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Full text of "Johann Sebastian Bach; his life, art, and work, tr. from the German of Johann Nikolaus Forkel, with notes and appendices"

JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 



JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 
HIS LIFE, ART, AND WORK 

TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN OF 
JOHANN NIKOLAUS FORKEL 



WITH NOTES AND APPENDICES BY 

CHARLES SANFORD TERRY 

UTT.D. CANTAB. 




LONDON 

CONSTABLE AND COMPANY LTD. 
1920 



Printed in Great Britain 



7111^9 



CONTENTS 

PAO 

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . ix 

FORKEL'S PREFACE ..... xxiv 

CHAP. 

i. THE FAMILY OF BACH 1 f - . . .1 

ii. THE CAREER OF BACH . . . .~ 9 

IIA. BACH AT LEIPZIG, 1723-50 . . . .29 

in. BACH AS A CLAVIER PLAYER . . .49 

iv. BACH THE ORGANIST. . . . .61 

v. BACH THE COMPOSER . "^ . .70 

vi. BACH THE COMPOSER (continued) . . .80 

vn. BACH AS A TEACHER . * . . . 92 

vin. PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS . . . .106 

ix. BACH'S COMPOSITIONS . . .. .114 

x. BACH'S MANUSCRIPTS . . .143 

xi. THE GENIUS OF BACH . . , .147 

APPENDICES 

i. CHRONOLOGICAL CATALOGUE OF BACH'S COMPOSITIONS 153 

n. THE CHURCH CANTATAS ARRANGED CHRONOLOGICALLY 163 

in. THE BACHGESELLSCHAFT EDITIONS OF BACH'S WORKS 225 

iv. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF BACH LITERATURE . . . 287 

v. A COLLATION OF THE NOVELLO AND PETERS EDITIONS 

OF THE ORGAN WORKS . . . .294 

vi. GENEALOGY OF THE FAMILY OF BACH . . 303 

INDEX .." . . . . * . 311 

i It should be stated that the original has no chapter headings. 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH. circ. 1720. (From the 
picture by Johann Jak. Ihle in the Bach Museum, 
Eisenach ., Frontispiece 

BACH'S HOME AT EISENACH (now the Bach Museum) To face page 8 

THE CHURCH AND SCHOOL OF ST. THOMAS, LEIPZIG, 

in 1723 . . ... 23 

JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH, 1746. (From the picture 
by Elias Gottlieb Haussmann, formerly in St. 
Thomas's School, now in the Municipal Museum, 
Leipzig) ..... 48 

THE BACH STATUE at EISENACH ... 70 

J^ Cw \STIAN BACH. (From the picture dis- 

covered by Protesso. *" -'* Volbach . . 92 

THE BACH STATUE AT LEIPZIG . . . ' ec 



. 



INTRODUCTION 

JOHANN NIKOLAUS FoRKEL, author of the mono- 
graph of which the following pages afford a trans- 
lation, was born at Meeder, a small village in Saxe- 
Coburg, on February 22, 1749, seventeen months 
before the death of Johann Sebastian Bach, whose 
first biographer he became. Presumably he would 
have followed the craft of his father, the village 
shoemaker, had not an insatiable love of music 
seized him in early years. He obtained books, 
and studied them with the village schoolmaster. 
In particular he profited by the ' VoUkommener 
Kapellmeister ' of Johann Mattheson, of Ham- 
burg, the sometime friend of Handel. Like Handel, 
he found a derelict Clavier hi the attic of his home 
and acquired proficiency upon it. 

Forkel's professional career, like Bach's half a 
century earlier, began at Liineburg, where, at the 
age of thirteen (1762), he was admitted to the choir 
of the parish church. Thence, at the age of 
seventeen (1766), he proceeded to Schwerin as 
' Chorprafect,' and enjoyed the favour of the 
Grand Duke. Three years later he betook him- 
self (1769), at the age of twenty, to the University 



x JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

of Gottingen, which he entered as a law student, 
though a slender purse compelled him to give 
music lessons for a livelihood. He used his oppor- 
tunity to acquire a knowledge of modern languages, 
which stood him in good stead later, when his 
researches required him to explore foreign litera- 
tures. Concurrently he pursued his musical activi- 
ties, and in 1774 published at Gottingen his first 
work, ' Ueber die Theorie der Musik,' advocating 
the foundation of a music lectureship in the Uni- 
versity. Four years later (1778) he was appointed 
its Director of Music, and from 1779 to 1815 con- 
ducted the weekly concerts of the Sing-Akademie. 
In 1780 he received from the University the 
doctorate of philosophy. The rest of his life was 
spent at Gottingen, where he died on March 17, 
1818, having just completed his sixty -ninth 
year. 

That Forkel is remembered at all is due solely 
to his monograph on Bach. Written at a time 
when Bach's greatness was realised in hardly any 
quarter, the book claimed for him pre-eminence 
which a tardily enlightened world since has con- 
ceded him. By his generation Forkel was esteemed 
chiefly for his literary activity, critical ability, and 
merit as a composer. His principal work, ' Allge- 
meine Geschichte der Musik,' was published in 
two volumes at Leipzig in 1788 and 1801. Carl 
Friedrich Zelter, Goethe's friend and correspond- 
ent, dismissed the book contemptuously as that of 



INTRODUCTION xi 

an author who had ' set out to write a history of 
music, but came to an end just where the history 
of music begins.' Forkel's work, in fact, breaks 
off at the sixteenth century. But the curtailed 
' History ' cleared the way for the monograph on 
Bach, a more valuable contribution to the litera- 
ture of music. Forkel already had published, in 
three volumes, at Gotha in 1778, his ' Musikalisch- 
kritisclie Bibliothek,' and in 1792 completed his 
critical studies by publishing at Leipzig his ' Allge- 
meine Liter atur der Musik.' 

Forkel was also a student of the music of the 
polyphonic school. He prepared for the press the 
scores of a number of sixteenth century Masses, 
Motets, etc., and fortunately received proofs of 
them from the engraver. For, in 1806, after the 
Battle of Jena, the French impounded the plates 
and melted them down. Forkel's proofs are still 
preserved in the Berlin Royal Library. He was 
diligent in quest of Bach's scattered MSS., and his 
friendship with Bach's elder sons, Carl Philipp 
Emmanuel and Wilhelm Friedemann, enabled him 
to secure precious relics which otherwise might 
have shared the fate of too many of Bach's manu- 
scripts. He took an active interest in the proposal 
of Messrs. Hoffmeister and Kuhnel, predecessors of 
C. F. Peters at Leipzig, to print a ' kritisch- 
korrecte ' edition of Bach's Organ and Clavier 
works. Through his friend, Johann Gottfried 
Schicht, afterwards Cantor at St. Thomas's, 



xii JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

Leipzig, he was also associated with Breitkopf and 
Haertel's publication of five of Bach's six extant 
Motets in 1802-3. 

As a composer Forkel has long ceased to be 
remembered. His works include two Oratorios, 
' Hiskias ' (1789) and ' Die Hirten bey der Krippe ' ; 
four Cantatas for chorus and orchestra ; Clavier 
Concertos, and many Sonatas and Variations for 
the Harpsichord. 

In 1802, for reasons which he explains in his 
Preface, Forkel published from Hoffmeister and 
Runnel's ' Bureau de Musique ' his ' Ueber Johann 
Sebastian Bachs Leben, Kunst und Kunstwerke. 
Fur patriotische Verehrer echter musikalischer 
Kunst,' of which a new edition was issued by 
Peters in 1855. The original edition bears a dedi- 
cation to Gottfried Baron van Swieten * (1734- 
1803), Prefect of the Royal Library, Vienna, and 
sometime Austrian Ambassador in Berlin, a friend 
of Haydn and Mozart, patron of Beethoven, a 
man whose age allowed him to have seen Bach, 
and whose career makes the association with Bach 
that Forkel' s dedication gives him not undeserved. 
It was he, an ardent Bach enthusiast, who intro- 
duced the youthful Mozart to the music of the 
Leipzig Cantor. ' I go every Sunday at twelve 
o'clock to the Baron van Swieten,' Mozart writes 
in 1782, ' where nothing is played but Handel and 

1 ' Seiner Excellenz dem Freyheren van Swieten ehrerbietigst 
gewidmet von dem Verfasser.' 



INTRODUCTION xiii 

Bach, and I am now making a collection of the 
Fugues of Bach.' The merit and limitations of 
Forkel's book will be considered later. For the 
moment the fact deserves emphasis that, inade- 
quate as it is, it presented a fuller picture of Bach 
than so far had been drawn, and was the first to 
render the homage due to his genius. 

In an illuminating chapter (xii.), ' Death and 
Resurrection,' Schweitzer has told the story of 
the neglect that obscured Bach's memory after 
his death in 1750. Isolated voices, raised here 
and there, acclaimed his genius. With Bach's 
treatise on ' The Art of Fugue ' before him, Johann 
Mattheson (1681-1664), the foremost critic of the 
day, claimed that Germany was 'the true home 
of Organ music and Fugue.' Friedrich Wilhelm 
Marpurg (1718-95), the famous Berlin theorist, 
expressed the same opinion in his preface to the 
edition of that work published shortly after Bach's 
death. But such appreciations were rare. Little 
of Bach's music was in print and available for 
performance or critical judgment. Even at St. 
Thomas's, Leipzig, it suffered almost complete 
neglect until a generation after Forkel's death. 
The bulk of Bach's MSS. was divided among his 
family, and Forkel himself, with unrivalled oppor- 
tunity to acquaint himself with the dimen- 
sions of Bach's industry, knew little of his 
music except the Organ and Clavier composi- 
tions. 



xiv JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

In these circumstances it is not strange that 
Bach's memory waited for more than half a 
century for a biographer. Forkel, however, was 
not the first to assemble the known facts of 
Bach's career or to assert his place in the music of 
Germany. 

Putting aside Johann Gottfried Walther's brief 
epitome in his ' Lexikon ' (1732), the first and most 
important of the early notices of Bach was the 
obituary article, or ' Nekrolog,' contributed by his 
son, Carl Philipp Emmanuel, and Johann Friedrich 
Agricola, one of Bach's most distinguished pupils, 
to the fourth volume of Mizler's ' Musikalische 
Bibliothek,' published at Leipzig in 1754. The 
authors of this appreciation give it an intimacy 
which renders it precious. But Mizler's periodical 
was the organ of a small Society, of which Bach 
had been a member, and outside its associates 
can have done little to extend a knowledge of the 
subject of the memoir. 

Johann Friedrich Agricola contributed notes 
on Bach to Jakob Adlung's ' Musica mechanica 
Organoedi,' published in two volumes at Berlin in 
1768. The article is valuable chiefly for Agricola's 
exposition of Bach's opinions upon Organ and 
Clavier building. 

With the intention to represent him as ' the 
coryphaeus of all organists,' Johann Adam Hiller, 
who a few years later became Cantor at St. 
Thomas's, Leipzig, published there in 1784 a 



INTRODUCTION xv 

brief account of Bach in his ' Lebensbeschrei- 
bungen beriihmter Musikgelehrten und Tonkunst- 
ler neuerer Zeit.' 

Four years after Killer's notice, Ernst Ludwig 
Gerber published at Leipzig, in two volumes, 
1790-92, his ' Historisch-biographische Lexikon 
der Tonkiinstler.' As in Killer's case, Gerber, 
whose father had been Bach's pupil, was chiefly 
interested in Bach as an organist. 

Coincidently with Gerber, another of Bach's 
pupils, Johann Martin Schubart, who succeeded 
him at Weimar in 1717, sketched his characteristics 
as a performer in the ' Aesthetik der Tonkunst,' 
published at Berlin by his son in the ' Deutschen 
Monatsschrift ' in 1793. 

In 1794 appeared at Leipzig the first volume of a 
work which Spitta characterises as fantastic and 
unreliable, so far as it deals with Bach, Friedrich 
Carl Gottlieb Hirsching's ' Historisch-literarisches 
Handbuch ' of notable persons deceased in the 
eighteenth century. - 

Last of Forkel's forerunners, A. E. L. Siebigke 
published at Breslau in 1801 his ' Museum 
deutscher Tonkiinstler,' a work which adds 
nothing to our knowledge of Bach's life, but 
offers some remarks on his style. 

Little, if any, information of value, therefore, 
had been added to the ' Nekrolog ' of 1754 when 
Forkel, in 1802, produced his monograph on Bach 
and his music. Nor, viewed as a biography, does 



xvi JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

Forkel much enlarge our knowledge of the con- 
ditions of Bach's life. He had the advantage of 
knowing Bach's elder sons, but appears to have 
lacked curiosity regarding the circumstances of 
Bach's career, and to have made no endeavour to 
add to his imperfect information, even regarding 
his hero's life at Leipzig, upon which it should have 
been easy for him to obtain details of utmost 
interest. His monograph, in fact, is not a ' Life ' 
in the biographic sense, but a critical appreciation 
of Bach as player, teacher, and composer, based 
upon the Organ and Clavier works, with which 
alone Forkel was familiar. 

It would be little profitable to weigh the value 
of Forkel's criticism. We are tempted to the con- 
clusion that Bach appealed to him chiefly as a 
supreme master of technique, and our hearts would 
open to him more widely did not his apprecia- 
tion of Bach march with a narrow depreciation 
of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven, the last of 
whom, he declared ex cathedra, had not produced 
' a single work which can be called a master- 
piece.' Gluck he frankly detested. 

But Forkel's monograph is notable on other 
grounds. It was the first to claim for Bach a 
place among the divinities. It used him to 
stimulate a national sense in his own people. 
Bach's is the first great voice from out of Germany 
since Luther. Of Germany's own Risorgimento, 
patently initiated by Goethe a generation after 



INTRODUCTION xvii 

Johann Sebastian's death, Bach himself is the 
harbinger. In his assertion of a distinctive Ger- 
man musical art he set an example followed hi 
turn by Mozart, Weber, and Wagner. ' With 
Bach,' wrote Wagner, ' the German Spirit was born 
anew.' It is Forkel's perpetual distinction that 
he grasped a fact hidden from almost all but 
himself. In his Preface, and more emphatically 
hi the closing paragraph of his last Chapter, he 
presents Bach as the herald of a German nation 
yet unformed. 

It is a farther distinction of Forkel's monograph 
that it made converts. With its publication the 
clouds of neglect that too long had obscured Bach's 
grandeur began to melt away, until the dizzy 
altitude of his genius stood revealed. The publi- 
cation of the five Motets (1803) was followed by 
that of the Magnificat in 1811, and of the Mass 
inAinl818. A beginning was made with the 
Cantatas in 1821, when Breitkopf and Haertel 
published ' Ein' feste Burg ' (No. 80), commended 
in an article written (1822) by Johann Fried- 
rich Rochlitz (1769-1842), the champion of Beet- 
hoven, as now of Bach. Another enthusiastic 
pioneer was Carl Friedrich Zelter (1758-1832), 
conductor of the Berlin Sing-Akademie, who 
called Bach * a sign of God, clear, yet inexplicable.' 
To him in large measure was due the memorable 
revival of the ' St. Matthew Passion ' at Berlin, 
which the youthful Mendelssohn, Zelter's pupil, 
b 



xviii JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

conducted in March 1829, exactly one hundred 
years after the first production of the mighty work 
at Leipzig. In the following years it was given 
at Dresden and many other German towns. 
Leipzig heard it again after a barren interval in 
1841, and did tardy homage to its incomparable 
composer by erecting (1843) the statue that 
stands hi the shadow of St. Thomas's Church, 
hard by the Cantor's home for a quarter of a 
century. 

Meanwhile, in 1830 and 1831 the ' St. Matthew 
Passion ' and ' St. John Passion ' had been en- 
graved, and by 1845 the B minor Mass was in 
print. The credit of having revived it belongs to 
Johann Nepomuk Schelble (1789-1837), conductor 
of the Frankfort Caecilienverein, though the Berlin 
Sing-Akademie was the first to give a performance, 
considerably curtailed, of the whole work in 1835. 
A little later, in the middle of the forties, Peters 
began to issue his ' kritisch-korrecte ' edition of 
the Organ works, which at length made Bach 
widely known among organists. But the publi- 
cation of the Cantatas proceeded slowly. Only 
fourteen of them were in print in 1850, when the 
foundation of the Bachgesellschaft, on the centen- 
ary of Bach's death, focused a world-wide homage. 
When it dissolved in 1900 its mission was accom- 
plished, the entire works l of Bach were published, 

1 So far the New Bachgesellschaft has published only a single 
Cantata overlooked by the old Society. See infra, p. 280. 



INTRODUCTION xix 

and the vast range of his genius was patent to the 
world. 

It remains to discuss the first English version of 
Forkel's monograph, published in 1820, with the 
following title-page : 

LITE OP JOHN SEBASTIAN BACH ; with a Critical View 
of his Compositions. By J. N. Forkel, Author of The Com- 
plete History of Music, etc., etc. Translated from the 
German. London: Printed for T. Boosey and Co., Holies- 
Street, Cavendish-Square. 1820. 

The book was published in February 1820 ; 
it was announced, with a slightly differently 
worded title-page, in the ' New Monthly Magazine 
and Universal Register ' for March 1820 (p. 341), 
and the ' Scots Magazine ' for the same month 
(vol. Ixxxv. p. 263). The ' New Monthly ' states the 
price as 5s., the ' Quarterly Review ' (vol. xxiii. 
p. 281) as 6s. The book contains xi-f- 116+3 pages 
of Music Figures, crown octavo, bound in dark 
unlettered cloth. It has neither Introduction, 
notes (other than Forkel's), nor indication of the 
translator's identity. Much of the translation 
is so bad as to suggest grave doubts of the trans- 
lator's comprehension of the German original ; 
while his rendering of Forkel's critical chapters 
rouses a strong suspicion that he also lacked 
technical equipment adequate to his task. It is, 
in fact, difficult to understand how such an un- 
satisfactory piece of work found its way into 
print. 



xx JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

The character of the 1820 translation has a close 
bearing upon its authorship. In the article on 
Bach in the new ' Grove ' it is attributed to Samuel 
Wesley (1766-1837), an attractive suggestion, 
since Wesley was as enthusiastic a Bach pioneer 
in this country as Forkel himself was in Germany. 
But the statement is not correct. In Samuel 
Wesley's ' Letters to Mr. Jacobs relating to the 
Introduction into this Country of the Works of 
J. S. Bach ' (London, 1875) we find the clue. On 
October 17, 1808, Wesley writes: 'We are (in 
the first place) preparing for the Press an authentic 
and accurate Life of Sebastian, which Mr. Stephen- 
son the Banker (a most zealous and scientific 
member of our Fraternity) has translated into 
English from the German of Forkel.' 

Unfortunately, it is impossible to identify 
Stephenson precisely, or to detect his activities 
in the musical circle in which Wesley includes him. 
In 1820 there was in Lombard Street a firm of 
bankers under the style of ' Remington, Stephen- 
son, Remington, and Toulmin,' the active partner 
being Mr. Rowland Stephenson, a man of about 
forty in that year. The firm was wound up in 
bankruptcy in 1829, Stephenson having absconded 
to America the previous year. He appears to 
have been the only banker of that name holding 
such a recognised position as Wesley attributes to 
him, though it remains no more than a conjecture 
that he was the author of the translation issued in 



INTRODUCTION xxi 

1820. 1 But whoever 'Stephenson the Banker' 
may have been, the poverty of his work fails to 
support Wesley's commendation of his ' scientific ' 
equipment, and suggests that his purse rather 
than his talents were serviceable to Wesley's 
missionary campaign. 

For the facts of Bach's life, and as a record of 
his artistic activities, Forkel admittedly is inade- 
quate and often misleading. Stephenson neces- 
sarily was without information to enable him to 
correct or supplement his author. Recent re- 
search, and particularly the classic volumes of 
Spitta and Schweitzer, have placed the present 
generation in a more instructed and therefore 
responsible position. The following pages, accord- 
ingly, have been annotated copiously in order to 
bring Forkel into line with modern scholarship. 
His own infrequent notes are invariably indicated 
by a prefixed asterisk. It has been thought 
advisable to write an addendum to Chapter II. 
hi order to supplement Forkel at the weakest 
point of his narrative. 

Readers of Spitta's first volume probably will 
remember the effort to follow the ramifications of 
the Bach pedigree unaided by a genealogical 
Table. It is unfortunate that Spitta did not 

1 In 'The News' of January 4, 1829, he is described as the second 
son of the late John Stephenson of Great Ormonde Street, Queen 
Square, whom he had succeeded in the partnership of the firm. His 
wife was dead, and of his eight children the eldest was also in the 
Bank. 



xxii JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

set out in that form the wealth of biographical 
material his pages contain. To supply the de- 
ficiency, and to illustrate Forkel's first Chapter, 
a complete Genealogical Table is provided in 
Appendix VI,, based mainly upon the biographical 
details scattered over Spitta's pages. 

In Chapter IX. Forkel gives a list of Bach's 
compositions known to him. It is, necessarily, 
incomplete. For that reason Appendices I. and 
II. provide a full catalogue of Bach's works 
arranged under the periods of his career. In the 
case of the Oratorios, Cantatas, Motets, and 
' Passions,' it is not difficult to distribute them 
upon a chronological basis. The Clavier works 
also can be dated with some approximation to 
closeness. The effort is more speculative in the 
case of the Organ music. 

In his Preface Forkel suggests the institution of 
a Society for the publication and study of Bach's 
works. The proposal was adopted after half a 
century's interval, and in Appendix III. will be 
found a complete and detailed catalogue of the 
publications of the Old and New Bachgesellschaft 
from 1850 to 1918 inclusive. The Society's issues 
for 1915-18 have not yet reached this country. 
The present writer had an opportunity to examine 
them in the Library of the Cologne Conservatorium 
of Music in the spring of this year. 

In this Introduction will be found a list of 
works bearing on Bach, which preceded Forkel's 



INTRODUCTION xxiii 

monograph. Appendix IV. provides a biblio- 
graphy of Bach literature published subsequently 
to it. 

Grateful acknowledgment is made to Mr. Ivor 
Atkins, of Worcester Cathedral, and to Mr. W. G. 
Whittaker, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, who have 
read these pages in proof, and improved them by 
their criticism. C. S. T. 

October 1, 1919. 



FORKEL'S PREFACE 

MANY years ago I determined to give the public 
an account of the life of Johann Sebastian Bach, 
with some reflections upon his genius and his 
works. The brief article by Carl Philipp 
Emmanuel Bach l and Herr Agricola, 2 formerly 
composer to the Court of Prussia, contributed to 
the fourth volume of Mizler's ' Musical Library,' 3 
can hardly be deemed adequate by Bach's admirers 
and, but for the desire to complete my ' General 

1 Carl Philipp Emmanuel Bach, third son of Johann Sebastian 
Bach, b. 1714; Kammermusikus to Frederick the Great of Prussia 
(1746), Kapellmeister at Hamburg (1768) ; d. 1788. 

2 Johann Friedrich Agricola, of Dobitsch, b. 1720 ; studied com- 
position with Bach at Leipzig; Court Composer (1751) and, after 
Carl Heinrich Graun's death (1759), Kapellmeister to Frederick the 
Great of Prussia ; d. 1774. See Spitta, ' Johann Sebastian Bach,' iii. 
243 ff. 

8 Lorenz Chriatoph Mizler (1711-78), a pupil of Bach, founded at 
Leipzig in 1738 the ' Sozietat der musikalischen Wissenschaften,' of 
which Bach and Handel were members. Mizler's journal, the ' Neu-eroff- 
neter Musikalischer Bibliothek,' was its organ. It appeared from 1736 
to 1754. In Part I. of vol. iv. (1754) C. P. E. Bach and Agricola 
collaborated in the obituary notice, or ' Nekrolog,' which is almost 
the earliest literary authority for Bach's life. It covered less than 
twenty pages. (See Schweitzer, ' J. S. Bach ' (trans. Ernest Newman), 
i. 189 ff. and Spitta, i. Pref.) Agricola's association with Bach's son 
m the preparation of the obituary notice is explained by the fact that 
for the last ten years of Sebastian's life Agricola was in closer relations 
with him than Carl Philipp Emmanuel, who no longer was resident in 
Leipzig. 

xxiv 



FORKEL'S PREFACE xxv 

History of Music,' 1 I should have fulfilled my 
purpose long ago. As Bach, more than any other 
artist, represents an era in the history of music, 
it was my intention to devote to the concluding 
volume of that work the materials I had collected 
for a history of his career. But the announcement 
that Messrs. Hoffmeister and Kuhnel, the Leipzig 
music-sellers and publishers, propose to issue a 
complete and critical edition of Bach's works has 
induced me to change my original plan. 2 

Messrs. Hoffmeister and Runnel's project pro- 
mises at once to advance the art of music and 
enhance the honour of the German name. For 
Bach's works are a priceless national patrimony ; 
no other nation possesses a treasure comparable 
to it. Their publication in an authoritative text 
will be a national service and raise an imperishable 
monument to the composer himself. All who 
hold Germany dear are bound in honour to pro- 
mote the undertaking to the utmost of their 
power. I deem it a duty to remind the public of 
this obligation and to kindle interest in it in every 
true German heart. To that end these pages 

1 Forkel's ' Allgemeine Geschichte der Musik ' (2 vols. 1788-1801) 
had only come down to the sixteenth century when its author diverted 
his pen to a biography of Bach. 

8 The firm of Hoffmeister and Kuhnel was founded at Leipzig in 
1800 by Franz Anton Hoffmeister, who started, in 1801, a subscription 
for the publication of Bach's works, to which Forkel alludes. The 
scheme failed to mature, and its accomplishment was reserved to 
C. F. Peters, who purchased Hoffmeister's ' Bureau de Musique ' in 
1814. See articles on Hoffmeister and Peters in Grove's ' Dictionary.' 



xxvi JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

appear earlier than my original plan proposed ; 
for they will enable me to reach a larger number 
of my fellow countrymen. The section on Bach 
in my ' History of Music ' probably would have 
been read by a handful of experts or musical 
artists. Here I hope to speak to a larger audience, 
For, let me repeat, not merely the interests of 
music but our national honour are concerned to 
rescue from oblivion the memory of one of 
Germany's greatest sons. 

One of the best and most effective means of 
popularising musical masterpieces is to perform 
them in public. In that way works of merit 
secure a widening audience. People listen to 
them with pleasure in the concert room, church, 
or theatre, remember the agreeable impression 
they created, and purchase them when published, 
even though they cannot always play them. But 
Bach's works unfortunately are rarely heard 
nowadays ; for the number of persons capable 
of playing them adequately is at best incon- 
siderable. It would have been otherwise had 
Bach given touring performances of his music, 1 
a labour for which he had neither time nor liking. 
Many of his pupils did so, and though their skill 
was inferior to their master's, the admiration 

1 Though Bach never ventured upon such tours as Mozart or 
Berlioz, for instance, undertook, he loved travelling, and his artistic 
journeys made him famous throughout Germany, at least as an 
organist. Forkel himself describes (infra, pp. 19, 23) his notable 
visits to the Courts of Berlin and Dresden. 



FORKEL'S PREFACE xxvii 

and astonishment they excited revealed the 
grandeur of his compositions. Here and there, 
too, were found persons who desired to hear on 
their own instrument pieces which the performer 
had played best or gave them most pleasure. 
They could do so more easily for having heard 
how the piece ought to sound. 

But, to awaken a wide appreciation of musical 
masterpieces depends upon the existence of good 
teachers. The want of them is our chief dif- 
ficulty. In order to safeguard their credit, the 
ignorant and incompetent of their number are 
disposed to decry good music, lest they should be 
asked to play it. Consequently, their pupils, con- 
demned to spend time, labour, and money on 
second-rate material, will not after half a dozen 
years, perhaps, show themselves farther advanced 
hi sound musical appreciation than they were 
at the outset. Whereas, under a good teacher, 
half the time, labour, and money produces pro- 
gressive improvement. Time will show whether 
this obstacle can be surmounted by making 
Bach's works accessible in the music shops and by 
forming a Society among the admirers of his 
genius to make them known and promote their 
study. 1 

1 In 1802, it must be remembered, not a note of Bach's concerted 
Church music was in print except the tunes he wrote for Schemelli's 
Hymn-book (1736) and the vocal parts of an early Cantata (No. 71). 
Of his instrumental works engraved by 1802 Forkel gives a list infra, 
p. 137. It was hardly until the foundation of the Bachgesellschaft in 



xxviii JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

At any rate, if music is really an art, and not a 
mere pastime, its masterpieces must be more 
widely known and performed than in fact they 
are. And here Bach, prince of classic composers, 
can render yeoman service. 1 For his music is 
so well calculated to educate the student to dis- 
tinguish what is trivial from what is good, and to 
comport himself as an artist in whatever branch 
of the art he makes his own. Moreover, Bach, 
whose influence pervades every musical form, can 
be relied on more than any other composer to 
correct the superficiality which is the bane of 
modern taste. Neglect of the classics is as pre- 
judicial to the art of music as it would b& fatal to 
the interests of general culture to banish Greek 
and Latin writers from our schools. Modern 
taste exhibits no shame in its preference for 
agreeable trifles, in its neglect of everything that 
makes a demand, however slight, upon its 
attention. To-day we are menaced by a proposal 

1850, to celebrate the centenary of Bach's death, that the systematic 
publication of his concerted Church music began. Before that date, 
however, Peters of Leipzig had taken in hand the abandoned scheme 
of Hoffmeister and Kiihnel, to which Forkel alludes, and in which he 
participated. 

1 It is notable that Forkel makes no mention of Haydn, Mozart, or 
Handel, whose English domicile had divorced him from Germany's 
service. Forkel's pessimism is the more curious, seeing that Beethoven 
was already thirty years old, and that Mozart in 1786, after giving 
him a subject to extemporise upon, had remarked, 'Listen to that 
young man ; he will some day make a noise in the world ' (Holmes, 
'Life of Mozart,' Dent's ed., p. 223). Forkel. in fact, appreciated 
neither Mozart nor Beethoven and thoroughly detested Gluck. 



FORKEL'S PREFACE xxix 

to banish the classics from our schoolrooms. 
Equally short-sighted vision threatens to ex- 
tinguish our musical classics as well. And is it 
surprising ? Modern art displays such poverty and 
frivolity that it well may shrink from putting 
itself in context with great literature, particularly 
with Bach's mighty and creative genius, and seek 
rather to proscribe it. 

I fain would do justice to the sublime genius 
of this prince of musicians, German and foreign ! 
Short of being such a man as he was, dwarfing 
all other musicians from the height of his superi- 
ority, I can conceive no greater distinction than 
the power to comprehend and interpret him to 
others. 1 The ability to do so must at least connote 
a temperament not wholly alien from his own. 
It may even hint the flattering prospect that, if 
circumstances had opened up the same career, 
similar results might have been forthcoming. I 
am not presumptuous to suggest such a result in 
my own case. On the contrary I am convinced 
that there are no words adequate to express the 
thoughts Bach's transcendent genius stirs one to 
utter. The more intimately we are acquainted 
with it the greater must be our admiration. Our 
utmost eulogy, our deepest expressions of homage, 



1 As has been pointed out in the Introduction, Forkel stood almost 
alone in 1802 in his opinion of Bach's pre-eminence. Even Beethoven 
placed Bach after Handel and Mozart, but knew little of his music on 
which to found a decision. 



xxx JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

must seem little more than well-meant prattle. 
No one who is familiar with the work of other 
centuries will contradict or hold my statement 
exaggerated, that Bach cannot be named except 
in tones of rapture, and even of devout awe, by 
those who have learnt to know him. We may 
discover and lay bare the secrets of his technique. 
But his power to inspire into it the breath of 
genius, the perfection of life and charm that 
moves us so powerfully, even in his slightest 
works, must always remain extraordinary and 
insoluble. 

I do not choose to compare Bach with other 
artists. Whoever is interested to measure him 
with Handel will find a just and balanced estimate 
of their relative merits, written by one fully in- 
formed for the task, in the first number of the 
eighty-first volume of the ' Universal German 
Library,' pages 295-303. J 

So far as it is not derived from the short article 
in Mizler's ' Library ' already mentioned, 2 I am 
indebted for my information to the two eldest 

1 The anonymous article in the ' Allgemeine deutsche Bibliothek,' to 
which Forkel alludes, deals with Bach's Clavier and Organ works and 
upon them asserts Bach's superiority over Handel. The judgment 
was unusual. Bach's fame was gravely prejudiced by German Handel- 
worship, which the first performance of the ' Messiah ' at Leipzig in 
1786 stimulated. Johann Adam Hiller, Bach's third successor in the 
Cantorate of St. Thomas', was largely responsible. He neglected, and 
even belittled, the treasures of Bach's art which the library of St. 
Thomas' contained. See Schweitzer, i. 231. 

* The ' Nekrolog.' See supra, p. xxiv. 



FORKEL'S PREFACE xxxi 

sons of Bach himself. 1 Not only was I person- 
ally acquainted with them, but I corresponded 
regularly for many years with both, 2 particularly 
Carl Philipp Emmanuel. The world knows them 
as great artists. But probably it is not aware 
that to the last moment of their lives they spoke 
of their father's genius with enthusiastic ad- 
miration. 3 From my early youth I have been in- 
spired by an appreciation no less deep than theirs. 
It was a frequent theme of conversation and 
correspondence between us. 

Thus, having been in a position to inform myself 
on all matters relating to Bach's life, genius, and 
work, I may fairly hold myself competent to com- 
municate to the public what I have learnt and to 
offer useful reflections upon it. I take advantage 

1 Carl Philipp Emmanuel and Wilhelin Friedemann. The latter 
was born in 1710, and after holding Organistships at Halle and Dresden, 
died at Berlin in 1784, leaving his widow and daughter in great poverty. 
The former received a grant from the receipts of ffae ' Messiah ' 
performance alluded to in note 1, supra. A man of brilliant musical 
attainments, Wilhelm Friedemann's character was dissolute and un- 
steady. See Schweitzer, i. 146 ff. 

2 Two letters written by C. P. E. Bach to Forkel in 1776, convey- 
ing a good deal of information reproduced by Forkel in this mono- 
graph, are printed in facsimile by Dr. Max Schneider in his ' Bach- 
Urkunden ' (N.B.G., xvii. (3)). 

Forkel's statement is entitled to respect. On the other hand 
there is nothing in the recorded careers of either of Bach's sons that 
bears him out on this point. Schweitzer (i. 229) endorses Eitner'a 
judgment : ' Bach's sons were the children of their epoch, and never 
understood their father ; it was only from piety that they looked at 
him with childlike admiration.' Dr. Charles Burney spent several days 
with Carl Philipp Emmanuel at Hamburg in 1772, but during the 
whole time the son never played to him a note of his father's music. 



xxxii JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

of my opportunity the more readily because it 
permits me to draw attention to an enterprise 1 
that promises to provide a worthy monument to 
German art, a gallery of most instructive models 
to the sincere artist, and to afford music lovers an 
inexhaustible source of sublimest pleasure. 

1 i.e. Hoffmeister and KvihnePs project. 



CHAPTER I 

THE FAMILY OF BACH 

IF there is such a thing as inherited aptitude for 
art it certainly showed itself hi the family of Bach. 
For six successive generations scarcely two or three 
of its members are found whom nature had not 
endowed with remarkable musical talent, and who 
did not make music their profession. 1 

Veit Bach, 2 ancestor of this famous family, 

1 The accuracy of this statement is apparent from the Genealogy 
appended to this volume. Bach's sons represented the sixth genera- 
tion from Veit Bach, the sixteenth century ancestor of the family. 
Veit himself was not a professional musician ; one of his sons was a 
Spielmann ; thereafter for the next 150 years all but seven of his de- 
scendants, whose professions are known, were Organists or Cantors or 
Town Musicians. Many of them, moreover, were men of the highest 
attainments in their profession. 

a He took his name from St. Vitus (Guy), patron saint of the church 
of Wechmar, a fact which sufficiently disproves Forkel's statement 
that his original domicile was in Hungary. The Bachs were settled 
in Wechmar as early as circ. 1520. Veit migrated thence to Hungary, 
though there is no adequate foundation for the statement that he 
settled at Pressburg. He returned to Wechmar during the beginning 
of the Counter- Reformation under the Emperor Rudolph n. (1576- 
1612), and died at Wechmar, March 8, 1619. See Spitta, i. 4. 

Apart from church and town registers, laboriously consulted by 
Spitta in tracing the Bach genealogy, we owe our knowledge of it to 
an MS. drawn up by Bach in 1735 which is now in the Berlin Royal 
Library after being successively in the possession of Carl Philipp 
Emmanuel, Forkel, and G. Polchau, the Hamburg teacher of music. 



2 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

gained a livelihood as a baker at Pressburg in 
Hungary. When the religious troubles of the 
sixteenth century broke out he was driven to seek 
another place of abode, and having got together 
as much of his small property as he could, retired 
with it to Thuringia, hoping to find peace and 
security there. He settled at Wechmar, a village 
near Gotha, 1 where he continued to ply his trade 
as a baker and miller. 2 In his leisure hours he 
was wont to amuse himself with the lute, 3 playing 
it amid the noise and clatter of the mill. His 
taste for music descended to his two sons 4 and 
their children, and in time the Bachs grew to be 
a very numerous family of professional musicians, 

The original entries in it are stated by Carl P. Emmanuel to be by 
his father. Forkel also owned a Bach genealogical tree, given him by 
Carl Philipp Emmanuel; it has disappeared. Traces of it exist in 
a work published at Pressburg by Johann Matthias Korabinsky in 
1784, its insertion being due to the assumption that the Bachs were 
a Hungarian family. Forkel shared that error. See Spitta's Preface 
on the whole question. The MS. genealogy of 1735 is published by 
the New Bachgesellschaft (xvii. 3) in facsimile. 

1 Veit, in fact, returned to his native village. His name, as has 
been pointed out, implies a connection with Wechmar that must have 
dated from infancy. Moreover, there was living there in 1561 one 
Hans Bach, an official of the municipality, who may be regarded 
confidently as Veit's father. 

2 It has been suggested that the name Bach is the sole authority 
for the statement that Veit was a baker. But Spitta points out that 
the vowel in the name is pronounced long and was frequently written 
BAACH in the seventeenth century, a fact which makes it difficult to 
associate the word with ' Backer ' (Baker). 

8 In the Genealogy Johann Sebastian calls the instrument a Cyth- 
ringen. 

4 Hans Bach (d. Dec. 26, 1626) and (?) Lips Bach (d. Oct. 10, 1620). 
See infra, Genealogical Tables i. and n. and note to the latter. 






THE FAMILY OF BACH 3 

Cantors, Organists, and Town Musicians, 1 through- 
out Thuringia. 

Not all the Bachs, however, were great musicians. 
But every generation boasted some of them who 
were more than usually distinguished. In the 
first quarter of the seventeenth century three 
of Veit Bach's grandchildren showed such ex- 
ceptional talent that the Count of Schwarzburg- 
Arnstadt thought it worth while to send them at 
his expense to Italy, then the chief school of 
music, to perfect themselves in the art. 2 We do 
not know whether they rewarded the expectations 
of their patron, for none of their works has sur- 
vived. The fourth generation 3 of the family 
produced musicians of exceptional distinction, 

1 The ' Stadt Pfeiferei,' or official town musical establishment, 
descended from the musicians' guilds of the Middle Ages and was pre- 
sided over by the Stadt Musiker, who enjoyed certain ancient privi- 
leges and the monopoly of providing the music at open-air festivities. 
Johann Jakob Brahms, the father of Johannes, was a member of such 
a corporation at Hamburg, after having served his apprenticeship for 
five years elsewhere. See Florence May, ' Johannes Brahms,' voL i. 
pp. 48 ft 

2 See Genealogical Table n. The three young Bachs were the sons 
of Lips Bach and, presumably, nephews of Hans the ' Spielmann.' 
The youngest of them was named Jonas ; the name of another was 
certainly Wendel. It is remarkable, in a period in which Italy was 
regarded as the Mecca of musicians, that exceedingly few of the Bach 
family found their way thither. Besides the three sons of Lips Bach- 
only Johann Nikolaus, 1669-1763 (see Table vi.), Johann Sebastian 
Bach's son Johann Christian, 1735-82 (see Table vm.), and Carl P. E. 
Bach's son Sebastian (see Table vn.) seem to have visited Italy. 

3 i.e. from Veit Bach. Of the three names Forkel mentions the 
first two were a generation before Johann Sebastian ; the third, Johann 
Bernhard, was of the same generation as Johann Sebastian ; none of 
the three belonged to Johann Sebastian's branch. 



4 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

and several of their compositions, thanks to 
Johann Sebastian Bach's regard for them, have 
come down to us. The most notable of these 
Bachs are : 

1. Johann Christoph Bach, Court and Town 
Organist at Eisenach. x He was particularly happy 
in his beautiful melodies and in setting words to 
music. In the ' Archives of the Bachs,' 2 which 
was in Carl Philipp Emmanuel's possession at 
Hamburg, there is a Motet by Johann Christoph 
in which he boldly uses the augmented sixth, a 
proceeding considered extremely daring in his day. 3 
He was also an uncommon master of harmony, 
as may be inferred from a Cantata composed by 
him for Michaelmas, to the words * Es erhub sich 
ein Streit,' etc., which has twenty-two obbligato 
parts in correct harmony. 4 Yet another proof 
of his rare skill is in the alleged fact that he never 

1 Eldest son of Heinrich Bach (see Table vi.). Whether he was 
Court as well as Town Organist at Eisenach cannot be stated positively. 

2 The ' Alt-Bachische Archive ' is a collection of the compositions of 
various members of the family, before and after Johann Sebastian, 
formed largely by the latter. From C. P. E. Bach it passed to G. 
Polchau and from him to the Berlin Royal Library. 

3 Johann Christoph composed several Motets (see them discussed 
in Spitta, i. 75 ff.). The daring work to which Forkel alludes was 
written about 1680 and is lost. Though the augmented sixth was 
then and remained unusual, Johann Christoph's is not the earliest use 
of it. Spitta finds it in Giacomo Carissimi (1604-74). 

4 The Cantata (' And there was war in heaven ') is analysed by 
Spitta (i. 44). The score is unusually full : two five-part choirs ; 
Vn. 1 and 2, 4 Violas, Contrabasso, Fagotto, 4 Trombe, Timpani, 
Organ. In 1726 Johann Sebastian Bach wrote a Cantata for Michael- 
mas on the same text (Rev. xii. 7). 



THE FAMILY OF BACH 5 

played the Organ or Clavier in less than five 
parts. 1 Carl Philipp Emmanuel had a particularly 
warm regard for him. 2 I remember the old man 
playing some of his compositions to me on the 
Clavier at Hamburg, and how quizzically he 
looked at me when one of these daring passages 
occurred. 3 

2. Johann Michael Bach, Organist and Town 
Clerk at Gehren. 4 He was the younger brother 
of Johann Christoph, and like him, a particularly 
good composer. The Archives already mentioned 5 
contain several of his Motets, including one for 
eight voices hi double .chorus, 6 and many com- 
positions for Church use. 

3. Johann Bernhard Bach, Musician in the 

1 Spitta (i. 101 n.) characterises the statement as 'a mythical 
exaggeration.' In a chapter devoted to the instrumental works of 
Johann Christoph and his brother he instances a collection of forty- 
four Organ Chorals by the former, not one of which is in five parts. 

8 In the Bach genealogy already referred to C. P. E. Bach desig- 
nates Johann Christoph a ' great and impressive composer.' 

8 A ' Lamento ' published under Johann Christoph's name seems 
actually to have been composed by his father Heinrich (see Pirro, 
' J.-S. Bach,' 9 n.). Johann Christoph, however, is the composer of the 
Motet ' Ich lasse dich nicht,' so often attributed to Johann Sebastian. 

4 See Table vi. He was the father of Johann Sebastian's first wife. 

6 See note, p. 4 supra. 

6 Spitta (i. 59 ff.) mentions twelve Motets by Michael Bach. Several 
of them are for eight voices. Forkel probably refers to the most 
remarkable of Michael's Motets, in which he detects the romantic 
spirit of Johann Sebastian. It is set to the words ' Unser Leben ist 
ein Schatten' ('Life on earth is but a shadow'). The first choir 
consists of 2 S., A., 2 T., B., and the second choir of A.T.B. only. 
Spitta analyses the work closely (i. 70-72). Novello publishes his five- 
part Motet ' Christ is risen ' with an English text. 



6 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

Prince's Kapelle and Organist at Eisenach. 1 He 
is said to have composed remarkably fine Suites, 
or Overtures, in the French style. 2 

Besides these three men, the Bachs boasted 
several able composers hi the generations preced- 
ing Johann Sebastian, 3 men who undoubtedly 
would have obtained higher positions, wider 
reputation, and more brilliant fortune if they 
could have torn themselves from their native 
Thuringia to display their gifts elsewhere in 
Germany or abroad. But none of the Bachs 
seems to have felt an inclination to migrate. 
Modest in their needs, frugal by nature and train- 
ing, they were content with little, engrossed in 
and satisfied by their art, and wholly indifferent 

1 He succeeded his cousin Johann Christoph at Eisenach in 1703. 
See Table m. 

8 Spitta (i. 24 ff.) mentions four Suites, or Overtures, Clavier pieces, 
and Organ Chorals as being by him. That Johann Sebastian Bach 
highly esteemed the Suites is proved by the fact that he copied the 
parts of three of them with his own hand at Leipzig. 

3 It is a curious fact that, prior to the career of Johann Sebastian 
Bach, the composers of the Bach family occur invariably in other 
branches than his. With two exceptions, the gift of composition 
appears to have been possessed, or exercised, solely by Heinrich Bach 
(see Table vi.), his two sons Johann Christoph and Johann Michael, 
already discussed, and his grandson, Johann Nikolaus (son of Johann 
Christoph). Heinrich Bach was a very productive composer in all 
forms of musical art employed at that time in church (Sp. i. 36). 
His grandson, Johann Nikolaus, composed a Mass and a comic operetta 
(ib., 132 ff.). The only other Bach composer known to Spitta is 
Georg Christoph, founder of the Franconian Bachs (see Table rv.) 
and Cantor at Themar and Schweinfurt (ib. 155). The other Bach 
composer outside Heinrich Bach's branch is Johann Bernhard, already 
mentioned by Forkel. 



THE FAMILY OF BACH 7 

to the decorations which great men of that time 
were wont to bestow on artists as special marks of 
honour. The fact that others who appreciated 
them were thus distinguished did not rouse the 
slightest envy in the Bachs. 

The Bachs not only displayed a happy content- 
edness, indispensable for the cheery enjoyment of 
life, but exhibited a clannish attachment to each 
other. They could not all live in the same 
locality. But it was their habit to meet once a 
year at a time and place arranged beforehand. 
These gatherings generally took place at Erfurt, 
Eisenach, and sometimes at Arnstadt. Even 
after the family had grown very large, and many 
of its members had left Thuringia to settle in 
Upper and Lower Saxony and Franconia, the 
Bachs continued their annual meetings. On these 
occasions music was their sole recreation. As 
those present were either Cantors, Organists, or 
Town Musicians, employed in the service of the 
Church and accustomed to preface the day's work 
with prayer, their first act was to sing a Hymn. 
Having fulfilled their religious duty, they spent 
the rest of the time in frivolous recreations. Best 
of all they liked to extemporise a chorus out of 
popular songs, comic or jocular, weaving them 
into a harmonious whole while declaiming the 
words of each. They called this hotch-potch a 
' Quodlibet,' laughed uproariously at it, and 
roused equally hearty and irrepressible laughter 



8 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

in their audience. 1 It is suggested that German 
Comic Opera has its origin in these trifles. But 
the ' Quodlibet ' was a familiar institution hi 
Germany at a much earlier period. I possess a 
collection of them printed and published at 
Vienna hi 1542. 2 

But these light-hearted Thuringians, and even 
those of their family who treated their art more 
seriously and worthily, would not have escaped 
oblivion had there not emerged in the fulness of 
time one whose genius and renown reflected their 
splendour and brilliancy on his forbears. This 
man, the glory of his family, pride of his country- 
men, most gifted favourite of the Muse of Music, 
was Johann Sebastian Bach. 

1 In the Quodlibet different voices sang different well-known 
melodies, sacred and profane, and sought to combine them to form 
a harmonious whole. For an example see Variation 30 of the ' Aria 
mit 30 Veranderungen ' (Peters' ed., bk. 209 p. 83). In it Bach 
combines two popular songs of his period. 

2 See article ' Quodlibet ' in Grove. 



CHAPTER II 

THE CAREER OF BACH 

JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH was born on March 
21, 1685, 1 at Eisenach, where his father, 
Johann Ambrosius Bach, was Court and Town 
Musician. 2 Johann Ambrosius had a twin brother, 
Johann Christoph, Musician to the Court and 
Town of Arnstadt, 3 who so exactly resembled him 
that even their wives could distinguish them only 
by their dress. The twins appear to have been quite 
remarkable. They were deeply attached, alike in 
disposition, in voice, and in the style of their music. 
If one was ill, so was the other. They died within 
a short time of each other, and were objects of 
wondering interest to all who knew them. 4 

In 1695, when Johann Sebastian was not quite 
ten years old, his father died. He lost his mother 
at an earlier period. 5 So, being left an orphan, 

1 The date is conjectural, and is deduced from the fact that the 
infant was baptized on March 23. The Gregorian Calendar was not 
adopted in Germany until 1701. Had it been in use in 1685 Bach's 
birthday would be March 31. 

2 Johann Ambrosius' Court appointment is to be inferred from the 
fact that in 1684 the Duke refused him permission to return to Erfurt. 

See Table rv. 

4 Johann Ambrosius survived his brother by nearly eighteen months. 
6 His mother died in May 1694, and his father in January 1695. At the 
latter date Johann Sebastian was three months short of his tenth year. 



10 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

he became dependent on his eldest brother, 
Johann Christoph, Organist at Ohrdruf, 1 from 
whom he received his earliest lessons on the 
Clavier. 2 His inclination and talent for music 
must already have been pronounced. For his 
brother no sooner had given him one piece to 
learn than the boy was demanding another more 
difficult. The most renowned Clavier composers 
of that day were Froberger, 3 Fischer, 4 Johann 
Caspar Kerl, 5 Pachelbel, 6 Buxtehude, 7 Bruhns, 8 

1 Excepting Johann Jakob, a lad of thirteen years, Johann Christoph 
was Bach's only surviving brother, and the only one of the family 
in a position to look after him. Johann Jakob accompanied Sebastian 
to Ohrdruf (Pirro, p. 13) and afterwards apprenticed himself to his 
father's successor as Town Musician at Eisenach. One of the daughters 
was already married. What became of the other is not stated. See 
Table v. 

2 It is difficult to believe this statement. That the boy was destined 
for a musical career by his father hardly can be doubted. That he 
was of unusual precocity, the story told by Forkel in the text proves. 
His father's asserted neglect to instruct him is therefore hardly credible. 

8 Johann Jakob Froberger, born at Halle (date unknown) ; Court 
Organist at Vienna, 1637-57 ; d. 1667. 

* Johann Caspar Ferdinand Fischer, c. 1660-1738 (actual dates of 
his birth and death unknown) ; Kapellmeister to Markgraf Ludwig of 
Baden at Schloss Schlackenwerth in Bohemia. His ' Ariadne Musica 
Neo-Organoedum ' (1702) was the precursor of Bach's ' Das wohl- 
temperirte Clavier.' 

5 Johann Caspar Kerl, b. 1628 ; Kapellmeister in Munich, 1656-74 ; 
Court Organist at Vienna, 1677-92 ; d. 1693. 

6 Johann Pachelbel, b. 1653, d. 1706. In 1695 he was Organist of 
St. Sebald's Church, Niirnberg. His influence upon the organ playing 
of his generation was enormous. Bach's brother, Johann Christoph, 
was his pupil. 

7 Dietrich Buxtehude, b. 1637, d. 1707; Organist (1668) of the Marien- 
kirche, Liibeck, and the chief musical influence in North Germany. 

8 Nikolaus Bruhns, b. tire. 1665, d. 1697 ; a pupil of Buxtehude ; 
Organist at Husum ; the greatest organist of his time after Buxtehude. 



THE CAREER OF BACH 11 

and Bohm. 1 Johann Christoph possessed a book 
containing several pieces by these masters, and 
Bach begged earnestly for it, but without effect. 
Refusal increasing his determination, he laid 
his plans to get the book without his brother's 
knowledge. It was kept on a book-shelf which 
had a latticed front. Bach's hands were small. 
Inserting them, he got hold of the book, rolled it 
up, and drew it out. As he was not allowed a candle, 
he could only copy it on moonlight nights, and it 
was six months before he finished his heavy 
task. As soon as it was completed he looked 
forward to using hi secret a treasure won by so 
much labour. But his brother found the copy 
and took it from him without pity, nor did Bach 
recover it until his brother's death soon after. 2 

Being once more left destitute, 3 Johann 
Sebastian set out for Liineburg with one of his 
Ohrdruf schoolfellows, named Erdmann 4 (after- 

1 Georg Bohm, b. 1661 ; date of death uncertain (c. 1739) ; from 
1698 Organist of the Jc ^.nniskirche, Liineburg. 

2 In fact, Johann Chrii *ph did not die until 1721, more than twenty 
years after Sebastian ceased to be under his roof. 

3 The fact that Johar; Chri-stoph survived till 1721 disproves 
Forkel's statement. The youthful Bacn, aged fifteen in 1700, no doubt 
seized the earliest opportunity to relieve his brother of the charge 
of him. Moreover, Joham Ch ristoph's family was increasing (see 
Table v.). In spite of the st >ry of Bach's midnight copying, it cannot 
be questioned that he owed i good deal to his brother, who not only 
taught him but, presumably, naintained him at the Ohrdruf Lyceum, 
where Bach acquired a sound -ducation and a considerable knowledge 
of Latin. See Pirro, pp. 14-16, on Bach's education at Ohrdruf. He 
left the Lyceum in March 1700. 

4 Georg Erdmann, Bach's fellow-^npil at the Lyceum. 






12 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

wards Russian Resident at Danzig), and entered 
the choir of St. Michael's Convent. His fine 
treble voice procured him a fair livelihood. But 
unfortunately he soon lost it and did not at once 
develop another. 1 

Meanwhile his ambition to play the Organ and 
Clavier remained as keen as ever, and impelled 
him to hear and practise everything that promised 
him improvement. For that purpose, while he 
was at Luneburg, he several times travelled to 
Hamburg to hear the famous organist, 2 Johann 



1 Bach's entry into the choir of St. Michael's Convent, Liineburg, 
took place about Easter 1700. The step was taken upon the advice 
of Elias Herda, Cantor at the Ohrdruf Lyceum, himself a former 
member of St. Michael's. Bach remained at St. Michael's for three 
years, till 1703. The choir library was particularly rich in the best 
church music of the period, both German and Italian. Spitta is of 
opinion that Bach's talents as a violinist and Clavier player were also 
laid under contribution. His voice, as Forkel states, soon ceased to 
be serviceable. His maximum pay was one thaler (t>-;'j shillings) 
a month and free commons. 

2 Probably Georg Bohm, who had relations with the Convent choir, 
inspired Bach to make the pilgrimage. TjShm, then at St. John's, 
Luneburg, was a pupil of Reinken of lamburg. Spitta (i. 196) 
suggests that Bach's cousin, Johann Erns '"(see Table iv.), was at this 
time completing his musical educa on at Hamburg, a fact which may 
have contributed to draw iSaeh thithor. lie made more than one visit, 
on foot, to Hamburg. F. W. Marpurg i ^iblished, in 1786, the story, 
which he received from Bach himself, tir. on one of his journeys from 
Hamburg, Bach sat down outside an inn and hungrily sniffed the 
savours from its kitchen. His pockets were empty and there seemed 
little prospect of a meal, when a window was opened and two herring 
heads were thrown out. Bach picked them up eagerly, and found 
in each of them a Danish ducat. \Vho was his benefactor he never 
discovered ; the gift enabled him to satisfy his hunger and pay another 
visit to Hamburg. 



THE CAREER OF BACH 13 

Adam Reinken. 1 Often, too, he walked to Celle 
to hear the Duke's French band play French 
music, which was a novelty in those parts. 2 

The date and circumstances of his removal from 
Luneburg to Weimar are not precisely known. 3 
He certainly became Court Musician there in 
1703, when he was just over eighteen years of 
age. 4 But hi the folio whig year he gave up the 
post on his appointment as Organist to the new 
Church at Arnstadt, probably desiring to develop 
his taste for the Organ and realising that he would 
have better opportunities to do so at Arnstadt 
than at Weimar, where he was engaged simply to 
play the Violin. 5 At Arnstadt he set himself 
assiduously to study the works of the celebrated 
organists of the period, so far as his modest means 
permitted him, and hi order to improve himself 

1 Johann Adam Reinken, b. 1623, became Organist of St. Catherine's 
Church, Hamburg, in 1654, and held the post until his death in 1722. 

2 His introduction to French music marked another step in Bach's 
progressive education. The reigning Duke of Celle (father-in-law of 
George i. of Great Britain and Ireland) had married a Frenchwoman. 
The Court Organist was a Frenchman. See Pirro, ' J. S. Bach,' pp. 24-27. 

8 He entered the Weimar service on April 8, 1703 (Pirro, p. 29). 

4 Bach's engagement was in the private band of the younger brother 
of the Duke. He remained in his new post only a few months. He 
was engaged as a Violin player, and since his interests were towards 
the Organ and Clavier, it is clear that he accepted the engagement 
as a temporary means of livelihood. 

8 He is, however, described in July 1703 as Court Organist (Pirro, 
p. 30). Bach was drawn to Arniiadt chiefly by the fact that the New 
Church recently had been equipped with a particularly fine Organ 
(specification in Spitta, i. 224), which existed until 1863. Bach 
inaugurated it on July 13, 1703,jland entered on his duties as Organist 
of the church in the following mjmth (Pirro, p. 30). 






14 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

in composition l and Organ playing, 2 walked the 
whole way to Liibeck to hear Dietrich Buxtehude, 
Organist of St. Mary's Church in that city, with 
whose compositions he was acquainted already. 
He remained there about three months, 3 listening 

1 His earliest Church Cantata (No. 15) was composed here in 1704. 
To the Arnstadt period (1703-7) also must be attributed the Capriccio 
written on the departure of his brother, Johann Jakob (Peters bk. 208 
p. 62), the Capriccio in honour of his Ohrdruf brother, Johann Christoph 
(Peters bk. 215, p. 34), the Sonata in D major (Peters bk. 215, p. 44), 
the Organ Prelude and Fugue in C minor (Novello bk. 2 p. 48), and 
the Organ Fugue in C minor (Novello bk. 12 p. 95). 

2 In the ' Nekrolog ' C. P. E. Bach and Agricola remark of the 
Arnstadt period, that Bach then ' really showed the first-fruits of his 
industry in the art of Organ-playing and composition, which he had 
in great measure learnt only from the study of the works of the most 
famous composers of the time, and from his own reflections on them ' 
(quoted in Spitta, i. 235). 

3 Bach's stipend at Arnstadt was not inconsiderable, and his duties 
engaged him only at stated hours on Sundays, Mondays, and Thursdays. 
He, therefore, had leisure and the means to employ it. In October 
1705 he obtained four weeks' leave of absence and set off on foot to 
Liibeck, after leaving an efficient deputy behind him. He stayed 
away until February 1706. On his return the Consistory demanded 
an explanation of his absence, and took the opportunity to remonstrate 
with him on other matters. They charged him 'with having been 
hitherto in the habit of making surprising variations in the Chorals, 
and intermixing divers strange sounds, so that thereby the congrega- 
tion were confounded.' They charged him with playing too long 
preludes, and after this was notified to him, of making them too short. 
They reproached him ' with having gone to a wineshop last Sunday 
during sermon,' and cautioned him that, 'for the future he must 
behave quite differently and mu r ^better than he has done hitherto' 
(see the whole charge in Spitta, 9> 315 ff.). Bach also was on bad 
terms with the choir, whose members had got out of hand and dis- 
cipline. Before his Liibeck visit P engaged in a street brawl with 
one of the scholars. Then, as la ,er, he was a choleric gentleman. 
In November 1706 he got into furtl ^r trouble for having ' made music ' 
in the church with a ' stranger ma Jen,' presumably his cousin Maria 
Barbara Bach, then on a visit to /Irnstadt ; he married her a year 
later. Clearly the relations between the Consistory and the brilliant 



THE CAREER OF BACH 15 

to the celebrated Organist, but without making 
himself known to him, and returned to Arnstadt 
with his experience much increased. 

Bach's zeal and perse vering diligence had already 
drawn attention to him, as is evident from the 
fact that he received hi succession several offers 
of vacant organistships, one of which, at the 
Church of St. Blasius, Muhlhausen, he accepted 
in 1707. x Barely a year after he entered upon 
his duties there 2 he again visited Weimar and 
played to the Duke, who was so pleased with his 
performance that he offered him the post of Court 
Organist, which he accepted. 3 Weimar promised 

young Organist were becoming difficult, and Bach's migration to 
Muhlhausen no doubt was grateful to both. His resignation was made 
formally on June 29, 1707. 

1 Bach was appointed on June 15, 1707, to succeed Johann Georg 
Ahle. Muhlhausen prided itself upon its musical traditions. Bach's 
Cantata, No. 71, written in February 1708 for the inauguration of the 
Muhlhausen Town Council, was engraved (the parts only), the only 
one of the 206 Cantatas which have come down to us which was 
printed during Bach's lifetime. He also composed Cantatas 131 and 
196 at Muhlhausen, and perhaps three others. See infra, p. 188. 

2 Bach's petition to the Muhlhausen Consistory for permission to 
resign his post is dated June 25, 1708, and is printed in full by Spitta, 
i. 373. Bach mentions the Weimar post as having been offered to 
him, but bases his desire to resign the organ of St. Blasius, partly on 
the ground that his income was inadequate, partly because, though he 
had succeeded in improving the 01 ;an and the conditions of music 
generally, he saw ' not the slightest appearance that things will be 
altered' for the better. Muhlhaurfen, in fact, was a stronghold of 
Pietism and unsympathetic to Ba<>Vs musical ideals. 

3 He was Court Organist and K: mmermusikus. In the latter post 
Bach was of use as a Violinist and Clavier player. The Court band, 
or Kapelle, on special occasions appeared in Hungarian costume, which 
Bach presumably donned. His income began at a sum nearly double 
that he had received at Arnstadt \.nd Muhlhausen. 



16 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

him a particularly agreeable atmosphere in which 
to cultivate his genius. 1 He applied himself 
closely to his work, and probably at this period 
achieved the mastery of the Organ that he ever 
afterwards possessed. At Weimar also he wrote 
his great compositions for that instrument. 2 In 
1717 3 the Duke appointed him Concertmeister, 
a post which gave him further opportunity to 
develop his art, since it required him to compose 
and direct Church music. 

It was about this time that Zachau, Handel's 
master, died at Halle, where he was Organist. 4 
Bach, who by now had acquired a great reputation, 
was invited to succeed him. 5 He visited Halle 

1 The character of his employer, Duke Wilhelm Ernst of Saxe- 
Weimar, must be reckoned a factor in the development of the youthful 
Bach. The Duke was not only a cultured artist, but was also a man 
of genuine piety. 

* Though Bach retouched them in later years and wrote others, it 
may be stated in general terms that his Organ works were the fruit 
of the Weimar period, which lasted from 1708 till 1717. 

3 Bach's promotion to the position of Concertmeister had taken 
place certainly before March 19, 1714, on which date Spitta (i. 517) 
prints a letter in which Bach gives himself the title. The increase in 
his income early in 1714 also supports the conclusion, while a letter 
of January 14, 1714, written by Bach, is not signed by him as Concert- 
meister. It would seem that his promotion took place in the interval 
between the two letters. As Concertmeister it was part of his duty 
to provide Cantatas for the church services. Twenty-two were 
written by him at Weimar. See infra, p. 188, for a list of them. 

Friedrich Wilhelm Zachau diti on August 7 or 14, 1712. 

6 Spitta (i. 513) infers that, in the later years of the Weimar period, 
Bach spent part of the autumn ( * every year in visits to the Courts 
and larger towns of Germany in jrder to give Organ recitals and to 
conduct performances of his Cant, tas. Besides the visit to Halle, in 
1713, to which Forkel alludes, Bach performed at Cassel in 1713 or 



THE CAREER OF BACH 17 

and composed a work as a specimen of his skill. 
But for some reason unknown he did not obtain 
the post. It was given to a clever pupil of Zachau, 
named Kirchhoff. 1 

Johann Sebastian was now thirty-two years old. 
He had made good use of his opportunities, had 
studied hard as a player and composer, and by 
tireless enthusiasm had so completely mastered 
every branch of his art, that he towered like a 
giant above his contemporaries. Both amateurs 
and professional musicians already regarded him 
with admiration when, in 1717, Marchand, 
the French virtuoso, a celebrated Clavier and 



1714 before the future Frederick i. of Sweden, who presented him with 
a ring which he drew from his finger. Bach's feet, an admirer recorded, 
' flew over the pedal-board as if they had wings.' In December 1714 
he visited Leipzig and performed Cantata No. 61, ' Nun komm, der 
Heiden Heiland.' In 1716 he was again invited to Halle, and at about 
the same time performed at Meiningen. Forkel records the famous 
contest with Marchand, the French Organist, at Dresden in 
1717. 

