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Full text of "Johnson's new universal cyclopaedia : scientific and popular treasury of useful knowledge"

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UNIVERSAL CYCLOPAEDIA: 

A 

SCIENTIFIC AND rol'ULAR 

T E E A S U E Y 



USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 



ILLUSTRATED WITH MAPS, PLANS, AND ENGRAVINGS. 



EDITORS-IN-CHIEF. 

FREDERICK A. P. BARNARD, S.T.D., LL.D., L.II.Ij., M.N.A.S., 

». PRESinKNT OF COLUMBIA COM.KGK, NICW VOUK ; 

ARNOLD GUYOT, Ph.D., LL.D., M.N.A.S., 

I'ROl'ICSSOR OF GEOLOGY AND PUY8ICAL OEOGRAPHY, COLLKGK OF NKW JERSEY. 



ASSOCIATE EDITORS 

Martin B. Anderson, A.M., LL.D., 

Prosidciit. iif tin' I'liivt-rsity of Itoflicstcr, N. Y.; 

.loiiN (i. Baunari), a.m., LL.D., M.N. a. S., 

('ill. 1'. S. IChsjiiiOLTs, Hvl. JLijor-Gen. U. S. A.; 

Chas. F. t'HANi)i>KR, Ph.D., M.D., LL.D., MJST.A.S., 

Prof. Aimi. CIiciu., .Sehnol of Mint's, Columbia College; 

Aaron L. Ciiai'in, A.M., S.T.D., 

President of lleloit College, Wisconsin ; 

IIknry IiRisi.KR, A.M., LL.D., 

.hiy Professor of (ireek, Cohinibia College; 

TiiEODORK W. DwKiUT, A. M., LL.D., 

Professor of .Monieipul Law, ('olunihia College; 
(^\LEB Ci. FOHSHKY, .\.M., ( '. K., 
Formerly Prof, of Miitli.iuut Civ. Kiig. iii,T(!(forson Coll., Miss. ; 

Oc'TAvu's B. Fkothinoham, a.m.. 

Pastor Tliinl riiitariau .Society, N. Y. City; 

Theodore (Jill, A.M., M.D., Ph.D., M.N. A.S., 

Late Senior .Assistant Librarian of tlie Library of Congress; 

Asa (iRAY, M. D., LL.D., M.N. A.S., 

pislier Professor of Natural History, Harvard University ; 

Horace Greeley, LL.D., 

I'ounder of tbe New Y"orb Tribune; 
.Samuel S. IIaldeman. A.M., LL.D., M.N. A.S., 

Prof, of Comparative Pbilology in tbe Univ. of Penn. ; 

William T. IIarrls, A.M., LL.D., 

I'M. of Tbe .lournal ol Speeulative Pbil., St. Louis. Mo. ; 

.Joseph Henry, LL.D., M. N. A.S., 

Secretary of Smitbsonian Institution ; 



Theodore D. Woolsey, S.T.D., LL.D., 

E.x-President of Y'ale College, Conn. 



RoswELL D. Hitchcock, A.M., S.T.D., LL.D., 

President of the I'liion Theo. Sem., New York ; 

Charles P. Krautii, A.M., S.T. D., LL.D., 

Viee-Provost of tbe University of PeuD.; 

.IiiHX Le Conte, A.M., M.D., 

I'resident of the University of California; 
George P. Marsh, LL.D., M.N. A. S., 

Envoy Kxtr. and Minis. Plenijio. of U.S. at Rome, Italy; 

John S. Newberry, M.I)., LL.D., M. N. A.S., 

Prof, of (iGology and I'aheontology, Columbia College; 

Fo.xHALL A. Parker, U.S. N., 

Supt. of U. .S. Naval .\eadetny, Annapolis, Md. ; 

Willard Parker, A.M., M.D., LL.D., 

Professor of .Surgery, Colutnbia College, Med. Dept.; 
Philip Schaff, Ph.D., S.T.D., LL.D., 

Baldwin Prof, of Sacred Lit., Union Tbeo. Sem., K. Y. : 

Julius H. Seelye, A.M., S.T. I)., LL.D., 

President of Amherst College, Mass. ; 

William Staunton, S. T. D., 

Founder and First Keel, of St. Peter's Ch., Brooklyn, N.Y. : 
Alexander H. Stephens, A.M., LL.D., 

Of Georgia, Member 4;id Congress, U. S. A. ; 

Abel Stevens, A.M., LL.D., 

Formerly I'xiitor of 'I'lie Methodist, New York ; 
Thomas O. Summers, S.T.I)., LL.D., 

Professor of Syst. Tbeol., Vanderbilt Univ., Tenn.; 

Wlllia.m p. Trowbridge, A. M., M. N. A. S., 

Prof, of Fngineering, Colutnbia College; 



ASSISTANT EDITORS. 

Porter C. Bliss, A. M., Linus P. Brockett, \. M., M. D., C'larexce ( '(kik, 
Clemens Petersen, A.M., John N. Po.meroy, LL.D., Henry "Wurtz, A.M., Pii. L». 

WITH NUMEROUS CONTRIBUTIONS FROM WRITERS OF PI.STINGUISHED EMINENCE IN EVERY DEPARTMENT 
OF LETTERS AND SCIENCE IN THE UNITED STATES AND IN EUROPE. 



^om|i(cti; in Iput Xfolitmcs (Xiiilit pints), iittlmlimi -liiiicmlis. 



VOL. III.— PART I. 



Lichfield — TsTumerals. 



(testimonials at the end of last voLnME.) 

NEW YORK: 

^. eT. joHisrsoivr & co 

1-1 GREAT JONES STREET, NEAR BROADWAY. 
M 1>CCCLXXXI. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year One Thousand Eight Hundred and Seventy-seven, 
BY A. J. JOHNSON, IN THE Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 

ALL RIGHTS BESEEVED. 



ki.ectrotyped by 

Westcott & Thomson, 

Philadelphia. 



PRINTED BY 

Bunii Printing Iloisn, IS Jacob St. 
New York. 



p:i<gravings principally by 

Redman & Kenny, 

Now York. 



PAPKIt UANUPACrUKF.D BY 

SEYMonu Pai-kh Co. 
Nfiw York, 



HOUND BY 

.lAMES SOMERVILLK, 

New York. 



Preface to Volume III. 



In prcscntinf:; to tho public the Third N'ohimo of Joirxso.N's U.NiVEnsAi, Ii,i,usTnATi;i) 
CycloPvEdia, the Editors-iii-Chicf respectfully ask of their patrons a careful comparison 
(if tliiH voKime with the two that havi; prccu'ded it, in the full confidence that it will he 
found more than to sustain tho favorable judgment which has already been formed of 
those. From the commencement of the work, the Editors, so far from at any time rc- 
laxini; effort, have been constantly exertin<; themselves more and more strenuously to 
accomplish in the most thorougii manner the design originally jirojiosed to themselves, 
of making the most comj)lete, comprehensive, and at tiie same time compendious, book 
of general reference which has yet been produced. In this effort they have In-en nobly 
sustained by the Publishers, who have not hesitated at any expense which the prosecu- 
tion of this very formidable undertaking has seemed to make necessary. 

Without such liberality, indeed, the execution of the work would have been ini- 
po.ssiblc. In order to secure the co-operation of the more than five hundred eminent 
writers who have contributed articles upon subjects in which their special studies and 
investigations have made them authorities, an expenditure has been rcriuired which is 
without any precedent in the history of such pulilications. The Publishers, however, 
have never doubted that whatever outlay should be found to add to the intrinsic value 
of the work would be amply compensated by the increased demand for it on the part 
of an appreciative public; and the subscriptions hitherto taken, over 15,000, w'hen only 
two of the four volumes were pul)lished, have fully ju.stified this belief. 

A comparison of the three volumes published with the promise of the original 
prospectus will show that, while all the distinctive features of the plan, have been pre- 
served throughout, the promise has, in several respects, been more than fulfilled. Im- 
l)ortant subjects have been treated with much greater fulness than is necessary in a 
mere compendium of facts ; the lives of the more conspicuous personages of history are 
given in larger detail than was at first intended ; the scope of the wliole work has been 
extended to embrace several thousand more titles than are to be found in any other 
work of its class; and great care has been taken that no topic of especially American 
interest should pass unnoticed. Of this latter class of topics, the number which have 
first found place in this work, and which are as yet to be found in no other, amounts 
to many hundreds. 

The principle of division of labor in tho supervision of the work during its progress, 
introduced in tho beginning, has been gradually extended. The Editors-in-Chief have 
from time to time added to the number of their associates, until they feel justified in 
claiming that no work of this description has ever before appeared which has united in 
its production so numerous or so eminently competent an editorial staff. It should, 
moreover, be known that not only are these Associate Editors active in contributing or 
providing articles in their several distinct departments, but also that all the proof-sheets 
of the entire work are submitted to every one of them, and subjected to their criticism 
before final publication. 

The present volume makes its appearance, according to promise, abundantly within 
the year 1876. The fourth and final volume is already very far advanced toward com- 
pletion, and will probably be ready for the press before the 1st of March next. It will 
be delivered to subscribers early in 1877. 

F. A. P. BARNARD,! . 

ARNOLD GUYOT, } ^ditors-m-ChieJ. 

New Yoke, Avyust, 1S76. 



ORGANIZATION OF THE EDITORIAL STAFF. 



*=jf* The following statement shows the subjects to which the different members of the editorial staff have severally 
given their more particular attention, not only in themselves preparing articles relating to those subjects, Imt also in 
securing contributions from others, and in carefully scrutinizing all such contributions with a view both to ensure accu- 
racy and to exclude anything which might seem objectionable. 



DIRECTING EDITOR-IN-CHIEF: 

FREDERICK A. P. BARNARD. 

ADVISORY EDITOR-IN-CHIEF: 

ARNOLD GUYOT. 

DEPARTMENTS 
(sec Title-Page for honorary degrees and positions) : 

Puhlio Law, Intercourse of Nations, etc THEODORE D. "WOOLSEY. 

Municipal, Civil, urrd Constitutional Laiv, etc THEODORE W. DWIGHT. 

Eiii/lish and Foreign Literature, etc GEORGE P. MARSH. 

Grecian and Roman Literature, etc HENRY DRISLER. 

Presbyterian CImrch— History, Doctrine, Biographies, etc. . . ROSWELL D. HITCHCOCK. 

Philosophij, Psychologij, etc WILLIAM T. HARRIS. 

Comparative Philology and Linguistics SAMUEL S. HALDEMAN. 

Social Science, Political Economy, etc AARON L. CHAPIN. 

American History, Southern Geography, Statistics, etc. . . ALEXANDER H. STEPHENS. 

The Fine Arts, Liberal Christianity, Biographies, etc. . . . OCTAVIUS B. FROTHINGHAM. 

Ecclesiastical History and Biblical Literature PHILIP SCHAFF. 

Meteorology, Electricity, and Magnetism JOSEPH HENRY. 

General Physics, Statistics of the Pacific Coast, etc JOHN LE CONTE. 

Mathenudics, Applied Science, Protestant Episcopal Church, Education, etc. FRED. A. P. BARNARD. 

Physical Geography, Foreign Geography, Climatology, etc ARNOLD GUYOT. 

Military Engineering, Science and -Material of War, Biographies, etc. . JOHN G. BARNARD. 

Zoology, Comparative Anatomy, and Animal Physiology THEODORE GILL. 

Naval Affairs, Naval Construction, Navigation, Biographies, etc. . FOXHALL A. P.\RKER. 

Mechanics, Mechanical Engineering, etc WILLIAM P. TROWBRIDGE. 

Music, Theory of Harmony, Composition, Musical Terms, etc. . . . WILLIAM STAUNTON. 

Chemistry, its Applications, etc CHARLES F. CHANDLER. 

Botany and Vegetable Physiology ASA GRAY. 

Geology and Palirontology JOHN S. NEWBERRY. 

Civil E)iginemng, Hydrography, etc CALEB G. FORSHEY. 

Medicine, Surgery, the Collateral Sciences, etc WILLARD PARKER. 

American History, Statistics, Agriculture, etc HORACE GREELEY.* 

Bflptisl Churcfi— History, Doctrine, Biographies, etc MARTIN B. ANDERSON. 

Congregational Church— Ethical Science, Biographies, etc JULIUS II. SEELYE. 

Philosophical and Church Dogmatics; Lutheran Church—Biographies, etc. CHARLIOS P. KRAUTH. 
M'Hiodist Church, South—History, Doctrine, Biographies, etc. . . THOMAS O. SUJIIMERS. 
Mdliodisl Clturch, North— History, Doctrine, Biographies, etc ABEL STEVENS. 

ASSISTANTS: 
PORTER C. BLISS, LINUS P. BROCK ETT, CLARENCE COOK, 

CLEMENS PETERSEN, JOHN NORTON POMEROY, HENRY WURTZ. 



*Tho latCBt labors of Mr. Orcclcy's life were given to this work, to which ho contributed largely. It is with 
justice, therefore, that hia name is i)rcscrvcd in tho list of its Editors. 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE THIRD YOLUMK 



JOHNSON'S ILLUSTRATED UNIVERSAL CYCLOP/EDIA, ETC. 



Tho following liat oiiin|prisc)i the names of the eminent specialists who Lave written for this volume, but it docs not 
include tho nainra of tho many rusiiU'ut editors of newspapers and distinguished oitiiens who have especially con- 
trilmtcd succinct and accurate accounts of their respective cities, towns, and villages to he found herein, with each 
writer's name attached to his article. 



Abbe, Prof. Clovcliiiid, W.xsliinglon, D. C, 

Jletcorologlsl, Wcathcr-Slgnal Ofllco. 

Abbot, Henry L., M.N.A.S., Willetts Point, N. Y., 

Maj. U. 8. Eng., Rvt. Brlg.-Geu. U. S. A., Bvt. MaJ.-Gcn. Vols. 
Adams, Col. Julius W., C. E., New York, 

Ex-l'rcsidcnt of the American .Sueiely of Civil Engineers. 

Agnew, Cornelius R., M. D., New York. 

Alexander, Prof. Slepbcn, LL.D., Princeton, N. J., 

Professor of Astronomy in the Collej^e of New Jersey. 

Anderson, Rev. Ruftis, S. T. D., LI..D., Boston, Mass., 

Formerly Secretary of the A. B. C. 1'. M. 

Andrews, Ocorgc L., West Point, N. Y., 

Prof, of the French Language in the V. S. Military Academy. 

Andrews, Rev. Israel W., .S. T. D., Marietta, O., 

President of -Marietta College. 
Arnold, .Tolin W. S., M. D., New York, 

Prof of Physiology in tho N. Y. University Medical College. 

Aiicaigne, Prof. F^li.x, A.M., LL.B., New York, 

Foreign Editor of New York Com. Advertiser. 
Austin, Coe F.; Esq., Closlcr, N. J. 
Axon, William E. A., Esq., Manchester, England. 
Bailey, William W., E.sq., A. M., Providence, R. I. 
Barnes, P., E.sq., New York. 

Bellows, Rev. Henry W., S. T. D., LL.D., New York, 
Pastor of the Church of All .Souls, Fourth Avenue. 
Bergli, Henry, Esq., New York, 
Pros, of tho N. Y. Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. 

Bermingliam, Edward J., M.D., New York. 

Belts, Rev. Beverley R., A. M., New York, 

Librarian of Columhia College. 
Birch, Samuel, LL.D., F.S. A., London, England, 

Keeper of Oriental .\ntiqnities British Museum, President 
Society of Biblical Archaiology. 

Birch, W. D., Esq., London, England. 

Bisl'.op, J. B.| Esq., New York, 

Of the Ed. Stair of the New York Tribune. 

Bittle, Rev. D. F., S. T. D., Roanoke, Va., 

President of Roanoke College. 

Blake, Prof. William P., A. M., Ph. B., New Haven, 
Conn., 
Former Prof, of Mineral, and Geology, College of California. 

Blunt, George W., Esq., New York, 

Member of the Bo3rd of Commissioners of Pilots. 
Brace, Rev. Charles L., New York, 

Secretary Children's Aid Society. 

Brackelt, Col. Albert G., U. S. Army, Fort Saunders, 
Wyoming Territory. 

Bnind, Rev. William F., A. M., Emmorton, Md., 

Rector of St. Mary's Church, Emmorton. 

Brewer, Thomas M., M. D., Boston, Mass., 

Ed. of the History of North American Birds. 

Briggs, Rev. Charles A., New York, 
Professor of Hebrew and the Cognate Languages, Union 

Theological Seminary. 

Brown, Rev. .S. Giliuan, S. T. D., LL.D., Clinton, N. Y., 
President of Hamilton College. 



Buck, Gordon, M. D., New York. 

Buckalew, Hon. Charles R., Pa., 

Late U.S. .Senator from Pennsylvania. 

BiiUen, A. H., Esq., London, England. 

Burgess, .John W., LL.B., -Amherst, Mass., 
l>rofessor of History and Political .Science in Columhia College. 
Butler, Capt. J. (J., U. S. Ordnance Corps. 
Caldwell, R. C, M.R.A.S., London, England. 

Cameron, Henry C, Ph. D., Princeton, N. J., 

Professor of Greek In the College of New Jersey. 

Ch.adbourne, Rev. P. A., S.T. D., LL.D., Williamslown, 
Mass., President of Williams College. 

Chase, George, LL.B., New York, 

Professor of Municipal Law in Columbia College, 

Church, Prof. .John A., E. M., New York, 

Associate Editor Army and Navy Journal, New York, 

Clark, Alonzo, M. D., New York, 

Professor of Pathology and Practical Medicine, Medical 
I>cj»artment, Columbia College, N. Y . 

Clarke, Col. A. R., F.R. S., Soulhanipton, England, 
Member of Ibe .\cademy of Imperial Science, and also Corn - 
sponding .Meuiter of the Ordnance Survey UUlce. 

Comstock, Gen. Cyrus B., U. S. Engineers. 
Cope, Prof. Edward D., A.M., M.N.A.S., Haddon- 
ficld, N. J. 

Cornw.all, Henry B., E. M., Princeton, N. J., 

Professor of Analytical Chemistry, Mineralogy, etc.. College 

of New Jersey, 
Croes, J. James R., New York, 
Civil and Topographical Engineer to the Dept. of Public Parks. 

Cummings, Joseph, S. T. D., LL.D., Middletown, Conn., 
Former President of Wcsleyan University. 

Curtis, Edward, M. D., New York, 

Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics, Medical Depart- 
ment of Columbia College, N. Y. 

Daly, Judge Charles P., LL.D., New York, 

President of the -American Geographical and Statistical Society. 

Dana, Richard H,, Jr,, LL,D., Boston, Mass., 

Author of Two Years before the Mast. 

Darby, J. N., London, England. 

Davids, T. W. Rhys, Esq., London, England, 

Oriental Department, British Museum. 

Davidson, Thomas, A. M., Cambridge, Mass. 

Day, Edward C. H., F.G.S. (London), New York. 

Prof, of Geology and Physiology in ihe New York Normal School. 

DelafieUI, Francis, M. D., New York. 

Dixon, W. J., Esq., London, England. 

Ellis, -Uexander-L. F.R.S., F.S. A., London, England. 

Emerson, George B., LL.D., Boston, Mass., 

Late Presideni Boston Society of Natural History. 

Engelmanji, George, M.D., M.N. A.S., St. Louis, Mo. 

Ernst, Capt. Oswald H., U. S. Engineers, West Point, 

N. Y., 

lustruclor iu Tractical Military Engineering, etc., in Ihe I ^ 

Mililarv Academy 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 



Eve, Paul F., M.D., Nnsliville, Tenn., 

Prof, of Operative and Clinical Surgery Univ. of Nashville. 
Fairfield, Prof. Francis Gerry, New York. 

Farlow, Prof. William G., M. D., Cambridge, Mass., 
Assistant Professor of Botany in Harvard University. 

Farnham, C. H., Esq., New York. 

Fisher, George P., S. T. D., New Haven, Conn., 

Professor of Ecclesiastica! History, Yale College. 

Fiske, John, LL.B., Cambridge, Mass., 

Assistant Librarian, Harvard University. 

Flint, Anstin, M. D., New York, 

Prof, of Principles and Practice of Medicine in Bellevue 
Hospital Medical College. 

Folwell, Wra. A., A.M., Minneapolis, Minn., 

President of the State University of Minnesota. 

Fox, Hon. Gustavus V., Lowell, Mass., 

Late Assistant Secretary of the Navy. 

Frizell, Joseph P., C. E., Boston, Mass. 

Garrison, William Lloyd, Esq., Boston, Mass. 

Gibbons, Rev. A. S., A. M., M. D., San Jose, Cal., 

President University of the Pacific. 

Gardiner, Frederic, S. T. D., Middletown, Conn., 
Prof, of the Literature and Interpretation of the Old Testa- 
ment, lierlceley Divinity School. 

GilTord, George, Esq., New York, 

Gillmore, Quincy A., New York, 

Lt.-Col. U. S. Engineers. Bvt. Maj.-Gen. U. 8. A. 

Gilniore, Joseph H., A. M., Rochester, N. Y., 

Prof of Logic, Rhetoric, etc., in the University of Rochester. 

Godet, Rev. Fr(?d(5ric, S. T. D., Neufcliiitel, Switzerland, 

Professor of Theology. 

Goodale, George L., A. M., Cambridge, Mass., 
Assistant Prof, of Vegetable Physiology in Harvard University. 

Greene, Charles W., A. M., M. D., North Andover 
Depot, Mass. 

Gubernatis, Prof. Angelo de, Ph. D., Florence, Italy, 
Professor of Sanskrit in the University of Florence. 

Ilagner, Gen. Peter V., U. S. Ordnance, Watervliet 
Arsenal, West Troy, N. Y. 

Hains, Col. Peter C, Washington, D. C, 

U. S. Engineers. 
Haldeman, Miss Elisa J., Chickics, Pa. 
Ilaiiiilton, Allan McLane, M. D., New York. 
Harding, George, Esq., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Hayden, Ferdinand V., M. D., LL.D., M.N.A.S., 
Washington, D. C, U. S. Geologist for the Territories. 
Iklbig, Prof. W., Rome, Italy. 
Herrick, Rev. J. R., S. T. D., South Hadley, Mass. 

Herrick, Mrs. S. B., Baltimore, Md., 

Associate Editor of the Southern Review. 
Hilgard, Julius E., M. N. A. S., Washington, D. C, 

Assist. Superintendent of the U. S. Coast Survey. 

Hodge, Archibald A., S.T. D., Allegheny City, Pa., 

Professor of Theology in Allegheny Seminary. 

Hogg, John W., Chief Clerk, Navy Uepartmcnt. 

Holder, J. B., M.D., New York, 

Curator of the Museum of Natural History, Central Park. 

Jl.iliey, Alexander L., C. E., Brooklyn, N. Y., 

President of the Am. A.ssoclation of Mining Engineers. 
Hough, Prof. George W., LL.D., Albany, N. Y., 

Director of the Dudley Observatory. 
Howard, Benjamin, M. D., New York, 

Professor of Surgery in the University of Vermont. 

lliilibard, Gardiner G., Esq., Cambridge, Mass. 

Hudson, E. Diirwin, Jr., M. I)., Nc^w York, 

Prof, of the Prlnripjes and Prar'tir-e i)r Mc-dirine, Woman's 
Medical t.'olli'ge of the New York Inhrmary, 



Humphrey, Rev. Zephanias M., S. T. D., Cincin- 
nati, O., Professor in Lane Theological Seminary. 
Hurst, John F., S. T. D., Madison, N. J., 

President of Drew Theological Seminary. 
Jacobi, Abraham, M. D., New York, 

Clinical Prof, of the Diseases of Children. School of Medi- 
cine, Columbia College. 

Johnson, Oliver, Esq., New York, 

Managing Editor Christian Union. 
Johnston, Keith, Esq., London, England, 

Late Librarian to the Uoyal (icographical Society, 
Jordan, Gen. Thoina.s, New Y'^ork. 
Karge, Prof. Joseph, Princeton, N. J. 
Kroeger, A. E., Esq., St. Louis, Mo. 
Lanciani, R., Rome, Italy. 

Lanman, Charles, Esq., Georgetown, D. C, 

American Secretary Japanese Legation. 

Leland, Charles G., Esq., London, England, 

Author of Hans Breitmann's Ballads. 

Lewis, Tayler, LL.D., L. H. D., Schenectady, N. Y., 
Nott Prof, of Oriental Languages in Union University. 

Linderman, H. R., Esq., Philadelphia, Pa., 

Director of the Mint of the U.S. 
Luce, Capt. Stephen B., U. S. Navy. 

Lynde, Hon. William P., Milwaukee, Wis., 

Member of the Forty-fourth Congress. 

McCormick, Lieut.-Com. Alexander H., U. S. Navy, 
Annapolis, Md. 

McCosh, James, S. T. D., LL.D., Princeton, N. J., 

President of the College of New Jersey. 

McCurdy, Prof. J. F., Princeton, N. J. 
Marsh, Mrs. Caroline C, Rome, Italy, 

Wife of Hon. George P. Marsh, LL.D. 

Marsh, Olhniel C, A.M., M.N. A. S., New Haven, 

Conn., Professor of Palxontology in Yale College. 

Mayer, Alfred M., Ph. D., M. N. A. S., Hoboken, N. J., 

Professor of Physics, Stevens Technological Institute. 

Merrick, Rev. Frederick, Delaware, O., 

Former President of Ohio Wcsleyan University. 

Merrick, Prof. J. M., Boston, Mass. 

Merrill, Col. William E., U. S. Engineers, 

Meyer, John Francis, Esq., New York. 

Mitchell, Weir, M. D., M. N. A. S., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Morgan, Hon. Lewis IL, LL.D., M. N. A. S., Rochester, 

N. Y. 
Munde, Paul F., M. D., New York. 

Murray, Rev. Thomas C, Baltimore, Md., 

Professor in Johns Hopkins University. 

Newcomb, Simon, M.N. A.S., Washington, D. C, 

Professor of .\stronoiny, U. S. Naval Observatory. 

Newton, Hubert A., LL.D., M.N. A. 8., New Haven, 
Conn., Professor of Mathematics, Yale College. 

Niemann, August, Gotha, Saxony, 

Ed. for Genealogy and Diplotiiatles of the .Mmanach de Gotha. 
O'Hara, C. E., Esq., New York. 

Packard, Alpheus S., Jr., M. D., Ph.D., M.N.A.S., 

Salem, Mass., Director of tlic I'eahoily ■\cad. of Selenco. 

Palmer, Prof. E. II., LL.D., Cambridge, England, 
Prof, of Persian Literature in the University of Cambridge. 

Parrott, Capt. Robert P., Cold Spring, N. Y., 

Superintendent West Point Foundry. 

Parsons, Tlicophilus, LL.D., Cambridge, Mass., 

Late Dane Profc».sur of Law in Harvard University. 

Paterson, David, Esq., New York. 

Paterson, William Sleigh, Esq., New York. 



LIST OK CONTIMIIITOKS. 



Vll 



Peiibody, MisH Klizabctli P., Cnml)ridgc, Mam., 

Author or Splriluul CiiHure, etc. 

Pock, William (i., I.L.D., New York, 

I'rofL'ssor of MiillMMniUlis nnil Aslroiiomy, ('oliiiiiyla fJilli'Ki". 
Peirce, Prof. Ufiijiiniiii, LL.I)., F. K..S., M. N. A.H., 

Cambridge, Mass., 

LiitcSuporiiitinilcicl U.S. Coast Survey. 

Peirce, J. M., Caniliriil^ff, Ma.-.'*., 

Professor of Malhunialies lo Ilarvaril University. 

Piielps, William K., M. .V., Winona, Minn., 

rresidunt of the National l'>lueuliooal Society. 

PorliT, Noah, S. T. D., LL.D., New Haven, Conn., 

President of Yale College. 

Post, Tniman M., S.T. D., St. Louis, Mo. 

Powoll, Major J. W., WasliiiiK'ton, I). C, 

In chaiKe of .Second lliv. of <ieoloi;iral (loverninont Survey. 

Proctor, Richard A., B. A., F. K. A.S., London, Kng., 
Secretary of the Koyal Astronomical Society. 

Pryor, Hon. Roger A., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Ptnnpelly, Prof. Raphael, M.N. A.S., St. Louis, Mo., 
Late State GcoloRist of Missouri. 

Balston, W. R. S., Esq., London, England, 

As.sistant Lihrarian Itritish Museum. 

Recliis, Elis(?e, Canton de Vaii<l, Switzerland, 

Author of La Torre, etc., Member of the (ieographical and 
Meteorolofjicai Societies of Paris. 

Kendall, Rev. J. N., S.T. D., Lower Oxford, Pa., 

President of Lincoln University. 

Ridgcly, James L., Esq., Baltimore, Md. 

Riley, C. V., M. D., Ph. D., St. Louis, Mo., 

Statl^ ICnLoiuolugisl to the State of Missouri. 

Riley, Rev. Isaar, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Rive."!, G. L., Esq., New York. 

Ro.s.s, Theodore A., Esq., Baltimore, Md. 

Rotigomont, Fr(5d(?ric de, Neufchatel, Switzerland. 

Sargent, C. S., Brookline, Mas.s., 

Director of Arnold Arboretum and Botanic Garden. 

Sclinrz, Hon. Carl, LL.D., St. Louis, Mo., 

Late U. S. Senator from Missouri. 

Schwcinitz, Edmund de, Bethlehem, Pa., 

President Moravian Thco, .Seminary. 

Scott, Capt. Robert X., Oswego, N. Y., U. S. Artillery. 
Segtiin, Edward C, Jr., M. D., New Y'ork, 

Clinical Professor of Diseases of the Mind and Nervous Sys- 
tem, College of Physicians and Surgeons, N. Y. 

Shaler, Prof. N. S., S. B., Cambridge, Mass., 
Professor of Paheontology in Harvard University, and Direc- 
tor of the Geological Survey of Kentucky. 

Sliields, Charles W., S. T. D., Princeton, N. J., 

Professor of History in the College of New Jersey. 
Shreve, Samuel H., C. E., New York. 
Silliman, Benjamin, M. D., M. N. A. S., New Haven, 
Conn., Professor of Chemistry in Y'ale College. 

Siiuiuons, George C, Esq., New Y'ork, 

Clerk U. S. Board of Engineers. 
Sloane, J. R. W., S. T. D., Allegheny City, Pa., 

Prof, of Theology, Reformed Presbyterian Theol. Sem. 
Smith, E. Munroe, Esq., Brooklyn, N. Y". 
Smith, George, Esq., London, England. 
Smith, Hamilton L., LL.D., Geneva, N. Y., 
Prendergast Prof, of Astron. and Nat. Philos. in Ilobart Coll. 

Sinilh, J. Lawreiye, M.D., LL.D., M.N. A.S., Louis- 
ville, Ky., 
Late Prof, of Chemistry, Medica! School Univ. of Louisville. 

Smith, Richard S., U. S. Naval Academy, 

Professor of Drawing in the U. S. Naval .\cademy. 



Smyth, Richard, M. P., Londonderry, Ireland. 

Spooiier, Aldcn J., Emi-, Brooklyn, N. Y., 

Late Ivdllor of I»hK InUail 8tar. 

Slatniton, Rev. William, H. T. D., New York. 

Stevens, John Austin, Esq., New York, 

Laie Secretary Chamber of Cummerce. 

.Sully, .James, Esq., London, England. 

Taylor, W. B., Esq., Wa-sliinglon, D. C, 

Lxatulner U..S. PaU'nt Office. 

Thayer, Hon. M. llMK.5ell, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Thoiua.s, Prof. Joseph, M.I)., LL.D., Philadilphia, Pa., 
Author of Dictionary of Biugraiihy and .Mythology. 

Thompson, R. E., Philadelphia, I'a., 

Prof, of I'olitical licon. in the University of Pennsylvania. 

Thurston, Robert H., C. E., Hoboken, N. J., 

Prof, of Mechanical l!:nglnccriiig in the Stevens Techn. Inst. 

Tuekey, Miss Janet, London, England, 

One of the Authors of Knglish fiypsy Poetry. 

Turner, Hubert B., Esq., New Y'ork. 

Tyler, William S., S.T.D., LL.D., Amherst, Mass., 
Wiliibton Prof, of the Greek Lang, and Lit., Amherst College. 

Tylor, Edward Burnett, LL.D., F.R. S., Wellington, 
Somerset, Eng., Author of Primitive Culture, etc. 

Valentine, Rev. M., S.T. D., Gettysburg, Pa., 

President of Pennsylvania College. 

Van Amringe, .1. Howard, A. M., New Y'ork, 

Professor of Mathematics in Columbia College. 

Vanderpoel, S. Oakley, M. D., New Y'ork, 

Health Officer, Port of New Y'ork. 

Van der Weyde, Prof. Peter IL, Ph. D., M. D., N. Y., 

Editor of the Manufacturer and Builder. 
Vau.x, W. S. W., A.M., F. R. S., London, England, 

President of the London Numismatic Society. 

Vere, Prof. Scheie de, Charlotlesville, Va., 

Prof, of Modern Languages inUniversity of Virginia. 

Verrill, Addison E., A. M., M. N. A. S., New Haven, 

Conn., Professor of Zoology, Y'ale College. 

Vinton, Francis L., E. M., New York, 

Prof, of Civil and Mining Eng. School of Mines, Columbia 

College. 

AValdo, Leonard, Esq., Cambridge, Mass., 

Assist, in the Astronomical Observatory of Harvard University. 

Waller, Elwyn, Esq., E. >L, New Y'ork, 
Assist, to the Prof, of Anal. Chem. School of Mines. Colum- 
bia College. 

Washburn, Hon. Charles A., A.M., O.akland, Cal., 

Late U. S. Minister Resident in Paraguay. 

Webster, David, M. D., New^ Y^ork. 

Westcott, Thompson, Esq., Philadelphia, Pa. 

AVheeler, Rev. Francis B., Poiighkeepsie, N. Y". 

W'hitford, Rev. W^ C, A.M., Milton, Wis., 

President of Milton College. 

Whitney, Prof. James A., New Y'ork, 
President of the Society of Practical Engineering, New Y'ork. 

Whittlesey, Fred. A., Esq., Rochester, N. Y'. 

Wilson, T. D., E.sq., Portsmouth, N. H., 

Naval Constructor U. S. Navy. 

Wilson, William D., LL.D., L. H. D., Ithaca, N. Y.. 
Prof, of Moral and Intellectual Philosophy in Cornell Univ. 

Wines, Rev. Enoch C, S. T. D., LL.D., New Y'ork, 
Secretary of the International Prison Congress and of the 
National Prison Society of New York. 

Y'ule, Maj.-Gen. Henry, C. B., London, England, 

Late of the Royal Engineers, Bengal. 

Zins.ser, Frederick, M. D.. New Y'ork. 



LlCIIFIELD— LiKBKIl. 



Lich'Aeldf city of .^tJifTnrilshiru, Kiiiclantl, rounty und 
muiiici)iiLl and piirliiLiiit'iitiiry l)<irini;;li. hii.- c-arptft niiinu- 
faoturiuM, otc, a lint' i-alln-'irnl. iiinl a graiiiiiinr Hcliool 
wliiM-owory cJuuiituU Addiaoii, Juhnson, und (Jurrick. I'op. 

Ijich'tciiberp ((Ikoiig Ctiiustoi'ii), b. July 1, 1744^ at 

Obt'rrainstiiilt, Ih'H^o-I>arniHta(U : Htudiud at tliu Univcrnity 
of (inttiiiK^'X ; bL-eamu prufL-syi)r tluTf in IT"*'. Ilirt catiricul 
writings made a j^ruat .suiiyatiou and arc «tiU inudi read. 
II if* I rhci- l'hifni),<junmih widir (lit- I'hifHitHjuinmn (177J^) IH 
dirc'jtod against Lavatur ; U'-hrr die I'rotiKiiciulinn dcr 
SchiipHe den nftni Crivrhcnlnud (KS2) against Voss. The 
gruatest general interest, however, is In bis Aufi/iihrtichen 
ICihlanuKj der IIn,/nr(linr/n)i h'lip/crHtirfu-, wliich first ap- 
iic:ui'<i in thv (tiitliitf/irfun Alinantn/i, of wWu-h Ijielitenbcrg 
was the founder and eilitor. 1). Feb. 21, IVJU. 
Lickf tp. of Jackson oo., 0. Pop. I!" IG. 
liick (Jamkh), b. at Fredericksburg, Lebanon co.. Pa., 
Aug. 25, KUf); receiveil a eonimon-schuol education, and 
in 1S19 obtained emphtyment in a piano manufactory in 
Philaclelphia; a year later started in the same business for 
himself in New York City, but l.iilin;^ to succeed for want 
of capital, went soon after to liucnos Ayres, South America; 
for ten years was engaged in iiiano-making, and amassed 
a small fortune; in is;i2 returned to Philadelpliia. and after 
a few months again went to Itucnos Ayres. thenco to Val- 
paraiso, devoting himself to Ins business for four years, and 
then to diftorent }tlaces in Peru, remaining there for eleven 
years, and in ISt? arrived in San Francisco, where ho has 
since lived, lie brought with him from South America 
about $IJ(1. (100, which he invested in real estate in San Fran- 
cisco, ami its rapid advance in value made him wealthy. 
In IST t ho jilaced his entire prnperty in the hands of seven 
trustees, to be devoted to public and charitable purposes. 
The bequests then made he changed in some respects in 
May, 1875, leaving thorn as follows: for constructing a 
suitable observatory. and erecting therein a telescope supe- 
rior to and more powerful than any before made, $700,000, 
the same to bo connected with the Fniversity of California ; 
to tlie San Francisco Protestant Orphan Asylum, $2.">,000 ; j 
to bnild a non-sectarian orplnm asylum at San Jos6, Cal., j 
$2.'), (Mil) ; to the Ladies' Protccti<m iiud Relief Society in | 
San Francisco, $25,000 ; to the Mechanics' Institute of San j 
Francisco. $10.000 ; to the San Francisco Society for the | 
Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. $10.01)0 ; for the erection I 
of suitable monuments over the graves of his mother, father, ' 
grandfather, and sister, $5000 each, or $20,000; to found 
nn 01*1 Ladies' Home in San Francisco, $100,000; for the 
erection of free public baths in San Francisco, $loO, 000 ; 
for tlie erection of a monument to Francis Scott Key, au- 
thor of The tStfir-Spitnijlt'd /iatiiier, in Golden (late Park, 
San Francisco, $00,000 ; for the erection in the <'ity Hall 
of San Francisco of a group of bronze statuary which 
ehail represent by appropriate designs and ligures the his- 
tory of California. $100,000; to found and endow an insti- 
tution to be called the California School of Mechanical 
Arts,$JU1.000. For himself he reserved $500,000. gave his 
son $150,000. ami each of his relatives sums varving frora 
$2000 to $5000. ]^. Oct. 1, IS7G. J. B.Hisnop. 

Lick Creek, tp. of Littlo River co., Ark. Pop. 3GI. 

Lick Creek, tp. of Davis co., la. Pop, 124G. 

Lick Creek, tp. of Van Buren co., la. Pop. 1199. 

Lick'ing;, county of Central Ohio. Area, r>70 square 
miles. It is watered by the Licking River an<l its affluents. 
It is quite level, very fertile, and is well cultivated. Live- 
stock, grain, and wool are staple products. Carriages, 
leather, lumber, and saddlery are leading manufactures. 
Coal and building-stone are obtained. Traversed by Ohio 
Canal, Sandusky Manstield and Newark and Pittsburg Cin- 
cinnati and St. Louis R. Rs. Cap. Newark. Pop. 35,756. 

Lickiiic:, tp. of Crawford co.. III. Pop. 1625. 

Licking, tp. of Blackford co.. Ind. Pop. 21S5. 

Lickiiii;;, tp. of Licking co., 0. Pop. 850. 

Lickins;, tp. of Muskingum co., 0. Pop. 992. 

Licking;, tp. of Clarion co.. Pa. Pop. 121S. 

Lickiiii; Creek, tp. of Fulton co., Pa. Pop. 925. 

Lick'inghole, tp. of Goochland co.. Va. Pop. .*i430. 

Lick'ing Uiver rises in the mountains of Floyd eo,, 
Ky.. and Hows some ISO miles in a north-westerly course, 
reaching the Ohio opposite Cincinnati. At high water 
Vol. UL— 1 



light-draught Hteamboatfi can ascend to Falmouth. Fome 60 
miles. The principal tributaries are the N- and S. forkfl. — 
Another Licking Rivr.it risen near the centre of Ohio, and 
j(tinH the Muskingum Kiver oppoMite ZuneNvillo, 0. 

Lick Mounlain,poHl-tp.of Conway CO., Ark. Pop. 518. 

Lick Frairic, tp. of Wabash co., lU. Pop. 527. 

Iiico'diu Kukc'a, town of Sicily, province of ''alania, 
on the .site of the ancient ICnhtnt (destroyed 40H a. r.), 
many vestiges of which are still found. Pop. in 1874,5050. 

Lic'tors [Lat. h'tpire, to "bind **], officerw whoBoduty It 
was to attend ujion the maj^slrates of ancient Rome, to 
bear the Fascks (which see), to administer punii^hment to 
citizens, and to perform other public funclionc. They 
wore originally plebeians, and afterward freedmcn. 

liid'dell (Hi:NRv(;Ro»r.K), I>. I)., b. in Kngland in 1811, 
studied at the Charter-house ; graduated at ChriKl Church, 
Oxford, in is:j:i, with the highest honors; was head ina^^ter 
of Westminster School : ehajdain extraordinary to the queen 
(1S62): became dean of ChristChurch 1855, and vice-ehan- 
cellctr in 1S70 ; translated (with Dean Scott) Passow's t/rrek 
Lcxirou, and wrote a /Hnton/ uf Home from the Earliett 
TimcH to the KnUthlinhmcnt of the Entpire (1855). 

Lid'don (IIknmiv Pakrv), D. D.,b. in England in 1830 j 
graduated at Christ Church, Cxford, in 1850; was vice- 
principal of the theological college, Cuddesdon, 1854-59; 
published a volume of Lenten Sermotia {ISbS) ; became a 
prebendary in Salisbury cathedral in 1864. His IJampton 
lectures for ISOO, un The Vivinitt/ of mir Lord, greatly ex- 
tended his fame. In 1870 he was installed canon residen- 
tiary of St. Paul's, London, and was appointed professor 
of exegesis at Oxford. 

Lie'ber (Fuancis), b. at Berlin, Prussia, Mar. 18, 1800. 
His father, Frederick William Liebcr, who w.as engaged in 
ct)mmcrcial pursuits, had suffered heavy losses during the 
war, and, having a large family, great economy was neces- 
sary. Y(uing Licber was an ardent student and a favorite 
with his teachers. In 1815, when the war was renewed by 
the escape of Napoleon Bonaparte from Elba, he volun- 
teered with two of his brothers for the army, and was in 
the tight at T-igny. and severely wounded at the battle of 
Namur. At the close of the Waterloo campaign he returned 
to his studies and joined the Berlin gymnasium. These 
gymnasia became the scats of liberal and patriotic senti- 
ments ; Jahn was arrested upon the charge of hostility to 
the government, and because Licber was considered bis 
favorite pujiil he also was arrested. He remained in prison 
several months, beguiling the tediousness of his confine- 
ment by diligent study and reading. After his discharge 
without a trial, he was prohibited from studying at the 
Prussian universities. He consequently went to Jena, 
where he took his degrees in 1820. Hence he went t- 
Halle to continue his studies, but being there subjected to 
constant surveillance, his position became so irksome that 
he took refuge in Dresden. While living there the (Jrcck 
revolution broke out. He instantly resolved to abandon 
his country and to take part in the war of iniiependence. 
He made his way, chiefly on foot, to Marseilles, where he 
embarked for Greece. The history of that brief and un- 
fortunate struggle is well known. His own experience is 
recorded in his Jonnnd in (Srccce, written at Rome and 
published at Lcipsic in 1S23. After suffering great hard- 
ships, he embarked at Missolonghi in 1S22 in a small 
vessel bound to Ancona. One scudo and a half was all 
that remained in his purse after paying his passage. 
From .'\ncona he went to Rome, where Barthold George 
Niebuhr, then Prussian ambassador to the papal sec, 
took so great an interest in him that he invited him to 
become one of his family as the tutor of his son Marcus. 
He passed a year of unalloyed happiness in Rome. living 
in the family of the great historian, sharing his confidence 
and affection, the daily companion of his walks and con- 
versation. Niebuhr quitted the embassy at Rome in 1823, 
and Liebcr returned to Berlin. Niebuhr having previously 
obtained a promise from the king of Prussia that he should 
not bo molested. But he had hardly arrived in Berlin when 
he was again arrested upon the old charges of enmity to 
the government, entertaining republican sentiments, and 
belonging to a secret association, and was cast into the 
state prison at Koepnick. After some months he was lib- 
erated through Niebuhr's pressing solicitations. While at 
Koepnick he wrote a little volume of poems, Wein unci 



LIEBER— LILBIG, VON. 



Wonue Lieder, which was pu))Iished in Berlin under the 
name of ** Arnold Franz." Fearing renewed persecution, 
he took refuge in England. He arrived in London in lS2o, 
and resided there for a year, writing for German periodi- 
cals and giving lessons in the Innguages for his sii]>]iort. 
In 1827 he came to the U. S. with warm recommendations 
from Xiebuhr. who retained the strongest affection for him, 
and corresponded with him nj) to the time of the historian's 
death in 1831 — an affection which was fully returned by 
Lieber. who embalmed his love and gratitude to bis friend 
and benefactor in his Rpmiuhcenccs of Xichnhr, ])ublished 
first in America, repuljlished in England by Bentley, and 
translated into German by the son of Hugo the Civilian. 
Lieber arrived at New York June 20. IS27, and proceeded 
thence to Boston, where he took up his residence. There 
he commenced his laborious work, the Enc^clopirdia Avicri- 
cann, in 13 vols., which he completed in five years. In 1832 
he removed to New York, where he published a translation 
of De Beaumont and De Tocqueville's work on the peni- 
tentiary system. While in New York ho received from the 
trustees of Girard College, Philadelphia, then just founded, 
the honorable commission of preparing a plan of education 
antl instruction for that institution. This brought him to 
Philadelphia in 1833, where he remained two years, and pub- 
lished, besides his plan of education, his Letters to a Gen- 
tlcmnn in G^rnutHi/. In 183o he was appointed to the pro- 
fessorship of history and political economy in South Caro- 
lina College ; he remained in that position at Columbia more 
than twenty years, during which period he wrote and pub- 
lished the great works upon which his fame chiefly rests. 
The three principal of these arc his Manual of Political 
Elhirs (2 vols., 1838), Legal and Political Hermeuentics, or 
thf- PrinciplcH of Interpretation and Con tit met ion in Law and 
Politice (1 vol.", 1839). and his Ciril Liherti/ and Sclf-Gov- 
ernment (2 vols., 18531. It is impossible within the limits 
prescribed for this article to convey an adequate idea of the 
weight and value of these great works. They were positive 
additions of the greatest importance to the knowledge 
previously possessed upon these subjects. They embodied 
in a profound, original, and comprehensive system the prin- 
ciples upon which human society and government repose. 
They traced to their sources all the social and governmental 
relations, and expounded their reasons, their history, their 
distinctions, and their philosophic significance and results, 
with a clearness of exhibition, a force of argument, a wealth 
of learning, a power of illustration, and a high moral pur- 
]i(tse never before seen in the same field. Everywhere 
among learned and scientific men these works produced a 
profound impression, and they have received (he highest 
commendations from the most distinguished publicists of 
Europe and America. In IS.'tO, Dr. Lieber resigned his 
professorship in Soi^h Carolina College. In IS.'iThewafi 
elected to a similar professorship in Columbia College. New 
York, and subsequently to the chair of political science in 
the law sciiool of the same institution. He continued in 
the discharge of the duties of that position to the time of 
hi* death, which occurred at his house in New York. Oct. 2, 
1S72. Besides the works which have been already men- 
tioned, Lieber wrote many minor works of great value, 
among the principal of which may be mentioned The Oriijin 
and Derclopment of the First Cnnitituents of dj-ilizationy 
Great Ercnts dcftrribcd hy Great Hittorians, En8ays upon 
property and Labor, The Lawn of Propcrti/, Penal Laws 
and the Penitentiary Syntem, On Prinon Diftcipline, The Re- 
lation hfitireen Education and Crime, The Pnrdoninrj Power, 
International Copyright, The Chttracter of the Gentleman, 
The Study of Latin and Greek aa Elements of Education, 
Lanra liridymanH Vocal Sonnda, on Aur/lican and GnlUcan 
Liberty, on The PoHt-offire and Pontnl Reftirm», on The In- 
dependence nf the Judiciary, on Two Houftrn of LcqiHlatnre, 
on Nationalism, on Guerilla Parties considered with Refer- 
ence to the Laws and Usages of War, What is our Constitu- 
tion — League, Pact, or Government '^ and a large number of 
small tracts and publications. Ho wrote also many able 
articles on pul)lic questions, which appeared in the New 
York Eee.ting PnHt and other papers over the signature of 
"Americus." Ho al.so contributed valuable papers tr) the 
licKHe de Droit international. During the civil war in the 
U. S. Dr. Lieber rendered valuable service to the govern- 
ment and the country. As early as ISoI, in an address 
delivered in South Carolina, he had warned the South of 
the ruin with which the doclrine of scccHsion threatened it 
and Ihe whole country. During tlie war his pen was eon- 
Btiinfly at work «u]>p'»rting the government and upholding 
the Union. He was frequently summoned to Washington 
by telegraph by the Hccretary of wnr for consultation and 
advice upon ihe most important subjects. Upon the requi- 
Hition of tlio Prcflident of the U. S. ho prepare*! a code of 
war, wliieh waw nlTicially promul-^ated to Ihe nrmy in gen- 
eral orders of the war depnrttnent (No. 100, 1803), iis fn- 
Hruetiona for the Oovarnmeitt of the Armien of the United 



States in the Field — a work which ad<led to his great repu- 
tation. Dr. Lieber was a firm believer in the Christian 
religion. He was a Protestant, and a zealous defender of 
religious as well as civil liberty. He was a laborious stu- 
dent, and had a most extensive and accurate knowledge of 
historical as well as political subjects. He was of a gracious 
and cheerful disposition, possessed a sprightly imagination, 
and his conversation was replete with instruction and wit. 
Nature gave him a robust frame. He was short in stature, 
comp.act, .and muscular. He was fond of athletic exercises. 
In his younger days he was noted for his strength. AVhen 
he arrived at Boston in 1827 he established a swimming 
.school and gave lessons in that art. His head was massive, 
his eyes deep set beneath a brow broad and noble. His 
countenance indicated the thoughtful repose and conscious 
]>ower of a great mind. His writings constitute a distinct 
landmark in the history of public law and political science. 
The saying of which he was the author, and which he 
adopted as a motto in his later years, may be taken as tlie 
keynote of .all his political writings : '* No right without its 
duties — no duty without its rights." He was a member of 
the French Institute, and <if many learned and scientific 
societies in Europe and America. M. Russell Thavkr. 

Lieber (Oscar Montgomery), b. in Boston Sept. 8, 
18;J0, son of Dr. Francis Lteber ; was educated as a chemist 
and mineralogist at the universities of Berlin and Gfittin- 
gen and the School of Mines at Freiberg, Saxony ; was 
appointed State geologist of Mississippi in 1850; wrote 
The Assayer'n Guide (18J2). The Analyfiral Chrmixt'e As- 
sistant (18j2), Geology of Mississippi fl851), and many 
articles in the Mining Magazine. In 1854-6r) was engaged 
in the geological survey of Alabama, and from 185fi to 
18G0 was mineralogical, geological, and agricultur.Tl sur- 
ve.yor of South Carolina, iu which capacity he published 
four annual reports; in 1860 went as geologist to Lab- 
rador with an astronomical exjiedition ; entered the Con- 
federate army in 1801 ; was mort.ally wounded at the battle 
of Williamsburg, and d. at Richmond, Va., June 27. 1802. 

Lie^big, von (JusttsX Bacon, b. at Darmstadt May 
12, 1S03: received his earliest education in the gymnasium 
of his native city ; from 1819 to 1822 studied natural sci- 
ence and chemistry at the universities of Bonn and Er- 
langen, and from 1822 to 1824 in Paris. A paper on ful- 
minic acid which he read before the French Institute intro- 
duced him to Alexander von Humboldt, and by his influence 
he was appointed professor of chemistry at the University 
of Gicssen, Hesse-EUirmstadt. in 1824. At Giessen he re- 
sided from 1824 to 1852 : established a laboratory for prac- 
tical chemistry, the first of its kind in Germany ; founded, i 
together with Geiger of Heidtdberg, the Annalen der Phar- 
made ; and made in a short time liis lecture-room the ccn- ' 
trc of the study of chemistry, to whi(di students" gathered i 
in great numbers, and from which issued many great scien- ; 
tific discoveries, and a flood of new and most valuable 
practical ideas with respect to the application of chemistry. ' 
In 1852 he removed tip Munich as professor of chemistry I 
at the university and director at the chemical laboratory. 
In 1800 was chosen president of the Academy of Sciences 
at Munich, and in 1861 foreign member of the Acndcmy 
of Sciences at Paris. D. Apr. 18. 1873, generally acknow- 
ledged as the greatest chemist of his time Besides a grciit 
number of artitdes in the Annalen der Pharmacie an<i the 
I/andwiirterbuch der Chrntie {il vols.. 1^37-01), which he 
compiled togetlier with Poggondorff of Berlin, he wrote /)i'c 
organische Chrmie in ihrcr Ann-endung auf Agrirultur (1810), 
translated into English by Dr. Lyon Playfair under the 
title ChctniHtry in its Application to Agriculture and Phyni- 
ology : Grnndxatzc der Agricnftur Chemic (18.'),'^), Theoric 
untl Praxis der Landwirthschaft (1856). NoturwissenRchaft- 
lichc Tiriefe iibrr die niitderne Landwirthschaft (1850); and 
in another line. Die Thierchemie odcr organische Chemie in 
ihrcr Anwcndnng auf Phyni'dogie nnd Pathidogie (1812), 
translated into English by William (iregory under the title 
Animal (^hcminfry, or (^hcmistry in its Application to Physi- 
oloffi/ and Pathology ; Chcmische Unfcrsnchnngen ilbcr daa 
Fleisch und seine Zubereitung zum Nahrnngsmittel (1847), 
Die (Jrsaehrn der SUflcbewegung im thierisehen Organismua 
(1848). Tlint of his writings which has made him most 
popular, and eontribulcd most to introduce chemical truths 
among ediicatecl people and spread sound views with re- 
spect to their importance in every-day life, is his Chemischc 
//rrV/V (181 n, translate.l into English under the title Fa- 
miliar Letters on Clutuisfry and its Relations to Commerce, 
Physifdogy, and Agricidlurr. On practical life he probably 
exereiseil a greater influence Hum any cliemist betbre him ; 
new methods were introduced by him in agriculture, jihar- 
macy, t lie manufacture (tf vinegar, glass, etc., the preparation 
of fond, etc. His meat extract is now extensively used, and 
»0 is his Snppe filr Sh'nglinge (" baby Sfuip "). In science ho 
ranks as one of the founders of organic chemistry, and his 



M i:( I rPKNSTKI N -M KN. 



resoarchen conof rninff the application of chemistry to phyiii- 
ol<>^y KHil piLtlioloi^y aro inviLlufLblo. 

Lif^cli'lriisti'illy Mu? HinuIlcHt principality of tho Oor- 

niiiii (ronl'i-iliTiitidii, coinpriMin;^ iin !ir''ii of 00 Kqiiarc milrc, 
with s:t'_M> inhiiliitiinlH, iiml .>'iluiil<'i| lir-twci-n T\ r<i| ninl tli» 
canton ipf llic (irl.-'onH, SwilzcTliiml. mi (he upper Khin*-. 
It is MXtitntiiinnii.-', I>iit fcrtili'. prixlinMii}^ whciit, wImc, and 
fruits*. Tho prince livcB in Vienna. Thu capital, Vaduz, 
has 1001) inhaiiitaiils. 

Lir^c [ KIiiii. Liit/k ; Oer. LUftirh], iho oaRtornmoHt 
province of Hi-I^iuin. Area, IlflO ^(piaro niilcf. Pop. 
.V.lS.KT, of whom nirirtenlliH speak Frcnoli, and onc-tcnth 
Floinish. The ntnithcrn part of the province is hilly, cori- 
Hisdnj; of roijlt.-f eovered with hojitli or woods. Init rich in 
coal and iron. Tin- iiorthi'rn part, tlie po eullrd flmwhtml, 
i8 more h-vt-l, o.\ceedin(;Iy furl iU'» and cultivated like il ^ar- 
den. Tlio viilley of (Iin Meufle is very beautiful, and affords 
cxceHent pasturaKc for cattle. 

liic^e [Fr. LUtjr ; Dutch, Ltnik ; Oer. LUttSch], town of 
Hi-I;^iiiiii, the capital of a province of the same name, anrl 
tlie renfm of one of the most, cnterprisini^ nnd ]>rnflpernu8 
niiniuriicfuritig roj^ions of the t'otmfrv. is situated in a henn- 
tiliil valley on holh sidrs of the Mciise. at itn juneiion with 
tho Oiirlhe. luid <h'f<-nd4'd hy a strong eifadel on (ho summit 
of Sainto Wiilhurje to the N. W., and hy several deta<'hed 
loits— Pornill-.n fo the N., and Chartreuse to the IC. The 
older part of tlie city consists of narrow and crooked streets, 
lined with tall, ghn>uiy, and dirty houses; the more recent 
partfi, the many public sqiuircs, and the quays alon^ the 
rivera, which are crossed by a number of elegant brid^'en, 
arc very fine. Tlic most remarkable of the pulilic buihJ- 
in^s are the catlieilral, built in the thirteenth century : the 
clmrch of St. Martin, which was burnt in I.';i2, but wiis re- 
built in 1542 ; tho church of St. Jacques, one of tho richest 
specimens of tho ogival Gothic : the Palais deJusticc, built 
ill Renaissance style loO.S-2fi, and formerly ut^cd as residence 
by the prince-bisho]). The uni\ersify was founded in ISI", 
duriii;; tho union with the Netherlands, and is now a flour- 
isbint; institution ; it has a mining school, a polytechnic 
school, and a^ botanical garden connected with it. The 
whole region around Liege is very vieb in co;il nnd iron; 
tlio mines are run c^■en under the city and the river. Thepe 
natural riches, in connection with the favoralde situation 
of tho city at the junction of two navigable rivers, very- 
early gave rise to an extensive commerce and manufactur- 
ing imlustry, which, in spite of many violent interruptions, 
have gone on increasing through several centuries. The 
produr'ts lire very varied — cotton goods, ch»ths, stritw hats, 
clicmicals. etc. — but iron, especially as guns, cannon, and 
machinery, is the principal branch of manufactures in 
Liege, and is carried to perfection. In the seventh century 
tho city existed as a village of the name of Lendhnn ; in 
tho eighth it became the sent of a bishop : in tlie tenth it was 
surrounded with wnlls an<! fortilied. During the wars with 
tho French repultlic the Inshop of Liege, who wns an inde- 
pendent prince of the (icrman empire, was ex])clled and his 
territory incorporated with France. In IS15 the city came 
to ll'dhind. and in ISIIO it was one of the first places which 
rose in rclicllion against the unnatural union. Pop. 1 DO, 112. 
liic^'llitz^ town of Prussia, in the province of Silesia, 
at the confluence of the Katzbach and the Schwartzwasser. 
It is a neat and thriving town, with nniny good educational 
institutions and larje manufactures of cloth. leather, and 
tobac'.'O. It was formerly a fortress, but Its fortifications 
havolu'cn transformed into gardens and jiromcnades. Noted 
for tho battle of .\ug. !.'>, 1760, in which Frederick II. de- 
feated the Austrians. Pop. 2ii,i;il. 

Li'on [Fr., "bond"]. The word ^V»i, as a legal term, 
is used in so many unlike senses at the present day that it 
is diiticult, if no't impossible, to fnuue a single definition 
which shall accurately apply to all particular instances. 
In one class of cases it is simply a right to retain posses- 
sion of a chattel until some debt or demand, generally in- 
curred in respect of it, is paid by the owner to the person 
thus detaining. In all other classes it is a charge or in- 
rumbranco upon cither lands or chattels which are not re- 
tained in the possession of the creditor, as a security for 
the ]iayinent of some debt or demand, with power to en- 
force the claim by a judicial proceeding resulting in a sale 
of the thing and a payment of the demand from the pro- 
ceeds. There is. therefore, no real legal identify between 
these different classes of rights. That first described is of 
purely a connnon-law origin : the others may be easily 
traceil to doctrines and rules of the Roman law. A lien is 
never, in any of its phases, an estate or property in the 
thing over whieli it extends: it is at most an ineumbroncc 
upon the thing, the property in which belongs to another, 
and a right to regard and treat tho thing as a special fund 
from which the payment of the debt may bo enforced. 
liicDS exist cither as tho result of somo general rule of tho 



law, and are then tho inei'lcnlfi of a prior traniia<clion or 
legal rnhitinn entered into by tht? parties, or they may ariio 
from tho HtipiilationH of an expreoM agruenii'iif. Thone 
which arc creii(c;d by the law operating up m the twin or 
omiHHJonN of tho partiett are HOparatcd into (he following 
generic elasHen : I. Common- Law LlenN ; M. K((uirald(! 
Liens; III. Maritime or Admiralty LlenM; IV. Statutory 
Liens. 

I. f'ommou-fjnio Ltrnn. — The particular InfilanceN of lienn 
which fall within this divUlon were created or recognized 
a» existing by (ho common-law courts, and the ruh-M which 
govern thi-m \vcrc c^iublisbcd at a very early day in the 
history of Knglish jurisprinlence. They are entirely differ- 
ent in their nature and effects from those which belong to 
th<! other classes, having, in fact, little in common with 
them except the name. The rsscnce of the eommonlaw 
lion is the ptntHrHHi'on of the thing over which it extendi, 
ft consists in the right of the creditor, under tho circum- 
sfaiK'CM in which it arises, ttt retain in his own poHfe^nion 
tlie goods nnd eliatfels of another until somo debt or de- 
miind is pjiiil by their owner. In order that the right 
should arise at all, the possession must be lawful and 
valid ; that is, the person who flclivers the articles into the 
custorly of tlie on<! asserting the lien Tiiust have authority 
to make such a disposition of them, for the cf»mmon law 
admitted no lien upon goods as against their rightful owner 
\vhich wouhl result from the unlawful or unauthorized acts 
of another. Kxceptions to this rule have been created by 
stntuto in a few instances in the interests of trade, but the 
rule remnins, ns a general d<tctrin<^ of the law, in full force. 
There can also be no lien when the possession was fraudu- 
lently or tortiously obtained by the creditor. Aft po«8fs- 
sion is the very essence of the common-law lien, as it con- 
sists solely in the continued retention of possession, it fol- 
lows as ft necessary consequence that when possession of 
the goods is voluntarily surrentlcred the lien thereon is at 
once and for ever gone. If, however, a number of articlrs 
have been received at the same time and as one transac- 
tion, and the credit(»r afferwiirds delivers to the owner a 
portion thereof, the lien fur bis entire demand in respetrt 
f>f the whole amount remains good against the balance still 
left in his hands. For example, if 100 barrels of some com- 
modity were deposited as one lot with a warehouseman to 
be kept for liire, nnd he should from time to time permit 
the owner to withdraw iH) barrels without receiving pay- 
ment for their storage, he could retain the remaining ten 
until paid his charges for the whole number tleposited. 
Common-law liens arc cither ordinnrif (sometimes called 
special) nr tjrnrrnl. In the case of the ordiunrif or tpfciat 
lien the dcl>t or demand nuist be due for services rendered 
to or ab()ut the very articles themselves which are subject 
to it: while in that (tf the t/mcral lien the debt or demand 
may be for a general balance duo for former services of a 
similar character, rendered in respect of other goods of the 
same owner. The firmer is the rule, the latter is the ex- 
ception ; in fact, a general lien is permitted only in a very 
few instances. 

As a general propositioD, the common-law lien thus de- 
scribed arises whene\'er goods and chattels are received 
into the possession of a person, in order that he may ren- 
der some service in respect of them to the owner, upon an 
express or implied contract for compensation therefor. 
The service may consist either in the mere care and cus- 
tody of the articles, or in work nnd labor expended upon 
them, or in the advancement of money upon their credit. 
This description includes all cases of bailments for hire, 
and also certain other employments which, though not 
strictly bailments, require that the articles in connection 
with which the service is rendered should come into the 
possession of the person employed. The following arc the 
most important and familiar instances of persons who ore 
thus entitled t<t a lien upon the gootls and other articles 
which come into their possession in the course of their re- 
spective employments as a security for tho compensation 
due therefor: warehousemen an<l wharfingers; innkeepers 
on the floods of their guests; boarding-house keepers are 
not entitled to any lien at the common law. but it has been 
given to them hy statute in several States: common car- 
riers: all bailees for hire, who receive the goods of their 
employers and perform work and labor upon their con- 
struetir>n nnd repair, including tailors and mechanics of 
every kind under the circumstances thus described : auc- 
tioneers, factors, and commission -merchants for their 
charges, expenses, and advances on goods consigned for 
sale, and nn the proceeds thereof when sold; venders of 
goods sold for cash for their price: bankers, on the secu- 
rities of their customers for any adv.ances made upon the 
credit thereof: attorneys on the papers of their clients, 
and also at the common law on judgments recovered by 
them. There are other instances in which a lien exists, 
but those examples arc fully sufficient to illustrate the 



LIEERE— LIFE ASSURANCE. 



general rule. As alreaiiy stated, the common-law lien only 
allows the holder thereof to retain possession of the articles 
until bis demand is paid. 

ir. Eqnituble Liens. — The liens which belong to this 
class were created, and are exclusively enforced, by courts 
of equity. They differ in every respect from those already 
described, since possession is not an essential, nor even an 
ordinary, element of their existence, and payment of the 
demand secured can be directly enforced by their means. 
An equitable Hen is therefore a charge or incumbrance, 
cognizable iu equity, upon property, generally land, not In 
the possession of the creditor, as security for the payment 
of a debt or demand, and it may be enforced by an action 
and a decree made therein, ordering a sale of the subject- 
matter and payment of the debt out of the proceeds. The 
following are the most important eases in which such lien 
exists: (1) Whenever land is sold or conveyed, and the 
price remains unpaid, and is secured in no other manner 
than by the purchaser's own verbal or written promise, the 
vender or grantor has a lien on the land as security for 
such unpaid j)rice. (2) When lands are contracted to be 
sold, but are not conveyed, and remain in the possession 
of the vender, the vendee has a lien thereon for the pur- 
chase-price which he has prepaid, (.'i) If land is conveyed 
or devised subject to a charge upon it for the payment of 
debts or legacies, a lien arises upon it in favor of the credi- 
tors or legatees as a security for the payment of their de- 
manils. (4) A deposit of title-deeds as a security for the 
loan of money creates a lien in favor of the lender upon 
the land described in the conveyances, (o) According to 
the equitable doctrine which now prevails in many and 
perliaps most of the States, the right and interest of the 
mortgagee In an ordinary mortgage of lands is simply a lien 
on the premises as a security of the mortgage debt. 

III. Maritime or Arhniralty Liens. — The liens of this 
class are created by the law which is administered in courts 
of admiralty, and they result as incidents from various 
species of maritime contracts and torts. In their general 
nature they resemble the equitable liens, both in not requir- 
ing possession of the subject-matter by the creditor, and in 
being enforceable by a judicial jirocoeding. They consti- 
tute a charge upon the thing, even though in the custody 
of its owner, and often follow it into other countries and 
into the hands of subsequent purchasers. These liens may 
attach to the vessel, to the cargo, or to the proceeds of 
each, and to the freight earned by the ship. The most 
important cases are — (1) That of seamen for their wages on 
the ship and freight, or their proceeds. (2) That of mate- 
rial-men under certain circumstances on the vessel for re- 
pairs made or supplies furnished, (."i) That of the ship- 
owner on the cargo for the freight earned in its transport. 
This is, however, not in its full extent a maritime lien, for 
it is lost if the goods are voluntarily delivered without pay- 
ment. (4) That of the shipper on the vessel for the value 
of his goods shipped. (5) That created on the vessel by 
the execution of a bottomry bond, which is a peculiar form 
of security given by a master or other agent for money 
borrowed by them under certain special circumstances upon 
the credit of the ship. (6) That of salvors on the ship, 
cargo, or freight which they have rescued from loss by ma- 
rine perils. (7) In case of a collision tlic owners of the 
injured vessel have a lien on the one in fault for the dam- 
ages caused by the tort. Purely maritime liens are enforce- 
able by a judicial proceeding in a court of admiralty, which 
results in a Hale and payment out of the proceeds. 

IV. St'itntorif Lif-ni. — In addition to the foregoing there 
are various other liens entirely created or regulated by 
statute. One or two of the most important need only bo 
mentioned. In many of the States, and probably in most, 
a lion is given by statute to mechanics, builders, and fur- 
nishers of materials ujion the imildings constructetl or re- 
paired by them, in order to secure the cost of the materials 
furnished and the price of the work and labor done. The 
statutes conferring these liens greatly dilTer in their details, 
but they all authorize a judicial proceeding ("or their en- 
forcement niuvlogous to that for the foreclosure of mort- 
gages. Judgments are made liens upon the lands of the 
debtorM therein, hut the jtrovisions of the statutes in refer- 
ence to their commencement ami duration, and the lands 
to which they apply, are so various iind conflicting that no 
attempt will bo nmde to enumerate them. 

Nothing has been said in respect to those liens which are 
created by express agreeuicnts.becau.se their nature and 
extent must depend entirely upon the stipuhitions which 
the parties see fit to enter into, and they are therefore sub- 
ject to no general rules, and admit of no general cliissifioa- 
tion. John Norton Pomkiioy. 

Lirrrr', town of Belgium, in the province of Antwerp, 
on Ihc Ncthf. It hns large manufiictnres of lace, cotton, 
woollen, and «ilk fabrics, and cxtcntiivc breweries and dis- 
tillories. Pop. 14,701. 



Lieuten'atit [Fr., literally, "holding the place"], one 
who acts as the representative of another. In the U. S. 
army and marine corps a lieutenant is a coinmissiuiied 
oflficcr below the rank of a captain. There are two grades, 
called first and second lieutenants. The latter are the 
lowest in rank of commissioned otficers. The first and 
second lieutenants take rank with masters and ensigns 
in the navy. A lieutenant of the U. S. navy takes rank 
with a captain iu the army. His office is next higher than 
that of master, and next below that of lieutenant-com- 
mander. A lieutenant-general in the army ranks next 
below a general and next above a major-general. His 
rank is equivalent to that of a vice-admiral. Lieutenant- 
colonels in the army rank next below colonels and next 
above majors: their rank corresponds with that of com- 
manders in the navy. Lieutenant-commanders in the navy 
rank next below commanders and next above lieutenants; 
their office corresponds with that of majors in the army. 

Life. See Biologv, by Prof. Theopore Gill, M. D., 
Ph. D. 

Life Assurance is the guarantying of money con- 
tingently on human life. The guaranty is given by an 
association or corporation called a h'/e iritfiurnnre vourpany, 
and is contained, with its conditions, in a written instru- 
ment termed a policy of assnrnnce; the person on whose 
life or death payment of the sum assured is made depend- 
ent is the pevHon whose life is assnred. and the one to whom 
or his representatives the payment is to bo made on the 
happening of the contingency, find who is responsible to 
1 the company for the premiums, is the assured or poliry- 
holder; the consideration to be paid the company for assu- 
! ranee is the preminm; the chance of death or life in any 
i given year, to the person whose life is assured, is the risk. 
I A life assurance company may be proprietary, miitunl, or 
} mixed. A proprietary or stock company is one formed by 
a number of persons who subscribe a capital (and thus be- 
■ come proprietors) adequate to pay expenses and cover the 
i contingency of early losses before the premiums have suffi- 
j ciently accumulated. It is organized for dealing in life 
I contingencies as other mercantile companies are for trading 
! in goods. Policy-holders have no voice in the management 
j and do not participate in any profits which may accrue. A 
[ 7nutHal company is an association of persons, each of wliom 
j is an assurer as well as assured. Policy-holders exercise 
control through their votes for managers, and are entitled 
j to all the profits or dividends of the society. A viixrd 
I company is one formed upon a combination of the princi- 
ples of the two preceding. A cash capital is raised by a 
number of subscribers, who agree to assume responsibility 
for the first expenses and early losses, and at stated inter- 
vals to divide among the assured a certain proportion or 
the whole of the accumulated surplus or profits. 

Policies of assurance are of various kinds. The chief of 
them are — whole life, emlowment, endowment assurance, 
term, joint life, annuity, survivorship annuity. Other va- 
rieties are obtained from these by modification or combina- 
tion of conditions. 

Policies which are to be paid on the death of an indi- 
vidual are, in theory, not payable till the end of the year 
in which the given life fails : but in practice they are usu- 
ally paid in sixty or ninety days after due proofs of death 
have been furnished. In other kinds of jtoliey the time of 
payment is specified in the contract. Whatever the kind 
of policy, the premium to be paid for it by the holder de- 
pends upon the liability of death or life, in any given year, 
of the person whose life is nssureil, and on the rate of in- 
terest on money. The chance of life or death, " the risk," 
is determined from a 

Talile of Mortality, — This is a table which shows, for 
each year of life from birth to the highest age attainable, 
how many persons out of a given number alive at the be- 
ginning of any year die by the end of it. 

Dr. Price's Northampton Table was the first one known 
to have been used to determine rates of premium for life 
assurance. ( Walford.) It had many defects, as might 
reasonably bo expected from the crude state, at the time, 
of the science of vital statistics. It has been practically 
superseded in England, and has never been uiuch used 
in the U. S., except for certain purposes in courts of law. 
The tables which have been computed siiu^e, and which 
have been used to any extent in business, differ materially 
from the Northampton, but, with due allowance for such 
vnriations as might be expected from the circumstances 
attending their construction, corroborate each oilier in a 
remarkable nmnner. Siiu'e they were prepared by differ- 
ent persons from different data, their general coincidence 
forms strong proof of their essential ncourncy. Two 
tables largely used in this country by companies and for 
State supervisory ])urposcs are the Actuaries' or Combined 
Kxporionco, ancl tlie American Kxpericnce, They are hero 
iDSortcd, with the expectation of life as deduced from each: 



LIFE A8SURANCK, 



Actuawbs' Tadlb, 


AUKItlOAN EXPEBIEMOK 

Tadlu. 




Niimtior 


Nuiiib«r 


lixiiccls. 

tl<'ll. 
yenra. 


Niinihvr 


Number 


Kxricata, 




Ago. 
10 


or living. 


or iloaUia. 


ur llvliiK. 


or Uuullii. 


tlon, 
ycftrn. 


Age. 


100000 


670 


48.36 


lOOOIK) 


749 


48.7 


10 


11 


U9324 


674 


47.68 


99251 


746 


48.1 


11 


Vi 


9muo 


672 


47.01 


9S505 


743 


47.4 


12 


y.t 


97978 


071 


46.33 


97762 


740 


46.8 


13 


M 


97307 


671 


45.64 


97022 


737 


46.2 


14 


in 


961136 


071 


44.96 


96285 


735 


46.5 


15 


111 


9.5965 


072 


44.27 


955,50 


732 


44.9 


16 


17 


95293 


673 


43.58 


94K18 


729 


44.2 


17 


IM 


94620 


675 


42.88 


94089 


727 


43.5 


18 


19 


93915 


077 


42.19 


93362 


725 


42.9 


19 


211 


9326.H 


680 


41.49 


92637 


723 


42.2 


20 


21 


92.'>8« 


683 


40.79 


91914 


722 


41,5 


21 


'22 


111905 


686 


40.09 


91192 


721 


40.9 


22 


2:1 


91219 


GflO 


39.39 


90471 


720 


40.2 


23 


24 


911.529 


694 


38.68 


89751 


719 


39,5 


24 


■ir, 


89H35 


698 


37.98 


89032 


718 


38.8 


25 


211 


89137 


703 


37.27 


88314 


718 


;»«.i 


26 


27 


8.S134 


708 


36..56 


87.590 


718 


37.4 


27 


2,S 


87726 


714 


35.86 


86878 


718 


36,7 


28 


2!> 


87012 


720 


3.5.15 


86160 


719 


36.0 


29 


ao 


86292 


727 


34.43 


854)1 


720 


35.3 


30 


81 


8.55C5 


734 


33.72 


84721 


721 


34.6 


31 


32 


84831 


742 


33.01 


84000 


723 


33.9 


82 


3.t 


84089 


7.50 


32.30 


83277 


726 


33.2 


33 


:u 


83.139 


758 


31..58 


82.551 


729 


32.5 


34 


3.". 


82.581 


767 


30.87 


81822 


732 


.31.8 


.35 


Uli 


8ISI4 


776 


30.15 


81090 


737 


31.1 


.3R 


37 


81038 


785 


29.44 


80353 


742 


30.4 


37 


3« 


802.53 


795 


28.72 


79611 


749 


29,6 


38 


31) 


79I5S 


805 


28,00 


78862 


7.56 


28,9 


39 


40 


78653 


815 


27.28 


78106 


765 


28.2 


40 


41 


77838 


826 


26,56 


77341 


774 


27.5 


41 


42 


77012 


8.39 


25.84 


76567 


785 


26,7 


42 


4:1 


76173 


857 


2.5,12 


75782 


797 ■ 


26,0 


43 


44 


75316 


881 


24.40 


74985 


812 


26,3 


44 


4.5 


74435 


909 


23.09 


74173 


828 


24,5 


45 


41; 


73526 


944 


22.97 


73345 


848 


2.3.8 


46 


47 


72582 


981 


22.27 


72497 


,870 


23,1 


47 


4« 


71601 


1021 


2I..56 


71627 


896 


22.4 


48 


49 


705H0 


1063 


20.87 


70731 


927 


21,6 


49 


SO 


69517 


1108 


20,18 


69804 


962 


20,9 


.50 


51 


6S409 


1156 


19..50 


68842 


1001 


20.2 


61 


52 


67253 


1207 


18.82 


67841 


1044 


19.5 


52 


53 


66046 


1261 


18.16 


66797 


1091 


18.8 


53 


54 


64785 


1318 


17.50 


65706 


1143 


18,1 


54 


5.) 


g:)469 


1375 


16.86 


64.563 


1199 


17.4 


65 


5G 


62094 


1436 


16,22 


6:l36l 


1260 


16,7 


56 


57 


60658 


1497 


15.59 


62104 


1325 


16,1 


57 


68 


S9161 


1.561 


14.97 


60779 


1394 


15.4 


58 


S9 


S7G00 


1627 


14.37 


,59385 


1468 


14.7 


59 


60 


5.5973 


1698 


13.77 1 


67917 


1.546 


14.1 


60 


61 


51275 


1770 


13.18 


.5637 1 


1628 


13.5 


61 


62 


52505 


1844 


12.61 


.54743 


1713 


12.9 


62 


63 


50661 


1917 


12.05 


.530.30 


ISOO 


12,3 


63 


64 


48744 


1990 


11.51 


61230 


1,S89 


11.7 


64 


6.-1 


46754 


2061 


10.97 


49341 


1980 


11,1 


66 


66 


44693 


2128 


10.46 


47361 


2070 


10,5 


66 


67 


42565 


2191 


9.96 


4.5291 


21,58 


10,0 


67 


6S 


40374 


2246 


9.47 


43133 


2243 


9,5 


68 


GU 


38128 


2291 


9.00 


40890 


2321 


9,0 


69 


70 


35837 


2327 


8.54 


38569 


2391 


8,5 


70 


71 


33510 


2.351 


8.10 


36178 


2448 


8,0 


71 


72 


311.59 


2362 


7.67 


3:)730 


2487 


7,6 


72 


73 


28797 


2:1.58 


7.26 


31243 


2.505 


7,1 


73 


74 


26139 


2339 


6.86 


287.38 


2.501 


6,7 


74 


75 


24100 


2303 


6.48 


26237 


2476 


6.3 


75 


76 


21797 


2249 


6.11 


23761 


2431 


6,9 


76 


77 


19548 


2179 


8.76 


21330 


2.369 


5,5 


77 


78 


17369 


2092 


6.42 


18961 


2291 


5.1 


78 


79 


1,5277 


1987 


5.09 


16670 


2196 


4.8 


79 


80 


1)290 


1SG6 


4,78 


14474 


2091 


4.4 


80 


81 


11424 


1730 


4,48 


12383 


1964 


4.1 


81 


82 


9094 


1582 


418 


10419 


1816 


3.7 


82 


83 


8112 


1427 


3.90 


8603 


1648 


3,4 


83 


84 


66S5 


12G8 


3,63 


6955 


1470 


3,1 


84 


8.5 


5417 


UU 


3.36 


.5485 


1292 


2.8 


85 


88 


4306 


953 


3,10 


4193 


1114 


2,5 


86 


S7 


3348 


811 


2.84 


3079 


933 


2,2 


87 


8i 


2.537 


673 


2..59 


2146 


744 


1.9 


88 


89 


1864 


545 


2.35 


1402 


5,55 


1.7 


89 


9) 


1319 


427 


2.11 


847 


385 


1.4 


90 


91 


892 


322 


1.89 


462 


246 


1 2 


91 


9> 


.570 


231 


1.67 


216 


1.37 


i!o 


92 


93 


M9 


15.5 


1.47 


79 


58 


0.8 


93 


94 


184 


95 


1,28 


21 


18 


0.6 


94 


95 


89 


62 


1,12 


3 


3 


0.5 


95 


9i 


37 


24 


0,99 








96 


97 


13 


9 


0.89 








97 


93 


4 


3 


0,75 








98 


99 


I 


1 


0,50 








99 



Tho manner of reading such a tabic is af»paient. According 
to llu? Aotuarios' Table, of 100.000 persons alive at age ten, 
1)71) will (lie before reaeliiiis; aire eleven ; upon their next 
year will then enter the difference between iOO.dOO and t)76, 
or 9H.;;24, of whom 674 will dio before attaining age 
twelve; etc. At ago ten the oxpeetation of life is 4S.36 
years ; at ago eleven, 17. fi?* years, etc, 

Hy the '• expeetation of life " at any ago is meant the 
mean after- life time remaining to persons of that age. 



Tho doturminaiion of tho expectation of lifo may be of 
intercHt to tho general rcuilcr, but it Im of little or no prac- 
tical valiio In aHHuriLitce bunincHH proper. The real uho of 
thu mortality table in an aHHurancc odice Ih to find the 
average chance of death or lifi; in any yt.'ur of pcntonx of a 
given age. To obtain tUn average chance of death, tuke, 
for example, a pcrnrtn aged 10, The American table KhowH 
that of 7HJ<)tI perfonH alive at that age, 76.'; died during 
the Kuececding year, or about VH in 1 0,000 ; the chance that 
iiuf/ one of them will die ih expreKned by 765 divided by 
7H,I06, or, approximately, by y/^jfog ; and similarly for 
any age in tho table. If it \n deHJred to lind the average 
chance that a person ageii (0 will Hurvive 41 and die before 
reaching 42, tlie proeens xv. equiilly f^imple. ThuH, of 7h,|(jG 
person« agerl 40, 774 survive the yejir immediately follow- 
ing, and (lie before reaching 42, or about If'J in 10,000; the 
chance that «»_»/ onr of them will do mo ifi therefore ex- 
presyed by 774 divided by JK.IOfi, or, nearly, by toVoo ! 
and 80 for ea*;h 8ucceeding year. The chance of tijc lor 
fiucccHsive years Ih also easily dcducible, Since a person 
aged 40 has OS chances in 10,000 of (i;fin*f during the year, 
he must, have lO.OttO f/iminiHfifd by 08 ebancep, or nearly 
99 ehnnces in 100, of fin'uf/ through the first year; siuco 
ho has W chances in 10,000 of surviving the first and f/yiii^ 
the ReeoHfl year, he must have 9U0I chances in 10,000, or 
about 9It chances in 100 of turvtrimj the second year. 

In addition to the chance of life or death in any given 
year, ns ib-lermined from the mortality table, the picmium 
for assurance depends also, in purl, upon the rate of interest 
on money. Tho premium in not to be locked up in a com- 
pany's safe and left unproductive. It is expected to earn 
interest, and thus assist the policy-holder in carrying out 
his design. Oim great function of eompany officers is to 
see that the premium does its full share of the work. It is 
of the first importance, therefore, to determine at the outlet 
how much assistance this matter of interest can be safely 
counted upon to render — not this year nor next j'car alone, 
but always. In mutual companies of the U. S. the rate gen- 
erally assumed is 4 per cent.; in proprietary companies it 
is somewhat higher. Tho rate of interest being fixed and 
a mortality table selected, the determination of the pre- 
mium for any kind of policy is simple in principle. 

The full or "^h:c premium in any case consists of two 
parts— the pure or net premium, as it is termed, and a cer- 
tain addition thereto called the toudiutj. The loading and 
(consequently) expenses and contingencies of business will 
for the moment be disregarded, and the net premium alono 
considered. The general method of determining the pre- 
mium is the same whatever the amount of the policy, the 
age of tho assured, the kind of c<nupany selected, the rato 
of interest, and tabic of mortality. 

I. A whitlc-li/c puHvy is a contract in which the company 
agrees to pay the representatives of the assured a specified 
amount of money at the end of the year in which he may 
die. The net premium may Ijepaid in several ways. First, 
ill one singh; payment in adviinee, known as the net single 
premium. It will be observed that while the premium is 
paid at once, the amount of the policy is not due till the 
end of the year in which the given life fails. If it had cer- 
tainhf to be paid at the end of the first year, the premium 
necessary would be $1000 discounted for a year at 4 per 
cent. (1. c. such a sum as, invested at 4 per cent., would 
amount to $1000 at the cud of the year)— that is, $961.54 
nearly : but it has to be paid only on couditi"n that tho 
assured shall die during the year. The chance of hisdcath 
is found from the mortality table (as before explained) to 
be ninety-eight ten-thousnndths of certainty, and hence 
the net premium for the first year should be TQ^o^ijths of 
$961.54, or $9.42. In the same way. if the policy had cer- 
tainly to l>e paid at the end of the second year, the pre- 
mium for this would be $1000 discounted for ttco years at 
4 per cent, compound interest — that is, $924.56; but the 
average chance that a person aged 40 will survive 41 and 
dio before attaining 42 was found to be ninety-nine ten- 
thousandths of certainty, and therefore (he proper premium 
for the second year is yxiVoff'''^ "*^ $924.56, or $9.15. The 
net charge being, then, $9.42 for the first year and $9.15 
for the second, it will for both be the sum of these, or 
SIS. 57. Calculate in like manner the requisite premium 
I for the third year, the fourth year, and for every separate 
I year up to and including the last year of life .is given in 
i the table, whicli is ','5 : add the results for all the separate 
' years together, and the sum will be found to be $o67.5S, 
which is the net single premium required for the policy 
consiilered. 
j The net single premium, being comparatively large, may 
I for various reasons be inconvenient or undesirable. A plan 
has therefore been devised by which a series of equal antttml 
payments, continued for life, m.ay effect the same object. 
; These annual premiums, which are made at the beginning 
I of each year, must have a present value equal to the net 



LIFE ASSUEANCE. 



single payment, for the latter is just sufficient. The pres- 
ent value of a series of equal payments, each of given 
amount, to be made at stated periods for a specified length 
of time (money bearing a certain rate of interest), is that 
sum of money "which, invested at the given rate of interest, 
will produce the given amount at the successive periods for 
the whole of the time. To obtain the equal annual pay- 
ment required, find, first, the present value of one dollar 
paid at the beginning of each year by a person aged 40 as 
long as he shall live. The first payment, being made at 
once and subject to no contingency, is worth one dollar; 
the second, due a year after the first, would, if certain to 
be received, be worth one dollar discounted for a year at 4 
per cent. — that is, 06 cents: but its receipt depends on a 
person's being alive to pay it, the chance of which, as be- 
fore shown, being ninety-nine hundredths of certainty, the 
second payment is worth ^^ijths of 90 cents, or 95 cents; 
the third payment, due two >ears after the first, would, if 
certain, be worth one dollar discounted for ttco years at 4 
per cent., compound interest — that is, 92 cents: but the 
chance of its reception being ninety-nine hundredths of 
certainty, it is worth Y<fV'^ ^^ ^" cents, or 91 cents: the 
three payments are together worth the sum of these, or 
$2.86. Continue thus to estimate the contingent value of 
the payment for each successive year of life up to and in- 
cluding 95; add all the results together, and the sum, 
$16.44, is the present value in one payment of one dollar 
paid annually in advance for life by a person aged 40. 
Since, then, $16.44 is the present value of one {foliar paid 
as described, $367.58 must be the equivalent of an annual 
payment made in like manner by the same person, found 
by" dividing $307.58 by 10.44— that is, $22.35, which is the 
net annual premium sought. 

To explain the function of the net premium, let it be 
assumed at first that the payments for a policy are in 
equal annual premiums continued for life. The same ex- 
planation will serve, mutatis miit{tii<.lis, when payments are 
otherwise made. The net annual premium being invaria- 
ble in amount, and the risk of death to the assured increas- 
ing from year to year, such premium must accomplish two 
purposes. It must, in the first place, pay year by year 
what is technically called the co8t of assurance. This ex- 
pression, as used by an actuary, means something quite 
different from what a policy-holder means by it. To the 
latter it is the premium ; to the former it is the part which 
that premium must contribute to the death-claims in any 
year. On the hypothesis that the mortality table is e.vact 
(and all the calculations must be made on this supposition), 
a certain number of policies will annually become claims 
by death. These must be ]>aid, and as the company is sup- 
posed a mutual one. and has no capital beyond what has 
been and is contributed by the policy-holders, each pre- 
mium must contribute its just proportion to meet the obli- 
gations. Thus, of 10,000 persons, aged 40, assured in a 
company, 9H will die the first year, and, each policy being 
for $100*0. $'JS,000 will have to be paid. As provision is 
made at the hiijlnniuij of tlio year, and the policies arc not 
payable till the md of it, ,$98,000 discounted for a year at 
4 per cent., or $94,230, will be sufficient, which for each of 
the 10,000 would, if each paid jnut enough to raise tho 
necessary fund, be $9.42 apiece. But each pays a net pre- 
mium of $22.35, and henec pays $12.93 more tliau is neces- 
sary for the current obligations; therelore. each of tlioso 
who die contributes to his own claim $12.93, which for the 
98 amounts to .$1207, leaving the real amount to be pro- 
vided by tho company the difiVrcnce between $91,230 and 
$1207, or $92,903: tliis for each of the 10,000 is $9.29. 
This $9.29 is the cost of ass'urance for tho first year, and 
is actually paid out by tho company if the table-mortality 
is experienced. It is tho contribution which each of tho 
premiums under consideration must make for the benefit 
of the representatives of those of the co-assured who do not 
survive the year. 

The second function of the net premium is to provide a 
dt'poait to the credit of each policy at the end of the year. 
Till' nccesfity of thit* deposit is apparent. If each year's 
cost of afsuranee. anil tluit only, were paid each year, the 
charge to the asHurcd wtiuld be lighter in the first years of 
tho policy than under the equal-annual piiynient system, 
but it would grow steadily heavier with advancing time, 
and finally become an intolenible burden. To prevent 
tliin, he pays more at first than the risk is worth, that at a 
hilcr date he may pay Icsh. Knteririg at -10, and paying 
each year by itself, hin net premium on a policy of $1000 
for tho first year would be $9.42 ; at 58. it woubl "be $22.05 ; 
at "0, $59.61 : at 95, $961.54 ; and these chargoh' a company 
would b»' eornpellnri (n make to be entitled to confidence; 
yet under tlio equalized wystem it is no more at any time 
than $22.3.'i. It is evitlent from this that \\\v. cxcessof the 
payments in tho earlier years must be rigorouwly set asiilo 
a>t u fund, which, with tho intoroat uouumulated ujion it. 



will suffice to make good the inadequacy of those of later 
j-ears. The method of determining the amount of the ne- 
cessary deposit has just been illustrated. In the ease con- 
sidered the dt^posit on each policy in force at the end of 
the first year is $13.58 j at the end of the second year it is 
$27.64 ; and similarly for each succeeding year. If tho 
assured wlio entered at age 40 were just entering at 41, his 
net annual |)remium would bo $23.19: yet he pays but 
$22.35 — 84 cents less — because he has on deposit $13.58,* 
which {4 per cent, interest being assumed) is the present 
value in hand of 84 cents paid annually in advance for life 
by a person aged 41. If he were just entering at 42, his 
net annual premium would be $24.08; but he pays $1.73 
less, because his deposit of $27.64-^-" is the present value of 
$1.73 paid annually in advance for life by a person aged 
42: at the end of ten years the deposit to his credit must 
be $157.29, the present value of $11.35 — the difference be- 
tween the net premium $22.35, which he pays, and $33.70, 
which he would be required to pay if he were just taking 
his policy at age 50. The amount of the deposit on a 
policy paid for by equal annual premiums, continued for 
life, must always be the present value of the difference 
between the net premium paid and that which would be 
requisite if it were taken by the same person at his then 
increased age at the beginning of the year next succeeding. 
It is evident, from what has |)receded, that when a life 
policy is paid for by annual premiums continued for life, 
the deposit or reserve is accumulated to aid the assured in 
continuing his assurance from year to year; that when 
paid for by a single premium such dejjosit is intended to 
effect his continued assurance: and that when paid for by 
annual premiums continued for a limited number of years 
only, the deposit is to aiii the policy-holder until the ex- 
piration of tho given number of years, at which time it 
must be sufficient to effect the continued assurance. 

II. A term policy is a contract in which the company- 
agrees to pay the representatives of the assured a specified 
amount of money at the end of the year in which he may 
die, provided his death should occur within a certain num- 
ber of years named in the policy. 

III. An endo}rmrut policy is one in which the oompany 
agrees to pay a specified amount to the assured himself at 
a certain future period (stated in the contract) if he should. 
then be alive to receive it. The net premium may be paid 
at once or at stated intervals, as may be agreed. 

Children's Endtnnnent Policies. — These are promises to 
pay, on a child's attaining the age of IS. 21, or 25 years, as 
may bo stated, a certain specified amount. In case of the 
child's death before the age specified, the premiums jiaid may 
be retained or returned, according to agreement. If they 
are to be returned, the policy is of a mixed character, con- 
sisting of a pure endowment for which a certain premium, 
either single or annual, must be paid, and a term assurance 
on the child's life of an amount which varies with the pre- 
miums paid before the policy becomes a claim, for which an 
additional premium must be paid. 

IV. An endowment assurnnee (commonly called an endow- 
ment) policy is a combination of a ]ture endowment with a 
term policy. By it the company agrees to pay a stipulated 
sum of money at a certain future period in case the person 
on whoso life assurance is made should then be alive, or at 
his death if that should happen before the expiration of 
the period. 

V. A joint-life policy is a contract to pay a certain 
amount "on tho death of one of two or more persons named, 
on tho joint continuance of whoso lives assurance is made. 
There are not usually more than two persons named, though 
there may be three or more. 

VI. Annuitij. — This is a contract in which a company 
agrees to pay a given sum annually, cither during the re- 
mainder of life, or for a specified number of yenrs if tho 
person on whoso life assurance is made should live so long, in 
consideration of agross sum paid at once by the annuitant. 

VII. A survivnrNhip annuity is an agreement to pay a 
specified annuity to a nominee during his survivorship of 
the person on whoso life assurance is made. 

Tile policies which have been briefiy e.xplaincd are tho 
chief and fundamental ones. Other varieties are obtained 
by variations of conditions as to forfeiture, to mode and 
time of paying premiums, to distribution of surplus, etc. 
But one such variety will be treated (»f here, viz. : 

'fnntine Dividend or .S'.rc'm/N fund }\,lie>i. — This ip an 
ordinary life policy, or an endowment assurance pitlioy 
with fri>Mi ten to twenty years or more to run. in which t!io 
tontine jirinciple is applied to dividends. The distinctive 
features of it are — tho holders of such policies constitute a 
class by themselves : they do not pnrtieipato in jtrofits till 

*Kaeb of ihc-^e amounts is, in coii.'*er|uencc of tbe fractinns 
disrenardcfl in the enlculalion, .slightly In error; Init here, iis in 
other examples Kiven, accuracy of result is made to yield tohim- 
pUclty of illustration. 



I All: ASHUKANCK. 



after tlio lii|i(io of a oortain iiuiiiIjlt of yviirn (Ion, fiflcon, or 
twenty). HjH'cilhMi ill tliM policy ; in ciiH-of dtJiiih ht-furotho 
(liviil(!ii<l in'iioil lii*(;inK, IIh; ii'iin'Bcntiitiv»!» of tlic acHurLMl 
will riM'civo IIh- Hum Mfourvil Wy the puliey iiiul itu muro ; no 
Biirn-ndcr viiluo will hv alluwi-tl (u any onr wli«i iimy relin- 
qiiinli \us iiolicy, an<l iio divni.-inl will In- fn-ilitrd to hiiuIi 
iinlic.ii'H as inav lioeoini! (rliiiniH tjclorc tlic iliviilfrid jic-rioii 
urrivfrt; all prolits nofiiiiiij; fiMnn cvury Mourco within llu* 
I'liiHH arc roHtTvcil till Ilic arrival of tlir npeiMliud dividi-nd 
iK'rind : IIh) aircuinulatcd dividcndH arc thrn to ho «'(iui- 
tiililv dividfd, on the (Mirilrilnitiun plan, auiou^ ^uuli puliuictl 
an arc then artuiilly in torco. 

IfiHtu-ve. — Upon cacii policy issued a depoHit inutit auou- 
iniilato in cacli surecssivc year of its cnrnnioy, upon llie 
Hanni p-noral principles an<l for tlio Hanio reaHons a« wi.'re 
piven under Hie polioief. It may in j^eiieral be Htaled that 
the deposit on a policy at the end of any year iiuiHt ho lliu 
prrMi'iit viihie of the dilVerence between the net premium 
piiid by the assureil and that whitdi would bo retjuired from 
him if ho woro just takin;;. at luH tlien increased a^o, a 
policy of like kind an<l amount t(M'minal>l(> at the period 
gper'ifird in the policy. The sum-total of all tho depositu 
he! 1, with their aeuiimulated interest at tho aHsuined rate, 
in known as tho reaervf. It ia also called ymrrrf fur >■*■- 
iimnrtturfi, iimsmucli as it is tho anniunt with respect to oa(di 
policy which a company, in transferring or reinyuring its 
individual risks, would bo obliged to pay another conipany 
t() maUo it safe for tho latter to undertake them. (As to 
general reinsurance or amalgamation of companies, sco 
N. Y. All*. lirport, 1874.) 

Rtufintrred Ptt/iriett. — In several of tho States life com- 
panies authorized to transact business therein are permitted 
by law to make with tho State insurance department a 
special dejuisit of securities fnr the protection of certain 
policies. Th« ptdicios thus jirotectcd are duly registoretl in 
proper hooks kept in the department for that purpose. The 
securities fo deposited must always be kept equal in value 
to the net present value of the registered policies. Tho 
State makes itself responsible for the safe-keeping and 
proper application of the reserve fund on tho registered 
policies of a- conipany (and on these only), but docs not 
guaranty the p;iyment of such policies at maturity. 

Linti/iiiif. — The premiums so far considered nro net pre- 
miums; that is. premiums calculated with matbcnialical 
exactness, on certain assumjitioiis of mortality and interest, 
to aci'oniplish tho payment of the assured sum or gums at 
tho time agreed upon, and nothing else. If the assumptions 
on which the trulculations are made should accord with the 
fiicts experienced in a company, nothing would be left 
for expenses and otlier necessities of the business. The net 
premium must bo increased by a sum sutticient to provide 
for expenses and contingencies. This additional sum. ob- 
tained by taking a iiereentage of the net premium, is called 
tho loading; and it. added to the net premium, forms the 
full or itffiir premium. The expenses of c«tndncting the 
business arc many and large. The chief of them is that of 
agents. Nearly all the business of a life company is ob- 
tained through agents, who devote their time to soliciting 
custom and securing the prompt payment of premiums. 
For their services they are paid chiefly by "commission," 
which is a certain percentage of the ))remiums on policies 
obtained through their instrumentality. Tho commission 
is not uniform, but varies according to the practice ami 
stamliiig of each company. If an agent has an interest in 
ninro than one premium paid on a jiolicy. he m,ay dispose 
of sucli interest to the company, as ho sometimes docs, for 
a gross sum in hand, called in tho company's reports a 
*• commuted commission." Besides tho agents, a company 
must pay its general officers and other employt^s^ taxes, 
bills for advertising and printing. legal fees. etc. etc. 

Fnr/eitiirc or Lnpfit . — In all kinds (»f policy, in which 
tho continuance of life is of pecuniary advantage to a com- 
pany, there are certain conditions imposed upon tho as- 
sured, violation of which will work a forfeiture to the com- 
pany of the pohcy and of all payments made tliercon. 
Such conditions are with reference to limits of travel and 
residence, to certain hazardous occupations, to death by 
suicide or in consequence of the violation of law, to tho 
accuracy of the statements and declarations made in the 
application for the policy, and to tho prompt payment of 
the premiums on or before the day or days on which thoy 
fall due. With respect to the condition in the policy that 
if the assured shall "die by his own hand" the policy 
shall be void, there appears to he some diversity of opinion 
in the courts. Tho law is well settled in Kngland. and in 
the States of Massachusetts and New York, that in the 
event of suicide the representatives of the assured can only 
recover upon proof th;)t the act of self-destruction was not 
his voluntary and wilful act, and wns committed at a time 
when he had not sutTicient power of mind and reason to 
understand the physical nature and consequences of his 



act, without rcfertinco lo Win capacity at Ihv time tu appre 
oiato ilH moral ohuracler. The.Supreiiio Court of Iho V. S,, 
however, in a lulo eaBc, reported in tlu! I.'ith of W'attartj'M 
lirpnrtH^ buK laid down the followiog rule, the preciiio 
etlec't of which in not very clear, iiinee it includftt ueverai 
conditions that can hardly cocxiHt : " If tlied<utli in iMiiih< d 
by the voluntary act of the uHHured, hu knowing and in- 
tending that liiH d4-ath tdiall be tho rettull of Iiih act, but 
when his reasoning tatmlties arc do far iinpuired that he ii4 
not able to undurHland the moral ehuructer, the general 
nature, consequences, and efleet of the net he is about to 
commit, or when lie is impelled thereto by an insane im- 
pulse which ho has not the power to icHiHl, imeli death JH 
not within the conteinjdation id the parties lo the contract. 
and the insurer is liable." It further appears from the carte 
just roferreil to that *' there is no presumption of law, 
priin/l ftirie or otherwise, that self-destruction arisen from 
insanity/' and that it devolves on the claimant to prove 
suclt insanity on tho part of the decedent, at tho time of 
the commission of the suicidal act, " as will relieve the act 
of taking his own life from the eflV'ct which, by the general 
terms used in the policy, sclf-destruclion was to have — 
namely, to avoicl tho policy." For travel or residence be- 
yond the limits assigncrl in the policy and for hazardous 
occupations special permits must be obtained from the 
company; and the extra risk involved in such travel, resi- 
dence, or occupation will not bo covered until the company 
has agreed in writing to accept it. For violation of the 
remaining conditions of a jiolicy, forfeiture is in general 
absolute, though special arrangements or provisions are 
sr>inotiines mado with respect to the payment of premium. 
The premium should, however, always be paid promptly 
when duo. All the calculations are based upon such pay- 
ments, whicli aro the very life of a policy, and could not 
be waived to any extent by a company without danger to 
all interested in it. Tho premiums should, moreover, bo 
paid in cnHh, and not partly in cash and partly in promis- 
sory notes. Tho '"note" system is a fallacious one, and 
many companies which adopted it at first are retinquisti- 
iug it as fast as possible. 

Surrender. — After a certain number of payments have 
been mado by a policy-holder, coni]>anics will in general, 
if ho apply in time and surrender his policy, grant him a 
sum of money called tho Hxirreudcr value. The equitable 
surrender value of a jiolicy is a matter much in dispute 
among actuaries and others interested in the business, and 
is much niisunilerstoo<l among the assured. Its small 
amount as compared with tht- premiums paid astonishes 
the policy-holder, and leads him to think he has been im- 
posed upon. IJut it must be remembered that a part of 
the premium is consumed every year in the payment of 
cost of assurance an<l exiionses ; all that remain are the 
deposit or reserve, and in mutual companies any dividends 
which may have accrued. Tlie deposit, ealhd sometimes 
the " net value " of a policy, is contributed by the policy- 
holder, and accumulated to aid in his continued assurance ; 
dividends arise chiefly from the over-payments of the as- 
sured, and in mutual companies belong lo them. So far. 
therefore, as it can be mathematically determined, the sur- 
render value of a policy at any time is in proprietary com- 
panies tho deposit on the policy at the time, and in mutual 
compauics tho deposit added to dividends credited to tho 
policy. 

SurpluB, Pi-o/itu, or Dividends. — Each of the assumptions 
made in calculating the net premium gives rise to surplus. 
That premium is estimated on the supposition that the 
death rate in the company will be that called for by the 
mortality tal>le. and that but 4 per cent, interest will bo 
realized on money. No properly managed company expe- 
riences the assumed death rate. The ''new business" fur- 
nishes every year a number of carefully selected lives, 
which, being better for some years than the average, di- 
minish the company's mortuary rate. The ratio of tho 
estimated to the actual mortality varies in different compa- 
nies and in different years, and depends in great mca><ure 
upon the skill and care with which the risks are selected. 
It is safe to say, further, that the companies get «#> instead 
of /'our per cent, on their investments: some of them ob- 
tain over seven. The loadi)i;f, added to the net premium 
for expenses, also provides surplus. The average loading 
is about X\\ per cent, of the net premium. The average 
expense of management does not exceed IS per cent, of the 
gross premium receipts. 

The above-enumerated sources of surplus or dividends 
are the chief, and are likely to bo the enduring ones. 
There is another, however, which is mainly due to instabil- 
ity of purpose or of fortune on the part of policy-holders 
— viz. surrender and lapse of policies. 

/tiitribution of Surplus. — In ]»ropriet.iry companies the 
surplus belongs to the stockholders, and is their profit. In 
mutual companies it belongs lo l!ie policy-holders, from 



LIFE ASSURANCE. 



■whose necessary overpayments it chiefly arises, and repre- 
sents to theui, not profit, but gavinf/s. The proper mode of 
its distribution in mutual companies is a somewhat vexed 
question, upon which many opinions have been expressed. 
A comparatively few companies in the U. S. use the *' per- 
centage " plan of division ; that is, the share of each policy- 
holder is determined by taking a certain percentage of the 
amount of premiums paid. By this method the age of the 
assured is not considered, and the origin of the surplus is 
ignored. Most companies have, however, adopted the "con- 
tribution plan." devised in lSfi2 by Messrs. Sheppard IIo- 
mans and D. Parks Fackler, who were at the time actuaries 
of the Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York. The 
design of this plan is to divide the surplus among the pol- 
icy-holders in proportion to their individual overpayments 
or contributions to the surplus fund. 

The method of determining these "proportions over- 
paid " is. briefly and without the use of equations, as fol- 
lows (it is assumed that the policy is a whole-life one, paid 
for by equal annual premiums) : At the begiunhitj of the 
year, the company had to the credit of the policy the de- 
posit or reserve upon it at the end of the preceding year 
and the full annual premium then just paid. From the 
annual premium must be taken the proportion of actual 
expenses properly chargeable to the policy ; the remainder, 
added to the reserve, must then be increased by interest at 
the rate actually received by the company. From the 
amount thus obtained must be taken — Isr, the actual cost 
of assurance for the year; 2d, the reserve necessary to be 
held at the close of the current year : the remainder is the 
contribution to surplus. This contribution, added to the 
policy's share in the *' miscellaneous profits," if any, con- 
stitutes the estimated dividend in favor of the policy. The 
total surplus is not in mutual companies distributed. A 
portion of it is retained as a contingent fund or temporary 
reserve. 

Modes of Appfi/ing Dividends. — There are in common use 
two ways of applying the dividend credited to a policy — 
viz. to the purchase of an additional amount of assurance, 
and as cash in payment of premium. Assume, for illustra- 
tion, a life policy of $5000 taken out at age 30, and paid 
for by an equal annual premium of $113.50; and further, 
that after it has run four years a dividend of $64.17 has 
been credited to it. The holder may use the dividend — 
First, to purchase an addition to the amount of the policy. 
At ago 34, to which the assured has then attained, the net 
single premium for a policy of $1000 is $321.86 : tlie div- 
idend of $64.17 will therefore purchase an addition of 
$199.37, no expense or commissions being charged to the 
dividend. This addition, sometimes called a ** reversionary 
dividend," of $199.37 is a paid-up policy for that amount, 
and earns dividends : it is payable with the original policy, 
and is in general subject to its terms. Second, as cash, to 
diminish by $64.17 the premium then just due. Other 
methods of application have been and are still employed; 
such as to the purchase (the assured being in sound health 
at the time) of a temporary assurance ibr one or more 
years; to the reduction of all subsequent premiums for 
which the assured is liable; to limit the number of pre- 
miums required; but the two first given arc the chief and 
grow in favor every year. 

Gorrntment Siiperviaiou. — A few of the U. S. have no laws 
regulating life companies further than may be necessary for 
purposes of taxation. The most of them, however — and all 
of them in which the business has grown to be of any import- 
ance — have made special provisions for the protection of 
policy-holders and the sui)ervision of companies by a State 
officer. The following brief abstract of the iusurance law of 
New York, taken from Walford's O'cueral Insnrauce Statutes 
of the U.S. (1871). and the Supplement thereto (1872), will 
well illustrate the kind of supervision exercised and of pro- 
tection ntl'urdcd to policy-holders. In New York a State 
superintendent of insurance has supervision of companies; 
a life company is prohibited from taking any risks other 
than such as are connected with or appertain to nmking 
assurance on life and the granting, purchasing, and dis- 
posing of annuities ; before commencing business each such 
company must have a capital of at least $l(Mt,nOO paid in 
and invested in stocks or treasury notes of the U. S. or of 
I he State of Now York, or in bonds and mortgages on im- 
proved and unincumlicred real estate within the State of 
New York worth 75 per cc-nt. more than the amount loaned 
thereon, exclusive of farm buihlings thereon, or in such 
stocks and Bcourities as now are or may hereafter bo ro- 
ccivabie by the bank department — such securities, to the 
amount of $100,000 in II. S. or Now York State stocks, to 
be deposited with the superintendent, and hold by him for 
tho security of pohcy-holders; a company chartered by 
another State and wishing to transact business in New 
York miiflt liave the same amount of actual capital securely 
invested as companies chartered by Now York ; tho su])er- 



intendent being satisfied of a company's compliance with 
the law will issue it a certificate of authority to commence 
business; each company chartered by the State must invest 
its funds or accumulations in bonds and mortgages on un- 
incumbered real estate within the State of New York, or 
outside of the said State and within fifty miles of the city 
of New Y'ork, worth 50 per cent, more than the sum loaned 
thereon, or in stocks of the U. S., stocks of the State, or 
of any incorporated city of the State if at or above par, 
and any stocks created under the acts of the State that 
shall be at the time of such investment at a market price 
in the city of New Y'ork at or above par; a detailed state- 
ment, on blanks furnished by the superintendent, must bo 
made of its affairs by each company transacting business 
in the State on the first day of January in each year, or 
within sixty days thereafter — such statement to contain a 
particular account of the company's assets, liabilities, in- 
come, and expenditures during the year, the number, kind, 
and amount of its policies in force at the commencement 
and at the end of the year, the number, kind, and amount 
of new policies issued by it and of policies terminated, with 
the mode of termination, during the year; the information 
obtained from the annual reports of the companies must be 
arranged and tabulated by the superintendent and pre- 
sented by him, with such remarks and recommendations as 
he may deem jjropcr, to the legit^lature in his annual re- 
port; tho superintendent must make at least once in every 
five years, and may make annually in his discretion, valua- 
tions of all outstanding policies and other obligations of 
every American life company doing business in the State — 
the valuation of the policies to be made according to the 
American Experience Table of mortality and an assumed 
rate of interest at 4;V per cent. : the superintendent is em- 
powered to address inquiries to any company on any mat- 
ter connected with its transactions, reply to which must be 
promptly made in writing under penalty of a revocation 
of the company's authority to transact business : whenever 
the superintendent has reason to suspect the correctness of 
any annual statement, or that tho affairs of a company 
making such statement are in unsound condition, he must 
cause an examination of its affairs to be made, and for pur- 
poses of such examination must have free access to the 
books of the company, and is authorized to examine ofiicers 
and agents under oath, the penalty for refusing the requisite 
facilities for the examination being the forfeiture of tho 
com]iany's charter or tho revocation of its authority to 
transact business in the State — the result of the examina- 
tion to be pul>lished in the newspaper in which State no- 
tices are published whenever the superintendent shall deem 
it for the public interest to do' so ; if it shall appear from 
examination that a company chartered by the State has 
assets insufficient to rein;^ure its outstanding risks, tho 
superintendent must communicate the tact to the attorney- 
general of tho State, who must thereupon present the com- 
pany in tho supreme court, and after a full hearing the 
court will, if tho assets are found insufficient, decree a dis- 
solution of the company and a distriliuliou of its effects, 
including tho securities deposited with the superintendent; 
a company chartered by another State and transacting 
business in New York will, under tlie like circumstance 
of insufficient assets, have its certitieate of authority for 
the transaction of business in the State revoked, and bo 
compelled tc) cease business tlierein ; when a company in- 
tends to discontinue business it must give notice to the 
superintendent, who will cause notice of such intention to 
be published in the paper in which State notices are in- 
serted at least twice a week for six months, and after tho 
superintendent, u])on full examination of the affairs of such 
company, is satisliecl that all the liabilities of the company 
are fully met, ho is then, and not before, to deliver up to 
the company the securities held by him for the protection 
of the policy-holders of the company. 

Statistics. — There were in iTreat Hritain and ber depend- 
e'Yicies, Jan. 1, 1871, 136 life companies, which had in force 
1,243,439 policies, assuring £301.213.114. In (icruiany 
(including Austria and Switzerland), there were at the same 
date 36 companies, whicli had in force 42 1,922 jiolicies, as- 
suring 401.(132,407 thalers. In France tho business has, 
in consequence of strong jirejudices and enaetnients which 
early prevailed against it, and have but recently begun to 
give way, made but slow progress ; antl there were, Dec. 31, 
1S71, biit 97,841 existing policies, assuring 973,000,000 
francs. 

In 18.'>9 the insurance department of the State of New 
York was created by a('t of ihe legislature and was organized 
in Jan., 18fi0. Massachusetia had a few years previously es- 
tablished a department of supervision, and subsequently 
other States followed the example. The healthful inllucnco 
exorcised by State laws in shaping and ilc\eloping the busi- 
ness, the pulplie conlidenee begotten of State supervision 
and the ]>ubticalion of detailed annual reports, tho activity 



LII'KBOATS. 



9 



profiuoed by tho pcrsonnl nolicitntlonfl of nuniProii»< iifccmtii, 
(vvti'iiHivo iKlviTMoiuK through iKiWuiuiprTu, cirouliirt*, ami 
piiiii|ihl<-tH, th<4 iiiiML'tlltMl Ktitio of nioni'lury vahicM in the 
ooiiiitry riciir thi_' uluxo of and iiffcr the wiir ut'tlic n-lu'llion, 
io;;i-(h<'r willi tho intrin.sic viilun of lh<^ iii-tilulidti ilr^clf, 
rhiisimI the 1)11. 'lint.- .>^H to f^row with ^mit nipiiliry, uml to iih- 
Munu^ in a few yearn a.-^tnundini^ propctrl iiinn. In lSti>^ thcro 
\V(»ri! (ill V Hcvcn c'»nipanifH nprf^'sentcil in New York .State, 
whii'li (o^i'lhor ifiKticd niort; uvw policirM in that onu y<'ar 
tliitn Ihr totiil iiiirnlicr of policies if-Hucd hy all AnitTir-an 
c'Miipiiiiii'8 cunilnnod for llio sevcntoeu years from IHl;J- 
I.s.v.f. 

At (ho ond of the year I87I there w<to 01 life coinpanieB 
in (ho V, S., which had in force H-ll,7liH policie«, anHuriiij; 
$2,11*6, .'»!;'), tM;{ ; tho income of i\ui eoinpiini<'H lor (ho year 
from pretniinns mid other flources was :<l()2.1!l 1.01 I ; their 
expenditures for the pavineiit of policy and othiT claims 
were .SfH,l(iM,l) tT), and their assc(s were $;{lU,r)f')0,60it. In 
tho year IH7;J a number of tho principal life coiniiauicH of 
tlio V. S. formed an association called llie Chamber of Life 
Insurance, for the purpoHo of seeurinj; nnity of policy and 
aolion in all nnitfcrw in whirli their intercuts are common. 
The chainbrr hii^ its hcad-qnarlcrs in (ho city of New York, 
but incImlrH the chief ccjmpanies ehar(ered by tho States of 
Massachnsetts, Connocticut, Pennsylviinia, Wisc<!n«in, Mis- 
souri, as well aH the principal New York eompanicf. It is 
tlie 8onrco of information and medium of eonfercneo amon;; 
these insti(u(ionH in relation to their morlality experience, 
to tho State laws rej^nlatiiiK and taxinp the business, to tho 
principles on which fraudulent practices should be met and 
suppressed, ami to various other subjects in which all re- 
spectiildo companies can have but the otic aim of dcvatinjij 
the character and increasing the security of the business. 

(For a list of works upon assurance the reader is referred 
to the AVif) York fniturmire Report of ISGS. In addition 
to such as are (here given may be mentioned Barnes's con- 
densed ed. of (be Niir Yin-k Innnrnurr Rf-pfn'tn, the olTi<'iuI 
repttrts of the several State insurance departments or bu- 
reaus, and the proceedings of the National Insurance' Con- 
vention of tho U. S., held in New York City in 1H71.) 

J. H. Van AMitixni:. 

liifeboats, boats constructed cspCL-ially lor the escape 
of persons from vessels wrecked or in jeojiardy. As loiii; 
ago as 1777, M. Bernieres of Paris projected a vessel for 
inland and short sea-voyages, and his experimental craft 
showed such resistance to capsizing that it must have em- 
braced sonic of the leading features of the modem lifr'boat. 
Tho inventor of the latter was Lionel Lukens, who on Nov. 
2, 1785, secured an English jiatcnt on his improvements; 
and as his name has been obscured by the success of tho 
person who appropriated his system, tardy justice to his 
memory may be fitly done by quoting verbatim the abridg- 
ment of his speeitieation, as follows: " To the outside? of 
boats and vessels of the common or of any other form are 
projecting gunnels sloping from the top of the common 
gunnel in a faint curve towards the water, so ns not to 
interrupt the oars in rowing, and from the extreme projec- 
tion (which may be greater or less according to (he size 
and use tho boat or vessel is intended for) returns to 
tho side in a faint curve at a proper distance aliove the 
water-line. These jirojecting gunnels may be made solid, 
of any light materials that will repel water, or hollow and 
watertiglit, or of cork, and covered with thin wood, can- 
vas, leatlier, tin. or any other light metal, mixture, or com- 
position." T.ukens also proposed that **thc spaces under 
the seats bo ma<le watertight or filled with cork, and a false 
metal keel fitted." Like many another meritorious inven- 
tion, tliis was neglected and disregarded by the public, and 
it is not known that the inventor ever recci\ed one word 
of appreciation or one shilling of reward for an improve- 
nient that has saved thousands of lives during the ninc- 
tenths of a century that has elapsed since then. It is a 
rule of almost universal application that popular attention 
is seldom successfully called (o any means of saving life or 
securing personal safety except througli some dire calam- 
ity ; and tho adoption of lifeboats was no exception. In 
Sept., 1789, the Newcastle shi]) Adventure stranded on *the 
sands in Tynemouth Haven. Kngland. " in tlic midst or 
tremendous breakers," but at only :iOO yards from the 
shore: and in full sight of multitudes unable to assist, the 
crew dropped from tho rigging, one by one. into the waters 
below. In tho consequent exeitemcnt of public feeling a 
meeting was called, a reward otTercd for a lifeboat, and a 
committee appointed to examine plans. The committee 
adopted the plan presented by Henry Oreathead. who in 
all essential respects copied Lukens's invention, and who 
has been proclaimed far and wide as the inven(or of a life- 
boat which does not appear to embrace a single important 
element devisetl by him. while the expense of its construc- 
tion was borne by the committee aforesaid. Greathead's 
bM:)f was constructed with cork floats arranged in and 



around tho flidcK and gunnel*, and appeunt to have been 
extremely well proportioned for itn work. It wan double- 
banked for ten oarnnifn, and curried a ittferHniuii at each 
en<I, the craft being a " double-ender " or pointed at ciurb 
extremity. It was thirty feet long, ten wide, and three 
fee( (hrei; inchcH rlcep, eon(ained 70)t pounds* of cork, and 
had ourH of fir, better, in the rough water, than the inoro 
pliant and clastic ash. In the old Cyrluj/tnlin of iJr. Iteen 
( lNOfI-1 1 ) is a <lescription of (ireuthead'H bout which would 
almost Kcrvo tho purpoHc of a working rtpeeilieution, and 
this old time craft, where modern m licet -metal lifeboats 
cannot be conveniently obtained, would ntill bo of utility 
and value. Ureathcad'H boat was first tried at South 
Shields in Jan., 1700, where it brought off the crew from a 
stranded ship. In less than twenty yeurH thereafter it bad 
Kaved (ho lives of more (ban 200 perKoiiH that could not 
otherwise have been rescued. (jreatheud received gold 
medals from the Humane Soeiely and the Society of Arts, 
a liiamond ring from the emperor of Kun-^ia, 100 guineas 
fnun tho Lloyiis.and £1200 sterling from Purliitment. The 
Lloyds gave X200tt to encourage the building of lifeboats 
along tho Hritish coast, and hence their une became estab- 
lished. Aliout IS0.>, Christopher Wilf-on proposed to rauko 
the gunnels hollow and to divide them into compartments, 
so that injury to one portion would leave the olner intuct. 
This addition to Lukens's invention was a judicious adapt- 
ation of the Chinese system of f»irnnng a vessel in a num- 
ber of watertight chambers. The same principle is em- 
braced in the American lifeboats of Joseph Krancis, which 
arc ma«le of sheet-metal, and arc adopted at the twenty- 
four life stations on our coasts. It is also embraced in the 
bfpat of tho IJritisIi Lifeboat Institution. This craft is a 
d(»uble-banked. flat-bottomed Imat, thirty feet in length, 
and eight feet wide, with its emls t\vo feet higher than it,-; 
central portion. It has, like previous boats, an iron keel. 
This keel weighs SOO poun<ls. On each side arc airtight 
cliambers. The floor of the boat is about coincident with 
the water-line, anil the space between it and the bottom 
is filled with cork, etc. It is stated that from the year 
1821 to 18G5 not less than 11,980 persons were saved by 
lifeboats on the English coai<t. Tho Francis lifeboat is 
peculiar in the method of its construction, being formed 
of two pieces, each brought to shape in dies operated by 
hydraulic power, the two halves being afterwards firmly 
secured together. The material is sheet copper; it is cor- 
rugated by the dies, so as to give longitudinal strength 
and stitTncss ; the boat is provided with a number of water- 
tight air chambers or compartments to ensure its buoy- 
ancy. This is the boat now in use. Mr. Francis's original 
idea, brought forward about IS.*!!), was to construct the 
craft of copper cylinders firmly bound side by side by 
metal bands, and the whole furnished with an iron keel. 

Of course very many allegecl improvements in lifeboats 
have been brought forward, but few or none appear to have 
jiractical utility beyond those just described. An illustra- 
tion of each of the more noticeable varieties of these ma}*, 
however, be of interest. For example, Fackrell's lifeboat, 

Fig. 1. 




C3'- 

Fackrell's lifeboat, 
projected during the past year (IS74), embraces the prin- 
ciple of tlie Greenlander's kyaek, the jiat^seugers being 
placed in circular openings formed in the closed deck or 
top of the boat, and closely packed around the middle by 
suitable waterproof material. Ilcnscl's (l^CtJ) embraced 
FiG. 2. 




Hensel's lifeboat. 

an oblong annular raft having a closed cabin suspended 
longitudinally on gudgeons or spindles within the centra! 
space of the raft, and provided with a screw propeller at 
each end worked by a crank attached to the end of tho 



10 



LIFE ESTATE— LIFE-PRESERVER. 



propeller shaft extended within the cabin for the purpose. 
Legros (1S6S) made the outer sides of his boat of mt-tal, 
" while the top aud unexposed surfaces are of rubber or 
other airproof flexible 
material.'* W. N. Clark 
in ISoU proposed a novel 
combination of water- 
cask, boat, raft, and life- 
lloat all in one. the merit 
of which is hardly com- 
mon gurate wiih its 
unique character. Ho 
simply made one side ^egros lifeboat, 

of the cask on a curve somewhat approximating that of 
the keel of a boat, and provided the other with a covered 

Fig. 4. 





Clark's cu^k-lifeboat. 

opening, which, being unclosed, was to admit the lower 
extremities of the passenger, while the upper projected 
above as in the kyaek. 

In cases of emergency an ordinary ship's boat may have 
its buoyancy very much increased, and be thereby fitted 
for use as a lifeboat, by tying empty casks at the sidcs^ 
which serve in a rude way the same purpose as the cork 
floats or empty chambers in the gunnels of regularly con- 
structed lifeboats. Spars or any other buoyant material 
may be lashed in place in the same way, and will serve the 
same purpose in proportion to their lightness. 

The life-car is a kind of boat, closed in on top, and de- 
signed to be drawn through the surf between the vessel and 
the shore. In order to do this a hawser is stretched from 
one point to the other; the car is attached to the hawser by 
rings provided on the free ends of suspending chains fixed 
to the ends of the car. A line attached to each extremity 
of the car enables it to be drawn to and fro. The life-car 




Francis-'s life-ear. 

used in this country was devised by Mr. J. Francis, tlie in- 
ventor of the Francis lifeboat previously referred to. (For 
life-saving apparatus in which the principle of the raft is 
substituted for that of the boat, sec Lifk-Kakts.) 

James A. Wimtnlv. 

Life Kstntc. See Estate, Dower, Joisturk, Kmiilk- 
MKNTS, EsTtivi;r{s. 

Life Insiirnncc. Pec Life AssunANci:, by Pitor. J. 
n. Van AMitiN(;i:, A. iM. 

Life-Preserver, a small buoy designed for nttarh- 
mcnt to IIk; (x-rson, and made cither of canvas or ollur 
fabric atuffed with cork, or of india-rubber and inflated 
with air. The former is open to the objeetion of being 
bulky an<l occupying coriftidcrabh; room when not in use; 
tlif latter, to tliiit of being liable to injury from punelures, 
and also of requiring more or Ices intelligent manipulation 



before, in the hurry of emergencies, it can bo made ready 
and attached for use. Add to this that india-rubber is rapidly 
destroyed by contact with oils, grease, etc., aud it is man- 
ifest that, all things considered, for most forms of life-pre- 
servers cork is to be preferred. Many diflVrent varieties 
of life-preservers have been devised, among which the 
following are the most important. 

A)ninlar Li/e-preeercers. — These are simply large rings, 
either of inflated rubber or cork-stuffed canvas, the hole in 
the centre being large enough to receive the waist of the 
wearer, the device being worn beneath the arms. This is 
a clumsy form, and, although calculated to keep the head 
and shoulders above water, must materially interfere with 
any freedom of movement of the arms. 

Jilock Li/e-preseyvers.-^Couimoaiy made of blocks of 
cork enclosed in canvas, two blocks being hinged together 
by a sewn joint in the fabric. These may be used as sim- 
ple buoys. A more elaborate construction makes the space 
of fabric between the blocks large enough for a hole through 
which the head may be thrust, the fabric resting on the 
shoulders of the wearer, and the blocks, one on the breast 
and one at the back, being held close to the body by suit- 
ably arranged strings. 

Life-Jlocits. — Hollow drums, provided with straps aud 
buckles for attaching the apparatus 
to the person : the more complete 
have receptacles for saving papers, 
socket for staff of a signal flag, etc. 
Li/c-preserviiif/ Mattre88e8. — There 
have been many of these. In one the 
mattress has the usual wooden side- 
pieces, but is constructed with an up- 
per and lower thickness of canvas- 
cased cork, between which are placed 
one or more air-filled mattresses. 
8ueh an apparatus would doubtkss 
be of utility if kept intact, but it 
would have to be (as has been pro- 
posed) made in several sections if to 
serve in the manner of an ordinary 
life-float, or if not sectional in struc- 
ture would provide simply a small 
though extremely buoyant raft. 
Another and smaller mattress (J. 
F. Peck's. 1S7-1) is designed to bo 
folded upon the front and back, with 
Feck's life-preserving t^e ends held in place by straps pass- 
mattress, jjjg ^^.pj. jjj^ shoulders of the wciircr. 
Li/e-preservhifj Jackets.— The^c may be of either inflated 
india-rubber or "cork. Air-fiUcd jackets were known as 
Fig. 2. 





