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John Chapman, known in legend, drama, poem, and song as 
Johnny Appleseed, has become a favorite American folk hero. He 
was a familiar figure in Fort Wayne in the I830's and died near the 
city in 1845. The following biographical sketch by W. D. Haley 
was originally published in HARPER'S NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE, 
volume XLIII, November, 1871. That article is the nucleus of fact 
and legend current in 1871, twenty-six years after Johnny's death; 
it is the chief source of subsequent articles and sketches. 

The Boards and the Staff of the Public Library of Fort Wayne 
and Allen County reprint the article with the assurance that it will 
be interesting and informative to Library patrons. 

The "Far West" is rapidly becoming only a traditional 
designation; railroads have destroyed the romance of frontier 
life or have surrounded it with so many appliances of civi- 
lization that the pioneer character is rapidly becoming myth- 
ical. The men and women who obtain their groceries and 
dry-goods from New York by rail in a few hours have noth- 
ing in common with those who, fifty years ago, "packed" 
salt a hundred miles to make their mush palatable and could 
only exchange corn and wheat for molasses and calico by 
making long and perilous voyages in flat-boats down the Ohio 
and Mississippi rivers to New Orleans. Two generations of 
frontier lives have accumulated stores of narrative , which, 
like the small but beautiful tributaries of great rivers, are 
forgotten in the broad sweep of the larger current of history. 
The march of Titans sometinnes tramples out the memory 
of smaller, but more useful,lives, and sensational glare often 
eclipses more modest but purer lights. This has been the 
case in the popular demand for the dime novel dilutions of 
Fenimore Cooper's romances of border life, which have 
preserved the records of Indian rapine and atrocity as the 
only memorials of pioneer history. But the early days of 
Western settlement witnessed sublimer heroisms than those 
of human torture, and nobler victories than those of the tom- 
ahawk and scalping -knife. 

Among the heroes of endurance that was voluntary 
and of action that was creative and not sanguinary, there 
was one man whose name, seldom mentioned now save by 
some of the few surviving pioneers, deserves to be perpet- 

The first reliable trace of our modest hero finds him 
in the Territory of Ohio, in 1801, with a horse-load of apple 
seeds, which he planted in various places on and about the 
borders of Licking Creek -the first orchard thus originated 
by him being on the farm of Isaac Stadden, in what is now 
known as Licking County, in the state of Ohio. During the 
five succeeding years, although he was undoubtedly following 
the same strange occupation, we have no authentic account 
of his movements until we reach a pleasant spring day in 
1806, when a pioneer settler in Jefferson County, Ohio, no- 

ticed a peculiar craft, with a remarkable occupant and a 
curious cargo, slowly dropping down with the current of the 
Ohio River. It was "Johnny Appleseed," by which name 
Jonathan Chapman was afterward known in every log-cabin 
from the Ohio River to the northern lakes and westward to 
the prairies of what is now the state of Indiana. With two 
canoes lashed together, he was transporting a load of apple 
seeds to the western frontier, for the purpose of creating 
orchards on the farthest verge of white settlements. With 
his canoes he passed down the Ohio to Marietta, where he 
entered the Muskingum, ascending the stream of that river 
until he reached the mouth of the Walhonding, or White 
Wonnan Creek, and still onward, up the Mohican, into the 
Black Fork, to the head of navigation in the region now 
known as Ashland and Richland counties, on the line of the 
Pittsburg and Fort Wayne Railroad, in Ohio. A long and 
toilsome voyage it was, as a glance at the map will show, 
and must have occupied a great deal of time, as the lonely 
traveler stopped at every inviting spot to plant the seeds and 
make his infant nurseries. These are the first well-authen- 
ticated facts in the history of Jonathan Chapman, whose 
birth, there is good reason for believing, occurred in Bos- 
ton, Massachusetts, in 1775. According to this, which was 
his own statement in one of his less reticent moods, he was, 
at the time of his appearance on Licking Creek, twenty-six 
years of age; and whether impelled in his eccentricities by 
some absolute misery of the heart which could only find re- 
lief in incessant motion or governed by a benevolent mono- 
mania, his whole after-life was devoted to the work of plant- 
ing apple seeds in remote places. The seeds he gathered 
from the cider -pres ses of western Pennsylvania; but his 
canoe voyage in 1806 appears to have been the only occasion 
upon which he adopted that method of transporting them, as 
all his subsequent journeys were made on foot. Having 
planted his stock of seeds, he would return to Pennsylvania 
for a fresh supply; and, as sacks made of any less substan- 
tial fabric would not endure the hard usage of the long trip 
through forests dense with underbrush and briers, he pro- 
vided himself with leathern bags. Securely packed, the 

