latter is suggested by the Pauline noun-phrases " the trust 
to (ek) Christ," " the love to (eh) all^" It is also favoured by the 
Petrine expression, " To whom, for the moment [indeed] not 
seeing, yet trusting'^ " — which implies that " trusting " means 
" looking to Christ with the eye of trust," as also later on, 
" that your trust and hope may be to God^" Compare the 
Epistle to the Hebrews " looking only to (a^opSivre'i el<;) Jesus 
the chief leader and perfecter of our faith," which resembles 

^ Rom. ix. 33, quoting Is. xxviii. i6 (KAQ have this ; it probably 
arose from conflating "not" as "to him" {779 a)), rep. Rom. x. ii. 

2 Rom. X. 14. 3 phii_ I 29. 

* [1474^] The First Epistle to Timothy has i. 16 "them that are 
destined to trust on (eirl with dat.) him to (els) eternal life." Here the 
writer might use eVt because he was going to use els in a different sense 
later on. But eVi with the dative is contrary to Pauline usage (except in 
quoting). The dat. is used in 2 Tim. i, 12 ol8a w Treiria-TevKa and Tit. iii. 8 
01 TreTTto-revKOTes deoi. 

^ [1475 rt;] Rom. vi. 3 "as many as were baptized into (els) Christ 
Jesus were baptized znto (els) his death," i Cor. x. 2 " they all baptized 
themselves {i^anTia-avTo) into {els) Moses," i Cor. xii. 13 "were all 
baptized into one body," Gal. iii. 27 " for as many of you as were baptized 
into Christ." 

® Col. ii. 5 Tr]S els Xp. Trio-rfCDf, i. 4 rr]v dyoLTrrjv [^v ex^Te] els irdvras, 
Philem. 5 rrfv nia-Tiv tjv ex^is els (marg. npos) tov Kvpiov. 

^ I Pet. i. 8 els bv apri /xj) opiavTes Tria-Tevovres 8e.... 

^ I Pet. i. 21 TT]v rr. vpcov k. eXirida eivai els 6e6v. 

27 



[1476] "BELIEVING" 



the doctrine of Epictetus that we are to " look only to (d(j>op- 
<wi/T€9 ek) God in all things great or small \" 

[1476] In the Acts — besides occasional instances of the 
dative — "trust on (iTrl)" occurs along with "trust to (et9)V' 
In the former, eVt is used, not with the dative as in Isaiah 
(5<AQ) but with the accusative. The dative would mean 
" resting on," the accusative " coming to rest on " ; and the 
latter might imply " becoming a convert " which is perhaps the 
meaning in three passages. The Epistle to the Hebrews, 
though it very frequently uses the noun "trust" (which it 
defines as being " that which gives substantiality to the things 
one is hoping for ") uses the verb only twice, once absolutely 
and once with oti^ — a construction apparently very rare in 
classical Greeks The Epistle of St James indicates that 
Christians had begun to discuss the relation between " trust " 
(or "belief") and "works"; and — before quoting " Abraham 
believed God " — it twice uses the verb so as to warn its 
readers that " believing " may be non-moral : " Thou believest 
that God is one... the devils also believe and trembled" 

1 [1475 <^] Heb. xii. 2, Epict. ii. 19. 29. 'Acpopav €ls=" look away from 
[other things] to." Epictetus says about his ideal Hercules (iii. 24. 16), 
" For he had heard not as mere talk [but as truth] that Zeus is the Father 
of men : yes, he thought Him and called Him his Father, and looking only 
towards Him (rrpos eKcivov dcf>opS)v) he regulated his every action (eTrparrev 
a errpaTTe)." 

2 [1476«] In Acts ix. 42, xi. 17, xvi. 31, tt. 67rt = "become a convert," 
in Acts xxii. 19 "believers." In Acts x. 43 tt. els describes the means for 
remission of sins, xiv. 23 els ov TremaTevKeicrav seems to express intense 
trust as the preparation for a dangerous enterprise, xix. 4 is doubtful, 
since els top 'I. (i) maybe a resumptive repetition of els ("with reference 
to") TOP epxppevov^ or (2) may depend on wiaTevaaxriv. 

3 [1476 <^] Heb. iv. 3, xi. 6. The latter, requiring a belief that God 
"is" and that He "rewards," is like Philo's definition of Abraham's faith 
(1472) concerning the virap^is of God and concerning the fact that He 
7rpovoe7. 

* [1476^] Steph. quotes no instance of tt. on, but comp. Epictet. 
Fragm. 3 el ^ovKei ayaOos elvai rrpwrov Triareva-ov on kukos ei, and 
Xen. Hiero i. 37 has TTKTrevuai foil, by las. 

^ J as. ii. 19 {bis\ 23. 

28 



BELIEVING" [1477] 



[1477] In the Synoptists we have seen above (1467) that 
Mark is not exactly followed by Matthew or Luke in the two 
precepts that he attributes to our Lord, " Trust in the Gospel " 
and " Have trust in God." We must now add that the 
Triple Tradition does not agree in a single saying of Christy 
using this verb^. Also, as regards the noun " trust," the only 
verbatim agreement in the Triple Tradition in the words of 
Christ is in the saying to the woman with the issue, "Thy 
trust hath saved thee^." 



1 [1477 d\ The only triple agreement about " trusting " is in a passage 
where the chief priests and elders express their fear that Jesus may- 
condemn them for not "trusting" the Baptist, Mk xi. 31, Mt. xxi. 25, 
Lk. XX. 5, " If we say from heaven, he will say, Why \then'\ did ye not trust 
him .?" Other instances are peculiar to two Evangelists or to one : for 
example, Mk v. 36, Lk. viii. 50 "only trust" is om. by Mt. Mk xiii. 21, 
Mt. xxiv. 23 "trust [them] not" is om. by Lk. (the rep. in Mt. xxiv. 26 
"trust [them] not" is om. by Mk as well as Lk.). At the end of the 
Healing of the Centurion's servant, Mt. viii. 13 "As thou hast trusted, so 
be it " is om. by the parall. Lk. and so is Mt. xxi. 32 " Ye did not trust 
him... the harlots trusted him... that ye might trust him" om. in the parall. 
Lk. vii. 29 — 30. Mt. ix. 28 "trust ye that I am able to do this.?" occurs in 
a miracle peculiar to Mt. After the Resurrection, " trust on " occurs in 
a tradition peculiar to Lk. xxiv. 25 " slow of heart to trust on (tt. eVi with 
dat.) all that the prophets have spoken." The words " He that shall have 
trusted and shall have been baptized," and " these signs shall follow them 
that shall have trusted," are in the Mark Appendix (Mk xvi. 16 — 17). 

2 [1477^] Mk V. 34, Mt. ix. 22, Lk. viii. 48. There is also an 
agreement, though not verbatim^ in Mk iv. 40 " Have ye not yet trust V^ 
Lk. viii. 25 has "Where is yowx trustV^ and Mt. viii. 26 "O ye of Httle 
trust.^' In Mk x. 52 (Bartimaeus), Lk. xviii. 42, "thy trust hath saved 
thee " the words are om. by the parall. Mt. xx. 34 {two blind men), but in 
another healing of two blind men Mt. ix. 29 has " let it be according to 
your trust.^^ In Mt. xv. 28 "O woman, great is thy trust^^^ the parall. 
Mk vii. 29 has " on account of this word, go thy way." Where Mt. xxiii. 
23 has "kindness (eXeos) and trust" the parall. Lk. xi. 42 has "the love of 
God." But the Double Tradition agrees in Mt. viii. 10, Lk. vii. 9 " I have 
not found so great trust... in Israel," and Mt. xvii. 20, Lk. xvii. 6 ''^ trust as 
a grain of mustard seed." As regards Mk xi. 22 and parall., see 1467. 



29 



[1478] "BELIEVING" 



§ 6. Antecedent probability of a restatement of the 
doctrine of " believing " 

[1478] Reviewing the New Testament doctrines con- 
cerning "faith," "trust," or "behef," apart from the Fourth 
Gospel, as they would present themselves to an Evangelist 
writing at the end of the first century, we see that he might 
naturally desire to supplement them. He might wish to 
guard his readers against attaching too much importance to 
that kind of " faith " which, in practice, produced wonderful 
cures of disease — as St Paul cautions the Corinthians, " Though 
I have faith so that I could move mountains, it profiteth me 
nothing^" Again, there was a danger that some might take 
the faith of Abraham to be little more than a belief that God 
would give him his heart's desire, quite apart from the 
goodness or badness of that desire^. To meet this, it would 
be well to shew what Abraham's faith really implied ^ The 
Epistle to the Hebrews had defined faith, and we know from 



* [1478 «] I Cor. xiii. i : comp. Mt. vii. 22 " In thy name have we cast 
out devils" (uttered by those whom the Lord rejects) and see Christ's 
answer to the Seventy when they say (Lk. x. 17) "Even the devils 
are subject to us in thy name." 

2 [1478 d] Irenaeus parallels the faith of Abraham with that of 
Christians thus (iv. 21. i) " illo quidem credente futuris quasi jam factis 
propter repromissionem Dei : nobis quoque similiter per fidem speculan- 
tibus eam quae est in Regno haereditatem propter repromissionem Dei.'' 
But the Jews believed that Abraham left his country as a martyr and exile 
at God's command in order to preserve the worship of the One God : and 
the Targum taught that he had been cast into a fiery furnace by Nimrod 
in order to make him apostatize. The trust of Abraham, then, was 
a trust that the kingdom of God established in his heart would be 
established, through his descendants, in all the world — a very different 
thing from the mere belief that he would have a son in his old age from 
his wife Sarah. 

3 Jn viii. 56 "Abraham rejoiced exceedingly in order that (2097) he 
might see my day ; and he saw it and was glad." 

30 



BELIEVING " [1479] 



Clement of Alexandria^ that some very early Christians 
added a second definition. Probably there were many defini- 
tions. St Paul had spoken much about the worthlessness of 
"works of the law," and the value of "faith," even before works 2. 
St James had said that " faith without works " was " dead^" 
Both had argued truly ; but they appeared to differ. The 
Fourth Evangelist might feel that, without arguing, a Gospel 
might set forth Christ's doctrine of trust in a Father in such a 
way as to reconcile these apparently conflicting statements. 

[1479] Lastly, the writer we have in view would probably 
have some regard to the difficulties of Greek believers 
including the educated classes, and to their notions about 
" faith " or " belief" " Whatever we believe," said Aristotle, 
"comes to us through syllogism or induction^": how could this 
be reconciled with any Christian doctrine of believing } Un- 
fortunately we have no Celsus in the first century to represent 
Greek scepticism. But St Paul's words, " the Jews desire 
signs, and the Greeks seek after wisdom V' and the absence 
or insignificance of " faith " and " believing" in the teaching of 
Epictetus^, and the statement of Clement of Alexandria'' that 

1 [1478 c] Clem. Alex. 432 calls it " voluntary preconception, an assent 
of reverence for God," 7rp6Xr)\f/ii ckoixtlos, Beoac^das crvyKardBeais. Then 
he adds the definition of Heb. xi. i. Then he says (433) "But others 
have explained {aTredcoKav) faith as a uniting assent to a!n unseen object 
{d(f)avovs irpdyfjiaTos ivcoTiKrjv avyKaTddeo-iv)." He derives faith from (rrda-is 
{? as a contraction of eTrio-rao-Ls) calling it (629) " a settlement of our 
soul concerning true BEING (tt^v irepl to ov ardcnv rrjs yj/vxrjs T]fia)v)." 
By a " uniting " assent, he means " that which makes a man at one " with 
the Word, (635) "To trust to (els) Him and through Him {81 avrov) is to 
become — being undistractedly made one (direpiairdcrTais hovfievov) in 
Him — a single being (p,ova8LK6v)." See Hort and Mayor on Clem. 899. 

2 Rom. iii. 20 — 28, iv. 2 — 6, ix. 11, 32, xi. 6. ^ Jas. ii. 17. 

* Aristot. Ana/. Prior, ii. 25 (23). ^ i Cor. i. 22. 

® [1479 <«] Epictetus has {Fragm. § 3) "If you wish to become good, 
first believe that you are bad," but iriarevo) does not appear in the Index 
of Schweighauser exc. as n. ri rivi in a corrupt passage (i. 26. 14). 

^ [1479^] Clem. Alex. 432 ttLcttls de, rjv 8ia^dk\ova-iv, kcvtjv kol ^dp^apov 
vofii^ovres "EXKrjves. 



A. V. ^ 31 



[1480] "BELIEVING 



the Greeks mocked at faith — all point to the conclusion 
that what Celsus said in later days against the Christian 
exhortation to "believe^" would be said by Greek philo- 
sophers in the first century as soon as they came into contact 
with the preachings of the Gospel. For the sake of the Greeks, 
then, it was needful to point out the immense difference 
between ''believing that'' a conclusion is logically deduced 
from premises, or ''that'' a fact is proved by evidence, and 
that other kind of belief, or trust, in a Person, which, as the 
Christians asserted, made men become the children of God. 

§ 7. " Believing^' in the Fourth Gospel 

[1480] It remains to consider the Johannine traditions 
about " believing," or " trusting." The best way of doing this 
will be to note the different expressions, ("trust {absol.)" 
"trust {dat.y "trust to (ek)," "trust to (et?) the name of',' 
" trust that',') in the order in which the Evangelist introduces 
them, and to trace their principal recurrences, so as to give an 
outline of his doctrine as expressed in Christ's words and in 
Evangelistic comments. Here it may be observed that " trust 
in " and " trust on " are not mentioned. The former, since it 
occurs only once in N.T.^ might well not be used by John : 
and indeed " abide in," rather than " believe in," represents his 
doctrine about the highest and ultimate relation of the 
believer to God. " Trust on',' also, would be inconsistent with 
his view, which is, that man does not " rest on " Jehovah as on 

1 [1479^] Orig. Cels. i. 9 "But Celsus says that certain people 
discarding discussion (/XT/Se ^ovXofievovs 8i86vai ^ Xafi^dveiv \6yov) con- 
cerning the objects of their faith {irepl &i/ Triarevovai) use the [cry], ' Do not 
examine but trust ' (M?) e^era^e dWa iriaTfvcrov)^ 

2 [1480 <3:] Mk i. 15 TTKTTfvfTe iv Tw euayyeXico, see 1467 : eV, written e, 
might be so easily repeated after the final e in Trtoreuere that we might be 
justified in omitting it as corrupt (with b and /) if the phrase were not so 
rare. Ign. Philad. 8 eV tg) eua-yyeXio) ov 7ri<rT€v<o is not an instance (Lightf.). 
The phrase may have been common with a certain class of early Greek 
Evangehsts but deprecated by their successors. 

32 



"BELIEVING" [1482] 



the Rock of the Psalmist, but that he is 

a child is " in " his father's house, or " in " his father's heart. 

[1481] The Epistle to the Hebrews, discussing '* faith," 
begins with definition and proceeds to historical exempli- 
fication. This is the oppo'site of the Johannine plan, which 
prefers " narrowing down," that is to say, first, a broad, vague, 
and sometimes even inaccurate statement, afterwards cor- 
rected ^ modified, defined by reference to persons and circum- 
stances, and finally left with the reader not as a definition but 
as an impression. Thus John will begin by speaking of 
"trusting^" absolutely in a context that will lead his readers 
to ask " through whom or what " is this " trust " to be attained. 
Then he will speak of those who " trusted to the name [of the 
Logos]^" as receiving " authority " to become " children of 
God," but will leave it an open question whether they availed 
themselves of that authority. The first use of the word by 
our Lord Himself will be in a gentle reproach to an 
enthusiastic convert for "trusting" too easily^ Soon after- 
wards, the Evangelist, in his own person, recurring to his 
phrase " trusting to the name," will say, — with a play upon 
words — that although " many " in Jerusalem were so impressed 
with His "signs" that they ''trusted to (et?) his name',' yet 
"Jesus himself did not trust himself to (dat.) them^''\ These 
remarks will suffice to shew the need of careful discrimina- 
tion when John varies his phrases in the following passages. 
We may not understand the meaning of each variation, but 
that each has some meaning we may feel certain. 

§8. ''■Through whom!' or "what',' do all "believe"? 

[1482] i. 7 " That he [the Baptist] might bear witness 
concerning the light that all might trust through him (St' 
avroif)." The meaning probably (2302 — 4) is "that all men 

^ Comp. iii. 22 "and he \i.e. Jesus] was baptizing," with iv. 2 "Yet 
Jesus himself was not baptizing," and see 1925. 

2 i. 7. 3 i_ 12. 4 i ^o 5 ii^ 23—4. 



33 4—2 



[1483] "BELIEVING 



might trust through the Hght," i.e. by seeing things clearly and 
truly through the pure light of the Word of God and not 
through the mists and twilights of their selfish fears and 
desires, or through the darkness of sin. Here, without sup- 
plying an object to the verb " trust," the Evangelist suggests 
— by mentioning the medium — that, in any case, the kind of 
"trust" or "belief" that his Gospel will delineate is not the 
trust of ignorance or superstition. It is to be the trust of 
those who see things as they are. Even if it could be shewn 
that " through him " meant " through the Baptist," it would 
still remain true that all men are to be led to " trust " through 
the Light as the higher instrument, the Baptist being the 
lower one. 

§ 9. " Believing in the name " 

[1483] i. 12 "But as many as received {l\a^ov) him, to 
them gave he authority to become children of God, namely, 
to those trusting to his name {toU Tnarevovaiv eh to ovofxa 
auToO)." The " he " is the " light " previously mentioned in 
i. 9 — II, "There-was [from the beginning] the light, the true 
[light], which enlighteneth every man, [by its continual] 
coming into the world. He was in the world and the world 
through him came into being, and the world recognised him 
not. To his own [house] (eZ? ra IBca) he came, and his own 
household (ol lBlol) received him not into [their hearts] 
(irapeXa^ov). But as many...." Compare ii. 23 "Many 
trusted to his name {iirlo-Tevaav et? to ovojjba avTov) beholding 
his signs, which he was [then] doing. But Jesus himself 
would not trust himself to them {ovk eirio-revev avTov 
auTot?) — 

[1484] On this last passage Origen says, " We must hold 
fast to Him rather than to His name, lest, while ' doing 
mighty works in His name,' we should [be forced to] hear 
His [reproachful words] uttered when men boasted about His 

34 



« BELIEVING " [1485] 



mere name^" On the first (i. 12) he observes that receiving 
" authority to become the children of God " is not the same 
thing as " becoming children." " Receiving authority " Origen 
regards apparently as a rudimentary stage belonging to those 
who have " merely rudimentary belief {airkova-repov Trco-rev- 
ovT6^ fjLovov)." Holding fast to Htm, as distinct from ''His 
name," belongs to those who have a more perfect insights It 
may be urged that these so-called " rudimentary believers " 
are described by the Evangelist as having been born from 
God (i. 13 " who were begotten, not... nor from the will of man 
but from God "). But Origen describes the stages of develop- 
ment thus : first, men receive the light, and, with it, authority 
to become children of God ; then, " having been brought into 
being from God, they also hear His words^" and pass into the 
higher stage. 

[1485] Origen's meaning becomes clearer if we remember 
that " to receive the light " is much the same as " to be 
enlightened {(fxoTL^ecrOai)!' Now the noun "enlightenment" 
is mentioned by Justin Martyr in his Apology as being the 
name given by Christians to "baptism"; and the noun and 
the verb (" enlighten," " enlightenment ") were probably used 
before the second century in the sense of " baptism " and 
*' being baptized'*." Moreover " baptism " is regularly con- 

^ Origen (Huet ii. 196) is referring to the "boast" in Mt. vii. 22 — 3 
*' In thy name have we done many mighty works," and to the reproach 
in the Lord's answer, " I never recognised you, depart from me." 

^ Origen, ib. ii. 324 — 5 ^lopaTucayrepov Karavoovvres ra Ti]S dfoae^eias 
TTpdyfxara. 

^ Origen, ib. yevonevoi e< tov deov, koL to. prjfxara aKOvovaiv avrov. 

^ [1485 rt] In Heb, vi. 4 "Those who have been once enlightened and 
have tasted of the heavenly gift," the Syriac versions give (Westcott) 
" who have once descended to baptism " and " who have once been 
baptized," and the text is explained (Suicer 1490) by most Greek and 
Latin Fathers as referring to baptism. Comp. Heb. x. 32 " Call to mind 
the former days wherein having been enlightened, ye endured a great 
conflict of sufferings," i.e. your conversion exposed you to persecutions. 

[1485 <^] This is confirmed by Justin Martyr, who expressly says that 

35 



[1486] " BELIEVING 



nected with the phrases " to the name," " in the name," in the 
Acts, and once in Matthew\ Thus a good deal of indirect 
evidence suggests that the Evangelist here has in mind the 
profession of faith or trust made in baptism. And this inter- 
pretation is adopted by Chrysostom : " Why did he say, not 
* made them children of God', but 'gave them authority to become 
children of God'} Because he was shewing us that we need 
all diligence to preserve, unstained and untainted — throughout 
our whole lives — the image of sonship by adoption stamped 
upon us in our baptism. And at the same time he made it 
clear that no one will be able to take from us this authority 
unless we first deprive our own selves of it!' 

[1486] In support of this distinction between "trusting 
to the name of I' and " trusting /^," the Lord Himself, Origen, 
referring to Jn iii. i8^ says "'Trusting to His name' differs 
from * trusting to Him.' Accordingly, he that is to have 
immunity from judgment on account of trust, has that im- 
munity from judgment through ' trusting to Him,' not [through 
'trusting] to His name.' For the Lord said, 'He that trusteth 
to me is not judged,' not ' he that trusteth to my name is not 
judged.' " And he goes on to say that " trusting to His name " 



"enlightenment" was the name given by Christians to the "washing" of 
baptism, and then proceeds to use the noun and verb in that sense, Apol. 
6l Kokivrai Se tovto to \ovrp6v (f)coTi(rfi6s,».Kai eV ovofiaros de 'l. Xp....Ka\ 
eV ovofiaros Trvevfiaros dylov...6 (f)(OTi^6fi€vos Xoverai, 65 KOivas ev^ns Troirjao- 
fxevot virip re eavrSyv koi tov (pcoTLcrOevTos... Tryph. 122 ravra vfids pev els tov 
yqopav Koi tovs tt poarjXvrovs elprjadai vopi^ere, tco ovtl be els rjpas e'lprjrai tovs 
dia 'lr)(Tov TretpcoTia-pevnvs. The Jews reply that the prophecy npos tov 
vopov \eyeL Koi tovs cfycoTL^opevovs vtt' avTov, and " these " (they add) " are 
the proselytes [of the Law]." This illustrates the fact that Jews as well as 
Christians applied the term to proselytes. 

^ [1485 <:] Acts ii. 38 (x. 48) ev rw ovopoTi 'Irja. Xp., viii. 16 (xix. 5) els to 
ovopaTov Kvpiov 'lr](rov, Mt. xxviii. 1 9 els r, 6. tov irarpos... Comp. I Cor. i. 13, 
15 els TO 6. n., and els to epbv 6. The Index to Hermas gives ^anTi^ai only 
in the phrase Vis. iii. 7 /3. els to ovopa tov Kvpiov. 

^ Jn iii. 186 Tnarevoav els avTov oh KpiveTai. 6 pr] TriaTevccv rjbr] KeKpiTai 
OTi pr) TrenlaTevKev els to ovopa tov povoyevovs vlov tov 6eov. 



36 



'^BELIEVING" [1487] 



is inferior to "trusting to Him^" That is to say, "to trust to 
the name of the Son of God " avowing that trust in baptism, 
is only a preliminary stage in the upward progress of a 
Christian. 

[1487] Concerning this stage the ancient Appendix to 
Mark says " He that shall believe and be baptized shall be 
saved, but he that shall not believe (avrtcrTTyo-a?) shall be 
judged guilty {KaraKpiOrjaeraLY" But, according to the Fourth 
Gospel as interpreted by Origen, this stage of belief, or trust, 
does not bring full "salvation," though the rejection of it 
brings condemnation. Origen's conclusion appears to be 
sound, and in harmony with Johannine thought and language, 
namely, that " to trust to the name of Jesus " implies a lower 
kind of trust, aprofession of belief in baptism, which professed 
belief, if not followed up and developed by spiritual action, 
might come to nothing^ 

^ [1486 rt] Huet ii. 196. Chrysostom (like others in Cramer ad loc.) 
ignores the distinction between '■^ him''^ and '''■the 7iame" and says "He 
\i.e. the behever] is not liable to judgment in this particular point" 
i.e. for having rejected the Christian faith. If the believer leads an 
impure life, says Chrysostom, he will be punished all the more for 
his sins, "but on account of unbelief he is not punished because he 
believed once for all {airnTTias de eveKa ov KoXa^erai 8ia to Tnareva-ai 
anai)." 

2 [Mk App. xvi. 16.] 

3 [1487 a] According to this view, eVio-rfwcrcv ds to 6. tov Kvplov might 
mean, in effect, "he became a Christian convert and was baptized." In 
the present tense the phrase might be used to remind "believers" of 
their responsibility as converts. Dealing only with rr. els in i Jn v. 10 — 13, 
we find (l) 6 maTeixov els tov vlov r. Oeov, (2) ov Trerrio-TevKev els ttju 
fxapTvplav ^v p,epapTvpr}K€v 6 Beos, and then, " These things have I written 
to you that ye may know that ye have eternal life — [to jyou, /say,'] that 
trust to the name of the Son of God^^ where perhaps the meaning of the 
italicized words is, "you, who did not merely once for all" — a-na^, as 
Chrysostom says — "profess baptismal faith but continuously exercise it." 

[1487^] I Jn iii. 23 is difficult, and doubtful because NAC and 
W. H. marg. read TTio-Tevcojxev where B and W. H. txt read Triorevcrcopev. 
All have the dative, thus, "And this is his commandment that we trust 
the name (tt. rw o.) of his son Jesus Christ and love {dyan(bp,ev) one 

37 



[1488] "BELIEVING" 



§ lO. Oicr Lord's first mention of '' believing]'' 
or ^' trusting^'^ 

[1488] i. 50 " Because I said unto thee I saw thee under 
the fig-tree thou believes 1 1 Thou shalt see greater things than 
these." We noted above (1481) that the EvangeHst's first use 
of " believing " was absolute, no object being inserted. So it 
is here, and the "belief" is not defined so far as this sentence 
goes. But it is partially defined as being a reply to 
Nathanael's words, " Rabbi, thou art the Son of God, thou art 
King of Israel." That, then, is what Nathanael "believes" 
and it seems definite enough, at first sight. But is it clear 
what precise meaning Nathanael attached to the phrase, and 
whether he meant " a king " or " the king " of Israel ? Both of 
these terms are capable of conventional meanings. All that we 
are allowed to know for certain is (i) that Nathanael believed 
these to be facts about Jesus because the latter declared that 
He had " seen him under the fig-tree " at the moment when 
Philip called him, (2) that Jesus replied as above. But the 
tenor of the reply justifies us in inferring that this faith — 
which was based upon a " sign," though not a " sign " of action 
or of healing — was not regarded by our Lord (and con- 
sequently not by the Evangelist) as of the highest order, and 
that He promised Nathanael a more spiritual basis for a 
higher kind of belief 



another," Perhaps the writer substitutes the unusual dative for the 
preposition in order to suggest a trust that is not formal or conventional : — 
" that we trust [in heart as well as in word] that name [which we 
professed to trust in when we were baptized] and that we give effect to it 
by a life of brotherly love." But the text is so doubtful that nothing 
certain can be said about its meaning. 

^ [1488 fz] It will not be thought necessary to remind the reader 
henceforth that nia-Tevo means "trust" as well as "believe." "Believe 
in" (not "believe on," which would better correspond to tt. eni) will often 
be used except where some special context requires the word " trust." 

38 




VERSITY 

^LLFORN Nfe^ELIEVING" [1490] 

§ II. Christ's disciples '''believed in him'' 

[1489] ii. 1 1 " This beginning of his signs did Jesus in 
Cana of Galilee, and he manifested his glory, and his disciples 
believed in him {eirla-revo-av et? avrov)." The word " be- 
ginning" appears to have been interpreted by Origen as 
denoting spiritual precedence, not chronological order. This 
sign, he says, performed for those who were in health, was 
superior to the signs performed for the sick\ He evidently 
(without denying the literal miracle) regards the wine as 
spiritually efficacious, and probably as an anticipation of the 
Eucharist. If so, it would seem to him more than a mere 
coincidence, that at the time when the wine passed into the 
bodies of the disciples, faith passed into their souls. 

[1490] But although we may feel certain that the 
Evangelist records the miracle as a literal one, yet we cannot 
regard it as equally certain that he takes the miracle to be 
the cause of the "belief" of the disciples. Had their faith 
been of that kind, would it not have been like the faith of 
Nathanael above-mentioned, and like that of Nicodemus and 
other Jews later on, a faith not in the Lord but in His signs ? 
And is it not (in part at least) for the purpose of dissipating 
such an impression that John adds "and he manifested 
his glory'' 1 "Glory," in the Fourth Gospel, is of a spiritual 
nature. The Lord had recently promised Nathanael that he 
and all the disciples should see heaven (646 <3:) permanently 
opened and the angels of God ascending and descending on 
the Son of man. Did not this refer to the life of the Son of 



^ [1489 «] Huet ii. i6o. According to Chrys., the disciples, "even 
before this, had wondered at Him: now they believed in Him," 
€7riaT€V(rav els avTov oi jx. avrov ol koI irpo tovtov Bavfid^ovres avrov. 
Cramer's version adds, after avrov, "because then they received some 
increase of their faith in Him (on nep t6t€ TrpoaSrjKijv ibi^avro nva rfjs els 
avrov TTLcrreois)." Whoever added this probably disliked the notion that 
the disciples now, for the first time, " believed in " Christ. 

39 



[1491] "BELIEVING" 



God on earth and to His words as well as His works ? If 
even the officers of the Sanhedrin, sent to arrest Jesus, recoiled 
from their task with the words " Never man spake thus," 
might not Christ's own disciples say even more ? As for the 
miracle, it is said by the Evangelist to have been known to 
the servants that drew the water, but (at the time at all events) 
not to the Master of the Feast and apparently to none of 
those that were sitting at the table. The servants, then, if 
any one, ought to have " believed " in consequence of the 
miracle. But they are not said to have believed. This 
"belief" is predicated only concerning His disciples, whose 
eyes had been so far opened that they could to some extent 
discern His " glory." Hence they " believed in him." 

§ 12. ''Believing the Scripture'' 

[1491] At this point there comes, incidentally and out of 
chronological order, a mention of "trusting the Scripture," 
thus, ii. 22 " When therefore he was raised from the dead, his 
disciples remembered that he meant^ this : and they trusted 
the Scripture and the saying that Jesus said." Chronologically, 
this " trusting the Scripture " comes after the Resurrection, and 
after the time when the disciples had begun, in the fullest 
sense, to " trust to (et?) Christ." This is confirmed by xx. 9 
where it is said that the beloved disciple, seeing the grave- 
clothes in the tomb of the risen Saviour " believed — -for not 
even yet did they know the Scripture that he must needs rise 
from the dead"-!' 



1 [1491 «] "Meant," e'Xeye. R.V. "spake," A.V. "had said," but see 
Tense Imperf. (2469). If the meaning had been " spake," the Gk 
should have been eXaXrjo-ev ; if it had been " had said," the Gk should 
have been elnev or (xi. 13) elprjKei. 

2 [1491^] There is difficulty in the unique construction, with the 
preposition, in the Epistle (i Jn v. 10) " He that doth not trust God hath 
made God a liar because he hath not trusted to the testimony that God hath 

40 



BELIEVING" [1493] 



[1492] Later on, the dative is used somewhat similarly 
in V. 46 — 7 "For if ye trusted Moses ye would trust me... 
but, if ye trust not his writings, how will ye trust my words ? " 
The plural "writings {r^pa^^ara)" denotes the five books of 
the Law : and in the single passage in which John uses the 
plural of Graphe, he perhaps wishes us to see the Pharisees 
(v. 39) " searching the Scriptures," book by book, and yet unable 
to extract their meaning. But in the passage under con- 
sideration John uses the singular, " the Scripture," without 
quoting any special text ; and for reasons given later on, it is 
probable that he means " the Scripture as a whole,'' " the 
Scripture as the written Word of God',' or "the revealed 
will of God in the Law and the Prophets." To " trust " this^ 
in the full sense of " trusting," required the aid of the Holy 
Spirits 

§ 13. ''Believing',' in the Dialogue with Nicodemus 

[1493] The preface to the Dialogue with Nicodemus says 
that while Jesus was in Jerusalem during the Passover " many 
believed in his name beholding his signs, which he was [daily] 
performing^" We have seen above (1483 — 7) that this pro- 
bably implies that they " were baptized in Christ's name'* 



testified concerning his Son {pv TrcirlarevKev els rrjv fiaprvpiav ^v fiefiaprv- 
prjKcv 6 Oeos irepl tov vlov avrov).^^ Probably the writer uses the phrase as 
Ignatius speaks of {Trail. 2) "trusting to (els) the death of Christ/' 
{Smyrn. 6) " trusting to (els) the blood of Christ," in order to indicate that 
God's testimony was of the nature of a Person to whom one looks in trusts 

1 On "The Scripture" meaning "The Scripture as a whole," see 
1722 a— i. 

^ [1493 <«] ii. 23 decopovvres avrov to. arjpela a iiroUi, i.e. "beholding his 
signs, which he was frequently, or daily, performing " (not " beholding the 
signs that he was performing"). The relative clause adds, not defines. 
For want of understanding this, the text has been corrupted as follows : 
SS "believed our Lord because they were seeing the signs that he did ta 
them ^^ : a b and / om. avrov : e (besides omitting avrov) has " signa quae 
faciebat in eos qui infirm i erant." See 1564 b. 

41 



[1494] "BELIEVING" 



The Evangelist appears to have assumed that, when Jesus 
succeeded the Baptist, the former took up the work of 
baptizing disciples. The Synoptists make no mention of 
this ; but John informs us of it immediately after the Dia- 
logue thus, iii. 22 " After these things came Jesus and his 
disciples into the land of Judaea ; and there he was tarrying 
with them and was baptizing," and a little later he says that 
Jesus, or rather His disciples, baptized more converts than 
were baptized by John^ This is antecedently probable ; for 
one baptized by the Baptist, as Jesus had been, would 
hardly have discontinued the practice of the great Prophet 
without some strong reason ; and, if Jesus had discontinued 
it, would not some one of the Evangelists have mentioned 
the discontinuance? Supposing that Jesus, the Baptist's 
successor, continued to baptize, we are the better able to 
understand why the subject is introduced at once when 
Nicodemus comes to Jesus by night. 

[1494] The Rabbi, it would seem, was thinking about 
being baptized and came to consult Jesus about the matter. 
He is at once warned by our Lord that baptism with water 
is insufficient : there must be regeneration from above and 
with the Spirit. This introduces the notion of " believing," 
but, at first, only in a general sense, believing in spiritual as 
distinct from material existences. When Nicodemus ex- 
claims, "How can these things be?" Jesus replies (iii. 12) 
^' If I told you earthly things and ye believe not, how will ye 
believe if I tell you heavenly things ? " Then He concludes 
(iii. 14) "As Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, 
so must the Son of man be lifted up that everyone that 
believeth may in him have eternal life." 

[1495] The meaning of this allusion — so obscure to us — 
would be comparatively easy to a Jew familiar with the 
doctrine about the Serpent in the Wilderness set forth by 



1 Jn iv. 1—3. 
42 



"BELIEVING" [1497] 



Philo, Barnabas, and the Targums^ and with Jewish thought 
about the Serpent as being the author of man's fall. As the 
first Serpent and the first Adam brought sin, so a second 
Serpent and a second Adam must take away sin. The first 
Serpent was the passion for pleasure and self; the second 
Serpent is to be the passion for kindness and the love of 
others. Thus interpreted, these difficult words teach one of 
the deepest of all truths, that men will never be really- 
reformed on the lines of mere law or on the lines of mere 
asceticism. Never will a human being be reshaped from 
without, as by a sculptor's hand. He must grow from a 
germ of life within, his heart going up, and his desires going 
up with it, out of himself, into a new Man, a second Adam, 
the Man from heaven. 

[1496] Here, according to the best interpretation, the 
Dialogue ends ; and the Evangelist proceeds with a comment 
of his own. Comparing Christ's first utterance about belief 
(to Nathanael) with this. His second utterance (to Nicodemus), 
we find Him in the former promising Nathanael a vision of 
" greater things," but here implying that Nicodemus and his 
friends would fail to believe "the heavenly things." But in 
neither case does the Lord define "belief" Only by the 
allusion to the Brazen Serpent, along with the mention of 
regeneration by the Spirit, we are led to ask what is 
meant by " believing," and what are to be its processes and 
objects. 

[1497] The passage that follows has been taken by many 
as a part of Christ's own utterance ; but it contains ex- 
pressions ("only begotten Son," "believe in the name of," 
"do truth") used elsewhere by the Evangelist and not used 

1 [1495 «] See Philo i. 79, 82, 315, Barn. xii. 7, Targ. on Numb. xxi. 
6 — 9 — all full of interest, but not possible to discuss here. This is our 
Lord's first mention of '-'• life'" in this Gospel. Comp. Numb. xxi. 9 
" when he looked unto the serpent of brass he lived.^^ 



43 



[1498] "BELIEVING" 



elsewhere by our Lord ; it speaks of Redemption in the 
past tense as an EvangeHst would speak after Christ's death ; 
and the tone of the passage is like that of other Evangelistic 
comments in this Gospels It answers' the question " To what 
are we to trust?" suggested by the words, "in order that 
he that trusteth may in him have eternal life." 

[1498] iii. i6— 18 "For God so loved the world that 
he gave his only begotten Son that everyone that trusteth to 
him might not perish but might have eternal life...//^ that 
trusteth to him is not under judgment (ou Kpiverai). He 
that trusteth not is already judged [guilty] because he hath 
not trusted to the name of the 07ily begotten Son of God'^T 
The comment of Barnabas on the healing efficacy of the 
Serpent may be of use here : " When any of you shall be 
bitten (saith the Scripture) let him come to the Serpent that 
is hanging on the tree and let him hope and believe that it, 
though dead, is able to make alive and straightway he shall 
be saved {i.e. healed)^" This is a very rudimentary and 
erroneous definition of "trusting": but it helps us to under- 
stand why John does not attempt to define, and prefers to 
suggest. And his suggestion here is that we are to trust — 
not in a " dead " person or " thing," nor that a person or thing 
can " make alive," but — to {eU) an " only begotten Son," who 
will make us alive (as will be shewn hereafter) not in spite 
of the fact that He has died, but because He has died (as the 
seed dies to live and to give life). 

1 [1497 d\ These arguments are alleged by Westcott for the conclusion 
that iii. i6 — 21 is "a commentary on the nature of the mission of the 
Son." To these may be added (2066) the frequent use of -^ap. Also 
6 ^6os (nom.) — which occurs here in iii. 16, 17 — is very rarely used by our 
Lord as compared with 6 Ilari^p, but in the Epistle it occurs about 12 times. 

2 Comp. I Jn iv. 9 " Herein was the love of God manifested in us that 
God hath sent his only begotten Son into the world that we might live 
through him." 

^ Barn. xii. 7 cX^cVo) eVi rov o(f)iv...Ka\ eXTrio-drco iriarTevcras otl avros &)v 
veKpos dvvarai ^(ooTroirja-ai <a.\ irapaxprjyi-a a-aOrjo-eTai. 

44 



''BELIEVING" [1501] 



[1499] The metaphors for describing this giving of eternal 
life through the uplifted Son of man upon the Cross are 
various. Life may be regarded negatively as deliverance 
from sin. In that aspect, our burden of sin may be described 
as falling from our shoulders as we kneel before the Cross, 
■or as taken from us and nailed to it with the Crucified One. 
But John probably looks at life positively, as a union with 
Christ, who, when we look to Him with the eye of faith, 
draws us to, or into, Himself, or passes into us that we may 
pass into Him. 

[1500] Greek philosophers, as we have seen, condemned 
Christian faith as irrational ; and in modern times some might 
liken it to that " fancy," or imaginative love, which is " en- 
gendered in the eye." Probably John would have accepted 
this comparison, only asking us to remember what the eye 
of the soul is and what is the object of the soul's vision. 
He would have admitted that no man can come to the 
Father unless he is, so to speak, " enamoured " with — or as 
Jesus said, "drawn by" — the ideal Sonship. No water can 
suffice to cleanse away sin. The pure fire, and passion, of 
the Spirit can alone drive out the impure fires and passions 
of the flesh. 

§ 14. After the Baptist's last words 

[1501] iii. 36 " He that trusteth to the Son hath eternal 
life ; but he that refuseth to obey the Son shall not see life, 
but the wrath of God abideth on him." This is part of a 
comment by the Evangelist on the last words of the Baptist 
" He must increase but I must decrease " ; and it shews why, 
even as compared with the greatest of prophets, the Son 
" must increase " while their claims on humanity decrease, 
because, while they represent God's messages, He represents 
God's Fatherhood, " Refuseth to obey," or " rebelleth," is 
closer than R.V. ("obeyeth not {marg. believeth not)") to 

45 



[1502] "BELIEVING" 



the Biblical use of direidelv, which denotes stubborn dis- 
obedience to, or rebellion against, parents, or God, or obvious 
truths 

[1502] Here, then, ''trusting to'' is indirectly defined, 
by being contrasted with '' i^ebelling against'' \ and thus the 
notion of " loyalty to," " allegiance to," is connected with 
the former. The words are parallel to the above quoted 
Evangelistic comment (iii. i8) "He that trusteth not [to the 
Son] is ah'eady judged',' where the meaning was " is already 
condemned." This is now more emphatically expressed : 
" the wrath of God remains permanently on him." The 
Evangelist has in view a " rebel " answering to the appeal 
of the Gospel of God, " I will not believe that thou art my 
Father," to which the reply must be, " Then thou dost thyself 
make me remain thy Judge." 

§ 15. In Samaria 

[1503] iv. 21 " Trust me {iriarevk fiov) woman, that the 
hour Cometh when neither in this mountain nor in Jerusalem 
shall ye worship the Father." 

iv. 39 — 42 " Now from that city many trusted to him, 
[many, I mean] of the Samaritans, on account of the word 
of the woman, when she testified, ' He told me all that ever 
I did'... (40) and he abode there two days and many more 
trusted because of his [own] word, and they said to the 
woman, * No longer on account of thy speaking do we trust. 
For we ourselves have heard and know that this is truly the 
Saviour of the world." 

[1504] The second of these passages may be conveniently 
taken first, because its motive is clear, namely, to emphasize 



1 [1501^] See Rom. x. 21 quoting Is. Ixv. 2 and Rom. ii. 8 ''rebel 
agaitist the truth." The adj. occurs in Rom. i. 30, 2 Tim. iii. 2, " rebellious 
against parents," also in Lk. i. 17, Acts xxvi. 19, Tit. i. 16, iii. 3. The 
verb occurs nowhere in the Gospels except here. 

46 



"BELIEVING" [1504] 



the importance oi personal trust in Christ. But the statement 
is not quite consistent. For let us suppose that fifty (" many") 
" believed on account of the word of the woman," and that a 
hundred and fifty ("many more") "believed on account of 
his {i.e. Christ's) word." How could the hundred and fifty 
say to the woman " no longer do we believe on account of thy 
speaking^"? The Diatessaron and SS try to meet the difficulty 
by dropping " more " (" many believed because of his word "). 
Codex e has ''much more (multo amplius) did they believe 
because of his word." This makes admirable sense ; but it is 
unfortunately not supported by other authority^ And, had 
it been the original, why should it have been altered ? Pro- 
bably the text is correct and the meaning, though not logically 
expressed, is this : " Some (say, fifty) believed because of the 
woman's word ; but many more (say, a hundred) believed for 
the first time, or {as regards the fifty) had their belief 
strengthened, because of Christ's word : and all these came to 
the woman saying, ' The beginning of our belief came from 
you : but now we have heard Him for ourselves and we 
believe because of His word^'.'" 



1 [1504 a\ Even supposing that fifty of the hundred and fifty had first 
believed "on account of the word of the woman" and were now 
strengthened in their belief "on account of Christ's word," yet the 
fact would remain that a hundred had never owed their belief to the 
woman, and could not use such language to her. 

2 [1504 <^] Codex e seems to have read nAeiONeniCTeycAN. This 
could easily arise from nAeioNeceniCTeycAN : and ifKeiovcs and TrXeiovs 
are found as v.r. in Acts xxvii. I2, i Cor. xv. 6. Elsewhere in N.T. 
TrXeioi/es (nom.) is found of persons four times (Acts xxvii. I2, xxviii. 23, 
I Cor. XV. 6, Heb. vii. 23) and -n-Xeiovs (nom.) thrice (Acts xix. 32, xxiii. 13, 
21). Both Origen and Heracleon read "many more" (Huet ii. 244, 248). 

3 [1504 £:] Heracleon (according to Origen, Huet ii. 248 b) wished to 
supply yiovrjv after \a\tdv ("No longer do we believe because of thy 
speaking alone "). This, however, taken strictly, would indicate that he 
regarded all the speakers as being originally indebted to the woman for 
their faith. 

[1504^] Origen says (Huet ii. 245 e) 'H /xev ovv dpxrj tS>v dnb ttjs 

A.V. 47 5 



[1505] '^ BELIEVING" 



[1505] We are not obliged to suppose that the Samaritans 
first described as having " trusted to " the Lord received this 
faith, before seeing and hearing Him, on the mere report of 
the woman. The " fifty " may have been so far prepared by 
the woman to believe that, as soon as they entered His 
presence, they actually and genuinely believed in Him, but 
with a rudimentary belief. The Evangelist appears to recog- 
nise a lower and a higher faith, even while describing the 
lower by the phrase hitherto applied to the faith of the 
disciples and true believers (" trusting to hint "). Thus a new 
shade of distinction is introduced, belief varying according to 
what the Greeks call the hui ri, or " Why?'' In the former 
case, the answer to the Why ? is " Because of the word of the 
woman"; in the latter, "because of His word." 

[1506] Let us now return to our Lord's own saying about 
" belief," or '* trust," early in the story. Under ordinary cir- 
cumstances, and in an ordinary speaker, we might suppose 

the words " Trust me, woman, that the hour cometh ," to 

have been merely an asseveration meaning " I assure you that 
it is so." But we must have regard to the fact that this is 
an utterance of Christ, the third passage in which He mentions 
"trusting"; and the Gospel has hitherto appeared to be 
carrying us from stage to stage in the development of a 
doctrine about "trusting." We have also to consider the 
conclusion of the narrative, and the way in which it seems to 
point a moral about " trusting " and different kinds of " trust." 
The result should convince us that we are bound to try first 
of all to make sense of our Lord's words in their literal and 



^afiapeias 7ri(TT€v6vT(Ov rjv iroXXwv Xoyos 6 r. y^^^'-'^os iiapTvpov(rr)S...r) §e 
av^r)cns koi 7rXr)dv(rfi6s tojv ttoXXw TrXeiovcov TTiareuovTOiv ovk4ti 8ia top 
\6yov T. yvvaiKos ak\a dia top Xoyov avrov, where, for rjv ttoXXcoi/, we should 
perh. read twv ttoXXoov contrasted with rav ttoXXw TrXeidi/cDi/. Origen's 
antithesis "The begm?iing,..h\i\. the increase and multiplication^^ may be 
intended to convey a suggestion that the increase extended to the ^''belief^^ 
and not only to the Jiu?nber of those '■^believing." 



48 



BELIEVING" [1507] 



weighty meaning by taking them as a precept, " Trust me." 
Taken thus, they call on the woman (to whom afterwards He 
vouchsafes the unique revelation of His Messianic nature) to 
" trust Him " that the House of Worship is not Jerusalem 
or Gerizim but Spirit and Truth. These,' He says in effect, 
are the true Temple. 

[1507] The Evangelist has already described Him as 
meaning " the Temple " when He mentions Himself ^ So, 
here, the incarnate Temple of God is described as taking 
compassion on this poor Samaritan woman — who, amidst all 
her temptations of the flesh, has this additional peril, namely, 
that her idea of God is a Person much quarrelled about by 
learned Jewish and Samaritan Rabbis — and He asks her^ to 
"trust" Him, when He assures her that prayer is not a 

1 ii. 21 "He was saying [this] (2469) concerning the temple of his 
body," better perhaps "meant this to refer to the temple etc." 

' 2 [1507 <2] He does not speak as one commanding (aorist, 7riaTevcrov)y 
but rather as one requesting (pres. Trla-reve). In this Gospel, Christ never 
uses the authoritative imperative of this verb. Neither does Mk v. 36 
" Fear not, only believe {Trio-reve)." But the parall. Lk. viii. 50 has rriaTeva-ov : 
and so has Acts xvi. 31. Some Christians abused it, according to Celsus 
(Origen, Ce/s. 1. 9) ^rja-l 84 nvas fxrjde ^ovXofxevovs didovai fj Xafx^dveiv \6yov 
TTcpl hv TTio-Tevovai, XPW^^'' '^<? " M'7 ^^^^o-C^ aXKa iri(TT€V(TOv kol rj iriaris (rov 
o-cbo-ct ere" (printed by Dindorf as two sayings, the second being, "Thy 
faith will save thee"). 

[1507 d] The aorist imper. occurs, however, in Soph. Oed. J^. 646 Trpos- 
6eb)v...iTi(rr€V(rov rdde, where it seems to imply the urgency of entreaty 
rather than authoritative command. In Eurip. He/. 710 \6yots 8' ipolcri 
Trio-Tevaov rdde, it is authoritative. In these, and in two other instances 
quoted by Steph., tt. is connected with a neut. accus. Herodian viii. 3. 22 
TO di napdho^ov rrjs aTro^daecos Troiei irdwa Trto-revo-ai, AristOt. Prior. 
Analyt. ii. 23 IlicrTevopev yap airavra rj did cruXXoytcr/Moi) rj 81 € n ay coy rjs. 
Comp. Habak. i. 5 epyov iyco ipyd^opai...o ov p.r) TTLO-TfvaijTe, where the 
antecedent of o is prob. "the doing of the deed," not "the deed": 
but Acts xiii. 41 quoting this repeats epyov before o. In N.T. this neut. 
accus. occurs thrice, Jn xi. 26 iricrTeveis tovto, 1 Cor. xi. 18 fiepos n 
TTio-retla), xiii. 7 irdvra Triarevet. It is probably of a semi-adverbial 
character like Eurip. Or. 1103 yvvai^l Triarevco ^paxv. Steph. gives no 
instance of a non-neuter accus. with iria-nvu). 

49 5—2 



[1508] " BELIEVING 



sectarian or provincial business. Nathanael had been gently 
reproached by the Lord for " trusting " before he had seen the 
" greater things " ; Nicodemus had been warned that " he that 
trusteth " must look upward to the Son of man " lifted up " in 
order that he " might have in him eternal life " ; now the 
woman of Samaria is bidden to " trust Him!' in the assurance 
that worship (which is the "looking upward" of the heart) 
will be effectual wherever it is offered " in spirit and truth." 
This cosmopolitan subordination of local worship ("Jerusalem," 
" Gerizim ") prepares the way for the sublime confession at 
the end of the story — based, not upon faith but upon know- 
ledge, and not on seeing but on hearing — "We have heard 
him ourselves and know that this is indeed the Saviour of 
the Worldr 

§ 1 6. The nobleman's ''believing'' 

[1508] iv. 48 " Except ye see signs and wonders ye will 
assuredly not believe {ov fir) 7ria-T€var)T6)\" Compare this with 
iv. 50 " Go thy way, thy son liveth. The man believed the 
word that Jesus had spokenl' from which it appears that he 
did " believe," in some sense, before he had seen any " signs 
and wonders." It follows that we must take the words 
" ye will assuredly not " like similar words in xviii. 11 ("I am 
assuredly not to drink it!" (933—6, 1007)) and like many 
other exclamations. of Jesus, as being of a semi-interrogative 
nature (2236). The utterance, though addressed to the 
nobleman, is not about the nobleman alone. The pronoun 
is not " thou" but "j^," and the full meaning of this condensed 
sentence might be paraphrased in modern English thus : " I 
know the ways of your class, the Herodians, the courtiers, the 
men of the world. None of you, as a rule, will believe without 
seeing signs and wonders ! Is it to be so with you also 1 " 
It is exclamatory as regards the class but interrogative as 
regards the individual. 

50 



"BELIEVING" [1510] 



[1509] At the same time the Evangelist takes pains to 
shew that the man passes through stages of belief. He 
"believed/' in some sense, at once: but he merely believed 
" the word that Jesus had spoken," namely, " thy son liveth." 
Afterwards, when he ascertained that his son had actually 
recovered in the hour of this utterance, then (iv. 53) '''he 
believed — he himself and his household." What he now 
"believed" we are not told. But we are led to infer (i) that 
it was a belief, or trust, "in," or "to" Jesus Himself, (2) that 
it was, even now, not a perfect belief, for it had been caused 
in part by a "sign and wonder." We perceive in this 
narrative — which contains the fourth utterance of Jesus 
about " trusting " or " believing " — a recognition of two facts : 
first, that a certain class of people will not " trust " without 
"signs and wonders," and, secondly, that the Lord, while 
sometimes working such "signs," endeavours to raise them 
to a trust that is above " signs V 

§ 17. ''Believing'' the testimony of the Father 

[1510] Hitherto, except in the Dialogue with the Sa- 
maritan Woman ("trust me") our Lord has never mentioned 
the object of trust. Now, it is brought before the reader 
in the course of a controversy with the Jews arising from an 
act of healing on the sabbath. Jesus asserts that He " sees " 
His Father performing such acts as these, that He, the Son, 
does them because the Father, who has sent Him, has given 



1 [1509 «] The Nobleman in Jn is, in some respects, parallel to the 
father of the " lunatic " in Mk. The former, when he hears the words " ye 
will not believe," does not deny the weakness of his belief but says, in 
effect, "Come down at all events and do what you can for my child before 
it is too late." This is not unlike the father's ^'- If thou canst,^' in Mk. Only, 
in Mk, the father frankly avowed the mixed nature of his feeling "I beheve, 
help thou mine unbelief." All this beautiful tradition of Mk's is left out 
by Mt. and Lk. Jn gives something corresponding to it. 

51 



[1511] "BELIEVING" 



them to Him to do, and that they are His Father's " testi- 
mony " : (v. 24 — 47) " He that heareth my word and trusteth 
him (dat.) that se?it me hath eternal life and cometh not into 
judgment, but hath passed out of death into life.... (38) and 
ye have not his word (or. Logos) abiding in you, because 
whom he sent, him (dat.) j^^ trust not.... (44) How can ye 
trust (Trcareva-ai), receiving glory from one another and the 
glory that is from the only God ye seek not!.... (46) If ye 
trusted Moses (dat.), ye would trust me (dat.), for he wrote 
concerning me. But if ye trust not his writings (dat.) how 
will ye trust my words (dat.) ? " 

[1511] Here, "trust" means ''believe tJie testimony of I' 
and it is implied that if the Jews had thus trusted Moses, 
they would have trusted the Son, and if they had trusted 
the Son they would have trusted the Father. And con- 
cerning this last " trust " it is said that the man possessing 
it "hath eternal life." The section is mainly of a negative 
character. Even the strong phrase "hath eternal life" is 
followed by the negative "cometh not into judgment" ; and 
life is regarded as being in its commencement (" hath passed 
out of death into life"). The context teaches that those 
who do not possess within their hearts, in any degree, the 
Word or Logos of God, having no affinity with the law of 
moral harmony and order, cannot revolve about His " glory," 
but make their own " glory " the centre of their actions. 
Having broken loose from the attractive force of God's over- 
ruling and universal Fatherhood, they no longer look to Him, 
or trust Him, as Father, but look always to themselves. 

§ 18. After the Feeding of the Five Thousand 

[1512] The Feeding of the Five Thousand is almost 
expressly said by our Lord to have failed in producing 
"trust" even in the hearts of those who received the bread- 
" Ye seek me," He says to them, " not because ye saw signs 

52 



"BELIEVING" [1513] 

but because ye ate of the loaves and were filled. Work not 
[for] the food that perisheth but for the food that abideth 
unto life eternal.... This is the work of God that ye trust ^ 
to him whom God [hath] sent.... The bread (or, loaf) of God 
is the One^ that cometh down from heaven and giveth life 
to the world... I am the bread of life. He that cometh to 
me shall surely not hunger and he that trusteth to me shall 
surely not thirst at any time. But I [have] said to you that 
ye have both {icai) seen [? me]^ and do not trusts 

[1513] These words of Christ, and those of the Jews 
which are interspersed between them, present great difficulty 
because of the apparent blending of the literal and the 
spiritual. In particular, the last sentence has perplexed com- 
mentators because Jesus is nowhere recorded to have said 
"ye have both seen me and do not trust." But the words 
may be intended to sum up all that Jesus has just said, 
thus : " Your notion of the Bread of Life is greedy enjoyment ; 
but the true Bread is trust in God. You say, ' How must we 
work the works of God?' : I reply, 'The one work of God is 
to trust to his Messenger' You say, 'What doest thou 
(TToteZ?), or workest thou (ipyd^r)), that we may see and 
trust thee^ }' and you point to the Manna as being ' bread 
from heaven ' : I reply, ' The Manna was not the Bread from 
Heaven. That is a thing of the past. But the true Bread 
is now being offered to you, every day and every hour, by 



1 vi. 29 Lva 7ri(TT€vr)T€. On the distinction between this and 
7ri(TT€v(rT)T€, See 2524 — 5. 

2 [1512 a] vi. 33 6 yap apros r. Oeov ea-rlv 6 Kara/SatVcoi/, where 6 Kara^aivcov 
is taken by the Jews as meaning " the dread (or, loaf) that cometh down," 
but it may mean " the man that cometh down." " One " is an attempt to 
represent this ambiguity. 

3 [1512^] vi. 36. W. H. bracket pe, which is omitted by SS, as well as 
AK and most Latin MSS. But its difficulty explains (without justifying) 
its omission; and there is no satisfactory way of explaining how it could 
be erroneously inserted. 

* vi. 30 (dative), but Jesus had used (vi. 29) the preposition " to." 

53 



[1514] "BELIEVING" 



the Father. The Bread is not anything that I 'do (iroico) 
or work (ipyd^ofjLac).' It is I myself. I am the Bread. You 
ask for a sign that you may 'see and believe.' Voii have 
seen me, and I have been telling you this, and yet you do not 
believe^! " 

[1514] If that is the meaning, Jesus is reproaching the 
Jews for not seeing the divine facts of human life, somewhat 
as Epictetus reproaches cultured Greeks for denying the 
existence of Demeter at the very moment when they were 
eating bread I According to Johannine doctrine, the Bread 
of Life is not to be sought above the clouds but wherever 
we see good men and women, who diffuse peace and 
trust around them. Jesus was the incarnation of such 
goodness. 

[1515] An underground stream of Jewish thought, coming 
to the surface in Mark's Gospel but not in Matthew's and 
Luke's, is possibly reappearing here — a tradition about the 
spontaneousness of God's kindnesses and about the calm and 
trustful spirit in which they are to be received. Mark says 
that the Kingdom is like a man that sows seed "and sleeps 
and rises night and day" and the seed grows "he knows 
not how," and "the earth of itself'^ bringeth forth fruit." 
This tradition about God's giving to me7i in their sleep appears 
in the Psalmist's contrast between worrying drudgery and 
trustful work, " Except the Lord build the house, they labour 
but in vain that build it; except the Lord keep the city, 
the watchman waketh but in vain. It is vain for you that 
ye rise up early, and so late take rest and eat the bread of 



1 vi. 26 — 36. ^ Epict. ii. 20. 32. 

3 [1515 «] Mk iv. 28 avToixdrr], SO Philo, on Isaac (the self-taught, 
avTO^aOrjs) i. 57 1 — 2 ecrri Se kol rpiros opos rov avrofiadovs to dvajSaivov 
avTOfiarov (that which cometh up of itself). Comp. also Clem. Rom. 
22 — 3, on "the faith that is in Christ," in connexion with trustful 
acceptance of God's mercies ending with words that (Lightf.) " strongly 
resemble Mk iv. 26 sq." 



54 



"BELIEVING" [1517] 



anxiety. He giveth unto his beloved in sleep as {abundantly 
as to j/ouy." 

[1516] So here, Christ's principal saying appears to be 
a protest against that faithless kind of work which might be 
called " dead works," the craving for which might lead some 
to accumulate not only purifications but even almsgivings, 
not from love for man but from faithless dread of God. 
In answer to the question put by the Jews, "What are we 
to do that we may work the works of God?" Jesus replies 
in effect, ^^ Do, in the first instance, nothing — nothing, at 
least, that you would call ^ doing! Simply trust to God's 
Messenger." 

[1517] As regards the metaphor implied in " trusting 
to" we observe that it occurs in different contexts that may 
imply different shades of meaning. " He that cometh to me 
shall surely not hunger and he that trusteth to me shall surely 
not thirst at any time^ " implies approach to. " This is the will 
of my Father that every one that beholdeth the Son and 
trusteth to him should have eternal life^ " implies looking to. 
But does not this " beholding " correspond to " beholding the 
Serpent lifted up in the Wilderness"? And, if so, does it 
not mean that kind of " looking to " Jesus on the Cross which 
draws the sinner to, or into Jesus, so that he can exclaim 
with the Apostle, "I have been crucified with Christ^"? 

1 [1515 b'l Ps. cxxvii. I — 2. On " in sleep," see Gesen. 446 a\ "as abun- 
dantly" Gesen. 486 <«. For the latter, Targ. has "convenienter et recte," 
but it takes " sleep " as the object (as A.V. and R.V. txt). The Targ. also 
takes " bread of cutting cares " as " the bread of the miserable for which 
they have toiled," thus " In vain will ye labour for yourselves, ye that rise 
up early to practise robbery for yourselves, ye that delay and sit quiet to 
perpetrate crime, devouring the bread of the miserable for which they have 
toiled." The first verse of the next Psalm (cxxviii. i) appears to paint the 
opposite picture of trustful toil. " Blessed is every one that feareth 
{i.e. reverences) the Lord, that walketh in his ways. For thou shalt eat 
the labour of thine hands and happy shalt thou be." 

2 vi. 35. ^ vi. 40. 
* Gal. ii. 20, comp. Rom. vi. 6. 

55 



[1518] "BELIEVING" 



The Evangelist himself suggests this in the context ; for 
he adds (as words of Christ) " No man is able to come unto 
me except the Father draw him," and, later on, " I, if I be 
lifted up, will draw all men unto me\" 

[1518] Another aspect of the spiritual union expressed 
by saying that men are " drawn " towards Christ may be 
described by saying that Christ is taken into men as their 
food. Accordingly, this Dialogue goes on to speak first of 
"trusting to" the Son, and then of "eating the flesh of" 
the Son, as implying the possession of eternal life^ 

[1519] The conclusion of the section dissipates any 
literalistic impressions that might be derived from these 
intense verbal efforts to represent invisible truths so as to 
force upon us their reality. The disciples are warned by our 
Lord that " It is the spirit that giveth life, the flesh profiteth 
nothing: the words that I have spoken to you, [these] are 
spirit and [these] are life^"; and Peter bases his allegiance 
to the Lord, and his confession at the close of the narrative, 
not on the miracle of the loaves and fishes, but on Christ's 
words : " Lord, to whom shall we go } Thou hast words 
of eternal life^r Similarly the Samaritans said, " We have 
heard [him] and know that this is of a truth the Saviour 
of the world." And Peter, moved by the "words," now 
says, " We trust completely {TreincrTevKaiJbev) (2442) and know 
that thou art the Holy One of God^" 



§ 19. "Not believing'' 

[1520] Hitherto the Evangelist has made no mention, 
in his own person, of any actual refusal to believe, or " not 

1 vi. 44, xii. 32. 

2 [1518 rt] Comp. vi. 47 "He that trusteth hath eternal life" (where eiV 
i\ii though rightly omitted by W. H. from txt has to be supplied, in 
thought, from the preceding words), and vi. 54 "He that eateth my flesh 
...hath eternal life." 

3 vi. 63. 4 vi. 68. ^ vi. 69, see 1629. 

56 



BELIEVING " [1521] 



believing^" But now, after the "scandal" created by the 
Doctrine of Bread, when many of the Lord's disciples deserted 
Him, John tells us that (vii. 5) " Not even his own brethren 
were disposed to trust (or, were \thefi\ trusting) to him (2466)." 
And at the end of the chapter the chief priests and Pharisees 
ask triumphantly (vii. 48) " Has any one of the rulers trusted 
to him, or [any one] of the Pharisees ? " This implies a general 
" not believing," and Nicodemus, " one of the rulers," who is 
present, does not say anything to the contrary. 

[1521] On the other hand, it is said that " many of the 
multitude trusted to him," alleging the number of His signs^ 
— according to which standard Elisha would be called twice 
as great a prophet as Elijah, since he worked fourteen signs 
to his Master's seven ! There can be little doubt that the 
Evangelist does not intend his readers to magnify this kind 
of "belief," or "trust." It is divided by an immense interval 
— this arithmetical belief — from that genuine spiritual de- 
pendence on the Messiah implied in our Lord's words 
following not long afterwards (vii. 37 — 8) " If any man thirst, 
let him come unto me and drink. He that trusteth to me,... 
rivers shall flow from his belly, [rivers] of living water." 
This carries His doctrine a stage beyond the previous an- 
nouncement, "//"(? that trusteth to me shall surely never 
thirst " : for it implies that the believer will satisfy not only 
his own thirst but also that of others. The faithful convert 
will convert others to faith l 



1 [1520 rt] It has occurred, but only in Christ's words e.g. iii. 12, v. 38 
etc. : but there is an approximation to an Evangelical statement in vi. 64 
"He knew... who they were that did not believe." 

2 vii. 31 "The Messiah, when he shall come, will he do more signs 
than this [man] hath done ? " 

3 [1521^] In vii. 39, the aorist participle probably includes future 
believers (2499), who were destined to receive the Spirit after having 
"trusted to him." 



57 



[1522] "BELIEVING" 



§ 20. " Believing witnesses " 

[1522] A large part of the next chapter (viii. i — 46) 
treats of "trusting" as illustrated by the Law about ''two 
witnesses!' The Father and the Son are declared to testify 
conjointly^ Apparently the meaning is that Christ's words 
and acts of healing, by diffusing physical as well as spiritual 
health among men, testify that they are in accordance with 
the Laws of Nature, or in other words, with the words of God 
the Father. In this chapter, the dative is twice used by our 
Lord, because the meaning is " trust the evidence of" a witness, 
and because He speaks negatively, blaming the Jews because 
they will not even trust Him as a witness, much less trust 
to Him as their Deliverer^, He also once uses (again with 
a negative) the phrase "trust that'^ as follows (viii. 24) 
" Except ye trust that I AM [HE], ye shall die in your sins." 
This is discussed elsewhere (2223), and an attempt is made 
to shew that it means, unless ye trust in God's purpose to 
make Man one with Himself 

[1523] Another passage, not in Christ's words but in 
narrative, distinguishes between ( i ) " many," who " trusted to 
him," and (2) "those who had trusted him, [being] Jews^" 
The latter are described as shortly afterwards becoming 
Christ's bitter opponents, then as "liars," and as "children 
of the devil." This is one of the most cogent of many 
passages indicating that John sometimes denotes great differ- 
ences of meaning by slight differences of word, and that he 
takes pains to shew that the word " believe " might represent 
a transient emotion, or might have a non-moral significance. 



1 viii. 18. 

^ viii. 45 — 6 {bis) ov iricmv^rk fioi. 

^ viii. 30 — I TToXXoi i IT la-rev a- av els avrov... rovs Trenia-TevKOTas ovtm 
^lovdaiovs. On this, see 2506. 

58 



BELIEVING" [1525] 



§ 21. After the Healing of the Blind Man 

[1524] A new phase of " trusting " is introduced by our 
Lord when He says to the blind man, whom He has healed, 
ix. 35 " Thou [at all events] dost trust to (av Trto-reuet? et?) 
the Son of man^?'^ To Nathanael, stimulating him to a 
higher trust, Jesus had said that he should see "the angels 
ascending and descending on the Son of man." He had 
also said to Nicodemus, " The Son of man must be lifted 
up that every one that trusteth may in him have eternal 
life^" — which implied some connexion between "trusting" 
and the Son of man : but Jesus had never, up to this time, 
expressly connected " trust " and " the Son of man," as He 
does here. 

[1525] The phrase seems to denote a trust in, so to speak, 
the humanity of God, a trust in Man with all his physical 
and intellectual imperfections ^ as being a revelation of God 
superior to the revelation of Him contained in the heavens. 
The blind man has been battling for his Healer against the 
logic and brow-beating of the Sanhedrin, and has been cast 
out of the Synagogue. Now he receives his reward. The 
Saviour, finding him, does not say to him as to the impotent 
man of Bethesda, " Sin no more," but " Thou [I am sure] 
dost trust to the Son of man." The sequel illustrates the 
Johannine conception of faith, and, it may be added, the 

1 [1524 «] On the reasons for taking this as a statement in inter- 
rogative tone, see 2242. It corresponds to the interrogative statement 
made to the nobleman iv. 48 " Ye will surely not believe " (1508). The 
meaning is, "Though all the rulers of Jerusalem refuse to believe, thou at 
all events, I am sure, dost believe." 

2 i. 51, iii. 14. 

2 [1525 a] Ps. viii. 3 — 5 "The Son of man," in John, is never "the Son 
of man " as conceived in Daniel seated on the clouds. It is rather the 
ideal of the Psalmist, as also the ideal suggested in Mk ii. 10 ("the Son 
of man hath authority upon earth to forgive sins ") and ii. 28 (" the Son of 
man is lord also of the Sabbath..."). 

59 



[1526] "BELIEVING" 



real nature of faith. The man does not even know the 
meaning of the phrase ; yet he has in his heart the conception 
of the Person, and is already, virtually, a believer, " Yea, and 
who is he, Lord, that I may trust to him ? " and then, " Lord, 
I do trust" 

[1526] As a contrast, the unbelief of the Jews is more 
and more emphasized. Far from " believing," in the Christian 
sense, because of the cure of blindness, they are confirmed 
in -their belief that the Healer is a " sinner^" Jesus, in 
Solomon's porch, makes one more appeal to them, asking 
for a lower kind of faith than He had hitherto mentioned. 
He does not now say "trust to me," nor "trust me'' but 
" trust works " (x. 37 — 8) : " If I am not doing the works 
of my Father, trust me not : but if I am doing [them], even 
if ye be not trusting me, trust the works" He seems to 
mean, " Only trust that the works are kind as well as 
wonderful. Only trust in their motive. Then you may go on 
from that to something higher." For, after " tricst the works" 
He adds, " that ye may recognise, and grow in the recognition 
(2511), that in me is the Father and I in the Father." 

[1527] This section concludes with the statement that 
Jesus, after the Jews had attempted to stone Him in the 
Temple, went away again beyond Jordan " and abode there " 
and "many trusted to him there-." The adverb "there" 
occurs seldom in John at the end of a sentence, and still more 
seldom at the end of a section. Possibly it is emphatic and 
is intended to contrast the safety of the Lord, and the 
multitude of believers, beyond Jordan, with the persecution 
and unbelief in Jerusalem^'. 

1 The only mention of " believing," in the Evangelist's words, at this 
stage, is (ix. 18) ''The Jews therefore did not believe concerning him that 
he had been blind and recovered sight until they called his parents...." 

- X. 40, 42. 

3 [1527 «] 'Efcet is certainly emphatic in Jn xi. 8 "Goest thou again 
there [of all places]?" meaning "the very place where they sought to 
stone thee." 

60 



BELIEVING" [1529] 



§ 22. The Raising of Lazarus 

[1528] " Trusting" is repeatedly mentioned in the Raising 
of Lazarus as, in part, the cause of the miracle, or of the 
manner in which it is performed. When our Lord prays 
aloud at the grave, He says (xi. 42) " For the sake of the 
multitude that standeth around I said [it] that they may 
trust that thou didst send me " ; and previously, to the 
disciples (xi. , 14 — 15) "Lazarus is dead, and I rejoice on 
account of you — in order that ye may trust — that I was not 
there." The latter passage is obscure (2099) : but it seems 
to include the meaning that the Lord's absence has been 
ordained in order that the belief of the disciples in Him may 
be strengthened by the sequel i.e. the Raising of Lazarus. 
Nevertheless, "in order that ye may trust" (aorist) is gram- 
matically remarkable if it means " that ye may grow in trust," 
or " that ye may continue to trust me." It would most 
naturally mean " that ye may become believers " ; but, in 
that sense, it could not be applied to those who were already 
Christ's most devoted disciples \ 

[1529] Difficulty is also presented by the contrast be- 
tween (i) the words uttered by our Lord to Martha and 
(2) what is commonly interpreted as His subsequent reference 
to them : 

(i) (xi. 23 — 6) "Thy brother shall rise again... I am the 
resurrection and the life. He that believeth in (eU) me, even 
though he die (or, be dead), shall live ; and every one that 
is living and believing in me shall assuredly never die. Thou 
believest this"- ? " 



1 For the difference between Trto-Tevarjre and iriarevr^Te, see 2524 — 5. 

2 [1529 rt] xi. 26 Tn<TT€V€is TovTo. On this construction, rare in N.T. 
see 1507^. It is a short way of saying, "Thou believest me as to this.?" 
"Believe" has advantages over "trust" in the rendering of this passage. 

61 



[1530] "BELIEVING 



(2) (xi. 40) " Said I not unto thee^ * If thou shalt believe 
('Ear TTLa-revo-rjf;) thou shalt see the glory of God ' ? " 

To the disciples our Lord had said that the sickness 
of Lazarus was to be for the glory of God and of the Son 
of God 2; but not to Martha. And there is nothing in 
Christ's first utterance to her to suggest that He is looking 
forward to any "rising" of Lazarus from the dead before 
that general "rising again" which He Himself mentions to 
her. Nor is there anything in it to indicate to Martha that 
her " believing " was to be a condition of her " seeing " her 
brother raised from the dead. On the contrary, the story 
shews that Martha was quite ready to believe that Jesus 
could have saved Lazarus from death, and could, even now 
that he was dead, restore him to life^ But any expectation 
of this kind would naturally be suppressed in her by Christ's 
mention of the " rising again " in general terms, applying to 
all believers^ 

[1530] But may He not have uttered these words to 
Martha on a previous occasion } Bearing in mind the saying 
of Jesus to Nathanael, " Thou shalt see greater things than 
these," we ought to find no difficulty in supposing that He 
uttered similar sayings to other converts. To Martha, there- 
fore, at some time before the Raising of Lazarus, perhaps at 

1 [1529 b'\ Or as W. H. (on idv) " that, if thou shalt believe, thou shalt 
see." But it is more in accordance with Johannine usage to print on 
*Eai/ as above. See on " recitativum (2189—90)." 

2 xi. 4 "This sickness is not unto death but for {virip) the glory of 
God in order that the Son of God may be glorified through it." 

3 xi. 21 — 2 "If thou hadst been here my brother had not died. Even 
now I know that whatsoever thou shalt ask God, God will give thee." 

* [1529^] xi. 23 — 4 "'Thy brother shall (or, will) rise again {dvaa-rri- 
a-erai)'...^ I know that he will rise again i7i the rising again {dvaa-Trjaerai iv 
TTJ dvaa-rdcrei) in the last day...'" The following words " I am l/ie rising 
again (ai/aoT-acrts) and the life. He that believeth in me shall Hve even if 
he be dead, and every one that liveth and believeth in me shall never die," 
seem expressly intended to include all "believers," and to exclude all 
expectation of a material or special revivification for her brother. 

62 



BELIEVING" [1532] 



her conversion, He may have said, " If thou shalt believe, 
thou shalt see the glory of GodV' no doubt in a spiritual 
sense — as Origen interprets the saying to Nathanael and the 
disciples^ — meaning that she should see the mysteries of the 
divine Love. But, in such a saying, " the glory of God " 
would include that particular "glory" which accrued to the 
Father in heaven from the signs worked by the Son on 
earth — a " glory " that the Pharisees did not discern because 
they did not " believe." 

[1531] Assuming the relation between Jesus and the 
family of Lazarus to be as John records it, we are con- 
fronted, in the death of Lazarus, with a crisis in the Christian 
Church — the first death in a family of "believers." Many 
years afterwards, the Thessalonians were startled by the 
death of a believer as being something disappointing and 
unsettling. They seem to have expected that the Lord 
would come from heaven and take all the saints up to His 
presence before death could touch them. How much more 
might the death of a friend of Jesus cause a chill to fall 
on the faith of some, in our Lord's lifetime, who " supposed 
that the kingdom of God was immediately to appear^" ! 

[1532] According to this view, Jesus, face to face with 
a threatening crisis for some of His dearest friends, is here 
strengthening the faith of one of them by referring to some 

1 [1530 <2] Comp. Mk iv. ii "To you is given the mystery of the 
kingdom of God" (where Mt.-Lk. have "to know the mysteries..."; and 
"to see the mystery" would make good sense) also Mk ix. i "There are 
some of those standing here that shall not taste of death till they see the 
kingdom of God having come in power" (Mt. xvi. 28 "the Son of man 
coming in his kingdom," Lk. ix. 27 simply " the kingdom of God "). 

^ [1530 b\ Orig. Cels. i. 48 tovto de to dvoi^dfjvai tovs ovpavovs TrpoKiyatv 
Tois ixaSrjTais 6 (rcoTrjp ecrofievov oyJAOfxevois avro... Kal ovtcos UavXos rjpTrdyrf (Is- 
rpirov ovpavbv Trporepov Idcov avrbv dvoixOevTa... "I do not suppose," he 
says {zd.\ "that the sensible heaven has been opened and its material 
frame {crcofxa) divided by opening in order that Ezekiel might record such 
a thing." 

3 Lk. xix. II. 

A. V. 63 6 

OP THE 

UNIVERSITY 

OF 



[1533] " BELIEVING " 



previous utterance to her, not recorded in the Gospel. Strange 
though this may seem, it is the explanation adopted by 
Westcott of words uttered by Jesus on another occasion, 
" But I said to you ' Ye have both seen [me] and did not 
believe^ ' " : and its adoption there is more difficult than here, 
because here there is some antecedent probability that our 
Lord would have made to Martha the same sort of promise 
that He made to Nathanael and others. 

[1533] Reviewing all the mentions of " believing " in the 
Raising of Lazarus, we are led to see some similarity between 
the attitude of Christ here and His attitude in the Synoptic 
Gospel when preparing for an act of healing where " belief," 
or " faith," cannot be expected from the person to be healed 
or revivified. The Synoptists describe our Lord as stimulating 
the faith of the parents, or as being moved by it to perform 
a cure (" Only believe," " ' If thou canst,' all things are possible 
to him that believeth," "O woman, great is thy faith^"): so, 
in the Johannine healing of the nobleman's son, the father 
is stimulated (1508) by the words "Ye will not believe'": 
and so, in this critical conflict, John describes the Lord as, 
so to speak, marking out the field of battle and strengthening 
the weakness of His friends and allies, that their faith may, 
in the order of the Father's purposes, enable the Son to 
perform the coming miracle. 

[1534] Even though we may be obliged to reject some 
of the details of the Raising of Lazarus as unhistorical, we 
may be able to accept the fact that our Lord did occasionally 
restore to life those who would ordinarily be described as 
"dead." And the first death among His disciples might well 
cause questioning to the Saviour. Was He to raise up the 
dead in this case ? If so, was He to do so afterwards in every 
case.? He might feel sure from the beginning, that the 



1 vi. 36. 2 Mk V. 36, Lk. viii. 50, Mk ix. 23, Mt. xv. 28. 

3 iv. 48. 



64 



BELIEVING" [1536] 



sickness of a particular sufferer was to be " for glory " and 
not " for death " : but whether the " glory " included deliver- 
ance from physical death, might not be revealed to Him at 
first ; and the strain on the faith of His disciples and friends 
might profoundly affect Him, even at the very time when 
He taught Martha that the Son of Man Himself, in His unity 
with the Father, was "the Rising Again and the Life^" — 
and that no man, once joined to the Father through the Son, 
could ever die. 

[1535] The sudden departure of Martha from Jesus, 
after her profession of faith in Him 2, may be supposed to 
have prevented her from receiving any of those suggestions 
(of a miraculous revivification) which had been thrown out 
by Him to the disciples. And they are no more than 
suggestions. Jesus says, at first, " I go to wake him," and 
is understood literally : but afterwards " He said plainly, 
Lazarus is dead," and makes no mention of any purpose to 
raise him from the dead. Without much straining of the 
narrative, we may suppose that our Lord did not receive 
the full revelation of the divinely purposed rising again of 
Lazarus till He stood near the grave, with His disciples and 
Martha and Mary, all believing in Him, and all prepared to 
believe in Him — whatever He might do or not do. 

[1536] Whatever uncertainty may attend the traditions 
concerning " believing " in connexion with Martha, the 
Evangelist leaves us under no doubt as to the effect of 
the miracle on the " believing " of the Jews and as to its 
general consequence : " Those that came to Mary believed 
in him " ; but the chief priests and Pharisees said (xi. 48... 53) 
" If we let him [continue] thus, all will believe in him, and 
the Romans will come and take away our [holy] place and 



^ The same word is practically repeated in "Thy brother shall rise 
again^^ and "I am the rising again^^ (xi. 23, 25). 
2 xi. 28 "Having said this she went away." 



65 6—2 



[1537] "BELIEVING" 



our nation... From that day therefore they took counsel to 
kill him." Thus, like all the public signs of Jesus, the sign 
of the Raising of Lazarus produces a mingled harvest, tares 
and wheat, belief and unbelief. Or, to take the metaphor 
preferred by John, the increasing light produces in some souls 
a shadow of increasing darkness. 

§ 23. ''Believing in the light'' 

[1537] In the next chapter the darkness just mentioned 
is described as becoming darker than ever — and this, as an 
indirect consequence of " believing." That the chief priests 
should " take counsel for " the death of Jesus, dealing with 
Him as a magician, was at all events from their point of view 
not an immoral act ; but now they purpose the death of a 
man against whom they bring no charge (xii. ii): "They 
took counsel to kill Lazarus also, because, on his account, 
many of the ]qv^s... began to believe in {iirlarevov el^) Jesus^y 

[1538] Perhaps the imperfect tense (" they began to 
believe ") and the fact that these ''Jews " did not believe in 
Jesus on account of Himself but '' 07i account of Lazarus,'' 
and the emphasis laid by the Evangelist on the great part 
played by the " sign " in winning for Jesus a welcome from 
"the multitude," are all intended to prepare the reader for 
finding that this "belief" will speedily end in nothing; and 
that more real importance is to be attached to the quiet 
approach of the Greeks to our Lord, through the mediation 
of Philip, " Sir, we would see Jesus^." At all events " the 
multitude" is soon afterwards mentioned — for the last time 
in the Gospel — as taking the Voice of the Father from 
Heaven to be thunder, or, at best, the voice of an angel ; 
and their last words to the Son of man, — who had lived and 

^ Or, " believed from time to time," i.e. now some, now others. But 
"began to believe," or "were disposed to believe," is more probable. 
2 xii. 20 — 21. 

66 



"BELIEVING" [1539] 



was about to die, for their sake — are " Who is this Son of 
man^? 

[1539] This was darkness indeed, as a conclusion of a 
Gospel of light : and the rest of this section treats of " be- 
lieving," or rather " not believing," under the metaphor of 
darkness and light. In this connexion, there are two sayings 
of Jesus about believing. The first of these is addressed to 
the multitude after they have asked the question " Who 
is this Son of man^?" He no longer bids them believe in 
the Son of man, nor in Himself, but in "the light." The 
Epistle says " He that loveth his brother abideth in the 
light " ; and " He that saith he is in the light and hateth 
his brother is in the darkness^" This appears to be the 
predominant thought here. As light was the first created 
thing in the creation of the world, so what corresponds to it, 
namely, love, is the first principle in the spiritual world, the 
medium through which God is discerned by man. Christ's 
hearers were in danger of losing the last spark of this 
spiritual faculty through their subservience to conventional 
religion and through their conventional desire to persecute 
non-conformity. In the presence of these spiritual weaklings 
Christ abates His claim. He does not say " Believe in me, or 
Believe in the Son, that ye may become the sons of God," 
but " Believe at all events in the light, so far as"* ye have it 
still with you, that ye may become sons of light." 



1 xii. 34. 

2 [1539 «] Jesus had said nothing here about a "Son of man." His 
words were, "And /, if I be Hfted up from the earth, will draw all men 
unto me." But His doctrine to Nicodemus had mentioned " the lifting 
up of the Son of man," and perhaps the Evangelist wishes to describe the 
"multitude" as rebeUing against this new term (which they had heard 
from Jesus on previous occasions) and as preferring the familiar and (for 
them) conventional term "Christ" or "Messiah" : "We have heard from 
the Law that the Christ abideth for ever, and how sayest thou that 
the Son of man must be lifted up? Who is this Son of man} ^ 

3 I Jn ii. 9— lo. 

* xii. 36 "So far as." On o)?, as distinct from ewy, see 2201. 

67 



[1540] "BELIEVING" 



[1540] This expression " sons of light " is followed by an 
evangelistic comment indicating that the appeal was vain ; 
and the language suggests that the light, henceforth, was 
hidden from the Jews. " These things spake Jesus, and he 
went away and was hidden (2538) from them!' Then the 
Evangelist sums up his account of the national unbelief. 
" Though he had done so many signs," he says, " they did 
not believe in him^r Their unbelief was a judicial retribution 
predicted by Isaiah : " For this cause they were not able to 
believe'^ because again Isaiah said, * He hath blinded their 
eyes....'" Then turning from the nation as a whole to their 
"rulers," he concludes with an astonishing remark. In spite 
of the general unbelief we should not have been surprised 
to hear that " a few," or " some " of the rulers believed : but 
John says : " Nevertheless, however, of the rulers also m,any 
believed in him ^ ; but on account of the Pharisees they would 
not confess [him] in order that they might not be put out 
of the synagogue ; for they loved the glory of men rather 
than-* the glory of God." 

[1541] This remarkable statement may be perhaps best 
explained by supposing that these " many rulers " had not 
only made formal profession of belief in Jesus (having been 
perhaps baptized by His disciples) but had also believed in 
Him with some degree of genuine conviction, and with 
attachment, calling themselves His disciples — but, like Joseph 
of Arimathaia, "secretly, for fear of the Jews^" If so, it 
would seem that John deliberately uses the phrase " believed 
in him " in order to shew how even such " believing " might 
come to naught without "confession^." He is more severe 

1 xii. 37 ovK eni(TT€vov, see 2466, perh. "they were not disposed to 
believe in him." ^ xii. 39. 

^ xii. 42 oficos fxevTOi Kol €K Ta)V dpxovTcov TToXXoi €TrLcrT€V(rav els avTov. 

* xii. 43 "Rather than," fiaWov rfnep, almost = " and not," see 2092. 

^ xix. 38. 

® Comp. Rom. x. 9 — 11 "If thou shalt confess with thy mouth Jesus 
[as] Lord, and shalt believe in thy heart that God raised him from 

68 



"BELIEVING" [1543] 



on them here than on Joseph of Arimathaea later on. 
Joseph's motive for secrecy, says the Evangelist, was " fear 
of the Jews " ; the motive of these " many " was " the love 
of the glory of men rather than of the glory of God." But 
he infers this " love of glory " from the fact that they feared 
to be "cast out of the synagogue." 

[1542] Many people, now-a-days, would consider this an 
austere inference. A man may "love the glory of God" 
more than " the glory of men," and yet may be deterred from 
doing what is right, if his love of God's glory is weaker 
than his fear of being cast out from friendship, from social 
intercourse, and from community of worship, with his 
neighbours and kinsmen. All the more reasonable is it to 
suppose that John, when concluding his history of the growth 
of belief and unbelief among the Jews during Christ's 
preaching of the Gospel, wishes to brand with the stamp 
of inferiority, or spuriousness, that sort of faith in Christ 
which might be called " belief in Him " and yet did not 
lead to public confession. 

[1543] We now come to the last saying of our Lord 
about "believing," — the last, that is to say, in His public 
teaching: xii. 44 — 6 "Jesus cried aloud and said, He that 
believeth in me believeth not in me but in him, that sent me^ 
and he that beholdeth me beholdeth him that sent me. I, 
light ^, have come into the world in order that everyone that 
believeth in me may not abide in the darkness T This is not 
said to have been addressed to any class in particular. It is 
a warning to all the world that "belief" in Christ is not really 



the dead, thou shalt be saved : for with the heart man believeth unto 
righteousness ; and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation. 
For the Scripture saith, Whosoever believeth on him shall not be put to 
shame." Perhaps John implies that if these rulers had "confessed," they 
would not have been " put to shame," nor would they have been afterwards 
ashamed of Christ crucified. 

^ On the force of this appositional construction, see 1933. 



69 



[1544] "BELIEVING" 



belief in Him unless it is belief also in Him that sent 
Christ, nor is it true belief if the believer " abide in darkness " 
i.e. in doubt, or fear, or unbrotherly feeling towards his fellow- 
men. 

[1544] The announcement is to be read along with the 
description of the "belief" of the rulers, many of whom — 
once, at all events — " believed in him." There are degrees of 
" darkness." Some of these " rulers " had perhaps so far 
turned against their Master that they now agreed with 
Caiaphas that " one man must die for the people " ; these were 
" abiding in the darkness " of midnight. Others, like Joseph, 
had not voted with Caiaphas ^ ; but Joseph is not recorded 
to have spoken or voted against Caiaphas, and these, too, 
may have kept silent " through fear of the Jews." The 
conduct of this second class was typified by Nicodemus, of 
whom it is twice said that "he came to Jesus by night V 
It was not the blackest of the "night" — the "night" asso- 
ciated with Judas^ : but still it was the night or twilight 
of men " abiding in darkness " and not " believing," — not 
at least in the full sense of the term. With these warnings 
against false or formal or fearful belief, and with these 
commands to "believe in the light," the public teaching of 
Christ is brought to its close. 



§ 24. The Last Discourse 

[1545] After the Washing of Feet and the exhortation 
to the disciples to imitate their Lord's action, the discourse 



^ Lk. xxiii. 51. 

2 Jn iii. 2, xix. 39. 

3 [1544a] Jn xiii. 30 "Having received the sop, therefore, he went 
out. Now it was night P The only other mention of "night" in the 
Evangelist's words (apart from Christ's) refers to the disciples on the 
night before Peter returned to our Lord through the water (xxi. 3) 
"/« that night they took nothing^ 

70 



"BELIEVING" [1546] 



turns on the "stumbling^" that would be caused by the 
impending betrayal and death of Christ ; and the only 
mention of believing in this chapter is (xiii. 19) "From 
henceforth 2 I say [it] to you before it come to pass, that 
ye may believe, when it hath come to pass, that I am [he]." 
The aorist subjunctive, which is probably the correct reading, 
may denote that the verb refers to "believing" the particular 
prediction just mentioned, so that the words mean " that ye 
may believe that I am he [concerning whom, it has been written 
^ He that eateth my bread, . .']^" This is Origen's explanation ; 
and, if it is correct, the passage describes our Lord as 
endeavouring to strengthen the faith of the disciples to meet 
a particular emergency (as in the Raising of Lazarus'*). 

[1546] Finding that they are still weak and their 
hearts full of trouble, He presently recurs to the thought 
of " trusting " or " believing," and now in a general sense 
(xiv. i) " Ye believe (or, Believe^ in God. Believe i?i me also" 
and (speaking to Philip) (xiv. 10) " Believest thou not that 
I am in the Father and the Father in me ? " Then He 
addresses all the disciples, (xiv. 11 — 12) '^Believe me that 
I am in the Father and the Father in me : but, if [ye can] 
not [believe me, i.e. my mere word], believe on account of the 
works [by] themselves" ''He that believeth in me, the works 

^ The -ze/^n/ " stumbling " is not used till xvi. i "These things have 
I spoken unto you that ye may not be caused to stumble {tva fir) o-KavdaXia-- 
S-qre)." But the thought of " stumbling" extends from xiii. 19 onwards. 

2 [1545 <«] "From henceforth" may perhaps mean, that Christ had 
not said it before, because He desired to give Judas the opportunity 
of repenting during the Washing of Feet. But there had been no 
repentance, and this had been indicated by the words (xiii. 10 — 11) 
"Ye are not all clean." Since therefore the treachery could not be 
averted, the Saviour says that " from henceforth " He will not conceal it. 

3 [1545 <^] So Origen ad too. Huet ii. 394 E 1va...'jrt(rrev(rr]T€ ort eya elfii 
irepl ov ravra imrpo^rjTfvTai. Origen comments at great length on this 
passage (Huet ii. 394—8). In the first three quotations of it, the text has 
7ri(rT€v(rr]T€y but in the three following ones iricrrevijTey see 2524. 

* xi. 15 tva TriarrevarjTe, see 2525. 

71 



[1547] "BELIEVING" 



that I do he also shall do; and greater works than these 
shall he do because I go to the Father." He concludes by 
declaring that He has carried out the intention, mentioned 
above, to warn the disciples before the evil falls upon them 
(1545), " / say \it\ to you before it come to pass (Trpo rov 
yevia-Oai) that ye may believe {TriarevcrrjTe) when it shall have 
come to pass, that I am he!' These words He repeats, except 
the last clause, saying (xiv. 29) ''And now I have said \it'\ 
to you, before it hath come to pass {irpXv yevkaQaC) that, when 
it shall have come to pass, ye may believe {irtcneva-r^Te).'' The 
object of belief ("that I am he") is not repeated, but 
presumably it is omitted merely for brevity ; and the aorist 
subjunctive here, as above, indicates a particular, not a 
general, belief — a belief that Christ's sufferings were fore- 
ordained and prophesied. The main object of belief men- 
tioned in this section is of a general character, the Unity 
of the Father and the Son (" I in the Father and the Father 
in me^"), implied by a belief in the Father inseparable 
from a belief in the Son ("Ye believe {or, Believe) in God. 
Believe in me also^"). 

[1547] In all these exhortations and strengthenings, 
"belief," in its various forms, is not regarded as an end or 
ultimate object. It is merely an imperfect condition, a 
process of passing into unity with the Father in the Son, 
so as to " abide " in love. " Abiding " not " believing,!' 
"peace" not "faith," are the ultimate objects. Hence, in 
the chapter that describes Christ as the Vine, and the 
disciples as the branches that ''abide" in the Vine (xv. 
I — 2y), there is no mention of " believing." But the following 
chapter once more takes up the task of strengthening the 
disciples against the trials of " persecution " : and now Jesus 
explains that these persecutions arise from unbelief for which 
the world will be condemned. The Paraclete will convict 



72 



BELIEVING" [1549] 



the world of sin, He says, " because they believe not in me^!' 
This harmonizes with what He told the Jews : " This is the 
work of God, that ye believe in him whom he \i£. the Father] 
sent 2." The "work" of God being "belief," it follows (for 
those who accept Christ's teaching about a devil) that the 
" work " of the devil, or " sin," is unbelief or disbelief And 
the object of the unbelief is the same as the object of 
the belief, "he whom God hath sent," that is to say, God's 
messenger or representative in every age and society, those 
men and women who are, as Plato says, " most like God," 

[1548] This high and pure "belief," which the world 
had not, the disciples had, (xvi. 27) " For the Father [of] 
himself loveth you because ye have loved me and have 
believed that I came forth from \the house of\ the Father!' But 
the disciples themselves, even while possessing this precious 
belief, appear to confuse it with one of a baser and less 
enduring metal — belief based upon the evidence of signs : 
for, because Jesus has read their thoughts, they say to Him 
(xvi. 30) "Now we know that thou knowest all things... 
hereby (eV tovtw) we believe that thou camest forth from God." 
This mischievous complacency in the possession of a definite 
religious belief based upon definite evidential proof — the root 
of how many evils to Christendom ! — Christ hastens to 
destroy : " For the moment ye believe I Behold the hour 
Cometh and hath come for you to be scattered, each to his 
own, and to leave me alone." 

[1549] This is the last mention of " believing " made by 
our Lord in His teaching to the disciples, before the Resurrec- 
tion : and it is of the nature of a warning against making 
"belief" one's end, and, so to speak, "believing in believing." 
We are not to aim at believing but at " peace," and this, 
a peace, not gained through conformity with the selfish 
world, but through believing in the unselfish Messenger, 

^ xvi. 9. 2 yj 29. 

73 



[1550] "BELIEVING" 



whom the Father has sent to conquer the selfishness of the 
world. This we are taught by the last words of the Last 
Discourse (xvi. 33) " These things have I spoken to you that 
in me ye may have peace. In the world ye have tribulation. 
But be of good cheer, I have conquered the world." 

§ 25. The Last Prayer 

[1550] Our Lord, in His Last Prayer, prays for the 
unity of the disciples, but not that they may "believe," or 
"have faith." The latter petition He here reserves for "the 
world." Concerning the disciples — in spite of His warning 
that their belief will not prevent them from deserting Him — 
He says (xvii. 8) " They believed that thou didst send me!' 
Both for them and for those whom He calls (xvii. 20) " the 
believers through their word " — that is, the converts made 
by the Apostles — He prays that they may be "all one," 
one with the Father, and with the Son, and with each other. 
But in connexion with "the world" He mentions the word 
"believing" as an object to be attained hereafter, thus 
(xvii. 21) "In order that they also \i.e. the Church] may be 
in us, in order that the world may grow in the belief {irioTevri) 
that thou didst send me!' The verb is in the present (not 
the aorist) (2524 /<?//.) and the prayer is that the world may 
receive a living and growing belief, not a mere formal one, 
that Jesus of Nazareth was sent by God — a belief, not based 
on signs and wonders but on the unity of the Church 
with the Father and the Son, through the Spirit, in brotherly 
love. 

§ 26. After the Death and Resurrection 

[1551] There remain — besides an utterance of our Lord, 
which will be considered last of all — four statements about 
"believing" made by the Evangelist. The first of these 
attests the flow of blood and water from the side of Jesus 

74 



"BELIEVING" [1553] 



on the Cross : (xix. 35) "And he that hath seen hath testified, 
and his testimony is true ; and he (2383) knoweth that he 
saith true that ye also may grow in belief (TrLarevrjre)" If 
W. H. are right, as they probably are, in reading the present 
subjunctive, the belief is of a general and vital kind, including 
a belief in the Lord as "the fountain for sin and for un- 
cleanness\" 

[1552] Next comes the earliest mention of "believing" 
after the Resurrection : (xx. 8) " Then therefore entered in the 
other disciple also, he that came first to the tomb, and Ae 
saw and believed {eihev koL iTrio-Tevcrev) : for not even yet 
did they know the scripture, [how] that he must rise from 
the dead." Apparently this disciple " believed " in Christ's 
resurrection, simply on the evidence of the open tomb and 
the grave clothes — although the open tomb suggested to 
Mary Magdalene something quite different, namely, that 
the Lord's enemies had taken away the body. With this 
must be taken the reply of Thomas to the assertion of the 
disciples that they had "seen" the Lord, (xx. 25) "Except 
I see in his hands the print of the na.ils.., I will assuredly not 
believer From the sequel it would seem that Thomas and 
the beloved disciple were alike in one respect, since both 
''saw and believed!' What our Lord says about this will 
be considered later on. 

[1553] The fourth Evangelistic mention of " believing " 
describes the object of the Gospel (xx. 31) "But these things 
have been written that ye may grow in the belief (Tno-Tevrjre) 
that Jesus is the Christ the Son of God, and that, believing 
[this] (7ri(TT6vovT€^), ye may have life in his name." Accepting 
once more W. H.'s reading, the present subjunctive, we 
interpret it as denoting the object to be not the profession 
of faith on the part of converts, but the growing faith, or 

^ [1551 (t;] Zech. xiii. i. If the aorist were read the meaning might be 
belief in this special fact, or that " ye might become believers," but more 
probably the former. 



75 



[1554] « BELIEVING " 



abiding faith, of those already converted. But why does the 
writer introduce the words " in his name " (" life in his name ") 
since we have seen above (1483 — 7) that Origen is probably 
correct in supposing "believing in his name''' to be an inferior 
stage of belief to " believing in him " ? The answer is that 
he does not speak here of '^believing in the name** of Jesus, 
but of ''having life in his name!* And "name" here, as in 
the Epistle^ is connected with the word " Son," implying that 
life is found in the divine Sonship of Christ. There is, 
therefore, no reference here to the rudimentary or initial 
faith professed at baptism. The writer is addressing believers 
already baptized in the name of Jesus Christ the Son of God, 
and he says to them, in effect, " I write unto you, children 
of God, in order that you may grow in the faith that Jesus 
is the Messiah, the Son of God, and that, growing in this 
faith, you may have life in His Sonship." 

[1554] Last comes the saying of our Lord (xx. 29) 
" Because thou hast seen me thou hast believed ! Blessed 
[are] they that [shall] have not seen and [yet] [shall] have 
believed!* to be considered along with the statement that 
"the other" disciple ''saw and believed*,* and that Thomas 
said "except I see...\ will assuredly not believe'^!* Both 
Origen and Chrysostom appear to take the aorist participles 
as referring to future believers (" those after the apostles **Y. 



1 [1553^] I Jn iii. 23 '■' the name of his Son!' \. 13" the name 0/ the Son 
of God" In I Jn ii. 12 "on account of his name'' follows the words 
"I write unto you, tittle children {reKvia), because your sins are forgiven," 
and appears to mean that both the " childhood " and the " forgiveness " 
are "on account of" the divine Sonship of Christ. These are the only 
instances of " name " in the Epistle. 

^ MaKapioi ol fXTj IBovres koi TriaTeva-avrcs, comp. xx. 8 koI cidev /cat 
f7ri<TT€va-ev, and xx. 25 eav firj iSa)...ov /X17 TriOTevora). 

3 [1554 a] Origen blames those who thought that a superior blessing 
was pronounced on those who had " not seen," because, he says, "according 
to their interpretation the successors of the apostles {ol fifra rovs dn-ooTo- 
\ovs) are more blessed than the apostles themselves" (Huet ii. 195c). 



76 



BELIEVING" [1556] 



The aorist participle might have that meaning even if the 
time of the " blessing " had been defined as present by the 
insertion of " are" as in the Sermon on the Mount " Blessed 
are ye when men shall revile you^'' \ and it may much more 
easily have this meaning where the time of the blessing is 
left undefined. Antecedently, it seems likely that this refer- 
ence to future believers should be at all events included, 
and very unlikely that it should be restricted to, say, a score 
of unmentioned persons, thus : — " blessed are those who, in 
the course of the last week, have believed [on the strength 
of the testimony of those who saw me at the beginning of 
the week], and who have not [themselves] seen [me]." 

