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ss> "Hi** 




(CLASS OF 1878) 




By Sir WALTER GILBEY, Bast., and 

Containing 50 Full-page Reproductions in Colour 

of the artist's best work. 

Prloe 90/- net. 

{Post free, price ao/6) 

There is also an Edition de Luxe, limited to 250 

signed and numbered Copies. 

Prloe £9:9* net. 



Containing 91 Full-page Plates ($5 in Colour 

and numerous line illustrations in the text. 

Prloe 90/- net. 

(Pest free, price ao/6) 


By H. M. CUNDALL, I.S.O., F.S.A. 

Containing 91 Full-page Illustrations (73 in Colour) 

and numerous thumb-nail sketches in the text. 

Prloe 90/- net. 

(Post free, price ao/6) 

There is also an Edition deLuxe, limited to £00 

signed and numbered Copies, each containing 

as frontispiece an Etching by Birket Foster. 

Prloe £9:9* net. 


An Autobiography 
Edited by H. M. CUNDALL, I.S.O., F.S.A. 

Containing 91 Full-page reproductions in Colour 

of the artist's work, and numerous line sketches. 

Prloe 7/6 net. 

(Post free, price 7/1 1) 



(Site of original, 12 x ty.) 


iv. A. j /i . J\>. o. A. 






•v'->, ^\3_S". 3> 


America The Macmillan Company 

64 U 66 Fifth Avenue, New York 

Australasia The Oxford University Press, Melbourne 

Canada The Macmillan Company of Canada, Ltd. 

27 Richmond Steeet West, Toronto 

India . Macmillan & Company, Ltd. 

Macmillan Building, Bombay 

309 Bow Bazaar Striet, Calcutta 




After reading an 
artist's biography, 
John Pettie once 
turned to his sister 
and said : " Well, no 
one will ever write 
my life; it has been 
much too uneventful" 
It was, indeed, a life 
spent amid quiet 
waters, away from 
the storm and stress 
of action. Its very 
calmness, the ease 
and rapidity with which success was won, rob the 
biographer of picturesque opportunities. Pettie, 
moreover, was an indifferent correspondent, for he 
hated letter -writing, and he left nothing in the 
shape of diaries or documents (beyond a rough 


and incomplete list of his pictures) available for 
biographical purposes. These are probably the 
reasons why, though fifteen years have passed since 
his death, no monograph on John Pettie has yet 

These fifteen years, however, have witnessed 
a growing appreciation of his work, and especially 
of his power and influence as a colourist. It is 
increasingly recognised that Pettie with the other 
members of the Scott Lauder School — with George 
Paul Chalmers, McTaggart, Orchardson, and the 
rest — counts as one of the forces in nineteenth 
century art, and that his work has the elements of 
dramatic power, of brilliant colour, and individual 
style which make for permanent greatness. This 
must be the justification for the present volume, 
which professes to be little more than a plain presenta- 
tion of the essential facts of the artist's career with an 
attempt to indicate how his personal character is 
reflected in his work, and what the nature and value 
of that work is. His soul and strength were given 
to his art, his work was his life, and, biographical 
material of the ordinary kind being scanty, it is by 
his pictures that he must be known. It is therefore 
mainly of the painter that I have written. Those 
who knew and loved the man must pardon an 


imperfect record of one whose nature was at once 
as strong and as delicate as his own colour. 

I have tried to avoid approaching my subject in 
the partial spirit which relationship often engenders, 
and it is the more easy to offer unprejudiced criticism 
in that I was but a boy when my uncle died. It 
has been my endeavour also to avoid dwelling 
overmuch on incidents and sayings that to others 
might seem uninteresting or trivial. One might 
multiply little traits of character and relate end- 
less acts of kindness and generosity, which to the 
general reader might prove but a wearisome 
repetition of the fact that Pettie was one of the 
kindest and most generous of mankind. 

From the art point of view, the main value of 
my book will possibly be found in what I believe 
to be the almost complete descriptive catalogue of 
Pettie's work which it supplies. This has been 
compiled from his own imperfect entries in a note- 
book, from exhibition and sale catalogues, and 
from notes of pictures in private hands. The 
collecting of particulars as to many of the 
pictures has involved a vast amount of research 
and correspondence. In many cases a picture has 
been run to earth after quite a long process of 
detective work in the searching of clues and 


sifting of evidence. To all those correspondents 
who have helped me in the prosecution of such 
researches I tender most hearty thanks. 

Many biographical facts interwoven in the 
narrative have been gathered from conversations 
with friends of the artist, or from letters which 
they have kindly written to me. Though I have 
frequently used almost the actual words of the 
speaker or writer, I have not found it possible 
in every case to mention the name of a particular 
informant as to each fact or impression. My 
warm thanks are due in the first place to Mrs. 
Pettie and other members of the artist's family 
for keen interest and constant help; and, in the 
next, to many of Pettie's old friends whom it has 
been my lot to seek out in the course of collecting 
information. It is a pleasure here to express my 
appreciation of their warm welcome and ready 
assistance. Their names are almost too numerous 
to record, but I would particularly acknowledge 
the valuable help given by Mr. J. Bowie, A.R.S. A., 
Dr. Brown, Mr. A. S. Cope, A.R.A., Mr. J. H. 
Downes, Mr. Clarence M. Dobell, Mr. C. E. 
Johnson, R.I., Mr. J. MacCunn, Mr. W. D. 
MacKay, R.S.A., Mr. W. McTaggart, R.S.A., 
Mr. J. MacWhirter, R.A., Mr. Seymour Lucas, 


R.A., Mr. David Murray, R.A., Mr. J. Campbell 
Noble, R.S.A., Miss Noble, Mr. Briton Riviere, 
R.A., Mr. W. Wallace, Mr. A. P. Watt, and 
Mr. C. Winn. 

Mr. J. Paton (Glasgow Corporation Art Gallery), 
Mr. James L. Caw (National Galleiy of Scotland), 
Mr. R. Wood (Edinburgh Board of Trustees), 
Mr. G. Mackie (Aberdeen Art Gallery), Mr. Percy 
Bate (Royal Glasgow Institute), Mr. E. Howarth 
(Mappin Art Gallery, Sheffield), Mr. D. S. MacColl 
(Tate Gallery), Mr. J. J. Brownsword (Wolver- 
hampton Art Gallery), Mr. G. Birkett (City Art 
Gallery, Leeds), and Mr. J. B. Hall (National 
Gallery, Melbourne) have all furnished particulars 
of pictures in their charge, or have given much 
useful information as to other works with which 
they were acquainted. For similar courtesy I am 
indebted to Mr. Croal Thomson (Messrs. Agnew 
and Sons), Mr. W. L. Peacock (Messrs. Wallis 
and Son), Mr. R. Muir (Messrs. Bennett and Sons, 
Glasgow), Messrs. Arthur Tooth, and Mr. W. 
Permain. Mr. Alexander Strahan and Messrs. 
Blackie and Son have made useful communications 
as to Pettie's early work as a book illustrator. 

Articles on John Pettie in the Art Journal 
(1898) by Mr. W. M. Gilbert, and in Good Words 


(1898) by Mr. Robert Walker, and an admirable 
account of East Linton in an early number of 
the Scottish Review, have all been helpful. At 
various points, assistance has been gained from 
Sir Walter Armstrong's Scottish Painters (1888) 
and Mr. W. D. MacKay s Scottish School (1906), 
while again and again I have had recourse for 
information to Mr. Edward Pinnington's George 
Paul Chalmers, R.S.A., and the Art of Ids Time 
(Glasgow, 1896). His exhaustive study of the 
work of Lauder s pupils and the skill with which 
he suggests the atmosphere of their time, makes 
the book invaluable to any one interested in the 
nineteenth century developments of Scottish Art. 

Colour-reproductions that come within the 
limits of a printed page such as this cannot 
possibly convey in every case the full power and 
subtleties of a fine painting in oil. But the 
utmost care has been taken to ensure the best 
possible results, and I venture to believe that very 
many of the accompanying illustrations are, of 
their kind, remarkably exact and truthful, a not 
unworthy record of the painter's work. The hearty 
thanks of my Publishers and myself are due to 
those owners of pictures who, often at considerable 
inconvenience, have lent works in their possession 


for reproduction. Their names are not recorded 
here, for acknowledgment of the source from which 
each illustration has come is made on pages xxi 
to xxiil For special facilities in reproducing 
works in their charge I am indebted to the Council 
of the Royal Academy, the Trustees of the Royal 
Holloway College, and the authorities of the 
Tate Gallery, the Mappin Art Gallery (Sheffield), 
and the Art Galleries of Glasgow, Aberdeen, and 

Lastly, my thanks are due to my old friend 
Mr. John Henderson, who has read my proof with 
close care and has favoured me throughout with 
constant advice and suggestions. 




A picturesque village — Pettie' s birth, and boyhood at East Linton — His 
parents and their influence — East Linton a Scottish Barbizon — The 
born artist — Early experiments — Penny cakes of water-colour — 
Difficulties overcome — House-painters' pigments — A landscape 
impression — Early portraiture, and a village verdict — Visit to a 
Scottish Academician — An obvious " call " — Enters the Trustees' 
Academy — Lodges with his uncle, Robert Frier — His fellow- 
students — Robert Scott Lauder : his teaching and influence — His 
pupils as a School — Lauder's wrath at the new system — Other 
influences — John Phillip — The Pre-Raphaelite movement — A critic 
of 1860 — Pettie and Orcbardson — Friendship with McTaggart, 
Chalmers, and others — "Their talk was all of colour" — "Always 
on the trot " — Early skill in draughtsmanship — Deliberate search 
for expression in colour — Prizes at the Trustees' Academy — The 
Life Class — Rejected at the Scottish Academy — First success — 
Commended by The Scotsman — A picture now in Australia — Illustra- 
tions for Family Worship — Contemporary criticism on pictures of 
1860 — Destroys his own pictures — First commission for Good Words 
— Meeting with Dr. Norman Macleod — First venture at the Royal 
Academy — A painter with a future — Last work in Edinburgh — A 
narrow escape — Exercise and amusement — Light hearts and empty 
pockets — The Volunteer movement — Letter about the first recruits 
— The Artists' Company — The Edinburgh Review — Pettie and 
McTaggart help to Are the Royal Salute — Some early corre- 
spondence — Proposed visit to Paris — London stirs his imagina- 
tion Page 1 




Unremitting activity of Lauder's students — Need for hard work — The 
precariousuess of Art — Formation of a Sketching Club — The 
members — The Club at work and play — Love of dramatic incident 
— Sketches by Chalmers, Orchardson, and Pettie — The common 
influence in all — Edinburgh a city of Clubs — Predecessors of the 
Sketching Club— Its immediate forerunner, "The Smashers" — 
"The Smashers" reconstituted in London as the "Auld Lang 
Syne " — An early minute-book of the " Auld Lang Syne " Club — 
Lauder's students revive their Sketching Club in London — Fresh 
members added —Subjects, and methods of work — Some typical 
sketches — Academy pictures have their origin at the Club — A Club 
letter on the death of G. P. Chalmers, R.S.A.— End of the Club 
meetings— Book illustrations of the 'sixties — Pettie' s work for Good 
Words — A Good Words illustration becomes subject of a picture — A 
tribute from Gleeson White — Gives up Good Words illustrations — 
Suffers at the hands of the engraver — Other work for periodicals — 
Illustrations for various books— His fine draughtsmanship in black- 
and-white— Joins "The Etching Club" — Fellow-members — Two 
etchings from pictures — One suggests a picture . . Page 38 


Attraction of London to his ambitious nature— Follows Good Words 
to London — Method of developing ideas for the wood-block 
— A coffee-room table as a sketch-block — Shares a house with 
Orchardson and Tom Graham — Exhibits at the Royal Academy — 
The persistency of a collector — Trip to Brittany — Some Brittany 
pictures — Bread-and-butter for breakfast — Makes strides iu his 
profession — Removal to Fitzroy Square with Orchardson, Graham, 
and C. E. Johnson — A historic house in an artists' quarter — A 
Bohemian existence — Model and prize-fighter — The true spirit of 
Socialism — Armorial bearings and a brutal Government — 
Mr. Clarence Dobell's reminiscences— The new generation of 
Scotsmen — Certain of having their pictures hung— Marked men 
and made men — Put air and space into their canvases — Unkind 
criticism, and Time's revenges— Ruskin on John Pettie — Pettie 
and others on Ruskin — Pettie's powerful chiaroscuro — The repose 


of blank spaces — Ten years of fine work — Visit to Hastings, and 
marriage — " The Drum-head Court-Martial " a marked success — 
The Mappin Art Gallery — Poorly represented in London— "The 
Arrest for Witchcraft" — Critics find the picture "dun" — Elec- 
tion to Associateship of Royal Academy — Unusually young for 
the honour— Sir Walter Armstrong on Pettie's early success — 
Opinion in Edinburgh as to Orchardson and Pettie — Steady and 
consistent growth— Follows his own inclinations — No pandering 
to popularity — Ambition and tenacity — Dealers knock at his studio 
door — A good income — Unspoiled by success . . Page 59 


New house and a supposed burglar — Ten years at 17 St. John's Wood 
Road — "At Bay'* — "Treason" — Balance each year between tragedy 
and comedy— Visit to Italy— "Tussle with a Highland Smuggler" a 
high-water mark — Contemporary criticism of "The Disgrace of 
Cardinal Wolsey "—Pictures of 1870—" The Sally " one of Pettie's 
greatest works — "Tis Blythe May Day," and its successors of 
similar type — " A Scene in the Temple Gardens " — Other pictures of 
1871 — A visit from Josef Israels — Election as an Honorary Member 
of the Royal Scottish Academy — " Terms to the Besieged/' " The 
Flag of Truce," and other works of 1872 and 1873 Page 83 


Election as a Royal Academician — Exhibits two of his finest works — A 
piece of realism — The result of importunity — "Ho ! Ho ! Old Noll" 
— A problem of tone — Serves on the Hanging Committee — Diploma 
picture — Other work of 1875 — Power of rendering concentrated 
action— "The Tussle for the Keg" and "The Threat"— Lord 
Leighton as model— "The Solo" and "The Step"— A holiday at 
Callander — The influence of Scott and Highland scenery — "Dis- 
banded" and other Highland subjects — The death of G. P. Chalmers, 
R.S.A. — Letters to Chalmers's mother and McTaggart — "The 
Hour," and Pettie's passion for red — "The Death- Warrant " — Sir 
Walter Armstrong on Pettie as a colourist — Work of 1880 and 1881 
— "Trout-Fishing" — Power as a painter of landscape — Clever 


rendering of movement — "The Duke of Monmouth begging his 
Life"— The opinion of Dean Farrar— Other pictures of 1882— 
Builds "The Lothians" in Fitzjohn's Avenue — Sir John Millais's 
interest in the house — The studio to be a " workshop " — Furniture, 
armour, and bric-a-brac — The studio a reflection of its occupant 
— Entertainments in the studio — The property-room — Studies 
destroyed by Pettie's executors Page 97 


The search for a subject— " Dost know this Waterfly ? "— The "Blue 
Boy " problem — A punning title — A lean year — Trouble with " The 
Orientation of the Church" — His own mistaken estimate — "The 
Vigil" unsatisfactory but popular — Description of the Vigil of 
Arms — "Challenged" — Critical opinions of the picture — 
Mr. Seymour Lucas, and a night at Raynham Hall — Sir Walter 
Armstrong on Pettie's colour — "The Chieftain's Candlesticks" — 
A problem picture — The story as told by Sir Walter Scott — The 
candlemaker's offer— Exhibits of 1887— "The Traitor "— Two 
versions and their differences — A visit from Verestschagin — A 
moment of danger—" The Clash of Steel "— « The World went very 
well then " — Pictures of youth and spring-time — Exhibits of 1890 
and 1891 — "Bonnie Prince Charlie" — Last exhibits — Illness — 
Removal to Hastings — Death after an operation — Funeral at 
Paddington Cemetery Page 118 


Pettie as a portrait - painter — Portraits equal to his subject- 
pictures — Not sufficiently known — Lean years for the painter 
of genre — Portraiture became a necessity and a real pleasure 
— How to get the best models — Subject-paintings a portrait gallery 
of his relations and friends — Likenesses to be found in his pictures 
— A portrait of Briton Riviere — Position as a portraitist — Good 
sense and sound handling — Always a colourist — Dislike of modern 
costume — The costume-portrait — Arguments for and against it — 
Several portraits in costume — "A. P. Watt as a Scholar in the 
Time of Titian" — "Sheriff Strachan," a problem in greys — Portraits 


of artists in the Macdonald Collection, Aberdeen — Paid for " in 
meal or malt " — Portraits of Bough, Chalmers, and Ballantyne — 
Other portraits of artists— Portraits of authors — A tribute from Sir 
Walter Besant — Music, the Church, the Stage — Portraits of old age 
and of youth — Purity of flesh-tints — A portrait with a romantic 
history — Delicate refinement of handling — Rapidity of workmanship 
— Meeting with Dr. Burton, and a three hours' portrait — A deliberate 
test of speed — A practical joke — Other examples of rapidity — Caps 
stories with Bret Harte — Six cigars to a picture — Full story of the 
portrait of J. C. Noble, R.S.A. — Noble's Rem brand tesque studio — 
A " bit of blue "—A "shy " at Noble's head— The first three sittings 
— A discussion about cadmium — " For God's sake, gie me a bit o' 
cadmium " — A velvet coat commandeered — Physical exhaustion — 
Country skies versus those of London — An Academy banquet at 
Greenwich — Sir John Millais chaffs Pettie — "One of the finest 
portraits painted this century" — A nouveau riche whose portrait 
was not painted Page 140 


Love of the dramatic in life, action, and colour — Rembrandt's " beef- 
steaks " — The picture must tell its tale — Influence of Sir Walter 
Scott on Pettie and Scottish art — Subjects drawn from Scott — 
Attracted by the romantic drama of the past — A revival of romance 
— Elizabethan and Crorawellian periods supply many themes — 
Correctness of dress and accessories — Incidents from Shakespeare 
and Sheridan — Imaginative subjects of his own — Historical scenes — 
Pictures giving the spirit of history rather than historical fact — 
The quality of vision — Evil days for the subject-picture — The 
"literary idea" condemned — Pettie's independence of literature, 
and power of invention — Art not the slave of literature — Wide 
appeal of the subject-painting — Pettie's claim to greatness — His 
temperament reflected in subject and style — A rapid worker — 
An impressionist in the best sense — Knew when to stop — Chalmers 
and Tom Graham — His " white process" — Technique — Colour 
first and foremost — Wide range and daring use of colour — A 
French criticism — Mr. Briton Riviere on Pettie's colour and 
technique — Developments of style — His best period — Portraits — 
"Time will colour them" — Pictures have already mellowed — 


Power of draughtsmanship and tightness of arrangement — Whole- 
some and sincere British art — Water-colour drawings — Colour will 
prevail Page 170 


An uneventful life — A lover of armour, tapestry, and old furniture — 
An early purchase — A bargain in swords — An exchange with 
Seymour Lucas — The " Kernoozers' " Club — Visitors' nights — 
The connoisseur not infallible — A sad blow to Seymour Lucas — 
Pettie'8 love of music, and its inspiration in his work — A song for 
each picture — Hamish MacCunn, and a prophetic vision — Marriage 
of Pettie's daughter — Orchestral concerts — Music in his pictures 
— A prodigious smoker — " Now for a smoke ! " — A memorable 
Channel crossing — A keen player of tennis— An enthusiastic angler 
— A purist in fishing — The fishing motive in pictures — Summers 
spent in Arran — Visits to Italy — Sympathy with the young — 
Two letters— E. A. Abbey, R.A., in 1891— Hospitality at "The 
Lothians" — Welcome to Briton Riviere— " Say they've come 
frae Scotland" — Encouragement to students — Warm sympathy 
with beginners — Shows how the wheels go round — Incessant 
industry, and large total of exhibits— Honest and plain-spoken — 
A personality of a rare kind — A good companion and loyal friend 
— His nature " all amber and gold " . . . Page 194 


I. Portraits op John Pettie Page 213 

II. Catalogue op Pictures by John Pettie . . Page 214 

INDEX Page 265 







1 f^Rxri ?• 


Owner or Original 

• 1. 

Portrait of John Pettie, by 

/. MacWhirter, Esq,, R.A. 

himself . 





* 2. 

The Hour . 


Thomas M f Arly, Esq. . 



Cromwell's Saints 


John Jordan, Esq. 


• 4. 

The Monk Sturmi in Search 

of a Monastery Site 


Sir W. Jaffray, Bart. . 


/ 5. 

A Moment of Danger . 


T H. Ryland, Esq. 



The Step . 


Kenneth M. Clark, Esq. . 



The Jacobites 


The Royal Academy 


v 8. 

A Drum - head Court- 

Mappin Art Gallery, 

Martial . 


Sheffield . 



The Rehearsal 


Adam Wood, Esq. 





Mappin Art Gallery, 
Sheffield . 



Pax Vobiscum 


H. J. Turner, Esq. 


V I2. 

The Sally . 


Mappin Art Gallery, 
Sheffield . 





* IS. Rejected Addresses 

^ 14. The Flag of Truce 

j 15. "To the Fields I carried 


The Rt. Hon. Baron 
Faber ... 90 

Mappin Art Gallery, 
Sheffield . . . 92 

her Milking-Pails " 

R H. Brechin, Esq. 



Lady Teazle 

Charles Winn, Esq. 



A State Secret . 

Royal Holloway College 




Ho! Ho! Old Noll! . 

W. J. Chryslal, Esq. 


v 19. 

Friar Lawrence and Juliet . 

Mrs. Mayou . 



The Solo .... 

Kenneth M. Clark, Esq. 


• 81. 

A Sword-and-Dagger Fight 

Corporation Art Gallery 


Glasgow . 



The Highland Outpost 

Mrs. Orchar . 



Trout-Fishing in the High- 

lands .... 

W. S. Steel, Esq. . 


• 24. 

The Palmer 

John Aird, Esq. 


y 25. 

" Dost know this Waterfly?" 

P. S. Brown, Esq. 


• 26. 

The Vigil . 

Tate Gallery 


v 27. 

Charles Surface selling his 


J. Ogston, Esq. 



The Chieftain's Candlesticks 

[By permission of the late 


Mrs. Morten] 



The Musician 

Aberdeen Art Gallery 


„ SO. 

Two Strings to her Bow 

Corporation Art Gallery, 

Glasgow . 



A Storm in a Teacup . 

Colonel Harding . 



The Traitor 

Mrs. Ness 


, 88. 

The World went very well 

James Murray, Esq., 

then .... 





^ 34. Bonnie Prince Charlie 

^ 35. Scene from Peveril of the 

Peak .... 
* 36. Portrait of A. P. Watt, Esq., 

as a Scholar in the Time 

of Titian. 
/ 37. Portrait of William Black . 

Owner or Original facinq page 
Charles Stewart, Esq. . 140 

James Murray, Esq.,M.P. 1 44 

A. P. Watt, Esq. . .148 
Corporation Art Gallery, 
Glasgow . . . 150 

4 38. 

Portrait of Sir Charles 
Wyndham, as David 

Garrick .... 

Sir Charles Wyndham 

. 152 


Portrait of Miss Bessie Watt 

A. P. Watt, Esq. . 



Portrait of Martin and Berta 


Hardie . 

Mrs. Hardie . 



A Fayre Ladye . 

T. L. S. Roberts, Esq. 



Portrait of Dr. Burton 

C. Winn, Esq. 



Portrait of J. Campbell 

Noble, R.S.A. . 

J. C Noble, Esq., R.S.A 



The Milkmaid . 

John Jordan, Esq. . 



Disbanded .... 

Fine Art Institution 




j 46. 

The Clash of Steel 

John Jordan, Esq. . 


v 47. 

Grandmother's Memories 

Trustees of the late Alex 

Rose, Esq. 


7 48. 

The Cardinal 

[By permission of the late 

Mrs. Morten] 


j 49. A Knight in Armour 
(Portrait of William 
Wallace, Esq.) 

/50. Two Strings to her Bow 
(Water-colour Sketch) 

W. Wallace, Esq. . 184 

Charles Winn, Esq. . 192 




Pettie's Fist, by E. A. Abbey, R.A i 

The Harlequin Boy (Good Words, 1863) iii 

Study of Two Children's Heads iv 

The Monk Sturmi in Search of a Monastery Site {Good 

Words, 1863) vii 

Pettie's dream of Hamish MacCunn conducting a monster 

orchestra xiv 

Sketch of E. A. Abbey, R.A xxi 

"The Country Surgeon" (Good Words, 1862) . .263 

"What sent me to Sea" (Good Words, 1862) . .264 




The little village of East Linton lies six miles from 
Dunbar, and about twenty-three miles south of 
Edinburgh. Though the expresses from London 
go thundering across the bridge that spans the 
Tyne in the very midst of its red-roofed houses, the 
village offers no obvious attractions to the tourist, 
and still preserves much of the quiet remoteness 
which characterised it some sixty years ago when 
John Pettie was a boy. After the railway track 
crosses the Border at Berwick, a traveller with 
observant eye is rewarded by many pleasant 
glimpses of smiling scenery. On the one side are 
the rich agricultural uplands of "the garden of 
Scotland"; on the other, deep gullies breaking 
through red-rocked cliffs give a vista of the huts of 
salmon-fishers on the shore below, with nets drying 
in the sunlight, and quaint, flat-bottomed boats 


riding 'on the waves* But in all that journey there 
is no bit of scenery more picturesque or attractive 
than that glimpse — alas 1 too brief — of the red roofs 
of East Linton, and of the old stone bridge, with 
its ribbed arches, where the river goes tumbling over 
dark masses of rock into the 'linn,' to which the 
village probably owes its name. 

It was in East Linton that John Pettie spent 
his boyhood. The Dictionary of National Bio- 
graphy, and even his own tombstone, honour it as 
his birthplace ; but that is an error. He was born 
in Edinburgh on March 17, 1889, and migrated with 
his parents to East Linton in 1852. His father 
had purchased a business in the village ; and as the 
owner of the principal shop, a seller of wares more 
universal than those of Autolycus, was an import- 
ant person in the small community. Both parents 
were simple, honest, God-fearing Scottish folk. 
The father, Alexander Pettie, was kindly, humor- 
ous, and of a singularly gentle nature. In a faded 
letter, which he wrote to me when I first went to 
school, occurs this passage : — 

Latin and Greek are all very well: but cultivate good 
Common Sense. Be kind to your schoolfellows, obliging as 
far as you can ; never get angry, if possible ; keep cool, and 
" keep your powder dry." 


That was the doctrine which, by precept and 
example, he had instilled into his son John. A 
similar letter, written by the latter to a boy who 
had gained a Queen's Scholarship at Westminster, 
has recently come into my hands. It bears a 
curious resemblance to that letter of his father, 
both in spirit and in actual words, and shows 
how strongly his father's influence affected his 
character and career. 

" Just seen your name in the Times" he writes. " Not 
only your mother and your father, but your friends (I count 
myself one) are proud of you. Go on, my boy. Keep your 
head cool, don't think less of some folks who don't know the 
Greek for potatoes, and you will do. Pax tibi. [Here 
there is a sketch of a hand in benediction.] John Pettie." 

From his father John Pettie derived his gentle- 
ness and quiet humour ; from his mother, the 
sterling qualities of pluck and perseverance. Alison 
Pettie — always the active force of the household — 
was a typical Scotswoman of the old school, 
possessing rare shrewdness and keen vigour of 
intellect. She was a woman of broad sympathies, 
a thinker and an observer, a wide reader, educated 
in the fullest sense of the word. Like many another 
man who has made his mark in the world, Pettie 
owed much to early upbringing, much to a mother's 
strength of character. 


East Linton now has its art traditions, and will 
figure with prominence in any history of Scottish 
painting. Pettie's career was undoubtedly the in- 
spiring influence which led two East Linton boys 
in later days — Charles Martin Hardie, R.S.A., and 
the late Arthur Melville, A.R.S.A. — to enter the 
field of art Since their time the village has become 
a haunt of landscape painters, a Scottish Barbizon. 
Robert Noble, R.S.A., is their doyen, steadily faith- 
ful to the charms that first won him many years 
ago ; and the list of those who have fallen tempor- 
arily under its spell includes J. Campbell Noble, 
R.S.A. ; Austen Brown, A.R.S. A. ; Coutts Michie, 
A.R.S.A. ; James Paterson, A.R.S.A. ; Fiddes 
Watt, Grosvenor Thomas, the late Joseph Far- 
quharson, A.R. A., and many other Scotsmen ; while 
England too has sent her ambassadors, among them 
A. Friedenson and the late Edwin Ellis. The 
country folk have long ceased to gaze upon artists 
with open-mouthed curiosity, and by the riverside 
below the linn you will often find as many painters 
at work as on the foreshore of Newlyn or in face 
of the old Sloop Inn at St. Ives, where at times a 
man has to walk with caution for fear of tripping 
over the leg of an easel or setting his foot in a box 
of oily tubes. To those who know the place it is 


little wonder that an artist colony has been attracted 
by the quaint architecture of bridge and houses, the 
rocky linn, and the upper reaches of the stream, 
with old disused mills upon the bank, and pools 
fringed with silvery willows, that suggest Corot- 
like subjects at every turn. 

When Pettie was a boy at East Linton, land- 
scape painting of the Scottish school was still 
largely bound by classical convention and the 
traditions of the grand style. The heritage of 
Constable and the " men of 1880," who sought out 
the moods and mystery and poetry of simple Nature, 
had not yet begun to " thaw the unmaternal bosom 
of the North." The possibility of wresting the 
very soul and character out of Nature was still 
unimagined. And so it was the infinite variety of 
human character rather than of Nature that 
appealed to Pettie in his boyhood years. East 
Linton had no traditions in the 'fifties, and a village 
lad could obtain no knowledge of the world's 
inheritance of art Max Nordau would say of him 
that he possessed the peculiar susceptibility and 
keenness of the optical centre, which is the organic 
hypothesis of the talent for drawing. Scientific 
explanations are sometimes strangely futile, and it 
is simpler to say, in plain and adequate language, 


that he was a born artist. Art was in his blood ; 
drawing and colour were bone of his bone, flesh of 
his flesh. Nature never intended him for the dull 
and respectable vocation of a country tradesman ; 
but, naturally enough, his father wished him to 
follow in his own steps, and it troubled him greatly 
to observe his son, heedless of immediate duty, 
making surreptitious sketches of customers or of 
passers in the street Everything subserved the 
boy's purpose, and his early taste grew to a passion. 
More than once, when despatched on an errand to 
storeroom or cellar, he was discovered making 
drawings on the lid of a wooden box or the top of 
a cask, totally oblivious of his journey and its 

Dr. Robert Brown, the author of several 
educational works, who was Pettie's boy-chum in 
those days at East Linton, possesses the first 
drawing made by him in more than one colour. 
The subject, typical in its choice — " The Death of 
Twedric, King of Gwent, in the moment of 
Victory," — was copied from a cheap reproduction 
of some contemporary painting, but the colouring 
was Pettie's own. To draw and colour pictures, 
in these days of cheap paint-boxes, is a common 
amusement of children ; and this is no more than 


the ordinary child's drawing. But in a country 
village fifty years ago colours were not thrust 
upon every child, and a work such as this was 
evidence of difficulties overcome, and of zeal and 
perseverance. The material for this and later 
essays in art consisted of penny cakes of water- 
colours procured from Edinburgh. Among the 
wares in his father's stores were casks of raw crude 
pigment — red, blue, yellow ochre, and white lead 
— kept for the use of house-painters, and with 
these he dashed into his first experiments with oil. 
It is more than probable that his introduction to 
oil paint was forced upon him by some sudden 
failure in his stock of penny cakes. When a 
subject suggested itself, he was never one to be 
delayed or daunted by difficulties, and it was 
thoroughly characteristic of his impulsive nature 
that he should seize on the rough pigments of the 
shop. An instance, one of many, of this zest and 
eagerness, comes from a memory of my boyhood. 
On an evening walk with my uncle from Corrie to 
Glen Sannox in the Isle of Arran he was suddenly 
arrested by the particular effect of a single yellow 
light in the window of a white-washed cottage 
which glowed like luminous white paint against 
the dark background of purple heather. Neither 


by nature nor by choice was he a landscape painter, 
but he was caught by the inspiration of the theme, 
and turned straight homewards to make a vivid 
water-colour impression with my shilling box of 
paints, the only colours at his command. 

Even in those early days under his parents' 
roof-tree it was portraiture and genre that evoked 
Petties talent, and he made the most of the subjects 
which came ready to hand. Various members of 
his family served as models for portraits in crayon, 
washed with slight tint. A remarkable piece of 
work for the untrained hand of a country lad, 
fifteen years of age or less, is a drawing in colour 
of a village "character," one John Little, who 
went his rounds with a donkey, carrying coal and 
what not. The simple and untutored sketch is 
instinct with keen observation and subtle render- 
ing of character. The carrier's costume, the 
donkey's head, the tiles on the roof of the house, 
and the cobble stones of the road are drawn with 
particular care. "Losh me! If it isna Jock 
Little an' his wonderfu' cuddy: it's sae life-like 
that it's no canny," was the village verdict Even 
the "gudeman," though he might not admit it, 
was consciously proud of his son. 

At last there came a day when the mother's 


sympathy intervened. Greatly daring, she carried 
off her son to Edinburgh, a bundle of drawings 
beneath his arm, to visit Mr. James Drummond, 
one of the leading members of the Royal Scottish 
Academy. They were courteously received, 
and Drummond, after listening to the mother's 
story, threw out every discouragement "Much 
better make him stick to business" was his 
verdict, based on experience rather than evidence. 
After a long and kindly conversation, during 
which the boy stood by, silent and miserable, Mrs. 
Pettie ventured with a sigh, "Then it's no use 
showing you his drawings ? " Mainly to cheer the 
lad, who looked utterly downcast, Drummond 
readily expressed his willingness to see the work. 
Eagerly was the parcel opened, and sketch after 
sketch was handed to the painter, who studied 
them in silence, one after one. The boy watched 
his face tensely, like one who awaits a physician's 
verdict of life or death. Not a word was spoken 
till the great man handed them all back, and turn- 
ing to the mother said, "Well, madam, you can 
put that boy to what you like, but he'll die an 

There was no longer any idea of thwarting so 

obvious a "call." With every encouragement 



Fettie set out for Edinburgh to enter the 
Academy, founded by the Board of Trustees 
for Manufactures, then the only art school of its 
kind in Scotland. Drummond stood sponsor to 
him by giving the necessary recommendation, 
and his name was entered upon the rolls on 
October 16, 1855. From then until 1860 he lived 
at 56 India Street, with his uncle, Robert Frier, 
who only a few years before had himself forsaken 
a business in the High Street of Edinburgh to 
become a painter and a highly successful teacher 
of drawing. From the start Fettie had a steady 
supporter and friend in Robert Frier. 

At the head of the Trustees* Academy was 
Robert Scott Lauder, R.S.A., who, with John 
Ballantyne as his assistant, took personal charge 
of the Antique, Life, and Colour Departments of 
the School. Lauder had entered upon his duties 
in 1852, and his teaching and influence were 
beginning to make a clear mark on the develop- 
ment of the Scottish School. He possessed a 
fine sense of design, and a command of colour 
which has led Sir Walter Armstrong, in his 
Scottish Painters, to say that " in Lauder's better 
work there are passages which come near Dela- 
croix in rich resonance of tint" He had not the 


sustained force and the imagination of Delacroix, 
and at times there is a looseness and stiffness in 
his drawing, but he had the true passion for colour, 
and it was this colour instinct which he handed 
on to the younger generation. George Paul 
Chalmers, W. Q. Orchardson, J. MacWhirter, 
Hugh Cameron, Peter Graham, Tom Graham, 
and W. McTaggart were among Pettie's con- 
temporaries at the Trustees* Academy. It is no 
mean roll of names for a single teacher. 

Lauder will go down to fame, not as a painter, 
but as a great teacher with a wide and far-reaching 
influence. He set himself to teach his pupils how 
to see. In the Antique Class, for instance, he did 
not place a single figure, but a whole group of 
casts, before them. He insisted on a grasp of the 
model as a whole, in all its relations of line and 
colour, of light, shade, and perspective. Thus 
he taught his pupils that power of grouping, of 
seeing things broadly, of obtaining atmosphere and 
chiaroscuro, which is one common characteristic of 
their work. But he appears to have followed no 
cut-and-dry system, and to have made no attempt 
to mould his students into any uniformity, or to 
impress upon them his own personality and 
methods. Their master had the rare art of 


drawing out their latent powers, and directing 
them towards the best means of self-expression, 
but they were happily left to work out their own 
tastes and preferences. He inspired them with 
enthusiasm and a common devotion to high ideals, 
filling them with a sense of the importance and 
responsibility of their profession. Though Lauder's 
pupils preserved their individuality, they all owed 
much to the inspiration and magnetism of their 
teacher. As a School, they combined in breathing 
new life into Scottish art, at a period when it 
threatened to become listless and apathetic ; they 
inaugurated a fresh epoch and paved the way for 
later and wider endeavour. They had this in 
common, that their art was subjective and personal 
rather than conventional, and that one and all 
made beautiful colour their highest ideal. Though 
there is a melodic sweetness of tone in their work, 
which contrasts with the grave and grand harmonies 
of Lauder's style, all of them, I think, would 
acknowledge that of this love of colour Lauder 
was the fountain-head. There is an illuminating 
passage in a letter written by Pettie to McTaggart 
in November 1858 : 

I am the only student you know at the Academy. 
Lauder has persuaded me to commence a large painting of 


the skeleton. He is wild at the new system which they 
(Drummond, Paton, Archer) are going to begin at the Life 
Class, open after the New Year. He feels that their rigorous 
drawing and inattention in the meantime to colour imply 
that his system has been all wrong. Oh ! he if wild ! 

There were, of course, other influences at work 
besides that of Robert Scott Lauder. The Scottish 
National Gallery, with its superb Van Dycks, 
Gainsboroughs, and Raeburns, offered endless 
attractions to the young student, who spent long 
days there of earnest and concentrated study. 
The current exhibitions of the Scottish Academy 
contained works which were a constant stimulus. 
John Phillip's superb strength and brilliancy of 
colour must have attracted Pettie, just as it won 
the life-long allegiance of Chalmers. Phillip's finer 
work did not begin to find its way to the 
Edinburgh Exhibition till about 1861, when 
Pettie's technique was already well formed; but 
the colour quality of his work, seen in Edinburgh 
and London during the following years of his 
maturity, was a spur to the younger painter, who 
aimed at the same ideal " The Hour," shown at 
the Scottish National Exhibition this year (1908), 
reveals, perhaps, more than any other work by 
Pettie, an actual resemblance between the two 


painters. The colour of the somewhat olive face, 
the full succulent red of the dress, that seems to 
throw out a radiation of light, the feeling of 
strength rather than modulation in the handling 
of solid pigment, all express kinship to the work 
of Phillip. Both men were master colourists. 

In his Scottish School of Painting, Mr. W. D. 
McKay, though he does not deal individually with 
Lauder's pupils, indicates another reason why their 
technique shows a break from the traditions of their 
predecessors. He points out how in their case the 
broad and simple fusion of the great masters of 
the past is discarded for a manner partly dictated 
by the keen search after verisimilitude rendered 
necessary by the realistic mid-century movement 
In the 'fifties the influence of the Pre-Raphaelites 
was certainly making itself felt in Edinburgh as 
well as in the south. Between 1852 and 1860 
eleven pictures by Millais, among them " Ophelia," 
"Autumn Leaves," "The Blind Girl," "The 
Order of Release," and "The Rescue," appeared 
at the Scottish Academy, together with other 
works of the same School, such as the "Burd 
Helen" of Windus. And about 1861 or 1862 
Holman Hunt's "Claudio and Isabella" was 
exhibited in Princes Street, where it made a 


strong impression on Pettie. The resolution of 
the Pre-Raphaelites to cut away all convention 
and to turn devotedly to Nature as the one means 
of purifying modern art must have had a powerful 
effect upon the eager band of Scottish students, 
inspired as they were by their master s devotion to 
colour. Lauder's pupils differ from the Pre- 
Raphaelites in their grasp of atmosphere and in 
their exact use of broken colour, but they were 
undoubtedly influenced by the keen colour sense 
and the devotion to Nature of their English 
contemporaries. When Ruskin in later days 
likened the principal head in Pettie's " Jacobites " 
to the work of William Hunt, who, though not a 
Pre-Raphaelite, was strongly influenced by the 
naturalistic tendency of the times, one can quite 
understand what he meant ; though Pettie's virile 
technique is far finer than the "chopped straw" 
method of old William. Certain it is that while 
the earliest work of Lauder's pupils — that of both 
Pettie and Orchardson, for instance — is akin to 
that of their immediate predecessors, towards 1860 
a closer analysis of true tones finds expression 
in their work by the use of broken colour, with 
intermingling and transitional tints echoing the 
dominant note. 


That as a School they advanced slowly towards 
their command of colour, and that Pettie in those 
early days had not begun to strike those bell-notes 
which made his pictures sing out on any exhibition 
wall, is shown by a rare and interesting pamphlet 
on "Scottish Art and Artists in I860," written 
by " Iconoclast" At its close comes a brief note 
about the younger artists : 

Those of them who form what some call the New School 
stand much in need of caution and advice. They are clever 
young men of considerable originality, several of whom we 
trust yet to see highly distinguished. It would be flattery 
to say more, and injustice to say less. But they are falling 
into affectations and vices of style which must destroy them 
for ever, and this is the reason that we dedicate to them this 
short note. Their pictures want finish, and are objectionable 
in colour. The love of grey and grey-green exhibited by 
the school is ridiculous. It is their regulation colour — their 
harmony of harmonies is grey agreeing with itself. With 
Mr. Cameron it is a disease. Mr. Pettie and Mr. McTaggart 
are slowly giving up this affectation. The latter promises 
soon to be out of the grey school. Mr. Pettie, we doubt not, 
will also soon make his escape, notwithstanding that his 
principal picture, "The Minstrel," shows the vices of 
slovenliness and colour, fully as much as any of Mr. 
Cameron's. The colour here is grey in masses, shading into 
yellow, and relieved by white and red — white in a large 
expanse of tablecloth and red on the person of the minstrel, 
who, with open mouth, and audaciously bad legs, stands 
against the table singing. Mr. Orchardson's " Jeanie Deans " 
is especially grey and wretched. 


In every community of art students there is 
always one placed on a pedestal of high esteem by 
all the rest, one whose word is law, final and 
absolute. Pettie always remembered his first 
walk with a fellow-student along Princes Street, 
the sudden clutch at his elbow, and the reverential 
whisper, " There's Orchardson I " Orchardson was 
his senior by several years. He had joined the 
classes of the Trustees' Academy in 1846, and 
though he had left the School and had exhibited 
on several occasions at the Scottish Academy (his 
" Sketching from Nature," for instance, hung 
beside Lauder's "Christ teaching Humility" in 
1848), he returned in the session of 1852-8 in order 
to profit by Lauder's instructions, and for several 
years afterwards he was a frequent, if not a 
regular, attendant at the classes. That he 
influenced Pettie, or that both fell under common 
influences, is clearly apparent. Their work, for 
many years after this, bears a close resemblance 
both in subject and in technique. It was not till 
after they came to London that their development 
continued on different lines: Orchardson, with 
strong individuality, pursuing colour schemes 
based upon softly harmonised semi-tones, which 
have caused Chesneau to liken his work to the 



back of an old tapestry ; Pettie, with growing 
vigour, inclined rather to sacrifice nicety of 
manipulation to brilliant contrasts of colour and 
the gaining of striking effects. 

With Orchardson and others of his fellow- 
students — William McTaggart, Hugh Cameron, 
Tom Graham, and George Paul Chalmers in parti- 
cular — Pettie formed ties of warm friendship which 
remained unbroken through life. All were his 
close companions during the years which he spent 
in Edinburgh. With Chalmers he had much in 
sympathy, for Chalmers's start in painting was 
singularly like Pettie's own. He was originally 
bound apprentice to a general grocer and ship- 
chandler in Montrose, and after covering the walls 
of the shop where he worked with sketches made 
by means of a cheap colour-box, he set to work 
in oil with the common ship paints that came ready 
to hand. When Pettie and he were young students, 
they would sometimes go home after the evening 
Life Class to the high tenement in North St. David 
Street where Chalmers lodged ; and Pettie would 
stay talking till he had to remain for the night So 
they would retire to bed, still talking till they fell 
asleep; and, says Chalmers's biographer, "their 
talk was all of colour." 

(Sue of original, 40 x 84.) 


At the very outset of his career Pettie astonished 
teachers and fellow-students by the indomitable 
vigour and energy which he threw into his work. 
He set about everything with impetuous en- 
thusiasm. Mr. C. E. Johnson, R.I., tells how in 
those days he could not even walk from school 
to studio—" he was always on the trot" For two 
or three years he worked untiringly at drawing. 
By hard training in the schools he acquired that 
triumph over technique and that freedom and 
happy audacity of draughtsmanship which carried 
him to success, where the toilsome elaboration 
and patient concentration of another artist fails 
because it leaves the onlooker cold and unmoved. 
He acquired then a power and directness of draw- 
ing which enabled him afterwards to draw with 
his brush as freely and correctly as another man 
could with the point In later days he could dash 
a portrait or a figure straight upon the canvas 
with scarcely a touch of preliminary drawing, 
and then so manipulate his colour as to render 
all the niceties of expressive detail. His portrait 
of himself in chalk with very slight tints, done 
at the age of sixteen, within a few months of his 
entering the School, bears witness to his natural 
power of drawing. So he became an accomplished 


draughtsman long before he was a colourist He 
said afterwards : " I felt about colour then, like a 
boy looking at all the bright bottles in a sweetie- 
shop window, that it was something to be bought 
when I had saved up a pennyworth of drawing." 
One day, after Pettie had been for nearly two years 
at the Trustees' Academy, one of his teachers 
happened to call at India Street, and remarked to 
Robert Frier : " Your nephew is a fine draughts- 
man, but he seems to have no special faculty for 
colour.** The remark was repeated, and from that 
moment Pettie set himself to master the principles 
of colour. "If other men," he said, "become 
colourists by working ten hours a day, I'll work 
twenty 1 " He had the infinite capacity for taking 
pains that is the mark of genius, but fortunately 
he also possessed the true spark of genius itself. 
For neither the gift of seeing colour nor of express- 
ing it in paint can be acquired by pains or prayer, 
though training may serve in its development. 
" Colour may be in you," he said in later years, 
" and it has to be dragged out ; but it must be in 
you first." 

It was not until nearly three years after he 
entered the Trustees' Academy that Pettie won 
his spurs as a painter. In the session of 1857-8 


he gained the first prize for painting from the 
antique, the second and third prizes being awarded 
to Thomas Hay and James Wilson respectively. 
In that year, in the class of painting from life, Tom 
Graham took the first prize, Alexander Leggat the 
second, Pettie the third. The last of the School 
lists in which he appears as a regular student is 
that for 1858-9, when he was nineteen, but it is 
again entered in the following session, 1859-60, 
when with five other students he was granted a free 
ticket for the Anatomical Lectures. By a Treasury 
Minute of 1858 the Trustees' Academy had been 
bisected, and the Royal Scottish Academy made 
responsible for the conduct of the Life Class. In 
the Academy's Report for that year there is printed, 
as an appendix, a long note, dealing with the carry- 
ing on of the School, drawn up by Paton, Drum- 
mond, and Archer, who had been appointed visitors. 
It is dated November 8, 1858, and with its insist- 
ence on the importance of drawing as opposed to 
colour, was of a nature strongly calculated to 
awaken the ire of Robert Scott Lauder, as may be 
gathered from Pettie's letter, quoted above. Para- 
graph XL of the Academy Report expresses a hope 
that the School will be opened immediately after 
the Christmas holidays, but in the Report of the 


following year, 1859, regret is expressed that, owing 
to the extensive alterations which had been found 
necessary in the room set apart for the purpose, the 
School had not yet been opened. From the Report 
for 1860 one learns that the Life Class actually 
began on November 22, 1859. It was then 
carried on for six months in an apartment far from 
satisfactory, and perhaps with unsatisfactory results : 
at any rate, there is no mention of prize-winners 
till the Report for the year ending November 18, 
1861. " For the best finished drawing of the figure," 
a first prize of £5 was awarded to George Paul 
Chalmers, and a second prize of £2 to John Pettie ; 
while Tom Graham gained a prize of £8 " for the 
best series of drawings of the figure from memory." 
In 1857 Pettie sent in his first picture to the 
Royal Scottish Academy, and it was rejected. He 
carried it home under his arm over the South 
Bridge ; and one can imagine how another man, 
with the foolishness and sentimentality of youth, 
might have gazed over the bridge parapet and 
wondered vaguely whether life was worth living. 
But Pettie bit his lip, stamped his foot, and 
muttered," 111 make them hang my pictures yet" 
Then he went on at his eager trot, all the more 
anxious to drive ahead with the work he had in 


hand. It was never in his nature to "mourn a 
mischief that is past and gone." Buoyant and 
hopeful to the end of his days, he had a favourite 
saying, in any time of passing stress or trouble, 
that he could " stand a siege." In later years he 
was always sympathetic with the man whose pic- 
ture had been rejected, but he was always honest 
" You may be practically certain," he would say, 
" that if your picture has been rejected, it would 
have done you more harm than good had it been 

In 1858 he was more successful, for he sold a 
small picture called "The Dead Rabbit," and at 
the Royal Scottish Academy exhibited a " Scene 
from the Fortunes of Nigel— In Trapbois' House," 
which was bought for £15 by the Glasgow Asso- 
ciation for the Promotion of Fine Arts. The 
Scotsman of February 15, 1858, drew attention 
to it as "a very clever work, which could have 
been sold many times had it not been secured 
at the outset by the Glasgow Association." He 
showed also at the Academy portraits of his 
mother and his sister, probably tinted drawings. 
The sale of the "Fortunes of Nigel" is noticed 
in a letter written to McTaggart by George 
Paul Chalmers, who felt the contrast between 


his own dilatoriness and the steady industry of 
both his friends : 

Dear Mac. — . . . Hurrah!! Hurrah!!! Monstrous 
Success would need to be your placard. I have just got the 
Scotsman, and I read therein that aU (all did I say ? Yes, I 
see it again) your pictures were sold on Saturday. This 
is really extraordinary success. ... I also see that Pettie's 
picture is sold. Is it good ? Tell me. I am crazed, truly 
mad. I have been sleeping, or I might have had something 
of consequence. It cannot be helped now. I am to come 
out strong next year. That is the way to put it off. . . . 
Remember me to Pettie and all my other friends. 