1 ForkePs brief account follows the ' Nekrolog.' Bach was in Halle 
in the autumn of 1713, a year after Zachau's death. The latter's post 
was still vacant and a new and particularly large Organ (sixty-three 
speaking stops) was being erected. The authorities pressed Bach to 
submit himself to the prescribed tests, and he complied so far as to 
compose a Cantata and to conduct a performance of it. On his return 
to Weimar he received a formal invitation to accept the post. After 
some correspondence Bach refused it, partly, perhaps chiefly, on the 
ground that the income was inadequate. The refusal was answered 
by the groundless accusation that he had merely entertained the Halle 
proposal in order to bring pressure upon Weimar for a rise of salary. 
The misunderstanding was cleared away by 1716, when Bach visited 
Halle again. In the interval Zachau's post had been given to his pupil, 
Gottfried Kirchhoff. The whole matter is discussed at length in 
Spitta, i. 515 S. 

B 



18 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

Organ player, visited Dresden. He played before 
the King-Elector * and won such approbation that 
he was offered a large salary to enter His Majesty's 
service. 2 Marchand's chief merit was his finished 
technique. Like Couperin, 3 his musical ideas 
were weak to the point of banality, as we may 
judge from his compositions. 4 Bach was an 
equally finished player, and so rich in ideas that 
Marchand's head would have swollen had he 
been equally gifted. Volumier, Concertmeister 
at Dresden, 5 was aware of these circumstances, 
and knowing that the young German had his in- 
strument and his imagination under the fullest 
control, determined to arrange a contest between 
the two men in order to give his sovereign the 
satisfaction of judging their merits. With the 
King's approbation, a message was dispatched 

1 Frederick Augustus i. of Saxony was elected, as Augustus n., to 
the throne of Poland in 1697. He died In 1733. 

2 Louis Marchand, b. 1669, d. 1732 ; Organist to the French Court 
and later of the Church of St. Honore, Paris. His arrival in Dresden 
was due to his being in disgrace at Versailles. Whether or not he was 
offered a permanent engagement at the Saxon Court, he was regarded 
as the champion of the French style, and as such the challenge was 
issued to him by Bach. 

8 Francois Couperin, b. 1668, d. 1733 ; Organist of St. Gervais, 
Paris. Forkel's judgment upon his art is not supported by modern 
criticism. 

* Bach, however, admired Marchand's compositions sufficiently to 
give them to his pupils. See Pirro, p. 52. 

6 Jean-Baptiste Volumier, an acquaintance of Bach, according to 
Spitta (i. 583). Eitner, ' Quellen Lexikon,' says that he was born in 
Spain and educated in France. Grove's ' Dictionary ' declares him a 
Belgian. In 1709 he was appointed Concertmeister to the Saxon 
Court. He died at Dresden in 1728. 



THE CAREER OF BACH 19 

to Bach at Weimar x inviting him to a contest 
with Marchand. Bach accepted the invitation 
and set out at once on his journey. Upon his 
arrival at Dresden Volumier procured him an 
opportunity to hear Marchand secretly. Far 
from being discouraged by what he heard, Bach 
wrote a polite note to the French artist challeng- 
ing him to a trial of skill, and offering to play 
at sight anything Marchand put before him, 
provided the Frenchman submitted himself to 
a similar test. Marchand accepted the challenge, 
a time and place for the contest were fixed, and 
the King gave his approval. At the appointed 
hour a large and distinguished company assembled 
in the house of Marshal Count Flemming. 2 
Bach arrived punctually ; Marchand did not 
appear. After considerable delay he was sought 
at his lodging, when it was discovered, to the 
astonishment of all, that he had left Dresden 
that morning without taking leave of anybody. 
Bach therefore performed alone, and excited the 
admiration of all who heard him, though Volumier 
was cheated of his intention to exhibit the in- 
feriority of French to German art. Bach was 
overwhelmed with congratulations ; but the dis- 
honesty of a Court official is said to have inter- 

1 It is more probable that Bach was at Dresden either expressly to 
hear Marchand or upon one of his autumn tours. 

2 Some years earlier Flemming had witnessed Handel's triumphant 
descent on the Saxon Court, but had failed to establish friendly rela- 
tions +V> him. See Streatfield's ' Hand*!,' p. 87. 



20 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

cepted a present of one hundred louis d'or sent 
to him by the King. 1 

Bach had not long returned to Weimar when 
Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Cothen, a good judge 
of music and a first-rate amateur, 2 offered him 
the post of Kapellmeister. He entered at once 
upon his new office 3 and held it for about six 
years. 4 At this period, about 1722, 5 he visited 

1 The article on Marchand in Grove gives a different version of the 
affair, based upon Joseph Fetis (1784-1871). According to this story 
of the event, Bach, summoned from Weimar, attended Marchand's 
concert incognito, and after hearing Marchand perform, was invited 
by Volumier to take his seat at the Clavier. Bach thereupon repeated 
from memory Marchand's theme and variations, and added others of 
his own. Having ended, he handed Marchand a theme for treatment 
on the Organ and challenged him to a contest. Marchand accepted 
it, but left Dresden before the appointed hour. 

2 The Prince was brother-in-law of Duke Ernst August of Saxe- Weimar. 
Bach was, therefore, already known to him and showed the greatest 
regard for him both at Cothen and after he had left his service. 

3 The reason for Bach's migration from Weimar to Cothen was his 
failure to obtain the post of Kapellmeister at the former Court upon 
the death of Johann Samuel Drese in 1716. The post was given to 
Drese's son. On August 1, 1717, just before or after his Marchand 
triumph, Bach was appointed Kapellmeister to the Court of Cothen. 
Duke Wilhelm Ernst refused to release him from his engagement, and 
Bach endured imprisonment from November 6 to December 2, 
1717, for demanding instant permission to take up his new post. Pro- 
bably his last work at Weimar was to put the ' Orgelbiichlein ' into the 
form in which it has come down to us (see articles by the present 
writer in ' The Musical Times ' for January-March 1917). 

With his departure from Weimar in 1718 Bach left behind him the 
distinctively Organ period of his musical fertility. Though his com- 
positions were still by no means generally known, as a player he held 
an unchallenged pre-eminence. 

He was appointed to Cothen on August 1, 1717, and was inducted 
at Leipzig on May 31, 1723. 

6 The date actually was November 1720. At Cothen Bach had an 
inferior Organ and little scope for his attainments ; his chief duties 



THE CAREER OF BACH 21 

Hamburg, played the Organ there, and excited 
general admiration. The veteran Reinken he 
was nearly one hundred years old was particu- 
larly impressed by Bach's performance. After 
he had treated the Choral ' An Wasserflussen 
Babylon ' for half an hour in variation after 
variation in the true Organ style, 1 Reinken paid 
him the compliment of saying, ' I thought this art 
was dead, but I see that it survives in you.' 
Reinken had treated the same Choral hi a similar 
manner some years before and had had his work 
engraved, showing that he thought highly of it. 
His praise therefore was particularly flattering 
to Bach. 2 

On the death of Kuhnau in 1723 3 Bach was 
appointed Director of Music and Cantor to St. 
Thomas' School, Leipzig, 4 a position which he 

were in connection with the Prince's band. The yearning to get back 
to the Organ, which eventually took him to Leipzig in 1723, shows 
itself in his readiness to entertain an invitation to Hamburg in 1720. 

1 Three Organ movements by Bach upon Wolfgang Dachstein's 
melody, 'An Wasserflussen Babylon,' are extant. See notes upon 
them and their relation to the Hamburg extemporisation in Terry, 
' Bach's Chorals,' Part HE. 

2 As at Halle in 1713, Bach does not appear to have gone to Hamburg 
specially to compete for the post of Organist to the Church of St. 
James, vacant by the death of Heinrich Friese in September 1720. He 
was not able to stay to take part in the final tests, nor was he asked to 
submit to them, since his visit to Hamburg had given him an oppor- 
tunity to display his gifts. In the result the post was given to Johann 
Joachim Heitmann, who acknowledged his appointment by forthwith 
paying 4000 marks to the treasury of the Church. See Spitta, ii. 17 ff. 

8 Johann Kuhnau died on June 25, 1722. 

4 On the title-pages of his published works Bach describes himself 
as ' Capelbn. und Direct. Chor. Mus. Lips.' 



22 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

occupied until his death. Prince Leopold of 
Anhalt-Cothen had great regard for him and 
Bach left his service with regret. 1 But he saw 
the finger of Providence in the event ; for the 
Prince died shortly afterwards. 2 The loss of his 
patron affected him deeply, and moved him to 
compose a funeral Cantata containing remarkably 
fine double choruses which he himself conducted 
at Cothen. 3 While he was at St. Thomas' he 
was appointed honorary Kapellmeister to the 
Duke of Weissenfels 4 and, in the following year 

1 Forkel has practically nothing to say regarding the Leipzig 
period of Bach's musical life. That a professed historian of music, 
setting before the public for the first time the life of one whom he 
so greatly extolled, and with every inducement to present as complete 
a picture of him as was possible, should have taken no trouble to carry 
his investigations beyond the point C. P. E. Bach and Agricola had 
reached in the ' Nekrolog ' of 1754 is almost incredible. The only 
reason that can be adduced, apart from the lack of a really scientific 
impulse, is that Forkel was almost entirely ignorant of the flood of 
concerted church music which poured from Leipzig from 1723 to 1744. 
His criticism of Bach as a composer is restricted practically to Bach's 
Organ and Clavier works. 

2 On November 19, 1728. Latterly his interest in music had 
waned. The fact, along with Bach's concern for the education of his 
sons and his desire to return to the Organ, explains his abandonment 
of the more dignified Cothen appointment. 

8 The score of this work was in Forkel's possession, but was missing 
from his library in 1818 and was assumed to be lost until, in 1873, 
Rust was able to show that Bach used for the occasion certain 
choruses and Arias from the 'St. Matthew Passion,' which 
he was then writing, with the first chorus of the 'Trauer- 
Ode ' as an opening of the extemporised work. See Spitta, ii. 618 ; 
Schweitzer, ii. 208. 

* In 1723 he received the title ' Hochfiirstlich Weissenfelsische 
wirkliche Kapellmeister ' and retained it till his death. He retained 
also his Cothen appointment. 



THE CAREER OF BACH 23 

(1736), received the title of Court Composer 
to the King-Elector of Poland -Saxony. 1 The 
two compliments are not of great consequence, 
and the second was to some degree corollary 
to Bach's position as Cantor of St. Thomas' 
School. 2 

Carl Philipp Emmanuel, Bach's second son, 
entered the service of Frederick the Great of 
Prussia in 1740. So widely was Bach's skill 
recognised by this time that the King, who often 
heard him praised, was curious to meet so great 
an artist. More than once he hinted to Carl 
Philipp Emmanuel that it would be agreeable 
to welcome his father to Potsdam, and as Bach 
did not appear, desired to know the reason. 
Carl Philipp did not fail to acquaint his father 
with the King's interest. But for some time 
Bach was too occupied with his duties to accede 
to the invitation. However, as Carl Philipp 
continued to urge him, he set out for Potsdam 
towards the end of 1747, in company with his 
eldest son, Wilhelm Friedemann. 3 It was the 
King's custom to hold a private concert every 

1 Augustus in. Bach had petitioned for the appointment in a 
letter dated July 27, 1733 (Spitta, iii. 38), forwarding a copy of the 
newly-written Kyrie and Gloria of the B minor Mass. 

2 There does not appear to be any ground for the suggestion that 
the post of Hofcomponist to the Dresden Court was attached ex qfficio 
to the St. Thomas' Cantorate. Bach applied for it in 1733, taking 
advantage of the recent accession of the new sovereign, Augustus m. t 
in February 1733. 

3 Friedemann was then at Halle. 



24 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

evening, and to take part on the flute in a Concerto 
or two. One evening, 1 when he had got out his 
flute and the musicians were at their desks, an 
official brought him a list of the strangers newly 
arrived at Potsdam. Flute hi hand the Bang 
ran through the names, and suddenly turning to 
the waiting musicians, said with considerable 
excitement, ' Gentlemen, Old Bach has arrived.' 
The flute was put away for the evening, and 
Bach, who had alighted at his son's lodging, was 
summoned immediately to the Palace. Wilhelm 
Friedemann, who accompanied his father, often 
told me the story. Nor am I likely to forget the 
racy manner hi which he related it. The courtesy 
of those days demanded rather prolix compliments, 
and the first introduction of Bach to so illustrious 
a monarch, into whose presence he had hurried 
without being allowed, time to change his travel- 
ling dress for a Cantor's black gown, obviously 
invited ceremonial speeches on both sides. I will 
not dwell on them ; Wilhelm Friedemann related 

1 May 7, 1747, according to Spitta, quoting Friedrich Wilhelm 
Marpurg's ' Historisch-kritische Beytrage zur Aufnahme der Musik,' 
which appeared in 5 vols. between 1754-1778. On the other hand, 
Spener, who first records the event, states briefly : ' May 11, 1747. His 
Majesty was informed that Kapellmeister Bach had arrived in Potsdam, 
and that he was in the Bang's ante-chamber, waiting His Majesty's 
gracious permission to enter, and hear the music. His Majesty at once 
commanded that he should be admitted ' (Spitta, iii. 231 n.). If the 
Marpurg and Spener dates are reliable, it looks as though Friede- 
mann's story of his father, travel-stained and weary, being hurried 
incontinent into the presence of the King is a piece of picturesque 
embroidery. 



THE CAREER OF BACH 25 

a lengthy and formal conversation between the 
King and the Cantor. 1 

More worthy of record is the fact that the King 
gave up his concert for that evening and invited 
Bach, already known as ' Old Bach,' to try the 
Silbermann pianofortes 2 which stood hi various 
parts of the Palace.* Accompanied from room to 
room by the King and the musicians, Bach tried 
the instruments and improvised upon them before 
his illustrious companion. After some time he 
asked the King to give him a subject for a Fugue, 
that he might treat it extempore. The King did 
so, and expressed his astonishment at Bach's 
profound skill in developing it. Anxious to see 
to what lengths the art could be carried, the King 
desired Bach to improvise a six-part Fugue. But 
as every subject is not suitable for polyphonic 



1 Clearly this was a story that Wilhelm Friedemann prided himself 
on the telling, and Forkel's remark suggests the need for caution in 
accepting all its details. Frederick's courtesy to Bach, however, tends 
to discredit the story that ten years earlier (1737) Handel deliberately 
refused to meet the King at Aix-la-Chapelle owing to the peremptori- 
ness of his summons. Mr. Streatfield (p. 145) also shows that Frederick 
was not at Aix until 1741, when Handel was writing the ' Messiah ' in 
London. 

2 Gottfried Silbermann, a pioneer of the modern pianoforte. Bach 
was already familiar with his Claviers with hammer action, and indeed 
had offered useful criticism of which Silbermann had taken advantage. 
See Spitta, ii. 46. 

* The pianofortes manufactured by Silbermann, of Freiberg, pleased 
the King so much, that he resolved to buy them all. He collected 
fifteen. I hear that they all now stand, unfit for use, in various corners 
of the Royal Palace. [Robert Eitner, in 1873, found one of the pianos 
in Frederick the Great's room at Potsdam.] 



26 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

treatment, Bach himself chose a theme and, to 
the astonishment of all who were present, developed 
it with the skill and distinction he had shown in 
treating the King's subject. His Majesty ex- 
pressed a wish to hear him on the Organ also. 
Accordingly, next day, Bach inspected all the 
Organs in Potsdam, 1 as the evening before he had 
tried the Silbermann pianofortes. On his return to 
Leipzig he developed the King's theme in three and 
six parts, added Canoms diversi upon it, engraved 
the whole under the title ' Musikalisches Opfer ' 
and dedicated it to the royal author of the theme. 2 
His visit to Potsdam was Bach's last journey. 
The indefatigable diligence he had shown all his 
life, and particularly in his younger years, when 
successive days and nights were given to study, 
seriously affected his eye-sight. The weakness 
grew with age and became very distressing in 
character. On the advice of friends who placed 
great confidence in the skill of a London oculist 
lately come to Leipzig, 3 Bach submitted to an 

1 According to another account, which Spitta (iii. 232) follows, Bach 
played before a large congregation in the Church of the Holy Spirit, 
Potsdam. The King does not appear to have been present. The 
extemporisation of the six- part Fugue took place in Frederick's presence 
on the evening of that day. 

2 Bach's letter to Frederick accompanying the gift is dated 7th July 
1747. He calls it ' a musical offering, of which the noblest portion is 
the work of Your Majesty's illustrious hand.' In addition to Forkel's 
analysis it contains a Sonata for Flute, Violin, and Clavier, and a 
canon perpetuus for the same three instruments. 

8 John Taylor (1703-72), oculist to George n. The operation took 
place in the winter of 1749-50. Taylor is said to have operated on 



THE CAREER OF BACH 27 

operation, which twice failed. He lost his sight 
completely in consequence, and his hitherto 
vigorous constitution was undermined by the 
drugs administered to him. He sank gradually 
for full half a year, and expired on the evening 
of July 30, 1750, in the sixty-sixth year of his 
age. 1 Ten days before his death 2 he was suddenly 
able to see again and to bear the light. A few 
hours later he was seized by an apoplexy and 
inflammatory fever, and notwithstanding all 
possible medical aid, his weakened frame suc- 
cumbed to the attack. 

Such was the career of this remarkable man. 
I will only add that he was twice married, and 
that he had by his first wife seven, and by his 
second wife thirteen children ; in all, eleven 
sons and nine daughters. 3 All of his sons had an 

Handel in 1751 (see the article on him in the ' Diet. Nat. Biography.'). 
Streatfield (' Handel,' p. 212), however, does not mention Taylor, and 
his account suggests that Samuel Sharp, of Guy's Hospital, was the 
operator in Handel's case. 

1 The actual date was July 28, at 8.45 P.M. Bach was working 
to the very moment of his collapse on July 18. Probably his last 
work was the Choral Prelude (Novello bk. xvii. 85) on the melody 
' Wenn wir in hochsten Nothen sein.' Facing eternity, he bade bis 
son-in-law, Altnikol, inscribe the movement with the title of the 
Hymn, * Vor deinen Thron tret ich hiemit,' whose first stanza filled 
his mind : 

Before Thy throne, my God, I stand, 

Myself, my all, are in Thy hand. 

An addendum to the Genealogy, in C. P. E. Bach's hand, gives 
July 30 as the date of his father's death. 
8 July 18. 
8 See Genealogical Tables vn. and vm. 



28 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

admirable talent for music, but only the elder 
ones fully developed it. 1 

1 The statement is misleading. Of the five sona of the first marriage, 
two were famous, two died in infancy, and the fifth abandoned a pro- 
mising musical career for the law. Of the six sons of the second 
marriage, one was imbecile, three died in infancy, two were famous. 




THE CHURCH AND SCHOOL OK ST. THOMAS, LEIPZIG, IN 1723. 



CHAPTER II A 1 

BACH AT LEIPZIG, 1723-1750 

EACH was inducted into his office as Cantor of 
St. Thomas' School at nine o'clock on the morning 
of Monday, May 31, 1723. He died in his official 
residence there at a quarter to nine on the evening 
of Tuesday, July 28, 1750. He was buried early 
on the morning of Friday, July 31, in the 
churchyard of St. John's, Leipzig. 

The announcement of his death, made from the 
pulpit of St. Thomas' on the day of his funeral, 
described him as ' Court Composer to His Majesty 
the King of Poland and Electoral and Serene 
Highness of Saxony, Kapellmeister to His High- 
ness the Prince of Anhalt-Cothen, and Cantor to 
St. Thomas' School of this town.' Bach usually 
designated himself ' Director Chori Musici Lip- 
siensis,' or shortly, ' Director Musices.' Circum- 
stances led him to emphasise a title which asserted 
a musical prerogative not confined to the School 
and the churches it served. 

The Cantor of St. Thomas' was charged for- 
merly with the musical direction of four Leipzig 

1 See Introduction, p. xxi, supra. 



30 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

churches : St. Thomas', St. Nicolas', St. Peter's, 
and the New Church. He was also responsible 
for the music in the University Church of St. 
Paul, the so-called ' old service,' held originally 
on the Festivals of Easter, Whit, Christmas, and 
the Reformation, and once during each University 
quarter. On high days music also had to be 
provided at St. John's Church. 

Bach, as Cantor, succeeded to a more restricted 
responsibility, which dated from the early years 
of the eighteenth century. The New Church, 
originally the Church of the Franciscans, had been 
restored to use in 1699. In 1704 Georg Philipp 
Telemann, who came to Leipzig as a law student 
three years before, was appointed Organist there. 
He also founded the Collegium Musicum, or Uni- 
versity Musical Society, a farther slight upon the 
Cantor's position. Not until 1729 did the Society 
pass under Bach's direction and its members 
become available as auxiliaries in the church 
choirs under his charge. Notwithstanding that 
Bach's predecessor Kuhnau had protested against 
Telemann' s independence, the direction of the 
New Church's music passed out of the Cantor's 
control, though the School continued to provide 
the choristers. Six years later the University 
Church of St. Paul also began an independent 
course. In 1710 the authorities resolved to hold 
a University service in the church every Sunday. 
Kuhnau asserted his prerogative as Cantor. But 



BACH AT LEIPZIG, 1723-1750 31 

he was only able to maintain it by offering to 
provide the music for the ' new service ' as well 
as for the ' old service ' at the fee of twelve thalers 
which the University so far had paid for the 
latter. After his death the University appointed 
(April 3, 1723) Johann Gottlieb Gorner, already 
Organist of St. Nicolas' since 1721, to control the 
music both of the c old ' and ' new ' services, for 
which the University provided the choir. Not 
until after a direct appeal to the King did Bach 
succeed, in 1726, in compelling the University to 
restore to the Cantor his emoluments in regard 
to the ' old service,' the conduct of which had 
been restored to him on his appointment as 
Cantor. The * new service ' remained under 
Gorner' s direction. As to St. Peter's, its services, 
which had entirely ceased, were revived in 1711. 
The music, however, was simple, and consisted 
only of hymns. 

Thus Bach, as Cantor, was responsible for the 
music in the two principal churches, St. Thomas' 
and St. Nicolas'. The School also provided the 
choir for St. Peter's and the New Church. The 
junior and least competent singers sang at St. 
Peter's. The rest were pretty equally distributed 
between the other three churches. At the New 
Church the music was performed under the direc- 
tion of a Chorprafect. At St. Thomas' and St. 
Nicolas' Bach personally directed the concerted 
music. On ordinary Sundays a Cantata or Motet 



32 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

was performed in each church alternately. At 
the great Festivals, New Year, Epiphany, Ascen- 
sion Day, Trinity Sunday, and the Annunciation, 
Cantatas were sung at both churches, the two 
choirs singing at Vespers in the second church 
the Cantata performed by them in the morning 
at the other church. On these occasions the 
second choir was conducted by a Chorprafect. 

The principal Sunday service in both churches 
began at seven in the morning, ended at eleven, 
and observed the following order : 

1. Organ Prelude. 

2. Motet, related to the Gospel for the Day ; 

(omitted in Lent and replaced by the 
Benedictus). 

3. Introit. 

4. Kyrie, sung alternately, in German and 

Latin. 

5. The Lord's Prayer, intoned at the altar. 

6. Gloria, intoned at the altar and answered 

either by the Choir's * Et in terra pax 
hominibus,' or by the congregation with 
the Hymn, ' Allein Gott in der Hoh' sei 
Ehr,' the German version of the Gloria. 

7. Collect, intoned in Latin ; preceded by the 

preces ' Dominus vobiscum ' and ' Et cum 
spiritu tuo.' 

8. Epistle. 

9. Litany, in Advent and Lent only ; intoned 

by four boys, the Choir responding. 



BACH AT LEIPZIG, 1723-1750 33 

10. Hymn, appropriate to the Gospel. 

11. Gospel. 

12. Credo, intoned ; (in Lent, last three Sundays 

of Advent, and Festivals of Apostles, the 
Nicene Creed, sung in Latin). 

13. Prelude, followed by a Cantata, lasting 

about twenty minutes ; on alternate 
Sundays in each church. 

14. The Creed in German, ' Wir glauben all' 

an einen Gott,' sung by the congregation. 

15. Sermon, lasting one hour (8-9 A.M.). 

16. Hymn, ' Herr Jesu Christ, dich zu uns 

wend',' followed by the reading of the 
Gospel, on which the Sermon had been 
based. 

17. General Confession, prayers, and Lord's 

Prayer. 

18. Blessing. 

19. Hymn. 

20. Communion Service ; Hymns and Organ 

extemporisation. 

21. Benediction. 

Vespers began at a quarter past one and was a 
comparatively simple service ; the music con- 
sisted of Hymns, a Motet, and the Magnificat. 

On the last three Sundays in Advent and 
throughout Lent neither Cantatas nor Motets were 
sung. The Organ was silent. 

On the three great Festivals the appointed 
Hymn for the season was sung at the beginning of 
c 



34 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

the principal service, before the Organ Prelude : 
at Christmas, ' Puer natus in Bethlehem ' ; at 
Easter, ' Heut' triumphiret Gottes Sohn ' ; at 
Whitsuntide, ' Spiritus Sancti gratia.' During the 
Communion service the Sanctus and concerted 
music were sung. A festal hymn followed the 
Benediction. The three great Festivals were each 
observed for three consecutive days, on the first 
and second of which Cantatas were sung at both 
churches. On the third day concerted music was 
sung at only one of the two churches. 

The other week-day Festivals for which Can- 
tatas were provided were the Feast of the Circum- 
cision (New Year's Day), Epiphany, Ascension 
Day, Purification of the B.V.M., Annunciation of 
the B.V.M., Visitation of the B.V.M., Feast of St. 
John Baptist (Midsummer Day), Feast of St. 
Michael the Archangel. The Reformation Festival 
was kept on October 31, or if that date was a 
Saturday or Monday, on the previous or following 
Sunday. 

On Good Friday the Passion was performed in 
the two principal churches alternately. 

Leipzig adopted no official Hymn-book. The 
compilation from which the Hymns were chosen 
by Bach was the eight-volumed ' Gesangbuch ' 
of Paul Wagner, published at Leipzig for Dresden 
use in 1697. It contained over five thousand 
Hymns but no music, merely the name of the 
tune being stated above the Hymn. For the 



BACH AT LEIPZIG, 1723-1750 35 

most part the Hymns for special, and even for 
ordinary, occasions were prescribed by custom. 
Otherwise the power of selection was in the hands 
of the Cantor, and Bach's exercise of it caused 
some friction with the clergy in 1728. 

The provision and direction of the music at 
weddings and funerals was in the Cantor's hands. 
He arranged the choirs and the music sung at the 
scholars' annual processions and perambulations 
of the town, which took place at Michaelmas, 
New Year, and on St. Martin's and St. Gregory's 
Days. 

Augmenting the School's choristers, the Town 
Musicians took part in the Church services and 
were under the Cantor's direction. Their numbers 
and efficiency were inadequate. 

Upon the staff of the School the Cantor ranked 
third after the Rector and Sub-Rector, and took 
a share in the general instruction of the scholars. 
Class III. went to Bach for Latin lessons, a duty 
which the Council eventually permitted him to 
fulfil by deputy. Singing classes were held by 
the Cantor on three days of the week, Mondays, 
Tuesdays, and Wednesdays, at nine and noon, and 
on Fridays at noon. His instruction in singing 
was given to the four upper classes only. On 
Saturday afternoons the Cantata was rehearsed. 
Once hi four weeks the Cantor took his turn to 
inspect the scholars. Like the other masters, 
he was required to conform to the regulations 



36 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

of the School House, in which he lived. He rose 
at five in summer, at six in winter, dined at ten 
and supped at five in the afternoon. 

Holidays were numerous. A week's vacation 
was given at the Easter, Michaelmas, and New 
Year Fairs. At Midsummer the School had a 
month of half-holidays. Whole holidays were 
given on the birthdays of the four upper masters. 
There were no morning lessons on Saints' Days, 
on the occasion of funeral orations in the University 
Church, and on the quarterly Speech Days. 
Hence, though Bach's office carried large respon- 
sibility, it left him considerable leisure for com- 
position. 

As Cantor Bach had an official residence in the 
left wing of the School House. In 1723, the 
Cantor's wing was of two storeys only, dwarfed 
by the greater elevation of the main edifice and 
under the shadow of the church. Bach brought 
to Leipzig four children of his first marriage, 
and his second wife, Anna Magdalena, presented 
him with a son or daughter annually from 1723 
to 1729. The accommodation of the Cantor's 
lodging therefore rapidly became inadequate. In 
the spring of 1731 Bach found a house elsewhere 
while an additional storey was added to it, which 
provided a new music-room, a good-sized apart- 
ment whence a passage led to the big schoolroom 
in the main building. The new wing was formally 
opened and dedicated on June 5, 1732, when 



BACH AT LEIPZIG, 1723-1750 37 

Bach's secular Cantata ' Froher Tag, verlangte 
Stunden ' was performed ; the libretto being by 
his colleague Winkler. From thenceforward till 
his death eighteen years later Bach's occupancy 
was not disturbed. The wing continued to be 
the official residence of the Cantor until the School 
moved to the suburbs of the city in 1877. 

In addition to his residence, which he occupied 
rent free, the Cantor enjoyed a revenue from 
various and fluctuating sources, amounting in 
gross to 700 thalers (=106 per annum). His 
fixed stipend was only 100 thalers (=15). About 
12 thalers came to him from endowments. In 
kind he was entitled to 16 bushels of corn and 
2 cords of firelogs, together with 2 measures of 
wine at each of the three great Festivals. From 
the University, after his successful protest, he 
received 12 thalers for directing the ' old service.' 
By far the larger part of Bach's income was 
derived from fluctuating sources. They were 
of three kinds : (1) School monies, (2) funeral 
fees, (3) wedding fees. The School monies repre- 
sented perquisites derived from funds obtained 
by the scholars, partly by their weekly collections 
from the public, partly from the four annual 
processions or perambulations of the city. From the 
weekly collections a sum of six pfennigs multiplied 
by the number of the scholars was put aside for 
the four upper masters, among whom the Cantor 
ranked third. From the money collected at the 



38 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

New Year, Michaelmas, and St. Martin's Day 
processions the Rector took a thaler, the Cantor 
and the Sub-Rector each took one-eleventh of the 
balance, sixteen thirty- thirds went to the singers, 
and one-quarter of what remained fell to the 
Cantor. Out of the money collected on St. 
Gregory's Day (March 12) the Rector took one- 
tenth for the entertainment of the four upper 
masters, and the Cantor took one-third of the 
residue. For funerals one thaler 15 groschen 
was paid when the whole school accompanied 
the procession and a Motet was sung at the house 
of the deceased. When no Motet was sung the 
Cantor's fee was 15 groschen. For weddings he 
received two thalers. 

Reckoned in modern currency, and judged by 
the standard of the period, the Cantor's income 
was not inadequate and served to maintain 
Bach's large family hi comfort. When he died 
in 1750, in addition to a mining share valued at 
60 thalers, he possessed in cash or bonds about 
360 thalers, silver plate valued at 251 thalers, 
instruments valued at 371 thalers, house furniture 
valued at 29 thalers, and books valued at 38 
thalers. His whole estate was declared at 1158 
thalers, or somewhat less than the savings of two 
years' income. But for the inequitable distribu- 
tion of his property, owing to his intestacy, which 
left Anna Magdalena only about 400 thalers and 
the mining share, Bach's widow and unmarried 



BACH AT LEIPZIG, 1723-1750 39 

daughters ought not to have been afflicted with 
excessive poverty, as in fact they were. 

At the beginning of his Cantorate Bach worked 
amid discouraging and unsatisfactory conditions. 
The Rector, Johann Heinrich Ernesti, was over 
seventy years of age in 1723. The School was 
badly managed, its discipline was relaxed, the 
better-to-do citizens withheld their sons from it, 
and its numbers were seriously diminished. In 
1717 the junior classes contained only 53 as 
against 120 in Ernesti' s earlier years. The 
proximity and operatic traditions of Dresden 
and Weissenfels also had a bad effect ; the St. 
Thomas' boys, after attaining musical proficiency, 
were apt to become restless, demanding release 
from their indentures, and even running away to 
more attractive and lucrative occupations. More- 
over, the governors of the School were the Town 
Council, a body which had little sympathy with 
or appreciation of Bach's artistic aims and tem- 
perament. To these difficulties must be added 
another. The Town Musicians, on whom Bach 
relied for the nucleus of his orchestra, were few 
in number and inefficient. 

So long as Ernesti lived, there was little prospect 
of reform. But, after his death, in October 1729, 
Bach made vigorous representations to the Town 
Council. Already he had remonstrated with the 
Council for presenting to foundation scholarships 
boys who lacked musical aptitude. The Council 



40 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

retaliated by accusing Bach of neglecting his 
singing classes, absenting himself without leave, 
and of other irregularities. He was declared to 
be ' incorrigible ' and it was resolved (August 2, 
1730) to sequestrate the Cantor's income, in 
other words, to withhold from him the perquisites 
to which he was entitled for the conduct of the 
Church services. 1 

Bach was not deterred from offering, three 
weeks later (August 23, 1730), a 'sketch of what 
constitutes well-appointed Church music, with a 
few impartial reflections on its present state of 
decay ' in Leipzig. The document reveals the 
conditions amid which Bach worked. Its repre- 
sentations may be summarised : 

The foundation scholars of St. Thomas' are of 
four classes : Trebles, Altos, Tenors, Basses. 

A choir needs from four to eight ' concertists ' 
(solo singers) and at least two ' ripienists ' to each 
chorus part, i.e. a minimum of twelve voices. 

The foundation scholars number fifty-five, by 
whom the choirs of the four Churches, St. Thomas', 
St. Nicolas', St. Peter's, and the New Church are 
provided. 

For the instrumental accompaniments at least 
twenty players are required : viz., 2 or 3 first 
Violins, 2 or 3 second Violins, 4 Violas, 2 Violon- 
celli, 1 Contrabasso, 2 or more Flutes, 2 or 3 Oboi, 

1 In view of Bach's memorial of August 23, 1730 (infra), this 
to be the meaning of the resolution. 



BACH AT LEIPZIG, 1723-1750 41 

1 or 2 Fagotti, 3 Trombe, 1 Timpani. To fill 
these places there are eight Town Musicians, and 
at the moment there are no players available for 
third Tromba, Timpani, Viola, Violoncello, Contra- 
basso, third Oboe (or Taille). 

To augment the Town Musicians the Cantor has 
been wont in the past to employ University 
students and instrumental players in the School. 
Upon the former ' at all times ' he relies for Viola, 
Violoncello, and Contrabasso, and * generally ' for 
the second Violins. But the Council, by its recent 
resolution, no longer affords the Cantor the means 
to employ them. To place the scholars hi the 
orchestra weakens the choir, to which they natur- 
ally belong. 

By presenting to foundation scholarships boys 
unskilled and ignorant of music, the resources at 
the Cantor's disposal are still farther lessened. 

Hence, Bach concludes, ' in ceasing to receive 
my perquisites I am deprived of the power of 
putting the music into a better condition.' 

No answer was made to Bach's memorial, and 
he contemplated resigning his position. But with 
the advent of Johann Matthias Gesner as Rector 
in September 1730 a happier period dawned upon 
the 'incorrigible' Cantor. In 1732 Gesner pro- 
cured the withdrawal of the Council's ban on 
Bach's perquisites. The fallen fortunes of the 
School revived, and Bach did not again make an 
effort to leave Leipzig. In 1736 the grant of the 



42 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

post of Hof-Componist to the Saxon Court gave 
him at length a title which compelled the defer- 
ence of his civic masters. 

Bach's early misunderstanding with the Uni- 
versity cut him off from association with the most 
dignified, if not the most important, institution 
in Leipzig, and deprived him of opportunity to 
display his genius beyond the radius of his Church 
duties. The situation changed in 1729, when he 
became director of the University Society, and he 
held the post for about ten years. The Society 
gave weekly concerts on Fridays, from 8 to 10, 
and an extra concert, during the Fair season, on 
Thursdays at the same hour. It performed vocal 
and instrumental music and was the medium 
through which Bach presented his secular Can- 
tatas, Clavier and Violin Concertos, and Orchestral 
Suites to the public. The proficiency of his elder 
sons and pupils, and his wife's talent as a singer, 
were a farther source of strength to the Society, 
whose direction undoubtedly made these years the 
happiest in Bach's life. He took his rightful place 
in the musical life of the city, and relegated to a 
position of inferiority the smaller fry, such as 
Corner, who had presumed on Bach's aloofness 
from the University and Municipality to insinuate 
themselves. His increasing reputation as an 
organist, gained in his annual autumn tours, also 
enlightened his fellow-townsmen regarding the 
superlative worth of one whom at the outset 



BACH AT LEIPZIG, 1723-1750 43 

they were disposed to treat as a subordinate 
official. 

The Leipzig of Bach's day offered various oppor- 
tunities for musical celebration ; official events in 
the University, ' gratulations ' or ' ovations ' of 
favourite professors by their students, as well as 
patriotic occasions in which town and gown par- 
ticipated. The recognised fee for pieces d? occasion 
of a public character was fifty thalers. Bach's 
conductorship of the University Society enabled 
him to perform festival works with the resources 
they required, and to augment the band and 
chorus needed for their adequate performance. 

Even before he undertook the direction of the 
University Society, Bach more than once pro- 
vided the music for University celebrations. On 
August 3, 1725, his secular Cantata, 'Der zufried- 
engestellte Aeolus,' was performed at the students' 
celebration of Doctor August Friedrich Miiller's 
name-day. In 1726 he revived an old Cantata 1 
to celebrate the birthday of another of the Leipzig 
teachers. In the same year the appointment of 
Dr. Gottlieb Kortte as Professor of Roman Law 
was celebrated by Bach's Cantata ' Vereinigte 
Zwietracht der wechselnden Saiten.' In 1733 the 
birthday of another Professor was marked by the 
performance of the Cothen Cantata to yet another 
text (' Die Freude reget sich '). On November 21, 

1 Steigt freudig in die Luft,' first performed at Cothen, set to a 
new text, ' Schwingt freudig euch empor.' 



44 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

1734, the lost Cantata 'Thomana sass annoch 
betriibt' was sung at the induction of Gesner's 
successor, Johann August Ernesti, as Rector of 
St. Thomas' School. 

But Bach's activity as a secular composer at 
Leipzig was chiefly expended on patriotic celebra- 
tions. His compositions of this character are 
particularly numerous during the years 1733-36, 
while he was seeking from the Dresden Court the 
post of Hof-Componist. The first of these cele- 
brations took place on May 12, 1727, the birth- 
day of Augustus n. of Poland- Saxony, when 
Bach's Cantata, ' Entfernet euch, ihr heitern 
Sterne,' was performed in the Market Place by 
the University Society. The King was present 
and listened to the performance from a convenient 
window. The music is lost. Six years elapsed 
before Bach was invited to collaborate in 
another celebration of the royal House. On 
September 5, 1733, less than two months after his 
application for the post of Hof-Componist, the 
University Society celebrated the eleventh birth- 
day of the Electoral Prince by performing Bach's 
dramma per musica, ' Die Wahl des Herkules,' or 
' Herkules auf dem Scheidewege.' Barely three 
months later, on December 8, 1733, Bach pro- 
duced another Cantata in honour of the royal 
family, * Tonet, ihr Pauken, erschallet Trompeten,' 
of which he was both author and composer. On 
no less than three occasions in 1734 Bach did 



BACH AT LEIPZIG, 1723-1750 45 

homage to his unheeding sovereign. In January 
the University Society, under Bach's direction, 
performed his Cantata ' Blast Larmen, ihr Feinde ' 
to celebrate the coronation of Augustus m. The 
music had already done duty in Dr. Muller's 
honour in 1725. On the following October 5, 
1734, when the King visited Leipzig, Bach's 
hurriedly written Cantata, ' Preise dein Gliicke, 
gesegnetes Sachsen,' whose first chorus became the 
' Osanna ' of the B minor Mass, was performed hi 
the Market Place. Two days later, on October 7, 
1734, the King's birthday was celebrated by 
another Bach Cantata, ' Schleicht spielende 
Wellen,' performed by the Collegium Musicum. 
In 1738, having received the coveted title of Hof- 
Componist in the interval (1736), Bach performed 
a work ' Willkommen, ihr herrschenden Gotter 
der Erden ' now lost, in honour of the marriage 
of the Princess Maria Amalia of Saxony to Charles 
of Sicily, afterwards Charles m. of Spam. 

Apart from his musical activities and the house 
in which he lived there is little that permits us 
to picture Bach's life at Leipzig. Association 
with his friends Johann Christian Hoffmann, 
Musical Instrument Maker to the Court, Marianne 
von Ziegler, J. C. Gottsched and his musical wife, 
Johann Abraham Birnbaum, among the Pro- 
fessoriate, Picander and Christian Weiss, Bach's 
regular librettists, suggests the amenities of an 
academic and literary circle. But the claims of 



46 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

his art and the care of his large family had the 
first call upon Bach's interest. And few men had 
a happier home life. While his elder sons were 
at home the family concerts were among his most 
agreeable experiences. As his fame increased, 
his house became the resort of many seeking to 
know and hear the famous organist. Late in the 
thirties he resigned his directorship of the Uni- 
versity Society. His sons were already off his 
hands and out of his house, and he turned again 
to the Organ works of his Weimar period. Their 
revision occupied the last decade of his life, and the 
hitherto constant flow of Church Cantatas ceased. 
Pupils resorted to him and filled his empty house, 
to one of whom, Altnikol, he gave a daughter in 
marriage.' ^ 

A man of rigid uprightness, sincerely religious ; 
steeped in his art, earnest and grave, yet not 
lacking naive humour ; ever hospitable and 
generous, and yet shrewd and cautious ; pug- 
nacious when his art was slighted or his rights 
were infringed ; generous in the extreme to his 
wife and children, and eager to give the latter 
advantages which he had never known himself ; 
a lover of sound theology, and of a piety as deep 
as it was unpretentious such were the qualities 
of one who towers above all other masters of music 
in moral grandeur. 

Four, perhaps only three, contemporary 
portraits of Bach are known. One is in the 



BACH AT LEIPZIG, 1723-1750 47 

possession of the firm of Peters at Leipzig and 
once belonged to Carl Philipp Emmanuel's 
daughter, who with inherited impiety sold it to 
a Leipzig flute player. The second hung in 
St. Thomas' School and is reproduced at p. 48 
of this volume. It was painted in 1746 and 
restored in 1913. Both portraits are by Elias 
Gottlieb Haussmann, Court Painter at Dresden. 
The third portrait belonged to Bach's last pupil, 
Kittel, and used to hang on the Organ at Erfurt, 
whence it disappeared after 1809, during the 
Napoleonic wars. Recently Professor Fritz 
Volbach of Mainz has discovered a fourth portrait, 
which is printed at p. 92 of the present volume. 
He supposes it to be none other than the Erfurt 
portrait, as indeed it well may be, since it repre- 
sents a man of some sixty years, austere in 
countenance, but of a dignity that is not so 
apparent in Haussmann's portraiture. 1 

Bach left no will. In consequence his widow, 
Anna Magdalena, burdened with the charge of 
a step-daughter and two daughters, was entitled 
to only one-third of her husband's estate. Neither 

1 The well-known portrait by C. F. Rr. Liszewski in the Joachimsthal 
Gymnasium, Berlin, was painted in 1772, twenty-two years after 
Bach's death. It represents him at a table with music-paper before 
him and an adjacent Clavier. Pirro uses for his frontispiece a portrait 
by Geber, which bears no resemblance whatever to the Haussmann or 
Volbach pictures. Mention must also be made of a singularly engaging 
picture of Bach at the age of thirty-five. It hangs in the Eisenach 
Bach Museum and is by Johann Jak. Ihle. It is reproduced as the 
frontispiece of this volume. 



48 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

Carl Philipp Emmanuel nor Wilhelm Friede- 
mann was her own child. But the fact cannot 
excuse gross neglect of their father's widow. 
Her own sons were in a position to make such a 
contribution to her income as would at least have 
kept want from her door. In fact she was per- 
mitted to become dependent on public charity, 
and died, an alms-woman, on February 27, 1760, 
nearly ten years after her great husband. The 
three daughters survived her. One died in 1774, 
the second in 1781. The third, Regine Susanna, 
survived them, her want relieved by gifts from 
a public that at last was awakening to the 
grandeur of her father. Beethoven contributed 
generously. Regine Susanna died in December 
1809, the last of Bach's children. In 1845 her 
nephew, Johann Christoph Friedrich's son, also 
died. With him the line of Johann Sebastian 
Bach expired. 




JOHAXN SEBASTIAN BACH. 

c ire. 1 746. 
From the picture by Haussmann. ) 



CHAPTER III 

BACH AS A CLAVIER PLAYER 

As a Clavier player Bach was admired by all who 
had the good fortune to hear him and was the 
envy of the virtuosi of his day. His method 
greatly differed from that of his contemporaries 
and predecessors, but so far no one has attempted 
to explain in what the difference consisted. 

The same piece of music played by ten dif- 
ferent performers equally intelligent and com- 
petent will produce a different effect in each 
case. Each player will emphasise this or that 
detail. This or that note will stand out with 
differing emphasis, and the general effect will 
vary consequently. And yet, if all the players 
are equally competent, ought not their per- 
formances to be uniform ? The fact that they 
are not so is due to difference of touch, a quality 
which to the Clavier stands as enunciation to 
human speech. Distinctness is essential for the 
enunciation of vowels and consonants, and not less 
so for the articulation of a musical phrase. But 
there are gradations of distinctness. If a sound 
is emitted indistinctly it is comprehensible only 



50 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

with effort, which occasions us to lose much of 
the pleasure we should otherwise experience. 
On the other hand, over-emphasis of words or 
notes is to be avoided. Otherwise the hearer's 
attention will be diverted from the tout ensemble. 
To permit the general effect to be appreciated 
every note and every vowel must be sounded 
with balanced distinctness. 

I have often wondered why Carl Philipp 
Emmanuel Bach's ' Essay on the Right Manner 
of playing the Clavier ' 1 does not elucidate the 
qualities that constitute a good touch. For he 
possessed in high degree the technique that made 
his father pre-eminent as a player. True, in his 
chapter on ' Style in Performance,' he writes, 
' Some persons play as if their fingers were glued 
together ; their touch is so deliberate, and they 
keep the keys down too long ; while others, 
attempting to avoid this defect, play too crisply, 
as if the keys burnt then: fingers. The right 
method lies between the two extremes.' But 
it would have been more useful had he told us 
how to reach this middle path. As he has not 
done so, I must try to make the matter as clear 
as is possible in words. 

Bach placed his hand on the finger-board so 
that his fingers were bent and their extremities 
poised perpendicularly over the keys in a plane 

1 His ' Versuch fiber die wahre Art das Klavier zu spielen ' was 
published (Part I.) in 1753. 



BACH AS A CLAVIER PLAYER 51 

parallel to them. 1 Consequently none of his 
fingers was remote from the note it was intended to 
strike, and was ready instantly to execute every 
command. Observe the consequences of this 
position. First of all, the fingers cannot fall 
or (as so often happens) be thrown upon the notes, 
but are 'placed upon them in full control of the 
force they may be called on to exert. In the 
second place, since the force communicated to the 
note needs to be maintained with uniform pressure, 
the finger should not be released perpendicularly 
from the key, but can be withdrawn gently and 
gradually towards the palm of the hand. In 
the third place, when passing from one note 
to another, a sliding action instinctively instructs 
the next finger regarding the amount of force 
exerted by its predecessor, so that the tone is 
equally regulated and the notes are equally 
distinct. In other words, the touch is neither 
too long nor too short, as Carl Philipp Emmanuel 
complains, but is just what it ought to 
be. 2 

Many advantages arise from holding the hand 
hi Bach's position and from adopting his touch, 

1 ForkeFs meaning can be made clear in the following manner: 
place the thumb and fingers of either hand upon the notes C D E F G 
of the pianoforte so that the three middle fingers lie more or less flat 
upon the keys ; then draw back the three middle fingers until they 
form an arch having their tips approximately in a straight line with 
the tips of the thumb and little finger upon the keys. 

8 It must be remembered that Forkel is speaking of the Clavier 
and not of the Pianoforte. 



52 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

on the Clavichord and Harpsichord, 1 and on 
the Organ as well. I point out merely the most 
important of them. To begin with, if the fingers 
are bent, their movements are free. The notes 
are struck without effort and with less risk of 
missing or hitting too hard, a frequent fault with 
people who play with their fingers elongated or 
insufficiently bent. In the second place, the 
sliding finger-tip, and the consequently rapid 
transmission of regulated force from one finger to 
another, tend to bring out each note clearly and 
to make every passage sound uniformly brilliant 
and distinct to the hearer without exertion. In 
the third place, stroking the note with uniform 
pressure permits the string to vibrate freely, im- 
proves and prolongs the tone, and though the 
Clavichord is poor in quality, allows the player 
to sustain long notes upon it. And the method 
has this advantage : it prevents over-expenditure 
of strength and excessive movement of the hand. 
We gather that the action of Bach's fingers was 
so slight as to be barely perceptible. Only the 
top joint seemed to move. His hand preserved 
its rounded shape even in the most intricate 
passages. His fingers rested closely upon the 
keys, very much in the position required for a 
' shake.' An unemployed finger remained in a 

1 The Harpsichord, as its name implies, was an instrument whose 
strings were plucked by a plectrum. Bach preferred the older Clavier, 
or Clavichord, which could be regulated, as the other could not, by 
nicety of touch. See note, p. 58, infra. 



BACH AS A CLAVIER PLAYER 53 

position of repose. It is hardly necessary to say 
that other limbs of his body took no part in his 
performance, as is the case with many whose 
hands lack the requisite agility. 1 

A man may possess all these qualities, however, 
and remain an indifferent performer on the 
Clavier, just as clear and agreeable enunciation 
does not necessarily make a good speaker. To be 
a first-rate performer many other qualities are 
needed, and Bach possessed them all in a notable 
degree. 

Some fingers are longer and stronger than others. 
Hence players are frequently seduced to use the 
stronger whenever they can readily do so. Conse- 
quently successive notes become unequal in tone, 
and passages which leave no choice as to the finger 
to be used may become impossible to play. Bach 
recognised this fact very early in his career. To 
get over the difficulty he invented exercises for 
his own use in which the fingers of both hands 
were made to practise passages in every con- 
ceivable position. By this means every finger on 
both hands equally became strong and service- 

1 Schweitzer (i. 208) points out that Bach's touch was modern, in 
that he realised that ' singing tone ' depends not only upon the manner 
in which the keys are struck, but, to a great extent, on the regulation 
of their ascent. 

Of Handel's touch, Burney writes (quoted by Rockstro, p. 349) : 
' His touch was so smooth, and the tone of the instrument so much 
cherished, that his fingers seemed to grow to the keys. They were 
so curved and compact when he played, that no motion, and scarcely 
the fingers themselves, could be discovered.' 



54 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

able, so that he could play a rapid succession of 
chords, single and double ' shakes,' and running 
passages with the utmost finish and delicacy, and 
was equally fluent in passages where some fingers 
play a ' shake ' while the others on the same hand 
continue the melody. 

Besides these improvements, Bach invented a 
new system of fingering. 1 Before his time, and 
even in his early years, it was usual for the player 
to pay attention to harmony rather than counter- 
point. Even so it was not customary to use 
every one of the twenty-four major and minor 
keys. The Clavichord was still what we term 
' gebunden ' ; that is, several keys struck the 
same string, which, therefore, could not be 
accurately tuned. 2 Consequently it was usual to 
employ only those keys whose notes were tuned 
with some approximation to accuracy. Again, 

1 At the beginning of the seventeenth century, as Spitta points out 
(ii. 34), the art of fingering had not developed. Speaking generally, 
neither thumb nor little finger was employed. It was not until the 
beginning of the eighteenth century that a scientific method emerged, 
a development rendered necessary by the advance in the modes of 
musical expression. C. P. E. Bach, quoted by Schweitzer (i. 206), 
puts this concisely : ' My late father told me that in his youth he had 
heard great men who never used the thumb except when it was neces- 
sary to make big stretches. But he lived in an epoch when there 
came about gradually a most remarkable change in musical taste, 
and therefore found it necessary to work out for himself a much more 
thorough use of the fingers, and especially of the thumb, which, besides 
performing other good services, is quite indispensable in the difficult 
keys, where it must be used as nature intends.' 

2 According to Mr. Arnold Dolmetsch, Clavichords with special 
strings for each note (bundfrei) were known in Bach's time. 



BACH AS A CLAVIER PLAYER 55 

good players in those days hardly ever used the 
thumb, except when a large interval had to be 
stretched. But when Bach began to melodise 
harmony so that his middle parts not merely 
filled in but had a tune of their own, when, 
too, he began to deviate from the Church modes 
then in general vogue in secular music, using the 
diatonic and chromatic scales indifferently, and 
tuning the Clavier in all the twenty-four keys, he 
found himself compelled to introduce a system of 
fingering better adapted to his innovations than 
that in use, and in particular, to challenge the 
convention which condemned the thumb to in- 
activity. It is held by some writers that Couperin 
forestalled Bach's method of fingering, in his 
4 L'Art de toucher le Clavecin,' published in 
1716. But that is not the case. In the first 
place, Bach was above thirty years old in 1716, 
and had already developed a distinctive method 
of his own. And in the second place, Couperin's 
system differs materially from Bach's, though both 
made more frequent use of the thumb than was 
so far customary. When I say ' more frequent 
use ' I do so advisedly ; for whereas in Bach's 
system the thumb is the principal finger for the 
difficult keys, as they are called, are unplayable 
without it it is not equally indispensable with 
Couperin, whose thematic material was not so 
intricate as Bach's, nor did he compose or play 
in such difficult keys. Consequently Couperin 



56 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

had not an equally urgent need to use the thumb. 
We need only compare Couperin's with Bach's 
system of fingering, as Carl Philipp Emmanuel 
explains it, 1 to discover that Bach's permits every 
passage, however intricate and polyphonic, to be 
played with ease, whereas Couperin's is hardly 
effective even for his own compositions. Bach 
was acquainted with Couperin's works and highly 
esteemed them, 2 as he did those of other French 
Clavier composers, for their finish and brilliance. 
But he considered them affected in their excessive 
use of ornaments, scarcely a single note being free 
from them. He held them, also, superficial in 
matter. 

Bach's easy, unconstrained use of the fingers, 
his musical touch, the clearness and precision of 
every note he struck, the resourcefulness of his 
fingering, his thorough training of every finger 
of both hands, the luxuriance of his thematic 
material and his original method of stating it, all 
contributed to give him almost unlimited power 
over his instrument, so easily did he surmount 
the difficulties of its keyboard. Whether he im- 
provised or played his compositions from notes, 
he systematically employed every finger of each 
hand, and his fingering was as uncommon as the 
compositions themselves, yet so accurate that he 

1 In the ' Essay ' already referred to. For a discussion of Couperin's 
method see Spitta, ii. 37 ff. 

2 For instance, the Rondeau in B flat in Anna Magdalena's ' Noten- 
buch ' (No. 6) (1725) is by Couperin. 



BACH AS A CLAVIER PLAYER 57 

never missed a note. Moreover, he read at sight 
other people's compositions (which, to be sure, 
were much easier than his own) with the utmost 
facility. Indeed, he once boasted to a friend at 
Weimar that he could play at sight and without a 
mistake anything put before him. But he was 
mistaken, as his friend convinced him before the 
week was out. Having invited Bach to breakfast 
one morning, he placed on the Clavier, among 
other music, a piece which, at a first glance, seemed 
perfectly easy. On his arrival, Bach, as was his 
custom, sat down at the Clavier to play or look 
through the music. Meanwhile his friend was in 
the next room preparing breakfast. In a short 
time Bach took up the piece of music destined to 
change his opinion and began to play it. He had 
not proceeded far before he came to a passage at 
which he stopped. After a look at it he began 
again, only to stop at the same place. ' No,' he 
called out to his friend, who was laughing heartily 
in the next room, ' the man does not exist who 
can play everything at sight. It can't be done.' 
With that he got up from the Clavier in some 
annoyance. 1 

Bach also could read scores with remarkable 
facility and play them on the Clavier. He 
found no more difficulty in piecing together the 

1 No doubt the friend who prepared this trap for Bach was Johann 
Gottfried Walther. His compositions frequently were characterised 
by intricacy. 



58 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

separate parts when laid side by side before him. 1 
He often did so when a friend brought him a new 
Trio or Quartet for Strings and wished to hear 
how it sounded. If a Continue part, however 
badly figured, was put before him he could im- 
provise a Trio or Quartet upon it. Nay, when 
he was in the mood and at the height of his 
powers, he would convert a Trio into a Quartet 
by extemporising a fourth part. On such occasions 
he used a Harpsichord with two manuals and 
pedal attachment. 

Bach preferred the Clavichord to the Harpsi- 
chord, which, though susceptible of great variety 
of tone, seemed to him lacking in soul. The 
Pianoforte was still in its infancy and too coarse. 2 

1 Mozart had the same gift. When visiting St. Thomas' School 
in 1789, he heard with astonishment a performance of Bach's Motet, 
' Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied.' ' At the conclusion he expressed 
his delight, and said, " Now that is something from which a man may 
learn." On being informed that Bach was Cantor to this school, and 
that his Motets were venerated there as reliques, he was eager to see 
them. No score being to be obtained, they handed him the separate 
parts, and it was interesting to observe his manner of reading them, 
holding some in his hands, some on his knees, placing some on chairs 
around him ; seeming thoroughly lost to everything, and not rising till 
he had thoroughly satisfied bis curiosity ' (Holmes, ' Life of Mozart,' 
ed. Dent, p. 251). 

2 There were in Bach's time three ' Clavier ' instruments in use. 
The oldest, the Clavichord, as a rule, had two strings to every 
note, set in motion by a ' tangent ' striking them from below. Its 
advantage was that it permitted the tone to be regulated by the 
touch. For that reason, though its tone was weak, Bach preferred 
it. The Clavicembalo, or Harpsichord, as it is called in the text, was 
in general known as the ' Fliigel,' the strings being plucked, or flipped 
by a quill or metal pin, after the manner of the modern mandoline. 
The third instrument was the ' piano e forte,' or Hammerclavier. 



BACH AS A CLAVIER PLAYER 59 

Both for practice and intimate use he regarded 
the Clavichord as the best instrument and pre- 
ferred to express on it his finest thoughts. He held 
the Harpsichord, or Clavicembalo, incapable of the 
gradations of tone obtainable on the Clavichord, 
an instrument which, though feeble in quality, is 
extremely flexible. 

No one could adjust the quill plectrums of his 
Harpsichord to Bach's satisfaction ; he always 
did it himself. He tuned his Harpsichord and 
Clavichord, and was so skilful in the operation 
that it never took him more than a quarter of an 
hour. It enabled him to play in any key he 
preferred, and placed the whole twenty-four of 
them at his disposal, so that he could modulate 
into the remoter as easily and naturally as into 
the more nearly related keys. Those who heard 
him frequently could hardly detect the fact that 
he had modulated into a distant key, so smooth 
were his transitions. In chromatic movements 
his modulation was as easy and sequent as in 
diatonic. His ' Chromatic Fantasia,' which is 
now published, 1 bears out my statement. In 
his extemporisation he was even freer, more 
brilliant and expressive. 

The Clavicembalo was also built with two keyboards, like an Organ, 
and a pedal-board provided with strings. It was for this instrument 
that the so-called Organ Sonatas of Bach were written. He possessed 
five Clavicembali, but not a single Clavichord at the time of his death. 
For that reason it has been questioned whether Forkel is accurate in 
stating that Bach preferred the latter instrument. See Schweitzer, 
i. 200 ff. Peters bk. 207 p. 4. 



60 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

When he played his own music Bach usually 
adopted a brisk pace. He contrived to introduce 
so much variety that every piece became a sort 
of conversation between its parts. If he wished 
to express deep emotion he did not strike the notes 
with great force, as many do, but expressed his 
feeling in simple melodic and harmonic figures, 1 
relying rather on the internal resources of his art 
than external dynamics. Therein he was right. 
True emotion is not suggested by hammering 
the Clavier. All that results is that the notes 
cannot be heard distinctly, much less be connected 
coherently. 

1 The truth of this remark is very evident in the ' Orgelbuchlein.' 




THK BACH STATUE AT EISKXACH. 



CHAPTER IV 

BACH THE ORGANIST 

WHAT has been said regarding Bach's admirable 
Clavier playing applies generally to his skill as 
an organist. The Clavier and Organ have points 
in common, but in style and touch are as different 
as their respective uses. What sounds well on 
the Clavier is ineffective on the Organ, and vice 
versa. The most accomplished Clavier player 
may be, and usually is, a bad organist unless he 
realises the differing natures of the two instruments 
and the uses they serve. I have come across 
only two men who can be regarded as exceptions 
to this general rule Bach and his eldest son, 
Wilhelm Friedemann. Both were finished Clavier 
performers, but no trace of the Clavier style was 
apparent when they played the Organ. Melody, 
harmony, and pace were carefully selected with 
due regard to the nature and distinctive use of 
each instrument. When Wilhelm Friedemann 
played the Clavier his touch was elegant, delicate, 
agreeable. When he played the Organ he inspired 
a feeling of reverent awe. On the one he was 



62 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

charming. On the other he was solemn, im- 
pressive. So also was his father, and to an even 
greater degree. Wilhelm Friedemann was a mere 
child to him as an organist, and frankly admitted 
the fact. 1 The music that extraordinary man 
wrote for the Organ is full of dignity, awe-inspiring, 
saturated with the atmosphere of devotion. His 
improvisation was even more inspired, dignified, 
and impressive : for then his imagination was 
untrammelled by the irksomeness of expressing 
himself on paper. What is the essence of this 
art ? Let me, though imperfectly, attempt an 
answer. 

When we compare Bach's Clavier compositions 
with those written for the Organ it is at once 
apparent that they differ essentially in melodic 
and harmonic structure. Hence we conclude 
that a good organist must select fitting themes for 
his instrument, and let himself be guided by its 
character and that of the place in which it stands 
and by the objects of its use. Its great body of 
tone renders the Organ ill-adapted to light and 
jaunty music. Its echoes must have liberty to 
rise and fall in the dim spaces of the church, 
otherwise the sound becomes confused, blurred, 
and unintelligible. What is played upon it 

1 Forkel writes as though he were in a position by personal 
knowledge to compare the gifts of Bach and his son. In fact 
he was born in 1749 and was less than two years old when 
Bach died. 



BACH THE ORGANIST 63 

must be suited to the place and the instru- 
ment, in other words, must be congruous to 
a solemn and majestic fabric. Occasionally 
and exceptionally a solo stop may be used 
in a Trio, etc. But the proper function of 
the Organ is to support church singing and 
to stimulate devotional feeling. The composer 
therefore must not write music for it which 
is congruous to secular surroundings. What is 
commonplace and trite can neither impress the 
hearer nor excite devotional feeling. It must 
therefore be banished from the Organ-loft. How 
clearly Bach grasped that fact ! Even his secular 
music disdained trivialities. Much more so his 
Organ music, in which he seems to soar as a spirit 
above this mortal planet. 

Of the means by which Bach attained to such 
an altitude as a composer for the Organ we may 
notice his harmonic treatment of the old Church 
modes, his use of the obbligato pedal, and his 
original registration. The remoteness of the 
ecclesiastical modes from our twenty-four major 
and minor keys renders them particularly ap- 
propriate to the service of religion. Any one who 
looks at Bach's simple four-part Hymn tunes 
(Choralgesdnge) will at once convince himself of 
the fact. But no one can realise how the Organ 
sounds under a similar system of harmonic 
treatment unless he has heard it. It becomes 
a choir of four or five parts, each in its natural 



64 



JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 



compass. Compare the following chords in 
divided harmony : 






with these : 




which is the more usual form organists employ. 
We realise instantly the effect when music in four 
or more parts is played in the same manner. 
Bach always played the Organ so, adding the 
obbligato pedal, which few organists know how 
to use properly. He employed it not only to 
sound the low notes which organists usually play 
with the left hand, but he gave it a regular 
part of its own, often so complicated that many 
organists would find it difficult to play with their 
five fingers. 