Mrs. Cogswell's life-preserviug jacket. 
long ago as 1724, and cork jackets were used by the Uo- 
mans, but both varieties have been much improved in mcd- 



LIFK-RAK'l'S. 



11 



CM liritL'H. Tlio tiimploMt aro innilo uitliuut kIoovom, nntl 
litiltdii iironnd (he u)>|iL'r part of the body. Tho bunt aro 



Fin. 4. 



Htidii^ rultric HfuilVd wirb 
^niiiiihitrd cork, ititd ({iiillrd in 
vili!* or onrruL^iiliourt to |ir<'\ rrit 
1ht> d)^'{lhl(;<'llU'llt of (ho t^liiltiii^ 
friMii i|itliT<>ii( purU of the ju'-U- 
rl. Thi' riirk jiu'kft invctiled 
by Mrn. !•:. K. CukhwcM of New 
York ( IMT.'I) i« conslnictrrl with 
riiipphMiienlnl Hoiits iit front nod 
liiick. whicli d*-priid like thi; 
fiUirts of a coiit cxcopt when 
thu wi'ftror is in thu watrr, 
when tho float rf riso by thoir 
own hiioyancv again^*t tho breast 
and bi'iiin<l (lie sboulderp, and 
(huryby aHsi.st tlio usnal jacket- 
piiition in their llotativo ac- 
tion; a bolt fltiifTcd with gnm- 
ulatfd oork is utiachcd to tho 
wai^t of thn jacket, and the ^^*'-'*'»"'^ '"'"^'-pvfaorvins; vest, 
arms and cdhir aro also filled with tho saino matorial, 
(jilted in to keep it iu place. Various rubber vests, to 
Fi«. 5. Fio. G. 






Maeintosh'a life-pre- Torter's lilV-preserviug 

serving trousers. trousers. 

bo inflated with air tbrougrh a tube and mouthpiece, like 
the rubber float, have been devised. In K. L. Nelson's in- 




Frtvd Uuyion at sea. 



vontion. made as lon^; njxo ns lSo4. flat but expansible rub 
ber sacks were fitted within the lining of an ordinary vesi 



in such mnnnor ur to bo oanily worn under ordinary con- 
ditioRH, but furnlNhud with tho tubo and iiiuuthpiuce for 
inflation when ro'juirod. 

Li/f-pffurrriiiff Trnn-rt'§. — Thcdc ooinpriffo troiiwor*, 
bootH, and nnnular liff-preHer\ or, nil in on<*, and tlu* tirnt 
projector of (bom appoarr< tn have boon -Mr. .1. .MuointoHh, 
wboxe paton( waH du(ed Nov. U, |H;17. Tho woiiror. pla 
oiuK liin foot iin'i loi;« in a pair of ^aok-liko panlaloonKolo^od 
at (bo lower o,\tremitien, brou^lit the air or oork-t-tnfled 
annnluH up beneath hJK armpitH, hid trunk beinj^ onolohod 
witbin a Mackdiko body (Minnoctiti^ the unnuluH to the trou- 
BorH. in 1H40 ono U. Porter, cmulouB of Mr. MacintoHh, 
added to tho fcct-portions of tbo devico a pair of fou(horin({ 



Fio. 8. 




or duck's-foot propolb-ra, to 
enable Iho wonror lo nwim 
aohoro with Rroator eaiic. 

hi/v-prmfirvi iHj StiUn, — TllC 

recent Buccecs of Capl. I'aul 
lioyton in croMHin^ the Hritifh 
riiiinnol in an air-filled wa- 
terproof drcsfl barf given (o 
this variety of life-procervers 
a pr'jminenoo nt-M-r before at- 
tained. Altliouf^h ]Soy(on'8 
firnt attempt, during w hich he 
was tifteon hours in tho water, 
wa^ a failure, bis tnub^oquent 
succetis proved the groat util- 
ity of Kuch apparatus when 
properly constructed and ap- 
plied. Tho apparatus used by 
lliivt'in was (hat pat(n(ed by 
'lark .'^. Morrinianof Vallisca, 
la.. July K;. I.S72. and its ob- 
ject, as set forth by the in- 
ventor, " is to provide a wa- 
terproof life-preserving dress 
suflicieiitly inflated w illi air 
to sustain tiie weight required, 
while the limbs are allowed 
full freedom of action in swim- 
uiing; and the vital heat is 
retained in the body, the in- 
tervention of a stratum of air 
between the body and I ho 
dress acting ns a non-con- 
ductor of heat." The drc^s 
is made of india-rubber, and comprises a head-dress, 
jacket, and trousers, the whole so connected as to form nn 
airtight suit which can be inflat- 
ed, like an ordinary india-rubber 
life-preserver, with the breath. 
Boyton is stated to have attached 
a sail to the suit to assist bis prog- 
ress while at sea. 

Li/c- preserving Bucket* are 
mado buoyant with cork. So also 
arc stools, or the latter may be 
made hollow and tight merely, and 
air-filled. Among the curiosities 
of life-preservers may be men- 
tioned Schofiold's (1863), in which 
an annular float is provided for 
attachment tu the head, the float carrying a mouthpiece 
ami i>ipe, through which the wearer is expected to breathe 
when entirely submerged. Jamks A. Wuitnev. 

Lifc-Rarts. In the absence of boats, a raft made of 
spars, doors, etc. is the oldest eraft of the shipwrecked. 
As rafts are presumed to be less expensive, in proportion 
to carrying capacity, than boats, and moreover occupy le?s 
space when ntit in use. very many plans for their improved 
c<tnstruction have been proposed. The most fcnsihle of 
these nrc such as combine some ordinary use. as that of a 
mattress, settee, bench, or the like, with those of a life- 

FlG. 1. 



^-^^* 



Merriman's lifo-preserving 
suit. 



FiJ. 9. 




Schofield's life-preserver. 




H. B. Mountain's life-raft. 
preserver on a large scale. A life-preserving mattrc??. 
weighing 17 pounds, capable of sustaining in the wain 



12 



LIGAMEN'I— LIGHT. 



2S4 pounds, was manufactured some years ago in London. 
It was designed more as a simple life-preserver than as a 
raft, yet the combination of two or more of them would 
appear to provide an efficient variety of the latter. This 
combination of distinct mattresses to form a raft is an old 
idea, but has been the subject of successive improvements. 
Among the most recent of these is that of H. B. Mountain 
(IST.*^), in which a waterproof canvas sack has its lateral 
edges secured along the centres of two mattresses in such 
manner as to provide an open chamber between them cap- 
able of holding several persons, while the downward strain 
upon the mattresses being exerted centrally and longitudi- 
nally thereon, ensures their retention in a horizontal posi- 
tion. Mr. Silver's mattresses were composed of waterproof 
tubes distended with horsehair or cocoanut fibres, the tubes 
forming sections independent of each other, so that the 
failure of one would not affect the other. These tubes ap- 
parently owed their buoyancy mainly to their contained 
air, on which account they would, like air-lillcd life-pre- 
servers, be to some e.\tcnt objectionable. On the other 
hand it is not easy to find a material that will be best for 
buoyancy and at the same time best for comfort to the 
occupant of the nmttress during its normal use. The best 
buoyant material is unrloubtedly cork soaked in linseed oil, 
the oil preventing the absorption of water by the cork, 
which rapidly reduces the flotative power of the material 
to a degree estimated at 40 per cent. On the other ham], 
the oil is found to rot the canvas. A fabric which will bo 
at the same time water .and oil proof would add very much 
to the utility of this class of apparatus. 
Fig. 2. 




Van Zille, liriffln & Dey's life-raft and settee. 



Another idea, that of a bench, is shown in the inventicm 
of Van Zille, Uriffin & Dey (1855), which has the form of 
a boat divided in vertical longitudinal sections, with longi- 
tudinal flotative scats, two .adjacent ends being hino-ed to- 
gether. When the appar.atus was opened out it presented 
the appear.ance of two settees ranged in line, and could be 
used as such. When folded together and fastened, a boat 
was formed, needing only the addition of thwarts and oars 
to be ready for use. 

Fig. 3. 




Sinionds' life-raft. 

Of rafts to ho carried on deck, there have been numerous 
modifications. Among these is that of Simonds (1857), in 
which a number of air-filled floats are surrounded by an 
outer casing of cork, enclosed in canvas, ribbed or corru- 
gated to form the cork into sections. 

A favorite plan with projectors, though seldom or never 
adopted by shipbuilders, is tliat of so constructing the 
cabins of a vessel that they may be readily det.ached in 
case of accident to the hull. An example is found in W. R. 
Jackson's plan of 1853. He claimed '• the construction of 
Fig. 4. 




W. K. .Jackson's detachable cabin, 
a deck or Halo.in ealjin of a steam or oilier vessel so that it 
tihall admit of being separiitcl from the hull, and form 
lt,-clf into an escape or lifeboat." Me also providcl a .sys- f 
tein ot devices for readily detaching and liiunehinc (he ' 
cabin from the hull. Less feasible Hum this is the i.lea of I 
making the upper deck itself detachable; the deck requir- 



ing a firmness of fixation to strengthen the vessel incon- 
sistent with its ready and hurried detachment. 

Li/e-biini/a are made circular iu form and flat, and are 
provided centrally with an elevated light provided by 
chemicals, the combustion of which is not extinguished 
I by water. They are provided with pendent <u- free-ended 
ropes, by which persons may grasp an<l climb upon the 
buoy. Circular life-rafts have also been constructed with 
a mast and sail and other conveniences, and some have 
given excellent results in long experimental trips, but do 
not appear to have been adopted to the extent that their 
merits, ajiparently, would warrant. 

The above are life-saving rafis, manufactured as ad- 
juncts of a vessel, and designed as parts of its permanent 
outfit; but in cases of emergency very efficient apparatus 
may be improvised from spars, canvas, and empty casks, 
according to Cook's invention, which consisted of li square 
frtime with canvas nailed across it, and with a closely- 
buoyed cask lashed at each corner. In tolerably smooth 
water ten men may be supported by a large cask provided 
with ropes for holding on. The drawback "to a raft made on 
the just-indicated principle is that, made in the hurry and 
confusion of a storm or wreck, it can hardly be expected to 
have strength or permanence in a heavy sea or for more 
than a short time. It has been sensibly suggested, how- 
ever, that it would be well for every vessel on the occur- 
rence of danger to have all empty casks well stoppered and 
tied with loose-lying ropes, for use in event of disaster. 
The catamaran, used on the Madras coast, on the coast of 
South America, and other places, is formed of three logs 
lashed side by side, the middle log being the larger, and 
the entire raft being from twenty to twenty-five feet long, 
.and from thirty inches to three feet and a half in width. 
Where no lifeboat is available, a rude raft of this kind 
might in some eases serve the purpose of one. as the cata- 
maran is s.Tid to be more easily manageil than any other 
form of craft. Jajies A. Whit.vey. 

Lig'ament [Lat. Ugumentiim, a "binding"], a name 
given to many structures in the animal organism whose 
function it is to hold other organs in their places. The 
articular ligaments are found' in most of the movable 
joints. They consist in most cases of white fibrous tissue, 
which is very flexible, tough, and inelastic. Some, like a 
p.art of the ligaments of the vertebraj, are partly of yellow 
fibrous tissue, which is very elastic. Articular ligaments 
are capsular when they invest a joint on all sides; fascic- 
ular, when they are fiat bands of fibrous tissue passing 
from bone to bone ; fuuicular. when they are rounded cords. 
Many of the viscera (as the liver, mammary gland, uterus, 
bladder, etc.) have ligaments holding them in place. Some 
arc suspensory, receiving the weight of the organ ; others 
are lateral, acting as guys or stays to prevent lateral dis- 
placement. Folds of peritoneum, aborted foetal vessels, or 
slips of fascia, are made to serve as ligaments for the vis- 
cera. 

Lii'gan [Lat. ligare, to "bind," to "tic;" b'gnmen, 
" band "], goods belonging to a vessel's cargo which by 
reason of the vessel's being shipwrecked, or because they 
are thrown overboard in order to avoid the danger of wreck 
or other disaster, are sunk in the sea, but are tied to a cork 
or buoy in order to be found again. By the common law, 
goods of this kind, when found by any person other than 
the owner, belong to the Crown or state, unless the owner 
appears to claim them, when he is entitled to recover the 
po.ssession. He cannot be deprived of his right of owner- 
ship in goods lost or sacrificed at sea which are not at- 
tached to a buoy, if he asserts his title to thciu. .1 fortiori 
is thi.s the case when he has used this special means of 
designating the position of the goods, and thereby indicated 
his purpose of recovering them and retaining Iheni us his 
property. (Sec Flotsam, Jetsasi. WnErit.) 

(lEonoE Chase. Revised nv T. W. DwiaiiT. 
LJK'iitnrc (Lat. Ugnrc, " to bind "], in music, the black 
line or band wbiidi connects the stems of (juavers, scmi- 
t|uavers, etc., and forms them into groups. In ancient ec- 
clesiastical niiisic several miuims A\sti arc frequently linked 
together in groups by tiic same means, the general rule 
being that of a note or group of notes for each syllable of 
the words. 

Light (Rev. OijonGR C), b. in Westmoreland co., Va., 
Feb. 28, 178.') ; joined the Western M. E. conference in 
IsiKi, and labored extensively and efficiently in Tennessee, 
Oliio, Kentucky, Missouri, and Mississippi; was several 
years agent of the Colonization Society. He was a man 
of great pulpit ability. I), in Vicksbiirg, Miss., Feb. 28, 
ISfiO. T. 0. SUMMEIIS. 

Light [Ocr. Urht : Lat. lur : (!r. An^Krit: Sans. tr,k. to 

"look " in- "see"|. the dium of vision and I be Hiilijeel of 

tile science of optics. Two tlicorica have been maintained in 
regard to the nature of light, either of whicli is supported 



}Ar.\rv. 



i: 



by tho iiullifirity of v«ry illustriouit iiiiinrH. Aoconlinf; tt» 
the ilrsl ut' tlitnu, li^^t ict a iimteriul ciiianntion tlirowri 
ofl' by tlu) Iuiiiini>u8 ln)ily, iind \in partieroH conHttiiitly Irav- 
crBo and fill thu outirit itluiiiinaU'd H|)ue<', ko lon^ nn thu 
Bourcii cnnliiiuo.H unoxhiiuMlcd. AccnriUtii^ to llio hkcoikI, 
lliero if« II") tninsCrrol" mmfrr Iroiii tin: hourm- oI' lij^ht to 
the Hiirrnuniiinn rojfion, but tht-ro in a traiiJ'tVT u{ J'tnec 
throuj^^li thir mi'diuin of an ohiHtic tliiid which tillx all Mpaee, 
and whoj-n inoU-tMilr.H in contact with tlm luiriinouH bocly, 
hcinj; di^turlnMl liy thai Imdy. transmit the di^tiirbinicn to 
thoHi) more rcmotd by incaiis nt' undulatinns which f-uccccd 
each other nnintuniiiitcdly until the cauMu which proiluccd 
them iM*a;<c8 to aet. '1 hn lir.st of thcHO two hypotheHcfl Hcema 
to liavo been of very early origin. It received tlu! flnnction 
of Newton, and wan nnule by him the bani.H of his reanon- 
\i\\^» in reKard to optiiMiI jibenoniena. It is lienco coniinonly 
oiilled tho Newtonian theory. Until an advanced period 
in the present <M'ntiiry it may bo said to havo been the gen- 
era I ly accepted theory. Ija])laee, in his K^'-at work on 
celestial Hieehanie!*, has founded uU his invesfi^rations in 
rej^artl to aberration and astrrmomieal refraelion upon it. 
Yet it niUMt be adniilleil by its advo«Nitos — if there remain 
any who iidhere to it stilt — that it, presents, even before wo 
follow it into its applications to the explanation of tho 
phenomena which attend it, many Perious dilficnltics. In 
the first place, if light consist of material particles, these 
particles must be of ineonceivablo minuteness, or their 
living for(!0 wmibi ho sullbiient to destroy every strnnture. 
no matter how sr)Iid c)r how tenacious it mi'^ht be, which 
they should encounter in their (light. A single grain ot* 
matter moving witi» the velocity of light would havo a 
quantity of motion Cfpnil to that of a cannon-ball of 100 
pounds wei'^bt moving with tho velocity of IJOU feet per 
second. Hut since destructive power is proportionecl not 
to tho quantity of motion, but to tho lirlfuj j'orccy which 
varies ns the square of tho velocity, a sin'^le grain of mat- 
ter moving with the velocity of light would havo a dc-s tractive 
power etpial to that ot'a mass of 3350 tons moving with the ve- 
locity of IjOO feet. If light bo material, thoreforo, its parti- 
cles must bo many millions of times less in \vcight tlian a 
single grain. ' We liave no instruments siilReiently delicato 
to detect a weight so minute. Still, it would be possible, 
by optical arrangements, to eoneentrato many millions of 
particles upon a single point. Attempts have been made 
to test the question by the use of such expedients. Dr. 
Priestley, in his history of light and colors, describes an 
experiment in which he directed the light of tho sun, by 
means of a concave mirror having four square feet of sur- 
face, upon a balance of exceeding delicacy, without j)ro- 
ducing any sensible impression. Dr. Priestley does not 
eonsiilor that in such an exporimcnt it is the moment, an<l 
not the weight, of tho particles of light that would bo 
measured. The amount of inertia in any balance, how- 
ever delicate, is snfticient to render it an instrument not 
very well adapted to the purpose in view. The presence 
of tho air is also a disadvantage, both on account of its own 
resistance to motion, ami on account of the currents created 
by tho heat which attends tho direction of the solar focus 
upon any solid. The tollowing experiment by Mr. IJcnnet 
avoids these objections. This brief account is taki-n from 
Prof. Lloyd's A'hwim/ on thv Unditlnton/ Thmn/, edition of 
1857: "A slender straw was suspended horizontally by 
means of a single fibre of the spider's thread. To one end 
of this delicately suspended lever was attiiclicd a small 
piece of white paper, and the whole was enclosed within a 
glass vessel from wliielj tho air was withdrawn by tlio air- 
pump. The sun's rays were then concentrated by means 
of a large lens, and suffered to fall upon the paper, but 
without any perceptible effect." These re-^ulls are negative. 
it is true, but it must be admitted that they are such as to 
render tho truth of tho material theory of light in tho 
highest degree improbable. 

Another diffieulty in the way of this theory is found in 
the uniformity of velocity with whicli light reaches us from 
distances all but intinitely unequal, and from luminous 
bodies of every magnitude. This equality of velocity in 
the propagation of tho light of the stars is evinced in the 
universality of tho law of aberration. Hut it might bo in- 
ferred from the equality of tho refraction which all light, 
whether natural or artificial, undergoes in jiassing from 
medium to me<lium. Now. if light be material, it must be 
regardeil as snbjcct. like all other projectiles, to retardation 
by the gravitating power of tho bo<Iy from which it is 
emitted. And, moreover, it is a phenomenon inconceivable 
that so ])erpetual a shower of projectiles, so infinite in 
number, sliould all be thrown with the same initial velocity, 
and that this initial velncily should be the same for every 
source. The only hypothesis upon which it is possible to 
meet this last objection is to assume, according to a sug- 
gestion of iM. Arago. that the eye is insensible to luminous 
impressions except for a certain definite velocity of the 



luminiferouii particlbH, or lor that narrow range of variation 
of veloirity within which arc embraced tlie velocilic-ii to 
which we attribiilo the different coJorH in refracting media. 

In regard to the retardation of the partielcM by the at- 
tracting power of the luininoutt body itself, it may be ob- 
Horved that with our prewent meanti of meuHur«-ment lUm 
would not be appreeiablo for distaneei) ho Hiniill im that 
which separates um from tho itun, or even for d)f<lanceM no 
greater than tho extreme ilimenNions of tho Folar sy^'tem ; 
ut least, without suppOHing an enormous increase in the 
mass of thiT luminous body beyond that of any aggregated 
form of matter known to us. An attracting body can de- 
stroy, in a i)rojeetilo thrown from it, no greater amount of 
velocity than it can impart to a material mauM falling to- 
ward it. And this limit is reached if we suppose tho full- 
ing body to commence its motion at an intinite distance. 
Now, the velocity acquired by a body falling from an in- 
finite distance to the nun's surface, under the influence of 
solar attraction, would be less than 100 miles ('.'i'J'J.7 miles) 
per second; and of this vehjcity about fourieen-fifteenths 
(372.5 miles) would be acquired after passing the limit of 
the earth's orbif. IJut the body would be twenly-seven 
and a half days in reaching the sun after piiKfing this 
limit, while light is only eight minutes and thirteen sec- 
onds in traversing the came immense space. The effect 
of an accelerating or retarding force being as its time of 
action, and in this ease the two times to be compared being 
in the ratio of about 1 to isi). it may easily be shown that 
the retardation of light b^' sidar attraction during its 
transit from the sun to tho earth could not be so much as 
a mile per second in its velocity. 

But the light of stars coming from distances so vast as 
to r<?quire years, ami many years, to reach us must undergo 
such retardation as to render aberration a phenomenon 
exceedingly variable, unless we admit M. Arago's as- 
sumption just mentioned in rcgord to the sensibility of tho 
retina. Moreover, in cases in which the rays, in their long 
travel, had become reduced to velocities comparatively 
moderate, the gravitating power of heavy bodies near 
which they might jtass ought to produce a sensible deflec- 
tion of their course, and modify in a remarkable manner 
the phenomena of occultations. Nothing of this kin<i is 
observed. It is here assumed that there may be suns much 
more massive than ours. 

Lajdaee has examineil the question. What ought to be 
the mass of a luminous body in order that its gravitating 
power may be great enough to destroy the velocity of tho 
particles of light entirely at some djstaneo less than in- 
finite, tho initial velocity being assumed to be that which 
observation has determined in the sunlight as it reaches 
ns? The expression for the velocity acquired in falling 
from an infinite distance to the sun's surface, his mass 



being assumed to be unaltered, is v- 



= V' . , in which m 

is tho sun's mass, that of the earth being unity; g is tho 
measure of the force of gravity at the earth's surface, being 
the velocity it is capable of imparting in one second, or 
32.2 feet; r is the earth's radius, and K the radius of tho 
sun, both expressed in feet. If we put r — 187,000 miles 
(reduced to feet), and make »i indeterminate, we shall find 
that the mass must be increased more than two hundred 
thousand times, or to 78.000.000,000 times that of the earth. 
to be capable of creating, and therefore of destroying, a ve- 
locity equal to that of light. This supposes the bulk of tho 
sun to be unnltered. But if the mass is increased without 
altering the densitj", we shall have 



\ RS 

in which x is the radius of the sun under its supposed en- 
largement; whence j 
_ rR2 

rV2mg 
Replacing the symbols by their values, we find that tho 
sun must be enlarged to nearly 470 times his preseht diam- 
eter in order to possess the power of entirely arresting 
the progress of light, considered as material, at any dis- 
tance. The surface of such a sun would extend nearly 
60,000.000 miles beyond the orbit of Mars. That there 
may be bodies in the universe so large as this is possible, 
but we may esteem it hardly probable. If there are, and 
if light is material, they may be invisible to us. 

A final objection to the material theory of light is found 
in the phenomena of refraction and reflection. This, though 
it seems to have been overlooked, is really the most serious 
of all. We have seen that the effect of the immense power 
of solar gravitation is insuflicient to produce more than an 
inappreciable variation in the velocity of light during the 
nearly eight minutes and a quarter which ia oocupied in its 



14 



LIGHTER— LIGHTHOGSE CONSTRUCTION. 



passage over the space between us and the sun ; and yet 
if the hypothesis we are considering be true, there is a 
force residing in the superficial stratum of transparent 
bodies — a stratum so thin that no attempt has ever been 
made or can be made to measure it — which is capable of 
instantaneously doubling, and in some instances almost 
tripling, this velocity. Thus, light which has passed the 
surface of glass of antimony or ehromate of lead must, if 
this theory'is true, have its velocity raised in the instant 
of passing from 187,000 miles to 537.000 mik-sper second. 
In common glass the velocity becomes 280,000 miles. In 
ordinary reflection, also, the reflecting force has first to 
destroythe original velocity, and then to impart an equal 
velocity in the opposite direction. This is more easily 
conceivable than the acceleration produced by refraction, 
as it corresponds with the ordinary phenomena of elasticity. 
But refraction, on the theory we arc considering, is only 
expli<rable on the hypothesis of attraction; and the im- 
mf-nsity of an attracting force which is capable of accom- 
plishing in so short a time what gravity is totally unequal 
to in a time greater beyond measui-e, is totally incon- 
ceivable. 

Bat, if objections of this weighty description to the 
material theory of light did not exist, the impossibility of 
finding in it any satisfactory explanation of the remark- 
,ihle phenomena which have presented themselves in the 
later progress of optical discovery, would be conclusive 
against it; while the opposing theory finds in these very 
phenomena its strongest recommendation to acceptance. 
(See Optics. Color. DiFFRACTioy, Dispersion. Polap.iza- 
Tioy, Raivrow, Rkflectios, RnPRArTioN, Spectro^pope, 
Spectrim. Trim Plates (Colors of). TTxnnL\TORv TnroRV 
OF Licnr. Photogkaphv, etc.) F. A. P. Barnard. 

liight'er, a capacious but shallow barge or other vessel 
used for discharging the cargoes or landing the passengers 
of larger vessels at ports where ships of considerable 
draught cannot reach the landing. 

Lisfht'foot (John), D. D., h. at Stokc-upon-Trcut, Eng- 
lantl, in 1002; educated at Christ's College, Cambridgii; 
took orders in the Church of England ; became chaplain to 
Sir Rowland Cotton ; was minister at Stone in Staffordshire 
and at Ashley; was identified with the Presbyterians dur- 
ing the civil war : was a member of the famous '• Assembly 
of Divines" at Westminster (1643); became in the same 
year master of Catharine Hall, Cambridge; in lOO^J rector 
of Much-Munden, Hertfordshire; and in lOJo vice-chan- 
cellor of the Uuivcrsity of Cambridge. At the Restoration 
he was deprived of his mastership, but it was subsequently 
restored to him, and he also obtained a eanonry at Ely, where 
he d. Doc. 6, 1675. Dr. Lightfoot was probably the most 
learned Hebrew scholar that England has ever produced, 
and his great work, IJnnr Hchralcre et Talinmh'cm {\C>^S ; 
new edition ISo'J), is still a standard authority for the illus- 
tration of the Gospels by means of the Talmud and Mid- 
rash. He contributed much to Walton's Poli/fflnf liihlc, 
Castell'a Hrptufffnt Lericnn, and Poole's Si/iiopsis Critico- 
r»m, but with all his learning was not entirely free from an 
uncritical acceptance of traditions, which detracts from the 
vahie of his work; e. ;/. he maintained the inspiration of 
the vowel-points in the Hebrew Bible. His miscellaneous 
works were after liis death collected in two volumes (1084), 
and were several times reprinted, the best edition being 
that of Pitman (London, 13 vols., 1822-20). 

liightfoot (.losEpn Barber), D. D., b. at Liverpool, 
Englanil, in 1828; graduated at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, in IS.^1 with liitrh honors in classics; became a 
fellow in lSo2, tutor in is;)7, Hulsean divinity professor in 
1801, and canon of St. Paul's in 1S7I. His commentaries 
on the Paulino Epistles display great learning an*! aliility ; 
they comprise Galatians (18011), Philippians (1870), and 
Cotossians (187J), each with a revised Greek text. He has 
also published the Tiro EpistU-H to the Coriiitln'tniH of St. 
Clement of Rome flSOU), an essay On n Froth Jirviswu of 
the Ei>filinh New TeMfaiiirtit (1871 ), besides philological and 
critical articles in magazines, of which the most notable 
were directed against the anonymous author of a work on 
Siiprnifitnral Reliffifin (1875). 

Li^ht'liouse Board of the V, S. Previous to 1852 
the lighting, as well as the buoyage of the sea-coast and har- 
bors of the U.S., Wilt* under the control and management of a 
single individual, the fifth audi tor of the treasury. By act of 
Congress approved Aug. .SI, 1852. the lighthouse board was 
organized, and the control and management of all lights, 
buoys, beacons, etc. was placed under its charge. The V. S. 
lighthouse board (as constituted by law) consists of eight 
persons — viz. two officers of the navy of high rank, two 
officers of (he corps of engineers, and two civilians of high 
Boientific attainments, whose services mny be at the ilisposal 
of the President of the U. S., an officer of the navy and nn 
officer of the corps of cogincors, who aro also the Bcoreta- 



ries. The board, thus constituted, is attached to the office 
of the secretary of the treasury, who is cx-officio iiresident 
of it. A chairman is elected hy the members from one of 
their number, who presides at the meetings in the absence 
of the secretary of the treasury. From the organization 
till 1870 this office was held by the late Admiral Shubrick; 
Prof. Joseph Henry has since been chairman. The board 
is required to meet four times a year for the transaction of 
general and special business, and the secretary of the trea- 
sury is empowered to convene it whenever in his judgment 
the exigencies of the service require it. It actually meets 
nearly every week. The coast and waters of the U. S. are 
divided into districts, to each of which an officer of the 
army or navy is assigned as lighthouse inspector. Engi- 
neer officers are also assigned to duty under the board for 
the purpose of preparing plans, specifications, drawings, 
and estimates of cost of all iUuminating and other appara- 
tus, and constructing and repairing of towers, buildings, 
etc. connected with the lighthouse establishment. 

For the more efficient transaction of business, "stand- 
ing committees," consisting each of two or three members 
and (ex-officio) the secretaries, are constituted on " finance," 
"engineering," "floating aids to navigation," " lighting," 
"experiments." To these committees every important mat- 
ter is referred for investigation, discussion, and report before 
action is taken by the board. Thus, to the committee on en- 
gineering are referred all matters relating to plans and 
methods of construction, preservation of sites; in other 
words, all engineering questions. The committee on exper- 
iments is required to test the value of oils and other illu- 
minating materials, of lighting apparatus, of the relative 
value of 8}(jnnh by sound or sight, etc., etc. In this 
last category the matter of Fog-S!gnals (see that head) is 
assuming great importance, and has been the subject of 
recent experiment by Prof. Tyndail of the Trinity House, 
England, and by Proi'. Henry for the U. S. board. The two 
secretaries (engineer and naval) perform all routine and 
general administrative duties of the lighthouse board office 
under the orders and regulations of the board, or of the 
chairman if he be present, each having his special func- 
tions; the naval secretary keeping the journal of proceed- 
ings, and having charge of the office and its business ex- 
cept so much as may be assigned to the engineer secre- 
tary. J. G. Barnard. 

Lighthouse Construction, "A sea-light," says Mr. 
Alan Stevenson, " may be defined as a light so modified and 
directed as to present to the mariner an appearance which 
shall at once enable him to judge of his position during the 
night, in the same manner as the sight of a landmark would 
do during the day." That it shall bo seen by the mariner 
at considerable distances demands {its luminous range sup- 
posed adequate, see LicnTHot'SE Ilm'mixation) a certain 
elfevation, depending upon the rotundity of the earth. The 
following table gives heights in feet* corresponding to dis- 
tances in nautical miles : 



Height, 
in fMt. 


Distance, in 
nautical milc!<. 


IToirlit, 
in foct. 


Distance, in 
nautical miicin. 


Height, 
in reel. 


Distance, in 
nautical miles. 


15 

20 
25 
30 
40 


4.443 
5.130 
5.7.% 
6.283 
7.255 


50 
6D 
70 
89 
90 


8.112 

8.8SG 
9..W8 
10.2G 
10.88 


100 

150 
200 
230 
300 


11.47 
14.05 
16.22 
18.14 
19.87 



As the mariner's eye is usually assumed to be 15 feet 
above the sea-level — corresponding to a distance of 4.443 
miles — we must add this distance to that corresponding 
to the elevation of the light, to ascertain its range of visi- 
bility. Hence, a light 100 feet high would have a range 
of 11.47 -f- 4.44 = 15.91, or, say, lit nautical miles. Vice 
versa, if it he required that a light be visible 10 miles, it 
must have an elevation above the ."ca-level of 100 feet. 
Should the light be established u])un low ground or upon 
a submerged rock or shoal, this elevation can only be at- 
taincil by means of a solid material .'itructurc as a lii/ht- 
hcarer. Such structures tiiUe naturally the form of towers, 
made of the usual buililing materials — timber, stone, or 
brick — to which in modern times is adilcd iron. 

The lirst light- bearing tower of which we have record ( built 
by Ptolemy Pliibnlelphus, n. r. ,100, about) figures as one of 
the Seven Wonders ipf the World <d' the ancients. Taking 
the name, -l-apos. of the small ishmd in the bay of Alexan- 
dria on which it was built, it has originated the generic 
name (liat. p/mnis ; Fr. ft/ntrr .- It. and Sp. ftimn), in the 
classical languages, for "lighthouse;" and even in English 
the word pknro was onco used. The ruined tower called 



* The rule for this determination is that of the English as- 
trouoiri'T. Mr. Vince, It iH(in lognritbius i : 

I/.i,'. dU. ill sffUitfe miles - i Ior. Iieicbt in feet — 0.121.". TIi" 
statute miles thus calculated may he reduced nearly enough to 
nautical miles by sublractlng one-sevcath. 



LKilll'llolSE CONS'llMi HON. 



l.'j 



"Cnjuar'H Altar" in Dover Ciinllo \» dclinonlccl in Major 

Elliot's roport on Rurnprtiii /.if//itliniiMr St/Htfm», mwl thii« 
uii'iitiioii'l : "'I'hc iinlii|iiity of thin li(;htliouHc', wliii'ii linn 
not |iroliiiM.v l"i!n ii^l'iI im i-ur-li ninco I lie ('rMii|ili'i'l, no 
(loul)l (rxocoils timt of liny li);lilliou«n in (IriMit Hiiliiiii, iinil 
it in HnppoMi'(l to liavo hocii luiilt in tlio r(;i;^ii of the i-rii- 
jicror t'liiiiiliui', iibout A. i). II. I'poii it Imnii'il for iiiiiny 
yi'iir.i llioi" f;riMit fires of wooil loiiiicTly inuiMliMiiirl on 
sovonil towiTS utill aliinrlin); on tlic' coiisls of (In'iit Uril- 
iiin. Tlii'so oarlii'st uniilcs to marinors at IcnuHi (lavo way 
to rcflcninrH; thoy. in tlioir turn, bcinf; ri'placnl in tlio 
vt*ar 1^1'.' l)y thiif fj^roni triumph t)f scipntilin skill, tlin 
l''ri'Hnt'l IcM''." iMr. A. .^ttMcnMon, however, slate."* that 
tliis anil the ruins of 'four 'I'Ordrc lit HiMilo^^ne ii.ro eon,je(!- 
Iiireil on "soiiipwhat ilouhtlul i^rounds" to liiivo been an- 
cient Ii|;lithou«es. 

OuriiiLC tile Mi'l'llo Ai^es, when "tlio use of the eom|msfl 
was not f^eiii-rjil, ami vessels siiileil slowly iin'i leilioiisly 
nlou;^ fh« troiist : when the seii-voyat^e friuii the .Metiiior- 
ranean {wlioneo, subsequent to the t'nisiKies. eiune the rich 
fahries of the Mast ) to the wiuter-l'rozen ports of tlie Half ie, 
too lon<4 to be neeoinplisheii in one season, renderetl an iii- 
ti'rmeiiiii'e ren'lezxous welcome," the "aids to navigation," 
liowever much needed, were inca'.iro incb-eii, and tlie earliest 
tower which (daims attention, and whicdi in point of ftr- 
ehiteetural grandeur is said to ho ttie noblest edifice of the 
kind in the world, is the Tour do (^ordouan, built (l.^iH)- 
11)11)) on a reef at the mouth of the (Jaronne, and serving 
"as a guide to tile shipping of Bordeaux and the I,an- 
guodoo f'anal. and of all tiiat part of the Bay of Uisea.v." 
'i'ho towor. 1**7 feet high, of iin[)osing ftndiitectural design, 
is surrounded at its base by a high sea-wall on a periphery 
of l;U feet in diameter, along the inner lace of v.hieh aro 
tlin hf'pt'r'ft tipnvt}H''}\tH, somewhat in the stylo of the ease- 
mates of fortilieations. 

The allusion .just made to "keeper's apartments" re- 
minds us of other essentials to tlie tower besides that 
of {t\/ht-hearhii/ — viz. that the light bo acces^siblo to tho 
"keojior" for replenishment and repair, ligliting and ex- 
tinguishing, and that there bo '* aparliiicnts " not oiil.v for 
tho keeper's 'residence, but for preserving the supplies 
for hia needs and for tlio sustenance of the light. The 
earlier lighthouse constructions were confined excluslvel.v 
to convenient locations on the fmir/, prominent [loints or 
lieaillands being naturall.v selected. For siieb sites the es- 
sontials are easily fultillod. A simple hollow tower (gen- 
erally of brick or rubble masonry, though sonietimes of 
woo(i) hears on its summit the " lantern " and the illuini- 
nating apparatus. An Internal stairway, of wood or stone, 
very coininoiily winding, as a helix, around a central axis, 
eonstitntes tho means of access, while the lower portion of 
tho tower furnishes space for storage of oil and other sup- 
(ilies, the keeper's dwelling being usually a detached build- 
ing. Such were the earl.v lighthouses of this countr.v. In 
their construction tho science of the *' eugiueor" was little 
called for. 

The greater number of our earlier lights were on enclosed 
waters or sounds, aids to vonHtiu'j rather than to ocean navl- 
ga'iiui. for which great height of tower was not neccssar.v. 
For the fi'w sea-coast lights, properl.v so called, elevated 
headlands were of course selected wherever the.v were avail- 
able. Great height of towor was therefore seldom reijuired, 
ami it is only where, through the element of height, there 
is fjurstion of tho stability of the structure, as depeniling 
on the bearing power of the soil, the strength of tho walls, 
and the resistance to wind-force, etc. that it becomes really 
one of ciiffinecrhiff. The height of I'Jh feet furnishing an 
cffeotivo sea-rango of 1" nautical miles, and that range in- 
creasing so slowly with greater elevations, It is onl.y for lights 
of exceptional importance that greater helglit of tower is 
given.* A masonry tower of such limited height, and of 
otherwise sufficient diameter. Is always amply stable in re- 
lation to wind-force, however vhileut. The preparation of 
adequate foundation, however, for these high structures Is 
one of paramount Importance, and will be referred to here- 
after. 

Even In the earlier periods of open-sea navigation it be- 
came apparent that there were dangers which constructions 
on tcria-lirma could not palliate. Isolated rocks or sunken 
reefs distant from the mainland are such. The most noted 
case is that of the Eddystone, in which was first developed 

• Thelighthonse tower ofcienoa is 218 feet high; thatofror- 
douan, 197 leet ; that of Belle-Isle (France). l.SO feet. These have 
been subjected t,i calculation in reference to resistance to wind- 
force. ^.><ee arliele in Anwilfs dfs Fonts rl nnussfen. 1832. trans- 
lated by the U. S. liffhlhouse establishment, where the subject, 
in connection with other reniarknlile towers and ehlmneys, is 
diseussiHl.) The hiahest tower of the IT S. is that of llatteras, 
ISLI feet, after which conies that of Pensaeois., U,0 feet, and then 
those of "Fire Island." "(ireat West" (both on .'<. coast of I-nng 
Island), Barnegat. Capes Lookout and Roniain, aud Morris 
Island, all of 1.50 feet, and Capo Mav. Ho feel, etc. 



and applied the high art of tho engineer to calaliliaiilDg on 
this contrneted rock, buried by Ihii high lidos und cxponed 
to the fullest force of storiii-iinil-wiivi! violence, a uliible 
tower and a permanent beacon. At a loealily where tho 
iiiero process of construction wu" sodifliculi, ami at a period 
when tho destructive power of Bea-wave» hiid not been 
measured, it is not strange thai timber was resorted to, 
nor that llio first of two sueeessivo utructiires was carried 
away. Soundi^r (!ngineeriiig principles prevailed in tho 
eonslruetioii of the si'conrl l)y Kiiilyerd. Tim external shell, 
a frustum of a slightly tapering eoiie, was of lieav,v timbers, 
litlofl together as are tho staves of a brewer's yttl,and fast- 
ened fh)Wii by strong iron dovetail ties lemled into the rock. 
Tho interior of tho tower was londorl to lialf its height, 
nearly, with well-fitted stones, solid for one-fifth tho height, 
and leaving (to above limit) only space for staircase wril 
above tho S'did part. This work stottd for forty-seven 
years, and finally owed its destruction, not to the sea, but 
to lire (I77.'>). Then, nt Inst, the task was taken up in its 
true aspect of a great pnijintcrimi prot»lein.t with the clear 
perception of which Mr. Smeaton pronoiinceil Mtonr.t both 
from its weight and other qiialilies, to be tbi' proper mate- 
rial. "(In Apr. .'), \'M, Mr. Smeaton first landed on the 
rock, and made arrangements for erecting a lighthouse of 
stone, and preparing the foundations by cutting the surface 
of the rock Into regular horizontal benches, into which tho 
stones wereearefully dovetaibd or notched. The first stono 
was laid .(une VI. i7.'>7. an.l the last Aug. 21, 1769. Tho 
tower measures (IS feet in height and 20 feet in diameter at 
tho level of the first entire course, and the diameter under 
i the cornice is l.'i feet. The first 12 feet of the lower form 
a solid mass of masonry, and tho stones are united by 
means of stone joggles, dovetailed joints, anil oak trenails." 
The light (that of lulluw candltt) was first exhibited Oct. 
in, 17.>n. 

Tho history of tho "Edd.vstono" has been so often given, 
both for tho popular eyo and for tho uso of tho engineer 
(Mr. Smcatcui's own work on tho subject being still e.xtant), 
tliat no more detailed account is deemed necessary. It fur- 
nished to engineers a typo and model for future works in 
such localities. Tho subsequent structures of " Bell Uock " 
(1SII8-I1), situated in tho channel-way to tho entrance to 
tho Friths of Forth an.l Tay, and " Skerry vorc " (I8:!8), 
otr (ho western coast of Argyllshire, Scotland, built by 
Robert and Alan Stevenson respectively, are only inferior 
to tlu" Eddystone in fame. 

"The great merit of Mr. Stevenson, as architect of the 
Bell Rock lighthouse, lies in his bold conception and un- 
shaken belief in the possibility of erecting a tower of ma- 
sonry oil a reef twelve miles from the nearest land and cov- 
ered by every tide — a situation nndoubtedl.v much more 
dlffieult than that of the Eddystone." (Arilelo " Light- 
house," by .'\laii Stevenson, A'licye. fln't.) Tho Bell Rock 
tower Is 100 feet high, 42 feet in diameter ot base, and 15 at 
top. 

" The design for tho Skerry vore lighthouse was given 
by Mr. Alan Stevenson, and is an adaptation of Smea- 
ton's Eddystone tower to the peculiar situation and the 
circumstances of tho ease at the Skerryvorc, with such 
inodlHcations in the general arrangements and dimensions 
of the building as the enlarged views of the Importance of 
lighthouses which prevail In the present day seemed to call 
for. The tower Is 138 feet (5 Inches high, ami 42 feet in 
diameter at the base and 10 feet at the top. It contains a 
mass of stonework of about ,")S,.")SO eubie feet, or more than 
iliinlilc that of the Bell Rock, and not much less Ihan/i'e, liinca 
that of the Edilystone." {Ibid.) The site of this work is 
above high water, and the difficulties of construction less 
than at Bell Roek or tho Eddystone. 

Other "rock lighthouses," all. with one exception, more 
recent, deserve mention: c. </., " Bishop Roek " (1S531. off 
the Seillv Islands: "The Small's Rocks." entrance to Bris- 
tol Channel; " llanols Rocks" (1862). Island of Alderney ; 
" Barges d'OIonne " (I SOU, W. coast of France; " H^aux 
de Brfhat" (lS:',,i), N. coast of France; "Wolfs Rock" 
(I8li!l), otr Land's End, England: and " Alguada Reef" 
(18fi:.). Bay of Bengal. The Bishop Roek is mentioned by 
Flndlay ( /,;./*fAoi.«<-» o/ ih.e Wurld) as "probably the most 
exposed lighthouse In the world." The force of the waves 
Is supposed to surpass even the measure registered at 
Skorrvvore (see IIaubor); i". e. GOflO pounds per square 
foot. " "On .Ian. ".n, ISOO. a storm-wave shook this tower, 
and tore away the bell, weiuhing .■? hundredweight, from 
its support at tho top of the lower, more than 100 feet 
above the sea. . . . Therefore, if these sea-beaten towers 
were not nt least equal in weight to a solid block of granite 

tNo disparagement is meant to the work of Rudyerd. which 
was truly a work of engineerinc, and a .vuccr^x/nl one, so far as 
comported with the perishabl-> nalun^ ofhis principal material. 
i wood. 



1() 



LIGHTHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. 



of 60 or more feet in height, they would not be able to 
withstand the waves." (Fhtd/ni/.) 

The Wulf Rock, "perhaps tlie most elaborate and diffi- 
cult of erection " on the Britii-h coast, as likewise the most 
recent, is on a rock 1 7 feet above low water, but submerged 
at high tide (which rises 19 feet), and of which the area 
scarcely exceeds the base of the tower; while the immedi- 
ately surrounding depths reach 20 fathoms. The tower 
is 41 feet S inches diameter at base, 116 feet high, and 
solid from base to a height of 39 feet, or to the door of the 
lighthouse. The thickness of the walls at the doorway is 
7 feet 9h inches, and at the top, which is 17 feet in diam- 
eter, it is 2 feet. The shaft is a concave elliptic frustum, 
the generating curve of which has a major axis of 236 feet 
and a minor axis of 40 feet. '* The stones are laid in off- 
sets to the level of 40 feet above the rock, with a view of 
breaking the sea, and above that height the surface is 
smoothly cut. Each face-stone is dovetailed vertically and 
horizontally into the adjoining stones, and every stone is 
boltedtothe course below it by two 2-inch bolts — of yellow 
metal for the exterior, and galvanized steel for the interior 
stones. The dovetailing was adopted not only for increase 
of strength, but to prevent displacement by the sea during 
construction, before the superincumbent weight of the ad- 
ditional courses could be obtained, and to protect the 
cement mortar of the joints from being washed out before 
it could be set." {Elliot.) 

The high engineering problem involved in the designing 
of a structure which shall resist such forces, as well as the 
engineering difficulties involved in their erection, is made 
sufficiently obvious by these European examples. It is not 
strange that with the modern development of iron fabrica- 
tion the notion should suggest itself of substituting for 
solid and costly masses of masonry, which resists mainly 
by its weight, structures constituted of wrought-iron posts, 
which, secured in the rock, offer but trifling area for the 
wave to impinge upon and oppose the enormous tensile 
strength of forged iron. A remarkable wooden lighthouse, 
erected in 177S and still standing in IS.tO, on Small's 
Rock, coast of A\''ales (Fig. 1), in "a more exposed posi- 
tion than the Eddystone,"i3 interesting in this connection. 

Fig. 1. 




Lighthouse on Small'a Rock, coast of Wales. 

"The height was .'iO feet from the top of tho rock, nnd it 
consiflted of nine oak piles, secured to tho rook in n nearly 
vertical position, with four raking thorcs against tUo 



easterly pillars, forming the main support of the building 
during the westerly storms. Although it was exposed to 
the whole force of the Atlantic, it had stood for upwards 
of sixty years, and indeed the wooden standards were 
affected so little that the erection was now quite as secure 
as it had been for some years past." {Proc. Inst. C. E., vol. 
ix.) In ISUO, Mr. Robert Stevenson proposed for the Bell 
Rock a structure of iron shafts inserted into tlie rock. The 
first attempt (1849) to build on Bishop Rock, a site more 
exposed than the Eddystoue. was on this plan. *' The local 
difficulties, and a due regard to economy, induced the trial 
of such a structure as should present the least possible ob- 
struction to the waves. It consisted of six hollow cast-iron 
columns 16 inches in diameter, sunk to a depth of 5 feet 
into the rock, where they form a hexagon of '6Q feet diam- 
eter, tapering upwards to the height of 100 feet. ... A 
bar of wrought iron 4 inches diameter is dovetailed into 
the rock, and carried up inside to the top of each column, 
where it is screwed down, thus attaching the columns to 
the rock. The space between the inside of each cast-iron 
column and the internal wrought-iron rods is to be filled 
up solid with a heavy metal and cement concrete. In the 
centre of tho hexagon is a cast-iron tube, 3 feet in diameter, 
forming the upright and principal support of the structure. 
The lower part of this tulie, to a height of 14 feet above 
high water, being the part most exposed to the force of the 
seas, is to be filled up solid." {I'mr. Inst, C. E., vol, ix.) 
The storms of winter flS49) came on before the centre 
column had been filled, and in that of Feb. 5, 1S50, the 
whole was swept away; ''all the cast-iron columns and the 
internal wrought-iron rods had been broken off at different 
heights, varying from 1 foot to 6 feet from the surface of 
the rock ; but all the points of attachment remained unin- 
jured, and the rock itself was not torn up." 

The essential principle of this plan of construction was 
lost sight of by the admission of the central cast-iron tube, 
S feet in diamrter; moreover, the six columns which formed 
the hexagonal skeleton had the large diameter of 16 inches, 
while all their tensile strength was derived from " wrought- 
iron bars of but 4 inches diameter." 

Soon after the destruction of this inchoate work the stone 
tower already alluded to was built by the same engineer, 
Mr. J. Walker, engineer to the Trinity board, at whose de- 
sire he had attempted the iron construction, of the plan of 
which, however, he is to be regarded as the author. 

A somewhat similar history connects itself with our own 
Minot's Ledge lighthouse. 'Capt. W. H. Swift, U. S. En- 
gineers, strongly impressed by the successful application 
of Mitchell's mooring screws to the forcing of iron posts 
into the sands as a framework to iron skeleton lighthouses, 
built the first work of the kind in the U. S. — an iron beacon 
at the entrance of Black Rock Harbor, Conn., which is yet 
existing. He then designed and erected a more important 
structure, of which the following account is taken from his 
own official report (Nov., lS-18). 

"Minot's Rocks — or, as they are generally designated, 
' the Minots ' — lie off the south-eastern choji of Boston Bay. 
. . . These rocks or ledges, with others in their immediate 
vicinity, are also known as the ' Cohasset Roeks,' and have 
been the terror of mariners for a long period of years ; they 
have been, probably, the cause of a greater number of 
wrecks than any other reefs or ledges upon the coast, lying 
as they do at the very entrance to the second city of the U. 
S. in point of tonnage, and consequently where vessels are 
continually passing and repassing. The Minots are bare 
only at three-quarters ebb, and vessels bound in, with the 
wind heavy at north-east, are liable, if they fall to the lee- 
ward of Boston light, to be driven upon these reefs. Tho 
rook selected for the site of the lighthouse is called the 
'Outer Minot,' and is the most .«eaward of the group. At 
extreme low water an area of about .'iO feet in diameter is 
exposed, and the highest point in tho roek is about lii feet 
above tho line of low water. It is very rare, however, that 
a surface greater than 2.') feet in diameter is left bare by the 
sea. The rock is granite, with vertical seams of trap rising 
through it. 

** Observations, made at Boston lighthouse from June 7 
to Oct. 27. IMI, furnish tlic following results: 

Rise of hipbest tifle 14 ft. 7 In. 

Mean rise and fall of tides 9 " 4 " 

" " " spring tides 10 " 8 " 

" neap 8 " 3 '* 

" The form of the lighthouse frame is an octagon, of 25 feet 
diameter at base. The structure is formed of eiglit heavy 
wriiught-iron piles or shafts, with one also at the centre. 
These piles were forged in two pieces each, and are connected 
together by very stout cast-iron or gun-metal sockets, 3 
feet long, tho interior of which is bored, and the pile-ends 
are turned and secured to tho sockets by means of large 
Btnol k<'ys passing through the jtilea and the sockets. Above 
and below tho joints or sockets, und connecting tho middle 



M(;in HOUSE constkuction. 



17 



pilo with I'uch outor pili', thfru cxteniJH a Burics of vvrouglit- 
iron brtKioa ; ami Hit) out«r «huft» iiro connucttMi togtlliur by 
siiniltir lirimcH oxtciidiiif; from ono to tbo othor : uml tliuM 
tho wliiiln rttntoturo is tivd toK'tlior. At cacli of llio an- 
gular paintK ill tho octagon lunl nt \\w ci-iitrc, ii holn 12 
iiH'hcM ill iliiiimitiT ftinl '> IVct in ibplli Ih drilli-fl in tho 
roL'k, till) (Miter hoh*H wilii the ini-linalion or batlfr ^;ivL•ll 
to tho outer |iiIcH, luid thn iniddlc hole vertical. Thi? Bur- 
faoo (if tho rofk htiiiig irrcKuhir, and tho holofi in each ca-o 
f) feet deep, tho Icntjthft (»f the pih-H (Im-Iovv thu ainrkets*) ; 
vary from :'.:>i to :!N^ fort. Tlie pih'H in tho upjicr Morit-s 
are of uniform h-nglli — vi/. 20 feet each ; tho iiicliuutiou or 
Kia. 2. 




Miuut's Ledge Lighthouse, 
hatter of tho piles toward.s the eentre is such as to bring 
the heads of the upper piles within the periphery of a cir- 
cle of 14 feet diameter, and there, at an elevation of 00 feet 
ribuvc tho base of the middle pile, or [)b feet above tho 
highest point of the rock, the pile-heads are secured to a , 
lu-avy casting or cap, to tlie arms of which they are securely '■ 
keye<l and bolted. The middle shaft is S inehes in diameter 
at foot and 6 inches at top, and the outer shafts are S inehes 
at foot and 4A inches at top. All of these are forged HI 
inehes in diameter, at tho point where they leave the sur- < 
face of the rock, and taper uniformly to 8 inehes diameter i 
in both directions. The lower braces, placed lU feet above ' 



tho rock, uro li^ inches in rliainotcr; tbo Hecond Beriei, lU^ 
feet above the firMi, or .'fH) feet above llio rock, in li iuchi.i* 
diameter; and a third xerieH, introduced H\ feet below the 
caHt-iroii cap to form the support of the Door of tbo Mtor^- 
room, if) mudu of 2iinch Bquuro iron. The outer pileit 
bciii;; inclined t>)wardi4 the c<-ntre, and the pileH and tbo 
braces being inllrxible, it \» clear that tto long an the braceit 
remain In place the pile cannot be withdrawn from tho hole, 
for the whole structure actH an an im»ien«e /(itm; cither 
the bracoH must be ruptured or the rock itself must yield 
before a pile can be dittplaeed." 

In that cxpoKcd situation, where the sea was so con- 
tinually breaking over the rock, the drilling of holes of the 
rc(|uired inaf^nitudo could only be done by machinery ch-- 
vati'd above the reach of the cea. The operation conttumed 
tlie greater part of two seasons. The erection of the lower 
was comparatively less diflicult. This work, comnicnced in 
1847, was finished in Nov., IHIH. '* In addition to the hori- 
zontal braces, there was introduced in the Bummer of 1819 
a series of wrought-iron vertical tie-rods between the first 
and second series of braces; tbc-ic ties, .'{2 in number, of 
I^-iuch round iron, extended between eoch pair of con- 
tiguous piles, anil between the middle pilo and each outer 
f>ilcr crossing each other in a diagonal direction, like tho 
)race and counter-brace of a bridge. The object of these 
ties was to stiffen tho piles, and to prevent, in us greut a 
degree as practicable, tho tendency to vibration which there 
necessarily would bo at tho top of piles CO feet high, how- 
soever well braced they may be. It wa? intended to place 
another series of these ties, arranged in the same manner, 
between the foot of the piles at the rock and the first or 
lower series of horizontal braces." 

Tiiis structure was carried away in Apr., 1851. *' On 
Monday night, Apr. 14, the wind, which had been easterly 
for several days, gradually inerea.'jed. On Tuesday it had 
become a severe gale from the N. E. It continued to Idow 
with tho utmost violence through Tuesday night, Wednes- 
day, Thursday, and even Friday: but the height of the 
storm was on Wednesday, the Itith, and at that time it was 
a perfect huriieiinc : . . . it was in fact unprecedented." The 
light on the Minot was last seen from r'ohag.-^et on Wednes- 
day night at 10 o'cloek ; at 1 o'clock Thursday morning, 
tho 17th, the lighthouse bell was heanl on shore, li miles 
distant; and this being the hour of high water, or rather 
the turn of the tide, wiicn from the opposition between the 
wind and tho tide — the former blowing on shore and the 
latter receding from the shore — it is supposed that Ihe sea 
was at its very highest mark: and it was at that hour, it is 
generally believed, that the lighthouse was dei^troyed: at 
daylight nothing of it was visible from the shore, and hence 
it is most probable it was overthrown at or about the hour 
named." Fig. 3 exhibits tho appearance when the site was 
visited Apr. 22, with this qualification, that the icreck of 
the overthrown structure, insteacl of being elosely contigu- 
oi<^ lay in reality at a considerable distance from the stumps 
oUhc shafts. 



Fig. 





Site of Miuofs Ledge Lighihouse. 



It has been noticed in the description of the work that 
there was a series of horizontal braces (the second) .'I^A feet 
above the roek. " Upon these braces the keeper had im- 
properly built a sort of deck or platform, upon which was 
placed a quantity of heavy articles, such as fuel, water- 
barrels, etc., all of wliieh should have been in tlie sture- 
room, the place designed for their reception. The deck, in 
addition to the weight phieed upon it, was fastened together 
and secured to tho piles and braces, thus oflFering a large 
surface for tho sea to strike against. In addition to this, 
the keeper had altachcd a 5i-inch hawser or guy to the 
lantern-deck G3 feet above the rock, and anehore<l the 
other end of the hawser to a granite block weighing, ao- 
cortliug to ills own account, seven tons, ])laeed upon the 
bottom at a distance of some oO fathoms from the base of 
the light. The object of this was to provide means for 
running a box or landing-chair up and down ; but it is very 
clear that so much surface exposed to the moving sea had 
the same ofTeet upon the lighthouse as would have been 
produccil by a number of men pulling at a rope attached 
to the highest part of the structure with the desi't/ii of puU- 
VoL. III.— 2 



ing it down. ... At 4 o'clock on Wednesday aflcrnoon. 
the 1 nth, or ten hours before the light fell, the platform above 
mentioned came ashore at Cohasset. As this was 4'.i feet 
above the line of low water, and 28 feet above high water, 
spring tides, the sea had at that time reached within 7 feet 
of the base of the store-room of the lighthouse. Without 
undertaking to speculate upon the probable shook that the 
structure must have received from tlie effect of the sea upon 
a platform fastened to the piles 40 feet above the rock, it is 
enough to know that tlie sea hod reached within 7 feel of 
the body or solid part of the structure. Still incrcasing.it 
required but a slight increase in the height of the wave 
after having reached tho deck, to bring it in contact with 
the main body of the structure. When this took place it is 
plain to jiereeive that such a sen. acting upon the surface 
of the building at the end of a lever 50 or 60 feet long. 
must bowcllnigh irresistible, and I doubt not that the light- 
house was thus destroyed." {O^n'nl H^p. of Capt. Stri/i.) 

j The ease of Minot's Ledge is a very interesting one. for 
skeleton iron struetures in great numbers have since been 

I built; and owing to their lightii'-- and .-.•mpurative cheap- 



18 



LIGHTHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. 



uess, are a desideratum ior tbat class of wave-exposed sites 
where stone is too costly, or on treacherous soils where 
foundations for stone would be difficult or impracticable. 

In this isolated case of the destruction by wave-violence 
of a completed structure there can be little doubt that the 
engineer's conclusions arc correct. The "main body" 
(i. e. the keeper's dwelling and store-rooms) should never 
be attainable by waves : all appurtenances, such as scaf- 
foldings (which keepers are so apt to make) and attached 
hawsers, should be prohibited. A further remark should 
be made. In judginj; of this work it must be borne in 
mind that it was buUt at a date when the large grants 
of money necessary for great engineering works of light- 

FlG. 



house construction were with difficulty attainable from 

Congress ;'^" at a date, too, when the newly- invented method 
of skeleton iron construction for lighthouses was in its 
infancy. A comparison of the engineering details with 
those of the almost contemporaneous, though later, struc- 
ture on a site of even more destructive sea- exposure 
— Bishop Rock — will make evident their great superior- 
ity. There, a central shaft presenting to the waves a 
mass 3 feet in diameter violated fundamental princi- 
ples, while, instead of the ftoUd 10-inch skt/eton shnfls, 
carefully forged of the highest qualities of iron, hollow 
16-inch cylinders of cast iron were held to the rock ojtlif by 
internal wrought-iroc stems of but 4 inches diameter. The 




Vertical section. 



Kiev at ion. 



Minot's Ledge Lighthouse, Mass. 



rcnl defect of the Minot iron tower was irnuf of maf/nitudn. 
It should have had '*( {rant a lO-foot base and a height of 
lUO feet. The keeper's dwelling and sioro-rooms could 
then have been placed beyond the reach of storm-waves, the 
cnhirgcd base affording rrrjui-site stability for the increased 
height. The limited mcann at the rlisposal of tin* engineer 
forbade such dimenHiniifi. The difiieuUies of drilling the 
phaft-holcfi were, ae we have seen, very great, even where 
the most available parts of the rock were chosen. The cn- 
largerl tower, which wo rifxf know lo bo necessary, would 
have cost three timeH the sum at the command of the en- 
gineer. 

In the Ctpil Engineer and Architect'^ Journal of Sept., 



IRfiT (vol. XXX.). 
Col. Fraser, R. E., 



will be found a discussion by Lieut. - 
of the n|)plicabilily of screw-pile light- 
houses, in which Mr. Alan Stevenson's dictum is quoted: 
"A primary inquiry as to towers in e.xposcd situations 
is the question whether Ilieir stability should depend 
upon their strength or Ilieir weight, or in other words, 
on their cohesion, or their itioitia;" with the author's 
own statement on the subject as follows: *' My own ex- 
perience (and no living engineer has more on these jioints) 
goes aKogerher to confirm the experience of the above 
celebrated lighthouse engineer as to the value of the iner- 



* The " Minot " cost less than $40,000. 



LMWI'l'IlorsK CON.Nl !M< I'lON. 



j;* 



tia over fltronf^tti Inr lif^'htlionHcH in rxpoBod HituntionH." 
\{ti rurlh'T iuMm ; " 'I'Im^ viiIih- nl tin? iiDri-rfsifllunce nl' Ihc 
jttfr i-, in a ^nMit riH'iiffiirr, ihino iiway willi when Ihr 
iViuniliitton <>n which ihi-y nltirni criNilcH tho I'orco wo wiMh 
to avitiil in Mtruotureo (l(!)itin<l('i)t lor (hrir Htui)ility uttl un 
thi-ir Wfi^ht, hilt un thf-ir Hlreni^lli; ttiid hu(;Ii tutructurcH 
arc f[iiitr unlit I'or nitiiiitionw kih-Ii im tin- Ilcll Kock, llin 
Kililv-^tiini'. Skerry vorc. tho Al^finuiii Ui-i-f, llic (Ir<-ii( Huh- 
9n,H ltd' ('<'yl<»n, iiml tho I'roni^.-,* forining the S. W. ox- 
tri'tnily of (ho n<»rth-wfts(orn t*i(lf oT |{unii>ay harbor." 

No tMiKi"*'"''' '''>•" maintain that Holid Hloni; Btriieturcs aro 
not, intrinsically Tar prclVrahlo. Iiut llir cnonnouHly hi(;h 
wavi^aotion rihwcrvi'd ii( unch worUs (st-o Bi,shu|i Kock, luprtt ; 
a L'oinnion pirforiat rcprosentatinn of tho " I'iddystonc " 
rcpresont.fl a wave-jot rininj^ al)ovo and pawsing over tho 
lanti'rn)f is doNt)tlcss in ;;ri'at nioasiiro duo to tiio " inertia" 
of tho ahrnptly iipposinj^ nuisscH of (ho structure thoin- 
sclvoH, ami in not tn bo taken as cimchiHivo cvidoncn in all 
cases that skolcton iron towers would not stand. Another 
objection to iron akoloton towors, found in liability to de- 
Btruction by oolli.sion of wrecks or entanglement of heavy 
spars, ha!) had no practi<'al illustration in the aetual carry- 
inj^ away of a completed slrueturo durinj^ a quarter of a 
century's experience ;J and it applies to all submerged sites 
as foraibly as to the category of sites for which iron-pile 
towers arc "ruled out" in the above (iictuni of Col. Fraser. 
After tliis digression on the abstract question of the use of 
iron skelotons. wo return to Minot's. 

Not only (he eonimereial interests of tho country, but , 
humanity demanded tlntt tho Minot's Tjedge rocks should 
be, relighte(J, and Congress promptly made an appropriation 
for this purpose, stipulating that the tower should bo 
erootod un the Outer Minot, and contiding its construction 

Fig. 



to tho Topogrnphicnl bureau. ThiH burftau, hftving pubUoly 

advertised, received Hixteen dintinct propoHulfi, but flnally 
reeonimenr|.(|, in view of the iJitlicuKii-H (o !>•; overcome and 
tho fi-urlul hire of ils predeeeHifor, that it fhould be located 
on one of t\\t: inner rockM. Iteforo further action bad be^-n 
taken tin; wbob* subject, both as to location and mode of 
construction, fell into t)ie Iiands of the newly-erealed light- 
hiiuse board. To the late chief engineer of the U, H., <jeii. 
•). O. Totten, a member of tho bounl, m due mainly the 
project for the new structure. The unnrecedenU-d difti- 
culties of tho ornjiiial site upon the "Outer Minot" did 
not defer bim from advocating and dehigning a work for 
ihiH lorniidiible j)Ot*ition more dinicitU to accomplish (ban 
anything whi<di had ever preceded it. The plans were 
drawn under his directions; for the exeeutioD, he selected 
("apt. (now Brevet Hrig.-Oen.) Barton S.Alexander, of the 
corps of engineers — an oflirM-r who>ie experience, energy, 
boldnesf, and s<'lf-rcliance eminently fitti-d him for the task. 
'I'he difliculties of tile work will be heft nppreciated from 
till' following statement of tlie engineer: •* It was a more 
(liflicnlt work of construction than either the Kddystonc, 
(he Bell llor;k, or the tSkerryvore, for the Kdflystone wna 
founiic'l all above low water, part of its foumlation bring 
up to high-water level. The foundation of the licll Kock 
was about '.\ fc-ct above low water, while the Skcrryvoro 
had its foundation above high-water level; whereas a 
good part of the foun<lation of the Minot's light was i)e- 
low low water. There had to be a combination of favor- 
able circumstances to enable us to land on the Minot rock 
at tho beginning of that work — a pfrfertlif nmnolh urn, n 
(Irnd calm, and t'tw Hprimj tidea. This only could happen 
about six times during any one lunation — three at full 
moon and thrco at the change. Frequently, one or the 



Minot's Ledge, as prepared to receive the foundation-stones. 
(0) lol'. 9" above mean/jow water. 



Minot's Ivcdge. U. S. 



Eddyston 




oil' Kock, Knglaud. 



Inch Cape, or Bell Kock, Scotland. 
Scale. 



Spectacle lie 



iJP feet- 



other of the necessary conditions would fail, and there were 
at times months, even in summer, when we culd not land 
there at all. Our working season was from Apr. 1 to Sept. 
15. Work was prosecuted with all possible diligence for 



♦It docs not nppearlhat towers have been built at either this 
or the (Ireat Hiissas. Findlity (IsTo) shows a " lii;ht-vessel " at 
the latter h)cnlity ; and his supplements down to 1872 show no 
change, 
t After a heavy storm the waves and sprav not infrequentlv 
bury the Minot's tower and lantern eoiupletelv out of sii^ht 
from the shore, li miles distant, though a powerfu"] telescope^ be 

JA temporary iron soatfold at Minot's, consisting of nine 
wrought-iron shafts ten inches In diameter at the lower ends, 
inserted into the holes of the first iron lighthouse, was (Jan., 
18.t7)carried away by the bark New Empire, loaded with cotton, 
thrown against it durinir a heavy N. K. gale. The shafts were 
broken verv much as those of the iron ligbt-tower bad been. 
The case or the "Tongue Bank" iron piles is mentioned on 
a subsequent page. 



more than three years before a single stone conld he laid. 
The ditliculty was to cut the foundation rock into the 
proper shape to receive the foundation stones, and then 
to lay these stones." (i^ee diagram of Fig. 5.) The work, 
commenced July I. IS.iO. was tinisbed Sept. 15, 1S60, and 
cost about $300,000. Both an elevation and a vertical sec- 
tion are given in Fig. 4. Tho shaft is seen to be purely 
conical, the limited bottom area forbidding the expan- 
sion required for the trer-lU-e spread to the base — an 
engineering pedantry of useless expense, and founded on 
a false analogy. 

The structure is solid (around a central well) up to the 
level of the entrance-door. Above that there is a hollow 
cylinilrieal space U feet in diameter, arched over at the 
level of the cornice. This space is divided into five stories 
by four iron floors. These live compartment?, and a sixth, 
immediately under the lantern, constitute the keeper's rooms, 
store-rooms, etc. In Fig. 6 is a section showing the " bond " 



20 



LIGHTHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. 



of the stonework of the solid parts, also that of the Eddy- 
stone, Bell Rock, Wolf Rock, and Spectacle Reef towers. 
There is also shown a plan of the Minot rock as prepared 
to receive the foundation stones, in which the numbers 
(with the plus or minus sign) indicate the level of the re- 
spective areas — e. rj. (—1' ;i") indicates 1 foot 3 inches 
below the zero; which, however, is itself 1' 9" above mean 
low water. The small black points mark the sites of the 
iron shafts of the old structure. In these, continuous dowels 
were inserted, which ascended as far as the twelfth masonry 
course. In the horizontal section the gun-metal dowels are 
marked by which each course of the solid part was secured 
to the one above or beneath. The courses of the shell 
above the solid part were /077/f (/ by a middle annulus with 
the course above. The following details arc given for ref- 
erence : 

The first blow was struck on the ledge Sunday morning at sun- 
rise, July 1, 1355: 

Hours worked on ledge in excavating foundation pit 

during 1855 130 hours. 

Hours worked on ledge in excavating foundation pit 

during 1856 157 hours. 

Hours worked on ledge in excavating or laying four 

stones during 1857 130 h. 21 ra. 

Hours worked on ledge in excavating pit and in lay- 
ing six courses during 1858 208 hours. 

Hours worked on ledge in laying twenty-six courses 

of stone during 1S59 - 377 hou rs. 

1102 h. 21 m. 

No. tons of rough stone 3514 

No, tons of hammered stone 2367 

No. stones in lighthouse 1079 

The first stone was laid July 9, 1857 ; the lowest stone was laid 

July 11, 1S58. 

Whole height from bottom of lowest stone to top of pin- 
nacle 114' 1" 

Height of focal plane above lowest point 9fi' 1" 

" " " mean high water 84' 7" 

Diameter of third (or first full) course 30' 

" of top of twenty-second course (solid partj liS' 6" 

From the"Minots" we naturally turn to another (and 
the onlj/ other) specimen of what are significantly termed 
**rock lighthouses" of the U. S. It stands upon a reef in 
the northern part of Lake Huron, otf the eastern end of the 
Straits of Mackinac. It is built upon the soutliern extrem- 
ity of the most northerly of two shoals (limestone rock m 
«i7((, covered with a layer of about two feet in thickness of 
boulders), so situated with reference to each other as to sug- 
gest the name, "Spectacle Reef. ' The least depth of water 
on the shoal is about 7 feet, but at the site selected for the 
lighthouse the rock was found at a depth of 11 feet. The 
nearest land is the south-easterly point of Bois Blanc Isl- 
and, distant lOi miles. The greatest exposure to waves 13 
to the south-eastward, from which direction the seas have 
a range of about 170 miles. Were there no other destruc- 
tive agency, sufficient stability would have been easily 
secured. But, under certain meteorological conditions, 
currents having a velocity of from 2 to 3 miles per hour 
are developed here, which during the inclement season 
serve to move to and fro ioe-fields which frequently 
have an area of thousands of acres and a thickness of 
two feet. This ice, formed in fresh water, is of great so- 
lidity, and when moving in the mass, and with the velocity 
named, has a *' living force" which is almost irresistible. 
The aim was to oppose to it a structure against which the 
impinging ieo would be crushed and packed till it should 
ground upon the shoal itself, and form a barrier against 
subsequent action. To give some idea of the necessity for 
this, it may bo mentioneil that in the spring of 1875 the 
ice was piled up against the lighthouse to a height of 30 
feet above the water, or 7 feet above the sill <pf the doorway, 
which is 23 feet above the lake, and when tho keepers went 
to the station to exhibit the light, (not in operation during 
the winter), they were able to obtain entrance to the tower 
only by first cutting a passage through the pile of ice re- 
ferred to. 

The first step was to surround the site of the proposed 
tower with a •* pier of protection *' — a crib-work (filled with 
ballast ston«') 112 feet square, enclosing an interior ripening 
4H frset Hqiiare. Thi-s furnished a landing-stage and area 
for quarters for workmen, and secured still water in which 
to place the coffer-dam. The coHer-dam was cylindrical in 
form, 30 feet in diameter (exterior), and made of staves 
4 inches thick, inches wide, and 14 foot long. These 
staves, carefully jointer), were heM together by three iron 
bandn or horq^ on the outaiiie, and to enable it to with- 
stand the pres'4ure frrtm the outsirle, when empty, the dam 
was braced and stayed in the strongest manner against a 
cen(re.po*»t the axis of which was coincident with the axis 
of thft cylinder. The iletnils by which the coft'er-dam was 
built at the winface of the water, Inwereil. atid, by then 
driving down inrlividun! staves wherever necessary^ fitted 
to the irregulfir bottom and the joint calked, cannot hero 



be given.- After exhausting the water, levelling the bot- 
tom, and laying the first course, the annular space between 
it and the inside of the cylinder was filled with concrete, 
thus making an artificial bottom which was perfectly water- 
tight. The exterior of the tower (see Fig. 6j is a frustum 

Fig. 6. 




Lit,'hthuii>r L[[ -j. 1:1 !■ I; -!, Lake Huron (in an ice-fliH'). 

of a cone, 32 feet in diameter at the base and IS feet at the 
spring of the cornice 80 feet above the base. The cornice 
is 6 feet high, and the parapet 7 feet. The focal plane is 4 
feet 3 inches above the top of the parapet. Hence the en- 
tire height of the masonry above the base is 93 feet, and 
of the focal plane 97 feet 3 inches. The base is 11 feet be- 
low the surface of the water, and the focal plane 8(j feet 
3 inches above the same surface. The tower is solid to a 
height of 34 feet. Above this it is hr>llow, and divided into 
five stories or rooms, each 14 feet in diameter. The courses 
(of uniform thickness of 2 feet) are houfUd as represented 
in Fig. 4 ; they are dowelled where solid and joggled where 
annular, very much as at Minot's, which work, indeed, 
served as a model. 

The light was first exhibited June 1, 1874, work having 
been commenced May 1, 1870. The aggregate workimj time 
was really less than twenty-four months; cost, $376,000. 

On a preceding page allusion has been marie, ])reliminary 
to a description of the first ill-fated Minot'.s Ledge struc- 
ture, to the substitution of skeleton structures of iron for 
such** costly masses of masonry." Such structures were 
suggested by Mr. Alexander Mitchell, inventor of the 
"screw-pile." for submerged sandl^ank^;; which is de- 
scribed liy him as *' a iiroject, eonteinplatcd by the author, 
for obtaining a mucn greater hohling-power than was 
possessed by any pile or mooring then in use; the for- 
mer being nothing more than a pointed slake of consid- 
oralilo size, easily either depn-ssed in r)r extracted from the 
ground. , . . The plan wlii<'h appranrl best adapted for 
obtaining a firm holrl of soft ground or sand was to insert 
to a considoral)le di.'ftanee beneath the surface a bar of 
iron having at its Iriwcr extremity a broad jilate or a 
disk of metal in a spiral or helical form, on the principle 
of the scr<*w, in order tlial it slioubl enter the gmunil with 
facility, thrusting aside any obstacles to its descent, with- 
out materially disturbing the texture of the strata it passed 
through, and that it should at the same time offer an ex- 

• The enslnpor. Gen. O. M. Poe. n member of the liphthonrtr' 
hoard, Is enuaired in preparing for publication ljy the board a 
full account of this work. 



LKillTHOUSK CONSTRUCTION. 



•2\ 



tondod base, cither for rcsiiiting downward pronvuro or an 
upward strain." {800 Fig. b ot'articlu Focndatiom.) 

Fio. 7. 




Mapliii f>nmi Lighthouse. 

In the year 183R the inventor, associated with his son. 
j:nd lor the corporation of Trinity House Ihc foundation 
01' the lighthouse on Maplin Sand, at tlio moulli of the 
Thames. Thif, the Jirat screw-jiilo lighthouse/^ is fully 



described in vol. vii. of Proceediu(j» of the Institution 0/ 

Civil Ktujinrrm. Two other Bcrcw-pilo ntriictur«:i* were Kub- 
KeqiH-ntly erected by the duiiiu eugiiictTtf — the Chupinan 
Head (IHPJ) and (iunHeel (IH60) oil the inoulh of (he 
Thami-H ; (be latter in in the rnont exponed popidon, hut (he 
Hoii even there ih never anything like aH violent u>< a( (he 
Wolf or Hi^'hop Koek. The Maplin and Chapman are in 
very eheltered »ilua(i'»iiH. The Bume engine* r« contitruc(ed 
screw-pile lightH at Deetwood 011 the Wyre and Ilelfa^t 
Lough, CarrickferguK Hay, Ireland. The former in on a shi fl- 
ing sanclhank, bare at low tide, but covered with .'^0 feet of 
water Ity Bpring tiden. The latter Ih in a depth varying 
from 9 to 2\ feel, low and hiifh water Kpring tiiics. Ad- 
other WU8 attempted on the Ki")! Hank, the northern ex- 
tri-mily of a line of HundbankH ittretehing from iJublin Hay 
to Watcrford, parallel lo (he coaf>(, from which it ie K or 10 
miles distant, and extremely dangerous. " 7'ho (Structure 
was eorameuced in the pumnter of IHII', and bad been pro- 
ccecled with as far aH putting down (he nine ttupporting 
pilof, but none of the angle-braeing wan attached, when oo 
Nov. 15 a storm came on from the eaftwjird whi'rb laf'ted 
fur three day?, rni-iii^: a Iremendoup pea. and removing the 
•surface uf tiie bank, :it the ppol around the pilefi, to a depth 
uf 111 feet, leaving a depth of 24 feet at low water where 
there hint prcvioucly been only 14 feet. Notwi(bEtnnding 
rhifl shiiling of (he bunk, tho work would no! have been 
dis(urbed if (he angle-bracing hud been applied; but the 
progrc;=ft of the woik had been retarded by foul weather 
iind various unforctteen causes, and it bad not been pos- 
s^iblo to take all the neecsfary precautions. Several of the 
piles were therefore laid progtrato, and the others were, 
lifter considerable labor^ drawn from tho bank." {Proc. 
Init. C. £"., vol. vii.) 

"The design to raise a beacon of screw piles on theeaalem 
end of the Tongue Hank 1 mouth of the Thames) also proved 
abortive; but, as in theeasenf the structure on the Kieh Bank^ 
from n<» inherent defect in the piles themselves, t^hortly after 
it was put u]> it wan dit^covered that three of tlie piles were 
broken ijff" short, and the other two bent. The stumps of 
the broken piles and the lower parts of the bent piles were 
foun<l perfectly upright, and the sand around them undis- 
turbeil: showing the structure failed from no fault of (he 
hoiil they had taken of the ground. . . . Tho conclusion 
arrived at at tho time, and no doubt the correct one. was, 
that a vessel had ])assed over it — a conclusion in a measure 
confirmed by finding the copper of a vessel attached to tho 
top of one of tho bent piles." {Rep, of Major Bache, Top, 




Screw-pile lighthouse at the mouth of Delaware Bay. 



f-nrj., on project for a lighthouse on New South Phoal, 
Nantucket.) Other works of less importance — e. 7. beacons, 



*This is true, litcrallr, as regards the xcnrir-zH/r foundations^ 
but the Fleetwood was actually couipUted before ihcMaplia. 



shore-lights, etc. — have been erected in Great Britain, but 
the foregoing completes the category of important ones. 

Tho first screw-pile light of the U. S. was erected by the 
late Col. Hnrtman Bache. I*. S. E., near the mouth of Dela- 
ware Bay, S milea from Iho ocean, and very much exposed. 



22 



LIGHTHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. 



on a shoal covered with 6 feet low water spring tides, but 

over which rise spring tides 13i feet and storm tides IS 

feet. A lighthouse built here in 1827-28 by Mr. Strickland 

Fig. 9. 




Lighthouse at Ship Shoal. Gulf of Mexico, 
of Philadelphia (plan not known to writer) was very soon 
"demolished by action of the sea." A design was then 



proposed in the bureau of topographical engineers for a 
work built ** on a mole of breakwater-stone." This was 
abandoned, because the superstructure, '* being built upon 
breakwater stone thrown at random on the bottom, would 
by unequal settling be liable to fracture; and it was doubted 
whether heavy masses of masonry, raised upon such a base, 
ever proved entirely satisfactory ;" and some progress was 
made (1839) in the collection of stone and the building of 
a caisson, by means of which a masonry foundation was to 
be started from the bottom. This plan, too, was abandoned, 
and in the years 1847-50 the existing lighthouse was 
erected, which stands yet in good condition, though not 
without having required reinforcement to its ice-breaker. 
A peculiarity distinguishing it from all other screw-pile 
structures is due to its exposure to the powerful action of 
ice borne to and fro by the violent ebb or flood currents. 
The light-tower proper is surrounded by an ice-breaker ; 
itself an iron screw-pile structure having no connection 
with the lighthouse, though the two seem \o form one build- 
ing. (See Fig. 8. The icc-brcalcr has since thi.-? delinealion 
been much enlarged, and its top floored over so as to form 
an esplanade.) 

In connection with the Brandywino construction it is in- 
teresting to note that the engineer, Major Bache, presented 
in 1861 an elaborate report with pilans for a lighthouse or 
beacon on tho South Shoal of Nantucket. The work was au- 
thorized by a law of Congress of Mar. 3, lS4'.t, appropriating 
$25,000 " for a screw-pile beacon or lighthouse on the South 
Shoal of Nantucket, lately discovered by the survey of the 
coast," etc. The Nantucket Shoals extend from 6 to 20 
miles seaward from the island of Nantucket. They are of 
''hard sand," with depths of 6 to 18 feet, scattered over nn 
area of 375 square miles. The South Shoal is the most 
seaward, and is 20 miles distant from the island. It is 
composed of fine white sand, quite hard and compact ; the 
least depth (tide rising 3A feet) being 8 feet low water. 
The constructions, estimated to cost from $235,000 (beacon) 
to $323,000 (lighthouse), were never attempted, and tho 
New South Shoal is now believed to be of a shifting 
character; but the discussions contained in Mojor Bache's 
report are not the less interesting. 

For the numerous sand-shoals in the great bays or off the 
southern coast of the U. S., which needed to be marked by 
lights, the screw-pile system, thus introduced, seemed es- 
pecially applicable, and its extension has been very rapid; 
more than fifty such structures now exist, some of great 
magnitude and importance, but far the greater number for 
harbor or bay lights. Sand Key (1853). Carysfort (1857), 
Sombrero (1857), Alligator Reef (1873), all "first-order," 




CraiKbill Channel range-light, Chesapeake Bay : the lower light. 



have been HUcceMively erected on what ih called the Florida 
Reef. Except liio firBt mentioned (on an inland), tho pile.'} 
are Holid wrought-iron, driven fwithout sorowtt) into tho 
coral rock which forms tho aubstaooo of this roof. 



The tower of Alligator Reef may bo considered typical 
of these structures. It is erected in a very exposed posi- 
tion upon tho N. E. extremity of Alligator Reef, in five 
foci of water, but within 200 yards of tho deep water of 



MCll riloiJSK CONSTRUCTION. 



tlxi Oulf. Tbo nearest litiiiJ, Indiiin Key, iit 4 miles to tlio 
wcntward. A toiiiponiry |ilatrorm was erected upon tliiH 
pir(>, Kiipjiurled uii inaii^rovn pili-H Kliod with iron, and 
drivrii livu I'l-ul into tbo bottom in piirtiatly indurutud 
corul ro.-k, A Hiimll luudiiiK-wharr or jfHy tor n'ueiviiijj 
nuitcriuls wttrt al.-<o huilt in <-oiin<.-c<(i>>ii vvitli tliiti platt'uriii. 
Til" platfurtri ticiii^ i-oinpl<iU-d, tlio nine heavy cast iron 
loimd;itioii-iIinks wrrc ai'curati-ly placed at llio centre and 
an;;lif< of tlie oetii;;on, the surface of (he eoral rock being 
flr.ir smoothed luid lovi-lh'd for each dink. Ity an inp>niouM 
HV'^lfiu "f K'^t'K'-'*' '■h*' difkHwerc net in their poMiliouM, witli 
tiicir priipi-r n-hilivc dislauccH — a work of very ^rcat difli- 
rully. 'I'll'' foundation-pilcB pass through the <Tentrefl of 
th(^ ili.'-ks, and rest by idiouldors upon them. These piles i 
are of nolid wrou^'ht iron, 211 feet lon^ and 12 inches in 
diameter, and pointed at their lower ends, the upper ends 
boin;^' lathe-turned and cut off Hquare. The pite-driver 
used in driving them carried a hainmor of 2000 ponndH, 
whiidi wan hointed by a portable f<leain-enj;ine. The piles 
were kept: accuriitcly vertical during the driving by pur- 
chases attiichcd to their heads. The penetration into tho 
coriil at Oiich bbnv of Ihe hammer, wilh an a\'erage fall of 
IS feet, varied from \ ineh to H inehes. mid altont 120 blows 
brou;<hr Ihe shoulder of the piles into contact with tbo dit^k?, 
giving tbeiii a depth in tho coral-UnicKtono rock of 10 feet. 
The pile.s being driven, their tops were cut oft' to a borizou- 
tul plane 11 feet above tlio water, and the cast-iron sockets 

rio 



which lit on tbuir hcuOii wcro put in Ibeir placeii. The rcc- 
ond series, consisting of nine solid wrought- iron pillam 10 
inches in diitni«-ter, was inserted in Iheto; noekeU, etc. 

The work diflers In n/tfiearauce from Fig, 'J only in having 
a s<|uare one- story keeper's dwelling in place oflheeylindri- 
cal two-Htory dwelling of that figure. A very fintibir work 
is now (I87f>) about to he coainienced ou the i-'owey Uoirkc, 
the northern end of the Floridn Ucef, and oH* Cupo Florida, 
the exiiiling light of which will be extinguifbeJ. 

Ship tShoul nud Trinity Hboal, Uulf of Mexico, are sub- 
merged sandbanks lying dangerou^ly in the way of navi- 
gjilion between Ihe mouth of llie Missihsippi and (ialves- 
ton. A screw-pile structure (Fig. U; waa creeled IS.'JB-'i'J 
under liie direction of the lute W. H. Stevens, then an offi- 
cer of engineers. Situated ( Ion. 'Jl.OC^W.Jat. 2ft** iii') »*'<*"*■ 
6 nautical miles from the nearest hind, in 1^ feet of water, 
this work has thus far resisted the force of tbo sea and of 
the wiixl (somotinieK amounting to hurrieuneH). H(Hiio 
trouble lias been caused from Ibe erosion of the bottom, 
nnd a covering of quarry-alone is now being applied over 
a considerable aren. A similar work on Trinity 8hoal was 
e(»inmrneed in iHTo, but (he preliminary stoging wbieb bad 
been erected was carried away in a ecverc gale, and tbo 
work has not been resumed. 

Iron skeleton towers are sometimes resorted to for im- 
portant land-sites, where (he (<oil offers no adequate eup- 
j)ort for a niaaonry structure. A conspicuous instance is 

11. 




Li^'hibouse :ii liacL- liork, caslrri 
the new lighthouse at tho S. W. Pas? of tho Mississippi 
Uiver. The soil, recent alluvium, made up of the sedi- 
mentary deposit of tho river, is of clay, very fine sand, nnd 
ve>:;etablo matter; very yielding (/. r. /jAr^^V, nnd in that 
sense ** compressible"), and hence incapable, by itself, of 
bearing a heavy superstructure. But that the 'site is not 
<}uit€ so more a qnugmirc as may be supposed, the erection 
on a grillage, in former years, of a brick tower is proof. 
This, it is true, had settled greatly, > but its abandonment 
bad otherwise become imperative through encroachments 
of tbo sea. This beacon should be the prominent lond- 
mnrk of this portion of the r.ulf. and a first-order light. 
12S feet above sea-level, wj)? designed. A commencement 
was made by driving wooden jdlcs over nn area tJO feet in 
diameter, ;J.V feet apart, in rows of like distance, to a depth 
of fifty feet. Then another scries of piles in the centre of 
each square thus formed. The first scries was cut offnt 2' fi" 
below low water, and the second series at 1' ti" below. A retic- 
ulation of grillage timbers was laid on the hends of the first 
series and carried tip for four or more thicknesses, the inter- 
vals or free space being packed with concrete, then concrete 

♦Besides Ercat vertical settlement, tho tower is said to have 
leaiif.I Ji feet. It must have been built between 1840 and 1S50. 



entrance to Long Island Sound. 

alone, to make a thickness of about R feet. On the surface 
of this were secured, or bolted, the iron socket-disks from 
which start the nine (eight external and one centralj shafts 
of the skeleton. The general appearance of the toircr 
itself is so similar (except that it rises from the tond) to 
that of works delineated (Fig. 9) that no further pictorial 
exhibition is needed. The light was first exhibited in the 
beginning of 187.'i, two or three years having been occujiicd 
in the construction. 

For many subaqueous sites, where tbo difficulties of 
building might be obviated by a resort to the screw-pile or 
skeleton iron towers, the prevalence of floating ice during 
the winter months is inimicnl to such structures. For sucb 
sites (especially ) Maj. G. II. Elliot, when engineer-secretary 
of the lighthouse board, designed what be calls "tubular 
iron "structures. Fig. 10 represents tho ''Craigbill Channel" 
lower rantje-ligbt (approach to Baltimore harbor), described 
as follows: "The east-iron lube, between high and low 
water and for at least 2 feet above and below the space in- 
cluded between those limits, is 2 inches thick, tbo other 
portions to he 1| inches thick. The tube consists of two 
parts, the lower portion, for a beiirbt of 12 feet, being in 
the form of a frustnm of a cone 30 feet in diameter .it tho 
base, 24 feet at the top ; the upper portion is a cylinder of 



24 



LIGHTHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. 







the same diameter as the top of the frustum of the cone to 
which it is joined. The tubing is cast in sections, each 
section being divided into twenty-four parts, joined to- 
gether through flanges by wrought-iron bolls. The lower 
section of the tubing is bolted to a grillage or flooring con- 
sisting of four layers of timber each 12 inches thick, forming 
a caisson, which is sunk in position below the bottom of the 
bay by filling it with concrete. It was found that for a depth 
of 22 feet the soil is the softest kind of mud — so soft, in fact, 
that an ordinary pile on end would ]>enetrate 20 feet under the 
action of its own weight. Below this alternate thin layers 
of sand, mixtures of sand, mud, and shell, were found to a 
depth of 20 feet more, with no signs of a solid foundation 
within GO feet of the water's surface. It was therefore de- 
termined to drive a cluster of piles, cut them off at a level 
of 27 feet below the surface p-j^ j2. 

of the water, and lower tho 
caisson on to them by fill- 
ing it with concrete; and 
in order to protect the 
lighthouse from latcr.il vi- 
bration and the scour of tho 
tiiles to build a ripra() wall 
of loose stono around it." 

A structure of the same 
kind, resting likewise upon 
piles driven into a sand 
and clay bottom, has been 
placed on Ship John Shoal, 
Delaware Bay. Another, 
resting upon rock 11 feet 
below low-water mark, the 
site having been first sur- 
rounded by an annular rip- 
rap and then levelled with 
a bed of concrete laid by 
the diver, upon which tho 
successive iron rings were 
set up by tho same agency 
and then filled with con- 
crete, is now (1S75) nearly 
finished at the South-west 
Ledge, Now Haven harbor, 
Conn. 

Race Rock presents yet 
another aspect of the pro- 
blem of subatjueous foun- 
dations. "The Race" is ap- 
plied to what may be called 
the eastern water-gate to 
Long Island Sound, lying 
between tho N. E. extrem- 
ity of Long Island and 
Fisher's Island (off New 
L'jnJon, Conn.). Little 
(J oil Island, the Long Isl- 
and gitlc-p'iHt, is marked 
by a light. The other gate- 
post (to maiutain the sim- 
ile) was Kaee Hook, three- 
fourths of a milo from tho 
S. \\^ point of Fisher's 
I.-^land, an isolated sub- 
merged rock, or rather a 
huge boulder, surrounded 
by depths of 12 or 15 feet 
low water, with S feet ad- 
diticmal at high waf'-r. 
Tho tides (hence **'rii'' 
Kaco") flow with cx'-' 
aivo vi(dcnco, with but bi i i 
intervals of slasU-waii. 
From tho E. and S. K. Iln- 
ocean-wave finds no barrier 

save Block Island, and therefore violent wave-action was ap- 
prehended ; moreover, iVe from New London harbor and 
the marginal waters of the Sound is to be feared in winter. 
Hence to form a rijira]) cinbauknierit {d jiicrrc prrtltir) of 
oval form, 1110 by l:'>0 fi'et, well protected on its nuirgins 
by blocks of S or 10 tons weight, was decided ujion as the 
first stop. This would be not only an immediate means of 
getting at tho site, but a future proticlion against wave 
and ico violence. The interior of this cinbanknient was 
then removed (lietli-r to have left it vnc.ilit in Ihe (irsi 
jilaee), and Ihe foundation of concrete (retained in form cx- 
leriially by circular bands of sheet iron each about 2 feet 
high) was brought up from the bottom by aid of the diver, 
who firnl accurately placed each successive linnd. II should 
be remarked that Ihe natural bottom is of boulders com- 
|iuclcd with gravel ami sand, and therefore very firm. Fig. 
U rcproBcnlB Iho work bb it will be, the supcrstructuro 



being now (1875) in progress (the riprap embankment 
being invisible at high tide). 

A work similar in design and appearance, but less coBtly 
and of less difficult construction, has been commenced on 
tho Stratford Shoals, off Bridgeport and in the middle of 
Long Island Sound. 

Little s]>ace can be afforded for the lights of terra finita, 
which seldom present any decided '* engineering " features. 
The following historical notes are given : " It appears that 
immediately after the formation of our government, and 
prior to the year 1789, the few lighthouses then existing 
were maintained at the expense of the States in which they 
were situated. By an act of Congress passed in 1789 the 
expense of their maintenance was assumed by the U. S., 
and their management confided to the treasury department, 
with which it has ever since remained. The first light- 
house erected by the general government wag that upon 
Cape Henry in 1791, and from that date to the year 1800 
eight new lights were established, making the total num- 
ber sixteen. They were placed upon the most frequented 
and dangerous points of the north-eastern and middle por- 
tions of the Atlantic coast. Prior to the year 1812 the 
number of lighthouses had increased to forty-nine, and 
their establishment extended along the southern coast of 
Louisiana. Up to the year 1822 the number of lighthouses 
had increased to seventy. At the commencement of 1838 
there were in operation upon the sea-coast and the shores 
of the great inland waters of the U. S. 204 lighthouses, to- 
gether with 28 light-boats, which arc placed near dangerous 
reefs and shoals where it is difficult or impossible to jiro- 
cure a secure foundation for a permanent building." The 
actual numbers (1875) of lights, signals, etc., under charge 
of the U. S. lighthouse establishment arc given in the last 
paragraph of Lighthoise Illi mination, below. 

The light-towers of terra firma, even (if the site be ele- 
vated) for the most important lights, require only so much 
elevation as will prevent obscuration by surrounding ob- 
jects, and in general present no features of engineering in- 
terest. If, however, the site be very low, a light of tho 
first order demanding an elevation of at least 150 feet, 
the structure appeals to the engineer not only for accu- 
rately calculated elements of stability, but for well-devised 
interior arrangements. One of the most recent of these 
structures. Body's Island lighthouse, N. C, is exhibited in 
Fig. 12. " A secure foundation was obtained by exca- 
vating until a bottom of hard clear sand was reached at 7 
feet below the surface. On this was laid a grillage of tim- 
bers 6" by 12", placed at right angles to each other in two 

Fig. 13. 





layers. Then followed one course of dimension stone 18" 
thick : over this coursed rubble laid in large blocks, thor- 
oughly breaking joints, and all grouted with 1 pari Port- 



I.KMITIIOCSK ILLUMINATION. 



25 



land oomcnt und 2 of 8linrp Hfiiid. From thiH foundation 
rifleti tho hiimi of tlm tuwur, tliv frustum of iin ocru^onal 
pyramid with pliiitli iind (Miriiir)-. Tho ihtc'rii»r * woll ' of tlio 
tower irt lij;hrcc| hy llvn windows. Arv.vnH to thi- wiilch- 
rnoiu Ib hud l«y cij;!!! t*rlH of Hpiriil Hhiirwjiyf, the firnt nrvcn 
of wliioh inuko hiilf thi- ri'V(diiti<iri of a fpiri', IIk; citrhth 
nil cntin- ri'vidiili<ui. TIh-hi- HruirwiiyK urn imt iitrafdind to 
tho townr-wnllM, hut nrc nup[M)rtcd hy th<i hindiii^jH — Hcmi- 
oircuhir imii phitcH n'Htinj^ on I-hr'urriH mid ii corhcdlinK 
prnjiM^in^ fnmi tho intcriiir fa«:n (.f the tower. There Ik u 
hand mil on cindi nide. and the entire nynlein of ftairw he- 
Ion;;inj;tnpaoh llij^ht is kept ri^Mtl hy making the carriers of 
Biiuh a form that ea<'h hiihinter firmly h.ills tn^'ethir three 
oonti;;uou3 ouey." 'I'hi- iirriniKr-ment of the Hdiir,-, hy which 
tho oneiinihraneo of a central nlitift eoiilaiiiin;; a win<iin(5 
Rtnir is avoided, tho interittr better lighted, antl rrmni f^ained, 
iit iin irnprovemcnt introdiUM-d liy Miijor Klliut, when cugi- 
neer-sccrefiiry of the li'^hthnuse Imard. 

A peculiar easi' is prest-iited ii( Hunting Inland, S. C, 
where a f)eo<inil-<irder light. waH needed. Tho N. point of j 
tho ifland is undi-rgoing abrasion by wave-action. Tho I 
ohJeolH tho liglit fllniuhl siihserve tixed the lactation within 
tho possible future ratige (d* this abrasion. Ilenec it was 
determined to nniko a lower whieh can be tjiki-n duwn and 
roinoved in case of necessity, tliough the contingency was 
not deemed jirnbablo. Tlie lighthuuse is sliown in Fig. 13, 
"The iL'-hundredweight iron panels of each horizontal ' 



section woro oast of exactly tbo iamo sisc, so that each 
miKhl occupy any pordlion in itit own section. The panels 
"f the Mhell vary in lliiekner>rt Innn IJ inehts (loweitt sec- 
tion) to J inch MiigheHt). The llangex serving to connect 
the feverul tierf of platen ami the plalert of each tier with 
each other ar)' f<inooth and true-planed KurfaceH. 'l'\\f: holes 
in the llangcH are drillerl, and Inn holts turned to neatly fit 
them. Tho haxe of the Urt't tier of pfineU consiNts of n 
flange :i feet wide. Of this llango the width of I foot l 
ineheH extcndx beyond tho oiittdde of tho lower. This part 
containK tlio holes for tho foundation-holts, which are 
Htrengthened by bospes nnd vertical knees extending up- 
ward to the top of casting?. Tho top flange is G inches hy 

1 i/ inehes. The lower flange of the Hccond section is 1 foot 

2 inches wide. The top flange of this tier and tho flanges 
of theihird section arc (> inches hy \^ inches. The flanges 
of Hucceeding se<!(i<ins are similar, with come slight vari- 
ation of dimensions. The side flanges correspond in size 
with the top flange of end) panel. All the horizontal 
flanges have strengthening knees on each panel, 2 feel 
high and M inches thick, at equal dislaneep apart. An in- 
terior lining of brick il inrhc-s lliirk is built in between tho 
lower flanges. Tln' whob' structure rests on a concrete 
foundatifin s feet thick, to which the lower iron section is 
secured by thirly-si.x anchor bolts huilt into the concrete. 
Tho work (June, 1875) is not completed. 

Highly dangerous shoals, whether off shore (e. y. Nan- 




tucket Shoals ofl" tho const of ^ras.^achusctts, or tho Frying- 
pan Shoals otT the entrance to Cupe Fear River. X. C.) 
or in closed bays (c. ./. Stratford Shoal. L. I. Sound. 
Cross Lodge Shoal, Delaware Bay), where jiermancnt struc- 
tures cannot ho or iiuvo not been erected, can only be 
lighted by light-ships, so many of which (sec LitinTHoisc 
IlU'mination) are employed. These vessels arc specially 
designed and built for the jiarticuhir object they arc de- 
signed to subserve. Furnished with tho strongest and 
most approved holding-gear, and provided with many 
months' supplies of fuel, oil, and food, they ride out un- 
harmed (he gales uf winter. Like sentinels, ever at their 
pos's. they, unlike them, warn /rinu/h/ comers of the am- 
bushed fue. Fig. ;t of LniHTHorsK Ii.i.i minati()N (which 
see) portrays the illuminating n]>paratus employcil. Be- 
sides these essential " sight " signals, mony light ships are 
also provided with •• sound '*— i". e. steam fog— signals. Tho 
design and construction of these vessels belong rather to 
the naval constructor than to the engineer. 

J. G. Baunard. 
Li&rhtUoiiso lllii miimtion. For many years, indeed 
for centuries, the only uumus employed to "warn the mar- 
iner at night of his approach to bind" was the maintenance 
of simple wood or eoal fires on the summits of prominent 
headlands. Sometimes tlie^e lircs were established on 



towers of greater or less elevation, but the number of li;:ht3 
was small, as tho entrances to p()rts and the mouths of 
navigable rivers were the only places at which, for a long 
time, they were regarded ns necessary. The Pharos of 
Alexandria nt the month of the Nile, the tttwer of Dover 
and that of Bouh>gno on opposite sides of the English 
Channel, the Isle of May liglithousc in Scotland, were all 
illuminated by simple wood or coal fires. The tower of 
Ciu-douan nt the mouth of the Gironde River, coast uf 
France, regarded ns the noblest edifice of its kind even nt 
the present day. was illuminated until the year 17S2 by a 
coal-tire exposed in an open chaufi"cr. Indeed, the only ex- 
ception to the rule previous to tho latter part of the eigh- 
teenth century seems to hove hccn the Eddyslone light- 
house, which for about half a century was illuminated by 
twenty-four tallow candles, the light from which was infe- 
rior to the coal or wood fire? generally in use, but were 
resorted to doubtless from necessity, as it was scarcely 
practicable to supply a station with such limited capacity 
for storage, with suflicient coal or wo(>d to last through 
a long period of stormy weather, during which time no 
intercourse enuld he held with the mainland. 

The first real advance made in lighthouse illuminntinn 
was in (he introduction of oil lamps and reflectors. The 
lamps bad flat wicks, and gave a poor light at best; 



26 



LIGHTHOUSE ILLUMINATION. 



the reflectors were segments of spheres, and merely re- 
flected without parallelizing the rays; consequently, the 
change in the system at first met with little favor. The 
new system was'iutroduced at the Cordouan light in 1782, 
and at the isles of Re and Oleron about the same time. 
The light, however, was so feeble at the Cordouan (though 
not less than eighty reflectors were used) that mariuers 
complained of its iuef&ciency, and asked a return to the 
previous system of coal-fires. M. TeuK-re, engineer of the 
district of Bordeaux, in which the Cordouan tower is sit- 
nafeJ. was accordingly charged by the minister of marine 
with the duty of examining into the defects of the system, 
aud devising remedies therefor. The results of his studies 
werepublished in amemoir dated May 26, \7Su. He proposed 
three important improvements : First, in the reflector itself, 
hy making it parabuloidal, instead of spherical, and placing 
the flame of the lamp in its focus. From the most reliable 
data we have at the present day, it scen-s that Teulere was 
the first to propose the simple application of the principle 
of the parabola to the subject of lighthouse illumination, 
though the knowledge of the property possessed by the 
paraboloid of parallelizing by reflection the rays of light 
proceeding from a luminous source at its focus, was well 
known. Indeed, the subject had been discussed in a me- 
moir as early as 1770 by Lavoisier, but only with reference 
to the lighting of the streets of a great city. As a second 
improvement he proposed to use lamps with cylindrical 
wicks, supplying air to the interior of the flame as well as 
to the outside. This is without doubt the most important 
im]irovement suggested, but there seems to be some doubt 
as to the real inventor. The burner is universally known 
as the Ar<iand burner, and Ami Argand of Geneva is almost 
universally regarded as its inventor. Whether the idea 
originated with Teulere or with Argand, or was the result 
of their joint e9"orts. the invention was a most valuable 
one, and Teulere deserves great credit fur first suggesting 
its application to lighthouse illumination. The third im- 
provement proposed was in the use of flashing or eclipse 
lights. This was to be accomplished by placing several lights 
with their reflectors on the outside of a polyhedral frame, 
and revolving thelatteraboutits vertical axis byclockwork. 
The appearance then to an observer at a distance would be 
that of a light which at regular intervals would suddenly 
come into view, increase in intensity until it attained its 
maximum brilliancy, then die out, and bo followed by a 
period of darkness. This character of light, formerly 
called revolving, is now known as the ftaahiiu/ light. Teu- 
lere hail no claim to ])riority in this, as such a light, con- 
sisting of three spherical reflectors attached to a triangular 
polyhedral frame, had been established at Marstrand, Swe- 
den, previous to the publication of his memoir. 

The new system was not fairly introduced until 1790, 
when an apparatus constructed by JI. Lenoir, under the 
direction of M. Borda, was placed on the tower of Cor- 
douan, after having been satisfactorily tested at Versailles. 



Fig. 1. 



Fig. 2. 




Horizontal unction throuyh 
til*! axis of a parabololdal 

rclhietor. 



Vert if nl MOflion llirou':l> 
the iixiH ofu pariibuloidal 
reflector. 



flectors each, supported on a triangular polyhedral frame, 
to which rotary motion abuut its axis was given by means 
of clockwork. The reflectors at first used were lined with 
small facets of silvered glass; at a later period hammered 
copper plates were moulded to tlie i)roper torin and silvered 
on the inside: the latter are still used wherever the catop- 
tric system of lighthouse illumination is adhered to. Figs. 
1 and 2 represent horizontal and vertical sections through 
the axis of a parabololdal reflector. The burner is so ad- 
justed that the centre of the most brilliant horizontal sec- 
tion of the flame shall be coincident with the focus of the 
reflector; strictly speaking, therefore, the number of rays 
reflected parallel to the axis forms but a small portion of 
the whole. The greater portion of the reflected rays di- 
verge more or less according to the diameter of the opening 
of the reflector, its focal distance, and the dimensions of 
the flame. A certain amount of divergence is obviously 
necessary, otherwise the duration of the flashes of a flash- 
ing light would be too short to enable the mariner to take 
his bearings from it. Fig. 3 represents an apparatus for a 
floating light, such as is in use at the present time on board 
the light-ships in the service of the U. S. : 

Fig. 3. 




Thic apparatuB, the hirgeiit of itn kind ever eonsti-uetod for 
lighthouse purposes, coosistod of three groups of four rc- 



Illuminating apparatus for Hght-sln'ps in the service of the U. S. 

It is enclosed in a lantern, which is hoisted to a mast-head 
at night, and lowered to the deck of the vessel during the 
day. In the latter position it is covered by a small house 
built around the mast, where it can be cleaned and jirtpartd 
for night-service. 

The system of Teulere marks the first real advance in the 
improvement of the illumination of li^hlhousts, and after a 
practical demonstration of its advantngcs it was eagerly 
adopted by all civilized maritime nations, and continued in 
use until the later invention of the lenticular system of 
Fresnel. To sumo extent it is still adhered to. The major- 
ily "f tho Canadian lights on the lak<s of >.'orlh America 
are of this system ; it is used in all countries extensively for 
range-lights, and almost exclusively tor floating lights, it 
being well adapt(d for the service of the latter. This sys- 
tem of lighth(ui>^o illumination being based on the reflection 
of light liy me:ins of metallic surfaces, though far f^npcrior to 
anytliing j.ri'viously known, i^tili had serious inhircnt de- 
fects. It had been found by experiment that rays of light 
reflected from metallic surfaces, though polishtd in the 
most perfect manner, lost not less llian one-half their in- 
tensity by absorption. The loss being so great uiuler tho 
most favorable circumstances, it is readily imagined that 
in practice it will bo vastly increased on account of the 
impracticability of maintaining the reflectors in a perfect 
stale while under the charge of lighlkeepers. Consider- 
able loss is also occasioned by inaccuracy of workman- 
ship; by the lamp itself, which by its Jiosition necessarily 
obstructs the passage of a jiortion of the reflected rays; 
anil by divergence above and below the jilane in which tho 
axis of the reflector lies. The rays wliicli diverge below 
lire not entirely useless, as they servo to light the waters 
in close proximity to tho lighthouso ; but the njiward- 
diverging rays, which constitute a large ]>or(ion, are lost 
in space. It is thus evident that a large amount of avail- 
able light is losi tlirough tl»c imperfection of tlie means of 
utilizing it. These defects became more apparent, and tho 









i.Kiiii'iiorsi- 


IM 


t. Ml, NATION. 


L'7 



nooi-Hsity for a fltill bettor flyfltcm evident, an tlio number 
of liKlillmuscH iind tin* (IrinniidH of nn incroaMinK comiiitTcc 

inii1(i[ilit-d. Tim [irul.lnni wiis, linw with Miih-ry uixJ t*<_'oii- 
niiiy tu prodiicr it niii^'lo tliuin! ol j^k-hI lirilliiiiiry, bur of 
Kiiiall dirnoiiHiotts, and In nu iiiiiiii|ititiitr t\\v gl<jhi> of niyti 
that tlic In-H of ii«eful clR'iit Hlmuld In- rfduocd to u miiii- 
iiiiini. 'i'liin WHS .«atiHftu:t(»rily nolvrd \>y AuKiHtin I''n.'HiMd 
ill Iho V'ltr IH'.'L', mid Nn- I'Vcsmd or diM|itriu nyj<toiii — that 
ij<, It HVHteiii \m^i^il mi the ndniclinn cd" li^'h(- -was the rcHult. 
AltlnniKb Itidloii an t^'arly (ih the middle (d'llu! lant cmtiiry 
hiid propoMcd hi j^riiid t*olid cuiivex Iciihch into stfpH (ir (mhi- 
iMMiIrio r.oncrt, and Condnrcot, in I77."> to hiiiid ii|i IciiflfH in 
Hriiaral'' |ii<MM-s in ord'T to coiiBtitiilo lnr;;i' liiiriiin[;-t;hiHH('H, 
Auj^tistin FiT.sncd wil.'< the liij't to jinipOKO itiid luit in huc- 
('(•sslul oprTation llir lenH or dioptric HvettMii an a nicanH of 
ilhiinitnitiiijf li^lilhouncs. IMh Byntcm in haHod on the opti- 
cal priin'i)dt« of tlm convex Icnn, that rayn (d" lit;hf ciniltfd 
from a luiiiiu'His point, iit its )iriii('i|ial t'ofOH, slrikint; llu; 
loiiy. aro rclrai^tLHl in jiaswini^ throuj^li it, and Imt t'nr Iho 
oHtnits of Hidiori<Mil aberration would onHir^c in a dirretion 
paralhd to its rxIh. In tlio proviouH systoin of Teub'-ro the 
rays of li^bt had been approximately paraliulizcd by ro- 
flootion. Frcsncl projioped to aeeuniplibb tbo sumo eud by 

Fio. 4. 



ineiinK of refraction. For obvioufl rcoHoni ho cJtcidcd to 
UKO (h(! pluno-convDX form of ieun for thin purpoHe. To 
carry out biH idcuH rctjuirerl the coiiHtruetion of bjiiMn of 
birge Hi7.e, ami uh il wilh u*^Cf»nury to make ihem of Hhorl 
foeal dir<(uiii:<*, one conttructed in tho oriliimry way — 
that if, with u phiiie oh one Hide and a hiii^le convez Hiir- 
fuee on tho other — wouhl have required co ^f^-'it a thi< k- 
ncHii of ^hi)^H that the hiMH of light by ubtiorplion and from 
(liNpi^rHion by Hpherieal aberration, to cay nothiiif^ of olbrr 
MiitnifcHt defects, would have ulone been a Kunirienl reaKon 
for dimcarding it. Without bcinf; aware of what had been 
written by eitiier IlufiVtn or t'ondoroet in regard to the con- 
Hinietion of large biirning-glaiiHeH, he roneeived the id< a of 
ronsfructing b-nscH in the manner nuggetited by the latter; 
that iH, with coneentrio annular priHinu (cii fc/if^fou), tlie 
exterior surfaccH of the prlxnis being zoncH of curved 
HurfiireH with dilferent radii of curvature. By thin means 
tin- thicknet-M rtf iIh) refracting mediuin may be reduced to 
a niiniinuni, and by generating the exterior fiurfaeeH of the 
annular prlHiiiH with eurvcH of proper radii, the effect of 
8plierii!al aberration may be almost entirely corrooted, F'ig. 
4 represenlH an elevation^ and Fi^. a section through tho 
axis uf tiucli a lcu6 : 

Fio. 5. 










' j&^- 






i->:-- 



Elevation of a lens. 

Ho also decided to use the crown glass of St. Gobain in fho 
construction of his lenses, tliongh it bad a faint green tinge, 
rather than a clearer glass having in it more oxide of lead, 
tlie bitter when moulded in largo maEses being of less uni- 
tnrni cb'usity and more linlde to etriiv. The idea of 
using as tbo refracting medium water, spirits of wine, or 
Fig. 6. 



Section tbron;;h tho axis. 




' the way of the realization of bis original ideas. Tlic work 
I re(iuiring new and expensive maehiuery. he found it neces- 
sary to modify !iis plans, making liis first leus with Jioly* 
gonal instead of annular prisms, the exterior gurfuets of 
wliicb, instead of being zones of surfaces generated by 
curves ()f proper radii, w*.'re segments of spherical surfaces. 
It was necessary to have at tbo focus of the lens a power- 
ful light, of such diincnsi()ns that l!ic divergence below 
tho axis of the lens would be sufiiciont to light up all 
tho surface of tho sea from a point comparatively ncnr 
the tower to Ibo mo.«t distant horizon, and lateral or hor- 
izontal divergence sufficient to enable the mariner at th-- 
limit of tho range to sec the flashes long enough to take 
his bearings. This led to the no less important invention 

Fig. 7. 



Fresnel's apparatus, designed for the Cordo 



some other liquid that would absorb little light in its pass- 
age through it. by confining it in glass cases shaped like 
lenses, had not escaped liim. Imt was given up after care- 
ful consideration. JMocliauical difiioultie^ at first stood in 




*^i_>J 



Plans of the Frcsncl apparatus designed for tho Cordouan. 

of the four-wick mechanical lamp, which Frcsucl, with his 
characteristic modesty, snys was the combined work of 
himself and Arago, though the latter disclaims all cr-.dit 



28 



LIGHTHOUSE ILLUMINATION. 



in connectioa with it, and gives the honor to his friend 
alone. 

A trial having been made, under the supervision of the 
commission des phares, of a lens constructed by Fresnel, 
and the advantages of his system clearly demonstrated, he 
was directed to undertake the construction of an apparatus to 
take the place of the reflectors on the Cordouan. Figs. 6 and 
7 represent the apparatus devised by him for this tower, 
where it was placed in the year 1S23. This was the first com- 
plete lenticular apparatus ever consrructcd fur lighthouse 
purposes. It consisted of eight lenses, of 50 centimetres 
(about lUi inches) focal distance, united at their edges by 
a light armature of brass, forming a polygonal band or 
drum. A four-wick mechanical lamp was placed in the 
axis of the latter, with the top of the burner a little below 
the common foeus of the lenses. Rotary motion about the 
axis of the apparatus was given by means of clockwork 
machinery, so that it made one complete revolution in 
eight minutes. In this manner a succession of brilliant 
flashes were thrown out on all points of the maritime hori- 
zon at regular intervals of une minute. In order to utilize 
the rays which would otherwise pass out above the top of 
the drum and be lost, he had ci^nstructed eight smaller 
lenses, and arranged them on the faces of a truncated pyra- 
mid, so that planes through their centres and the axis of 
the apparatus would make with corresponding planes 
through the centres of the large lenses angles of 7^ de- 
grees, the effect of which was to increase the duration of 
the flashes. Above the upper edge of each he placed an 
inclined mirror to refieet the rays in a horizontal direction 
after they were made parallel by passing through the 
lenses. The rays that pass below the edge of the drum were 
rendered horizontal by small silvered reflectors arranged 
like the leaves of a Venetian blind, as shown on Fig. G ; so 
that at a distance of not more than about 10 miles they pro- 
duced the effect of a dim fixed light, which could bo seen 
between the flashes. After a short practical test of the new 
system, it wag definitively adopted by the commission des 
phares for the illumination of the lighthouses on the coasts 
of France. 

The apparatus just described gathers the divergent rays 
of light proceeding from the flame into eight distinct 
beams. The necessity for having one that would distribute 
its rays equally around the entire horizon, thus producing 
a fixed light, was soon recognized by Fresnel. vSuch an 
apparatus was therefore constructed under his direction 
and presented to the Academy in May. 1S24. The centr,al 
drum in this case was to have been cylindrical. Owing, 
however, to the impossibility of having his original de- 
signs practically carried out, he had to modify them, so 
that the central dioptric drum, instead of being a cylinder, 
as it ouijht to huve been, was a polyhedron of sixteen 
sides. He afterwards increased the number to thirty-two 
sides. 

Another apparatus constructed by Fresnel was that which 
produced a fixed light varied by flashes at regular inter- 
vals. This he made by 
establishing on the ouN 
side of an ordinary fixed 

light apparatus .a sub- _ 

sidiary one which re- tt (^y 
volved around the other. fl J^^ 
It had two dioptric jian- | M 

els composed'of vertical | f 

prisms held in a frame, 
l)y means of whieh por- 
tions of the light diverg- 
ing uniformly over the 
horizon were united into 
beams of parallel rays. 
Fig. 8 nipresents a plan 
and section of this i>ppa- 
ratns. 

The apparatus first de- 
vised by Fresnel had 
above and below the cen- 
tral dioptric rlrum metal- 
lic reflectors for utiliz- 
ing the light which would 
otherwise b<! Iof<t. Short- 
ly before his death hn 
conceived the idea and 
cotnmenced the execiitioii 
of a fourth-order appa- 
ratus, embodying a most 
impiirtant improvement for parallelizing these rays. IIo 
did this by means of totally reflecting eatadioptric rings, 
three of whieh he nrrnnged below nnfl five above the cen- 
tral drum; the hitter formed a dome, through the upper 
purt of whieh tin- liimp-ehimney pii!'se<l. Fig.it repreHmts 
a lialf weetioti through the vertioal axis of this apparatus. 



Fig. 8. 



Frcsnel'.H apparnrus for a light 
fixed, vari(?d bv flushes. 



Fig. 9. 





Half-section through 
Fresnel's fourth-order 
eatadioptric ai)paratus. 



The system of lighthouse illumination whieh bears the 
name of Fresnel was not at the time of his death brought 
to the high state of perfection which it has since at- 
tained. But it was brought to such 
a condition that, thougli adopted 
by almost every eivilized nation, no 
essential modifications in the prin- 
ciples of his constructions have 
been found necessary ; and few im- 
provements have been suggeste<l 
which had not already been carried 
out on a small scale or described in 
his writings. 

For want of proper facilities, it 
seems that the construction of the 
central dioptric drum of the first- 
order apparatus as a cylinder was 
not attempted until It^ofi, though it 
was well known that the cylindrical 
form was the only one that would 
cause an equal distribution of the 
rays. In that year this improve- 
ment was successfully accomplished, 
at the suggestion of Mr. Alan Stevenson, engineer to the 
commissioners of northern lights, Scotland, by Messrs. Cook- 
son of Newcastle-on-the-Tyne, and with such precision that 
the useful effect of the light was increased one-fourth. 

The rays that pass above and below the central dioptric 
drum in all first-order apparatus were rendered horizontal 
by means of metallic reflectors until the year 1843. In that 
year a first-order fixed-light ai)paratus was constructed, in 
which these reflectors were replaced by totally reflecting 
prisms, similar to those in the fourth-order lens, the con- 
struction of which had been commenced by Fresnel just 
previous to his death. From observations made at the 
Royal Observatory at Paris it was found that the illumi- 
nating eflect of the cupola of prisms, or that ]>art above 
the dioptric drum, as compared with the tier of reflecting 
mirrors which they replaced, was as 140 to 87 ; that of the 
prisms below, as compared with their reflectors, as 74 to 
46; the total relative effect being 214 to 133. 

Let the triangle ABC (Fig. 10) represent a section 
of one of these rings; F, the focus of the illuminating 
apparatus; F L, the vertical, and F K, the horizontal 
axis; F I, the course of a ray of light incident to the 
surface of the prism at I, at which point it is refracted 
to H, where, aceonling to a well-known law of optics, it is 
totally reflected to D, and is again refracted in the direction 
of E. If the section A B C be revolved about the vertical 

axis F L, a horizontal 
prismatic ring will be 
generated, and the light 
which passes through it 
^\ ill be distributed equal- 
ly around the entire ho- 
rizon. The ring in this 
cnse forms an element of 
a fixed-light apparatus. 
If the same section bo 
revolved around the 
horizontal nxi? F K. a 
vcrtieal ring will lie gen- 
erated, and the light in 
passing through it will bo 

-^'"" "■ ' *' emitteci in a horizontal 

eylin<lrical beam. In this cas? it forms an clement of a 
revfdving or flashing light apparatus. These rings are 
ealled eatadioptric, from the fact that the light in passing 
through them undergoes both reflection and refraction. 

The lipplication of the vertical rings to the flashing-light 
apparatus is the basis of the holo]»hotal system of Thomas 
Stevenson; iuu\ though prisms formed in both ways were 
made use of by Fresnel during his lifetime in the construc- 
tion of (he small apparatus designed for lighting the quays 
of the St. Martin Canal, Paris, still the vertical rings used 
in tins case were not applied to lighthouse illumination. 
The first proposal to use them in connection with the re- 
volving-light apparatus seems to have cnme from Thomas 
Stevenson in 1810. Up to thai tinu- ihe flashing-light 
apparatus had lieen constructed either with metallic reflec- 
tors or horizontal eatadioptric rings above and below the 
central dioptric drum. These reflectors and eatadioptric 
rings produced a fixed lii;ht more or le^s dim. which could 
be seen between the flasjies, so that, in fart, Ihe light hat! 
the same appearance as that of a fixe<l light varietl by 
flashes. Stevenson's object seems to have been to do away 
with the metallic reflectors and horizontal totally refleeting 
rings, and to inereawe the intensity of the flashes by C(»n- 
eentriitini; nil the available lij.'h( in the flash itself, jleneo 
the name holopliotal. The first apparntiis of this kind 
ever constructed was for a lighthouse at Horsburgh in the 



Fig. 10. 



\; 



i,i(;irniorsi: ii.mwii.nwiion. 



2!i 



Straittt of 8inp;ii|)on>, India, wlicro it wfif* liK^it'-d Oct. 16, 
1H.M. Kif;. I 1 rcpn'.sentH a tirKt-nrder Iiolit|iliutul appurntuit. 
In IS62 u liritt-<iriU>r iippuratutt vvau cuiiBtnictud on tliitt 
|iii<. lor llio li^'ht at 



priiiriplii lor III 
Korlh KnniiMsuv 




First-order holophntnl cata- 
dioptrif^ aiiparatns. 



iiy, Scotland, 

and alioiit tiiti t<arnc tinin 

annllHT waH inado fur tlm 

Iit;hrln)in*n at Ailly, Kranoc 

ThtnnuH Slovrnsnn iilsn df- 

vi.Hi'd an iinprovfd uu'MumI 

of pruiliicinjc ft lixod lii;Iit 

viiricii !>y ni'?*li*'» 1>.V iisinc, in 

Ilu' plu<Mi (if (in<* or more nf 

tilt! ordinary fixedlii^lil pun- 

rl.>4, cnrri'Kpondini; linlnpho- 

tal paiuds. In this caso tho 

wlmlo a]iparatiiM rnvnU-f.-j, 

I)iir tilt' porlion nf the appa- 
r;itiiH tlinHi;r|i wliitdi a tixcd 
lil^lit is Htusn does not chiingc 
ilw appoaranco on account of (^ 
tlio motion. Ah each flnsh 
panel rrossea in front of tlio 
cyd of the observer, a. bril- 
liant ttash is soon, followotl 
by tbo more feeble lixrd lipht. 
If in tlio ordinary lentic- 
ular apparatus it bo ni>t re- 
quired ti> illuniino tho entire 
ht)rizon, tho dark sector is 
li-ft blank ; or, if dof-irable, 
n sphorieal refleetor may bo 
placed in it, to return to tho 
souroo ttf li^ht, and thruuj^h 
it to the lonsos, tho rays 
whioli would otherwiso bo 
lost. Tho olijeetion to tho 
U80 of this reflcetor Is. that 
it inverts tlio iniajijc of the 
flame, and reflects tho heat as well as the liglit, so that 
unless it is s^t with its centre considerably above tho 
level of the t\i(Mis of tho apparatus tli<^ burner anil oil 
will bo heated much more ou one side thim on the other. 
and tho flame will rise much hij;her on tho heated 
side in consequenee. Thomas Stevenson devised an im- 
proved method of utilizin<|; this lijj;ht by means of a sys- 
tem of totally rellei'tinj; prisms set in tho dark angle of 
the apparatus. By this arrangement tho amount of re- 
floetod li;;ht was increased, and the defects due to the use 
of metallic retleetors obviated, 

Stevenson also propitsed two plans for pointing out dan- 
gerous rocks or shoals — one by means of a dip/nnif litjht, the 
other by an nppamit li<jht. The former has tho axis of tho 
apparatus inclined at a given angle to the horizon, so that 
the rays, in.stea<l of being projected tangentially to the hori- 
zon, are thrown downward on tho sea. Tho rays of the dip- 
ping light being made to illumine only the vicinity of a shoal 
or danger, vessels coming within its range are warned that 
they are in dangerous waters. Tho other consists of an ap- 
paratus placed ou shore capable of thro wing a powerful beam 
of light to a beacon built on a shoal. A reflector is placed on 
tho latter to reooivo and distribute the rays over a certain 
are. Within this arc an apparent light will bo seen ou 
tho beacon. Several lights of this kind have been estab- 
lished in Europe, and are said to have given satisfaction. 
Tho distance from tho shore-light to the beacon in those 
oases does not exceed tillO feet. 

The Frencli engineers of tho lighthouse service give moro 
attention to increasing the duration than the intensity of 
the flashes of tho flashing lights. An apparatus, for in- 

stanop, composed of eight 

lenticular panels revolves 

about tho lumiuoussourco 

with a certain velocity, 

each ]>anel comlensiug 

one-eighth of the eflec- 

tivo light. Tho light 

from each may be so con- 
centrated that at a cer- 
tain distance it will give 

the appearance of a flash 

of great brilliancy, but of 

short duration, or one of 

less brilliancy, but of 

longer durntion. This is 

done in tho manner 

shown in Fig. 1*-'. In 

tho one ease, the light 

thrmigh the central tlioptric part of the apparatus, and 

ihat through tho corresponding cjvtadioptric prisms above 

and below it, comes into view simultaneously, and being 



Fig. 12. 




concentrated in a i^ingle powerful beum gives a short bril- 
liant flash. In the other cane the lower cala^iioptrjc prinma 
are not itlighlly in advance, and the upper oneii iiliglitly in 
roar (with reference to the (llrectionot motion) of the di- 
optric purl. The liglit through the lower priMniN ih there- 
fore seen fir^t, then that through (he central dioptric part 
comeH into view, and it in followed by the light through tho 
upper prisms. In this cafie the efTect in a prolonged flnrth. 

in order that lighlM on the name or adjacent coast may 
not be mistaken one for another, and thuH bad the mariner 
into danger, their appearance in diflerent pla<-eH is varied, 
^o that when ono is seen the mariner may determine Ihk 
po-nition by eon.sulling tho chart and the lighthouse list. 
In the U. S. tho following charuc^teristic <liBlinctions aru 
made use of — viz. I, flxed white; 2, fixed red; I!, flaHlung 
white; 1, flashing red; 6, flashing alternately white and 
red; (i, (i.\e(| white, varied by white flaHhes ; 7, fixed white, 
varied by red flashes; H, fixed white, varied by alti-rnato 
red unci white flashe.-t ; 'J, multiple lights. The flxed light 
irt (jik; that does not change in its app<-aranee. The white 
light is one of tho natural color. Tlic flaHbing lights in- 
clude all those that show alternately a bright flawh and a 
total eclipse, thr)ugh the interval between the fla^be.-j may 
vary from Ave seconds to one and a half minutes. For 
obvious reasons, this interval is rarely made longer than 
ono minute. When it is only five secondy, the light has a 
very characteristic appearance, anct is called scintillating. 
There are several fir.st-order lights with this characteri«'tic 
on tlio const of the I'. S. Tho fixed light varied by flashes 
is described by its name, and is susceptible of further dii^- 
ti net ions by varying tho intervals between the fla.*>hes, which 
in this kind of liglit seldom follow each other at shorter in- 
tervals than thirty seconds nor longer than three minutes. 
.Multiple lights, as a distinctive characteristic, arc now sel- 
dom used, except for light-ships, though there are several 
places on tho coast of the U. S. where double, and one where 
triple lights arc maintained. Tho latter distinction is a 
remnant of the obt system, which has l>ccn retained merely 
becau:^o all unnecessary changes in the appearance of old 
liglit-stations long familiar to seamen should be avoided. 