In 1859 the Royal Scottish Academy accepted 
"The Young Student," a "Scene from The 
Monastery" and "The Prison Pet" The last 
picture, a manacled prisoner feeding a rat with 
the crumbs of his own scanty meal, was bought 
for £85 by the Association for the Promotion of 
Fine Arts. It was included in their distribution 
of prizes, and was won by Mr. W. H. Challoner of 
Adelaide. After passing through the hands of 
a Mr. James Macdonald, Canon Honor, and a 
dealer named Marcel, it is now in the collection 
of Mr. Barr Smith in Adelaide. In 1859, too, 
Messrs. Blackie gave him his first commission for a 
frontispiece and another illustration to Family 
Worship, a devotional work issued in monthly 


parts, at one shilling, during 1862 and 1863, and 
published in a handsome volume in 1864. This 
commission put another welcome £85 into the 
student's purse. His subjects were "Evening 
Prayer " and "Morning Worship," and models 
were sought in his home at East Linton. They 
reproduce scenes of Scottish family life which 
Burns immortalised in The Cotter's Saturday 
Night, and with which Pettie was familiar in his 
own village home. The latter subject, noteworthy 
already for completeness of composition and power 
of chiaroscuro, contains a striking likeness of his 
father, while the other figures are those of his 
mother, his sisters Jane and Marion, his brother 
James, and a servant They were painted in oils, 
and engraved by J. Stephenson. The result must 
have pleased the publishers, for within the next 
two years he was working on four further 
illustrations for Family Warship. The sub- 
jects, "Noah's Sacrifice," "Melchizedek blessing 
Abraham," "The Brazen Serpent," and "Paul 
taken by the Chief Captain," were based upon 
Schnorr's well-known renderings of the same inci- 
dents. " Noah's Sacrifice/' which by the courtesy 
of Messrs. Blackie I have seen, though dignified 
in colour and design, has a stiffness and formality 


which make little revelation of the painter of 
after years. 

In 1860 " Morning Worship " was exhibited at 
the Scottish Academy, and with it three other 
pictures— "False Dice," "The Water-Gate," and 
" The MinstreL" I have been unable to trace any 
of these early works of 1860, and therefore quote 
some passages of contemporary criticism from 
Scottish newspapers, which not only describe the 
pictures, but prove that the young artist's work 
was already singled out as [showing particular 
promise : 

By J. Pettie are several clever and effective works — "The 
Young Student," "The Prisoner's Pet," and a "Scene from 
The Monastery" where Halbert Glendinning stands horror- 
stricken by the vision which comes to him in his bedroom. 
These are all touched with a freedom and masterlike hand, 
so boldly that we scarcely know whether most to fear or to 
hope for the future of so daring a young student. 

We have said little about John Pettie's "Minstrel: 
Convent Hospitality." With his "False Dice," it proves 
the possession of talents far above those by which common- 
place painters are contented to secure a fleeting popularity. 
In him is a faculty of seizing the dramatic aspect of events. 
None of our young artists display so much vigour and versa- 
tility. He is evidently labouring hard, and his progress has 
been rapid. We believe that good things may be confidently 
expected from him, and we have no fear that, in his case, 
adulation will have power to cause any relaxation of that 


honest, thoughtful work, which has already carried him so 
far onward in the journey. Even now, meditative men may 
stand before his picture and read a story of Convent life, 
with its wearying formality that is interrupted by the visit 
of the red-haired minstrel, in whom professional audacity is 
vainly struggling for mastery over a sense of being looked 
on with suspicion, if not aversion, by the more ascetic of the 
brethren. There is a keen insight in Pettie's other picture, 
a representation of how certain Elizabethan gallants detect 
a sharper. He has juggled with false dice, defrauding yonder 
simple youth who is astonished at the plot from which he 
has been suddenly extricated. A noble station awaits a 
young man who produces such works of promise as these 
two pictures. — Edinburgh News, April 28, 1860. 

In 1861 he sent "Distressed Cavaliers turned 
Highwaymen," and three other subjects. The 
distressed Cavaliers are of the Roger Wildrake 
stamp. With hair dishevelled, garments torn, and 
unhealed wounds received in some skirmish with 
Roundhead foes, but still with an air of pretension 
and an appearance of rakish gentility, they are 
concealed in a thicket, and are busily engaged in 
making ready their arms for use against the in- 
mates of a carriage which approaches slowly from 
the distance through the snow. Among the other 
works was " The Day Dream," but this he after- 
wards destroyed, along with two pictures exhibited 
at the Crystal Palace in the same year. His 


critical attitude towards his own work and the 
high standard which he set himself is shown by 
the ominous entry "Destroyed'* in his notebook 
against five or six pictures of this early period. 
In one instance he begged back from its owner a 
work of which with maturer knowledge he did not 
approve, destroyed it, and gave him something far 
finer in its place. 

In 1862 he was represented by "One of 
Cromwell's Divines," and by " The Old Lieutenant 
and his Son," which gave clear evidence of his 
growing power as a colourist. This work, for 
which he received £55, was a commission from 
Mr. Alexander Strahan, the founder and publisher 
of Good Words, and was painted in illustration of 
a story by Dr. Norman Macleod, the editor of 
the magazine. The picture was to be a presenta- 
tion one to the eminent divine, who one day 
climbed the stair in India Street to see what 
progress the artist was making. Pettie received 
him at the door, showed him the picture standing 
on an easel, and while the great man was examining 
it, made a rapid sketch of his back view for em- 
bodiment in his next weekly budget to his mother. 
"Well, my lad," said Dr. Macleod, preparing to 
leave, "tell Mr. Pettie that I am sorry to have 


missed seeing him, but that I am delighted with 
the picture." There were profuse apologies and 
compliments when the youthful painter modestly 
acknowledged his handiwork. 

Meanwhile he had essayed a higher flight, and 
in 1860 made his first venture at the Royal 
Academy in London with "The Armourers," 
which was hung on the line. This was followed 
in 1861 by " What d'ye lack, madam ? " — a picture 
inspired by Scott's Fortunes of Nigel It is a 
work of singular brilliance and spirit, a vivid 
rendering of life in the London of olden days. 
There is rare charm in the figure of the mercer's 
apprentice, standing outside his master's booth in 
Fleet Street, and with sadcy smile wheedling and 
cajoling passing dames and damsels with his 
"What d'ye lack, madam? What d'ye lack?" 
With the exhibition of this picture his success was 
assured. The critic of the Athenceum drew 
attention to it as "a picture which with all its 
thinness of painting, has much quaint comic 
character and clever handling : indeed the handling 
is too clever." Pettie was now looked upon as 
a punter with a future; and there can be no 
doubt that the warm reception which this picture 
met brought the turning-point in his career, and 


encouraged him to seek his fortunes in the greater 
world of London. 

In 1862 he finished " Cromwell s Saints," the 
last picture which «he painted in Edinburgh. 
In it he displays the brilliant drawing, the 
characteristic style of conception, and the sure 
command of colour, which riper years only 
developed and strengthened. As a character 
study he did few things better than this realisation 
of the " old decayed tapsters,' 9 and other vagabonds 
of Cromwell's "lovely company," in whose ranks 
was supposed to be no blasphemy, drinking, dis- 
order, or impiety. Years later, in a "Member of 
the Long Parliament" (1878), Pettie did justice to 
the nobler and sterner side of Puritan dignity. Of 
the three figures in " Cromwell's Saints," the one 
on the right is noteworthy as a clever portrait of 
Sam Bough, R.S.A. During its painting, Pettie 
was sharing C. £. Johnson's studio in a building 
known as Short's Observatory, erected originally 
to contain a camera obscura and other popular 
attractions. Standing high, with a glass roof, just 
below the Castle Esplanade, the studio commanded 
a magnificent view across Edinburgh and the Firth 
of Forth to the blue hills of Fife. One day Pettie 
had just laid down his palette and risen for a 

(Size of original, 17 X 21.) 


smoke and a rest, when with a tremendous crash 
of breaking glass a great bundle fell through the 
roof on the very stool where he had been seated 
with head bent forward to his work. His easel 
was broken, and the bundle turned out to be a 
girl, who had clambered on to the root and was 
seriously, though not fatally, injured by her fall 
A minute sooner, and Pettie might never have 
gone to the south. The picture, fortunately, 
escaped damage, and with three other works, was 
exhibited at the Scottish Academy in 1868. It 
was followed in 1864 by " Who leads a Good Life 
is sure to live well," and after that Pettie was not 
represented at the annual exhibitions of his native 
town till 1871. 

During this Edinburgh period, while Pettie 
was perhaps happiest when engrossed in his work, 
he was also fond of healthy exercise and amuse- 
ment When spending his holidays at his East 
Linton home, he would work for part of the day, 
and would spend the rest of it in boating, or fishing 
in the Tyne, or would drag off McTaggart, or any 
friend who was staying with him, down through 
Binning Wood to bathe in the sea. In Edinburgh 
his day was one of incessant work, but on a free 
afternoon, with one or more of his fellow-students, 


most of them blessed with light hearts and pockets 
as light, he would revel in a modest fish dinner at 
Newhaven, a stroll round Arthur's Seat, or a 
ramble over the Braids. The evenings were given 
to recreation, a meeting of the Sketching Club, 
to which further reference must be made, or a 
social gathering of young artists at his uncle's 
house or elsewhere. 

In the summer of 1858, he paid his first visit 
to London, making a short stay only, and return- 
ing by steamer. To judge from a letter, containing 
a brief reference to this trip, Turner's landscapes 
at the National Gallery made an impression on 
him that overpowered all else. About this time, 
too, he was becoming fond of music. In 1859 he 
writes : " I have so many irons in the fire — begin 
to learn the organ scientifically ! " 

He was also a keen* volunteer, one of those 
who enlisted at the outset of the movement The 
circular letter from Colonel Jonathan Peel pro- 
posing the organisation of a National Volunteer 
Association for promoting the practice of rifle- 
shooting was written in May 12, 1859, and the 
Association was definitely formed in London on 
November 16, 1859. In Edinburgh things moved 
even more rapidly, for in a letter written from 


India Street in the summer of that year Fettie 
says : "Do you hear of the volunteer movement — 
Ballantyne ensign ? He was trying to get recruits 
among the students, with what success I don't 
know. I told him I could not join. 9 At the 
time of writing Pettie was just setting out to East 
Linton to find models for his two pictures painted 
for Messrs. Blackie, and had with regret refused 
an invitation from McTaggart to go to Campbel- 
town and see something of the herring fishery. 
On August 28, 1859, he writes to McTaggart 
from East Linton : 

As to the Artillery Corps, it is fairly set going. While 
here I got repeatedly letters, to see if I would join, from 
Cameron, Orchardson, etc., and went in one day to meet 
them all at the Military Academy, Lothian Road, where 
they are getting just now private drill. Mr. Douglas, the 
great mover, told us that the Lord Provost was ready to 
embody us when we numbered fifty into an Artillery Corps,, 
"The Edinburgh Artillery Corps," I believe. We at that 
time were only thirty-two, and in the meantime, till we 
collect more, are getting private drill at our own expense 
(Is. a week). This drill I can't just now attend, but when 
in Edinburgh I will. The night I was there, it was capital. 
There were all the artists mostly that were in town, and 
would be likely to join — Sam Bough, Drummond, Douglas, 
a good many of the young fellows, and one or two engravers. 

Will you join ? You must. Such splendid prospects we 
have of being stuck behind a stone dyke and peppering 



at an enemy. They talk of the Government fortifying 
Inchkeith for us. 

The Artists* Company, thus formed, was No. 1 
Company (there were nine in all) of the City 
Artillery Volunteers. A letter of November 1, 
1859, shows that McTaggart was persuaded to 

My uniform will be ready on Tuesday. A little private 
drill will put you equal with us in no time. Your name is 
read out from the roll every night by Lieutenant Faed, and 
you are jotted down as "absent," my boy. 

The Artists' Company naturally took part in the 
great Edinburgh Review on August 7, 1860, 
when over 20,000 volunteers marched past the 
Queen in the Queen's Park. The Review was in 
the afternoon, and during the morning Pettie and 
McTaggart were idling about the Half Moon 
Battery of Edinburgh Castle. It was characteristic 
of Pettie's impulsive nature that, seeing the pre- 
parations for the Royal Salute at midday (the 
Queen was then at Holyrood), he pulled his 
companion along with him, stepped up to the 
officer in command, saluted him, explained that 
they were gunners, and asked that they might fall 
in with his men. The officer was amused, but it 
was a special occasion, and he granted their 


request. So Pettie and McTaggart helped to fire 
the Royal Salute on the day of the great Edin- 
burgh Review. 

These letters written to Mr. McTaggart, from 
which it is my privilege to quote, are full of un- 
sophisticated youthfulness, but they show glimpses 
here and there of the earnest thought and sense of 
duty which underlay the writer's humour and high 
spirits ; above all, they indicate the calm belief, 
which remained unshaken throughout his life, in 
the " Providence that shapes our ends." In their 
brief, jerky phrases, characteristic of the man, they 
tell the tale of his eager enthusiasm, his impulsive- 
ness and his ambition. Two or three short extracts 
from letters written in 1859 will serve to give an 
insight into his character. 

I have just written to mother my weekly scribble, egotistical 
enough even for her. I daresay it does me good to talk of 
my affairs to one who, I'm sure, won't be bored with the 
little details ; and I feel ready to commence to-morrow, and 
work as if there was nobody else in the world but myself, 
perfectly independent. It's a curious feeling, the desire for 

R , poor fellow, has a hard struggle, Pm afraid, obliged 

to paint photographs. He told me he believed he must give 
up all hopes of becoming an artist. It made me melancholy, 
and at the same time thankful for my own privileges. I 
cant but think that circumstances make or mar the man. 


How else can one account for many intelligent and apparently 
talented men being found among the unsuccessful? It 

frightens me when I meet such. S called the other day. 

I don't understand what has taken the ambition out of the 
fellow. Undoubtedly he possesses no ordinary talent, and 

yet . Are you ever bothered with doubts of your own 

ability to get on ? The idea is often present with me that 
there is a possibility of commencing well, promising some- 
thing, even doing something, and after all sinking into that 
most wretched of all men, the unsuccessful artist. I suppose 
nothing can assure one but firm purpose to work, and leaving 
the rest to Providence. There, Tve talked myself into the 
dumps ! ! 

Another letter to McTaggart, written on Sep- 
tember 26, 1859, shows Pettie's grasp of character, 
and reveals how from the first George Paul 
Chalmers, lovable as he was in temperament, lacked 
the grit and backbone which might have made him 
one of the greatest of painters. 

I am glad you are getting on with your picture well. I 
know you will work, and confidently expect something worthy 
of you. Isn't it curious, but I don't feel the same confidence 
in Chalmers. Fancy ! he tells me he has destroyed what I 
thought & good bit, and well done, of his picture, and seems 
to have no very clear notion about finishing it before 
February. Don't say I said so, but I was very sorry when he 
told me, and gave him a regular blowing-up. There's no 
depending on the fellow. How valuable to him would be 
some of your strength of purpose — zvitt in fact ; for there is 
no saying when he does begin his picture again. 


About the time of writing this letter he was 
" pitching into French again " with a view to a 
proposed journey abroad. In September 1859, he 
writes to McTaggart : 

Since I got your letter, I have been a-castle-building. 
Of late I have been proposing to myself to see Paris next 
year. Just allow your imagination to follow me till I relieve 
my mind of a great and glorious idea. Now suppose you 
and I get plenty of money for our pictures ; and next suppose, 
as a second storey to the castle, that we go up to London 
when the R.A. Exhibition opens, and then (third storey) go 
right on to Paris ? If I have the money to spare I zvUl go, 
but feel crushed a good deal at the idea of not having your 
company. It would make the jaunt complete. 

Though he sold all the pictures which he ex- 
hibited in 1860, the foreign expedition did not 
take place till 1862. Perhaps in the meantime 
the greater project of burning his boats behind 
him and settling in London had begun to stir his 



In the common life of Lauder's students nothing 
was more striking than their unremitting activity. 
They lived in an atmosphere of hard, methodical 
work. The Antique and Life Classes were held from 
eight to ten in the morning, and from six to eight 
in the evening. With formal class attendance and 
other studies Lauder virtually made them work 
twelve hours a day, and nine days out of a fort- 

They were, however, not men to be daunted by 
hard toil. Nearly all came from the poorer walks 
of life ; and most had made their sacrifices, broken 
down their barriers, and knew well what it meant 
to struggle for a foothold. McTaggart had begun 
by dispensing drugs in Campbeltown; Joseph 
Henderson had started in a hosier's in Edinburgh ; 
George Paul Chalmers had been a messenger boy 



to a doctor, and assistant in a Montrose Store ; and 
so it was with most of the rest Nearly all had 
been thwarted by a foolish antipathy in their home 
circles to art in the abstract, and by hasty convic- 
tions, such as that of Drummond uttered before he 
studied Pettie's drawings, that business was a solid 
thing, while art was something precarious. 

The Scottish student, born of the soil, whether 
he study Art or the "Humanities," has grit and 
endurance for his birthright So these students of 
Lauder, not content with the labours of the day, 
found an additional outlet for the perfervidum 
ingerdum of their race in a Sketching Club, which 
met in the evenings. It was formed about 1858, 
and among the members were McTaggart, Hugh 
Cameron, MacWhirter, Orchardson, and C. E. 
Johnson, who, though not one of Lauder's students, 
was on terms of close friendship with all. They 
gathered in one another's rooms (not always to be 
dignified with the title of studio), and the meetings 
were easy and unceremonious, made up of happy 
work and pleasant intercourse. The proceedings 
began with tea, provided by the host of the evening ; 
then the subject of the sketch was announced, and 
for this between an hour and two hours was the 
time allowed. After an interval for examination 


and criticism of the sketches, they usually drifted 
into a general discussion of some art topic, or else 
began the festivities in which students, the wide 
world over, find an outlet for youthful spirits. There 
were boxing, fencing, single-stick play, and various 
acrobatic feats. Then also each man had his song. 
What Pettie's was, legend does not state; but 
George Paul Chalmers excelled in chanting Shelley's 
" Ode to a Skylark," while another special favourite 
was "The Twa Corbies." And on one occasion, 
when the Club was in danger of dissolution, 
Chalmers saved it by the timely reading of a paper 
urging its advantages and advocating its continuance. 
There was no notion, as in some Sketch Clubs 
of to-day, of turning out a finished drawing for 
exhibition or for sale. The sole aim was to embody 
some motive, to give expression to some one idea, to 
point a moral or adorn a tale. A suggestive scribble 
was valued more than a meaningless but finished 
sketch, and often the final result was achieved by 
an hour's thinking and ten minutes' work. Even 
in their early days this Scottish coterie displayed a 
characteristic leaning towards the dramatic in 
episode and incidents. In Mrs. Pettie's possession 
are three typical little drawings, made at the Club 
in 1860. By Chalmers is the figure of a woman, 


seated with head bowed upon a table, while her 
arm still hangs listlessly over a letter which has 
fallen from her hand upon the floor. It is Sorrow 
personified ; and the drawing is full of that subtle 
Rembrandtesque feeling of light and shade in which 
Chalmers took delight Orchardson's sketch — a 
man descending a precipice, while his false friend 
crouches above, with knife in hand, in act to cut 
the rope — touches a note of sudden tragedy. 
Pettie's subject is taken from that fine old Scotch 
ballad, " The Twa Corbies " : 

As I was walking all alane 

I heard twa corbies making a mane : 

The tane unto the t'other say, 

" Where sail we gang and dine to-day ? 

" In behint yon auld fail dyke 
I wot their lies a new-slain knight ; 
And naebody kens that he lies there, 
But his hawk, his hound, and lady fair. 

" His hound is to the hunting gane, 
His hawk to fetch the wild-fowl hame, 
His lady's ta'en another mate, 
So we may mak our dinner sweet. 

" Yell sit on his white hause-bane, 
And I'll pick out his bonny blue een : 
Wi' ae lock o' his gowden hair 
We'll theek our nest when it grows bare." 

The drama and romance of the ballad took 
strong hold of his imagination; and twenty-four 


years later he returned to the subject, painting it 
in oil as a gift to his friend, Professor MacCunn of 
Liverpool University. In an accompanying letter 
it was modestly described as " the ghastly object" 
The picture is, of course, more complete than the 
early sketch ; the skeleton with its " white hause- 
bane " is more clearly indicated ; and some wind- 
blown grass on the top of the dyke was touched in 
by Peter Graham. In its earlier form, as a slight 
sepia sketch, it is full of softness and delicacy. In 
fine draughtsmanship and in technique it is singu- 
larly like the other sketch by Orchardson, though 
perhaps it has more character and expressiveness. 
In both the Lauder influence is apparent ; there is 
fine drawing without the appearance of any definite 
outline ; light and shade are woven into one another, 
hard edges melting in the element of atmosphere. 

Edinburgh has always been a centre of culture 
and a city of clubs. The Sketching Club of 
Lauder's pupils had noteworthy predecessors. The 
"Douay College " and the "Dilettanti Society " of 
the eighteenth century were convivial clubs to 
which others besides the artistic fraternity resorted ; 
and the "Aesthetic Club," founded in 1851, 
embraced theology, philosophy, and science as well 
as art ; but " The Smashers," founded in 1848, con- 


sisted entirely of artists, and was the immediate 
forerunner of the club to which Pettie belonged. 
Its original members were John Ballantyne, William 
Crawford, William Fettes Douglas, John Faed, 
Thomas Faed, and James Archer, and its proceed- 
ings were much the same as those of the later 
society. Its minutes, fully extended in a rough 
rhyme, tell of the sketches made, of the theories dis- 
cussed in jest or earnest by the members, and give 
a delightful glimpse into the artist life of those days. 
Fifteen years later, when most of the members 
had won name and fame across the Border, the 
Smashers' Club was reconstituted in London with 
the more dignified title of the " Auld Lang Syne " ; 
and Erskine Nicholl, John Stirling, and Andrew 
Maclure were added to the roll. Not long ago a 
minute-book of its London meetings (now in the 
Library of the Royal Scottish Academy) came into 
my possession. It is a leather-bound, dumpy little 
volume, and the dealer who sold it confessed 
frankly enough that it had cost him the ridiculous 
sum of one penny at a bookstall in the north of 
London. The minutes record that Pettie, Orchard- 
son, and Peter Graham were all at times welcomed 
as guests. It may be of interest to quote a single 
entry : 


Friday, 91st December 1866.— The Club met on this eve- 
ning at 21 Phillimore Gardens. The subject of the sketch 
was "A Situation.*" Two members absent on account of 
illness, Mr. John Faed and Mr. Maclure. As it was the last 
meeting of the Club that Mr. Douglas 1 was to be present at 
(he going to Scotland next week), the host took the liberty of 
asking more than the allowed number of guests ; but as they 
all belonged to the body of Scottish Artists in London (with 
one exception), he trusted that the appropriateness of their 
presence would cover his transgression. They were Mr. 
Houston, R.S.A., Mr. Pettie, A.R.A., Mr. Orchardson, Mr. 
Peter Graham, and Mr. J. D. Watson. The usual toasts 
were proposed and drunk, and the non-presence of the absent 
members deplored. Mr. Douglas's sad fate was bewailed, 
and a dirge sung on the occasion by the ladies. The host 
should mention that Mr. Thos. Faed, in his enthusiasm for 
the Club, having been ill all day, rose out of bed to be 
present ! The meeting, he thinks, was successful, and separ- 
ated at the usual hour. James Archer. 

In an exactly similar way, the later generation 
of Scottish artists, to which Pettie belonged, 
revived in London, after a considerable interval, 
the Sketching Club of their Edinburgh days. 9 
McTaggart and Hutchison had been left in the 
north, but with these exceptions the old members 
renewed their meetings. New friends, however, 
were made in London, and a few fresh members 

1 Afterwards Sir William Fcttes Douglas, P.R.S.A. 

3 For fuller notes on this and the " Auld Lang Syne " Club, see articles 
by the present writer in The Artist (January 1909, with illustrations) and 
Chambers's Journal (January 1906). 


were enrolled, among the first being Frank Holl, 
Colin Hunter, and George Lawson. The Club, as 
before, met once a week at the members' houses in 
rotation. It was the duty of the host to choose 
the subject and his privilege to keep the sketches. 
Most of them have, unfortunately, been scattered, 
by gift, bargain, or exchange, and many must be in 
the hands of owners who have no knowledge of 
their origin. Some were recently put up for sale 
in a well-known auction-room, and each was 
heralded by the auctioneer as a " Langham Club " 
sketch ! 'Mrs. Pettie and Mr. C. £. Johnson each 
retain a few, bearing dates from 1875 to 1884; 
and three, one of them by Pettie, are in my 
possession. The sketches were worked in water- 
colour, sepia, ink, or pencil, rubbed and smudged 
and handled in all manner of ways on paper of 
all shades and shapes and sizes. The subject 
was usually indicated by a single word — "Joy," 
"Sorrow," "Destruction," "Frolic," "Childhood," 
and so forth. Occasionally the landscape men were 
given a better chance, as in " Black and White," or 
" A Cold Morning," though it is wonderful to note 
how successfully they tackled such a subject as 
"Destruction." C. E. Johnson illustrates it with 
a shipwreck, while MacWhirter depicts a burning 



castle — the dark mass of ruins and some withered 
trees against the lurid glare of the sky, making a 
fine piece of composition and colour. In Pettie's 
case the subject inspired a powerful drawing of 
Palissy seated despondently before his furnace door 
with his pottery lying in shattered fragments on 
the ground. 

There was another night when "Lo, the poor 
Indian/' or at any rate something that suggested 
the Wild West, was the theme proposed. A bold 
sketch in sepia by Orchardson shows a proud 
warrior chief who has been fleeing before a prairie 
fire. He sits astride of the horse that has sunk 
beneath him, and turns resolute to face his ap- 
proaching doom. Petties is a humorous, fanciful 
sketch in sepia and charcoal of a Red Indian 
waving his scalping knife in the wild abandon of the 
war-dance. The figure, lit by the glare of the fire 
before which he dances, stands out finely against 
the dark background of the forest primeval. In a 
fighting scene, dated 1878, Pettie had the kind of 
subject in which he took the keenest delight 
Two Highland chiefs, with their retainers, have 
met in a narrow lane, and with targe and claymore 
are fiercely disputing the right to the "head of the 
causeway. 1 * There is a strong similarity between 


this sketch, with its vivid suggestion of i 
and the background of the picture, "The Clnh 
of Steel," exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1888. 
Indeed, many of the sketches made at these evening 
meetings were worked out later on a larger scale 
Pettie's « Challenge," HoITs " Child's Funeral," and 
many another picture had their origin in an hour's 
sketch, done on the spur of the moment, at some 
meeting of the Club. 

No minutes were kept, but a joint letter written 
by the members of the Club, to offer their sympathy 
to Mrs. Collie, on the death of her son George 
Paul Chalmers, serves as an interesting record of 
one meeting at which general sadness prevailed : 

The Sracmve Cur*, Lrocnnr, 
Z3rt FAnmry 187*. 

Dear Madam — In great sadness we desire to offer you our 
most heartfelt and tender sympathy in the affliction which 
has so suddenly overtaken yon. We feel how little good 
mere words can do to soothe, in presence of this great 
calamity, nor will we even attempt to express our own 
feelings, or the sense of our heavy loss, but can only assure 
you that we mourn in common, you a dear and devoted son, 
and we a brother. 

John Burr. George A. Lawsox, 

Thomas Graham. J. MacWhirter. 

Frank Holl. W. Q. Orchardsok. 

Colin Hunter. John Pettis. 

C £. Johnson. F. R. Stock. 


castle — the dark mass of ruins and some withered 
trees against the lurid glare of the sky, making a 
fine piece of composition and colour. In Pettie's 
case the subject inspired a powerful drawing of 
Palissy seated despondently before his furnace door 
with his pottery lying in shattered fragments on 
the ground. 

There was another night when "Lo, the poor 
Indian/' or at any rate something that suggested 
the Wild West, was the theme proposed. A bold 
sketch in sepia by Orchardson shows a proud 
warrior chief who has been fleeing before a prairie 
fire. He sits astride of the horse that has sunk 
beneath him, and turns resolute to face his ap- 
proaching doom. Pettie's is a humorous, fanciful 
sketch in sepia and charcoal of a Bed Indian 
waving his scalping knife in the wild abandon of the 
war-dance. The figure, lit by the glare of the fire 
before which he dances, stands out finely against 
the dark background of the forest primeval. In a 
fighting scene, dated 1878, Pettie had the kind of 
subject in which he took the keenest delight 
Two Highland chiefs, with their retainers, have 
met in a narrow lane, and with targe and claymore 
are fiercely disputing the right to the "head of the 
causeway." There is a strong similarity between 


this sketch, with its vivid suggestion of movement, 
and the background of the picture, "The Clash 
of Steel," exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1888. 
Indeed, many of the sketches made at these evening 
meetings were worked out later on a larger scale. 
Pettier « Challenge," Holl's " Child's Funeral," and 
many another picture had their origin in an hour's 
sketch, done on the spur of the moment, at some 
meeting of the Club. 

No minutes were kept, but a joint letter written 
by the members of the Club, to offer their sympathy 
to Mrs. Collie, on the death of her son George 
Paul Chalmers, serves as an interesting record of 
one meeting at which general sadness prevailed : 

The Sketching Club, London, 
23rrf February 1878. 

Dear Madam — In great sadness we desire to offer you our 
most heartfelt and tender sympathy in the affliction which 
has so suddenly overtaken you. We feel how little good 
mere words can do to soothe, in presence of this great 
calamity, nor will we even attempt to express our own 
feelings, or the sense of our heavy loss, but can only assure 
you that we mourn in common, you a dear and devoted son, 
and we a brother. 

John Burr. George A. Lawson. 

Thomas Graham. J. MacWhirter. 

Frank Holl. W. Q. Orchardson. 

Colin Hunter. John Pettie. 

C. £. Johnson. F. R, Stock. 


castle — the dark mass of ruins and some withered 
trees against the lurid glare of the sky, making a 
fine piece of composition and colour. In Pettie's 
case the subject inspired a powerful drawing of 
Palissy seated despondently before his furnace door 
with his pottery lying in shattered fragments on 
the ground. 

There was another night when w Lo, the poor 
Indian," or at any rate something that suggested 
the Wild West, was the theme proposed. A bold 
sketch in sepia by Orchardson shows a proud 
warrior chief who has been fleeing before a prairie 
fire. He sits astride of the horse that has sunk 
beneath him, and turns resolute to face his ap- 
proaching doom. Pettie's is a humorous, fanciful 
sketch in sepia and charcoal of a Bed Indian 
waving his scalping knife in the wild abandon of the 
war-dance. The figure, lit by the glare of the fire 
before which he dances, stands out finely against 
the dark background of the forest primeval In a 
fighting scene, dated 1878, Pettie had the kind of 
subject in which he took the keenest delight. 
Two Highland chiefs, with their retainers, have 
met in a narrow lane, and with targe and claymore 
are fiercely disputing the right to the " head of the 
causeway/' There is a strong similarity between 


this sketch, with its vivid suggestion of movement, 
and the background of the picture, "The Clash 
of Steel," exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1888. 
Indeed, many of the sketches made at these evening 
meetings were worked out later on a larger scale. 
Pettie's "Challenge," Holl's " Child's Funeral," and 
many another picture had their origin in an hour's 
sketch, done on the spur of the moment, at some 
meeting of the Club. 

No minutes were kept, but a joint letter written 
by the members of the Club, to offer their sympathy 
to Mrs. Collie, on the death of her son George 
Paul Chalmers, serves as an interesting record of 
one meeting at which general sadness prevailed : 

The Sketching Club, London, 
23rd February 1878. 

Dear Madam — In great sadness we desire to offer you our 
most heartfelt and tender sympathy in the affliction which 
has so suddenly overtaken you. We feel how little good 
mere words can do to soothe, in presence of this great 
calamity, nor will we even attempt to express our own 
feelings, or the sense of our heavy loss, but can only assure 
you that we mourn in common, you a dear and devoted son, 
and we a brother. 

John Burr. George A. Lawson. 

Thomas Graham. J. MacWhirter. 

Frank Holl. W. Q. Orchardson. 

Colin Hunter. John Pettie, 

C. £. Johnson. F. R. Stock. 


castle — the dark mass of ruins and some withered 
trees against the lurid glare of the sky, making a 
fine piece of composition and colour. In Pettie's 
case the subject inspired a powerful drawing of 
Palissy seated despondently before his furnace door 
with his pottery lying in shattered fragments on 
the ground. 

There was another night when "Lo, the poor 
Indian/ 9 or at any rate something that suggested 
the Wild West, was the theme proposed. A bold 
sketch in sepia by Orchardson shows a proud 
warrior chief who has been fleeing before a prairie 
fire. He sits astride of the horse that has sunk 
beneath him, and turns resolute to face his ap- 
proaching doom. Pettie's is a humorous, fanciful 
sketch in sepia and charcoal of a Red Indian 
waving his scalping knife in the wild abandon of the 
war-dance. The figure, lit by the glare of the fire 
before which he dances, stands out finely against 
the dark background of the forest primeval In a 
fighting scene, dated 1878, Pettie had the kind of 
subject in which he took the keenest delight 
Two Highland chiefs, with their retainers, have 
met in a narrow lane, and with targe and claymore 
are fiercely disputing the right to the " head of the 
causeway." There is a strong similarity between 


this sketch, with its vivid suggestion of movement, 
and the background of the picture, "The Clash 
of Steel/* exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1888* 
Indeed, many of the sketches made at these evening 
meetings were worked out later on a larger scale. 
Pettie's « Challenge," Holl's " Child's Funeral," and 
many another picture had their origin in an hour's 
sketch, done on the spur of the moment, at some 
meeting of the Club. 

No minutes were kept, but a joint letter written 
by the members of the Club, to offer their sympathy 
to Mrs. Collie, on the death of her son George 
Paul Chalmers, serves as an interesting record of 
one meeting at which general sadness prevailed : 

The Sketching Club, London, 
23rd February 1878. 

Dear Madam — In great sadness we desire to offer you our 
most heartfelt and tender sympathy in the affliction which 
has so suddenly overtaken you. We feel how little good 
mere words can do to soothe, in presence of this great 
calamity, nor will we even attempt to express our own 
feelings, or the sense of our heavy loss, but can only assure 
you that we mourn in common, you a dear and devoted son, 
and we a brother. 

John Burr. George A. Lawson. 

Thomas Graham. J. MacWhirter. 

Frank Holl. W. Q. Orcharoson. 

Colin Hunter. John Pettie. 

C. £. Johnson. F. R. Stock. 


Frank Holl for many years was an energetic 
secretary of the Club, but after his death it 
gradually dissolved. Among its later members 
were Abbey, Parsons, David Murray, and Gregory, 
so that to the end its brilliance was maintained. 
But the bread and cheese and the pipes of the older 
days had given place to the champagne dinners 
and cigars of Fitzjohn's Avenue and Melbury 
Road, amid spacious surroundings, tapestries and 
armour, and curios rich and rare. You look at the 
sketches on these odds and ends of paper, bringing 
back that studio atmosphere of mingled paint and 
tobacco — surely the sweetest scent the world has 
ever known 1 — but you like best those of the early 
days, done in the dingy rooms of the north, by men 
who worked in sober earnest, still with all the 
world before them, still with castles in Spain 
appearing through the smoke. 

To these early days belongs another class of 
black-and-white work, in which Pettie showed 
high prowess. His book illustrations date from 
the opening years of that golden decade, which in 
the history of illustrated books is always familiarly 
known as "The Sixties." The wood-cuts of the 
period were an original and beautiful contribution 
to European art The "Moxon" Tennyson of 


1857, with its famous illustrations by the Pre- 
Raphaelites, inaugurated a new era, and a great 
revival of artistic illustration set in with the estab- 
lishment of such periodicals as Once a Week and 
Good Words. The latter was a popular semi- 
religious magazine, which quickly achieved a 
record-breaking circulation. It was founded in 
1860 by Alexander Strahan, who was fortunate in 
his choice of Dr. Norman Macleod as its editor. 
For two years it was printed by Constable, and 
published in Edinburgh, but the volume for 
1862 was issued from headquarters in London. 
Orchardson is among the illustrators of volume L 
Pettie appears in volume iL, with two drawings 
which show promise, but no outstanding power. 

In volume iii. the list of artists has been extended, 
and Pettie appears in goodly company with Millais, 
Keene, Sandys, Whistler, Burne- Jones, Boyd 
Houghton, Tenniel, and others. It was a note- 
worthy group, and one doubts whether any 
periodical since has ever had so many brilliant stars 
among its illustrators. A good subject was offered 
to Pettie by a story, What sent me to Sea, and 
there is fine sympathy in his drawing of the old 
sailor and the country lad who "built a whole 
fleet of ships of every rig, from a frigate to a 


cutter/' No doubt the background was sought in 
the workshop of the village carpenter at East 
Linton. In The Country Surgeon he shows a grow- 
ing power of draughtsmanship and composition. 
This is one of the best illustrations he produced. 
The stooping figure, in loose coat and top boots, is 
drawn with fine swing of line and with the dramatic 
sense, which to the end remained characteristic of 
the man. In volume iv., 1868, an illustration to 
The Monks and the Heathen, by Charles Kingsley, 
tells how " Sturmi took him a trusty ass, and, axe 
in hand, rode away into the wild woods, singing 
his psalms," There is something very fresh and 
attractive in this drawing, particularly in its uncon- 
ventional arrangement Pettie himself must have 
liked it, for some years later, in 1868, he painted 
the subject on a much larger scale, making slight 
alterations in the monk's head, the position of the 
axe, and other details. In the same volume a story 
called The Passion Flowers of Life inspired a fine 
study of an old man, probably drawn from the 
artist's father, seated in a creeper-clad porch, with 
a child on his knees. An illustration to A Touch 
of Nature pictures how "the Harlequin Boy usually 
kept at a slight distance from the procession," and 
is again charming in its sense of selection and its 

(Site of original, 21 X 15*. > 


subtle power of line. It reaches a concentrated 
effect by balance of mass and a few simple notes — 
you see here, as it were, the skeleton of one of his 
pictures. Three other drawings of 1868, though 
all good in their way, call for no special comment ; 
nor does particular interest attach to the single 
tail -piece contributed to the yolume for 1864. 
Mr. Gleeson White, not a warm admirer of Petties 
paintings, says of these illustrations in his standard 
work on English Illustration: the Sixties, that "to 
a later generation, who only know the pictures of 
the Royal Academician, these come as a surprise, 
and prove the versatility of an artist whose punting 
was somewhat mannered." 

In 1864 Pettie practically abandoned book- 
illustration in order to give all his energies to paint. 
It is characteristic of him, and proof of his readiness 
to appreciate others' work, that in reply to. his 
publisher's appeals he should have said, "Look 
here, Strahan, you take my word, and pin your 
faith on Pinwell, Walker, and Small ; they're doing 
better work than I can give you." The publisher 
was not wise in time, for after 1865 there was 
a growing tendency to illustrate by means of 
engravings from photographs, and Good Words 
lost much of its artistic interest After many lean 


years there was a notable revival in the volume 
for 1878, in which William Black's MacLeod of 
Hare was illustrated by Pettie, Boughton, Peter 
Graham, Orchardson, Millais, and T. Faed, a 
group that recalls the glory of the early issues. 
Pettie s illustration of a single figure in the shadow 
of a doorway has the full chiaroscuro of a paint- 
ing ; but one feels that the interpretation of light 
and shade into line has been left to the engraver, 
whereas the early work was done in pure line, 
reproduced as directly and sympathetically as the 
engraver could or would. That in most cases the 
drawings suffered, there can be little doubt. After 
the appearance of Good Words for January 1868, 
with his illustration to The Monks and the Heathen, 
Pettie writes : 

Glad you liked my monk. I wish you had seen the 
drawing. The head is ruined \ The rest is good, but I 
would not have known the head as mine. Isn't it pro- 
voking ? 

Rossetti, on the same point, wrote a memorable 
letter to W. Bell Scott : 

I have designed five blocks for Tennyson. It is a thank- 
less task. After a fortnight's work my block goes to the 
engraver, like Agag delicately, and is hewn in pieces before 
the Lord Harry. 


Address to Dalziel Brothers 

O woodman, spare that block, 

O gash not anyhow ! 
It took ten days by clock, 

I'd fain protect it now. 

Chorus — Wild laughter from Dahriels' workshop. 

A few more drawings contributed to periodical 
literature remain to be noted. In an illustration 
to the Sunday Magazine for 1867 his hand seems 
to have lost its cunning, and the drawing is some- 
what laboured. Perhaps it was done under 
compulsion ; perhaps it was " hewn in pieces " by 
the engraver. Nor has an illustration in the 
following year to Philip Claytons First-Born, in 
the same paper, the fire and dash of his earlier 
work. To Good Words for the Young, 1869, he 
contributed some small illustrations, not of special 
distinction. The Boys ofAxleford, by G. Camden, 
to which some of them belong, was issued in book 
form in the same year. 

An earlier book for which he supplied illustra- 
tions was The Postman s Bag, and other Stories* 
by J. de Liefde, published in Edinburgh by Strahan 
in 1862. Among Pettie's drawings are three for 
The Golden Cup, and one each for Charles Cologne- 
Pot, Three Boys, and The Open Door. Other 


artists of the Scottish School shared in the illustra- 
tions, but Pettie's work is certainly the finest in 
the volume, showing freedom and sympathy of 
line, with a natural sense of decoration in filling a 
given space. The figures in The Three Boys and 
The Open Door are delightfully natural, and it is 
unfortunate that the fine pen lines should have 
been blurred by poor reproduction in lithography. 
Another noteworthy volume of the period is 
Wordsworth's Poems for the Young, published by 
Strahan in 1868, with a vignette frontispiece by 
Millais, and illustrations by MacWhirter and Pettie. 
It may be said, without the least disparagement to 
the fine landscape drawing of his companion, that 
Pettie s six illustrations are the most striking in 
the book. The Idle Shepherd Boys, forexample, 
is a charming and spirited piece of work, with fine 
play of line and marked power of selection. Touches 
of Nature, published by Strahan in 1866, contains 
illustrations reprinted from among those already 

One final book illustration Pettie supplied to 
the Christmas number of Longman's Magazine 
for 1884. Among the other artists who supplied 
drawings (rather inadequately reproduced in colour 
from wood-blocks) were Walter Crane, Richard 


Doyle, Marcus Stone, and Birket Foster. Pettie's 
pretty maiden in an arm-chair, an illustration to 
Bret Harte's Sarah Walker, suffers considerably 
in reproduction, particularly in the crude reds and 
yellows of the hair. The original painting in oil 
is full of life and fine colour. 

It was in colour that Fettie found his most 
natural method of expression. None the less, his 
black-and-white work for illustrations exhibits a 
bold freedom of line and lightness of handling that 
make it notable even at a period when the art of 
book-illustration was passing through one of its 
most distinguished phases. His work was some- 
times trifling or commonplace, mainly because it was 
done hastily to accompany commonplace text, but, as 
a rule, it was always free, spirited, and suggestive. 

Another proof of the versatility which struck 
Gleeson White is given by Pettie's work as an 
etcher. About 1878 he became a member of 
" The Etching Club," a small society which in its 
earlier days did much to revive in England the lost 
art of etching. It was originally formed by a few 
Royal Academicians and water-colour painters, who 
supped once a month in each others houses in the 
same jovial but simple fashion as the Sketching 
Club. From time to time, beginning with The 


Deserted Village, in 1841, they produced a hand- 
some volume illustrated by their etchings, or else 
a portfolio of independent work. Among the 
original members who contributed to Tlie Deserted 
Village were T. Webster, R. Redgrave, J. C. 
Horsley, C. W. Cope, F. Tayler and H. J. 
Townsend. When Pettie joined the Club, Cope, 
Horsley, and Redgrave still survived. Among 
fresh additions to its ranks had been Samuel Palmer, 
who joined about 1850, J. C. Hook, Holman Hunt, 
and Millais ; but even with the infusion of new 
blood, the Club only lingered till about 1880. 
With few exceptions its members were painters 
first and foremost, looking to etching not as an 
original and independent art, but as a means of 
obtaining the full effect of a picture. Many of 
them — Pettie, I think, for certain — probably knew 
nothing of technique, of the joy and drudgery of 
biting, stopping out, scraping and burnishing, 
of the real tussle with what Samuel Palmer 
described as the "teasing, temper-trying, yet 
fascinating copper " ; and they certainly knew 
nothing of the intricate art of printing. In the 
later days they drew on the copper-plate served 
out, with the ground ready laid, by the secretary, 
who in many cases "did the rest." 


To a portfolio of etchings published by the Club 
in 1879 Pettie made two contributions. Seeing 
that he is known to have handled the etching 
needle on four copper-plates only — one of them 
experimental, with rough sketches of himself, some 
armour, etc. — they show singular appreciation of 
the power of the etched line, its delicacy and its 
strength. One of them, " At Bay," is based upon 
the oil-painting of 1878, " A Moment of Danger," 
here illustrated; in the etching the Highlander 
stands alone, a dignified figure against the dark 
mouth of the cave. The other subject also repro- 
duces an oil-painting of 1878, "The Highland 
Outpost," now in the possession of Mrs. Orchar at 
Dundee. Two years later he contributed an 
illustration to The Abdication, or Time Tries All: 
a Play in Three Acts, by W. D. Scott-Moncrieff, 
with etchings by J. Pettie, W. Q. Orchardson, J. 
MacWhirter, Colin Hunter, R. W. Macbeth, and 
Tom Graham (Chatto and Windus, 1881). Pettie's 
etching, strong and direct, one of the best in the 
volume, depicts a French ambassador approaching 
Queen Mary's camp with a white flag — "May't 
please your Grace to speak with one who speaks 
for France and you." The subject found favour 
with Pettie, for he set to work in the same year on 



an oil-painting, " A White Flag," which is closely 
akin to the etching. The same pose and the same 
fling of the open hand, possibly a little awkward, 
but dramatically suggestive, appear later in " The 

In this record of Pettie's book illustrations and 
work done at the Sketching Clubs to which he 
belonged, we have traversed rapidly a period of 
years, during which he had gained repute in 
London as one of the foremost painters of the 
Royal Academy. It is time to retrace our steps 
to where we left him in Edinburgh, one of Lauder's 
most promising pupils, still on the threshold of his 



Pettie's strong and ambitious nature called for 
the stimulus of the fullest competition. He panted 
for larger air, and thrilled to test his wings in longer 
and nobler flight The success of his " Armourers " 
and "What d'ye lack?" at the Royal Academy 
still further incited him to try his fortunes in the 

Another thing that influenced him was the 
removal to London of the headquarters of Good 
Words. It was not his main reason, but there can 
be no doubt that Mr. Strahan's offer of steady com- 
missions for illustrations was a strong inducement 
to him to take a step which was naturally something 
of a venture. The £10 apiece which he got for his 
drawings on the wood block was more than suffi- 
cient to keep the wolf from the door and to ensure 
that independence of his parents which he was the 



first to desire. Mr. Strahan, a hale and hearty 
veteran, is still alive to tell the tale of how Pettie 
would come to his office at 82 Ludgate Hill and 
bear away a manuscript or some sheets of proof. 
Opposite to the office was a restaurant, of a type 
made popular now, but rare in those days, where 
tea, coffee, and moderate refreshments were supplied 
on marble tables. Pettie, with a cup of coffee 
before him, a friendly pipe in his mouth, would 
choose his subject; then, taking a pencil, would 
dash down his ideas, with frequent obliterations, 
on the marble surface, and hurry homewards with 
a clear and concise notion for his drawing on the 
block. In London, as in Edinburgh, he was 
"always on the trot." 