To these qualities must be added the exquisite 
art Bach displayed hi combining the stops of the 
Organ. His registration frequently astonished 
organists and Organ builders, who ridiculed it at 
first, but were obliged in the end to admit its 



BACH THE ORGANIST 65 

admirable results and to confess that the Organ 
gained in richness and sonority. 1 

Bach's peculiar registration was based on his 
ultimate knowledge of Organ building and of the 
properties of each individual stop. Very early in 
his career he made a point of giving to each part 
of the Organ the utterance best suited to its 
qualities, and this led him to seek unusual com- 
binations of stops which otherwise would not have 
occurred to him. Nothing escaped his notice 
which had the slightest bearing on his art or pro- 
mised to advance it. For instance, he made a 
point of observing the effect of large musical 
compositions in different surroundings. The prac- 
tised ear, which enabled him to detect the slightest 
error hi music even of the fullest and richest 
texture, and the art and rapidity with which he 
tuned his instrument, alike attest his intuitive 
skill and many-sidedness. When he was at Berlin 
in 1747 he was shown the new Opera House. He 
took in its good and bad qualities at a glance, 
whereas others had done so only after experience. 
He was shown the large adjoining Saloon and 
went up into the gallery that runs round it. 
Merely glancing at the roof he remarked, ' The 
architect has secured a novel effect which, pro- 
bably, neither himself nor any one else suspected.' 
The Saloon, in fact, is a parallelogram. If a 

1 On Bach's use of the stops see Spitta, i. 394 ff., and Pirro's L'Orgue 
de J.-S. Bach.' 



66 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

person puts his face to the wall in one corner of 
it and whispers a few words, another person at 
the corner diagonally opposite can hear them 
distinctly, though to others between them the 
words are inaudible. The effect arises from the 
span of the arches in the roof, as Bach saw at a 
glance. These and similar observations suggested 
to him striking and unusual combinations of 
Organ stops. 

Bach brought the methods I have indicated to 
bear upon Church music, and they help to explain 
his extraordinarily dignified and inspired playing, 
which was at once so appropriate and filled the 
listener with deep awe and admiration. His pro- 
found knowledge of harmony, unfailing originality, 
freedom from a secular style, his complete com- 
mand of the instrument, both manuals and 
pedals, whence flowed a generous stream of the 
richest and most abundant fancy, the infallible 
and swift judgment which allowed him always to 
select from the treasury of his mind precisely the 
musical ideas best suited to the occasion immedi- 
ately before him, his intuitive grasp of every 
detail, and his power to make it serve his artistic 
ends in a word, his transcendent genius brought 
the art of Organ playing to a degree of perfection 
which, till then, it had never attained and hardly 
will attain again. Quantz x has expressed the 

1 Johann Joachim Quantz, b. 1697 ; flute player and composer ; 
taught Frederick the Great the flute ; settled at Berlin as Kamrner- 
musikus and Court Composer ; d. 1773. 



BACH THE ORGANIST 67 

same opinion. ' The admirable Johann Sebastian 
Bach,' he writes, ' brought the art of Organ playing 
to its highest perfection. It is to be hoped that 
when he dies it will not be suffered to decline or 
be lost, as is to be feared from the small number 
of people who nowadays bestow pains upon it.' * 

Strangers often asked Bach to play to them 
between the hours of divine service. On those 
occasions he was wont to select and treat a theme 
in various ways, making it the subject of each 
extemporisation even if he continued playing for 
two hours. As a beginning he played a Prelude and 
Fugue on the Great Organ. Then he developed it 
with solo stops in a Trio or Quartet. A Hymn- 
tune followed, whose melody he interrupted hi 
the subtlest fashion with fragments of the theme 
in three or four parts. Last came a Fugue, with full 
Organ, in which he treated the subject alone or 
in association with one or more accessory themes. 
Here we have the art which old Reinken of Ham- 
burg considered to be lost, but which, as he 
afterwards found, not only survived but attained 
its greatest perfection in Bach. 

Bach's pre-eminent position and his high reputa- 
tion often caused him to be invited to examine 
candidates for vacant organistships, and to report 
on new Organs. In both cases he acted so con- 
scientiously and impartially that he generally made 

1 The ' Nekrolog ' sums up more briefly than Forkel, in a judgment 
which, without doubt, is the very truth : ' Bach was the greatest 
Organ player that has yet been known.' 



68 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

enemies. Scheibe, late Director of Music at the 
Danish Court, who as a young man was examined 
by Bach on such an occasion, was so incensed 
by Bach's unfavourable verdict that he after- 
wards avenged himself in his ' Critical Musician ' 
by violently attacking his examiner. 1 In his 
examination of Organs Bach equally exposed 
himself to trouble. He could as little prevail on 
himself to praise a bad instrument as to recom- 
mend a bad organist. He was, therefore, severe, 
though always f air, in the tests he applied, and as 
he was thoroughly acquainted with the construc- 
tion of the instrument it was hopeless to attempt 
to deceive him. First of all he drew out all the 
stops, to hear the Full Organ. He used to say 
jokingly, that he wanted to find out whether the 
instrument had good lungs ! Then he gave every 
part of it a most searching test. But his sense 
of fairness was so strong that, if he found the work 
really well done, and the builder's remuneration 

1 Johann Adolph Scheibe, a native of Leipzig, was an unsuccessful 
candidate for the Organistship of St. Thomas' Church in 1729. Bach 
was one of the judges. In 1737 Scheibe published in the ' Kritische 
Musikus ' a criticism of Bach which, while doing justice to his powers 
as an organist, characterised his compositions as ' turgid and confused 
in character.' Bach was incensed by the criticism and asked his 
friend, Professor Birnbaum of Leipzig, to answer it. Scheibe replied 
in 1739, with a wholly unjustified challenge of Bach's general educa- 
tion and culture. In his ' Phoebus and Pan,' performed in 1731, Bach 
had already had the satisfaction of representing Scheibe as ' Midas ' 
and calling him an ass. On the whole matter see Schweitzer, i. 178 ff. 
and Spitta, iii. 252. Scheibe conducted the Court orchestra at Copen- 
hagen from 1742-49 and died there in 1776. 



BACH THE ORGANIST 69 

too small, so that he was likely to be a loser, 
Bach endeavoured, and often successfully, to 
procure for him an adequate addition to the 
purchase price. 

When the examination was over, especially if 
the instrument pleased him, Bach liked to exhibit 
his splendid talent, both for his own pleasure and 
the gratification of those who were present. Such 
demonstrations of his powers invariably invited 
the verdict, that he was conclusively ' the prince 
of Clavier and Organ players,' a title which Sorge, 
the late highly-esteemed organist at Lobenstein, 1 
once gave him hi a dedicatory Preface. 

1 Georg Andreas Sorge, ' Court and Town Organist to the Count of 
Reuss and Plau at Lobenstein,' in his dedication thus commended 
Bach : ' The great musical virtue that Your Excellency possesses is 
embellished with the excellent virtue of affability and unfeigned love 
of your neighbour.' See Schweitzer, i. 155. 



CHAPTER V 

BACH THE COMPOSER 

BACH'S first attempts at composition, like all 
early efforts, were unsatisfactory. Lacking special 
instruction to direct him towards his goal, he was 
compelled to do what he could in his own way, 
like others who have set out upon a career with- 
out a guide. Most youthful composers let their 
fingers run riot up and down the keyboard, snatch- 
ing handfuls of notes, assaulting the instrument 
in wild frenzy, in hope that something may result 
from it. Such people are merely Finger Com- 
posers in his riper years Bach used to call them 
Harpsichord Knights that is to say, their fingers 
tell them what to write instead of being instructed 
by the brain what to play. 1 Bach abandoned that 
method of composition when he observed that 

1 The following passage from the Autobiography of Hector Berlioz 
(ed. Dent, p. 11) is relevant : ' My father would never let me learn the 
piano ; if he had, no doubt I should have joined the noble army of 
piano thumpers. . . . Sometimes I regret my ignorance, yet, when 
I think of the ghastly heap of platitudes for which that unfortunate 
piano is made the daily excuse insipid, shameless productions, that 
would be impossible if their perpetrators had to rely, as they ought, 
on pencil and paper alone then I thank the fates for having forced 
me to compose silently and freely by saving me from the tyranny of 
finger- work, that grave of original thought.' 



BACH THE COMPOSER 71 

brilliant flourishes lead nowhere. He realised that 
musical ideas need to be subordinated to a plan 
and that the young composer's first need is a 
model to instruct his efforts. Opportunely 
Vivaldi's Concertos for the Violin, 1 then recently 
published, gave him the guidance he needed. He 
had often heard them praised as admirable works 
of art, and conceived the happy idea of arranging 
them for the Clavier. 2 Hence he was led to study 
their structure, the musical ideas on which they 
are built, the variety of their modulations, and 
other characteristics. Moreover, in adapting to 
the Clavier ideas and phrases originally written 
for the Violin Bach was compelled to put his 
brain to work, and so freed his inspiration from 
dependence on his fingers. Henceforth he was 
able to draw ideas out of his own storehouse, and 
having placed himself on the right road, needed 
only perseverance and hard work to succeed. 
And how persevering he was ! He even robbed 

1 Antonio Vivaldi, d. 1743 ; a master of form. That fact turned 
the attention of German composers to him ; while the popularity of 
his Violin Concertos also attracted musicians, like Bach, whose work 
at Cothen was in close association with the Court Kapelle or 
band. 

2 Bach re-wrote sixteen Vivaldi Violin Concertos for the Clavier, 
four of them for the Organ, and developed one into a Concerto for four 
Claviers and a quartet of strings which Forkel enumerates (infra, p. 132) 
as a composition of Bach's (Peters bk. 260). Bach learnt from Vivaldi 
' clearness and plasticity of musical structure.' See article ' Vivaldi ' 
in Grove; Spitta, i. 411 ff ; Schweitzer, i. 192 ff. The Vivaldi Clavier 
Concertos are in Peters bk. 217 ; the Organ Concertos in Novello 
bk. 11. Not all these transcriptions are based on Vivaldi. See 
Schweitzer, i. 193. 



72 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

himself of sleep to practise in the night what he 
had written during the day ! But the diligence 
he bestowed upon his own compositions did not 
hinder him from studying the works of Fresco- 
baldi, 1 Froberger, Kerl, Pachelbel, Fischer, 
Strungk, 2 Buxtehude, Reinken, Bruhns, Bohm, 
and certain French organists who were famed hi 
those days as masters of harmony and fugue. 3 

The models he selected Church musicians for 
the most part and his own disposition inclined 
him to serious and exalted subjects. But in that 
kind of music little can be accomplished with 
inadequate technique. Bach's first object, there- 
fore, was to develop his power of expressing him- 
self before he attempted to realise the ideal that ~ 
beckoned him. Music to him was a language, and / 
the composer a poet who, whatever the idiom he 
affects, must first of all have at his disposal the 
means of making himself intelligible to others. 
But the technique of his period Bach found limited 
in variety and insufficiently pliable. Therefore 
he set himself at the outset to refashion the 
accepted harmonic system. He did so in a 
manner characteristically individual and bearing 
the impress of his personality. 

1 Girolamo Frescobaldi, b. 1583, d. 1644 ; Organist of St. Peter's, 
Rome. 

2 Delphin Strungk, b. 1601, d. 1694 ; Organist of St. Martin's, 
Brunswick ; composed for the Organ. 

3 Purcell should be added to those whom Forkel mentions as Bach's 
models. See infra, p. 261. 



BACH THE COMPOSER 73 

If the language of music is merely the utterance 
of a melodic line, a simple sequence of musical 
notes, it can justly be accused of poverty. The 
addition of a Bass puts it upon a harmonic founda- 
tion and clarifies it, but defines rather than gives 
it added richness. A melody so accompanied 
even though all the notes are not those of the 
true Bass or treated with simple embellishments 
in the upper parts, or with simple chords, used to 
be called ' homophony.' But it is a very different 
thing when two melodies are so interwoven that 
they converse together like two persons upon a 
footing of pleasant equality. In the first case 
the accompaniment is subordinate, and serves 
merely to support the first or principal part. In 
the second case the two parts are not similarly 
related. New melodic combinations spring 
from their interweaving, out of which new 
forms of musical expression emerge. If more 
parts are interwoven in the same free and inde- 
pendent manner, the apparatus of language is 
correspondingly enlarged, and becomes practically 
inexhaustible if, hi addition, varieties of form 
and rhythm are introduced. Hence harmony 
becomes no longer a mere accompaniment of 
melody, but rather a potent agency for aug- 
menting the richness and expressiveness of musical 
conversation. To serve that end a simple ac- 
companiment will not suffice. True harmony is 
the interweaving of several melodies, which 



74 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

emerge now in the upper, now in the middle, 
and now in the lower parts. 

From about the year 1720, when he was thirty- 
five, until his death in 1750, Bach's harmony 
consists in this melodic interweaving of inde- 
pendent melodies, so perfect in their union that 
each part seems to constitute the true melody. 
Herein Bach excels all the composers in the world.* 
At least, I have found no one to equal him in 
music known to me. Even in his four-part 
writing we can, not infrequently, leave out the 
upper and lower parts and still find the middle 
parts melodious and agreeable. 

But in harmony of this kind each part must be 
highly plastic ; otherwise it cannot play its role 
as an actual melody and at the same time com- 
bine with the other parts. To produce it Bach 
followed a course of his own, upon which the text- 
books of his day were silent, but which his genius 
suggested to him. Its originality consists in the 
freedom of his part writing, in which he trans- 
gresses, seemingly, at any rate, rules long estab- 
lished and to his contemporaries almost sacred. 
Bach, however, realised their object, which was 
simply to facilitate the flow of pure melody 
on a sound harmonic basis, in other words, 
successive and coexistent euphony, and he suc- 
ceeded with singular success though by un- 

* See Kirnberger's ' Kunst des reinen Satzes,' p. 157. [The work 
was published in two volumes at Berlin in 1771, 1776.] 



BACH THE COMPOSER 75 

familiar means. Let me explain my meaning 
more closely. 

Between simple intervals there is little diffi- 
culty in deciding whether the second note must 
rise or fall. And in regard to phrases, or sections 
of a phrase, if we analyse their structure and 
follow out their harmonic tendency, their resolu- 
tion is equally clear. But this sense of destina- 
tion may be provoked in each part by different 
intervals. As we have observed already, every 
one of the four parts must flow melodically and 
freely. But to secure that result it will be neces- 
sary to introduce between the notes which begin 
a phrase and establish its general atmosphere 
other notes which often are not consonant with 
those employed in the other parts and whose 
incidence is governed by the accent. This is what 
we call a transitus regularis et irregularis. 1 Each 
part starts from a fixed point, and returns to it, 
but travels freely between them. No one has 
made more use of such progressions than Bach 
in order to colour his parts and give them a char- 
acteristic melodic line. Hence, unless his music 
is played with perfect fluency, occasional passages 
will sound harshly and we may be tempted to 
accuse him of exaggeration. But the charge is 
ill founded. Once we play them as Bach intended 



1 Transitus regularis =a passing note on the unaccented portions of 
the bar ; transitus irregularis & passing note on the accented part of 
the bar. 



76 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

them, such passages reveal their full beauty and 
their attractive though bizarre dissonance opens 
up new vistas in the realm of sound. 

But, to speak in detail of Bach's transgression 
of recognised rules. To begin with, he admitted 
octaves and fifths provided they sounded well ; 
that is, when the cause of their being forbidden 
did not arise. 1 Everybody knows that there are 
positions in which they sound well, and others 
when they should be avoided, owing to the harsh 
effect or thin harmony they produce. Bach's 
octaves and fifths never produce bad or thin 
harmony, and he was very definite as to when 
they could and could not be used. In certain 
circumstances he would not permit hidden fifths 
and octaves even between the middle parts, 
though we exclude them only between the outer 
parts. Yet, on occasion he used them in such a 
barefaced manner as to puzzle the beginner in 
composition. But their use very soon commends 
itself. Even in the last revision of his early com- 
positions we find him altering passages, which at 
first sight appear impeccable, with the object of 
enriching their harmony and without scrupling to 
use hidden octaves. A remarkable instance occurs 

1 Spitta (iii. 315 ff.) prints a treatise by Bach, 'Rules and Instructions 
for playing Thorough- bass or Accompaniment in Four Parts,' dated 1738. 
Rule 3 of chap. vi. states : ' Two fifths or two octaves must not occur 
next one another, for this is not only a fault, but it sounds wrong. To 
avoid this there is an old rule, that the hands must always go against 
one another, so that when the left goes up the right must go down, 
and when the right goes up the left must go down.' 



BACH THE COMPOSER 77 

in the first part of the ' Well-tempered Clavier,' 
in the E major Fugue, between the fifth and fourth 
bars from the end. 1 I regret to this hour that, 
on looking over the later text, from which Hoff- 
meister and Runnel's edition of that work is 
printed, 2 I was so foolish as to reject Bach's 
amended reading there, merely because the har- 
mony is unorthodox though more pleasing. I 
stupidly preferred the older, more correct, and 
harsher reading, though in the later text the 
three parts run easily and smoothly. And what 
more can one demand ? 

Again, there is a rule that every note raised 
by an accidental cannot be doubled in the chord, 
because the raised note must, from its nature, 
resolve on the note above. If it is doubled, it 
must rise doubled in both parts and, conse- 
quently, form consecutive octaves. Such is the 
rule. But Bach frequently doubles not only notes 
accidentally raised elsewhere in the scale but 
actually the semitonium modi or leading -note 
itself. Yet he avoids consecutive octaves. His 
finest works yield examples of this. 

Again, Bach's statement that ' over a pedal 
point all intervals are permissible that occur in 
the three scales ' 3 should be regarded rather as 

1 Actually the third beat of the fourth bar from the end. P. bk. 1 
p. 37 Fugue no. 9. 

2 Forkel edited the ' Wohltemperirte Clavier ' for Hoffmeister in 
1801. 

3 The rule is not in the ' Rules and Instructions ' already referred to. 



78 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

an expansion than a violation of the recognised 
rule. In general what is called an Organ point is 
merely a retarded close. Bach, however, did not 
hesitate to employ it in the middle of a piece ; a 
striking example occurs in the last Gigue of the 
' English Suites.' 1 On a first hearing this Gigue, 
imperfectly rendered, may not sound well. But 
it grows more beautiful as it becomes more 
familiar, and what seemed harsh is found to be 
smooth and agreeable, until one never tires of 
playing and hearing it. 

Bach's modulation was as original and char- 
acteristic as his harmony, and as closely related to 
it. But the two things, though closely associated, 
are not the same. By harmony we mean the 
concordance of several parts ; by modulation, their 
progression through keys. Modufe*io-cair"take 
place in a single part. Harmony requires more than 
one. I will endeavour to make my meaning clearer. 

Most composers stick closely to their tonic key 
and modulate out of it with deliberation. In 
music that requires a large number of performers, 
and in a building, for instance a church, where 
the large volume of sound dies away slowly, such 
a habit shows good sense in the composer who 
wishes his work to produce the best possible 
effect. But in chamber or instrumental music 
it is not always a proof of wisdom, but rather of 
mental poverty. Bach saw clearly that the two 

1 Suite No. 6, in D minor (P. bk. 204 p. 84). 



BACH THE COMPOSER 79 

styles demand different treatment. In his large 
choral compositions he bridles his exuberant 
fancy. In his instrumental works he lets himself 
go. As he never courted popularity, but always 
pursued his ideal, Bach had no reason to suppress 
the nobility of his inspirations, or to lower their 
standard for public consumption. Nor did he 
ever do so. Therefore every modulation in his 
instrumental work is a new thought, a constantly 
progressive creation in the plane of the chosen 
keys and those related to them. He holds fast 
to the essentials of harmony, but with every 
modulation introduces"~a new suggestion and 
glides so smoothly to the end of a piece that no 
creaking of machinery is perceptible ; yet no 
single bar I might almost say no part of a bar 
is like another. Every modulation bears a strict 
relationship to the key from which it proceeds, 
and springs naturally from it. Bach ignored, or 
rather despised, the sudden sallies by which many 
composers seek to surprise their hearers. Even 
in his chromatic passages his progressions are 
so smooth and easy that we are hardly conscious 
of them, however extreme they may be. He 
makes us feel that he has not stepped outside the 
diatonic scale, so quick is he to seize upon the 
consonances common to dissonant systems and 
combine them to his sure purpose. 



CHAPTER VI 

BACH THE COMPOSER (continued) 

BACH'S treatment of harmony and modulation 
powerfully influenced his melody. The strands 
of his harmony are really concurrent melodies. 
They flow easily and expressively, never engross 
the hearer's attention, but divide his interest, 
as now one now the other becomes prominent. 
Even when they are noticeable they seem obscured 
by the melodic parts that accompany them I 
say * seem obscured,' for if the hearer is sufficiently 
instructed to distinguish the several melodies hi 
the ensemble he will discover them to be more 
clearly defined by their accompaniment. 

The combination of several melodic lines obliges 
the composer to use devices which are unnecessary 
in homophonic music. A single melody can 
develop as it pleases. But when two or more are 
combined each must be so delicately and cleverly 
fashioned that it can be interwoven with the 
others hi this direction and in that. And here 
we detect one at least of the reasons why Bach's 
melodies are so strangely original, and his tunes 
so clearly distinguishable from those of other 



BACH THE COMPOSER 81 

composers. Provided that novelty does not de- 
generate into eccentricity or extravagance, and 
that clearness and facility of expression march 
with agreeableness, a composer's meritorious- 
ness is proclaimed in his originality.* The one 
drawback is that the ordinary hearer cannot 
appreciate melodic beauties which are patent 
only to the expert. 

But Bach's melodies are not invariably so han- 
dicapped. They are always original, it is true. 
But in his free compositions the melodies are so 
natural and spontaneous that, while they sound 
differently from those of other composers, their 
naturalness, and the sincerity of feeling that 
inspires them, make them intelligible to every 
listener. Most of the Preludes in the ' Well- 
tempered Clavier ' as well as a number of move- 
ments in the Suites are of this character. 

Bach's melody, then, bears the unmistakable 
stamp of originality. And so does his passage 
work, as it is called. Such novelty, originality, 
and brilliancy are not found in any other composer. 
Examples are to be found in all Bach's Clavier 
works. But the most striking and original are in 

* Many people hold the opinion that the best melody is one which 
the largest number of persons can understand and sing. But this 
cannot be admitted, for if it were true, popular airs which are sung 
up and down the country by all classes, even the lowest, must be 
accounted the finest and best. I should be inclined to state the pro- 
position conversely : a melody which attracts everybody is invariably 
of the most ordinary kind. In that form the statement might, perhaps, 
pass as a principle. 



82 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

the ' Great Variations,' 1 in the first Part of the 
' Clavier iibung,' 2 in the ' English Suites,' 3 and 
the * Chromatic Fantasia.' 4 In the last particu- 
larly Bach's fertility impresses us. The greater 
part of its passage work is in the form of harmonic 
arpeggios whose richness and originality match 
the chords they represent. 

In order to realise the care and skill Bach 
expended on his melody and harmony, and how 
he put the very best of his genius into his work, 
I need only instance his efforts to construct 
a composition incapable of being harmonised 
with another melodic part. In his day it was 
regarded as imperative to perfect the harmonic 
structure of part-writing. Consequently the com- 
poser was careful to complete his chords and 
leave no door open for another part. So far 
the rule had been followed more or less closely in 
music for two, three, and four parts, and Bach 
observed it hi such cases. But he applied it also 
to compositions consisting of a single part, and to 
a deliberate experiment in this form we owe 
the six Violin and the six Violoncello Solo Suites, 5 

1 Forkel alludes to the ' Goldberg Variations ' (P. bk. 209). 

2 P. bks. 205, 206. 8 P. bks. 203, 204. 
* P. bk. 207. 

6 Bach wrote three Suites (Partita) and three Sonatas for Solo 
Violin. They date from about 1720 and are in the keys of G minor, 
B minor, A minor, D minor, C major, and E major (P. bk. 228). The 
six Violoncello Suites date from the same period and are in G major, 
D minor, C major, E flat major, C minor, and D major (P. bks. 238a, 
238b). 



BACH THE COMPOSER 83 

which have no accompaniment and do not require 
one. So remarkable is Bach's skill that the solo 
instrument actually produces all the notes required 
for complete harmony, rendering a second part 
unnecessary and even impossible. 

Bach's melody never palls on us, because of the 
presence hi it of those qualities to which I have 
referred. It remains ' ever fair and young,' 
like Nature herself. In his earlier works, in which 
we find him still in bondage to the prevailing 
mode, there is a good deal that to-day seems 
antiquated. But when, as in his later works, 
he draws his melody from the living wells of 
inspiration and cuts himself adrift from convention, 
all is as fresh and new as if it had been written 
yesterday. Of how many compositions of that 
period can the same be said ? Even the works 
of ingenious composers like Reinhard Keiser 1 
and Handel have become old-fashioned sooner 
than we or their composers might have supposed. 
Like other caterers for the public, they weref 
obliged to pander to its taste, and such music 
endures no longer than the standard which 
produced it. Nothing is more inconstant and 
fickle than popular caprice and, in general, what 
is called fashion. It must be admitted, however, 
that Handel's Fugues are not yet out of date, 

1 Reinhard Keiser, b. 1673, d. 1739 ; scholar of the Leipzig Thomas- 
sohule ; settled at Hamburg, 1694 ; composed a number of Operas, 
and for a time had a great vogue. 



84 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

though there are probably few of his Arias that 
we now find agreeable. 1 

Bach's melody and harmony are rendered still 
more distinctive by their inexhaustible rhythmic 
variety. Hitherto we have discussed his music 
merely subjectively as harmony and melody. But 
to display vivacity and variety music needs to be 
uttered with rhythmic point and vigour. More 
than those of any .other period composers of Bach's 
time found no difficulty in this, for they acquired 
facility in the management of rhythm in the 
' Suite,' which held the place of our ' Sonata.' 
Between the initial Prelude and closing Gigue the 
Suite includes a number of characteristic French 
dance measures, whose rhythm is their distin- 
guishing characteristic. Composers of Bach's day, 
therefore, were familiar with measures and 
rhythms which are now obsolete. Moreover skilful 
treatment was necessary in order that each dance 
might exhibit its own distinctive character and 
swing. Herein Bach exceeded his predecessors 
and contemporaries. He experimented with every 
kind of key and rhythm in order to give variety 
and colour to each movement. Out of his ex- 
perience he acquired such facility that, even in 

1 It was precisely his agreeable operatic Arias that expressed 
Handel's genius in the eyes of his generation. With rare exceptions 
that branch of his work is obsolete and his cult survives mainly in 
the 'Messiah,' which supports his quite posthumous reputation as 
' musician in ordinary to the Protestant religion.' See Mr. R. A. 
Streatfield's ' Handel,' Introduction. 



BACH THE COMPOSER 85 

Fugue, with its complex interweaving of several 
parts, he was able to employ a rhythm as easy 
as it was striking, as characteristic as it was sus- 
tained from beginning to end, as natural as a 
simple Minuet. 

The source of Bach's astonishing pre-eminence 
is to be sought in his facile and constant applica- 
tion of the methods we have discussed. In what- 
ever form he chose to express himself, easy or 
difficult, he was successful and seemingly effort- 
less. 1 There is not a note in his music that does 
not suggest consummate ease of workmanship. 
What he sets out to do he concludes triumphantly. 
The result is complete and perfect ; no one could 
wish for a single note to be other than it is. Some 
illustrations will make my point clearer. 

Carl Philipp Emmanuel, in the preface to his 
father's ' Vierstimmige Choralgesange ' (' Four- 
part Hymn- tunes '), which he edited, 2 says that 

1 Schweitzer advances the opinion, which may perhaps be challenged, 
that inevitable and natural as Bach's melodies are, they do not give 
the impression of ' effortless invention.' Bach, he holds, worked like 
a mathematician, who sees the whole of a problem at once, and has 
only to realise it in definite values. Hence, he agrees with Spitta, 
Bach'a way of working was quite different from Beethoven's. With 
Beethoven the work developed by means of episodes that are inde- 
pendent of the theme. With Bach everything springs with mathe- 
matical certainty from the theme itself. See Schweitzer (i. 21 1) on 
Bach's methods of working. 

* Johann Sebastian Bach's ' Vierstimmige Choralgesange ' were pub- 
lished in 1765 and 1769. C. P. E. Bach was concerned only with the 
first volume. Forkel perhaps refers to an edition of the ' Choral- 
gesange ' issued by Breitkopf in four parts at Leipzig in 1784, 1786, 
1786, and 1787, and edited by C. P. E. Bach. 

' 



86 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

the world was accustomed to look for nothing but 
masterpieces from Bach. Some reviewers thought 
this praise exaggerated. But if the term ' master- 
piece ' is restricted to works written during the 
years of Bach's maturity * it is nothing less than 
the truth. Others have produced masterpieces 
in various forms which may be placed honourably 
by the side of his. For instance, certain Alle- 
mandes, Courantes, etc., by Handel and others are 
not less beautiful, though less richly wrought, than 
Bach's. But in Fugue, Counterpoint, and Canon 
he stands alone, in a grandeur so isolated that 
all around him seems desert and void. No one 
ever wrote Fugues to compare with his ; indeed, 
persons unacquainted with them cannot imagine 
what a Fugue is and ought to be. The ordinary 
Fugue follows a rule of thumb development. It 
takes a theme, puts another beside it, passes 
them into related keys, and writes other parts 
round them over a Continue. Certainly this is 
Fugue : but of what merit ? Persons who know 
no other not unnaturally hold the whole species 
in little esteem, and the player who hopes to make 
such commonplace material convincing will need 
all his skill and imagination. 

Bach's Fugue is of quite another kind. It pre- 
sents all the characteristics we are accustomed to 

1 Forkel indicates the perjod 1720-1750. But in 1720 Bach had 
already completed the ' Orgelbiichlein ' and the greater part of hia 
Organ works. 






BACH THE COMPOSER 87 

in freer musical forms : a flowing and distinctive 
melody, ease, clarity, and facility in the pro- 
gression of the parts, inexhaustible variety of 
modulation, purest harmony, the exclusion of 
every jarring or unnecessary note, unity of form 
and variety of style, rhythm, and measure, and 
such superabundant animation that the hearer 
may well ask himself whether every note is not 
actually alive. Such are the properties of Bach's 
Fugues, properties which excite the admiration 
and astonishment of all who can appreciate the 
intellectual calibre their composition demands. 
How great a tribute of homage is due to work of 
this kind, which exhibits all the qualities which 
lend distinction to compositions in other musical 
forms ! Moreover, while all Bach's Fugues of his 
mature period have the foregoing properties in 
common, each is endowed with peculiar excel- 
lencies of its own, has its own distinctive indi- 
viduality, and displays a melodic and harmonic 
scheme in keeping with it. The man who can 
play one of Bach's Fugues is familiar with, and can 
play, one only ; whereas knowing one, we can 
perform portfolios of Fugues by other performers 
of Bach's period. 

To what a height was the art of Counterpoint 
carried by Bach's genius! It enabled him to 
develop out of a given subject a whole family of 
related and contrasted themes, of every form and 
design. It taught him to develop an idea logically 



88 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

from the beginning to the end. It gave him such 
a command of harmony and its infinite combina- 
tions that he could invert whole themes, note by 
note, in every part, without impairing in the least 
the flow of melody or purity of his harmony. It 
taught him to write in canon at all intervals and 
in movements of all kinds so easily and naturally 
that the workmanship is not perceptible and the 
composition sounds as smoothly as though it were 
in the free style. Lastly, it has given to posterity 
a legacy of works immensely various, which are, 
and will remain, models of contrapuntal form as 
long as music endures.* 

I have written exclusively so far of Bach's 
Clavier and Organ work. But in its expression 
music has two branches, instrumental and vocal, 
and as Bach excels in both of them, the reader 
will desire to hear somewhat respecting his vocal 
writings. 

It was at Weimar that Bach first had occasion 
to write for the voice, 1 upon his appointment to 

* There are people who conclude that Bach merely perfected harmony. 
But if we realise what harmony ia, a means to extend and emphasise 
musical expression, we cannot imagine it apart from melody. And 
when, as in Bach's case, harmony is actually an association of melodies, 
such a view becomes the more ridiculous. It might perhaps be reason- 
able to say of a composer that his influence was restricted to the 
sphere of melody, because we may get melody without harmony. But 
there cannot be real harmony without melody. Hence the composer 
who has perfected harmony has influenced the whole, whereas the 
melodist has left his mark only on a fraction of his art. 

1 As has been pointed out already (supra, p. 14) Bach's earliest 
church Cantatas date from the Arnstadt period. 



BACH THE COMPOSER 89 

the Kapelle, which imposed on him the provision 
of music for the ducal chapel. His church music, 
like his Organ works, is devout and serious, and 
in every respect what church music ought to be. 
He makes a point also of not elaborating individual 
words, which leads to mere trifling, but interprets 
the text as a whole. 1 His choruses invariably are 
magnificent and impressive, and he frequently 
introduces Chorals into them, 2 making the other 
parts accompany their Cantus fugally, as was the 
practice in a Motet. As elsewhere in his works, 
the harmonic structure of his voice parts and 
instrumental accompaniment is rich. The de- 
clamation of the recitatives is expressive, and the 
latter have fine Continue parts. 3 In his Arias, 
hardly one of which is not beautiful and expres- 
sive, Bach seems to have been handicapped by 
the inefficiency of his singers and instrumentalists, 
who constantly complained of the difficulty of his 
music. If he had been fortunate enough to have 
capable performers the merits of his church music 

1 The statement certainly needs a caveat. No composer of his 
period studied his text more closely or reverently than Bach. No 
one, on the other hand, was more readily fired by a particular word 
or image in his text to give it sometimes irrelevant expression. 

Of Bach's church Cantatas 206 have survived. In only 22 of them 
does Bach fail to introduce movements based upon the Lutheran 
Chorals. 

3 We must attribute to Forkel's general ignorance of Bach's concerted 
church music his failure to comment upon a much more remarkable 
feature of the recitatives, namely, their unique treatment of the 
human voice as a declamatory medium, a development as remark- 
able as Wagner's innovations in operatic form a century later. 



90 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

would have been established and, like his other 
works, they would still be sung and admired ; for 
they contain treasures which deserve immortality. 1 

Among the works composed at Leipzig I single 
out two Cantatas, one of which was performed at 
Cb'then at the funeral of Bach's beloved Prince 
Leopold, and the other in St. Paul's Church, 
Leipzig, on the occasion of the funeral sermon in 
honour of Christiana Eberhardine, Queen of 
Poland and Electress of Saxony. 2 The first 
contains double choruses of uncommon magni- 
ficence and most affecting sentiment. 3 The second 
has only four-part choruses, but they are so de- 
lightful and fresh that he who begins the work 
will not pause till he has reached the end of it. 
It was written in October 1727. 

Bach also composed a great number of Cantatas, 
chiefly for the choir of St. Thomas' School, Leipzig. 4 

1 It was not the imperfections of the choir but the indifference of 
Bach's successors at St. Thomas', Leipzig, that was chiefly responsible 
for the neglect of his Cantatas in the latter half of the eighteenth 
century. Johann Friedrich Doles (1715-89) was the only Cantor who 
realised the greatness of his predecessor's concerted church music. 

2 The ' Trauer-Ode ' was performed on October 17, 1727. Bach 
finished the score two days before the performance ! A parallel case 
is that of Mozart, who finished the overture of ' Don Giovanni ' on the 
morning of the first performance of the Opera, and actually played 
it unrehearsed that evening. 

3 It has been pointed out already that Bach used the ' St. Matthew 
Passion ' music, set to other words, for the occasion. No. 26 (' I would 
beside my Lord be watching ') was sung to the words ' Go, Leopold, 
to thy rest ' ! 

4 Of the 206 surviving Cantatas, 172 were written for the Leipzig 
choir. 



BACH THE COMPOSER 91 

The choir ordinarily numbered fifty singers, and 
sometimes more, over whose musical training 
Bach presided like a father. He practised them 
so hard in Cantatas for single and double chorus 
that they became excellent singers. Among these 
works are some which, hi profundity of conception, 
magnificence, richness of harmony and melody, 
and animation, surpass everything of their kind. 
But, like all Bach's works, and in common with 
other masterpieces, they are difficult to perform 
and need a numerous orchestra to produce their 
full effect. 

Such are Bach's most important vocal com- 
positions. 1 In minor forms of the art, morceaux 
for social entertainments and the like, he wrote 
little, 2 though he was of a most sociable dis- 
position. For instance, he is said never to have 
composed a song. 3 And why should he ? They 
produce themselves so spontaneously that there is 
little call for genius to aid their gestation. 

1 Forkel's knowledge is very incomplete. 

2 Elsewhere Forkel mentions only one of the secular Cantatas. 

8 There is a tradition that Bach wrote a comic song, ' Ihr Schonen, 
horet an,' which was widely current about the time of his death (Spitta, 
iii. 181 n.). The Aria, ' So oft ich meine Tabakspfeife,' in A. M. 
Bach's ' Notenbuch ' of 1725, should be mentioned. See B. G. xxxix. 
sec. 4. 



CHAPTER VII 

BACH AS A TEACHER 

IT not infrequently happens that talented com- 
posers and players are incapable of imparting their 
skill to others. Either they have never troubled 
to probe the mechanism of their own facility, or, 
through the excellence of their instructors, have 
taken the short cut to proficiency and allowed 
their teacher and not their own judgment to decide 
how a thing should be done. Such people are 
useless to instruct beginners. True, they may 
succeed in teaching the rudiments of technique, 
assuming that they have been properly taught 
themselves. But they are certainly unqualified 
to teach in the full sense of the word. There is, 
in fact, only one way to become a good teacher, 
and that is to have gone through the discipline 
of self-instruction, a path along which the be- 
ginner may go astray a thousand times before 
attaining to perfection. For it is just this stumb- 
ling effort that reveals the dimensions of the art. 
The man who has adventured it learns the obstacles 
that obstruct his path, and how to surmount them. 
To be sure, it is a lengthy method. But if a man 




JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH. 

(From the picture disordered ly Professor Fritz Vollach.) 



BACH AS A TEACHER 93 

has patience to persevere he will reap a sure reward 
after an alluring pilgrimage. No musician ever 
founded a school of his own who has not fol- 
lowed such a course, and to his experience his 
teaching has owed its distinctive character. 

This is so with Bach, who, only gradually dis- 
covering his full stature, was thirty years old 
before unremitting application raised him above 
the difficulties of his art. But he reaped his 
reward. Self -discipline set him on the fairest and 
most alluring path that it has ever been given to 
a musician to tread. 

To teach well a man needs to have a full mind. 
He must have discovered how to meet and have 
overcome the obstacles in his own path before 
he can be successful in teaching others how to 
avoid them. Bach united both qualities. Hence, 
as a teacher he was the most instructive, clear, 
and definite that has ever been. In every branch 
of his art he produced a band of pupils who 
followed in his footsteps, without, however, 
equalling his achievement. 

First of all let me show how he taught the 
Clavier. 1 To begin with, his pupils were made to 
acquire the special touch of which I have already 
spoken. 2 To that end for months together he 
made them practise nothing but simple exercises 

1 Bach's method has come down to us in treatises by two of his 
pupils, C. P. E. Bach's ' Essay ' and Kirnberger's ' Die Kunst des 
reinen Satzes in der Musik,' to which reference has been made already. 

8 Supra, p. 50. 



94 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

for the fingers of both hands, at the same time 
emphasising the need for clearness and distinctness. 
He kept them at these exercises for from six to 
twelve months, unless he found his pupils losing 
heart, in which case he so far met them as to write 
short studies which incorporated a particular 
exercise. Of this kind are the ' Six Little Pre- 
ludes for Beginners,' 1 and the ' Fifteen Two- 
part Inventions,' 2 both of which Bach wrote 
during the lesson for a particular pupil and after- 
wards improved into beautiful and expressive 
compositions. Besides this finger practice, either 
in regular exercises or in pieces composed for the 
purpose, Bach introduced his pupils to the use 
of the various ornaments in both hands. 

Not until this stage was reached did Bach allow 
his pupils to practise his own larger works, so 
admirably calculated, as he knew, to develop their 
powers. In order to lessen their difficulty, it 
was his excellent habit to play over to them the 
pieces they were to study, with the remark, 
' That 's how it ought to sound.' 3 It would be 
difficult to exaggerate the helpfulness of this 
method. The pupil's interest was roused by hear- 
ing the piece properly played. But that was not 

1 Bach wrote eighteen Preludes for Beginners. They are all in 
P. bk. 200. 

2 Most of these movements, which Bach called indifferently ' Inven- 
tions ' (ideas) and ' Praeambula ' (Preludes), were written in 1723. 
They are in P. bk. 201. 

3 Heinrich Nikolaus Gerber, who was Bach's pupil from 1724 to 1727, 
particularly emphasises this feature of Bach's teaching. 



BACH AS A TEACHER 95 

the sole result. Without the help thus given 
the pupil could only hope to overcome the dif- 
ficulties of the piece after considerable effort, 
and would find it much less easy to realise a proper 
rendering of it. As it was, he received at once an 
ideal to aim at and was taught how to surmount 
the difficulties the piece presented. Many a 
young performer, still imperfect after a year's 
practice, probably would master his music in a 
month if he once had it played over to him. 

Bach's method of teaching composition was 
equally sure and effective. 1 He did not begin 
with the dry details of counterpoint, as was the 
custom of other teachers in his day. Still less 
did he burden his pupils with the physical pro- 
perties of sound, which he held to be matter for 
the theorist and instrument-maker rather than 
the composer. He started them off at once on 
four-part harmony over a figured Bass, making 
his pupils write each part on a separate stave in 
order to impress on them the need for accurate 
harmonic progression. Then he passed to Hymn 
tunes, setting the Bass himself and making his 
pupils write the Tenor and Alto parts. In time 
he let them write the Bass also. He insisted on 
correct harmony and on each part having a real 
melodic line. Every musician knows what models 

1 See on the whole matter Spitta, iii. 117 ff. Bach's method is 
illustrated by his ' Rules and Instructions ' (1738) printed by Spitta, 
iii. 315 ff., and also by the ' Einige hochst nothinge Regeln ' at the 
end of A. M. Badh's ' Notenbuch ' (1725). 



96 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

Bach has left us in this form. The inner parts of 
his four-part Hymn-tunes are so smooth and 
melodious that often they might be taken for the 
melody. He made his pupils aim at similar tune- 
fulness, and until they showed a high standard 
of merit did not permit them to write compositions 
of their own. Meanwhile he aimed at cultivating 
their feeling for pure harmony and for the order 
and connection of ideas and parts by familiarising 
them with the compositions of others. Until they 
had acquired facility hi those qualities he neither 
permitted them nor held them competent to put 
pen to paper. 

Bach required his pupils in composition to work 
out their musical ideas mentally. If any of them 
lacked this faculty he admonished him not to 
compose and discountenanced even his sons from 
attempting to write until they had first given 
evidence of genuine musical gifts. Having com- 
pleted their elementary study of harmony, Bach 
took his pupils on to the theory of Fugue, beginning 
with two-part writing. In these and other exer- 
cises he insisted on the pupil composing away 
from the Clavier. 1 Those who did otherwise he 

1 Mozart wrote as follows to a correspondent who asked him what 
his method of composition was : ' I can really say no more on this 
subject than the following ; for I myself know no more about it, and 
cannot account for it. When I am, as it were, completely myself, 
entirely alone, and of good cheer say, travelling in a carriage, or 
walking after a good meal, or during the night when I cannot sleep ; 
it is on such occasions that my ideas flow best and most abundantly. 
Whence and how they come, I know not ; nor can I force them. Those 



BACH AS A TEACHER 97 

ridiculed as ' Harpsichord Knights.' In the second 
place he required rigorous attention to each part 
and its relation to the concurrent parts, permitting 
none, not even an inner one, to break off before 
it had finished what it had to say. He insisted 
upon a correct relation between each note and its 
predecessor. If he came upon one whose deriva- 
tion or destination was not perfectly clear he 
struck it out as faulty. It is, indeed, a meticulous 
exactitude in each individual part that makes 



ideas that please me I retain in memory, and am accustomed, as I 
have been told, to hum them to myself. If I continue in this way, 
it soon occurs to me how I may turn this or that morsel to account, 
so as to make a good dish of it, that is to say, agreeably to the rules 
of counterpoint, to the peculiarities of the various instruments, etc. 
All this fires my soul, and, provided I am not disturbed, my subject 
enlarges itself, becomes methodised and defined, and the whole, 
though it be long, stands almost complete and finished in my mind, so 
that I can survey it, like a fine picture or a beautiful statue, at a 
glance. Nor do I hear in my imagination the parts successively, but 
I hear them, as it were, all together. What a delight this is I cannot 
tell ! . . . When I proceed to write down my ideas, I take out of the 
bag of my memory, if I may use that phrase, what has previously been 
collected into it in the way I have mentioned. For this reason the 
committing to paper is done quickly enough, for everything is, as I 
said before, already finished ; and it rarely differs on paper from what 
it was in my imagination ' (Life, ed. Dent, p. 255). 

Wagner, writing in 1851 to Uhlig, who could not understand how 
the libretto of ' Young Siegfried ' could be set to music, expresses the 
same idea as Mozart : ' What you cannot possibly imagine is a-making 
of itself ! I tell you, the musical phrases build themselves on these 
verses and periods without my having to trouble at all ; everything 
springs as if wild from the ground ' (Life, trans. Ellis, iii. p. 243). 

Schumann writes in 1839 : ' I used to rack my brains for a long 
time, but now I scarcely ever scratch out a note. It all comes from 
within, and I often feel as if I could go on playing without ever 
coming to an end ' (Grove, vol. iv. p. 353). 
G 



98 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

Bach's harmony really multiple melody. Con- 
fused part-writing, where a note that belongs to 
the Tenor is given to the Alto, or vice versa, or 
the haphazard addition of extraneous parts to a 
chord which suddenly shows an increase of notes 
as if fallen from the sky, to vanish as suddenly 
as they came, are faults found neither in his own 
nor his pupils' writing. He regarded his musical 
parts as so many persons engaged in conversation. 
If there are three, each of them on occasion may 
be silent and listen to the others until it finds 
something relevant to say itself. But if, at an in- 
teresting point of the conversation, an interloping 
voice intervened, Bach regarded it as an intruder 
and let his pupils understand that it could not be 
admitted. 

Notwithstanding his strictness on this point, 
Bach allowed his pupils considerable licence in 
other respects. In their use of certain intervals, 
as in their treatment of harmony and melody, he 
let them experiment within the limits of their 
ability, taking care to discountenance ugliness and 
to insist on their giving appropriate expression to 
the character of the composition. Beauty of ex- 
pression, he postulated, was only attainable on a 
foundation of pure and accurate harmony. Having 
experimented in every form himself, he liked to 
see his pupils equally adventurous. Earlier 
teachers of composition, for instance, Berardi, 1 

1 Angelo Berardi's 'Document! armonici. Nelli quali con varii 



BACH AS A TEACHER 99 

Buononcini, 1 and Fux, 2 did not allow such liberty. 
They were afraid to trust their pupils to encounter 
difficulties, and short-sightedly prevented them 
from learning how to overcome them. Bach's 
system was wiser, for it took his pupils farther, 
since he did not limit their attention, as his pre- 
decessors did, to the harmonic structure, but ex- 
tended it to the qualities that constitute good 
writing, namely, consistency of expression, variety 
of style, rhythm, and melody. Those who would 
acquaint themselves with Bach's method of teach- 
ing composition will find it fully set forth in 
Kirnberger's ' Correct Art of Composition.' 3 

As long as his pupils were under his instruction 
Bach did not allow them to study any but his 
own works and the classics. The critical sense, 
which permits a man to distinguish good from 
bad, develops later than the aesthetic faculty and 
may be blunted and even destroyed by frequent 
contact with bad music. The best way to in- 
struct youth is to accustom it early to consort 
with the best models. ' Time brings experience 
and an instructed judgment to confirm the pupil's 
early attraction to works of true art. 

discorsi, regole, ed essempii si dimonstrano gli studii arteficiosi della 
musica ' was published at Bologna in 1687. 

1 Giovanni Maria Buononcini, b. c. 1640, d. 1678 ; Maestro di Capella 
at Modena ; published his ' Musico prattico ' at Bologna in 1673, 
1688. 

2 Johann Joseph Fux, b. 1660, d. 1741 ; Kapellmeister at Vienna ; 
published his ' Gradus ad Parnassum ' at Vienna in 1725. 

3 See supra, p. 74. 



100 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

Under this admirable method of teaching all 
Bach's pupils became distinguished musicians, 
some more so than others, according as they came 
early or late under his influence, and had oppor- 
tunity and encouragement to perfect and apply 
the instruction they received from him. His 
two eldest sons, Wilhelm Friedemann and Carl 
Philipp Emmanuel, were his most distinguished 
pupils, not because he gave them better instruc- 
tion than the rest, but because from their earliest 
youth they were brought up amid good music at 
home. Even before they began their lessons they 
knew what was good. On the other hand, others, 
before they became Bach's pupils, either had 
heard no good music or their taste had been 
already vitiated by contact with bad. It at least 
attests the excellence of Bach's method that even 
his pupils thus handicapped took high rank hi 
their profession and distinguished themselves in 
one or other of its branches.* 

Bach's first pupil was JOHANN CASPAR VOGLEB, 
who received instruction from him in his early 
days at Arnstadt and Weimar and, on Bach's 
testimony, was an exceedingly able player. He 
became organist, and later burgomaster, at Weimar, 
retaining his professional position. Some Choral 

* I speak here only of those pupils who made music their profession. 
But, besides these, Bach had a great many other pupils. Every 
dilettante in the neighbourhood desired to boast of the instruction of 
so great and celebrated a man. Many gave themselves out to have 
beenjhis pupils who had never been taught by him. 



BACH AS A TEACHER 101 

Preludes by him for a two-manualed Organ with 
pedals were engraved about 1737. 1 

Other pupils of Bach who became famous 
were : 

1. HOMILIUS, of Dresden. He was not only an 
excellent organist but a distinguished composer 
of church music as well. 2 

2. TRANSCHEL, of Dresden. He was a fine 
musician and performer on the Clavier. There 
exist in MS. six Polonaises by him which perhaps 
are superior to those of any composer but Wilhelm 
Friedemann Bach. 3 

3. GOLDBERG, of Konigsberg. He was a very 
finished player on the Clavier, but without any 
marked talent for composition. 4 

4. KREBS, Organist at Altenburg. He was not 
only a player of the first rank, but also a prolific 
composer for the Organ, Clavier, and of church 
music. He was fortunate in having Bach's in- 
struction for nine years. 5 

1 See Spitta, i. 522 ; Schweitzer, i. 214 for further details regarding 
Vogler, who died circ. 1766. 

2 Gottfried August Homilius, b. 1714, d. 1785 ; pupil of Bach, circ. 
1735. Cantor of the Kreuzschule, Dresden. 

3 Christoph Transchel (1721-1800) taught music at Leipzig and 
Dresden ; Bach's pupil and friend, circ. 1742. See Spitta, iii. 245. 

* Johann Gottlieb (or Theophilus) Goldberg, clavicenist to Count 
Kaiserling (infra, p. 119) for whom Bach wrote the so-called ' Goldberg 
Variations.' He was born circ. 1720 and was a pupil of Bach from 
1733-46. 

6 Johann Ludwig Krebs, b. 1713, d. 1780 ; Bach's pupil, 1726-35. 
Bach said of him that he was ' the best crab (Krebs) in the brook 
(Bach).' 



102 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

5. ALTNIKOL, Organist at Naumburg. He was 
Bach's son-in-law and is said to have been a very 
competent player and composer. 1 

6. AGRICOLA, Court Composer at Berlin. 2 He 
is less known as a composer than as a theorist. 
He translated Tosi's 3 ' II canto figurato ' from 
Italian into German and provided the work with 
an instructive commentary. 

7. MUTHEL, of Riga. He was a good Clavier 
player and wrote for that instrument. His 
Sonatas and a Duet for two Claviers attest his 
ability as a composer. 4 

8. KiRNBERGER, 5 Court Musician at Berlin to 
the Princess Amalia of Prussia. 6 He was one of 
the most distinguished of Bach's pupils, full of 
genuine enthusiasm for his art and eager to assure 
its interests. Besides his exposition of Bach's 
system of teaching composition, we are indebted 
to him for the first logical treatise on harmony, 
in which he sets forth his master's teaching and 

1 Johann Christoph Altnikol, d. 1769. 

2 Johann Friedrich Agricola, b. 1720, d. 1774 ; pupil of Bach 
circ. 1738-41 ; Director of the Royal Chapel, Berlin. 

3 Pier Francesco Tosi, b. circ. 1650; singing master in London. 
His ' Opinioni de' cantori antichi e moderni, o sieno osservazioni sopra 
il canto figurato ' was published at Bologna in 1723. 

* Johann Gottfried Miithel, b. circ. 1720, d. circ. 1790 ; pupil of 
Bach in 1750 and resident in his house at the time of his death ; 
organist of the Lutheran Church, Riga. 

6 Johann Philipp Kirnberger, b. 1721, d. 1783 ; Bach's pupil, 1739-41. 

Louisa Amalia, of Brunswick-Wolfenbiittel, wife of Frederick the 
Great's brother, and mother of his successor, Frederick William n. 
(1786-97). 



BACH AS A TEACHER 103 

practice. The first work is entitled ' Kunst des 
reinen Satzes,' and the second, ' Wahre Grund- 
satze zum Gebrauch der Harmonic.' 1 He served 
the interests of his art also by other writings and 
compositions, and was an excellent teacher. The 
Princess Amalia was his pupil. 

9. KITTEL, Organist at Erfurt. He is a sound, 
though not a finished, player, and is distinguished 
as a composer by several Organ Trios, so excellent 
that Bach himself might have written them. He 
is the sole survivor (1802) of Bach's pupils. 2 

10. VOIGT, of Anspach, 3 and an organist named 
SCHUBART 4 were mentioned to me by Carl Philipp 
Emmanuel as having been Bach's pupils. He 
knew nothing about them except that they 
entered his father's house after he left it. 5 

1 The second work was published in 1773 at Berlin. For the first, 
see supra, p. 74. 

2 Johann Christian Kittel, b. 1732, d. 1809 ; one of Bach's latest 
pupils ; Organist of the Predigerkirche, Erfurt. He is said to have 
possessed a portrait of his master and to have rewarded his pupils for 
good playing by drawing the curtain which usually covered the picture 
and permitting them to look upon it. It is, perhaps, the portrait, 
recently discovered by Dr. Fritz Volbach, which is reproduced at p. 92 
of this volume. 

8 Nothing seems to be known of him. 

4 Johann Martin Schubart succeeded Bach at Weimar in 1717. He 
was born in 1690 and died in 1721. See Spitta, L 343. 

6 In addition to those mentioned by Forkel, the following pupils of 
Bach are known: Johann Gotthilf Ziegler, of St. Ulrich's Church, 
Halle ; J. Bernhard Bach, of Ohrdruf ; Heinrich Nikolaus Gerber, 
Organist at Sondershausen ; Samuel Anton Bach, of Meiningon ; 
Johann Ernst Bach, of Saxe-Weimar ; Johann Elias Bach, Cantor at 
Schweinfurt ; Johann Tobias Krebs, organist at Buttelstadt, and his 
sons, Johann Ludwig, Johann Tobias, and Johann Carl ; Johann 



104 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

I have said already that Bach's sons were his 
most distinguished pupils. The eldest, WILHELM 
FRIEDEMANN BACH, came nearest to his father 
in the originality of his genius. His melodies 
have quite a different character from those of 
other composers. They are exceedingly clever, 
elegant, and spontaneous. When performed with 
delicacy, as he played them, they cannot fail to 
charm every hearer. It is greatly to be regretted 
that he preferred to follow his fancy in extemporisa- 
tion and to expend his genius on fugitive thoughts 
rather than to work them out on paper. The 
number of his compositions therefore is small, 
but all are beautiful. 

CARL PHILIPP EMMANUEL BACH, who comes 
next, went out into the world sufficiently early 
to discover that it is a good thing for a composer 
to have a large public behind him. Hence, hi 
the clearness and easy intelligibility of his com- 
positions, he approaches the popular style, though 
he scrupulously avoids the commonplace. 1 Both 
he and his elder brother admitted that they were 



Schneider, organist of St. Nicolas', Leipzig ; Georg Friedrich Einicke, 
Cantor at Frankenhausen ; Johann Friedrich Doles, Bach's second 
successor in the Cantorate of St. Thomas' ; Rudolph Straube, who 
afterwards settled in England ; Christoph Nichelmann, cembalist to 
Frederick the Great ; Christian Grabner, and Carl Hartwig. 

For full information upon Bach's pupils see Spitta, i. 522 ff., ii. 47 fi., 
iii. 116 ff., 239 ff., and the relative articles in Grove's ' Dictionary.' 

1 Forkel does not do justice to his friend. C. P. E. Bach is recog- 
nised as the immediate precursor of Haydn and as the link between 
the latter and J. S. Bach. 



BACH AS A TEACHER 105 

driven to adopt a style of their own by the wish 
to avoid comparison with their incomparable 
father. 

JOHANN CHBISTOPH FRIEDRICH BACH, Con- 
certmeister at the Court of Biickeburg, imitated 
Carl Philipp's style, but was not his equal. 
According to Wilhelm Friedemann, he was the 
best player among the brothers, and the most 
effective performer of their father's Clavier com- 
positions. 

JOHANN CHRISTIAN BACH, called ' Bach of 
Milan,' and afterwards ' Bach of London,' was 
the youngest son of Bach's second marriage and 
of too tender an age when his father died ever to 
have had lessons from him. Hence, perhaps, 
the absence of Bach's style in his music. He was, 
in fact, a popular composer universally admired 
in his day. 1 

1 Mozart had a very particular regard for him. See Schweitzer 
i. 220 on his brothers' abilities as composers. 



CHAPTER VIII 

PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS 

DISTINGUISHED as a player, composer, and teacher, 
Bach was also an indulgent father, a good friend, 
and a loyal citizen. His paternal devotion is 
shown by his care for his children's education, 
and he was equally assiduous in the performance 
of his civil and social duties. His acquaintance 
was agreeable to everybody. Every lover of 
music, whatever his nationality, was sure of a 
friendly reception at his house, and his sociability 
and reputation caused him to be seldom without 
visitors. 

As an artist Bach was exceptionally modest. 
Notwithstanding his pre-eminence in his profession, 
a superiority of which he could not but be conscious, 
and in spite of the admiration and respect daily 
shown him, he never gave himself airs. If he 
was asked the secret of his mastership he would 
answer, ' I was made to work ; if you are equally 
industrious you will be equally successful,' x a 

1 Spitta (iii. 262) quotes a characteristic anecdote. To some one 
who praised his skill on the Organ Bach replied : ' There is nothing 
wonderful about it. You merely strike the right note at the right 
moment and the Organ does the rest.' 



PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS 107 

remark which made no allowance for his own 
exceptional genius. His opinion of other com- 
posers and their work was invariably fair and 
generous. Naturally, much of their work struck 
him as somewhat trivial, viewed from his own 
altitude. But he never uttered a harsh criticism, 
unless it were to a pupil, to whom he held himself 
bound to say what he thought. Still less did 
he presume on his acknowledged superiority to 
indulge in braggadocio, as often happens with 
performers brought into touch with those whom 
they regard as their inferiors. Herein Bach's 
modesty went so far that he never spoke 
voluntarily of his frustrated contest with 
Marchand, though the latter was the challenger. 1 
Many absurd stories are told of Bach ; for instance 
that, dressed up as a village schoolmaster, he 
liked to enter a church and ask the organist to 
let him play a Choral, in order to enjoy the astonish- 
ment excited by his playing, or to hear the Organist 
declare, ' This must be Bach or the Devil.' 2 
He always ridiculed such stories, and indeed 
had too much respect for his art to make it cloak 
his vanity. 

1 See supra, p. 19. Bach himself certainly was the challenger. 

* When Handel was at Venice in 1708, Domenico Scarlatti, hearing 
a stranger touching the Harpsichord at a masquerade, exclaimed, 
' That must either be the famous Saxon or the Devil ' (Rockstro's 
' George Frederick Handel,' p. 48). Streatfield (p. 146) mentions a 
similar event which took place in 1737. Hearing a stranger playing 
a Fugue in one of the Flemish churches, the organist embraced him, 
saying, ' You can be no other but the great Handel.' 



108 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

At musical parties where Quartet or other instru- 
mental music was performed, Bach liked to play 
the Viola, an instrument which put him, as it 
were, in the middle of the harmony in a position 
from which he could hear and enjoy it on both 
sides. On those occasions he would sometimes 
join in a Trio or other piece on the Harpsichord. 
If he was in the mood and the composer was 
agreeable, he would, as has been told already, 
extemporise a new Trio from the Continuo part, 
or, adding a new part, convert the Trio into a 
Quartet. But these were the only occasions on 
which he was ready to display his great powers 
before others. One Hurlebusch, of Brunswick, 1 
a conceited and arrogant Clavier player, once 
visited Bach at Leipzig, not to hear him play, 
but to play to him. Bach received him politely 
and listened patiently to his very indifferent per- 
formance. On taking leave Hurlebusch made 
Bach's eldest sons a present of his published 
Sonatas, exhorting them to study them diligently. 
Bach, knowing the kind of music his sons were 
wont to play, smiled at Hurlebusch's naivet6 but 
did not permit him to suspect his amusement. 2 

Bach was fond of listening to the music of other 
composers. If he and one of his elder sons hap- 

1 Heinrich Lorenz Hurlebusch was organist of three churches in 
Brunswick. His visit to Bach took place in 1730, seemingly. See 
Schweitzer, i. 154. 

2 Schweitzer prints an appreciation of Hurlebusch which suggests 
that he was a man of distinct ability and ' a paragon of politeness.' 



PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS 109 

pened to be in church when a Fugue was played, 
directly the subject had been stated he always 
pointed out how it ought to be developed. If the 
composer knew his business and fulfilled Bach's 
anticipations, he was pleased and nudged his son 
to draw his attention to the fact. Is this not 
evidence of his impartial interest in other people's 
compositions ? 

I have mentioned already the composers whom 
in his youth Bach esteemed, loved, and studied. 
Later, when experience ripened his critical faculty, 
he had other favourites, among them Imperial 
Kapellmeister Fux, Handel, Caldara, 1 Reinhard 
Keiser, Hasse, 2 the two Grauns, 3 Telemann, 4 
Zelenka, 5 Benda, 6 etc., and, in general, the dis- 
tinguished musicians at Dresden and Berlin. He 
was acquainted with all except the first four of 
those I mention. In his youth Bach was ultimate 
with Telemann. 7 He also had a very warm regard 

1 Antonio Caldara, b. arc. 1670; vice-Kapellmeister at Vienna, 
1716-36 ; d. 1736. 

2 Johann Adolph Hasse, b. 1699, d. 1783 ; Kapellmeister and 
Director of the Opera, Dresden. 

3 Johann Gottlieb Graun, b. ctrc. 1698, d. 1771 ; conductor of the 
royal Kapelle, Berlin. 

Carl Heinrich Graun, b. 1701, d. 1759 ; like his brother, in Frederick 
the Great's service. 

4 Georg Philipp Telemann, b. 1681, d. 1767 ; Cantor and Musik- 
direktor in Hamburg. 

5 Johann Dismas Zelenka, b. 1679 or 1681, d. 1745 ; Court Com- 
poser at Dresden. 

Franz Benda, b. 1709, d. 1786 ; Concertmeister to Frederick the 
Great upon the death of J. G. Graun. 
7 On Telemann's influence on Bach see Spitta, ii. 437. 



110 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

for Handel and often expressed a desire to know 
him. As Handel, like himself, was a famous per- 
former on the Organ and Clavier, many in Leipzig 
and its neighbourhood wished to bring the two 
great men together. But Handel, then living in 
London, never found time for a meeting during 
the visits he paid to Halle, his native town. On 
his first visit in 1719, Bach was at Cothen, only 
some twenty miles distant. As soon as he was 
informed of Handel's arrival he lost not a moment 
in setting out to visit him, but on his arrival 
found that Handel had returned to England. At 
the time of Handel's second visit, between 1730 
and 1740, 1 Bach was prevented from leaving 
Leipzig by indisposition. But no sooner was he 
advised of Handel's arrival at Halle than he sent 
his eldest son, Wilhelm Friedemann, to beg him 
to visit Leipzig, an invitation which Handel was 
unable to accept. In 1752 or 1753, when Handel 
paid his third visit to Germany, 2 Bach was dead. 
He had always expressed the strongest desire to 
know Handel, and the Leipzig people were dis- 
appointed in their wish to hear the two great 
men together. 