Tho mode of distinguishing lights by color was at first 
condemned in the most emphatic manner, because tho 
coloring- matter ab."<orb3 a large pcrcentagi- of light, and in 
certain atmospheric con'litions a red light can scarcely bo 
distinguished from one of the natural color. There arc 
only two colors that can bo used to advantage as a means 
of distinguishing lights — the rr.d ancl green. They are 
produced by interposing glasses of those colors between 
tho flame ancl the observer. Tho red light is most distinct, 
and it has iieon found by experiment that its brilliancy is 
less impaired in its passage through the atmosphere than 
light of the natural color. In other words, of two lights, 
one red and tho other white, but of the same intensity 
measured by the usual photometric process, the red will 
bo visible farther than the white. Experiment has also 
shown that the reverse of this is the case with the green 
light; it diminifhes much more rapidly in intensity than 
tho while as the distance increases. It also sufl'ers great 
diminution in brilliancy in receiving its color; hence green 
is not a suitable color for distinguishing the lights of light- 
houses, though it may be, and sometimes is, used for inte- 
rior harbor-lights. 

A system for distinguishing sea-coast and other lights 
was proposed some years ago by Charles liabbage of Lon- 
don. It consisted in giving to each lighthuuse a certain 
number, and by means of occullations to cause it to repeat 
its number continually during the night. This was to be 
accomplished by enciosing the upper part of the glass 
chimney in a thin tube of brass or tin, which was to de- 
scend slowly over the flame, and then to suddenly start 
back. The motion of the screen was to be regulated by 
clockwork in such manner as to cause occullations of the 
light at proper intervals, which would indicate its number. 
This subject was carefully investigated by the lighthouse 
board of the U. S. in lSa4. and while certain a.lvantagcs 
were conceded to the system, it was found that there were 
disadvantages which prevented its adoption. 

The lenticular apparatus are classed according to their 
sizes in orders, as shown in the following table : 



Prolonged 
flash. 



Short brilliant , 
flasli. 





Jnlprior 
diameter 
ofiheeeu- 
traldnim. 


Height of the different [>arl... 


Total beliffal 


Order of apparmtus. 


Lower 
catAdlop- 
triepait. 


Cnitral 
drum. 


rpper 
csladtop. 
trie part. 


of api^ra. 

tu*. not In- 

clodiop pod. 

at>l. 


First order 

.Second order 

Thini order 

Fourth order.... 

Fiflh order 

Sixth order 


IncbM. 
72. J4 
.W.12 
39.37 
19.68 
14.76 
ll.Sl 


iDObea. 
21.2-> 
14.S.S 
10.94 
5.66 
4.1.1 
3.X> 


Inebe^. 
S8..'>8 
33.62 
25.98 
11.81 
8.90 
7.08 


Inebc 
S9.40 
S1.S8 
23.34 
10.16 
7.71 
6. IS 


iBcbea. 
101.96 

81.4.T 

62.0,1 1 

28.42 

21.30 

17.04 



30 



LIGHTHOUSE ILLUMINATION. 



In the French service they hare only four orders of appa- 
ratus, the third and fourth bcin? classed as large and small 
models of the third, aud the fifth and sixth as large and 
small models of the fourth. An apparatus is sometimes 
made of 27.i>6 inches diameter, called the ;H order. First- 
order lierhts are sometimes called sea-coast or landfall 
lio-hts, and are generally established on prominent head- 
lands or capes, the distances between them being so ar- 
ranged that their circles of illumination shall overlap each 
other, in order that the mariner may not approach with- 
in dangerous proximity to the coast, in clear weather, 
without seeing at least one of them. Sometimes, however, 
the configuration of the coast is such that the tirst-order 
lights are loo far apart to fulfil this coudition. In this 
case the dark space between them is illumined by estab- 
lishing one or more lights of a lower order. The second- 
order lights mark the secondary points or headlands along 
the coast and the approaches to bays and sounds. The 
third-order lights are used in bays of considerable width 
and intricacy and for the principal lights of lake-coasts. 
The fourth, fifth, and sixth order lights mark the prominent 
points, headlands, and shoals in large bays or sounds or 
obstructions in rivers. They are also used to mark pier- 
heads and wharves. 

It is of great importance that the lights of the first order, 
and those which on some particular points fulfil the neces- 
sary requiremcntsof sea-coast lights, should be very marked 
in their appearance, so that the mariner may be unmistak- 
ably apprised of his true position, and enabled to rectify 
any errors of " reckoning " before he shall have ajiproached 
the coast too near for safety. But it is not necessary that 
each light should have a different characteristic. It will 
be sufficient that the distances between those of the same 
characteristic, on the same and adjacent coasts, exceed any 
error of position which might result under ordinary cir- 
cumstances of weather and navigation. 

A most important feature in the Fresnel lenticular ap- 
paratus is the lamp. It has already been stated that Ar- 
gand is generally credited with the invention of the doublc- 
current-of-air burner. Count Rumford is supposed to bo 
the first who used lamps with multiple 
wicks, but it appears that Guyton de 
Morveau m.adealamp with three con- 
centric wicks as early as 1787. It was 
not a success, however, as he failed to 
devise the means of supplying oil with 
sufficient rajtidity to prevent the de- 
struction of his burner by the intense 
heat developed. Carcel at a later pe- 
riod invented a mcclianisra of clock- 
machinery, which pumped the oi! up 
with sufficient rapidity to cause a con- 
stant overflow, and thus to keep the 
burner cool. The lamjis generally used 
in the higher orders of apparatus, 
which are required to illumine the en- 
tire horizon, are thi* result of the stud- 
ies of Fresnel and .\rago, and combine 
the principles of the double-current- 
of- air burner, multiple concentric 
wicks, and the mechanism of pumps 
worked by clock-machinery for sup- 
plying a superabundant quantity of 
oil. Other lamps have come into use, 
but they are all constructed on the 
same general principles, except in 
the manner of supplying the oil to the 
burner. Fig. 13 represents a burner 
of a four-wick lamj). The first one 
used in the Fresnel lenticular apparatus was made by M. 
AV'agner, aclockmakcr of Paris, from whom the lamp takes 
its n.amc. 

Lamps are claseod according to the order of the apparatus 
to which they belong. The lamp of the firnt-order appa- 
ratus has a burner with four wicks : that of thosccond order 
has three wicks; those of the third and fourth orders have 
two wicks each ; and tliO!»e of the fifth and sixth orders liavo 
but one wick each. Tlie following lamps iiro in use in the 
lighthouse service of the II". S. — viz. Wugncr's nu'chanienl 
lamp, hcpimtd'a mechanical lamp, the modern tor lamp, 
JMeade's hydraulic lamp, Franklin's pueumaliu lamp, 
Funck'fl hydraulic float lamp. 

The luminous intensity of a light is measured by moans 
of ft |)lio(ometer. (he unit of meaKuremer.t in some coun- 
tries being the light of a Cnrcel lamp conf<uming a certain 
quantity of oil per hour, and in others a sperm candle of 
fixed dimensions, which ronpumes n certain number of 
grains jier hour. In neilher cane, however, is this unit a 
perfectly invariable qtinntity, hut it depends on elements 
that ftro variable and diflltjult to accurately estimate. Thn 
French unit, a Carcel buroorf is consoquontly variously I 




A four-wick lamj)- 
burner. 



estimated at from 9 to IH sperm candles, the latter being 

the American and English unit. 

In the first-order lenticular apparatus the flame of a four- 
wick burner has a diameter of alK>ut ;U inches and a height 
of about 4 inches when in its normal state. Tlie top of the 
burner is placed so that it will be about 1 inch below the focus 
of the apparatus ; in this position the focus coincides with the 
centre of the horizontal section of greatest brilliancy of the 
flame. Until within a few years lamps with four wicks were 
the largest in general use for first-order lights; recently in 
the English service they have been made with as many as 
six wicks. They are arranged so that a less number may be 
burned at a time if required, producing a light which may 
be varied in intensity. This is considered an advantage, 
as it enables a saving to be made in the consumption of oil 
during the long twilight of summer and at other times when 
the maximum intensity is not required. The maximum in- 
tensity of a light from a six-wick burner is estimated at 722 
candles, while that from one of four wicks is 328 candles. 

The distance at which a light may be seen is termed its 
"range;" and were it not for the spheroidal form of the 
earth its value would depend entirely upon the intensity 
of the light aud the degree of transparency of the atmo- 
sphere. The form of the earth's surface introduces another 
element, however, in the problem of determining the value 
of the range — that of the height of the light above the 
level of the sea. Wc thus have the theoretical or luminous 
range, and the practical or geographical range. The fol- 
lowing table gives the intensities of four orders of lights, 
the luminous ranges in a clear atmosphere corresponding 
to each, and the geographical ranges corresponding to the 
heights at which they are ordinarily placed. The flashes 
of the flashing lights are those from a lenticular apparatus 
of eight panels: 



Order aod character of 


5 a 


m 


sa 

III 

"sa 


mn 


apparatus. 


Hi 


igii 




II til 








^ 


o 


Istorder, fixed light 


23 


630. 


39 


18J to 20J 


1st " flashing light.... 


23 


5075. 


59 


185 to 20J 


2d " fixud light 


15 


335. 


34 


17 to 19 


2d " flaahingligbt.... 


IS 


2550. 


52 


17 to 10 


3d " fixed light 


5 


90. 


24 


14i to 17 


3d " flashing light.... 


5 


845. 


42 


14i to 17 


4th " fixed light 


1.6 


30. 


17 


11 to 15 


4th '• flashing light... 


1.6 


275. 


32 


11 tola 



The apparatus of a first-order light is made for an elevation 
of about 150 feet ahove the level of the sea. and the ravs 
from it are directed so that the brightest part of the beam 
shall be tangent to the sea-horizon. On account of the 
rotundity of the earth and the effects of atmospheric re- 
fraction the point of tangency of one of these rays is at a 
distance from the tower of 14.05 nautical miles. A mariner 
in observing the light is eujiposed to stand on the deck of 
a vessel, and his eye is assumed to be at least 15 feet above 
the level of the sea. Hence, in computing the distance at 
which a first-order light is visible the above distance (14.05 
nautical miles) should be increased by 4.4 nautical miles, 
which is the distance from the point of tangency to where 
the ray produced wouM strike a point 15 feet above the 
sea-level. The distance at which a first-order light is 
visible is therefore generally set down at about IS^ nauti- 
cal iniies. The elevation of a first-order light should not 
e.vceed 200 feet above the level of the sea. Oeographical 
range in this case is gi\en at about 20A nautical miles. It 
is not advisable, except in extraordinary cases, that a 
greater elevation should be given to a light than 150 feet. 
In fact, too great an elevation is a dei'iiicd disadvantage, 
especially in thick and foggy weather, since fog-clouds fre- 
quently maintain themselves at a suflieient height above the 
sea to envelop the light when it is clear below. In some 
places, on account of the precipitous character of the shore, 
it is difficult, anrl sometimes impossible, to place the light 
low entnigh. An arrangement is sometimes made in such 
cases to lower amither light called a fog-light to a position 
nearer the level of the sea. 

Range or leading lights, as the name implies, consist of 
two or more lights at some distance from each other, but 
in prolongation of the axis of a channel through which 
they are inlended to serve as a guide. They are used also 
to guide clear of dangerous ])hu'es and to mark turning- 
points. They are of great valine in crossing the bars at 
the entrances to harlxtrs. The difi'ercutro in cleviition of 
the lights should be such that the visual angle pubtemled 
by them at any jioint of the range should in ail cases bo 
largo eoough to make them appear distinct and separate, 



LKiiriiiorsi: ii.ijmination. 



:;l 



iiiii) obviato tho tondonoy to blend. Witb liKhtu of Iho 
hiiiiillrr oidiTH thn nuK^o Bhould not bo Iosh ibon about 
four miinifi'M. fiinl Hboiild be KntiMwiiiit hir^'T for (Ikikc «if 
liij^hiT onliTH. Their hori/ontiil iliMliincc iipiirt Hhinibl be 
miKic ti» d<|n'n(l oil llio iiurrovvni'VH mid bnj^tb of lbi> nhiui- 
nrt tbr-y inaiU. In cfiHcs wbcn? the i.-biinncl ih very niirrow 
itiid Iniii; tbi>< ilisrnncc- nliould not b<- Icr'H (ban ono-roitrlli 
iiT thi^ i|i^hiiii'i> of tlh^ fi'oiif h<^br from tbc jioiiit wlirrc (bt; 
iniiriiHT fir.-t bi'^inw ti» iisf rbiiii nn ii j^iiiib'. In ordiiniry 
ca-'i'x it, intiy b« n'<hioc-d to onr wixlh or oven 1c«b. 

In orib*r to protect th<! ilhiniiniitin^ n|i|iartituH tho lif^bt- 
boiiHo tower in Hiiniioiinteil by a binh-rti, in wbieh the h^bt 
\a phieed, tlie sizo of which i^ dctrmiined by (he onbr of 
(lie Iij(bt. The hnf»e, u|iri;;hts, and dmne me (xcncrnlly Tniidc 
ofoopper or iron, and (be Hido« are (:hi/ed witli h(-avy philr 
(tlni<«. It is important that it ftbouhi lie well vcnfibitefl, in 
orib'T (o H up ply an iitiundanee of air to the Ibiine of (be lamp 
aii'I pre\'eiit, (bo ihpoHit ot moindiro on flict j^hiHs. Not- 
wifh-(laniiin^r (he (bickncss of iU\H i^]n^H, it \h HometimeH 
liroken by wild ducks or goeso flying against it. In jilac^n 
where (bin iH likely to oceiir tlio exterior of tbo luiitorn 
glinithl lie pn)(eeted I«y a nettini^ of eopjier wire. 

The oil lirst generaily iiserl as fuel for ligbflioufe lamps 
was tlio sperm oil of commerce. In France and come other 
countries of Kurope colza, a vegetable oil extracted from 
tbe seed of a species of wild cabbage {/trnmiien otrrarrn 
ci>1za\. has hnv' been used, both for domestic purposes and 
lighthouse ilhiniination. In other countries olive and hemp- 
scud oils have been and still iire useci to some extent. Colzii 
gives a clearer and purer flamo than sperm oil, and remains 
fluid at a lower temperature. A'arious other vegetable oils 
have bi'cn test;Ml in Trance witb a view to their intrixluc- 
tion into tbo lighthouse service, but none of tbt m were 
found to have the advantages of colza. I'litii within a few 
years sperm oil was exclusively utH.'d in the iigbdiouso ser- 
vioo of the U. S. The rapid falling ofi" in sujiply. an<l cf)n- 
scfiuent increase in cost, caused an attempt to be made 
some twenty years ago to introduce the cultivation of tlie 
colza-plant, in the U. S., and small quantities of oil were 
actu illy pniiluced from it in some <d" the Western States. 
It was found, however, that the cost of its production was 
too great to enable it to bo sold witb profit at rcasonal)le 
rates; the culture of the plant was accordingly discon- 
tinued. It therefore became evident that unless some olber 
material of native production could be found, the U. S. in 
a short time would become dependent upon foreign coun- 
tries for a lighthouse illuitiinaut. After a series of careful 
exjieriments by (he lighthouse board it was found that 
winter St raineil lard oil could be used in the place of 
Fpi-rni, and wnuld not require any change in the Ijtmjis. 
lis illuminating p<'wcr was found to be greater than that 
of the sperm, and to differ little, if any. from that of colza. 
Lard oil was thus introduced into the lighthouse service 
of the IT. S. to the exclusion of other materials. Recently, 
careful experiments have been made in Kurojic with a view 
to the introilih'tion of mineral oil in the place of the vege- 
table and animal oils formerly used. Mineral oil is not 
injuriously affected by the severest cold ; it is more cleanly 
than lard oil, is more readily lighted, does not require to 
be trimmeil during (be longest nights, and the cost is very 
much less. It was fountl that it could be used with safety 
by selecting a refined article and making a slight modifica- 
tion in the bimp-lturner, so as to give a double outer cur- 
rent of air to the flame, and maintain the level of the oil 
below the lop of the burner. France was the first to adopt 
the new illuminant, and other maritime nations arc grad- 
ually following ifs exatnple. Tbo French experiments com- 
nieueed in 18.'>fi. but it was not until 18715 that mineral oil 
was deliuitively adopted for the largest order of apparatus. 
The oil used in the French service is kn()wn as Scotch par- 
nnhie, and is cxtraoted from a kind of cauucl coal found 
iu Scotland. • 

(Jus. thou;jrh it has been used for many years for do- 
nu'stic purposes and for lighting the streets of cities, has 
never been used to any great extent for lighthouse illumi- 
nation. Only to a few small lights located near cities has 
gas been applied in the U. S.. and to them gas is supplied 
from the general reservoirs. Ireland seems to have taken 
the lead in the use of gas for lighthouse illumination, 
and uses it in several first-order lights. An ingenious 
contrivance for a burner, invented by .Mr. J. U. Wigham, 
is represented in Fig. U. This burner consists of a ■ 
group of 108 jets arranged in concentric circles, so that ! 
the intensity of the light can be regulated lu^ using 28, I 
A^, 68, 88, or U>8 jets at a time, the iiluniinating powers \ 
of tbo flame alone being equal to that of MMO. fifiS. 1002. i 
I0ti7, and 2577 candles respectively. In clear weather the i 
lamp is designed to burn 28 jets, the diameter of the flame ; 
being in this ease about the samo as that of the first -order I 
four-wick burner. In case the atmosphere becomes hazy, 
exterior circles of 20 jets each can be turned on until the I 




Wigham's gas-burner. 



ontirn number in put In operation. Thcro ia no chimney 
nurrounding tho flume, but abovu it u chimney of mica in 
suspended, Into which the flume is currii!<l by tb<! draught 

through the cohI of the 
laiiliTn. Tbo diameter 
of the flamo when tho 
full number of Jotn in 
burning in 10^ inchex. 
The heat developed when 
the lamp in burning with 
ilH full power, though 
very groHi, iloen not in- 
jure Ww- lentieubir uppa- 
ratuK nor eftuoe any dis- 
comfort to the keepern. 

An intermittent light 
is produced by the open- 
ing anil shutting of a 
gns- valve, which cuts off 
tbo supply of gn« for 
any required period. 
This valvo in worlted by 
einck-macbinery. A by- 
)<as» is proviiled to i-up- 
I'ly a small (|uanlily of 
L'as to tho burner when 
(he valvo is doped ; tlic 
light in this cnfc \» fo 
dim that it is not visible 
at a short distance, but it is suQicicnt to relight the gas 
when ihc valve is opened, 

A very jiowerful light can bo produced by whot is 
known as the triform gaslight apparatus. This c<pnsistg 
of three burners like that just described, jilaccd vertically 
over each other in a single lantern, each being enclosed in 
a dioptric drum of similar construction to the central 
drum of an ordinary Frcsuel apparatus. (See Fig. lo.; 
The upper burners arc Fur- 
rounded by nir-ehambers for 
supplying fresh and carrying 
ofl" loul nir from that below. 
The consumption of gas In (his 
form of ajiparatus is llnee 
times that of the one with the 
.^ingle burner: but ibe light 
is said to be more than Ihree 
times as intense. This is sup- 
posed to. result from the man- 
ner in which heated air is 
supptie<l to the upper burners. 
The triform apparatus may be 
used to produce a fixed or 
flashing light. The intensity 
when arranged for a fixed 
light is estimated at 147,'JU 
candles, an<l the flashes from 
a similar flashing apparatus 
of eight ])an<ls arc said to 
have an intensity of l,Ci;6,22S 
candles. 

The advantages of tho use 
of gas ns an illuminant for 
lighthouses arc — its cleanli- 
ness, the ease with which the 
light can be managed, it:* 
steadiness during the entire 
night, and the ability to pro- 
duce with it a light of al- 
most any intersily required. 
The disadvantages arc that 
considerable spocc is re- 




Triform gaslight apparatus. 



quired for tho works, reservoirs, etc., which restrict its use 
to localities only where ample space can bo had; the first 
cost of establishing such a station is considerably greater 
than one where oil is used, oml the cost of repairs must 
also be Large; there is some personal danger atten<ling the 
manufacture and storage of gas. even when done by com- 
petent workmen, and this danger is manifestly greater when 
this work is managed by unskilful light-keepers. 

The application of the electric light to lighthouse illu- 
mination has been the subject of investigation, particularly 
in France, for some years. Currents produced by voltaic 
piles were first tried, but did not prove satisfactory. The 
system based on induction currents gave better results, so 
tiiat in 18r»;i it was decided that one of the two lighthouses 
of La Heve (this station being one having double lights* 
should be illuminated provisionally by the electric iight as 
an experiment. This experiment proved successful, and 
tho other lighthouse in 1865 was illuminated in the same 
manner. Since then electric lights have been maintained 
at both. The currents arc produced by magneto-electric 



32 



LIGHTIh'ING. 




machines worked by steam-engines, and are carried by 
conducting cables to the regulators or electric lamps used 
to regulate the separation of the carbon points between 
which the light is produced. These points are manufac- 
tured from the residuum contained in gas-retorts. The 
optical apparatus of the electric light is about one foot iu 
diameter. The catadioptric rings are symmetrical, both 
above and below the central drum, on account of the form 
of the points and the luminous centre. The latter being 
of very small dimensions, the lantern should have no sash- 
bars, as they would obscure portions of the light, but as 
the lenticular apparatus is small, this is easily managed. 
Fig. 16 represents a catadioptric electric apparatus. It 
is indispensable that the lu- -pj^ ff^ 

minous point should remain 
exactly in the focus of the 
apparatus, as a vertical dis- 
placement of one-fifth of an 
inch would raise or lower tho 
luminous beam two degrees. 
As the light is too intense to 
he viewed with the naked eye, 
the correct position of the 
luminous centre is assured 
by means of an image of the 
points thrown on a screen at 
the opposite end of the room. 
Up to this date (1875) elec- 
tric lights have been estab- 
lished at no less than eight 
places on the coasts of 
England, France, Russia, 
and Egypt. The range is 
sensibly increased in foggy 
weather, though for tho 
same intensity the space- 
penetrating power of tho t-i * • i- i * * 
It- 1- u* ■ u » Electnc-hght apparatus, 
electric light is somewhat ^ * 

less than the oil light. The intensity of the former as 
compared with the latter, however, is approximately as 
3 is to 20. The improvements that have been introduced 
have overcome the objection of want of steadiness in the 
light, and accidents have been rare. There arc some dis- 
advantages inherent in the system, which necessarily limit 
its application to a few important places. Considerable 
space is required for machinery and supplies; the repairs 
require special workmen, not generally found in the vicin- 
ity of lighthouses; and the cost of establishment and 
maintenance is considerably increased. 

The following table gives the total number of aids to 
navigation in position on the coasts and waters of tho 
V. S. Jan. 1, 1875 : 

Lighthouses and lighted beacons 610 

Light-ships in positiou 23 

Fog-signals operated by steam or hot-air engines... 42 

Fog-bells 113 

Day or unlip;hted beacons 346 

Buoys actually in position 2900 

The above list does not include the aids to navigation 
which are of a more temporary character that have been 
established on the ilissisaippi, Ohio, and Missouri rivers. 

Peter C. Hains. 

Lightning. Lightning consists in an electrical dis- 
charge between cloud and cloud, or between a cloud and 
the earth, and soinctinies between the upper and lower 
parts of the same cloml. To explain the phenomena of 
lightning i)n th<! established iirinciph^s of electrical action, 
it is necessary to first treat of atmospheric electricity, and 
we shall un<ler the present head give a brief exposition of 
the facts which have been established, and the hypotheses 
whicli have been advanced, in regard to this branch of 
electricity. 

It is well established that tho air is almost continuously 
in a state of electrical excitement differing from that of tho 
earth. To account for this fact various hypotlicbes liavc 
b(rcn advanced. Among thorn that which cunsiders the 
electricity of tho atmoHjihere as dm- to the friction of the 
winds on each other and on the surfact^ of the earth; but 
it lias been shown by decisive experiments that the friction 
of air on itself, or on solida or liquids, does not dcvelo]) 
electricity. Another hypothesifl refers the < lcclri<'ity of the 
air to the cvajioratiDn of water, but rli-rtririly is only 
evolved in tho evaporation of watiT under a cleiir wky ; and 
this result is bent explained by the inductive action of tlic 
electricity of tho atmosphere itself; and hence we should 
cfmsider tho electricity produced by the evaporation of 
water US a c'msequencc and not a cause, of the <'iectricity 
of the air. The aceidi-rital diseovi'ty* of a great amount of 
electricity evolved in blowing off steam from the boiler of 
an engine appeared at first to alTord a ready explanation 
of tho electrical condition of tho atmosphere, wnich was 



then attributed to tbe condensation of invisible vapor. 

Faraday, however, conclusively proved that the electricity 
developed in this case was due entirely to the friction of 
the water which escajies with the steam, and that in the 
act of condensation of invisible vapor no electricity is 
evolved. Another hypothesis refers the electricity of tho 
atmosphere to thermal action. If the lower end of a bar 
of iron be plunged into a source of heat while the upper 
end remains cool, the positive electricity of the conductor 
will be repelled, as it were, from the heated to the cold end, 
the former becoming minus electrified, and the latter plus. 
A column of air resting on the surface of the earth and 
extending to the height of the atmosphere is in a similar 
condition as to heat, and is similarly electrified. It is, 
however, difficult to see how this explanation can apply to 
the air, which is a non-conductor of electricity. 

After an attentive study of these hypotheses we have 
been obliged to reject them all as insufficient, and are com- 
pelled in the present state of science to adopt the theory 
of Peltier, which appears to ofl"er a logical explanation of 
all tho jdienomena in question. This theory refers them 
not to an original excitement of the air, but to the induc- 
tion of the earth primarilif electrified. That the earth, as 
a whole, is a great insulated conductor charged with free 
negative electricity, is a fact in accordance with analogy. 
Since the earth is known to bo a great mngnet having at- 
tracting and repelling ])oles, and as magnetism and elec- 
tricity are co-ordinate powers, we might almost infer « pri- 
ori that it would also be charged with free electricity. The 
existence of this condition of the earth, however, does not 
rest on mere analogy, but is established by direct experi- 
ments made at points on the surface of the globe widely 
separated from each other. Since electricity repels similar 
electricity, the free charge of a body electrified must exist 
at the surface, and in a greater degree at salient points on 
that surface. Now, when the spray which is blown from 
the top of a high foimtain is caught on the plate of an 
electrometer, it is always found, in clear weather, to be neg- 
atively electrified; and also when an insulated globe is 
touched to tho top of any high projecting body, and then 
brought down to the level of the earth, it is found to bo 
electrified negatively. Hence we infer that the earth itself 
is negatively charged with electricity, and, moreover, that 
this charge is of great intensity, since the manifestations 
of electricity in the cases above mentioned are merely the 
difference in intensity of tho electricity of the globe and 
that of a salient point on its surface. Again: if during 
clear weather we elevate a kite in the string of which a 
fine wire is entwined, and from the upjier side of which 
metallic points project, ])owerful sjiarks of electricity may 
be obtained, even when not the slightest cloud can be seen. 
This result, which flows directly from the inductive action 
of the electricity of the earth, would be produced were the 
air in a neutral condition, since the elt-ctricity of the earth 
would tend to render the upper part of the wire highly neg- 
ative, and consequently it would attract to itself the pos- 
itive electricity of the particles of the atmosphere previously 
in a neutral condition. The electricity of the earth may be 
considered as acting on each particle of the wire throughout 
its whole length, and hence the greater the perpendicular 
height of the kite the greater will be tho action. A similar 
result may bo shown by means of a balloon by letting down 
a long wire, having a metallic ball at the end, from an in- 
sulated reel. Tho upper end of this wire will indicate neg- 
ative electricity, while the 
Fi<;. I. ball itself, could it bo in- 

spected, would show posi- 
tive electricity. In this 
experiment tho natural 
positive electricity of the 
wire is drawn down by the 
attraction of the earth, leav- 
ing tho upper end minus 
while the lower end is plus. 
Tlii;* condition is exhil)ited 
in Fig. I, in which C D rep- 
resents a jiortion c»f the sur- 
face of the earth negatively 
churgeil. and a ft c a pcr- 
jieiidicular conductor ter- 
minated above and below 
by a bulb. In this conrli- 
tiou the negative electricity 
of C D, or, rather, of tho 
whole globe, will act upon 
eacl) utiirn of the fluid in the 
condurliir, and tend t-Mhuw 
it down to the luw) r Imll. ; 
the atom r will not only bo attracted downwanl by the action 
of tho earth on itself, but also pressed downward by the 
attraction of the earth on all the atomB above it; aad hence 



r 



jj<;inNiN(;. 



the intt'nsity of tho lower purl of the oonduotor will bo in- 
crcam-cl hy an iiierciiHd in the jMT|n'iMliculiir IrnK"' of 'I'f 
roil. Ndw. if wo riiiincct tlm lowir liiiM) of tin- rmi wilh 
tlio ourtli hy rncuns (if ii pr)ftrl condtir'tfir, the ri-ilnii'lant 
clc(rtricity nf tim lowrr end will l)c drawn fifi" Into the earth, 
and will no lunger rrai-t. hy ilf n'|mlf^inn on (lie cloi.-tricily of 
th<i r(td (o drive i( hack into lln' npinr hnlh, luit the whrde 
will hreiinio nej^ative. Ft', wliih- tin- ci'n<liir'lor if* in thin 
eondition, we Hhoiihl toiicli the n|>iier hall witli iiii eleclroni- 
etor, and then brinj; tlio latter down to tlic general level 
of the earth, it wonid exhihit a nep^ativo clnirKe. If wo 
remove tlie nppor hall, IcmiiiLC '^ point in it.s place, and tlie 
positive elcefricity he drawn nil" IVoni the inwer hall in the 
iVtrni of II Hpark, the whole will l)ec<irnc ne):;utive for a mo- 
ment, ami the point, strongly attracting tlio positive oluc- 
Irieity of the air, will reeeivc a now charge and he ready to 
give o(V another spark, and so on (M)ntinuon.sly. Sindi ia 
the explanation of the resnit of! he experiment with the kite. 
For stndyin^ the electricity of tlie atmoppliert; we may 
UHi' a long wire galvanometer, hut to render llii? instrnment 
rlTc'tivo tho nuinhcr of turns aronnd the needle must bo 
very great, at least .^lO to 100, and the wire well insulated 
with wa\c(l silk to prevent the passage of eleetrieity from 
wpiro to spire, instead of passing continuously llirnugh the 
wire. To ensure connection with tho earth, one end of this 
galvanometer should he placed in connection with the gas 
or water pipes of the city, and the other attached to an 
insulated wire supported on a tall must, a tower, or ehureh- 
stceple, and terminating ahove in a tuft of fine wire. The 
dinii'Mlty in using this apparatus, however, consists in 
keeping the insulation perfect, especially during rain : the 
brackets by which it is attachoil to supports should he of 
glass enclosed in hollow tubes, slanting downward to shed 
tho water. l!ut the apparatus may be used witli cflTect in 
studying t!ie electrical condition of the atmosphere in clear 
and dry weather. 

Tho instrument employed hy Saussuro consisted of an 
electrometer formeil of two wheat straws, at tlio upper end 
of eadi of which was a loop of fine wire attached to a me- 
tallic stem passing through the neck of a hcll-glass, as 
shown in Fig. 2. On the top of this was screweil a pointed 
rod, to the lower end of whiuli was attached a convex ])latc 
of niotal to shed the rain. A scale was attached to tho in- 
strument to indicate the degrees of divergency of the two 
straws, and in order to determine the (juantity of electricity 
indicated by tlie degrees of this divergency a series of pre- 
liminary experiments were made. The rod and rain-screen 
being removed, the knob of the electrometer was touched 
by a hall suspended from a silk thread and previously elec- 
trilie Land tlie degree of divergence was noted. Tliis ball 
was tlien touched with another ball, of an equal size and 
similarly insulated, in its neutral condition, which reduced 
tlio quantity of electricity one-half. The electrometer hav- 
ing been previously rlischarged, its knob was again touched 
hy the hall thus reduced in intensity, and the divergency 
in this case again noted: a charge of only one-half that of 
the previous trial was indicated. If 
the second ball were reduced to neu- 
trality nnd again touched the first ball, 
the quantity of electricity of the lat- 
ter would ho reduced to one-fourth, 
and the degree of divergency in this 
ease, whatever it might be, would in- 
dicate one-fourth the original charge. 
From these experiments a table could 
beforuiedhy interpolation which would 
give approximately tho value of tho 
several degrees of divergency in rcla- 
livi! measures. To use this instru- 
ment in measuring the quantity of 
electricity from day to day. 8aussuro 
attacliod a small leaden hall to the end 
of a tino wire, the lower end of which 
rested upon the knob. He threw this 
perpendicularly upward, carrying the 
frne wire with it, and finally detaching 
it from tho electrometer. As the lead 
bulb rose in the atmosphere by the in- 
ducMon of the earth, it became nega- 
tively electrified, or. in other words, 
the positive electricity of the leaden 
bulb was drawn d'lwn into the elec- 
trometer, the leaves of which diverged 
with positive electricity. But the 
method most generally employed by 
v^^aussure was that of affixing to "the top 
of the electrometer a pointed rod, as 
shown in Fig. 2, and to the top of 
this again a burning match. When 
this instrument was held ahove the bead, it scarcely ever 
failed in clear and dry weather to indicato au electrical 
Vol. Iir.— 3 





oxcitomcnt. Tho ratiottnte of tbo burning match \$ not 

difficult to understand on Iho theory of induction. Let 
us Hu)>poHe a nerie^ of hollow pointi;d coneM placed on llie 
top of till! rod and thrown off njjward one by one through 
Home explodivc agency; each cone ob it left the rod would 
leave itH positive eleetrieity behind it, on neeouut of the 
attraction f>f the earth below, an<I each would therefore im- 
parl an additional quantity of electricity to the rod, which 
would he indicatnl hy the divergency of llic electrometer. 
The heated air and Huioke w liicb continue lo oriFo from the 
match, f>inee they are partial eonductorn, would perform 
the Kiinie office as the cones. Another way of using llio 
.Kame instrument consists in placing a polir<hed \>n\),t.ityf,'\x 
inches in diameter, on the end of a gluHS rod which In held 
in the bund. If this be elevated by ascending a Ktep- 
ladder, say eight or ten fed, but generally less, and touched 
hy the hnnd or a metallic conductor in its pofition of 
greatest elevation, then brought down to nenr the level of 
the earth in an iiiftnlated condition, and applied lo llio knob 
of tho eleetromeler, the pointed wire hi-Ing removed, the 
stems will diverge wilh negative electricity. The attrac- 
tion of tho negative electricity of the earth will draw (he 
positive electricity of the ball to its lower purfaee, and when 
ihis is touched will patis through the body of the observer 
to the earth. The greater the divergence of the stems of 
the electrometer, the greater will he considered the jiositive 
electricity of the atmosphere, although a similar inect 
might ho produced by a change in the electrical condition 
of the earth. 

But a more convenient form of arrangement for studying 
the electrical condition of the atmos[d)ere is (hat invented 
by M. Dellman, and shown in Fig. 3. A is a hruFS ball 



no. 3. 



supported on a gla.'^s tube and 
passing through corks of gum- 
shellac. The apparatus is fast- 
ened to the upper end of a polo 
which is elevated by a windlass 
<ir the hand above (he top of a 
house, "When at the height in- 
tended the wire /-, connected 
with the earth below, is nulled; 
tho end of (ho bent metallic 
lever «/ h, pivoted at /, is de- 
pressed, ami the fiiik t brought 
into coniacf wilh the stem ol the 
globe, ond thus a metallic con- 
nection is formed between the 
ball and the ground. The wire 
k is then released, the hvcr 
falls back, ond the boll, the con- 
nection of which with the earth 
is severed, is brought down and 
ap])lied to an electrometer. An- 
other instrument, perhaps ftill 
more simple, was introduced by 
Sir William Thompson. It con- 
sists in allowing a fine stream 
of water to flow Ironian insulated 
metallic vessel through a pipe 
which projects below, but with- 
out touching, the sash of a window, which is raisefi a fe\v 
inches for the purpose, or through some other aperture in 
the wall of the htuise. This apparatus, which is called '■ the 
water-dropping collector," is represented in Fig. 4. A is 
Fig. 4. 





the metallic can containing water, which can be discharged 
through the pipe rd by turning a tap. It is supported on 
a glass stem at f>. which is surrounded without contact by 
a cylinder of pumice-stone moistened with sulphuric acid. 
The pumice-stone is separated from the metal by a coaling 
of gutta-percha. The acid needs renewal only once in about 
I wo months, and by absorbing the moisture produces an 
excellent insulation : r is a shelf on which the apparatus is 
supported./ the window-sash. As this instrument is in- 
sulated, any increase or diminution in the inductive action 
of the earth or in the electricity of the air will ho mari 
fested by a change in its electrical state, since as the drops 



34 



LIGHTNING. 



flow off they carry with them the electricity of that point. 
The operation of this instrument may be understood by 
considering that the stream of water which flows from the 
nozzle is the upper end of an insulated conductor, which, 
breaking off, carries awiiy with it the negative electricity, 
leaving the upper part of the stream, as well as the insu- 
lated reservoir connecttd with it, positive. An electrometer 
in the same room with the reservoir will be in a neutral 
condition, since it is, as it were, below the surface of the 
earth, the exterior of which is the roof of the house. The 
reservoir being touched with a carrier ball — that is, a globe 
of metal an inch or two in diameter suspended by a silk 
thread — and this again brought in contact with the knob 
of the electrometer, the divergency of the stems gives the 
quantity of electricity. During cold weather, when the 
water would be frozen, a burning match may be attached 
to the end of the spout with the same results as the drip- 
ping of the water. This match or fuse is made by rolling 
up into a cylindrical form a slip of blotting-paper pre- 
viously saturated with a solution of nitrate of lead, and 
afterward dried. 

The electrometer generally used with the instrument of 
Dellraan is that of Peltier, and that used with the dripping 
collector is the electrometer of Thompson (both of which 
are described in the first volume, under the head of 
ELncTRiciTY), but either, or the electrometer of Saussure, 
mav be employed. When observations are carefully made 
with these instruments, a change is observed in the elec- 
trical indications from day to day, from hour to hour, and in 
some cases even at shorter intervals in clear weather, while 
bv a series of observations continued through the year, 
monthly and daily maxima and minima are established. 
In cloudy weather, and especially <Uiring thunderstorms, 
the excitement will sometimes entirely cease, and then 
again reverse its sign. These variations are intimntcly 
connected with the quantity of moisture in the atmosphere. 
This is seen from observations made at Brussels by M. 
Quctellet, and also at the Kew Oliscrvatory by Prof. Stew- 
art, from which it appears that the minimum quantity of 
electrical excitement above the earth in clear weather oc- 
curs in the hottest part of the year, and the maximum in 
the coldest. We can explain this phenomenon on the sup- 
position that the air when charged with a great amount of 
vapor becomes a partial conductor, and permits the nega- 
tive electricity of the earth to fxtend higher up into the 
atmosphere, and thus, as it were, partially neutralizes the 
positive tendency of the air. The diurnal changes may 
also be influenced by the greater or less quantity of mois- 
ture in the atmosphere, but it is not impossible that they 
may be the result of changes in the eloctriciil condition of 
the earth itself; for sinco tho sun and moon are known to 
inflaence the magnetism of the earth, it is not improbable 
that they also affect inductively the distribution of its 
electricity. We think if the air were entirely devoid of 
moisture, its normal condition would be that of neutrality, 
but through the partial conducting property of the mois- 
ture by the induction of the earth the atmosphere as a 
whole becomes electrified. 

The Electrical Phenomena of Tknnderclouds. — What 
we have thus far stated relates to the electrical phe- 
nomena above the earth during clear weather. From the 
effect produced by elevating :ibove the surface of the earth 
a comi)aratively small metallic conductor, we may readily 
conclude tlmt tho suspension in the atmosphere of oven 
a partial conductor, such as a cloud of compariitivcly 
grrat magnitude, would exhibit electrical excitement of 
commensurate intensity and quantity. Let us suppose 
a warm, dry day in midsummer, with a high dew-point, 
ttnd consequently the lower stratum of the atmosphere 
in an unstable condition, too light for its present position, 
and ready to rush up into a higher and colder station ; 
and let us further suppose that the equilibrium is dis- 
turbed in a given sptit by greater heat or by the config- 
uration of tho ground, and that a column actually begins 
to as-:eud. As soon as its top reaches the elevation at 
which the temperature is below tho dew-point, condensa- 
tion of a part of the invisible vnpor will begin, and a cloud 
will be formed which will eontinuo to elongate upward 
until Ilio latent beat i^ all evolved and tlie vapor condensed. 
Let us suppose for a moment that Iho rushing up of moist 
air ceases, and consirU-r the electrical condition of the cloud 
which has been formed. It is evident from what has been 
siiil that tho upper part wilt lend to become negative nnd 
tho lower part posiilive by the attraction of the negative 
electricity of the earth on the natural electricity of the 
vapor. This distribution of electricity will not fake plaeo 
instantaneouflly or gradually, but by a neries of discharges 
between tho upper and lower part of the cloud. On one 
occiMion the writer of thin article wat(!hed at » distanco the 
llnshett which look place between tin- upper and lower por- 
tions of a liigb cumulus cloud, and observed that alter five 



or six flashes between the top and bottom had taken place, 
a single intense discharge passed between the base of tho 
cloud and the earth. 

We have supposed in this case that the ascent of moist 
air ceased after the first formation of the column, but this 
is not the case. A new cloud is constantly being formed, 
from which rain continues to fall. The inductive effects 
we have described are constantly repeated, and hence a 
thundercloud, the base of which is enclosed in a space of 
perhaps two or three miles in diameter, will pass several 
hundred miles over the surface of the country, continually 
pouring down rain and giving out discharges of liglitning. 
It is in this way that the cloud does not exhaust itself, the 
rain which falls from it being due to the condensation of 
vapor which a few minutes before existed at or near the 
surface of the earth in an invisible state, and the lightning 
which it continues to discharge being jiroduced by the nat- 
ural electricity of the condensed vapor developed by the 
induction of the negative electricity of the earth. AVc need 
not be surprised at the quantity and intensity of the elec- 
trical discharge when we consider the effect produced by 
the elevation of so small a conductor as the metallic string 
of a kite during perfectly clear weather. 

We have given in Fig. 5 an ideal representation of a 
typical electrical cloud in a stationary condition, in which 
Fin. 5. 




we have endeavored to exhibit the remarkable currents of 
air which arc observed during a thunder-storm below tho 
cloud. The particles of the upper and lower cloud, being 
charged with f''?e electiicity, tend to repel encli other, and 
hence the cloud will spread out horizontally above and 
below. The greatest amount of condensation will be pro- 
duced in the centre of the uprising column, and hence the 
rain will pour down through the axis of the cloud. As it 
begins to descend it will bo negatively electrified, but pass- 
ing through the lower portion of the cloud its electricity 
will be diminished, become neutral, and finally positive. 
As it falls it tends to bring down the air with it. thus pro- 
ducing a wind at the surface of the earth outward in every 
direction from the axis of the storm, less perhaps on tho 
western side on account of tho eastern movement of the 
cloud and tho exhaustion of the aqueous vapor on that 
side. The intensity of this wind will depend not upen tho 
depth of rain at any one point, but upon the quantity 
which falls on the whole area covered by tho rain. This 
wind is met by a current in the opijositc direction rising 
up unrler the baso of the cloud, nnd lu nee a conflict is pro- 
duced having an upward resultant, which is rcjiresentcd 
by the arrows in the sketch. This motion of the wind is 
not a mere deduction from n hypothesis, but an actual 
representation of facts. During thunder-storms, as the 
writer has frequently observed tliem at Washington, tho 
first appearance is that of a dark clovid in the W., with 
perhaps a gentle wind blowing from tlie opposite quarter. 
As the cloud approaches a curtain of dust will bo seen to 
arise almost to the base of the cloud. At this time at the 
position of the observer there is an entire stillness of tho 
iiir, A few minutes atferwards tliis stillness is broken by 
a violent wind from the ^V., jirovided the axis of the 
slorrn is a])proaching tho point of observation. This wind, 
though moving perhaps at the rate of .')0 miles an hour, is 
not felt a few hundred roils to the K. ; in fact, the t-mall 
portion of it which passes over the observer iriay be con- 
HJderi-d as revohiug through the arc of a cylinder llieaxis 
of which is horizontal. After this the laiu continues for a 



LlGJlTiSlJSU. 



wliil'', mill (jriiilimlly ciMincs, with iv mi»l,iin-sii on tlip wot- 
iTii |i'irlioii lit' llii' niorni. Tlii-ii! |ilii'ni)rni'Tm iirr ili liliili'ly 
r(i|iii'»i-Jili'J in lliii li|;iiro. Tin- violiMit winil rn»liiii(; mil 
111 Ihi^ liiwii 111' llio falling I'liin-iit of ruin in cln'cltfil anil 
turiiiil u|nvaiil li.v tlm wind ilniwn in umliT tliu liimc of llio 
ololl'l. Whili' till- uliirni is |Mi^«ili;4 rnilii I> In V llirro will 
\m a i-aliii ; llii' wiiiil iil Hii' mn I'ih'i- hlmviii;; niilwiiiil i-alclifH 
Ihi' iliisl, wliicli in ciirriuil ii|i«iiid in llm ri->'iilliiiit clirccliiin 
of till' two ii|i|Ki»inK cnrronlii, as at E. Tlio olouij is ft-il 
Willi viiiior iirincipally "n its casli'rn siili', since in its 
|m»iiaj;c I'aslwanl it o.vliausis, as it wiTf, llm moist air on 
its wcslorn bonier. Tlio clouil tliiTi-foro nut only moves 
ea»twaril— nroliiilily on aceount of the firevailing current 
from llie W . in the liij;licr regions— but it also (;rowfl in 
that ilireetiiin. if we niay use tlie expression, by the ascent 
of fresh vapor, while it iliiiiinislies on the ij|i|ioKite side. 
Afler the miwurd rush of vapor has eeased, and the eloud 
is left insulated in the atmosphere, its upper jiart will in 
some eases dissolve away, on aeeoiint of the greater dry- 
ness of the air above, and a partial conductor will remain 
ehar;;ed with ]iositivo cloctrieity, which by induction will 
materially alTeet the electricity of the ciirlh as indicated by 
the electrometers previously described. 

If the compound eloud of which we have given a descrip- 
tion in its course passes over a mountain-peak or gives a 
discharge to the earlh without receiving a new access of 
vapor, it may then as a whole become negatively eleetrificd, 
and in this condition would e.-cert an opposite influence 
upon the instruments. An eleclritied cloud will also pro- 
duce an elTect upon the air immediately around, especially 
if it contains a certain degree of moisture, not enough to 
render it a perfect conductor. In this case a stratum of 
negative electricity will exist around the cloud, and around 
this an outer cloud of positive electricity. This condition 
of the atmosphere is often cxliibited by the indications of 
the olcctroraetcrs, which as the eloud approaches the zenith 
of the observer shows first positive, then negative, and 
a'.;!iin positive electricity, the same phenomena in a reversed 
oriler appearing as the cloud jiasses away. 

EjI'ectH of Litilihiiiir/. — Since a liglitning discharge is, in 
reality, an immense electrical s[tark, the efl'ecis which it ])ro- 
duces differ only in degree from those which arc manifested 
by the eleitrical machine. In a discharge from the cloud 
the electricity traverses the lino of least resistance, and 
therefore frequently deviates much from a straight line, 
its course being marked out by the induction of an oppo- 
site condition in the material through which it is to pass. 
If on the lower side of a thin board B (I'ig. 6), a foot or 
Fig. C. 




more in extent, a plate of metal C, an inch or two in diam- 
eter, is fastened, and to the lower surface of this again is 
soldered a wire I), leading down to the earth, and sparks 
from thcknobof the jiri mo conductor of an electrical machine 
be thrown iqion the uii}ier surface of this board, they will 
always strike it in a point immediately above the plate of 
metal. In like manner, if a good conducting material exist 
beneath the surface of the ground at any place, such as 
metal, water, or damp earth, the induction of the cloud will 
render it negative, and a strong attraction will arise between 
the two. and a discharge will sometimes take ]ilace, when 
if such a conductor did not exist the air would not bo rup- 
tured. If a thundercloud highly charged with positive elec- 
tricity project over a given place, the earth undernealii will 
become abnormally negative, and the body of any animal 
standing under the cloud will partake of this influence. If in 
this condition a discharge takes ]ilace from a distant edge of 
the cloud, the restoration of the equilibrium will be so sud- 
den and violent^or. to use the language of hypothesis, the 
fluid will rush ii]i into the body with such force — as to pro- 
duce death. Accidents of this kind are referred to what is 
eallcil the principle of the return stroke, of which many 
examples are given in the books. Dynamical effects arc 
also produced in the vicinity of the path of the discharge; 
instantaneous currents arc excited in all conductors : sparks 



are frequently neon in vnrionn par(« of a house between l«o- 
lalid piieis of metal or other condiielors in the vicinity of 
a powerful discharge; and persons are shucked, although 
tho disidiargo has trfiversed an adjacent tree or puKsed in- 
noxiously down a lightning-rod. Tho dynamic elTecl of a 
lightning discharge at a distance is perhaps best shown by 
soldering one end of a copper wire to the tin roof of a 
house, and the other end to the water or gas pipe in a 
lower story. A break in this wire; the two ends of which 
terminate in small balls brought within a short distance of 
each other, will exhibit a spark at the instant of a discharge, 
all hough it may be ut a considenilde ilistanee. If the 
bri-ak in the conductor be closed by a spiral consisting of 
many turns of insulated fine wire, and a sewing needle be 
placed in its axis, it will become magnetic by the discharge, 
and the polarity of it may be determined by a toy compass, 
su'di as is used on a watch-chain, consisting of a needle of 
half an inch in length. To render the sewing needle more 
manageable, the sharii end is stuck into a small cork, which 
serves as a handle. With an orrangement of this kind tho 
writer of this article has obtained inductive effects from a 
discharge of lightning at a ilislance of eight or ten niilcfl. 
A similar effect has been jirodueed by the writer from ma- 
chine electricity. For this purpose a wire several hundred 
yards in length was stretched horizontally between the 
upper stories of two buildings, across a campus, the two 
ends terminating in plates of metal which dipped into a 
well at each extremity. A second wire was stretched be- 
tween two poles parallel to the first, its ends terminating in 
metallic plates buried in the earlh. Inductive efTccIs were 
obtained by this arrangement from the discharge of a bat- 
tery of nine Leyden jars, each of the capacity of a gallon, 
when the two wires were separated from each other at least 
l.^iO yards, a long building intervening. EfTects might prob- 
alily have been obtained at a greater distance had the par- 
allel portions of the wires been of greater length. This 
dynamic induction frequently produces accidents in the 
telegraph-office, and a peculiar arrangement is necessary 
to transmit the induced current to the earth. 

When the electrical discbiiige from a Leyden battery is 
trnnsmittcd through a small brass wire, the atoms of the 
component metals are separated, in a metallic slate, into an 
impalpable powder, and may be made to impress a metallic 
stain on glass. This effect, therefore, is not due primarily 
to heat, but to the repulsive energy communicated to the 
atoms. Similar efTects produced by lightning arc recorded 
by tho older electricians under the uaoic of cold fusion. 
In like manner, when a discharge of lightning takes place 
in the atmosphere a tremendous repulsive energy is excited 
in the particles of air in the line of its ]mth, and to this 
action wo attribute many of the mechanical effects exhibited 
by atmospheric electricity. In one instance which fell 
under our observation a powerful discharge of lightning 
took place between two chimneys of a house, traversing the 
space under the rafters called the cockloft: such was the 
repulsive energy given to tho air that the whole roof was 
lifted off. Wo attribute to the same action the throwing 
off of the clapboards of a house when the discharge takes 
place between them and tho interior plastering. A similar 
effect takes place when a discharge from a Leyden jar is 
passed between two bulbs in a tube filled with water: tho 
glass is broken into pieces. An analogous effect has been 
observed wlian a discharge of lightning has passed through 
a conduit-pipe of stoneware trnnsmitting a current of 
water. The intensity of the repulsive energy appears to be 
greatest in the line of the axis of the discharge, and at the 
place of rupturo of a conductor, or, in other words, at its 
two ends, the most energetic effects arc manifested. This 
is illustrated by the old experiment of passing the discharge 
of a Leyden jar through a card, a burr I eing raised on both 
sides. .\ tree is sometimes found broken transversely about 
the middle of the trunk, as if pulled asunder or the parts 
separated by a violent repulsion in the direction of the 
axis. Trees are, however, generally splintered longitudi- 
nally, and the parts thrown off to a considerable distance 
laterally. This effect is generally attributed to the sudden 
evaporation of the sap, but it may also be a direct result 
of the repulsive action of the partielis of wood. In the 
case of a discharge of lightning between a cloud and the 
surface of the earth covered with a pavement, the stones 
arc frequently found thrown out so as to form a hole like 
an inverted cone. When the discharge passes through a 
I wall a conical hole is produced on both sides. Cases are 
on record of a row of boys on a bench in school, in which 
only the two extreme ones were killed by a discharge which 
passed through the row. This is an illustration of the fact 
previously mentioned, that the effect is greatest at the 
points where the electricity enters and leaves a conductor. 
It is probable that the noise of thunder is due to the re- 
pulsive energy with which the air is thrown apart along 
1 tho path of the discharge of lightning. Were the discharge 



36 



LIGHTNIXG-RODS. 



to take place in a perfect circle, the ear being; in the centre, 
a single explosion would alone be heard. But inasmuch 
as the discharge is approximately- in a right line, if the ear 
be placed near one end of this a series of sound-waves will 
reach it in succession from jioints at different distances, 
and hence a prolonged sound will be the result. The in- 
crease in the loudness of the report which is sometimes ob- 
served towards the end of the sound is probably due to the 
greater consolidation of the discharge as it leaves the cloud, 
which frequently afterward branches out into various 
streams. Joseph Henry. 

Lightning-Rods. The utility of the invention of 
our illustrious countryman. Dr. Franklin, for the protection 
of buildings from lightning has sometimes been called in 
question, but no one who has studied the subject, and is 
capable of a proper appreciation of scientific principles, 
can doubt its importance. An edifice snjiplied with light- 
ning-rods of .a proper character — that is, embr.acing all the 
requisites indicated by a scientific knowledge of the laws 
of electrical action — may be considered as entirely pro- 
tected from the disastrous effects of discharges of lightning; 
but in order to this the conductor must be constructed 
on ilelinite scientific principles, and not on loose analogies 
or untenable hypotheses, as is too frequently the case with 
the products of the vendors of improved lightning-con- 
ductors. 

The perfect lightning-rod is one which attracts the de- 
scending bolt to itself, and transmits the discharge harm- 
lessly to the earth. (1) To ensure this quality the rod 
should terminate above in a single point, and to preserve 
this from the weather, as well as to prevent its being melted 
by a slight discbarge, it should be encased in a hollow cone 
of ])latinum. One point is found by experiment to attract 
electricity from a charged conductor at a greater distance 
than .a number, for several points projecting from the same 
stem near each other approximate in action a spherical 
surface, and by interference each lessens the effect of the 
other. (2) The rod should consist of round iron not less 
than three-fourths of an inch in diameter; a larger size is 
preferable to a smaller one. Iron is preferred, because it 
can bo readily procured, is cheap, a sufficiently good con- 
ductor, and, when of the size tuentioned, cannot be melted 
by a discharge from a cloud. The conductor should be 
round — or, in other words, cylindrical — because electricity 
repels itself, and tends to escape into neighboring bodies 
from points or sharp edges: and, as we shall see, the rod 
at the moment that the discharge is passing through it is 
in the condition of a charged conductor: hence flat or 
twisted rods are imperfect conductors, as they tend to give 
off lateral sparks from the sharp edges during the pas- 
sage of the discharge, which might, in some cases, set 
fire to very combustible materials. A rod may be form- 
ed of ordinary gas-i>ipe. since it is a well-established 
fact that electricity passes at the surface, unless the 
charge be exceedingly large in reference to the capacity 
of the rod. If a discharge of electricity be sent through 
a wide ribbon of copper or iron placed in a horizontal 
position, anil over the surface of which at intervals pieces 
of sewing needles of a quarter of an inch in length are 
placed at right angles to its length, it will be found 
that only those pieces of needle which are near the edge 
are magnetized, while those near the middle remain un- 
affected. This experiment conclusively proves that elec- 
tricity repels itself while in transmission, as well as in 
a statical condition, and shows the absurdity of substi- 
tuting for a cylinilrii-al form of rod that of a twisted rib- 
bon. (3) The ro.l throughout its whole length should bo 
in perfect continuity ; for this purpose it should, if possible, 
be made of one piece of iron; and ivhcn joinings arc un- 
avoidable the parts should be firmly screwe.l logelber bv a 
coupling ferule. (4) To secure it from rust the'rod should 
bo covered with a coating of black paint, which will not 
sensibly interfere with its power of conduction, (.i) Tho 
Bhorlcrand moreilirc'ct thorodis in its course to the earth the 
better ; acute angles made by bending the rod at anv point 
along its course should be avoided. (0) In case of p'owiler- 
houaes, where extreme precaution is required against sparks 
of inrluclion within the edifice, several rods should be used, 
and these supported on masts at some dislnnce from the 
f.mr sides of the building. But in care of a dwelling- 
house, where imluctive action of this kind eould scarcely 
ever produce serious consequences, the rod may lu^ fastene'tl 
to tho side of Iho house by iron eyes, driven or screwed 
into the wall; the extreme point of these eyes, being buried 
in non-con<lucting masonry or wooil, will not tend to give 
off electricity at the time of n discharge. The rod may bo 
insulaled by glass cylinders intervi'ning between it ami Iho 
eyes, but we do not nttributn much importance to this in- 
sulation, since it is immediately destroyed by the rain. (7) 
Tho lower end of Iho rod should be connected with Iho 
earth in the most perfect manner possible; and in cities 



nothing is better for this purpose than to unite it in good 
metallic connection with the gas-mains or water-pipes in the 
street ; and, indeed, such a connection is absolutely neces- 
sary if the house is furnished with gas and water. If a 
cloud highly charged with positive electricity be floating 
over a city, the gas and water pipes will become highly 
negative, and therefore strongly attract the electricity of 
tho cloud, and may thus induce a discharge which would 
not otherwise take place. If in such a case a proper con- 
ductor is not provided on the outside of the building to 
transmit the discharge to the earth, a serious accirlcnt 
might ensue. In the country, where gas and water pipes 
are not accessible, the rod should terminate below the sur- 
filce of the water in a well, or, if this is impossible, it should 
be extended out from the house under ground for fifty to 
sixty feet, and then sunk perpendicularly till it reaches, if 
possible, moist earth. The perpendicular as well as hori- 
zontal part of the excavation maybe filled advantageously 
with scraps of metal from the shop of the tinman or with 
powdered charcoal, to render the connection with the earth 
more perfect. To afford a still better connection with tho 
earth, in some cases the rod is made to terminate in a num- 
ber of branches, each buried as above described; but the 
necessity of branches will depend upon the degree of dry- 
ness of the earth. The mistake should not be made, "as 
has frequently been done, of terminating the end of the rod 
in a cistern, the water of which may be considered as in- 
sulated from the earth by the liniiig of cement. (8) If 
within tho house there are masses of metal, such as iron 
girders, water-tanks, or bathing-tubs, they should be placed 
in metallic connection with each other and with the rod by 
slips of iron or copper, otherwise they are liable to emit 
sparks by induction during the instant of a discharge, and, 
though serious effects are not often produced by this action, 
it serves at least to alarm the inmates of the house. As an 
exam])le of this, if in any case a water-pipe approaches 
within an inch or two of a gas-pipe, a spark >vill usually 
be seen to tr.averse the space, accompanied by a loud re- 
)iort, when an electric discharge passes down the rod. (9) 
The rod should be placed in preference on the W. side of 
the house, since the thundercloud usually comes from a 
western direction; but for a stronger reason it should be 
placed on tho siilo of a chimney from which a current of 
heated air ascends during the summer season ; the ascent 
of warm and rarefied air tends, as we have seen, to inten- 
sify the action of the conducting soot of the chimney. (10) 
In case of a small house a single rod may suffice for pro- 
tection, provided its point be suffieicntly high above the 
roof; the rule being observed that the' elevation of the 
point should at least be half of the distance to which its 
protection is intended to extend. Thus, the point of a rod 
on a house the ridge of tho roof of which is fifty feet in 
length, should have an elevation of twelve and a half feet, 
which is half the radius of the circle of |iroteclion. This 
rule is derived from experiment ; but it is safer, where sev- 
eral j)Oints are erected on the same house, that they should 
be nearer than this rule would indicate; and indeed there 
is no objection to an indefinite number of rods, provided 
they are placed in good metallic connection with each 
other on tho sides of the building or at the surface of the 
earth. A building entirely enclosed, as it were, in a cage 
of rods intimately connected with the earth and cacli other 
would be safe from distdiarges of electricity, whate\er 
might Ipo its energy. (11) When the house is covered with 
a metallic roof, it should be connected with the lightning- 
rod, or the perpendicular pipes conveying the water down 
from tho gutter at the eaves may be made to act the part 
of a rod. In this case the roof must be connected with the 
gutter by strips of copper or iron, and the lower end of Iho 
spout with the gas or water ])ipes, if in the city, bv the 
same means; or in the country with the earth, after tho 
manner we have mentioned. In addition to this, a pointed 
ro<l should bo elcvatctl above tho roof, especially at tho 
chimneys; but in arranging this care must be taken to 
join the rod in good metallic! connection with the roof, Iho 
foot of the former being soldered to the surface of the hitter. 
The foregoing rules nmy serve as a general guide in 
erecting lightning-rods on ordinary buildings, hut in large, 
complex structures a survey should bo made, and the best 
form of protection in accordance with scientific principles 
adoptetl. 

line effect of Iho lightning-rod deserves especial notice — 
namely, the effect it has upon the air in tho vicinity of the 
point; during the passage of a tliutiderclond tho point is 
l're(|uenlly seen illuminaled by a glow of light. During a 
vi.ilent tliun.lerslorm at night, while flashes of lightning 
wire passing from cloinl to cloud near thc> zenilh, Iho 
author r>f this article stood in the trapdoor on the top of 
the high tower of tho >'^nlilhsonian Institution, within 
about ten feet of the top of the lightning-rod. At everv 
flash of lightning a jet of light at least five or six feet 



jj(iirr\vo(>i> cKKMv— hiuNnjb. 



in length isr^ucd from tho point of tint ro<I with ii liiHwin;; 
noisL'. 'I'lie to]i ill IliiH rod i^ iilxnit l/i/i t'vrt iihovc tlm 
earth. Th<! eli-ctrioity thus ptiH.sinj; I'roin thr rod wuh oC mi 
oppoHito cliiiriiclcr I'unn tliul of tho chnid, iirnl woiihi tend 
to lih-etrify a gloho of air Murrouiidiiig th(t iioint of which 
il WHS tlic criilre. If tho chuid uiim pcj.-^itive, thin k''*''" 
wmild lit- iii'giitivo, and in (.'am! of a diMchar^o from tho 
chxid In (he rod, the ch'ctricily (d' thlH gh>l)u wouM ho uru- 
tralizod ; and iu the act of this iioiitnilization (lio intensity 
of fho (li!«^ihnrgo would ho conhijilcrahly inodilicfl. This re- 
sult waM prohahly rorincntcd with tho |iccnliarity of tho 
hoiiiid rjf the dixdiiir/^c h'-ard in 8cv<'ral cmscs in wlii^di 
Ii;;htiiiiij; wa." trau^'niittcil t!ir"u;;li a rod of th" insdtutinn. 
Tho Hound in those ea.scs coiiKlHted in at first a Wmh*, fol- 
lowed in a nioincnt after hy a loud explosion. Tho Smith- 
8oiii in t)uilding hfiiig siltiati-d on a plain in an isolatoil 
position, and finiiiHhrd wifh a nunilx-r cif hii;h Iowith and 
pinnaidfs, is evid'-ntly, fioiu theoretical eonsi<lorations, in 
a condition cspi-cially liahlc to ho strnek hy li^^htning. And 
a-* an evidence of tho truth of thiH infercneo, as well a•^ of 
fho ulility uf lii^litniiii;-rods, wo may rncniion that it, is 
certain that wilhiii tlio lust t wcnty-live y<'arB at least as 
m:iny as four liischari^es havo hen harmlossly conveycil to 
tho earth throuiijh tho conduotors with wlitch tho bnildinf^ 
is provitlod. In two of these eases tho evid'-nco of tlio oe- 
ourrtMice of tho divcluirgo rests upou tho nioUin-; of tlio 
platinum points, and llin others on tlio ncarn:MS of tho ex- 
plosion and tho pei^iiliar sound previously incnlioucj. In 
one of tho first cas-s tho author nimsolf v.-as v/itliin six foot 
of th'.i rod, with a v/all of iniisonry of ahout two f.;ot inter- 
vonin-j;. Ho felt no sliock, but a per.non in tho sanio room, 
clth::r from fri^^Iit or a nervous aifectioii, full ujion his 
knees, devoutly making tho sign of the cross on tho in- 
stant. 

Tho mode of protecting ships from lightning generally 
conii.iiS in luispending a light chain from the lower end of 
a pointed rod attached to tlio upper yard-arms, the lower 
extremity of tho chain being immersed below tlio surf.ico 
of tho ocean. These ehains are not unfrequently destroyed 
by h:'avy di:^charges, thougli in the act of being broken 
they serve, in niost eases, to protect tho vessel from injury. 
Sir Snow Harris of England has introduced another plan 
into tho liritish navy, whi -h consists in lotting into a groove 
down tho mast a ribbon of thielt copper, so as not to inter- 
fere with tho hoisting of tlio sails. The upper end of this 
rod terminates above the mast in a platinum point, and tho 
lower part, continued down along the mast througli tho 
decks to the boUom of tho vessel, termina'es in the e.>|>per 
shoathing. We do not consoler tliis plan as safe, especiaily 
in ships loaded with cotton, as that iu which tho copper 
ribbon is continued across tho deck in a groove, and over 
the side of tho vessel until it readies the copper sheathing. 
It has been shown by the author of tliis article, from 
conclusive experiments, that in tho transmission of a posi- 
tive charge, for example, the diflcreiit points of the rod aro 
excited in succession along its length by two adjacent 
waves, as it were, of electricity — a positive one, preceded 
by a negative wave. To illustrate tliis point, the Ibllowing 
experiment may lie mentioned. Sparks from tho prime 
coniiuctor of an ordinary electrical machine wore thrown 
on tho upper p;irt of a lightning-rod as it projected above 
a tower, and altiiough the lower end of the rod was inti- 
mately connected with the earth by tho most approved 
method, yet at each discharge of tho prime conductor a 
spark could be drawn from every point of the rod through- 
out its whole length. d<iwn to within a foot of tho ground. 
With these sparks a gas-pistol was exploded and the lil)res 
of combustible substiinees ignited. Those sparks, though 
in some cases half an inch long and apparently very in- 
tense, failed to affect in the slightest degree a delicate gold- 
leaf electrometer — an evidence that thoy consisted of two 
sparks in momentary succession, tho one plus and the other 
minus. 

In regard to the safest position during a thunderstorm, 
osjiceially in a house not well protected by a lightning-rod, 
we would advise a position in the niiddlo'of the room, ami 
a horizontal one ratlier than a vertical. Wimlows. either 
open or shut, and chimneys should bo avoided, but in a 
h >use not protected by rods no phu-e can bo considered as 
entirely safe. When in the open air trees should l»e avoided, 
since tho trunk being a bad conductor of electricity, the 
disL'harge will leave it an<l pass through tho body of a man 
or animal which may be near il, this being the path of least 
resistance previously marked out by the inductive action 
of the descending bolt. 

AVo havo thought it necessary to dwell upon this subject 
of lightniuix-rods because innumerable patents have been 
gran"e I in this country for improved rods, most of which 
have been devised by persons ignorant of the principles 
of oleotricity. JosKPn IIkniiv. 

Light'wood Creek, ti>.. Lexington co., S. C. Pop. 2S. 



liiKiic (Cuxni.r.H Jcwkpii), Pninri! op, b. May 12, 1735, 

lit ItruHr-uls, dt'Heendt-d (rom one of lh<' w«;allhieiit and mont 
powerfal lielgiiin f.imilieit; entered (he AuKtrian army in 
17'>'2, dislingnirihi.-d himself in tho Seven VejirM' war, and 
commanded the vanguard in the Uavarian war of fucceR- 
Hion. IJncler the reign of .forio[di II. ho held (ho higlnfit 
military and diplomatic puoittonM, ami the elegance of bin 
manners an'l tho brilliauey of his conversation made him 
a favorito with all European courts. But under Leopold 
ho fell into disgrace, partly on ooconnt of his son't" partici- 
pation in tho iJelgian insurrection ( 17'JO), and he was never 
again employed in active service. He lived in retirement 
at \'ieniia, engaged in literary purHuiti«, and d. there J*cc. 
I.'I, LSI 1. Of his iVZ/oHC/cn nntitoirm, linfrttirea et nenti- 
mfntuirm (.'U vols., 17'.' J-LSI I ), Malle-Brun has given a 
selection, (Euvrfu choiMirn, in 2 vols. His letters and me- 
moirs havo considerable historical interest. 

Lig'nine [Lat. ^Vynum, "wood"], a synonym of Ckl- 
i.rroHi;. (See article under this head, by Puof. C. F. 
CnANOLKit, Ph. D., M. D., LL.D.) 

Lig'nite [Lat. ^'//jm(/;i, " wood "], the name originally 
given to I)itnnic!iized wood, but now applied to most coals 
wliich o(!our in the more recent geological formations; tho 
t.'rm is therefore synonymous with brown coal. As stated 
in tlio article on Coal, lignite has no definite formula of 
composition, but dilTercnt specimens vary much in physical 
and chemical character, shading into unchanged vegetable 
fil>re above and true coal below. The chemical composi- 
tion of wood-fibre, according to Bischoff, is carbon 49.1, 
hydrogen 0.3, oxygen 14.6. When this is buried in water 
or earth, it immediately commences to decoinpose by tho 
combination of its constituents, and the absorption of ex- 
ternal oxygon, forming carburetted hydrogen, carbonic 
acid, carbonic oxide, water, petrolonm, etc., which escape, 
and leave a solid diminished in volume, increased in den- 
sity, and darkened in color. Ultimately it becomes black, 
though having a brown streak, with a glistening, pitchy 
fracture. In this stage it is called li;/iiife, and when chem- 
ically examined is found to have lost perhaps one-third of 
its carbon, one-half of its o.xygen, and more or less of its 
hydrogen, the relative percentage of carbon being there- 
fore greater in lignite than in wood. Lignites or brown 
coals are found chiefly in the Cretaceous and Tertiary for- 
mations. Here they occur in deposits which rival in area 
and thickness the coal-beds of the Carboniferous system. 
In general terms, it may be said that the lignites occupy 
an intermediate position, both in datt and composition, 
between the peat which is now forming and true coals of 
Palicozoic age, and represent a stage in the progressive 
distillation vegetable tissue passes through when buried, 
and which results in the formation as residual products of 
— 1st, peats; 2d, lignite: -td. bituminous coal; -Ith, anthra- 
cite; 6th, graphite. No sharp lines of demarcation sepa- 
rate the.sc groups, however, as we find them shading into 
each other by all possible intermediate phases. Since they 
are successively derivatives one from the other, the scries 
is necessarily continuous. It should also be said that the 
name li;/nite is applied to woody tissue in which the pro- 
cess of bitumenization has begun, however modern it may 
bo ; and auKmg the forms of recent and superficial bitumen- 
ized vegetation that which has been derived from the de- 
composition of mosses, grasses, etc. — generally a porous, 
spongy substance — is called peat, while changed wood is 
called lignite. 

Tho mode of formation of the great beds of so-called lig- 
nite of tho Cretaceous and Tertiary systems seems to have 
been similar to that in which peat is now a-cumulating. and 
in which coal was found in the marshes of the Carbonifer- 
ous age. In some instances they arc underlain by strata of 
fireclay, and are overlain hy shales, sandstones, and lime- 
stones, precisely as tho coal strata arc; and it is evident 
that they have'a common origin and history, except that 
in the lignites that history has not reached as far as in the 
coals. It not unfrequeniiy happens, however, that beds of 
lignite have by local causes been changed to the condition 
ctrrrespondingio bituminous coal, or oven anthracite. Such 
instances are furnished by some of the best lignites of Col- 
orado, Utah, and Alaska, which have reached the condition 
of bituminous eoal. and by the nnMiracites of Placer .Moun- 
tain, near Santa Fe, and that of Queen Charlotte's Island. 
In the last two cases beds of Cretaceous lignite have been, 
by local volcanic action, converted into anthracite as bright, 
hard, and useful .is that of Pennsylvania. As the deposits 
of carbonized vegetation formed in the Tertiary and Creta- 
ceous systems are classed a? lignites, all the so-called coals 
of the great areas underlain by these t'ormations come into 
this category, and it will prob.ably be found th.at these mod- 
ern coals exceed in the extent of their development, and 
rival in their value to man, the true coal-strata which are 
recognized as constituting the basis of all the great indus- 



38 



LIGNITE. 



tries of civilization and the richest source of the wealth of 
nations. 

It happens that the most important deposits of mineral 

fuel in Europe and Eastern America are found in the Car- 
boniferous systems, but it is not known thar any imjiortaut 
deposits of true coal exist in other parts of the world. So 
far as we know, all the great coal-fields of China, India, 
Borneo, and Western America are of Mesozoic or Tertiary 
age. Deposits of lignite are also known to exist in Green- 
land. Arctic America, and in Central and South America. 
The economic value of lignites is, as a general rule, con- 
siderably less than that of true coals. This is due both to 
their chemical composition and physical characters. They 
usually contain from 12 to 20 per cent, of oxygen and 10 
to 12 per cent, of water. Their heating power is therefore 
usually from one-half to two-thirds that of bituminous coal. 
The different ingredients mentioned sometimes constitute 
as much as one-third of the mass — a third which probably 
contributes nothing to the heating power, the water even 
absorbing some portion of the energy of the combustible 
material in its vaporization. The calorific power of pure 
carbon being estimated at SOOO units, and that of our best 
coals, in which the hydrogen is mainly neutralized by the 
oxygen, at from 7000 to 7500, the calurific power of lignite 
may be said to vary from 4000 to 5000. It should be said, 
however, that this is only a general rule. The calorific 
power of some of our Carboniferous coals hardly exceeds 
6000 units, and some of the best lignites reach and even 
pass this point. The physical character of lignites also 
frequently impairs their economic value. They are usually 
somewhat tender, and the waste in mining and tr;.nsport- 
ing them is greater than in the bituminous coals. They 
are apt, also, to crack badly, and frequently on exposure 
fall into a multitude of angular fragments. It rarely hap- 
pens that they are capable of producing good coke. They 
are usually open-burning — (". e. do not adhere in the fire — 
and the proportion of volatile matter to fixed carbon is 
large. \Vhen this is driven off the residual coke is spongy 
and pulverulent. To this rule there are, however, excep- 
tions which will be mentioned farther on. 

In Europe the lignites or brown coals have been mined 
and used for many years, and the practical tests to which 
they have been subjected have accurately determined their 
value. The Bovey Tracey brown coal of England and 
most of the modern coals of France, Switzerland.' Spain, 
Germany, Greece, India, etc. exhibit the characters here 
recorded. In some localities, however, especially in Aus- 
tria and Italy, lignites are not only employed for household 
fuels and thg generation of steam, but for locomotives and 
in furnaces. The following table shows the composition of 
a series of foreign lignites : 



Tasmani.i 


Carbon. 


Hydrogen. 


Oxygen. 


Nitrogen. 


Waste. 


Asbes. 


59.90 


4.66 


15.99 


1.08 


13.43 


4.64 




70.49 
63.88 


5.59 
4.58 


18.00 
17.10 


.93 
1.00 




4.99 




1.3.43 


Switzerland.... 


70.02 


5.20 


20.50 


1.27 




8.01 


Greece 


61.20 


5.00 


23.50 


1.28 




9.02 


Bohemia.....'.... 


73.79 


7.46 


12.79 


1. 00 




4.9H 


Gertnauy 


70.12 


3.19 


7.59 


1. 00 


3,03 


16.47 




60.83 


4.36 


23.50 


1.14 


9.07 


2.43 


Persia 


63.55 


6.68 


26.00 


1.93 




3.05 


Siberia 


47.46 


4.50 


32.00 


1.03 




14.95 



All the coals found in the western half of the U. S. are 
of modern age, and are classed as lignites. These occur 
in both the Cretaceous and Tertiary formations, but chie8y 
in the former; and although their extent and value have 
been but imperfectly determined, it is known that very 
extensive deposits of this kind occur in New Mexico, Colo- 
rado, Wyoming, Utah, Nevada, California. Oregon, and 
Alaska. The lignites of New Mexico all belong to the 
Cretaceous formation, and arc chiefly found in the lower 
portion of this sericj. They underlie a large area, includ- 



ing the northern portion of this Territory and Arizona, 
and on the San Juan River form strata altogether similar 
in appearance to our coal-beds, showing many miles of 
outcrop, and sometimes attaining a thickness of over thirty 
feet. Tliese great beds, however, are not homogeneous, but 
consist of layers of a better quality interstratificd with 
those that are shaly and impure. The lignite beds of 
Colorado and Wyoming occupy a broad belt along the 
flanks of the Rocky Mountains, extending N. across the 
Missouri and reaching far into Canadian territory. It is 
not known how large an area in this belt is underlain by 
workable beds of lignite, but it would probably not be ex- 
travagant to estimate that at least 50.000 square miles will 
prove to be productive coal area. The strata here vary in 
thickness from a few inches to twenty and even thirty feet. 
In Colorado and along the line of the Union Pacific R. R. 
these beds have been opened in many places, and are now 
extensively mined. The most important mines now worked 
arc located at Trinidad, Canon City,Goldcn, Carbon Station, 
Evanston, etc., and the coal is not only generally used by 
the resident population, hut is largely consumed for loco- 
motives on the railroad, and is exported in considerable 
quantities to San Francisco. The lignites of Colorado have 
much the character of the best-known varieties used in the 
Old World, and hold about the same rank in comparison 
with the Carboniferous coals. Here, however, as in other 
countries, thcro are some localities which furnish fuels of 
superior character; for example, the coal of Trinidad can 
bo coked, and is probably capr.blo of being successfully 
ubcd in forging and smelting. The same may be 6aid of 
the San Pete coal, which is found in Utah, S. from Salt 
Lake City. The geological ago of the lignites of Colorado 
has been much discussed, but thcro is little doubt that they 
arc for the most part Cretaceous. There are. however. 
Tertiary lignites in this region, and a part at least of those 
so extensively exposed along the Missouri River are of 
Miocene age. Nevada and California are not so well sup- 
plied with mineral fuel as Colorado. Wyoming, and Utah, 
but beds of lignite have been found in both at many places. 
In California thov have been quite largely mined on the 
flanks of Mount Diablo, and the market of San Francisco 
is partially supplied from this source. The coal of this 
locality is Cretaceous. On the coast of Oregon the Coose 
Bay coal has been mined for many years. This is of^ Ter- 
tiary age, and may be taktn as a typical example of Ter- 
tiary lignite. Its composition will be seen from the table 
given below. In ]ihy.sical character it is, when first mined, 
hard, bright, and pitchy, but on desiccation is prono to 
break up into small fragments. Vancouver's Island is well 
supplied with coal, and has been a source from which a 
large part of the coal used on the Pacific coast has been 
derived. This is of Cretaceous age; it has precisely the 
appearance of some varieties of bituminous coal, and has 
a higher heating power and bears exposure and transpor- 
tation better than most of the western coals. From Alaska 
two varieties of lignite have been brought, both of which 
are reported to exist in large quantities. Of these, one 
(No. 7 of table) resembles closely the Coose Bay coal, and 
may be suspected, both from its comjiosition and associated 
fossils, to bo of Tertiary age. The other has been sub- 
jected to local metamorjdiism, and is much harder and 
more valuable. 

The localities which have been mentioned are by uo 
means all in which lignite is known to exist in the fur 
West, and there i.s every reason to bclie\e. so far as quantity 
is concerned, that the deposits in this region are ca]uihlo 
of fully supplying all the wants of its future population. 
In quality, however, these coals arc not fully o<jual to the 
Carboniferous coals of the Eastern States. For the most 
part, they have decidedly less calorific power, are unfit for 
the manufacture of gas. and are not adapted for smelting 
purposes by any system of treatment yvt ndoj)tcd. Tliero 
is little doubt, however, that they are capable of much more 



Analyses of 


AMEnirA> 


LiRNITES 


BV II. S. 


MrNRon, 


N. Y. School of Mines. 




1. Mount Diablo, ralifornia 

2. Weber Klver, Utali 


Cret... 

? ... 

7 ... 


Carbon. 


Hydrogen. 

6.078 
4.336 
3.897 
8.762 
4.362 
3.379 
3.264 
4.658 

2.583 
.852 


Oxygen. 


Nitrogen. 

1.008 
1.2,18 
1.932 
1.736 
1.246 
.420 
.608 
1.682 

1.764 
.280 


Sulphur. 


Wntcr. 

8.940 
9.415 
9.170 

11. .166 
8.065 
3.285 

16.520 
3.075 

8.190 
6.191 


Aih. 

6.637 
2.999 
3.403 
1.680 
6619 
4.047 
4.183 
9.287 

6.052 

7.204 


69.724 
64.842 
69.840 
64.992 
69.144 
66.244 
65.789 
67.674 

74.872 
84.103 


15.697 
1.5.518 
10.990 
15.199 
9.539 
21.815 
19.004 
12.804 

8.712 
2.137 


3.916 
1.602 
.768 
l.OSti 
1,025 
.810 
.632 
.920 

.727 
.229 


4. ('arboii Station, Wyoming 


Cret .. 


6. Coosr; Hay, Orecon 

7. Al.tska ?. 


Tort... 


8. ■• 


7 ... 


LI<mUln AiMracUa. 
9. Santa Fe, Now Mexico 


.. . Cret... 


10. Los HrouecH, Sonora 


Trias. 



extcnsivo and cucc^fSHful application than haa yet been 
rcacbeil in their use. A.h their lieattng power is consider- 
ably greater than that of wood, ibcy constitute a store of 



fuel of greater intrinsic value, and far exceeding in amount 
that which would be supplied by the densest forest-growth 
covering the entire area whore they are found. They can- 



MCM'M !CII0I)M;M— LILIJv 



not fiiil, tlior«foro, lo play nn iinportiint pail in thn futuni 
liHtory t,i |tn* Wvttt. WhctliiT tliry i-iiii ever bo iiuulc lully 
rii tiikL- tin- pliiLT of our (.'iirlionilV'rouM i-oal iu (Jnulitrul. hiil 
tlui i-pHultM uriiiiiiiMl in AuHhiii lunl in tlio Viil rrArnu, 
Italy, in tlit' uho nf similar fuels ulVunl K"'"' K""""* *"■■ 
(lir IiMiio tliiit, tUoy will Ik' niiuin tu iiiMMirnpliHlt much 
ni'MT timii liiiH Im'I'M <iono with Iliriri. My the iulroduc- 
lH>u of thf «t»ir Knit.''. ""'^ cHpdciully lliniuKh tin- une of 
tho Siunu-ns rrgL-ncratDr, lln-y tuny Im niinlc; ti» pio'lueo a 
ih>';ic(5 »)f lu'iii sulVnMcnt tnr all Tni;taIlurKi<; pHKn-HHcn ; iiiirl 
it may h« coiifuli-iitly expCM;teti that l.y coltinK those which 
arr capalilc of ln-in^ coki-d, and hy some nu-lhoil of coin- 
huHliiMi Himihir to tli<»Hu now hu^xK"'*''*"*^- '''*'.V '""->' '*o inado 
to a<Miomplish all the purpotfufl served by other varieties of 
niiiHTul fiii'I. 

The fort'soing lahlo of analyaofl will show the compo- 
Niliiin of typical examples of the lignites of Weatern 
AuHirifii. 

The uuitorial callecl ;V^ and «o largely used forornamonlH, 
\H n. varit.'ty of lif;nile. which is rlncfly obtain<'d from tho 
Ijia.-' at Wliithy, Kit5;Ian<l. Iji^'iil'' "f" siniilar character 
occurs in TcxaH, Alaska, and I'lilorado, Inil noni; has yet 
been fimnd in Ihis cnuutry which in quiilily is (piito equal 
to the Mni^'lish Jet. J. S. NkwDKURV. 

Iii;;'nuin Uho'tlium [Lat., " rosewood "], a commer- 
cial name for Canary Island rosewood (see Hosi;woon), 
whiidi yields the so-called oil of rlmdium ; also for tho 
woiid of Ann/rin hufmniil/rrn, a tree of the AV* est Indies, 
which yields an oil used as a substitute fnr that just men- 
tioned. The name is also given to other fragrant woods. 
Jii;;niim Vita*. See OrAiACUM. 

lii^onicr', jmst-v. of Noble co., Ind., on tho Elkbart 
River and tlic Air-lino division of the Lake Shore and 
Michigan Southern U. K., midway between Toledo and 
Chicago, has 2 school - houses, 4 churches, 2 banks, 1 
newspaper, II wagon and carriage lactories, 1 foundry, 1 
flour-mill, 2 planing and saw mills, I furniture-factory, 1 
hotel, a steam-elevator, and some stores j is situated in a 
fine grain-raising section. I'rincipal occupation, farming, 
pop. Kill. , J. B. Stai.i.. Kn. •' Natioxai. Uannt.r." 

Lii^oiiier* post-b. and tj). of Westmorclancl co.. Pa., on j 
IiOy:iIh;iinia Creek. 12 mihs S. E. of Latrobe, in a rcgioD 
ricli in excellent bitumincnis coal. Pop. of b. 317 ; tp.24^4. | 

Li^n'V) a v. of lUdgium, in tho province of Namur, noted 
for tho great battle of June 10, 1WI5. two days before that 
of Waterloo, in wliieh Niipolcou attacked and defeated the ; 
I*rnssians under ISliicher. I 

lii^iio'ri, dc' ( Ai.roxso Maria), Saint, a doctor of the 1 
Church of Home. b. at Naples. Italy. Sept. 27. IfiOG, of a | 
nolilo family : became a lawyer when sixteen ycar.s old ; en- ] 
tered a nionnsfery in 1722. and was ordained priest in 1720; | 
devoted himself to tho religious instruction of the poor; I 
founded in 17.12, at Villa Seala, tlie order of UrncMPTOR- 
ISTS (which see), which received papal approbation in 1711', 
when liiguori was confirmed as its superior-general; de- 
clined the archl>ishopric of Palermo; was bishoj) of Sant' 
Agatha 1702-7.'). when lio resigned and devoted himself to 
theological studies and writing, giving up even his general- 
ship of the Redemptorists. i). at Noeera dei Pagani Aug. 
1, I7S7; was declared venerable 171'0; bcalificd in ISIG; 
canonized in IS.'IO, and declared a doctor of the Church in 
1S71. Among his nmny wi)rks arc llteolonin Mfralits{\'ibb), 
Itniun A iu>Mt„(,'<-ui (17^2), luHtitntio Catcchcticti (1 70S), high- 
ly esteemed by Roman Catholics. 
Li^iioriniis* See Rfphmi'torists. 
liigu'ria^ in ancient geography, a district of Northern 
Italy, rhc land of the Ligures, the boundaries of which were 
not accuiately defined until the time of Augustus. Accord- 
ing to iiis division of Italy, it comprised tlie territory from 
the liigurian Sea across the jMarilime Alps to the Padus 
(Po) in the X. ami from the Varus in the SV. ta the Maera 
in the E. When first mentioned in history, tlie Ligures 
(or, as the Greeks called them, Ligyes or Ligystini) occu- 
pied a much larger territory, extending far into Gaul, on 
the western side of the Rhone. They were a warlike, quick- 
witted, and enterprising people, whose true descent was and 
is entirely unknown: they were neither Cells nor ."^ieulians. 
but may have been related to the Il.erians. In the period 
between the IJrst and second Punic wars the first encounter 
took nlaeo between them and tho Romans, and about 125 
B. ('. tlioy were wholly subjugated. Large numbers of them 
were brought to Saninium and settled there, while Roman 
colonists took their place. Liguria formed the first nucleus 
of the Roman jirovinee of (laul. The name was reneweil 
by Xapoleon. .lune 0. \~97. when the republic of Genoa was 
transformed into the Ligurian republic. (See Grnoa.) 

Li'lac [Turk. IrihH-]. the popular name of shrubs of 
the genus Sifn'iu/a, order 01eace;o. The best known is tho 
common lilac, S. vulgaris, a native of Central Asia^ half 



naturalized in Europe and America* Its early-blooming 
llowerit are coiiiiiM>nly of the tint eulIcO lilac, but often 
aro white or dark purple. jV. /'emicti, S, Vhinmnia^ with 
olhr-r HpceicM and (heir liybridn, are coiniiion in culii- 
varion. Their bark ban decided fi!brifugal powers. The 
"wild lilaeH" of the Paeihe coait are beautiiul shrubs of 
the genus f.'rfiiiiifhiiti (order It.hainnaecu:), 

l<iri>iiriie (tfoirN),b. at Tliiekney Punchardcn, Durham, 
in liilM; jmliibed in youth opinionH extremely hostile to 
the Church of I'ingland, and liaving circulated parnphbts 
against tho bishops, was eondenmeil in lO.'t? to pay XTdiO, 
to receive 600 lashes, to stand in the pillory, and be re- 
manded lo prison. In 1011 he leeeived a handsome com- 
pensation (X^IUOO) for his sufTi-rings from the Long Parlia- 
ment, He fought in the Parliamentary army at Kdgehill, 
Urentfr)rd, and Marston Moor, and was thrown into New- 
gate f<jr lilielling the PrcHbylerians. He afterwords aidi;d 
in organizing the ''Levellers;" accused i'roinwell and Ire- 
ton of designs upon tho sovereignty; was in lOlO tried for 
sedition and acquitted; took refuge in Holland; returned 
in 10'>:i; joined tho Quakers, ond d. in 16:)7. 

liiloH'viHe, post-v. and tp. of Anson co., N. C, on tho 
Carolina Central R. R. Po]). 1715. 

Ijilia'cen' [Lat. liliutit, " lily "], a large order of pelal- 
oide(»ua endogenous plants, characterized by a regular 
complete perianth, free from tho three-celled ovary, and six 
stamens. They are mainly herbaceous, and with the six 
divisions of the pcrianlli colored alike and the leaves jmr- 
allcl-veincd ; but to all these characters there are exceptions. 
Many have bulbs, others tubers or root-stocks. A lew are 
arborescent, such as the larger yuccas, and especially dra- 
g(ui trees {/Jraanid). Tho famous dragon treeof Orotava, 
TcnerifTe, described and figured by Humboldt, and which 
succumbed only a few years ago, was regarded as one of 
tho oldest trees in existence. As now received, the order 
comprises not only the Asphodeleai and tho Asparagineo;, 
but also the Melanthaeeic, which were generally regarded 
as distinct orders. To the lily family proper belong the 
tulips, lilies, crown-imperial, calochortus, and most of tho 
welLknown and highly-]»rized ornamental plants of tho 
order, as also the hyacinth and the onion tribe. To the 
Asparagineie, represented in cultivation by asparagus and 
by a popular conservatory climber, Mi/mipliyltuiu (falsely 
called Smilnx), lire also referred Convalhtria (the lily -of-the- 
\-a.\\cy), Poh/t/outttitm (Solomon's seal), and its allies, and 
even tho dragon trees. To the colehicum family belongs 
not only the medicinal and ornamental C'o/r/nVnm (meadow 
safi'ron, so-called from a resemblance to Crocun), but also 
Vcratrnw, the white hellebore and its allies, which furnish 
rcrafritic, all having very active acrid-poisonous roots 
or corms. Such properties are not wholly absent from the 
proper lily family, as, for instance, in the bulhsof Gloriona 
and of crown-imperial. Those of squills are likewise very 
active, while those of garlics and leeks are well-known 
condiments, and those of onions and the young shoots of 
asparagus are staples of food. The bitter juice of one or 
two species of ^l/oc furnishes aloes, a ci>mmon purgative. 
One of the strongest of fibres is New Zealand flax, from tho 
leaves of Phonnium tenujc. The order is widely distributed 
over the world, but is most abundant in warm-temperate 
climates. Asa Okay. 

Lillc^ or Lisle [Flem. Ryaset], town of Frmicc, tho 
capital of the ilepartment of Le Nord. is situated in a fer- 
tile and well-cultivated plain on the Dcule, and communi- 
cates by canals and railways with the sea and all the large 
commercial places of Northern France and Belgium. It 
is the headquarters of the third military division, and is 
one of the strongest fortresses of Europe. lis foriifications 
were erected in the eleventh century ; by Vauban they were 
thoroughly reconstructed, and they have received great im- 
provemouls again in this century. The city is well biiilt, 
with broad and regular streets and numerous squares, but 
of its public buildings none are very remarkable. It has 
a lyceum, an academy of design with a celebrated collec- 
tion of drawings — among which are S6 by Raphael and 
about 200 by Michael .\ngelo — a botanical garden, several 
literary societies, and many scientific and educational in- 
stitutions. Its principal importance, however, it derives 
from its manufactures. Much flax is grown in (he vicinity, 
and the linen manufactures of Lillc. especially those of 
table-cloths, are very extensive; the whole neighborhood is 
covered witli bleaching-grounda. No Less important is its 
cotton-spinning industry : about ."6 large estahlishmentsare 
in operation. The tobacco manufactory of the government 
prod^ices annually about 11.000.000 pounds. Beetroot sugar, 
rapeseed oil. gloves, and gunpowder are also manufactured 
in large quantities, and a very extensive trade is carried on. 
Lille was founded in the ninth century, belonged alter- 
nately to France or to the counts of Flanders, came into 
the possession of the house of Burgundy at the end of the 



40 



LILLO— LIMA. 



fourteenth century, passed from Burgundy to Austria and 
Spain, but was conquered in 1G07 by Louis XIV., since 
which time it has been a French city. Pop. 138,177. 

Lirio (GEonGE), b. at London, England, in 1093; was 
a jeweller who produced several dramas, two of wliioh were 
successful and celebrated — Geonje IhivnweU ( 1 7o 1 ) and Fatal 
CtirioHity (1737). D. in London in 17o'.). His Dramatic 
Works were published in 17J6, with a memoir. 

Lillebonne' [LaL Jutiubona], town of France, in the 
department of Scine-Inferieure, noted for the vast quan- 
tities of Roman remains recently found, including marble 
and bronze statuary and a magnificent theatre in good 
preservation. In its vicinity stands the palace of Ilarcourt, 
built by William the Conqueror, one of tho most remarkable 
edifices of Normandy. Pop. 5126. 

tillers', town of France, in the Pas-de-Calais, on the 
Nave, noted as the place where the first artesian well was 
dug in the twelfth century. It has some manufactures. 
Pop. oOT-T. 
Liriian, tp. of Goodhue co., Minn. Pop. 489. 
Lil'liiii^ton, tp. of Harnett co., N. C. Pop. 699. 
Lilly (JoiiNj. See Lyly. 

Liriy (William), b. at Diseworth. Leicestershire, Eng- 
land, May 1, 16(12; commencedthestudy of astrology in 1632, 
and in 1644 began the publication of an annual almanac, 
Merlinnii Aiujlirus Junior, which contained some wonderful 
predictions, and was eagerly read by all parties. He in- 
structed many pupils in his art, and practised medicine in 
combination therewith. In h'xs Monnrchij or No Monarchy 
(1651) appeared two hieroglyphical figures which were subse- 
quently claimed to refer to the plague and tho great fire in 
London in 1666. He wrote an Iniroffucfinn to Astroloqy, a 
Grammar of A>itrolofji/. and Tahlcf* of Nativities, nnd d. at 
Walton-upon-Thamos June 9, 16S1, leaving an Autobiog- 
raphy, which was first published in 1715. 

Lil'y [Lat. miiim'\. the popular name of the leading 
genus of the order Liltaci;.e (which see), comprising some 
of the commonest and most valued of hardy ornamental 
bulbiferous plants, natives of the northern temperate zone. 
Several are indigenous to tho U. S., the more showy and 
common ones being LUium Philad-f^)hicuni, with an up- 
right flower, and L. Canadcnsc and L, superb nm, with 
nodding ones; these orange and orange-red. Related spe- 
cies of California arc now coming into cultivation, as well 
as one or two with white or rose-eolored blossoms. L. can- 
didnm^ the common white lily of the gardens, came from 
the Levant and Caucasus. The large and choice Japanese 
lilies, white or partly so, came from L. lon;/iJioriim., with long 
and narrow flowers, and L.Japonicum, L. fpeciosnm, iiuil /,. 
nuratnm, with very broad and open ones. In the scarlet- 
flowered /*. Chalcedonicnm, abounding in Palestine, we 
" behold the lilios of tho field " of Scripture. The Martagon 
lily, Fj. Martagon of the Old World, answers nearest to our 
L. snprrbum. The tiger and bulblet-bearing lilies of culti- 
vatio?i,all nativcsof the Old World, and producing bulblets 
in the axils of the leaves, belong to L. tlgrinum, L. croceum, 
aud L. bxdhi/crum* the last two known by their erect 
flowers. Finally, the name of lily is extended in popular 
use to various other lily-liko flowers of this and related 
orders, and even to some of tho exogenous class, as, for ex- 
amjih', the water-lily, Ni/mphn-a. AsA (Jray. 

I^ily, or Lilly (William), b. at Odiham, Hampshire, 
England, about li66; was educated at Oxford : travelled 
in Asia Minor; studied Greek five years at Rhodes, and in 
loDi) opened a classical school in London, in which Greek 
was first taught by an Englishman in his own country. 
The following year he was appointt-d master of St. Paul's 
School, Just founded by Colet, and in 1513 lie brought out 
his celebratcil Latin Grammar, which was the standard 
textbook in England for two centuries, of whitsh the last 
edition was published in 1817. Colet, Erasmus, and Wol- 
sey bore a part in this production, which bears tho title 
nrf:riHHlma InntitHtio, hcu liatio Gram mat ices (^oijni}H<,'t:ndtr. 
I), of tho plague in London Feb., 1523. 

Lilyb^F'um, tho modern Marsala, was built by the 
Carthaginians in 3U7 u. c. on tho westernmost promontory 
of Sicily, and was their last possession on tho island. After 
a siege of ton years it was abandoned to the Romans in 2H 
II. c, after which it became tho basis for their attacks on 
Africa, At tho fall of the Roman empire it was still a 
flourishing place, and the Saracens valued its port so high- 
ly that they called it jl/ar»a Allah, ''the port of God," 
whence its present name. 

Llly-of-the-Vnllcy, (hn Cnnvnllaria majalis, aplant 
of Europe and Asia, al.-o cparingly indigenous in tho Allc- 
ghiiriy Nlountains, prized in garden and grecn-houso rmlti- 
vfttion for its beauty and fragrance. It is used by perfu- 
mers as the basis of cau d'or. 



Lima* See Limid.*:. 

Li^ma, the capital of the republic of Peru, is situated at 
the foot of the Cordillera, in a fertile plain on the Riinae, 
6 miles from Callao, its port on the Pacific. It is regularly 
built, the streets crossing each other at right angles, and 
has many churches with double towers. The streets are 
long and narrow, and the houses mostly of one story aud 
built of sun-dried brick, which material suffices, as heavy 
showers never occur: tho rains which fall frequently be- 
tween May and November, called gantat. are little moro 
than heavy dews. Among the thirty-three public squares, 
the Plaza Mayor or Principal is the most important, em- 
bracing nine .acres in the centre of the city, and being sur- 
rounded on three sides by a covered colonnade. On the 
fourth side stands the cathedral, one of the most beau- 
tiful churches in South America, founded by Pizarro, the 
conqueror of Peru, destroyed in 1746 by an earthquake, 
but rebuilt l>y the viceroy, Count Superunda. It has two 
towers, a large, beautiful portal, reminding of the Moorish 
style, and in tho interior rich altars, good pictures, and a 
splendid organ. In the centre of the richly ornamented 
plaza is a circular garden, surrounded by an iron fence and 
provided with a fountain and statues. Facing the entrance 
from the principal square to the Callejon de Petateros 
("Mat-maker's Alley") is the front gate of Pizarro's pal- 
ace, now used for government offiees, and containing offi- 
cial apartments for the president. In the centre of the 
Plaza de la Independencia stands an equestrian statue of 
Bolivar, modelled by Tadolini and cast in bronze at Mu- 
nich. Here also is the royal and pontifical university of 
San Marcos, founded by royal decree in 1551, the walls of 
which constitute a mass of the most elaborately carved 
woodwork. The place contains furthermore the senate- 
house, formerly the palace of the inquisition, from which 
the square was called Plaza de la Inquisicion. One of the 
finest buildings of tho city is the exhibition palace, com- 
menced Jan. 1. 1S70, opened July 1, 1872 — commenced by 
Don Manuel Fuentes, built by the Italian Leonardo, and 
situated on the south-western side of the city, on a square 
225 metres long and 172V metres broad. In the vicinity 
of this building most of the old. now useless, city walls 
were pulled down in 1S73, and an elegant boulevard laid 
out, called, after its clesiguer, Meiggs's boulevard. The 
marble statue of Columbus, which formerly stood on the 
Alameda, on the other side of the Rimac, has been trans- 
ferred to the open space between the boulevard and the ex- 
hibition palace. Among the sixty or seventy churches only 
that of San Pedro is noteworthy, as containing the national 
library of Peru. Remarkable among the other jiublic build- 
ings are the penitentiary, very commodious and safe in its 
construction, eight national colleges, an ecclesiastical semi- 
nary, a college for the study of medicine and the accessory 
sciences, another for secondary instrucEion, a normal school, 
a naval and military institute, an industrial municipal 
school, two theatres, and a circus for bull-fights, the larg- 
est in the world. The population of Lima, numbering 
100,056 in 1871, is very varied — whites, blacks. Indians, 
and Chinese of all shades. The sanitary state of the city 
is not good, on account of the poor drinking-water and the 
bad system of sewage; the galUnazas (carrion-vultures), 
which iiere swarm by the hundred, are of great benefit as 
scavengers. The city is connected by railways with Cal- 
lao and the bathing-place Chorillos. Lima, generally styled 
Cindad de los Reyes (" the City of the Kings "), was founded 
by Pizarro in 1535. Most extravagant records exist of its 
former wealth ; thus, in 1683 the merchants are said to have 
paved tho streets with silver bars on occasion of the .arrival 
of a new viceroy. The greatest danger to Lima is that from 
earthquakes. The severest occurred in 1630. 1687, 1746, 
1806, and 1828, of which that of Oct. 28, 1716, was tho most 
destructive. August Nikmann. 

Lima, post-v. and tp. of Ailams co.. III., 15 miles N. 
of Quincv, on tho Mississippi River, contains Lima Lake. 
Pop. of v. 2S5; of tp. 1162. 

Lima, tp. of Carroll co.. 111. Pop. 531. 
liiina, post-v. and tp. of La (Jrange co., Ind., on Grand 
Rapi.ls and Indiana R. R. . Pop. of v. 419; of tp. 1371. 
Lima, post-v. and tp., Washtenaw co., Mich. Pop. 1052. 
Inma, post-v. and tp. of Livingston co., N. Y., 4 miles 
from New York Central R, R., is the seat of (Jcnesce Wes- 
leyan Seminary, the oldest institution of the kind in this 
part of the State, and has 4 churches, 1 bank. I weekly 
newspaper, and a number of stores. Vop. of v. 1257: of 
tp. 2912. Dkal & DiiAKi:, Eds. "Lima IlKrounKit." 

l^ima, post-v., cap. cd" Allen co,, 0., <»n the Cincinnati 
llauiiltfjn and Dayton, tho Lake Erie and Louisville, and 
tho Pittsburg Fort Wayne and Chicago R. Rs. It has 2 
weekly newspapers. Pop. 4500. 
Lima, tj.. of Licking co., 0. Pop. 1612. 



LIMA LI.Mi: 



-11 



V. (North Lima P. 0.) of Beaver tp., Mabo- 

Pup. I no. 

Pop. insr.. 

Pop. 177. 

Pop. ii:jr,. 



Ijima, tp. of Onint co., Wis. 
liiiiia, tp. of Pepin CO., Witt. 
liiinii, tp. of UofI( CO., W 
liiiiia, tp. of Slii;l)oyKan (;o., Win. Pop. 211)0. 
Itiinar'itlir Ifrom IJimtx, {\\v. Ivpiral J;t■IlU^], a fiiniily 
of the i-liiy'* (i]i>ti-rr)poiI;i. iiixl orrlcr Piiliiioiiiila, cliHtin- 
1,'iiiylifil In- tilt' clnii;;!!!'-.! f-cini-i.-yliiKiricii! hmly. wliidi in 
nut <li!*lin;;iii!*hiiiilv iroiii tliu font, tlu' nlif-cn«-(! of uny 
vi-ccnil cue, and (Iio coiiscfpu'ntly nulinicntary or flii(!l(|- 
likc ohnrac'tcr of the AwW, whieh is eoiieeiiled by the nmn- 
tle; the mantle is anterior. nicMleriite. an'l oval; the ro- 
Hpiriitnry oriliee near the ri;;hl posterior margin of llic^ 
mantle; the anns elose in front <ii' the respiiatory oriliee; 
the liuail has oeuiij^eron.s as well as inferior tentaelcH ; tho 
jiiws are rihless ; tlie teetli of tin! ra<liihi in niinierons rowc, 
the t'cntral and inner " lateral " tricuspiil. tlie " umrini " 
or ((liter lateral aeiileutc. 'I'hc family thus (le)lne(l ein- 
hraees the well known slugs of the jranlens. anil inelu'lcs 
a nnniher of spo-ies whii-h have been diflerentinteil hy some 
aiithor.-s into ahout half a <lii/cn i^enera : the best known, 
however, is Limnx,:\\\y\ the most eonspieuons sjiceics.in at 
least the sea-coast towns of the \). S., arc two 8pccicK in- 
troihu'cd from Knropo— viz. Limnx (f'/irnti>i tind L. /{uniH. 
Tlieso are found in moist places .undc^r imards, stones, ete. 
They are herhivorous. and arc fre([uently quite injurious 
to succulent younp jdants. They emit, when hanfllcd, a 
milky secretion, and arc even capable of sccTeting a mucus 
whieii. like a thread, suspends them from the point to whi<!h 
it has been attached. Itcsides the introduced spe<'ies. there 
is an indij^enous form which is ipiite widely distributed in 
the v. ^.^Liimtj- rnmprMtriM, Biiiney. TllEOUUim Gll.L, 
ijimatula. Sec Limiut^:. 

Li'mnville, post-v. of Le.xinccton tp., Stark co., 0., 
on the Cleveland autl Pittsburg K. R. Pop. 204. 
Ijinia-wood. See Bha/.ii.-wood. 
liimb. In jin^^ulnr instruments, the plato that bears 
thi^ principal "graduated arc is called the ^/m6 of the instru- 
ment; the secondary are concentric wllh the first, and used 
for subdividing the divisions on the limti, is called the r..r- 
nicr. In the theodolite there arc two limbs — one for mea- 
suring horizontal nngles, called {\\ohnriznntiil //m6, and one 
for measuring vertical angles, called \\\c>vrrtlrtd lluih. The 
term limb is often applied to a straight md whieh is gradu- 
ated ; thus, in the levelling-rod the stall on whi'di the prin- 
cipal graduation is placed is enllc<l the limb, the graduated 
line on the vane being called the vernier. W. G. Pkck. 

fjim'bo [Fiat, iimhtfn, a '* border." because it is on the 
bonier of hell], in the theology of the Roman Catholics, a 
place upon the borders of hrll for the souls of tliose who 
nave neither merited hell by their sins nor are entitled to 
behold the beatific vision in heiiven. Tlicre aretwolini- 
boes^onc the Umbna piifniin, the limbo of the Fafhers, 
designed for the saints of the Mosaic dispensation. Since 
the atonement of Christ these Fathers have ascended to 
heaven, and this limbo is generally believed to be empty. 
The other is the iimhm iu/aiitnni, designed for the souls of 
nnbaptized infants, who are eternally s(nTowful. but not 
tormented. Some writers suggest a third limbo, for right- 
eous men who have not the true faith. 

Liin'borch, van i Pnii.ipi-rs), h. Juno 10. Ifi33, at 
Amsterdam ; studied Iheology under his uncle. Episcopins, 
and was appointed in 11)57 minister of the Remonstrant 
congregation at Gonda. and in Ififi" professor of theology 
at the Homonstrant college of Amsterdam, where ho d. 
Apr. •^(\, I7I2. His Thmfof/ia Cf'nSfhtnn flfisr,) gives a 
comprehensive and systematic exposition of the doctrines 
of Arminius. 

Lim'biir^, or Limboiirgy a territory extending along 
both sides of the river Meusc. which alternately belonged 
to the Netherlands. Belgium, France, and Austria, until it 
was tinally divided between Belgium and the Netherlands 
in 1S31I. Along (he Meuse the region is very fertile, afford- 
ing excellent pasturage for large herds oi cattle, but the 
rest of the country is sterile, the soil being either marshv 
or sandy. Brewing and distilling are the principal branches 
of industry pursued here. Duich Limh„rtf comprises an 
area of 856 square miles, with 22.>.702 inliabifants, of whom 
nine-tenths are Roman Catholics : the ])rineip.al towns arc 
Maestrieht and Roermond, lirlrjium Kunhurff, which con- 
tains some iron and coal mines, comprises an area of 020 
square miles, with 200.::.ir> inhabitants. Principal towns, 
JIassi'lt. St. Trond, and Tongros. 

Lime [Fr. : from lud. /t-rmon], the fruit of Clfni^ nr/rfa 
and C. Limetta (the last called sweet lime), both probably 
mere varieties of Citrus nirdirn, the citron tree. The lime 
grows upon a dwartish tree or shrub, and is a native of 



Asia, but cultivated in nearly all warm rcgutnt, Limoii 
nro in no wine inferior to leiiiunn, for wliicli they are Ufed 
afl a Hubfttitute. Pickled limeM iiro prized iit* a condiment. 
Limo-juici! is extenifively emptoyt-d in tfhipM* htorcn an un 
antiscorbutic. Citric aeid in largely iiiarnitaetured from it. 
Linn! is the u«ual Knglinh name of Tilin, the linden tree. 

TiiinCf one of the alkaline oarthx, ehemicallr (he pro- 
toxide of ealcium, >*ymbol CaO. It form« the bane of lime- 
Htoncn, marbles, tnariM, and the flhelln of molIufkH, where it 
is in eomliination with earbonie aeid, forming the riirbon- 
ato of lime. By the application of Iteat theeiirbonie acid 
is driven olT, aiul the lime in left in the condition of "cauR- 
tie " or " (]uiek " lime. Lime is nnually while, light-gmy, 
or ercam-eolored. porous and «ofl. It rapidly absorbs 
water, tiniting with it cbcmieally, •Filh the evolution of 
much heat. This process is called nlaking or ^lnckin^. 
I*uro or *' fat " limes when slnketl hwcII very much, and 
nltimalfdy fall into a snow-white powder. If more wafer 
is atlded, what is called the " milk of lime" is formed. The 
lime is now in the condition of a hydrate, and if exposed 
to the action of the air it absorbs earbonic aeid, and is 
again converted into the carbonate of lime. In the pre[»- 
arafion of mortar, snnrl is added aecorrling to the rielinens 
or " fatness " of the lime — that is, aeeording to the fineness 
and uniformity of the powder into wliich it fails when 
slaked. Where the powder is vr-ry fine, if makes with 
water a fluid paste which will penetrate- the interstices be- 
tween the grains of sand, however clo,«ily they may bo 
crowded. The thinner the film of paste between the grains 
of sand the stronger their adhesion will be. Hence, the 
value of a lime is roughly measured by the qimntity of sand 
it will serve to unite. Lime is largely nserl in airrieulluro 
as a dressing on soils which require calcareous matter, in 
the manufacture of bleaehing-powder (chloride of lime), 
in tanning, as a flux in smelting iron, etc. r^tc. Lime is 
(■xtremely infusible, and cylinders of (bis substance are 
commonly used in the oxyhydrogen or ealeinm liirbl, a jet 
of the ignited gases being thrown upon a piece of lime, 
which wbi-n intensely heated emits a light so bright as to 
be aliuiist unbearable to the eye. 

The great consumption of lime, however, is in (he pro- 
du'-tion of mortar, and fVtr this purposes it has been used in 
construction by all modern and most ancient civilized na- 
tions. In the earliest masonry of whieh any remains have 
been found, as the Etruscan, that of the island of Cyprus, 
and antrient Troy, walls were laid up with large stones 
without mortar C* ^'.'''clopean " masonry), or with smaller 
ones packed in clay, but by the Egyptians, Hebrews, 
(Treeks, and Romans the use of lime f<»r mortar was uni- 
versal. In the manufacture of mortar from lime, as has 
been stated, (he hydrate of lime is formed by the addition 
of water to quicklime. This i.s, in part, chemically com- 
bined with the lime, and produces the first "seding" of 
mortar. Subsequently, by the absorption of carltonie aeid, 
it is converted into the bydrated carbonate. In process 
of lime :i combination is also formed between the lime and 
some of the silica of the sand with wliich it is ossociated, 
and silicate of lime is produced. By this the strength of 
the mortar is still further increased. This progressive 
change has been ascertained by careful analysis of many 
samples of older and newer m<trtars. These have shown 
that in the older mortars — whieh in some instances are as 
bard as the stones they join— the percentage of silicate of 
lime is much greater than in those more reecnily made. 

The notion is commonly entertained by architects and 
masons that the best lime is produced from the purest car- 
bonate of lime, and statements to that effect will be found 
in many books whieh treat of this subject. This theory, 
however, has been abundantly proved to be a fallacy, for 
it has been shown that nearly all the most extensively used 
and highly esteemed limes contain a large percentage of 
magnesia. Magnesian limes are preferred by masons, be- 
cause, as they say. they are "cooler" and set more slowly. 
The pure lime is. in their Inniuage, (oo *• hot *' and " quick." 
This is illustrated by the high reputation in New York of 
th'' lime from Smithfield. R. I., and that made from the 
white marble along the Hudson River, both of which are 
highly magnesian. The following analyses show (he com- 
position of the Westchester marble, so much used for lime: 

1. ?. 

Carbonate of Hrae .W.40 5J.20 

" '* mat^nesia 43.2S 44.80 

Silica 0.20 0.10 

Alumina and iron „ 0.60 0.80 

It will be seen from these analyses that this rock is a typical 
dolomite, and yet the lime made from it is as highly esteemed 
and takes as much sand as any other used in the Atlantic 
States. In Ohio, where this subject has attracted special 
attention in connection with the geological survey, it has 
been found that all the most esteemed limes arc highly 
magnesian. At Cincinnati, which is surrounded by hills 



42 



LIME, MEDICINAL U.^jES OF— LIMESTONE. 



composed of limestones which are nearly pure carbonate 
of lime, ull the quicklime used is brought from distant 
localities, where it is manufactured from the Niagara lime- 
stone, there adulomite. containing nearly as much magnesia 
as lime. The cities of Northern Ohio and Michigan are 
supplied with iimefrom the Ningaraand Water-lime groups, 
both of which are dolomites, and from the Corniferous lime- 
stone, which contains from l.'j to 21 per cent, of magnesia. 
A eon.siderable portion of magnesia in quicklime causes it 
to slake ami set more slowly, but the mortar is quite as 
white as that made from pure lime, and becomes much 
harder by age. 

A similar fallacy prevails in regard to the use of mag- 
nesian limestones for fluxes in metallurgy. It is generally 
believed that pure li[»estones make much the best fluxes, 
but this is a mistake, as abundant experience li:is shown 
that magnesian limestones are quite as well adapted to 
this use as those which contain the car))onate of lime only. 
Lime is manufactured from limestone, marbles, or shells 
by calcination, which expels the carbonic acid. This is 
effected in kilns of various kinds. Formerly, lime-burniug 
was done in kilns having the form of an inverted beehive, 
with a single opening at the bottom. In these the fuel and 
stone were mixed, the iire being lighted below. At tho 
end of tliree or four days, the fuel having been consumed 
and the Uuie-itone calcined, the charge was allowed to cool 
partially, and was then drawn out at the bottom. Now, 
lime-burning is nearly all done in what are caWcd perpetual 
kilns. These are square or round towers 25 to '.jO feet in 
height, having a cylindrical cavity within, 5 or 6 feet in 
diameter. These kilus have usually two furnaces, one on 
either side, situated at about one-third of the height from 
the bottom. In these the fires are kept perpetually burn- 
ing, and are fed with wood or soft coal, the flamo and 
heat from which, passing up through the limestone, calcine 
it so that when it has descended to the level of the furnaces 
it is deprived of all its carbonic acid. From time to time 
the limestone is charged at the top and the calcined lime 
drawn out below. As limestones vary much in tho facility 
with which they are burned, the time required for calci- 
nation and the amount of fuel consumed will depend much 
on the kind of stone used. Something will also depend 
upon the excellence of the fuel and the pattern of kiln em- 
ployed. The best results- attained are the production of 
300 bushels of lime every twenty-four hours with the con- 
sumption of four cords of wood. Where coal is used, as is 
the case in most foreign localities and many in the U. S., 
a considerable economy of fuel is obtained; but in some 
places where our bituminous coals have been tried tho 
quality of the lime is said to have been impaired. Tliis, if 
true, was possibly the cfTeet of an unusual amount of sul- 
phur in the coal, or it may have been the result of a want 
of adaptation of the furnaces to mineral fuel. The experi- 
ence of the lime-burners abroad and in certain localities on 
tho Atlantic coast of our own country has concluFivcly 
proved that Hmo can bo burned more rapidly and cheaply 
with a fair cjuality of coal tii.an with wood, and this with- 
out any impairment of quality. 

When mortar freshly made from quicklime is placed in 
water, it softens and loses its furmj but the lime made from 
certain limestones which contain a largo percentage of sil- 
ica and alumina, on the contrary, hardens under wafer and 
forms what is known as hydniuHc cement. M'hen calcined, 
those hydraulic limestones yield a yellow or brown linio 
which does not slake or heat much on tlio application of 
water. From its hnrdness it must he ground in a mill be- 
fore it can be used for mortar. (Furllicr particulars in 
regard to this class of limo will be found in tho articles 
Ckmknt. HvnRAtTi.TC Limes, etc. See also Vicat On Mor~ 
(am and V'icat's Treati/te on Mortars and Ccmcntu; Paslcy's 
LimcK, M'lrtfU'M, and Cemcntu,- IJurnoli's Mortnre, Lnnes, 
CvtufnfR, <ind Concretcn; and Gillmore's Li'mcf, Mortars, 
and C'rmrntM, 2d cd.) J. S. Nr.WBEUitv. 

Lime, Medicinal Uses of, Quirhlhne is a powerful 
caustic, but is little used lor this purpose except in (ho form 
of tho officinal potasna cum calrc or " Vienna caustic," 
which consists of equal parts of tho two alkalies, mixed to 
form a powder. For application this powder is made into 
a paste with a little alcohol. CIdoriuated /inir ih a valuable 
desiccant and disinfectant. Li'mr. water (a saturated solu- 
tion of lime in water) and cafritun carhnnnte (in the form 
of prepared chalk and prepared oyster-shell) are used in 
medicine for a vari'ty of purposes. They are valuable 
antidotes in sulpliuri*' anrl oxalic acid poisoning, as tliey 
form insoluble precipitates with those acids, and have no 
poisonous properties of their own. They are among tho 
best of alkalies for neutralizing the undur- acidity generated 
in the alimentary eanni in certain forms {)f dyspefisia. es- 
pecially when. 11^ is fifren the cn«e. there is nNo diarrhona; 
for, being somewhrif nitringent, they tend to cheek the ilis- 
cbarge. Being of low diffusion power, they nre hut little 



absorbed, and hence cannot be used for alkalizing the blood 

like the alkaline compounds of sodium and potassium. 
Lime-water is also used as an alkaline wash in many skin 
diseases, and mixed with equal parts of linseed oil forms 
the so-called *" Carron oil." a favorite ajijilication to burns. 
Lime-water rapidly dissolves the false membranes of croup 
and diphtheria, and is accordingly sometimes applied lo- 
cally to the throat in those diseases by means of the spray- 
a])paratus. But in this dilute form it is doubtful if it exer- 
cises much useful solvent power. Mixetl with ice-cold milk, 
in tho proportion of 1 to 1 or 2, lime-water has a remarkable 
effect in allaying nausea and vomiting ; and the same mix- 
ture thus furnishes an invaluable means of conveying 
nourishment in cases of obstinate vomiting when all the 
usual forms of food are rejected. Edwarh Curtis. 

Lime, tp. of Blue Earth co., Minn. Pop. 744. 

Lime, Chloride of, or Bleachitig-Salt. See 
Hypochi.orous Anhydride and Hvpochlorites, by Prof. 
Henrv Wurtz. 

Lime Creek, tp. of Washington co., la. Pop. 13.33. 

Lim'erick, county of Ireland, in the province of Mun- 
ster, separated N. by the Shannon from the county of Clare. 
Area, 1061 sq.m. The ground is an undulating plain, with 
a subsoil of limestone, trap, and sandstone, watered by 
the Moigne, Deel, and Muleair, and rising into mountains 
in the southern parts, where are found a line reddish mar- 
ble and coal of an inferior quality. The central part, a 
tract called the Golden Vale, is very fertile. Pop. 191,936. 

Limerick, city of Ireland, capital of the county of Lim- 
erick, province of Monster, on both sides of the Shannon, 
which is crossed by live bridges and lined with docks. It 
has distilleries, tanneries, flour-mills, flax-spinning and 
weaving factories, and lace manufactures. It was the 
last place in Ireland which surrendered to William III., 
on which occasion a treaty was signed (1691 ) granting cer- 
tain rights to Roman Catholics. Pop. 40,670. 

Limerick, post-tp. of York co.. Me. Pop. 1425. 

Limerick, po?t-v. and tj)., Montgomery co.. Pa. P. 2600. 

Limerick Station, post-v. of Limerick tp., Mont- 
gomery CO., Pa., on Schuylkill Iliver and on Reading R. U. 

Lime Ridge, post-v. of Lower Saucon tp., Northamp- 
ton CO., Pa., on Lehigh River and on Lackawanna and 
Bloomsburg R. R. Limestone is here quarried and burned. 

Lime Rock, post-v. of Salisbury tp., Litchfield co., 
Conn., has a blast furnace and car-wheel factory. 

Lime Springs, post-v. of Howard co., la., on the 
Chicago Milwaukee and St. Paul R. R., 1.30 miles S. of St. 
Paul, has 1 school, 3 churches, and some stores. Pop. about 
1000. E. L. Howi:, Ed. "Lime Springs Herald." 

Lime'stone, a sedimentary rock composed chiefly of 
the carbonate of lime, the calcareous deposit of the sea 
wherever the mechanical sediments — sand and clay, the 
wash of the land — do not reach. The lime of limestones 
is for the most part derived from the hard parts of marine 
organisms, theshells of Foramiuifera and mollusks, the 
skeletons of polyps (corals), etc. By the formation of 
limestone carbonic acid is drawn from the atmosphere, and 
fixed beyond the reach of all natural agents except heat 
sufficient to calcine the limestone. As the causes which 
produce the ordinary metamorphism of rocks, converting 
limestones into marbles, though rendering them more crys- 
tallino and often discharging alt organic colors and leav- 
ing them pure white, does not drive oflT the carbonic 
acid, it may bo supposed that the carbonic acid which 
is absorbed in the formation of limestone is. for the most 
part, permanently withdrawn from the atmosphere. As 
Prof. Henry Wurtz has suggested, this process has probably 
caused a great diminution of tho carlmnle acid contained 
in the primeval atmosphere, and should it continue 
with no other compensating action than sueii as wo now 
know, it must result in tho extinction of all life on tho 
globe. J. S. Newberrv. 

Limestone, county of Alabama, bounded N. by Ten- 
nessee and S. by the Tennessee Ri\er. Area, 650 square 
miles. Tiio N. is hilly, the S. more level. Cotton, corn, 
and live-stock are largely produced. Tho county is trav- 
ersed by the Nnsliville and Decatur ancl the Memphis and 
Charleston R. Rs. Cap. Athens. Pop. 15,017. 

Limestone, county of Central Texas. Area. 900 
square miles. It is fertile, well-timbered and watered, and 
produces corn, cotton, and Hvc-stoek. Travcrseil by Jli>uston 
anil Texas Central K. R. Cap. Springfield. Pop. S69I. 

liiincstone, tp. of Franklin co., Ark. Pop. 240. 

liimcstone, tp. of Kankakee co., III. Pop. 840. 

LiiiM'Mtinic, tp. of Peoria CO., III. Pop, 2.302. 

JiimcNloiic, tp. of Aroostook co., I\Ie. Poji. 263. 

Limestone, tj). of Runcombc co., N. C. Pop. 683. 



LIMICSTONIO— LlMITA'l'lUN, STATUTICS (JF. 



J. 



I.iiurslonr, i|). oi Duplin oo.» N. 0. Pop. 700. 

E.iiiK-^tonrf portrp. of Clariim co., Pa. Pop. \'i7t}. 

I.iiiicstoiic, Ip. of Lycoininj; co., Pu. I*op. i;i.O(i. 

liiiiM'Htoiie, l|). of Montour CO., Pa. Pop. 710. 

IjiiiM'sloiir, tp. of Union co., Pa. Pop. HKU, 

liiiiic^toiK!, (p. of Wiirn-n c<i., Pa. Pop. 848. 

LiiiirMf OIK', tp. of Spartanburg co., S. C. Pop. 240.3. 

liinn' Trrc, Sec Lindkn. 

Ijiin^idir [from Limit, the princijial genus], ri family 
of nionomyarian concliiferdiis niollusktt, rcHcmblin^^, in 
hoinu, llic KcallopH ( Peetiniihr ). but witli tlie nioiilli bor- 
dered by tentiHMiliir fihimciits ; ibe niiintle <iirstitiitc of- 
ui-i.'lli ; an o\'iil tiilp(! (levrb)p('<l imkI cylindiii^al in forin ; 
anil {\n\ foot e'ini|ncs?'(;il. 'I'ln^ family ban nvntierourt re- 
cent U8 well aw fossil (Scoondury ami Tertiary) fpecies, 
wliieli liavc been ;^roupcil by Ailanis inti two pencra — viz. 
Liiiui (witb tbc hub-j^encra linthiln restrieteti, Chntiifirx, 
MitiitiKnm, AwHtn, anil Llnmhthi) an«l l.iinnu. Of tbe 
biltiT. <inly line Hpeeie^i was known from Norway nnil tbo 
Mi'tliternini'ari. TllKoOoui: (Jll.L. 

Lim'iiiKtoii, piist-tp. of York co., Mc. l*op. HCiO. 

Ijiin'it [Lat. //mr»]. The Umt of a varying f|nantity 
is tli;it value fowoi-dH wbich the first may be nniilo under 
tbe law by whieb it varies to approach. //om wlucb it nniy 
be made to ditfer by b'ws than any assi^;;nalde fjuanlity of 
tbe same kind, and with wbicb it nniy be mailn to coineiili) 
by a particular snpjxisition. Thus, (be (pniiitily '2ux -f- /i^ 
varies witli h; if we suppose // to diminisb numerically, tbo 
value of tbo exjiression will appmaob towards thatof 2rta*; 
by making // puffieicntly Pinall tbe value of the expression 
is made to difTfr from 2ax by less tban any assi<;nab!o 
quantity; and liiially, by supposiii"; A equal to 0, the \aluc 
of the expression becomes I'ox; liencc, 2ar is t!io limit of 
2«.r -f /('' with respect to h. 