The year 1862, then, found Pettie sharing a 
house at 62 Stanley Street, Pimlico, with Orchard- 
son, who had come south some time before, and 
with Tom Graham. The Post-Office Directory 
knows Stanley Street, Pimlico, no more; it has 
vanished or changed its name. One pictures it as 
a narrow street, one of many such in that neigh- 
bourhood, which had seen better days — a street of 
drab, dingy houses, uniform in their doorsteps, their 
area railings, their cards in the window announcing 
"Apartments to Let" From Stanley Street he 


sent to the Royal Academy his "Sub-Prior and 
Edward Glendinning," illustrating the scene in Sir 
Walter Scott's Monastery where the penitent con- 
fesses his joy at hearing of the supposed death of 
the euphuist, Sir Fiercie Shafton, and his sorrow 
at his unexpected restoration. From the Academy 
this picture went on to the Glasgow Institute. 
An anecdote about it, told by Mr. Pinnington in 
his Life of G. P. Chalmers, supplies an interesting 
note of its history, and reveals the sleepless persist- 
ency of the born collector. The late Dr. Blair 
Spence of Dundee, while on a visit to Glasgow 
in 1862, saw the "Sub-Prior" and Chalmers's 
"Miserere Mei" (now in the Scottish National 
Gallery), and noted in the fine colour and dexterous 
brushwork of the two unknown painters a fore- 
shadowing of future mastery. He made inquiries 
about both pictures, but though an enthusiast 
about painting he was still young in his own pro- 
fession, and the price, small as it was, doomed him 
to disappointment Twenty to thirty years passed. 
Chalmers was dead ; Pettie was an Academician at 
the height of his career ; but Dr. Blair Spence still 
remembered the two works which had stirred his 
youthful enthusiasm, and at last gathered them 
both into his own possession. 


In the autumn of 1862 the promised foreign trip 
took shape. With Tom Graham and Chalmers, 
Pettie made an excursion to Brittany, from which 
all of them brought back happy memories. They 
rambled about in a leisurely way on foot, enjoying 
the new scenery, the fresh life and character on the 
highways and byways along which they passed, 
and in the out-of-the-way nooks into which they 
stumbled. Graham, to whom the ground was 
familiar, acted as guide. They did not visit Paris 
(so that Pettie s first ambition still remained unful- 
filled) and they saw no pictures. Many sketches 
were made, some of which resulted in pictures 
exhibited after their return. In 1868 and 1864 
Chalmers showed " The Favourite Air," " Brittany 
Peasants," and " A Peasant of Brittany." A relic 
of Pettie s share in the tour is his picture of 
"Brittany Minstrels," exhibited at the Royal Scot- 
tish Academy in 1868. Two musicians, shod in 
wooden sabots and wearing broad belts on yellow 
tinted garments, are performing on the flageolet; 
the bright corsage of a female figure gives a note of 
light to the dark room in which they sit. The pic- 
ture is in the Corporation Art Gallery at Glasgow. 1 

1 For some time it bore the title of " The Musicians,** with a somewhat 
misleading description in the catalogue. It is now rightly described. 


A letter of this period, written from Stanley 
Street, shows the writer well established in London 
and making strides in his profession, though he still 
breakfasts upon tea and bread-and-butter, and 
speaks with humour, not unmixed with a little 
envy, of another young artist, who dresses for the 
evening, and follows his dinner with coffee and a 

[January 1863.] 

I have to thank you for letting me know that Mr. Craig 
is inclined to speculate in one of my pictures. The fact is I 
have nothing now, and am just going to begin a picture for the 
R. A. I must take all the remaining time to it, or it will have 
no chance whatever of admittance. Besides this, I have agreed 
to supply Strahan with a number of wood blocks, monthly, 
so my time is taken up too much to have anything to sell 
for two or three months. Will Craig allow me to reserve his 
order ? I have just finished a little picture of Brittany pipers, 
which I must offer to a gentleman in Edinburgh who gave 
me a commission. 

Towards the close of 1868, Pettie, Orchardson, 
and Tom Graham, taking C. £. Johnson in their 
company, moved from Pimlico to 87 Fitzroy Square, 
a house afterwards tenanted by Ford Madox Brown 
and Andrew Gow successively. The house was on 
the south side of the Square, and its high-pitched 
rooms, with tall windows admitting a north light, 
were well adapted to the uses of a studio. Christina 


Rossetti, writing later to Mrs. Gilchrist, speaks of 
the house as a large and handsome one, adding that 
she went there one day to see Madox Brown's 
"'Coat of many Colours,' a very noble work." 
The great stone staircase has rung to the feet 
of many of historic name, for among Madox 
Brown's constant visitors were Rossetti, Burne- 
Jones, Holman Hunt, William Morris, Theodore 
Watts-Dunton, Whistler, Fred Walker, Pinwell, 
and many more. The south and east sides of the 
Square — it is now a home of hospitals and institutes 
— were built by the brothers Adam ; and in 1815, on 
their completion, the buildings had, to quote a con- 
temporary record, "a greater portion of architectural 
embellishment than most others in the metropolis." 
The Square, with its grandiose apartments, had 
once been the aristocratic centre of its day ; and 
now that it was no longer a fashionable quarter, 
artists were quick to see the advantage of its roomy 
residences with their moderate rent Sir William 
Ross, the miniature painter, lived at No. 88, and died 
there in 1860. Sir Charles Eastlake, the President 
of the Academy, lived at No. 7 from his marriage 
in 1849 till his death in 1865. Mr. Clasvtnce 
Dobell, brother of Sydney Dobell, the poet, had a 
studio in Grafton Street near by, and immediately 


opposite to him was Edward Poynter (now Sir 
Edward), whose studio was a meeting-place for 
Leighton, Watts, Du Maurier, and other rising 
artists of the day. 

In the upper rooms of 87 Fitzroy Square (known 
to their friends as "The Barracks"), with light 
hearts and brave spirits, the four lived a happy, 
very Bohemian existence. The odds and ends of 
furniture which they pooled between them, flotsam 
and jetsam from second-hand shops and deserted 
studios, were quaint and curious. Mr. Johnson to 
this day preserves a table which served occasion- 
ally for meals; its battered surface bears their 
initials hacked upon it, and shows gaps whence 
toothpicks were removed. Over the sketches 
that littered the floor ran guinea-pigs, and white 
rats that loved the warmth of a friendly sleeve. 
The general factotum was one Joe Wall, an old 
model of Landseer and Frith, who had been a 
prize-fighter, and gloried in the remembrance 
of his celebrated encounter with the "Skinny 
Butcher * of Bermondsey. He scrubbed, cleaned, 
and mended for them; he gave them lessons in 
the noble science ; and he sat for their pictures. 
His figure is prominent in Pettie's "Drum-head 
Court-Martial" and other works of this period. 


The fece of the disappointed swain in " Rejected 
Addresses " is an exact likeness of him. And in a 
Catalogue of the International Exhibition of 1873 
I find a picture by John Phillip, R. A. — " Portrait 
of Joe Wall. Painted in 1845. Lent by Mr. J. 
Wall" There could be only one Joe Wall, the 
friend of artists ; and this must be he. It would 
have been a privilege to know him in his declining 
years, for what tales he could have told of the 
prize-ring, and of the young heroes of art, whom 
he had "done for/' or whose model he had 
been I 

They were the truest and heartiest of friends, 
and with the true spirit of socialism they had all 
things in common. Their cash-box was the open 
drawer of a writing-table in one of the studios, 
where bank-notes, gold, silver, and copper were 
mixed in cheerful confusion with bottles of varnish 
and tubes of colour. An English artist, Mr. Cole- 
man, who lived on the ground floor, was known 
as the millionaire of the establishment, and cashed 
any cheques that appeared upon the scene. Pettie, 
who usually had most funds, was nominally the 
banker, but any one who wanted cash had but to 
say so, and was sent to the drawer to rout out as 
much as he required. When they first settled in 


the house they took pride in pointing out armorial 
bearings, of a baronet's hand and dagger, carved 
in the stone above the outer door. But there was 
wrath and indignation when the ambassador of a 
brutal and prosaic Government demanded that 
they should pay a tax for the escutcheon. " The 
Barracks" was very delightful in health, but very 
desolate in illness. Fettie always cherished a grate- 
ful remembrance of the kindness with which Mr. 
Dobell nursed him through an attack of jaundice, 
on an occasion when his three house-mates were 
scattered upon holiday. 

Mr. Clarence Dobell, at the time of his first 
introduction to the Fitzroy Square m&nage 9 had 
studied in the Royal Academy Schools, and was 
a constant visitor at Foynter s house, where he 
held frequent intercourse with Leighton, Watts, 
and the rest His general ideas regarding art, 
he tells me, were at the time entirely moulded 
and influenced by what he heard and saw of 
the young English School of that day. He 
abandoned London and the arts in 1865, so that 
he is peculiarly able to give a clear-cut impression, 
from an Englishman's point of view, without 
relation to future events and developments, of the 
advent of the new generation of Scotsmen, and of 


the place they took amid their English surroundings. 
From some reminiscences he has kindly sent me, 
the following passage must be given in his own 

I knew nothing of the Edinburgh School of artists, and 
had never heard of either Orchardson, Pettie, or of either 
of the Grahams ; but my brother, Sydney Dobell, the poet, 
had lately spent some years in Edinburgh society, and he 
had introduced me to Mr. James Archer, U.S.A., who had 
removed from Edinburgh to London with the idea of trying 
his fortunes in the larger capital. Mr. Archer had taken 
a house in one of the streets near Fitzroy Square, and one 
day Mrs. Archer wrote and asked me to dine with them to 
meet three Scotch artists, friends of Archer's, who had 
followed his example and had come up to London with the 
intention of settling there. I remember thinking that they 
were very unwise to imagine that they had any chance against 
the many wonderful men of genius, who, I already knew, 
had a difficult struggle to obtain an income — men who had 
studied under some of the best masters in Paris and Rome, 
and who were not sure of having their pictures hung by the 
Royal Academicians or purchased by the picture-dealers. 

Well, I went to the dinner, and the three guests were 
Orchardson, Pettie, and Tom Graham. They made such an 
impression on my mind that I remember that evening as 
though it were yesterday. The brilliant conversation of 
Orchardson, the strong sense of Pettie, and the calm con- 
fidence of Tom Graham delighted and astonished me. I 
was delighted by their originality, simplicity, and friendliness; 
and astonished at their evident assurance of the certain 
success of their enterprise! They spoke in the coolest 
manner of the weakness of the Art leaders of London, and 

(Site of original, 81} x 48.) 


were clearly well satisfied that their own school of art was 
certain to be welcomed both by the picture-dealers and the 
public. They very warmly bade me welcome to come to their 
diggings whenever I liked, an invitation which I as warmly 

Directly I saw their work I recognised that here was 
something quite new and original, unlike any of the schools 
represented by London artists, and that it was not only new, 
but that it had undoubted value of its own, and was allied 
to some qualities that I remembered to have observed in the 
old masters. The young English painters of that day were 
so anxious to crowd all they could into a little space in 
order to have a better chance of being "hung on the line," 
that they deemed it a sign of exceptional skill to arrange 
a group so that the heads nearly touched the top of the 
picture and the feet stood on the lower edge of the frame, 
while the background was crowded into the intermediate 
spaces. The Scotchmen laughed at these artifices, delighted 
to surround their figures with illimitable spaces, and boldly 
declared that the R.A/s dared not reject them ; and to our 
amazement they were right. The pictures were hung, and 
not only hung but sold, and the dealers clamoured for more. 
In a single season Orchardson and Pettie were marked men 
and made men. 

The main difference between the Scotsmen and 
their English contemporaries and predecessors, as 
Mr. Dobell indicates, was not merely one of colour 
and execution. They were among the first to 
relieve the congestion that characterised the mid- 
century pictures, by letting atmosphere into their 
work. They broke away from Pre-Raphaelite 


influence, neglecting all insignificant details, and 
summarising largely and boldly what was essential. 
They strove to catch the play of light upon surfaces 
and textures, and to render the transparent qualities 
of atmosphere. If they painted an interior, they 
painted not only the outward and visible aspect of 
the room, the furniture, the figures, but the air 
and space in which they moved. To those used to 
the crowded canvases of the Pre-Raphaelites, and 
accustomed to admire the harsh studio -painted 
details of Leslie, Egg, Maclise, and the rest, the 
pictures of the young Scotsmen seemed bare and 
unfurnished. Their finished work was regarded 
lightly as an airy or animated sketch. A glance 
at the newspapers of the period shows how the 
contemporary critic was struck by the apparent 
" emptiness " of their work. For years the 
Atlterweum heaped abuse upon them, culminating 
in 1874, on Pettie's election as an Academician, 
with a "shudder at the prospects of English art, 
which he is expected to take the fortieth part in 
controlling and directing." " Another member of 
the Royal Academy,' 9 adds the critic of that date, 
" but one who has not yet in any respect reached 
Mr. Pettie, is Mr. Orchardson. He has this year 
favoured us with four large sketches — it would be 


unjust to call them pictures — of the slightest, most 
theatrical and flimsy kind." All this sounds reck* 
less or spiteful, yet it was doubtless the writer's 
honest conviction. Time, at any rate, brought its 

In 1875, after a silence of fifteen years, Ruskin 
renewed his Royal Academy Notes, and followed 
a similar line of criticism : 

Mr. Pettie, a man of reed feeling and great dramatic 
force, is ruining himself by shallow notions of chiaroscuro. 
If he had not been mimicking Rembrandt he would never 
have vulgarised the real pathos and most subtle expression 
of his * Jacobites ' by the slovenly dark background, corre- 
sponding virtually to the slouched hat of a theatrical con- 
spirator. I have been examining the painting of the chief 
Jacobite's face very closely. It is nearly as good as a piece 
of old William Hunt, but Hunt never loaded his paint, 
except in sticks, and moss, and such-like. Now there's a 
wrinkle quite essential to the expression under the Jacobite's 
eye, got by a projecting ridge of paint, instead of a proper 
dark line. Rembrandt's bad bricklayer's work, with all the 
mortar sticking out at the edges, may be pardonable in a 
Dutchman sure of his colours ; but it is always licentious. 

The " absolute ruler of taste in the 'sixties " never 
wrote a falser piece of criticism. This is Ruskin 
in the mood which prompted him to write of 
Whistler "flinging a pot of paint in the public's 
face " ; of Constable's " spotting and splashing," of 


his "perceiving only in a landscape that the grass 
is wet, the meadows flat, and the boughs shady; 
that is to say, about as much as, I suppose, might 
in general be apprehended, between them, by an 
intelligent fawn and a skylark." I remember an 
argument arising between Pettie and Professor 
MacCunn of Liverpool University. The professor 
of political economy had no good word for 
Ruskins writings on his own subject ; he revelled 
in his philosophy of art. The painter said : "When 
Ruskin writes about art, I can't abide him. When 
he writes about political economy and the education 
of the masses and things like that, he s simply 
grand." One is tempted to add the alarming 
finality with which Walt Whitman dismissed 
Ruskin on both points of view: "I don't quote 
him. I don t care for him. I don't read him. 
Don't find he appeals to me. I've tried Ruskin on 
every way, but he don't fit" 

Pettie, of all men, was sure of his colours, and 
in his "bricklayer's work" and in his chiaroscuro 
alike might well be content to stand or fall in 
Rembrandt's company. In spite of Ruskins talk 
of shallow mimicry, chiaroscuro was an element in 
Pettie's conception of his subjects which he 
thoroughly understood, and used with the utmost 


(Site <rf original, 35 X 50.) 


skill to enhance the dramatic action of his 
characters. The gloom of that dark background, 
the misty atmosphere of a large bare chamber, is 
anything but slovenly, and makes the figures more 
real by its own reality. Here, as in many of his 
pictures, the painter concentrates attention on his 
main group, and leads up to it by a subtle and 
well-conceived scheme of light and shade. To-day 
we can appreciate the repose of blank spaces — how 
cunningly it is used, for instance, in " Ho ! Ho t 
Old Noll" and "The Traitor "—and the lumin- 
ous envelopment given by backgrounds that in 
Ruskin's day might seem bare and unfurnished. 

To the two years spent in Fitzroy Square, and 
to the ten years following, belong several of 
Pettie's finest works. The alert temperament 
which inspired his instant perception of the 
dramatic moment and historical arrangement of his 
subject, combined with the training and tradition 
of the school to which he belonged, give both 
vigour and finesse to his brush. His fine sense of 
colour and his brilliance of craftsmanship soon drew 
the attention they deserved. To the Academy in 
1868 he sent " The Trio," another picture inspired 
perhaps by the minstrels of Brittany. Three 

mediaeval musicians are performing in an ancient 



street. A lutist, hat in hand, hows obsequiously to 
some girls at a window ; a hautboy player in front 
remains absorbed in his performance ; the third, a 
lanky fellow with a viol, eyes an upper window 
the while he continues his chant The picture 
tells its story with gaiety, spirit, and dramatic 

In 1864 he sent "The Tonsure," a humorous 
subject, rich in character and full of expression, 
showing the barber of a convent shaving the head 
of a younger brother with a sadly blunt razor. 
With it went a larger and more serious work, 
" George Fox refusing to take the Oath at Houlker 
Hall, a.d. 1668." At the end of the table round 
which the Justices are seated stands the founder 
of the Society of Friends, a figure of dignified 
simplicity, steadfast in his calm resolve, his wife 
and children behind him. The composition is firm 
and compact, the erectness of the standing and 
seated figures cunningly counteracted by the curves 
given by the stooping figure of the officer, who 
persuasively holds out the Bible, and of one of the 
Justices, who bends to whisper in his neighbour's 
ear. The masses of light and shade are skilfully 
ordered, throwing into prominence the upraised 
hand of the presiding magistrate, dramatic in its 


gesture, and the tall form of the recusant. The 
colour is rich, glowing, and luminous. 

In the British Institution of 1864 he was repre- 
sented by " The Time and Place," a raffish-looking 
cavalier, in black satin doublet and trunks, with 
a red feather in his broad-leafed beaver, and his 
cloak and belt lying on the ground beside him, 
about to throw himself into guard. The Times 
spoke of it as "probably the most satisfactory 
figure-subject here — certainly the one of which we 
have brought away the distinctest recollection " ; 
and added : " If Mr. Pettie is a young man, he 
should soon be better known ; meanwhile, we book 
his name as one of the few which we carry away 
from this exhibition, to be looked after henceforth 
in places where they show pictures/' 

In the summer of 1864 Tom Graham, Keeley 
Halswelle, C. E. Johnson, and Pettie all spent a 
holiday together at Hastings ; and it was on this 
occasion that the two last met their future wives, 
Miss Sarah and Miss Elizabeth Ann Bossom. 
Pettie's marriage to the latter took place at 
Hastings on August 25 of the following year. 

It was in 1865 that Pettie became a marked man 
to the eye of the public. His " Drum-head Court- 
Martial" was one of the pictures before which 


visitors daily clustered when it hung on the 
Academy walls. The subject was a fresh and 
telling one — not a definite historical scene, but one 
embodying the spirit and romance of history. 
Seated before a drum are three stern-looking 
figures: an improvised tribunal. The centre one 
is a glum parson ; on his right sits a cavalierly 
general, who likes rich clothing and good-living ; on 
his left a rough soldier. A stalwart prisoner, pale 
but not cowed, is brought before them for his trial. 
The tent and camp equipage of the background 
are indicated without obtrusion. It is a dashing 
picture, full of spirit in idea and in design ; and 
the artist seldom painted anything better, or more 
full of character, than the heads of those com- 
manders sitting in judgment. 

This picture and several more of Pettie's finest 
works— "To the Death," "A Sally," "The Flag 
of Truce," and "Treason" — passed later into the 
collections of Mr. J. Newton Mappin and Sir 
Frederick Mappin, and are now in the Mappin Art 
Gallery at Sheffield. The public galleries of 
Glasgow and Aberdeen are also rich in examples 
of the artist at his best It is a constant regret to 
admirers of his work that the National Gallery of 
Scotland should have nothing at all to bear testi- 

(Size of original, 28 x 42.) 


mony to his genius, and that his powers should 
be so poorly represented in London. "The 
Vigil," in the Tate Gallery, much though it may 
be admired for its fine sentiment, is not typical 
of his fluent draughtsmanship and brilliant 
colour. "The Jacobites," in the Diploma Gallery, 
to which few people ever penetrate, is a much less 
known but far nobler example of his talent. 

The expectations roused by the "Drum-head 
Court-Martial" were well fulfilled by the "Arrest 
for Witchcraft w of the following year. The canvas 
exhibited at the Academy now has a home in the 
Melbourne Art Gallery, but a replica is at Wolver- 
hampton. The scene is in the market-place of a 
mediaeval town, where some ruffianly troopers are 
conducting to the ordeal of the pond a poor old 
woman, her hands tied beneath her cloak. Her 
expression is fine in its dazed apathy and almost 
imbecile calmness. The whole picture is well 
conceived. The witch is pursued by the townfolks 
with clamour and threats. All are moving except 
two men in the background, of philosophic cast, who 
with heads together gaze sceptically at the scene 
of violence. Each figure in the action, each head 
with its diversity of character and passion, enhances 
the reality of the scene. The picture told its story 


with quiet strength and without display; there 
was art in its apparent artlessness. Critics, while 
they admired it, compared its dramatic subject and 
colour with an exhibit by Orchardson, " The Story 
of a Life," and found both pictures "dun." Its 
fine colour was not of the brilliant pitch, to which 
the painter was as yet only feeling his way. Full 
promise, however, of the future, is in the rich, 
vibrant tints of "The Rehearsal," painted in the 
same year, a clever study of an ancient mattre de 
ballet in a garret teaching a child to dance. 

The " Arrest for Witchcraft * ensured Pettie's 
election to one of the Associateships of the Royal 
Academy, which were vacant by the promotion of 
Baron Marochetti and Mr. G. Richmond to the 
higher rank. He was only twenty -seven ; and 
there are few cases on record of such early distinc- 
tion — Sir Thomas Lawrence, who was made an 
Associate, by the wish of George III., when only 
twenty-one ; Millais, whose first election at the age 
of nineteen was quashed on account of his youth, 
but who joined the ranks of the Associates three 
years later ; Mr. F. Dicksee, who was only twenty- 
eight; and Professor Sir Hubert von Herkomer 
and Mr. Cadogan Cowper, both of whom had just 
completed their thirtieth year when they won the 

(Sin of original, 28 X 18^.) 



coveted distinction. Though Orchardson was 
several years his senior, Pettie attained the honour 
eighteen months before him, and anticipated him 
by four years in reaching the higher grade. " Pettie 
was the first," says Sir Walter Armstrong in his 
Scottish Painters, " to catch the eye of the public. 
His conceptions were more ambitious, and his art 
more voyant : he played, in fact, a trumpet to his 
companion's flageolet Hence it was that, to the 
amusement of those they had left behind in Edin- 
burgh, the London critics talked of Orchardson as 
if he had moulded himself on Pettie. Their fellow- 
workers at home knew well enough that, after the 
teaching of Lauder, the moulding influence over 
the whole clique had been the example and the 
square mind of the older man." 

On the word of the leading painter among those 
" left behind in Edinburgh," I have it that the last 
part of Sir Walter Armstrong's statement is 
scarcely true. They all recognised Orchardson as 
probably the greatest pupil of the Lauder School, 
and thankfully acknowledged his influence. But, 
as my informant says/" we held both artists in such 
high esteem that we thought little of which of them 
should come into the Royal Academy first As we 
expected, Pettie came first : his overflowing vitality 


suggested to us that he would. There can be no 
doubt that during the first years in London, 
Orchardson had his energy roused and Pettie had 
the benefit of Orchardson's steady coolness — his 
' square mind.' " Though they separated in method 
and technique, each following his own path, they 
remained always good comrades and staunch 

Looking at Pettie's career as a whole during this 
period, and indeed up to the time of his election as 
an Academician in 1874, we see it marked through- 
out by steady and consistent growth. There are 
no obviously experimental stages. His early work 
was instantly decisive in accent His pictures 
from the outstart show bold schemes of design, 
chiaroscuro, and colour. From his student days — 
the days of " The Prison Pet " and a " Scene from 
The Monastery " — he painted exactly what he liked, 
because he liked it ; and he was fortunate in that 
the work which gave himself the greatest pleasure 
was what pleased the public most Circumstances 
often drive an artist along a road which he treads 
with unwilling feet, and take him where he has 
no particular desire to go. Partly to make his 
bread, partly because he has become enfeoffed to 
popularity, he has to strive against convictions and 


temperament, and accomplish tasks that are un- 
congenial In days when subject -painting was 
popular, many a painter concentrated his energies 
on that, when his own instincts prompted him to 
landscape or portrait work. Pettie was fortunate 
in that his own nature and inclinations led him to 
the dramatic motive, the treatment of anecdote, 
the representation of incident. The work that was 
natural and spontaneous for him was calculated to 
please a large section of the public; and this 
pleasure was given without deliberate intent or 
effort; without any pandering to popularity. The 
path to popularity was the way of his own pleasure. 
A painting of action was to Pettie, vigorous and 
robust, as natural a fulfilment of his own spirit, as 
was an exquisite, dreamy nocturne to Whistler, the 
fragile man of nerves and sentiment. 

In the case of many painters, struggling days 
with the wolf at the door have been a wholesome 
even if cruel discipline, acting as a spur to rouse 
latent ambition and stir dormant energy. Many 
an artist, not knowing where to seek his next half- 
sovereign, has done work which in later days of 
success and honour he has looked at with despair 
and striven in vain to emulate. But Pettie needed 

no spur, for ambition and dogged tenacity were in 



his Scottish blood. Though in early years he may 
have experienced a straitness of resources, he never 
knew the meaning of distress. He was never in 
the position of the apprentice, whom he painted so 
well, driven to press his wares on possible purchasers 
with a " What d'ye lack, noble sir ? " Within a few 
years of his settling in London, the foremost dealers, 
Agnew, Tooth, M'Lean, Deschamps (a nephew of 
Gambart), Flattou and others, were all knocking 
at his studio door. These were days when pictures 
sold readily at fair prices. " The Drum-head Court- 
Martial," for instance, put £250 into the painter s 
purse, followed by £450 for the "Arrest for 
Witchcraft," £400 for "At Bay," £450 again for 
u Treason." For some years before he was thirty 
he earned a steady annual income of over a thousand 
pounds. As an Associate and Academician he 
commanded prices vastly enhanced. But though 
he leapt into success by rapid strides, success left 
him as it found him — modest, kindly, generous, 
keen to enjoy life, eager to help all others to its 


ASSOCIATE: 1866-1873 

On his marriage in 1865, Pettie moved to 87 
Gloucester Road, Regent's Park, a house formerly 
occupied by Mr. J. D. Watson, and had Mr. and 
Mrs. C. E. Johnson as his next-door neighbours. 
One incident in connection with his new home 
Pettie never forgot Like every one else who 
becomes a householder for the first time, he began 
by having an abnormal fear of burglars. His 
brother James, now in Iquique, was paying him a 
visit, and Pettie retired to bed one night, under the 
impression that his brother was going to follow 
upstairs within a few minutes. James, however, 
became engrossed in a book, and it was an hour or 
two later when, for fear of waking the household, 
he took off his slippers and crept stealthily up the 
stairs. Pettie was roused from his first deep 
slumber by the creak of a loose board. Half- 



awake, he sprang from his bed ; lurked behind his 
door at the head of the stair ; then leapt out and 
grappled with the burglar — to find that he had 
nearly garrotted his own brother ! 

In 1869 he left Gloucester Road for 17 St John s 
Wood Road, moving thence in the following year 
to a neighbouring house, No. 21. Orchardson was 
next door at No. 19, and MacWhirter a near 
neighbour in Titchfield Road. Pettie's studio was 
built out at the north side of the house, and had 
a large window looking upon St. John's Wood 
Road. At the back of the house was a large and 
pleasant garden, well shaded by trees. Here he 
remained for eleven years. 

Apart from "The Arrest for Witchcraft," his 
principal picture in 1866 was "At Bay." A 
cavalier, on a lonely heath, is defending himself 
against the attack of four Puritan soldiers — three 
in buff coat and helmet, the fourth in sombre black. 
The man in black has a sword-prick in his arm, one 
of the others has fallen wounded on the ground, 
and the remaining two seem to have no great 
stomach for the attack. The figures of the 
assailants, a brilliantly painted group, showing keen 
study of character and action, stand out in solid 
reality. The colour scheme is strong and temper- 

(Sire of original, 88 X 55$. ) 

ASSOCIATE: 1866-1878 86 

ate ; the browns, reds, and greens of the costumes 
are in subtle harmony with the background (one of 
the best landscape backgrounds that Pettie ever 
painted), repeating cunningly the prevalent hues 
of copse and bracken. 

"Treason," exhibited at the Academy in the 
following year, has a grip and unity of conception 
that places it on a higher level than any of Pettie s 
previous works. With it he burst into a triumph 
of dramatic intensity and of colour. Some military 
commanders and a dignitary of the Church are 
seated in council at a table. In their very attitudes 
there is conspiracy; in the putting of the heads 
together there is a plot. Note specially the wizened, 
bitter face of the man in black who leans with his 
elbows on the board. The Churchman's robe of 
scarlet gives a bright note of colour, and the hang- 
ing on the back of his chair is yellow, woven with 
blue embroidery. Tints of blue and green come 
in the costumes and upholstery, but the dominant 
notes are of the warm colours, yellow, red, and 
brown. The background is a wall hung with a 
yellow-brown tapestry, which, particularly to the 
right, closely resembles the work of Orchardson in 
its thin transparent brushings. "Treason" and 
"Hudibras and Ralpho," painted at the same time, 


are both in the Mappin Gallery at Sheffield. In 
the latter the scene is taken from Fart I. Canto iiL 
of Butlers satirical poem. Hudibras and his squire 
Ralpho, in quest of adventures, were attacked by a 
party of bear-baiters, one of whom they put into 
the stocks ; but the following day they were over- 
powered by the rabble, who released their com- 
panion and set Knight and Squire in his place. 

But Hudibras, who scorn'd to stoop 

To Fortune, or be said to droop, 
Chear'd up himself with ends of verse, 

And sayings of Philosophers. 

In this picture Pettie gives vent to his keen sense 
of the humorous; and looking through the list 
of his works, one notes how, as though for the 
satisfaction of his own nature, there is a balance 
each year between tragedy and comedy, grave 
and gay. In contrast to the two last-mentioned 
pictures is the very low -toned "Visit to the 
Necromancer." The necromancer is a swarthy, 
almost a black man, who holds a light high in one 
hand as he draws aside a curtain with the other, 
as if in search of something that lies in the im- 
penetrable darkness. 

In the summer of this year, 1867, Mr. and Mrs. 
Pettie travelled in Italy, visiting Venice and Rome, 

(Size of original, 21 x HJ.) 

ASSOCIATE: 1866-1878 87 

while the St. John's Wood studio was lent to 
George Paul Chalmers. 

If "Treason" marks a climax in dramatic 
intensity and colour, the " Tussle with a Highland 
Smuggler," of 1868, reaches high-water mark by 
reason of its action and dashing spirit A stout 
Lowland gauger, in thick and cumbrous great-coat, 
is struggling with a lean, half-naked, wild-cat 
Highlander ; a keg on the ground tells its tale. 
There is a certain grim humour in the scene. The 
coolness and resolution of the gauger, his stiff, 
determined movements and set face, contrast with 
the wild features and fierce contortions of the 
smuggler. In the strained tensity of the two 
stru ggli n g figures the artist shows consummate 
power of draughtsmanship. " Pax Vobiscum," of 
the same year, is a merry tale to relieve the grim- 
ness of that fierce fight. There is quaint wit in 
this picture of a fat and jovial monk, who is seated 
at dinner and pronounces his benediction on a tiny 
mouse which has stolen out in quest of some fallen 
crumbs. The little picture is noteworthy for its 
vigorous handling of black and red, a combination 
of colour which was always a delight to the painter. 
"Battledore" has the terrace and lawn at Haddon 
Hall as a background to dainty figures. 


The chief work of 1869 was "The Disgrace of 
Cardinal Wolsey." It is many years since I have 
seen this picture, and rather than record a personal 
impression, I prefer to quote the contemporary 
criticism of the Art Journal : 

Mr. Pettie has never done better than in that powerful 
and thoroughly independent picture "The Disgrace of 
Cardinal Wolsey." The strength of the picture lies in the 
powerful delineation he has given of Wolsey: we have 
seldom seen so striking or true an analysis of character. 
We seem to read the history of a life, the summary of a 
career, in that crafty face; we decipher the motives that 
have ruled the man ; and now across the lines and furrows 
that time has worn, come the agitation, confusion, and 
remorse of being found out at last. . . . Mr. Pettie has given 
in this well-studied work the full gauge of his powers. The 
figure of Wolsey can never be forgotten. 

"Touchstone and Audrey," painted in the same 
year, was exhibited at the Academy of 1870. A 
pretty Audrey stands among her goats, while 
Touchstone, planted firmly on his legs, leans 
forward, with hand stroking a smooth chin, to ask, 
"And how, Audrey? am I the man yet? doth 
my simple feature content you?" It is a capital 
piece of characterisation, painted with verve and 
spirit in a high key of rapturous colour. 

At the Academy in 1870 also appeared "The 
Sally," in many respects one of Pettie's greatest 

{Site of original, 32 X 50.) 

ASSOCIATE: 1866-1878 89 

works. In colour, action, and intensity of purpose 
he rarely, if ever, surpassed it. The inmates of a 
besieged castle are creeping along a dark passage to 
make a sortie from a low doorway at the end. A 
single officer stands motionless, finger to lips. All 
the other figures are stooping, and in their stealthy 
onward movement repeat boldly the same form 
and action, adding cumulative force to the dramatic 
effect. The very simplicity of the motive was a 
stroke of genius. All through the picture is a 
rich glow of colour, low-toned and never forced. 
Helmet and breastplate shine with a subdued gleam 
in the dim passage-way ; buff and vermilion jerkins 
take a sombre harmony in the ominous shadows. 
It would take pages and pages of a romantic novel 
to convey the tense excitement of the scene, the 
hushed solemnity, the dauntless courage of those 
slow-moving figures. But in a moment Pettie's 
picture flings you into the atmosphere of peril; 
you hold your breath, and almost involun- 
tarily bend your head. "Treason" and "The 
Sally w are both great pictures — great in the purely 
pictorial elements of line, form, colour, and illumina- 
tion. That they thrill, not only as a piece of 
painting, but for the story they tell, makes them 
greater pictures still. 



"'Tis Blythe May Day," exhibited with "The 
Sally," was the forerunner of two or three similar 
pictures, such as " Two Strings to her Bow " (1887) 
and " The World went very well then " (1890). A 
rustic youth walks jauntily along a lane with a 
village maiden on either arm ; one of them seems 
to aim a jest across their squire at her more coy 
and demure companion. There is fresh buoyancy 
in the treatment of a theme full of unforced, un- 
conscious nature. Rich in pure humour is " Rejected 
Addresses " (1870). An elderly suitor, of a florid 
countenance, wearing a blue coat with gilt buttons, 
is on his knees, and receives with dismay the 
respectful curtsey with which his proposal is refused 
" For this sweet little maid he was rather too old." 
Trifling, perhaps, in subject, the picture has all 
Pettie's charm of colour and fluent brushwork. 

His varied accomplishment and unhesitating 
progress find proof in his Academy exhibits of the 
following years. His principal work in 1871 was 
"A Scene in the Temple Gardens." That the 
scene is based on Shakespeare's Henry VI. and 
has no actual place in history is of little moment. 
Round the rose-bushes are gathered the figures of 
Suffolk, Somerset, Warwick, Vernon, and Plan- 
tagenet, clad in the long fur-trimmed robes of their 

(Site of original, 27 X 88.) 

ASSOCIATE: 1866-1878 91 

time. Richard, Duke of York, standing on the 
left, plucks a white rose, and calls on his followers 
to pluck a similar flower. The Duke of Somerset, 
boldly fronting him, gathers a red rose, and com- 
mands the supporters of the Duke of Lancaster 
to do the like. As they pluck the flowers, they 
provoke Warwick's prophecy : 

This brawl to-day, 
Grown to this faction in the Temple-Garden, 
Shall send between the red rose and the white 
A thousand souls to death and deadly night 

The thoughtful lawyer in the rear seems to foresee 
the disastrous future. The work is impressive 
from the air of dignity with which the subject has 
been invested, and gains in impressiveness from 
the sombre and frowning walls of the Temple 
buildings that form a grey background to the rich 
costumes. Two lighter works, " The Love Song " 
and " The Pedlar," were shown in the same year. 
The first is a figure of a troubadour, exhibiting the 
artist's powerful command of varying tones of red 
in the rich robe which his subject wears. The 
second is a vivacious picture of two buxom dairy- 
maids who invest their savings in the showy wares 
of a pedlar's pack, finding special attraction in a 
gown-piece of a flowered pattern. The figures are 


apt and dexterous, and animated in expression. In 
1871 also Pettie had a little burst of portrait- 
painting, one portrait, that of his old friend 
Mac Whirter, being exhibited at Burlington House. 
To 1871 belongs the record of a kindly action, 
one of many such, but set down here because it 
concerns another great painter of the nineteenth 
century, far older than Pettie, but happily still 
alive. To the Academy Exhibition of 1871 Josef 
Israels sent a big picture, "How Bereft," from 
Holland, and on being unpacked it was found to 
have a large hole in the canvas and some minor 
damages. Israels had long been on terms of 
intimate relationship with the Scottish School, 
whose work has a close kinship with his own ; and 
Pettie, who had never, I think, met the Dutch 
painter, was a warm admirer of his work. Hap- 
pening to see the damaged picture, he took instant 
action, with the quick decision and sympathetic 
friendliness so characteristic of the man. He 
arranged for the removal of the picture from 
Burlington House, took it to have the canvas 
carefully relined, and telegraphed to Israels at 
The Hague to come over and stay with him 
at St John's Wood. Israels came, spent three 
pleasant days in his company, and on the opening 

(Siw of original, 68 x 42.) 

ASSOCIATE: 1866-1878 98 

of the Academy the picture hung upon the wall 
none the worse for its misadventure. 

In the autumn of this year, along with Orchard- 
son, he was elected an Honorary Member of the 
Royal Scottish Academy. The diploma, which 
states that the honour is bestowed " in consideration 
of his eminent talents as a painter, and in the hope 
that his best exertions will be directed to advance 
the honour and interests of the Society, the progress 
of Art, and the dignity of its professors," is dated 
November 27, 1871, and bears the signature of Sir 
George Harvey, P.R.S.A. Pettie was always 
proud of this compliment by his fellow-countrymen, 
and well might be, for since the granting of the 
Scottish Academy's charter in 1888, only thirty- 
five honorary members have won election* Though 
always loyal to the London Academy, he sent 
many of his finest works to the Edinburgh 

" Silvius and Phebe," of 1872, was a companion 
to " Touchstone and Audrey " of two years before. 
Like its predecessor, it depicts with much grace and 
in brilliant colour the pretty scene between Shake- 
speare's two shepherd lovers. A more important 
work of this year was "Terms to the Besieged." 
It was a dramatic subject which, like " Treason," 


enabled Pettie to display his skill in facial expres- 
sion, his command of drawing and colour, and his 
ability of composition. In a municipal council- 
chamber are gathered the governor and leading 
burghers of a beleaguered town. Before them 
stands an ambassador from the besieging force, a 
martial figure in bright demi-suit of plate armour, 
violently gesticulating while he proposes terms of 
surrender so severe as to take away the breath of 
the lean and gaunt members of the council The 
horror and despair upon their faces is brilliantly 
achieved in paint In the same year Pettie was at 
Hastings and painted a portrait of a " Coastguard 
on the Lookout," fine in colour and interesting 
as a record of a costume which has already 

"The Flag of Truce," which Pettie sent to the 
Academy of 1878, was possibly intended as a sequel 
to "Terms to the Besieged." From the heavy 
arched gateway of a beleaguered town the burgo- 
master advances, accompanied by the sad -eyed 
bearer of the white flag. The wan face and glassy 
eyes of the latter tell of hunger and privation 
endured nearly to the utmost. The governor, 
staunch and resolute, stands erect with a scroll in 
his hand. His shrivelled features, and shrunken 

(8iu of original, 30* X 44.) 

ASSOCIATE: 1866-1878 95 

form with ill-fitting dress and accoutrements a world 
too large for it, are finely studied Women and 
starving townsfolk press behind them with tears 
and blessings. The whole story is told with sym- 
pathy, and gains fulness of dramatic force without 
a touch of exaggeration. The artistic achievement 
shows itself not only in the distribution of the 
figures and in the skilful treatment of the back- 
ground, but in the harmonious agreement of bright 
colours, red, blue, and yellow, in the dresses of the 
three foremost soldiers. A slighter subject of this 
year was " Sanctuary," a damsel imploring refuge 
from the black-robed nuns of a convent. Here, as 
in all Pettie's work, is displayed his talent of 
subordinating all the elements of the picture to its 
chief purpose and central interest, and it has the 
full richness of tone characteristic of all the work 
produced at this, perhaps his finest, period. " To 
the Fields I carried her Milking Pails," a third 
exhibit of 1878, is a piece of happy sentiment, 
showing two country lovers against a background 
of sunny landscape, painted from Ecclesbourne 
Glen, near Hastings. " The Cardinal/* " Midnight 
Watch," and "The Toast" are among smaller 
pictures of this date, all of them full of vitality in 
colour and execution. The last is one of several 


pictures for which the School for Scandal supplied 
a theme. Sheridan's frivolous but good -hearted 
hero is depicted at the moment when he raises his 
glass to drink the health of his ancestors, whose 
portraits he has been driven by his extravagance 
to sell. A companion canvas, " Lady Teazle : A 
Cup of Tea," a glowing piece of colour, was painted 
in the following year. 

(Siu qf original, 84 x 18.) 



At the beginning of 1874 Pettie became a Royal 
Academician, having been elected, at the early age 
of thirty-four, to fill the vacancy caused by the 
death of Sir Edwin Landseer. 

His first exhibits as an Academician were two of 
his finest works, " A State Secret " and " Ho ! Ho ! 
Old Noll" " A State Secret " is an historical scene 
of the artist's own contriving. A Cardinal, seated 
at the end of a table in a large tapestried apartment, 
is hastily burning some treasonable documents, 
while a monk in the background gazes at him 
with a look of horrified amazement. The technical 
merits are of a remarkable kind. Note how every- 
thing is subordinate to the central figure, so 
dramatic in conception. Note, too, the fine render- 
ing of the flaming paper — Mrs. Andrew Ker tells 
me she burned nearly a packet of note-paper, 

97 13 


sheet by sheet, in Pettie's studio, that the right 
effect might be secured, — the suggestiveness of the 
gloomy background, the careful treatment of all 
the accessories. 

The gay drollery of " Ho ! Ho ! Old Noll " came 
as the usual effective contrast to the tragic intrigue 
of the other. The picture owed its existence to 
importunity. A gentleman called one day at 
Pettie's studio and begged him to paint something 
or other as a commission. The artist assured 
him that he should have the first offer of one of 
his next works, but the would-be purchaser was 
persistent in trying to exact an immediate promise. 
" Laboursome petition " was of no avail, for Pettie 
was pressed with commissioned work and by no 
means anxious to undertake anything fresh at the 
moment. But he was instantly won by his visitor s 
final appeal: "My dear sir, I'm over eighty, 
and I can't afford to wait!" "Ho! Ho! Old 
Noll " was finished for him within a week. The 
scene is in a tennis-court Two Cavaliers look on 
with a chuckle of amusement at the spirited sketch 
which a third has made upon the wall His 
sketch is a caricature, but he hardly needed to add 
the " Old Noll," which he is in the act of writing. 
Pettie's picture, quite apart from its colour, is the 

(.Sir* qf original, 48 X «8.) 


work of a master draughtsman. The light pose 
and easy grace of the Cavalier who makes the 
sketch, the foreshortening of his arm, the hand that 
holds the chalk — so lightly that it seems to move 
— are all superbly rendered. The two figures of the 
onlookers are magnificently handled both in line 
and mass, and it is by brilliant and subtle draughts- 
manship that the feeling of merriment is suggested. 
Only two faces are seen, and these in profile, 
but that of the Cavalier in red is full of hearty, 
rollicking laughter, while the curve of the sketcher's 
cheek, the tip of his moustache, and the curl of his 
eyelash all betoken amusement and smiling satis- 
faction with his work. The two figures to the left 
offer a splendid contrast of black and red, and the 
setting of the canary sleeve against the red of the 
cloak is one of those chromatic feats in which 
the painter was so daring and withal so successful. 
Those strong masses of black, red, and yellow are 
enhanced by the white and pink of the third figure 
and by the fine quality of grey in the wall of the 
tennis-court It was a problem of tone, the seeing 
of a white ball and a black coat, lying together, 
against the grey background of the wall in the 
tennis-court at Lord's Cricket Ground, that gave 
Fettie the immediate idea of his picture. The 


brilliant sketch, of which Mr, MacWhirter is the 
fortunate owner, has a richness and fatness of 
paint and an abandon of execution that make it 
almost finer than the finished picture. There are 
tones in the white dress, and in the black hat with 
its pinky feather, possessing a quality which even 
Whistler never excelled. 

A third picture exhibited in 1874 was "Friar 
Lawrence and Juliet,'* not quite like Pettie, at first 
sight, in its negation of strong colour. But the 
head of the old friar is a noble piece of painting, 
worthy of Rembrandt in its powerful modelling and 
subtle analysis of light and shade. The filmy veil 
that Juliet wears and the play of light on her silken 
dress are rendered with skill of craftsmanship, but 
her figure is awkward, and the entire concealment 
of her face is not altogether fortunate. 

In 1875 Pettie was elected to the Council of the 
Academy for two years, and served for the first 
time on the Hanging Committee for that year — 
"getting it taken out of me at the R.A.," as he 

His diploma work, sent to the 1875 Exhibition, 
was "Jacobites." Some stalwart Highlanders of 
the '45 are gathered in council, their varied tartans, 
in which blues and greens predominate, giving 


(.Ster of original, 82 X 45.) 


a rich scheme of colour. There is "real pathos 
and most subtle expression/' as Ruskin said, in 
the group of figures, but the background, which 
Ruskin found "slovenly," is full of lumin- 
ous atmosphere, that "third dimension, 9 ' undis- 
covered, or rather forgotten, in the great critic's 
day. Mark how those figures take reality of 
contour without any rigid outlines, without any 
harsh statement of facts or any insistence upon 
detail. Power of colour, with all its clearness, 
sparkle, and beauty, its effective adaptation to the 
subject, is as fully manifested in this as in any 
picture he produced. To realise how Pettie out- 
stripped his contemporaries as a colourist, you 
have but to climb the long stair to the Diploma 
gallery 'at Burlington House. In that room of 
modern work, " The Jacobites " stands alone for 
sheer force of colour. 

Besides "The Jacobites," in the Academy of 
1875, were two costume portraits and "A Scene 
in Hal o' the Wynd's Smithy." The last takes 
its theme from The Fair Maid of Perth The 
clansman holds up a shirt of mail, as the sturdy 
smith speaks to him from the anvil over which 
he bends with his back to the spectator. It was 
a subject that gave fine opportunity of glowing 


colour in the flash and incidence of reflected light, 
and it displayed all Pettie's vivacity and robustness 
of execution. He was modest enough about it 
himself. To McTaggart he wrote : " I saw yours 
among Captain Hill's pictures at Brighton. It is 
a stunner, and looks like a hole in the wall, letting 
in sunshine and fresh salt-water breezes into 
the room; the best bit of colour he has. He 
gets my R.A. picture, and I'm bound to say it 
won't stand beside yours for colour." 

The representation of physical exertion and 
momentary movement offers a problem of techni- 
calities to which artists and sculptors of all periods 
have been attracted. That Pettie's spirit of strong 
enthusiasm should lead him to grapple with such a 
motive is perfectly intelligible. In the €€ Tussle for 
the Keg " (1868) he had already shown his power of 
rendering concentrated action. In " The Threat," 
exhibited at the Academy in 1876, he allowed 
himself no opportunity of telling his story by the 
action of the whole body. The figure is half- 
length, and the adoption of armour with its rigid 
lines and definite form precluded any dependence 
upon muscular action. There are no accessories 
to explain the incident. Everything is expressed 
by the character of the stern face and the wonder- 


ful drawing of the merciless hands, particularly of 
the truculent fist thrust forward from the canvas. 
The suit of armour and the face shadowed by the 
helmet are painted with absolute mastery over brush 
and pigment. While " The Threat " was standing 
finished on Pettie's easel, Leighton, who had heard 
with great interest of the progress of the picture, 
went over one day to see it. His one criticism 
was that the foremost hand was not large enough 
for all it had to express. "But," said Pettie, "I 
painted it from my own great fist." " Then your 
own great fist isn't big enough," said Leighton ; 
" look at mine." And on comparison they found 
that Leighton's hand — which one would have 
expected to be the delicate aristocratic hand of a 
courtier — was larger than his companion's. " Out 
with it," said Leighton, "and I'll shake my fist at 
you for three-quarters of an hour." So the hand, 
so full of force and meaning in the picture, is the 
hand of Lord Leighton. 