While Hasse was Kapellmeister at Dresden 
both the Opera and Kapelle flourished. Bach 

1 Handel's second visit to Halle took place in June 1729. His 
mother's illness detained him. See Streatfield, p. 110. 

2 Handel's third visit took place in July-August 1750. He was 
laid up by a severe accident in the course of it, and appears to have 
not recovered from it at the time of Bach's death. 



PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS 111 

had many friends at Dresden, who held him in 
high regard. Among them may be mentioned 
Hasse and his wife, the celebrated Faustina. 1 
They often visited Leipzig and were admirers of 
the Cantor's rare talents. Hence, at Dresden he 
was always received in the most respectful 
manner and often visited the Opera, generally 
accompanied by his eldest son. When the time 
for their journey approached Bach would say in 
fun, ' Well, Friedemann, shall we go to Dresden 
to hear the pretty tunes 2 again ? ' Innocent as 
the jest was, I am sure Bach would not have 
uttered it to any but his son, who already could 
distinguish between great music and agreeable 
trifles. 

Bach was never in a position to make what is 
called a brilliant fortune. 3 He held a fairly 
lucrative office, but his income had to maintain 
and educate a large family. He neither possessed 
nor sought other means of livelihood, and was too 
absorbed hi his art and work to think of accepting 
engagements which, in those days, and to a man 
of his genius, certainly would have brought riches. 
Had he possessed a taste for travel he would, as 
even one of his detractors admits, have ' drawn 

1 Faustina Bordoni, b. 1693, d. 1783 ; m. Hasse in 1730. She was 
one of the most famous singers of the day. 

8 The original has ' Liederchen.' 

3 See supra, p. 37. Compare Handel's case. He received a royal 
pension of 600 per annum, and though he was twice bankrupt, left 
20,000. 



112 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

upon himself the admiration of the whole world.' 
But he preferred a quiet domestic life, constant 
occupation in his work, with contentment and 
a moderate competence, like his forbears. 

His modesty, however, did not prevent him 
from receiving manifold proofs of regard and 
affection and marks of honourable distinction. 
Prince Leopold of Cothen, Duke Ernst August 
of Weimar, 1 and Duke Christian of Weissenfels, 
all showed sincere regard for him, which must have 
been the more agreeable to him seeing that they 
were all sound judges of music. At Berlin, as at 
Dresden, he was universally honoured and re- 
spected. If we add to these testimonies the fact 
that he captured the admiration of all who heard 
him play or were acquainted with his music, then 
we may be sure that Bach, ' singing for himself 
and the Muses,' received at the hands of Fame the 
recognition he valued most, and cherished it far 
more than the trivial honour of a ribbon or gold 
chain. 

I add that, in 1747, Bach became a member 
of the ' Society of the Musical Sciences,' founded 
by Mizler, only because we owe to the circum- 
stance his admirable Choral Variations on 'Vom 
Himmel hoch.' 2 He presented them to the 



1 The Duke was the nephew of, and succeeded, Duke Wilhelm Ernst 
in 1728. 

2 The Canonic Variations on the melody are published by Novello 
bk. 19, p. 73. For the Mizler Society, see supra, p. xxiv. 



PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS 113 

Society on his admission and they were engraved 
subsequently. 1 

1 Spitta (iii. 294) regards the statement as incorrect and holds that 
the work was engraved before Bach joined Mizler's Society in June 
1747. Pirro (p. 215) supports Spitta and regards the Variations as 
having been engraved at Niirnberg ' vers 1746.' 



CHAPTER IX 

BACH'S COMPOSITIONS 

To have produced so many great works in all 
forms of musical expression Bach necessarily must 
have been a prolific writer. For if a composer be 
the greatest genius in the world, unless he con- 
stantly exercises his art he cannot hope to produce 
real masterpieces. Superlative excellence is the 
fruit of indefatigable application. Yet in Bach's 
case we should be wrong to acclaim as master- 
pieces all the products of his great activity just 
because masterpieces at length were the fruit of 
it. Already in his early compositions we find 
undeniable evidence of genius. But they are 
blemished by faults, passages poor in quality, 
extravagant, insipid, that are hardly worth pre- 
serving, though of interest to the student who 
wishes to trace from its source the development 
of Bach's genius. 

It is not difficult to distinguish with exac- 
titude those of Bach's early compositions which 
are of the first excellence ; for he has been at 
pains to give us the clue. As he did not publish 
his first work until he was about forty years 



BACH'S COMPOSITIONS 115 

old, 1 we are justified in assuming the merit of 
what, at so mature an age, he thought worthy 
to put into print, and in concluding generally 
that all his engraved works are of first-rate 
merit. 2 

With respect to his unpublished compositions, 
and they are by far the most numerous, we must 
in order to distinguish their merit rely partly 
on a critical examination of their texts, partly on 
Bach's own judgment. Like all great composers, 
he was continually working on his compositions 
with a view to making them still more finished. 
Indeed, he actually attempted to improve some 
of them that were already perfect. Any that were 
susceptible of improvement he improved, even 
those already engraved. Such is the origin of the 
variant readings of his works found in older and 
more recent texts. By constantly retouching his 
compositions Bach aimed at making them in- 
disputable masterpieces. In this category I place 
most of what he wrote before the year 1725, as I 
show in detail in the following catalogue. A great 

1 The first of Bach's works to be engraved was the Miihlhausen 
Cantata, ' Gott 1st mein Konig ' (parts only). It was published in 
1708, when Bach was twenty- three years old. Forkel refers to 
Partita I. in the first Part of the ' Clavieriibung ' (P. bk. 205 p. 4). It 
was engraved in 1726, when Bach was forty-one years old. In 1731 
he republished it, with five others that had appeared in the interval, 
in the first Part of the ' Clavierubung ' (P. bks. 205, 206). 

2 Forkel's rather casual critical axioms seem to be as follows : 
' Publication postulates excellence ' ; 'An amended MS. implies that 
the original text was not a finished work of art.' 



116 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

many compositions subsequent to 1725, which 
for reasons easily understood are still in MS., bear 
too evidently the stamp of perfection to leave 
us in doubt whether to class them as early essays 
or as the finished work of an accomplished master. 

The following are those of Bach's works which 
have been engraved : 

1. Clavierubung, or ' Exercises for the Clavier, 
consisting of Preludes, Allemandes, Courantes, 
Sarabandes, Gigues, Minuets, etc., for the Diversion 
of Amateurs. Opus I. Published by the Composer, 
1731.' This was Bach's first published work 
and contains six Suites. The first of them came 
out in 1726 ; l the others followed in successive 
years until all were engraved together in 173 1. 2 
The work was much noticed at the time. Such 
compositions for the Clavier had not been seen 
or heard before, and the man who could play them 
was sure of a success. Our young players to-day 
would profit by the study of them, so brilliant, 
agreeable, expressive, and original are they. In 
the new edition 3 they are entitled, ' Exercises 
for the Clavier.' 

1 It was the first work engraved by Bach himself, though the parts 
of the Cantata ' Gott ist mein Konig ' had been published by the 
Town Council at Miihlhausen in 1708. 

2 The work was published at Leipzig ' in Commission bey Boetii 
Seel, hinderlassenen Tochter, unter den Rath-hause.' The Suites, or 
Partitas (P. bks. 205, 206), are in B flat major, C minor, A minor, 
D major, G major, E minor. 

3 In 1801 Hoffmeister and Kiihnel unsuccessfully attempted to 
publish Bach's works by subscription. 



BACH'S COMPOSITIONS 117 

2. Clqvierubung, or ' Exercises for the Clavier, 
Part II., consisting of a Concerto in the Italian 
style and an Overture in the French manner x for 
a Clavier with two manuals. Published by 
Christopher Weigel, Junior, in Niirnberg.' 2 

3. Clavierubung, or ' Exercises for the Clavier, 
Part III., consisting of various Organ Preludes 
to the Catechism and other Hymns, composed 
for the diversion of amateurs and particularly 
of competent judges of such works. Published 
by the Composer.' Besides the Preludes and 
Fugues for the Organ, all of which are masterly, 
the book contains four Duetti for the Clavier, 3 
models of their kind. 

4. Seeks Chorale, or ' Six Choral Melodies of 
different kinds, for an Organ with two manuals and 
pedal. Zella, in the Thuringian Forest. Pub- 
lished by Johann G. Schiibler.' 4 They are full 
of dignity and religious feeling. In some of them, 
too, we have instances of Bach's original manage- 

1 The Partita in B minor (P. bk. 208 p. 20). 

2 The work was published in 1735. The Italian Concerto in F major 
is published by Novello and P. bk. 207. 

3 The work appeared in 1739. It was intended to contain works 
for the Organ only ; the four Duetti are incongruous and seem to have 
crept in by mistake. See the scheme of the work discussed in Terry, 
' Bach's Chorals,' Part III. The Choral Preludes are in Novello's ed., 
bk. xvi. 

4 The work was published circ. 1747-50. Five of the six move- 
ments certainly, and the sixth with practical certainty, are 
adaptations to the Organ of movements out of Bach's Church 
Cantatas. See Parry, 'Bach,' p. 535. The Chorals are in 
Novello's ed., bk, xvi. 



118 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

ment of the stops. 1 Thus, in the second Choral, 
' Wo soil ich fliehen hin,' he gives to the first 
manual an 8 foot, to the second a 16 foot, and to 
the pedal a 4 foot stop. The pedal has the cantus 
firmus.* 

5. Clavierubung, or * Exercises for the Clavier, 
consisting of an Aria with several Variations, for 
a Clavier with two manuals. Published by 
Balthasar Schmidt at Niirnberg.' 3 This ad- 
mirable work consists of thirty Variations, some 
in canon, in a variety of movements and at all 
intervals from the unison to the ninth, with easy 
flowing melody. It includes a regular four- 
part Fugue, 4 several extremely brillant Variations 
for two Claviers, 5 and concludes with a Quodlibet, 
as it is called, which alone would render its com- 
poser immortal, though it is not the best thing in 
the volume. 6 

The Variations are models of what such com- 
positions ought to be, though no one has been 
so rash as to attempt to follow Bach's footsteps. 

1 See supra, p. 65. 

2 Thus the pedal sounds above the part given to the second manual 
and is often the topmost part. See Novello's ed., bk. xvi. 4. 

3 Published circ. 1742 ; the so-called ' Goldberg Variations.' They 
are in P. bk. 209. 

4 Variation No. 10 is a Fughetta in four parts. 

5 Ten of the Variations are marked ' a 2 Clav.,' that is, for two key- 
boards or manuals : Nos. 8, 11, 13, 14, 17, 20, 23, 25, 26, 28. Nos. 5, 
7, 29 are marked ' a 1 owero 2 Clav.' 

8 The movement is constructed upon two merry folk-songs, ' Kraut 
and Ruben haben mich vertrieben,' and ' Ich bin so lang nicht bei dir 
gewest.' 



BACH'S COMPOSITIONS 119 

We owe them to Count Kaiserling, formerly 
Russian Ambassador at the Saxon Electoral 
Court, who frequently visited Leipzig with 
Goldberg, already mentioned 1 among Bach's 
pupils. The Count was a great invalid and 
suffered from insomnia. Goldberg lived in the 
Ambassador's house, and slept in an adjoining 
room, to be ready to play to him when he was 
wakeful. One day the Count asked Bach to 
write for Goldberg some Clavier music of a 
soothing and cheerful character, that would 
relieve the tedium of sleepless nights. Bach 
thought a set of Variations most likely to ful- 
fil the Count's needs, though, on account of the 
recurrence of the same basic harmony through- 
out, it was a form to which he had hitherto paid 
little attention. Like all his compositions at 
this period, however, the Variations are a master- 
piece, and are the only example he has left us of 
this form. 2 The Count always called them ' my 
Variations ' and was never weary of hearing 
them. For long afterwards, when he could not 
sleep, he would say, ' Play me one of my Varia- 

1 See supra, p. 101. 

2 In fact Bach wrote the early ' Aria variata alia raaniera Italiana* 
(Peters bk. 215, p. 12) for the Clavier. For the Organ he wrote four 
sets of Variations upon as many Choral melodies (Novello bk. xix.). 
But all except the Goldberg Variations are youthful works, and in hia 
maturity Bach clearly had no liking for the form. The theme of the 
Goldberg Variations, moreover, is itself a youthful idea ; at least it 
dates back to as early as 1725, and is found in A. M. Bach's ' Noten- 
buch ' (No. 26, Aria in G major). 



120 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

tions, Goldberg.' Perhaps Bach was never so 
well rewarded for any composition as for this. 
The Count gave him a golden goblet containing 
one hundred louis d'ors, though, as a work 
of art, Bach would not have been overpaid 
had the present been a thousand times as large. 
It may be observed, that in the engraved copy 
of the Variations there are serious mistakes, 
which the composer has corrected in his own 
copy. 1 

6. Einige kanonische Verdnderungen, ' Canonic 
Variations on the Christmas Hymn ' Vom Himmel 
hoch da komm ich her,' for an Organ with two 
manuals and pedal. Published at Niirnberg by 
Balthasar Schmidt.' The work contains five 
canonic variations of the utmost ingenuity. 2 

7. Musikalisches Opfer, or ' A Musical Offering,' 
dedicated to Frederick n., King of Prussia. The 
theme received by Bach from the King 3 is treated 
first as a three-part Fugue under the acrostic title 
* Ricercare ' (Regis iussu cantio et reliqua canonica 
arte resoluta). There follows a six-part ' Ricer- 
care ' and ' Thematis regii elaborationes canonicae ' 

1 There is no reference to these corrigenda in the B.G. edition. 

2 The work has been referred to already in connection with Bach's 
membership of Mizler's Society (supra, p. 112). It was composed pre- 
sumably circ. 1746 and in point of technical skill is the most brilliant 
of Bach's instrumental works. Forkel states that it was engraved 
after June 1747, when Bach joined Mizler's Society. Spitta (iii. 295) 
is of opinion that it was already engraved by then. It is in bk. xix. of 
Novello's edition. 

3 Supra, p. 25. 



BACH'S COMPOSITIONS 121 

of various kinds. 1 The work includes a Trio for 
Flute, Violin, and Clavier upon the same subject. 2 
8. Die Kunst der Fuge, or ' The Art of Fugue.' 
This work, unique of its kind, did not appear till 
about 1752, after Bach's death, though the greater 
part of it had been engraved by his sons during 
his lifetime. 3 Marpurg, 4 the leading German 
musical critic of that day, contributed a preface 
to this edition which contains many just observa- 
tions on the value and utility of such treatises. 5 
But, being too good for the general public, the 
work found only a small circulation among those 
who discerned its merit and eagerly bought copies. 

The presentation copy of the work, which Bach sent to Frederick 
along with a dedicatory letter (July 7, 1747), is in the Berlin 
Amalienbibliothek and proves that only the first third of the work, 
as far as the ' Ricercare a sei voci ' (see B.G. xxxi. (2)) was sent then. 
The latter and the remaining canons were dispatched subsequently 
probably by the hand of C. P. E. Bach. The six-part Ricercare was 
a particular compliment to the King. Frederick had desired Bach 
on his visit to play a Fugue in six parts but left it to the player to 
select his theme. Bach now employed the ' thema regium ' for the 
purpose. The first reissue of the work was by Breitkopf and Haertel 
in 1832. Peters (bk. 219) brought it out in 1866. See Schweitzer, 
i. 417 ff. and Spitta, iii. 191 ff. and 292. 

2 In C minor (P. bk. 237 p. 3). 

3 The statement is inaccurate. The work was written for the most 
part in 1749 and the greater part of it was prepared for engraving by 
Bach himself during his last illness. None of his elder sons was with 
him at his death, and the blunders that disfigure the engraved copy 
show that they clumsily finished their father's work. It is in P. bk. 218. 

4 Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg, b. 1718, d. 1795. 

5 The work was published shortly after Bach's death, but had no 
sale. C. P. E. Bach then commissioned Marpurg to write a preface, 
and the new edition was published at the Leipzig Fair, Easter, 1752. 
In four years only about thirty copies were sold. See Spitta, iii. 197 ff. 
and Schweitzer, i. 423 ff. 



122 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

The plates were never used again and eventually 
were sold * by Bach's heirs at the price of old copper. 
Written by a man of Bach's transcendent genius, 
and commended as a masterpiece by a critic so 
highly regarded as Marpurg, a work of this kind, 
if published in any other country than Germany, 
would have passed through at least ten editions 
by now, if only at the bidding of patriotism. But 
in Germany not a sufficient number of copies was 
sold to pay for the plates used in engraving the 
work ! 

The work consists of fugal Variations planned 
on the most elaborate scale. 2 The composer's 
intention was to show in what a variety of ways 
the same theme can be treated fugally. The 
Variations (here called ' Contrapunctus ') 3 are 
complete Fugues upon the same theme. The last 
Fugue of all has three subjects, in the third of 
which the composer signs his name, BACH. 4 

1 In 1756. See C. P. E. Bach's advertisement in Felix Grenier, 
p. 232. 

2 The work contains six Fugues and four canons upon the same 
theme ; an unfinished Fugue ' a tre soggetti,' the first four notes of the 
third of which spell BACH; and the Choral Prelude ' Wenn wir in 
hochsten Nothen sein.' 

3 Schweitzer explains : ' His purpose in this work being a purely 
theoretical one, Bach writes the Fugues out in score, and calls them 
" counterpoints." ' 




BACH 



BACH'S COMPOSITIONS 123 

Bach was prevented from finishing it by the dis- 
order of his eyes, and as an operation brought no 
relief the movement was never completed. It is 
said that Bach intended to introduce four themes 
into it and to bring it to an impressive conclusion 
by inverting them all. All the Fugues in the 
work are equally smooth and melodious. 

To make up for the unfinished Fugue Bach 
concluded the work with a Choral Prelude upon 
the tune ' Wenn wir in hochsten Nothen sein,' 
which he dictated to his son-in-law, Altnikol, a 
few days before his death. 1 Of the extraordinary 
skill it displays I do not speak, save to remark 
that even in his last illness it proclaims Bach's 
skill undiminished. The pious resignation and 
devotion that characterise it move me deeply 
whenever I play it. Nor should I find it easy 
to say which I had rather had been omitted, the 
Choral Prelude, or the conclusion of the unfinished 
Fugue. 

9. Lastly, after Bach's death, his four-part 
Chorals were collected by his son, Carl Philipp 
Emmanuel, and were published by Birnstiel 
(Berlin and Leipzig), Part I. in 1765, Part II. in 
1769. 2 Each Part contains one hundred Chorals, 

1 Supra, p. 27. The movement is in N. bk. 17 p. 85. It is not 
certain that Bach intended the Prelude or the unfinished Fugue to be 
included. 

2 C. P. E. Bach waa only concerned with the first volume. Erk, 
in his edition of the ' Choralgesange,' conjectures that Kirnberger was 
responsible for the second. 



124 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

mostly taken from the composer's church Can- 
tatas. 

More recently Kirnberger edited, in four volumes, 
a collection of Bach's Chorals. They are pub- 
lished by Breitkopf. 1 

Bach's works, still in MS., consist of composi- 
tions for the Clavier, Organ, with and without 
other instruments, Strings, and the voice. I will 
enumerate them in that order. 

I. COMPOSITIONS FOR THE CLAVIER 

1. Six Little Preludes for Beginners. 2 

2. Fifteen Two-part Inventions. An Invention 
is a musical theme so constructed that by imita- 
tion and inversion a whole movement can be 
evolved from it. The subject having been first 
stated, the rest develops naturally out of it. For 
the instruction of a young Clavier player these 
fifteen Inventions are of great value, seeing that 
the composer has been careful not only to provide 
exercises for both hands but for every finger as 

1 The four volumes were published at Leipzig between 1784-87. 
Spitta states that C. P. E. Bach was the editor. Erk joins Kirnberger 
with him in that position. As C. P. E. Bach died in 1788 Kirnberger's 
association with the work is probable, especially if he had already 
been responsible for the 1769 volume. 

2 Bach's Clavier school consisted of eighteen Preludes for beginners 
(all in B.G. xxxvi.) ; the two-part and three-part Inventions; and the 
' Well-tempered Clavier.' The six Preludes mentioned by Forkel, and 
which alone he knew, were published by him for the first time. Seven 
more are found in Wilhelm Friedemann's ' Clavierbiichlein ' (B.G. 
XLV (1)), and the remaining five have survived in texts handed down 
by others of Bach's pupils. The eighteen are in P. bk. 200. 



BACH'S COMPOSITIONS 125 

well. They were composed at Cothen in 1723, 
with a long title which begins : ' An honest Guide, 
in which lovers of the Clavier are shown a clear 
method of playing correctly in two parts,' etc. 1 

It cannot be denied that, among other blem- 
ishes, the Inventions occasionally exhibit melodic 
poverty and roughness. But finding them useful 
to his pupils, Bach eventually revised them and 
removed from them everything that offended his 
maturer taste, so that they now stand as master- 
pieces of pure music. Moreover they are in- 
valuable exercises for the ringers and hands and 
are sound instructors of taste. There is no better 
introduction to Bach's larger works than they 
afford. 

3. Fifteen three-part Inventions, also called Sym- 
phonies. They were written for the same purpose 
as the Inventions, but are more advanced. 2 

4. ' The Well-tempered Clavier, or, Preludes and 
Fugues in all tones and semitones, composed for 
the profit and use of young musicians desirous 
of knowledge, as also for those who are skilled 
already in this studio.'' Part I. was finished in 
1722. Part II., like Part I., contains twenty-four 
Preludes and twenty-four Fugues in every key, 

1 The Autograph was written at Cothen and is dated 1723. It also 
contains the fifteen Symphonies, or three-part Inventions mentioned 
in paragraph 3. Both Inventions and Symphonies are in P. bk. 
201. According to Spitta (ii. 57 n.) the Inventions were published at 
Leipzig in 1763. See also Schweitzer, i. 328 ff. 

2 See the previous note. 



126. JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

and was composed at a later period. 1 Every 
number of it, from first to last, is a masterpiece. 
In Part I., however, certain Preludes and Fugues 
bear marks of immaturity and are included pro- 
bably only in order to complete the series. But 
here again Bach eventually corrected whatever 
seemed to him lacking in finish. He altered or 
rewrote entire passages, so that in the later texts 
few movements are not perfect. Among these 
few I reckon the Fugues in A minor, 2 G major 
and G minor, 3 C major, 4 F major and F minor. 5 
The rest are excellent, some of them so super- 
latively good as to be not inferior to those in 
Part II. 6 Even Part II., for all its original per- 
fection, has been improved by the composer, as 
may be observed by comparing the original and 
later texts. Both Parts contain treasures of art 
not to be found outside Germany. 

1 The second Part was compiled in 1744 and Bach's Autograph of 
it, though not the earliest Autograph, is in the British Museum. See 
Schweitzer, i. 331 G. and Spitta, ii. 161 fl. The whole work is in 
P. bks. 1.2; or la, 16 ; or 2790a, 27906. 

2 No. 20. Spitta (ii. 164) attributes it to the years 1707 or 1708. 
Schweitzer (i. 332) also regards it as a youthful piece written, more- 
over, for the pedal Clavicembalo. 

3 Nos. 15 and 16. Spitta, admitting that the two do not rank with 
the most interesting in the collection, finds no indication of their 
being of different date from the best movements. 

* No. 1. Here Spitta (ii. 165 n.) challenges Forkel. 

6 Nos. 11 and 12. In regard to No. 12 (F minor) Spitta holds 
Forkel to be in error. As to No. 11, he expresses the same opinion as 
in note 3, supra. 

6 The date 1744 places the second Part among Bach's latest com- 
positions. On the other hand, like the first Part, it contained work 
of earlier date. 



BACH'S COMPOSITIONS 127 

5. Chromatic Fantasia and Fugue.* I have 
taken considerable pains to discover a similar 
piece of music by Bach, but without success. 
The Fantasia is unique and unequalled. Wilhelm 
Friedemann sent it to me from Brunswick 
inscribed with these words by a mutual friend : 
' Anbey kommt an etwas Musik von Sebastian, 
sonst genannt : Fantasia chromatica ; bleibt schon 
in alle Saecula.' 

It is remarkable that this piece, for all its 
technical skill, appeals to the most unpractised 
hearer, if it is performed at all tolerably. 

6. A Fantasia in C minor. It is not of the same 
character as the preceding work, but resembles 
rather the Allegro of a Sonata. It is divided into 
two parts, but must be played as a single move- 
ment. It is an excellent work, and in old copies 
an unfinished Fugue follows, which, however, 
cannot belong to it. 2 The first thirty bars 
certainly are by Bach, for they are marked by 
an extremely bold use of augmented and diminished 
intervals and their inversions, in three-pait 
harmony. None but Bach attempted such things. 

1 Chromatic Fantasia and Fugue in D minor (P. bk. 207 p. 4). It 
probably dates from circ. 1720-23. 

2 The MS. was discovered in 1876 and is now at Dresden. It was 
written circ. 1738 and disproves Forkel's conjecture that the Fugue 
did not belong to the Fantasia and is only partially by Bach. The 
Fugue contains forty-seven bars. As the Autograph is a fair copy the 
Fugue cannot be called unfinished. See Spitta, iii. 182. The Fan- 
tasia is in P. bk. 207 p. 50 ; the Fugue in P. bk. 212 p. 88. See E.G. 
xxxvi., xxxvni., and xm. for other Clavier Fantasias. 



128 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

The rest of the movement seems to have been 
added by another hand and bears no trace of 
Bach's style. 

7. Six large Suites, consisting of Preludes, Alle- 
mandes, Courantes, Sarabandes, etc. They are 
known as the ' English Suites,' because the com- 
poser wrote them for an Englishman of rank. 1 
All of them are of great merit as works of art, 
and some movements, in particular the Gigues 
of the fifth and sixth Suites, are perfect master- 
pieces of harmony and melody. 

8. Six small Suites, consisting of Allemandes, 
Courantes, etc. They are generally called the 
' French Suites,' because they are written in the 
French style. 2 The composer is intentionally 
less academic in them than in his larger Suites, 
and their melodies are more than usually pleasant 
and agreeable. In particular the fifth Suite 
deserves to be noticed : all its movements are 
most melodious, and in the concluding Gigue 

1 The true explanation seems to be that the Prelude of the first 
Suite (A major) is based upon a Gigue by Charles Dieupart (d. circ. 
1740), a popular teacher and composer in England. The words ' fait 
pour les Anglois,' which head the A major Suite in an early MS., have 
been wrongly interpreted as applying to the whole set of six. They 
merely indicate Dieupart's borrowed Gigue. See Grove, vol. i. 701, 
and Parry, ' J. S. Bach,' p. 463. A copy of the work exists, of date 
1724-27, made by one of Bach's pupils. But the composition of the 
Suites may certainly be assigned to the Cothen period. They are 
published in P. bks. 203, 204. 

2 The French Suites undoubtedly date back to the Cothen period, 
since they figure, though incomplete, in the ' Notenbuch ' of A. M. Bach 
(1722). They are published in P. bk. 202. 



BACH'S COMPOSITIONS 129 

only consonant intervals, especially thirds and 
sixths, are used. 

These are Bach's principal works for the Clavier 
which can be considered classics. 1 A great number 
of single Suites, 2 Toccatas and Fugues, 3 besides 
those already mentioned, have great and varying 
merit, but are youthful works. 4 At the most, 
ten or twelve of them seem to me worth preserving, 
some of them because they would be useful as 
finger exercises, for which their author originally 
intended them, others because they are at least 
better than similar works by other composers. 
As an exercise for the fingers of both hands I 
particularly single out a Fugue in A minor, 5 in 
which the composer has been at great pains to 
write florid passages in order to give equal 
strength and suppleness to both hands. For 
beginners a little two-part Fugue 6 should also 
prove useful. It is melodious, flowing, and not 
at all old-fashioned. 

1 Forkel's incomplete catalogue may be compared with the Bach- 
gesellschaft volumes in., xm. (2), xiv., xxv. (1), xxxi. (2), xxxvi., XLH., 
XT.TTT. (1 and 2), XLV. (1). See generally Schweitzer, ch. 15, and Pirro, 
pp. 218 ff. 

2 P. bks. 205, 206, 208, 212 (fragment in F minor), 214, 216, 
1959. 

3 P. bks. 200, 210, 211, 212, 214, 215, 1959. 

4 For the most part these youthful works will be found in 
E.G. xxxvi. 

5 P. bk. 207 p. 16. 

6 In C minor (P. bk. 200 p. 10). 



130 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

II. MUSIC FOE THE CLAVIER WITH OTHER 
INSTRUMENTS 

1. Six Sonatas for Clavier with Violin obbligato. 
Composed at Cothen, they are among Bach's 
masterpieces in this form and display fugal and 
canonic writing which is both natural and full of 
character. The Violin part needs a master to 
play it ; for Bach knew the capabilities of the 
instrument and spared it as little as the Clavier. 
The six Sonatas are hi the keys of B minor, A 
major, E major, C minor, F minor, and G major. 1 

2. Several Sonatas for Harpsichord and Violin, 2 
Harpsichord and Flute,* Harpsichord and Viol 
da Gamba.* They are admirably written and 
most of them are pleasant to listen to even to- 
day. 5 

3. Several Concertos for the Clavier and other 
instruments. They contain real gems of art 
but are antiquated in form. 6 

1 In P. bks. 232, 233. 

1 Suite in A major (P. bk. 236), Sonata in E minor (P. bk. 236), 
Fugue in G minor (P. bk. 236), four Inventions (P. bk. 2957), Sonata 
in G minor (BG. ix. 274 ; not in P.), Sonata in C major for 2 Violins 
and Clavier (P. bk. 237). 

* There are six Sonatas for Flute and Clavier, in B minor, E flat 
major, A minor, C major, E minor, E major (P. bks. 234, 235). 

* There are three Sonatas for Clavier and Gamba, in G major, 
D major, G minor (P. bk. 239). 

8 Forkel omits two Sonatas for Violin, Flute, and Clavier, in G major 
and C minor (both in P. bk. 237). 

* As Forkol mentions in sees. 4, 5, 6 the Concertos for two, three, 
and four Claviers, perhaps he had in mind here seven Concertos for 
Clavier and Orchestra (P. bks. 248-254). A Concerto for Clavier, 



BACH'S COMPOSITIONS 131 

4. Two Concertos for two Claviers, with an 
accompaniment of two Violins, Viola, and 
Violoncello. The first, in C minor, 1 has an antique 
flavour. But the second, in C major, 2 is as fresh 
as if it had been written yesterday. 3 It may 
be played without the String quartet and still 
sounds admirable. The final Allegro is a majestic 
movement and strictly fugal. Compositions of 
this form were first perfected, indeed, we may 
conjecture, were first attempted, by Bach. At 
least, I have met with only a single example by 
another composer that may perhaps be older 
namely, Pachelbel of Niirnberg's Toccata, as he 
called it. Pachelbel, however, was a contemporary 
of Bach and may have taken the idea from him. 
However, his work is not worth considering. One 
instrument merely repeats the other's phrases 
without being at all concertante. It almost 
seems as if Bach at this period had made up his 
mind to discover what could be done with any 
number of parts. Having already written for a 

Violin, Flute, and Orchestra (P. bk. 255 p. 4) in A minor also should be 
mentioned. Also an Overture, in G minor, for Oavier and Strings 
(E.G. XLV. (1) p. 190; not in P.) 

1 P. bk. 257 p. 4. * P. bk. 256 p. 4. 

3 There are, in fact, three Concertos for two Claviers and Orchestra : 
two in C minor and one in C major. Forkel refers to only one of the 
former and regards it as antiquated by comparison with the one in 
C major. Spitta (iii. 144) attributes the C major to 1730. Forkel's 
C minor in its original form was a Concerto for two Violins, now lost. 
The other C minor Concerto is identical with ihe Concerto in D minor 
for two Violins and is in P. 257b. Spitta (iii. 138) dates it 1736. 
See Schweitzer, i. 413. 



132 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

single solo instrument music which required no 
accompaniment, he next experimented in dividing 
his material between as large a number of solo 
instruments as possible. Hence the Concertos 
for two Claviers were followed by 

5. Two Concertos for three Claviers with an 
accompaniment of Strings. 1 These Concertos 
present a remarkable characteristic : besides 
the concertante combination of three Claviers, the 
stringed instruments also have concertante parts 
distinct from the accompaniment. It is difficult 
to realise the art involved in this achievement. 
For, hi spite of their technical skill, the two 
works are so delicate, full of character, and 
expressive, that the composer might be treating 
a simple melody (note particularly the Concerto 
in D minor). Words are inadequate to express 
the admiration they arouse. But Bach was not 
satisfied. Hence he wrote 

6. A Concerto for four Claviers and four stringed 
instruments. 2 I cannot judge the effect of this 
composition, for I have never been able to get 
together the four instruments and four performers 

1 In D minor and C major (P. bks. 258, 259). The tradition is that 
Bach wrote these two Concertos in order to play them with his elder 
sons. Spitta (iii. 144) finds the tradition trustworthy. Hence the 
two works must have been written by c, 1733 at latest, before the sons 
left home. See also Schweitzer, i. 414. 

2 In A minor (P. bk. 260). This is not an original composition, but 
is an arrangement by Bach of a Vivaldi Concerto for four Violins. 
Spitta (iii. 149) assigns it to the same period as the Concertos for three 
Claviers, c. 1733. See E.G. XLUI. (1) infra. 



BACH'S COMPOSITIONS 133 

it requires. But that it is admirably written can 
be seen from the parts. 

III. COMPOSITIONS FOR THE ORGAN 
The pedal is the distinctive feature of the Organ 
which places it above)all other instruments, jind 
gives it its magnificence, sonority, and majesty. 
Deprive it of the pedal and you take from it the 
solemn and imposing tones which are its dis- 
tinctive utterance, reducing it to the level of a 
'positiv,' or Chamber-organ, an instrument re- 
latively insignificant. 

But an Organ equipped with a pedal must be 
able to employ it in its full compass, 1 and both 
composer and organist must know the proper use 
of it. No one excelled Bach in this knowledge. 
Not only is his rich harmony and melody singu-_ 
larly adapted to the mstrument, but he gave the 
pedal a part of its own, even in his early com- 
positions. Yet it was only gradually that he 
mastered its technique; for his Organ master- 
pieces belong to the period in which those for the 
Clavier began to be classics. His early and im- 
mature Organ works are widely dispersed ; for 
as soon as a composer begins to be distinguished 
everybody is anxious to possess a specimen of his 
art. Public curiosity, however, generally dies 
down long before a composer comes to maturity, 

1 The pedal on the small German Organ had only the compass of 
an octave. 



134 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

particularly if his work is over the heads of the 
public. And this seems to have been Bach's 
fortune. Consequently his mature Organ works 
are less familiar than his early efforts. The latter, 
however, cannot possibly be admitted to a ' correct 
arid critical ' edition of his works, and I mention here 
only those whose merit is as incontestable as that 
of the Clavier works enumerated in the preceding 
paragraphs. 

Bach's finest Organ music falls into three 
groups : 

1. The Or eat Preludes and Fugues, with obbligato 
pedal. Their number cannot be stated, but I 
believe it not to exceed a dozen. 1 At least, after 
prolonged search I have not been able to collect 
more than that number. 2 To these I must add 
a very clever and original Passacaglia, which, 

1 The Great Preludes and Fugues are, with one exception, in E.G. xv. 
The Prelude and Fugue in E flat was published by Bach in the third 
Part of the ' Clavieriibung.' Its Fugue is known as the ' St. Anne's.' 

2 From the figures printed by Forkel the twelve can be identified 
as follows (the references in parentheses are to the Novello edition of 
Bach's Organ works) : 

Prelude and Fugue in C minor, the ' Great ' (bk. vii. 64). 

Do. do. A minor, , do. (bk. vii. 42). 

Do. do. G major, do. (bk. viii. 112). 

Do. do. E minor. do. (bk. viii. 98). 

Do. do. B minor, do. (bk. vii. 62). 

Do. do. major. do. (bk. ix. 156). 

Do. do. D minor (bk. ix. 150). 

Do. do. C major (bk. iii. 70). 

Toccata and Fugue in D minor (bk. x. 196). 

Do. do. F major (bk. ix. 176). 

Prelude and Fugue in G minor (bk. viii. 120). 

Do. do. E minor (bk. ii. 44). 



BACH'S COMPOSITIONS 135 

however, seems suitable rather for a two-manual 
Clavicembalo and pedal than for the Organ. 1 

2. Preludes on Choral Melodies. It was at 
Arnstadt that Bach began to compose Variations 
on Choral melodies, under the title ' Partite 
diverse.' 2 Most of them can be played on the 
manuals alone. Those which I include here are 
an exception and require the obbligato pedal. 
Their number may amount to one hundred. I 
myself possess above seventy, and more survive 
elsewhere. 3 No other Choral Preludes approach 

1 The Passacaglia in C minor (Novello bk. 10 p. 214) was written 
originally for the Clavicembalo and pedal. It belongs to the later 
Weimar period, i.e. circ. 1715. See Spitta, i. 588 and Schweitzer, i. 280. 

2 They are all printed in Novello bk. 19, and are three in number, 
on the melodies ' Christ, der du bist der helle Tag,' ' O Gott, du frommer 
Gott,' and ' Sei gegriisset, Jesu gutig.' The pedal is only required in 
one movement of the first, in none of the second, and considerably in 
the third. Without question all three date from Bach's earliest 
period, but whether they were written at Arnstadt or Liineburg cannot 
be stated. 

8 The fullest collection of these miscellaneous Organ Choral Preludes 
is in E.G. XL. Not counting variant readings they number fifty- 
two, besides two fragments and thirteen of doubtful authenticity, 
of which two are sets of Variations. The Novello edition contains 
fifty-two in bks. 18 and 19. To these must be added the ' Eighteen ' 
Preludes on Choral Melodies, which Forkel nowhere mentions, as well 
as the third Part of the ' Clavieriibung,' the ' Schubler Chorals,' and 
the Variations on ' Vom Himmel hoch,' to which he has already made 
reference in the first section of this chapter. As he does not mention 
it specifically, it is to be inferred that Forkel was ignorant of the exist- 
ence of the ' Orgelbuchlein ' ; otherwise he could hardly have failed 
to introduce it in this section. All Bach's Choral Preludes, mis- 
cellaneous and in collections made by himself, are in Novello's 
edition, bks. 15-19. A useful key to their melodies is provided by 
bk. 20. For more detailed information see Terry, ' Bach's Chorals/ 
Part in. 



136 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

them in religious feeling, dignity, and sublimity of 
expression. I cannot notice them individually ; 
they are too numerous. Besides the larger, there 
is a great number of shorter and easier ones, 
particularly useful for young players. MSS. of 
them exist in considerable number. 1 

3. Six Sonatas, or Trios, for two manuals and 
an obbligato pedal. 2 Bach wrote them for his 
eldest son, Wilhelm Friedemann, whom they 
helped to become Jbhe great performer he was 
when I knew him. '- It is impossible to overpraise 
their beauty. Bach composed them when he was 
in the full vigour of his powers, and they may be 
considered his chef cTceuvre in this form. 8 He also 
wrote other Organ Sonatas, the MSS. 'of which are 
in various collections. They are fine composi- 
tions, though they do not equal the Six in merit. 4 



1 The large number of MSS. of many of the miscellaneous Preludes 
is made evident in the introduction to B.G. XL. 

2 The Sonatas in E flat major, C minor, and D minor are in N. 
bk. 4 ; E minor, C major, G major in N. bk. 5. 

3 The so-called ' Sonatas ' were actually written for a Clavicembalo 
with two manuals and a pedal. Bach's Autograph of them belonged to 
his second son and an earlier copy of them to Wilhelm Friedemann. 
Both are now in the Berlin Royal Library. Friedemann went to 
Dresden as Organist in 1733 and Spitta is of opinion that the whole 
of the six Sonatas were in existence by or soon after 1727. If so, 
they must be regarded as the outcome of Bach's early years at 
Leipzig. See Spitta, iii. 212 ff. and Schweitzer, i. 278. 

* None are extant. Spitta, iii. 213 n., conjectures that Forkel 
refers to the Trios in D minor and C minor (N. bks. 2 p. 54, 12 p. 
108) and the Pastorale in F major (N. bk. 12 p. 102.) His incom- 
plete knowledge of the Organ works is revealed by Appendix v. 
infra. 



BACH'S COMPOSITIONS 137 



IV. INSTRUMENTAL Music 

There are few instruments for which Bach did 
not write. In his day it was usual to play a 
Concerto or instrumental Solo during the Com- 
munion office. 1 Bach composed many of these 
pieces himself, and always with a view to their 
improving the technique of the player. Most of 
them are lost. But two important works of 
another kind survive and to some extent compen- 
sate us. They are : 

1. Six Solos for Violin, unaccompanied. 2 

2. Six Solos for Violoncello, unaccompanied. 3 
The Violin Solos have long been considered by 

the finest players to be the best instructor for the 
instrument. The Violoncello Solos are equally 
effective. 4 

1 This is a pure conjecture and Schweitzer scouts it (i. 416 n.). 

8 The oldest copy of them dates from circ. 1720; they belong 
therefore to the late Cothen period. The 1720 MS. is in A. M. Bach's 
handwriting and was discovered in 1814 at Petrograd among old 
papers about to be sent away to a butter dealer. The Sonatas are in 
P. bk. 228. 

3 They also date from the Cothen period and are in P. bk. 238a, 
238b. 

* Forkel omits to mention the Brandenburg Concertos (P. bks. 261- 
266) ; the Overtures in C major (P. bk. 267), B minor (P. bk. 268), 
D major (P. bk. 269), D major (P. bk. 2068) ; and the Violin Concertos 
in A minor (P. bk. 229), E major (P. bk. 230), and (for two Violins) 
in D minor (P. bk. 231). In B.G. xxi. (1) is a Symphonic movement, in 
D major, for Violin and orchestra. A Sinfonia in F major (B.G. xxxi. 
96) is another version of the first Brandenburg Concerto. The 
Clavier Concertos have been mentioned supra. 



138 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

V. VOCAL Music 

1. Five complete sets of church Cantatas for 
the Sundays and Festivals of the year. 1 

2. Five compositions for Holy Week, one of 
which is for double chorus. 2 

3. Several Oratorios, 3 Masses, 4 a ' Magnificat,' 

1 The set of five is complete only for Christmas Day, Feast of the 
Circumcision, Whitsunday (one of the five is of doubtful authenticity), 
Purification of the B.V.M., and Feast of St. Michael the Archangel. 
See Terry, ' Bach's Chorals,' Part II. 2 ff. 

2 In giving the number of ' Passions ' as five, Forkel repeats the 
statement of the ' Nekrolog.' The number corresponds with the five 
sets of Church Cantatas which Bach is known to have written. It 
is, however, exceedingly doubtful whether Bach wrote more than four 
' Passions.' Only those according to St. Matthew and St. John have 
come down to us from C. P. E. Bach, who was left the Autographs of both 
by his father. The ' St. John Passion ' was first performed in 1724 
and the ' St. Matthew Passion ' in 1729. Picander, Bach's librettist, 
certainly wrote two other Passion texts, one of which was written for 
Good Friday 1725, and the second, based on St. Mark's Gospel, was 
actually performed at St. Thomas', Leipzig, on Good Friday 1731. 
Spitta (ii. 505) gives good reason to hold that Bach's music for this 
Passion was adapted from the ' Trauer-Ode,' which he had written 
in 1727 in memory of Queen Christiane Eberhardine. But of the 1725 
' Passion ' there is no trace. If it ever existed, its loss probably may 
be assigned to Wilhelm Friedemann's carelessness, to whom presum- 
ably it was assigned in the division of Bach's property after his death. 
But even so, we have no more than four ' Passions.' There exists, 
however, a fifth ' Passion according to St. Luke,' which is undoubtedly 
in Bach's Autograph, and which Spitta is inclined to attribute to Bach 
himself. It is published by Breitkopf and Haertel, but is generally 
regarded as being by another composer than Bach, who probably 
copied it for use at Leipzig. On the whole matter see Spitta, ii. 504 fi., 
Schweitzer, chap, xxvi., and the Bach-Jahrbuch for 1911 (Publications 
of the New Bachgesellschaft xn. (2)). 

8 Other than the ' Passions,' the only Oratorios are the ' Christmas 
Oratorio' (1734), the 'Easter Oratorio' (c. 1736), and 'Ascension 
Oratorio ' (c. 1735). 

* Besides the B minor Mass (1733-? 38) Bach wrote four miscalled 



BACH'S COMPOSITIONS 139 

settings of the * Sanctus, 1 compositions for birth- 
days and Saints' Days, 2 funerals, 3 marriages, 4 and 
some Italian Cantatas. 5 

4. Several Motets for single and double 
chorus. 6 

Most of these works are now dispersed. The 
Church Cantatas were divided between his elder 
sons after their composer's death. Wilhelm 
Friedemann had the larger share because, being 
organist at Halle, he could make use of them. 
Later, circumstances compelled him to part with 
them gradually. I know of no other collection of 
Bach's larger choral works. There exist, however, 
eight or ten Motets for double chorus, but they 
are dispersed in various hands. 7 In the collection 

' short ' Masses, in F major, A major, G minor, and G major. They 
all belong to the Leipzig period (c. 1739). 

1 Besides the setting of the Sanctus in the B minor Mass there are 
four detached settings, in C major, D major, D minor, and G major. 
Of these only that in D major is probably by Bach (c. 1723). 

2 The music for Saints' Days is included in the church Cantatas. 
For the Birthday Odes see supra, Chap. !!A. 

3 Besides the ' Trauer-Ode,' three or four of the church Cantatas 
and certainly three of the Motets were written for funerals. See 
Terry, op. cit., pp. 24, 44. 

* Among the church Cantatas there are at least five for use at 
weddings. Bach wrote also three secular wedding Cantatas : ' Weichet 
nur, betriibte Schatten ' (c. 1730) ; ' O holder Tag ' (T 1749) ; the third 
(1728) has disappeared. 

8 Two Italian Cantatas ' Amore traditore ' and ' Non sa che sia 
dolore ' have come down to us. A third, ' Andro dall colle al prato,' 
is lost. See E.G. xi. (ii.), xxrs. 

9 Only six are genuine. See infra, p. 141. 

7 Of the Motets that have come down to us as his, only six are 
Bach's. Forkel mentions five of them in sees, 7 and 8 of the next 



140 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

bequeathed by the Princess Amalia of Prussia 
to the Joachimsthal Gymnasium at Berlin there 
are some of Bach's vocal compositions. 1 Their 
number is not considerable, but among them are 
the following : 

1. Twenty-one Church Cantatas. 2 In one of 
them, set to the words, ' Schlage doch, gewiinschte 
Stunde,' 3 the composer introduces a bell obbligato. 
From that fact we may conclude that the Cantata 
was not composed hi the period of Bach's matur- 
ity, 4 for the use of bells is of doubtful taste. 

2. Two Masses for five voices with instrumental 
accompaniment. 5 

3. A Mass for double chorus, the first being 

paragraph ; he omits ' Lobet den Herrn, alle Heiden.' In 1802-3 
Breitkopf and Haertel published six Motets the five mentioned by 
Forkel and another, ' Ich lasse dich nicht,' of which Bach made a 
copy, but whose composer actually was Johann Christoph Bach. We 
know that Bach composed at least one Latin Motet for double chorus, 
and Friedemann's share of his father's autographs may have con- 
tained it and others known to Forkel but no longer extant. 

1 The Amalienbibliothek of the Joachimsthal Gymnasium, Berlin, 
contains one of the most important Bach collections, but it has long 
been superseded by the Royal Library there as the chief repository 
of Bach's Autographs. 

2 The Amalienbibliothek has only one Autograph, namely, Cantata 
34, ' ewiges Feuer.' The rest are early copies. 

3 Cantata 53. No Autograph of this Cantata exists, and the copies 
from which the B.G. edition was printed are in the Amalienbibliothek. 

4 On the contrary, the Cantata belongs to the Leipzig period, 
1723-34. 

6 None of the four ' short ' Masses is in five parts. All have instru- 
mental accompaniments. The autograph scores of the Masses in 
A major and G major are in Messrs. Breitkopf and HaertePs possession. 
Copies of the other two scores, in Altnikol's handwriting, are in the 
Berlin Royal Library. See Introduction to B.G. vm. 



BACH'S COMPOSITIONS 141 

accompanied by Strings and the second by wind 
instruments. 1 

4. A * Passion,' for double Chorus, 2 the text by 
Picander. 3 

5. A * Sanctus,' for four voices and instru- 
mental accompaniment. 4 

6. A Motet, for four voices, ' Aus tiefer Noth 
schrei ich zu dir.' 5 

7. A Motet for five voices, * Jesu, meine Freude.' 

8. Four Motets, for eight voices in double 

chorus : 

(a) ' Fiirchte dich nicht, ich bin dei dir.' 
(6) ' Der Geist hilft unserer Schwachheit 
auf.' 

(c) ' Komnij Jesu, komm.' 

(d) * Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied.' 6 

9. A detached four-part fugal chorus, ' Nimm 
was dein ist, und gehe hin.' 7 

1 An eight-part Mass in G was performed at a Leipzig Gewandhaus 
Concert on March 7, 1805, and was published later in the year by 
Breitkopf and Haertel. The score is admittedly, for the greater part 
of the work, in Bach's hand and is in the Berlin Royal Library. The 
publication of the work was under consideration by the Bachgesell- 
schaft in 1858. That it is not by Bach is generally held. It has been 
attributed to Johann Ludwig Bach (d. 1741 ). See Genealogical Table n. 

2 The ' St. Matthew Passion.' 

3 A nom de plume for Christian Friedrich Henrici (1700-64), who 
wrote a large number of Bach's Leipzig texts. 

Perhaps Forkel indicates the short Sanctus in Richter's edition of 
the Choralgesdnge, No. 123, or that in E.G. m. p. 177. 

6 This is the first Chorus of Cantata No. 38. It is printed as a 
separate Motet in Erk, No. 150. 

Forkel's list is complete except for ' Lobet den Herrn, alle Heiden.' 

7 The opening Chorus of Cantata 144. 



142 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

10. A bucolic Cantata, with Recitatives, Aria, 
Duet, and Chorus. A note is prefixed to it. 1 

On the MS. of the last-named Cantata and of 
the Mass for double chorus (No. 3 supra) there is 
a note by Kirnberger analysing the skill and merit 
of the compositions. 

1 Forkel refers to the ' Peasant Cantata,' or ' Mer hahn en neue 
Oberkeet,' performed on August 30, 1742. Forkel clearly was not 
familiar with Bach's other secular Cantatas. See E.G. xi. (ii.), xx. (ii.), 
xxix. The Autograph score of the Peasant Cantata is in the Berlin 
Royal Library. 



CHAPTER X 

BACH'S MANUSCRIPTS 

IT has been remarked more than once that Bach, 
throughout his life, devoted much thought to the 
improvement of his compositions. I have had 
frequent occasion to compare the original and 
subsequent texts of his works, and confess to have 
experienced both surprise and pleasure in observing 
his care to improve whatever he thought faulty, 
to make good better, and better perfect. Nothing 
is more instructive than a collation of this kind, 
whether to the experienced musician or the in- 
structed amateur. I should like to see a supple- 
ment to the complete edition of Bach's works 
showing these variant readings. 1 The collation 
would be in the highest degree instructive, and to 
attempt it is as appropriate to the works of the 
composer, a poet in sound, as to those of the poet 
in words. 

In Bach's early texts he often repeats a phrase 
to other words with some melodic variety, in a 

1 Forkel's suggestion was carried out, with varying thoroughness 
in the Bachgesellschaft edition. 

us 



144 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

lower or even in the same octave. In his riper 
experience he could not tolerate such poverty of 
workmanship, and cut out these passages remorse- 
lessly, without regard for the number and quality 
of the persons who had approved them in their 
original state. There occur to me two good 
examples of this, the C major and C sharp minor 
Preludes in the first part of the ' Well-tempered 
Clavier. 5 Bach revised them so drastically as to 
cut them down by one-half, sacrificing passages 
that he thought redundant. 1 

In other places Bach tends to be over-concise ; 
he expresses an idea, but does not fully develop it. 
The best illustration that occurs to me is the 
D minor Prelude in the second part of the ' Well- 
tempered Clavier.' I possess several texts of it. 
In the oldest the first transposition of the theme 
in the Bass and several other details essential to 
a complete development of the idea are wanting. 
A second MS. gives the theme to the Bass wherever 
the latter is in a key nearly related to that of the 
tonic. In a third MS. these addenda are de- 
veloped more fully and are joined more skilfully. 
But melodic details are present of doubtful 
relevance to the rest of the composition. In a 
fourth MS. these disappear or are amended, so 
that, as we have it, the Prelude stands as one of 
the most beautiful and least faulty in the ' Well- 
tempered Clavier.' Many people, no doubt, pre- 

1 ForkePs judgment is at fault. See Schweitzer, i. 336. 



BACH'S MANUSCRIPTS 145 

ferred the movement in its original form. But 
Bach was not a man to be influenced by approba- 
tion or criticism. He went on correcting until 
he satisfied himself. 

In the early part of the seventeenth century it 
was the fashion in instrumental music to overload 
single notes with ornaments and add florid runs. 
Lately it has become the fashion to do so in vocal 
music as well. That Bach shared this disposition 
may be inferred from certain pieces that he wrote 
in this style. An instance is the Prelude in 
E minor in the first part of the ' Well-tempered 
Clavier.' But he soon returned to his natural 
better taste, and altered the movement to the 
form in which it is engraved. 1 

Every decade has its own style of melody, dis- 
tinctive of itself and evanescent. A composer 
must carefully avoid it if he hopes to be listened 
to by posterity. In his young days even Bach 
ran upon this rock. His early compositions for 
the Organ, and the two-part ' Inventions ' in their 
original form, are full of fiorituri such as the taste 
of his period approved. His Organ compositions 
remain comparatively untouched, but the * In- 
ventions ' he closely revised. The public will soon 
be able to compare them in their first and later 
forms, as the publishers, with admirable spirit, 
have resolved to discontinue the present edition 

1 Also in Wilhelm Friedemann's ' Clavierbiichlein.' See Schweitzer, 
i. 279 ; Spitta, ii. 165. 

K 



146 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

and to send out to subscribers a revised one based 
on Bach's corrected text. 

Bach's processes of revision so far mentioned, 
however, merely correct faults of form, that is, 
diffuseness or incomplete development of a musical 
thought. But Bach employed other methods 
which are less easy to describe because they are 
more subtle. He often rivets the style and char- 
acter of a piece by changing a single note, strictly 
correct grammatically and yet disagreeable to an 
artist such as himself. Even commonplace pas- 
sages he could convert into phrases of beauty by 
the addition or alteration of a single note. Only 
the most sensitive taste and trained experience 
can decide in such cases, and Bach possessed both 
in the highest perfection. He developed them to 
such a pitch, indeed, that his brain eventually 
rejected any idea which, in all its properties and 
relations, did not accord inevitably and naturally 
with the whole composition. Consequently his 
later works display such consistency of merit that 
all of them seem to have been cast complete 
in a mould, so smooth, facile and abundant is the 
flow of his rich fancy. It is on the highest sum- 
mits of the art that harmony and melody find 
their ideal union, and as yet Bach dwells there in 
majestic isolation. 



CHAPTER XI 

THE GENIUS OF BACH 

IT is surely unnecessary to ask whether that artist 
is a genius who, in every form of his art, has 
produced masterpiece after masterpiece, of an 
originality which sets them above the achieve- 
ments of all other ages, distinguished also by 
a wealth of originality and agreeableness that 
enslaves every hearer. The most fertile fancy, 
invention inexhaustible, a judgment so nice as to 
reject intuitively every irrelevant and jarring 
detail, unerring ingenuity in employing the most 
delicate and minute resources of his art, along 
with an unrivalled technique these qualities, 
whose expression demands the outpouring of a 
man's whole soul, are the signboards of genius. 
The man who cannot find them in Bach's music 
either is not acquainted with it at all or knows 
it imperfectly. One needs to be steeped in it 
thoroughly to appreciate the genius of its author. 
For the greater the work the closer study is de- 
manded for its apprehension. The butterfly 
method, a sip here and there, is of little use. 
But admirable as were the gifts Bach received 



148 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

from nature, he could never have become an 
accomplished genius had he not learned betimes 
to avoid the rocks on which many artists, some of 
them perhaps not less gifted than he, too often 
founder. I will communicate to the reader some 
scattered thoughts on the subject and conclude 
this essay with an indication of the character- 
istics of Bach's genius. 

Even the largest natural gifts, coupled with the 
strongest propensity for a particular art, offer no 
more than fruitful soil on which that art may 
thrive by patient cultivation. Industry, the true 
begetter of every art and science, is an indis- 
pensable factor. Not only does it enable genius 
to master technique, but it stimulates the critical 
and reflective faculties also. The very ease with 
which genius acquires and applies the apparatus 
of musical composition frequently entices it to 
leap over root principles in its plunge into deeper 
waters, or to fly before its wings are grown. In 
such a case, unless genius is guided back to 
neglected fundamentals and forced to build itself 
upon the great examples of the past, it will in- 
evitably expend its treasure uselessly and never 
attain to its promised dimensions. For it is an 
axiom, that real progress can never be made, 
nor the highest perfection be attained, if the 
foundations are insecure. If arduous heights are 
to be achieved, the easier obstacles must first be 
approached and overcome. Guided by his own 



THE GENIUS OF BACH 149 

inexperience no one ever can hope to become 
great. He must profit by the practice and ex- 
ample of others. 

Bach did not founder on this rock. His soaring 
genius attended an equally ardent industry which 
incessantly impelled him, whenever he found his 
own equipment insufficient, to seek guidance from 
others. Vivaldi and his Concertos were the first 
from whom he sought counsel. From them he 
turned to the principal Organ and Clavier com- 
posers of the period. Nothing is more intel- 
lectually stimulating than counterpoint, and the 
composers Bach studied were distinguished by 
their mastery of it, as their fugal writing attests. 
Hence Bach's diligent study and imitation of them 
pointed his taste and imagination to perceive 
wherein himself was lacking and what steps were 
needed to take him farther in his art. 

A second rock upon which genius often comes 
to grief is the public's undiscriminating applause. 
To be sure, I do not undervalue public approval 
or commend without reserve the remark of a 
Greek teacher to his pupil, ' You performed badly, 
otherwise the audience would not have applauded 
you.' Yet it is none the less true that many 
artists are thrown off their balance by exaggerated 
and often unmerited plaudits, particularly in their 
early careers before they have acquired self-dis- 
cipline and sound judgment. The public merely 
asks for what it can understand, whereas the true 



150 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

artist ought to aim at an achievement which 
cannot be measured by popular standards. How, 
then, can popular applause be reconciled with the 
true artist's aspirations towards the ideal ? Bach 
never sought applause, and held with Schiller : 

Kannst du nicht alien gef alien durch deine That und 

dein Kunstwerk, 
Mach' es wenigen recht ; vielen gef alien ist schlimm. 1 

Like every true artist, Bach worked to please 
himself in his own way, obeying the summons of 
his own genius, choosing his own subjects, and 
finding satisfaction only in the approval of his 
own judgment. He could count on the applause 
of all who understood good music, and never 
failed to receive it. Under what other conditions 
can sound works of art emerge ? The composer 
who debases his muse to the popular mood either 
lacks real genius or, having it, abuses it. For to 
catch the ear of the public is not a difficult task 
and merely connotes an agreeable facility. Com- 
posers of that class are like artisans who frankly 
fashion their goods to suit their market. But 
Bach never condescended to such artifices. The 
artist, in his judgment, is the dictator of public 
taste, not its slave. If, as often happened, he was 
asked to write something simple for the Clavier 

1 * Since you cannot please everybody by your actions and work, 
strive at least to satisfy a few ; popular appreciation encourages bad 
art.' Schiller's ' Votiftafeln.' 



THE GENIUS OF BACH 151 

he would answer, ' I will do what I can.' He 
would choose an easy theme. But when he began 
to develop it he always found so much to say 
that the piece soon became anything but simple. 
If his attention was drawn to the fact, he would 
answer smilingly, ' Practise it well and you will 
find it quite easy. You have as many good fingers 
on each hand as I have.' Nor was he prompted 
in this by mere contradictoriness, but exhibited 
the true artist spirit. 

It was, in fact, the artist temperament that led 
Bach to make the great and sublime his goal. 
For that reason his music is not merely agreeable, 
like other composers', but transports us to the 
regions of the ideal. It does not arrest our atten- 
tion momentarily but grips us the stronger the 
oftener we listen to it, so that after a thousand 
hearings its treasures are still unexhausted and 
yield fresh beauties to excite our wonder. Even 
the beginner who knows but the A B C of his art 
warms with pleasure when he hears Bach's music 
and can open his ear and heart to it. It was the 
true artist spirit, too, that guided Bach to unite 
majesty and grandeur of design with meticulous 
care for detail and the most refined elegance, 
characteristics which we rather seek, perhaps, in 
works whose object is merely to give pleasure. 
Bach held strongly that if the strands are im- 
perfect, the whole design is faulty. His genius 
is sublime and impressive, and he never conde- 



152 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

scends to be frivolous even when he touches the 
lighter forms of art. 

To conclude : it was the union of astounding 
genius and indefatigable application that enabled 
Bach to widen at every point the domain of 
musical expression. His successors have failed 
to maintain the art at the level to which he raised 
it. If Bach was more successful, if he was able 
to produce great work of convincing beauty and 
imperishable as a model for those who came after 
him, we owe it as much to his application as to 
his genius. 

This man, the greatest orator-poet that ever 
addressed the world in the language of music, 
was a German ! Let Germany be proud of him ! 
Yes, proud of him, but worthy of him too ! 



APPENDIX I 

CHRONOLOGICAL CATALOGUE OF BACH'S 
COMPOSITIONS * 

I. CATALOGUE OF BACH'S COMPOSITIONS PRIOR TO HIS 

APPOINTMENT TO WEIMAR IN JUNE 1708, in his 

twenty-fourth year. 

VOCAL : 

Motet : Lobet den Herrn, alle Heiden. 
CLAVIER 2 : 

Capriccio sopra la lontananza del suo fratello dilettissimo 

(bk. 208 p. 62) (1704). 
Capriccio in honorem Joh. Christoph Bachii, Ohrdruf 

(bk. 215 p. 34) (c. 1704). 
Sonata in D major (bk. 215 p. 44) (c. 1704). 8 
B.G. xxxvi. prints a number of pieces which, in general, 
may be assigned to Bach's immature years. They are repro- 
duced in Peters' edition : 

Book 200 : Fughetta in C minor (p. 10). 

Prelude and Fughetta in D minor (p. 40). 
Do. do. E minor (p. 42). 

Do. do. A minor (p. 47). 

1 The Cantatas are classified under Appendix II. 

1 The references are to Peters' edition. Excepting bk. 1959, which 
contains pieces of doubtful authenticity, every number printed by 
Peters is entered in the Chronological Catalogue. 

* There are three other Sonatas, in A minor, C major, D minor, 
none of which is an original composition. They are printed in P. 
bk. 213. The first and second are adaptations of material in Reinken's 
' Hortus Musicus.' The third is a transcription of the second Solo 
Sonata for Violin. 



154 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

Fugue in C major (p. 54). 
Do. do. (p. 56). 

Book 207 : Fantasia in C minor (p. 50). 
Book 212 : Do. do. (p. 58). 

Fugue in D minor (p. 59). 
Do. do. (p. 61). 

Do. E minor (p. 68). 

Book 214 : Prelude and Fughetta in F major (p. 76). 
Do. do. G major (p. 78). 

Prelude in G major (p. 80). 
Book 215 : Three Minuets (p. 62). 
To these may be added (? authentic) from B.G. XLII. : 

Book 212 : Fantasia and Fughetta in B flat major (p 58). 
Do. do. D major (p. 60). 

ORGAN 1 : 

Prelude and Fugue in C minor (bk. 2 p. 48) (c. 1704). 

Do. do. C major (bk. 8 p. 88) (? 1707) . 2 

Do. do. the ' Short,' A minor (bk. 10 p. 208) . 

Fugue in C minor (bk. 12 p. 95) (c. 1704). 

Do. C minor, on a theme by Legrenzi (bk. 10 p. 230) 
(c. 1708). 

Do. B minor, on a theme by Corelli (bk. 3 p. 60). 

Do. D major (bk. 12 p. 83). 

Do. G major (bk. 12 p. 55). 

Do. G major (bk. 12 p. 86). 