[1555] But are we to suppose that those who believe 
without having seen are more " blessed " than those who 
believe because they have seen ? Origen earnestly maintains 
that this is unreasonable. The meaning is, he says, that the 
former class also is " blessed," not that it is more " blessed." 
In that case, however, is not the statement a truism ? And 
what is the force of making the statement to Thomas, unless 
it suggests a gentle reproach of some kind, e.g. that some 
of those who will believe without seeing are more blessed 
than some of those who believe after seeing? Moreover, 
is no contrast intended between the beloved disciple, who 
*^saw and believed,'' but without asking to "see," and Thomas 
who ''saw and believed" but not till he had refused to believe 
unless he was allowed to feel as well as to see } 

[1556] Chrysostom, at all events, recognises such a 
contrast as likely to occur to his readers. His words are 
as follows, "And yet, some one may say 2, the disciples 'saw 

Chrysostom even paraphrases the aorist by the future "He pronounces 
a blessing not on the disciples alone but also on those who shall believe 
after them {rov^ fier cKcivovs iria-TevaovTas)" 

^ Mt. V. 1 1 fiaKupioi eare orav oveidiaoxnv v/xas (sim. Lk. vi. 22). 

2 [1556 a] The Latin translation in Migne gives " inquies " for (fyrjalv. 
But it might mean "the sacred writer says." This is the general meaning 
of (fiT](riv in quotations. 

77 



[1557] "BELIEVING" 



and believed/ [True,] but they sought no such thing [as 
Thomas sought] (ovSkv tolovtov e^rjrriaav), but on the 
evidence of the napkins {a)OC diro rcov crovhapicov) they 
straightway accepted the word concerning the resurrection, 
and before they had beheld the body [of the risen Saviour] 
they exhibited the belief [that He had risen] in completeness." 

[1557] These words call attention to yet one more 
difficulty in the context. For the Gospel says "^^," i.e. " the 
other disciple " (not Peter), " saw and believed," and it 
suggests that Peter, though he had seen, had not " seen and 
believed." But Chrysostom assumes that both the disciples ^^saw 
and believed^ So, too, says an ancient Greek commentary 
in Cramer: "When these, having beheld the linen cloths, and 
having believed, departed to their homes in amazement.'* 
And SS reads the plural ''they saw and believed^" 

[1558] These readings are not in the least surprising. 
What is surprising is that any MS. has been allowed to 
preserve the present reading, which implies unbelief, or 
slowness of belief, in Peter as compared with "the other 
disciple." Yet this, by reason of its difficulty and the consent 
of all the uncial MSS., must be accepted as the true reading. 
And it raises a question similar to that which is suggested 
by Chrysostom, Does not the Evangelist mention two kinds 
of " seeing and believing " ? The beloved disciple " saw and 
believed " on the mere evidence of what was to be seen in 
the open grave. He did not "seek" what Thomas sought: 
he did not say, " Until I have seen the mark of the nails in 
his hands I will assuredly not believe " ; he " saw " much less 
than Thomas demanded to see, and yet he " believed " ; 
surely the Lord would pronounce him " blessed " ! 

Accepting the text, as it stands, concerning the two 
disciples (without Chrysostom's alteration ''they believed," 

^ [1557 «] The Latin MSS. have '''■he saw and believed," but some 
of these agree with N in carrying on the sing, thus " for not even yet did 
he know the Scripture." 

78 



"BELIEVING" [1560] 



and without the Latin alteration ''he knew") we arrive at 
the following probable inferences concerning the Evangelist's 
meaning and motive. 

[1559] (i) He regards "belief" upon detailed ocular 
evidence as inferior to that kind of "knowledge" which is 
given to us by the Spirit interpreting the Scripture as a 
whole ^ — that is to say, by the Spirit of God interpreting 
the history of man in the light of the Incarnation. Yet 
both ''belief" and "knowledge" must play their several 
parts. The beloved disciple, he says, '''believed'' on slight 
ocular evidence. Afterwards he "knew" and " kneiv" too, 
that things ''must be'' thus and thus, i.e. "knew" as con- 
fidently as men of science "know," though in a different 
sphere, and with a different sense (a faculty that some would 
call "feeling" rather than "knowing"). 

[1560] (2) He wished to shew that there were many 
different roads to this " knowledge " of the risen Saviour. 
Peter, in one sense, was the first to approach to it. Peter 
entered the tomb first, and was the first to see the signs of 
the Resurrection, but he did not at once " believe." For him, 
this revelation was to come later and through "appearing," in 
accordance with the traditions of the Church : " He appeared 
to Cephas, then to the Twelve^" and "The Lord is risen 
indeed and hath appeared unto Simon I" The tradition 
of the manifestation near Gennesaret said that Peter came 
first to Jesus through the waters^ — perhaps the waters of 
repentance — " but the other disciples " came soon afterwards, 
" for they were not far off ^ " ; yet the beloved disciple had 
been the first to say "It is the LordV' recognising Him by 
the voice, before Peter and the rest had recognised Him by 
vision. Again, Mary Magdalene did not " believe " so soon 
as the beloved disciple. After he had " believed," she re- 

1 For this, the Johannine meaning of " the Scripture " (sing.) see 1722 /. 

2 I Cor. XV. 5. 3 Yk^ xxiv. 34. * j^ xxi. 7—8. 
^ xxi. 8. 6 xxi. 7. 

A. V. 79 7 



[1561] "BELIEVING" 



mained " weeping\" Nor did she ''see and believe!' On the 
contrary, she ''saw'' without "believing" \ for she "supposed 
it was the gardener." But she was the first to "hear!' And 
when the Shepherd, risen from the dead, "called" the first 
of the flock " by name," she was the first to hail Him, and 
the first to " see " as well as the first to " hear." She, too, like 
Thomas, desired to " touch." But the refusal of her request 
did not shake her faith, or rather, we should say, cancel 
her knowledge. Thomas, latest of believers, insisted on 
"touching" as well as on "seeing," as a condition of "be- 
lieving." It is not stated that he " touched." But the Lord 
said to him, apparently in the way of gentle reprooP, " Be- 
cause thou hast seen me thou hast believed ! " Then He 
did not add, "Blessed are thine eyes because they have 
seen=^," but " Blessed are they that have not seen and believed!' 
[1561] (3) This is the last of the Lord's many utterances 
about "believing" in the Fourth Gospel ; and, if it is read in 
the light of His other sayings, illustrated by the Evangelist's 
own remarks and narratives bearing on the same subject, 
it confirms the conclusion that " believing " is to be regarded, 
in different aspects, not as a consummation or a goal, but as a 
number of different stages, by which different individuals pass, 
in accordance with their several individualities, toward the one 
centre, " Jesus, the Christ, the Son of God " in whom they are 
to " have life*." 



1 XX. II. 

2 [1560/?] Yet, as it is said, of the woman, (Lk. vii. 47) "her sins, 
which are many, are forgiven because she loved much," so here the 
narrative says, in effect, concerning Thomas, "His doubt, which was 
great, became blessed because he believed much." It was reserved 
for the doubter to say, with inspired conviction, "My Lord [is] also my 
God." On the reasons for this rendering, see 2049—51. 

3 Comp. Mt. xiii. 16, Lk. x. 23. * Jn xx. 31. 



80 



CHAPTER II 



"AUTHORITY" 



§ I. '' Authority I' in the Triple Tradition 
of the Synoptists 

[1562] All the Synoptists agree in saying that our Lord 
taught " as one having authority l^ or that " his word was 
with authority'' and, later on, that the Pharisees asked Him 
"by what authority'' He acted: and in five of these six 
passages R.V. and A.V. agree in using the word ''authority" 
to express i^ova-la^. But in a much more important passage, 
where Jesus Himself says, " that ye may know that the Son of 
man hath authority on earth to forgive sins," the texts both 
of A.V. and R.V. have "power" although R.V. has ''authority" 
in its margin ^ Clearly our Lord used the word here in a 
good sense. It is very commonly found with "give',' and it 
generally means " power that is delegated," that is to say, not 
tyranny that is seized, but a right lawfully given, or an 
office or magistracy duly and lawfully appointed. Through- 
out the Synoptic Gospels, in most cases if not in all, 
" authority " is the best translation. In Mark, R.V. gives 



1 Mk i. 22, Mt. vii. 29, Lk. iv. 32; Mk xi. 28 — 33, Mt. xxi. 23 — 7, 
Lk. XX. 2 — 8. In Lk. iv. 32 "his word was with authority^'' A.V. has 
"powerP 

2 Mk ii. 10, Mt. ix. 6, Lk. v. 24, see 1594 <:. 

81 7—2 



[1563] " AUTHORITY 



" authority to cast out devils," and '' authority over the unclean 
spirits " ; and similarly in Matthew, " All authority hath been 
given unto me in heaven and earth " : but in these three 
passages A.V. has " powers" 

§ 2. ^' Authority l' in the Apocalypse 

[1563] In the Apocalypse, this delegated power or 
" authority " is most frequently applied to messengers of God 
commissioned to punish (vi. 8) " There was given unto 
them \i.e. to Death and Hades] authority over the fourth 
part of the earth to kill..." R.V. naturally shrinks from 
using the word when it is applied to ''locusts" (from the 
smoke of the pit) to which ''authority (R.V. power) was 
given as the scorpions of the earth have authority (R.V. 
power)!' " and in their tails is their authority (R.V. power) 
to hurt men five months^" Yet even there the context 
indicates that these supernatural " locusts " (like the terrestrial) 
have a ''permitted power," so that " power " alone does not 
quite express the meaning. And certainly " authority " is 
better in the description of the two Witnesses, who "have 
the authority to shut the heaven that it rain not during the 
days of their prophecy, and they have authority over the 
waters... V There R.V. has, twice, " power " ; but it returns 
to " authority " in the following, " Now is come the salvation 
and the power, and the kingdom of our God, and the authority 
of his Christ V 

[1564] It might be supposed, from this, that R.V. goes 
on the principle of rendering " delegated power " to reward 
and " delegated power '' to punish by two different words, 
calling the former " authority " and the latter " power." But 
R.V. uses ''authority" repeatedly concerning the Dragon 



^ Mk iii. 15, vi. 7, Mt. xxviii. 18. ^ Rgy. ix. 3, 10, comp. ix. 19. 

3 Rev. xi. 6. * Rev. xii. 10. 

82 



AUTHORITY " [1564] 



and the Beasts and then returns to " power," when describing 
the angel that "came out from the altar, he that hath 
authority over the fire^." Very rarely is the word connected 
with God as in the following, " They blasphemed the name 
of the God that hath the authority over these plagues ^" R.V. 
uses " authority " of evil powers in the following : " The ten 
horns... are ten kings... they receive authority {AN. power) as 
kings with the beast for one hour... they give their... power and 
authority (A.V. strength) unto the beast ^" but of a good 
angel " coming down out of heaven having great authority^ 
{KN . power)!' An alternative is given by R.V. in describing 
the blessings of those who have part in the first resurrection, 
" Over these the second death hath no authority (so R.V. 
marg., but R.V. txt and A.V. ''power''), but they shall be 
priests of God*'." The following instance is particularly note- 
worthy, "Blessed are they that wash their robes that their 
authority may be {T) over the tree of lifeV R.V. "that they 
may have the right (A.V. have rightyj' 

1 [1564(2] Rev. xiii. 2 — 12 "the dragon gave him... great authority 
(so A.V.)... and they worshipped the dragon because he gave his authority 
{KN . power) unto the beast... and there was given to him authority (A.V. 
power) to continue forty and two months... and there was given to him 
authority (A.V. power) over every tribe and people and tongue and 
nation. ..and he exerciseth all the authority {AN. power) of the first beast 
in his sight." 

2 Rev. xiv. 18. 

^ [1564 b'\ Rev. xvi. 9 to ovofxa tov deov tov €-)(ovtos i^ovaiav. This 
was, perhaps, intended to represent the heathen polytheistic thought about 
" the god that has authority over these plagues." But it might mean 
"the name of the [one] God, who has authority" (R.V. "of the God 
which hath," A.V. " of God, which hath "). A.V. and R.V. often use " the 
...which" where Shakespeare would have used ''the... that {2273a)." 

* Rev. xvii. 12, 13. ^ R^y ^viii. i. ^ i^^y ^x. 6. 

^ [1564^] Rev. xxii. 14 Iva caraL 77 i^ovcria avrav i-irX to ^v\ov t^s C^rjSi 
A.V. "right to the tree of life," R.V. "the right [to come] to the tree 
of life." See 1594(5. 

^ All the instances in Rev. have been given above, except Rev. ii. 26 
"He that overcometh...to him will I give authority over the nations," 
which is capable of a twofold interpretation. 

83 



[1565] "AUTHORITY 



§3. Lukes view of '' authority''' 

[1565] The two following parallel passages in the Double 
Tradition (318 (ii)) exhibit Luke alone as using the word 
"authority." Perhaps Luke, in both, means "authority" in 
a bad sense, or rather "authority" given by God for the 
purpose of punishing evil, as in the Apocalypse. The first 
passage gives the words of Satan in the Temptation thus : 

Mt. iv. 9 Lk. iv. 6 — 7 

"All these things will I give "To thee will I give all this 

thee if thou wilt fall down and authority and their ^ glory, be- 
worship me." cause they have been delivered 

to me, and to whomsoever I 
will I give it. If thou therefore 
wilt worship before me it shall 
be all thine." 

The second is from the Preparation of the Twelve 
Apostles, where they are warned by our Lord, to fear, not 
destruction of body but destruction of soul : 

Mt. X. 28 Lk. xii. 4 — 5 

"And be not ye afraid of " But I say unto you, [being] 

them that kill the body but are my friends. Be not afraid of 
not able to kill the soul: but be them that kill the body, and, 
afraid rather of him that is able after these things, have nothing 
(8vva/u,€voi/) to destroy both body beyond to do : but I will point 
and soul in hell." out to you whom to fear. Fear 

him that — after killing — hath 
authority to cast into hell. Yea, 
I say unto you, fear him." 

Compare the " casting," in Luke here, with " Lest the 
Judge deliver thee to the Exactor {irpaKTopi) and the 



1 ^^ Their glory," i.e. the glory of (Lk. iv. 5) "all the kingdoms of 
the world." 

84 



"AUTHORITY" [1567] 



Exactor cast thee into prisoner It seems probable that Luke 
attributes the ''casting into helV (or ''into the prison'') to 
Satan acting as God's instrument of punishment. 

[1566] In the first passage of Luke this " authority " does 
not extend to " destroying in hell," but only to " casting into 
hell." In the second passage (Lk. xii. 58 — 9) it is said that the 
prisoner will not come out " until " he has paid " the uttermost 
farthing" — which may imply that ultimately he will come 
out According to this view, Satan and his angels would 
seem to be, like the angels in the Apocalypse, the instru- 
ments of God's justice, having " authority " from the Judge 
to punish man's sins ; and Luke's interpretation of Christ's 
saying is, " Do not fear earthly enemies ; but fear your spiritual 
enemy, who, if you sin, has authority from God to cast you 
into Gehenna." Matthew, however, seems to have taken the 
precept as meaning " fear God, the Judge " ; and this, from 
very early times, appears to have been the view of the 
Christian Fathers, who, even when following Luke's version, 
have substituted "is able" for "hath authority!' so as to 
suggest God rather than Satan 2. 

[1567] Elsewhere, Luke uses the word "authority" in 
several passages peculiar to himself, of which the most 
notable are Christ's words to the Seventy, " Behold I have 
given you the authority (R.V. om. "the!' A.V. "power") to 



1 Lk. xii. 58 = Mt. v. 25 "and the Judge to the Officer {vnrjpirrj) and 
thou be cast into prison." 

2 [1566 «] Justin Mart. Apol. 19, as Lk., but "is able," bwatievov, 
Clem. Horn. xvii. 5. 4 mostly Lk., but "fear him that is able to cast both 
body and soul into the Gehenna of fire," Clem. Alex. 972 {Exc. Theod.) 
8vvdfievov...€ls yeevvav /3aXetj/, but 981 (freely) tov bvvdfxevov .,Jv yeevvr] 
aTToXea-ai. On the Other hand Iren. iii. 18. 5, quoting Mt. mostly, ends 
with Lk., thus, "timete autem magis eum qui habet potestatem (=hath 
authority) et corpus et animam mittere in gehennam." Clement's Ancient 
Homily § 5 (Lightf.) has, "Fear him that, after you are dead, hath 
authority over soul and body to cast into the Gehenna of fire." 



85 



[1568] "AUTHORITY" 



tread upon serpents and scorpions V' and His utterance at the 
moment of being arrested where (as a parallel to Mark's 
" but that the Scriptures might be fulfilled ") Luke has " But 
this is your hour, and the authority of darkness I" 

[1568] This last expression, "the authority of dark- 
ness," occurs in the Epistle to the Colossians where it is 
said that the Father "delivered us from the authority of 
darkness and removed us to the kingdom of the Son of 
his love^" There, the antithesis between "authority" and 
" kingdom " suggests that the writer uses the former in the 
sense of temporary power, delegated and misused. In 
this sense, and hence in the sense of blind "despotism" 
(" doing and saying what one likes ") it is used sometimes 
by the later Greek writers, as also in English poetry'', 



1 Lk. X. 19. 

2 [1567 d\ Lk. xxii. 53. Comp. Lk. xii. 11" When they bring you before 
the synagogues and the rulers {dpxds) and the authorities (A. V. powers)^'' 
XX. 20 " to deliver him up to the rule (dpxv) ^^^ l^ l^^ authority (so 
R.V., but A.V. the power and authority) of the governor," Lk. xxiii. 7 
"in }Atro6^s jurisdiction^^ (so R.V. and A.V. and this transl. is necessary 
here). 

3 Col. i. 13. 

* [1568 a'\ The English poets vary in their use of the word, according 
to temperament, perhaps. Milton, for example, would probably never 
apply the word " authority " to the angels of God's chastisements, because 
he regards them as {Comus) "slavish instruments of vengeance" in the 
hands of "the Supreme Good." In his poems, such phrases as "true 
authority in men," "reason and authority," "authority usurp'd," "the 
authority which I deriv'd from heaven," generally shew, by their context, 
the meaning of the ambiguous word. Milton is followed by Cowper, who 
mostly uses the word in a good sense except where " authority grows 
wanton," or " sleeps." But Shakespeare lays great stress on the evil of 
" the demi-god Authority," on " art made tongue-tied " by it, and on the 
hypocrisies of "authority and shew of truth." Shelley is even more 
vehement against " the supine slaves of blind Authority." Wordsworth's 
Prelude describes " blind Authority beating with his staff the child that 
might have led him," but it would be hasty to infer that he condemns 
Authority in the abstract. For the context mentions " Decency and 
Custom starving Truth," and no one could suppose that Wordsworth 

Z6 



AUTHORITY " [1569] 



though mostly in such context as to make the meaning 
clears 

[1569] In the plural, " ruling powers " and " authorities " 
are frequently mentioned together in N.T., referring to 
human or to angelic powers, — sometimes in a good sense, 
sometimes in a bad one^. 



condemns "decency." Tennyson's use is perhaps best exemplified by 
the line in Morte d" Arthur "Authority forgets a dying king." Pope's 
poems (excluding the Translations) do not contain the word. These 
facts bear on the various uses of the word in N.T. They also serve 
as a general warning against applying to N.T. writers the rule, "Ab uno 
disce omnes." 

^ [1568 <^] In the instances quoted by Lightf. on Col. i. 13, Demosth. 
428 inserts ayav^ Xenoph. Hiero § 5 r?}? etV to rrapov, Plut. Vzt. Euin. 13 
avayayyoi rats i. ib. Alex. 33 Tr\v e. koi rov ojkov rr^s 'A. bvvaii€(os^ Herodian 
ii. 4 avirov. 

2 [1569(3:] Lightf on Col. i. 16 refers to Lk. xii. 11, Tit. iii. i (comp. 
Lk. XX. 20). Angelic powers are meant, good, in Eph. iii. 10, Col. i. 16, 
ii. 10, but bad in Eph. vi. 12, Col. ii. 15. Lightf adds "in one passage 
at least (i Cor. xv. 24) both [good and bad] may be included." 

[1569 <^] In Rom. xiii. i, vTrepexovaats c^ovaiais, ''''higher authorities^^ 
(R.V. '''the higher powers," but there is no article) the epithet might be 
added, in part, to distinguish them from " evil^^ or " lower^'' authorities, 
and it might be rendered '''supreme^'' as in i Pet. ii. 13 "to the king, 
as supreme" 'Yrrepexfo, when an object is not expressed or obviously 
implied, appears to mean " preeminent among things of its own kind^^ 
so that the word in Rom. would not mean " higher than we subjects are " 
but "preeminent among authorities." In Wisd. vi. 5 01 virepexovres 
means rulers of the highest kind, and the context includes "kings." In 
I Pet. ii. 1 3, the writer passes from " the king as supreme " to " governors " 
"sent from time to time (7re/x7rd/iei/oi) " to punish evildoers and reward 
well-doing. In Rom. xiii. i, after "supreme authorities," the writer goes 
on to speak of " the rulers," and he says that " there is no authority except 
[ordained] by God" and recommends "doing good" as the way "not 
to fear the authority." 

[1569^] The context of Rom. xiii. 1 indicates that St Paul has in 
view the Imperial authority of Rome — to which he was more than once 
indebted for deliverance from Jewish persecution — and its adequate 
representatives throughout the empire. He wrote before the Neronian 
persecution, at a time when he might fairly say that " supreme authori- 
ties" in the empire deserved obedience. He adds "There is no [real] 



87 



[1570] "AUTHORITY" 



[1570] Luke in his Gospel — not in his Acts — seems to 
favour the view expressed in an early saying of Jewish 
Tradition that governors were essentially bad, and that one 
should not " make oneself known to the governments" In 
the following three versions of our Lord's doctrine on true 
government and true greatness, it will be observed that 
Mark guards himself — while Luke does not — against being 
supposed to attack all " ruling " and all " authority." Mark 



authority (or, "no [such] authority") that is not [ordained] by God." 
Such a protest might be needful against Talmudic views of "authority" 
(1570 a) among the Jewish members of the Roman Church. Though it 
is conceivable that the Apostle would have included even Herod Antipas, 
Pilate, Felix, Festus, and Caiaphas among " authorities " to whom " sub- 
jection " was due, he would probably not have included them among 
"supreme authorities." And it is certain that he would not have said 
of the murderer of John the Baptist, " For the rulers are not a fear to the 
good work but to the evil." 

[1569^] On Col. i. 13 "from the authority of the darkness" Chrys. 
says, "It is a grievous thing to be under the devil at all (^ttXws-) : but 
to be thus with authority^ this is still more grievous {to 8e koL fxer e^ovaias 
TovTo ;^aXe7r&)repoi/)." This may imply a distinction between (i) those 
who are attacked by the prince of darkness without having committed 
any special sin that makes them subject to him, (2) those whom the 
prince of darkness has received " authority " to " cast into prison " 
because, for example, they have refused to agree with the adversary 
(Lk. xii. 58 quoted above). Job would be an instance of the former 
class. 

1 [1570 <2] Aboth i. 11 "Shemaiah said, 'Love work; and hate lord- 
ship [Rabbanuth] ; and make not thyself known to the government^ " 
paraphrased thus by Dr Taylor " Avoid growing great and coming under 
the notice of the ' rashuth ' ( = e^ovo-m, concretely) in such a way as to 
excite jealousy or suspicion." Comp. Aboth ii. 3 "Be cautious with those 
in authority^ for they let not a man approach them but for their own 
purposes." The feeling that a poor magistrate or governor may be much 
more dangerous than a rich king perhaps underlies Prov. xxviii. 2 — 3 
"For the transgression of a land many are the princes thereof... a poor 
man that oppresseth the poor is like a sweeping rain, which leaveth no 
food" : and Caesar, in later times, might be a refuge against a Pilate, 
a Felix, or a Festus. The words ^^ danger" and ^'- dungeon^^ are ety- 
mologically — and very naturally — derived from '•'• doininium" i.e. lordship. 

88 



"AUTHORITY" 



[1571] 



inserts, ist " they that seem to rule," or, ^' are reputed to rule,' 
2nd " they that use authority to the utmost^ " : 



Mk X. 42 

"...they that are 
reputed to rule the 
nations lord it {ko.- 
TaKvpL€vov(rLv) over 
them and their' great 
ones^' use authority 
to the utmost over 
them." 



Mt. XX. 25 
"...the rulers of 
the nations lord it 
over them and the 
great ones use au- 
thority to the utmost 
over them." 



Lk. xxii. 25 
"The kings^ 



of 



the nations are lords 
(Kvptevovcrtv) (1594^ 
over them and those 
who use authority 
over them are called 
benefactors." 



[1571] Luke appears to be alluding to the name Euergetes^ 
or Benefactor, assumed by several Eastern kings, one of whom, 
it is said, was called by the Alexandrians Kakergetes, or Male- 
factor^ It seems antecedently improbable that so bitter and 
pointed a saying as Luke's, if actually uttered by our Lord in 
this context, could have been dropped by Matthew as well 
as Mark, in their report of it. As Luke appears to be 



1 [1570 <^] Mk X. 42, 1st, hoKovvTe^ apx^iv, 2nd, Kar- before i^ova-ia- 
^ovo-iv. Mt. omits doKovvTcs but has kut-. Staph, gives no other instance 
of KaT€^ov(rLa.^€Lv. Lk. has I St, /SacriXeis', and 2nd, e^ovaid^ovTes. The 
LXX has €^ov(rid(eiv freq. but Kare^ovo-ta^eii/ nowhere. 

[1570 c] Kar appears to mean " to the utmost," " oppressively," 
perhaps with allusion also to the idiom "have authority against {Kara 
with gen.)." This idiom occurs in Jn xix. 11. Comp. the use of Kara- 
in I Cor. vii. 31 R.V. "those that use the world as not abusing it (marg. 
using it to the full ^ Karaxpoifxevoi)," ix. 18 "so as not to use to the full 
(so R.V. but A.V. abuse) my authority (/xi) Karaxprjo-aaOai rrj e^ovcria)" 
A similar abuse or excess is implied by Mk-Mt. in KaraKvpievovo-iv. 

2 [1570 d] " Tkeir ' great ones ' " i.e. those whom t/iey call " great 
ones." Mark, not long before, has recorded a discussion on the question 
(ix. 34) "Who is the greatest?" Matthew has missed the force of 
"-their" as well as ''reputed.'''' 

3 [1570 e] Lk.'s " kings " goes sdll further away than Mt.'s " rulers " 
from Mk's "reputed to rule." Comp. Col. i. 13 " authority oi darkness 
...the kingdom of his Son," on which see 1568. 

* [1571 d\ Wetstein (Lk. xxii. 25) quoting Athenaeus xii. p. 549 E. 
Wetst. gives abundant instances of this title. 



89 



[1572] "AUTHORITY" 



deviating from the exact tradition in other details mentioned 
above, we may perhaps take this detail as a paraphrase (or 
misunderstanding of a Semitic original). But in any case, 
regarded all together, Luke's divergences from Mark and 
Matthew indicate a disposition in his Gospel to interpret 
official " authority " in a bad sense. 

§ 4. Christ's '* authority l^ how defined by the Synoptists 

[1572] Mark and Luke agree, though not verbatim, in 
associating their evangelistic statements about our Lord's 
" authority " with authority over devils, i.e. the power of 
casting out unclean spirits, an instance of which they givQy 
in detail, immediately afterwards — together with the comment 
of the multitude: 

Mk i. 22 — 7 Lk. iv. 32 — 6 

"And they were amazed at "And they were amazed at 

his teaching : for he was teaching his teaching, because his word 

them as one having authority was in authority..,. 'What is 

and not as the scribes.... 'What this word, that in authority and 

is this ? A new teaching ! With power he commandeth the un- 

authority doth he command even clean spirits . . . M " 
the unclean spirits. . . ! '" 

[1573] Matthew altogether omits this instance of exorcism 
and all reference to its "authority." But he inserts the 
tradition — in Mark's fuller form, with the phrase " and not as 
the scribes" — immediately after the Sermon on the Mount, 
thus (Mt. vii. 27 — 9) "'...and great was the fall thereof.' 
And it came to pass, when Jesus had finished these words, 
the multitudes were amazed at his teaching: for he was 
teaching them as one having authority and not as their scribes." 

[1574] Two distinct kinds of " authority " might be sig- 
nified by the two clauses in Mark. The first is authority of 
doctrine. Christ taught '■^not as the scribes^' who appealed to 

1 Or "What is this word ! Because {i.e. For) in authority...." 

90 



"AUTHORITY" [1575] 



previous traditions and interpretation of the Law ; He 
appealed to the consciences of His hearers and to the purity 
and high morality of His precepts ("Ye have heard that 
it hath been said to them of old.... but I say unto you"). 
The second is authority over the minds and souls of men, 
manifesting itself especially in the casting out of devils 
(" With authority doth he command even the uriclean spirits "). 
Matthew refers here only to the first i^'not as the scribes "y, 
Luke only to the second {^'the unclean spirits''). 

[1575] In the healing of the paralytic, a spiritual 
*' authority " of the highest kind is distinctly claimed by our 
Lord in the words " The Son of man hath authority upon 
earth to forgive sins^" But here the evangelistic records of 
the comments of the multitude in Mark and Luke are 
singularly disappointing. In these two Gospels the multitude 
say nothing about the " authority " to forgive, but merely 
" We have never seen [things] thus " or " We have seen 
strange things to-day^ " — commenting only on what they had 
" seen," namely, the cure of the disease. Matthew alone has 
something more to the point, a brief indication that the 
multitude did actually comment on Christ's assertion that 
the Son of man had " authority to forgive." " They glorified 
God, who had given such authority to men\" In Mark, 
the multitude does not even repeat its previous exclamation 
" A new teaching ! " And Mark and Luke leave the impres- 
sion that, when this particular " Son of man " had passed 
away, the "authority to forgive" would, or might, simul- 

1 [1574 d\ But, immediately after this mention of Christ's " authority," 
Matthew places the healing of the centurion's servant at a distance, with 
the words of the centurion (viii. 9) " I also am a man under authority 
having under myself soldiers." The centurion evidently supposed that 
as he and his soldiers were severally subject to authority, so diseases 
were subject to the authority of Christ, who had only to say " Go," and 
the disease would go. '^ Mk ii. 10, Mt. ix. 6, Lk. v. 24. 

3 Mk ii. 12, Lk. v. 26. ^ Mt. ix. 8. 



91 



[1576] "AUTHORITY" 



taneously pass. But Matthew's version suggests that a new 
''''authority'' had been sent down from heaven to remain among 
" men." 

§ 5. '^Authority I' in the Fourth Gospel 

[1576] "Authority" in the Fourth Gospel may be re- 
garded first in the Evangelist's order, illustrating the way in 
which he develops his doctrine about it. Thus treated, the 
subject begins with what Matthew, as above quoted, calls 
the " authority " given to " men." The Logos was not 
received by His own, but (i. 12) "As many as received him, 
to them gave he authority to become children of God." 
Then comes the authority given to the Son, which is thrice 
mentioned, (v. 26 — 7) "As the Father hath life in himself, 
even so gave he to the Son also to have life in himself; 
and he gave him authority to do judgment {jcpidiv iroidv) 
because he is Son of man," (x. 18) " No one taketh it \i.e. my 
life] away from me, but I lay it down of myself; I have 
authority to lay it down and I have authority to take it again. 
This commandment received I from my Father," (xvii. 2) 
" Thou \i,e. the Father] gavest him authority over all flesh, 
that — all that thou hast given him, to them he may give 
eternal life," 

[1577] The last mentions of the word are in a dialogue 
between our Lord and Pilate, thus (xix. 10 — 11) " Speakest 
thou not unto me? knowest thou not that I have authority 
to release thee and have authority to crucify thee ? " to which 
the reply is, " Thou wouldest have no authority against me 
except it were given thee from above : therefore he that 
delivered me unto thee hath the greater sin." The detailed 
meaning of our Lord's reply (1390 — 2) may be uncertain, 
but it is clear that He is correcting a false notion of authority, 
which Pilate regarded as meaning "despotism," the power 
of ruling over others as one likes. The Gospel takes the 
Pauline view (1569 b) that " supreme authorities " are ordained 
by God. 

92 



"AUTHORITY" [1580] 



[1578] Deferring the consideration of the above-mentioned 
" authority " given to men to " become children of God," and 
reviewing the mentions of the "authority" given to Christ, 
we find that the latter includes (i) "doing judgment," 
(2) "laying down life and taking it again," (3) "authority 
over all flesh " for the purpose of " giving eternal life " to 
" all that the Father has given " to the Son. 

§6. '' Atithority'' to become ^^ children'' of God 

[1579] Against Pilate's notion of "authority" as being 
the power to do as one pleases the Evangelist tacitly protests 
at the very beginning of his Gospel by connecting it with the 
word " children {reKva)." This at once implies obedience and 
willingness to obey and love the Father. But it also implies 
adoption into the whole family of the Father, whence follows 
an obligation, or rather a spontaneous impulse, to love and 
help the other children. This corresponds to the Synoptic 
doctrine " become as a little child {iraihiovy or " receive the 
kingdom of God as a little child." The Synoptic Tradition 
of our Lord's answer to the question, " Who is the greatest ? " 
is that He replied " He that is the least," meaning " He 
that makes himself as the least and humblest of the family 
in serving the rest." In one Synoptic passage, our Lord 
likens this service to His own service, " Even as the Son 
of man came not to be ministered unto but to minister and 
to give his life a ransom for many\" This teaches that 
" to become a child of God " means to become naturalised 
in self-sacrifice: and this is the Johannine conception of 
the "authority" bestowed upon men by the Son of God, 
preeminence in child-like imitation of the Father in heaven. 

[1580] As compared with the Synoptic doctrine in which 
the authority given to men consisted in the power of driving 

1 Mk X. 45, Mt. XX. 28, Lk. diff., see 1275—88. 
93 



[1581] "AUTHORITY" 



out evil spirits^ the Johannine doctrine is expressed more 
amply and more permanently. The latter bears some re- 
semblance to the tradition peculiar to Matthew (1575) namely 
that God had given unto men authority to forgive sins. 
But "authority to forgive" might be interpreted by a man 
of Pilate's nature as being "the power of giving immunity 
from punishment according to one's own pleasure." Hence 
the advantage of the Johannine doctrine (" become children "), 
which teaches that "authority" goes hand in hand with 
spiritual childhood. The true " authority " to forgive rests 
with those childlike souls that can see and hear the Father 
in heaven forgiving before they themselves pronounce the 
words of forgiveness on earth. According to John, human 
authority at its highest implies perpetual and voluntary 
dependence upon divine will. 

§7. The ^'authority'' of the Son to ^^ do judgment'' 

[1581] It is a remarkable fact that the first mention of 
" authority " in connexion with the Son — whether uttered by 
our Lord or by the Evangelist — is in the statement that " the 
Father judgeth no one " but gave the Son " authority to do 
judgment because he is Son of man^" ; and yet the Evangelist 
has previously said (iii. 17) "God sent not the Son into the 
world to judge the world but that the world through him 
should be saved." Other statements about "judging" are 
(v. 30) "As I hear I judge and my judgment is true," and 



1 [1580 (i\ See Mk iii. 15 (parall. Mt.-Lk. om.) "authority to cast out 
the devils," vi. 7 "authority over (genit.) the unclean spirits," Mt. x. i 
" authority over (genit.) unclean spirits so as to cast them out and to heal 
every disease and every sickness," Lk. ix. i " power and authority over 
(e'rri w. accus.) all the devils and to heal diseases." See also Lk. x. 19 
(to the Seventy) " I have given you the authority to tread upon (eVaVco) 
serpents," probably denoting powers of evil. 

2 v. 22 — 27. Both V. 26 — 7 and v. 21 — 3 might be evangelistic 
comments (2066/5). 

94 



AUTHORITY " [1583] 



(viii. 15) "I judge no man : yea, and if I judge, my judgment 
is true: because I am not alone, but I and the Father that 
sent me." Elsewhere, using a different noun {Kpifia instead 
of KpiaL<;) Jesus says (ix. 39) " For judgment came I into 
this world that those who see not may see and that those 
who see may become blind." 

[1582] These verbal inconsistencies must have perplexed 
readers restricting their conception of Christ's judgment to an 
image of Him, on a future day, seated on a cloud, detached 
from those whom He is judging. Probably they were meant 
to perplex and to force men to enlarge their conception. To 
the same conclusion tend other Johannine sayings, one, for 
example, that declares the judgment to be already in action, 
(iii. 18) " He that believeth not is judged already I' and 
another that defines judgment thus (iii. 19) "Now this is 
the judgment that light hath come into the world and men 
loved darkness rather than light!' Elsewhere Christ says 
that not He Himself but His word will judge: (xii. 47 — 8), 
" I judge him not... he... hath one that judgeth him : the word 
that I spake, the same shall judge him in the last dayV' 
(xvi. 8 — 11) *' He \i.e. the Paraclete] shall convict the world 
concerningy?^<^w^;//...concerningy^^<^;;^^;// because the prince 
of this world hath been judged'.' 

[1583] In one aspect, the "judgment" here contemplated 
seems to be described almost impersonally, as a Law of the 
spiritual world by which the souls that love the light are 
divided from those that hate it. When the Son of man is 
uplifted on the Cross to save the world, those that see and 
reject Him are by the very act of rejecting "judged already."' 
Those that trust in Him pass out of the sphere of judgment 
into life and unity with Him. The others, by their own act,, 
pass into darkness. It suggests the action of light in attracting 
some creatures while repelling others ; or it may be likened 

1 Comp. viii. 50 " There is (emph.) he that seeketh and judgeth." 
A. V. 95 8 



[1584] "AUTHORITY" 



to the power of the sun to harden clay while it melts wax. 
Such illustrations have this objection, they at once raise 
questions about necessity and free will. These problems are 
recognised by the Evangelist, but their solution is not 
attempted. He assumes that human souls are not by 
unalterable nature divisible into "clay" and "wax\" Un- 
belief is sin, and sin divides unbelievers from believers. 
Their own sin judges, in some sense, the sinners. In another 
sense, the Son of man judges them. But His object is, not 
to "judge" but to "save." 

[1584] In another aspect, "doing judgment" is perhaps 
intended to be distinguished from "judging." The former 
is used in O.T., sometimes along with " doing righteousness," 
but sometimes by itself, to mean " righting the wrongs of 
the oppressed I" It occurs in the famous appeal of Abraham 
to God in behalf of Sodom: "That be far from thee... to 
slay the righteous with the wicked.... Shall not the Judge 
of all the earth do right t " A reason is given for the 
entrusting of this "authority to do judgment" to the Son, 
and it is " because he is Son of man." That is to say, not 
because He is God and knows all secrets, but because He 
is man and has felt all human sufferings, " a man of sorrows 
and acquainted with griefs." In raising up the oppressed, 
the Champion of Justice must also cast down the oppressor : 
but the result is good for both in Plato's sense of justice — 
"doing the best for all." 

[1585] Mark never uses the word "judgment." Matthew 
and Luke use the phrase "in the day of judgment," or "in 



1 [1583 «] Comp. Rom. ix. 21 "Hath not the potter authority over 
the clay...?" where the "authority" depends on the knowledge of the 
potter to do what is best with every kind of clay : but the parallel is 
between the "potter" and the all-wise Creator rather than between 
" man" and "day." 

2 Deut. X. 18, Sir. xxxii. (xxxv.) 18 etc. For "do righteousness and 
judgment," see Gen. xviii. 19 etc. 



96 



"AUTHORITY" [1586] 



the judgment," to mean a day, or season, in which condemna- 
tion will be pronounced. John's definition of "the judgment," 
as given above, and his accumulation of apparently deliberate 
verbal inconsistencies as to the Person judging, indicate 
a desire on the part of the beloved disciple to separate the 
conception of His beloved and adored Master from that of 
a Judge with flaming fire taking vengeance on His enemies — 
and to lead his readers to see His "authority to do judgment" 
in other aspects. When the Evangelist says " the word that 
I spake shall judge him," we are reminded of the "still small 
voice" that questioned Elijah, and akin to this, perhaps, is 
the saying that the Comforter, or Holy Spirit, will "convict 
the world concerning judgments" Both of these passages, 
and others in this Gospel, suggest that human conscience is 
to play a part in ratifying the judgment that is pronounced 
with "authority" by the Logos. 

§ 8. ^^Azithority" in connexion with ^'life" 

[1586] The previous section bore on the saying " He 
[i.e. the Father] gave authority to him [i.e. the Son] to do 
judgment," which is preceded by the words " As the Father 
hath life in himself, so also to the Son he gave to have life 
in himself" — thus connecting the gift of "life in oneself" 
with the gift of "authority to do judgment." We have now 
to consider two sayings that connect "authority" still more 
closely with "life." Both of them are in the first person so 
that they are certainly to be taken as proceeding from our 
Lord Himself, and not — like the saying in the last section — 
possibly from the Evangelist. 

1 [1585^] Jn xvi. ii. "The day of judgment" is not mentioned 
in the Gospel. The nearest approach to it is (v. 29) "resurrection of 
judgment" contrasted with "resurrection of life." "The day of the 
judgment" occurs once in the Epistle, not in connexion with "adver- 
saries," or "the wicked," but with ourselves (i Jn iv. 17) "that we may 
have confidence in the day of the judgment." 



97 8- 



[1587] "AUTHORITY" 



[1587] The first occurs in the Parable of the Good 
Shepherd, which is really a discourse on good rulers. It 
describes the natural king, the king called by God, as ruling 
by his voice, not by coercion. He does not drive the sheep, 
he leads them. He calls them each by name; they hear him 
and follow. The secret of this success is, that this ideal 
Shepherd is ready to lay down his life for the sheep : 
(x. 17 — 18) "Therefore doth the Father love me because 
I lay down my life that I may take it again. No one taketh 
it away from me, but I lay it down of myself. I have 
authority to lay it down and I have authority to take it 
again. This commandment received I from my Father." 

[1588] No one " has authority " to lay down his life 
except that he may, in some sense, take it again, any more 
than the Sower has "authority^" over "the grain of wheat" 
to throw it into the fire. No one "has authority'' to lay 
down his life for his own sake alone, that is, for his own 
honour or pride or to secure eternal happiness — without any 
regard to others. If life is to be " laid down " with 
" authority/' it must be laid down out of " love " for others — 
love for the Father and His children, not for the Father 
alone. The " army of martyrs " is " noble," but not unless 
it is ennobled by " love " : " Though I give my body to be 
burned and have not love, I am nothing." But the man 
that lays down his life in the harvest field of humanity to 
bring forth fruit, the true Martyr, does not, and cannot, do 
this in his own strength, but because he has been ennobled 
and strengthened to do it, and has received high rank and 
" authority " in the kingdom of Heaven. He does it, in one 
sense spontaneously, but, in another, obediently, saying in 
the moment of martyrdom, " This commandment received I 
from my Father." 

* The Sower might be said to have "authority" over the seed as "the 
Potter " has (1583 a) over the clay, but authority based on knowledge 
of Law, and obedience to Law. 

98 



"AUTHORITY" [1590] 



[1589] This, the Johannine view of "authority," is a 
wholesome antidote against complacency and a strong stimu- 
lant to well-doing. " Even the devils are subject to us in 
thy name," say the Seventy to Jesus, in a tradition peculiar 
to Luke. But their Lord's reply warns them against rejoicing 
in this authority, and bids them rejoice rather that their 
names were written in heaven \ Much more, we may be 
sure — from what He said in the Triple Tradition — would He 
have bidden them rejoice in making themselves lords over 
their own passions for the sake of being servants of mankind 
in the spirit of Him who " gave his life for the sheep." While 
it discourages selfish asceticism and artificial self-humiliations 
— which perhaps St Paul meant by his term " voluntary 
humiliation " — the Johannine doctrine keeps the eye of the 
possessor of " authority " fixed on the source of all authority, 
namely, the Father, whose " commandment " cannot be 
"obeyed" without perpetual regard to His children. 

[1590] The next passage connecting " authority " with 
"life" occurs in the beginning of the Lord's last prayer, 
(xvii. I — 2) "Father, the hour is come, glorify thy Son, that 
the Son may glorify thee : even as thou gavest him authority 
over all flesh — that, all that thou hast given unto him, to 
them he should give eternal life," where the italicized words 
may be compared with those peculiar to Matthew describing 
the sending forth of the Apostles to preach the Gospel to 
the world, "^// authority hath been given unto me in heaven 
and earth, Go ye, therefore, and make disciples of all the 

nations^ " It cannot be supposed that the author of this 

tradition in Matthew meant that "all authority... in earth" 
had been given to the Saviour in such a way as to necessitate 
the immediate conversion of the whole " earth " to Christianity. 
The meaning must be that the Son had been appointed by 
the Father to be Lord of men de facto in heaven and de jure 
on earth. 

1 Lk. X. 17 — 20. ^ Mt. xxviii. 18. 

99 



[1591] "AUTHORITY 



[1591] This limitation is expressed in John by the words 
"all that thou hast given him." The phrase (2444) denotes 
the Church on earth. The whole sentence and the context 
recognise that "all flesh" will not own the "authority" of 
the Son. Even among the Apostles, one, " the son of 
destruction," must be " destroyed V' or "lost": the Son 
Himself acknowledges this. But He also acknowledges that 
the " glorifying " of the Father consists in giving " eternal 
life," and that the Son has " authority over all flesh " to offer 
this gift, whether accepted or not. The impression left upon 
us is, that although the " destruction " of " the son of de- 
struction " must take place that the Scripture, that is, the will 
of the Father, may be fulfilled, and although " all flesh " will 
not at once accept the gift of life, yet, in the end — whether 
by ultimate acceptance or not we are not told — by some 
means God will be fully "glorified." And there the Evan- 
gelist leaves the insoluble problem of sin. 

[1592] As regards " authority," it is defined by the term, 
unusual in N.T., " all flesh," a term used repeatedly in O.T. 
to describe the destruction of all animate nature with the 
exception of Noah and his companions, in the delugel It 
is also used by Luke in his Gospel and in the Acts in quota- 
tions from Isaiah and Joel describing the vision of glory, 
or the outpouring of the Spirit, in the kingdom of God^ 
In both these senses it may be intended here to denote 
that the authority of the Messiah is to extend to Gentiles as 
well as to Jews, and to dominate human nature. 

[1593] The last mention of "authority" in the Fourth 
Gospel is in a dialogue that serves the purpose of summing 
up the Evangelist's doctrine about it by contrasting the 

1 Jn xvii. 12. 

* Gen. vi. 12, 17, 19, vii. 15, 16 etc. 

3 Lk. iii. 6 (Is. xl. 5), Acts ii. 17 (Joel ii. 28). It is also in i Pet. i. 24 
(Is. xl. 6). It does not occur elsewhere in N.T. without negative, "no 
flesh » Mk xiii. 20 etc. (2260—3). 

100 



UNIVERSITY 

OF 



"AUTHORITY" [1594] 



wrong with the right conception. It exhibits the nominal 
Ruler, who has the semblance of authority, and is proud of 
it, sitting in judgment on the real Ruler. The former is 
a mere slave. Of his own will, he would release Jesus. 
But the crowd cries " Thou art not Caesar's friend," and 
Pilate ''therefore brought Jesus forth." Again the "Governor" 
struggles for permission to release the innocent, and again 
the crowd cries " We have no king but Caesar." " Then, 
thereforel' Pilate "delivered him unto them to be crucified^" 
Yet this same man had just said to his prisoner, " Knowest 
thou not that / have authority to release thee and / have 
authority to crucify thee ^ t " 

[1594] Jesus, in His reply, contents Himself with pointing 
to the responsibility that attaches itself to "authority." It 
is "given," He says, "from above." As for the true meaning 
of the term, Pilate — who asked " What is truth ? " — was no 
more competent to receive it than were the Pharisees to 
whose question (" By what authority^ ? ") Christ had refused 
to answer. To grasp the conception of true " authority " 
we must be able to grasp the conception of the Good Shep- 
herd : and to do this — so the Gospel tells us — the Jews 
were absolutely unable. They said " We see," but they were 
blind, Jesus spoke to them about the Shepherd, but they 
could not touch the fringe of His meaning. " They did 
not know what the things were (1721 a) that he was speaking 
to them^" In that Parable, Christ had virtually replied 
by anticipation to Pilate's boast "/ have authority!' The 
false Ruler says to the true, " I have authority to take thy 
life": the true Ruler replies, "I have authority \o lay it down^" 



1 xix. 12—16. 2 xix. lo. 3 Mk xi. 28 etc. (1562). 

* ix. 39 — X. 6. 

^ [1594 d\ The mischief that might arise from regarding the 
"authority" of Christ as a magical power of casting out evil spirits, or 
of imparting the Spirit of Holiness — a power limited to the Twelve in 
Mark, and to the Twelve and the Seventy in Luke — is seen in the request 

101 



[1594] " AUTHORITY 



of Simon Magus in the Acts (viii. 19) to be allowed to purchase "this 
authority ^^ namely, to impart the Spirit. A protest against superstitious 
or servile views of it seems also to underlie several passages in the 
Epistles to the Corinthians where St Paul refuses to use certain material 
apostolic privileges that had come to be connected with apostolic 
"authority" (i Cor. ix. i — 5) "Am I not an apostle f-.-HdiVQ we no 
authority to eat and drink [at the cost of the Churches]... even as the 
rest of the Apostles...?''^ There was, perhaps, a danger that some of the 
large number called Apostles or Missionaries in the first century, while 
saying (i Cor. vi. 12) '■^ I have authority {e^ea-nv) to do all things," might 
forget to say (id.) "But I will not be brought under the authority of any 
{ovK e^ovo-iaa-drjo-ofiai viro rtvos)." That is to say, they might be tempted 
to rule over converts in the spirit of Pilate rather than in the spirit 
of Christ (Mk x. 42, i Pet. v. 3) "exercising lordship to the utmost 
(KaraKvpievovres)." Comp. Didach. xi. 12 " But whosoever shall say in the 
spirit, * Give me money, or other things,' ye shall not listen to him." 

[1594 <^] As regards Rev. xxii. 14 (quoted in 1564^) r) e^ova-ia avrav eVt 
TO ivXov, the interpretation is complicated by the fact that Rev. has 
(l) accus. also in vi. 8 edodij avroU e. eVi to TeTapTov r. yrjs, xiii. 7 edodrj 
avTto €. €irl iracrav (f)vXr]v, xvi. 9 tov 6eov tov exovTos r. e. eVt r. -rrXrjyas 
TavTas, but (2) genit. in ii. 26 dcoaco avT(o i. iir\ tmv edvMv, xi. 6 e. e'xova-iv 
eVi r. vSaro)!/, xiv. 186 ex^^ ^'- ^'"''- '"• """^pos. Perhaps eVt with accus. may 
imply '■^extending over" suggesting "extending /^." Or, if criticism 
decides that the book is composite, that might explain the variation. 

[1594 <:] In Mk ii. 10, Mt. ix. 6, Lk. v. 24 (referred to in 1562) 
Lk. (and sim. Mt.) has i. e'xei eVi ttjs yrjs (whereas Mk has eVt ttjs yi]9 at 
the end of the Lord's words) thus suggesting the meaning " hath 
authority over the earth^^ as in Revelations (1563 — 4). There is great 
variation in the Latin versions between "in terra," "in terram," and 
*' super terram." In LXX, e^ovo-ia with eVi is very rare (Sir. xxx. 28 
(xxxiii. 19) (f)iX(o fxr) 8as e. eVi (re, Dan. iii. 97 (LXX, not Theod. nor Heb.) 
€. 80VS €(f)' oXtjs Trjs x^P^^) '• but €^ovaid((o eVi with accus. is in Neh. v. 15, 
ix. 37, I Mac. X. 70 (of oppressive authority). 

[1594^] Lk. xxii. 25 (1570) probably avoids fcaraKvpieuo), not because 
he wishes to soften the word, but because, outside the LXX, it meant 
" overcome" as in the only instance mentioned by Steph., Diod. xiv. 64 
" having overcome [in a naval engagementy 



102 



CHAPTER III 

JOHANNINE SYNONYMS 

§ I. The use of synonyms in this Gospel 

[1595] In the Introduction (1436—7) it was pointed out 
that the Dialogue in the Fourth Gospel between our Lord 
and Peter, after the Resurrection, interchanged the words 
" love {djairav) " and " like {<\>iXelv) " in a manner hardly- 
capable of being briefly and literally expressed in any 
English Version, and not expressed by our Revised Version 
except by a marginal note stating that the two Greek words 
for " love " are different. The whole of this Gospel is 
pervaded with distinctions of thought, represented by subtle 
distinctions of word or phrase — words and phrases so far 
alike that at first the reader may take the thought to be 
the same, though it is always really different In discussing 
the word " trust " or " believe," for example, it appeared that 
" trust to the name of," " trust to," and " trust," signified 
different things. Again, the word "authority" was shewn 
to mean a different thing in most Synoptic passages from 
what it means in the Fourth Gospel ; and, even in the Fourth, 
Pilate uses it in one sense and our Lord in another. If the 
writer thus emphasizes the various shades of meaning in the 
same words ("trust" and "authority") we must anticipate 
that he will do the same thing in using different (though 
synonymous) words, and that his play upon " loving " and 
" liking " will have many parallels in his Gospel. 

103 



[1596] JOHANNINE SYNONYMS 

[1596] Some of these will be hard to detect. For 
example, the word (f>iX€co, or " take as a friend," which is 
for the most part (1728 m—p) a lower word than a^airaay, is 
applied by our Lord Himself (on the very first occasion on 
which it occurs in this Gospel) to the love of the Father 
for the Son, thus (v. 20) " For the Father taketh as a friend 
the Son and sheweth him all that he himself doeth." Codex 
D and a few other authorities alter this to " loveth." A most 
natural alteration ! But if we compare what Christ says 
later on where He declares that henceforth He will call 
His disciples "friends" because He intends to tell them all 
His secrets^, we shall find that the meaning is, not that the 
Father ''loveth" the Son (which is assumed) but that the Son, 
to speak in metaphor, is of age to be a fellow-counsellor with 
the Father, who treats Him as a friend, and ''sJuweth him 
all that he himself doeth!' These remarks will suffice as an 
introduction to a discussion of some of the most important 
of the Johannine synonyms. 

§2. ''Seeing" 

[1597] A distinction between "seeing" and "beholding" 
is clearly implied in the saying of Jesus to the disciples 
(xvi. 16) "A little [while] and ye no longer behold me 
(decopelri fjue), and again a little [while] and ye shall see me 
(osfreo-de fie)." The disciples repeat the saying in perplexity. 
It is repeated again by Jesus in His reply to their questionings 
with one another. In each of the three cases the same 
distinction is observed, apparently indicating that " behold " 



1 [1596 rt] XV. 14—15. So, in Genesis (xviii. 17), God refuses to hide 
His plans from Abraham, His (Jas. ii. 23) "friend." The same meaning 
is probably intended in Jn xvi. 27. On the other hand, in xx. 2 "the 
disciple whom Jesus lovetV (rj-ydrra in xiii. 23, xix. 26, xxi. 7, 20) is 
perhaps called " the disciple whom Jesus (1436) sti'/t toved (ecfiCkei)" because 
he had not yet "believed," so that he is regarded as under a cloud. 

104 



JOHANNINE SYNONYMS [1598] 

means "behold with the bodily eye" but "see" means "see 
spiritually^" 

(i) SecopcLv. 

[1598] This distinction is pretty regularly maintained. 
"OyjreaOai is repeatedly used of spiritual promise (i. 39) 
" Come and fe shall see'^l' (i. 50) " thou shall see greater things/' 
(i. 51) ''ye shall see the heaven opened and the angels of 
God," (xi. 40) '* thou shall see the glory of God," and thrice 
in the passage referred to above, concerning the resurrection 
of Jesus. This makes seven mentions. Then occurs the 
thought that our ''seeing'' Christ depends on Christ's "seeing''' 
us, just as man's " knowing " God is sometimes identified both 
in N.T. and in O.T. with God's "knowing" man^ The seven 

1 [1597^] Comp. Philo i. 578 "that which receives the divine appari- 
tion (r. Bilav <f)avTaa-iav) is the eye of the soul. For, else, what the mere 
bodily eyes behold {decopovai) they apprehend with the cooperation of 
light (avvepyco ^eori ;^pa)/i6J/oi KaraXaji^dvovcnv)..." (i. 579) "Whenever 
you hear that God appeared {6(f)$evTa) to men, understand that this takes 
place apart from material light {(fxoTbs ala6r]Tov)" 

[1597 b'] '0(f)drjvai, " appeared," or " was seen," is the word regularly 
used by St Paul to describe the manifestations of Christ after the 
Resurrection (i Cor. xv. 5 — 8). Jn xxi. i, 14 uses e(f)avepd)dT} "was 
manifested" or efftavepaxrev eavrov "manifested himself" (Mk App. [xvi. 
12, 14] €cf)av€pd)6r]). But in predicting His self-manifestation, Jesus 
(xiv. 21) uses en(fiavi((o, saying that He will "make himself mar^ifest" 
to the believer and not to the world because He and the Father will 
"come to him and make an abiding place in his heart (Trap' avroJ).'^ 
This illustrates what Philo says, that, whenever God has " appeared to '^ 
(or "been seen by") men, it has been "apart from material light." It 
is unfortunate that in English we render Scf)6r) in two ways, (i) "was 
seen by," (2) "appeared to." If it is rendered "was seen by," we must 
remember that the sight is (in many cases) not received by the bodily eye. 
If it is rendered " appeared to," we must remember that the thing seen 
is to be regarded as real and objective^ though spiritual. 

2 [1598 d\ Some inferior MSS. read " Come and see," assimilating the 
phrase to the ordinary Rabbinical formula (on which see Wetst., Schottg. 
and Hor. Heb. ad loc.) expressed in Jn i. 46 "Come and see." 

^ [1598 <^] Comp. Gal. iv. 19, where St Paul, after saying "But now, 
having known God^'' corrects himself and adds — "or rather being known 
by God" i.e. being taken into the family circle of God and being recognised 
as His children. 

105 



[1598] JOHANNINE SYNONYMS 

promises, therefore, of ''seeing'' are summed up in a promise 
of ''being seen" (xvi. 22) "/ will see you (oyjrofjbaL vjxas:) and 
your joy no man shall take from you." On the other hand 
Oewpelv, at all events at the outset of the Gospel, is used of 
unintelligent, superficial, or at least inferior "beholding." 
People (ii. 23) " behold " Christ's signs, but Jesus does not 
trust them ; the Samaritan woman asserts that she (iv. 19) 
''beholds" (in a mere feeling of wonder) that Jesus is "a 
prophet " : the multitude that (vi. 2) " beholds " Christ's signs 
is avoided by Him because they unintelligently desire to 
make Him a king by force; the disciples (vi. 19) "behold" 
Jesus walking on the water — " and feared." When a higher 
signification exists, it seems derived from a special context, 
as in vi. 40 " Everyone that beholdeth the Son and believetk'* 
and so (xii. 44, 45) " He that believeth on me...believeth on 
him that sent me... (45) and he that [thus, in a spirit of 
belief^ beholdeth me beholdeth him that sent me." Or else, 
a better meaning is derived from antithesis, as when the 
world's " beholding " with coarse material vision is contrasted 
with the rudimentary spiritual "beholding" which Jesus 
appears to acknowledge in the disciples even before the 
Resurrection, (xiv. 17 — 19) "The Spirit of truth, which the 
world cannot receive because it does not behold it (Oecopet) 
nor so much as have an understanding of it (ovSe yLvcoaKec) ; 
ye have an understanding of it... (19) Yet a little while and 
the world beholdeth me no more ; but ye (emph.) behold me : 
because I live, ye shall live also," i.e. " the world shall cease 
to behold my visible and material body, but ye shall still 
behold me with the faith of affection ^" 



1 [1598 c\ This should be compared with the higher standard of 
spiritual vision adopted later in xvi. 16—19, "Ye behold (eeapdre) me 
no more," i.e. ye shall rise above the beholding in the flesh, and also 
above the beholding in mere half-faith. Literally, the Evangelist (as 
often) contradicts himself. He appears to do it with a deliberate 
purpose (1925). 

106 



JOHANNINE SYNONYMS [1600] 

[1599] In the post-resurrection narrative, there appears 
a remarkable and systematic distinction between "verbs of 
seeing," intended apparently to lead up to the words of 
Jesus that even any kind of mere ''seeing'' is inferior to 
believing (xx. 29 "Blessed are they that have not seen 
(lB6vT€(;) and have believed^") — although "believing" itself 
is only a preparation for "abiding" in the Son. 

[1600] The Resurrection is regarded as a mystery. Insight 
into it is gradually bestowed on the disciples in three different 
stages^ First Mary Magdalene "notes (^XeTret)" the stone 
removed from the tomb. Then the two disciples run towards 
it. The disciple whom Jesus loved (1696 a) reaches the 
tomb first. He "glances in (Trapa/cvyfra^^)" and "notes 
(I3\€7r€i)" something more than Mary — the linen swathing 
bands that had (xix. 40) once ''bound" the body, now 
discarded. He does not venture, however, to enter the 
darkness of the sepulchre. Peter is the first to do this, 
and there he " beholds {Oewpel) " — steadfastly and in perplexity, 
but still not as yet in faith — the napkin, which had confined 
the head of Jesus, now discarded. Then (as a third stage) 
the beloved disciple is described as passing through three 

1 [1599 a\ Mere usage may sometimes cause a change from one verb 
to another even where the meaning is the same. For example, Ibatv is 
the regular word for past " seeing " {^Xeyjras being very rare), and iSXeVf, 
not iSf, is used, especially by Mk, to mean "look to it," "take heed." 
'EwpaKo, used by Mary Magdalene (xx. 18) "/ Aave seen the Lord," 
implies probably more than mere material seeing, and perhaps not 
material seeing at all. It is very unlikely that the Evangelist supposes 
that Caiaphas, had he been standing by the side of Mary, would have 
seen the Saviour. See 1601. 

2 [1600 «] Comp. Schottg. ii. 76 (quoting Tanchum. 77 a) "When God 
reveals His Shechinah to the Israelites, it is not done in a moment"; 
" Come and learn [a mystery] from the case of Joseph, who did not for 
many years reveal himself to his brethren. So therefore God revealed 
Himself by degrees and slow degrees." 

3 [1600 <^] On Tra/jaKUTrrco, which occurs in N.T. only here (xx. 5, 11), 
possibly in Lk. xxiv. 12 and certainly in Jas. i. 25, i Pet. i. 12, see 
1798—1804. In the Epistles it has a spiritual meaning. 

107 



[1601] JOHANNINE SYNONYMS 

processes : he " entered in " and " saw (elBev) " and " believed." 
We are not told that he "saw" anything but the grave- 
clothes and the empty grave : but it is implied that he " saw " 
the truth of the Resurrection. 

[1601] The two depart, and Mary is left alone. Twice 
she is mentioned as "weeping." Then she, too, "glanced 
into (irapeKvyjrev ek) " the tomb, and " beholds (Oecopet) " two 
angels ; but still there is no faith. Twice is the question put 
to her, "Why weepest thou?" In the second case, it is 
put by Jesus, and the word Oecopel is repeated. She "be- 
holds" Him, but not intelligently: she mistakes Him for 
some one else. Not till she is ''called by her name^" does 
she recognise and answer. Thus her faith is apparently 
caused not by sight but by hearing ; and, although she really 
has seen Jesus, and, in her report to the disciples, she says, 
" I have seen (ecopaKo) the LordV' the intention appears to 
be to emphasize the spiritual truth that the mere " beholding'' 
{OeaypLo) of an image of the risen Saviour is not a true 
^'seeing'' (opaac^). Philo lays stress on the statement that 
the children of Israel ''saw the voice of the Lord (icapa rrjv 
<f)(ovr)vy" So Mary's vision was caused by a " voice." She 
only beheld {Oewpel) the form, but may be said to have seen 
(edopaKe) the voice, of Jesus. Thomas refused to believe 
unless he might touch the Lord, Mary is forbidden to 
"touch" Him: nor is it said that He "shewed her his 
hands and his side" in order to convince her (as He is 
said to have convinced others) that He was not "the 
gardener." In one sense, then, she might be said to have 
believed, like the beloved disciple, because she discerned the 
truth, though she had not "seen" with the outward eye 
the body of Jesus : and perhaps Mary and the beloved 



1 Comp. Jn X. 3 — 4 " He calleth his own sheep by name and leadeth 
them out... and the sheep follow him for they know his voice." 

2 XX. 18. ^ Philo i. 443, quoting Ex. xx. 18. 

108 



JOHANNINE SYNONYMS [1603] 

disciple are both included in the blessing pronounced upon 
those who have ''''not seen (tSorre?)^ and believed." 

[1602] In the third and last and specially sacred mani- 
festation of Jesus to the Seven, this notion — i.e. of revelation, 
not through sight, but through some other cause — is still 
further developed. While the disciples are fishing, Jesus 
suddenly " stood on the beach." The disciples do not 
recognise Him by sight, nor even by voice, when He calls 
them ''children" and directs them towards success. It is 
not till they have obeyed His word and have been rewarded, 
that the beloved disciple exclaims to Peter, " It is the Lord." 
Then — with a repetition quite needless but for the writer's 
desire to insist on belief through hearing — the narrative 
describes how " Simon Peter, having heard that it was the 
Lord!' plunged into the sea and hastened towards Him^ 
And even while the disciples are participating in the sacred 
meal of ^the Loaf and the Fish they are (so it is implied) 
unable to recognise Him by sight, but only by knowledge, 
■''None of the disciples dared to question him, 'Who art 
thou?' knowing that it was the Lord^" If they had recog- 
nised Him by sight, where was the need to "question".? 
The writer indicates that their knowing — though it was 
"absolute knowledge'' (elBoref;) — proceeded not from sight 
but from inward conviction. 

[1603] Being thus used to express a rudimentary stage 
of " seeing " spiritual truth, Oeaypelv is not used at all in the 
Epistle metaphorically, and only once literally*. 



1 [1601 a] XX. 29. Note that the Evangelist does not, and could not, 
write 01 firj ecopuKores. In that spiritual sense, Jesus could not pronounce 
a blessing on " those who have not seen " : for opaa-is means " true 
vision." 

^ xxi. 7. 3 xxi. 12. 

* [1603 <2] I Jn iii. 17 Beapfj r. d8e\(f)6v avrov xp^^civ ^xovra^ i.e. stolidly 
beholding one's brother in need and doing nothing to help him. 



109 



[1604] JOHANNINE SYNONYMS 

(ii) SedaOat. 

[1604] This word, being connected with " theatre " and 
with the notions of a spectacle and a multitude, will be 
rendered here " contemplate " — a rendering inadequate but 
intended to distinguish it^ from Oewpelv "behold." It is used 
twice of Jesus. The first instance is when He " contemplates '* 
His two earliest disciples (i. 38) " following " Him. These 
are the beginning of the Church. It is used again when 
He (vi. 5) lifts up His eyes to heaven and "contemplates" 
the great multitude coming to the Feast of the Bread from 
heaven. These represent the developed Church. Elsewhere 
it is used of disciples, or believers, contemplating some mani- 
festation, not of God, but of the glory of God (i. 14, 32, iv. 35, 
xi. 45) and so in i Jn i. i, iv. 12 (" No man hath contemplated 
God "), 14. 

(iii) 'Opav. 

[1605] John's use of this verb is confined to the future 



^ [1604 a] Qeaardai cannot perhaps be expressed in English so as to 
distinguish it from Beapelv. " Contemplate " is quite inadequate, and 
so are "gaze at" and "survey." In N.T., Beaa-Oai is almost always 
connected with a number of people either as "seeing" or as "being seen," 
e.g. with the muhitudes going out to "see the sight" of John the Baptist 
(Mt. xi. 7, Lk. vii. 24), or with the king coming in to see the assemblage 
of his guests (Mt. xxii. 11). In the Synoptists, the only exception to this 
is Lk. V. 27 where Jesus watches Levi engaged in his public occupation 
(parall. Mk ii. 14, Mt. ix. 9 dhiv). But Mk App. [xvi. 11] iBtaQr) 
v'n avTTJs is applied to Jesus seen by Mary Magdalene alone after the 
Resurrection. 

[1604 d] In Jn (i. 32) it is appHed once to the Baptist seeing the 
Holy Spirit descend on Christ. In Rom. xv. 24 it probably means 
that the Apostle wishes to have the joy of beholding the assembly of 
the whole of the Roman Church. It is perhaps impossible to say 
confidently how the writer differentiates Jn i. 18 Seov ovdels empuKev 
TTtriTTore from I Jn iv. 12 deov ovdels na>7roT€ TfBiarat. The former would 
most naturally apply to the revelation of God received individually by 
Patriarchs and Prophets, the latter to that received by the saints of the 
collective Church. The absolute God has been seen by none, whether 
singly or collectively. 

1 10 



JOHANNINE SYNONYMS [1606] 

oyjro/jLai and the perfect icapaKa^. 'Ecopa/ca, in John, means 
that kind of " having seen " which has produced a permanent 
result enabling the man that " hath seen " to " bear witness." 
There are few exceptions to the letter, and none to the spirit, 
of this rule. It is possible, however, to " have seen " — so far 
as the bad can " see " — and to " disbelieve," or even to " have 
seen" and to "hate," not only the Son but even "the Father": 
and the mention of " the Father " shews that spiritual sight, 
not material, is contemplated^. It is characteristic of the writer 
that, while he says " God no one /lat/i seen at any time'," he re- 
presents Jesus as apparently blaming the unbelieving Jews for 
not having " seen " the " form " of the Father (" Ye have neither 
heard his voice nor seen his form, and ye have not his word 
abiding in you"*"). Jesus also says : "Not that any one hath 
seen the Father except him who is from the Father," and 
" He that hath seen me hath seen the Father^" The object 
is to shew that the pure in heart must needs ''■have seen" the 
Father in the Son. 

[1606] 'E(opaK(o<; is applied to ''having seen'' (through 
divine revelation) the fountain of blood and water that gushed 
from the side of Jesus. Here, too (as in i. 34, iii. 32), 
"witnessing" follows close on "having seen" \ (xix. 35) "He 
that hath seen hath borne witness^!' 



1 [1605 ^] It would be interesting to ascertain the motives that led 
the writer to dispense with the present. (In Philo the pres. is freq., 
especially of Israel "seeing God." In the LXX it is often used as a 
noun, e.g. 2 S. xxiv. 11 "David's seer {rov opatvra (A -^tov) AaveiS).") 
In Jn vi. 2, many MSS. read edopcov : but probably the scribes cancelled 
the first two letters of the original eeecopcoN (for -oyN). 

2 vi. 36, XV. 24 " They have both seen and hated me and my Father." 
^ i. 18. * V. 37. '" vi. 46, xiv. 9 (comp. xiv. 7). 

^ [1606 a] Besides these two passages there is iv. 45, " The Galileans 
received him, having seen (ttopaKorey) all the things that he did in 
Jerusalem." Although the writer may intend to correct the very un- 
favourable impression given of the Galileans by Luke (iv. 29), yet, in 
a context describing such transient faith or "receiving" as this, we 
should rather expect decopelv than 6pav. In vi. 2 eapav in some MSS. 

A. V. Ill 9 



[1607] JOHANNINE SYNONYMS 

(iv) BXeireip. 

[1607] BXcTretv is used of material sight, especially in 
connexion with the healing of blindness (ix. 7 — 25, five times). 
In the same connexion it means (with a play on the word 
(ix. 39 — 41)) spiritual seeing. It is also used of "looking" 
in ordinary life (xiii. 22 "they looked on one another ")^ 
Only by a rare metaphor is the word used of the Son of 
God, in heaven (v. 19) "looking at" the deeds of the Father 
(in which sense Philo also uses it of the Eldest Son of the 
Father in heaven " looking at {^Xeirwv) " the acts of the Father 
as patterns for His own action) ^ 

(v) Alpeiv 6<j)6a\fjLov<; etc. 

[1608] The act of "raising the eyes" or "looking up" 
is regarded by Philo (on Gen. xviii. 2, P. A. 242) as sym- 
bolical. Jesus uses it in a symbolical sense when He bids 
the disciples (iv. 35) "lift up" their "eyes" and behold the 
spiritual harvest. But it is also thrice used by the Evangelist 
concerning Jesus. In the first case, (vi. 5) it precedes the 
sign of the Bread of Life. In the second, it precedes (xi. 41) 
the raising of Lazarus. In the third (xvii. i) it introduces 
the last prayer of the Son to the Father ; and there, as 
if a climax was intended, the Evangelist writes, not simply 
" lifting up," but " lifting up to heaven!' 

(vi) ^\hdv etc. 

[1609] The thought implied by this verb often differs 
according to its grammatical form owing to considerations 

has wrongly supplanted e^ecopouv (1605 a). Possibly, here too, after 
navra, Stood an original TeGecopHKOTec which has been altered to 
ecopAKOxec. 

^ Comp. i. 29, xi. 9. In xx. i, 5, xxi. 9, 20 it refers to things "seen" 
or " noted " after the Resurrection. 

2 [1607 a] Philo i. 414 Tovtov ^€v yap Trpecr^vraTov viov 6 rayv optoov 
ai/e'reiXe Trarrjp, ov erepcidi npiOToyovov atvofiacre, koI 6 yevvijOels fiivTOi 
^Lfxovp,evos ras tov Trarpos 68ovs, npos Trapabeiyp.aTa dpx^eTVTra CKeivov 
jSXcTrcoi', €p6p(f)ov etdr]. 

3 See also Philo i. 95, 299, 645, ii. 13. 

112 



JOHANNINE SYNONYMS [1609] 

other than grammatical. In the participle and the sub- 
junctive, this is the customary verb to express ordinary 
seeing, so that its use implies no special meaning. But in 
Gen. i. 31 it is used in the past indicative (elBev) concerning 
the Creator surveying His work and pronouncing it good, 
and this stamps that tense as likely to be used by Philo and 
his school to express that kind of "sight" which precedes 
some spiritual utterance or process. Also, in Rabbinical 
writers, " Come and see " is commonly used as a preface to 
the statement of some profound mystery^, and this is hinted 
at in the reply of Philip to Nathanael (i. 46) " Come and see 
(tSe)," as if, in answer to Nathanael's incredulous words, " Can 
Qxvy good come out of Nazareth?" God replied through the 
mouth of the unconscious instrument, Philip, " Come and see 
[tke mystery of mysteries^ the Supreme Good\^r Another use 
of this formula is where the Jews themselves invite Jesus to 
" come and see " the apparent triumph of death, unconsciously 
inviting Him to the highest manifestation of His own divine 
and life-giving power in triumphing over death (xi. 34) : 
" ' Where have ye laid him ? ' They say unto him, ' Sir, come 
and see! Jesus wept^." 



1 See Hor. Heb. on Jn i. 47 (R.V. i. 46). 

2 In the Johannine Epistles this vb. occurs thrice, i Jn iii. i tScre 
TTOTaTrrjv aydir-qv dedcoKev..., v. l6 edv ris idij r. d8€X(f>6v, 3 Jn xiv. eXTri^o)... 
(re tSeii/. 

^ [1609 a] "Come and see'' must be distinguished from (i. 39) (R.V.) 
" Come and ye shall see (o-^eaOe) " (A. V. " Come and see " reading idere), 
which is not a Rabbinical precept but a Messianic promise. The context 
there is full of emblematic meaning. It contains the very first utterance 
of Christ, '■^ What seek ye?" — which is, according to Philo (i. 196 
commenting on Gen. xxxvii. 15), the utterance wherein Elenchos {i.e. 
the Convicting Logos or Spirit) addressing the wandering soul, asks it 
what is the object of its existence. 

[1609 (^] The two seekers after truth reply, " Rabbi... where abidest 
thou ?," unconsciously asking the Son to tell them of His eternal Abiding- 
place, the " Eternal Home," " the bosom of the Father." The Saviour 
does not say to them (see Chrysostom) as He says, in effect, to the 

113 9—2 



[1610] JOHANNINE SYNONYMS 



[1610] In the indicative, elBov is used of the disciples 
(i. 39) " coming and seeing " where Jesus " abides " ; Abraham 
also (viii. 56) " saw," prophetically, the glory of the Messiah, 
and Isaiah (xii. 41 "saw") is probably represented as seeing 
it in the same way. When the beloved disciple entered the 
tomb of Jesus, he " saw " and " believed " (1552—60). Applied 
to Jesus it occurs thrice to describe His mysteriously " seeing " 
Nathanael under the fig-tree^ the blind man to whom He 
gives sight, and Mary to whom He restores Lazarus from 
the dead 2. 

[1611] Philo, commenting on the statement (Gen. i. 31) 
that "God saw (elSev) his works," deprecates the literal 
meaning, and apparently implies that the words indicate 
a transference of knowledge or intellectual " sight " from Him- 
self to His creatures^. Certain it is that in each of these last 
two cases, when Jesus "saw (eZSez^)" a human being, the act is a 
prelude to a transference from Him of (i) sight, (2) life* and, 
in the case of Nathanael, the threefold eihev prefaces a trans- 
ference of spiritual life. 

§ 3. ''Hearing'' 

[1612] A difference between the Johannine and the 
Synoptic view of '* hearing/' as a means of receiving the 

Scribe (Mt. viii. 20, Lk. ix. 58) " Foxes have holes — but the Son hath 
no abiding-place." On the contrary, He promises that, if they will 
" come," they shall " see " the abiding-place. 

1 i. 47 — 50 "Jesus sawi^dhev) Nathanael coming...! saw (eldov) thee... 
Because I said to thee I saw (eldov) thee...." 

2 ix. I, xi. 33. In the latter, it is said that "when he saw her 
weeping and the Jews that had come with her weeping he... troubled 
himself." In the healing of the impotent man the participle is used 
(v. 6) TovTov Idoiv 6 'I..., and also in xix. 26 'I. ovv Idoiv ttjv fx-qripa.... 

3 [1611 a'\ Philo i. 442 Aeyerm yap on (Gen. i. 31) EtSei/ 6 Oeos ra ndvra 
oaa €7roir)(rev, ovk 'iaov tq>, o-^iv eKaarois npoae^aXcv, aXX eidrjaiu koI yvatcriv 
Koi KaToXrj^Lv (Sv erroirjo-ev. That this represents God as " teaching," 
appears from the following words, Ei^e to'lvw (VTrpeires vcfirjyela-^ai koi 
8i8d(TKfiv KOI beiKVVvai.... 

114 



JOHANNINE SYNONYMS 



[1613J 



revelation of Christ, is perceptible in their different ways of 
representing the last part of the following passage of Isaiah — 
which is quoted by Jesus Himself in the Three Gospels, and 
by the Evangelist in the Fourth. The Hebrew is (R.V. txt) 
(Is. vi. 9 — lo), "Go and tell this people, Hear ye indeed, but 
understand not, and see ye indeed, but perceive not. Make 
the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and 
shut their eyes: lest they see with their eyes, and hear with 
their ears, and understand with their heart, and turn again and 
be healed!' 



Mkiv. II-I2 (lit.) 
"...in parables. 
That seeing {fi\k- 
7roi/T€s) they may 
see and not per- 
ceive (tSwo-tv), and 
hearing they may 
hear and not un- 
derstand, lest at 
any time they 
should turn and 
it should be for- 
given them." 



Mt. xiii. 13 Lk. viii. 10 



Jn xii. 39-40 
"...inpar- "...inpar- "For this cause 

ables. Be- ables, that they could not 
cause seeing seeing they believe, for that 
they do not may not see Isaiah said again, 
see and hear- and hearing He hath blinded 
ing they do they may not their eyes and he 
not hear, understand." hardened their 
neither do heart; lest they 

they under- should see with 

standi" their eyes and 

perceive (i/or/o-w- 
crti/) with their 
heart, and should 
turn and I shall 
{i.e. should) heal 
them." 

[1613] This is not the place to discuss all the differences 
of these four versions, but merely to indicate that John, in 
quoting this prophecy, consistently drops all that refers to 
hearing (" make their ears heavy,' " lest they. . .hear with their 
ears''). Did he do this because it seemed superfluous, the 

1 Mt. continues, "And there is being utterly fulfilled for them the 
prophecy of Isaiah saying, 'By hearing ye shall hear.. .lest at any time... 
they should turn, and I shall {i.e. should) heal them ' " — quoting the LXX 
version of the whole of the prophecy given above. 



115 



[1614] JOHANNINE SYNONYMS 

metaphor of the " eyes " being sufficient ? It is probable that 
he deemed no word in Scripture superfluous. But he may 
have had regard to the whole tenor of his own Gospel — the 
revelation of the incarnate Word. How could the Word be 
heard by those whose " ears " have been " made heavy " by 
God ? To modern readers it will occur at once that this 
difficulty is no greater than that which is suggested by the 
parallel question, " How could the Light of the World be 
seen by those whose ' eyes ' have been ' blinded ' by God ? " 
Logically, that is true. But under the influence of traditions 
about the (Ps. Iviii. 4) " deaf adder that stoppeth her ear," and 
(Jer. viii. 17) "adders that will not be charmed," some might 
reserve this particular metaphor (of " deafness ") to denote 
incurable spiritual defect. 

[1614] It is a remarkable fact that John does not relate 
a single instance of the cure of the deaf He does not even 
mention the word "deaf" in the whole of his Gospel. Using 
the word "hear" in two senses, (i) "perceiving by the sense 
of hearing," (2) " hearkening to " or "obeyingV' he represents 

1 [1614 a] 'Akovco with accus. = '"'■perceive by hearing" with genit. = 
" hearken to," or " obey." The following passages illustrate the difference 
between the two constructions. 

[1614^] (i) 'Akovo) with accus. iii. 8 "thou hearest its voice," but 
knowest not its home, object, and meaning ; v. 24 " He that heareth 
my word and believeth...," i.e. not merely hears ; v. 37 "Ye have never 
[so much as\ heard his voice," much less understood and obeyed it ; 
viii. 43, 47 (1614 d) ; xix. 8 " When therefore Pilate heard this word 
(Xoyoi/)" — to be contrasted with xix. 13 "Pilate thtreiort, giving ear io 
these words (Xoyfoi/)," i.e. intimidated by them and obeying them. 

[1614^] (2) 'Akovco with genit. v. 25 — 8 "the [spiritually] dead shall 
hearken to the voice {(fxovrjs) of the Son of God and they that hearken 
shall live.. .all that are in the tombs shall hearken to his voice," and shall 
obey by coming forth to judgment, whether for good or ill ; (vii. 40) 
"having hearkened to these words, said, 'This is truly the prophet,'" 
X. 3, 16, xviii. 37, of those '■^hearkening to" the voice of the Good 
Shepherd, or " my voice," xii. 47 " Every one that shall hearken to my 
words and not observe them," i.e. understand them, and either not obey 
them, or obey them for a time, but " not keep {(jivXd^T]) them." 

116 



JOHANNINE SYNONYMS [1616] 



Jesus as saying to some of the Jews that they were unable to 
'' hear " His word, even in the former sense. The context im- 
plies that they were of the nature of "the deaf adder" — which 
will not hear the voice of (vii. 24, comp. Ps. Iviii. i) "righteous 
judgment" — the Serpent or Slanderer: "Why do ye not recog- 
nise the meaning of ('yivcoaKere) my speech ? Because ye are 
not able to hear my word^ Ye are from your father the devil!' 

[1615] The importance attached by John to " hearing " as 
compared with " seeing " appears in several passages and not 
only in the rebuke to Thomas. When Mary Magdalene 
returns from the tomb to the disciples, " I have seen the 
Lord " is not the whole of her tidings. She adds that " He 
said these things to her " : and it has been shewn above (1601) 
that she believed in the Resurrection, not because she " saw," 
but because she heard. The Prologue of the Gospel, it is 
true, mentions what we have called above (1604) — most 
inadequately — "contemplating." "And the Word became 
flesh and tabernacled among us and we contemplated his 
glory." But if this is compared with what may be called the 
Epilogue, that is to say, the Epistle, it will appear that this 
" contemplation of," or " gazing on," the earthly form and life 
of the Logos, was but a rudimentary and transient manifesta- 
tion. The higher manifestations are described as ''hearing'^ 
and ''seeing',' both of them in the perfect: — "what we have 
heard [and retain in our hearts]," " what we have seen [and 
keep in our minds]." In contrast to this the " contemplating " 
is spoken of in the past, along with the " handling " — " we 
contemplated," "our hands handled." 

[1616] The whole passage in the Epistle^ is well worth 
study for the light it throws on John's use of synonyms and 

1 [1614^] Jn viii. 43. In antithesis, it is said (viii. 47) "He that 
is from God perceives-by-hearing the words {aKovf^i to. pr}}iaTa) of God,' 
i.e. he has the faculty of perceiving the voice of God. Sir. xii. 13 ("Who 
will pity a snake-charmer?") shews that "deaf adders" were frequent. 
They represent unjust rulers in Jer. viii. 17. See Ency. 4394. 

2 I Jn i. 1—5. 

117 



[1617] JOHANNINE SYNONYMS 



for other reasons. " We have heard'' is repeated thrice, and 
so is " we have seen!' On the other hand, '' we bring tidings " 
{aira'yyeWo^ev) is repeated twice, and then the verb occurs 
a third time, slightly varied — " we publish tidings " {avay^eX- 
\oiLL€i'). The first words in the Prologue are, " /;/ the beginning 
was the Word'' — which implies "hearing." The first words 
in the Epilogue are " That which was from the beginning, that 
which we have heard!' Then the writer says " that which we 
have seen with our eyes'.' Why did he not also say "that 
which we have heard with our ears," in parallelism, and after 
the manner of Isaiah? This is one of many questions 
(arising out of Johannine style) to which the answer must be 
that the author had some motive, but that we do not know 
what it is. We may however fairly conjecture that the motive 
is connected with his omission of Isaiah's clause about 
'^hearing',' to which attention was called above (1613). 

[1617] The Epistle continues in aorists, " That which we 
contemplated and our hands handled." It seems to mean 
" saw and touched m the flesh " — transient facts, but facts on 
which the permanent " having heard " and the permanent 
"having seen" are based. And the writer does not make 
these earthly manifestations two (" that which ive contem- 
plated, that which we handled") but only one. "Handling," 
— perhaps, better, " feeling in the dark " — may well allude to 
doctrine — such as Paul utters but not of necessity distinctively 
Pauline — that God placed men on the earth " if perchance they 
would handle him and find him\" According to this view, 
the Epistle teaches us that what men's hands handled " con- 
cerning the Word of life," was a rudimentary though necessary 
manifestation. It was preparatory for something higher, just 
as the " contemplation " or " spectacle " of the glory of the 
Incarnation was preparatory for the higher "seeing," or 
''vision," of the glory of God. 

^ Acts xvii. 27. 'irT]\a(fido} (Steph.) almost always means "/^^/ in the 
dark." 

118 



JOHANNINE SYNONYMS [1620] 

[1618] After saying that the subject of this hearing, 
seeing, contemplating and touching was " the Word of life," 
the writer repeats himself thus : " And the life was manifested, 
and we have seen and bear witness and bring tidings to you." 
He then breaks off to define the subject of the tidings as 
being " the eternal life that was with {irpo^) the Father and 
was manifested to us." Then he repeats himself once more, 
" That which we have seeit and have heard we bring tidings of 
to you also." 

[1619] Why " to you also " } Because of a feeling of 
"fellowship." And this leads him to think of the "fellow- 
ship " of the Father (whom he has just mentioned) with the 
Son (whom he has not yet mentioned but mentions now) as 
follows, " in order that ye also may have fellowship with us. 
Yea, and our fellowship is with the Father and with his Son 
Jesus Christ." 

[1620] Another way of saying " for the sake of fellowship" 
would be " for the sake of making men feel joy together 
in brotherly love." Accordingly, the writer defines his object 
a second time in connexion with "joy" and with "light," the 
type of joy, " And these things we write unto you in order 
that our^ joy may be fulfilled [by your fellowship therein]. 
And this is the tidings {dyyekla) that we have heard from 
him and publish as tidings (dvayyiWo/jiev) to you, that God is 
light and in him is no darkness at all." Thus gradually the 
writer has led us on from stage to stage ; and from " that 
which was from the beginning " we have been brought down 
to " fellowship." Now he is fairly on the way to apply his 
high theology concerning " fellowship " in heaven to practical 
morality about " fellowship " on earth, and here we must leave 
him. But we shall have examined this passage to little 
purpose if we have not perceived that every stage is carefully 
considered, every word weighed, and every repetition de- 

1 V.r. "your joy." 
119 



[1621] JOHANNINE SYNONYMS 



liberate. In particular, we are to note the threefold repetition 
of " hearing " and " seeing " and the prominence given to the 
former. ''That which we have heard'' begins, and ''the 
tidings that we have heard'' concludes, these reiterations of the 
avenues by which the Logos has revealed itself to men. In 
harmony with this doctrine, Mary Magdalene believes because 
she " hears," though she does not " see," or sees amiss — and it 
is " hearing " that elicits the Samaritan confession, " This is 
the Saviour of the world \" 

§ 4. "Knowing" 

[1621] The verbs of " knowing " are olha and ^LVijudKca. 
OtSa means " I know," or, in a popular sense, " know all 
about " : 'yLvd)aK(jd means " I acquire knowledge about," " come 
to know," " understand," '" recognise/' " feel." 

(i) Olha. 

[1622] It is only in a popular sense that man can be said 
to "know (all about) {olha)" God, or even about a human 
being (for the soul, in the strict sense, is beyond human 
knowledge). In the last words of Jesus (xvi, xvii), olha is not 
used at all. In the Epistle it is never used with a personal 
object, but, generally, only about the " facts " of revelation. 
Yet by some of the prophets (Is. v. 13 (LXX), xlv. 5, Jer. iv. 
22, ix. 6) it is brought as a charge against the people, or their 
leaders, that they neither " know " {olha) nor wish to " know " 
God ; and Jeremiah (xxiv. 7, xxxi. 34) predicts a time when 
all shall " know " Him. Many of the Jews may have assumed 
that they, having discarded idolatry, the sin of their fore- 
fathers, were not only distinguished from (Is. Iv. 5) "the 
nations" {i.e. Gentiles) that "knew not God," but were also 
entitled to say that they themselves "knew God." The 
Evangelist exhibits Jesus as denouncing this assumption and 
as declaring that the Jews are entirely ignorant of Him. 

[1623] Their ignorance proceeded from their attempt to 

1 See 1503—7, 1560, 1601. 
120 



JOHANNINE SYNONYMS [1624] 



rise to the conception of God through a written Law, and not 
through God's Creation as a whole, including the Law but 
also including Man. As there was no humanheartedness in 
their conception of God, so there was nothing divine in their 
conception of Man. If, therefore, many of the Jews thought 
they "knew all about" God, when they affixed to Him the 
labels authorised by Moses and the Prophets, much more 
would they suppose that they " knew all about " man. And, 
of course, Jesus would be no exception to their rule of 
universal knowledge. According to them, it was enough to 
say that they " knew all about " the " father and mother " of 
Jesus, and it followed that they " knew all about " Him. The 
Messiah Himself would be no Messiah to them if they knew 
" whence he is " : He must needs come from some incompre- 
hensible source : else He has no title to allegiance. 

[1624] With manifest irony the Evangelist makes the Jews 
say to one another (vi. 42) " Do not we {emph. T^yaet?) know his 
father and his mother [too] ? " Later on, they say (vii. 27) 
" As to this man, we know (oiSafjuev) whence he is ; but as to 
the Messiah, when he is to come, no one is to understand 
{yivdiaKei) whence he is." Jesus repeats their assertion (2236) 
half as an assertion of theirs, half as an exclamation of His 
own, and then points out its falseness (vii. 28) " ' Both me do 
ye know and ye know whence I am ! ' [So ye say] and [yet] 
I am not come from myself ; but he that hath sent me is true, 
whom ye (uyu-et?) [being false] know not: I {ifyw) know him...," 
and again (viii. 14) " I know whence I came {rjXdov) and 
whither I return ; but ye {vfiels:) know not whence I come 
{epxofiaLy or whither I return^" and (viii. 19) " Ye neither 

^ [1624 a] A distinction appears to be drawn between " I came " and 
** I come" (or "am coming"). The Logos "came" from the Father 
(1637) when He (i. 11) "came" in the special act of the Incarnation: 
but the Logos is also constantly "coming" from the Father to the created 
world, in a myriad of non-special acts or sustaining processes. Even in 
this lower and less personal sense — as the source of the "ever coming" 
Logos — the Father is not known to the Jews. 

121 



[1625] JOHANNINE SYNONYMS 



know me nor my Father ; if ye had known (^Secre) me, ye 
would have known my Father also {av rjBeLTey Now for the 
first time ycvcoo-Kecv is applied to " God," as object, in order to 
introduce a solemn protest, in which Jesus thrice repeats the 
word oUa in connexion with the Father, (viii. 55) ''Ye have 
had no understanding of {e<yv(iiKaTe) him ; but I knozv (i.e. have 
absolute k7iowledge of, olSa) him ; and if I say that / know 
(olBa) him not, I shall be a liar like unto you : but I know 
(oUa) him\" 

[1625] Henceforward, this popular use of olBa, in the words 
of Jesus, applied to " the Jews," is dropped, with the single 
exception of xv. 21 ("They know not him that sent me"). 
But the Jews — having above asserted (vii. 27) " We know this 
man whence he is," now say (ix. 29) : " But this man we know 
not whence he is." They mean, apparently, that they do not 
know with what authority He comes. But they are intended 
by the Evangelist to testify unconsciously against themselves, 
" We know not the Living God." For " God " is the " whence 
he is." 

(ii) Tlvcoo-kco. 

[1626] Even when used in the perfect, this verb is quite 
distinct in meaning from olSa. Strictly speaking, we ought 
not to say that the Father, or the Eternal Son, ytvcua-Kci 
" comes to know," " understands," or " feels " : but the Evange- 
list, after applying the word to the Good Shepherd, who 
(x. 14) "understands (ytvaxTKet)" and is understood by, His 
sheep, delights in applying it, in a spiritual metaphor, to the 
Father and the Son (id. 15) : " Even as the Father 7tnderstands 
me and I understand the Father " : and he has previously 
used it of Jesus entering into and " understanding " the 

^ [1624 <^] For other instances of olha and yti/oxrKO) in the same 
sentence, see 1626 and comp. Jn xxi. 17 "Lord, thou hast absolute 
knowledge of (oldas) all things, thou imderstandest (or, feelest, yiv Manas) 
that I still love thee " (where the meaning seems to be that the All-knowing 
must have sympathy enough to understand the sincere though imperfect 
love of a sinful but penitent creature). 

122 



JOHANNINE SYNONYMS [1626] 



weaknesses of those who " believed on his name*/' He 
sometimes (1624^) uses the word so as to imply "sympathy"; 
and we may then render it by " feel." The present tense is 
especially frequent. Note the contrast with the aorist in the 
following distinction (x. 38) " Even if ye do not now believe 
in me, believe in my works, that ye may come to know 
definitely by evidence {fyvSire) and that ye may continue in the 
ever grozving knoivledge {^ivwaK'^Te) that the Father is in me." 
Here the aorist (7Z/COT6) means '* ascertain," the present 
{rfiv(i)crK7)Te) "feel by constant experienced" In several 
passages there is a contrast between yivwcrKw and olha : (xiii. 7) 
" What I do thou hast no knowledge of {olt>a<;^ now^ : but thou 
shalt tmderstand {yvwarj) hereafter." Note also the distinction 
between ySeore and eyvcoKeoTe in the two following sentences, 
the former addressed to the Pharisees, the latter to the 
disciples. 

(i) (viii. 19) " If you had known all about {fjhetre) me, [as 
you assumed], you would have had absohcte knowledge of 
{ySecTE av) the Father." 

(ii) (xiv. 7) "If you had learjted to understand and 
sympathize with (iyvooKeire) me, you would also have had 
absolute knowledge of (ySecre dv) the Father : from henceforth, 
[understanding me] you feel afid understand {yivwcrKere) him 
and [indeed] have seen him^" 

1 Jn ii. 24 — 5 "Jesus would not trust himself to them because he 
[by] himself could understand all [men] {bta to avrbv yivaxxKeiv Travras)... 
for he [by] himself 67??^/^ understand (avros yap iylvaxTK^v) what was 
in man." 

2 [1626 a'\ Comp. the distinction between the aorist and the present 
subjunctive of TncrT€va>. Both in Trtoreuo) and in ytvaxTKO) the pres. subj. 
expresses a living and growing faith or knowledge (2524). 

"^ [1626 b'\ With a negative, olda and 'iyvaxa need not mean " I have 
not a perfect knowledge," " I have not a perfect understanding." They 
may mean simply " I have no knowledge, or no understanding," eg. xiv. 9 : 
" So long a time have I been with thee, and hast thou ?to understanding 
ofipvK eyvcoKas) me, Philip,^" 

* [1626 c] The writer seems to take a pleasure in varying his terms, 

123 



[1627] JOHANNINE SYNONYMS 

[1627] It is interesting to observe how the EvangeHst, 
while always using the perfect of " see " {kcopaKo) prefers the 
present of " come to know " {'yivayaKw) : naturally, because — 
whereas a thing " seen " is sometimes taken in at a glance — 
" knowing," if it is genuine " knowing," is in constant growth ; 
(xiv. 17) "The world doth not behold {SewpeZ) it [i.e. the 
Spirit] nor grow in the understanding of \^ivitJ(TKei\ it : ye 
(emph.) grow in the understanding of (v/jueU ycpoja/cere) it 
because it abideth with you." Note the contrast between 
(xiv. 31) Lva <yvw 6 Koa/jLOf; and (xvii. 23) iva jivooa/ct) 6 K6a/JL0<;: 
the former means, " in order that the world may lea7'7i once for 
all [from the crucifixion and sacrifice of Christ] " ; the latter, 
" in order that the world 7nay gradually learn [from the 
spectacle of the divine unity of the Church]." The present is 
also found in the definition of eternal life (xvii. 3) " This is 
life eternal that they should grow in the knowledge of 
{^iv(ii(TKro(TC) thee, the only true God." The same thing is 
expressed in the Epistle, where the writer speaks of this 
special " knowledge " as the result of a special " intellect " or 
"understanding {hiavoia)',' which God gives us, (i Jn v. 20) 
" The Son of God hath come and hath given us an under- 
standing {hidvoLav), that we may have the living and growing 
knowledge of i^ivwa-Koybev) {sic) him that is true." 

[1628] In the Epistle, f^ivwaKco is constantly used for the 
spiritual instinct by which we feel, or recognise, spiritual 
truths, (i Jn ii. 3) " Hereby we understand {yivcoo-KOjULev) that 
we have reached a perfect understa^iding of (iyvwKa/jbei^) God." 
Comp. I Jn ii. 5, 18, 29; iii. 19, 24; iv. 2 etc., and especially 
iv. 6 — 7 "He that feeleth, or understandeth, (ytvwaKcov) God, 
giveth ear to us; he that is not from God giveth not ear to us: 

not for the sake of variation, but for the sake of detaching his reader 
from fixed formulae: xv. 21 "These things will they do because they 
know (oXdao-Lv) not him that sent me," xvi, 3 " These things will they do 
because they did not recognise (or, did not receive the knowledge of) 
{eyvoio-av) the Father or me." 

124 



JOHANNINE SYNONYMS [1629] 



from this we feel^ or understand, the Spirit of truth and the 
Spirit of error. . .. Everyone that loveth is born of God and 
feeleth {yivwaKei) God...; he that loveth not nevei' felt {ovk 
eyvco) God." 

[1629] In the Gospel (vi. 69) the Confession of St Peter 
places belief before knowledge — as if the former prepared the 
way and the latter followed, the former being the more 
rudimentary and the latter the higher development — "We 
Aave a perfect belief {ireiriorTevKa^ev), and we have a perfect 
knowledge {lyvdiKayLev), that thou art the Holy One of God." 
On the other hand, i Jn iv. 16, reversing the order, says, "We 
have a perfect knowledge and we have a perfect belief [as to] 
the love that God hath in us." In the former the meaning 
seems clear, " We believe, nay more, we know." But in the 
latter {e'yvwKaixev kol ireTTLa-TevKa/jbev ttju aydirr^v), the accusa- 
tive appears to be governed by the compound verb " know 
and believe," since Tna-revo) could not have an accusative 
of the object (1507 b) unless it were neuter — and the question 
arises, What is the reason for so harsh a construction ? 
Possibly the writer had in mind the beautiful saying in the 
Ephesian Epistle (iii. 19) "to know the love of Christ which 
passeth knowledge." When St Paul has used the phrase 
"having recognised God," he corrects it into "or rather 
having been recognised by God (1598^)." So here, the 
writer perhaps began to say "we know the love that God 
hath," and then broke off into " believe," as though to imply 
that it is "beyond knowledge" unless the "knowing" daily 
grows in conjunction with "believing^" 



1 [1629 a] There is great difficulty in Jn xvii. 25, (lit.) "O righteous 
Father, on the one hand (Kai) the world recognised (('yv<o) thee not : but 
I recognised (eyvcov) thee...." Does this mean (i) that the pre-incarnate 
Son "recognised" the Father from the beginning, or (2) that the in- 
carnate Son recognised the Spirit of the Father when He was baptized 
and sent forth to preach the Gospel ? Chrysostom tries to explain it, 
but soon falls into a change of tense that breaks the antithesis, eyco /xeV 



125 



[1630] JOHANNINE SYNONYMS 



§ 5. " Coming'^ 

[1630] The First Epistle to the Corinthians, after "the 
salutation of me Paul with mine own hand," has "If any 
man loveth not the Lord let him be anathema. Maran athar 
" Maran atha " is explained by R.V. margin as " Our Lord 
cometh^r This proves that the two Aramaic words were used 
to Corinthians, about the middle of the first century, by an 
Apostle familiar with them, as a kind of watchword. Like 
many other watchwords, it was misunderstood at an early 
period. The earliest epitaph known to contain it quotes as 
follows " If any of our own [folk] {j^v IBioyv) or other 
person, dare to deposit a body here, besides us two, may he 
give account to God and let him be anathema mai'anatJian 
(sic)^" This inscription is said by the Editor to be of the 
fourth or fifth century : but it is highly probable that at 
a very much earlier period Greeks took the phrase to be 
a kind of curse, as it is taken popularly now and has been for 
centuries. The juxtaposition of "anathema" in St Paul's 
Epistle would facilitate the misinterpretation. Nor would it 
be corrected by the knowledge, — which a few Greeks might 
retain and transmit to a gradually diminishing number — that 
the word had some connexion with the " Lord coming." 
"That" — the misinterpreters might say — "justifies our view. 
The Lord is 'coming' — to smite sinners with a curse." 



ere otSa IxKKoi 8e ae ovk eyvaaav. It happens that eyvav is followed by 
jcai, and efNcoKiM might arise from a corruption of epNcoKAKAi, which 
is the reading of D. More probably, however, the aorist is used for 
antithesis in contrasting the Son with the World : and perhaps the 
words are meant to suggest the two forms of recognising above 
mentioned. 