It is difficult to believe that "The Step," of 
the same year, is by the same painter as "The 
Threat," so full is the picture of daintiness and 
grace and sweet consent. A little girl with golden 
hair, in a pale blue dress, is dancing before the 
gentle dame, her grandmother. The simplicity 


and tenderness of the domestic subject seem to 
have evoked a corresponding sweetness of brush- 
work that is in striking contrast to the stern vigour 
of that in "The Threat" The clear flesh colour 
of the old dame's face, the pure tints of the child's 
flaxen hair and dress, gain by comparison with the 
dark panelling and the sombre chimney-piece of the 
background. In spite of passages of dark shadow, 
the picture is all aglow and sparkling with colour. 
A companion picture, "The Solo," shows an 
interior of the same type, where a chubby boy, 
with yellow hair and dress, beats a drum to the 
delight of his old grandfather, a reverend signor in 
ruff and long blue cloak. A separate picture of 
the old dame in "The Step," with her high- 
backed chair and spinning-wheel, bears the title of 
" Grandmother s Memories." 

"A Sword -and -Dagger Fight," exhibited in 
1877, is full of action and drama. It was a fine 
subject for an artist who, like Pettie, could combine 
archaeological knowledge with the suggestion of 
life and movement. The alert figures with long 
basket -hilted rapiers, deadly main-gauches, and 
cloaks to protect from the dagger-thrust, suggest 
all the reality of a sixteenth-century duel Each 

(Size of original, 38} x 48.) 


with the one hand beats 
Cold death aside, and with the other sends 
It back. 

The picture gains in effect from the contrast 
between the intense blackness of one fighter's dress 
and the whiteness of his rival's clothing. The man 
in light dress on the right is an Englishman ; the 
other is a foreigner with an intensely malignant 
look in the gleaming eye seen so effectively above 
his sword arm. The duel is taking place in a dark 
forest glade, under heavy foliage of big trees, with 
shadows closing round the combatants, and the 
background, almost as much as the figures, helps 
to make this one of the artist's happiest achieve- 
ments. "Hunted Down," its companion of this 
year, is an extremely facile and vigorous study of 
a Highlander at bay. With blood-stained claymore 
in hand, he waits furious, half-naked, breathless, 
till some well-aimed bullet shall end his life. 

It is more than probable that at this time Pettie 
was steeping himself afresh in the novels of Sir 
Walter Scott In the summer of 1877 he stayed, 
first with his friend Orchar at Dundee, and then 
spent a long holiday at Callander in the very heart 
of the Scott country, within easy drive of the 
Trossachs and Loch Katrine, the Pass of Leny, and 



the Braes of Balquhidder. George Paul Chalmers 
was there also, worrying over his " Glee Maiden " ; 
so, too, were the MacWhirters, Mr. and Mrs. J. M. 
Gow, and George Lawson, the sculptor. Amid 
scenery full of romantic suggestion, Pettie could 
not rest content with fishing and good fellowship, 
but must throw off his coat and begin a picture of 
" Rob Roy," afterwards exhibited in the Academy 
of 1878. Mr. Gow, with his flowing auburn beard, 
made a capital model for the renowned chieftain, 
who in the tartan of his clan is seated at a 
table, about to refresh himself "wi* a dram* 
of usquebaugh. It is a perfect embodiment of the 
famous cattle-driver and cattle-lifter. " Disbanded," 
a subject dating from the same period, shows a 
very rough and ragged but stalwart Highlander 
(without doubt a rebel of the '45 on his return from 
Culloden) facing the brae on his homeward route 
with springing stride, in spite of the fact that he 
is well laden with spoil from the battlefield. In 
"A Moment of Danger," another Highlander, 
with his wife or daughter clinging to him for 
protection, has taken refuge in a rocky fastness, 
and waits with eager gaze and resolute brow, ready 
to fire one last shot in defence of his own. "The 
Highland Outpost" shows a clansman in tartan 


(Site (tf original, 10 x 8a) 


of brilliant red, sword in hand, with one knee 
upon a rock, standing out in statuesque grandeur 
against an evening sky whose glow lights up dis- 
tant mountains and the still water of a loch. 

While still preserving happy memories of the 
Callander holiday of 1877, Pettie received a terrible 
shock when he heard, early in the following year, of 
Chalmers's sudden and mysterious death. Chalmers 
was present at the Royal Scottish Academy 
banquet on the evening of the 15th February, and 
it fell to him to propose "The Honourable the 
Board of Manufactures." It was his last public 
utterance, and it ended, naturally enough, with a 
reference to the name of his friend Pettie, as 
one of the distinguished painters who were doing 
honour to the School From the banquet, he went 
to the Arts Club, spoke with eloquence of Corot, 
and left somewhat hurt at a lack of sympathy 
shown to his remarks by his fellow-artists. An 
hour later he was found, lying unconscious, at the 
foot of some area steps, whether by accident or 
outrage will never be known. The mystery that 
hung about his death enhanced the emotion of his 
friends. Few men have been mourned more 
sincerely, and by few was he mourned more than 
by his fellow-student and life-long friend, John 


Pettie. A letter of condolence written to Mrs. 
Collie, on the death of her son, is couched in kind 
terms that came from a warm heart : 

21 St. John's Wood Road, London, 
24th February 187a 
My dear Mrs. Collie — Knowing how you are suffering, I 
have not yet dared to write you. Our grief must be but a 
very faint echo of yours, and yet we, with all your friends, 
are differing bitterly too. It has been a disappointment to 
me not to bfc able to come to Edinburgh at this time, but 
Mr. Gow has written me often, and tells me of your having 
kind friends around you. I envy them the opportunity of 
expressing their deep sympathy in other ways than by 
letter — sympathy which, as I feel now, it is impossible to 
write. Do excuse this, and think of us as among those who 
are sorrowing for the loss of one of the best and most lovable 
fellows, your son. He was my best Jriend, and, mourning 
him, I am, Yours most sincerely, John Pettee. 

To his friend, McTaggart, he writes, two days 
later : 

Thanks for your note. You and Gow have been very kind 
in not forgetting that there are mourners here as well as in 
Edinburgh. I wish I were a girl that I might cry my eyes 
out to try and relieve this awful weight at my heart. We 
will never see his like again, Mac, such a genuine and good 
fellow. My love for him makes me jealous of the fuss other 
people are making, though they cannot do poor Geordie too 
much honour. I so wish I had been able to be with you on 
Saturday, and long for a chat with you about him. You 
and I will keep his memory green for many a year yet. 
. • . Do write me again. You have an opportunity to 
interest me with any talk of Chalmers. 

(Size of original, 20 x 22.) 


The loss was never forgotten. Long afterwards 
he wrote: 

It has come into my head to write you. Poor Chalmers 
has crossed my mind, and I feel you are about the only tie 
I have to Edinburgh now. MacWhirter's good fortune would 
have delighted Geordie. 

Two more Academy pictures of 1878 call 
for mention. One of them, "The Hour," is a r 
picture that, more than anything else by Pettie, 
shows the influence of Phillip. It seems to have 
been painted with an inspiring fervour that swept 
him into a passionate grandeur of form and colour. 
To Pettie, as to the early Romanticists of nine- 
teenth-century France, a beautiful piece of red 
cloth was an artistic pleasure, a protest against the 
grey and dull, just as Victor Hugo's passionate 
phrases were a revolt against the rigid declamation 
of Corneille and Racine. In "The Hour," as in 
" Ho ! Ho ! Old Noll " and " The State Secret," he 
glories in red, handling a scheme of colour whose 
richness and fulness is gained by impetuous and 
unlaboured brushwork. The lady who descends the 
stair with domino in hand, to keep her assignation, 
is of a Spanish type, and her dress is all of red, 
covered with black lace. It is a red that gives 
endless expression to variety of light and move- 


ment, making you lose lines and contours in its 
fervid glow. "The Laird" shows that brilliant 
colour is not indispensable. The Scottish squire, 
with hands thrust into the pockets of his long 
waistcoat, scans his broad acres and watches the 
distant reapers with commanding attitude. 

At the Academy of 1879 appeared " The Death- 
Warrant " (now in the Hamburg Museum), perhaps 
Pettie's masterpiece of invention and sentiment, 
if not of painting as well. Edward VI., a young, 
blue-eyed, fair-haired prince, clothed in ermine, pre- 
sides at a council of grave and reverend Ministers, 
one of whom holds out a pen that His Highness 
may sign the death-warrant of some hapless 
conspirator. The heads of the councillors are 
studied with keen characterisation, and the sad, 
hesitant face of the boy-king has rare beauty. 
The effective disposition of colour combines with 
sound management of light and shade to produce 
chiaroscuro of a brilliant order. In speaking of 
Pettie as a colourist, Sir Walter Armstrong in his 
Scottish Painters writes : 

For the same gift put to more virile use — to the use 
which Rubens would make of it — turn to the* great picture 
at Hamburg, " The Death- Warrant. 1 " Here some half-dozen 
grave statesmen sit about a council-board, at the head of 
which young Edward VI. is enthroned. The painting is 


magnificent. The head of the ruddy, middle-aged senator 
on the left — he was painted from the artist's father — has 
the vigour, warmth, and solidity of a Rubens. And all over 
the canvas the same glow, the same ease, the same breadth 
of brushing, are to be enjoyed. 

From 1880 onwards a large proportion of Pettie s 
exhibits at the Royal Academy consisted of 
portraits, to which a separate chapter is devoted. 
"Mrs. Dominick Gregg and Children," of 1880, 
may be mentioned here as a family group treated 
in an original way and from a pictorial standpoint. 
Two pretty children, in white* dresses, red sashes, 
and black stockings, are romping through a room 
with their mother, and pulling that lovely lady, 
who is nothing loth, by the hands. The composi- 
tion is energetic, and the colour is in Pettie's most 
glowing manner. "Before his Peers" (1881) is a 
bold noble of Henry VIII.'s time, in a Holbein 
costume of black and yellow, brilliantly and power- 
fully painted. He is in the act of speaking 
energetically in his own defence, and, clutching a 
parchment with one hand, points to it with the 
other as though producing irrefutable evidence. 
In reality this is a portrait of Sir Robert Burnett, 
Bart, but so dashing, bold, and effective is the 
animated design that it carries out the painter's 
intention and stands by its merits as a subject- 


picture apart from any personal interest. "Her 
Grace," a small subject-picture, shows a full-length 
figure of a lady in white satin, standing erect before 
a gilt cabinet. She has taken from the drawer a 
large carcanet, and seems absorbed in memories 
which the jewels have revived. This and the 
companion "His Grace" were finely etched in 
1880, by C. P. Slocombe. Both pictures are 
practically costume studies of single figures, with- 
out any deep interest of accessories, but Pettie 
gives them an extraordinary spirit, brilliance, and 
freshness, where in other hands the same subject 
might have been commonplace. In addition to 
" Before his Peers " and " Her Grace w the Academy 
of 1881 contained "Trout-Fishing in the High- 
lands," which proved that Pettie had no mean 
power as a painter of landscape. An angler in grey 
is casting his line over a shallow " drumlie " stream, 
which traverses a bare glen, overhung with wreaths 
of mist. The tones of dress and landscape are 
subtly harmonised. It is a capital bit of Scottish 
scenery, yet the best element of the picture is the 
spirited action of the figure. None but a fisher- 
man could have given that grace and natural 
ease of movement It always reminds me of 
Barrie's words about Robert Louis Stevenson 


(Site of original, 84 x 57.) 


— words again that only an angler could have 

written : 

Before he was a writer of books he was in our part of the 
country with a fishing-wand in his hand, and I like to think 
that I was the boy who met him that day by St. Margaret's 
stream, where the rowans are, and busked a fly for him, and 
stood by watching, while the lithe figure rose and fell as he 
cast and hinted back from the crystal waters of Noran-side. 

In Pettie's picture you can hear the swish of the 
line, and see the rise and fall of the arm, the 
movement of the lithe figure. 

Three large subject-pictures were exhibited at 
the Academy of 1882. Most important was " The 
Duke of Monmouth begging his Life from James 
II." One can guess the tragedy, and gain pleasure 
from the picture, almost without knowing that the 
central figures are King James and his natural 
nephew, who after being exiled during the reign 
of Charles II. landed at Lyme and marched 
to rebellion with two thousand men. It will be 
remembered that Monmouth met the King at 
Sedgemoor, was routed, fled till his horse sank 
under him, and was discovered, in the disguise of a 
peasant, lying in a ditch* To the last he trusted 
that his life would be spared, and went with hope- 
fulness into the presence of the King. Macaulay 



To see him and not to spare him was an outrage on 
humanity and decency. This outrage the King resolved to 
commit. The arms of the prisoner were bound behind him 
by a silken cord ; and thus secured, he was ushered into the 
presence of the implacable kinsman whom he had wronged. 
Then Monmouth threw himself on the ground, and crawled 
to the King's feet. 

That is the moment the artist has chosen to depict 
The scene is laid in an apartment at Whitehall, 
and the tall windows, veiled by transparent blue 
curtains, cast long reflections on the polished floor. 
James, dressed in black, relieved only by the ribbon 
and order of the Garter, stands upright, his arms 
folded, and looks down upon Monmouth, whose 
face is the personification of abject, long-continued 
fear. Monmouth's grovelling figure is a feat of 
draughtsmanship offering difficulties which another 
painter would have avoided. Contrasts of pose, 
passion, colour, and tone are cleverly and boldly 
used. The picture evoked a chorus of praise from 
critics of the time. In the Standard I find it 
described as " A very revelry of luscious and liquid 
colour ; little, it seems to us, has been done better 
in our time than this most dexterous and satisfying 
arrangement of noble and harmonious hues. It is 
a study of browns that have gold in them, and 
of blues that have silver." At the Academy 


banquet Pettie was highly pleased by a special 
reference made to it by Dean Farrar, who 
described it as the type of historical work which 
he most admired. 

The other two pictures of 1882 were " Eugene 
Aram and the Scholar" and "The Palmer." The 
former shows a vista of a woodland alley, tinted 
with green and gold, flecked with lights and 
shadows. Eugene Aram talks rapidly and fiercely 
with the little boy : " he talked with him of Cain." 
The effect of long and passionate remorse upon 
the worn frame of the miserable usher is rendered 
with thorough melodramatic force, and a fine 
element in the picture is the naive wonder on the 
lad's face. In " The Palmer " a holy man from 
the East is telling a Saxon family the tale of 
his pilgrimage. One of his most eager listeners is 
the little boy who stands, full of life and vigorous 
expression, at his mother's knee. The masses of 
form and light are deftly composed; the cool 
colour is pleasant and effective. 

In 1882 Pettie bought a freehold site in Fitz- 
john's Avenue and erected one of the earliest 
houses in the road. His friend, Mr. William 
Wallace, was the architect ; and the house, a fine 
building in Georgian style, was named "The 


Lothians " from the district in Scotland whence the 
artist came. Sir John Millais took a keen in- 
terest in his friend's project, and while laid up 
in bed owing to illness, persuaded Pettie to bring 
down the architect and the plans. Frank Holl, 
R.A., became Pettie s first neighbour by building 
" The Three Gables " next door. The main feature 
of " The Lothians n was the studio. The instruc- 
tions given to the architect were : " Mind you, I 
want a large square room — a workshop, and none 
of your fal-de-lals and nooks -and -corners and 
galleries — 'nane o* yer whigmaleeries and curlie- 
wurlies/ as Andrew Fairservice said." A large 
workshop it became, fifty feet by thirty, divided 
for ordinary use into two square rooms, each with 
its own fireplace, by a large velvet curtain hanging 
across the centre. The nearer room, which was 
always used as the studio proper, had a north light, 
and the other a large east window. Though the 
rooms were square, there was no lack of comfort 
and adornment. The eye was drawn at once to 
some fine pieces of furniture, old Spanish cabinets, 
secretaires of Dutch marqueterie, bronze vases, 
Louis XV. clocks, and well-chosen pieces of old 
Nankin porcelain. Above the fireplace in the 
room where Pettie worked hung a fine panel of 

(Size of original, 22J x 32.) 


old Flemish tapestry, picturing the triumph of 
Antony and Cleopatra. On the walls and round 
the room were suits of armour, helmets, Highland 
targes, swords and daggers (from the dirk and 
the claymore to the swept-hilted rapier and the 
fine blade of Andrea Ferrara), pistols and powder- 
flasks, and sundry pieces of costume. Every- 
thing was there for use; nearly every object 
in the room figured in some picture or another. 
"Pettie's studio,** says Mr. Pinnington, "was a 
faithful reflection, in its freedom from affectation and 
display, of its unostentatious although lordly occu- 
pant. Modesty lurked in its semi-tones ; ambition 
was felt in its space." The studio was the scene of 
many happy gatherings, when Mr. and Mrs. Pettie 
invited their friends to private theatricals or a 
musical entertainment ; and the polished oak floor 
served for many a dance. A stair from the studio 
led down to a billiard-room and to a property-room, 
containing a fine collection of studies and well 
stored with costumes. It may be said that after 
Pettie's death a large number of incomplete studies 
from this property-room were destroyed by his 
executors, so that no picture unworthy of him 
might pass into circulation or run the risk of being 
fraudulently tricked out as a finished work. 


LAST YEARS: 1883-1808 

In 1888 Pettie, at a pause for a subject, welcomed 
a suggestion that was admirably suited to evoke his 
sympathy and skill. At dinner one evening he 
asked Mr. Winn, who was staying with him at 
" The Lothians," for a hint as to a possible theme. 
The painter and his guest sat racking their brains 
for something that would inspire, but all in vain. 
Mr. Winn, however, after he went to bed, still lay 
thinking ; and on coming down to breakfast next 
day saluted his host with, " Good morning, Pettie. 
Dost know this waterfly ? " Pettie looked in amaze- 
ment, and when the question was repeated, began 
to wonder whether his old friend had taken leave 
of his senses. A volume of Shakespeare, however, 
was brought from the shelves, and the passage was 
found where young Osric comes to welcome 
Hamlet, who turns to Horatio with the question, 


LAST YEARS: 1888-1898 119 

" Dost know this waterfly ? M The picture of the 
gay, sparkling courtier was begun that very morn- 
ing. The figure bears a clever and amusing like- 
ness to a waterfly in his little hour of brilliant sun- 
light His mincing gait, his self-satisfied pose, the 
light feathers in his cap, the long slender legs in 
hose of shining grey, the lustre of pale silver and 
citron-tinted braveries, the silk-lined cape pointed 
like two wings, are all in keeping with his character. 
This is one of several pictures in high silvery tones 
which Pettie painted towards the close of his career, 
perhaps in challenge to those who thought he over- 
powered by sheer resonance of colour, as though 
with loud chords of martial music In "Dost 
know this Waterfly ?" and in " Challenged w and 
"The Vigil n he set himself the problem of paint- 
ing in cool tones. They are one more argument — 
as Gainsborough's " Blue Boy " is said to have been 
the first — against the unqualified acceptance of 
Reynolds' famous precept in his Eighth Discourse, 
that "it ought to be indispensably observed that 
the masses of light in a picture be always of a warm 
mellow colour, yellow, red, or a yellowish-white; 
and that the blue, the grey, or the green colours be 
kept entirely out of these masses, and be used only 
to support and set off those warm colours." To 


search out and discriminate the values in a delicate 
colour -scheme is, no doubt, a more difficult task 
than to relieve yellow against black, red against 
brown. In " Dost know this Waterfly ? ", with its 
dominant masses of light in pale sheeny blue and 
grey, Pettie certainly won success. 

"The Jesters Merry Thought " (1888) may 
suffer in some eyes from the humour of its punning 
title, but is a piece of full-coloured life painted with 
characteristic mobility of composition. A monk 
and a soldier are taking their midday repast in the 
shade of a sand-pit on a day of sunshine, and the 
soldier insists on his companion pulling with him 
the merry-thought of a fowl. The crimson velvet 
and the armour of the soldier's costume and the 
brown frock of the monk are very telling by reason 
of their warm colour and fine execution. Other 
good pictures of this year were "The Ransom," 
"The Young Laird," "Young Izaak Walton, 
1609," and " Sweet Seventeen " — the last a portrait 
of a niece of Mrs. Pettie. 

In work of the finest quality 1884 was a lean year. 
Neither the " Orientation of the Church" nor " The 
Vigil M was a picture in which Pettie did justice 
to his own powers, especially as a colourist. "The 
Orientation of the Church M shows a group of white- 

, (Size of original, 81 x 14f) 

LAST YEABS: 1888-1898 121 

robed monks looking to the East and waiting for 
the first appearance of the sun's rays above the 
horizon. A pole is fixed in the ground on the site 
of their future altar, and the first shadow cast will 
give them the line of orientation. This work cost 
Pettie more pains and trouble than any other 
picture he painted. It was not often that painting 
was disheartening or irksome to him, but in front 
of the large canvas — it is the largest to which he 
ever put brush — his wonted fluency seems to have 
forsaken him. The study of the level morning light 
that strikes sharp and keen on the faces and figures 
of the men busied with their task would deserve 
praise if it came from a painter of landscape, but 
the colour of the whole work is too cold, the theme 
too quiet and uninspiring for a painter of Pettie's 
fibre. With dogged perseverance, however, he 
carried it to accomplishment — and then he persisted 
in thinking it one of his finest works. It is a 
common thing for a mother to love best her weak- 
ling child, and for the creative artist to honour the 
work that costs him most trouble and to cheapen 
the true and easy expression of his temperament. 
Pettie's partiality for this picture affords one more 
example of the unaccountable blindness which led 
Hogarth to single out " Sigismunda " as the master- 



piece whose worth would be marked by " Time's 
price-enhancing dust," made Romney proclaim his 
full-length of Thurlow as his best production in 
portraiture, and caused Addison to rank his poems 
above the Spectator. 

In the same way " The Vigil " is unsatisfactory, 
for its cold, silvery key fails to exhibit Pettie's real 
genius as a colourist, while the single figure and the 
bare architectural background offer little revelation 
of his power as an executant. The background, 
selected from St Bartholomew's, Smithfield, was 
painted mainly in the studio from an elevation 
made by an architect. Hence its somewhat flimsy 
execution, and the rather rigid perspective of 
pillars, flag-stones, and altar. It is unfortunate 
that this picture, by no means typical, having been 
bought by the Chantrey Bequest, should hang in 
the Tate Gallery, and be the most accessible and 
best-known example of the painter's work. On the 
other hand, the picture gains in dramatic force from 
the cool bareness of the Norman nave, and there is 
a strong popular appeal in the fine sentiment of the 
subject. The following description of the scene 
depicted is borrowed from Mr. E. T. Cook's Hand- 
book to the Tate Gallery: — 

The Vigil of Arms was one of the religious exercises, 

LAST YEARS: 1888-1898 128 

which in the Middle Ages preceded the conferment of 
knighthood* The process of inauguration was commenced 
in the evening by the placing of the candidate under the 
care of two " esquires of honour, grave and well-seen in court- 
ship," who were to be "governors in all things relating to 
him." By them he was conducted to his appointed chamber, 
where a bath was prepared, hung within and without with 
linen, and covered with rich cloths, into which, after they had 
undressed him, he entered. While he was in the bath two 
"ancient and grave knights" attended him, "to inform, 
instruct, and counsel him touching the order and feats of 
chivalry," and when they had fulfilled their mission they 
poured some of the water of the bath over his shoulders, 
signing the left shoulder with the cross. He was then taken 
from the bath and put into a plain bed without hangings, 
until his body was dry, when the two esquires put on him a 
white shirt and over that u a robe of russet with long sleeves 
having a hood thereto like unto that of a hermit." Then 
the two ancient and grave knights returned and led him 
to a chapel, the esquires going before them "sporting and 
dancing," with "the minstrels making melody." And when 
they had been served with wines and spices they went away, 
leaving only the candidate, the esquires, "the priest, the 
chandler, and the watch," who kept the vigil of arms until 
sunrise, the candidate passing the night " bestowing himself 
in visions and prayer." 

That is the moment chosen in the present picture. 
Dawn steals through the dim aisles, but the 
kneeling candidate does not notice it, and his 
beautiful haggard face remains turned towards the 
altar, with eyes full of mystic devotion. Helmet 
and armour are on the raised step before him, and 


he holds patiently the cross hilt of his sword. Soon 
he will receive the Holy Sacrament and be invested 
with the full honour of knighthood. 

" A Reductio ad Absurdum," which also belongs 
to 1884, is a'strong piece of colour, with a scheme of 
black and red used as elements in the design. A 
cardinal in his red robes walks along a corridor 
with another ecclesiastic in black with a white 
cape, and with expressive energy in his outstretched 
hands gives to his more cautious companion a 
" flawless demonstration w of his will, if not of his 

"Challenged," which was exhibited in the 
following year, is vivacious and complete, one of 
Pettie s most dramatic works. A young gallant 
of the time of James II. has been rudely awakened 
after a night's excess by the arrival of a challenge. 
The cartel has been delivered by a visitor who is 
just seen in the open doorway to the left, the 
chape of his long rapier swinging ominously under 
his red cloak as he departs with swaggering stride. 
The recipient of the challenge, in blue robe de 
chambre and sparkling white satin breeches, leans 
on the side of his bed, and with hand pressed to 
his brow and a look of bewilderment on his face, 
strives to recall the events of the past night 


(Size of original, 48 x M.) 

LAST YEARS: 1888-1898 126 

He remembers "a mass of things, but nothing 
particular, a quarrel, but nothing wherefore''; 
yet he well understands the consequences. Sir 
Walter Armstrong criticises "the want of con- 
nection between the two figures," but surely this 
detachment is correct. The vanishing figure is 
simply a go-between, a mere accessory, hardly 
essential to the picture, already forgotten, and 
rightly forgotten, by the dazed recipient of the 
letter which he has brought. The treatment of 
the picture is finely artistic in its dexterous com- 
bination of light and shadow, rich and cool colours 
being handled with sound restraint As in " Dost 
know this Waterfly?" and other pictures of his 
last period, the artist breaks away from the 
ordinary rule which opposes a foreground in which 
warm glowing tints predominate to a cool passage 
in middle distance or background. Here he essays 
the "Blue Boy" problem, his foreground figure 
and the bed being of silvery white and blue, 
relieved against a background of warm brown 
tints. Muther had the obvious comparison in 
mind, when he wrote of "Challenged" that "in 
point of colour this is perhaps the most delicate 
work produced in England since Gainsborough's 
'Blue Boy.'" 


The bed in " Challenged " was painted from an 
old state-bed at Baynham Hall in Norfolk. Pettie 
was taken there by Mr. Seymour Lucas, whose 
antiquarian knowledge he often found of the 
greatest help. Mr. Lucas obtained permission 
for his friend and himself to spend a day or two 
at the house, which was then unoccupied. They 
arrived in the afternoon, and amid advancing 
twilight were shown over the house. They saw 
the bed where Queen Anne slept, and passed 
through many a silent tapestried chamber, and 
along eerie passages. They dined in a great 
panelled room, and spent their evening over port 
wine in hearing tales of Lady Dorothy Walpole 
and others whose ghosts walked the floor above 
their heads. They were then each conducted to 
a room, with walls two feet thick, where a roaring 
fire cast flickering shadows over a canopied bed. 
Both were men on whose artistic temperament 
and emotional instinct these things acted with 
strange force; both, as they acknowledged, were 
"in a blue funk." Seymour Lucas met the 
situation by going to Pettie's room, and begging 
that he might share a portion of a bed big enough 
for four. On the following morning Pettie 
sketched the bed that appears in " Challenged." 

(Site of original, 82 x 4ft.) 

LAST YEARS: 1888-1898 127 

Two other exhibits at the Academy of 1885, 
illustrating scenes in Sheridan's School for Scandal, 
are both rich in colour and precise in touch. 
"Charles Surface selling his Ancestors" is an 
animated scene, full of nice discrimination of 
character. The undemonstrative pleasure of Sir 
Oliver on hearing that his graceless nephew refuses 
to sell his portrait is expressed with subtle skill 
In reference to "Sir Peter and Lady Teazle/' a 
sentence or two from Sir Walter Armstrong's 
Scottish Painters are sufficient comment : 

If colour qualify is enough Jto make a painter remembered, 
and we know very well it is, then Pettie's fame is safe. In 
this respect some of his pictures seem to me to have passages 
in them which have scarcely been beaten. Look, for instance, 
at the figure of Sir Peter Teazle, in his plum-coloured coat, 
and at the satin-wood furniture about him. The delicacy 
which leads every tint to its highest power, to its fullest 
vibration, could not be more richly displayed. 

It was not likely that Pettie would long be 
held captive by the cool, starved colour of such 
themes as "Challenged," "The Vigil," and "The 
Orientation of the Church." In 1886 he exhibited 
that daring blaze of reds and yellows, "The 
Chieftain's Candlesticks." It was as though a 
fire which had been smouldering beneath white 
ashes burst suddenly into full hot flame in this 


forcible scene of old Highland life. Two stalwart 
majestic clansmen, red-haired and red-tartaned, 
stand on either side of their chieftain's chair, hold- 
ing up torches with brawny arms. While the 
picture hung in the Scottish National Exhibition 
(1908), I overheard a discussion between two 
visitors from the south, suggesting that this was 
a "problem picture" after the manner of the 
Hon. John Collier. The one maintained that the 
Highlanders were simply proud retainers waiting 
to receive their chief as he marched in triumph 
to the council chair. The other held that the 
chair was for ever empty, and, not knowing the 
sad-eyed, far-seeing gaze of men who dwell among 
the silence and immensity of the hills, read grief 
into the noble features. This latter view was held 
by more than one critic of repute when the 
picture was hung at the Royal Academy. All 
of them had forgotten Scott's Legend of Montrose, 
and the tale of the wager between Angus M'Aulay 
and two English squires. M'Aulay's faithful 
retainer Donald tells the story of his master's 
foolish bet of two hundred marks with two 
Saxons that "clink ye down for a wager as fast 
as a Lowland smith would hammer shoon on a 
Highland shelty." 

LAST YEARS: 1888-1898 1S9 

"Ye sail be pleased then to know, that when our laird 
was up in England, where he gangs oftener than his friends 
can wish, he was biding at the house o' this Sir Miles 
Musgrave, an' there was putten on the table six candlesticks, 
that they tell me were twice as miickle as the candlesticks in 
Dunblane kirk, and neither aim, brass, nor tin, but a 9 solid 
silver, nae less ; — up wP their English pride, has sae muckle, 
and kens sae little how to guide it! Sae they began to 
jeer the laird, that he saw nae sic graith in his ain poor 
country; and the laird, scorning to hae his country put 
down without a word for its credit, swore, like a gude 
Scotsman, that he had mair candlesticks, and better candle- 
sticks, in his ain castle at hame, than were ever lighted in 
a hall in Cumberland." 

When the laird welcomed the Englishman on 
an unexpected visit shortly after, his purse and 
credit were both at stake, for he had nothing of 
more value than some tin sconces. But M'Aulay 
was helped out of the dilemma to his own surprise : 

" Gentlemans, her dinner is ready, and her candles are 
lighted too" said Donald. 

The two English strangers, therefore, were ushered into 
the hall, where an unexpected display awaited them. 
Behind every seat stood a gigantic Highlander, completely 
dressed and armed after the fashion of his country, holding 
in his right hand his drawn sword, and in the left a blazing 
torch made of the bog-pine. The unexpected and startling 
apparition was seen by the red glare of the torches, which 
displayed the wild features, unusual dress, and glittering 
arms of those who bore them, while the smoke, eddying up 
to the roof of the hall, over-canopied them with a volume 



of vapour. . . . "Lost, lost,* said Musgrave gaily — **my 
own silver candlesticks are all melted and riding on horse- 
back by this time, and I wish the fellows that enlisted were 
half as trusty as these." 

In Pettie's picture, which sums up that tale of 
Sir Walter Scott (based, the author vouches, on 
actual fact), the elements of half-savage state are 
vividly realised, and made more effective by the 
glare of the dark shadows cast by the flaming 
torches. No wonder that a well-known firm of 
candlemakers offered the artist a large sum — which 
was not accepted — for the copyright of the picture ! 
His other subject-picture of 1886 — it was a 
year in which he painted sixteen portraits, mostly 
as gifts — was " The Musician." A young composer 
is lying back in a deep chair, thinking out an 
orchestral effect, with the occasional help of an 
organ. On the right is the organ, curiously 
ornamented, and leaning against it a violoncello. 
The musician is attired in a grey dressing-robe 
lined with pale blue, a low shirt collar, black 
stockings and shoes. Some sheets of music, painted 
from one of Mozart's original manuscripts, are in his 
hand. His worn look suggests not only the nervous 
strain of his occupation, but the hidden presence 
of some fatal disease. 

(3i»of original, 64x48.) 

LAST YEARS: 1888-1893 181 

Alas for those that never sing, 

But die with all their music in them ! 

"Two Strings to her Bow/' exhibited in 1887, 
is one of Pettie's happiest pieces of pure sentiment, 
persuasive in its natural charm and its touch of 
romance. Light-hearted gaiety and the ecstasy of 
existence sing in rippling music from lines and 
colours vibrant with joy, A coquette of the 
Regency is tripping triumphant down a shady lane, 
with an embarrassed swain on either arm, and her 
smiling face betokens full enjoyment of the 
double conquest. The diffident, mortified look of 
the fair country lad, and the hesitating gait and 
the attire of the rural beau, are spontaneous and 

A " Scene from Scott's Peveril of the Peak " 
accompanied this to the Academy. The picture 
shows the moment when the two children, Julian 
Peveril and Alice Bridgenorth, are startled by the 
sudden appearance of the Countess of Derby in 
the Golden Room. The interior is brilliantly 
painted, a tour de force of deftness and sparkle. 
Admirable use is made of the golden hangings, 
which gave their name to the room, and under the 
influence of direct illumination (one imagines a 
row of windows on the near side of the gallery) 


take quick-changing sheen and brilliance even in 
the larger shadows that cover the greater part of 
the tapestry. But, as usual, the shadows and the 
large empty spaces are used to focus and throw 
light upon the central group of the two pretty 
children, standing with wide-open, startled eyes, in 
the centre of the floor. The bright dresses of the 
children, the black attire of the Countess, the 
barking spaniel, the old chair, are all excellently 
painted and play their part Painted originally 
in a very high key, this picture has greatly 
mellowed and improved in the twenty years of 
its existence. Slighter, but very spirited, is "A 
Storm in a Teacup" (sometimes known as "The 
Tiff"), showing a lovers' quarrel The man and 
maid are taking their separate ways along a country 
lane, but it will obviously not be long ere their 
journey ends in lovers meeting. 

"The Traitor, " exhibited at the Academy in 
1888, was suggested to Pettie by his own picture 
"Treason," which he found at the Mappin Art 
Gallery after not having seen it for many years. 
As he looked at the canvas, the long table, and 
the group of figures round it, he turned to Mr. 
Howarth, Curator of the Gallery, to explain his 
first notion of a new subject, " The Traitor." In a 

(Nile of original, 82} x 47.) 

LAST YEARS: 1888-1898 188 

large council chamber a group of indignant men, 
in sixteenth-century costume, stand indignantly 
looking down upon the traitor, who lies on the 
floor, bound hand and foot At the head of a 
table to the left sits a dignified man in armour, 
who, with an air of command, holds out his hand 
as though explaining the evil of the traitor's action 
and the disgrace that is upon his head. A priest 
beside him stands with hands clasped at his breast 
as if in horror and shame that such a thing should be. 
Splendid attire and gleaming armour are brilliantly 
painted, while some blue satin cushions to the left 
lend a vivid touch of colour. Though not equal 
to €€ Treason " in depth and glow of colour, this is 
a strong picture, powerful in drawing and grouping, 
in the grip of what is vital and consistent with the 
scene, and in the strong contrast, similar to that in 
"The Duke of Monmouth," between the supine 
cringing figure and the stern towering dignity of 
those who look upon him with contempt. There 
are several differences between the larger version 
of this subject and the replica (belonging to Mrs. 
Ness) which is here reproduced. In the larger 
version the priest stands more upright, there is no 
yellow cloak thrown across the table, and the 
figure at the head of the table embodies a fine 


likeness of the artist's friend, Mr. A. P. Watt, 
who is not nearly so recognisable in the replica. 

While painting this picture Pettie received a 
visit from Verestschagin, the famous Russian 
painter of battle scenes. Pettie had just finished 
his cartoon on the canvas when the visitor was 
announced. It was not long before Verestschagin, 
with a foreigners excitability, had seized a piece of 
charcoal, and, dancing about with many gesticula- 
tions, began to suggest improvements all over the 
canvas. His host, who always welcomed criticism, 
was patient at first, but soon saw reason for dismay, 
and hastily introducing a large cigar and a tumbler 
of whisky, got his boisterous visitor ensconced in 
a corner of the sofa, then solemnly and openly 
rubbed out all the marks, while he started a friendly 
talk about other things. Possibly, with his quiet 
humour, he recalled another more serious occasion 
when a visitor, whom he knew slightly, became 
temporarily insane, and rushed about the studio 
brandishing a large knife. Pettie pacified him by 
the assurance that he badly wanted the knife to 
put into a picture, and promised him a sketch in 
exchange if he surrendered it — a promise after- 
wards faithfully kept. 

A smaller work of 1888, "The Clash of Steer 

(Size of original, 24* * 30.) 

LAST YEARS: 1888-1898 186 

embodied a characteristic incident of the same 
period as "The Traitor." It was the time when 
brawls and fighting were common among London 
prentices, who liked nothing better than the cry 
of " Clubs I Clubs ! 'Prentices I " echoing along the 
street. Out of a street row of this type a vivid 
scene has been constructed, with humorous as well 
as picturesque touches in it At the clash of steel 
caused by some quarrelsome swashbucklers, the 
booth-keepers and apprentices rush from their 
stalls, cudgel in hand. The figures are full of 
movement and animation, but real interest centres 
in the group in front, a young lady, with terror 
and anxiety on her face, trying to drag away her 
bellicose gallant out of hearing of the fray which 
he longs to join. 

In 1889 Pettie's portrait practice had grown to 
such an extent that he found time for two subject- 
pictures only — " The Beginning of the Fray " and 
" Going to the Fair." The latter is a theme after- 
wards repeated on a larger scale and with slight 
variations in "The World went very well then," 
which went to the Academy of 1890. In subject 
as well as in lightness of sentiment and vivacity of 
execution, this forms a companion to " Two Strings 
to her Bow." There you had the serio-comic story 


of two men and a maid ; here, in " The World went 
very well then," it is the merry tale of two maids 
and a man. Two comely girls of the eighteenth 
century are gaily tripping along a country lane, 
quite conscious that they are followed by a spruce 
young swain with a bouquet in his hand. The 
nervousness of the young admirer and the girls' 
consciousness are well conceived. The whole 
picture sparkles with light and colour, and the 
figures are charming in their poise and light move- 
ment. In this and in " Two Strings to her Bow," 
as in earlier works such as "To the Fields he 
carried her Milking - Pails," "Touchstone and 
Audrey," "Silvius and Phebe," and "*Tis Blythe 
May Day," the artist puts on canvas the sights 
and sounds of youth, and spring, and first love, 
with all the joyousness and glamour of the spring- 
time of life. You feel happy in the company of 
pictures such as these. 

In 1890 and 1891 portraits again, with the 
exception of "The Violinist" and "Silvia," both 
studies of single figures. To both of these the 
artist's swift touch and keen accent give instant 
grace and vivacity, and if they show a certain 
amount of forced illumination and rigidity of 
contour, time will soften any harshness. " Silvia," 

(Si* of original, 86 X 4**.) 


{Size n/ original, 00 x 48.) 

LAST YEARS: 1883-1898 187 

with "The Threat" and "The Jesters Merry 
Thought," aU of them from the collection of the 
late Mr. George MacCulloch, will be seen at the 
Winter Exhibition (1908) of the Royal Academy. 
In 1892, "Bonnie Prince Charlie" was a return 
to an earlier type of subject and treatment The 
young chevalier is entering the ballroom at 
Holyrood, with flowers strewn at his feet. The 
contrast between the prince with his fair, but 
rather weak, sensual face, and his two stalwart 
Highland supporters, is cleverly enforced. The 
lights, shadows, and colours fall into skilful arrange- 
ment ; the golden white of the prince's powdered 
hair and satin waistcoat, the red of his kilt and 
stockings, and the dark greens of his followers' 
tartan are all powerfully massed. Here, as in so 
many earlier works, the colour is so brilliant and 
energetic that it seems, as it were, to consume the 
drawing ; yet here too can be seen how much of 
the painter's success depended on masterly drawing 
and composition. Another exhibit of 1892 was 
"The Ultimatum," a brilliant study of a man in 
armour, with stern face and open hand of defiant 

These were among the last of Pettie's works 
exhibited in his lifetime. During the latter part 



of 1892 he was suffering from on ailment in 
the ear. On January 10 of 1898 this took an acute 
form, and he was found unconscious on the floor 
of his studio. Recovering from this, he seemed 
for some weeks to be in better health, and no 
exact diagnosis of his illness was made. After 
another relapse, however, his medical attendants 
sought further opinion from Dr. Ferrier, the 
eminent specialist, who localised an abscess behind 
the ear. Immediate danger seemed to be averted, 
and the patient rallied so quickly that on February 
17 his removal to Hastings, a place endeared to 
him by early associations, was sanctioned by his 
doctors. After two or three days, during which he 
was comparatively free from pain and in good 
spirits, he became, on Sunday February 19, alarm- 
ingly worse. On Monday the members of his family 
were summoned, and as a last hope Sir Victor 
Horsley performed an operation for the removal of 
the abscess. In itself it was entirely successful, 
but the shock to the worn system was too great 
There followed a night of weary waiting and 
watching in those rooms that overlooked the sea- 
front at Hastings. It was a night of wind and 
rain, a fit night for the passing of so strenuous a 
fighter. The wind moaned, the rain lashed the 

LAST YEARS : 1883-1893 139 

windows, the waves thundered on the beach, 
making that storm-music which the dying man had 
loved to hear beside him when he faced some big 
canvas or assailed some difficult passage of paint 
Midnight passed, and after a time of quiet that came 
with the early hours of morning, the spirit left the 
exhausted frame, to pass into " the ultimate great 
peace." The dawn had come. 

On February 27, in the midst of many sor- 
rowing friends, from the President of the Royal 
Academy to humble models, his remains were laid 
to rest in the Paddington Cemetery. His " wages 
taen," his "task accomplished and the long day 
done," he stepped from the broad and sunny road 
into the great darkness. But he was only fifty-three, 
and his powers were still mature and vigorous, 
when he was stricken down. He was one of those 
whom the world can ill spare before the allotted 
years have passed ; not only a great painter, but a 
man of warm heart and open hand, of a nature 
gentle and sincere. It was another instance of 
that passing of a man, buoyant and robust, with 
abundant power still in him to add to the good 
work and kind deeds of the past, which makes 
more vivid the eternal mystery of death. 



So far, little has been said of Pettie as a por- 
trait-painter, yet in sheer power and interest of 
colour and technique his portraits are equal to 
the best of his subject-paintings. During the 
artist's lifetime they did not in general win the 
applause which they deserved, for in annual 
exhibitions their interest was outbalanced by the 
more potent and immediate appeal of his work 
in genre. Since his death, they remain scattered 
about the country in private collections with 
less chance still of general recognition, for exhibi- 
tion committees nearly always prefer to gratify 
public taste by searching for a subject-picture 
in preference to a portrait The portrait, however, 
of J. Campbell Noble, R.S.A., has been a con- 
stant wanderer, evoking a chorus of admiration 
wherever it has hung; and in the Portrait 



Painters' Exhibition at the New Gallery l in 1907, 
the brilliant sketch of Hamish MacCunn bore 
testimony to the painter's impressionist power. 

It was only in the latter part of his career that 
portrait-painting for its own sake became an 
integral part of Pettie's work. To some extent 
he was led into it by necessity. The years pre- 
ceding 1890 marked the climax of the prejudice 
against the "literary idea" in paint. It was a 
prejudice somewhat unjust, but yet natural; a 
reaction after the banalities of the mid- Victorian 
painters of genre on the one hand, and the over- 
done intensity and preciousness of Pre-Raphaelitism 
on the other. For art has its seasons of ebb 
and flow, and it is curious to-day that under 
the influence of another reaction the newest of 
the new School are harking back to Victorian 
domesticity and revelling in the crinolines and 
caps that our grandmothers used to wear. In 
those lean years for the painter of genre Pettie 
set to work upon portraits, whose success brought 
a speedy flow of commissions. Towards the close 
of his life there were few years in which he did 
not paint ten or more, many of them as gifts to 

1 I understand that at the New Gallery this autumn (1908) six or 
seven of Pettie's finest portraits are to be exhibited. 


his friends, done for pure pleasure or remem- 
brance. Of his canvases of 1886, for instance, 
fifteen were portraits; while thirteen come into 
the record for both 1888 and 1889. Though in 
these later years he gradually drifted more and 
more into what ' was not perhaps his chosen 
province, he was never shackled by it ; he never, 
like Romney, thought of it as " this cursed portrait- 
painting," a means to independence and the free- 
dom of the realms of imagination. Portraiture 
satisfied Pettie's social nature, for it brought him 
into close contact with warm humanity, and it 
satisfied, too, his love of character and colour. 
The glow of the human eye, the rich darks or the 
golden sheen of hair, the creams and carmines of 
a fair complexion, were a welcome challenge to 
his skill. 

He had always been a painter of portraits, for 
his first exhibits at the Scottish Academy were 
crayon studies of heads. From the days when he 
put the members of his home circle into the sub- 
jects for Blackie's Family Worship, he constantly 
sought his models among his friends, and often 
recorded their features with scrupulous exactness. 
In this he resembled the Pre-Raphaelites, with 
whom it was a doctrine that the painter should, 


whenever possible, eschew the ordinary hired model, 
and seek out among his friends living people who, 
in character and aspect, had most affinity with 
the personages whom he had it in his mind to 
represent. This, no doubt, secures a general con- 
formity between the painter's idea of his subject 
and the individual who actually sits for him, and also 
assures a degree of personal vitality and character, 
which can never be obtained from the professional 
model The battle is half won for the painter 
whose creation is anticipated, or at least shadowed 
forth, by nature. Like Madox Brown and the 
others, Pettie had an extraordinary faculty for 
recognising among the circle of his friends or 
acquaintances the type which he required to serve 
as a model for some fresh subject. Though he did 
not always introduce an exact likeness, he had the 
genius of discrimination which enabled him to 
extract the essence of what he needed from 
features or from pose to suit his conception. The 
flicker of expression in a face, the momentary 
gesture of a hand or an arm, would often arrest 
his attention as the very thing he sought Some- 
times he would worry for days in hesitancy to 
ask some one, who was little known to him or who 
might be a man of small leisure, to grant him a 


sitting ; and more than once the delicate diplomacy 
of Mrs. Pettie served to bring, as though by 
accident, the very person required into her 
husband's studio. Several owners of brilliant 
head-studies by the artist were offered them in 
gratitude for sittings of an hour or two's duration. 
Pettie's subject-paintings are, therefore, to some 
extent a portrait gallery of his friends, and one 
can only indicate where a few of these likenesses 
occur. Sam Bough, R.S.A., as has already been 
said, is admirably portrayed in " Cromwell's Saints." 
Mrs. Andrew Ker (a cousin of the painter) figures 
in " A Visit to the Necromancer " ; while George 
Fox, in the picture of 1864, was painted from her 
father-in-law, Mr. Matthew Ker, and the boy in 
the background from Mr. Andrew Ker. Mr. 
Winn of Birmingham, a close friend of Pettie, 
stood for the hands and arms in "The Palmer." 
The figure of the boy in the same picture was 
painted from the artist's son Ralph, who appears 
in several other works, such as "The Young 
Laird." He and Mr. Hansard Watt, then a boy 
of about the same age, served as models for the 
two children in "A Scene from Peveril of the 
Peak." Mr. A. P. Watt and his family, who 
were neighbours and close friends of the Petties, 

(Size of original, 36 x 48.) 


were in constant requisition. Mr. Watt made 
an admirable model for the stately and dignified 
president of the court in "The Traitor," and 
together with George Lawson, the sculptor, stood 
for the group of two figures in the background 
of " Dost know this Waterfly ? " The boy king in 
" Edward VI. signing his first Death Warrant " was 
painted partly from Mr. C. Edwards, partly from 
Mr. James Watt The latter, in after years, 
stood for the knight in "The Vigil," though this 
is hardly a portrait " Two Strings to her Bow " 
embodies strong likenesses of Mr. Alec Watt, Mr. 
Hamish MacCunn, and Miss Thallum. Hamish 
MacCunn sat again for the figure on the bed 
in "Challenged," for "The Violinist," and other 
subjects. The second figure in " The Orientation 
of the Church " is that of Dr. J. Corbet Fletcher. 
Mr. Rider Haggard, while sitting for his own 
portrait in 1889, was pressed into service for one 
of the figures in " The Beginning of a Fray," now 
in the possession of Lord Faber. " Rob Roy " was 
painted from Mr. L. Gow, the Edinburgh banker, 
who was the lifelong friend of 6. P. Chalmers. 
Tom Graham is clearly recognisable as one of the 
central figures in "The Jacobites." The stern, 
determined face in "The Threat" is that of 



Mr. W. Wallace, the architect. Mr. A. S. Cope, 
A.R.A., is the gay cavalier who lifts his black- 
jack in "A Brimmer to the King/' Mr. C. 
Martin Hardie, R.S.A., stood, one summer in 
Arran, for the figure in "Trout-fishing in the 
Highlands, 99 which was finished in London from 
another model. For "The Ultimatum " Pettie 
found in Mr. Edmund Bechstein the powerful 
Teutonic type which he required for his stalwart 
man of arms. "Before the Battle" is in reality 
a portrait of Mr. Briton Riviere, R. A. In 1875 
Pettie had painted a small portrait of his fellow- 
artist in buff coat and gorget, and was so pleased 
with it that in the following year * he developed 
the subject, and partly from this portrait, partly 
from Riviere himself, completed "Before the 
Battle." When exhibited at the Academy in 
1890, it depicted a knight arming in his tent; 
but after being sold it came again into Petties 
hands, and he added the figure of a youth helping 
on the armour. After passing through various 
hands, the picture is now in the possession of Mr. 
Briton Riviere. 