Do. G minor (bk. 2 p. 41). 
Prelude in A minor (bk. 10 p. 238) (by 1706). 

Do. C major (bk. 12 p. 94). 

1 The references are to Novello's twelve Books of Bach's Organ 
Works, edited by J. F. Bridge and J. Higgs. The edition is complete, 
and contains every movement included in Alfred Dorffel's Thema- 
tisches Verzeichniss ' (second edition, 1882) except his No. 24 on p. 
72 ; Nos. 6 and 8 on page 85 ; the ' Kleines harmonisches Labyrinth ' 
(Dorffel, p. 88, figs. 131-33), the genuineness of which is questioned 
by Spitta (ii. 43); and figs. 136-37 on p. 88. The Novello edition also 
follows Rust, against Spitta's judgment, in printing the ' Fantasia con 
Imitazione ' (bk. 12 p. 71) as an Organ instead of as a Clavier piece. 
Books 15-19 print the Choral Preludes. See the Peters and Novello 
editions collated in Appendix V. 

* Printed as a ' Toccata ' in E major in B.G. xv. p. 276. 



CHRONOLOGICAL CATALOGUE 155 

Fantasia and Fugue in A minor (bk. 12 p. 60). 
Fantasias in G major (bk. 9 p. 168 ; bk. 12 p. 76). 
Pastorale in F major (bk. 12 p. 102). 
Choral Partita : Christ, der du bist der helle Tag (bk. 19 

p. 36). 

Do. O Gott, du frommer Gott (bk. 19 p. 44). 

Do. Sei gegriisset, Jesu giitig (bk. 19 p. 55). 

Generally speaking, the Choral Preludes, other than those 
in the maturer collections made by Bach himself, may be 
regarded as youthful works (bks. 18, 19). 

II. CATALOGUE OF BACH'S COMPOSITIONS AT WEIMAR. 
1708-17, from his twenty-fourth to his thirty-third 
year. 

VOCAL : 

Secular Cantata : Was mir behagt (1716), or, Verlockender 
Gotterstreit. 

CLAVIEB : 

Sixteen Concertos after Vivaldi (bk. 217) (c. 1708-12). 
Toccatas in D major (bk. 211 p. 28), G major (bk. 215 
p. 19), D minor (bk. 210 p. 68), G minor (bk. 211 p. 4), 
E minor (bk. 210 p. 23) (c. 1708-12). 
Aria variata alia maniera Italiana (bk. 215 p. 12) (c. 1708- 

12). 

Prelude and Fugue in A minor (bk. 211 p. 14) (c. 1715). 
Fugues in A major (bk. 215 pp. 52, 57). 
Do. B minor (bk. 214 p. 48). 
Do. A major (bk. 212 p. 66). 
Do. A minor (bk. 212 p. 70). 
Fantasia in G minor (bk. 215 p. 32). 

Do. B minor (bk. 215 p. 41). (For Organ, N. bk. 12 

> 71.) 

Do. D major (bk. 211 p. 28). 
Do. A minor (bk. 215 p. 5) (c. 1710). 

ORGAN : 

Passacaglia and Fugue in C minor (bk. 10 p. 214). 
Four Concertos after Vivaldi (bk. 11). 



156 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

Eight Short Preludes and Fugues (bk. 1). 
Orgelbuchlein (bk. 15) (1717). 
Aria in F major (bk. 12 p. 112). 
Fantasia con Imitazione (bk. 12 p. 71). 
Do. C major (bk. 12 p. 92). 
Do. C minor (bk. 3 p. 57). 
Trio in C minor (bk. 12 p. 108). 

Do. D minor (bk. 2 p. 54). 
Canzona in D minor (bk. 2 p, 34) (c. 1714). 
Allabreve in D major (bk. 2 p. 26). 
Prelude and Fugue in C major (bk. 7 p. 74). 

Do. do. the ' Short,' E minor (bk. 2 p. 44). 

Do. do. D major (bk. 6 p. 10). 

Do. do. the ' Great,' A minor (bk. 7 p. 42). 

Do. do. A major (bk. 3 p. 64). 

Do. do. the ' Great,' C minor (bk. 7 p. 64). 

Do. do. F minor (bk. 6 p. 21). 

Do. do. G major (bk. 7 p. 80). 

Do. do. G minor (bk. 8 p. 120) (c. 1712). 

Toccata and Fugue in D minor (bk. 6 p. 2). 
. , Do. do. the ' Great,' C major (bk. 9 p. 137). 

Do. do. the ' Great,' F major (bk. 9 p. 176). 

Do. do. the Dorian, D minor (bk. 10 p. 196). 

Fantasia and Fugue in C minor (bk. 3 p. 76). 
Prelude in G major (bk. 2 p. 30). 

Do. C major (bk. 12 p. 91). 
Fugue, the ' Short,' in G minor (bk. 3 p. 84). 

Do. C major (bk. 12 p. 100). 

III. CATALOGUE OF BACH'S COMPOSITIONS AT COTHEN, 
1717-23, from his thirty-third to his thirty-ninth 
year. 
VOCAL : 

Secular Cantata : Durchlaucht'ster Leopold (1717). 

Do. Mit Gnaden bekrone der Himmel die Zeiten 

(? 1721). 
Do. Weichetnur, betrubteSchatten (71717-23). 1 

1 Spitta (ii. 620, 718) mentions a Birthday Cantata written in 
1717-1721 (T), the title of which is lost. 



CHRONOLOGICAL CATALOGUE 157 

CLAVIER: 

Clavier-Biichlein vor WiLhelm Friedemann Bach (1720). 
Chromatic Fantasia and Fugue (bk. 207 p. 4) (c. 1720-23). 
Clavier-Biichlein vor A. M. Bachin (bk. 1959) (1722). 
The Well-tempered Clavier (Part i.) (bk. 2790a) (1722). 
Six French Suites (bks. 202 and 2793) (c. 1722). 
Six English Suites (bks. 203-4 and 2794-95) (before 1726). 
Fantasia and Fugue in A minor (bk. 208 p. 50). 
Fugue in A minor (bk. 207 p. 16) (B.G. ra. p. 334). 
Twelve Little Preludes and Six Preludes for Beginners 

(bks. 200 and 2791) (c. 1722). 

Inventions and Symphonies (bks. 201 and 2792) (1723). 
Toccatas in F sharp minor and C minor (bk. 210 pp. 30 

and 40). 
Suites in A minor, E flat major, E minor, F major, and 

F minor (fragment) (bk. 214 pp. 54, 62, 68 ; bk. 215 p. 27 ; 

bk. 212 p. 84). 
Prelude and Fugue in E flat major (bk. 214 p. 40). 

CHAMBER : * 

Six Sonatas (Suites) for Violin Solo (bk. 228) (c. 1720). 2 
Six Sonatas (Suites) for Violoncello Solo (bk. 238a) (c. 1720). 
Six Sonatas for Violin and Clavier (bks. 232-33-232a-33a). 
Suite in A major for Violin and Clavier (bk. 236). 
Four Inventions for Violin and Clavier (bk. 2957). 
Sonata in E minor and Fugue in G minor for Violin and 

Clavier (bk. 236) (? early work). 
Six Sonatas for Flute and Clavier (bks. 234-35). 
Sonata in C major for two Violins and Clavier (bk. 237). 
Three Sonatas for Viol da Gamba and Clavier (bk. 239). 
Sonata in G major for two Flutes and Clavier (bk. 239 p. 2). 
Sonata in G major for Violin, Flute, and Clavier (bk. 237). 

ORCHESTRAL : 3 
Six Brandenburg Concertos (bks. 261-66) (1721). 

1 The references are to Peters' edition. 
1 The D minor contains the famous Chaconne. 

The references are to Peters' edition. In the B.G. edition the 
Orchestral musio is included in the Chamber Music volumes. 



158 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

Four Suites (Overtures) (bks. 267-69, 2068) .* 

Three Concertos for Violin and Orchestra (bks. 229, 230). 2 

Concerto in D minor for two Violins and Orchestra (bk. 23 1). 3 

ORGAN : 

Prelude (Fantasia) and Fugue, the 'Great,' in G minor 
(bk. 8 p. 127) (? 1720). 

IV. CATALOGUE OF BACH'S COMPOSITIONS AT LEIPZIG, 
1723-34, from his thirty-ninth to his fiftieth year. 

VOCAL : 

Magnificat in D (? 1723). 4 
Sanctus hi C major, D major (c. 1723), D minor, and 

G major (P. bk. 29b). 5 
St. John Passion (1723). 
Trauer-Ode (1727). 
St. Matthew Passion (1729). 
Mass in B minor (1733-?1738). 
Christmas Oratorio (1734). 
Three Wedding Chorals (P. bk. 1654). 
Motet : Jesu, meine Freude (1723). 

Do. Der Geist hilft unsrer Schwachheit auf (1729). 

Do. Fiirchte dich nicht. 

Do. Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied. 

1 Pirro, p. 228, holds that the first two (C major and B minor) were 
written at Cothen and the last two (D major and D major) at Leipzig. 
Schweitzer (i. 402) regards it as not clear in which period the Overtures 
were written* 

1 In A minor, E major, G major. The G major figures as the fourth 
Brandenburg (bk. 264) and as the Clavier Concerto in F major (bk. 
248). The A minor and E major were also converted into Clavier 
Concert! (G minor and D major) (bks. 249, 251). The D minor Clavier 
Concerto (bk. 254) preserves a lost Violin Concerto in the same key, 
and the one in F minor (bk. 250) corresponds with a lost Violin Con- 
certo in G minor (bks. 3068, 3069). 

8 Also arranged as a Concerto for two Claviers (C minor) in P. 
bk. 257b. 

4 Bach wrote another Magnificat, the music of which is lost. See 
Spitta, ii. 374. 

6 All except the Sanctus in D major are of doubtful authenticity. 
See Schweitzer, ii. 328 and Spitta, iii. 41 n. 




THK BACH STATUE AT LEIPZIG. 



CHRONOLOGICAL CATALOGUE 159 



Motet : Knimn, Jesu, 

Secular Cantata : Der mf i Ml*>i^|iiJlt^ Arolnp (1785) ; 

(1734). 
Do Vaanigte Zwietracht der 

Sahen (1726), or, Auf 

Tone der muntern Trompeten (after 

1733). 
Do. Schwingt freodig each empor ; aim e*- 

rtMerf Die Fieode reget skh, or Stogt 

freodig in die Loft (1726). 
Do Brtfernet each, mrkitemSterae (1727; 

music lot*). 
Do. Vergnngte Pleeaenstadt (1728; more 

kwt). 
Do. Von der Yergnugsamkeit . or Icfa bin in 

mir TCfgnogt (c. 1730). 
Do. Weichet nor, betrabte Schatten (e. 

1730). 
Do. Der Stzeit rwiscben Phoebus and Pan 

(1731). 
Do. Proher Tag, Tcdangte Stonden (1732; 

music lost). 

Do. Schweigt stille (Coffee Cantata) (e. 1732). 

Do. Herkules aof dem Scheidew^e. or Die 

Wahl des Herkules (1733). 
Do. Tonet . ihr Paoken ! Erecbaflet, Tram- 

peten (1733). 
Do. Prase dein docke, gesegnetee fhiiiiMi 

(1734). 

Do. Schlekht. spielende Weflen (1734). 

Do. Thomana saaB annoch betrobt (1734; 

music lost). 
Graduation Cantata : Sfehe, der Hater Israels (music loat). 



Nbtenboch TOT Anna Magialftia Bach (bk. 19o9> 



davierubang.. Part I. tMnin g the six Partitas, or 
German Suites (bks. 205^ or 2796-97) (1731). 



160 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

ORCHESTRAL : 

Concertos in C major, C minor, and C minor for two 

Claviers and Orchestra (bks. 256, 257, 257b) (1727-36). * 
Seven Concertos for Clavier and Orchestra (bks. 248-54) 

(1729-36). 
Concerto in A minor for Violin, Flute, Clavier, and 

Orchestra (bk. 255) (c. 1730). 2 
Concerto in A minor for four Claviers and Orchestra 

(bk. 260) (c. 1733). 
Concertos in D minor and C major for three Claviers and 

Orchestra (bks. 258, 259) (c. 1733). 

ORGAN : 

Prelude and Fugue, the Great, in G major (bk. 8 p. 112) 

(1724 or 1725). 3 
Six Sonatas in E flat major, C minor, D minor, E minor, 

C major, G major (bks. 4 and 5) (1727-33).* 
Prelude and Fugue in C major (bk. 3 p. 70) (c. 1730) . 3 

Do. do. D minor (bk. 9 p. 150). 



V. CATALOGUE OF BACH'S COMPOSITIONS AT LEIPZIG, 
1735-50, from his fifty -first year to his death. 

VOCAL : 

Ascension Oratorio (Cantata 11) (c. 1735). 
Schemelli's Hymn-book (1736). 
Easter Oratorio (c. 1736). 

1 The Concerto in C minor (P. bk. 257) is an arrangement of one for 
two Violins now lost. The third, also in C minor, is identical with the 
D minor Concerto for two Violins and is published in that key in the 
Peters edition. The remaining Concerto, in C major, is the only one 
originally written for the Clavier. See Schweitzer, i. 413. 

* The work is an amplification of the Prelude and Fugue in A minor, 
already catalogued among the Clavier works of the Cothen period. 
Schweitzer (i. 340) concludes that it was rearranged as an orchestral 
Concerto early in the thirties, when Bach needed Concertos for the 
Telemann Society's Concerts. 

3 The scheme of the G major and C major Preludes and Fugues 
dates back to the Weimar period. See Spitta, iii. 208 ; Parry, p. 67. 

* These so -called ' Organ ' Sonatas were written for the Pedal Clavi- 
cembalo. 



CHRONOLOGICAL CATALOGUE 163 

Four Masses, in F major, A major (c. 1739), G minor, 

G major (c. 1739). 
Secular Cantata : Angenehmes Wiederau (1737). 

Do . Willkommen, ihr herrschenden Gotter der 

Erden (1738) (music lost). 
Do. Mer hahn en neue Oberkeet (Peasant 

Cantata) (1742). 
Do. O holder Tag (? 1749), or, O angenh%e \ 

Melodei. /4' 

Itah'an Cantata : Amore traditore. 

Do. Andro dalF colle al prato (lost).? S-f 




Do. Non sa che sia dolore. 

CLAVIER:- 

Clavieriibung, Part II. containing the Italian 

(bk. 207) and Partita in B minor (bk. 208) (1735). 
Fantasia and Fugue in C minor (bk. 207 p. 50 and bk. 2l 

p. 88) (c. 1738). 
Clavieriibung, Part III. containing the four Duetti (bk. 208) 

(1739). 
Clavieriibung, Part IV. containing the Goldberg Variations 

(bk. 209) (c. 1742). 
The Well-tempered Clavier, Part II. (bk. Ib or 2790b) (1744). 

CHAMBER : 

Sonata for Violin, Flute, and Clavier, in C minor (in the 

' Musical Offering') (bk. 237 p. 3) (1747). 
Three Partitas for the Lute (? 1740). 1 

ORGAN : 
The Catechism Choral Preludes (in Clavieriibung, Part III.) 

(bk. 16) (1739). 

Fugue in D minor (in ditto) (bk. 16 p. 49) (1739). 
Prelude and Fugue in E flat major (in ditto) (bk. 6 p. 28) 

(1739). 

Do. do. the ' Great,' in C major (bk. 9 p. 156). 

Do. do. the ' Great,' in B minor (bk. 7 p. 52) 

(1727-36). 
Do. do. the ' Great,' in E minor (bk. 8 p. 98) . 

1 The Clavier Suites in E minor, E major, and C minor are arrange- 
ments of these, otherwise lost, Lute Partitas. See Schweitzer, i. 344. 



162 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

Canonic Variations on ' Vom Himmel hoch ' (bk. 19) (1746). 
The Schiibler Choral Preludes (bk. 16) (c. 1747-50). 
The Eighteen Choral Preludes (bk. 17) (c. 1747-50). 



The Musical Offering (P. bk. 219) (1747). 
The Art of Fugue (P. bk. 218) (1749). 



APPENDIX II 

THE CHURCH CANTATAS ARRANGED 
CHRONOLOGICALLY 

WE have the statement of Carl Philipp Emmanuel Bach, 1 
confirmed by Forkel, 2 Bach's earliest biographer, that his 
father composed five Cantatas for every Sunday and 
Festival of the ecclesiastical year. Concerted music was 
sung at Leipzig annually on forty-three Sundays and 
sixteen week-days. 3 Bach therefore must have written 
at least 295 Cantatas. Of this number he composed at 
least thirty before 1723. Hence approximately 265 were 
written at Leipzig. But Bach's fertility does not appear 
to have outlived the year 1744. We have reason, there- 
fore, to conclude that the 265 Leipzig Cantatas were 
written in the course of twenty -one years, that is, between 
1723 and 1744. To complete that number Bach must 
have composed a new Cantata every month, a surprising 
but demonstrable conclusion. 

Of the 295 Cantatas only 202 have come down to us, 
three of them in an incomplete state. 4 Of those written 
before 1723 the survivors are too scanty to indicate a rate 
of productivity. But thereafter we have fuller materials 
for a calculation. Bach, as Cantor, conducted his first 
Leipzig Cantata on May 30, 1723, and in the following 
sixteen months produced twenty-four Cantatas, at the 

1 In Mizler'e ' Nekrolog.' 
Supra, p. 138. 

See the present writer's ' Bach's Chorals,' Part II. p. 1. 
4 Ibid., p. 4. Four more Cantatas, of doubtful authenticity, are 
published by the Bachgesellschaft, Jahrgang XLI. 



164 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

rate of more than one a month. 1 Beginning at the New 
Year of 1725 he wrote eighteen Cantatas in nine months, 
some of which, however, may belong to the years 
1726-7-8-9. But even so, his monthly average seems to 
have been maintained. For 1730 we have, perhaps, ten 
Cantatas. For 1731 about twenty survive, of which 
half a dozen may belong to 1732, a deduction which still 
preserves Bach's steady average. In 1735 he produced 
actually nineteen Cantatas between the New Year and 
the following November, though not all of them are 
positively dated. Thereafter his activity is less certainly 
measured. But from 1736 till the end of 1744 he com- 
posed fifty-three Cantatas, at the rate, that is, of at least 
six every year, without making allowance for Cantatas 
written and lost. 

There are few phenomena in the record of art more 
extraordinary than this unflagging cataract of inspiration, 
in which masterpiece followed masterpiece with the 
monotonous periodicity of a Sunday sermon. Its musical 
significance has been presented with illuminating exegesis 
by more than one commentator. But its literary apparatus 
has captured little attention. Yet Bach's task must have 
been materially eased or aggravated according as the 
supply of libretti was regular or infrequent, while the 
flow of his inspiration must have been governed by their 
quality. Moreover, the libretto was the medium through 
which he offered the homage of his art to the service of 
God. The subject therefore deserves attention. How- 
ever trivial, measured against the immensities of Bach's 
genius, the study will at least provide a platform from 
which to contemplate it. 

At the outset the opinion may be hazarded that the 
provision of his weekly libretti caused Bach greater 
anxiety than the setting of them to music, a task which 
he accomplished with almost magical facility. It is 

1 See the Table of Cantatas set out in chronological order. 



THE CHURCH CANTATAS 165 

true that from the early part of the 18th century cycles 
of Cantata texts for the Church's year were not infre- 
quently published. Bach was in more or less intimate 
touch with the authors of four, perhaps five, printed 
collections of the kind. But he used them with surprising 
infrequency. Neumeister's published cycles provided 
him with seven libretti, 1 Franck's with sixteen, 2 Picander's 
with ten, 3 Marianne von Ziegler's with nine, 4 and Helbig's 
with two. 5 He took three libretti from the Bible, 6 and 
the hymn-book furnished him with eleven more. 7 But 
all these published sources together only account for 
fifty-eight texts. Bach possessed only one book that 
could assist his own efforts at authorship Paul Wagner's 
eight -volumed Hymn-book whence he took the stanzas 
which decorate his Cantatas like jewels in the rare settings 
he gave them. It was, therefore, mainly upon writers 
with whom he was brought into occasional or official 
contact that Bach depended for his texts. 

At the beginning of his career Bach was thrown upon 
his inexperience. His earliest libretti, consequently, are 
tentative and transitory hi their construction. His 
first Cantata was written at Arnstadt for the Easter 
Festival of 1704. 8 The core of the libretto is a seven- 
stanzaed Easter song by an unknown poet, eked out by 
two passages of Scripture, a Recitative, Aria, and a verse 
of a congregational hymn. The Aria and Recitativo are 
the only original numbers of the libretto, and there is little 

1 Nos. 18, 24, 28, 59, 61, 142, 160. 

1 Nos. 31, 70, 72, 80, 132, 147, 152, 155, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 168, 
185, 186 (part). 

8 Nos. 145, 148 (part), 156, 157, 159, 171, 174, 188, 190 (one version), 
' Ehre sei Gott ' (incomplete). 

Nos. 68, 74, 87, 103, 108, 128, 175, 176, 183. 

8 Nos. 47, 141. 

Nos. 50, 191, 196. 

7 Nos. 4, 97, 100, 107, 112, 117, 118, 129, 137, 177, 192. 

8 No. 15 : ' Denn du wirst meine Seele nicht in der Holle 
lassen.' 



166 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

doubt that Bach wrote them himself. 1 But the whole 
libretto is stamped by his personality, and reveals the 
inveterate subjectivity of his religion. For, disregarding 
the general message of the Festival, the libretto opens on 
the soul's personal longing for immortality and closes on 
its song of victory over death. In construction it is 
archaic, a survival of traditions acquired from central 
and northern Germany through Bach's earlier residence 
at Liineburg and intercourse with Hamburg. 2 

Three years passed before Bach produced his next 
extant Cantata. In the interval, on 29th June 1707, he 
resigned his Arnstadt appointment to become organist 
of the Church of St. Blasius at Miihlhausen. 3 Here, 
within the space of ten months, he produced three 
Cantatas, the uniform character of whose libretti points 
to local and transitory influence upon the composer. The 
first of them, 4 written in August 1707, is a setting of 
Psalm 130, with the addition of two hymn-stanzas. The 
second 5 was performed on 4th February 1708, at the 
inauguration of the Miihlhausen Town Council, and con- 
sists of Old Testament passages, a verse of a hymn, and 
three original stanzas. The third, 6 a wedding Cantata, 
was performed at Dornheim, near Arnstadt, on 5th June 
1708, at the marriage of Pastor Johann Lorenz Stauber 
to Frau Bach's aunt, and is set to four verses of 
Psalm 115. 

We can have little doubt regarding the authorship of 
these singularly austere libretti, so far removed in 
atmosphere from those of Bach's subsequent periods. 
In fact, the clue is furnished by Bach himself. A note 
in his handwriting on the score of the first of the three 

1 The intimate personal note of the opening words of the Recitative 
' Mein Jesus ware tot ' reveals him. 

Spitta, i. 231. Schweitzer, i. 103. 
No. 131 : ' Aus der Tiefe rufe ich, Herr, zu dir.' 

No. 71 : ' Gott ist mein Konig.' 

No. 196 : ' Dorr Herr denket an uns.' 



THE CHURCH CANTATAS 167 

Cantatas (No. 131) states that he composed it at the 
request of Georg Christian Eilmar. The man was a 
close friend, godfather of Bach's eldest daughter, 
Katharina Dorothea (b. 1708), chief pastor of the Church 
of the Blessed Virgin, and Consistorial Assessor, at 
Miihlhausen. He was, moreover, an aggressive foe of 
Pietism, of which Miihlhausen was the citadel, and Bach's 
minister, Frohne, the protagonist. Indeed, the two 
men waged so public and wordy a warfare * that Bach's 
social relations with the one and official connection with 
the other must have been rendered difficult. To his 
settled convictions regarding the fellowship of music and 
worship Pietism offered Puritan opposition. In fact, its 
lack of sympathy eventually drove him from Miihlhausen, 
in hope, in his own words, ' to realise my views upon the 
right ordering of Church music without vexation from 
others.' 2 Eilmar, on the other hand, though he admitted 
the aesthetic value of music, conspicuously lacked the 
warmth and emotionalism of Bach's religious tempera- 
ment. To him undoubtedly we must attribute the cold 
austerity of the three Miihlhausen libretti and the sup- 
pression of the personal note already sounded in Bach's 
Arnstadt Cantata. Nor did Eilmar's influence pass with 
Bach's departure from Miihlhausen. 3 It is to be traced 
in the early libretti of the Weimar period. 

The Weimar Cantatas are twenty-two in number, of 
which all but three were written subsequently to Bach's 
appointment as Concertmeister early in 1714. He had 
been organist to the Ducal Court of Weimar since June 
1708, a position which did not require him to compose for 
the Ducal Chapel. On the other hand, three Cantatas 
are attributed to the early Weimar years. But they 

1 See Spitta, i. 359 ff. 

1 Ibid., i. 374. On the other hand, Bach's art was visibly affected by 
Pietistic influences, as Schweitzer, i. 169, shows. 
Eilmar died in 1716 (Spitta, i. 361). 



168 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

cannot be positively dated, and their libretti bear such 
clear traces of Eilmar's influence that their composition 
may belong rather to the Miihlhausen period. Their 
texts display Eilmar's preference for strictly Biblical 
material and a disinclination to employ secular forms. 
The first of them 1 is a paraphrase of the Magnificat. The 
second 2 consists of four verses of Psalm 25, along with 
three simple rhymed stanzas which we have no difficulty 
in attributing to Bach himself. The third, ' Gottes Zeit 
ist die allerbeste Zeit ' (No. 106), was composed, Spitta 
conjectures, 3 for the funeral of Philipp Grossgebauer, 
B/ector of Weimar School, in 1711. But more recently, 
and more probably, Pirro 4 has expressed the opinion 
that Bach wrote it for the funeral of his uncle, Tobias 
Lammerhirt, who was buried at Erfurt in September 
1707. The theory accords with the suggestion that all 
three Cantatas belong to the Miihlhausen period. If so, 
it is probable that the libretto, a very ingenious mosaic of 
Scripture texts, was written by Eilmar for the occasion. 
It is the last in which we detect his influence. 

Bach's appointment as Ducal Concertmeister at Weimar 
can be placed between 14th January and 19th March 
1714 5 and, it is probable, was nearer the former date. 
He seems to have produced the first Cantata his new 
post required him to write on Sexagesima Sunday, which 
fell on 4th February in that year. From thence to the end 
of 1716 he produced nineteen Cantatas and collaborated 
with a writer whose libretti at length gave him a satis- 
factory literary medium. 

The new poet, Erdmann Neumeister, four of whose 
libretti Bach set to music immediately after his appoint- 

1 No. 189 : ' Meine Seele riihmt und preiat.' 

* No. 150 : ' Nach dir, Herr, verlanget mich.' 
8 Vol. i. 456. 

' J.-S. Bach,' p. 87. 

8 The conclusion is based on letters printed by Spitta, i. 517. 



THE CHURCH CANTATAS 169 

ment, and a fifth a year later, 1 was considerably Bach's 
senior. 2 As far back as 1700 he had begun to write a 
cycle of Cantata texts for the Ducal Chapel at Weissenfels, 
and published it in 1704, with an explanatory Preface 
referred to later. 3 In 1708 he issued a second cycle for 
the Court of Rudolstadt, while in 1711 and 1714 third 
and fourth cycles were written for the Ducal Chapel 
at Eisenach. All four cycles were reissued in 171 6, 4 with 
the addition of a fifth and a Preface, which lauded 
Neumeister as ' the first German to give sacred music its 
fitting position by introducing and perfecting the Church 
Cantata.' 5 

Spitta has dealt exhaustively 6 with the evolution and 
construction of the Neumeister libretto. It need only 
be remarked that it adapted a secular or operatic 
apparatus to the service of religion, and that the innova- 
tion, hateful to many, triumphed because of Neumeister's 
delicate handling of it. He perfected the new form, how- 
ever, in stages. ' A Cantata,' he insisted hi his 1704 
Preface, * is simply a fragment of Opera made up of 
Aria and Recitative.' But the restriction excluded from 
the Cantata its most appropriate material. In his 1708 
cycle he found a place for the chorus. Finally, he 
admitted the Bible stanza and congregational hymn. 
With their inclusion the Cantata libretto assumed the 
form familiar to us in Bach's use. It represents a com- 
bination of secular Opera and ecclesiastical Motet. The 
free Arias and Recitativi are derived from the one, the 
Bible stanzas and congregational hymns perpetuate the 
traditions of the other. Unity of design is stamped on 

1 Nos. 18, 61, 142, 160, and 69. See Table. 

* He was born May 12, 1671 (Spitta, i. 470). 

3 The volume is entitled ' Erdmann Neumeisters Geistliche Cantaten 
statt einer Kirchen-Musik. Die zweyte Auflage.' 

* Entitled 'Herrn Erdmann Neumeisters Fiinffache Kirchen- 
Andachten,' Leipzig, 1716. 

6 Spitta, i. 474. Vol. i. 466 ff. 



170 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

the whole by its general subordination to the Gospel 
for the Day. Thus, at the moment when Bach was about 
to devote his genius to the Cantata, Neumeister oppor- 
tunely provided him with a libretto singularly adapted 
to the end Bach had in view, and appropriate to the 
musical expression by which he proposed to secure it. 
He adhered to it almost to the end of his life, and found 
unfailing inspiration in Neumeister's sincerity, delicacy, 
and uniformly religious outlook. Neumeister's Arias, 
with a single exception, 1 are hymn-like in mood and metre. 
His Recitativi are reflective and prayerful, rarely oratorical 
or pictorial, simple communings upon the Gospel themes 
which the libretto handles. 2 

Bach's early introduction to Neumeister's texts is 
explained by the close relations between the Courts of 
Weimar and Eisenach, by his associations with his own 
birthplace, and his intimacy with Georg Philipp Telemann, 
Kapellmeister there, for whose use Neumeister's third and 
fourth cycles were written. 3 Bach set, in all, seven of the 
libretti four from the fourth cycle, 4 one from the third, 5 
and two from the first, 6 one of which (No. 142) differs so 
much from the published version as to raise the question 
whether Bach did not receive it direct from Neumeister 
in the form in which he set it. 7 

That Bach should have set no more than seven of 
Neumeister's texts 8 is strange. He shrank, perhaps, 
from appropriating libretti on which his friend Telemann 
had a prior claim. 9 But the reason is found rather in the 
fact that at Weimar Bach discovered in 1715 a local 

See the Aria (Duetto) of Cantata No. 28. 

See particularly the Litanei in Cantata No. 18. 

Telemann was Carl Philipp Emmanuel Bach's godfather (Spitta, i. 
486). 

Nos. 24, 28, 59, 61. No. 18. 

Nos. 142, 160. "> See Spitta, i. 630. 

His influence is also detected in Nos. 27, 56, 199. 

Telemann also set the libretti of Bach's Nos. 18 and 142. See 
Spitta, i. 487. 



THE CHURCH CANTATAS 171 

poet of first-rate ability who, with perhaps but one 
exception, wrote the libretti of all the Cantatas he com- 
posed during the last two years of his Weimar appoint- 
ment. 

Salomo Franck, Bach's new collaborator, was Curator 
of the Ducal Museum of Coins and Medals at Weimar. He 
was twenty-six years older than Bach. But Spitta's 
conjecture, 1 that the two men were not acquainted, is 
hardly tenable. Both resided in the same small provincial 
town, both were in the Duke's service, and throughout 
1715 and 1716 collaborated in at least ten Cantatas 
performed in the Ducal Chapel. Moreover, though the 
Preface of Franck's first cycle is dated 4th June 171 5, 2 
Bach had already set one of its libretti for Easter of that 
year. A second cycle of texts, of which Bach made little 
use, 3 was published by Franck in 1717. 4 

Schweitzer, no doubt, is correct in his conclusion 5 
that Bach was drawn to Franck by his poetic insight, his 
mysticism, and innate feeling for nature. It must be 
remembered, too, that his libretti were, in some degree, 
official. On the other hand, Franck was Neumeister's 
inferior in ability to conceive a picture fit to express 
Bach's larger moods, and on occasion could descend to 
sheer bathos. 6 But his texts have a rhythmic swing and 
melody which Bach found agreeable. He set at least 
sixteen of them, and returned to them even after he 
settled at Leipzig. 

The circumstances which terminated Bach's service at 

Vol. i. 630. 

* Wustmann, 'Job. Seb. Bach's Kantaten-Texte ' (1913), p. xxii n. 
The cycle is entitled ' Evangelisches Andachte-Opffer.' 

* Only Nos. 70, 147, and 186 are taken from it. 

4 Entitled ' Evangelische Sonn- und Fest-Tages Andachten.' 
8 Vol. ii. 131. 

* For instance, the Aria in Cantata No. 168, beginning : 

' Kapital und Interessen 
Meiner Sohulden gross und klein, 
Mussen einst verreohnet sein.' 



172 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

Weimar are familiar, and need not be restated. He re- 
ceived a new appointment at Cothen on 1st August 1717, 
and took up his duties there, probably at Christmas, that 
year. 1 His position was that of Capellmeister to the 
princely Court. He never styles himself Court Organist, 2 
and his duties severed him for five years from the service 
of the Church, to which he had declared his particular 
dedication in 1708. The Cothen Court was unpretentious. 
The Prince was a Calvinist. Figurate music was not 
permitted in the Court Chapel, and its Organ was small 
and inadequate. Hence Bach devoted himself chiefly 
to chamber music, and only two genuine Church Cantatas 
belong to this period of his career. Both must have 
been written for performance elsewhere, possibly in con- 
nection with Bach's frequent Autumn tours as a 
performer. 3 

For both Cantatas Bach employed a librettist, other- 
wise little known, named Johann Friedrich Helbig, State 
Secretary to the Eisenach Court. In March 1720, 4 more 
than two years after Bach's arrival at Cothen, Helbig 
published a cycle of ' Musical Texts on the Sunday and 
Saints' Day Gospels throughout the year,' for performance 
' in God's honour by the Prince's Kapelle at Eisenach.' 5 
How they came into Bach's hands we do not know, but 
can readily conjecture. They are indifferent poetry, 
judging them by the two specimens Bach made use of, 
and are uniform in construction. The first movement 
invariably is a Chorus upon a text from the Gospel for 
the Day, or a Scripture passage closely related to it. 
Two Arias separated by a Recitativo follow. A Choral 
brings the libretto to an end. 6 

The first of the two Cantatas written to Helbig's words 

1 Spitta, ii. 5 ; Schweitzer, i. 106. 2 Spitta, ii. 3. 

3 The two Cantatas are Nos. 47 and 141. 

4 Wustmann, p. xxiii. 6 Spitta, ii. 12 n. 

6 The Choral is absent from No. 141. It should be ' Christe, du 
Lamm Gottes.' 






THE CHURCH CANTATAS 173 

was designed for the Seventeenth Sunday after Trinity, 
which fell in 1720 on September 22. 1 Spitta conjectures 2 
that Bach intended it for performance at Hamburg. In 
fact, his wife's death postponed Bach's visit to that town 
until November, by which date the Sunday appropriate 
to the Cantata had passed. Spitta holds that the 
Cantata may have been performed, after all, during the 
visit. Schweitzer is sceptical. 3 But Bach certainly 
expended great pains upon the score. 

The second Helbig Cantata 4 is for the Third Sunday 
in Advent, and the date of it would appear to have been 
1721. It is one of the least agreeable of Bach's works. 
Spitta 6 declares it a juvenile composition hastily adapted 
to a new libretto. Schweitzer 6 expresses the same 
opinion, and Sir Hubert Parry 7 finds the work ' rather 
commonplace.' Its genuineness is discussed by Max 
Schreyer in the ' Bach-Jahrbuch ' for 1912, and more 
recently Rudolf Wustmann has insisted that it does not 
bear the stamp of Bach's genius. 8 If it actually was 
composed hi 1721, its production must have coincided 
with Bach's second marriage on December 3 of that year. 9 
In that case, his resort to old material is explicable. 

Only these two Cantatas were composed at Cothen. 
But later, at Leipzig, two others were manufactured out 
of secular material written there. 10 It is unnecessary to 
refer to them, except to remark that in each case Bach 
appears to have been the author of the new libretto. In 
the first of them n it is clear that he was handicapped by 
the frankly secular metre of the original stanzas. The 

1 Schweitzer, ii. 147. The Cantata is No. 47, ' Wer sich selbst 
erhohet.' 

Vol. ii. 13. 3 Vol. ii. 147. 

No. 141 : ' Das ist je gewisslich wahr.' 
Vol. ii. 15. Vol. ii. 148. 

' Johann Sebastian Bach,' p. 108. 8 Op. cit., Note 195. 

Spitta, ii. 147. w Nos. 134 and 173. 

11 No. 134 : ' Ein Herz, daa seinen Jesum lebend weiss.' 



174 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

second of them, 1 originally a Birthday Ode to Prince 
Leopold of Anhalt-Cothen, is a masterly conversion into 
a Whit-Monday text which, assuming that Bach wrote 
it, puts his literary facility beyond question. 

Bach made the last move in his professional career on 
May 31, 1723, when he was inducted Cantor of St. 
Thomas' School at Leipzig, with particular charge of the 
Churches of St. Thomas and St. Nicolas. Here by far 
the greater number of his Cantatas appeared, and 172 
of them survive. They are too numerous to be con- 
sidered individually, and their classification is rendered 
difficult by the fact that the authorship of most of their 
libretti is conjectural and not ascertained. They fall, 
however, into two large categories, each of which exhibits 
characteristics of its own. 

The dividing year, clearly but not arbitrarily, is 1734. 
Before it and after it Bach was aided by new writers. 
But the earlier period pre-eminently was one of experi- 
ment, out of which emerged the glorified hymn-libretto, 
or Choral Cantata, of Bach's last years. That it sprang, 
in some degree, from the difficulty of finding good original 
texts in sufficient number may be granted. That it was 
adopted as an avenue of escape from Picander's coarser 
work is a conjecture based, apparently, upon a prevalent 
exaggeration of Bach's dependence on that writer. The 
fundamental reason which led Bach to the hymn-libretto 
undoubtedly was the fact that it most closely fulfilled 
the ideals which informed his work. 

The first Cantata performed during Bach's Cantorship 2 
reveals a new author, whose assistance, if the conclusion 
is well grounded, was at Bach's disposal throughout the 
whole of the earlier Leipzig period. Spitta's keen insight 
failed him in this instance. He betrays no recognition of 

1 No. 173 : ' Erhotes Fleisch und Blut.' 

* No. 75 : ' Die Elendeu sollen essen,' sung on May 30, the day 
preceding Bach's formal induction. 



THE CHURCH CANTATAS 175 

the new writer, and occasionally l attributes his libretti 
to Picander. The credit of the discovery belongs to 
Rudolf Wustmann, though he fails to work it out to its 
fullest conclusions. 2 

No one can read the early Leipzig libretti without 
being struck by the number of them that are not only 
uniform in structure, but similar in tone and point. They 
all begin with a Bible text, chosen frequently, but not 
invariably, from the Gospel for the Day. Every one of 
them ends with a hymn-stanza. Their Arias, with hardly 
an exception, 3 are written in what, compared with 
Picander 's rollicking dactyls, may be held hymn -metres. 
Their Recitativi, almost invariably, are didactic or 
exegetical. 4 They do not display the vapid rhetoric of 
Picander. Nor do they express the reflective or prayerful 
mood that reveals Bach. They are essentially expositive 
and, it is noticeable, are studded with direct or veiled 
references to Bible passages which expand or enforce the 
lesson of the initial text. In a word, they suggest the 
work of a preacher casting his sermon notes into lyrical 
form, an impression which is strengthened by the fact 
that the libretto invariably opens with a Scripture passage 
and frequently blends the Gospel and Epistle for the 
Day in one harmonious teaching. Spitta detected 
this characteristic. But he failed to follow up the clue. 
He speaks 5 of one of these texts 6 as a ' moralising 
homily/ a phrase concisely appropriate to them all. 
Moreover, a remark of his, 7 pointing the significance of 

1 For instance, Noa. 67 and 102. 

1 Wustmann, by implication, only associates eight libretti (Cantatas 
Nos. 37, 44, 75, 76, 86, 104, 166, 179) with Weiss. All of them belong 
to the early years, 1723-27. * See Nos. 75 and 105. 

4 See Nos. 25, 42, 77. As an extreme illustration, the first Recitative 
of No. 25 begins with the words, ' Die ganze Welt ist nur ein Hospital.' 

* Vol. ii. 388. 

Cantata No. 65 : ' Sie werden aus Saba Alle kommen.' 
1 Vol. i. 361. 



176 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

the god-parents chosen by Bach for his children Eilmar, 
for instance as revealing Bach's intimate associates at 
the moment, affords another clue to the personality of 
the new writer. 

Among the clergy of St. Thomas' during Bach's 
Cantorate were two men, father and son, each of whom 
bore the name Christian Weiss. The elder was Pastor 
of the Church from 1714 till his death in 1737. He was 
a cultured man, hi touch with the University, and 
possibly formed a link between it and Bach, to whom he 
showed greater cordiality than the Cantor received from 
other clerical colleagues. In 1732 his daughter, Dorothea 
Sophia stood godmother to Bach's son, Johann Christoph 
Friedrich, afterwards famous as the ' Biickeburg Bach.' l 
In 1737 his son stood sponsor to Bach's daughter, Johanna 
Caroline. 2 Nor can it be altogether without significance 
that the names Dorothea, Sophia, Christian, are borne by 
others of Bach's children by his second marriage. There 
is sufficient evidence, therefore, that Bach's relations with 
the elder Weiss were intimate enough to support a 
literary partnership. Moreover, circumstances lend 
weight to the inference. For some years before Bach's 
arrival in Leipzig, Weiss suffered from an affection of the 
throat which kept him from the pulpit. But, during the 
first year of Bach's Cantorate, he was able to resume his 
preaching. If he was, in fact, the author of the libretti, 
we can have little difficulty in concluding that they and 
his sermons were built on the same text. 

So far as they can be identified the attempt is 
somewhat speculative Weiss provided Bach with at 
least thirty-three libretti. He set five of them hi 1723, 
three in 1724, nine in or about 1725, one in 1727, two in 
1730, six in 1731, three in 1732, and four in the later 
Leipzig period. 3 Fourteen others bear a constructional 

1 Wustmann, p. xxiv. 2 Ibid. 

3 See the Table. 



THE CHURCH CANTATAS 177 

resemblance to Weiss's texts, 1 but their character refers 
them rather to Bach or Picander. Even so, if we do not 
exaggerate his activity, Weiss seems to have written at 
least one -sixth of the Leipzig libretti and more than a 
quarter of those of the earlier period. Without a doubt 
he eased a difficult situation in Bach's experience before 
his regular association with Picander began. 

Apart from their revelation of Christian Weiss, the 
libretti of Bach's first year at Leipzig do not call for 
comment. Franck and Neumeister appear among them, 
and we trace Bach's hand in nine. 2 But at Easter, 1724, 
he broke new ground with a libretto whence developed 
the Cantata form of his latest period. 

The Cantata for Easter Day 1724, 3 is Bach's earliest 
setting of an entire congregational hymn . Spitta suggests 4 
that he felt the fitness of giving the libretto an antique 
character to match the hymn's melody. However that 
may be, Bach would appear already to have been grop- 
ing towards the Choral Cantata of the late '30's. And 
though he did not repeat the experiment until the Easter 
of 173 1, 5 he treated three hymn-libretti in the interval 
in a manner which shows him already to have worked 
out the essentials of the Choral Cantata form. 6 

Another landmark meets us a year and a half after the 
Easter experiment. On September 23, 1725(?) the 
Seventeenth Sunday after Trinity Bach produced a 
Cantata 7 whose Arias are set to words which had appeared 
in print in the preceding year. Their author was a hack 
writer named Christian Friedrich Henrici, or, as he 
preferred to style himself, Picander. His hand probably 

1 They are Nos. 6, 17, 22, 43, 48, 57, 144, 148, 157, 159, 171, 190, 195, 
and the incomplete Cantata, ' Ehre sei Gott in der Hohe.' 

Nos. 16, 23, 63, 81, 83, 153, 154, 184, 194. See the Table. 
No. 4 : ' Christ lag in Todesbanden.' Vol. ii. 393. 

See the Table : No. 112, ' Derr Herr ist mein getreuer Hirt.' 
Nos. 8, 20, 93. 

No. 148 : ' Bringet dem Herrn Ehre seines Namens.' 
M 



178 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

is also traced in the libretto used by Bach on the preceding 
Sunday l and again in that for Sexagesima in the same 
year. 2 But the evidence is only inferential. That he 
collaborated with Bach on September 23, 1725 (?), is 
incontestable, and the work defines the beginning of a 
long and fruitful partnership. 

Spitta, 3 who tells us all that is known of Picander, has 
sufficiently exposed his superficial literary facility. He 
commenced to write sacred poetry in 1724, and on Advent 
Sunday of that year began a cycle of ' Profitable Thoughts,' 
so he termed them, upon the Sunday and Saints' Day 
Gospels. He published them in 1725, when the cycle was 
complete. 4 Three years later he issued a cycle of Cantata 
texts for 1728-29 in the Neumeister form. 6 That he 
intended them for Bach's use is apparent in the fact 
that he expressly dedicated them to the service of ' our 
incomparable Capellmeister.' But Bach made the sparest 
use of them and of the earlier ' Profitable Thoughts ' alike. 
From the latter he took not one libretto. 6 Of the 1728-29 
cycle he used only eight texts. 7 One more libretto can be 
referred to Picander's later publications, 8 and of six others 
we can be sure that they are based upon his texts. 9 In 
other words, of the original libretti of the Leipzig period 
we can trace Picander's hand positively in no more than 
fifteen. 

It is necessary to emphasise this point. For Spitta 10 
has stated positively that Picander wrote ' most ' of the 
Leipzig libretti, and his opinion has been generally 

1 No. 8 : ' Liebster Gott, wann werd' ich sterben.' 
1 No. 181 : ' Leichtgesinnte Flattergeister.' 3 Vol. ii. 340 E. 

4 The volume is entitled ' Sammlung Erbaulicher Gedancken, Bey 
und iiber gewohnlichen Sonn- und Festtags-Evangelien,' Leipzig. 

* ' Cantaten auf die Sonn- und Fest-Tage durch das gantze Jahr,' 
Leipzig, 1728. He reprinted them in 1732 in his ' Satyrische Gedichte.' 

6 But see Cantata No. 148 and Spitta, ii. 693. Also No. 19. 

7 Cantatas Nos. 145, 156, 159, 171, 174, 188, 190 (one version), and 
the Cantata ' Ehre sei Gott.' 8 No. 157. 

Nos. 19, 30, 36, 84, 148, 197. Vol. ii. 346. 



THE CHURCH CANTATAS 179 

accepted. But its correctness may be contested. It is 
suspicious, to begin with, that Picander never published 
the texts which Spitta asserts him to have poured out in 
such profusion. ' He placed no value,' Spitta answers 
readily, ' on these manufactured compositions, put 
together hastily to please his friend.' But the argument 
cannot stand. Why should Picander have thought less 
of libretti actually used by his * incomparable Capell- 
meister ' than of those published for and rejected by 
him ? for Spitta does not venture to declare that as 
literature the rejected were superior to the accepted texts. 
If out of a published cycle of libretti expressly written 
for him Bach chose only eight texts, are Picander 's 
' manufactured compositions,' as Spitta calls them, likely 
to have attracted him to a greater degree ? We can 
detect his hand perhaps in six Cantatas * besides those 
already mentioned, and Bach relied on him exclusively 
for his secular texts. One concludes, none the less, that 
Bach rarely accepted an original Cantata libretto from 
Picander, and employed him chiefly on the Choral 
Cantatas of his latest period. Excluding them, and 
adding the probable to the actual original Picander texts, 
they total only twenty -one, a fraction inadequate to 
support Spitta's sweeping statement. 

From the advent of Picander in 1725, to the end of the 
first Leipzig period nine years later, Bach does not seem 
to have gone outside the circle of familiar authors for his 
regular Cantata texts. On October 17, 1727, however, 
he produced a funeral Cantata, or ' Trauer-Musik,' in 
memory of the late Queen of Poland, the libretto of which 
was written by Professor J. C. Gottsched. The partner- 
ship, in fact, was accidental : the libretto was supplied 
to Bach with the commission to set it to music, and, so 
far as is known, Gottsched and he did not collaborate 
again. 

1 Nos. 32, 48, 67, 90, 144, 181. 



180 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

So, reviewing Bach's activities during his first eleven 
years at Leipzig, we find that of the hundred libretti set 
by him to music Christian Weiss heads the list as the 
presumed author of twenty -nine. Bach follows him with 
eighteen. 1 Picander's hand appears in fifteen, Franck's in 
eight, 2 Neumeister's and Gottsched's in one each. Fifteen 
libretti are congregational hymns in their original or 
paraphrased form. One is the ' Gloria in Excelsis ' of 
the B minor Mass adapted as a Christmas Cantata 
(No. 190). Twelve are by authors not identified. 

Passing to the later Leipzig period, seventy-two sur- 
viving Cantatas are attributed to the years 1735-50. 
They reveal one, perhaps two, new writers. The first 
of them, Marianne von Ziegler, was identified by Spitta in 
1892. She was the widow of an officer, resident in 
Leipzig, a cultured woman, in touch with University life, 
her house a salon for music and musicians. 3 There is 
no reason to suppose Bach to have been of her circle, 
or that he was acquainted with her literary gifts. Indeed 
the contrary is to be inferred from the fact that, though 
she published her poems in 1728, 4 he does not seem to 
have known them until seven years later, when he used 
them for nine consecutive Sundays and Festivals in 
1735, beginning on the Third Sunday after Easter, and 
ending on Trinity Sunday. 

In addition to these nine libretti, both Spitta 6 and 
Schweitzer 6 attribute to her the text of Bach's Cantata 
for the Second Sunday after Easter in the same year. 7 
It is uniform in construction with the authentic nine, but 
is not among the authoress's published works. Wustmann 8 

1 Nos. 16, 22, 23, 27, 35, 51, 56, 58, 63, 66, 81, 82, 83, 153, 154, 194, 
195. No. 184 is an adaptation. See also Nos. 19, 36, 84, 144, 145, 
148, for Bach's collaboration with Picander. 

Besides No. 80, a Choral Cantata. Schweitzer, ii. 332 ff. 
4 Entitled Versuch in gebundener Schreibart.' 8 Vol. iii. 71. 

Vol. ii. 331 n. 7 No. 85 : ' Ich bin ein guter Hirt.' 

Note 60. 



THE CHURCH CANTATAS 181 

finds the tone of the libretto less ardent and its rhythm 
rougher than those published under her name. Admit- 
ting the soundness of Wustmann's criticism, one hazards 
the opinion that the challenged text was written at the 
period when Bach set it, namely, in 1735, eight years 
after the poetess published her earlier texts. The differ- 
ence of time may account for the difference of texture to 
which Wustmann draws attention, but leaves undecided 
the question whether Bach was drawn to the earlier 
through the later and unpublished texts or vice versa. 
It is quite probable that he set other libretti by the 
same writer, though Schweitzer's 1 attribution to her 
of a second text for Ascension Day, 1735, must be 
rejected. 2 

It is worth noticing, since it certainly reveals Bach's 
preference, that Marianne von Ziegler's libretti are con- 
structed almost invariably in the Weiss form. Every one 
of them but three 3 opens with a Bible passage, invariably 
taken from St. John's Gospel, which provides the Gospel 
for the Day from the First Sunday after Easter down to 
Trinity Sunday, excepting Ascension Day. All but one 
(No. 68) of the libretti conclude with a Choral, and their 
Arias are hymn-like in metre. The tone of them, how- 
ever, is warmer, more personal, less didactic than the 
Weiss texts. That Bach regarded them with particular 
favour is apparent in the circumstance that he took the 
trouble to revise all but one of them. 4 That they stirred 
his genius deeply is visible in the settings he gave them. 

After 1735 the chronology of the Cantatas is not 
certainly ascertained. Of those that fall after the Ziegler 
year, as we may term it, the majority can only be dated 
approximately as circa 1740, that is, anywhere between 
1736 and 1744. Nor, except rarely, can we detect in 
their libretti the work of those on whom Bach elsewhere 

1 Vol. ii. 331 n. No. 33 : ' Qott f&hret uf mit Jauchzen.' 

See Table. No. 74. 



182 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

relied. Weiss, who died late in 1737, is only an occasional 
contributor. The texts of this period, in fact, are the 
outcome of Bach's own experiments in libretto form. 
Thirty-three of them are Choral Cantatas, whose evolution 
it remains to trace concisely. 

That Bach should have turned to Lutheran hymnody, 
chiefly of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and that the 
Cantatas built upon it should be his most perfect religious 
work is not surprising. The hymns and their melodies 
were the foundations upon which the temple of German 
Protestantism had been reared. They appealed vividly 
and powerfully to Bach's spiritual nature, and profoundly 
influenced his musical utterance. His whole career, as 
Sir Hubert Parry points out, 1 was an effort to widen his 
means for self-expression. And the Choral Cantata, hi 
effect, was the reconciliation or blending of this self- 
discipline. It was the supreme achievement of Bach's 
genius to assert the faith and idealism of Lutheran 
hymnody with the fullest resources of his technique. 

It is not our task to consider the hymn libretto in its 
relation to the structure of Bach's latest Cantatas. 
Necessarily it tied him to a stereotyped design, which he 
clung to with greater persistency because it exactly 
fulfilled his devotional purpose. But experience com- 
pelled him, after a brief trial, to discard the simple hymn 
libretto. In the earlier Leipzig years as many as eight 
Choral Cantatas 2 are set to the unaltered text of a 
congregational hymn. In the later Leipzig period only 
two 3 libretti are of that character. Bach, in fact, soon 
realised that, while the unaltered hymn-stanza, with its 
uniform metre and balanced rhyme, was appropriate to 
the simple Choral or elaborate Fantasia, it was unmalle- 
able for use as an Aria or Recitative. Hence, retaining 
the unaltered Hymn-stanza for the musical movements 

1 Op. oil., p. 377. See Table. 

Nos. 100 and 107, both of them c. 1735. 



THE CHURCH CANTATAS 183 

congruous to it, he was led to paraphrase, in free madrigal 
form, those stanzas which he selected for the Arias and 
Recitativi. 

As early as September 16, 1725, 1 Bach was moving 
towards this solution. And it is significant that Picander's 
hand is visible in the libretto. The next example 2 
occurs three years later, and again reveals Picander's 
authorship. Two other instances also occur in the early 
Leipzig period. 3 To that point, however, it is clear that 
Bach was not satisfied as to the most effective treatment 
of the hymn-libretto. But in the second Leipzig period, 
after his collaboration with Marianne von Ziegler, he 
arrived at and remained constant to a uniform design. 
Of the thirty-nine Choral Cantatas of the whole period 
only two exhibit the earlier form. Of all the others the 
libretto consists partly of unaltered hymn-stanzas in- 
variably used for the first and last movements, and 
occasionally elsewhere but chiefly of paraphrased stanzas 
of the hymn, whose accustomed melody, wherever else 
it may be introduced, is associated invariably with the 
hymn when the text is used in its unaltered form. We, 
to whom both words and melody are too frequently 
unfamiliar, may view the perfections of the Choral 
Cantata with some detachment. But Bach's audience 
listened to hymns and tunes which were in the heart of 
every hearer and a common possession of them all. The 
appeal of his message was the more arresting because it 
spoke as directly to himself as to those he addressed. 

It would be satisfactory and interesting to point 
positively to Bach's own handiwork in these libretti, of 
which he set fifty-four in the period 1724-44. Un- 
fortunately it is impossible to do so, except, perhaps, in a 
single case, 4 where we can reasonably infer that the 

1 No. 8, for the Sixteenth Sunday after Trinity. 

1 No. 93, for the Fifth Sunday after Trinity (1728). 

8 Nos. 9 (? 1731), 99 (c. 1733). No. 122. 



184 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

libretto is his. Of the rest, one is by Franck. 1 In 
eighteen of them the hand of Picander is more or less 
patent. 2 Nineteen 3 we can only venture to mark 
' anonymous/ though Picander is probably present in 
most of them. Ten are unaltered congregational 
hymns. 4 There remain, however, five 5 in which, per- 
haps, we detect another, and the last, of Bach's literary 
helpers. 

Wustmann draws attention 6 to the libretto of Cantata 
No. 38, a paraphrase of Luther's Psalm 130. He finds 
in it, and reasonably, an expression of ' Jesus religion ' 
very alien to Picander 's muse, and suggests the younger 
Christian Weiss as the author of it. Like his father, he 
was Bach's colleague, the godfather of his daughter, and 
undoubtedly on terms of close friendship with him. But 
if he wrote the libretto of Cantata No. 38, probably it is 
not the only one. The same note rings in four more of 
the Choral Cantatas, 7 which may be attributed tentatively 
to Weiss, though their ascription to Bach would be 
equally congruous. 

Returning, however, to the seventy-two libretti of the 
later Leipzig period we reach this result : More than half 
of them (thirty-nine) are congregational hymns, all but 
two of which are of the paraphrased type in which we 
detect the work of Picander, Bach himself, and perhaps 
the younger Weiss. Of the remaining thirty-three 
original libretti Marianne von Ziegler heads the list with 
nine, and perhaps ten. 8 Bach follows with a problematical 

1 No. 80. 

* Nos. 1, 2, 5, 8, 20, 26, 62, 78, 91, 92, 93, 96, 115, 121, 124, 127, 
138, 140. 

8 Nos. 7, 9, 10, 14, 33, 41, 94, 99, 101, 111, 113, 114, 116, 125, 126, 
130, 139, 178, 180. 

4 Nos. 4, 97, 100, 107, 112, 117, 129, 137, 177, 192. 

6 Nos. 3, 38, 123, 133, 135. 

P. xxiv. 

"> Nos. 3, 123, 133, 135. 8 See supra, p. 180. 



THE CHURCH CANTATAS 185 

six, 1 Picander with five, 2 the elder Weiss with four, 3 
Neumeister with one. 4 One text is taken from the Bible. 6 
Another consists of a single stanza of a hymn by Martin 
Behm. 6 Five are by authors unknown or undetected. 7 

But, as was said at the outset, the attribution of 
particular libretti to individual writers is conjectural, 
except in comparatively few cases. Yet, unsatisfying as 
it is, this guess-work reveals with approximate correctness 
the extent to which Bach drew upon his own and other 
people's abilities for the texts he needed. Summarising 
our conclusions, we discover that about one -quarter 
(fifty-four) of the 202 libretti set by Bach between the 
years 1704 and 1744 were provided by the hymn-book. 
It is shown elsewhere 8 that all but eleven of them are 
taken from Paul Wagner's volumes. The elder Weiss 
comes next with thirty-three libretti. Bach follows with 
thirty, Salomo Franck with twenty-one, Picander with 
twenty (exclusive of his arrangements of Choral Cantata 
texts). Marianne von Ziegler contributes ten, Neumeister 
seven, Eilmar and Helbig two each, Gottsched and 
Martin Behm one each. Three libretti are taken from 
the Bible or Church liturgy. Eighteen remain anonymous. 

The literary qualities of the libretti are not under 
discussion here. They have a characteristic, however, on 
which one cannot forbear from remarking. Indifferent 
literature as, for the most part, they are children of 
then* period and blemished with its imperfections they 
enshrine an extraordinarily interesting anthology of the 
religious poetry of the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth 
centuries. They expose the evangelical thought of Ger- 
many from the age of Luther to that of Bach, and are 

1 Nos. 17, 34, 43, 151, 197, and ' Herr Gott, Beherrscher aller 
Dinge.' 

1 Nos. 30, 32, 48, 57, 90. s Nos. 45, 79, 110, 143. 

No. 28. No. 50. No. 118. 

7 Nos. 6, 11, 13, 146, 193. 

See ' Bach's Chorals,' Part n., Introduction. 



186 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

particularly rich in the lyrical fervour of the Reformation 
itself. Of the seventy-seven hymn-writers whom Bach 
includes in his collection, so many as forty-four belong 
to the sixteenth century. Only thirteen of them touch 
Bach's own period. And a similar bias to the Reformation 
epoch is observable in his choice of the tunes of the 
Chorals, which are absent from only twenty-one of the 
Cantatas. By far the greater number of them are coeval 
with the hymns themselves ; that is, they date from the 
Reformation and behind it. 

Here clearly is the source of Bach's inspiration, the 
master-key of his art. He touches Luther, is in a sense 
his complement, his art builded on the foundations 
Luther laid, consecrated to the ends Luther vindicated, 
inspired by a dedication of himself to God's service not 
less exalted a great artist, a great Protestant, a great 
man. 1 

1 The above article and the Table that follows were communicated 
originally to the Musical Association on March 28, 1918. 



THE CHURCH CANTATAS 



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APPENDIX III 

THE BACHGESELLSCHAFT EDITIONS OF BACH'S 
WORKS 

THE Bachgesellschaft was founded on December 15, 1850, 
issued its first volume in 1851, and was dissolved on 
January 27, 1900, upon the publication of its sixtieth and 
concluding volume. The Society had fulfilled its funda- 
mental purpose the publication of Bach's works and on 
the very date of its dissolution the Neue Bachgesellschaft 
was founded with the object of popularising Bach's 
music by publishing it in practicable form and by holding 
Bach Festivals. A secondary object, the foundation of 
a Bach Museum at Eisenach, in the house in which Bach 
was born, already has been achieved. Bach Festivals 
have been held at regular intervals at Berlin in 1901, 
Leipzig in 1904, Eisenach in connection with the 
opening of the Museum in 1907, at Chemnitz in 1908, 
Duisburg in 1910, Breslau in 1912, Vienna in 1914. 
The publications of the new Society necessarily are 
unimportant by the side of those of its predecessor. 
It has, however, brought to light and published a Can- 
tata overlooked by the old Bachgesellschaft. (See 
New B.G. xni. (2).) 

The publications of both Societies are quoted here by 
their year of issue I., n., in., and so forth. When more 
than one volume has been published in a single year they 
are differentiated thus : xv.(l), xv.(2). When a volume 
appeared upon a date subsequent to the Vereinsjahr it 



226 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

bears, the date of the Preface is indicated in a bracket, 
e.g. 1872[1876]. 

The editorial work of the original Bachgesellschaft was 
undertaken, in unequal proportions, by ten editors during 
fifty years. Of the Society's sixty volumes three were 
edited by Moritz Hauptmann (1851-58), one by Carl F. 
Becker (1853), two by Julius Rietz (1854-56), twenty- 
seven by Wilhelm Rust (1855-81), one by Franz Kroll 
(1866), eleven by Alfred Dorfifel (1876-98), six by Paul 
Graf Waldersee (1881-94), five by Ernst Naumann (1886- 
94), two by Franz Wiillner (1887-92), and two by Hermann 
Kretzschmar (1895-1900). 

(A) PUBLICATIONS OF THE BACHGESELLSCHAFT 

I. 1851. Kirchencantaten. Erster Band. Ed. Moritz 
Hauptmann. 1 

No. *1. Wie schon leuchtet der Morgenstern. 
*2. Ach Gott, vom Himmel sieh darein. 
*3. Ach Gott, wie manches Herzeleid (c. 1740). 
*4. Christ lag in Todesbanden. 
5. Wo soil ich fliehen hin. 
*6. Bleib' bei uns, denn es will Abend werden. 
7. Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam. 
*8. Liebster Gott, wann werd' ich sterben ? 
9. Es ist das Heil uns kommen her. 
*10. Meine Seel' erhebt den Herren ! 
Frontispiece : G. Haussmann's portrait of Bach, in the 
possession of St. Thomas' School, Leipzig. 

1 The Church Cantatas are published by Peters and also by Breitkop 
and Haertel. A prefixed asterisk indicates that an English edition 
of the Cantata or Oratorio is published by Novello or Breitkopf anc 
Haertel. 

The Organ music is published by Novello, to whose edition references 
are given (N.), Peters, and Breitkopf and Haertel. A collation of the 
Peters and Novello editions is given in Appendix V. 

The Clavier and Instrumental music is published by Peters, to whose 
edition references are given (P.), 



THE BACHGESELLSCHAFT EDITIONS 227 

II. 1852. Kirchencantaten. Z welter Band. Ed. Moritz 

Hauptmann. 

*No. 11. Lobet Gott in seinen Reichen. 
*12. Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen. 

13. Meine Seufzer, meine Thranen. 

14. War' Gott nicht mit uns diese Zeit. 

15. Denn du wirst meine Seele nicht in der Holle lassen. 

16. Herr Gott dich loben wir. 

17. Wer Dank opfert, der preiset mich. 

18. Gleich wie der Regen und Schnee vom Himmel fallt. 

19. Es erhub sich ein Streit. 

20. O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort (c. 1725). 

III. 1853. Clavierwerke. Erster Band. Ed. Carl F. Becker. 

(1) Fifteen Inventions and Fifteen Symphonies (Sinfonie) 

(P. bk. 201). 1 

(2) Clavierubung, Part I. : 

Partiten 1-6 (P. bks. 205, 206). 