Johnny Apple seed. 
(HARPER'S MAGAZINE, November, 1871) 

seeds were conveyed, sometimes on the back of a horse, 
and not unfrequently on his own shoulders, either over a 
part of the old Indian trail that led from Fort Duquesne to 
Detroit, by way of Fort Sandusky, or over what is styled in 
the appendix to "Hutchins's History of Boguet's Expedition 
in 1764" the "second route through the wilderness of Ohio," 
which would require him to traverse a distance of one hun- 
dred and sixty-six miles in a west-northwest direction from 
Fort Duquesne in order to reach the Black Fork of the Mo- 

This region, although it is now densely populated, still 
possesses a romantic beauty that railroads and bustling 
towns can not obliterate--a country of forest-clad hills and 
green valleys, through which numerous bright streams flow 
on their way to the Ohio; but when Johnny Appleseed reached 
some lonely log-cabin he would find himself in a veritable 
wilderness. The old settlers say that the margins of the 
streams, near which the first settlements were generally 
made, were thickly covered with a low, matted growth of 
small timber, while nearer to the water was a rank mass of 
long grass, interlaced with morning-glory and wild pea 
vines, among which funereal willows and clustering alders 
stood like sentinels on the outpost of civilization. The hills, 
that rise almost to the dignity of mountains, were crowned 
with forest trees; and in the coverts were innumerable 
bears, wolves, deer, and droves of wild hogs that were as 
ferocious as any beast of prey. In the grass the massasauga 
and other venomous reptiles lurked in such numbers that a 
settler named Chandler has left the fact on record that dur- 
ing the first season of his residence, while mowing a little 
prairie which formed part of his land, he killed over two 
hundred black rattlesnakes in an area that would involve an 
average destruction of one of these reptiles for each rod of 
land. The frontiers-man, who felt himself sufficiently pro- 
tected by his rifle against wild beasts and hostile Indians, 
found it necessary to guard against the attacks of the insid- 
ious enemies in the grass by wrapping bandages of dried 
grass around his buckskin leggings and moccasins; but John- 
ny would shoulder his bag of apple seeds, and with bare feet 

penetrate to some remote spot that combined picturesque- 
ness and fertility of soil; and there he would plant his seeds, 
place a slight inclosure around the place, and leave them to 
grow until the trees were large enough to be transplanted 
by the settlers, who in the mean time would have made 
their clearings in the vicinity. The sites chosen by him 
are, many of them, well known and are such as an artist 
or a poet would select; open places on the loamy lands that 
border the creeks--rich, secluded spots, hemmed in by 
giant trees, picturesque now, but fifty years ago, with their 
wild surroundings and the primal silence, they must have 
been tenfold more so. 

In personal appearance Chapman was a small, wiry 
man, full of restless activity; he had long dark hair, a scanty 
beard that was never shaved, and keen black eyes that spar- 
kled with a peculiar brightness. His dress was of the odd- 
est description. Generally, even in the coldest weather, he 
went barefooted; but sometinnes for his long journeys he 
would make himself a rude pair of sandals; at other times 
he would wear any cast-off foot-covering he chanced to find- - 
a boot on one foot and an old brogan or a moccasin on the 
other. It appears to have been a matter of conscience with 
him never to purchase shoes, although he was rarely with- 
out money enough to do so. On one occasion, in an unusually 
cold November, while he was traveling barefooted through 
mud and snow, a settler who happened to possess a pair of 
shoes that were too snnall for his own use forced their ac- 
ceptance upon Johnny, declaring that it was sinful for a hu- 
man being to travel with naked feet in such weather. A few 
days afterward the donor was in the village that has since 
become the thriving city of Mansfield and met his benefi- 
ciary contentedly plodding along with his feet bare and half 
frozen. With some degree of anger.he inquired for the cause 
of such foolish conduct and received for reply that Johnny 
had overtaken a poor, barefooted family moving westward, 
and as they appeared to be in much greater need of clothing 
than he was, he had given them the shoes. His dress was 
generally composed of cast-off clothing that he had taken 
in payment for apple-trees; and as the pioneers were far 

less extravagant than their descendants in such matters, the 
homespun and buckskin garments that they discarded would 
not be very elegant or serviceable. In his later years, how- 
ever, he seems to have thought that even this kind of second- 
hand raiment was too luxurious, as his principal garment 
was made of a coffee sack, in which he cut holes for his head 
and arms to pass through, and pronounced it "a very serv- 
iceable cloak and as good clothing as any man need wear. " 
In the matter of head-gear,his taste was equally unique; his 
first experiment was with a tin vessel that served to cook 
his mush; but this was open to the objection that it did not 
protect his eyes from the beams of the sun, so he constructed 
a hat of pasteboard with an immense peak in front, and hav- 
ing thus secured an article that combined usefulness with 
economy, it becanne his permanent fashion. 