It cannot be claimed for Pettie that he 
was of the greatest portraitists, one of those 
who penetrate with deep intuition into the 


soul beneath the mask of flesh, and reveal in 

The shape and colour of a mind and life. 

But he caught with accuracy the outward individu- 
ality and distinctive character of his sitter, and 
transferred to his canvas the warmth and glowing 
colour of the life before him. He put into his 
portraits his robust, modern, practical good sense ; 
and with sound and judicious handling rendered 
the salient facts of personality, avoiding on the 
one hand undue idealisation, and on the other 
thoughtless mannerism. So his portraits are solid 
and real — live men and women with blood pulsing 
through their veins, with eyes brimming with in- 
telligence. Here, as in his subject-pictures, he 
was always a colourist, and in some of his portraits 
the flesh-tints bloom like the colour on the petal 
of a flower. The momentariness of his conception, 
the vigour of his grip, the nobility of his chiaro- 
scuro, again and again bring remembrance of the 
portraits of Rembrandt. In his portraits the 
great Dutchman was essentially dramatic; and 
there can be no doubt that Pettie was often held 
in thrall to his spell From Rembrandt he 
absorbed the love of strong contrasts, of rich dark 
shadows transfused by the play of light. 


It was due to his passion for colour that he 
carried, perhaps to excess, his dislike of modern 
costume, and clothed many of his sitters in the 
gayer apparel of by-gone days. It may be argued 
that it is the province of art to make all things 
artistic, and that the true painter can show his 
skill upon a black frock-coat and modern trousers as 
effectively as upon the slashed doublet and brilliant 
hose of ancient times. But Pettie was colourist 
rather than technician; the scientific adjustment 
of subtle and sombre tones had little attraction 
for his ardent eye. So, when opportunity offered, 
he was eager to get rid of the drab monotony of 
modern dress, and to put in its place the rich glow 
of velvet or satin, the glint of armour or golden 
chain, the creaminess of a ruff. There can be no 
doubt that the " costume-portrait " (which, I think, 
he can claim to have invented) gave fuller scope to 
his talent, and he had wonderful skill in avoiding 
the fancy-dress ball air usually attendant on wearers 
of anachronistic costume. It is open to question, 
however, whether the gain in opportunity for 
drama and colour was not counterbalanced by 
the fact that the subject was transported to a 
century to which he did not belong, and placed 
in an historic atmosphere to which he was entirely 


(Size 0/ original, 2P x 24.) 


alien. Relations and descendants look mainly for 
truth in a portrait rather than high artistic merit, 
and prefer to see their kinsman or ancestor in "his 
habit as he lived and walked." Pettie himself 
seems to have recognised the cogency of the 
arguments against his practice, and this phase of 
his portrait work lasted for a few years only. 

These " costume-portraits " seem to have begun 
in 1875, when Pettie sent to the Academy portraits 
of "Edward Sherrard Kennedy, Esq., in costume 
of the Seventeenth Century/' "G. H. Boughton, 
R. A., in costume of the Sixteenth Century," and 
"E. F. White, Esq., in costume of the Seven- 
teenth Century " ; and in the same year painted the 
picture of Briton Riviere, R.A., in a buff coat 
and gorget, which has already been mentioned. 
" Goldsmith to His Majesty," painted in 1876, is 
a fine fancy portrait of the late Mr. Arthur Tooth, 
in such a costume as George Heriot might have 
worn; and at the Academy in 1877 appeared 
" A Knight of the Seventeenth Century " (now in 
the Glasgow Gallery), which was a portrait of 
William Black, the novelist. It is keen and 
bright in expression, and the black and gold 
armour is painted with trenchant colour. The 
portrait has a special interest in the association 


of painter and sitter, for William Black, like his 
friend Pettie, was a follower of Scott in the later 
Romantic school, writing novels full of national 
spirit, breathing passion and drama like Petties 
pictures, and, like them, rich in diversified move- 
ment At the Academy of 1878 was "Colin 
Hunter, A.R.A., in costume of the Sixteenth 
Century"; and the following year saw the 
exhibition of "A. P. Watt, Esq., as a Scholar 
in the Time of Titian,*' which by many is con- 
sidered to mark the artist's highest achievement 
as a portrait - painter. It is remarkable both 
for its tenderness and for its strength, for its 
sober treatment of background and figure throw- 
ing into relief the fine flesh-tints of the face and 
hands. That hand low down to the right of the 
canvas is a masterly piece of painting. You feel 
that it is warm flesh, alive and palpitating, with 
bones beneath the covering tissue of skin. 

This was one of the last portraits in costume 
which Pettie painted. Though he revelled in 
opportunity for glowing colour he was not so 
dependent upon it as he himself supposed. A 
portrait of Sheriff Strachan, painted in the 
following year (1879), bears witness to this. The 
lawyer's face, with its shrewd eyes and its firm 

(Site qforigiwd, 00} x 81*.) 


mouth, is seen with alertness and is boldly modelled. 
The picture is all the more interesting because of 
the reticence of its colour. The somewhat pallid 
face, the grey wig, and the black gown offered no 
vantage point for the rich colour that the painter 
loved. But wig, white collar, neck-band, and 
gown gave opportunity for blacks and greys of 
superb tonality. The quality of the greys alone 
might well account for an expression of enthusiastic 
admiration on the part of Matthew Maris, himself 
a master of grey tones, when he saw the picture 

Among Pettie's portraits of his fellow-artists 
those of George Boughton, Briton Riviere, and 
Colin Hunter have already been mentioned. 
Several more are in the Macdonald Art Collection 
at Aberdeen, which contains a series, unique in 
this country, of portraits of painters. Its history 
has some interest In 1880 Sir John Millais 
was staying at Kepplestone with Mr. and Mrs. 
Macdonald. Sir George Reid's studio was close by, 
and it was suggested one day that the two artists 
should jointly paint a sketch of Millais and present 
it to Mr. Macdonald. The sketch gave great 
pleasure to its recipient, and the idea struck him 
that he might form a collection of portraits of 


other artists, painted, as far as possible, by them- 
selves. Though no payment was made for these 
portraits, to contribute one to the collection 
became regarded as an honour. It is true, how- 
ever, that many were paid for " in meal or malt," 
by some gift in kind, such as a case of champagne 
or whisky. For his two first Pettie received a 
pair of pedestals in Aberdeen granite, which stood 
in his hall carrying busts, by George Lawson, of 
Mrs. Fettie and his son Ralph. In the short 
space of four years, up to the time of Mr. 
Macdonald's death, sixty-nine portraits were 
got together; and six more, which had been 
promised, were afterwards added, together with 
seventeen obtained later by Mrs. MacdonalcL 
Fettie figures largely in the Macdonald collection, 
for besides his portrait of himself, it contains his 
portraits of W. Calder Marshall, R.A., Joseph 
K Boehm, R.A., Thomas Faed, R.A., J. Mac- 
Whirter, R.A., and J. L. Pearson, R.A. 

Of two great painters of the Scottish School, 
George Paul Chalmers, R.S.A., and Sam Bough, 
R.S.A., both of them his personal Mends, Pettie 
left striking likenesses. Bough he painted almost 
in profile, with long beard, and without the 
spectacles which he usually wore. He is wrapped 


(Size of original, 05} X 45}.) 


in a loose robe with a tippet of sables, and is 
intended to represent a lord-in-waiting in the 
retinue of Cardinal Wolsey. The portrait is 
broad in style and charming in colour. In his 
two portraits of Chalmers, one in profile, the 
other full face, Pettie has given the best existing 
presentments of the man whom close friendship 
enabled him to know with thorough insight. The 
tender and sympathetic character of the painter, to 
whom Fate was so unkind, finds noble expression 
in both of these works. Another striking portrait 
of a Scottish painter is that of John Ballantyne, 
R.S.A., who, after being assistant to Scott Lauder 
in Edinburgh, went to London and became curator 
of the painting school at the Royal Academy. 
The portrait, which shows Ballantyne as a captain 
in the uniform of the Edinburgh Artillery 
Volunteers, was painted entirely during one 
visitorship of Pettie in the Academy Schools, as 
an instructive example of his method of work. 
Among Pettie's other portraits of painters are 
those of Sir George Reid, R.S. A, W. E. Lockhart, 
R.S.A., David Murray, R.A., Peter Graham, 
R.A., J. Coutts Michie, A.R.S.A., and George 

Through his friend, Mr. A. P. Watt, Pettie came 



into touch with many literary men of prominence, 
and painted highly characteristic portraits of Bret 
Harte and Rider Haggard. Among others, William 
Black, the novelist, was the subject of more than 
one canvas. A portrait of Sir Walter Besant is 
a noteworthy example of Pettie's skill, and the 
author's delight in it found expression in a pleasing 
way. The dedication of The World went very well 
tfien, published in 1887, reads as follows : " To John 
Fettie, R.A., I dedicate this book, in memory of 
certain pleasant hours passed in Fitzjohn's Avenue 
in November, 1886, of which the frontispiece is the 
outcome, and an acknowledgment of the patience 
and skill of the Artist" The compliment was 
returned a year or two later, when Pettie adopted 
" The World went very well then" as the apt title 
for one of his most charming pictures. 

The musical circle into which he was in- 
troduced through his son-in-law, Hamish MacCunn, 
accounted for such portraits as those of Sir August 
Manns, O. Fischer Sobell, Edmonstoune Duncan, 
Benoit Hollander, A Schulz Curtius, Edmund 
Bechstein, Andrew Black, Max Lindlar, and others. 
The Church is represented by powerful portraits of 
clergymen of various denominations, among them 
the Rev. B. Ullathorne, D.D., O.S.B., Bishop of 

(She of original, 161 x 18.) 


Birmingham (Pettie caused some embarrassment 

by a keen desire to gain colour by putting his 

sitter in a cardinal's robes), the Rev. R. S. 

Drummond, Dr. W. Boyd, Dr. Monro Gibson 

(whom the artist "sat under " for many years in 

St John's Wood Presbyterian Church), and Dr. 

Oswald Dykes, the late Principal of Westminster 

College, Cambridge. Representing the stage is 

a brilliant portrait of Sir Charles Wyndham, in 

his character of David Garrick at the moment 

of recognising Ada — "If I had but known." It 

is not only a noble portrait, but a magnificent 

piece of characterisation, summing up and seizing 

all the intensity of the actor s emotion at the most 

dramatic moment of the play. It required a great 

actor so to express, almost in silence, by the look 

of a moment, that world of sorrow and regret ; it 

was a great painter who could catch and throw 

upon his canvas that " instant made eternity." 

His portraits of old age and of youth display his 
colour instinct at its highest A portrait of Mrs. 
Bossom, Mrs. Pettie's mother, is a noble representa- 
tion of the frailty and sentiment of old age. The 
snowy hair with its finely modulated tones of silver 
and grey, the beauty inherent in the delicate pallor 
and faint flush of age, are painted with irresistible 


charm. In contrast to this a little picture of " Miss 
Bessie Watt " (now Mrs. Duncan Dempster) is the 
embodiment of youth and gaiety. The head of a 
beautiful girl is painted with rare gusto. The 
uptilted chin, the winsome lips, the curving cheek 
of warm rose, the laughing eyes, are all alert and 
alive. Yet the workmanship is very reticent ; the 
fluent colour is thinner than usual The painter 
seems to have got his effect dun seuL jet, to have 
seen that it was good, and stayed his hand. It 
is a little lyric in paint, going with a lilt like 
good song, infectious in its merriment "Master 
William Watt " is a full-length portrait of a hand- 
some boy, in green velvet dress, with beautiful 
painting in the lace and in the cunning reflections 
of light upon the gilt buttons. "A dream of 
delight from the hand of a master," it was aptly 
described by Sir Walter Besant Another child- 
portrait, very fresh in its brilliant colour, done 
rapidly on two summer afternoons in Arran, is 
that of " Berta and Martin Hardie. M 

The purity and suavity of warm flesh-tints is 
noteworthy in many portraits besides those of 
children — particularly in a fine profile portrait of 
Mrs. Ker, in "Silvia," in "Sweet Seventeen ** (a 
portrait of Mrs. Child, a niece of Mrs. Pettie), 

(Size of ordinal, 12| X|18J.) 


frequently by their delicate refinement of handling. 
Again and again, after observing the directness 
and bold vigour of the subject-pictures, it comes 
almost as a surprise to note some subtle piece of 
orchestration, some subdued harmony of colour. 
The suavity and jewel-like radiance of flesh-colour 
might be expected; but the exquisite finish of 
hands such as those in the portraits of A. P. Watt 
and J. C. Noble comes with a touch of wonder- 
ment And in the portrait of Mrs. E. F. 
White there are some flowers on a table, low 
down to the left, standing luminous and quivering 
with reality against a dark background, flowers 
which even Fantin might have owned with pride. 

His portraits were painted with wonderful 
rapidity of workmanship. Some of the finest ex- 
amples of his mastery and swift ease of technique 
occupied a few hours only. Among them are 
many done for pure pleasure, showing that a 
painter does his best when he paints for himself. 
In Pettie's self-chosen portraits there is a bravura 
and audacity which is often lacking in imposed 
commissions. Now and then, when he worked 
solely for the joy of working, he produced a 
portrait that had the power of an old master, 
something of the rich colour and forceful chiaro- 

(Sim of original, 96 x 20.) 


scuro of a Rembrandt, of the vigour and directness 
of a Hals. A noteworthy example is the small 
portrait of Dr. Burton. Pettie and the doctor, 
then an old man of eighty-three, were fellow- 
guests one week-end at the house of Mr. Winn 
at Birmingham. After dinner on the Saturday 
evening, they fell to talk of fishing, and Pettie 
described his first efforts as an angler in the 
stream that ran near the foot of the garden at 
his early home in East Linton. The doctor, 
who had never met him before, asked further 
about this house and garden, and after an explana- 
tion, burst out, "Do you know, Mr. Pettie, that 
was my house you were living in ? " They struck 
up a warm friendship, and towards the close of 
the evening Pettie suggested quietly to Winn 
that he would like to give him a portrait of his 
friend. Burton was a fine old Scottish gentleman, 
with a face full of character, who habitually wore 
a costume, with skull-cap and low collar, that 
might almost have belonged to a burgher of 
Amsterdam in Rembrandt's day. It was a delight 
to Pettie to look at him. A daughter of the 
house had a small paint-box, which answered the 
artist's needs ; but her canvas was too small, shops % 
were shut, and a groom was despatched to ride 


many miles in quest of a larger one. On the 
Sunday morning, after the ladies crossed the road 
to church, Pettie set to work ; and they returned 
to find brushes laid aside and a striking portrait 
on the canvas. A sitting of an hour next morning, 
and the portrait, masterly and adroit in its per- 
fection, was finished. Mr. Winn, the fortunate 
possessor of the picture, vouches for the fact that 
it was less than three hours in the painter's hands. 

Another portrait, which was a deliberate test of 
speed, is that of David Murray, R.A. It was 
painted in Pettie's studio-hut at Glen Sannox in 
Arran at a time when artists were discussing 
Legros* method of completing rapid portrait studies 
in front of his students. As he began, Pettie told 
Murray to look at his watch. He then worked 
hammer-and-tongs, though with several intervals, 
during which he smoked and looked intently at 
sitter and canvas, till, with a " There, that'll do/' 
he put down his palette. The watch recorded an 
hour and thirty-five minutes. When you look at 
the brilliant result, it seems an incredibly short 
time. On the day after this portrait was painted, 
Murray went along to the studio for a sight of the 
portrait, in which he took considerable pride. The 
painter, who was smoking outside with Lockhart 

(Sim of original , 18 x 14) 


and MacWhirter, greeted him: "I say, Murray, 
there's been a lot of flies on your portrait, but I've 
got them off, and I don't think there's any damage 
done." Murray rushed in, and there was another 
fly at the top right-hand corner of the canvas. He 
stalked stealthily up, dashed at it, and the smudge 
he made still remains. There was a roar of 
laughter behind him, for the fly was a painted one. 
Another sketch remarkable for its facile 
dexterity and its translucent flesh-tones, is the 
larger portrait, done in four hours, of Hamish 
MacCunn. The same rapidity of execution and 
similar success mark several other portraits done 
in the same way for pleasure and remembrance: 
among them, those in Mrs. Pettie's possession of her 
four children, Alison, Graham, Ralph, and Norman. 
Occasionally, and especially with a fidgety and 
critical sitter, the period was much prolonged. 
Bret Harte's portrait, for instance, was the out- 
come of innumerable sittings. The reason in this 
case was largely that painter and sitter thoroughly 
enjoyed one another's company. Pettie's Scottish 
humour made a strong appeal to the American, 
and the two spent many an hour in capping each 
other's stories. When Mr. Arthur Tooth was a 

little diffident about sitting, and also doubtful as to 



whether he could spare the necessary time, Pettie 
dispelled his doubts by saying : " You give me six 
sittings, each for as long as it takes you to smoke 
a cigar," The six cigars were duly smoked, and 
an excellent portrait was the result. For a 
finished half-length, of about life-size, six or seven 
sittings of two or three hours each was about the 
average requirement. 

An interesting portrait, a vigorous record of 
personality, and fully typical of Pettie's strong 
colour and incisive style, is that of J. Campbell 
Noble,.R.S.A. 1 The portrait was painted in the 
summer of 1889, when Pettie and his family were 
spending a holiday at St. Abb's, a little fishing 
village on the Berwickshire coast. Mr. Noble 
was then living at Coldingham, a mile and a half 
inland, and Pettie would frequently pay a visit 
to his studio. This studio had begun life as two 
stout-walled, white- washed cottages of the "but 
and ben n type characteristic of a Scottish village. 
While they stood new-built and unoccupied, a 
split arose in the local United Presbyterian Church 

1 Through the kindness of Mr. J. C. Noble and Miss Noble, I am en- 
abled to give here a fairly full history of the making of one picture, with 
notes of Pettie's technique as it struck an understanding observer. 
Pettie's remark, " You beggar, you're painting me," was very near the 

(Site oforufinoi, 82 x 25.) 


on the wine -at- the -Sacrament question. The 
schismatic party rented the two cottages, gutted 
them, and used them as a place of worship, being 
known to the community as "The Cauld Water 
Kirk." There was only one minister of the 
charge, the congregation gradually dwindled 
away, and at last the kirk stood empty. It was 
turned into a studio for Noble by the simple 
expedient of blocking up the windows and putting 
a top light into the roof. 

" Why, Noble," said Pettie on his first visit to 
the long, low room, "this is just the sort of studio 
that Rembrandt must have had in his young 
days. They used to say that he discovered 
* chiaroscuro, 9 but the truth is that he was a keen 
observer, an impressionist if you like, who painted 
just what he saw. In our great modern studios, 
with their north windows and full light, we have 
to put a sitter up against a screen or a curtain to 
get a background. This background here is all 
round your head. The flesh seems to live in 
atmosphere, and the lights glow out against that 
long vista of shadow exactly as they do in a 
Rembrandt portrait. Man, it s a grand studio 

Among the canvases piled up against the wall 


was one particular seascape, which the visitor 
greatly admired and invariably hunted up. It was 
a vivid piece of blue and emerald, which Noble 
had painted down near the old harbour of St 
Abb's, where, with a north-easter blowing on a day 
of clear sunshine you will find a sea blue and 
sparkling as ever the Mediterranean is. By way 
of a joke, Noble would sometimes bury this canvas 
behind several others and watch with quiet amuse- 
ment while his friend turned them over in search 
of what he called his "bit of blue/' One day, 
Pettie, looking at it again with whole-hearted 
pleasure, cried out, "Look here, Noble, if youTl 
let me have this bit of blue, 111 have a shy at 
your head/* The bargain was instantly struck. 
James Watt, a young friend and ardent admirer of 
Pettie's, who happened to be there, was told off 
to stretch a canvas, and work was begun. 

On that first day Pettie sketched the head 
and figure in charcoal On the second day he 
modelled the head carefully in white, and went 
over the entire drawing, giving indications of the 
colours to be used. At the third sitting, using in 
the main big flat brushes, he worked his glazes of 
colour into the white, beginning upon the left eye 
with its drooping lid, that sign-mark of the true 


artist He told Noble that he had recently read 
in some eighteenth-century letters that Reynolds 
began with this ground of white, and recalled that 
Turner and Hook gained brilliant effects of light 
by similar means. For the most part he worked 
in silence, constantly smoking. Every quarter of 
an hour or so he would pause and critically 
consider his work; and then his sitter, keenly 
interested, would go to study closely how the 
portrait was progressing. At other times, Noble, 
while he sat, would watch with fascination the 
painters keen and mobile face. Looking up 
suddenly on one of these occasions, and finding 
himself fixed by the gaze, Pettie exclaimed, " Hang 
it, you beggar, you re painting me I " 

Noble used to set the palette every morning. 
The colours comprised white, yellow ochre, raw 
sienna, light red, Indian red, rose madder,' raw 
umber, permanent blue, terra verte, and ebony 
black; but no cadmium was allowed. Pettie 
noticed this on the second day, and for a time 
said nothing: then, half to himself and half to 
Noble, "You don't care for cadmium? 9 ' "No." 
" Why ? " " Well, I consider that cadmium leads 
one into a very difficult and unreal scheme of 
colour, and I try always to make yellow ochre 


do all I want" " Then you think I use too much 
cadmium?" " Whiles, " was the canny Scotch 
reply, — " at least in your later pictures ; for when 
Harry Frier and I were in London as students, and 
visited your studio for the first time, we didn't 
notice it The first picture where it struck us 
was * Terms to the Besieged, 9 as far as I remember. 
We put it down to your visit to Holland, or to the 
influence of Rembrandt's ' Staalmeesters.' " u Aye, 
now that's a grand picture — do you object to the 
cadmium in that?" "I'm not so sure that it is 
cadmium. I think that he used white, and 
that time and varnish have turned it to a creamy 
amber. And perhaps you'll remember that 
Walpole described Reynolds' Waldegrave picture 
— it's splendid now in its creamy mellowness — as 
'dreadfully white and pinky' when it was painted. 
Cadmium's risky. Time and varnish are things to 
rely on." 

Cadmium remained, therefore, a vexed question 
till the last day of the sittings, when the palette 
which covers the lower half of the portrait was in 
process of painting. Pettie looked at the palette 
which his sitter was holding, and said, " You land- 
scape painters always have the colour slopping 
over the edge of your palette." Then, suddenly, 


(Size qf original, 16* x 12*.) 


after a pause, "Now, for God's sake, man, gie 
me a bit o' cadmium. I'll promise to use it only on 
the palette." A small tube was produced; and 
with white, French blue, and cadmium, the painter 
struck in that wonderful curved line, which is a 
key-note to the composition and gives the palette's 
edge with such marvellous illusion. 

It may be added that the coat which Noble 
wore throughout the sittings was a rough tweed, 
and not the velvet which appears in the picture. 
One day, Mr. James Craig, a friend of both artists, 
came in to see how the work progressed. He was 
dressed in more conventional artist attire than 
either of the men whose profession was paint. 
" You've got to have that velvet coat, Noble," said 
Pettie, and commandeered it at once. It was a 
poor fit, but on it went, and in it went, without 
delay. The whole picture took seven days in the 
making. Pettie's method was to work energetic- 
ally, with but little conversation, during the 
morning. Then came an adjournment for lunch 
at the house hard by, with Mrs. Noble as a kindly 
hostess. Afterwards, they would return to the 
studio, Noble to work on one of his own landscapes, 
Pettie to lie down on a rug on the floor and sleep. 
Painting meant to him an extraordinary output 


of vital energy. He would sometimes show a 
sitter a little pool of perspiration in the palm of 
the hand which held his palette. On waking, it 
was his regular custom to set up the picture in 
front of him and criticise it aloud, often with 
shrewd and pointed comments, and then to make 
a few alterations as the result. 

As they came out of the studio one day, Pettie 
exclaimed: "One thing I envy you painters 
living in the country is the glorious skies that 
you see/* "I think I've seen finer skies in 
London/* said Noble, "than I have ever seen 
here." Pettie was doubtful, but a year later, 
when Noble was his guest at a Royal Academy 
whitebait banquet at Greenwich, he acknowledged 
the truth of it As they went down the Thames 
by steamer on a splendid May day, with a hint of 
opalescent mist overhanging the city, Noble said, 
" You remember what I said about skies ? Now, 
look at that " ; and Pettie confessed that he had 
never seen a finer sky in this country or abroad. On 
the boat was Sir John Millais, and spying Pettie 
he called out (in reference to the Noble portrait, 
then hanging at the Grosvenor Gallery) : " Hallo, 
Pettie, I thought — in fact we all thought — that 
this Vandyck business was a huge lark of yours, 


but I see youve got your subject with you." 
Noble was introduced, and as they gathered for 
dinner afterwards, Millais took him aside, and said : 
"You must excuse my joke with Pettie, but 
honestly I congratulate you on being the possessor 
of one of the finest portraits painted this century." 
In connection with portraits a story comes to 
mind that shows Pettie's honest pride and his con- 
tempt for all humbug and paltriness. He had a 
large commission to paint portraits of a self-made 
man of enormous wealth, and of his wife. They 
preferred not to give sittings in his studio, and at 
some inconvenience he accepted an invitation to 
their country-house, and took canvases with him. 
On arrival he was received by a butler, who con- 
ducted him straight to his bedroom, and told him 
that dinner would be served in an adjoining room. 
Pettie dined in solitary state, smoked a solitary 
pipe, and went to bed. In the morning he rang 
his bell, and had himself and canvases conveyed to 
catch the earliest train back to London. The 
nouveau riche is probably to this day wondering at 
the strange eccentricity of artist folks. 




From the outset of his career, it was the dramatic 
in life, action, and colour that appealed to Pettie. 
It has already been noted how, among all Scott 
Lauder's pupils there was, as their early sketches 
showed, a strong leaning towards episode and 
incident With Pettie the love of a telling tale 
remained throughout his life. He used to express 
a belief that a picture without a story is a picture 
deprived of half its interest. " Every landscape," 
he said once, "to me is a story"; but after a 
pause, and meditatively, "but a pure landscape is 
never so interesting as a landscape with figures — a 
complete picture." He would argue, too, that 
Rembrandt's magnificent technique and splendid 
colour were wasted on his "beef- steaks." It 
cannot have been very long before his death that I 
visited his studio one day to borrow an old silver- 



mounted pistol. It was to form part of a still-life 
group to be submitted for some drawing prize at 
school; and, on his asking how the subject was 
to be treated, I explained that the pistol was to 
lie on a Bible with silver clasps, which I had at 
home. He was instantly up in arms against dulness 
and convention — "I suppose you can't manage a 
figure? Then why ever don't you put the pistol 
on a counterpane, with a wisp of smoke coming 
out of the muzzle, and call it 'The Suicide's 
Weapon*?" He could have painted that pistol 
and book on a tablecloth, and made the dark wood 
and silver mountings glitter as if they were alive ; 
but the picture to him would have had twice its 
value with the wisp of smoke and the humped 
counterpane to tell its tragic tale, to appeal to 
mind as well as eye. 

It has been said of Scottish art of the middle 
,of last century that "every artist seemed to find 
a mission in illustrating Sir Walter Scott: never 
perhaps in the world's history was a country's art 
so completely subjected to the sway of one 
man." In his boyhood Pettie fell under the 
wizard's power. His father and mother had both 
frequently seen Scott's well-known figure in the 
streets of Edinburgh, could recall the excitement 


of the first appearance of Waverley and its suc- 
cessors, and could tell their son the story of " The 
Great Unknown." From the first, therefore, he 
was powerfully affected by the novels of Scott, by 
his richness of romance and stirring incident, his 
masterly portrayal of character, his glow of life 
and colour. Scott supplied not only the actual 
subjects of many of his pictures — such as the 
" Scene from The Fortunes of Nigel," and " Scene 
from The Monastery " (two of his first exhibits at 
the Scottish Academy), "Scene in Hal o' the 
Wynd's Smithy/' "Scene from Peveril of the 
Peak 9 n and "The Chieftain's Candlesticks "—but 
also the inspiration for several more, among them 
"What d'ye lack?" "Jacobites," "Disbanded," 
"The Highland Outpost," and "Bonnie Prince 

I do not know whether he read Dumas ; but I 
fancy not, for the man who painted " The Sword- 
and-Dagger Fight," "The Time and Place," "In 
Haste," and " Waiting," could never have resisted 
the three rollicking musketeers, or the gay 
D'Artagnan and his memorable duel At any 
rate, he possessed the spirit of romance, in his 
case a heritage from Scott rather than Dumas; 
and his was a later- day revival of romance in 

($Ut <tf original, 86 x 26.) 


paint, anticipating its revival in literature by 
Stevenson, Stanley Weyman, and Anthony Hope. 

Early Saxon and Norman life yielded themes 
for "The Orientation of the Church" and "The 
Palmer." He delighted in costly stuffs, in frills 
and ruffles, silks and satins, the glitter of a sword 
or breastplate, the sheen of military accoutrements. 
He gloried in the days of old romance, of lordly 
gallants and ladies gay, who could love and 
hate, who took savage joy in the clash of steel. 
And so the Elizabethan and Cromwellian periods 
became his greatest favourites, and enabled him to 
select incidents where red-robed cardinals, richly- 
costumed cavaliers, and armoured soldiers played 
their parts. The contrast between the grim, 
warlike saints of Cromwell's tattered regiments 
and the gay cavaliers, with their "long essenced 
hair" and "perfumed satin clothes," appealed to 
his imagination and colour sense. This period 
gave him rich store of such subjects as "Crom- 
well's Saints," "Distressed Cavaliers," "At Bay," 
" Ho ! Ho ! Old Noll ! " " A Member of the Long 
Parliament," "His Grace" and "Her Grace," 
"A Brimmer to the King," and "A Lady of the 
Seventeenth Century." 

From Shakespeare he drew several subjects — 


" The Disgrace of Cardinal Wolsey," " Touchstone 
and Audrey," "Silvius and Phebe," "A Scene in 
the Temple Gardens," " Friar Laurence and Juliet,* 
"Dost know this Waterfly?" Sheridan's School 
for Scandal inspired "The Toast," " Sir Peter and 
Lady Teazle," and "Charles Surface selling his 
Ancestors." Many more subjects were entirely 
the offspring of his own imagination. Full of 
sympathy and humanity, he passed from tragic 
scenes of history to pure humour, as in "The 
Prison Pet," "The Trio," "The Tussle for the 
Keg " ; or to comedies in little, touched with light 
fancy and the joy of life, like " A Storm in a Tea- 
cup," " Rejected Addresses," " Two Strings to her 
Bow," and " The World went very well then " ; or 
to happy domestic themes, such as "The Solo" 
and " The Step." 

In "George Fox refusing to take the Oath," 
and in " The Duke of Monmouth and James II.," 
he depicted scenes based on historical foundation. 
But in many pictures, and among them his finest 
pictures, he did not limit himself to the narrow 
bounds of a definite historical episode. He gave the 
spirit of history, its background and atmosphere, 
and painted those happenings that underlie and 
give rise to great historical facts. "Cromweirs 


(Nize of original S7& x 66J.) 


Saints " and " A Member of the Long Parliament " 
summarise between them, as clearly as a whole 
chapter of a history - book, the character of 
Cromwell's followers. There may be no written 
evidence as to the first death-warrant signed by 
Edward VI., yet we can well imagine the sad-eyed 
look with which the boy king took the pen from 
an aged councillor to sign away for the first time 
a man's life. "The Drum-head Court Martial " 
depicts no historical scene, yet it sets before us in 
vivid reality an improvised tribunal, such as must 
have hanged many a man in the wars of the 
seventeenth century. Beleaguered towns in the 
same century witnessed many a scene such as 
" The Sally," " Terms to the Besieged," " The Flag 
of Truce," "The Threat," and "The Ultimatum." 
"Treason," "The Traitor," "The State Secret" 
are the very stuff of which history is made. All 
his work shows the possession of that quality 
which the formal critics of literature call vision. 
He actually saw the things that he painted, as 
they really were, in their own atmosphere, whether 
of the seventeenth century or of fifty years ago, 
whether they were things of state, plots, and deep- 
laid treachery, or things of romance, the tragedies 
or little humours of life, whether in palace, camp, 


or country lane. And he saw and heard his 
characters, whether king or cardinal, proud dame 
or rustic maiden. He made them all live and 
breathe. His pictures are quick and alive — 
une tranche de la vie. It is no mean art that can 
give on one canvas the whole spirit and circum- 
stance of a period in history. 

Essentially modern, and in contact with modern 
humanity, Pettie chose deliberately to devote his 
talent almost wholly to a past of romantic drama, 
which offered him warmth of colour and action. 
He could grapple at close quarters with modern 
life, but he preferred the defroque of another period. 
If he painted the portrait of a friend for his own 
pleasure, he liked to see him in character, to trans- 
plant him to another century, and make him a 
man-at-arms, a scholar of the time of Titian, or a 
reverend burgher of Rembrandt's day. 

In Pettie's day painters were not too par- 
ticular about historical accuracy. Even the Pre- 
Raphaelites, careful as they were about local truth 
of colour and landscape, were content to fabricate 
their costumes. Pettie was one of the first 
to insist on absolute correctness of dress and 
accessories, but they were correct without any 
consciousness of archaeological research. In many 


(Size of original, 20 X 15.) 


historical pictures the costume seems simply to be 
transferred from the glass case of a museum to the 
glass casing of the picture-frame. Pettie lent his 
buff coats and silken doublets, his rapiers and 
his halberds, a new vitality and expressiveness. 
Clothes with him were never theatrical properties, 
never things with a suggestion of fancy dress or 
tableau vivant He inspired them, in every scene 
he painted, with the feeling of lightness and 

Long before the close of Pettie's career, the 
subject-picture had fallen on evil days. Criticism 
was beginning to look askance at the storied canvas, 
and to demand subjectivity in the highest art. It 
was claimed that a picture should not exact a refer- 
ence to a catalogue or to some form of commentary, 
or presuppose a knowledge of some particular 
incident in poetry, drama, or history. The " literary 
idea" was condemned. This was largely due, no 
doubt, to a reaction after the mid -century 
period of degeneration and banality in art. The 
affectations and commonplace prettiness of Poole, 
Leslie, Egg, Mulready, and other artists in genre, 
meant a sacrifice of truth to artifice. They all 
had to find some incident on which to hang their 
art With all of them matter transcended manner, 



and the intellectual side of art ranked above the 
technical Of Fettie that cannot be said, for as 
some one has written of him and of Orchardson : 
"These men are primarily colourists. They are 
thinking of paint while others are thinking in 
paint. They are thinking of art while the others 
are thinking of Christianity, romance, the moral 
story, and the social assembly.'' Though Pettie 
frequently found inspiration in literature, in the 
greater part of his work he showed that he could 
do without an author, and displayed a power of 
invention which the preceding generation had never 
known. It cannot be said of him that " literature 
is the straw without which no bricks are possible." 
Narrative interest, it is true, offers no substitute 
for art qualities, though too often it leads the 
casual and ignorant observer to lavish admiration 
on what is debased and pernicious art. The 
" average person " is apt to judge a picture by its 
appeal to his sentiment, and to accept gladly what 
satisfies his uneducated sense of colour. But the 
"literary idea" in a picture does not necessarily 
preclude it from a niche in the temple of art, else 
were Michel Angelo and Velasquez, Rembrandt 
and Rubens under the ban. Literature may be the 
handmaid of art without art being the slave of 


literature. The great picture depends for its great- 
ness on a combination of inherent qualities of line, 
form, colour, and chiaroscuro. And the greatest 
of these, the language of the painter, is colour. 
All those qualities the subject-painting may possess, 
and it has a further advantage in the wide range of 
its appeal It may touch passions that all can feel, 
and express truths that all can recognise. In old 
days art was employed in the service of the few ; 
the artist's patron was the Church, Royalty, the 
State, the princely Nobility. To-day the artist 
depends on universal suffrage; the People is his 
patron. In a sense, therefore, the greatest painter 
is he who can paint for the cultured and the con- 
noisseur, and at the same time meet the apprehen- 
sion of ordinary men. In literature, Bunyan, Scott, 
Burns, Dickens, are among the hierarchy, because 
they both satisfy cultured criticism and win the 
sympathy of the masses by never losing touch with 
the elemental interests of humanity. Subject-paint- 
ings like those of Pettie make the wider appeal 
He knew the value of the "brute incident," and 
learned from Scott how the charm of incident and 
circumstance gives body and blood, and makes for 
perennial interest "This is the plastic part of 
literature," wrote R. L. Stevenson, "to embody 


character, thought, or emotion in some act or 
attitude that shall be remarkably striking to the 
mind's eye. This is the highest and hardest thing 
to do in words ; the thing which, once accomplished, 
equally delights the schoolboy and the sage, and 
makes, in its own right, the quality of epics." 
That is what Fettie did in paint. His pictures 
make this wide claim for sympathy ; and every 
one of them is, besides, not merely a subject, but a 
problem of line, colour, and illumination. Whether 
one ranks him with the great painters of all time 
depends, therefore, on the estimate formed of his 
colour and his technical power. 

" Great art," says Ruskin, " is the expression of 
the mind of a great man ; and mean art that of the 
want of mind of a weak man" Pettie's art was 
great, because his was a strong personality. Never, 
I think, has an artist's temperament been more 
absolutely reflected in style as well as in subject 
His work was the immediate response to his own 
vigorous nature. If you look at one of his finest 
pictures, the subject becomes secondary ; it is the 
splendid impetuosity of his style that arrests the 
attention and thrills the blood with its martial 
note, like the tramp of armed men, the beating of 
drums, or the trumpet-call From his full enjoy- 


(Size 0/ original, 30 X 22.) 


ment of life he gathered joy for his work. There 
was no wastage, no anxious search for the best way 
of self-expression, no agonies of failure. The best 
that was in him could all be given to splendid 

One of the most rapid of workers, he painted 
in a white heat, sometimes almost a fury, of 
strenuous effort He met difficulties or grappled 
with a new subject with an irresistible dash and 
cheerfulness, like that of the old British seamen 
when they came to close quarters and boarded a 
foeman's ship. His technical achievement of 
draughtsmanship was of no common order, and 
his hand was trained to work in quick sympathy 
with the swiftest perceptions of his brain. In the 
sense that he saw his subject steadily and saw it 
whole, that he worked with the rapidity essential 
for the expression of his first idea, he was an 
impressionist in the best and truest sense of the 
word. He worked directly and unconsciously, 
not brooding with keen analysis on the scientific 
placing of his paint, but out of a vivid imagination 
and exceptional power of mental creation, placing 
rapidly on the canvas what had taken form in his 
head. He rarely made sketches or preliminary 
studies. Sometimes in search of a subject or an 


inspiration as to what shape an idea should take, 
he would shut himself up in his studio and, as he 
expressed it, "simply walk the deck for a day and 
a halt" But when that walking the deck was over, 
his conception was clearly formulated, ready to be 
embodied on the canvas with speed and certainty. 
Working in this way, he retained his freshness 
right to the completion of each picture, while 
other artists are often exhausted by preliminary 
studies and elaborations. And whereas so many 
pictures of the type which he painted suffer from 
an extreme of finish and undue stress upon detail, 
Pettie knew when he had finished and laid aside 
his brush at the moment when the picture held all 
its freshness, and when, without a suggestion of 
labour, every stroke contributed to give it life. 
That virtue of knowing when to stop was not 
shared by all the members of the Lauder School 
It was the great failing of George Paul Chalmers 
and of Tom Graham, fine and subtle colourists 
both of them, that they could never bring them- 
selves to regard a picture as complete, but always 
wanted to refine on it Graham was one of many 
who used to beg for Pettie's assistance in a time of 
difficulty. I have heard Pettie say, after a long 
afternoon in Graham's studio : " Now, Graham, if 


you put another touch to that figure you'll be a 
damned fool." And next day that figure would 
be spoiled. 

Pettie always deprecated any set processes or 
methods of painting, and was almost prejudiced 
against any particular method, even when laid 
down by a man whose work and ability he 
admired. Widely catholic in his tastes, he was 
convinced that art was the last thing to which 
rigid formulas could be applied. Though his own 
methods varied with varying circumstances, that 
indicated already in connection with his portrait 
of Mr. J. C. Noble held good, at any rate 
with portraits, during the later part of his career. 
"The idea of Pettie's white process," Mr. Briton 
Riviere tells me, "no doubt rests on the fact that 
like all true oil-painters he felt very strongly that 
painting should invariably proceed from light to 
dark. This made a white ground invaluable. He 
also used some of his touches with such thin pure 
paint that a solid ground became almost a necessity, 
and I have known him at the same painting place 
his second coat, so to speak, over the solid that he 
had laid in a few minutes before. In this case he 
would trust to his exquisite sleight of hand (his 
great strong hand was far more light and dexterous 


than many of far more delicate form) to produce a 
surface quality and a sheen of colour not to be 
attained in any other way." 

He began by laying on paint like water-colour 
with light brushings in thin transparent tints, 
giving outlines and dominant notes, and leaving 
large spaces to be filled later. His advice to a 
painter of subject-pictures was to begin always 
with the heads of the principal figures, putting 
behind them a suggestion of the colour that was 
required to relieve them. He held that the highest 
finish should be bestowed upon the central figures, 
which should fix and fascinate the gaze, summing 
up and explaining the whole picture, and that there 
should be nothing in the background to cause 
momentary distraction. His doctrine was that 
inherited by Wilkie and the Scottish School from 
the old Dutchmen, that paint should be thin in the 
shadows, more opaque in the high lights. " Keep 
your shadows transparent," was his advice, "and 
never lose the tooth of your canvas/' 

For Pettie himself colour was the be-all and 
end-all of his existence. In student days, when he 
went home with Chalmers and talked so late that 
he had to stay for the night, his "talk was all of 
colour." From his recollections of Fitzroy Square 



in 1868 Mr. Dobell tells me — " Pettie was emphati- 
cally a painter. He thought and felt and talked 
' paint ' ; not design, not composition, not drawing, 
but paint ; paint as the representative of all that 
eye sees in Nature, and which the painter with 
certain colours has to translate on a flat surface of 
panel or canvas." In his easy power, his fluent 
grandeur of style, he was of the lineage of 
Rubens — whom he himself described as "the last 
great colourist" Whether in shadow or in light, 
his colour has, in a high degree, those qualities 
of resonance and vibration which distinguish the 
masters of this essential of the painter's craft His 
own warmth of nature seemed to reject all chilli- 
ness. He was happiest when he carried every tint 
to its highest power, gaining rich harmonies of 
contrasted tones with a full and sumptuous brush* 
His palette was of great range and variety, but he 
excelled in combinations of black and blue and 
yellow. Like John Phillip, he deliberately took 
the most trying colours — crimson, yellow, and pink 
— and struck each bold and resonant note with 
firm decision. I have noted already his employ- 
ment of red, whose full melody he loved to elicit 
But amid all the sonorous majesty of his colour 
there are subtle cadences and delicate touches 



of orchestration that the virtuoso knows how to 
appreciate. Here is a good summary, written in 
1878, by a distinguished French critic, M. Duranty : 

M. Pettie se sert d'un jeu de colorations bien complete 
ou la dissonance est habilement employee, et ou le caractere 
aigu des tons prend une importance vraiment interessante 
sans briser le lien qui les rattache aux basses foncees. 
]£nergique, personnel, hardi et tres riche en modulations se 
montre cet artiste dont les figures sont si expressives et 

In reference to Pettie's colour and technique, 
the opinion of a friend and contemporary, an eye- 
witness of his work, and himself an enthusiast in 
paint, is of extreme value. In a letter which it is 
my privilege to quote, Mr. Briton Riviere, R.A., 
after describing his first meeting with Pettie in 
1867, continues : 

He began at once to preach to me his belief; and it 
was quite new to one who had been brought up on the John 
Pye principles of black and white, light and shade, pure and 
simple. "Eh, man," said Pettie, "there's only one thing 
valuable and lasting in art, and that is colour. Try for 
that, and look for it in everything." This was his creed, 
and he never wavered in it, and in after years if any one 
sometimes thought him almost intolerant and unappreciative 
of some really good work, it was because this colour principle 
was almost a religion to him, and he felt that time and 
thought should not be wasted outside this serious path. 

Everything connected with art and his work was serious 


to a degree in his estimation, and in spite of his natural 
buoyancy of temperament and his many sources of happiness 
outside his work, I do not believe he was ever free from the 
care and anxiety of deciding what would be best for the 
particular piece of work which he had in hand at the time. 
I have heard him speak severely of another artist, who joked 
about his picture in a manner which showed that he was 
not impressed by the serious nature of the work. Though 
the subject motive of his work was important to him, and 
human nature and shades of character interested him greatly, 
yet he was never led away by these from his primary idea of 
colour. He told me that in thinking out a picture he first 
evolved a combination of colour, say black and red (he had 
an absolute passion for red in all its tones), and as soon as 
he had made this scheme plain to himself, he then thought 
out and built up his subject upon it, but he was not satisfied 
to paint his colour arrangement without what he considered 
an adequate subject. 

He would run any risk in his work in order to " carry it 
far, 1 " as he put it When a face was really very complete, 
he would say, " Now, that wants to be carried farther. I 
may lose a good deal, but this should now have a skin of 
paint all over to pull it together.'" This he would at once 
set about with evident anxiety, but with great courage and 
obviously with a kind of awful pleasure in the risk and joy 
of a possible success. "Paint should be delicious, man. 
What's the good of painting mud?" "It's not perhaps so very 
difficult to paint a bit of flesh this size," holding up the back 
of his closed fist, " but to paint fine colour in a life-sized face 
is really difficult" " Let me see a man's palette, and I'll soon 
tell you if he is a colourist" l 

1 It is noteworthy that Whistler, at the opposite pole to Pettie in a 
sense, should have also preached the doctrine that the palette is the 
man. " The picture is practically finished on the palette/' was one of 


In analysing Pettie's work, with a view to 
estimating his position as a painter, it is fortunate 
that it may be studied as an organic whole. There 
were no very marked periods in it, as in the work 
of his Scottish predecessors, Raeburn, Wilkie, and 
Phillip. After the first few pictures done under 
the Scott Lauder influence, with their broad fusion 
of brushing, Petties style became formed and 
complete. From its first manifestation in, say, 
"The Old Lieutenant and his Son," to his last 
exhibits at the Royal Academy, it shows no great 
change or development, unless perhaps an increas- 
ing boldness and directness. But though there 
are no sharp differentiations, showing traces of 
diverse influences, as is the case with most artists, 
yet there are certain developments to be indicated. 
With "The Arrest for Witchcraft" (1866), 
"Treason" (1867), and "The Sally" (1870), he 
reached his full maturity, and into the ten to 
twelve years that followed he crowded several of 
his works that are most masterly in colour and 
in the broad vigour and restraint of their style. 
Posterity, I think, will judge that, and judge it 

his dicta. When he started his famous but short-lived Academy in 
Paris, he would often ask for a pupil's palette. On one occasion he 
looked at a Scotchman's canvas, and fired at him the inevitable request. 
" I've hidden it," the conscience-stricken offender blurted out 


rightly, as the period of his best work. None 
the less, there is something very attractive in the 
smaller canvases of his earlier years, an adroitness 
and daintiness of touch, which at times is perhaps 
more winning than the broader generalisation and 
the bolder brushwork that the larger canvases en- 
tailed On the other hand, those larger canvases, 
which began with "The Arrest for Witchcraft," 
gave a feeling of freedom, the room for his elbow 
that a man of his temperament required The 
big canvas called out all the fire, energy, and 
enthusiasm of his nature. And if the work of 
his last twelve years drops just below the level 
of his middle period, both in colour and in restful 
beauty of design, the reason is just that he was 
carried away by that very fire and enthusiasm, by 
his immense capacity for rapid and dramatic work- 
manship. From about 1880 onwards, many of his 
pictures carried out on a large scale are almost 
unsurpassed in dashing brilliance of technique, 
which, however, is hardly compensation for the 
reticence of the earlier days. The colour became 
vigorous and representative rather than innately 
and essentially pictorial. 