(3) Clavierubung, Part II. : 

Concerto, in F major, in the Italian style (P bk. 207). 
Partita (Overture) in B minor (P. bk. 208). 

(4) Clavierubung, Part III. : 

Organ Prelude and Fugue in E flat major (N. bk. 16 

pp. 19, 83). * 

Four Duetti (P. bk.-208 p. 78). 
Catechism Choral Preludes (Organ) : 

1. Kyrie, Gott Vater in Ewigkeit (N. bk. 16 p. 28). 
Christe, aller Welt Trost (ib. p. 30). 

Kyrie, Gott heiliger Geist (ib. p. 33). 

2. Kyrie, Gott Vater in Ewigkeit (alio modo) (ib. 

p. 36). 

Christe, aller Welt Trost (ib. p. 37). 
Kyrie, Gott heiliger Geist (ib. p. 38). 

3. Allein Gott in der Hoh' sei Ehr' (ib. p. 39). 

4. Ditto (ib. p. 40*) . 2 

1 A Variant of the first Invention is on p. 342 of the volume. A 
Variant of Sinfonia ix. is on p. vi. of the Nachtrag. 
1 A Variant is in E.G. XL. 



228 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

5. Allein Gott in der Hoh' sei Ehr' (Fughetta) 

(N. bk. 16 p. 41). 

6. Dies sind die heil'gen zehn Gebot' (ib. p. 42). 

7. Ditto (Fughetta) (ib. p. 47). 

8. Wir glauben all' an einen Gott (6. p. 49). 

9. Ditto (Fughetta) (ib. p. 52). 

10. Vater unser im Himmelreich (ib. p. 53). 

11. Ditto (ib. p. 61). 1 

12. Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam (ib. p. 62). 

13. Ditto (ib. p. 67). 

14. Aus tiefer Noth schrei ich zu dir (ib. p. 68). 

15. Ditto (ib. p. 72). 

16. Jesus Christus unser Heiland (ib. p. 74). 

17. Ditto (Fugue) (ib. p. 80). 

(5) Clavieriibung, Part IV. : 

Aria and thirty Variations (Goldberg) (P. bk. 209). 

(6) Toccata in F sharp minor (P. bk. 210 p. 30). 

Ditto. C minor (P. bk. 210 p. 40). 
Fugue (with Fantasia) in A minor (P. bk. 207 p. 16). 

IV. 1854. *Passionsmusik nach deni Evangelisten Matthaus. 
Ed. Julius Rietz. 

V(l). 1855. Kirchencantaten. Dritter Band. Ed. Wilhelm 
Rust. 

No. *21. Ich hatte viel Bekummerniss. 

22. Jesus nahm zu sich die Zwolfe. 
*23. Du wahrer Gott und Davids Sohn. 

24. Ein ungefarbt Gemiithe. 
*25. Es ist nichts Gesundes an meinem Leibe. 

26. Ach wie fliichtig, ach wie nichtig. 
*27. Wer weiss, wie nahe mir mein Ende. 
*28. Gottlob ! nun geht das Jahr zu Ende. 

29. Wir danken dir, Gott, wir danken dir. 
*30. Freue dich, erloste Schaar. 

V (2). 1855 [1856]. *Weihnachts-Oratorium. Ed. Wilhelm 
Bust. 

1 A Variant is in P. bk. 244 p. 109. 



THE BACHGESELLSCHAFT EDITIONS 229 

VI. 1856. *Messe. H moll. Ed Julius Eietz. 

Vn. 1857. Kirchencantaten. VierterBand. Ed. Wilhelm Rust. 

No. 31. Der Himmel lacht, die Erde jubiliret. 
*32. Liebster Jesu, mein Verlangen. 

33. Allein zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ. 
*34. O ewiges Feuer, O Ursprung der Ldebe. 

36. Geist und Seele wird verwirrt. 

36. Schwingt freudig euch empor. 

37. Wer da glaubet und getauft wird. 
*38. Aus tiefer Noth schrei ich zu dir. 
*39. Brich dem Hungrigen dein Brod. 
*40. Dazu ist erschienen der Sohn Gottes. 

VIII. 1858. Vier Messen. F dur, *A dur, moll, G dur. 

Ed . Moritz Hauptmann . 

IX. 1859 [I860]. Kammermusik. Erster Band. Ed. Wil- 

helm Bust. 

Three Sonatas, in B minor, E flat major, A minor (and 

Variant), for Clavier and Flute (P. bk. 234). 
Suite in A major, for Clavier and Violin (P. bk. 236). 
Six Sonatas, in B minor, A major, E major, C minor, 

F minor (and Variant), G major (and Variants), for 

Clavier and Violin (P. bks. 232, 233). 
Three Sonatas, in G major (or 2 Flutes), D major, G minor 

for Clavier and Viola da Gamba (P. bk. 239). 
Sonata in G major, for Flute, Violin, and Clavier (P. bk. 237). 
Sonata in C major, for two Violins and Clavier (P. bk. 237). 
Sonata in G minor, for Clavier and Violin (not in P.). 1 

X. 1860. Kirchencantaten. FiinfterBand. Ed. Wilhelm Bust. 

No. *41. Jesu, nun sei gepreiset. 

42. Am Abend aber desselbigen Sabbaths. 
*43. Gott fahret auf mit Jauchzen. 
*44. Sie werden euch in den Bann thun (c. 1726). 

1 If genuine, the Sonata is a youthful work,' remarks Schweitzer, 
i. 401 n. 



230 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

45. Es 1st dir gesagt, Mensch, was gut 1st. 

46. Schauet doch und sehet, etc. 

47. Wer sich selbst erhohet, der soil erniedriget werden- 

48. Ich elender Mensch, wer wird mich erlosen ? 

49. Ich geh' und suche mit Verlangen. 
*60. Nun 1st das Heil und die Kraft. 

XI (1). 1861 [1862]. *Magnificat, D dur, und vier Sanctus, 

C dur, D dur, D moll, G dur. Ed. Wilhelm Eust. 
The Appendix contains four additional numbers which 
are found in one of the two Autograph scores of the 
Magnificat. 

XI (2). 1861 [1862]. Kammermusik fur Gesang. Erster 

Band. Ed. Wilhelm Rust. 

Secular Cantata : *Phoebus und Pan. 

Do. Weichet nur, betriibte Schatten. 

Do. Amore traditore. 

Do. Von der Vergniigsamkeit, or, Ich bin in 

mir vergniigt. 
Do. Der zufriedengestellte Aeolus, or, Zer- 

reisset, zersprenget, zertrummert die 

Graft. 

XII (1) . 1862 [1863] . *Passionsmusik nach dem Evangelisten 

Johannes. Ed. Wilhelm Rust. 

XII (2). 1862 [1863]. Kirchencantaten. Sechster Band. Ed. 
Wilhelm Rust. 

No. 51. Jauchzet Gott in alien Landen. 
52. Falsche Welt, dir trau ich nicht. 
*53. Schlage doch, gewiinschte Stunde. 
*54. Widerstehe doch der Siinde. 
55. Ich armer Mensch, ich Siindenknecht. 
*56. Ich will den Kreuzstab gerne tragen. 

57. Selig ist der Mann. 

58. Ach Gott, wie manches Herzeleid (1733). 

59. Wer mich liebet, der wird mein Wort halten (1716). 

60. Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort (1732). 



THE BACHGESELLSCHAFT EDITIONS 231 

XIII (1). 1863 [1864]. Trauungs-Cantaten. Ed. Wilhelm 
Rust. 

No. *195. Dem Gerechten muss das Licht. 

196. Der Herr denket an uns. 

197. Gott 1st uns're Zuversicht. 

Drei Chorale zu Trauungen : (1) Was Gott thut, 
(2) Sei Lob und Ehr', (3) Nun danket alle Gott. 

XIII (2). 1863. Clavierwerke. Z welter Band. Ed. Wilhelm 
Rust. 

Six Great Suites, in A major, A minor, G minor, F major, E 

minor, D minor, known as the ' English Suites ' (P. bks. 

203,204). 
Six Small Suites, in D minor, C minor. B minor, E flat 

major, G major, E major, known as the Trench 

Suites' (P. bk. 202). l 

XIII (3). 1863 [1865]. *Trauer-Ode. Ed. Wilhelm Rust. 

XIV. 1864 [1866]. Clavierwerke. Dritter Band. Das wohl- 
temperirte Clavier (P. bks. 2790 a-b.). Ed. Franz 
Kroll. 2 

Erster Theil, 1722. 
Zweiter Theil, 1744. 

XV. 1865 [1867]. Orgelwerke. Erster Band. Ed. Wilhelm 

Rust. 

Six Sonatas, in E flat major, C minor, D minor, E minor, 
C major, G major (N. bks. 4, 5), for 2 Claviers and Pedal. 
Eighteen Preludes and Fugues : 
Prelude and Fugue in C major (N. bk. 7 p. 74). 
Do. do. D major (N. bk. 6 p. 10). 

Do. do. E minor (N. bk. 2 p. 44). 

1 Additional movements of the second, third, and fourth Suites are 
in Appendix II. of B.G. xxxvi. 

* The volume contains an Appendix of Variants, etc. See also 
B.G. XT,V. (1) Appendix. Variants of Nos. 1, 3, 6 of Part II. are in 
Appendix I. of B.G. xxxvi. 



232 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

Prelude and Fugue in F minor (N. bk. 6 p. 21). 
Do. do. G minor (N. bk. 8 p. 120). 

Do. do. A major (N. bk. 3 p. 64). 

Do. (Fantasia) do. C minor (N. bk. 3 p. 76). 
Do. (Toccata) D minor (N. bk. 10 p. 196). 

Do. do. D minor (N. bk. 9 p. 150). 

Do. (Toccata) do. F major (N. bk. 9 p. 176). 
Do. do. the Great, G major (N. bk. 8 p. 112). 
Do. (Fantasia) do. do. G minor (N. bk. 8 p. 127). 1 
Do. do. do. A minor (N. bk. 7 p. 42). 2 

Do. do. do. B minor (N. bk. 7 p. 52). 

Do. do. do. C minor (N. bk. 7 p. 64). 

Do. do. do. C major (N. bk. 9 p. 156). 

Do. do. do. E minor (N. bk. 8 p. 98). 

Do. do. C major (N. bk. 3 p. 70). 

Three Toccatas and Fugues, in C major, the ' Great ' (N. 

bk. 9 p. 137). 

Do. do. D minor (N. bk. 6 p. 2). 

Do. do. E major (N. bk. 8 p. 88, 

as Prelude and Fugue 
in C major). 
Passacaglia, in minor (N. bk. 10 p. 214). 



XVI. 1866 [1868]. Kirchencantaten. Siebenter Band. Ed. 
Wilhelm Rust. 

No. *61. Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland (1714). 

62. Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland (c. 1740). 

63. Christen, atzet diesen Tag. 

64. Sehet, welch' eine Liebe. 

*65. Sie werden aus Saba Alle kommen. 

66. Erfreut euch, ihr Herzen. 
*67. Halt' im Gedachtniss Jesum Christ. 
*68. Also hat Gott die Welt geliebt. 

69. Lobe den Herren, meine Seele. 
*70. Wachet, betet, seid bereit allezeit. 

1 See publications of the N.B.G. xiv. (2) no. 6. 
1 See publications of the N.B.G. vii. (3) no. 3. 



THE BACHGESELLSCHAFT EDITIONS 233 

XVII. 1867 [1869]. Kammermusik. Zweiter Band. Ed. 
Wilhelm Bust. 

Seven Concertos, in D minor (and Variant), 1 E major (and 
Variant), D major (and Variant), A major (and Variant), 
F minor, F major, G minor, for Clavier and Orchestra 
(Strings ; two flutes added in Concerto vi. (P. bks. 248- 
254) . 2 

Triple Concerto in A minor, for Flute, Violin, Clavier, and 
Orchestra (Strings). (P. bk. 255). 

XVIII. 1868 [1870]. Kirchencantaten. Achter Band. Ed. 
Wilhelm Bust. 

No. 71. Gott ist mein Konig. 

72. Alles nur nach Gottes Willen. 

73. Herr, wie du willt, so schick's mit mir. 

74. Wer mich liebet, der wird mein Wort halten ( ? 1 735) . 

75. Die Elenden sollen essen. 

76. Die Himmel erzahlen die Ehre Gottes. 

77. Du sollst Gott, deinen Herren, lieben. 

78. Jesu, der du meine Seele. 

*79. Gott, der Herr, ist Sonn' und Schild. 
*80. Ein' feste Burg ist unser Gott. 

XIX. 1869 [1871]. Kammermusik. Dritter Band. Ed. 
Wilhelm Bust. 

Six Concertos (' Brandenburg ') for Orchestra and 
Continue : 

No. I. in F major (Strings, 3 Ob., Fag., 2 Cor. (P. bk. 261). 8 
No. II. in F major (Strings, Flute, Oboe, Tromba) (P. 
bk. 262). 

1 For this work, in its original form as a Violin Concerto, see N.B.Q. 
xvm. (1 and 2). 

1 The D major (No. 3) and G minor (No. 7) Concertos are identical 
with the Violin Concertos in E major and A minor. See E.G. xxi. (1). 
No. 6 (F. major) is the fourth Brandenburg Concerto (in G.). See 
E.G. xix. no. 4. 

* In a shortened form this work appears also as a Sinfonia in F major. 
See E.G. xxxi. (1) no. 6, and N.B.G. x. (2). 



234 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

No. III. in G major (Strings) (P. bk. 263). [N.B.G. ix. (3)]. 
No. IV. in G major (Strings and 2 Flutes) (P. bk. 264). 
No. V. in D major (Strings, Flute, Clavier) (P. bk. 265). 
No. VI. in B flat major (2 Violas, 2 Violas da Gamba, 
Violoncello, Contrabasso) (P. bk. 266). 

XX (1). 1870 [1872]. Kirchencantaten. Neunter Band. Ed. 
Wilhelm Bust. 

No. *81. Jesus schlaft, was soil ich hoffen ? 
*82. Ich habe genug. 

83. Erfreute Zeit im neuen Bunde. 

84. Ich bin vergniigt mit meinem Gliicke. 

85. Ich bin ein guter Hirt. [Score, N.B.G. ix. (1)]. 

86. Wahrlich, wahrlich, ich sage euch. 

87. Bisher habt ihr nichts gebeten in meinem Namen. 

88. Siehe, ich will viel Fischer aussenden. [Score, 
N.B.G. vii. (1)]. 

89. Was soil ich aus dir machen, Ephraim ? 

90. Es reifet euch ein schrecklich Ende. 

XX (2). 1870 [1873]. Kammermusik fur Gesang. Zweiter 

Band. Ed. Wilhelm Bust. 

Secular Cantata : Schleicht, spielende Wellen. 

Do. Vereinigte Zwietracht der wechsehiden 

Saiten. 
Do. Auf, schmetternde Tone der munt 

Trompeten. [See B.G. xxxiv], 

XXI (1). 1871 [1874]. Kammermusik. Vierter Band. 

Wilhelm Bust. 

Three Concertos for Violin and Orchestra (Strings) : 
No. I. in A minor (P. bk. 229). * 
No. II. in E major (P. bk. 230) . 2 

1 Identical with the G minor Clavier Concerto. See B.G. 
no. 7, and also B.G. XLV. (1), Appendix, p. 233. 

* Identical with the D major Clavier Concerto. See B.G. xvu. no. 
and N.B.G. vra. (1) 



THE BACHGESELLSCHAFT EDITIONS 235 

No. III. in D minor (two Violins) (P. bk. 231). 1 
Symphonic movement, in D major, for Violin and Orchestra 
(Strings, 2 Ob., 3 Trombe, Timp.). 2 



XXI (2). 1871 [1874]. Kammermusik. Fiinfter Band. Ed. 
Wilhelm Bust. 

Three Concertos for two Claviers and Orchestra (Strings) : 
No. I. in C minor (P. bk. 257). 
No. II. in C major (P. bk. 256). 
No. III. in C minor (P. bk. 257b). 3 



XXI (3). 1871 [1874]. *0ster-0ratorium : ' Kommt, eilet und 
laufet.' Ed. Wilhelm Rust. 

XXII. 1872 [1875]. Kirchencantaten. Zehnter Band. Ed. 
Wilhelm Rust. 

No. 91. Gelobet seist du, Jesu Christ. 

92. Ich hab' in Gottes Herz und Sinn. 
*93. Wer nur den lieben Gott lasst walten. 

94. Was frag ich nach der Welt. 

95. Christus, der ist mein Leben. 

96. Herr Christ, der ein'ge Gottes-Sohn. 

97. In alien nieinen Thaten. 

98. Was Gott thut, das ist wohlgethan, in B major 

(c. 1732). 

99. Was Gott thut, das ist wohlgethan, in G major 

(c. 1733). 

100. Was Gott thut, das ist wohlgethan, in G major 
(c. 1735). 

1 Identical with the Concerto for two Claviers in C minor. See 
E.G. xxi. (2) no. 3. 

1 The movement is described as being from ' einer unbekannten 
Kirchencantate ' for four voices and Orchestra. The Autograph is 
incomplete. The movement is not published elsewhere than in the 
E.G. edition. 

* Identical with the Concerto for 2 Violins, in D minor. See 
E.G. xxi. (1) no. 3. Also pp. 131, 158, 160, supra. 



236 



JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 



XXIII. 1873 [1876]. Kirchencantaten. Elfter Band. Ed. 
Wilhelm Rust. 

No. 101. Nimm von uns, Herr, du treuer Gott. 

102. Herr, deine Augen sehen nach dem Glauben. 

103. Ihr werdet weinen und heulen. 
*104. Du Hirte Israel, hore. 

105. Herr, gehe nicht in's Gericht. 
*106. Gottes Zeit 1st die allerbeste Zeit (Actus 
tragicus). 

107. Was willst du dich betruben. 

108. Es 1st euch gut, dass ich hingehe. 

109. Ich glaube, lieber Herre. 

110. Unser Mund sei voll Lachens. 



XXIV. 1874 [1876]. Kirchencantaten. 
Alfred Dorffel. 



Zwolfter Band. Ed. 



No. 111. Was mein Gott will, das g'scheh' allzeit. 

*112. Der Herr ist mein getreuer Hirt. 

113. Herr Jesu Christ, du hochstes Gut. 

114. Ach, lieben Christen, seid getrost. 
*115 Mache dich, mein Geist, bereit. 
*116. Du Friedefurst, Herr Jesu Christ. 

117. Sei Lob und Ehr' dem hochsten Gut. 

118. Jesu Christ, mein's Lebens Licht. 1 
*119. Preise, Jerusalem, den Herrn. 

120. Gott, man lobet dich in der Stille. 



XXV (1). 1875 [1878]. Die Kunst der Fuge : 1749-1750 
Ed. Wilhelm Rust. 



Contrapunctus 1-14 ^ 

Four Canons I 

Two Fugues for two Claviers | i 
Fugue on three subjects J 






1 Also in N.B.O. XVH. (1 and 2). 



THE BACHGESELLSCHAFT EDITIONS 237 

XXV (2) 1875 [1878]. Orgelwerke. Zweiter Band. Ed. 
Wilhelm Bust. 

(1) Orgelbiichlein (N. bk. 15), containing Preludes on the 

following melodies : 1 
Advent 

1. Nun komm der Heiden Heiland. 

2. Gott, durch deine Giite, or, Gottes Sohn ist 

kommen. 

3. Herr Christ, der ein'ge Gottes-Sohn, or, Herr 

Gott, nun sei gepreiset. 

4. Lob sei dem allmachtigen Gott. 
Christmas 

5. Puer natus in Bethlehem. 

6. Gelobet seist du, Jesu Christ. 

7. Der Tag, der ist so freudenreich. 

8. Vom Him m el hoch, da komm' ich her. 

9. Vom Himmel kam der Engel Schaar. 

10. In dulci jubilo. 

11. Lobt Gott, ihr Christen, allzugleich. 

12. Jesu, meine Freude. 

13. Christum wir sollen loben schon. 

14. Wir Christenleut'. 
New Year 

15. Helft mir Gottes Giite preisen. 

16. Das alte Jahr vergangen ist. 

17. In dir ist Freude. 

Feast of the Purification of the B. V.M. 

18. Mit Fried' und Freud' ich fahr' dahin. 

19. Herr Gott, nun schleuss den Himmel auf . 
Passiontide 

20. O Lamm Gottes, unschuldig. 

21. Christe, du Lamm Gottes. 

22. Christ us, der uns selig macht. 

23. Da Jesus an dem Kreuze stund. 

1 For an exposition of Bach's design in the ' Orgelbiichlein,' see the 
present writer's articles in 'The Musical Times' for January-March 
1917, and ' Bach's Chorals,' Part in. See N.B.O. n. (1) for an arrange- 
ment of the Preludes for two pianofortes. 



238 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

24. O Mensch, bewein' dein' Siinde gross. 

25. Wir danken dir, Herr Jesu Christ. 

26. Hilf Gott, dass mir's gelinge. 
Easter 

27. Christ lag in Todesbanden. 

28. Jesus Christus, unser Heiland, der den Tod. 

29. Christ ist erstanden (three verses). 

30. Erstanden ist der heil'ge Christ. 

31. Erschienen ist der herrliche Tag. 

32. Heut' triumphiret Gottes Sohn. 
Whitsunday 

33. Komm, Gott, Schopfer, heiliger Geist. 
Trinity Sunday 

34. Herr Jesu Christ, dich zu uns wend'. 
35-6. Liebster Jesu, wir sind hier (two settings). 
The Catechism 

37. Dies sind die heil'gen zehn Gebot. 

38. Vater unser im Himmelreich. 
Penitence and Amendment 

39. Durch Adam's Fall ist ganz verderbt. 

40. Es ist das Heil uns kommen her. 
Christian Conduct and Experience 

41. Ich ruf zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ. 
In Time of Trouble 

42. In dich hab' ich gehoffet, Herr. 

43. Wenn wir in hochsten Nothen sein. 

44. Wer nur den lieben Gott lasst walten. 
Death and the Grave 

45. Alle Menschen miissen sterben. 
The Life Eternal 

46. Ach wie nichtig, ach wie fliichtig. 

(2) Six Chorals (Schiibler) (N. bk. 16) on the folio) 

melodies : 
Wachet auf , ruft uns die Stimme. 
Wo soil ich fliehen hin, or, Auf meinen lieben Gott. 
Wer nur den lieben Gott lasst walten. 
Meine Seele erhebt den Herren. 
Ach bleib bei uns, Herr Jesu Christ. 
Kommst du nun, Jesu, vom Himmel herunter. 



THE BACHGESELLSCHAFT EDITIONS 239 

(3) Eighteen Chorals (N. bk. 17) on the following melodies : 

I, 2. Komm, heiliger Geist, Herre Gott (two settings). 

3. An Wasserfliissen Babylon. 

4. Schmucke dich, h'ebe Seele. 

5. Herr Jesu Christ, dich zu uns wend'. 

6. Lamm Gottes unschuldig (three verses). 

7. Nun danket Alle Gott. 

8. Von Gott will ich nicht lassen. 

9, 10, 11. Nun komm der Heiden Heiland (three settings). 
12, 13, 14. Allein Gott in der Hoh' sei Ehr' (three settings). 
15, 16. Jesus Christus, unser Heiland, der von uns (two 
settings). 

17. Komm, Gott, Schopfer, heiliger Geist. 

18. Vor deinen Thron tret' ich, or, Wenn wir hi 

hochsten Nothen sein. 

(4) Older texts of the ' Orgelbiichlein ' and ' Eighteen ' 

Chorals : 

1. Christus, der uns selig macht (Orgelbiichlein 

No. 22) (P. bk. 244 p. 108). 

2. Komm, Gott, Schopfer, heiliger Geist (Orgel- 

biichlein No. 33) (P. bk. 246 p. 86A). 

3. Komm, heiliger Geist, Herre Gott (Eighteen No. 1) 

(P. bk. 246 p. 86). 

4. Ditto (Eighteen No. 2) (P. bk. 246 p. 88). 

5. An Wasserflussen Babylon (Eighteen No. 3) (P. 

bk. 245 p. 103). 

6. Herr Jesu Christ, dich zu uns wend' (Eighteen 

No. 5) (P. bk. 245 pp. 107, 108 prints two of 
the three Variants). 
9. O Lamm Gottes unschuldig (Eighteen No. 6) 

(P. bk. 246 p. 97). 

10. Von Gott will ich nicht lassen (Eighteen No. 8) 
(P. bk. 246 p. 102). 

II. Nun komm der Heiden Heiland (Eighteen No. 9) 

(P. bk. 246 p. 92). 
12. Ditto (Eighteen No. 10) (P. bk. 246 pp. 93, 94). 

14. Ditto (Eighteen No. 11) (P. bk. 246 p. 96). 

15. Allein Gott hi der Hoh' sei Ehr' (Eighteen No. 13) 

(P. bk. 245 p. 100). 



240 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

16. Allein Gott in der Hoh' sei Ehr' (Eighteen No. 14) 

(P. bk. 245 p. 97). 

17. Jesus Christus unser Heiland (Eighteen No. 15) (P. 

bk. 245 p. 112). 

XXVI. 1876 [1878]. Kirchencantaten. Dreizehnter Band. 

Ed. Alfred Dorffel. 
No. 121. Christum wir sollen loben schon. 

122. Das neugebor'ne Kindelein. 

123. Liebster Immanuel, Herzog der Frommen. 

124. Meinen Jesum lass' ich nicht. 

125. Mit Fried' und Freud' ich fahr' dahin. 

126. Erhalt' uns, Herr, bei deinem Wort. 

127. Herr Jesu Christ, wahr'r Mensch und Gott. 

128. Auf Christi Himmelfahrt allein. 

129. Gelobet sei der Herr 

130. Herr Gott, dich loben alle wir. 

XXVII (1). 1877 [18791. Kammermusik. Sechster Band. 

Ed. Alfred Dorffel. 
Three Sonatas (Suites), in G minor, A minor, 1 C major, 1 for 

Violin Solo (Nos. 1, 3, 5 in P. bk. 228). 
Three Partitas (Suites, Sonatas), in B minor, D minor, E 

major, 1 for Violin Solo (Nos. 2, 4, 6 in P. bk. 228). 
Six Suites (Sonatas), in G major, D minor, C major, E flat 
major, C minor, D major, for Violoncello Solo (P. bks. 
238a, 238). 

XXVII (2) . 1877 [1878]. Thematisches Verzeichniss der 

Kirchencantaten No. 1-120. Ed. Alfred Dorffel. 
[Note. The Thematic Catalogue is completed in B.G. XLVI. 
(P. bk. 270b).] 

XXVIII. 1878 [1881]. Kirchencantaten. Vierzehnter Band 

Ed. Wilhelm Rust. 
No. 131. Aus der Tiefe rufe ich, Herr, zu dir. 

132. Bereitet die Wege, bereitet die Bahn. 

133. Ich freue mich in dir. 

1 See B.G. XLH. for a Clavier version. 



T;iE BACHGESELLSCHAFT EDITIONS 241 

134. Ein Herz, das seinen Jesum lebend weiss [and 

Variant]. 

135. Ach Herr, mich armen Sunder. 

136. Erforsche mich, Gott. 

137. Lobe den Herren, den machtigen Konig. 

138. Warum betriibst du dich, mein Herz ? 

139. Wohl dem, der sich auf seinen Gott. 
*140. Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme. 1 

Mit Gnaden bekrone der Himmel die Zeiten (No. 
134 adapted). 

XXIX. 1879 [1881]. Kammermusik fiir Gesang. Dritter 
Band. Ed. Paul Graf Waldersee. 

Secular Cantata : Was mir behagt, ist nur die muntre Jagd. 

Do. Non sa che sia dolore. 

Do holder Tag, erwunschte Zeit (Wedding) . 

Church Cantata No. 194 : Hochsterwiinschtes Freudenfest. 
Secular Cantata : Schweigt stille, plaudert nicht. 

Do. Mer hahn en neue Oberkeet. 

Do. Mit Gnaden bekrone der Himmel die 

Zeiten. 

Do. O angenehme Melodei. 

Instrumental Piece for Violin, Flute, and Continuo. (Not 
in P.). 

XXX. 1880 [1884]. Kirchencantaten. Funfzehnter Band. 
Ed. Paul Graf Waldersee. 

No. 141. Das ist je gewisslich wahr. 

142. Uns ist ein Kind geboren. 

143. Lobe den Herren, nieine Seele. 

144. Nimm, was dein ist, und gehe hin. 

145. So du mit deinem Munde bekennest Jesum. 

146. Wir miissen durch viel Triibsal in das Reich 

Gottes eingehen. 

147. Herz und Mund und That und Leben. 

148. Bringet dem Herrn Ehre seines Namens. 
*149. Man singet mit Freuden vom Sieg. 

150. Nach dir, Herr, verlanget mich. 

1 Boosey and Co. also publish an English edition. 

Q 



242 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

XXXI (1) . 1881 [1885] Orchesterwerke. Ed. Alfred Dorffel. 

Overture in C major (Strings, Ob. 1 and 2, Fagotto) (P. 

bk. 267). 

Do. B minor (Strings, Flauto tra verso) (P. bk. 268). 
Do. D major (Strings, Ob. 1 and 2, Trombe 1, 2, 3, 

Timpani) (P. bk. 269). 
Do. D major (Strings, Ob. 1, 2, 3, Fagotto, Trombe 

1, 2, 3, Timpani) (P. bk. 2068). 

Sinfonia in F major (Strings, Ob. 1, 2, 3, Fagotto, Corno da 
caccia 1 and 2). 1 



XXXI (2). 1881 [1885]. Musikalisches Opfer. 1747. Ed. 
Alfred Dorffel. 

Ricercare a tre voci. 

Canon perpetuus super thema regium. 

Canones diversi 1-5. 

Fuga canonica in Epidiapente. 

Ricercare a sei voci. 



(P. bk. 219) 



Two Canons. 

Sonata in C minor, for Flute, Violin, 

Clavier. 
Canone perpetuo (Flute, Violin, 

Clavier). 2 



XXXI (3). 1881 [1885]. Kammernmsik. Siebenter Band- 
Ed. Paul Graf Waldersee. 

Two Concertos for three Claviers and Orchestra (Strings) : 
No. 1 in D minor (P. bk. 258). 3 
No. 2 in C major (P. bk. 259). 3 

1 This is a shortened form of the first Brandenburg Concerto (see 
E.G. xix. no. 1). It consists of the Allegro, Adagio, Minuet, Trio I. 
and Trio II. of the latter, and omits its second Allegro and Polacca. 

2 The Appendix contains Joh. Philipp Kirnberger's solutions of the 
Canons and his expansion of the figured bass of the Clavier part of the 
Sonata. 

3 See publications of the N.B.G. xiv. (2) no. 2. 



THE BACHGESELLSCHAFT EDITIONS 243 

XXXII. 1882 [1886]. Kirchencantaten. Sechzehnter Band. 
Ed. Ernst Naumann. 

No. 151. Siisser Trost, mein Jesus kommt. 
*152. Tritt auf die Glaubensbahn. 

153. Schau', lieber Gott, wie meine Feind'. 

154. Mein liebster Jesus ist verloren. 

155. Mein Gott, wie lang', ach lange. 

156. Ich steh' mit einem Fuss im Grabe. 

157. Ich lasse dich nicht. 

158. Der Friede sei mit dir. 

159. Sehet, wir geh'n hinauf gen Jerusalem. 

160. Ich weiss, das mein Erloser lebt. 



XXXIII. 1883 [1887]. Kirchencantaten. Siebzehnter Band; 
Ed. Franz Wullner. 

No. 161. Komm, du siisse Todesstunde. 

162. Ach, ich sehe, jetzt da ich zur Hochzeit gehe. 

163. Nur Jedem das Seine. 

164. Ihr, die ihr euch von Christo nennet. 

165. O heil'ges Geist- und Wasserbad. 

166. Wo gehest du hin ? 

*167. Ihr Menschen, riihmet Gottes Liebe. 

168. Thue Rechnung ! Donnerwort. 

169. Gott soil allein mein Herze haben. 

170. Vergniigte Ruh', beliebte Seelenlust. 

XXXIV. 1884 [1887]. Kammermusik fur Gesang. Vierter 
Band. Ed. Paul Graf Waldersee. 

Secular Cantata : Durchlaucht'ster Leopold. 

Do. Schwingt freudig euch empor, or, Die 

Freude reget sich. 
Do. Hercules auf dem Scheidewege, or, 

Lasst uns sorgen, lasst uns wachen. 
Do. Tonet, ihr Pauken ! Erschallet, Trom- 

peten. 
Do. Preise dein Gliicke, gesegnetes Sachsen. 



244 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

Secular Cantata : Angenehmes Wiederau. 

Do. Auf, schmetternde Tone der muntern 

Trompeten. 1 

XXXV. 1885 [1888]. Kirchencantaten. Achtzehnter Band. 
Ed. Alfred Dorffel. 

No. 171. Gott, wie dein Name, so 1st auch dein Ruhm. 

172. Erschallet, ihr Lieder. 

173. Erhotes Fleisch und Blut. 

174. Ich liebe den Hochsten von ganzem Gemuthe. 

175. Er rufet seinen Schafen mit Namen. 

176. Es 1st ein trotzig und verzagt Ding. 

177. Ich ruf zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ. 

178. Wo Gott der Herr nicht bei uns halt. 

179. Siehe zu, dass deine Gottesfurcht nicht Heuchelei 

sei. 
*180. Schmucke dich, O liebe Seele. 

XXXVI. 1886 [1890]. Clavierwerke. Vierter Band. Ed. 

Ernst Nauru ann. 

1. Suite in A minor (Appendix version in P. bk. 214). 

2. Do. E flat major (P. bk. 214). 2 

3. Suite (Overture), in F major (P. bk. 215). 

4. Sonata in D major (P. bk. 215). 

5. Toccata in D major (P. bk. 211). 

6. Do. D minor (P. bk. 210). 

7. Do. E minor (P. bk. 210). 

8. Do. G minor (P. bk. 211). 

9. Do. G major (P. bk. 215). 

10. Chromatic Fantasia and Fugue in D minor (P. bk. 207). 

11. Fantasia and Fugue in A minor (P. bk. 208). 

12. Prelude and Fugue in E flat major (not in P.). 

13. Do. do. A minor (P. bk. 211). 

14. Do. do. A minor (P. bk. 200). 

15. Prelude and Fughetta in D minor (P. bk. 200). 

16. Do. do. E minor (P. bk. 200). 

1 Text and music are identical with the version in E.G. xx. (2). 

* Another Allemande to the Suite is in E.G. xxxvi. 217 (also in P.). 



THE BACHGESELLSCHAFT EDITIONS 245 

17. Prelude and Fughetta in F major (P. bk. 214) .* 

18. Do. do. G major (P. bk. 214). 2 

19. Twelve Preludes for Beginners (P. bk. 200). 
20 Six Little Preludes (P. bk. 200). 

21. Prelude in C major (for Organ, N. bk. 12 p. 94). 

22. Do. (Fantasia) in C minor (not in P.). 

23. Do. do. in A minor (P. bk. 215). 

24. Fantasia in G minor (P. bk. 215). 

25. Do. C minor (P. bk. 207). 

26. Do. (on a Rondo), in C minor (not in P.). 

27. Do. C minor (P. bk. 212). 

28. Fughetta in C minor (two-parts) (P. bk. 200). 

29. Fugue in E minor (P. bk. 212). 

30. Do. A major (P. bk. 212). 

31. Do. C major (for Organ, N. bk. 12 p. 100). 

32. Do. A minor (P. bk. 212). 

33. Do. D minor (P. bk. 212 p. 61). 

34. Do. A major (P. bk. 215 p. 52). 

35. Do. A major (P. bk. 215 p. 57). 

36. Do. B minor (Theme by Albinoni) (P. bk. 214). 

37. Do. C major (P. bk. 200 p. 54). 

38. Do. C major (P. bk. 200 p. 56). 

39. Do. D minor (P. bk. 212 p. 59). 

40. Capriccio in B flat major, sopra la lontananza del suo 

fratello dilettissimo (P. bk. 208). 

41 . Do. E major, in honorem J.C. Bach (P. bk. 215). 

42. Aria variata in A minor (P. bk. 215). 

43. Three Minuets, in G major, G minor, G major (P. bk. 

215). 

44. Fragment of a Suite in F minor (P. bk. 212). 

45. Do. do. A major (P. bk. 1959, p. 3). 

46. Prelude, Gavotte II, and Minuet in E flat major. 3 

1 The subject of the Fughetta is the same as that of Fugue No. 17 
in the second part of the ' Well -tempered Clavier.' 

1 The Prelude is No. 11 in Peters (E.G. xxxvi. 220). The Fughetta 
is his No. 10. It is the same subject as that of Fugue 15 in the 
second part of the ' Well-tempered Clavier.' An alternative Prelude 
(P. 214 p. 78) is in the Appendix (p. 220). 

1 They are described as ' zur vierten franzosischen Suite.' The 
Prelude is in P. bk. 1959 p. 67. 



246 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

47. Two Minuet-Trios, in C minor and B minor. 1 

48. ' Applicatio ' in C major. 2 

49. Prelude in A minor (not in P.). 

50. Do. (unfinished) in E minor (not in P.). 

51. Fugue (unfinished) in C minor (P. bk. 212 p. 



XXXVII. 1887 [1891]. Kirchencantaten. Neunzehnter 
Band. Ed. Alfred Dorffel. 

No. 181. Leichtgesinnte Flattergeister. 

182. Himmelskonig, sei willkommen. 

183. Sie werden euch in den Bann thun (? 1735). 

184. Erwiinschtes Freudenlicht. 

185. Barmherziges Herze der ewigen Liebe. 

186. Aergre dich, Seele, nicht. 

187. Es wartet Alles auf dich. 

188. Ich habe meine Zuversicht. 4 

189. Meine Seele ruhmt und preist. 
*190. Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied. 



XXXVIII. 1888 [1891]. Orgelwerke. Dritter Band. Ed. 

Ernst Na.iimfl.Tin. 

1. Prelude and Fugue in C minor (N. bk. 2 p. 48). 

2. Do. do. G major (N. bk. 7 p. 80). 

3. Do. do. A minor (N. bk. 10 p. 208). 

4. Eight Short Preludes and Fugues in C major, D minor, 

E minor, F major, G major, G minor, A minor, B flat 
major (N. bk. 1). 

5. Fantasia and Fugue in A minor (N. bk. 12 p. 60). 

6. Fantasia con Imitazione in B minor (N. bk. 12 p. 71). 

1 Written respectively for the second and third French Suites (not 
in P.). 

* A fingered exercise. 

8 The Appendices of the volume contain variant readings of move- 
ments elsewhere contained in it, and of the first, third, and sixth 
Preludes and Fugues in the second part of the ' Well-tempered 
Clavier.' 

4 See E.G. XLV. (1) Appendix. 



THE BACHGESELLSCHAFT EDITIONS 247 

7. Fantasia in C major (N. bk. 12 p. 92). 

8. Do. C minor (N. bk. 3 p. 57). 

9. Do. G major (N. bk. 12 p. 75). 

10. Do. G major (N. bk. 9 p. 168). 

11. Prelude in C major (N. bk. 12 p. 91). 

12. Do. G major (N. bk. 2 p. 30). 

13. Do. A minor (N. bk. 10 p. 238). 

14. Fugue (Theme by Legrenzi) in C minor (and Variant) 

(N. bk. 10 p. 230). 

15. Do. in C minor (N. bk. 12 p. 95). 
16 Do. G major (N. bk. 12 p. 86). 

17. Do. G major (N. bk. 12 p. 55). 

18. Do. G minor (N. bk. 3 p. 84). 

19. Do. B minor (Theme by Corelli) (N. bk. 3 p. 60). 

20. Canzona in D minor (N. bk. 2 p. 34). 

21. Allabreve in D major (N. bk. 2 p. 26). 

22. Pastorale in F major (N. bk. 12 p. 102). 

23. Trio in D minor (N. bk. 2 p. 54). 

24. Four Concertos after Antonio Vivaldi : 1 

No. 1, in G major (N. bk. 11 no. I). 2 

2, in A minor (N. bk. 11 no. 2). 3 

3, in C major (N. bk. 11 no. 3). 

4, in C major (N. bk. 11 no. 4). 

25. Fantasia (incomplete) in C major (not in N. or P.). 4 

26. Fugue (incomplete) in C minor (not in N. or P.). 

27. Pedal Exercise in G minor (not in N. or P.). 

28. Fugue (authenticity doubtful) in C major (not in N. 

or P.). 

29. Do. do. in D major (N. bk. 12 p. 83) . 6 

30. Do. do. in G minor (N. bk. 2 p. 41). 

31. Trio in C minor (N. bk. 12 p. 108). 

32. Aria in F major (N. bk. 12 p. 112). 

33. Kleines harmonisches Labyrinth (authenticity doubtful) 

(P. bk. 2067 p. 16) (not in N.). 

1 Only nos. 2 and 3 are derived from Vivaldi. 
1 A variant text is in E.G. XL.U. 282. 

8 Vivaldi's text of the first movement is in the Appendix 
(p. 229). ' See E.G. xtm. (2) sec. 1 no. 2. 

* The fugal subject is taken from the Allabreve, 



248 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

XXXIX. 1889 [1892]. Motetten, Chorale und Lieder. Ed. 
Franz Wiillner. 

(1) Motet : *Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied. 

Do. *Der Geist hilft unsrer Schwachheit auf .* 

Do. *Jesu, meine Freude. 

Do. *Fiirchte dich nicht, ich bin bei dir. 

Do. *Komm, Jesu, komm. 

Do. *Lobet den Herrn, alle Heiden. 

Do. *Ich lasse dich nicht, du segnest mich denn 

(by Johann Christoph Bach). 
Do. *Sei Lob und Preis mit Ehren (the second 

number, Nun lob' mein' Seel' den Herrn, of 

Cantata 28). 

(2) 185 Chorals harmonised by Bach, from the collection 

made by Carl Philipp Emmanuel Bach : 2 

1 (1). Ach bleib' bei uns, Herr Jesu Christ. 

2 (2). Ach Gott, erhor' mein Seufzen und 

Wehklagen. 

3 (3). Ach Gott und Herr, wie gross und schwer. 

4 (385). Ach lieben Christen, seid getrost (Wo Gott 

der Herr nicht bei uns halt). 3 

5 (388). War' Gott nicht mit uns diese Zeit (Wo Gott 

der Herr nicht bei uns halt). 

6 (383). Wo Gott der Herr nicht bei uns halt. 

7 (10). Ach, was soil ich Sunder machen. 
8(12). Allein Gott in der Hoh' sei Ehr. 
9(15). Allein zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ. 

10 (17). Alle Menschen miissen sterben. 

11 (19). Alles ist an Gottes Segen. 

1 Bach's instrumental accompaniments are in the Appendix 
(p. 143). 

2 C. P. E. Bach's collection of his father's Choral settings was pub- 
lished by Immanuel Breitkopf in four volumes between the years 
1784-87. They are all included in Breitkopf and Haertel's edition (1898) 
of Bach's ' Choralgesange ' ; the numerals in brackets in the above 
list indicate the position of each Choral in that collection. The latter 
includes also the simple four-part Chorals from the Oratorios and 
Cantatas ; hence the numeration of that volume and B.G. xxxix. 
is not uniform. 

8 The bracket states the title by which the tune is better known. 



THE BACHGESELLSCHAFT EDITIONS 249 

12 (20) . Als der gutige Gott. 

13 (21). Als Jesus Christus in der Nacht. 

14 (22). Als vierzig Tag' nach Ostern war'n. 

15 (23). An Wasserflussen Babylon. 
16(24). Auf, auf mein Herz. 

17 (30). Aus meines Herzens Grunde. 

18 (157). Befiehl du deine Wege (Herzlich thut mich 

verlangen). 

19 (158). Ditto. 

20 (32). Befiehl du deine Wege. 

21 (33). Christ, der du bist der helle Tag. 

22 (34). Christe, der du bist Tag und Licht. 

23 (35). Christe, du Beistand deiner Kreuzgemeinde. 

24 (36). Christ ist erstanden. 

25 (38). Christ lag in Todesbanden. 

26 (39). Ditto. 

27 (43). Christ, unser Herr, zum Jordan kam. 

28 (46). Christus, der ist mein Leben. 

29 (47). Ditto. 

30 (48). Christus, der uns selig macht. 

31 (51). Christus ist erstanden. 

32 (52). Da der Herr zu Tische sass. 

33 (53). Danket dem Herren, denn er ist sehr 

freundlieh. 

34 (54). Dank sei Gott in der Hohe. 

35 (55). Das alte Jahr vergangen ist. 

36 (56). Ditto. 

37 (58). Das wait' Gott Vater und Gott Sohn. 

38 (59). Das wait' mein Gott, Vater, Sohn. 

39 (60). Den Vater dort oben. 

40 (61). Der du bist drei in Einigkeit. 

41 (62). Der Tag, der ist so freudenreich. 

42 (63). Des heil'gen Geistes reiche Gnad'. 

43 (64). Die Nacht ist kommen. 

44 (65). Die Sohn' hat sich mit ihrem Glanz. 

45 (66). Dies sind die heil'gen zehn Gebot. 

46 (67). Dir, dir, Jehovah, will ich singen (Bach's 

melody) . 

47 (70). Du grosser Schmerzensmann. 



250 



JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 



48 (71). Du, O schones Weltgebaude. 

49 (74). Ein' feste Burg 1st unser Gott. 

50 (75). Ditto. 

51 (77). Bins ist noth, ach Herr, dies Eine. 

52 (78). Erbarm' dich mein, Herre Gott. 

53 (85). Erstanden ist der heil'ge Christ. 

54 (262). Est ist gewisslich an der Zeit (Nun freut euch, 

lieben Christen g'mein). 

55 (92). Es spricht der Unweisen Mund wohl. 

56 (93). Es steh'n vor Gottes Throne. 

57 (94). Es wird schier der letzte Tag herkommen. 

58 (95). Es wolT uns Gott genadig sein. 
59(96). Ditto. 

60 (106). Fur Freuden lasst uns springen. 

61 (107). Gelobet seist du, Jesu Christ. 

62 (111). Gieb dich zufrieden und sei stille (Bach's 

melody). 

63 (112). Gott, der du selber bist das Licht. 

64 (113). Gott der Vater wohn' uns bei. 

65 (115). Gottes Sohn ist kommen. 

66 (116). Gott hat das Evangelium. 

67 (117). Gott lebet noch. 

68 (118). Gottlob, es geht nunmehr zum Ende. 

69 (119). Gott sei gelobet und gebenedeiet. 

70 (120). Gott sei uns gnadig und barmherzig. 

71 (121). Meine Seele erhebet den Herrn. 

72 (123a). Heilig, Heilig, Heilig ! 

73 (129). Herr Gott, dich loben alle wir. 

74 (132). Fur deinen Thron tret' ich hiermit (Herr 

Gott dich loben alle wir). 

75 (133). Herr Gott dich loben wir. 

76 (136). Herr, ich denk' an jene Zeit. 

77 (137). Herr, ich habe missgehandelt. 

78 (138). Ditto. 

79 (139). Herr Jesu Christ, dich zu uns wend'. 

80 (140). Herr Jesu Christ, du hast bereit't. 

81 (141). Herr Jesu Christ, du hochstes Gut. 

82 (145). Herr Jesu Christ, mein's Lebens Licht. 

83 (146). Herr Jesu Christ, wahr' Mensch und Gott. 



THE BACHGESELLSCHAFT EDITIONS 251 

84 (148). Herr, nun lass in Friede. 

85 (149). Herr, straf mich nicht in deinem Zorn. 

86 (151). Herr, wie du willst, so schick's mit mir. 

87 (152). Herzlich Heb hab' ich dich, O Herr. 

88 (170). Heut' ist, Mensch, ein grosser Trauertag. 

89 (171). Heut' triumphiret Gottes Sohn. 

90 (172). Hilf, Gott, dass mir's gelinge. 

91 (173). Hilf, Herr Jesu, lass gelingen. 

92 (174). Ich bin ja, Herr, in deiner Macht (Bach's 

melody) . 

93 (175). Ich dank' dir, Gott, fiir aU' Wohlthat. 

94 (176). Ich dank' dir, lieber Herre. 

95 (177). Ditto. 

96 (179). Ich dank' dir schon durch deinen Sohn. 

97 (180). Ich danke dir, O Gott, in deinem Throne. 

98 (182). Ich hab' mein' Sach' Gott heimgestellt. 

99 (185). Jesu, der du meine Seele. 

100 (186). Ditto. 

101 (187). Ditto. 

102 (189). Jesu, der du selbst so wohl. 

103 (190). Jesu, du mein liebstes Leben. 

104 (191). Jesu, Jesu, du bist mein (Bach's melody). 

105 (195). Jesu, meine Freude. 

106 (363), Jesu, meiner Seelen Wonne (Werde munter, 

mein Gemiithe). 

107 (364). Ditto. 

108 (202). Jesu, meines Herzens Freud'. 

109 (203). Jesu, nun sei gepreiset. 

110 (206). Jesus Christus, unser Heiland, der von uns. 

111 (207). Jesus Christus, unser Heiland, der den Tod. 

112 (208). Jesus, meine Zuversicht. 

113 (210). Ihr Gestirn', ihr hohlen Lufte. 

114 (211). In alien meinen Thaten. 

115 (215). In dulci jubilo. 

116 (217). Keinen hat Gott verlassen. 

117 (218). Komm, Gott, Schopfer, heiliger Geist. 

118 (225). Kyrie ! Gott Vater in Ewigkeit. 

119 (226). Lass, Herr, dein Ohr sich neigen. 

120 (228). Liebster Jesu, wir sind hier. 



252 



JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 



121 (232). Lobet den Herren, denn er ist sehr freundlich. 

122 (233). Lobt Gott, ihr Christen allzugleich. 

123 (234). Ditto. 

124 (237). Mach's mit mir, Gott, nach deiner Gut.' 

125 (240). Mem' Augen schliess' ich jetzt. 

126 (241). Meinen Jesum lass' ich nicht, Jesus. 

127 (242). Meinen Jesum lass' ich nicht, weil. 

128 (248). Meines Lebens letzte Zeit. 

129 (249). Mit Fried' und Freud' ich fahr' dahin. 

130 (252). Mitten wir im Leben sind. 

131 (253). Nicht so traurig, nicht so sehr (Bach's 

melody). 

132 (254). Nun bitten wir den heiligen Geist. 

133 (257). Nun danket Alle Gott. 

134 (260). Nun freut euch, Gottes Kinder all. 

135 (261). Nun freut euch, lieben Christen g'mein. 

136 (269). Nun lob', mein' Seel', den Herren. 

137 (270). Ditto. 

138 (273). Nun preiset alle Gottes Barmherzigkeit. 

139 (298). Nun ruhen alle Walder (0 Welt, ich muss 

dich lassen). 

140 (289). O Welt, sieh' hier dein Leben (O Welt, ich 

muss dich lassen) . 

141 (290). Ditto. 

142 (291). Ditto. 

143 (274). Nun sich der Tag geendet hat. 

144 (275). O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort. 

145 (277). O Gott, du frommer Gott (1679 tune). 

146 (282). Ditto (1693 tune). 

147 (284). O Herzensangst, O Bangigkeit und Zagen 

(Bach's melody). 

148 (285). Lamm Gottes, unschuldig. 

149 (286). O Mensch, bewein' dein Siinde gross. 

150 (287). O Mensch, schau' Jesum Christum an. 

151 (288). O Traurigkeit, O Herzeleid. 

152 (299). O wie selig seid ihr doch, ihr Frommen (1649). 

153 (300). Ditto (1566). 

154 (301). O wir armen Sunder. 

155 (303). Schaut, ihr Sunder. 



THE BACHGESELLSCHAFT EDITIONS 253 

156 (306). Seelenbrautigam, Jesu, Gottes Lamm. 

157 (307). Sei gegriisset, Jesu giitig. 

158 (309). Singt dem Herrn ein neues Lied. 

159 (310). So giebst du nun, mein Jesu, gute Nacht. 

160 (311). Sollt' ich meinem Gott nicht singen. 

161 (313). Uns ist ein Kindlein heut' gebor'n. 

162 (314). Valet will ich dir geben. 

163 (316). Vater unser im Himmelreich. 

164 (324). Von Gott will ich nicht lassen. 

165 (325). Ditto. 

166 (326). Ditto. 

167 (331). Warum betrubst du dich, mein Hera. 

168 (332). Ditto. 

169 (334). Warum sollt' ich mich denn gramen. 

170 (336). Was betrubst du dich, mein Herze (Bach's 

melody) . 

171 (337). Was bist du doch, O Seele, so betriibet. 

172 (349). Was willst du dich, O meine Seele. 

173 (351). Weltlich Ehr' und zeitlich Gut. 

174 (352). Wenn ich in Angst und Noth. 

175 (353). Wenn mein Stiindlein vorhanden ist. 

176 (354). Ditto. 

177 (355). Ditto. 

178 (358). Wenn wir in hochsten Nothen sein. 

179 (359). Ditto. 

180 (366). Wer Gott vertraut, hat wohlgebaut. 

181 (367). Wer nur den lieben Gott lasst walten. 

182 (374). Wie bist du, Seele, in mir so gar betrubt. 

183 (375). Wie schon leuchtet der Morgenstern. 

184 (382). Wir glauben all' an einen Gott, Schopfer. 

185 (389). Wo Gott zum Haus nicht gibt sein' 

Gunst. 

(3) Seventy-five Chorals harmonised by Bach : l 
*1 (S). Ach, dass ich nicht die letzte Stunde. 

2 (S). Auf, auf ! die rechte Zeit ist hier. 

3 (S). Auf, auf ! mein Hera, mit Freuden. 

4 (S). Begliickter Stand getreuer Seelen. 

1 The Chorals are taken from two sources, Anna Magdalena Bach's 
'Notenbuch' (1725; see E.G. xun. (2)), and Sohemelli's 'Musical- 



254 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

*5 (S). Beschrankt, ihr Weisen dieser Welt. 

6 (S). Brich entzwei, mein armes Herze. 

7 (S). Brunnquell aller Giiter. 

8 (S). Der lieben Sonne Licht und Pracht. 

9 (S). Der Tag 1st bin, die Sonne gehet nieder. 
10 (S). Der Tag mit seinem Lichte. 

*11 (S). Dich bet' ich an, mein hochster Gott. 

12 (S). Die bitt're Leidenszeit beginnet. 

13 (S). Die gold'ne Sonne, voll Freud' und Wonne. 
*14 (S). Dir, dir, Jehova, will ich singen. 

*15 (S). Eins ist noth, ach Herr, dies Eine. 

16 (S). Ermuntre dich, mein schwacher Geist. 

17 (S). Erwiirgtes Lamm, das die verwahrten Siegel. 

18 (S). Es glanzet der Christen inwendiges Leben. 

19 (S). Es ist nun aus mit meinem Leben. 

20 (S) . Es ist vollbracht ! Vergiss ja nicht dies Wort. 

21 (S). Es kostet viel, ein Christ zu sein. 

*22. Gieb dich zufrieden und sei stille (erste Com- 
position). 
*23. Ditto. (zweite Composition). 1 

24 (S). Ditto. (dritte Composition). 

25 (S). Gott lebet noch ! Seele, was verzagst du 

doch? 
*26 (S). Gott, wie gross ist deine Giite. 

27 (S). Herr, nicht schricke deine Rache. 
*28 (S). Ich bin ja, Herr, in deiner Macht. 

29 (S). Ich freue mich in dir. 
*30 (S). Ich halte treulich still. 

31 (S). Ich lass' dich nicht. 

32 (S). Ich liebe Jesum alle Stund'. 



isches Gesang-Buch ' (1736), of which Bach was the musical editor. 
The latter contains sixty-nine melodies (with figured bass), the former 
seven : one melody (No. 14) is in both collections. The Schemelli 
tunes are indicated by an S within a bracket after the numeral. One 
melody (No. 71) is indubitably by Bach himself. It and others, which 
may be attributed to him on good evidence, are marked by an asterisk. 
The seventy-five settings are published in practicable form by the 
N.B.G. i. (1) and i. (2). 

1 Nos. 22 and 23 are the same tune. 



THE BACHGESELLSCHAFT EDITIONS 255 

*33 (S). Ich steh' an deiner Krippen hier. 
*34 (S). Jesu, Jesu, du bist mein. 

35 (S). Jesu, deine Liebeswunden. 

36 (S). Jesu, meines Glaubens Zier. 

37 (S). Jesu, meines Herzens Freud'. 

38 (S). Jesus 1st das schonste Licht. 

39 (S). Jesus, unser Trost und Leben. 

40 (S). Ihr Gestirn', ihr hohlen Liifte. 

41 (S). Kein Stiindlein geht dahin. 

*42 (S). Komm, siisser Tod, komm, sel'ge Ruh' ! 

*43 (S). Kommt, Seelen, dieser Tag. 

*44 (S). Kommt wieder aus der finst'ren Graft. 

45 (S). Lasset uns mit Jesu ziehen. 

46 (S). Liebes Herz, bedenke doch. 

47 (S). Liebster Gott, wann werd' ich sterben. 
*48 (S). Liebster Herr Jesu, wo bleibst du so lange. 

49 (S). Liebster Immanuel. 

50 (S). Mein Jesu, dem die Seraphinen. 
*51 (S). Mein Jesu, was fur Seelen weh. 

52 (S). Meines Lebens letzte Zeit. 
*53 (S). Nicht so traurig, nicht so sehr. 

54 (S). Nur mein Jesus ist mein Leben. 

55 (S). O du Liebe, meiner Liebe. 
56. O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort. 

*57 (S). finst're Nacht, wann wirst du doch vergehen. 

58 (S). O Jesulein siiss, O Jesulein mild. 
*59 (S). O liebe Seele, zieh' die Sinnen. 

60 (S). O wie selig seid ihr doch. 
*61. Schaff's mit mir, Gott, nach deinem Willen. 

62 (S). Seelenbrautigam, Jesu, Gottes Lamm. 

63 (S). Seelenweide, meine Freude. 

64 (S). Selig, wer an Jesum denkt. 

65 (S). Sei gegriisset, Jesu giitig. 

66 (S). So gehest du nun, mein Jesu, hin. 

67 (S). So giebst du nun, mein Jesu, gute Nacht. 

68 (S). So wiinsch' ich mir zu guter Letzt. 

69 (S). Steh' ich bei meinem Gott. 

70 (S). Vergiss mein nicht, dass ich dein nicht 



256 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

*71 (S). Vergiss mein nicht, mein allerliebster Gott. 
*72. Warum betriibst du dich und beugest. 

73 (S). Was bist du doch, O Seele, so betriibet. 
*74. Wie wohl ist mir, O Freund der Seelen. 

75 (S). Wo ist mein Schaflein, das ich liebe. 1 
(4) Five Arias from Anna Magdalena Bach's ' Noten- 

buch ' (1725) : 2 

*1. So oft ich meine Tabakspfeife. 

*2. Bist bu bei mir. 

*3. Gedenke doch, mein Geist, zuriicke. 

4. Gieb dich zufrieden und sei stille. 

5. Willst du dein Herz mir schenken (Aria di 

Giovannini). 



XL. 1890 [1893]. Orgelwerke. Vierter Band. Ed. Ernst 
Naumann. 

(1) Choral Preludes, from Kirnberger's collection. 8 

1. Wer nur den lieben Gott lasst walten (N. bk. 19 

p. 21). 

2. Ditto (N. bk. 19 p. 22). 

3. Ach Gott und Herr (N. bk. 18 p. 1). 

4. Ditto (N. bk. 18 p. 2). 

5. Wo soil ich fliehen bin (N. bk. 19 p. 32). 

6. Christ lag in Todesbanden (Fantasia) (N. bk. 18 

p. 16). 

7. Christum wir sollen loben schon, or, Was furcht'st 

du, Feind Herodes, sehr (N. bk. 18 p. 23). 

8. Gelobet seist du, Jesu Christ (Fughetta) (N. bk. 18 

p. 38). 

9. Herr Christ, der ein'ge Gottes-Sohn (Fughetta) 

(N. bk. 18 p. 43). 

1 For a discussion of Bach's original hymn-tunes see the present 
writer's ' Bach's Chorals,' Part II. Introduction, pp. 67 ff. Six more 
of Bach's original hymn-tunes are printed there. 

2 The first three Arias are published by Novello, and also by the 
N.B.G. i. (1). 

3 In the Royal Library, Berlin. Kirnberger was a pupil of Bach. 
Seo section on Variants injra. 



THE BACHGESELLSCHAFT EDITIONS 257 

10. Nun komra der Heiden Heiland (Fughetta) (N. 

bk. 18 p. 83). 

11. Vom Himmel hoch da komm ich her (N. bk. 19 

p. 16). 

12. Ditto. (Fughetta) (N. bk. 19 p. 14). 

13. Das Jesulein soil doch mein Trost (Fughetta) 

(N. bk. 18 p. 24). 

14. Gottes Sohn ist kommen (Fughetta) (N. bk. 18 

p. 41). 

15. Lob sei dem allmachtigen Gott (Fughetta) (N. 

bk. 18 p. 73). 

16. Durch Adams Fall ist ganz verderbt (N. bk. 18 

p. 28). 

17. Liebster Jesu wir sind hier (N. bk. 18 p. 72a). 

18. Ditto. (N. bk. 18 p. 72b). 

19. Ich hab' mein' Sach' Gott heimgestellt (N. bk. 18 

p. 54).* 

20. Ditto. (N. bk. 18 p. 58A). 

21. Herr Jesu Christ, dich zu uns wend' (N. bk. 18 

p. 50). 

22. Wir Christenleut' (N. bk. 19 p. 28b). 2 

23. Allein Gott in der Hoh' sei Ehr (Bicinium) 

(N. bk. 18 p. 5). 

24. In dich hab' ich gehoffet, Herr (N. bk. 18 p. 59). 

25. Jesu, meine Freude (Fantasia) (N. bk. 18 p. 64). 
(2) Twenty-eight other Choral Preludes : 3 

1. Ach Gott und Herr (Canon) (N. bk. 18 p. 3). 

2. Allein Gott in der Hoh' sei Ehr' (N. bk. 18 p. 4). 

3. Ditto. (Fuga) (N. bk. 18 p. 7). 

4. Ditto. (N. bk. 18 p. 11). 

5. An Wasserfliissen Babylon (N. bk. 18 p. 13). 

6. Christ lag in Todesbanden (N. bk. 18 p. 19). 

7. Der Tag der ist so freudenreich (N. bk. 18 p. 26). 

8. Ein' feste Burg ist unser Gott (N. bk. 18 p. 30). 

9. Erbarm' dich mein, O Herre Gott (N. bk. 18 p. 35). 
10. Gelobet seist du, Jesu Christ (N. bk. 18 p. 37). 

1 Nbvello omits the concluding four-part Choral. 

* The Prelude is also attributed to J. L. Krebs, a pupil of Bach. 

* See section on Variants infra. 



258 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

11. Gelobet seist du, Jesu Christ (N. bk. 18 p. 39). 

12. Gottes Sohn ist kommen (N. bk. 18 p. 42). 

13. Herr Gott, dich loben wir (N. bk. 18 p. 44). 

14. Herr Jesu Christ, dich zu uns wend' (N. bk. 18 

p. 52). 

15. Herzlich thut mich verlangen (N. bk. 18 p. 53). 

16. Jesus, meine Zuversicht (N. bk. 18 p. 69). 

17. In dulci jubilo (N. bk. 18 p. 61). 

18. Liebster Jesu, wir sind hier (N. bk. 18 p. 70). 

19. Ditto. (N. bk. 18 p. 71). 

20. Lobt Gott, ihr Christen allzugleich (N. bk. 18 

p. 74). 

21 . Meine Seele erhebt den Herren (Magnificat) (Fuga) 

(N. bk. 18 p. 75). 

22. Nun freut euch, lieben Christen g'mein, or, Es ist 

gewisslich an der Zeit (N. bk. 18 p. 80). 

23. Valet will ich dir geben (Fantasia) (N. bk. 19 p. 2). 

24. Ditto. (N. bk. 19 p. 7). 

25. Vater unser im Himmelreich (N. bk. 19 p. 12). 

26. Vom Himmel hoch da komm ich her (N. bk. 19 

p. 19). 

27. Wie schon leuchtet der Morgenstem (N. bk. 19 

p. 23). 