Thus strangely clad, he was perpetually wandering 
through forests and morasses and suddenly appearing in 
white settlements and Indian villages; but there must have 
been some rare force of gentle goodness dwelling in his 
looks and breathing in his words, for it is the testimony of 
all who knew him that, notwithstanding his ridiculous attire, 
he was always treated with the greatest respect by the rud- 
est frontiers -man; and, what is a better test, the boys of 
the settlements forbore to jeer at him. With grown-up peo- 
ple and boys he was usually reticent but manifested great 
affection for little girls, always having pieces of ribbon and 
gay calico to give to his little favorites. Many a grandmoth- 
er in Ohio and Indiana can remember the presents she re- 
ceived, when a child,from poor homeless Johnny Appleseed. 
When he consented to eat with any family,he would never sit 
down to the table until he was assured that there was an am- 
ple supply for the children; and his sympathy for their youth- 
ful troubles and his kindness toward them made him friends 
among all the juveniles of the borders. 

The Indians also treated Johnny with the greatest kind- 
ness. By these wild and sanguinary savages,he was regarded 
as a "great medicine man, " on account of his strange ap- 
pearance, eccentric actions, and, especially, the fortitude 
with which he could endure pain, in proof of which he would 

"The tribes of the heathen are round about your doors, and a 

devouring flame foUoweth after them. " 

(HARPER'S MAGAZINE , November, 1871) 

often thrust pins and needles into his flesh. His nervous 
sensibilities really seem to have been less acute than those 
of ordinary people, for his method of treating the cuts and 
sores that were the consequences of his bare -footed wander- 
ings through briers and thorns was to sear the wo\ind with a 
red-hot iron, and then cure the burn. During the war of 
1812, when the frontier settlers were tortured and slaugh- 
tered by the savage allies of Great Britain, Johnny Apple- 
seed continued his wanderings and was never harmed by 
the roving bands of hostile Indians, On many occasions the 
impunity with which he ranged the country enabled him to 
give the settlers warning of approaching danger in tinne to 
allow them to take refuge in their block-houses before the 
savages could attack them. Our informant refers to one of 
these instances, when the news of Hull's surrender came 
like a thunder-bolt upon the frontier. Large bands of Indians 
and British were destroying every thing before them and 
murdering defenseless women and children, and even the 
block-houses were not always a sufficient protection. At 
this time Johnny traveled day and night, warning the people 
of the approaching danger. He visited every cabin and de- 
livered this message: "The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, 
and he hath anointed me to blow the trumpet in the wilder- 
ness and sound an alarm in the forest; for, behold, the 
tribes of the heathen are round about your doors, and a de- 
vouring flame followeth after them," The aged man who 
narrated this incident said that he could feel even now the 
thrill that was caused by this prophetic announcement of the 
wild-looking herald of danger, who aroused the family on a 
bright moonlight midnight with his piercing voice. Refusing 
all offers of food and denying himself a moment's rest, he 
traversed the border day and night until he had warned every 
settler of the approaching peril. 

His diet was as meagre as his clothing. He believed 
it to be a sin to kill any creature for food and thought that 
all that was necessary for human sustenance was produced 
by the soil. He was also a strenuous opponent of the waste 
of food, and on one occasion, on approaching a log-cabin, he 
observed some fragments of bread floating upon the surface of 

a bucket of slops that was intended for the pigs. He innme- 
diately fished them out; and when the housewife expressed 
her astonishment, he told her that it was an abuse of the 
gifts of a merciful God to allow the smallest quantity of any 
thing that was designed to supply the wants of mankind to be 
diverted from its purpose. 