His portraits, which belong mainly to his later 
years, have a radiance and flower-like richness of 


colour that recall Rubens's finest work. Many of 
them possess a grace and vivacity which show that 
he never lost his swift touch and keen accent. In 
others he seems to have been betrayed into a 
certain amount of forced illumination and rigidity 
of contour. This is due partly to the fact that in 
these years he never shrank from using white, not 
only as a ground, but in his high lights. Though 
critics and the public were inclined to cavil at this 
latest phase of his work, he himself claimed that 
time would bring justification. When driven to 
make some defence, he fell back on the saying 
credited by tradition to Vandyck. "Time will 
colour them," was the reply of the Flemish master 
to some one who said that the portraits in a dark 
part of his studio were so white that they looked 
like ghosts. An exhibition such as that at Edin- 
burgh this year (1908), where seventeen of Pettie's 
works were shown, brings home the truth of this 
remark. More than one artist (and on a point like 
this the painter is the truest judge) told me that 
pictures which he remembered as being a little 
harsh and metallic in the first lustre of their 
" exhibition pitch n twenty years ago or more had 
all mellowed and ripened with the passage of time. 
Though colour was his main interest, Pettie 


rarely lost sight of the structural qualities which 
in pictorial anatomy are the bones where colour is 
the flesh. To look at his pictures from this point 
of view alone is to recognise how splendidly and 
inevitably right he usually was in the arrangement 
of his figures, and in the restful balance of light and 
shade. One of his best and most artistic qualities — 
an outcome of his fine draughtsmanship — was the 
singular truth and power of suggestion with which 
he represented violent action, swift and impulsive 
movement in all its vigour of animal life. It was 
owing to his fine draughtsmanship and mastery of 
technical intricacies, no less than to his colour, that 
he carried to completion work which tempted 
fortune by the greatness of its intention, or which an 
artist of less skill and power of concentration would 
probably have abandoned in despair. 

As in his speech and daily life he was honest 
and direct, a lover of plain statement, so in his 
painting Pettie used no circumlocutions: he was 
robust in his sense of design, impatient of trivial 
and restless details. In this respect his work 
contains not only his own spirit, but the spirit 
and tradition of his country. Where so much 
of the painting of to-day is hybrid and cosmo- 
politan in character, this is national, strong and 


distinct in aim, dignified in expression. There is 
nothing here of the flashy parade of technique, 
generated mainly in the ateliers of Paris, with its 
entire absence of motive, or its motive of mare 
ugliness. His is wholesome, sincere British art, 
inspiriting in its honest truth and artistic sanity. 

In the list of his works will be found a few 
water-colour drawings. Only on rare occasions 
did he make use of water-colours, — once or twice 
on a holiday when he was itching to put something 
into colour and no oils were at hand ; sometimes 
for a rapid sketch when the idea came to him for 
a picture, such as those for " The Tiff" and " Two 
Strings to her Bow." His light and free use of the 
medium in the latter sketch shows a power which 
he never himself realised. " Life's too short, and 
my fist's too clumsy," he once remarked, when 
urged to use water-colour more. 

It is by his work in oil and by his power as a 
colourist that Pettie will live. For amid all the 
things that make for great and living art, colour is of 
paramount importance. " If not the first, it is at 
least an essential quality in painting," wrote Pettie's 
predecessor, Sir David Wilkie, "and no master has 
as yet maintained his ground beyond his own time 
without it ; in oil-painting it is richness and depth 

TWO STRINGS TO HER BOW ( Water-Coiour Sketch) 
(Size of original, 13 X 18.) 



alone that can do justice to the material" The 
starved surface and the subdued, sombre tints of 
pictures that now seem astounding masterpieces 
of tone and quality must inevitably melt into 
nothingness beneath the dust and decay of passing 
years. Time and varnish, "those greatest of old 
masters,* will mellow and harmonise, but never 
obscure the brilliance of Pettie's work. He 
possessed in a large measure the other qualities 
that make for greatness in art, and he was a great 
colourist Colour will prevail. 




John Pettie's life was uneventful in the sense that 
the foil story of its events, the ordinary episodes 
of a happy and prosperous existence, would be 
monotonous of relation save to the most intimate 
of the painter's friends. The preceding chapters, 
therefore, have contained little more than an 
attempt to give a synthetic arrangement of the 
essential facts of his career, and to indicate the 
nature and value of his work. Enough, however, 
has perhaps been said to suggest how that work 
was a mirror to the steadfastness and simplicity of 
his sterling character. And as the last chapter 
was an attempt to summarise the motives and style 
of his work as a painter, there may be added here 
an even briefer summary of the character and 
pursuits of the man, and of their relation to his 



His own pleasures and recreations were reflected 
in his pictures. He was an enthusiastic collector, 
a lover of armour, tapestry, and old furniture. 
Though he had good judgment and a cultured taste, 
he made no claim to the scientific knowledge of an 
antiquary, and his collection was made always for 
his own use and service rather than for its intrinsic 
value from the point of view of a connoisseur. At 
his first visit to London, before he was twenty, he 
picked up an old sword, two helmets, a skull, and a 
" leather bottel." He sent sketches of them in a 
letter to McTaggart, and wrote : " It nearly ruined 
me; got home with twopence, and had to get a 
loan. I believe I would have bought the whole 
shop, had I had the money." On his return home 
he set to work on " a little thing, a scene in a studio, 
in which I stuffed all the things as detail." This 
was "The Young Student," but before it was 
exhibited at the Scottish Academy in 1859 he 
painted out the armour, his artistic sense even at 
this early period leading him to sacrifice obtrusive 
detail for the central interest of his figures. Soon 
after he sold his first picture in London, he was 
prowling one day with C. E. Johnson in the 
purlieus of Wardour Street Johnson lost sight of 
him, but in a few minutes heard a voice calling : 


"Come here, Johnson, I've just bought fifteen 
pounds worth of swords!" He always loved 
armour. Pictures such as "The Threat" and 
" The Ultimatum " were little more than an excuse 
for painting it, 

His first acquaintance with Mr. Seymour Lucas, 
long before the latter became a prominent painter, 
came about in connection with a piece of armour. 
Some one had told him that Seymour Lucas had a 
beautiful casque, the very thing required for the 
picture he had in hand, so he called to beg it on 
loan. Seymour Lucas knew it was a good piece — 
he had just bought it for over £20 from T. B. 
Hardy — and he offered to exchange it for some 
small sketch by Pettie, whose work he passionately 
admired It is characteristic of the latter that he 
refused to have the casque on these terms, but 
taking it away on loan insisted on painting a 
portrait of Seymour Lucas, then quite unknown to 
fame, and receiving in exchange for it one of the 
young artist's own water-colours. 

Though never a member, Pettie was a frequent 
visitor at the " Kernoozers' Club," a select little 
body of artists and others, who were united by a 
common love of arms and armour. It was founded 
in the studio of Mr. Seymour Lucas in 1880, and is 


still in existence. Baron de Cosson, the famous 
collector, was the first President, Mr. Lucas 
being Vice-President, while at a later period Mr. 
Egerton Castle became champion swordsman to 
the club. Good-fellowship and sound scholarship 
were the two main essentials. Entertainment for 
the evening was provided by the member at whose 
house the monthly meeting was held. It was a 
strict regulation that the fare should be of the 
simplest kind — roast beef, cheese, beer, claret, pipes, 
tobacco, whisky, and nothing more. Amid the 
wreaths of smoke they held debate on historical 
dress and fine armour, on casque and chanfron, 
solleret and cuisse. Various " kernoozers " brought 
the pieces of armour which they had acquired 
during the month ; these were discussed, and some- 
times a paper was read. On a special visitors' 
night, Mr. Egerton Castle and another member 
would explain feats of swordsmanship or illustrate 
a " sword - and - dagger fight" Pettie was often 
present and besides enjoying the social character 
of the meetings, got many a wrinkle as to weapons 
and their uses. 

On points of history and connoisseurship Pettie 
would often ask the advice of his friend, Seymour 
Lucas; but even the connoisseur is not infallible, 


and Mr. Lucas has a story to tell against himself. 
In Petties studio was a finely engraved demi-suit 
which his friend never saw without coveting, and 
so one day he offered to swop it for a black Crom- 
wellian suit in his own collection, which he knew 
Pettie wanted and would find useful Taking 
home his new treasure in a cab, he set it up in his 
studio, and spent an hour in gazing on its beauties 
and patting it with all the joy of the born collector 
in his newest acquisition. Then he set to work to 
scour the metal, and to his sorrow found that 
scarcely any part of it was genuine ! But he never 
confessed to Pettie, for he did not wish his friend 
to lose trust in his antiquarian knowledge, or 
to send back the Cromwellian suit, which he 
knew would be the result of any confession 
made. The Cromwellian armour stood in Pettie's 
studio to the day of his death, and figures in 
" A Member of the Long Parliament n and other 
of his works. 

Pettie was devoted to music, though he was never 
a musician. He had experimented in quite early 
days with the organ, and he had essayed to play the 
flute and to pick out a tune on the piano, but he 
never acquired the mastery of any instrument. It 
was the colour of music, its harmony and melody, 


its richness and emotion that haunted him. It is 
a psychological fact of no little interest that in 
music he found actual inspiration for his work. 
He loved to have some one playing the pianoforte 
while he painted. Best of all, he liked the 
accompaniment of a duet, with loud and martial 
airs, such as Hamish MacCunn and his cousin, 
Andrew Ker, would sometimes play, and always, 
when they ceased from sheer exhaustion, he would 
spur them on to renewed efforts. His passion for 
music was sometimes almost too great a burden to 
his musical friends. Whether he was hard at work 
on some canvas or chatting and smoking in the 
evening, he was always eager for music as a back- 
ground to work or talk. 

I can remember how in Arran, as we returned 
from some picnic, or rowed lazily home by moon- 
light from an evening's fishing in Brodick Bay, he 
would start some part-song, such as "Scotland's 
Burning n or " Who'll buy my White Sand ? " He 
hummed and sang at his work, and the man who 
sings at his task has a good heart, " for song gives 
a permanent sense of futurity and a permanent 
sense of the presence of Divine things." And as 
the sailor has songs for each separate task, songs of 
joy, sorrow, and reminiscence, or as the peasant has 


his songs for harvest and the winter fire, so Pettie 
would vary his music with his work ; when he was 
painting Mr. Cope as the Cavalier in " A Brimmer 
to the King," breaking into Jacobite ditties — 
"Charlie is my Darling," or "Over the Sea to 
Skye"; or, while he worked on "Ho! Ho! Old 
Noll/' bursting merrily into "Down among the 
Dead Men let him lie ! " 

Long before there was any thought of Hamish 
MacCunn becoming his son-in-law, Pettie was 
keenly interested in his early success as a com- 
poser. In 1888 he sent as a Christmas card to 
Mrs. Pettie from Birmingham, where he had been 
present at the performance of one of MacCunn 's 
early works, a prophetic dream of " The Monster 
Orchestral Concert performed at Birmingham in 
1889, sketched by a Royal Academician who was 
present on the great occasion/' It was curious 
that June 4th of 1889, the year of his dream, was 
to see the marriage of his daughter Alison to the 
composer. It gave Pettie the greatest pleasure 
to be brought into close association with the 
musical world, and his daughter's marriage was 
the prelude to many pleasant evenings of music in 
the great studio at " The Lothians." Even before 
the marriage, Pettie organised two orchestral 


concerts in his studio with an orchestra of sixty 
members — a large one for a private house — which 
provided entertainment for over two hundred and 
fifty guests. Hamish MacCunn conducted, and 
overtures by himself and others were the main 
features of the programme. 

A glance through the list of Pettie's works will 
show how his love of music was reflected in his 
pictures. "The Flageolet," "The Minstrel," and 
"The Trio" were all painted before 1865, and 
between these and "The Violinist," one of his 
last exhibits at the Academy, came such works 
as "The Rehearsal," "The Love Song," "The 
Solo," "The Musician," and "A Song without 

He had another source of solace and inspiration, 
for he was a prodigious smoker. A well-coloured 
meerschaum figures rightly as a sign-manual in 
Mr. Cope's admirable portrait of the painter (now 
in Mrs. Pettie's possession), for it was as much 
part and parcel of his work as the tubes of paint 
and bottles of varnish beside which it lies. My 
father used to relate how once starting with 
Pettie for an afternoon's outing, he slipped into 
a tobacconist's and bought two superlative cigars 
at a most extravagant price. It caused him much 



amusement when Pettie, on getting to the end of 
his, pulled out the old meerschaum, and said with 
great emphasis : " Ah, weel ! Now for a smoke ! " 
One of the few occasions when he did not long for 
a smoke was when crossing the English Channel. 
But one journey was a triumph, for, ensconcing 
himself by the paddle-box with a very long French 
roll in one hand and a bottle of claret in the other, 
he took bite and sup alternately throughout the 
voyage. His fellow-passengers were highly amused ; 
but he was not sea -sick, and chuckled over the 
first pipe he had ever enjoyed between Dover and 

"The Tennis Player * and the background of 
"Ho! Ho! Old Noll" are evidence of Pettie's 
attachment to the game of tennis. He and 
Orchardson strolled one day into the tennis-court 
behind the Bedford Hotel at Brighton, took up 
a pair of rackets, and set themselves to solve the 
mysteries of the old king of games, quite a different 
pastime from the lawn-tennis of to-day. When 
living at St John's Wood, both of them, with an 
athletic energy not very usual among artists, were 
keen players in the court at Lord's Cricket Ground, 
and Pettie's quick eye and strong wrist were of 
service in a game that calls for considerable strength 


as well as skill. At a later period Orchardson 
added another tennis-court to the few existing in 
England by building one in the garden of his 
house at Westgate. 

In his early days Pettie learned, in a pool 
at the foot of his father's garden at East Linton, 
the art of fishing, and all his life remained an en- 
thusiastic angler. As far back as 1858 he writes, 
evidently with some searchings of heart, of " taking 
it a little quietly up the water with my rod, and 
wondering whether McTaggart is hard at work." 
He was up to his knees in Loch Tanna, in Arran, 
when his future son-in-law was first introduced to 
him. He could cast a line with neatness and 
dexterity, and was rarely more happy than when 
with rod in hand he whipped a likely stream. He 
was always a purist in fishing, believing in fly- 
fishing of the strictest type. I have heard of his 
horror and indignation, on an occasion when he 
had a special order from the Duke of Hamilton 
to fish some choice piece of preserved water, to 
find two elderly gentlemen not only in possession 
of the most likely spot, but seated well out on 
some rocks, angling away for salmon trout with 
a string of worms fastened with red wool ! For 
one or two seasons Pettie shared a fishing with 


Orchardson on the Kennet near Marlborough, 
where he landed many a fine trout. 

"The Way to the Loch," "Trout-fishing in 
the Highlands," and "Young Izaak Walton" are 
among pictures in which the fishing motive pre- 
vails. In the last-named picture Izaak Walton 
lies, with a good basket beside him, holding a 
book in his hand. One can imagine it The Com- 
pleat Angler, open at the appropriate lines which 
contain a good deal of Pettie's own philosophy : 

Man's life is but vain, 

For 'tis subject to pain 
And sorrows, and short as a bubble ; 

Tis a hodge-podge of business, 

And money, and care, 
And toil, and money, and trouble. 

But we'll take no care 

If the weather prove fair, 
Nor will we vex aught though it rain ; 

We will banish all sorrow 

And sing till to-morrow, 
And angle and angle again ! 

He had good opportunity of fishing, both in 
river and sea, in the island of Arran, which he 
visited with his family almost every year for the 
last twelve years of his life. Three summers were 
passed at Brodick, where he had a warm friend in 
Mr. M'Lean, the Presbyterian minister, while later 


holidays were spent at Corrie. In 1888, when 
working on Mrs. Coats's portrait, he had a studio 
hut built at the foot of Glen Sannox, with a 
good fishing stream running very near the door. 
Though his summer holidays were usually spent 
in his "ain countree," he made several trips to 
Italy with Mrs. Pettie, nearly always with Venice 
as the chief goal. One such tour which he 
particularly enjoyed was made in company with 
William Black the novelist 

Pettie liked young faces about him, and his 
own ever-young nature was in full sympathy with 
youthful spirit. To children on their birthdays 
he would sometimes send a caricature of them- 
selves, or of his own head. Here is a note dashed 
off one evening to a friend's son, a boy of twelve, 
who was showing some talent in drawing : " Will 
you come and give me a sitting to-morrow morning 
at 10 o'clock, like a good chap ? Some day when 
you are a great artist, and I have a white beard, 
111 give you a sitting for a Moses, Jeremiah, or 
some other grand historical character/' At the 
end is an amusing caricature of himself with a 
flowing beard and a bald head. To Miss Agnes 
MacCunn, who was making a collection of auto- 
graphs, he writes : 


Thb Lothians, Fitzjohn's Avbkuk. 
N&o. 23/91. 

My deab Nancy — I got your very nice letter and wa* 
ashamed that I should have forgotten about the autographs. 
However, I will not wait for more, and just send you what I 
can lay my hands upon at once. 

Here are Orchardson, Black, Charlie Green, the black- 
and-white illustrator, and £. A. Abbey, who is such a clever 
fellow. He has done wonderful illustrations in Harper's 
Magazine besides pictures in oil and water-colour. I was 
visiting him on Sunday at Fairfoid, near Oxford. Yesterday 
I saw his studio — 75 feet long by 40 feet wide, and SO feet 
high ! ! He is doing some large pictures for the Free Library 
at Boston. A man about forty years, short and strong, 
with a head. He made a sketch of my fist above his auto- 
graph for you, and I send a sketch recollection of him, and 
have glorified him ! Will look out Millais and others. 

Give my love to all at Thornhill and kiss yourself for 
me. 1 — Your father's daughter's brother's father-in-law, 

John Pettis. 

Gentle of heart and generous of hand, he kept 

open house at "The Lothians" for a wide circle 

of friends* His genial nature attracted men of 

varying pursuits and temperament, and served to 

link them to him in a chain of common friendship. 

He was always ready to welcome a new-comer. 

Mr. Briton Riviere, R. A., writes of his first meeting 

with Pettie : 

When I left Oxford in 1867 and came to live near 
London, I brought an introduction to Pettie from my 

1 Try a looking-glass ! 


brother-in-law, C. M. DobelL I called on Pettie in 
Gloucester Road, and found him at work from a model on 
his picture of a struggle between a Highlander and an 
exciseman over a keg of whisky. I was at once admitted 
like an old friend, and he went on with his work, talking 
about it with a freedom highly delightful to me ; but he did 
not forget to ask me about mine, and before I left, with that 
fine spirit of generosity so strong in him, lent me a large 
piece of tapestry and a fine old cup rapier, with a suggestion 
that they might be useful in a picture I was going to paint. 
From that day forward he was quite untiring in his advice 
and assistance, and probably I learnt more from him and 
was more influenced by his views of art at that time than by 
those of any one, not excepting Millais, who, though very 
kind, was not so constantly to be relied upon to take trouble 
as your uncle. 

Mr. J. Bowie, A.R.S.A., tells me that he began 
his first visit to London with a pilgrimage to 
Pettie's studio. " Though armed with an introduc- 
tion from old Mr. Frier, who had taught him draw- 
ing at George Watson's College, the young student 
felt some diffidence in approaching a Royal 
Academician, then at the height of his fame. 
Once inside the studio, however, his fears were 
soon scattered, and he too went away carrying off 
a valuable piece of costume as a loan. Pettie's 
last words as he went out were, "Look here, 
Bowie, you tell the Edinburgh fellows not to 
worry about introductions. Tell 'em from me just 


to knock at the door and say they've come frae 
Scotland." Many are the successful artists of the 
present generation who bear eloquent testimony to 
the sympathy and encouragement with which 
Pettie cheered them on in the struggling days of 
their youth. "He had the knack," said one of 
them to me recently, "of making you feel that 
you had known him all your life, and in a minute 
you were quite comfortably at home in the great 
studio that was bigger than the house where you 
were born/' He not only gave advice and guidance, 
but he kindled the veriest tiro with some sparks of 
his own fire, and sent him away burning to follow 
his advice and do " something big." 

He was ever ready to give keen sympathy 
and help to any one who was struggling over a 
picture. His bright and eager assistance often 
came like sunshine to scatter the cloud of 
despondency that hangs over a man who has spent 
days and weeks with his own slow progress 
staring him in the face. Younger artists had 
always a special claim on his assistance : he would 
go from one end of London to the other to give 
advice to the youngest student, and would do it 
with a fine air of genial belief in the man and his 
work which alone was valuable. His suggestions 


were not only penetrating but practical, and when 
his innate honesty made him condemn forcefully 
a bad bit of drawing or colour, he was always 
eager to single out some promising passage for 
special praise. What was intensely helpful to a 
younger man was that he loved to show people 
how he worked, and would willingly carry through 
a picture from beginning to end with some one at 
his elbow who wished to see " how the wheels go- 
round.** He would talk over almost every touch 
he put on, giving his reasons for this or that treat* 
ment of each portion of a face or the general 
scheme of colour. There was no secretiveness 
about him, and he welcomed free criticism as only 
a strong, large-minded man can do. 

His own industry was incessant, and his power 
of work, due to his vigorous frame and active 
mind, was marvellous. The list given in an 
Appendix, which cannot claim to be complete, 
comprises, with the inclusion of finished sketches, 
over five hundred works. That is a noble record 
for a man who died at the age of fifty-three, 
and whose working years may be reckoned as 
thirty-five. At the Royal Academy, between 
1860 and 1898, he exhibited one hundred and nine- 
teen pictures. In the year before his death, he 



not only painted " The Ultimatum " and " Bonnie 
Prince Charlie," together with three portraits on 
commission, but also finished eleven portraits 
for presentation to friends. 

Many still living cherish the memory of his 
open-hearted kindness in times of distress, but that 
is too personal a matter on which to dwell here. 
Honest, kindly, and plain-spoken, he hated any- 
thing that savoured of sham and hypocrisy. He was 
breezy and unaffected in presence and manner, in 
the hey-day of his success preserving the eagerness 
and simplicity of his youth. He possessed a never- 
failing flow of good spirits, and to be with him 
was like basking in cheerful sunshine. He strode 
through life buoyantly and blithely ; his vitality 
and his cheery voice were inspiriting to all whom 
he met by the way. To talk to John Pettie made 
you feel that you were talking to a man, a personality 
of a rare kind. He gave the instant impression of 
intense energy and enthusiasm, held in check by 
an all-pervading wayward humour and warmth of 
disposition which made it difficult for him to say 
or listen to an unkind word of any one. There 
was nothing mean or small in his nature. One 
remembers the big, powerful hand, "too clumsy 
for water-colour,*' but ever ready to give the grip 


of hearty friendship ; his bluff and vigorous pres- 
ence ; his rough eloquence ; the vigour with which 
he spoke of art, and denounced what to him seemed 
false or foolish; his ready sympathy with all 
who needed help ; his kindly smile ; his infectious 
humour; the merry twinkle of his eye. Simple 
and honest and hearty, he was a good companion 
and a loyal friend. Among the sincerest mourners 
at his grave were the old companions of his student 
days, who could bear witness that through all the 
varying seasons there had never come between 
them a shadow of distrust. 

Here at the close I may put the words of a 
well-known painter who lived in close touch with 
Pettie through a large part of his life. When 
asked recently for any recollection that would lend 
"atmosphere" to this memoir, he gave me several 
reminiscences, telling tale after tale of Pettie's 
cheeriness, loyalty, and unselfishness, and he ended : 
"Have you ever seen John Pettie's portrait of 
himself in the Aberdeen Gallery ? It's all pure and 
luminous, all rich coral and amber and gold. That s 
the atmosphere you must suggest in your book. 
Pettie was pure and honest through and through. 
His nature was all amber and gold." 




Self-Portrait. (Head, in crayon and tint.) Signed "J. Pettie, 
'56." (7Jx5f.) 
Exhibited at the Scottish National Exhibition (Edinburgh), 1906. 
Present owner : Martin Hardie. 

Self-Portrait. Signed "J. Pettie, 1881." (12 x 10.) 

In the Aberdeen Art Gallery. 
Self-Portrait Signed "J. Pettie, 1882." (12 x 9£.) 

Present owner: J. MacWhirter, Esq., R.A. 
Portrait (three-quarter length). By A. S. Cope, A.R.A. Signed 
" A. S. Cope, 1892." (67 x 47.) 

Exhibited at R.A., 1892. 

Present owner : Mrs. Pettie. 

Portrait. (Head.) By George Paul Chalmers, R.S.A. Signed 
« G. P. Chalmers, '62." (23 x 18 J.) 
Exhibited at R.S.A., 1868 : Whitechapel Art Gallery, 1905. 
Present owner : W. B. Hardie, Esq. 

Portrait. (Head.) By Sir George Reid, R.S. A. Unsigned ; 
painted in 1887. (12 x 10.) 
Present owner : Mrs. Hannah MacCunn. 

Portrait. Bust by George Lawson. (c. 1880.) 
Present owner : Mrs. Pettie. 

Small etched Portrait. By L. Lowenstam, as remarque on his 

etching of Pettie's portrait of G. P. Chalmers. 




The measurements are given in inches, height first, and then width. 
Ail the pictures are in oil, unless otherwise stated. 

The Death of Twedric, King of Gwent. (Water-colour.) 
Present owner : Robert Brown, Esq., LL.D. 
Pettie' b first drawing in more than one colour. The colour original, 
but the subject copied from a reproduction of some con- 
temporary picture. 

Johnny Little and his Wonderfu' Cuddy. (Water-colour.) 
Present owner : James Kennedy, Esq. 

Self-Portrait. (Head : crayon and tint) Signed " J. Pettie, 
•56." (7£x5f.) 
Present owner : Martin Hardie. 

Portrait — Head of Miss Jessie Frier. (Crayon and tint.) 
Signed " J. Pettie, 1857." Oval (20 x 15.) 
Present owner : Mrs. Andrew Frier. 

Scene from "The Fortunes of Nigel" — In Trapbois' House. 
Signed "J. Pettie, '58." (21 x 24.) 
Exhibited at R.S.A., 1858. 
Present owner : Finlay Smith, Esq. 

Portrait of Mrs. Pettie (the artist's mother). 

Exhibited at R.S.A., 1858. 
Portrait of Miss Jane Pettie (the artist's sister). 

Exhibited at R.S.A., 1858. 
The Stroller. (16x12.) 


The Prison Pet. (24 x 20.) 
Exhibited at R.S.A., 1859. 
Present owner : Barr Smith, Esq. (Adelaide, S. Australia). 

Sketch of the above. (16 x 12.) 

Scene from " The Monastery/' 
Exhibited at R.S.A., 1859. 
Christie's, 1869. 

The Young Student. Signed " J. Pettie." (19 x 15.) 
Exhibited at R.S.A., 1859. 
Present owner : the Rev. R. J. Walker. 

The Fisherman's Family : Evening Prayer. (24 x 1 8.) 

As frontispiece to Family Worship, published by Messrs. Blackie 
and Sons, 1864. Engraved on steel by J. Stephenson, 
4£x5f in. 

The Armourers. (28 x 23.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1860. 
Christie's, 1869. 

The Armourer's Forge. Signed " J. Pettie." (1 1£ x 1 1 £.) 
Possibly a sketch for the above. 
Present owner: W. McTaggart, Esq., R.S.A. 

The Armourer's StalL Signed "J. Pettie, I860." (16 x 13.) 

Present owner : J. Henderson, Esq. 
Sketch of a Forge. 

Probably a sketch for " The Armourers." 
The Minstrel : Convent Hospitality. (40 x 26.) 

Exhibited at R.S.A., 1860 ; Glasgow Institute, 1869. 
False Dice : Scene in an Ordinary. (40 x 26.) 

Exhibited at R.S.A., 1860 ; Liverpool, 1860. 

Morning Worship: Beading the Bible; The Convalescent 



Companion to "Evening Prayer/' 1869. As illustration to 
Family Worship, published by Messrs. Blackie and Sons, 
1864. Engraved on steel by J. Stephenson, 5£ x 7± in. 

Exhibited at R.S.A., 1860. 

Present owners : Executors of the late Dr. Blackie. 

Noah's Sacrifice. (1 1 x 15.) 

Another illustration to Family Worship (see above). 
Present owners : Messrs. Blackie and Sons. 

Mfilfihliftrtftk Mossing Abraham. 
The Brasen Serpent 

Illustrations to Famuy Worship (see above 
The Water-Gate. (16 x 12.) 

Exhibited at R.S.A., 1860. 
Huguenots. St. Bartholomew's Day. 

Exhibited at R.S.A., 1861. 
Huguenots. St. Bartholomew's Eve. 

Exhibited at R.S.A., 1861. 
The Dead Babbit. (14 x 12.) 

A Lover's Stratagem. Signed "J. Pettie, I860." 

Christie's, 1899. 
"The Twa Corbies/' Signed "I860." 

Sepia sketch, made at the Sketching Club. Afterwards painted in 
oil See 1884. 

Exhibited at the Scottish National Exhibition (Edinburgh), 1906. 

Present owner : Mrs. Pettie. 

1861. 1 

" What d'ye lack, madam? What d'ye lack? N 
Exhibited at R.A., 1861 ; R.S.A., 1862. 
Christie's, 1869. 

1 " The Day Dream," exhibited at the R.S. A., 1861, and " The Abbey 
Gate** and "A Cavalier," both exhibited at the Crystal Palace, 1861, 
were all destroyed by the artist as unsatisfactory. 


Distressed Cavaliers turned Highwaymen. Signed "J. Pettie, 
1861." (24x36.) 
Exhibited at R.S.A., 1861. 
Present owner : A. M. Ogston, Esq. 


Exhibited at R.S.A., 1861. 
Soldier cleaning Armour. 

Exhibited at Glasgow Institute, 1861. 

Affection looks before the Time. 

Exhibited at Glasgow Institute, 1861. 

One of Cromwell's Divines. 

Exhibited at R.S.A., 1862. 
Two Scriptural Subjects. 

Illustrations to Family Worship, published by Messrs. Blackie and 
Sons, 1864. Engraved on steel, 6£x5 in. See above, 1859 
and 1860. 


The Sub-Prior and Edward Glendenning. 

" ' Father/ said the youth, kneeling down to him, ' my sin and 
my shame shall be told to thee. I heard of his death, his 
bloody, his violent death, and I rejoiced. I heard of his 
unexpected restoration, and I sorrowed. ' " — The Monastery. 

Exhibited at R.A., 1862 ; Glasgow Institute, 1862 ; R.S.A., 1863. 

The Old Lieutenant and his Son. (Ned's Return,) (36 x 25.) 
"The sailor threw his arms around his mother." From the story 

by Dr. Norman Macleod in Qood Words. 
Exhibited at R.S.A., 1862 ; Wolverhampton, 1908. 
Present owner : Miss Macleod. 

Sketch of head of the old Lieutenant. (8 x 6J. j 
Sketch of head of the Son. (3j x 3 J.) 
Present owner : C. M. Hardie, Esq., R.S.A. 
These were cut by the artist's mother from a first painting of the 
subject which he rejected as unsatisfactory. 



Cromwell's Saints. Signed « J. Pettie, '62.° (17x21 .) 

Exhibited at R.S.A., 1863; Glasgow Institute, 1868; Scottish 

National Exhibition (Edinburgh), 1906. 
Present owner : John Jordan, Esq. 

The Trio. 

" I dare well swere y-couthe ther craft full parfitly." — Chaucer. 
Exhibited at R.A., 1868. 
Killing and Curing. 

Exhibited at R.S.A., 1863 ; Glasgow Institute, 1868 ; Edinburgh 
International Exhibition, 1886. 

Brittany Minstrels. Signed " J. Pettie." (16 x 1 3.) 
Exhibited at R.S.A., 1863. 
In the Glasgow Corporation Art Gallery. 

The Tonsure. 

Exhibited at R.A., 1864. 

George Fox refusing to take the oath at Honlker Hall, a.d. 

Exhibited at R.A., 1864. 
Who leads a Good Life is sure to live welL 

Exhibited at R.S. A., 1864 ; Glasgow Institute, 1868. 
The Time and Place. Signed " J. Pettie." (21 \ x 14.) 

Exhibited at British Institution, 1864; Glasgow International 
Exhibition, 1888 ; R. A. Winter Exhibition, 1894. 

Christie's, 1903 (H. J. Turner Collection). 

Present Owner : Henry Mungall, Esq. 

Late. Signed " J. Pettie." (22 x 15.) 

Exhibited at R.A. Winter Exhibition, 1894. 
Christie's, 1903 (H. J. Turner Collection). 
Present owner : Henry Mungall, Esq. 

Portrait of Miss E. Bossom (afterwards Mrs. Pettie). (6 x 4.) 
Present owner : Mrs. Pettie. 


The Wounded Despatch-Bearer. 

Exhibited at British Institution, 1865. 
The Strategists. Signed " J. Pettie, '64." (15 J x 20}.) 

In Glasgow Corporation Art Gallery. 
The Apt Pupil. 

Stndy in a Picture Gallery. Signed "J. Pettie, '64." 
(21 x 15.) 
Present owner : Mrs. Craig. 

Sketch Portrait of 0. B. Johnson, R.I., on the shore at Hast- 
ings, painting. Signed "Hastings, 1864. John 
Pettie." (9 x 8.) 
Present owner : C. £. Johnson, Esq., R.I. 


A Drum -head Court - Martial. Signed "J. Pettie, '65." 
(28 x 42.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1865 ; R.A. Winter Exhibition, 1894. 
In Mappin Art Gallery, Sheffield. 

Sketch of the above. (1 8 x 26.) 
Christie's, 1882 ; 1887 (C. Wells Collection). 
In the Milwaukee Art Gallery. 

Out of an Engagement. 

Exhibited at British Institution, 1865. 
The Rehearsal. Signed "J. Pettie." (23 x 18.) 

Exhibited at Glasgow Institute, 1871, with title " The Ballet 
Lesson"; Glasgow International Exhibition, 1901 ; Scottish 
National Exhibition (Edinburgh), 1908. 
Present owner : Adam Wood, Esq. 

Replica of the above. 

The Bible and the Monk. (The Monk Sturmi in search of a 
monastery site.) 
Painted from small illustration, in Good Words, 1868, to " The 
Monks and the Heathen." See also 1868. 


Portrait (f length) of Mrs. Pettie. Signed "J. Pettie, 1865." 
Present owner : C. E. Johnson, Esq., R.I. 


The Arrest for Witchcraft. Signed "J. Pettie, 1866." 
(60 x 36.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1866 ; Paris International Exhibition, 1867. 
Christie's, 1868, 1869, 1874, 1876. 
In National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne. 
Replica of the above. Signed " J. Pettie, 1866." (37 x 24.) 
In Wolverhampton Art Gallery. 
Old Mother Hubbard. Signed "J. Pettie." (21 x 16.) 
Exhibited at Glasgow Institute, 1868. 

The figure is not a replica, but in attitude and costume bears a 
strong resemblance to the witch in the above picture. Possibly 
a finished study for it 
Present owner : John Jordan, Esq. 

At Bay. 1 Signed "J. Pettie, 1866." (31 x 50.) 
Exhibited at Liverpool, 1886. 
Christie's, 1908 (T. H. Ismay Collection). 
Present owner : W. W. Sampson, Esq. 

Replica of the above. Signed " J. Pettie, '66." (19 x 30.) 
Exhibited at Glasgow Institute, 1907. 
Present owner : John Knox, Esq. 

Sketch of the above. 
Coaxing. Signed "J. Pettie, A.R.A." (28 x 23£.) 

Exhibited at the Whitechapel Art Gallery, 1908. 
Present owner : J. Julius Weinberg, Esq. 

The Cardinal. Signed "J. Pettie, 1866." 
Christie's, 1892 (Murietta Collection). 

1 Pettie's etching " At Bay " is similar in subject to " A Moment of 
Danger, M 1878, and is not to be identified with this picture. 



Treason. Signed "J. Pettie, 1867." (33 x 55$.) 

Exhibited at R.A., 1867; Paris International Exhibition, 1878; 

R.A. Winter Exhibition, 1894; Glasgow International 

Exhibition, 1901. 
Christie's, 1880. 
In Mappin Art Gallery, Sheffield. 

Sketch of the above. Signed " J. Pettie, 1 867." (28$ x 38 J. ) 
Christie's, 1908 (Stephen G. Holland Collection). 
Present owners : Messrs. Wallis and Son. 

The Doctor. (Also known as "The Doctor's Visit.") Signed 
"J. Pettie, '67." (28x19.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1867. 
Present owner : Dr. Ramsay. 

Hudibras and Ealpho in the Stocks. Signed " J. Pettie, 1867." 
(18 x 24.) 

" The Knight in limbo pent, 
And by him in another role, 
Afflicted Ralpho, cheek by jowl." 

Exhibited at Glasgow Institute, 1868 ; Glasgow International Ex- 
hibition, 1901. Christie's, 1869, 1871. 
In the Mappin Art Gallery, Sheffield. 

Replica of the above. Signed « J. Pettie." (1 8 x 24.) 
Present owner : John Jordan, Esq. 
A Visit to the Necromancer. Signed " J. Pettie." (39 x 25.) 
Present owner : W. McTaggart, Esq., R.S.A. 
Finished sketch of the above. (Painted for George Paul 
Chalmers, R.S.A.) Signed " J. Pettie." (19 x 13.) 
Present owner : W. McTaggart, Esq., R.S.A. 

Portrait of Miss 8. J. Frier (afterwards Mrs. Andrew Ker). 
Signed "J. Pettie." (Circular— \5 in. diam.) 
Exhibited at Wolverhampton, 1908. 
Present owner : Mrs. Andrew Ker. 

The Troubadour in Prison. 


Tussle with a Highland Smuggler. (Also called "The Ganger 
and the* Smuggler," and "The Tussle for the Keg.") 
Signed "J. Pettie, 1868." (SO x 24.) 
Exhibited at R.A, 1868; Philadelphia International Exhibition, 
1876 ; RA. Winter Exhibition, 1894. 
Sketch of the above. (22 x 1 8.) 
In the Aberdeen Gallery : Macdonald Art Collection. 
Pax Vobiacum. Signed « J. Pettie, 1868." (21 x 14$.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1868 ; R.A. Winter Exhibition, 1894. 
Present owner : H. J. Turner, Esq. 

Weary with Present Oares and Memories Sad. 
Exhibited at R.A., 1868. 
Christie's, 1877. 

The Monk Woodcutter. (The Monk Sturmi in search of a 
monastery site.) Signed « J. Pettie, 1868 " and " 1 871." 
(The canvas has been enlarged.) (21 x 15J.) 
Another version of the picture painted iu 1865, from Pettie's small 
illustration to "The Monks and the Heathen," by Charles 
Kingsley, in Good Word*, 1868. See also 1865. 
Christie's, 1868. Exhibited at Wolverhampton, 1908. 
Present owner : Sir William JaftYay, Bart 

Study of Wood for background of the above. (13 x 21.) 
Present owner : Martin Hardie. 

The Gambler's Victim. Signed " J. Pettie, 1 868." (28 x 22.) 
Exhibited at R. A, 1869 ; Glasgow Institute, 1877. 
In the Wolverhampton Art Gallery, with the title " Gleaned Gut. 1 * 

The Village Schoolmistress. 

Battledore. (" The Gastle Pleasance.") Signed " J. Pettie, '68." 
(36 x 48.) 
Present owner : Mrs. Robertson. 
l The Hour. (" Will he come ? ") 

The Dupe. 
• Girl in a Wood. (Sketch.) 




Portrait of Alison Pettie (afterwards Mrs. Hamish MacCunn), as 
a baby. (11x11.) 
Present owner : Mrs. Pettie. 

The Disgrace of Cardinal Wolsey. Signed "J. Pettie, I869." 

(39 x 61.) 

v ' " What's this ?— < To the Pope ! ' 

The letter, as I live, with all the business 
1 writ to 's Holiness. Nay then, farewell ! 
1 have touch' d the highest point of all my greatness ; 
And from the full meridian of my glory, 
1 haste now to my setting : I shall Ml 
Like a bright exhalation in the evening. 
And no man see me more. . . . 

Nor. So fare you well, my little good Lord Cardinal." 

King Henry VIII. , Act 111., Sc. ii. 

Exhibited at R.A., 1869 ; R.A. Winter Exhibition, 1894. 
Present owner : Thos. Firth, Esq. 

First sketch of the above. (4 x 6£.) 
Present owner : Miss Muriel Hardie. 
Borneo's Visit to the Apothecary. 

Exhibited at Glasgow Institute, 1876. 
Christie's, 1874. 

Touchstone and Audrey. 

"And how, Audrey? Am I the man yet? Doth my simple 
feature content you?" — As You Like It, Act in., Sc. iiL 

Exhibited at R. A., 1870 ; R.S.A., 1871 ; Vienna International Ex- 
hibition, 1873 ; Philadelphia International Exhibition, 1876. 

Present owners : Messrs. Wallis and Son. 

The Sally. Signed « J. Pettie." (32 x 50.) 

Exhibited at R.A., 1870 ; R.S.A., 1872 ; R.A. Winter Exhibition, 

In Mappin Art Gallery, Sheffield. 


Finished sketch of the above. Signed "J. Pettie." 
(22 x 34.) 
Present owner : F. A. Kelley, Esq. 


Exhibited at R.A., 1870. 
The Royalist. Signed " J. Pettie." (28 x 20.) 

Exhibited at R.A. Winter Exhibition, 1894. 

In Mappin Art Gallery, Sheffield. 

The Puritan. Signed " J. Pettie." (28 x 20.) 
Exhibited at R.A. Winter Exhibition, 1894. 
In Mappin Art Gallery, Sheffield. 

The Love Song. Signed " J. Pettie." (43 x 26.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1871 ; R.S.A., 1872. 
Christie's, 1907, as "The Troubadour:' 
Present owner : Adam Wood, Esq. 

Scene in the Temple Gardens. (Origin of the Wars of the 
Roses.) Henry VL 9 Pt I., Act «., Sc. iv. 
Exhibited at R.A., 1871 ; Glasgow Institute, 1872. 
Sketch of the above. 
Either the picture or the sketch measures 28 x 40 ; was sold at 
Christie's in 1875 and 1885 ; and was exhibited at the Guild- 
hall, 1897. 

The Pedlar. Signed " J. Pettie." (31 x 44.) 

Exhibited at R A., 1871. 

Present owner : Leonard Gow, Esq., LL.D. 

Sir Peter Teazle. 

Lady Teazle. Signed « J. Pettie." (18 x 12.) 
Present owners : Messrs. Wallis and Son. 

Rejected Addresses. Signed " J. Pettie, 70." (27 x 38.) 
" For this sweet little maid he was rather too old." 
Exhibited at Glasgow International Exhibition, 1888. 
Christie's, 1884, 1895, 1899. 
Present owner : The Rt. Hon. Baron Faber. 


Portrait (three-quarter length) of J. MacWhirter, E. A. Signed 
"J. Pettie." (28£xl8$.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1871. 
Present owner : J. MacWhirter, Esq., R.A. 

Portrait (three-quarter length) of Arthur Tooth, Esq. Signed 
"J. Pettie, 71" (35x28.) 
Present owners : Messrs. Tooth and Sons. 
Portrait of George Borwiek Robertson, Esq., F.C.S. 

Exhibited at R.A., 1872. 
Silvins and Phebe. Signed " J. Pettie." (30 x 42.) 

" Sweet Phebe, do not scorn me ; do not, Phebe ; 
Say that you love me not, but say not so 
In bitterness." — A* You Like It, Act in., Sc. v. 
Exhibited at R. A., 1872 ; R.S.A, 1874. 
In the Aberdeen Gallery (Macdonald Art Collection). 

The Haunted Wood. 

Exhibited at Glasgow Institute, 1872. 

The Sybil. 


Terms to the Besieged. Signed " J. Pettie." (42 x 57.) 

Exhibited at R.A., 1872; Glasgow Institute, 1875; Paris Inter- 
national Exhibition, 1878; Manchester Jubilee Exhibition, 
1887 ; R. A. Winter Exhibition, 1894. 
Water-colour sketch of the above. 
Christie's, 1893 (Artist's sale). 
The Gipsy's Oak. 

Exhibited at R.A., 1872. 
" To the Fields I carried her Milking-PaUs." Signed « J. Pettie." 
(30 x 44.) 
Exhibited at R.S.A., 1873 ; Whitechapel Art Gallery, 1907. 
Christie's, 1881 (A. B. Stewart Collection) ; 1889 (W. Christie). 
Present owner : R. H. Brechin! JSsq. 
Sketch of the above. (20 x 30.) 



Coastguard on the Lookout. Signed " J. Pettie." (26 x 1 8.) 

Present owner : A. F. Stewart, Eeq. 
Sanctuary. (37& x 52£.) 

Exhibited at R.A., 1873; Philadelphia International Exhibition, 

Christie's, 1877 ; 1895 (G. Fox Collection). 
Finished sketch of the above. (10x15.) 
In Aberdeen Gallery (Macdonald Art Collection). 
Portrait of Miss Agnes MacWhirter. Signed "J. Pettie." 
Exhibited at R.S.A., 187a 
Present owner : J. MacWhirter, Esq., R. A. 

The Flag of Trace. Signed " J. Pettie." (53 x 42.) 

Exhibited at R.A., 1873; Paris International Exhibition, 1878; 

R.A. Winter Exhibition, 1894. 
Engraved by A. Turrell, 1893. 
In Mappin Art Gallery, Sheffield. 

Sketch of the Commander in " The Flag of Truce." 
Midnight Watch. (45 x 30.) 

Exhibited at R.A., 1873. 
The Toast. (Charles Surface in The School for Scandal) 
Signed " J. Pettie." (19 x 14.) 
Exhibited at Whitechapel Loan Exhibition, 1901; Wolverhampton, 

Present owner : Charles Winn, Esq. 
Sentinel on Duty. 

The Jacobite. (Portrait of Alexander Strahan, Esq.) Signed 
"J. P." (14x11.) 
Present owner : James Kennedy, Eeq. 


Retouched by the artist in 1876 for the owner, Mr. Muirhead. 
Julia Mannering. 

Retouched by the artist in 1876 for the owner, Mr. Muirhead. 


" Hark ! " Signed « J. Pettie." (26 x 1 8.) 
Christie's, 1880. 
Present owner : G. K. MacDougall, Esq. 

The Cardinal. Signed « J. Pettie." (30 x 22.) 
Christie's, 1908. 
Present owner : Win. Hunter, Esq. 

Intercepted Correspondence. 

Friar Lawrence and Juliet. Signed "J. Pettie." (43 x 30.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1874. 
Christie's, 1883. 
Present owner : Mrs. Mayou. 

" Ho ! Ho ! Cld Noll ! " Signed " J. Pettie." (32 x 44.) 

Exhibited at R.A., 1874 ; Manchester Jubilee Exhibition, 1887 ; 

R.A. Winter Exhibition, 1894; Scottish National Exhibition 

(Edinburgh), 1908. 
Christie's, 1879 ; 1881 (A. B. Stewart Collection). 
Etched by Macbeth Raebura. 
Present owner : W. J. Chrystal, Esq. 

Sketch of the above. Signed " J. Pettie." (19 x 26*.) 
Present owner : J. MacWhirter, Esq., R.A. 
A State Secret. Signed "J. Pettie, 1874." (48 x 63.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1874 ; R.S. A., 1875. 
Christie's, 1882. 
At the Royal Holloway College, Egham. 

Sketch of the above. (30 x 20.) 
In this, the horrified monk on the right was painted out by Pettie, 

- but still shows through the paint. 
Present owner : W. McTaggart, Esq., R.S. A. 

Jacobites, 1745. Signed « J. Pettie, 1874." (35 x 50.) 

Exhibited at R. A., 1875 ; R.A. Winter Exhibitions, 1894, 1901. 
Diploma Picture : in the Diploma Gallery, Burlington House. 

Sketch of the above. Signed « J. Pettie." ( 1 7 J x 22 J.) 
Present owner : Hon. Sir George Drummond, Montreal. 


Spring. Signed « J. Pettie." (22£ x 1 5£.) 
Christie's, 1903 (A. G. Grimond Collection). 
Present owner : Mies Gertrude Agnew. 

Lady Teade: A Cup of Tea. Signed "J. Pettie." (24 x 18.) 

Present owner : Charles Winn, Esq. 
Sketch of the above. 
Sketch of Cavalier. (42 x 37.) 

Christie's, 1881. 
Spring Flowers. 

Prince Charming. 

Christie's, 1886 (H. E. Green Collection). 
Our Mary. 

Replica of " Our Mary/' smaller and slightly different 

Portrait (three-quarter length) of Mrs. G. E. Johnson, in Fancy 
Costume. Signed " J. Pettie, 1874." (34 x 24.) 
Present owner : C. E. Johnson, Esq., R.I. 
Portrait of Bobert Frier, Esq. Signed "J. Pettie, 1874." 
Present owner : Mrs. W. Frier. 


Scene in Hal o' the Wynd's Smithy. Signed "J. Pettie, 1875." 
(42 x 58.) 
" ' Hark you/ said Henry, ' you seem a good fellow, and I'll tell 
you the truth. Your master has wronged me, and I give him 
this harness freely for the chance of fighting him myself,' " 
etc.— The Fair Maid of Perth. 
Exhibited at R. A., 1875. 
In the Aberdeen Art Gallery. 
Replica of the above. 

Portrait (three-quarter length) of Edward Sherrard Kennedy, 
Esq., in Costume of the Seventeenth Century. Signed 
" J. Pettie, 1875." (44J x 32.) 


Exhibited at R.A., 1875; Paris International Exhibition, 1878; 

R.A. Winter Exhibition, 1894, with the title "Burgomaster 

in the Time of Cromwell." 
Christie's, 1894. 
Present owner : Mrs. Gennadius. 

Portrait of G. H. Boughton, E.A., in Costume of the Sixteenth 
Century. Signed " J. Pettie." (29 x 23.) 
Exhibited at R. A., 1875 ; Philadelphia International Exhibition, 

1876 ; R. A. Winter Exhibition, 1901. 
Present owner : Mrs. Boughton. 