The method of limits has boon made the basis of a sys- 
tem of differential calculus. To explain this system let us 
assume the general equation — 

, y=/(^-) (I) 

if we increase a* by a positive liut variable increment, /;, and 
denote tbo corresponding value of;/ by .'/', it may be shown 
(f'ourtenay's C(tfruiu>t, art. -1) that the new state of tbe func- 
tion can always bo expressed by tbe formula, 
V'=/(x + //}=/(.r) + ^/i+ ///i-i + C/i^ + etc. ; .... (2) 
in which .4, Ji, C, etc. depenil on x, but arc independent 
uf h. Subtracting (1) from (2), and dividing through by 
A, wo have 

v' — y 



'=A -f-7iA + {otc.)/i2 



(^) 



The first member of (IJ) is a symbol to express the ratio 
of the increment (if the variable to the corresponding iuere- 
nicnt of the function, and tbo second member is tbe value 
of that ratio. If, now. wo suppuso h to approach 0, tbo 
value of the ratio will approiich .1, and when h becomes 
equal to tbo value of (he ratio btx'omes equal to ^1 ; hence, 
A is the limit of the ratio in question. This limiting value 
is called the diflerential eoeflicient of the function, and is 

denoted by the symbol ---: if this result is multiplied by 
ax 

the differential of the variable, dx, the product, denoted by 

the symbol r/y, is called the diiferentialof the fuuctiou, aud 

we have , i , 

ay = A ax. 

If wo suppose A to be a constant infinitesimal, denoted by 
tix, the ditference between i/' and y will be the ditferenec 
between two consecutive values of the function; this dif- 
ference is (he diflerential of the function, and it may be de- 
noted by the symbol dj/. Svibtracting (I) from (2), aud in 
the result making y' — y equal to dy, and h equal to dxj we 
have 

dy = Adx -k- fidx^ + Cdx^ + etc. ; 
rejecting from the second member all terms involving dx 
to a higher power than the lirst, as iutiuitesimal in com- 
parison with the first, we have, as before, 

dy = A dx. 
This result shows that the expression for the differential 
of the function is always the same, whether it is found by 
the method of fimitit or by the mcthnd of i»jin!(fniniah, in- j 
asmuch as tbe function that we have used is perfectly gen- 
eral. The latter merhod is fur simpler (ban the former, and 
is therefore better adapted to pnu-iiml investigations. 

The method of limits is immediately applieiible to the 
theory of tangents. \\v may define a tangent to a piano 
curve at a given point lo bo Ihe limit of the secniil through 
that point. If a secant is drawn through tbo given point 
and any other point of tbe curve, we may conceive the sec- 
ond point to approach (be first, and finally to coincide with 
it; at this instant the secant bocouics a tangent. If, now. 



wo MUppoBu tho second point to pasi the first, contiouinf; to 
niovo in the same direction, wo Hhall have a iocunt cutting 
lh« curve on tbe other Ride 'J'hero ih but one position in 
which u Heeaiit bt.-couieH u tnngent, and that is itH limiting 
position. At this point the xbtpe of the tangent in equal 
to tbo limit of the ratio of the inrrvmrnt of t/m abtiinmi to 
the rorrcMponding inmmrnt of the ordiuatr; that in, to tho 
diffi^runtial coefficient of tho ordinato taken at (he point of 
contact. A tangent plane lo a surface at any point is tho 
limit of all tho secant planes tbul can bo passed through 
th(^ point. 

The method of limits is used in deducing properties of 
geometrical magnitudes of one and two dimensionB. Let 
a regular polygon bo inscribed in a circle, and suppose tbo 
numlier of sides to be indefinite. As the number of hides 
increases, the area of tho polygon approaches that of the 
circle, and finally, when tbe number of sides becomes in- 
finite, the two areas coincide ; hence, we say that the circle 
is the limit of a regular inscribcrf polygon. It is also tho 
limit of a regular circumscribed polygon. Tbe circum- 
fcrenco of a circle is, in like manner, the limit of tbi; perim- 
eters of the inscribed and circumscribed polygons. Tbo 
surface and volume of tho cone and the cylinder are limits 
of tho surface and volume of regular inserilied pyramids 
and prisms. In alt such cases it is assumed that whatever 
is truo for all states of a varying magnitude is true for its 
limit. 

A limit of tho roots of a numerical equation is a number 
greater or less than any of tbe real roots of the equation. 
In this sense there must be an infinite number of limits, but 
it is understood that the superior limit is the smallest and 
that the inferior limit is the largest whole number that will 
satisfy tho conditions of a limit. W. ti, I'i;rK. 

Ijiinita'tion, Statutes of, are statutes limiting or 
pres'-ribing particular periods of lime within which civil 
aetions or suits or criminal prii8t;cuti<jns must be instituted 
or (certain legal rights enforced. \'arious statutes of this 
kind have been enacted in England at difTerent periods of 
English history, but those which were first adopted were 
narrow in scope, applying only to aetions relating to real 
property. Tbe first statute to be enaeted of a eon)]irehen- 
sive eharaeter, applying to civil octions in contract and in 
tort, as well as to aetions concerning real estate, was passed 
in tho reign of James I. (21 .James I. ch. 10). This has 
been superseded, so far as it relates to reol pnipcrty. by the 
statute 'A and 1 AViil. IV. ch. 27, but its remaining provisions 
are still substantially in force, though they have been to 
soino extent modified by subsequent enactments. Upon 
this statute, so far as it relates to actions upon contract, tho 
various statutes of limitation enacted by the diflercnt 
States of this country have been chiefly based, its prinnipal 
provisions having been frequently adopted with but slight 
if any modification; and a consideration of its terms, of 
tho interpretation which it has received, and of its eflect 
ujton legal procedure will exhibit the principles of law upon 
this subject as established in Kngland and generally in the 
U. S. Tho rules relating to actions of tort and to actions 
concerning real property, as well as the statutes of limita- 
tion which have been enacted witli reference to suits in 
courts of equity and to criminal prosecutions, nmy with 
most convenience and advantage be considered separately. 

I. ActioitH upon Cmitnict. — It Is provided by the statute 
of James that "all actions of account aud upon tbe ease, 
other than such accounts as concern the trade of merchan- 
dise between merchant and merchant, their foctors. or ser- 
vants, all actions of debt grounded upon any lending or 
contract without specialty, all actions of debt for arrearages 
of rent, shall be brought within six years next after the 
cause of such actions, and nut afti-r." Before (he enact- 
ment of this statute there was no limit to the period within 
which an action upon contract might be instituted. It was 
a maxim of the common law that a " right never dies." and 
it could theretore not be barred or extinguishcl by any 
lapse of time, uidess it were a right of action in tort, in 
which case Ihe action was then required (tbougb there aro 
now important exceptions to this rule) to be brought within 
the litetime of the parties. The object sought to be attained 
by the enactment of these provisions limiting the right of 
action to a specific and comparatively brief period was to 
relieve debtors from the undue embarrassment and hard- 
ship naturally attendant upon harassing litigation at rc- 
nu)tc periods of time, when vouchers and other instruments 
of evidence are likely to be lost or destroyed, or it has be- 
come unreasonably difficult or impossible to procure the 
necessary testimony. The statute is in furtherance of the 
principle that "Ihe law favors those who arc vigilant, not 
those who sleep upon their rights." and aims to promote 
the diligence of creditors in enforcing their claims while 
an adequate defence, if any can be made, is reasonaldy 
practicable. The limit of time assigned is necessarily 
arbitrary, though it was undoubtedly fixed upon with ref- 



44 



LIMITATION, SrATUTES OF. 



ercnce to two important considerations: first, that the 
creditor should not be forced to undue haste in bringing 
action before time was given to collect all necessary testi- 
mony, to employ other means of effecting a settlement, or 
to wait until an impoverished debtor might become ca]pable 
of satisfying the claim; and, secondly, that the debtor 
should not be unwarrantably prejudiced in his interests 
bv the creditor's excessive delay. For these reasons the 
statute is commonly termed in law a statute of repose, be- 
cause its purpose and effect are to quiet old and stale 
claims, to extinguish causes of litigation, and to relieve 
debtors from oppressive suits. There has been, however, 
no little conflicting adjudication in the courts as to whether 
it should be deemed a statute of repose or one uf presump- 
tion. The decisions sustaining the latter doctrine proceed 
upon the ground that a creditor's claim is not to be enforced 
at the expiralinn of the prescribed period, because it is 
then presucncd in law that it has been satisfied. This con- 
trariety of opinion led to important consequences in regard 
to the necessity of a new promise by the debtor to revive a 
iialjility affected by the statute, which will be again referred 
to. It is now to be considered as the generally established 
rule that the statute is one of repose, founded upon prin- 
ciples of expediency and public policy, and not of legal 
presumption. The phraseology of the statute has reference 
to the technical forms of .action upon contract employed in 
common-law procedure, instead of to various kinds of con- 
tracts. The nature and objects of these various actions are 
explained under the topics AccousT, Case, and Debt 
(which see). The " action upon the case," as the phrase is 
used in this connection, includes the action of assumpsit. 
(See Assumpsit.) It may be briefly slated as the substance 
of the statute that it requires actions upon simple contracts 
( I. e. contracts not under seal) to be brought within six 
years after the cause of action accrues, with the single ex- 
ception of merchants' accounts, which concern the trade of 
merchandise. The time when the cause of action accrues, 
and from which the six years are to be reckoned, is the 
time when the creditor could have commenced his action. 
Thu.«, if credit be given, the statute begins to run when the 
term of credit expires. If a bill of exchange be p.ayable 
at sight, the six years are computed from the date of pre- 
sentment. But a note payable on demand is due at any 
time, and the statute runs from the making of the note. 
If, however, the note be drawn payable a certain time after 
demand, a demand must be made to fix the commencement 
of the period of limitation. If a bill or note have days of 
grace, the statute runs from the time of their expiration. 
If a debt be payable by instalments, the statute begins as 
to each instalment from the time when it becomes due; 
there may, however, be an agreement that upon default in 
paying any instalment the whole debt shall become pay- 
able, and in that case the six years arc reckoned as to the 
entire debt from the time of default. The statute begins 
to run when the plaintiff could bring his action, and not 
when he knew he could, if these two periods of time do not 
coincide, it' the claim be for breach of contract, the statute 
runs from the time of breach, and not from the time when 
loss or injury was sustained by the idaiiilifl" in consequence. 
If money be payable upon the happening of a contingent 
event, the jieriod of limitation will bo reckoned from the 
time of its occurrence. The statute provides that the suit 
"shall Ifc bntitf/lit within six years." It therefore becomes 
important to iletermine what steps will be sufticietit to con- 
stitute the bringing or commencing of an action, for if suit 
be brought even upon the last day of the six years the 
terms of the statute will be satisfied, even though the action 
may be prolonged beyond that limit. It was the rule at 
common law that the suit was commenced by tho first act 
performed in the institution of legal proceedings, such as 
filling out and completing the original writ or the sum- 
mons, which were the initiatory steps requisite. At the 
present day the same general rule remains true, though 
difl'erent forms of process have been established in England 
and the .States of this country as tho prescribed mode of 
beginning legal proceedings. It is provided in some .Slates 
that the action shall be deemed begun as to any defendant 
when the first process, as a summons, is served on him or 
on a co-defendant, but that an alleiiipl to conuncnce it by 
delivering the summons to the slnrilV to be served shall be 
equivalent to an actual service. This is the case in New 
York and in other States which have adopted its code of 
civil pr'icedure. 

It is a general principle applicable to statutes of limita- 
tion that they do not npjdy to actions brought by tho 
Crowu or .State, unless there be an express provision in tho 
Blatuto to that elTect. It was a maxim of common law 
that " time does not run against the king." Special ]iro- 
visionsare generally adojileil at tlic! present day barring the 
right of the Stale to recover real property after a certitin 
spcciflad interval ; but the rule as applicablo to ootioas 



upon contract is not so frequently changed. Tho statute 
also provides that actions upon contracts under seal or spe- 
cialties shall not be included within the prescribed period 
of limitation. But in analogy with the provisions of tho 
statute an artificial presumption was established at an early 
period that payment of a debt upon specialty had been 
made when it had been unclaimed and witliout recognition 
for the period of twenty years. This, however, did not 
operate as an absolute bar, but was merely a disputable 
presumption, which might be rebutted by any evidence suf- 
ficient to satisfy the jury that the debt still remained due. 
The same presumption was also made in reference to 
claims upon simple contract when the statute was not 
pleaded by the defendant, since it was a rule that a defend- 
ant could not take advantage of the statute of limitations, 
though he might be .able to do so, unless he made it the 
basis of a special plea. But if is now provided in England, 
by statute '.i and 4 Will. IV. eh. 42, that actions upon spe- 
cialties shall be commenced within twenty years after tlie 
accruing of the cause of action. Similar statutes hare been 
enacted in a number of the U. S. 

No special provision is made in the statute of James 
with reference to mutual, open, and current accounts be- 
tween the parties to an action ; but the rule was established 
at an early date in England by the adjudications of tho 
courts, and has been generally sustained in the American 
States, that such accounts, if they contain items on both 
sides within the period of limitation, arc not barred by the 
statute. The last item is said to draw to itself the other 
items, and its date is deemed the date of the entire account. 
These accounts are to be distinguished from " merchants' ac- 
counts." which arc provided for by the statute. These may 
exist between parties who are not merchants. The reason 
generally given for this rule is that the items within six 
years are clearly an admission of an unsettled account, and 
equivalent to evidence of a new promise which operates to 
remove the bar of the statute. It is indispensable that the 
accounts be mutual in order that the rule may apply. If 
the items be entirely upon one side, only those which are 
within six years will be valid claims. It has been held in 
some Slates that an item upon either side will be sufiicient 
to take the whole account out of the statute. Merc state- 
ments of successive credits on one side of an account and 
of debits on the other do not make an account mutual. 
There must be reciprocal demands, mutual rights of action. 
The account must also be " open and current" in order to 
be referred to the time of each successive item. If a bal- 
ance be struck, and acquiesced in by the debtor, thus mak- 
ing the account what is technically termed an "account 
stated," the balance constitutes a definite and specific debt, 
against which the statute begins to run from the time it is 
ascertained and settled. A balance thus found may, how- 
ever, be embodied in a new account current as its first item, 
and thus be drawn out of the operation of the statute. But 
the rule in regard to mutual accounts lias been changed in 
England by statute 9 Geo. IV. eh. 1-1, commonly termed 
I>ord Tcnterdcn's act. This provides that the existence of 
items within six years shall not operate to prevent the pre- 
vious items of the account from being barred. This pro- 
vision has been declared anew by statute ID and 20 Vict, 
ch. 97. In this country, however, the previously existing 
common-law rule has been established by statute in a num- 
ber of the Slates. The exception as to "merchants' ac- 
counts" in the statute applies only to such "accounts as 
concern the trade of merchandise ; ' ;'. e. to those which arise 
from the buying and selling of goods. The existence of mu- 
tual di^bit sand credits merely is not sufficient. A "merehnnt," 
within the meaning of this provision, is one wlin is engaged 
in traflic in merchandise as a regular business. It was final- 
ly decided in England before this exception was there abol- 
ished that it ajiplied only to actions of account, techni- 
cally so called, and perli.aps to actions on the case for not 
accounting. (See AnoiNT.) In those States of this coun- 
try, however, where this provision of the statute has been 
adopted, other forms of action based upon matter of account 
have been held to be included wilhin its terins. In some 
of the States the phraseology was changed, so as to read, 
"other than such aclimiii aa coneern the trade of merchan- 
dise," etc. The adjudications of the courts as to the mean- 
ing and effect of this exception have been conflicting. On 
the one hand, it has been inaintiiined that such accounts 
cannot l)0 barred by the slalule. although all the items 
which they contain arc beyond the limit of six years; while, 
on the oilier hand, it has been contended that they will bo 
barrcil unless they contain ileins wilhin six years, which 
may servo to ilraw after them the antecedent items in tho 
same way as in "nintual accounts." The former doctrine 
became sellhil in England, and is sustained by Ibc weight 
of iiiilhorily in the V. S. But, though such aecounts aro 
! held not to be wilhin the slatulory bar, tho presumption 
I of payment after twenty years would apply to them in the 



I.IMiTATl()N,,KTATi;TJ,S (M\ 



Baino way an to nponinltics. In » number of tlio U. S. tliio 
ox(!c|)tioii iiH to •' iJUTciiuntH' HCcoimtH " huH not been ru- 
taiiHMl, iLtMi Mid HtiituU-H lis t(i"Niutuul uceountH" whirh 
havo bc'cii ail'iptctl an; apiiIicMililc- to tin-mi ancounlw alMo. In 
Knj;Ianil tin- rx«-<'|itioii Iiiim Ikm-ii <1omi; awiiy "ilh l.y llir lujt 
I'J and liU Viot.ul1.y7, uiid suuh ciairnH arc lo bu mucJ with- 
in MIX yi-arH. 

Thrliar of tho ctatuto may be roniovrrl in any cnso by a 
niHV proriiiHL» to piiy llic (b-bt or l»y a piirt luiyrncnt of iln 
amount nunlc within hix yi-arw bcloic ii'-tion is broiit^'bt for 
its rriMivcrv. 'I'b<* staluto b(;|;inH to run anew iVom tin; timo 
of the proiuJj'o or paytncnt. This ii4 truo whcthor tbo nix 
yriirs havo wholly or partially expired. The n<!W promiwo 
"may bn cither t-xpn-Hs or imptiiMl. It will ^'cncnilly bn iin- 
plitMl from iiu unLMMiditiiiiml and uiiqualilifd arknowlcd;;- 
mcnt, of the oxisti-ni-r of the debt, if uriaei-oinpanicd by 
any refusal to pay or by any deelaralions showiiiy; an inten- 
tion to rely upon tho statute as a clofenoc In lormor times, 
wlieu tho statute wan fi^onerally held to be a statute of prc- 
Huniptiiin, very slij^ht an(i trivial adinissions of the debtor 
from which the existence of a delit eoubl he inferred were 
fasteni'd upon by the courts as sufficient evidenee ot" a now 
promise, because they curved to repel the jiresumptiou of 
paymont. It wus even pf^uerally lield tliat tho debtor would 
be liable thou;;h his admission were accompanie<l by a refu- 
sal to pay. liut when the statute came to be rej^iirded as a 
sfjitule of repDsi- tlie natural deduolion wiis that tin' debtctr 
mit;ht talio advantage of tho statute, unless he voluntarily 
waiveil it by an express promise i>r by an acknowledi^ment 
so full and uuerjuivocal as to be equivalent to a new promise ; 
atui this is now the cstablishcrl rule. If. notwithstanding 
the admission, an intention bo expressed to take advantage 
of tlie statute, no inference of a new promise will be made. 
The acknowledgment mu«t in every case refer delinitely 
to the liebt. whieh is the cause of action, though it need not 
s'ate (he amount payable tlieroon. This may be proved by 
extrinsic evidenee. But an acknowledgment of a more 
general indebtedness will not be suflieii-nt. If the a<Imission 
bo accompanied by terms or conditions of any kind, a re- 
covery cannot bo had unless they arc fulfilled. The prom- 
ise or aoknowledi;ment must be voluntiiry. and not extorted 
by duress. I'art payment is held lo take a debt out of tlio 
statute, on tho ground that it amounts to an acknowledg- 
ment of a present subsisting debt which tho debtor ia liable 
and willing to pay. But this may also be nceonipanied by 
a refusal to pay the residue, and the statutory bar will not 
then be removed. A payment of interest upon any debt 
is suflieicnt to render payable tbo principal and the residue 
of the interest. If ailcbtor owes several debts to the same 
creditor, some of which arc barred and some arc not, and 
makes a general payment without ajiprnprtating it to any 
specific claim, it has been held that the creditor may ap- 
propriate it to any claim that is barred, but cannot thereity 
take tho residue of such claim out of the statute. It is n(»t 
yet definitively settled whether the same rule jirevails if all 
tho debts are barred, though the tendency of judicial opin- 
ion is in this direction. (Sec Ai'i'iioiMtiATioN of Pa ymksts.) 
It is now jirovided in England by Lord Tcnterdon's act 
that no promise or acknowledgment shall he sufficient to 
take a debt out of the operation of the statute unless it bo 
contained in some writing to be signed by the party charge- 
able thereby. This act, however, it is declared, shall not 
alter (he effect of any payment of principal or interest. 
Similar statutes have been adopted in a number of the V. S. 
It was tho rule in England until tho passage of Lord Tcn- 
terdon's act that a new promise or part payment by one of 
several joint debtors would revive the obligation as to all, 
and take tlic debt out of tho statute. But this act provides 
in substance that tho promise or admission of a single co- 
debtor shall bo binding upon liimself only. In some of the 
U. S. the course of adjudication at common law has estab- 
lished the former doctrine, while in others, us in New York, 
it has established the same rule as is declared by this statute. 
Some of tho States have also enacted statutes similar to the 
Knglish act. A new promise or acknowledgment, it is gen- 
erally iield, must bo made to the creditor or Ins authorized 
agent, and not to some third person. 

The statute of .Tames provides that if the plaintiff ho 
under certain disabilities at tbo time when the cause of ac- 
tion accrues, he may bring his action wilhin six years after 
tlie disability ceases or is removed. The disabilities enume- 
rated are minority, coverture or marriage, imprisonment, un- 
stjunduess of mind, or absence beyond the seas. It has been 
held under tliis provision that if any of these causes of dis- 
ability d(tcs not exist when the statute begins to run, but 
arises subsequently, the operation of the statute will not bo 
arrested. If the disability exists when the cause of action, 
accrues, but is afterwards removed, though only temporarily. 
the statute will begin to run from the time of removal, and 
will not be discontinued because the disability returns. If 
several disabilities coexist when tho right of action accrues, 



they muMt all bo removed before tho stniuto will coinrncnco 
to run. The exprenHion ''beyond ifeuM" meunK beyond the 
four Ncaft Hurroundin^ (jrcat Britain, and therefore in equiv- 
alent to *' out of (111) realm or country." The vtxmc phrane, 
as ccjutained in statuteit of limitation in tliih country, haH 
been usually interpreted to nn-nn "out of the Stale," 
though in Homo StatcK it han been held to mean "out of tbo 
I). tS." In Homo of the State Htalutes thif* pliraricology linn 
been changed, and the wordu " out of I he .State" Kubs(iluled. 
This disability applies not only to citizenn who are teuipo- 
rarily absent from a State or country, but alco lo foreigners 
who do not rcnido within its limitit; an<l Ihey have eix 
years within which to commence action nf(er coming into 
the State. It was also provided by the (ilatu(e 4 Anne, ch. 
Ill, that if the fft/rndttHt in any action phall nt the timo 
when the cause of action accruers bo " beyond seaf," tho 
action may be brought against him within six yearn after 
his I'cturn. It has been genernlly held under Ihin statute 
that the return must not be clandeHtine, and with an intent 
to set the statute in motion, and then depart without giving 
the creditor an opportunity lo enforce Ids claim. It mu«t 
be so public nntl made under such circumsiances of noto- 
riety as to render it presumable that Ihe creditor might by 
ordinary diligence have acquired Information of the relurn 
and plaeecl the debtor under arrest. This exception in alpo 
usually held to apply to foreigners as well as non-rc*-ident 
citizens, and they may be sued wilbin six years nfter com- 
ing within a State, even though the debt may be barre<i by 
the statute of their own State. For it is n general principle 
in reference to statutes of liinilation that they iirv eontr(dled 
in their operation and effect by the lej- furi, or the law of 
tlie place where a suit is brouglit to enforce a legal demand. 
(See Li:x Fori; Intf.hnationai. Law (rniVATK).) Similar 
exceptions ancl disabilities are usually included in the stat- 
utes of limitation in force in the IJ. S. There is very grtal 
weight of authority in this country that when fraud has 
been committed by the defendant under such circumstances 
as to conceal from the plaintiff all knowledge of the frnu<I, 
and ]>rcvent him from asserting his right, the bar of tho 
statute may be avoided in courts of law, an<l the six years 
computed from the discovery of the frau<l. It is undoubt- 
edly the rule that a court of equity would interfere in such 
a ease ancl prevent the statute from operating to the j)Iain- 
tin"s detriment. It is provided by statute in some States 
that tbo cause of action shall not be deemed lo accrue in 
such a case until the discovery of the facts constituting the 
fraud. The statutes of ."orae of tho States — p. »/. New York 
— confine this rule to actions eoleii/ cog^uizablc in courts of 
equity. 

The statute of limitations is held to affect the plaintiff's 
remedy, but not his right. Hence, though the remedy bo 
lost by the expiration of the prescribed time, any lien 
I which the creditor may have will not be extinguiyhcd. So 
a jiromissory note may be barred, while a inortgnge given 
as security for its payment may be enforced by foreclosure 
after the six years have terminated. Moreover, it is held 
that tho enactment by a State of a statute of limitations 
barring a riglit of action after the lapse of a certain inter- 
val, and operating prospectively, is not in violation of ihat 
clause of the ('. S. Constitution which provides that '* no 
State shall ]>ass any law impairing the obligation of con 
tracts," since tlie *• obligation " of the contract still subsists, 
though the creditor is deprived of the regular legal means 
of enforcing it. But a reasonable lime must be given after 
the enactment of the law for the enforcement of claims in- 
clutled within its terms, for it is equally well settled that ihe 
act by a Stale of depriving a creditor substantially of his 
remedy amounts practically to an impairment of the "ob- 
ligation of the contract." 

1 1. Actiounf'/ Tort. — The periods of limitation prescribed 
by the statute of James with reference to actions of lort 
arc as follows : in actions of trespass for injuries lo real or 
personal property, in actions of trover, of detinue, of re- 
plevin, and of case (except for slander), six years after the 
cause of action accrues ; in actions of trespass for assault, 
battery, or false imprisonment, four years: and in actions 
for slander, two years. (See Trkspass, Trover. Convkr- 
sioN, Dktixie, Replkvin. Case.) These are the periods 
still established in England. In the States of this country 
similar statutes generally exist, applying to the same forms 
of action or the same classes of tortious injuries, though 
there is no such general agreement among the various 
States in regard to the periods of limitation prescribed in 
these actions as in relation to actions upon contract. In 
determining the time from which tho statute begins to run. 
it is important todistinguish between tortious acts which ar<- 
wrongful in themselves, and for which an action may be 
maintained without proof Ihat actual damage has been sus- 
tained, and those cases where the injury is consequential, 
and Ihe right of action is founded on the special damages 
suffered by the plaintiff. In the former class of cases ibc 



46 



LIMITATION, HTATUTES OF. 



period of limitation runs from the time when the act was 
committed, without regard to any loss or damage resulting 
from it : while in the latter it is reckoned from the time 
when the special damage was sustained. Thus, in an 
action for slander on account of defamatory statements 
charging the commission of a felonious offence, the statute 
runs from the time when the words were spoken; but 
when slander is actionable only by reason of the pecuniary 
damage resuUing, as in slander of title, it runs from 
the time the damage occurs. The reason of the rule in 
the last two cases is. that there is no cause of action at all 
until the special damage has accrued. (See Slander.) In 
trover the period is reckoned from the time of conversion 
of the goods. In actions for official or professional negli- 
gence the cause of action is deemed to be founded upon the 
breach of duty, and not upon the resulting damage, and 
the former determines the period from which the statutory 
period is computed. Thus, if an attorney were sued for 
neglect of professional duty, the time when the neglect oc- 
curred would mark the commencement of the period of 
limitation. 

in. Actions relating to Real Property. — By the statute 
of James it was further provided that no person should 
make entry into lands, tenements, or hereditaments but 
within twenty years after his right should first accrue. 
Tliis provision controlled the right to bring an action of 
ejectment, since this is founded upon a right of entry, and 
operated to make an uninterrupted adverse possession for 
twenty years a complete bar to sMich an action. (See Eject- 
ment.) And now, under 3 and 4 Will. IV. ch. 27, it is 
declared that no person shall make an entry or distress, or 
bring an action to recover any land or rent, but within 
twenty years next after the time at which the right to make 
such entry or distress or to bring such action shall have 
first accrued to some person through whom he claims or to 
himself. Persons under the disabilities of infancy, lunacy, 
coverture, or beyond seas, and their representatives, are to 
be allowed ten years from the termination of the disability 
or death to enforce their rights, but no action can be brought 
by such parties after forty years. Statutes of a similar 
character exist in the various States of this country, and 
though they differ much in details and comprehensiveness 
of scojie, the period of twenty years is almost invariably 
fixed upon as the time of limitation. Aperson, therefore, who 
18 deprived of the possession of his land by an adverse oc- 
cupant for the space of twenty years is prevented from re- 
covering it. and is in fact divested of his ownership. It is 
important in this connection to distinguish between pre- 
scription and limitation as relating to interests in real prop- 
erty. Prescription applies properly only to incorporeal 
hereditaments, such as a way or watercourse, a right of com- 
mon, etc., and does not relate to land or corporeal property. 
(See iNt-ORPOREALllEREmTAMEN'TS.) It depends Upon a legal 
presumption that a grant of the property has been made 
after an enjoyment continued for a sufficient period of time, 
and was not a doctrine originally established by statute. 
But the rhetiry of limitation was wholly created by positive 
statute, and applies only to corporeal property, such as land, 
houses, etc. The subject of prescription is now, however, in 
England, governed by statute (3 and 4 Will. IV. ch. 71). 
The adverse possession of land which under the statute of 
limitations is sufficient to constitute a bar to the assertion of 
a legal title by the owner of it, or by one against whom the 
adverse occupant brings an action of ejectment, must be an 
actual, continued, visible, notorious, distinct, excUisive, and 
hostile possession. It must lie with an intention to claim 
title to the land occupied in opposition to any other claim- 
ant. In order that the possession may be artmd, the atl- 
vcrse occupant must make an entry upon the land, so that 
an ouster may be effected. By this nteans the owner is 
disseized if possession be taken under claim of riglit. (See 
Disseizin.) Taking a deed is not sufficient to constitute 
adverse possession. The possession must be continued dur- 
ing the entire period of limitation, either by actual resi- 
dence or cultivation, or by such use and occupation of the 
premises as they are capable of, with claim of ownership. 
But successive periocls of adverse possession by different 
occupants cannot bo united so as to make up the full 
statutory period, unless there is a privity of estate be- 
(ween the successive occupants by purchase or descent. 
Such a privity exists between ancestor and heir, grantor 
and grantee, devisor and devisee, etc. But in sonio States 
tlic right to unite successive ])osscssions is denied. The 
possession must, moreover, be n'm'hlr. votori»iin, and t/in- 
tinrf. It must be continued under such circumstances of 
notoriety that the owner may bo presumed to have notice 
of it and of its extent. There are two modes of possession 
which the law deems sufficiently notorious and distinct to 
constitute adverse jjossession under the statute, The first 
mode is where one enters, not asserting a right of owner- 
ship derived from a deed or written inBtrumentof title, but 



merely taking possession with claim of right. In this case 
the disseizin extends only to the premises actually enclosed, 
cultivated, improved, or otherwise occupied. The ether 
mode of possession is where one enters undercolor of title 
derived from a deed or other instrument, and occupies, cul- 
tivates, or improves the land, either in whole or in part. 
In this case his legal possession will be deemed generally 
to extend to the boundaries or limits of the property pre- 
scribed in the instrument of title, even though this be of no 
legal validity in conveying a title. These principles may 
be considered as generally established by the adjudications 
of the different States, though with various degrees of mod- 
ification and a somewhat different extent of application. In 
some of the States rules embodying this distinction are 
declared by statute; this is the case in New York. The 
possession must also be exclusive during the entire period, 
and hostile or adverse. If the occupancy be begun and 
continued under the owner's permission, it is not hostile, 
but in recognition of his title. So when the parties were 
in privity with each other, and the possession was origin- 
ally taken in recognition of and acquiescence in the right 
of the real owner, a positive disclaimer of holding in sub- 
serviency to such title must be made before the possession 
can become adverse. The question whether the possession 
is adverse or in recognition of the owner's title is to be de- 
termined by the jury, but what is sufficient to constitute 
adverse possession is a question of law for the court. One 
tenant in common may occupy the common premises in 
adverse possession against his cotenant if there be sufficient 
evidence of an exclusive claim. This would be the ease if 
he should exclude the other from occupying the premises, 
and should appropriate the profits to himself under a claim 
of exclusive right. But mere occupancy of the premises by 
one tenant alone would not be sufficient. The statute of 
limitations as applying to land does not run against the State 
unless there be an express provision to that effect. The 
same general principles prevail in regard to the disabilities 
enumerated in the statute as have been already stated in 
reference to actions upon contract. 

IV. Snits in Courts of Eijuity. — The statutes of limitations 
which have been thus far considered were not enacted with 
reference to proceedings in equity, but only applied to ac- 
tions in courts of law. In equitable procedure there was 
therefore no binding obligation to enforce their provisions. 
It became, however, the practice in equity to act in obe- 
dience to these statutes in all causes of action which came 
specifically within their provisions, and also to extend their 
application to other analogous cases. This was done in 
furtherance of the equitable principle that laches and re- 
missness are to be discountenanced and disfavored. But 
courts of equity refuse to apply the statute of limitations 
when this would enable fraud to be committed or would re- 
sult in manifest injustice. Other rules and principles in 
relation to the subject of the limitation of suits in equity 
are stated in the article upon Laches (which see). In a 
number of the U. S. positive statutes have been enacted 
prescribing a fixed period of limitation for equitable suits. 

V. Criminal ProRccutions. — There have been several 
statutes of limitation enacted in England at different 
periods applying to prosecutions for certain crimes. Thus, 
by statute 7 Will. Til. eh. 'A, it was ]>rovided that no ])rosecu- 
tion shall be had in cases of higli treason whereby cor- 
ruption of blood may ensue, except for an attempt to as- 
sassinate the king, unless the bill of indictment be found 
within three years after the offence was committed. So by 
the statute .31 EHz. ch. 5, prosecution by information upon 
a penal statute was limited to a prescribed period. In 
New York it is provided that indictments for murder may 
be found at any time after the death of the person killed; 
in all other cases indictments are to be found within five 
years after the commission of the offence, but the time 
during which the defendant shall not have been an inhabit- 
ant of the State, or usually resident therein, shall not con- 
stitute any part of this period. Statutes of an analogous 
character exist in other States. 

VI. Statutes of limitations have also been enacted in 
many of the States applying to jiartics occupying jiarticu- 
lar official positions, as sheriffs or other officers, or to actions 
of a peculiar character, as for the recovery of penalties or 
forfeitures under a statute, etc. These need only be referred 
to for the sake of completeness. The statutes of the vari<nis 
States must be specially consulted. It will have been seen 
from this discussion that the legislation ujion'tho subject 
of limitations depends largely upon a principle of public 
policy. Its aim is to quicken the diligence of creditors and 

frcvent delay in the enlorcement of even righteous claims, 
t seeks to shield one cliarged with crime from the conse- 
quences of n long postponement of a prosecution, as he may 
then lose the means of making a just defence. The justice 
and expediency of these rules is well illustrated by a prac- 
tice now becoming common with persons liable to cncoun- 



LIMOUKS— LINCOLN. 



lur much liti;(ation, iit (lio litno tlioy ontcr into a contract 
to f4li]itiliLt» tlnit nil iiutiuii for ItH tirniu'li mtiHt l)u ljruu;;lit 
witliiii a Ifric't" iiiriml, fiiy sixty «r ninety (Iiiy«, or pL-rhiipH 
a your. Alllioii;;h thin ii;;n-i'incMt is iii>t a liiiiitiitiiin in thu 
McnHO of lifiiii^ iin|iciHcr| hy liiw.vi'r if is vjtiid. ilikI if n*iif*oM- 
iildo brcuiii*-!t a puit of llm contract, anrl will Imi t-nlurued 
hv tlie oourtH, Suuli fitipuIatioMtt ui-o atmot«r ro^^ularly found 
in inHiiraiioo polii-it'S and in the rLtuoiplH of i-xprt-MS and laU;- 
Kraph oornpanirs. (('((iiHiilt on this ^xi-m-ral Hiil)j<-L't tlio 
works of I'arsonH and CliiKy <hi('->uti<flH ; AriK*-ll fht Lint- 
■t'ltttnt* : Wilkinson On Liiiiitftfioiti ; Wawlilmrn ()u Jiral 
l*,oprri^ ; Crmfto't* Diifrnf ,• (irt'culcaf On Evidence, vol. ii. ; 
Sniitli's /jr>ir/inff dttHCH, ind*?x.) 

(Ji:)i(f)i: ('riASK. Ki:visi:n nv T. W. Dwicht. 

Liino^jP'*' [iin-. !,--innv!f-i\, vMy of Kriinri-, capital 

of thu il''p irtin-'nt of lliintp- Vioniic, on tho Vieuno Kivi.T, 

25l» railon S. itf [*ariH. It is ono of tho seven placi'S in 

whioli Chrisrianity was plantot about tho middle of tho 

: (hif'l L'L»iitury ; has a famnns i)rfod of linrsfs, and '\a noted 

j for itH porcelain miinurattur", a very lino whiio pnrtvlain- 

oartli luiviu'^ heon disunvcreil In il3 nei;^hIn>iIioj(i in 17()8; 

and if his niso s iino cotton and woollun-tnills. 

Liin'oiiite [(ir. Ktitnav, " mf^iidow "], (ho hydratod scs- 
quioxido of iron, often ealled hrown hioniatite, ono of tlio 
oominnnost ancl ino.st important ores of iron. Tho depoBitg 
of limonito aro potMiliarly Imjal and irro::;u!:ir in character. 
Tliev aro never found fnrniinj^ continuous strata, but aro 
(1) either tlie superfuMal deposits of chalybealo waters, 
lillin;; fissures or oavitici* or oncrustin!* sloped or acouraula- 
tiuL; in ooncrotionary or botryoidal nns.^os in sand, clay, 
or gravel; or (2) thoy are prnlnc 'd by (ho oxidation, at 
and neir tlic surface, ot b:?ds of th? cirl)oiia(e of iron or 
iron pyrites. From their mode of formation tho d*-posi(-i 
of liinonite are less exteusivo atid n-liablo than those of 
other ores of iron, and thfir irregularities have often been 
i a cause of disappointment and loss : but pume of them aro 

j of groat extent, and they aro so numerous in m;iny countries 

I that thL'y have always constituted one of the great sources 

from wtiioh the supply of iron has boon derived. In tlie U. S. 
valuable deposits of limonito aro fouml in a great number 
of localitios. Thi\v occur perhaps in thi- greatest abun- 
dance in a boU wliii-h extends alon.; the eastern flank of the 
AllL'^hmiea U\n\\ New lOngland to Ucorgia. Ileretlicy rest 
on rocks of various kinds, such as gneiss, serpentine, crys- 
talline limestone, slate, etc. From Pennsylvania southward 
their assokiiation wifh tho lower Silurian limestones and 
slates is such that they have by some writers been repre- 
sented as holding a d 'finito geological position in that series 
of rocks. It is quite certain, however, tiiat they are 
altogether superlioial in position, and form no jiart of tho 
stratification of this or any other formation. It is prob- 
able, as suggested by Prof. Frederick Pritue. that some of the 
brown hiematites of Pennsylvania aro formed from tho de- 
composition of pyrites along the outcrops of pyritons 
slates ; but some of tho m<ist important deposits of this 
belt aro so far removed from tho mctam<)rpboped Pahoozoic 
rocks of the AllL>ghauies that they can have had no con- 
nection with them — such as the Hmonites of Roxbury, 
Arnenia, ami f^tafen Island. In tho latter locality tho iron 
ore occurs at the N^. end of tho island in superficial cavities 
in serpentine ; at tho southern end. in concretionary masses 
scattered through Cretaceous clays, with which they aro 
evidently contemporaneous. The truth seems to bo that 
these deposits of limonito have been forming fnun the 
drainage of all tho ferruginous rocks of the K, Hank of the 
AUeghanies since the beginning of the Cretaceous age. In 
Alabama and Tennessee deposits of liinonite of great ex- 
tent and purity are found along the outcrops of the Lower 
Carboniferous limestone. In Missouri a belt of superficial 
Umonite encircles tho district which contains the great de- 
posits of specular iron in the central part of the State, and 
may bo suppose 1 to have been formed from the ferruginous 
drainage of this district. The limonites which are formed 
l>y the oxidation of the siratilieil carbonates are best seen 
in iSouthern Ohio and Kastern Kentucky, where some of 
the calcareous ore-beds of the coal-measures are oxidized 
along their outcrops, and are more or less deeply converted 
into the hydratod sesquioxido. 

fio.j-intu orr is a spongy and usually impure limonito 
which accumulates in marshes from the leaching of sur- 
rounding beds of sand, gravel, etc. wliich contain iron. 
Luke ore is the naino given to limnnite which gathers at 
the bottom of lakes and ponds which receive the drainage 
of ferruginous strata or soils. In some of the Swedish 
lakes this ore is dredged up periodicallv. the deposit being 
reproduced at intervals of one or several years. 

The mnfius oprmudi of tho deposition of limonito is as 
follows: Tho sesquioxido of iron is insoluble, but the pro- 
toxide is soluble. When organic matter is buried with 
peroxide of iron, tho carbon of the organic matter lakes 
from the iron ore one oquivalont of oxygen. It is now 



diMoIvcd by atmoMphcHo water, and if carried Into ftuy 
ruMurvoir that reeuiveii the drainage. Here tho Iron in oxi- 
dized by conttu:t wt(h the air, and (aUn to the Iwtlom as tho 
liydratud Heitqiiioxide. If it tiiidM (here deeompoMirig or- 
ganic mutler, it imparlH lo it a jiortion of ilH oxygen to 
form carbonic acid, and lloatx utf lo gatli<-r more oxygen. 
All long aM any organic mutter remains ihu iron onctllutes 
betwuen tho surface and Ijottoin of tho water; when it has 
all b<-en oxidi/ed, it accumiilaleH as bog or lake ore. Thiiii, 
iron becomes a carrier of cixygen in (heaqueriun cireulurion 
of the globe, as it docs in the hiemal circuliition of aniinalr>. 
Tho iridericeiit film so freqii<-ntly seen on pools of water is 
liinonite funned in tho manner described above. 

Chalybeate springs throw down a yellow or brownii-h 
precipitate in the channels or reforvoirs through which 
their waters flow when they come in contact with the air, 
and tho iron they contain is oxidized. This preeipitate is 
limonite. If it remains as a powder. It is called yellow 
ochre; if it is brown it contains manganene, and is known 
as " umber " or '" Spanish brown." It miiy, however, form 
concretionary nmsses with a radiated structure or snceesBive 
layer of solid limonite many feet in thickness. It is sup- 
posed (hat most of the great limonite beds found along the 
flanks of tho Allcghauics and elsewhere hav-o accumulated 
in this way. 

Pure limonito contains 60 per cent, of metallic iron, but 
it often contains 10 to 20 per cent, of foreign mutler, so 
that its average yield of iron does not reacli .'ifl percent. 
Thequalily of the iron made from it is »<oinetime8 excellent, 
as is attested by the good repute of the Hoxbury and other 
limonite irons. It generally contains too much pbtrgphorus, 
however, to bo sncccssfully used for the inanufucture of 
steel. From their fusibility the brown haMnatites are very 
useful adjuncts in the smelting of the more refractory 
magncitites and specular ores, and their employment in this 
connection has caused them to be largely mined and highly 
valued. J. S. Nkwukkrv. 

Limousin'^ a former province of Central France, cora- 
priserl the present departments of CorrSze, Crcuse, Dor- 
dogne. and Vienne. Its capital was Limoges. It gave 
name to a mediioval dialect which prevailed through much 
of Southern France, and had a considerable poetic and 
romantic literature. 

Limoux'^ town of France, in the department of Aude, 
stands on both sides of the Aude in a fertile valley which 
prorlucos much grain and the famous wine of Hlanquettede 
Limoux, and has extensive manufactures of woollen cloth, 
yarn, and articles of iron and brass. ■ Pop. 7600. 

Lim'pct [Or. Aeira?], a name applied loosely to many 
gasteropod niollusks, but appropriately belonging to tho 
Patellidic, of which /'.itcfin is the typical genus. Tho 
species are very numerous, but are less frequent on our 
Atlantic coast than in most others. PuUlla vuh/arig, the 
common European limpet, is extensively uset^ for fish-bait 
and for human food. Many species are fossil. The living 
shells adhere to rocks by atmospheric pressure. They 
slowly bore into wood or chalk to which they are attached. 
The Calyptrjeidffi are called bonnet or cup limpets. The 
keyhole limpets are Fi^nurcNir. The Parmnphari arc called 
duck's-bi!l limpets. The genus Ann/In'* includes the river 
limpets. The limpets of tropical shctres have in many spe- 
cies extremely beautiful shells. Mony of them are edible. 

Lin'acre, orl^ynaccr (Thomas), M. D.. b. at Canter- 
bury, England, about UOO ; studied at Oxford and on tho 
Continent; became fellow of All Souls'. Oxford, in US4. 
and afterwards professor of physic : was an associate of 
Colet. Erasmus, and Lily in inlr»>ducing into England a 
knowledge of (_Jrcek. from which Inngimge he made elegant 
translations of Galen into Latin : studied theology, and in 
I.")18 became a prebendary of York; founded the College 
of Physicians at London (161!^). was its president for life, 
and was physician to Henry VIII. and his family. D. in 
London Oct. 20, 1524. His translation of Galen's De 
Sanitnte Tnentla oppeared in lol". the Meth>idu» Mrdcndi 
:n 1519. and the De Temperainentig \d 1521. He published 
in 152-1 a treatise on the rules of Latin prose composition, 
Dr Eincudata Sinictura Cafitii &rniowiV, lib. rt. 

Lina'res, town of Spain, province of Jaen. is well built 
and flourishing. It owes its prosperity chiefly lo the rich 
copper an<i lead mines in the vicinity. Pop. 10.507. 

Linrk'lnen, post-tp. of Chenango co., N. Y.. has 4 
cheese factories. Pop. 92(5. 

Ijinc'oIn« a fertile county of Ontario, Canada, Ivounded 
on tho N. by Lake Ontario, and on the E. by the river Ni- 
agara. Cap. St. Catharines. Pop., including Niagara 
Town. 24.:H>5. 

fiincoln, or Lincolnshire, county of England, ex- 
tending alonir the North Sea from tho Wash to the Hum- 
ber. Area, 2776 square miles. Pop. 412,246. The ground 



48 



LINCOLN. 



is very low alorrg the coast ; in some places it must be pro- 
tected by dikes against inundntions of the sea. But from 
the coast it gradually rises until it swells into high chalk 
hills in the north-wcstt-rn part of the county, the so-called 
WoMs. The soil is generally very fertile and cultivated 
with great care. Largo crops of wheat and oats are raised, 
and fine breeds of horses, short-horned cattle, and long- 
woolled sheep arc reared. Immense flocks of geese are fed 
on the fens along the shore. 

Lincoln^ city of Kngland, the capital of the county of 
Lincoln, on the Witham. It is an old city, with a fine 
cathedral, built in the thirteenth century, 524 feet long, 
250 feet wide, and one of the finest church-buildings in 
England; large foundries and manufactures of hardware, 
and an extensive trade in corn and wool. Pop. 20,762. 

Lincoln, county of S. E. Arkansas. Area. fiSO square 
miles. It is bounded N. E. by the Arkansas River. S. W. 
by Saline River, and is bisected by Bayou Bartholomew. 
It is well wooded, and produces cotton, grain, and hay. 
Cap. Star City. It was formed after the census of 1S70. 

Lincoln, county of S. E. Dakota. Area. SOO square 
miles. Its E. border is washed by the Big Stone River, 
which separates it from Iowa. It contains much fertile 
land. Cap. Canton. Pop. 712. 

Lincoln, county of N". E. Georgia, bounded N. E. by 
South Carolina, from which it is separated by the Savan- 
nah River. Area, 2fiO square miles. It is hilly, but gen- 
enilly fertile. Gold, iron, novaculite (hone-stone), and gran- 
ite are found. Grain and cotton are staple products. Flour 
is the chief manufacture. Cap. Lincolnton. Pop. 541.T. 

Lincoln, county of Central Kansas. Area, 720 square 
miles. It is traversed by the Saline River and its affluents. 
The county contains saline marshes. The suil is ada]ited to 
grazing and grain-culture. Cap. Lincoln. Pop. 516. 

Lincoln, county of E. Central Kentucky. Area, 350 
square miles. It is a beautiful blue-grass region, with a 
diversified surface and a fertile soil. Grain and live-stock 
are leading products. The county is traversed by the Knox- 
ville br.inch of the Louisville and Nashville R. R. Cap. 
Stanford. Pop. 10,047. 

Lincoln, parish of N. "W. Louisiana, formed in 1873 
from parts of Union, Jai^kson, Claiborne, and Bienville. 
Area, 550 square miles. Cap. Vienna. 

Lincoln, county of S. Maine, partly bounded on the 
W. by the Kennebec River. Area. 550 square miles. It 
has a deeply indented coast-line, with numerous good har- 
bors. The soil is good. Live-stock and wool are leading 
products. Lumber, cooperage, and brick are manufactured. 
Shipbuilding and maritime pursuits are important interests. 
The cnunty is traversed by the Knox and Lincoln R. R. 
Cap. Wiseassett. Pop. 25,597. 

Lincoln, county of S. Central Minnesota. Area, 432 
square miles. Pop. not in census of 1S70. Cap. Marshfield. 

Lincoln, county of S. W. Mississippi. Area, 540 square 
miles. It is an uii<lul:iting and fertile region. Cotton and 
corn are slaple products. The county is traversed by the 
New Orleans Jackson and Great Northern R. R. Cap. 
Brookhaven. Pop. 10,184. 

Lincoln, county of Missouri, bounded E. by the Mis- 
sissippi River. It is uneven, but very fertile, especially in 
the valleys. Area, (US square miles. Products, tobacco, 
wool, live-stock, and grain. Cap. Troy. Pop. 15,960. 

Lincoln, county of S. W. Nebraska. Area, 2592 square 
mile.'*. It is traverncl by the Platte River and its forks, 
and by the Union Pacific R. R. Cap. North Platte. Pop. 
17; largely increased since census of 1870. 

Lincoln, county of S. E. Nevada. Estimated area, 
in.OdO square miles. Cap. Piochc. Pop. 2985. 

Lincoln, county of New Mexico, bonnileil E. by Texas. 
Area, about Li, 000 .'(quare miles. The K. part is a ])ortion 
of the Llano E.^tacado. The W, is broken by mountain- 
ranges. The county has large Indian reservations, con- 
i^iderablc arable hind, and raises some grain. The county 
is. crossed by Pecos River. Cap. Lincoln, Pop. 1803. 

Lincoln, county of S. AV. Central North dirolina. 
bound'-d K. by the Catawba River, and traversed by the 
Little Catawba. Area. 250 square miles. It is hilly, but 
generally fertile. It abounds in valuable iron ore. Grain 
is the chief product. Cap. Liucolritfin. Pop. 9573. 

Lincoln, eouuty of Tennessee, bounded S. by Alabama. 
Areti, 5M() square miles. It is uneven, but very fertile, pro- 
ducing cotton, grain, tobacco, wool, and live-stock in large 
quantities. Leather is the chief article of manufaeture. 
The eountv is traversed by the Winchester and Alabama 
K. li. rnp. Fayettevillc. *Pop. 2S.050. 

Lincoln, county of W. West Virginia. Area. 380 square 
miles. Il is very fertile and beautifully divorsifiod. Coal 



and iron abound. Corn and tobacco are produced. It is 
traversed by Guyandotte River. Cap. Hamlin. Pop. 5053. 

Lincoln, tp. of Fayette co., Ala. Pop. 252. 

Lincoln, post-v. of Placer co., Cal., on the Oregon 
branch of the Central Pacific R. R. 

Lincoln, tp. of Sierra co., Cal. Pop. 616. 

Lincoln, post-v. of Cedar Creek hundred, Sussex co., 
Del., on tlie Junction and Breakwater R. R. Pop. 130. 

Lincoln, post-v., cap. of Logan co.. 111.. 2S miles N. E. 
of Springfield, on the Chicago and Alton, the TmlianapoliB 
Bloomington and Western, and the Toledo Wabash and 
Western R. Rs., contains a college, 5 schools, l.'i cburchee, 
a library, a coal-shaft, 3 flouring-mills, a manufactory of 
smut-mills, 1 foundry, a carriage and 2 wagon shops, 3 
banks, 4 weekly newspapers, and a large number of 
stores. Principal occupation, agricultural pursuits. Pop. 
about 4450. Smith &. Mills, Eos, " IIkrald.'* 

Lincoln, tp. of Hendricks co., Ind. Pop. 1502. 

Lincoln, tp. of La Porte co., Ind. Pop. 55R. 

Lincoln, tp. of St. .Joseph co., Ind. Pop. 1063. 

Lincoln, tp. of Adair co., la. Pop. 531. 

Lincoln, tp. of Adams co., la. Pop. 170. 

Lincoln, tp. of Appanoose co., la. Pop. 586. 

Lincoln, tp. of Black Ilaxvk co., In. Pop. 462. 

Lincoln, tp. of Calhoun co., la. Pop. 427. 

Lincoln, tp. of Cerro Gordo co., la. Pop. 279. 

Lincoln, tp. of Clay co., la. Pop. 299. 

Lincoln, tp. of Dallas co., la. Pop. 213. 

Lincoln, fp. of Grundy co.. la. Pop. 206. 

Lincoln, tp. of Harrison co., la. Pop. 88. 

Lincoln, tp. of Iowa co., la. Pop. 394. 

Lincoln, tp. of Madison co., la. Pop. 954. 

Lincoln, tp. of Mitchell co., la. Pop. 493, 

Lincoln, tp. of Monona co., la. Pop. 308. 

Lincoln, tp. of Montgomery eo., la. Pop. 195. 

Lincoln, (p. of Page co., la. Pop. 645. 

Lincoln, tp. of Plymouth co., la. Pop. 440, 

Lincoln, tp. of Poweshiek co., la. Pop. 658. 

Lincoln, tp, of Ringgold co., la. Pop. 205. 

Lincoln, tp. of Scott co., la. Pop. 1038, 

Lincoln, tp. of Story co., la. Pop. 243. 

Lincoln, tp. of Tama co., la. Pop. 220. 

Lincoln, tp. of Union co., la. Pop. 560. 

Lincoln, tp. of Winneshiek co., la. Pop. 822, 

Lincoln, tp. of Crawford co., Kan. Pop. 1490. 

Lincoln, tp. of Dickinson co.. Kan. Pop. 398. 

Lincoln, tp. of Lincoln co., Kan. Pop. 510. 

Lincoln, tp. of Linn co., Kan. Pop. 2012. 

Lincoln, tp. of Neosho co., Kan. Pop. 745. 

Lincoln, tp. of Washington co., Kan. Pop. 1533, 

Lincoln, tp. and post-v. of Penob.^icot co.. Me., on the 
European and North American R. R. and on the Penobscot 
River, has 3 hotels and manufactures of lumber. Pop. 1530. 

Lincoln, post-tp. of Middlesex co., Mass.. on the Fitch- 
burg R. R..has a high school, 2 churches, and niilk-dairying 
and mai-krt-gardening are principal pursuits. Pop. 791. 

Lincoln, tp. of Berrien eo.. Mich. Pop. 1188. 

Lincoln, tp. of Isabella eo., Mich. Pop. 672. 

Lincoln, post-v. and tp. of Mason co., Mich., on Lake 
Michigan and Little Sable River. Pop. of tp. 165. 

Lincoln, tp. of Midland co., Mich. Pop. 322. 

Lincoln, tp. of Osceola co., Mich. Pop. 334. 

Lincoln, tp. of Blun Earth co., Minn. Pop. 495. 

Lin<'oln, tp. of Andrew co.. Mo. Pop. 2680. 

Lincoln, tp. of Caldwell co., Mo. Poj). 589. 

Lincoln, a v. (Kenton P. 0.) and tp. of Christian co., 
Mo. Pop. of V. 81 : of tp. 1440. 

Lincoln, tp. of Clarke co.. Mo. Pop. HOO. 

Lincoln, tp. of Dallas co.. Mo. Pop. 943. 

Lincoln, 1p. of Daviess co., Mo. Pop. 736. 

Lincoln, Ip. of Douglas co., Mo. Pop. 209. 

Lincoln, fp. of Harrison co.. Mo. Pop. 555. 

Lincoln, tp. of Nnduway co.. Mo. Pop. 1042. 

Uncoln, tp. of I'utnam eo.. Mo. Pop. 1057. 

Jiinroln* posl-v., cap. of Nebraskji nud of Lnneastcr eo., 

at tbr juiu'tion of the Atchison and Nrbniska. Iln- Bnrling- 

1 ton and Missouri Riverj and tho Midland Pacific R. Rs. It 



LINCOLN. 



4y 



has a littiiJsuiuii iTii|ii(iiI ImiMiii);. Rliilo llnivi^raity, ami iri- 
Himu aBylurii, ii lii({h .•"fhiiiil.xiinMnriH'ni poiil-ollic'i' liiiiMirj^, 
21 ohiirclliTS, ;; thetttrttS, Ilio UMUiil <;luLrillLlilo uinl Hfcnit or- 
dcTH, iioniiraliiiry, ii .Stftto inti'lligoiioo ugonoy, « iiew»|in- 
tii^r.'*, .^ linnkf<, R liuloln, •') t1ouriii(;-iiiillHr iiinchinf-sliopff, 
siiltwiii-k^, ><'>n|i-ri)cri>r-y, ii lire d(-]>ur(uifiit, gai^ivorkfl, iiud 
Ihir iiHuul florc'i. I'<ip. '.'III. 
Wrl.lUM I'. I'lilVli. ICli. •• NiiHIIABKA Statk UnniSTBII." 

Iiiiicoln, l|i. <i( Washington oo., Ncl). I'op. 27(1. 

I.incuin, Ip. "f (Irafton on., N. H., nmon;; tlio Pran- 
oniiia M<iiiiiliiiii!«, \i] niilcH from Plymouth, is a plaoo of 
siimmiT n-.-^ni-t, iiikI iuiH one liolel. Pop. 71. 

Lincoln, Ip. of Lincoln oo., N. C. Pop. 8SC. 

],iii<-i>ln, Ip. of New Ilanovcrco., N. C. Pop. 1.359. 

I.inroln, ip. of Morrow co., 0. Pop. '.115. 

Lincoln, tp. of Alli'u;lKny eo., Pa. Pop. I.39!). 

Lincoln, tp. of Hiinlingilon CO., Pa. Pop. 5.'!2. 

Lincoln, tp. of Proviilcnco co., U. I., contains many 
iinporliinl maliilfai^tnrin;^ villngca. Pop. 7881). 

Lincoln, Ip. of Darlington co., S. C. Pop. 1845. 
Lincoln, im.st-tp. of Athlison co., Vt., S) miles N". K. of 
Mi'hIlflMiry, has I ohiircii'-M and c.vlen.sivo nianufacttircs of 
IiiuiIht iiml woojon wares. Pop. 117-1. 

Lincoln, tp. of Draxton oo., W. Va. Pop. Ifil2. 
Lincoln, tp. of Lewis co., W. Va. Pup. llfll. 
Lincoln, tp. of Marion eo., W. Va. Pop. 2127. 
Lincoln, tp. of Pocahontas CO., W. Va. Pop. 1015. 
Lincoln, tp. of Tyler co., AV. Vn. Pop. Ifilj. 
Lincoln, tp. of Wayne co., W. Va. Pop. 1559. 
Lincoln, tp. of Adams oo., Wis. Pop. iS'i. 
Lincoln, tp. of Eau L'lairo co., Wis. Pop. 911. 
Lincoln, post-tp. of Kewaunee co., Wis. Pop. 680. 
Lincoln, tp. of Monroe co., Wis. Pop. ll.'J". 
Lincoln, tp. of Polk co., Wis. Pop. 2S7. 
Lincoln, tp. of Tronipoaloau oo., Wis. Pop. 822. 
Lincoln, tp. of Wood co.. Wis. Pop. 229. 

Lincoln (AuiiAnAJi), the sixteenth President of tho 
U.S.. \k I'eli. 12. 1809, in Larue- (then llnrdin) eo.. Ky.. in 
a cabin on Nolin Creek, ."i niile^ W. oi llodgensvillc. Ills 
parents were Thomas and Nancy llaiiks Lincoln. Of his 
ancestry and early years the little that is known may best 
bo given in his own language: ** .My jiareuts were both 
born in Virginia, of undistinguished families — .second fam- 
ilies, jK-rhajis I should say. My mother, who ilicd in my 
tenth year, wsis of a family of the name of Hanks, some of 
whom now remain in Ailanis, and others in Macon co.. III. 
My paternal grandfather. .Vbralnim Lin(M)ln, emigrated from 
Hoekbridgc co.. Va.. to Kentucky about 17S1 or 1782, where 
a year or two later he was killed by Imlians — not in battle, 
but by stealth, when he was laboring to open a farm in the 
forest. Ilis ancestors, who wore Quakers, went to Virginia 
from lierks co.. Pa. An effort to identify them with the I 
New Kngland family of tho same name emled in ixithing I 
more definite than a similarity of Ciiristian names in both 
families, such as Enoeli. I,cvi, Morileeai, Solomon, Abra- 
ham, and tho like. My father, at tlio death of his father, 
was but six ycai-s of ago. and he grew up literally without 
education. Ho removeel from Kentucky to what is now ' 
Spencer co., Ind., in my eighth year. We reachetl our new 
homo about tho time the .State came into the I'nion. It 
was a wild region, with many bears and other wild ani- 
mals still in tho woods. There I grew up. There were 
sorao schools, so called, hut no qualification was ever re- i 

quired of a teacher beyond rror/nl', irrilin'. ,i,iil riphrrin to 
the rule of three. If a straggler supposed to understand 
Latin happened to sojourn in tho neighborhood, he was 
looked upon as a wizard. There was absolutely nothing to 
excite ambition for education. Of course, when I came of 
age I did not know much. Still, somehow. I could read, 
write, and cipher to the rule of three, but tlnit was all. I 
have not been to school since. The little advance I now 
(1S59) have upon this store of education I have picked up 
from time to time under the pressure of necessitv. I was 
raised to farm-work, which I continued till I was twenty, 
two. At twenty. one I came to Illinois, and passed the 
first year in .Macon oo. Then I got to New Salem, at that 
timo m Sangamon, now in .Menard co., where I remained 
a year as a sort of clerk in a store. Then came the Black 
Uawk war, and I was elected a captain of volunteers— a 
success which gave me more pleasure than any I have had 
.since. I went the campaign, was elated ; ran for the leg- 
islature the same year (l.'*:!2), and was beaten, the only 
timo I ever have been beaten by the people. The next and 
three succeeding biennial elections T was elected to the leg- 
islature ; I was not a candidate afterwards. During this i 
Vol. III.— + 



' legJHlatlvc period I had aludied law, and removed to 8pring- 
Ibld to practice it. In 1-Hlll I wax onee .lected to the lower 
house of (,'ongresn ; wa.i not a candidate for re-cleclion. 
From 1849 to IS54, both inclusive, I priielised law more 
assiduously than over before. Always a Whig in polilicn, 
ami gi-nerally on tho Whig elncloral tiokeli, making active 
canvasses, I was losing interest in pcdities when the repeal 
of the Missouri Coniproiniiio nrouned inc again. What I 
have done since then is pretty widl known." 

The early residence of Lincoln in Indiana wa« IB miles 
N. of the Ohio Uiver, on Little Pigeon f'reek. 1} miles K. 
of (ientryville, within the present township rjf farter. Hero 
his mother died Oct. 5, 1818, and next year his father mar- 
ri(!d Mrs. Sally (Hush) Johnston of Klizabethiown, Ky. 
Sho was an aflcctionatc foster-parent, to whom Abraham 
was indebted for his first encouragement to study. 1I« be- 
came an eager reader, and the few books owned in the 
vicinity were many times peruseil. He worked frequently 
for the neighbors as a farm-laborer, was for somi" time clerk 
in a store at Gentryville, and became famous throughout 
Iliat region for his athletic powers, his fondness for argu- 
ment, his inexhaustible fund of humorous anecdote, as well 
as for mock oratory and the composition of rude satirical 
verses. In 182H he made a trading voyage to New Orleans 
as '* bow-hand " on a flatboat; removed to Illinois in 1830; 
helped his father build a log house and clear a farm on 
the N. fork of Sangamon River, 10 miles W. of Decatur, 
and was for some time employed in splitting rails for tho 
fences — a fact which was promineittly brought forward for 
a political purpose thirty years later. In the spring of 
ISIil he, with two of liis relatives, was hired to build a flat- 
bo.it on the Sangamon River and navigate it to New Or- 
leans ; the boat " stuck " on a mill-dam, and was got off 
with great labor through an ingeni<ms mechanical device 
which Icil some years later to Lincoln's taking out a patent 
for "an improved method for lifting vessels over shoals." 
This voyage was memorable for another reason — the sight 
of slaves chained, maltreated, and flogge<l at New Orleans 
was tho origin of his deep con\ictions njo.n the slavery 
question. Returning from this voyage, he became a resi- 
dent for several years at New Salem, a recently settled vil- 
lage on the Sangamon, where he was successively a clerk, 
grocer, surveyor, and postmaster, and acted as pilot to the 
first steamboat that ascended the Sangamon. Here he 
studied law, interested himself in local politics after his 
return from the Black Hawk war. and became known as an 
effective "stump-speaker." The subject of his first politi- 
cal speech was the improvement of the channel of the San- 
g-unon, and the chief ground on which he announced him- 
self {18.'?2) a candidate f(tr the legislature was his advocacy 
of this popular measure, on which subject liis practical 
experience made him the highest authority. Elected to 
tho legislature in 18.14 as a " Henry Clay Whig." he rapidly 
acquired that command of language and that homely but 
forcible rhetoric which, added to his intimate knowledge 
of the people from which he sprang, made him more than 
a match in debate for his few well-educated opponents. 
Admitted to the bar in 18."i7. he soon established himself 
at SpringfieM. where the State capital was located in 1839. 
largely through his influence: became a successful pleader 
in tho .State, circuit, and district courts: married (1842) a 
lady belonging to a prominent family in Lexington, Ky. : 
took an active part in the Presidential campaigns of 1840 
and 1844 as candidate for elector on the Harrison and Clay 
tickets, and in 1S4G was elected to the V. S. House of Rep- 
resentatives over the celebrated Peter Cartwright. During 
his single term in Congress Lincoln did not attain any 
prominence. He voted for the reception of anti-slavery 
petitions, for the abolition of the slave-trade in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, and for the "Wilinot proviso, hut was 
chiefly rememliered for the stand he to<»k against the 
Mexican war. For several years thereafter he took com- 
paratively little interest in politics, but gained a leading 
jiosition at the Springfield bar. Two or three non-politi- 
cal lectures and a eulogy upon Henry Clay nS52) added 
nothing to his reputation. In 1S54 the repeal of the Mis- 
souri Compromise by the Kansas - Nebraska act aroused 
Lincoln from his indifference, "like a fire -bell in the 
night,'' and in attacking that measure he had the im- 
mense advantage of knowing perfectly well the motives 
and the record of its author. Stephen \. Douglas of Illi- 
nois, then popularly designated as the " Little Giant." The 
latter came to Springfield in Oct., 1S54. on the occasion of 
the .State Fair, to vindicate his policy in the Senate, and 
the " Anti-Nebraska " Whigs, remembering that Lincoln had 
often measured his strength with Douglas in the Illinois 
legislature and before the Springfield courts, engaged him 
to improvise a reply. This speech, in the opinion of those 
who heard it. was one of the great efforts of Lincoln's life, 
certainly the most effective in his whole career. It took the 
audience by storm, and from that moment it was felt that 



50 



LIITCOLN. 



Douglas had met his match. Lincoln was accordingly selected 

as the Aiiti-Nebraska candidate for the U. S. Senate in jilace 
of Gen. Shields, whose term expired Mar. 4, lSo5, and led 
in several ballots, but Trumbull was ultimately chosen. The 
armed conflict on the soil of Kansas, which Lincoln had pre- 
dicted, soon began ; the result was the disruption of theWiiigs 
and the formation of the Republican party. At the Bloom- 
ington State convention in 1866, where the new party first 
assumed form in Illinois, Lincoln made an impressive ad- 
dress, in which for the first time he took distinctive ground 
against slavery in itself. At the national Republican con- 
vention at Philadelphia (June 17), after the nomination of 
Fremont, Lincoln was put forward by the Illinois delega- 
tion for the Vice-Presidency, and received on the first bal- 
lot 110 votes against 25'J for William L. Dayton. lie took 
a prominent part in the canvass, being on the electoral 
ticket. In 1858, Lincoln was un.animously nominated by 
the Republican State convention as its candidate for the 
U. S. Senate in place of Douglas, and in his speech of ac- 
ceptance used the celebrated illustration of a " house di- 
vided against itself" on the slavery question, which was 
perhaps the cause of his defeat. The great debate car- 
ried on at all the principal towns of Illinois between Lin- 
coln and Douglas as rival Senatorial candidates resulled 
at the time in the election of the latter, but being widely 
circulated as a campaign document, it fixed the attention 
of the country upon the former as the clearest and most con- 
vincing exponent of Republican doctrine. Early in 1859 
he began to be named in Illinois as a suitable Republican 
candidate for the Presidential campaign of the ensuing 
year ; and a political address delivered at the Cooper In- 
stitute, N. Y., Feb. 2", ISCn, followed by similar speeches 
at New Haven, Hartford, and elsewhere in New England, 
first made him known to the Eastern States in the light by 
which he had long been regarded at home. By the Repub- 
lican State convention which met at Decatur, 111., May 9 
and 10, Lincoln was unanimously endorsed for the Presi- 
denev. It vvas on this occasion that two rails, said to have 
been split by his hands thirty years before, were brought 
into the convention, and the incident contributed much to 
his popularity. The National Republican convention at 
Chicago, after spirited efforts made in favor of Seward, 
Chase, and Bates, nominated Lincoln for the Presidency, 
with Hannibal Hamlin for Vice-President (May IS), at the 
same time adopting a vigorous anti-slavery ])latform. The 
Democratic party having been disorganized and presenting 
two candidates, Douglas and Breckenridge, and the remnant 
of the *' American " party having put forward .John Bell of 
Tennessee, the Republican victory was an easy one, Lincoln 
being elected Nov. 6 by a. large plurality, comprehending 
nearly all the Northern States, but none of the Southern. 
The secession of South Carolina .and the Gulf States was 
the immediate result, followed a few months later by that 
of the border slave States and the outbreak of the great 
civil war. The life of Abraham Lincoln became thence- 
forth merged in the history of his country. None of the 
details of the vast coutlict which filled the remainder 
of Lincoln's life can here be given; they will be found 
under more appropriate headings. Narrowly escaping 
projected assassination by avoiding Baltimore on his 
journey to the capital, he reached Washington Feb. 2o, 
anil was inaugurated President of the V, S. Mar. 4, 
18fil. Lincoln called to his cabinet Ills |irincipal ri- 
vals for the Presidential nomination, Seward, Chase, 
Cameron, and Bates : secured the co-operation of the 
Union Democrats, headed by Douglas; called out 75,000 
militia from the several .States upon the first tidings of the 
bombardment of Fort Sumter (Apr. 15); proclaimed a 
blockade of the Southern ports (.A]ir. 1!)) ; called an extra 
session of Congress for ,Tnly 4, from which he asked and 
obtained 100,000 men and $100,000,000 for the war; placed 
McClclIan at tlie head of the Fi-deral army on Gen. Scolt's 
resignation (Oct. :il): appointed Kdwin .M. Stanton secre- 
tary of war (Jan. II, 1S()2), and on Sept. 22, 1SG2, issued a 
proclamation declaring the freedom of all slaves in the 
States and parts of .States then in ntbellion from and after 
Jan. 1, 1S6:J. This was the crowning act of Lincoln's career 
— the act by which he will bo chiefly known through all 
future time — and it decided tlio war. On Oct. 16. 180.1, 
President Lincoln called for iiliO.OOO volunteers to rejdaco 
those whose term of enlistment had expired ; made a eelo- 
bralcd and touching, though lirief. address at the dedication 
of the Gettysburg military cemetery, Nov. 19, ISO.'! ; commis- 
aioned Ulysses S. Grantlieutonant-gcneral and commander- 
in-chief of the armies of the U.S. .Mar. 9, ISO I; wasro-elcelcd 
President in November of the same year by a large miijor- 
itv over Gen. McCldbin, with Andrew .lolnisori ofTcniies- 
eee as Viec-Piirsidcnl ; delivered a very remarkable address 
at his second inauguration. Mar. 4, ISfio; visited the army 
before Richmcmd the sanic month, entered the capital of 
tbo Confederacy the day after its fall, and upon tho sur- 



render of Gen. Robert E. Lee's army (Apr. 9) was actively 

engaged in devising generous plans for the reconstruction 
of the Union, when on the evening of Good Friday, Apr. 
14, he was shot in his box at Ford's theatre, Washington, 
by John Wilkes Booth, a fanatical actor, and expired early 
on the following morning, Apr. 15, I8fi5. Almost simul- 
taneously a murderous attack was made upon William H. 
Seward, the secretary of state. At noon on the 15th, An- 
drew Johnson assumed the Presidency, and active measures 
were taken which resulted in the death of Booth and the 
execution of his jirineipal accomplices. The funeral of 
President Lincoln was conducted with unexampled solem- 
nity and magnificence. He was buried at Oak Ridge Ceme- 
tery, near Springfield, 111., on May 4, and his remains were 
placed in an appropriate tomb, surmounted iij- a statue, 
Oct. 15, 1874. The leaders and citizens of the expiring 
Confederacy expressed genuine indignation at the murder 
of a generous political adversary; foreign nations took 
part in mourning the death of a statesman who had ap- 
proved himself a true representative of American nation- 
ality ; the freedmen of the .South almost worshipped the 
memory of their deliverer; and the general sentiment of 
the great nation he iiad saved awarded him a place in its 
affections second only to that held by Washington. Tho 
characteristics of Abraham Lincoln have become familiarly 
known throughout the civilized world. His tall, gaunt, un- 
gainly figure, homely countenance, and his shrewd mother- 
wit, shown in his celebrated conversations overflowing in 
humorous and pointed anecdote, combined with an accurate 
intuitive appreciation of the questions of the time, are rec- 
ognized as forming the best type of a period of American 
hislorv now rapidly passing awav. (See biographies by Dr. 
J. G. 'Holland (18G5), J. N. Arnold (1868), and Ward H. 
Lanion (1872).) ' PonTKR C. Bliss. 

Lincoln (Gen. Benjamin), b. at Hingham, Mass., Feb. 
.1, 17.1;!; was a farmer in his native town at the outbreak 
of the Revolution ; had been a local magistrate, a colonel 
of militia, and several times a representative in the colonial 
legislature and tho provincial congress, and was secretary 
of the latter body and member of its commiHee of corre- 
spondence in 1774, when, having taken an active part in 
organizing and training the Continental soldiery, he was 
.appointed major-general of the State troops. He obtained 
the favor of Washington during the siege of Boston ; com- 
manded an expedition which in June, 1776. cleared Boston 
harbor of British vessels: led a body of Massachusetts 
militia at the battle of White Plains and in the ensuing en- 
gagements ( 1 77G) ; brought a new levy of militia to the aid 
of Washington at Morrisfown, N. J., in Feb., 1777; was 
appointed by Congress, at Washington's request, a major- 
general in tiic Continental service Feb. 19: was surprised 
and nearly captured at Bound Brook Apr. 1.1: co-operated 
with Schuyler in tho summer cam)inign against Bnrgoyno, 
for which lie raised a fresh body of New England militia; 
joined Gales as second in command Sejit. 29 ; was severely 
wounded at tho battle of Bemus Heights, near Saratoga, 
Oct. 8, and disabled from active service until .\ug.. 1778, 
when he joined, and was in September appointed to the 
chief command of the Southern army. Arriving at Charles- 
ton Dec. 4, bo was chiefly occupied for several monllis in 
warding off the several demonstrations made by the British 
general Prevost against that city after the fall of Savannah ; 
lost one-fourth of his forces by the defeat of Gen. Ashe at 
Brier Creek Mar. 2, 1779; un.suceessfully attacked the 
enemy's works at Stone Ferry June 20; joined D'Estaing 
in September in his fruitless siege of Savannah, and after 
tho bloody repulse of Oct. 9 returned to Charleston, which 
in tho s]iiing of 1780 was besieged by Sir Henry Clinton 
and Gen. Arbulbnot with greatly superior forces. The de- 
fence was skilfully and strenuously conducted, but Lincoln 
was obliged to capitulate May 12, and was allowed to go to 
his home at Hingham on p.arole. Exchanged in thcs]iring 
of 1781, he joined Washington on the Hudson, took |iart 
in tho siege of Voiktown, and was deputed to receive the 
sword of Cornwallis on his surrender. Elected by Congress 
secretary of war in Oct., 1781, he held that oflice three 
years, after which he reliied to his farm at Hingham. In 
1786-87 ho commanilcd the Massachusetts militia in the 
suppression of Shays's rebellion ; was elected lieutenant- 
governor of Massachusetts in 1787 ; was appointeil collector 
of the port of Boston in 1789, and held that oflice for twenty 
years. He was one of the comniissioneis who in 1789 made 
a treaty with the Creek Indians, and in 179.'? was eni|iloycd 
in an unsuceessful negotiation with the Ohio Indians. In 
his habits he was a model of temperance and morality, was 
deeply religious, and fir many years a deacon in the church 
of his native town. I>. at Hingham May 9. 1810. (See 
his /.//"<■, by Francis Bowen, in Sparks's Amrrirri}i Hiog- 
rnphf. 2d series, vol. .xiii.) 

liinruln (Enoch), b. at Worcester, Mass., Dec. 28, 1788, 
a sou of Levi Lincoln (1740-1820); studied at Harvard 



LliSLOL.N — Ll.NDLKY. 



CdlloKo ; tiooamri a Iiiwycr in IRll ; Boffled at Frycilmrj;, 
Mn., tlii^ Nr.'iM'iy "I' wliich iKMLUlilul lurfHtlowti lin ih'- 
Hurilu'fi in iL [Ktciii eiitidiHl Tliti I'itffif/r, auil in ISlIt rc- 
liMiVetl to PariH, Mn. ; wiiH a iiumiiImt ol ('<in;^r<'HH 1H1.S-I!fl, 
uilf! K<JVorin»r of Miiilio 1K27--U. Mf ilciivcrc<l a poem at 
till) I'diitiniiial c'l'IclinilioM "f thn I/om'WcH'h I'oml linht, 
wii?« 11 wiirrn rriiMiil of tli<! liKtiiinx, iinil lot't viiliiiiMe hJK- 
torii'iil nianut<c'ri|>tH, Horin" of wliii-h wri' {iiilili><h<-(j in tin- 
tir.st volutno of the Maine J/iHliiricttl CoUf:cti<tiin. I), at 
AiiKusfa, Ml)., Oct. S, IHL'll. 

Lincoln C.loriN I.arkin), Ii, nt DoHton, Maii., Frli. 2.'!, 
1^17: j;ra<hialril at Ilruwii rnivi'r.nity in lH'',Ci ; xtutliiMl 
llHioIo;^y at Newton Scrniniiry ; wa« tutor at IJrown Tni- 
VPrHity ISIIH-UI; an<l at'tt-r passin;^ some yearw in lOnropo 
was olcotod profpHsor of Latin in tlio sanio institution IHli. 
Ilo has niiitpil .S'fl'-rlioHH from f.in/ (LSIT), Itio Wnrka «f 
llm-aci!{\M\), and Cicero's 7>c Si:iie,'hit>: (1K72). 

Lincoln (Lnvi), h. at IlinKham, MaRs., Mny l.l, 1719; 
praduufod at Harvard in 1771i; ln'canio a lawyer of Wor- 
oostor, Mass., in 177.'i, a judpo of proltato in 177fi; wa« in 
tile constitutional convention of 17^0; and after holdin(5 
many important ofliccs was a JelTersonian member of Con- 
gress I7'.MI-IS0I; attorney-(,'eneral of the U.S. 1801-0.); 
lieutenant-Koverrior of .Massafdinsetts ISII7-0^^, aetinj; Rov- 
ornor ISO'.I. Iledeelined ajudi^eship in the U.S.Suprcme 
Conrt. I), at Worcester. Mass!, Apr. 11, 1S20. 

Lincoln (Lfvi), LL.D., h. at Worcester, Mass., Oct. 25, 
17S2, son of I,ovi Lincoln (17-19-lS2n) ; graduated at Har- 
vard in 1802; hccanio in 180.') a lawyer; member of the 
constitutional convention of 1S20: was often in tlie State 
legislature, of wiiieh hew:is Speaker in lS22.and president 
of the senate ISj'i; lieutenant-governor of Massachusetts 
182.'i, governor 1S26-IU; was in Congress IS.ir)— II ; ajudgo 
of the State supremo court 1821; collector of the port of 
Boston ISIl-i:) ; first mayor of Worcester in 1848. D. at 
Worcester, Ma.ss., May 29, 1808. 

Lincoln, post-v., cap. of Lincoln co., Kan., contains 
the county buildin;;s, a schocd- house, 1 hotel, .') stores, 2 
newspapers, a blacksmith and other minor shops. ]*op. 

about l.'iO. 1'. liAUKKU, El). ■• Ll.NCOI.N COIINTV flEWS." 

liincoln Creek, tp. of Hamilton co., Neb. Pop. 11. 

Lincoln Creek, Ip. of York co., Neb. Pop. 217. 

Lincoln Plantsition, tp. of O.\ford co., Me. Pop..'iO. 

Linc'olnton, post-v., cap. of Lincoln co., Ga., 20 miles i 
N. K. of AViishinglon. Pop. V2. : 

Lincolnton, post-v., cap. of I,ineoln co., N. C. on the | 
Carolina Central R. It. and tlie South Fork anci Catawba i 
rivers, has 2 schor)ls, o churches, 2 paper-mills, 1 cauc- 
Beat chair-factory, I cotton and tobacco factory, 1 steam 
saw-mill, .'i wagon aiul carriage shops, 2 tanneries, 1 sash, 
door, and blind factory, 2 hotels, 1 newspaper, and stores. 
Pop. about 1200. M. Skagle, Ed. " Progress." 

Lincoln I'niversity, Chester co.. Pa., originated from 
the Asliuiau Institute, wiiosc first president was Rev. J. P. 
Carter, and whoso name w.as changed in 1800 to that of 
Lincoln University. It comprises preparatory, collegiate, 
theological, law, and medical departments, has seven pro- 
fessors — of wiu)m live live at the university, one in Phila- 
delphia, and one at Oxfunl — and is attended by 180 stu- 
dents; 18 graduated in I87;l. It owns real estate worth 
$12.i,000, and nn endowment fund of 1*100.0011. Its build- 
ings consist of four professors* houses, three large llallsfor 
dormitories, and a university ball, in which are recitation- 
rooms and eliapel. I. N. KiiNBAi.!.. 
_ Linc'olnville, post-tp. of Waldo co., Me., on the W. 
side of Penol)seot Kay, 1 1 miles S. of Dclfast, is a summer 
resort, and manufactures lime and leather. Pop. I'JOO. 

Lincl, post-tp. of Waupacca co.. Wis. Pop. 1017. 

Lind (.Ien-ny), " The Swedish Nightingale," b. in Stock- 
holm Oct. t), 1821, of humble parentage; her father was a 
teacher, and poor. Her precocious talent attracted the 
notice uf .Mnie. Lundberg. a retired actress, who introduced 
her to Crtolius and Berg, famous teachers in music, and to 
Lindblad, the composer. The manager of the court theatre 
procured for her ailmission to the musical aeadeniv. where 
her progress was rapid. She acted anil sang in children's 
parts till she was twelve years of age, when her voice failed 
her. Four years later it returned on occasion of a public 
concert, and she sang the part of Alice in Meyerbeer's 
Uiibert te Ditihle with a brilliancy that ensured her success. 
She .soon becnnie the operatic star of Stockholm, and sang 
with applause in the chief cities of Sweden and Norway. 
In 1811, ambitious of perfecting herself in her art. she 
Went to Paris and took lessons of (lareia. There she was 
introduced to Meyerlieer, who took a deep interest in her, 
and obtained from M. Pillet nn opportunity to sing in 
opera. But she caused no enthusiasm, and in her chagrin i 
turned her back on Paris. Her next opportunity, also | 



due to Meyerbeer, wan In Berlin in ISI.'i. There her fueee,« 
was dintinguisbi'd. I'reviouH to thin she had tiixled once 
moro the Irien.llinesK of Stockholm, and hud sung in Dres- 
den. At Vienna hIio repeated her IriumnliH in jVornia, tin- 
<,'niii/> nf Silruin, and the llinuilifr of llir Itri/lmriil. Her 
first appearance in London wn« in May, 18 17. In ltnl,r,i 
If hfiliif, I'urititni, Sonnnmlndti, ifhe more Ihun jui*lilie'l 
her eliiiins as an artist, and covered hemelf with honors. 
In 1 8 IS she sang for the first time in oratorio, KlijnU, at 
Exeter Hall, to found musical scholarships in memory of 
Mendelssohn. Ilcnccforth this was to be her chosen field. 
In I8;,ll Aw came to the l'. S., under contract with Mr. 
P. T. liarnum to give l.^O coieerts. The enlliusiosm wai- 
unbounded, the profits were enormous, but the toil and irk- 
someness were excessive, and in .lune, I8il, after singing 
il.) times, the contract was terminated by .lenny Lind. In 
1852 she nnirried Otto (Joldschmiill, soon alter returned to 
Europe, and passed several years in iJresden, opjiearing 
only occasionally in public, and then for charitable pur- 
poses only. In I8.18 she took up her residence iu England, 
where she still lives. .lenny Lind's voice was a light 
soprano of remarkable sweetness, flexibility, and charm of 
expression, and she threw into it the feeling of a passion- 
ate sold. ,S!ie sang out of a heart full of goodness. In the 
U. S. she was as well known for her charities as for her 
genius; they amounted to many tens of thousands of dol- 
lars; in England, Sweden, and (iermany they have been 
crpuilly munificent. Her private life and character are 
blameless. She is no less honored and beloved as a woman 
than admired as an artist. 0. B. FnoTiii.NGiiAM. 

Lin'ilii, tp. of Yuba co., Cal. Pop. 401. 
Lin'ilim, town of Bavaria, situated on an island in the 
Lake of Constance, manufactures musical and ehirurgical 
instruments, and trades in wine, corn, cheese, and fish. 
It was a free city till 180."!. Pop. about 5000. 

Lin'de (Sami'el Bogcmii,), b. in 1771 at Thorn, Prus- 
sia, of Swedish descent; sliulied at Lcipsic : resided for 
some time in Dresden and Vienna, and became in 180.'5 
director of the lyccum of Warsaw, where he d. .Aug. 8, 
IS 17. Ho published a valuable Dictioiinri/ of the Polish 
Lnii'/uiii/e (Ii vols., 1807-1 t). 

Lin'dcn [Ang.-Sax. lind'], the lime tree, TUla Euro. 
}>!rii (order TiliacciB), a large Euro|>ean forest tree, closely 
related to the Basswdod (which see) of the U. S. Its 
wood is soft, but valued by carvers and turners and used 
in making charcoal. Its bark makes the' bass matting so 
extensively imported from Russia. Its' flowers afford val- 
uable hi e ]);isture. It has mnny varieties, some of which 
are well known in cultivation in the U. S. 

Linden, post-v., cap. of Marengo co., Ala., 93 miles 
W. of .Montgomery, contains county buildings, 1 church, 
Masonic lodge, 1 hotel, and several stores. Pop. of v. ;ilJ0 ; 
of tp. 1927. Richard II. Ci.arkk. 

Linden, post-v. of Genesee co., Mich., on the Detroit 
and .Milw tiukco R. R. Pop. 565. 

Linden, post-tp. of Brown co., Minn. Pop. 457. 
Linden, a v. and tp. of Christion co.. Mo. Pop. of v. 
81; of t|.. 1110. 

Linden, post-v. and tp. of Union co., N. J., near the 
New Jersey R. R., 17 miles from New Y^ork, is inhabited 
by persons doing business in New York, and has some fine 
residences. Pop. l.';9G. 

Linden, post-v., cap. of Perry co., Tenn., 12 miles 
N. E. of Dicaturville. Pop. 119. 

Linden, post-v., cap. of Cass co., Tex., 35 miles N. of 
.Marshall. 

Linden, post-tp. of Iowa co., Wis. Pop. 2054. 

Lindi'nn, tp. of Juneau co.. Wis. Pop. 1065. 

Lind'ley, Ij). of Jlercer eo., Mo. Pop. 1519. 

Lindley, tp. of Steuben co., N. Y'., on the Tioga River, 
has manut;ictures of lumber, leather, flour, etc.. is traversed 
by the lilossburg and Corning K. R., and contains Lindley- 
town (P. 0.1. Pop. 1251. 

Lindley i Jobs), Ph. D., M. D.. F. R. S.. F. L. S..b. at Cat- 
ton. Norlolk, Feb. 5. 1799,wa3 the son of a nurseryman; began 
early to write upon botany, assisting in preparing Loudon's 
Enryrfnptriliii; became in I S29 professor of botany in I'lii- 
versity College, London : was appointed in 1860 examiner 
in botany in the London University; edited the Gnrdeuer't 
Chrnnicle 1841-65. D. near London Nov. I, 1865. His 
botanical writings are of the first importance. Among 
them are /iilroilnclion to the Nalnml Sifulrm (18.'50), Slnic- 
tiirc nnri Phijuinloijy of P^anft ( 1S.'!2), Vi-qclnhle Kiiiijiloiii 
(1846), Flora .Wcrficn (IS.IS), Fonil Flora (with Iliiiton, 
I8.T1-P,7), Pomoloifia Jirilaiinica (1.841), Orrhidnrer^m 
I'lnnln ( I8:;7-.")S), Folia Orckidacea (1852), Theory 0/ Hor- 
ticulture (1S40), etc. 



52 



LINDSAY— LINE. 



Lind'say, capital of Victoria co., Ont., Canada, is on 
the Canada Midland Railway and on the navigable Scugog 
River. It has an extensive trade in lumber, grain, and 
flour. It has manufactures of castings, lumber, beer, sash, 
blinds, hemlock extract, etc. The town contains the county 
buildings, several churches and schools, and other tine edi- 
fices. It is mostly built of brick. It has 2 weekly news- 
papers. Pop. of sub-district, 4049. 

Lindsay^ Baroxs and Earls, a distinguished family 
in the Scottish peerage, descended from Sir Walter de 
Lindsay, an Englishman of Norman descent, who in the 
reign of David I. acquired Ercildoun and Luffncss in East 
Lothian. In the twelfth cefitury the lands of Crawford in 
Clydesdale came into possession of the family by an inter- 
marriage with the royal line of Scotland. Sir James Lind- 
say of Crawford was distinguished at the battle of Otter- 
buvn. His nephew and heir. Sir David, married a si?ter 
of King Robert III., and was made by that monarch earl 
of Crawford, while Sir William, younger brother of the earl, 
became ancestor of the Lords Lindsay of the Byres, Had- 
dington, and, through a natural son, was also ancestor of 
the celebrated poet, Sir David Lindsay of the Mount. In 
the fifteenth century the earls of Crawford were among the 
wealthiest, proudest, and most influential of the Scottish 
nobility, and took a large part in the civil warfare of that 
agitated period. David, the fifth carl, a trusted minister 
of .James III. was made duke of Montrose in 14SS — a title 
never before bestowed in Scotland except upon princes. In 
1C44 the tenth Lord Lindsay of the Byres was created earl 
of Lindsay, and soon afterward obtained also, by a new 
creation, the earldom of Crawford, extinct in the elder line. 
John, fourth earl of Lindsay and Crawford, b. in Oct., 1702, 
was a distinguished general in the Russian service, in the 
German campaign 174.1-45, and the suppression of the 
movement of the Pretender in Scotland in 1746. D, in 
London Dec. 25, 17jO. The present earl of Crawford aud 
Lindsay has written Thr Lives of the Lindsai/s {1S49), a 
valuable and interesting work. 

Lindsay (Sir David), of the Mount, b. about 1490, 
either at Garmylton, East Lothian, or at the Mount, Fife- 
shire, Scotland, on the estate from which his title was de- 
rived: is believed to have studied at the University of St. 
Andrew's (1505-09), and to have travelled in Italy in 1510. 
In the following year he is mentioned as an amateur actor 
in a play performed at the court of James IV. of Scotland, 
and in 1512 was appointed "keeper " or tutor to the infant 
prince, who succeeded to the throne as James V. a few 
months later (Sept., 1513). His important duties were dis- 
charged with an afft-etionate care, which the young king 
rewarded in 152S witli an appointment as king's herald, 
and in 1530 with knighthood and the office of " Lord Lyon 
king-at-arms," in which capacity ho accompanied embas- 
sies to the courts of England, France, Spain, and Denmark, 
and is introduced into Scott's poem of Marmion. He rep- 
resented Cupar in Parliament (1542-43), contributed to the 
success, of the Reformation, and d. at an unknown place 
and d.ate before May, 1555. As a poet Lindsay takes high 
rank, and his satires against the clergy are credited with 
having b*:eu the most efficient preparation for the labors of 
John Knox. His principal works were The Z>remc (152S); 
Satifre (if the Thrir Ettnith, played at court in 1539 ; ///«- 
torte of Sqin/er Meldrum (154H); and The Monarchic (1553). 
The first colloctive edition of his works was printed at Co- 
penhagen in 1553, and nearly twenty have since appeared 
in Scotland. The bc^t edition is that of the Early Eng- 
lish Text Society {1SG5-71), in 5 parts. 

Lindsay (John Weslkv). D. D., b, Aug. 20. 1820, at 
Barre, Vt.; graduated at Wesloyan University 1840; stud- 
ied theology in Union Seminary, New York City; entered 
the Methodist ministry; was tutor 1847, and professor of 
Latin and Hebrew in his alnin mntcr 181H-fi(l ; jjresidcnt 
of Genesee College 1S04-08; became in l>s(»S professor of 
exogotical theology in what is now Boston University. 

Lindsay (William SniAw), b, in Ayr.ihire. Scotland, 
in 1810; went to sea at the ago of fifteen years ns cabin- 
boy in a West India ship; became second mate 1834, chief 
mate 1835, took command of a merchantman lH3fi, became 
ngenl for the Castle-Eden Coal Company 1811 : was influ- 
ential in opening tlie port of Hartli'pool and providing it 
with docks and wliarfs; went to Lonilon 18 15: Ix^camc in 
a few years one of the " merchant princes" of that city; 
was twice defeated in his candidacy for Parliament 1852; 
elected for Tynenioulh and North Shields Mar.. 1854, and 
again without oppowirion Mar.. I8;)7: elected for Sunder- 
land Apr., 1850: diHtingulshed himself in I*arliament by 
zealous attention to commercial, au'l cHpecially nhippint;, 
interests : took an active part in the fnrnmtion of the Ad- 
minif*trative Refi>rm Association. H*- ban puldished many 
pamphlets on mercantile and political topics, a volume 
entitled Our N'tviyation, Mercantile, and Marine Lav>9 



considered (1853), Onr Merchant Shipping (1860), and in 
1874, 2 vols, of an elaborate work. The Hi»fon/ of Merchnut 
Shippitiff. For many years he was prevented by feeble 
health from accepting a seat in Parliament. D. Aug. 28, 1877. 

Ijinds''borg, post-v. of Mcpherson co., Kan., on the 
Smoky Hill River and the McPherson Branch of the Kan- 
sas Pacific R. R., 21 miles S. of Salina. 

Lind'.scy, post-v. <»f Ottawa co., Kan., on the Solomon 
Branch of Kansas Pacific R. R., 20 miles X. W. of Solomon. 

Lindsey, tp. of Benton co., Mo. Pop. 1383. 

Lindsey (Charlks), b. in 1S20 in Lincolnshire, Eng- 
land; came in 1842 to Canada West and became an editor; 
was 1846-52 connected with the Toronto Examiner, and 
in 1852 became editor of the Toronto Leader; has since 
been city registrar: has published Cfcrgi/ Reserves, The 
Maine Lair, and Prairies of the Western ti'tates. 

Lind'seyville, post-v. of AVorcester co., Md., 8 miles 
E. of Newtown. Pop. 54. 

Lind'sley (John Berrien), M. D.. D. D., b. at Prince- 
ton, N. J., Oct. 24, 1822; educated in Nashville, Louisville, 
Philadelphia, and Paris; was elected in 1856 professor of 
chemistry and dean of faculty of the medical department 
of the University of Nashville: in 1S55 was made chan- 
cellor of that university, which for several years before the 
war had classes of 600 students. After the death of hia 
preceptor, the celebrated Dr. Troost, from whom he im- 
bibed the love of the sciences, he became the curator of 
his splendid cabinet, which in 1874 was purchased by the 
Kentucky Library Association and thrown open to the pub- 
lic : has contributed papers on education to the press, also 
to the Theological Medium, the quarterly of the Cumber- 
land Presbyterian Church, and is (1875) engaged in writ- 
ing the medical annals of Tennessee. Paul F. Eve. 

Lindsley (Nathan Lawrence), LL.D.. son of Philip, 
b. at Princeton, N. J., about 1816; received a careful edu- 
cation at Nashville University, of which his father was 
president; was distinguished as a philologist and as an 
educator. He rendered valuable assistance to Dr. J. E. 
Worcester in the preparation of his Dictionary, and had 
biiuself projected a great work to be entitled An Eneyclo- 
Lexicon of the English Laugitage. D. Oct. 9, 1868. 

Lindsley ( Philip), D. D., b. at Morristown, N. J., Dec. 
21, 1780 ; graduated at Princeton in 1804 : tutor there 1807- 
09 and 1812; professor of languages 1813; vice-president 
1817, at which time he was ordained in the Presbyterian 
Church ; between 1820 and 1839 was offered the presi- 
dency of ten different colleges : in 1824 accepted that of 
the University of Nashville, which he resigned in 1850, 
after a most successful career as an. instructor. He was 
afterwards professor of archaeology and church polity in 
the Presbyterian Theological Seminary at New Albany, 
Ind. D. at Nashville, Tenn., May 25. 1855. His complete 
works, consisting of sermons, educational, miscellaneous, 
aucl religious discoursee; and essays, were published in ^ vols., 
with a memoir by Lcroy J. Halsey (Philadelphia. 1865). 

Line [Lat. Unca]. In music, lines arc used not only in 
the formation of the stave and its extension by ledger- 
lines, but also for several other purposes. In a figured 
bass a long unbroken line after a figure signifies the con- 
tinuation or hoUling of the note indicated by the figure, 
while broken or short lines imply repeated strokes of a * 
note, or sometimes the repetition of the same figure over 
the several notes of a moving bass. See E.k. 1 : 



^.YrYr^r^rTryr^ 



IS 




Ex. 1. 



A lino (Iniwn iicross a (if^uro thus. 4' or 4. J) or A. fl or 6, 
i\U;., is oqniviili'Tit tn u J, anil sucli fijuros stiind fur a sllarp 
fourth, a sharp fifth, eto. Whon. in a ccmdi'iiscil score, one 
part crosses another, its course is frcciuenllv umrlied by a 
slanting line, to avoid confusion or to explain an tipp'irnil 
false proRression. See Ex. 2, where the crossing of the 
tenor and alto is pointed out by lines connecting tho notes 
of tho tenor. 




LINK— Ll.NKN. 



.J.J 



In iiicMlcrr] iiiuHio for tho organ, curved or (traiKht porpon- 
iliiMihir liiiuH, with urrow-liniilH, aro nftcn ufiMl tu murk tlio 
cxiK^t pliioo whiu'o a clifinxo if* to hn iniiilo froiri loiiil to «oft, 
or tho rnvcrHo, or from ono stop or Hot of kaytt to another. 
Inalanceii of tli'm ar« given in I'.x. '.i : 



ICx. :i. 



r-#^i^^^ 



V Choir Or;i. \ 



flmil Orr/. V Clioir Or;/. 



Swrll. 



m 



L 



Two (Jivorging or cnnvnrginp lincB phifrod ovor a BcricH of 
notos imply nn iiKin-use nr iloi'i<'finn of loiidnoHf, as oMior- 
wiflo oxnr<!f<a(Ml liy th<i words rrrnrputfo or tUmiunrtitlit, or 
thoir ahoroviatifHiH, rwH. and <iim, Wmj.tam Stauntov. 

Line [ Laf. //»«(■(], a Roomolrical maKnihidc which has 
Inngth, bill- neither Iiroadtli nor thicdtnoHS. Wo may ro^ard 
a lino aw tho patli of a moving point, in which ca.so tho na- 
ture of tho lino will dopcnd nptin Iho law of motion of tho 
point. Two positiotiH of thi; ^^fMicratinf:; pnint are said to 
be vnnserutivc when tho di«tanco hotwofn ihoni \» infinites- 
imal, and thn cr»rr('.spondiii(5 portion of fho lino is oiilUMi an 
clement. Wo may suppose (he point to move so that tho 
olonicnta shall ho cqunl, or so that tho projections of thrso 
ciomonts on a piviMi ptr.'iit;Iit lino shall ho equal: tho for- 
mer is tho nii'Miod of plnne geometry, and tho latter is the 
method of analytical Rooriirtry and of tho calculus. Lines 
may ho either strni^ht or curved. A utrat'tffit lino is a lino 
whoso elements all lio in tho samo direction ; (hat is, it is a 
lino whoso iliri'ction is (ho same at every (mint ; a mrrrd 
line is one in which no two consecutive elements Ho in the 
same direction. A phmr vnrvc is a (;urvo all of whoso ele- 
racnls lio in Iho samo piano; a vnrce of double curvature is 
a curvo in which no three consecutive elements lio in tho 
samo plane. In all cases tho prolon_c;ation of any olomont 
in tho direction of tho motion of tho gencratin;; point is a 
tangent to tho ci,irvo; hence, wo say that a tangent to a curve 
is a straight lino dra^vn throus^h two conaccutivo points of 
tho curve. Of Iheso points tho first in order of generation 
is tho point i>f cotiffict or the point of ttnu/ctici/. 

In analysis, lines are classed as algebraic and transcen- 
dental. An (ihjrhrair line is one wlioso roctilinoal equation 
may he oxpres.ied by the ordiuai'y operations of algebra: 
that is, by adilition, suhfraction, multiplication, division, 
formation of powers denoted by constant exponents, and 
extraction of roots indicated by constant indices; a tntu- 
ecendf iiftil line is one whoso equation cannot bo expressed 
by tho ordinary operations of algebra. Algebraic linos are 
divided into ordvr» according to the degrees of their equa- 
tions. Linos of tho first order are those whose equati(uis 
are of the first degree, lines of the second order are those 
whoso equations are those of the second degree, and so on. 
Algobraio linos of tho first order are straight lines, and 
those of the seconil order are conic sections. Transcen- 
dental lines aro sometimes classed, according to the relation 
botweon thoir co-ordinates, as, lofjarithmic curves, curve of 
sines, etc., but as yet no systematic classification of this 
class of lines has been made. W. G. Pkck. 

Line [Lat. Hitrtt], tho twelfth part of au inch in Eng- 
lish measureinent. 

Lin'cn [Ang.-!^ax. Ihi, *' flax "] is ono of the earliest of 
textile manufactures. Its origin is lost in tho cloudland of 
history. Pieces aro still in existence which were woven 
4000 years ago. In the days of Herodotus it was an article 
of Egyptian export. Tho mummies are wrapped in eorc- 
eloths of this material. Sir Gardner Wilkinson has fully 
described tho linen manufacture of Egypt. Tho iarm linen 
is a generic name for cloths woven irom the fibres of (ho 
flrtx-})!ant and hemp. Tho raw material of linen proper is 
tiio liax-plant { Linntn uNititfissiinuni), which thrives iu lat- 
itudes ranging from Egypt to Russia. From tho good is 
expressed tho linseed oil so much used in commerce. Cloth 
made from tho homp-plaiit was worn by the Thracians. 
This phint is extensively grown iu various parts of Europe, 
and has been cultivated in Bengul from remotcages. It is 
esteemed there both for its fibre and for the nnrcotic b?i'nitf 
secreted by its leaves. The use of hemp in tho linen manu- 
facture is smaller now than formerly. JrTK (which see) 
may also be commercially considered ns a sort r»f linen, as it 
affords a cheap substitute for flax, the cultivation of which 
hns not kept pace with the requirements of the makers. 
Of other substitutes which have been emjilovod with vary- 
ing degrees of success, we may name the nettle, china-grass. 
rhce:i. New Zealand flux, and Manila hemp ( Mutn tcrtifis). 
The garments of ibe Hc-Itcw priests were chiefly of linen, 
and in tho Iiil>lc we have many allusions which show the 
esteem in which this fabric was held. In Proverbs there 



is an oft-quoted puHsugo which vividly jiortrayii oDcient 
mothodH of manufuelure. **HUi3 Mceketh wool and flax," 
miya the wine king in his deaoriptiun of tho virtuoui 
wonum. "and wurketh willingly with her handn. Hho 
lay<'th her hands to thu Mpindic, and her liaiidn hold tho 
rlislafl'. All her houMtdiold are clu(hed wi(h hcarlct. Hho 
maketh berriolf coverings of lapoHtry, her etothing is Hilk 
and purple. She mithrth Jlnc linen and geflrik it, and tl*y- 

{ liv<-rt-th girrlIcK unto the rnercliiintf." In llorirer we read 
of ladies working in this manner. The mother of NuuHJctta 
in tho early dawn spun by (ho hearth soft fleeces dyed with 
red purple. In many parts of (he ancient world tho manu- 
facture of linen — chiefly, it may bo presumed, carried on by 
the women as a household occupation — was common. Konio 
parts of Spain and Italy were celebrated for tho culture of 
ilax and its subsequent converflion into textile fabrics. 
Linen has beiii made in England from an early date. 'J'tio 
gnrmonts of Iho Anglo-Saxons were linen and woollen. 
The daughters of Kdwarrl the Elder were famous for tlieir 
skill in spinning, weaving, and embroidering, Tlie Uayeux 

i tapestry is a linen cloth, with designs worked in wool. 
Although tho ilax-plani had been cullivated by IheSaxonp, 
it is not found in a list of tithablc produce drawn up in 
1070. Fine linen is said to have been first made in Wills 
and Sussex in 12.^.'J. In 1272, Irish linen was uscdatAVin- 
choster. Flemish weavers were introduced into England 
in Ll.'U, ami in I.tHfi a guild of linen-weavers was estab- 
lished in London, but does not seem to have been very 
prosperous. Indeed, the manufacture was still in its in- 
fancy in the reign of Charles II. Varranton, writing in 
1077, proposed the establishment of spinning-schools, such 
as were then common in Germany. In thcfc places per- 
haps 2tl0 girls from six years <dd upwards were assembled 
under the supervision of a woman who sat in a pulpit, and 
with a long white wand *' tapped " any of the little workers 
who Maggcci in their attention. If this were not suflicient, 
sho rang a bell and the oflemlcr was taken aw.TV and chas- 
tised. Tliis was done in silence, and Varranton thought it 
would be good discipline for the maids of England, who 
were much given to chatdng. From (he introduction of 
tho cotton manufacture until about I77^>, whilst the weft 
was of cotton the warp was of linen yarn. Arkwright's 
invention changed this. In Ireland its history is mixed up 
with (hat of sectarian feeling, for the woollen manufacture 
of the popish S. and W. was ruined by heavy export duties, 
whilst (ho Protestant interest of Ulster was protected in 
16ltU by (ho act for tho encouragement of the linen trade. 
A board was constituted which held spvereign sway over 
tho trade until IS28, when its obsolete regulations and pro- 
cedure led to its extinction. As early as the eleventh cen- 
tury linen was woven in Ireland, but it was Louis Crom- 
melin, a refugee driven frrim France by the Revocation of 
tho Eclict of Nantes, who set it on a firm footing. The duke 
of Ormonde in 1711 ordered linen hatbands and scarfs to 
be used for funeral purposes; fourteen years later machi- 
nery began to be used. Improvements in bleaching were in- 
troduced by Dr. Ferguson in the middle of the century. It 
was not until 182S that flax-spinning machinery was started 
at Belfast. The pioneers were Messrs. Mulholland. For 
eighteen years there was a society for the promodon of (ho 
growth of flax in Ireland, but it come to nn end in 1Sj9. 
Linen was made in Scodand. but on a very small scale and 
iu a rude style, in the reign of Charles I. In 1088. Morer 
styles it the most notcci and beneficial manufacture of the 
kingdom. As showing the unfriendly feeling between North 
and South, it may bo mentioned that the Scotch packmen 
who travelled into England to sell linen were, about 1GS4, 
sometimes whipped as malefactors and obliged to give 
bonds that they woubl discontinue their traflic. 

On the Continent traces of tlio use and manufacture of 
linen are found at early dates. Charlemagne, who dressed 
after tho manner of the Franks, had linen under-clothcs. 
In mediaeval Italy it was an important article of commerce. 
In Spain (he Moors pai<l great attention to textile manu- 
factures, and linen was exported to India and Constanti- 
nople. In the fifteenth cen(ury Seville had 10,000 looms : 
a century later they had diminished to ."iOO. Flanders. 
Rrabanl. and some of the German towns were notable for 
their linen manufactures in the eleventh century. Louvain 
had IJO.OOO linen and woollen weavers in the fourteenth 
century. In Flanders by the middle of tho thirteenth cen- 
tury the manufacture was very flourishing, and its prod- 
uc(swerc largely exported to England and other countries. 
Ypres, which dates from 900, has let't its impress in the 
word diaper ( i'. e. d'Ypres. cloth of Ypres\ still used for 
table-linen. The soil of France is suitable for flax-grow- 
ing, and since the time of the Roman rule linen has been 
made in that country. In l.'t<>-t it is said the kingsent fine 
linen of Rheims to the sultan in ransom of some noble 
prisoners who had fallen into the hands of the paynims. 

i Tho Revooation of tho Edict of Nantes was disastrous in 



54 



LIXESVILLE— LINGA. 



its effects on French industry, and the linen trade suffered 
in common with all others from the loss of the Huguenots. 
driven by religious persecution to take their peaceful arts 
to countries where thev might worship.God without fear 
of "conversion" bv dragonnades. Russia has long been 
the greatest flax and hemp growing country of the world. 

There are more linens used in the U. S. in proportion to 
the population than in almost any other country. 

AVe turn now to the history of the processes of the linen 
manufacture. The flax-fibre is made up of a number of 
smaller filaments bound together. The primary operation m 
their separation was termed heckling. The heckle is a many- 
toothed steel comb which removes the coarser fibres of the 
tow and partially divides the filaments of the flax. The 
fineness of the flax depends upon the number of hecklings 
it receives bv instruments of increasing delicacy. Ma- 
chine heckling is now most commonly used, and there are 
various patented inventions for this purpose. The fibres 
require to be united into a continuous thread before they 
are capable of being woven. The earliest method of doing 
this was by the spindle. One was found at Thebes by .Sir 
Gardner Wilkinson which had still some linen thread upon 
it. They were about fifteen inches in length, usually of 
wood, with a circular head of gypsum or composition. 
They were bulbous near one end, tapering to a point, whilst 
the "other end lengthened into a handle. The thread w.as 
attached to the handle ; and the spindle resting upon tho 
rio-ht thigh, the right hand was drawn quickly over it, 
ca'usinf irto revolve or spin like a top. To this w.as after- 
wards '^added the distaff, a piece of wood round which the 
flax to be spun was wrajipcd. The spinning-wheel was the 
next step forward. One was invented at Brunswick in 
1553. That called Saxon had on the spindle a bobbin 
round which the thread was wound, a flier going round 
faster than it. giving the requisite twist to the thread. Tho 
flax w.as loosely wrapped round a distaff or rock above the 
spindle. A treadle moved by the foot gave a rotatory mo- 
tion to the wheel. It was only by slow degrees that this 
supplanted the older instrument, and a two-spindled wheel 
had not been very long in use when Arkwrighfs cotton- 
spinning machinery must have turned attention to the pos- 
sibility of a similar revolution in other branches of human 
labor. In 17S7, John Kendrew and Thomas Porthouse, 
both of Darlington (Durham), took out a patent for this 
purpose. Various mills in Scotland were worked under 
licenses from the patentees. It was long before the hand- 
m.ade yarn was superseded by the machine-made article. 
In 1788, Alexander Robb invented a loom to be driven by 
water, and in 1810, Joseph Crompton of Dundee one to go 
by water or steam, but it is doubtful if they were brought 
into use. The first manufactory for weaving flax by power 
was set up in London about 1812 by Charles Turner & Co. 
According to the modern jnethod of treatment, the fibres 
are first aciSched or combed ; hrnhen into three pieces, the 
inner section being the best ; liccldnl. now usually done by 
a rotatory machine, the flax placed on the periphery being 
drawn through or against a scries of teeth : the short fibres 
drawn into one continuous thread ; after having been roved 
it is npim. The flax, however, has to be kept wet during 
this process, for which i)urpose warm water is now used. 



The spun yarn i 



s used cither for thread or for weaving 



W. E. A. Axos. 



jines'ville, a b. (Lineville Station V. 0.) of Tine tp., 
iwford CO., Pa., on Erie and Pittsburg K. R. It has 1 



The quantity of leus (3110 yards) contained in a pound is 
the method of indicating tho quality of the yarns. (For in- 
formation as to the processes of Si'i.NNixfi, Weaving, and 
Bleaciiinc linen those articles should be consulted.) 

The princijial varieties of linen are : /-<iii;ii ( Vr. linon), very 
fine qualities of which are now made in Ireland, although 
it was once an exclusively French manufacture. Common 
ehcctings and towellings are made in Scotland, ami al.so 
ducks, huckabacks, osnaburgs, crash, and tick. Some .sorts 
of velvet and velveteen arc made from flax at Manchester. 
Diapers (the origin of the name has been incidentally men- 
tioned) arc fabrics with patterns of geometrical regularity, 
such as are produced by the kaleidoscope. Dowlas is a 
strong but coarse linen, formerly much used by workpeople 
for shirts. A good deal is now exported from Britain to 
Spain and Spanish America. Damasks are fabrics with 
figures of fruit and Uoweri', and free-hand ornament as 
opposed to the geometrical severity of diajier. The name 
18 supposed to be taken from Damascus, an ancient scat of 
the art, which until the introduction of 'ho Jacquard ina- 
chinc (see Loom) was a mystery confined to a few localities. 
Damasking has been applied to silks, etc., but table-linens 
arc fabrics in which it is chiefly used. The town of Diin- 
forinlinc produces as much of this article as all Europe 
besides. It is used on the Continent for upholstery pur- 
poses. It is said that America usi'S as much British dam- 
ask as all other parts of the world together. Courtrai and 
l.icgc in Belgium are famed for this kind of work. Cam- 
bric, which takes its name from Cambrai, once famous for 
its production, is the finest iind thinnest of linon fabrics. 



The handkerchiefs vary in price from 4«. to 70». per dozen. 
The so-called Scotch cambric is a cotton fabric with the 
fibre twisted very hard. Linen is used for shoe-lining, and 
coarse linens have been brought largely into consumption 
as hessians (bale-cloth) and beetlers ; the last being con- 
verted into tarpauling and used for packing and other pur- 
poses. " French canvas " is a coarse variety much used by 
tailors for stifl'ening. etc. The evil of over-bleaehing has 
lessened the durability of linen, but the price is 50 per cent, 
less also. For a time the rapid increase of the cotton 
manufacture endangered the prosperity of the linen-trade, 
and to some extent they are antagonistic. Although it has 
not had the same rapid increase as its cheaper rival, it has 
exceeded its former proportions as one of the great staple 
industries of the world. 

The exports from Great Britain in 1873 were 28,734,212 
of linen yarn, 208.123,470 pieces of linen manufacture, and 
2,302,354 pounds of thread for sewing. The home con- 
sumption would represent a similar quantity. The value 
of linen yarn was £1,976,830, and of manufactured linen 
was £7,300,153, in each case a decrease on the preceding 
year. The fullest history of the trade is Warden's Linen 
Trade, Ancient and Modern (\6fii). 

I>i 

Crawf 

newspaper. Pop. 434. 

Liue'ville, post-v. of Wayne eo., la., on the south- 
western division of Chicago Rock Island and Pacific R. R., 
has 1 newspaper. 
Liing. See Heath. 

Ling [Ang.-Sax. Umt]. " long"], the Lola mo/ra, a sea-fish 
of the cod family extensively caught in Europe. It is eaten 
fresh or salted and dried. Its flesh is also preserved in air- 
tight cans ; its sounds are used for isinglass and for food ; its 
roe is a good fish-bait : its liver yields a valuable oil. The 
ling of the American coast is loin romprcssa, a small fish. 
Thousands of barrels are taken annually in the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence. There are several other fishes called ling, both 
in the U. S. and in Great Britain. 

Ling (Peter Henhik), b. Nov. 15, 1776, atLjunga, in 
the province of Smiland. Sweden ; led as a young man a 
rather adventurous life, travelling through Germany and 
France; became in 1805 fencing-master at the University 
of Lund, in 1S13 teacher in fencing at the military school 
of Carlsber^'. and in ISlC director of the gymnastic insti- 
tute of Stockholm, where he d. May 3, 1839. Ling rejire- 
sents the same movement in Sweden as Turnvater Jahn in 
Germany. His poetical productions, Gi/l/e (1812) and 
Asarne (1810-26), were intended to awaken among the 
Swedes that heroism of feeling and thinking which charac- 
terized the ancient pagan Scandinavians : and his gymnas- 
tic exercises were at first simply a means of developing 
and strengthening the body. But by the thought and 
study which Ling bestowed on his profession he developed 
the simple gymnastic practices into a medical cure, the 
so-called movement cure, which has proved very effective 
in many chronic diseases, and has been introduced into 
manv countries. 

liin'ga, the emblem of divine creative power amongst 
Hindus. It may be termed the phallic emblem of India. 
The /ill'/" holds a very high place amongst objects of adora- 
tion in'india, and is especially an object of Saiva worshi]i. 
In Sanskrit lin./a means, primarily, a sign or emblem, but 
it is only used" to signifv the emblem of male creative 
power, the yoni being the rcpresentativeof the female. Tho 
most comimin form in which tho lin>ia is worshipped is that 
of a round. per])endicular stone, rising out of an oval stone 
representation of the ,/oni. But pistils of flowers etc. etc. 
are held to be likenesses of the mystic symbol. IheSaiva 
sect (sec S'aiva) is cxtreiuelv numerous in India, and lin- 
,,a> are conspicuous in all their temples, from the Ilima- 
'layas to Cape Comorin. Regarding tho /m./". Balfour 
«avs ■ " There is not apparent to any eye the laintcst rc- 
seinbianco to the organs of which they are deemed tho 
svmbols or types." This view has also been held by a 
large number" of scholars, but it is founded on very limited 
per.sonal experience of Indian shrines. The writer has 
with his own eves seen linnan in the great temides of South- 
ern Imliii. elaborately carved and painted, which are a pub- 
lic insult to common decency. It is true that thousands 
and thousands of lin<iiin are to be met with which are siui- 
jilv upright pieces of stone, of great age, and often wind 
or" wave worn, the peculiar emblematical signihcaU'-e (d 
which, as objects of worship, is only known to tho pundit 
or priest. But there are other lingas before which multi- 
tudes of men and women worshi|i. at which the first glance 
of the eye is suflicient to show the worshipper exactly what 
it is he is worship]iing. liniriH are I'requcntly— perhaps 
most frequently— constructed of marble or granite. They 
aro treated by" their votaries just as idols are: offerings 



LINOAN— LINN. 



iiro iilafcii hcCDrn tln-in. (Iowith iirn Htrnwii, iiml thny are 
iinoiritcii with oil mid Hiiirarcd witli asln-H. AfMinrfliii-^ to 
UalCimr (wIid Iihh an iiitcn-Hliiij; iirlicli* on the liiiffn in Iho 
CifflofiiiAin (>/ /nditt, vol. iii.), ** Sonncnit «ayw lh(i liiiK'H" 
niiiy bo luoktiil upon an thr- plinllu'^ or tlio (i'^tin* n'pn'-*eiit- 
inj? tlin virilp incinliPP at' Atyn, thc^ wll-ln-ln\-t'(| of Cylirli-, 
aii<l tliii ({.u'l'hiH wlinrti tlii'V wnrsliippc'l iir Micropolifl. Tin- 
K.;yptiaiiH, (Irci'ltH, and Hortninn hud hMnpN-H dirdicatcd lo 
l*riapnR, under Iho Hanii? lorni aw that id" thu liuKain. Thn 
Holy Scripturi'S inform uh that Ayii, Him of Kohoam, pro- 
vented hia mothor Maardia from nanririfini; to PriapuH. 
whn*(ii im.ii;i' hn hrolti'. Thi-JcW'* causcfi llicnividvi-H to lie 
iniriatod in the mysteries of |lcIphfi;or, a divinity Mko the 
lin'^iini. whom the Monhitcs antl Midiimitos worshlpjicd on 
Mr»unt I*hng()r, and wlilfdi worship, in all ajipniiranfM'. thoy 
nn^olvod from tlio KLcyptians. Wln-n ' .Tudali did ovil in 
the 8i;jht of thr> Iiord, and IniiU llum hii^li placpy, and 
imago!», and grovrn. on I'vi-ry lii;^h hill and under cvory 
groen t roc,' the ohjeol was llaal. and tlie pilhir, the linp^am, 
wa?* his aymhol. Artfordin-^ to Cot. Tocl, l\\^^ linj;iim is 
idontii':il with thn Anihitr idol I.iit or Alluit. Tho worship 
rra:-lied rrancc, douhtlexs witli tlur KoTruins. and tln> fi;;urft 
of tlio liriijam is still to he him-ii on tlio lintel which sur- 
rounds tho oircua at Nimc;^, as well nn on tlio front of Ronic 
of their anoiont chur(diefl, particularly on that of tho «a- 
thodral of Toulouse and on Homo idiurcdios at Borclenux. 
I* In fare h says thiit tlui Mi^yptian i;od Osiris was found 
c\'crywhiM'0 with the priapus exposed." With our latter- 
day notions of rclii^ion and morality, it cotth-h to he a ques- 
tion whether the British ;;ovcrnmcnt flhouM allow the more 
indecent of these phallie euihlems to stand in pul)lie placea 
in Intlia. (^reat Itritain has rcsoKcd on hi'ini; perfeirtly 
noutral in all matters of rr/l-fiim ariionixst Hindus, hut still 
puhHo broaehes of momiifi/ arc punishable in Irulia by hiw, 
and are tluis constantly punisln'il. For instanee, (ho sale 
of photoi;raphs of an indecent chara'd'-r has boon rir^or- 
ously put a stop to, but Sakli-worship is still allowed to bo 
praistised: temple-harlots exist, not as of personal choice 
on tho part of tbo poor dancinj^-girls, but as a easte, of 
necessity ; and those grossly indecent fiiif/nt are there al- 
lowed to stand ''on every hi;ib hill and under every green 
tree." Of old, pious Hindus who spiritualized their re- 
ligion, even tho grossest forms of it, //^'/a-worship ineludeil, 
were not lacking. For instance, tho groat Tamiliau poi-t, 
Sivaviikkiar, writes ns follows (sec thr> ln<iinn Antiifintri/, 
IJouibay, Apr., IS7-, first j)aper on '* Tamil Popular Poetry," 
by the writer) : 

" Mv thoughts are flowers and ashes, 
In Miy hroasl's I'line enshrined; 
My >|tiiit. ton, tberei!) is 
A linj/it unoonlincd." 
Hero tho sage speaks of his body as a metaphorical temple 
(using Innguago simibir to that em|tloyed in the New Tes- 
tament, " Vo are trm/tfrn of tho Holy tihost*'); then he 
likens his thoughts to ilowers antl ashes, which arc used in 
the services of temiilcs; lastly, ho declares that his breath 
or spirit — which as a part of universal life has no bound or 
limit^is the true Uuijn, creative, and a part of tho creation, 
of his own being. But, even though many may think in 
tho present day like Sivaviikkiar, yet tlie majority of 
Hindus have no such spiritual notions. Their religion is 
materialistic, and in parts of it is yearly becoming grosser. 
Lin'^a-worshi|> is, in the case of tho majority of Hindus, 
merely sensual idolatry. R. C. Caldwell. 

Lin'gan,a coal-mining district of Cape Breton Island, 
on the ciiast. l.'i miles E. of Sydney. (See BuniGKronT.) 

Liii^iin ^(lon. .Tamks MAcrirniN), b. in Maryland about 
17J2; took part in the Revolutionary war, rising to tho 
rank of brigadier-general ; was one of the prisoners at Fort 
Washington; kept for a long time in the prison-sliip ; was 
after tliu war eollocti'r of the port of (ieorg-'town. Md. 
(now D. C): resided in Iiallim<n-e in ISll!, ami was killed 
by a mob while gallantly defending tho printing-office of 
the IWentl lirpuhlicnii, July 2S, 1812. 

Liii'^nrd (.TimN^, n. 0.. TiTi.I>.. b. at Winchester. Kng- 
l;ind. Fell. 5. 1771 ; studied at Douai, and was ordained a 
Roman Catholic priest in KU.'i; was afterwards connected 
with tho seminary at Ushaw. near l>urham : was (ISl l-.'.l ) 
parish priest of Hornby. liimcashire; deelineil a cardinal's 
hat soon at>cr the puhlicati(Ui of his great work, the flhionf 
of Entjhintl (1819-2."0. This work is one of groat ability 
and excellence, though colored by the religious views of 
the writer, and recent I'ltranumtanists find it tainted with 
Oallicanism. .-Vuthor of a IHston/ and Antiifuitirs of thr 
An»fln-Stt.cou CInirrh ( lSOr>) and an English version of Iho 
New Testament (ISlifi). D. at Hornby July 13, 1S51. 

I^insayen'^ town of Ijuzon. Philippines, situated on 
the northern coast of that island. Pop. IS.UOO. 

lansiuasilos'sn, town of Sicily, in the province of 
Catania, beautifully situated on a very fertile slope of 



Mount Elnn, about 30 mllen N. of tho city of rntanlii, haii 
good ehurelics iind '-onvenlual buildingn. and hotter popu- 
lar tnslrnction than Im usual in Sicily. Pop. in IH7I, HH22. 

liillKii'lHlt'r [from tiuffuln, diminutive of fhif/nn, 
"longno"|, a Camily of the claHd BitAcntoiMinA und order 
InotniMATA fwhioh fooj, di*<tinguirlied by the more or Urn 
lingniform shape of the shells, the t-Iighlty nnofpial valve-, 
the want (»f artieuliiting apophyr<es, and lln; dovelopmonl 
«f a long vermiform pedunelo which pnsseH between th<r 
apici'H of the valves; the hbell is composed for the moxt 
part of phosphnte of lime and horny liunime, and ban 
lather the appearance of horn than of true (dielly matter; 
there are perforations; the brachia or "urmw" are uub- 
spiral and destitute of any caleareoun nponhyifOH. By 
Dall the family is divided into t\vo subfamilies : (\) Lin- 
gulina-. in which tlie posterior adductor scar in median and 
single, and the shell more or less elongate; and (2) OboHntc, 
in which there are two posterior adductor scars, more or 
less separated from the median line, and the shell is inclined 
to an orbicular form. The family is very intere^ting, being 
one of the very few which have surviverl in comparatively 
unaltered forms from the liower Silurian epoch, some of tho 
types of the earliest period being scarcely generically dis- 
tinct from the living Linguhe. although the apparent slight 
differences may be the result of the simplicity of the shell. 
The living species have been diflcrentiatcd by I)all into 
two genera: (!) ^?)i//t(/«, containing ten nominal species, 
the type of which is L. mntluu, the species confined to tho 
Mohiccan. Australian, and Polynesian seas; and (2) t!lnt- 
tit/in, with five doubtful species, the chief of which are O. 
jnfranu'dfitfi of the southern coast of the IT. S. and 0'. alhifhi 
of California, all of whose representatives are Aniorican. In 
Linf/itfa the neural valve is smooth within; in O'foffii/ in the 
neural valve has two internal ridges or himelhu diverging 
forward from the beak, and apparently serving lis fulcra 
for tho post-parietal muscles. The embryology of fJ. pj/ra' 
ntidtita nas recently been studied by Prof. E. S. Morse. 

TnKonoitK (Jill. 

Tjill'imcnt f Lat. Uuimmtum'], in phamnicy, an oily 
preparation for external application, but thinner in con- 
sistence than the ointments. Some arc stimulant oily 
compounds (ammonia-soapsj. while others arc medicated 
with powerful drugs, designed to act after absorption. 

Kink [Sw. liink, " ring "], a unit of measure used in land 
surveying. The length of a link is 7.^2 inches; a squaro 
link is cfjual to .OIHll ).»f an acre. 

Ijln'Koping, or JjinKJoping, old .but well-built town 
of Sweden. ItH) miles S. W. of Stockholm. Pop. G13S. 