1 I Cor. xvi. 22. 

2 [1630^] Boeckh /user. Gr. 9303. Hastings Diet renders ns tmv 
Idiav " private person " : but the above seems to make better sense. 
There is of course no punctuation in the Epitaph. 

126 



JOHANNINE SYNONYMS [1632] 

[1631] Yet there are good reasons for thinking that it does 
not mean "the Lord is come, or coming," but " Come, LordV 
In any case it was certainly used in the second century, and 
probably in the first, as a part of the Eucharistic Liturgy, 
where " cursing " is out of the question : " Let grace come 
(iXderco) and let this world go {irapeXdenoy. Hosanna to the 
Son of David. If anyone is holy, let him come (lit. be 
a comer, ipxea-Oco) [to the Lord]. If anyone is not [holy] let 
him become repentant {/jbeTavoeLTco). Maran atha. Amen." 
If the phrase is imperative, then this invocation is singularly 
apt and impressive after receiving the sacred bread and wine : 
" Come, Lord, [into our hearts] !" Of course the prayer may 
also have reference to another "coming," namely, "on the 
clouds " ; and the latter, which might easily overshadow the 
former, might be taken to mean " Come, Lord, to avenge thy 
saints," and nothing else. The formula, as used at the close 
of the Apocalypse, " Yea, I come quickly : Amen, come, Lord 
Jesus'' seems to refer to the " coming on the clouds^." Yet, in 
the same book, the preceding invitation to " come " suggests a 
spiritual meaning : " And the Spirit and the Bride say. Come. 
And he that heareth, let him say. Come. And he that is 
athirst, let him corneal' very much resembling the combination 
of " If any one is holy let him come," and " Come, Lord," in 
the Didache. 

[1632] In the account of the Baptism, all the Gospels 
agree in assigning to John the Baptist the word '' cometh''' 
in connexion with the Deliverer whom he heralded. More- 
over Matthew and Luke represent the Baptist as using the 
word in a message sent to Christ, '* Art thou he that cometh ? 

1 [1631 «] Enc. and Hastings' Diet. (" Maranatha ") both take this 
view. 

2 [1631 b] Didach. x. 6. It is difficult to express ikBfiv and irapeXdeiv 
exactly : " pass into our hearts " and " pass away," or " appear " and 
" disappear," might express one aspect of the play on the words. 

^ Rev. xxii. 20. * Rev. xxii. 17. 

A. V. 127 10 



[1633] JOHANNINE SYNONYMS 

or look we for another^?" Taken together, the two traditions 
demonstrate that "he that cometh," as a title of the Lord 
Jesus, would be known to His followers in Galilee before any 
thought of Him as " coming on the clouds of heaven " had 
entered their minds. 

[1633] Apart from the utterances of the Baptist, all the 
Gospels agree that when Jesus rode into Jerusalem the crowd 
welcomed Him with the words, " Blessed is he that cometh ! " 
This is a quotation from the Psalms, and the words might be 
addressed to any pilgrim entering the City; but, if "he that 
cometh " was already a Galilaean title for the new Deliverer, 
the successor of David, then it becomes almost a certainty 
that the multitude used the phrase in the sense of " prince " or 
" king " : and accordingly all the Evangelists insert some 
paraphrase of this kind^ This confirms our view of "he that 
cometh " as a technical Jewish term. According to Matthew 
and Luke these words are quoted by our Lord Himself in 
a warning to Jerusalem : " Ye shall assuredly not see me 
[Mt. + henceforth] until ye shall say. Blessed is he that cometh 
in the name of the Lord." But Luke places these words long 
before the Entry into Jerusalem, apparently taking the predic- 
tion to be fulfilled on that occasion. Matthew places them 
after the Entry (when the Lord is bidding farewell to the 
Temple) apparently looking forward to a second coming ^ 

[1634] Except in the Entry into Jerusalem there appears 
in the Triple Tradition little or nothing to indicate a desire to 
use the word " cometh " about Jesus in a technical or mystical 
manner to suggest a Messiah or Deliverer. But there is 
perhaps an allusion to a " coming " of a different kind. The 
warning to " watch," and the words " in an hour that ye think 



1 Mt. xi. 3, Lk. vii. 19. 

2 [1633 rtj Mt. xxi. 9 "the son of David," Lk. xix. 38 "king," Jn xii. 13 
"king of Israel," Mk xi. 10 adds a whole clause "Blessed is the coming 
kingdom of our father David." 

3 Lk. xiii. 35, Mt. xxiii. 39. 

128 



JOHANNINE SYNONYMS [1635] 

not, the Son of man cometh" are followed, not long afterwards, 
by a threefold "coming" of Christ to the disciples at Gethse- 
mane, each time finding them asleep. Matthew here thrice 
applies the historic present ^^ cometh " to Jesus. In Mark (who 
does the same) this is not surprising, as he uses the historic 
present freely. But the fact that Matthew here, and here 
alone, applies this form to Jesus\ suggests that on this special 
occasion he may have retained Mark's tradition as having 
a symbolical association. The connexion between ''he that 
comethl' and a " king," pointed out above (1633), is illustrated 
by the prophecy of Zechariah " Behold thy king cometh " : and 
Matthew is the only Synoptist that quotes this*^. 

[1635] Passing to the Fourth Evangelist we may note first 
the fact — and it is a most important one considering how 
seldom he agrees with the Synoptists in quoting the same 
passages from Scripture — that he too, like Matthew, quotes 
from Zechariah, in connexion with the Entry into Jerusalem, 
the prophecy, " Behold, thy king cometh!' Moreover, through- 
out his Gospel, he seems to take a pleasure in using the 
words " cometh," or " he that cometh," about Christ, as though 
to suggest that He is the realisation of the popular title of the 
Deliverer, even though the people do not receive Him. That 
He is ever ''coming',' like the sunlight, is suggested in the 
Prologue^ In the Triple Tradition, the Baptist's words about 

1 [1634 «] Mk applies epxerm to Jesus in iii. 20, vi. i, 48, x. i, xiv. 17, 
37, 41, Mt. only in xxvi. 36, 40, 45. Mt. also thrice repeats epx^rai in 
the previous warning (where Mk and Lk. have it only once and twice 
respectively) xxiv. 42 — 4 "ye know not on what day your Lord cometh... 
if he had known. ..in what watch the X^ixx^i cometh... 2X what hour ye think 
not the Son of man cometh." 

2 [1634 b'\ Mt. xxi. 5, quoting Zech. ix. 9. Matthew's fondness for this 
particular word in connexion with "the last day" may perhaps be 
illustrated by Mt. xvii. 11 "Elijah indeed cometh" (where the parall. 
Mk ix. 12 has "having come") and certainly by Mt. xxv. 19 "But after 
a long time the lord of those servants cometh and maketh reckoning 
with them." 

^ i. 9, where "coming into the world" should be connected with "light." 

129 10 — 2 



[1636] JOHANNINE SYNONYMS 

the Messiah (" cometh, or coming, after me ") seem to indicate 
discipleship. "After me" is omitted by Luke. But John 
retains the phrase, and interprets it so as to testify to the 
Messiah, whom the Baptist "seeth coming unto him^"; and, 
later on, speaking in his own person, he describes the Lord 

not as "he that came," but '^ he that cometh from above he 

that cometh from heaven I" The Woman of Samaria with 
very misty views of the Messiah, the Five Thousand (who 
wish to make "the prophet" Jesus a king), the Jews in their 
discussions about the Messiah's birth-place, all use this word 
*' cometh " — ignorant that the Messiah is always coming and 
had actually come=^. 

[1636] The present tense is also introduced into the 
narrative of the Raising of Lazarus^ as though in sympathy 
with the " coming " Deliverer concerning whom Martha says, 
" Thou art the Christ, the Son of God, that cometh into the 
world V' and similarly in the Entry into Jerusalem, "having 
heard that Jesus cometh^'' which prepares the way for " Blessed 
is he that cometh" and "Behold thy king cometh^!' In the 
sacramental washing of feet, also, Jesus ''cometh to Simon 
Peters" After the Resurrection, there are three instances of 
" coming." The first is in the past tense ^, perhaps to denote 
that Jesus, on this first occasion, had come from the Father (to 
whom He had ascended) in a kind of second spiritual incarna- 
tion. The second is in the present tense though the context is 



1 i. 15, 27, 29, 30. 2 jij^ 21. 

^ iv. 25 " I know that Messiah cometh^^ vi. 14 "This is of a truth the 
prophet that cometh into the world," vii. 27 "When Christ is to come 
{cpXrjTai)" vii. 41 '"''Cometh Christ from Galilee?" vii. 42 "Christ cometh 
from Bethlehem." 

* xi. 20, 38. 

* xi. 27. s xii. 12, 13, 15. 7 xiii. 6. 

^ XX. 19 "And, the doors having been '&\iw\....there-catne Jesus and 
stood in the midst." On the past tense used to express the "coming" 
in the Incarnation, see 1637. 

130 



JOHANNINE SYNONYMS [1637] 

similar to that in the firsts The third is also in the present, 
but the context is quite different. It describes Jesus as first 
saying ["Come] hither! break your fast," and then as 
Himself coming. " There cometh Jesus and taketh the bread 
and giveth to themV 

[1637] In our Lord's own words, the Aorist is generally 
used to describe His coming, or being sent, from the Father, 
and the Perfect to describe His arrival in the world, as though 
He said, " I came (or, was sent) from heaven ; I am come to 
earth." The Evangelist also prefers the Aorist to describe 
the former aspect. For this reason, " come forth'' is always in 
the Aorist when describing the Incarnation I In the Last 
Discourse Jesus thrice uses the Present " I am coming," to 
express His future coming to the Disciples, even where it is 
joined with a Future : " I am, coming to you and will receive 
you to myself^" Once, He uses the Future " We shall come'' 



1 XX. 26 " There-cometh Jesus, the doors having been shut, and stood 
in the midst." 

^ [1636 c?] xxi. 12 — 13. Perhaps the disciples are to be regarded as first 
obeying the Lord by coming and recHning around the "(one) loaf" 
and the "(one) fish" ; and then the Lord "comes" and gives them "the 
loaf" and " the fish " (r6 o^apiov). In the Washing of Feet Jesus " comes " 
to Peter separately. So, perhaps, He comes round to each in turn here. 

3 [1637 d\ viii. 42 " I came forth (e^^XOov) from God and am come 
(rJKa)) ; for indeed I haT/e not come {eXrjXvOa) from myself but he sent me." 
''Hk(o is also in Ps. xl. 7 — 8 " Lo, / a^n come... I delight to do thy will," 
quoted as a Messianic utterance in Heb. x. 7, 9, " Behold / a^n come 
{rJKO}) to do thy will." 'E^^XBov is similarly used in Jn xiii. 3, xvi. 27, 28, 
30, xvii. 8. In Jn i. 1 1, " He came (^XOev) to his own," it cannot be said 
that the notion of coming from the Father predominates ; but it does in 
viii. 14 " I know whence I came." And the Aorist is also used when the 
"coming" is regarded as a Mission — the Son being sent by the Father 
in order to do something — ix. 39 "For judgment I came into this world," 
X. 10 "I ca7ne that they might have Hfe," xii. 47 "For I came not to 
judge the world." This seems to be the meaning of eXOav in i Jn v. 6, 
" This is he t/tat came through water and blood," i.e. that came from the 
Father to redeem mankind. 

* xiv. 3, comp. xiv. 18, 28. 



[1638] JOHANNINE SYNONYMS 

to describe the joint visit of the Father, the Son, and the 
Spirit to the soul of the believer^ 

[1638] His last use of the verb is in the Present, twice 
repeated, and it is very significant. " If I will that he 
[i.e. the beloved disciple] remain ivhile I am coming, what is 
that to thee? Follow thou me." The words would most 
naturally mean " during the short interval, while I am coming'' 
as we use the phrase in English, meaning, " I am on the point 
of coming," and as it is used in Greek, in the First Epistle to 
Timothy^ But they lend themselves to an inner meaning 
that would harmonize with Origen's view concerning the 
" beloved disciple " who, he says, was in the bosom of the Son 
spiritually even as the Son was " in the bosom of the 
Father ^" 

[1639] According to this view we might suppose that the 
author of the Fourth Gospel, accepting the old traditional 
Johannine name of God, " He that is and WAS and IS 
COMING^" wished to differentiate it from the merely gram- 
matical associations of Past, Present, and Future, and there- 
fore laid stress, consistent stress throughout the whole of the 
Gospel, on the claim of the Logos to be called COMING not as 
being future, but as being ever present to come and save. 
Hence in the Prologue of his Gospel, he describes the Light, 
from the beginning, as " coming into the world." Now, at its 
close, after describing the Son as, in one sense, having come, 
and as having prepared "the beloved disciple" to wait for 
Him, and to represent Him, on earth, he suggests that, in 
a second sense, the Son is still " coming " to help such 
a disciple, and in a third sense, that He will hereafter " come " 
to make those who thus wait one with Himself ^ 



1 [1637 b'\ xiv. 23. Is this intended to emphasize the fact that (vii. 39) 
" there was not yet the Spirit because Jesus had not yet been glorified " ? 

2 I Tim. iv. 13, see 1735 «. 

2 Orig. on Jn xxi. 20 foil. (Huet ii. 405 — 6). ^ Rev. i. 4. 

^ [1639 a\ A comparatively unimportant use of epx^rai may be noted 

132 



JOHANNINE SYNONYMS [1640] 

§ 6. " Worshipping'^ 

(i) UpocTKvvio), in the Samaritan Dialogue. 

[1640] In the Dialogue with the Samaritan Woman, Jesus 
is represented as using irpoaKwem twice with dative, twice 
with accusative, and, in two more instances (" ye worship that 
which (o) ye know not, we worship that which (o) we know ") 
with construction that must remain doubtful because the ante- 
cedent may have been intended to be either dative or 
accusative^ The accusative is certainly employed at the end, 
iv. 23—4 (R.V. but see 2167, 2398) "For such doth the 
Father seek to be his ivorshippers {rom irpoaKwovvra^ avrov). 
God is Spirit and thej/ that worship him (01 irpoaKwovvTef; 
avrov) must worship in spirit and truth." When we ask 
what is the meaning of ''such]' we are led back to the 
preceding sentence " The true worshippers shall worship {to) 
(dat.) the Father in spirit and truth." The question arises 

in the Johannine phrase "the hour cotneth^'' or "the hour cometh aiid 
now is" where the Synoptists say "the days will corned'' Similarly when 
two men are waiting for the same train, one, looking at the station-clock, 
may say " The train will soon be coming^'' while the other, at the same 
moment, catching sight of the train itself some two or three miles away, 
may say, "The train is coming." John represents Christ in the latter 
way, speaking as a Seer, "^px'^rai is used by John thus seven times 
(1891). On the last occasion, instead of "and now is," there is added 
the Perfect (xvi. 32) " The hour cometh and hath come." 

[1639 <^] "The hour hath come" occurs thrice: (i) (xii. 23) "There 
cometh Andrew and Philip and they tell Jesus [about the desire of the 
Greeks to see Him]. But Jesus answered them saying. The hour hath 
come that the Son of man should be glorified," (2) (xvi. 32) " Behold the 
hour cometh and hath come that ye should be scattered each to his own 
and leave me alone ; and yet I am not alone because the Father is with 
me," (3) (xvii. i) "Father, the hour hath come, glorify thy Son." In the 
context of the first instance occur the words (xii. 27) " Father, glorify thy 
name." We may, therefore, say that in each of the three instances the 
Son is regarded as in close communion with the Father who sees the 
accomplishment of the fore-ordained future as though it were past. 

1 Orig. Comm. (Huet ii. 213 B) indicates that Heracleon (jjdfo-av rivt 
TTpoa-KvvoxxTi) took the antecedent to be dative. 

133 



[1641] JOHANNINE SYNONYMS 

what was meant by the variation of case, and the attempt to 
answer it necessitates an examination of the general use of the 
word irpoaKweco. 

(ii) Ilpoa-Kvv€co, outside N.T. 

[1641] From Herodotus^ downwards, it was recognised 
that " to worship {irpoa-Kvvelv) " a king by prostration was 
a slavish or barbaric custom unworthy of Greeks. The 
Spartans said, and the other Greeks agreed with them, that it 
was not in accordance with law and custom (eV vofiw) to 
"worship a man." The Greeks did not suppose that such 
" worship " implied a belief that the man so worshipped was 
a god — any more than Jack Cade supposed himself to be 
a god when he said that his people were to " worship " him as 
"their lord^." But whereas Englishmen felt that a vassal 
might '' worship " his " lord," Greeks, before the Christian era, 
felt that they could not "worship" any human being. In 
almost all cases — the exceptions perhaps being where they 
desired to emphasize the attitude of worship — the Greeks used 
nrpoa-Kweco, in this sense, with the accusative^. 

1 Steph. quoting Herod, vii. 136, viii. 118, Demosth. 549. 16 np. tovs 
v^pi^ovras coarrfp iv tols ^ap^dpois. See also L. S. 

2 [1641 a] 2 Hen. VI. iv. 2. 81 "I thank you, good people, there shall 
be no money : all shall eat and drink on my score : and I will apparel 
them all in one livery, that they may agree like brothers and worship me 
their lord.^^ 

3 [1641/^] See Wetst. (on Mt. ii. 2) who quotes Aelian V. H. i. 21 
as using the dative when he is going to describe the posture in detail^ 
^lafiTjvias al(rx^vT]S x'^P'-^ '"''^^ Ilepawv /Sao-iXei Trpoo-eKiivrjaev, but the 
accusative when he merely states that one could not have audience of 
the king nplv rj Trpoa-Kwiiaai avrov. Wetst, quotes Lucian Navig. § 30 
with the accus. ; and in ib. § 37 npoa-Kweircoa-av rjfxiv Reitz reads vficov 
gov. by ap^(o. The Index to Lucian gives no instance with the dative, 
but several with the accusative. Also in Polyb. v. 86. 10, quoted by 
Wetst. with dat., Steph. follows Reisk. in reading Trpoa-KXivova-i for 
TTpoaKwova-i. Steph. adds "Apud Josephum plurima sunt utriusque 
structurae exempla libris interdum dissentientibus " : in Ant. vi. 7. 5 
the accus. and dat. are in consecutive lines ("God" being, in both cases, 
the object) (see 1642 b), but in vii. 5. 5, ix. 13. 3, xx. 3. i, the accus. is used. 

134 



JOHANNINE SYNONYMS [1643] 

[1642] The canon. LXX uses irpoaKweco more than 
a hundred times with the dative to represent "bowing down 
to " Jehovah, or to false gods, or to great men, and the dative 
represents the Hebrew " to." The accusative occurs only six or 
seven times, and then in connexion with some special circum- 
stances, mostly implying contempt, after the manner of the 
Greeks\ The coincidences of meaning in these cases are too 
striking to be accidental and they indicate that a Jewish writer 
might exceptionally use irpoo-Kweo) in the Greek style, with 
the accusative, to denote exceptional " worship " (like that of 
the sheaves) or " worship " that ought not to be paid except by 
slaves (like the " worship " paid by Pharaoh's servants and by 
the princes of Joash and refused by Mordecai), or even 
ordinary idolatry I 

(iii) Upoo-Kvveco in N.T. 

[1643] Passing to N.T. we find a striking instance of the 
juxtaposition of the two constructions in the Temptation, 
where Satan uses the verb with the dative but our Lord in 
His reply uses it with the accusative. In the Satanic verbal 
demand for mere '■^prostration'' the Lord discerns a latent 
demand for " worship " : and He answers the latter, not the 

1 [1642 rt] In Gen. xxxvii. 7, 9, it describes the "sheaves" and the 
" stars " worshipping, in Joseph's dream. In Ex. xi. 8, Moses says that 
the servants of Pharaoh will come "beseeching" him {Trpno-Kwrja-ovo-i fie) 
(lit. "bowing down to me "). In 2 Chr. xxiv. 17 the princes "came and 
bowed down to (accus.) the king [Joash]. Then the king hearkened unto 
them and they forsook the house of the Lord... and served the Asherim." 
In Is. xliv. 15 it means worshipping idols ; and the Epistle of Jeremiah, 
in consecutive verses, uses the accusative for the worship of false gods, 
and the dative for that of Jehovah {Trpoa-Kwovvras avTd...(To\ del irpoa- 
Kvvelv). A Greek insertion in Esther has the accus. twice in a single 
verse (iv. 17) "As to my refusal to worship the haughty Haman...I will 
worship no man " — which is quite in Greek style. 

2 [1642*^] It would be interesting to ascertain the usage of Josephus, 
and whether it varies in A7it. and in Wars. The instances given (1641^) 
by Steph. are too few to be of much value ; but so far as they go, they 
indicate that Josephus favoured the accus. and that Ant. vi. 7. 5 rw Beco 
is a corr. of to Bed (966 a). 



[1644] JOHANNINE SYNONYMS 

former. We may suppose Satan to be saying " All that I ask 
is that thou wilt bow down to me [Luke, before me\ — a mere 
gesture, nothing more " ; whereto the Lord replies '' Thou 
demandest, in effect, worship. And it is written. Thou shalt 
worship the Lord thy God." In any case it can hardly be 
doubted that some distinction is intended, especially as Luke, 
while deviating slightly from Matthew in Satan's utterance, 
agrees with Matthew, against both the Hebrew and the Greek 
of Deuteronomy, in differentiating the construction of the 
verb in our Lord's reply^ 

[1644] In Mark, irpoaKwew with the accusative is once 
used — where the parallel Luke has " fell down before him " — 
perhaps to represent the demoniac as actually worshipping 
Jesus, since he calls Him " the Son of the Most Highl" 
Matthew — apart from the quotation in the Temptation — never 
uses it with the accusative. Apart from the Temptation, 
Luke never has irpoaKvveco at all, except in a possible inter- 
polation describing the disciples as "worshipping" Christ after 
the Resurrection. There it is used with the accusative^ The 
dative is once used by Mark to describe the mock homage 
paid to Christ in the Passion^ ; and several times by Matthew 
to describe people prostrating themselves before Jesus^, or 



1 [1643 6z] Mt. iv. 9 7rp. fiot, Lk. iv. 7 Trp. ivminov efxov : Mt. iv. lO, 
Lk. iv. 8 Kvplov Tov 6c6v o-ov TTp. '. Dcut. vi. 13 "Thou shalt fear the Lord 
thy God," (f)o^r]dr)(Tr) (but A TTpocTKvvrjaeis). Codex A corrupts the text 
again in Deut. x. 20, presumably influenced by the Christian Gospels. 

[1643 d] Antecedently we might have supposed that the Greek 
Churches would frequently have altered the Hebrew "fear" (in "fearing 
God ") into some word less likely to suggest servile terror, e.£\ " rever- 
ence" : and, if that had been the case, it might have explained npoa-Kwelv 
in this quotation. But in the LXX such alterations {e.o-. Jonah i. 9 a-e^ofiai) 
are almost non-existent. 

2 Mk V. 6 (but Tisch. avrco), Lk. viii. 28 TrpoaiTreaev avrco (Mt. om.). 

3 Lk. [[xxiv. 52]]. 

* Mk XV. 19, Mt.-Lk. om. 

^ Mt. viii. 2, ix. 18, xiv. ^;^^ xv. 25. The dative in Mt. ii. 2, 8, 11 
describes homage or worship to be paid to the infant Christ. 

136 



JOHANNINE SYNONYMS [1646] 

(once) before other superiors ^ One of these instances 
describes the women prostrating themselves before Christ 
after the Resurrection I In two instances Matthew uses it 
absolutely, once when describing the mother of Zebedee's 
children petitioning Jesus, and once describing the disciples 
of Christ worshipping after the Resurrection I 

[1645] Reviewing the Synoptic use of Trpoa-Kweo) we see 
that Matthew is alone in using the dative to describe people 
as prostrating themselves before Jesus. Mark never uses it 
thus except to describe an act of mockery, and Luke never at 
all — his reason perhaps being indicated by Peter's words to 
Cornelius, when the latter had fallen and " worshipped " in the 
Acts, " Rise up, I also am a manl" The Epistles avoid the 
word : it is not used in any of them (outside quotations) 
except once to describe a man suddenly converted " He will 
fall down on his face and worship God^" On the other hand, 
we have found the accusative used once by Matthew and 
Luke to describe the actual worship of God ; once by Mark, 
probably, to describe the worship of the Son of the Most 
High ; once by an early tradition in Luke to describe the 
worship of the risen Saviour. 

[1646] These facts, so far as they go — suggesting that the 
Synoptists reserve the accusative for the worship due to God 
or to God's Son — contrast with the use in the LXX illustrated 
above, and still more with the use in Revelation which remains 
to be mentioned. The accusative is used in that book no less 
than six times to denote the worship of "the Beast" or of 
devils ^ Both grammar and history, on this point, might be 



^ Mt. xviii. 26. "^ Mt. xxviii. 9. 

^ Mt. XX. 20, xxviii. 17. 

* [1645 a] Acts x. 25 : Upoa-Kwico occurs also in Acts viii. 27, xxiv. 1 1 
(absol.) of going up to Jerusalem to "worship," and vii. 43 npoa-Kwelv 
avTols (an addition to Amos v. 26) of idolatry. 

^ I Cor. xiv. 25. In Heb. i. 6, xi. 21 it is either quoted or allusively 
used. 

* Rev. ix. 20 "devils," xiii. 8, 12, xiv. 9, 11, xx. 4. 

137 



[1647] JOHANNINE SYNONYMS 

illustrated by a letter from Tiridates to Nero, who is generally 
supposed to have been " the Beast " mentioned in Revelation : 
" I came unto thee, [as being] my God, to worship thee even 
as the [God] Mithras ^" The Greeks would speak of the 
worship of the Emperor in the Greek form {i.e. with the 
accusative) and the author of Revelation (or of portions of it) 
might sometimes adopt the Gentile phrase in speaking of 
Gentile idolatry, while at other times he might employ the 
construction most usual in Jewish Greek. 

(iv) lipocTKvvea) in John. 

[1647] Coming to the use of the word in the Fourth 
Gospel, we find it with the dative describing the man born 
blind " worshipping " Jesus^, and used absolutely concerning 
"Greeks," who "went up to worship at the feasts" In the 
Samaritan narrative, where the verb is frequent, it has been 
noted above (1640) that the accusative comes twice after two 
instances of the dative. That passage also attributes to Jesus 
language (" salvation," " the Jews," " we worship that which 
we know") quite inconsistent with His character and lan- 
guage as elsewhere represented in this Gospel. It would 
seem to be more appropriate to the Samaritan woman 
mimicking the dogmatism of Jewish Rabbis : " Ye [Samari- 
tans] worship that which ye know not : we [Jews] worship 
that which we know, because salvation is from the Jews." 
Origen's long discussion of the context, and his brief allusion* 
to the views of a writer earlier than Heracleon, shew that in 

1 [1646^] Wetst. (on Jn xx. 28) "Dio 63. Tiridates ad Neronem, eyo) 

irpos ere -qXBov tov efxov deov, TrpocrKvvrjacov ere cos koI tov Midprjv." 

2 Jn ix. 38 (D avTov). 

3 Jn xii. 20. The verb is also used absolutely in the Samaritan 
dialogue, iv. 20 (dzs), 24. 

* [1647 a] Huet ii. 211 D UoXv 8e iari vvv iraparidfo-Bai tov 'HpaKXecovos 
TCI prjTa, dno tov emyeypafifxevov UeTpov KrjpvypaTos TrapaXafi^avofieva... 
dioTTfp €k6vt€s VTrepTidepeda, TavTa fxovov iirL(rr]p.€Lovp.evoL.... This appears 
to mean " // is [foo] inuch at this point to quote from Heracleon the 
[exact] sayings, alleged from the [work] entitled Peter's Preaching... 
wherefore we deliberately pass them over, noting these alone...." The 
Latin, instead of " [too] much " has " longe melius." 

138 



JOHANNINE SYNONYMS [1647] 

very early times indeed the whole of the passage caused 
difficulty. Origen's words even suggest that Heracleon 
had before him (or thought he had) some tradition that inter- 
preted " Ye [worship that which ye know not] " as ''ye Jews^." 

1 [1647 b'\ Origen's text at this point is full of corruptions as indicated 
by Huet's margin, and Heracleon's views do not come out very definitely. 
But Origen clearly accuses Heracleon of having "accepted the word 
v/Afts in an eccentric way and inconsistently with the context {Ibicos koI 
Trapa rrjv aKokovOLav tcov prjTS>v...€K8e^dix€vos).^' Then follow these words, 
in which I bracket what appear to be corrupt : To, 'Yfiels dvrl tov 'lovbaioi, 
yOviKoi], 8iTjyrj<TaTO- olov Se eVrt Trpos ttjv ^afxapeTriv Xeyeo-Oai, ^'Ypeis o'l 
'louSaioi' [77 Trpos ^afiapelriv, 'Y/ieis ol eBviKoi] ; "He explained the word 
'You' as being instead of the word Jews [Gentiles]. But how absurd 
it is that it should be said to the Samaritan, Ye Jews [or to a Samaritan, 
Ye Gentiles] ! " 

[1647^] All this confusion can be explained on the hypothesis that 
Heracleon had before him a tradition arranging the words as part of the 
Samaritan's speech thus " Our fathers worshipped in this mountain and 
ye say, [that] 'In Jerusalem is the place where one must worship. Ye 
[Samaritans] worship ye know not what, we [/ews] worship that which 
we know, because salvation is from the Jewsy Heracleon regarded the 
words " Ye worship " as uttered by the Samaritan, not in the character 
of a Jewish Rabbi but in her own person against the Jewish Rabbis. 
" Ye " therefore seemed to him to stand " in the place of the ^vordjews 
{avrX TOV 'I.)." [Comp. Eustath. on Iliad \. iiy, to ''ri aTroXeV^ai" dvTi tov 
" ^TTcp."] This was very natural — so far. And, if we read on and ask 
how Heracleon explained " salvation is from the Jews," we find him 
saying that salvation (Huet ii. 213 B — c) "came to pass in the Judaean 
[land] but was not in [the Jews] the7n[s elves] (dXX' ovk eV avTols),'' and 
also " From that nation salvation came forth and the Word [came] into 
the world." In other words, he seems to say that salvation did not 
belong to the Jews but " ca?ne forth from them " in order to pass to 
others. 

[1647^] It is not at all certain that this is Heracleon's meaning, or 
that Origen represents Heracleon rightly, or that Origen's present text 
represents Origen rightly. But the hypothesis of transposition of persons 
goes some way toward explaining the undoubted fact that Origen discerns 
in Heracleon's rendering of " ye " " inconsistency with the context." As 
for the words I have bracketed in Origen, they appear to have been 
added by some editor that took dvTi to mean " instead of^ in the sense 
of " a juistake for,'' so that a blank seemed to need filling (" He inter- 
preted the word 'ye' as meaning, instead of Jews "), Then he filled 

the blank suitably by adding " Gentiles " and adapted the context. 

139 



[1648] JOHANNINE SYNONYMS 

[1648] A very ancient tradition is quoted by Heracleon 
from the Preaching of Peter to this effect : " Peter taught that 
one ought not to worship after the manner of the (?) Greeks^., 
serving stocks and stones, nor to pay one's devotions to the 
Divine Being after the manner of the Jews since they, ivhile 
supposing themselves to be alone in the knowledge of God, are 
ignorant of Him, serving angels, and the month, and the 
moon^." Heracleon seems to have quoted this as bearing on 
the words in the Samaritan Dialogue " We (rj/jLek) — i.e. we as 
distinct from others — worship that which we know." In any 
case, this extract certainly confirms the view that the words 
" we know " were uttered by the Samaritan in the character 
of a Jewish teacher and not by our Lord in His own person ^ 
The extract also illustrates the possibility of a reference to 
twofold worship, suggested by the twofold construction of the 
verb, in the passage under consideration. 

[1649] The Jews thought it essential to prostrate them- 
selves before God in Jerusalem, the Samaritans in Mount 
Gerizim : Jesus — who, even when He prays, is not described in 
this Gospel as " praying (7r/3oo-ev%o/>tat) " or as using the word 
" pray " — cuts at the root of all local worship and even of all 
rules about external attitudes of worship, by first denying the 
claims of both mountains, and then indicating that the Person 
worshipped is " the Father " towards whom " prostration " 
would be out of place : " Believe me, woman, that the hour 
cometh when neither in this mountain nor in Jerusalem shall 

1 [1648 rt] Huet ii. 211 E. Uirpov 8idd^avTos fir/ deiv KaBeXflv as (marg. 
/car' idviKovs, I suggest KaB* "'EWr^vas) TrpoaKwelv ra rijs v\r]s Trpdyixara 
aTTobc^opivovs, Koi Xarpevovras ^vXois koi XlOoiSy fxrjTe Kara 'lovdalovs ae^eiv 
TO Beiov, irrcimp Koi avToi povoi ol6p,evoi eTrlo-TaaBai 6e6v dyvooi(riu avTov, 
XarpevovTcs dyyeXois Ka\ prjvl koi (TeXr]vij. 

2 [1648 (^] "The month." Comp. Gal. iv. 10 "ye observe days and 
months," Col. ii. 16 " Let no man judge you... in respect of a feast day or 
a new moon or a sabbath." 

3 Comp. Rom. ii. 17 "Thou bearest the name of a Jew... and gloriest 
in God and knowest his will." 

140 



JOHANNINE SYNONYMS [1651] 



ye prostrate yourselves before the Father." Then He con- 
tinues^ still using the Jewish idiom, but qualifying it so as to 
non-literalise its meaning : " Nay, the hour cometh, and now 
is, when the true worshippers shall prostrate themselves before 
the Father [not in Gerizim or Jerusalem and not in any 
literal sense, but] in spirit and truth." 

[1650] Now, having extended the area of what was once 
mere Jewish and Samaritan " prostration " in Jewish and 
Samaritan sanctuaries, and having made it coequal with the 
area of "spirit and truth," the Dialogue proceeds, as in the 
Temptation, to drop the Jewish phrase (with the dative) and 
to take up the Greek or cosmopolitan one (with the accusa- 
tive). Only the Evangelist has to bear in mind that the 
Greek phrase with the accusative was frequently applied to 
the polytheistic worship of " a god " or " gods." Hence, he 
not only repeats "the Father" but also defines "the [one] 
God," as being " Spirit," thus : " For such doth the Father 
seek to worship him (accus.). The [one] God is Spirit [not 
limited by place nor one that requires prostrations at his 
feet] and they that worship him (accus.) must worship in 
spirit and truth." 

[1651] According to this view, there is here, as also in 
the Temptation, a deliberate differentiation of two Greek 
constructions capable of representing various distinctions 
according to the nationality or individuality of the writer. 
But both in the Temptation and in the Samaritan Dialogue 

^ [1649 «] '• Continues," /.(?. if the words "Ye worship... from the Jews" 
are transposed (as above suggested) and assigned to the Samaritan 
as personating a Jewish character. Origen says (Huet ii. 209 B — c) "The 
phrase, ' The hour cometh ' is written twice, and, in the first instance, 
' and now is ' is not added : but in the second the Evangelist says ' Nay 
the hour cometh and now isJ " But I do not understand him to mean 
that these last words (iv. 23 — 4) are Evangehstic comment. If they were, 
the accusative might be explained on that ground, as proceeding from 
the EvangeHst and not from Jesus, and as being in a different style. 
But there are many reasons against this. 

141 



[1652] JOHANNINE SYNONYMS 

the Evangelists appear to use Trpoa-Kvvico with the accusative 
as meaning such worship as ought to be paid to God alone, 
i.e. not prostration but " reverence," which the Hebrews called 
" fear " — " Thou shalt /ear the Lord thy God and him alone 
shalt thou serve." This verb " fear " had been actually 
paraphrased (1643 a) by Matthew and Luke as " worship " (in 
the Greek idiom). Possibly John has in mind the Deutero- 
nomic saying about " fear " and its Evangelistic paraphrase as 
" worship " : and this is all the more probable as he says that 
" perfect love casteth out fear^" But in any case we are safe 
in asserting that John is here using two different forms of the 
same phrase with differences of meaning, in an attempt to 
represent the Lord as raising men's hearts from formal to 
spiritual worship. 

§ 7. " Going away {or^ back)" and ^^ going 
{on a joiirneyY " 

(i) 'TiTOLfyw and Tropevo/jbai. 

[1652] The importance of the distinction between these 
tw^o words consists mainly in their application by our Lord to 



1 I Jn iv. 18. 

2 [1652 «] 'Yirayw, in Jn, mostly = "go back (or, home)" : 7ropevoixai = 
"go (on a journey)." In contexts specifying an errand or place, vTrdyo), 
in Jn, means simply " go away," as in (ix. 7) " Go a-way, wash in the pool 
of Siloam" (rep. ix. 11) and perhaps in xxi. 3 inrdyco akievetv (unless it 
implies 7'esumi7ig a former occupation). Elsewhere "home" may be 
implied in "going back," as in (iv. 16) '■'■Go hofne, call thy husband," 
(vi. 67) "Do ye also desire to go to your homes ?^^ (xviii. 8) "Let these 
go to their several homes^^ (xi. 44) " Loose him and let him go ho?ne." 
In vi. 21 "to the land to which they were makijig their way (vfr^yov)" 
may refer to Capernaum as a home, or simply to the Western coast to 
which they were " going back." In vii. 3 " Go (vnaye) into Judaea," the 
meaning may be " go back," as it certainly is in xi. 8, " Dost thou go back 
(virdyeis) again there," i.e. into Judaea. 

[1652/^] In xii. 11 (R.V.) "By reason of him [i.e. Lazarus] (St' avrov) 
many of the Jews went away (virrjyov) and believed {iiria-Tevov) on Jesus," 
the meaning of vTrfjyou depends on the meaning of dt' avrov. If St* avrov, 

142 



JOHANNINE SYNONYMS [1653] 

Himself, virdyo), "go away," being frequently thus used 
throughout the whole of the Gospel, but Tropevofjuai, " go on a 
journey," being sometimes used by Him along with virdyco in 
His Last Discourse. The question is. What distinction, if 
any, is intended to be drawn between them^ ? 

(ii) Why Luke avoids virdyw. 

[1653] The first point to notice is that virdyco, both in the 
LXX and in the Synoptic Gospels, appears to have been what 
may be called a " debateable " word, i.e. a word preferred by 
some and disliked and deliberately altered by others. In 
canon. LXX it occurs only once^ (Ex. xiv. 21) "The Lord 
caused the sea to go [dack]," virrjyayev. But in Tobit, K has it 
four times in the sense of " go home," whereas B has, in one 
of these instances, iropevofxai^ and in others no certain 
equivalent^ Precisely the same phenomenon, only on a 
larger scale, meets us in the Synoptists. In the first four 

in Jn, could mean "by reason of something in the past concerning him," 
then it might mean here "on account of the raising of Lazarus," and 
vTrriyov k. eViVrevov might be rendered "were in the habit of going away 
to their several homes and believing as a consequence of a visit to 
Lazarus in Bethany." But did nva in Jn appears generally (1884 a, b) 
to mean " for the sake of a person, with reference to the. future " : and 
in the preceding context (xii. 9), dia rbv 'irjaovv, "for the sake of Jesus," 
means ''''for the sake of seeing Jesus." Hence xii. 1 1 must probably be 
rendered " Many, for the sake of [seeing] him [/.<?. Lazarus], used to go 
away {from their party, or, from Jerusalentl...^ In xii. 9 it is said that 
"many came {^Xdav)...to see Lazarus" ; now it is implied that although 
the rulers of the Jews discouraged visits to Bethany the temptation to see 
Lazarus was so great that " many " from time to time slipped away, or 
deserted their party for the sake of seeing him, and, if they did see him„ 
they always used to believe. 

1 [1652^] Before the Last Discourse our Lord never says nopevofiai, 
except in the preface to the Raising of Lazarus, where the words (xi. 11) 
" I go to awake him [i.e. Lazarus] " presumably refer (at least primarily}/ 
to a literal journey into Judaea. 

2 Setting aside Jerem. xxxvi. 19 (S*) vTrdyeis for vficls. 

^ [1653 <a:] Tob. viii. 21 vnaye vyiaivcov irpos rbv iraripa crov, B Tropev- 
eadai p-erd vyeias, x. II and xii. 5 (K) vyiaivoiv vTraye (B om.), x. 12 vTvaye 
Trpos Tov TTcvdepov aov (B ripa tovs ir. aov). 

A. V. 143 II 



[1654] JOHANNINE SYNONYMS 

instances where Mark uses virariay (followed twice by Matthew) 
Luke has severally aTreXdcov, iropevov, vTroa-rpei^e, and 
TTopevov^. In the Riding into Jerusalem, Luke, for once, 
follows Mark^ (and that too, against Matthew) ; but after- 
wards Luke substitutes severally elaeXOovrcov and Tropeverac^. 
The last of these instances is of particular importance be- 
cause it is uttered by our Lord about Himself, " The Son of 
man £-oet/i home (or, back) {yircuyei) even as it is written 
concerning him," where Luke has, " The Son of man goeth 
{iTopeverai) according to that which i^ decreed ^" 

[1654] The reasons for Luke's dislike of the word may be 
inferred from any good Greek Dictionary ; for it would shew 
that, when intransitive, vira^oa may mean quite opposite 
motions, such as "go back," "go quietly, or slowly, away," 
" go on," or " come on " (in the sense of our vernacular " come 
up ! " or " cheer up ! "). All these are exclusive of its transitive 
meanings. Luke, therefore, may have been quite justified in 
altering a word endeared to some by its use in the vernacular 
Greek Gospel, but liable to ambiguity and perhaps not used 
among the educated as Mark uses it. The naturalness of such 
an alteration confirms the conclusion suggested by the agree- 
ment of Mark and Matthew, namely, that our Lord was 
reported in the earlier Greek Gospels to have said about Him- 
self " The Son of Man goeth away, goeth back, or goeth home 
{virar^eL)'' and that Luke changed this into "goeth (on a 
journey) {iropeveTai)!^ 

(iii) 'Tirayco, "go home." 

[1655] John's first use of vTrdyo) is in a saying of our 
Lord about the New Birth (iii. 8), " thou knowest not whence 
it Cometh nor whither it goeth away, or goeth back {virdyei)" 
He is speaking about the Pneuma, Breath, or Holy Spirit. 
Playing on the word as though it were God's breath on earth, 

1 Mk i. 44, ii. ii, v. 19, 34 and parall. Mt.-Lk. 

2 Mk xi. 2 (where Mt. has nopevea-Be). ^ Mk xiv. 13, 21. 
* Mk xiv. 21, Mt. xxvi. 24, Lk. xxii. 22. 

144 



JOHANNINE SYNONYMS [1656] 

the wind, He says " It breatheth, or bloweth, where it willeth, 
and thou hearest the voice, or sound, thereof." So far it 
might mean " wind " — though Pneuma would very rarely be 
used in this sense. But then, after describing its mysterious 
motion. He says, " So, i.e. equally mysterious to thee, is every 
one that is begotten of the Pneuma " — and the Rabbi at once 
perceives that Jesus means " Spirit " now, and perhaps meant 
it before. Probably He included the two meanings, since 
men live amid the motions and voices of Pneuma in both 
senses and are equally ignorant of their sources and ten- 
dencies. Compare this passage with (vii. 33) "I go back 
(vTrdyco) to him that sent me," and with (viii. 14) "I know 
whence I came and whither I go back (virayw), but ye know 
not whence I am coming and whither I go back!' It appears 
from these passages that as the Breath or Spirit of God may 
be regarded as exhaled when it comes forth to men and 
inhaled when it goes back to God, so the Word or Son of 
God is regarded as " coming " when He is manifested to men 
as beginning to do a work appointed by the Father, and as 
" going back " to the Father when He is manifested to men 
as having accomplished the work^ 

[1656] In the First Epistle of John it is said, " He that 

1 [1655 d\ We might speak similarly of the " waters " of God, which 
" come " as rain and " go back " partly as clouds, partly as trees, grass, 
corn. These, in turn, in the shape of decaying vegetation, "go back" 
directly to their Mother. Or else, as pasture, they " go back " indirectly, 
helping the animal world to " go back " in a corresponding way, i.e. to 
make its return, or pay its offering, to Nature. Comp. Is. Iv. i — 11 
"Come ye to the waters. ..as the rain cometh down and the snow from 
heaven and returneth not thither but watereth the earth and maketh 
it bring forth and bud and giveth seed to the sower and bread to the 
eater, so shall my word be that goeth forth out of my mouth : it shall not 
return unto 7ne void^ but it shall accomplish that which 1 please^ and it 
shall prosper in the thing whereto I sent it." In Ps. civ. 29 — 30 the same 
Hebrew word "spirit" or "breath," LXX TrreO/xa, is repeated, "Thou 
gatherest their spirit, they die... thou sendest forth thy spirit, they are 
created." 

145 II — 2 



[1657] JOHANNINE SYNONYMS 

hateth his brother is in the darkness and walketh {TrepiiraTeT) 
in the darkness and knoweth not where he goeth [to his goal] 
(virayecy" ; and the Gospel appears to suggest a similar igno- 
rance of the " goal " of man's life as being implied in the 
inability of the Pharisees to understand where the Son is 
" going home," or " going to his goal." Perhaps their minds 
were fixed on another notion of "going home" which is set forth 
thus in the Jewish Prayer Book : " Know whence thou earnest 
and whither thou art going, and before whom thou wilt in 
future have to give account and reckoning. Whence thou 
earnest : — from a putrefying drop ; whither thou art going : — 
to a place of dust, worms and maggots ; and before whom 
thou wilt in future have to give account and reckoning: — 
before the Supreme King of kings, the Holy One, blessed 
be heV 

[1657] But a Jewish Teacher of the first century, com- 
menting on the question of the Angel to Hagar, " Whence 
contest thou and whither goest thou (Tropevr))?" says that it is 
the voice of Conviction and that it is a reproach addressed to 
the wandering soul that has deserted the service of the Higher 
and Sovereign Purpose. And he adds expressly that this 
poor vagrant's "going (TropevofjuaLy is indefinite: "Thou art 
chasing after uncertainties, rejecting acknowledged truths^" 
John, in the Gospel as well as in the Epistle, seems to 
distinguish this mere "going (Tropevo/nat)" from the "going 
home (vTrciya))" of a child of God, begotten of God and 
returning to God. The "home" is the love of God, and the 
way to it is the love of man. Those who will not receive 
the Spirit of God have no conception of the " home " or the 

1 [1656^] I Jn ii. ii. So Westc. ad toe, "the final goal {^knoweth not 
whither) to which life is directed." But I cannot reconcile this with a 
note of his on the same page, " vnayfi, goeth. The idea is not that of pro- 
ceeding to a definite point {TropeveaBai) but of leaving the present scene." 

2 Jewish Prayer Book, ed. Singer pp. 190 — i, quoting Aboth iii. i. 

3 Philo i. 576. 

146 



JOHANNINE SYNONYMS [1659] 

way to it. Concerning these Jesus says, at the close of His 
Gospel, what perhaps is, in effect, (xii. 35) " He that walketh in 
the darkness knoweth not his way home (ttov vTrdyei)." Con- 
cerning Jesus Himself, His Gospel having been now preached, 
the Evangelist says, first, " Now before the feast of the 
Passover, Jesus, knowing that the hour had come that he 
should pass away {fieraPfj) from this world to the Father," 
and then, " Knowing that the Father had given all things into 
his hands and that from God he had come forth, and to God 
he was goiiig home (vTrdyecy" — and then follows the account 
of the Washing of Feet, the legacy of Christ's example 
bequeathed to the Disciples. 

[1658] We see then that in this last passage the Evan- 
gelist, after describing the impending death in his own words 
as a " passage to the Father," adds clauses to shew the full 
trust reposed by the Father in the Son, and concludes with 
the word used previously by our Lord about Himself {"he was 
going home"). From henceforth, Christ is represented as using 
the word repeatedly, at first without any suggestion of the 
goal or object of the " going back " or " going home," and as 
it were provoking the Disciples to ask Him what the goal 
may be. " Whither I go home ye cannot come," " Whither I 
go home^ ye know the way," " I go home and I come to you^" 
Towards the end of the Discourse, He becomes more definite: 
" But now I go home unto him that sent me^," and, strangely 
enough — though one of the Disciples has expressly uttered the 
question "Whither goest thou home.-"^" — He says, " None of 
you asketh me, Whither goest thou home.-*^" Finally He 
declares, " I go home to the Father^." 

(iv) 'T7ra7ft) applied to the Disciples. 

[1659] Before comparing these passages with others (in 



^ xiii. I — 3. ^ xiii. 33, xiv. 4, 28. ^ xvi. 5. 

* xiii. 36. ^ xvi. 5. ^ xvi. 10 



[1660] JOHANNINE SYNONYMS 

the same Discourse) in which Jesus speaks of "going" to the 
Father, it will be well to mention one in which vTrayco is used 
by Him about the Disciples, (xv. i6) "Ye chose not me but I 
chose you and set (edrjKa) you tAat ye may go {tva vfiec^ 
vTrdyrjTe) and may bear fruit and that your fruit may remain." 
On this Chrysostom says, " / set you, that is, planted {i^v- 
T€vcraY'; and then, " T/ial ye may go (he still keeps the 
metaphor of the vine), that is, that ye may be stretched out 
{iKTadrjreY" But this rendering '^stretched outl' i.e. "may 
grow" " make progress," is against the regular Johannine usage, 
of which, as we have seen, there are many instances. Hence 
most modern commentators render it " That ye may go away 
from me and bear fruit," Le. may go forth as missionaries. 
But does this, as Chrysostom says, " still keep the metaphor"? 
Is it not contrary to the whole drift of Johannine thought, 
which represents the Disciples as unable to " bear fruit " unless 
they '''abide in'' Christ, or ''abide in'' the Vine.? If virayua 
had to be taken of literal motion, would it not mean in this 
Gospel, not " go abroad," but " go away to your homes," as it 
means when Jesus says to the Twelve " Do ye also desire to 
go away from me V Lastly, would it not be a curious mixture 
of metaphor (" bear fruit ") and literalism (" go away to the 
cities of Israel ")? 

[1660] For these reasons the best explanation is perhaps 
a modification of Chrysostom's, based, not solely on the 
metaphor of the Vine, but also on the whole Johannine con- 
ception of "going home " as being the appointed errand of the 
grain of corn, and the vine-branch, and the hnman soul, and 
the Incarnate Logos. All these " came forth from God " and 
are bound by the Law of their Nature to " go back home to 
God." As the Spirit (1655) "goes home," so they that are 



1 [1659 rt] Chrys. refers to Ps. Ixxx. ii "she stretched out (e^e'reii/e) 
her branches." On ridijfii, " set," and very probably interpreted correctly 
by Chrys. as "plant," see 1336^. It might include "grafting." 

148 



JOHANNINE SYNONYMS [1662] 



born of the Spirit " go home " when they have done their work 
on earth. Yet, even before they are " at home with the Lord " 
(as St Paul says) in heaven, they are "at home" with Him on 
earth, " abiding in " the Vine. There is, therefore, a confusion 
of metaphor in a Hteral sense, but it is a deHberate confusion, 
such as we find in the statements that the Father " is in " the 
Son and the Son " is in " the Father. The meaning probably 
is, not, " that ye may go away from me to Joppa, Antioch, or 
Ephesus," but " that ye may go home with me by the way of 
the Cross to the Father in heaven." 

(v) UopevofiaL substituted for virayw. 

[1661] There remains the most difficult passage of all, in 
which the Saviour gives up, for a time, v7ra<y(i), and substitutes 
iropevofjuai, "go {on a journey)!' Most unfortunately, the 
interpretation of it is complicated by the context, in which 
the words ordinarily rendered " I should have said [it] to you 
because " (elirov av v/jllv ore) may mean — and (it will be main- 
tained later on) probably do mean — " I should have said to 
you t/ia^." Moreover the passage is full of emotion that is 
reflected in the style. As Jesus elsewhere says that He came 
not to judge the world but adds " Yea, and even if I should 
judge (/cal eav Kplvo) Be iyco), my judgment is true^" so here, 
He seems to say " I do not admit that I am going from you ; 
I do not admit that there is any need to prepare a place for 
you in my Father's House where I have supreme authority 
and where there is room for all. I am not 'going on a journey 
{iropevofiai)! I am going home (vTrayco)" Then, like a mother 
with very young children. He instructs their ignorance by 
dropping into their way of speaking : " But even if I should 
'go on a journey I and even if I should 'prepare a place for you^ 
yet where is the harm ? I will come again and receive you to 
myselP." 

[1662] From this point onward, to the close of the 

1 viii. 1 6. 2 xiv. 2—3. See 2186 foil. 

149 



[1663] JOHANNINE SYNONYMS 

Discourse, Jesus occasionally uses iropevofjuat, " I go (on 
a journey)," and aTrepxofiai, " I go away " in His efforts to 
comfort and fortify the Disciples against the impending 
assault \ This "going (on a journey)," He says, "will be 
profitable " for them. It will strengthen the believer : 
(xiv. 12) "Greater works than these shall he do because I £-o 
{-jTopevofiat) to the Father," (xiv. 28) "Ye have heard that 
I said to you * I go home (vTrdyco) and come [again] to you. 
If ye loved me ye would have rejoiced that I go (Tropevo/juaL) 
to the Father, for the Father is greater than I," (xvi. 5 — 7) 
" I go home {vTrdyo)) to him that sent me : and none of you 
asketh me ' Where goest thou home ? ' But, because I have 
said these things to you, the sorrow [thereof] hath filled your 
heart. But I tell you the truth : it is profitable for you that 
I go away {direXdo}). For, if I go not away, the Paraclete will 
assuredly not come unto you. But if I go {iropevOoi) I will 
send him unto you " ; (xvi. 28 — 9) " I came forth from the 
Father and have come into the world : again I leave the world 
and go {iropevofjuai) to the Father." 

[1663] This is the Lord's last word about "going" or 
" going home," and it will be noted that He ends with the 
former, the word (so to speak) of the Disciples, not the word 
that He generally chooses for Himself On hearing it, the 
Disciples joyfully exclaim (xvi. 29) "Now speakest thou 
plainly" as though now they understood everything. But He 
at once dashes down their joy : " Do ye now believe "^ Behold 
the hour cometh and hath come that ye should be scattered 
every man to his own and leave me alone." Clearly, if Christ 
intended to strengthen the Disciples by predicting to them the 
immediate future and by preparing them to stand by His side 
before Pilate as fellow-martyrs, He did not succeed. But the 
impression left on us by these mysterious interchanges of 



^ So perhaps St Paul says that he, like a nurse, uses babe language 
to the new converts, i Thess. ii. 7, reading vtjttioi. 

150 



JOHANNINE SYNONYMS [1664] 

synonymous phrases of departure is that the Evangelist felt 
that the departing was partly objective, partly subjective, and 
that the Lord Himself could not succeed, and did not wish to 
succeed, in doing more than prepare the Disciples ultimately 
to realise the nature of the " going " and of the " going home " 
and the " profitableness " of the " going away." 

[1664] Logically, or spiritually, one might argue that, if 
Peter had not denied his Master but had faced Caiaphas and 
Pilate by His side, there would have been, in one sense, 
no " going away " of the Lord, no severance (for him) from 
his Master, not even when Jesus breathed His last upon the 
Cross. For the eye and ear and hand of faith, Jesus would 
still have been present, still speaking, still to be "handled." But 
this was not decreed. It was not given to any man to pass 
into the higher life save through the shadow of death ; and 
this shadow was to be cast, partly on the minds of the 
Disciples, partly on the Logos Himself, so there was indeed an 
actual ''going away'' as well as a ^^ going home^!' 



On the difference between ayairdo) and (f>i\e(o, see 1716 d—f 
and 1728m — -/; d\r)drj^ and aX7]9Lv6<;, see 1121 d — i; diroareWo) 
and Tre/jLTTco, see 1723 d — g ; Btd/€ovo<i and Bov\o<;, see 1717 d — g 
and 1723/; irpdaao) and Troteo), see 1772^; and for other 
synonyms see Verbal Index in Part II. 

1 [1664^] In the Acts of John (§ 12) (ed. James) the beloved disciple, 
weeping on the Mount of Olives, is represented as actually hearing 
Christ's voice there, while He is hanging on the Cross below : but this 
is obtained by a complete surrender of reality in the Passion. The 
passage illustrates early Gnostic thoughts, of which the beginnings were 
probably often present to the mind of the author of the Fourth Gospel : 
"John" — says the Lord's voice — "unto the multitude down below in 
Jerusalem I am being crucified and pierced with lances and reeds, and 
they are giving me gall and vinegar to drink : but unto thee I am 
speaking, and hearken thou to what I say." 



151 



BOOK II 

JOHANNINE AND SYNOPTIC 
DISAGREEMENTS 



153 



CHAPTER I 

JOHANNINE DEVIATIONS FROM SYNOPTIC 
VOCABULARY 

§ I. Introductory remarks 

[1665] In order to use to the best advantage the following- 
English alphabetical list placed here for future reference as 
well as for an immediate cursory glance, the reader should 
bear in mind that this Vocabulary deals almost entirely with 
such words as are common to the Three Synoptists but omitted 
or rarely used by John\ It omits, for example, the words 
"blessed," "confess," " devil V' "judge," because they are not 
used by Mark. These must be deferred till we discuss the 
vocabulary of the Double Tradition of Matthew and Luke in 
its relation to that of John. 

[1666] This greatly restricts the scope of the present list 
which, at the first glance, seems to teach us little but what we 
knew before, namely, that John excludes from his Gospel 
a great deal that may have interested the Churches in Galilee 
and Jerusalem in the last half of the first century much more 



^ Occasionally the Vocabulary will give a typical word used by two 
of the Synoptists and not by Jn, e.g. "to make common," used by 
Mk-Mt. but not by Lk. See 1671 c. 

2 [1665 «] i.e. did^oXos, ''the devil." Aat/ndj/ioi/ "^ devil," in the 
sense of an "unclean spirit," is freq. in Mk. "Blessed," fUKcipios (not 
fvXoyrjfievos etc.) is denoted above. 

155 



[1667] JOHANNINE DEVIATIONS 

than it appealed to the churches of Asia Minor, and to 
the Roman world in general — and perhaps, in particular, 
to fairly educated inquirers after moral truth, such as the 
followers of Epictetus — at the beginning of the second 
century. Under the heading " devils," for example, we note 
without surprise that John omits all reference to "casting 
them out." Many, too, will be prepared to find in his Gospel 
no mention of several forms of disease such as "leprosy," 
" deafness," " dumbness," and " paralysis." His desire to 
subordinate the individuality of John the Baptist to his 
instrumentality in testifying to Christ will also explain why he 
is silent about " Herod Antipas " and his brother " Philip." 
For this, and for other reasons, "divorce" and ''adultery" 
(which are connected directly with the names of these two 
princes and indirectly with the murder of John the Baptist) 
are nowhere mentioned by him. Even the distinctive names 
of " Sadducees," " Scribes," and " Publicans " — so important to 
Jews — nowhere find mention in his cosmopolitan Gospel. 

[1667] At these omissions we cannot be surprised, and we 
learn comparatively little from them. We learn more from the 
absence of words denoting special sins or temptations — for 
example, " hypocrite " and " hypocrisy," " rich," " riches," " pos- 
sessions," " money," " treasure," and the word " temptation " 
itself And, as we proceed in our examination, we find 
omissions of such a kind as to convince us that they do not 
in all cases indicate omission of the subject but only 
variation in the manner of expressing it. For example, it has 
been pointed out that the Fourth Gospel does not contain the 
words "repent," "repentance," "forgiveness," "watch" and 
"pray." But who can believe that the author did not 
recognise the necessity of these things, and the necessity that 
every Gospel should indirectly, if not directly, inculcate 
them ? 

[1668] It would not be easy always to distinguish those 
things which John really omits from those things which he 

156 



FROM SYNOPTIC VOCABULARY [1669] 

expresses variously ; still less would it be possible to assign 
in each case his motive for the omission or variation of 
expression. But an attempt has been made in several in- 
stances to indicate, in footnotes to the following lists, the 
Johannine substitute for a Synoptic word, and, in some few 
instances, to suggest the motive. Generally, we may say that 
John prefers to pass over local distinctions of sects, classes, 
and rulers, material distinctions of physical evil, and moral 
distinctions of various sins, in order to concentrate the mind 
on the elements of the spiritual world, light and darkness, 
spiritual life and death, truth and falsehood. Comparisons 
and discussions as to "greatest" or "least," and even the 
mention of the "little ones" so common in the Synoptic 
Gospels, are absent here. The word "righteous" is never 
used except in the words, " O righteous Father." The Synop- 
tists contrast the "old" and the "new": the latest Gospel 
never uses the word "old." The Synoptists frequently re- 
present Jesus as "rebuking," "commanding," "having com- 
passion," "being filled with indignation": John dispenses with 
these words, mostly thinking it enough to say that Jesus 
" said," or " spake," or " did " this or that, and leaving the 
words and deeds of the Messiah to speak for themselves\ 

[1669] Apart from these general Johannine equivalents, 
it is occasionally possible to point out the definite Johannine 
equivalent of a Synoptic term. For example, instead of the 
word "parable (irapa^oXTJy' John uses " proverb (TrapoLfiia)" 
(rendered by some, "dark saying"); and instead of "mighty 
works (Bvvd/jL€L^y' he uses "signs (o-rjfjLela)" In the footnotes 
to these terms in the several English Vocabularies in which 
they appear the reader will find explanations of these 



1 [1668 a] In the case of Lazarus, the Lord's " friend," John describes 
an affection and a mysterious "self-troubling" of the Lord accompanied 
with tears ; and on two other occasions he mentions " trouble " (1727 d) ; 
but this is exceptional. 

157 



[1670] JOHANNINE DEVIATIONS 

deviations. The motive, in both cases, seems to have been 
a desire to prevent spiritual truth from being buried under 
religious technical terms or obscured by heated discussions 
that had attached themselves to special terms. And in 
making the second of these two changes (the change of 
" mighty work " to " sign ") John is consistent throughout his 
Gospel. For he avoids the word hvva^L<; not only when 
meaning a " mighty work," but also in the sense of "power.'* 
He abstains also from the kindred word " powerful," and from 
the synonymous words " strength " and " strong." He seems 
to desire to shew that heavenly power is far above mere 
" might " and deserves a higher name. Accordingly, he calls 
it by the term discussed in a previous chapter (1562-94), 
" authority." 

[1670] These remarks will suffice to guard the reader 
against being misled by a mere statistical and superficial view 
of the words and numbers in the appended Vocabulary. 
The words are sometimes grouped together to prevent such a 
danger. For example, under the head of " faith " it will be 
found that, although John never uses this noun, he com- 
pensates for it by using the verb, " have faith," or " believe," 
far more often than the Synoptists. Similarly, lest the 
reader should be misled by being told that Luke never uses 
the noun " Gospel (evayyeXiov)," it will be pointed out that he 
uses the verb "evangelize," or ''preach the Gospel (evayje- 
X/for))" with a compensating frequency. 

[1671] As a rule, where a word is only once or twice used 
by one Evangelist and often used by other Evangelists, the 
one or two passages are quoted in a footnote. Thus, under 
the word " angels," a footnote, giving the three instances of 
Johannine use, shews that it is only once used in an utterance 
of our Lord, and there about angels "ascending and de- 
scending on the Son of man " — a different aspect from any 
mentioned by the Synoptists. So, another note on "children," 
giving all the Johannine uses of the word, suggests a parallel- 

158 



FROM SYNOPTIC VOCABULARY [1671] 

ism between John's tradition about "becoming children of 
God " and Matthew's tradition about " turning and becoming 
as children." On every page, facts will be alleged, and 
passages quoted, to shew how unsafe it is to draw an inference 
from rarity of usage in one Gospel, and from frequency of 
usage in others, without some reference to the passages 
them selves ^ 

1 [1671 a] The need of discrimination in dealing with the statistical 
results of the following Vocabulary may be illustrated by the facts 
collected under the words (i) " Astonish(ment)" and (2) "Twelve, the." 

(i) Several of the words used by the Synoptists apparently in a good 
sense to express the amazement or astonishment of the multitude at 
Christ's miracles are altogether omitted by Jn ; and he nowhere applies 
any such word to our Lord Himself (as the Synoptists do). Jn does use 
one of these words {Bavixd^a) rather frequently. But z't will be shewn that 
he appears to use it in a bad sense^ to describe unintelligent surprise. 

[1671 b'\ (2) " The Twelve " are mentioned — as will be shewn by the 
note — four times by Jn, but always in connexion with some mention of 
treachery, possible desertion, or unbelief. Again, whereas Matthew 
(x. 40, and sim. Lk. x. 16) represents Jesus as saying, apparently to the 
Twelve, " He that receiveth you receiveth me," Jn, in the corresponding 
saying, instead of '■^you" has (xiii. 20) ^^ whomsoever I shall send." Also, 
while omitting the names of many of the Twelve as given (with some 
variations) by the Synoptists, Jn records the calling of Nathanael, and 
his subsequent presence at the Eucharist of the Seven, in such a way as 
to suggest that he must have been if not identical, at all events on a 
level, with one of the Synoptic Twelve. These facts seem to point to 
some consistent purpose, although its exact nature (whether supplemen- 
tary, or corrective, or both) may be difficult to determine. In any case 
the fact remains that the Johannine mentions of "the Twelve" are 
divergent from those of the Synoptists, except where the latter use the 
phrase "Judas one of the Twelve." 

[1671 c\ As the first Vocabulary is constructed largely for the purpose 
of giving an English reader a general view of the Gospel words that Jn 
does not use, I have inserted in it some words that do not occur in all 
three Synoptists. So, too, in the later Vocabularies, matter will be 
occasionally inserted that may not fall strictly under their several 
headings, if it will be useful for further reference, and if it can be given 
with such numeral statistics, or annotations, that the reader cannot 
possibly be misled. See, in particular, 1838. 



A. V. 159 12 



[1672] JOHANNINE DEVIATIONS 



SYNOPTIC WORDS COMPARATIVELY SELDOM OR 
NEVER USED BY JOHN^ 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


[1672] Add2 


TrpoaTidrjfjii 


I 


2 


7 





Adultery, adulter- 


jxoixaXis, fioixdofiai, 










ous, etc. 


fxoixda, noix€va>, 












fioixos 


5 


12 


4 





Afar 


fxaKpodev 


5 


2 


4 





Age, world [apart 












from the phrase 












els TOP alayva]^ 


al^v 


2 


7 


5 


I 


And (Hebraic)* 


Kai 


c. 400 


c. 250 


c. 380 


c. 100 


Angel or messen- 












ger^ 


ayyeXos 


6 


20 


25 


3 


Angry, s. Indig- 












nant 


dyavaKTeo) 


3 


3 


I 





Anxiety, s. Care 


fiepifiva 


I 


I 


2 





Apart, privately^ 


KUT* idiav 


7 


6 


2 





Apostles (z'.e. the 
Twelve) 7 












aTTOOToXot 


2 


' 


6 






1 [1672 *] " Chri." opposite to any word signifies " in Christ's words," 
and " narr." signifies " in narrative." Thus " body " (Chri.) is put down as 
occurring twice in Mk, but Mk uses it also twice in " narr." By " narr." 
(unless called "strict narr.") is meant "outside Christ's words." "Narr.," 
therefore, would include words assigned to the Baptist, Pharisees, 
disciples, etc. (" Strict narr." excludes such words.) For Addenda see 
1885 (i) foil. 

2 "Add" is Hebraic in Lk. xx. 11, 12 (lit.) "he added to send," R.V. 
" he sent yet." 

3 [1672 a] "Age," "World." Jn ix. 32 R.V. "Since the world began 
(cK Tov alS)vos)." For Jn's use of alcov elsewhere, always in the phrase 
els TOV alS>va "for ever," see 1712 <^. 

* "And" ("in oratione historica ex simplici Hebraeorum narrandi 
modo," Bruder (1888) p. 456). The numbers are roughly given. See 2133. 

^ "Angel." The instances in Jn are i. 51 "Ye shall see... the an^e/s 
of God ascending and descending on the Son of man," xii. 29 " an angel 
hath spoken to him," xx. 12 "she beholdeth two angels." 

^ [1672 <^] "Apart, privately," freq. applied by Synoptists to Christ's 
teaching. Contrast Jn xviii. 20 " I have spoken openly to the world. 
I ever taught in synagogue and in the temple... and in secret spake 
I nothing." 

^ "Apostles." Jn xiii. 16 "nor is an apostle greater..." means "any- 
one sent " and is not confined to one of the Twelve. 

160 



FROM SYNOPTIC VOCABULARY [1673] 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Arise 


dviardvai (in intrans. 












forms) 


17 


6 


29 


4 


„ [used of the 












sun, clouds etc.] 


)> )» 


2 


3 


I 





Ask, i.e. question ^ 


€7r€pa)Td(o (not 












epayrdco) 


25 


8 


17 


2 or I 




' €ic3afx^eofjLaL 


4 













eK7rXr](r(ronai 


5 


4 


3 





[1673] Astonish(ment)2. 


€KcrTa(ris 
e^icrrafxai 





2 


I 







4 


I 


3 





^ 


ddfx^os, dafx^eofiai 


3 





2 







^ 6avfxd^(o 


4 


7 


13 


6 



1 [1672^] "Ask," 2>. question. Jn ix. 23 "He is of age, ask him" 
(marg. epayr-qo-are)) xviii. 7 " He asked them, Whom seek ye ? " see also 
" pray " (1688) and " ask," €p(^rd(o (1708). N.B. " 2 or i " indicates v.r. 

2 [1673 d\ " Astonish(ment)." In Jn, davfid^co is used twice in narrative. 
In iv. 27 "they [the disciples] degan to marvel that he was talking with 
a woman," it implies a shock of surprise at Christ's unconventional 
conduct. In vii. 15, "the Jews therefore began to marvel saying, How 
knoweth this man letters," the context seems to shew that the " marvel " 
was not that of receptive awe, but that of perplexed hostility. In iii. 7, 
v. 28, ^''marvel not," Jesus rebukes " marvel," as implying want of insight, 
and in vii. 21, in answer to the Jews, who say "Thou hast a devil," He 
says " I have done one work and ye all marvel" i.e. stare at it in 
unspiritual amazement. So far, Jn's use suggests that he takes the 
word in a bad sense (which it has generally in the Canonical LXX). 

[1673 bl There remains Christ's reply to the Jews that (v. 18) 
"sought the more to kill him" after the mighty work of healing 
accomplished by Him on the sabbath. To these would-be murderers, 
blind to the divinity of beneficence, Christ replies (v. 20) " Greater works 
than these will he [the Father] shew him [the Son] — that ye may go 
on marvelling (Iva vfiels OavfxdCrjTe)." If "marvel" is here in a bad sense, 
as in O.T., this is akin to the famous saying of Isaiah quoted elsewhere 
by John (xii. 38 — 40) that God "blinded" the eyes of men " Ikal they 
might not (Jva prj) see with their eyes." So here the meaning would be 
that the Father will shew the Son still greater works — and all that ye — 
the pronoun is emphatic — ye, blind and resolute enemies of the light, 
may go on persisting in your mafvel. 

[1673 <:] It is not surprising that Mr Burkitt's Syriac text (SS is 
illegible) renders this difficult passage '■'• And do not wonder," adding, 
"that I have said [it] to you." But the comparison of Jn xii. 40 makes 
the meaning consistent with the language of Isaiah, as well as with the 

161 12 — 2 



[1673] JOHANNINE DEVIATIONS 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Baptism 


^dirTia-fxa 


4 


2 


4 





Baptist 1 


^aTrrtaTrjs 


2 


7 


3 





Bartholomew 


Bap6o\onaios 


I 


I 


I 





Beat (I) 


Sepo) 


3 


I 


5 


I 


Beat (2) 


TVTTTOa 


I 


2 


4 





Bed, couch (i) 


kXIvt} 


2 


2 


3 





Bed, couch (2)2 


Kpd^aTTOS 


5 








4 


Beelzebul 


B€€\C€^0V\ 


I 


3 


3 






Johannine use of the verb " marvel " — which, in the Fourth Gospel, 
is not a virtue but a vice, quite distinct from '■''awe" or "■ reverence ^^ 

[1673^] Mk vi. 6 has "And he marvelled {iOavyiaa-ev) because of their 
unbelief" (in the visit to Nazareth) where the parall. Mt. xiii. 58 (? Lk. iv. 
16 — 24) has no such statement. But Mt. viii. 10, Lk. vii. 9 have " But 
having heard it Jesus marvelled {i6avp.acrev)" i.e. at the belief of the 
centurion. In the former case, the word is equivalent to "shocked" 
as in Gal. i. 6 (which means that the Apostle is "shocked" at the 
Galatian instability) ; in the latter, it implies wondering admiration. 

[1673^] It appears from Boeckh's Greek Inscriptions (4768 foil.) that 
Ibatv iBavfxaaa, or flbov Kal eOavfiaaa, was the regular phrase in use among 
tourists in the second century to record their impressions after visiting 
the underground tombs at Thebes, " I saw and wondered." If the phrase 
had already become hackneyed in that sense, John may have had an 
additional reason for disliking BavfxdCa> as a word to express Christian 
wonder or awe. An interpolated but very early tradition in Lk. xxiv. 12 
says that Peter, after visiting the empty tomb " went away (aTr^XOev) to his 
home (rrpos avrov) wondering at that which had come to pass." The 
interpolation somewhat resembles Jn xx. 8 — to which says that one at all 
events of the two disciples "-saw and believed" and then that they "went 
away again to their homes {a'nT]K6ov oZv irpos avTovs)." Possibly Jn's 
^'saw and believed" contains an allusion not only to the general 
hackneyed phrase '^ saw and wondered" but also to some particular 
Christian application of it, such as appears in the interpolation — which 
is regarded by W. H. as being of very early date. 

1 [1673/J "Baptist," in the Synoptists, distinguishes John the son 
of Zacharias from John the Apostle. In the Fourth Gospel, John the 
Apostle is never mentioned by name, though probably implied in " the 
disciple that Jesus loved," and in other phrases. The Fourth Gospel 
mentions a John as father of Peter but only in Christ's words (" Simon, 
son of John"). 

2 "Bed." Kpd^arros (Mk ii. 4— 12, Jn v. 8— II, also pi. Mk vi. 55) is 
a term condemned by the Grammarian Phrynichus. 

162 



FROM SYNOPTIC VOCABULARY [1674] 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


[1674] Begin 1 


apxofiat 


26 


13 


31 


I 


Behold ! (1)2 


l^ov (not ide) 


8 


6i 


55 


4 


Behold ! (2) 


t8€ 


9 


4 


o 


15 


Believe, believing, , 












s. Faith 












Beloved 3 


dyaTTTfros 


3 


3 


2 


o 


Beseech, etc.* 


napaKoXea) 


9 


9 


7 


o 


Bethphage 


BTj6(fiayrj 


I 


I 


I 


o 


Birds 


vreTfivov 


2 


4 


4 


o 


Blaspheme, blas- 












phemy ** 


^Xaa(f)r)ix4a), -ia 


7 


7 


4 


2 


Bless, blessed 7 


evXoyeco, -tjtos 


6 


5 


15 


I 


Body (Chri.) 


(TOijxa 


2 


II 


9 


o 


Branch 8 


KKdbos 


2 


3 


I 


o 



1 [1674 «] "Begin," only once in Jn (xiii. 5) "He began to wash the 
feet of the disciples." This unique use of the word in Jn (as contrasted 
with its frequent use in the Synoptists) is very noteworthy and may have 
been among the reasons that led Origen {adloc. Huet ii. 380 B) to interpret 
it as meaning that Jesus " began " the purification now and completed it 
afterwards. In such a writer as John, "began " must be assumed here to 
have some definite meaning, and not to be used as in Mark. 

2 [1674 <^] "Behold!" Jn iv. 35 and xvi. 32 (Chri.), xii. 15 (quot. 
Zech. ix. 9), xix. 5 (Pilate) '-''Behold., the man!" Mk and Jn never use 
it in narr. : Mt. and Lk. freq. use it in nam, and five times agree in using 
it (352) against the parall. Mk. 

3 "Beloved," always with "son" exc. Mt. xii. 18 (quoting Is. xlii. i 
€KX«r60- But see "love,"aya7raa> (1716^ foil, 1728 m foil, and 1744 (i) foil). 

* " Beseech." UapaKaXeco in Mk and parall. Mt.-Lk. is used of 
"beseeching" addressed to Jesus; outside the Triple Tradition it 
sometimes means "comfort," "exhort," e.g. in Mt. ii. i8, v. 4, Lk. iii, 18, 
xvi. 25. 

s " Bird." Mt. xxiii. 37, Lk. xiii. 34 have bv rpoirov opvis eTria-wdyei... 
^Opvis is not used by Jn. 

^ " Blaspheme " etc., in Jn, only x. 33 dXXd irepl ^Xa(T(f>r)p.ias, uttered by 
the Jews, x. 36 vfxus Xdyere ort, BXa(r(f)T]ix€7s, by Christ replying to the 
Jews. 

^ "Bless," in Jn, only xii. 13 evXoyqpivos 6 epxofievos..., the cry of the 
multitude quoting Ps. cxviii. 26. For paKdpios, " blessed," see 1859 e. 

8 " Branch," KXddos. But Jn has kX^/xo, " branch " in his Parable of 
the Vine xv. 2, 4, 5, 6. 

163 



[1675] JOHANNINE DEVIATIONS 



English 


Greek 




Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


[1675] Break (bread) i 


xXao) 




3 


3 


2 


o 


Bring word, s. 
Tell 2 


aTrayyeXXo) 




3 


8 


II 


I 


Build, s. also 














Housed 


oiKoSo/xeo) 




4 


8 


12 


I 


Call, i.e. name* 


KaXeo) 




I 


15 


29 


I 


Call, i.e. summon, 














invite^ 


KaX 60) 




3 


II 


H 


I 


Call anyone to 
(oneself) 


TTpoo-KaXeofiai 




9 


6 


4 


o 


[1676] Care« 


fiepifjLva 




I 


I 


2 


o 


Cast out, s. Devils 














Centurion 


Mk KCVTVpicOV, 


Mt.- 












Lk. iKaTovrdpxqs 


3 


4 


3 


o 



1 [1675 rt] " Break (bread)." The Synoptists never use this word except 
in connexion with the Feeding of the Five Thousand (where Jn omits it) 
and at the Eucharist. Mk and Mt. use it also in the Feeding of the Four 
Thousand, which Lk. and Jn omit. 

2 [1675 b^ " Bring word," airayyiXKoi^ in Jn, only xvi. 25 ''^ I will bring 
word to (R.V. tell) you plainly about the Father." 'ATrayyeXXto in the 
Gospels, apart from quotations, should never be rendered " tell " (as 
in R.V. Mk v. 14, 19, vi. 30 etc.) but almost always "bring word" (as in 
R.V. Mt. ii. 8, xxviii. 8) or " report." Epictetus ii. 23. 2 condemns those 
who asserted that there was no "reporting power {bvvapis aTrayyeXriKr])" 
in the senses (comp. Steph. quot. Sext. Pyrrh. i. 197 ovk aTrayyeXriKas). 
There is a " spirit," he says, infused in the eyes, which goes forth from 
them and returns to them with an impression of the things seen, and no 
"messenger" is "so swift." The Sibyl (vii. 83) calls the Logos "a 
reporter (dnayyeXTfipa) of logoi," and Steph. quotes Euseb. Dem. v. 202 B 
Beov Xoyov iv dvdpaTra ttjstov Trarpos fvcre^elas ciTrayyeXTiKov. The word is 
therefore appropriate to the Spirit of the Son in heaven, "reporting" to 
man on earth. 

3 [1675 c] " Build," in Jn, only ii. 20 " In forty-six years was this temple 
built." Comp. Mk xiv. 58, xv. 29 parall. to Mt. xxvi. 61, xxvii. 40 about 
the building of a new Temple (not mentioned in Lk.). 

* "Call," i.e. name. Mk xi. 17, '''■shall be called 2, House of Prayer," 
quoting Is. Ivi. 7 ; Jn i 42 '•''thou shall be called Cephas." 

^ " Call," i.e. invite, summon. In Jn, only ii. 2 " Now Jesus also was 
invited^ and his disciples." 

^ "Care." Mk iv. 19 "the cares of the world" parall. to Mt. xiii. 22, 
Lk. viii. 14. The verb p.^pip.vdv " be anxious (or, careful) " is in Mt. (7), 
Lk. (5), Mk (o), Jn (o). 

164 



FROM SYNOPTIC VOCABULARY [1676] 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Charge 


TrapayyAXo) 


2 


2 


4 


o 


Child 1 


TiKVOV 


9 


15 


H 


3 


Child (little) 2 


•naih'iov 


12 


i8 


13 


3 


Child (infant) 


vrjirios 


O 


2 


I 


o 


Children (babes, 












pl.) 


^p€(t)rj 


o 


O 


I 


o 


Chosen, masc, i.e. 












the elect 3 


€k\€Kt6s 


3 


5 


2 


[?I] 


City (Chri.) 


TToXlS 


I 


13 


12 


o 


City (nam) 


TToXlS 


7 


13 


27 


8 


Cleanse, make 












clean, purify 












etc.'* 


Ka6api((o 


4 


7 


7 


o 


Clothe^ 


Trepi^aXXo) 


2 


5 


2 


I 


Cloud 


v€<^fKrj 


4 


4 


5 


o 



1 [1676 rt] "Child," TiKvov. Jn i. i2 "He gave them authority to 
become children of God," viii. 39 "If ye are children of Abraham," xi. 52 
"...that he might gather... the children of God." To " become children of 
God" is apparently equivalent to being (Jn iii. 3) " born from above" 
without which, it is said, a man " cannot see the kingdom of God " : and 
the two expressions together appear to resemble the tradition peculiar to 
Matthew (xviii. 3) " Except ye turn and become as little children ye shall 
in no wise enter into the kingdom of heaven." TcKvia (pl.) is in Jn xiii. 33. 

2 [1676 b] " Child (little)," Trmblov. Jn iv. 49 " Come down before my 
child die," xvi. 2 1 " But when she is delivered of the child, she re- 
membereth no more the anguish," xxi. 5 " Children, have ye (R.V.) aught 
to eat ? " In the Synoptists, " (little) children " may be called a " funda- 
mental word" of doctrine. In Jn it is never used except vocatively, and 
hence, in the Preface (p. ix) it is said to be omitted. On xxi. 5, see 2235 r. 

3 [1676^] "Chosen," masc. Jn i. 34 (SS) ''the chosen [one] of God/' 
W. H. " son " (593 a). Comp. Lk. xxiii. 35 " the Christ of God Ihe chosen 
[one]." Elsewhere the word is masc. pl. as in the Epistles, " the elect 
[ones]." Jn has "choose" five times— Mk (i), Mt. (o), Lk. (4)— and 
always in the words of Christ, concerning His choice (exc. Jn xv. 16 "Ye 
did not choose me "). 

* "Cleanse," used by the Synoptists mostly of "cleansing" from 
leprosy, which (1666) Jn never mentions. 

5 [1676^] "Clothe," in Jn, only xix. 2 "they clothed him with 
{irepU^aXov avrov) a purple garment," probably written (1805-6) with 
allusion to Synoptic parallels, including Lk. xxiii. 1 1 " Having clothed him 
in gorgeous apparel {Trepi^dkcov ea-drJTa Xa/XTrpai/)." 

165 



[1677] JOHANNINE DEVIATIONS 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


[1677] Colti 


traXos 


4 


3 


4 


I 


Come to» 


irpocrepxofiai 


5 or 6 


51 


II 


I 


Command (i) 


€niTd(r(ra> 


4 





4 





Command (2) 


KiKevco 





7 


I 





Command (3) 


TT poaracrcrat 


I 


2 


I 





"Common," make 3 


KOIVOCO 


. 5 


5 








Compassion, com- 


iTKcos 





3 


6 





passionate, pity* 


I eXee'o) 


3 


8 


4 





etc.* 


\ (TTrXayxviCofiai 


4 


5 


3 





Condemn^ 


KaraKpivco 


2 


4 


2 





[1678] Confess « 


e^OfioKoyeofiai 


I 


2 


I 





Country, the c. 












round about 


7repix(opos 


I 


2 


5 





Cross (Chri.) 


aravpos 


I 


2 


2 





Crucify (Chri.)'' 


aravpoat 





3 








Crucify with 












(Jesus) 


(rvvcrravpoo) 


I 


I 









1 "Colt," in Jn, only xii. 15, quoting Zech. ix. 9. Jn lays much less 
stress than the Synoptists lay on the Finding of the Colt. He uses the 
word " ass," where Mk-Lk. use " colt," while Mt. uses " ass and colt " 
(1861 d). 

2 [1677 a] " Come to," in Jn, only xii. 21, of the Greeks, who " came to 
Philip " saying, " Sir, we would see Jesus." In the Epistles, it occurs only 
in I Tim. vi. 3 (?), Heb. (7), i Pet. ii. 4, and always of approaching a 
source of grace. 

3 [1677 <J] "Common," i.e. unclean. All these instances occur in 
Mk vii. 2 — 23 and the parallel Mt. (Lk. omits the whole). Mk vii. 2, 5 
also has {bis) Koti/6s (adj.) in the phrase Koivai^ x^P^^^- 

* [1677 c] "Compassion." The Synoptic words meaning "pity" 
sometimes correspond to the Heb. IDPI, which also means "kindness," or 
" loving-kindness.'^ This might sometimes be expressed by " love," which 
occurs in Jn more frequently than in all the Synoptists taken together. 

5 [1677^] "Condemn." Jn, however, uses KpiVw, "judge" freq. (19) — 
Mk never, Mt.-Lk. seldom {1714: d—f) — and often where the context 
indicates "condemn," as Jn iii. 17, 18 (where A.V. has "condemn" 
thrice). 

6 [1678 rt] "Confess." Mk i. 5, Mt. iii. 6 ''confessing their sins," Mt. 
xi. 25, Lk. x. 21 "I make confession., or acknowledgment^ to thee, Father." 
Lk. xxii. 6 (act.) e^afiokoyrjo-fv, "Qudas Iscariot] ?nade an agreement?' 
Jn (1861 rt) has 6p.o\oyea> but not of "confessing sins" (exc. in Epistle). 

7 "Crucify" (Chri.) Mt. xx. 19, xxiii. 34, xxvi. 2 (1206). 

166 



FROM SYNOPTIC VOCABULARY 



[1679] 



English 


Greek 


Crucify with 




(another) ^ 


avvaTavpooi 


Cup 2 


Trorrjpiov 


Damsel 


Kopdo-iov 


Daughter^ 


dvydrijp 


[1679] David* 


Aavfid 


Deaf or dumb 


Ka><f>6s 


Death, put to^ 


Oavaroa 


Deny utterly^ 


dirapviopLai 


Desert, desolate 




(adj.) 


fprjfxos 


Destroy^ 


KaraXvo) 


Devils (plur.) 


daipovia 


Devil(s), cast out 


e<^dXK<o 8. 


Devil(s), possessed 




with 8 


8aipovi^op,ai 


Disease^ 


voaos 


Diseased^ 


KaKcis i'xa)v 



Mk 

o 
6 

5 
5 
7 
3 

2 

4 



Mt. 

o 

7 

3 
8 

17 

7 
3 

4 



Lk. 

o 

5 

o 

8 

13 

4 

I 

4 



5 3 2 

3 5 I 

8 6 or 8 i6 

7 6 or 7 7 



Jn 

I 
I 

o 
I 

2 
O 

o 
o 

o 
o 
o 
o 

I 
o 
o 



1 [1678^] "Crucify with [another]." This occurs in Jn xix. 32. But the 
Johannine context so differs from the Synoptic as to make the meaning in 
Jn " crucified with Ike first malefactor^'' not " crucified with yesus^ Lk. 
omits the word altogether. See 1817 c. 

2 [1678 c\ " Cup." Lk. omits Mk x. 38—9, Mt. xx. 22—3 " Are ye able 
to drink the cup...}" Jn's single instance is (Jn xviii. 11) "The ctip that 
the Father hath given me..." 

3 [1678^] "Daughter," in Jn, only xii. 15, quoting Zech. ix. 9 
^^ Daughter of Zion." 

4 [1679*2] "David." Both Jn's instances are in vii. 42 "Did not the 
Scripture say that from the seed of David, and from Bethlehem the 
village where David was, the Christ is to come ? " 

5 " Death, put to." Lk. xxi. 16 (diff. from parall. Mk xiii. 12, Mt. x. 21) 
"they shall put to death some of you," comp. Jn xvi. 2 "he that killeth 
{dtroKTdva^) you." For "death," see 1710 <r — d. 

^ " Deny utterly." Jn has "deny," dpviofiai, concerning Peter's Denial 
xiii. 38, xviii. 25, 27, and i. 20 "confessed and denied not." 

7 [1679 <^] "Destroy." But, corresponding to KoraXvo) used concerning 
the temple or its stones (Mk xiii. 2, xiv. 58 etc.), Jn ii. 19 has Xixrare. 

8 [1679 <:] "Devil(s), possessed with," in Jn, only x. 21 "Others said, 
these are not the works of one possessed with a deviV But Jn has — 
always in dialogue — haipoviov %\oi (5) and daifxoviov (i). 

9 [1679^] "Disease." Jn has daOevda (2) and do-eepeco (8). The 
former is used once in Mt. (viii. 17 "took our infirmities ") but that is 
in a quotation from the Heb. (not LXX) of Is. liii. 4. 

167 



UNIVERSITY 

OF 



[1680] JOHANNINE DEVIATIONS 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Distant (also means 












"enough," "have 












in full")! 


anix<^ 


2 


5 


4 





Divide 


IJ.epiC<^ 


4 


3 


I 





Divide asunder 2 


Sm/uepifw 


I 


I 


6 


I 


Divorce 3 


aTToXiKo (R.V. "put 












away") 


4 


9 


2 





Drink, give to drink 


ttotI^co 


2 


5 


I 





[1680] Ear* 


ovs 


5 


7 


7 





Earthquake^ 


aeta-fios 


I 


4 


I 





Eat 6 


eV^io) 


II 


II 


12 





Elders 


TTpea^vTepoi 


7 


12 


5 





Elect, s. Chosen 












Elijah? 


'HXei'ay 


9 


9 


7 


2 


Ends 


reXog 


3 


5 


4 


I 


Enemy® 


ix^pos 


I 


7 


8 





Enough (see note 












above on Dis- 












tant) 


a-irix'^ 


2 


5 


4 






^ " Distant etc." The numbers include the three meanings. 

2 " Divide asunder," in Jn, only xix. 24, quoting Ps. xxii. 18 about the 
division of Christ's garments. 

3 "Divorce." These numbers do not include ottoXvo) = " release," 
" send away " etc. 

* "Ear." Jn xviii. 10, 26 has wrdpiov (i), uirlov (i), both about the ear 
of Malchus. 

s [1680 a] "Earthquake." Mk xiii. 8 (parall. Mt. xxiv. 7, Lk. xxi. 11) 
predicts earthquakes in the Last Days. Mt. viii. 24 aeio-pos peyas eyevero 
iv T. BaXdaarr) means "tempest," Mt. xxviii. 2 mentions an earthquake 
at the time of the Resurrection (not in Mk-Lk.-Jn). 

^ [1680^] "Eat." This does not include (a) (\>ayciv and {b) Tpwyeiv. 
^ayelv is freq. in all the Synoptists, and fairly freq. in Jn. Tpwyeiv occurs 
only in Mt. (i) (xxiv. 38 '-'• eating and drinking") Jn (5) always of eating 
Christ's flesh, exc. in xiii. 18, quoting Ps. xli. 10, (Heb.) "he that eatetk 
my bread." *Eo-^ia), the pres. tense, occurs in discussions about eating 
with sinners, and in the narrative of the Eucharist etc. 

? " Elijah," in Jn, only i. 20, 25. 

8 [1680 c\ " End," in Jn, only xiii. i " He [Christ] loved them to the 
^«^ (2319— 23)." There is nothing in Jn about "the end" as meaning 
the Last Day etc. See 1715^. 

. ® " Enemy." Mk xii. 36, only in quotation (Ps. ex. i) parall. to Mt. xxii. 
44, Lk. XX. 43 (1856). 

168 



FROM SYNOPTIC VOCABULARY 



[1681] 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Enter, go into 


elcTTopevofxai 


8 


I 


5 





Exceedingly (i) 


\iav 


4 


4 


I 





Exceedingly (2) 


€Kir€pi.(T(rats 


I 











Exceedingly (3) 


Trepia-a-Ss 


2 


I 








Exceedingly (4) 


a(f)6dpa 


I 


7 


I 





[1681] Facei 


7rp6(r<o7rov 


3 


10 


14 





Faith, or, belief 












(1670) 


TTLOmS 


5 


8 


II 





Faith, have, in, 












i.e. believe 


TTicrTeixo 


10 


II 


9 


c. 100 


Faithful, believing' 


^ Triaros 





5 


6 


I 


Faithless (-ness), 












unbelieving (-be- 












lief)2 


amarioi (-ia, -09) 


3 


2 


4 


I 


Fall (Chri.)3 


TTtTrro) 


5 1 


[I or 13 


14 


I 


Fall (narr.) 


TTLTTTtO 


3 


6 


3 


2 


Fall against, fall 












down before 


TrpOO-TTLTTTOi 


3 


I 


3 





Fast, fasting 


vrjcrrda, vrjariSj 












vrjareva) 


7 


9 


5 





Fear(n.)* 


(f)6^os 


I 


3 


7 


3 


Fear (vb.) (Chri.)^ 


(f)o^€op,ai 


2 


8 


II 


I 


Fear (vb.) (narr.) 


(f>o^eop,ai 


10 


10 


12 


4 



1 [1681 a] " Face." In apparent reference to a passage where the 
Synoptists use (Mk i. 2, Mt. xi. 10, Lk. vii. 27) 7rp6 Trpoa-airov, Jn iii. 28 
uses efxirpoaBev. 

2 [1681 b] " Faithful," " faithless," in Jn, only xx. 27 " Be not un- 
believing (aTTio-Tos) (R.V. faithless) but believing (TrioT-ds-)." In idiomatic 
English, '■''faithless'''' now means "not keeping faith," and is applied to 
breaking one's word, breach of trust etc. Jn does not mean this. 

3 " Fall" (Chri.), in Jn, only xii. 24 " Except the grain of corn having 
fallen (ireo-cbi/) into the earth die." 

* [1681 <r] " Fear " (n.). In Jn, always in a bad sense, and in the phrase 
(Jn vii. 13, xix. 38, xx. 19) "because of the/^^r of the Jews," i.e. because 
they were afraid of the Pharisees. Mk iv. 41 and Mt.-Lk. freq. use 
<^o/3os in a good sense, to mean "^^e/^." Comp. the only passage 
mentioning fear in the Epistle, i Jn iv. 18 "There is no fear \n love, but 
perfect love casteth oy^Xfear, because ^^r hath punishment." 

s [1681 «r] "Fear" (vb.). Jn vi. 20 "It is \ ', fear not." In Christ's 
words it is always used thus negatively in Mk (2), and almost always 
in Mt.-Lk. In Mt.'s narrative it is once used by an angel Mt. xxviii. 5 
^^ Fear not ye." 

169 



[1682] JOHANNINE DEVIATIONS 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Few (plur.) 


oXiyoi 


2 


6 







Field 


dypos 


8 


i6 


JO 





[1682] Firei 


TTvp 


4 


12 




I 


First (adj. or noun, 












notadv.)(Chri.)2 


Trparos 


5 


II 







Flee 3 


cf>evyo) 


5 


7 




2 


Forgive, forgive- 












ness* 


d(f)ir]fj,iy a<f>e(ris 


12 


i8 


I? 


2 


Gain (vb.)^ 


Kepdaivo) 


I 


6 







Gathers 


€iri(rvvdya) 


2 


3 







Generation 


yevfd 


5 


13 


15 





Gentile, s. Nations 












Gift7 


8a>pov 


I 


9 







Go before 8 


Tvpodyoi 


5 


6 







Go before 8 


TTpoiropevofjLCU 


o 


o 







Go before, go for- 












ward® 


Trpoepxopai 


2 


I 


2 






1 [1682 a] " Fire," in Jn, only xv. 6 " They gather them and cast them 
into the y?r^," in the metaphor, or parable, of the Vine. Mt. twice uses 
"fire" in connexion with "Gehenna," or "hell" (v. 22, xviii. 9) which 
does not occur in Jn. 

2 [1682 d] " First." Jn omits all discourses about " who shall be 
Jirs/" as also about "who shall be the greatest'^ (1683 <^— 4 

3 [1682 r] "Flee," in Jn, only x. 5, 12, of the sheep "fleeing" from 
the stranger, and the hireling from the wolf. 

* [1682^] "Forgive." This does not include dcfylrjpi meaning "leave," 
"suffer." "Forgiveness" occurs nowhere in Jn, "forgive" only in xx. 23 
" Whose soever sins ye forgive, they 2iX^ forgiven unto them." See also 
(1690) " Remission of sins." 

5 [1682^] "Gain." Comp. "reward," ^io-<9op, Mt. (10), but Mk (i), 
Lk. (3), Jn (I). 

® [1682y] "Gather." Jn xi. 52 (ii/a kcli to, TeKva tov S(ov...(rvvaydyTj 
els €v) uses avvdyco in a sense similar to that of eTria-wdyco in (a) Mt. 
xxiii. 37, Lk. xiii. 34, TroardKis fjBeXrja-a eiriarvvayaye^v (Lk. inicrvvd^ai) to. 
T€Kva (TOV (where, however, Jn speaks of the scattered children of God 
generally, but Mt. Lk. refer to the children of Jerusalem), and in (d) 
Mk xiii. 27, Mt. xxiv. 31 eVio-uva^et (Mt. -^ovcnv) rovs cKXeKTovs avrov 
eK t5>v t€(t(t. dvipwv. All use crvvdya), Mt. more freq. than Mk Lk. and 
Jn taken together. 

7 [1682^] "Gift." See "gain," and " reward," freq. in Mt. Jn has the 
form bwpfd once (iv. 10) " If thou knewest t\\e gift of God." 

8 [1682^] "Go before, or, forward." Jn generally prefers simple 

170 



FROM SYNOPTIC VOCABULARY [1683] 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Good [applied to 












a person]^ 


ayaOos 


3 


6 


6 


I 


Gospel 


fvayyeXiov 


7 


4 


o 


o 


Gospel, preach the 












(lit. speak gos- 












pel)* 


evayyeXl^o), -Ofxai 


o 


I 


lO 


o 


Governor^ 


rjyeyMtv 


I 


ID 


2 


o 


Grass 


Xopros 


2 


3 


I 


I 


[1683] Great* 


fxeyas 


15 


20 


26 


5 


Great, sufficient 


iKavos 


3 


3 


lO 


o 


how great, 












how much. 


■ noaos 


6 


8 


6 


o 


how many 












Greater (of per- 












sons)^ 


ixei^av 


I 


6 


6 


7 



verbs with prepositions to compound verbs. Comp. Jn xiv. 2 " I go 
to prepare (eroindaai) a place for you." This implies " going before." 

^ "Good," appl. to a person, in Jn, only vii. I2 "Some said. He [i.e. 
Jesus] is goodP 

2 [1682/] "Gospel, preach." See also "preach," "proclaim," i.e. 
Krjpv(r(ra>, which Jn never uses. On the other hand, Jn uses XaXe'o), 
" speak," more freq. than Mk and Lk. taken together. 

3 [1682 y] "Governor," or ruler. Each of the Synoptists uses the word 
once in Christ's prediction that the disciples will be tried before " rulers 
and kings." The other instances of Mt. and Lk. (except Mt. ii. 6) refer 
to Pilate. 

* [1683 «] "Great" is never applied by Jn to persons as it is in 
Mk X. 42 — 3 and parall. Mt., (Lk. "greater"). Jn applies it (fxeyas) only 
to (vi. 18) "wind," (vii. 37, xix. 31) "day," (xi. 43) "voice," (xxi. 11) 
"fishes." 

^ [1683 <^] "Greater," of persons. Mk's only instance is Mk ix. 34 
"They had conversed with one another in the way [on the question]. 
Who is the greatest [lit. greater"] (ris fxfi^cov)?" Mk represents Jesus, 
in His reply, as saying "Whosoever of you desireth to beyfrj-/," but 
Mt. and Lk. both in the parallel and elsewhere assign to Jesus the word 
"greater^"' concerning "persons" — in particular about the Baptist (Mt. 
xi. II ovK €yr)y€pTai...fi€i((ov...6 de ptKp6T€pos...iJ.ei^ei)v, and sim. Lk. vii. 28). 

[1683^] Jn assigns to the Samaritan woman the words (iv. 12) "Art 
thou greater than our father Jacob?" and to the Jews (viii. 53) "Art thou 
greater than our father Abraham?" But when the word is used by 
Jesus it is either used with a negative (xiii. 16) " the bond-servant is not 
greater than his master 7ior the apostle greater than the [apostle's] 
sender " (comp. xv. 20), or else applied to the Father as " greater " than 

171 



[1684] 



JOHANNINE DEVIATIONS 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Hand (Chri.) 


X"> 


5 


9 


9 


5 


Hand (narr.) 


x*tp 


19 


15 


16 


10 


Have (in full) (see 












note above on 












Distant) 


dir€X<o 


2 


5 


4 





Heal(i)i 


depaTrevm 


5 


16 


14 


I 


Heal (2)2 


Idofiai 


I 


4 


II 


3 


Hell, s. Fire 


yecvva 


3 


7 


I 





Here (Chri.) 


Sde 


6 


12 


12 


I 


Here (narr.) 


Ue 


4 


6 


30^4 


4 


Herod (the Great) 


'HpSdrjs 





9 


I 





Herod (Antipas) 


'Hpo)8r)s 


8 


4 


13 





Herodians 


'Hpoodiapoi 


2 


I 








Herodias 


'HpcoSias 


3 


2 


I 





High 


vyl^rjXos 


I 


2 


I 





Highest 


vylria-Tos 


2 


I 


7 





[1684] House (1)3 


otfcta 


19 


26 


24 


5 


House (2) 


OIKOS 


12 


9 


32 


3 


House-master 


olKodeO-TTOTTJS 


I 


7 


4 





Hunger (vb.)* 


Treivdo) 


2 


9 


5 


I 



the Son (xiv. 28) or "greater" than all things (? x. 29 W.H. marg.). 
John assumes that all that is great and good in men comes to them from 
their being in the Father (or the Father in them) so that arithmetical 
comparisons between man and man are out of place. Comp. Plato 69 A 
{Phaed. 13) which declares that the balancing of /Aet'^o) 7rp6s eXdrrco is not 
" the right exchange with a view to virtue." 