In this instance, as in his whole life, the peculiar re- 
ligious ideas of Johnny Appleseed were exemplified. He was 
a most earnest disciple of the faith taught by Emanuel Swe- 
denborg, and himself claimed to have frequent conversations 
with angels and spirits; two of the latter, of the feminine 
gender, he asserted, had revealed to him that they were to 
be his wives in a future state if he abstained from a matri- 
monial alliance on earth. He entertained a profound rever- 
ence for the revelations of the Swedish seer and always 
carried a few old volumes with him. These he was very 
anxious should be read by every one, and he was probably 
not only the first colporteur in the wilderness of Ohio, but 
as he had no tract society to furnish him supplies, he cer- 
tainly devised an original method of multiplying one book in- 
to a number. He divided his books into several pieces, leav- 
ing a portion at a log-cabin, and on a subsequent visit fur- 
nishing another fragment, and continuing this process as 
diligently as though the work had been published in serial 
numbers. By this plan he was enabled to furnish reading 
for several people at the same time and out of one book; 
but it must have been a difficult undertaking for some nearly 
illiterate backwoodsman to endeavor to comprehend Sweden- 
borg by a backward course of reading, when his first in- 
stallment happened to be the last fraction of the volume. 
Johnny's faith in Swedenborg's works was so reverential as 
almost to be superstitious. He was once asked if, in trav- 
eling barefooted through forests abounding with venomous 
reptiles, he was not afraid of being bitten. With his peculiar 
smile, he drew his book from his bosom and said, "This 
book is an infallible protection against all danger here and 
hereafter. " 

It was his custom, when he had been welcomed to 
Sonne hospitable log-house after a weary day of journeying. 

to lie down on the puncheon floor, and, after inquiring if his 
auditors would hear "some news right fresh from heaven," 
produce his few tattered books, among which would be a New 
Testament, and read and expound until his uncultivated hear- 
ers would catch the spirit and glow of his enthusiasm, while 
they scarcely comprehended his language. A lady who knew 
him in his later years writes in the following terms of one 
of these domiciliary readings of poor, self-sacrificing John- 
ny Appleseed: "We can hear hinn read now, just as he did 
that summer day when we were busy quilting up stairs, and 
he lay near the door; his voice rose denunciatory and thrill- 
ing--strong and loud as the roar of wind and waves, then 
soft and soothing as the balmy airs that quivered the morn- 
ing-glory leaves about his gray beard. His was a strange 
eloquence at times, and he was undoubtedly a man of genius. " 
What a scene is presented to our imagination: the interior 
of a primitive cabin; the wide, open fire-place, where a few 
sticks are burning beneath the iron pot in which the evening 
meal is cooking; around the fire-place the attentive group, 
composed of the sturdy pioneer and his wife and children, 
listening with a reverential awe to the "news right fresh from 
heaven"; and reclining on the floor, clad in rags, but with 
his gray hairs glorified by the beams of the setting sun that 
flood through the open door and the unchinked logs of the 
humble building, this poor wanderer with the gift of genius 
and eloquence, who believes with the faith of apostles and 
martyrs that God has appointed him a mission in the wilder- 
ness to preach the Gospel of love and plant apple seeds that 
shall produce orchards for the benefit of men, and women, 
and little children whom he has never seen. If there is a 
sublimer faith or a more genuine eloquence in richly deco- 
rated cathedrals and under brocade vestments, it would be 
worth a long journey to find it. 

Next to his advocacy of his peculiar religious ideas, 
his enthusiasm for the cultivation of apple-trees in what he 
termed "the only proper way"--that is, from the seed--was 
the absorbing object of his life. Upon this, as upon religion, 
he was eloquent inhis appeals. He would describe the grow- 
ing and ripening fruit as such a rare and beautiful gift of the 


"News right fresh from heaven. " 
(HARPER'S MAGAZINE, November, 1871) 

Almighty with words that became pictures, until his hearers 
could almost see its manifold forms of beauty present before 
them. To his eloquence on this subject as well as to his 
actual labors in planting nurseries, the country over which 
he traveled for so many years is largely indebted for its nu- 
merous orchards. But he denounced as absolute wickedness 
all devices of pruning and grafting and would speak of the 
act of cutting a tree as if it were a cruelty inflicted upon a 
sentient being. 