LiiilitirgoAV,or West IjOtliian,county of Scotland, 
bordering N. on the Frith of Forth, E. and S. on the county 
of Edinburgh. Area, 120 sq. m. Pop. -11,191. In tho 
southern part the soil is swam])y ; elsewhere it is generally 
fertile, producing wheat, barley, ami oats. Horses, cattle, 
sheep, and swine arc reared. Linlithgow, tho principal 
town, has interesting monuments, among whicii is the 
castle in which Mary Queen of Scots was born. Pop. :JC8U. 

liiiin^ county of E. Iowa. Area, 720 sq. m. It is 
level, fertile, and well watered. Traversed by Wapsipi- 
nicun and Cedar rivers and by railroads centring at Cedar 
Rapids. Products, cattle, gmin. and wool. Manufactures, 
saddlery and carriages. Cap. Marion. P. ;>1,0S0. 

Linilf county of Kansas, bounded E. by Missouri. Area, 
000 sq. m. ; is fertile, and has coal ami water-power. Is 
traversed by Marais dcs Cygncs and by Missouri River 
Fort Scott and Culf R. R. Products, cattle, grain, and 
wool. Cap. Moun<l City. Pop. 12,171. 

Lilin, county of N. Missouri. Area. 048 sq. m. It is 
a rolling prairie region, well watered, with wooded valleys, 
abounding in coal and building-stone. Staples, tobacco, 
grain, cattle, and wool. Traversed by Hannibal und St. 
Joseph K. R. Cap. Linnwus. P. i:>.'MlO. 

liinn, county of Oregon, extendini; W. from Cascade 
range to Willamette River. Area. 1900 pq. m. The W. 
part is fertile; the E. part mountainous. Products, cattle, 
grain, lumber, and wool. Cap. Albany. P. 8717. 

Linn, tp. of Cedar co., la. Pop. 521. 

Ijinn, tp. of Dallas co., la. Pop. 702. 

l^iuu, tp. of Linn co., la. Pop. 1083. 

Linn, tp. of Audrain co., Mo. Pop. 300. 

Linn, tp. of Christian co., Mo. Pop. 309, 

Linn, tp. of Dent co.. Mo. Pop. 403. 

Linn, tp. of Moniteau co.. Mo. Pop. 194S. 

Linn, ]iosr-v. and tp., cap. of Osage co., Mo. It bos I 
newspaper. Pop. 17a7. 

Linn, tp. of Walworth co.. Wis. Pop. SO.'i. 

Linn ^John Blair). D, D.. son of William, b. at Ship- 
pensburg, Pa., Mar. 14, 1777; removed in childhood to 



o6 



LINN— LINSLEY. 



New York ; entered Columbia College at the age of thir- 
teen; graduated inl79o; entered the law-office of Alexander 
Hamilton, and published anonymously two small volutiR'S 
of miscellanies in prose and verse. In Jan., 1797, he brought 
out at the John Street Theatre a ''serious drama, inter- 
spersed with songs," entitled Bonrvillc Castle, or the Gallic 
Orphan, which was represented three nights, but did not 
succeed in winning public favor. Shortly afterwards ho 
abandoned the law, studied theology under Rev. Dr. Ro- 
meyn at Schenectady, was ordained in I79S, and in June, 
1799. became assistant pastor of Rev. Dr. Ewing's Pres- 
byterian church at Philadelphia. In 1800 he wrote an 
Ossianic poem on the Death of Wa»hin(jtou, and in 1S02 
published his principal production, The Powers of Genius, 
a poem of some fiOO lines, smoothly written and scholarly, 
but destitute of the "powers" it commemorated. It was, 
however, well received, soon reached a second edition, and 
was reprinted in England. In 1S03 he engaged in a theo- 
logical polemic with Dr. Priestley, occasioned by the latter's 
comparison of Socrates with Christ, publishing two able 
pamphlets which elicited replies from Priestley, and pro- 
cured for the young divine the degree of D. D. from the 
University of Pennsylvania. D. of consumption at Phila- 
delphia Aug. j;!, 1804. In the following year his brother- 
in-law, the novelist, Charles Brockdeu Brown, gave to the 
world, with a brief memoir, Vtilerian,SL narrative poem, in- 
complete, but extending to loOO lines of blank verse, treat- 
ing of the early struggles of Christianity against paganism. 

Linu (Lewis Fields), JI. D.. b. near Louisville, Ky., 
Nov. 5, 1795; successfully engaged in medical practice at 
St. Genevieve, Mo., in 1815, and was a U. S. Senator 18IJ3- 
43. He labored zealously for the interests of Oregon and 
the West generally. D. at St. Genevieve, Mo., Oct. 3, 1843. 
(See his Life, by E. A. Linn and N. Sargent, 18o7.) 

Linn (William). D. D., b. near Shippensburg, Pa., 
Feb. 27, 1752; graduated at Princeton 1772; studied di- 
vinity with Rev. Dr. Cooper of Middle Spring, Pa., and in 
1775 was licensed to preach by the Donegal presbytery. 
He served as a chaplain in Gen. Thompson's regiment 
early in the war of the Revolution, taught in an academy 
in Somerset co., Md., became pastor of a church at Eliza- 
bethtown, N. J., 17S6, and a few months later became one 
of the pastors of the Collegiate Dutch Reformed church in 
New York, where he remained until 1805, when he retired 
on account of his health, and d. at Albany Jan. 8, 1808. 
He published Biscnnrscs on Scripture Jiiistori/ (\70A), The 
Si(jn8 of the Times (1794), a scries of essays iiifavor of the 
French Revolution, and (ISOO) a Funeral Eulor/ij of Gen. 
Washington, delivered before the Society of (Jiucinuati, 
besides many sermons separately printed. Dr. Linu was 
celebrated for his eloquence. Ho had a vivid imagination, 
a fine command of language, and a picturesque style — qual- 
ities which made him very successful as a revivalist, but 
sometimes betrayed bim into exaggerations for ivhich he 
was severely criticised. 

Ijiniltr/ay a genus of plants containing but a single 
species, />. ftorcfilitt, tiie twin-fiower, of the honeysuckle 
family, found by Linnaius in La]>Iand in 1732, and named 
by Gronovius. It is a small trailing evergreen herb, with 
round leaves occurring in pairs, as do al.so the flowers, 
which are bell-shaped, of a pinkish color, and very fra- 
grant. It aiiDunds in the more northern regions of Eu- 
ro|ie, Asia, aud North America, where it occurs as far S. as 
Maryland. 

Linilic'uSy tlio Latinized name of Carl von Linne, 
the father of modern botany, b. May 12, 1707, at Rilshult, 
in Smilland, Sweden, tlie sou of a Lutheran vicar, who, wo 
are told, on account of poverty, apprenticed his son to a 
shoemaker, but at ten years old si-nt him t(i \Vexif> to school, 
where his fondness for natural science made him so careless 
of his other studies that his teachers advised the fatlier to 
put him to some trade; but Rothman, the good doctor of 
the place, took the boy into his house and gave him books 
upon Ijotany and medical science to read; sent hiin in 1727 
to Lund, where lie read books of butany under Prof, Sto- 
bieus, and whence in 172S he went to Upsala, attracted by 
the fame of Rudheek, professor of botany. IJut (he young 
Linn6 siiflfered much from hunger and cold, and being with- 
out tnuney or frien<l8 boj;aM to despair, when Olaf Celsius, 
prure^aitr of divinity, met him by accident, gave him con- 
genial employment upon his //irrohoffrniron, took him into 
hitt own hou.HC, aud introduced him to Rudbeek, wiioso as- 
BiHtant ho became. In 1732 ho explored Laplancl under tho 
patronage of the Academy of Sciences, ami gathered mate- 
rial for bin Flora hnppouifi (1737). In 1735 ho look tho 
degree of M. I), at Ilardorwyk, in tho Low Countries; ro- 
sided at IIartecani)i I 73.»-3H, under tho patronage of George 
Clin'ort, a banker of Amstordam; published liis Si/steimi 
Nfititnr (I73.'»), Fntulaineuln Holanica (173.(1), /iihliothrrn 
Hot<ittir,i f 1730), Critica Uotauica (1737), JIurtus Ciiffovil- 



anuB (1737), Genera Plantarum (1737), Claases Plantarnm 
(1738) ; returned in 1738 to Sweden : was appointed in 1739 
physician to the king and professor of botany at Stock- 
holm; became in 1740 professor of medicine at Upsala, 
and was professor of botany there 1741-78, giving the uni- 
versity a worldwide fame and attracting thither large num- 
bers of students from foreign lands; was ennobled in 1757, 
and d. at Upsala Jan. 10, 1778, after some months in which 
his mental powers were lost or in abeyance, the result of 
apoplectic strokes. Besides the works above mentioned, 
his principal writings are Philosophia liotanicn (1751 ), 
Fauna Snecica (1740), and Flora Snecica (1746): works 
on materia medica (1747-50) ; and above all the Species 
Plantarnm. It would be hard to over-estira:ite the im- 
portance of the work of Linnjeus in the establisliment of 
natural science upon its modern basis. Not only in botany, 
his specialty, but in all departments of zoology, he was the 
foremost man of his time. He introduced the binomial 
nomenclature of species, an apparently obvious, but a most 
important step. His artificial system of plant-classification, 
though now discarded, was simple aud easily followed, and 
greatly promoted the study of botany in its day. It is too 
often forgotten that LlnnEOUS only designed this arrange- 
ment as a key to the diagnosis of species, and that he at 
the same time foresaw the importance and final prevalence 
of the natural system, and labored on ihe foundations of it. 

Liun Creek, post-v., cap. of Camden co., Mo., has 2 
newspapers. Pop. 132. 

Lin'net [Fr. Unot, from Lat. Jinnm, "flax," its general 
food], a name given to various birds of the family Fringil- 
lidffi (finches), but proper to those of the genus Linotn, of 
which L. caunahiua, the common European linnet, is the 
typical species. These birds are remarkable for the changes 
which take place in their plumage during the breeding 
season. North America has several bird? generally referred 
to this genus, though some class them in other genera, 

Linne'iis, post-tp. of Aroostook co,. Me., S miles S. W. 
of Houltou. Pop. 1008. 

liinneiis, post-v., cap. of Linn co.. Mo., on the Bur- 
lington and South-western R. R., has 1 public school, 4 
churches, I bank, 1 flouring and planing mill, 1 newspaper, 
2 hotels, and stores. Principal occupation, farming. Pop. 
about 1200. J. B. Wilcx)X, Ed. " Linnkus Billetin." 

Xjinu'viUe, post-v. of Bowling Green tp., Licking co., 
0. Pop. 100. 

Liuo'leum [Lat, liniun, " cloth," and oleum, "oil "] is 
simply a nuiuufaeturer's name for oil-cloth, applied to 
heavy floor-cloths, made of canvas and painted with lin- 
seed oil. (See Floor-cloth.) 

Ijin'seed Oil [Aug. -Sax. rinsiFd], the oil of flaxseed, 
is extensively used for all kinds of painting, for making oil- 
cloths, oil-silks, printer's ink, etc.. its manufacture being 
among our most important industries, and the parent of 
many others. The oil-mills not only consume the greater 
part of the seed raised in this country, but large quantities 
are imported, especially from the East Indies. Tho seed is 
crushed aud submitted to very great pressure in hydraulic 
presses, by which means the oil is for the most part re- 
moved. When the seed is not heated the oil is light col- 
ored, and is called cold-pressed oil. When, however, the 
seed-paste is heated after grinding, and pressed while still 
hot, the oil is of a little darker color, but it is much more 
rapidly and thoroughly removed. Tiic paste in this opera- 
tion is heated by steam, and brought to a temperature not 
much higher tlian tliat of boiling water. It is placed in 
strong cloths or bags of equal size and holding equal qiiiin- 
tities, which are ]daeed in iron cases and laid u]» under tho 
presses, where tliey are subjected to a i^radually increasing 
pressure, equivalent at length to a weight of 300 to 800 
tons. Tho cakes from cold-])ressed oil are reground and 
heated with the rest. (Seo Oil-cake and Oil of Linseed.) 

Lins'lcy (Jami:s Hauvkv). b. at Northford, Conn., May 
5. 17S7; graduated at Yale College 1817. imd became a 
Baptist clergyman, but on account of ill-health left the ]uil- 
pit and devoted his leisure to the study of natural history. 
In vols, xliii. and xlv. of Silliman's American Journal of 
S'cirnrr may bo tounil catalnj;nes of Mammalia and birds 
from his pen. D. at Stratford. Conn., Dee. 20, 1S43-. (See 
Memoir, Uy his daughter, Hartford, 1845.) 

Linsley (Jokl ILvuvrv), D. D., b. at Cornwall, Vt., 
July 15. 1790: graduated at Middlebury College 1811 ; was 
tutor there three years; studied law, and practised at l^lid- 
dlebury until 1822, when ho was licensed as ft Congrega- 
tional preacher; went to South Cartdina as a missionary; 
was pastor of the South Congregational ehnreh a( ILirttord, 
Conn., ]8'J4-32, and of Park street ehurch. Boston, ls;;2- 
35, when ho was elected president of Marietta ('otiege, O., 
which post he ludd ton years, raising a considerable fund 
for that institution; booamo pastor of tho Sucund Cougre- 



JJ.\'n)\_IjppiX(;(>XT. 



p^aiioMiil rliun-li ilI iJifi-iiwicii, Cniiii., |s|7, uri'l rcniuinod 
thi-rn urilil liiii «Ii-ul!i, Miir. 22, I^>(^8. \)v. IjiiiHloy wan a 
riiiin of ^I'liiiLl (liN|iiiHitJori iiix) uC ^roat iiicntul iu;tivity and 
iniluHtrv. t'f wliit-h tii^ t'rw |iiililiKhi;il 8criiic>titi aud uddrc.HHurf 
allunl a vn-y iiUMlc'<|iialr H|iutMrrn-n. 

liill'toil, l|). "f Vi^o CO., Iiid. Pop. I I.'t7. 

I>iiil<»n, l|). of AlltiEiialfco CO., la. Pop. 712. 

liiiitDii, rp. of (;oHlni(!t.on co., 0. Pop. 1000. 

I.iiitoii I l)i.izA Lvsn), wife of \V. J. liinton, l>. at Kes- 
wick. ('uiiiliorlaiHl, Kri(;Iun(l, in 1822; pulilifliLMl a novel, 
Azrth, the /''i/if/itittn (IHlt)), Amijmuiie, « Uonutiicr of the 
Dnifn of PrrirltiH (IHIS), and Itv.nlHirH, a ronnmeo of mod- 
ern life (I><.''ll. Shi^ lias HJneo bocn conin'trted with the 
prexrt, ("spi'iMuIly tln' Snfnrtlnif /trn'nr, in whicli lu;r pnpf:r« 
on Thf (lirl itf thf /'rvwo'^ adraiMed j;reiit attontion. Ainon^ 
her later no^'cN iiro Lizzir Lttrton o/ (Jrrifn'i/ff (ISliO), Sow- 
iii'f thi- nViu/ (ISC.Cp), Thr Tnir /fiHtori/ of JoH/iun i)nvid>t,m, 
(Vniilinii 'iinl (UnnwHu'tHt (1872), and Pntrtria Ki:ii\hitU 
(I.S7 0' 'I'l'« t^vo latter works have been the moat popular 
of luT writin;;^. 

liinton (Wii, 1,1AM Jamks), h. in London. Knglanrl, in 
ISlL* ; wart iiiiprentioed to G. W. Bonner, and in 18 (2 boeiiino 
partner with Orrin Smith: wai< first onpagcd on the IKuh- 
tritt'^tf Luniltni AVfpff, and did fho work of iilustratin^ Jack- 
eon's //iiffnif/ 11/' ]\'i»ni ICnifriivinif. |iul(liHhed by the proprie- 
tors of that i'liuiiiil. His hand is n<'en in TIf I.nhr Cinmtni 
and ill tlie bouU »d' DcntiHi-d Hi-idnh AiiisfH, issued in IStlO 
by tho London Art Union. Mr. Lluton, IhouKh eminent 
an an engraver, is still better kno^vn as tho author of a 
A//V of ! 'aim; ClarUnl nml Ollwr Pociiih, T/ir Enff/Uh Rr- 
puhfir, and papers in the W'rHtmin^O'r lit:ricii\ Kjcnmhir.r, 
S/urnttor, mainly on s<)cial topic!?. In youth a zenlous 
Chartist, he wa.s interested in tho revolutinijury plans of 
his time, was a friend of Mazziui, entercii heartily in later 
years intr> tho cause of tho English and European working- 
men, and was a defender of the French Cnrnniune against 
tlio accusations of its cnomieg. Since ISfiV, Mr. Linton 
has resided in tho U. S, His present home is New ILiven, 
Conn. 0. B. FitoTiiLNtJiiAM. 

liint'/, city of Auatrin, tho capital of the province of 
Upper Austria, on tho l>anube. It is fortified by thirty- 
two biiinbproof tower.^, euniieeted with eacii oilier by sub- 
terranean Jitleys, a metliotl of fortiticalion invented by 
Arehduko Maximilian of Este, but superseded l»y recent 
improvements in artillery. It is tho seat of the provincial 
government and of a bishop, has a theological seminary, 
some nianufaetures of eloth, carpets, silk, leather, goldlace, 
nnd p:iper. ;ind a eonsiih-rabie trade on the Danube. }iy the 
treaty ciuicludeil herc^ |)ec. IH, 161.'). religious liberty was 
grantei! liy the emperor Ferdinand lo Hungary. Pop. ;jll..'>iy. 

Iji'niim [Lat.. *' flax "], a genus of plants of which the 
ooninion Fi.ax (which see) is the most important. It iu- 
chnles several llax-p!auts not cultivated for lilire, but some- 
times grown in gardens for ornamental purposes. Among 
these are A. />rrtnin\ or perennial flax, found in the Western 
U. S. and growing 18 inches high, which forms tutts of 
sleniler stems with delicate blue flowers; A. (frandijlorttm^ 
a beautiful annual found in Algiers, with abundant scarlet 
flowers; L. Jfurunt, a greenhouse species, and L. licrfan- 
rffVr/. growing in Texas, both of which have yellow flowers. 

Iji'nus (2 Tim. iv. 21 ), tradition says, was the first bishop 
of Home after St. PetLT, but it is doubtful whether ho suc- 
ceoiletl tho apostle, or whether St. Peter consecrated him 
bishop, perhaps long before his own martyrdom. Tlie dates 
of his life are uncertain, some giving the year of his death 
as SO ; others, as 78 or 07. 

Lin'ville, tp. of Mitchell co., N. C. Pop. ?A7. 

Linvillr, post-v. of Matagorda co., Tex. Pop, 40. 

I.iiiville, post-tp. of Rockingham co., Va. Pop. 3536. 

Liii'wood, post-fp. of Pike co., Ala. Pop. 292. 

Linwood, tp. of Tippecanoe co., Ind, Pop. 548. 

Ltiiwood, tp. of Portage co., Wis. Pop. :?SR. 

liinwood Station, post-v. of Lower Thiehester tp., 
Delaware eo.. Pa., on the Delaware River and tho Pliila- 
delphia Wilmington and Baltimore R. R. Tho village 
proper (enlled also Marcus Hook) is on tho river, about 
lialf a mile from the station. 

lii'odoii [(Jr. \clo<;. "smooth." and oSoy's. a " tooth "], a 
genus of extinet marine reptik-s from the Cretaceous forma- 
tion. (See iMosASAriU's, by Prof. 0. C. Marsh.) 

lii'on ftlr. Aewi-], (ff/iV /co]. the largest and most power- 
ful (d" the Feliiho or eat family. Two very marked varieties 
are known — one. a tawny, full-maned creature, called the 
Biirbary lion, inhabiting the wilds of Africa : and a nearly 
maneless. yellow variety, found in Asia, Other varieties 
are si-en in both countries, having less distinctive marks. 
Tho lioness is smaller than the male, and has no mane. 



Sho ifi iinid to go with younp; about five rnonthfr, and to jiro- 
duco but Olio brood in the yi-'ar, Tho young ure from (wo 
U* four in numbiT. They are Mpotled at birih, and remain 
HO until more than half grown. Tlio mane and tuft of a 
lion are not fully developed till tho uniiiml in kix or Keven 
years old. The natural period of IIh life ifi eonnidered to 
bo a little over twenty year«, though iiutliorft have recorded 
itM ago an in "Home inslancert that of man." A lion of tho 
largest size wan found to meaHure eight feet from none to 
tail, tho tail being four feet more, Tho carnivorouH pro- 
pouHitieH of thin beast are well known, the general prey 
being the larger herbivorous quadrnpedf. Some ancient 
authors, inelu<ling DidymuH id' Alexandria, have laid great 
HtresH upttn the uses of a certain '•prickle" which iff found 
at the end of the tail of tho lion. For a lime tliiK was oon- 
sidercfl an unimportant, and its existence wan even denied. 
Investigation has shown, however, that there Ih a eorneou« 
elaw-like appcmlngc about a (liirri of an inch in length, 
sharp at the apex, and hollowed at the bane. Its function 
has been thought to ho connected with lushing the tail for 
the purpose of stimulating anger, but it is now more prop- 
erly regarded as a means for dressing the hair or malted 
portions id' tho mane. Except when pressed for foo'l. (ho 
lion is rather a lazy and inrlolent beast. He remains at rent 
during the day. and preys during the night. The testimony 
of tho famous hunters who have written of the lion is that 
he is rather timid tiian eouragfous, and that he entertains 
great fear of man. Dr. LivingHtone givcH a singular ac- 
count of tho roar of the lion. Ho says, comparing it with 
the voice of tho ostrich, "In general, the lion's voice seems 
lo (!ome deeper from tho chest than that of tho ostrich, but 
to this day I can distinguish between them with certainty 
only by knowing that tho ostrich roars by day, and the 
lion by night." J. B. HornER. 

Lipan' Indians, a warlike tribe of aborigines of 
Mexico. Texas, cte.. and arc f|uito uncivi]i7,ed. Upon the 
reservation of the Mcscalcro Apaehcs in New Mexico .*J50 
Lipans were reported in 1872. 

Iiip'ari [anciently MrffijHnh]^ one of the /Eolian Isl- 
ands, situated near the N. coast of Sicily. It was a vol- 
cano, as appears from Aristotle, but tiio period of its ex- 
tinction is unknown. With tho exception of certain very 
preei])itous and rocky portions, this islan<I is most fertile. 
and its fruits and wines arc excellent. — II. A town on the 
■ above island, situated on a rocky eminence protected by a 
I fort. It is an old town, and many interesting antirjuilics 
exist in the neighborhood. Not long since sonie ancient 
baths, mentioned by Polybius, and confaining fine mosaics, 
were excavated, but they have been reburieil by the |)resent 
. proprietor to escape the annoyance of visitors. The modern 
town, whioh has sufTered scvereH»' from earthquakes, is not 
well built, but it has a handsome cathedral and some re- 
spectable public buildings. The iidnibitants arc skilful 
sailors, and carry on an active commerce with Sicily, etc. 
The port aft'ords good anchorage, though a mole is required 
to make it secure. Pop. in 1874. 12,020. 

Lipctsk% town of European Russia, in the government 
of Tambov, on the Voronezh. It was founded in 1700 by 
Peter tho (ireat, but it derives its chief importance from the 
mineral springs in its vicinity, whieh were discovered in the 
})resent century, and now attract a large number of visitors 
during tho summer. The bathing establishment, with its 
park and promenades, is very beautiful. The manufactures 
of woollens and cloths arc not unimportant. Pop. 14.239. 

Iji]>'pa« town of Hungary, on the Maros. Pop. 6782. 

I^ip'pard((jEORGE), b. near Yellow Springs, Chester co., 
Pa.. Apr. 10, 1822; author of several romances onco quite 
popular. D. ul Philadelphia in 1854. 

Tjip'pe^ or Lip'pe Det'mold, a small principality 
of Germany, between Hanover. Brunswick, nnd Westphalia, 
and comprising an area of 4118 square miles. It is hilly, 
but very fertile, well wooded, and watered by the river 
Worre, an affluent of the AVeser. The southern part is 
covered by tlie Teutoburger AVaKl. famous as the place 
where Arrninins destroyed the Konian legion? under Varus. 
The inhabitants, numbering 1 ll.L">5. belong to the Reformed 
Church, and enjoy a high reputation for their good education 
and intelligent industry. The principal town is Dotmold. 

Lip'pi (Fra Fii.ippo). an Italian artist who flourished 
between 1112 and 1400. Of his personal history little is 
known. In 14.'»2 he wa5 chaplain to the nun? of S. Gio- 
vannino in Florence, and in 1457 rector of S. Quirico at 
Legnaja. The best of his pictures are in Florence, though 
all tho large European galleries contain works from his 
han<l. They are remarkable for riehness of color, vitality 
of feeling, and excellence of drawing. P. at Spoleto. and 
was buried in the cathedral. 0. B. FRorniNfinAM. 

Lip'pincott (Sara Jaxe Ci.arkk), b. at Pompey. X. Y., 
Sept. 28, 1323; educated at Rochester, X. Y., and removed 



58 



LIPPSTADT-LIQUIDS, CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL NATURE, ETC. 



in 1843 to New Brighton. Pa. She wrote verses at an early 
ace, and in 1S44 began to contribute to the New York 
Mirror under the nom de phtme of "Grace (greenwood," by 
whifh she has been long favorably known to American 
readers. In ISJo she was married to Leander K. Lippin- 
cott of Philadelphia, and made an extended tour in England 
and on the Continent. Among her works are Grefnicnod 
Leaves (2d series, 1850), History of my Pets (IS60). Pocme 
(ISjl). Hnpn aud Mishaps of a Tour in Buffhiml (1854), 
Mcrric lCiu/fnHd{\S5b), Stories from FamonH fifill(ids{\^C^O), 
Jlcvordsof Five Years {1867), and A'ew Life in A'eio Lands 
(187;5). She has taken a considerable part in the anti- 
slavery and other reform movements hj' means of lectures, 
and has been frequently engaged as correspondent of lead- 
ing New York papers, in which capacity she has several 
times visited the Pacific States, and resided for a time in 
Colorado. In 1875 she tindertook a second European tour 
as correspondent of the New York Times. 

Lipp'stadt, town of Prussia, in the province of West- 
phnli;i. on tlie Lippe. Pop. 7404, 

Iiips'comb (Anducw A.), D. T>., LL.B.. b. in George- 
town, i>. C, Sept. G, 181(); his father's family went to Vir- 
ginia, and in 1842 he moved to Montgomery, Ala., and at- 
tained great distinctiun as a minister of the Methodist 
Protestant Church; in 1800 was elected chancellor of 
the State University of Georgia, which position he held 
until 1874, when he resigned, to ])reparc for the press 
a more extended work, then in hand, than any of bis pre- 
vious publications. He has recently (Aug., 1S7J) accept- 
ed a professorship in the Vanderbilt University, Nashville, 
Tenu. A. II. Stcphkxs. 

liip'sius {Richard Adelbert), b. at Gera (Reuss), 
Germany, Feb. 14,1830; studied at Leipsic. where in 1850 
he became professor of theology; in 18G1 at Vienna, and 
in 1865 at Kiel. He has published 7'he Pmih'nc Doctrine 
of Justification {185'!), The First Epistle of Clement of Rome 
(in Latin, 1855), On Gnosticism (1860). On the Sources of 
the \\'rilin;/s of Epiphanius (1865), The Catalofjue of Popes 
■in Ensebius (1868), Chronolo/jy of the Bishops of Rome to 
the Middle of the Fourth Century (1869). and numerous arti- 
cles in the Zeitnchrift flir wissenschaftHehe Theolofjie. — His 
father, Karl Heinuk'H Adelbert (1805-61), was a pro- 
fessor at Leipsic, author of a valua!>le work, (jraynmatical 
Studies on Bihlleal Greek. — His brotlier, Jrsrrs Hkrmann, 
b. at Leipsic May 9, 1834, became in 1866 rector of a gym- 
nasium in that city, and has published critical remarks on 
Sophocles (1860 aiid 1867) and Lysias (1864). 

Liqueur' [Fr., "liquor"], a name given to various 
highly-flavored alcoholic or strong vinous liquids. There 
are many kinds, most of which are drunk in small quanti- 
ties after dinner. The best known kinds arc curacoa, 
strongly flavored with orange-peel and various spices; ah- 
sintke, from wormwood and anise ; anisette, from aromatic 
secils; hirseh ica user tind maraschino, irom cherries; cassis, 
from black currants; hummel, from carawa}', etc.; noyau, 
etc., from bitter almiuids. 

Ijiq'uid [Lat. li^fuerc, to "meU."], a consonant formed 
by a closure of the vocal organs greater than the closer 
vowels req\iire. but less than that of the remaining (mute) 
consonants. The liquids arc ir, /, j-, y. Tlicy are subject 
to whispcrcii a-^pir.atinn, as w in uhm or ivh-u--en, y in hric 
or yh-y-"o, and II, rh in Welsh. The consonnuts m, «, nff 
are nut liquids, but nasal mutes. S. S. IIaldeman. 

Liqnidamber. See Gim Trek. 
riq'iiids, Clicmiciil and Physical Nature and 
Properties ot"[** litiuids," from Lat. Hiptrn , to** nu-lt "J. 

1. (Jhfinifc from the Li<piid to th>- S'did St'tte, and the Con- 
verse. — The litpiid j;t;ite is nueof the three states in wliich it 
is generally believed that all matter is capable of existing, 
and is intermediato between tlic solid and the giiseous 
Btates. Considered as that state of matter which forms a 
large part of living animals, as well as the bulk of mobile 
and changing nature, the importance to man of its study 
needs no e,\planaCion. In solids the molecules are main- 
tained in certain relative positions with reference to one 
another, and generally in reference to certain lines called 
axes, which stand, in the same substance, in certain lixed 
angubir positions and Ijcar certain fixed relations of length 
to one another. Jhmce crystalline constitution. Lifiuids 
are formed from these solids hy exposure to a higher lem- 
pernture, hy melting or fusion hy iieat, also by solution in 
some existing liquid ; sometimes, also, by contaet wilh some 
other solid, wilh which a new liquid chcmicnl rompound 
ensues. In all eases of change fr<un the solid to the liquid 
or from the liquid to the solid condition, change of tem- 
perature occurs, sometimes to lower and sometimes to higher 
temperatures; but sf) far no case is known with eertjiinty 
in which simple heating has clianged a liquid into a solirl, 
or simple cooling a scdid into a liquid. It is often, intlecd, 
generally held that, as the general effect of beat oa all 



bodies is expansion, so expansion should generally follow 
the etfect of heat in converting a solid to a liquid, and, ri<c 
versa, that cotitruction should accompany the solidification 
of a liquid by cold. This principle holds probably for 
most, though not for all, of the metols when undergoing 
fusion, but its adoption as a universal principle would un- 
questionably mislead, and the student desirous of acquiring 
insight into the real system of nature should carefully 
avoid adopting it as such. That substance which performs 
the mosf important functions in nature of all, certainly of 
all iu animated nature, water, departs so widely from the 
principle of continuous expansion by heat that when solid 
water, or ice, melts into liquid, 1000 volumes or measures 
contract or condense into 918, or about 8 per cent, less in 
bulk. This is the more remarkable when we consider that 
in the melting an amount of heat-force becomes "latent," 
or inactive upon the thermometer, which would raise the 
temperature of the water, after meltinfj, through 44° F., 
and would expand the 918 volumes to 945. This heat-forco 
continues acting to keep up the liquidity of the water — to 
keep it condensed, in fact ; and when we deprive the water 
of just this amount of heat again, it expands back again 
into ice, through the action, as we may admit, of the crys- 
tallizing forces, whatever these may be. Among other 
cases in which liquefaction takes place with contraction 
of volume are many cases of solutions of solid borlies. In 
liquids the forces still exist that produce crystallization in 
solids, but they are modified in their mode of action into 
radial forces, acting equally in all directions from the 
centre of the mass of the liquid; so that a small body or 
drop of a liquid assumes a spherical form when free to do so ; 
as in a drop of rain, for example. AVhen resting on a sur- 
face or contained in a vessel, the weight of the liquid 
](resses it out of the spherical form, but a curvature of the 
surface always shows that they still act, their resultant 
being what is known as the "contractile force" of liquids. 
The perfect spherical form of a bubble is due to this radial 
or contractile force. (See further under head of Solution.) 

2. Chanf/efrom the Lirjuid to the Gaseous State. — Every 
liquid body is believed to be capable, at a sufiiciently high 
temperature, of jiassing into the third state of matter, the 
gaseous or vaporous condition. The difierenee between 
substances, however, in this respect is so great that while 
we have Itodies whose boiling-points are so low that no 
degree of cold ever produced could condense them into 
liquids, like the gases that chiefly make up the atmosphere, 
there are other bodies, like some of the metals, which, 
while convertible into liquids readily by heat, boil, or become 
vapors only with difficulty at the most violent heats that 
arc producible in the laboratory. In all operations of 
ebullition or vaporization, as in those of fusion, certain 
amounts of heat-energy or motion, variable with the sub- 
stance, become "latent.'' or are needed to keep the body in 
the vapor form, thus expending their force in this wny, so 
that the change of state is itself the only, though sufficient, 
evidence of the existence of the force or motion thus en- 
gaged. This is called " latent " heat of gasifactinn or va- 
porization, the word "latent" being an obiecfionable one, 
because such heat-energy is siifhciently manifested by tho 
jforA-itdoes in keejjing the liquid in a gaseous form. I/rat of 
_f/o8//"at7(on simply is a sufficiently comprehensive term. Thus, 
water, tho typical liquid, kept at 180° F. — that is. so dis- 
posed as to prevent all loss through radiation, or enveloped 
in a medium also at 212° F. — is in a condition tf eurrffy,iis 
compared with ice, represented by the sum of the 212° and 
the 144° of /(ca( of fusion indicated above; that is, of 324°. 
If it be now exposed to a still higher temperature, gaseous 
water or steam will be evolved, and this steam will require, 
as heat of f/asljjrutinn (though its own temperature will bo 
not one degree higher than 212°. that of the water from 
whicli it is formed), enougli heat to raise its own weight 
of cooler water through 998° F. (or so nearly 1000 that it 
is usually so stated in round numbers). This same amount 
of heat-energy, thus rofiuirel to do the work of making tho 
steam and keeping it in the form of steam, would even heat 
this same steam, if alreaily previously formed, through 
2010.5°. by reason of tho far lower tperijtc heat of steam. 

The heats of gasification of other Iif]uids. so far as yet 
known, are never so high as in the ease of water. The 
figures for a few of the commoner liquids, taken at randttm 
as examples, are here given, water being, as above, 966° F. : 

Latent Heats of Vaporization of Liquids at their BoHinrj- 
i*oints : Fahr. Dcijrcr.s. 

Aleoliol STC^ITetrncbJorldc of tin fi.r>o 

Killer HVC Tcrr-lil.irideof phosphorus.fl'.i.riO 

<Jil of turpentine rJliWood spirit 4750 

Acetic aeid IHi^; Fusel oil 'l\9,.rp 

HiMilpliiilo of ciirlion l.WI Acetic clber 100° 

Ht online lS'2°i Butyric aeid 'iOfi..')'* 

(See further on vaporization and ebullition under the hcail 
of Stkam.) 



hKiUUKICK— IJ.SAINK. 



o9 



H. Chnnr/r /mm tkn Gttneaun to thr Liffuid Stntr. — Thin 
kiml ill" <'litifi|<o |ilii>'H vi'ry impDrlunt par'n in tin- fipfni- 
tiiiiirt of Itnlh iiriturn and iirf. fii iiiifiire all fin" li<|iii(I I'.'w- 
culiitiori ol'tho rarrli, without wlili-h no WW could he iiiciin- 
tiiiiiiMl, in kcpr lip iiy tlio i-oiitiiiiiiil coixlriiHiition to tlio 
lifjtiid j'oriii III' ^a.H<*oii»< wiih-r troiii tin- aliiios[)|ii>ri> that IntM 
lii-mi pn-vimi.Hly vaporizcl Iiy Hh' sular heat. fSt'i* articIi-H 
Cmmati; lui'l WiNiis, l>y i*rtnr. Ahsold (Irv.iT,) In art tlio 
oprraMoiiH of iliKtitlaiinn iind conilcrisation t'urniKti import- 
ant illustratlonn, ivnionj^ uliirli Iho recent plupeiidnns cx- 
piinnion nl* (lin reliniii;^ iA' mineral oils eonstituteH (he iTiost 
renuirkahli) example. (See PiiTitni.ci'M, liy IMtor. Chand- 
\.v.\\.) Tlie ilistillation ol" tthnhnl and of Hpin'fH (jeneriiHy, 
of i/in'r/,'iiiftu'r, of cfut!-tnr pr<iilncin, of ui'clt'r. and nitric 
aritfif, ether, rklorofnrm, hiHiilpfiitfc of cni'hon, and many 
othnr ohoinieal arf-j, may bo cited as further fxamplef" of 
roi'ovnry of liiiuid-' from \ aporons forms. (Sim> articde l*is- 
Tli.i.ATioN.) Of tlin ;;reatest intorest (o geience in (he (►!)- 
tairiin'^ of liqnidrt from ;^aHOous ,«nbytancos wtilcli arc not 
ooiidiMixahle by refrigeration alone, a rcHult which is accom 
plisliel by the application of enormouH presHures. Some- 
timps llii>< preNHuru is applied to the gaH directly by means 
of powerful pumpH, but in more frequent ca^'CH in (ho labor- 
atoi'v such litpiid-condenMed j^ascp are procnrcd by causing 
thcni (o lio evidvcil from solid comj)ounda in ono part of a 
closed apparatus of f^reat streni^tb, in another part of which 
they art' condensed by their own force of ebistic cornpr<*R- 
siou info lic|ui<i forms. Among Ihc gases which have been 
thus condensed arc ckltn-inr, ctftuutr/eu, (tmnnniia, carbonic, 
anil iniiri'ttir itridm^ lftiif/hl)ti/ fffin, and olrjinut tfait. Some 
gus;'?, snch as air, rarhmiin u.riilv, mnrtih-ffait, nitric oxidr, 
and hifilrnifrn, refuse to liquery at any prcjisuro yet ob- 
taiiuMl. Some of these may nevertheless exist iit liquid 
form at the enormous pressures that must prevail natur- 
ally in the interior parts of some rocks — marnh-f/an, for ox- 
ample — ^po>Jsibly l)etwcen the laminaj of some coal-beds, 
whi'li evolve enormous volumes of it in tlie form of the 
terrible " lire-damp." 

Another important mode of producing liquids from gases 
is by causing water ov other liquids to take them u\t into so- 
hition. Wa'er 'dissolves nearly if not quite all gaseous bod- 
ies, even those U'lt lifiui-fialiie by cold and pressure, though 
those latter in very small proportion at ordinary pressures. 
The oxygen of the atmosphere, for example, is taken up by 
water in what appears but a small quantity, according to 
Biinscn but ;i per cent, of its volume at the normal temper- 
ature of ()t)° F. ; yet this small pniportion is of immense 
importance in nature. It is through this oxygen that the 
respiratory organs of fishes are supported. Without this oxy- 
gen also from the atinosplicre, all standing fresh waters, and 
oven many moving rivers, would quickly putrefy ami poison 
the earth and air. This;! percent, of oxygen is tho universal 
scavenger, by virtue of wlii('h iilone tho otherwise death-dif- 
fusing process of pulrefaiition is converted inl() one of crc- 
nuira iiHiH, nud water thus enabled to become a jiurifying 
anil life-sustaining agent, /ci/ water absorbs -I per cent, 
of oxygen from the air. The manufacture of artificial min- 
eral and aerated waters, so extensively practised at this 
day, is an instance of a practical application of the con- 
version of gases into liquid forms by combined solution 
and pressure. 

4. Rciati'tufi of Li(/nidn tn (Jravitation. — Under this head 
comes the consideration of daiHitict of liquids. These 
vary greatly, the heaviest known liquid — at normal tem- 
perature — being ifuicfrnitrrr, \:\.5 times as heavy as water; 
and i)robably the lightest, the hifdruret of fnifi//, C^IIjo. of 
Pelouze and Cahours. ot>tained from petroleum, which is 
only just six-tenths as heavy as wafcrat the freezing point 
of tho latter. All tho figures ever determined for the den- 
sities or speeifio gravities of all chemical comi>ounds will 
be found in the invabialile publication of the Smitlisonian 
InsfituMon.ealledlherofM^njMo/^Va^Hrc. comj.iledby Prof. 
l'\ \V. Chvrko of Cincinnati, who in this work has rendered 
a supremo service to science. Tho densities of liquids, 
wliich arc inversely as their volumes, vary of course with 
their temperatures, and thft amount of (his variation of 
volume for each thermometric degree is called the ror/fieient 
of ddutaduu. This vnries usunlly somewhat with the 
temperature, and must Ihereforc. wli'en required accurately, 
bo computed from an algebraic expressii>n. or formula of 
interpolation, as it is called. These formulio nre all calcu- 
lated for tho centigrade scale. As an example mav be 
given the formula for the calculation of the density of 
warer between the freezing-point and 25° C. Calling the 
temperature t°. the volume is equal to 

i_ .oom)r>io(5r° -f .nftoonrris.'iros — .ooooonn;^7.'!4r°3. 

Between LOS" C. ami the freezing point this formula will 
give, instead of a continuous contraction by cooling, as 
above 4.08°, a negative contraction, or positive expnnition, 
a p«'culiiirity of wateramong liquids. On reaching 0° this 
expansion by cold may undergo, if tho water freezes, a 



fttidden and immcnnn incrortRp, nn hnn been ftlrcoily ex- 
plained. It is through this property of w.iter, of expand- 
ing juHt before freezing, and thuft jluntinif t', thr hip an a 
Hurface layer, that only the Murtace of water Holidrfien. and 
not itn whole iiiasH. Were it not for thin, but n narrow 
tropical zone of tho earth would be habitable, and indeed 
it is probable that almost all tho water «d the globe would 
in that case have accumulated at the poletf an two enormoiiM 
ico-oapH. The temperature I. OH** 0. ^'A^.X'.° K., at wbi<h 
tho coelficient of dilatation of water hy heat eliangen iiit 
vign from negative to positive, and which Ih the tempera- 
tuni of nhallow waters under ice in winter, in generally 
deemed the most important fixed or ntnndiird point of 
temperature in nature, from which everything Dtiould be 
calculated. JfcniiitirH are therefore referred to (he dent-ity 
of water at this point of maj-imum drnnittf. The writer 
believes this an error, and that coneluHivo rcasontt exint 
why zero Centigrade, or :{2° F., tho melting-point of ice, 
in tho real standard and initial temperature of chemical 
action and change in nature. 

;*>. Rflatinus tit Ufnt, — (For Mprvi/ir hr.atu of rKpiidfl 8ce 

artich* upon JImat.) f'Jj-piniMion of /,it/in'dM. — In addition 
to what has alreaily been saitl under densities bearing upon 
this, it should also be remarked that tftt^nnoinftrrti are bat-ed 
upon th<' expansion of liquids by heat. (See articIcH TifKie- 
MOMKiuv and PyaoMiiTUV.) 

0. Dijf'iniiin and '/'rtknnpiratioti ftf Liffuidii. — (For diffu- 
sion, see artieicH I)iai,ysih and K.vdosmosk, by PitriP. CiiAXn- 
LKR.) Trannpiratiou. — This term refers to Iho rates nt 
which lifjuids pass through minute orifices or capillary 
tubes under pressure. The following principles were ar- 
rived at by Poiseuilln with the same lirpiid : I. The flow iti 
directly jiroportional to the pressure; 2. In equal limes, 
with tubes of equal diameters, it is inversely as the length; 
.".. With equal lengths it is as tho fourth powers of the 
diameters. Heat increases (he flow greatly. At Il.'t° F. 
the ilow of water is 2.5 times as rapid as at 41°. Alkalies 
all retard tho flow. Other chemical subtanccs dissolved 
have important influences. The application of these in- 
vestigations in physiology and to the flow of the blood 
through tho veins is very important. It is believed also 
to have an important bearing in the study of molecular 
structure. IIknrv Wi'Rtz. 

Ijiq'iiorice, or Licorice [a corruption of the Gr. 
yAuKuppi^a, "sweet root"], the dried extract of Ihc rouls of 
(i/i/( i/rrfiiza i/fabra and cchinata, leguminous herbs of 
Southern Europe, Africa, and Asia, largely cultivated in 
Central Europe. The extract is a har<I, black nmss, con- 
taining a large percentage of an uncrystallizable sugar 
called glycyrrhizine. It is prepared very extensively in 
Spain, Italy, and Russia, and to some extent in France, 
Enghiml, (lermany, and the U. S. It is a valuable demul- 
cent and expectorant medicine, and is extensively cmpl(»ycd 
in flavoring chewing tobacco, as well as in pharmacy as an 
excipient in pill-masses. The hard, woody root is also 
used in medicine and in porter and stout breweries. 
Gltfcyrrhizn ^f/>iV/oM of the Western States has Ihc flavor 
i)f true liquorice, as have Galium virco-zanit, (J. Inncftdafum, 
etc., rubiaceous herbs of the U. S., which arc used in do- 
mestic medicine and called "wild liquorice." 

Li'ria^ town of Spain, in the province of Valencia, in 
a rich and beautiful plain, whicli produces large quantities 
of wine, fruit, grain, and veget.-lbles. Pop. MI2U. 

Lisaine', a small river of France, rises at the stuithem 
termination of the Vosges, flows W. of Ihc fortress of 
lielfort. and enters the Savoureuse, an afHuenl of (he Doubs, 
at Montb^diard. It became famous by the battle which in 
1S7I ragcil here for three days, between the (iermans and 
the French. The German general Von Werder retrtated 
before the French army under Bourbaki (which pushed on 
towards Helfort), and occupied a position to the W. of (his 
fortress, along the Lisaine, in order to prevent the French 
from attacking the German troops besieging Belfort or 
from making an invasion into Southern (ierniany. Von 
Werder had with him about 4.T.000 men, 4S ballaiions. :;0 
squadrons, and I2t> pieces, besides .'17 heavy guns which he 
had taken from the siege artillery before Belfort ; and with 
this force he held a distance <if about (en miles along Ihe 
left bank of tlie Lisaine. which commands the right bank. 
The villages of H^ricourt, Bussurel, Monthrdiard, Frahier. 
and others were barricaded. On Jan. 15, 1S7I, Bourb:iki 
attacked the German position with 12)\000 men. endeavor- 
itig to break through its centre at Bussurel. He succeeded 
in taking this place, and penetrated to Montbeliard. luit 
further the French did not come, and the (Jerman line re 
mained unbroken. A furious artillery contest look place 
at H^'ricoiirt and Luze. On Jan. Ifi. Bourbaki tried to 
surround the right German wing, which was rather weak, 
and he actually threw it back, taking the villages of Fra- 
hier and Chcnebicr. But tho Germans took positions 



60 



LISBON— L'ISLET. 



farther back, and could not be surrounded. It grew dark, 
aud Bourbuki had not reached his aim. He then attempted 
a night attack on the centre, but without success. On 
the morning of Jan. 17 the Germnns attacked at Frahier 
and Chencbier, and the fight lasted the whole day without 
decision. On all the other points the French renewed the 
fight, but with no better result than on the previous da3's. 
Thus, Bourbaki began to retreat on the ISth, aud Von 
Werder undertook to pursue him. The Germans had SI 
ofhcers and 1S47 men wounded and dead ; the French 
about (jOOO. August Niemann. 

I^is'bon [Port. Lhhoa; anc. OH^ipo], capital of Portu- 
gal and residence of its king, one of the most important 
commercial centres and one of the most beautiful harbors 
on earth, with a population of 22^,003 (according to the 
census of 1864, and including the suburbs of Belem and 
Olivaes). lies amphitheatrically on the northern shore of a 
bay, Rada de Lisboa, 4 miles broad, formed by the Tagus 
at its influx into the Atlantic Ocean. Built on the decliv- 
ities of seven hills, with numerous white cupolas and mag- 
nificent monumental buildings towering above the mass of 
4:i,000 houses, interspersed with lovely terraces, Lisbon 
ofi'ers, when approached from the sea, an aspect at once 
charming and imposing. The bay forms a harbor large 
enough to accommodate at the same time all the fleets of 
Europe, and so deep that the largest ships can anchor up 
immediately at its docks. The entrance to this harbor is 
defended by several forts, of which one, consisting of an 
interesting old Moorish tower called Torre de Belem. is situ- 
ated on a sandbank in the bay. The city is 10 miles in circuit, 
and is divided into four quarters — Alhama, Rocio, Bairro 
Alto, and Alcantara — besides several extensive suburbs. 
The old city, especially the quarter of Alhama, has irregu- 
lar, narrow, and dark streets. The newer parts, built since 
the groiit earthquake (Nov. 1, 1755). which did not reach 
Alhama, are more regular and beautiful, and contain many 
palace-like buildings. The finest part is the quarter of 
Riieio, extending along the river aud containing many 
splendid buildings and open places. Among tho squares, 
Pra^a do Commercio is the most remarkable, situated on 
the Ta^us, containing in the centre the equestrian statue 
of Joseph I., and surrounded with magnificent buildings, 
tho exchange, the royal library, the custom-house : also the 
market-place is noteworthy, and the immense placeof Dom 
Podro in the northern part of the quarter of Rocio, bor- 
dered on one side by the monastery of S. Domenico and 
the buildings formerly belonging to tho Inquisition. Still 
farther to the N. stretches the ])ublic promenade. The 
most beautiful streets are Rua Augusta, whicli is the busi- 
ness-centre and contains many fine jewelry shops, Rua do 
Oura, and Hua da Prata. The city has 64 churches and 
about 2011 chapels; the former monasteries, mostly mag- 
nifit'ent buildings, situated at tho most elevated points, are 
now u-!ed for public purposes. The monastery of Belem is 
perhaps the most remarkable building of the city. It was 
fonu'lc*! in 1 ID'.* by King Emanuel the Groat, on the spot 
where Vas<:o da Gama had embarked two years before, and 
its style is a mixture of jMoorish. Byzantine, Norman, and 
Gothic elements. The material is white limestone, which 
has now become yellowish like old ivory. Its decoration 
is exceedingly rich in sculpture ; especially splendid are the 
carvings in Pall iaander- wood, a kind of ornamentation 
which is of frequent occurrence in Portugal. The least 
beantiful part of the building is the church, whoso nave is 
in the Italian style. The wliole building is now used as a 
hti-ijiital for founillings and orphans. The monastery of 
tin- Heart of Jesus is als<) an interesting structure, founded 
in 1770 and proviiled with a splendid cupolaof white mar- 
ble, an imitation of the church of St. Peter in Rome; fur- 
thermore, tho church of the Patriarchs, with its gigantic 
cupola, situated to the N. E. of iMontc do f'astello; the 
marble church of S. R(»quc; the basilica of S. Maria; tho 
cliurch of (Jarmo, in (Jothic style; and the church of S. 
Vincent de Flora, the largest of the city, and the burial- 
jilacc of tho dynasty of Braganza. The most remarkalilo 
palaces are the royal palace of Ajuda. the palace of Nossa 
Henbora das Nocessidades, and the palace of Bemjiosta. 
Other notew<trthy buildings arc tho theatre of S. Curios; the 
nafional theiifre, which was formerly the palace of the In- 
quisition; the arsenal, tho custom-house, the eorn-markot, 
ami the polytechnic school. Th(! scientific institutions arc 
very nunierous; there arc schools of every kind, an acad- 
emy of scienco. a geographicnl academy, a museum of natu- 
ral history, etc. The city receives its water through the 
Alcantara aqueduct, a truly magnificent work, constructed 
by Kmanuel de Miiyn. The main stream comes from tho 
village of Canassas, 2i miles from Ijisbiui, and traverses 
tho valley of Alnantanton thirty-live arches, of which tlio 
largest has a height of 2.'10 feet and ii. diameter of 107 feet. 
Tho promenade on the top of tho aqueduct ofTerH a most 
beautiful viow. Tho Gallegos (Spaniards from Galioia), 



who carry the water from the various fountains throughout 
the city, form acorporation of their own and number about 
30,000. A great nuisance are the unowned dogs, which 
swarm through the streets to the number, it is said, of 
20,000. The hilly surroundings and the mountain-region 
of Cintra are full of charming valleys, interesting peaks, 
and beautiful locations for churches, monasteries, and nuin- 
sions. The industry of the city is not considerable. Gold 
and silver ware is manufactured; spinning and weaving 
establishments, iron-foundries, aud manufactures of chem- 
icals, paper, soap, and steel are in operation. But the com- 
merce is very considerable. To all sides — E. through the 
Straits of Gibraltar into the Mediterranean ; N. along the 
whole coast of Europe ; S, along the western coast of Africa; 
and W. to the countries of America — the sea opens up to Lis- 
bon its splendid roads of commerce. Lisbon had existed 
as a Roman viunicipinin under the name of Felicttas JuUn; 
later on it was taken by the Alnnes and by the Moors. 
When Alfonso, at the head of the crusaders, conquered and 
Christianized the city, it was called Lisboa. In 1580 tho 
duke of Alva occupied it for Pliilip II. of Spain, but in Hj40 
the Spaniards were expelled aud the dynasty of Braganza as- 
cended the throne of Portugal. Nov. 1, 1755, an earthquake 
destroyed the greatest part of the city and killed .^0,000 per- 
sons. In 1807. during the wars of Napoleon, the French held 
the city for a short time, but since a long period of peace has 
greatly promoted its prosperity. August Niemann. 

Lisbon, tp. of New London co., Conn., 6 miles N. of 
Norwich, is traversed by the Norwich and Worcester and 
the Hartford Providence and Fishkill R. Ks., and has im- 
portant manufacturing interests. Pop, 502. 

Ijisbon, post-tp. of Kendall co.. III. Pop. 1150. 

Ijisbon^ post-v, of Allen tp., Noble co.. Ind., on the 
Grand Rapids and Michigan R. R. P<»p. 142. 

Lisbon, post-v. of Franklin tp.. Linn eo., la., on tho 
Chicago and North-western R. R., has I newspaper and 1 
national bank. 

Lisbon, post-tp. of Androscoggin co.. Me., on the 
Androscoggin River aud R. U., S miles from Auburn, in- 
cludes the important manufacturing village of Lislion Falls, 
and has 5 churches, 2 hotels, an incorporated library, a 
large watcr-puwer, an active trade, and manufactures of 
boots, shoes, lumber, woollens, cottons, etc. Pop. 2014. 

Lisbon, post-v, and tp. of Howard co., Md. Pop. 
24t)2. 

Lisbon, post-tp. of Grafton co., N. H., on the Boston 
Concord and Montreal R. R., 105 miles by rail N. N. \V. 
from Concord, and on the lower Ammonoosue River, has 
5 churches, a good trade, and manufactures of starch, lum- 
ber, and wooden wares. Pop. 1844. 

Lisbon, post-tp. of St. Lawrence co., N. Y., on the St. 
Lawrence River below Ogdensliurg. embraces Gallop Ishind 
in tlie river, and contains U churclies and several villages. 
The station is on the Ogdeusburgand LakeChauiplain R.R., 
9 miles E. of Ogdensburg. Pop. 4475. 

Lisbon, tp. of Sampson co,, N. C. Pop. 1389. 

Lisbon, post-tp. of Bedford CO., Va. Pop. 3175. 

Lisbon, tp. of Juneau co.. Wis. Pop. 1670. 

Lisbon, tp. of Waukesha co., Wis. Pop. i;!84. 

Lisbon Fulls. See Lisbon, Mo. 

Lis'burn, town of Ireland, in the county of Antrim, 
on the Lagan, is celebrated for its manufactures of damasks 
and fine linen stulVs, which branch of industry was cstab- 
lislied by a settlement of Huguenots after the Revocation 
of the Edict of Nantes. Pop. 7484. 

Lis^coinb, post-tp. of Marshall eo., la., on tho Central 
Iowa R. R. Pop. 836. 

Lisicux' [anc. Nnvinmftrjuti or Z-c.ror?'nHi],town of France, 
in the department of Calvados, on the Tongue, with largo 
linen and woollen manufactures and a brisk trade iu corn, 
hemp, and cider. Pop. 1.'J,121. 

Lisle, post-v. and tp. of Dmiage co.. 111., on tho Chicago 
Burlington and Quincy R. R., 22 miles W. of Chicago. Pop. 
1270. 

Lisle, post-v. and ip. of Broomo eo., N. Y., 2.'i miles 
N. of Binghamton, on the Syracuse and Binghamton R. R., 
has 2 churches, 1 weekly newspaper, a hotel, a foundry, a 
gun-factory, aud several largo stores. Pnp. aliout 70(1; of 
tp. 2525. Eu^iKXK D.wis, En. " Gi,i;ANi:a." 

Ij'Islet', county of Qunbee, Canada, extending from 
the S. bank of tho St. Lawronco to tho Stato of ]\Iaine. 
Are;i., 1220 S(|uaro miles. It is traversed by the Grand 
Trunk Railway. Cap. St. Jean Port Joli. Pop. i;{,517. 

L'lslet, post-v. of I/Islet CO.. Quobee, Canada, on the 
S. shoie of the SI. Laivi-enee, aud on the Grand Trnnli Kail- 
way, 62 miles below t^uel>eo. has an academy and largo 
lumber trade, and an extensive shipyard. Pop. about lOtiil. 



LI8PAN 8PKIN(J.S-L18ZT. 



*il 



lii.s'pan SpringRf a v. in Bexar di8trict,Tox. Pop. 21, 

liis prn'ilriiM. Uy \h\» cxprcHHion iff iiicnnt in gcneriil 
a nil." |iii\ jiilirii; in i-uiirlH of equity lliut all [HTfonx uro 
HUjipiH'-il to III) itiM{uiiiiilt!(l tvilh tlif f':tct. tliar an aotiun id 
ptMnIiii;;, iiii'l 1(1 liolil any riKli't* ii'-ipiiriMl <liiriiiK ilH ])end- 
oiujy in tlio Muliji'ct wlii<'li tlio iirlion ullri-ts in miliordiiui- 
tion ti) its ro^iilr«. Tlio h^jc'i' "inxini in il.s Latin I'orni 

is limn IlIDio fully hIiiNmI: /'tni/rulr (ifr, tii/iit {ininvttlir 

(■' While an a(!lii)n i» inMnlinj; Mien' niiiHt bi' nn clianK"- in 
Ihu' I'xi.'itin;^ s(at(? nf lliin^.t"). Hy a lt";;al tirtion every 
onii who acquirofl tho prnin rty afTucted Ijy tho suit wliilo it 
it4 lit* nilin>; has a" constrnrtivn " or throretical noticuof tho 
litiiiation, whii'h hv caiinuL j^iiinsay ur (I»'iiy. 

The Iriir si'()|K! of lliis luh- IniH hron fiTtpi'-ntly iniHiindcr- 
sIoimI. It luis hern siip|ir)Hcd I>y sonic that it was based 
mainly on tlm idoa just ri-ffvi't'il to, that every one must he 
nndorslood to have knowh-il^jo of all tluit \n tranM|iiring in 
a court of jiitftioe, and accnrdinj^ly to bo alleelrd by the re- 
fined idciis prevailinj^ in eourlH of equity coneerning etni- 
struotivo notice. {Scms Noiici:.) This, however, in not tho 
real ground of tho rule. The truo view of it is not merely 
that it is notice, but that it is necessary to tho correct ad- 
ininislration of justice that a decision of tho cause should 
be liiuflin!^ not. only on tlie liti^^atinK pjirties. but also on 
those who derive title from llieni during the course of tho 
action, whotlier with notice of tho suit or not, Tho object 
of such a rule is to bring litigation to an end, to prevent 
new suits, and to lead tljt^ existing c<)Titroversy to a close. 
It will ho thn;' seiMi that a principle of public policy enters [ 
liirgely into the case. The theory of the rule is well ex- 
pounded in the caso of /irtfamy v. Sitbinc, 1 Do Gex and 
Jones's Reports (English), JJOti. 

As would be expected from tho form of the maxim, it 
only has application while tho action is pending. After 
tho decree has been obtained, tho ends of public jtolicy 
have been subserved. As K)ng ago as tho time of Lord 
Chancellor Ilardwicko it was said, "There is no such rule 
in this court [equity] that a [final] deerco maile hero shall 
bo an implied notice to ii- pur(dinser after a cause is ended ; 
but it is the piMidcncy of the suit that creates the notice, 
for as it is a transaction in a 8<ncreign court of justice, it 
is supposed all people are attentive to wliat passes there, 
and it is to ])revent a greater mischief thnt would arise by 
people's purchasing a right under litigation and then in 
contest." 

This doctrine is peculiarly apj)rK'ablo to litigations con- 
eerning real estate. It does not appear to have been re- 
sorted to in England to atVect tho title to per.sonal property. 
There are simie cases in tho courts of this country which 
have extended it to that class of interests: if it is to be 
applied to these, it would serin clear that coniniereial paper 
and corporate stocks should be exeinpteil from its op<'ra- 
tion. Such appears to have been tho view of ('hanccllor 
Kent, for while in his judicial ehnractor ho a])plied the 
rules of fit prndrnH to a contested title to a mortgage, which 
is not tho subject of ordinary ccunnierce, bo remarked that 
he was not prepared to extcm) it to commercial paper not 
due. It is plain that there oould bo no safety in coinmorcia! 
dealings if it were necessary, in tlie rapidity with which 
such transactions are ordinarilv am] almost necessarily con- 
ducted, to inquire whether an action concerning title to the 
property dealt in were pending in some court of equity. 
Tho rule is a hard anrl harsh one in some of its aspects. 
It is uudoubteiUy beneficial in its relation to real estate, luit 
no element of public policy can bo found as a reason for 
extending it to commercial transactions. On these general 
grounds it has, in reference to stocks anrl notes, been re- 
jected in the appellate courts of New York and of some 
other States, It should bo added that a purchaser is not 
bound by the rule to take notice of an equitable action or 
suit pending in the courts of another State or country. 

To alleviate the harshness of tho " ct>nstructivc notice" 
lastened upon a purchaser by force of this rule, it is eom- 
ninn to regulate it by statute as fur as real estate is con- 
cerned. The substance of tho legislation is. that written 
norlL-e of the pendency of tho action is to bo filed in a 
designated ofTicc. giving suflicient information of the names 
of tho litigants, the property nflccted, and the object of tho 
litigiition. Constructive notice is given from the time of 
the tiling. (Consult for further information the statutes of 
the respective States, and the treatises of Storv, Adams, 
and Willard on &/ki\(/ JurhprHdcnrc.) T. W. DwiGHT. 

Lis'sa, an island in the Adriatic, in Int. 43° 10' 11" 
N.. Ion. ;!:!° or E.. between Italy and Dalmatia. and be- 
longing to the latter. The fortilieations of its two harbors 
^especially of that upon the E. side, near the small town 
of liissa — are so strong that they almost rival those of 
-Malta. This island was an important naval station under 
tho Romans, a stronghold of corsairs during tho Middle 
Ages, an emporium of contraband English merchandise 



during (he warn of Nnpoloon, and has rftcently nttrnetcd 
attention from the di'feat f^tiHtained here by tho Italian 
squadron in tho war of \Hm. Pop. about Plbo. 

LiHSU, town of IViiMsiu, in tho province of Poncn, has 
large liqueur, wax. and (ohnccu factoriof*, u celebrated bell- 
foundry, and extensive manufactures of woollen and linen 
fttufl's. In the uixteenili century it wa.H tho chief neal of (bo 
IJobemian lircthren. Pop. 10,020. 

I»iKt n-'iiinnnn II), b. Aug. 0, 1789, at Uoutlingen, in 
Wiirtemberg; was appointed profeiiMor in political econo- 
my at tho University of TUbingen in ISl", but gave np 
this position in ISIK, in order to work in a more direct 
aiicl pra(!tical way for the development of (jermnn industry 
and eommercc. Having been elected a member of (ho diet 
of Wiirtemberg, ho exposed in a pe(ilion (o (ho govern- 
ment the vices of the administration, and was eondomned 
in 1822 to ton months' imprisonment. Jle lied, and lived 
for some time in Switzerland and AIf>aco, but returned 
home in 1821, and was put in Asperg. Ah he declared (hat 
ho wislied to, emigrate to America, ho wa« pardoned after 
a short time, and ho now settled in Pennsylvania, where 
ho .soon attracted tho attention of tho most prominent men 
by his work, Oiittlncs uf a Nvao SffHHm of /*olitiriit /U'-niio- 
m// (1827), in which ho attacked tho ideas of Adam Smith, 
and a'lvocatcd an economical development on iin exclu- 
sively national basis. Having discovered a rich depri-.it of 
anthracite on his grounds, he founded the two towns of 
Tamaqua and Port Clinton, and returned in \H',y.i to Eu- 
rope in possession of an indepen<lent fortune; settled first 
in Hamburg, then in Leipsic, and at last in Aug.^^hurg, and 
began to agitate for the formation of a system of railway 
lines as the only suitable means of transportation. His 
writings. (Jeter dan sUv/tHiitchc EtHcnhtthuHifstem ( 18.33), Uebcr 
ei'n (Ifiitschea national I'l-amtportni/fitfin (1838), besides a 
large number of minor articles in tho papers, were by no 
means without inlluence. but his ideas were too new and 
too far advanced to be fully appreciated ; and as his nego- 
tiations in Kngland for the cstaldishment of a comprchen* 
sivo commercial alliance between that country and Ger- 
many failed, ho was seizccl with molaneholy, and shot him- 
self at Kupstein. in Tyrol, Nov. 30, I8JG. {Gcmimmeltcn 
Scri/tni, 3 vols., 1850-31,) 

Lis'ton (John), b. in London. England, 1776 ; was edu- 
cated in Dr. Barrow's school, and beeamc sceond master 
of St. Martin's school, whence ho was expelled for taking 
part in stage-plays with the pupils. Ho then went upon 
the stage, and became one of tho best c<«>mic actors in Eng- 
land during tho first third of the present century. His 
fame is celebrated by Lamb, Hooi], and all the wits of the 
perlotl. Ilis reign at the Ilaymarkot began in 180;'), at 
Brnry Lane in 1S23, and at the Olympic in 1S3I. He left 
the stage in 18:i7. and d. Mar. 22*, 18(G.— His wife (Miss 
TyiiKii), though of almost dwarlish stature, was a favorite 
actress as well as singer. 

Liston (Robrrt), F. R. S., b. at Ecclesmachan, Scot- 
land. 17514 : studied medicine in Edinburgh and London; 
practised at Edinburgh LSlS-I^ia; was lecturer on anatomy 
and surgery and surgeon to the infirmary : became profes- 
sor of clinical surgery at University College, London, LS.'Jo; 
surgeon to the North London Hospital in ISl.'t: examiner 
to the College of Surgeons 1810. 1). Dec. 7, 1847. Dr. Lis- 
ton was one of the ablest and most successful of operative 
and clinical surgeons, and wrote several able professiocal 
treatises. 

Listow'ellf a V. of Perth cc, Ont., Canada, on tho 

Maitland River, is a very important trading centre, and 
ships large quantities of grain. It has 1 weekly and 1 
monthly publication. Pop. of sub-district, 970. 

Liszt (Franz), b. at Raiding, in Hungary. Oct. 22, 
1811, His father, an accountant or steward of Prince 
Estcrhazy, but of musical tasto sufficient to appreciate the 
astonishing talent of his son, put him to the piano at six 
years of age. At nine he gave a concert, nnd so much in- 
terested certain noblemen that he was sent for instruction 
to Vienna. There ho studied for eighteen months with 
Czeniy and Salieri, making such progress that he gave a 

{lublic concert in Vienna: emboldened by hrilHant success, 
lis father in 1823 took him to Paris: refused admission to 
tho Conservatoire as a foreigner, he gave concerts and 
played before the duke of Orleans till the musical world 
was wild with enthusiasm. Flattery might have spoiled 
him had not his father held him severely to his work, com- 
pelling him. it is said, to execute daily twelve fugues of 
Rach. transposing them in different keys. In 1824-25 tho 
boy achieved triumphs in the provinces and in England. 
At this time f lS2o) he composed an opera. Lc Chatrau dm 
Amount, which has disappeared. Again in Paris, he look 
lessons in composition of Reiehn. In 1S27 his father died, 
and Franz fell into a morbid state, gave himself np to ro- 



62 



LITAKER— LITERARY PROPERTY. 



tnantic fancies and religious enthusiasms, became a St. 
Simonian, aud in ISiJO composed a Sj/mphonie revolntian- 
iiaire, which was never published. This condition lasted 
two or three years. The playing of Paganini revived his 
passion for art, aud made him resolve to be the Paganini 
of the pianoforte. His hibors were renewed, and liis 
triumphs also. He astonished Europe with his mastery of 
the instrument and the ease with which he executed the 
most difficult works of Bach. Handel, Beethoven, and 
"Weber. His gift at improvisation was as wonderful as his 
power of execution. As a pianist he is reputed the greatest. 
In 1S48 he was made Kapellmeister at Weimar. Honors 
came thick upon him. The cities of Odcnburg and Pesth 
presented him with the rights of citizenship ; the Hun- 
garian nobles gave him a sword of honor: the king of 
Prussia made him a member of the order of Merit; the 
faculty at Konigsberg created him doctor of music; the 
grand duke of Saxe- Weimar appointed him chamberlain; 
in 1S4.'> he was decorated with the Legion of Honor, and 
in 1801 was raised to the rank of commander. On Apr. 
25, ISfio, Liszt received the clerical tonsure in the chaiiel 
of the Vatican, and is now an abhc. His devotion to the 
Church is entire; in ISOO it was reported that he had pre- 
sented to the pope 20,000 francs, the proceeds of a concert 
at Ratisbon. Jlis art is now consecrated to religion. 
Grand masses of his composition, of the modern rather 
than of the ancient style* have been performed in the 
churches of France, Germany, and Hungary. Liszt was 
an admirer, patron, and friend of Richard AVagner, to 
whom he gave one of his two daughters in marriage; the 
other, wife of Etnile OUivier, is dead. The works of the 
artist consist of Fnutntind, Poemes Si/mphoniquen (12 in 
number), Fatixt. and the Dln'nn Commedi'i, grand sympho- 
nies, two oratorios, Die Hriliye EHzaheth and Christus, aud 
variations innumerable. He is a writer as well as a musi- 
cian, and in the department of literature as well as of art. 
In the Gazette Musica/c he carried on a controversy with 
Tiialberg; in 1Sj2-54 published a Life of Cho]>in and 
e??avs on the Tanuhauser and Lohoifjrin of Wagner; in 
]S,')'J a diss(;rtation on linhemianH and their Music in Hiin- 
f/arif. Though a facile composer, Liszt has preferred play- 
ing other music than his own at concerts. He is a man of 
ardent impulses and lavish generosity. His instrumental 
music has more tumult than grace, more force and noise 
than delicacy, and often only the mastery of instrumenta- 
tion saves it from the reproach of being grotesque and 
fantastical. His vocal compositions have little reputation. 
For several years Liszt resided in Rome, but since 1871 his 
home has been at Pesth, in his native land, where he en- 
joys a pension of £6U0 a year aud a noble position. 

0. B. Frothinghah. 

liit'aker, tp. of Rowan co., N. C. Pop. 1508. 

Lif'aiiy [Gr. Xtrai/eia, '•supplication"], in the liturgical 
aerviees of tiic Christian churches a name applied to various 
8U])plieatory acts addressed to God or to the saints, or both, 
but applied especially to solemn prayers in which the peo- 
ple take responsive parts. Tlie principal litany of the Ro- 
man Catholic Ciiurch is the Litany of the Saints; the An- 
glican churches have a service called the Litany and Suf- 
frages ; the Lutherans and some other Protestants have 
litanies. On some occasions the Greeks and Roman Cath- 
olics and some Anglican parishes intone the Litany during 
a proL'pssion of the people. 

Ltitch'field, the north-westernmost county of Connec- 
ticut. Area, UOO square miles. It is broken by the Green 
and Taconic mountain-ranges, here represented by hills, 
among which are the highest points in the State. The val- 
leys atford very fine pastur.age, and are gener.ally fertile. 
Dairy products, live-stock, wool, grain, and tobacco are the 
sfaples. Carriages, Hour, lumber, iron, met:illic wares, ag- 
ricultural tools, hardware, clothing, Iciither, cutlery, and 
edge tools are extensively manufactured. The Housatonic, 
the Xaugatuck, and other streams afford abundant wator- 
])owcr. Iron ore is extensively mined. The county i.s trav- 
ersed hy the Connecticut Western, the Nuugatuck, and the 
Housatonic R. Rs. Cap. Litchfield. Pojt. 48,727. 

liitehndd, post-v. and tp., cap. of Litchfield oo., Cunn., 
on the Naugatuck K. R., ;tO miles W. of Hartford, between 
the Xaugatuck and Shepaug rivers, is situated on high 
ground near a beautiful lake, the outlet of which afT(trds 
excellent water-power. The town contains live post-vil- 
lage.4— Bantam Falls, Kast Litchfiebl, liitchlield, Milton, 
and .Vorthfield. The central village is the northern terminus 
of the Shepaug H. R., has the county buildings. 4 churches, 
.'J hotels, 2 banks. 2 weekly newspapers, t^cveral schools, a 
private lunatic asylum, paper-mill, i)i!-mill, satinet-factory, 
and furnaces for smelting an<l relining nickel ores, wliich 
are found in the vicinity. The Hernery in the vicinity is 
eminently picturesque, and the village is slmder] with an- 
cient elms. It was from 1784 to 1S3S the scat of tho most 



celebrated law-school in America, founded by Judge Tap- 
ping Reeve, and conducted after his death (182;') by his 
associate, Judge James Gould, by whose name it was gen- 
erally known during its later existence. It was also the 
suat of the first ladies' seminary in America. Litchfield has 
two parks, one of which contains a line soldiers' monument. 
Pop. of tp. ■^\\'^. 

Litchfield, city and tp. of Montgomery co., 111., 47 
miles N. E. of St. Louis, Mo., and 42 miles due S. of 
Springfield, at tlic intersection of the Indianajiolis and St. 
Louis and the Toledo Wabash and Western R. Rs., on the 
western edge of the Shoal Creek basin, has churches, 2 
banks, 2 weekly newspapers, 2 hotels, :\ flouring-mills. 3 
grain-elevators, a foundry and machine-shop, extensive 
car manufactory and repair-shop, a coal-mine, an Ursuline 
convent, flourishing public schools, and a Holly system of 
waterworks. It derives its prosperity from its manufac- 
tures, its production of coal, and large grain-trade. Found- 
ed 1854, incorporated 1859, Pop. of city, 3852: of tp., ex- 
clusive of city, 1746. H. A. Coolidge, Ed. "Monitor." 

Litchfield, post-v., cap. of Grayson co., Ky., on the 
Elizabuthtown aud Paducah R. R. Pop. 314. 

Litchfield, post-tp. of Kennebec co.. Me., 14 miles S. 
W. of Augusta, has 4 chnrche?, an academy, and manufac- 
tures of farming tools, bricks, carriages, etc. Pop. 1500. 

Litchfield, post-tp. of Hillsdale co., Mich., has 1 news- 
paper. Pop. l'J46. 

Litchfield, post-v. and tp., cap. of Meeker co., Minn., 
78 miles W. of St. Paul, on tlic main line of the St. Paul 
and Pacilic R. R., has 5 churches, 1 weekly newspaper, 3 
hotels, 1 bank, a steam fluuring-mill, a furniture-factory, 
good schools, and a IJ. S. land-office. The village is only 
four years old, is rapidly growing, has fine water-power, 
and is the centre of a rich, well watered, and wooded agri- 
cultural district, noted for fine stock. Pop. of v. 353; of 
tp. 841. Frank Daggett, Ed. "News-Ledgcr." 

Litchfield, tp. of Hillsborough co., N. H.. on the E. 
bank of the Merrimack River, 14 miles below Manchester, 
Pop. 345. 

Litchfield, post-tp. of Herkimer co., X. Y., has several 

mineral springs, of vi'hich the Columbian Springs are best 
known. Pop. 1384. 

Litchfield, post-tp. of Medina co., 0. Pop. 860. 

Litchfield, post-tp. of Bradford co., Pa. Pop. 1256. 

Li'tchi, or Li'chi (Xcphelium litchi), a fruit of the 
family Sai'INDAci:,*: {which see), found only in China and 
Cochin China. It grows in clusters npnn a small tree re- 
sembling a horse-chestnut, is globular, about an inch and 
a half in diameter, and contains a sweet edible pulp with 
the arillus enclosing tho solitary seeiL Tliis fruit is highly 
valued by the Chinese, who dry it for preservation, in 
which form it is often found in tho stores in small quan- 
tities. The lonijnn and rambuton, fruits much priz'd in 
China, but not exported or found elsewhere, arc of the 
same family. 

Lit'erary Prop'erty. This is a general expression 
used to set forth tho ownership which an author has in his 
works, without reference to the point whether he claims it 
under a copyright or not. It accordingly inclinlcs the 
ownership of unpublished or manuscript works, letters, 
and, by analogy, pictures and statues. Inventions adapted 
to some practical use are not embraced in this article under 
this head. (See Patents. For the invention of a designa- 
tion of property whitdi may itself become the subject of 
ownership, see Tradk-mauks.) A convenient arrangement 
is to treat the subject of "literary property" under two 
principal divisions: I. Rules of the common law as to 
ownership in unpublished manuscripts and subjects of a 
kindred nature : IT. Statutory rights (or copyright). 

I. It cannot be successfully disputed that if a person 
composes a literary work, and does not choose to publisli it, 
he has as complete an ownership in it as if he bad produced 
a watch or other chattel. Conceding that be has no vested 
right simply in his ideas, ho docs have a title to them con- 
sidered in reference to the outward torm in which they are 
clothed. Accordingly, the regular legal remedies for tho 
violation of rights of property would be ap]dicaldc, and 
the usual incidents of property would attach. Still, for 
special reasons, unpublished writings cannot be taken by 
creditors in payment of debts. (Hnrtlrtt v. Crittcndrti, C) 
McLenn. 32.) A decree of Louis XV. of France of May 
21, 1740. in favor of tho French tragic poet, Crebillon (the 
produce of whose play while acting at the theatre was taken 
for his debts), declaring that tho productions of tlic mind 
are not auKuig elTects seiz-able liy creditors, is noticed by 
the elder Disraeli as a high honor to literature. (Cnri- 
onificH of Litrraturr. ii. 1!»2.) An owner of this kind of 
property can sell it or dispose of it hy will, or it may jiass 



MTKHAKY PKOPKHTY. 



to his rcpruson till i von at Imk douth in llio or<liiiary courHo 
ul' 8Ui!(jL'><»inri. Tliu (ilVuct of (ho net of (idilrcHHiu^ ri Iulti;r 
by ail iiiithcir to ii uorrcMpuriUoiit li:in Ijrou !'n;<{Ui*iitly oon- 

HiiliTC'l l)y<''Mir(s of juxtiuc. 'I'Ih! n-siiU of the iliHuiiMMioiiit 
is, Ihiit whilu ihr iiuthor puris with rhi- jMip'-r on which tlio 
Uglier is writturi, h(i Hfill rotiiiiiH iiri ownrrfhip iti the Huiili- 
iiii'iitH iiml oxprcMfioiiH. My thin flivitlcd ownership tho 
rt^M'ivrr iH entitled to tho lottiT coiiHidorocl nn an aiilo;(niph, 
while if ho puhlinhurt Iho oontciitH ho may ho pur>uod hy 
ail aolion in ooiirt. Thti ownornhip of the roooivor i8 cor- 
poreal, that of (ho aiillior is iiieorpoi-iNil. The Haino rentilt 
would liappon if ono should addrexH in wrilint^ a pooni cir 
othor lltiTiiry work to a frioml. A dii^tiiietlon hetwoon llio 
owncr.''lup of tho pajx^r and of \\ui poem woiihl immedialely 
flprinif up. Some jiiristH havo oonlini-d tho applicahility 
of this nilo to h'Il('rs liaving a literary ohara'-ttir. It is, 
hiiwnver, holiovod tliat IhiK di>«lino(ion Is not niaintainabh.', 
antl liiat in general a letter cannot ho published hy ils re- 
ooiver or any other porson withottt tho cuuHcnt of tlie 
author, unless it may bo to vindieato tho roceivor'a charac- 
ter or to suliservo tho ends of public justice. 

One of tho most im))orraiit inslanc(!S, iu tlio [trnctical 
administralioii of justice, of this form of literary ]iropert3' 
ifl an unpublished play. A (Composer of such a work may 
keep it nhsolutoly to himself, an<l make it as completely 
liis own ns iiiiy other species of property. So ho may by 
appropriate acts trauso it to bi-eomc common property ancl 
wholly alianilon ownership. In such u cjiso he is «aid to 
"dodioiito" it to tho public. Tho act of dedication must, 
bo distiuLit jind unequivocal, ancl cannot bo presuniotl from 
tho Um'X that ho permits it to be e\hil»ited on the sta^jjo in 
tho iudin:iiv manner. The most that can bo clnimod from 
such an exhildtion is, that any person having tho ri;;ht to 
attend upon it may carry away wiih him as nnicli as he is 
ahlo fiom liis unassisted momory, and may thus by nican.s 
of his nietnory reproduce the piny upon ihostiige. As to 
the I.ist lir;uieh of tliis proposition, even, there wouhl seem 
to be some doiil)t, since it m:iy lie plau>ibly maintained 
that all that tho author intends to concede to the hearer is 
tile riii^ht to tho jiersonal enjoyment or instruction of tho 
uci'!isi(ni. However this may be, it is clear that there is no 
implied lieiuso to the au<licnc<i to take notes, and I)y this 
means obtain suflieient knowledge of the play to represent 
it. If an actor becomes himself tlie author of a play, his per- 
furmaneo of it in public, or that of a theatrical company, 
with his consent, lor a compensation, cannot be regarded 
as any evidence of his abandonment of tho manuscript to 
the public or to tho i)rofi.s.-ion (pf actors. Such a special use 
of an unpublished work for tliu author's benefit is ])erfcctly 
oousistent with tho continuance of an ownership in it. 

Riglits of this? kin<l iippcrlain to aliens as well as citizens, 
having nothing (o do with tho statutes of copyright, and 
aro accordingly of great consequence to foreign and non- 
resident autliors, wiio, being unable by our lav»".s to acquire 
It statutory copyright in their works, may still, by virtue 
of their ownership of an unpublished ])lay, maintain an 
exclusive right to represent it upon tho stage. Similar 
suggestions may bo made as to lectures, whether written or 
oral. The act of delivering tliem before an audient^e con- 
fers no right upon tho hearers to put copies of them on sale 
without the author's consent. Properly in lectures is pro- 
tected in Mngland by a special statute (,j and Will. IV. 
0. (>-")). Tho author in this country must rely upon general 
principles of law.iinil may resort to an injunc-tion oi- action 
for damages. So tho exhibition of a statue or a picture 
gives no license to a spectator to multiply eopieg and place 
them upon sale. These rules do not admit of evasion by 
tho unauthorized production of abridgments of manu- 
scripts or copies of works of art reduced in size. 

Notwithstanding what lias been said, it is clear that an 
author of a manuscript, etc. may absolutely lose all pro- 
prietary right in it by unequivocal acts of dedication to tho 
public; as, c. 7., by placing ])riuted copies of it on sale 
without obtaining copyright, or by obtaining a copyright 
in a foreign country and selling the work there. 

Literary property may, in tho stage of ownership now 
under consideration, bo assigned, so that a distinction will 
spring up between an author and a mere proprietor. The 
sale of a manuscript will in general give the purchaser all 
tho rights which tho author of it. considered as an owner 
of an unpublished work, wcmld possess. Whether he could 
take out a copyright or not could not be determined ivs a 
mere matter of reasoning, but would depend on the special 
provisions of the copyright statutes. 

A question of some ditUcully has arisen as to the point 
whether any legal protection can be given to a literary 
unjiuldished work which is unsound on the score of moral- 
ity or contains doctrines subversive of public policy. This 
queslion must not bo confounded with ono which may 
arise under copyright statutes, as tho con^idc^ations in 
the two cases aro quite different. In tho latter case there 



is HomvtimoH a distinct provlnion that the c<>p> iighi thall 
not )>roiect an immoral or libi-lluuA pnliticai:on. Af lo 
thti eafio of u manuMeript, il would tippoar that Ibu tol 
lowing iliHiiiiotion nhould bo inado : no proleorion nhuuld 
be givun to tho author by the court* which would eniible 
him to make bin immoral work llioHuureo of gain or profit. 
On tho other hand, if bo ftimply deitireii to roiuin hie right 
of property — e-, 7, t(» prevent olherH from publiitliiiig it 
altogether, tiH well as to relruin hiinfclf — awry cohDidt r 
ation of justice and uxpedioney requiroH that ho nliould bi 
permitted to do so. SuppoHo (lint a porcon while in lb' 
imnniturity of his poworf compoxcK a work oxtravugaiit or 
immoral in itit view»i of the rights of tiocieiy or of indivitj 
uals, but that in later life his opinioim arc changed, and he 
comes to view with abtiorrcncc doclrinoH that he oner 
warmly iifiproved, and he findu that Home pernon iigaiuft 
his consent haB olitained posscHHlon of his manuMcript imd 
is about to publish it; shall ho bo prevented by law Ironi 
suppressing Huch a publication ? (ircat jnrihtt* have nn- 
MWored this question in the anirmative, on the theory that 
there rrm he uo pntp*:rli/ whatever tii such a mariU'-cript. 
Their reasoning is unsatisfactciry and inconcluhive, and the 
true view would seem to be (hat the author is ^lill the 
owner of the work, considered merely a« an item of prop- 
erty, but cannot invoke tho aid of tho courts to enable liim 
to make profit from that which is inherently vile and baeo. 

The reriieiiies for the violation of the (proprietary rights 
of an author being given by the common law, may bo 
sought in the State courts, notwithstaoding a U. S. ftatute 
allows an action against a person who publishes a inan- 
uscrijit without tlio consent of the autlmr or proprietor, 
such author, ete. being a citizen of the U, S. or a resident 
therein. Il will be observed that tho terms of this statute 
are not so comprehensive as the rule of (he common law, 
as it confines the remedy to a " citizen or rt-eident," and it 
appears to have been enacted for tho benefit of those per- 
sons only who aro entitled to the statutory copyright, 
Kemcdios, so far as this act extends, arc cumulative, and 
may be sought cither in the U. S. or State courts. 

II. Stntntory Copifn'tf/tt, — By this term is meant an exclu- 
sive right given by statutory' law to an author or proprietor 
to multiply copies of his work and place liiein on sale, and 
in tho case of a play the adtlitional exclusive right of rep- 
resentation on tho stage. Without this statutory pnttection 
tho act of publication would be regarded by the courts as a 
dedication of tho work to the jmblie, and accordingly de- 
structive of the author's right of property. The policy of 
tho copyright law is to give tho author, etc. protection in 
the sale of his work for a specified period, and then iu throw 
its publication open to all. This theory is marked out 
in the U. S. Cousiitution, which gives power to Congress 
to secure to authors the exclusive right to their works for 
"limited times." The whole subject is under the control 
of Congress, and any legislation of a State affecting copy- 
right wonld be inoperative and void. The result is, that 
if an author does not choose to publish his right to his 
manuscript is perpetual, and may bo vindicated iu courts 
of law on general principles of justice ; if he prefers to 
publish, ho brings himself within tho purview of the law 
of Congress, must have his right onl3' for such time as the 
statute prescribes, and must seek bis remedies exclusively 
in tho U. S. courts. 

In general, any thing may be copyrighted which is the 
subject of literary ownership. More sjiecifically, the term 
*' copyright," as used in the existing enactments of Con- 
gress, applies to books, maps, charts, dramatic or n)u:^ical 
compositions, engravings, cuts, prints, photographs and their 
negatives, paintings, drawings, chromos, statues, statuary, 
and models or designs intended to be perfected as works 
of the tine arts. The words *' engraving," *' cut," or '* print," 
as hero used, are to bo applied only to works connected 
with the fine arts or to pictorial illustrations, and are not 
to be extended to ])rint3 or labels designed to be used for 
otherarticlesof manufacture. These last may be registered 
in tho patent othcc. In determining whether one of the 
above-named subjects can in a particular case be copy- 
righted, it is necessary to consider how far it must be orig- 
inal with tho professed author. There are some composi- 
tions of such a high and elevated character that the ques- 
tion of originality cannot he successfully raised. Il is con- 
ceded by all mankind. On the other hand, that there arc other 
works of a much humbler sort, but still of a highly merito- 
rious and useful nature, in which all the materials are ex- 
isting in literature, and are well known to intelligent men. 
and open for resort to any one, and the only original fca- 
ture is found in the selection, arrangement, or combinatioD 
of materials. Instances of this kind are works on gram- 
mar, arithmetic, or geography, maps, charts, etc. etc. These. 
so tar as they aro tho result of the work of the compiler or 
•• author." are the subjects of copyright. He has nocl.iim, 
however, to the materials which he did not originate. Any 



64 



LITERARY PROPERTY. 



other person may resort to them and prepare a work from 
them, but he must not make use of the copyrighted book 
as a mode of collecting his materiats. His correct course 
is to resort to the original sources of information. An illus- 
tration of these principles may be found in the ease of a 
law reporter. He can have no copyright in the opinions 
of the judges, as of these he is not the author, while he 
mi<;ht lay claim to a statement of the facts of the case, as 
well as to an abstract of the decision prepared by himself. 
A translator of a foreign work not the subject of a copy- 
right here may have a copyright, as he is for practical pur- 
poses an '* author." Any other person may translate the 
same work, and have himself a copyright. It was even 
held under the former law that a person might have a copy- 
right in the translation of a work copyrighted here, though 
such translation were made without the author's consent. 
This rule was applied to an unauthorized translation into 
German of Mrs. Beechcr Stowe's well-known work, Cttrfe 
Tom's Cabin. This anomaly has been corrected by a recent 
change in the law which permits an author in taking out a 
copyright to reserve the right of translation as well as of 
dramatization of his own works. So in the case of music, 
the composition of a new air or melody is sufficiently orig- 
inal, but it must be substantially a new work, and not a 
copy of a piece alrea<ly in existence, with only such varia- 
tions as any skilful composer can make. Under these 
rules there can be no copyright in a subject, but only in a 
particular mode of treating it. For example, one cannot 
obtain in this way an exclusive right to make maps of the 
city of New York, though he might acquire one in the re- 
sults of his own labors and surveys. Any other person 
may make a like map from his own independent labors and 
surveys. 

The word " book," as used in this class of laws, has a 
wide meaning. It is not restricted to volumes, but may 
include a single sheet. It has even been decided that for 
this purpose a sheet of paper containing diagrams repre- 
senting a system of tnking measures for and cutting ladies' 
dresses, with instructions fur ])ractical use, is a "book." 
There can be no copyright in a mere title as uneonnecled 
with a book. Where, however, a title is used to designate 
a work, particularly a periodical, it may become of great 
value, which will be administered by the courts under the 
law applicable to the ** good-will" of tratlein analogy to the 
rules appertaining to *' trade-marks." (See Tradk-marks.) 

There is a peculiarity to be noticed in the case of a copy- 
right of a dramatic composition. In this ease it is not 
merely an exclusive right to multiply copies for sale, but 
also to publicly perform or represent the play upon the 
stage. The term ''dramatic composition," as tiuis used, 
includes all the parts which go to make up a scene in a 
theatrical representation ; e. rj. gestures, spoken words, etc. 
A character in a play who, according to the part assigned 
to him. goes through with a series of events without speak- 
ing, making use of motions and gestures, is as much an 
actor as one who uses his voice, and the one part must be 
regarded as embraced within the expression *' dramatic 
composition " as well as the other. The only difference in 
tht; two parts is, that the one addresses the eye, and the 
other the ear of the spectator. 

Under the existing law of the U. S. an author is not en- 
titled to a copyright here unless he is a citizen of the IJ. S. 
or a resident. The same rule is extended to a proprietor, 
though a citizen, etc., who acquires the title of a foreign 
and "non-resident" author. In order to be a resident 
within the meaning r»f the statute, the foreign author must 
have formed an intention, at the time of recording in the 
proper office the title of his work, to make this country his 
permanent homo. If an author entitled to a copyright 
dies before taking the benefit of the statute, his represen- 
tatives are plaetMl in his position. So an assignee of a manu- 
script has a right equivalent to that of the author. 

The property in a copyright is (tf an incorporeal nature. 
It cannot, for example, be seized by a sheriff in the exer- 
cise of his eommon-law powers and sold on an execution. 
(Sec KxKcrTiox.) Should the sheriff, for instance, sell in 
tliis way a copporphito on which a copyrighted mnp was 
engraved, the purchaser would only acquire a title to tho 
co])perplate conHidered as a corporeal thing, with no right 
to print maps from it, Tho incorporeal right to publish 
maps could only bo obtained in such a case through the ac- 
tion of a court of equity. It should, however, be remarked 
that under the existing bankrupt law a copyright passes to 
the assignee in bankrtipley us part of the dcbtor'a assets. 

An applicant for a copyrigbt in this country must before 
publication deposit in tho mail a printed copy of the title 
of the book, etc., or a description of the painting, drawing, 
etc., addressed to (lie librarian of Congress at \Vashin!;ton, 
and within ton days from the publication must also deposit 
two copies of tho book it'<elf, or in cas<* of a painting, draw- 
ing, etc., a photograph of the same. Without thcacdepoBitfl 



the author or proprietor is not entitled to the copyright. A 
subsequent section of the law provides under a penalty that 
two copies of the hest edition must be supplied, and that 
when any substantial change is made in a subsequent 
edition a copy of that must also be deposited. It is made 
by law the duty of the librarian of Congress, on payment 
of a fee, to make up and register as prescribed by law a 
formal statement (termed a ''record") of the name of the 
book and the fact of the required deposit. No action can 
be maintained by a proprietor against an infringer unless 
the former has caused to be printed on the title-page or 
succeeding page of each copy of a book, or on the face of 
a map or photograph, a statement in a form prescribed by 
law of the fact of the entry in the librarian's oiliee. Tho 
following brief statement may bo used as an equivalent: 
"Copyrighted 18 — by A. B." The regulations on this 
subject were much simplified by an act of (^ongress in 1870, 
the former law ha\ing required the record to lie made in 
the district court of the U. S. of the district of the author's or 
proprietor's residence. A single office under the present law 
takes the place of a large number under the former system. 
The term for which the copyright is granted in the first 
instance is twenty-eight years. If the author be then living, 
or be dead leading a widow or children then living, there 
may be a renewal on complying with certain prescribed 
rules, for fourteen additional years. A copyright may be 
assigned by an instrument in writing. The assignment 
should lie recorded within sixty days after its execution, 
or it will be void as against a subsequent assignee or mort- 
gagee for a valuable consideration without notice. A sim- 
ple assignment of an existing copyright does not carry 
with it the right of renewal. 

The leading questions in the law of copyright concern 
infringement. The fact that aco]»yright is of au exclusive 
nature necessarily gives the proprietor a cause of action 
against one who infringes his right by placing copies on 
sale or reproducing on the stage his "dramatic compo- 
sition." Infringement is a very plain matter when the 
copyrighted work is simply reproduced. It becomes a 
complicated and difficult question when only extracts or 
quotations are made, or when resort is had to the book to 
make the public acquainted with its contents or to criticise 
its style or the. substance of its thought. It has long been 
established that the identity of a literary work consists in 
its ideas and its language. The thought is so associated 
with the form in which it is expressed that a copyright does 
not protect an author against the use of his thoughts in a 
substantially different form. It is for this reason that by 
general rules of law the unauthorized translation into an- 
other language or the dramatization of a copyrighted work 
is no infringement. Though the sentiment remains, the 
form is changed. On similar grounds a true abridgment, 
though made against the author's consent, is no infringe- 
ment. This consists in a condensation of the author's lan- 
guage, and is substa;itially a different work. Where there 
is no such change it is an aluise of language to call the new 
work an " abridgment," The law as above stated has re- 
cently been modified by tho express statutory provision, 
before referred to, allowing an author, if he see fit, to re- 
serve the right of translation or dramatization. Dismissing 
these special eases of change of form from further consider- 
ation, it remains to inquire how far extraets or quotations 
may be made. When, for example, such quotations are 
made for tho purpose of a review, the main inquiry is 
whether tho act is a reasonable one as calculated to show 
the character of the original work. The critic must not 
go so far as to substantially ])ublish the copyrighted work. 
The question thus becomes one of the m/iie of the extracts 
made. This must be determined by tho facts of each case. 
It has sometimes been thought that tho true inquiry wa8 
whether thero was an -intcjit to infringe or steal. This is not 
satisfactory. Tho real point is, lias the author sustained 
substantial injury ? Tho same general rule must he applied 
to other cases where extracts are made. There is a marked 
distinction in this branch of the hiw between a true abridg- 
ment and a compilation. In the former, as has been seen, 
thero is a real and substantial condensation of the materials, 
and this has boon made with intellectual labor and judg- 
ment. In a compilation thero is the act <d' taking the very 
worils of the author, nr with siudi slight changes as to show 
servile imitation. The law at most tolerates the conden- 
sation, and does not permit tho copying of tho author's 
words to such an extent as to do him 5nbslantial injury. 
Compilation is to some extent permitted in dictionaries, 
gazetteers, cyctopiedius, guiilebooks, etc., where the nuiin 
design and execution of tho work arc novel. In works of 
this class the materials must to aconsideral>Ie extent be tho 
S!im4'. Novelty and improvement in tlHMU in general con- 
sists in al»riil'_'mnnt, chiing''s in arrangement, more modern 
infiu'ination, the correction of errors, etc. etc. It is scarcely 
necessary to add that an infringement may take place by 



LlTIIAKGK-LlTlilLM AM) J.ITllIA. 



t.i 



|ml)linhin;5 but a Fmall pnrtion of a work, if that hi» a vital 
|i:irl Jill"! ciiiiMi' II Huhnfiintial injury l<» tt"' iirnpriftiir. 

Tho n-riH'dii^H l"<ir tin* vinhidnri of a t;i»|>_vi ij^lif lire, ati luiH 
bocni clioivii, to liu Moii^lil in (In- l-Vdr'nil unurlM, tlie circuit 
court under tlio actd uf ContfrcHM hiivini; orij^inul jurisdic- 
tion. An n[ipi'al nuiy ho taken to tiie Supmiie Court with- 
out r('feriMii-c to the nrniMint in fMii(r'iV(.'r.sy. The re^juhir 
rctni'diert arc an aetion for (hiuiaj^es or an injunelion I'l'ini 
a court of equity prevent inn '!"' continuanee of (he acts of 
infrin;(ouinnt. An irnddenlal to this relief, the court may 
dircet an account to lie takr-n of the prolit.i realized liy the 
infrinjjer. The courtn nill not [;ninf relief for an infriuK'"- 
nient in ease the work eopyri;;iiteil is iininoriil or lihellouH. 
This if oxpre.s.HJy iirovidetl hy the act of Con^rcHH, and the 
Banio doctrine witliout hucIi a provision would he adminis- 
tered iiH a rcjijular hruneh of e([ui(y jurisprudence. Where 
an infriiiKcnjent eoI^si^^s in rruikiiiL' use of part of a eopy- 
ri;;htef| work in eoiuiectiuri witli other matter, the injunc- 
tion will he so j;raufed as to prevent the publication of that 
portion of the infrtnj;er'H ho(d< which is open to objection, 
without reference to the fact that the order of tin- court 
may make flu- hook, thus shcuri of a portion of its contents, 
valueleHS. Severe penalties and forfeitures are also im- 
posed by statute law upon persons who knowintrly violate 
the provisions of the copyright acts. (For details the stat- 
utes should be consulted.) 

Lej;islation upon the subject of copyright is found, in 
peneral, in Kurupeiin countries. Tt would swell this ar- 
ticle beyond reasonable limits to state the rules prevailing 
there. As to Knj;hind, reference may be made to the stat- 
utes of 8 Anne, c. lit. In /i I (Jeo. HI. c. -Ifi. and to r> and rt 
Vict. e. -Ifj. In Tranee (bis branch of the law is foumled 
on tho republican decree of July lit, I7'j;i. and on the irn- 
pcrinl decree of Feb. T), 1^*1(1. The German confederation, 
by :i decree of June lit. ISl.'), gave protection to literary 
property in general, and by a still earlier regulation (Aug. 
22, IStl) prevented for a limited time tho performance of 
musical compositions and the representation of dramatic 
pieces against tho authors' consent. 

It will have been ol>servcd that under our laws no copy- 
right is granted fo an author unless he bo a citizen of the 
U.S. or a resident therein. Much complaint has been made of 
the injustice and inexpediency of this rule. As early as in 
tho year 1S8H an offer was made by the English Parliament 
to give tl»e b(>iefit of international copyright to authors in 
foreign countries whose governments would accord a simi- 
lar right to English authors. Conventions have, under the 
terms of this statute, been made by England witli a num- 
ber of nations. The liberal disposition shown by England 
has not been reciprocated in this country. As the law now 
stands, an American author is more favored by English 
legislation than an English author by ours. Under tho 
construction given by tlie English courts to their copy- 
right acts, an American author who at the time of first 
publication of his work is within the British dominions, 
and publishes there, is entitled to their protection. No 
residence of an American author is necessary. Hig simple '. 
presence at some point within the British dominions is ; 
enough to give him protection throughout their entire ' 
range. While this rule requires that tlierc must be no prior j 
publication of the work beyond English limits, it will not bo 
infringed if the publication at home and abroad takes place ' 
on one and the same day, nor will a fraction of a ilay bo re- 
garded. Some leading English jurists have gone still fur- 
ther, holding that protection is awarded by the law to a 
foreign author wlio makes his publication first in England, 
even though he does not go througli the form of being ac- 
tually present there, or in .'^ome part of the British domin- 
ions, at the time of publication. Such a narrow distinction I 
seems useless and inconvenient, and the high example set I 
by England would be still more beneticial if the broad doc- ', 
trine could bo enunciated that every author, no matter 
where l»o might reside or might happen to be. who pub- i 
lishcd his work in England, cither at or before tho time of , 
publication elsewhere, should be entitled to a copyright. 
(Tho leading decisions bearing upon this point arc Jiff'rKifs ' 
V. fionHc\f, \ House of Eords' Cases, Slo, a. n. 1S.J4; Rmit- I 
hfhjc V. Ar.ir, I,aw Reports. .1 House of Lords* Cases ( Eng- 
lish and Irish Appeals). 100. a. n. ISHS; and Low v. Ward, ' 
Law Reports. 6 Equity, 41.'J0 It is much to be desired that ' 
mutual arrangements may soon be made between the va- 
rious nations whoroby the subject of internati<mal copy- 
right may be placc.l on a substantial foundation. The in- 
herent justice of an author's claim should have universal 
aeknowledgment, while at the same time due safeguards 
should be provided for the protection of society. No wiser 
schemo can be ailopted than that which has met with gene- 
ral acceptance in the local law of the respective civilized 
nations. This is, to give an author an exclusive right for 
a limited time, and then make the work public. The next 
step forward is to have this local rule become one of cen- 
Voi,. III.— 5 ^ 



; oral recognition, and have it take \U place iun»»iig tietrji-d 

I and appro\i,-d doctrincn o( private international law. The 

chifH tnlcreftM of a portion of I ho community fdiould not bo 

allowcfi to Htand in Iho way of thin great act of jui<(icc, an 

well as of the highest and mont far-Hightcd ftxpedieney. 

Refcrcnec for further infornwilion may be made lo Mau- 
gham On l.iUrnnj i'mf„rt>i; ShorK'n L'tw of Wnrhm ulnt 
iitfj t<t Lilfrtiturt: and Art; CurtiH On Copi/rif/fit : Law'n 
/JttffMfM of the Law uf Pattntn and ^'"pffritjhli ; Morgan'fl 
I Law of Literafurr (\S7.^t) ; to the dccisionH of the Federal 
j courts, and to Abbott's Xnt. I)!,frnt and Brightly '« do. 
(For the statutes of copvriglit seethe Hfrinrd Siniut^M nf 
I tft' r. S\, >, .l".ilS-7I, both incdusivc.) T. W. Dwi<;iit. 
liif hiirgc. Seo Lkad, by Piiof. Hk.huy Wuhtz. 
I<i(ir^(*\v (Wii.mam), b. in Lanark, Scotland, in 1583; 
traversed ou foot Central Europe, Italy, (Jrecco, and tho 
Turkish empire, including Egypt and Palestine, whence he 
brought a collection of relics for James 1. and his queen; 
visited in a f^ceond tour the northern states of Africa, re- 
turning thnuigh Hungary and I*oland; and set out in 1019 
upon a thiril journey, bearing royal letters addressed to all 
kings, princes, and potentates he might encounter. Ar- 
rested at Malaga on suspicion of being a spy, he was sub- 
jecterl to frightful torture: obtained his liberty with great 
difficulty thri»ugh the British consul, and returning lo Eng- 
land, was presented at court reclining on a feather bed. 
He published a volume of ,I'/rc»/io-c» (16M) and a lUnVn-u 
of the St'f,/e uf finda f Ifi.'I?). D. at Lanark in IfllO. 

Lith'ic Ac'id Diath'eHiH,anamc given to that con- 
dition of the gi-nera! system whieh favors the prochiction 
of lithic acid or its salts in tho urine. It has been, and 
still is by many, regarded as a peculiar diseased state in 
which the acid or its salts are pro<lucc<l in the blood, and 
separated therefrom by the kidneys; but those taking an 
opposite view— and we tliink this class embraces by fartbe 
majority of intelligent physicians — hold that the salts are 
formed in the urine, cither in the pelvis of the kidnev ax 
tho bhuldcr, but ahrayn after it has been excreted ; also, 
that tho peculiar condition of the system favoring it is one 
of nml-assimilation. Lithic or uric acid occurs in the urine 
as small crystals of an amber color, varying in diameter 
^'""'" iiO^o^'' *" rio*'' ''f" ■'" inch; they arc usually cither 
lozenge onlruni shaped. It may also exist in combination 
with ammonia, soda, or lime, forming tho urates of those 
bases. The urates form the sediment generally found in 
tho urine in nearly all acute inflanimations, fevers, gout, 
rheumatism, diseases of the liver, etc., and they indicate a 
highly acid condition of the fluid, hy which they are pre- 
cipitated from those substances which should hold them in 
solution. When deposited in any part of the urinary tract 
they may f<irm into gravel or stone, and thus give rise to 
serious trouble. The treatment of the lithic acid diathesis 
should be directed to a correction of that condition of the 
general economy which has given rise to it. It is not a 
clisease, but merely a symptom, showing that the aliment 
has not been properly distributed, and in four cases out of 
five we must look to abuses at the table for the source of 
the trouble. The practice of treating this condition by 
the administration of alkalies is now alt<igether out of 
vogue. EnwAnn J. Bkrhlnoham. 

Lith^iiim and Lith'ia [dr. Atffo?, "stone "]. The al- 
kali litliia. whieh is the oxide of the metal lithium, was dis- 
covered by Arfvedson in the laboratory of Bcrzelius in the 
year IS] 7, and in the mineral called pctnh'lr. It is now 
known to occur in IcpidoJitc, fpodnwrne, anddi/*fonite, tri- 
phtf/ite, some totirmnlinrfiy and other mineral species, and to 
be a frequent constituent, in small jiroportions, of mineral 
waters. The mineral amblygonite, which occurs at Hebron 
and Paris in Maine, contains more lithia than nny other 
mineral — over 9 per cent. Spodumcne, however, which 
contains some ,'» percent, of lithia. is a much more plenti- 
ful mineral, and hasanumberof .American localities. Nor- 
wich, Mass., is one place among several where this is abun- 
dant ; and this mineral might be made a considerable source 
of lithia in this country for mc^licinal and other uses. The 
elemental metal lithium was first obtained by electrolysis 
of the fused chloride by Bunsen. It is a silver- white metal, 
somewhat softer than lead, and lighter than any other 
known soliil body, having a density of only ..^Sr.5 ; so that 
it floats oven on petroleum and naphtha. It has also the 
smallest equivalent weight of any element except hydrogen, 
this weight being only 7. Mjfd rate of lithia, corresponding 
to the hydrates of potash and soda, is a strongly caustic 
alkaline body like these, but is not deliquescent in the air. 
nor is it volatile at intense heats. It is obtained by ignit- 
ing spodumcne or other litbia-silicatc in admixture with 
twice its weight of quicklime, dissolving in muriatic acid, 
adding sulphuric acid to precipitate most of the lime, then 
ammonia and oxalate of ammonia to throw down the rest, 
evaporating, igniting, redissolving out the sulphate of 



iyQ 



LITHIUM, MEDICINAL USES OE— LITHOTOMY. 



lithia. and decomposing this with ii solution of baryta, 
which throws down the sulphuric acid and loaves in solu- 
tion hydrate of lithia. The smallest traces of lithia are 
detectable hy means of the spectroscope, which gives with 
pure lithia a spectrum consisting entirely of two lines — one 
a brilliant intense crimson, and the other a faint yellow. 
Lithia imparts to flame this beautiful crimson tint, and, 
were it cheap enough, wouUl be a valuable agent in fire- 
works. An interesting practical application of the cha- 
racteristic flame-color of lithia has been made of late years. 
In cases of suspicion that a well or cistern is being poisoned 
by percolation from a privy or drain, as happens often, a 
little lithia may be put into the supposed source of con- 
tamination. In case of percolation it will soon be easily 
detectable with the spectroscope, with chemical certainty, 
in the water of the well. Chloride of lithium, correspond- 
ing to common salt, the chloride of sodium, is easily pre- 
pared. It crystallizes in regular octahedra, which taste 
like common salt. It is, however, deliquescent, unlike tlie 
chlorides of sodium and potassium, and is more soluble 
than these. Carbomite of lifhia is peculiar, as compared 
with the corresponding sodic and potassic carbonates, in 
being sparingly soluble in water, requiring a thousand 
times its weightof the latter. Phosphate of Uthia likewise 
is but little soluble in water. 

Caesium and Rnhidiiim. — When the spectroscope had been 
perfected by the illustrious Bunsen, one of its first achieve- 
ments was the immediate discovery of two new alkali- 
metals, which occur in nature in minute (|uantities, gener- 
ally associated with lithium. These are c«-«i'«m and rubidium, 
(See CESIUM, by Pkof. Chandler.) The best source yet 
discovered of these two very rare and curious metals is the 
American lithium-locality, Hebron in Maine, where a va- 
riety of lepidolite or lithia-mica occurs which contains con- 
siderable cjesium and rubidium. Profs. Allen and Johnson 
of Yale College have made some admirable investigations 
of these metals from this source. Hknry Wurtz. 

Lith'ium, Medicinal Uses of. Lithium carbonate 
and citrate are sometimes used in medicine as alkalies, and 
have been specially recommended in gout, because of their 
forming an easily soluble salt with uric acid. But their 
advantage over the alkaline potassium preparations for 
this purpose is perhaps not fully assureii. The citrate is 
preferable to the carbonate, medicinally, from being more 
soluble and less disagreeable to the taste. Ehward Curtis. 

Lithod'om'us [Or. At9o5d/xo9. " building with stone "], a 
genus of stone-borin:; moUusks belonging fo the family My- 
tilidjE or mussels. The type of the genus is the MtftHuH fitho- 
pa;/H3 of Linnaeus. The genus is recognized from the 
Jurassic formations upward. 

Lithog'raphy [(Jr. Ati>o«. "a stone," and ypa4,€tv, to 
"write"] is, as the name implies, the art of writing or 
drawing upon stone for the purpose of reproduction 
through the press. When stone is employed simply as a 
substitute for metallic plates, upon which to produce etch- 
ings, the process does not essentially differ from Exhrav- 
ING (which see), of which it is a branch, and does not pre- 
sent any consiilerable advantage. Another process, more 
analogous to modern lithography, was invented as early as 
172S hy Dufay, a member of the French Academy. As do- 
scribed by him, it consisted in executing a drawing with 
varnish upon stone, and employing an acid to eat down 
the unprotected parts, thus leaving the lines in relief. A 
process identical in principle was accidentally rediscovered 
at Munich in 1790 by Alois Scnefcldor, and by the appli- 
cation of a chemical principle became the gt-rtn of the mod- 
ern art. Scncfehlcr was a young dramatic iLuthor, who, be- 
ing too poor to i)rint his plays, conceived the idea of en- 
graving them himself on the calcareous limestone which 
abounds in Bavaria. Not knowing the composition of the 
ordinary covering-varnish used liy engravers, he devised 
as a rude substitute a compound of l\ parts of wax with 1 
of soap, adding a small {(uantity of lamjiblack an coloring- 
matter. In a work published nniny years later ( (^»urm: 
of Lithoijraphjj, J.ondon, 1S19) Senefelder thus rclat(.'d the 
curious incident which at this stage of bis preparutidiis 
sujiplied him with the key to a useful discov^*ry : " I had 
just succeeded in my little hiboratory in polishing a 
Htono plate which I intended to cover with etching-ground 
lo continue my exercise in writing backward, when my 
inr)tlier entered the room nncl desired nic to write lu-r a bill 
for the washerwoman, who was waiting for the linen. I 
happened not to have even the smallest slip of paper at 
hand, as my little stock of paper had iiccn entirely ex- 
hausti'd by taiting proof impressions from the stones, nor 
was there oven a drop of ink in the inkstand. As the 
matter would not admit of delay, and we had nobody in 
the house to send for a supply of the delieient materials, I 
resolved lo wrile the list with my ink prepared with wax, 
soap, an<l lampblack on the stone, which I had Just pol- 



ished, and from which I could copy it at leisure. Some 
time after this I was just going to wijje this writing from 
the stone when the idea all at once struck me to try what 
would be the efl'eel of such a writing with my prepared ink 
if I were to bite in the stone with aquafortis. I at once 
hastened to put this idea in execution, and mixing 1 part of 
aquafortis and 10 parts of water, which I left standing five 
minutes on it, I found the work elevated the one-twentieth 
part of an inch. I now found that I eould charge the lines 
with printing ink and take a number of inijtressions." 
Thus far, Senefelder had but repeated the exjieriuieut de- 
scribed by I>ufay seventy years before, and emjduycd upon 
copper plate by William Blake, the English painter and 
poet, in 1 7S8. It was not until two years later that his in- 
creased knowledge enabled him to utilize in behalf of his 
process the ancient feud subsisting between oil and water. 
Thus perfected, the art of lithography depends upon three 
principles — the absorbent affinity of calcareous stone to 
water, its adhesive affinity to resinous and oily substances, 
and the chemical affinity of those substances to each other, 
combined with their repulsion of water. Hence, a drawing 
made upou a polished stone surface with a resinous or oily 
crayon or ink adheres so firmly thereto as to be irremov- 
able except by mechanical means, and while water poured 
thereon is absorbed by the remaining parts of the stone, it 
is repelled by the crayon. When upon a surface thus pre- 
pared a colored oily or resinous substance is applied, it 
adheres by chemical affinity to the drawing, and not to the 
moist stone. In practice, a solution of vitriolic, nitric, or 
muriatic acid is first poured upon the stone, to neutralize 
the alkali of the crayon (technically called ''chalk "), hard- 
en it, and also to slightly eat away the unprotected sur- 
face, preparing it to absorb more freely a weak gum-water 
in which it is next submerged to close its pores and keep 
it moist. The lithographic ink is then applied with balls 
or rollers, as in ordinary printing. After becoming thor- 
ouglily dry the stone is ready for the press, and must be 
wetted and inked for each impression. From 500 to 1500 
perfect copies of crayon drawings may be obtained from 
the same block, 5000 or 6000 copies of fine ink drawings, 
and as many as 70,000 from those in coarser lines, the last 
print being nearly as good as the first. The economy of 
time as compared witb copperplate printing is consider- 
able, and the expense is much less than in any other meth- 
od of artistic reproduction. , 

CHROMO-LiTHOGRApnY is Simply a combination of o num- 
ber of stones prepared in the manner above described, each 
being employed for a separate color, and representing a 
portion of the drawing or painting which it is intended to 
reproduce in fac-simile. The process is nearly the same as 
that described in Calko-Printixg (which see). As many 
as thirty stones are frequently requisite to copy a single 
painting, the utmost exactness being necessary in the ad- 
justment of each in its proper place, as a variation of a 
fiftieth of an inch would mar the etVeet. 

ZiNrodRAi'HV (which see) is in its methods entirely anal- 
ogous to lithograj)hy, of which it wouhl be a branch were 
it not that the difference of the essential material would 
render such classification a misnomer. The latest and most 
interesting application of 8enefelder's discovery is Photo- 
lithography, which will be described under tluit head. 

Porti:r C. Bliss, 

Lithorogry [Gr. Ai^os. "a stone." and Aoyos, "science"], 
the science which treats of the characteristics and classifi- 
cation of rocks. {See Gkology and Mineralogy.) 

Lith'omarge [Gr. Ai'tfo?, *' stone," and Lat. uiarfja^ 
"marl"], a hy<lratcd silicate of alumina, constituting a 
fine elny allied to kaolin. 

liith'ophane [Cir. Atflo?. ** stone," and if>ai'd?, "clear"], 
a sort of ornamental porcelain transparency, to be used as 
a wind()w-pieee or for lanip-shadcs and fireside screens. 
The porcelain when soft is pressed with a raised stamp, 
which impresses figures upon the clay. Transmitted light 
brings out a variety of groups and figures, often nicely 
shaded an<l very pleasing. 

I^ithop'olis, post-v. of Bloom tp., Fairfield co., 0. 
Pop. :;;i|. 

Lithot^omy and l:.ithot'rity. Urinary calculi are 
composed most frequi-ntly of substances existing in a 
state of solution in healthy human urine, such as uric acid, 
urate of ammonia, and the phosphates of lime and mag- 
nesia. Sometimes, however, they are com})osed of sub- 
stances met with only in morbid urine, such as oxalate of 
lime, cystine, etc. Besides these ingredients, of which they 
mainly consist, calculi always contain more or less ariimiU 
matter, such as drieil blood, vesical mucus, etc. Occasion- 
ally, they arc found to consist almost entirely of a single 
ingredient, but more frequently of two or more dificrent 
constituents iinjiuged in irregular concentric layers. In 
certain conditions these ingredients solidify and form cou- 



I.I I'lldloMY. 



i;7 



ort'tions, Thn iiiitiui prni-cHH in (licir fummtiini riiu\isutu\y 
tiiUoH pluc-i' In flic luiJncv.'* : tUf )ir(Mln<-t llioi ilcsiM-ndrt iilnn^ 
tlni nn'tcr (a llrwhy tnim lor cmivfyin;; lln; miMr) intcj (in- 
liliidilor, tVuni wliiuli it in ot'tt-n cxiicllctt in uriniLlin^, iind 
thii!* K*'!- ''■'' "'• ^'i liowrviT, i1 n-nuiin.-* in iIk- hlii'Mi-r. it 
Ix'comuH It iiin'liMiH upon lli(> Hurritcu <jf' witiidi Hm-ccKHivc! 
ilcpiiHtttl t>t' Molid mutter liik<> pliuM', unlil ii ciili'iihix '\h 
furini'il, which in [u'oi-'okh of time may utliiin a tdriiiiiialjlu 
fi/.e- -too ^DNit, in fiLct, t(i admit of Its Hat'i; removal by any 
miri^ical o|uTalion. Any lorrij^ri HubHtaiico introduced nr.- 
cidi'ntiilly or intenlionally itilo tli<' eavily of thi' I)lad<hT 
wilt also hi-comc ii nuclciiii upon wlnrh incnistiitionri id' F«ilid 
miitter will tiikf plar-i'. InftaniM-H hav(^ ocuiirred whiiri' 
JMillrlH. iVa'^mcrits nrsur^iral iiiftrunifiit.y, ami oilier foreign 
hodies have lormcd the niudt-i (»!" t»tonu in tlie bladder. Cal- 
eiilt may exist sin;;h! or multiple in the hladder; wliuro 
multiple, there may be two nr more of nearly ei|ual size, or 
(hero may he a large numln-i' of every variety of «i/o from 
a pin'rt head to a horse-elu'Stiiut. When there i.s but a 
piuglo calculus, it. is more* /generally of a (liitlened, ovoid 
wliapo, or globular, thou^^h sometimes it may reaomblo an 
hour-)*laJis in sliape, or have any irregular form. Its aur- 
fiice is somelitiH'S rtiMOdth. sometimes rough, uneven, iind 
Mtudded with pointed emini-ncus. When two or m(*re aro 
founcl in the Hume bladder, theiv Hurlaues are niarkeil by 
smooth fiK'cts, produced by their eontaijt with eaeh other. 
If u eoneretion remains permanently in the eavity of tlio 
Itidiiey. it_ may in the process of its growth beeom<i moulded 
into tile shape (d' tlieenvity. faieuli are met with in both 
aexesi, though more fretjuenlly in male? Ihan I'emales, owing 
in part to the greater faeility with which the nucleus con- 
cretion can bo ex]»clled from tlic female than from the malo 
bladder. No aire is exempt from this malady ; it has been 
met, with in tin- infant at birth, and at all subsequent 
periods of life uj) lo the uiost adviunreil age. Certain bn-ali- 
ties have been regarded as favoring the production of this 
malady by the properties of the driukiug-wator iu us© 
among the population. 

The (lue-ifiun <d vital interest in connection with this 
subject IS, By what means sufferers from this distressing 
malady can obtain relief? At all limes there have been 
remedies advocated as possessing the property of dissolv- 
ing tho stone in the blarbier. and patients atllietcd with the 
disease, naturally shrinking as they do from the alternative 
of a surgical operation, have lieen t<io reaily to give credence 
to the vaunted effieacy of such remedies, and by long per- 
severance in their use have lost precious time. The stone 
lias thus been allowed to increase in size, and the danger 
from a surgical operation has thereby been enhanced, while 
tho chances of recovery have been diminished. The re- 
moval of a stone by a surgical operat ion is the only reliable 
means of cure, and the earlier it is resorted to the better 
the (dianec of recovery. 

LithohiU)}/ and /tfhotn'fif are tlio terms which define the 
two surgical ojterations by means of which the extraction 
of a stone innn the Idadder is elTeetcd. Lit/infmni/ (Ai(Jo«, 
*'sti>ne," and TCM^fii', to "cut") is a cutting operation by 
which an opening is made tVom tlie surface of the body in- 



to the cavity of tho bladdi-r at certain poinlH where ihJH 
organ li'S neureHt to (he xurlaee. Through (he opening Diuh 
made an iiifltriinient (Ibreepf; im intruducefl into the blad- 
der, the Htone Mei/ed and bruughl uwuy. Thirt op^ratio^ ban 
been in use iiince the eurlieHt period io the hiHtory of surgi- 
cal art. The operation Ih performed according to tno prin- 
cipal methods: IhI, Tho hypogastric or Huprapubic nielh- 
od, by meant* of whi<'h the eavity of the bhidder in reached 
through an opening nmde ut the low4-F<t point of the abdo- 
men, exactly in the median line of tin; body. 2d. The per- 
ineal or subpubic method, by which lite bladder in reached 
through an inciHton iimde in front of llic anun, lictwecn it 
and the scrotum, in the space known as the perineum. Thift 
method is most frei(uen(ly employed, as the fufint und the 
one of widest application. It admilM of three varieties in 
its mode of execution, distinguished from cacli other by 
tho different directions in wtiieh the incisions required for 
its performance are made. Kirst variety, known as the 
median operation, in which the incision is made exactly 
in the median line of the perineal space between the anus 
and scrotum. Second variety, termed the lateral operation, 
in which the incision, commencing at a point in the median 
line in front of the anus, is carried obli(|ue1y outward and 
backward to the left side of the anus. Third variety, known 
as the bilateral operation, in which the incision extends in 
a curveil line across the perineal space in front <d' the anus, 
and to an equal distance on either side of the median line. 
Each of these varieties has had able and zealous advocates, 
wIkj claim for them special advantages ; the choice of oper- 
ative methods must, however, be determined by a judicious 
discrimination of the conditions of each case that comes 
under consideration. 

Lithotrih/ (\{0oi, "stone," and reiprtv, to" break down") 
or lit/iotripHy (Mdot, "stone," and rpifitiv, to "grind") is a 
bloodless operation by which a stone in the bladder Is re- 
ducetl to fragments snmll enough to be expelled through 
tho natural canal iri urinating. Though some traces of a 
conception of this method arc found at an earlier jieriod in 
the history of surgery, it was not till the second decade of 
the present century that Civiale of Paris undertook his ex- 
periments which resulted in tlie development of the method 
now in use, and which is ranked among (he acknowledged 
resources of surgical art. On Mar. 2'2, 1S24, a commission 
of tho Academy of Medicine of Paris reported upon it as 
follows: *• Desirous of avoi<ling. on the one hand, the en- 
thusiasm which exaggerates everything, and on the other 
that prejuclicc which socks to depreciate everything, wc 
consider tho new nielliod proposed by Dr. Civialc for de- 
stroying stone in the bladder without the use of lithotomy 
as alike creditable to French surgery, honorable lo the au- 
thor, and consolatory to humanity; that, notwithstanding 
' its insufliciency in some particular cases, and tlie difficulty 
I of its apjilication in others, it cannot fail to establish an 
i epoch in the healing art. and to be regarded as one of the 
I most ingenious and salutary resources." After a test of fifty 
j years tlie expectations expressed in this report have been 
j fullilled, and lithotrity now holds an honorable rank among 
I the resources of surgical art. Tlie operation cousidts csscn- 




The lilhotrite; a, 6, jaws; r, stone; rf, screw; f, sprin;^ 




.It'll. 



tiiilly in the introduction of an instrument known as a litho- [ 
trite, of adapted shape and size, through the natural canal j 
into tho bladder. With it the stone is seized and crushed | 
by pressure exerted with tlic hand alone, or with a screw- ; 
power that may be apjdied at ]deasure at the handle of the , 
instrument. Another mode of crushing the stone is by per- 
cussion applied at the handle of the instrununt by means 
of a hammer. A ]>ortion of the finer debris resulting from ' 
the crushing may be brought awny in the jaws of the 
instrument. Unless tho stone is quite small, the opera- 
tion recjuires to be repeated at regulated intervals till 
tho whole calculus is reduced to fiagnients small enough 
to be expelled with tho urine. In his early experiments 
Civiale directed his efforts, after the seizure of the stone, 
to perforating its substance in different directions with 
drills, and thereby diminishing its resistance and facil- 
itating its being crushed by pressure. Straight instru- 
ments alone could be employed for this purpose, and 
hence greater diffioulty was encountered in their introduc- 
tion into the bladder. These instruments, moreover, were 
complicated in their construction, and required a varied 
manipulation in their use. ami were therefore more liable 
to injure the bladder and occasion serious accidents. These 



objections led to the early abandonment of the perforating 

j ])rocess. and the substitution of the crushing process alone. 

I This latter jiroccss is effected by means of curved instru- 
ments, which in their form more nearly resemble the cath- 

, eters and sounds in common use among surgeons. The 
operation of lithotrity is particularly adapted lo patients 
of adult age, in whom the expulsion of fragments is fneil- 

' itatcd by the greater calibre of the urinary canal. In early 
life, under the age of fifteen years, and especially under 

i ten years, the operation of perineal or sub-pubic lithotomy 
is successful in so large a proportion of the coses operated 
on that wc scarcely need a better resource, especially as 
wo now have the aid of auivsthetics by which patients arc 
spared the pain of the operation. The descent of a con- 
cretion fr<tm the kidney into the bladder is accompanied 
by an attack, usually violent, of kidney colic. Its presence 

j in the bladder itself is characterized by disturbance of its 
functions, such as frequent calls to urinate, sudden orrest 

I of the outflowing stream, pain felt on the close of the act, 
and referred to the neck of the bladder and end of the pe- 

j nis. pain also from the jolting of a vehicle, and the appear- 
ance of blood in tlie urine. A practical injunction should 

I be borne iu mind by patients suffering from symptoms of 



68 



LITHUANIA— LITTLEJOHN. 



stone in the bladder: to wit, that in the early stage of the 
disease, while the stone is of small size, its removal by the 
operation of lithotrity may Ite regarded as almost entirely 
witliout daftger, and sometimes can be accomplished by a 
single operation. Hence the importance of having its pres- 
ence ascertained by a skilful exploration of the interior of 
the bladder at the earliest period of its existence. If pa- 
tients suffering from this malady would early avail them- 
selves of lithotrity, which has none ot the terrors of a bloody 
operation, much suffering might be averted and many lives 
saved, Gukdon Buck. 

Lithua'nia [Lith. Letuva ; Pol. Litira : Oer. Litaneu] 
formed in tlie .Middle Ages an independent and powerful 
state, comprising those large tracts of mostly low and level 
land which extend from the Baltic to the Black Sea, be- 
tween the Nicmen and the Diina in the N. and the Don 
and the Bug in the S. In the eleventh century the Lithu- 
anians were tributary to the Russians, but in the twelfth 
they threw off the yoke. In 12oJ, Ringohl formed the 
country into a grand duchy. In l.'i'20, Gedemin conquered 
Volhynia, Kiev, and Tehernigov from Russia. In K-SO, 
Jagellon united Lithuania with Poland, having married 
Hedwig, a daughter of King Lewis of Poland and Ilungary. 
By the division of the Polish kingdom one small part of 
Lithuania came to Prussia, forming the present government 
of (Tunibinuen, wliile the rest was incorporated with the 
Russian crown, forming the present governments of Vilua, 
Grodno, Moheelev, Vitebsk, and Minsk. The Lithuanians 
in race and language belong to the Lettie group (see Lkt- 
Tic Race), and for a full comparison of their interesting 
language with the cognate branches of the Indo-European 
stock see Bopp's great Comprtrattce Grammar (3d ed., 1867). 

liif^iZy post-v. of Warwick tp., Lancaster co.. Pa., on 
the Reading and Columbia II. R.. 8 miles N. of Lancaster, 
has a celebrated Moravian school. Litiz Academy, for boys, 
and another. Linden HaU. for young women, and is the 
seat of Sunnyside College for ladies, and of another school 
for buys. Litiz was founded in ITfiO by the Moravians. 
The N. part of the village is called Warwick. The town 
was named in honor of the barony of Ijitiz in Bohemia, 
an ancient refuge of the Bohemian Brethren. It has 1 
newspaper, is a place of summer resort, and has a large 
and very fine spring. 