1 [1683^] "Heal" (i), in Jn, only v. 10 "The Jews therefore began 
to say to him //%«/ ^ad been healed (rw red e pair €vp.iv(o\^^ i.e. the man that 
had been (Jn v. 5) "in his infirmity." 

2 [1683^] "Heal" (2). Mt. xiii. 15, Jn xii. 40 are quotations from 
Is. vi. 10. Jn V. 13 6 Se laOds (Tisch. d<r6€va>v) is called 6 redepaTrevnevos 
in Jn V. 10. Jn iv. 47 "that he would come down and /lea/ his son," 
is a request to Jesus. It will be seen that Jn never uses OepaTrevco or 
Idofiai in his own person except participially to describe people that have 
been healed. 

3 [1684^] "House" (i). It means "household" in Jn iv. 53 and 
perh. in viii. 35 ("doth not abide in the house for ever"). It means 
"the Father's house" in xiv. 2, and the house of Martha and Mary in 
xi. 31 and xii. 3. See also "build." 

* " Hunger," in Jn, only vi. 35 " He that cometh unto me shall 
assuredly not hunger." 

172 



FROM SYNOPTIC VOCABULARY [1685] 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Husbandman^ 


yeatpyos 


5 


6 


5 


I 


Hypocrite, 












hypocrisy 


viroKpiTTjs, -la-is 


2 


14 


4 





Increase, grow 2 


av^dvco 


I 


2 


4 


I 


Indignant, be- 












come^ 


ayavaKrito 


3 


3 


I 





Inherit, inherit- 












ance, inheritor 


KXrjpovoficay, -t'a, -os 


3 


5 


5 





Isaac* 


'lo-aaK 


I 


4 


3 





Israel^ 


'la-pariX 


2 


12 


12 


4 


James (son of 












Alphaeus etc.)^ 




4 


3 


3 





James (son of Zebe- 












dee or brother of 












John)6 




10 


3 


5 





Jericho 




2 


I 


3 





John (son of 












Zebedee) 




10 


3 


7 





Just, justify etc., 












s. Righteous 












[1685] Kingdom^ 


^aaiXeia 


19 


56 


45 


5 


Know, recognise 8 


€7riyiv(6(rK(o 


4 


6 


7 






1 " Husbandman," in Jn, only xv. i " My Father is the husbandman!^ 

2 " Increase," in Jn, only iii. 30 "He must increase but I must 
decrease." 

3 [1684^] " Indignant, become." 'Opyi^op-ai, " be angry," occurs Mt. (3), 
Lk. (2), but Mk (o), Jn (o), and therefore is not in this vocabulary. 

* " Isaac." In Mk, only xii. 26, quoting Ex. iii. 6. 

^ [1684 r] "Israel." Jn iii. 10 "Art thou the teacher of Israel and 
knowest not these things?" appears to contain a shade of irony. It is 
the only Johannine instance of the use of "Israel" in the words of the 
Lord. The others are i. 31, 49, xii. 13. Of Lk.'s instances, 7 are in his 
Introduction. 

^ [1684 <^] "James." These names and numbers are given as in 
Bruder (1888). But the distinctions are doubtful. The important fact is 
that " James " does not occur at all in Jn. 

7 [1685 a] " Kingdom." " The kingdom of God, or, of heaven etc.," 
occurs more than 80 times in the Synoptists. In J n it occurs only in the 
Dialogue with Nicodemus, iii. 3, 5, "the k. of God," and in xviii. 36 
" my kingdom " (thrice repeated, rj ^. v ifxr^). 

8 [1685 b] " Know, recognise." For ytvdcrKa, and otSa, see 1715. 



[1686] JOHANNINE DEVIATIONS 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Lame^ 


Xa>\6s 


I 


5 


3 


I 


Lamp, lampstand^ 


Xv^vos, -ia 


2 


3 


8 


I 


Last (excluding 












"last day")^ 


€<rxaTos 


5 


10 


6 





Lawful, it is* 


f^eoTiv 


6 


10 


5 


2 


Lead astray, go 












astray, err 


TrXavda 


4 


8 


I 


2 


Lead away 


dirdy(o 


3 


5 


4 





Leave 


KaraXetTro) 


4 


4 


4 





Leaven (n. and vb.) C^firj, -oat 


2 


5 


3 





Leper, leprosy 


Xenpos, -a 


3 


5 


5 





[1686] Liken, compare « 


' o/jLoioa) 


I 


8 


3 





Little ones« 


IxiKpoi 


I 


4 


I 





Manifest, known 












(adj.)^ 


cf)av€p6s 


3 


I 


2 





Market-place 


dyopd 


3 


3 


3 





Marry, marriage ^ 


ya/xeo), -I'^o), -os etc. 5 


18 


13 


2 


Marvel, s. Astonish 











1 [1685 c] " Lame," in Jn, only v. 3 "A multitude of them that were 
infirm, blind, lame, withered." 

2 [1685 rt?] "Lamp," Xvxvos. The only instance in Jn is v. 35 "He 
[i.e. John the Baptist] was the lamp.^^ 

3 [1685 e\ " Last " is not applied to persons etc. in Jn, but " the last 
day," i.e. the Day of Judgment, fcrxdrr] fjpepa, occurs 7 times in Jn and 
never in Synoptists. 

* " Lawful, it is," in Jn only v. 10 " It is not lawful for thee to take up 
thy bed," xviii. 31 "// is not lawful iox us to kill anyone." 

^ [1686 rt] " Liken," Mk iv. 30. " Like," o/xotoy, is also freq. in Mt. (9), 
Lk. (9) (but abs. from Mk) in connexion with parables. In Jn ofioios 
occurs twice, Jn viii. 55 "like you," ix. 9 "like him." 

6 [1686/^] "Little ones," in Triple Tradition, only in Mk ix. 42, 
Mt. xviii. 6, Lk. xvii. 2 "one of these little ones" [Mk + " tkat believe^^ 
Mt. + " //^rt/ believe in me"]. The most reasonable explanation of Lk.'s 
omitting "that believe in me" and of Mk's omitting "in me" is that the 
bracketed words were early glosses explaining or defining " little ones." 

^ [1686 c] " Manifest." The vb. (fyavepoo), however, occurs Mk (i +[2]), 
Mt. (o), Lk. (o), Jn (9). Besides Mk iv. 22 it occurs in Mk App. xvi. 12, 
14 concerning the Resurrection. In Jn xxi. i (bis), 14 it refers to the 
Resurrection. See 1716 /, 7. 

8 [1686^ " Marriage," ydfios occurs in Jn ii. i, 2 of the "marriage" at 
Cana. 



FROM SYNOPTIC VOCABULARY 



[1687] 



English 


Greek 




Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Mary (mother of 














the Lord)i 


yiapla{\i) 




I 


5 


12 


o 


Matthew 


MadOaios 




I 


2 


2 


o 


Mercy, s. Com- 














passion 














Middle, midst 


fieaos, ev 


fieo-a, fls 












TO fieaov etc. 


5 


7 


14 


4 


Might, mighty 














work 2 


dvvafiis 




lO 


13 


15 


o 


Mighty (possible, 














able) (I) 


dvvaros 




5 


3 


4 


o 


Mighty (2)3 


laxvpos 




3 


3 


4 


o 


Mock4 


ifXTrai^co 




3 


5 


5 


o 


Money, silver^ 


dpyvpiov 




I 


9 


4 


o 


Mountain 


opos 




II 


i6 


12 


4 


[1687] Nations (plur.)^. 














i.e. Gentiles 


edvTj 




4 


12 


9 


o 


Near, be or draw 














near (vb.)^ 


iyyiCco 




3 


7 


i8 


o 


Neighbour^ 


TrXrjcTLOV 




2 


3 


3 


o 



1 " Mary." Mk vi. 3 " Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary ? " 

2 [1686^] "Mighty work." Instead of dwdfieis, "mighty works," 
which is the usual Synoptic word for Christ's miracles, Jn uses arjucla, 
" signs." To express " power," in a certain sense, he freq. uses i^ovcria, 
where R.V. gives '■'■ power" in txt. but sometimes ''''right^'' sometimes 
" authority^'^ in margin. " Authority " would perhaps be the best word in 
almost every case (1562 — 94). 

3 [1686/] " Mighty" (2). Note that in Mk i. 7, Mt. iii. 11, Lk. iii. 16, 
John the Baptist says, concerning Jesus, ^^ Mightier (laxvporepos) than 
I " : whereas Jn i. 27 gives the context but omits these words. 

* "Mock," in Mk x. 34, xv. 20, 31 concerning the "mocking" in the 
Passion, predicted or practised, and so in Mt.-Lk. exc. Mt. ii. 16, 
Lk. xiv. 29. 

^ "Money." Mk xiv. 11 " They promised to give him [Judas Iscariot] 
money." Jn ii. 15 has Keppara "(copper) money." 

6 [1687 a] " Nations." The sing., however, €$vos occurs 5 times in Jn 
(1718/) and also in Mk xiii. 8, Mt. xxiv. 7, Lk. xxi. 10 ^^ nation against 
nation" Mt. xxi. 43 "a nation" Lk. vii. 5, xxiii. 2 "our nation?' 

7 [1687 <^] "Near." The adv. eyyvs "near," occurs Mk (2), Mt. (3), 
Lk. (3), Jn (II). 

^ [1687 r] "Neighbour." In Jn irXrja-iov occurs only in Jn iv. 5 
"Sychar, near to the parcel of ground..." 



A. V. 



175 



[1688] 



JOHANNINE DEVIATIONS 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


O! 


a, 


I 


2 


2 





Oath (s. also Swear' 


) opKOS 


I 


4 


I 





Oil 


eXaiov 


I 


3 


3 





Oldi 


rraXaios 


3 


3 


3 or 5 





Olives (Mt. of) 


eXaioiv (al. -av) 


3 


3 


4 





Other, another 2 


erepos (not aXXos) 


[I] 


10 


34 


I 


Parable^ 


Trapa^okr] 


13 


17 


18 





Paralytic 


TrapaXvTiKOS 


5 


5 


I 





Pass, pass by (i) 


Trapipxpp.aL 


5 


9 


9 





Pass, pass by (2)* 


irapdya) 


3 


3 





I 


Pay, render, re- 












quite^ 


aTToSi'dco/xt 


I 


18 


8 





[1688] People^ 


Xaos 


2 


14 


37 


2 


Philip (founder of 












Caesarea) 


^iXimros 


I 


I 


I 





Philip (husband of 












Herodias) 


'^iXlTTTTOS 


I 


I 








Physician 


larpos 


2 


I 


3 





Pity, s. Compassior 


1 










Plant (vb.) 


(f)VT€VQ> 


I 


2 


4 





f>oor (Chri.)^ 


TTTaxos 


3 


4 


8 or 9 


I 


Power, s. Might 












Tray, prayer 


Trpocrevxopai, -rj 


13 


19 


22 





•Preach, proclaim 


Kr}pva(ra) 


12 


9 


9 





(Prepare 8 


eroi/ia^o) 


5 


7 


14 


2 



1 [1687^] "Old." Compare, however, i Jn ii. 7 about the ''old 
commandment" (dis). 

2 [1687^] "(An)other," in Jn, only xix. 37 "Again another Scripture 
saith...." As it occurs only in Mk App. [xvi. 12] (as indicated by the 
bracketed [i]), and not in Mk, it ought not, strictly, to come in this list. 

3 " Parable," Trapa^oXr), is, in Jn, irapoip.la. See 1721 c — d. 

* " Pass by" (2), Trapdyco, in Jn, only ix. i '' And, passing- by, he saw a 
.man blind from birth." 

^ "Pay, render," in Mk only xii. 17 "-Render therefore to Caesar...." 
:See" Render (1691)." 

6 [1688 (i\ " People," in Jn, only in the saying of Caiaphas (xi. 50, 
Kviii. 14) that " one man " was to " die for the peopled In Mk vii. 6 it is in 
A quotation from Is. xxix. 13 ; in Mk xiv. 2 it is in a saying of the chief 
priests ; in Mk xi. 32 W.H. have oxXov. 

"^ [1688 bl " Poor " (Chri.), in Jn only xii. 8 " The/^^r ye have always," 
•om. by SS and D. 

® [1688 c\ " Prepare," €Toip.d(a), in Jn, only xiv. 2 — 3 (bis) " I go to 
prepare a place." Also KaTaa-KevdCo) occurs Mk (i), Mt. (i), Lk. (2), Jn (o). 

176 



FROM SYNOPTIC VOCABULARY 



[1689] 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Prepared, ready ^ 


eTOLflOS 


I 


4 


3 


I 


Prevent, hinder 


KQ>\va> 


3 


I 


6 


o 


Priest 2 


lepevs 


2 


3 


6 


I 


Prison 3 


(f)v\aKr} 


2 


8 


6 


I 


Privately, apart '^ 


kut' I8iav 


7 


6 


2 


o 


[1689] Publican 


reXcovrjs 


3 


8 


lO 


o 


Put on (a garment),! 


evdvco 










(mid.-) be clothed 


3 


3 


4 


o 


in5 ) 


1 rrepipa A Aoj 


2 


5 


2 


I 


Ransom 


Xvrpov, -ooj, -cocris 


I 


I 


3 


o 


Read (scripture) ^ 


avayivaxTKOi 


4 


7 


3 


o 


Ready, s. Prepared 


eroLfios 


I 


4 


3 


I 


Reason'' 


diaXoyi^Ofxai, -kt/xos 


8 


4 


12 


o 


Rebuke 


iTTLTipdoi 


9 


7 


12 


o 


Receive^ 


bexofiaL 


6 


lO 


l6 


I 


Recline, lie, some- ) 












.■ I 


avaKkivco 


J 


2 


3 


o 


times cause to > 










lie9 ) 


KaraKkivco 


o 


O 


5 


o 


Recline with^ 


(TwavaKeLfxaL 


2 


2 


3 


o 



^ " Prepared," " ready," in Jn, only vii. 6 " but your time is always 
ready'^ 

2 " Priest," in Jn, only i. 19 '■^priests and Levites." 

^ " Prison," in Jn, only iii. 24 " For John was not yet cast into ^r/i-<?;/." 
The numbers above do not include (f)vXaKT] meaning " watch," for which 
see 1696. 

4 " Privately," see " Apart " (1672 d). 

5 " Put on," see " Clothe" (1676). 

^ [1689 a] " Read (scripture)," Jn has dvayivaxTKco once, but not of 
scripture, xix. 20 "This title, therefore, the Jews read." 

^ [1689 d] " Reason," when used in the phrase " reasoned among them- 
selves," is sometimes synonymous with " murmur," yoyyy^co, which occurs 
Mk (o), Mt. (i) (in parable), Lk. (i), Jn (4) — or with SiayoyyvCo which 
occurs in Lk. alone (2). 

^ [1689 c] " Receive," dexopai, in Jn, only iv. 45 " the Galilaeans 
received him": but Xafx^dvoj, "receive i.e. welcome (a person)," occurs 
Mk (o), Mt. (o), Lk. (o), Jn (11) (1721/—^). napaXa/x/Sai/co occurs Mk (6), 
Mt. (16), Lk. (6), Jn (3), always of persons except in Mk vii. 4, but not 
always of friendly reception. 

^ [1689^] "Rechne" (almost always at meals). 'Ai/a/cet/iai and dva- 
TTiTrro), in a similar sense, occur in all the Four Gospels. 



177 



13- 



[1690] JOHANNINE DEVIATIONS 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Reedi 


KoXafxos 


2 


5 


I 


o 


[1690] Remission of 












sins 2 


d<\>e<TLi dfxapTicov 


I 


I 


3 


o 



1 [1689^] "Reed." Mk xv. 19, 36, Mt. xxvii. 29, 30, 48, Lk. om., 
of the "reed" mentioned in the Passion : Mt. xi. 7, Lk, vii. 24 (the only- 
instance) "a ree^ shaken by the wind": Mt. xii. 20 (quoting Is. xlii. 
3) "a bruised reed." 

2 [1690(2] "Remission of sins," acfxais dfiapnav, is connected by Mk 
i. 4 and Lk. iii. 3 with the Baptist's preaching, but the parall. Mt. iii. 2 
omits it and mentions "the kingdom of heaven" [Mt. xxvi. 28, however, 
inserts " for the remission of sins " in the account of the Eucharist where 
Mk-Lk. omit it]. The following facts bear on acfxais in LXX and on 
Jewish traditions about the Hebrew original of the word. 

[1690 d] (i) Apart from a few unimportant exceptions, acjieais, in 
canon. LXX, means tke ^^re/ease" of the Sabbatical Year^ or of Jubilee^ 
and is not connected with atonement except once in a passage describing 
the scape-goat that is (Lev. xvi. 26) '"''for AzazelJ^ Josephus speaks 
of Jubilee as the year {Ant. iii. 12. 3) "wherein debtors 2iYe freed from 
their debts and slaves are set at liberty " ; and he says that " the name 
denotes Aphesis.^^ Isaiah Ixi. i — 2 connects '■''liberty (a^eo-ii/) to the 
captives" with ^'' the acceptable year of the Lord^^^ which (Ibn Ezra says) 
means " the Year of Remission " : and this forms part of the text, so to 
speak, of our Lord's first sermon in Luke (iv. 17 — 19). Debtors sometimes 
sold themselves or their children into slavery ; so that remission of 
servitude and remission of debt would naturally often go together. 

[1690 <;] (ii) Part of the observance of Aphesis consisted in " re- 
leasing" the land from service by abstaining from agriculture for a whole 
year and allowing the poor to partake of such fruits or crops as grew of 
themselves. That this institution was observed shortly before, and shortly 
after, our Lord's birth, we know from the testimony of Josephus Ant. xiv. 
16. 2, XV. I. 2, Philo in Eus. Praep. Evang. viii. 7 and Tac. Hist. v. 4. 
Josephus says that it caused great distress when Herod besieged Jerusa- 
lem (as well it might), and he quotes {Ant. xiv. 10. 6) a decree of Julius 
Caesar remitting tribute for every Sabbatical Year. 

[1690 d'\ (iii) That inconvenience was caused by the " remission " 
of debts in the Sabbatical Year as late as the birthtime of Christ, we 
know from the Mishna, which tells us that Hillel (probably about the 
beginning of the Christian era) introduced a legal means of evading the 
Law because people entertained the (Deut. xv. 9) "base thought" of 
refusing to lend in view of the approaching Aphesis. But the Gemara 
(/. Shebiith x. 4) adds (Schwab ii. 428) " Mais est-ce que cet acte [de 

178 



FROM SYNOPTIC VOCABULARY [1690] 

Hillel] a pour origine la Tora? Non ; seulement lorsque Hillel I'a 
institud, il I'a bas^ sur une allusion biblique." 

[1690^] (iv) In Jeremiah (xxxiv. 13—15) the act of "proclaiming 
Aphesis" is shewn by the context to mean, or include, freedom from 
servitude; and both that prophet and Nehemiah (Neh. x. 31 "that we 
would forgo the seventh year and the exaction of every debt") contended 
against the wealthy for that very observance of Aphesis which Hillel 
practically abrogated. Hillel was the greatest and best of the Pharisees 
and acted (no doubt) from perfectly pure motives ; but the Pharisees 
of the next generation were called a "generation of vipers" by the 
Baptist, and he refused to give them baptism. It is antecedently pro- 
bable that peasants and fishermen would dislike the evasion of the Law, 
and that the Baptist, the last of the prophets, who bade those that had 
" two coats " to " give to him that had none," would with still more force 
insist on the observance of the statute Law of the Nation, which no 
Pharisee could abrogate. 

[1690/] (v) Josephus tells us that the Baptist {Ant. xviii. 5. 2) 
insisted that his disciples, before being baptized, should be " thoroughly 
purified beforehand by righteousness^^ and he distinguishes " righteousness 
towards one another^'' from "piety to God." Luke iii. 12, 14 tells us that 
the publicans and soldiers said to the Baptist " What shall we do ? " 
and were told how to exercise " righteousness " according to their ability. 
These two witnesses convert the above-mentioned probability to a 
certainty, that the Baptist would make rich men and Pharisees '■'■do" 
something before he gave them baptism : and the least they could do 
(according to the view of a Prophet) would be to observe the written 
Law in all its requirements for the good of the poor. 

[1690^] (vi) Both in Greek and in Hebrew, "release" means also 
"forgive." In Aramaic (1181) "debt" and "sin" may be represented 
by the same word. Hence '■''forgive us our sins" might be interchanged 
with " release us from our debts" The conditional prayer, " Release us 
from our debts as we release those that are indebted to us " might have 
a twofold meaning. 

[1690 y^] (vii) The fact that Matthew reads ''debts" for ''sins" in the 
Lord's Prayer should be considered in this connexion. And many other 
kindred questions deserve discussion, although they cannot be discussed 
here, for example, whether John the Baptist did not intend something like 
a compulsory socialism, and whether Jesus of Nazareth did not intend to 
convert this into what should ultimately become a voluntary socialism. 
Possibly it may appear that such an incident as the death of Ananias 
and Sapphira was one of many signs that might reveal to the Apostles 
and their successors the evil of importing into the Church what was 
(practically) a compulsory socialism twenty centuries or more before the 
Church was ready for even any form of voluntary socialism. 



[1691] JOHANNINE DEVIATIONS 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


[1691] Render, requite, 












payi 


aTTobidayfjit 




i8 


8 


o 


Repent, repentance ficravoeo), -ma 




7 


14 


o 


Report, bring word 












to, s. Tell 


OTray-yeXXo) 




8 


II 


I 


Reproach 


oveiSi^G) 




3 


I 


o 


Rest, the 


\otn6s 




4 


6 


o 


Retain, seize, take 












hold of 2 


Kpareco 


IS 


12 


2 


2 


Reward, wages ^ 


fiia-Oos 




lO 


3 


I 


Rich, riches* 


7r\ov(rios, rrXoOroff 


3 


4 


12 


o 


Right, on the^ 


€K de^ioiv (jJLov) or 












ev Tols de^iois 


6 


7 


4 


o 


Righteous, just 












(appl. to men) 


bUaios 


2 


c. 15 


lO 


o 


Righteous (appl. 












to God) 6 


dUaios 


O 


o 


o 


I 



1 " Render," see " Pay" (1687), and the note on " Reward " below. 

2 [1691 a] " Retain etc." Jn uses Kpareo) twice, but only in one 
passage, and metaphorically (xx. 23) " Whose soever [sins] ye regain they 
are retamedJ'^ The meaning is obscure. See 2517 — 20. 

3 [1691 Ul " Reward," " wages." The two instances in Mk and Jn are 
Mk ix. 41 "He shall surely not lose his reward^' Jn iv. 36 '■^Already,.. 
is taking his reward^ The former regards the reward as future, the 
latter regards it as present. 

4 [1691 c\ "Rich," see "Poor" (Chri.) which is shewn (1688^) to occur 
only once in Jn (where D and SS om. the mention). 

^ [1691^] "Right, on the." Jn makes no distinction of "right" and 
"left" between the malefactors crucified with the Saviour. Also, he 
never speaks of the Son as "^/ the right hand^'' of the Father, but as 
"/«" the Father, or "^;/<?" with the Father, and similarly of the disciples 
as being "zw" the Son. Jn xxi. 6 "on the right side" is not included in 
the list above because " side {pipy]) " is added. 

6 [1691^] "Righteous" applied to God occurs in Jn xvii. 25 "O 
righteous Father." Applied to things, it occurs Mk (o), Mt. xx. 4 
"Whatsoever is righteous (x.e.just) I will give you" ; Lk. xii. 57 "Why, 
even of yourselves, judge ye not that which is righteous {to dUaiov)?" 
i.e. judge Justly; Jn v. 30 " My judgment is righteous " vu. 24 "Judge 
righteous judgment." Jn and Mk never use SiKaiow "justify," "make 
righteous," which occurs Mt. (2) Lk. (5). On "righteousness," which 
occurs Mk (o) Mt. (7) Lk. (i) Jn (2), see 1854^. The facts suggest that 
Jn uses the adjective and noun in the Platonic sense of "just" and 
"justice" rather than in the technical Hebrew meaning, "observant 
of the requirements of the Law [of Moses]." On "judging justly," see 
1714^—^. 

180 



FROM SYNOPTIC VOCABULARY [1692} 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Rocki 


irirpa 


I 


5 


4 





Root 


piCa 


3 


3 


2 





[1692] Sadducee 


^addovKoios 


I 


8 


I 





Sake of, for the 2 


ev€Ka 


4 


7 


5 





Salt 


oKas 


3 


2 


2 





Sanhedrin, council ' 


^ crvvidpiov 


3 


3 


I 


I 


Satan 4 


2aTava5 


5 


3 


5 


I 


Satisfy 5 


XoprdCa 


4 


4 


4 


I 


Save 6 


areola) 


14 


15 


17 


6 



2 [1692 a] " Sake." Jn however uses vTrc'p in xiii. 37, 38 (A.V.) "y2?r 
thy, my, sake," (R.V.) "/^^ thee," "/<7r me." Comp. Jn xv. 21 "These 
things will they do unto you because of (8m) my name," (A.V. and R.V.) 
'"''for my name's sakeP Jn xii. 30 "/t?r your sakes" has dm, Jn xvii. 19 
^^for their sakes" has vTTf'p. For the difference between the Johannine 
and the Synoptic view, see 1225 — 6. On the Johannine " sake," 8m, see 
1721, and 1884 a—b. 

^ " Sanhedrin," etc. Lk. xxii. 66, Jn xi. 47. 

4 [1692 <^] "Satan," in Jn, only xiii. 27 "Then {i.e. at that moment, 
Tore) entered into him Satan," i.e. into Judas Iscariot ; Lk. xxii. 3 ("But 
Satan entered into Judas") places the "entering" earlier. 

^ [1692^] "Satisfy," in Jn, only vi. 26 "Because ye ate from the 
loaves and were satisfied" lit. fed as beasts with grass — probably used 
by Jn in a bad sense, but not so by Mk vi. 42, Mt. xiv. 20, Lk. ix. 17 etc. 

6 [1692^] "Save." In the words of Christ, ''save'' is used by the 
Synoptists in the phrase "Thy faith hath saved thee" (after acts of 
healing), " he that will save his soul {i.e. life) shall lose it," etc. But there 
is no Synoptic statement that Christ came to ''save" except in the story 
of Zacchaeus peculiar to Luke (Lk. xix. 10) " For the Son of man came 
to seek and to save the lost." 

[1692^] Mt. xviii. 11 (R.V. marg.) has "Many authorities, some 
ancient, insert, ' For the Son of man came to save that which was lost'" : 
Lk. ix. 56 (R.V. marg.) has, besides another insertion supported by 
" some ancient authorities," the following one supported by " fewer " : 
" For the Son of man came not to destroy men's lives but to save \them'\." 
But W.H. omit both of these without marginal alternative. And they 
are omitted by SS. 

[1692/] Jn iii. 17 "God sent not the Son into the world that he 
should judge the world but that the world should be saved through him," 
is probably, as Westcott argues at some length, a comment of the 
Evangelist, not an utterance of Christ : but the necessity for so long an 
argument shews how easily comment on Christ's words might be taken 

181 



[1692] JOHANNINE DEVIATIONS 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Scourge, i.e. pain- 












ful disease 


fldoTl^ 


3 


o 


I 


o 


Scribe 


ypafifiarevs 


22 


19 


14 


o 


Scriptures, the 












(pi.) (1722) 


al ypa(f)ai 


2 


4 


3 


I 


Seed (lit.) 


crtrepfia, (nropos 


3 


5 


2 


o 


Seed (metaph.)^ 


(Tvipfxa 


4 


2 


2 


3 


Seize, retain, take 












hold of 2 


Kparefo 


15 


12 


2 


2 


Sell (Chri.) 


TTCoXeO) 


I 


4 


5 


O 


Sell (narr.)3 


rraXea 


2 


2 


I 


2 


Set before* 


iraparlBrfiMi 


4 


2 


3 


O 



as part of Christ's words, and illustrates the growth of the interpolations 
mentioned in the last paragraph. 

[1692^] The Johannine version of the words of Christ certainly 
represents Him as saying (a) Jn v. 34 "These things I say thatjK<? may 
be saved" {b) Jn x. 9 " Through me if anyone enter in he shall be saved" 

(c) xii. 27 " Shall I say, ' Father, save me from this hour ? ' " (933—40), 

(d) xii. 47 " / came not that I might judge the world but that I might save 
the world^^ The ist, 2nd, and 4th of these clearly imply spiritual 
" saving." 

1 [1692/%] "Seed" (metaph.). Jn vii. 42 "From the seed of David," 
viii. 33 " We are Abraham's seed^'' viii. yj " I know that ye are Abraham's 
seed." Jn xii. 24 has kokkos for "grain (of wheat)," to suggest the soul 
dying that it may live. 

2 " Seize." See above, " Retain" (1691 a). 

3 "Sell" (narr.). All these relate to the casting out of them that 
"sold" in the Temple. 

4 [1692/] "Set before," i.e. set food before, Mk vi. 41, Lk. ix. 16, 
in the Feeding of the Five Thousand; and Mk viii. 6 {bis)^ 7 in the 
Feeding of the Four Thousand. But Mt. in the parall. to these three 
passages of Mk omits TrapaTLdrjfii. Mt., when using this word, applies 
it to spiritual food, or teaching by parables ^ xiii. 24, 31 "Another parable 
he set before them." 

[1692y] Lk. has x. 8 " Eat the things set before you," xi. 6 " I have 
nothing to set before him," but also uses the middle to mean (xii. 48, 
xxiii. 46) " entrust," "commend." Comp. Acts xiv. 23 ^Uommended them 
to the Lord," but xvi. 34 (act.) ^^ set before them a table," i.e. fed them, 
xvii. 3 " opening [the Scriptures] and setting before them [the doctrine'] 
that it behoved the Christ to suffer." The word has these various 
meanings in the Epistles also: i Cor. x. 27, i Tim. i. 18, 2 Tim. ii. 2, 
I Pet. iv. 19. 

182 



FROM SYNOPTIC VOCABULARY 



[1693] 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Seven, seven times 


eirrd, -kis 


8 


II 


8 





Shed blood 


iKxvvvoi alfia 


I 


2 


2 or 3 





Sick, s. Diseased 


KOKcSff €X(OV 


4 


5 


2 





[1693] Sidon 


2i8(6v 


3 


3 


3 





Silent, be (i) 


o-iydo) 








3 





Silent, be (2) 


(TKOTrdo) 


5 


2 


2 





Sinner, sinfuF 


ifiapTcoXos 


6 


5 


17 


4 


Sit (I) 


KuBe^ofiai 





I 


I 


3 


Sit (2) 


KaOijixai 


II 


19 


13 


4 


Sit (3) 


Kadi^o) 


7 


8 


8 


2 


Sleep (I) 


Kadevdo) 


8 


7 


2 





Sleep (2)2 


KoifidofiaL 





2 


I 


2 


Smite (i) 


Trardaa-di 


I 


2 


2 





Smite (2) 


TV7rr(o 


I 


2 


4 





So,in the same way 


Qi(rai)T(os 


2 


4 


2 or 3 





So as to, so that 3 


S<TT€ 


13 


15 


4 


I 


So to say, as it 
were, about* 


coa-ei 


I 


3 


8 





Sodom (1671 c) 


26dofia 





3 


2 





Sow5 


aneipo) 


10 


16 


6 


2 


Spit on 6 


efXTTTVOi 


3 


2 


I 





Straightway (i a) 
(1910 foil.) 


evOvs 


c. 40 


7 


I 


3 


Straightway (i d) 
(1914 foil.) 


eve^ois 





II 


6 


3 



1 "Sinner" occurs in Jn only in the dialogue about the man born 
blind, four times, Jn ix. 16, 24, 25, 31 (1371 d). 

2 [1693 a] " Sleep " (2). Koifxdoixai means the sleep of death in 
Mt. xxvii. 52 "the saints that slept arose." In Jn xi. 11 "Lazarus has 

fallen asleep {K€KoifXT)Tai),^' the disciples take the verb literally and 
comment on it thus (xi. 12) "If he has fallen asleep he will recover (1858)." 

3 [1693 (^] "So as to," "so that," occurs in Jn only in iii. 16 '^ so that 
he gave his only begotten Son," a comment of the Evangelist, not a 
saying of Christ's. See " save " above (1692/). 

* [1693 c\ " So to say," " about" occurs in Mt. xiv. 21, parall. Lk. ix. 14 
" about five thousand," but Mk and Jn, who also mention " five thousand," 
do not thus qualify it. 

^ "Sow," in Jn, only iv. 36 — 7, of spiritual sowing. 

^ [1693 d'\ " Spit on," referring to the Passion, does not occur in Jn ; 
but TTTvo), "spit," occurs in Mk vii. 33, viii. 23, Jn ix. 6 in connexion with 
healing. See 1737 b. 

183 



Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


rrapaxp^fia 


o 


2 


lO 


o 


Icrxvs, Icrxvpos 


4 


4 


5 


o 


lcrx^<^ 


4 


4 


8 


I 


CKTelvco ;(eTpa(s) 


3 


6 


3 


I 


aKav8aXi(a>, 


8 


19 


3 


2 


(TKavdaKov 










jStoy 


I 


o 


5 


O 


vTrdpxovra 


o 


3 


8 


o 


KTTjpara 


I 


I 


o 


o 


7rd(rx<»> 


3 


4 


6 


o 


Uavos 


3 


3 


lO 


o 


ffKios 


4 


5 


3 


o 


6pvva> 


2 


13 


I 


o 


Xolpos 


4 


4 


4 


o 


arvvayayrj 


8 


9 


15 


2 



[1694] JOHANNINE DEVIATIONS 

English 

Straightway (2)^ 

Strength, strong 

Strong, be 2 

Stretch out the 
hand(s)3 

[1694] Stumble, make 
to stumble, stum- 
bling-block * 

Substance, pos- J 
sessions, living j 

Suffer 

Sufficient (marg. 
worthy), great 
Sun 

Swear (s. also Oath) opvvo) 
Swine 
Synagogue^ 



1 [1693^] "Straightway" (2). Uapaxpny^a is not strictly entitled to 
a place here, but it is inserted to explain that Lk.'s deficiency in respect 
of €v6vs and evBiois may be compensated by his excess in respect of 
another word of similar meaning. Uapaxpfj p.a, both in Mt. and Lk., is 
connected with miraculous results in the context exc. (a) Lk. xix. 11 
"that the kingdom of God was destined to come immediately^^ {b) 
Lk. xxii. 60 "And immediately, while he was yet speaking, the cock 
crew." In («), the meaning is, perhaps, "come by special miracle"; 
in {b\ attention seems to be called to a miraculous coincidence. 

2 [1693/] "Strong, be" occurs in Jn only in xxi. 6 "They were no 
longer strong [enough] to draw it \i.e. the net]." On Jn's non-use of 
" strong," "mighty" etc., see the latter (1686/). 

3 [1693^] "Stretch out the hands," in Jn only xxi. 18 "Thou shalt 
stretch out thy hands,^' to which is added, " Now this he spake signifying 
by what manner of death he \i.e. Peter] should glorify God," i.e. by 
stretching out his hands on the cross. 

4 [1694 «] "Stumble" etc. Jn has only the verb, vi. 61 "Doth this 
make you to stumble V^ xvi. i "This have I said to you that ye be not 
tnade to stumble.''^ 

5 [1694 <^] "Synagogue," in Jn, only vi. 59 (R.V.) "These things said 
he in [the, or, a] synagogue (eV (rvvayoiyr^) as he taught in Capernaum," 
xviii. 20 " I ever taught in [the, or, a] synagogue (eV o-uj/ayw-y,^) and in the 
temple." Perhaps " in synagogue " (like our " in church ") would be the 
best rendering in both passages. 

184 



FROM SYNOPTIC VOCABULARY [1695] 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Take hold of, s. 












Retain 


K/jareo) 


15 


12 


2 


2 


Teacher, Master 












(voc.)i 


hlhaCTKCLki 


lO 


6 


12 


2 


Tell (R.V.), bring 












word 2 


aTra-yyeXXo) 


3 


8 


II 


I 


[1695] Tempt, tempta- 












tion^ 


Treipa^o), -aa-fJios 


5 


8 


8 


I 


Testimony* 


fiaprvpiov 


3 


3 


3 


o 


That {iL.e. in order 












that) 5 


oiras 


I 


17 


6 


I 


Then {i.e. after all) 


apa 


2 


7 


6 


o 


Then {i.e. at that 












time) 


t6t€ 


6 


88 


14 


lO 


Thirds 


rpiTos 


2 


6 


9 


I 



1 [1694^] "Teacher," voc, in Jn, only i. 38 'Pa^^e\ 6 Xe'yerai peO. 
AiddcTKokej XX. 16 'Pa^^ovvel 6 Xe'yerai AiSao-KoXe. Jn viii. 4, where 8. occurs 
without the Aramaic, is an interpolation. For " Rabbi " see 1815. 

2 [16940 "Tell (R.V.)," in Jn, only xvi. 25 " I will tell you plainly 
concerning the Father " (see 1675 d). Jn also has ay-yeXXo) (not used by 
Synoptists) in xx. 18 "then cometh Mary Magdalene telling the 
disciples." 

^ [1695 a\ " Tempt," in Jn, only vi. 6 " But this he said tempting him," 
of Jesus "tempting" Philip. 

* [1695 <^] "Testimony." In Mk-Mt., only in the phrase et? p. avrols 
(or, Tols edvecri) which seems to mean "as a testimony against them" 
(Mk i. 44, vi. II, xiii. 9, Mt. viii. 4, x. 18, xxiv. 14) or "a testimony with 
regard to them in case they should disbelieve." Lk. ix. 5 (parall. to Mk 
vi. 11) has 6tff p. fV avTovs, but Lk. v. 14 els p. avrols. Lk. xxi. 13 has 
diTo^rjcreTai vplv els p. absolutely. This must be carefully distinguished 
from paprvpia, a freq. Johannine term (1726). 

5 [1695 <;] "That," i.e. in order that, Mk iii. 6 (Mt. xii. 14) ottcos avrov 
aTroXecraa-Lv, Jn xi. 57 ottcos iTLao-coo-Lv avrov. It is noteworthy that the only 
instance of ottcos in Mk-Jn refers to attempts to destroy or arrest Jesus. 
Comp. Mt. xii. 14 ottcos avrov aTToXecraxriv, xxii. 1 5 ottcos avrov Trayi8evcr(0(riv 
ev Xdycp, xxvi. 59 o7ra>s avrov OavaraxraxTLV. Lk. vi. II (parall. to Mk iii. 6, 
Mt. xii. 14) has rl av TToirjo-aiev rw 'I. These figures have nothing to do 
with Iva " in order that" (1726). 

6 [1695 d] " Third," in Jn, only ii. i " On the tkird day there was 
a marriage in Cana." " On the third day" in Mt.-Lk. always refers to 
Christ's Resurrection; but Mk has '\after three days" (1297). 

185 



[1696] 



JOHANNINE DEVIATIONS 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Third time, the 












(adv.)i 


rpirov, €k rpirov 




I 


I 


3 


Throne (1671 c) 


6p6vos 




5 


3 





Time, season ^ 


Kaipos 




10 


13 


3 


To-day 


crjfiepov 




7 


12 





Torment 


^aa-avl^o), -os 




4 


3 





Touch 3 


aTTTOfxai 


II 


9 


10 


I 


Tradition (1671 c) 


Trapabocris 




3 








Treasure, treasure- 












house, lay up 












treasure 


6r)(ravpi^co, -6s 




II 


5 





Tree 


Sevdpov 




12 


7 





Turn, turn back^ 


enia-Tpecfxo 




4 


7 


I 


Twelve (disciples, or (ot) dcSdeKa {fxaOrjTai, 










apostles), the^ 


aTroaroXoi) 


II 


8 


7 


4 


Tyre 






3 


3 





Unclean 


uKaOapTOs 


II 


2 


6 





Understand, under- 


(rvvirjfii, o-vv€(Tis, 
crvvcros 










standing 


6 


10 


6 





[1696] Verily ( 1)6 


apr]v 


14 


C.30 


6 





Verily verily (2)" 


dfiffv dfir]v 











26 



1 [1695^] "Third time" (adv.). This occurs in Mk xiv. 41, "cometh 
t^e third time" Mt. xxvi. 44 "prayed a third time (en Tpirov)." In Lk. 
xxiii. 22, Jn xxi. 14, 17 (dis) there is no parallelism. Jn xxi. 14 tovto rj8r] 
Tpirov i<l>av(pa)6r) refers to a "third" manifestation of the Resurrection. 

2 [1695/] "Time," "season," in Jn, only vii. 6—8 '' my ti?ne {bis).,. 
your timeP 

3 [1695^] "Touch," in Jn, only xx. 17 ''Touch me not." In the 
Synoptists it almost always refers to Jesus touching the diseased or the 
diseased touching Him or His garments. 

"* [1695 h'\ " Turn," in Jn, only xxi. 20 " Peter, turning about {cTrioTpa- 
<f)€is)" The active is applied to Peter in Lk. xxii. 32 " When once thou 
hast turned again {eiria-Tpe-^as)." 

^ [1695 z] "Twelve, the," never mentioned by Jn except in connexion 
with the treachery of Judas (vi. 70, 71) or some suggestion of desertion in 
the context (vi. 67) "Will ye also go away?" or some unbelief (xx. 24) 
"Thomas, one of the Twelve." 

6 [1696 a] " Verily." No one has been able hitherto to explain why the 
Three Gospels never use dfirjv doubly, and the Fourth never singly, in 
reporting the sayings of Christ. Lk. also has dkr]6a)s thrice (ix. 27, xii. 44, 
xxi. 3) with Xe'yo), a combination peculiar to him. 

186 



FROM SYNOPTIC VOCABULARY [1696] 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Villages (pl.)^ 


Kcofiai 


4 


2 


3 


o 


Vineyard 


dfineXoiv 


5 


lO 


7 


o 


Wallet 


TT^pa 


I 


I 


4 


o 


Watch (vb.) 


ypTjyopeo) 


6 


6 


2 


o 


Watch, a (of the 












night) 


<j)v\aKri 


I 


2 


2 


o 


Way, road^ 


686s 


i6 


22 


20 


4 


Wealth, s. Riches 












Well-pleased, good 












pleasure 


€v8oKeo>f -la 


I 


4 


4 


o 


Widow 


X'7P« 


3 


I 


9 


o 


Wife (not "woman" 


)yvv^ 


lO 


i6 


i6 


o 


Wind 


avefios 


7 


9 


4 


I 


Wisdom, wise^ 


ao<pLay (ro(l)6s 


I 


5 


7 


o 


Within 


€(Ta>6ev 


2 


4 


3 


o 


Without, outside 


€^co6ev 


2 or 3 


3 


2 


o 


Witness* 


fidprvs 


I. 


2 


2 


o 


Woe 


oval 


2 


13 


H 


o 



Wonder, s. Astonish 
Zebedee Ze^edaios 



1 [1696^] "Villages" (pL). AH the Evangelists use Kiofirj (sing.), Jn 
(3) referring to (vii. 42) Bethlehem or (xi. i, 30) "Bethany." 

2 [1696^] "Way." Jn mentions " the Way" in only two passages, one 
(i. 23 quoting Is. xl. 3) describing John the Baptist as bidding men "make 
straight " ^/le way of the Lord, the other (xiv. 4, 6) describing Christ as 
saying " whither I go, ye know the ivay^'' and " I am the way." 

3 [1696^] "Wisdom," "wise." In Mk, "wisdom" occurs only in Mk 
vi. 2 (parall. Mt. xiii. 54) "What is this wisdom that is given to this man?" 
Mk nowhere uses "wise." Mt.-Lk. use also cj)p6viiJLos Mk (o), Mt. (7), 
Lk. (2), Jn (o). 

* [1696 e] "Witness." Mt. xxvi. 25 (parall. Mkxiv. 63), also Mt. xviii. 
16 (alluding to Deut. xix. 15) cttI (rT6p.aTos 8vo fiaprvpav 17 rpmv a-raQfi irav 
pTJfjLa. Comp. Jn viii. 17 "Yea, and it is written in your law, that of two 
men the testimony is true dvo dvOpayTrcov 17 p-aprvpla dXijdrjs eariv)." In 
Rev. ii. 13, xi. 3, xvii. 6 /ioprvs = " martyr" (even R.V. is obliged to render 
it thus in txt. of xvii. 6) and prob. also (of Jesus) in i. 5, iii. 14 (meaning 
" testifying by one's death "). Possibly this technical sense of fidprvs in 
some Christian circles at the beginning of the 2nd century caused John 
to abstain from it. 



187 



CHAPTER II 

SYNOPTIC DEVIATIONS FROM JOHANNINE 
VOCABULARY 

§ I. Introductory remarks 

[1697] In the following list of words characteristic of the 
Fourth Gospel and comparatively seldom (or never) used by 
the Synoptists, one of the most noteworthy among many 
noteworthy facts is that Mark only once mentions the word 
''Father" as expressing God's fatherhood in relation to men^ 
The noun ''love!' too, never occurs in Mark. Matthew uses 
the word once in a prediction that " the love of the many 
shall wax cold." Luke speaks once of " the love of God " 
where the parallel Matthew omits it^. Mark's deficiencies are 
to some extent filled up by the two later Synoptists : but if we 
put ourselves in the position of an early evangelist trying to 
convert the world with nothing but Mark's Gospel in his 
hands, we shall be all the better able to understand the atti- 
tude of John towards Christian doctrine in general and Mark's 
version of it in particular. Mark, for example, mentions God 
as the Father of men once, and God the Father, in all, four 



1 Mk xi. 25. Mk viii. 38, xiii. 32, xiv. 36 mention the word in relation 
to the Son of man, but not in relation to men in general. 

2 Mt. xxiii. 23 " Ye have left [undone] the weightier matters of the Law 
namely, [righteous] judgment and kindness and faith," Lk. xi. 42 " Ye pass 
by [righteous] judgment and the love of God." 

188 



SYNOPTIC DEVIATIONS [1699] 

times : John uses the term a hundred and twenty times. 
Mark abundantly uses the term Gospel, or Good News, but 
nowhere tells us what the " good news " is : John nowhere 
uses the term, but everywhere exhibits the Son of God as 
bringing to mankind the best of good news, namely, that God 
is a loving Father, and that men can find an eternal home in 
His love. 

[1698] Where the Synoptists speak of a Kingdom, there 
John implies a Family. That is the great difference between 
the Three Gospels and the Fourth. The latter nowhere 
mentions the Kingdom of God except to represent Jesus as 
warning a great Rabbi that it cannot be seen or entered 
except after a new birth ; and in the first of these warnings, 
the words '^ born from above " indicate that one must become 
a child of the Family of Heaven. Something of this kind 
appears to be latent in the Synoptic doctrines about " little 
children " and " little ones." In this connexion the Synoptists 
inculcate two distinct duties. One is the duty of " receiving " 
/lU/e children ; the other is that of " receiving the Kingdom 
of God as a little child," meaning, apparently, with an 
innocent, pure, and sincere heart. A great deal is implied in 
each of these precepts, and both are liable to be misunder- 
stood. The second, for example, might encourage some to 
suppose that they were to become " as a little child " in under- 
standing \ and these would require the Pauline warning, "In 
malice be ye babes, but in understanding be ye men\" 
Against an error of this kind, men would be fortified by the 
Johannine doctrine that " little children " meant " the children 
of God," and that this was a title of "authority" — but 
authority in a new sense, the " authority to lay down one's life " 
for others (1586—94). 

[1699] John teaches that, as there is an eternal unity in 
the divine Family, namely, the Father, the Son and the 

1 I Cor. xiv. 20. 

189 



[1700] SYNOPTIC DEVIATIONS 

Spirit, so there is a foreordained unity for the human Family 
(namely, those who receive the Spirit of the Father by 
receiving the Son). Into that Family they must first be 
"born" from above. Then they must "abide" in it. Or, 
from another point of view, it must " abide " in them. They 
must "eat the flesh" of the Son, so that the Son may be in 
them, even while they are in the Son. They must also "drink" 
His " blood." Other metaphors describe the members of this 
Family as eating the " bread " that " descends from heaven," 
the " bread of life," as " drinking " of the ** water of life," as 
" coming to the light," and as " walking in the light." In a 
family, "prayer" from the children to the father is out of 
place. Hence John never uses the word " pray." The Son 
speaks always of " requesting " or " asking," and He bids the 
disciples "ask" what they will in His name. The Father's 
"will" is the sole "law" for Him. If the Fourth Evangelist 
mentions the Law, it is as being the Law of the Servant ("the 
law of Moses ") or the Law of the Jews {''your law " etc.). 
The Son never says, in this Gospel, " I have come to fulfil the 
Law " but " I have come to do the will of him that sent me." 

[1700] Instead of a Kingdom and instead of the laws of 
a King, the Fourth Gospel proclaims Nature ; only, of course, 
not materialistically, not a mere machinery, but, as we might 
put it, Mother Nature. According to Epictetus, "Nature is 
of all things the most powerful in man and draws him to her 
desire^"; and he says elsewhere that there is nothing to which 
man is so much drawn as to the Eu-Logon^; and man is by 



1 [1700^] Epict. ii. 2o. 15. He is arguing against Epicurus, who, he 
says, desired to eradicate the belief in {ib. ii. 20. 6) "natural human 
fellowship {Ti)v (f)v(riKr)v Koivcovlav dvOparrois irpos dWr]\ovs) " and yet was 
forced by Nature to act inconsistently with his own theory. 

2 [1700 d] Epict. i. 2. 4 t6 evXoyov. " That which is reasonable " does 
not fully express the Greek. It might be rendered "good Logos" (as to 
fvTvxfs might be rendered " good fortune," to evyeves " good birth " etc.) 
so as to give play to the many meanings of Logos. 

190 



FROM JOHANNINE VOCABULARY [1702] 

Nature created for " fellowship." John represents the Eu- 
Logon, or Good Logos, as one with the Father in the Spirit of 
Fellowship. But he also represents Him as incarnate and as 
revealing the Spirit of Fellowship at a height never before 
reached. The beast dies for the herd fighting against wolves, 
and man dies for his country against foreigners. Both are 
inspired by Mother Nature, the Spirit of Fellowship. But the 
incarnation of the Good Logos dies as a Jew, crucified by 
Jews, for "^// men " alike, with the prediction, " I, if I be lifted 
up, will draw all men unto me " — i.e. I will draw all men into 
harmony with Nature. 

[1701] These remarks may be of use in preparing the 
reader for a prominent feature in the following Vocabulary, 
namely a predominance of simple terms such as a child might 
use to describe family life. The one term wanting is " brother^ 
This, in the Fourth Gospel, is merged in the relationship 
between the Father and His children, and it is not used till 
after the Resurrection : " But go unto my brethren, and say 
unto them I ascend unto my Father and your Father." 

[1702] Where the Fourth Gospel deals with history, it is 
in a cosmopolitan spirit. Not only do the Synoptic distinctions 
of " publicans," " sinners," " scribes," and " Sadducees," dis- 
appear, but, instead of the old fundamental demarcation 
between " the people," i.e. Israel, and " the nations," i.e. the 
Gentiles, we find the term "Jews" used, almost as Tacitus 
uses it, as the embodiment of narrow hostility to all that 
is humane and truthful \ Both the Romans and the Greeks 
— never mentioned by the Synoptists— are introduced by 
John, the former as destined to " take away " the " place " of 
the unholy "nation 2," the latter as exemplifying the devout and 



^ [1702 d\ On the corrupt attribution to Jesus of the words, " Salvation 
is from the Jews," see 1647 — 8. On the other hand John alone uses 
(i. 47) ^^ Israelite ^^ as synonymous with ^^ upright." 

2 xi. 48. 

A. V. 191 14 



[1703] SYNOPTIC DEVIATIONS 



intelligent world awakening to the truth — the "coming" of 
the "isles," as Isaiah^ predicted, to the light of God's gloryl 

[1703] Since the Johannine Gospel deals with Nature (in 
the higher sense) and not with books or written codes of laws, 
it naturally speaks of things that can be seen and known by 
any one that will use his natural powers. The three Greek 
words most commonly used to mean ''know'' and ''see'' (olBa, 
yivaxTKO), and 6pd(o) are used more often in the Fourth Gospel 
than in the Three taken together^ The same statement 
applies to the word ^'testify" or "bear witness" {fxaprvpew). 
The Evangelist regards the Gospel not as a message proceed- 
ing from a prophet, but as a " testimony " to what the Son of 
God " sees " the Father doing in heaven ; and what He sees 
He can enable all the children of God to see. Hence comes 
a great insistence on "the truth]' a word never used by the 
Synoptists in the 7nodern aftd Johannine sense of truth in the 
abstract. By " knowing truth," John means a correspondence 
of the human mind to divine facts (that is to say, to the divine 



1 Is. Ix. 9. See Jn xii. 20 — i, comp. vii. 35. 

2 [1702 (^] This cosmopolitan view of things may, in part, explain Jn's 
omission of many of the names given by one or more of the Synoptists, 
e.g. Matthew, Bartholomew, Lebbaeus, or Thaddaeus, and the names of 
the brethren of the Lord. 

[1702 c\ But on the other hand " Cephas " appears for the first time in 
the Fourth Gospel as the equivalent of the Synoptic " Peter," and we 
cannot feel sure that Synoptic names may not be latent under " Natha- 
nael" whom our Lord calls "An Israelite indeed, in whom is no guile." 

[1702 <f] Jn and Lk. alone mention "Annas," Lk. in the phrase 
" Annas and Caiaphas being High Priests." John explains that he was 
not High Priest but the High Priest's influential father-in-law. Other 
names that Jn has, in common with Lk. alone, are Martha, Mary, 
Lazarus, Siloam. The whole group requires careful investigation, as also 
do the names peculiar to Jn — Aenon, Bethany beyond Jordan, Bethesda {})^ 
Salim, Sychar, etc. 

3 [1703 d\ The exact statement about 6pda) is that, including forms of 
oylrofiai, and wcfidrjv, it occurs in Jn 30 times, and in Mk-Mt.-Lk. 32 times. 
The Perfect, edopaKUj occurs as follows, Mk (o), Mt. (o), Lk. (2 or 3), 
Jn (19) 

IQ2 



FROM JOHANNINE VOCABULARY [1705] 

facts of love and self-sacrifice) analogous to that correspon- 
dence between a man's words and his thoughts which is called 
" sincerity " or " veracity," and to that correspondence between 
his words and external actualities which implies knowledge 
and is called "truth." 

[1704] What some have called " the egotistic element " in 
the Fourth Gospel will be found reflected in its abundant use 
of " I," " my," " myself" etc. as shewn below. It must not be 
supposed, however, that these pronominal forms exclude the 
impersonal phrase " the Son of man." This is found in John 
almost as often as in Mark, and he employs it towards the 
close of his account of Christ's public teaching in a passage 
that may perhaps explain in part why he substituted for it, as 
a general rule, the first person (xii. 34) " How sayest thou 
' The Son of man must be lifted up ' ? Who is this Son of 
man ? " This is the last utterance of the bewildered " multi- 
tude." Other causes — moral causes especially — beside the 
various meanings of " Son of man," caused their bewilderment. 
But still it may have occurred to an Evangelist writing largely 
for educated Greeks that this Jewish technical term — even 
though it was actually and habitually used by our Lord 
instead of the first personal pronoun, to denote ideal humanity 
as created in God's image — ought to be sparingly used in 
a Gospel intended mainly for Gentiles. 

[1705] Instances will be found where John appears to be 
alluding to words, names, or phrases, that might (1811) cause 
difficulty to the readers of Mark and Matthew, as, for 
example, John's use of the word translated " groaning " in the 
Raising of Lazarus. It will also be noticed that the epithet 
" eternal," or " everlasting," applied sometimes by Mark and 
Matthew to " sin," " fire " etc., is applied by John to nothing 
but " life," and that John's doctrine about " fire " is confined to 
one brief metaphorical passage. Occasionally, attention will 
be called to passages where John may be alluding to doctrines 
like those of Epictetus. For example, the conception of the 

193 14—2 



[1706] SYNOPTIC DEVIATIONS 

Son as ''testifying'' or ''bearing witness'' to the Father, can 
be illustrated far more fully from Epictetus than from the 
Prophets. Negatively, too, John's avoidance of the word 
" Jmmblel' and his condemnation (in the Epistle) of ''fear" 
indicate that he may have been impelled by Greek influence 
to discard these and other Biblical terms that conveyed to the 
Greeks a suggestion not of good but of evil. 

[1706] Under the head of " trouble!' however, reasons will 
be given for thinking that John is allusively dissenting from 
Epictetus, with whom " freedom from trouble " was the highest 
of blessings. Not improbably, many things in the Fourth 
Gospel imply a similar dissent. For example, John lays great 
stress (1226) upon the fact that the Son does all things "for 
the sake of the Father or 'for the sake of the disciples. But 
Epictetus says (i. 19. 11) " Whatever lives has been so framed 
as to do all things for its own sake (avrov eveKa). For even 
the sun does all things for its own sake, and, indeed, so does 
Zeus Himself" Of course Epictetus could prove philosophi- 
cally that this is consistent with real unselfishness. But from 
the point of view of a plain man with no pretensions to 
philosophy, this means either selfishness or solitude. And, 
since God cannot be selfish, it reduces Him to a solitary 
Being. John teaches that God was from the beginning not 
alone, because the Word, or the Son, was with Him : and 
instead of " doing all things for His own sake," He is revealed 
in the Washing of Feet as making Himself — in the person of 
His Son — the Servant of His creatures, doing all things " for 
the sake of" others. 



194 



FROM JOHANNINE VOCABULARY [1707] 



JOHANNINE WORDS COMPARATIVELY SELDOM OR 
NEVER USED BY THE SYNOPTISTS^ 

English Greek Mk Mt. Lk. Jn 

[1707] Abide, remain ^ /xeVw 2 3 7 40 



^ [1707 * s. 1885 (ii) foil.] This Vocabulary includes words characteristic 
of the Fourth Gospel as contrasted with the words used by the Three 
collectively. Occasionally — in order to group kindred words together, 
or to supply a reader that may be ignorant of Greek with a fairly 
complete alphabetical list of important Johannine terms — it will include 
a word used by only two of the Synoptists (e.^. "judge," Kpivco, not found 
in Mark) or sometimes only one (e.^. " manifest," (f)avep6(o, not found in 
Matthew or Luke). But, where that is the case, such a word will be 
repeated later on under one of the following headings : 

(i) Words peculiar to Jn and Mk (1729—44). 

(2) „ „ Jn and Mt. (1745—57). 

(3) „ „ Jn and Lk. (1758—1804). 

(4) „ „ Jn, Mk, and Mt. (1805—17). 

(5) „ „ Jn, Mk, and Lk. (1818—35). 

(6) „ „ Jn, Mt, and Lk. (1836—66). 

2 [1707^] "Abide." Mk vi. 10 (sim. Mt. x. 11 and Lk. ix. 4, x. 7) 
"There adzde until ye go forth," Mk xiv. 34 (Mt. xxvi. 38) '-''abide here 
and watch." Jn uses the word to denote the abiding of the Word of 
God, or Christ, in man (v. 38, xv. 4, 5 etc.), of man in Christ (vi. 56, 
XV. 4, 5 etc.) or in Christ's Word (viii. 31), or in Christ's love (xv. 9, 10) ; 
also the abiding of the Father in the Son (xiv. 10), and of the Son 
in the love of the Father (xv. 10). It is also used, without respect to 
locality, to denote the permanence of the "food" that "abideth unto 
eternal life" (vi. 27), and of the "sin" of the proud (ix. 41). Jn, alone 
of the Evangelists, in recording the descent of the Holy Spirit on Jesus, 
says that (i. 32 — 3) " it abode on him." 

[1707 <$] The predominance of the thought of "abiding" in the 
writer's mind may be inferred from the fact that " abide " occurs in the 
First Epistle of St John almost as many (23) times as in all the non- 
Johannine Epistles taken together (25). 

[1707^] In LXX, /AeVw freq. = D1p "stand upright," concerning an 
ordinance that "stands," i.e. holds good, e.g. Prov. xix. 21, "The counsel 
of the Lord — that shall sta7id (LXX ih rov axSava /xeV^i)," Is. xl. 8 " The 
word of the Lord standeth (fievei) for ever," Deut. xix. 15 "at the mouth 
of two witnesses... shall a matter stand (R.V. be established)," LXX 
<rTr)(reTai. Mt. xviii. 16, merely alluding to Deut. xix. 15, has oTadji 



[1708] SYNOPTIC DEVIATIONS 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Abiding-place^ 


flOV^ 


O 


o 


o 


2 


About (w. numbers 












etc.) (I) 


as 


2 


I or o 


2 


8 


About (w. numbers 












etc.) (2) (1670) 


axrcl 


O 


I 


7 


o 


Above, up 2 


av(o 


o 


o 


o 


3 


Above, from above ^ 


avcodev 


I 


I 


I 


5 


Advocate, s. Paraclete 


7rapa.KKr]Tos 


o 


o 


o 


4 


Aenon* 


Alva>v 


o 


o 


o 


I 


Again ^ 


TrdXiv 


28 


17 


3 


43 


Age, s. Eternal 












Already, s. Novvr 












Always 


7rdvTOT€ 


2 


2 


2 


7 


Am, 16 


elfii 


4 


14 


i6 


54 


[1708] Ask (the Father) 7 


ipatrdo) 


o 


o 


o 


6 



'■'■made to stand" but Jn viii. 17, quoting it as "written," has ''is true." 
In the same verse of Deut. "One witness shall not rise up (Dip**)" is 
rendered by Jer. Targ. " The testimony of one witness shall not be valid" 
and LXX renders it efipevet This illustrates the connexion in the Jewish 
mind between "abiding" " standing fast" and "truth" 

1 " Abiding-place." See Paradosis, 1393—7. 

2 [1707^] "Above,"" up," means " heaven(ward) " except in Jn ii. 7 
"filled them to the brim (ecoy aVo))." The only instance alleged of ewy 
aVco is 2 Chr. xxvi. 8 "to the top," i.e. to the utmost. 

3 [1707^] "Above," "from above." " Kvu>6ev in Mk xv. 38, Mt. xxvii. 51 
is used of the veil of the temple "rent from top to bottom," in Jn xix. 23 
of Christ's coat, or tunic, " woven from the top throughout," concerning 
which the soldiers say "Let us not rend it." Elsewhere Jn (iii. 3, 7, 31) 
uses it of the heavenly birth "from above" (comp. Jn xix. 11). In 
Lk. i. 3 it means " from the source, or fountainhead." For the proof that 
it does not mean " anew " in Jn, see 1903 foil. 

^ [1707/] " Aenon " is mentioned only in Jn iii. 23, " And John also 
was baptizing in Aenon near to Salim, because there was much water 
there." The locality of Aenon (as well as that of Salim) is disputed. 

^ [1707^] "Again" occurs in Lk., only vi. 43 (om. by many author.) 
where, if genuine (but .-* TTAAl for TTAN), it would mean "on the other 
hand"; xiii. 20 (D diff.) ; xxiii. 20 "But again Pilate..." (where the 
parall. Mk xv. 12, and Jn xix. 4 also have " again "). 

« "Am." See "I am" (1713). 

7 [1708^] "Ask." Jn xiv. 16 " I will ask the Father," and so xvi. 26, 
xvii. 9 {bis\ 15, 20, always in Christ's words, and in the ist person 
(1704). 

196 



FROM JOHANNINE VOCABULARY [1708] 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Barley (adj.)^ 
Bear, beget 2 
Because (narr.)^ 
Before (adv.) 
Beget, s. Bear 


KpiOivos 
yew du) 

OTl, 

(to) TTpoTepov 
y€Vvd(o 



4 + [I] 



I 




5 
3 


5 




4 
9 


4 


2 
18 
26 

3 
18 


Beginning (Chri.)* 
Beginning (narr.)^ 
Behold (vb.)6 
Behold! See! Lo!^ 


^PXV 
dpxh 
6ecop€(o 
'I8e 


3 

I 

7 
8 


4 

2 
4 




I 

7 



4 

4 

23 

15 


Bethany (beyond 
Jordan)® 


Brjdavia...Tr€pav 
Tov 'lopddvov 











I 



1 "Barley," Jn vi. 9, 13. 

2 [1708 ^] « Bear," " beget." The numbers above do not include the 
use of yevvdo) (40 times) in Mt. i. 2 — 16. Both there and in Lk. i. 13, 57, 
xxiii. 29, Jn xvi. 21, the vb is act. In Mt. i. 2 — 16 the act. means 
"beget"; elsewhere it means "bring forth" (of the mother). In the 
Synoptists it is never used spiritually, as it freq. is in Jn. 

^ [1708 c] " Because " occurs in Evangehstic statement (which alone 
is here meant by "nam"), in Mt, only in ix. 36, xi. 20 and xiv. 5. 
Mt. xi. 20 resembles Mk App. [xvi. 14] "reproached them because they 
believed not." The numbers are taken from Bruder (1888). See also 
1712 c. 

^ [1708^] "Beginning" (Chri.), occurs in Mk x. 6, Mt. xix. 4 con- 
cerning the making of male and female "from the beginning id-K dpxqs)" 
to which Mt. adds, as to divorce (Mt. xix. 8) att' dpxris 8e ov yiyovev ourcoy. 
The other Synoptic instances are (Mk xiii. 8, Mt. xxiv. 8) " These things 
are the beginning of travails {apx^] wdlvcov TavTo)'' and (Mk xiii. 19, 
Mt. xxiv. 21) " from the beginning of creation (Mt. of the world)." 

[1708 <?] Jn has viii. 44 "He was a murderer from the beginning 
((ztt' a.)," XV. 27 "because ye are with me from the beginning [dir d.)," 
xvi. 4 "these things I told you not from the beginning (e^ d.)." Also 
in reply to "Who art thou?" Jn has (viii. 25) eiTrei/ avTols [6] 'irjo-ovs Trjv 
dpxrjv OTl Koi XaXS) vpTiv (txt interrog., marg. affirm.) (2154 — 6). 

^ [1708/] "Beginning" (narr.) occurs in Mk i. i " The beginning of 
the Gospel...," Lk. i. 2 "those who were from the beginning eye- 
witnesses...," comp. Jn i. i " In the beginning vfdis the word...." 

^ "Behold" (vb.). Used by Jn sometimes of unintelligent wonder 
(1598). 

7 " Behold ! " t'Se. Contrast " Behold ! " Ibov (1674). 

8 [1708^] " Bethany beyond Jordan " is mentioned only in Jn i. 28 
"These things were done in Bethany beyond Jordan, where John was 
baptizing." Its locality is disputed, and there are v.r. Bethabarah, 
Betharabah etc. See 610—16. 



[1709] SYNOPTIC DEVIATIONS 



English 


Greek 




Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Bethesda^ 


W.H. txt 


BnOCadd, 










" 


marg. B7;^o-at8a 


O 


o 





I 


Break, destroy ^ 


Xvci) 




O 


I 





4 


Brethren, the {i.e. the 














Church) (narr.)^ 


Ol d8€\<f)0i 




O 


o 





I 


But* 


dWd 




43 


36 


36 


10 1 


[1709] Cana 


Kavd 




o 








4 


Catch, seize, take^ 


TTia^Ci) 




o 








8 


Cephas^ 


Krjcpds 




o 








I 


Choose (Chri.)^ 


eKXeyofxai 




' 





I 


5 



1 [1708 /i] " Bethesda " is mentioned only in Jn v. 2 " Now there is in 
Jerusalem by the sheep[gate] a pool which is called in Hebrew Bethesda 
(v.r. Bethsaida, Bethzatha), having five porches." Other various readings 
are Br)(add, BeX^e^a, Betzatha etc. Its locality is disputed, and so is the 
interpretation of the " sheep[gate]," the ellipsis of which is said by 
Westcott to be "(apparently) without parallel" (2216). 

2 [1708/] "Break," " destroy," occurs in Mt. v. 19, Jn v. 18, vii. 23, 
X. 35 oi breaking 2i "commandment," "the sabbath," "the law of Moses," 
"the Scripture," Jn ii. 19 ^^ destroy this temple." These numbers do not 
include Xva) = " loose," "unbind." 

3 [1708/] " Brethren, the," i.e. the Church (narr.) : Jn xxi. 23 " This 
saying therefore went forth among (eis) the brethren.^' Comp. Acts i. 15, 
xiv. 2 etc. 

^ [1708 k'\ " But," oKKd^ mostly follows a negative : and Jn's habit of 
stating things negatively and positively with a " but " appears early in his 
Gospel, i. 8 oi'K...aXX' ii/a, i. 13 ovk i^ alixdroiv . . .dXiC €< deov (2055). 

s " Catch." See 1721/ and 1723 b—c. 

6 [1709 a] " Cephas," in Jn, only i. 42 " thou shalt be called Cephas 
which is interpreted /*<?/r^j," i.e. a stone. Comp. Mt. xvi. 18 "thou art 
Petrosi^ i.e. a stone. The naming is mentioned by the Synoptists thus, 
Mk iii. 16 K. €7r€dr)K€V ovofia Ta> ^ifxcovi Tlerpov, Mt. x. 2 irpoiTos 2. 6 Xeyo- 
ft,€vos IIcTpoSj Lk. vi. 14 2. ov k. Mvofiaaev U. See 1728/2- 

^ [1709 <5] "Choose" (Chri.) occurs, in Mk, only in xiii. 20 "the chosen 
whom ke hath chosen^^ where Mt. has merely " the chosen." In Lk., 
"choose" does not occur in the Lord's words except Lk. x. 42 "(Mary) 
hath chosen the good part." In Jn it occurs almost always in the phrase 
" I (Christ) have chosen," and in two instances with an allusion to Judas 
Iscariot in the context (vi. 70 '•''Have not I chosen you the twelve, 
and one of you is a devil," xiii. 18 "I know whom / have chosen^ but 
that the Scripture may be fulfilled, ' He that eateth my bread lifted up 
his heel against me ' "). 

198 



FROM JOHANNINE VOCABULARY [1710] 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Circumcision^ 


rrepiTOixr) 











2 


Clay2 


irrjXos 











5 


Comforter, s. Para- 












clete 


irapdK\r]TOS 











4 


Cry (appl. to Christ) ^ 


' <pdC<o 





I 





3 


Cry aloud ^ 


Kpavyd^Qi 





I 





6 


Cut off 4 (1671^) 


aTroKonTO) 


2 








2 


[1710] Darkness (i)5 


a-KOTLU 





2 


I 


8 


Darkness (2)^ 


(T KOTOS 


I 


6 


4 


I 


Death (lit.)« 


6dvaT0S 


6 


6 


6 


6 


Death (metaph.)^ 


ddvaros 





I 


I 


2 



1 [1709^] "Circumcision." The verb TrepiTeixva occurs in Jn (i), 
Lk. (2). In Lk. (i. 59, ii. 21) the verb is used with reference to the 
circumcision of the child Jesus ; in Jn (vii. 22 — 3) the verb and the noun 
are used to shew that, if circumcision is allowed on the sabbath, Christ's 
act of heahng must be allowable. 

2 "Clay." Jn ix. 6 — 15, of "making clay" in the heahng of the man 
born blind. 

3 "Cry," "cry aloud," Kpd^o and KpavydCo, see 1752 <2 — f. 

* [1709 d] " Cut off." 'Attokottto) — a word freq. connected with mutila- 
tion — is used by Jn (xviii. 10, 26), to describe the cutting off of the ear 
of Malchus where all the Synoptists have d(\)aipi<o. Comp. Gal. v. 12. 
See also 1734 <5. 

^ [1710 «] "Darkness." Moreover, in the Epistle, Jn uses (5) a-KOTia 
and (i) a KOTOS, which is also in Jn iii. 19 "they loved rather t/ie darkness 
(to aKOTos) tha7i the light (jj to ^cos)," where perhaps the neuter form is 
preferred as supplying a more complete antithesis of sound illustrating 
the antithesis of sense. 

[1710 d] ^KOTia and o-kotos are always metaphorical in the Synoptists 
except as to the darkness during the crucifixion (Mk xv. 33, Mt. xxvii. 45, 
Lk. xxiii. 44). In Jn, aKOTia is metaph. except in vi. 17, xx. i, where 
however it probably has a metaphorical suggestion, as "night" has in 
Jn xiii. 30 "He [Judas Iscariot] went out straightway. Now it was 
night." 

6 [1710 r] "Death." The six instances of "death" (lit.) in Mk and 
Mt. are all in verbatim agreement. Lk. (ix. 27) " shall surely not taste 
death " agrees with only one of them (Mk ix. i, Mt. xvi. 28) uttered before 
the Transfiguration. The only Synoptic metaph. instances are in Mt. iv. 
16, Lk. i. 79, not parall., but both quoting Is. ix. 2 "the shadow of 
death." 

[1710^] Jn has B. (lit.) (xi. 4, 13) about Lazarus, (xii. 33, xviii. 32) 
about the Crucifixion ("by what death he was to die"), and (xxi. 19) about 

199 



[1710] SYNOPTIC DEVIATIONS 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Denarii (plur.) (apart 
from parables) 1(1671 












c) brjvdpia 


2 


o 


o 


2 


Didymus^ 


Aibvfios 


O 


o 


o 


3 


Die3 


a.7rodvr](rKa> 


8 


5 


lO 


28 


Disobey 


an € idea) 


o 


o 


o 


I 


Draw (water, wine 












etc.) 


avrXeo) 


o 


o 


o 


4 


Draw*, drag 


€XKVa> 


o 


o 


o 


S 


Eat^ 


rptoyo) 


o 


I 


o 


5 


Ephraim^ 


'E(f>paLfi 


o 


o 


o 


' 



Peter's martyrdom. In v. 24, viii. 51 Jesus uses 6. metaphorically, but in 
viii. 52, whereas Jesus had said " He shall not behold death^^ spiritually, 
the Jews misquote it as "he shall not taste of death^'' and take it 
literally. 

1 [1710^] "Denarii." Mk vi. 37 "Are we to buy bread for two 
hundred denariiV^ xiv. 5 " sold for above three hundred denarii^^ Jn vi. 7 
"bread of [the price of] two hundred denarii" xii. 5 "sold for three 
hundred denarii" I hope to discuss these passages in a future treatise. 

2 "Didymus," applied (Jn xi. 16, xx. 24, xxi. 2) to Thomas, whom Jn 
mentions 7 times, and each Synoptist once. 

^ [1710/] " Die," a.7ro6vr](TKO), is freq. in Jn in connexion with Lazarus, 
and with Christ's " dying for the people " or " dying " on the Cross. 
It is metaphorical in vi. 50 /xj) aTrodavrf, xi. 26 ov fir) diroOdvrj, but perh. 
nowhere else. TeXeuraco, "die," occurs in Mk (2), Mt. (4), Lk. (i), Jn (i). 

4 [1710^] "Draw." Metaph. in Jn vi. 44 "Except the Father dram 
him," xii. 32 " I will draw all men unto myself," lit. in xviii. 10 (a sword), 
xxi. 6, 1 1 (a net). Epictetus says that man (i. 2. 4) " is drawn (eXKOfievov) 
to nothing so much as to the (1700) Good Logos," and (ii. 20. 15) 
" nature " is " the strongest of all things in man, drawing him to her will 
{^ovXrjiia) despite his reluctance and bewailings." He uses the Johannine 
word €\<va) to mean "drag " (iii. 22. 3) or to describe the seduction of vain 
imagination (ii. 18. 23). Acts (xvi. 19, xxi. 30) uses the two words to mean 
" dragging " a person violently away. Jn uses IKkvo) in both meanings. 

^ [1710 h] " Eat," rpebyo). From the numerous instances of this word 
in Steph. it would seem to be used in ordinary Greek exclusively to mean 
eating vegetables, fruit, sweetmeats etc., never flesh. In Mt. xxi v. 38, 
where it perhaps means "eating sweetmeats or delicacies," the parall. Lk. 
xvii. 27 has eV^io). Jn has (vi. 54 — 8) " He that eatetk my flesh {dis\" "he 
that eatetk me," "he that eateth this bread." Jn xiii. 18 uses it in quoting 
Ps. xii. 9 " He that eateth my bread," where the LXX (which never uses 
rpco-yo)) has ea-diayv. See also " eat " eadto) (1680). 

" Ephraim." Jn xi. 54 " a city called Ephraim." 

200 



FROM JOHANNINE VOCABULARY [1711] 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Eternal, everlasting ^ 


alcovios 


3 


6 


4 


17 


[1711] Father (divine) 2 


iravqp 


4 


44 


16 


120 



1 [1710/] "Eternal," alavtos, in Jn is always used of "life," never of 
"punishment," "fire" etc. In the Synoptists, it is used with ((orj (8), 
TTvp (2), KoXaa-is (l), dfxdpTT]fia (l), aKr^vai (l). Lk., like Jn, always uses it 
of good, never of evil. 

2 [1711 a] " Father" (divine). Mk viii. 38 " When he shall come in the 
glory of his Father" xi. 25 " that your Father who is in the heavens may 
forgive you," xiii. 32 "...not even the angels of heaven, nor yet the Son, 

but only the Father^"* xiv. 36 "Abba, Father " Apart from doctrine 

about the Last Day (where the Father is mentioned in connexion with the 
Son expressed or implied) Mk nowhere mentions God as the Father of 
me7i exc. in the warning about forgiveness (xi. 25) parall. to Mt. vi. 14 — 15 
but to nothing in Lk. But the single passage in Mk, containing an 
apparent reference to the Lord's Prayer, confirms the belief (based on 
Mt.-Lk.) that a large part of Christ's doctrine must have referred to "the 
Father " by name. 

[1711 b'\ Epictetus says (i. 3. i foil.) " If one were thrilled as he should 
be with the thought that we [men] have all been uniquely (TrpoT^you/ieVcoy) 
brought into being (yeyoi/a/xfv) by God, and that God is the Father of 
both men and gods, I think we should be far from all ignoble and servile 
notions about ourselves" : and again (z<^.), "If Caesar were to adopt you 
as a son, there would be no enduring your arrogance. If you know that 
you are son of Zeus, will you not be lifted up {eTrapdrjarr]) by that ? But 
as it is, we do no such thing." We turn aside, he says, from the divine 
sonship, which we have in virtue of "the purpose and the Logos" within 
us, and we prefer our kinship (which we have in virtue of our body) with 
the brute beasts. A man calls himself Athenian or Corinthian, (i. 9. 4 — 6) 
"Why should he not also call himself 'Cosmian'?" (as being citizen of 
the Cosmos) " Why not son of God ? " 

[1711 c] John would agree with a great deal of this, but not (not, at 
least, without a caveat) that a man should be " lifted up " by the thought 
of being "son of God." His Prologue, indeed, distinguishes those 
"begotten of God" from those begotten of "blood" or of "the will of 
flesh," and describes the former class as receiving " authority to become 
children of God" — a phrase that recalls the "adoption by Caesar'^ 
above mentioned. But it is nothing to be "lifted up" about, if "to be 
lifted up" means "to be proud." John, it is true, represents the Son 
of God as being " lifted up (vyJAovadai),^' but it is the " lifting up " on the 
Cross. He also has "authority," but it is "authority to lay down life that 
he may take it again." The silence of Mk and the teaching of Epictetus 
may have influenced John in the development of the Christian doctrine of 
the divine Fatherhood. 

201 



[1712] SYNOPTIC DEVIATIONS 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Father (human) ^ 


irarrjp 


14 


19 


37 


12 


Feast 2 


eOpTT] 


2 


2 


3 


17 


Fire (of coals) ^ 


dp Spa Kid 


O 


O 


o 


2 


[1712] Fish* 


oyJAdpiov 


O 


O 


o 


5 



* [1711 d] " Father " (human). Jn viii. 44 also uses irarrip thrice 
concerning the devil as the father of liars etc., thus making 1 5 instances 
where it is not applied to God. (As to insertion in this list, see 1670 — 1.) 

2 [1711 e] " Feast." Mk xiv. 2, Mt. xxvi. 5 Mj) ev rfj eoprr,, Mk xv. 6, 
Mt. xxvii. 15 Kara Se eoprrjv etfo^ft.... Lk. (besides ii. 41, 42) has xxii. I 
TJyyiCfv der) ioprr) rav d^vp,a>v. Jn mentions several feasts for which Jesus 
goes up to Jerusalem. 

3 [1711/] "Fire (of coals)." 'AvOpaKid in Jn xviii. 18 is the "fire of 
coals" in the High Priest's hall, Mk xiv. 54 <^co$-, Lk. xxii. 55 — 6 rrvp... 
(f)ois, Mt. xxvi. 58 om. (180 — 5). Luke's astonishing phrase nvp irepidiTTa) 
is unlike any use of irepidirro) in Steph. except Phalar. Epist. v. p. 24 
(L. S. 28) eve^i^daafifv avrov k. iT€pir]y\rafjL(v, "we put him in and kindled [a 
fire] round [him } round the man enclosed in the bull] " where Steph. 
adds "recte, ut videtur, Lennep. nvp r)^\rap,€v" 

[1711^] Ephrem (p. 237) says " Near the coal fire he denied, near the 
coal fire he confessed," which suggests that some may have regarded the 
fire in Peter's Denial as a symbol of a " fiery trial " of temptation, and 
later on, of purification (xxi. 9) "they see z. Jire of coals laid ready... and 
a loaf." The phrase " cake baken on the coals'''' occurs in O.T. only in the 
story of Elijah's being strengthened (i K. xix. 6) for the journey to Horeb 
in which may be seen a parallelism to the Eucharistic " breakfast" in Jn 
whereby the Apostles are strengthened to preach the Gospel to the world. 
The Heb. word used for "coal" in i K. xix. 6 occurs nowhere else 
(Gesen. 954 <2) in O.T. except in Is. vi. 6, where the Prophet Isaiah is 
purified by a " coal " from the altar for his prophetic task. Ephrem's 
tradition, " he confessed near a coal fire," is curiously like Philo's tradition 
that the avOpa^, i.e. ^^coal" or ^^ carduncle" represents Judah as being 
(i. 60) "a confessing (e^ofioXoyrjriKos) disposition," which "is inflamed in 
the eucharist of {i.e. thanksgiving to) God (ireTrvpaTai ev evxapi(TTia Beov)." 
Not improbably John had in view traditions of this kind. 

[1711 /i] It may be worth noting that (i) Aquila has ylrrj(f)os i.e. stone, 
or pebble, for "coal" in Is. vi. 6, (2) LXX freq. has avBpa^, "coal," to 
represent a precious stone (Gen. ii. 12, Ex. xxviii. 18, xxxvi. 18, Ezek. x. 
9 etc.), (3) Rev. ii. 17 combines "manna" with "white slone {y^rrj^ov 
XfVKrjv)" as a gift to "him that overcometh" — an expression that has 
perplexed commentators and perhaps remains to be explained (2409 a). 

4 [1712 «] "Fish." Jn uses IxBvs to mean "fish" (xxi. 6, 8, 11), 
apparently restricting oylrdpiov to mean "fish" for eating (1736^). 

202 



FROM JOHANNINE VOCABULARY [1712] 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Flesh 1 


adp^ 


4 


5 


2 


13 


For (conj.) (narr.)^ 


yap 


c. 33 


12 


11 


c. 30 


For ever 3 


els Tov ala>va ) 
els Tovs alwvas ) 


2 


I 


2 


12 


Free (adj.)* 


iXfvdepos 


O 


I 


O 


2 


Free (vb.) 


iXevBepoco 


o 


o 


o 


2 


Freely, openly^ 


(ev) Trapprjala 


' 


o 


o 


9 



1 [1712^] "Flesh." Of Jn's 13 instances, 7 are from vi. 51—63 "my 
flesh " etc. 

2 [1712 c] " For " (narr. here meaning (1672*) Evangelistic statement). 
This is more characteristic of Mk than of Jn ; but it is inserted for 
comparison with "because" (narr.) (1708). In Jn the question is 
complicated by the great difference of opinion among commentators as to 
passages that are and that are not. Evangelistic comment (2066). 

3 [1712 rt^] "For ever." In Mk iii. 29, xi. 14 (parall. Mt. xxi. 19) "for 
ever " is connected with a negative and with condemnation (" hath not 
forgiveness /or ever,^' "let none eat fruit from thee /or ever") ; in Lk. i. 
33, 55 with an affirmative and with promise ("shall reign.. /or ever " "to 
Abraham and his seed /or ever"). In Jn iv. 14 "shall not thirst y^r ever," 
vi. 51 "shall live /or ever," and sim. vi. 58, viii. 51, 52, x. 28, xi. 26, 
xiv. 16, it is connected, positively or negatively, with promise, like alavios 
(1710 i) in Jn. See also 1672 a. On Jn viii. 35, see 2263 e. 

* [1712^] "Free" (adj.). Mt. xvii. 26 "Then are the sons /ree,'' 
i.e. free from paying tribute. This occurs in a difficult context describing 
the finding of the stater in the fish's mouth. Origen {ad loc.) says, "They 
are free who abide in the truth (Huet ixeivavres rfj aXrjOfia Pins. eV, or leg. 
efiixelvavres) of the Word of God and thereby know the truth that they 
may be also freed by (ott' ? leg. vtt') it." Origen had in mind Jn viii. 32 — 6 
"If ye abide in my word. ..ye shall know the truth and the tru^k shall 
make you /ree.... 'Everyone th.a.t committeth sin is the bondservant [of sin]. 
And the bondservant abideth not in the house for ever ; the son abideth 
for ever. If therefore the Son shall make you free ye shall be /ree 
indeed." The connexion between a Gospel of sonship and a Gospel 
oi /reedont is manifest : and it is recognised abundantly in the Pauline 
Epistles. But the Triple Tradition says practically nothing about "■/ree- 
doml^ and very little, directly, about '■'' S07iship^^ though Matthew and 
Luke frequently imply it in doctrine about the Father in Heaven. It 
remained for the Fourth Gospel to give prominence to the spiritual 
doctrine latent in the tradition peculiar to Matthew, " The sons are free." 

^ [1712/] " Freely, openly." Mk viii. 32 " He was speaking the word 
openly {irappricria)." Jn uses it twice in Christ's words : xviii. 20 " I have 
spoken openly to the world," xvi. 25 (R.V.) " I shall tell yon plainly of the 
Father." See 1744 (xi) a and 1917 (i). 

203 



[1713] SYNOPTIC DEVIATIONS 



English 


Greek 




Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Gabbatha 


Ta^^add 




o 


o 


o 


I 


Girdi 


bia^oivvvjii, 


^(avvvjxi 


o 


o 


o 


5 


Glorify2 


bo^dCoi 




I 


4 


9 


21 


Glory3 


do^a 




3 


7 


13 


i8 


[1713] Go (metaph.)* 


virdyo) 




I 


I 


o 


c. i8 


Greeks^ 


"EWrjves 




o 


o 


o 


3 



1 [1712^] " Gird," in Jn, is always literal, of the Lord or Peter xiii. 4, 
5, xxi. 7, 18 {6zs). Uepi^oivvvfii (not in Mk-Mt.) occurs thrice in Lk. xii. 
35) 37) xvii. 8, alw. metaphor or parable. 

2 [1712 /i] " Glorify," in the Synoptists, is mostly applied to men 
''''glorifying God" because of miracles. In Jn, it is used concerning the 
glorifying of the Father by the Son, and the glorifying of the Son by the 
Father, but most freq. of the Son's being '''' glorified^"^ with reference to the 
Crucifixion and its sequel. Comp. Heb. ii. 9. Only once is it used in 
Jn concerning a man glorifying God (xxi. 19) " signifying by what death 
he {i.e. Peter) should glorify God." 

3 [1712/] "Glory." Mk viii. 38 "when he shall come iti the glory of 
his Father ^^ parall. Mt. xvi. 27 sim., but parall. Lk. ix. 26 "/« his glory and 
that of the Father" ; Mk x. 37 "that we may sit in thy glory ^^ parall. Mt. 
XX. 21 "that these may s\\....in thy kingdom''^ (Lk. om.) ; Mk xiii. 26 "the 
Son of man coming in (Mt. on the) clouds (Lk. cloud) with power a?td 
great glory ^^ (parall. Mt. xxiv. 30, Lk. xxi. 27). 

[1712y] These three passages speak of the "glory" of the Son as 
future. Jn i. 14, ii. 11 speak of it as manifested by the Son in the past 
(" we beheld his ^/(9ry," "manifested ^ns glory" at Cana) : xi. 40 (comp. 
xi. 4) " thou shalt see the glory of God" means apparently " thou shall see 
God's glory manifested in the raising of Lazarus"; xii. 41 says that 
Isaiah "saw his \i.e. Christ's] glory" : xvii. 5, 22, 24 speak of "glory" 
(apparently that of the divine unity, implying the devotion of the Son and 
the love of the Father) as possessed by the Son " before the world was," 
and as already " given " to the disciples by the Son ; at the same time the 
Son prays " that they may be beholding my glory, which thou hast given 
to me, because thou lovedst me from the foundation of the world." 

* [1713 a] " Go " (metaph.). Mk xiv. 21, Mt. xxvi. 24 " the Son of man 
goeth {yrrdyei)," where parall. Lk. xxii. 22 has Tropeverai. On the difference 
between the two verbs, see 1652 — 64. 

5 [1713^] "Greeks." Jn vii. 35 "Will he go to the Dispersion of 
(2046) the Greeks, and teach the Greeks?" In this specimen of 
Johannine irony the Jews unconsciously predict what seems to them 
absurd. The same thing is predicted in action subsequently (Jn xii. 20) 
"Now there were certain Greeks of them that came up...." Mk vii. 26 
alone has the fem. 'EWrjvis where the parall. Mt. xv. 22 omits it. 

204 



FROM JOHANNINE VOCABULARY [1713] 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Greek, in^ 


'EXXj; i/io-rt 


o 


o 


o 


I 


Grief, sorrow ^ 


\v7rr] 


o 


o 


I 


4 


Groan, murmur^ 


efi^pifidofiai 


2 


I 


o 


2 


Hate^ 


ficaeo) 


I 


5 


7 


12 


Hebrew, in^ 


'E^pa'i(TTL 


o 


o 


o 


5 


I (nom.) (1704) 


iyca (incl. Kayoi) 


i6 


37 


25 


155 


I-am (ist pers.) 


dfii 


4 


14 


i6 


54 


I am [he] (Chri.)^ 


iya> eljjii 


2 


I 


i(?) 


9 


Interpret (1728 4) 


epixrjv€V(0 


O 


o 


o 


2 



1 [1713 c] " In Greek." Jn xix. 20 " It was written in Hebrew and in 
Roman [i.e. in Latin] and z« Gj-eekP 

2 [1713^] "Grief," "sorrow." Jn xvi. 6, 20 — 22 describes Jesus as 
mentioning on the last night the " sorrow " of the disciples that is 
described by Luke as occurring on the last night (Lk. xxii. 45) " He 
found them sleeping for sorrow." 

3 [1713^] "Groan," "murmur." 'En^pi[jidofiai in Jn xi. 33, 38 is prob. 
used, in part, allusively to explain the difficulty caused by its use in 
Mk i. 43, Mt. ix. 30, where it might seem to some to represent Jesus 
as "roaring against" those whom He healed. See 1811 a — c. 

4 [1713/] "Hate." Mk xiii. 13 "Ye shall be /lated by all for my 
name's sake," parall. to Mt. xxiv. 9 (and x. 22), Lk xxi. 17. Lk. xiv. 26 
makes " hating one's own life " a condition for discipleship, an expression 
not found in Mk or Mt. Jn adopts it, with a qualification (xii. 25) " He 
that hateth his life in this world" (1450). 

5 [1713^] " In Hebrew," in Jn, thrice of names, v. 2 (?) " Bethzatha," 
xix. 13 "Gabbatha," xix. 17 "Golgotha": also xix. 20 "written in 
Hebrew, in Roman, in Greek," and xx. 16 "She saith to him in Hebrew., 
Rabboni." 

6 [1713 >^] "I (emph.) am [he]" (Chri.). Mt.'s single instance is in 
the Walking on the Waters (Mt. xiv. 27) where it is also inserted by 
Mk (vi. 50) and Jn (vi. 20). (Lk. omits the whole narrative.) 

[1713/] Mk's second instance is in the Trial, in answer to the 
question "Art thou the Christ?" where Mk xiv. 62 has ^^ I am" (but 
Mt. xxvi. 64 " Thou saidst it," Lk. xxii. 70 " Ye say that / am (on eya> 
dpi)" not included above as not being the utterance of Christ in His 
own person). 

[1713y] Lk. places a form of the phrase, with avros, after the Resurrec- 
tion, xxiv. 39 " See my hands and my feet that it is I myself {on iyoa elpi 



avTOS) 



[1713 /&] In Jn, besides the utterance in the Walking on the Waters 
(vi. 20), the phrase is used, with no predicate expressed, in viii. 24 

205 



[1714] SYNOPTIC DEVIATIONS 



English 


Greek 




Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Is 


eoTt 




C.75 


C. I20 


c. 100 


c. 170 


Israelite 1 


'la-parjXfiTTjs 




o 


o 





I 


Jesus 


Irjaovs 




C. 82 


c. 150 


c. 87 


c. 237 


Jew, a^ 


^lovbalos 




o 








3 


Jews (plur.)3 


*lov8dloi 




6 


5 


5 


68 


[1714] John (Peter's 














father)* 


*la>dvr}s 




o 








4 


"Jordan, beyond "s 


Trepav tov 'lop 8 


dvov 2 


3 





3 


"Judas,notIscariot"6 


'lovdas, ovx 6 


'lo-- 












Kapt6>Tr)s 




o 








I 



" Except ye believe that / am [he] " where R.V. marg. gives " I am " 
absolutely, and so in viii. 28. The meaning in these and other instances 
needs detailed comment (2220 foil.). The command Deut. xxxii. 39 Ibere 
iSere on eroa eiMi "See, see, that i am," is interpreted by Philo (i. 258) 
as a command to " behold the existence {virap^iv) of God." 

1 "Israelite," Jn i. 47 "an Israelite indeed in whom is no guile." 
See 1702 «. 

2 [1713/] "Jew, a," occurs in Jn iii. 25 "questioning... with a Jew'*'* 
(txt. perh. corrupt), sarcastically in iv. 9 " How is it that thou being a 
Jew askest drink of me?" and contemptuously in xviii. 35 "Am I 
a Jew ? " 

3 [1713 ;;?] "Jews" (plur.). This includes "king of the Jews,'' Mk (5), 
Mt. (4), Lk. (3), Jn (6). Apart from this title, the Synoptists use the 
word only as follows, Mk vii. 3 " The Pharisees and all the Jews,'* 
Mt. xxviii. 1 5 " This saying was spread abroad among the Jews" 
Lk. vii. 3 "He [i.e. the centurion] sent unto him [i.e. Jesus] elders of 
the Jews," xxiii. 51 "Arimathaea, a city of the Jews." On Jn's use of 
" Jews," mostly in a bad sense, see 1702. On Jn iv. 22 see 1647 — 8 : 
xviii. 36 (Chri.) may mean " So far from my being 'king of the Jews' in 
your sense, my servants would contend against '' the Jews'" repeating 
Pilate's phrase. 

4 [1714^] "John" (Peter's father). Jn i. 42 "Thou art Simon, the 
son oi John: thou shalt be called Cephas"; xxi. (thrice) 15, 16, 17 
" Simon [son] oijohn, lovest thou me ? " 

^ [1714 (^] "Beyond Jordan" occurs in Mt. iv. 15 quoting Is. viii. 23 
and apparently meaning "west of the Jordan." It was an ambiguous 
term. Lk. never uses it. The Synoptists and Jn apparently use it 
always (except in Mt. iv. 15) to mean "east of the Jordan." See 1813 b. 

6 [1714 <:] "Judas, not Iscariot" is unique in Jn xiv. 22. But the 
name Judas, apart from genealogies and not applied to Iscariot, occurs 
in Mk vi. 3 "the brother of James and of Joses and o{ Judas" Mt. xiii. 55 
"his brothers James...and /«^«j," Lk. vi. 16 ''^ Judas of James" (in the 
list of the Twelve). This last is parall. to Mk iii. 18 " Thaddaeus," 

206 



FROM JOHANNINE VOCABULARY [1714] 

English Greek Mk Mt. Lk. Jn 

Judge (vb.)^ Kpiva o 6 6 19 

Mt. X. 3 ''Tkaddaeus" (Tisch. " Leddaeus"). If this "Judas" was 
variously characterized in early times, Jn's characterization would have 
the advantage of not committing the writer to one tradition against 
another. 

1 [1714^] "Judge, to." This verb will be repeated in the Jn-Mt.-Lk. 
Vocab. (1859 a) : but it is too characteristic of the Fourth Gospel not 
to be given here although it does not belong to the Synoptic Tradition — 
which, strangely enough, contains nothing about "judging." Even the 
Double Tradition contains no precept about judging justly ; and the 
negative precept in it (Mt. vii. i, Lk. vi. 37) ^'' Judge not that ye may 
not (Lk. and ye shall not) be judged''^ might be taken as prohibiting 
all judgment, even judging righteously. 

[1714 e'\ Mt. V. 25 " (R.V.) Agree with i^lcrOi evvomv) thine adversary," 
where the parall. Lk. xii. 58 has 86s epyaatav dTrrjXXdx^ai [ott'] avrovj 
can hardly be intended to command "agreement" with unjust, ex- 
tortionate, or oppressive claims, without any regard to circumstances. 
Moreover, Steph. and Thayer give no instance of (vvoelv, "agree with." 
Its regular meaning is " be well disposed to," " have good will to " : and 
it is possible to entertain this feeling even for the unjust, and even while 
one is defending one's just claims against the unjust. Is "the adversary" 
Satan, or an avenging angel, or a personification of the prayer of the 
injured person ? It is hard to say. Luke puts before the difficult 
passage the words (xii. 57) "But why, even of yourselves, yz/^^ ye not 
that which is righteous?" That is intelligible and fair. But it does not 
explain how we are justified in "agreeing with" an " adversary " under 
all circumstances. Moreover Matthew omits this fair and intelligible 
precept. The whole is very obscure. 

[1714/] John accumulates passages to shew that the divine judgment 
consists (in one sense) in 72^/ judging (viii. 15 "I judge /lo man ") but 
in making the guilty judge thernselves through the conviction of the 
Logos within their hearts, so that the Son really does ^''judge^^ in that 
sense (viii. 16 "And yet, if I Judge, my judgment is true"). The Son 
came, "not to judge" but to "save," and to bring "light." Yet the 
rejection of the light causes "judgment," by the laws of spiritual Nature, 
to fall on those who reject it. At the same time John records an appeal 
to the Jews (resembling Lk. xii. 57 above quoted) for "justice" in the 
Gentile sense of the term, conformity with the moral, as distinct from the 
Mosaic Law (Jn vii. 24 " Judge not according to appearance, but Judge 
righteous Jtidgment "). See also 1859 a. 

[1714^] The Epistle to the Romans is profuse in condemnations of 
^^Judging" (Rom. ii. 1—27, xiv. 3 — 22) and the First Epistle to the 

A. V. 207 15 



[1715] SYNOPTIC DEVIATIONS 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Keep, watch 1 


Tqpioi 


I 


6 


o 


i8 


[1715] Know (1)2 


olba 


22 


25 


24 


85 


Know (2)2 


yLvd)(rK(o 


13 


20 


28 


56 


Last day, in the^ 


(ev) rfi etrxarr] rjfxipa O 


O 


o 


7 


" Law, your " "^ 


TOP VOfXOV VpOiV 


o 


O 


o 


3 


Lay down one's life^ 


TiBr]fii y^vx^v 


o 


o 


o 


8 



Corinthians says (iv. 5) ^'- Judge nothing before the time," apparently 
looking forward to the Day of Judgment. But the Apostle himself goes 
on to say of a certain offender {ib. v. 3) " I have already judged him 
that hath thus wrought this thing." In proportion as the expectation 
of an immediate Day of final Judgment diminished, it would be necessary 
to bring out the spiritual meaning of Christ's doctrine about not "judging," 
and to shew that the old Greek and Hebrew rules about "judging 
justly" were to be fulfilled, not supplanted, by the New Law of love. 

1 [1714/;] "Keep." Trjpioa, ^'' keep^' (metaphorically) a commandment 
etc., occurs in Mt. xix. 17, xxiii. 3, and in Jn viii. 51, 52, 55, xiv. 15 etc. 
In Mk vii. 9, Iva rfjv napadoo-iv vpa>v Trjprja-rjTe (but D, SS etc. have 
Krrrja-rjTe) is parall. to Mt. xv. 3 8ia rrjv it. vp5>v. See 1816. 

2 "Know." On the distinction between oi8a "know" and yivwo-Koi 
*' come to know," " recognise " see 1621 — 9. 

3 [1715 a] "Last day." Jn does not use eaxaros except in this phrase ; 
LXX has " last of the days." For Synoptic ea-xaros see 1685. 

•* [1715^] "Law, your." Jn viii. 17 ^' In your law it is written...." 
x. 34 "Is it not written in your law..?.^'' No other instance is given 
by Westcott, and probably none could be given, of any prophet or 
teacher, Hebrew or Jewish, speaking of the Law of Moses to his 
countrymen as ^^your law." Theoretically it could be justified as mean- 
ing "the Law that you yourselves recognise as given to you and as 
binding on you." But, if our Lord used the phrase thus, why is it not 
found in any of the Synoptists ? The natural conclusion is that the 
Fourth Gospel anticipates the phraseology of a later date when Christians 
had separated themselves from the Law so that they spoke of it to Jews 
as '■'■ yours r In Pilate, of course, this is natural, and it implies contempt 
(Jn xviii. 31) "Judge him according to your lawT 

[1715^] A similar anachronism is to be found in Christ's words to 
the Disciples, (Jn xv. 25) "That the word might be fulfilled which is 
written in their law., ' They hated me without a cause.' " 

^ [1715^] " Lay down one's life." Jn x. 11, 15, 17, 18 {bis\ xiii. y], 38, 
xv. 13. The phrase is used 7 times by our Lord, including one instance 
where he says (xiii. 38) rr]v yj/. a-ov vrrep epov Srjo-eis ; in answer to Peter's 
protest (xiii. 37) rrjv yjr. pov VTrep aov dr](r<o (1336). 

208 



English 


Greek 


Lazarus ^ 


Ad^apos 


Life (spiritual) 


M 


Life (physical) 2 


M 


Life eternal 


^corj alwvios 


Light3 


(fycos 


[1716] Linen cloth* 


odoviov 


Little, a (adv.)^ 


/JLlKpOV 


Live, cause to. 




quicken^ 


^(BOTTOteO) 



FROM JOHANNINE VOCABULARY [1716] 

Mk Mt. Lk. Jn 

o 4 II 
4 7 4 36 
0010 

2 3 3 17 

1 7 7 22 
o o [i] 4 
2209 



1 [1715^] "Lazarus," in Lk., is the name of the beggar in the story 
of Dives and Lazarus ; in Jn it is the name of the brother of Martha 
and Mary (1702^). 