Portrait of a Gentleman in Costume of the Seventeenth 
Exhibited at R.A., 1876 ; R.S. A., 1877. 
Present owner : T. Wallis, Esq. 

Portrait of Briton Riviere, R.A. (in buff coat and gorget). 
Signed " J. Pettie, 75." (18 x 13|.) 
Present owner : Briton Riviere, Esq. , 

The Threat. Signed "J. Pettie, 1875." (49 x 33.) 

Exhibited at R.A., 1876; Paris International Exhibition, 1878; 
Glasgow International Exhibition, 1888; R.A. Winter Ex- 
hibition, 1894. 
Christie's, 1880 ; 1889 (J. M. Marsden Collection). 
Etched by W. Heydemann. 
Present owner : Mrs. McCulloch. 
Sketch of the above. (Full length figure.) 

The Solo. Signed « J. Pettie, 1875." (32£ x 48.) 
Exhibited at R.A. Winter Exhibitions, 1894, 1901. 
Christie's, 1889 (F. Vigne Collection); 1903 (H. J. Turner 

Present owner : Kenneth M« Clark, Esq. 

The Fight of the Chieftains, Clan Ohattan and Clan Quhele. 
The Fair Maid of Perth. (Water-colour sketch, made 
at the Sketching Club.) Signed "J. Pettie, 1875." 
Present owner : J. MacWhirter, Esq., R. A. 



The Step. Signed « J. Pettie, 1876." (31 £ x 48.) 

Exhibited at R.A., 1876 ; Glasgow International Exhibition, 1888 ; 
Guildhall, 1897; R.A. Winter Exhibitions, 1894, 1901; 
Scottish National Exhibition (Edinburgh), 1906. 
Christie's, 1903 (H. J. Turner Collection). 
Present owner : Kenneth M. Clark, Esq. 

Sketch of the above. 
Exhibited at Glasgow Institute, 1878, with title " The First Step." 

Portrait of The Bight Boy. William Bernard UUathorae, D.D., 
O.S.B., Bishop of Birmingham. 
Exhibited at R.A., 1876 ; Paris International Exhibition, 1878. 
Christie's, 1896. 

Goldsmith to His Majesty. (Portrait, half length, of Arthur 
Tooth, Esq.., in costume.) Signed "J. Pettie, 1876." 
(36 x 28.) 
Exhibited at Paris International Exhibition, 1878; R.A. Winter 

Exhibition, 1901. 
Present owner : Arthur Tooth, Esq., Jun. 

Sketch of the above. (12x9.) 

Before the Battle. Signed "J. Pettie." (14 x 9*0 

Exhibited at R.A., 1880; Birmingham, Royal Society of Artists, 
1880; Whitechapel Art Gallery, 1908 ; Wolverhampton, 1908. 
Present owner : Briton Riviere, Esq., R.A. 

The Knight. 
The Leader. 
A Bishop. 
A Normandy GirL 
An Italian GirL 
The Goatherd. 
The Gannonier. 

Exhibited at Glasgow Institute, 1877. 


The Mercenary. Signed " J. Pettie." (19} x 14}.) 
Exhibited at U.S.A., 1877. Christie's, 1908. 
Present owners : Messrs. Wallis and Son. 

Grandmother's Memories. Signed "J. Pettie"; on back, "J. 
Pettie, 1876." (20x14.) 
Exhibited at R.S.A., 1877; Glasgow International Exhibition, 

1901 ; Scottish National Exhibition (Edinburgh), 1908. 
Present owners : Trustees of the late Alex. Rose, Esq. 

Portrait (full length) of Mrs. Colin Hunter. Signed "J. 
Pettie." (20x12.) 

Present owner : Mrs. Colin Hunter. 
Portrait of Robert L. Bardie. (14 x 10.) 

Present owner : R. L. Hardie, Esq. 
Portrait of William Black, Esq. 

Exhibited at R.S.A., 1877. 


A Sword -and -Dagger Fight. Signed "J. Pettie, 1877." 
(37 x 55.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1877 ; R.A. Winter Exhibition, 1894. 
Engraved by A. Turrell, 1891. 

In the Mappin Art Gallery, Sheffield ; with title " To the Death." 

Finished sketch of the above. Signed " J. Pettie." (19£ x 30£.) 

Exhibited at R.S.A., 1878; Glasgow Institute, 1882; Glasgow 

International Exhibitions, 1888, 1901 ; Scottish National 

Exhibition (Edinburgh), 1908. 

In the Glasgow Corporation Art Gallery. 

Finished study for a figure in the above. (15J x 21.) 
Christie's, 1900. 

A Knight of the Seventeenth Century. (Portrait of William 
Black, the novelist.) Signed "J. Pettie, 1877." 

Exhibited at R.A., 1877. 

In the Glasgow Corporation Art Gallery. 

Sketch of the above. 


A Lady of the Seventeenth Century. Signed "J. Pettie, 
1877." (52x32.) 
Exhibited at EL A., 1877. 
Present owner : Sir William Ingram, Bart. 

Replica of the above. Signed " J. Pettie." (13x9.) 
Exhibited at R.A. Winter Exhibition, 1894. 
In the Mappin Art Gallery, Sheffield. 

Hunted Down. 

Exhibited at R.A., 1877. 
Replica of the above. 

Exhibited at R.S.A., 1879. 
One of the above, signed "J. Pettie, 1877/' and measuring 
SO x 19, is in the Hospitalfield Collection, Arbroath, 
and was shown at the Scottish National Exhibition 
(Edinburgh), 1908. 

Portrait of Oowlisham, Esq. 

Imogen. (By J. Pettie and J. MacWhirter, R.A.) Signed "J. 
Pettie. MacW." (48 x 34£.) 
Christie's, 1892 (H. Wallis Collection) ; 1899. 
Present owners : Messrs. Doig, Wilson, and Wheatley. 

Portrait of Mrs. Bossom (Mrs. Pettie's mother). Signed "J. 
Pettie." (19x15$.) 
Present owner : Mrs. Pettie. 

Portrait of 8. Taylor Whitehead, Esq., in Costume of Sixteenth 
Century. Signed " J. Pettie." (S3£ x 23.) 
Retouched by the artist in 1884. 
Exhibited at R.A., 1878; Manchester Jubilee Exhibition, 1887; 

R.A. Winter Exhibition, 1894. 
Present owner : S. Taylor Whitehead, Esq. 

Sketch of the above. (1 1 & x 7£.) 
Present owner : Hon. Sir George Drummond (Montreal). 
Rob Roy. (29 x 21.) 

Exhibited at R.A., 1878 ; Glasgow Institute, 1879 ; R.S.A., 1880. 
Christie's, 1881 (A. B. Stewart Collection). 
Etched by L. Richeton. 


Disbanded. Signed " J. Pettie.' ' {36 x 26.) 

Exhibited at R.S. A., 1878 ; R. A. Winter Exhibition, 1894. 
In the Fine Art Institution, Dundee. 

Portrait of James Mackintosh Gow, Esq. Signed "John Pettie." 
(18 x 12.) 
Present owner : Mrs. Boden. 


The Hour. Signed " J. Pettie." (47 x 35.) 

Exhibited at R. A., 1878 ; Scottish National Exhibition (Edinburgh), 

Christie's, 1880 ; 1881 (F. W. Hooper Collection). 
Present owner : Thomas McArly, Esq. 

Study for the above. (21 x 15.) 
Present owner : C. M. Hardie, Esq., R.S. A. 
The picture represents a lady of Spanish type, domino in hand, 
descending a stair ; in the sketch she is going upstairs. 

The Laird. Signed « J. Pettie." (22 x 36.) 

Exhibited at R.A., 1878; R.S.A., 1879; Manchester Jubilee 

Exhibition, 1887 ; R. A. Winter Exhibition, 1894. 
Present owner : Mrs. Orchar. 

Replica of t!he above. Signed " J. Pettie." (1 5 x 24f .) 
Present owners : Messrs. Thos. Agnew and Sons. 

Sketch of the above. Signed « J. Pettie." (1 2 x 16.) 
Present owner : Mrs. Robertson. 

Portrait of Colin Hunter, A.R.A., in Costume of the Sixteenth 
Oontury. Signed "J. Pettie, 1878." (SO x 24.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1878 ; R.S.A., 1879. 
Present owner : Mrs. Colin Hunter. 

A Member of the Long Parliament. (SO x 27.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1878 ; R.S. A., 1880. 
Etched by L. Richeton. 
Present owner : J. Worrall, Esq. 



Portrait (bead size) of John Corbet Fletcher, M.D., at. 35. 
Signed " J. Pettie." (Also signed on back of canvas, 
with date 1878.) (22 x 14.) 
Present owner : J. Corbet Fletcher, Esq., M.D. 
Portrait (half length) of Mrs. Pettie. Signed " J. Pettie, 1 878." 
(SO x 25.) 
Present owner : Mrs. Hardie. 
Portrait of J. Seymour Lucas, E.A. Signed "J. Pettie, 1878." 
Present owner : J. Seymour Lucas, Esq., R.A. 
The General 

Christie's, 1880. 
Portrait of A. Maclure, Esq. 
Girl with Orange. (10 x 8.) 

A Moment of Danger. (Also called " Suspense.") (46 x 35.) 
The figure of the Highlander only in this picture was etched by 
the artist, and issued in publication of The Etching dub, 
1879, with the title " At Bay." The picture is quite different 
from the " At Bay " of 1866. 
Present owner : T. H. Ryland, Esq. 

The Highland Outpost. Signed " J. Pettie." (29 x 22.) 

Exhibited at Glasgow Institute, 1883 ; R.A. Winter Exhibition, 

Etched by the artist, and issued in publication of The Etching 

Club, 1879. 
Present owner : Mrs. Orchar. 

Highlanders fighting in a Narrow Lane. Signed "J. Pettie, 
1878." (Wash drawing, done at the Sketching Club.) 
(10 x 14.) 

Exhibited at the Scottish National Exhibition (Edinburgh), 1908. 

Present owner : Martin Hardie. 

Portrait of A. P. Watt, Esq., as a Scholar of the Time of Titian. 

Signed " J. Pettie." (29 x 24.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1879 ; R.S.A., 1880 ; Edinburgh International 

Exhibition, 1886 ; New Gallery, 1906. 
Present owner : A. P. Watt, Esq. 


Portrait (three-quarter length) of G. Gurney, Esq., in Costume of 
the Seventeenth Century. (42£ x 29.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1879 ; Winter Exhibition, 1894. 
Present owner : Mrs. Lefroy. 

Portrait of Alexander Strahan, Esq. Signed "J. Pettie, 1878." 
(27 x 22.) 
Exhibited at R. A., 1879 ; Wolverhampton, 1908. 
Present owner : A. Strahan, Esq. 


Edward VL signing his first Death- Warrant. (Also called 
"TheDeath-Warrant.") Signed "J. Pettie." (53x89.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1879. 
In the Hamburg Museum. 

Sketch of the above. (11x17.) 
Present owner : C. E. Johnson, Esq., R.I. 

Sketch of figure of the boy King. Signed "J. Pettie." 
Present owner : Mrs. Edwards. 

Portrait of William Robertson, Esq., Provost of Dundee. 
Signed " J. Pettie." (35 x 27£.) 
Present owner : Mrs. Robertson. 

One of Marlborough's Generals. (Head.) 

Looking to Windward. 

Portrait (three-quarter length) of Mrs. Edward Pox White. 
(40 x 27.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1880. 
Present owner : W. Permain, Esq, 

The Herbalist. (Friar Lawrence. Romeo and Juliet, Act n., 
Sc. iii.) Signed « J. Pettie." (29 x 2 1 .) 
Exhibited at Glasgow Institute, 1880. 
Present owner : R. W. Ramsay, Esq. 


Portrait (half length) of Charles Scott Fhunmer, Esq,, In 
Costume of the Sixteenth Century. Signed "J. Pettie." 
(38 x 28.) 
Exhibited at R.S. A., 1881. 
The canvas was cut down, and the figure repainted in ordinary 

costume by the artist in 1888. 
Present owner : C. H. Scott Plummer, Esq. 

Portrait (full length) of Master Ralph Pettie. (40 x 26£.) 
Present owner : Mrs. Pettie. 


His Grace. (28 x 18.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1880. 
Etched by C. P. Slocombe, 1880. 
Christie's, 1904 (J. W. Knight Collection). 
Present owner : Sir Mitchell Mitchell-Thompson, Bart. 

Her Grace. (28 x 18.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1881. 
Etched by C. P. Slocombe, 1880. 
Christie's, 1904 (J. W. Knight Collection). 
Present owner : Sir Mitchell Mitchell-Thompson, Bart 

Portrait of Mrs. Dominick Gregg and Children. ' 
Exhibited at R.A., 1880. 

A Lordly Gallant : A Brimmer to the King. Temp. Charles II. 
Signed " J. Pettie." («6 x 20.) 
Exhibited at Glasgow Institute, 1880 ; Scottish National Exhibition 

(Edinburgh), 1908, with title " A Cavalier Drinking." 
Present owner : John Jordan, Esq. 

Sketch of the above (in oil, black and white). (42 x 36.) 
Present owner : David Ferrier, Esq., M.D. 

A Ladye of High Degree. Temp. Charles II. (Also called 
"A Lady Gay.") (42x37.) 
Exhibited at Glasgow Institute, 1880. 
Christie's, 1881 (A. B. Stewart Collection). 


Sketch of the above (in oil, black and white). Signed " J. 
Pettie." (41 x 36.) 
Present owner : Mrs. Pettie. 
An Ecclesiastic. 

Portrait of Mrs. Pettie. (15 x 10 J.) 
Present owner : Mrs. Whitehorn. 

Portrait of Moncrieff, Esq. 

Portrait of Sheriff Strachan. Signed " J. Pettie " ; at top to 
right, "|R. U. Strachan, Advocate." (26 x 22.) 
Exhibited at R.S.A., 1881; Wolverhampton, 1908. 
Present owner : Alexander Strachan, Esq. 

The Duke in " The Merchant of Venice." 
A Knight in Armour (half length). (Portrait of William 
Wallace.) Signed "J. Pettie, 18m" (26£ x 20 J.) 

Exhibited at the New Gallery, 1908. 

Present owner : W. Wallace, Esq. 

Portrait of John Ballantyne, E.S. A (half length), in uniform 
of Captain, Edinburgh Artillery Volunteers. Signed 
"J. Pettie." (45x29.) 
Painted with the R.A. students, while Visitor to the Academy 

Exhibited at R.A., 1881 ; Birmingham Society of Artists, 1881 ; 

R.S.A., 1882 ; New Gallery, 1908. 
Present owner : Miss Ballantyne. 

A Courtier of the Time of Elizabeth. 


Before his Peers. (A portrait of Sir Robert Burnett, Bart.) 
Signed " J. Pettie. M (46 x 30.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1881 ; New Gallery, 1008. 
Christie's, 1885. 
Present owner : T. J. Hirst, Esq. 

Sketch of the above in black and white. (1 1 x 9>) 
Present owner : Francis Harper, Esq. 


Trout-Fishing in the Highlands. Signed" J. Pettier (34x57.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1881 ; Glasgow Institute, 1882. 
Present owner : W. S. Steel, Esq. 

Sketch of the above. Signed " J. Pettie." (1 8 x 27.) 

Present owner : Mrs. Robertson, 
Sketch of figure in the above. (Painted from C. M. Hardie, 
R.S.A.) (13x7£.) 
Present owner : C. M. Hardie, Esq., R.S.A 
Portrait (three-quarter length) of James Sfeel Orchar, Esq. 
Signed "J. Pettie, 1881." 
Present owner : Mrs. Orchar. 
Portrait (head size) of Berta and Martin Hardie. Signed "J. 
Pettie, 1881." (18x19.) 
Present owner : Mrs. Hardie. 
A White Flag. Signed « J. Pettie." (20 x 14.) 

Present owner : R. W. Wallace, Esq. 
A Trout-Fisher. 
The Way to the Loch. 
A Pinch. 

Exhibited at Birmingham : Royal Society of Artists, 1881. 
The Patrol. 

Christie's, 1891 (E. F. White Collection). 

The Boar Hunt. 

Companion to the above. 

Christie's, 1891 (E. F. White Collection). 

Portrait of Sir Bryan Robinson. 

Portrait of William Harris, Esq., J.P. Signed "J. Pettie." 
(42 x 32.) 

In the Albert Institute, Dundee. 
A Prince of the Ohnrch. Signed " J. Pettie." (SO x 20.) 

Exhibited at Glasgow International Exhibition, 1901. 

Christie's, 1881 (A. B. Stewart Collection). 

Present owner : H. McGrady, Esq. 


Portrait (head size) of William E. Lockhart, B.S.A. Signed 
"J. Pettie." (23£xl8.) 
Exhibited at R.S.A., 1882. 
Present owner : Mrs. Lockhart 

Portrait of David Murray, E. A. Signed « J. Pettie." (l6xl3£.) 
Present owner : David Murray, Esq., R.A. 

The Toreador. (Portrait of David Murray, R. A., in fancy dress.) 
Cut from a lar£e canvas, left incomplete, containing a seated figure 

of a toreador. 
Present owner : David Murray, Esq., R. A. 

Self-Portrait. Signed « J. Pettie, 1881/' (12x10.) 
In the Aberdeen Art Gallery (Macdonald Collection). 

" Who Goes ? " (30£ x 22.) 

Exhibited at Glasgow Institute, 1881. 
Present owners : Messrs. Wallis and Son. 

Portrait of James Cox, Esq. 
See ako 1886. 

Study of an Interior. (Drawing-room and dining-room of West 
House, Campden Hill, the residence of G. H. Boughton, 
R.A.) Signed "J. Pettie, 1881." (24 x 16.) 
Present owner : David Murray, Esq., R. A. 

A Lady and Gentleman in Costume of Time of Elizabeth and 
Spanish Dress. 


Eugene Aram and the Scholar. (36 x 51 .) 

"He talked with him of Cain." — Hood's Dream of Eugene Aram. 
Exhibited at R.A., 1882; R.S.A., 1883. 
Touched and altered by the artist in 1883. 
Christie's, 1890 (C. Neck Collection). 
Present owner : F. A. Kelley, Esq., J. P. 

Sketch of the above. 


The Palmer : a Tale of the Holy Land. 

Exhibited at R.A., 1882 ; Birmingham Society of Artists, 1885. 
Present owner : Sir John Aird, Bart 

Replica of the above. Signed " J. Pettie." 

Present owner : John Aird, Eeq. 
Sketch head of the Palmer. (14x11.) 
Sketch head of the boy in " The Palmer." (14x11.) 

Present owner : Ralph Pettie, Esq. 

The Duke of Monmouth begging his Life from James EL 
Signed " J. Pettie." (36 x 5 1 .) 

" To see him and not to spare him was an outrage on humanity 
and decency. This outrage the King was resolved to commit. 
The arms of the prisoner were bound behind him with a 
silken cord ; and thus secured, he was ushered into the 
presence of the implacable kinsman whom he had wronged. 
Then Monmouth threw himself on the ground and crawled to 
the King's feet," etc. — Lord Macaulay. 

Exhibited at R.A., 1882; R.S.A., 1884; Paris International 
Exhibition, 1889; Guildhall, 1890; Chicago Exhibition, 
1898 ; Glasgow International Exhibition, 1901. 

In the Manchester City Art Gallery. 

Sketch of the above. Signed " J. Pettie." (23 x 30.) 

Exhibited at the Whitechapel Art Gallery, 1906 ; Franco-British 

Exhibition, 1908. 
Present owner : Mrs. Lees. 

The Sisters. Signed "J. Pettie." 

Exhibited at the Birmingham Society of Artists, 1882 ; Manchester 

Jubilee Exhibition, 1887. 
Christie's, 1892 (D. Price Collection). 
Present owner : Wolf Harris, Esq. 

Sketch of the above. 

Portrait of the Misses (Jessie and Edith) Winn. Signed "J. 
Pettie." (50 x 34.) 
Exhibited at Wolverhampton, 1908. 
Present owner : C. Winn, Esq. 


Portrait of J. MacWhirter, R.A. Signed "J. Pettie, 1882." 
(12 x 10.) 

In the Aberdeen Gallery (Macdonald Art Collection). 
Self-Portrait. Signed W J. Pettie, 1882." (12 x 9£.) 

Exhibited at R.A. Winter Exhibition, 1894 ; New Gallery, 1906. 

Present owner : J. MacWhirter, Esq., R, A. 

Portrait of T. H. M<Lean. 
Portrait of Miss M<Lean. 
Portrait of EL A. Harper, Esq. 

Portrait of the Eev. Robert 8. Drummond. Signed " J. Pettie, 
•88." (I6xl2£.) 
Present owner : The Rev. R. S. Drummond. 
Portrait (three-quarter length) of Mrs. Wallace. Signed "J. 
Pettie, 1882." (34x28.) 
Present owner : W. Wallace, Esq. 


Ransomed. (" The Ransom.") 
Exhibited at R.A., 1883. 
Christie's, 1887 (J. W. Adamson Collection). 

" Dost know this Waterily ? " Signed " J. Pettie." (39 x 28.) 

Exhibited at R.A., 1883; Manchester Jubilee Exhibition, 1887. 

Christie's, 1890 (C. Neck Collection). 

Etched by G. Wooliscroft Rhead. 
Replica of the above. Signed « J. Pettie." (20 x 1 4.) 

Exhibited at the Scottish National Exhibition (Edinburgh), 1908. 

Present owner : P. S. Brown, Esq. 
Sketch of the above. Signed « J. Pettie." (15 x 9.) 

Exhibited at the Scottish National Exhibition (Edinburgh), 1906. 

Present owner : Arch. Smith, Esq. 

The Jester's Merry Thought. Signed « J. Pettie." (60 x 46.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1883 ; Manchester Jubilee Exhibition, 1887 ; 

R. A. Winter Exhibition, 1894. 
Christie's, 1895 (J. M. Keiller Collection). 
Present owner : Mrs. McColloch. 



Sketch of the above. Signed « J. Pettie." (31 x 24.) 
Christie's, 1895 (R. Dawber Collection). 
Present owner : Fairfax Rhodes, Esq. 

Sweet Seventeen. (A portrait of Miss Lizzie Bossom, now Mrs. 
Child, niece of Mrs. Pettie.) Signed "J. Pettie." 
. (31x22.) 
Retouched by the artist in 1884. 
Exhibited at the Institute of Painters in Oils, 1883 ; R. A. Winter 

Exhibition, 1906. 
Present owner : Sir W. Cuthbert Quilter. 
The Young Laird. Signed «J. Pettie." (I7£x23.) 

Exhibited at R.S.A., 1884; Edinburgh International Exhibition, 
1886; R.A. Winter Exhibition, 1894, with the title 
Present owner : Mrs. Orchar. 

A Mist as good as a Mile. 

An Arab Sentinel. (30 x 23.) 

Christie's, 1890 (C. Neck Collection). 

Abdurrahman Hntfrin (Head of an Arab.) 

A Reductio ad Absurdum. (19 x 27.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1884. 
Christie's, 1890 (C. Neck Collection). 

Young Izaak Walton, 1609. Signed " J. Pettie." (32 x 44.) 
Exhibited at Glasgow Institute, 1884 ; Whitechapel Art Gallery, 

Christie's, 1899 (C. P. Knight Collection). 
Present owner : David Dickie, Esq. 

Portrait of a Queen's Scholar, Westminster (James Watt, Bsq.). 
Signed « J. Pettie." (24 x 15.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1883; R.S.A., 1884; Birmingham Society of 

Artists, 1884. 
Present owner : A. P. Watt, Esq. 

Portrait (head) of Mrs. Andrew Ker. Signed "J. Pettie, 1883." 
(15 x 13.) 
Exhibited at Wolverhampton, 1908. 
Present owner : Mrs. Andrew Ker. 


Portrait (head) of Andrew Ker, Esq. Signed " J. Pettie, 1883." 
(15 x 13.) 
Exhibited at Wolverhampton, 1906. 
Present owner : Andrew J. Ker, Esq. 

Portrait of the Rev. Dr. William Boyd. 
Exhibited at Glasgow Institute, 1884. 

Portrait (head size) of James Craig, Esq. Signed "J. Pettie." 
Present owner : J. Craig, Esq. 

Portrait (head size) of William Waddel, Esq. Signed "J. 
Pettie." (16x13.) 
Present owner : W. Waddel, Esq. 

Portrait (head size) of Joseph E. Boehm, E.A Signed "J. 
Pettie, 1883." (12x10.) 
In the Aberdeen Art Gallery (Macdonald Art Collection). 

Portrait (head size) of W. Calder Marshall, B.A. Signed "J. 
Pettie, 1883." (12x10.) 
In the Aberdeen Art Gallery (Macdonald Art Collection). 

Portrait (three-quarter length) of Charles Winn, Esq. (51 x 32.) 

Exhibited at R.A., 1884; R.S.A., 1885. 
Portrait of F. W. Lawson, Esq. 

' 1884 

Site of an Early Christian Altar. (The Orientation of the 
Church.) Signed " J. Pettie." (53 x 85.) 

" The method adopted in fixing the orientation of churches has 
been preserved in some of the Scotch lodges. . . . The site 
of the altar was decided upon and marked by a pole fixed 
in the ground. . . . The sun's rays appearing above the 
horizon fixed the line of orientation." — Lawrie's History of 

Exhibited at R.A., 1884; R.S.A., 1885; Birmingham Society of 
Artists, 1885 ; Munich Jubilee Exhibition, 1888. 

Christie's, 1808 (Artist's Sale) ; 1899 (R. Wharton Collection). 

In the Leeds Art Gallery. 


The Vigil* Signed "J. Pettie." (45 x 66.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1884. 

Purchased under the terms of the Chantrey Bequest. In the Tate 

Replica of the above. Signed " J. Pettie, 1884." (25 x 34}.) 

Exhibited at the Glasgow Institute, 1886. 
Present owner : Miss Low. 

Sketch of the above. (1 8 x 24.) 
Present owner : J. N. Fraser, Esq. 
" The Twa Corbies." Signed "J. Pettie." (9} x 17}.) 
" Mony's the one for him makes mane, 
But none sail ken whaur he is gane. 
O'er his white banes, when they are bare, 
The wind sail blaw for evermair." 
Exhibited at the Institute of Painters in Oil, 1884. 
Present owner : Professor J. MacCunn. 

Picture in Illustration of Bret Harte's "Sarah Walker." 
Signed "J. Pettie." (20} x 13}.) 
Engraved on wood by Edmund Evans for the Christmas number of 

Longman's Magazine, 1884. 
Present owner : C. J. Longman, Esq. 

Sketch of the above (painted from Miss Bessie Watt, now 
Mrs. D. Dempster) Signed "J. Pettie." (18 x IS.) 
Present owner : Mrs. D. Dempster. 
Portrait of Lieut-Col. Lewis J. F. Jones. 

Exhibited at the Institute of Painters in Oil, 1884. 

Portrait (half length) of James Guthrie Orchar, Esq. Signed 
"J. Pettie." (42x34.) 

Exhibited at R.A., 1885 ; R.A. Winter Exhibition, 1804. 
Present owner : Mrs. Orchar. 

Portrait (posthumous) of J. Deakin Heaton, Esq., M.D. 

Portrait of Charles E. Lees, Esq. Signed "J. Pettie." 

Present owner : Mrs. Lees. 


Portrait of Peter Graham, R.A. Signed " J. Pettie." (17J x 15.) 
Present owner: J. MacWhirter, Esq., R.A. 

Portrait of John Garrett Morten, Esq. Signed "J. Pettie." 
(25 x 20.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1885. 
Present owner : J. G. Morten, Esq. 

Sketch of J. G. Morten, Esq., fishing. (9| x 7£.) 

Present owner : Mrs. Hamish MacCunn. 
Portrait Sketch of Ralph Pettie. 

Challenged. Signed " J. Pettie." (49 x 37.) 

" I remember a mass of things, but nothing particular ; a quarrel, 
but nothing wherefore. Oh, that men should put an enemy 
into their mouths to steal away their brains." 
Exhibited at R.A., 1885. 
In the National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne. 

Replica of the above. Signed " J. Pettie." (47 x 35.) 
Exhibited at the Glasgow International Exhibition, 1888 ; R.A. 

Winter Exhibition, 1894. 
Engraved by F. A. Laguillermie. 
Present owner : Fairfax Rhodes, Esq. 

Charles Surface selling his Ancestors. (The School Jor Scandal) 
Signed " J. Pettie." (32 x 45.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1885. 
Present owner : J. Ogston, Esq. 

Finished sketch of the above ; completed in 1890. (18 x 24.) 

Sir Peter and Lady Teazle. Signed "J. Pettie." (23 x 35.) 
Sir Peter. " Zounds, madam, you had no taste when you married 
me." Lady T. ''Very true, Sir Peter."— The School for 
Exhibited at R.A., 1885 ; Manchester Jubilee Exhibition, 1887. 
Present owner : The Rev. T. S. Cooper. 
"Here's to the Maiden of bashful Fifteen." (29 x 18.) 


Portrait of Bret Harte, Esq. Signed "J. Pettie." (44 x 30.) 

Exhibited at R.A., 1885 ; Berlin Jubilee Exhibition, 1886. 
Present owner : Mme. Van de Velde. 

Portrait of James Stewart, Esq. (48 x 34.) 
Exhibited at R.S.A., 1886. 

Portrait of James Anderson, Esq. 
Exhibited at R.A., 1886. 
See also 1887. 

Portrait of William Bailey Hawkins, Esq. 
Exhibited at R.A., 1886. 

Portrait of C. T. Ritchie, Esq., M.P. (afterwards Lord Ritchie). 
Signed « J. Pettie." 
Exhibited at R.A., 1886. 
Present owner : Lord Ritchie. 

, Portrait (half length) of W. Ynill, Esq. Signed "J Pettie." 
Present owner : W. Yuill, Esq. 

Portrait of Alexander Kay, Esq. 
Exhibited at R.S.A., 1886. 

Portrait of Thomas Faed, R.A. Signed "J. Pettie, 1885." 
In the Aberdeen Art Gallery (Macdonald Art Collection). 


The Chieftain's Candlesticks. See A Legend of Montrose. 
Signed " J. Pettie." (63 x 45.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1886 ; R.S.A., 1888 ; R. A. Winter Exhibition, 

1894 ; Scottish National Exhibition (Edinburgh), 1906. 
Present owners : Trustees of the late Fitzroy C. Fletcher, Esq. 

Replica of the above. Signed " J. Pettie." (35 x 24.) 
Christie's, 1908. 


The Musician. Signed " J. Pettie." (64 x 43.) 

" Alas for those that never sing, But die with all their music in 
them."— O. W. Holmes. 

Exhibited at RA., 1886; Birmingham Royal Society of Artists, 
1887 ; Glasgow Internationa^ Exhibition, 1888 ; Paris Inter- 
national Exhibition, 1889; Guildhall, 1892; South African 
and International Exhibition, Kimberley, 1892 ; Scottish 
National Exhibition (Edinburgh), 1908. 

Christie's, 1898. 

In Aberdeen Art Gallery, with title "A Musician's Reverie." 

The Squire. (26x17.) 

Portrait of Newson Garrett, Esq. 
Exhibited at R.A., 1886. 

Portrait (three-quarter length) of Alexander Strahan Watt, Esq. 
Signed « J. Pettie, 1 886." (24 x 1 8.) 
Present owner : A. P. Watt, Esq. 

Portrait (head size) of James Guthrie Orchar, Esq. Signed 
"J. Pettie." (30x24.) 
Exhibited at R.S.A., 1890. 
Present owner : Mrs. Robertson. 

Portrait (head size) of James Hardie, Esq. Signed " J. Pettie, 
1886." (28 x 24.) 
Present owner : Mrs. Hardie. 

Portrait (head size) of Mrs. Percival 

Portrait of James Cox, Esq. (Two replicas of the portrait 
painted in 1881.) 

Portrait (head size) of the Rev. J. Monro Gibson, D.D. Signed 
"J. Pettie, 1886." 
Present owner : The Rev. J. Monro Gibson, D.D. 

Portrait (full length) of Master Norman Pettie. Signed "J. 
Pettie, '86." (44 x 26.) 
Present owner : Mrs. Pettie. 


Portrait (three-quarter length) of Alison Pettie (now Mr*. 
Hannah MacOunn> Signed "J. Pettie, 1886." 
(52 x 84.) 
Present owner : Mrs. Pettie. 

Portrait of Miss M. Trotman. Signed "J. Pettie, '86." 
Present owner : Mrs. Hamiflh MacCunn. 

Portrait of Richard Moreland, Esq. 
Exhibited at R. A., 1887. 

Portrait (half length) of the Dowager Lady Ripley. Signed 
"J. Pettie." (29x23.) 
Present owner : Mrs. Sunderland. 

Portrait (three-quarter length) of Sir Edward Ripley, Bart. 
Signed "J. Pettie." (45 x 31.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1887 ; Wolverhampton, 1908. 
Present owner : Sir Henry W. A. Ripley, Bart 

Portrait (three-quarter length) of Lady Ripley. Signed "J. 
Pettie." (45 x 38.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1887 ; Wolverhampton, 1908. 
Present owner : Sir Henry W. A. Ripley, Bart 

Portrait of Sir Walter Besant. Signed " J. Pettie." (36 x 23.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1887. 
Etched by D. A. Wehrschmidt 
Present owner : Captain Besant 

Portrait of Hamiflh MacCunn, Esq. Signed «J. Pettie, '86." 
(27 x 24.) 
Exhibited at "R.S.A., 1889; New Gallery, Society of Portrait 

Painters, 1907. 
Present owner : Mrs. Pettie. 

Two Strings to her Bow. Signed " J. Pettie." (32J x 47.) 

Exhibited at R.A., 1887 ; Liverpool, 1887 ; Glasgow International 

Exhibition, 1888 ; R A. Winter Exhibition, 1894. 
In the Glasgow Corporation Art Gallery. 


Water-colour sketch of the above. Signed "J. Pettie." 
Present owner : C. Winn, Esq. 
Scene from Scott's " Peveril of the Peak." The appearance of 
the Countess of Derby in the Golden Room. Signed 
"J. Pettie." (35x48.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1887; R.S.A., 1888; Birmingham Society of 
Artiste, 1888 ; Glasgow International Exhibition, 1901 ; 
Scottish National Exhibition (Edinburgh), 1908. 
Present owner : James Murray, Esq., M.P. 

Water-colour sketch of the above. 
Christie's, 1898 (Artist's sale). 

A Storm in * Teacup. (Also known as "The Tiff.") Signed 
"J. Pettie." (24£x30.) 
Present owner : Colonel Harding. 

Finished sketch of the above. Signed " J. Pettie." (30 x 22.) 
Present owner : N. Herbert, Esq. 

Water-colour sketch of the above. Signed "J. Pettie." 
Present owner : C. Winn, Esq. 

Portrait (three-quarter length) of Mrs. B. H. Pringle. 
Exhibited at R.A., 1887. 

Portrait of James Anderson, Esq. (Replica of the portrait of 

Portrait (head size) of Otto Fischer Sobell, Esq. Signed "J. 

Pettie, 1887," and with the first phrase of the song 

" Ich grolle nicht." 
Present owner : O. Fischer Sobell, Esq. 

Portrait (head size) of Dr. Burton. Signed "J. Pettie, 1887." 
(18 x 14.) 
Present owner : C. Winn, Esq. 
Portrait (three-quarter length) of Sir Charles U. Aitchison, 
Replica of the above. 



Portrait of Gook, Esq., in character of Don Quixote. 

Portrait (head size) of Sir George Bald, P.R.8.A. Signed 
"J. Pettie, 1887." (15 J x 11 J.) 
Present owner : Sir George Reid. 
Portrait of Thomas Paed, B.A. Signed "J. Pettie, '87." 
Present owner: J. MacWhirter, Esq., R.A. 

Portrait of J. Macalister Hall, Esq. 

Exhibited at R.A., 1888. 
Head of a Jester. Signed « J. Pettie." (22 x 18.) 

Present owner : Mrs. Mather. 
Portrait of John Stewart, Esq. Signed "J. Pettie, 87." 

Present owner : Mrs. Stewart 
Portrait (head size) of Edmonstotme Duncan, Esq. Signed 
"J. Pettie." (24x18.) 

Present owner : E. Duncan, Esq. 

Portrait of Mrs. McTaggart. Signed " J. Pettie, 87." Oval. 
Present owner : W. McTaggart, Esq., R.S. A. 

The Traitor. 

Exhibited at R.A., 1888 ; Liverpool, 1888 ; Leeds, 1888. 
Finished sketch of the above. Signed " J. Pettie." (25 x 43 J.) 
Exhibited at the Grosvenor Gallery, 1890. 
Christie's, 1893 (Artist's sale). 
Present owner : Mrs. Ness. 
Full-sized cartoon, in black and white, on canvas. (48 x 73.) 
Present owner : Mrs. Hardie. 

The Clash of Steel. Signed " J. Pettie." (37 x 56.) 

Exhibited at R.A., 1888; Manchester, 1888; Glasgow Institute, 

1890 ; Scottish National Exhibition (Edinburgh), 1908. 
Present owner : John Jordan, Esq. 

Finished sketch of the above. 


A Song without Words. Signed " J. Pettie." (23£ x l6£.) 

Exhibited At Grosvenor Gallery, 1888; R.A. Winter Exhibition, 

Christie's, 1908 (G. Gurney Collection). 

In Manchester Art Gallery. 
May Day. (Water-colour.) 

Sir Charles Wyndham as David Garrick, at the moment of 
recognising Ada. " If I had but known." (65j x 45^.) 

Exhibited at R.A., 1888. 

Present owner : Sir Charles Wyndham. 

Replica of the above. Signed " J. Pettie." (24 x 1 8.) 
Present owner : Lady Wyndham. 

Portrait of Whitehorn, Esq.. 

Portrait of Benoit Hollander, Esq. Signed "J. Pettie." 
Present owner : B. Hollander, Esq. 

Portrait of Mrs. Watt. Signed « J. Pettie." (29 x 22 J.) 

Present owner : A. P. Watt, Esq. 
Portrait (head) (posthumous) of Mrs. Glen. (29 x 23.) 
Portrait (head) (posthumous) of T. Glen, Esq. (29 x 23.) 
Portrait (head) (posthumous) of Thomas Goats, Esq. (29 x 23.) 

Portrait of Cooke, Esq. 

Portrait of James MacGunn, Esq. Signed "J. Pettie, 1888." 
(25 x 19£.) 

Present owner : James MacCunn, Esq. 

Portrait (head) of John MacGunn, Esq. Signed "J. Pettie, 1 888." 
(33 x 29.) 
Present owner : John MacCunn, Esq. 

Portrait (three-quarter length) of Mrs. Goats. (58 x 40.) 
Exhibited at Grosvenor Gallery, 1889. 

Portrait of John Thewlis Johnson, Esq. (50 x 36.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1889. 

Portrait of George Coats, Esq. (59 x 37.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1889. 



The Challenge. Signed "J. Pettie, 1889." (39£ x 27.) 

Christie's, 1889 (R. P. Pattison Collection). 
Portrait (three-quarter length) of the Rev. James Oswald 
Dykes, M.A., D.D. Signed " J. Pettie." (54 x 42.) 

Exhibited at R.A., 1889. 

Present owner : The Rev. J. O. Dykes, M.A., D.D. 

Portrait of Sir John Jaffray, Bart., J.P., D.L. Signed "J. 
Pettie, 1889." (42x33.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1889 ; Birmingham Royal Society of Artists, 

Present owner : Sir William Jaffray, Bart 

Portrait (full length) of Mrs. Reckitt. 

Exhibited at R.A., 1889. 
Portrait (full length) of His Grace the Duke of Portland. 
Signed "J. Pettie, 1889." 
Burned in a fire at Welbeck Abbey. 
Portrait (head size) of H. Rider Haggard, Esq. Signed "J. 
Pettie, '89." (29 x 25.) 
Exhibited at Grosvenor Gallery, 1889 ; R.S.A., 1890. 
Portrait of Ralph Pettie, lying on a sofa. (Water-colour.) 
Signed "J. Pettie, 1889." (12 x 18.) 
Present owner : Sir William Jaffray, Bart. 
Portrait of T. M<Lean, Esq. 

Portrait (three-quarter length) of Mrs. Pettie. Signed "J. 
Pettie, 1889." (51x40.) 
Present owner : Mrs. MacCunn. 

Portrait of Mrs. James MacOonn. Signed "J. Pettie, 1889." 
(33 x 25.) 
Exhibited at Glasgow Institute, 1890. 
Present owner : J. MacCunn, Esq. 

Portrait (head size) of A. Schnlz Ourtius, Esq. Signed "J. 
Pettie, 1889." (30x23.) 
Present owner : A. Schulz Curtius, Esq. 


Portrait of J. Campbell Noble, B.S. A. Signed " J. Pettie, 1 889. ' 
(32 x 25.) 
Exhibited at the Grosvenor Gallery, 1890 ; Glasgow Institute, 1891 ; 
R.S.A., 1892; Whitechapel Art Gallery, 1907; Scottish 
National Exhibition (Edinburgh), 1908. 
Present owner : J. C. Noble, Esq., R.S.A. 

Portrait (head size) of Duncan P. Dempster, Esq., Jan. Signed 
"J. Pettie." (15x12.) 
Exhibited at R.S.A., 1890. 
Present owner : D. F. Dempster, Esq. 

Going to the Pair. Signed " J. Pettie." (22 x 31 J.) 
Present owner : N. Herbert, Esq. 

This is an earlier version of " The World went very well then," 
painted in the following year. The fair girl here carries her 
hat, and instead of a milestone there is a rat-hole. 

The Beginning of a Pray. Signed " J. Pettie." (48 x 34.) 
Christie's, 1897 (Sir J. Pender Collection). 
Present owner : The Rt Hon. Baron Faber. 

Study of a Head. St. Cecilia. Signed " J. Pettie." (29 x 22£.) 
On the back, in black paint : " Freude schone Gotterfunken," with 

the melody from Beethoven's 9th Symphony. 
Present owner : Max Lindlar, Esq. 

Head of Lady Godiva. Signed "J. Pettie, 1889." 
Christie's, 1894. 


"The World went very well then," Signed "J. Pettie." 
(30J x 50.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1890 ; Manchester, 1890. 
Present owner : James Murray, Esq., M.P. 
See also Going to the Pair (1889). 

Portrait (three-quarter length) of Sir Baylton Dixon. (£4 x 38.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1890. 
Present owner : Lady Dixon. 


Portrait (three-quarter length) of Sir Edmund Hay Carrie. 
Signed « J. Pettie." (60 x 48.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1890. 

At the People's Palace, Mile End Road. On the frame is the 
inscription : " Sir Edmund Hay Carrie, Chairman of Trustees 
of the People's Palace, 1886-1890. Presented by a few sincere 

Portrait (three-quarter length) of Thomas H. Cox, Esq. 

Portrait (head) of Mrs. Stewart Freeman. 
Exhibited at R.A., 1891, 

Portrait (three-quarter length) of Henry A. Lamb, Esq. (Late 
Hon. Sec., Royal Wimbledon Golf Club.) Signed 
" J. Pettie, 1 890." (52 x 38.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1891. 
At the Royal Wimbledon Golf Club. 
Replica of the above. 

Portrait (head size) of Walter Buckler Lethbridge, Esq. Signed 
"J. Pettie." (28x22.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1891 ; Manchester, 1891 ; New Gallery, 1908. 
Present owner : Mrs. Lethbridge. 

Portrait (head size) of Graham Pettie. Signed "J. Pettie." 
Present owner : Mrs. Pettie. 

Portrait of Mrs. Pettie. (Water-colour.) Signed "J. P., '90." 
On screen with others. See p. 280. 
Present owner : Mrs. Orchar. 

Portrait of N. Herbert, Esq. Signed " J. Pettie." (27 x 21.) 
Present owner : N. Herbert, Esq. 

Head of a Spanish Admiral. Signed " J. Pettie." (24 x 18.) 

Exhibited at Berlin International Exhibition, 1891. 

Christie's, 1893 (Artist's sale). 

Present owner : Colonel Harding. 
Sketch of a Girl (head and shoulders, wearing black hat). 

Present owner : Mrs. Ness. 


Sketch (head) of Miss Agnes N. MacOunn. (Water-colour.) 

Signed " J. Pettie, 1890." (10} x 8.) 
Portrait of Fergus MacOunn. Signed "J. Pettie, 1890." 

(10 x 8}.) 
Present owner : Hamish MacCunn, Esq. 

Sketch of a Oipsy. 

Qn the Dark Continent. (Study of a negro.) (29} x 19.) 

Exhibited at the Grosvenor Gallery, 1890 ; Liverpool, 1890. 

Christies, 1898. 

The Violinist. 

Exhibited at R.A., 1891 ; Liverpool, 1891. 


Silvia, Signed " J. Pettie." (45 x 34.) 

" Is she kind as she is fair ? " 

Exhibited at R.A., 1891 ; Glasgow Institute, 1892 ; Paris Inter- 
national Exhibition, 1900. 
Christie's, 1893 (Artist's sale). 
Present owner : Mrs. McCulloch. 

Portrait of Mrs. Shaw. 
Exhibited at R.A., 1891. 

Portrait of James Craig, Esq. Signed "J. Pettie, 1891." 
(12 x 10.) 
Present owner : J. Craig, Esq. 

Portrait of J. Ford Anderson, M.D. Signed "J. Pettie, 1891." 
(30 x 27.) 

Present owner : J. Ford Anderson, Esq. 
Portrait of Mrs. Pettie. Signed " J. Pettie, 1891." (19} x 15}.) 

Exhibited at Wolverhampton, 1908. 

Present owner : Mrs. Andrew Ker. 

Portrait (head) of Miss Bessie Watt (now Mrs. D. Dempster). 
Signed " J. Pettie." (15 x IS.) 
Exhibited at R.S.A., 1893. 
Present owner : A. P. Watt, Esq. 


Portrait (full length) of Master William Pettie Watt. Signed 
« J. Pettie." (47 x 27.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1892 ; R.S..A., 1893. 
Present owner : A. P. Watt, Esq. 

Portrait (head size) of Mrs. Wolf Harris. Signed " J. Pettie." 
(27 x 22J.) 
Present owner : Wolf Harris, Esq. 

Portrait (head size) of Wolf Harris, Esq. Signed "J. Pettie." 
(27 x 22 J.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1892. 
Present owner : Wolf Harris, Esq. 

The Ultimatum. 

Exhibited at R.A., 1892; Manchester, 1892; Glasgow Institute, 

Christie's, 1893 (Artist's sale). 

Finished sketch of the above. Signed "J. Pettie." (31 x 24.) 
Christie's, 1898 (Artist's sale). 
Present owner : Fairfax Rhodes, Esq. 

Sketch of Mr. Edmund Bechstein, who stood for the above 
picture. (l6xll£.) 
Present owner : E. Bechstein, Esq. 

Bonnie Prince Charlie. Signed " J. Pettie." (62 x 45.) 
Exhibited at R. A., 1892. 

Christie's, 1893 (Artist's sale) ; 1899 (R. Wharton Collection). 
Present owner : Charles Stewart, Esq. 

A copy (35 x 27) of this picture, by Miss E. Bloom, was sold 
at Christie's, January 17, 1903. 

Portrait of Haxnish MacOunn, Esq. Signed " J. Pettie, 1892 " ; 
and on the back, " Portrait of Hamish MacCunn : an 
hour's sketch." (18 x 10.) 
Present owner : W. B. Wotton, Esq. 


Portrait of J. Ooutts Michie, A.B.S.A. Signed "J. Pettie, 
1892." (36 x % 28.) 
Present owner : J. Coutts Michie, Esq., A.R.S.A. 

Portrait (head size) of Sir August Manns. Signed " J. Pettie, 
Exhibited at R.A., 1892. 
Present owner : Lady Manns. 

Portrait (head size) of George A. Lawson, Esq. 

Portrait (head size) of Miss Doig (Mrs. G. A. Lawson). Signed 
" J. Pettie, 1892." (22 x 19.) 

Portrait (head size) of Miss Dempster. Signed "J. Pettie, 
1892"; and on the back, "Sketch of 'Lady Betty,' 
by J. Pettie, 1892, souvenir of her visit to the 
Lothians." (21 x 17£.) 
Present owner : Miss Dempster. 

Portrait (head size) of Andrew Black, Esq. 

Portrait of Miss Grace Steel. 

Portrait of Master 8. Steel. 

Portrait (head size) of F. A. Eaton, Esq. Signed "J. Pettie, 
1892." (26£x22.) 
Present owner : F. A. Eaton, Esq. 

Portrait (head size) of Greville Macdonald, M.D. Signed 
"J. Pettie." (26£x22.) 
Present owner : Greville Macdonald, Esq. 
Portrait of George MacCunn, Esq. 
Portrait of M'Oorquodale, Esq. 


Portrait (three-quarter length) of William Bunce Greenfield, 
Exhibited at R. A., 1893. 



Portrait (head size) of Adam Black, Esq. (Unfinished.) 
(26J x 22£.) 
Exhibited at R.A., 1893. 

Portrait of Edward Howley Palmer, Esq. 
Exhibited at R.A., 1893. 

Portrait (three-quarter length) of Alderman Thomas Wright, 
J.P., ex-Mayor of Leicester. 
Exhibited at ft A., 1893. 
Portrait (head size) of Max Lindlar, Esq. (Unfinished.) 