Lit'mns, or LactnilS^ a coloring-matter obtained from 
L'ltniord tartart'tt antl otlier lichens, which are powdero<l, 
mixed, and decomposed with amraoniacal urine. Alum, 
lime, and potash are mingled with the mass, and the whole 
is dried with powdered chalk. It is used for coloring lit- 
mus-paper, an invaluable test in the chemical laboratory, 
becoming blue when wet with a liquid containing free alka- 
lies, or red if acids be present. 

LitrCf the French standard measure of capacity in the 
decimal system. The litre is a cubic decimetre — that is, a 
cube each of the sides of which is ?iM?t7 English inches; 
it contains 61.027 English cubic inches. Four and a half 
litres are very nearly equivalent to the English imperial 
gallon. 

Lit'ta (PoMi'Ro), Count, b. vSept. 27. 17S1, at Milan; 
entered the military service in 1804 ; fought with distinction 
at L'lm, Austerlitz, and Wagram, and became chief of a 
battalion, but retired after lsI4 into private life, devoting 
himself exclusively to the study of history. In 184S he 
took charge of the ministry of war in the provisional gov- 
ernment for a short time. D. at Milan Aug. 17, 1852. In 
ISI'J appeared the tirst number of iiis splendid work, 
J-'fuiii'fflie relt'hri d'/ftt/ia, opening with the history of the 
Sforza.s. At his death the wtnk eompri^^ed the history of 
fifty three familie?, and several more have been added since 
by Odorici and Passeriui. The work, which was published 
by subscription only, and never brouglit into the general 
market, is magnificently printed, and enjoys a great repu- 
tation, both on account of the richness and accurateuesa 
of its information and its elegant style. 

LU'tcll (Ei.iAKiM), b. at Burlingt.m, N. J.. Jan. 2, 
17'J7; in I8|'.» began to publish and etlit at Philadelphia 
the Nutiouftf /^r'v»rf/*>-, afterward?! the S'llnrdtnf Mnfjaziuc: 
in 1822 established the MuHcnm <>/ Forcii/n Litcratnrr, ancl 
in 1814 foun<led LilfcU's Liviuif Age at Boston. Mass. lie 
drew up the Clay conijiromiso tariff of 18.3:^. D. at Brook- 
line, Mass., Mjiy 17, 1870. — His brothers. John SrorKTO.v 
antl .S(ji'ii:i(, were writers of finme note, the fornnT haviug 
editi'd Alexander (J ray don 'a Mrmoirn nf Inn Owu Tlunn 
(ISIG)iind (Janlen'fl Anrc.dairH of the. Amrrimn RrvnUifinu; 
atnl the latter liaving published a learned work on DiitrnHVH 
of the Eye (18:{7), and edited Dr. 11. Walton's 7Wntii*c on 
Oprrntlr Ophthafmic Sitrtfrrif (I8.^;{). 

LU'tle fCnpt. (Jrokok). b. at Marshnehl. Mass., in 1754 ; 
comuianded the nrtned vessel The Bonton, belonging to the 
l-^tati- of M!ly.Haebll^^■lt^. at the beginning of the Revolu- 



tion ; was first lieutenant on The Protector in 1779, when 
he was captured by a British frigate; escaped from prison 
at Portsmouth, England: took command of the sloop-of- 
war Winthrop, and cruised successfully during the remain- 
ing years of the war ; commanded the national frigate Bos- 
ton in 1798: was made captain iu U. S. navy Mar. 4, 1799; 
captured several French ships, one of them, Le Berceau, 
after a severe conflict ; retired in Oct.. isi.ll, to his farm at 
Weymouth, Mass., where he d. July 22, 1809. He wrote 
The American Cruiser and LiJ'e on the Ocean. 

Little (Gen. Lewis Henry), b. at Baltimore, Md.. in 
1818; graduated :it AVest Point in 18:^9; entered the oth 
Infantry; was distinguislied in the Mexican war at the 
battles of Monterey and Cerro Gordo; became captain 
Aug., 1S47; resigned from the army May 7, 1861, to enter 
the Confederate service; became adjutant-general of Mis- 
souri forces on the staff of Gen. Price ; was made brigadier- 
general for gallantry at the battle of Elk Horn; became 
commander of a division, and was killed at the battle of 
luka, Miss., Sept. 10, 1802. 
Little Beaver, tp. of Lawrence co.. Pa, Pop. 1072, 
Little Black, tp. of Randolph co., Ark. Pop. 2710. 
Little Britain, post-tp., Lancaster co.. Pa. Pop. 15S6. 
Little Canada, post-tp., Ram.sey co., Minn. Pop. 789. 
Little Christians, a sect iu Russia which in 1868 
seceded from the national Church. They originated in the 
bishopric of Tsaritsin. Originally few in numbers, they 
have rapidly increased. They practise immersion, after 
which they assume a new name; they have no priests, no 
worship of saints, no holy oil, no images, no altar-pieces, 
no bread and wine in tlic Eucharist, but worship the sacred 
bread, and profess to have received a divine revelation. 
Lit'tle Cohar'ie, tp.. Sampson co., N. C. Pop. 1235. 
Lit'tle Comp'ton, post-tp. of Newport co., R. I., on 
the sea coast. Pop. llOti. 
Lit'tle Crab'tree, tp. of Yancy co., N. C. Pop. 483. 
Little Creek, hundred of Kent co., Del. Pop. 1892. 
Little Creek, hundred of Sussex co., Del. Pop. 3770. 
Lit'tle Egg Har'bor, tp. of Burlington co., N. J., 
on the Atlantic coast, iu the bay of that name. Pop. 1779, 
Little Falls, post-v. and tp., cap. of Morrison co., 
Minn., on the E. bank of the Mississippi River. It has 1 
weekly newspaper. Pop. 4o7. 

Little Falls, post-v. and tp. of Passaic co., N. J., on 
the Morris Canal and the Passaic River, 4 miles above 
Paterson. Pop. 1282. 

Little Falls, post-v. and tp. of Herkimer co., N. Y., 
on the New York Cuntral II. R., midway between Albany 
and Syracuse, and 22 miles E. of Utica, built against tho 
sides of an abrupt declivity which rises some 500 feet and 
overlooks the Mohawk River, which falls at this point 45 
feet within half a mile, forming a series of picturesque 
cascades and rapids, from which the name is derived. It 
has 7 chvrches, 2 banks, 3 newspapers (2 weekly and 1 
semi-monthly), 2 woollen, 1 cotton, 3 jiaper, 2 knitting, and 
2 grist mills, 1 foundry and machine-shop, 1 carriage- 
factory, the ''Warrior*' mower-factory, an excellent fire 
department, and 2 public parks. It is the largest cheese- 
market in the U. S. Pop. of v. 53S7 : of tp. 5fiI2. 

t'liAi'PLK & Toznn, Eds. " Hkkkimeh Co. News." 
Little Falls, tp. of Monroe co.. Wis. Pop. fi2I. 
Little tilace Bay, coal-mining settlement of Capo 
Breton Island and co. (N. S.), 15 miles E, of S^'duey, 
Pop. about 400. 
Little <>rant, post-tp. of (Irani co.. Wis. Pop. 813. 
Little Ilniii'holdt Kiver, the most important tribu- 
tary of the Ihmiboiilt Iviver, Nev., fbiws W. and then S. 
til rough Paradise Valley in Unmbrddt co. It has some 
35.000 acres of excellentbottom-hmd. inid 1)0,000 of bench- 
lands of tho best character. The small brooks abound in 
trout. Tho elevation is some 4500 feet. There are abun- 
dant means for easy irrigation. 

Lit'tlejoliii (AititAM Newkiuk), D. P., b. in Mont- 
gomery en,, N. Y., Dec. 1.'!, 1824 ; graduated at Union Col- 
lego in 1815; received deacon's orders in the Protestant 
Episcopal Chnrtdi in 1848; officiated at Amsterdam, N. Y., 
Mcridrn, Conn., and Springfield, Mass, ; took priest's orders 
in 1850 ; rector of St. Paul's, New Haven, 1851-00, and since 
then of Holy Trinity chureb, Brooklyn, N. Y. He was for 
tin years b-cturer on pastoral theology in tho Divinity 
School at Mid<lletown, Conn. In 180H he was consecrated 
bishop of Long Island, and in 1S74 undertook tlie charge 
of the American Episcojinl eburehes on the continent of 
Etirope. He is autlmr cif Thr Phlhint>phif t>/ If'fii/ion, a 
series of lectures, and bus written largely for tho Church 
li'viiir. and jiublished many eermons and addresses. 



UTTl-K KANAWHA HI Vi;i;-IJ] ll.KTON. 



Lit'tio Kiinau'liit River riiioH In Upiihur co., W. 

I'll., mill (Kiwi im 11 j;tinTiilly N. Vv'. coiii-Ho, Juiiiiit;; llio 

Jllic) ul l'urliir«liur({. II flows lliroufcli Ihii oil-rr.'(?ii i"'l 

hiiH widii luiil lurtili! hiiUom-lnnilii. Tim Mdlii Kiiiiruvlia 
Niivi;;ii.liiiii 0(1., by biiildiiii; tlirco damn, Imvo inndi) it 
iinvi;?iil>lo ;)H inilcH to Unrnin;,' SpriiigK. Great uumlicni 
of lo;,'^ UP' llciiilcd to umrki't ujion ilH wntcrn. 

I.itllf l.iiUr, fioHl V. and Ip. of Mendocino co., fiil., 
15 niilc^ .S. of rUiiili, the eoimty-Hc-iil. Pop. i)tO. 

Little I»liic-I('iiii«w,lp., Tiizowcllco., III. Pop. I2.'<n. 

I.ittio itlnliiiiioy', Ip. of Norlliumlit rliind co., Pn. 
Pop. LV,!I. 

Little i1I«ra«l'ows, po tl). of jSpoluoon ip., ■Sii»i|ii(.- 
Iiiuiijii CO., l'u.,oii Apolacon Crock, near tbo Now York Imo. 
P..,.. i:!;{. 

I.iltir H(K>s(' f.:»k«',(ii.of Carltonco., Minn. Pop. 2*. 

Mtfir \ortli ituKjtp. of Million CO., Ark. Pop. :J03. 

liit'tic I'riii'riOf tp. of Puiniaeot co., Mo. Pop. 11*2. 

Ijit'tU^ Kiv'or, county of ArkanHiis, houndud H. by 
Tc\as and W. iiy tin; Indiiin Tirritury. Area. TiOO Kfjuiiri! 
niilof. Tlio IiL'd lUv<-r wu.sIuh its S., and tiio Little Kivcr 
ita N. l)<)nndary. It i.s wi II tiiiibercd and divfrnificd. Tim 
valli^vrt aro especially fertile. Cotton unci corn are staple 
products. Cup. llocUy Comfort. Poji. It2.'i(). 

I^ittlr River, tp. of JIunroe co., .-Via. Pop. 7J8. 

Litflr llivcr, post-tp. of Little Uiverco., Ark. Pop. 160. 

I.itdr Itivor, tp. of Misairfi-ippi eo., Ark. Pop. 51. 

Killlo Itivor, post-v. of Mendocino co., CaL, on the 
Pat-ilic. Pup. US. 

Little Kivcr, tp. of Peinifoot co., Mo. Pop. 120. 

Little Uiver, post-tp. of Alexander co., N. C. Pop. 035. 



Little Uiver, tp. of Culdwoll co., N. C. Pop. 8f.8. 

MAttU' llivrr, tp. of Montgoiiiury CO., N. C. Pup. 4I.>. 

Lilllc Itivcr, <p. of Oranj^t; eo., N. C. Pop. I^^3. 

I/itlli' Itivcr, tp. of Tniiirtylvaiiiiico., N. C. Pop. J'j:: 

Little Uiv<*r, rp, of Wako co., N. C. Pop. I.'U6. 

Little Ui\(r, Ip. of ]«awrunco co.. Pa. Pop. 1072. 

Little Uiver, poHl-v. and Ip. of Jlorry co., H. ' 
Pop. '...I. 

jLitlle Stiver, pottt-lp. of Floyd co., Va. Pop. IS7'.> 

Little Knck, city, cap. of ArkaDHaM and of Pulu-l i 
CO., siluuted near the cd^tru of the Stulu, ou Ihc* S. Ijuiik ot 
the ArkanHaM Kiver, 2j0 inileH ahovn iIn inoulli, and on the 
Littlo Kock and Fort KcotI, the Memphifi and Little Koek, 
and the .S(. Lonitt Iron Mountain and Southern II. \if., \2't 
niile8 S. W. of MeinpluH, huilt upon I he limt hi(,;liluiid 
reached hy ascending tho river, wliieh in here -100 yards 
wide, and navigable eight inonlhH of the year for large 
8leainboat8, Huialler uneH plying to Fori Sinilh on the bor- 
der of Indian 'I'erritory, ^H'l) niilen above. The rocky rliff 
ou which tho tnly nland.s, and from whicli it takeH it)< name, 
is not more than 60 feet above the river, while the Big 
Kock, commencing 2 miles above, is a precipitous range 
rising abruptly t^ome iJOO feet. Utile Rcck is a commercial 
city, having few niaiiufactnren, though poHHCK>ing every fa- 
cility for their e.stabliyhment, its busiuct^s eonnefrlirmc being 
largely with Texas and the H. W. generally: hat^ L>ehurchcB, 
3 banks, 2 daily, 4 weekly, and 2 monthly newepaperp, 
1 public library, 1 male and I f*!male college, (he former 
embracing military studies and btring under the control of 
tho Maiitjnic order, the latter under that of the Methodist 
Church, South ; a convent and academy of Sisters ofCharity, 
numerous public and private schools, U. S. arj^cnal, land- 
ofBce, and courts, State Capitol building, prison, and asy- 




State Capitol, Little Rock. Ark. 



hims t'or doaf-mutos nnd Idind, and n State library with 
1 2..'»ll0 vol u Mies. KailriMids cnniieclini; witli Ileleiin and 
New Orleans are being constructed, and street-cars provide 
means of communication within tho city. Tho situation is 
dry and healthy, and the place has never been visited by 
an epidemic. Pop. in 1S70, 12.380. 

E. N. Hill, Ed. "Scnday UKrrni.ir.w." 

Little Rock, post-tp. of Kendall en.. III. P.ip. 1843. 

Little Kock (reek, tp. of Mitchell c... X. 0. Pop. 397. 

Little Sauk, post-tp. of Todd co.. Minn. Pop. 202. 

Little Siou\, (lost-v. and tp. of Harrison co.. la., on 
the Siipux City and Pacific U. R. and the Missouri River, 
at the mouth of the Littlo Sioux River. Pop. GIL 

Little Sioux, tp. of Woodbury co., la. Pop. 900. 

Little Sisters ol'tlie Poor, a Roman Catholic sistcr- 
hnod d*^'\ oted to works of charity, and especially to the care 
of those wlio are old nnd poor: first established at St. 
Servnn, France, in 1810 by M. Lo Paillcur. They have a 
number of lnmses in tho U. S. 

Lit'tlestown, post-h. of Germany tp.. Adams co.. Pa.. 
3 miles N. of the Maryland line and 10 miles S. E. of Get- 



tysburg, has C) churches, j h;iiik, 1 Ii .t. i-. .tni ^rvrral mer- 
cantile establishments, and is the terminus of two short 
railroad brauche.-=. Princi[>al business, farming. Pop. 
847. P. 0. Goon, Ed. *' Littlestown News." 

Lit'tle Sanm'ico, tp. of Oconto co., Wis. Pop. 512. 

Lit'tleton, post-v. of Arapahoe co., Col., on the S. 
Platte River, and on the Denver and Rio Grande R. R., 
has a large flouring-mill and a hotel. 

Littleton, post-tp. of Schuyler co.. III. Pop. IHO. 

Littleton, post-tp. of Aroostook co., Me., 6 miles X. 
of Houlton. P.'p. 700. 

Littleton, post-tp. of Middlesex co., Mass.. on the 
Fitchburg R. R.. 31 miles N. W. of Boston. Milk is the 
leading agricultural product. Pop. 9S3. 

Littleton, post-v. and tp. of Graflon co., N. H.. on the 
Ammonoosuc River and the Bost-in Concord and Montreal 
R. R., 114 miles X. of Concord and 28 miles from the base 
of Mount Washington, White Mountainii, in which it is the 
most important town, nnd a usual point of departure for 
tourists. It is a farming town. largely encaged, however, 
in manufacturing, lumbering, and providing aceommoda- 
l tions for summer boarders; has 3 churches. 3 hotels. '2 



70 



LITTLETON— LITURGY. 



banks, 1 weekly newspaper, 1 good high school, 40 or 50 
stores, 1 woollen mill, a scythe and axe factory, and 2 
ni;uiul'actories of stereoscopic views, doing a large business. 
Pop. 2446. 

II. H. METC.iLF, Ed. "White Mountain Repcblic." 

Littleton, post-\-. of Halifax co., N. C.,on the Raleigh 
an-l Gastun R. R., "S miles N. E. of Raleigh. 

Littleton (Adam), D. D., b. at Hales-Owen, Shrop- 
shire, England, Nov. S, 1627; was educated at Christ 
Church. Oxford, taking high rank in the classics: became 
rector of Chelsea, chaplain to King Charles II., and pre- 
hendarv uf Westminster 1674. 1). at Chelsea June oO, 1694. 
Dr. Littleton was a fine Oriental scholar, and formed a li- 
brary of rare books and manuscripts, so extensive that it 
brought him to bankruptcy. He wrote much on mystic 
numbers and other recondite subjects, and published many 
sermons: but his great work was the Dictionnrij of the 
Latin, tjn'ek, Hfhrcic. and Eiifffith Lniit/itftffefi {167S; fre- 
quently reprinted). He was a descendant of Sir Thomas 
Littleton. (.See AVood's Atjicnte O-rouienses, vol. ii., and the 
preface to Ainsworth's Lntin Victionari/.) 

Littleton, or Lyttleton (Sir TnoM is), b. in Devon- 
shire. England, early in the fifteenth century : studied at 
Cambridge .and at the Inner Temple, where he became a 
lecturer on law. Under Henry VI. he was steward of the 
king's household and king's sergeant {14o.'j), |ieiforming 
the duties of judge of assize in the northern circuit. On the 
accession of the house of York to the throne of England, 
Edward IV. confirmed Littleton in his offices, appointed 
him one of the judges of the court of common pleas (1466), 
and a knight of the Bath (147o). D. at Fraukley, Worces- 
tershire. .\ug. 2.3, 14S1. He was buried in Worcester cathe- 
dral, where a marble tomb and statue were placed over his 
remains. Littleton's great work on tenures {La Tenures) 
was written in Norman French, the first edition being 
witboiit date, but supposed to be of 1481, translated 
into English in 1539, and given to the world with the 
authoritative commentary of Coke in 1628, since which 
time the editions have been innumerable, and the treatise 
has become the "Bible of the law" of England. It has 
often been printed with the French anil English texts in 
parallel columns. The original name of Littleton was 
Wrstcotb, which he exchanged for that of his maternal 
grandfather. 

Littleton (EnivARi>), Lord. See Lvttei.ton. 
Lit'tic Trav'erse, post-v. aud tp.. cap. of Emmet co., 
Mich., on the N. side of Little Traverse Bay. Pop. 294. 

Lit'tle Tur'tle ( Mc-ehe-eun-nn -qnn). a Miami chief of 
great reputation for intelligence, shrewdness, and valor in 
warfare; is supposed to have received some education in 
Canada. He commanded in the battles which resulted in 
the defeat of (Jen. Harmar on the Miami (Oct. 22. 1790) 
and of Gen. St. Clair at St. Mary's. Nov. 4, 1791 ; was 
present, though not in command, at the battle of Fallen 
Timbers or JLiumee Rapids, Aug. 20, 1794, in which the 
Indians were defeated by Gen. Wayne; was one of the 
signers of the treaty of Greenville, Aug., 1795, which end- 
ed the war and conveyed to the whites an extensive region 
in Ohio, and visited Pres. Washington at Philadel)>hia in 
1797, on which occasion he had an interview with t.'ount 
Volney. the French ]>hilosopher, and received a pair of 
elcantlv mounted pistols from Kosciuszko. D. at Fort 
W.avne.," Ind., .July 14, 1S12. 

Lit'tic Val'ley, post-v. and Ip., cap. of Cattaraugus 
CO., N. v., on Little Valley Creek near the Alleghany Ri\er, 
on the Erie R. R., S miles N. of Salamanca and 40 miles 
E. of Dunkirk, has 2 churches, :i hotels, new county build- 
ings, I bank, 1 weekly ncwspjiper, several steam-mills, and 
a large number of stores and shops. Principal business, 
farming and dairying, the latter interest having been stimu- 
lated liy the introduction of cheese-factories. Ruck City, 
a singular geological configuration of conglomerate rocks, 
arranged in regular block.s. with sharp angles and perpen- 
dicular sides, presenting the appearance of squares, court- 
yards, and streets, stands on a hill wilhin the townshiji, 
'20:10 feet above tide-water, 400 feet above the valley, and 
covers 100 acres. (For a scientific description of this in- 
teresting phenomenon see Prof. Hall's Genlor/i/ of Xiw 
York.) First settlement made here in 1807; township 
erected in 1818. Pop. 1108. 

A. W. Ferrin, En. " Cattaracoiis RuptinLicAN." 
Little Wolf, post-tp.of Waupaocft cc, Wis. Pop. 
7 1 1;. 

Little York, pnst-tp. of Nevada 00., CiC. Pop. 808. 
Little York, a v. (Fowr,r:K P. 0.) of Fowler Ip.. St. 
LavvreniM' CO., N. Y. Pop. 117. 

Little York, post-v. of Butler tp., Montgomery co., 0. 
Pop. 111. 



Littora'le [Ger. KiUtenlnnr/], province of the Austro- 
Hungarian monarchy, extends along the northern shore of 
the Adriatic from Venetia to Cro;itia, bounded N. and E. by 
Carinthia and Carniola. It consists of the counties cd 
Giirz and (Iradisca, the margraviate of Istria, and the dis- 
trict of Trieste, and comprises an area of .'iOSo square miles, 
with 600,525 inhabitants, mostly of Slavic descent. 

Littre (Maximilien Paul Emile), b. at Paris in 1801 ; 
studied medicine and the Semitic languages; from 18.'i0 
to 1851 was one of the editors of the liberal journal the 
Nutlnnal, and in 1854 the principal contributor to the 
Jintrnnl dea Sttvmits. He translated from the German the 
Li/'e of Jcaun by Strauss, wrote some works on medicine 
and on positive philosophy, being a prominent disciple of 
Auguste Comte. His principal work is the Diitianitry if the 
Frenek Lanynfujc (4 vols., 186;l-73), which is a kind of con- 
densed encyclopajdia. In 1871 he was elected to the National 
Assembly, and chosen a member of the Academy in the 
place of Villemain. Felix Aucaigse. 

Lit'trovv, von (Joseph Jopann), b. M,ar. 13, 1781. at 
Bisehof-Teinitz. in Bohemia; studied at the University of 
Prague; became professor of astronomy at Cracow in 1807; 
removed in 1810 to Kazan, in 1816 to Buda, and in 1819 
to Vienna, where be d. Nov. 30, 1840. Under his direc- 
tion the observatory of Vienna was much improved, and 
his lectures drew great audiences. His most prominent writ- 
ings are Die Wvnder dea Himmela (1834), often repub- 
lished: Theoretiaehe nnd prahtiaehe Aatrtniowie (3 vols., 
1822-26), and Athta des tjestirnlen Himmela. — llfS son, 
Karl Ludwig, b. at Kazan, Russia, .July 18, 1811, was 
his assistant in the Vienna Observatory from 1831 ; made 
important discoveries on the revolution of Venus and on 
eclipses ; became director in 1842 ; published laluabic as- 
tronomical registers, and was employed in 1847 in connect- 
ing .\ustria and Russia by triangulatiun. D. Nov. 16, 1877. 

Lit'urgy [AeiToupv'"'. " ^ public service ;" in the LXX., 
what belongs to the office of priest or of Levite ; in the New 
Testament, ministry of any kind, and also priestly service, 
equivalent to Upareta], in a general sense a prescribed form 
of public worship : in a stricter ecclesiastical sense is con- 
fined to that service which was probably the only stated 
sei-vice peculiar to the first Christians in Jerusalem — viz. 
" the breaking of bread," that highest act of Christian wor- 
ship, which the Lord Jesus instituted as a perpetual me- 
morial of the one (iropitiatory sacrifice of himself liy himself, 
and as a means of bestowing himself to the faithful in holy 
communion. In a short time this service must have be- 
come, in some respects, fixed. In the breaking of the bread 
and in the blessing of the cup they who had witnessed tlie 
first consecr.ation could not but have repeated the words 
and acts which they had heard and seen — words and acts 
deemed so important that they were by revelation imparteil 
to the apostle " born out of due time." And soon around 
this nucleus were clustered common prayers and praises and 
ritual observances ; not always the same in every country to 
which the apostles bore the blessings of Christ's body and 
blood, but naturally becoming fixed as the repetition of 
wants and feelings which do not often vary. Didtbeapoi^tles 
commit to writing one or more forms of the eucharistic ser- 
vice? A precomposed service is not ])erl'orec written. The 
teachings and rites of otlier religions have been communi- 
cated orally; and it has long been asserted that the early 
Church had not any written service of tlie altar. The 
chief reason for this opinion is the historic fact that when 
the sacred l>ooks were demanded in times t)f ju-rsecution no 
liturgy was ever delivered u]i, although jiorlions of the 
Scriptures were often seized. But, on the other hand, Ter- 
tullian seems to assert plainly the existence of such books, 
" which many accidents put into the hands of those who 
nro not of us." And so soon as the Church became dom- 
inant memory was not trusted, but written forms used, and 
this without mention of change of custom. That written 
liturgies were used by the apostles, and that vestments ap- 
]iropriato to the service were worn by them, some writers 
think to bo mailo more than probable by scriptural inti- 
mations of ordinances delivered to the churches, and espe- 
cially by St. Paul's care to have brought to him " lheebi:ik 
left at 'l'r<ias, and the books, especially the parchments." 
Such confirmation of previiius conviction may provoke a 
smile on the part of one who d.jubts. But not so with the eril- 
ioisms of late liturgiologists. Bcsi<les recognized quotations 
from heathen authors, there are found in the Epistles pas- 
sages introduceil with llu' words, ",\nd so it is written." and 
the like. Where arc they written? Certainly not all in 
Iho older Scri)itures. Some may have bei'U [inrls of hvinns 
aud spiritual songs, for they have a rhythmical measure; 
others are found in the primitive liturgies— the very worils. 
Can it be that the scriplunil writer quoted from these? 
If so, more is suggested than an answer to our ]ire8ent' 
question. It is possible that these passages in the liturgies 



LIVAI»IA LIVKK. 



I 



limy bo taktm from tho Soripturoi, afivory many toxtii aro; 
iiiid no it ims Keen otlcn iifucrtrd. Hut wlien wo oomo to 

f'Xaiiiiiii' ihr ••nllouiiHiin, the ciintriLry IxTonn'M |»rol)iililt! ; 
llh' (^imvirli'in si-.-ihh fnn-fd on uh (hut, tlm npuMfloH, writing; 
to t}n) olnir«'ln'H, lind tlh-ir tliou^litM iiahinilly (rlotlH'd in 
liiiii;iiJLK" with wliifih till iiri> familiiir from tlifur cronstaiU 
tHi^ ill tlin ilivino Mcrviu!'. rrii»n-L'ttd»T Ih n-t'crrod lu Nfulo'fl 

KHH'iifit <,n Lifintfinfof/tf itml Chuffh IliHtnrff.) 

AI(liou;jh in tho many liliirf^ncH which havo coino down 
to us from former af;c« tlu-rn urn many difl'crcn<!C'«, yet (h«ro 
in a diniihirily, if not identity, in partH which <-nahlo the 
critic to triKM^ llu'in al! I>a<^k to few noiir(!OH, Tli'-ro arc fivi' 
prini'ipal tjiinilifH: (1} That of St. .Iiini'-'', <>r JcriMaloni ; 
{'!) of St. iVIark. or Aloxundria ; (.'!) of St. Thaddims, c.r tho 
Kaat; (t) of St. Potor, or Il»nio; (.I) of St. John (with 
wtiosn naino tliat of St. Paul is associated), or of T'jphf-suR. 
And thi'sm prltiiitivo liturici'-r^, hy tlicir common stnu^ture, 
apart IVoui all i-Isc. suir[(»'s' a I'oinnioii orii^in. At various 
liiin's tho tt'iidcniTV to divcr^^cMico has hooii chi-ckcd, imt iu 
oarlior a*^08 no attempt was inudo to produeo uniformity. 
At tho time of the Upforinalicm cadi hishoprio sccins to 
have hccn (intitk'd to its own u.'JC, all Ikmiii^ variations of 
that fcirmiMl by Au'^ustiiic. prnhaldy from those of tho 
ancii'iit Mritish and Frciuih chiiridus, which wcru of Kplu.'- 
sian ori'^in. A c-oninion ''order" was al'tr-rwards im[msoil 
throu<.rhout Kii'^hind. an<l it wns even iniid(^ ponal to have 
in Olio's possi"*si<ui a copy of ono of tho old Kcrvice-hooUs. 
\Vc have no MS. of a primitive liturti;y of a <latc earlier 
than tho tenth nr niiilii century, hut in 8uhslanco moro 
thrin one can lie traced to about tho date iif the oldest of 
MSS. of tho Bible. W. F. BuanI). ' 

Livatli'a, town of Greece, in tho district of Attica and 
lin'otia, on tho Hercyiia. In ita vicinity is tho cave of 
Tniphonius, so celebrated in ancient timci) for ita oracle. 
Pop. 6000. 

Live'ly (EnwAnn), D. D., profopsor of Hebrew and di- 
vinity in the Uiii versify of ('aiubrid^^e. England, wiis a 
learned Orienlulist and one of tho translators of Ivinj^ 
James's version of the Iiil)le. He publishcil AuuntatiouH 
on several of the minor prophets (l.^S7), and Chnuuilngin 
nf the. Pcrf,mn Monnrchie (l^m). D. 1C05. (Sec Rev. A. 
W. MeCluro's Trttuslatora Itt-vivcd.) 

Liv'en^oort's, tp. of Cabarrus cc, N. C. Pop. 062. 

lave Oak, <*ouiity of S. W. Texas. Area, 1200 sciuare 
miles. It is traversed by tho Nueces River and many 
smaller streams, aloni; whose lianks are line bottom-lands. 
Tho remainder of tho eonnfy is a broken and elevated 
cattle-ranj;e, covered with lino mesquite-grass, and devoted 
chiody to stock-raising. Cap. Oakville. Pop. 8J2. 

Live Oak, post-v.. cap. of Suwannee co., Fla.. on the 
Jaeksonville Pensaeola and Mobile at its junction with the 
Atlantic and (iulf R. R., f^'.i miles E. of Tallahassee, has 3 
churches, I weekly newspaper, I large hotel, -"i free schools, 
a new court-house, .'t cotton-gins and presses. 2 grist-mills, 
1 furniture-factory, a turpentine distillery, anil 12 stores. 
It is connected wjtb Jessup l>y a branch railroad, is a new 
town, having considerable trade in cotton and sugar, and 
is tho seat of Brown Universitv au'l of Bethlehem Col- 
lcgL\ W. W. Ki:i:i', Jit., Kn. " Timks." 

Liv'cr [Or. ^irap: Lat.yffCMr; Gcr. Leber: Fn/oiV]. The 
liver is the largest gland in the body; it is appended to 
tho alimentary canal, and is now kin)wn to have several 
distinct functions. The weight is ait^ut five pound.s, and 
th!> specilie gravity one and a half greater than water. 
This organ is situated in the abdomen in the right hypo- 
oliondriac region, extending across the epigastrium to tho 
left hypoehomlrium. It reaches, superiorly, the sixth rib, 
while its anterior border interiorly approaches the lower 
mirLcin of the (horax. The form is IlatteiUMl, broad and 
thiek towards tho right extremiry, and thinner and nur- 
r^iwer towanls tho left. Tho superior surface is convex, 
while the inferior surface is irreirularly concave. V\Mn\ the 
posterior border the liver is thick and rounded, with a thin 
and sharp anterior border. In the abdomen the position 
is obliijue: in the ereet posture tlie convex surface is di- 
rected upward and forward, with the concave downward 
and backward. Tho diaphragm, covering the superior con- 
vox surfai-e. s.'para*es the liver from the under surface of 
the right lung and from the heiirt. Anteriorly, it is in re- 
lation with the diaphragm nml iransversalis muscle, and 
at tho epigiistrium with the sheath of tho rectus muscle 
and lincaalbrt. The inferior concave surface is in relation 
with the stomueh anteriorly, a portion of the duodenum. 
transverse eoh^n. and riixht kidney, and by its left extremity 
with tlie upper end of the spleen. The dinphragm inter- 
venes between the vertebral column and posteriitr border 
of the liver, while the anterior border is free, and in rela- 
tion with tho transversal is muscle and round ligament at tho 
notch. Tho liver possesses fire Hsamonts, by mcaas of 



whioh it iH retained in place, onlled tho broad, the coronary, 
tho two lateral, and the round lt|(ain'*nt. IJy five llKKurof, 
named lon;xiiudinal, tiMiiuro fortheducluH v<-no>tun, tranii- 
verse (IsHurc, liMHure tor gall-bliulder. and fifHure (or vena 
cava, tho livjT ih divided into livo lohert ; thcRO lobcK are 
designated right and left lobe, lobufi quiidratuH, lohuR Spi- 
gelii. au<l hjloiM caudatus. The liver \n covered by Ihc 
peritoneum cxlernally; the fold« of thiK mcmbnine am it 
pasHCH from the surface of the organ form four u\ the liga- 
inentH above enumerattd. The round ligament xn (he result 
of the obliteration of (he umbilical vein of (he Ui:ixin. Tho 
proper cont of the liver ih a dennc and lliin fibronx mem- 
brane, very adluTcnt to (he HubHtani*e 'd'die or^fun, and in 
intimate relation with the peri(orieum. Atdiched to the 
liver, in tho nhallow fosi^a upon the under flurfaco-of (he 
right lobe, lying parallel with the lungiiudinnl fiHfuro, itt a 
membranous sac, the gall-blndder. The gall-bladder in 
divided into a botly. fundus, and neck. The body in tho 
midfllc portion; the fiindiiH ihe expiinded extremi(y which 
npproiiches the notch in Ihe free border; the neck, Ihc por- 
tion which, narrowing, enters the right extremity of tho 
tninsverso fissure and forms (he cifntir dn't. 'J'he evHtic 
duet is about one and a half inehcH in length, and has tho 
diameter ai' a eriiw's quill. At Ihe (rancvers«: li^rure tho 
duct unites with the excretory duct of tho liver, thr hfpntic 
(tiii't, forming liy this junction the tfiiclim romimoiiii rhulr- 
linru/i, Tho ductus eonimuniH choleilocus, with a length of 
three inches, passes thronj^h the right border of the lesser 
omentum, and opens into the duodenum, passing obli(|uely 
between its eoa(8. (For the minute anatomy of the liver 
ancl ijall-bladiler see Histoi,o(;v.) 

The I'hifHiudi'iff ttf the Aityr.— The liver na a gland standi! 
alone in the economy, on account of the complexity of 
function which it possesses. The physiology of glands in 
gcnernl points (o but one func(ion for each : in the case of 
the liver, however, may Ijc enumerated (I ) the secretion of 
bile (which is both a secretion and an excretion), and (2) 
the glycogenic or sugar-producing property, t'ndcr tho 
head of bile is included both a secretion of importance to 
digest ioh — in fact, necessary for life — as well as an im- 
portant excretion. 

Ifow in the liilc secrctrd f — According to the views of 
fomo physiologists, (here are two distinct systems in tho 
liver — one for the secretion of bile, nccomplishcd hy tho 
little racemose glands'^ attached to the gall-<luct as i( rami- 
fies in tho substance of the gland, and one for the produc- 
tion of sugar, the hepatic or liver cells. This theory, how- 
ever, does not seem to be correct, as there are animals, as 
the rabbit, in which the small glands above referred to do 
not exist, at the same time that both l>ile and sugar are pro- 
duced by its liver. We lire therefore obliged to consider 
that thero is no anatomical or physiological evidence that 
the bile is secreted anywhere but in the lobules or acini by 
means of the hepatic cells. At this point the small bile- 
cajiillaries take up Ihe material and carry it to (he gall- 
bladder, where it is stored up for future use. A question 
of interest arises as to whether Ihc bile be formed from 
venous or arterial blood. The hepatic artery has been tied, 
and bile was secreted still. From the experiments of Ore 
it is shown that when the portal vein is (ddilerated bile con- 
tinues to be formed from the blood of (he hepa(ic artery. 
Hence wo conclude that bile may be formed from cither 
venous or arterial blood. 

Qiiifittitif tif UUf. — From experiments on animals, with a 
fistula in the gall bladder and the ductus communis eho- 
ledocus tied, it has been estimated that the quantity of bilo 
secreted in twenty-four hours in a healthy .man weighing 
1(0 pounds is 2A pounds. 

/VoIP "/' '/"• liiif. — During the period in which the diges- 
tive functions nre inactive the gnll-blatldcr is constantly 
receiving bile from the liver. As soon, however, as stomach 
diirestion is completed, and the food jmsses into the duo- 
denum by means of the distended condition of the sur- 
rounding organs, a sufficient am<mnt of pressure is exerted 
upon the walls of the gall-bladder (o force out the bile, 
throuirh the ductus communis choledocus. into the small 
in(estine. The flow of bile continues during the period of 
in(es(inal digestion, after which no more passes into the 
duodenum: the gall-blnddor still receives this fluid from the 
liver, and in this manner it is stored up for future use. 
The bile, then, is constantly formed l>y and discharged 
from the liver. This peculiarity behuigs to the liver, for it 
is a well-established fact that nrcretuuj glands arc only ac- 
tive at certain times, their functions not being constantly 
required. 

Propertit* of /A«? HiU, — As the bilo floxrs from Ihe he- 
patic duet directly, it is a somewhat viscid fluid, which, 

•The funclfon of thewe cland.i Is undoubtedly to form muens, 
which is always found in the bile as it comes from the hepatic 
duct. 



72 



LIVEEMORE. 



traces. 




1.60 to 


2.63 


14.00 " 


30.00 


3.20 " 


31.00 


traces 




2.77 to 


3..50 


1.60 " 


•-'.-iO 


0.75 " 


l..ill 


0.50 " 


1.35 


0.45 ■' 


O.SO 


0.15 " 


0.30 


traces. 




O.OS to 


0.06 


traces 




3.45 to 


l.ai 



after remaining in the gall-bladder, has its viscidity in- 
creased by the further admixture with mucus. The color 
of the bile varies greatly with the animal from which it is 
obtained, being in the human subject, when procured im- 
mediately after death, of a dark golden brown. Pig's bile 
is clear vellow : dog's, dark brown ; ox bile has a green 
color. The specific gravity of human bile varies from 1013 
to 1026. The reaction of fresh healthy bile is alkaline. 
There is no characteristic odor, but it readily undergoes 
putrefaction, giving forth a most offensive stench. The 
taste is extremely bitter. When shaken the bile becomes 
frothy, owing to its mucous and saponaceous constituents. 
The composition of human bile may be seen from the fol- 
lowing table: 

Compoeition of Human Bile. 

Water 915.00 to 819.00 

Taurocbolate or chelate of soda 56.50 " 106.00 

(Mycocholate or chelate of soda (?) 

Cbolesteriue 

Coloring-Tiiatter, bilirubin 14.00 

Lecilhine,margarine(?), oleine, andtraees 

of soaps 

Clioline 

Chloride of sodium 

Phosphate of soda 

" " potassa 

" " lime 

" " magnesia 

Salts of iron 

Salts of manganese 

Silicic acid 

Mucosine 

Leucine, tyrosine, xanthine 

lOOO.OO 1000.00 
The ingredients of the bile which possess the greatest 
amount of interest aro what are termed biliary suits, first 
known under the name bilinry matter (Berzelius) and pi- ! 
cromel or biliary resin (Thenard). to whose original papers, j 
mentioned below, the reader is referred. Most of our pres- I 
ent knowledge has been obtained from the investigations 
of Streckcr, Ijehmann, and Dalton. ^ I 

Coloring-matter of the Bile. — Chemistry, so far, hits shown ! 
us that there are two principal biliary coloring-matters — 
viz. bilirnbine and bilirrrdine. Both substances are nitrog- 
enous: the first of a reddish-yellow color and crystal- ! 
lizable : the second imperfectly crystallizable, and of a 
green hue. Besides these two coloring-matters, we m.ay ; 
mention biliphaeine, bilifuscinc, and biliphrasine, which, 
however, are simply modifications or derivatives of bilirn- 
bine and biliverdine. 

The Physioloijy of the hirer. — Wo have already referred 
to the functions of this organ, and have seen that it se- 
cretes bile and forms sugar. Let us first consider the 
functions of the bile. There arc two distinct functions of 
the biliary fluid. lu the first place, it is a secretion formed 
from the blood by the liver, and discharged into the ali- 
mentary canal for purposes of digestion. Here, after mod- 
ifying the digestive process, a part is absorbed into the 
system, and a part (cholesterinc) passes out of the econ- 
omy. That the bile is necessary to life wo have seen, for 
when this fluid is allowed to escape through a fistula an 
animal will die of inanition in from twenty-seven to thirty- 
eight days. Physiologists are not yet acquainted with tho 
exact action of the bile as a digestive fluid : some consider- 
ing that it is for the jiurposc of causing the movements of 
tho intestine (peristaltic action), others that it supplies al- 
kalinity to the absorbing vessels of the villi, which hastens 
the introduction of fat into the blood ; while, on the other 
hand, it has been claimed that the bile forms an emulsion 
with fats to a great cxic-nt, ami in this manner aids the se- 
cretion from the pancreas, so as to completely digest fatty 
materials. We can only states that tho bile performs some 
part in the digestive process; what it may be is at present 
unknown. The biliary salts, with certain other constitu- 
ents of tho bile, arc absorbed in the intestine, ns they can- 
not bo found in tho faiees, and are not seen to accumulate 
in the blood when tho liver is diseased or cxtir|iated. 

The llile OS an A'-ccrfn'oii. ^.Although it is well known 
that cholesterinc is found in small quantity in (he crystal- 
lino Ions and spleen, by far the larger amount is met with 
in the brain and ner\'ous system. A series of experiments 
have shown that the blood acquires cholesterinc in passing 
tiirough the brain and nerves of the extremities, and there- 
fore there can be no doubt hut that the blood takes np this 
substance from tho nervous system generally : the cholcs- 
tcrine representing th(; wornout nerve-tissue, as nrtja does 
that of muscle, liy a further series of observations by 
Prof. Flint, .Jr., the fact is established that in cases where 
there is paralysis, or any form of disease which interferes 
with nerve-function, tho blood coming from tho part or 
parts alTe(;teil contains little or no clndi-slerine. Furtiier- 
Miore, when the liver becomes affected (which would prevent 
il^ -i|,ar!itiMg th" cliolestcriuu from the blood 1 the choles- 



terine collects or accumulates iu the blood to such an extent 
as to produce a poisoning called cholesleriemia. We have 
already alluded to the fact that although cholesterinc is 
discharged into the intestines in order to be thrown out of tiie 
system, before it reaches the external world it becouies 
changed into stercoriue in the alimentary canal, and is found 
as such in the faeces. In eases wliere the function of the 
liver is interfered with by disease the faeces contain no 
stercoriue. As yet no exact chemical relations have been 
established between cholesterinc and stercoriue. 

The Glycogenic or ^iii/ar-forminr/ Fnnetion of the Liver. 
— In 1848, Bernard, the illustrious French physiologist, 
showed that the blood coming from the liver contained 
sugar of the variety found in the urine of persons suffering 
from diabetes meUitns. When an animal is fed exclusively 
upon animal food, which contains no sugar, and the blood 
going to the liver is examined carefully, no sugar is to be 
found in it; but when the blood coming from the liver is 
analyzed, sugar is always present, even thongh the time 
were chosen when the digestive function was quiescent; in 
fact, in starving animals the blood of the he]>atic veins 
always contains sugar. These experiments point to the fact 
that the blood acquires sugar in its passage through the 
liver. Bernard further examined the blood from various 
parts of the body, made extracts of all the tissues, and 
found sugar only in the tissue and blood of the liver. As 
the blood passes from the hepatic veins it becomes mingled 
with that of the vense cava;, and in its passage through tho 
lungs the sugar either entirely or in great ]iart disappears. 
We can then conclude that the liver, unlike any other gland 
in the body, is a secreting as well as an excreting organ, 
and, like the ductless glands, it forms a substance (sugar) 
which is delivered directly into the blood. 

Literature. — Ore, Inference rle l' Obliteration de la Ferae 
porte 8nr la Secretion de la Bile, Cowptes Rendus (Paris, 
1S56); Longet, Traile de Physivloi/ic (Paris, 1869) ; Robin, 
Leroiis snr lea Humenrs (Paris, 1867) : Bidder and Schmidt, 
Die Vcrdantinijaadfte (Leipsicj ; Dalton, Treatise on Human 
PhyaioUupi (Philadelphia, 1871); Bernard, Liqnides de 
r Orijania'me (Paris, 1859); Robin et Verdiel, Traile de 
Chimie analomiqne (Paris, 1853) ; Lehmann. Physiological 
Chemialry (Philadelphia, 1855); Berard, C\aira de Phyai- 
ol<i,/ie (Paris, 1851); Milne Edwards, Lcrona snr la Physi- 
olo',pe (torn. 7, Paris, 1862); Flint, Jr., The Physiology of 
Man (New York, 1867-70) ; Pettenkofer, Kotiz uber einc 
ueue Beactiun (auf.) ; Oalleund Zucker, Annalen der Chemie 
und Pharmacie (Heidelberg, 1844); Bernard, Lccjma de 
Phyaiologic cjperimenlaie {Pans, 1865) ; lb., De I'Origine dn 
ancre daiia l' Economie animale. Archives general de Medeeine 
(Paris, 1848) ; Ih., Snr lea Effctt dea Substances tii.riquea et 
niidicamenleuaes (Paris, 1857); lb.. Rcrherchea aur uue 
nourelle Fonction dn Foie (Paris, lS53i; Frerichs. Ver- 
danun<t, Wagner's Ilandieorterbiirh der Physiolngie (Braun- 
schweig, 18"46) ; iStrecker, Uutcrsuehnug der Oehsgalle, 
Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie (Heidelberg. 1848); 
Todd, Cyrlopxdia of Anatomy and Physiology (London, 
18:59-47,' vol. iii.) ; Paiiderscili, Handbook for the Physi- 
ological Laboratory (Philadelphia, 1S7:',)-; Bennett, Text- 
boot of Phiiaioloiiy (Philadelphia. 1873): Dalton, Speclrtim 
of Bile, N.'y. .Medical Journal (ISr-i). J. W. S. ARNOLD. 

Livermore, post-v. of Alameda co., Cal., on the Cen- 
tral Pacific R. II., 48 miles E. of San Francisco, has 1 
weekly newspaper. 

l.iv'ermorc, post-v. of McLean co., Ky., on the navi- 
gable Green River and on the Owenshoro" and Russcllville 
R. R. Pop. 302. 

L,ivermore, post-tp. of Androscoggin co., Mc, 20 miles 
X. of Auburn, on the W. bank of the Androscoggin River, 
opposite East Livermore. I'op. 1467. Native place of 
the celebrated Washburne family and other distinguished 
persons. 

Livermore, post-b. of Dcrry tp., Westmoreland co., 
Pa., on the West Pennsylvania R. R. Pop. 211. 

Livermore (Aiuki. Ahbot), b. in Wilton, N. 11., Oct. 
30, 1811 ; educated at Exeter; graduated at Ilarvar.I Col- 
lege 1s:!:i, and at the Divinity School 1836 ; settled in Keene, 
N. 11., 1830, in Cincinnati 1850; in 1857 removed to Yonk- 
ers and became editor of the Christian Iiajuircr, a Unitarian 
paper in New York; since 1863 has been president of the 
Theological School iU Mcadville, Pa. Mr. Livermore has 
been a contributor to magazines, and is the author of sev- 
eral works: A ('ommrnttiry on the Four Gaapela (2 vols., 
1841-12), A Commenlan/ on the Ads of the Apostles (1844), 
Lectures to Young Men (1816), The Marriage Offering, a 
prize essay on the Mexican war (1850), Discouraea (1851), 
A Commentary on liomana (1854). He was also one of the 
compilers of tho book of hymns known as the Cheshire Col- 

lection (1815). O. li. FllOTIIlNnllAM. 

I,iv«'rmi>rc ((Ir.ouor.). b. at Cambriilge, Mass.. .Tuly 
10, 1.S09; educ:ited at the public schools; was carefully 



M\ i.i:\H)i:i; i,i vi.Kl'ooi, 



trained for a inorcnntilo lifo, and nftiir ««ino exporiencofl 

ii(. (liffurcni |>Iiu't-H fiih'rcil inLn biiMim-HM iit IloMlon an a 
\v<Mi! (■iniiriii?'r^li<ii intTrlijinr, In wliifh Ik; hrciiim', mid n;- 
iii]ii[M.Ml tliruiij^h lifi', oiH' ((f tli<' [(roininrnt lniciiniHH-inon 
ot tlmt city. lakiii^ prid" in heiiiK known in that rapacity. 
Kiirly iti Ii!(! hn litiifan tii d<v(>t« his l<irtun' to hir'torioal 
and unl,ii|uiuian rn*i«undH'N, in wliifdi in- lnM-unir a rtn-o^;- 
ni/.cd iiiitlinrily, and in Mm- Kpifially of clirionH of th« 
liihlf in ilirtVp'nt lanxnu^Cf^' Iiim ccdlcrtion wu.h probiildy llio 
lincHt in Anmrioa. }iv wuh romi of lar^f'-pap'T copies and 
illuHtnitrd cditionH, in which hi« lihrary win vttry rich. 
He wa-« in |H|1I honored \vi(h nn c-lectiun to the MaHHachu- 
Hrl.tH lli.^forical Sciciety, of wliich ho waH an active and 
influpntial nicrnlxT. as hImo of llic Anii-rican Antiquarian 
Hodifly, the Anicriean Academy of Arts, and the ItoHton 
AtlienuMini, of nil wliif^h he wiis often an (tflicer. He frc- 
nncntly wrote for Iln- n<'wspaperrt and reviews upon sub- 
jects of a liiblioj;rai>liiejLl or hi."torical cliara<iter, all his 
contributions beiny; marked iiy a. ])ure and vi^jorons style 
and dispbiyiufi; extensive resciireh. Aniont; those papers 
nniy be mentioned lliose in the ('amf/ri»{</r Cfn-ftnirfr on the 
Nrw KiUffiiml I'riturr (1819), in tlie Xorth Amffirnn lir- 
virw nn Piihh'r Lthrarien (I.S50), and his important essay, 
An llistorirnl /IrfiPftrrh rrHprcthn/ thfi Ofihtiuun of thr 
Fiiiiiiilrra It/' til r lirfinblir oil XcffmrH nn Slmu-it, tm CitizniM, 
<tu'{ HH Sohliri-H, read before the Massachusetts Historical 
Society Aug. M, lS(i2, printorl in tho /'ntrrrrlitn/ii of that 
society, and separately in lour other editions on superior 
pnjter. making; a volume of L'lT) patjes, Mr. Liverniore was 
a lilierul contributor of his time, strenfflli, and money to 
llm rniiin cause ilurini^ the civil Wiir. wiis inslrumental iit 
seeuririi; for tho Historical Society the invaluable library 
of Mr. Dowse, and was beloved by all his aei|uaintances as 
a iiij^h-ininded <'liristian pcntlemun and scholar. I>, at 
Oambridi^o Aug. liO, l,sn:i. IJeuiilirul trilmtes to his mem- 
ory were ])aid — by Kev. K. K. Jiaie in his sermon entitled 
Tlif f*iihh'r Service of a Private Man, and by lions. R. C. 
Winthrop and Charles Deano in addiX'SriCS before the so- 
ciety which ho had adorned. 

liivermore (Mary Ashton). b. at Boston, Mass., Doc. 
to, ISLM, daughtor of Timothy Rico and wife of D. P. 
Livormore, a Uuiversuli.-t minister: has written largely for 
periodicals, labored with nimli ability in behalf of tho 
hanitary Commi.'^sion during the ci\il war, and inis taken a 
prominent position as a writer ancl public speaker upon 
woman snflVago and various social and religious questions. 
In IS70 she was editor of The Womnnn Jtmmal at Boston, 
Mass. 

Livermorc Falls, (>ost-v. of East Liverinorc tp., An- 
drosouggin co.. Mc on the Androscoggin R. R. and on the 
K. bank of the Androscoggin River, has 3 churches and 
nKinufaeturcs of lumber, condensed milk, ploughs, etc. 

liiv'erpool, next to London the largest city, ami with- 
out any excejilion the largest seuport, ottho I'niled King- 
dom of Great Britain and Ireland, is situated in lat. :)'.'>° 
2 r 0" N., Ion. 2° ,M)' o" W., on the estuary of the Mersey, 4 
miles from the Irish Sea, one hour's distance by railway 
from Manchester, six hours' from liOndon and Kdinburgh. 
and eight liours' by steam from Dublin. In 1047 it was 
made a free port, and in Util" it was ilechircd an individual 
])arish. but it had at that time only about 5000 inhabitants, 
II nd its shijiping numbered oidy about SO vessels. Its 
growth began in tlio eighteenth century, and became very 
rajiid in tho latter part of it. In 170(1 its population had 
inereajicd to 1I."».7"0 souls, and its shipping to 1246 vessels, 
and in ISOO to 77,700 and 3000 rej!peL?tively. and it has since 
gone on increiising. Its popnhition in iSJl was 37i),9 J.'> ; 
in ISOl, 4t:!.ll.1S:'in 1S71. 4y;J.:i40. In ISGO there cleared 
from its port 12,0S5 vessels of 4,164,445 tons burden, of 
whioh :V2t\7 were Hritish vessels, of 2,345,058 tons, 1301 
foreign, of 020. SIO tons, and 8157 belonging to the coast- 
trade — namely, 4118 sailing vessels and 303y steamers: to 
tho port itself belonged 20'J8 ships — namely, 2509 sailing 
vessels, of 1.320.317 tons, and 420 steamers, of 205,604 
tons. In 1873. 15,104 vessels of 0.330,370 tons entered 
tho harbor, and 15.000 cleared it; of the entering vessels, 
7U23 were sailing vessels and 7083 steamers; 4042 were 
foreign and lOS employed in the coast-trade. To the port 
itself belonged 18(10 sailing vessels of 900.807 tons ami 503 
steamers <)t" 4 12. 10 I tons. Tlie development of this gigantic 
traOic. wliich is surpassed only by that of the port of New 
\ork, is partly due to the growth of the manufacturing in- 
dustry of tho neighboring inland towns and the establish- 
mont of perfect means of communication between these places 
and Liverpool. The Bridirewater ('anal, connect inir the Trent 
and the Mersey, was openetl in 1773; tho railway to .Man- 
chester m 1830, to Birmingham in 1837, to London and 
Preston in 1S38, Thus Liverpool became tho chief port of 
exportation from Great Britain; nearly one-half of all 
British exports aro Ehippod from its docks. The value of 



Drliish produoo and manufaoturoH oxported in IHT.i from 

Liverpool amoundrd to X93,U25,3',I0. Tho principal ilerxiN 
were — .cotton nianufuetup-H, jL;ii,7y l,'-''^''' ; cotton yarn, 
X4,031,l) 15 ; woolbn iinirnifaetureM, Xl l,29'J,07y ; linen 
nianufaeturcH, £ l,04S,.'t02 ; iron, £1 1,350,312 ; hardwarrf and 
cutlery, £2.020,094; haberdtt«horyandii»ilIinery,i2,2H2,0H:;, 
But another and perhapH Htill greater influence on tlio de- 
velopment of (hi' commerce of Liverpool wan d<Tivc.J from 
the rise of the V, .^. About four-flfthH of all the (raflic which 
lakes place between North America and (Ireul Britain is 
earriuil on through tho port of Liverpool : 1509 vcpftelR from 
the n.S.cntcre'I its port in lM7;i; and 1321 chiired it for tho 
V. S. Of tho 2,Hin.9Ml bales of cotton which in IH7:j wero 
exported from tho H. S., I,807,5S4 went to Liverpool, Tho 
abolition in 1833 of the monopoly oft he Kasl India Company, 
which gave Liverpool a chance of participating in the Irado 
with tho Kasf, and the rise of the Anslralian eolonicD, have 
also contrib»*e<l lo make it the most important [dace of iin- 

fiorlation in tin; United Kingdom. Half of nil the grain, 
incon, hams, lard, madder, palm oil, etc. which if imported 
to Kngland is receivctl heri", and hero is held Iho l!trge«l col- 
trin-market in the world, and soon probably it vrill have tho 
largest wool-market. t)f the 13,039,252 cwl;". of raw cot- 
ton which were imported to Kngland in 1x7:',, 1 2, 57". 032 
came through this port. In addition to this treraeridoui 
importation and exportation, an important manufacturing 
industry is carried on in tho city. Its sngar-refinerics and 
sonp-faotories aro very extensive; its shipbuilding eslab' 
lishments aro also in very active operation. It was one of 
the first branches of industry starleil here, and it was 
largely developed in the latter part of (ho eighteenth cen- 
tury; from 1777 to 1782, 15 vessels of war were launched 
here, ranging from 16 to 50 guni<; in 1873, 29 vessels were 
built here, (.f 31.800 tons burden. 

Liverpool is the most densely peopled city in England. 
In 1868 it contained 90 persons to an acre, while Man- 
chester contained only 81, Birmingham 44, and London -10. 
A generation ago it was also ono of tho filthtc^^t and un- 
healthiest cities in Kurope, anrl in the beginning of (his 
century certain of its (juarters were world-famous as tho 
most frightful haunts of vi(;e, crime, an*! misery. But in 
Ihcse respeots great improvements have been made and are 
still making, ami Liverpool is now fairly on the way (o be- 
come a magnifnient city. Its neeonimo<la(ions for IrafBc 
are most splendid. The docks, stretching abuig the Mer- 
sey 5 miles on tho Liverpoid sido and 2 miles on the Birken- 
head side, are unsurpassed by any in the world. They cost 
£10,000,000 to construct, and are mastorpicces of engineer- 
ing art. A full description of them will be found in tho 
article on I>oiks. Three railway lines cross the city from 
the docks in huge tunnels under the houses, while tho Lan- 
caster and Yorkshire Railway is carried above the houses 
on a splendid viaduct to Tithcbarn street, where stands one 
of the largest cK'p6ts in the world, its glai?8 roof covering 
an area of 81.000 square feet. The public buildings more 
recently erci:ted arc on a grand and magnificent scale, such 
as St. George's Hall, with Corinthian columns 40 feet high, 
and a hall for public meetings, concerts, etc. 101 feet long 
and 75 feet wide; the exchange, forming the three sides 
of a square, with the town-hall on tho fourth, and the Nel- 
son monument in the centre ; tho 1^'rec Library and Muf^cum, 
etc. Broad and handsome streets have been rim through 
several of the most crowded parts of the city; it has been 
amply provided with good water ami gas; numerous hos- 
pitals, asylums, and other institutions for the relief of tfco 
sick, poor, and destitute have been founded: good cdiica-- 
tional institutions, from the elementary school (o the scien- 
tific association with its library, observatory, botanical gar- 
den, etc., have been established: dignified and beautiful 
places of worship and decent and elegant pKieos of amuse- 
ment have been built, and an effective police has been pro- 
cured. Clciiens Petersi:?*. 

Liverpool, seoport of Nova Scotia, cap. of Queen's 
CO., has considerable trade in fish and lum\»er. The town 
is well built and attractive. It has a good harbor, into 
which flows the river Mersey. It has 1 weekly newspaper, 
a bank, and a lighthouse on Coffin's Island ; lat. 44° 3' N., 
Ion. 04° 30' W. Pop. of sub-district, 3104. 

Liverpool* post-v. and tp. of Fnlron cb.. Til., between 
the Illinois Kiver and Thompson's Lake, S miles N. E. of 
Havana. Pop. 1336. 

Liverpool, post-v. of Solina tp., Onondaga co., N. Y.. 
on the K. shore of Onondaga Lake. 4 miles N. of Synicuse, 
on tho Oswego Conal and Syracuse Northern R. R., has 4 
churches. 7 hotels. 1 weekly newspaper, an academy, 2 
ciixar-faetories. several largo mills, and an extensive manu- 
facture of willow baskets. The leadine industry, however. 
i is the manufacture of salt in a large number of work-. 

Pop. 1555. Jons J. I1am.(X'k. En. "The Tmr-S." 

I Liverpool) tp. of Columbiana co., 0. Pop. 2907. 



74 



LIVERPOOL— LIVINGSTON. 



Liverpool, a v. (Rosedale P. 0.) of Pike tp., Madison 
CO., 0. Pop. 07. 

Liverpool, post-tp. of Medina co., 0. Pop. 1425. 

Liverpool, post-b. and tp. of Perry co., Pa., on the W. 
bank of the Susquehanna, .'JO miles above Harrisburg. The 
railroad station is E. of the river, in Dauphin co., un the 
Northt-rn Central R. R. Pop. of b. 823; of tp. 859. 

Liverpool (Ciiaules Jknkinson), first earl of, b. in 
Oxfordshire. England. May 10,1727: educated at Oxlbrd; 
entered Parliament, and became under-secretary of state in 
1761 : was joint secretary of the treasury in 1703; lord of 
the admiralty in 1706; lord of the treasury in 1767; vice- 
treasurer of Ireland and privy councillor in 1772; master 
of the mint in 1776 ; and secretary of state for the war de- 
partment in Lord North's administration from 1778 to 
1782. in which capacity he had much to do with determin- 
ing the course of military operations in the U. S. during 
the closing years of the American war of independence. On 
retiring from the latter office he enlisted in the political 
circle which was grouping itself around the younger Pitt, 
by whom he was appointed in 1781 president of the board 
of trade, and held that post during the whole seventeen 
years of Pitt's first administration. He was created Baron 
Hawkesbury in 1786, and earl of Liverpool .lunc 1. 1796, 
an<l d. in London Dec. 17, 18U8. He published a Collection 
of nil the Trtirtics of Peace hcticccn Great lirUain and Other 
PotcerHj'rom I64S to 17S3 (3 vols., 1785). 

Liverpool (Robert Bankes Jeskixson), second earl 
OF, b. in London June 7, 1770; educated at Oxford; en- 
tered Parliament in 1790, before attaining his majority; 
took rank as a ready debater; went on a special mission 
to Coblentz in 1701: succeeded (by courtesy) to the title 
of Lord Hawkesbury in 1796; wi^s appointed secretary of 
state for foreign atlairs in the Addington cabinet, and 
negotiated the Treaty of Amiens in 1801; became home 
secretary under Pitt in 1805, and again in 1807 ; and suc- 
ceeded to the earldom of Liverpool in Dec, 1808. On the 
death of Pitt {1806), and again on the fall of the Fox and 
Grenville administration ( 18(t7). he had refused the pre- 
miership, but acceptedit on the assassination of Mr. Perceval 
(iMay 11, 1812). with the title of first lord of the treasury, 
and remained at the bead of the administration fifteen 
years, until an attack of paralysis {Feb. 17) occasioned his 
resignation in Apr., 1827. D. Dec. 4. 1828. His term of 
ofl&ce was longer than that of any British premier of the 
present century, and was marked by a decided opposition 
to the emancipation of the Catholics, the abolition of sla- 
verv, parliamentary reform, and all other measures of a 
liberal character, while the introduction of a bill of pains 
and penallies against Queen Caroline, as well as the mea- 
sun-s fur the re])rossion of internal disturbances, brought 
up"ii iiim a popular odium which was not conciliated by 
the admitted blamelessness of his private character. 

Livery of Seizin. See Feoffment. 

Liverworts, See Hepatic.*:. 

Liv'ia DrusJria, a daughter of L. Livius Drusus 
Claudianiis (who committed suicide after the battle of 
Philippi in order to escape the vengeance of the trium- 
virs), b. in 50 B. c. and married eaiiy to Tiberius Claudius 
Nem. to whom she bore two sons, Tiberius and Drusus. 
While pregnant with the latter she made the acquaint- 
ance of Augustus, and fascinated him so much by her 
beauty an<l the elegance and dignity of her manners that 
he compelled her husband to cede her to him, while at the 
sauie time he divorced bis own wife, Seribonia. Their 
marriage, which followed immediately, was very happy: 
Livia retaine-l the tenderness and confidence of Augustus 
to his death. But behind the bland resijrve of her ap- 
pearance she concealed a plan of enormous ambition and 
cruelty, and she pursued it without scruple. A? the years 
passed away all the members of the large and brilliant 
family of Augustus were ruined one afler the other, and 
the old emperor at last found himself alone in the jialacc 
with Livia and her son Tiberius, whom Ikc adopted and 
made his heir. All Rome execrated the empress. Augustus 
himself susjiected her. and her own son feared ami liated 
her. She survived Augustus fifteen years, but she soon 
lost her influence under the reign of Tiberius; it is even 
.sairl that he retired to Capri in order to eseape from her 
presence. .She d. at Rome in 29 a. D.. and her son refused 
to visit her on her deathbed, and took uo part iu the fu- 
neral rites. 

Liv'illpston, county of N. E. Central Illinois. Area, 
1026 Hqiuire miles. It is level and fertile; coal, limestone, 
and sandstone are found, Cattle, grain, and wool are 
staple products. The county is traversed by Vermilion 
River ami \*y the St. Louis Alton and Chicago, thi' Fair- 
bury Pontine ami North-westi-rn, the Toledo Peoria and 
WiuHaw, and other railroads. Cap. Pontiae. Poji. ;il,17l. 



Livingston, county of W. Kentucky, bounded on the 

N. and W . by the Ohio River, on the S. by the Tennessee, 
and on the E. partly by the Cumberland, which afterwards 
bisects the county. Coal and iron abound. The soil is 
good, producing much corn and tobacco. Area, 275 square 
miles. Cap. Smithland. Pop. 8200. 

Living;ston9 parish of S. E. Louisiana. Area, 560 
square miles. It is bounded AV. by the navigable Arait6 
River, and S. by the Amite River and Lake Maurepas. It 
is traversed by the river Tiekfaw. It is level and gener- 
ally fertile. Cotton, rice, and live-stock are the staples. 
Cap. Port Vincent. Pop. 4026. 

Livingston, county of Central Michigan. Area, 576 
square miles. It is level and fertile. Cattle, grain, and 
wool are staple products. Carriages and wagons arc lead- 
ing articles of manufacture. The county is traversed by 
the Detroit Lansing and Lake Michigan R. R. Cap. How- 
ell. Pop. 19,?.:!6. 

Livingston, county of N. Missouri. Area, 540 square 
miles. It is a lertile rolling ]»rairie region, with well-tim- 
bered liottom-lands. Coal is found. Tobacco, cattle, grain, 
and wool are staple products. The county is traversed by 
Grand River and its numerous tributaries, and by the Han- 
nibal and St. Joseph and the Northern Missouri R. Rs. 
Cap. Chilieothe. Pop. 16,730. 

Livingston, county of W. Central New York. Area, 
655 square miles. It is hilly in the S. and rolling in the 
N. portion. It is all arable and very fertile. Live-stock, 
wool, dairy products, grain, hay, fruit, and broom-corn are 
leading products. Building antl flagging stone is quar- 
ried. There are manufactures of carringes, flour, farming 
tools, lumber, cooperage, lime, castings, harnesses, cloth- 
ing, etc. The county is traversed by the tlencsee River 
and Canal, and by the New York Central, the Buflalo di-, 
vision of the Erie, the Avon Geneseo and Mt. Morris, and 
the Erie and Genesee Valley R. Rs. Cap. Geneseo. Pop. 
38,.'i(l9. 

Livingston, post-v. and tp., cap. of Sumter co., Ala., 
on the Alabama and Chattanooga R. R., has 1 weekly- 
newspaper. Pop. of v. 500: of tp. 2:^20. 

Livingston, post-v. and tp. of Essex co., N. J. Pop. 
1157. 

Livinsston, post-tp. of Columbia co., N. Y.. on the E. 
bank cf Ibe Hudson River, 7 miles below Hudson, and on 
the Hud.=on River R. R., 107 miles above New York, has 
several churches and villages and some manufacturing in- 
terests. Pop. 1938. 

Livingston, post-v., cap. of Overton co., Tenn., 100 
miles E. of Xasliville and 18 miles E. of the Cumberland 
River, on the lino of the proposed South-western R. R., has 
2 churches. 1 academy. 6 dry goods and 1 drug store, and 
some shops. Principal business, farming and stock-raising. 
Pop. 240. W. C. Haut, late Ed. ".Journal." 

Livins^ston, post-v., cap. of Polk co., Tex., 100 miles 
N. N. E. of Galveston. 

Livingston, tp. of Spottsylvania co., Va. Pop. 2213. 
Livingston (BEiofKnoLsr). LL.D.. b.in New York Nov. 
25, 1757, son of William Livingston : left Princeton College 
to join Gen. Schuyler's staff in 1776; served on Arnold's 
staff, and attained the rank of colonel; was private secre- 
tary to J(din Jay in Spain iu 1779; was admitted to the 
bar in 1783; beeamo a judge of the Now York supreme 
court in 1802, and was from 1806 to 1823 an able, up- 
right, and accomplished judge of the U.S. Suj)remo Court. 
D. at "Wasbington. D. C., Mar. 19, 182;i. 

Livingston (EitWAun), b. at Clermont. Columbia eo., 
N. Y., May 26, 1764, a son of Judge Robert R. Livingston 
(1719-75): graduated at Princeton in 1781, and began the 
practice of law iu New York; was a Jelforsonian member 
of Congress 1795-181)1 ; in 1802 was U. S. district attorney ; 
was twice chosen nniyor of New York (1801 and 1802), and 
at the same time was a judge of a municijial court; in 1803 
became involved in pecuniary ditbculties. and in 1804 re- 
moved to New Orleans, and attained a mo.st brilliant repu- 
tation as a lawyer ; in 1S08 became iiivulvod in a lawsuit 
with regard to lands in New Orleans claimed by the gcnenil 
government, but ultimately won the case. At the battle of 
New Orleans he acted as aide to Gen. Jackson. Mr. Living- 
ston spent many years in preparing civil and criminal codes 
for L'Miisiana — hibors which won Ibr him a wide tame in Eu- 
rope and in Spanish America. He was a mem lior of Congress 
1823-29; U. S. Senator LS29-31; secretary of state 1831- 
33; minister to Franco 18;i3-35. lie was made a member 
of the French Academy of Moral and Political Sciences. 
He atterwards fixed liis resiilenci- at Bhinebecli, N. Y., 
where he d. May 26, 1836. His chief works are Judicial 
OpinionM (1802)". Ji'cport of the Plan of the Pcnnl Code 
(1822), penal Law for Louittiami (1826), and Penal Law for 



LIVINliSTON -MVOKNo. 



i'l 



f/ifl U. S. (lK2f*). HiH Complete Wur/en on jHn'tpnidence 1 
wero inil.liwlii<t in N«-w Y«trU in IS?.'!. Thi- n'vi.-iioii of thn | 
oivil vAiiU- i.r l.iMiiKiiiiiii ( l^2lj wiiM tlid jdiril work r.f Liv- 
ini,'stun iiri.l M. Moi-riiii-LiKl<'(. llinut^li fliirlly Irnin iIh* |m-ii | 
ot'tlio furiniT. (Sec his Li/*, l»y ('. M. Hunt, IHOI ; /^•<;o^ j 
IcrfitiUH uf Lnu'tfjHton, by M. liiivcziu;.) 

I^ivineston Kirn. IIi:n»y Bki'.kman), unn of Jinl(ff! U. | 
K. Iii\ iiii;Ht(.ii (I7I1I-7.'*}. It. fit Livinj;»lon jMiinor. N. V., 

iti I7.')l»; riii-<'-I a rnililm-y i' |mny in Auj,'.. 177'». with 

which h<' iM niiuiiiiftl <i'fi. .MoiitL"'iiicry'n cxiicilitii.n lo 

Caniul!!, iirnl lor .Ii«(iri^iii-^h.-.| j^jilhintry at lh<? t?n|>turi> of 
(Mianihly wii« votci! a Hwonl of lionor by Coiigri-HK. He 
Inoamo aitlo-'io-cninp to (Icn. Schuyler Feb., I77rt, and 
coIo:ipI of (lie -llh hiilhiliori New York Votf, Nov., 1770, 
but ro)»i}?n<Ml in I77'.t. IJu'.I to the law. be iitriiim-tl nuc- 
cc!-siv('Iy thn pouts of altorncy-^ji'ucnil, jnd;^**, and eliicf- 
ju'itioi* of tho sn|n-('inc court of hifl native Sliife, was prm- 
iilriit of tho New York Sorioty of tlio ('incinnali, and 
apiioititod a hrij^adicr-KfiioruI in tbr war of ISlli. D. at 
Itliini^l.cck, N. Y., Nov. 7. is:tl. 

liivint^ston f.Tnrr\ Ilt-vuv). ]>. F)., b. at Pou^bkcc|»fllo, 
N. Y.. Mny :■'(». 17ll>: t;iiidnat.'d at Yah- Collcjfo in 17(12; 
bL';;an thn .^dnly of hiw. hul aftnrwardH studipil thoolnj^y 
at Utroolit. Holland: was orilainod at Anistei'ilam 1770; 
biH^ftino pastor of the Dut<'h eluircdi in N'ew York; ])reat!hcd ; 
at Albiiny. Kiiiji>tnn, and Pou>i;bkrc'psio ilnriii;; llio war; i 
was appninlcd pror('s>'or of divinity 17S1; opened n sem- 
inary at Ttcdfurd, 1*. I., in 170.'). whirh was discontinucil 
two yoavH later, ami beeame in 1^07 president and pro- 
fesjior of tiioolopy at Queen's (now Hufjirers) CoIleKc, Now 
lliunswiek. X. J.. wlien> lie d. .Ian. I'd, 1S2;"». He published 
/V.(/frtf (fii./ f/i/inii'i iiiid some relij^ious writ iiij;s, and was 
considered the fatlier of the Keformed Dutch (.'liurcli in i 
America. I 

Livilig^ston f Piiii.M'), a sipncr of the Declaration of In- 
de)icmh'nee, b. at Albany, N. Y.. Jan. 1.'). 171(5: Kfiiduatcd 
at Yale in I7;>7; became a prosperous merebant ami oITicial 
of New York City: was Sjjeaker of tlie bouse of the co- 
lonial lenfisljiture in 17(>S, a member of tlio ("onfincntal 
Cynj^res? 177-1-78, and j)reHident of the jirovineial rongresa 
1775. He was one of the foumb-rsof the Ne\v York Cham- 
ber of Commerce and of the Society Library, and nuiteri- 
ally aided Yale and Columbia colleges. D. at York, Pa., 
June 11', I77S. 

Liviiis^ston (RonKRT R.), b. in New Y'ork State in 
1719; became a di-^tinguished lawyer; was judge of the 
ndmiralfy court 17ll0 ; justice of the Nc\v Y''ork supreme 
court 17*'*;'.; represfntati ve in the assembly 1 7."»i'~fiS. and 
comniissioiior in 1707 antl 177^1 to loeate the bunudnry-linc 
between New York and Massachusetls. D. at lUuludcl- 
phia Deo. it. I77.'i. 

Livingston (Roni-nr K.). LL.D., known as "Chancel- 
lor" Livingston, b. at New York Nov. 27, 17-^7, a son of Judge 
U. R. Livingston and a brother of Edward Livingston; 
graduated at King's (now Columbia) College in 17l).'»: be- 
came a suocM'ssful lawyer; was n-corderof New York 177.'!- 
7.'); a member of the Continental Congress 177.'>-77 and 
1770-81; was on the committee which rejiorted the Decla- 
ration of Independence, hut was pre\ented by circumstances 
from signing it : was secretary of foreign affairs 17SI-S.t; 
chancellor of New York 1777-1>^<'I: was instrumental, 
while U. S. minister to France (ISO I -01), in effecting the 
purchase of Louisiana; was the assistant of I'ulton in 
perfecting steam-navigation: was oneof the introducers of 
merino sh-'cp into the U. S., and behl with great efficiency 
various public ]tosit,ions. 0. Feb. 20, \^\'.i. 

Ijivinijston(\Vii,i-iAM), LL.D.. a brother of Philip, b. at 
Albany, N. Y., in 172;t; graduated al Yale in 17H: be- 
caiM'* a pronnnent hnvyer and jiiurnalist ; ri-inoved in 177'1 
to Klizabi'lhtown. N. J.: was elected in 1771 and 177a to 
the Continental Congress ; became in I77.^» brigadier-gen- 
eral of militia; was govcru'tr of New .lersey 177(i-00: was 
a member td" the ennvention which in 17S7 drew uj) llie 
Federal Constituf ir>n. He was a writer of considerable 
ability, though he published nothing but occasional pam- 
phlets. D. at Klizabetbtown. N. J.. July 25. 1790. 

liiv'ins^stonc (Dwrn). M. D.. LL.D.. b. at Blantyre, 
near (Ilasgnw. Scotland. Mar. 19, ISIIi. His parents were 
very (loor. and could give him no aid to ae(|aire a scholarly 
C'lii'-ation. His religious enthusiasm, however, in connection 
wilh a passion for travelling in foreiL'n eouniries. created 
early the iilea of a missionary lite in his min>l ; and lirst by 
attending an evening schoid while employed during tho day 
in the cotton-mills, and later on by working hard during 
the summer aiid sfnilying durinir (he winter, he contrived 
to |»repare himself thoroughly tor his task. In 1S41» be 
offered bis services as a missionary to Africa to the London 
Missionary Society, and shortly at'ter was ordained an<l 
proceeded to Port Natal in South Africa. Hero and on 



leroral other miniiion-NlAtiona he worked fur nine ycari, 
together wilh Robert Moffat, who-e daughter he marrie'l, 
but, although al that time pr<-aeliing and not expb>ra(ion 
was bin idiiel aim, yet he r>c»t niu<di valuable iiilonnalion 
to the (jeographieal Society of Li>ndon and to Pel<Trnaiin'^ 
ftfoifntpftiHtfit; Mittfirilntif/fn, in (fotliu. In l^^^!^ he mad- 
bin first journey of exploration in xeandi of Lake Ngaini, 
whi'di be discovered Aug, I panie year, and wbofie brirdet- 
and outlet lie explored. In Is.'*;', he crooned the continent 
from the Zambesi to the Congo, whence be proceeded lo 
Loando, tlie capital of Angola, where be arrived in June, 
1S51, after eighteen niontliK' tra\elling. In Peplember bo 
returned, crossing Lluf eoritiiieni orir-e more, tbif time finm 
Lftandf> to Qiiilimane, on the Indian Ocean, where he ar- 
rived May 'UK 1H5C. He then made a vifit to Knghmd, 
where in 1857 he publirfbed bis Afinnionnrif Trarrh uml Hr- 
Hf.ttrchiH ill S'liitfi Afii'ii, whieh made hid name ttopitlar not 
only in Kngland, but in all Kur()pe. In I>*5H he returned 
to Africa, ond, supported by the government and accom- 
panied by several scientific apsociatcB, he started from 
(juilimane on an exploring journey up the Zambezi, which 
lasted five years, ant! flaring which nis wife, who accom- 
panied biini died at Sbnpanga. Apr. 27, lSfi2. In iHfil ho 
returned tr» Kngland. and in 1^05 puMisbeil yl Xnrratirr of 
nit EspvditioH to the Z'imheHi. Shortly after he again left 
England, dtarting on his third great journey, but more 
than one year elap.'ied bef(»re any cominunicatiims were re- 
ceived from him. It was then rumored that he had been 
killed by the natives near Lake Nyassa, and an expedition 
under the command of Mr. Young \Tent out in seiirch of 
him. Mr. Y'oung did not find him, but later on letters from 
bim arrived dated July, 1S6H, and May, LSiVJ. Again 
more than one year elapsed without any communications, 
until the New York Hrntfd sent out Mr. Henry M. Stan- 
ley in search of him, who found him in I'jiji in the 
autumn of 1871. As it was Livingstone's idea lo remain 
in Africa and continue his explorations one more year, tho 
Royal Geogra|)hical Society of London ?enl out early in 
187.*? a relief expedition under the command <d" Lieul. Cam- 
eron. When this expedition reached Unyanycmbe (Aug, 
4), oneof liivingstone's associates met it with tho report 
that ho had died at Cbitambo's village. I'lala, on May 1, 
187.*?. On Oct. 16 his corpse reached t'nyanyembe. whence 
it was brought to England and buried in Westminster 
Abbey, wliere a memorial tablet marks bis resiing-plaee. 
His LttMt Jounioln were published in 2 voIb. in Lonilon in 
1874, edited by Rev. Horace Waller. (See Stanley's I/oir I 
Fouml Livitij/ntoiic, 1873.) Clemens Petehses. 

Liv'ius Androni'cus lived in the third century be- 
fore our era. and was b. at Tarentirm, a slave of flreek 
descent. He received his liberty from M. Livius Salinator, 
and began to represent tragedies and comedies (whieh he 
composed after Greek models) in Rome in the middle of 
the century. He also translated the ()i/i/MHcif into Latin, 
and conlrilmtcd much to make the Romans acquainted wilh 
Greek literature. In the time of Horace bis compositions 
were still used in the schools, and his works were extant in 
the fourth century of our era, hut only a few insignificant 
remnants have come down to our time, edited by Duntzcr 
(Cologne, 18:ij) and by Uibbeck, Tratj. Lot. litif. 

Ijiv'nee, or Ijivnv, town of Russia, in the governmcDt 
of Orel, on the St.sna.' Pop. 8202. 
' Livo'nia [Ger. Liefinud], government of Russia, bor- 
! dering on the Gulf of Livonia, and comprising, together 
wilh the island of Oescl, an area of 17.N'H square mile?, 
I with 900.784 inhabitants. The surface is low. flat, and 
I often marshy, dotted with numerous lakes, and covered 
with forests. Rye. barley, oats, buckwheat, flax, and hemp 
are raised, and many cattle reared. In the towns the in- 
habitants are mostly of German descent, mixed wilh Uu9- 
sinns, Poles, and Jews; in the country tbey are of Finnish 
origin. Cap. Riga. The country was a Swedish posses- 
sion from the Peace of Oliva (IfifiO), when it was con(|Hered 
from Polanrl. lo the Peace of Njatadt (1721), when it waa 
1 eedcil to Russia. 

I Ijivonia, post-v. and tp. of Wayne ec. Mich., on tho 
I Detroit Lansing and Lake Michigan R. R. Pop. lf>79. 
I Livonia^ tp. of Sherburne co., Minn. Pop. 26H. 
' Livonia, ip. of Livingston oo.. X. Y.. on the Rochester 
division of the Erie R. R. Livonia Centre (Livonia P.O.) 
' (pop. \9'^) and Livonia Station, n manufacturing and post- 
' village (pop. :V.i9\ are in this township. Total pop, 27(^3. 
Li vonia Cent re, a V. of Livingston CO.. N.Y. Pop. 19.1. 
Livonia Station, post-r. of Livingston co., N. \. 
Pop. o*tlt. 

Livor'no, town of Italy, in the province of Xovars, 
about 8 miles S. W. of Vercelli. It is mentioned in ccclrsi- 
a.«tical histttry under the name of Liberoue as early as the 
I fifth century. Pop. in 1S74, 5797. 



7fi 



LIVRE— LLEWELYN AP GRIFFITH. 



Livre [Fr. for " pound :" Lat. libra], the former French 
stanilard unit of weight, was to the pound avoirdupois as 
17.267 to 10. Also, a former French coin, superseded in 
1795 bv the franc, which is to the liure Touninia (the old 
standard) as 81 to 8U, the Parisian livre being to these 
figures nearly as 100. Still other livres were in use. 

Liv'y (TiTis Livii's), b. at Patavium in Northern Italy 
in 5'J B. c, lived chiefly in Rome, where he enjoyed the 
favor of .\ugU!;tus and maintained intimate intercourse with 
the young Claudius, but returned in his old age to his 
native city, and d. there in 17 A. D. He was m.arricd. had 
at least one son and one daughter, and enjoyed great celeb- 
rity amonw his contemporaries, but nothing further is 
lin'own of his personal life. According to Seneca, he wrote 
several dialogues and essays on philosophy, which have 
been lost, but the worl: by which he won a lasting fame 
was his Anuaka, containing the history of Rome from the 
foundation of the citv to the death of Drusus, il E. r. It 
consisted originally of 142 books, and the short introduc- 
tions with which the first, twenty-first, and thirty-first open 
seein to indicate that it was divided into groups of ten 
books or decatba, each decade comprising an independent 
epoch. But of these U2 books only 35 have come down to 
us— namely, the entire first decade, i.-x., embracing the 
period from the foundation of Rome to the year 29+ B. c. ; 
the entire third decade, xxi.-xx.\., embracing the period 
from 219 b. c. to 201 b. c. ; the entire fourth decade, and 
onehalf of the fifth, xxxi.-xlv., embracing the period from 
201 B. c. to 107 B. c. Of the rest only a few and inconsider- 
able fragments are still extant ; all the so-called epitomes, 
however', short extracts of or indexes to each book, have 
been preserved. The first printed edition (Rome, 1400) 
contained only 29 books, namely— i.-x., xxi.-xxxii., xxxiv.- ; 
xl. The remaining six t>ooks were discovered in frag- 
ments in 1518, 1531, and 1616. and for more than two cen- 
turies the whole learned world was put into g^eral com- 
motion every now and then by a rumor that tlie entire work 
had been discovered, until in the seventeenth century all 
libraries had been ransacked in vain, and .all hope of the 
recovery of the lost treasure was given up. The best mod- 
ern cdilions are by Drakenborch (Leydon, 173S-46, and 
Stuttgart, 1820-2S), Twiss (Oxford, 1840-41). Madvig (Co- 
penhagen, 1861 seq.), and AVeissenborn (Berlin. 1861 eeq.). 
There are English translations by Philemon Holland (1600), 
Baker (1797° John Hayes (1741), and in Bohn's Classical 
Lihrnrij (1S50). Considered as a work of science, modern 
scholars have not given the highest praise to the Aunnles ,■ 
the studies on which the representation rests are generally 
not exhaustive, and often not acour.ate. Nor can groat 
praise be given to the book considered as a work of art. Its 
general character is that of a fluent narrative, which in- 
terests on account of the great importance of its contents, 
and pleases because it has no very striking |ieouliarities. 
Its most prominent feature is a strong feeling of the great- 
ness of the Roman people; but with the author this feeling 
is a vanity rather than an inspiration, and in his work it 
is a means of flattery rather than a means of moral eleva- 
tion. Thus, while the historical value of the Aiiiinirs can- 
not be over-estimated on account of the scarcity and in many 
cases the absolute lack of other historical documents, the 
educational and a;.-;thetio worth of the book is somewhat 
limited. Ci,EME.-j,s Petersen. 

Lixivia'tioii anil Lixivium [Lat. ?<>," ley " ; llijiiid 
and llf/nur .arc atliliatcd words]. Lixiviation is the method 
of extracting ingredients soluble in water from porous sub- 
stances, like ashes or earth, by pl.acing the Latter in some 
receplacle, through which the water may be made to per- 
colate. It is distinguished from another chemical inethoii 
of accomplisliing this called Decastation. (See this word.) 
The vessel for lixiviation usually has a perforated bottom, 
upim which straw or coarse gravel is first spread, and then 
the material to be lixivialeil is filled in. .Ml our American 
potash is thus obtained from wood-ashes, and much of the 
saltpetre of eommerce thus from nitrous earth. Much econ- 
omy is often arrived at by a construction which enables the 
first wat'T poured on tho mass to remain in it for some time 
until it has finished its solvent .action, and then drawing 
(■IT at the bottom. Sometimes then, on pouring through 
fresh water, it will bo found soon to run Ihiough nearly 
pure. Concentrated leys are thus obtained without boil- 
ing down. Tho second water is not allowed to mix with 
the first, but kept to pour through a fresh mass of male- 
rial. II' WtniTZ. 

liixii'ri, town of Cephalonia, one of tho Ionian Islands, 
ij well l.uilt, manufiictures coarse carpets and cotton fabrics, 
and carries on a considerable trade and shipping business. 
Pop. 0000. 

Iii/.'nrd [Lat./'(ccr'f»].anamecommonIyuFcd by authors 
as synnnvmous with urnirian rrjitili (ihe order .'^aiira). a 
term cxclunive of the loricate repliles, Ihe amiihisbiuna 



tribe, and the serpents. Popularly, it is often made to cm- 
brace some other true reptiles, and a large number of tailed 
batrachians. The order embraced many immense animals 
now extinct, whose remains are found by the geologist. 
The living species are all scaly ; generally have four visible 
legs (a few are serpentine in shape), all are produced from 
eggs (some few species are hatched before birth), and none, 
it is believed, are truly poisonous. They are far more 
common in hot than in cool regions, and (in species) in 
the Old than in the New World. The typical genus, iacerm, 
is of the family LacertidiB. These families, as now esti- 
mated, are very numerous; that of the Ameividit may per- 
haps be assumed as a typical one for America. This family 
includes the variegated lizard ( Teitis Teyuexin), six feet 
long. It is a bold, active, carnivorous creature, fierce in 
self-defence, inhabiting South America. Its flesh is eaten. 
(See also MosiTon, Gecko, Cham.eleox, Igua.na, and the 
names of the more important genera.) 
Lizard, tp. of Pocahontas co., la. Pop. 955. 
Lizard's Tail. See Saururace.e. 
Llama. See Lama. 

Llaiiel'ly, town of South Wales, 16 miles S. E. of Caer- 
inarlhcn. has manufactures of copper, tin, and iron wares, 
which are sent to Liverpool, and a considerable trade in 
coal. Pop. 15,208. 

Lla'no, county of W. Central Texas, bounded E. by 
the Colorado and traversed by the Llano River. Area, 900 
square miles. It is somewhat broken, and rather dry and 
rocky. It has some timber and much building-stone, and 
abounds in rich iron ore. Gold, silver, lead, antimony, 
salt, and asphaltum have also been found. Stock-raising 
is the chief pursuit. Cap. Llano. Pop. 1379. 

Llano, post-v., cap. of Llano co., Tex., 75 miles N. W. 
of Austin. Pop. 188. 

Lla'no Estaca'do [Sp., " staked plain," so called from 
the stake-like boles of a yucca-plant which grows there], 
an elevated plateau of N. W. Texas and S. E. New Mexico, 
having an area of 44,000 square miles and an elevation of 
from 3200 to 4700 feet, the general slope being northward. 
It has very few streams and water-holes, and a sparse coat- 
ing of grass in the wet season. Its scanty shrubs have 
enormous roots, which afl'ord the best attainable sup|>ly of 
fuel. In 1852, Lieut, (since Brig.-Gen.) Pope, U. S. A., 
sunk artesian wells at various points upon the Llano, 
with a view to developing a water-supply for a railroad to 
the Pacific, but without very encouraging results. 

Lla'nos [Sp., from Lat. planus, "level"], the name of 
those vast plains or steppes in the northern part of ,«outh 
America which surround the lower and middle course of 
the Orinoco. In the dry season they are scorched by the 
sun and nearly transformed into a desert, and the large 
herds of wild horses and cattle which inhabit these plains 
become almost crazy from thirst, and run furiously along, 
tortured by poisonous insects and raising immense clouds 
of dnst. In the wot season the plains are mostly inundated, 
and become an immense sea where the herds swim from 
hill to hill carrying their young ones on their backs to pro- 
tect them agai'nst the al'ligators. In spring and fall, or 
rather during the period which separates the dry and tho 
wet season, tho llanos present the most luxuriant pas- 
turages, and are a true paradise for cattle. 

l.ilan'quihiie, a southern province of Chili, lying be- 
tween Valdivia, the Andes, the Gulf of Ancud, and the 
Pacific Ocean. Area, 8350 s(inare miles. Pop. 43,342. It 
is a plain slightly elevated above the sea. covered with rr>r- 
csts, diversified by several beauliful lakes, and watered by 
the river Maullin. The soil is cxlremely fertile, the climate 
healthy. Coal is abundant. A largo part of the jiojuila- 
tion consists of Germans, who are prosperous agriculturists, 
fruit-growers, and cattle-farmers. The roads are good, and 
there are 50 public schools. Cap. Puerto Montt. 

Llere'na, a walled town of Sjiain, in the province of 
Badajos. Pop. 6196. 

Lloweryn ap tirif'fitli, prince of Wales, succeeded 
Davi.l in 1216; rcvolteil from bis allegiance lo the English 
crown 1250; ravaged the frontier 1262; was joincil by He 
Montfort 1263; defeated Mortimer 1204; made peace wilh 
Henry III. 1268; was summoned to attend Pnrliamcnl at 
Westminster by Edwanl 1.. but refused to appear, 1274 and 
1276: unsuccessfully ofl'ered a ransom for his bride, El- 
eanor de Montfort, who had been captured by English ves- 
sels in Ihe Channel, 1275; resisted a formidable invasion 
of Ihe English, but finally submitted; was taken to West- 
minster and surrendered his territories 1277: relurned 
to Wales and married Eleanor 1278; was reconciled to 
his brother David, and renewed the war with the English 
1282, but was surprised and killed by Mortimer Dec. II, 
1282. 



I.LOKKNTK-LOAN. 



Lloren'tc (.Than Antonio), b. at Rincon del Koto, near 

Ciilaliomi, Spiiiii. Miir. rid, ]7'>i\; HtinUcil thcsolugy nt Tiir- 
ra;?i)iia aii'i Mit'lriil: whm ordained pricHi (ITTf); bocaiiie 
;lu<;tc(r in <-iiiii"ri liiw, iidvocato in the myiil councils, vioar- 
pcin'nil <»rtlir liinli(ipri<i nl" Cjilalnjrra MTH'i), (.-hunndlor uf 
tin* InivcrHity nCTdli-dK, nicnilicrol tlH'|irinoi|ial aciuU'niic-fi, 
(MirnniiHsary (ITH.'V), and H«Trrtiiry-K''ntTal "f the lii(|nit<i- 
lidii ( 17>^'.l)- "'f* intfiitiuiiM in iioceplinj^ tliiit |Ml^»l wt-Vf <»f 
a rrtiirrniitDry fharactcr, and iwi unmicucfHruI atti-inptH 
^vi'io nmdn hy him to correitt. th« invi'ltTiito ahiit*iH of tlio 
InftuiNilinii, the httlor of which oeuaHioniMl hin iniprif^on- 
nii-nt fur a .«h"i( liinr. and (he exih- of hit* tViond and pro- 
ti-ctnr. rln- rnini^rcr oi' ju-Hlirc. .lovcUanuH. In IHDC. he was 
fMiiployt'd hy I he iavorile (iodny to write n wuk in oppo- 
Hilion to the Iradiliunal privilejj;cs claimod hy the llaHfjue 
provinces — NutirhtH hititon'rtiti ntihrr l(t» tfen provhtciaH 
li.,Hru>i,f,ufnH (;i vol.--.. Isnn-O.S), IJorento adhered to the 
Frcrn'h intcrvenlion : vviis made a emnieillor of f*tate hy 
K in;;.roHeph,anil liirector-jjenenil ofniilionai e>tatefl ( IR08), 
in wiiieh capacity he was oluirjjerl witfi the t<iippre8flion of 
the convents. On the oxtinetion of the Inrjuititinn ils 
papers were phiee<l in Imh hiitids, with a eonmiiHsion to 
prepare its liistm-y. Charj^ed uiih enittez/h'nient of im- 
nionsu snnis, he was removed from his ofliccs, hn( rein- 
stated; was exiled on tin? return of Ferdiniind VFI. in 
1814; resided f<ir a time in Etighind, and nfferwardn in 
Parij", where in IS17-IS Im ]>ul)li';hed hoth in Spnnisli and 
Krent-h liis eeh-hnited f'n'fir.il JIintori/ of (/n^ lii<fiiifiti>,ii in 
Spniu (t voIh. ), /fiifitn'cd/ Mnmnrn on the SfHiuinh Jirrnht- 
tioii (;i vols., ISI5-1!)). 11 hrief antuhiopraphy (1818). Cn'l- 
ica/ OhHtrnitionH on the. iiorrl (,'if fi/nn (1*822). Complrtu 
Wtn-K-Hnf inn CuHUH (2 voI.-j., 1822). an'l /'ith'ttml Pnrtraitv 
of' thr l*i>prH (1S22) ; tlio hitter work oldi^ed liim to leave 
Paris unci return to Madrid, whrrts lie \v:is well received, 
and d. Feh. .'i. 1.S2IJ. Ijlurento was a writer of e<>nsiderat)Ie 
talent, and his works were onee very popular with the anti- 
Catlioiie element in Europe; hut they cannot ho trusted 
fur the accurate statement of facts, and liave consequently 
fallen into eomparative discredit. His sentiments and con- 
duct wiTO time-servintr, and hy no nie;ins patriotic, nor can 
he ho considered a conscientious advocate of liberal prin- 
ciples. PoitTKR C. Bliss. 

IJoyd, posf-tp. of Ulster co., N. Y.. on the W. bank of 
the Hudson, contains many fine residences. Pop. 2058. 

Lloyd (Thomas), h. at Dolobran, North Wales, in IfilO ; 
educated at Oxford, hut became a Quaker, and sufiVrcd much 
persecution as a preacher ; accompanied \Vm. Pi nn to Amer- 
ica in IflS-l, mid became actinj; governor, with the title of 
president of the council, of Pennsylvania IfiSj-Sfi, and 
1(V.»0-<H. and deputy-governor lGyi-9:t. B.July 10, IfiOt. 

I.loyd (Wn, MAM), I>. P.. b. at Tilehurst, Rerksliire, 
Eiii^Iaud, Aui;. is, 1(127; was educated at Oriel and Jesus 
colleges, Oxford ; became a follow IfilO; took holy rirders 
lfi;'>6; was prebendary of Ripon. Palisliury. and St. Paul's; 
chaplain to Charles II.; viear of St. Mary's. Eeadinp, and 
archdeacon 4»f Merioneth; became bishop of Exeter IfiTG, 
of St. Asaph Itisn, of Lichfiehl 1002, and of Worcester IfiDl*, 
and d. at Ilarllebury Castle Aug. .10, 1717. Bishop Tjloyd 
took ail active part in tlic troubles occasioned by the so- 
called *■ Popish j)l(»t " of 1 fi78, and was one of the celebrated 
seven bishi>ps who protested against the Declaratirm of In- 
dulgence to Romanists and dissenters by James II., for re- 
fusing to publish which they were committed to t!ie Tower, 
tried, and acquitted, lie was almoner to William HI. and 
to Queen Anne; wrote Coimn/rnttitnii touvhtuij the True Wu'f 
to Siipprr^ns Piiprrtf { lOSl). o ffittnri^ of the (tovcrumfut of the 
Church o/ Grcnt firitrtin (1(184), a Dt'nttrrtntion on DanteVa 
Scrrutif Wteks, a Stfufetii of Chrouolof/tf (1712), a ffnnnoin/ 
of the frospcfa, and other the()logical works, and furnislicd 
valuable matbrials to IJishop Burnet for that j>relate's Ht'n- 
torif of his own times. 

liloyd's, the name by which the first floor of the Lon- 
don Exchange is known, being the centre where the busi- 
ness of maritime insurance is transacted, and where the 
earliest shipping intelligence from all parts of the world is 
posteil for the informnlion of subscribers, whetlior uier- 
ohants, shippers, or underwriters. The b<iard of under- 
writers have ntums hero, and receive reports from their 
agents in every port throughout the wori<i visited by the 
ships they insure. The system is so arranged tiiat tlie in- 
dividual underwriters risk no more than £100 to £ 1 jO ou 
any single vessel. Their concerns ore administered by a 
committee of twelve members. There is a vast *' merchants* 
room," provided with newspapers from all parts of the 
world, and a "captains' room." where ship-auctions arc 
held and convivial gatherings frequently meet. The estab- 
lishment ilcrives its name from Lloyd's coffee-house, which 
was originally the head-quarters of the hoard of under- 
writers; the name is now applied gcncrically to similar 
institutions elsewhere, the most celebrated of which are the 



Austrian Lloyd at Trioato (citabliihca 182.1 by Huron 
Hriick) and the North-Oerinan Lloyd at Rrcincn. Uoyit't 
I. ill WHS pritiliil \\A u. weekly frocn 171'^ to IHOO, oincu which 
time it appeurH ilaily, with the fullcHt Hhippinj; intelligi-nce. 
The Austrian J.b.yd hiiH a f/iortutfr, OHtuhliithed in I8.TI. 

Ijluniuyor, or liliiclimuvury an inland town of the 
iHland of Majoreu. Pop. >*j20. 

fjoncli I Kr. /'tf-hr], n name given to flxheii of the family 
Cobitidiu, which is related to the carp family (Cyprinidifi/. 
There are no reproHentativen of the group in America. In 
England there are two HpeeioB — VohittM tnnia und Nrmnrhi- 
Inn haihtttit/tm. The NfinarhiltiH htirhtitultia or common 
loiudi.a European fi«h of the family Cobitidee. in nometimca 
n.-ed as food. It liven at the bottom of clear streams. The 
lake loach ( Mittfurnui /'ihh{/i\} of Central Europe huriett 
itself in nnni, and has a bad llavor. The name "ibiir-cycd 
loach" ha.i been very improperly attached hy woine popular 
writers tr» the Anahlrpa trtrnphllmlinun of BritiHh (tuiana. 

Lond'stone f-Ang.-Sa.K. hulnu, lo " bad "]. the natural 
magnet, a mineral consisting esseuiinlly of magnetic iron 
ore, which is a compound of the peroxide and protoxide of 
iron. It strongly attracts the magnetic needle, hut docs 
not itself always possess polarity. 

Loam [.\ng.-Sax. /«»», "clay "], a mixture of sand and 
clay. A loamy Hoil is intermediate in character between 
fandy and clayey soils, und is that best adapted to general 
agriculture. It is lighter and warmer (ban a clay eoil, 
stronger ami more retentive than a sandy one. 

Loam'if post-v. and tp. of Sangamon co., 111.^15 miles 
S. W. of Springfield. Pop. 1470. 

Loan [ Ang.-Sax. Imn. from lihnn, " to lend "]. This term 
has in law two diverse though closely analogous significa- 
tions. In ono sense it denotes a delivery of money or of a 
chattel by ono person to another for tlie use of the latter, 
for which an equivalent is to be returned at a future day ; 
as if, for exa!ni»le, railroad stock is lent to be replaced by 
other stock of the same kind of an equivalent value, or if 
money be loaned, for which thu same sum is to be repaid, 
either with or without interest. The equivalent need not, 
hov/ever, be of the same kin<l as the article lent, for slock 
or m<»ne.y or other article loaned may be repaid by money 
or by any article of the same value, if the parties so agree. 
In the other sense, loan denotes a delivery of an article to 
another for hi.s temporary use, on con<lition that this 
identical article, and not merely its equivalent in value, 
shall subsequently bo returned to the lender. In this lat- 
ter sense, though not in the former, a loan is a species of 
bailment. The popular use of the word is quite similar 
to its legal use. Thus, it is common to speak of lending 
money or of lending a book or other article, though in the 
one case it is understood that an equivalent sum of money, 
and not tho identical fund lent, is to bo repaid, and in the 
other that tho book itself or other article is to be returned. 
Tho rules of law relating to these two different classes of 
loans arc so dissimilar that it will bo necessary to consider 
each class by itself. 

I. If tho loan be of tho first kind, making the borrower 
responsible for the return of un equivalent in value, and tho 
thing h)aneil be not nuiney, hut some article of jiersonal 
property, the lender may bring an action in a court of law 
for the recovery of damages equal to its value, or of the 
sum agreed to be given in return, if default be made in 
rendering tho equivalent at tho time a])pointed, according 
to tho terms of tiio agreement. But the thing itself to be 
given in return cannot be obtained by action in such a 
court, unless it be a sum of money. Interest will usually 
be recoverable upon the value of the article from the time 
of default. In courts of equity, however, a suit may some- 
times be maintained for the specific perfirroanee of such a 
contract, and a decree obtiiined requiring the delivery of 
tho article to be given as an equivalent. Thus, a contract 
to replace stock which has been loaned by other stock of 
the same kind may be specifically enforced in equity when 
such stock is of uncertain value and not always readily 
obtainable in tho market. But the general rule is that 

I contracts for tho delivery of personal property will not he 
specifically enforced, since the recovery of damage? usually 
affords a complete and satistactory remedy. Even a con- 

I tract forthe delivery of stock will not be enforced in equity 

1 when the shares are at any time prvvcurable. so that the re- 

i coverv of damages would enable tho plaintiff to purchase 
them. Whenever an award of damages will enable tho 
plaintiff to supply himself with the article to be delivered, 
an action at law will be alone maintainable. (See SrEcinr 

I pKUFORMANri:. I Loans of this kind are sometimes ma ie 
with intent to evade the laws against usury. The English 
statute of usury, from which those in this country h.ivc 

j been usually copied in their general outlines, applies to 
loans "of any moneys, wares, merchandise, or otiicr com- 

j modities whatsoever." If. thereforCf the intent of tho 



78 



LOAN AND BUILDING ASSOCIATIONS. 



parties to a loan of a chattel and the effect of the transac- 
tion are to violate the usury laws, the same penalties will 
be incurred as in the case of a loan of money. Thus, in a 
loan of stock the agreement of the parties may require the 
return of an amount of stock whose value shall not only 
be eijual to that of the stock loaned, but include also a 
higher rate of interest than the law allow?. But it has 
been held that a loan of stock to be replaced by the same 
numher of shares will not be usurious, thouj^h the value 
of the stuck may be subject to great fluctuations. (See 
UsL'RY.) But the most common loans of the class under 
consifleration are loans of money to t)e rejiaid in money. 
The contract for repayment may be either express or im- 
plied. It is commonly the practice in making an express 
contract to evidence it by a promissory note, bill of ex- 
change, bond, duebili, or other written obligation, though 
this is not to be deemed necessary. The time of repayment 
and the rate of interest may be determined at the pleasure 
of the parties, provided the usury laws be not infringed. 
The statute of limitations will begin to run in favor of the 
defendant, and interest will be computable ,as damages in 
favor of the plaintiff, from the expiration of the term of 
credit agreed upon, if default be then made in repayment. 
If it be agreed that the debt shall bear interest, but no 
rate is fixed upon, the le^al rate will be computed from the 
date of the loan. (See Limitations. Stati'ti: of ; Inthuhst.) 
The loan establishes the relation of debtor and creditor be- 
tween the parties, and not that of bailor and bailee- The 
same is true of loans with implied contract for repay- 
ment. The law presumes that when money is loaned to 
and received by another without any express agreement 
for its repayment, a lawful debt is created which may be 
recovered by action. Interest is computable from the time 
of the loan at the legal r.tte. The statute of limitations 
also begins to run from the same period. The action for 
"mnnev lent" is one of the so-called actions upon the 
"common counts." It will not be sufficient to sustain this 
action merely to prove that the plaintiff delivered money 
to the defendant, for this prima facie is only evidence of 
payment by the plaintiff of his own debt. It must be 
shown that the transaction was in reality a loan of money. 
It is not necessary to prove that the defendant requested 
the loan to be made, for the receijit by him of the money 
is suthi^ient to establish his obligation to make repayment. 
II. The second variety of loans constitutes that class of 
bailments technically termed in law cominodatnm (Lat., 
*'thing lent"). (See Bailment.) The article lent is deliv- 
ered to the borrower or bailee exclusively for his own use 
andbenetit.no reward or compensation being payable to 
the lender for such use. and is itself to be returned to the 
lender. The bailor, as in other cases of bailment, remains 
the general owner of the property, while tlie bailee acquires 
a special or qualified right of ownership while it remains 
in his possession, and is thus enabled to maintain an action 
against any person oth<!r than the lender who does injury 
to the property or converts it to his own use. The bailor 
may also maintain an action in such cases, but a recov- 
ery by cither bailor or bailee will bar the other's right of 
action. As the bailment is entirely for the advantage of the 
bailee, he is bound to use great diligence in caring for the 
article loaned, and will be responsible even for the slightest 
negligence if it be thereby lost or injured or impaired in value. 
But if the injury or loss ttc occasioned by in(rvitable accident, 
sutlden disaster, theft, burghiry or other cause which coulil 
not be anticii)ated nor proviiletl against, the bailee will incur 
no liability, but tl»e bailor must bear the loss. The article 
may be useil by the borrower for the purpose for which it 
was loaned, but he must not exceed the privilege given 
liim. For any loss or deterioriition resulting from its ordi- 
nary and reasonable use he will not be responsible, but if the 
injury he occasioned by his recklessness or remissness ho 
must make good the loss. The property is to be returned 
in the same eonilition in wliitdi it TVas delivered, subject to 
ordinary wear and tear. A gratuitous loan creates a trust 
that is strictly personal, and the thing loaned can be used 
only by the bailee, in the absence of any special agreement 
to the contrary, or of a license by the owner that some 
other person may use it. Thus, it has been held that the 
loan of a liorse to a person for him to ride did not justify 
him in allowing his servants to ride. The degree of cnro 
which the bailee is to exercise will vary with the nature of 
the properly loaned and the circumstances under which the 
hian is made. Greater diligence and precaution arc requi- 
site in keeping secure and protecting from injury articles 
of great valui' than in caring for tliose of er)m]iaratively 
little worth. In like manner, greater care would be neces- 
sary in times of special danger or in lawle-js districts, 
where property is particularly exposed to injury, than in 
times when lilflo or no danger is to be ajiprtdicndcd or 
in orderly and law-abiding communities. What shall be 
considered "(flight negligence" in any [larticular instance 



must depend upon the special facts of the case. The projj- 
erty loaned is to be returned to the owner at the expiration 
of the time agreed upon for the continuance of tlie bail- 
ment, or, if no such stipulation be made, at the expiration 
of a reasonable time. If after the termination of the bail- 
ment the borrower refuses to deliver up the i)roperty after 
proper demand has been made, although it still remains in 
his possession, he is guilty of conversion, and may be sued 
in an action of trover for the value of the goods or in an 
action of replevin for the recovery of the goods themselves. 
(See Conversion, Trover. Replevin.) lie cannot detain 
the property as a pledge tor any demand he may otherwise 
have against the bailor. {See the works of Story and 
Edwards on liailnietits ,* also treatises on Coutrarfn.) 

Geouce Chase. Reviseo bv T. W. Dwight. 

Loan and ISiiildins: Associations, incorporated 
companies whicli during the last twenty years have assumed 
considerable importance in the cities and large towns of 
the U. S.. especially in Philadelphia. The following ac- 
count of their mode of organization and operation is de- 
rived from an article in the Philadelphia PulAlo LnJijer of 
Mar. 5, 1S74: "They are ordinarily organized by a few 
friends, who subscribe for shares, and then induce others to 
join them, all agreeing to pay the sum of one dollar per 
month until the value of each share shall be $200. when a 
divisit)n of the funds will be made, and the society dis- 
solved. Xot more than 2j00 shares can be subscribed for, 
and ordinarily there are from I.tOO to 2000 shares. The 
directors, who are elected annually by the stockholders, 
conduct the business of the association. At each monthly 
meeting the money on hand after the eolIe(!tion of the dues 
is loaned to the stockholder who otTers t(» give the highest 
premium, which sometimes amounts to ?>b or 40 per cent, 
where the amount of the premium is deducted from the 
amount of the loan. The stockholder who borrows the 
money is required to give security, generally real estate, 
for the payment of his monthly dues and the interest on 
the wh(de amount of the loan, including the money actually 
received and the premium. The interest on the money 
loaned, with the double interest on premiums (which are 
really twice loaned), and the fines for non-payment of dues, 
are the sources of jirufit. Thus, all the money which a 
society divides at the end of its term is paid in by the 
stockholders. There are no sources of revenue outfiide 
of the society itself. If a society with 2000 shares runs 
out in ten years, there has been ]»aid on each share $120, 
taking no account of fines. If l.'iOO shares have been bor- 
rowed on, their owners have paid not only $80 more on 
each of these shares than the non-borrowers who hold 500 
shares, but have also paid an amount of interest sufficient 
to give $S0 on each share to the non-borrowers. Appar- 
ently, the non-borrowers receive all the profits, but it must 
be remembcreil that the liorrower has paid no more 'dues* 
on his stock tlian the non-borrower, hut has had the use 
of his money for from one to ten years, and then the only 
question as to his profits is. whether he has paid an ex- 
cessive rate for the use of that money. If without capital 
he has been enalded to buy a home for Iiimself and jiay for 
it in monthly instalments, the chances are that the borrower 
has obtained a fair return for his investment. If he bought 
wisely, and his property, during the time he was paying 
for it, largely increased in value, his profits may be hirger 
than those of the non-borrower, for the latter has not tliese 
incich'ntal sources of jirofit. Finally, however higli a pre- 
mium he may have paid, if he did not exceed the art-rnfje 
of premiums, he did not pay a high rate of interest, because 
wiien the avernge premium is high the society runs out 
sooner and less money is paid on each share for ' dues.' 

*' There are many different systems under which iniilding 
societies are worked. In some, the premium is deducted 
from the loan ; In others, the premium is not deducted, but 
is paid with interest in monthly instalments; in some, only 
one series of stock is issued, all the members going out at 
the same time; in others, new series are issued at regular 
intervals, bringing in new borrowers and thus keeping up 
the demand for money. In a 'series society.' whicli is one 
of the hitter kind, the premiums are usually high, and each 
series winds up its affairs in a correspondingly shorter time, 
sometimes within seven years ami six months. In the 
latter event the non-borrower oidy pays $00 and receives 
$200, while the borrower makes heavier monthly payments 
for a smaller number ttf months than he would in the single 
series society. But whatever the system may be, tlie car- 
dinal principle nndcrlying all is the same. In all building 
societies there is the incidental advantage that a member 
having once cnmmenecd to save a few dollars a month is 
compelled to keep up the good habit or else relinquish a 
]>art of the profits which he would otherwise obtain. But 
if through niisftiitane or carelessness he is obliged to with- 
draw, he still pets reasonably got d interest on his money, 
and sometimes a share (but not a full sharej of the profits. 



l.i)AN(;0— LOlJSTKi: 



t'.i 



Still groator adviintusofl aro, that Ihoro aro comparatively 
i\;w inonilwrH in cin'li Hoi^'w.ty, ho that tho iiianii^DnMnit in 
ciiMo of in'crf*r*it y niii In* iinnr ri'iiiJily clmiij;)-!! lliaii iti uutnl 
III 11 1 mil cMriioratioiir^, himI tliiit tlii> uIIicim'm iitvi-i- )iuv'<> <-iiuu;;li 
iiioiU'V nil IiiLMil lit tiiiy oiMi tiiiio tn ti-iM|p| tliciii to itiri- 
honesty) ixir tu cauttu HeriouH Iohh in tho evi'iit of a defalca- 
tion." 

Lofin'ffO, kingdom nf WtHlcrn Africa, oxtcndinK alonj? 
Ihi} Kintm nf tlie Alliintic finni lint <-f|inilor to llu; river 
(N>iigo. TIiuenuHt in ll:il, hut trrtiU', the intt^'ior iiiildiown. 
Tim InhabihintH iirr a rmln himI lijirliari»UH nice. Their re- 
ligion \A ifhihitry imij supurMtilion ; tlieir niorais aihiw the 
Bliive-tnulo iintl in)lyKiiniy, u nian'H wives In-in;; IranMfer- 
iililo witli hiH otluT |in)]ierfy ; tlieir polilieul incLitutionH 
(-uDHist in nil iilii'ohilt^ ili'H|ioliHin. Hut thi'y have Home 
f kilt ill the iniiiiiifaetiire nf hunketi^, eoloreil iniil8, and 
^riifoi-etoth ; and khuh' trade in juilin oil, wn\, and ivory is 
carried on in their two priin-ipiil towns — •Loanjfo, fitiiatod 
in Int. 1° 1(1)' S., aiitl K'a'iiiulii, on thu N. bank of tho river 
Conpi. The former of these towns is said to havo 20,000 
inlial)itant8. 

liO'baii, town of Ocnnany, in the kinn;doni nf Saxony, 
noted for roek-crystals called " Lohau diainondu," and for 
llie niiiieral sprin^^s in its vicinity. Pop. J72I. 

Ijobaii, an iidand in tho river Danuljo, miles below 
\'ienna, (uken by Napoleon I, May 10, iNtJi), occupied by 
the I''roiu'h army after the baflle of Asperii, May 22, was 
the phure whence the invMcliii;; forees were concentrated in 
dune, and where Iho celebrated passage of tho Danube was 
made duly 4 and followini; d;iy:ii, 180U, This island gave, 
the title of count to Uon. Mouton, one of the French heroes 
of tiie eainpjiij^n. 

TiObnu%dc ((Ji:okoes Mouton), Count, b. Feb. 21,1770, 
lit Phiilsbourg, Kninco ; culisLed ns a volunteer in the army 
in 17112; became aide-de-camp to Meusnier in KH.'J, to 
.loiibert in I7'JS, to Napoleon in IHOj ; nnil was made a 
t;eneral of divi.sion in 1SI(7, after tho battle of Friedland. 
His title of count of Lobini he received after the battle of 
A^pcrn. lie wa:^ rou,:;li and bluiif, but eouragoous and firm. 
After the Russian campaii^n lie was at the head of tho organ- 
ization of a ne\y French army, and in the battle of Waterloo 
he commanded the sixth army corps on the right wing. After 
tho Restoration he wns banishecl from France, and not 
allowed to return until ISJS. In 1S2S ho was elected a 
memlter of the Cliamlier of Deputies, and he took a promi- 
nent part in tlio revolution of IS.''.0, assumed the command 
of tho national giiiud instead of La Fayette, was made a 
peer and marshal in IS^il, and put down with great piic- 
eess the insurrections of 1S;J2 and ]S:U. D. at Paris Nov. 
21.ls;i8. 

L<iho'ira, de (Vasoo), b. in Portugal about l.*ir)0; was 
distin;;uished in the militury' service of Ferdinand IV., 
king of Castile, and wrote the celebrated romance of Anta- 
i(is (ic Gftttl. lie was knigiited by John I. of Portugal 
after the battle of Aljubarrota, 13b6, and d. at Elvas, Por- 
tugal, in M0:J. 

Lobel' (Mattiikw), best known under tlie Latinized 
form liOBKi-irs. b. at Lille, Flanders, in \b'.\^ ; studied medi- 
cine at ISLnitpellier: practised his profession at Antwerp 
and Delft after travelling through Switzerland. (Termany, 
and Northern Italy: bGcanie physician to the (>rince of 
Orange, and was CTMi.b)yed by the States (ieneral; settled 
in England before l."»7l': madt^ extensive botanical collec- 
tions in Knghind; devoted himself especially to vegetable 
physiology and the correction of errors made by Dioscori- 
des : published .SV/j-;>//fHi Adrrrtmrin .Vorr/ ( London. 1570), 
ci)ntaining nearly LIDO species, with 272 small figures; 
/'fiiutnrnni »fii Stirpiniii IHstorin (Antwerp, l."»70), /rttin'H i 
Stirpimn (Antwerp. 1.">S1 ). and a treatise on /in/snins (Lon- I 
dnii. l.'j'JS). l,obel accompanied an English embassy to , 
Denmark in ir)'.i2. returned to Knglaml. became botanist I 
to .Jaines I., and d. at llighguto Mar. 2. lilH".. A fragment ! 
of a vast br.tanieal cyclopjiMlia jirojected by Lolud was ed- 
ited liy J. Parkiusiin in H).">.'). The idea of natural families 
maybe found in Lobel's works, and an important botanical I 
genus was called Lnhelia in his honor. I 

Lobe'lin [named by Plumier in honiir of ^Lltthewio6(7, 
botanist to King James T.]. a genus of plants of the natural 
order Lobeliacea', of whioli the most important species is 
the Lobelia influtu, or " Indian tidiacco," as it is commonly 
called. This is a very common indigenous annual or bien- 
nial tierb, growing wild in waste spots throughout Canada 
and tlic V.i^. It has a fibrous root, and a solitary straight 
hairy stem rising about a foot high. The flowers are small 
and of a light blue color; tho leaves oval, serrated, and 
hairy. The entire herb, dried, is used in medicine under 
the name /"l>,it<i. Its pro]»erties depend on an alkaloid, 
fi'hrh'iin, whicli is a thick, oily, transparent, volatile tluid, 
with a pungent taste resembling tobacco. Lobelia is a 



riowcrful nuusoatini^cincCio, producing in full doio on effect 
iko that of tobacco — namely, long-continued. diNtreiiHiijjf 
nauHea and vomiting, with purging, eopious Kweatiiig, und 
great muneuhir relaxation. In overdoM* it i<4 u potent lu-.m- 

1 narcotic poiHon. Lobelia iti too Hcvi^re an vinelic to bu 

I iiKcd to produce vomiting, and itn medicinal employmeitt in 
in non-emetii,- iIohoh aH ii relaxing agent in antlima and 
allied HpaHinodic diHcaHCH, Kdwaki* Clktih. 

{ Lobelia rardinuliH, tho cardinal flower, i^o named 
from the intense rf-A color of tho bloi>?omn, in the luoftt 
nhowy of our indigcnouw npecien, and lit prized in eulii- 

' vation. The low and briglitblue-flowered lobelia, largely 
used as a bedding-plant, \n L. ICrimui, from the Cupe of 
Good ilope. 

JLobeliiia* Soo Lodf.lia. 

lioblolly Hay. See (joiuiosia. 

Lo'bu (.Ii.ttoMMo), b. at Lii'bon about 1505; entered tbo 
order of the .lesuits in l(i<i'.l, and went in 1A22 un a mid* 
sionary lo (Joa. whence he proceeded to Abyi-Hinia in MVIX. 
Hero he worked with great Buccesj*, but wan at Ini-t ex- 
pelled in 1(!;M, iind returned to Portugal to perrtunde (ho 
Christian powers to make a crusade againxt Abyvi^inia. 
Having failed in this, he went once more (o <iou in Kilfl, 
whence he returned in Di.>f;, and d. at Lisbon .Ian. 20, iri7S. 
Hi.'* //ititorin fh- /-Jthio/iitt (Coiiiibra, DiJil) made a gr<-at 
itensation and was traiiKlat<;d into many foreign tongiiey — 
into French in 1071, into Knglish by iJr, Juhntfon (17.'Jii). 

Lo'bos Islands [Pp. /oAo, "seal "].orSenl Islandn, 
three small inlands in the Pacific Ocean, 12 mibs ofl the 
coast of Peru, to which country they belong, in Jat. 11° 20' 
S., Ion. SO® U'V W., form the gathering-place for innumer- 
able seals, and contain large deposits of guano. 

Lob'ster [su])posed to be cognate with the later fun- 
tfUMfrt, the name of a di.-tantly related form ( /'fffiminm) of 
tho Mediterranean anci Kuropenn seas generally], a name 
especially applied to crustaceans of Ihc species of the ge- 
nus JlninaniN, but also extended to several other kinds of 
very dilTerent groups. The typical lol).«tcr8. or Unnmri, 
are closely relaterl to the fresh-water crawfishes (,'U/«e«» 
and Cdnilinnii) of the northern hemisphere, and with them 
and some other genera (AHtatoideti, Pnnturphrnpn, Charap-, 
EiujniiH, Xt ffhrnpH, and i\'f/*Atv*/>«/«) constitute the family 
of Astneidu'. They differ especially from (he crayfishes in 
the rostrum, which is siraighler and denlieulated. or armed 
with many teeth on each side; the union by ^(ddcring of 
tho last ring of the thorax with the penultimate ; the trans- 
formations whieh it undergoes in its progress from the egg 
to maturity; the marine habitat: and the larger size of 
the species; and these eharncters are associated with a 
number of anatomical )>ecnliuritics. The eyes are orbicu- 
lar; there arc nineteen pairs of gills. They become red 
when subjeetetl to the action of boiling water or acids, this 
being due to a change in the jiigmentary matter. In tho 
stomach at the pyloric position are three movable chilinous 
pieces, instrumental in digestion, which, from a supposed 
resemblance to a seated female, is known as "lady;" it is 
shell with the shell. In connection with the outer wall of 
the intestine, the liver is developed as a greenish organ 
with a mixture of fat-cells, and this is called by (he lobster- 
men "tow alley." The female chiefly spawns in spring 
or early summer, and carries her eggs (which number from 
about 2ltn0 to 12.000, according to the size of the mother) 
under the abdomen or tail, conglomerated by ,a viscid se- 
cretion; they arc globular, and when nnimpregnalcd red, 
but when impregnated and maturing almost blackish. The 
young emerge Irom the egg as small and actively-swim- 
ming "schi/.opods." or animals very different in appear- 
ance from the adults. After several months tbcy assume 
the form as well as habits of the adult. 

Three well-determined species represent the geuus in 
different seas — viz. (1 ) Ifuiwtruit tjaminarmt or rttlynn'*, the 
common Eumpeau lobster, abundant in Northern Europe, 
and especially Norway ; (21 ll4tmaruH At»rrirauu*. tho 
common American lobster, very nearly related to the pre- 
ceding, abundant from New Jersey northward, and par- 
ticularly, in the V. S.. on tho coast of Maine: and (.1) /A<- 
iininii C'tp^iiMiH, a small lobster found at the Cape of (luod 
Hope. The northern species are much larger, the Ameri- 
can, when adult, varying between one and two feet, and 
weighing two to lifieen pounds, and the European gen- 
erally from eight to ten inches, although occasionally 
rivalling the American in size, and cxccplionally, it is 
ftuppoficil, exceeding three feet in length. They live, in 
warm weather, near the coast, hy preference on rockj* bot- 
toms and where alga; thrive, but the American species. ?. 
of Cape Co<l, is also to he found on sandy and gravelly 
bottoms. In the winter they retire into deeper water, de- 
scending as low as sixteen to twenty fathoms on steep 
coast-slopes. They swim freely, but not strongly. They 



so 



LOBWORM— LOCHES. 



feed on the roe of fish, dead fish, and such other animals 
as thej are able to catch. The food is caught by them 
when on the ground, and is eaten at leisure and in a state 
of rest. Although voracious, thej are able to live for sonie 
time without food. They shed their shells periodically in 
the warm months, like the crabs. 

Lobsters arc very generally esteemed as an article of 
food, and their capture employs a large amount of capital 
and many men in this country as well as Europe. In this 
country "they arc almost exclusively caught in ''lobster- 
pots," or baskets constructed on the plan of some rat-traps, 
having funnel-shaped ends, with a hole in the middle 
through which the animal may enter, but from which he is 
precluded from departing by the extension of his claws. 
These are baited generally with fish of little or no value, 
and sunk by means of stone to the bottom, their locations 
being indicated by floats. Similar traps are used in Eu- 
rope, but formerly, on the coast of Norway, they were 
caught entirely with wooden tongs of about twelve feet in 
length. In other places (e. fj. Heligoland) a bag-net with 
an iron hoop, called "plumpers," is used, a long line being 
attached to it and moved at the top by a piece of wood. 
No precise statistics have been collected respecting the 
number of lobsters caught and consumed in the U. S.. but 
it is very large, ancl has been vaguely estimated at ** sev- 
eral millions" annually. "In Boston the number of lob- 
sters sold annually cannot be much short of 1,000,000," 
according to Capt. Atwood, an experienced fisherman. In 
Boston the male lobster is preferred, and the supply is 
chiefly furnished from the northern shore of Massachusetts 
and the Maine coast, while in New York the females are 
the most salable, and the stock is chiefly derived from the 
contiguous coasts up to Cape Tod, that place being the 
chief market of export for New York after June. The size 
being the same, the females furnish the most meat. The 
sexes are nearly equal in number, according to Mr. S. I. 
Smith, although the males are supposed to greatly pre- 
ponderate by the fishermen. In Long Island Sound and 
iSouthern New England the fishery season commences 
towards the end of March or early in April, and about the 
middle of. the latter month they are sent to the markets in 
large numbers, while towards the North the season is later. 
In winter the supply is principally derived from Maine, 
and they are found at that season in the comparatively deep 
water. The proper breeding-season varies with circum- 
stances, as well as with the latitude and temperature of the 
water, but it commences in the southern waters in April 
or May. It, however, extends through several months, 
and in Vineyard Sound, it seems, about *• one in twenty" 
has eggs even as early as December. Complaints have 
lately been loud that the fisheries are being impover- 
ished, and demand a close season and other regulations. 
In Massachusetts the minimum salable limit is 10^ 
inches. 