2 [1715/] " Life (physical)." Lk. xvi. 25 " Thou receivedst to the full 
thy good things during thy /z/k (eV rrj (afj o-ov)." Bios in Mk xii. 44 
(Lk. xxi. 4) means the widow's 'Hiving^'' and sim. in Lk. xv. 12, 30, 
comp. Lk. viii. 14 ("the pleasures of life (r. ^iov)"). Mt. and Jn nowhere 
use /3ioy. 

3 [1715^] "Light." Mk xiv. 54 "Warming himself near the /igk^ 
[of the fire]," and sim. Lk. xxii. 56 " seated near the light^^ see 180 — 5. 
Where Mt. v. 14 — 16 has "ye are the light^^ and "let your light shine," 
there intervenes a precept (v. 15) about the ^'- lamp^'' Xvxyos^ and the 
parall. Mk (iv. 21) mentions only "Z^;;?/." Mk never uses "light" 
metaphorically. Lk. xvi. 8 in the Parable of the Unjust Steward, peculiar 
to himself, speaks of ^^ sons of light, ^^ and so do Jn xii. 36 and i Thess. v. 5. 
Comp. Eph. V. 8 "Walk as children of light:' On "light of the world," 
see 1748. 

* [1716 rt;] "Linen cloth." 'OBovlov occurs in Lk. xxiv. 12 in a doubly 
bracketed passage parall. to Jn xx. 5. It means "linen bandage." 
Mk XV. 46, Mt. xxvii. 59, Lk. xxiii. 53, in their parall. to Jn xix. 40 have 
'■'• linen (aivdova)" ; but Mt.-Lk. (520—1) deviate in the context from Mk, 
and prob. Jn is emphasizing Mk's tradition by insisting that the body of 
our Lord, when buried, was not only " swathed in linen " but " bound 
fast with linen bandages." 

5 [1716 <^] "Little, a" (adv.). In Mk-Mt., only in the narrative of 
Gethsemane, Mk xiv. 35, Mt. xxvi. 39 trpoekOoiv yuKpov, and in Peter's 
Denial, Mk xiv. 70, Mt. xxvi. 73 yLera fxiKpov. In Jn, fxiKpov is always 
prophetic, xiii. 33, xiv. 19, xvi. 16 — 19, and means "a little while." 
Jn also has vii. 33, xii. 35 yuKpov xP^^^^i ^ non-synoptic phrase. 
Mk i. 19, Lk. V, 3 have oXiyov (adv.) "a little space," Mk vi. 31 
(adv.) "a little time." 

6 " Live, cause to." Jn v. 21 (h's), vi. 63. 

209 15 — 2 



[1716] SYNOPTIC DEVIATIONS 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Love (n.)^ 


dyaTrr) 


o 


I 


I 


7 


Love (vb.)( 1)2 


ayairao) 


5 


7 


II 


37 


Love (vb.) (not 












"kiss") (2)3 


<l>Ck4<^ 


o 


4 


I 


13 



1 [1716 r] "Love" (n.) belongs to Jn-Mt.-Lk. Vocab. but is ins. here 
as being a characteHstic word of the Fourth Gospel. In Mt. it occurs 
only in xxiv. 12 "The love of the many shall wax cold," an insertion, 
peculiar to Mt., in the discourse on the Last Days. In Lk., it occurs 
only in xi. 42 "Ye pass by judgment and the love of God," parall. to 
Mt. xxiii. 23 "Ye have left undone the weightier matters of the Law, 
judgment and mercy and faith." Perhaps Lk interpreted " the weightier 
matters of the Law " as referring to the first and greatest commandment, 
to "love God." It is noteworthy that Mk nowhere mentions "love." 

2 [1716^] " Love" (vb.) ayairdoi. Of the Synoptic instances, 2 in Mk, 
4 in Mt., I in Lk., are in quotations from O.T. All Mk's instances 
(except x. 21 "He {i.e. Jesus) loved him {i.e. the ruler)") are in the 
discussion on the command to love God and one's neighbour (xii. 

30—33). 

3 [1716^] "Love" (vb.) (f>i\ea). On the distinction between dyandco 
and (^tXe'o) in Christ's Dialogue with Peter, see 1436 — 7. The first few 
instances of each word in Jn are as follows : — 

I. iii, 16 ovras yap rjyaTrrjaev 6 I. v. 20 6 yap irarrip (fiiXeT. rov 

dcos rov KOCTfxov. vlov Ka\ rravra bciKwcnv avrat 



a avTos TTOui. 



2. iii. 19 rjydTTTjcrav 01 civdpcoTroi 2. xi. 3, 36 iSe, ov (jiiXels dadevel 

fiaXkov TO aKOTOs rj to (fiS)S. ...iSe 7r5)s eCJiiXei avTov. 

3. iii. 35 6 TraTTjp dyavra top vlov 3. xii. 25 6 (piXwv ttjv "^vx^v avTov 

Ka\ TrdvTa deda>K€v iv Tjj X^''P'' dnoWvei avTTjv. 



avTov. 



[1716/] ^iXe'o) sometimes implies the love that comes from use and 
wont, and hence from home-life, and dyandco sometimes implies the love 
that looks abroad. Comp. Jn xv. 19 "If ye were from the world the 
world would love (e^iXfi) [you as being] its own {to tdiov)." The nouns 
do not exactly follow the verbs in all their shades of meaning. *tXia 
occurs nowhere in N.T. except Jas iv. 4 " the friendship of the world." 
Jn can say " God is dyd-rrr]" but he could not say " God is (f)i\ia,^^ 
although he says (xvi. 27) avTos yap 6 TraTrjp ^iXet vfxds otl vfids efie 
7r€(f)i\T]KaT€, " The Father /lalk a fatherly love for you because ye have 
had a brotherly love for me." As compared with ayaTra'o), cfyiXcco might 
be used of still retaining a " friendship " or " liking " after the higher love 
has passed away (see 1436 and 1728 m). 

[1716^] *iXeco occurs in Mk xiv. 44, Mt. xxvi. 48, Lk. xxii. 47, meaning 
''kiss." 

210 



FROM JOHANNINE VOCABULARY [1717] 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Manifest (vb.)(i)^ 


€fji(f>avi^<o 





I 





2 


Manifest (vb.) (2)2 


(}iav€p6(o 


i+W 








9 


[1717] Manna3 


Hdvva 











2 


Martha* 


MdpBa 








3 


9 


Mary (sister of 












Martha)^ 


Mapid(fjL) 








2 


9 


Messiah^ 


Meacrias 











2 



1 [1716/^] "Manifest" (vb.) (i) €fi(f>aviC(o belongs to Jn-Mt. vocab. 
It occurs in Mt. xxvii. 53, of "the bodies of the dead" that arose and 
" were manifested to many," J n xiv. 2 1 " I will manifest myself to him," 
xiv. 22 " What is come to pass that thou art about to manifest thyself 
to us and not to the world?" In the Pentateuch, the word occurs only in 
Ex. xxxiii. 13, 18 where Moses says to God (LXX) ^''Manifest thyself 
{€lx(f)dvi(rov aeavTov) to me." The word is also used of God's self- 
manifestation in Wisd. i. 2, and of phantasmal apparitions in Wisd. 
xvii. 4. Josephus {Ant. i. 13. i) uses it of God manifesting Himself to 
Abraham. The Gk word would naturally convey to a reader of the LXX 
the notion of a visible "manifestation," and it would naturally prepare 
a reader of Jn for the following question, " How can the Lord manifest 
Himself to us and not to the world?" 

2 [1716/] "Manifest" (vb.) (2) (jyavepoco occurs in Mk iv. 22 "For 
there is nothing hidden except in order that it may be manifested 
{(f)av€p(od^)" where Mt. x. 26 has dTroKoXvirrco, Lk. viii. 1 7 (f)av€p6v 
yevrjo-eTai. Mk App. [xvi. 12, 14] has "he was manifested^'' of Christ 
risen, a phrase also found in Jn. For the adj. (I)avep6s, see 1686. 

[1716y] Jn xxi. I (bis) uses '''' manifested himself ^^ and xxi. 14 ''''was 
manifested" to describe Christ's self-manifestations after His resurrection, 
whereas i Cor. xv. 5 — 7 uses J^^?/, i.e. " appeared" or " was seen." Jn's 
first use of the word is in the person of John the Baptist i. 31 "That he 
\i.e. Jesus] should be manifested to Israel, for this cause came I...." 

3 " Manna." Jn vi. 31, 49. 

* [1717 «] "Martha." Jn xii. 2 ^''Martha served," comp. Lk. x. 40 
^''Martha was cumbered about much serving" (1717^, 1771^). 

^ [1717 <^] "Mary" (sister of Martha). Jn xii. 3 "J/iatry... anointed 
the feet of Jesus," comp. Lk. x. 39 ^^ Mary^ who also sat at the Lord's 
feet" {VJllb). 

6 [1717^] "Messiah." In Jn i. 41 "We have found the Messiah" is 
said by Andrew to Peter. The context adds " which is, being interpreted, 
Christ." The woman of Samaria says (iv. 25) " I know that Messiah 
Cometh." The context again adds " which is called Christ." The word 
is not found elsewhere in N.T. See 1728 /g. 

211 



[1717] SYNOPTIC DEVIATIONS 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Minister (n.)^ 


dlUKOVOS 


2 


3 


o 


3 


Minister (vb.)^ 


8taK0V€(0 


4 


5 


8 


3 



1 [1717^] "Minister" (n.). The n. diaKovos is used in Mk ix. 35 
parall. to Mt. xxiii. 11 and in Mk x. 43 parall. to Mt. xx. 26. Both 
passages deal with Christ's doctrine of Service as constituting the true 
primacy. This is expressed in Jn xii. 26 (after the Washing of Feet) 
where he uses both the noun and the verb, " If any one de 7ni7iistering 
{diaKovTJ) to me, let him follow me, and where I am, there also shall my 
minister be. If any one be mittisterifig {biaKovfi) to me, him will the Father 
honour." The other instances, in Jn, are in the "sign" at Cana, ii. 5 
" His mother saith to the ministers^'' ii. 9 " But the ministers knew, they 
that had drawn the water." 

2 [1717 <?] "Minister" (vb.). Lk. never uses the n. hiaKovo^^ either in 
the Gospel or in the Acts, but Lk. xxii. 26 " let him become as he that 
7ninistereth''^ uses the vb. parall. to the n. in Mk x. 43, Mt. xx. 26 "shall 
be your minister.^^ In the parall. to Mk ix. 35, "he shall be last of all 
and minister of all," Mt. xxiii. 11 "he shall be your 7ninister^^ Lk. ix. 48 
has "he that is least among you all, the same is great." The vb. is used 
once in connexion with a "supper" by Jn (xii. 2) x] de Mdp6a dcrjKovei. 
Lk. uses the n. SiaKovla (not found elsewhere in the Gospels) also about 
Martha in connexion with the statement that she " received {vncde^aro)" 
Jesus, (Lk. x. 40) ri de Mdp6a TrepicaTrdro Trept TroXXrjv SiaKoviav. 

[1717/] Mk X. 43—4 and Mt. xx. 26 — 7 place " shall be stave of all 
(dovXos)" and "shall be your stave" after "shall be your mifiister,^' giving 
the impression that they are synonymous terms, and that the meaning of 
" shall be slave of all " is " shall be reduced, as a punishment, to the level 
of slave of all." Perhaps for this reason Lk. xxii. 26 substitutes " let him 
become" for "shall be" in order to indicate that the meaning is (Gal. v. 13) 
"in love de ye staves to one another." And perhaps he avoids 
"minister," as it had come to have an ecclesiastical meaning. 

[1717^] Greeks might be repelled by Mk's apparent use of "slave" 
and "minister" as parall. terms. As to slaves, Epictetus says {Fragm. 8) 
" Freedom and slavery are, severally, names of virtue and vice. Both are 
results of will (7rpoaipe'crea)s)....No man is a slave as long as he keeps his 
will free." As for the man that cringes to fortune or to his fellow-men 
(iv. I. 57) "Even though twelve rods" [the insignia of a consul] "precede 
him, call him a slave." A "minister" is a very different thing : " I count 
God's will," he says (iv. 7. 20), " better than mine. I will attach myself to 
Him, as His minister and follower," (iii. 22. 69) "The true philosopher 
(lit. Cynic) should give himself wholly to the ministry of God." See 
1784 — 92 on Jn xv. 15 "No longer do I call you slaves." 

212 



FROM JOHANNINE VOCABULARY [1718] 



English 


Greek Mk ' 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Morrow, on the^ 

[1718] Murmur, murmur- 
ing2 

My, mine (1704) 
Myself (1704)3 


rfj cTTavpiov I 

yoyyv^o), -o-fxos O 
ifios (not incl. ^ov) 2 
ifxavTov, -6v o 


I 
I 

5 

I 


o 

I 
3 

2 


5 

5 
37 
i6 


Nathanael(1671^) 
Nation (sing.)* 


'NaOavarjX O 
eOvos 2 


o 
3 


o 

4 


6 
5 



1 [1717 /i] " Morrow, on the." Mk xi. I2 "On the morrow when they 
came forth from Bethany," Mt. xxvii. 62 " On the morrow, which is the 
day after the Preparation." In Jn, " on the morrow " occurs i. 29, 35, 43, 
in such a way as to lead the reader to perceive, but only after a careful 
reckoning of the days, that a week, excluding the sabbath, has elapsed. 
A week of "six days" is also more definitely expressed in Jn xii. i, 
as closing Christ's work in the flesh. 

Kvpiov — not used by Mk or Jn— occurs Mt. (3), Lk. (4), alw. in words 
of the Lord. 

2 [1718^] "Murmur," "murmuring." In Mt. (xx. 11 (pec.)) the 
"murmuring" is against the householder, who gives the denarius to all 
alike. It is inserted by Lk. (v. 30) in a Triple Tradition (where Mk ii. 16, 
Mt. ix. II, have simply "said") — describing complaints made by the 
Pharisees against Jesus for eating with publicans and sinners. Else- 
where, in portions of Lk's Single Tradition (xv. 2, xix. 7) Stayoyyv^co is 
used to describe similar complaints. 

[1718^] In Jn, the first three mentions of "murmuring" (vi. 41, 43, 
61) refer to the offence caused by Christ's saying that He is the bread that 
came down from heaven, and that His flesh and blood are to be given as 
the food and drink of men. In O.T., the Israelites "murmur" for the 
first time when they crave drink and food (Ex. xv. 24, xvi. 7 — 13). 

3 [1718^] "Myself." In Mt. viii. 9, Lk. vii. 7,8 the centurion uses 
the word " /wyj^i^" and it occurs nowhere else in Mt.-Lk. In Jn it occurs 
always in words of Christ about Himself. 

4 [1718^] "Nation" (sing.). (For plur., see 1687.) Two of the 
Synoptic instances occur in the phrase "nation against nation^'' (Mk xiii. 
8, Mt. xxiv. 7, Lk. xxi. 10). Mt. alone adds to the Parable of the Vine- 
yard xxi. 43 " Therefore I say unto you. The kingdom of God shall 
be taken away from you, and shall be given to a nation bringing forth the 
fruits thereof." 

[1718 e'\ Lk. represents the elders of the Jews as saying to Jesus con- 
cerning the centurion (vii. 5) " He loveth our nation (i.e. the Jews)," and 
as saying to Pilate (xxiii. 2) " We found this man perverting our nation" 

[1718/] The instances in Jn are in speeches of the chief priests and 
the Pharisees (xi. 48) " The Romans will come and take away both our 

213 



[1719] SYNOPTIC DEVIATIONS 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Near (adv.) 1 


iyyvs 


2 


3 


3 


II 


Nicodemus 


NiKodrjfios 


o 


o 


o 


5 


Night (metaph.)^ 


vv^ 


o 


o 


o 


2 


[1719] Not yet3 


OVTTO) 


5 


2 


I 


13 



place and our nation" Caiaphas (xi. 50) " That one man should die for 
the people (Kaov), and that fke whole nation perish not," with the comment 
*' he prophesied that Jesus should die for the nation ; and not for the 
nation only, but that he might also gather together into one the children 
of God that are scattered abroad," and Pilate (xviii. 35) "Thine own 
nation and the chief priests delivered thee unto me." 

1 [1718^] "Near" (adv.). Jn compensates for the abundant use of 
the adv. by the non-use of the vb. eyyt^o Mk (3), Mt. (7), Lk. (18) (1687). 

2 [1718/^] "Night" (metaph.). Jn ix. 4^ "The night cometh when 
no man can work," xi. 10 " But if a man walketh in the nighth^ stumbleth 
because the light is not in him," The second of these passages indicates 
internal darkness, not the " night " of temptation but the " night " of "sin." 
The first (ix. 4 a) must be taken with (ix. 4 b) " Whenever I am in the 
world I am the light of the world," and it indicates a period in which the 
world rejects the light, so that " no man," not even the Light, or Logos, 
^'can work" — not, at least, for "the world." 

[1718/] Apart from actual metaphor we may note what may be called 
"sympathetic" emphasis laid on "night" by some Evangelists as being 
not only the actual time of an occurrence but also (apparently) as being 
an appropriate time, because the occurrence is of the jtature of a trial or 
temptation. Thus in the Prediction of Peter's Denial, Mk xiv. 30 has 
*' to-day, this night^^ Mt. xxvi. 34 "this night" But there Hebraic and 
Greek reckonings of " day " and " night " might influence the text. Or 
Mark might add "this night" to emphasize the accuracy of the prediction. 
The Walking on the Waters mentions first (Mk vi. 47, Mt. xiv. 23, Jn vi. 
16) "evening," and then (Mk vi. 48, Mt. xiv. 25) "the fourth watch of the 
night" (Jn vi. 17) " it was now dark." 

In Lk. xii. 20 and xvii. 34 "on this night" is connected with the sudden 
death of the rich man, and with the coming of the Day of Judgment. 

[1718y] In Jn xiii. 30 "he [Judas Iscariot] went forth: now it was 
night^'' it is manifest 'that "sympathetic" emphasis is intended, and it is 
probably intended also in Jn xxi. 3. Similarly " darkness " probably has 
a "sympathetic" meaning in Jn vi. 17, xx. i, where the disciples are 
(owing to different causes) apart from their Lord. The coming of 
Nicodemus to Jesus (Jn iii. 2) "by night^ and the repetition of the phrase 
in Jn xix. 39, are probably intended to illustrate his character. 

3 [1719 d\ " Not yet " occurs in Lk only once, and concerning the past 
(xxiii. 53). Where Mk xiii. 7, Mt. xxiv. 6 have " The end is not yet^^ 

214 



UNIVERSITY ;. 

OF y 

^LIFORN)^; 



FROM JOHANNINE VOCABULARY 



[1719] 



English 

Now {i.e. this 

moment) 
Now {i.e. at the 

present time)* 



Greek 



apTi 



Mk Mt. Lk. Jn 

O 7 O 12 



14 



29 



Lk. xxi. 9 has "noi straightway {ovk eu^e'coy)." Jn assigns the word four 
times to Jesus, concerning His "hour" or "season" or "ascension" 
(ii. 4, vii. 6, 8, xx. 17) as being '"'■ not yet" also Jn vii. 8 " I go 7iot yet up 
to this feast (v.r. not)^^ 

* [1719^] "Now (i/{}j/)." Jn sometimes uses vvv Sc, as in classical 
Gk — without ref. to past time, but with ref. to what might have been — 
for "but, [as things] now [are]," viii. 40, ix. 41, xv. 22, 24, xviii. 36 (xv. 24 
may mean " but now [at last] "). Lk xix. 42 perh. means " but as things 
are," but more prob. " but now \it is too late and] it is hidden from thine 
eyes " (as in Lk xvi. 25 " but now [on the other hand\" with reference to 
the past time when Lazarus received evil things). See 1915 (i) foil. 

[1719 dr] In Jn iv. 23, v. 25 "The hour is coming and [indeed] now is," 
there is a contrast between the past, when the "hour" might be called 
" future " or " coming" and the present, when the hour " is." Generally, 
in Jn, vvv seems to imply a contrast with the past, unless it is expressly 
contrasted with the future as in xvi. 22 " Now on the one hand {}xev) ye 
have sorrow, but..." xiii. 36 "Thou canst not now... hut thou shalt here- 
after." 

[1719 d] Hence we should suppose a reference to the past in Jn ii. 8 
" Draw water now [i.e. now that the water-pots have been duly filled]" 
iv. 18 "He whom thou now hast [as thy husband, like thy five past 
husbands]. . .^^ vi. 42 "We know his father and mother {and his past life 
amo7tg us]: how then doth he now say...?" ix. 21 "[//"<? was blind] but 
how he ?tow seeth we know not." 

[1719^] There is ambiguity in xi. 22 "If thou hadst been here my 
brother had not died ; aftd now {kuX vvv) \1 in spite of his death] I know 
that whatsoever thou shalt ask of God; God will give thee." In classical 
Gk Koi vvv would naturally mean ^^ even now": but it could hardly be 
used in this sense at the beginning of a sentence; because in that position, 
Kai would naturally be taken as " and." The question is complicated by 
the use of koi vvv in LXX, where vvv represents more than a dozen Heb. 
words, see 1915 (i) foil. 

[1719/] In view of Jn's usage, vvv should probably be rendered ^^now 
at last" '"''now in the time foreordained by the Father" in Jn xii. 27 
"Now is my soul troubled," xii. 31 ^' Now is the judgment of this world, 
now shall the ruler of this world be cast out," and so in xvii. 5, 7, 13. 

[1719^] In Jn xi. 8 ^'' but Jtow [i.e. recently] {yvv) the Jews were 
seeking," vvv is used for the classical vvv 8tj. But is this the meaning 



215 



[1720] SYNOPTIC DEVIATIONS 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Officer, or minister^ 
Openly, freely 2 
[1720] Own 3 


(ev) 7rappr](ria 
t8ios 


2 

I 
I 


2 


4 or 5 


2 

4 


9 

9 

15 



in Jn xxi. 10 "Bring of the fish that ye [have] caught noia {enidaaTe j/Cj/)"? 
Considering (i) the position of the word — at the end of the sentence, 
where it must necessarily be emphatic — (2) the superfluity of "recently" 
in such a context, and (3) above all, the ordinary meaning of vvv in Jn, 
it seems best to translate thus, "the fish that ye have caught at /ast" 
i.e. after long toiling (xxi. 3) " in that night," before they heard the voice 
of the Saviour and obeyed His command. See 1915 (i) foil. 

1 [1719/^] "Officer": used in Mt. v. 25 of the "officer" arresting a 
debtor and in Mk-Mt. elsewhere of the " officers " that arrested Jesus. 
In Lk. i. 2, iv. 20, the word means a "minister" of the Gospel or of the 
Synagogue. In Jn it always means "officers" of the Jews sent to arrest 
Jesus, except in xviii. 36 (R.V. txt) " then would my servants fight," on 
which see Paradosis (1388—92). 

2 « Openly." See " Freely" (1712/) and 1917 (i) foil. 

3 [1720^] "Own" (i) in "his own disciples." This phrase, not 
elsewhere found in N.T., is used by Mk in the sole instance in which 
he uses the adj. ^^ own." Jn uses '^ his own (pi. masc.)," but never ^^ his 
own disciples!^ After saying that Jesus " spake not without a parable," 
in which Mt. agrees with Mk, the latter alone continues thus, Mk iv. 34 
"But privately to his own disciples he expounded all things." These 
words must be compared with 

Mk iv. 10. Mt. xiii. 10. Lk. viii. 9. 

"And when he was " The disciples." " His disciples." 

alone, they that were 
about him with the 
Twelve...." 

[1720 <^] These facts suggest, in Mk, conflation from some Hebrew 
word capable of meaning "privately" and also, in various senses, 
"disciples." And, as a fact, the Hebrew beth^ "house," in various 
contexts means (i) "at home," "privately," (2) "disciples" (as Beth 
Hillel) — which might be subdivided into {2. a) "they that were about 
him," (2 b) the inner circle of " the Twelve." Mt. and Lk. have simply 
(2). Mk has in one passage (iv. 10) conflated three renderings, and in 
another (iv. 34) two of them. In Esth. v. 10, "his house'''' is variously 
rendered (a) "his house" (/3) "his own {to. Uia)." Ezr. vi. 11 "his house" 
is parall. to i Esdr. vi. 31 "his own (rcov I8ia>v avrov)" See also 370. 

[1720 c] There may have been early controversy as to the existence 
of an inner circle of " his own " disciples within the Twelve {e.g. Gal. ii. 9 

216 



FROM JOHANNINE VOCABULARY [1720] 

"the pillar" Apostles) which might induce Mt.-Lk. to omit the epithet 
as unedifying : but more probably the epithet did not exist in traditions 
(earlier than Mk) to which Mt. and Lk. have returned. 

[1720 rt?] Jn uses ol tdioi — but without ixaBrjrai — in a double sense, 
ist of the Jews and of Christ's brethren, who did not, as a whole, receive 
Him, 2nd of those among them who did (exceptionally) receive Him 
(i. ii) "He came to [his] own [home] {to. Xdia) and [Ms] own (ol i'Sioi) 
did not receive him ; but, as many as received him, to them gave he...." 
(xiii. i) "Having loved [Ms] own (rovs Idiovs) that were in the world...." 
Whether Jn wrote with, or without, a reference to Mk's phrase " Ms own 
disciples," it is probable that he would deprecate any suggestion of a 
distinction between " disciples " that were in some pecuhar sense Christ's 
^'- own^^ and others that were not. 

[1720^] "Own" (2) in its general use. "ihios expresses, or implies, 
contrast — like " own " in English (" my own [and not another's])." The 
only Johannine instance where contrast might be questioned is Jn i. 41 
(" He first findeth Ms own brother {jov a. rov Ihiov) ") where it might be 
argued that Jn simply means " Ms brother," on the following grounds : 

[1720y] (i) Jn never uses the possessive kavrov^ -S)v, found in Mk vi. 4 
(Tisch.), viii. 35 (but Tisch, avrov), xi. 7 (marg.), Mt. viii. 22, xviii. 31, 
xxi. 8 (but Mk avrcov), xxv. I (but Tisch. avrwv), xxv. 4, 7, Lk. ii. 3, 39, 
iv. 24 (Tisch.), ix. 60, xi. 21, xiii. 19, 34 (eavTrjs), xiv. 26 (but Tisch. avTov)y 
xiv. 26 (no v.r.), xiv. 27, 23i xv. 20 (but Tisch. avrov), xvi. 4, 5, 8, xviii. 13 
(but Tisch. avTov), xix. 13, xix. 36 (but Tisch. avTav). 

[1720^] (ii) In the LXX, idios corresponds to avrov in i Es. v. 8 
CKacrros (Is rfjv Ibiav ttoXlv parall. to Ezr. ii. I a.vf]p els noXiv avrov. It 
corresponds to the simple Heb. pers. suffix in Job ii. 11" every one from 
Ms [own] place," Idias, and in Dan. i. 10 "So should ye endanger 7ny 
head" Theod. fxov, but Dan. i. 10 rnvSwevcroi rw Idito rpa-)(rfKco. 

[1720 >^] (iii) In recording the visit of the Lord to His "country," 
where all the Synoptists (W.H. txt (Mk vi. i, 4, Mt. xiii. 54, Lk. iv. 24)) 
have simply ''^ Ms (avrov) country," Jn alone uses tdios (Jn iv. 44 rjj Idia 
Trarpidi). [But Mt. marg. xiii. 57 r^ Ibia ir.] 

On these three grounds it may be argued that Jn may have used i'Stos 
to express the Synoptic avrov. 

[1720 z] Against these arguments it may be replied that there is a 
special reason here for supposing emphasis to be intended, namely^ 
the repetition of the article (1982). When the article is repeated with 
i8tos elsewhere (v. 43, vii. 18) the meaning is ^^ Ms own [and not an- 
other's]," e.g. vii. 18 "He that speaketh from himself seeketh Ms own 
glory." "Yhios with the repeated article is very rare in N.T. and appears 
to be always emphatic. Acts i. 25 '"''Ms own place," xx. 28 "/«V own 
blood." It is also highly characteristic of this Evangelist that he should 
in this indirect way suggest, instead of stating, that after Andrew had 

217 



[1720] SYNOPTIC DEVIATIONS 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Parable, s. Proverb 


Trapoi/xt'a 


o 


o 


o 


4 


Paraclete^ 


TrapaKXrjTos 


o 


o 


o 


4 


Philip (the apostle) ^ 


^(Xlttttos 


I 


I 


I 


12 



*' first " found *' h's own " brother, Andrew's companion (1901 d) did the 
same thing. On the whole, then, 'Idios is probably emphatic in Jn i. 41. 

1 [1720y] "Paraclete." Jn xiv. 16 " I will ask the Father and he 
shall give you another Paraclete that he may be with you for ever, [even] 
the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive...," xiv. 26 "the 
Paraclete^ the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name...," 
XV. 26 "the Paraclete... \.hQ Spirit of truth," xvi. 7 " If I go not away, the 
Paraclete will assuredly not come to you, but if I go, I will send him unto 
you." Comp. i Jn ii. i "We have a Paraclete., with the Father, Jesus 
Christ, a righteous [Paraclete]." 

[1720 k] " Paraclete," i.e. " called in [to aid]," " advocatus," or " Advo- 
cate," was a Greek word, Hebraized as Parklete, in the sense of a legal 
advocate. But the ancient "advocate" differed from the modern in 
that the former did not take a reward but pleaded a friend's cause for 
the friend's sake. The nearest Synoptic equivalent to Christ's promise of 
a Paraclete is 

Mk xiii. II Mt. x. 20 . Lk. xxi. 15 

** For it is not ye that "For it is not ye "I will give you a 

speak, but the Holy that speak, but the mouth and wisdom that 

Spirit." Spirit of your Father all your adversaries 

that speaketh in you." shall not be able to 

withstand or gainsay." 

Jn's doctrine guards against a narrowing of the Synoptic tradition, 
especially Lk.— as though the object of the Paraclete would be merely to 
help the Christian to make a successful defence when brought before 
kings and rulers. On Parklete., see Hor. Heb. on Jn xiv. 16. 

[1720/] The variations in the Synoptists favour the view that Jesus 
used some expression like the Aramaic Parklete, which was variously 
paraphrased by the Synoptists. Against any superstitious notion that the 
Advocate would procure special favours from God, contrary to justice, Jn 
guards by saying that it is " the Spirit of truths'' or " the Holy Spirit," or 
"Jesus Christ, a righteous [Paraclete]." 

2 [1720 ?n\ " Philip," the only Apostle described by Jn in his first 
chapter as being (i. 43) "found" by Jesus Himself. The others, and 
Nathanael, either (i. 37—8) "followed" Jesus, or were (i. 41, 45) "found" 
by other disciples. 

218 



FROM JOHANNINE VOCABULARY [1721] 



English Greek 

Pool ^ KoXvfi^rjBpa 

[1721] Proverb, parable ^ napoifiia 



Ak 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


o 


o 


o 


3 


o 


o 


o 


4 



1 [1720 «] " Pool " is used in connexion with the healing of a man 
described as "in infirmity" (Jn v. 2 — 7) and the name Bethzatha, 
Bethsaida, etc. varies greatly in MSS. and versions. " Pool " is also used 
in connexion with the healing of a man born blind, where it is called 
(Jn ix. 7) ''the pool of Siloam" (1708/^). 

2 [1721 a] " Proverb," Trapoifxla, is rendered by R.V. (txt) " parable "— 
the usual rendering of Trapa^oXrj (which Jn never uses) — in Jn x. 6 " This 
proverb spake Jesus to them, but they {cKelvoi de) understood (eyvcocrav) 
not what things they were that he was speaking to them {rlva rjv a eXaXei 
avToh)." He had been saying that (x. i — 5) the "sheep" follow the 
" shepherd " whose " voice " they " know," but do not follow a " stranger." 
These facts were, and are, '' proverdta/" both as to the literal shepherd of 
sheep and as to the metaphorical " shepherd of the people " mentioned in 
the Bible and the Iliad ; and they could hardly be misunderstood. But 
perhaps "understood not etc." means that those whom Jesus was 
addressing had no conception of the idea of the true shepherd. They 
could not misunderstand the proverb, but they could and did fail to 
understand the spiritual truth that it represented. 

[1721 (^] Jn's other instances are xvi. 25 — 9 "These things have 
I spoken unto you in proverbs. There cometh an hour when I shall no 
longer speak to you in proverbs but I shall bring you word plainly about 
the Father." To this the disciples reply " See, now [at last] (1719/) (i'Se 
i/vv) thou speakest plainly and speakest no proverb ^^ contradicting their 
Master. But His answer to them, and the sequel, shew that they were 
wrong, and that His words had not been "plain" to them. 

[1721 c\ Why does John avoid the Synoptic word " parable " (1687) and 
introduce, in its place, a word unused by the Synoptists? Partly, 
perhaps, because the Synoptic tradition varied. Mark alone (iv. 2>'^ says 
that Jesus taught by parables ""as they were able to understand^ 
Matthew alone (in the parallel to Mk iv. 33 — 4) quotes an O.T. saying 
about " things hidden from the foundation of the world " (xiii. 35). Luke 
omits all this. Matthew (as well as Luke) omits Mark's statement that 
Jesus '^ explained in private all things to his own disciples.^'' Moreover, 
Mark (iv. 11 — 12) and Luke (viii. 10) differ considerably from Matthew 
(xiii. II — 13) in their descriptions of the reason for teaching in parables 
(Mk-Lk. "//^<2/... hearing they may not understand," Mt. '' because... hesir'mg 
they hear not neither do they understand "). 

[1721 d] In any case, Jn prefers to say that Jesus taught by 
''proverbs,'' i.e. by truths of general import, whereas the Paraclete was to 
teach truths of particular import, appealing to the experience of the 



219 



[1721] SYNOPTIC DEVIATIONS 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Quicken^ 


^(OOTTOUO) 


O 


o 


o 


3 


Raise up^ 


dvi(TTT]iii (active) 


O 


I 


o 


4 


Receive (a person) ^ 


Xafi^dvoi 


o 


o 


o 


II 


Remain, s. Abide 


fxevo) 


2 


3 


7 


40 


Remember* 


fivr]fiov€V<o 


I 


I 


' 


3 



individual. Uapomia does not appear to mean " dark saying" either in Jn 
or anywhere in Greek literature. But a proverb, or general saying, 
being brief, and dispensing with qualifications and modifications (which 
the hearer has to supply according to circumstances) is always liable to 
become a "dark saying" to those that will not take the trouble to think 
about its special meaning or application. 

1 " Quicken," see (1716) " Live, make to." 

2 [1721^] "Raise up," in Mt, only xxii. 24 "raise up seed," quoting 
Deut. XXV. 5 ; Jn vi. 39, 40, 44, 54 " raise up [from the dead]," always foil, 
by " on the last day." (The numbers above do not include eyeipo).) 

3 [1721/] " Receive (a person)." (The numbers above do not include 
dixonai (1689^).) In all but two passages (Jn vi. 21, xix. 27) the receiving 
means spiritual reception, z.e. "receiving" doctrine, influence, or spirit. 
In the saying " He that receiveth me receiveth him that sent me," Jn xiii. 
20 uses Xaix^dv(o whereas Mk ix. ^y, Mt. x. 40, Lk. ix. 48 use dixofiai. The 
latter word Jn never uses except in Jn iv. 45 " the Galilaeans received 
(ede^avTo) him" describing our Lord's visit to His native place where He 
was no^ honoured. Perhaps Jn means that they merely "welcomed" or 
"entertained" Him, because of the signs He had wrought, but did not 
believe in Him. Jn uses Xajx^dvoi in the Prologue (i. 12) " But as many 
as received him, to them he gave authority to become children of God." 
The word Xafx^dvo) is used by Mk-Mt. (but not by Lk.) in the Eucharistic 
precept ''''Receive [it]. This is my body," and in Jn xx. 22 ''''Receive the 
Holy Spirit." Lk. xxii. 17 has "Receive (Xd^ere) this, z.^. the cup, and 
divide it among yourselves." See 1341. 

[1721^] AafjL^dvo) Tivd meaning "welcome" must be distinguished 
from X. Tivd meaning "take," e.^. (Mk ix. 36) ''''taking a child," (Lk. xx. 
29) " taking a wife," (Jn xix. 6) " take him and crucify him." The 
instances of "welcoming" in Jn are applied to the receiving of the 
Logos, of Christ, of those whom He sends, of the Spirit, of the mother 
of Jesus when committed to the beloved disciple. 

^ [1721 >^] "Remember," only in words of the Lord, Mk viii. 18 (Mt. 
xvi. 9) " remember ye not ? " about the loaves, Lk. xvii. 32 " remember 
Lot's wife." Jn's instances are all in the Last Discourse, (xv. 20, xvi. 4) 
about ^'' remembering^^ Christ's warnings, and xvi. 21 "she remembereth 
not the anguish." 

[1721 /] Forms of fxvTja-d^vai occur in Mt. (3), Lk. (6), Jn (3). Jn's 

220 



FROM JOHANNINE VOCABULARY [1722] 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Retain (sins) (?)i 


Kpareco 


o 


o 


o 


2 


Romans 2 


'Pcofialoi 


o 


o 


o 


I 


Roman, in^ 


'PcofiaicrTL 


o 


o 


o 


I 


Sake of, for the (w. 












persons)* 


8id 


4 


4 


o 


9 


Salim^ 


2aXei/x 


o 


o 


o 


I 


[1722] Scripture, another^ 


' ere pa ypa(f)ri 


o 


o 


o 


I 


Scripture, the 


V yp(^4>v 


o 


o 


o 


lO 


Scripture, this 


r) ypacfif] avrrj 


I 


o 


I 


o 



instances all say that the disciples (ii. 17, 22, xii. 16) "remembered 
(efxvrja-drjaav) " prophecies about Christ, or words of Christ, (ii. 22) " when 
he was raised from the dead," or (xii. 16) " when he was glorified." 

1 [172iy] " Retain (sins)," only in Jn xx. 23 " whose soever sins ye 
retain they are retained^ liv nvcov KparrJTe [sc. ras ajxaprtas^ KeKpdTrjvTat," 
The meaning is obscure (2517 — 20). See also 1691. 

2 [1721 /&] " Romans," Jn xi. 48 " The Romans will come and take 
away both our place and our nation." 

3 [1721 /] " In Roman," Jn xix. 20 " It was written in Hebrew, and in 
Roman [i.e. in Latin], and in Greek." 

* [1721 7f{\ " For the sake of (a person).'' This excludes hia rovro etc. 
On the Synoptic " sake," eveKa, see 1692. On the double meaning of 8ia, 
see 1884 a—d, and 2294 foil. On vrrep see 2369—71. 

'"^ [1721 7i] " Salim." Only in Jn iii. 23 " ^non near to SalimP Both 
localities are variously identified. " ^non " may mean " fountains." 
"Salim" may mean "peace." Comp. Gen. xxxiii. 18 (R.V. txt) "peace," 
<marg.) "Shalem"; Ps. Ixxvi. 2 "in Salem," LXX "peace." 

6 [1722 «] "Scripture, another" etc. "The Scripture" occurs in Jn 
at least twice without any Scriptural quotation in the context, ii. 22 
(R.V.) " When therefore he was raised from the dead his disciples 
remembered that he spake this ; and they believed the scripture^ and 
the word which Jesus had said," xx. 8 — 9 (R.V.) "Then entered in 
therefore the other disciple also, which came first to the tomb, and he 
saw, and believed. For as yet they knew not the scripture that he must 
rise again from the dead." Westcott {ad loc.) and Lightfoot (Gal. iii. 22) 
take "the Scripture" as Ps. xvi. 10 "Thou wilt not leave my soul in 
Sheol," or some other single passage of Scripture in the Evangelist's 
mind. But against this are the following facts. 

[1722 <^] "The Scripture" (sing.) occurs in N.T., Clement of Alexandria, 
and Origen, in two senses, ist, and most freq., the Scripture speaking 
through a single text (as we say, " The Bible says^ ' Pride cometh before 
a fall'"), 2nd, the Scripture as a whole, or as a person representing 
God's voice, or will, or action. Before considering these usages, it will 
be convenient to discuss the plural. 

221 



[1722] SYNOPTIC DEVIATIONS 

English Greek Mk Mt. Lk. Jn 

Scriptures, the al ypa(f)ai 2431 

[1722 c] " The Scriptures " (pi.) is the fomi preferred by the Synoptists 
to mean all the books of Scripture, and hence, loosely, the Scripture as 
a whole. They never use the sing, except in Mk xii. 10 " Have ye not 
even read tAts scripture^ 'The stone...'.?" [where Mt. xxi. 42 has, loosely, 
" Have ye never read in the scriptures^ 'The stone...'?" and Lk. xx. 17 
" What then is this that is written (ri ovv io-rXv to yeypafxfievov tovto), 
'The stone...'?"] and Lk. iv. 21 "This day is fulfilled this scripture 
in your ears," i.e. the passage of Isaiah just read. 

[1722^] "The Scriptures" (pi.) is the form used by Mk-Mt. ia) with 
reference to the resurrection of the dead (Mk xii. 24, Mt. xxii. 29 " Ye err 
not knowing the scriptures^'' Lk. om.) and {b) with reference to the 
"dehvering up" of the Messiah (Mk xiv. 49, Mt. xxvi. 56 "that the 
scriptures (Mt. + of the prophets) might be fulfilled," comp. Mt. xxvi. 54 
"how then should the scriptures be fulfilled?" Lk. om.). The first of 
these passages indicates a belief on the part of Mark and Matthew that 
the doctrine of the general resurrection of the dead runs through the 
Scriptures, but Luke does not imply this. The second indicates a belief 
in Mark that the doctrine of Paradosis runs through the Scriptures ; but 
Matthew limits this to " the scriptures of the prophets^'' and Luke again 
dissents. 

[1722 e'\ " The Scriptures " is used twice by Luke in the Walk to 
Emmaus (xxiv. 27 — 32) "And beginning from Moses and from all the 
prophets he interpreted to them in all the scriptures the things con- 
cerning himself.... While he opened to us the scriptures^'' and, later on, 
xxiv. 44 — 5 " how that all things must needs be fulfilled which are written 
in the law of Moses, and the prophets, and the psalms, concerning me. 
Then opened he their mind that they might understand the scriptures.^'' 
The object of this appeal to "the Scriptures" was to shew that "it 
behoved" the Messiah (Lk. xxiv. 26) "to suffer these things and to enter 
into his glory " ; and, in this process, the promise to Abraham, the 
sacrifice of Isaac, his restoration as it were (Heb. xi. 18 — 19) "from 
the dead," the typical life of Joseph, the Story of the Brazen Serpent, 
and many other things "written in the Law of Moses" might play a part. 
Thus we can understand that St Paul may be referring to the general 
tenor of Scriptural types as well as texts when he says i Cor. xv. 3 — 4 
" Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures... he hath been raised 
on the third day according to the scriptures.^"" 

[1722/] These facts indicate room for individual difference of 
expression. On such a point, for example, as the Paradosis, or "delivering 
up," of Christ, Mark might say that it was predicted by " the scriptures," 
Matthew might correct this by saying " the scriptures of the prophets^'' 

222 



FROM JOHANNINE VOCABULARY [1722] 

Luke might prefer not to apply so broad a term as "Scriptures" to 
a single Messianic event. When Luke uses the plural he applies it 
to the whole of the divine Messianic plan for redeeming mankind. On 
the other hand another author might dislike the plural " Scriptures " 
except where the term denoted the different " writings " of the Bible and 
a passing from one " writing" to another or a comparison of one with 
another. 

[1722^] "The Scriptures," in Jn. This last remark prepares us for the 
fact that John, as against ten instances of "the Scripture," uses the 
Synoptic term ''^ the Scriptures'''' only once, (v. 39) "Ye search the 
sc?iptu7'es, for ye {emph.) think to have in them eternal life." The 
context appears to shew that the meaning is: "Ye pass from book to 
book, searching, and comparing, and studying this passage and that, and 
losing the whole in the parts, failing to recognise the testimony of the 
Scripture while poring over the Scriptures." 

[1722^] Returning to "the Scripture" (sing.), and considering it 
first outside Jn, we find that it mostly introduces a quotation : Acts i. 
16—20 ^^ the s. that the Holy Spirit uttered. ..(Ps. Ixix. 25 and cix. 8)," 
viii. 32 — 5 "The passage of the s. that he was reading... from this s." 
Rom. iv. 3 "What saith the s....," ix. 17 '^ The s. saith to Pharaoh...." 
(simil. x. II, xi. 2, Gal. iv. 30, i Tim. v. 18, Jas ii. 23, iv. 5 {?) — all of 
which have "saith" etc.), Jas ii. 8 "according to the s. 'Thou shalt love 
thy neighbour,' " i Pet, ii. 6 " it contains in s" 

[1722/] "The Scripture" in N.T. apart from quotations. Where 
there is no such form as " saith," " uttered," " contains," and no quotation, 
" the Scripture " is regarded as a whole and sometimes personified. Even 
where there is a quotation, it is personified in Gal. iii. 8 " The j-., fore- 
seeing... preached^'' There is no quotation in Gal. iii. 22 '•''The s....shut 
up all things under sin...," 2 Pet. i. 20 "every prophecy of j...." Gal. iii. 
22 resembles Rom. xi. 32 " God hath shut up all men..." which indicates 
that " Scripture," in Gal. iii. 22, means " the will of God as expressed in 
Scripture." There is no single passage of Scripture that mentions this 
" shutting up " : the Apostle is probably referring to a number of passages 
such as those quoted in Rom. iii. 10 — 18, and also to Ps. cxliii. 2 and 
Deut. xxvii. 26 quoted in Gal. ii. 16, iii. 10. Schottgen (Gal. iii. 8) quotes 
Siphra 186^ for a similar personification of Scripture: "What did 
Scripture have in view, in placing the New Year and the Day of Atone- 
ment between Passover and Pentecost?" 

[1722 y] "The Scripture" in Clem. Alex, and Origen. The Greek 
Fathers most akin to the Fourth Gospel are Clement of Alexandria and 
Origen. Clement uses " the Scripture saith," to introduce quotations or 
allusions, but also such phrases as (883) "collecting testimonies from 
Scripture (ex y.)," (890) "wresting the Scripture {ttjp 7/.)," "believing the 
Lord's Scripture {ttj KvpiaKfj y.)," meaning Scripture as a whole. Origen 

A. V. 223 16 



[1722] SYNOPTIC DEVIATIONS 

also (Huet i. 26 — 7) speaks of "the Scripture" as having a body and 
a soul. He says that our faculties are strengthened by reading "the 
Scripture," that "the whole Scripture {iraa-av ttjv y.)" is (Huet i. 204 D) 
"God's one complete and perfectly adapted instrument." Similarly 
he says in the Philocalia., chap. x. "There is not a jot or tittle written in 
the Scripture that... does not perform its work." Chrysostom says (on 
Rom. xvi. 5) " not even apparently small points in the Scripture are placed 
there at random or in vain." Suicer also quotes Chrys. Homil. xcii. torn. 
vi. " Whatsoever things the Scripture saith, these things are more trust- 
worthy than the things that are seen {Trio-Torepa twv opco^eVcoj/)." Clem, 
personifies Scripture when he says that it (882) " sells to strangers those 
who have fallen away" (comp. 506 ''''saith they are sold," and see Judg. ii. 
14, iii. 8, iv. 2, X. 7, i S. xii. 9, Is. 1. i which describe Jehovah as " seUing 
Israel" because of its sins). 

[1722 k'\ " The Scripture," in Jn, apart from the two passages under 
consideration, occurs as follows, vii. 38 "Even as the s. [hath] said...," 
obscure, perh. quotation, but perh. general tenor of Scriptural promises 
to them that (vii. 37) "thirst." On. vii. 42 "Did not the s. say that the 
Christ comes from the seed of David and from Bethlehem the village 
where David was?" Westcott himself refers the reader to Is. xi. i, Jer. 
xxiii. 5, Mic. v. 2, without mentioning any one of these as specially in the 
EvangeHst's mind. Probably the meaning is " the general tenor of the 
Psalms and the Prophets concerning the birth and birthplace of the Son 
of David," who, it was assumed, must be born in the city of David. 
In X. 34 — 5 "Is it not written... I f...//z^ scripture cannot be destroyed 
(Xv^jjvai) (lit. loosed)," the reference may be to the passage just quoted 
(" I said ye are gods ") but it is more in accordance with Johannine style 
to suppose Scripture as a whole to be intended (for "loosing" comp. ii. 19 
and perh. i Jn iv. 3). After xiii. 18, xix. 24, 36 "that the s. might 
be fulfilled," there follow quotations. In xvii. 12, there is probably 
a reference to the previously quoted Scripture so that we must render, 
"that the {above-quoted^ xiii. 18] s. might be fulfilled." In xix. 28, 
"Jesus,... that the s. might be perfectly accomplished, saith, 'I thirst,'" 
the words 'I thirst' are printed by W.H. as a quotation. In xix. 37, 
a quotation is introduced with the phrase, "And again another s. 
saith:' 

[1722/] There remain for consideration Jn ii. 22 " they believed the 
scripture,^' xx. 9 "they knew not the scripture:' As to the former, 
Origen, in a very full comment, suggests no one passage of Scripture that 
the Evangelist must have had in view. Nor does Chrysostom. Cyril 
(Cramer ad loc.) paraphrases in the plural^ " comparing with the issue the 
things that had been written {ra yeypafiixeva)" Also in his brief com- 
mentary on the context of the second passage, Chrysostom mentions no 
definite text of Scripture. Westcott, though maintaining that one definite 

224 



FROM JOHANNINE VOCABULARY [1723] 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


[1723] See (1)1 


^XfVo) 


15 


20 


14 


17 


See (2)1 


6edofiai 


[2] 


4 


3 


6 


See (3)1 


decopeo) 


7 


2 


7 


23 


See (4)1 


opaay 


7 


13 


12 


30 


Seize, catch, take^ 


7rid((0 


o 


o 


o 


8 



passage is intended, does not profess to say with certainty what it is 
(Westc. Jn ii. 22 "hardly any other than Ps. xvi. 10," but on Jn xx. 9 "the 
reference is probably to Ps. xvi. 10"). It is extremely unlikely that 
Christians in the first century would have fastened their faith in the 
Scriptural prediction of the Messiah's resurrection on one passage 
(excluding, for example, Isaiah and Hosea, and limiting themselves to a 
single text in the Psalms). Much more probably they would have adopted 
Luke's view that the Saviour, after the Resurrection, "beginning from 
Moses and from all the prophets," revealed to the disciples (xxiv. 27, 32, 
45) " all the Scriptures," i.e. the tenor of the Scriptures. It would be 
quite in harmony with Johannine style and thought to represent this by 
" ^ke Scripture." 

1 [1723 «] "See." On jSXeVo) see 1607, on dedoiiai 1604, on decopeco 
1598—1603, on opdo) 1605—6 and 1703 a. 'iSeli/ is the most frequent word 
for "seeing" in all the Gospels, but less freq. in Jn than in the rest. On 
Jn's use of eldov see 1610. 

2 [1723 d] " Seize." In Jn xxi. 3, 10 Trid^o) is used of catching fish. 
Elsewhere in Jn it always describes attempts of the Jews to " catch " 
Jesus. 

The Synoptists differ among themselves in their language in 

Mk xii. 13 Mt. xxii. 15 Lk. xx. 20 

ipa avTov dype^a-cjcnv ottws avrbv wayide^- Xva iirCkd^uiVTaL airov 

'Xdyif. awcrcv ev \6yi^. \670u c5<rTe irapadoOvai, 

airbv ry dpxv nal ry 
i^ovaig, tov ijyefidvos. 

— where Lk. is at some pains to shew that the " catching " was to be more 
(at all events in its results) than mere " catching in word." 

Mk xiv. I Mt. xxvi. 4 Lk. xxii. 2 

irws avrbv iv 56K(p iVa...56X(f} KpaTiqcriaaiv rb irCoi dyiXuiaiv avrbv. 

KpaTiffaavTes diroKTd- Kal diroKTeivwaiv. 

VO}(TLP. 

[1723 <:] In view, perhaps, of various and slightly conflicting tra- 
ditions, Jn uses habitually one word, without adding Xoym or fioXw. Its 
use (in the sense of "catching" a prisoner) in writings so various as Acts 
xii. 4, 2 Cor. xi. 32, Rev. xix. 20, shews that it must have been freq. 
in Christian communities. In Cant. ii. 15 *•'• catch foxes," LXX Trido-are 

225 16 — 2 



[1723] SYNOPTIC DEVIATIONS 

English Greek Mk Mt. Lk. Jn 

Send^, including — 7re/z7ro) i 4 lo 32 
"He that sent (me, 

him)"^ 6 ir4^y\ras {fxCyavTov) O O O 26 



Sym. has (rvWd^cre. In Sir. xxiii. 21 TrLao-OrjaeTai, A has KokaarOrja-eTai. 
[In Jer. xviii. 20 KoXacris is perh. a conflate rendering of a word meaning 
"pit," which suggests "snaring" or "catching."] 

For " Seize," Kpareco, see 1691 a. 

1 [1723 rtf] "Send" etc., Trefnra. In the canonical LXX this word 
occurs only 6 times (whereas aTroo-rfXXo) occurs about 480). It is the 
mark of a non-Hebraic style, occurring 4 times in Wisd. and 14 in Mace. 
In the Pentateuch, it occurs only where Rebecca (Gen. xxvii. 42) ^^ sent 
and called Jacob," who is presumably in the same house with her or not 
far off. In the Synoptists, it is used of sending (on a short errand) 
messengers, soldiers, executioners, servants etc., who for the most part 
have to return with something accomplished or with some report. Mk's 
only instance, however, is Mk v. 12 "send us into the swine" (parall. 
Mt. aTToo-TelXov, Lk. eTrirpe'^r} drreXBe'Lv). The Synoptists use far more 
frequently aTroa-TeXXw, which is also used by Jn, thus : — Mk (20), 
Mt. (22), Lk. (25), Jn (28). 

[1723 <?] " Send " etc. in Jn. Jn's frequent use of 7re>7ra> arises in part 
from the frequency of the phrase "He that sent" (almost always applied 
to the Father) in the words of Christ, occurring more than 20 times. If 
this phrase were deducted, Jn would use 7re/x7ra> only about six times, 
i.e. less frequently than Luke. Except in Jn i. 22, 33 ("that we may give 
an answer to them that sent us," " he that sent me to baptize ") nip-rroi 
always occurs in words of Christ. Apart from the phrase " He that sent^^ 
are (xiii. 20) "He that receiveth whomsoever I send^^^ (xiv. 26) "[The 
Spirit] which the Father will send in my name," (xv. 26) " [The Paraclete] 
whom I will send to you from the Father," (xvi. 7) " But if I go, I will 
send him [the Paraclete] unto you," (xx. 21) "Even as the Father hath 
SENT {dniaraXKiv) me, I also (xayo)) send (Tre/iTrco) yoU." 

[1723yj ne/iTTO) and aTroo-reXXo). This (xx. 21) terminates the instances 
in Jn both of dTroo-reXXco and of Tre/xTrco ; and it cannot be doubted that 
Jn intends a difference of meaning by the different words. Had he 
wished to use the perfect of Trefxnco ("hath sent," 7r€7rofx(f)a), no gram- 
matical considerations need have deterred him ; for there are two instances 
of it in the LXX alone (i Esd. ii. 26, 2 Mace. xi. 32). 

[1723^] ne/xTTO) is never used in the First Epistle at all, but aTroo-reXXco 
is used concerning the Father's sending of the Son in three solemn 
passages (i Jn iv. 9, 10, 14) and six times in the Last Prayer in the 
Gospel, where we find (xvii. 18) "Even as thou didst send {dTreo-reiXas) 
me into the world, I also (/cd-yo)) did SEND (aTreo-reiXa) them into the 

226 



FROM JOHANNINE VOCABULARY [1724] 

English Greek Mk Mt. Lk. Jn 

Servant (Chri. pre- 
cepts, not parables)! dovXos i 3 i 6 
Sheep ^ irpo^arov 2 II 2I7ori9 

[1724] Sick 3 do-Oevrjs I 3 I o 

Sick, be^ da-Beveco I 3 I 8 

Sickness 3 dadeveia 0142 

world." Comparing the passage in question (xx. 21) with xvii. 18 and 
with others where dTroareWco is defined by various contexts (i Jn iv. 9, 10, 
14), we are perhaps justified in thinking that aTrooTeXXco means " sending 
away into the world at large," but ireiiirco " sending on a special errand." 
The Saviour sends all the Apostles collectively into the world to preach 
the Gospel (aTroo-reXXet), but He sends them on special errands to Jews, 
Gentiles, Rome, Athens, Antioch etc. {Trefnrei). If so, the distinction in 
Jn XX. 21 is between the mission of the incarnate Son now accomplished, 
and the mission of His followers now beginning : " Even as the Father 
HATH SENT (aTTcoraX/ce) me [into the world], I also send (Tre/xTrco) you 
[severally to the several nations of the world]." 

1 [1723/^] " Servant " (Chri. precepts, not parables). AoOXoy, "servant" 
or " slave," in parables, occurs in Mk xii. 2, 4, xiii. 34, and much more 
freq. in Mt.-Lk. But, in Synoptic precepts, it occurs only Mk x. 44 
" Whosoever may desire among you to be first shall be servant of all," 
Mt. XX. 27 sim. Lk. diff. (on which see 1276 — 80) ; Mt. x. 24 — 5 " nor is 
a servant above his lord... and the servant as his lord" (where Lk. vi. 40 
differs) ; Lk. xvii. 10 (after a parable) " Say ye, we are unprofitable 
servants.^'' As regards Traty, see 805 — 11, and 1862. 

[1723 i'\ It was shewn above (1717 d^g) that Epictetus regards 
a "servant" or "slave" — if a slave in mind and not merely in social 
condition — as essentially bad, being the slave of his fears, passions etc. 
So Jn says (viii. 34) "Everyone that doeth sin is (W.H.) a slave [of sin]," 
and adds that (viii. 35) " the slave doth not abide in the house for ever," 
contrasting the "slave" with the "son," who "abides for ever (2263^,/")." 
Later on, he follows Matthew (x. 24 — 5) above quoted in saying (xiii. 16) 
(rep. XV. 20) " A servant is not greater than his lord," applying the word 
to the apostles. Later still, he says (xv. 15) "No longer do I call you 
servants because the servant knoweth not what his lord doeth." He 
adds, " But you have I called friends.^'' On the connexion between this 
and Lk. xii. 4 " you, my friends^^ see 1784 — 92. These and many other 
facts indicate a mental friction arising from the collision, or intermixing, 
of Greek and Hebrew words and notions about "service." 

2 [1723y] " Sheep." Comp. Mt. x. 6, xv. 24 " the lost sheep of the 
House of Israel," with Jn x. 16 "other sheep that are not of this fold," 
where Jn suggests that the precept in Mt. x. 6 was but for a time. 

3 [1724«] "Sick" etc. Jn nowhere uses the word i/do-oy. Mt. once 

227 



[1725] SYNOPTIC DEVIATIONS 



English 


Greek 


Signify 1 


O-Tjuaivo) 


Simon (father of 




Judas Iscariot)^ 


2ifj.a)v 


Soldier^ 


O-rpaTLCDTTJS 


Sop* 


y\ta}}XLov 


Speak, I (Chri.)'^ 


XaXe'o) 


[1725] Standi 


OTJ^KO) 



Stand (appl. to Jesus)^ tarqyn 



Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


o 


o 


o 


3 


o 


o 


o 


3 


I 


3 


2 


6 


o 


o 


o 


4 


o 


I 


I 


c. 30 


2 


o 


o 


2 


I 


2 


4 


5 



(viii. 17) uses dadeveia in a quotation from Is. liii. 4 (Heb. not LXX). In 
canon. LXX da-deveia occurs only 5 times, once (Job xxxvii. 7) in error, 
and twice (Jer. vi. 21, xviii. 23) to express moral "stumbling." 

1 [1724^] "Signify." Always in the phrase (xii. 33, xviii. 32, xxi. 19) 
" signifying by what death " he should die, or glorify God. Apart from 
Acts XXV. 27 {^''signify the charges against him"), it occurs in N.T. else- 
where only in Acts xi. 28 ^'•signified through the Spirit," Rev. i. i '"''signified 
...to his servant John." 

2 [1724 c\ " Simon " (father of Judas Iscariot) : Jn vi. 71 ''lovhav Si/Ltcoi/os- 
'icTKapicorov, xiii. 2 'louSay "Slfioivos 'icrKapicoTrjSf xiii. 26 'lovda '2ifXQ}vos 
'icTKapicorov. 

3 [1724^] "Soldier," in Jn, all in the narrative of the Passion 
(xix. 2—34). 

* [1724 e] " Sop," only in Jn xiii. 26 — 30, and not elsewhere in N.T. 

^ [1724/] "I speak" (Chri.). The numbers include the first pers. 
sing, of any tense of XaXeco in Christ's words. See 1704. Mt.'s single 
instance is xiii. 13 "Therefore speak I to them in parables," and Lk.'s is 
xxiv. 44 " These are my words which I spake unto you." 

® [1725 a] " Stand," a-TrjKa), generally means " stand fast (or, upright) " 
as in Rom. xiv. 4, i Cor. xvi. 13, Gal. v. i. It is appropriate in Mk xi. 25 
"When ye stand steadfastly praying," but not so obviously in Mk iii. 31 
(where D has ea-rSiTes) unless it means that the mother and brethren of 
Jesus "took their stand" at the door with persistence. In Jn viii. 44, 
the meaning is " He was a murderer from the beginning and did not 
standfast in the truth." In i. 26 /xeVos vfxmv orrjKfi, " there statideth in the 
midst of you [a certain one], whom ye know not," the verb perh. has (as 
Origen suggests ad loc.) a spiritual as well as a local meaning. 

"^ [1725 <^] "Stand," tarrjixiy appl. to Jesus. The Synoptists associate 
the " standing " of Jesus (Mk x. 49, Mt. xx. 32 crrds, Lk. xviii. 40 crTaOds 
(1725^)) with a cure of blindness. The tradition peculiar to Lk. vi. 17 
"having gone down [from the mountain] he stood (Jea-rrj) with them," 
suggests a parallel between the Sermon on the Mount and the Law given 
on Mount Sinai, whence Moses descended and spoke to his brethren. 
Lk. V. I " standing (ea-ras) by the Lake " (in the Call of Peter and the 

228 



FROM JOHANNINE VOCABULARY [1725] 

Miraculous Draught) suggests parallelism to Mk i. i6 "passing (Mt. 
iv. 8 walking) by the sea" (in the Call of Peter), or to Jn xxi. 4 "he 
stood iecTTr)) on (ety) the beach" (in the Repentance of Peter and the 
Miraculous Draught). On Lk. xxiv. 36, "stood in the midst" (Jarq ev 
fieaco) see 1793 — 7. 

[1725 c] " Stand steadfastly," aradr/vai, is applied to Jesus in Mt. xxvii. 
II, Lk. xviii. 40, and is prob. not adequately rendered by R.V. "stood," 
which suits the form used by Mk x. 49, Mt. xx. 32 aras. Lk. uses a-radeis 
because he means that Jesus " stood still," " refused to go on " in spite of 
His followers, who were rebuking the blind man because they did not 
want to have the procession interrupted. Mk xiii. 9 aradrjaeaBe does not 
mean "ye shall stand," but "ye shall stand {]qy. i. 18) as ''pillars^ before 
kings for my sake," i.e. stand as steadfast witnesses for me (where Mt.- 
Lk., missing the meaning of this, have Mt. x. 18 dxOrja-eo-Bc, Lk. xxi. 12 
aTrayofievovs). In the LXX, o-raOrjvai, when not meaning "weighed," 
regularly means " established," or is, at all events, distinct from " stood," 
£.£-. Ex. xl. 17, Numb. ix. 15 (R.V.) "reared up," Deut. xix. 15 (A), 
2 K. xiii. 6, Eccles. ii. 9, Dan. vii. 4, 5, i Mac. xiv. 29. In Judg. xx. 2, 
eardBrjcrav (A ea-rr]) is prob. intended to represent the Heb. exactly, " pre- 
sented themselves," "took their stand" (Gesen. 426). 

[1725 d] IraOrivcu, in N.T. generally, must be distinguished from o-Tijvai. 
On Col. iv. 12 tva a-TaBfjre, Lightf. says "standfast" — not as R.V. "stand" — 
" doubtless the correct reading rather than or^re; comp. Mt. ii. 9, xxvii. 1 1, 
where also the rec. txt substitutes the weaker word." Hence we should 

render Mt. ii. 9 ^^ stood sti7/," and Lk. xxi. 36 "that ye may be able to 

stand fast'" (where D alters (TTadfjvai to o-rrjareo-de). In Lk. xviii. 11 — 13, 
a contrast is intended between the Pharisee " standing erect {o-raBeis) " and 
the Publican "standing (ea-Tms) afar off." Lk. xxiv. 17 is one of the very 
few passages correctly rendered by R.V. " t/iey stood sti/t." 

[1725 e] " Stand as a steadfast witness " is a meaning of a-TaBrjvat that 
naturally follows from the above-mentioned Hebrew notion of a prophet 
as (Jer. i. 18) "an iron pi/tar" — the word "pillar" meaning "that which 
stands" — standing to testify for Jehovah : and such a meaning would be 
favoured by the saying of Deuteronomy xix. 15 "in the mouth of three 
witnesses shall every word de made to stand" LXX o-rrjo-erai, but A 
oTadrjaerai, and alluded to in the latter form in Mt. xviii. 16. Hence, 
something more than the mere attitude of " standing " is implied in the 
precept (Acts v. 20) " Stand and (a-TaBevTes) speak in the temple to the 
people," where the angel means " stand fast as wittiesses for the Lord," 
and this is the meaning of araBeis applied to Peter and Paul in Acts ii. 14, 
xvii. 22, xxvii. 21. This, too, is probably the meaning in the tradition 
peculiar to Matthew (xxvii. 11) "Now Jesus stood [erect], or stood [as 
a witness for God], before the Governor." 

[1725/] Jn has (besides the above-mentioned (1725 a) i. 26 crrriKei) 

229 



[1725] SYNOPTIC DEVIATIONS 

vii. 37 "Jesus stood (iarrrjKfi) and cried saying, If any man thirst, let 
him come unto me," xx. 14 ''[Mary Magdalene] beholdeth Jesus standing 
(kfiTtiiTa)^^ XX. 19 "Jesus came and stood in the midst {eoTr] ds to ixiaov)^ 
rep. in xx. 26, and xxi. 4 " Jesus stood on {tcrrr) els) the shore." On the 
last three instances, see 1796. 

[1725^] It is a commonplace with Philo that (i. 94) "None but the 
true God standeth {ecnStTa),^^ and he speaks of (i. 93) "the standing, whole- 
some, and right Logos." Comp. i. 269, 276, 425, 586, 591, 687, 688. 
" That which is phenomenal," he says (i. 383) " does not sta7id.'" Simon 
Magus is said to have claimed to be the Standing One (Clem. Alex. 456). 
Origen (Huet ii. 128 — 9) connects the "standing (o-rT^Ket)" in Jn i. 26 with 
the "standing (larTrjKei)" in vii. 37, and speaks of the Father as pre- 
eminently " standing " : " But there stands also His Logos ever ijt the act 
of saving {eo-rrjKe de kuI 6 Aoyos avrov del iv rcS (Toi^eiv) — whether He be 
flesh, or whether He be amidst of men, not apprehended, nay, not even 
seen {kuv yiv-qrai arap^ kqv fxecros fj avOpoanoav ov KaraXan^avofxevos aXX' 

ouSe ^XeTTOfxevos) — but He stands also teaching, inviting all to drink " 

(and then he quotes Jn vii. 37 " If any man thirst..."). No doubt Origen 
also has in view (as regards " stood and cried " and the invitation to 
" drink") Prov. viii. 2 — 3 "Wisdom standeth (ea-TrjKe)... She crieth aloud," 
and Prov. ix. 5 "Eat ye of my bread and drink of the wine that I have 
mingled." Probably John had the same passage in view. 

[1725/^] The phrases ^^ saw... Jesus standiftg" and " I dehold... the Son 
of man standing" (like that connected with Mary Magdalene "she beheld 
Jesus standing'^) 2ixe used of the Martyr Stephen in Acts vii. 55—6, with 
the addition, "at the right hand of God." Chrysostom (Cramer ad loc.) 
says, "Why, then, 'standing' and not 'seated'.? To shew the active help 
(dvTLXrjyjrLv) [extended] to (els) the Martyr. For also about the Father it 
is said, 'Arise, O God' (ai/aora, 6 Oeos), and again, 'Now will I arise 
(dvao-Trjo-ofiai), saith the Lord.'" But the word "Arise" thus quoted twice 
from the Psalms is quite different as to its Hebrew meaning from the 
word €(TTr]Ka, used of (Gen. xviii. 2) the three angels ^''standing" before 
Abraham, and of God (Ps. Ixxxii. i) ''^standing in the congregation of the 
gods," and of Wisdom (Prov. viii. 2) ^^ standing in the midst of the ways" 
and "crying aloud." The latter means "stand as a pillar," "stand fast," 
"stand as a watchman or sentinel." The explanation given by Basilius 
(Cramer ad loc.) is more like that of Philo and Origen, and more con- 
sonant with the LXX use of eo-rtjKa or eo-rrjv : " I think the standing and 
fixedness (tt}v fiev a-rda-iv k. t. Kadidpvonv) suggests the compactness of 
nature and its universal stability {t6 Trdyiov r^s (f>vcr€(os k. travTrj orao-i/ioi/ 
viro(f)aiv€iv).'^ The Revelation (iii. 20) represents Jesus as saying, " Behold, 
I stand at the door and knock." Perhaps John wished to describe Him, 
after the Resurrection, as thus "standing," and Mary Magdalene as the 
first to respond to the call. 

230 



1 



FROM JOHANNINE VOCABULARY [1726] 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


[1726] Stone (vb.)i 


\iddCa> 


o 


o 





4 


"Stoop and look in "^ 


' TrapaKVTTTO) 


o 


o 


[I] 


2 


Sychar^ 


2vxdp 


o 


o 





I 


Synagogue, put out 












of* 


aTTOcrvvdycoyos 


o 


o 





3 


Take, seize, catch^ 


TTta^ft) 


o 


o 





8 




' fiapTvpem 


o 


I 


I 


33 


Testify, testimony. 


papTvpia 


3 


o 


I 


14 


witness^ 


fiaprvptov 


3 


3 


3 







fxdprvs 


I 


2 


2 





That, or because 












(2174 foil.) 


OTl 


C. lOO 


c. 140 


c. 180 


c. 270 



1 [1726«] "Stone" (vb.). Always applied to an attempt to "stone" Jesus, 
Jn X. 31 — 3, xi. 8 (comp. viii. 59 "they therefore took up stones to cast at 
him"). Ai^a^Q) is also in [Jn viii. 5]. Ai^o/SoXeco occurs Mk (o), Mt. (2), 
Lk. (I), Jn (o). 

2 [1726^] "Stoop and look in" (so R.V. in Gospels, but?). In Jn, 
only in xx. 5, 1 1, of the beloved disciple and Mary looking into the sepul- 
chre ; perh. also in [[Lk. xxiv. 12]]. In N.T. elsewhere, only in Jas i. 25, 
I Pet. i. 12, of a metaphorical looking into the Law of Liberty or the 
mysteries of Redemption. See 1798—1804. 

3 "Sychar," Jn iv. 5, SS " Shechem," see Ejtc. " Sychar." 

* "Synagogue, put out of,'^ Jn ix. 22, xii. 42, xvi. 2. Not elsewhere in 
N.T. 

5 "Take." See notes on "seize" (1723^—^), and on "receive" (1721/—^). 

6 [1726 c] " Testify," " testimony" etc. The word fiaprvpia is very rare 
in canon. LXX. It nowhere represents a Heb. word, exc. in the 
phrase Ex. xx. 16, Deut. v. 20, Prov. xxv. 18 p.. "^(vdrj, in i S. ix. 24 
(A) €ls papTvplav (B -ov), and in Ps. xix. 7 "The testimony of the Lord is 
sure, making wise the simple." 

[1726 d^ Epictetus, toward the end of the first century, had probably 
made pxiprvpia (to denote the " testimony " that every good man is bound 
to give to God) a household word among many serious Greeks (i. 29. 48) 
" What testimony dost thou give to God ? " (iv. 8. 32) " He testifieth a 
testimony to virtue." (Comp. i. 29. 49, iii. 22. 86.) The same writer 
introduces God as saying to man (i. 29. 47) " Testify unto me," describes 
(i. 29. 49) what man is to '•^ testify ^^ and inculcates (i. 29. 56) ^Uestifyi^ig 
by action to one's words." He also freq. uses p^dprvs in this sense 
(iii. 26. 28) " God doth not cease to care for His ministers and witnesses." 
Reasons have been given above (1696^) for Jn's avoidance of the term 
pdpTvs, as being, in some Christian circles, used in the technical sense of 
" martyr." On the Synoptic phrase els paprvpiov, see 1695 d. 

231 



[1727] 



SYNOPTIC DEVIATIONS 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


That, i.e. in order 












that (1695 c) 


Lva 


C.65 


c. 40 


c. 50 


c. 150 


Thomas 1 


Qconas 


I 


I 


I 


7 


Thou (nom.) (2402) 


(TV 


lO 


18 


C.26 


c. 60 


Tiberias 2 


Ti^epids 


o 








3 


[1727] Together^ 


OflOV 


o 








3 


Trouble* 


rapdao-co 


I 


2 


2 


6 



1 "Thomas." Mk iii. 18, Lk. vi. 15 MadBaiov k. Oafidv, Mt. iii. 3 
Ooifms K. Ma66aios 6 reXavrjs. 

2 [1726 d] " Tiberias," in N.T. only in Jn vi. i " the sea of Galilee 
which is [the sea] of Tibet'ias^^ vi. 23 "There came boats from Tiberias^'' 
xxi. I "Jesus manifested himself again to the disciples at the sea of 
Tiberias:' Mk-Mt. use "sea of Galilee" or "sea," Lk. "lake" or "lake 
of Gennesaret." 

3 [1727 a\ " Together," Jn iv. 36, xx. 4, xxi. 2. In N.T., the only other 
instance is Acts ii. i " They were all together in the same place," where it 
appears not to be superfluous but to imply unity of purpose. This is also 
implied in Jn iv. 36 "that he that soweth may rejoice together and he that 
reapeth," where instead of oixov koI we should have expected ofioims kuL 
Probably it is also implied in the account of the two disciples " running 
together" to the sepulchre, Jn xx. 4 erpexov de ol 8vo o/xov (comp. the 
Targ. on Gen. xxii. 8 eiropevBrjaav dfx(f)6T€poi (xxii. 6 ol 8vo) ap,a, Onk. " as 
one,'' Jer. I "m heart entirely as one"). The last instance in Jn denotes 
the unity of the Seven shortly before the Feast on the One Bread, where 
the first places in the list are given to Peter the Denier and Thomas the 
Unbeliever (Jn xxi. 2) "There were together Simon Peter and Thomas...." 
In the canon. LXX, o\i.ov occurs nowhere except Ezr. ii. 64 AR bp.ov 
(B om.), Job xxxiv. 29 op,ov (n o\x.olov). It is 13 times in Wisd. and Mace. 

* [1727 <^] "Trouble," rapacro-o), in the Synoptists, means (pass.) 
"alarmed," Mk vi. 50 (parall. Mt. xiv. 26), Mt. ii. 3, Lk. i. 12, xxiv. 38. 
In Jn, it occurs (Chri.) in xii. 27 "Now is my soul troubled" and xiv. i, 
27 "Let not your heart be troubled" On its threefold application to 
Christ as "troubling himself," "troubled in soul," and "troubled in 
spirit" (xi. 2,2)^ xii. 27, xiii. 21) see 920. 

[1727 c\ " Freedom from trouble," drapa^ia, is, according to Epictetus, 
the gift of God to man, and no one has a right to be '■''troubled," {Ench. § 5) 
"Men are troubled {rapdo-creL) not by facts but by their notions about facts. 
For example, death is not terrible — since else it would have appeared 
[so] to Socrates — but the notion about death, the notion that it is terrible 
— this it is that is the terror. When therefore we feel pestered (e/irro- 
diCo>p.e6a), or troubled, or grieved (XvTrw/xe^a), let us never blame others, 
but only ourselves, that is to say, our own notions." No group of words 

232 



FROM JOHANNINE VOCABULARY [1727] 

Mk 



English 


Greek 


True (i)i 


aXr)6r)S 


True (2)2 


aXr]6iv6s 



Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


I 


o 


14 


o 


I 


9 



is perhaps more frequent in Epictetus than those bearing on '^troud/e" 
and "freedom from trouble'''' ; and it is almost certain that Jn, in describing 
Christ as thrice " troubled," and as on one occasion " troubling himself," 
is writing with allusion to this Stoic doctrine which must have been 
familiar to all educated Greeks at the beginning of the second century, 

1 [1727^] "True" (i), aXT/^j^y, in Synoptists, only in Mk xii. 14, 
Mt. xxii. 16 "We know that thou art true" parall. Lk. xx. 21, "We know 
that thou sayest and teachest rightly." It is not surprising that Lk. 
deviates : for " true " is perh. only once applied to persons in canon. 
LXX (Nehem. vii. 2 " a faithful man," avrjp a.) : and Steph. gives very few 
instances, except where the poets speak of a '■'• t7'uthful accuser," a 
^'' truthfulix'iQVid,^^ ox {Iliad xii. 433) "an honest sempstress" (lit. truthful 
in weighing out her work). Jn thrice applies it to persons, once, generally, 
vii. 18 "he that seeketh the glory of him that sent him is true^^ \.q. not 
tempted to falsehood by self-interest, or affectation, and twice of God, 
iii. 33 "God is true,^^ viii. 26 "He that sent me is true.''^ 

[1727^] In Jn vi. 55 "my flesh is true food and my blood is true 
drink," Origen (once) and other authorities have "truly," and Chrys., 
while reading " true," appears to give " truly " as one of two interpretations. 
But it may be used in the sense in which Socrates maintained (Plato 36 — 
40) in the Philebus, that some pleasures are "true {dXrjBels)" others 
"false." So in the Phcedo^ Socrates speaks of (Plato 69 b) '■'•true virtue." 

2 [1727/] " True " (2), oXtjOlvos, in classical Greek, means " genuine," 
and could not mean "truthful" except in special contexts as when one 
speaks of a "genuine prophet, judge etc." In this sense it occurs in 
Lk. xvi. II "If ye have not been faithful in the unrighteous mammon, 
who will entrust to you the genuine [riches].''" But in LXX it is applied 
to God, as in Exodus (xxxiv. 6) ^''abounding in truth," aXrjdivos ; and where 
Ezr. ix. 15 has "O Lord,... thou 2iX\. righteous {dUaios)" the parall. i Esdr. 
viii. 89 has aXr]6iv6s. Philo ii. 599 contrasting "the genuine God" with 
"the falsely so-called god," and St Paul (i Thess. i. 9 "Ye turned.... from 
idols to serve a living and genuiiie God "), use the word in its classical 
sense: but in Rev. iii. 7 — 14, vi. 10, where "true," aXT/^trds-, is combined 
with " holy " and " faithful," the meaning seems to be " truthful." 

[1727^] In Jn, an attempt is made to combine the Greek meaning 
of '•'"genuine" with the Hebraic meaning of ^^true" (i.e. "faithful to one's 
word," " keeping one's promise "). A false god, or a false prophet, might 
speak ^'' truth" — and deceive, "keeping the word of promise to the 
ear" — as wizards and witches do in Shakespeare. Isaiah says bitterly to 
Israel, trusting in false lights (1. 11) "Walk ye in the light of your fire.'* 

233 



[1727] SYNOPTIC DEVIATIONS 

English Greek Mk Mt. Lk. Jn 

Truly 1 (s. 1696 rt) dkrjdw 2337 

Jn's Prologue calls the Logos (i, 9) "the light, t/ie genuine \light\J^ and 
the Epistle says (i Jn ii. 8) "A new commandment I write unto you, 
which thing is true {oKrjOes) in him and in you, because the darkness is 
passing away and the h'gAt, the genuine \light'\ {to (pas to a\T]0iv6v), now 
shineth." This means that the new light is not only "true" but "the 
only genuine light," the source of all light from the beginning of the world, 
now at last to be revealed not in twilight but in daylight. 

[1727^] In Jn, akrjOivos is never confused with dXr)6r)s. It never 
means merely "true" in the sense of veracious. As in Hebrews (viii. 2) 
"the /r«^ tabernacle " is the one that "the Lord pitched and not man," 
and the earthly sanctuary is regarded not as being the *' true one " but 
only (Heb. ix. 24) "typical of the true \one\^^ so in Jn, (vi. 32) " the true 
bread" and (xv. i) "the true vine" mean that the ideal is now at last 
revealed. It has been stated above that '"'' genuine^'' when applied to a 
"prophet" or a "judge," necessarily includes the additional meaning of 
*''' truthful^'' and so it does in Jn viii. 16 "My judgment is genuine 
[judgment]" i.e. not biassed, xix. 35 "His testimony is ge7iuine [testi- 
monj/]" i.e. the testimony of an eye-witness, one that has enjoyed the 
sight, or vision, of that to which he testifies. In vii. 28 " I have not 
come of myself, dut he that sent me is — ," the antithesis requires that the 
italicised clause should mean " but I have a real mission " as opposed to 
a false prophet, who has no '"'■reaP mission. Hence what has to be sup- 
plied is "<2 real and true Sender.^'' The " reality " (no doubt) here includes 
not only ^''really'''' sending but also sending with a "r^^/" message., i.e. a 
true message. Hence akriQivo^ may here be described as including — but 
not as meaning — " true." 

[1727 z] Jn iv. y] (R.V.) " Herein is the saying true., One soweth, and 
another reapeth (eV yap Tovrcd 6 \6yos ccttIv oXtjOlvos on, ^AXXo?...)" is not 
a correct rendering. The meaning is — as Cyril, in effect, says about the 
context (Cramer ad loc.) and as Origen's comment suggests {ad loc. Huet 
ii. 233 — 4, 241 — 2) — "The cynical worldly saying about 'one sowing and 
another reaping' ^nds its ideal and true expression in the world of the 
spiritual harvest to which I have bidden you ' lift up your eyes,' in which 
the sower and the reaper rejoice together." This, says Cyril, "does not 
happen in the material world but // does in the spirituaV ^AXrjdiuos, then, 
(as in Hebrews) means here "really, ideally, or spiritually existent." 
Chrysostom, although misled by reading 6 dXrjdrjs, is not much misled as 
to the sense : " This saying was in use among the common folk {ol 
7roXXot)...and He means that this spying j^nds its truth more especially 
herein {evTavda naXio-Ta ttjv aXrjdeiav e;^ei)," and he explains " herein " as 
referring to the spiritual sowing of the prophets. 

1 [1727y] "Truly," in Lk., only in (Chri.) " I say unto you 0/ a truth 

234 



FROM JOHANNINE VOCABULARY [1727] 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Truth 1 


aXrjOeia 


3 


I 


3 


25 



(a.)" Lk. ix. 27, xii. 44 (D dfiriv), xxi. 3 : never (Chri.) in Mk-Mt. but used 
in assertions that Peter is " truly " one of Christ's disciples or that Christ 
is the Son of God (Mk xiv. 70, Mt. xxvi. 73, Mk xv. 39, Mt. xiv. ^^y 
xxvii. 54). 

[1727 >^] In Jn it is applied to assertions of believers about Christ in 
iv. 42 ^'- truly the Saviour of the world," vi. 14, vii. 40 ^^ truly the 
prophet." In vii. 26, " Can it be that the rulers truly recognised (oXtjOcos 
eyvooa-av) that this is the Christ ?" the meaning may be "that they really 
recognised [I.e. knew m their hearts though they would not own it] " or 
" can it be really true that they recognised." 

[1727/] In Jn, it occurs in Christ's words as follows, i. 47 " See, [here 
is one that is] truly an Israelite," viii. 31 "[then] are ye truly my 
disciples," xvii. 8 " and they recogftised truly {eyvoaa-av dXrjdws) that I came 
forth from thee." In these three cases the meaning is probably " in fact 
[and not merely in name\^' or " in heart [and not merely in word]" and 
perh. in i. 47 there is some play on the word " Israel," the root of which, 
though distinct from Yashar^ " upright," " straightforward," is identical 
with the latter without vowel points. [ Yashar =Trom.m. once dXrjdeia, five 
times d\r]dLv6s.] This is more likely than that Jn (like Lk.) should repre- 
sent Jesus as using "truly" in the sense "I speak the truth." 

1 [1727 m] " Truth," in the Synoptists, occurs only in the phrase " in 
truth" (Mk xii. 14, 32, Mt. xxii. 16, Lk. iv. 25, xx. 21, xxii. 59 eV dXrjdetas, 
exc. in Mt. xxii. 16 iv a.), and in Mk v. 33 "told him all the truth." As 
an attribute of God, or a subject of Christ's teaching, it is non-existent in 
the Three Gospels. 

[1727 n] "Truth," with "grace" in Jn, occurs twice where the 
Prologue (i, 14 — 17) describes the incarnate Logos as "full of grace and 
truth" and "the Law" {i.e. the Law mentioned in O.T.) as "given through 
Moses" but "the grace and the truth^'' (i.e. perh. the grace and the truth 
mentioned in O.T.) as "brought into being through Jesus Christ." The 
O.T. constantly couples " mercy " and " truth " where we should rather 
speak of "kindness and truth." Jn, systematically avoiding the Greek 
word "mercy (eXeos)" (Heb. "kindness (or, mercy)") probably represents 
it here by "grace" i.e. "graciousness." We might expect that the Fourth 
Gospel would proceed to develop this twofold revelation of (i) '■'■ grace" 
(2) ^^ truth." But the Pauline Epistles had sufficiently developed the 
doctrine of ^'- grace." The Fourth Evangelist says that we have received 
from the fulness of the Logos (i. 16) "grace for grace," but after this 
passage he never mentions " grace " again in the Gospel or First Epistle. 
He concentrates himself on the doctrine of "truth." 

[1727^] "The truth," in Jn, cannot be discussed apart from "the 

235 



[1727] SYNOPTIC DEVIATIONS 

Spirit." For John regards it primarily as a correspondence between God 
and the Word, or the Father and the Son, in "the Spirit." This 
harmonizes with the philosophy of Epictetus about "the spirit" of man 
and its mission. Explaining how the images of things we see are 
conveyed through the eyes, Epictetus says (ii. 23. 3) " Did God give you 
eyes for nothing.? Did He for nothing infuse in them a spirit so strong 
and of such a graphic power that it darts out far away and takes the 
impressions of the things seen ? What messenger could be so quick and 
careful?" So St Paul asks (i Cor. ii. 11) "What man knoweth the things 
of the man, save only the spirit of the maji ? " i.e. the " Spirit " that is 
" infused " in his senses ; and he says that, similarly, the things of God are 
searched by " the Spirit of God^ 

[1727/] The Johannine phrases of connexion between " the truth " 
and " the Spirit " are largely explained by the facts of the last paragraph. 
Sometimes they are both regarded as spheres, sometimes " the Spirit " is 
a witness to, or a guide to, the sphere of spiritual " truth." The "genuine 
{akr}Bt,v6s)" worshipper is to worship (iv. 23 — 4) {bis) '^ in spirit and 
truth" Satan (viii. 44) "did not stand fast in the truth" and "there is 
no truth in him" The Last Discourse thrice mentions (xiv. 17, xv. 26, 
xvi. 13) ^'' the Spirit of the truth" and says that it will guide the disciples 
(xvi. 13) '"''into all the truths The Epistle not only repeats (i Jn iv. 6) 
''Uhe Spirit of the truth" but adds (v. 6) "the Spirit it is that testifieth, 
because the Spirit is the truth" — that is to say, the Spirit, like the 
"swift messenger" described by Epictetus, cannot help "testifying" 
because its very being is that kind of eternal coming and going in the 
correspondence or harmony between God and His children by which man 
is enabled to " search the deep things of God." 

[1727 q\ " The truth," or " the Spirit of truth," being identified with 
the "correspondence" between the Father and the Son, might be called 
the Spirit of sonship, or the Spirit of Freedom as opposed to that of 
Slavery. Hence our Lord says (viii. 32) "The truth shall make you free" 
(as St Paul says, 2 Cor. iii. 17 "where the Spirit of the Lord is, [there] 
freedom is "). And since many religions move the mind mainly through 
fear, and their priests and prophets and "holy men" make gain out 
of false fears, stress is laid by John upon the connexion between 
"holiness" and truth (xvii. 17) "Make them holy in thy truth" The 
Logos also says to God the Father (xvii. 17) "Thy Logos is truth" : and 
since, through this Logos or Truth, one passes to Hfe in the Father, Jesus 
is represented as saying (xiv. 6) " I am the way, the truth, and the 
life." 

[1727 r] This doctrine of " truth " the Evangelist describes as being 
put before both the Jewish and the Gentile world in vain. The Jews, 
when they hear Christ saying (viii. 32) " Ye shall know the truth and the 
truth shall make you free," put aside " the truth " and fasten on " free " 

236 



FROM JOHANNINE VOCABULARY 



[1728] 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


£1728] Up, s. Above 


ai/o) 


o 


o 


o 


3 


Washi 


VITTTQ) 


I 


2 


o 


13 


Washi, i.e. bathe 


\ov(3i 


o 


O 


o 


I 


Water (Chri.)^ 


v8(op 


2 


O 


3 


7 


Whence ?3 


iroOev 


3 


5 


4 


13 


Where ?* 


TTOV 


3 


4 


7 


i8 


Whole, healthy 5 


vyiTjS 


I 


I 


o 


6 



as an insult : " We are Abraham's seed and have never been in bondage 
to any man " — the fact being that they had no right conception of " free- 
dom" and hence no right conception of " truth." Again, when Jesus says 
to Pilate (xviii. ;^y) "Everyone that is of tke truth hearkeneth to my 
voice," the Roman Governor, who has some smattering of Greek 
philosophy, taking the view attacked by Epictetus, replies, not asking 
what '•''the truth" may be, but questioning whether there is any such 
thing, " What is truth ? " This is the last mention of the word in the 
fourth Gospel. 

1 [1728 a] "Wash," j/iTrro), in Jn, refers, 5 times, to the washing of the 
blind man in the pool of Siloam, and 8 times to the Saviour washing the 
feet of the disciples. Mk vii. 3, Mt. xv. 2 refer to the Jewish washing of 
hands before meals. Mt. vi. 17 '■''wash thy face" is the only instance 
(Chri.) in the Synoptic Gospels. Jn xiii. 10 "he that is bathed (A.V. 
washed) " distinguishes the washing of the whole body from the washing 
of a part. 

2 [1728/^] "Water" (Chri.), in Mk ix. 41 "a cup of water^' is parall. 
to Mt. X. 42 "a cup of cold [water] (\|/-vxpo{}) " : Mk xiv. 13 (Lk. xxii. 10) 
"a man bearing a pitcher of water'''' is wholly omitted by Mt. : Lk. vii. 44 
*'thou gavest me no water for my feet" is peculiar to Lk., and so is 
Lk. xvi. 24 (parable) " that he may dip the tip of his finger in waterJ^ 
None of these passages are doctrinal. The Johannine instances — with 
the exception of ii. 7 — are all doctrinal (iii. 5) "born oi water and spirit," 
iv. 10 — 15 (the dialogue on the "living water"), vii. 38 "rivers of living 
water." 

3 [1728^] "Whence." lioOev freq. occurs in discourses as to the 
origin of the Spirit, the Messiah, and Jesus, among the Jews and in 
words of the Lord Jn iii. 8, vii. 27 {bis), 28, viii. 14 {bis) ix. 29, 30, also 
in Pilate's question (xix. 9) " Whence art thou .? " (2403). 

4 [1728^] "Where." Hov, in Jn, occurs first in i. 38 "Rabbi, where 
abidest thou ? " and then freq. of the goal or abiding-place of the Lord, or 
of the Spirit, Jn iii. 8, vii. 35, viii. 14 {bis\ xiii. 36, xiv. 5, xvi. 5 ; also in 
Mary Magdalene's doubt (xx. 2, 13, 15) ^^ where they have laid him." 

5 [1728 e'\ " Whole," " healthy." Jn's instances of vyir^s all refer to the 
man healed on the Sabbath, v. 6—15, vii. 23. In Jn v. 4, it is part of an 

237 



[1728] SYNOPTIC DEVIATIONS 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Wilderness (of 

Arabia)! 
Will2 


eprjfios 


O 

I 


o 
6 


o 

4 


3 

II 


Witness, s. testify, 
testimony 


p,apTvp€a> 
p-apTvpia 
paprvpiov 


o 
3 
3 


I 
o 
3 


I 
I 
3 


33 
14 
o 


Work (n.)3 


paprvs 
epyov 


I 

2 


2 

6 


2 
2 


o 

27 



interpolation. In Mk v. 34, laBi vyir)s diro rrjs pdamyos <rov — where it is 
one of three Mk-clauses, of which Lk. has one, and Mt. two — it seems to 
be a conflation. In Mt. xii. 13, "it was restored whole^ as the other^" 
Mk Lk. omit ^^ whole as the other J^ Lk. has the vb vyiaivo) (3), not in Mk, 
Mt, or Jn. 

1 [1728/] "Wilderness" (of Arabia), in Jn iii. 14, vi. 31, 49 referring 
to the brazen serpent, or the manna, "in the wilderness." [In xi. 54 Jn 
appears to mean "the wilderness of Judaea," and in i. 23 Jn (like the 
Synoptists) quotes Is. xl. 3.] On eprjpos (adj.) see 1679. 

2 [1728^] " Will," in Mk, occurs only in Mk iii. 35 " Whosoever shall 
do the will of God^'' where parall. Mt. xii. 50 has "the will of 7ny Father'''^ 
and Lk. viii. 21 "the word of God." The contrast in Lk. xxii. 42 "Not 
my will but thine " (expressed by the vb. BiXu) in the parall. Mk xiv. 36, 
Mt. xxvi. 39) occurs in Jn v. 30 " I seek not mine own will but the will 
of him that sent me," and vi. 38 " not that I may do mine own will but 
the will of him that sent me." The children of God are said to be 
begotten (Jn i. 13) "not from the will of the flesh nor from the will oi 
man (? dvhpo^) but from God." 

3 [1728 >^] "Work" (n.). The only Synoptic precept about works of 
righteousness is in Mt. v. 16 "that they may see your good works" unless 
one can be said to be implied in the parable in Mk xiii. 34 " having given 
...to each his work." Jn mentions "works" in two ways, ist as good or 
bad, in men, who accordingly come to the light or flee from it (Jn iii. 19, 
20, 21, vii. 7, viii. 39) and comp. viii. 41 "ye do the works of your father," 
the " father " being afterwards called " the devil " : 2nd, as the " works " 
appointed for the Son by the Father. Evil " works " are recognised in 
two of the three instances of the word in the Epistle (i Jn iii. 8) "that he 
may destroy the works of the devil," (iii. 12) "because his works were 
evil," (iii. 18) "let us not love in word... but in work and truth." 

[1728/] Epictetus says (i. 29. 56) "It is not maxims that are now 
wanting. The books are choke full of Stoic maxims. What then is 
wanting ? The man to use these maxims. The man to testify in action 
(ep-yo)) to his words (rots \c^oi^)P Pouring scorn on the philosopher that 
tests his progress by the amount of his reading, he bids him seek 

238 



FROM JOHANNINE VOCABULARY [1728] 



English 


Greek 


Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Work (vb.)i 


epya^ojuat 


I 


4 


I 


7 


World, age 2 


aicov 


2 


7 


5 


I 


World 


Koaixos 


2 


8 


3 


75 


Ye (nom.) (2399) 


vfiels 


lO 


31 


C. 20 


68 


Yet, not 3 


ovTroa 


5 


2 


I 


13 



progress in action (i. 4. 11). Jn agrees with him in the importance 
that he attaches to action, but differs from him in one very important 
point. In Epictetus, "action" consists (i. 4. 11, ii. 14. 7) in so regulating 
one's desires and impulses that one may be " in harmony with what goes 
on {tol^ yivo\iivois)l^ and that nothing may happen to us against our will. 
In Jn, "action" consists in such deeds as a father would do to children 
or a brother to brothers. 

J [1728y] "Work" (vb.) epyaCo^iai, occurs in Mk xiv. 6 (parall. 
Mt. xxvi. 10) "she /latk wrought (rjpydaaTo) a good work on me," where 
Lk. om., and Jn differs. Lk. has xiii. 14 "there are six days in which 
one must work." ^Epydrrjs, " labourer " or " doer," occurs Mk (o), Mt. (6), 
Lk. (4), Jn (o). 

2 [1728 k] " World," i.e. the creation of the world. Jn ix. 32 " From 
the \creatio7i of the\ world (ck tov aiavos) it was never heard...." The 
numbers above do not include the phrase els rbv al5>va (or els tovs al5>vas\ 
on which see " For ever " (1712 d). 

3 [1728/] "Not yet," in Lk., only in xxiii. 53 '' not yet laid." In 
Mk iv. 40, viii. 17, 21, Mt. xvi. 9 "Have ye not yet faith, understanding 
etc." In Mk xiii. 7, Mt. xxiv. 6 "But not yet \% the end." In Mk xi. 2 
" had not yet sat." In Jn, " not yet " occurs in connexion with " my hour, 
or season," ii. 4, vii. 6, and with "his hour" vii. 30, viii. 20. Comp. 
XX. 17 '''' Not yet\i.2i\& I ascended...." 



[1728 /g] 'Epixr}V€v(o, in N.T., is connected with Jn i. 42 Krjcfydsy ix. 7 
StXcoti/A, Heb. vii. 2 MeXxia-edeK. MeOepiirjvevo) is in Mk v. 41, xv. 22, 34, 
Mt. i. 23, Jn i. 38, 41. The Synoptists always translate the Aramaic 
" Cephas " and " Messias " into Gk. ; Jn transliterates the Aramaic and 
adds the Gk. interpretation. 



A. V. 239 17 



[1728] SYNOPTIC DEVIATIONS 



ADDITIONAL NOTE ON dyandv AND <f)t\elu 

[1728 m] The variations in the use of dyairdv and <^Lkelv 
may be illustrated by Xen. Mem. II. vii. 9, 12, where Socrates 
tells Aristarchus that, because he gives his fourteen dependent 
female relations nothing to do, he (at present) does not ''like 
(cjxXetv) " them nor they him ; but, if he will give them some 
occupation, then, says Socrates, " You will /ike {(jytkelv) them, 
seeing they are profitable to you, and they will /ove (dyaTrdv) 
you when they see that you take pleasure in them." The 
narrative goes on to say that Aristarchus took this advice, 
and " They began to like (<l>i,\€lv) him as their protector and 
he began to love (dyaTrdv) them as being profitable to him " — 
•a curious reversal of terms that may be explained as humorous 
•(if Aristarchus was a little too fond of money) but hardly as 
unintentional. L.S. (dyairdv) quotes this passage as shewing 
that dyaTrdv "strictly differs from (fiCkelv as implying regard 
or affection rather than passion " : but no passion is contem- 
plated here either in d. or in <^. Steph. {dyaTrdv) also quotes 
Dio 44, p. 1 75 J i^i^'TjO-CLTe avrov oo? Trarepa /cal r/yaTrijaare a)? 
€vepyeT7]v, "you were fond of him as a father and loved hivci as 
a benefactor." 

[1728 ft] The following passage from Plato's Lysis suggests 
that dyaTrdv sometimes implies "being drawn towards," and 
(fnXelv ''drawing towards oneself," (215 b) '"And he that needs 
(Beofievofi) nothing would consequently be drawn towards 
nothing (ovSe to dyaTrwr] dv) ? ' ' He would not' ' And that 
which he was not drawn towards, he consequently would not 
draw towards himself (o he fxr] dyaTTwi), ovB' dv </)fcXo?) ? ' " 
The element of choice (but sometimes also sexual love) in 
(ptXelv comes out also in passages where some man or woman 
is said to be loved or favoured above another (Steph. Iliad 
vii. 204, ix. 450 etc.). In Aelian Var. Hist. ix. i Trdvv o-(f)6hpa 

240 



FROM JOHANNINE VOCABULARY [1728] 

dyairrjo-a^ avrov^ koX vir avrcov (ptXrjOeU iv to5 fiepei,, the 
phrase iv rcS fjuepec, " for their part," is probably to be explained 
as Xen. Anab. vii. 6. 36 eV tw y^kpei Kal irapa to /juepo^, "in the 
discharge of duty and beyond duty." Hence the meaning 
probably is "being loved by them in their turn!' almost 
equivalent to "as in duty bound'' ; and it perhaps implies a 
slight contrast to the "exceeding affection {cn^o'^pa d'yairrjaa'^y' 
on the other side. 

[1728^] These facts are important as shewing that a 
distinction between d^airdv and (f>LXelv was recognised in 
Greek literature — as also the distinction in Latin between 
"amo" and "diligo" (Wetst. on Jn xi. 3) — from Plato down- 
wards. But John would also be influenced by the LXX, 
where <j>t\€lv more often (14) represents the Hebrew "kiss" 
than the Hebrew "like" or "be fond of" (10), and in the 
latter sense is applied to " liking " food or drink in Gen. xxvii. 
4, 9, 14, Prov. xxi. ly, Hos. iii. i. It also describes Jacob's 
favouring Joseph in Gen. xxxvii. 4, and is used of " lovers," in 
a bad sense, in Jer. xxii. 22, Lam. i. 2. The dislike of the 
LXX to apply this comparatively low-class word to the 
Wisdom of God comes out clearly in Prov. viii. 17 "I love 
(dyaTrdco) them that love {(j>L\ovvTa^) me," where the same 
Heb. verb that is rendered <J3iXelv when applied to men is 
rendered dyawdv when applied to the Wisdom of God — 
assuredly not for variety or euphony, but for seemliness 

[1728/] John, who says that God is dydirr), and that the 
fundamental command of Christ is dyairdv, could not but use 
dyairdv to signify the highest kind of love. The lower word, 
(f)L\elv^ John uses as follows, (i) Twice (xi. 3, 36) it is put 
into the mouths of the sisters of Lazarus and the Jews, as the 
word used by them about Christ's special love, where the 
Evangelist himself prefers to say (xi. 5) rjydiTa. (2) Once 
(xx. 2) it is used by the Evangelist to describe the beloved 
disciple himself when he had temporarily fallen into unbelief 
and was for the moment not worthy of the higher love. 