28. Wir glauben all' an einen Gott (N. bk. 19 p. 30). 

(3) Choral Variations : 

1. Christ, der du bist der helle Tag (N. bk. 19 p. 36). 

2. O Gott, du frommer Gott (N. bk. 19 p. 44). 

3. Sei gegrusset, Jesu giitig (N. bk. 19 p. 55). 

4. Vom Himmel hoch da komm ich her (N. bk. 19 

p. 73). 

(4) Variant texts and fragments : 

1. Variant of Kirnberger's No. 2 (P. bk. 244 p. 111). 

2. Do. No. 3 (not in N. or P.). 

3. Ich hab' mein' Sach' Gott heimgestellt (N. bk. 18 

p. 58s). 

4. Variant of Kirnberger's No. 6 (P. bk. 245 p. 104). 

5. Do. No. 25 (P. bk. 245 p. 110). 

6. Variant of No. 10 of the Twenty-eight supra (not 

in N. or P.), 



THE BACHGESELLSCHAFT EDITIONS 259 

7. Variant of No. 17 (not in N. or P.). 

8. Do. No. 20 (not in N. or P.). 

9. Do. No. 26 (not in N. or P.). 

10. Do. No. 22 (P. bk. 246 p. 91). 

11. Do. No. 23 (P. bk. 246 p. 100). 

12. Jesu, meine Freude (fragment) (P. bk. 244 

p. 112). 

13. Wie schon leuchtet der Morgenstern (fragment) 

(not in N. or P.). 

(5) Choral Preludes and Variations of faulty text or doubt- 

ful authenticity : 

1. Ach Gott vom Himmel sieh' darein (P. bk. 2067 

p. 44). 

2. Auf meinen lieben Gott (P. bk. 2067 p. 39). 

3. Aus der Tiefe rufe ich (P. bk. 2067 p. 64). 

4. Christ ist erstanden (not in N. or P.). 

5. Christ lag in Todesbanden (P. bk. 2067 

p. 56). 

6. Gott der Vater wohn' uns bei (P. bk. 245 p. 62) 

(by J. G. Walther). 1 

7. O Vater, allmachtiger Gott (not in N. or P.). 

8. Schmiicke dich, O liebe Seele (not in N. or P.) 

(also attributed to G. A. Homilius). 

9. Vater unser im Himmelreich (not in N. or P.) 

(also attributed to G. Bohm). 

10. Ditto. 

11. Wir glauben all' an einen Gott, Schopfer (P. 

bk. 2067 p. 40) . 2 

12. Variations on Ach, was soil ich Sunder machen 

(not in N. or P.). 

13. Do. Allein Gott in der Hoh' sei Ehr' 
(not in N. or P.). 

(6) Addendum to E.G. ra. : 

Allein Gott in der Hoh' sei Ehr' (an early version 
of N. bk. 16 p. 40*) (P. bk. 245 p. 96). 

1 Variant, P. bk. 245 p. 106. 

* Ernst Naumann remarks, ' Das Stuck kann recht gut von Seb. 
Bach herruhren.' The text is complete, and the omission of the 
Prelude from the Novello edition is to be regretted. 



260 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

XLI. 1891 [1894]. Kirchenmusikwerke. Erganzungsband. 
Ed. Alfred Dorffel. 

Cantata No. 191 : Gloria in excelsis (the B minor Mass 
'Gloria'). 

192 : Nun danket Alle Gott (incomplete). 

193 : Ihr Pforten zu Zion (incomplete). 

Ehre sei Gott in der Hohe (incomplete). 
Wedding Cantata : O ewiges Feuer, O Ursprung der Ldebe 

(incomplete). 
Do. Herr Gott, Beherrscher aller Dinge 

(incomplete). 
Sanctus in D major. 

Kyrie eleison (Christe, du Lamm Gottes). 
Christe eleison (Johann Ludwig Bach). 
Jesum lass' ich nicht von mir (the original concluding 
Choral of the first Part of the ' St. Matthew Passion ' 
(Breitkopf and Haertel's ' Choralgesange,' No. 247). 
Four Cantatas of doubtful authenticity : 
Gedenke, Herr, wie es uns gehet. 
Gott der Hoffnung erfiille euch. 
Siehe, es hat iiberwunden der Lowe. 
Lobt ihn mit Herz und Munde. 



XLII. 1892 [1894]. Clavierwerke. Fiinfter Band. Ed. 
Ernst Nauinann. 

Sonata in D minor (P. bk. 213 p. 24). x 
Suite in E major (not in P.). 2 
Adagio in G major (P. bk. 213 p. I). 3 
Sonata in A minor (P. bk. 213 p. 2). 4 
Do. C major (P. bk. 213 p. 16). 4 
Fugue in B flat major (P. bk. 1959 p. 75) . 6 

1 A transcription of the second Sonata for Solo Violin, in A minor, 
See E.G. xxvn. (1). 

* A transcription of the third Partita, in E major, for Solo Violin. 
See ibid. 

3 From the third Sonata for Solo Violin, in C major. See ibid. 

* Both Sonatas are arrangements of instrumental Sonatas in 
J. A. Beinken's ' Hortus Musicus.' See Spitta, i. 430. 

6 After a Sonata movement by J. A. Reinken. 



THE BACHGESELLSCHAFT EDITIONS 261 

Fugue in B flat major (P. bk. 1959 p. 90). l 

Sixteen Concertos after Antonio Vivaldi (P. bk. 217) . 2 

Fifteen Compositions of probable authenticity : 

1. Prelude and Fugue in A minor (P. bk. 1959 p. 84). 

2. Fantasia and Fugue in D minor (P. bk. 1959 p. 80). 

3. Fantasia in G minor (P. bk. 1959 p. 94). 

4. Concerto and Fugue in C minor (not in P.). 

5. Fugato in E minor (P. bk. 1959 p. 24). 

6. Fugue in E minor (P. bk. 1959 p. 72). 

7. Do. G major (P. bk. 1959 p. 68). 

8. Do. A minor (not in P.). 

9. Do. 

10. Prelude in B minor (and Variant) (not in P.). 

11. Suite in B flat major (P. bk. 1959 p. 54). 

12. Andante in G minor (P. bk. 1959 p. 63). 

13. Scherzo in D minor (and Variant) (P. bk. 1959 p. 62). 

14. Sarabande con Partite in C major (P. bk. 1959 p. 26). 

15. Passacaglia in D minor (P. bk. 1959 p. 40). 
Ten Compositions of doubtful authenticity : 

1. Fantasia in C minor (not in P.). 

2. Toccata quasi Fantasia con Fuga in A major (not 

in P.). 3 

3. Partie in A major (not in P.). 

4. AUemande in C minor (not in P.). 

5. Gigue in F minor (not in P.). 

6. Allemande and Courante in A major (not in P.). 

7. Allemande in A minor (not in P.). 

8. Fantasia and Fughetta in B flat major (P. bk. 212 

p. 58). 

9. Do. D major (P. bk. 212 p. 60). 
10. Fugue (unfinished) in E minor (not in P.). 

Concerto in G major by Antonio Vivaldi (original of the 
second Clavier Concerto supra)* 

1 After a Fugue by J. C. Erselius. The original is given in Anhang n. 
of the volume. 

1 Only Nos. 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 14 are derived from Vivaldi. The 
others are founded on Benedetto Marcello (No. 3), Duke Johann Ernst 
of Weimar (Nos. 11, 16, and perhaps 13). 

* The Toccata is by Henry Purcell. See Grove, vol. iii. p. 867. 

1 The volume also contains a Variant of the first Organ Concerto 
(E.G. xxxvm.). 



262 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

XLIII(l). 1893 [1894]. Kammermusik. AchterBand. Ed. 
Paul Graf Waldersee. 

Three Sonatas for Flute and Clavier : 

1. In C major (P. bk. 235 p. 33). 

2. In E minor (ib. p. 39). 

3. In E major (ib. p. 51). 

Sonata in E minor, for Violin and Clavier (P. bk. 236). 
Fugue in G minor for Violin and Clavier (P. bk. 236). 
Sonata in F major for two Claviers (by Wilhelm Friedemann 

Bach). 
Concerto in A minor for four Claviers and Orchestra (Strings) 

(P. bk. 260 p. 3). 1 



XLIII (2) . 1893 [1894] . Musikstiicke in den Notenbiichen der 
Anna Magdalena Bach. Ed. Paul Graf Waldersee. 

(1) The Notebook of the year 1722 contains : 

1. The French Suites (incomplete) (see E.G. xra. (2)). 

2. Fantasia in C major for the Organ (see E.G. 

xxx vni. No. 25). 

3. Air (unfinished) in C minor (not in P.). 

4. Choral Prelude, ' Jesus, meine Zuversicht ' (see 

E.G. XL. sec. 2 No. 16). 

5. Minuet in G major (see E.G. xxxvi. and P. bk. 215 

p. 62). 

(2) The Notebook of the year 1725 contains : 2 

1. Partita III. (A minor) from the ' Clavieriibung,' 

Part I. (see E.G. m.). 

2. Partita VI. (E minor) from the same (see E.G. in.). 

3 (P). Minuet in F major. 

4 (P). Do. G major. 

5 (P). Do. G minor. 

1 The Concerto is an arrangement of one by Antonio Vivaldi for 
four Violins, the original of which (in B minor) is given in the Appendix 
to the volume. 

z Omitting the vocal numbers, movements printed elsewhere, and 
the ' Menuet fait par Mons. Bohm,' Peters' Bk. 1959 contains the 
remaining twenty numbers of the Notebook. They are indicated in 
the above index by a P in a bracket. 



THE BACHGESELLSCHAFT EDITIONS 263 

6 (P). Rondeau in B flat major (by Couperin). 

7 (P). Minuet in G major. 

8 (P). Polonaise in F major (two versions). 

9 (P). Minuet in B flat major. 
10 (P). Polonaise in G minor. 

1 1 . Choral Prelude, ' Wer nur den lieben Gott lasst 

walten ' (see B.G. XL., Kirnberger's Collec- 
tion, no. 2). 

12. Choral, ' Gieb dich zufrieden und sei stille ' 

(see B.G. xxxix. sec. 4 no. 4). 

13. Aria, ' Gieb dich zufrieden un sei stille ' (see 

B.G. xxxix. sec. 2 no. 62). 

14 (P). Minuet in A minor. 

15 (P). Do. C minor. 

16 (P). March in D major. 

17 (P). Polonaise in G minor. 

18 (P). March in A major. 

19 (P). Polonaise in G minor. 

20. Aria, 'So oft ich meine Tabakspfeife ' (see 

B.G. xxxix. sec. 4 no. 1). 

21. Minuet in G major, ' fait par Mons. 

Bohm.' 

22 (P). Musette in D major. 

23 (P). March in E flat major. 

24 (P). Polonaise in D minor. 

25. Aria, ' Bist du bei mir ' (see B.G. xxxix. sec. 

4 no. 2). 

26. Aria in G major (the Aria of the Goldberg 

Variations. See B.G. m.). 

27 (P). Solo per il Cembalo hi E flat major. 

28 (P). Polonaise in G major. 

29. Prelude in C major (Prelude i. of the first Part 

of the 'Well-tempered Clavier.' See B.G. 

XIV.). 

30. Suite in D minor (the first of the French Suites. 

See B.G. xm (2)). 

31. Suite in C minor (the first three movements of 

the second French Suite. See B.G. xm (2)). 

32. Choral (wordless) in F. major. 



264 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

33. Aria, ' Warum betriibst du dich ' (see E.G. 

xxxix. sec. 3 no. 72). 

34. Recitative and Aria, ' Ich habe genug,' and 

' Schlummert ein,' for Basso (from Can- 
tata 82, nos. 2 and 3), transposed. 

35. Aria, ' SchafFs mit mir, Gott, nach deinem 

Willen ' (see E.G. xxxix. sec. 3 no. 61). 
36 (P). Minuet in D minor. 

37. Aria, ' Willst du dein Herz mir schenken ' (di 

Giovannini) (see E.G. xxxix. sec. 4 no. 5). 

38. Aria, No. 34 supra. 

39. Choral, ' Dir, dir Jehovah, will ich singen ' 

(see E.G. xxxix. sec. 2 no. 46). 

40. Aria, ' Wie wohl ist mir, Freund der Seelen ' 

(see E.G. xxxix. sec. 3 no. 74). 

41. Aria, 'Gedenke doch, mem Geist, zuriicke ' 

(see E.G. xxxix. sec. 4 no. 3). 

42. Choral, ' O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort ' (see 

E.G. xxxix. sec. 2 no. 144). 

XLIV. 1894 [1895]. Handschrift in zeitlich geordneten 
Nachbildungen. Ed. Hermann Kretzschmar. Con- 
tains facsimiles of Bach's handwriting and autograph 

MSS. 

XLV(1).1895 [1897]. Clavierwerke. Zweiter Band (neue 

berichtigte Ausgabe). Ed. Alfred Dorffel. 1 
The Six English Suites (see E.G. xm. (2)). (P. bks. 2794, 

2795.) 

The Six French Suites (see E.G. xra. (2)). (P. bk. 2793.) 
Five Canons in 4, 6, 7, 8 parts. 

Prelude and Fugue in E flat major (P. bk. 214 p. 40). 
Suite in E minor (P. bk. 214 p. 68). 
Suite in C minor (not in P.). 
Sonata (first movement) in A minor (not in P.). 2 

1 A separate Preface to the reprinted Suites is by Ernst Naumann. 
It is dated 1895. 

2 Perhaps an arrangement of an orchestral piece. See Schweitzer, 
i. 342 n. 



THE BACHGESELLSCHAFT EDITIONS 265 

Four Inventions, in B minor, B flat major, C minor, D major, 

for Violin and Clavier (P. bk. 2957). 
Overture in G minor for Strings and Clavier (not 

in P.). 
The ' Clavier-Biichlein ' of Wilhelm Friedemann Bach 

contains : 

1. Applicatio in C major (see B.G. xxxvi. no. 48). 

2. Prelude in C major (the first of the Twelve Little 

Preludes) (see B.G. xxxvi. no. 19). 

3. Choral Prelude, ' Wer nur den lieben Gott lasst 

walten' (see B.G. XL., Kirnberger's Collection, 
no. 2). 

4. Prelude in D minor (the fifth of the Little Preludes) 

(see B.G. xxxvi. no. 19). 

5. Choral Prelude, ' Jesu meine Freude ' (fragment) (see 

B.G. XL. sec. 4 no. 12). 

6. Allemande in G minor (not in P.). 

7. Allemande (fragment) in G minor (not in P.). 

8. Prelude in F major (the eighth of the Little Preludes) 

(see B.G. xxxvi. no. 19). 

9. Do. G minor (the eleventh of the Little Pre- 

ludes) (see B.G. xxxvi. no. 19). 

10. Do. F major (the ninth of the Little Preludes) 

(see B.G. xxxvi. no. 19). 

11. Minuet in G major (the first of the three Minuets) 

(see B.G. xxxvi. no. 43). 

12. Do. G minor (the second of the three Minuets) 

(see B.G. xxxvi. no. 43). 

13. Do. G major (the third of the three Minuets) 

(see B.G. xxxvi. no. 43). 

14. Prelude in C major (the first Prelude of the first Part 

of the 'Well-tempered Clavier.' See 
B.G. xiv.). 

15. Do. C minor (the second Prelude of the first 

Part of the same. See B.G. xiv.). 

16. Do . D minor (the sixth Prelude of the first Part 

of the same. See B.G. xiv.). 

17. Do. D major (the fifth Prelude of the first 

Part of the same. See B.G. xiv.). 



266 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

18. Prelude in E minor (the tenth Prelude of the first 

Part of the same. See E.G. xiv.). 

19. Do. E major (the ninth Prelude of the first 

Part of the same. See E.G. xiv.). 

20. Do. F major (the eleventh Prelude of the first 

Part of the same. See E.G. xiv.). 

21. Do. C sharp major (the third Prelude of the 

first Part of the same. See E.G. xiv.). 

22. Do. C sharp minor (the fourth Prelude of the 

first Part of the same. See E.G. xiv.). 

23. Do. E flat minor (the eighth Prelude of the 

first Part of the same. See E.G. xiv.). 

24. Do. F minor (the twelfth Prelude of the first 

Part of the same. See E.G. xiv.), 

25. Allemande and Courante in C major, by J. C. Richter. 

26. Prelude in C major (first of the Little Preludes. See 

E.G. xxxvi. no. 19). 

27. Do. D major (fourth of the Little Preludes. 

See E.G. xxxvi. no. 19). 

28. Do. E minor (see E.G. xxxvi. no. 50). 

29. Do. A minor (E.G. xxxvi. no. 49). 

30. Do. G minor (not in P.). 

31. Fugue in C major (see E.G. xxxvi. no. 38). 

32. Prelude in C major (Invention i. See E.G. in.). 

33. Do. D minor (Invention iv. See E.G. m.). 

34. Do. E minor (Invention vn. See E.G. in.). 

35. Do. F major (Invention vm. See E.G. m.). 

36. Do. G major (Invention x. See E.G. m.). 

37. Do. A minor (Invention xin. See E.G. m.). 

38. Do. B minor (Invention xv. See E.G. in.). 

39. Do. B flat major (Invention xiv. See 

E.G. m.). 

40. Do. A major (Invention xn. See E.G. m.). 

41. Do. G minor (Invention xi. See E.G. in.). 

42. Do. F minor (Invention ix. See E.G. in.). 

43. Do. E major (Invention vi. See E.G. m.) 

44. Do. E flat major (Invention v. See E.G. m.). 

45. Do. D major (Invention in. See E.G. in.). 

46. Do. C minor (Invention n. See E.G. m.). 



THE BACHGESELLSCHAFT EDITIONS 267 

47. Suite in A major (fragment) (see B.G. xxxvi. no. 45). 

48. Partita in G minor by Steltzel, including a Minuet- 

Trio by J. S. B. (Minuet in P. bk. 1959 p. 8). 

49. Fantasia in C major (Sinfonia i. See B.G. m.). 

50. Do. D minor (Sinfonia iv. See B.G. in.). 
61. Do. E minor (Sinfonia vn. See B.G. in.). 

52. Do. F major (Sinfonia vm. See B.G. m.). 

53. Do. G major (Sinfonia x. See B.G. m.). 

54. Do. A minor (Sinfonia xin. See B.G. m.). 

55. Do. B minor (Sinfonia xv. See B.G. m.). 

56. Do. B flat major (Sinfonia xiv. See B.G. in.). 

57. Do. A major (Sinfonia xn. See B.G. in.). 

58. Do. G minor (Sinfonia xi. See B.G. in.). 

59. Do. F minor (Sinfonia EX. See B.G. m.). 

60. Do. E major (Sinfonia vi. See B.G. m.). 

61. Do. E flat major (Sinfonia v. See B.G. m.). 

62. Do. D major (Sinfonia m. See B.G. m.). 1 



XLV (2) . 1895 [1898]. Passionsmusik nach dem Evangelisten 
Lucas. Ed. Alfred Dorffel. 

Though the Score is in Bach's autograph, the work is 
generally held not to be his. 



XLVI. 1896 [1899]. 2 Schlussband. Bericht und Verzeich- 
nisse. Ed. Hermann Kretzschmar. 

The volume contains : 

Historical retrospect of the Society and its activities. 

Thematic Index to Cantatas 121-191 (see B.G. xxvn(2)), 
unfinished Cantatas, Cantatas of doubtful authenticity, 
Christmas Oratorio, Easter Oratorio, St. Matthew Passion, 
St. John Passion, St. Luke Passion, Mass in B minor, 
the four Masses in F major, A major, G minor, G major, 

1 The Appendix to the volume contains addenda to the Violin 
Concerto in A minor (see B.G. xxi. (1)) and Cantata 188 (see 
B.G. XXXVH.). Also the Zurich and London texts of the 'Well- 
tempered Clavier ' (B.G. xrv.), with critical notes. 

1 The Preface is dated 1899. The volume was issued in 1900. 



268 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

the four Sanctus in C major, D major, D minor, G major, 
Magnificat in D major, the ' Trauer-Ode ' Wedding 
Cantatas and Chorals, Motets, Secular Cantatas (P. 
bk. 270b). 

Alphabetical Index of the movements throughout the vocal 
works. 

Thematic- Index to the Clavier music. 
Do. Chamber music. 



Do. Orchestral music. 



(P. bk. 
270a). 



Do. Organ music. 

Do. ' Musikalisches Opfer.' 

Do. ' Die Kunst der Fuge.' 

Do. W. P. Bach's and A. M. Bach's 

Notebooks. 

Index to the several movements throughout the instru- 
mental works. 
Index of names and places occurring in the Prefaces of the 

B.G. volumes. 

Bach's vocal and instrumental works arranged (1) in the 
order of the yearly volumes, (2) in groups. 

(B) PUBLICATIONS OF THE NEW 
BACHGESELLSCHAFT 

1(1). 1901. Lieder und Arien. Fur eine Singstimme mit 
Pianoforte (Orgel oder Harmonium). Ed. Ernst Nau- 
mann. 

The seventy-eight Songs are those contained in B.G. xxxix. 
sees. 3 and 4 (first three only) supra. 

I (2). 1901. Lieder und Arien. Fur vierstimmigen gemischten 

Chor. Ed. Franz Wiillner. 

The seventy-five Songs are those contained in I (1), omitting 
those in sec. 4 of B.G. xxxix. supra. 

1(3). 1901. Erstes deutsches Bach-Fest in Berlin 21 bis 

23 Marz 1901. Festschrift. 
The frontispiece is Carl Seffner's bust of Bach. 



THE BACHGESELLSCHAFT EDITIONS 269 

11(1). 1902. Orgelbiichlein. 46 kiirzere Choralbearbeitungen 
fiir Klavier zu vier Handen. Ed. Bernhard Fr. Eichter. 

The original forty-six Organ Preludes, here arranged for 
two pianofortes (see B.G. xxv (2), sec. 1). 



11(2). 1902. Kirchen-Kantaten. Klavierauszug. Erstes 
Heft. Ed. Gustav Schreck and Ernst Naumann. 

Contains Breitkopf and Haertel's vocal scores of 
Cantata 61 : Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland. 
Do. 64 : Sehet, welch' eine Liebe. 
Do. 28 : Gottlob ! nun geht das Jahr zu Ende. 
Do. 65 : Sie werden aus Saba Alle kommen. 
Do. 4 : Christ lag in Todesbanden. 



Ill (1). 1903. Kirchen-Kantaten. Klavierauszug. Zweites 

(Heft. Ed. Ernst Naumann. 
Contains Breitkopf and Haertel's vocal scores of 
Cantata 104 Du Hirte Israel, hore. 



Do. 11 

Do. 34 

Do. 45 

Do. 80 



Lobet Gott in seinen Reichen. 
O ewiges Feuer. 
Es ist dir gesagt. 
Ein' feste Burg. 



111(2). 1903. Drei Sonaten fiir Klavier und Violine. Ed. 
Ernst Naumann. 

Sonata I. in B minor."! 
Do. n. in A major. [ (See B.G. ix.) 
Do. in. in E major.] 

IV (1). 1904. Drei Sonaten fiir Klavier und Violine. Ed. 
Ernst Naumann. 

Sonata iv. in C minor."! 
Do. v. in F minor l(See B.G. ix.) 
Do. vi. in G major.] 



270 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

IV (2). 1904. Job. Seb. Bacb, Bildnis in Heliogravure. 

A print of the portrait discovered by Dr. Fritz Volbach 
reproduced at p. 92 of tbis present volume. 



IV (3). 1904. Zweites deutscbes Bach-Fest in Leipzig 1 bis 
3 Oktober 1904. Festschrift. 



V(l). 1905. Fest-Gottesdienst zum deutscben Bacbfeste in 
der Thomaskirche zu Leipzig. Ed. Georg Rietschel. 

Contains the order of service and music sung on the occasion. 



V (2). 1905. Ausgewahlte Arien und Duette mit einem obli- 
gaten Instrument und Klavier- oder Orgelbegleitung. 
I Abteilung : Arien fur Sopran. Ed. Eusebius Mandyc- 
zewski. 

1. Auch mit gedampften schwachen Stimmen (Cantata 36 : 

VioUn). 

2. Die Armen will der Herr unarmen (Cantata 186 : 

Violin). 

3. Es halt' es mit der blinden Welt (Cantata 94 : Oboe 

d'amore). 

4. Gerechter Gott, ach, rechnest du (Cantata 89 : Oboe). 

5. Gott versorget alles Leben (Cantata 187 : Oboe). 

6. Hochster, was ich habe, ist nur deine Gabe (Cantata 39 : 

Flauto). 

7. Hort, ihr Augen, auf zu weinen (Cantata 98 : Oboe). 

8. Ich bin vergniigt in meinem Leiden (Cantata 58 : 

Violin). 

9. Ich ende behende mein irdisches Leben (Cantata 57 : 

Violin). 

10. Ich nehme mein Leiden mit Freuden auf mich (Can- 

tata 75 : Oboe d'amore). 

11. Ich will auf den Herren schau'n (Cantata 93 : Oboe). 

12. Seufzer, Thranen, Kummer, Noth (Cantata 21 : Oboe). 



THE BACHGESELLSCHAFT EDITIONS 271 

V(3). 1905. Bach-Jahrbuch 1904. Herausgegeben von der 
Neuen Bachgesellschaft. 

In addition to sermons and addresses on the occasion of the 
second Bach Festival at Leipzig in 1904, the volume contains 
the following articles : 

1. Bach und der evangelische Gottesdienst. By Karl 

Greulich. 

2. Praktische Bearbeitungen Bachscher Kompositionen. 

By Max Seiffert. 

3. Bachs Rezitativbehandlung mit besonderer Beriick- 

sichtigung der Passionen. By Alfred Heuss. 

4. Verschwundene Traditionen des Bachzeitalters. By 

Arnold Schering. 



VI (1). 1906. Ausgewahlte Arien und Duette mit einem 
obligaten Instrument und Klavier- oder Orgelbegleitung. 
II Abteilung : Arien fur Alt. Ed. Eusebius Mandy- 
czewski. 

1. Ach, bleibe doch, mein h'ebstes Leben (Cantata 11 : 

Violin). 

2. Ach, es bleibt in meiner Liebe (Cantata 77 : Tromba). 

3. Ach Herr ! was ist ein Menschenkind (Cantata 110 : 

Oboe d'amore) . 

4. Ach, unaussprechlich ist die Noth (Cantata 116 : Oboe 

d'amore). 

5. Christen miissen auf der Erden (Cantata 44 : Oboe). 

6. Christi Glieder, ach, bedenket (Cantata 132 : Violin). 

7. Es kommt ein Tag (Cantata 136 : Oboe d'amore). 

8. Gelobet sei der Herr, mein Gott (Cantata 129 : Oboe 

d'amore). 

9. Ich will doch wohl Rosen brechen (Cantata 86 : Violin). 

10. Jesus macht mich geistlich reich (Cantata 75 : Violin). 

11. Kein Arzt ist ausser dir zu finden (Cantata 103 : 

Flauto) 

12. Was Gott thut, das ist wohlgethan (Cantata 100 : Oboe 

d'amore) . 



272 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

VI (2). 1906. Ausgewahlte Arien und Duette mit einem 
obligaten Instrument und Klavier- oder Orgelbegleitung. 
Ill Abteilung : Duette fur Sopran und Alt. Ed. 
Eusebius Mandyczewski. 

1. Die Armuth, so Gott auf sich nimmt (Cantata 91 : 

Violin). 

2. Wenn Sorgen auf mich dringen (Cantata 3 : Violin or 

Oboe d'amore). 

3. Er kennt die rechten Freudenstunden (Cantata 93 : 

Violin). 

VI (3). 1906. Bach-Jahrbuch 1905. Herausgegeben von der 

Neuen Bachgesellschaft. 
Contains the following articles : 

1 . Johann Sebastian Bachs Kapelle zu Cothen und deren 

nachgelassene Instrumente. By Rudolf Bunge. 

2. Geleitwort. By Arnold Sobering. 

3. Die Wahl Job. Seb. Bachs zum Kantor der Thomas - 

schule i. J. 1723. By Bernhard FT. Richter. 

4. Ein' feste Burg ist unser Gott. Kantata von Job.. 

Seb. Bach. By Fritz Volbach. 

5. Verzeichnis der bisher erschienenen Literatur iiber 

Johann Sebastian Bach. By Max Schneider. 

6. Reviews of books. 

VII (1). 1907. Kantate No. 88 : ' Siehe, ich will viel Fische 

aussenden.' Partitur. Ed. Max Seiffert. 

VII (2). 1907. Kantate No. 88 : ' Siehe, ich will viel Fische 
aussenden.' Klavierauszug mit Text. Ed. Max Seiffer 
und Otto Taubmann. 

VII (3). 1907. Bach-Jahrbuch 1906. Herausgegeben von de 
Neuen Bachgesellschaft. 

Contains the following articles : 

1. Erfahrungen und Ratschlager beziiglich der Auffuh 
rung Bachscher Kirchenkantaten. By Wilhelm 
Voigt. 



THE BACHGESELLSCHAFT EDITIONS 273 

2. Uber die Schicksale der der Thomasschule zu Leipzig 

angehorenden Kantaten Job. Seb. Bachs. By 
Bernhard FT. Richter. 

3. Die grosse A-moll Fuge fiir Orgel [Novello bk. 7 p. 42] 

und ihre Vorlage. By Reinhardt Oppel. 

4. Zur Kritik der Gesamtausgabe von Bachs Werken. 

By Max Seiffert. 

5. Verzeichnis der bis zum Jahre 1851 gedruckten (und 

der geschrieben im Handel gewesenen) Werke von 
Johann Sebastian Bach. By Max Schneider. 

6. Ubersicht der Auffuhrungen J. S. Bachscher Werke 

von Ende 1904 bis Anfang 1907. 
8. Notes. 

VII (4). 1907. Drittes deutsches Bach-Fest zur Einweihung 

von Johann Sebastian Bachs Geburtshaus als Bach- 
Museum [at Eisenach]. Fest- und Frogrammbuch 
[26-28 May 1907]. 
The frontispiece is Carl Seffner's bust of Bach. 

VIII (1) . 1908. Violinkonzert No. 2 in E dur. Partitur. Ed. 

Max Seiffert. 
See B.G. xxi (1) no. 2. 

VIII (2) . 1908. Violinkonzert No. 2 in E dur fur Violine und 
Klavier. Ed. Max Seiffert and A. Saran. 

VIII (3). 1908. Bach-Jahrbuch. 4 Jahrgang 1907 : Im 
Auf trage der Neuen Bachgesellschaf t herausgegeben von 
Arnold Schering. 
In addition to a sermon by Professor Georg Rietschel and 

an obituary notice of Joseph Joachim, the volume contains 

the following articles : 

1. Sebastian Bach und Paul Gerhardt. By Wilhelm 

Nelle. 

2. Stadtpfeifer und Alumnen der Thomasschule in 

Leipzig zu Bachs Zeit. By Bernhard Fr. Richter. 



274 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

3. Angeblich von J. S. Bach komponierte Oden von Chr. 

H. Hoffmannswaldau. By . Landmann. 

4. Die neuen deutschen Ausgaben der zwei- und drei- 

stimmigen Inventionen [Peters bk. 2792]. By 
Reinhardt Oppel. 

5. Thematisches Verzeichnis der musikalischen Werke 

der Familie Bach. i. Theil. By Max Schneider. 

6. Notes and Reviews of books. 

IX (1). 1909. Kantate No. 85 : ' Ich bin ein guter Hirt.' 
Partitur. Ed. Max Seiffert, 

IX (2). 1909. Kantate No. 85 : ' Ich bin ein guter Hirt.' 
Klavierauszug mit Text. Ed. Max Seiffert and Max 
Schneider. 

IX (3). 1909. Brandenburgisches Konzert No. 3. Partitur. 

Ed. Max Seiffert. 
See B.G. xix. no. 3. 

IX (4). 1909. Brandenburgisches Konzert No. 3 fur Klavier 
zu vier Handen. Ed. Max Seiffert and Max Schneider. 

IX (5). 1909. Viertes deutsches Bach-Fest in Chemnitz 3-5 
Oktober 1908. Fest- und Programmbuch. 

The frontispiece is a photograph of Carl Seffner's statue 
of Bach, unveiled at Leipzig May 17, 1908. 

IX (6). 1909. Bach-Jahrbuch. 5 Jahrgang 1908 : Im Auf- 
trage der Neuen Bachgesellschaft herausgegeben von 
Arnold Sobering. 
Contains the following articles : 

1. Zu Bachs Weihnachtsoratorium, Theil 1 bis 3. By 

Woldemar Voigt. 

2. Uber Seb. Bachs Kantaten mit obligator Pedal. By 

Bernhard Fr. Richter. 

3. Cembalo oder Pianoforte ? By Richard Buchmayer. 

4. Bearbeitung Bachscher Kantaten. By Max Schneider. 



THE BACHGESELLSCHAFT EDITIONS 275 

5. Nachrichten iiber das Leben Georg Bohms mit 

spezieller Beriicksichtigung seiner Beziehungen zur 
Bachschen Familie. By Richard Buchmayer. 

6. Ein interessantes Beispiel Bachscher Textauffassung. 

By Alfred Heuss. 

7. Edgar Tinel iiber Seb. Bach. 

8. Notes. 



X(l). 1910. Ausgewahlte Alien und Duette mit einem 
obligaten Instrument und Klavier- oder Orgelbegleitung. 
IV Abteilung : Arien fiir Tenor. Ed. Eusebius 
Mandyczewski. 

1. Dein Blut, so meine Schuld durchstreit (Cantata 78 : 

Flauto). 

2. Die Liebe zieht mit sanften Schritten (Cantata 36: 

Oboe d'amore). 

3. Ergiesse dich reichlich, du gottliche Quelle (Cantata 5 : 

Viola). 

4. Handle nicht nach deinen Rechten mit uns (Cantata 

101 : Violin). 
6. Ich will an den Himmel denken (Cantata 166 : Oboe). 

6. Ja, tausendmal Tausend (Cantata 43 : Violin). 

7. Mich kann kein Zweifel storen (Cantata 108 : Violin). 

8. Seht, was die Liebe thut ! (Cantata 86 : Violin or 

Viola). 

9. Tausendfaches Ungliick, Schrecken, Triibsal (Cantata 

143: Violin). 

10. Wir waren schon zu tief gesunken (Cantata 9 : Violin). 

11. Woferne du den edlen Frieden (Cantata 41 : Violon- 

cello). 

12. Wo wird in diesem Jammerthale (Cantata 114 : 

Flauto). 



X (2). 1910 Brandenburgisches Konzert No 1. Partitur. 
Ed. Max Seiffert. 

See B.G. xix. no. 1. 



276 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

X(3). 1910. Brandenburgisches Konzert No. 1 fur Klavier 
zu vier Handen. Ed. Max Seiffert and Max Schneider. 



X(4). 1910. Bach-Jahrbuch. 6 Jahrgang 1909 : Im Auf- 
trage der Neuen Bachgesellschaft herausgegeben von 
Arnold Sobering. 

The volume contains the following articles : 

1. Zum Linearprinzip J. S. Bachs. By Robert Handke. 

2. Bachs Verhaltnis zur Klaviermusik. By Karl Nes. 

3. Zur Tenorarie [' Ich will an den Himmel denken ' : 

See x (1) no. 5, supra] der Kantate 166. By Rein- 
hard Oppel. 

4. Die Verzierungen in den Werken von J. S. Bach. 

By E. Dannreuther. 

5. Konnte Bachs Gemeinde bei seinen einfachen Choral- 

satzen mitsingen ? By Rudolf Wustmann. 

6. Buxtehudes musikalischer Nachruf beim Tode seines 

Vaters (mit einer Notenbeilage). By Reinhard 
Oppel. 

7. ' Matthauspassion,' erster Theil. By Rudolf Wust- 

mann. 

8. Zu den Beschliissen des Dessauer Kirchengesangver- 

einstages. By Arnold Sobering. 

9. Notes. 



X (5). 1910. Funftes deutscbes Bach-Pest in Duisburg 4 bis 

7 Juni 1910. Fest- und Frogrammbucb. 

Frontispiece, St. Thomas' Church and School, Leipzig, in 
1723. Reproduced at p. 28 of the present volume. 

XI (] ) . 1911 . Ausgewahlte Alien und Duette mit einem obli- 

gaten Instrument und Klavier- oder Orgelbegleitung 
V Abteilung : Arien fur Bass. Ed. Eusebius Man- 
dyczewski. 

1. Achzen und erbannlich Weinen (Cantata 13 : Violin 
or Flute) , 



THE BACHGESELLSCHAFT EDITIONS 277 

2. Die Welt mit alien Konigreichen (Cantata 59 : Violin). 

3. Endlicb, endlich wird mein Joch (Cantata 56 : Oboe). 

4. Erleucht' auch meine finstre Sinnen (' Christmas 

Oratorio,' Part V. no. 5 : Oboe d'amore). 

5. Gleichwie die wilden Meeres-Wellen (Cantata 178: 

Violin or Viola). 

6. Greifet zu, fasst das Heil (Cantata 174: Violin or 

Viola). 

7. Herr, nun lassest du deinen Diener (Cantata 83 : 

Violin or Viola). 

8. Hier, in meines Vaters Statte (Cantata 32 : Violin). 

9. Komm, susses Kreuz (' St. Matthew Passion,' no. 57 : 

Violoncello). 

10. Lass', O Welt, mich aus Verachtung (Cantata 123 : 

Flauto). 

11. Tritt auf die Glaubensbahn (Cantata 152 : Oboe 

d'amore). 

12. Wenn Trost und Hiilf ermangehi muss (Cantata 117 : 

Violin). 



XI (2). 1911. Bach-Jahrbuch. 7 Jahrgang 1910 : Im Auf- 
trage der Neuen Bachgesellschaft herausgegeben von 
Arnold Schering. 

The volume contains the following articles : 

1. Die Diatonik in ihrem Einfluss auf die thematische 

Gestaltung des Fugenbaues. By Robert Handke. 

2. Bach und die franzosische Klaviermusik. By Wanda 

Landowska. 

3. Sebastian Bachs Kirchenkantatentexte. By Rudolf 

Wustmann. 

4. Uber Joh. Kasp. Fred. Fischers Einfluss auf Job. Seb. 

Bach. By Reinhard Oppel. 

5. Hans Bach, der Spielmann. By Werner Wolff heim. 

6. Vom Rhythmus des evangelischen Chorals. By 

Rudolf Wustmann. 

7. W. Friedemann Bach und seine hallische Wirksamkeit. 

By C. Zehler. 



278 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

8. Neues Material zum Verzeichnis der bisher erschienenen 

Literatur iiber Johann Sebastian Bach. By Max 
Schneider. 

9. Reviews of books. 



XII (1). 1912. Ausgewahlte Arien und Duetto mit einem 
obligaten Instrument und Klavier- oder Orgelbegleitung. 
VI Abteilung : Arien fur Sopran. 2 Heft. Ed. 
Eusebius Mandyczewski. 

1. Bereite dir, Jesu, noch itzo die Balm (Cantata 147 : 

Violin). 

2. Eilt, ihr Stunden, koinmt herbei (Cantata 30 : Violin). 

3. Erfullet, ihr himmlischen, gottlichen Flammen (Can- 

tata 1 : Oboe da caccia). 

4. Geniigsamkeit ist ein Schatz in diesem Leben (Cantata 

144 : Oboe d'amore). 

5. Hort, ihr Volker, Gottes Stimme (Cantata 76 : Violin). 

6. Ich folge dir gleichfalls (' St. John Passion,' no. 9 : 

Flauto). 

7. Jesus soil mein erstes Wort (Cantata 171 : Violin). 

8. Liebster Jesu, mein Verlangen (Cantata 32 : Oboe). 

9. Meinem Hirten bleib' ich treu (Cantata 92 : Oboe 

d'amore). 

10. Seele, deine Spezereien sollen nicht (' Easter Oratorio,' 

no. 4 : Flauto or Violin). 

11. Was Gott thut, das ist wohlgethan (Cantata 100: 

Flauto). 

12. Wie zittern und wanken der Sunder Gedanken (Can- 

tata 105: Oboe). 



XII (2). 1912. Bach-Jahrbuch. 8 Jahrgang 1911 : Im Auf- 
trage der Neuen Bachgesellschaft herausgegeben von 
Arnold Sobering. Mit 2 Bildnissen und 8 Faksimiles. 

The volume contains the following articles : 

1. ' Mein Herze schwimmt im Blut' [see infra xni (2)]. 
By Werner Wolffheim. 



THE BACHGESELLSCHAFT EDITIONS 279 

2. Das sogenannte Orgelkonzert D-moll, von Wilhelm 

Friedemann Bach [Peters bk. 3002]. By Max 
Schneider. 

3. Bachiana. By Werner Wolffheim. 

4. Zur Geschichte der Passionsauffiihrungen in Leipzig. 

By Bernhard Fr. Richter. 

5. Tonartensymbolik zu Bachs Zeit. By Rudolf Wust- 

mann. 

6. Uber die Viola da Gamba und ihre Verwendung bei 

Joh. Seb. Bach. By Christian Dobereiner. 

7. Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach und Joh. Gottl. Im. 

Breitkopf . By Hermann von Hase. 

8. Zur ' Lukaspassion.' By Max Schneider. 

9. Verzeichnis der Sammlung alter Musikinstrumente im 

Bachhaus zu Eisenach. By G. Bornemann. 
The illustrations are, portraits of W. Friedemann Bach 
(aet. 72) and Johann Sebastian Bach (son of Carl P. E. Bach) ; 
facsimiles of Bach's arrangement of the D minor Vivaldi 
Organ Concerto (attributed to W. F. Bach) and 'Lukas- 
passion,' and of a letter written to J. G. I. Breitkopf by 
C. P. E. Bach, dated 28th February 1786. 



XII (3). 1912. Sechstes Deutsches Bach-Fest in Breslau 
15 bis 17 Juni 1912. Fest- und Programmbuch. 

Frontispiece, J. S. Bach after the oil-painting by G. Hauss- 
mann in possession of St. Thomas' School, Leipzig (see Spitta, 
vol. i. frontispiece and xvi (1) infra). 



XIII (1). 1913. Ausgewahlte Arien mit obligaten Instru- 
menten und Klavierbegleitung. VII Abteilung : 
Arien fur Sopran. 3 Heft. Weltliche Arien. Ed. 

Eusebius Mandyczewski. 

1. Wenn die Fruhlingsliifte streichen (' Weichet nur 

betriibte Schatten ' : Violin). 

2. Sich iiben im Lieben (' Weichet nur betriibte Schatten ': 

Oboe). 



280 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

3. Des Reich turns Glanz (' Ich bin in mir vergniigt ' : 

Violin). 1 

4. Meine Seele, sei vergniigt (' Ich bin in mir vergniigt ' : 

Flauto). 

5. Angenehmer Zephryus (' Der zufriedengestellte 

Aeolus ' : Violin). 

6. Schweigt, ihr Floten (' holder Tag ' : Flauto). 

7. Ei ! wie schmeckt der Coffee siisse (' Schweigt stille, 

plaudert nicht ' : Flauto). 

8. Ruhig und in sich zufrieden (' Ich bin in mir vergniigt ': 

2 Oboi). 

9. Schafe konnen sicher weiden (' Was mir behagt ' : 

2 Flauti). 

10. Ruhet hie, matte Tone (' holder Tag ' : Violin and 

Oboe d'amore). 

11. Jagen ist die Lust der Gotter ('Was mir behagt': 

2 Horns). 

12. Hort doch ! der sanften Floten Chor (' Schleicht, spiel- 

ende Wellen ' : 3 Flauti). 

XIII (2). 1913. Solo-Kantate fur Sopran, ' Mein Herze 
schwimmt im Blut,' ausgefunden und herausgegeben 
von C. A. Martiensen. Partitur. 

XIII (3). 1913. Solo-Kantate fiir Sopran, 'Mein Herze 
schwimmt im Blut/ Klavierauszug mit Text von Max 
Schneider. 

XIII (4). 1913. Bach-Jahrbuch. 9 Jahrgang 1912: Im 
Auftrage der Neuen Bachgesellschaf t herausgegeben von 
Arnold Schering. Mit 2 Noten-Anhangen. 

The volume contains the following articles : 

1. tiber die Motetten Seb. Bachs. By Bernhard Fr. 

Richter. 

2. Uber die F-dur Toccata [N. bk. 9 p. 176] von J. S. 

Bach. By Woldemar Voigt. 

1 The original words are ' Die Schatzbarkeit der weiten Erden.' 



THE BACHGESELLSCHAFT EDITIONS 281 

3. Die Mollersche Handschrift. Ein unbekanntes Gegen- 

stiick zum Andreas-Bach-Buche (mil einem Noten- 
anhange). By Werner Wolff heim. 

4. Bachs Bearbeitungen und Umarbeitungen eigener und 

fremder Werke. By Karl Grunsky. 

5. Uber die Kirchenkantaten vorbachischer Thomas - 

kantoren (mit einem Notenanhange). By Arnold 
Sobering. 

6. Beitrage zur Bachkritik. By Arnold Schering. 

7. Auffiihrungen von Job. Seb. Bachs Kompositionen. 

By Th. Biebrich. 

8. Notes. 

XIV (1) . 1914. 1 Job. Seb. Bachs Kantatentexte. Im Auftrage 
der Neuen Bachgesellschaft herausgegeben von Rudolf 
Wustmann. 

Contains the literary texts of the Church Cantatas, with 
critical notes. 

XIV (2). 1914. Bach-Jahrbuch. 10 Jahrgang 1913. Im 
Auftrage der Neuen Bachgesellschaft herausgegeben von 
Arnold Schering. Mit einem Titelbilde und einer 
Beilage. 

The volume contains the following articles : 

1. Studien zu J. S. Bachs Klavierkonzerten. By Adolf 

Aber. 

2. Uber Job. Seb. Bachs Konzerte fur drei Klaviere. By 

Hans Boas. 

3. Die Kantata Nr. 150, ' Nach dir, Herr, verlanget mich.' 

By Arnold Schering. 

4. Uber die C-dur-Fuge aus dem I. Theil des ' Wohltem- 

perierten Klaviers.' By Wanda Landowska. 

5. Die Varianten der grossen G-moll-Fuge fiir Orgel 

[Novello bk. 8 p. 127]. By Hermann Keller. 

6. Ein Bachkonzert in Kamenz. By Hermann Kretz- 

schmar. 

1 The title-page is dated 1913 and the Preface ' Im Advent auf 
1914.' 



282 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

7. Breitkopfsche Textdrucke zu Leipziger Musikauf- 

fiihrungen zu Bachs Zeiten. By Hermann von Hase. 

8. J. S. Bachs Aria, ' Erbauliche Gedanken eines Tabak- 

rauchers.' By Alfred Heuss. 1 

9. Johann Seb. Bachs und Christoph Graupners Kom- 

positionen zur Bewerbung um das Thomaskantorat 
in Leipzig 1722-23. By Bernhard Fr. Richter. 
10. Register zu den ersten 10 Jahrgangen des Bach- 

Jahrbuchs 1904-13. By Arnold Sobering. 
The frontispiece is a portrait of Bach, about thirty -five 
years old, after the original in the Eisenach Museum by Job. 
Jak. Ihle. See frontispiece of this volume. 



XIV (3) . 1914. Fest- und Programmbuch zum 7 Deutschen 

Bachfest der Neuen Bachgesellschaft. Wien. 9 bis 
11 May 1914. 

The frontispiece is a picture of St. Thomas' Church and 
School in 1723 (see p. 28 supra). 

XV (1). 1914. Ausgewahlte Arien und Duette mit einem 

obligaten Instrument und Klavier- Oder Orgelbegleitung. 
VIII Abteilung : Arien fur Alt. 2 Heft. Ed. Eusebius 
Mandyczewski. 

1. Bethorte Welt (Cantata 94 : Flauto). 

2. Ein ungefarbt Gemiite (Cantata 24 : Violin or Viola). 

3. Ermuntert euch (Cantata 176 : Oboe). 

4. Gott ist unser Sonn' und Schild (Cantata 79 : Oboe 

or Flauto) . 

5. In Jesu Demuth (Cantata 151 : Oboe d'amore or 

Violin). 

6. Jesus ist ein guter Hirt (Cantata 85 : Violin or Violon- 

cello). 

7. Kreuz und Krone (Cantata 12 : Oboe). 

8. Schame dich, O Seele, nicht (Cantata 147 : Oboe 

d'amore). 

i The Aria is no. 20 of A. M. Bach's ' Notenbuch ' for 1725. See 
E.G. XLIII. (2) no. 20. 



THE BACHGESELLSCHAFT EDITIONS 283 

9. Von der Welt verlang' ich nichts (Cantata 64 : Oboe 
d'amore). 

10. Weh der Seele (Cantata 102 : Oboe). 

11. Willkommen ! will ich sagen (Cantata 27: Cor 

Anglais). 

12. Zum reinen Wasser (Cantata 112 : Oboe d'amore). 



XV (2). 1915. Bach-Jahrbuch. 11 Jahrgang 1914: Im 

Auftrage der Neuen Bachgesellschaft herausgegeben von 
Arnold Sobering (Leipzig). Mit einem Titelbilde und 
einer Bilderbeilage. 

The volume contains the following articles : 

1. Neues iiber das Bachbildnis der Thomasschule und 

andere Bildnisse Johann Sebastian Bachs. By 
Albrecht Kurzwelly. 

2. Zur Geschichte der Bachbewegung. Bericht iiber eine 

bisher unbekannte friihe Auffiihrung der Matthaus- 
passion. By Karl Anton. 

3. Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach. By Georg Schune- 

mann. 

4. Die Wiederbelebung der Kurrende in Eisenach. By 

W. Nicolai. 

5. Auffuhrungen von Job. Seb. Bachs Kompositionen in 

der Zeit vom Oktober 1912 bis Juli 1914. By Th. 
Biebrich. 

6. Bachauffiihrungen im ersten Jahre des deutschen 

Krieges. By Th. Biebrich. 

7. Mitgliederversammlung der Neuen Bachgesellschaft. 

Montag, den 11 Mai 1914. 

8. Reviews. 

The frontispiece is a picture of Bach by Daniel Greiner. 

XVI (1) . 1916. Das Bachbildnis der Thomasschule zu Leipzig, 

nach seiner Wiederherstellung im Jahre 1913. Gemalt 
von E. G. Haussmann 1746. 

A print of the renovated picture is at p. 48 of this 
volume. 



284 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

XVI (2). 1916. Bach-Genealogie mit zwei Briefen von Carl 
Philipp Emanuel Bach. Herausgegeben von Professor 
Max Schneider in Breslau. 1 



XVI (3). 1916. Bach-Jahrbuch. 12 Jahrgang 1915. Im 

Auftrage der Neuen Bachgesellschaf t herausgegeben von 
Arnold Sobering (Leipzig). Mit dem Bildnisse J. S. 
Bachs nach der Gedenkbiiste in der Walhalla. 

The volume contains the following articles : 

1. Johann Sebastian Bach im Gottesdienst der Thomaner. 

By Bernhard Friedrich Richter. 

2. Karl Philipp Emanuel Bach und der Dresdner Kreuz- 

kantor Gottfried August Homilius im Musikleben 
ihrer Zeit. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Stil- 
wandlung des 18 Jahrhunderts. By Rudolf Steglich. 

3. Eine Umdichtung des ' Zufriedengestellten Aeolus ' 

(Mit einem Anhang iiber die Kantata ' Schleicht, 
spielende Wellen '). By Woldemar Voigt. 

4. Eine alte, unbekannte Skizze von Sebastian Bachs 

Leben. By Arthur Priifer. 

5. Bachauffiihrungen im zweiten Jahre des deutschen 

Krieges. By Th. Biebrich. 

6. Reviews. 

The frontispiece is a photograph of Professor F. Behn's 
bust of Bach in the Walhalla. 

XVII (1). 1916. Motette '0 Jesu Christ, mein's Lebens 
Licht.' Nach Bachs Handschrift zum ersten Male 
herausgegeben von Max Schneider. Partitur. 

[See B.G. xxrv.] 

XVII (2). 1916. Motette '0 Jesu Christ, mein's Lebens 
Licht.' Klavierauszug mit Text von Max Schneider. 

[See B.G. xxiv.] 

1 This publication, announced for 1916, appears under a different 
title as the third issue for 1917. See in/ro, xvii. (3). 



THE BACHGESELLSCHAFT EDITIONS 285 

XVII (3). 1917. Bach-Urkunden. Ursprung der musikal- 
isch-Bachischen Familie. Nachrichten liber Johann 
Sebastian Bach von Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach. 
Herausgegeben von Max Schneider. 

The volume contains a facsimile of the Bach Genealogy 
compiled by Joh. Seb. Bach and formerly in Carl Philipp 
Emanuel's possession, and two letters from the latter to 
J. N. Forkel. 

XVII (4). 1917. Bach-Jahrbuch. 13 Jahrgang 1916. Im 
Auftrage der Neuen Bachgesellschaft herausgegeben von 
Arnold Sobering (Leipzig) . 

The volume contains the following articles : 

1. Die F.-Trompete im 2 Brandenburgischen Konzert 

von Joh. Seb. Bach. By Richard Hofmann. 

2. Zur Frage der Ausfiihrung der Ornamente bei Bach. 

Zahlzeit oder Notenwert ? By Hans Joachim 
Moser. 

3. Friedrich Bachs Brief wechsel mit Gerstenberg und 

Breitkopf . By Georg Schiinemann. 

4. Bachauffuhrurgen im dritten Jahre des deutschen 

Krieges. By Th. Biebrich. 

5. Literarische Beigabe : ' Der Thomaskantor.' Ein 

Gemiith-erfreuend Spiel von deme Herren Cantori 
Sebastian Bachen, vorgestellt in zween Auffziigen 
durch Bernhard Christoph Breitkopfen seel. Erben : 
Breitkopf und Hartel 1917. By Arnold Sobering. 

XVIII (1) . 1917. Konzert in D moll nach der urspriinglichen 

Fassung fur Violine wiederhergestellt von Robert Reitz. 

Partitur. 

[See B.G. xvn.] 

XVIII (2) . 1917. Konzert in D moll nach der ursprunglichen 
Fassung fur Violine wiederhergestellt von Robert Reitz. 

Ausgabe fur Violine und Klavier. 

[See B.G. xvn.] 



286 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

XVIII (3). 1918. Bach-Jahrbuch. 14 Jahrgang 1917 : Im 

Auftrage der Neuen Bachgesellschaft herausgegeben von 
Arnold Sobering (Leipzig), Mit einem Bildnis. 

The volume contains the following articles : 

1. Gustav Schreck [d. 22 Jan. 1918]. 

2. Das dritte kleine Bachfest zu Eisenach : 

i. Der Festgottesdienst in der St. Georgenkirche zu 

Eisenach am 30 September 1917. 
n. Vortrage und Verhandlungen der Mitgliederver- 
sammlung des dritten kleinen Bachfestes in 
Eisenach am 29 September 1917. 

3. Seb. Bachs Stellung zur Choralrhythmik der Luther- 

zeit. By Hans Joachim Moser. 

4. Zur Motivbildung Bachs. Ein Beitrag zur Stilpsycho- 

logie. By Ernst Kurth. 

5. Ein Programmtrio Karl Philipp Emanuel Bachs. 

By Hans Mersmann. 

6. Hermann Kretzschmar [b. 19 Jan. 1848]. 

7. Review. 

The frontispiece is a copy of the oil portrait of Bach after 
Haussmann, copied by J. M. David in 1746. 



APPENDIX IV 
BIBLIOGRAPHY OF BACH LITERATURE 

THE following list does not include magazine articles or 
technical works. A comprehensive bibliography, com- 
piled by Max Schneider, will be found in the Bach- 
Jahrbuch for 1905 and 1910. Shorter lists are in 
C. F. Abdy Williams' ' Bach ' (1900) and Andre Pirro's 
' J.-S. Bach ' (1906). Titles within square brackets in 
the following list are inserted upon the authority of the 
' Bach-Jahrbuch,' but are not discoverable in the annual 
Book Catalogues. Since the absence of an Italian section 
may be remarked, it should be said that the * Catalogo 
generale della labreria Italiana, 1847-1899 ' (published in 
1910) contains no reference to Bach. Nor does the 
Supplement of 1912. 

I. GERMANY 

Johann Christoph W. Kuhnau, 'Die blinden Tonkunstler.' 

Berlin. 1810. 
J. E. Grosser, ' Lebensbeschreibung des Kapellmeisters 

Johann Sebastian Bach.' Breslau. 1834. 
Albert Schiffner, ' Sebastian Bachs geistige Nachkommen- 

schaft.' Leipzig. 1840. 
Johann T. Mosewius, 'Johann Sebastian Bach in seinen 

Kirch-Kantaten und Choralgesangen.' Berlin. 1845. 
Johann Carl Schauer, ' Johann Sebastian Bachs Lebensbild : 

Eine Denkschrift auf seinen lOOjahringen Todestag.' 

Jena. 1850. 



288 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

C. L. Hilgenfeldt, ' Johann Sebastian Bachs Leben, Wirken 

und Werke.' Leipzig. 1850. 
[W. Naumann, ' Johann Sebastian Bach. Eine Biographic.' 

Cassell. 1855.] 
[Anon. , ' Biographien und Charakteristiken der grossen Meister : 

Bach, Handel, Gluck, Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, mit 

Portrats.' 2nd ed. Leipzig. I860.] 
C. H. Bitter, 'Johann Sebastian Bach.' 2 vols. Berlin. 

1865. 2nd ed. 1880. 
C. Albert Ludwig, ' Johann Sebastian Bach in seiner Bedeu- 

tung fur Cantoren, Organisten, und Schullehrer.' Bleich- 

roder. 1865. 
Alfred Dorffel, ' Thematisches Verzeichniss der Instrumental- 

werke von Joh. Seb. Bach. Auf Grand der Gesammt- 

ausgabe von C. F. Peters. Leipzig. 1867. 2nd ed. 

1882. 
Carl Tamme, ' Thematisches Verzeichniss der Vocalwerke von 

Joh. Seb. Bach. Auf Grand der Gesammtausgaben von 

C. F. Peters und der Bach-Gesellschait.' Leipzig, n.d. 
C. H. Bitter, ' C. P. E. und W. F. Bach und deren Briider.' 

2 vols. Berlin. 1868. New ed. 1880. 
[Anon., ' J. S. Bach. Biographie.' Leipzig. 1869.] 
L. Ramann, ' Bach und Handel.' Leipzig. 1869. 
W. Junghans, ' Johann Sebastian Bach als Schuler der 

Partikularschule zu St. Michaelis in Liineburg.' Liine- 

burg. 1870. 
Emil Naumann, ' Deutsche Tondichter von Sebastian Bach 

bis auf die Gegenwart.' Berlin. 1871. 5th ed. 1882. 
M. Schick, ' J. S. Bach : ein musikaliscb.es Lebensbild.' 

Reutlingen. 1873. 
Philipp Spitta, ' Johann Sebastian Bach.' 2 vols. Leipzig. 

1873-1880. 

E. Frommel, ' Handel und Bach.' Berlin. 1878. 
Elise Polko, ' Unsere Musikklassiker. Sechs biographische 

Lebensbilder ' [Bach, etc.]. Leipzig. 1880. 
[Anon., ' J. S. Bach. Biographie.' [In ' Meister der Ton- 

kunst,' no. 2.] Leipzig. 1880.] 
August Reissmann, 'Johann Sebastian Bach. Sein Leben 

und seine Werke.' Berlin and Leipzig. 1881. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 289 

Otto Gumprecht, ' Warum treiben wir Musik ? ' [Bach and 

others.] Leipzig. 1883. 

C. H. Bitter, ' Die Sohne Seb. Bachs.' Leipzig. 1883. 
Jul. Schumann, ' Joh. Seb. Bach, der Kantor der Thomas- 

schule zu Leipzig.' Leipzig. 1884. 

A. L. Grabner, ' Johann Sebastian Bach.' Dresden. 1885. 
FT. Spitta, 'Haendel und Bach. Zwei Festreden.' Bonn. 

1884. 
E. Heinrich, 'Johann Sebastian Bach. Ein kurzes Lebens- 

bild.' Berhn. 1885. 
E. Naumann, 'Deutsche Tondichter von J. S. Bach bis 

Richard Wagner.' Leipzig. 1886. 6th ed. 1896. 
Paul Meyer, ' Joh. Seb. Bach. Vortrag.' Basel. 1887. 
Ludwig Ziemssen, 'Johann Sebastian Bach. Lebensbild.' 

Glogau. 1889. 

Richard Batka, ' J. S. Bach.' Leipzig. 1893. 
Wilhelm His, 'Johann Sebastian Bach. Forschungen iiber 

dessen Grabstatte, Gebeine und Antlitz.' Leipzig. 1895. 
Wilhelm His, ' Anatomisches Forschungen iiber J. S. Bach's 

Gebeine und Antlitz, nebst Bemerkungen iiber dessen 

Bilder.' Leipzig. 1895. 
Armin Stein, ' J. S. Bach. Ein Kiintstlerleben.' Halle. 

1896. 
Hans von Wolzogen, ' Bach ' [In ' Grossmeister deutscher 

Musik ']. Berlin. 1897. 

[W. Kleefeld, * Bach und Graupner.' Leipzig. 1898.] 
[Fr. Thomas, ' Der Stammbaum des Ohrdruffer Zweigs der 

Familie von J. S. Bach.' Ohrdruf. 1899.] 
[Fr. Thomas, ' Einige Ergebnisse iiber J. S. Bachs Ohrdruffer 

Schulzeit.' Ohrdruf. 1900.] 

B. Stein, ' Johann Sebastian Bach und die Familie der 
" Bache." ' Bielefeld. 1900. 

Fr. von Hausegger, ' Unsere deutschen Meister ' [Bach and 

others], Munich. 1901. 

Arnold Schering, ' Bachs Textbehandlung.' Leipzig. 1901. 
[W. Tappert, ' Sebastian Bachs Kompositionen fur die Laute.' 

Berlin. 1901.] 
K. Sohle, 'Sebastian Bach in Arnstadt ' Berhn. 1902. 

2nd ed. 1904. 



290 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

Arthur Priifer, ' Sebastian Bach und die Tonkunst des xix. 

Jahrhunderts.' Leipzig. 1902. 

H. Earth, ' Joh. Sebastian Bach : Lebensbild.' Berlin. 1902. 
Gustav Hocker, ' Johann Sebastian Bach.' Gotha. 1903. 
Paul von Bojanowski, ' Das Weimar Johann Sebastian Bachs.' 

Weimar. 1903. 

Jul. Schumann, ' Bach, Handel, Mendelssohn. Die protes- 
tantische Kirchenmusik in Lebensbildern.' Calw and 
Stuttgart. 1903. 

[_. Weissgerber, ' J. S. Bach in Arnstadt.' Arnstadt. 1904.] 
[K. Storck, ' J. S. Bach : Charakter und Lebensgang.' Berlin. 

1905.] 

[A. Pischinger, ' J. S. Bach.' Munich. 1905.] 
Philipp Wolfram, ' Joh. Seb. Bach.' Berlin. 1906. 
Albert Schweitzer, ' J. S. Bach.' Berlin. 1908. 
Friedrich Hashagen, ' Joh. Sebastian Bach als Sanger und 

Musiker des Evangeliums.' Wismar. 1909. 
Max Triimpehnann, ' Joh. Sebastian Bach und seine Bedeut- 
ung fur die Choralkomposition unserer Zeit.' Magdeburg. 
1909. 
August Wildenhahn, 'Joh. Sebastian Bach.' Eisenach. 

1909. 
Philipp Wolfram, ' Johann Sebastian Bach.' 2 vols. Leipzig. 

1910. 

Andre Pirro, ' Johann Sebastian Bach. Sein Leben und seine 
Werke.' [Translated from the French by Bernhard 
Engelke.] Berlin. 1910. 
Johannes Schreyer, ' Beitrage zur Bach-Kritik.' Leipzig. 

1911. 

Martin Falck, ' Wilhelm Friedemann Bach. Sein Leben und 
seine Werke, mit thematischem Verzeichnis seiner Kom- 
positionen und zwei Bildern.' Leipzig, c. 1911-14. 
K. Glebe, ' Johann Sebastian Bach.' Halle. 1912. 
La Mara, ' Johann Sebastian Bach.' 5th edition. Leipzig. 

1912. 

H. Reimann, ' Johann Sebastian Bach.' 1912. 
Armui Stein, ' Johann Sebastian Bach.' Halle. 1912. 
Rudolf Wustmann, ' Joh. Seb. Bachs Kantatentexte.' Leip- 
zig. 1914. 