Not only is he entitled to the fame of being the earliest 
colporteur on the frontiers, but in the work of protecting 
animals from abuse and suffering, he preceded; while, in his 
smaller sphere, he equaled the zeal of the good Mr. Bergh. 
Whenever Johnny saw an animal abused, or heard of it, he 
would purchase it and give it to some more humane settler, 
on condition that it should be kindly treated and properly 
cared for. It frequently happened that the long journey into 
the wilderness would cause the new settlers to be encum- 
bered with lame and broken-down horses, that were turned 
loose to die. In the autumn Johnny would make a diligent 
search for all such animals, and, gathering them up, he 
would bargain for their food and shelter until the next spring, 
when he would lead them away to some good pasture for the 
summer. If they recovered so as to be capable of working, 
he would never sell them but would lend or give them away, 
stipulating for their good usage. His conception of the ab- 
solute sin of inflicting pain or death upon any creature was 
not limited to the higher forms of animal life, but every 
thing that had being was to him, in the fact of its life, en- 
dowed with so much of the Divine Essence that to wound or 
destroy it was to inflict an injury upon some atom of Divin- 
ity. No Brahmin could be more concerned for the preser- 
vation of insect life; and the only occasion on which he de- 
stroyed a venomous reptile was a source of long regret, to 
which he could never refer without manifesting sadness. He 
had selected a suitable place for planting apple seeds on a 
small prairie; and, in order to prepare the ground, he was 
mowing the long grass, when he was bitten by a rattlesnake. 
In describing the event, he sighed heavily, and said, "Poor 


fellow, he only just touched me, when I, in the heat of my 
ungodly passion, put the heel of my scythe in hinn and went 
away. Sonne time afterward I went back, and there lay the 
poor fellow dead. " Numerous anecdotes bearing upon his 
respect for every form of life are preserved and form the 
staple of pioneer recollections. On one occasion, a cool au- 
tumnal night, when Johnny, who always camped out in pref- 
erence to sleeping in a house, had built a fire near which he 
intended to pass the night, he noticed that the blaze attracted 
large numbers of mosquitoes, many of whom flew too near 
to his fire and were burned. He immediately brought water 
and quenched the fire, accounting for his conduct afterward 
by saying, "God forbid that I should build a fire for my com- 
fort which should be the means of destroying any of His crea- 
tures!" At another time he removed the fire he had built 
near a hollow log and slept on the snow, because he found 
that the log contained a bear and her cubs, whom, he said, 
he did not wish to disturb. And this unwillingness to inflict 
pain or death was equally strong when he was a sufferer by 
it, as the following will show. Johnny had been assisting 
some settlers to make a road through the woods, and in the 
course of their work, they accidentally destroyed a hornets' 
nest. One of the angry insects soon found a lodgment under 
Johnny's coffee-sack cloak, but although it stung him re- 
peatedly, he removed it with the greatest gentleness. The 
men who were present laughingly asked him why he did not 
kill it. To which he gravely replied that "It would not be 
right to kill the poor thing, for it did not intend to hurt me. " 
Theoretically,he was as methodical in matters of busi- 
ness as any nnerchant. In addition to their picturesqueness, 
the locations of his nurseries were all fixed with a view to 
a probable demand for the trees by the time they had attained 
sufficient growth for transplanting. He would give them 
away to those who could not pay for them. Generally, how- 
ever, he sold them for old clothing or a supply of corn meal; 
but he preferred to receive a note payable at some indefinite 
period. When this was accomplished, he seemed to think 
that the transaction was completed in a business-like way; 
but if the giver of the note did not attend to its payment, the 


holder of it never troubled himself about its collection. His 
expenses for food and clothing were so very limited that, 
notwithstanding his freedom from the auri sacra fames , he 
was frequently in possession of more money than he cared 
to keep; and it was quickly disposed of for wintering infirm 
horses or given to some poor family whom the ague had 
prostrated or the accidents of border life impoverished. In 
a single instance only he is known to have invested his sur- 
plus means in the purchase of land, having received a deed 
from Alexander Finley, of Mohican Township, Ashland Coun- 
ty, Ohio, for a part of the southwest quarter of section 
twenty-six; but with his customary indifference to matters 
of value, Johnny failed to record the deed, and lost it. Only 
a few years ago the property was in litigation. 