241 17—2 



[1728] SYNOPTIC DEVIATIONS 

(3) In our Lord's lips it is used thrice, in special contexts 
(v. 20, xvi. 27 bis) metaphorically about "taking into the 
circle of one's friends and households" (4) Twice (xii. 25, 
XV. 19) the Lord uses it to describe the sensual and selfish love 
of one's life or the love of the world for its favourites: (5) He 
also uses it once, and for the last time (xxi. 17) concerning 
the lower love, to cause the repentant Peter to be {ib.) 
" grieved," that he may rise from the lower love to the higher. 
(6) In the context, it is used four times (xxi. 15, 16, 17 bis) in 
the same sense by Peter and the Evangelist. These are all 
the instances of the Johannine use of the word. 



1 [1728 ^] See 1784 — 92. Comp. Rev. iii. 19 "as many as I place among 
my friends {^CKm) I reprove and chasten." In Tit. iii. 15 ao-rraa-m r. 
(PiXovvTas rjfxas iv Tri'oTfi, the meaning is doubtful. Not much can be 
inferred from i Cor. xvi. 22 et ns ov ^Ckci t. Kvpiov, as ov (f)ika> is freq. in 
Gk. literature in a sense nearly equivalent to exdaipco. The fourth and 
last instance of 0. in N.T., outside the Gospels, is Rev. xxii. 15 nds (f)iX(ov 
K. TToicov yp-evdos. The rarity of (f). in the Epistles, and the fact that the 
Synoptists scarcely use it except of the "kissing" by Judas, make Jn's use 
of it all the more remarkable, and confirm the view that he has a purpose 
in employing the word and in distinguishing it from dyaTrav on which 
see 1744 (i)— (xi). 



242 



BOOK III 

JOHANNINE AND SYNOPTIC 
AGREEMENTS 



243 



CHAPTER I 

WORDS PECULIAR TO JOHN AND MARK 

§ I. Antecedent probability 

[1729] Mark is the most concrete of the Evangelists, John, 
the most abstract. Mark deals mostly with " mighty works," 
especially works of healing (and these, largely, of an exorcistic 
character) ; John describes only seven " signs," and no 
exorcisms. In Mark, Christ's sayings are brief, and the 
Evangelistic comments turn largely on local and contem- 
porary affairs (the death of John the Baptist, Herodias, 
Herodians, washings of the Pharisees, Corban, etc.) : John 
— whether in reporting Christ's words or in commenting on 
them — deals in discourses and long dialogues and cosmo- 
politan or celestial things. Hence we should not expect to 
find much affinity between the vocabulary of these twa 
Evangelists. 

[1730] There is another reason for supposing, ante- 
cedently, that John would have few or no words or phrases 
peculiar to himself and Mark. Mark (318), at all events in 
large part, contains traditions that have been borrowed by 
Matthew and Luke. If therefore John also borrowed from 
Mark, he might of necessity, in many cases, agree with 
Matthew and Luke where the three borrowed identically. 
And indeed we may well ask, Why should John ever borrow 

245 



[1731] WORDS PECULIAR 

from Mark anything that Matthew and Luke agreed in 
rejecting — whether as being erroneous, or obscure, or too 
detailed — unless, in each case, he had some special motive 
for so doing? 

§ 2. The fact 

[1731] The fact is, however, that John has several striking 
agreements with Mark alone, where Matthew and Luke 
abandon Mark (besides others with Mark and Matthew 
together where Luke alone abandons Mark). By way of 
explaining this antecedently improbable fact, some have 
suggested that these agreements — which, for brevity, we 
may call " John-Mark agreements " — are of late date, added 
to Mark after the publication of Matthew and Luke, and 
borrowed by John from a larger edition of Mark, which is 
the one we now use. But these John-Mark agreements do 
not bear the stamp of late addition. They do not remove 
difficulties, or soften abruptness. On the contrary, they often 
create abruptness or difficulty. Moreover Matthew, as well 
as John, sometimes follows Mark where Luke abandons 
Mark, as in the Walking on the Waters, and the Anointing 
of Christ by a woman ; and this is a serious blow to the 
hypothesis that all the agreements of John with Mark where 
Luke deviates from Mark are late additions. These facts 
tend to shew, not only that John borrowed from an early 
edition of Mark — or from early traditions contained in Mark 
— but that he also sometimes borrowed, perhaps by preference, 
such passages as might cause difficulty to an educated 
Evangelist like Luke. 

[1732] What John's special purpose may have been in 
borrowing these traditions from Mark — whether to clear up 
obscurity, or to substitute a spiritual for a materialistic 
interpretation, or to do both these things — cannot be fully 
discussed except as part of a detailed examination of the 
relation between the Fourth Gospel and the Three. For the 

246 



TO JOHN AND MARK [1733] 

present, we have to bear in mind, ist, that the John-Mark 
agreements in the following list are probably not late but 
early traditions, and 2nd, that previous investigations^ favour 
the view that they must be connected with Luke's deviations 
from Mark. There are not enough of them to make an 
alphabetical arrangement in English necessary, especially as 
some derive their interest not from their English meaning, but 
from their being unusual and perhaps low-class Greek ; — such 
as the word Kpd^arro^, for '^ bed" in the Lord's command 
" Take up thy bed and walk " ; the word '' pistic " which is 
given by R.V. margin (txt "spikenard") in the account of 
the Anointing of the Lord ; and a word meaning literally 
"blows with the palm of the hand," or "slappings," in the 
account of the Passion. 

§ 3. Parallels and Quasi-parallels 

[1733] Of the three words Kpdfiarro^, ttccttck')], and 
pdiritTfjua, the last two are marked f to denote that they 
are not only peculiar to Mark and John but also parallel ; 
that is to say, they are used in the description of the same 
detail of the same event. But the first, Kpd^aTTo<i, is marked .-^f 
to denote, by the query, that the contexts differ. In Mark, 
the command "take up thy bed" is uttered to a paralytic, in 
John, to an "impotent" man lying near a pool. The same 
query is applied to the word " beggar," Trpoaalrrjf;, and to 
" spit," TTTvco, to denote not parallelism, but quasi-parallelism, 
as is explained in the foot-notes. On the other hand no 
query is attached to " two hundred " or " three hundred " 
because the traditions about " buying bread for two hundred 
denarii" or "selling ointment for three hundred denarii" — 
although assigned by John to Philip and to Judas Iscariot 
severally, and not thus assigned by Mark nor stated by the 
latter in exact agreement with John — undeniably refer to the 

1 See 1282—8, 1309, 1311, 1344, 1373. 

247 



[1733] WORDS PECULIAR 

same detail in the same narrative. True parallelism also will 
be found in the references to the crown " of thorns " under the 
adjective (iKdvOivo^, and " embalming," ivTa(f>LaafJL6^, both of 
which however are, in effect, to be found in Matthew as well 
as in Mark. The description of Peter as "warming himself" 
at the fire in the High Priest's hall is, perhaps, the only other 
point of interesting agreement between the two Evangelists. 
As to the words not marked f, such as "thunder" ^povrr/, 
"porter" Ovpwpo^, "catch" (or "apprehend") KaraXafi^dvo) 
etc., they mostly occur in altogether different contexts and 
will be found of very little importance as bearing on the 
relation between the Fourth Gospel and the Three. 



248 



TO JOHN AND MARK [1734] 



JOHN-MARK AGREEMENTS! 



[1734] t uKavdivos^ 

^pOVTT) 



Ak 


Jn 




Mk 


Jn 


I 


I 


aTTOKOTTTG)^ 


2 


2 


I 
I 


I 
2 


t yivofiai (in con- 
nexion w. 

+ evTa<piaaiJL6s'^ 


I 
I 


I 
I 



1 [1734 a^] An asterisk attached to a word denotes that Mk and Jn use 
it in different senses : t denotes that the word not only has the same 
meaning in Mk and Jn but also occurs in parallel passages : ? t indicates 
quasi-parallelism, on which see 1733. Words not annotated occur in the 
same sense but in quite different contexts. 

2 [1734 a] 'AKavdivos, " of thorns," (Mt. xxvii. 29, Jn xix. 2 TrXe^avres 
(TT. i^ dicavdav) is in Mk XV. 17 nXe^avTes clkAvQivov (tt., Jn xix. 5 (fiopcov 
T. aKuvOivov (TT., concerning the "crown of thorns," all reference to which 
is omitted by Lk. This word, in effect, belongs to the list of words used 
by Mk Mt. and Jn in common (1805—6). 

3 [1734 (^] 'Attokotttco, "cut off," Mk ix. 43 (Mt. xviii. 8 e/cKOTrrco), ix. 45. 
Jn xviii. 10, 26 uses the word about Malchus, prob. with a double meaning, 
Malchus being taken as the representative of the High Priest. Comp. 
Deut. xxiii. i (2), Gal. v. 12, and (for the notion of retribution) Deut. xxv. 
12, 2 S. iv. 12 Aq., Judg. i. 6, 7. 

* [1734 c] Tivonai in connexion with 'Icodvrjs. 'EyeVero 'ladvrjs occurs in 

Mk i. 4, and in Jn i. 6 eyevero avdpcoTros ovofia avT(o 'icodvrjs. *Hi/, 

not eyevero, is the more usual word to introduce a new character in N.T. 
(Lk. ii. 25, 36, Jn iii. i, xi. i, 2). Lk. uses iyevero to introduce the father 
of John the Baptist (Lk. i. 6) " Zachariah." The first book of Samuel 
opens with the words " and there was a itian^^ and Job with " a man there 
wasP The LXX has i S. i. i tJv (A f'yerero), Job i. i ^v : add Judg. xiii. 
2 17J/ (A eyeVero), xvii. I iyeveTo (A eyev^di]), I S. ix. I LXX om. vb. but 
A ^v. Jn i. 6 contrasts iyevero, applied to "a man," with ^v, applied to 
"the Word" (1937). 

^ [1734 <^] AiaKoaioi, "two hundred." Mk vi. 37, Jn vi. 7 "bread for 
200 denarii " (1710 e, 1733). Comp. Jn xxi. 8 " about 200 cubits away." 

6 [1734^] 'EvTa(f)i.a(rfjL6s, "embalming," is in Mk xiv. 8 (Mt. xxvi. 12 
evTa<f)Ld(rai), Jn xii. 7. Practically this word belongs to the Mk-Mt.-Jn list. 
Jn xix. 40 evTa<pid^eiv refers to Nicodemus and Joseph. 



249 



[1735] WORDS PECULIAR 





Mk 


Jn 




Mk 


Jn 


[1735] €ws (w. indie, 
pres.)^ 
t depfiaivofiai^ 
'l€po<ro\vp,e7Tai 


I 
2 


3 
3 

I 


?t fjBeXov (without 
rel. or ol)^ 

6vp(0p OS 

KaraXa/x/Savo)^ 


2 

I 
I 


3 
3 

2 



1 [1735 a] €(os with indie, pres., " while," in Mk, only in Mk vi. 45 ecos- 
avTos dnoXvei, where parall. Mt. xiv. 22 ecos ov atroXva-r}. Jn ix. 4 etos 
(marg. o)s) rjpipa iarriv " while it is yet day," xxi. 22 (lit.) " If I desire 
him to remain while I am coining {e(x)s epxop^ai)," rep. in xxi. 23. Comp. 
I Tim. iv. 13 " While I ajn coining (ews epxopai) give heed to the reading." 
See 1638, also 2089, 2201. 

'■^ [1735 d] "uOeXov wijthout relative or ov. The importance of this 
agreement arises from the fact that Mark and John use the rare form 
rfBeXov in the Walking on the Waters, but in different contexts, the former 
" He desired to /fass by them," the latter " They desired, therefore, to receive 
him": — Mk vi. 48 rjdeXev TrapeXBelv avrovs, Jn vi. 21 rjdeXov ovv Xa^elv 
avTov. Negations and relative constructions (such as Mt. xxvii. 15, 
Jn vi. II, xxi. 18) being excluded, ^OeXov occurs elsewhere only in 
Mk vi. ig ^\ . .desired. . .a.r\d could not," and Jn vii. 44, xvi. 19 : also in Acts 
X. 10, xiv. 13, xix. 33 always about desire of which the fulfilment is pre- 
vented (in Jn xvi. 19 by fear). The ist pers. is so used in Gal. iv. 20 
(comp. Test. Abr. § 5 r]6iXa). In LXX, it occurs in Esth. i. 1 1 (A TjdeXrja-fv), 
Dan. vii. 19 ^BeXov e^aKpL^da-acrdai, Theod. e^rjTovv aKpi^cos, viii. 4 erroUi 
ti)s rjBeXe, Theod. enoiijaev Kara, ro dfX-qpa avTov, also I Macc. iv. 27 (v/ith 
oia), 2 Mace. iv. 16, xv. 38. 

[1735^] The difficulty of supposing that Jesus entertained an unful- 
filled desire might well cause corrections of the text in Mk vi. 48. D reads 
jjdeXrjaevj which — when compared with Deut. ii. 30 " Sihon desired not 
that we should go across through him (i.e. through his land)," ovk ijdeXrjo-e 
TrapeXdclv rjpds — suggests an interpretation, " Jesus willed that they should 
go across^^ or, (comp. Jn vi. 21) that they should be ^''immediately on the 
land to which they were going.''^ But others may have read ^BeXov napeX- 
Qciv avTov taking it to mean " they desired that he should come to [them]." 
John may have paraphrased this as " they desired to receive him." 

3 [1735^] eepp.aivop.ai, "warm oneself," Mk xiv. 54, 67, Jn xviii. 18, 25, 
always of Peter "warming himself," at the High Priest's fire. Jn xviii. 18 
also mentions the servants and officers "warming themselves." See 
" Fire of Coals " (1711/—//). 

^ [1735^] KaraXap^dva) means "catch," or " take " in Mk ix. 18 and in 
Jn xii. 35, " lest the darkness catch, surprise, or overtake you." In Jn i. 5, 
R.V. txt has " the light shineth in the darkness and the darkness appre- 
hended (KareXa^fv) it not," but the margin has "overcame." It never 
means " overcome " except so far as that may be implied in " catching," or 

250 



TO JOHN AND MARK [1736] 

Mk Jn Mk Jn 

[1736] ?t/cpa/3arroyl 5 4 fiia-Baros^ I 2 



" takingP It seems to mean " take " in the sense of " apprehend (mentally) " 
(compare our vernacular "Do you take me?") in Micah vi. 6 (LXX) ex- 
pressing " Whereby may I attain to^ or apprehend^ the Lord ? " This 
meaning of intellectual apprehension is very common in Greek philosophic 
writers and in Philo, e.g. (i. 579, ii. 654) " Real Being is not apprehended 
by any man," " One must needs begin by becoming a God before one can 
have strength to apprehend God." Simon Magus (Hippol. vi. 18) main- 
tained that the First Principle of things was an " inapprehensible silence." 

[1735/"] St Paul plays on KaraXa^^dvoi and Xan^dvco in a manner best 
expressed perhaps by "take," thus (Phil. iii. 12) "Not that I have 

already taken (eXa^ov) [the prize] but I press on, if perchance I might 

overtake (or, take as my prize., KaTokd^o)) that for which I have been take?t 
over (or, taken as his captive., KareXrjiJLCpdTjv) by Christ." Perhaps Jn 
wishes — by using a word habitually employed in two distinct meanings — 
to suggest that the mere intellectual apprehension of light would be 
distinct from moral " reception " ( Jn i. 1 1 Tvapaka^i^dva)) and would, if it 
were possible, result in an imprisonment, " taking captive," of the light. 
If so, we are not called on to decide whether he means (i) " did not take 
captive,^' or (2) " did not apprehend'''' ; for in that case he means both. 

[1735^] Origen says (Huet ii. 74 b) "/;? two ways {hix'^si) the darkness 
hath 'not apprehended' the Hght." But his interpretations are (i) the 
darkness \i3iS persecuted the light but not taken it captive., or suppressed '\t ; 
(2) the darkness, in following after the light and coming too close to it, 
has not overtaken it, but has fallen into the snare (so to speak) set for it 
by the light, and has perished by absorption in the light. Chrysostom 
takes much the same view, but adds that the hght "is unsubduable 
(aKara-yoji/tcrroi/), not being willing to dwell in the souls that do riot desire 
to be enlightened {ovk €ii<piKox(opovv rals firj (fiaTio-dijuai ^ovXofievais 
^vxals)'^ — which rather suggests intellectual "apprehending." 

[1735 h] In the interpolated Jn [viii. 3—4], KaTaXafx^dva (bis) means 
" catch." 

1 [1736 «] Kpd^aTTos, "pallet," a word condemned by Phrynichus, is 
repeatedly used in Mk ii. 4—12, Jn v. 8 — 11, about the healing 
of a man to whom Jesus says, "Arise, take up thy pallet." But in several 
important circumstances the narratives differ. The word is therefore 
marked ?t. Elsewhere in N.T. the word is used only in Mk vi. 55, Acts 
V. 15 and ix. 33 [of cures, in both cases in Acts, wrought by Peter]. 

2 [1736 b] MiadcoTos, in Mk i. 20 of Zebedee's " hired servants," Jn x. 
12, 13 "hireling," as opposed to the Good Shepherd. 

251 



[1737] WORDS PECULIAR 





Mk 


Jn 




Mk 


Jn 


t vdpbos^ 


I 


I 


* TTTjy^^ 


I 


3 


t TTICTTIKOS^ 


I 


I 


TrXoidpiov ^ 


I 


3 


[1737] ?f7rpo(TaiTr)s^ 


I 


I 


?l ITTVO)^ 


2 


I 



1 T>idp8osy "spikenard," Mk xiv. 3, Jn xii. 3, see below (1736 </). 
?tnappTi<r£a, Mk (i), Jn (9), see 1252—4, 1432—5, 1744 xi. a, 1917 (i) foil. 

2 [1736 c] UrjyT]. The asterisk denotes that the meanings are entirely 
different. Mk v. 29 uses Trrjyfj about "the woman with the issue." In Jn 
iv. 6 — 14 it is used of Jacob's well and once in metaphor. 

3 [1736^] TIio-TiKos, of doubtful meaning, occurs in Mk xiv. 3, Jn xii. 
3 '•^pistic nard." This adjective is nowhere else known to be applied to 
things, but it is applied to a "faithful" wife by Artemidorus (a.d. c. 150) 
ii. 32, TTLo-TiKf] Kol oiKovpoff, clsewherc ii. 66, iii. 54 irioTr] koL oUovpos. 
Wetstein (Mk xiv. 3) gives abundant instances of o-mKarov as the name of 
an ointment (from " spica "). Codex D om. the clause, but d has " pistici," 
J^ " piscicae," vulg. " spicati," a " optimi." Wetstein quotes passages indi- 
cating that this ointment {o-TriKdrov) was in use among women of luxury. 
Possibly an early Galilaean tradition, finding in the original some form of 
o-iriKdrov, played upon it by saying " not a-TTLKdrov but TriaTiKov." Jerome 
(Swete on Mk xiv. 3) played thus on the word, " ideo vos vocati estis 
'pistici,'...." There is no evidence to shew that it was a tradesmen's 
term meaning " genuine." 

4 [1736 e] UXoidpiov " little boat," and o>Tdptov (1738 l>) lit. " little ear," 
are two diminutives peculiar to Jn and Mk. Jn has also ovdptov "ass," 
o-^dptov " fish," and iraiMpiov " youth." Variations in the MSS., and Jn's 
apparent liking for diminutives, lessen the weight of any inference from 
his use of them in common with Mk [In Lk. v. 2, W.H. have txt TrXota, 
marg. TrXoidpta]. According to W.H., Jn gives the name (vi. 24) nXoidpia 
to vessels previously called (vi. 23) irXota. He seems to do this in 
xxi. 3 — 8, perhaps wishing to suggest in xxi. 8 that the boat, being small, 
was readily brought ashore (but? "in the little boat"). 

^ [1737 «] Upoo-aLTrjs "beggar," Mk x. 46 the blind Bartimaeus, Jn ix. 
8 a man born blind. Since the narratives are not parallel except in the 
coincidence of "blindness" the word is marked .'*t. It should be added 
that the parall. Lk. xviii. 35 has inaiTOiv. But the parall. Mt. xx. 30 
(which mentions two blind men) omits all mention of " begging." 

Upoa-aiTTjs is used by Lucian (iii. 264, Navig. 24) to mean " a common 
beggar," or " beggar of the lowest class," " The millionaires of the present 
day, in comparison with me, are [such as Homer's] Irus and \coin7nori\ 
beggars ("Ipoi koL Trpoo-aiVai)." Steph. quotes Plut. Helle7i. ProbL p. 294 A 
" taking rags and wallet and becoming a \co1n7noj1] beggar.^^ 

6 [1737 b'\ nrvQ), " spit," is marked .? \ (not .? t) to indicate that only one 
of the two instances in Mk is in a quasi-parallel with Jn. Mk vii. 33 

252 



TO JOHN AND MARK [1738] 





Mk 


Jn 




Mk 


Jn 


TTCOpOCO 1 


2 


I 


'Pa^/3ovi/ei2 


I 


I 


t pcnria-fxa^ 


I 


2 


O-TT^KO)* 


2 


2 


[1738] frpiaKoaioi^ 


I 


I 


(f)avep6(o^ 


I 


9 


(f)av€pa)S ^ 


I 


I 


xO^tapxos^ 


I 


I 


t (ordpiov^ 


I 


I 









refers to the healing of a man deaf and dumb, to which there is nothing 
even remotely similar in Jn. Mk viii. 23 refers to the healing of a blind 
man, and so does Jn ix. 6. The two passages, therefore, agree in 
describing Jesus as healing blindness by "spitting," but they differ in 
other respects. 

1 [1737 (t] nwpdo), "harden" is in Mk vi. 52 "But their heart was 
Aarde7ied," viii. 17 "Have ye your heart hardened}'''' of disciples"; Jn xii. 
40 only in a free quotation (Is. vi. 10) "He hardened their heart," of the 
Jews, eTTcbpcocrej/, on the meaning of which see 2449 a. 

2 [1737^] 'Pa^^ovvei, uttered by (Mk x. 51) Bartimaeus, (Jn xx. 16) 
Mary Magdalene. The former occurs in a prayer " that I may receive my 
sight," the latter in an exclamation after Mary's eyes have been opened to 
see the risen Saviour. 

2 [1737 e] 'Pd'Trio-p.a, lit. " slapping," in Mk xiv. 65, Jn xviii. 22, xix. 3, 
refers to blows given to Jesus, comp. Is. 1. 6 (LXX) els pairi(Tp.aTa. The 
parall. Mt. xxvi. 67 has the vb. panlCoa. The n. paTrio-fjia was condemned 
(492 — 3) by Phrynichus, and Lk. uses neither pdma-pa nor pairiCa : but 
the former might commend itself to Mk and Jn owing to its Messianic 
associations in Isaiah. The parall. Lk. xxii. 63 has depovres. 

* 2t^kco, " stand fast," Mk iii. 31, xi. 25, Jn i. 26, viii. 44. See 1725 «. 

^ TpiaKoo-ioi, "three hundred," Mk xiv. 5, Jn xii. 5, "sold for three 
hundred denarii (1710 e, 1733)." 

6 [1738 d\ ^avepooy, " manifest " (vb.), is in Mk iv. 22 along with eXOrj 
€ts (f)av€p6v : the parall. Mt. x. 26, and Lk. xii. 2, have d7ro<aXv(t)dr)(TeTaL 
along with yvcoadrjo-erai, and the parall. Lk. viii. 17 has (pavepov yevrja-erai 
along with yvaxrOfi koI eis (f)avep6v eXdj]. In Jn xxi. I (h's), 14, it is thrice 
used of Christ's " manifesting himself" or " being manifested " after the 
Resurrection, and so, too, in Mk App. [xvi. 12, 14]. 

7 ^avepas, "openly." Mk i. 45, Jn vii. 10 both refer to Christ's not 
going " openly " or " publicly " to a city or to a festival at Jerusalem : but 
the circumstances are quite different. 

^ XiXiapxos, " captain of thousand," is in Mk vi. 21 "his great men and 
chiliarchs^^ Jn xviii. 12 "the cohort therefore and the chiliarchP 

9 [1738^] 'Qraptoj/, "ear" (Ut. "little ear") is in Mk xiv. 47 (Mt. xxvi. 
51 mrioj/, Lk. xxii. 50 ovs) and Jn xviii. 10. Note that Jn xviii. 26 (in 
parenthetic explanation) has oirlov (1736 <?) and so has Lk. xxii. 51. 

253 



[1739] WORDS PECULIAR 



§ 4. Jn xii. 9 " the common people" lit. ''the great 
multitude'' 

[1739] To the preceding list we may perhaps add the 
phrase used by John alone (xii. 9, 1 2) o%Xo9 ttoXu?, contrary 
to Greek syntax. Mark xii. 37 has ttoXu? o%Xo9, in 
accordance with Greek syntax. Matthew and Luke nowhere 
use iroXv^ o;^Xo9 with o. " 'O ttoXv? o;^Xo9 " has a meaning of 
its own, quite distinct from 7roXv9 o;!^Xo9. Concerning the 
former, " the great multitude," Philo says (ii. 4) " they welcome 
vice " : and this and kindred phrases mean (Lobeck, Phryn. 
p. 390) "the riff-raff." In Mk xii. 37 ''the common people 
were hearing him gladly," Syr., Diatess., and SS have " all the 
multittide" the Latin MSS. have "multa turba," D has koI 
iroXi)^ oxKo^ Kal....i.e, "and [there was] a great multitude 
and...." All these readings avoid the suggestion of "a foolish 
vulgar mob " which Mark's true text might convey. See full 
quotations in Stephen's Thesaitrus and Field. The paralL 
Mt.-Lk. omit the whole clause. Even where Mk (xi. 18) 
says " all the multitude (o%Xo9) were astonished at his 
teaching" — a phrase that need not suggest contempt — Lk. 
(xix. 48) has " all the people (Xa6<;) hung on his lips." 

[1740] Jn has xii. 9 (BNL) eyvw ovv 6 oxKo^i iro\v<^ iic twv 
^lovBaicov, xii. 12 (BL) 6 0^)^X09 7roXt'9 6 iXOcDv eZ9 ryv eoprrjv.,. 
(but ^^ o%Xo9 TToXv^ iXd.), and the question arises why he thus 
(if these MSS. are correct) breaks the rules of Greek syntax. 
It is intelligible that such a phrase as irvevfia ar^iov, " Holy 
Spirit," should be (very rarely) treated as a compound noun, 
and have the article irregularly prefixed (i Cor. vi. 19 
W. H. marg.). But it is quite unintelligible that in 6 7roXu9 
o'xXo^ — a- recognised form of speech, meaning " the riff-raff" — 
a writer should interchange the noun and the adjective, 
breaking one of the strictest canons of Greek, unless he 
intended to convey some different meaning. Perhaps John 

254 



TO JOHN AND MARK [1741] 

wished to meet the charge brought by enemies of the Church 
against Mark's tradition, not by suppressing the words (which 
Matthew and Luke, if they knew them, have done) but by 
adopting them with a modification intended to express that 
the phrase did not have the bad signification that was 
ordinarily attached to it. B is sometimes untrustworthy as 
to the letter when near C (1961) as here, and the expla- 
nation of B's reading, if correct, is very obscure. Possibly 
some editions of Mark contained a marginal correction o%Xo9 
7roXu9 for ttoXu? o'^Xo^. The former, finding its way into the 
text without omitting o, may have been adopted by John, 
meaning, in xii. 9, " t/ie great midtitude of the citizens," and, 
in xii. 12, ''the great multitude of the pilgrims." He will not 
say 6 7ro\v<i ox^ofi, for that would mean "the riff-raff." He 
says 6 6x^0^ ttoXv?, ^' tke midtittcde in great numbers!' 

§ 5, Inferences 

[1741] No less than four of the words marked f above*^ 
belong to the Anointing of Christ by a Woman — a narrative 
given by all the Evangelists but Luke, and one that has 
caused difficulty to commentators from early times because 
of its points of agreement and disagreement with Luke's 
narrative of the Anointing by a Woman that was a Sinner, 
Another refers to "the crov/n of thorns," mentioned, with 
slight difference, by Matthew, but wholly omitted by Luke. 
Another describes the humiliating blows inflicted on Christ ; 
and here, too, Matthew uses an almost identical word, but 
Luke an entirely different one^. These facts confirm the 
view that John's intervention is in some way connected with 
Luke's deviation or omission ; and they suggest that in a few 



1 'EvTa(f)ia(rfx6s (Mt. evTa(f)Ld^(o), vdpdos, ttio-tlkos, TpiuKoa-ioi. 

^ ^AKavBivos and paTriaixa, Mt. dKavd&v and epaTria-av, Lk. om. and 

)€pOVT€S. 

A. V. 255 18 



[1742] WORDS PECULIAR 

such special cases John (contrary to his usual custom) adopted 
the actual words of Mark in order to explain them in a new 
sense. 

[1742] Two words, severally marked ? f and ? |, " beggar " 
and " spit," belong to John's Healing (in Jerusalem) of " a man 
born blind." In Mark, the former word (" beggar," irpoaairr]'^) 
belongs to the Healing (near Jericho) of the blind " Bartimaeus " 
— which is supposed to be related by all the Synoptists^; but 
the latter word (" spit," tttvw (1737 b)) belongs to the Healing 
of a blind man near " Bethsaida," a story peculiar to Mark. 
It must be added that a narrative peculiar to Matthew^ 
describes the healing of two blind men at a place unnamed, 
containing many features in common with the Healing of 
Bartimaeus. The impression left by all these narratives is, 
that there was early difficulty in distinguishing the cures of 
the blind wrought by Jesus ; that Matthew and Luke omitted 
Mark's detail about the use of " spittle " in performing some of 
these cures ; and that John reverted to the old tradition. These 
facts once more confirm the view that John intervened on 
account of the omission of primary facts by secondary Evan- 
gelists : but in this case the burden of omission is thrown, not 
on Luke alone but on Matthew as well. The same conclusion 
is suggested by Mark's and John's traditions concerning two 
hundred and three hundred denarii^ 

[1743] Comparing this Vocabulary with the following 
ones in this Book the reader will find that the proportion of 
words marked f is very large. And the fact that, in some of 
these instances, Matthew is nearly identical with Mark so that 

1 The three narratives probably refer to the same event. But Mt.-Lk. 
omit " Bartimaeus," and Mt. represents two blind men as being healed. 

2 Mt. ix. 27 — 30. 

3 [1742 d\ The former is omitted by Matthew, as well as by Luke, in 
the Feeding of the Five Thousand. The latter, in the Anointing of 
Christ by a Woman, is modified by Matthew, who substitutes " much " 
(xxvi. 9 "it could have been sold for much^^) for the definite sum 
mentioned by Mark and John. 

256 



TO JOHN AND MARK [1744 (i)] 

John is practically in agreement with Matthew as well as 
Mark, ought to make the inquirer defer any final judgment 
that he might be disposed to base upon the present Hst till he 
has seen the Hst of words peculiar to John, Mark, and 
Matthew, which, if Mark is earlier than Matthew and if 
Mark is largely followed by Matthew, may shew that John 
follows Mark even more than appears from the facts given 
above. 

[1744] Meantime, regard being had to the fact admitted 
by all critics, that John wrote long after Mark, and to the 
probability (assumed as a certainty by some) that Mark had 
an authoritative position at the end of the first century, a 
good case is already made out for the contention that John 
intervenes in favour of Mark where the later Evangelists 
deviate from him. This contention does not assume that, in 
these instances, Mark and John are historically right. The 
former may have led the latter to an erroneous intervention. 
But the point is, not that Mark is in such cases right, but that 
Mark is supported by John. It will subsequently be con- 
sidered whether John also intervenes in favour of Matthew 
and of Luke, singly, or in favour of Matthew and Luke, 
jointly, where the two agree. But that will not affect the 
present question, which is, whether John occasionally inter- 
venes in favour of Mark. 



ADDITIONAL NOTE ('AyaTraco in Jn-Mk narr.) 

[1744 (i)] 'A7a7raft), in strict narrative (1672*), does not 
occur in Matthew and Luke, but occurs once in Mark in the 
story of the man with "great possessions," of whom Mark 
says (x. 2i) "Jesus looked on him and loved him (6 Se T. 
e'/i^ySXe-v/ra? aurot) rj^yaTrrjcrev avTov)." But the end was that " he 
went away sorrowing," after being commanded to sell whatever 
he had and to " give to the poor." The character and conduct 

257 18—2 



[1744 (ii)] WORDS PECULIAR 

of the man are discussed by Clement of Alexandria, Origen, 
Ephrem, and Chrysostom, and we learn from them that there 
was difference of opinion. But none of these writers deal 
effectually^ with the difficulty — difficulty to some early 
Christians though perhaps only a pathetic fact to us — that 
this unique mention of Christ in the Synoptic Gospels as 
" loving " some one, ends in what seems worse than nothing — 
" he went away sorrowing." The difficulty is so great that 
we cannot be surprised at the omission of the clause (" looked 
on him and loved him ") by Matthew and Luke. 

[1744 (ii)] One way of removing or minimising the 
difficulty in Mark would be to take " loved " as meaning 
" treated kindly, or gently " ; and one of the best English 
scholars of the last century says, " Perhaps we might translate 
'caressed him,'^" quoting a passage from Plutarch in support 
of this rendering. He might also have alleged Clement of 
Alexandria (940) " Accordingly Jesus does not convict him 
as one that had failed to fulfil all the words of the Law ; on 
the contrary He loves and greets him with unusual courtesy 
{a<yaira /cal vTrepaaTra^eraoy Moreover codex d renders the 
Greek by "osculatus est eum." Ephrem and Epiphanius both 
have " rejoiced^!' These facts suffice to shew that, in the much 
discussed precept about selling all one's goods and giving to 
the poor^, this particular phrase, "Jesus looked on him and 

1 Tertullian is briefer than any of these, and most severe, De Mono- 
gatn. 14 "Discessit et ille dives, qui non ceperat substantiae dividendae 
egenis praeceptum, et dimissus est sententiae suae a Domino. Nee ideo 
duritia imputabitur Christo de arbitrii cuiuscumque Uberi vitio." This 
can hardly be called "effectual." 

^ Field, Ot. Norv. ad loc. 

2 [1744 (ii) «] Ephrem p. 168 " Sed cum observator legis monstrasset 
se legem diligenter servasse, tunc legislator de eo gavisus est et exultavit," 
Epiphan. 690 B cira <f)T}ai, Tavra iravra eTroiijcra ck vcottjtos fxov. k. 
aKova-as ^x^Pl- This he repeats expressly, bia yap rov el-n-elp on exaprjy 
"by saying that he 'rejoiced.'" 

* [1744 {u)d] Besides the authorities above quoted, Justin and 
Irenaeus and many other early writers have quoted freely the different 

2s8 



TO JOHN AND MARK [1744 (iii)] 

loved him!' would be likely to attract special attention because 
of its apparently ineffectual result. 

[1744 (iii)] Before referring to John's use of ayairaw in 
narrative, some notice will be necessary of its use in Greek 
literature as bearing on Field's suggested translation of Mark, 
''Jesus caressed him." 'AyaTrdco seems, from the Odyssey 
onwards, to have meant a *' going forth to meet," a " demon- 
stration of affection \" It does not occur in ^schylus or 
Sophocles. But Euripides has it twice, and dyaTrd^o) once — 
— always meaning "pay the last obsequies" to the dead^ 
Xenophon and Plutarch use it in the sense of "fondling" the 
young^ But in very many cases it means simply " love," 
without allusion to external action, differing perhaps, some- 
times, from (j)i\eo) in that dyairdco less frequently refers to 
"favour" and sexual love. The LXX uses dyairdw very 
frequently in every sense of the word " love," but hardly 
ever in the sense above mentioned — " manifesting love in 
action"^!' The aorist rjydirr^aa occurs for the first time in the 

versions of this story, and passages of Irenaeus (i. 3. 5 quoting as Syr. 
Burk., and i. 20. 2) shew that it was much quoted by early heretics. 

1 [1744 (iii) a\ It does not occur in the Iliad. But ayaTra^w, which 
occurs once (xxiv. 464) ayaTva^inev avrrjv, means "make the first ap- 
proaches to." 'Ayairao) occurs (L. S.) twice in the Odyssey^ xxiii. 214 
" Be not angry that I did not embrace thee thus (<Ȥ' dydwrjo-a) at the first," 
(referring to 207 — 8 where Penelope kisses and embraces Ulysses), xxi. 
289 "Dost thou not /m£ \tky good fortune]1" i.e. "art thou not well 
pleased" — a freq. meaning in later Gk. esp. with negative. 'AyaTra^co, 
-ofiai, in Odyssey freq. means " embrace." 

^ [1744 (iii) b^ Eurip. Hel. 937 Trpoa-co (T<p* dirovra baKpvois av rjydircov^ 
Suppi. 764 (pairjs av el TraprjaB^ or rjyaTra vcKpovs. The reply is " Did he 
himself wash the wounds of the unhappy men?" Comp. Phoen. 1327 
V€KVV TOL TTaidos dyuTrd^cov f'/iov. 

2 [1744 (iii) ^] Plut. (153) Vz'l. Pericl. I kuvcoi/ riKva..Av toIs koK-kol^ 
Tre pi(j)€povTas k. dyanavras. Also Steph. quotes {? ref) "Xen. Cyrop. vii. 5. 
18 p. 447" p-ovovovK iv Tois dyKdXaxs irepK^ipopnv avrovs dyana)VT€s. 

* [1744 (iii)rtf] In Ps. xciv. 19 "thy comforts delight {Wi. fondle) my 
soul," riydTTTjo-av, Ai^^ rjvcjipavav, Is. V. 7 " the plant of his fondling 
(r)ya7rr]fji€vov)." By error the LXX has Ps. cxix. l66 r^ydirr^a-a^ confusing 
the word with the Heb. for €7rob](ra, which Aq. and Sym. have. 

259 



[1744 (iv)] WORDS PECULIAR 

Temptation of Abraham (" thine only son, whom thou lovest 
{r^ryaTTTjaa^)'' and frequently thus to represent the Hebrew 
past where it approximates to the English present: but in 
the next instance (" and he loved her ") and in many others 
it represents the English past^ In the LXX, then, the 
context must in each case be called in to determine the 
meaning. 

[1744 (iv)] In the Pauline Epistles, the active verb, when 
not used of human love, is almost always in the aorist, 
referring to the love of Christ in act, as redeeming mankind, 
Rom. viii. 37 " we are more than conquerors through him that 
loved {dya7rri(TavTo<;) us 2," Gal. ii. 20 " the Son of God, who 
loved me and gave himself for me," Eph. v. 2 " as Christ also 
loved you and gave himself up for you (marg. us)," v. 25 "even 
as. Christ also loved the church and gave himself up for it." 
So in Rev. iii. 9 " Behold I will make them to come and 
worship before thy feet and to know that I loved thee" it is 
the Son, not the Father, that is speaking, and "I loved thee" 
implies " I delivered and made thee victorious'^ !' 

1 [1744 (iii) el Gen. xxii. 2, xxiv. 67. The imperf., which is very rare, 
occurs in Gen. xxxvii. 3 Tyyarra rrapd, I S. i. 5 rjycnra virep ravr-qv (but v. 
T. is a LXX addition) where "love" implies favouritism. Comp. Gen. 
XXV. 28 TfyaTrrjo-e 8e 'icraaK tov 'Ho-av...'Pe/3eKKa de rjyaTra rov 'Iukm^ (where 
the Heb. tenses differ) and i S. xviii. 28 iras 'lo-p. r^ydira avrov, where LXX 
differs from Heb. and perh. takes the meaning to be "loved him [David] 
more than Saul." 

2 [1744 {iv)d] In view of the preceding (Rom. viii. 35) "love of 
Christ," and the prevalent Pauline use of aor. of dyaTrdco, this must refer 
to the Son, not to the Father. Comp. Phil. iv. 13 "I have strength 
[for] all things in him that makes me powerful" i.e. "Christ" (comp. 
I Tim. i. 12). But it does refer to the love of the Father in Eph. ii. 4 — 5 
"God... for the great love wherewith he loved us... quickened us together 
with Christ," and to the love of the Father and the Son in 2 Thess. ii. 16 
"now our Lord Jesus Christ himself, and God our Father, who loved 
(6 ayaTTjyo-as) us..." where, though dyaTrrja-as agrees grammatically with 
Oeos K. Trarrip, it is intended to include the redeeming love of the Son. 

^ [1744 (iv) d] Ign. Magn. 6 eVei olv ev vols Trpoyeypap-jjievois rrpoad)- 
TTOis TO ndv ttXtjSos iOewprjcra iv Triarec k. rjydTrrjaa seems to mean " Since 

260 



TO JOHN AND MARK [1744 (vi)] 

[1744 (v)] Coming to Johannine usage, and bearing in 
mind this double use of the verb to express the emotion and 
the act, we should first note an insistence on the latter aspect 
in I Jn iii. i8, "Little children, let us not love in word nor 
with the tongue, but in work and truths The whole of the 
Epistle insists on the active nature of God's love and of man's 
love so far as it imitates the divine original. 

[1744 (vi)] Then, in the narrative portions of the Gospel, 
we find the following: iii. i6 "For God so loved {rjyd'mrjcFev) 
the world that he gave the only begotten Son...V' xi. 5 "Now 
Jesus was wont to love {r^ydira) Martha and her sister and 
Lazarus V' xiii. i "Now before the feast of the Passover, Jesus, 
knowing that his hour had come that he should pass out of 
this world to the Father, having loved {d'yairrjaa'^) his own 
that were in the world — to the end he loved them (eh r6\o<i 
r)ryd7rr](T6v avTov^;)," xiii. 23 " There was lying at table one of 
his disciples, in the bosom of Jesus, whom Jesus was wont to 
love (ov rjjdira [o] 'I.)," xix. 26 " Jesus therefore having seen his 
[lit. the] mother, and the disciple standing by, whom he was 
wont to love (ov r^^dira)" xxi. 7 " So that disciple whom Jesus 
was wont to love saith to Peter, It is the Lord (Xeyec ovv 6 ^jl. 
eKelvo^ ov r^ydira 6 'I. to5 Tierpw, 'O /cvpco^ iarLv)!' After 
this, comes the dialogue between our Lord and Peter, (" lovest 
(dyaTrdf;) thou me more than these ? " " lovest thou me } ") — 
not a part of narrative, but not without bearing on the use of 



then I beheld in faith and embraced [in the spirit] the whole multitude 
[of the Magnesian Church] in the above-mentioned persons [of their 
deputation]," Polyc. 2 eycb k. to. deo-fid fxov a rjydirrjo-as " I and my bonds, 
which thou didst lovingly welcome^'' perh. personified as in Phil. i. 14 
"trusting in my bonds^' — the "bonds" being, in each case, a sign or 
messenger from God, revealing His power to strengthen His martyrs. 

1 Probably an utterance of the Evangelist (not of Christ, 1497). 

2 [1744 (vi) a\ " Woiit^'' perh. better " always used'''' (s. Skeat), is an 
attempt to render the imperfect. Other statements about man's love are 
iii. 19 "men loved the darkness rather than the light," xii. 43 "for they 
\i.e. the rulers] loved the glory of men rather than the glory of God." 

261 



[1744 (vii)] WORDS PECULIAR 

the word in narrative — and finally xxi. 20 " Peter, having 
turned, noteth the disciple that Jesus was ivont to love, follow- 
ing ifiXkirei Tov fJL. ov rjydira 6 'J. aKoXovOovvra)!' 

[1744 (vii)] Reviewing these passages, we find that the 
first mention of the Son's being " wont to love " introduces the 
greatest of all His "signs," the victory over death at the grave 
of Lazarus. As to the next, it will hereafter (2319 foil.) be 
shewn that "loved them to the end (et? TeKo's rj'yaTnjo-ev avroix;)" 
means, not only "loved them to the end," but also "loved them 
to the supreme and victorious consummation of lover It refers 
to the Washing of Feet as well as to the Sacrifice on the 
Cross. In the former, the Lord is regarded (1283) as wiping 
off upon Himself the impurities of the disciples, so that all of 
them that will accept His love accept at the same time His 
purification — all but Judas, who will not accept it. 

[1744 (viii)] In the same scene that brings before us 
one disciple spiritually refusiiig this act of love'^, there is 
introduced about another disciple, "in the bosom of Jesus," 
the novel phrase " whom Jesus was wont to love!' At first, 
this adjective clause is not inseparable from " disciple." It 
is not " the disciple that Jesus was wont to love," but " one of 
the disciples'' ; and there is added "whom Jesus was wont to 
love." So stated, it might apply to several disciples, of whom 
this disciple was one. But it recurs as " the disciple standing 
by. whom Jesus was wont to love^" and lastly as " tJie disciple 



^ [1744 (viii) d\ Peter refuses it (for the moment) in word and out- 
wardly (" Lord, thou shalt never wash my feet ") but accepts it in spirit. 
Judas accepts it outwardly but rejects it spiritually. 

^ [1744 (viii) b'\ The intervention of " standing by," and the consequent 
possibility of pause, afford a loop-hole for regarding the relative here as 
not essential to the antecedent. It might just possibly mean " the disciple 
[about whom I have so often spoken] standing by, one of whom Jesus was 
very fond." But there is no such loop-hole in the next instance. The 
usage of the LXX (1744 (iii) e) would facilitate the use of rjydTra to mean 
" was specially fond," " loved above others." 

262 



TO JOHN AND MARK [1744 (x)] 

that Jesus was wont to love," and in this last instance pre- 
eminence is unmistakeable. 

[1744 (ix)] Whether intentional or not, there is certainly 
a striking contrast between the incipient disciple in Mark, 
who proved to be no disciple — although he called Jesus 
" Good teacher " and although Jesus " loved him " — and " the 
disciple that Jesiis loved''' in the Fourth Gospel. The former 
"went away sorrowing." To the latter the Lord, when on 
the point of death, entrusts His own mother. To him, alone, on 
the shore of Tiberias, it is given to say, "It is the Lord," when 
Peter and the rest had not yet discerned Him. He, too, 
though not " following " the Lord in the path assigned to 
Peter (the path of the Cross) is nevertheless seen " following " 
in another way ; and the last recorded utterance of the 
Saviour includes a mysterious saying suggestive of the 
prolonged abidance of this disciple upon earth : " If I will 
that he tarry till I come^ what is that to thee ? " 

[1744 (x)] This typical aspect of "the disciple that Jesus 
loved " is quite compatible with the literal aspect in which he 
is regarded as literally lying on the bosom of Jesus. Origen 
assuredly accepted the latter, but he accepted the former also. 
" The Word of God on earth," he says, " since He is become 
man, we see as a being of man's nature... but, if we have lain 
on the breast of the Word made flesh, and if we have been able 
to follow Him when He goeth up to the High Mountain, we 
shall say, * We saw^ his glory.' " And again, " We must there- 
fore dare to call the Gospels the prime of the Scriptures, and 
the Gospel according to John the prime of the Gospels. Of 
this Gospel none can receive the meaning except he have 
fallen back (Jn xiii. 25 avaTredoliv) on the breast of Jesus, 
and except he have received Mary from Jesus so that she 
becomes (lit. becoming) his own mother also. And this 

^ [1744 (x) d\ Orig. Philocal. 19. The reference is to the Transfigura- 
tion. He quotes Jn i. 14 edfaa-dfieOa as etdofxev, " we saw." 

263 



[1744 (xi)] JOHN AND MARK 

other future * John ' must also become such a one that (so 
to speak) the ' John ' is pointed out by Jesus as being ' Jesus.' 
For, if there is no other son of Mary (according to those who 
entertain wholesome opinions about her) except Jesus, and 
[if] Jesus says to His mother, ' Behold, thy son,' and not, 
* Behold, this, too, [is] thy Son ' — this is all the same as if He 
has said * Behold, this is Jesus, whom thou didst bear.' For 
indeed every one that is initiated (Gal. ii. 20) liveth no longer 
[of himself] but Christ liveth in him : and, since Christ liveth 
in him, it is said concerning him to Mary, ' Behold, thy Son, 
the Christ !i"' 

[1744 (xi)] It may be taken as certain that John has some 
meaning and purpose (beyond mere graphic or euphonic 
variation) in his various descriptions of the beloved disciple ; 
and it is highly probable that Origen has helped us to 
elucidate a part of his purpose, in bringing before us this 
unnamed and mysterious character as a permanent witness 
— " tarrying " till the Lord's " coming " — to the all-conquering 
love of Christ. And having regard to the early and wide 
discussions about the parallel phrase in Mark, we may regard 
it as by no means improbable that the Fourth Evangelist is 
tacitly contrasting this "disciple that Jesus loved "with the 
ineffectual approacher to discipleship, of whom Mark records 
that he called Jesus "teacher," and that Jesus "looked on him 
and loved him," and yet that, in the end, " he went away 
sorrowing^" 

1 Orig. Huet ii. 6. 

2 [1744 (xi) d\ As to ? t Trapprjo-la, omitted by error in 1736 but placed 
in note there, it will be shewn that John may be writing with allusion to 
Mk viii. 32 77. TOP Xoyov eXdXet (omitted by Mt.-Lk.) or even in parallelism 
to Mk as given by SS and /&. See 1917 (i) foil. 



264 



CHAPTER II 

WORDS PECULIAR TO JOHN AND MATTHEW 

§ I. Parallelisms very few 

[1745] In this list, though larger than that of words 
peculiar to John and Mark, only one word will be found 
marked -f, and that with a query, namely, ^rjiia, "judgment 
seat," concerning which John says that Pilate " sat down on a 
judgment seat" just before he said to the Jews, " Behold your 
king." Matthew has " While he was sitting on the judgment 
seat, his \i,e. Pilate's] wife sent unto him,.." Then follows 
the mention of her dream, of which John makes no mention. 
The word occurs frequently in the Acts to mean the 
" platform," or " tribunal," of a judge, so that it might well be 
used by the two Evangelists independently. The absence of 
the article, however, in John ("<2 judgment seat ") may indicate 
that he is calling attention to a fact that might pass unnoticed 
by readers of Matthew ^ 

[1746] The reader will notice the large number of asterisks 
denoting that Matthew and John use the same word in 

1 [1745 rt] Comp. Joseph. Bell. ii. 14. 8, where Florus erects "<3: 
tribunal" and then crucifies a number of Jews in front of it. Pilate may- 
have first " sat on the tribunal " in the Praetorium (as Matthew says) and 
may have then had a special '"'- tribunaV^ set up in Gabbatha for the 
purpose of final decision. Such a course would be all the more natural 
as the Chief Priests (Jn xviii. 28) would not come into the Praetorium to 
hear his decision. The Article is inserted before iS^jua when used in N.T. 
absolutely elsewhere, Acts xii. 21, xviii. 12, 16, 17, xxv. 6, 10, 17. 

265 



[1747] WORDS PECULIAR 

different senses, as where the former uses Bwpeav to mean 
" with a liberal hand/' but the latter to mean " without a 
cause." So ^pcjai^ in Matthew means "rust," but in John 
" food " ; and ri/jir/ means in Matthew " price," but in John 
" honour^" For the most part the words in this list tell us 
nothing" of interest. For example, Xa/^Tra?, t.e. " torch " or 
"lamp," is connected by Matthew with the Virgins that go 
out to meet the Bridegroom and by John with the soldiers 
that arrest Jesus: a/jLvpva, "frankincense," in Matthew refers 
to the offering of the Magi to the infant Jesus, in John to the 
act of Joseph of Arimathaea and Nicodemus placing the 
Lord's body in the tomb. 

[1747] It will be found suggested in one of the foot-notes 
(1752 a—/) that, when John applies to Jesus the word 
jcpauyd^Q), " cry aloud," — used by some authors to mean 
"scream" or "cry in terror" — he may be possibly alluding to a 
tradition peculiar to Matthew, who quotes a saying of Isaiah 
" He shall not ay a/oi/d," and who uses Kpavyd^co in his 
peculiar rendering of the prophecy. But this is a conjecture 
that would need support from many other Johannine passages 
of allusive tendency. There is greater probability in the 
hypothesis that John's version of the naming of Peter, " Thou 
s/ia/t be called Cephas, which is by interpretation Petros [i.e. 
Stojie\" was written with allusion to the tradition peculiar to 
Matthew " Thou art Petros [i.e. Stone]." But this hypothesis 
is not based on anything in the list given below, because it 
does not rest on any word peculiar to John and Matthew. 

§ 2. ^^ Light of the zvorld" " my brethren " 

[1748] Taking the list as a whole we find no one word, by 
itself, as to which John can be said with confidence to be 
alluding to Matthew. But the two words making the phrase 
<^a)9 KOGfiov, " light of the world," stand on a different footing. 

^ In the Jn-Mk list only one word (7777717) was thus marked. 
266 



TO JOHN AND MATTHEW [1749] 

In Matthew, our Lord says " Ye are the light of the world " ; 
in John, " / am the light of the world." It has been maintained 
in an earlier part of this series (435) that Matthew is in error, 
and that John, when emphasizing the doctrine that Christ is 
the Light of the world and that other people have the light, 
was not writing without some allusion to this corruption, 
peculiar to Matthew, namely that Jesus said to the disciples, 
" Ye are the light of the world." This appears extremely 
probable \ 

[1749] Another combination of two words peculiar to 
Matthew and John is the phrase ''my bretJiren'' in Christ's 
words after the Resurrection I Matthew says that the 
women, when the risen Saviour met them, ''took hold of his 
feet'' and that He said " Go back, bear word to my brethren 
that they go away into Galilee^" In John, the Lord says to 
Mary Magdalene " Touch me not, for I have not yet ascended 
to the Father : but go to my brethren and say to them, I am 



1 [1748 «] Mt. V. 14 "Ye are (v/xeTs- eVre) the light of the worlds It 
has been shewn (435) that this might be an error, either through Gk or 
through Heb. corruption, for "ye have the light of the world." Both 
Jewish and Christian doctrine would teach that the saints are (Phil. ii. 
15) "lights," or (Jn v. 35) " lamps," but not "the lighf : and no authority 
has been alleged for the view that even the collective body of the saints 
could receive this name. No other Synoptist supports Mt. in his version, 
and Jn may not improbably be writing allusively to it, and with the 
purpose of tacitly correcting it, in the following passages : (i. 8) " He 
\i.e. John] was not the light," (viii. 12, ix. 5) " I am the light of the world^^ 
(xii. 35) "Walk (R.V.) while ye have the light,'' xii. 36 (R.V.) " While j^ 
have the light believe on the light that ye may become sons of light." 
That a body of men should believe themselves to be a collection of 
" lights " reflecting the Light of the World, differs radically from the 
doctrine that the same men should believe themselves to be " the Light of 
the World" : and Jn appears to be protesting against the latter belief. 

2 [1749 d\ This is to be distinguished from Mk iii. 33—4, Mt. xii. 
48 — 9, Lk. viii. 21 "my mother and my brethren," where our Lord gives 
a spiritual interpretation to "my brethren." The only other instance 
(Chri.) of "my brethren" is Mt. xxv. 40 (in parable). 

^ Mt. xxviii. 10. 

267 



[1749] WORDS PECULIAR 

ascending unto my Father and your Father and my God and 
your God^" The tradition of Matthew uses the past "took 
hold," which John perhaps read as the imperfect "began (or, 
wished) to take hold" — the action being checked by the 
words of Jesus, " Do not touch me I" Luke omits all mention 
of this manifestation of Christ to women. Mark's Gospel 
breaks off just before it. The Mark-Appendix, which takes 
up the narrative, simply says that the Saviour "appeared 
(i(f>dv7j)^ first to Mary Magdalene." There is a very strong 
probability indeed that John here, writing with allusion to the 
narrative peculiar to Matthew, wishes (i) to retain the 
beautiful tradition " Go tell mj/ brethren " as part of the first 
utterance of the ascending Saviour, (2) to indicate that the 
women did not " take hold " of His feet^ 

^ Jn XX. 17. 

- [1749^] Even Thomas is not represented in Jn as actually 
"touching" or "taking hold of" the risen Saviour. The Apostle is 
described as being invited to " reach " his " hand." But apparently he 
believes without this evidence (Jn xx. 29 " Because thou hast seen thou 
hast believed ! "), 

3 [1749^] 'Ecj)dvr) is here used for the more common acfidr]. It is also 
used in Mt. i. 20, ii. 13, 19, but with kqt ovap, "in a dream." In Lk. ix. 8 
'HXms €(f)dvr] it is without kut ovap. It is also applied to the shining of a 
star (Mt. ii. 7) or to a character bright as a star (Phil. ii. 15). 

4 [1749^] '^ My brethren" might be interpreted literally by Gentile 
readers ignorant of Christian vocabulary. In Mt., J<* reads " the 
brethren." The Johannine context, " my Father and your Father," makes 
it clear that the brotherhood is spiritual. In Acts i. 14, "his brethren" 
means James and Jude etc. because preceded by "his mother." 



268 



TO JOHN AND MATTHEW [1752] 

JOHN-MATTHEW AGREEMENTS^ 

Mt. Jn Mt. Jn 



[1750] 



alyiaXos 


2 


I 


dpTrd^co 


apri 


7 


12 


?t ^^/xa2 


* ^pCoa-is^ 


2 


4 


diyjrda}^ 


* 8o)p€dv (adv.)^ 


2 


I 


iXevdepos^ 


ipf^avi^oi"^ 


I 


2 


€VTa(f)id^a) ® 


* i^€TdCco^ 


2 


I 


Kardyvvfii ^^ 


Kpavyd^co^^ 


I 


6 


\dOpa 



5 6 

[1751] * dcopedv (adv.)^ 2 I iXevdepos^ I 2 



I I 



I 3 
[1752] Kpavyd^Q)^^ I 6 Xa^pa 2 I 



1 [1750 «i] An asterisk attached to a word denotes that Mt. and Jn 
use it in different senses : t denotes that the word not only has the same 
meaning in Mt. and Jn but also occurs in parallel passages. 

2 Brjpa, "judgment seat/' Mt. xxvii. 19 "//^^ j.," Jn xix. 13 "« j." See 
1745. 

3 [1750 a] BpSxTis, in Mt. " rust," in Jn " food." 

4 [1750 d] Aiyjrdco, " I thirst," in Mt. xxv. 35, ^7, 42, 44 means physical 
thirst, in Mt. v. 6 "hunger and thirst after righteousness''^ (where Lk. vi, 
21 has merely "hunger now"). In Jn, the woman of Samaria interprets 
Christ's "shall never thirst" literally (" that I may not thirst''). Apart 
from this dialogue, the word is never used literally in the Fourth Gospel, 
unless it be in xix. 28 where it is printed by W.H. as a quotation. If it is, 
the most likely source is Ps. xlii. 2 " My soul is athirsf' (not as W.H., Ps. 
Ixix. 21). In that case the meaning would be spiritual as well as literal. 

^ [1751 «] Acopeai/ (adv.), in Mt. x. 8 {bis) "freely," in Jn xv. 25 (quoting 
Ps. XXXV. 19) "without a cause," "gratuitously." 

^ [1751 b'\ 'EXfvdeposj in Mt. xvii. 26 "the sons are free," Jn viii. 33 — 6 
"ye shall become free. ..the Son shall free (eXev^eptoo-j/) you. ..ye shall be 
free." 'EKxew, Mt. ix. 17 "spill" (Jn ii. 15 "pour out" money) may be 
regarded as = Lk. v. ^y eKxvwopai, and is therefore omitted above. 

'' 'Ep(f)avi^ai, "manifest" vb., see 1716 h. 

8 [1751 (t] 'Ej/ra0ia^aj, "embalm," Mt. xxvi. 12. The parall. Mk xiv. 8 
has €VTa<pLa(Tp6v. Jn has the n. parallel to Mk (1734 <?), and the vb. xix. 40 
*' as it is the custom to embalm " not parall. to Mk or Mt. 

^ 'E^era^co, in Mt. ii. 8, x. 11, "ascertain" ; in Jn xxi. 12, "question." 

^^ Kardyvvpij in Mt. xii. 20 (loosely quoting Is. xlii. 3) "a bruised reed 
he shall not break'' ; in Jn xix. 31 — 3 of " breaking" limbs. 

1^ [1752 d\ Kpauya^o), " cry aloud," is used eight times in N.T. Seven 
of these are {a) Jn xii. 13, of the multitude shouting " Hosanna ! " {b) Jn 
xviii. 40, xix. 6, 12, 15, Acts xxii. 23, of the multitude clamouring for some 



J69 



[1752] WORDS PECULIAR 

one's death, {c) Jn xi. 43 "He cried aloud {iKpavya(rev\ Lazarus ! [Come] 
out, hither ! " 

[1752 ^J-] The remaining instance is {d) Mt. xii. 19 " He shall not strive 
(fpiaci) nor cry aloud (ovde Kpavydaei), nor shall one hear in the streets his 
voice," quoting Is. xlii. 2 " He shall not cry, nor Iz/l up, nor cause to be 
heard his voice in the street." LXX renders "lift up" (as though it were 
"hft (the burden of sin)," i.e. "forgive") by dvrjo-ei, "forgive" — as in Is. i. 
14, ii. 9 (and freq.) — having ov KeKpd^erai (A Kpd^eTai) ovde avrjarei. Mt. 
quotes Isaiah's context in full as illustrating Christ's avoidance of publicity 
in His acts of heahng (Mt. xii. 16 " He rebuked them that they should 
not make him manifest "). Perhaps Mt. takes " cry " as " cry, or summon, 
to arms," a meaning of the Niph. (Gesen. 858 d) : but Kimchi and Ibn 
Ezr. {ad loc.) explain it as denoting the loud harsh tone used by a judge 
in order to impress his hearers with a sense of authority. Sym. sub- 
stitutes " shall be deceived {i^aTraTrjOrjo-eTai) " for " lift " — an error arising 
from Hebrew confusion. 

[1752 c] These facts indicate that there were early difficulties in 
interpreting the Isaiah passage, and that there would be, toward the end 
of the I St century, different views about applying to the Messiah either 
KpdC<o (LXX) or Kpavyd^co (Mt.). Kpavyd^co, in O.T., is used only in Ezr. 
iii. 13 of a multitude crying aloud with mingled feelings ; and Atticists^ 
when not applying it to clamouring crowds, would probably use it (as 
Plat. I^ep. X. 607 B (in poet, quot.)) of a " yelping " hound, or (Demosth. 
Con. p. 1258, 26) of a drunkard "yelling." Phrynichus says that Kpavyaa- 
fids- (for KCKpayfios) is illiterate. Epictetus applies Kpavyd^a> (apart from 
the discordant cry of a raven (iii. i. 37)) to shouting in the theatre, crying 
to Caesar for help, and to a bad-tempered master bawling at his slaves 
(iii. 4. 4, 22. 55, 26. 22) — in all cases implying want of self-control. 

[1752^] For these reasons many Evangelists would shrink from 
applying /cpa^co, and still more KpavydC<o, to Christ. But Matthew extends 
his quotation of Isaiah so that it might be read thus, " He shall not cry- 
aloud... until he bring forth judgment to victory.''^ This might mean that 
the " crying aloud^^ did not take place till Chrisfs death when He overcame 
death upon the Cross : and Matthew, though he does not use KpavydCco in 
connexion with the last cry, uses there the kindred word (xxvii. 50) 
Kpd^as, alone among the Evangelists. 

[1752 e} Others might take the view that both Kpd^a and Kpavyd^co 
were forbidden by the words of Isaiah to be applied to the Messiah : and 
neither of these words is applied to Him by Mark or Luke. On the 
Cross, Jesus is described by Mark as ^oa)v <f>a>vrj fieydXr) or dcjiels (Pq)pt]v 
fieyakrjv, by Luke as (fjcovrjcras (f^covrj p.€yu\rj, but not as ^^ cryi?ig" or 
'"''crying aloud^ 

[1752/] John takes a different course. He represents Jesus as ^'•crying 
(Kpd^oi) " in solemn announcements of doctrine (vii. 28, 27i xii. 44) thrice, 

270 



TO JOHN AND MATTHEW [1754] 







Mt. 


Jn 




Mt. 


J« 




XaXta 


I 


2 


Xafirrds 








XdyX*?^ 


[[I]] 


I 


* fieSvco^ 






[1753] 


fiea-Tos^ 


I 


3 


vvcrcTai^ 


[[I]] 






OV flOVOV^ 


I 


4 


* irepio-o-os^ 








TrXeupd^ 


[[I]] 


4 


TToXvTlflOS^ 






[1754] 


Trpcoia^ 


I 


I 


qu. 2ia)j/i<^ 








* a-<\r)p6s^^ 


I 


I 


(T\ivpvay^ 








(rviJL(f)€p(o 


4 


3 


* crcf)payiC(o^^ 




2 



but not on the Cross, where the simple words " saith " or " said " are used 
(xix. 26 — 30 Xeyet, cIttcv). But he applies " trrj/ aloud (Kpavyd^co)" to the 
single occasion (xi. 43) of the raising of Lazarus. Then, too, Jesus " wept " 
and " troubled himself."' Perhaps the Evangelist felt that the Messiah, 
who could neither " weep " nor " cry aloud " for His own sake, might be 
rightly described as "crying aloud" for the sake of Lazarus, His "friend," 
whom He "loved." 

1 Ac)-yx^, " spear." See 1756. 

2 Mcdvco (-ofjLai), " to be satisfied with wine," or "intoxicated." In Jn 
ii. 10 "when they have drwik freely (pass.)," not so strong as in Mt. xxiv. 
49 (act.) (parall. Lk. xii. 45 p-edvo-Keadai). 

3 Mfo-rdy, "full," in Jn always literal, in Mt. xxiii. 28 metaphorical. 
* Nuo-o-o), " pierce." See 1756. 

^ Ou fiovov, "not only," in Mt., only in xx. 21 '"'■ Not only the [work, or,, 
miracle] of the fig-tree shall ye do." 

6 JlipKKTos^ "superabundant," Mt. v. yj^ 47. In Jn x. 10 "that they 
may have life {C<^rjv) and have it superabundantly (Trepiaa-ov) " the adj. is: 
used adverbially, a usage of which instances are given in pi. Trepiara-d, and 
also in sing, compar. Trepio-o-orepov (by L. S. and Steph.), but no instance 
of irepia-o-ov. 

7 nXevpd, " side." See 1756. 

8 UoXvTiiJLos, " precious," Mt. xiii. 46 " one precious pearl," Jn xii. 3 " of 
nard pistic (1736 ^af) preciousP 

^ Upcdia, "early," apa being understood. In Mt. xxvii. i, Jn xxi. 4, 
npcoias de {jn + TJbr]) yevofievrjs (Jn yivofxevqs) occurs to introduce (in Mt.) 
the morning of the crucifixion and (in Jn) the manifestation of the risen 
Saviour to the seven disciples. 

10 [1754 «] Stcoj/, "Sion," quoted by Mt. xxi. 5 and Jn xii. 15 from. 
Zech. ix. 9, see 1456^ and 1757. 

11 2kXi]p6s, "hard," Mt. xxv. 24 "a /z^r^man," Jn vi. 60 "the saying is 
hard." 

12 2/ivpj/a, "frankincense," Mt. ii. 11, the gift of the Magi to Christ in 
the cradle ; Jn xix. 39, the gift of Nicodemus to Christ in the tomb. 

13 S^payt^o), "seal," Mt. xxvii. 66 "sealing" the stone of Christ's, 
sepulchre, Jn iii. 33, vi. 27 metaph. = " attesting." 

A. V. 271 19 



[1755] WORDS PECULIAR 







Mt. 


Jn 


[1755] 


*Tifir)^ 


2 


I * Tpcoyo) 




v7rdvTr)(ns^ 


2 


I ^opeo)^ 






§3. 


Inferences 



Mt. Jn 
I 5 



[1756] Two inferences may be drawn from the facts given 
above. One relates to the three words with [[i]] opposite to 
them, Xor^yj], vvcr<T(o, and irXevpd, "spear," "pierce," "side." 
They all come from one passage, found in some of the best 
Greek MSS. of Matthew, and given by R.V. in marg. thus, 
"And another (aX\o(; Se) took a spear and pierced his side 
and there came out water and bloods" These resemble the 
words of John, " But one {aXh! eU) of the soldiers with a spear 
pierced his side and there came out straightway blood and 
waters" Matthew places the piercing before the death, and 
gives no explanation of it ; John places it after the death, and 
explains that the soldiers had received orders to kill those 
who were on the crosses. If the passage was originally a 
part of Matthew and was omitted by the Syriac and Latin 
versions because of its inconsistency with John, we should 
then have to suppose that John (on the hypothesis that he 
knew Matthew's Gospel) was here intervening to place the 
piercing in its right order, as having occurred after, not before, 



1 Tt/Li77, in Mt. xxvii. 6, 9, " price " ; in Jn iv. 44 " honour." 

2 [1755 d\ Tpwyo), " eat," in Mt. xxiv. 38, " eating [gluttonously] " ; in 
Jn alw. in good sense (exc. xiii. 18 (quot. Ps. xli. 9, but LXX eadicov)) of 
spiritual "eating." 

' 'YndvTrjo-LSj "meeting," Mt. viii. 34 (exorcism), xxv. i (parable) 
f^epx€(rBai els v. : Jn xii. 13 has the same phrase in the Riding into 
Jerusalem. 

'* ^opea, "wear," in Mt. xi. 8 "they that Ti/ear soft clothing" (parall. 
Lk. "in glorious raiment and luxury"), Jn xix. 5 ^^ wearing- the crown of 
thorns." 

^ Mt. xxvii. 49. ^ Jn xix. 34. 

272 



TO JOHN AND MATTHEW [1757] 

Christ's death. But had he done this, he would not — so far 
as we can judge from the list given above — have used 
Matthew's exact words. Regarded as an intervention of 
John, the phenomena would be unique. Regarded as a 
careless and misplaced interpolation from Johannine tradition 
(in which perhaps the Johannine AAA€IC was taken as AAAOC) 
the insertion in Matthew is fairly explicable. 

[1757] The second inference is of a more general character. 
It is derived from the fact that we find only one word marked 
?f, but many words marked * ; that is to say, when John 
happens to use a somewhat rare word peculiar to Matthew, 
he frequently uses it in a different sense from Matthew's, and 
almost always in an entirely different contexts The word 
't.Kiov is marked qu. That is because it is quoted both by John 
and by Matthew from Zechariah ; and it has been shewn above 
(1456^) that John actually ventures to differ from both the 
prophet and the Evangelist by omitting the word " meek," 
which is an integral part of the prophecy. In this list, then, 
there are (practically) none of the agreements that we found 
in the John-Mark list. Consequently, when we come, later 
on, to a number of passages where John agrees with traditions 
reported identically by Mark and Matthew (but not by 
Luke), it is a reasonable inference that John's real agreement 
is with Mark. John's agreement with Matthew is most 
reasonably explained by the fact that he and Matthew are 
borrowing from identical passages of Mark. 



1 [1757 d\ It is fair to add that Mt. and Jn agree in applying the word 
Xvo) to metaphorical " loosing." But they never do it in parallel contexts, 
even where it might be expected (2517 — 20). 



273 19—2 



CHAPTER III 

WORDS PECULIAR TO JOHN AND LUKE 
§ i. Antecedent probability 

[1758] Luke is recognised by all as having not only 
written in his own style but also compiled traditions in 
various styles, the differences between which are clearly per- 
ceptible. This may be seen in the Pauline, Petrine, and other 
portions of the Acts. It is also manifest in his Gospel, 
which contains (i) a short Preface in Attic style, (2) a History 
of Christ's Birth and Childhood in Hebraic style, (3) a History 
of Christ's acts and short sayings in which he agrees largely 
with Mark, (4) a Collection of Christ's longer sayings (inclu- 
ding the Lord's Prayer, the Beatitudes and their context, etc.) 
in which he closely agrees with Matthew, (5) a Collection of 
parables in common with Matthew, (6) a Collection of 
parables and other traditions peculiar to himself, in which a 
variety of styles is manifest, (7) an Account of the Passion, 
differing in style and matter from those of Mark and 
Matthew, (8) an Account of the Resurrection quite different 
in subject-matter from that in Matthew, and differing in style 
from Luke's own History of the Birth and Childhood. 

[1759] A compilation of this kind, even though revised 
by the compiler, and in parts perhaps rewritten by him, would 
naturally have a wider vocabulary than a book written in one 
style. Hence we may naturally expect Luke to include a 
large number of words that would be independently employed 

274 



JOHN AND LUKE [1761] 

by any educated evangelists at the end of the first century, 
though not used by Mark or Matthew. We should therefore 
expect to find the "John-Luke" more numerous than the 
"John-Matthew" and very much more numerous than the 
" John-Mark " agreements, but — in view of the instances where 
John supports Mark against Luke's silence or deviation — to 
find also that the number of words marked f, as being paral- 
lelisms between John and Luke, is very small. 

§ 2. T/ie fact 

[1760] The fact harmonizes with this expectation. The 
list of verbal agreements is very long, and would be longer 
still if we placed in it some words that belong rather to 
grammar than to vocabulary^ and will be mentioned later on. 
But even when the word is rare, there is hardly ever any strict 
parallelism in the context. " Napkin," for example, in Luke's 
parable, wraps up a talent, but in John it is used for entomb- 
ments ^ "Breast," in Luke, occurs twice to describe "beating 
on the breast " ; but in John it refers to the disciple lying on 
the breast of Jesus^. 

[1761] Such parallelisms as there are will be found to be 
confined either to Luke's Single Tradition, or to the Double 
Tradition of Matthew and Luke. As to this, it was pointed 
out above (1450) that John supports Luke against Matthew 
in retaining the apparently harsh precept about "hating one's 
own life^" Another instance will be given from the Double 
Tradition (1784 — 92), where Christ's appellation of the dis- 
ciples as " my friends," which occurs in Luke's version (but 

^ [1760 d\ For example, \i.€Ta is common to all the Gospels, but \i.ira 
ravra is peculiar to Jn-Lk. Nvv (Chri.) is almost peculiar to Jn-Lk. Upos 
after verbs of "speaking" (exc. in the phrase "to one another") is prob. 
peculiar to Jn-Lk. See 2394 d, 1915 (vi) d, and 2366 d. 

2 Lk. xix. 20, Jn xi. 44, xx. 7 crovbdptov. 

3 Lk. xviii. 13, xxiii. 48, Jn xiii. 25, xxi. 20 (tttjOos. 

* This, however, not being a word but a phrase, does not appear in 
the list below. 

275 



[1762] WORDS PECULIAR 

not in Matthew's), is repeated by John. Luke's Single 
Tradition describes the Saviour as coming after the Resurrec- 
tion and " standing in the midst " of the disciples : a similar 
phrase is used by John. These are about all the parallelisms, 
strictly so called, that can be found between John and Luke. 

§ 3- Quasi-parallels 

[1762] Other instances, however, occur where John and 
Luke use the same words, and these rare words, in describing 
events that are apparently not identical though sihiilar. For 
example, the word infjuaaaco, " wipe," is used by both writers 
in describing the Anointing of Jesus by a woman. Luke 
says, ''with the hair of her head she began to wipe [his feet]," 
and again, " with her hair she wiped'' them. John speaks of 
Mary the sister of Martha as "the one that wiped his feet 
with her hair," and afterwards describes the act, ''she wiped 
with her hair his feet." But Luke, in the Anointing, calls the 
woman " a sinner," and speaks of Mary the sister of Martha 
elsewhere, without any suggestion of identity. Commentators 
are divided, and have been from very early times, in their 
attempts to explain John's agreement with Mark and Matthew 
in their general account of the Anointing, but with Luke in 
this detail. For the present* it must suffice to say that the 
phrase in the two Gospels, although apparently not referring 
to the same event, appears nevertheless allusive in the later 
(John) to the narrative contained in the earlier (Luke). 

[1763] " Disembark," airo^alvw, occurs in Luke's version 
of the CaUing of Peter on the lake of Gennesaretl In this, it 
is said that Jesus " saw two boats standing by the lake but 
the fishermen had disembarked from them " ; Peter, one of the 
fishermen, had " toiled all night " and " taken nothing " ; but, 



1 The point will be fully discussed in The Fourfold Gospel (see 
Preface above, p. ix). ^ u^ y ^ ^^-^ 

276 



TO JOHN AND LUKE [1763] 

at Christ's command, they let down their nets and take such a 
multitude of fishes that " the nets were breaking." According 
to John^ Jesus, after the Resurrection, "stood on the beach" 
and called to the disciples who "in that night had caught 
nothing." At His command they cast the net on the right 
side of the ship^ and take one hundred and fifty-three great 
fishes, yet "the net was not rent." It is after catching 
this draught that, according to John, "they disembarked 
on the land." ^ A.iro^aLV(i), though frequently thus used in 
classical Greek, nowhere else has this meaning in the Greek 
Testament Old or New^ Hence this single verbal coinci- 
dence would suffice to claim attention : but when it is com- 
bined with the similarities in the context, the total effect 
suggests that John is writing allusively to Luke's tradition, 
or, at all events, that the two traditions are in some way 
related. 



1 Jn xxi. 4 — 9. 

2 [1763 d\ There is nothing in Lk. parall. to Jn xxi. 6 " cast your net on 
the right side of the ship." But in Ps. Ixxxix. 12 "the right (lit. the 
south) " is rendered ^'- sea'' in LXX by Hebrew confusion. Comp. Lk. v. 4 
"put out into the deep and let down your nets for a draught." 

3 [1763 <^] In LXX, it is freq. and means "turn out," "prove to be," 
and it means this in Lk. xxi. 13, Phil. i. 19. " Disembark " = e^epXOMat in 
Mk vi. 34, Mt. xiv. 14. These facts make the Jn-Lk. agreement some- 
what more remarkable. 



277 



[1764] WORDS PECULIAR 



JOHN-LUKE AGREEMENTS^ 





Lk. 


Jn 




Lk. 


Jn 


£1764] * dycoviCofim^ 
dXrjdivos^ 


I 


I 
9 


dbiKia^ 


4 

I 


I 
2 


dvTiKiya)^ 


I 


I 


?t dno^aivo)^ 


2 


I 


[1765] diroKpio-is 


2 


2 


dpidfios^ 


I 


I 


apKTTao) 


^ 


2 


apxovTfs^ (Jews) 


4 


3 



1 [1764 «i] An asterisk denotes that the same word is used in different 
senses by Jn and Lk. e.^. dyaivl(op,aL, Jn " fight," Lk. " strive (to)." No 
words are marked t, because there is no certain instance of parallelism. 
? t denotes a quasi-parallel context. ^Odoviov and TrapaKvirra) occur in 
a passage enclosed by W.H. in double brackets, which will be discussed 
later on (1798—1804). 

2 'Aycoi/t^o/xai, in Lk. xiii. 24 "Strive to enter" (parall. Mt. vii. 13 
"enter"), Jn xviii. 36 "My officers would strive" \.q. fight. 

3 [1764 <«] 'ASiKi'a, "unrighteousness," which in Lk. xiii. 27 is parall. to 
Mt. vii. 23 dvop.ia, occurs, in Jn, only in vii. 18, " this man is true and there 
is no unrighteousness in him" : but it is also in i Jn i. 9, v. 17. For the 
most part Jn uses " darkness," or " lie," to express " unrighteousness." 

* 'AXT/^ii/ds-, "true," i.e. genuine, Lk. xvi. 11, see 1121/— i. 

* [1764 <^] "Kvvas, Lk. iii. 2 " Li the high-priesthood oi Annas and 
Caiaphas." That of Annas ended {Enc. "Annas") A.D. 15. That of 
Caiaphas lasted A.D. 18 — 36. Jn xviii. 13 — 24 explains that Annas was 
the father-in-law of Caiaphas, and leads us to infer that he at all events 
occasionally exercised the civil authority of the high-priesthood, since 
Christ's captors (xviii. 13) "led him to Annas first." 

^ 'Ai/riXeyo), Lk. ii. 34 "a sign spokeji against" Jn xix. 12 '■'' speaketh 
against Caesar." 

^ \\7ro^aivco, " disembark," see 1763. 

® *Api$n6sj "number," Lk. xxii. 3 "of the number of the Twelve," 
Jn vi. 10 "in number about five thousand." 

^ [1765 <2] "KpxovTi^ (of the Jews), mentioned in the sing, by Mt. ix. 18 
"a [certain] ruler" where parall. Mk v. 22, Lk. viii. 41 indicate that 
he was a ''^ ruler of the synagogue." But, in the pi., Lk. xxiii. 13, 35, 
xxiv. 20 refer to members of the Sanhedrin (there is nothing to indicate 
the meaning in Lk. xiv. i). In Jn vii. 26, 48, xii. 42 it probably means 
members of the Sanhedrin, and Jn iii. i " Nicodemus...a ruler of the 
Jews" is subsequently represented as taking part in the deliberations of 
the Sanhedrin (vii. 51). 

278 



TO JOHN AND LUKE [1769] 





Lk. 


Jn 




Lk. 


Jn 


* ^adCs^ 


I 


I 


/3a7rr&)2 


I 


2 


[1766] ^ovXevofiai 


I 


2 


^o{)s 


3 


2 


^paxicav^ 


I 


I 


/Spaxv 


I 


I 


yeirav 


3 


I 


yvoopi^Q) 


2 


2 


[1767] •yvtooTos* 


2 


2 


* ypdfifia^ 


2 


2 


biabihoayLL 


2 


I 


edos 


3 


I 


el8o9^ 


2 


I 


elardyto 


3 


I 


[1768] ?t i<^lda■(Tco^ 


2 


3 


ifi7rlfi7r\r)[jii^ 


2 


I 


evBdde 


I 


2 


eviavTos^ 


I 


3 


evrevdev 


2 


5 


evcomov^^ 


22 


I 


[1769] ^irjyeofiac^^ 


I 


I 


€ 7re ira 


I 


I 



1 Ba^vs, " deep," Lk. xxiv. i ' ear/y (lit. deep) dawn," Jn iv. 1 1 " the 
well is deep.^' 

2 BaTTTO), "dip," Lk. xvi. 24 "that he should </z)5... and cool my tongue," 
Jn xiii. 26 {dis) of Jesus '"'' dipping'''' the sop. 

3 Bpaxtwi/, "arm," Lk. i. 51 " He hath shewed strength with his arm^'' 
(quot. Ps. Ixxxix. 10, or xcviii. i), Jn xii. 38 (quoting Is. liii. i), "To whom 
hath the arm of the Lord been revealed 1 " 

^ ri/ojo-rds', " acquaintance," Lk. ii. 44, xxiii. 49 of the " acquaintance " 
of Christ's parents, and of Christ, Jn xviii. 15, 16 of the beloved 
disciple as being an '•'■acquaintance of the high priest." 

^ Tpd^-jxa, in Lk. xvi. 6, 7 " Take thy bond^'' Jn v. 47 " his \i.e. Moses's] 
writings^'' vii. 15 " How knoweth this man letters'^ ^^ 

6 EiSoff, " appearance," Lk. iii. 22 " in bodily appearance^^'' ix. 29 " The 
appearance of his face became different," Jn v. yj " Ye have neither seen 
his \i.e. God's] appearance^ 

^ [1768 ci\ 'EKfj.d(Tcroi 6pi^iv, "wipe with hair," occurs in Lk. vii. 38, 44 
and Jn xi. 2, xii. 3, concerning the " wiping" of Christ's feet with the hair 
of a woman described by Lk. as " a sinner," but by Jn as Mary the sister 
of Lazarus (1762). Jn (xiii. 5) also uses the word concerning the "wiping" 
of the feet of the disciples by Christ. 

8 'EpTTifxTrXrjpi, " fill." Lk. i. 53 " The hungry he hsith^lled with good 
things," vi. 25 "Woe unto you, O ye that are y?//^^ now," Jn vi. 12 " But 
when they [i.e. the 5000] were^t/ed." 

^ 'EviavTos, "year," Lk. iv. 19 (Is. Ixi. 2) ''the acceptable year of the 
Lord," Jn xi. 49, 51, xviii. 13 ''the high priest in thBX year " i.e. Caiaphas. 

10 [1768 d] 'Ei^a)7rioi/, " before the face of," " in the sight of," in Jn, only 
in XX. 30 "many other signs, therefore, did Jesus in the sight ^ the 
disciples," comp. Lk. xxiv. 43 "and he did eat in their sight (J. atraii/)." 
Jn is probably referring to manifestations, like that in Lk. xxiv. 43, of the 
risen Saviour, "in the sight of" the disciples alone. 

11 'E^rjyeofiai, "relate," "describe." Lk. xxiv. 35 "they described that 

279 



[1770] WORDS PECULIAR 





Lk. 


Jn 




Lk. 


Jn 


* eTTiKeifiai^ 


2 


2 


(/j.arto"/xof 2 


2 


I 


KrJTTOS 




4 


koXttos^ 


3 


2 


[1770] kvk\6<o* 




I 


Kvpios, 6 5 (Jesus) 












(narr.) 


c. 14 


5 


Xayxdvay^ 




I 


* Ad^apos"^ 


4 


II 


AeveiTTjs^ 




I 


* Xoyi^ofxai^ 


I 


I 


[1771] Uttt]^^ 




4 


Map^all 


3 


9 


Mapta(/x)i2 


2 


9 


* fJi1]VV(0^^ 


' 


' 



which had occurred to them in the way," i.e. the appearance of the risen 
Saviour, Jn i. i8 "the only begotten hath described him," i,e. God, whom 
"no man hath seen." 

1 'ETTLKeifiai in Lk. v. I, xxiii. 23, means "to be pressing upon, or 
importunate," in Jn xi. 38, xxi. 9 "lying on the top of." 

2 'IfiOTia-fios, "clothing," Lk. vii. 25, ix. 29 ; Jn xix. 24 (quoting Ps. xxii. 
18 "on my vesture they cast lots"). 

2 KoXnos, "bosom," Lk. vi. 38 "good measure... into your l>osom" xvi. 
22, 23 of Abraham's ^^ dosom,^' Jn i. 18 "the bosom of the Father," xiii. 23 
" in the bosoin of Jesus." 

^ KvkXoo), " surround," Lk. xxi. 20 " Jerusalem surrounded by armies," 
Jn X. 24 " the Jews therefore surrounded him," i.e. Jesus. 

^ Ktlptoff, 6, " the Lord," meaning Jesus (not in vocative), see 1779 — 81. 

^ Aayx«»'«o, "draw lots for," "obtain by lot," Lk. i. 9, Jn xix. 24. 

^ Ad^apo^^ Lk. xvi. 20 — 5, Lazarus the beggar; Jn xi. i — 43, xii. i — 17, 
the Lazarus that was raised from the dead. 

^ Aei;eiV?;y, " Levite," Lk. x. 32 in the parable of the Good Samaritan, 
Jn i. 19 "priests and Levites." 

^ Aoy[^op.ai., "reckon," "consider," in Lk. xxii. 37 (quoting Is. liii. 12) 
" he was reckoned," in Jn xi. 50 " nor do ye consider." 

^<^ Avir-q, "sorrow," Lk. xxii. 45 "He found them sleeping for sorrow" 
Jn xvi. 6, 20 — 22 in words of Christ, concerning the ^^ sorrow" of the 
disciples at the thought of being parted from their Master. 

11 [1771^] Mdpda, in Lk., only in x. 38, 40, 41 ; in Jn xi. i — 39 (the 
raising of Lazarus) and xii. 2 "Martha was serving (dtT/Kovet)," which 
corresponds to the noun "service" in Lk. x. 40 " M. was distracted about 
much service (diaKoviav)." 

12 [1771 d] Mapia(/i), in Lk., only in x. 39, 42 ; in Jn xi. i — 45 (the 
raising of Lazarus) and xii. 3 " Mary... anointed the feet of Jesus." Lk. x. 
39 describes her as " sitting at the feet of the Lord," and Jn xi. 20 as 
" sitting in the house." 

^^ Mrjvvco, in Lk. XX. 37 " Moses indicated in the passage about the 
bush," in Jn xi. 57 "if any man knew. ..he was \.o give information." 

280 



TO JOHN AND LUKE [1774] 







Lk. 


Jn 




Lk. 


Jn 




* iJLOvoyevrjs^ 


3 


4 


riKtia)^ 


I 


I 


[1772] 


odoviov^ 


[[I]] 


4 


OKTQ) 


2 


I 




TrapaKviTTO)^ 


[[I]] 


2 


7repiT€fivco 


2 


I 




nXrjpTjs (of Christ) 


5 I 


I 


Trpdacra)^ 


6 


2 


[1773] 


Trporpexoi 


I 


I 


2ap.apia 


I 


3 




* SiXcoajU,^ 


I 


2 


aovbdpiov 


I 


2 




(rrfjdos 


2 


2 


(Tvyy(vr)9 


3 or 4 


I 


[1774J 


(rvvridepai^ 


I 


I 


(TCOTTJp ^ 


2 


I 



1 Moi'oyei/J7S'. Lk. vii. I2, viii. 42, ix. 38 of "an only child" ; Jn i. 14, 
18, iii. 16, 18 "the only begotten" Son of God. 

2 [1771 c] NiKaw, " conquer," Lk. xi. 22 " But when the man that 
is stronger than he shall come against him and conquer him," Jn xvi. 33 
"Be of good cheer, I have conquered the world." In the rest of N.T. 
vi/cao) occurs only in Rom. iii. 4 (quotation), xii. 21 {bis)^ i Jn (6), Rev. (14 
oris). 

3 'O^dvtoj/, "linen bandage," perh. in Lk. xxiv. 12, see 1798, 1804. 

* Tlapa<v7rra>, " Stoop (?) and look into," like odovcov in last note, occurs 
perh. in Lk. xxiv. 12, see 1798—1804. 

5 [1772 a] nX^prjs " full," applied to Christ in Lk. iv. i "/?/// of the 
Holy Spirit," Jn i. 14 (of the Logos) '"''full of grace and truth." Both 
passages occur at the outset, where the two Evangelists are describing 
Christ's entrance into public life. Both might naturally be written with 
some reference to contemporary discussions about the manner in which 
(Col. ii. 9) "the fulness of the Godhead dwelt" in Jesus " bodily." Luke, 
who uses the expression "bodily" in connexion with the "dove," might 
interpret the "fulness" as referring to the Holy Spirit descending at 
baptism. John might see the "fulness" in the human, yet divine, 
" graciousness and truth," i.e. probably " kindness and truth," manifested 
in the incarnate Logos and imparted by Him to men. Acts xi. 24 "full 
of the Holy Spirit" is applied to Barnabas (comp. Acts vi. 3, vii. 55). 
If Christ's disciples were commonly described as "full of the Holy 
Spirit," John may well have considered that the "fulness" of Christ, at 
the outset of the Gospel, needed a different description. 

^ [1772 (^] npao-o-o), in Lk., (iii. 13. xix. 23) ^'- exact^'' elsewhere (xxii. 23, 
xxiii. 15, 41 bis) ^^ do [eviiy In Jn iii. 20, 6 cftavXa Trpacrcroiv opp. to iii. 21 
6 Se TTOLcov rrjv aXrjBeiav : in Jn v. 29 ol to. dyada noiTjcravTes precedes 01 ra 
(f)avXa Trpd^avres. Comp. Rom. vii. 1 9 ov yap o BeXa ttoim dyadov, dX\a o 
01) OeXo) KaKov tovto Trpdcrcra). 

'^ 2iXcoa/x, "Siloam," Lk. xiii. 4 "tower," Jn ix. 7 "pool." 

^ ^vvTidefiai, "agree," Lk. xxii. 5 "they agreed to give him [Judas 
Iscariot] money," Jn ix. 22 " The Jews had agreed^"* to cast out of the 
synagogue any one that professed belief in Christ. 

^ [1774 «] 'EaTTjp, "Saviour," Jn iv. 42 "This is indeed (/ie Saviour of 

381 



[1775] WORDS PECULIAR 

Lk. Jn Lk. Jn 

<ra>rr)pla^ 4 I raxeas 2 I 

TfXeioco^ 2 5 vfierepos I 3 

[1775] v7rofiifJLVT)<TKOi I I ?t (piXos (not appl. 

to Christ)^ 14 6 



//te world." This remarkable utterance is assigned to Samaritans. 
" Saviour of the world," in N.T., occurs elsewhere only in i Jn iv. 14 
" The Father hath sent his Son [to be the] Saviour of the world." Lk. 
has i. 47 " My spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour" and ii. 1 1 " There 
was born for you to-day a Saviour" 

1 [1774 b'\ ^(OTTjpia, " salvation." On Jn iv. 22 " Salvaliou is from the 
Jews," see 1647. In Lk., it occurs in his Introduction i. 69 — yy, and in the 
story of Zacchaeus, Lk. xix. 9 "to-day hath salvation come to this 
house." 

2 [1774 ir] TfXeido), " accompHsh," or "perfect," occurs in Lk. ii. 43 
"when they had accomplished the days," Lk. xiii. 32 "on the third day I 
am to be perfected {rcXeioviiai)." In Jn iv. 34, v. 36, xvii. 4, it is used of the 
Son "perfecting" the work appointed by the Father. In xvii. 23 "that 
they all may he perfected into one," it describes the unity of the Church. 
The last instance is xix. 28 " that the Scripture may be accomplished." 

3 [1775 d\ ^lKos, "friend," occurs once in Mt. xi. 19, applied to Christ 
(parall. to Lk, vii. 34) "friend o( publicans and sinners." Apart from this, 
it occurs, in Lk., in the Discourse of Christ where, after the appointment 
of the Twelve, Jesus prepares them for persecution. Mt. x. 24, 28 omits 

'friends," thus : "The disciple is not above the teacher... And yy be not 
afraid of them that kill the body." Lk. separates these precepts, having 
(vi. 40) "The disciple is not above the teacher," and, much later (xii. 4) 
"■ But I say unto you., [being] my friends, be not afraid of them that kill 
the body." John, in the Last Discourse, has a division similar to that of 
Luke, first (Jn xiii. 16) " The bondservant is not greater than his lord, nor 
yet an apostle greater than he that sent him," and then (Jn xv. 14, 15, 20) 
" Ye are my friends, if ye continue doing that which I command you. 
No longer do I call you bondservants... but I have called yo\ifrie?tds.... 
The bondservant is not greater than his lord : if they persecuted me, they 
will also persecute you." 

[1775 b] This then is one of the few passages where Jn follows a 
tradition found in Lk. alone, or rather in Lk.'s version of the Double 
Tradition. But, whereas Lk. wraps up a great deal in the appositional 
phrase " you, [being] my friends," Jn shews both why the disciples are 
henceforth to be called friends and what they must be prepared for, as 
the consequence of the title. On this tradition, and its origin, see 
1784-92. 

282 



TO JOHN AND LUKE [1776] 





Lk. 


Jn 




Lk. Jn 


(fypeap 


I 


2 


(f)(OTi^(0 ^ 


I I 


Xdpis 2 


8 


4 


ois (when) 3 


150116 15 



§ 4. "Son of Joseph'' 

[1776] In addition to the single words above mentioned 
there are several phrases of great importance peculiar to Luke 
and John*. Foremost among these, in Johannine order, 
comes (i) "Son of Joseph" applied to Christ. There are 
also (2) the above-mentioned application of " the Lord " to 
Jesus in narrative; (3) "sons of light" used in both Gospels 
by Christ ; (4) " my friends" applied by Jesus to the disciples; 
(5) " ]tsus... stood in the midst,'' describing Christ's manifesta- 
tion after the Resurrection ; (6) the combination of the rare 
words *' glancing into " and " linen bandages " in a description 
of what was seen by a disciple in Christ's sepulchre after He 



^ ^coriXa), " enlighten," in Lk. xi. 36 in a simile, of a " lainp " ; Jn i. 9, in 
a metaphor, of " the true light.^'' 

2 [1775 c\ Xdpis, " grace," Lk. i. 30 " thou hast found grace with God," 
at the Annunciation, ii. 40, 52 of the "grace" of God on Jesus as a child 
and as a youth, iv. 22 of the words of "grace" from His mouth, vi. 32, 33, 
34 " What t/ian^ have ye ? " xvii. 9 " Does he give thanks ? " In Jn, it 
occurs of (i. 14 — 17) '•'■grace and truth" (as distinct from "Law") coming 
to man through the incarnate Logos. 

3 [1775^] 'Qy, "when," occurs (15) in Jn with aorist (incl. ^r)— a 
frequent meaning in LXX. Except in xix. 33 (where tbs- occurs in 
parenth.) Jn always has Se, or ovv^ before, or after, (as "when." With 
imperf. (xx. 11 cKXaiev) it means ^^ white" {"whz'te she was weeping"). 
On Jn xii. 35—6 (dis) see 2201. 

[1775^] The number given above (15 or 16) in Lk. excludes xxiv. 32 
{Ms) (R.V.) ^^ white" (with imperf.), xii. 58 ^^ white thou art going," xx. ^7 
" when (or, since) he calleth." In Lk., as never precedes ovv, and it never 
precedes Se except in Lk. v. 4, vii. 12. Mk-Mt. prefer ore (e.g. in Mk xi. i, 
Mt. xxi. I, contrasted with Lk. xix. 29 cos). 

* There is also the tradition about " hating one's own life " which has 
been discussed above (1450) as a specimen of Jn's allusiveness. It occurs 
in Lk.'s version of the Double Tradition. On /Sao-ra^co o-Tavpov, see 1792 1>. 

283 



[1777] WORDS PECULIAR 



had risen — a passage certainly genuine in John, but bracketed 
by W. H. in Luke. Each of these requires separate discussion, 
and they will now be taken in their order. 

[1777] Mark and Matthew say that when Jesus visited 
" his own country," people in the synagogue said " Is not this 
the carpenter," or, "the son of the carpenter?^" Luke, relating 
a visit to " Nazareth where he had been brought up," makes 
the people in the synagogue say, " Is not this [t/ie] son of 
Joseph}-'' John gives no such utterance in his account of our 
Lord's visit to Galilee where He quotes the proverb about " a 
prophet in his own country^^" : but in his account of Christ's 
Eucharistic teaching in the synagogue at Capernaum'^ he 
makes the Jews say " Is not this Jesus the son of Joseph whose 
father and mother we (emph.) know.?-^" Mark and Matthew 
agree with John in mentioning or implying "mother" (Mk 
" the son of Mary," Mt. " is not his mother called Mary?") and 
both add a mention of brothers and sisters : but the names of 
the brothers vary. 

[1778] At the outset of the Gospel, John represents Philip 
as saying to Nathanael, " We have found him of whom Moses 
in the Law wrote, and the Prophets [wrote], Jesus \the'\ son of 
Joseph, [Jesus] of Nazareth'^." Nathanael raises no objection 
except on the ground of " Nazareth," and almost immediately 
afterwards confesses Jesus to be " the Son of God " and "King 
of Israel." Thus John's narrative brings Nathanael's belief 
in " the son of Joseph " as being also " the Son of God," into 
contrast with the unbelief of the Jews in "the son of Joseph" 
because they "know" His "father and mother." Luke 
certainly does not believe Jesus to have been " son of 
Joseph" any more than he believes him to have been 

1 Mk vi. 3, Mt. xiii. 55. 

2 Lk. iv. 22 oi»;^i vio? €(TTiv 'I. ovros- ; 

3 Jn iv. 43—4. ^ Jn vi. 59. 
^ Jn vi. 42 ov\i. ovTos eariv 'I. o vlos 'I. ; 

® Jn i. 45 ^Irjcrovv vlov rov *lcocrfj(f) tov dno N. 



284 



TO JOHN AND LUKE [1779] 

born at Nazareth. It is the Jews, according to Luke, that 
are in error. The Jews call Nazareth (Lk. iv. 23) "thy 
country I' Luke calls it (Lk. iv. 16) " Nazareth where he was 
brought up " : and similarly Luke intends us to believe that 
the Jews were deceived about Christ's being "the son of 
Joseph" and that Jesus did not undeceive them. John seems 
to differ from Luke on both points. But in any case the great 
error of the Jews, according to John, would seem to have 
consisted in their imagination that the Son of God could not 
be incarnate in a man whose "father and mother" they 
" knew." We cannot, however, say that John is here alluding 
to Luke's particular phrase, " son of Joseph," for it must have 
been the subject of many controversies before the end of the 
first century, and John may be alluding to these as a whole, 
differing from Luke's view of the controversy, but not referring 
specially to Luke's language. 

§ 5. " The Lord" meaning ''Jesus'' 

[1779] In Evangelistic narrative — strictly so called, i.e. 
excluding speech of any kind as well as the speech of Christ 
— "the Lord" means "Jesus" about fourteen times in Luke^ 
and five times in John: and there is a great difference between 
the two in usage as well as in frequency. In Luke, for 
example, this title introduces the raising of the widow's 
son at Nain (" anH when the Lord saw her he had compassion 
on her") and the sending of the Seventy ("Now after these 
things the Lord appointed seventy others") and Christ's 



1 [1779 a] Lk. vii. 13, 19, x. i, 39, 41, xi. 39, xii. 42, xiii. 15, xvii. 5, 6, 
xviii. 6, xix. 8, xxii. 61 {bis), comp. xxiv. 3 to crcofia [[rov Kvplov 'It^o-oO]]. 
Some Latin MSS., as well as NAD, have it (SS "our Lord") in Lk. xxii. 
31. In xii. 42, xvii. 5 (if compared with Mt. xviii. 21), xxii. 61, there is 
mention of Peter in the context or in parallel Mt. In Lk. xxii. 31, if 
genuine, it precedes an utterance of our Lord to Peter. 

285 



[1780] WORDS PECULIAR 

definition of the faithful steward (in reply to a question of 
Peter's) " And the Lo7'd said, Who then is the faithful and 
wise steward...?" Luke also describes John the Baptist as 
sending disciples "to the Lord" \ Mary, the sister of Martha, 
as "sitting at the Lord's feet," and ^^ the Lord'' as gently 
rebuking Martha. In all these cases, the phrase containing 
" the Lord " is an integral part of the narrative. 

[1780] But this is not so clearly the case in John e.g. iv. i 
"When, therefore, the Lord knew... he left Judaea," where the 
sentence might be regarded not exactly as narrative, but 
rather as comment intended to explain the situation and to 
prepare the way for what was done. Still less can the phrase 
be called "integral" in vi. 23 " Howbeit there came boats 
from Tiberias nigh unto the place where they ate the bread 
after the Lord had given thanks" — which R.V. prints as a 
parenthesis, being indeed a parenthetic explanation of the 
situation. So, too, in xi. 2 (R.V.) " It was that Mary which 
anointed the Lord with ointment," the sentence is not a part of 
the narrative of the raising of Lazarus (which immediately 
follows) but a parenthetic definition of this particular Mary 
— since there were others of that name. There remain xx. 20 
"rejoiced at seeing the Lord" and xxi. 12 "knowing that it 
was the Lord.'' Both of these may perhaps be explained with 
reference to a previous mention of " the Lord " in speech. In 
the former case, Mary had on that same day come to the 
disciples saying " I have seen the Lord" and bringing a 
message to them. Then when He appeared to them they 
rejoiced that they too had "seen the Lord." In the latter 
case, the beloved disciple had just said to Peter (xxi. 7) " It 
is the Lord," and the narrative proceeds, " Simon Peter, having 
heard the words^ ' It is the Lord' " Afterwards, when the 
disciples were convinced that this was true, the Evangelist 



^ Jn xxi. 7 on is prob. equival. to inverted commas, or "the words 
(2189—90). 