Roses in the Lane. 


Portrait of an Old Lady in Lace Cap. Signed "J. Pet tie." 
(24 x 1 3.) (Painted about 1 860-5.) 
Present owner : Mrs. McCulloch. 
Sketch of a Brittany Street. (17£ x 12.) (Painted in 1862 ?) 

Present owner : Mrs. Pettie. 
The Flageolet. Signed "J. Pettie." (24x15.) (Painted in 
Exhibited at Wolverhampton, 1908. 
Present owner : John Stevenson, Esq. 
The Fatal Statue. Signed "J. P." (7 x 6.) (Water-colour: an 
early drawing.) 
Present owner : T. M. Hardie, Esq. 
The Night March. (7 x 6.) (Water-colour : an early drawing.) 

Present owner : T. M. Hardie, Esq. 
Head of a Brigand. (12 x 8.) (Painted about 1860-5.) 

Present owner : James T. Tullis, Esq. 
Portrait of George Paul Chalmers, B.S.A. Signed "J. Pettie." 
(24 x 20.) (Painted probably about 1865.) 
Present owner : Miss Torrie. 


Portrait of George Paul Chalmers, B.S.A. Signed "J. P." 
(9 x 7.) (Later in date than the above.) 
Exhibited at Edinburgh International Exhibition, 1886. 
Present owner : Mrs. Gisborne. 

A Oromwellian. (A Soldier of the Commonwealth.) Signed 
" J. Pettie." (19 x 14.) (Painted about 1860-5.) 
Present owner : David Morrice, Esq., Montreal. 

Portrait of Alexander Pettie (the artist's father). Signed 
"J. Pettie." (10 x 14.) (Painted about 1868.) 

Present owner : Mrs. Hardie. 
Hungry as a Trooper. 

Christie's, 1867. 
The Milkmaid. Signed "J. Pettie." (l6£ x 12i.) 

Exhibited at the Scottish National Exhibition (Edinburgh), 1908. 

Present owner : John Jordan, Esq. 

A Gondolier. Signed "J. Pettie." (12 x 10.) 
Exhibited at Glasgow Institute, 1877. 
Chapman's Sale-room, Edinburgh (Collection of Sir W. Fettes- 

Douglas, R.S.A.), Feb. 25, 1865. 
Present owner : David Murray, Esq., R.A. 

The Terrace at Haddon. 

Christie's, 1869. 

Probably a sketch for " Battledore" (1868). 

Shaving without Soap. 

Christie's, 1871. 

Exhibited at Glasgow Institute, 1871. Not identical with "The 
Gambler's Victim " (1868) ; but it may be a replica, or another 
version of the same subject. 

The Pull Scrip. 
Christie's, 1873. 

The Doctor's Visit. (19 x 28$.) 
Christie's, 1875. 


A Scotch Lassie. 

Exhibited at Glasgow Institute, 1875. Perhaps the same picture 
as that entered in chronological list, 1874, as "Our Mary." 

Sir Peter and Lady Teasle. (A water-colour sketch made at 
the Sketching Club, c. 1875.) (10 x 15.) 
Present owner : J. MacWhirter, Esq., R.A. 

Portrait of Mrs. Taylor. Signed "J. Pettie." (12 x 10.) 
Exhibited at R.S. A., 1876 (lent by Sam Bough, R.S.A.). 

The Tennis Player. A Portrait. Signed "J. Pettie." 
(21 x 11.) (Painted between 1878 and 1881.) 
Present owner : Mrs. Robertson. 
The Lovers. (Water-colour; painted between 1878 and 1881.) 
Signed " J. Pettie." (1 0^x8.) 
Mounted on a four-leaf screen with other water-colours by W. 
McTaggart, R.S.A., Hugh Cameron, R.S. A., J. MacWhirter, 
R.A., David Murray, R.A., etc. 
Present owner : Mrs. Orchar. 

Meditation. By J. Pettie and G. P. Chalmers, R.S.A. 

Exhibited at R.S. A., 1879. 
Monastic Study. By J. Pettie and G. P. Chalmers, R.S.A. 

Exhibited at R.S.A., 1879. 
Portrait of Matthew Ker, Esq. Signed "J. Pettie." (11 x 9.) 
(Painted about 1880.) 

Exhibited at Wolverhampton, 1908. 

Present owner : Andrew Ker, Esq. 

A Good Day for Fishing. Signed " J. Pettie." (11 x 25.) 
Christie's, 1900. 
Present owner : G. Hastwell, Esq. 

A Fayre Ladye. Signed "J; Pettie." (26x20.) (Painted 
about 1880.) 
Exhibited at R.S.A., 1894; Scottish National Exhibition (Edin- 
burgh), 1908. 
Christie's, 1893 (Artist's sale). 
Present owner : T. L. S. Roberts, Esq. 


The First Lesson. (22x31.) 
Christie's, 1881. 

Waiting for an Audience. 

Exhibited at Birmingham Royal Society of Artiste, 1881. 

Mary Beaton. 

Christie's, 1885. 
Portrait of Mrs. Pettie. (Water-colour; painted about 1885.) 
Signed "J. Pettie." (8 x 10.) 

Present owner : A. P. Watt, Esq. 
Don Quixote. (27£ x 20.) 

Christie's, 1889, 1809. 
The Royalist. (28 x 20.) 

In the Mappin Art Gallery, Sheffield. 
The Puritan. (28 x 20.) 

In the Mappin Art Gallery, Sheffield. 
Haddon HalL By J. Pettie and A. Eraser, R.S.A. (19 x 31.) 

Christie's, 1893 (Artist's sale) ; 1907. 
Portrait of Samuel Bough, B.8.A. (1822-1878). Signed "J. 
Pettie." (15x10.) 

Exhibited at the Bough Exhibition, Carlisle, 1896; Glasgow 
International Exhibition, 1901. 

Etched by L. Lowenstam. 

Present owner : Mrs. Mather. 

The Keepsake. (28 x 37&.) 

Exhibited at the Glasgow International Exhibition, 1901. 
Present owner : Mrs. Stewart Clark. 

Portrait of a Gentleman, in Spanish Costume. (45 x 33.) 

Present owners : Messrs. Agnew and Sons. 
Sketch of a Woman leaning back in a Ohair. (9 x 12.) 

Present owner : J. Ramsay, Esq. 

Before the Pray. (Water-colour.) Signed "J. Pettie." 
(24£ x 14.) 
Present owner : Mrs. Maclauchlan. 


Polonius. (Painted from the artist's father.) Signed " J. Pettie." 
(14 x 10.) 

Exhibited at the Scottish National Exhibition (Edinburgh), 1906. 
Present owner : T. Hall Cooper, Esq. 

Head of St. John. (23 x 18.) 
Christie's, 1898. 

The Reverie. A lady in white dress, seated. (1 1 £ x 7£.) 
From the Lucas Fund Pictures, 1881. 

The Leader of the Attack. (14J x 9£.) 
Christie's, 1903 (H. J. Turner Collection). 

CKrl with Basket of Flowers. Signed « J. Pettie." (23 x 16.) 
Exhibited at Whitechapel Art Gallery, 1908. 
Present owner : J. C. Buist, Esq. 

Free Lances. By J. Pettie and J. MacWhirter, R. A. (24 x 37.) 
Christie's, 1903. 
Present owner : Wolf Harris, Esq. 

Sketch (head and shoulders) of a man in Costume of the 
Seventeenth Century. (Water-colour.) (10 x 8.) 
Present owner : Mrs. Orchar. 

Head of Lady in White Cap. (15 x 10.) 
Christie's, 1893 (Artist's sale). 
Present owner : Mrs. Hardie. 

Sketch of Tuke, the Model, in a kilt, seated by a fire. 
(20 x IS.) 
Present owner : C. M. Hardie, Esq., R.S.A. 

Study for a Background. Trees and bushes. (19 x 31.) 
From the Artist's studio, 1893. 
Present owner : Mrs. Hardie. 

Study of Interior of Wood. (30 x 20.) 
Present owner : Mrs. Hamish MacCunn. 



Study of Furze and Trees. (32 x 22.) 
Present owner : Mrs. Hamish MacCunn. 

Study of White Roses. (16 x 12.) 
Present owner : Miss E. Johnson. 

Study of an Orchard. (24 x 16.) 

Present owner : John Henderson, Esq. 


The titles of Pictures are printed in italics 

Abbey, Edwin A., 48, 206 

Abbey date, The, 216 

"Abdication, The," etchings in 
illustration of, 57 

Abdurrahman Hassin, 242 

Aberdeen Art Gallery, 213, 228, 

Aberdeen, Macdonald Art Col- 
lection, 151, 152, 211, 222, 
225, 226, 239, 241, 243, 24(5 

Aesthetic Club, the, 42 

Affection looks before the Time, 217 

Agnew and Sons, 233, 2(51 

Agnew, Miss G., 228 

Aird, John, 240 

Aird, Sir John, 240 

Aitchison, Sir Charles U., portrait 
of, 249 

Anderson, James, portrait of, 246, 

Anderson, James Ford, portrait 
of, 255 

Apt Pupil, The, 219 

Arab Sentinel, An, 242 

Archer, James, 13, 21, 43, 44, 68 

Armour, love of, 117, 195-198 

Armourers, The, 29, 59, 215 

Armourer** Forge, The, 215 

Armourer's Stall, The, 215 

Armstrong, Sir \V., 10, 79, 110, 
125, 127 

Arran, visits to, 7, 146, 156, 199, 

203, 204 
Arrest for Witchcraft, The, 77, 78, 

82, 188, 189, 220 
"Art Journal, The," 88 
Artists' Company, City Artillery 

Volunteers, 34 
At Bay, 57, 82, 84, 173, 220 
At Bay (etching), 57, 220 
" Athemeum, The," 29, 70 
Auld Lang Syne Sketching Club, 


Ballantyne, J., 10, 33, 43 
Ballantyne, John, portrait of, 153, 

Ballantyne, Miss, 237 
Ballet Lesson, The, 219 
" Barracks, The," 65 
Battledore, 87, 222, 259 
Bechstein, Edmund, 146 
Bechstein, Edmund, portrait of, 

154, 256 
Before his Peer*, 111, 112, 237 
Before the Battle, 146, 230 
Before the Fray, 261 
Beginning of the Fray, 135, 145, 

Besant, Captain, 248 
Besant, Sir Walter, portrait of, 

154, 248 





Besant, Sir Walter, 154, 156 

Bishop, A, 230 

Blacky Adam, portrait of, 258 

BUick y Andrew, portrait of, 154, 

Black, William, 52, 150, 205 

Black, William, portrait of, 149, 231 

Black ie and Sons, Messrs., 24, 25, 
33, 215, 216, 217 

Bloom, Miss £.,256 

Blue Boy, Gainsborough's, 119,125 

Boar Hunt, The, 238 

Boden, Mrs., 233 

Boehm, Joseph E., portrait of, 152, 

Bonnie Prince Charlie, 137, 172, 
210, 256 

Bossom, Elizabeth, portrait of, 218 

Bossom, Elizabeth Ann, 75 

Bossom, Mrs. , portrait of, 155, 232 

Bough, Sam, 30, 33 

Bough, Sam, portrait of, 144, 152, 

Boughton, George, 52 

Boughton, G. H., portrait of, 149, 

Boughton, Mrs., 229 

Bowie, John, x, 207 

Boyd, Dr. William, portrait of, 
155, 243 

"Boys of Axleford," illustra- 
tions to, 53 

Brazen Serpent, The, 25, 216 

Brechin, R. H., 225 

Brigand, A, 258 

Brimmer to the King, A, 146, 173, 

Brittany Minstrels, 62, 68, 218 

Brittany Street, A, 258 

Brittany, visit to, 62 

Brown, A., 4 

Brown, Dr., x, 6, 214 

Brown, Ford Madox, 63, 64 

Brown, P. S., 241 

Buist,J. C., 262 

Burgomaster in the Time of Crom- 
well, 229 

Burne-Jones, Sir E., 49, 64 
Burnett, Sir Robert, portrait of, 

111, 237 
Burr, J., 47 
Burton, Dr., portrait of, 159, 


Cadmium, use of, 165, 166 
Callander, summer holiday at, 

Cameron, Hugh, 11, 16, 18, 33, 

Cannonier, The, 230 
Cardinal, The, 95, 220, 227 
Castle, Egerton, 197 
Castle Pleasance, The. See Battle- 
Cavalier, A, 216 
Cavalier Drinking. See Brimmer 

to the King 
Cavalier, Sketch of, 228 
Challenge, The, 252 
Challenged, 47, 119, 124, 125, 126, 

127, 145, 245 
Challoner, W. H., 24 
Chalmers, G. P., 11, 18, 22, 23, 

36, 38, 40, 47, 61, 62, 87, 106, 

107, 108, 109, 145, 152, 153, 

182, 184, 213, 221, 260 
Chalmers, George Paul, portraits 

of, 258, 259 
" Charles Cologne-Pot," 53 
Charles Surface selling his 

Ancestors, 127, 174, 245 
Chieftain's Candlesticks, The, 127, 

172, 246 
Child, Mrs., portrait of, 156, 242 
Clark, Kenneth M., 229, 230 
Clark, Mrs. Stewart, 261 
Clash of Steel, The, 47, 134, 250 
Cleared Out. See Gambler's 

Victim, The 
Coastguard on the Lookout, 94, 226 
Coats, George, portrait of, 251 
Coats, Mrs., portrait of, 205, 251 
Coats, Thomas, portrait of, 251 
Coaxing, 220 



Coleman, , 60 

Collie, Mrs., 47, 108 
Cook, E. T., 122 

Cook, , portrait of, 250 

Cooke, , portrait of, 251 

Cooper, T. Hall, 262 

Cope, A. S., x, 146, 200, 21,3 

Cope, C. W., 56 

Corrie, 7 

Country Surgeon, The, 50 

Courtier of the Time of Elizabeth, A, 


Cowlisham, , portrait of, 282 

Cox, James, portrait of, 239, 247 
Cox, Thomas H., portrait of, 254 

Craig, , 63 

Craig, James, 167, 243, 255 

Craig, James, portraits of, 243, 255 

Craig, Mrs., 219 

Crawford, W., 43 

CromwelCs Saints, 30, 173, 174, 

Cromwellian, A, 259 
Crystal Palace, 27 
Currie, Sir Edmund Hay, portrait 

of, 254 
Curtius, A. Schulx, portrait of, 

154, 252 

Dalziel Brothers, 53 
Day Dream, The, 27, 216 
Dead Rabbit, The, 23, 216 
Death of Twedric, King of (J went, 

6, 214 
Death Warrant, The. See Edward 

VI. signing his first Death 

Delacroix, E., 10, 11 
Dempster, Duncan F., portrait of, 

Dempster, Miss, portrait of, 257 
Dempster, Mrs. Duncan, portraits 

of, 156, 244, 255 
Destruction {sketch ofPaltisy), 46 
Dickie, David, 242 
Dicksee, F., 78 
Dilettanti Society, The, 42 

Diploma Gallery, 101, 227 
Disbanded, 106, 172, 233 
Disgrace of Cardinal Wolsey, 88, 

174, 223 
Distressed Cavaliers turned High- 

waymen, 27, 173, 217 
Dixon, Sir Raytton, portrait of, 253 
Dobell, Clarence M., x, 64, 67, 

68, 69, 70, 185, 207 
Dobell, Sydney, 68 
Doctor, The, 221 
Doctor's Visit, The, 259 
Doig, Miss, portrait of, 257 
Doig, Wilson, and Wheatley, 

Messrs., 232 
Dominick Gregg (Mrs.) and 

Children, 111, 236 
Don Quixote, 261 
Dost know this Waterfly'i 118, 119, 

120, 125. 145, 174, 241 
Douay College, the, 42 
Douglas, Sir W. Fettes, 33, 43, 44 
Downes, J. H. , x 
Drum-head Court- Martial, A, 65, 

75, 77, 82, 175, 219 
Drummond, Sir George, 227, 232 
Drummond, J., 9, 13, 21, 33, 39 
Drummond, Rev. R. S., portrait 

of, 155, 241 
Duke in " The Merchant of Venice," 

The, 237 
Duke of Monmouth begging his Life 

from James II., 113, 133, 174, 

Du Maurier, G., 65 
Duncan, Edmonstoune, portrait of, 

154, 250 
Dundee, Fine Art Institution, 233, 

Dupe, The f 222 
Duranty, M., 186 
Dykes, Rev. Dr. Oswald, portrait 

of, 155, 252 

Eastlake, Sir Charles, 64 
East Linton, 1, 2, 5, 6, 50, 159, 



Eaton, F. A., portrait of, 267 
Ecclesbourne Glen, 95 
Ecclesiastic, An, 237 
Edinburgh Artillery Corps, 33 
Edinburgh Review, 34 
Edinburgh, Scottish National 

Exhibition, 190 
Edward VI. signing his first Death 

Warrant, 110, 145, 175, 235 
Edwards, C, 145 
Edwards, Mrs., 235 
Ellis, Edwin, 4 
Etching Club, the, 55 
Eugene Aram and the Scholar, 115, 

Evening Prayer, 25, 215 

Faber, Rt Hou. Baron, 224, 253 
Faed, John, 43, 44 
Faed, Thomas, 43, 44, 52 
Faed, Thomas, portrait of, 152, 

246, 250 
False Dice : Scene in an Ordinary, 

2(5, 215 
" Family Worship," 24, 25, 142 
Farquharson, J. , 4 
Farrar, Dean, 115 
Fatal Statue, The, 258 
Fayre Lodge, A, 157, 260 
Ferrier, David, 236 
Ferrier, Dr., 138 
Fight of the Chieftains, 229 
First Lesson, The, 261 
First Step, The. See Step, The 
Firth, Thomas, 223 
Fisherman's Family : Evening 

Prayer, 215 
Fitzjohn's Avenue, 115 
Fitzroy Square, 37, 63-73 
Plag of Truce, The, 76, 94, 175, 

Flageolet, The, 201, 258 
Fletcher, Fitzroy C, 247 
Fletcher, John Corbet, 145 
Fletcher, J. C, portrait of, 234 
Fraser, A., 261 
Fraser, J. N., 244 

Free Lances, 262 

Freeman, Mrs. Stewart, portrait of, 

Friar Lawrence and Juliet, 100, 

174, 227 
Friedenson, A., 4 
Frier, Jessie, portrait of, 214 
Frier, Mrs. Andrew, 214 
Frier, Robert, 10, 20, 207 
Frier, Robert, portrait of, 228 
Frier, Mrs. W., 228 
Full Scrip, The, 259 

Gainsborough, T., 119, 125 

Gamblers Victim, The, 222 

Garrett, Newson, portrait of, 247 

General, The, 234 

George Fox refusing to take the 
Oath, 74, 174, 218 

Gibson, Rev. J. Monro, portrait of, 
155, 247 

Gipsy, A, 255 

Gipsy s Oak, The, 225 

Girl in a Wood, 222 

Girl with Basket of Flowers, 262 

Girl with Orange, 234 

Gisborne, Mrs., 259 

Glasgow Association for the Pro- 
motion of Fine Arts, 23 

Glasgow Corporation Art Gallery, 
62, 218, 219, 231, 248 

Glen, Mrs., portrait of, 251 

Glen, T., portrait of, 251 

Gloucester Road, Regent's Park, 

Goatherd, The, 230 

Going to the Fair, 135, 253 

Golden Cup, The, 53 

Goldsmith to His Majesty, 149, 230 

Gondolier, A, 259 

Good Day for Fishing, 260 

"Good Words," 28, 49, 59 

" Good Words," Pettie's illustra- 
tions in, 49-52 

"Good Words for the Young," 
illustrations to, 53 

Gow, Andrew, 63 



Gow, James Mackintosh, 106, 108 
Gow, J. M., portrait of, 233 
Gow, Leonard, 145, 224 
Graham, Peter, 11, 42, 43, 44, 52, 

Graham, Peter, portrait of, 153, 

Graham, Tom, 11, 18, 21, 22, 47, 

57, 60, 62, 63, 68, 75, 145, 182 
Grandmother's Memories, 104, 231 
Greenfield, William Bunce, portrait 

of, 257 
Gregg, Mrs. JK, and Children, 

portrait of, 111, 236 
Gregory, £. J., 48 
Gurney, G., portrait of, 235 

Haddon Hall, 87, 261 

Haggard, Rider, 145 

Haggard, Rider, portrait of, 154, 

Hall, J. Macalister, portrait of, 250 
Halswelle, Keeley, 75 
Hamburg Museum, 235 
Hardie, Berta and Martin, portrait 

of, 156, 238 
Hardie, C. M., 4, 146, 217, 233, 

Hardie, James, portrait of, 247 
Hardie, Mrs., 234, 238, 247, 250, 

259, 262 
Hardie, M., 214, 222, 234 
Hardie, Muriel, 223 
Hardie, Robert L., portrait of, 231 
Hardie, T. M., 258 
Hardie, W. B., 213 
Harding, Colonel, 249, 254 
Hark, 227 

Harper, Francis, 237 
Harper, II . A., portrait of, 241 
Harris, William, portrait of, 238 
Harris, Wolf, 240, 262 
Harris, Wolf, portrait of, 256 
Harris, Mrs. Wolf, portrait of, 256 
Harte, Bret, 55 
Harte, Bret, portrait of, 154, 


Harvey, Sir George, 93 
Hastings, visits to, 75, 94, 95, 138 
Hastwell, G., 260 
Haunted Wood, The, 225 
Hawkins, William Bailey, portrait 

of, 246 
Hay, Thomas, 21 
Head of a Jester, 250 
Head of the Causeway, 46 
Heaton, J. Deakin, portrait of, 244 
Henderson, J., 215 
Henderson, John, xiii, 263 
Henderson, Joseph, 38 
Her Grace, 112, 173, 236 
Herbalist, The, 235 
Herbert, N., 249, 253 
Herbert N. , portrait of, 254 
Here's to the Maiden of bashful 

Fifteen, 245 
Herkomer, Professor von, 79 
Heydemann, VV\, 229 
Highland Outpost, The, 57, 106, 

172, 234 
Highlanders Fighting, 234 
Hill, Captain, 102 
Hirst, T. J., 237 
His Grace, 112, 173,236 
Ho! Ho! Old Noll, 73, 97-100, 

109, 173, 202, 227 
Holl, Frank, 45, 47, 48, 116 
Hollander, Benoit, portrait of, 154, 

251 . 
Honor, Canon, 24 
Hook, J. C.,56 
Horsley, J. C, 56 
Horsley, Sir Victor, 138 
Hospitalfield Collection, 232 
Houghton, Boyd, 49 
Hour, The, 13, 109, 222, 233 
Houston, J. , 44 
Howarth, E., 132 
Hudibras and Ralpho in the Stocks, 

85, 221 
Huguenots. St. Bartholomew's Day, 

Huguenots. St. Bartholomew's Eve, 




Hungry as a Trooper, 259 
Hunt, Holman, 14, 56, 64 
Hunt, William, 15, 71 
Hunted Down, 105, 232 
Hunter, Colin, 45, 47, 57 
Hunter, Colin, portrait of 150, 283 
Hunter, Mrs. Colin, 233 
Hunter, Mrs. Colin, portrait of, 231 
Huuter, William, 227 
Hutchison, 44 

" Iconoclast," 16 
Idle Shepherd Boys, 54 
Imogen, 232 
In Haste, 172 
Ingram, Sir W., 232 
Intercepted Correspondence, 227 
Israels, Josef, 92 
Italian Girl, An, 230 
Italy, visits to, 87, 205 

Jacobite, The, 226 

Jacobites, 71,77,100, 101, 145, 172, 

J affray, Sir John, portrait of, 252 
Jaffray, Sir William, 222 
J(\ffray,Sir W^V/ram, port rait of, 252 
Jester's Merry Thought, The, 120, 

137, 241 
Johnny Little and his Wonderfu 

Cuddy, 214 
Johnson, C. E., x, 19, 30, 39, 45, 

47, 63, 65, 75, 83, 195, 220, 235 
Johnson, C. A'., portrait of, 219 
Johnson, Miss £., 263 
Johnston, Mrs. C. E., portrait of, 

Johnston, John Tfwwlis, portrait of, 

Jones, Lieut. Col. L. J. F., portrait 

of, 244 
Jordan, John, 218, 220, 221, 236, 

250, 259 
Julia Mannering, 226 
June, 226 

Kay, Alexander, portrait of, 246 

Keene, C, 49 

Keepsake, The, 261 

Kelley, F. A., 224, 239 

Kennedy, Edward Sherrard,. por- 
trait of, 149, 228 

Kenuedy, J., 214 

Ker, Andrew, 144, 199, 243, 260 

Ker, Andrew, portrait of, 243 

Ker, Mrs. Andrew, 97, 144, 255 

Ker t Mrs. Andrew, portraits of, 
156, 221, 242 

Ker, Matthew, 144 

Ker, Matthew, portrait of, 260 

" Kernoozers Club," 196 

Killing and Curing, 218 

Knight in Armour, A, 237 

Knight, The, 230 

Knight of the Seventeenth Century, 
149, 231 

Knox, John, 220 

Lady Gay, A, 236 
Lady Godiva, 253 
Lady in White Cap, 262 
Ladye of High Degree, A, 236 
Lady of the Seventeenth Century, 

173, 232 
Lady Teazle, 224 

Lady Teazle: a Cup of Tea, 96, 228 
Laguillermie, F. A., 245 
Laird, The, 110, 233 
Lamb, Henry A., portrait of, 254 
Land seer, Sir Edwin, 97 
Late, 218 
Lauder, R. S., 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 

17, 21, 38, 42, 79, 170 
Lawrence, Sir T., 78 
Lawson, F. W. 9 portrait of, 243 
Lawson, George, 45, 47, 106, 145, 

152, 213 
Lawson, George, portrait of, 153, 

Leader, The, 230 
Leader of the Attack, The, 262 
Leeds Art Gallery, 243 
Lees, Charles E. s portrait of, 244 
Lees, Mrs., 240, 244 



Lefroy, Mrs., 235 

Leggat, Alexander, 21 

Leighton, Lord, 65, 67, 103 

Lethbridge, Waiter Buckler, por- 
trait of, 254 

Lindlar, Max, 253 

IAndlar, Max, portrait of, 154, 

Linton, East See East Linton 

" Literary Idea," condemnation of, 

Lo, the poor Indian, 46 

Lockhart, Mrs., 239 

Lockhart, W. E., 160 

Lockhart, W. E., portrait of, 153, 

Longman, C. J., 244 

"Longman's Magazine," illustra- 
tion to, 54 

Looking to Windward, 235 

Lordly Gallant, A. See Brimmer 
to the King 

Lord's Cricket Ground, 99, 202 

"Lothians, The," 115-117, 200, 
201, 206 

Love Song, The, 91, 201, 224 

Lovers Stratagem, A, 216 

Lovers, The, 260 

Low, Miss, 244 

Lowenstam, L., 213, 261 

Lucas, J. Seymour, x, 126, 196-198 

Lucas, J. Seymour, portrait of, 234 

M'Arly, T., 233 
Macbeth, R. W., 57 

APCorquodale, , portrait of, 257 

M'Culloch, George, 137 
M'Culloch, Mrs., 229, 241, 255 
MacCunn, Agnes N., 205 
MacCunn, Agnes N., portrait of, 

MacCunn, Fergus, portrait of, 255 
MacCunn, George, portrait of, 257 
MacCunn, Hamish, 145, 154, 199, 

201, 255 
MacChtnn,Hamish, portraits of, 141 , 

161, 248, 256 

MacCunn, Mrs. Hamish, 213, 245, 

248, 252, 262, 263. (See also 

Pettie, Alison) 
MacCunn, James, x, 252 
MacCunn, James, portrait of, 251 
MacCunn, Mrs. James, portrait of, 

MacCunn, John, portrait of, 251 
MacCunn, Professor, 42, 72, 244 
Macdonald Art Collection. See 

Macdonald, Greville, portrait of, 

Macdonald, J., 24 
MacDougall, G. K., 227 
M'Grady, H., 238 
M'Kay, W. D., x, 14 
Maclauchlan, Mrs., 261 
M i Lean, Miss, portrait of, 241 
M*Lean, T., portrait of, 252 
WLean, T. H., portrait of, 241 
Macleod, Norman, 28, 49 
Macleod, Miss, 217 
Maclure, Andrew, 43, 44 
Maclure, A., portrait of, 234 
McTaggart, W., x, 11, 16, 18, 23, 

24, 31, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 

44, 102, 108, 195, 203, 215, 

221, 227, 250 
McTaggart, Mrs., portrait of, 250 
Mac Whirter, Agnes, portrait of, 226 
MacWhirter, J., x, 11, 39, 45, 47, 

54, 57, 84, 100, 106, 161, 213, 

225, 226, 227, 229, 232, 241, 

245, 250, 260, 262 
Mac Whirter, J., portrait of, 92, 

152, 225, 241 
Manchester City Art Gallery, 240, 

Manns, Lady, 257 
Manns, Sir August, portrait of, 

154, 257 
Mappin Art Gallery, Sheffield, 76, 

86, 219, 221, 223, 224, 226, 231, 

232, 261 
Mappin, Sir Frederick, 76 
Mappin, J. Newton, 76 



Marcel, 24 

Maris, Matthew, 151 

Marochetti, Barou, 78 

Marshall, W. Colder, portrait of, 

152, 243 
Mary Seat on, 261 
Mather, Mrs., 250, 261 
Matins, 222 
May Day, 251 
Mayou, Mrs., 227 
Meditation, 260 
Melbourne, National Gallery of 

Victoria, 77, 220, 245 
Melchizedek Nesting Abraham, 25, 

Melville, A., 4 
Member of the Long Parliament, 30, 

172, 175, 198, 233 
Mercenary, The, 231 
Michie, J. Coutts, 4 
Michie, J. Coutts, portrait of, 153, 

Midnight Watch, 05, 226 
Milkmaid, The, 259 
Millais, Sir J., 14, 40, 52, 56, 78, 

116, 151, 168, 160, 207 
Milwaukee Art Gallery, 210 
Minstrel, The: Convent Hospitality, 

16, 26, 201, 215 
Miss as good as a Mile, 242 
Mitchell-Thomson, Sir M., 236 
Moment of Danger, A, 57, 106, 234 
Monastic Study, 260 

Momrieffi, , portrait of, 237 

Monk Woodcutter, The, 222 
Monks and the Heathen, 50, 52, 

210, 222 
Moreland, Richard, portrait of, 248 
Morning Worship, 25, 26, 215 
Morrice, David, 250 
Morten, John Garrett, portrait of, 

Muiijrall, H., 218 
Murray, David, xi, 48, 160, 161, 

Murray, David, portrait of, 153, 

160," 230, 259 

Murray, James, 249, 253 
Musician, The, 130, 247 
Musicians, The, 62 
Musician's Reverie, 247 
Muther, R., 125 

National Gallery of Scotland, 13, 

National Volunteer Association, 32 
Ness, Mrs., 133, 250, 254 
New Gallery, 141 
Nicholl, Erskine, 43 
Night March, The, 258 
Noah's Sacrifice, 25 
Noble, J. Campbell, xi, 4, 253 
N of >le, J. Campbell, portrait of, 

158, 162-169, 253 
Noble, Miss, xi, 162 
Noble, R., 4 
Normandy Girl, A, 230 

Ogston, A. M., 217 

Ogston, J., 245 

Old Lady in Lace Cap, 258 

Old Lieutenant and his Son, 28, 

188, 217 
Old Mother Hubbard, 220 
On the Dark Continent, 255 
One ofCromwelfs Divines, 28, 217 
One of Marlborough's Generals, 235 
Open Door, The, 53, 54 
Orchar, James Guthrie, 105 
Orchar, James Guthrie, portrait of, 

244, 247 
Orchar, James Steel, portrait of, 

Orchar, Mrs., 57, 233, 234, 242, 

244, 254, 260, 262 
Orchardson, Sir \V. Q., 11, 15, 

16, 17, 18, 39, 41, 42, 43, 44, 

47, 49, 52, 57, 60, 63, 68, 69, 

73, 78, 79, 80, 84, 85, 202, 203, 

Orientation oft/te Church, 120, 127, 

Our Mary, 228, 260 
Out of an Engagement, 219 



Palmer, Edward Howley, portrait 
of, 258 

Palmer, Samuel, 56 

Palmer, The, 115, 144, 173, 240 

Parsons, A., 48 

Passion Flowers of Life, 50 

Paterson, J., 4 

Paton, Sir Noel, 13, 21 

Patrol, The, 238 

Paul taken by the Chief Captain, 25 

Pax Vobiscum, 87, 222 

Pearson, J. L,, portrait of, 152 

Pedlar, The, 91, 224 

Percival, Mrs., portrait of, 247 

Permain, W, 235 

Pettie, Alexander, 2, 171 

Petite, Alexander, portrait of, 259 

Pettie, Alison (the artist's 
mother), 3, 171 

Pettie, Alison (the artist's mother), 
portrait of, 214 

Pettie, Alison (the artist's 
daughter), 200. See also Mac- 
Cunn, Mrs. Hamish 

Pettie, Alison (the artist's 
daughter), portrait of, 161, 223, 

Pettie^ Graham, portrait of, 161, 

Pettie, James, 25, 83 

Pettie, Jane, 25 

Pettie, Jane, portrait of, 214 

Pettie, Marion, 25 

Pettie, John, birth, and boyhood 
at East Linton, 2 ; his parents, 
2, 3; first drawings, 5-8 ; takes 
drawings for opinion of J. 
Drummond, R.S.A., 9; goes 
to Edinburgh and enters Trus- 
tees' Academy, 10; letters to 
McTaggart, 12, 33, 34, 35, 36, 
37, 108; influence of Phillip, 
13 ; influence of Pre-Raphael- 
ites, 14, 15 ; connection with 
Orchardson, 17; friendship 
with Chalmers and other fellow- 
students, 18 ; prizes at Trustees' 

Academy, 21, 22; rejected at 
R.S.A., 22; first exhibits at 
R.S.A., 23; commissions from 
Messrs. Blackie, 24 ; early suc- 
cess, 26 ; destroys pictures, 27 ; 
meeting with Dr. Macleod, 28 ; 
exhibits at R.A., 29; accident 
in his studio, 30 ; a visit to 
London, 32 ; recreations as a 
student, 32 ; becomes a volun- 
teer, 32 ; member of Sketching 
Club, 39 - 48 ; book - illustra- 
tions, 48, 55 ; works for " Good 
Words," 49-51, 59 ; etchings, 
55 - 58 ; settles in London, 59 ; 
visits Brittany 62 ; goes to 37 
Fitzroy Square, 63; visit to 
Hastings, 75 ; marriage, 75 ; 
election as Associate, 78 ; moves 
to Gloucester Road, Regent's 
Park, 82 ; demand for his 
pictures, 82 ; works exhibited 
as A.R.A., 83-96 ; moves to St. 
John's Wood Road, 84 ; visit to 
Italy, 86 ; kindness to Josef 
Israels, 92; elected H.R.S.A., 
93; elected Royal Academician, 
97; works exhibited as R. A. , 97- 
139; serves on R.A. Council 
and Hanging Committee, 100 ; 
diploma work, 100; has Leigh- 
ton as a model, 103 ; spends 
summer at Callander, 105; 
hears of death of G. P. 
Chalmers, 107; builds "The 
Lothians," Fitzjohn's Avenue, 
115; his studio, 116, 117; his 
incomplete studies destroyed, 
117 ; visit to Ravnham Hall 
with Seymour Lucas, 126; 
receives a visit from Verest- 
schagin, 134 ; illness and death, 
138, 139; portraits, 140-169; 
uses friends as models, 143- 
146 ; costume -portraits, 148- 
150 ; portraits of artists, 151- 
153 ; rapidity of workmanship, 




168-161, 181 ; paints portrait 
of J. C. Noble at St Abb's, 
162-168; takes subjects from 
Scott, 171-172; Elizabethan 
and Cromwellian subjects, 173 ; 
Shakespeare subjects, 173 ; 
historical subjects, 174-176 ; 
accuracy of costume and acces- 
sories, 176 ; style and technique, 
18-20, 55, 69-73, 119, 125, 164- 
167, 181-193; summary of his 
work, 188-189 ; work in water- 
colour, 192 ; love of armour, 
tapestry, and old furniture, 

195 ; purchases of armour, 195, 

196 ; visits to the ' € Kernoozers* 
Club," 196, 197 ; love of music, 
198-201 ; marriage of his 
daughter to Hamish MacCunn, 
200 ; a prodigious smoker, 201 ; 
plays tennis, 202 ; love of fish- 
ing, 203, 204 ; visits to Italy, 
205; kindness to the young, 
205 ; gives warm welcome to 
students, 207 ; always ready 
with help and sympathy, 208, 
209 ; incessant industry, and 
large total of works, 209 ; sum- 
mary of character, 209, 210 

Pettie, John, portraits of, 19, 152, 

201, 211, 213, 214, 241 
Pettie, Mrs., 40, 45, 75, 86, 144, 

152, 161, 205, 213, 216, 218, 

223, 232, 236, 237, 247, 248, 

254, 258. See also Bossom, 

Pettie, Mrs., portraits of, 218, 

220, 234, 237, 252, 254, 255, 

Pettie, Norman, portrait of, 161, 

Pettie, Ralph, 144, 152, 240 
Pettie, Ralph, portrait of, 161, 

236 252 
Philip Clayton's First-born, 53 
Phillip, John, 13,14,66, 109, 185, 


Pinch, A, 238 

Pinnington, Edward, 61, 117 

Pinwell, G. J., 51, 64 

Plummer, Charles Scott, portrait of, 

Polonius, 262 
Portland, Duke of, portrait of, 

Portrait - Painters' Exhibition 

(1907, 1908), 141 
"Postman's Bag, The," illustra- 
tions to, 53 
Poynter, Sir Edward, 65, 67 
Pre - Raphaelite influence and 

methods, 14, 15, 49, 69, 70, 

Prince Charming, 228 
Prince of the Church, A, 238 
Pringle, Mrs, R. H., portrait of, 

Prison Pet, The, 24, 26, 80, 174, 

Puritan, The, 224, 261 

Queen's Scholar, Westminster, 242 
Quilter, Sir W. Cuthbert, 242 

Rabbiting, 242 

Raeburu, Macbeth, 227 

Ramsay, Dr., 221 

Ramsay, J., 261 

Ramsay, R. W.,235 

Ransom, The, 120 

Ransomed, 241 

Raynham Hall, 126 

ReckiU, Mrs., portrait of, 252 

Redgrave, R., 66 

Reductio ad Absurdum, 124 

Rehearsal, The, 78, 201, 219 

Reid, Sir George, 151, 213 

Reid, Sir George, portrait of, 153, 

Rejected Addresses, 66, 90, 174, 

Rembrandt, 71, 72, 100, 147, 163, 

166, 170 
Reverie, The, 262 



Reynolds, Sir J., 119, 163, 166 

Rhead, G. Wooliscroft, 241 

Rhodes, Fairfax, 242, 245, 256 

Richeton, L., 232 

Richmond, G., 78 

Ripley, Dowager Lady, portrait of, 

Ripley, Lady, portrait of, 248 
Ripley, Sir Edward, portrait of, 248 
Ripley, Sir Henry W. A., 248 
Ritchie, C. T., portrait of, 246 
Ritchie, Lord, 246 
Riviere, Briton, xi, 146, 183, 186, 

Riviere, Briton, portrait of, 149, 

Rob Roy, 106, 145, 232 
Roberts, T. L. S., 260 
Robertson, George Berwick, portrait 

of, 225 
Robertson, Mrs., 222, 233, 235, 

238, 247, 260 
Robertson, William, portrait of, 

Robinson, Sir Bryan, portrait of, 

Romeo's Visit to the Apothecary, 

Roses in the Lane, 258 
Ross, Sir William, 64 
Rossetti, Christina, 64 
Rossetti, D. G., 52, 64 
« Royal Academy Notes " (1875), 71 
Royal Holloway College, 227 
Royal Wimbledon Golf Club, 254 
Royalist, The, 224, 261 
Rubens, 185, 190 
Ruined, 259 
Ruskin, John, 15, 71, 72, 73, 101, 

Ryland, T. H., 234 

St Abb's, holiday at, 162 

St Bartholomew's, Smithfield, 122 

St. Cecilia, 253 

St. John, 262 

St John's Wood Road, 84 

Sally, The, 76, 88, 89, 175, 188, 

Sanctuary, 95, 226 
Sandys, Frederick, 49 
u Sarah Walker;' illustration to, 

Scene from " Peveril of the Peak," 

131, 144, 172, 249 
Scene from "The Fortunes of 

Nigel," 23, 172, 214 
Scene from " The Monastery," 24, 

26, 80, 172, 215 
Scene in Hal o' the Wyntfs Smithy, 

101, 172, 228 
Scene in the Temple Gardens, 90, 

174, 224 
Schnorr, 25 

" School for Scandal," 96, 127 
Scotch Lassie, A, 260 
Scott, Sir W., 105, 128, 130, 131, 

171, 172 
Scott-Moncrieff, W. D., 57 
€t Scottish Art and Artists in 

I860," 16 
Scottish National Exhibition 

(1908), 13, 128,190, 213,216,218 
Sentinel on Duty, 226 
Shakespeare subjects, 173, 174 
Shaving without Soap, 259 
Shaw, Mrs., portrait of, 255 
Sheffield, Mappin Art Gallery. 

See Mappin Art Gallery 
Sheridan subjects, 96, 127, 174 
Short's Observatory, 30 
Silvia, 136, 156, 255 
Sihnus and Phebe, 93, 136, 174, 

Sir Peter and Lady Teazle, 127, 

174, 245, 260 
Sisters, The, 240 

Site of an Early Christian Altar, 243 
" Sixties, The," in book illustra- 
tion, 48 
Sketch of a Forge, 215 
Sketching Club, 32, 38-48, 216, 

Slocombe, C. P., 112, 236 



Small, William, 51 

" Smashers, The," 42 

Smith, Archibald, 241 

Smith, Barr, 24, 215 

Smith, Finlay, 214 

SobeU, 0. Fischer, portrait of, 154, 

Soldier cleaning Armour, 217 
Solo, The, 104, 174, 201, 229 
Song without Words, 201, 251 
Spanish Admiral, A, 254 
Spence, Dr. Blair, 61 
Spring, 228 
Spring Flowers, 228 
Squire, The, 247 
Stanley Street, Pimlico, 60, 63 
State Secret, A, 97, 109, 175, 227 
Steel, Master S., portrait of, 257 
Steel, Miss Grace, portrait of, 257 
Steel, W. S., 238 
Step, The, 103, 174, 230 
Stephenson, J., 25, 215, 216 
Stevenson, John, 258 
Stevenson, R. L., 179 
Stewart, A. F., 226 
Stewart, Charles, 256 
Stewart, James, portrait of, 246 
Stewart, John, portrait of, 250 
Stewart, Mrs., 250 
Stirling, John, 43 
Stock, F. R., 47 
Storm in a Teacup, 132, 174, 

193, 249 
Strachan, Sheriff, portrait of, 150, 

Strahan, Alexander, zi, 28, 49, 51, 

53, 54, 59, 60, 235 
Strahan, Alexander, portrait of, 

Strategists, The, 219 
Stroller, The, 214 
Studies for pictures, 117 
Studio, Pettie's, 116,117 
Study for a Background, 262 
Study in a Picture Gallery, 219 
Study of an Interior, 239 
Study of an Orchard, 263 

Study of Furze and Trees, 263 
Study of Interior of Wood, 262 
Study of White Roses, 263 
Subject-painting, 177-180 
Sub-Prior and Edward Glendin- 

ning, 61, 217 
" Sunday Magazine," illustrations 

to, 53 
Suspense, 234 

Sweet Seventeen, 120, 156, 242 
Sword-and-Dagger Fight, 76, 104, 

172, 231 
Sybil, The, 225 

Tate Gallery, 77, 122, 244 

Taylor, Mrs., portrait of, 260 

Teazle, Lady, 224 

Teazle, Sir Peter, 224 

Tenniel, Sir J., 49 

Tennis Player, The, 202, 260 

Terms to the Besieged, 93, 94, 175, 

Terrace at Haddon, 259 

Thallum, Miss, 145 

Thomas, Grosvenor, 4 

Threat, The, 102, 103, 137, 145, 
175, 196, 229 

Three Boys, 53, 54 

Tiff, The. See Storm in a Teacup 

Time and Place, The, 75, 172, 218 

"Times, The," 75 

'Tis Blythe May Day, 90, 136, 

To. the Death. See Sword-and- 
Dagger Fight 

To the Fields I carried her MUking- 
Pails, 95, 136, 225 

Toast, The, 95, 174, 226 

Tonsure, The, 74, 218 

Tooth, Arthur, portraits of, 149, 
161, 225, 230 

Tooth and Sous, Messrs., 225 

Toreador, The, 239 

Torrie, Miss, 258 

Touch of Nature, A, 50 

" Touches of Nature," illustra- 
tions to, 54 



Touchstone and Audrey, 88, 136, 

174, 223 
Traitor, The, 73, 132, 145, 175, 250 
Treason, 76, 82, 85, 87, 89, 93, 

133, 175, 188, 221 
Trio, The, 73, 174, 201, 218 
Trotman, Miss M., portrait of, 248 
Troubadour, The, 224 
Troubadour in Prison, The, 221 
Trout-Fisher, A, 238 
Trout-Fishing in the Highlands, 

112, 146, 204, 238 
Trustees' Academy, 10, 11, 17, 19, 

20, 21, 38 
Tuke, the Model, 262 
Tullis, James T., 258 
Turner, H. J., 222 
Turner, J. M. W., 32 
Turrell, A., 226 
Tussle for the Keg, 87, 102, 174, 

Tussle with a Highland Smuggler, 

See Tussle for the Keg 
Twa Corbies, The, 41, 42, 216, 244 
Two Strings to her Bow, 90, 131, 

135, 136, 145, 174, 192, 248 

Ullathorne, The Right Rev. W. B., 

portrait of, 154, 230 
Ultimatum, The, 57, 137, 146, 175, 

196, 210 
Unknown, The, 157 

Van de Velde, Mme., 246 

Vandyck, 190 

Verestschagin, 134 

Viendrart-ilf 217 

Vigil, The, 77, 119, 120, 122-124, 

127, 145, 244 
Village Schoolmistress, The, 222 
Violinist, The, 136, 145, 201, 255 
Visit to the Necromancer, 86, 144, 

Volunteer movement, 32 

Waddel, William, portrait of, 243 
Waiting, 172 

Waiting for an Audience, 261 

Walker, Fred, 51, 64 

Walker, Rev. R. J., 215 

Wall, Joe, 65, 66 

Wallace, R. W., 238 

Wallace, Mrs., portrait of, 241 

Wallace, William, xi, 115, 146, 241 

Wallace, William, portrait of, 237 

Wallis, T., 229 

Wallis and Son, 221, 223, 224, 239 

Water Gate, The, 26, 216 

Watson, J. D.,44, 83 

Watt, Alexander Strahan, 145 

Watt, A. &, portrait of 247 

Watt, A. P., xi, 134, 145, 146, 

153, 234, 247, 255, 256 
Watt, A. P., portrait of, 150, 158, 

Watt, Fiddes, 4 
Watt, Hansard, 144 
Watt, James, 145, 164 
Watt, James, portrait of, 242 
Watt, Mrs., portrait of, 251 
Watt, Miss Bessie, 244 
Watt, Miss Bessie, portrait of, 156, 

Watt, William PeUie, portrait of, 

156, 256 
Watts-Dunton, Theodore, 64 
Watts, G. F., 65 
Way to the Loch, 204, 238 
Weary with present Cares and 

Memories sad, 222 
Wehrschmidt, D. A., 248 
Weinberg, J. Julius, 220 
What d'ye lack, Madam? 29, 59, 

172, 216 
What sent me to Sea, 49 
Whistler, J. M'N., 49, 64, 71, 81, 

White, E. F., portrait of, 149 
White, Mrs. E. F., portrait of, 

158, 235 
White, Gleeson, 51 
White Flag, A, 57, 238 
Whitehead, S. Taylor, portrait of, 




Whitehorn, , portrait of, 251 

Whitehorn, Mrs., 237 

Who Goes? 239 

Who leads a good Life is mire to live 

well, 30, 218 
Wilkie, Sir D., 184, 188, 192 
Wilson, James, 21 
Windus, 14 
Winn, Charles, xi, 118, 144, 159, 

160, 226, 228, 240, 249 
Winn, Charles, portrait of, 243 
Winn, The Misses, portrait of, 

Wright, Thomas, portrait of, 258 
Wolverhampton Art Gallery, 77> 

220, 222 
Woman leaning hack in Chair, 261 

Wood, Adam, 219, 224 
"Wordsworth's Poems for the 

Young," illustrations to, 54 
World went very well then, The, 90, 

135, 136, 156, 174, 253 
Worrall, J., 233 
Wotton, W. B., 256 
Wounded Despatch Bearer, The, 219 
Wyndham, Lady, 251 
Wyndham, Sir Charles, as David 

Qarrick, 155, 251 

Young Izaak Walton, 120, 204, 242 
Young Laird, The, 120, 144, 242 
Young Student, The, 24, 26, 195, 

Yuill, W., portrait of, 246 


Printed by R. & R. Clark, Limited, Edinburgh,