BIBLIOGRAPHY 291 

Max Hitter, ' Der Stil Job. Seb. Bachs in seinem Choralsatze.' 

Bremen. 1913. 
Ernst Kurth, ' Grundlagen des linearen Kontrapunkts. 

Einfuhrung in Stil und Technik von Bachs melodischer 

Polyphonie.' Bern. 1917. 

II. FRANCE 

Johann Nikolaus Forkel, ' Vie, talents et travaux de Jean- 
Sebastien Bach.' [Translated from the German by F61ix 
Grenier.] Paris. 1876. 

Ernest David, ' La vie et les oauvres de J.-S. Bach, sa famille, 
ses eleves, ses contemporains.' [An abridged translation 
of Spitta.] Paris. 1882. 

William Cart, ' Un maitre deux fois centenaire : etude sur 
J.-S. Bach, 1685-1750.' Paris. 1884. New ed. 1898. 

Andre Pirro, ' L'Orgue de Jean-Sebastien Bach.' Paris. 
1895. 

[G. Fink, 'Etude biographique sur Jean-Sebastien Bach.' 
Angouleme. 1899.] 
[ . Daubresse, ' Haendel et Bach.' Paris. 1901.] 

Albert Schweitzer, ' J. S. Bach, le musicien-poete.' Leipzig. 
1905. 

Andre Pirro, 'J.-S. Bach.' Paris. 1906. 4th edition. 1913. 

Andre Pirro, ' L'Esthetique de Jean-Sebastien Bach.' Paris. 
1907. 

III. GREAT BRITAIN 

Johann Nikolaus Forkel, ' Life of John Sebastian Bach. 

Translated from the German' [by Stephenson]. 

London. 1820. 
C. H. Bitter, ' The Life of J. Sebastian Bach. An abridged 

translation from the German.' [By Janet Elizabeth Kay 

Shuttleworth.] London. 1873. 
R. Lane Poole, ' Sebastian Bach.' London. 1881. 
Sedley Taylor, 'The Life of J. S. Bach in relation to his 

work as a Church musician and composer.' Cambridge. 

1897. 
Philipp Spitta, ' Johann Sebastian Bach : His work and 



292 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

influence on the music of Germany, 1685-1750.' Translated 

from the German by Clara Bell and J. A. Fuller Maitland. 

3 vols. London. 1899. 

C. F. Abdy Williams, ' Bach.' London. 1900. 
A. Maczewski and F. G. Edwards, art. ' Bach ' in * Grove's 

Dictionary,' vol. i. 1904. 
E. H. Thorne, ' Bach.' London. 1904. 
C. H. H. Parry, ' Johann Sebastian Bach.' London and New 

York. 1909. 
Donald F. Tovey, art. ' J. S. Bach,' in ' Encyclopaedia Britan- 

nica/ Vol. iii. 1910. 
Albert Schweitzer, ' J. S. Bach. With a Preface by C. 

M. Widor. English translation by Ernest Newman.' 2 

vols. London. 1911. 
C. Sanford Terry, ' Bach's Chorals.' 3 vols. Cambridge. 

1915, 1917, 1920. 
W. G. Whittaker, ' Fugitive Notes on certain Cantatas and 

Motets by J. S. Bach.' London. 1920. 

IV. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 

Andre Pirro, ' Johann Sebastian Bach, the Organist, and his 
works.' [Translated from the French by Wallace Good- 
rich.] New York. 1902. 

Elbert Hubbard, ' Little voyages to the homes of great 
musicians.' New York. 1902. 

Ludwig Ziemssen, 'Johann Sebastian Bach.' [Translated 
from the German by G. Putnam Upton.] Chicago. 1905. 

Rutland Boughton, ' Bach.' New York. 1907. 

V. HOLLAND 

A. M. Oordt, ' Een koort woord over Bach.' Leiden. 1873. 

VI. BELGIUM 

Charles Martens, ' Un livre nouveau sur J.-S. Bach.' Brussels 

1905. 
Victor Hallut, Les Maitres classiques du dix-huitieme siecle. 

[Bach and others.] Brussels. 1909. 





BIBLIOGRAPHY 293 

VII. RUSSIA 

[Kuschenaw Dmitrevsky, * Das lyrische ^Museum ' (no. 25). 

[The oldest Russian biography of Bach.] Petrograd. 

1831]. 

[W. Th. Odoewsky, * Sebastian Bach.' Petrograd. 1890.] 
[G. M. Bazunow, ' J. S. Bach.' Petrograd. 1894.] 
[S. M. Haljutin, ' J. S. Bach.' Minsk. 1894.] 
[Adolf Chybinski, ' J. S. Bach.' Warsaw. 1910.] 



APPENDIX V 

A COLLATION OF THE NOVELLO AND PETERS 
EDITIONS OF THE ORGAN WORKS 

Novello : Book I. EIGHT SHOBT PRELUDES AND FUGUES. 
Page 2. Prelude and Fugue in C major (P. bk. 247 p. 48). 



5. 


Do. 


do. 


D minor (ib. 51). 


8. 


Do. 


do. 


E minor (ib. 54). 


11. 


Do. 


do. 


F major (ib. 57). 


14. 


Do. 


do. 


G major (ib. 60). 


17. 


Do. 


do. 


G minor (ib. 63). 


20. 


Do. 


do. 


A minor (ib. 66). 


23. 


Do. 


do. 


B flat major (ib. 



Novello : Book II. PRELUDES, FUGUES, AND TRIO. 
Page 26. AUabreve in D major (P. bk. 247 p. 72). 
30. Prelude in G major (ib. 82). 
34. Canzona in D minor (P. bk. 243 p. 54). 
38. Fugue (The Giant) in D minor (P. bk. 246 p. 78). 
41. Fugue in G minor (P. bk. 247 p. 85). 
44. Prelude and Fugue (the Short) in E minor (P. 

bk. 242 p. 88). 

48. Prelude and Fugue in C minor (P. bk. 243 p. 32). 
54. Trio in D minor (ib. 72). 

Novello : Book HI. FANTASIAS, PRELUDES, AND FUGUES. 
Page 57. Fantasia in C minor (5 parts) (P. bk. 243 p. 66). 
60. Fugue in B minor (on a theme by Corelli) (ib. 46). 
64. Prelude and Fugue in A major (P. bk. 241 p. 14) 
70. Do. do. C major (ib. p. 2). 



ORGAN WORKS 295 

76. Fantasia and Fugue in C minor (P. bk. 242 p. 55). 
84. Fugue (the Short) in G minor (P. bk. 243 p. 42). 

Noveilo : Book IV. SONATAS OR TRIOS FOR Two MANUALS 

AND PEDAL. 

Page 88. Sonata in E flat major (P. bk. 240 p. 2). 
97. Do. C minor (ib. 11). 
110. Do. D minor (ib. 24). 

Noveilo : Book V. SONATAS OR TRIOS FOR Two MANUALS 

AND PEDAL (IV.-VL). 

Page 124. Sonata in E minor (P. bk. 240 p. 36). 
134. Do. C major (ib. 46). 
151. Do. G major (ib. 63). 

Noveilo : Book VI. TOCCATA, PRELUDES, AND FUGUES. 
Page 2. Toccata and Fugue in D minor (P. bk. 243 p. 24) . 
10. Prelude and Fugue in D major (ib. p. 14). 
21. Do. do. F minor (P. bk. 241 p. 29). 

28. Do. do. E flat major (P. bk. 242 

p. 2). 

Noveilo : Book VII. PRELUDES AND FUGUES. 

Page 42. Prelude and Fugue (the Great) in A minor (P. bk. 

241 p. 54). 

52. Do. do. B minor (ib. 78). 

64. Do. do. C minor (ib. 36). 

74. Prelude and Fugue in C major (P. bk. 243 p. 2). 
80. Do. do. G major (ib. 8). 

Noveilo : Book VIII. PRELUDES AND FUGUES. 

Page 88. Prelude and Fugue in C major (P. bk. 242 p. 62) . 
98. Do. (the Great) in E minor (P. bk. 

241 p. 64). 

112. Do. do. Gmajor(t'6.p. 7). 

120. Do. in G minor (P. bk. 242 p. 48) . 

127. Fantasia and Fugue (the Great) in G minor (P. 
bk. 241 p. 20). 



296 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

Novello : Book IX. PBELTTDES AND FUGUES. 
Page 137. Toccata and Fugue (the Great) in C major 

(P. bk. 242 p. 72). 

150. Prelude and Fugue in D minor (ib. 42). 
156. Do. (the Great) in C major (P. bk. 

241 p. 46). 

168. Fantasia in G major (P. bk. 243 p. 58). 
176. Toccata and Fugue (the Great) in F major 
(P. bk. 242 p. 16). 

Novello : Book X. TOCCATA, PBELUDES, AND FUGUES. 
Page 196. Toccata and Fugue (the Dorian) in D minor 

(P. bk. 242 p. 30.) 

208. Prelude and Fugue (the Short) in A minor (ib. 84). 
214. Passacaglia in C minor (P. bk. 240 p. 75). 
230. Fugue in C minor (P. bk. 243 p. 36). 
238. Prelude in A minor (ib. 68). 

Novello : Book XI. FOUR CONCERTOS [after Antonio 

Vivaldi]. 

Page 1. Concerto in G major (P. bk. 247 p. 2). 
10. Do. A minor (ib. 10). 
24. Do. C major (ib. 22). 
49. * Do. C major (ib. 44). 

Novello : Book XII. PRELUDES, FANTASIAS, FUGUES, 

TRIOS, ETC. 

Page 55. Fugue in G major (P. bk. 2067 p. 18). 
60. Fantasia and Fugue in A minor (ib. 3). 
71. Fantasia with Imitation in B minor (P. bk. 215 

p. 41). 

75. Fantasia in G major (P. bk. 2067 p. 25). 
83. Fugue in D major (P. bk. 2067 p. 22). 
86. Do. G major (ib. 12). 

91. Prelude in C major (P. bk. 247 p. 77). 

92. Fantasia in C major (ib. 78). 

94. Prelude in C major (ib. 76). 

95. Fugue in C minor (P. bk. 243 p. 50). 



ORGAN WORKS 297 

100. Fugue in C major (P. bk. 247 p. 80). 
102. Pastorale in F major (P. bk. 240 p. 86). 
108. Trio in C minor (P. bk. 2067 p. 30). 
112. Aria in F major (ib. 34). 

[Novello's Books XIII. and XIV. (Choral Preludes and 
Variations) are superseded by Books XV.-XIX.] 

: Book XV. ORGELBUCHLEIN (LITTLE ORGAN BOOK; 

3. Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland (P. bk. 244 p. 44). 

5. Gott durch deine Giite, or, Gottes Sohn ist 
Kommen (ib. 20). 

9. Herr Christ, der ein'ge Gottes-Sohn, or, Herr 

Gott, nun sei gepreiset (ib. 24). 
11. Lob sei dem allmachtigen Gott (ib. 40). 
13. Puer natus in Bethlehem (ib. 60). 
15. Gelobet seist du, Jesu Christ (ib. 19). 
18. Der Tag, der ist so freudenreich (ib. 13). 
21. Vom Himmel hoch, da komm ich her (ib. 53). 
23. Vom Himmel kam der Engel Schaar (ib. 54). 
26. In dulei jubilo (ib. 38). 
29. Lobt Gott, ihr Christen, allzugleich (&. 42). 
31. Jesu, meine Freude (ib. 34). 
33. Christum wir sollen loben schon (ib. 8). 
36. Wir Christenleut' (ib. 58). 
39. Helft mir Gottes Giite preisen (ib. 23). 
43. Das alte Jahr vergangen ist (ib. 12). 
45. In dir ist Freude (ib. 36). 

60. Mit Fried' und Freud' ich fahr' dahin (ib. 42). 
53. Herr Gott, nun schleuss den Himmel auf (ib. 26). 
58. Lamm Gottes unschuldig (ib. 46). 

61. Christe, du Lamm Gottes (ib. 3). 

64. Christus, der uns selig macht (ib. 10). 

67. Da Jesus an dem Kreuze stund (ib. 11). 

69. O Mensch, bewein' dein' Siinde gross (ib. 48). 

73. Wir danken dir, Herr Jesu Christ (ib. 59). 

76. Hilf Gott, dass mir's gelinge (ib. 32). 

79. Christ lag in Todesbanden (ib. 7). 

81 . Jesus Christus, unser Heiland (ib. 34) . 

83. Christ ist erstanden (ib. 4). 



298 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

89. Erstanden 1st der heil'ge Christ (P. bk. 244 p. 16). 

91. Erschienen 1st der herrliche Tag (ib. 17). 

94. Heut' triumphiret Gottes Sohn (ib. 30). 

97. Komm, Gott, Schopfer, heiliger Geist (P. bk. 246 
p. 86). 

99. Herr Jesu Christ, dich zu uns wend' (P. bk. 244 

p. 28). 

101. Liebster Jesu, wir sind hier (ib. 40). 
103. Dies sind die heil'gen zehn Gebot' (ib. 14). 
105. Vater unser im Himmelreich (ib. 52). 
107. Durch Adams Fall ist ganz verderbt (ib. 15). 
109. Es ist das Heil uns kominen her (ib. 18). 
111. Ich ruf zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ (ib. 33). 
113. In dich hab' ich gehoffet, Herr (ib. 35). 
115. Wenn wir in hochsten Nothen sein (ib. 55). 
117. Wer nur den lieben Gott lasst walten (ib. 57). 
119. Alle Menschen miissen sterben (ib. 2). 
121. Ach wie nichtig, ach wie fluchtig (ib. 2). 

Novello : Book XVI. THE Six ' SCHUBLER ' CHORALE 
PRELUDES AND THE ' CLAVIERUBUNG,' PART m. 

(a) The Schiibler Preludes. 

Page 1 . Wachet auf , raft uns die Stimme (P. bk. 246 p. 72) . 
4. Wo soil ich fliehen hin, or, Auf meinen lieben 

Gott (ib. 84). 

6. Wer nur den lieben Gott lasst walten (ib. 76). 
8. Meine Seele erhebt den Herren (ib. 33). 
10. Ach bleib bei uns, Herr Jesu Christ (P. bk. 245 

p. 4). 
14. Kommst du nun, Jesu, vom Himmel herunter 

(P. bk. 246 p. 16). 
(6) The ' Clavieriibung,' Part m. 
19. Prelude in E flat major (P. bk. 242 p. 2). 
28. Kyrie, Gott Vater in Ewigkeit (P. 246 p. 18) 
30. Christe, aller Welt Trost (ib. 20). 
33. Kyrie, Gott heiliger Geist (ib. 23). 

36. Kyrie, Gott Vater in Ewigkeit (ib. 26). 

37. Christe, aller Welt Trost (ib. 27). 



ORGAN WORKS 299 

38. Kyrie, Gott heiliger Geist (P. 246 p. 28). 

39. Allein Gott in der Hoh' sei Ehr' (Pk. b. 245 p. 10). 
40.* Do. do. do (ib. 12). 

41. Do. do. do. (ib. 29). 

42. Dies sind die heil'gen zehn Gebot' (ib. 50). 
47. Do. do. do (ib. 54). 

49. Wir glauben all' an einen Gott, Schopfer (P. bk. 

246 p. 78). 

52. Do. do. do. (ib. 81). 

53. Vater unser im Himmelreich (ib. 60). 

61. Do. do. (P. bk. 244 p. 51). 

62. Christ, unser Herr, zum Jordan kam (P. bk. 245 

p. 46). 

67. Do. do. do. (ib. 49). 

68. Aus tiefer Noth schrei' ich zu dir (ib. 36). 
72. Do. do. do. (ib. 38). 
74. Jesus Christus unser Heiland (ib. 82). 
80. Do. do. (ib. 92). 
83. Fugue in E flat major (P. bk. 242 p. 10). 



Novello : Book XVII. THE EIGHTEEN CHORALE PRELUDES. 
Page 1 . Komm, heiliger Geist, Herre Gott (P. bk. 246 p.4) . 
10. Do. do. do. (ib. 10). 

18. An Wasserfliissen Babylon (P. bk. 245 p. 34). 
22. Schmiicke dich, O liebe Seele (P. bk. 246 p. 60). 
26. Herr Jesu Christ, dich zu uns wend' (P. bk. 245 

p. 70). 

32. O Lamm Gottes unschuldig (P. bk. 246 p. 45). 
40. Nun danket alle Gott (ib. 34). 
43. Von Gott will ich nicht lassen (ib. 70). 
46. Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland (ib. 38). 
49. Do. do. do. (ib. 40). 

52. Do. do. do. (ib. 42). 

56. Allein Gott in der Hoh' sei Ehr' (P. bk. 245 p. 26). 
60. Do. do. do (ib. 22). 

66. Do. do. do. (ib. 17). 

74. Jesus Christus, unser Heiland, der von uns (ib. 87). 
79. Do. do. do. (6.90). 



300 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

82. Komm, Gott, Schopfer, heiliger Geist (P. bk. 246 

p. 2). 
85. Wenn wir in hochsten Nothen sein, or, Vor 

deinen Thron tret' ich allhier (ib. 74). 

Novello : Book XVIII. MISCELLANEOUS CHORALE PRELUDES 

(Part i.). 
Page 1. Ach Gott und Herr (P. bk. 2067 p. 38), 

2. Do. do. (P. bk. 245 p. 3). 

3. Do. do. (P. bk. 2067 p. 39). 

4. Allein Gott in der Hob.' sei Ehr' (not in P.). 

5. Do. do. do. (P. bk. 245 p. 6). 
7. Do. do. do. (ib. 30). 

11. Do. do. do. (ib. 8). 

13. An Wasserfliissen Babylon (ib. 32). 
16. Christ lag in Todesbanden (ib. 43). 
19. Do. do. (ib. 40). 

23. Christum wir sollen loben schon, or, Was fiircht'st 

du, Feind Herodes, sehr (P. bk. 244 p. 9). 

24. Das Jesulein soil doch mein Trost (P. bk. 2067 

p. 47). 

26. Der Tag der ist so freudenreich (not in P.). 
28. Durch Adams Fall ist ganz verderbt (P. bk. 245 

p. 56). 

30. Ein' feste Burg ist unser Gott (ib. 58). 
35. Erbarm' dich mein, O Herre Gott (not in P.). 

37. Gelobet seist du, Jesu Christ (P. bk. 244 p. 102). 

38. Do. do. do. (ib. 20). 

39. Do. do. do. (P. bk. 245 p. 61). 

41. Gottes Sohn ist kommen (P. bk. 244 p. 22). 

42. Do. do. (P. bk. 245 p. 64). 

43. Herr Christ, der ein'ge Gottes-Sohn (P. bk. 244 

p. 25). 

44. Herr Gott, dich loben wir (Te Deum Laudamus) 

(P. bk. 245 p. 65). 

50. Herr Jesu Christ, dich zu uns wend ' (P. bk. 244 

p. 28). 

52. Do. do. do. (not in P.). 

53. HerzKch thut mich verlangen (P. bk. 244 p. 






ORGAN WORKS 301 

54. Ich hab' mein' Sach Gott heimgestellt (P. bk. 245 

p. 74). 

58. Do. do. do. (not in P.). 

59. In dich hab' ich gehoffet, Herr (P. bk. 245 p. 94). 
61. In dulci jubilo (P. bk. 244 p. 103). 

64. Jesu, meine Freude (P. bk. 245 p. 78). 

69. Jesus, meine Zuversicht (P. bk. 244 p. 103). 

70. Liebster Jesu, wir sind hier (ib. 105). 

71. Do. do. (ib. 105). 

72. Do. do. (ib. 39). 

73. Lob sei dem allmachtigen Gott (ib. 41). 

74. Lobt Gott, ihr Christen, allzugleich (ib. 106). 

75. Meine Seele erhebt den Herren (Magnificat) 

(P. bk. 246 p. 29). 
80. Nun freut euch, lieben Christen g'mein, or, Es 

ist gewisslich an der Zeit (ib. 36). 
83. Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland (P. bk. 244 p. 45). 



Novello: Book XIX. MISCELLANEOUS CHORALE PRELUDES 
(PART n.) AND VARIATIONS. 

(a) Preludes. 

Page 2. Valet will ich dir geben (P. bk. 246 p. 53). 
7. Do. do. (ib. 56). 

12. Vater unser im Himmelreich (ib. 66). 
14. Vom Himmel hoch, da komm ich her (ib. 67) . 
16. Do. do. do. (ib 68). 

19. Do. do. do. (P. bk. 244 

p. 106). 

21 . Wer nur den lieben Gott lasst walten (ib. 56) . 

22. Do. do. do. (6.66). 

23. Wie schon leuchtet der Morgenstern (not in P.). 
28. Wir Christenleut' (P. bk. 2067 p. 52). 

30. Wir glauben all' an einen Gott, Vater (P. bk. 246 

p. 82). 
32. Wo soil ich fliehen hin (P. bk. 2067 p. 48). 

(6) Variations. 
36. Christ, der du bist der helle Tag (P. bk. 244 p. 60). 



302 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

44. O Gott, du frommer Gott (P. bk. 244 p. 68). 

55. Sei gegrusset, Jesu giitig (ib. 76). 

73. Vom Himmel hoch, da komm ich her ('&. 92). 

The Peters volumes 244, 245, 246, 2067 contain movements 
excluded from the Novello edition, viz. : 

Book 244 : the figured Choral (Herr Christ, der ein'ge 
Gottes-Sohn) on p. 107, and the Variant 
texts on pp. 108-112. 

Book 245 : the Variant texts on pp. 96-113. 

Book 246 : the Variant texts on pp. 86-103 (excepting the 
B version of ' Komm, Gott, Schopfer, 
heiliger Geist '). 

Book 2067 : the Choral Preludes on pp. 39 (Auf meinen 
lieben Gott), 40 (Wir glauben all' an 
einen Gott), 42 (Jesu Leiden, Pein und 
Tod), 44 (Ach Gott, vom Himmel sieh 
darein), 54 (Aus der Tiefe ruf ich), 
56 (Christ lag in Todesbanden), and the 
* Kleines hannonisches Labyrinth ' on 
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INDEX 



ABER, ADOLF, 281. 

Adlung, Jakob, xiv. 

Agricola, Johann Friedrich, xiv, 

xxir, 102. 

Johannes, 190, 209. 

Ahle, Johann Georg, 15 n. 
Albinus, Johann Georg, 190, 192, 

208. 

Altenburg, Johann Michael, 206. 
Altenburg, 101. 
Altnikol, Johann Christoph, 27 ., 

102, 123, 140 n., 310. 

Johann Sebastian, 310. 

Amalia of Prussia, Princess, 102, 

140. 

Amalienbibliothek, the, 121, 140. 
Anhalt-Cothen, Prince Leopold of, 

20, 22, 90, 112, 172, 174, 192. 
Anspach, 103. 
Anton, Karl, 283. 
Arnstadt, 7, 9, 13, 14 n., 100, 135, 

187, 303, 306, 308. 
Augustus ii., Kiiig of Poland, 18, 

44. 
Augustus in. , King of Poland, 23, 

46. 



BACH, ABRAHAM, 303. 

Andreaa, 281. 

Anna Carolina, 309. 

Anna Magdalena, 47, 137 n., 253 
n.,256. 

Anna Sophia, 305. 

Barbara Katharina, 306. 

Barbara Maria, 306. 

Carl P. E., xiv, xxiv, xxxi, 1 n., 
4 n., 5, 23, 47, 48, 50, 54 ., 85, 
93 n., 100, 104, 121 n., 122 n., 
123, 124 n., 138 n., 163, 170 n., 
248, 279, 284, 285, 286, 309. 

Caspar, 303. 

Christian Gottlieb, 310. 

Christiane Benedicta, 310. 



Chrutiane Dorothea, 310. 
Christiane Sophie Henriette, 310. 
Chriitoph, 303, 306. 
Dorothea Maria, 306. 
Elisabeth Juliane Friederike, 

310. 

Ernestus Andreas, 310. 
Georg Christoph, 6 n. , 306. 
Georg Michael, 304. 
Gottfried, 308. 
Gottfried Heinrich, 310. 
Gottlieb Friedrich, 304. 
Hans, 2 n., 3n., 277,303. 
Hans (d. 1636), 303. 
Heinrich, 5 n., 303, 308. 
Jakob, 304. 
Johann vEgidiua (d. 1717), 305. 

305. 

Johann Ambrosius, 9, 306, 307. 
Johann Andreas (d. 1694), 306. 

(d. 1779?), 307. 

Johann August Abraham, 310. 

Johann Balthasar, 307. 

Johann Bernhard (d. 1743), 103 

n., 307. 

(d. 1749)5, 6 n., 305. 

Johann Caspar, 305. 

Johann Christian (d. 1682), 305. 

(b. 1682), 305. 

(b. 1696), 305. 

(d. 1707), 306. 

(d. 1782), 3 n., 105, 310. 

(d. 1814), 304. 

308. 

Johann Chriatoph {b. 1674), 308. 

(b. 1675), 305. 

(b. 1685), 305. 

(d. 1693), 9, 306. 

(b. 1702), 307. 

(d. 1703), 4, 140, 308. 

(d. 1721), 11, 14 n., 307. 

(d. 1727), 305. 

(d. 1736), 306. 

(d. 1738), 308. 

m 



312 



JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 



BACH (conid.) 

Johann Christoph Friedrioh, 105, 
176, 283, 310. 

Johann Elias, 103 n., 306. 

Johann Ernst, (b. 1683), 12n., 306. 

(d. 1777), 103 n., 305. 

Johann Friedrich, (b, 1703), 305. 

(d. 1730), 308. 

Johann Georg (b. 1680), 305. 

(d. 1713), 306. 

Johann Gottfried Bernhard, 309. 
i Johann Giinther, (d. 1683), 308. 

(b. 1703), 305. 

Johann Heinrich, (b. 1686), 306. 

(b. 1707), 307. 

(b. 1711), 306. 

(d. c. 1730), 308. 

Johann Jakob, 10 n., (b. 1682), 
14 n. 1 , 807. 

(d. c. 1686), 305. 

(d. 1692), 305. 

Johann Jonas, 307. 

Johann Lorenz, 306. 

Johann Ludwig, 141 n. , 260, 304. 

Johannes Matthaus, 308. 

Johann Michael (b. 1648), 5, 308. 

(b. 1680-90), 308. 

Johann Nikolaus (b. 1682), 305. 

(d. 1682), 305. 

(d. 1753), 3 Ji., 6,308. 

Johann Philipp, 304. 

Johann Samuel, 305. 

Johann Sebastian, parentage, 9 ; 
at Ohrdruf, 10; at Liineburg, 
11 ; visits Hamburg, 12 ; and 
Celle, 13 ; appointment to 
Weimar and Arnstadt, 13, 14 
n. ; visits Liibeck, 14; appoint- 
ment to Miilhausen, 15 ; and 
to Weimar, 15; visits Halle, 
16 ; and Cassel, 16 n. ; contest 
with Marchand, 17 ; visits 
Leipzig, 17 . ; appointment to 
Cothen, 20 ; and Leipzig, 21 ; 
Kapellmeister of Weissenfels, 
22 ; Saxon Court Composer, 23 ; 
visits Frederick the Great, 23 ; 
illness and death, 26; titles, 
29 ; duties as Cantor, ib. ; in- 
come, 37, 111; relations with 
authorities, 39 ; oonductorship 
of the Collegium Musicum, 42; 
patriotic compositions, 44 ; his 
friends, 45; character, 46; 
portraits, 47, 270, 279, 282, 283, 
284, 286 ; his Clavier method, 



49 ff. ; as an organist, 61 ff. ; his 
registration, 65 ; methods as a 
composer, 70 ff. ; indebtedness 
to Vivaldi, 71; rules of har- 
mony, 76 n. ', his melody, 80 ff. ; 
his fugal writing, 86 ff. ; his 
vocal works, 88 ff. ; comic song 
attributed to, 91 n. ; qualities 
and methods as a teacher, 92 ff. ; 
his pupils, 100 ff. ; his modesty, 
106 ; preference for Viola, 108 ; 
favourite composers, 109 ; re- 
lations with Handel, 110; 
distinctions, 112; joins Mizler's 
Society, ib. ; his compositions, 
114 ff. ; revision of his MSS., 
143 ff. ; use of ornaments, 145 ; 
his industry, 148 ; indebted- 
ness to Vivaldi, 149; superi- 
ority to public standards, 150 ; 
sublimity of his aims, 151 ; 
chronological catalogue of his 
compositions, 153 ff. ; his 
Cantata libretti, 163 ff. ; pro- 
ductivity, 164; author of 
libretti, 166, 174, 177, 183, 184, 
185, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 
192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 
199, 201, 202, 205, 206, 207, 
208, 211, 212, 213, 214,216,219, 
224 ; dependence on Picander, 
178 ff. ; the Choral Cantata, 
182 ff. ; his roots in the Reform- 
ation, 188 ; facsimiles of MSS., 
264; bust of, 268, 274; his 
Kapelle at Cothen, 272; and 
Paul Gerhardt, 273; Town 
Musicians of Leipzig, 273 ; and 



277; influence of K. F. Fischer 
upon, 277 ; his use of the Viol 
da Gamba, 279; and the 
Leipzig Sunday service, 284 ; 
his use of ornaments, 285 ; 
and the ' Choralrhythmik ' of 
Luther's time, 286 ; his 'Motiv- 
bildung,' ib. ; bibliography of, 
287 ff. ; pedigree, 307 ff. ; early 
notices of, xiii ff., 284; articles 
on, see Bach-Jahrbuch, 272 ff. 

CHAMBER Music. 

Flute and Clavier (Sonatas), 
130, 157, 229, 262. 



BACH, Johann Sebastian (contd.) 
CHAMBER Music (contd.) 
Flutes (2) and Clavier (Sonata 

in G) 157, 229. 
Lute Partitas, 161. 
Viol da Gamba and Clavier 

(Sonatas), 130, 157, 229. 
Violin Solo Suites (Sonatas) 
82, 137, 153 n., 157, 240, 
260 n. 

Violin and Clavier : 
Fugue G. mi., 130n., 157, 

262. 
Inventions, 130 n., 157, 

265. 

Six Sonatas (B mi., A 
ma., E ma., C mi., F 
mi., G ma.), 130, 157, 
229, 269. 

Sonata E mi., 130 n., 157, 
262. 

Gmi., 130 n., 229. 

Suite A ma., 130 ., 157, 

229. 

Two Violins, and Clavier : 
Sonata C ma., 130 n., 

157, 229. 

Violin, Flute and Clavier: 
Instrumental piece, 241. 
Sonata C mi., 130 n., 161, 
242. 

G ma., 130 n., 157, 

229. 

Violoncello Solo Suites (Son- 
atas), 82, 137, 157, 240. 

CLAVIKR Music. 
Allemande A ma. (? J. S. B. ), 

261. 

A mi. ( ? J. S. B. ), 261. 

Cmi. (? J. S. B.),261. 

G mi., 265. 

Gmi., 265. 

Andante G mi. ( ? J. S. B. ), 

261. 

Applicatio C ma., 246, 265. 
Aria variata, 119 n., 155, 

245. 

' Bach,' fugue on, 122. 
Canons, 264, see also ' Art of 

Fugue.' 
Capriccio (J. C. B.), 14 n., 

153, 245. 

(J. J. B.), 14n., 153,245. 

Chromatic Fantasia, 82, 127, 

157, 244. 



INDEX 313 

ClaTwr-Biichlein (A.M.B.'a), 
157, 262. 

(W. F. B.'B), 157, 265. 

Clavieriibung, 82, 115n., 116, 
117, 118, 134 n., 159, 161, 
227, 262. 
Concerto C mi. ( ? J. 8. B. ), 

261. 

Duetti, 161, 227. 
English Suites, 78, 82, 128, 

157, 231, 264. 
Fantasia A mi. , 155, 245. 

B mi., 154 n., 155, 246. 

C mi., 154, 245. 

Cmi., 154,245. 

(Prelude) C mi. , 127, 245. 

Cmi. (? J. S. B.), 261. 

C mi. (on a Rondo), 245. 

(Toccata) D ma., 155, 

244. 

Gmi., 155,245. 

Gmi. (?J. S. B.), 261. 

Fantasia and Fughetta B fiat 
ma., 154, 261. 

B flat ma. (? J. S. B.), 

261. 

Dma., 154,261. 

Dma. (?J. S. B.), 261. 

Fantasia and Fugue A mi., 
157, 244. 

Crai., 161,245. 

Dmi. (? J. S. B.), 261. 

French Suites, 128, 157, 231, 

245 n., 246, 262,263, 264. 
Fugato E mi. (? J. S. B.), 

261. 

Fughetta C mi. , 129, 153, 246. 
Fugue A ma. 155, 245. 

A ma., 155, 245. 

A ma., 155, 245. 

A mi., 155, 245. 

A mi., 129, 157, 228. 

Ami. (?J. S. B.),261. 

Bmi., 155, 245. 

Cma., 154, 245. 

Cma., 154,245. 

C ma. See Short organ 

Cma. 

C mi. (incomplete), 246. 

Cmi(?J. S. B.), 261. 

D mi., 154, 246. 

Dmi., 154,245. 

Emi., 154,245. 

Emi. (? J. S. B.), 261. 

Emi. (?J. S. B.),261. 

Gma. (?J. S. B.),261. 



314 



JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 



BACH, Johann Sebastian (contd. ) 
CLAVIBR Music (contd.) 
German Suites (Partitas), 

159, 227. 

Gigue F mi. ( ? J. S. B.), 261. 
Goldberg Variations, 82, 118, 

161,228. 
Inventions, 94, 124, 125, 

145, 157, 227, 266, 274. 
Italian Concerto, 117, 161, 

227. 
Little Preludes, 94, 124, 157, 

245, 265, 266. 
March A ma., 263. 

D ma., 263. 

E fiat ma. , 263. 

Minuet A mi., 263. 

B flat ma., 263. 

C mi., 263. 

D mi., 264. 

G ma., 154, 245, 262, 

265. 

Gma., 154,245,265. 

Gma., 263. 

G ma,, 263. 

G mi., 154, 245,265. 

Minuet-Trio, B mi., 246. 

C mi., 246. 

G mi., 267. 

Musette D ma., 263. 
Notenbuch (A. M. B. 's), 56 n. , 

159, 262. 

PartieAma. (?J. S.B.),261. 
Partita B mi. 161,227. 
PassacagliaDmi. (? J. S. B.), 

261. 
Polonaise D mi. , 263. 

F ma. , 263. 

G ma. , 263. 

Gmi., 263. 

Gmi., 263. 

Gmi., 263. 

Prelude, A mi., 246, 266. 

(Fantasia) A mi., 155, 

245. 

Bmi. (? J. S. B.), 261. 

C ma. , 245. 

(Fantasia) C mi., 245. 

E mi. (incomplete) 246, 

266. 

G mi. , 266. 

Prelude and Fughetta D mi. , 
153, 244. 

E mi., 153,244. 

Fma., 154,245. 

G ma., 154, 245. 



Prelude and Fugue A mi., 
155, 244. 

Ami. (? J. S. B.), 261. 

(Fughetta) A mi., 153, 

244. 

E flat ma., 244. 

E flat ma., 157,264. 

Preludes for Beginners, 94, 

124, 157, 245. 
Sarabande con Partite C ma. 

(? J. S. B.), 261. 
Scherzo D mi. (? J. S. B. ), 261 . 
Solo E flat ma., 263. 
Sonata Ami., 153 n., 260. 

A mi. (1st movement), 

264. 

Cma., 15371., 260. 

Dma., 14 n., 153,244. 

Dmi., 153 n., 260. 

Suite A ma. (fragment), 245, 

267. 

Ami., 157,244. 

B flat ma. (? J. S. B. ),261. 

Cmi.,166n.,264. 

Ema., 161 n., 260. 

E flat ma., 157,244. 

Emi., 157, 161m., 264. 

Fma., 157,244. 

F mi. (fragment), 157, 

245. 
Symphonies, 125, 157, 227, 

267. 

Toccata C mi., 157, 228. 
(Fantasia) D ma., 155, 

244. 

Dmi., 155, 244. 

E mi., 155, 244. 

F sharp mi., 157, 228. 

G ma., 155, 244. 

G mi., 155,244. 

Vivaldi Concertos, 71, 155, 

261. 
Well-tempered Clavier, 77, 

81, 125, 144, 145, 157, 161, 

231, 246 n., 263,265,266, 

267 n., 281. 

ORCHESTRAL Music. 

Brandenburg Concertos, 137 

n., 157, 15&B-, 233, 242 n., 

275, 276. 285. 
Overture B mi., 137 n., 158, 

242. 

C ma., 137 n., 158, 242. 

D ma. , 137 n., 158, 242. 

D ma., 137 n., 158,242. 



INDEX 



BACH, Johann Sebastian (contd. ) 
ORCHESTRAL MDSIC (contd.) 
Sinfonia F ma., 137 n., 242. 
Suites. See Overture. 
Clavier and Orchestra : 
Concerto A ma., 130 n., 
160, 233, 281. 

Dma.,130n., 158 n., 

160, 233, 281. 

Dmi., 130 n., 158 n., 

160, 233, 281, 285. 
E ma., 130 n., 160, 

233, 281. 

Fma., 130 n., 158 n., 

160, 233, 281. 

F mi., 130 n., 158 n., 

160, 233, 281. 

Gmi., 130 n., 158 n., 

160, 233, 281. 
Overture G mi., 131 n., 

265. 

Two Claviers aud Orches- 
tra: 

Concerto C ma., 131, 160, 
235 

C mi., 131, 160,235. 

C mi., 131, 158 n., 

160, 235. 

Three Claviers and Orches- 
tra: 

Concerto C ma., 132, 160, 
242, 281. 

D mi., 132, 160, 242, 

281. 

Four Claviers and Orches- 
tra: 

Concerto A mi., 132, 160, 

262. 
Violin and Orchestra: 

Concerto A mi., 137 ., 
158, 234, 267 n. 

(2 violins) D mi., 137 

., 158, 160n.,235. 

E ma., 137 n., 158, 

234, 273. 

Gma., 158 n. 

lost work, 160 ?i. 

Symphonic movement I) 

ma., 137 n., 235. 
Violin, Flute, Clavier and 

Orchestra : 
Coucerho A mi.. 160, 233. 

ORGAN MDSIC. 

Air C mi. (incomplete), 262. 
Allabreve D ma., 156, 247. 



315 

Aria Fma., 156, 247. 
CanzonaDmi., 156,247. 
Fantasia C ma., 156, 247. 
C ma. (incomplete), 

247, 262. 

Cmi., 156,247. 

G ma., 155, '247. 

G ma., 155, 247. 
Con Imitazioue, 156, 

246. 
Fantasia and Fugue A mi., 

155, 246. 

C mi., 156, 232. 

G mi. (Great), 158, 232, 

281. 

Fugue B mi. (Corelli), 154, 
247. 

C ma. (Short), 156, 245. 

Cma. (? J. S. B.), 247. 

Cmi., 14 n., 154,247. 

C mi. (Legrenzi), 154, 

247. 

C mi. (incomplete), 247. 

Dma., 154,247. 

D mi. (Giant) 161, 228. 

Gma., 154,247. 

Gma., 154,247. 

Gmi., 154,247. 

G mi. (Short), 156, 247. 

Kleines harmonisches Laby- 
rinth, 154 n., 247. 

Orgelbiichlein, 20 n., 60 n., 

156, 237, 239, 269. 
Passacaglia and Fugue, 155, 

232. 

Pastorale, 136 n., 155, 247. 
Pedal Exerciie, 247. 
Preludes : 

Catechism, 161, 227. 

Choral, 21, 27 n.. 122 n., 123, 
237, 256 ff., 262, 263, 265. 

Eighteen, 135, 162,239. 

Schiibler, 117, 162,238. 

Ami., 164,247. 

Cma., 154, -J4r>. 

C ma., 166, 247. 

Gma., 156,247. 
Preludes and Fugues : 

Eight Short, 156, 246. 

A ma., 156,232. 

A mi. (Great), 134 n., 156, 
232. 

A mi. (Short). 154, 246. 

Bmi. (Great), 134 n., 161, 
232. 

Cma.,134n., 160,232. 



316 



JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 



BACH, Johann Sebastian (contd. ) 
ORGAN Music (contd.) 
Preludes and Fugues (contd. ) 
Cma., 154, 232. 
C ma., 156, 231. 
Cma., (Great), 134 n., 161, 

232. 

Cmi., 14 n., 154,246. 
Cmi. (Great), 134 n., 156, 

232. 

Dma., 156,231. 
DmL, 134n., 160,232. 
E mi. (Great), 134 n., 161, 

232. 
Emi. (Short), 134 n., 156, 

231. 

E flat ma., 161,227. 
Fmi., 156,232. 
G ma., 156, 246. 
Gma. (Great), 134 n., 160, 

232. 

Gmi., 134 n., 156,232. 
G mi. (Great), 158, 232, 

281. 
Six Sonatas (Trios), 136, 

160, 231. 

Toccatas and Fugues : 
C ma. (Great), 156, 232. 
Dmi., 156,232. 
D mi. (Dorian), 134 n., 

156, 232. 
E m. , 154, 232. 
F ma. (Great), 134 n., 156, 

232, 280. 

Trio Cmi., 136 n., 156,247. 
D mi., 136 n., 156,247. 
Variations : 
Ach, was soil ich, 259. 
Allein Gott in der Hoh, 

259. 
Christ, der du bist, 155, 

258. 
O Gott, du frommer Gott, 

155, 258. 

Sei gegriisset, 155, 258. 
Vom Himmel hoch, 112, 

120, 162, 258. 

Vivaldi Concertos, 155, 247, 
279. 

VOCAL Music. 
Cantatas : 

Church , libretti , 1 63 ff. , 277, 
281 ; in chronological 
numeration, 187 ff. ; in 
numerical order, 226, 



227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 
232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 
240, 241, 243, 244, 246, 
260; N.B.G. vocal scores, 

269, 272, 274, 280, 284 ; 
thematic catalogue, 240, 
268 ; incomplete or of 
doubtful authenticity, 
260; Soprano Arias (with 
instrumental obbligati), 

270, 278; Alto Arias 
(with instrumental ob- 
bligati), 271, 282; So- 
prano and Alto Duets 
(with instrumental ob- 
bligati), 272 ; Tenor 
Arias (with instrumental 
obbligati), 275 ; Bass 
Arias (with instrumental 
obbligati) ; 276 ; Ein' 
feste Burg, xvii, 272 ; 
Gott ist moin Konig, 115 
n., 116 n. ; Mein Herze 
schwimmt im Blut, 278 ; 
Nach dir, Herr, 281; 
Nun komm, der Heiden 
Heiland, 17 . 

Funeral, 22, 139. 

Italian, 139, 161, 241. 

Secular, 37, 43 ff., 68 n., 
142, 155, 156, 159, 161, 
230, 234, 241, 243; So- 
prano Arias from, 279; 
article on, 284. 

Wedding, 139, 158, 231, 

260. 

Choralgesange, editions of, 

85, 123; C.P.E. Bach's 

collection, 248 ff. ; in 

A. M. Bach'sNotenbuch, 

253 ff., 263; in Sche- 

melli's Gesang-Buch, 253 

ff. ; arranged as Arias 

andforS.A.T.B.,268. 

Kyrie Eleison, 260. 

Magnificat in D, xvii, 158, 

230 ; lost work, 158 n. 
Masses : 

in A ma., 138n., 161, 229. 

inBmi., 138 n., 158,229. 

in Gma., 138 n., 161, 229. 

in Gmi., 138 n., 161, 229. 

inFma., 138 n., 161, 229. 

in G (8 parts), 141 n. 
Motets, publication of, xii ; 
Mozart and the, 58 n. ; 



INDEX 



317 



BACH, Johann Sebastian (contd.) 
VOCAL Music (contd. ) 

Forkel's enumeration of, 
139, 158, 248 ; article on, 
280;Iculas 8 edichnicht, 
5n., 141 n. 
Oratorio* : 
Ascension, 160, 227. 
Christmas, 138 n., 228, 274. 
Easter, 138 n., 160, 215, 

235. 

Passions : 
St. John, xviii, 138 n., 

158, 230. 

St. Luke, 1 38 n., 267, 279. 
St. Matthew, xvii, xviii, 
22 n., 138 n., 158, 228, 
260, 276, 283. 
Sanctut . 

inCma., 139, 158,230. 
inDma., 139, 158,230. 
inDma., 141,260. 
inDmi., 138, 158,230. 
inGma., 138, 158,230. 
Schemelli'sGesaug-Buch, 160, 

253. 

Songs, humorous, 91 n. ; in 
A. M. Bach's Notenbuch, 
256, 263-268; from the 
Church Cantatas, 270, 271, 
272, 275, 276, 278, 282; 
from the secular Cantatas, 
279. 
Trauer-Ode, 22 n., 90, 138, 

158, 179, 231. 
Art of Fugue (Die Kunst der 

Fuge), J21, 162,236. 
Musical Offering (Musikal- 
isches Opfer), 26, 120, 161, 
162, 242. 
Johann Sebastian (b. 1748), 

3 n., 279, 309. 
Johann Valentin, 306. 
Johanna Caroline, 176, 310. 
Johanna Juditha, 307. 
Johannes, 303, 305. 
Jonas, 3n.,304. 
Kathariua Dorothea, 167, 309. 
Leopold Augustus, 309. 
Lips (d. 1620), 2 n., 3 n., 303 

(d. 1620), 304. 

Maria Barbara, 14 n., 308, 309. 
Maria Katharina, 308. 
Maria Salome, 307. 
Marie Sophie, 308. 
Nikolaus Ephraim, 304. 



BAOH (contd.) 

Regine Johanna, 310. 

Regine Susanna, 48, 310. 

Samuel Anton, 103 n., 304. 

Tobias Friedrich, 307. 

Veit, 1, 303. 

Wendel, 3n., 304. 

Wilhelm Friedemann, xxi, 23, 
48,61, 100, 104, 110, 111, 127, 
136, 146 n., 262, 277, 279, 309. 

Wilhelm Friedrich Ernt, 285, 
310. 

Wilhelm Hieronymus, 305. 

Bach Archives,' 4, 5. 

Festivals, i>23, 268, 270, 271, 

273, 274, 276, 279, 282, 286. 

Genealogy, 1 n., 284, 286. 

Museum, at Eisenach, 225, 

279. 

Bachgesellschaft, 225 ff., 267. 
Bartholomai, Barbara Margaretha, 

306. 

Baurath, Anna Amalia, 308. 
Becker, Carl F., 226, 227. 

Cornelius, 199, 212. 

Beethoven, Ludwig van, xxviii n., 

xxix n., 85 n. 

Behm, Martin, 185, 211, 216. 
Behn, F., 284. 
Benda, Franz, 109. 
Berardi, Angelo, 98. 
Berlin, xvii., 23, 65, 102, 109, 136, 

140, 141 n., 142 n., 225. 
Berlioz, Hector, 70 n. 
Biebrich, Th., 281, 283, 285. 
Bienemann, Caspar, 198, 204. 
Birnbaum, Johann A., 45, 68 n. 
Blanken ha in, 306. 
Bohm, Georg, 11, 12 n., 72, 275. 
Bordoni, Faustina, 111. 
Brandenburg-Culmbach , Albrecht 

Margrave of, 199, 202, 217. 
Brandt, Anna Margaretha, 306. 
Breitkopf, Job. Gottlieb, 279, 285. 
Breslau, 225. 
British Museum, 126. 
Bruhns, Nikolaus, 10, 72. 
Brunswick, 108 n. 
Buchmayer, Richard, 274, 275. 
Buckeburg, 310. 
Bunge, Rudolf, 272. 
Buononcini, Giovanni Maria, 99. 
Burgolt, Sabina Katharina, 305. 
Burney, Dr. Charles, xxxi n. 
Buttelstadt, 103 n. 
Buxtehude, Dietrich, 10, 14, 72, 276. 



318 



JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 



CALDABA, ANTONIO, 109. 

Carissimi, Giacomo, 4 n. 

Cassel, 16 n. 

Celle, 13. 

Chemnitz, 225. 

Choral Cantata, the, 182. 

Christiane Eberhardine, Queen of 

Poland, 90, 138 n. 
Clavicembalo, 52 n., 58. 
Clavichord, 52 n., 55 n., 58. 
Clavier, 49 if., 93 ff. 
Collegium Musicum, the Leipzig, 

30ff.,42tf. 
Cothen, 22, 90, 110, 125, 128 n., 137 

n., 156, 158 ., 172, 192, 272, 310. 
Couperin, Francois, 18, 55, 56 n., 

263. 
Cruciger, Elisabethe, 190, 193, 

194, 221. 

DACHSTKIN, WOLFGANG, 21. 

Dannreuther, E., 276. 

David, J. M., 286. 

Denicke, David, 196, 201, 209, 214. 

' Der Thomaskantor,' 285. 

Dieupart, Charles, 128 n. 

Dobereiner, Christian, 279. 

Doles, Johann Friedrich, 90, 104 n. 

Dorffel, Alfred, 226, 236, 240, 242, 

244, 246, 260, 264, 267. 
Dornheim, 166. 
Dresden, xviii, 18, 101, 109, 110, 

127, 136, 309. 

Drese, Johann Samuel, 20 n. 
Duisburg, 225. 

EBELEBBN, 308. 
Eber, Paul, 195, 216, 218, 221. 
Ebert, Jakob, 199, 212, 224. 
Eilmar, Georg Christian, 167, 168, 

185, 187, 188. 

Einicke, Georg Friedrich, 104 n. 
Eisenach, 6, 7, 9, 47 n., 169, 170, 

172, 225, 283, 286, 305, 306, 307, 

308. 

Eisentraut, Martha Elizabeth, 306. 
Eitner, Robert, xxxi n., 25 n. 
Erdmann, Georg, 11. 
Erfurt, 7, 47, 103, 303, 305, 306, 308. 
Ernesti, Johann August, 44. 

Johann Heinrich, 39. 

Erselius, J. C.,261. 

FETIS, Joseph, 20 n. 
Fischer, Johann C. F. , 10, 72. 
Kaspar, Fred., 277. 



Flemming, Count, 19. 

Paul, 200, 211, 215. 

Forkel, Johann Nikolaus, ix ff., 

xxiv ff., 77 n., 89 n., 115 n., 

144 n., 285. 

Franck, Johann, 195, 196, 208, 222. 
Michael, 222. 

Salomo, 165, 171, 177, 180, 

184, 185, 189, 190, 191, 192, 194, 
197, 198, 200, 202, 204, 211. 

Frankenhausen, 104 n. 

Frankfort, xviii. 

Frederick i., King of Sweden, 17 n. 

n., King of Prussia, xxiv n., 

23, 104 n., 109 n., 120, 121 n. 
Frescobaldi, Girolamo, 72. 
Freystein, Johann Burchard, 222. 
Friese, Heinrich, 21. 
Fritsch, Ahasuerus, 216, 223. 
Froberger, Johann Jakob, 10, 72. 
Fuger, Caspar, 189, 195, 223. 
Fux, Johann Joseph, 99, 109. 

GANDBKSHEIM, 304. 
Gehren, 5, 305, 308. 
Gerber, Ernst Ludwig, xv. 

Heinrich Nikolaus, 94 n., 

103 n. 

Gerhardt, Paul, 194, 195, 196, 202, 

203, 212, 213, 214, 217. 
Gesner, Johann M., 41. 
Gigas, Johannes, 221. 
Gluck, Christoph Willibald von, 

xxviii n. 

Corner, Johann Gottlieb, 31. 
Gottingen, x. 
Goldberg, Johann Gottlieb, 101, 

119. 
Gottsched, Professor J. C., 45, 

179, 185, 203. 

Grabler, Maria Magdalena, 303. 
Grabner, Christian, 104 n. 
Grasai, Cecilia, 310. 
Graumann, Johann, 200, 207, 216. 
Graun, Carl Heinrich, xxiv n., 109. 

Johann Gottlieb, 109. 

Graupner, Christoph, 282. 
Greiner, Daniel, 283. 
Greulich, Karl, 271. 
Grossgebauer, Philipp, 168, 188. 
Griienwald, Georg, 200. 
Grunsky, Karl, 281. 
Gundersleben, 305. 

HALT.H, 16, 17 n., 103 n., 277, 304, 



INDEX 



319 



Hamburg, ix, xxi n., 12, 21, 109, 

309. 

Handel, Georg Friedrich, xii, xxiv 
n., xxix n. , xxx, 19 n., 25 n., 
27 n., 53 n., 83, 84 n., 86, 107 n., 
109, 110, 111 n. 
Handke, Robert, 276, 277. 
Hartwig, Carl, 104 n. 
Hase, Hermann Ton, 279, 282. 
Hasse, Johann Adolph, 109, 110. 
Hauptmann, Moritz, 226, 227, 229. 
Haussmann, Elias G., 47, 279, 283, 

286. 

Heerman, Johann, 187, 189, 190, 
193, 194, 200, 201, 203, 204, 205, 
207, 214, 215, 220. 
Heitmann, Johann J., 21 n. 
Helbig, Johann Friedrich, 165, 172, 

185, 192, 193. 
Helmbold, Ludwig, 198, 199, 215, 

224. 

Henrici, Christian Friedrich, 45, 
138 n., 141, 165, 175, 177 ff., 183, 
184, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 
204, 205, 206, 207, 215, 216, 217, 
218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223. 
Herberger, Valerius, 210. 
Herda, Elias, 12. 
Herman, Nikolaus, 187, 190, 199, 

203, 210, 224. 
Hermann, Johann, 198. 
Herthum, Christoph, 308. 
Heuas, Alfred, 271, 275, 282. 
Hiller, Johann Adam, xiv, xxx n. 
HirschiDg, Carl Gottlieb, xv. 
Hof, Dorothea von, 307. 
Hofman, Richard, 285. 
Hoffmann, Barbara, 303. 

Eva, 303. 

Johann C. , 45. 

Hoffmeister, Franz Anton, xi, xxv. 
Homborg, Ernst Christoph, 212. 
Homilias, Gottfried August, 101, 

284. 

Hubert, Conrad, 220. 
Hurlebusch, Heinrioh Lorenz, 108. 

ISLE, Johann Jakob, 47. 
Isserstedt, 308. 

JANUS, Martin, 191, 196. 
Jena, 308, 309. 
Joachim, Joseph, 273. 
Jonas, Justus, 220. 

KAISIRLING, Count, 101 n., 119. 



Keimanu, Christian, 191, 195, 196, 

202, 217. 

Keiser, Reinhard, 83, 109. 
Keller, Hermann, 281. 
Kerl, Johann Caspar, 10, 72. 
Keula, 306. 

Kirchhoff, Gottfried, 17. 
Kirnberger, Johann Philipp, 74 n. , 
93 n., 99, 102, 123 n., 124, 142, 
242 n., 256. 
Kittel, Johann Christian, 47, 103. 

Knoll, Christoph, 190. 

.6nig, Anna Margaretha, 305. 
Konigsberg, 101. 

Kolross, Johann, 202. 

Korabinaky, Johann M., 2 n. 
Kortte, Gottlieb, 43. 

Krebs, Johann Carl, 103 n. 

Johann Ludwig, 101, 257. 

Johann Ludwig (junr. ), 103 n. 

Johann Tobias, 103 n. 

Kretzschmar, Hermann, 226, 264, 
267,281,286. 

Kroll, Franz, 226. 

Kriil, Anna Margaretha, 308. 

Kiihnel, Ambrosius, xi, xxv. 

Kuhnau, Johann, 21 , 30. 

Kurth, Ernst, 286. 

Kurzwelly, Albrecht, 283. 

LAHM, 306. 

Lammerbirt, Hedwig, 303. 

Elizabeth, 306, 307. 

Tobias, 168, 188. 

Landowska, Wanda, 277, 281. 

Lange, Sibylla, 308. 

Leipzig, 17 n. , 21 ff. ; 29 ff. ; 101 ., 
104 n., 116 n., 119, 121 n., 125 n., 
138 n., 141 n., 158, 163 ff., 173, 
174 ff., 193 ff., 225, 279, 282, 310. 

Libretti, the Cantata, 163 ff., 277, 
281. 

Lippe, Count von, 310. 

Liscow, Salomo, 214. 

Liszewski, C. F. Rr., 47 n. 

Lobenstein, 69. 

Liibeck, 14. 

Luneburg, ix., 11, 12 n. 

Luther, Martin, 186, 188, 189, 191, 
192, 193, 195, 196, 197, 198, 204, 
205, 206, 208, 210, 212, 216, 218, 
219, 222, 223. 

MANDYOWEWSKI, Ensebius, 270, 
271, 272, 275, 276, 278, 279, 282. 
Marcello, Benedetto, 261. 



320 



JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 



Marchand, Louis, 17, 107. 
Marpurg, Friedrich Wilhelm, xiii, 

12 ., 121. 

Martiensen, C. A., 280. 
Mattheson, Johann, ix, xiii. 
Meiningen, 103 n., 304. 
Mendelssohn, Felix, xvii. 
Mersmann, Hans, 286. 
' Messiah,' the, xxx n. 
Meusel, Wolfgang, 206. 
Milan, 310. 
Mizler, Lorenz Christoph, xiv, xxiv, 

xxx. 
Moller, Martin, 196, 200, 211, 217, 

220, 223. 

Moser, Hans Joachim, 285, 286. 
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, xii, 

xxviii n. , xxix n. , 58 n. , 90 n. , 96, 

105 n. 
Miilhausen, 15, 115 n., 166 ff., 187, 

188, 308, 309. 
Miiller, August F., 43. 

Heinrich, 213. 

Miithel, Johann Gottfried, 102. 

NAUMANN, Ernst, 226, 243, 244, 

246, 256, 260, 268, 269. 
Naumburg, 102, 310. 
Neander, Joachim, 210, 224. 
' Nekrolog,' the, xxiv. 
Nelle, Wilhelm, 273. 
Neu, Karl, 276. 
Neumann, Caspar, 201, 203. 
Neumark, Georg, 189, 202, 209, 

216. 
Neumeister, Erdmann, 165, 168 ff., 

180, 184, 185, 188, 189, 193, 208, 

216. 

Nichelmann, Christoph, 104 n. 
Nicolai, Philipp, 189, 197, 202, 

205, 208, 209, 218. 
W.,283. 

OEHRINGEN, 307. 

Ohrdruf, 10, 306. 

Olearius, Johannes, 209, 216. 

Oppel, Reinhardt, 273, 274, 276, 

PACHELBEL, Johann, 10, 72, 131. 
Peter, Anna Dorothea, 304. 
Peters, Carl Friedrich, xxviii. 
Petrograd, 137 n. 
Pfefferkorn, Georg Michael, 195, 

214. 
Picander. See Henrici, C. F. 



Polchau, G., In., 4 n. 
Potsdam, 26. 
Prettin, 303. 
Priifer, Arthur, 284. 
Purcell, Henry, 72 n., 261. 

QUANTZ, Johann J. , 66. 
Quodlibet, 7, 118. 

RAMBACH, Johann Jakob, 194, 

205. 
Reinken, Johann Adam, 12, 21, 

72, 153 n., 260 n. 
Reissner, Adam, 188. 
Reitz, Robert, 285. 
Richter, Bernhard F., 269, 272, 

273, 274, 279, 280, 282, 284. 

J. C.,266. 

Rietschel, Georg, 270, 273. 
Rietz, Julius, 226, 228, 229. 
Riga, 102. 

Ringwaldt, Bartholomaus, 187, 

199, 201, 220. 
Rinkart, Martin, 210, 215. 
Rist, Johann, 200, 201, 209, 210, 

213, 214, 221. 

Rochlitz, Johann Friedrich, xvii. 
Rodigast, Samuel, 193, 197, 199, 

210, 211, 215. 
Rome, 309. 
Rotterdam, 308. 
Rube, Johann Christoph, 222. 
Ruhla, 304. 
Rust, Wilhelm, 226, 228, 229, 230, 

231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 

240. 

SACBB, Gottfried Wilhelm, 213. 
Sache, Hans, 192, 221. 
Sangershausen, 309. 
Saxe- Weimar, Duke Ernst August 

of, 20 n., 112n. 

Duke Johann Ernst of, 261. 

Duke Wilhelm Ernst of, 16, 

20 n. 

Scarlatti, Domenico, 107. 
Schalling, Martin, 206, 208. 
Scheibe, Johann Adolph, 68. 
Schelble, Johann Nepomuk, xviii. 
Schering, Arnold, 271, 272, 273, 

274, 276, 277, 278, 280, 281, 283, 
284, 285, 286. 

Schicht, Johann Gottfried, xi. 
Schmidt, Anna Margaretha, 305. 

Balthasar, 118. 

Susanna, 305. 



INDEX 



321 



Schmied, Anna, 303. 
Schneegass, Cyriacus, 219, 224. 
Schneesing, Johannes, 220. 
Schneider, Johann, 104 n. 
Max, 272, 273, 274, 276, 278, 

279, 280, 284, 285. 
Schuurr, Balthasar, 201. 
Schober, Magdalena Christian*, 

306. 

Schreck, Gustav, 269, 286. 
Schubart, Johann Martin, XT, 103. 
Sohiibler, Johann G., 117. 
Schunemann, Georg, 283, 285. 
Schiitz, Johann Jakob, 211. 
Schumann, Richard, 98 n. 
Schweinfnrt, 103 n., 306. 
Schwarzburg - Arnstadt, Count of, 

3. 
Schwarzburg - Rudolatadt, Emilie 

Juliane of, 199, 206, 208. 
Schwerin, ix. 
Seffner, Carl, 268, 274. 
Seiffert, Max, 271, 272, 27S, 274, 

275, 276. 

Selnecker, Nikolaus, 215. 
Siebigke, A. E. L., XT. 
Silbermann, Gottfried, 25. 
Sonderehausen, 103 n. 
Sorge, Georg Andreas, 69. 
Spongier, Lazarus, 188, 209. 
Speratus, Paul, 191, 194, 200, 207. 
Stauber, Johann Loreni, 166, 188. 
Steglich, Rudolf, 284. 
Steinbach, 304. 
Steltzel, 267. 
Stephenson, John, xxi n. 

Rowland, xx. 

Stockmann, Paul, 190, 203. 

Stockholm, 307, 308. 

Storm thai, 194. 

Straube, Rudolph, 104 n. 

Strungk, Delphin, 72. 

Snhl, 303. 

Swicten, Baron van, xii. 

Syring, Juditha Katharina, 305. 

TAUBMANN, Otto, 272. 

Taylor, John, 26 n. 

Telemann, Georg Philipp, 30, 109, 

170. 

Themar, 306. 
Tietae, Christoph, 198. 
Tinel, Edgar, 275. 
Toi, Pier Francesco, 102. 
Transchel, Christoph, 101. 



UNTEB-ZIMMXBM, 305. 
Uttstadt, 307. 

VMNHA, 225. 

ViTaldi, Antonio, 71, 132, 149, 261, 

262 n. 

Vogler, Johann Caspar, 100. 
Voigt, Wilhelm, 272. 

Woldemar, 274, 280, 284. 

103. 

Volbach, Professor Fritz, 47, 103, 

270, 272. 
Volumier, Jean-Baptiste, 18. 

WAGNER, Paul, 34, 165, 185. 

Richard, xTii, 97 n. 

Waldersee, Paul Graf, 226, 241, 

242, 243, 262. 
Walther, Johann Gottfried, XIT, 

57. 

Wechmar, 1 n., 2, 303. 
Wegelin, Josua, 213. 
Weigel, Christopher, 117. 
Weimar, XT, 13, 15, 57, 100, 103 *., 

155, 167 ff., 188, 305. 
Weingartner, Sigismund, 204. 
Weiss, Christian, 45, 175n., 176 ff., 

182, 185, 193, 194, 196, 198, 199, 

200, 201, 202, 204, 205, 206, 207, 

208, 209, 210, 212, 215, 220, 223. 
Christian (junr.), 184, 214, 

217, 219, 222. 

Dorothea, 176. 

Weissenfels, Duke Christian of, 22, 

112, 169, 310. 
Wesley, Samuel, xx. 
Wiedemann, Katharina, 308. 

Maria Elizabeth, 308. 

Wiegand , 307. 

Wildenfels, Anark of, 197. 
Wolflheim, Werner, 277, 278, 279, 

281. 

Wolfsbehringen, 304. 
Wulken, Anna Magdalena, 310. 
Wiillner, Franz, 226, 248, 268. 
Wustmann, Rudolf, 276, 279, 281. 

ZACHAC, Friedrich Wilhelm, 16. 
Zehler, C.,277. 
Zelenka, Johann Dismaa, 109. 
Zelter, Carl Friedrich, x, XTII. 
Ziegler, Caspar, 203, 214. 

Johann Gotthilf, 103 n. 

Marianne Ton, 45, 165, 180, 

184, 185, 212, 213, 214. 



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