286 



TO JOHN AND LUKE [1782] 

not unnaturally records their conviction by a repetition of 
the same phrase ("it is the Lord''). Or perhaps the meaning 
maybe "knowing [and saying to themselves] 'It is the Lord!" 
[1781] The fact above noted (1779 «) that some of the 
passages in Luke mentioning " the Lord " are connected 
with Peter, deserves to be studied along with the fact that 
the fragment of the Gospel of Peter speaks of Christ as " the 
Lord!' and by no other term, and this, before the Resurrection. 
In that fragment, He is not called " Jesus," even by enemies : 
they cannot, of course, call Him Lord, but they use the 
personal pronoun or leave a pronoun to be supplied \ Also, 
in a passage where Luke has "The Apostles said to the 
Lord, 'Increase our faith,'" the preceding verse in Luke about 
" forgiving seven times " is parallel to a passage in Matthew 
in which Peter asks how many times one must forgive a 
brother 2. Most of the passages in Luke are peculiar to his 
Gospel : and they give the impression of having been taken 
from some book (perhaps containing the teaching or preaching 
of Peter) in which Jesus was habitually called '^ the Lord!' 
There is no ground for thinking that in this point John 
alludes to Luke or imitates his usage. 

§ 6. " Sons of light " 

[1782] Luke has, in the Parable of the Unjust Steward, 
(xvi. 8) " The sons of this world are, for their own generation, 
more prudent than the sons of the light!' John has (xii. 36) 
" Believe in the light that ye may become sons of light!' In 
Luke, " the sons of this world " would naturally take, as its 

1 [1781 «] Evang. Pet. § i "Herod the king commands the Lord io 
be taken (7rap[aXj7/x]<^^^i'at)...§ 2 Joseph the friend of Pilate and of the 
Lord... diSk^d the body of the Lord... Pila-te sending to Herod asked for 
hzs body... Herod said, Brother Pilate, even if no one had asked for him 
we should have buried hi'm...^' 

2 Lk. xvii. 5 " increase our faith," preceded by xvii. 4 " if seven times 
a day he sin," which is parall. to Mt. xviii. 21 foil, containing Peter's 
question "until seven times?" 

A. V. 287 20 



[1783] WORDS PECULIAR 

antithesis, " the sons of the world to come," of which Wetstein 
and Schottgen give abundant instances while giving none of 
" the sons of light." But the occurrence of '' so7is of Ugh f and 
''children of light'' in two of the Epistles^ shews that such 
expressions must have been in early use among Christians. 
The Book of Enoch contains several kindred phrases, in- 
dicating that " light " will not only " appear to the righteous " 
but will pass upon them : '' The light of the Lord of spirits is 
seen on the face of the holy and righteous and elect " ; it also 
classes " the holy ones who are in heaven " with " the elect 
who dwell in the garden of life and every spirit of light " ; and 
it speaks of " the spirits of the good who belong to the 
generation of lighf^r 

[1783] Matthew and Luke record Christ's doctrine that 
" the light of the body is the eye," but they say nothing about 
" the light of the soul " : and some readers might infer that 
each man's " light " belongs to himself, instead of being the 
Light of the World accepted by each through the eye of the 
soul. Mark does not mention the word " light " except 
as that of the fire at which Peter warms himself On the 
subject of spiritual light he has nothing except a sentence or 
two about a "lamp." Yet the three Synoptists say just 
enough to shew that our Lord must have said a great deal 
more about the "light" that "the Lord of spirits" imparts 
to men. There were many reasons why He might prefer the 
Enoch metaphor of " light " to the metaphor subsequently 
adopted by the Talmudists, " The sons of the world that is to 
come." The latter might be restricted to the future and to 
those who should hereafter have risen from the dead. The 
former might be applied, as St Paul applies it, to living 
Thessalonians and Ephesians, with the practical precept, 

1 I Thess. V. 5 "Ye are sons of light and sons of day," Eph. v. 8 "But 
now are ye light in the Lord, walk as children of light!''* 

2 Enoch (ed. Charles) xxxviii. 2 — 4, Ixi. 12, cviii. 11. These extracts 
are of different dates but all {ib. p. 33) " before the beginning of the 
Christian era." 

288 



TO JOHN AND LUKE 



[1784] 



" Walk as children of light." There is not the slightest reason 
to think that John, in using the phrase "sons of light," is 
referring to Luke's single use of it. 

§7. ''My friends'' 

[1784] Where Luke represents our Lord as saying to the 

disciples "my friends," the parallel Matthew contains two 

prominent thoughts. The first is, that the disciple is not 

greater than his master, so that the former ought to be 

prepared to share the persecutions endured by the latter. 

The second is, that the disciples must not be afraid of any 

earthly enemy, for he has no power beyond the grave. Luke 

and John separate the two^ as follows : 

Mt. X. 24 — 8 Lk. vi. 40 

"A disciple is not "A disciple is not 

above his teacher above his teacher, 

butevery one [when] 

perfected shall be 

as his teacher..." 



his 
nor a bond-servant 
above his lord... if 
they called the Mas- 
ter of the House 
Beelzebul, how 

much more them of 
his household (otKia- 
Kov%) ! Fear them 
not therefore. . .What 
I say to you in the 
darkness, say(et7raTe) 
in the light... And be 
not afraid of (aVo) 
them that kill the 
body..." 



xn. 3—4 
*' ...Wherefore, 
what things ye said 
(ctTrarc) in the dark- 
ness shall be heard 
in the X\^\....But 
I say unto you \be- 
ing\ my friends^ Be 
not afraid of them 
(accus.) that kill 
the body...." 



Jn xiii. 16 — 17 
"A bond-servant 
is not greater than 
his lord nor one 
sent (Ht. apostle) 
greater than he that 
sent him. If ye 
know these things, 
blessed are ye if ye 
be doing them." 

XV. 14— 15» 20 
" Ye are my friends 
if ye be doing that 
which I command 
you. No longer do 
I call you bond- 
servants... but I have 
called ^ow friends... 
Remember the word 
that I said to you, 
The bond-servant is 
not greater than his 
lord. If they per- 
secuted me thev will 
also persecute you." 



^ Moreover, in Lk. and Jn, the fij'st thought has nothing to do with 

289 20 — 2 



[1785] WORDS PECULIAR 

[1785] Here Matthew uses first " bond-servant," and then 
"them of his household," to express the relation of the 
disciples to their Teacher. Luke, giving the words as two 
distinct utterances made at different times, makes no reference 
to " bond-servants " nor to " them of his household," but in the 
second he inserts, "/ say unto you \being\ my friendsr John 
agrees with Luke in mentioning ^'friends'' in the second 
utterance ; but he disagrees from Luke, and agrees with 
Matthew, in retaining the word ''bond-servant!' He represents 
Jesus as saying to the disciples, in effect, " I called you once 
bond-servants^ and indeed it is true that, if their lord be 
persecuted, the bond-servants must expect persecution: but 
now I call you my friends..,!' 

[1786] In order to explain Matthew's omission of " I say 
unto you, my friends (dat.)," recourse may be had to the 
analogy of the Sermon on the Mount, where he frequently 
omits introductory clauses inserted by Luke stating the 
persons to whom, and the circumstances in which, the ut- 
terances were severally made, because he prefers to treat the 
whole as one continuous discourse. Moreover the Greek 
dative of " friends," following " to you," might easily be taken 
as vocative, and consequently as not very important. Indeed, 
if " my friends " occurred in the Aramaic original, it may have 
very well been actually vocative, but may have been inter- 
preted by Luke as implying a reason for not fearing: " I say 
unto you, my friends!' — i.e. '' since you are my friends," or 
'* [being] my friends ((plXoc^)!' — " do not be afraid." This 
makes excellent sense, but translators might be excused for 
not rendering a vocative thus, and some, not seeing its force, 
might omit the noun. 

[1787] This explanation however fails to take into account 
that Matthew here uses a word (" them of his household ") 

persecution ; the inference, in Jn, from "not greater than his lord," is (Jn 
xiii. 16—17) that the disciple must serve his brethren as the Lord served 
them. 

290 



TO JOHN AND LUKE [1788] 

that might be taken as meaning ''relations'' or '^friends and 
relations!' — a word, too, that is actually taken by him in this 
sense (quoting Micah) a little later on : "I came to set a man 
at variance against his father. ..and a man's foes [shall be] 
they of his own householder In Micah, the Hebrew is "men 
of his house " ; in Matthew, the Syriac has " sons of his house." 
Either of these terms might well be rendered 'friends'' in 
Greek. Suppose, then, that a Greek Evangelist attempted to 
explain to Greeks the words in Matthew, "A disciple is not 
above his teacher, nor a bond-servant above his lord... if they 
called the Master of the House Beelzebul, how much more 
the fnen of his house ! Fear them, not therefore..."', might he 
not think it necessary to bring out the meaning of this 
ambiguous term " men of his house " ? This he might do by 
calling attention to the fact that Jesus had previously used 
the term "bond-servants" and that this new term meant 
something different: "The Lord had before called them 
bond-servants but now He called them friends, saying, Fear 
them not...".? 

[1788] According to this view John is intervening in the 
Double Tradition in order to bring out the full meaning of a 
doctrine that he conceived to be partially and imperfectly 
expressed by Matthew and Luke; and, while adopting Luke's 
phrase " my friends" he throws the essence of Matthew's 
version into the first person as the teaching of Christ, " I 
before called you bond-servants, but now I call you friends." 
A Greek would naturally take " bond-servant " as antithetical 
to "friendl" John perhaps regards "bond-servant," not as 

1 [1787 «] Mt. X. 36 quoting Mic. vii. 6 "The son dishonoureth the 
father... a man's enemies are the men of his own house (LXX oi iv rw 
oiKO) avTov)." In the LXX of Esther, ''friends {(1)lXoi)" is loosely used to 
denote the inner circle of the counsellors of the King or of Haman, 
Esth. i. 3, ii. 18, vi. 9 " princes," i. 13 the " wise men that knew the times," 
vi. 13 "wise men." 

2 [1788 a] This antithesis would be familiar to those whom Epictetus 
taught to say (iv. 3. 9) "I a.m free and a. friend of God^' (comp. iii. 22. 

291 



[1789] WORDS PECULIAR 

antithetical, but rather as inferior, and preparatory, to 
"friend." But that will be considered later on\ 

[1789] It is possible, and indeed probable, that our Lord 
repeated more than once His doctrine of encouragement 
under persecution: and a juxtaposition of ''servant'' and 
''friend'' occurs in the passage in which Isaiah, after describing 
the making of an idol by " the carpenter " and " the gold- 
smith," encourages his countrymen in the name of Jehovah to 
refuse to conform to idolatry: " But thou, Israel my servant, 
Jacob whom I have chosen, the seed of Abraham (R.V.) my 
friend ; thou whom I have taken hold of from the ends of the 
earth... j^<3:r thou not, for I am with thee^" This suggests 
a possibility that the doctrine of ''friendship" with God, 
and of a distinction between His ''friends" and His " servants',' 
may have formed a larger part of the higher Jewish teaching, 
and also of Christ's Gospel, than is generally supposed. 



95 and 24. 60). Not improbably, John had Epictetus in view in another 
use of the word "friend." Pilate, servilely truckling to the Jews, is 
intimidated by their cry (Jn xix. 12) "If thou let this man go, thou art 
not a friend of Caesar'^ Epictetus frequently satirises the man that is 
proud to call himself " a friend of Caesar " (a title resembling our " Right 
Honourable" applied to Privy Councillors): (iv. i. 8—14) "I am of 
senatorial rank," says one, " and I am a friend of Caesar, and I have 
served as consul, and I have crowds of slaves... Who can put constraint 
on me, save Caesar, who is Lord of all.?" To which the philosopher 
replies that, if this poor rich man can have constraint put upon him by 
Caesar, he is, by his own confession, a slave, his only distinction from 
common slaves being that he is—" a slave in a large house." Just so, he 
says, the servile Nicopolitans "have a way of shouting 'By Caesar's 
fortune, we are free ' ! " 

1 Jesus says (Jn xv. 15) ^^ No ioftger do I call you bond-servants," which 
suggests that the " bond-service " was recognised by Him as a rudimentary 
stage, and not condemned by Him as essentially bad. 

2 [1789^] Is. xli. 8 " Israel, my servant,'' LXX Trals- /xou, but the other 
translators SoOXe ^lov, "Abraham, my friend'' (Ibn Ezra, "my lover"), 
LXX ov r^ydnrja-a, Aq. dyairrjTov fxov, Sym. rov (fiCKov {xov. Comp. 2 Chr. 
XX. 7 "the seed of Abraham thy friend," LXX a-Trepixan 'A. rS riyaTrrjixevco 
iTov, i.e. " thy beloved seed of Abraham," al. ra <^iXw, al. rov (piXov. 

292 



TO JOHN AND LUKE [1790] 

[1790] Take, for example, the following parallel between 
the Fourth Gospel and Philo in which the essence of free 
service is defined : 

Jn XV. 15 Philo i. 401 

"The bond-servant knoweth " For wisdom is God's friend 

not what his lord doeth : but (<^tXov...^6a)) rather than bond- 

I have called you friends : for servant {hovXov) : wherefore also 

all things that I heard from my [the sacred writer] says clearly 

Father I have made known un- about Abraham ' Shall I hide 

to you." [it] from Abraham vay friend} 



Ji>' 



Philo's reference is to the passage in Genesis where God 
reveals His purpose of destroying Sodom. The Hebrew omits 
" friend," having simply, " Shall I hide from Abraham that 
which I do ? " ; but the LXX has " from Abraham my 
servant" {iraiho^, not "bond-servant"), and the Jerusalem 
Targum has " from Abraham my friend'^ T Without stopping 
to investigate the origin of the variations in quoting from, or 
translating, Genesis, we may take it to be almost a matter of 
demonstration that the implied Johannine definition of a free 
servant, or friend, of a " lord," as one that " knoweth what his 
lord doeth" is connected with the thought of Abraham "the 
friend of God," which pervades Jewish literature, and which 
has left its mark upon the most Jewish of our Canonical 
Epistles =^. 

1 [1790 rt:] Gen. xviii. 17, Philo has M?) eirKoXv-^co eyco diro ^A^paafx rov 
(piXov fiov; where LXX has M?) KpvyJAO) iyoi airo 'A. rov iraibos fiov a eya 

TTOlS) ; 

2 The Targum has, for " friend," Dm, which closely resembles the last 
three letters of the preceding word "Abraham" (DHI). 

3 [1790 b] Jas ii. 23 " he was called tke friend of GodJ^ From the 
Jews the name passed to the Arabians with such effect as to supplant the 
old name, " Hebron," of Abraham's burying place, known in modern 
times as El Khalil, "The Friend." It would be interesting to ascertain 
whether Epictetus was to any extent indebted to Jewish thought, or 
to Jewish expression (through Philo or other writers) for such sayings as 
that quoted above (1788 a) " I am free and a friend of God^ that I may 
willingly obey Him." 

293 



[1791] WORDS PECULIAR 

[1791] These circumstances, no doubt, weaken the 
evidence for the view that John in his doctrine about the 
"friends" of Christ is alluding to the Double Tradition. 
For they seem to shew that Jewish doctrine about "the 
friends of God " and Christian doctrine about " the friends 
of Christ " may have been ampler than we supposed ; and 
John may have been describing one part of this ample 
province while Matthew and Luke may have been describing 
another. Moreover, if the reader looks at the context of the 
passage in Isaiah he will see that there is no antithesis between 
Israel the "-^ servant'' and Abraham tJu '^ lover'' of God. On 
the contrary, it is implied that because Israel is the true seed 
of Abraham the ''lover',' tJierefore he is the ''' servant'.' The 
honourable title of " servant " is given to the Messiah in the 
following words, " Behold my servant whom I uphold, my 
chosen in whom my soul delighteth^" Jews might say "The 
distinction between ' servant ' and ' freeman ' is not a true one 
with respect to God. We are all His servants. But some of 
us are His free and willing servants, others His slavish and 
unwilling servants. We recognise the difference ; but whereas 
the Greeks can express this in two nouns, Trat? and SoOXo?, 
we cannot, or at all events seldom do, in our Scripture." 

[1792] This is perfectly true, and it confirms our hesitation 
in finding a real antithesis in the passage quoted from 
Matthew above ("A disciple is not above his teacher, nor 
a bond-servant above his lord..."). '^ Bond-servant" may have 
been used by Matthew here as we have found it used (1789 a) 
by most of the translators in Isaiah where the LXX has 
''servant',' to mean "a devoted servant" of God. The two 
clauses, then, in Matthew, are more probably parallel than 
antithetical, and John would be wrong in finding an antithesis 
in them. But did he find one } If he had done so, and if he 
had used Bov\o<; in the sense of " servile," or " slavish," would 

1 Is. xlii. I. 
294 



TO JOHN AND LUKE [1792] 

he have introduced our Lord as saying to the disciples, in 
effect, (Jn xv. 15) ''No longer do I call you 'slavish' or 
^servile''*} Much more probably John found among educated 
Greeks a misappreciation of the Jewish use of "bond-servant," 
which had led Luke to omit it in an important passage of the 
Double Tradition. And where Luke omitted, there — as is 
frequent in matters of importance — John intervened \ 



^ [1792 d\ The conclusion that Jn is here alluding to Mt. x. 24 — 5 in 
the Double Tradition is confirmed by the fact that elsewhere he seems to 
allude to passages not indeed in Mt.'s context but in Lk.'s parallels to Mt.'s 
context. Mt. x. 36 — 7 says "-^ man^s enemies (exOpoi) [shall de] they of 
his household. . .he that loveth father or mother above me is not worthy of 
me." The italicized words might be paraphrased ''A maiis haters must 
be his relations^'' or, " A maji must hate his relations.^'' Lk. xiv. 26 says 
" If a man cometh unto me and hateth ?iot his own father and mother... 
yea, and his own life.. Me cannot be my disciple," and we have seen above 
(1450) that John alludes to " hatiftg one's own life." 

[1792 <^J The next verse in Mt. is, "Whosoever taketh (kafi^dvei) not 
his cross." The parall. Lk. has " supporteth (^aa-rd^ei) his own (eavrov) 
cross." This last phrase occurs nowhere else in the Synoptists, who have 
in their Triple Tradition (Mk viii. 34, Mt. xvi. 24, Lk. ix. 23) " Let him 
tahe up (apdro)) his cross." In the narrative of the Crucifixion, no 
Synoptist uses the word "support," but the three — though not in exact 
agreement — describe Simon the Cyrenian as bearing the cross altogether 
or in part. Jn on the other hand expressly says that Jesus went forth 
(xix. 17) ^^ supporting {^aard^av) the cross for hi/nself (eavrS)." It is easy 
to conceive that such traditions as " whosoever would follow the Lord 
Jesus must take, or bear, his cross " may have been confused with " bear 
His cross," and such confusions may have led Luke to substitute "support 
his own cross " (like St Paul's " each man must bear his own burden "). 
Others may have objected to this emphasis. John may have thought 
that so emphatic a phrase was best reserved for our Saviour Himself — 
especially in view of heretical legends that Simon not only bore the cross 
but also suffered crucifixion in Christ's place. See 928 (i) — (x). 

[1792 ^] John's apparent interventions in the traditions about (i) "my 
friends," (2) "bond-servants," (3) "hating one's own life," all of which 
occur in a few verses of Matthew or in Luke's parallels, make it probable 
that he was also familiar with the phrase (4) " support one's own cross " : 
and the cumulative evidence increases the probability that he intervenes 
in the first three passages. 

295 



[1793] WORDS PECULIAR 

§ 8. " Standing in (iv or eU) the midst " applied to Jesus 

[1793] "In the midst" occurs in Mark and Matthew 
concerning the little child, whom Jesus " made stand (earijaev) 
in the midst ^them \i.e. the disciples] " as His representative^ 
and in Mark and Luke concerning a man called by Jesus to 
stand "in the midst '^ of the synagogue, before being healed-. 
Matthew has it in Christ's promise to be with " two or three " 
of His disciples, "There am I in the midst of th^va'' a tradition 
peculiar to himself, which is repeated at the close of his 
Gospel in a different form, " Behold I am with you^" The 
A both says, " When ten sit and are occupied in words of the 
Law the Shekinah is among them, for it is said, (Ps. Ixxxii. i) God 
standeth in the congregation of the mighty. And whence [is 
the same proved concerning] even five ? Because it is said, 
He judgeth in the midst (LXX eV yu-eo-ft)) of gods'*." Thus, 
although Matthew does not mention " standing in tJie midstl' 
we see that his doctrine about Christ's abiding presence might 
naturally be expressed thus in Jewish Tradition. 

[1794] The Epistle to the Hebrews says, "He that is 
sanctifying and they that are being sanctified are all from 

^ [1793 a\ Mk ix. 36, Mt. xviii. 2 eoTrjo-ev avro iv fiearm aiirSiv. The 
parall. Lk. ix. 47 has €(rrr)a€v avro irap" eavra. The action might remind a 
Jew of Deut. xviii. 15, " The Lord thy God will cause to stand up for thee 
a prophet from the midst of tkee, of thy brethren, like unto me." Samuel 
anointed David (i S. xvi. 13) ^^in the midst of his brethren." The Spirit 
of the Lord came on a prophet (2 Chr. xx. 15) "" ift the midst of the con- 
gregation." As the tree of life is (Gen. xx. 9) "/« the midst ^the garden," 
and (Ex. viii. 22) " the Lord /;/ the midst of the earth," so an impartial 
judge must be (metaphorically) Ps. Ixxxii. i "/« the midst of (R.V. 
among) those whom he judges, and a prophet (Is. vi. 5) " in the midst of 
those to whom, or against whom, he testifies. (Ps. xxii. 22) " I will declare 
thy name unto my brethren, /;/ the midst ofxSxt. congregation will I praise 
thee." 

'^ Mk iii. 3 cyetpe (Lk. vi. 8+ kqI (Trr]6L) els to fieaov (Mt. om.). 

3 Mt. xviii. 20, xxviii. 20. 

* Aboth iii. 9. 

296 



TO JOHN AND LUKE [1795] 

one. For this cause he is not ashamed to call them 'brethren,' 
saying, I will announce thy name to my brethren: in the midst 
of the congregation will I sing hymns to {yyi.vr](T(jii) thee\" 
This is from the 22nd Psalm beginning " My God, my God, 
why hast thou forsaken me?" Justin Martyr, after quoting 
{Tryph, 98) Ps. xxii. i — 23 (including the words " in the midst 
of the congregation will I sing hymns to thee") says that 
Jesus " Stood in the midst (iv yu-eo-ft)) of His brethren the 
Apostles... and (}) spending the time (Stdyayvy with them, 
sang" hymns to God," where the context ("who repented... 
after He rose from the dead") indicates that he does not 
refer to the " hymn " sung at the Eucharist^, but to Luke's 
tradition that Christ ''stood in the midst {iv fieo-atY" of the 
disciples after the Resurrection. In the Apocalypse, "the 
Lamb" is seen "standing in the midst of the elders," i.e. in 
the midst of the Church, or "walking in the midst of the seven 
candlesticks," ix. in the midst of the Seven Churches ; and 
the Oxyrhynchian Logia represent Jesus as saying " / stood 
in the midst of the world and I appeared to them in the fleshy" 
[1795] Two Evangelists alone, Luke and John, apply 
the phrase "stood in the midst" to Jesus in their narratives. 

1 Heb. ii. 12, quoting Ps. xxii. 22. 

2 [1794 «] Tryph. 106. Aiayco also means '"'• nourish.^'' Comp. Acts i. 
4 ''''being assembled together with them," marg. ^''eating with them" 
{(rvvdki(6^€vos) where Field rejects both renderings. If Justin refers to 
the period after the Resurrection, could he be reading, instead of avvaKi^o- 
fxevos, crvvaXaXa^ofxevos? 'AXaXa^co is freq. in LXX, and sometimes = " sing 
in triumph," " shout in triumph." The act. and mid. fut. are interchanged 
in V. r. It might be supposed to represent the Heb. " Hallel." 

3 Mk xiv. 26, Mt. xxvi. 30 vixvrjoravTcs e^rjXSov^ not in Lk. 

* Lk. xxiv. 36. The Acts of John ^ however, says that before Jesus 
went forth to Gethsemane, He said (§11) "Let us sing a hymn to the 
Father " and '''■placing Himself in the midst {iv fiecra de avros yevofxevos) " 
bade them say Amen to His utterances. 

^ Rev. V. 6, ii. i, comp. i. 13, vii. 17. The passage in the Logia, how- 
ever, continues, "and I found all men eating and drinking...," so that it 
does not refer to the appearance of Christ after the Resurrection. It 
seems to describe the Incarnation. 

297 



[1796] WORDS PECULIAR 

Luke uses it only once concerning a manifestation of Christ 
after the Resurrection, to which, as we have seen (1794), Justin 
Martyr appears to refer. At the moment when the disciples 
were hearing the tidings " He hath appeared to Simon," 
suddenly " He himself stood in the midst of them." To 
convince them of His identity He said, " Have ye aught to 
eat (^pooai/jLov) ? " and ate some fish in their presence^ 

[1796] The Fourth Gospel begins with a kindred ex- 
pression uttered by the Baptist, " There standeth fast {o-rrjKei) 
midst {fxeaos:) of you one whom ye know not^" words probably 
(as suggested above (1725 <3:)) intended to have a mystical 
allusion to the pre-existing and all-supporting Logos. The 
next application of the adjective to Jesus is in the crucifixion 
where John says that they crucified "Jesus i7i the midst 
{^ikaovfy Then, after the Resurrection, he says that Jesus 
" came and stood in (lit. to) the midst^,'' and gave the disciples 
the Holy Spirit and the power of remitting and retaining sins. 
On the next occasion, in order to convince Thomas, " cometh 
Jesus and stood in (lit. to) the midst^T But on neither of these 
occasions does He eat with the disciples nor they with Him : 
and for some reason or other, John uses the peculiar phrase 
" to the midst " and not Luke's phrase '* in the midst of them^ 
On the third manifestation Jesus "stands," but not "in (lit. to) 
the midst " : He " stood on (lit. to) the beach " of the Lake of 
Tiberias. There He asks a question rendered by R.V. in 
terms similar to those of the question recorded by Luke, 
" Have ye aught to eat (irpoo-cjiajiov) ?^ " But this rendering 



^ Lk. xxiv. 36 — 43. 2 jn i. 26. 

^ Jn xix. 18. The Synoptists mention one malefactor on the "right" 
and another on the "left," and do not use /xeVo?. Jn does not here make 
these distinctions of " right " and " left." 

* Jn XX. 19 TJXBev 6 ^Irjo-ovs Koi ecrrr) els to fieaov. 

" Jn XX. 26. 

6 [1796 a] Jn xxi. 5 (R.V.). Field " Have ye taken anyfsh}" Field 
shews that ex^re ; regularly means " Have you [had] any [sport] ? " " Have 

298 



TO JOHN AND LUKE [1798] 

is probably not quite accurate. And, instead of eating in 
their presence, He "comes" to them and gives them the 
food that He has provided. 

[1797] If Luke's Gospel was authoritative, or even in wide 
circulation, at the time when John wrote, it is difficult to 
doubt that the latter wrote here with allusion to the former. 
And John's omission of all mention of (i) Christ's eating, and 
his parallel statement that (2) Christ gave food to the disciples, 
indicate that he believed the former tradition to have arisen 
out of a misunderstanding of the latter. 

§ 9. " Stooping (f) and looking in " 

[1798] We come now to the two words distinguished by- 
bracketed numbers. The passage where they occur in Luke 
is enclosed by W.H. in double brackets, thus : 
Lk. xxiv. 12 — 13 Jn xx. 3 — 11 
" [[But Peter having " There went out therefore Peter and 
risen up ran to the tomb the other disciple and they began to come 
and, having stooped (?) to the tomb. But the two were running 
and looked (-rrapaKvif/a^), together. And the other disciple ran 
seetk (/3A.e7r€t) t/ie linen first, more quickly than Peter, and came 
cloths (oOovia) alone first to the tomb and, having stooped (?) 
(jjiova) : and he depart- and looked (irapaKvil/as;), he seeth (^A-eVct) 
ed to his home (tt/oos lying [there] (Ketjaem) the linen cloths 
avTov) wondering at (oOovlo). Howbeit he entered not in. 
that which had come There cometh therefore Simon Peter also, 
to pass.]] And behold, following him, and he entered into the 
two of them were going tomb : and he beholdeth {dcwpet) the linen 
on that same day etc." cloths lying and the napkin (which had 

you [caught] anything?" Staph, shews that irpoacfidyiov is a low-class 
word meaning something "eaten in addition [to bread]" and hence, more 
particularly, oyJAapiov, " fish." R.V. seems to have taken it as " [fit] for " 
(TTpdff) "eating" {(payelv). The question arises whether Luke (xxiv. 41 
'''■Have ye aught to eat {ex^ri tl ^pa>(TLp.ov) here?") has made the same 
mistake. If so, e;^ere interrog. ought to appear in the list of John-Luke 
agreements, marked with an asterisk. 

299 



[1799] WORDS PECULIAR 

Lk. xxiv. 12 — 13 Jn xx. 3 — 11 

[Here follows the story been upon his head) not lying with the 
of the journey to Em- linen cloths, but apart, rolled up into one 
maus.] place. Then therefore entered in the 

other disciple also, he that came first to 
the tomb: and he saw and believed.... 
The disciples therefore departed again to 
their own homes. But Mary was stand- 
ing at the tomb outside weeping. While, 
therefore, she was weeping, she stooped (?) 
[and looked'] into the tomb and beholdeth 
two angels...." 

§ 10. What does TrapaKvirTO) mean ? 

[1799] UapaKVTrTQ) is translated above with a query 
" stooped and looked," nearly as R.V. But that is probably 
incorrect. In Greek of every kind and period, the word is ap- 
plied to those who take a rapid — but not necessarily careless — 
glance at anything (i) out of a window, open door, hole of a 
cave, etc., or (2) in at a window, door, or other aperture. This 
is its meaning in Demosthenes, Aristophanes, Theocritus, and 
Luciano Hence Achilles Tatius applies it to youth, which 
just ""peeps up " and vanishes'^. Hence Demosthenes uses it of 
those who ''^ give just one glance" to the affairs of Athens and 
then go about their own business-, and Dio Cassius says "one 
cannot ]\xs\.peep at playing with empire and theti go back into 
one's hole^r "When the weather won't let us sail," says 
Epictetus, " we sit on thorns, perpetually glancing out — which 
way is the wind*.-*" In LXX it means '' glancing out, or, /«" 

^ [1799 rt] See Staph. In Lucian's Index it is always used with fiovov, 
/iT;8f, or fitKpov (if we read npoKvylras tS BpiyKoo (for TrapaKvyjras) in Dial. 
Mer. 12, Vol. iii. p. 313) "just glancing," "not even a glance." 

2 Steph. qu. Achill. Tat. ii. 35 TrapaKvyjrav fiovov olxfrai. It is used of 
coy glances (Steph.) in Aristoph. Pac. 983, Thesm. 797 — 9, Theocr. iii. 17. 

3 Steph. Demosth. 46, 27, Dio Cass. 52, 10. * Epict. i. 
I. 16 KaoTffjLfoa ajrafxevoi k. TrapaKinrTOfifv avv€xa>s tis avffios ttvcI; 

300 



TO JOHN AND LUKE [1800] 

(1804 <:). In the description of Sisera's mother, who is 
perhaps continuously looking out of the window, Codex A 
substitutes SLeKVTrrev for B's irapeKv^ev'^. Philo uses irapa- 
KVTTTco metaphorically, to note the absurdity of supposing 
that the "ignorant" can even ''glance into, or, catch a glimpse 
of',' the counsels of " an imperial souP." 

[1800] The Epistle of St James, at first sight, appears to 
use TrapaKvirrWy instead of iyKvirra), to mean, " looking con- 
tinuously upon," "peering intently into." But the writer is 
distinguishing those who perceive their own faces in a mirror, 
and go away and forget, from the man that first glances at, or, 
catches a glimpse of, the perfect law and then abides by it, 
being captivated by its beauty: "But he that hath caught 
a glimpse of the perfect law of liberty and hath abode by it, 
not letting himself become a forgetful hearer but a doer of 
work — he will be blessed in his doing^" The Epistle of St 
Peter speaks of " angels " as desiring to " catch a glimpse of 
the developments of the mysteries of the prophesied re- 
demption of mankind 1 The context here suggests that the 

1 Judg. V. 28. Note the imperf., A also adds k. KarefidvOavev. 

2 [1799 <^] Philo ii. 554 rrov yap toIs idiMTais irpb fiiKpov dents els 
fjyeixoviKTjs 'v//'i'X'7^ TrapaKV-^ai ^ovXevfxaTa ; Here irpo fiiKpov seems to mean 
that they cannot glance into them even " a little while before [their fulfil- 
ment]." This is the meaning assigned to npo fiiKpov in Steph. (7rp6) and 
in L.S. referring to Poll. i. 72. 

[1799^] Philo frequently uses other forms of Kvirroi, mostly in 
metaphor, to describe the soul of man looking out, or up, or beyond, the 
bars of material nature into the spiritual world e.g. diaKvirro), vnepKVTrra}, 
less freq. dva<v7rTa) and etcKinrTco (Philo i. 16, 471, 478 (lit.), 488, 570; ii. 
17 (lit.), 44 (Ht.), 62, 85, 195, 299, 540 (Ht.), 546, 665). Steph. quotes 
irpoKviTTO) of the mind (Sext. Emp. p. 441) "peering through the avenues 
of the senses as it were through chinks." 

^ [1800 a\ Jas i. 25 6 de TrapaKvyJAas fis vofxov reKeiov top rrjs eXevdepias 
KOI Trapafxeivas. Perh. the context implies a contrast. Those who " ta/^e 
careful note (Karai/oe'o)) " of their faces in the glass cannot, somehow, 
remember them for a moment. Some, " catching a mere glimpse " of 
the Perfect Law, abide, and cannot forget it. These are blessed. 

* [1800 <^] I Pet. i. 12 els a eiridvpovaiv ayyeXoi irapaKvy^rai. Hort 



[1801] WORDS PECULIAR 

" angels " are good, but the difficulty of deciding whether they 
are good or bad is illustrated by the usage in the Acts of 
Thomas where the verb is used in consecutive chapters to 
describe first, a spectator " gla?icing (or, peeping) into" the 
several torture pits of hell, and then the attempts of the 
tortured souls to "peep out of the cave in which they are 
imprisoned \ HapaKVTrrQ) does not appear in any case to 
mean " stoop down and look at," " pore over," or " examine 
minutely"." 

[1801] The Gospel of Peter says that the women, finding 
the sepulchre of Christ opened, '* approached and glanced in 
there and saw there a young man sitting in the midst of the 
graved" This may perhaps correspond to Luke's description 
of the women as " bending their faces to the earth " when they 
see '*two men," after entering the tomb*; but it is also used 



assumes that the angels "look down from heaven" as in Enoch ix. i 
TrapfKv^av eVi Tr}v yrjv, but this is not certain, see 659. Hort says {ad toe.) 
"When used figuratively, it (z.<f. tt.) commonly implies a rapid and 
cursory glance, never the contrary. Here, however, nothing more seems 
to be meant than looking down out of heaven." In Enoch, the word 
means that the angels, hearing the cry of the oppressed come up to 
heaven, " glanced on the earth " and saw bloodshed everywhere. Im- 
prisoned "angels" (Jude 6) might wish irapaKvirreLv "peep <?«/" (not 
"/«") as below. 

1 [1800 c] Act. Thom. § 52—4 " He caused me to peep into {ir. els) 
each pit... and peeping iji I saw mud and worms — peeping into which 
I saw souls... But many souls were trying to peep out from it {cKeWev 
TrapeKVTTTov) wishing for a breath of air, but their keepers would not let 
them/^<?^ out (Trapa/cvTrTcii/)." 

'^ [1800^] This meaning is reserved for eyKVTrra, Clem. R. 40 eyKCKv- 
<f)6T(S els Ta ^d$r) rrjs Oeias yvmarecos, 45 els ras ypa(fids, 53 els to. Xoyia tov 
Beov, Polyc. Pkit. 3 (poring over {els) the Epistles of St Paul), Clem. 
Horn. iii. 9 (dat.) Scriptures. 

3 [1801 <a:] Evang. Petr. 13 npna-eXdovaai TrapeKV^av eKel. 

* [1801 b] Lk. xxiv. 3 elo-eXdovaai indicates that the women had entered 
the tomb. Evang. Petr. speaks of them as " having approached {irpoaeXdov- 
aai)." Could Lk. have understood TrapaKvirroi as " stooping down " ? It 
would be less improb. that he should have read it as 7rpo<vrrT(o (see 
1799 «). 

302 



TO JOHN AND LUKE [1802] 

by John to describe Mary as " catching a glimpse (lit.) into (et?) 
the tomb " and beholding " two angels." Finally, to come to 
the John-Luke passages under consideration, Luke describes 
Peter, near the tomb, as ''glancing in" and " seeing the linen 
cloths alone" and "going to his home." John assigns the 
''glancing m!' not to Peter, but to another disciple, who 
outran Peter. This disciple (John says) subsequently entered 
the tomb and " saw and believed " ; Peter also entered and 
saw, but is not said to have " believed." 

[1802] Although the two disciples have the same evidence 
before them, the Fourth Gospel here restricts the mention of 
"belief" to "the other disciple" i^'he believed'') implying that 
Peter did not " believe." It is not surprising that some au- 
thorities substitute "they believed^." But perhaps the earliest 
tradition taught that Peter believed in consequence of Christ's 
appearing to him ("He appeared to Cephas; then to the 
Twelve^") — whereas others had previously believed because 
they had " seen a vision of angels^ " or had been enabled to 
"catch a glimpse of" the mystery of the Resurrection, and, 
as St James says, to "abide" in the possession of that 
truth. It will be observed that the bracketed passage in 
Luke, though it gives such prominence to Peter as to mention 
no companions*, nevertheless does not say that Peter believed, 
but merely that he " went away to his home wondering." 

^ SS, Chrys., and a comment in Cramer ad loc. Codex N, prob. by 
homoioteleuton, omits xx. 5 b and 6, so that it makes no mention of 
Peter's entering the tomb, and then alters "they knew" to "he knew" for 
consistency. 

2 I Cor. XV. 5. 3 Lk. xxiv. 23. 

* [1802 d\ Contrast this with Lk. xxiv. 24 " Some of those with us 
went to the tomb." " Those with him " (and still more easily " those with 
us") might be confused in Hebrew with " Simon. ''^ And this may 
explain Ign. Smyrti. § 3 "When He came to those with Peter (i.e. the 
Eleven) {rovs Trepi IleVpoi/)." Hence we may explain conflations, and 
interchanges, of "those with him," "disciples," "the Eleven," "those with 
Peter," "Peter" etc. Mary, or the women, bring tidings of the Re- 
surrection (Mk App. (I) xvi. 10) "to those that had been with hiin 

A. V. 303 21 



[1803] WORDS PECULIAR 

[1803] The inconsistency in Luke, who in the bracketed 
passage mentions Peter alone, but, later on, "some of those 
with us," as going to the tomb, is an additional reason for 
supposing that the former passage is genuine, and that Luke 
copied it verbatim from early tradition, not altering the words 
although he knew that " Peter," in such traditions, often 
meant more than one disciple, and although he himself implies 
more than one later on. The bracketed words are omitted, 
it is true, by D, by several Latin MSS,, and by other 
authorities : but almost all of these MSS. place John before 
Luke m tJuir pages, and, after writing John's elaborate 
account, the scribes of these MSS. might naturally shrink from 
inserting Luke's account using the same rare words but in a 
narrative so curt and (as it would seem to them) so one-sided ^ 
Moreover, in answer to those who maintain that the passage 
is interpolated in Luke from John, it may be urged that 
it is incredible that anyone but a heretic or a rejecter of the 
Fourth Gospel could interpolate such a truncated and falsified 
version of John's consistent narrative, without even taking the 
trouble to reconcile it with Luke's later statement (" some of 
those with us "). 

[1804] The most probable conclusion is, that the words 
in Luke are not an interpolation but an isolated tradition 
inserted by him in his Gospel, as he found it, without attempt 
to explain its exact meaning or to reconcile it with other 
traditions, and that John writes with allusion not only to 
Luke, but also to other traditions in which the rare word 

(i.e. with Jesus\'' (Mk App. (II)) ''to those with Peter,'' (Lk. xxiv. 9) "to 
the Eleven and the rest." Perh. there is conflation in Mk xvi. 7 "to his 
disciples and Peter'" (compared with the parall. Mt. xxviii. 7 "to his 
disciples'") and in Lk. ix. 32 " But Peter and those with him." Note also 
Mk iv. 10 '■''those with him [Jesus] {p\ nepl aurov) with {(tvv) the twelve" 
parall. Mt. xiii. 10 "the disciples^' Lk. viii. 9 "his disciples" Comp. the 
chapter on " Nos qui cum eo fuimus" in Sons of Francis hy A. Macdonell 
(p. 27 foil). 

* The Diatessaron also omits the words. 

304 



TO JOHN AND LUKE [1804] 

under consideration was connected with " angels " and with 
the mystery of the Resurrection of Christ. Luke mentions 
" two disciples," immediately after this visit to the tomb, as 
having this mystery revealed to them, when their hearts had 
been opened to discern the Scriptures. John says that the 
two disciples that visit the tomb "knew not yet the 
Scriptures " ; yet one of them was enabled to " catch a 
glimpse" of facts that led him to "see and believe," even 
before Peter had believed. Mary Magdalene attained yet 
more. She remained by the tomb weeping, and she "caught 
a glimpse (lit.) into [the spiritual revelation of] the tomb 
(TrapeKvyjrev ek to /jLvrj/ubetov),'' where she beheld, not " lineft 
cloths alone]' but ''angels',' preparing the way for a full 
revelation of the risen Saviour. John is perhaps alluding 
to Luke in his detail of the " linen cloths " lying " apart " 
from the head covering, which seems to be an interpretation 
of Luke's " linen cloths alone {fiova)" But the question before 
us is whether John is writing allusively to Luke in respect 
of the words irapaKvirro) and oOovia. To this the preceding 
investigations give an affirmative answer. And, as in the 
instances of " Psjvva^, eKfidcro-w, diro^aivwy €(tt7j €l<; /jueaov, so 
as regards irapaKvirrw and odovia, John appears to be not 
only allusive, but also corrective \ 



1 [1804 d\ W.H. also enclose in double brackets {a) Lk. xxiv. 36 kcli 
Xe'yei avrols, Eiprjvrj vfiiv^ {b) xxiv. 40 Koi tovto elirav edei^ev avrols ray 
X^lpas KoX Toi/s iToBas. Comp. (l) Jn xx. 19 koi Xe'yet avrols, Eiprjvr) vfxlv, 
Koi TOVTO eiTrav edei^ev Koi Tas ;(elpaff koi ttjv TrXevpav avrols. In Lk., D and 
the best Lat. MSS. om. both a and d. SS om. d. Lk. never uses the 
historic present Xeyei (freq. in Mk and Jn) of Jesus. If therefore (a) is 
genuine, it was prob. inserted by Lk. from some ancient tradition, which 
Lk. preferred not to revise or alter (1803). The Latin MSS. may have 
omitted it because Lk.'s text goes on to say that the disciples "were 
afraid," and such fear would more naturally precede, than follow, the 
words " Peace be unto you." As to (d), it could not have been interpolated 
from Jn without the violent alteration of rrXevpav to TrdSas, which seems 
improbable. But it may have been a genuine insertion of Lk. — perh. 

305 21—2 



[1804] JOHN AND LUKE 

added by him in a late edition of which there were only a few copies — 
omitted by the Latin MSS. because Jn's account seemed preferable. 

[1804/^] It is probable that Jn wrote with a view to these traditions of 
Lk. and especially to Lk.'s tradition that our Lord said '"''Handle 7ne 
{^\a<f)T](raTe fif) " to the Eleven. According to Jn there was no mention 
of " handling " to the assembled disciples, until Thomas had refused to 
believe without the evidence of touch, for which he was rebuked in 
a second manifestation. The word "handle" occurs in i Jn i. i "and 
our hands /lancikd" probably attesting the genuine Incarnation against 
heretics of Gnostic tendencies, who asserted that Christ had not come in 
the flesh. It does not appear to refer, as the word does in Lk., to any 
actual " handling " of the Lord's body after the Resurrection. St Paul 
uses it in a bold metaphor in the Acts xvii. 27 " to seek God, if haply 
they might handle him (or, feel him with their hands) and [thus] find 
him." 



[1804 c\ UapaKVTTTay in LXX — apart from Judg. v. 28, where (1799) A 
reads buKvirrcv, and from I K. vi. 4 6vpi8as 7rapa<v7rTOfi4vas Theod. diaKvn- 
TOjxivas — means " looking through a window," Gen. xxvi. 8 of Abimelech 
seeing Isaac with Rebecca, i Chr. xv. 29 of Michal seeing David dancing, 
Prov. vii. 6 of the " strange woman," whom the LXX erroneously regards 
as looking at the young man passing in the street. Cant. ii. 9 of a lover 
in the street looking through the windows of the house of his beloved. In 
Sir. xxi. 23 it is used of a fool prying through an open door (paradoxically 
used in a good sense in Sir. xiv. 23). The Heb. word regularly rendered 
rrapaKvirro), is never thus rendered when applied to God looking out of 
heaven^ e.g. Ps. xiv. 2, liii. 2 (comp. Ixxxv. 12), Lam. iii. 50 Siaxi'Trra), Ps. 
cii. 19 eKKVTrro) etc. 

[1804^] The Syriac of irapaKvirrdi in Jn xx. 5, 11 and Lk. xxiv. 12 is 
simply "look" (without "stoop"). The Latin versions have (Jn xx. 5) 
a {?) " proscultans," d and ^ " se inclinasset et prospexisset," d and e 
"prospiciens,"/"se inclinasset" ; (Jn xx. 11) a "...dspexit" (.?[a]dspexit), 
d and / " inclinavit se et prospexit," d and e " prospexit," / " inclinavit 
se et prospexit." Lk. xxiv. 12 is om. by a, d, d (with D) and e ; f has 
" procumbens." In Jn xx. 11, Chrys. throws no light, but Cramer has 
(from Euseb. of Caes.) ert Se koL dno iroXXov Xoyov irapeKVTTTev, where the 
imperf. as in Judg. v. 28 (A) perh. denotes (1799) continuousness. 



306 



CHAPTER IV 



WORDS PECULIAR TO JOHN, MARK, AND MATTHEW 



§ I. Introductory remarks 

[1805] Antecedently we might expect that the number of 
Johannine words pecuHar to Mark and Matthew would be 
smaller than the number peculiar to Mark alone. Mark's 
style is occasionally uncouth, and, where Matthew corrects 
it, John cannot be identical with both. Take, for example, 
the narrative of the crown of thorns : 



Mk XV. 17 (lit.) 
''And they put on 
(cvStSvtTKovo-iv) him 
purple (TTopcjivpav) 
and place round 
(TTipLTLOeaqLv) him 
having woven a 
thorn[y] (dKdvBivov) 
crown." 



Mt.xxvii. 28 — 9 (lit.) 
"And having put 
off from him [his 
own clothes] ^ (ck- 
8i;cravT€S avTOv) a 
scarlet cloak (x^^t- 
IxvSa KOKKiv-qvY they 
placed round (Trcpi- 
WrjKav) him and 
having woven a 
crown from thorns 
(c^ aKavOoJi/) they 
placed [it] on (cire- 
67}KavY his head.*' 



Jn xix. 2 (lit.) 
"...having woven 
a crown from thorns 
(c^ aKavdi^vY they 
placed it on (cTre- 
driKav)\i\?, head (dat.) 
and a purple gar- 
ment they clothed 
him withal (t/xariov 

7rop(f>vpovv TTCptC- 

l^aXov avToV)." 



1 V. r. "having put on /am" and "purple garment and scarlet cloak." 

2 W.H. eneOrjKav eni, B TrepiedrjKav eVt, lit. "placed it round on." 

3 [1805 a] This passage well illustrates the danger of arguing from 
mere statistics apart from circumstances. In the Jn-Mk list, aKavdivos 



307 



[1806] WORDS PECULIAR 

[1806] Here, there seems to have been a very early- 
confusion between €NAY(jO " put on," and €KAYOO " put off," 
and between ''placing a purple garment round" the body and 
''placing a crown of thorns round'' the head. Mark uses 
"place round'' concerning the crown. Matthew uses " place 
on " concerning the crown, and, to make the distinction quite 
clear, adds " t/ic head!' John also, like Matthew, has " placed 
it on his head!' Like Matthew, too, he has the phrase "having 
woven from thorns]' where Mark has " thorny!' It is very 
probable that John accepted these corrections of Mark from 
Matthew^: but in any case the result is that the three writers 
do not agree together in the exact use of the verb of crowning 
(" put on " or " put round ") or as regards the construction of 
the crown (Mk "thorny," Mt.-Jn "from thorns"). 

[1807] Bearing these facts in mind we may well regard 
the number of words peculiar to the three Evangelists as 
large, and the proportion of words marked f in the appended 
list as surprisingly large. Endeavouring to classify them, we 
find that one is a proper name, "Golgotha^" ; and another is 
a technical term, " Hosanna^" The parallel Luke in both 
passages gives the substance of Mark-Matthew but omits 
" Golgotha " and " Hosanna." Perhaps some confusion be- 
tween "skull" and "place of skull" induced Luke to omit 

appeared, because of Jn xix. 5 "wearing the thorny crown." The 
adjective occurs nowhere but in Mk xv. 17, Jn xix. 5. But the noun^ and 
the whole phrase, " having woven a crown from thorns!'' occur both in 
Mt. and in Jn. The Jn-Mt. list, however, could not include "thorn," 
as the word (occurring in the Parable of the Sower in Mk-Mt.-Lk.) is 
not peculiar to Jn and Mt. 

1 [1806^] As regards Jn xix. 2 "clothed (Tre pu^aXov)," it happens that 
Lk. xxiii. 1 1 {Trepi^aXoiv i(r6rjTa Xafiirpdv) has this very word to denote 
Herod's clothing Christ with gorgeous raiment in mockery. Jn may 
have had this in mind. Tlepi^dWa), however, is a more appropriate word 
than TrfpiTidijfii to express clothing except as applied to a scarf or short 
cloak placed round the neck. Steph. quotes Herodian iii. 7. 12 ttjv 
xKap.v8a nepieOtcrav. 

2 roXyoBd, see 1810, note 4. ^ 'Qa-awd, see 1816 d. 

308 



TO JOHN, MARK, AND MATTHEW [1809] 

the former : and some doubt about the fitness of such a term 
as " Hosanna " in a Gospel for educated Greeks unacquainted 
with Hebrew may have induced him to omit the latter. 

[1808] Apart from the Passion, the only words of im- 
portance are '•' money-changer^ " in the Purification of the 
Temple, and "sell^" in the Anointing of Christ by a woman. 
A third, "evening^" — unimportant unless evidence should 
shew that the word may point to original symbolism — is 
found in the Walking on the Waters. In all these cases 
a reason for John's intervention may be found in Luke's 
omission. The latter omits, in his account of the Purification, 
the detail about the " money-changers ".; and he altogether 
omits the narrative of the Walking on the Waters, and 
substitutes for Mark's narrative of the Anointing another 
of an entirely different tendency. 

[1809] In the Passion, the words marked f are " cohort^" 
''crown [of thorns]-^", " plait V' " praetoriumV' **put round," 
and " sponge^." In every case, Luke has omitted not only 
each word but also the whole narrative containing the word. 
In Luke, there is no " crown of thorns." The mocking of 
the "cohort" is either omitted, or replaced by an entirely 
different story concerning the soldiers of Herod Antipas, 
whose "palace" he perhaps identifies with the Synoptic 
" praetorium." The incident of the " sponge " full of vinegar 
— explained by John (1813 c) in connexion with " hyssop," 
perhaps originally the hyssop-bunch used on the Passover 
night — Luke wholly omits. This is not the place to consider 
whether John is right in all his interventions : the object now 
is merely to demonstrate that John's agreements with Mark 
and Matthew coincide almost in each case with omissions or 
deviations of Luke. 

1 KoWv^KTrrfs, see 1812 d. ^ EEtTrpao-KO), see 1814 a. 

3 'O^/ria, see 1813 a. 4 STreTpa, see 1815 c. 

" 2T4cf)avos, see 1805—6. " nXeVo), see 1814 d. 

'' IlpaLToypiov, see 1814 c. ^ IlepiTldrjfMi and (nroyyosj see 1813 C. 



[1810] WORDS PECULIAR 





JOHN- 


•MARK-MATTHEW 


AGREEMENTS! 












Mk 


Mt. Jn 




Mk 


Mt. 


Jn 


[1810] 


^r}er}S (1727 ^) 


I 


I 14 


dvaxoipeo)'^ 


I 


lO 


I 




OTTtoXeta^ 




' 


2 I 


Ti^'"-^ 


3 


4 


4 




t ToXyoed* 




I 


I I 


yv fives'^ 


2 


4 


I 




8evT€^ 




3 


6 2 


SiaKOvos^ 


2 


3 


3 


[1811] 


doXos^ 




2 


I I 


efi^pifxaofiaL^ 


2 


I 


2/ 



! [1810 «j] No word has an asterisk attached to it in this Hst because 
no word is used by Jn in a different sense from that which it has in 
Mk-Mt. : t denotes that the word not only has the same meaning in Jn 
and Mk-Mt. but also occurs in parallel passages: .''f indicates quasi- 
parallelism, on which see 1817 ; the only word thus marked is (nrelpa, 
"cohort." The list does not include parts of speech used in a special 
sense, e.£: 8id with accus. of person, "for the sake of" (1721 w). 

2 'Ai/ax^peo), "retire," Mk iii. 7 (Mt. xii. 15), Jn vi. 15. 

3 [1810 rt] 'ATTcoXeia, in Mt. vii. 13, Jn xvii. 12, means "(spiritual) 
destruction," and Jn xvii. 12 calls Judas Iscariot "the son of des^ruc/wn." 
In the parall. to Mk xiv. 4, Mt. xxvi. 8 "Why this destructio7i or wasteV 
Jn xii. 4 mentions '''■Judas IscariotP The Original may have contained 
some mention of " destruction^' variously interpreted as (Mk-Mt.) " waste" 
(Jn) "[son of] destruction.'^ 

* VokyoOd^ i.e. "skull." Mk xv. 22, Mt. xxvii. 33, Jn xix. 17. The 
parall. Lk. xxiii. 33 simply gives " skull," and not the Heb. equivalent. 

^ [1810 (^] Tv/xj/os-, "naked," in Mt. only in a Parable xxv. 36 ^'' naked 
and ye clothed me" (rep. xxv. 38 — 44). In Mk xiv. 51 — 2 (twice) it refers 
to a young man deprived of his "linen garment" ; in Jn xxi. 7, to Peter, 
" naked," but " girding himself" before entering his Master's presence. 

6 [1810^] AfVTf, ''hither^' in (rt) Mk vi. 31 ''[Come] hither ye by 
yourselves into a desert place and rest (or, refresh yourselves) a little," 
{b) Mt. xi. 28, '•'{Come] hither unto me all that are weary. ..and I will give 
you rest (or, refreshment)," and {c) Jn xxi. 12 "-{Come] hither.^ break your 
fast," occurs in words of Christ inviting the disciples to "take refresh- 
ment" {avdiTav(Tiv^ -opai), or to "break their fast": {a) is in the Triple 
Tradition without parall. in Mt.-Lk., (d) is in Mt.'s Single Tradition, 
immediately after a passage of the Double Tradition (Mt. xi. 27, Lk. x. 22 
" All things were delivered to me by my Father..."), (c) in Jn, refers to the 
period after the Resurrection. 

^ AiaKovos, "minister." In the parall. to Mk x. 43 didicovos, Lk. xxii. 
26 has 8iaKova)v, so that, practically, this word is common to the Four 
Gospels {VJVJ d^g) in Christ's Doctrine of Service. 

^ AoXos-, "guile," Mk vii. 22, xiv. i (Mt. xxvi. 4), Jn i. 47. 

^ [1811 a] ^Efi^pinda-Om is in Mk xiv. 5 (R.V.) " murmured against 

310 



TO JOHN, MARK, AND MATTHEW [1811] 





Mk 


Mt. 


Jn 






Mk 


Mt. 


Jn 


iiravpiov 


(1717/^) I 


I 


5 


BaXaacra 


{t^s 


2 


2 


I 



(dat.) her." It describes persecutors (Euseb. v. i. 66) "roaring-" and 
gnashing their teeth, madmen (Steph. iii. 825 a) fxaviadeis koI efi^pifiov- 
fievoi. Lucian i. 484 couples eve^pifirja-aro rj Bpifia with "Cerberus barking." 
The vb. and der. nouns describe God's anger in Ps. vii. 12 (Aq.), Is. xvii. 
13 (Sym.), Ezek. xxi. 31 (Theod.) etc. Comp. Dan. xi. 30 (LXX). 

[1811 <^] In Mk i. 43, Mt. ix. 30 it is applied to Jesus (R.V. txt) 
'''■strictly (marg. sternly) charging" those whom He has healed. But Gk. 
usage seems to demand some such rendering as "roar" — used of Jehovah 
(R.V.) in Jer. xxv. 30 {pis\ Hos. xi. 10 {bis\ Joel iii. 16, Amos i. 2. 

Jn applies it to Jesus twice (xi. 33 — 8), describing how, when He 
saw Mary and the Jews weeping for Lazarus, (i) eve^piprjqraTo ry Trvgti- 
fiari KOI irdpa^ev eavrbv kcu ^Ir^aovs ovv rrakiv (2) ip^pipoapevos iv iavra 

epxerai els to pvrjfielov. According to the analogy of the dative in the 
three Synoptic instances, the dat. r« Trvevfian should be the object of the 
verb ; and this is not inconsistent with a parallelism between tm irvcvpaTL 
and ev eavra, for if anyone " roars against " his own spirit, he may be said 
to be doing it "in himself," i.e. not against another. But the meaning is 
uncertain and perhaps intended by the Evangelist to be so, except so far 
as it contains an allusion to, and perhaps a protest against, the tradition 
of Mk and Mt. (discarded by Lk.) that Jesus '■'■ roared against" those 
whom He healed — traditions perhaps based on a statement that He 
" cried out against " unclean spirits or diseases, not against the diseased. 

[1811 c\ As regards the positive Johannine meaning, if " spirit " is the 
object of " roared against" some might suppose that the Logos is regarded 
as rebuking Himself and forcing Himself to weep and to be troubled in 
sympathy with the friends of Lazarus, although He knows that Lazarus is 
not really dead. But we have to compare tw rrvevpaTi here with the only 
other Johannine use of it (Jn xiii. 21) "he was troubled in the (i.e. his) 
spirit." This suggests that John does not follow the grammatical 
construction of the Synoptists in the use of this rare verb, but that 
he uses it absolutely, without expressing an object, first, " roaring in his 
spirit" and then " roaring again in himself." If so, the Evangelist leaves 
it to us to imagine what the Messiah is ^^ roaring against." Presumably, 
it is against all the evil that makes men slaves instead of being the free 
children of God. One aspect of this is death, through fear of which men 
were (Heb. ii. 15) "all their lifetime subject to bondage." See also 
(1727^) "trouble." 

^ [1811^] GaXacrcra xTjy T., ^'^ Sea of Galilee" is used by Jn (vi. i) 
followed by " Tiberias^" so as to explain its meaning. Lk. substitutes " lake'^ 
whenever that sea is mentioned or implied. Jn calls it merely (xxi. i) 
"Tiberias " when he connects it with the manifestation of the risen Saviour. 



OF THE 

UNIVERSITY 



[1812] WORDS PECULIAR 

Mk Mt. Jn Mk Mt. Jn 

Bap(T€(o^ 2 3 I 6Xi\lfis^ 342 

[1812] rdf3 9 4 15 t KOXXV^KTTTJS^ I I I 

Xvrreofxai, 262 fiavOdvco I 3 2 

fifOepfirjvevay 3 I 2 fiiKpov (1716^) 229 

[1813] i/tVro) (1728^) I 2 13 vo€(o^ 3 4 I 

t oylria^' ^62 irapayoi^ 331 

Tripav (rov^opb.Y 2 3 3 f TrepiTiBr^fii^ 3 3 I 

^ [1811 ^] Gap(r€(o, " be of good cheer," in Jn, only xvi. 33 " Be of good 
cheer, I have overcome the world." In Mk vi. 50, Mt. xiv. 27 '■''Be of 
good cheer (dapa-elTe), it is I, be not afraid," Jn (vi. 20) omits Bapa-elre. 
0avpxurT6s, "wonderful," should have been inserted here, occurring in 
Mk xii. II, Mt. xxi. 42 (quoting Ps. cxvii. 23) and in Jn ix. 30. 

2 [1811/] eXi'^tr, "tribulation," is used by Jn only in xvi. 21, 33 
" remembereth no more the anguish" " In the world ye have tribulation." 
In Mk iv. 17, Mt. xiii. 21 '"'■tribulation or persecution," Lk. viii. 13 has 
"trial" or "temptation" {ir^ipacrp-o^). 

3 [1812 «] "iSe, "see!" is never used by Mk and Mt. in parallel 
passages, nor by Jn in any parall. either to Mk or to Mt. 

^ [1812 b'\ KoXXv^carrjs, " moneychanger,'" occurs in the Purification of 
the Temple in Mk xi. 15, Mt. xxi. 12, Jn ii. 15. But Jn places the Puri- 
fication at the beginning, Mk-Mt. towards the end, of Christ's preaching. 

° No€a), "perceive," in Jn, only in quotation Jn xii. 40 (Is. vi. 10). 

^ [1813 rt] '0\//'ia, "evening," occurs in Jn (i) in the Walking on the 
Waters, Mk vi. 47, Mt. xiv. 23 — 4, Jn vi. 16, (2) in the first Manifestation 
of the risen Saviour to the assembled disciples, Jn xx. 19. Luke has a 
parallel to the latter, but not to the former. In Mk-Mt.'s version of the 
Walking on the Waters, the disciples fear because they think Him 
'•'- a phantasm'''' (SS "devil"); in Lk.'s version of the Manifestation they 
fear because they think He is "« spirit^^ D '■''phantasm^'' Ign. Smyrn. 3 
" bodiless deinoji.'''' Jn has no mention of " a spirit " or " phantasm " 
in either narrative, 

" Uapayei, "pass by," occurs in Mt. xx. 30, Jn ix. i, in the Healing of 
the Blind, concerning Jesus " passing by," but in quite different circum- 
stances. 

^ [1813 b] Uepav Tov 'lopddvov, " beyond Jordan." Lk. prob. om. the 
term as ambiguous, see i K. iv. 24 R. V. " on this side (marg. beyond) the 
river ^^ LXX tripav tov n. Ezr. iv. 16, 17, 20 '^ beyond the river" is parall. 
to I Esdr. ii. 24, 25, 27 "in Celosyria (or Syria) and Phenice." 

'^ [1813^] nepiTiBrjfii, "put round," is in Mk xv. 36, Mt. xxvii. 48, 
Jn xix. 29 about the offering of the vinegar by means of a " sponge." 
Perhaps Mk-Mt. took a "hyssop-bunch," of which the "sponge" may 
have been composed, as a stalk of hyssop. See The Fourfold Gospel. 

312 



TO JOHN, MARK, AND MATTHEW [1815] 





Mk Mt. Jn 




Mk 


Mt. 


Jn 


[1814] t Tnirpda-KQ)^ 
TrXrjpcofia 


I 3 I 
3 I I 


t 7rX6Ka)2 

TToWaKlS 


I 

2 


I 

2 


I 


TTopveia 

[1815] 1 TVpCoi^ 


I 3 I 
5+[l]2 + [l] 2 


t irpaiT<i)piov^ 
'Pa^/3€l 


3 


I 

4 


4 
8 


?t (TTrelpa^ 


I I 2 


t (TTToyyos 

(imc) 


I 


^ 


I 



1 [1814 «] UiTTpdarKco, "sell," is in Mk xiv. 5, Mt. xxvi. 9, Jn xii. 5, 
about the perfume that " could have been so/{/" for (Mk-Jn) " 300 denarii," 
(Mt.) " much." 

2 [1814^] nXe'KO), "plait," is in Mk xv. 17, Mt. xxvii. 29, Jn xix. 2 
concerning the crown of thorns. 

2 [1814^] UpaiTcipiov, " praetorium," or "palace," occurs in Mk xv. 16, 
Mt. xxvii. 27 as the place to which the soldiers take Jesus, a/^fer Pilate 
had pronounced sentence, where they clothe Him with purple and crown 
Him with thorns, just before the Crucifixion. Jn xviii. 28 mentions it as 
the place to which the soldiers take Jesus from Caiaphas to Pilate for 
trial, and from which Pilate brings Jesus out clothed in purple and 
wearing the crown of thorns before pronouncing sentence. It is implied 
that Jesus is led back to it, as Pilate (xix. 9) " entered into the praetorium 
again " and there speaks to Jesus. Luke never mentions the "praetorium," 
nor the " crown of thorns," but represents Herod as having clothed Jesus 
in "bright raiment." The Acts mentions the word once in Acts xxiii. 35 
" Having bidden him to be kept in Herod's Praetorimn" It is possible 
that Luke took the " Praetorium " in Jerusalem mentioned by Mk-Mt. as 
being Herods ^'' palace.^'' This might induce John to emphasize the 
meaning of the word so as to correct Luke's error. On the mis- 
understanding that seems to have led Luke to introduce Herod in the 
narrative, see 56, 502 — 3. 

* [1815^] IIpcoi "early" (marked % because it may refer to the same 
event in Mk-Jn, but certainly does not in Mt.-Jn), in Mk xvi. 2 "very 
early ^'' and in Jn xx. i '"'■early, it being still dark," is used about the visit 
of the women (Jn mentions Mary Magdalene alone) to Christ's tomb. 
Mk App, xvi. 9 "having risen early'' is used about Christ's manifestation 
to Mary Magdalene. 

[1815 d'\ In describing the trial, Mk xv. i describes the Sanhedrin as 
assembling ^^straightway early" i.e. immediately on dawn, while Jn xviii. 
28 uses " early," perhaps meaning a somewhat later hour, to describe the 
leading of Jesus from Caiaphas to Pilate. 

^ [1815 <;] STreipa, "cohort," is not mentioned by Mk xv. i6, Mt. xxvii. 
27 till after Pilate's sentence when "the whole cohort" is "called 
together" to mock the condemned. Jn mentions it earlier as having been 
(xviii. 3) "taken" by Judas to arrest Jesus, and as (xviii. 12) "seizing" 



[1816] WORDS PECULIAR 

Mk Mt. Jn Mk Mt. Jn 

t OT4<f)avos (1805 ?(rvv<rTavp6a>^ III 

— 6) I I 2 (Txla-fia^ I I 3 

[1816] re pas I I I riypcco (1714/%) I 6 l8 

vyir]S (1728 e) I I 6 virdyo) 

(metaph.)^ i i c. i8 
XfiH-atv I i4-[i] I x^P^'w I 3 3 

■)(a>pLov I I I t Idcravvd^ 2 3 ^ 

§ 2. Absence of Quasi-parallels 

[1817] Comparing this list with previous ones we find the 
number of quasi-parallels {i.e. words marked ?f because 
though the word is the same the context is altered in such 
a way as to imply disagreement) very small indeed, only one 
(a-Treipa) being thus marked. There are more quasi-parallels 
in the John-Mark list and in the John-Luke list. The reason 
for their absence here is, perhaps, that this list represents the 
cases where John agrees with no^ Mark alotte but Mark 
supported by Matthew. The combined evidence of Mark and 
Matthew might seem to John too weighty to reject in the 
details of such narratives as the Purification of the Temple 

Him ; and, when he comes to describe the mocking, he simply mentions 
"the soldiers." 

It has been suggested (1365) that John may have been led to infer that 
Judas "received a cohorf^ ixova. a confusion of the tradition that he 
"received a sign" — "sign" and "cohort" (in the form o-rjfiaia) being 
similar Greek words. But Mt. xxvii. 27 awrjyayov in avrov oXrjv rffv 
crTTflpav, " they gathered together against him the whole of the cohort " is 
an ambiguous expression. It might very well have been understood as 
meaning " They gathered together the whole of the cohort to take Jesus," 
and perhaps John understood it thus. 

^ '^vvcTTavpoixi.i see 1817 c. 

2 [1815^ Sxio-fia, "rent," "schism," in Mk ii. 21 (Mt. ix. 16) "a worse 
rentj^ lit., but in parable. In Jn vii. 43, ix. 16, x. 19, it describes a 
"schism" among the Jews, some favouring, some rejecting, Christ. 

3 [1816 «] 'YTrayo) (metaph.) "depart," "go home," Mk xiv. 21, 
Mt. xxvi. 24, "the Son of man departeth (Lk. xxii. 22 iropeveTai).'^ On 
virdyo) and TTopevofjiai, see 1652 — 64. 

^ [1816 <^] 'aaavvd, " Hosanna," Mk xi. 9—10, Mt. xxi. 9 (rep. xxi. 15), 
Jn xii. 13, is parall. to Lk. xix. 38 "in heaven peace and glory (1807)." 

314 



TO JOHN, MARK, AND MATTHEW [1817] 

a«d the Passion. And in points that might be called matters 
of taste, e.g. the question whether "Hosanna" should be 
retained or paraphrased in Greek Gospels, the usage of Mark 
when confirmed by Matthew might decide John to adopt the 
Jewish term in preference to the paraphrase in Luke. There 
are no words marked * as being used in a different sense by 
John from the sense in Mark and Matthew^ 



^ [1817 <?;] Xcope'oj, "find room for," "hold," is the nearest approach to 
such a word, for it also means "go" in Mt. xv. 17 but not perhaps in Jn 
except in viii. 37 (R.V. txt) ^'- hath not/ree course in you." Prob. however 
Field is right in upholding A.V. (R.V. marg.) '''■hath no place in you," 
He compares Alciphr. Epist. iii. 7 where a doctor "wonders where and 
how food finds a place in a glutton's stomach." 

[1817/^] For the Jn-Mk-Mt. use of "sea" in "sea of Galilee," and of 
"beyond" in "beyond Jordan," see eakaaaa (1811 d) and irepav (1813^). 

[1817 c'\ 2vv(rTavp6<o, "crucify together with," might perhaps have been 
marked ?f or even t. It occurs in Mk xv. 32, Mt. xxvii. 44 shortly before 
Christ's death, but in Jn xix. 32 shortly after it. In Mk Mt. it means 
"crucified wzth" Jesus, but Jn applies it to the second malefactor 
"crucified with'''' the first inalefactor. See 1678. 



315 



CHAPTER V 
WORDS PECULIAR TO JOHN, MARK, AND LUKE 

§ I. Introductory remarks 

[1818] Antecedently, if we knew nothing about the Three 
Gospels except that Matthew and Luke borrowed from Mark, 
and nothing about the Fourth except that it was written 
at a time when the Three had become authoritative, we 
might expect the number of Johannine words peculiar to 
Mark and Luke, and also those marked f as being in parallel 
passages, to be as large as the same numbers in the John- 
Mark-Matthew list 

[1819] But Luke follows Mark most closely in narratives 
of a thaumaturgic character and especially in exorcisms ; and 
these are just the subjects that John avoids or passes lightly 
over. Moreover, Luke, even where following Mark closely, 
alters low- class Greek words such as Kpd^aTTo<;, which John 
retains. And generally, since we find John not only sup- 
porting Mark when Luke deviates from him, but also taking 
different views from Luke, we ought to be prepared to find 
the number of John-Mark-Luke agreements small, and the 
number of parallelisms very small indeed. 

§2. ''Latchet" '' spices,'' ''rouse up'' 

[1820] And this is the case. Only one word, /yua?, "latchet," 
is marked f without query, occurring in the Baptist's descrip- 
tion of the coming Deliverer, the " latchet " of whose shoe he 

316 



JOHN, MARK, AND LUKE [1823] 

declares himself unworthy to loose. Matthew, instead of 
"loosing the shoe-latchet," has "bear the shoes," perhaps 
blending together the performance of two menial services as 
explained in the foot-note (1833 d\ This deviation of 
Matthew from Mark, while Luke and John adhere to the 
word "latchet," accounts for the one Johannine word in the 
following list, parallel and peculiar to Mark and Luke. 

[1821] The word "spices," dpco/jLara, marked ?f, is of 
interest, although not exactly parallel. In Mark and Luke it 
refers to ''spices" prepared by the women for the body of 
Christ. But Matthew, though closely agreeing with Mark in 
the context, makes no mention of " spices," nor of any 
preparations for embalming on their part. John uses the 
word concerning the "spices'' actually used by Joseph and 
Nicodemus in the burial of Christ: and, as he speaks of these, 
and makes no mention of "spices" in his account of the visit 
of the women to the tomb, we are led to infer that he agreed 
with Matthew that the women came simply " to behold the 
tomb." John appears to be tacitly correcting what seemed 
to him wrong in Mark and Luke by inserting what seemed 
to him right (1832 d). 

[1822] The word Steyeipco, " rouse up," though not marked 
f, derives interest from its extreme rarity (as indicated in the 
foot-note (1832 c)) and from the possibility that it may point 
to some explanation of Luke's omission of the story of Christ 
walking on the water, which John inserts. On the other 
hand John omits the story of Christ falling asleep in the boat 
and awaking and rebuking the storm, which Luke inserts. 
And this rare word SieyeLpco is used by Mark and Luke in 
the one narrative to describe Jesus, but by John in the other 
to describe the sea, as being " roused up." 

§3. Mark, Luke, and John, on ''rejection'' 

[1823] The word dOereo), "reject" or "set at naught," is 
nowhere parallel in Mark and Luke, but it occurs in Luke 

317 



[1824] 



WORDS PECULIAR 



and John, as will be seen below, in the phrases "he that 
rejecteth you" and " he that rejecteth mel' with words of 
warning as to the consequences of rejection. 

[1824] Mark uses it in a saying of the Lord that the 
Pharisees ''reject the word of God'' in order that they may 
keep their own tradition \ that is to say, they allow a man to 
break the commandment about honouring one's father, under 
the shelter of the word " Corban." Matthew, too, has this. 
But, besides other deviations, Matthew uses " transgress " 
instead of " reject^!' 

[1825] The difference between Luke and John is worth 
looking into, and Luke should also be compared with the 
parallel Matthew: 

Lk. X. 1 6 
" He that heareth 

you heareth me, and 

he that rejecteth you 

rejecteth me. But 

he that rejecteth me 

rejecteth him that 

sent me." 



Mt. X. 40 — I 
" He that receiveth 
you receiveth me, 
and he that receiv- 
eth me receiveth him 
that sent me. He 
that receiveth a pro- 
phet in the name of 
a prophet...." 



Jn xii. 44 — 8 
"He that believ- 
eth on me believeth 
not on me but on 
him that sent me... 
And if any man hear 
my words and ob- 
serve them not, I 
(emph.) judge him 
not... He that reject- 
eth me and taketh 
not my words (piy- 
/xara) [into his heart] 
hath him that judg- 
eth him. The word 
that I spake — that 
[word] shall judge 
him in the last day." 

[1826] It will be noted that Matthew, omitting all mention 
of ''rejecting" confines himself to the doctrine of "receiving." 



1 [1824 rt] Mk vii. 9 aBsrfiTe, Mt. xv. 3 Trapa&aivere. The same thing 
is expressed by Mk vii. 13, Mt. xv. 3 aKvpovv. Lk. omits all this. 

318 



TO JOHN, MARK, AND LUKE 



[1828] 



His tradition may be rearranged, to shew its parallelism with 
the Triple Tradition and with the tradition of John on 
"receiving!' thus: 



Mk ix. 37 
"Whosoever 
shall receive 
(Se^T/rat) [one] 
of such little 
children in my 
name receiveth 
me, and whoso- 
ever is receiv- 
ing {BexqTai) me 
is receiving not 
me but him 
that sent me." 



Mt. X. 40 
" He that 
receiveth you 
receiveth me, 
and he that 
receiveth me 
receiveth him 
that sent me." 



Lk. ix. 48 
"Whosoever 
shall receive 
this Httle child 
in my name 
receiveth me, 
and whoso- 
ever shall re- 
ceive me re- 
ceiveth him 
that sent me." 



Jn xiii. 20 
"He that re- 
ceiveth whom- 
soever I shall 
send receiveth 
me, and he 
that receiveth 
me receiveth 
him that sent 
me^" 



[1827] Reviewing the evidence, we note, first, that the 
earliest of the Four Gospels (Mark) uses the word ''reject'' 
to signify the rejection, not of mans word but of God's word, 
namely, the command to honour parents. The next in date, 
Matthew (using the word " transgress " for *' reject "), sub- 
stantially agrees with Mark. These two Evangelists say, in 
effect, that the Pharisees rejected the Word of God in order 
to keep the words of men, and that Christ condemned this. 

[1828] Luke omits the whole of this. But the distinction 
between rejecting the words of individuals and rejecting the 
laws of natural religion, or the Word of God, is a very 
important one. If the Third Evangelist failed to bring this 
out, it was all the more necessary for the Fourth to do so 2. 

1 Jn xiii. 20, as also Jn xii. 44 — 8, uses Xafi^dvco " take [into one's heart]" 
instead of the Synoptic dexofj-ai " receive " : but, for brevity and parallelism, 
XajxISdvo) in Jn xiii. 20 is rendered " receive " above. 

2 [1828 a] The distinction may be illustrated by what is probably 
one of the earliest of the Pauhne Epistles, where the Apostle, after 
forbidding fornication, says (i Thess. iv. 8) "He that rejecteth [this 
doctrine] (6 d^ercoj/) rejecteth not man, but God, who is [ever] giving 
(dldovra) his holy Spirit upon (els) us." 



A. V. 



319 



22 



[1829] WORDS PECULIAR 

[1829] There is also another reason why the Fourth Gospel 
should intervene. The earliest of the Gospels does not say " He 
that receiveth you receiveth me," but " He that receiveth one 
of such little ones." There is a great difference between the 
two. Mark's version struck at the root of apostolic or clerical 
arrogance. Luke's version in the Triple Tradition (" Whoso- 
ever shall receive this little child") gave no clear precept as 
to the future ; and his version in the Double Tradition (" He 
that heareth you") was limited to the Seventy, who are 
mentioned in the preceding verses. Matthew's version (" He 
that receiveth you") is limited to the Twelve. Christians, 
therefore, with only the Three Gospels in their hands, might 
still require some further answer to the question " Whom are 
we to receive as coming from Christ ? " 

[1830] The full consideration of John's implied answer 
to this question, and of all the passages bearing on the 
Doctrine of Receiving, must be deferred \ Meantime, even 
a glance at the parallels suggests that John is writing with 
allusion to Luke's version of the Double Tradition, accepting 
his tradition verbally, so far as regards the use of the verb 
" reject," but surrounding it with such a context as to free it 
from all risk of being abused. Instead of Luke's ambiguous 
"heareth me" (which might mean hearing without doing), 
John (xii. 44 — 8) substitutes " believeth on me," connecting a 
subsequent mention of "hearing" with '^not observing." 
Then, in case any domineering elders or bishops might judge 
those who "rejected" them, as rejecting Christ, he represents 
Christ Himself as deprecating such "judgment" ("/(emph.) 
judge him not "). John seems to have in mind a tradition 
similar to that of St Paul "Judge nothing before the time." 
The true judge is not to be this or that teacher or collection 
of teachers, but " the word that I spake " ; and the time of 
judging will be "the last day." John, like Mark, seems to 

^ They will be discussed in The Fourfold Gospel. 
320 



TO JOHN, MARK, AND LUKE [1831] 

represent Christ as appealing, against conventional judgments, 
to the first principles and fundamental decrees of humanity, 
the laws of spiritual Nature, those words, or laws, which 
"shall never pass away." 

[1831] Our conclusion with reference to the Johannine 
use of dOereco, and the Johannine phrase "/le that rejecteth me',' 
is that John is almost certainly writing with allusion to 
Luke's tradition ''he that rejecteth yoti etc." It is also by no 
means improbable that, in the phrase " He that rejecteth me 
and taketh not my words [into his heart]," he is alluding to 
the tradition of Mark about Christ's condemnation of the 
Pharisees, "Ye reject the Word of Godl' taking it in its 
broadest sense, not limiting it to the commandment " Honour 
thy father and thy mother," but taking it as the uttered 
thoughts of the Father in Heaven, expressed from the 
beginning through the Logos, and, recently, by the " words 
(prjixara) " of the Logos incarnate upon earth. 



321 22 — 2 



[1832] WORDS PECULIAR 



JOHN-MARK-LUKE AGREEMENTSi 





Mk 


Lk. 


Jn 




Mk 


Lk. 


Jn 


[1832] a^fWa>2 


2 


5 (rep.) 


I 


airopioi^ 


I 


I 


I 


?t ap(OfjLa* 


I 


2 


I 


aTifxa^oi^ 


I 


I 


I 


ya(o(f)v\aKiov 








yefiiCto 


2 


I 


3 


(2333) 


3 


I 


I 


dieyeipa)^ 


I 


2 


I 


[1833] eWeyofiai^ 


I 


4 


5 


* (kavvo)^ 


I 


I 


I 


i^ayat 


I 


I 


I 


* iirtdvixia^ 


I 


I 


I 



1 [1832 a{\ An asterisk denotes that the same word is used in different 
senses by Jn-Mk and Lk., e.g. i\avva> Mk vi. 48, Jn vi. 19 "row," but Lk. 
viii. 29 " driven [by an evil spirit] " : t denotes a parallelism, ? t a quasi- 
parallelism. For other signs, see the foot-notes. 

2 [1832 «] 'A^ereo), "reject," see 1823—31. It is used with accus. 
of pers., only in Mk vi. 26, Lk. x. 16, Jn xii. 48, i Thess. iv. 8. In Mk vi. 
26 it perh. means " break faith with her," as in Jerem. xii. 6, Lam. i. 2 (X) 
rjOivqcrav avTTjv. 

3 'ATTopeco, Mk vi. 20 (act), Lk. xxiv. 4 and Jn xiii. 22 (mid.). 

* [1832 ^J*] 'Apanara, " spices," in Mk xvi. I, Lk. xxiii. 56, xxiv. i, refers 
to " spices " prepared by the women for the body of Jesus and brought to 
the tomb on the morning of the Resurrection ; in Jn xix. 40 it refers to 
" spices " used by Joseph and Nicodemus in entombing the body. 
Mt. xxviii. I (parall. to Mkxvi. i) mentions no "spices," and says that the 
women came simply " to behold the grave." 

^ 'Ari/xa^cD is in the Parable of the Vineyard, Mk xii. 4, Lk. xx. 11 
''''treated disgj'acefully ^^"^ in Jn viii. 49 "But ye dishonour me." 

6 [1832^] Ateyetpo), "quite rouse," or "rouse up," is used of Jesus in 
the Stilling of the Storm Mk iv. 39, Lk. viii. 24 {bis) " They roused him 
up... He was roused up 2iX\di rebuked the wind" : Jn has in the Walking on 
the Waters, (vi. 18) "The sea — by reason of a great wind blowing — was 
roused up.''^ Outside 2 Pet. (i. 13, iii. i) the word does not occur elsewhere 
in N.T., and it does not occur at all in canon. LXX. 

'' [1833 rt] 'EKXe'yo/xat, in Lk., occurs only once in Christ's words, Lk. x. 
42 ^^ M2iry hath chosen the good part." Lk.'s other instances are vi. 13 
''^having chosen twelve," ix. 3$ "my choseti son," xiv. 7 "they chose the 
first seats." See 1709 b. 

8 [1833 <5] 'EXauvo) in Mk vi. 48, Jn vi. 19, is used of the disciples 
"rowing" in the Walking on the Waters (Mt. xiv. 24 has " by the waves)." 
Lk. viii. 29 has the word in a different sense, " He was drive7t by the 
devil." 

^ [1833^] 'ETTiOvfiia in Mk iv. 19, Jn viii. 44, means "lusts" ; Lk. xxii. 
15 is different, "with desire have I desired to eat this passover." 

322 



TO JOHN, MARK, AND LUKE [1834] 





Mk 


Lk. 


Jn 


Mk 


Lk. 


Jn 




4 


3 


I 
2 


Ka6api(Tp.6s^ I 
p.apTvpLa 
(inQc-d) 3 


2 

I 


2 

14 


OVTCiS 

(to) TpLTOV 

(1695^) 


I 

2 

I 


2 

8 
I 


I 
2 

3 


7revTT]<ovTa I 
irpo^aais^ I 
vScop (Chri.)^ 2 


3 

I 

3 


I 
I 
7 



1 [1833^] 'I/xa?, "latchet," in Mk i. 7, Lk. iii. 16, Jn i. 27 about 
^'■loosing" the '' latchei of the shoe," where Mt. iii. 11 has ^^ carry 
(^ao-TCLo-ai) the shoes." (i) '^ Loosing- the shoe" and (2) "carrying bathing 
utensils to the bath" were recognised duties of a slave to his master. 
Possibly Mt. has confused and combined parts of the two. In any case, 
Jn follows Mk (and Lk.) as against Mt. 

2 [1833 e] KadapLo-iJios, " purification," occurs in the Cure of a Leper, 
Mk i. 44, Lk. V. 14 "Shew thyself to the priest and offer concerning thy 
purification^^ where Mt. viii. 4 has " Shew thyself to the priest and offer 
the gift?'' The other instances are Lk. ii. 22, Jn ii. 6, iii. 25. Jn nowhere 
mentions lepers or anything connected with them. 

2 [1834^] KaraKeijLtat, "lie [sick]," is used by Mk i. 30, where the 
parall. Mt. viii. 14 has ^e^Xrjfievrjv, '■'■ prostrated [with sickness^' and the 
parall. Lk. iv. 38 a-wexofievrj. In the Healing of the Paralytic, Mk ii. 4 
describes the letting down of "the pallet where the paralytic lay" (Mt. ix. 
2 has, again, "prostrated"). Lk., at the end of the story, says (Lk. v. 25) 
"He took up that on which he lay [sic^]." Jn, in the quasi-parallel 
Healing of the man with an "infirmity," uses k. twice (Jn v. 3 — 6) 
KaTeK€iTo TrXrjdos Ta>v da6evovvT(ov...TovTov I8a>v 6 ^Irjcovs KaTaKeip,€VOu. 

[1834 (^] KaTaKctfiai is used also in Mk ii. 15, xiv. 3, Lk. v. 29, vii. 27 
and I Cor. viii. 10 of "lying [at table]"; and for this reason Mt. may 
have preferred another word. As regards Mk, Lk., and Jn, the facts 
prove nothing except that they did not object to using the word (though 
ambiguous) in the sense of " lie [sick]." 

* [1834 c] UXPjdos, " multitude," occurs in Mk iii. 7, 8 noXv 7r\?jdos, and 
TrXrjdos TToXv, of the multitudes coming to Jesus, Jn v. 3 irXrjOos of the sick. 
HXfjBos IxOvcov TToXv is in Lk. v. 6, and diro tov TrXrjdovs Ta>v IxBvcov in Jn 
xxi. 6, describing a miraculous draught of fishes (Lk. long before, Jn soon 
after, the Resurrection). 

^ [1834 d] Upoipao-is, " pretext," is in Mk xii. 40, Lk. xx. 47 7rpo(f)d(T€t 
p.aKpd TTpoa-evxop'evot, Jn xv. 22 irpocfiao-iv ovk exovcriv. 

^ [1834^] "Ydcop, "water" (in Christ's words), occurs in Mk xiv. 13, 
Lk. xxii. 10 " There shall meet you a man bearing a pitcher of water." 
Mt. xxvi. 18 omits the whole sentence. See 1728^. 

323 



[1835] JOHN, MARK, AND LUKE 



§ 4. " The Holy One of God'' 

[1835] To these words may be added the phrase ^7^09 
Tou ^eoO, "the Holy One of God," applied to our Lord by 
a demoniac in Mark and Luke^ and used by John in Peter's 
Confession, "We... know that thou art the Holy One of God^" 



1 Mk i. 24, Lk. iv. 34, " Hast thou come to destroy us? I know thee 
who thou art, the Holy One of GodP 

2 [1835 «] Jn vi. 69. Aaron is called (Ps. cvi. 16) "-the Holy One of 
God," apparently with reference to Numb. xvi. 5 — 7 "The man whom the 
Lord shall choose, he shall be holyP Comp. Jn x. 36 " Whom the Father 
made holy {rjylaffcv) and sent into the world." Peter's confession (in Jn 
vi. 69) seems to imply in the first part a Prophet (" thou hast the words of 
eternal life") and in the second part the ideal Priest ("the Holy One of 
God"). 

[1835 b'\ It is interesting to contrast the two stories — perfectly 
compatible with each other and perhaps even complementary — in which 
Peter is represented by Luke as saying at first (v. 8) " Depart from me, 
for I am a sinful man, O Lord ! " while, later on, John (vi. 67) represents 
Jesus as saying to the Disciples " Do ye also desire to depart.?" and Peter 
replies, in effect, refusing to depart (" Lord, to whom shall we go .'' "). 



324 



CHAPTER VI 

WORDS MOSTLY PECULIAR TO JOHN, MATTHEW, 
AND LUKE 

§ I. Verbal agreements mcmerous, but parallelisms 
non-existent 

[1836] The list of words peculiar to John, Matthew, and 
Luke, is longer than any of the last five lists. This is not 
surprising, since these three Gospels deal largely or mainly 
with the words of the Lord, whereas Mark deals mainly with 
the acts. Acts may with advantage be variously reported, 
and we learn much about them from a variety of reporters 
describing various aspects of the same thing. Words are best 
reported just as they are uttered. We cannot therefore be 
surprised that the three long Gospels that attempt to record 
Christ's words contain such words as " hallow " (or " sanctify"), 
the verb " sin," the noun " love," and such words as '* light " 
and "darkness" in a metaphorical sense etc. What is re- 
markable is, that in the whole of the long Vocabulary given 
below we shall not find a single word (1866 (i) foil.) of which 
we can confidently say that it is used in the same context in 
parallel passages of John ^ Matthew^ and Ltike, apart from Mark. 

[1837] Yet the list will not be without use in more ways 
than one. In the first place, it will shew the limited scope of 
Mark, by exhibiting the words that he never uses — except 

325 



[1838] WORDS MOSTLY PECULIAR 

perhaps in a quotation or some quite subordinate fashion^ — 
and it will indicate how much needed to be supplied by 
subsequent Evangelists in order to elucidate Christ's doctrine. 
In the next place, by giving us a bird's-eye view of the 
common vocabulary of the three " doctrinal Gospels," as we 
may call them — and by shewing that, whereas the two 
Synoptists (Matthew and Luke) agree almost verbatim for 
sentences and even for short sections, the Fourth, even while 
using the same vocabulary, rarely or never uses it in the same 
context — it may lead us to appreciate, by contrast, the 
significance of John's frequent parallelism with Mark, with 
whose vocabulary he has so little in common. 

[1838] Large parts of the Double Tradition, beautiful 
though they are, have no direct bearing on Christ's unique 
nature, mission, and doctrine. The exhortations, for example, 
not to be anxious about the morrow, might have proceeded 
from Hillel, or John the Baptist, or Epictetus^ Not much is 
to be learned from a comparison of the vocabulary of these 
passages with the vocabulary of the Fourth Gospel. The 
Sermon on the Mount is full of concrete terms such as "lilies," 
"spin," "barn," "oven," not used by John, nor entitled to a 
place below, and omitted because their insertion would teach 
the reader nothing except what he knows already, that the 
author of the Fourth Gospel does not deal largely in such 
particularities. But the insertion of a few important abstract 
or doctrinal terms used by Matthew and Luke but not by 
John may throw light on differences of doctrine or differences 
in expressing it. Some of these — though not strictly entitled 

1 [1837 d\ E.g. the word " peace " is nowhere in Mk except in Mk v. 
34 " Go in peace," and " Abraham " nowhere except in a quotation about 
(Ex. iii. 6, quoted in Mk xii. 26) "The God of A. and of Isaac and of 
Jacob." 

2 Comp. Epict. iii. 22. 69 "the philosopher must be devoted with his 
whole being and without distraction to the service of God," and (iii. 26. 
28) "God doth not fail to care for them that serve Him." 

326 



TO JOHN, MATTHEW, AND LUKE [1839] 

to a place in this Vocabulary — are given below in Greek, and 
are inserted here in English alphabetical order with their 
Greek equivalents : — 

Alms iX67jfjLocrvv7], angry (to be) opyl^eaOao, babes vijirioc, 
beseech Seofjuat,, brother (thy) (metaph.) aB€\(l)6<; aov, enemy 
ix^po^, gather (TvWey(o, humble (adj. and vb.) raTreti/o?, -oo), 
justify BiKaLoco, mercy eXeo?, prudent <t>p6vLfio^, understanding 
(adj.) avvero^;, wisdom (Chri.) ao(f>ia, wise (To<f>6<;. 



§ 2. '^ Lay the head to rest^' 

[1839] It was shewn above (1451 — 8), that this phrase is 
not known to exist in Greek literature (including the LXX) 
outside the Gospels, and an attempt was made to prove that 
it is used by John in the sense in which all admit it to have 
been used by Matthew and Luke ("lay the head to rest"). 
Only, whereas the two earlier Evangelists employ it literally, 
the fourth Evangelist applied it spiritually to our Lord's 
finding rest for His head on the bosom of the Father. So 
it was maintained above. But now, if it appears that this is 
the only phrase peculiar to John, Matthew, and Luke, and 
that the contexts are not parallel, the reader may naturally 
say, " Unique exceptions are always to be suspected. The 
abstinence of the Fourth Gospel from the phrases of the 
Double Tradition of Matthew and Luke is so complete 
that it does not seem antecedently probable that this single 
phrase was borrowed. We admit that k\Iv(o K6(f)akr)v cannot 
be rendered otherwise than * lay the head to rest' But that 
meaning may have been much more common in the first 
century than we suppose. John may have used the phrase 
thus without any allusion to Matthew and Luke. And this 
is all the more probable because there is no connexion or 
affinity of thought between the contexts in the Double 
Tradition and John." 

327 



[1840] WORDS MOSTLY PECULIAR 

[1840] This objection may be partly answered by shewing 
that there is an affinity of thought — though latent — between 
the two contexts. The former, the Double Tradition, speaks 
of "following." According to Matthew (and Luke is very 
similar) a "scribe" said to Jesus "Teacher, I will follow thee 
whithersoever thou art departing." To this He replied, "The 
foxes have holes and the birds of the heaven nests but the Son 
of man hath not where to lay his head^" This appears to mean 
(somewhat as Chrysostom suggests) " You expect to follow 
me to a palace and to share in the conquests of the Messiah, 
but I have not even a home of my own." But does this 
exhaust the meaning .? Does it even express the meaning — 
if we are to take the *words in their mere literal sense — 
without exaggeration ? Literally speaking, were there not 
many places where the Son of man could " lay his head " ? 

[1841] Origen's allusion to the words, although fancifully 
expressed, seems to touch the spiritual truth at the bottom of 
them when he says that Jesus could not " lay his head " in 
Jerusalem but only in Bethany as being "the House of 
Obedience^." That is to say, the Lord found rest and repose 
in obeying and doing the will of the Father. This harmonizes 
with the words, " My meat is to do the will of him that sent 
me." The " scribe," if Chrysostom's view is correct, supposed 
that a literal " following " was to end in a " laying of the head 
to rest " in a literal palace. Jesus replies that, in that sense, 
He has " no place to lay his head " on earth. That final rest 
could only come when the labour on earth was accomplished 

1 [1840 «] Mt. viii. 19 — 20. Lk. ix. 57—8 substitutes ^'gomg itt the 
way" for ^'' scribe.^' Perhaps there was some early confusion between 
(Mt.) " a guide in the way [of the Law]," i.e. o?ie causing to go, and 
(Lk.) ''going." 

2 Origen (on Mt. xxi. 27) Huet i. 446 C, where see the context. He 
seems to mean that Jerusalem was a House of Disobedience because the 
disobedient resided in it, and Bethany a House of Obedience, partly 
because of his interpretation of the name, partly because of the obedience 
of the disciples residing there. 

328 



TO JOHN, MATTHEW, AND LUKE [1843] 

and the labourer rested in the bosom of the Father. Accord- 
ing to this view, our Lord, in His reply to the scribe, does not 
mean to insist on the fact that He had no fixed abode of His 
own, and, still less, to suggest that there were not many 
friends and devoted disciples ready to give Him hospitality. 
His real meaning was that, in the scribe's sense of the term, 
the Son of man had no " resting-place." 

[1842] It was, of course, inevitable that the Apostles and 
Missionaries of the first century would often be able to say, 
with St Paul, in a literal sense, " We both hunger and thirst 
and are naked and are buffeted and have no certain dwelling 
place^r But by the end of that century there would inevit- 
ably be some, of vagrant disposition, to whom the absence of 
a " certain dwelling place " would not be unwelcome provided 
that it did not bring with it " hunger and thirst " : and 
accordingly we find the Teaching of the Apostles forbidding 
believers to entertain any missionary, or, as it says, " apostle," 
for more than two days^ Long before that precept was 
written, it would probably be necessary to warn some converts 
against supposing that they were " following " Christ by merely 
making themselves homeless " apostles." The Synoptists, it 
is true, emphasize Christ's saying that ''following'' must go 
with '' taking tip the cross " : but, even there, Luke thinks it 
desirable to warn his readers that they must " take up the cross 
daily^r 

[1843] John brings out the true meaning of " following " 
in a dialogue between our Lord and Peter, who does not 
indeed (like the "scribe") proclaim that he will "follow," 
but asks " Why cannot I follow thee now } I will lay down 



^ I Cor. iv. 1 1 a(TTarov[i^v. 

2 Didach. xi. 3 — 5. 

3 Mk viii. 34, Mt. xvi. 24, Lk. ix. 23, '' If any one desireth to come 
'(Mk Mt. eXdelv, Lk. epxeo-dai i.e. co?7ze daily, 2496^) after me, let him deny 

himself and take up his cross (Lk. + daily ^ kuO' r)fxipav) and follow me." 



[1844] WORDS MOSTLY PECULIAR 

my life for theeV Jesus had, at an earlier period, told the 
Jews that they could not follow Him, and He has just 
declared that it applies to the disciples also for the present^. 
It is this that elicits Peter's vehement question. No direct 
answer is given to it^ But the Washing of Feet taken 
with its sequel constitutes an indirect answer, namely, that 
"following" the Son means serving the Son, and serving 
the Son means serving the brethren with the love with 
which He loved and served them''. This doctrine is carried 
on to the last page of the Gospel. Peter is warned that, in 
his own case, " following " will lead him to the cross. But he 
" turns and sees " the other disciple also " following " — the one 
that used to lie on the breast of Jesus. Then he learns that 
this disciple may perhaps " tarry " till the Lord comes, so that 
it is possible to " follow " Him in many ways. 

[1844] If it is admitted that the Fourth Gospel contains 
a great deal that bears on the right and the wrong kind of 
" following," then it will hardly be denied that this particular 
tradition about the " scribe," who did not know what 
" following " meant, would probably attract the Evangelist's 
attention. It would be so likely to be misunderstood by 
opposite parties. The enemies of Christ might take it as 
a mere pathetic self-deploration, " I have no home, no resting- 
place ! " False apostles might allege it as an excuse for 



1 Jn xiii. 37. This was exactly true. The Apostle dzd " lay down his 
life" thus, and Christ does not deny it in His reply. Lk. (xxii. 33) 
represents Peter as saying " I am ready to go both to prison and to 
death." This was not exactly true. The Apostle was no^ "ready." 

2 Jn xiii. 33 "Even as I said to the Jews, 'Where I go ye cannot 
come,' [so] I say to you also now." 

3 The answer is Jn xiii. 38 " T/iot^ wilt lay down thy life for me ! 
Verily, verily, I say unto thee, The cock shall surely not crow till thou 
hast thrice denied me." The italicised words are half exclamation, half 
interrogation (2236 foil.). Later on (xxi. 18 — 19), the Lord commands and 
predicts that the Apostle will "follow" Him on the way to the Cross. 

^ Jn xiii. 34, XV. 12. 



TO JOHN, MATTHEW, AND LUKE [1846] 

vagrancy. It might close the minds of literalists and simple 
people against the conception of the true rest and the true 
resting-place. An old tradition quoted by Clement of 
Alexandria and found in recently discovered Logia represents 
Christ as saying " He that reigns shall rest^!' Justin Martyr 
twice quotes a tradition associating the ''reign" with the 
" cross"^" The Epistle to the Romans speaks of "suffering 
with [Christ] that we may be glorified with" Him^ The 
Second Epistle to Timothy mentions together "enduring" 
[with Christ] and "reigning with" Him, apparently as part 
of a "faithful saying*." All these traditions, outside the 
Gospels, shew how natural it would be to regard Jesus as 
beginning on the Cross His " rest " as well as His " reign." 

[1845] The Double Tradition and the Fourth Gospel, if 
both are regarded as referring to the "resting" of Christ, 
harmonize with these early traditions — which they may have 
helped to originate — as well as with each other. But if in the 
Johannine passage we substitute "bowing the head in submis- 
sion," instead of " laying the head to rest," we disconnect it 
from these external traditions amid which it finds a natural 
place, and connect it with such doctrine as that of the 
Epistle to the Hebrews, " He learned obedience through 
the things that he suffered^" — which is not the aspect 
presented by the Fourth Gospel. There is no Gospel that 
so consistently as the Fourth associates crucifixion with 
"reigning" by describing it as "glorifying" and "lifting up." 

[1846] These considerations may suffice to answer the 
objection that " there is no connexion or affinity of thought " 
between the contexts of the phrase under discussion in John 
and the Double Tradition. For the rest, it has been pointed 



1 Clem. 453 and 704. 

2 ApoL § 41 and Try ph. § ']% erroneously quoting Ps. xcvi. (see context). 

3 Rom. viii. 17. * 2 Tim. ii. 12. 
« Heb. V. 8. 



[1847] WORDS MOSTLY PECULIAR 



out that John does intervene more than once in important 
doctrines of the Double Tradition— such as the relation 
between the ** friends" and the *' servants " of Christ 
(1784 — 92), the meaning of "hating one's own life" and 
the circumstances in which such "hate" is justified (1450), 
and also as regards the doctrine of "rejection" added by 
Luke in the Double Tradition where Matthew confines 
himself to the doctrine of "receiving" (1823—31). The 
difference was that in these cases Matthew and Luke did 
not agree in the use of the particular words repeated by 
John, whereas here Matthew and Luke do thus agree. 
Matthew for example (1784) had "bond-servant," Luke 
had "friends," and John repeated both terms. Here John 
repeats a couple of words in which the two agree. Such 
a repetition, though unique, is, under the circumstances, not 
very surprising. 