Norway is the great source of supply in Europe of the 
lobster, .and from it are exported large numbers to England 
and Holland. Originally, it seems to have been despised 
by the natives, and the fisheries were first developed in the 
Norse waters by the Dutch. Their vessels commenced to 
visit Norway for lobsters in the seventeenth century, chiefly, 
and at first exclusively, sailing from Zierikzee. From 
FIa;kkefiord lobsters were exported as early as lOfiO, and 
in 1674 ten lobster-vessels filled from it; from 1090 the 
Dutch regularly visited Karmo, and the following places 
gr.adually becamt^ lobster-ports: viz., '* Mandal, Flit'kke- 
fii)r<l, Egorsunrl, Tanangcr or jierhaps Stavanger, Akre in 
the island of Karmii, and Leervig in the island of Stordii." 
The Dutch also introduced the lobster-baskets, and at the 
commencement of their operations, by donations to the 
clergy, interested them in their behalf. At first the price 
was one skillirig (about a cent) each, but afterwards it was 
raised to two and more. Originsilly, the export traile wns 
carried on entirely in Dutdi bottoms, but gradually th(* 
English took a share, and after the war which broke out 
between Holland and Englatirl in 177f> the trade was en- 
tirely wrested from the l)utch and taken by the English, 
who .still hold it almost exclusively. 

The number of lobsters exported from Norway has fluc- 
tuatecl according to circumstances, lletween ISIfj nnd 
ISIS, the annual export riinged between .')12,7S0 and 
CHO.I'OO. ''The number of lobsters exported in 1S21 and 
1822," says lioeck, " amounted to over 1,000,000 a year, i 
and increased still more during tln^ following years, al- 
though it was not t'o Inrge in IS2;i and 1S21. on account of 
the unfavorable weather. From 182.'i to 1830 the average 
number of lobsters exported annually was 1,208,000. and 
in 1H27 and 1828 the highest number was reached — viz. 
1,.'>00,000, Tliese largo numbers, however, were caused 
not by the fisheries being just as productive, or more so, 
in th(^ old lobster-stations, but by the circumstance that 
new English companies, seeing the great profit to be de- 



rived from this trade, commenced to export lobsters from 
places from which they had never been exported before." 
"The exports from Starangcr and Egersund meanwhile 
decreased very much, having been reduced to 07,000 per 
annum in the latter place in 1827, when the exports from 
the whole of Norway amounted to 1,429,703. After 1830 
the exports began to decrease even in the new districts, so 
that the annual average quantity of lobsters exported dur- 
ing the five years 1831-35 was only 640,000. The only 
places that kept the lobster-trade alive were the new dis- 
tricts, while all the old ones decreased rapidly, some of 
them to such a degree that, according to the governors' re- 
ports, the lobster-trade must be considered almost extinct 
in 1835." 

Farseeing men had feared the results of the excessive 
and unregulated fisheries, and the fishermen and all others 
interested became at length alarmed. Laws were from 
time to time (c.ff. 1830, 1838, 1S45) proposed and discussed 
in the "Storthing" or Norwegian parliament, parliament- 
ary inquests were also held, and the aid of experienced 
naturalists was invoked ; but for a long time a close season 
was opposed by the fishermen and traders, who hoped for 
a revival of the trade, and contended that the depression 
was only temporary. Gradually, however, almost all be- 
came ccmvinced that legal restrictions of the fisheries as to 
time and size of lobsters taken were necessary ; and finally, 
in 1848, laws were passed regulating the fishery. It was 
provided (1) that lobsters should not be caught or sold from 
the fifteenth of July till the end of September; (2) that 
the king, however, at the request of local authorities, might 
remit time before or after August, which must always re- 
main a close month; (3) a penalty of twenty-four skilHngs 
for every infraction of the law was provided for; (4) it was 
provided that the police courts should have jurisdiction of 
the cases: and (5) a period of eight days after the periods 
designated was added for the exportation of lobsters. The 
result of this law was that much fewer were exported in 
1849 and 1850 than in previous years, but afterwards the 
number increased, and, although fluctuating, the gain con- 
tinued, till in 1865 nearly 2,000,000 (1,956.270) were ex- 
ported. The law also became so popular with the dealers 
that they were even inclined to go to the other extreme, 
and desire a still longer close season. Now that alarm is 
being felt respecting the lobster fisheries of this country, 
the experience thus referred to may he of use. Several 
documents respecting the subject may bo found in the 
U. S. Commission of Fivk and Fishtrita Reports, to be soon 
published. 

The name, in combination with a qualifying prefix, is 
also popularly applied, in addition to other marine species 
of Astacidje, to species of the families Palinuridii; and 
Scyllaridic. Treo. Gill. 

Lobworm. See Anneltdes. 

Local Preachers, an order of lay preachers in Meth- 
odism, much more numerous than its regular or '' itiner- 
ant" ministry throughout the denomination. In the U. S. 
they number about 22,000. The order was established by 
Wesley early in the history of the Methodistic movement, 
and its members liave become historically important as the 
founders of the denomination in the U. S., Canada, Nova 
Scotia. Australia, and Africa. They are laymen, engaged 
in secular life, but having natural or acquired gifts for 
]jublic discourse, and devoting their Sundays to preaching, 
mostly in poor or incipient ehurches. In large cities, es- 
pecially in England, their weekly appointments are sys- 
tematically arranged and published quarterly on a printed 
plan. They are formally "licensed," and many of them 
are ordained, in order that they may assist the regular 
clergy in the administration of the sacraments, and they 
arc all amenable to the quarterly and district conferences 
of the Church. They have, in most countries, " local 
preachers' associati()ns." In Er.gbmd they publish The 
Lociif J*rrachcrn' Mitt/nziuf. In the V . S. many local 
preachers have been eminent for talent and usefulness. 
The regular or travelling ministry has always been re- 
cruited from their ranks ; in fact, no candidate can be ad- 
mitted to the annual conference on the regular pastorate 
unless first licensed as a local preacher. Aukl Stevens. 

Loca'na, town of Italy, in the province of Turin, sit- 
uated in a strikingly wild valley of the same name. Poj). 
in 1871. 5784. 

liOchapo'kn, post-v. and tp. of Lee co., Ala., on the 
Wesl«'rri K. K. Pop. 3456. 

LoclicSf town of France, in the department of Indrc- 
et-ljoire, on the Indre. Its castle was the royal resiilenco 
of several kings of Fninco. and was used by Louis XI. as 
a state prison, and wilncsscil as such the most horrible 
atrocities. It is now a departmental prison. Near it, in 
1409, Agnes Sorel was born, and her tomb is in the chapel 
of the sub-prefecture. Pop. 5207. 



L(K'111.1CVKN— LOCK. 



•^i 



Lochlcv'eii, noontle on an island in Lake Lcvon, Fifc- 

uliiri', Sc^dIIiumI, niitiil nn 111" liliic'o wlicrc Miiry qiiwn of 
Sriils was iiii|iri«onia Irom July, 1607, until lior c«cu|ip, 
May •-', l.'iiV*. 

I.oclilovon, poll l|i. iif Lunenburg CO., Vn. Pup. lOsl. 

I.oririiiiiii, Ip. "f Diown co., Kan. I'up. 91 1. 

l.ticirnilK! (Dsiuium; .\.i. 1). at MiiMli-linvn, ArinaKli, 
Iri'liMiil, Aui;. '-'•'. ISL'il. Whilo pnrsuiiiK lii» ttcmk-inii; 
ciiurnu in ISIIl liu inilal);i-il irj a pnmiliir upnc'inhly in Hucli 
violent ilcnunciiilionn aj,'iunHl llm l'.ni;li»li uutlioritics that 
liiH falluT lliuunlit it advimililc Ici place liiin beyond the 
riMUTh nl" proHccution, and aecnrilingly ;<cnl him to Now 
Yiirlf. where lie arrived Dee. 21. IHKl. Not lurryint; there 
Ion;;, he made bin way lo Albens, Un, The eleganee and elo- 
quenee of a teinperanee addre^.i delivered ipy him won the 
ail miration id' the late.loaeph Henry I, unipkin, chief-justice 
of thi^ Slate, who urged the boy. orator, then a clerk in a 
drug .slore. to study law, pnooi.Hing him as8i»tani!('. By 
dint of hiliiir at ni;;lit he moioi nia.-^tered bis task, ami was 
admilled lo the bar at the fall term of l.HI'.l. With a few 
books anil scanty means ho opened an olliee at Savannah 
Mar., 1H.')(), and in October of the same year he moved to 
Miieim, where ho formed a professional eonneotion with 
llenrv tl. I.amiir, an able mid prominent lawyer, xvhoso 
daugiiter he had married. His rise at the bar was rapid 
and brilliant. In Sept., ISlil, he was promoted to tho 
bench of the .Macon circuit, lo which po^iition he was twice 
nt'lerwiirds elected by the legislature, Inil resi^'ned in 186.5. 
He then reuioved to .\tlauta, and in .Aug.. 1S7(I, upon tho 
request of the bar, was appointed judge of thai circuit; 
in .Jan.. 1S71, was appointed chief-justico of tho supreme 
court of tho State, but resigned in December of the same 
year, and resumed practice at the bar. Many of his 
speeches, addresses, and orations have been published in 
pamphlet form, generally circulated, and greatly admired 
fur thoir clussio tasto and beautiful imagery in illustra- 
tiun. A. II. Stei'Hicns. 

liOck [from the Ang.-Sax. lor], a piece of machinery 
provided with a spring and bolt for receiving iind corro- 
Pl>nnding to a key, the two together .'serving to fasten doors, 
chests, drawei-s, and the like. 'I'liat lucks and keys were 
used by tho ancients is attested by many writers. The 
Kgyptians, according to Sir Gardner Wilkinson, used 
wooden locks and iron keys; a specimen of tho latter he 
picked up among tho tombs at Thebes. It is described as 
a straight shunk live inches long, with a bar at right angles 
with it, on which were three or more projecting teeth. At 
tho upper extremity was a ring which served as a handle. 
,So far niiek as the commencement of .Teivish history keys 
are mentioned, and in .lodges iii. 2:!-2.), where the residence 
of Kglon. king <if .Mnab, is described, we find that the doors 
of the summer parlor were locked by Ehud, and that sub- 
sequently Iho servant took a key and opened tliem. Tho 
most remarkable lock of ancient times was tho Egyptian 
pin-lock, which consisted of a wooden case fastened to a 
door, having a bolt passing horizontally through a cavity 
within it. In that part of the case immediately above the 
bolt were several small cells, each containing a pin. and in 
the top of the bolt nnder those pins was an equal number 
of holes. Tho cflfecl of tho construction was tb.il when 
properly arranged the pins fell into the holes in the bolt 
and fastened it in the lock-case. In the exposed end of 
the bolt was a cavity, extending slightly beyond tho holes 
occupied by the |iins, into which the key was thrust. The 
latter was a piece of wood with pins arranged so as to cor- 
respond with those in the lock, ami projecting upward as 
far i|s the upper surface of the boll. So, when the key was 
put into the cavity and ])ressed upward, its pins Riled the 
holes in the bolt, and by so doing pushed up Ibose which 
liad falleii from the upper part of the lock-case. Thus, the 

It eonid be withdrawn, as the pins were raised into their 



I 

cells and all obstruction was removed. Locks of the same 
kind have been in use in the Fariie Islands for centuries. 
The Uomans not only had locks and keys, but it is evident, 
from specimens in the British .Museum .and elsewhere, that 
warded locks were known to them : many keys whose con- 
struction points to this conclusion ha\e been discovered 
both at licrculaneum and I'nmpeii. The Chinese have 
shown considerable aptitude for lockmaking. and some of 
their wooden constructions embody the principle on which 
tho celebrated Ilramah lock was made about IttO years ago. 
A modern lock to lie of practical service needs to bo a 
masterpiece of nn-chanical art. .\s inventions of new com- 
plication of tumblers or wanis or springs have appeared. 
so has the ingenuity of man discovered the means of tri- 
umphing over the obstacles, or. in other words, of ])icking 
almost every lock Ihal has been invented. The qualifica- 
tions of a perfect lock are nnnierons and not easy to define. 
An authority on tho subject, Mr. Nicholson, has, however, 
summed them up succinctly in tho following order: (1) 
Vol.. III.— 6 



that certain parts of the lock ihould lio variable in poaition 
through a great number of combinationit, one only of which 
should allow the luck to bo oponcd or abut; (2) that thin 
last-mentioned combination Bhould bo variable at the plea 
sure of the possessor; {.'I) that it should not be pocNible. 
after tho lock is closed and the combination ilisturbid, f"r 
any one, not even the maker of the lock, to irnK!over by 
any examination what may be the proper situation of Ih*- 
parts required to open the lock ; ( I) that trials of this kind 
should not be capable of injuring the lock; (•>) that i' 
should absolutely require nn key, and be as easily openi- 1 
in the dark as in the light; (Gj that the opening and shni 
ting ho done easily, and by a process as simple as a coo - 
mon lock, either with or without a key, as may be desired ; 
(7) that the keyhole bo defended, eoneealed, or ina^.-eessible ; 
(H) that the key may be used by a stranger without his 
knowing, or being able to discover, the adopted coinbina 
lion ; (It) that tho key bo capable of adjustment to all 111-' 
varialiiina of the lock, and yet be simple; (HI) that the 
lock shoulil not be liable lo be taken off and examined, 
whether the receptacle be o]iencd or shut, except by one 
who knows tho adopted combination. 

Into an explanation of all tho terms applied by lock- 
smiths to their wares it is unnecessary to enter. The e!ii<-f 
distinctions between tho best-known locks, however, are 
not out of place. Locks for drawers, chests, and the like 
are conslruotcil to open on one side only, and arc fitted with 
keys made with a pipe to slip on and turn on a pin called 
the driU-pin. But what arc called innide and ontniiU locks, 
fixed to doors which have to be locked sometimes on one 
side and sometimes on the other, have solid keys with stems 
thicker than the flat part, so as to form an axis fitting into 
the upper part of the kcyhidc. Keys for this kind of lock 
must be symmetrical, or alike on each side of a line through 
their middle, in order to fit the lock either ivay. Locks placed 
on outer doors are generally known as «(oc/c locks; those 
on chamber doors are called «/,iiii;/ locks, and when a lock 
is hidden in the thickness of the wood to which it is fast- 
ened it is called a iiwrlicc lock. Locks on the outside of 
doors are known as irou-rim iin-kn and fim^t-raar Inckn. Tho 
locks that are most used nowadays are variations on tho 
old warded and tumbler locks, tho puzzle or letter locks 
being almost entirely out of date. The latter attracted 
much attention before the invention by .Mr. Brninah was 
effected, and as early as tho days in which Beaumont and 
Fletcher flourished mention is made of letter locks in the 
play of the Xohle Gt-nthman. These locks could only be 
opened by setting a number of rings to a certain combina- 
tion of letters, so that no one who was not in possession of 
the secret was able to open the lock : Hence the term piizth- 
loik. This combination was at first fixed and could not bo 
changed. Subsequently, the rings were made double, the 
inner one having the notch in it which the bolt had lo pass, 
and the outer one cap.able of being fitted on to the inner in 
any position, by unscrewing some part of the lock, so that 
the rings might be set to any combination at pleasure. 
Locks of this kind are insecure, because the pressure of the 
bolt can be felt on some of the rings more than on Iho 
other.s, and our own countryman, Mr. Ilobbs, has declared 
that wherever that is the case the lock can be picked. Tho 
same gentleman opened a dial lock nt Liverpool in a few 
minutes, and at the threat Exhibition in London in IS.'iI. 
he opened a French lock and set it to n new combination, 
so that the exhibitor himself was unable to open it. Tho 
reasons for the unpopularity of the puzzle, letter, or dial 
locks, which arc all three akin, are obvious : they are difficult 
to handle, and the danger of forgetting the word which sets 
the combination is always imminent. The unfortunate 
Louis XVI. of France took great delight in experimenting 
nn locks of this kind and others, whence the saying, ■• He 
is a capital locksmith, but a very bad king." 

In ordinary locks the boll shoots out to catch in some 
kind of staple or box, or a staple enters a hole in the edge 
of the lock, and is then acted upon by tho boll. The key 
enters its receptacle, and the shaft .-icts as a pivot around 
which the web or flat part of the key in.iy move. Thus, 
the web acts upon the bolt : the key impels it one way. 
certain springs act upon it in another, and the balance lie- 
tween the two forces determines the lucking or unlocking 
of tho bolt. In order to render the opening of the lock 
difficult without the right key. pieces of metal are securcl 
to the inner surface of the lock to obstruct the progress of 
the key unless the latter be provided with open spaces 
which will cause ihe key to clear the obstruction. These 
pieces of metal are called irorif». The shape of these wards 
is not. however, difficult to discover. The insertion into 
the hole of a blank key — that is. a key without wards — 
' covered with wax. and the subsequent filing of the key 
where the obstructions in Ihe lock have maile marks in the 
I wax, are sufficient for the provisiun of a key capable of 
! opening the securest of warded locks. Jlorcover, what are 



82 



LOCK. 



known &a skeleton IceyB^ used by burglars with considerable 

profit, are sufficient for the opening of locks of this kind. 
These sL-tletona are not cut into the form of the wards, but 
have simply a blank space through which the wards may 
pass, the only part of the key that does any work being the 
edge farthest from the pipe. This is the theory of the 
master hvy, by which one key may be made to open any 
number of locks variously warded, such as is used by the 
superintendent in large manufactories, asylums, and hos- 
pitals. 

The most conspicuous feature in the formation of our 
best modern locks is the tnmhlfr or /ectr, which falls into 
the bolt and prevents it from being shot until it has been 
raised or released by the action of the key. The siiir/fe- 
tinnbler lock has a tumbler turning on a pivot with a square 
pin, which drojia into a notch in the bolt when it is cither 
open or shut, so that before the bolt can move the tumbler 
must be lifted by the key. The origin of the tumhler has 
never accurately been traced, V»ut more than a century ago 
it is clear that the system was known in France; however, 
in the year 177S was patented Barron's lock, which may be 
justly described as the foundation of nil the modern im- 
provements in lockmaking. In the ordinary tumbler locks 
the lock could be opened if the tumbler were raised suffi- 
ciently high to allow the bolt to work, but Barron's lock 
rendered the bolt immovable if the tumbler were raised 
either not suflfieiently high or ton high. Moreover, the lock 
possessed two tumblers, instead of one, which added greatly 
to the security of the structure. The bolt has in its middle 
a "gating," or open slit, notched on both edges, the notches 
being fitted fur the reception of studs fixed to the tumblers. 
If the studs of the tumblers rc^t in the lower notches, they 
require to be elevated to the general level of the gating be- 
fore the bolt can be moved; whilst if the tumblers are 
raised too high, the studs will enter the upper notches and 
prevent the shooting of the bolt. The lower eclge of each 
tumbler is acted on by the steps of the key during its cir- 
cular movement, the leverage of the key being so adjusted 
as to raise the tumbler to the desired height. Ten years 
after the patenting of Barrun's lock, Mr. Jorieph Bramah. 
the inventor of the hydraulic press, brought out a lock 
which differed very considerably from those which hail 
gone before it. Its chief peculiarities arc a barrel or cylin- 
der, the absence of fixed wards and of tumblers working 
on a pivot at one end. and the introduction of a system of 
sliders. The body of a Bramah, according to Mr. Hobbs, 
may bo considered as consisting of two barrels, the outside 
one fixed, and the inner rotating within it. The inner bar- 
rel has a projecting stud, which, while the barrel is rotating, 
comes in contact with the bolt in such a way as to shoot or 
lock it. Thus, the stud serves the same purpose as the bit 
of an ordinary key, rendering the construction of a bit to 
the bramah unnecessary. Wlien the barrel is made to 
rotate to the right or left the bolt can be locked or un- 
lock^'d, and the rotation is effected by means of ullilrm 
which correspon*! to the tiniihlcrft of Barron's invention. 
Mr. Bramah published a treatise in which he modestly de- 
clared that his lock entailed such security that it was not 
within the range (»f art to produce a key or other instru- 
ment by which a lock on his principle could he (tpencd. 
However, in IS.')1. Mr. Hobbs of Boston proved the fallacy 
of this declaration by picking a Bramah by means of t!ie 
tcmtative process, wliich will be clescribed immediately. 
Tlie Bramah lock, in its improved form, hnwi-ver, is one 
of tlic safest locks that can be used, though it must be re- 
mrtubered that as the patent has ex|)in>d years ago, many 
imitations are in the market which may be jiicked as easily 
as the old warded lock. The principles of the invention 
may be briefly worded : Mr. Bramah rejected the use of 
fixeil wards, using instead movable guards or sliders. The 
number of these sliders varied from four to six and eight. 
As no wards were used, the key was smaller and easier to 
be carried, and moreover the smallness of the keyhole con- 
tributed in no small degree to the lalVty tA' the lock. In 
1818. Mr. Chubb of Londrin patented his celebrated lock, 
whicliever .since that date has enjiiyeil great pr)pularity. 
It consists of Barron's titmhlrm more or less numerous, 
with fvvr or no fixed wards, and without false ni»tches. It 
contains at least si.x double-acting tumblers, all of which 
must be raised to a certain height b^-ffjro th<? btdl can ]ia,ss. 
The most captivating point ab(mt ("bubb's locks was, Imw- 
evcr, the ffefcvtor, cciusisting of a lever which, if any umlue 
elevation was given to the tumblers in an attempt to pick 
the IfK'k by means of a, false key, caught i?i and di'tained 
the bolt until with a twist of tlie proper ki-y it could be re- 
leasi'd. This i/rtrrtor as at first conslituted, however, was 
utiliz(?d by Mr. Hobbs of Boston as a means of picking the 
lock by tlie "tentative" process described in the /^lu-'flo^ 
pitiliu /{rifauiilcn many years ago, but entirely forg""*'" 
until revived by American locksmiths. The process con- 
fiiot?i of moving one tumbler at a time by meanii of some 



instrument, and ascertaining by touch when the stump is 
opposite the "gating." As Mr. Hobbs proved, the fact is 
easily made known, and as each tumbler is held in its place 
until the whole number are free, the bolt is at last easily 
moved. At the date of the invention Chubb's locks enjoyed 
considerable notoriety, especially after the attempt made by 
a convict at Portsmouth dockyard to ]»iek a lock made by 
the firm. The convict had been a lockmaker, and he was of- 
fered a free pardon from the government and £100 from Mr. 
Chubb if he succeeded in opening the lock. The necessary 
tools were supplied him, but after three months' trial, dur- 
ing which the detector was constantly overlifted, he gave 
up the attempt, stating that Chubb's were the securest 
locks he had seen, and it was impossible for any man to 
pick them with false instruments. The convict, however, 
was beaten in his own work by Mr. Hobbs. who used the 
detector to indicate just the necessary height to which each 
tumbler must be raised. 

In the year 1831 a system of clockwork was introduced 
as a feature in lockmaking by a Mr. Rutherford, a bank 
agent of Jedburgh, Scotland. The clockwork regulated 
the interval which must elapse before the lock could be 
opened by its key. The object was to ensure the safety of 
the lock during a journey or until the bag or box was con- 
veyed to a certain locality. When the lock is used for boxes 
or anything portable, the clockwork must be regulated by 
a spring; when it is fixed to safes and the like, a descend- 
ing weight and pendulum can be used. The bolt is pro- 
vented from moving by a circular stop-plate fixed with a 
notch in its rim. The stop-plate works round by clock- 
work, and until the notch is opposite to the bolt the latter 
cannot be shot backward or forward. The plate may bo 
made to rotate eitlier slowly or quickly, so that a lock may 
be regulated so as to open so many hours or minutes after 
it has been locked. In 1SIJ6, Mr. Meighan invented an 
alarum lock, in which the bell was placed inside the lock 
itself, but the invention does not appear to have attained 
any great degree of popularity. It was not until the year 
1841 that an invention in this country created a stir in the 
art of lockmaking. In that year Dr. Andrews of Perth 
Amboy, N. J., l)rought out an instrument afterwarils known 
as the "permutation" lock. The principle of this inven- 
tion consists in the ttse (tf rings attached to the key, which 
may cause an almost endless variety of changes. When 
the bolt is turned the lock may not be moved except by 
the same combination of rings upon the key. The advan- 
tages of the system are obvious; the internal mechanism 
of the lock is changeable at pleasure, so that e\eu if tho 
key be obtained possession of for a few minutes, and an 
impression taken, the owner subsequently may be able by 
a fresh adjustment of the rings to change the whole con- 
struction of the key. The lock is furnished with tutnblers 
and a detector. On the same principle Mr. Newall of New 
York invented a "permutation" lock of a rather more 
complicated nature, with two sets of tumblers, instead of a 
twofold movement to each tumbler. These tumblers were 
called primary and secondary, and effectually doubled the 
capacities of the keys. Dr. Andrews's lock succumbed to 
Mr. Nc wall's picking, and the last- mentioned lock was 
picked by Mr. Pettit, who accepted Mr. Newall's offer of 
$a()0 to any one who could ])ick his lock. By no means 
fliscouraged, the inventor went to work to find out how to 
keep the interior of the lock from view and the inser- 
tion of delicate instruments, and the result, not without 
many suggestions ancl additions, however, was the patent- 
ing of the famous lock concealed from view called tho 
" Parantoptie." This famous and eomplieated piece of 
mechanism went through various stages, in one of which it 
was ]>icked by the "smoke" pro(ress. A snudty tinuie in- 
troduced into the loc'k will leave a smutty dciiosit on the 
outer edges of the tumblers, which will be removed by the 
bits of a key if inserted immediately afterwards, A light 
is then thrown into tlie lock by means of a mirror, the key- 
marks become visible, and a false key nmy easily be made. 
In 1S17 the Parautoptic in its completed form was exhib- 
ited in A'ienna, where it gained for its owners tho honor 
of ft gohl medal, and in 18,">1 the lock was patented in Eng- 
land, and was introduced to the. commercial world by Mr. 
Hobbs. That year was fanions in the history of lockmak- 
ing, ami Mr. Hobbs was und"Miblrdly the hero of the h()ur. 
At the tlreat Kxhibition in Hyde Park he declared to sev- 
eral scientific men that all locks manufactured up to that 
date in England wen; easy to pick, and (o prove his words 
he opened one of Cliubb's d(!tector bx^ks in a few minutes. 
A:^ tlie fairness ul the (■xpcrimcnt was called into question, 
Mr. Hoi lbs nui'le another trial on a Chubb lock in a private 
ln»u->e before a number of gentlemen, and jiickcd the loi'k 
in the space of twenty-five minutes. Having vanquished 
diulili. Mr. llol)bs now turned his atli-ntion to lirnmah, 
wlii<*h firm had exhildled for nuiuy years in their estab- 
lishmcut a patent padlock with the ullur uf 200 guineas to 



LOCKHOUKNE— LOCKK, ANU lllS PlIILOSOi^JI V. 



.■>.; 



tho artist who ooul'l mako un inHtnuticnf which wouM ofiirn 
it. Arlpihiitor.H wi-n- u|niuinl<-i|, iitiil Mr. M-thl.K ci)tnm<(ic'<-«I 
oppnilioiiM <in July ^1, mi'i "ii Aiij;, 2'.i <'\hil>ileii thu lo.-k 
open tcj till! urhilriitord. Ilav-iii); ju!CUTii|iliHhc*| thiH fi-ur. 
Mr. llnMiM (idVrcil Iho hhuw rowitnl tn uiiy "ric wlm wniiM 
nii'k V.-wiiirn i*itnnit<i|iti<\ iinii i ho (rliiillfn^'o whs ai^'roph-il 
liv Mr. (larliiitr nl* [i'lmlun, who. howi-vcr, riiih-'l to iicconi- 
plisli hJM iiin-|i'mi' wllliin Hn- [mriod prcHcrilu'd, thirty diiyH. 
Thim the- Mti[M'miitiify of Aiin'rir-iiii Im-kH was rully eHliitiliwhiMl 
at thiitihit«MiIlhoiiy:h in !><.».) Mr. liiiiuM Viik-,Jr.. ol" IMiihi- 
(li'I|iirni, .siuMM'C'lci! ill jiii-kin;c Iho l*itnuito|itic, l»y means 
<(!' thii iinpri'Hsioii profcsM. Thai gtMilliniaii (h-'.-ljiro'l Ihjit 
ttn li'i'S "^'* '''*' '**"^' '^ '*' * ^V'"t?<''* " 'ori'i- aii'l ill its uhc riihH 
an iniprcssion nn the tiiin)>Ior.'«, all th»! naraiilopLit! hickrt 
can ho picked. Previous to this dato Mr. Valo had in- 
vented an iii.-<trnmcMt eiiUcd the '* inasic " l<»ek. In thirt 
oxtraordinary invntion the iiils of the key are attiiiihed to 
tlio Hhjil't, and .seem (r) 1m! pari of (lin same piece; wiioii, 
however, the kciy is thrn^t into tlie loek, th(\v are piokod 
np by a pin whinh enters the conin^f the »huft through 
them. When tlie sliaft is tnrned. a nnmber of wlieela are 
sot in iniitiMi) wliiidi separate the hits I'roin thu shaft, and 
curry them into the interior of the loek, at tlie name timo 
tho wheels eloso up tlie koyltole with a solid hloek whilst 
the bits aro arranj;ing the tninblers for tho drawing of tho 
holt. Ni'ith<'r tin- "tentative" nor tho "smokiiii;" nor tho 
''impression" iinte.ess has sueceeded in piekini^ the '*inag- 
if" Uf.-k, which has received well-merited praise from Eug- 
lisli lo<d{Hmith8. 

Perh:ipH the best En^jlish lock is that invented by Mr. 
K. It. Deiii.son, Q. C., whieh Mr. Mobbs declared In b'o the 
only lock of Kn'.ilisli invention seenre aj;ainst any known 
method of piokin;^. This loek appeared in ls.'>2, but was 
not patented, aa tho inventor hold that patents are an ob- 
striiotion to the proj;ress of science, anci waste on tho whole 
more tlian they ix>^\u lor real inventors. The advantages 
of tho Denison hxdt are obvions. It has hir;:^ ami stron;^ 
works, with a lieyludo so nairow that no int^trument .stroni^ 
enough to injure tho lock can be introdnt^ed, nor a rofleetor 
to observe tho bellies ol" the tumblers. Tho bolt is not only 
shot by turning a hamilo. but also looked wiilir>ut using a 
key. It eannoT, however, he opened without a key. Not- 
withsf;inding its mniiy virtues, however, tho Denison lock 
lins nevei- found great fivor in I'lngland, as tho improvetl 
Chnbh looks still hold thfir popularify. Sineo Mr. Ilohbs 
proved that the tl'tf'tor in aChnbit look alVonled guidanoe 
to a person attempting to piek it, the Mnglish lirrn has ob- 
viated the ditlienlty by giving the tumblers an unequal 
hearing, so that if a loek-piokt-r f'-'ds tho obstruefion of the 
deteotor ho eannot tell whether tho tnuiider whi(!h he is 
lifting bo raised too high or too low. Since the year of the 
lock-controversy (1^51 1 American lotdtsmiths have sustain- 
eil the reputation gained at that era so memorable in tho 
liistory of lookmaking; but. although the number of pat- 
ent? takv'n out since that d:i.te is grei,t, the inventions aro 
not of suffioiont novelty to need detailed description. Sinoo 
tho year IS.M no less than 270 locks liavo bf'en patented in 
London alone. W. .1. Dixox. 

Lock'boiirney pnst-v. of ITamilton tp., Franklin co,, 
0., 11 miles S. E. of Columbus, on tho Ohio and E.'ie 
Canal. Pop. 2^1. 

Locke^ post-v. and tp. of Elkhart co., Ind. Pop. of v. 
107: of tp. SS2. 

IjOckCy post-tp. of Ingham co., Mich. Pop. 11 Ij. 

liOcke, ])ost-v. and t[>. of Cayuga co., N. Y., on the 
Sontliern Central R. R.. 21 miles S. of Auburn, has mauu- 
faeturos of importaiioe. Pop. U)77. 

Locke, tp. of Rowan co., N. C. Pop. 1110. 

Locke (D.vvin Ko.ss). better known under las unm-de- 
p!iiiu€ ()f " Petroleum V. Nasby," b. at Vestal, Broome co., 
X. Y., l^ept. 20, 1833; learned printing in the otlico of the 
Cortland l)f,ut>cfat; was suceessively editor and publisher 
of the Plymouth (0.) Adverlhvr, the .Mansfield (O.) H.r- 
afif, the Uueyrus J'>nni»t/, an<l tho Findlay (O.) Jtjfersuniau, 
and editor of the Toledo lU<t'U, In IStJO he began to pub- 
lish his '• Xasby " letters, several series of which have ap- 
peared in book-form, lie is the author of many ]>olitieitI 
piunphlets. His latest production is The Momh »»/ Abon 
i>.n A,/Inm (187."i). 

Locke^ and his Philo^<iopliy. I. The distinguished 
English philosopher. .Tohn Locki:. was b. at Wrington, 
Somersetshire, .\ug. 29, li>;i2. His tirst studies were pursued 
at Westminster College, London. In llJ.d he became a 
member of Christ's College. Oxford, where ho resided till 
I'iiW. Here his mind reeeiveil that bent whieh gave him 
liis subsequent renown as a philosoplier. It was partly 
from the reading of Peseartes. whose clearness of exposi- 
tion Locke, without accepting his views, greatly admired. 
80 in contrast with the crude instructions of the university, 



anrl who munt thus receive tho merit of nrepar'mf; aj^aiiifit 

himsflf hift iiiofit noted udveritury. Rut it wun in purt.uud 
direelly, the iiiflueiicu of a diHeuMnion with five or nix Ptti 
di'NtM in liirt roomi at Oxford, wheii.ui he fnyn, the itiooj^h' 
eamc lo his mind that thi* only Huru ground of harmony in 
jiidgiiieiit must bo found in u pridiniinary detoriiiinal ion 
of the prfsitihilities of tliu human mind. Thin " thongbl," 
wbiirh h(f(.-uino the /-Jifaif, wan (aki n up and hiid iiMide, aijd 
wrillen upon at intervaU throut^h u period of more than 
twenty years, nn<l only liniMbed in 10H7. In KlOt, Lock<- 
was secretary of legation at llerlin ; in lOfi? Im beeunH- ae- 
qnainti-d with Lord Ashley, uftorwardii earl of ShiiflcMhury, 
win), ill grutkudo for medical advice thought to have Haved 
his lr)rd-*bip'a life, received the young philosopher uh a 
member for a number of years of hin family, During Ihift 
timo ho directed tho education of ShafloHbury's con, and 
that of bis grandson, who hceame th<; elegant philosophical 
writer in t^u(n-n Anne's reign. Looko was brought, thr<iugh 
his friend and patron, into the sooiely of Ruckingham, 
Halifax, and other distinguished men. When SbafloMhury 
became lord chancellor ho gave lo him the ofliee of tho 
presentation of benefices. Rut both coon f-.ll into dla- 
favor, and from 107^ to 1079, Locko was in Franco, mainly 
at Montpellicr with Herbert. later earl of Pembroke, and 
to whom ho dedicated his Eitut/, having also free inl^'r- 
courso with men of eminence at Paris. From I(»h;j to 
IGSSjOn ac'-ount of the state of his own country, ho deemed 
it wise again (o reside abroad. Tin; revtdution of ir»ss 
enabled him to return from Hollaml lo England, where he 
filled several civil offices, and ha<l others proffered, which 
on account of age and ill health ho declined. His last 
years were spent in the study of the Scriptures, and minis- 
tered to by Ladi' Masham. a daughter of Ralph Cudworth. 
D. at Oateg, a firm believer in tho Christian religion, Oct. 
28. 1701. 

If. Tun Philosophy of Lopkf. — 1. licfinonn for it* 
Great /*'ipiiffirih/ and Influence. — The Etnay on the Unnnin 
Cnd':rnt(tndiiiijf which contains Locke's system, did not 
appear in London until lli'JO. But four cdillonp, revised 
by the author, were issued before his death, and a fifih, 
with his last emendations, the year after, a tenth in I7*)l, 
and the thirteenth in 171S. Meantime it was translated 
info French, then becoming tho universal language of Eu- 
rope ; and tliis translation, made in 1700, passed through 
five editions in fifty years. It was also translated into 
Latin — into Dutch and German several times, and since 
into modern (iroek. These various editions and transla- 
tions indicate the popularity and extensive inlluonce of ihe 
E'M'Df. As rP'tHonn for this may be mentioned — first, the 
author's public and social position, coupled with the clear- 
ness and assurance, if not always the self consistency, of 
his utterances. Although wanting tho condensation and 
philosoithic exactness of such writers as Kant, his English 
would rank among the best prose of his timo; and his 
familiar style, derived from the refined society in whieh he 
moved, was a help to his popularity, as his public life wa-i 
already an introduction to his authorship. Secondly, bis 
adhorenoe to the causeof civil and religious liberty. In his 
wi>rk on Civil Onrernmvtit he ailvoeated tho rights of th-- 
people against the arbitrary rule to whieh they were being 
.subjecterL In 1084, and by order of His Majesty, he was 
expelled from his benefice at Oxford, and was an exile on 
account of his too free opinions. He might have nict with 
Sir Philip Sidney's fate if, instead of being secreted in Hoi- 
lantl, he had fallen into the power of tlie king. On tho 
accession of James II., William Ponn proposed lo procure 
for him a pardon, hut the philosopher's noble reply was, 
'•There is no need of pardon where there is no crime or 
fault. " But the above reasons, however powerlul as aux- 
iliaries, would not suffice but for the third — that Ihe times 
favored such a work. The psychological field was not 
much explored, and in attempting it Locke showed an io- 
depeiidence which drew attention lo him. At the siirae 
time, good men, especially in Euglaud, wero disposed lo 
accept of what was regarded as authority, and to assume 
that religion could find its support in failh. without any 
help from philosophy, or even against it. And unchristian 
thinkers found a support for their favorite theories in the 
current and accepted philosopliy of Locke. Hence, "to- 
wards 17J0." says Cousin. '* the principles of Loeke were 
spread through Europe; they were developed everywhere 
else, as well as in England." This would seem to dc.Iare 
the lime of its appearance favorable to 9iirh a system as 
that enounced by Loi-ke. " Placed between the seventeenth 
and oighleeulh centuries, ho forms the Iransliioo from one 
to the other. In fact, run over all the sensunlistio philoso- 
phers of the eighteenth century, there is not one who dms 
not invoke the authority of Locke : and I do not ppeak 
merely of raelaphysieians. hut of nion^lists, publicists, and 
critics. Locke is tho ^hief, (he avowed master of the scn- 
sualistic school of the last century.** {Oinaia.) 



84 



LOCKE'S ISLAND— LOCKWOOD'S. 



2. What the tochian Philosophy is.— Its aim is "to in- 
quire into the original certainty and extent of human 
knowledge." With this in view, the author strtvee to show 
(bli. i.) tliat there are no " innate ideas " — ideas being u:^ed 
for whatever is in the mind. If any of these are innate, 
then the expreseion of them — for example, "whatever is, 
is,*' or "it is iyinossible the same thing should be and not 
be" — ^must be accepted by all human beings, not a child 
or savage excepted. But, it is said, idiots, children, and 
savage? do not accept them, therefore they cannot be innate. 
Such" is the reasoning. The obstacles thus removed, 
the origin of knowledge is discussed (bk. ii.). Fortu- 
nately for us. the author's positions can be given concisely 
almost in his own words : ** Let us suppose the mind to be, 
as we say, white paper, void of all characters, without any 
ideas; how comes it to be furnished? Whence has it all 
the materials of reason and knowledge? To this I answer, 
in one word, from experience; in that all knowledge is 
founded, and from that it ultimately derives itself." 
Again he says — and the passage is a fundamental postu- 
late of this philosophy — ■*' Our observation, employed either 
about external, sensible objects, or about the internal ope- 
rations of our own minds, perceived and reflected on by 
ourselves, is that which supplies our understandings with 
all the materials of thinking. These two are the fountains 
of knowledge from whence all the ideas we have, or can 
naturally have, do spring." These are called " sensation " 
and " reflection." And it is important to observe that the 
latter must wait on the former. " I see no reason to believe 
that the soul thinks before the senses have furnished it with 
ideas to think on." That is, the mind can only act upon 
what is given to it from without, furnishing nothing original 
from itself. In the last analysis the materials of knowledge 
are "ideas" of sensation due to perception. 

3. Critlciim of this Phihsophi/. — The first valid objection 
to it is its faulty method. The primary and essential work 
of the psychologist is to examine all the facts of conscious- 
ness, and to present no theory not sustained by these. In- 
stead of this true method, Locke lays down a hypothesis 
of the origin of knowledge which the facts of conscious- 
ness do not sustain. Then in his treatment of innate ideas 
he virtually assumes rational intuitions as elements of 
knowledge to be the same as a conscious recognition of 
prepositional truth; e. (j. if one has an idea of existence, 
he must know the import of " whatever is, is.'* And there 
is a constant want of distinguishing between the condition 
and the cause — between the chronological condition for the 
development of rational truth, and the real cause of its ex- 
istence at all in the mind; the former being our sensible 
connection with the external world ; the latter, the original 
constitution of the soul — (". e, the reason itself. So in the 
matter of it this philosophy has no support for substance 
and real being. Locke's ontology needs what his system, 
carefully guarded in its leading postulates, will not allow. 
Certain of his statements, indeed, taken by themselves, 
must involve intuitive truth. Some of the consequences 
deduced from his hypothesis Locke would deplore as much 
as any one. But his innnediate followers, instead of ex- 
posing and correcting his radical defect, proceeded to make 
a rigorous application of hie theory of the origin of ideas, 
and what he calls sensation and reflection becomes, con- 
Bistcntly with Iiis own position, sensation only. And so, 
after it has helped Berkeley to eliminate the external world 
from the sphere of reality, it enables Tlumo to say that it 
is vain to look for reality eillior within or without; accord- 
ing to the accepted ])hilosnphy, all is phantasm, and wo 
cannot reach substance by any possibility of thought. The 
legitimate tendency of the syslein must he, and !»as been 
to a greater or less extent, skepticism in religion, utilita- 
rianism in morals, and materialism in philot^ophy. 

J. R. llKimicK. 

Locke's Island, seaport of Shclbnrne co.. Nova Sco^ 
tin, on Il:iggtd Nland Bay, has considerable West India 
trade and fisheries. Pop. about 400. 

LocK'liart, tp. of Pike co., Ind. Pop. 1829. 

Lockliart, post-v., eai>. of Caldwell co., Tex., HO miles 
from Austin, lias 4 churches, a ncw8pa])er, flouiisbing 
schools, 2 hotels, steam f^aw and grist mill, a saddlv manu- 
factory, and 10 mercantile establishments. The celeiu-atcd 
Lockhart Springs arc located here. Princijial business, 
farming and .stock-raising. Pup. /iOO. 

Stkki. & BniDfiKs, Enfl. *'Nr;ws Erno." 

Lockhart (John CiinsoN), D. C. L., b. atCamhu>:neflmn, 
Lanarkshire, .*^cothind. in 1707; stu'lied at (JIasgow Uni- 
versity 1X07-10; graduated from Baliol CoUegf. O.xfnnl, 
in 1817 as bachelor of law; passed advocat<5 at Edinburgh 
1K16; became in ISI7 a contributor to Wnokwood. in which 
his articles were remarkable for vigor and sfbidarchiit ; 
married in 1K20 the daughter of jSir Walter iSeott; was 
editor of Xho Qnatterfj Jicvtcic, London, 1820-53; rcooivod 



in 1843 the sinecure auditorship of the duchy of Cornwall ; 
was one of the writers of the Nocti-H Amlronianx. D. at 
Abbotsford, then the seat of his daughter, Lady Hope 
Scott, Nov. 25, 1854, His principal works are Valerius 
(1821), ^(/a/H Blair {\)i22), Refjinald fJulton (1823), and 
Matthew Wold (1824), novels; Uon Quixote., with notes 
(1822), Spanish Balhuh (1824). Life of Burns (1825), of 
Bonaparte (1829), and of Scott (18:J7-oil). 

Lock Ha'ven, city, cap. of Clinton co.. Pa., on the 
Philadelphia and Erie and the Bald Eagle R. Rs., and on 
the right bank of the West Branch of the Susquehanna 
River, equidistant between Philadelphia and Erie, has 13 
churches, 7 school-houses, including a State normal school, 
3 newspapers, 2 national banks, good waterworks, several 
extensive machine-shops and iron-foundries, and is lighted 
by gas. The principal industry is the manufacture of lum- 
ber, there being in the city limits 9 saw-mills and 4 largo 
planing-mills. An excellent boom for the staying of logs 
floating in the river is here located. About 35,000,000 feet 
of lumber are annually shipped from this point. Pop. 6986. 
J. B. G. Ktnsloe, Ed. "Clinton Republican." 

Lock'in^ton, post-v. of Washington tp.. Shelby co., 
0.. near the Great Miami River and on the Miami Canal. 
Pop. 214. 

Lockjaw. See Tetanus. 

Lock'land ( Lockland Station P, 0.), a v. of Hamilton 
CO., 0.. in Springtield and Syracuse tps., on the Cincinnati 
Hamilton and Dayton and the Cincinnati and Springfield 
R. Rs., and the Miami Canal, 12 miles N. of Cincinnati. 
Pop. 1299. 

Lock'port, post-v. and tp. of Will co,. III., on the 
Chicago Alton and St. Louis R. R. and the Illinois and 
Michigan Canal, 33 miles from Chicago, has 9 churches, 
1 hotel, 2 banking-houses, 2 warehouses, etc., and the prin- 
cipal business is farming. Pop. of v. 1772; of tp. 3584. 
W. H. Cook. Ed. "Courifr." 

Lockport, post-v. of Adams tp.. Carroll co., Ind., on 
the Wabash River and Canal. Pop. 176. 

Lockport, post-v. and tp. of St. Joseph co., Mich., on 
the Michigan Air-line R. R. Pop. of v. 1553; of tp. 3456. 

Lockport, city and tp., cap. of Niagara co., N. Y., on 
the New York Central R. R. and on tlie Erie Canal, 65 
miles W. of Rochester, IS miles from Niagara Falls, 25 
miles from Bufi'alo, and S miles, air-line, from Lake Ontario, 
It derives its name from a double tier of five locks, of 12 
feet lift each, by which boats are passed up and down tho 
" raountain-ridge," a height of 60 feet. Some 35,000 cubio 
feet of water pass this point every minute during the season 
of navigation, only one-fifth of which on account of lock- 
ages, the four-fifths in some part turning machinery before 
reaching the canaUlcvel below. Lockport is located near 
the geographical centre of one of the most profitable grain 
and fruit growing counties in the State. There is received 
for apples alone from Sl.OOO.OiiO to $1,750,000 annually. 
It has important manufacturing interests, including tho 
Holly Company, which employs 300 skilled mechanics in 
constructing the Holly waterworks, now in use in more 
than 60 cities and villages in the Union ; also manufac- 
tures of engines and steam-drcdgos, self-centring turning- 
lathes, tackle- blocks, bran-duster and smut -machines, 
window-sash, doors, cornices, etc., patent medicines, shirt 
bosoms, etc., and large qunrries of blue limestone. It con- 
tains 17 churches, a union school system, embracing tho 
entire corporation, with an imposing central structure 
wherein arc taught collegiate hrancbes. and costly houses 
in each ward for primary instructitm, all free to actual resi- 
dents of the city; .'! daily and 6 weekly (I German) news- 
papers, 4 banks. 1 savings bank, 2 homes fur the friendless, 
and several other benevolent org.-vnizations. and a fine 
opera-house, cap.ablo of seating 1500 people. Pop. of city, 
12,420; of tp. 3032. 

R. AL Skkcls, Ed. "Tin: Daily Union." 

Lockport, a v. of Co^ihcu tp., Tuscarawas co.. 0., on 
tho (Hiio Canal. Pop. 250. 

Lockport (Platka P. 0.), a b. of Girard tp.. Eric co., 
Pa., on flic Eric Extension Canal, 2l miles S. W. of Erie. 
Pop. IdJ. 

Lockport (LonKPORT Station P. 0.), a v. of Fairfield 
tp., Westmoreland co.. Pa., on Concmaugh River, and the 
Pennsylvania R. 11. and Canal, 10 miles E. of Blairsvillc. 
It liiis line beds of coal. 

Lockritl^c, tp. of Jefferson co., la. Pop. 1080. 

Locks'liiir^« po.«t-v., cap. of Sevier co., Ark., 81 miles 
S. W. of Little Rock. 

Lockvillc, jiost-v. of Violet tp.. Fairfield co., 0.. on 
the Ohio Caiial. 12 miles N. W. of Lancaster. P(»p. 131. 

Lock'wood'S) tp. of Brunswick oo., N. C. Pop. 871. 



LOtJKVKU-LOCOAK/nVi:. 



«.> 



I^ock'yer (.Ioskimi Norman), P. U. S., b. nt KuRhy, 
En^IuiKl. iMtiy 17, Im:I(I; cHuratdd chiefly on the Conlinorit ; 
waH uli'ik iij th« war-ofl"i<!i) in IH;i7; li(!ciim(i HkilliMi in 
iniitlii'tiiatnrM iimi iiMtriMictmy by private Htmly; r<iit(5il tlio 
Ariiiif Iirt/nf"/i',nn {iHfiiij; wart for a time nirinecle'l with 
the. rovai <M»rimiinHi'>ii on iiiHtnietion ; heeaine a I'ellow of 
the, Htiyal AMtroiiomical Soei.-ty I Sfifi ; F. U. S. IHfltf; o.litor 
of i\'ifiirr, dr. ; waH Uede leetiirer at CambridK" 187I-7.'J, 
an'l chief "f lh« eeIi|iHe exp<-<litioii to Sieily in IH70 ; haH 
written vahiahir papers on (hn fun antl the phmet Marn, 
I,'HHuttH in Attrmtfiiiiii, T/ir S/trrtyanrtipr, etc., ami variouH 
repurtH and niernoiin, ehielly upon ttutrononiy and pliynies. 

Lo'rie, town of Swit/.erlund. in tho canton of Xoufchiltel, 
on tht) liicil. It8 inannfaeturcs of clocks and wutohcs aro 
very celebrated. Pop. Ii:i01. 

Ijo'cock (Sir CiiAttiKs), IUiit., M. T>., F. R. S., b. at 
Northaiiiploii, KriL;)iiii«l, Apr. lil, I 7'.f'J ; uliidieii at the lliii- 
ver^^ify ot Miiinliurj^li, wlierc lie j^raduatud in medicine IK'Jl ; 
eK(al)IiHhed hituMolf in liis profession in London, and in 
isti) was appointed, on tho r<'cornniendatiun of Sir .laniou 
Chirke, phywieian acettuoheiir to tho queen, by whom, in 
recognition of h\s services, ho vtaa created a baronet Apr. 



14. I8&7, at which time ho retired from the oclivo practice 
of hitt profcPKion. In tho same 3-car ho wah clioncn prt^fi- 
dunt of thu Uoyal Modicul and Chirur^ical Hocioty, and 
became in IHti;* honorary president of (h(! ObntelrieaI So- 
ciety, ilo wait a ma^iHtrate and deputy-lieutenant for 
Kent, and in l^^Ctft wan an tniHueccHfiful candi'hite for Par- 
liament in the ConBcrvativoinloreat. D, at liinslead Lodge, 
Hyde, July 26, 1875. 

Locomotion of Aiiimnlfi. FccMECiiANirs, Aximai., 
by PitoF. \V. P. TnuwiiitiDiii;, A. M. 

Locomo'tive [Lat. lontt, "place," and momr, via- 
turn, "to niovo"]. The form of engine ithown in ihe en- 
graving rcpreaonts quite accurately a very large proportion 
of the locomotivcH found upon American railroads. Other 
varictieH, some differing widely from Ihiit, aro used both 
upon our own roads an'l in other partH uf the world, but in 
all their essential clcmentH they may be compared with it. 
The principal parts arelho boiler, containing wilhin itKolf 
the firebox or furnace; the frame, the 8team-cylindcrft, tho 
valvo-gear, tho driving-wheels, and the truck-frume with 
Us wheels. 

The body of the boiler it) cylindrical, and to it, at the 



Fig. 1. 




^ 



Locomotive. 



back end, between the driving-wheels, tho rectangular outer 
fireliox is riveted. Tho fire-grato is placed at the bottom 
of tlio inner firebox, and the heated gases pass from ttio 
burning fuel through the tubes, which extend forward 
tlirough tho body of the boiler to the front end. The water 
is contained in (lie ppaees around tlie outside of tho tubes, 
and also in the water-leg or space between the inner and 
outer fireboxes. A dome is placed upon tho top of the 
boiler to give a larger internal steani-spaco, and also in 
order that the mouth of tho ]npe t!iroui;h wliit-h tho steam 
is led to tho cylinders may bo raised up within it as hij^h 
as ]io3sil>Ie aljove the surface of the water. Tho parallel 
sides of tho outer and inner fireboxes aro held to each other 
by stay-bolls, which are screwed in thrtiugh both plates. 
The top or crown -sheet of the inner firebox is nearly fiat, 
an;l it is stayed by deep bars which reach across it from 
side to side. To these bars the sheet is held up by nu- 
merous bolts or rivets, and tho bars Iheniselvos are sup- 
ported partly by resting at their ends upon the siile-shoets 
or plates of tho inner tirobox, but cluelly by sling-stays, 
which hang down from tho shell of the boiler above tho 
orown-sheet. Tho shell of the boiler is extended forward 
about tlirec feet beyond llie front end of tho tubes, forming 
the smoke-box. within whieli the waste gases collect after 
pas:^ing through the tubes, ami upon wliich is placed tho 
chimney through wliich they escape into the air. Near the 
top of the chimney a defieetor is placed to break up tho 
coarser cinders that may lio projected against it by the 
force of tho draf(, and a wire netting fine enough to pre- 
vent their escape into the air. On wood-burning locomo- 
tives this netting is so fine that a medium-sized pin cannot 
bo thrust through tho mesh. Directly under the ehininey 
is placed tho draft pipe, by which unil'orniity in tho fiow 
of gases is secured from tho lower as wvU as the upper 
tubes into tho chimney. Beneath tho draft-pipe a nozzle 
is placed upon tho end of the exhaust-pipes, and through 
it tho waste steam of the cylin<Jers is discharged. By this 
moans a draft is induced through the tubes and through 
the fire, and by this intermittent discharge into the chimney 
of the steam from the cylinders tho well-known puff of tho 
locnuiotivo is produced. 

The throtile-valve. by which the ndmis.«ion of tho steam 
to the cylinders, and thus tho sfartin;^ of tho engine, is 
controlled, is placed at the entrance to tho steain-pipo. close 
beneath tho cover of tho dome, which can be readily re- 



moved to give access to the interior of the hoilcr. The 
steam-pipe extends down and forward through the front 
end of the boiler into the smoke-box.. Two separate pipes 
the.i lead to the steam-nozzles on the cylinder, through 
which the steam passes into the steam-chest. TI»e cylinders 
are placed outside of and close ogainst the frames, being 
bolted directly to them, and also by the flanges of an in- 
termediate saddle-piece to the smoke-box. or front end of 
tho boiler. The steam-chest, containing the slide-valve, is 
placed on the upper side of the cylinder, in which the ports 
aro so cast that the steam may pass into the chest from tho 
steam-pipe, out of it to either end of the cylinder, and also 
out to the exhaust-pipe in its final escape, the distributing 
passages being alternately covered by the slide-valve. The 
motion of the piston in the cylinder is transmitted through 
the piston-rod to the cross-hcod. and then by the connect- 
ing-rod to the crank-pin. which is fitted into the driving- 
wheel. The piston is made of cast-iron, and runs steam- 
tight in the cylinder by means of iron packing rings and 
a set of sicel springs, which press the rings radially out- 
ward against tho walls of the cylinder. liings made of 
square steel wire are often used, the rings being bent to a 
circle a little larger than the diameter of the cylinder, ond 
then sprung into grooves which are turned in a solid piston 
to receive them. By their own elasticity the wires are kept 
close against tho cylinder. The cross-head is held by a 
key to the outer end of the piston rod, and it is guided in 
its reciprocating motion by four steel sliile-bnrs which arc 
set parallel with the centre line of the cylinder. The con- 
necting-rod is attached at one end I" a wrist in the eroy^ 
head, and at the other end to the cnink-pin in the driving- 
wheel ; and it thus transmits the pressure upon tho pist.-n 
to the wheel, and to the point of contact or of ^csi^lanco 
upon tho rail. This rod. and the parallel rod wliieh con- 
nects the two driving-wheels, aro fitted nt both ends with 
brass boxes and tapered keys, by which they are held close 
upon the erank-pins in the wheels. The rocker is placed 
close behind the slides, and through it is transmitted the 
reeiprocatiug motion of the eccentrics upon the driving- 
axle to the slide-valve, by means of (he eccentric rods, the 
reversing link, and the valve-stem. 

The iron frame-bars are placed one on each side of the 
boiler, and they are attached to it rigidly near the forward 
end. A cross-beam of oak holds them to each other at the 
extreme front, and to this beam is attached the pilot or 



86 



LOCOMOTIVE. 



cow-catcher, which aids in clearing the track of obstruc- 
tions. The saddle to which the cylinders are attached 
serves as the means of fastening the frames to the boiler, 
as it rests upon them, and is held to them and to the smoke- 
box by bolts which are driven solid into accurately drilled 
holes. The jaws of the frame which hold the driving axle- 
boxes are forged solid with the long side-bars, which lie 
close on each side of the oulor firebox. The frames arc 
held rigidly to the firebox laterally, but clasps are put 
round fhem, so that the whole body of the boiler may ex- 
pand liackward from the front end as it becomes heated. 
At the back end of the frames a oast-iron plate is put in 
between I hem, which serves both in holding them to each 
other and also in coupling on the tender. The axleboxes 
of the driving-wheels are free to slide vertically in the jaws 
of the frame, so that the wheels may yield more perfectly 
to the inequalities of the road. The weight of the engine 
over the driving-wheels rests upon the spring-hangers, 
which draw directly upon the ends of the springs. These 
bear, in the centre of their length, upon the top of the 
axlcbox, so that the j.ar due to the striking of the wheel 
upon any inequality in the rail-surface is lessened in vio- 
lence by "passing thus through the spring. j\n equalizing 
lever is placed on each side, between the driving-wheel 
springs, and to this lever one end of each spring is hung, 
so that the jar brought against one wheel is in part trans- 
mitted to the spring of the other wheel, and thus the elas- 
ticity of both springs is utilized for the relief of each wheel. 
On each side of the axleboxes are placed vertical wedges 
which bear against the jaws of the frame, and by tighten- 
ing them any looseness due to the wearing of the moving 
faces may he compensated for. The axlcbox has a brass 
or white-uietal lining, which bears upon the axle, and on 
the top of it is formed an oil-cup for the lubrication of the 
rubbing surfaces. Underneath the axle is an oil-box filled 
with a compressed sponge, which retains the oil an J'presses 
it constantly against the bearing surface of the axle. 

The driving-wheels are bored to a close fit upon the axles, 
and are forced on by a powerful hydraulic press. They are 
held from turning on the axle by a square key, which is 
driven into a recess or key-way cut half in the axle and 
half in the wheel. The steel crank-piu is forced in the 
same way into a hole bored in the cranU-boss, which is an 
enlargement of two of the spokes of the wheel. The driv- 
in.o'-wheels of .American locomotives are invariably made 
of'cast iron, and arc encircled with a steel band or tire, 

Fig. 



which bears upon the rail and has a flange or lip at its 
inner edge by which it is kept laterally upon the rail. 
Many methods of holding the tires in place upon the wheel 
have been employed. In one of these oak blocks are driven 
with great force into recesses which are left under the tire 
in the rim of the wheel. In another the tire is turned out 
true on its inner circumference, and the wheel is turned 
slightly larger than this inner diameter of the tiro. The 
latter is heated until by its expansion it will slip on to the 
wheel, and by the tension due to its cooling it is held in 
pLace. The forward or truck-wheels arc made of cast iron, 
with a hard tread or bearing surface. They are pressed on 
to the axles without keys, aud are pl.aoed under the engine 
in the truck-frame. Upon this frame is pLaced a centre- 
bearing, upon which the weight of the forwanl part of the 
eni'iue rests, and around which the frame can rotate slightly 
inl'ollowing the curvature of the track over which the en- 
gine may be passing, and thus the resistance due to the 
side-pressure of the flanges against the rails in passing 
curves is greatly lessened. The direction of the motiim of 
the engine may be changed by the action of the reverse 
lever, in bringing into gear with the slide-valve, by means 
of the reversing link, one or the other of the eccentrics 
upon the driving-axle. 

The feed-pump by which the supply of water is forced 
into the boiler is driven by one of the cross-heads, the pump- 
plunger being attached directly to it. The pump-valves 
are made of the hardest brass, and so that they may be 
easily examined or repaired. An injector is usually fitted 
for the supply of the boiler when the engine is standing. 
The water is led to the pump and to the injector by pipes 
which are connected to the tender by a flexible hose. It is 
delivered to the boiler through pipes which enter near the 
front end, and a check -valve is fitted close to the side of 
the boiler to prevent the return of the heated water to the 
]mmp. The tender, which accompanies nearly all American 
locomotives, is provided with a water-tank enclosing a space 
for fuel, and the whole, resting upon a timber platform, is 
placed upon two truck-frames which are fitted with the 
requisite wheels and axles. 

The weight of an engine of this class, without the ten- 
der, mav be taken at thirty-two tons when filled with water 
and ready for work. Of this weight, twenty-one tons rest 
upon the driving-wheels. The cost of operation and main- 
tenance per mile run is about 19 cents, the proportion due 
to repairs being 3^^ cents, to fuel o^ cents, to stores ft 




Uuad Lo 

cent, to miscellaneous 2ft cents, and to attendance of all 
kinds lift cents. It is certain that the secret of the most 
suceccslul practice in the designing and construction of 
locomotives has lain in the observance of tho most rigid 
simplicity of detail in every part, and also that the im- 
provements of the future will lie chiefly in tho adaptation 
of new materi.als, rather than now methods of conslructinn. 
/{riitil Ln<i>m<ith'r. — The engraving shows a well-approvod 
form of engine by Aveling it I'lirter of Rochester. lOngland. 
Very little has been done in this country in bringing such 
engines into actual use, though several excellent designs for 
them liavo been put forward. In this engine the boiler is 
of the common loc<imotivi' form. On the lop of it, near the 
front end, the steam-cylinder is placed, and the crank-shaft, 
flywheel.nnd driving gear are directly behind it. The driv- 
ing pinion upon thccrank-shaft is connected, with one inter- 
mediate shaft. In a heavy gear upon the driving-axle, and 
thus a high speed of the fly-wheel may be maintained at iin 
ordinary speed of the locomotive, and an ample power devel- 



oped even with a small steam-cylinder. The dnvmg-wheels, 
upon which about eight-tenths ni the whole weight of tho 
engine rests, have very broad rims, with thin oblique strips 
riveted upon them, aiid they thus have a slightly greater 
hold upon the ground than would be afl'orded by an en- 
tirely smooth surface. The front wheels are pivoted, by a 
eontre-pin in their axle, so as to allow the engine to move 
in a curved path. This turning of the engine is controlled 
by side-chains, which are drawn up by a hand-wheel placed 
near tho driver. The wheels are made with an internal 
wroiight-iron rim and iinns. A cast-iron external rim or 
lire is used, and between these two rims, in a closed recess, 
ari' placed blocks of ruliber, which by their elasticity allord 
suflieiont relief to the machinery from tho jarring of rough 
roads, and which are at the same limo protected from in- 
jury. The weight of a inedium-sizeil engine of this kind 
may be taken at about eight tone, and the cost of operation 
and maiutcnancu at from four to six cents per mile run. 

I'. liARNES. 



LOCOKOTONIX; LOi'lsr TKKK 



l^tx^oroton'do, (own in Suuthmi Italy, in the prov- 
in(M> 111 iiuri, ubuuL 1!6 luik-tt N. ul' 'J'uruiitu. I'up. in 1H7'I, 
7I.-(D. 

Lfi'rri, or liocri lOpi/.ephy'rii, mi iincicnt rity nf 
Mll^;n:l iira-ciii or S<nillu-in Italy, in tlio huljHiMjiicnt Ko- 
tniiii [)n»vinrn of nruttiiiiii or Ciiliihriu IlUni, now Jt«*j;j,'i(». 
It wiir^ tomMW'tl iirohiil'ly uh nirly tin 710 it. r. (iiccordin^ lo 
Striilin) iiH II colony fmrii (lit; (ircuiiiii Lu(M-iH, Itut wiu-tlivr 
iVoni til*' t'liHU'rn or weHtt-rn (Minntry of Unit luimo in unui-r- 
t:ii[i. Th<* original HcLtli'nii-nt wum on Cajjii Z(;[i)iyriuiu 
(('n|io ili Itriiz/.iitio), n<;iir tlic S. l-l. point of the Caliibriiin 
iM'iiiii.-Hiilii, wlicncro till- niinu- i^ivcn lo riistitigniHli tho colony 
rniMi the motln-r-coiMitry. nKinialcly, the si-tlU-nn*nt \va« 
rfiniivcd \b niilcH furtliur N. Lot-ri wuh udrlirated iirt the 
(iriHl tiiock 9taU! to ailopt a wriftrti code of laws, tlio aii- 
lhnr->liip of wliich wa.s aHcriljcii to a half-niythicul Icglfiu- 
tor, ZiiltHiciis. The pL'oph' were mini to bo »*kilful ami 
eoura;ico«8 in war, ami udilii-tetl to poetry, phih<sr»|)hy, 
nn<t music. The ]jocrians were lonj^ in hoHlility with Ilhc- 
^iiirii and Crotona, and in ulliimee with SyracnHC. Tho 
yonn;;er DionysitiH Boi/.ed npon the eitudel at Lncri on hi« 
expnl.sjon from SyraiMisc (."tJU ii. c.), and CMirried on a doH- 
potic gMverninent until expelled six vearH later. During 
the wars of the Romans with Pyrrhus and with the Cnr- 
thaijinians, Loeri allcrnntely favrired all the er)ntending 
parties, and conscquendy sullVred hy turns from all, es- 
pecially from tho Ur»nuLns, who were finally victorious, and 
followed the example of Pyrrhiis in jiluncliriiig tho famoua 
temple of I'roscrplne. From this time Locri sunk into In- 
eignilicanco ; its very existence for many centuries is known 
only hy passages in gcoijraphiciil treatises. Destroyed' 
proliahly by tho Saracens, its site had boeomc unknown 
until tho present century, when tho remains of the walls 
of tlie twt) f;tinous citadels and the foundations of the tem- 
ple of Proserpine have lieen discovered .'y miles front tlic 
modern town of Geracc, (See description by tho duke do 
Luynes in Anu. d. Jnnt. Aivh.^ vol. ii.) 

Loc'rians [AoKpoi], a people of ancient rireece, reputed 
to bo descf>ndants of the Leleges, divided into eastern and 
western tribes. Thoso on the K. ooast, an^l X. of tho 
Phi)eiiin eity Daphnus, were called Kpicnemidii (named 
from Mount Cneniis), while thttse fsirtlier S. were OpuTi- 
tii, so called from Opus, their chief town. On the X. 
of tho Corinthian (hilf dwelt the OzoUe, a semi-barbarous 
tribe. 

Ijo'chs fliat.]. Tho locus of a point is the lino gen- 
cratrd I'V that point when moving according to a fixed 
law. Thus, if a point moves in a piano in such manner 
that tho sum of its distances from two fixed points is al- 
ways ef|ual to a gi\'en distance, its locus is an ellipse. Tho 
locus of a line is tho surface generated by that lino when 
moving according to a fixed law. Thus, if a straight lino 
moves in such a manner as to touch three other straight 
lines, no two of which nro jiarallel, its locus is a hyper- 
boloid of one nappe. To find (he equation of a locus we 
have only to express the law of motion by one or more in- 
deterininato equations. 

Tho following examjile illustrates tho method of solving 
goomolrieal j>robleins by tiie principles of luci : Let it Jao 
required to construct a triangle whose base is equal to a 
given line, whose area is equal to a 
given area, and whoso vertical angle 
is equal to a given angle. Draw a 
lino AH equal to the given base; <m 
if, as a cliord, construct an arc of a 
circle capable of containing tho given 
angle ; draw a line D(' parallel to A H, 
and at a distance from it cqiuii to tho 
quolient of the given area liy half 
the line AH: and from either point in which this line in- 
tersects the arc, as C, draw CA and CIJ : then will AC'It be 
the required triangle. For, DC is tho locus of the vertices 
of all the triangles whose common base is AB anil wliose 
areas are equal ti) the given area, and the arc ACli is the 
locus of tho vertices of all the angles whose sides pass 
through \ and B, and winch arc equal to the given angle; 
hence, (he points of intersection are the vertices required. 
If DC cuts tho are in two points, there are two solutions; 
if it is tangent to the arc. there is but one solution; if it 
does not intersect the arc, and is not tangent to it. tho so- 
lution is impossible. W. G. Pkck. 

Lo'ciist [Lat. locudtn]. By this name may be denoted 
tho migratory locust of the Old Wttrld {iEilip'xla mifjrnto- 
riurn) and the locust of Western Nortli America (Caloptenu* 
aprrtiis). The term "locust" is often wrongly applied to 
tho cicada or seventeen -year locust. The transformations 
of the locust, as in all the grasshnpj)ers. are very slight, 
the larva difl'ering from the adult chielly in wanting wings ; 
but in this state even they are said by .African travellers to 
travel great distances. Tho eggs are largo, long, cylindri- 





cal, and laid latu in tbo Ruinuior in paokctM of about nev. 
enty-flve, reMombling cucoonft, in holes bored in the f^round 
by nioantt of their Mtout horny ovipoKitom. The viiruoir\ 
of tho locuMt, and of graxMhopperft generally, may be vx 
plained by (lie unatomy of the alimentary eanul, which in 
Itighly developed, tho giz/ard being provided with from 
six to eiglit rowrf <if horny denticulated platen KituatiMl on 
riilges, tho whob; numt>er of teelli in font'* npecieM ainouni- 
ing tr> 2711. The Htonia<di and iiulivary glundt are highly 
devr-loped, the large jawr< further adapting it for itM vege- 
table diet. The nir-tuben (trachcie t dilate into nuiiierouii 
lar^e air-reservoirM, which attftint it in taking ilM longf un- 
taiu'il Mights. The cars of the locunt are two venick-ji hil- 
uat(-d at the batte of the hind-body or abdomen, each Hup- 
pliod by an auditory nerve «ent from the third thoracic 
ganglion. The Htridulaling noise thiA and niuny other 
grasshoppers nmke in prcxjueed by rubbing the ihighp* 
against the wings. The migratory locunt of the Old World 
is widely diHtriliutctl, being found all over Africa, in West- 
ern Asia, and Southern Kurope, sometlmeM occurring in 
Belgium and Englantl. It is Kaiil to travel about sixteen 
miles a day. It moults five times, at intervals of about six 
weeks. The ioeuet ia eaten and relished liv the natives of 
the country in which it is found as nutrllious food. 

The locust of North America Is the widely distributed red- 
Icggcd '* g sshoppor" {(.'ulnplrnnn femnr-ruliruui, Harris, 

Fig. 1. b) with its allied 
.'pccies ( ('nli,jftr.nH» »pre- 
fiiM, Vhler, Fig. 1, a), 
which Inhabits tbo U.S. 
west of the Mississippi 
River, though occasion- 
ally found in New Eng- 
land. The eastern species 
does tho most damage in 
Northern New Kngland 
nnd Canada. The west- 
ern species (upretuv) 
breeds most abundantly 
Ked-legRed Grasshopper, and Its in the elevated portions 
long-winged Western variety. of Colorado and north- 
ward, and migrate? to the plains below; itulso breeds abun- 
ilantly in Iowa nml Minnesota, and is so voracious as lo 
drive farmers from their lanrls. The young of the Mpie(u9 
are hatched in March and April and early in May in Texas, 
('ojora'lo. and K.insas. and at onco begin their ravages, 
hate in tho season, by the last of June, they acquire wings, 
becoming fearfully destructive, though roost destructive 
i)L'fore acquiring their wings. They are more active by 
night than by day. Late in summer so abundant do 
they boc()mo that an observer in Texas has seen "the 
whole surface of the earth so broken up by their borings 
that every inch of ground contained several patches of 
eggs." A. S. Packard, Jk. 

Locust, tp. of Christian co., 111. Pop. 825. 
liocust, tp. of Columbia co.. Pa. Pop. 1J34. 
Lo'ciist llay'ou,post-tp. of Calhoun co., Ark. Pup. 
G08. 
Locust Creek, tp. of Linn co., Mo. Pop. 2398, 
Locust Dale, tp. of Madison co., Va. Pop. 3IS4. 
Locust (-rove, tp. of Searcy co., .\rk. Poj». 524. 
Locust <irove, tp. of Jefferson co.. Ia. Pop. 1-IS6. 
Locust <irove, post-v. of Franklin tp., Adams co.. 
0. !Nq.. in:i. 

Locust (-rove, tp. of Floyd co., Va. Pop. 1991. 
Locust Hill, post-tj). of Caswell co., N. C. Pop. 1781. 
Locust Tree [Lat. locuMtu], The loeupt tree is named 
liohiiii'i. in honor of John Robin, herbalist to Henry IV. 
of France, and of his .'son Vespojiian. who first cultivated 
the tree in Kurope. The beautiful genus received its name 
from Linmcus, and belongs to tho sub-order PapilionacejB 
of the order Lcguuiinosa'. The five-toothed calyx is* short 
and slightly two-lipped. The standard is larce and round- 
ed, turned back, and scarcely longer than the wings and 
keel. The stamens are in two buntlles— i. c. diadelphous. 
Tho stylo is bearded next tho free stamen ; the pod linear. 
Haf, several-seeded, margined on the sceil-bearing edge, 
and with thin flat valves. Leaves odd-pinnate, with sti- 
pels at tho base of the Icatlct.s. The flowers are very 
showy, in pendulous racemes, and in the common locust 
are exceedingly fragrant. Jl*>tnt>in fWuti-araein, the com- 
mon locust, is called false acacia from tho resemblance 
it bears to the true acacia. It has prickles at the base of 
tho leaves, which are smooth and rarely retain dust. The 
roots th» nor bury themselves deep in the soil, but spread 
out iu?^t beneath the surface, and c.iuse the young tree lo 
groiv with extreme rapidity during the first years of its 
life. When more mature, and the roots have exhausted the 



88 



LODA— LOESS. 



nourishment about them, the growth is slower. It has been 
recommended to he planted ou the borders of pastures, as 
its droppings enrich the soil. Cattle are fund of the sweet 
leaves. The tree never attains great size in the Eastern 
States, but reaches its perfection in Kentucky and Tennes- 
see, where it sometimes exceeds fuur feet in diameter, and 
grows to a height of eighty feet. When the land where 
it grows is cleared it produces abundant crops of Indian 
corn for several years in succession without manuring. It 
has been suggested that exhausted soil may be restored to 
fertility by a growth of the locust, its leaves soon becoming 
converted into mould. 

The wood of tlie locust is close-grained and compact. 
Its medullary rays are closer and more numerous than in 
any other tree. The color varies, but the reddish-tinted is 
the most valued for timber. According to Emerson, there 
is a bhiL'k variety in the Western States. The wood is re- 
markable for its strength and durability., and for its stiff- 
ness, hardness, elasticity, and weight. Fence-posts, railway 
sleepers, and trenails in naval architecture are made of it. 
It is considered as durable as the live-oak. It is used to 
some extent in cabinetmaking, but only slightly in house- 
building. For mill-cogs it is very valuable. The celebrated 
Cobbett in 1823, after a residence of some time in America, 
returned to England, and by his writings, in which he 
claimed superlative virtues for this tree, jirodiiced a remark- 
able interest in it. It was soon found that he had much 
exaggerated the useful properties of the tree. Valuable as 
the wood is for many economic purposes, graceful as is the 
aspect and foliage of the tree, and beautiful as are the 
flowers, the locust is yet so infested bv many varieties of 
insects as to make it objectionable. Where it is grown for 
timber it is advised to plant it in groves, as then the trees 
ou the margin only seem to be affected. All parts of the 
tree — leaves, bark, wood, and seeds — are subject to insect 
ravages, almost threatening its extermination. The 
branches are easily broken, moreover, by winds. It is 
easily propagated by the suckers which spring up from the 
roots, and still more readily by the seed, which is best pre- 
served in the pod. It prefers a rich, loamy soil, and the 
young plants will often grow from two to three feet in the 
first season. There are two species of linhlnia found in 
cultivation besides t\ie pftend-u end a — viz. the Rnhinln vis- 
cosa and the liobhn'a hiajjidn. The latter — a mere shrub — ■ 
is known as the rose acacia, and is distinguished by its 
rosc-coloreil, inodorous blossoms and hairy stems. It is 
too apt to spread and become troublesome. The so-called 
honey locust belongs to the kindred genus Gleditsckia ; it 
has doubly pinnate leaves, and is horrid with thorns. It is 
a highly ornamental tree, but its foliage is too light and 
delicate to afford deep shade. W. W. Bailey. 

Lo'da, a V. (Oakai.la P. 0.) and tp. of Iroquois co., HI., 
on the Illinois Central R. R.. in the Grand Prairie, a fine 
region for agriculture, and has a large trade. Pop. 1921. 

Lotleve, town of France, deiiartment of Herault, at 
the confluence of the Ergue and Soulandres, at the foot of 
.the Ccvennes. Pop. 11,86-1. 

liOdge (Edmund), F. S. A., b. in London, England, 
June \'./, 1766; served in the army in his youth, and after- 
wards devoted himself to antiquarian pursuits, especially 
genealogy. He became a member of the Heralds' College; 
was promoted to the office of Lancaster Herald 1793, Nor- 
roy King-of-Arms 1H22. and Clarencieux King-nf-Arms 
1338. D. at London. Tan! in, \S:]0. He published I/fnstrn- 
tions of firitink Ififitnrif, /iio'/rfi))h7/f (tud Mnnufrs hi the 
Jfeifjns of Ilnin/ VIIT., Ed,n,rd Vf., Mnnf, E'.hohcth, and 
James I. (3 vols., 1701), Perrftf/r^ nud firtronetnf/e of Eiif/- 
Innd, an annual publication, and Pttrtmits of Ifhistrioua 
Pemotiaf/fH of Great liritain {4 vols, folio, 1821-3'J). 

Lodge fTnoMAs), b. in Lincolnshire, Eng., about 1555; 
entered Oxford University in 1J73; waf a law-student at 
Lincoln's Inn in L')81; was t"or some time an actor; was a 
soldier in the expeditions of Clarke nnd Cavendish; stud- 
ied medicine at Avignon, and ])ractised at London, where 
he d. r)f the plaj;ue in Sept., 1625. He was the author of 
liosoltptdf; Euphnr'n Golden /yr'/rt^jc ( 1 500), a novel which 
was the basis of Shakspeare's An Yon Like It; True Traff- 
(jdirtt of Mfin'iii and Si/N.ti (Ih'Ji), a drama; A Murtjaritc 
of America (1506), a talc supposed to have been written 
during his voyage with Cavendish: a Trcnthi: nf the 
Plff()ne (1603); and translations of Jontphnfi (160*2) an<l 
Senecn (1611). In connection with (ireene ho wrote A 
Lfiokinff-Glass for Lnuihm and Enfjland (1501). 

IjO'di, to\vn of N. Italy, in the province of Milan, in 
lat. .15° IS' 35" N., Ion. 27** 00' 67" E. It lies 20 miles S. 
nf Milan, on the right hank of the Addn, which is Iiere 
(Toysed by a bridge, the river being nnvigablc for largn 
bf)ats until it reaches the Pn. Lodi was thir theatre of one 
of the most daring and brilliant exploits of tlie French 
under iJnnnparto. On May 10, 1790, Kapoleon, after the 



terrible passage of the long and narrow bridge under the 
full fire of the Austrian batteries, won the memorable vic- 
tory which secured him the possession of Lumbardy. The 
streets and piazzas of Lodi are, for an old town, broad, 
spacious, well paved, and clean, and many of the jjublic 
buildings are worthy of notice. The cathedral dates from 
the twelfth century, and other churches contain fine mar- 
bles, bronzes, frescoes, and especially wood-carvings of 
much merit. The educational and charitable institutions 
of Lodi are numerous, and recent co-operative associations 
have proved very successful. The trade and industry of 
the place are remarkable. Its mnjolien has a high reputa- 
tion ; also its silk ancl linen, but the chief article of the 
Lodi market is the famous Parmesan clieese, which is made 
in immense quantities in the neighborhood. Pop. in 1S74, 
19,088. 

Lodi, tp. of Washtenaw co., Mich. Pop. 1344. 

Lodi, post-v. and tp. of Bergen co., N. J., 15 miles N. 
of Jersey City, on the New Jersey Midland R. R., and the 
terminus of a branch of the Eric R. R. Pop. 3221. 

Lodi, post-tp. of Seneca co., N. Y., on Seneca Lake, 
contains several fine cataracts, of which the best known is 
Lodi Falls on Mill Creek, which leaps 125 feet down into 
an irregular canon. Pop. 1825. 

Lodi, tji. of Athens co., 0. Pop. 1551. 

Lodi, post-v. of Harrisville tp., Medina co., 0., 14 miles 
S. AV. of Medina, has a national bunk. 

Lodi, post-v. and tp. of Columbia co.. Wis., on the Chi- 
cago and North-western R. R., has 1 weekly newspaper. 
Pop. of V. 725: of tp. 1566. 

Lodi Station, post-v. of Virgil tp., Kane co.. III., on 
the Chicago and North-western R. R. 

Lo'di Vec'ciiio [anc. Lang Pompcia^ an old town 
about 5 miles from Lodi, founded. Pliny says, by the 
Boii and colonized by the father of Pompey. Its mediaeval 
vicissitudes, together with those of the more modern town, 
are of much interest. Pop. in 1874, 3500. 

Lodome'ria was the Latin name for the former princi- 
pality of Vladimir, which on the division of Poland \Tent 
to Austria, and now forms part of the province of Galicia. 

Lodomil'lo, tp. of Clayton co., la. Pop. 1002. 

Lodz, city of Russian Poland, in the government of 
Warsaw, is well built, and has very extensive manufactures 
of woollens and linens. Pop. 34,328. 

Lo'ess [Ger. loitz, from Vosen, " to loosen "], arena- 
ceous, calcareous clay deposited in the valleys and at 
the mouths of rivers, the sediment by which their wa- 
ters are rendered turbid at the time of floods. This is 
deposited on the overflowed bottom-lands and in the 
still water of the basins into which they flow. The most 
extensive accumulations of loess known are those of the 
Terrace epoch — the last epoch of the Drift period — of 
which the loess of the Rhine may be taken as an example. 
This is yellowish-gray loam, mostly unstratificd, contain- 
ing terrestrial and fluviatile shells, and sometimes attain- 
ing a thickness of several hundred feet. It seems to have 
bedn deposited when, after the Rhine Valley had been ex- 
cavated, a large part of it was filled with still water, which 
caused the deposition, far above its mouth, of the sediment 
transported by the upper river. Similar beds of loess are 
found in the valleys of the other great rivers of Europe, 
and they afford proof of a general subsidence of the con- 
tinent at a comparatively recent date. As the land roso 
again, or the sea-level was depressed, the rivers cut deep- 
ly into these ancient deposits, so that they now in jilaccs 
form high banks on one or both sides of them. Prof. 
Bischoff has shown by chemical analysis that the sediment 
that fills the lower valley of the Nile has the same composi- 
tion as the loess of the Rhine. In the valley of the I\Iis- 
sissippi a deposit of loess is found similar in character and 
history to that described above. It occupies the region 
about the junction of the Missouri and Mississippi, and 
underlies the surface over a large part of the prairie coun- 
try of Illinois, Iowa, and Indiana. In some places it has 
once nearly filled the old valley <d' the Missouri River, and 
whore pariially cut out by the siream forma abrupt or pre- 
cipitous bluffs whitdi have given it the name of the lUiiff 
formatioit, generally npplicd to it in that region. 

Thn looHS <if Ihe Mississippi Vallt-y is for the most part 
the silt or sediment of the Missouri River. This is a pecu- 
liarly turbid stream, as il flows through a country under- 
lain by soft an(l easily eroded rocks, and it now carries into 
the Mississippi a large amount of yellow sediment precisely 
like the loess in charartcr. In the geological period im- 
mediately anterior to tin' ])rcpent tlie sea stood considerably 
hiifher on the sliores of this continent than now, and the 
wntnrs of the (lulf of Mexico reached up the valley of the 
Mississippi nearly to the sources of that stream. At this 



L(HI<>1)J>N L(H.AN. 



timo all tho rc};ion about tho junction of tho MiHftoiiri and 
Mi.s-<iHHi|i|)i wan covortMl with wuUt, f'orininj? ii kiml nf in- 
lanii f*cii. Into tluf m-a tlm MinKouri rliHcliiir^ir<i, luid tlir 
scilirm-iit liroii^fht. dnivii I rum tlui Kfiit ar<'U il- ciniincil 
Vina H|ii-4'iul over Mm Imittiiii, lining uuhk or I<-hh (:*iin|il<*t<!ly 
(li(^ i.KI vallcyH of Ihtr livim that in a roriiKir aj;<- had llownl 
throu;;h it, juHt nn they im»\v do, and vownw^ a wiiiu ad- 
ja!-(!tit area. 8iihMc(|(ii'ii) ly, tho wati-r of this inhiml Boa 
wa.H draincrl away, and Uic valley of thu Inwi-r MisKoiiri \uin 
IwM-ii HiiHH^ nin?<tiy clfarcd of (ho Hilt, thai ohHlrurti-d it. 
WliLTu il ninaiuH it. rorinH tin; hlullH id' locus whidi have 
ht'iui rofeiTi'd to. Thcsu Hvrui in plaeirn to ho tiio true 
lioundarien to tho Min8ouri VaM<\v, hut thoy tiw in fact 
only a faoing to its rocky walls, whi<di rcaidi down far hohiw 
tlK' prfHcnt strt-uni, and \uti th'* [iroduct id' a^cs of erosion 
hmg anterior to the epoch ctf the Iocsh a^^es, when the con- 
tinont wad hi^hur than now and the drainage wan nioro 
free. J. .S. Nkwhkuuv. 

lA>ro'dril, or liOfo'len, a (;roup of inhn^ls situated 
hetueen hit. CT^ IW)' imd r.lC^ :i()' N., and ^treteliinj; ah.ng 
the north-wt-'.slern eo;ist of Norway. The hir^jest are An- 
dJien, Langoen, Hindoen. Kast Vaagon, West Vaaj;on. and 
Flaj^stadiio. Tlicy are hi^h and rouky, prenonting wild, 
ruj^god, and di-eply -indented coasts, and rising in sonio 
places of the interior to the licifjht <d' -lOlK) tect, at whieh 
(deration the snow does not melt durin;^ suuuner. The in- 
h;ihitant.s number ahont -KlOO, ]iartly of N))rwe):;ian, partly 
of Finni.sli descent. Alon;; the coasts of tlio fiord;^ a little 
liarlov, oats, and potatoes can bo cultivated, Init the islands 
derive thoir importance from the immensely rich tiftherios, 
which each summer employ nearly ^lO.OilO men, and forni 
a source of national wealth to Norway. Karly in spring 
cod is caught to the number of nearly 20.000.1)011, a largo 
portion of whicli is soM fresh, tlie rest jirodueing about 
HOOO tons of dried fish, 22.000 barrels of oil. and (iOOO bar- 
rels of roc. When the cod-fishing is over, at the end of 
April, tho herring-lisliing begins and continnes the whole 
suninier; also great numbers of lobsters are caught, liut 
this fishing is not without its dangers. The currents 
around and between the islands arc so rapid and tortuous, 
and subject to sucli violent changes from ebb and flood, 
tliat (hiring spring and fall, when liard weather sets in, 
these waters often become jicriectly uniiavigablc. JO\cn 
whales are sometimes dashed to piuccs against tho rocks 
of the coasts. (See Maki.stuom.) 

Lortus (William Kf.n'NKTt), b. at Rye, Sussex, Eng- 
land, ab'put 1S20; was educated at rambridge. where lie 
distinguished liimself in geology under Prof. Sedgwick ; 
was from 1840 to 1Sj2 a member of a commission for de- 
termining tho boundary between Turkey and Persia, becom- 
ing fiimiliar with tho regions on the Tigris anil Euphrates, 
wliich ho explored in iS-'ilJ-fjl under tho auspices of tho 
Assyrian Society, making numerous important excavations 
and discoveries, especially upon the site of Warka. the 
biblical Erech. lie published in ISa7 a valuiible work, 
Tnirch and Rci^arflnn tn (Vitihlvn and iSiiti'Oiftf was aj)- 
pointed a member of the geological survey of India, and d. 
at sea from tho effects of sunstroke, while returning to 
England, Nov., 1868. 

Lo'pan CO., Ark. See Saiibku co., Ark. 

Loyally county of Central Dakota, on tho Coteau du 
Missouri. It is dry and elevated, and very sparsely settled. 

Lo^an, county of Central Illinois. Area, T)?-! square 
miles. It is level and fertile, and abounds in onal. Cattle. 
wool, and grain are staple product.s. Tho loading manu- 
factures are of carriages, tiour. saddlery, and harnesses. 
The county is traversed by various railroads. Cap. Lin- 
coln. Pop. 23,053. 

liOgan, county of Kentucky, bounded S. by Tennessee. 
Area, ilOO square miles. It is undulating and fertile. To- 
bacco. wo(tl, cotton, and grain are largely proiluced. Tho 
leading manufacture is that of carriages. The county is 
traversed by tho Memphis ClarksviUo and Louisvillo K. R. 
Cap. Russeilviile. Pop. 2U,-I2y. 

Loc^an^ county of W. Central Ohio. Area, 41.') square 
miles. Greatest elevation. I3:i,') feet. It is undulating and 
fertile, producing live stuck, wool, and grain in great 
amounts, and has manufactures of carriages, lumber, har- 
nesses, Hour, furniture, cooperage, etc. It is traversed by 
the Cincinnati and Sandusky and the Cleveland Cincinnati 
and Indianapolis R. Rs. Cap. licUefontaino. Pop. 2;'., 028. 

Logan, county of West Virginia, bounded S. "W. by 
Kentucky, which is separated by^tho Tug Fork of the Big 
Sandy. It is traversed by the Guyandotte River. .■\rca, 
825 square miles. It is very hilly, but fertile. Corn is the 
prinoipiil crop. The county abounds in coal and iron, with 
indications of salt anil petroleum. Cap. Logan Court- 
house, or Arrocomn. Pop. .')124. 

Logiaiiy tp. of Peoria cc, lU. Pop. 1065. 



Lo^niif pof)t-tp. of Dearborn co., Ind. Pop. 832. 

liOKan, tp. of Pountaln co., Fnd. Pop. 2G06. 

Louan, tp. of Pike r;o., Ind. Pop. ^2\. 

Ijf>Kaiif poNt-v., cap. of Harrii'on co., (a., on rtuyeN Ri\nr 
and the ('hieiigo and North wcHtcrn R. R., 30 iiiileM from 
(Niunciil lUufl", has exeeMent water-power, and lirnep>tono 
and hard-wood limber in abundunctr, and carries on farui- 
in)i( and Htock-raiHing. Pop. about jOO. 

i\iA)U(iK MiitfiUAVK, Ex. Prii. " Wkhtkun Staii." 

Lo^ail, tp. of Marshall co., la. Pop. 273. 

LoKUn, tp. of Reynolds Co., Mo. Pop. 010. 

LoRail, tp. of Wayno co., Mo. Pop. I0.'»7. 

Logun, Ip. of Augluize co., 0. Pop. 900. 

Lof^an, post-v., cap. of Hocking co., O,, on the Hock 
ing Canal and the ColumbuH and Hoc^king Vnlb-y R. R.. 
I)\ miles from Columbus ami 21 inih-H froin Atb<-nH. has (t 
churches, 2 banks, 3 weekly newspapers, 1 furnace, 2 llour- 
ing-niills, 1 foundry, 1 woollen -factory, 1 furniture manu- 
factory, and a large trade with the mining-regiooH in tho 
vicinity. Pop. 1S27, Lkvi Gukk.v, En. '• Skjcti.skl." 

Logan, tp. of Blair co.. Pa. Pop. 2^22. 

Logan, tp. of Clinton co.. Pa. Pop. B23. 

Logan, post- v., cap. of Cache co., Ut., on tho Utah 
I^orthern R. R., is a Mormon town. Pop. 17.')7. 

Logan, tp. of Logan co., W. Va. Pop. 1220. 

IjOgan, b. about 1720, the son of a Cayuga chief who 
lived at Shumokin, in Pennsylvania. He bnre the name 
of Tab-gab jute, but took also the name of .lames Logun, 
acting governor of Pennsylvania, his friend. He was a 
man of fine ]>hy8ieal and mental powers, and was always 
frien<lly to tho wliites until 1771, when a party of ruflians 
murrlerc'l liis wife and all his children. He then livi-d near 
the Ohio River, having removed in 1707. After this for 
six years Logan and his followers kept the whole West 
from I>otroit to the Ilolston in terror, and slaughtered great 
numbers of settlers. A well-known and eloquent speedi 
which Logan sent to the whites by an interpreter a few 
months after the murder of his family is preserved in Jef- 
ferson's XotcH; but its authenticity, and still more the ac- 
curacy of its statements, arc open to serious question. 
Logan attacked a party of friendly Indians at l>etroit in 
1780 while intoxicated, and was killed in the affray by ono 
of his own relatives. A granite monument was erected to 
his memory at Fair Hill cemetery, near Auburn, Cayuga 
CO., N. V. 

Logan (CoRNELirs A.), b. at Baltimore, Md., in 1800, 
of Irish stock; educated at St. Mary's C()Ilegc. and went 
several times as supercargo to Europe: was afterwards a 
journalist in Baltimore and New York ; became an actor, 
and jiroduccd several successful plays. His poem, 7'he 
MiHitiHfiSppif is ono of his best-known productions. In 
1840 ho removed to Cincinnati, O. His daughters, Olive, 
Emza ( Mrs. Geo. Wood, 1830-72), and Cecilia, were known 
as actresses. 

Logan (Geouce), M. D.. grandson of .Tames Logan, b, 
at Stenton, near Philadelphia, Sept. 9. 17.")3: stmlied nied- 
icino in Kdinburgli : returning to the U. S. in 1771*. ser\ ed 
in the Pennsylvania legislature for several terms, and was 
a warm jtartisan of Jefferson and tho Republican parly 
under tho administration of John Adams. In 171)S. dur- 
ing the iinininent peril of war between the U. S. and 
France, he went tu Paris as a volunteer pciieemakor, and 
was denounced for so doing by the Federalists, who pro- 
cured the ]mssage by Congress of the so-called " Logan 
act." making it a high misdemeanor for a ]irivate citizen 
to take part in a controversy between the U. .'^. and a for- 
eign power. Dr. Logun was a member of the V . S. Senate 
1801-07; went to England in 1810 in the hope of contrib- 
uting to preserve peace with that country ; was n member 
of tho Philosophical Society and of the board of agricul- 
ture, and author of valuable experiments in scientific farm- 
ing. D. at Stenton Apr. P. 182L 

Logan (Gkougk). M. l>.. b. at Charleston, S, C. Jan. 4, 
1778; studied medicine in Philadelphia under Profs. Cald- 
well and Hartshorn : for half a century practised his pro- 
fession in Charleston, where he was hospit.al surgeon (o tho 
nnvy-yard. and was one of tho oldest surgeons on the naval 
list ; was author of a popular work on diseases of children. 
D. at Xew Orleans Feb. 13, 1861. PAIL K. Evk. 

Logan {.Tames), b. at Lurgan, Ireland. Oct. 20. irt7l, 
of Scotch Quaker stock : w.is well educated, and became a 
merchant: went in IfiSty with Penn to Philadelpliia: was 
long in public life ."is provincial secretary, chiet-justie. tf.'. 
of Pennsylvania ; was president of the council and a 'ting 
governor 173*1^^8; author ol* Krftrrim^ntn de Ptatttftrtrm 
Oenerntione (Leyden. 1739). n translation of Ciocro's De 
Senectute (174->, printed bj Franklin), and other irorks in 



90 



LOGAN— LOGARITHMIC CURVE. 



Latin and in Entrlish proso and verse; was the founder of 
the Loganiau Library. 1>. at Stenton, near Germantown, 
Pa., Oct. ;;], 17jI. 

Lo£;an (John), h. near Edinburgh. Scotland, in 174S ; 
studied at the University of Ediuburiili : took orders, and 
became a minister at Loitfi in 1773. Ho had formed at the 
university a friendslii]) with Michael Bruce, a young poet 
who d. in 17G7, and whose poems he edited in 1770, adding 
some of his own. The Ode to the Cuckuo and several 
hymns contained in this vohime having become very I>op- 
uhir, Logan claimed them as his own composition, and 
thus gave rise to a literary controversy which has been 
warmly maintained ever since, though the balance of evi- 
dence seems to support the claims of Bruce. Logan wrote 
for the stage, delivered lectures on the philosopliy of his- 
tory, and was in 1780 an unsuccessful candidate for the 
professorship of history at Edinburgh. He lost his eccle- 
siastical position through alleged intemperance, and de- 
voted himself in London to literature, publishing a volume 
of poems in 1781, Jbnimuncdc, a tragedy, in 1783, and 
several historical treatises. D. at London Dec. 2S. 1788. 
Two postluimous volumes of Srrmons (1790-91) were so 
popular as to reach an 8th ed. in 1822. 

Logan (JoiTV A.), b. in Jackson co., 111., Feb. 9, 1826 ; 
received a limited common-school education, and on the 
outbreak of the war with Mexico enlisted as a private in 
the 1st Illinois Vols., of which regiment he became quar- 
termaster with the rank of first lieutenant. Keturniug at 
the close of the war,' he was elected clerk of the court of 
his native county in 1849; in 1852 graduated at the Louis- 
ville University, and was admitted to the bar, attaining 
popularity and success in his profession; was elected to the 
State legislature in 18o2, 1863, 185(5, and 1857, and was pros- 
ecuting attorney 1853-57 : was elected to the U.S. Con- 
gress in 1S58, and again in 1860, resigning his seat to enter 
the army ; in Sept., 1861, was appointed colonel of the 31st 
Illinois Vols., which he led at the battle of Belmont in 
November; at Fort Donelson in Feb., 1862, was wounded, 
and the following month appointed a brigadier-general of 
volunteers; engaged at Pittsburg Landing in April, and in 
the West until Nov., 1862, when he was promoted to bo 
mnjor-geueral ; throughout the Vicksburg campaign was 
in command of a division of the 17th corps, and was dis- 
tinguished at Port Gibson, Champion Hills, and in the 
siege and surrender of Vicksburg; in Oct., 1863, was placed 
in command of the 15th corps, which he led with great 
credit until the death of McPherson, when he succeeded to 
the command of the Army of the Tennessee, where, in the 
language of Gen. Sherman, lie *' nobly sustained his repu- 
tation :" he was, however, shortly after relieved by (Jen. 
0. 0. Howard, and returned to the command of his corps, 
which he led until the fall of Atlanta, when the eventful 
political crisis, involving the choice of a President, de- 
manded his voice and influence at home, and consequently 
be did not rejoin his corps until the arrival of Sherman's 
army at Savannah, after its famous " march to the sea;" 
when, resuming his command, he retained it through the 
subsequent march through the Carolinas. anrl in Jlay, 1865, 
succeeded Gen. Howard in command of the Army of the 
Tennessee. Resigned from the army Aug., 1865, and in 
November follo^ving was appointed minister to Mexico, 
but declined: was subsequently elected to the -lOth and 41st 
Congresses, and in 1871 to the U. S. Senate from his native 
State. G. C. Simmon.s. 

liO^an (Omve). See Svkes (Olive Lorax). 

Logan (Thomas MuLntirp), M. D., b, in Charleston, 
S. C. Jan. 31, 1808; graduated M. D. in Charleston Medical 
('oHege, S. C, 1828; was co-editor to a surgical compen- 
dium, has contributed largely to medical science, and is 
a member of several foreign and domestic societies; is 
the author of Topnifrnphii of ('itll/uniia, flml contriliuted 
largely to tho Tnnisnrtion^ of the American Medical Asso- 
ciati()n ; president of tho American Medical Association in 
1873 ; is now (1875) secretary to the board of hejilth <)f Cal- 
ifornia, and resides in Sacramento. Pai:i, F. Evk. 

I.o^an (Sir William EtiMOxn). LL.P., F. R. S., F. U.S., 
.b. at Montreal, ('anad:i. Apr. 2:i, UUS; graduated at tho 
Univer.Kity of Edinburgh in 1.S17, and in 1818 became 
partner in a mereanfilo houac in London; was 1S29-38 
manager of a coal-mining and copper-smelting enterprise 
at Swannea, Wales, and ]irepared geological maps and sec- 
tions of that region for the ordnance survey: in ISfl bo- 
came tho head of the geological survey of Canada, from 
which lime he published valuable annual report8 and many 
important Hcientific papers ; represented (Janada in tlie 
KxpositioiiH of 1S51 and 1S62 at London, and in 1855 at 
I'ariM : wan made a knight 'd' tin' Legion of Honor in 1855, a 
knight bachelor by Queen Victoria 1856, and recived sev- 
eral valuable medaU and other distinutloue. D. in Wales 
June — t 1875. 



liOgan Court-house (or Arrocoma), pust-v. of 
Logan tp., cap. of Logan co., West Va., ^i) miks S. W. of 
Charleston. 

liOgan Creek, tp. of Dodge co., Neb. Pop. 723. 

liOg and Line, a contrivance for measuring the velo- 
city of a ship at sea. It consists of a wooden float, weighted 
on one side so that it will float upright, and having a line 
attached to it in such manner as to bring the Hat side ol' the 
float so as to oflcr (he greatest resistance to a foicc tending 
i to drag it through the water. The attached line is aliout 
150 fathoms in length, and when not in use is wountl on a 
light running reel. Tho line is divided into equal parts, 
each of which is equal to -j-ip of a nautical mile, the points 
of division being marked by kimth-, formed by passing 
pieces of twine between the strands cf the line, and leav- 
ing the free ends to project on each side of tlic line. The 
first knot is placed at a considerable distance -from ttie //o«( 
or log, and is very prominently marked. The part ut' the 
line between the log and the first knot is called the stray 
line; its use is to allow the log to become settled befure the 
count is commenced. To use the log and line, the log is 
thrown over from the lee quarter of the vessel, and the line 
is then unwound from the reel as fast as the vessel sails. 
At the instant the first point of division passes from the 
reel a half-minute sand-glass is inverted, and when the last 
sand falls the reel is stopped. The number of equal S])ace8 
that have been unwound indicates the number of nautical 
miles the ship is sailing per hour, inasmuch as a half min- 
ute bears the same relation to an hour that one of the 
divisions of the line does to a nautical mile. The log is 
thrown from time to time, and the results are recorded in 
a book called the lof/bool,-. To secure accurate results, the 
line should be so prepared as to prevent stretching. To 
guard against variations of length due to hygrometric 
changes, the line is usually saturated with oil. If it is 
found that the line has changed in length, a correction 
must be applied to the measured rate of the vessel, and the 
line must be graduated anew. W. G. Peck. 

IiOgania'ceae [from LofjauUty one of the genera], a 
natural order of exogenous trees, shrubs, and herbs, mostly 
tropical, but having a l>w representatives in the U. S. It 
is remarkably allied to the Rubiacea}, Scrophulariacea;, 
the Gentianiacea', and the Apocynaceae, and is briefly cha- 
racterized by its regular gamopetalous flowers, along with 
ojiposite leaves and interposed stipules. It contains a 
large number of poisonous plants. Sirychnine. curare, etc. 
are among its deadly principles. Sjiigelia and gclscmium, 
both active poisons and valuable medicines, arc our most 
important native Loganiads- 

Logansport, city, cap. of Cass co., Ind., at the junc- 
tion of the Wabasli and Eel rivers, on the Detroit Eel 
River and Illinois, the Logansport Crawfordsville and 
South-western, the Pittsburg Cincinnati and St. Louis, and 
the Toledo Wabash and Wtstcrn R. Rs.. is surrounded by 
a fine agricultural country, with splendid timber and excel- 
lent building-stone. The aggregate of its water-power 
from the rivers above named and the Wabash and Erie 
Canal, improved and unimproved, is estimated at 500 horse- 
power, and the manufacturing cstaldishments give employ- 
ment to over 1000 operatives, and their products amount to 
above $5,000,000 per annum. It has well-paved streets, 
fine residences and business houses, is very heallhy, and 
has 14 churches. 2 daily and 4 weekly newspapers, 1 na- 
tional and 2 private banks, public-school buildings and 
property valued at $250,000. and a Universalist college. 
Pop. 8050. J. T. Buyer, Ed. " Logansport Joi-unal." 

Logan's Store, post-tp. of Rutherford oo., N. C. 
Pop. 1507. 

ijo'pansvillc, post-b. of Springfield tp.,York co.. Pa., 
S miles S. of York. Pop. 256. 

Lo'^unville, a b. (Suoau Valllv P. 0.) in Grocne 
tp., Clintt.n CO.. Pa. Pop. 41 L 

IjOp;arith'inic Curve, a curve that may bo referred to 
a pair uf rcctanguhir a.\e8 such that the ordinate of any 

point j^hall be equal to 
the logarithm of its ab- 
scissa. When so referred, 
its equation may bo 
written 

log .. 






.K' 


c^ 




JKAi 


■/ 


B 


X 


^ 


^ \ 










K 




.c' 





in which the symbol h^tj 
denotes a logarithm tak- 
en in any system ; that 
is. in a system whoso 
base is *t. Thn^', in Uio 
figure wo have rV/ = log 
OH. The axis of j- is 
called the axis of numbers, and the axis of .»/ the axis of 
logarithms. Thoro aro as many logarithmio curves as 



I.Ot.AlM I IIMir SI'IKAI. !,(>(. AiaiilMS. 



U\ 




tlioio iiro syHteniH of logarithind, but they have certain gcn- 
cnil pniin'ttii'S in (Mimiiioii, fonio of whii^li wu HuKjoin. 

IhI. TIhj rurvc uIwji.vm imiIm tliw uxi« of x ill ii point /), 
wIioHo ilirtliiniM- from lln- nrij^in in c(nnil to I. 

lid. ir lln- hunt} of iIh* N>'f-ti-ni, ", is jjnntlcr tlmn I, tho 
curve hikcH till' |ioHitii>n Kl>t\ Inivin^; tlii! uxih of y for an 
usyinptoto lit tliu point ( n, f- )\ tliu curve is uvtrywiicru 
coniMivt! downvvuril, ami a-* .• iiiorciLHeti it coutiuuully iip- 
prtiju'Iii'H pjiriilit'limn wiih tin- uxim of x. 

;M. If tin- liiinr of tin- Hvstfin, «, in le«H tlmn l.tlio curve 
tuk(H tim position K'ln", liiivinj? tlio axifl of ,y for lui 
iisyniploto lit tin- point ((I. , ^' ); the curve i« everywhere 
cono:ivo upward, imrl a** .*■ innniaHCM it continually up 
proiiohcs piirallclimri with the uxIh of r. 

•Ilh. If a lan;^'ent i^ <lriiwn to tho curve at any point of 
cither chisrt of hiL^iirithiuie curvci*, ua at V, the subtangent 
77", taken on (lie uxifi of loj^arithniH, ia constant and 
equal to the ino«luIu8 of tlio corresponding system of log- 
iiritlims. 

jih. If (f ^ 1, tho curve reduces to a fltraight lino ihrouKh 
I) purallel to the axis of y. This lino limits and separutos 
the two classes of curves referred to in Muppositions lat 
and 2d. 

0th. If Mi ' ?, flio area ODrT' is ofiual to tho entire 
area hetween (he part f>K of the curve, the axis nf .r, and 
the axis of »/.- and furllierniore, each i.*' equal to the modulus 
of the CDrffSpMiiditi;; nysteEu of ioi^arithius. \V. (1. Pkck. 

IiO<;nritlt'iiiir Spiral, a spiral whose equation may 
be reduced lo the form, 

iotj r = r, or r = log - ^y ; 
in which tho pnh is at the rifc of the spiral. It is very 
closely related lo the Io;;arithmie curve, from which it may 
be uonstrueteti us follows: ]iCt be tho eyo or pole, OS 
tlie initial line, and let 
a eirtde be dc9('ril)ed 
about as acentrc with 
a radius 0,1 -^ 1, which 
call (he directing circle. 
From A lay oil' on the 
circumfercnee of the di- 
roctini; eirclo a distance 
equal to any ordinate of 
tho logarithmic curve ; 
then from O draw a ra- 
dius veetiir lhrou!;li the 
extremity of this dis- 
tance, making it equal to tho corresponding abscissa: the 
extremity of the line thus constructetl is a point oT tho 
curve. If the ordinate is positive, it is to be laid off in the 
direction from A towards c; if negative, it is to bo laid 
off in tho opposite direction. The cnrve proceeding out- 
w.ard from A has an infinite nnmber of continually diverg- 
ing spires; proceeding inward from A, it has an infinite 
number of couverf^in/:; f:])irciii. If any number <tf radii vec- 
tores aro drawn making equal angles with tacli other, they 
will form a oontiiuicd proportion,- thus, if Aa = ah=sbCy 
etc., wo have 

0.1 : On' : : Oa' : Ob' : : Ob' : Oc' . . . etc. 
This principle enables us to construct tho curve when wo 
know its ptde and two points on the same spire. Tho curve 
everywhere makes a constant angle with the radius vector, 
and is tlioroforo closely analogous to the Loxoorokic Ci'uvk 
(which see). Tho involute of tho curve is an equal loga- 
rithmic spiral. Nowton showed ( Pn'ncipla. b. i., prop. 9) 
that if the forco of gravity had varied inversely as the 
cubes of tho distances, the ]ilanets would have receded 
from Iho sun. and tliat their paths would have been loga- 
rithuiio spirals. The modulus of the spiral in each case 
would havo depended upon the initial velocity of projec- 
tion. This curve is sometimes called the lixjUtie spiruf. 

W. G. Pkck. 

IjO|;'arithins [(Jr. Ad>o? and ipie/xd?]. The logarithm of 
a number Is tho exponent of tho power to which it is neces- 
sary to raise a fixed number to jiroduco the given number. 
The fixed number is called tlie ha»e. Thus, in the equa- 
tion 11(3 = 1000. ;l is (he logarithm of 1000, the base being 
10. Any positive number except 1 may be taken as a base, 
and for each base there is a corresponding ay^tem of Uuja- 
rithmn : there is therefore an infinite number of systems of 
logarithms, but only two of them are in ijeneral use — -the 
Niipi'^riitn and the mmmon system. The Napierian system, 
named after its inventor. Raron Napier, is tho system whoso 
base is 2.71-**2S1828 . . . : the common system is the system 
whoso base is 10. In what follows we shall designate Na- 
pierian logarithms by tho symbol /, and common loga- 
ritluus by the symbol ^l<^ 

UnfA. — Napierian logarithms are mostly employed in the 
higher branches of analysis and in scientific investigations. 
Common logarithms are used in praetieal coraputntions, 
whore they serve to convert the operations of multiplioa- 



tion and division ioto the limpler ones of additioo and 
Hublraolion. In trigunoinelrio euNipuliitionit their uho \» 
almoMt iiidiKpenNable. i.'oinputiilionrt by means of logu- 
rithniH aro made in uecurdancu with tho following priuciplen: 
Ist, the logarithm of tho product of any iiuinber of fuetot' 
is e(|ual tt} th<; Hum of the JogarithntM of the lactorn ; 2d, 
the logarithm of ii quotient ir< etpifil to the IngurilhuMd tlu 
dividend <iiniini.-^hed by tliut of the diviriur; '.'>*\, (he Io^h 
ritlim of any powtrr of u quunlily ix equal to the logarilhni 
of tho (juaiittty multiplied by the exponent of the power; 
and tth, the logarithm of any root of a quantity in equal to 
tho logarithm of tho quantity divided by the index of the 
root. In applying thcHo principles the logurithinH needed 
aro taken from tabk-H called tubb-ti uf logarithms. The 
method t)f forming thci'o tublei4 will be explained hereafter. 
(t'tjturn/ !*rijp<:r(ivH of /^otpirif/iiiiH. — In the exponential 
equation n' .-^ n we may regard « na tho bane of any Hyiitem 
of logarithms, in which cukc x will he tlie logarillim of n 
taken in that system. The discusfirm of thii* equation in- 
dicates the following general properties: lr«t,the higurilhoo 
of I in any system is equal to 0; 2d, (lie logarithm of tho 
base of any 8y.stem, taken in that tiy^tem, is I ; :>d, in uny 
system whoso base is greater (ban 1 the lognrilhms of ull 
numbers greater than 1 arc positive, the logarithms of all 
numbers less than I arc negative, the logarilhni of is — -v., 
and the logarithm of v> is -f x; 4lh, in any system whoso 
baso is less than I tho logarithms of all numbers greater 
than 1 ore negative^tho logarithms of all numbers lesf than 
I aro positive, the logarithm of is \- -/:,and the logarithm 
of «) is — vj ; .">th, there are no real lo;;arithms of negative 
numbers in any system. These general properties are used 
in analytical investigations. 

litlntionn between Different Sy&tema.' — Every logarithm is 
composed of two factors. Tho first factor is constant for 
the same system, and depends for ils value on the base of 
that system; the second factor is independent of the base 
of tho Bystoin, but is dependent on the particular number 
in question, and changes with it. The constant factor cor- 
responding to any system is called the »iof/M/i<« of that sys- 
tciii. The modulus of the Napierian system is 1. that uf 
the common system is .434294J. and that of any system is 
equal to the reciprocal of tho Napierian logarithm of the 
baso of that system. Since tho Napierian logarithms of all 
numbers less than 1 are negative, and of all numbers 
greater than 1 are positive, it follows that the modulus of 
a system whose base is less than I is negative, and that the 
modulus of a system whoso baso is greater than 1 is posi- 
tive. A modulus may havo any value from — c« to -t- w ; 
it is to he observed that the modulus decreases algebraically 
as the base increases. If we multiply the Napierian loga- 
rithm of any number by the modulus of any system, the 
product is the logarithm of the same number in that sys- 
tem. This principle enables us to timl the logarithm of any 
number in any sj'stem when we have a table of Napicrion 
logarithms. 

(jroincirical Relations. — Napierian logarithms are some- 
times called hyperbolic logarithms, on account of their re- 
lation to tho equilatei-al hyperbola; there is. however, no 
good reason for this distinction, inasmuch as tho same re- 
lation that exists between the loijarithms of this gystem 
and a ]>articular equilateral hyperbola exists also between 
th(»so of any system whatever and some other equilateral 
hyperbola. To explain the nature of this relation, let LAK 
bo one branch of an equilateral 
hyperbola, whose equation, 
when referred to its asymp- 
totes, (^'.Vand CM, is ry = ni; 
let A ho Iho vertex and let 
/'be any point on the curve; 
and let Cli and VK be the ab- 
scissas of -1 and /', the latter 
being called the terminal ab- 
scissa. Tho square described 
on tho co-ordinates of A is equal to m. as may be shown 
from the equation of the curve. Now, it may be proved by 
means of the calculus that the area f'PAfi is to the area 
HAFEas 1 is to the Napierian logarithm of CE. Denot- 
ing tho area liAFE by -1, and CE by x. we havo 

m: A'.'.l.Uy . , • .-. A =mU; . . . (1). 
Hence tho area between an equilateral hyperbola and one 
of its asymptotes, estimated from the ordinate of the vertex 
up to any other ordinate, is equal lo the logarithm of the 
terminal abscissa taken in a system whose motlulus is the 
square descrilied on the co-ordinates of its vertex. If we 
take tho conjugate of the hyperbola LAK, whose equation 
is A-tf = — m, equation (1) will become 

A=~mlx . . . (2). 
Tho numerical value of m in equations (1) and (2) de- 
pends upon tho value of CB; by giving suitable values to 
CB, m may be made to hare any value from to f od ; that 



M 


\' 






D 


V 




K 


C 


B 


E 


N 



92 



LOGARITHMS, LOGISTIC— LOGIC. 



is, ± jfilx may be made to represent the logarithm of x in 
any system whatever. If we make CH = 1. we have m = \, 
and equation (1) becomes A = U, 2i result that conforms to 
the Napierian system. The value of the area A may be 
expressed by an infinite series in terms of ;r, and this series 
maybe used as a means of computing a table of logaritiims. 
SuL-h a series was originally employed for this purpose, 
but its use has been superseded by other and more con- 
venient ones. 

Tables of Logarithms. — Tables of logarithms arc tables 
from which we may find the logarithm corresponding to 
any number, or the number corresponding to any logarithm, 
within certain limits. Every logarithm consists of two 
parts — an entire ])art, called the cliaracten'atic, and a deci- 
mal part, called the mautinsa. Either of these parts may 
be 0, and the characteristic may be either positive or 
negative, but the mantissa is always positive. The cha- 
racteristic may bo found by a very simple rule, and for this 
reason it is not given in the ordinary tables ; the decimal 
point is also omitted in writing the mantissa. The manner 
of arranging the tables, as also the manner of using them, 
will be best learned from the explanations which precede 
each collection of tables ; and to these the reader is referred 
for all information of that nature. In addition to the log- 
arithms of n:ttural numbers, the tables usually contain the 
logarithms of the principal circular functions, such as the 
sine and cosine, the tangent and cotangent, from 0° to 90°. 
In these tables the inconvenience of negative characteristics 
is avoided by adding 10 to each logarithm; an allowance 
is made in the final result for each 10 thus added. The 
same device is employed in using the logarithms of ordinary 
decimals. 

Logarithms were invented by Baron Napier, who pub- 
lished an account of the same in 1G14 in a work bearing 
the title Dc mh-ifiri Loijnrithmorum Canonia Conatr net tone. 
The first table of common logarithms was published by 
Briggs in 1024 under the XXiX^o^ Artthmfttca Loffnrithmicn. 
He calculated the logarithms of all numbers from 1 to 
20.000, and also from 90.000 to 100,000. carrying out his 
figures to 14 decimal places. In 162S, Adrian Vlack sup- 
plemented the work of Briggs by publishing a book bear- 
ing the same title, Arithinrticn Logarithmicn, in which he 
sni>plied the logarithms of the numbers from 20,000 to 
9iJ,tM)i), but at the same time he reduced the number of 
decimal places to 10. Vlack included in his work the log- 
arithms of the sines, tangents, and secants for each minute 
of arc from 0° to 90°. Five years later the same author 
published a table of the logarithms of sines and tangents, 
for every hnndrtdth of a degree from 0° to 90°, which had 
been computed by Briggs. In 1797, Vega published an 
edition of Vlack's tables, but the work is out of print and 
the copies arc difficult to be found. Probably the best ac- 
cessible tables are those of Callct. These are carried to 7 
places of decimals, and include logarithmic sines, cosines, 
tangents, and cotangents for every second of arc from 0° 
to 90°. An American edition of these tables was published 
in If^-'tO by Ilassler, who was at that time chief of the 
U. P. Coast Survey. These are ]>robably the best American 
tables, but unfortunately they are very scarce and difiicult 
to obtain. In addition to these, several collections of tables 
have been pui)li3hed in (Jermany, of which the most noted 
is Hulssc's Siiniincliiiif/ Mofhcmntisrhen Tafrln. published in 
Leipsic in 1810. Besides those above mentioned, several 
six-place tables have been published, which for most pur- 
poses of corajiutation are sufiicicntly accurate. Five-place 
tables have also been published, whieh for auxiliary com- 
putatinns are of great utility. To this class we may refer 
Lalandc's five-figure table, which was republished in IS^iO 
by the Society for the Difl'usion of Useful Knowledge. 

The computation of logarithmic tables is eft'ectcd by 
meana of rapidly converging series, of which a great 
number have been deduced. It is to bo observed that it 
is only necessary to eomputc the logarithms of prime num- 
bers, inasmuch as the logarithms of cocnposite numbers 
may bo found by taking the sum of the htgarithms of their 
prime factors. The following series and its applications 
arc taken from Ilackley's Trcn(!ne on Alf/chra, p. 274, to 
which tho rearlcr is referred for greater detail. The series 
referred to is as follows: 

'(/'^i)=^/'+2{2~Y+3(^+^,-,+ - • • I (1), 

in which P stands for any whole number, and P -{- I for tho 
next higher whole number. Making P eijual to 1, 2, etc., 
wo have, since /I = 0, 

,3.,2^2{U^„-.^ ' 



■1 = 

I. 
■J ■ 



0.(59:51472 



= 1.0986123 



5 ■ 3.68 a.i)" 

M :.. (2 x /2 - 2 X 12 = 1.3S62944, 

etc. etc. etc. oto. 



In the same way we may compute the Napierian logarithms 
of the natural numbers from I to any number whatever. 
Then, to find the common logarithms of the same numbers, 
we have simply to multiply each logarithm thus found by 
the modulus of the common system, .4.'U204r>. 

General Loffarithms. — If we denote the base of the Na- 
pierian system by c, we may write the equation 

ey^x .... (1); 
in whieh i/ is the Napierian logarithm of x. Heretofore 
we have only considered the real values of i/, which corre- 
spond to arithmetical logarithms. There is, besides these 
values, an infinite number of imaginary values of i/ which 
satisfy equation (i). and which !nay be called algebraic 
logarithms. The arithmetical and the algebraic logarithms, 
taken together, constitute what may be termed general 
logarithms. (See De Morgan's Calculus, p. 126.) 

Antilogarithms. — An antilogarithm is the number corre- 
Sjionding to a given logarithm. Thus, 100 is tlie antilog- 
arithm of 2 in the common system, Antilogarithms, in 
the common system, are denoted by the symbol log - ^. 
Thus, log -^2 — 100 is equivalent to the expression, the 
number whose logarithm is 2 is equal to 100. W. G. Peck. 

Log'arithms, Logis'tic [Aovio-tik^]. The logistic 
logarithm of a number less than .'JOOO is equal to the com- 
mon logarithmofoflOO diminished by the common logarithm 
of that number. Thus, the logistic logarithm of 1 Cm. 24s., 
or 9S4«., is equal tii log 3000— log 984, or to 0.5f>33. A 
table formed in this way for all numbers from 1 to 3600 is 
called a table of logistic logarithms, and is used in solving 
proportions in whicli the terms are hours and minutes, de- 
greps and minutes, or minutes and serourh, the first term 
being I hour, 1 degree, or 1 minute. The method of using 
the table may be illustrated by the following example: 
When the moon's hourly motion is 30' 12", what is her 
motion in 16Hi.24«. ? We have the following jjroportion : 
\h : 16»i.24«. :: 30' 12" : .r,- or, 3000 ; 10^^ 24s. : : 30' 12": .ry 
from which we readily deduce the equation 
3600 3000 3600 

X ~30' 12"^16/». 24«. 
Denoting logistic logarithms by the symbol L, we may 
write the above equation as follows: 

L,r = L 30' 12" + L I6j;i. 248. 
From the logistic tables we have 
L 30' 12" = 0.2981 
L 16m. 24g . =0.563 3 
La; =0.8614j .-. a- = 8' 15". ^H/i. 

A table of logistio logarithms will be found in Norton's 
Astronomy, p. Ill of tables, with a full explanation of its 
use on p. 320 of tho main work. Logarithms of this kind 
are sometimes called proportional Ifujnrithms. Tables of 
this kind are often extended to 3//., or to 10,800, to corre- 
spond with the moon's tabulated changes given in the 
American Nautical Almanac, pp. xiii.-xviii. (Sec Am. 
Naut. Al. for 1875, pp. 2o6, 257.) AV. G. Peck. 

Log'ic [Gr. Adyos, "speech," "reason"] is the science 
of reasoning. By reasoning in this connection wc uniler- 
stand all those mental acts and processes that occur be- 
tween the observation of facts and the most remote de- 
ductions and the broadest generalizations. Among the 
acts indirectly implied there may be insight, conscious- 
ness, imagination, and memory. But the mental acts 
that are directly in tho line of reasoning are an.alysis, 
abstraction, synthesis or judgment, generalization, and in- 
ference. Hence, all knowledge rests on either (1) observa- 
tion or (2) reasoning. Belief is a dilTorent affair, antl may 
rest on testimony, (U" even on a voluntary acceptance of 
dogmas for eonvenience' or policy's sake, with little or no 
regard to their truthfulness. At the time of the observa- 
tion of an object (here is doubtless some insight into its 
nature; thcro is an analysis (logical analysis) of its prop- 
erties, an abstraction and an objectification of its jirop- 
erties. so that we give them and call tliem by nanus, as 
whiteness, solidity, etc. etc. After this allirmation or judg- 
ment follows, by which we say, *' This paper is white," etc. 
etc. Thcro is also a grouping of similar objects into 
classes, genera, and species ; hent^e. general terms or com- 
mon nouns. There is also inference, so thai from two 
propositions, as A is B and B is C, we infer that A is C. 
In tho first instance wo have propositions of four kinds: 
(1) identical propositions, in whieh tho subject and the predi- 
cate rlonotc the same thing, as " Common salt is ehhuide of 
sodium;" (2) the subject is an individual lerni, and tho 
prodicntois an adj^jctive, as ** This paper is while;" (3) tho 
Hubjeot is an individual term, and the predicate a common 
noun, ns "This horso is a quadruped;" and (4) the subject 
is a eommon noun, and tho predioato is an adjective, as 
" Horses are fourfootnl," the predioato denoting some ob- 
vious property of tho subject. 



IXXilC 



'J.i 



For nnyihinfc beyond thin thoro muit bo a procosB of 
reaKoiiin;^ wtiirh tiiiiy b<* oiUinr (I) ilfinoiiNtmtiiin, (2) in- 
duction, or (-1) lU^ducliun. Th« word dninntHtrntitm in UHrd 
fluiriewliat viinuuly, hiil. for mir purpuBi-H it dr.noLf« tliiil 
proe'c'Hs ill wtiieh, liy iiniily^ii" of any miKjiM-t, (li^phiyin^, 
iiH of coui'Ho tlio iinalyHJi^ will, itn nuturr, wn nntkit niitntf<,'.<4t 
pr(i)MTtit-H wliioli WITH nut t«> lid'orc. MuliirnuiliciLl Ttninun- 
luj; iH of lliif kiml. Wo n-iison from Mm; niiruni of ii trl- 
illl^;I*' — rxprt^sftt'd l»y iIh dfliniliori — ami provr all tin* |>rop- 
i-rlics of II Iriannlo that we know in ritluT our K'"""'*"''y "r 
in our tritfononirtry. And in all riiiiMoiiinK ndinctliint; of 
fIotnonMtratir>n from tlio very nature of tin; tiling we are 
talking aUout, forms an iiidis[M'n8al>li) clmicnt. TIiih rea- 
Honin^ is, liowcvor, to a Itirfj;*' c.\t(Mit, itistimrtivp, a matter 
of insii^lil, and tnct, pultji-cl (o no Ppccinl lormn, UioukIi of 
conrwc it nniy be rcidnccd to r<'Copni/.rd tormuhi.', an<l i;*, or 
fhoiild bt', Hclf-evidont alike in the axioms it aK^umcs, in 
tin- !*tep!* it taki'M. and tin- rr-sulls at wliich it nrrivcB. 

Tho word inflmtitttt is also us(Mi \'aj;noIy and variously, 
but in this (Minni-ction it must bo understood to iinlieatii 
that process in whi<di, by tin? bringing in and examination 
of facts or individual in.staiices, %ve grneralize a propOHilion 
up to tho point of its preatest comprehension, when it be- 
ooines tho statement of a universal net, or. as it is more 
commonly callrd, a universal law. For sueMiessful induc- 
tion tho lirst step is tho collection of facts, either sueb as 
occur of themselves or by experimental iiui producing them 
lit will. Then follow an iinalysis unrl a classification of 
these f:iets on the basis of some common but impr»rlant 
property ; thcr property on wliich wc base our classiheation 
may be re;;iinbd ns foiuifif, or us being a cause. Thu^, 
vertebrates are classilied in reference to the important fact 
of a spiinil column, the ruminnnts by reference to the pe- 
culiar oonstruetion of their stomiioh, the ciit family with 
reference to their claws, the dog family with reference to 
the structure of their teeth, etc. etc. All these format prop- 
erties are found to be connected with some modtd prop- 
erty; that is, willi something in tho history, mode of life, 
ete. of each of the animals in the class. Thus, nil cats are 
predacious or lejip on tlieir prey; all dogs chase theirs 
down ; all ruminants chew flur cud, etc. 