We must not leave the reader under the impression 
that this man's life, so full of hardship and perils, was a 
gloomy or unhappy one. There is an element of human pride 
in all martyrdom, which, if it does not soften the pains, 
stimulates the power of endurance. Johnny's life was made 
serenely happy by the conviction that he was living like the 
primitive Christians. Nor was he devoid of a keen humor 
to which he occasionally gave vent, as the following will 
show. Toward the latter part of Johnny's career in Ohio an 
itinerant missionary found his way to the village of Mans- 
field and preached to an open-air congregation. The dis- 
course was tediously lengthy and unnecessarily severe up- 
on the sin of extravagance, which was beginning to manifest 
itself among the pioneers by an occasional indulgence in the 
carnal vanities of calico and "store tea. " There was a good 
deal of the Pharisaic leaven in the preacher, who very fre- 
quently emphasized his discourse by the inquiry, "Where 
now is there a man who, like the primitive Christians, is 
traveling to heaven barefooted and clad in coarse raiment?" 
When this interrogation had been repeated beyond all rea- 
sonable endurance, Johnny rose from the log on which he 
was reclining; and advancing to the speaker, he placed one 
of his bare feet upon the stump which served for a pulpit', 
and pointing to his coffee -sack garment, he quietly said, 
"Here's your primitive Christian!" The well-clothed mis- 


"Here's your primitive Christian." 
(HARPER'S MAGAZINE, November, 1871) 

sionary hesitated^and stammered, and dismissed the congre- 
gation. His pet antithesis was destroyed by Johnny's per- 
sonal appearance, which was far more primitive than the 
preacher cared to copy. 

Some of the pioneers were disposed to think that John- 
ny's humor was the cause of an extensive practical joke; but 
it is generally conceded now that a wide -spread annoyance 
was really the result of his belief that the offensively odored 
weed known in the West as the dog-fennel, but more gener- 
ally styled the May-weed, possessed valuable antimalarial 
virtues. He procured some seeds of the plant in Pennsyl- 
vania and sowed them in the vicinity of every house in the 
region of his travels. The consequence was that successive, 
flourishing crops of the weed spread over the whole country 
and caused alnnost as much trouble as the disease it was in- 
tended to ward off; and to this day the dog-fennel, introduced 
by Johnny Appleseed, is one of the worst grievances of the 
Ohio farmers. 

In 1838- -thirty-seven years after his appearance on 
Licking Creek-- Johnny noticed that civilization, wealth, and 
population were pressing into the wilderness of Ohio. Hith- 
erto he had easily kept just in advance of the wave of settle- 
ment; but now towns and churches were making their ap- 
pearance, and even, at long intervals, the stage-driver's 
horn broke the silence of the grand old forests, and he felt 
that his work was done in the region in which he had labored 
so long. He visited every house, and took a solennn farewell 
of all the families. The little girls who had been delighted 
with his gifts of fragments of calico and ribbons had become 
sober matrons, and the boys who had wondered at his ability 
to bear the pain caused by running needles into his flesh 
were heads of families. With parting words of admonition, 
he left them and turned his steps steadily toward the set- 
ting sun. 

During the succeeding nine years, he pursued his ec- 
centric avocation on the western border of Ohio and in Indi- 
ana. In the summer of 1847, when his labors had literally 
borne fruit over a hundred thousand square miles of terri- 
tory, at the close of a warm day, after traveling twenty 


miles, he entered the house of a settler in Allen County, In- 
diana, and was as usual warmly welcomed. He declined 
to eat with the family but accepted some bread and milk, 
which he partook of sitting on the door -step and gazing on 
the setting sun. Later in the evening he delivered his "news 
right fresh from heaven" by reading the Beatitudes. De- 
clining other accommodation, he slept as usual on the 
floor; and in the early morning he was found with his fea- 
tures all aglow with a supernal light and his body so near 
death that his tongue refused its office. The physician, who 
was hastily summoned, pronounced him dying but added 
that he had never seen a man in so placid a state at the ap- 
proach of death. At seventy-two years of age, forty-six of 
which had been devoted to his self-imposed mission, he rip- 
ened into death as naturally and beautifully as the seeds of 
his own planting had grown into fibre and bud and blossom 
and the matured fruit. 

Thus died one of the nnemorable men of pioneer times, 
who never inflicted pain or knew an enemy- -a man of strange 
habits, in whom there dwelt a comprehensive love that 
reached with one hand downward to the lowest forms of life 
and with the other upward to the very throne of God. A la- 
boring, self-denying benefactor of his race, homeless, sol- 
itary, and ragged, he trod the thorny earth with bare and 
bleeding feet, intent only upon making the wilderness fruit- 
ful. Now, "no man knoweth of his sepulchre"; but his deeds 
will live in the fragrance of the apple blossoms he loved so 
well; and the story of his life, however crudely narrated, 
will be a perpetual proof that true heroism, pure benevo- 
lence, noble virtues, and deeds that deserve immortality 
may be found under meanest apparel and far from gilded 
halls and towering spires.