§ 3- John-Matthew-Luke Agreements (in English). 

[1847] From what has been said, it will be inferred that 
comparatively little information of a critical kind will be 
derived from the Vocabulary given below. Its main results 
will be to shew what a large province of doctrine Mark left 
untouched ; how many words Matthew, Luke, and John have 
in common ; how often Matthew and Luke agree verbatim ; 
and how absolutely John refrains from using the.\r phrases or 
expressing their thoughts in the same way. These facts, 
however, are of some interest in themselves, and they can 
be made clear to readers unacquainted with Greek. For 
their sakes, the words will be given first in English alpha- 
betical order^ and with the sign (ii) — signifying " Double " — 
attached to those words that occur in parallel passages of 

1 This list will not include particles, such as ye, given below in the 
Greek list alone. 

332 



TO JOHN, MATTHEW, AND LUKE [1849] 

the Matthew-Luke Double Tradition. The Greek equivalent 
will be added so that the reader may pass from this list to 
the Greek list and its foot-notes, which follow later on. 

[1848] (ii) Mk Abraham 1 'AjS pad/a, (ii) age (or stature) 
rjXiKLa, another (s. other), asleep (to fall) KOLfjudo/jLat, ass 6vo^. 

(?) Bear (a child) tUtco, (ii) behold OedofiaL, Beth- 
lehem B7]6\6e/jL, (ii) blessed [laKapio^, blow (or breathe) Trveo), 
(ii) bondage (to be in) hovXevco, bone oareov, (ii) " boy " 7rat9, 
(ii) bride vv/ji(j)7], burn Kaiw. 

Caiaphas Katd(f)a<;, (ii) clean KaOapo^, (ii) come yjkw, 
(ii) confess^ ofioXoyeco, (ii) cubit ttt^^u?. 

(ii) Darkness (metaph.) a/corta, (tkoto^, (ii) dash (s. stum- 
ble), (ii) devil Sm/SoXo?. 

Ear coTiov, (ii) exalt (or lift up) vylroco. 

(ii) Faithful inaTo^, finish reXeco, flock Trolfjuvrj, (ii) food 
Tpo(j)T], foundation KarapoXr), (ii) friend (^/Xo?, furlong ardhio^. 

(ii) Guide (vb.) oSijyeoy. 

[1849] (ii) Hallow dycd^co, hide /(pvirrco, hope (vb.) iXTTi^o). 

Inquire 7rvv6dvo/xat. 

Joseph (husband of Mary) Twctt;^, (ii) judge (vb.) Kpivco, 
(ii) judgment Kplat^. 

(ii) Law v6fio<;, (ii) lay (one's head) kXlvco KecfiaXrjv, (ii) lie 
(i.e. be placed) KelfMat, lift up eiraipw, (ii) lift up (or exalt) 
vyfroco, (ii) light (metaph.) c/)*?, (ii) like (adj.) 6fMOLo<;, (ii) lot 
fjLepo^, love (n.) dyaTrrj. 

(ii) Mourn dpyvico, (ii) mouth arofia, murmur yoyyv^co, 
(ii) myself ifiavrov. 

1 [1848 a\ Occasionally, a word, e.g. " Abraham," that occurs in Mark 
as part of a quotation, or in some manner quite unimportant as compared 
with its use in the Double Tradition, is included in this list. Such a 
word is denoted by "Mk." The words " alms," " angry," and a few others, 
non-existent in Jn, but characteristic of the Double Tradition, have already 
been given in English above (1838) in a separate group, and are not 
repeated here, but in the Greek vocabulary they will be included with 
the rest. 

2 Not used in N.T. of confessing sins (except in i Jn i. 9). 

333 



[1850] WORDS MOSTLY PECULIAR 

Nazoraean (for Nazarene) Na?&)/3a?09. 

(ii) Mk open (vb.) avolyco, (ii) other (another) erepo^, owe 
(Jn ought) 6<f)ei\(D. 

Pass fiera^alva), (ii) Mk peace elpr/vi], (ii) persecute Blookco, 
present (I am) Trdpetfii. 

[1850] (ii) Reap depi^ca, rejoice greatly ar/a\\Ld(o, reprove 
iXiyx^* remember fjuL/jLvrjaKo/uiai, (ii) reveal diroKaXvirrw, right- 
eousness BLKaLoarvvrjy ruler (Jewish) (sing.) cipxcov. 

Samaritan %afiapeLTr](i, (ii) sanctify dytd^oj, (ii) scatter 
a/copTTL^o), (ii) serve (s. bondage), shut fcXeico, sickness daOeveiay 
(ii) sin (vb.) d^iaprdvoi), sit Kade^op^ai, sleep (n.) virvo^y 
(ii) Solomon ^oXojjlwv, strange[r] dWoTpLo^;, suffice dpKico, 
(ii) stumble irpoo-KOTrra). 

Tend (as a shepherd) TroLfjuaivo), testify fiapTvpea), (ii) thief 
/cXeTTTT;?, (ii) toil (vb.) KOTridco, turn round (to speak) o-T/06</)ft). 

Wedding (feast) ydfxo^, witness, bear (s. testify), (ii) wolf 
\vKo^y (ii) worthy d^uo^y wrap (?) ivTvXia-a-co (1866 (i)). 



334 



TO JOHN, MATTHEW, AND LUKE [1851] 



WORDS MOSTLY PECULIAR TO JOHN, MATTHEW, 
AND LUKEi 



Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 




Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


[1851] (ii) 'A^padfi^ (Mk) 7 


15 


II 


ayaXXiao)^ 


I 


2 


2 


dyaTrrj'^ I 


I 


7 


(ii) dycdCco^ 


3 


I 


4 


(ii) d8eX(f)6s (Tov^ 






(ii) aSj7?7 


2 


2 





(metaph.) 7 


4 





dWorptos^ 


2 


I 


2 



1 [1851 «i] Words marked (ii) occur at least once in parallel passages 
of the Double Tradition of Matthew and Luke, e.g. dyid^o), Mt. vi. 9, 
Lk. xi. 2, " Hallowed be thy name." These are often given in Gk to 
shew verbatim agreement or the nature of disagreement. 

The words distinguished by " Mk " occur in Mk, but only in quotations 
of O.T. or in such other special circumstances that it did not seem good 
to omit the word from a list attempting to give a general view of the 
Jn-Mt.-Lk. vocabulary. 

A few words non-existent in Jn have been inserted in special cases 
{e.g. ex&pos, (To(f)La) where they seemed likely to throw light on the relation 
of JntoMt.-Lk. (1838). 

"Pec." means that the context is peculiar to the single Evangelist Mt. 
or Lk. 

2 [1851 a] "K^padp. is included because its single occurrence in Mk 
(xii. 26) is a quotation (parall. to Mt. xxii. 32, Lk. xx. 2>7)' Six of the 
instances in Lk. are in the story of Lazarus. The instances in Jn are all 
in viii. 33 — 58. The parall. instances in Double Tradition are Mt. iii. 9, 
Lk. iii. 8 irarepa cxofiev rov *K...iy€ipm reKva rw 'A., and Mt. viii. II (sim. 
Lk. xiii. 28) dvaKkiOrjCTovTai, nerd 'A. k. 'itraaK k. 'la/coo/S. 

^ [1851/5'] 'AyaXAidco, Mt. v. 12 ;(aipere k. dyaXkidade, Lk. i. 47 
TjyaXkiaaev ro Trvevixd fxov eVt ra Oecd, x. 21 eV avrfj ttj copa rfyaWidcraTO ro) 
7rv€V[xaTi ra dyt'co, Jn V. 35 vfJLels de rjdeXrjaare dyaXXuiOrjvaL Tvpos (opav iv r. 
(fxorl avToVf viii. 56 'A^padp.. ..ijyaXXidaaTo tva tdr]... 

* [1851 <:] 'Aydrrr], Mt. xxiv. 12 ^vyrjaerai 17 dydTrrj t. ttoXXcoi/. In 
Lk. xi. 42 Trapepx^o'Oe r. Kpi(nv Koi t. dydiTr}v r. Oeov, the parall. Mt. xxiii. 
23 has d(f)r]KaT€ T. ^apvrepa r. vopov, r. KpiaLV koi t. eXeos koi t. iriaTiv. 

^ 'Ayitt^o), Mt. vi. 9, Lk. xi. 2 dycaa-drjTco to ovopd aov. 

6 [1851^] 'ASeX^os- aov, "thy brother," (metaph.) occurs in Mt. vii. 3, 
4, 5, Lk. vi. 41, 42 {dls) about "the mote in lAy brother's eye," and 
in Mt. xviii. 15 {bis), Lk. xvii. 3 "if thy brother sin against thee." It 
occurs also in Mt. v. 23 — 4 {bis) "be reconciled to thy brother J'' 

7 "A8i]s, Mt. xi. 23, Lk. x. 15 eays (Lk. +tov) adov Kara^-qa-rj. 

8 'AXXoTpioff, Lk. xvi. 12 iv rS dXXoTpito (neut.) : in Mt.-Jn it is masc. 

A. V. 335 23 



[1852] WORDS MOSTLY PECULIAR 





Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 




Mt. 


Lk. Jn 


[1852] (u) &fxapTav(o^ 


3 


4 


3 


(ii) 


dvoiyoi^{Mk) II 


7 II 


(ii) 5^to.3 


9 


8 


I 


(ii) 


aTroKaXvTrro)* 4 


5 t 


dpK€(0^ 


I 


I 


2 




apxw'^ ^(Jewish) 
(sing.) 2 


2 or 3 I 


[1853] a(7^eV«a7 


I 


4 


2 




Bj/^Xf€>8 5 


2 I 


ydfios^ 


8 


2 


2 




yfio 4 


8 I 



^ [1852^] 'Afiaprdvo), Mt. xviii. 15, 21 "if thy brother sin," "how 
many times shall my brother sin against me," sim. parall. Lk. xvii. 3 — 4. 
Jn has V. 14 "Sin no more," ix. 2 — 3 "Who did sin, this man or his 
parents...? Neither did this man sin nor his parents." It also occurs in 
Jn[viii. 11]. 

2 [1852 d] ^Avoiyo). Included in this list (though it occurs once in 
Mk (vii. 35) i]voLyrj(rav avrov al dKoai) because it is in the parall. Mt. vii. 
7 — 8, Lk. xi. 9 — 10 "knock and it shall be opened." In Jn it is always 
used of the opening of the eyes of the man born blind, except in i. 51 
*'the heaven opened" x. 3 "to him the porter openeth." In Jn i. 51 it 
may be used (646 a) to mean " permanently opened " in contrast to the 
momentary " opening," or (Mk i. 10) " rending," manifested to the 
Baptist. If so, the Johannine allusion would be to the Triple Tradition. 

3 " k^ios occurs in the parall. Mt. iii. 8, Lk. iii. 8 a. riyy peravoias, and 
Mt. X. 10, Lk. X. 7 a. yap 6 epydrTjs, also in Jn i. 27 ov ovk elpl a^ios 
(Mk-Mt.-Lk. iKavos) iva Xvaco avrov rbv Ifidvra rov virobrjp.aTos. 

* 'ATTOKaXuTrro), Mt. x. 26, Lk. xii. 2 " there is nothing covered that 
shall not be revealed," and Mt. xi. 25 — 7 {bis), Lk. x. 21 — 2 {bis) Koi 
diTCKaXv^as avrd vT]7riois...(S iav (Lk. dv) ^ovkqrai 6 vlos dTroKokvylrai. In 
Jn only xii. 38 quoting Is. liii. i "To whom hath the arm of the Lord 
been ?'evea/ed?" 

^ 'ApKc'co, Mt. XXV. 9 (pec), Lk. iii. 14 (pec), Jn vi. 7, xiv. 8. 

6 [1852 c] "Apxoiv sing, meaning " ruler of the Jews," " of a synagogue" 
etc., occurs in Mt. ix. 18 (rep. ix. 23) "px""' Lk. viii. 41 dpx(>>v rrjs (rvvaycoyr/s, 
but Mk V. 22 has els rav dpxi-o'vvayoiyaiv, SO that practically Mk, too, has 
dpX(ov. It occurs in Jn iii. I 'NiK6dr)fios...dpxoov rav 'lovdalav. In Triple 
Tradition, Lk. xviii. 18 ris...dpxo>v (Mk x. 17, Mt. xix. 16 els) and in 
Double Tradition Lk. xii. 58 V7rdy€ts...en dpxovra (Mt. v. 25 diff.) prob. 
mean a Jewish " ruler." On dpxovres (Jewish) pi. see 1765 a. 

^ ^haOeveia, in Mt., only in viii. 17 avros r. dadeveias rjpcov eXa^ev, 
quoting Is. liii. 4 (Heb.). 

8 BrjBXeefjL, in Jn, only in vii. 42 " Hath not the Scripture said that the 
Christ Cometh. ..from Bethlehem..?." The question is urged as an objec- 
tion against those who said " This is the Christ." 

^ Vdpos, in Jn ii. i — 2 (sing.) of the marriage in Cana. It is pi. in Mt. 
and Lk. exc Mt. xxii. 8, 11, 12. 

'^^ [1853 d\ Ve, in Jn, only in iv. 2 Kairoiye (Bruder p. 146 kgltoi ye) 



TO JOHN, MATTHEW, AND LUKE [1855] 





Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 




Mt. 


Lk. Jn 


yoyyv^o)! 


I 


I 


4 


(ii) deofiaL^ 


I 


8 o 


[1854] (ii) 8tci^o\os^ 


6 


5 


3 


diKaioa-vvr]^ 


7 


I 2 


(ii) SiKatoo)-^ 


2 


5 


o 


(i'l) 8ia}K(o^ 


6 


3 2 


(ii) SovXeuo)^ 


2 


3 


I 


(ii) etp77i/7;8^]yii^^ 


4 


i3+[[i]]6 


[1855] eXe'yx«» 


I 


I 


3 


eXerjfioarvvrj 


3 


2 O 



a compound unique in N.T. But Kairoi is in Acts xiv. 17, Heb. iv. 3. Te 
occurs in the Triple Tradition in Mt. ix. 17, Lk. v. 36, ^7 el de /ijyye (parall. 
Mk ii. 21 61 Se /i,J7); also in Lk.'s version (x. 6) of Double Tradition (parall. 
Mt. X. 13 eav Se firj) ; and in Mt. pec. and Lk. pec. 

^ Toyyu^o), Mt. xx. 1 1 (of the labourers in a parable), Lk. v. 30 (of " the 
Pharisees and their scribes "). 

2 Aeofxai, non-occurrent in Jn (1667) but in Mt. ix. 38, Lk. x. 2 derjdrjTe 

OVV TOV KVploV TOV dcpLCTflOV. 

3 [1854 rt:] Am/3oXos-, Mt. iv. i — ii, (sim.) Lk. iv. 2 — 13 (of the Tempta- 
tion) ; also in Mt.'s Single Tradition xiii. 39, xxv. 41 ; and in the 
explanation of the parable of the Sower Lk. viii. 12 6 dia^oXos (parall. 
Mk iv. 15 f5 ^aravas, Mt. xiii. 19 6 rrovTjpos). Jn vi. 70 "One of you is 
a devil" viii. 44 " Ye are of your father the devil^^ xiii. 2 " The devil 
having now put it into the heart of Judas." 

* [1854 <5] AiKaioavvr], Lk. i. 75, Jn xvi. 8—10 (on "conviction"). In 
parall. to Mt. v. 6 "hunger... after righteousness" Lk. vi. 21 has "hunger 
now." (See 1691 e.) 

^ AiKatoco, Mt. xi. 19 ediKaiooOT] rj aocjiia drro tSov epycov avrrjs, parall. 
Lk. vii. 35 ibiKaiatQ-q r] cro(ji[a drro TrdvTcov rcov tckvcov avrris. 

^ [1854 tr] AiooKco. Mt. xxiii. 34 e^ avrcov diroKTevclre <a\ arTavpaxrere... 
KOL 8ia>^€T€ drro noXecos els ttoXlv, parall. Lk. xi. 49 e^ avTwv diroKTevovcrLv 
KCLL bico^ovcTLv. Jn V. 1 6 bici TovTo edioDKOv ol 'lovSaioi TOV ^Itjctovv, XV. 20 el 
€fi€ ibioi^av Ka\ vpds bico^ovaiv. 

"^ [1854 d] AovXevoi, Mt. vi. 24 {dis)^ Lk. xvi. I3{dis) ov8e\s {Lk. + olKeTr]s) 
bvvaraL bvcrX Kvpiois bovXeveiv ...ov bvvaaOe Oeco bovXeveiv kcll ixap.(ova. 
Jn viii. S3 ovbevl bebovXevKanev TrcoTrore (which would be, literally, a 
violation of the precept Deut. xiii. 4 avra bovXevo-ere (AF, om. by LXX 
in error), l S. vii. 3 bovXeva-are avrm fiovco, but the Jews mean ovbevl 

dvOpODTTOo). 

^ [1854 el ElprjvT], incl. because its single occurrence in Mark is the 
unimportant phrase (Mk v. 34) " Go in peace" whereas it occurs in 
Mt.-Lk. in the important tradition Mt. x. 34 (sim. Lk. xii. 51) "Think 
not that I came to send peace on the earth." Jn xx. 19, 21, 26 describes 
Jesus as thrice saying '^ Peace [be] unto you." W.H. insert the clause 
in double brackets in Lk. xxiv. 36. 

^ 'EXeyxco, Mt. xviii. 15 '''■shew him [i.e. thy brother] his fault" Lk. iii. 
19 "[Herod Antipas] being reproved hy him \i.e. John the Baptist"]. 

337 23—2 



[1856] 



WORDS MOSTLY PECULIAR 





Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


eXeo? 


3 


6 


o 


i\iriC<o^ I 


3 


I 


(ii) efiavTov^ 


I 


2 


i6 


? evTvXia-ao) (see 






cTraipco^ 


I 


6 


4 


1866 (i) foil.) I 


I 


I 


[1856] (ii) hepos* 


9 


c. 34 


I 


(ii).X^pci.5(Mk) 7 


8 





{n)TJK(0^ 


4 


4 


4 


(ii) rjXcKia^ I 


3 


2 


(ii) BedofMUi^ 


4 


3 


6 


(ii) ^6pita>» 3 


3 


4 


[1857](ii)%rea>l0 


I 


2 


I 


'laxrrjcf)^^ (Mary's 
husband) 7 


5 


2 



^ eXTri'^o), Mt. xii. 21 quoting Is. xlii. 4 "And in his name shall the 
Gentiles /lope" Jn v. 45 " Moses on whom ye have set your hope 
{^XnUaTe)." See 2474. 

2 'E/xavToi/, Mt. viii. 9 "having under myself soldiers," parall. to 
Lk. vii. 7 — 8 {bis\ uttered by the centurion whose servant is healed. 
In Jn it is always uttered by Christ. 

3 'ETratpo), in Mt., only xvii. 8 e-n-dpavTes di tovs 6(f)BaXp.ovs avrav. 

* [1856 <«] "Erepos, Mt. xi. 3, Lk. vii. 19 rj erepov TrpoadoKwpev (foil, by 
Lk. rj dWov (marg. erepov) TrpoadoKcopev, which, if dXXov is genuine, 
indicates that the disciples of the Baptist softened his message into 
"Are we to expect another of the same kind?" but the txt is doubtful), 
Mt. xii. 45, Lk. xi. 26 erepa Trvevpara irovrfporepa. It occurs, in Jn, only 
in xix. 37 Koi ttoXlv erepa ypa(f)r] Xeyei, also in Mk App. [xvi. 12], 

^ 'Ex^pos, Mt. V. 44 (Lk. vi. 27, 35) dyaTrdre rovs e^Opovs vp,S)v. It 
occurs in Mk xii. 36 as a quotation (Ps. ex. i) parall. to Mt. xxii. 44, 
Lk. XX. 43. 

^ "Hfco), Mt. viii. 11, Lk. xiii. 29 rj^ovo-iv, Mt. xxiv. 50, Lk. xii. 46 ^^ec 
6 Kvpios T. dovXov.... It is applied by Christ to Himself in Jn viii. 42 e-ycb 
yap CK r. Seov e^rfKdov Ka\ t^ko), COmp. I Jn V. 20 6 vlos r. deov r]<ei, 
Heb. X. 7, 9 rJKco (from Ps. xl. 7), Heb. x. 37 6 epxopevos ■q^ei (from 
Hab. ii. 3). 

^ 'HXiKia, Mt. vi. 27, Lk. xii. 25 "add one cubit unto his stature.^^ 
Jn ix. 21, 23 "He is of age {rjXiKiav ex")-" 

^ Qedopai, Mt. xi. 7, Lk. vii. 24 ri e^rjXdare els rrjv eprjpov 6ed(racrdai ; It 
occurs in Mk App. [xvi. 11, 14]. 

^ Bepi^co, Mt. vi. 26, Lk. xii. 24 ov (nreipovcnv ov8e Bepi^ovaiv, Mt. xxv. 
24 — 6 (Lk. xix. 21 — 2) depl^cov ottov (Lk. 6) ovk eo-7reipas...0epi(cov oirov 
(Lk. BepL^oi 6) OVK ecnreipa. Jn iv. 36 — 8 (3 times) 6 Oepi^wv, (once) Oepi^eiv. 

^^ Qprjveco, Mt. xi. 17, Lk. vii. 32 e$pr]vr}crapev Ka\ ovk eKoyjraa-Be (Lk. 
eKXavo-are). In Jn xvi. 20 KXavaere Ka\ Oprjvqo-ere vpels. 

" [1857 rt] "Icoo-^cf) (Mary's husband), in Mt.-Lk., occurs only before 
Christ begins to preach, exc. Lk. iv. 22 ou^i vlos eanv 'I. ovros ; which 
resembles Jn vi. 42 ovxi- ovros eo-nv 'Irjcrovs 6 vlos 'I. ; See 1776 — 8. 

338 



TO JOHN, MATTHEW, AND LUKE [1858] 





Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 




Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


(iii) Kayo)^ 


9 


5 


30 


(ii) Ko^apos^ 


3 


I 


4 


Kade^ojxaL^ 


I 


I 


3 


Kcudcfias'^ 


2 


I 


5 


[1858] Kaico^ 


I 


I 


2 


Kara^oXr]^ 


2 


I 


I 


(ii) KaroKeo)'^ 


4 


2 





(ii) Kelfxai^ 


3 


5 


7 


KXeico^ 


3 


2 


2 


(ii) KXerrrrjs'^^ 


3 


2 


4 


?t (ii) kXiVo)!! 


I 


4 


I 


KOifidofiai,^^ 


2 


I 


2 



^ [1857 d] Kayco, marked (iii) because it occurs in Mt. and Lk. (unlike 
the words marked (ii)) in the Triple Tradition, where Mk xi. 29 has 
e-rrepcorrjo-o) vjxas eva Xoyov, but Mt. xxi. 24, Lk. xx. 3 have eparrjo-co vpds 
Kayo) Xoyov eva (Lk. om. eva) (456 (iii)). It does not occur in both versions 
of any parallel passages of the Double Tradition of Mt.-Lk. 

^ [1857 c] Ka6ap6s, Mt. xxiii. 26 Iva yevrjrai k. to eKTos avrov KaOapov, 
parall. to Lk. xi. 41 Ihov Trdvra Kadapd vfuv ea-rtv. Lk. omits Mt. v. 8 
fxaKapini oi KaOapoX rjj Kapdia. In Mt. xxvii. 59 aivbovi KoBapq, the epithet 
is om. by parall. Mk xv. 46, Lk. xxiii. 53. All Jn's instances are in the 
Last Discourse, xiii. 10 {dis\ 11, xv. 3. 

3 Kade^opai, applied to the child Jesus in Lk. ii. 46, and used by Jesus 
concerning Himself in Mt. xxvi. 55. Mk uses only icddrjixai, KaBi^ca. 

* YLaidc^ias, in Lk., only iii. 2 eVt apxiepecos^Avva k. Kat,d(Pa (17643). 

^ Katfo, in Mt., only v. 1 5 ovde Kaiovcriv Xv^vov : in Lk., only xii. 35 
earraxrav vp(ov...ol Xv)(yoL Kaiopevoi'. Jn v. 35 calls the Baptist o Xv-)(yos 6 
Kaiopevos. It means "burn" in Jn xv. 6 els ro trvp ^dXXova-iv k. KaUrai. 

^ Kara^oXr], in Jn, only xvii. 24, -qyaTrrjcrds p.e trpb Kara^oXrjs Kocrfiov. 

"^ KaroiKeco, Mt. xii. 45, Lk. xi. 26, eiaeXdovra KarotKel e'/cel. 

* KeT/xoi, Mt. iii. 10, Lk. iii. 9 f} d^lvr) Trpos r. pi^av r. devSpcov Kelrai. 
There is some similarity between Jn xx. 12 oirov eKeiro to crmpa r. 'It/ctov, 
and Mt. xxviii. 6 t. tottov ottov eKeiTO (Mk xvi. 6 6 tottos ottov edrjKav avTov). 

^ KXeico, in Jn, only xx. 19, 26 r. Ovpcbv KeKXeicrpevcov. 

1^ KXeTTTTjs, Mt. vi. 19 — 20 (sim. Lk. xii. 23) "where thieves break 
through " ; also Mt. xxiv. 43 (Lk. xii. 39) " if he had known in what watch 
(Lk. hour) the thief cometh." In Jn x. i — 10 "the thief 2i\\d. the robber" 
are contrasted with the Good Shepherd : in Jn xii. 6 Judas Iscariot is 
said to have been " a thief." 

1^ [1858.3:] KXiVo), marked ."^t because it is probably quasi-parallel. It 
occurs in Mt. viii. 20, Lk. ix. 58 ovk exei ttov r. Ke(fiaXT)v kXivtj, Jn. xix. 30 
KXivas T. Ke(f)aXr}v Trapidaxev r. irvevp.a. Prob. both mean " leaning the 
head" in the sense of "finding rest," and Jn prefers this expression to 
eKoifi^Br) " fell asleep (in death) " (1839—46). Elsewhere in N.T. it occurs 
only in Lk. ix. 12, xxiv. 5, 29, Heb. xi. 34. 

12 Kotjuao/xat, Mt. xxvii. 52 "the saints that had fatten as/eep" xxviii. 13 
" while we were steeping" Lk. xxii. 45 " steeping for sorrow," Jn xi. 1 1 — 12 
" Lazarus... is yrt//^« asteep..Ai\iQ is fatten asteep he witt recover." 

339 



[1859] WORDS MOSTLY PECULIAR 

Mt. Lk. Jn Mt. Lk. Jn 

[1859] (ii) KOTTtao)^ 223 (ii) fcptVco^ 6 6 19 

(n) KpiaiS^ 12 4 II Kpi/TTTCO^ 7 3 3 

(ii) Xt^o^oXeo)^ 2 I O (ii) Xixos*^ 2 I 2 

{i\) fiaKcipios^ 13 15 2 fxapTvpeo)^ I I 33 

1 KoTTtao, Mt. vi. 28, Lk. xii. 27 " they /oi7 not, neither do they spin." 

2 [1859rt] KptVo), Mt. vii. i,Lk.vi.37 "y?^^^notthatyebenot(Lk. "and 
ye shall not be ") judged^'' Mt. xix. 28 (parall. to Lk. xxii. 30, but with 
important differences in context) ''''judging the twelve tribes of Israel." 
Jn contains no prohibition against "judging," but a prohibition against 
judging wrongly and a command to judge righteously (vii. 24) ^'' Judge 
not according to appearance but judge righteous judgment," and Jn adds 
(viii. 15) "Ye judge after the flesh, I judge no man, and yet if I be 
judging my judgment is true." 

^ [1859 <^] KptoTis occurs in Mt. xi. 22, Lk. x. 14 Tvpo) Ka\ 2tScoi/t olv^kto- 
Tepov earai iv rjpepa Kplaecos (Lk. ev t. Kpicrei). But Mt. xi. 24 y^ ^odopau 
dveKTorepov earai iv rjjxipa Kpiaecos rj croi, and Mt. x. 15 dvcKT. ecTai yfj 2. 
KOL r. iv rjpepa Kpicrecos rj rfi TToXet iKeivrj, may both be taken as parall. to 
Lk. X. 12 '2o86pois iv rfi rjp. iKeivr) dvcKT. earai fj rfj TrdXei iKeivj]. Other 
parallels are Mt. xii. 41 — 2, Lk. xi. 31 — 2 iv rfj Kplaet. {bis) (and Mt. xxiii. 23 

r. KpiCTLV KOLl T. TkeOS KOL T. TTLCTTLV, Lk. xl. 42 T. KpicTlV Kol T. dydTTTJV T. 6eOv). 

The Gospel of Jn seems to define r] Kpia-is in iii. 19 as a "loving of the 
darkness rather than light " : it never mentions rifiipa Kpia-eas but has 
V. 29 els dvda-Taariv Kpicreois and xii. 3 1 vvv Kpiaris iariv t. Kocrpov tovtov. 
The Epistle has (i Jn iv. 17) iv rfj rjpipa Trjs Kpia-ecos. 

^ [1859 c] KpuTTTO). There is no parallelism in any of the instances. 
'EKpv^rj occurs in Lk. xix. 42 vvv be iKpv^jj diro ocpdakpcov aov (referring 
to " the things that belong to peace" which are " hidden" from Jerusalem) 
and Jn viii. 59, xii. 36 iKpy^rj, of Jesus "hidden" from the Jews. 

[1859 d] The doctrine " There is nothing hidden that shall not be re- 
vealed," is expressed by Mk iv. 22, Lk. viii. 17, Kpvirrov and dTroKpvcfiov, Mt. 
X. 26 KeKoXvppevov and KpvnTov, Lk. xii. 2 avyKeKaXvppevov and KpvrrTov. 

^ AiOo^oXeco, Mt. xxiii. 37, Lk. xiii. 34 Xido^oXovaa r. direcrTaXpevovs. 

^ AuKOff, Mt. X. 16, Lk. X. 3 aTroareWo) vpds...iv pecrco Xvkmv. 

^ [1859^] MaKapios, Mt. V. 3— II (sim. Lk. vi. 20—22) ^^ Blessed 2x0, 
the poor...," and Mt. xi. 6, Lk. vii. 23 ^^ Blessed is he that shall not be 
made to stumble in me," Mt. xiii. 16 (sim. Lk. x. 23) ^''Blessed are your 
eyes..." : Mt. xxiv. 46, Lk. xii. 43 '"'' Blessed \s that servant...." Jn. xiii. 17 
" If ye know these things, blessed are ye if ye be doing them," xx. 29 
^''Blessed are they that have not seen and yet have believed." The 
former of Jn's instances resembles Lk. xi. 28 (pec.) " Blessed are they 
that hear the word of God and keep it." 

^ Maprupeco, Mt. xxiii. 3 1 coo-re paprvpelre eavroist Lk. iv. 22 iravres 
ifiapTvpovv avT(o. 



TO JOHN, MATTHEW, AND LUKE [1861] 





Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 




Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


[1860] (ii)/ie>p( = "lot," 
















"destiny")! 


I 


I 


I 


/Licra/SaiVo) ^ 


6 


I 


3 


(li) * fxcra^v^ 


2 


2 


I 


fiijxvr](TKoyLai^ 


3 


6 


3 


Na^(opaios^ 


2 


I 


3 


(ii) VrjITLOL^ 


2 


I 


o 


(ii) vo/Jios^ 


8 


9 


14 


(ii)* vvfx(f)r]^ 


I 


2 


I 


[1S61] (ii) 68r)ye<o^ 


I 


I 


I 


(ii) o/ioios^^ 


9 


9 


2 


(ii) SfioXoyeo)^^ 


4 


2 


4 


oVos^^ 


3 


I 


I 


(ii) opyt'^o/xat^^ 


3 


2 


o 


oariov i* 


I 


I 


I 


(ii) ovxi (2231 a) 


9 


17 


6 


o^eiXti)!'' 


6 


5 


2 



! Mepos, Mt. xxiv. 5 1, Lk. xii. 46 r. fiepos avrov fxeTo. r. VTroKpircov drja-fif 
Jn xiii. 8 ovk. ex^is fiepos fxer ip.ov. It also means "part," "district." 

2 MerajSaiVco, alw. literal in Mt., and in Lk. x. 7 and Jn vii. 3 ; spiritual 
in Jn V. 24, and in Jn xiii. i Iva p-^ra^^ e/c r. Koa-pov. 

^ Mera^v, marked* (1734 <3:i), means, in Mt. xxiii. 35 (sim. Lk. xi. 51) 
'"''between the sanctuary and the altar," in Jn iv. 31 "in the meanwhile" 

* Mipvr)o-<opai, in Jn ii. 17, 22, xii. 16 alw. of disciples "remembering" 
the correspondence between Scripture and words or deeds of Christ. 

^ Na^copmos, Mt. ii. 23, xxvi. 71, Lk. xviii. ^7, Jn xviii. 5, 7, xix. 19. 

^ Nj^TTtoi, Mt. xi. 25, Lk. X. 21 dTreKoXvyj/'as avra vrjTriois, also Mt. xxi. l6 
(pec.) (quoting Ps. viii. 2) eic o-Toparos vtjttIcov kol BrjXa^ovTav. 

^ Nd/xos, Mt. V. 18 (sim. Lk. xvi. 17) pia K€pea...d7r6 tov vopov, Mt. xi. 1 3 
(sim. Lk. xvi. 16) ol 7rpo(f)rjTai k. 6 vopos ecos 'icoavov. See also in Triple 
Tradition Mt. xxii. 36, Lk. x. 26. 

^ l<ivp<prj, Mt. X. 35 (sim. Lk. xii. 53 (bz's)) '''' daughter-iJi-law against her 
mother-in-law," Jn iii. 29 " He that hath the bride." 

^ 'OSr/yeo), Mt. XV. 1 4 (sim. Lk. vi. 39) " But if the blind guide the 
blind," Jn xvi. 13 "The Spirit of truth shall guide you." 

10 "Opoios, Mt. xi. 16, Lk. vii. 32 '"'' Like children sitting in the market- 
places," and freq. in Mt. Lk. parables. Jn viii. 55 ^^ like unto you, a liar," 
ix. 9 " he is like him." 

" [1861 ^?] 'O/xoXoye'o), Mt. x. 2>'^ {bis) (sim. Lk. xii. 8 {bis)) "whoever 
shall confess me...." Jn ix. 22, xii. 42 says that the Jews had agreed to 
excommunicate a ^'■confessor" of Christ and that hence some believers 
feared to ^^ co7tfess" Jn never uses e^opoKoyovpai, which in Mk i. 5, 
Mt. iii. 6 means '-'• confess {sins)" but he uses opoXoyea thus in i Jn i. 9. 

12 [1861 b] "Ovos, Mt. xxi. 2 — 7 has ovos kul ttcoXos, Mk xi. 2 — 7, 
Lk. xix. 30 — 35 have ttcoXos alone, Jn xii. 14 has ovdpiov alone (though 
xii. 15 quotes ttcoXov ovov) in the Entry into Jerusalem. Lk. xiii. 15 has 
ovos in the discussion about " loosing " one's ass on the Sabbath. 

13 'opyiCopai, Mt. xxii. 7, sim. Lk. xiv. 21 (the Parable of the Feast that 
was declined). Not parallel elsewhere. 

1* 'Oo-reoj/, Mt. xxiii. 27, Lk. xxiv. 39, Jn xix. 36. 

15 '0<^€iXa), in Lk. xvii. 10, Jn xiii. 14, xix. 7 "ought," elsewhere "owe." 



[1862] WORDS MOSTLY PECULIAR 





Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 




Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


[1862](ii)7rartl 

ndpeifxi^ 


8 

I 

5 


9 

I 
6 


2 

I 


7rapaxp^/xa2 

(ii) TTTJXVS'^ 


2 
I 
2 


lO 

I 
I 


o 

I 

2 



^ [1862 <3;] Uais occurs in Mt. viii. 8, Lk. vii. y etVe Xoyco koI ladrja-craL 
(Lk. la6r]Toi) 6 TTOLs fiov. Comp. Jn iv. 51 "His bond-servants (dovXot) 
came to meet him saying that his son (lit. doy) (Trais) was aUve," where 
the context relates how Jesus from a distance (being apparently in or 
near Cana) healed the son of a person in the royal retinue {^aa-iKmos) 
" whose son {vl6s) was sick at Capernaum." By repeatedly mentioning 
" son (vlos) " the narrative makes it clear that Traty, in Jn, must here mean 
'^son" and not ^^servan^." 

[1862^] The Double Tradition of Mt.-Lk. (Mt. viii. 5—13, Lk. vii. 
I — 10) describes Jesus as having "entered into Capernaum" when He 
receives a request to heal (Mt. viii. 6) a ^^ doy (Trals)," or (Lk. vii. 2) 
^''bond-servant ((^oCXos)," of a centurion. Mt. describes the man as making 
his request in person, Lk. as making it through others; both use the 
phrase (Mt. viii. 8, Lk. vii. 7) 6 Trals- \i.ov. Most commentators take Mt. 
and Lk. as referring to the same event, and, if so, must regard "^^y/" in 
Mt. as meaning '"'' bond-servant.''^ 

[1862^] Irenaeus (ii. 22. 3) "(Jn) Filium (Mt.-Lk.) centuriotiis absens 
verbocuravit,F<2^^,(Jn)yf//«j/2/«j7//7/2V"— whether quoting wrongly through 
lapse of memory, or combining details from narratives that he supposed 
to relate the same event — demonstrates the ease with which the two 
stories about the centurion might be confused with the Johannine story, 
and the ambiguity that might attach to "^<9y" in the earliest of the three. 
It is probable, though by no means certain, that Jn wrote with a view to 
this ambiguity. 

[1862^] Mt. xvii. 18 edepanevdr] 6 nais, parall. to Lk. ix. 42 Idaaro 
Tov TraTSa, is in the Triple Tradition, where Mk ix. 24 has Traiblov, 
previously called by all (Mk ix. 17, Mt. xvii. 14, Lk. ix. 38) vlos. 

2 Hapaxprjfia, see 1693^. 

3 Udpeifxi, Mt. xxvi. 50, Lk. xiii. i, Jn vii. 6, xi. 28. 

* Htjxvs, Mt. vi. 27, Lk. xii. 25, eVl r. rjXiKUiv...7rr]xvv, Jn xxi. 8 ws aTro 
Trrjx^f^ 8ia<oai(i)v. 

5 [1862^] Uio-Tos, in Mt.-Lk. "faithful," Mt. xxiv. 45 (Lk. xii. 42) tis 
apa eo-TLV 6 ttiotos dovXos (Lk. olKovofios) <ai (Lk. 6) (fipovifxos; Mt. xxv. 
21, 23 (twice) ev SovXe dyade kol Trio-re, eVi oXiya rjs ttkttos, Lk. xix. 17 
evye, dya6e dovXe, on ev eXa;^i(rra> Triarbs iyivov, Jn xx. 27 (to Thomas) 
" Be not unbelieving (airiarros) but believing {ttlotos)." 

^ Uveco, Mt. vii. 25, 27, Lk. xii. 55, Jn vi. 18, is in the description of a 
tempest; in Jn iii. 8 it is connected with regeneration, to nvevfia ottov 
deXei TTvel. 



TO JOHN, MATTHEW, AND LUKE [1864] 



Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 




Mt. 


Lk. Jn 


TTOlfXaiVOi^ I 


I 


I 


TTOIIXVT}^ 


I 


I I 


[1863] Trpo roO (w. inf.) i 


2 


3 


(ii) TrpocrKOTTTO)^ 


2 


I 2 


TTwOdvofiai^ I 


2 


1 


"Safiapeirrjs^ 


I 


3 3 + [i] 


(li) a-KopTTiCco^ I 


I 


2 


(ii) (TKOTia' 


2 


I 8 


[1864] (ii)o-/coTos(metaph.)^5 


3 


I 


(ii) 2oXo/iO)i/^ 


5 


3 I 


(ii) o-o0ia (Chri.)^^ 2 


4 


O 


(ii) o-o(^os" 


2 


I o 


arddios^^ I 


I 


2 


(ii) o-ro/ia^^ 


II 


9 I 


o-rpe^o) ^* 6 


7 


4 


o-uXXe-yco ^^ 


7 


I o 



1 not/xatj/<B, Mt. ii. 6 (quoting Mic. v. i), Lk. xvii. 7 (pec.) "Which of 
you shall have a bond-servant ploughing or sheep-tending {TroifiaivovTo)" 
Jn xxi. 16 ^^Und my young sheep." 

2 UoLfivrj, Mt. xxvi. 31 (quoting Zech. xiii. 7 wrongly), Lk. ii. 8, Jn x. 16 
" they shall become one ^ock, one shepherd." 

3 npoo-KOTTTO), Mt. iv. 6 (Lk. iv. 11) "Lest thou dask thy foot" (Ps. 
xci. 12), Mt. vii. 27 ''^ smote upon that house," Jn xi. 9, 10 '"'' stumble." 

* JIvvOdvofjLai, Mt. ii. 4 i'rTvv6dv€To...nov 6 Xp. yevvdrai, Jn iv. 52 envdeTO 
ovv r. &pav Trap' avrcov. 

^ ^aixapflrrjs, Mt. x. 5 ei? ttoXij/ 2. /xt) eiaeXBrjTe. W.H. bracket Jn iv. 9. 

6 S/copTTt^w, Mt. xii. 30, Lk. xi. 23 "He that gathereth not with me 
scatteretk," Jn x. 12 "the wolf scattereth them," xvi. 32 "....that ye shall 
be scattered." 

^ [1863^] '2K0TLa, Mt. X. 27 o Xeyco vpTiv iv r. cTKoriq, eiVare (imper.), 
parall. Lk. xii. 3 dvd^ av oo-a iv r. crKOTta e'LTrare (indic); also in Mt. iv. 16 
(giving a version of Is. ix. i) 6 Xaos 6 KaOrjfievos iv aKoria. 

^ [1864 <?:] Skotos (metaph.), Mt. vi. 23 el ovv to (pcos to iv crol (tkotos 
iaTiv TO o-KOTos TToaov, parall. Lk. xi. 35 fxrj to (f)S)S to iv aol trKoros- iaTiv. 
Mk has a-KOTos once (xv. 33) but in a literal sense. See 1110 a. 

9 2oXo/i<oV, Mt. vi. 29, Lk. xii. 27 ovbi 2., Mt. xii. 42, Lk. xi. 31 r. o-o(f)lav 
2....7rXeToi/ 2., Jn x. 23 iv tjj (ttoo. tov 2. 

^^ 2ocfiLa, Mt. xi. 19, Lk. vii. 35 idKaiwdr] rj ao^ia, Mt. xii. 42, Lk. xi. 31 
aKovo-ai T. crocf)[av 2oXofj,aivos. 2o<pLa also occurs (outside Christ's words) 
in Mk vi. 2 (sim. Mt. xiii. 54) tls rj o-ocfyia....; 

11 2o(f)6s, Mt. xi. 25 (Lk. x. 21) 6ti eKpv^as (Lk. dneKpyyl/as) TavTa diro 
<TO(f)aiV Koi avv€TO}V. 

^2 2raStos-, Mt. xiv. 24 (txt.), Lk. xxiv. 13, Jn vi. 19, xi. 18. 

13 2ro/xa, Mt. xii. 34, Lk. vi. 45 " out of the abundance of the heart the 
mouth speaketh," Jn xix. 29 "[they] brought it to his mouth." 

1* [1864^] 2Tpa(f)€is is applied to Jesus, "turning round," before 
speaking, in Mt. ix. 22, xvi. 23 ; Lk. vii. 9, 44, ix. 55, x. 23, xiv. 25, xxii. 61, 
xxiii. 28. Lk. uses the word in no other sense. Jn uses it thus once 
(i. 38) to introduce the first words uttered by Jesus, addressed to His first 
two converts, Andrew and another. 

1^ 2vXXi?y<u, Mt. vii. 16 fxr]Ti avWiyovanv dno aKavOcov aTa<pvXds, Lk. vi. 

343 



[1865] WORDS MOSTLY PECULIAR 





Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 




Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


[1865](ii)(rv,/6r6si 


I 


I 


o 


(ii) Tarreivos, 


-00)2 4 


6 


o 


T€ 


3 


9 


3 


T€\€(0^ 


7 


4 


2 


(?) tUtco* 


4 


5 


I 


(n) Tpo(\>r)^ 


4 


I 


I 


(ii) vndpxovTa^ 


3 


8 


o 


VTTVOS^ 


I 


I 


I 


[1866] (iii) vaT€pov 8 


7 


I 


I 


(ii) v\lr6a)^ 


3 


6 


5 



44 ov yap i^ aKav65>v arvWeyovatv (rv<a. Mt. xiii. 28 — 48 uses (rvXXeyco of 
gathering the tares that are to be burned ; Jn xv. 6 uses a-vvdyco of 
gathering withered branches for the same purpose. 

1 Suj/erdy, Mt. xi. 25, Lk. x. 21 otto (To(f)5)v kol (rvvercov (see note on 

(TO(f)6s). 

2 [1865 «] TaTreij/do) is in Mt. xxiii. 12 (sim. Lk. xiv. 11) (dzs) "Whoso- 
ever shall hujnble himself shall be exalted...," rep. in Lk. xviii. 14. 
TaTreivos is only in Mt. xi. 29 (pec), Lk. i. 52 (pec). Mt. xviii. 4 '"''humble 
himself as this little child" seems to be an explanation of Mk x. 15 
" receiving the kingdom of God as a little child," Mt. xviii. 3 " turn and 
become as little children." 

Epictetus regularly uses raTreirds- {-6(i>) in the sense of "servile": 
(iv. 4. i) "The desire of wealth makes men servile and subject to others," 
(i. 3. i) " One who believes that God is his Father ought to have no servile 
thoughts about himself" etc. 

3 [1865 <^] TeXe'o), Mt. five times (vii. 28, xi. i, xiii. 53, xix. i, xxvi. i) 
in such phrases as ot^ eriXea-ev 6 'I. tovs Xoyovs tovtovs, introducing a new 
section of narrative. Jn xix. 28 — 30 etScby 6 'I. on fjdr} iravra TereXca-Tai.... 
eiTTfv Tere'Xeo-rai. 

* TiKTO), Mt. i. 21 re^erai 8e vlov (uttered to Joseph) may be regarded 
by some as parall. to Lk. i. 31 re^t] vlov (uttered to Mary): in Jn, only 
xvi. 21 77 yvvT) orav riiCTr] Xvtttjv e;(€t. 

^ Tpo(f)T], Mt. vi. 25 ovxi V yj/'vxr) ttXcIov co-tlv t. rpocfirjs; parall. Lk. xii. 
23 T) yap -v//-. TrXeioj/ eariv r. Tpocfyrjs : Jn iv. 8 Iva Tpo(f)ds dyopda-ayariv. 

^ 'YTrdpxovra, Mt. xxiv. 47, Lk. xii. 44 eVi irdaiv to7s v.... KaraaTi^aeL avTov. 

^ "Yttvos, Mt. i. 24, Lk. ix. 32, Jn xi. 13. 

^ "YoTfpoj/, Mt. xxii. 27 varepov be Trdvroiv diridavev fj yvvr], Lk. xx. 32 
vo-repov k. fj yvvrj diredavev. The word is marked (iii) because the 
passage in which Mt. and Lk. agree is in the Triple Tradition, where 
Mk xii. 22 has eaxarov iravTcov : in Jn, only in Jn xiii. 36 aKoXovdrjaeis Se 
varepov. 

» [1866 rt;] 'Y\/^d<B, Mt. xi. 23, Lk. x. 15 (to Capernaum) "Shalt thou be 
exalted to heaven?" also Mt. xxiii. 12 {bis) (parallel to Lk. xiv. 11 {bis\ 
and xviii. 14 {bis)) "Whosoever shall exalt himself...." In Jn, always 
(iii. 14 {bis)^ viii. 28, xii. 32, 34) concerning the "lifting up" of the Son of 
man (illustrated once by the " lifting up " of the brazen serpent). 



344 



TO JOHN, MATTHEW, AND LUKE [1866] 

Mt. Lk. Jn Mt. Lk. Jn 

(ii) (f)i\os^ I 15 6 (ii) (fipovifxos^ 720 

(ii) (ficos (metaph.)^ 6 4 23 (ii) axmep^ 10 2 2 

OiTLOV^ I I I 



1 [1866<^] ^1X09, Mt. xi. 19, Lk. vii. 34 ^^ a. /rzend of publicans and 
sinners." On Christ's phrase " my friends," see 1784 — 92. ^iXeoa occurs 
Mk (i), Mt. (5), Lk. (2), Jn (13), but not always with the same meaning. 
It means "kiss" in Mk xiv. 44, Mt. xxvi. 48, Lk. xxii. 47. In Lk. xx. 46 
'"Having salutations" is parall. to Mt. xxiii. 6 — 7 "But they /^z/^....and 
salutations." Since it never means "love (persons)" in Lk., and since 
it occurs once in Mk (meaning " kiss ") it is not placed above. ^tXew 
means "love (persons)" in Mt. x. 37 {bis) and always in Jn exc. xii. 25 
"he that loveth his life." See 1716^— ^ and 1728 w—^. 

^ ^povifMos, Mt. xxiv. 45, Lk. xii. 42 tls apa earlv 6 Triaros dovXos k. 
(fipovi/jios. 

^ <E>a)y, Mt. vi. 23, Lk. xi. 35 to (pcos to iv aol, Mt. x. 27 6 Xe'yo) vfxiv iv r. 
(TKOTLa etTrare (imper.) ev r. (fxoTi, but parall. Lk. xii. 3 ocra eV r. (tkotIo. 
e'lTraTe (indic.) ev r. (fxoTl d<ova6r)a-eTai. In Jn xii. 36 Hva vio\ (fxoToy 
yevrjo-Oe is parall. in form, though not in context, to Lk. xvi. 8 (fypovipcoTepoi 
virep T. vlovs r. (fycoTos. On Jn-Mt. "light of the world," see 1748. 

* "Qa-irep, Mt. xxiv. 27, Lk. xvii. 24 loairep yap rj do-TpaTrrj.... In Lk. 
and Jn, alw. foil, by ydp exc. Lk. xviii. 1 1 coo-irep (v.r. &>$•) oi XoittoL 

^ [1866 c] 'Qtiov is used by Mt. xxvi. 51 in the wounding of the High 
Priest's servant (Lk. ovs, Mk and Jn coTaptov) but by Lk. xxii. 51 (pec.) in 
the healing, and by Jn xviii. 26 in a reference to the wounding. 



345 



[1866 (i)] JOHN, MATTHEW, AND LUKE 



ADDITIONAL NOTE {ivrvXiaao)) 

[1866 (i)] 'ErruXi(7o-a> occurs in Matthew's and Luke's versions of the 
Triple Tradition describing Christ's burial thus : 

Mk XV. 46 Mt. xjtvii. 59 Lk. xxiii. 53 

Kal dyopdffas ffiv56va Kal Xa^cdv rb trw/xa 6 Kal KadeXicv iverOXt^ev 

KadeXihu avTOv iveiXrjffev 'I(i3cr7j(f> evervKi^ev avrb avro <nv86vt. 

TTJ aivbbvL. [ej/] aivbbvL Kadapq.. Jn xix. 40 ^drjcrau. 

In Mark, R.V. has '''"wound him''^ (A.V. '•'■ wrapped hi7n''^) ; in Matthew 
and Luke, R.V. has '''■wrapped it.^^ It has been explained elsewhere 
(520 — 1) that Mark might deliberately use eveikelv, " bindfast^'' in order to 
shew the reality of the death, and of the burial, and the impossibility of 
a hasty removal of the body apart from the burial clothes, a point urged 
by Chrysostom^. But Matthew and Luke may have objected to the word 
(especially when applied, as by Mark, not to " body " but to " him ") as 
being unseemly, because it is used of fettering prisoners, swathing 
children hand and foot, holding people fast in a net, entangling them in 
evil or in debt, and generally in a bad sense 2. 

[1866 (ii)] 'EvrvXtVo-w, apparently a much rarer word than eVeiXe'co, is 
free from the objection of being used in a bad or hostile sense ; for it is 
used of wrapping oneself up in a cloak or a rug, and, so far as can be 

1 [1866 (i)^] Chrys. (on Jn, Migne p. 465) "John says that he was 
buried with a great amount of myrrh, which glues as it were the linen 
cloths to the body like the soldering of lead (^ fio\v^8ov ovx fjTTov 
(TvyKoXXa ra o-afiari to. odovia).^' 

- [1866 (i)(^] Steph. quotes Synes. Ep. 105 p. 248 B iveiXovfievov vols 

TTpbs TO. yeatdr] fieOeXKOvcriv, Plut^ Afor. p. 830 E 6 UTra^ eveiXrjdels (aeri 
alieno) [xevei ;^pe&)crr7;ff. Artemid. i. 13 connects it with helplessness or in- 
activity, dpya yap ra I3pe(f)r) koi iveiXovficva ras x^^P^^t ^^- 54 ''• ^^^tciv 
€V€LXrjp,evr)v e'xeiv dia to dpyrjv elvau... Plutarch Caes. 66 says that Caesar 
oxTTrep 6r)piov eVeiXeiro rals Tvavrav ;^epo-ti'. Steph. adds Artox. C. 1 1 Kvpov 
Tois TToXc/xtois' ev€iXovp.evov, QuintUS 14, 294 K^p6y...7roXeeo"cr/ /a' eveiXrjaavTO 
KaKoiaiy and Hesych. explains evetXrjTai as e^rjpicorai. These passages and 
others quoted by Steph. suggest that Polyc. Philipp. § i rovs eveiXrjpdvovs 
Tois dyioTrpcTriaiv deapois drivd icmv diadrjpara draws a contrast between 
the physical fettering of martyrs and their spiritual adornment, because, 
though they are "/«j-/ dound" in them, they do not regard themselves as 
(Ps. cvii. 10) "fas/ bound in misery and iron," but as wearing "diadems" 
of the elect. At the same time Polycarp emphasizes the necessity of 
helping those who are thus unable to help themselves. 

346 



JOHN, MATTHEW, AND LUKE [1866 (iv)] 

judged from the Thesaurus, never implies constraint i. But no instance 
is alleged of its meaning "wrap up a covering," "roll up a napkin" 
except in John xx. 7 "[Simon] beholdeth the linen cloths lying, and the 
napkin, which had been on his head, not lying with the linen cloths, but 
apart, rolled up (eVrervXtyjueVov) (lit.) into one place." 

[1866 (iii)] 'Ei/TvXto-o-o) as used by John and meaning "r^// up'''' is not 
similar in meaning to e. as used by Matthew-Luke meaning '-''wrap.'''' 
Nor are the two words in parallel contexts. Yet, having regard to the 
extreme rarity of the word in Greek literature of every age and to the fact 
that it does not occur anywhere in O.T. or N.T. except here, it is difficult 
to avoid the inference that John uses it with reference to the diverging 
traditions of the Synoptists — Mark using " bindfast^^'' Matthew and Luke 
" wrap.^^ John (xix. 40), avoiding the word eveiXeco, substitutes a word that 
means the same thing, edrjaav, " bound" and he adds, as Chrysostom -says, 
a mention of "abundance of myrrh" which would have the effect of 
'•'' binding fast^" like "the soldering of lead." At the same time, while 
substantially siding with Mark, John accepts the rare word of Matthew 
and Luke as expressing a fact, though not exactly the fact they describe. 
" There was^^ — John seems to say — " a ' wrapping^ or rather a ' ivrapping 
upi in connexion with the burial of the Lord. But it referred to the 
burial garments alone'^, not to the body itself" 

[1866 (iv)] Some illustration of the facts above mentioned may be 
derived from the facts mentioned elsewhere (640 — 61) as regards what 
Mark (i. 10) calls the " rending {p-yl^at) " of the heavens, whereas Matthew 
(iii. 16) and Luke (iii. 21) use the word ^'- open {avoiyw).^^ John omits this, 
but has later on (i. 51) "Ye shall see the heaven set open (di/oiyo))," 
agreeing verbally with Matthew and Luke but by no means in parallel 
context. 'EvrvXtWoj is far rarer than avotyw, and is used by the three 
Evangelists in contexts that are much more nearly parallel than those 
referring to avoiyo). The demonstration, therefore, is far stronger here 
that John is writing allusively to the Synoptists, and he appears to be not 
only justifying Mark but also explaining what he may have thought 
a misunderstanding in Matthew and Luke. 

^ [1866 (ii) al Aristoph. Nub. 983 iv IfiariOis Trpodi^do-iceis evrervXixdai, 
Plut. 692 AvTTjv ivTv\i^a(T r^avxr}. Steph. also quotes Athen. 3 p. 106 F, 
107 A, where it describes the wrapping up of the liver etc. He refers to, 
but does not quote, Diocl. ap. Antiatt. Bekk. p. 97, 9. It does not occur 
in LXX (where eveikelaBai occurs once), and would seem to be a very rare 
word in Gk literature of all periods. 

2 [1866 (iii) a] Comp. Lk. [xxiv. 12] " t/ie linen cloths alone (fiova),'" and 
Jn XX. 5 — 7 ^^ the linen cloths... the linen cloths... the napkin...;/^/ with the 
linen cloths, but apart ^^ and see 1804 on '-''the linen cloths alone" a phrase 
that may have been the subject of many interpretations. 

347 



CONCLUSION 

§ I. Review of the evidence 

The Vocabularies given above have exhibited results that 
may be tabulated as follows: 

[1867] (i) Synoptic Vocabulary, i.e. the Vocabulary of 
the Triple Tradition. This differs widely from the Johannine. 
Where the same words are used by all four Gospels, the 
Fourth often uses metaphorically what the Three use literally. 

[1868] (2) Johannine Vocabulary. This would be found 
very small indeed as compared with the Vocabulary of 
Matthew by itself, or with that of Luke by itself, and even 
when compared above with the limited number of words used 
by Mark, Matthew, and Luke in common, it is small. It 
omits words of local or temporary interest and rings the 
changes on a small number of elementary words and their 
synonyms. 

[1869] (3) John-Mark Agreements. The verbal agree- 
ments are few, Mark being the most concrete, and John being 
the most abstract, of the Evangelists. But the number of 
parallelisms is large, or — if regard be had to the small number 
of verbal agreements — very large indeed. They are also 
undeniable. For example, no one denies that the sayings 
about " buying for two hundred denarii " and " selling for 
three hundred denarii" are recorded by Mark and John in 
connexion, severally, with the same events. 

[1870] (4) John-Matthew Agreements. The verbal agree- 
ments are more numerous than those in the John-Mark list. 

348 



CONCLUSION [1871] 



But there are no parallelisms unless we suppose that John, 
when mentioning "« tribunal" in connexion with Pilate, 
wishes to distinguish it from 'Hhe tribunal" mentioned by 
Matthew. There are, however, the phrases " my brethren " 
and " light of the world," assigned both by Matthew and by 
John to our Lord but in different contexts — and the latter 
(1748) with the several prefixes, " Ye are," and " I am." 

[1871] (5) John-Luke Agreements. The verbal agree- 
ments are very numerous indeed, exhibiting the two Evan- 
gelists as educated writers naturally using a similar vocabulary 
(except where Luke gave up, and John retained, special words 
of low-class Greek — perhaps endeared to some readers by old 
Evangelic associations). But parallelisms either are non- 
existent or are of a corrective character. For example, John 
twice uses Luke's word e/cyLtacrcr&) to emphasize apparently 
the fact that the woman that " wiped " the Lord's feet was 
not a " sinner," but Mary the sister of Martha. Since also the 
evidence indicated that we ought to include in Luke's text 
the description of Peter's visit to Christ's sepulchre ^ there 
appeared to be another quasi-parallelism that must be 
described as corrective. And other corrective passages ap- 
peared to exist in John, in connexion with the phrase "stood 
in the midst," applied to our Lord after the Resurrection by 
him and Luke. 



^ [1871 d\ The passage, like others in Luke's account of the Re- 
surrection, might have been added by Luke himself in a second edition 
of his Gospel. I am informed by my friend Dr Israel Gollancz that 
there is evidence to shew that in the poems of Langland certainly, and 
perhaps in those of Chaucer, there are copies containing additions that 
proceeded from the author himself. In the days before printing, an 
author's second edition, if made shortly before his death, might appear at 
first in only a few copies, whereas the first edition might count its 
hundreds or thousands. This might discredit the additions in the second 
edition, so that even those scribes that copied it might think it necessary 
to correct the second by the first, omitting what appeared to some " the 
corrupt interpolations of the later copies." 

349 



[1872] CONCLUSION 



[1872] (6) John-Mark-Matthew Agreements. Here, as 
in the John-Mark list, the number of verbal agreements is not 
large, but the parallelisms are proportionately very numerous; 
and the facts indicate that, in these, John is not following 
Matthew but Mark, whom Matthew has previously followed. 

[1873] (7) John-Mark-Luke Agreements. The verbal 
agreements are not numerous — the vocabulary of Mark and 
that of Luke being seldom likely to be similar except where 
both are describing exorcisms, a subject never mentioned by 
John. There is only one parallelism, namely, in the descrip- 
tion of the Baptist as not worthy to loose the " latchet " 
of Christ's shoe, where Matthew has "carry the shoes.'* 
One quasi-parallelism appears to be of a corrective nature, 
bearing on the " spices " used, or to be used, in embalming 
the body of Christ. Mark and Luke connect these with the 
women, Matthew omits "spices," and says that the women 
came to "behold" the tomb. John assigns the "spices" to 
Nicodemus and Joseph. The paucity of parallelisms contrasts 
with the abundance in the John-Mark-Matthew list. 

[1874] (8) John-Matthew-Luke Agreements. The verbal 
agreements are very numerous indeed: but there is not a single 
parallelism. There is, however, an allusive use of Matthew- 
Luke's phrase " lay the head to rest," applied by John (1839) 
to the description of Christ's death. John sometimes alludes 
(1450, 1784) to Matthew's or Luke's version of the Double 
Tradition and {e.g, 1866 (i) foil.) to Matthew's and Luke's 
versions of the Triple Tradition ; but in no case does John 
agree exactly with Matthew and Luke combined, or with 
either separately. 

§ 2. What remains to be done 

[1875] It may be objected against the preceding system 
of Vocabularies that it is incomplete, and — so far as concerns 
the attitude of the Fourth Gospel to the collective evidence of 
the Three — negative. " The first " — it may be said — " of the 

350 



CONCLUSION [1876] 



eight Vocabularies tells us what words are characteristic of 
Mark-Matthew-Luke and absent or rare in John : the second 
tells us what are characteristic of John and absent or rare in 
Mark-Matthew-Luke. But this is largely negative informa- 
tion. Where is the Vocabulary of words common to the 
Four^ the John- Mark- Matthew -Luke Vocabulary'^ That 
would give us purely positive information, for want of which 
the preceding investigation must be pronounced defective." 

[1876] Let us consider this objection in the light of facts 
as presented by page i A of Mr Rushbrooke's Synopticon, 
which prints in large red capitals all the words common to 
the Four Gospels in the description of John the Baptist and 
his baptism of Christ. They are as follows: "Voice of one 
crying in the wilderness, straight[en] the way of the Lord... 
Isaiah the prophet... I bapti[ze] in water... com[ing] of whom 
I am not... the shoe... Jordan... baptiz[ing]... Spirit descend[ing] 
as a dove from heaven... him... baptiz[ing] in the Holy Spirit... 
the Son (v.r. elect)." Now suppose we were to tabulate these 
words alphabetically, should we derive any information from 
them apart from a close examination of their context ? For 
example, the last two words " the Son" (if genuine) occur in 
John the Baptist's testimony " I have borne witness that this 
is the Son of God." But the Synoptic mention of " Son " at 
the conclusion of the account of the Baptism refers it to a 
Voice from heaven, " This is (or, Thou art) my beloved So7t!' 
Again, Luke distinctly says that the Spirit " descended in 
bodily shape as a dove " ; Mark and Matthew say " He saw " 
the descent, the former apparently, the latter certainly, 
referring " He " to Jesus (596). The Fourth Gospel makes 
the Baptist clear up this doubt by saying, "/ have beheld 
the Spirit descending as a dove." These distinctions are 
most important. But what important gain would there be 
from simply reading, in a " John-Mark-Matthew-Luke Vocabu- 
lary," such an entry as " irepLo-repd Mk (2), Mt. (3), Lk. (2), 
Jn(3)"? 

A. V. 351 24 



[1877] CONCLUSION 



[1877] If mere tabulation would be useless as to the words 
specified above (" Son " and " dove ") which belong to a 
narrative (the Baptism of Christ) where the Fourth Gospel 
intervenes in the Triple Tradition, much more would the 
charge of uselessness apply to such words as must necessarily 
form the common stock of all Gospels, e.g. '* man," " woman," 
"live," "die," "soul," "spirit," "heaven," "earth," etc. We 
may therefore dismiss the project of a complete Fourfold 
Vocabulary as not likely to be what Bacon calls " luciferous." 
But we cannot dismiss so readily the thought — suggested by 
the last paragraph — that a close critical examination of the 
Johannine and the Synoptic narratives of the Baptism, and 
of other passages where John intervenes, would be of great 
value. Take, for example, the Feeding of the Five Thousand, 
where all the Evangelists except Luke mention "grass" in 
various ways. In a mere Fourfold Vocabulary this fact 
would not appear because Luke uses "grass" in other 
contexts. Even if a note were added, calling attention to 
Luke's omission, its significance would be lost among other 
notes necessarily attached to the word " grass " if it had to be 
annotated at all. It is only in a commentary on the four 
accounts of the miracle, that this and other points of Johan- 
nine agreement, or disagreement, with this or that Synoptist, 
could be satisfactorily discussed. 

§ 3- Johannine Grammar 

[1878] It might seem, then, that the next step should be 
to examine in order all the passages where the Fourth Gospel 
intervenes in the tradition of the Three. Equipped, as we 
now are from the preceding Vocabularies, with information as 
to the words that John favours and disfavours, his metaphorical 
method, and his apparent preference for Mark or Mark- 
Matthew (as compared with Luke) we could apply this know- 
ledge to each narrative in turn, shewing how the Fourth 

352 



CONCLUSION [1880] 



Gospel sometimes deviates from all three in virtue of his 
peculiar method or style, and sometimes approximates to 
one, or two, of the three in conformity with his rule of 
preference. 

[1879] But we do not know quite enough about John as 
yet to do this effectually. It is not enough about any writer 
— least of all about a writer in Greek, a language abounding 
in facilities for expressing thought and emphasis by variety 
of order and construction — to know merely what verbs, nouns, 
and prepositions he likes and dislikes. We must also know 
something of his syntax. There are more ambiguities in the 
Fourth Gospel than in all the Three taken together, and it is 
easy to put one's finger on the cause of many of them. One, 
for example, is the attempt to express meaning by order of 
words or by reference to context. The very last words of 
Christ in freedom, uttered before He is led away in bonds to 
Annas, are what, proceeding from a classical Greek author, 
would have to be rendered, " The cup that my Father hath 
given me I will assuredly not drink it." There can be no 
doubt here that the words are to be read either interrogatively 
or as an exclamation implying surprise that Peter should try 
to prevent Him from drinking the cup: but there are many 
other passages where the meaning is far from clear until they 
have been illustrated by the comparison of a large number of 
similar instances. 

[1880] Again, it is a peculiarity of John's style, and some- 
times almost an obtrusive one, that he repeats some statements 
twice, others thrice, and that a sevenfold arrangement appears 
in parts of his narrative, and he occasionally prefers to make 
a literally inaccurate but practically accurate assertion, e.g. 
" Jesus baptized," and then, instead of cancelling it, to supple- 
ment it by an exact statement of the fact, that Jesus Himself 
did not baptize, but His disciples did. These peculiarities, 
and several others, fall under the head of Johannine Arrange- 
ment of Words, so that they have not been discussed in the 

353 24—2 



[1880] CONCLUSION 



preceding pages where words alone have been considered. 
Without some study of Johannine Grammar as well as 
Johannine Vocabulary, we should be at a disadvantage in 
approaching a discussion of the Fourfold Gospel. The next 
step, therefore, to be taken will be the publication Q>i Johannine 
Grammar^ as the Second Part of this work, with an Index to 
the two Parts. 



354 



APPENDIX 



355 



APPENDIX 

PREPOSITIONS 1 IN THE FOUR GOSPELS 

§ I. Introductory remarks 

[1881] No English alphabetical lists could well represent 
the differences between the Johannine and the Synoptic use 
of prepositions and particles. And even Greek statistics, 
without careful annotation, might be misleading. Prepositions 
that are used by the Synoptists frequently, but almost always 
literally, may be used by John almost as frequently but 
hardly ever literally. It is useless to be informed that two 
writers use 'Hn'' with the same frequency, if one mostly uses 
it in such phrases as ''in that hour," ''m those days," ''in 
Capernaum," etc., and the other in such phrases as " abide in 
me." 

[1882] The same thing holds good about " to " or " into!' 
This, in the Synoptists, is mostly literal; but in John it is very 
frequently metaphorical — in the phrases "come into the 
world," "sent into the world." Frequently, too, John expresses 
" believe in " by " believe into (et?)." Luke uses airo, "from!' 
more than thrice as often as John, but John would be found 



1 The Johannine Prepositions will be discussed singly from the 
grammatical point of view in the Second Part of this work, the Johannine 
Grammar. Here they are treated collectively as illustrating the contrast 
between the Johannine and the Synoptic vocabulary. And the list will 
include one or two words {e.g. ovv) of a specially illustrative character. 

357 



[1883] PREPOSITIONS 



to exceed Luke in special phrases, e.g. ''from himself I' ''from 
myself!' "from God" etc., where the words have a moral or 
spiritual meaning. Hence eV, eU^, eV and Trpo? are not 
inserted in the following list ; but " on " (eVt with gen.) is 
inserted for a special reason. It is not used by John in 
Christ's words more than once, and then only toward the end 
of his Gospel in the declaration of an accomplished mission, 
" I have glorified thee on the earth " ; the reason is that this 
preposition does not lend itself to spiritual metaphor. So, 
too, irapd with accusative meaning "by the side of" occurs 
often in the Synoptic "by the sea" etc.; John uses it not with 
accusative but with genitive, to express the Son's coming 
"from the side of," or "from the house of," the Father. 
Lastly, the mediatorial preposition "for" virep with the 
genitive, occurs far more frequently in the Fourth Gospel 
than in all the Three together. 

[1883] In the fohannine Grammar, John's use of "there- 
fore" ovv, will be discussed under "Conjunctions," but some 
remarks on it may be useful here. In narrative, John is very 
fond of it, as carrying on the story from step to step in logical 
sequence. Ovv in the Fourth Gospel is very much like the 
English "so " in a story for children : " He did this, so [as a 
natural consequence] she did that." John also frequently 
inserts it in describing the talk — often idle talk — of the 
multitudes, or of " the Jews," whom he represents as chattering 
with a false appearance of logical sequence. But he hardly 
ever inserts it in his record of Christ's words, perhaps because 
he does not like to represent Him as prone to arguing. 
Hence, though the particle occurs in the Fourth Gospel about 
195 times, against 90 times in the Three, it is not found more 
than 8 times in Christ's words (1885 d). In the Epistle it is 
never used at all. 



^ Except when eZy is used for eV. 

358 



IN THE FOUR GOSPELS [1884] 



§2. A few statistics about Prepositions 





Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


[1884] hia (accus. of pers.)^ 


4 


4 





9 


etff (for eV)2 


3 


2 


7 


5 


eveica, -ev, €LV€k.€V (1692 a) 


4 or 5 


7 


5 





ini (accus.) (total) 


34 


C.67 


C. ICO 


19 


„ (accus.) (Chri.)^ 


i8 


c. 41 


c. 61 


2 


„ (dat.) (Chri.) 


5 


12 


16 





„ (gen.) (Chri.)4 


9 


22 


17 


I 



1 [1884 «a!] Ata Ttva, in N.T., mostly means " for the sake of benefiting, 
satisfying, supporting, glorifying etc. a person " (not " because of what a 
person has done in the past") : nor can (Mk ii. 4, Lk. v. 19, viii. 19) 
" because of the crowd," with a negative, be regarded as exceptions, since 
" crowd" is there regarded impersonally. But " I covno. for your sake {did 
ere)" might be used to mean " I come to see you [and not to see anyone 
else]," and so Jn xii. 9 ov 8ia r. 'I. fiovov means " not to see Jesus only." In 
Jn xii. 1 1 iroWol dt' avTov vTrrjyov... seems to mean " Many of the Pharisees 
were in the habit of going away [from their own party] for the sake of 
seeing him [Lazarus] and were becoming believers in Jesus." Jn vii. 43 
" there was a division /^r his sake " may mean " for the sake of [supporting 
or attacking] him" ; Jn xii. 42 '"''for the sake ^the Pharisees they did not 
confess him " may be explained as Gal. ii. 4 '"''for the sake of the false 
brethren," which Lightfoot renders "/^ satisfy^ to disarm^ the false 
brethren." 

[1884^] All this bears on Jn vi. 57 where ^^\\v'\Vi^ for the sake of ^^o^ 
Father " and " Xwmgfor my sake " must not be confused with living " by 
means of {hid with gen.). It is true that " eating " is mentioned in the 
context. But the primary meaning probably is that the Son " lives y<?r the 
sake ^/glorifying the Father." See 2294—2300. 

2 [1884 c'\ Ety for eV. These numbers are taken from Bruder — after 
rejecting Mk i. 39 (reading ^X^ci/ not ^v), ii. i, Lk. xii. 21 {ih Qeov 
TrXovTwv), and inserting Jn xx. 19, 26 eo-rrj els to fiecrov. Jn's other 
instances are i. 18 6 a>v els t6v koXttov tov Trarpoff, xvii. 23 Iva Sxri 
T€Te\ei(i)ixevoi els ev and xxi. 4 earT] 'irjaovs els (marg. eiri) tov alyiaXov. 
Lk.'s instances are all local. Concerning Christ's manifestation after the 
Resurrection Lk. xxiv. 36 has avTos eo-Trj ev ixeato avTcov. 

3 [1884^1 'Etti (accus.) (Chri.) in Jn, only i. 51 "the angels of God 
ascending and descending upon (eVi) the Son of man" (from Gen. 
xxviii. 12, LXX en avTfjs, D eV avTrj) and xiii. 18 "hath lifted up his heel 
against me " (from Ps. xii. 9). 

* [1884^] 'Etti (gen.) (Chri.) in Jn, only xvii. 4 "I [have] glorified thee 
on (eVi) the earth." 

359 24—5 



[1885] PREPOSITIONS 





Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


€a>s (prep. w. noun)^ 


5 


c. 19 


8 


[I] 


KOTO, (accus.) 


c. 14 


21 


37 


7 


„ (gen.)^ 


7 


i6 


6 


I 


[1885] fiT,8(is^ 


8 


5 


9 





/Ltj^TTore, or /xj) Trore* 


2 


8 


7 


I 


oo-Ttf (of persons)^ 


4 


27 


II 


I 


0^1/6 


3 or 4 


56 


30 


c. 195 


Trapd (accus.) 


7 


7 


13 





„ (gen.)7 


6 


5 


9 


25 


7r€ pi (accus.) 8 


lO 


8 


5 





vTTf'p (gen.) 9 


2 


I 


I +[2] 


13 



1 "Eojy prep. w. noun, in Jn, is only in viii. 9 " from the first unto the 
last " — an interpolated passage. 

2 [1884/"] Kara (gen.), in Jn, only xix. 11 Ovk ft^fs e^ovcriav kot e/Aou 
ovbcp.iav. 

3 [1885^] M7;§eiy. The Johannine non-use of any form of /xjySfiy 
indicates that Jn does not contain such prohibitions as " Tell no man" 
" Let no man know it," " Take nothing for the journey " etc. (Mk i. 44, 
Mt. viii. 4, ix. 30, Lk. v. 14 etc.). 

* [1885 <^] Mi^TTore, in Synopt., alw. means "lest" exc. perh. Lk. iii. 15 
" reasoning... (R.V.) whether haply he were the Christ." In Jn vii. 26 
p,r}TroT€...€yva}aav, it means ^^ Can it be that...!" 

^ [1885^] "OoTis, of pers., in Synopt, mostly means "every one that" 
or "that" used as a defining relative. But in Jn it seems to be a 
supplem£ntary relative {^'' who" — ^^ and he") Jn viii. 53 "Art thou greater 
than our father Abraham who {oa-ns) is dead... ? " See 2413. 

6 [1885 d] Ovv. Jn altogether differs from Mt.-Lk. in his use of ovv. 
They mostly use it in Christ's words. Jn uses it freq. in the words of 
others (i. 21, 25, iv. 11 etc.) and in narrative i. 22, 39, ii. 18, 20 etc., but 
very rarely indeed in Christ's words (vi. 62, viii. 24, 36, 38, xii. 50, xiii. 14, 
xvi. 22, xviii. 8) about 8 times. In Mt.'s Sermon on the Mount alone, it 
occurs 1 3 times. 

7 [1885^] llapa (gen.). Jn's use is almost always in the phrase '"''from 
God (or, the Father)" eg. i. 6, 14, v. 44, vi. 45, 46 etc. 

8 Ilepi (accus.), see n. on virip. 

^ [1885/] 'YTTep (gen.). Mk ix. 40 "He that is not against us \s for 
us" and sim. Lk. ix. 50, but ^^a.ga\nst you... for you"'; Mt. om., but has Mt. 
v. 44 " pray /or them that persecute you," where'Lk. vi. 28 has " pray for" 
expressed by irepi. [Lk. xxii. 19, 20] is doubtful. 

[1885^] Jn's first instance is i. 30 " This is he about (vnep v. r. nept) 
whom I said...." John the Baptist is speaking of Christ, and virip is all 

360 



IN THE FOUR GOSPELS [1885] 





Mk 


Mt. 


Lk. 


Jn 


vno (accus.)i 
„ (gen.)^ 


30^4 
8 


5 
23 


7 
23 


I 
I 



the more remarkable because (i) he has, in Jn i. 15, 'ladvrjs fxaprvpeT trfpl 
avTov, (2) everywhere else in Jn virep means '''•for the sake o/^ Perh. i. 30, 
having a shade of difference from i. 1 5, means " in behalf of whom" 
i.e. as His representative. 

[1885^] In Jn xiii. 37, 38 virip is twice used about Peter's profession 
that he would "lay down his life/(?r" Christ; in xvii. 19 "I sanctify 
myself /<?r them" seems to refer to Christ's self-devotion on the cross ; in 
almost all other passages the word is certainly used in connexion with 
Christ's dying for man, whether mentioned by Christ Himself, or 
(xi. 50 — 2, xviii. 14) by Caiaphas, or by the Evangelist referring to 
Caiaphas. The prevalence of the word, therefore, in fn is due to the 
prevalence of mediatorial doctrine. 

1 [1885 z] 'Ytto (accus.) in Jn, only i. 48 vrco rqv arvKrjv foil, by i. 50 
vTroKaTco rrjs o-VK^y, on which see 2372 — 3. 

2 [1885y] 'Ytto (gen.). The rarity ofyno w. gen. in Jn arises from his 
preference of active to passive, as in Jn x. 14 R. V. " mine own know me," 
but V. r. and A.V. " I am known of mine." The only genuine instance is 
Jn xiv. 21... cKeivos icTTLV 6 dyairoiv pe, 6 8e dyanav pe dyanrjOrjafTai vrrb tov 
irarpos pov, /cayco dya7rr](ra) avrov... where tov Se dyaTravra epe would be 
avoided by many writers as being in form, though not in fact, ambiguous. 



361 



[1885 (i)] ADDENDA 



ADDENDA 

[1885 (i)] Vocabulary I (1672—96) gives a characteristic but not 
a complete list of words used in the Three Gospels and comparatively 
seldom or never in the Fourth. The textual list was intended for readers 
unacquainted with Greek. The annotations called attention to points 
some of which the author hopes to discuss in a treatise on " The Fourfold 
Gospel." The list omitted many words such as " camel," " candlestick " 
(A. v.), " herd," " mother-in-law," concerning which everybody knows that 
the Synoptists use them and John does not. Their inclusion appeared 
likely to make the Vocabulary inconveniently large without greatly 
increasing its utility for the general reader. But here, for the benefit of 
the student of the Greek Testament, the omitted words are set down in 
Greek alphabetical order. The list is not complete even now. It omits 
prepositions and particles discussed elsewhere, and also words used 
differently by the different Synoptists e.g. 8ia(f)€p(o, Karapri^o), /coTrro), and 
Aeyio)!/. But still, if the student combines the following list with the 
instances marked in Vocabulary I as Jn (o), he will have a tolerably 
complete view of the words used by the Three Gospels and never used by 
the Fourth. 'AyeXr] 2, 3, 2 = d. Mk (2), Mt. (3), Lk. (2), and so of the 
rest : — 

[1885 {i)a] 'AyeXrj 2, 3, 2 : ddvparos I, I, I : a^vnos 2, I, 2 : aKpov 2, 2, 
I : aXa^aarpov 2, I, I : &\uvs 2, 2, I : ^AX(fiaLos 2, I, i : dvayKci^a) i, i, i : 
dvexofiai I, I, I : an-atpo) I, I, I : dnodrjfieco I, 3, 2 : dirodoKi fiasco 2, 1,3: 
dTroKadiOTrjui 3, 2, I : d7roKC(f)aX[^(o 2, I, I : d7roKvXia> I, I, I : aparjv I, I, I : 
dcTKOs 4, 4, 4 : dcTTrd^ofxai 2, 2, 2 : dcnraafxos I, I, 5 • d(f)aip€a> I, I, 4 (1709 d). 
BdBos I, I, I : ^beXvy/xa I, I, I : ^i^Xos I, I, 2. TaXTjvr] I, I, I : 

yaarrjp I, 3) 2 : yevrj/xa I, I, I : Tevvqirapir I, I, I. Aia^XcTroi I, I, 

I : dia0rjKr] I, I, 2 : Sidvoia I, I, 2 : SiaTrepdco 2, 2, I : diap^(r(ra) I, I, 2 : 
dva-KoXays I, I, I : Bcj/xa I, 2, 3. EtKoyv I, I, I : etayda I, I, I : 

eKdidoifit I, 2, I : evdrrj &pa 2, 3, I : ivrpiirop-ai I, I, 3 : e^rjKOvra 2, 2, I : 
eni^XTjua I, I, 2 : €7riypa(j)r] 2, I, 2 : itriaKid^oi I, I, 2 : eprjfKocns I, I, I : 
€vdvs (adj.) I, I, 2 : evKOTrcoTepov 2, 2, 3. ZrjfXLoa) I, I, I. Qepos 

1, I, I : $i^Xd^a) I, 2, 2 : 6v(ria l, 2, 2. Ka/x7/Xos 2, 3, I : Kapiro^opioa 

2, I, I : (carayeXao) I, I, I : KaTaTreracTfia I, I, I : KaTapdofiai I, I, I : 
KaTacrK€vd^a> I, I, 2 : KaraaKTjvoo} I, I, I : KaracpiXeo) I, I, 3 : Karivavri 3, 2, 
I : Kpda-TTfdov I, 3, I : Kprjixvos I, I, I : Kvpr)vaios I, I, I. 

[1885 (i)^] Adxavov I, I, I : Xifios I, I, 4 : Xvxvla I, i, 2. Merpeo) 

2, 2, I : fiodios I, I, I : fivoTrjpiov I, I, I. Neavio-Kos 2, 2, I : wfKpcov 

I, 2, I. SvXa (pi.) 2, 2, I. *08ovs I, 8, I : opfido) I, I, I : 

opx^ofiai I, 2, I : 6a(f)vs I, I, I. Uapexfo I, 1,4: Trevdepd I, 2, 3 : 

nepiXvnos 2, I, I : irepia-aevfia I, I, I : Trepia-a-oTepos 3, I, 4 (1683^) : 
niva^ 2, 2, I : noXefios 2, 2, 2 : irovqpia I, I, I : Troppca I, I, 2 : TrpoBeais I, 



362 



ADDENDA [1885 (ii)/^] 



I, I : TTpcoTOKadedpia I, I, 2 : 7rp(OTOK\i(ria I, I, 2 : trvpyos I, I, 2. 
'Pa/36oj 1,1, I : priyvvp-L 2, 2, 2. SaXevo) 1,2, 4 : aeXrivi] I, I, I : 

(rivaTTi I, 2, 2 : crtv§a)j/ 3, I, I : a-Krjvrj 1,1,2: (TKta I, I, I : (tkvXXw I, 1,2: 
(Tiropifios I, I, I : crrd;(i;ff 3, I, I : areyr] I, I, I : crvKov I, I, I : crvvXaXeco I, 
I, 3 : (TvvTTvly(o 2, I, 2 : a-vvTrjpea) i, I, I. TeXwrioi' I, I, I : rt'XXo) I, 

I, I : Tpdx^'jXos 1,1,2. 'YTraKOvo) 2, I, 2 : v7rop.ev(o I, 2, I. 

^aivofiai (mid. or pass.) i+[i], 13, 2 : (f)ip.6co 2, 2, i : (f>ov€v(o i, 5, i : 
(fiovos 2, I, 2 : (^payjxos I, I, I. "iTevdoTrpocfiTjTTjs I, 3, I. 

[1885 (ii)] Vocabulary II (1707 — 28) omitted a large number of words 
used by John alone, but used by him only once or twice, so that they 
could not be called characteristic, e.^. aXor], apa(f)09, ^atov, yeverr]. These 
belong either to special narratives, or else to special details, not given by 
the Synoptists ; and their inclusion seemed likely to make the Vocabulary 
inconveniently long without compensating advantage to the reader 
unacquainted with Greek. But there is much to be learned from some of 
these, e.^. from John's unique use of fxiaiva (" lest they (the chief priests) 
should de defiled'''') immediately before the priests accuse Christ of " doing 
evil^'' when compared with Matthew's statement "That which cometh out 
of the mouth defileth {kowoi) the man." Some of them will be discussed 
in Part II of this work, e.g. aXkofiai (2314 — 6), others, it is hoped, 
in a future treatise. For the convenience of the student, instead of 
figures stating how often the word occurs in the Fourth Gospel, the 
list appends references to the several passages. No Synoptist uses the 
following words : 

[1885 (ii)«] 'Ay-yeXXo) XX. 18, dyvi^co xi. 55, aXXoixai iv. 14, dXoT] xix. 39, 
djivos i. 29, 36, dvarpeTrat ii. 1 5, duepxofiai vi. 3, dvBpcorroKrovus viii. 44, 
aTTddeo) iii. 36, apac^os xix. 23, dpecrros viii. 29, dpviov xxi. 15, dpx^iTpUXivos 
ii. 8 — 9. Baiov xii. 13 (2047), ^aaiXiKos iv. 46, 49, ^i^paxrKO) vi. 1 3. 

TeveTT} ix. I, yepcov iii. 4, yrjpdo-Kco xxi. 1 8, yXoxroroKO/xov xii. 6, xiii. 29. 
AaKpvco xi. 35, StaTpi/3o) iii. 22, diduKros vi. 45, dapia iv. lO, s. also 1682^. 
'E/38d/iJ7 apa iv. 52, eKKevreo) xix. 37, CKvevcn v. 1 3, eXarroco iii. 30, iXdrrav ii. 
10, eXiyp-a xix. 39, ipiropLov ii. 16, ificfivo-dco xx. 22, ivKa'ivia x. 22, i-trdparos 
vii. 49, iiriyeios iii. 12, eiriXeyco v. 2, eirixpLco ix. II, evrovpdvios iii. 12, 
epavvd(o v. 39, vii. 52, evdvvco i. 23, e;^^6y iv. 52. 

[1885 (ii) d] ZPjXos ii. 17, ^77x770-49 iii. 25. 'HXoy xx. 25 ((^/j). 

Q€0(r€^r]s ix. 31, ^77K»7 xviii. II, Qpiyifxa iv. 12. Kadaipo) xv. 2, Karr^yopia 

xviii. 29, (r«i/) K48pQ3v xviii. i, K«p/a xi. 44, Kep/xa ii. 15, KepfiaTia-Trjs ii. 
14, KTyTTovpos- XX. 15, kXtJpo XV. 2 — 6 (4 times (1674)), KXwTray xix. 25, 
Koi/xj/o-i? xi. 13, Kopyj/orepov e;^co iv. 52. Aarpeiaxvi. 2, XeVrtoi/ xiii. 4, 5, 

Xldivos ii. 6, Ai^oo-rpwroff xix. 13, Xirpa xii. 3, xix. 39, Xoidopeco ix. 28. 
Maivopai x. 28, MaX;^o? xviii. 10, p.dxop.ai vi. 52, /xeo-oo) vii. 14, pialvo) xviii. 
28. Neva) xiii. 24, vnrrqp xiii. 5. 'Odonropla iv. 6, o^g) xi. 39, 

oIp.ai xxi. 25, oi/aptoi^ xii. 14 (1736 <?), ottXoi/ xviii. 3, 6crp,rj xii. 3, o\//'ts- vii. 24, 
xi. 44. Uaibdpiov VI. 9 (1736 <?), TrapafxvOeofiai, xi. 19, 3 1, Trevdepos 



363 



[1885 (ii)<;] ADDENDA 



xviii. 13, TrfpiSf'o) xi. 44, TrepiioTrjixi xi. 42, 7ropcf)vp€os xix. 2, 5? Tdtrty vi. 55, 
TTpo^aTiKT} V. 2 (2216), Trpo^drtov xxi. 16, 1 7, 7rpo(raiT€(o ix. 8 (s. also 
■jrpoaaiTrjs 1737 «), Trpoo-Kvvrjrrjs iv. 23, irpoa-cfxiyiov xxi. 5) "n-repva xiii. 1 8, 
TTTva-fia ix. 6 (s. also tttvo), 1737 <5). 

[1885 (ii) <:] 'Pe'o) vii. 38. '^afxape'iTis iv. 9 (^/V), o-kAos- xix. 31, 32, 

33j a-KTjvoirrjyia vii. 2, o'lciyi'da) i. 1 4, (ttoo. v. 2, x. 23, (rvveio-epxofiai vi. 22, 
xviii. 15, avvfxadrjTTjs xi. 16, avpo) xxi. 8, (rxoiviov ii. 15. Ta;(«oj/ xiii. 

27, XX. 4 (1918), TCKviov xiii. 33 (1676 «), rerapraloy xi. 39, rerpap-r^vos iv. 35, 
tLtKos xix. 19, 20, ruTToy xx. 25 (^z^), Tv(^\6a> xii. 40. 'Ydpla ii. 6, 7, 

iv. 28, vir6deiyp.a xiii. 15, vo-o-coTroy xix. 29, v(f>avT6s xix. 23. *aiVa) 

(active) i. 5, v. 35, <f)av6s xviii. 3, cf)avXos iii. 20, v. 29 (1772 d\ (jioivi^ xii. 
13 (2047), (fipayiWiov ii. 15. Xap,ai ix. 6, xviii. 6, x^'-H'^PPos xviii. I, 

;^oXda) vii. 23. ^evdos viii. 44, yjreiKrTrjs viii. 44, 55, ■^u^yos xviii. 18. 



OF THE 

UNIVERSITY 

OF 



364 



BY THE SAME AUTHOR 

A. & C BLACK, SOHO SQUARE, LONDON 

CLUE 

A GUIDE THROUGH GREEK TO 
HEBREW SCRIPTURE 

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" So far as we can judge, they (the arguments) are learned and 
ingenious, though perhaps insufficient to carry the whole weight of his 
hypothesis." — Times. 

"Worked out in great detail and with unflagging interest. For 
Dr Abbott throws life into everything he touches.... A contribution to 
the ' Synoptic Problem,' claiming examination and commanding atten- 
tion." — Expository Times. 

"We have nothing but thanks to offer Dr Abbott for the patient 
industry with which he has collected and put before us, with great 
clearness, dozens of experiments upon which even those who are not 
experts either in Hebrew or Greek or Biblical criticism can exercise their 
common sense." — Guardian. 

" A very ingenious and very interesting argument." — Daily News. 

" Of extraordinary interest and suggestiveness." — 

Manchester Guardian. 

" The theory may be commended as most ingenious, and its applica- 
tion as very interesting and full of light on many vexed readings." — 

Scotsman. 

"Certainly, as far at least as the Septuagint is concerned, he has 
found a Vera Causa." — Aberdeen Free Press. 

" Learned, acute, and ingenious." — British Weekly. 



THE CORRECTIONS OF MARK 

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" There is something very attractive in the way in which Dr Abbott 
forces the documents to tell their secret history, not by brilliant guess- 
work but by the use of rigid scientific method." — Manchester Guardian. 

" There is a great deal of valuable information in this second instal- 
ment of Dr Abbott's great work, whether one agrees with the main thesis 
or not." — Guardian. 

" Full of acute and learned criticism." — Pilot. 

"The industry and ingenuity displayed through the work are marvel- 
lous. In this attempt to solve the Synoptic variations Dr Abbott is as 
ploddingly persevering as he is dazzlingly original." — Expository Times. 

" One excellent feature in it is the effort to bring the whole evidence 
within reach of an intelligent English reader." — Dundee Advertiser. 

"As an exposition of the documentary theory of the origin of the 
Gospels, Dr Abbott's work promises to hold a high place." — 

Glasgow Herald. 

" Deserves to be read with the utmost care." — Outlook. 

" A monument of patient, scholarly labour." — Christian World. 



FROM LETTER TO SPIRIT 

AN ATTEMPT TO REACH 

THROUGH VARYING VOICES 

THE ABIDING WORD 

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" The candid and reverent spirit in which the book is written wins the 
reader's sympathy.. ..The criticism exhibited is often acute and it is set 
forth with an accumulation of detail which is evidence of persevering 



research ;... For the writer's ability, labour, and candour we have great 
respect. ...'"— Guardiatt. 

" The book is noteworthy as a defence on new grounds of the historical 
tradition present in the Fourth Gospel, and the author's diligence in 
collecting details from every quarter must be universally admired." — 

Athe7t<zum. 

"A monument of painstaking comparison and analysis The 

appendices and indices teem with suggestive material He has steeped 

himself in the spirit, and he has logically explained much which to other 
critics is mere opportunity for wrigghng." — Outlook. 

" The notion that St John wrote not to supplement the Synoptics but 
to substitute a spiritual for a materialistic conception of Jesus... is 
exceedingly suggestive and worked out with much ingenuity." — 

Daily News. 

"A fresh illustration of the author's sound learning and keen exegetical 
insight." — Daily Chronicle. 

" Very original and suggestive." — Cambridge Review. 

"To the proving of his case Dr Abbott brings all the wealth of 
curious learning and the singular fertility of linguistic conjecture for 
which he is so justly distinguished among Biblical critics of the day." — 

ScotsKian. 

"There is in the book.. .a large amount of careful work which will be 
found helpful to all who are seeking their way through the letter to the 
spirit of the Gospels." — Bookman. 

" Has the true scientific temper The discussion does not fail to be 

stimulating and suggestive." — Literary World. 

"The result at once of great learning, indomitable industry, and 
remarkable ingenuity, this is a work that stimulates and rewards." — 

Aberdeen Free Press. 

" Often throughout the book the incidental matters which crop up are 
of the greatest interest. For instance, what Dr Abbott says on the 
probability of Christ's teaching about 'taking on oneself the yoke' 
becoming misunderstood and perverted to " ' taking up the cross ' is 

luminously suggestive It is a storehouse of learning, and, quite apart 

from the conclusions which Dr Abbott seeks to establish, it will be valued 
for the recondite material both from Jewish and Christian early writings 
which it brings together and makes easily accessible." — Christian World. 

" He spares no pains to bring a very ingenious discussion up to date 
and well within the reach of those who have no knowledge of Greek or 
Hebrew." — Dundee Advertiser. * 

" The accumulation of such facts is a task of great labour, but is 
valuable to all workers in the field of Biblical criticism, whether they 

agree with Dr Abbott's view of the Synoptic problem or not The 

curious facts which he has gathered about the Rabbinical beliefs con- 
cerning ' voices from heaven ' contain much that is new to us." — Pilot. 



"A valuable contribution to the Synoptic problem." — Leeds Mercury. 

"The strength of his position lies in the accumulation of particulars. 
He must be examined page by page and point by point." — 

Expository Times. 

" Warm thanks are due to the author for the immense labour he has 
undertaken." — Primitive Methodist Quarterly Review. 

" With thorough and penetrating scholarship, and a degree of toil 
beyond all praise, Dr Abbott has sought out parallels to facts and 
expressions in the Gospels for the purpose of elucidating their meaning, 

and tracing them to their original sources Such a work as this, which 

certainly puts to shame the sluggishness and the spiritual indifference, 
and the miserable formality ordinarily displayed in the study of the 
Gospels, will require prolonged and serious investigation, such as cannot 
be given to it in a notice like the present. It materially advances our 
comprehension of the intellectual conditions and methods of instruction 
of Christ's age...." — Baptist Magazine. 

" They are full of minute and curious learning, and help to advance 
Dr Abbott's plea that the study of the Aramaic versions is of essential 
importance for the interpretation of the Gospels." — Maftchester Guardian. 

"The book is not more remarkable for its striking hypotheses than it 
is for its careful and systematic collection of evidence.... Dr Abbott's recent 
series of volumes (soon happily to be followed by another) really constitute 
a new and enlightening commentary on some of the most important 
passages in the New Testament. And the commentary is equally 

illuminative of the Rabbinical passages quoted It is full of learning, 

of originality, but above all of suggestiveness Page after page 

scintillates with brilliant points Dr Abbott has clearly relied a good 

deal on secondary sources, but he has so carefully verified and examined 
his materials, he has applied to them so penetrating and sound a criticism, 
that his book is distinguished by its accuracy in details. Dr Abbott 
stands forth as a conspicuous example of the salvation which lies in 
precision of thought and exactness of method." — Jewish Quarterly Review. 

The Classical Review., stating in detail " what results the writer has 
attained which seem tolerably certain to be correct," adds " Incidentally 
Dr Abbott gives us a most valuable dissertation of 43 pages on Bath Kol, 
i.e. Voices from Heaven in Jewish Tradition, reprinting in an Appendix 
Pinner's collection of examples from the Talmuds and Targums ; he 
gives us a useful restatement in another Appendix of the reasons for 
believing that the so-called Second Epistle of St Peter is a forgery, and 
in yet another a convincing review of Eusebius' promise to record the 
evidence accessible to him that bore on the canonicity or authenticity of 
Christian writings. He demonstrates anew the correctness of Bishop 

Lightfoot's interpretation of that promise The temper of Dr Abbott's 

writing is worthy of his subject... he has shown us the true significance of 
unregarded words." 



PARADOSIS 

OR 

"IN THE NIGHT IN WHICH HE 
WAS (?) BETRAYED." 

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" We are inclined to think that the present instalment, although the 

thinnest in bulk, is the most valuable of the four Dr Abbott exhibits 

his customary industry, acuteness, and learning One finds oneself, 

much more often than usual, able to follow not only with interest, but 
with wiUing assent." — Guardian. 

The Dundee Advertiser.^ while calling attention to the " conjectures in 
the chain of argument," says "There is, however, a strong temptation to 
think Dr Abbott's hypothesis established when it is seen to be the key 
that fits into one difficulty after another," and adds " For ingenious and 
scholarly work there is nothing being done at present in the English 
language like the series of volumes by Dr Edwin A. Abbott. It is 
research work, painstaking and slow and elaborate." 

" In great detail and with learned elaboration the various passages are 
examined ; but the main topic of this book is often the occasion for 
interesting digressions into paths in which Dr Abbott is always an 
instructive, if not always a convincing, companion." — 

Londo7t Quarterly Review. 

" A marvel of minute scholarship and of patient industry." — 

Westminster Magazine. 

" He has, in a rare degree, the true scientific temper, which knows 
that far-reaching implications may be hidden in apparently trivial facts. 
Indeed it may safely be said that, had he never established a single 
conclusion, his investigations would, for their patient and unobtrusive 
thoroughness, alone suffice to earn him an honourable name. This latest 

book, the fourth part of the ' Diatessarica,' is a case in point The real 

value of the book, however, is not in the conclusion but in the way in 

which the conclusion is supported Dr Abbott works out his argument 

with great elaborateness and detail, and to follow it conscientiously is to 
be amply repaid, whether one end in agreement or dissent. One of 
Dr Abbott's incidental remarks is too valuable to pass without reference : 
' We need,' he says, * to become more, not less, anthropomorphic in our 
thoughts about God, after the pattern of the best anthropomorphism of 



the prophets of Israel and the Son of God.' Not many more useful 
reminders could come to those who have the forming of modern 
theology." — Christian World. 

" Unwearied industry and remarkable ingenuity, a word which we use 
honoris causa^ distinguish this as they distinguish all Dr Abbott's 
work." — spectator. 

"The criticism is marked by that singular nicety that marks Dr 
Abbott's work, particularly in an explanation of the intrusion of 'Galilee^ 
into the Resurrection narratives." — Pall Mall Gazette. 

"We are struck once more by the ingenuity with which Dr Abbott 
follows his theory of an Aramaic original, and finds in subsequent 
misunderstandings of its text a reason for many of the divergences in the 

canonical Gospels The conjectural character of a great deal of his 

work is inevitable in such an unexplored field, but he is providing us with 
a mass of new material for the literary study of the Gospels, especially in 
the direction of accounting for discrepancies in parallel narratives." — 

Ma?ichester Guardian. 

" In fearless scientific criticism of the Gospels as documents, 
Dr Abbott occupies a front place among modern scholars, but his 
criticism is instinct with deep reverence, and always in his own happy 
phrase *an attempt to reach through varying voices the abiding 
word.' " — Literary World. 

" We gladly confess that we have learned a great deal from the worlf \ 
before us." — Record. 

" It is characterized by the same extreme care and minuteness of 
detail and thoroughness of scholarship which are found in preceding 
volumes." — Leeds Mercury. 

"A scholarly work, worthy of Dr Abbott's great reputation as a 
Biblical critic." — Outlook. 

" This is the fourth part of Dr Abbott's great work, ' Diatessarica,' and, 
like its predecessors, ' Clue ' and ' From Letter to Spirit,' is full of acute 
criticism and painstaking inquiry. It is indeed monumental in its breadth 

and thoroughness Novel as this interpretation is, no one has a right 

to set it aside who does not study the contents of this learned, reverent, 
and careful work." — Baptist Magazine. 



CAMBRIDGE: PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY, M.A. AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 



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