When objt"«'ts arc thus properly classified, we know that 
there is a relation — constant and implied in the laws of 
nature — between tho formal property rm wliieli as a differ- 
entia tlie obissillcation is based, and tlie modal property 
which we aflirm as a predicate of all tho ohjects in tho 
class. Thus, when wo say that '* All Canidio are carniv- 
orous" and " All ruminants chew the cud,*' we do but give 
ox])re9sion to a law of niiture. the knowledge of which has 
been obt:iincd liy induction. Tho certainty of the law thus 
obtained depcmls u])on tiiis connection of properties. With- 
out it we nniy indeed often obtain a wide generalization of 
fnets. as in the case of the electric properties of all the 
resins. And when a fact is thus obtained, it creates a 
strong presumption in favor of its universality, and leads 
to the very confident expectation of some connection as of 
cause and clTect not yet discovered. And when the con- 
nection has been discovered, the law is considered Jis es- 
tablished, and is reckoned as one of the triumphs of sci- 
ence. But until this connection has been discovered, any 
announcement of the general fact as a universal law of 
nature would be regarded as premature and liable to mod- 
ification. 

In these ways we demonstrate from a few definitions, and 
by the aid of a few self-evident axioms, the whole of ab- 
stract science, including mathematics, logic, etc.. and from 
tho oliserved facts in nature we establisli by induction all 
tho general laws and principles of concrete and practical 
science. And having established in these ways the general 
laws or truths, we proceed by (laluction to establish by 
means of them many particular facts and subordinate 
truths, which are. for the most part, ns a matter of fact, 
thouL^h by no means necessarily so, such as are not or can- 
not, bo readily subjected to the test of observation and ex- 
periment. In some cases they can never bo so tested, and 
in others the inference must bo made before the test can be 
aiiplied. Thus, the statesman and the physician are often 
oblii.'ed to reason from general principles and obvious facts 
to the results of the measures ihcy would adopt before tho 
trial of them, although, of course, in these cases the testing 
of them by experieiu-e is but a result of their reasoning. 
And it is in this way that, by reasoning from general prin- 
ciples obtained Uy induclion from existing plants and ani- 
mals to ohjects and facts discovered in the strata of the 
earth's crust, we have obtained much the largest part of 
the science of geology and palivnntology. These facts and 
phenomena are such as cannot now be subjected to obser- 
vation. 

The first proposition enunciating the general principle 
or most comprehensive truth is called, technicallr. the 
major premise; the other, ''this measure/' otc, is called 



tho minor prcminc; and tho two, together with the Infer* 

onco or eoncliinlon drawn from them, conttitulo what is 
called a syllogiNin. And of thci<' thr<-<T parts nil nyllo^^iims 
conttiHt. Hut for tho iiionl part we Imve in priu!tice cither 
( I ) an omiNsion of one of the preininei', a« A iH U. Ihcrc- 
foru A irt il, in which cufle wc call the abridged form an 
entliymeme, or i'l) Heveral premif<eH folbiwing each other in 
Home regular order, and only one coneluHion drawn from 
them, as A in II, B i« <', (.' in U, therefore A is I>; thii* in 
called a forites. In Huch caHes we have, in fact, (wo or 
more nyllogismn condenited into one formula by tho omis- 
Hi(m of some of the propoHiti(mH that would have nppenred 
if each of the HyllogiHmH had been stated in full, caeli wiih 
its own premises, and the conclusion to eiKdi pair dinlinctly 
Rlated as such in due order. Thus, in the e.\um|de juHt 
given, we have, in fact, (I) U is V, A i» IJ. therefure A ifl 
C ; (2j V, is ]>, A is C. therefore A i« I> ; that is, the recond 
premise of the sorites becomes the major premise oflho first 
syllogism; the first is the minor premise, and Ibo conclu- 
sion is a proposition that did not appear in the Foritrs at 
all. Then for the second syllogism the thiril premise of 
the sorites is ueed for major premise, and the conclusion of 
the first syllogism is usol for minor premise, and so on un- 
til wo come to a syllogism that ba;^ for its conclusion tho 
same proposition as the sorites itself. In the ease of tho 
enthymeme one premise is omitted for the most pari, be- 
cause it is a part of the common sense or the acknowledged 
science of mankind, and therefore needs no repetition or 
explicit statement. It is. however, a part of the syllogism 
or argument as truly and as really as though it were ex- 
pressed, since without it no conclusion can be drawn from 
any proposition which W'uild contain any term that was 
not contained in the proposition used as a premise itself. 
Hence, tlie means by which we can fmrl the suppressed or 
omitted premise is one of the Uiost important parts of logic 
in a practical point of view. 

Syllogi«ms are of four different kinds, as they arise from 
one or another of the four relations which the objects in 
nature sustain to each other. (1) Individuals in a class, 
and classes considered as species included in a higher and 
more comprehending class, considered as a genus. Thus, 
John, Henry, Thomas, etc. arc Englishmen fa species), and 
Englishmen. Frenchmen, etc. arc Indo-Europcans (the ge- 
nus). Or, again. lu'lo-Europeans, Shernitcs, etc. are men, 
and constitute the genus Ihnnn. or man. On this relation 
is based what arc called categorical propositions. They 
simply assert that an object is or is not in a class, or that 
a class is or is not in a higher class, as S is 1% or S is not 
P; P are Q, or are not Q, etc. With two categorical prop- 
ositions for premises we have a categorical syllogism. (2) 
Every object sustains some relation of quality to others. 
It is above or below, longer or shorter, harder or softer, 
whiter or blacker, etc. than some other. Or it may be 
simply equal to another. From these relations there arise 
comparative propositions, and with one or more compara- 
tive propositions in a syllogism it is called a comparative 
syllogism, as A is greater than B. B is equal to C, therefore 
A is greater than C, (3) Most if not all ohjects in nature 
are related to some others as cause and to others as effect. 
An effect is always proof of the existence of a cause, and 
is some indication of its character and attributes. So, loo, 
every cause is a means of judging of the nature of tho 
effect it will produce. A good work of any kind is proof 
of a good workman, and the goodness of the workman is 
to some extent a guaranty for the goodness of his work. 
But in logic wo call every argument a cause also. It is a log- 
ical cause, or eausoof belief, and conviction. Hence, when 
one premise is so connected with a concli'sion that if (bat 
premise is assented to the conclusion will be accepted aa 
true or proven, we often state the two. the premise and 
the conclusion, as what is called a conditional or hypothet- 
ical proposition, as. '* If A is B. (' is D :" '* If the workman 
is skilful, his work will bo good." This mode of stating 
the major premise constitutes what wo call a conditional 
syllogism. (4) In the fourth place, every object in nature 
is a part of some collective or physical whole.^ An atom of 
hydrogen is a part of a moletnde or particle of water: a 
leaf is part of a book : a paragraph is part of a chapter; 
a word is part of a sentence; a letter is part of a word; 
the noso is part of the face: the hand is a part of the 
body; each citizen is part of tho state; the earth is part 
of tile solar system, and each star is part of " the heavens." 
Hence, wc can and do reason to some extent both from the 
nature of tho parts to that of the whole, and conversely 
from the nature of the whole to that of the parts. For ex- 
ample, wc reason from the letters in a word to the sound 
and meaning of tho word itself, and likewise from the na- 
ture of a word to the letters, and we are thus able to detect 
false spelling if a word should happen to be spelled wn^ng. 
Now. it so happens that what is include*! in any whole 
must be in some one of the parts into which it is dirisiblef 



94 



LOGIC. 



:ind also that whatever is in one part cannot hv in another 
when the division is what is called a complete division. 
But in what is called a "cross" division we sometimes 
have one individual in more than one part. Suppose we 
divide literary UK-n into poets, philosophers, historians, and 
one man, as Soutliey. be both a poet and a philosopher or 
historian. From this relation of objects there arises what 
are called disjunctive propositions, as, " Either A is B or 
C is D ;" which implies that if the first (A is B) is not true, 
the second { C is Dj is. AVhen one premise, which is always 
the major premise, is disjunctive, the syllogism itself is 
cnlled disjunctive. 

Of comparative syllogisms we need say no more in this 
pla^e, because most of them arc so simple in their construc- 
tion that their validity or their fallacy is obvious at sight, 
and the others are so complicated that we could not discuss 
them intelligibly in this place. Most treatisi-s on logic do 
not even so much as mention them. The fullest discussion 
that is known to us is to be found in I)r. AVilson's Text of 
Lofji'Cf published at Ithaca. X. Y., 1S72. In the case of con- 
ditional syllogisms it is to lie notcil. in the first place, that 
they imply another premise, and are therefore virtually 
enthymemes stated hypotbetically. Thus, " If A is B, A is 
C," implies a proposition called the sequence — namely, '• B 
IS C." But in the second ])lace it should be noted tliat if 
we afiirni the antecedent wo prove the eonseqiirnt, and virr 
vpi-Hd if we deny the consequent we disprove the antece- 
dent. Thus, 

If A is B, C is D.. 

A is B, C is not D. 

Therefore C is D. Therefore A is not B. 

Any other mode of completing the syllogism would be fal- 
lacious. This will be obvious from a simple example: "If 
John has a fever he is sick. John has a fever, therefore 
he is sick;" ".Tohu is not sick, therefore he has not a 
fever." This is right. But if wo say, "John has not a 
fever, therefore be is not sick," or if we say, " Ho is sick, 
therefore he has a fever." it would be manifestly wrong. 

In a disjunctive syllogism it is always safe to deny one 
of the parts or propositions as a means of proving the 
other, as *' A is cither B or C; A ia not B, therefore A is 
C; or A is not C. therefore A is B." Polypes are either 
plants or animals: they are not plants, therefore they are 
animals. But tlie other method of completion, ofTering 
one proposition to disprove the tdber, is not always valid. 
Thus, " ('oleridge is either a poet or a philosopher : he is a 
philosopher, therefore he is not a poet." In this case 
poets and philosophers arc not what are called co-ordinate 
parts or specie:', for a man may be both a poet and a phi- 
losopher at tlic saint? time. 

But both conditiiinal and disjunctive syllogisms may be 
regarded for logical purposes as categorical syllogisms 
stated as enthymemes (though comparative syllogisms can- 
not be so stated). In the ease of ttie conditional syllogisms 
the cnthymeme has one afhrmative premise, as "A is B," 
and an afhrmative conclusion. " A is (' ;" that is, " If A is 
B, A is C." But the disjunrlive syllogism has (apparently) 
a negative premise, A is not B, with an affirmative conclu- 
sion, therefore A is C : that is, " Either A is B or A is C ;" 
or again. "If A is not B. A is C." Here the premise is 
a))parenfly negative, while the conclusion is affirmative. 
But we shall have to consider this again in order to ex- 
plain the apparent violatiim of a fundamental law in rela- 
tion to the formuhe of inference. 

It ifi manifest, therefore, that the utmost importance at- 
taches to the nature and construction of categorical syllo- 
gisms, to the consideration rjf which we shall now proceed. 
Categorical propositions may difler in r/nu/ifi/, and be either 
affirmative or negative, as A is B or A is not B. Again, they 
may dilTer in tjmnititi/, and be either general or partial, or 
particular as they are sometimes called, as '' .-Ml A are B" 
or '* Some A arc B." Combining the two, v;e have four 
varieties of propositions, called universal affirmative, " All 
S are P;" universiil negative, " No S arc P ;" partial af- 
firmative, " Some R arc P ;" and partial negative. " Some 
P lire not P." These four kinds of proposilinns have been 
r;illed. for the sake of convenience, by the four vowels A, 
K, I, and 0. Now, it is manifest that with A for major 
premise we may have either A, E, I. or for minor, and 
thus four pairs of i>remiscs, A A, A E, A I. and A O, and 
with each jciir we can have cither A. E. I. or for a con- 
chinion : and thus sixteen syllogisms diflerjng from each 
other in what is called the mood of the syllogism. And in 
like manner we may have sixteen with either E, I. or O for 
major premise, making in all sixty-four moods. Thus, for 
an example of A A A, we have. "All S are M, all M are 
P: therefore all S are P ;" of E E E. "No S are M. no M 
arc P; thirrefore no S are P." The I'ormcr is at once seen 
to be valid, and the hitter Ib about ns obviously invalid or 
fallacious, ;ictuully proving nothing. 



j In the above example I have used S to denote the sub- 
I ject of the conclusion, which is therefore called the minor 
I term, and is found only in the minor premise. I have used 
j P for the predicate of the conclusion. It is therefore called 
I the major term, and is found only in the maj'>r premise. 
, M stands for what is called the middle term. It is found 
in both premises, but not in the conclusion. It may, how- 
': ever, occupy either of four positions in the premises, as (I) 
subject of the major premise and predicate of the minor; 
(2) predicate in both; (.'J) subject in both; or (4) the in- 
verse of the first, predicate of the major premise, and sub- 
ject of the minor. These varieties of position constitute 
what is called tlie figure of the syllogism. And as each of 
these positions of the middle term may be found in either 
of the sixty-four moods, we may have 250 different cate- 
gorical syllogisms. 

But most of tliese 256 syllogisms are invalid — not only 
worthless, but actually dehisive. Hence, the discovery of 
some rules and practical tests of validity is of the utmost 
importance. Fallacies may be of two kinds — either (1) in 
form or (2) in diction. A fallacy is said to be in form 
when it is obvious on the mere inspection of the form of 
thesyllogism. without considering or knowing the meaning 
of the propositions, or of its terms even ; as, " M arc not P, 
iS are M ; therefore S arc P." But when there is no fallacy 
in form, there may be one in diction, which renders the 
reasoning worthless. This can be discovered and exposed 
only by a consideration of the meaning of the several 
propositions considered separately. Thus, " Light comes 
from the sun. feathers are light ; therefore feathers come 
from tlie sun." In this case the form is faultless, but the 
diction is fallacious. The word " light " is ambiguous, and 
means one thing in one premise and something else in the 
other. 

Besides these two classes of what are called logical falla- 
cies there are one or two others, called extra-logical falla- 
cies, of which wc shall say a word in conclusion. Consid- 
ering the limits to which we are confined in this article, it 
will be better to suggest the tests of fallacy, leaving the 
reader to take all syllogisms to be valid that do not offend 
against one or another of the rules that are given. And 
first we shall speak of fallacies in form : 

(1 ) There may be no more than three real terms. There 
may be any number of words, for nouns will often have 
several adjectives and modifying clauses. But for the pur- 
poses of logic a noun with all its adjectives may be con- 
sidered as one word. As an example of the "fallacy of 
many terms," as it is called, we have the tVdIowing : " My 
hand touches the pen, the pen touches the paper : therefore 
my hand touches the paper." Here, as we see on a careful 
analysis, we have four terms, four diil'crent things really 
spoken of; (1) my hand, (2) that which " touches the pen," 
(;i} "the pen," and (4) that which "touches the paper;'" 
and the syllogism impUcR, though it does not state, that 
whatever touches the pen is the pen, which is of course 
absurd. It will sometimes happen, however, that what is 
thus implied is not only not absurd, but is in fact quite 
true. In that case the apparent fallacy is only an abridged 
form of the sorites, of which wc shall say more below. 

(2) If both premises are negative, there can be no con- 
clusion. Thus, "S arc not M. M are not P." After these 
premises we can have no conclusion. "Horses arc not 
men. men arc not birds." It is true that horses are not 
birds, but if wc say " Horses are not men, and men are not 
quadrupeds," we can have no conclusion, although wo 
know otherwise that horses are quadrupeds. It will some- 
times happen, however, that there is an appearance of two 
negative premises when one or both of them is really 
affirmative. Thus, " No tme who has nnt enough can be 
called rich, but no miser has enough; thei-efore no miser 
can be called rich." Here t.wo of the negatives virtually 
correct each other, making for the middle term "person 
not having enough," and the inference is as \ alid as though 
the muldle term were positive, "persons having enough," 
or " No S is M " (^whicli is equivalent (o " S is not M "). 
"Whatever is not M is P" (equivalent to "All not M is 
P"). " therefore S is P." 

(:n It is ftuind tn be necessary that the middle term 
."hould l)c used once at least, as either the subject of a uni- 
versal proposition or the ^iredicalt; of a negative one. The 
failure to fulfil this condition constitutes wliat is culled an 
undistributed middle. It would be impossible within the 
limits to which I am here restricted either to demonstrate 
this law « priori or to prove it by an examination in detail 
of nil the cases in whicli an undistributed middle may oc- 
cur. One or two illustrations, therefore, must suOice. Thus, 
" Hor.ses are animals, foxes are animals: therefore horses 
are fnxes." But horses and foxes are eo-or<iinate species of 
animals, and therefore cannot he predicated of each other. 
Even this fact, however, is not provcil by the premises, for 
wo may have " Dogs are animals, spaniels arc animals." 



uxnc. 



D." 



Spaniels iiro a jtpopirn or vririofy of dof^tt, no that In this 
ca^'o tlic iniijor nnd tin; minor tcrniN arc Huliordiniilo rather 
Ihin co-orciinati', and may I'O prediuiiUMl of each other 

nfTinmilivrly. 

(1) Neither llie minor nor thn inajdr term may ho uncd 
in the eoneliiHJrdi nn Hiiliject of a imiverHul propoHition, or 
aK pre<li(!arn of a ne({ii(ivp one, iniletifl it had hcen iif<C(l in 
one or thfl other ttl' tliene wayf* in tlie prfmiccw. The vi(»- 
hition of (hi.s eondition c-nnf-lifiiliM what in railed " illieit 
pniecsf'." iiiidllie Ciillni-y i-* riiilt.! illi.-il oflhe niiimr wlien 
the ttiiiior term im used mi vi'iliidon of thin hiw. Hut whi-n 
Iho miijiir term in ho used, the fiilhiev if calt(Ml illieit of the 
mnjur. Ifore. a^ain. the demonstration of the Iiht would 
recjuire more unai-e tliiiii ciin lie ypan-d to it. Ah an exam- 
pli- nf illicit pi-rM-es^ of the riiio'ir ferrn we may have (lie 
following: *' Horses iii<* i|Niidrtipe<ly. and h'TflcK nre uscfLd 
animitlH; ther'.-f(>re*(// quadrnpedtt are iiReful aiiiiiinls." It 
would ho logitimiite to say either " Somo qundrupeds are 
ii-iefnl nniiiuils," <ir *' .SV»»»r useful animals nre f|u;idi'tipe<lH." 
Thi-n, for iin examph- of illinit of tho majnr, we liave, " Ne- 
groes havi_i lihiek ."Uinw, the Arahs arc not ne^^rocH: there- 
fore tho Aratis have not hhiek Hkinfl.'* Ilore iho nopativo 
term **hhiek skins" i« prodiento of a nof^tifivc oonehision, 
whereas it was not uned a*< eitlior puhjeef, of a universal or 
ii** prediejite of a ne-^nlive preuitse. It was prodicato of nn 
nniruiativo propositidu in tho major premise. 

There aro several other convenient rules known to the 
exjiort Inrfteian, but thoy aro too alistniHo and teehnieal to 
admit of h<'injf fjiveii here. Itesides this, they (iceotupUnh 
notliin;^ that is not equ:illy well arctunplished hy tlie appli- 
o:\tion of one or unotlier of llu-so four. There are, Imw- 
ever, two that may he piven tliat are of groat practical 
value, though resulting.; from the application of the prc- 
cedini^four: (1) After two partial prerui^es there can he 
no onntdu^'ion, for it is found tlurt in all such enses a con- 
clusion would involve either an undi^^f^il^u^cd middle or an 
illicit process. {'2) After one partial premise there ean ho 
Ud universal oonehision, for the same reason as that just 
piven in ro;^ard to any conclusion :il"ter two ])artial ]iropo- 
sitinus. (?>) It is also found thiit after one n<'j^ative prem- 
ise there can be no aMirmafive eonehision. AVc have seen 
that after two. negative premises there can he no conclusion 
whatever. Hut if one of tlu? jnemises he nei;ative, iiny af- 
lirmiMvo conclusion involves a vi obit ion of the funtla mental 
con I'tioiis itf validity. 

It is seldom the case, however. th:it both of tho premises 
of any sylb>j;isui are exjiressly sliitcd. In some casea <uie 
of thorn is so well known, ami so universally assented to, 
that it would ii|ipear like a piece of mere pedantic formal- 
ily to repeat it. At other times tlie real nnijor premise, 
thoiij^h really assumed. Iins not been so distiiu'tly tboui;ht 
out and considered as to admit of express stateuicnt. For 
this and tVu* other reasons it hceonies very important tii know 
how to find ami put into explicit statement the assumed 
premise. This ean always be done by means oi' the prin- 
ei(ilcs and rules already laid down. Hut for ilie purpose 
now before us anollier set of rules is more iiumediutely 
applicable. Of course we have in the enthymeme the con- 
clusion and one premise. We have therefore all tho terms 
that ean he used, and tho problem is to find tlic other ami 
nssuined premise, such in character a? that it will complete 
the sylloi;isin witlmut violating any of the rubs above laid 
down. The four rules are as follows ; [I) If the ciuiclusion 
bo universal affirmative, both jircmiscs must be afiirmative, 
and the minor and the mitldle term must be distributed. 
(2) If the comdusion be jiiutial affirmative, both premises 
must be atlirmafive. and only tho middle term need be dis- 
tributcil. (;'i) If the ecmclusion bo partial nej^ative, one 
premise must be ne2;ative, and tho middle imd the major 
term must ho distributed. (4) If the eonelusion ho nni- 
versnl ncfjative. one premise must be negative, and all three 
of the terms must be <listrihuted. 

But it is necessary to pass to the consideration of falla- 
cies in ilictiftn. Logic assumes thiit the words in any ar- 
gument, like the h'lters in an algebruic equation, shall 
denote each one and the same thing tlironghout the argu- 
ment or solution, and that language for the most part shall 
be used literally, each word describing its object or event 
as it is, and that no proposition sh:ill have, either expressly 
st.atcd or necessarily implied, two propositions in one, one 
of which may he true, while the other is false. Thus, if I 
say, "A m.an has ceased to he a liar," T tmphf that ho has 
been a liar, and T utirrt that he is not one now. Rut of 
course cither of these as^^ertions may ho true, while the 
other is false, and they may therefore bo both true at the 
same time. Subject to these conditions, all the fallacies in 
diction may ho referred ti» four obisscs. (1) Amhtfjunu* 
Mifhifr. — In this one term (usually the middle term) is used 
tn denote one thing in one proposition ami something else 
in another. Thus, in Iho exumple already cited. " f.i'jht 
comes from fho sun, feathers aro li'jht^"* hero both premises 



may bo (run i^opnrntoly if wo nhall take the word iifjht to 
mean differenl ihiiiK" in each of th«m. *miI not ollirrwiiie. 
(2) Vari'tfuni. — Thin muy In* in quantity, condition, etc. 
ThtiH, " Money will buy what#;Vi'r ifi for mile; a ten-cent 
piece is money," ete. Hero the worri ■' mont-y " i»i not used 
ambiguously ; it meanft the nnnie thinjf in each premise, 
but it in u-ed with reference to different qunntitioK in each 
premise, anrl the preniifefl will he nnci-nted to only fin \\c 
so understand the wi>rdH. i'i) JJi'viiton nml t'iintfnnittiini.~^ 
This fallacy eonsisls in URing a word (uftually tin- middle 
l<>rin) as a crdh-otivu term in one plm'e and nn n genernl in 
till! other. Some words are iilwavH eolleclive when \\M*t\ in 
tho singular form, ag family, army, chnreh, ntftle, coiigren*, 
do. idc. Hut many words may he either genorul or col- 
leiMive, aceiiriling to the nature of the propo»<jtion in whieh 
they jire used. Thus, "The Konmns conquered '"arlbago." 
Tho word " Romans" i.s used as general, hut here it must 
bo collect ivo, as no tme Roman performed the act liere as- 
cribetl t<j theni. Rut m the propoj-ilion, ** Tho Komanii 
spoke Ijatin," '■ Kotnans " must hi- general, lieeiinse the net 
is one wbicdi each Roman did indivt'limlly and for him''<df. 
If, now, wc should say after the first, *M,'icero was a Ro- 
man, therefore he conquered Carthage," our fnllacy would 
he ono of division. Rut if the word is first u^ed as gen- 
oral, and then as colleetive, the falhiey takes the form 
which isr*allci,l compogition, (4) Snf»tfinn-c ami A'-rhl^nti*. 
— A property may be accidental in one promise, and yet 
used so as to make it essential in tho other or in tho con- 
clusion. Or it may be affirmed with regard to some prop- 
ertv, mode, or aer-ident in a jiremise, nncl then aflirmed in 
reference to its subsrancc in tho conclusion, and ctrr rfrml. 
This constitutes what is called the fallacy of substance and 
aeeidents. Thus, the example usually given is, *' Wc cat 
what wo buy in the market ; wo buy raw meat in the mar- 
ket : therefore we eat raw moat," or eat our meat raw. 
Wo buy our meat not because it is raw, hut rather because 
it is meat: the "rawness" is merely aceidental to the act 
of purchasing an<l to the premise, but in the conclusion if 
is 90 p!aee<l as to make it untrue, and is thus essential to 
its meaning. This is called the fulhiey of ncciiK-nts. Rut 
if wc should say of a certain man, in nderence to his pe- 
cnniary responsibility, " He is good," and shouli) thus infi r 
by means of a major premise that ho is a good ** man," we 
should have tho fallacy in the other form, applying what i"" 
saiil in reference to some accidental mode, property, or at- 
tribute to tho substance itself. This is called the fall»ey 
a flirtn Merumlnm rjtiid ad (lirtum nhnp/iritrr. Of all ihc 
fallacies in diction, those belonging to this class arc tlic 
most subtle and difficult of detecfion and exposure. 

It will often happen, indeed, that ati argument may con- 
tain falhieies both in form and in diction. And it will often 
happen in practice, also, that one is in doubt tf> whieh of 
the classes or kiiuls of fallacies he should refer a formula. 
It is, however, of but very little consequence, so far as refu- 
tation is concerned, to which class he refers it. since they ore 
all alike, and equally fatal to any validity in the conclusion. 

Rut it is time to say a few words of the extra-logical fal- 
lacies in conclusion. These are rather tauils in rhetoric 
than fallacies in logic. Extra-logical fallacies are of two 
kinds — fallacies in matter and fallacies in method. Who- 
ever undertakes to prove any proposition that is not assented 
to by (hose to whom he addresses his argument, necessa- 
rily assumes wliat is called the oimi prohaur/i. or the bur- 
den of proof. He has to consider the state of mind and of 
heart or will — that is, the intelligence, the knowledge, the 
prejudices, and feelings — of those whom he would address. 
And while arguments may bo considered as comdusive in 
themselves — that is, that they will satisfy any one who under- 
stands and appreciates them — yet it is often found that the 
arguments that are really the best for those who ean under- 
stand tliem fail entirely of effect on those to whom they arc 
addrcssefl. Rut in order to success anywhere eonsider.i- 
lion inn>t be taken with reganl to both the mailer of the 
argument and the method of presenting it. 

In regard tv the matter, there are several forms of fallfley 
that arc to be noted. The first is what is ealled non rmt 
pro vera — the using a premise that is untrue as though it 
were true. An<l this applies as well to those propositions 
that are implied, and ean be formed only in the ways of 
eompleting imperfect formulfP already spoken of. as to 
those that are expressly stated as premises. Of course 
when a premise that is false is used as a real premise the 
ar^^ument fails to prove anything, and will he so regarded 
hy all persons that know its falsity. Then, again, wc have 
what is called uou cfiiiita pm rnuMnt which consists in using 
as a premise a proposition which, though true enough, is 
not :i premise to the conclusion. For example, it is true 
enough that it is mining at the present mnment. but that 
fact eoubl not V>e used as proof of a proposition in Euelid 
or of the guilt of Mary queen of Scots. A proposition occur- 
ring in the course of an argument is a:wHys irrclcrant, or 



96 



LOGOS— LOIGNY, BATTLE OF. 



uoii cattsa, when it cannot be connected with the rest as 
one in a series that make a sorites by having one of its 
terms in commttn with the preceding proposition and the 
other common to it and the succeeding proposition. Thus, 
if we have "A is B, B is C, C is D, .-. A is D," the propo- 
sitions follow in logical order, and are logically connected. 
But if amongst them there should occur " C is H or M is 
P," we could not connect such a proposition with the other 
premises, and although true it would be no premise to A 
is D. 

The fallacies in method may also be of several kinds. 
First, we have what is called a begging of the question, or 
pefifio princi-pii. As a general rule, one of the premises 
is so evidently true that it may be assumed without proof 
and without remark, while all effort at proof should be di- 
rected to the other. But if an orator assumes as true or as 
conceded that which his auditors expect or desire to have 
proved, they accuse him of begging the question; that is, 
of assuming the very thing they want to have proved be- 
fore they win assent to his proposition. Logically, both 
premises should be proved, but rhetoric requires that we 
should spare ourselves the labor and the audience the an- 
noyance of listening to proof of what nobody doubts. In 
some cases this begging of the question takes the form of 
reasoning in a circle — cnrricnhim vcfae. Suppose we have 
three propositions. 1, 2, and .S, and we use 1 and 2 as jtre- 
mises to prove ?., and then use 1 and o to prove 2. or 2 and ;> to 
prove 1, we are in such a case reasoning in a circle; that is, 
we first deduce a conclusion from premises, and then use that 
conclusion as a premise to prove one or the other of its 
premises — that is, its own premises. 

The other recognized form of fallacy in method is called 
mistaking the issue, uv it/noratio clcncki. One first mistakes 
the real projjosition that is to be proved, and then, seeking 
proof for his supposed conclusion, does not find the proof 
that is required for the real conclusion which should be 
established; and he is said to be ignorant of the proof or 
to have mistaken the proof, because he had first mistaken 
the proposition to be proved. A case is cited from Greek 
history: The Athenians were deliberating whether to put 
Mitylenians to death. One orator had tried to show that 
it was justice to do so. Another replied that that was not 
the proposition to be proved : it did not answer the ques- 
tion, for the question really was whether it was cxpeffient 
to do so: nobody doubted the justice of the measure. 

The textbooks on logic are so numerous that it would 
be impossible to enumerate them. The most popular 
and the best known of nil is that of AVhately. I should 
also mention that of Prof. Bowen of Harvard University 
as deserving of special consideration, from the fact that it 
presents Sir William Hamilton's theory of syllogisms, to- 
gether with the Aristotelian. Thompson's OxtHues of the 
Lfurn i,f Thonifht is a book in extensive use and has many 
admirable qualities. Prof. Wilson's book, already referred 
to, professes to give a more ample view of both the valid 
syllogisms and the fallacies than has hitherto been given, 
and in the third part, or " Practical Application," he has 
attempted a classification of the methods of argumentation 
with reference to the kinds of jiropositions one may have 
occasion to prove. W. D. Wilson. 

Log'os [(ir. Adyo?. which means " reason " and "word," 
ratiii and ornti". both being intimately connected] has a 
peculiar sigriilicaneo in Pliilu, St. John, :in<i the early 
(ireek Fathers, and is an important term in the doctrine 
of Christ. 

(1) Philo, a Jewish philosopher of Alexandria, who en- 
deavored to harmonize the Mosaic religion with Platonism 
(d. ab(/Uf 4(1 1, derived his Logos view from the Solomonic and 
later Jewish doctrine of the personified WUdom and Word 
of (Jod, and combined it with the Platonic idea of Noun. 
The liogos is to him the embodiment of all divine powers 
and ideas (the ayyeAot of the Old Testament, the Syi'd^Liet? 
and i5cai of iMato). He distinguished between the Logos 
inherent in <iod (Aoyo« e;'Siai?<To«), corresponding to reas^on ! 
in man, and the Logos emanating from (iod (Adyo? 7rpo(f>o- 
ptwd?), corresponding to the spoken word which reveals the 
thought. The former contains the ideal wurM (the «o<7/uiot 
I'OTjTo?); tlio latter is the first-begotten Son of (Jod, the 
imjge of (iod, the Creator and Preserver, the (iiverof life 
and light, the Mediator between Cod and the world, also 
the Messiah (though only in an ideal sense — as a thcoph- 
any, not as a concrete historical person). Philo wavers 
between a personal and impersonal conception o{' the Logos, 
but leans more to the impersonal conception. He has n(J 
room for an incarnation of the Logos and his real union 
with humanity. Ncverlhelcss, liis view has a striking re- 
acmblanec U) the Logos-doctrine of John, and preceded it as 
a shadow precedes the subHtance. It was aprophctic dream 
of Ihc coming reality. It |>repand the minds of many for 
the reception of the truth, but misled others into (inostie 
errors. Litcraturt. — CJfrdrcr, P/n'to und die Alr.jcundi-iuiHchf 



I Theosophie (1831); Dahne. Jiidiech-Alfxaudriniache Re- 
I liffioniiphiloKophie (1834); Grossmann, Qtia-ntiouee Philou. 
: (1841); Keferstein, Philo'e Lehre von dem OotfUc/ien Mit- 
\ teliceten (1840); ha-ngen, Vas JndentJiuin ztir Zett Chr!nti 
(1S67); and especially Emil Schiirer, Lehrhuch der A*cm- 
Tetftament lichen Zcitffeschichte (1S74, jip. 048 ecy.). 
(2) St. John uses Logos (translated \Vo>d) four times as a 
j designation of the divine, pre-existent person of Christ, 
through whom the world was made, and who became incar- 
nate for our salvation (John i. 1, 14 ; 1 John i. 1 ; v. 7 (spuri- 
ous) ; Rev. xix. 13). Philo may possibly have suggested the 
I use of the term (although there is no evidence that John read 
a single line of Philo), but the idea was derived from the 
I teaching of Christ, and from the Old Testament, which 
I makes a distinction between the hidden and the revealed 
I being of (iod. which personifies the Wisdom of God and 
the Word of God, and ascribes the creation of the world to 
the Logos (Ps. xxxii. 6, Sept.). There is an inherent pro- 
priety in this usage in the Greek language, where Logos is 
masculine and has the double meaning of thought and 
speech. Christ as to his divine nature bears the same re- 
lation to tiod as the word bears to the idea. The word 
gives shape and form to the idea, and it reveals the word 
to others. The word is thought expressed (Aoyos -npo^opiKo^), 
thought is the inward word (Aoyos eV^iadero?). We cannot 
speak without the faculty of reason, nor think without 
words, whether uttered or not. The Christ>Logos is the 
Revealer and Interpreter (»f the hidden being of God, the 
utterance, the reflection, the visible image of God, and the 
organ of all his manifestations to the world (John i. 18; 
comp. Matt. xi. 27). The Logos was one in essence or 
nature with God (deb? ^v, John i. 1), yet personally distinct 
from him, and in closest communion with him (Trp6« rhv ijeor, 
John i. 1, 18). In the fulness of time he assumed human 
nature, and wrought out in it the salvation of the race 
which was created through him (i. 14). LUcratnrc. — See 
the commentaries of LUcke, I>e Wette, Olshausen, Heng- 
stenberg, Meyer, Godet, Lange (SchafT's cd.), and Alford 
on the Prologue of John's Gospel: also M. Stuart, Ex- 
amination of John I. 1-18, in BibUothcca Sacra for 1850 
(pp. 281-327); Rohrieht, Zur Johaiineischen Lof/nslehre, 
in the TheoL Stndien nnd Kritihen for 1868 (pp. 2yy-3U) ; 
and H. P. Liddon, liampton Lectures on the Jiiriuiti/ of 
Christ (London, 18G7, lect. v.. pp. 3I0-U1). On the ec- 
clesiastical development of the Johannean Logos-doctrino 
by Justin Mart^-r, Origen, etc., see especially liorner, IJis- 

tori/ of Chrifito/ot/tj. PHILIP SCHAFF. 

ItO^roh'o^ province of Spain, situated between Alava, 
Navarre, Aragon, and Soria. belongs to the basin of the 
Ebro, and produces an abundance of corn, wine, fruits, and 
vegetables ; it is also very rich In ores and mineral springs. 
Area. 194.) square miles. Pop, 182,941. 

Logroiio, town of Spain, cap. of the provinco of the 
same name, on the P]bro, is a well-built town, with several 
good educational and literary institutions, and a brisk 
trade in wine, olive oil, and fruits. Pop. 11,239. 

Log'town, a v. of Hancock cc, Miss. Pop. 160. 

Log'wood [named fr»»m being imported in lo^»'\, the 
Ha:mi.iti).ci)lon Cainjxschianiuu, a middle-sized leguminous 
tree of Mexico and Central America, naturalized to some 
extent in the West Indies. It prefers wet land. It is the 
most important dyewood known. Its yellow sap-wood is 
hewn away, and the red heart-wood is exported in great 
quantities. It makes many shades from black to red and 
lilac, .according to the mordant emplo^'cd. The ** extract" 
or inspissated juice is largely prepared in its native coun- 
tries, and is exjxtrted. In medicine, logwood is a mild 
astringent, from the presence of tannic acid. 

Lo'her, von (Franz), b. Oct. 15, ISIS, at Paderhorn, 
Westphalia: studied law, history, natural science, and ait 
at Halle. Munich. Freiburg, and Berlin ; made extensive 
travels iti Europe, (Canada, and the V. S. (1810-47); took 
an active jiart in the political nu)vements in Germiiny in 
1848; founded iha ]\'cntj}hafischc Zcitiintf : was imprisoned 
by the Prussian government for political agitation, but 
shortly after acquitted hy the court ; became assessor at 
the court of appeal in Paderltorn in 1 849, professor at tlio 
University of Uottingcn in 18.»3, and was called to Munich 
in I8;)6 as secretary of the academy and professor at the 
university. His writings are partly juridical — Vas Sipitcm 
d*H J'rcHSHinchcn Landrcchts ( 1852) ; partly historical — 
Fiirstm uud Stadtc znr zcit dcr IIohmKfanfcn (1840), 6V- 
schichfc dcr Deutsrhcn in America {IHIH), nnd JaK'ohira roii 
liairrn (1801 ) ; partly sk<-lches of travel — Laud uiid Lcntc 
in dcr Aflrn itnd Ncuen Wvlt (3 vols., ISj'-.'jS) and Ncopel 
uud Sirifiru (2 vols., 1804). 

Loigny', Battle of. Dee. 2, 1870. The grand iluUo of 
Mecklenburg, commander of the rii;lit wing of tin' army of 
Prince Frederick (Charles, stood opposed to Gen. Chanzy, 
who commanded the left wing of the French army of the 



i.ou:— L().mi;ai:u AULurrhcii uk. 



Loiro. Bntwcoii tliciio two purtioa a contest took pliico iil | 

Li)inri,v. Oil tlm uioniiriK uf DiT. 2 tho Krnnil ilukii c«iifi;ii- 
Imlcil lii» trw.|in on tlin linn of 'riinun-BttiKniii".\, ami wim 
nl»)iit, iiltiirUin;,' lliii l''r.-ni'li whim llii' liitliT, .,■l,n^i»lin(! of 
till' mill i'>ii|i» in lliii lir-l liiii', llii) I71I1 in lli" mii'imil, liliil 
iiiirln 111' Iho l.itii iiK n'»ir\c, ii»hiimii-iI llii' olli'iisin' at 1I.:J0 
A. M. Till! (lornmnN liml tlm IkI lluviiriim <or|m iinil tlio lIll 
I'livalry ilivisiun on tlii'ir ii),'ht wing, tlin 17ili inliinlry di- 
viiiioii in llio nontri'. ami Hi" -2(1 iiiruntry ilivinion willi 111" 
2il mill mil ciiviilry ilivisions nn llnir loft wiii^. Tin' vil- 
lugo "f lioi){ny Hlooil niidwiiy brIwiTn tllu two linf.i of 
lialtlo. Til" Fnini.-li uttnckeil limt tlio Itavarilinii, ili'l'mli'ii 
tlii'ni, iinil oi;oii|iii-il Loigny. Tliii ^'niinl liiiU" tlii-n ami 
111" nil I'liviilry iliviMiim to liiil llnni, iiiol onliri'il tlio ITlli 
ililiiTiliy ilivisinii unilor Con. von 'I'l'i^liow lu wliii'l inwiiril. 
Th" irtli infimlry iliviHion throw ilt>i-lf with auoii forL'O on 
till' ll^mk of 111" Kroiu'li thiit llioy hiiil to ahamlon Loi(;iiy, 
which thoy woro not ahlo to roliik", in spito of rcpi'iitcil ivt- 
tacks. Tho 17th infiintry ilivinimi oocupiiil lioiRliy, and, 
pushiii},' fonv.iid in oonni'i'lion willi 111" 'llli ciivalry di- 
vision, forcoil till' Fri'iii'li hiick to TcrniinicrH and (loin- 
miors. At nuim two Frciioh divisionn of tli" I.'itli cor|is, 
stalioiii'd at Arliniiy, moved northward IhrouKli Poupry 
against th" loft wiii^ of tho gninil iluki-. hut lln-y wiTu mot 
by thu 22d infaiilry divisi'in and drivni hark llinm.'fh 
Poupry to Arlinay. Th" tiormaiiH luat in this halllo ;IO(IO 
men kilhd mul woiiiidi'd ; Ilio Frcnoli nearly twioo us many, 
hosi'li'i .".IIIKI prisoners and 7 |!"ns. Al'UliST NiKMAMN. 

liOir [an". l.iJrruHn], a river of Franco, rises in tho 
hills of Orleannais and joins the Sartlic, an afiliient of tho 
Loir", miles N. of Aiijior.-'. after a courao of about IjO' 
miles, of which the lower half is navigable. 

Loire, a dopartinenl of I''r.ince, eomprising thoohl prov- 
inc" of Fore/, and portions of Heaujolais and Lyounais, in- 
cluding part of 111" basin of the ujipor Loire and spurs of 
tho Coveunes and Fore?, mountains. Area, IMl.'i 8i|uaro 
miles. Pop. SoO.fill. In IS;,?, 12. 1 Hi children out of :!l,l):!ll 
of school-ago received no school instruction. Iron is mined, 
marble, granite, porphyry, and flint arcquarrieil, and there 
aro extensive nianufacturcs of silk, iron, steel, and Hint glass, 
and rich ooal-bcds. Cap. Montbrison. 

Loire [anc. I-i'jer], tho largest river of Franco, rises in 
tho t'evennes and llows in a north-western and western di- 
rection through the centre of France lo the Hay of Biscay, 
receiving from the right the Loir, and from the left tho 
Allicr. Cher, Indre, and Vienne rivers. It is navigable 4;J0 
miles from its inoiilh, and is lined with high embankments, 
and a lateral canal completed in I.S.'IS along its lower course, 
as it is liable to riso cousiderably, occasioning destructive 
inundations. Its fertile basin is called "the garden of 
France," of which it comprises one-fourth the area. In 
several wars carried on within tho boundaries of France it 
formed an important strategical element; e, 7. in the wars 
against the Knglish invasi'in in the liftcenth century, in tho 
wars of ISM, and in the war of lS7n-7l against the (!er- 
nians. In tho latter instance tho Loire formcii the bound- 
ary between the territory occupied by the Clermans and 
those parts of Franco which remained unharmed by the in- 
vaders. It put a check to the trerman operations, though 
a few minor expeditions jienetrated farther S., and it formed 
tho basis for tho French operations during the closing period 
of tho war. It obtains this importance partly from the sur- 
face-formation of Central France, partly from the road and 
railway systems which divide France into two different 
fields of operation, a northern and a southern. Tho river 
itself is so broad that its passages become very important 
military positions. Arni-sx Niemann. 

Loirc-lnfericure, department of France, situated on 
both sides of the mouth of the Loire. .\rea, 2511.') square 
miles. Pop. fi(12. 21115. In ls;.7. l!l.4on children out of 6,i,2fl0 
of school-age received no school instruction. The surface 
is low, containing extensive lagoons, but the soil is gene- 
rally fertile. Wine and wheat are produced. Fine horses, 
good sheep, and many bees are reared. Cap. Xantes. 

Loiret', department of France, situated between the 
Seine and the Loire, and consisting of a low. sandy, and 
unproductive tract on both sides of the Tioire, ami a more 
clevate'i and fertile plain called tho plateau of Orleans. 
Area, 2."iol square miles. Pop. ;i,*i;t.02!. In lS.'i7, .M12 
children out of -It.filtlt of school-ago received no school in- 
struction. The principal products are grain, wine, hemp, 
saffron, timber, and apples. Sheep and cattle, both of 
good breeds, poultry and bees, are reared. Ca]i. Orleans. 

Loir-et-Chor, department of France, situated on 
both sides of the Loire, and traversed by several of its af- 
fluents, which form extensive lagoons, .-^ren, 2'^?■9 square 
miles. Pop. 2t"iS.StU. In l.<:i7. SnSS children out of 29.27.') 
of school-age received no school instruction. The surface 
is low and level, but tho soil is generally fertile. Wheat, 
hemp, and vines aro extensively cultivated ; sbeep, horses, 
Vol. III.— 7 



poultry, and been aro reared, and tome woollepn, cottoni, 

leather, and glass aro inanufaclurod. flip. Dloiil. 

Lo'Ju, an inland city of licnador, cap. of a provincn of 
lb" » nil" iianii', 2.10 milis tS. of t^uito, mar tho Peruvian 
frontier, is sitnalcd in a fertile valby 71H)U feit above lb" 
sea, regularly and neatly buill, with iievcral public buibl- 
IngH, ehurclies, and high schools. In the imiiiediuto vicin- 
ity aro miiicK of gold, quioksilver, and coal and quarries of 
boautifully-veincd iiiarble. The chief article of cuininerco 
is the cineliona or qiiiniiio bark, which was firit found id 
this district. Pop. about 10,001). 

Loja, or Ijoxit, town of Spain, province of (Jranada. 
on lb" tJeiiil Kivir, situated on the slope of a hill crowneil 
bv a magnilioi'iit Moorish castle, and in tho iMoorish wars 
consiib rerl th" key to (Jranada. There are con»iilcrabli' 
Komaii ri-niains and woollen inaiiufacliircs. Pop. 17,I2H. 

Lo'Ueren, town of lielgiuni, province of East Kbin- 
ilors, on tbo Darnie, is a handsome and well built town, 
with num"rou8 schools and many benevolent institutions, 
and has important manufactures of linen goods, damasks, 
and laces. Pop. 17,100. 

Lokmiin', an Arabian fabulist of very early limes, con- 
cerning ivliosc real epoch and life tho traditions are con- 
flicting and untrustworthy. His fables wcro published at 
Leydcn by Erpcnius in Ibl.'i, with a Latin tronslalion. and 
Ihi'V have since been ono of the commonest textbooks for 
learning tho Arabic language — a distinction they by no 
means merit either on the score of elegance or of original- 
ity, as most of them may be traced through Iho Syriac to 

Orcek origin.al. Among modern editions those of Caus- 
sin de Perceval (Paris. ISIK), Ilelot (Paris, 1817), and 
Ucrnburg (Berlin, 1S50) may be mentioned. 

liO'la, Ip. of Cherokee co., Kan. Pop. 650. 
Luligin'idiL- [from L:il!,jn, the chief genus], a family 
of dibraiichiutc eepbalopods of the sub-order Scpio]ihora, 
with the eyes covered by skin ; the internal shell horny and 
lanceolate; the body oblong, and with a more or less poinUd 
latero-tcrminal fin ; the mantle with three internal carti- 
lages, one ilorsal and two ventral; the siphunclc attached 
to tho head by a dmible superior medial band; the head 
froc from the front of the mantle: and the teeth of the 
radiila aro in seven regular longitudinal rows, tho median 
and inner lateral teeth being brood and fringed, and the 
outer long and fang-like. To it belong ihe most common 
"squids" of the eastern .■\merican coast. Three species 
have been recognised as inhabitants of the New England 
and New York seas— viz. /,../iV/o Pealii, L. punclain, and 
/.. jiiifliita. Among other genera are (jtmntnn, an Arctic or 
(ireenland type, and Tcvthin, a European and East Indian 
genus. The gigantic cuttle-fishes of the North Atlanlic 
(AnhiuuthlH) are nearly allied, but differ greatly in tho 
teeth of tho radula. Tiikoikjiie Qii.l. 

Lol'lards [probably from Gcr. lnU<-n, " to sing in a 
murmuring strain," ami i.nc/, an aflix. signifying "to sing 
tho praises of (lod or funeral dirges and the like"], a term 
of reproach applied at first to a half-mouastic sect which 
originated in l.Uin at Antwerp. It was designed to furnisli 
niiuistrants for the care of Iho sick. In l.'?74 and l.'!77, 
they were under the protection of Gregory XI. In 1 172. 
Pope Sixtus IV. recognized them as a religious order. Tlnir 
proper designation is CiUiicn or Alexiatit. A few .Mexian 
houses still exist in Europe. But the name was aflerwarda 
especially applied lo the English and .Scottish followers of 
Wvclifre.'who were sorely persecuted during the reigns ol 
Ilinry IV. and Henry V' in England, and in the same and 
s.'niewliat later times in Scotland, where they were called 
" Lollard.s of Kyle." 

Lombard' (Pi-.TF.n), [Petrut Lomhardut^ b. near Na- 
vara in Lombard v in tho beginning of the twelfth century; 
studied theologv" at Bologoa and Rheims, and in Paris 
under Abehird.and was appointed in 115« bishop of Pans, 
where he d. in 11G4. He was one of the founders of the 
scholastic theologv of the .Middle Ages. His principal work, 
SfuUiitiarum I.ib'ri /('..from which he received the title of 
MaqlHier Sriilrnimrum. is a collection of passages from the 
Fathers, with accompanying commenlaries. bearing on tho 
various doctrines of Christianity. It was first printed in 
Venice fU77); an edition was published in Pans ilh41). 
Up to the time of the Reformation it wos Ihe most common 
handbook used in all theological schools. 

Lombard .4rchitecturc. When Christianity became 
the religion of the Roman empire. Roman archilcclurc came 
to an end. It had excelled in the construction of tem- 
ples, theatres, circuses, baths, palaces, basilicas, triumphal 
i arolies. etc., but for buildings of these descriptions there 
was no further use, for it was not only the Roman empire 
which broke into pieces: it was the Roman civilization 
' which crumbled into dust, and the new life which Chris- 
tianitv came to plant among the ruins of ancient paganism 

1 had other needs, which it now became the task of architec- 



98 



LOME ARDINI— LOM BARDS. 



ture to supply. The character of this earliest Christian 
architecture is singularly mixed. There are new wants to 
satisfy, but there is as yet no new model to follow. There 
is a new spirit in demand, but there is as yet no new prin- 
ciple in construction. The first Christian architects took 
the old Roman buildings, blotted out such features as re- 
minded too plainly of paganism, and changed or modified 
the architectural arrangement only so much as was neces- 
sary in order to make the building answer the new purposes. 
Even when they had to erect entirely new buildings they 
borrowed the fundamental plan and the constructive prin- 
ciple from the old ones, and thus the Roman basilica be- 
came the model of the Christian church. Soon, however, 
the new spirit began to remodel all the details of the old 
construction and shape them after its own image, and by 
degrees it turned from the details to the fundamental forms, 
which at last it succeeded in rebuilding on an entirely new 
principle of construction and with an entirely new jesthetic 
character: thus producing an entirely new style of archi- 
tecture. But it took several centuries to transform tho 
Roman basilica into the Gothic cathedral. The transform- 
ation began in the fifth century, and was not accomplished 
until the twelfth; and this period of the history of archi- 
tecture is generally called the Romanesque, to indicate 
the peculiarly mixed character of Roman forms and Chris- 
tian spirit which it exhibits throughout. 

As the Christian religion was truly universal in its spirit, 
it was capable of becoming truly national in its life ; and 
thus we see the Romanesque architecture, though it every- 
where arose from the same type and strove after the same 
ideal, develop differently in Italy, Spain, France, England, 
Germany, and Scandinavia under the influence of a vari- 
ously developed national spirit. Nowhere, however, is this 
phenomenon more interesting to observe than in Italy. 
Here, when Rome liad perished, there was no more nation- 
ality; all the nations came and sat down around the corpse 
of tho one great nation. Italy, which had once been the 
centre whence all influences radiated over the world, had 
now become a focus into which all the influences of the 
world were gathered back. It exhil)its four distinct groups 
of Romanesque architecture. In Central Italy the classic 
type was kept purest. In Rome, the churches of S. Mar- 
tino in Monti. S. Giovanni in Latcrauo, and S. Maria in Ara- 
cceli, all from the ninth century, and those of S. Crisogono 
and S. Maria in Trastevere, from the twelfth century ; in 
Pisa, the cathedral (10fj3), the baptisterium (llfjo), and the 
belfry (1174); in Lucca, the churches of S. Michcle and 
S. Frediano ; in Florence, the baptisterium and the church 
of S. Miniato, both from the twelfth century. — sbow a de- 
cided adherence to the classical taste, both in their plans, 
which are simple and clear, and in their ornaments, which 
arc elaborate, delicate, of the finest materials, and of an- 
tique design. In Venice, which maintained extensive and 
brisk commercial relations not only with the Byzantine em- 
pire, but with the whole Levant, a strong Oriental influence 
is visible in the church of S. Marco as it rises like a wonder 
from the sea, with its mighty arches resting on long rows 
of columns, and lifting an immense profusion of cupolas 
and spires, tho whole covered with a most gorgeous orna- 
mentation. In Sicily and Lower Italy, which alternately 
belonged to the Byzantine empire, the Moors, and the 
Norsemen, the cathedrals of Palermo, Salerno, Amalfi, 
Monreale, Ravello, etc. show a combination of the old ba- 
silica plan with the Byzantine dome and ornamentation, 
the Arabic horseshoe arch, and the belfry* or front tower, 
which was a feature of Northern taste. 

The most interesting grou|i of Rfmiancsquc architecture 
in Italy is the Lombard, not .«o much on account of the 
grandeur and magnificence of its monuments, as on ac- 
count of the superiority of their construction; they come 
nearest to the Gothic style. To this gr<»up belong the 
cathedral of Modenn, commenced in ID'.KI. but not finishecl 
until T18t; theehurchcs of S. Zeno in ViMona, S. Michcle 
in I*avia, ami S. Amiirngio in Milan, all from the eleventh 
century; the cathoilral of Novara from the eleventh, and 
tho cathedral of Parma from tho twelfth century. Earlier 
exampU;s of this stylo of arcliitecture are found in Switzc^r- 
land. but there they arc generally on a small stuilc. The 
most pr'imincnt feature of the Lombard style is the general 
introduction and artistic devolupment of the vault. Tho 
old basilica was generally open. Oti its transformation 
into a Christian church it had generally been covered with 
a flat wooden roof. As this roof was liable to catch fire, 
and many buildings had been dcstroyeil or injured in this 
way, it had in some rases been replacofl by a tunnel vault 
of masonry. But the tunnel vault never became generally 
used, and it exercised no influence cither on tho aesthetic 
character or on tho technical construction of the building. 
As it pressed with equal weight on every point of the side- 
wnll. which it touched, it simply dcman'lerl llmt tlie whole 
wall ^huuM lie built stronger. Not .vo witii tlie (■•/uss-vaull- 



ing employed by the Lombards. It pressed only on those 
four points of the wall on which the ends of the cross- 
arches rested, and it demanded only that these four points 
should be supported. This occasioned the application of 
buttresses, which later on in the Gothic style became so 
conspicuous a part of the construction and of the compound 
pier. The side-walls which enclosed the nave rested on 
columns, which separated the nave from the aisles. "When 
now the cross-vaulting was suspended over the nave, those 
points of the side-walls on which the ends of the cross- 
arches rested had to be strengthened, and thus the column 
which stood immediately under such a point was replaced 
by a whole bundle of columns, of which each had its own 
capital and its own pedestal — a compound pier which was 
carried up through the wall till it reached the point which 
ought to be supported, and showed on the wall as wall- 
shafts and wall-arches. The spaces of the wall between 
these piers needed no particular strength ; on the contrary, 
they could conveniently be broken through by triforiums 
between the vaultings and the roof of the aisles, and by 
windows; and thus the dead, bare walls of the basilica type 
became vividly diversified, and began to show signs of that 
living organization which is the charm of the Gothic 
cathedral. A beautiful example of the manner in which 
the Lombards attempted to diversify the wall-masses give 
the arcades or arched string-courses, which generally are 
carried along the upper part of the apse, and sometimes 
along the whole side elevation of the building. 

Another characteristic feature of the Lombard architec- 
ture is the tower. In tho Gothic architecture the towers 
became the most prominent part of the front facade. In 
the Lombard architecture they are still insulated pieces of 
decoration, sometimes placed before the main entrance of 
the nave, sometimes only loosely and inorganically con- 
nected with the building. But their mere presence an- 
nounces a Northern influence. The tower was a Gotho- 
Germanic invention. Still more striking is the manifesta- 
tion of this spirit in the orn.imentation of the details. The 
classical designs are almost wholly given up and replaced 
by either fantastic or realistic devices, such as please 
the Gotho-Germanic taste. The materials employed by 
the Lombards are generally brick, sometimes coated with 
marble, but whether they used this material from economy 
or because it is more pliable and allows of a richer and 
more complicated construction than marble, cannot be de- 
cided. Clemens Petersen. 

Lombardi'ni (Elia), b. Oct. 11. 1794; graduated at the 
University of Pavia, and devoted himself to the study of 
fluviafile hydrology ; in 1847 was appointed director-gen- 
eral of the public works in Lombardy, and held that posi- 
tion for nine years; in 1800 was nominated senator of the 
kingdom, and is still living. Among his numerous and 
highly important professional writings, most of which have 
appeared in scientific journals, we may mention — (Jonii 
lartiffrnfiri ; Meiiwj'ia fiiIT fm^jorlttiizn dcf/li stifdii niilla 
Statistica dei Fiumi ; Mcmoria sni cangiauicnti nclV idraii- 
Uca Condhioiie del Po ; Sidle Inondaztoni avve»ut(^ vcUn 
Frtatcia ; Dell' oru/ine e del prorfvcsso dcf/a Sdcnzn fdran- 
licn in Italitt ; Snf/r/io Idrnlogiro aul A'(7m ; Stiidi! mil 
ijrandc efttuario Adriatiro / several essays on tlie hydrology 
of the Po and the Tiber, and the very valuable Gnlda alio 
iStudin delV Idfologia fhtviule e dell' /draulica pratica, 
published separately in 1870. 

liOm'^bardSf a family of the Suevic or Suabian branch 
of the great Teutonic race. The word Lombnvd, though 
derived liy \'assius from l<nii/i:pnrt, or hayte.a. long hatchet 
(e. f/. halbert), probably comes, as Paulus Diacouus, him- 
self a Lombard, asserts, from nearly the same words, sig- 
nifying a "long beard." They are first mentioned .'; a. d. 
In 17. led by Marbodius, (hoy joined the Chcrusci, and 
established Italieus as king. In olS they njtpcar as Avian 
Christians led by Andouin. Under his .son Alboin tho 
Loml>ards became a wealthy and powerful race, ruling 
Pannonia. Having conquered llio tJcpida; and killed 
their king with his own hands, Alboin married hia 
daughter Rosamond. At a great ft.asl the Lombnrd king 
gave to his chiefs Italian fruits and wines, and so inflamed 
their imaginations with an account of (ho southern country 
that ero long his entire nation, with their women and chil- 
dren, appeared in Northern Italy. They were nccoui- 
panicd by 20,000 Saxons, a race as fierce as themselves. 
Their appearance caused a general panic, and it was by 
tho immense number of fugitives who totdc refuge in the 
swam]is and on tho inlands of Venice that this city was 
chiefly founde<l. The jirincipal cities of Northern Italy 
wore soon conquered by the energetic Lumbartis, who to 
great skill in war added administrative cajmcily and adaji- 
tability to law and culture. Pavia was taken by Ihem after 
three year-'' siege (a. n. 5fi.^|. Albnin was protdnimod king 
of Ilaty iu Milan, nnd tlie Lombard kingdom wa^ founded. 



LOMIJAiiDY— J.OM/A. 



'jU 



Thoir ^rcat viotorios woro duo to tho niimhnrs of other 

Ncirflicrn trilic.H who joined tlioin dtirinj^ llurir utrui^i^U-s, 
fur, Ukt* tln' XorrmiiiH, (hoy w<t<*, thmij^h a riilinj^ riioc. 
ni'vcr a liiriX" **uv. Kiivcmifi iiiiilor its cxiirch n-iniiiiHid 
(JnM'k, Imt till? rcimiindiir nl" tho nmiitry whh divid<'d into 
dii<diic!i. Alhoin at th« hl■i^,'hI oC his |miW(T, whih; iriloxi- 
<!iitt'd at a j;ran'l orj^y, roin|>i'Mi'd liin wifo to drink win** 
frr)ni )ii'r fathcr'rt skull. She rnvi-ii^^cd liorm-If hy in'litrin;; 
two Hcildiors to murder him during; hij< nhM'|i. Hi- wjih suc- 
I'l'cdi'd hy Ch'ph ('>7'-\), wlio duriim his Hhort ri'H^u of 
oi^thtcrn mouths (^r<'at!y rxl"-tid»'r| his dominion. For ten 
years tlio Komhiirds uuder tliirty dukes ravaged tho proator 
|Mirt i)t' Italy, when they ehone Arillu'ri« for king. Under 
this truly great, lender the; linmhurd (im]»iro was greiitly 
rxtemled, thou;;h during his roign ('liilperie, king of tho 
Franks, seizi'il Milan, l-'reed from tliese iiivad(?rfi, An- 
thorii) I't^l) organixod a powerful federal kingdom. After 
his doafh (.MH) his widow, ThtMidelinda, married Agilulf. 
Uiiiler his rule tim Ijomhnrds hecamo orthodox Catholifs. 
Adiiloahl, wlio Hueeeeiled him {('il.')), was deposi;d hy tho 
duki'fl, or pcMM'S, who eloetod Ariovald <tf Turin, his lirofher- 
iti-liiw. Ilotharis ((l.'itl) crushed the lurhuleiit iiristoeraey, 
wtiieh thr4'atenod tho Htahility of (he empii-e, extended his 
dominions, am! hecamo famous hy tho compilation of tho 
groat ooilo uf Tjomhanl laws, nearly IIH) in nutnhor. " Ang- 
inontcd and continued hy ditVerent kings until Didier or 
Desitlerius (7r>fi-77 I K tln'se laws not (uily survived tlio ruin 
of tho Lonihard kingdom, hut hccamo tlie liasis of tho ro- 
vivjil of tho study of jurisprucienco in tho iMiddlo Ages, 
cspeoially in Germany." From tho reign of Kotlmris tlio 
royal succession ])resenfs tho usual Peonus of murder, rle- 
bauchory, intrigue, and def hronements <*ommon to all go\-- 
crnincnts of tho tinio under weak monandis, until tho 
ftccossiun of tho groat I^uitjirand (712). llo united tho 
kingd<trn hy .suhduing tho refractory aristocracy, and 
would have united Italy hut for the intrigues of tho Church 
of Koiui', which then, as at all sui>.se(iuent j)eriodn, opposed 
tho union of Itnl^'. Aided by Popes (Jregory II. and III., 
tho Lombards wore successively attacked by Popin and 
Charleiungno. Uatchis, who succeeded Luitprand (7M)j 
was so far influenced by the prjpe as to become a monk. 
A-stolofo, his bDther. who Itocatue king in 710, endeavortrd 
to carry out the uUl Lombard ideas, but was cheeked by 
Popin. Desidorius or Didior, his successor, had for co- 
regent Ratchis, who was taken from tho cloister. Getting 
rill of Ratchis, T)esiderius ruled alone. Ilis daughter, 
Ilorinongibia, married (UiarlemagDe, but as soon as tho 
latter was on tho throno ho divorced his wife and sent her 
back to her father. For revenge, Desiderius supported tho 
claims of the children of Carlomnn, Charlemagne's brother, 
and marched upon Il'une. which had supported tho out- 
rngo cnnTnittisd by ('harlemagne, leaving his throne in 
charge of his son. Adelchis. Charlemagne invaded Italy 
(77^1) and conquered Adelchis. who fletl to Constantinople. 
Desidorius, who was made prisoner, ended liis days as a 
monk in tho monastery of Corbia. In 776 the Lombard 
government of dukes was ropluced by that of tho Franks, 
and in SO;', by treaty between Nicephorus, tho emperor of the 
East, and Charlemagne, all of Lombardy. with the greater 
part of Italy, was transferreil to the former. Thus per- 
ished the Lombard rule after a duration of 206 years. 
The Lombard laws and architecture, art an<l culture, were 
of a high order, and no race of the Transition or Roman- 
esque period developed greater energy or originality, or 
exorcised a greater inlluence upon tho Teutonic races of 
Kurope. 

Tho name Lnmhayth also was given during tho Middle 
Ages to a vast numl>er of shrewd and intelligent Ttalinnsi, 
primupally from Lomliardy, who abounded in Ltmdon and 
Paris during the twelftli century. They were principally 
brokers, bankers, and usurers, who advatieed money on all 
kinds of securities. Lombard street in London derived its 
name from them, and there is in Paris another, onoo entirely 
occupied by Lombards, wliich bears the same designation. 
That of London still is, what the Lombanl street of Paris 
was, the great tinaneial centre of tho country. Both in 
France and Kngland the Lombards were regarded, though 
in less d \gree. Ukc the Jews, as a despised race, and were 
aeeordingly oppressed by tho sovereigns of those coun- 
tries. CiiAiti.Es G. Lki.anh. 

liOm'bardy, a territory of Northern Italy, extending 
from the \lps to tho Po, and from Lugo Maggiore and the 
Tieino, which sepnrnte it from Piedmont, to Lago di Garda 
and the .Mincio, which separate it from \'enetia. It con- 
sists of an alpine region to the X. covered with )iieturesquc 
mountain-ranges anil containing beautiful valleys, ond a 
largo and exceedingly fertile plain to the S., exteu'ling 
along tho Po, and watered by tho Tieino. Lambro. Adda, 
Oglio, and Mincio. This plain, with its rich soil and mild 
climate, is not only one of the most fertile, but also one of 
the best cultivated and most prosperous parts of tho king- 



dom of Italy. Largo cropn of wheat, maizft, rici*, an'J mil 

let arc raiMetl. Midonn, oranges, flgs, citrons, peachec, 
olives, and mulberry trees arc extensively rultivated ; also 
vines, though tlie wine produced is of Inferior quality. Th- 
prineipfil industry is dairy-farming, whieh annually pro 
duces about .'.t 1,000,1100 pounds of excellent ehecNc. Th- 
principal manuf)u:turo Is silk, which is pr<idueed in large 
qiianlilies and of excellent quality ; the annual value of 
this single product is estimated at $1. '(,000,000. The hilly 
region is rich in heaiititui marbles. The territory, eoni 
prising an area of liOK.> square miles, with a population of 
.'{,'100,S21, does not form a political unit ut preiicnt, but is 
divided into the provinces of Rergamo, lireselu, Como. 
Cri'nionii, Milan, Pavia, and Rondrio. It received its name 
from the LoMiiAUiis (which see), who in .OOt* conqm-red 
Northern and Central Italy and ef^triblinhed an independent 
kingil'trii. which flourished till 77), at whieh lime it was in- 
corp'trated with the Carlovingian empire. Ry the treaty 
of N'ordiin in Hi;{, I^ombardy, together with a long but 
narrow strip of country situated between France and Ger- 
many, ami inhabited by Frankislj tribirs, was formed into 
a kingdom under a ruler of the Carlovingiiin bougie, and it 
remaineil a Frankish possession till tlio death of Charles 
tho Fat, in HH8. After this tinio several independent 
duchies arose in the eastern portion of the old Loinbardian 
dominions^ and in UGl the western ami central parts, Lorn 
bardy proper, fell under the feudal authority of the (ierman 
empire. In the beginning of the eleventh century it sue. 
ceeded in separating itself from Germany, and a number 
of small republics, generally consisting of one city only. 
with a dependent territory, were formed. This period of 
its history, which lasted to the middle of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, is perhaps the most interesting and prosperous. Twice 
united into powerful leagues, the Lombard cities defeated 
Frederic Rarbarossa in 1176 ami Frederic IL in 122.5: 
and after the dissolution of the league Milan still r<tnnined 
a ])ower whieh commanded some respect under the sway of 
tlio ViscosTis and Sfohzas (whieh see). In 1.010, Spain 
subdued the North Italian republics, and held the country 
to 1706, when it fell to Austria. Ituring the war? between 
France and Austria at the end of the eighteenth and the 
beginning of the nineteenth centuries, Lombardy succcs- 
sivcty belonged to the Cisalpine republic, tlie Italian re- 
public, and the kingdom of Italy, but in \^\h it was restored 
to Austria, whieh ceded it to the king of Sardinia in IJSJU 
by tho treaty of Villafranca. 

Lombok'y ono of the group of the Snnda Islands, in 
the Malay Archipelago, situatcil between Rali and Sum- 
bawa, and belonging to the Netherlands. Its area is esti- 
mated at I^TjO square mile? ; its population at 250,000, all 
Mohammedans. Its coasts are mountainous, containing 
several active volcanoes: the interior is a low and fertile 
plain, in which rice and cotton are extensively cultivated. 
as cotton on the hillsides. The capital is Mataram : 
the seaport Ampanara, much frequented to obtain pro- 
visions. 

Lom'briz [Sp./* intestinal worm "], an epizootic dieeaj^c 
destroying multitudes of young sheep in Texas and Mexico. 
The sheep has in its stomach and flesh multitudes of lonu'. 
reddish, hair-like worms. It is best prevented by liberal 
feeding and good care for the breeding ewes and theyoung 
Iambs, since well-fed sheep throw off the parasites early. 
Tho administration of salt water, or of salt, sulphur, and 
copperas in equal parts, in a few small doses, will, it is as- 
serted, destroy the worms without harming the sheep. 

Lom6iiie, tie {Loi is LEosAnnl. b. in 1S18 at Pt. 
Yrieix, dejiartmeut of Haute-Vicnne. France: studied a' 
Avignon; began inlSIO in Paris the publication of lb- 
(rtflerie drH (\mtrmpnraiua iffitMtrcH, par tin Ilmumc fin Him 
(10 vols., finished in 1847), which attracted much attention : 
was appointed professor in French literature at theColK-ge 
do France in 1S16. and at the Kcole Polytcehnique in IS64. 
Another series of biographies, HniNtnrx dr '89^ has not been 
finished. In 1S55 he publi.shcd IlcaumarrhntM d gnn Tcuipn 
(2 vols.), rich in original researches, and republished in 
the r, S. D. Apr. 2, 1S7S. 

Lomi'ra, post-tp. of Podge co., Wis. Pop. 1905. 

Lo'inontl, Loch, the largest lake of Scotland. 21 miles 
long, comprising au area of 40 square miles, and situatrd 
between the counties of Stirling, Perth, and Dumbarton. 
It receives the Endrick. Luss, and Fniin. and sends its 
waters through the Leven to the Frith of Clyde. Il is 
studded with islands and surrounded by grand and beau- 
tiful scenery. 

Lom'za, town of Russia, in the government of Augus- 
towo, on the Narev. a tributary of the Vistula. It has a 
college, a gymnasium, nnd was formerly one of the m«'*t 
important towns of Poland, but was destroyed by the 
Swedes, and never recovered. Pop. 10,340. 



100 



LONACONING— LONDON. 



IjOUacon'ingy post-v. and tp. of Gurrett co., Md., on 
George's Creek, and on the Cumberland and Pennsylvania 
R. R.. has beds of excellent semi-bituminous coal. It has 
1 weekly newspaper. Pup. 39S3. 

Lona^o, town of Northern Italy, in the province of 
Brescia. This town, of Roman origin, after being again 
and again desolated by war and pestilence during the Mid- 
dle Ages, has been in modern times the scene of two great 
battles between the French and Austrian? — onn in 1706, and 
the other in 1796, in both of which the French were victor- 
ious. Pop. within the municipal limits in 1874, 6462. 

Lon'don, the metropolis of Great Britain, is situated 
on both sides of the Thames. 60 miles from its mouth, in 
lat. .t1° 30' 48" N.,lon. 0° 5' 48" W. (the dome of St. Paul's 
cathedral). Its size is somewhat indefinite. The postal 
district covers an area of 250 square miles. The police 
district extends still farther, covering an area of 687 square 
miles, and including (in 1S71) a population of .3,883,092. 
On the other hand, the parliamentary London is much 
narrower. It consists of ten boroughs, of which the city 
of London, although the smallest (having 74,7"2 inhabit- 
ants in 1871), is represented by four members, on account 
of its commercial and financial importance, while each of 
the other nine, although larger, is represented only by 
two: Westminster, 246,413; Chelsea. 258,01! ; Marylebone, 
477,555; Hackney, 362,427; Finsbury, 443,316; Tower 
Hamlets, 391,568; Lambeth, 379,112; Southwark, 207,335; 
Greenwich, 167,632. But together these ten boroughs rep- 
resent only a population of about 3,000,000, and the re- 
mainder of the inhabitants of the city belong to non-metro- 
politan electoral districts. Generally, however, the size of 
the city is determined by the area under the operation of 
the Metropolis Local Government act, which is also adopt- 
ed by the registrar-general for the census. According to 
this definition, London covers an area of 122 square miles, 
forming parts of the counties of Middlesex, Surrey, and 
Kent, with about 3.400,000 inhabitants in 1874, and con- 
sists of the following divisions, for which the population is 
given according to the census of 1871: 

Parts of Middlesex. 
Weet Districts. 

Kensington 283,153 

Chelsea 71,689 

St. George, Hanover Square 355,936 

Westminster 51,181 

North Diatricta. 

Marylebone 159,254 

Harapstead 32,281 

St. Pancras 221,465 

Islington 213,778 

Hackney 124,951 

Central Dieiricta. 

St. Giles's 53,556 

Strand - 41,339 

Holborn 103,491 

London City 75,983 

Ennt Diatricta. 

Shoredltcb 127.164 

Betbnal Green 120,104 

Wliitechapel 76.573 

St. George-in-the-Eaat 48,052 

Stepney 57,690 

Mile End. Old Town .. .. 93,152 

Poplar 116.376 

2,286,568 
Parts of Surrey. 

South Diatricta. 

St. Saviour 1 o„,.,„^,t ( 175,049 

St.Olave jSouthwark j ^.^^ 

Lambeth 208.:;42 

Wandaworth 125,060 

Camberwell .llli-^Oe 

742,155 
Parts of Kent. 

Greenwich „ 100,600 

Lewlshara 51,557 

Woolwich 73,380 

225.537 
Thu.s, the total population was ^^,254.260 in 1R71, of which 
41,029 were born in Scotland. 91.171 in Ireland. 20.324 in 
the colonie.» and In<lia. 5170 in the islands of the Hritit^h 
seas, and 1205 on Hbips at sea; (16,101 were fr>reignerrt. 

In its coureo tbrimgh the city the width of the Thames 
varies from 700 to 1200 feet. It is wpnnned by a great 
number of magnificent bridges, of which the most re- 
markable are Lond'in liridge, 900 feet, long, of 8tone, daily 
crossed by 25,000 vehicIcK; Waterl()0 Rri<igc, 1240 feet long, 
consisting of nino elliptical arches: Westminster Itridge, 
1200 font long, confiiflting of seven iron archer recting on 
fltfine piers, etc. Several tunnels uihI'T tint river eonncct 
*.ho two banks. The Tham-.H Tunu'l, two miles below Lon- 



; don Bridge, was opened Mar. 25, 1843. and consists of two 
arched passages, 1200 feet long, 14 feet wide, and 10 J feet 
' high, separated by a brick wall 4 feet thick. In 1S05 tlio 
• tunnel was bought by the East Loudon Railway Company 
' to connect the railways N. of the Thames with those on 
j the .southern side, and July 19, 1S09, it was closed as a 
public footway. The Thames Subway, carried 25 feet be- 
■ low the bed of the river, was opened in the beginning of 
I 1S70, and two others are under construction. At London 
Bridge the Thames has sufficient water to admit vessels of 
I 800 tons, and between this point and Bigsby's Hole, 6J 
I miles farther down, opposite Blackwall, extends the port 
I of London, with its twenty-eight magnificent wet docks. 
The most remarkable of these are the East India, M'est In- 
dia, St. Katharine's and London docks, with the famous 
wiuc-vaults; and on the other side the Surrey ami Com- 
mercial docks, mosfiy for the timber and corn trades. 1993 
Bailing vessels of 694,218 tons, and S-16 steamers of 447,839 
tons, were registered as belonging to the port on Jan. 1, 
1S74. The total number of vessels entering during the year 
1S73 was 38,810, of 7,843,041 tons— namely, 11,017 vessels, 
of 4,547,934 tons, from foreign countries and the British 
possessions, and 27,793 vessels, of 3,295,107 tons, in Ihc 
coastwise trade. The total value of imports from foreign 
countries or the British possessions during this year was 
estimated at £127,560,447, on which the customs revenue 
amounted to £10,103,085-; that of the exports of British 
produce at £57,199,098. Shipbuilding yards are situated 
opposite Greenwich; 29 vessels of 6881 tons were built in 
1873. Of other manufactures carried on to a remarkable 
extent are those of silk, employing about 100,000 persons; 
clocks, watches, carriages, jewelry, gold and silver ware, 
etc.; enormous breweries nnd sugar-refineries are in opera- 
tion. The manufacturing activitj- of the city is chiefly car- 
ried on in the districts S. of the river; that of carriages, 
however, ia concentrated at Long Acre. The commerce and 
regular business are carried on in that part of the city which 
is distinctively called the Cifi/ of London, situated on the 
northern bank of the river, and forming the centre of the 
whole hive; it has its own police, and is said to be entered 
every morning by 700,000 persons, who leave it again in 
the evening. 

The principal thoroughfares run from E. to W., parallel 
with the river. The western part is the seat of most of the 
public institutions and the residence of the wealthy and 
aristocratic classes, A prominent feature in the prospect 
of the city are the Thames embankments or river-quays. 
The V^ictoria embankment, on the northern side, runs from 
Westminster Bridge to Blackfriars' Bridge, and forms a 
magnificent public way. 100 feet broad, from the houses of 
Parliament to St. Paul's cathedral; it was opened in 1870. 
The Albert embankment, on the Bouthern side, runs from 
Westminster Bridge to Lambeth Palace, the town-re?ideDce 
of the archbishop of Canterbury. The Chelsea embankment 
begins at Chelsea Hospital, and presents an excellent road- 
way 70 feet wide, and lined on the land-side wilh numer- 
ous pleasure-grounds. Of the squares, of which a great 
number is scattered all over the city, and of which many 
are planted with beautiful trees and are well cultivated, 
the largest are Eaton, 1637 by 371 feet ; Cadogan, 1450 by 
370; Bryanston, 814 by 198; and Montagu Square, 820 by 
156; the most fashionable are Belgrave, Grosvenor, St. 
James's, Hanover, Cavendish, and Trafalgar Squares, with 
the Nelson Column, the statues of Ilavelock and Napier, 
and fine fountains; the most crowded, because situated in 
the eastern quarters and mostly surrounded by lodging- 
houses, are Great Ormond. Queen, Brunswick, and Meck- 
lenburg Squares. Soho Square, near Oxford stret-t, one of 
the gayest points of the city in the days of the prince re- 
gent, but afterwards somewhat dcfcrted, has of late been 
embellished by a beautiful garden. Of the public parks, 
the most prominent is Hyde Park, comprising an area of 
about 400 acres between Green I*ark and Kensington Gar- 
dens, and containing a fine sheet of water, the Serpentine, 
an excellent drive. Rotten Row {route flu roi), from Apsley 
House to Kensington Gardens, and the splendid Albert 
monument, erected on the site of the Crystal Palace of 
1S5I. Remarkable among the other parks arc the Regent's 
Park, comprising 450 acres, and containing a zoological 
and botiiiiieal garden: St. James's (59 acres), extending 
between Si. .lame.s'n Palace, Buckingham Palace, and the 
WellingtMn BnrrarkH ; (Jreen Park (GO acres), between 
Hyde Park and J'ircadilly. from which it is entered through 
a triumphal arch .surmnnnted by an equestrian statue of 
Wellington; Victoria Park f30tl acres), in the north-rast- 
erii part of the city ; Ki-n.^ingJon Gardens, a beautiful jtieco 
of ground j-eparatcd from Hyde Park by the Serp<>ntiiie ; the 
Kew Botanical Gjirdens. situated 5 miles from Hyde Park, 
on the road to Rii-limimd. and euniprisiiig 170 ai-rcs, etc. 

The citadel of Iiond'Oi. tbn Tuvver. in pcrliaps tlif iiu>8t 
interesting and mo.-Jt wiib-ly known of its public buildings. 



U)S DOS -LOS DOS CLA V. 



•'i 



It is ttituntod at tho oantorn oxtroinity of Iho city, nnd con- | 
Biats of II lj«'vvil<J«'rinf^ imiMn (if tuvrvrf, forlH, buttcrif-'H, niin- 
partH, ImniickH, anil nl(»n?l»oii8CH, covering an area of i)0(t 
feet \>y MOK. Tin- i»lij.-nr part of tlio l)uil'linK i.s tlio Whifo [ 
Tnwt'r, cnriHtrurtnl liy Williatii tln^ ronrjiHT'ir, aiitl iiliiioHt 
urK^haiit^fil in tliu iiiti-rior, thoiit;h uxtorniilly rtMinii|flI<'(l by ( 
Wn-ii. Other rdinarkiitili; puintH of tho (MmHlniclioii an: 
Iho lllutnly Tnwrr, in which tho HonH of Kdwurfl IV. won? i 
iiuinlrrtMl ; H<'auehaiii|) Tower, in whit^h Anno Hoh'yn ami ' 
.laiin (Ircy woro rlnlaiiH'l ; llio llfll Towrr, in which tlio | 
ooiiHtahhi ro.siih'H; tho j^alhirioi of tho IlurKO Armory an<l 
Qiir'<!n Klizahoth Armory, c-orilaininj; fin« colloc(ion« of 
arms; tho .lowol Room, in whi<-h tho rr^^nlia of tho Kn^- 
lish crown i« kept, otc. Ah a fortrows the Towor in not 
of ^rcat eonMcfjucncc, hut it conlaina vaot nloro8 of war- 
iiiatoriaJH. Of tho royal palace**, nono Im very remarkable; 
Dioy arc uiuro diHlin^iiiohe<t tor vastnct*!! of (liiuent«ionfl 
thon for cU'f^iinco of architecture. Ittiokin^liam Palace 
was ln'j^uri hy tJeorj;o I \'. an<l finiHhed hy William I \'. 
I(, forms au iuiincnso ipiadt jiiij;lo, containH a fiuc: colleo- 
liori of pictureH, tL ma^iiilU'rnt hall-rtiom, ciipuhlo of ro- 
coivinff ioOO persona, a sploudid staircaflu of white marhlo, 
eto. ; hut it Ih only used on great oooasionp. Tho tjuocn rc- 
pides, when in town, in KensioKton Palace, and hoMs lior 
dru wins-rooms in St. JiimcM's, Marlhorouj^h House, in 
I'jill Mall, was liuilt by Wren for the duko of Marlborough, 
and bought in 1HI7 by tho Crown; it is now the ro«idcnco 
of the prince of Wales. Tho new Westminster Palace, or 
tho houses of Parliament, stands on tho left liank of the 
Thames, hrtwcon tho river nnd Westminster Abbey, on the 
fiito of the old palace. whi<^h was destroyed by tiro in 18;j|. 
It ia a vast construction, covering nn area of H acres, con- 
taining 2 miles of corridors, 100 staircases, nnd 1 100 apart- 
ments, among which aro the House of Lords, IW) feet by 
4.T, tlio Ilouso of Commons, 00 feet by 4'!, aiul tho famous 
Westminster Hall. 290 foei long, 110 iiigb. an<l 08 wide, in 
which tho highest law courts of Englainl are held. It ig 
built in (iothic style, very clahorato in its details, and rich, 
even gorgeous, in its interior decoration. 

Next to Iho Tower in historical interest, and far superior 
to it in architectural respects, is Westminster Abbey. The 
oldest parta of tho jiresent building, tho choir and tho 
transepts, were erected in tho thirteenth century by IJenry 
HI., the nave nnd the aisles in the fourteenth and tifleenth 
centuries by ibe abliots, tho western front and the great win- 
dow by Riciiard III., the famous chapel at tho eastern ex- 
tremity by Henry VH.. who also completed tho interior, 
and tho upper part of the western towers by Wren. Tlic 
present structure is oil feet long, 20;i across tho transepts. 
79 across the nave and aisles; the height of tho nave is 
102 feet; of tho towers, 22.'>. From tho time of Kdwnrd 
the Confessor tho kings of England liavo been crowned 
here, and most of thein, after Henry VII., lie buried <tr 
have their monuments here. An interesting spot of the 
building is called " Poets' Corner," in tho eastern aisle of 
tho southern transejit, in which the most illustrious men 
of English science, literature, and art are buried or have 
their monuments. Tho cathedral of tho sec of I^ondon is 
tho church of St. Paul, built by Wren between 1075 and 
1710, It is :.00 feet long, 180 wide, 222 high: the height 
of the dome is ;'>0J feet, the diameter I to. It is the fifth 
largest church in Kurope. Tho obiest church of liondon is 
St, Bartholomew the Great. West Smitblield. built in 1102 
and resiored 186o-fi7. In all, the city contains ab(uu loOO 
places of worship — 000 belonging to the Established Church, 
400 to the Wesleyau and other Methodists. :U10 to the IJap- 
tists, loO to the Congregationalists, 100 to the Koman 
Catholics, about 2o to the English and other Presbyterians, 
20 synagogues, etc. The British and Foreign Bible Society 
of London distributes annually 4,000.000 IJibles in 200 
languages. London has a large number of hnj^pitals and 
over 1 000 charitable institutions, with an annual income 
of about £5.000,000, half of which is disbursed for food 
au'l clothing alone. By the Elementary Education act of 
1870 the city was divided into ten school districts, rcpre- 
gonted in the central school board by 49 members. This 
board is authorized to jtrovide new schools and compel tho 
attendance of children between live and twelve years of 
age. Tho school funds are raised from parents, public 
taxe.s, and local funds. Before the enactment of this law, 
in tho year 1809-70 there were within tho space of a square 
mile in the eastern part of the city 40.000 children, of 
whom 30,000 received no instruction. The schools for the 
middle class have been sufficient in number an<I good for a 
long period hack, and those for higher or special educa- 
tions, commercial, industrial, artistic, nulitnry. etc., are 
excoilent. First among all educational institutions of Lon- 
don stands the British MrsEiM (which see), but the citv 
has besides about 50 large libraries accessible to the public, 
excellent collections illustrative of industry and art in the 
Kensington Museum, the National tiallery of Paintings of 



nil pchooli fn TrafalKar Bqtiarc, and a great Dumber of 
private colleelionH. Th« number of theuircH umountfi l<. 
about 40, but Hince the ago of ShakHpeare tho Knglinh 
Htugo huH never oircupied n prominent pof^itjiin. \V'jtli n- 
Hpeot to murtic. although ICngland han produced no great 
composer, nowhere can bettor muHir; be heard than >ii l:.on' 
don, and muiiicul iniititutiuuii aud aiBOoialioufl aru wry 
numerous. 

London {Lontliin'uni, Anf/imtn Trinohaulum) firnt appearn 
in hiHtory as n Roman Ktation in the r)-ign of C]aiidiup> ; 
under Conslantine tho (treat it was fortified. After the 'ie 
parture of tho Roman troops it became the capital of the 
y.n'*l Saxon kingdom, and in tho ninth century, under Eg- 
bert, tho capital of tfie united Saxon kingdoms. William 
tho Contjueror granted it a cdiarter, whit:h wan renewed and 
enlarged by Henry I. in 1100. From this time, ami up to 
our days, the city has always been most intimately con- 
nected with the history of the country. There is hardly 
any great event or any great character in the Englitth bin- 
lory and literature of which some trace cannot be found in 
London. The kings were (<fton very jealous of its privileges 
and power, ancl favored Westminster, where thoy resided, 
and whiei) at that time was a separate city. Even Eliza- 
beth, although f-lie contributed much to the prosperity of 
Lonilon 1>3' suppressing the privileges of the llanseatic 
League, feared ihat it would grow too big. In the latter 
part of the seventeenth century it suffered severely — first, 
DV the plague in 1005, which cost the lives of 65,000, while 
the total population was only about 200,000; and thefollow- 
ing year by a great conflagration, which destroyed about 
five-sixths of the whole city. It soon recovered, however, 
and made immense progress, especially in this century ; be- 
tween 1801 aud 1871 its population increased from 95S,8C.'J 
to .1,254,200. It is now one of Iho great centres of modern 
civilization, and more especially tho centre of tho com- 
merce of tlio world; every enterprise of any great magni- 
tude looks to it for capital. And as a place of elegance. 
co[ufort, and safety it stands in the foremost rank among 
cities, its police, fir© departments, means of conveyance and 
coinmunication, relief and sanitary institutions, etc., being 
models in their respective lines. Clemkns Petf.ksks. 

London, city and port of entry, capital of Middlesex 
CO.. Ont., Canada, on the river Thames, and on the Great 
Western Railway, 01 miles E. of Sarnia, is tho N. terminus 
of tho London and Port Stanley Railway and the S. termi- 
nus of a branch of the (J rand Trunk. It is surrounded by 
a very fertile and well-tiuiV>ered district, has 5 banks, a 
board of trade, and 17 churches, is the scat of a Roman 
Catholic bishop and of the Anglican bishop of Huron, has 
numerous benevolent societies, a convent, a well-regulated 
school, fire and police departments, and is the seat of IIcll- 
niuth College, Ilellnmth Ladies' College, aud of Huron Col- 
lege, all flourishing institutions. There are 2 literary and 
several religious societies, 3 monthly, 5 weekly, I tri-weekly, 
and 2 daily newspapers, an orphan asylum, a hospital, ami 
an insane hospital. London is well laid out, and is lighted 
by gas; has a large number of machine-shops, breweries, 
oil-refineries, foundries, and other manufacturing establish- 
ments. The public buildings, bridges, streets, squares, mar- 
kets, etc. are for the most part named after those of Loudon 
in tho mother-country. Many of the public buildings are 
architecturally very fine. Pop. of the city in 1871, 15,826; 
of London township, exclusive, 10.991. 

London, tp. of Fayette co.. III. Pop, 1186. 

London, post-v., cap. of Laurel co., Ky.. near Knox- 
ville liranch of Louisville and Nashville R. R. Pop. 165. 

London, post-tp. of Monroe co., Mich. Pop. 1031. 

London, tp. of Freeborn co., Minn. Pop. 311. 

London, post-v., cap. of Madison co., 0., on the Pan- 
Hantllo and Short Line R. R.. 25 miles W. of Columbus. 
has 5 churches, 3 newspapers. 3 banks, and a number of 
shops, mills, stores, etc. Stock sales have been held here 
the first Tuesday of each month for the past twenty-five 
years. Pop. 2000. Jons W.\Li..\rE. En. *' Estf.uimuse." 

London, tp. of Kanawha co.. West Va, Pop. 2792. 

Lon'don Brit'ain, tp. of Chester co.. Pa, Pop. 603. 

London Clay, a series of argillaceous strata, in places 
from j(iO to 600 feet in thickness, forming the most import- 
ant member of the Lower Eocene of England and the north- 
ern extremity of France, and underlying the city of Lou- 
don. The remains of mammals ( fl^racothfrium, Lnphiodon, 
Cori/phodon), of birds ( Hnlcynrnity Ltthonitg, and some 
others), of a sea-snake (Pats»phi*), and of marine turtles 
and at least eighty species of fish, have been found in 
these beds, which also abound in shells (upwards of 250 
species have been recorded), and have also yielded a great 
variety of plant remains (palm fruits, etc.) of tropical or 
sub-tropical aspect. The fauna .ind flora thus indicate to 
us that these strata were deposits in a d;;lta or in a limited 



102 



LONDONDERRY— LONG. 



sea receiving waters flowiug from a torrid region of tlie 
earth. 

Lon'donderry, county of Ireland, in tlie province of 
Ulster, bordering on the Atlantic. Area, 810 square miles. 
The surface is mostly hilly and rugged, with fertile tracts 
along the rivers Baun. Fuyle, Faughan, Roe, und Mayola, 
with°their numerous affluents. Oats, barley, potatoes, and 
flax are the common crops ; linen is the principal manufac- 
ture. Pop. 173.905, of whom 34,339 are unable to read or 
write. From 1S51 to 1872, 49,664 persons emigrated from 
this county. A great part of the ground is held by the in- 
habitants by lease under the Irish Society and the twelve 
London companies, to which it was granted by James I. 

Londonderry, city of Ireland, capital of the county 
of Londonderry, on the Foyle, which is crossed by an iron 
bridge 1200 feet long, is built on a hill, on whose top stands 
the "cathedral of Derry. and was formerly fortified, has 
many breweries and distilleries, and considerable manufac- 
tures of linen and ropes. The salmon fisheries of Lough 
Foyle are very productive. Poj). 25,241. 

Londonderry, post-tp. of Rockingham co., N. H., on 
the Manchester and Lawrence R. R., 6 miles S. E. of Man- 
.chester, has manufactures of shoes. Pop. 1405. 

Londonderry, post-v. and tp. of Guernsey co., 0. 
Pop. of V. 09 ; "f tp. 1313. 

Londonderry, a v. (Gillespie P. 0.) of Liberty tp., 
Ross CO., 0. Pop. 163. London Station (Vigo P. 0.) is 
on the Cincinnati and Marietta R. R., 1 mile from London- 
derry, Pop. 57. 
Londonderry, tp. of Bedford co.. Pa. Pop. 1255. 
Londonderry, post-tp. of Chester co.. Pa. Pop. 714. 
Londonderry, tp. of Ikiuphin co., Pa. Pop. 1935. 
Londonderry, tp. of Lebanon co.. Pa. Pop. 2212. 
Londonderry, post-v. and tp. of Windham co.,Vt., 15 
miles E. of JIancliester. The village has an academy, and 
manufactures of woollens, lumber, furniture, etc. South 
Londonderry (post-v.) also has an academy, and manufac- 
tures of lumber, chair-stock, leather, and various other 
articles. Pop. 1252. 

Londonderry (Charles William Stewart Vane), 
THIRD MARQl-ls OF, b. at Dublin, Ireland, May IS, 177S; 
served on the Continent both as a soldier and a diplomatist 
during the wars of the French Revolution ; aided in sup- 
pressing the Irish rebellion of 179S; accompanied Al)er- 
crombie to Egypt in 1801, in which yeiir he entered Par- 
liament; became colonel, aide-de-camp to the king, and 
under-secretary for the war department in 1803; distin- 
guished himself at the head of a brigade of hussars under 
Sir John Moore in Spain (1808-09); was adjutant-general 
to Sir Arthur Wellesley (1809-13). distinguishing himself 
at Talavera and other battles, for which he received the 
thanks of Parliament and the order of the Bath ; went as 
ambassador to Berlin in IS13, to Austria in 1814, and was 
a member of the Congress of Vienna in 1 SI 5 : was made privy 
councillor, lieutenant-general, and Baron Stewart in 1814; 
assumed the surname of Vane in 1819 on his marriage with 
the heiress of that title : succeeded his half-brother Robert 
as marquis of Londonderry in 1822 ; was made Earl Vane 
and Viscount Scaham in 1823, general in 1837, colonel of 
lifeguards in 1843. knight of the Garter in 1852. D. in 
London Mar. 6, 1854. Under his original name of Stewart 
he was author of a Ilinlon/ i,f the I'miumiUir War (1808- 
13). and as uianjuis of Londonderry he edited the Corre- 
ajmidcnce of his Itrother, Lord Castlereagh (1850). In devel- 
oping the vast estates of his wife in Durham he constructed 
at his own expense the harbor of Seahara. 

Londonderry, secosd marquis of. Sec Castle- 

KEACin, Uaki. i>1'. 

London (Jrove, post-tp. of Chester co., Pa. Pop. 
1804. 

I undon Pride {fiuxifrntfa nmhrnmi), a perennial 
evergreen (ilant, a native of Southern Europe, frequently 
found in England and in Ireland, where it is called St. 
P.atrick's cabbage, from its thick cluster of loaves. The 
stem grows a foot high, mid hears small jiink Ihiwcrs with 
darker spots. Being unalVccted by smoke, it grows well in 
the En'.,'lisli cities, especially in London, whence its name. 

London Station. See Loxiwsdekiiv, Ross co., 0. 

London, University of, originally incorporated in 
1825. was reorganized in 1H36, the former university tak- 
ing the name of University College, and a new university 
then received a charter, which has been amonileil in 1837, 
1S50, and 185S. The university proper consists (d' a sen- 
ate and a board of examiners. It docs not instruct, hut 
examines, confers degrees, certificates, and prizes, and 
sends one member to Parliament. There arc several col- 
leges and schools in various parts of the kingdom affiliated 



with the university. Those at London are University Col- 
lege, King's College, and New College. If the London Uni- 
versity is less distinguished for the eminence of its gradu- 
ates in classical learning and pure mathematics than the 
old English universities, it is certain that in the natural 
and physical sciences and the professions of law and med- 
icine its diplomas are not less valued than those of cither 
Oxford or Cambridge. 
Lone Oak, post-tp. of Bates co., Mo. Pop. LWO. 
Lone Pine, post-tp. of Inyo co., Cal. Pop. 458. 
Lone Kock, post-v. of Richland co.. Wis., on the Mil- 
waukee and St. Paul R. R., 1 mile E. of Wisconsin River, 
has large manufactures of cheese. 

Lone Tree (now Central City), post-v., cap. of Mer- 
rick CO.. Neb., on the Union Pacific R. R., 132 miles W. of 
Omaha, H miles from the Platte River, and near the centre 
of a fine agricultural district in the Platte Valley, has a large 
brick court-house, 2 churches, a large school-house, a week- 
ly newspaper, a fine diipfit, 2 telegraph-offices, a bank, a 
hotel, a steam grist-mill, a steam grain-elevator and ware- 
house, and several stores and shops. Pop. about 450. 

Geo. a. Percival, Ed. " Lo.ne Tree Courier." 
Long, in music. See Large. 

Long (Gen. Armistead L.),b. in Virginia in 1826; grad- 
uated at West Point in 1850 ; entered the artillery as brevet 
second lieutenant ; in June, 1861, after serving four months 
on the staff of Gen. Sumner, he resigned to follow the for- 
tunes of his native State; became brig.-gen., and was killed 
at the battle of Peach Tree Creek, July 20, 1864. 

Long (Gen. Eli), b. in Woodford CO., Ky., June 16, 1837; 
graduated at Frankfort (Ky.) Military School in 1S55, and 
in 1856 was appointed a second lieutenant of cavalry in 
the U. S. army ; prior to 1861 he served with his regiment, 
mainly against hostile Indians; on May 24, 1861, he at- 
tained the rank of captain. Throughout the civil war he 
was actively engaged in the West, at Perryville, Murfrees- 
boro', Chicliamauga, and in the Atlanta campaign, as colonel 
of the 4th Ohio cavalry since Feb., 1863, but in command 
of a brigade most of the time prior to his appointment as 
brigadier-general in .\ug., 1864. In Apr., 1865, he led his 
division of cavalry in the charge upon the intrenchmcnts 
which resulted in the capture of Selnia, Ala., being himself 
severely wounded in the head; for these services he was 
brevetted brigadier and major general, and in 1S67 was 
retired upon the full rank of m.ijor-general. 

Long (George), b. at PouUon, Lancashire, England, 
in 1800; educated at Macclesfield School and at Trinity 
College. Cambridge, where he was elected to the Craven 
scholarship at the same time with Macaulay ; graduated in 
1822 as first chancellor's medallist, and obtained a fellow- 
ship. Two years later (1824) he was appointed professor 
of ancient languages in the University of "N'irginia, then 
being organized by the care of Thomas Jefierson, and, 
along with Prof. "T. H. Key and other Englisii scholars, 
spent two years at Charlottesville, Va. Returning to Eng- 
land in 1826, he was pnifessor of Greek in London Univer- 
sity until 1831, when he devoted himself to the literary 
enterprises of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Know- 
ledge, editing for that association tiie Qimrtryfi/ Journal 
I of Edmiilion (1831-35), the ri;„;/rn/,l,ir,il Vlrll„nnr;/ (1842 
1 -44), and the Piuiii/ Ci/clopiFtlia { 1833-46). He was called 
to the bar at the inner Temple in 1837, became professor 
of Latin at University College, London (1842-46), lecturer 
on jurisprudence and civil law at the Slidillc Temple (18-16 
-49), and professor of classical literature in the Proprietary 
College at Brighton from 1849 to 1871, receiving in 1873 a 
royal pension of £100. He was general editor of a HlhU- 
olheca CUimira ; jmblished an analysis of Ilrrixliilnn and a 
Clasnical Allan, and a valuable edition of Ciesar's OaUic 
War an<l of Sulluil. lie translateil SiUrl lArcn from 
Pliitarcli, Tliv TIkiiijIiIh of the Kmjivrnr MarciiH Aurditit, 
contributed largely to Dr. Smith's CtiiHuieal IHrtioiiarieH, 
wrote geographical treatises on England and Wales and on 
America, lliatonj of Fraiuc (1849). and Thr fhrliiic of the 
lioman Hrfmhil'c (1804-74). In 1875 he was employed on 
a new translation of Iii,irl,ttiH. D. .\ug. 12, 1879. 

Long (John D.), LL.D., b. in Buekfield. Me., Oct.. 183S; 
graduated at Harvard College in 1857 ; principal of West- 
ford Academy, Mass., for 2 years ; .studied law, was admit- 
ted to the harin 1861 ; practised law in Buekfield and in Bos- 
ton; was elected to Mass. House of Representatives in 1875, 
and was its Speaker for 3 vears ; lient.-gov. of Mass. in 1S79, 
and gov. of Mass. in 1880 ; re-elected gov. Nov. 2, 1880. 

Long (Stei-hen Harriman), b. in llopkinlon, N. II., 
Dee. 311, 17H4; graduated at Dartmouth College 1809; was 
teaching school at (lermantown, Pa., in 1814, where he 
met Gen. Swift, then chief of engineers, who procured his 
a]ipoinlment in the army as second lieutenant of engineers 
Dec, 1814, and in the spring of 1815 Long was placed on 



U)S(i m:\ik -i.()N(ii-:\iTY. 



i'» ; 



duty at tbo Military Academy an iivitiHtant prof'oMiior of 
iiiiLtlH'miiMry. In Apr., IHKJ, h«; wan apiniiiitcfl ti>pn;;rii|)hicul 
rii^iijiM-i-, wifli tin' lui-xi-t liiiik ol" iiiuj<ir, nti<J umh liriv rtlcil 
lii-iih-iiiLiit-c-'ilorirl in t-^LMI; cm tlit; or^iini/iilion r»t' (lie tuiio- 
^rahliiriil cn^^infL-rH ui* a Mfpiirate corpH in IS.'IS liu lnM-unio 
inaji>r ut' that Imily, iitnl in IHlU oliiul ol' topcij;raphi<;iil m- 
gint-rr?*, Willi tho ranlt n( rtAmivA. l-'or nrurly half a ucn- 
tui-y ('i)l. I.nnj^ wii." aclivc-ly cn^jii^^fd in tho m-rvi<M; of \uh 
oonnlry, and with tho nuly rngini-uriiij; wotUh of IiIh tinn- 
liiM nanio im known in ounneutinn. IMh uxplurafion of tltu 
lIlinoiH anti ArkanMaH rivcrx in a flathoiit or canoo aH fiirly 
aH l.s[(i was ransiilci'cil ([uito a f'cal in \it^ ilay, iiml Ictl tn 
hin sulis:MiiH'nt i-xpnlii ion I-i th(i Kocky MunnUiins. wliiuh 
rxtcniliMl nvtT a peiiinl uC nt-iirly live yciir^, ami i-inhniecd 
till! ruuntry hctwi-fii Ihi- Mi^:<i.-<-ippi Uivrr ami lln; K(n;ky 
MuuntaiiiH, one of lliu Icil'tirHl pi-iiku ot' which great cluiin 
rciU'iviMl imil .-till hriirH hi.-* niitiic. An uccount of tliis ux- 
poilinon waw piililiHlx-cl in iS'j;: liy JC. .laini'S, ami in IH2t 
\y. II. Ki-aiint^ puhlisheil in two volunn'M iIr- history of 
Lon;;'8 explorution of iho mturces of the MiHsivKippi, hotli 
workf* hi'ing largt-ly froni notes of Col. Long, Wlieii tlio 
great unik'itiiking of tin- ISalliinore ami Ohio U. U. wa8 
coniinem-eil, Col. I,i>ng wus phux'il at the hi-ml of tho boart.1 
of on;^inui'is liiivin^ in (charge the Murveys iiml uon.Htructton 
of this routl ; he wan one of the earliest ami most enicirnt 
in intmiUieing in a priietieal manner great improvenivnts 
in the eonstruction ui timltor liri<lgcs for railrouii purposes ; 
ami it was wliilu neting in his {-apiviMty of i-hief engineer 
that he devisci] and patented the hridge now known hy 
his name. (See IJuinoi:.) JJosidos these im])ortiint worku, 
lie was engaged in the survey and construction of numerous, 
railroiuU in dilVert'nt stM-fions of tla- country iind in a groat 
variety of professional duty. Iti the imiiri>vrment of 
Western ri\ers and hiirhors he Inid a long experience, and 
devised valuable plans for tho removal of obstructions. 
After sowing on a hoard for the imjirovenicnt of the lower 
Missis.^ippi, ho was in ItiJtt placed in charge of that work, 
and under his supervision the contrat^ts for deepening tho 
mouths of this river were cjinductod jirior to the civil war. 
Shortly after the merging of his corps into the U. S. corps 
of engineers I'ol. Long was retired (June, ISlK!) from active 
sorvieo, IJut continucil charged with important duties until 
his death, which occurred at Alton, 111., Sept. •!. ISfil. 

(J. C. Simmons. 

liOng Acre, tp. of Beaufort co., N. C, Pop. IGol. 

liOns.'l'crc {.Iami:s Bvrtov), h. in Helawaro co., Pa., 
Aug. 11. IT'.U; S(M\)'d an apprrntictshiji with Ihe eminent 
ciigiaver Murray at IMiiladelphiii, and from isl*) was en- 
gaged for many years in illustrating American works. 
With .lames Herring ho prepared tho Xatt'tnittt Ptufniit 

Giilh^nj of Distniifuiifirt/ Am, n'rftiiH (■[ vols.. IS.'M-i'.O), a 
vahiablo work, in which many portraits are tVom <trawing8 
by Lougacre. In ISU he hecanic engraver to the V. iS. 
mint, and retained that position until his death at Phila- 
di'lphia .Ian. I, ISfilt. He designed the modern gold coinage 
of the U. S., and snperintendcil for the government of Chili 
the remodelling of the entire coinage of that country. 

Loiii; IJar, tp. of Yuha co., Cal. Pop. 61'.). 

I.oiii; ISranoh, post-v. of Ocean tp., Monmoutli co., 
N. .1., 1 I miles S. of Sandy Iic)ok and .'SO miles S. of Xcw 
York, one of the principal watering-places of tho U. S., is 
situated on tho Atlantic coast, ami takes its name from a 
brook whic'i forms a branch of South Shrewsbury River, 
and was formerly ii lishery of the Indians, who h<'ld the 
lands until about tho miildle of tlie eigiitcenih century. 
Long Branch ]jro|»er is tho "village," I mile from tho sea. 
but tho corporate limits embrace also the suburban villages 
of llranohport, Branchlmrg. AtlantievilU-, and Ihe "Shore," 
all lying within a radius of twct miles. Communication 
with New York both by steanier an 1 by rail is easy, a 
direct raiU'oail having been opened to the iniblic in July, 
187^). Tho Shnrr, where are situated The liotels, boarding- 
houses, and cottages, has a beach which may vie with the 
most celebrated in the world, having an open .sea-front of 
more than ;") miles of high commanding hlufl'. without the 
intervention of inner hays. Branchport is the nearest 
landing-place for schooners upon the Smith Slirewshury 
lltver. Athmtieville on the Shore turnpike is the princi- 
pal head-i|uarters of lishermen. and Kast Long Branch is 
on the street which connects Ihe Shore with the village. 
There are ]>ost-othees both at Kast Long Braneh au'i at the 
villa\;e. Among the hotels. Leiands' Ocean, tho Metropolitan, 
the Mansion House, United States, Howland's. East End, 
and West End are of dimensions to accommodate numerous 
summer visitors, and therearemany of lesser size. There are 
6 churches, 1 weekly newspa]»or (daily during .Inly and Aug- 
ust). I banking-house, several manufactories, and an abnnti- 
ance of stores. Tho drives are very fine. Tlie summer pop- 
ulation sometimes exceeds .10,001). Kcsident pop- about 
5000, and rapidly increasing. J. Stults, Ed. *'News." 



LoiiK UninchfpUHl-lp.orFrauklinuo., Va. Pop. 1B77. 

I.oiiu Cain, (p. ot Abbeville co., K. C. Pop. 1 (00, 

Long <'iiiH', ti v, of Troup co., ila,., on the Atlunti" 
and \\< -I I'oit.i K. K. Pop. !tiW. 

liOiig rrrrk, (p. of Boone co.. Ark. Pop. 214. 

I.<»iig i'Ti'.vU, ip. of (.'urroll co., Ark. Pop. 4.112. 

I.oiig <:reek, tp. of Macon cu., III. Pup. i:;71'. 

IjOIi;; Crcekf poHt-tp. of liecatur co., iu. Pop. 71 L 

Long Creeky poat-tp. of .Mecklenburg co., N. C. J'op. 
Mo7. 

liOng Kdily, poBt-v. of Fremont tp., Bullivan eo,, 
\. Y., on the iJehiware River, Buhkel Creek, and the Erie 
U. K. (Basket Station), huH a great water-power and im- 
portant manufacturcH. 

Lont;ct' (FitAS<;ois Arim.l.K),b. in iSll at St. Oermain- 
CM-Laye, department of Seinc-el-Oist, France; Hludted 
medicine, and especially physiology ; gained twice the 
Montyon prize of physiology at tho Academy of SeionceB ; 
was professor of i)hysiology in the faculty of medicine at 
Paris ; member of the Acfidemy of Meilieine, and conKult- 
ing physician to Napoleon IIL, and d. itt Bourdeuux in 
IS71. His principal works arc Trait/ d' Autitumir ft tir 
fhunioloijic (In SijMt^ntc uervt;tix ( LS42) and Trait/- cmnj/lrt t/r 

Pfit/Htolot/iv {1KdO-J>'J), besides a great number of original 
rcsearehcB concerning the effects on the nervous fyslem of 
electricity, of the inhalation of ether, etc., and concerning 
the general cxcilahility of the nerves and irritability of 
tho muscles, published partly in book-form and partly as 
contributions to various medical periodicals. 

Lon^cv'ity [Lat. louffirvitaft], a subject which has raised 
a number of curious questions, to which, however, science 
has not yet been able to give more than preliminary or ap- 
proximative answers. Most people have a vague impression 
that plants live longer than animals, and animals longer 
than men; and although this notion breaks down even on 
the most cursory survey of the actual state of affairs, it is, 
nevertheless, not altogether a delusion, as there certainly 
are plants which arc j-till young and vigorous at an age at 
which even the most longevous animals must die; and the 
same relation reappears when men and animals are com- 
pared. Although tho life of many species of jdantd lastj* 
only one or two years, tho age which certain species of 
trees attain, such as tho baobab, the chestnut, the cyprcKS, 
the yew. the oak, the palm, etc., is almost fabulous. With 
many species of trees it is easy to compute the age of an 
individual with tolerable certainty. Thus, the spruce sets 
a new system of branehes every year, and even when all 
the lower branches wither away from .want of air and light, 
strongly-marked scars remain on the bark ; but the lon- 
gevity of the spruce is not very great. The age of several 
kinds of palm trees is indicated by rings visible externally 
on the rind, each ring denoting the growth of one year: 
and by counting these rings from the base to the top of the 
stem the age of certain Brazilian eoeoanut-palms Inis been 
computed to between 000 and TOO years. The Arabs gen- 
erally ascribe a longevity of 200 or ;1U0 years to the date- 
jialm, but on what the^' base this supposition is not known. 
A horizontal cut of au oak trunk shows a series of often 
vur}' strongly-marked concentric circles, each of which, 
like tho rings on the rind of tho palm tree, denotes one 
year's growth ; by counting these circles tho age of nn in- 
dividual oak is found. Iu Englantl many oaks have been 
felled whose trunks showed between 300 and 100 such 
circles, and by comparing the diameters of these trunks 
with that of a living oak, an estimate is obtained of the 
ago of tho latter. Thus, Wallace's oak at Ellcrsley, near 
Paisley, Scotland, is believed to be more than 70» years 
old. The celebrated eight olive trees on the Mount of 
Olives at Jerusalem are known from authentic documents 
to have existed when the Seljook Turks conquered the city 
iu 10U9 ; and similar historical testimonies can be produced 
concerning the age of many other trees. At Ankerwyke 
House, near Staines. Middlesex. England, stands a ye*v 
which dates from before the meeting of tho barons at 
Kunnymede in 1216, and the yews at Fountain Abbey. 
Yorkshire, England, were old trees when tho abbey was 
built in ll;i2. But the age of the Sdjiiuia tjiijanlta in the 
Mariposa grove of California, 00 feet in circumference and 
more than 300 feet high, ranges certainly farther back : 
and farther still ranges that of tho sweet chestnut trees on 
Mount Etna. Sicily, of which one measures 160 feet in cir- 
cumference : of the Oriental piano near Constantinople. 
150 feet in circumference, etc. Adanson computed the age 
of certain baobab trees in Africa at more than .')000 years ; 
Do Oaudolle. that of the deciduous cypress at Chapullcpce, 
Mexico, still higher; and Humboldt calls the Dmc/rnn 
draco at Orotava in Toneriffe uno of the oldest inhabitants 
of the earth. 

In tho animal kingdom we know that the longevity of 



104 



LONGFELLOW. 



insects is very small, ranging from a few hours to a few 
weeks, but that of reptiles is considerable. The toad lives 
about fifteen Tears, and a tortoise which was placed in the 
garden of the palace of Lambeth, London, in 1633, perished 
by accident in 1753. Several species of fishes may attain 
a high age. Buffon says of the carps in the pond of the 
count de RLaurepas at Pontchartrain that they are proved 
to be more than 150 years old, and Gesner tells of a pike 
which was caught in a lake near Heilbronn, Suabia, in 
14',)7, and which, according to a brass ring attached to it, 
had been place<l in the Ifike in 1230. Common river-trout 
have lived confined in wells between 30 and 50 years. (Jf 
birds, the gallinaceous families live only between 12 and 15 
years ; the goose is more longevous, and the swan is known 
to have lived more than a century. Fontenelle tells us 
that the grand duchess de la Rovcre d'Urbino, when she 
came to Florence in 1633 to marry the grand duke Fer- 
dinand, brought with her a paroquet which she called the 
oldest member of her family, and which consequently must 
have been over twenty years old : it afterward lived in 
Florence for nearly a century. In Northern Germany and 
Denmark the peasants mark on the gable, below the year 
in which tlie house was erected, the year in which the 
stork built its nest on the riilge, and a record is kept of 
the annual arrivals of the bird. In many cases these 
records exceed one century ; and as a nest is never taken 
possession of by a foreign stork unless it has been vacant 
for two or three years, and after the performance of certain 
very curious ceremonies by the new occupants, it may be 
considered as well proved that it is the same couple of 
storks which has lived in the nest during this period. 
Birds of prey are believed to be still older, though there 
are no proofs of their longevity. The experiment of the 
old woman who bought a raven to see whether it was true 
that it could live 1000 years led to no result. Of mammals, 
the age of the domesticated animals is well known: the 
camel lives 40 years, the horse 30, the ox 20. the dog 12, 
the cat 10, the sheep 9, the rabbit 8, the guinea-pig 7, etc. 
The age of a horse can at any time be determined with 
tolerable certainty from the appearance of its teeth ; that 
of the ox from the rings on its horns, counting the smooth 
part fur three years and each of the rings around the base 
for one. The horse gets its foal or milk teeth about 15 
days after birth, and at the age of 2^ years the middle 
pair of these milk-teeth drops, and is replaced by a pair 
of permanent nippers; at 3i years the next pair, one of 
each side, changes; and at 4 J years the last pair. After 
this time the age can still bo determined for several years 
by the degree in which the circular hollow pit in the centre 
of e;Lch tooth has become effaced by the wearing down of 
the tooth. Later on, the age is determined by the shape 
of the tushes or canine teeth. But of non-domesticated 
animals our knowledge is small and vague, with the ex- 
ception of a very few cases. In the deer kind the age may 
be computed from the horns, the number of the antlers, 
the size of the palms, and the thickness of the burrs. The 
common stag gets its pricket in its second year; its fork, 
a pricket with one antler, in its third year, etc. Generally, 
it seems to be a rule among mammals that their longevity 
increases with their size. But the age of the elephant, 
rhinoceros, hippopotamus, etc. is not known. Aristotle 
says that the elephant lives 200 years, the East Indians 
say 300 ; one elephant, whose age was not known when it 
was captured, lived 130 years in captivity. The age of the 
whale is computed by the lamina; of whalebone in its ja\v^ ; 
if this computation is correct, it attains at least 400 years. 
It seems, however, as if among mammals the relation be- 
tween their longevity and their time of gestation is more 
constant than that between their longevity and their 
size. 

With respect to the longevity of man, this term must not 
be confounded with that of the average duration of life. 
The former refers to the question. How long can the human 
organism last when, umlisturbed by any merely temporary, 
local, or individual influences, it is allowed to run through 
its natural course and exhaust its inherent vitality without 
any merely incidental break or jar? The latter, on the 
contrary, refers to the riuestion. How limg does the human 
organism actually last under certain given inlluences of 
profession, cliumtc, diet, etc.? gr, Why do people live 
longer as agriculturists than as dry-polishers, longer in the 
valleys of Norway tliaii in the plains of the Wolga, longer 
in France than in the U. S.. etc. '! The Bible puts down as 
the natural term for human life " threcsciuo ami ten," and 
history seems during its whole course to have confirmed this 
term. When a man dies at 50, ho is and always was said to 
have died early, and when a man lives to 00, he is and al- 
ways was H;iid to have lived btng. The Bible tells us tlnit the 
patriarchs before the Deluge all liverl from six to eight cen- 
turies, but the expressions are open to some doubt with re- 
spect to their I rue meaning. But whiui the Bible tells us that 



Abraham was 175 years old when he died, Isaac 180, .Jacob 
147, and Joseph 110, such excejjtional prolongations of hu- 
man life still occur. Cases of longevity exceeding one cen- 
tury are frequently recorded. Two of the highest are Peter 
Czartan, a Hungarian peasant, 185 years old — b. in 1530, 
d. in 1724; and Thomas Parr, a native of Shropshire, Eng- 
land, who died of an accident when 16'J years old. Charles 
I. wished to see him ; he went to the court, was feasted, ate 
too much, took a fit of indigestion, and died ; but Harvey, 
who dissected him, declared that but for this accident he 
could have lived on for many years. These instances of 
exceptional longevity are not so rare as commonly believed. 
Thus, from the census taken during the reign of the em- 
peror Vespasian, Pliny enumerates no less than 54 persons 
who had reache<l the "age of 100 years; 14, 110; 20, 125; 
40, 130; 40, 135; and 30. 140; and all these instances are 
taken exclusively from the region between the Apennines 
and the Po. They have given rise to some very curious 
speculations. While the average duration of life every- 
where has sunk far below the natural term, and philan- 
thro]>ists, education.al and hygienic boards, and govern- 
ments in general are active to rejiress the most obvious 
causes of this alarming state, certain philosoj)hers have 
directed their attention to the question whether it is pos- 
sible to prolong the natural term itself, and move the 
barrier from seventy to one hundred. Haller and Buffon 
declared th.at they saw in the nature of the human or- 
ganism no reason why it should be the rule for man to 
die at seventy, and not at one hundred. As yet, how- 
ever, these speculations have not extended beyond good 
intentions. 

Long'fellow ( Henuv Wadswouth), LL.D., D.C.L., son 
of Stephen, b. at Portland. Me., Feb. 27, 1807 : entered Bow- 
doin College at fourteen, and graduated in 1825 in a class 
which included Nathaniel Hawthorne, George B. Cheever, 
John S. C. Abbott, and several other persons afterwards 
known in literature. During his college days he distinguish- 
ed himself in modern languages, and wrote several short 
poems, published chiefly in the United States Litevnry Gazette 
at Boston; one of these was the well-known Hipiin of the 
Moravian Nimn. After graduation he entered the law- 
ofiice of his father, but in the following year accepted the 
professorship of modern languages at Bowdoin, with the 
jirivilegeof spending three years in Europe in prep;iration 
for that post. After studying in France, Spain, Italy, .and 
Germany, he entered upon his professorship in 182U, and 
beg.an to publish the results of his careful researches into 
European languages and literature, both mediaeval and 
modern. His first volume was a small Essay on the Moral 
and Devotional Poetry of Spain (1833), which included 
translations of the Coplas de Manriijue and of several son- 
nets of Lope de Vega. A volume of prose sketches of 
travel appeared in 1835 under the title Outre Mer, a Pil- 
ipiniaije beyond the Sea, and numerous essays and critiques 
on literary topics were contributed to the Nortli American 
Jicview. In 1835 he was elected to the chair of modern 
languages and literature at Harvard University, as suc- 
cessor to George Ticknor, and spent a year in European 
travel and stuily, especially in Denmark, Sweden, and 
Switzerland, cultivating a knowledge of early Scandinavian 
literature. Entering upon his professorship in 183i;, ho 
soon became aresidont in the historic Cragic House (Wash- 
ington's head-quarters), which he afterward purchased and 
made his home. In 1830 he published Jly/urion. a llo- 
mance, and Voices of the Nitjht, his first volume of original 
verse, comprising the selected productions of nearly twenty 
years; it procured him immediate recognition as a ]ioct, 
and the I'sabn of Life tor>k rank as a popular favorite. 
llaUads and Other Poems and a suuill volume of Poems on 
.SY«rfi-i/ appeared in 1842; TheSpanish .SViii/<v/(, adrama in 
three acts, in 1843; The Helfry of llrn'fes in 184C; lyraii- 
ifcline.a Tale of Acadie, in 1847, the latter being a spirited 
introduction of hexameter verse, and generally considered 
as Longfellow's masterpiece. In 1S45 he published a large 
volume of The Poets and I'oetry of lim ope; in 184U A'ora- 
nu'ih, n Talc (in idyllic prose) ; in 1850 The Seaside and the 
Fireside; in 1 85 1 'A.' fioldrn Legend; in 1855 The Song 
of lliaoatha; in 1858 The Courtship of Mil, s Slandish; in 
IS03 Tales nf n Wayside Inn: in 18fiii Flower de J.nre; in 
1867-70 a masterly poetical translation of Dante; in 1801) 
A^cio Fni/laild Trar/edies; in 1871 The DIrine Traijcdy; in 
1872 Tlirce Hooks' of Sonif: in 1874 The llanijiuy of the 
Crane; and in 1875 Moriluri Salutamns, a poem read at 
the fiftieth anniversary of his class at Bowiloin College. 
Prof. Longfellow resigned his chair at Harvard in 1854, 
but has continued to reside at Cambridge; he travelled in 
Europe in 1841-12 and 18fi8-liil. on which bitter occasion 
he received the degree of I). C. L. from the University of 
Oxford, anil in 1874 received a large eouiplimentary vote 
for the lord rectorship of the University of Edinburgh. 
Somcof his ]ioetieal works have been translated into many 



i,()Ni;ii;i,i,()\v-i,<i.\(; islam > 



limxiiiKcs ; cimnilclo oilitions hftvn enjoyed wide circuin- I 

ticin, not, (inly in llii' I'. H., but in nn i-c|uul dcf^'r™ in Knx- | 
limcl, whcni llii-ir |io|mlurily riviils tiiut ofllic^ lust inod.rn ! 
Kll'.'li.lll iiocirv- roiiTKH ('. Hi.iss. j 

I,oiikI<'II<>w (Samiki.). 1). ftt rortlimd, Mo., JniKi IK, 
ISl'J, liiclhcr 111' II. W. I.uiigfillow ; (;ruduutcil at llurviird 
ColU^Ki' l.s:ill,iind Divinity Si-lioul IKlli; wan llrHt «<!ttk-d in 
l''iill ItiviT in IHI,>*; in IH.'!:! licounic piialor of tllu Sei^ond 
Uiiituiiiin I'hun^li in Hr.wklyn. N. Y. ; ri-»iKniMl liiH jiulpit 
in l,H{;il, and wimt, iil.nMid. Ki>r yearn iiunt lii» rcmili-nci! 
lias iicfil in Canililid;;!', Mai-H. Mr. Lon^'IV-llow Htill |iri'auhfn, 
tlii>nj;h lio lni« nn iniriuli, iind writes, Imt liin puliliualions 
lire nnt nnnierous. bin lieiillli not jierniillinK n-vore priifiH- 
sliinal Iillinr. In 1H|(1, in aHuociiilion with Uev. Sainnel 
.loliTisun, hc^ i-cinpil.-il .1 «.,.,/.• .,/////>""«, which whh aller- 
ward.i revised and i;alhcl /1,/iiuik •,/ ili'- S/iiiil; and in IKiiU 
lie pilhlished a hunk id' ////mii« find Tmii-n far t'miijmjii- 
ti„u,il Unr, and a xinall vnhi'ine fur the ve»|)er Hcrvioe which 
he inslitiileil. Mr. I,()nt;fclliiw is a |iim)I. and haH written 
inaiiv hymns wliiidi liave a jdai'u in utlii-r i-iiMiM'tion^ than 
liiK invM. lli» best easays were printed in the Uudiral, 
ISHil 71. 0. I). KiniTiiiNniiAM. 

LoiikA-IIow (Rtei'IIEn), T.L.D., h. at (inrham. Mo., 
June 2.!, 177.): graduated at Harvard Cidlege 17»«; studied 
law; was adniilted to the har ISOI ; practised flucccHsfully 
at I*i)rrland, Me.; was a delegate to the Karttbrd conven- 
tiiin ISII, a menilier of ('ongress I.H2:i-l!i, and heeaino 
jiresident of the Maine Historical Society ISIIl. 1>. at 
I'lutlanl ;\ng. 2, ISl'J. 

liOn^'ortl, ciiunty of Ireland, in the province of 
Leinster, liuundetl hy the counties of Leitriin, Westincath, 
and lliiseoininon. .Area, ll'll si[uare miles, with a level or 
slightly hilly .surface, and a fertile soil suited both for 
tillage and grazing. Some linens and coarse woollens arc 
manufactured. Tlie inhabitants numbered 11J,4'JJ in IS41, 
82,;).'')0 in lS.il,71,li'Jl in isill.and lil.itll in 1S71, of whom 
25,1172 are uiniblo to read or write. From l.'<,'il to 1S72, 
:U,;)Ci.^ emigrated from this county. I'rincipal town, Long- 
ford. 

Lon'glii (Oiiiskim'k), b. at Monza, Loinbardy, Oct. 13, 
171)11 ! studied the art of engraving, partly in .Milan and 
partly in Rome: \vas appointed professor of the school of 
ongl-aving in Milan in 17'J7. and d. there Jan. 2, 1S31, cele- 
brated as one of the greatest engravers who ever lived. 
His most famous works are the Vinitni of Kzekivl and 
S/i'Milizio, after llapbael ; Miiridiiltiia, after Correggio ; 
Udliilcn, after Albano; and the portraits of Napoleon, 
Washington, ami Dandolo of Venice. 

Ji«)iit;i'iiils I UioNistis CAssifs), b. about 2l;t A. n., 
probably a' ,\tb"ns; made extensive travels: studied at 
Alexandria under i'lotinus and .Ammonius Saccas, and 
taught philosophy, rhetoric, and grammar 'in Athens, ac- 
quiring groat celebrity. The last part of his life he spent 
at Palmyra, at the court of Zcnobia, whose jiolitical ad- 
viser he was, as well as her teacher in tJreek literature. It 
was partly on his instigation that the queen undertook the 
famous war against the Romans, and jifter her defeat^ 
Longinus was put to death, in 27^) a. n., by the command 
of .'\urelian. (*f his numerous writings only fragments are 
extant, with the exception of his treatise On r/ie Suhlhnp, 
of which the larger par!, has come doivn to us, though in a 
somewhat mutilated condition. The first printed edition 
was given by Hobortello (Bale, 1554), and it has been often 
republished : the latest editions are those by Kggor (Paris, 
1.H37), liako (O.xford, lS4i)), .'^pengel (Leipsio (ISili), and 
Otto .lahn (lSti7). It was translated into French by 
13oile:iu in IbiM, into (lerman by Schlosser in 1781, and 
into Knglisli by William Smith in 17liU. It is remarkable, 
both on aeciiunt of the subtlety and acutencss of its single 
remarks and its noble and elevated taste: it lias also ex- 
ercised eoiv'idorablo intluence on modern criticisiu and 
aesthetics in France, England, and Germany. 

Lon^ipcn'ncs [Lat. lonja," long," and yjoDio, wing"], 
a group (sntnetimes called an order) of Natatores or swim- 
ming. birtls, including the gulls, terns, albatrosses, and pet- 
rels. They are remarkable t'or their long and often very 
narrow wings and their great powers of llight. Tbey arc 
also good swimmers, are usually pelagic, but as a rule do 
not dive under water. 

IjOiit; Tslni