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JOHNSON'S 
UNIVERSAL CYCLOPEDIA 



TOL. YH 



JOHNSON'S 



UNIVEESAL CYCLOPAEDIA 



A NEW EDITION 

PREPAEED BY A CORPS OF THIRTY-SIX EDITORS, ASSISTED BY 
EMINENT EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN SPECIALISTS 



UKDEB THS DIRECnON OF 

CHARLES KENDALL ADAMS, LL.D. 

PBS8IDBNT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN 

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF 



ILLUSTRATED WITH MAPS, PLANS, AND ENGRAVINGS 



COMPLETE IN EIGHT VOLUMES 
VOL. VII 



NEW YORK 
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY 

A. J. JOHNSON COMPANY 

1895 



I'HE NEW YORK" 
PUBLIC LIBRARY I 

596526 

won. ttNoX AW 
tILOWrOUHOATIONt. 



COPTRIOHT, 1876, 

By a. J. JOHNSON. 

COPTBIOHT, 1877, 

Bt ALVIN J. JOHNSON. 

CoPTRiQHT, 1886, 1889, 
By a. J. JOHNSON AND COMPANY. 

COPYRIOBT, 1895, 

By a. J. JOHNSON COMPANY. 



ORGANIZATION OF THE STAFF. 



EDITOR-IN- CHIEF. 

CHARLES KENDALL ADAMS, LL. D., 

PRESIDENT OP THE UNIVERSITY OP WISCONSIN, 

History, Politics, and Kdueation. 



ASSOCIATE EDITORS. 



LrBFBTT H. Bailey, M. S., 

Professor of Horticulture. Cornell University. 
Affriealtiire, Hortlcnltare, Forestry, ete. 

Willis J. Beech er, D. D., 

Pr(>fe8S4^>r of Hebrew Languafi^e and Literature, 
Auburn TbeolojEdcal Seminary. 
PresbyteriAii Cboroh History, Doctrine, etc 

IlrxRY A- Beers, A.M., 

Prof fitsor of English Literature, Tale University. 
EngUsh Uteratnre, etc 

f [JARLES R Bessey, Ph. D., 

Professor of Botany, State University of Nebraska. 
Botany, Vegetable Pbyslology, etc 

I»"i»LEY Buck, 

Composer and Organist, Broolclyn, N. Y. 
Music, Tbeory of Harmony, Mnaioal Terms, etc 

FsAvris M. BiRDicK, A. M., LL. B., 

Dwijrht Professor of Law, Columbia College, New 
York. 



«7F.. 



Xanlcipal, Civil, and Constitutional I«aw, 

.aoE P. Fisher. D. D.. LL, D., 



Professor of Church History, Yale University. 
Congregational Cliarch History, Doctrine, etc. 

OE'»rE K. Gilbert. A. M., 

tie«)U>gist, U. S. Geological Survey. 
Physical Geography, Geolc^^, and Pabeontology. 

P>A>IL L. GlLl>ER«!LEEVE, LL. D., 

Professor of Greek, Johns Hopkins University. 
Grecian and Konuui Uteratore. 

Arthur T. Hadley, A. M., 

Professor of Political Economy, Yale University. 
Political Economy, Finance, and Transi»ortation« 

Mark W. Harrinotox, A.M., LL. I)., F. L. S., 
Chief of the U. S. Weather Bureau. 
Geography, Meteorology, Clinxatology, etc 

William T. Harris, LL, D., 

U. S. Commissioner of Education, and 

J. Mark Baldwin. Ph.D., 

Professor of Experimental Psychology, College of 
New Jersey. 
Philosophy, Psychology, Ethics, etc 

' 'IN F. HcRST, D.D., LL.D., Bishop (M. E.), 

Chancellor American University, Washington. 
Methodist Church History, Doctrine, etc 

^vMLEL Macauley Jackson, D. D., LL.D., 

Editor of A Concise Dictionary of Relierious Knowl- 
edjre, and associate editor of the Schaft-Herzog En- 
cyclopeedia. New York. 
General Chorch History and Biblical Uterature. 

.rr.sRT E. Jacobs, D. D., LL. D., 

Prr»fes8or of Systematic Theolog>', Evangelical Lu- 
theran Theological Seminary. Philadelphia, Pa. 
Lutheran Church History, Doctrine, etc 

'•avid S. Jordax. LL. D., 

President Leland Stanford Junior University. • 
Zoology, Comparative Anatomy, and Animal Physi- 
ology. 



JoHX J. Keane, D. D., LL. D., Bishop (R. C), 

Rector of the Catholic University of America. 
Roman Catholic Church History, Doctrine, etc 

Chables Kirch hoff. M. E., 

Editor of the Iron Age, New York. 
Mining Engineering, Mineralogy, and Metallurgy, 

Stephen B. Luce, 

Rear- Admiral, U. S. Navy. 
Naral Aflkirs, Naval Construction, Navigation, etc 

Arthur R. Marsh, A. M., 

Professor of Comparative Literature, Harvard Univ. 
Foreign Uterature, etc 

James Mercur, 

Professor of Mil. Engineering, West Point Mil. Acad. 
Military Engineering, Science and Munitions of War, 
etc 

Mansfield Merriman, C. E., Ph. D., 

Professor of Civil Engineering, Lehigh University. 
Civil Engineering, etc 

Simon Newcomb, LL.D., M. N. A. S., 

Editor of the U. S. Nautical Almanaa 
Astronomy and Mathematics. 

Edward L. Nichols, Ph. D., 

Professor of Physics. Cornell University. 
Physics, Electricity and its Applications. 

William Pepper, M. D., LL. D., 

Provost of the University of Pennsylvania. 
Medicine, Surgery, and Collateral Sciences. 

Wiluam S. Perry, D. D. Oxon., LL. D., Bishop (P. E.), 
Davenport, Iowa. 
Episcopal Church History, Doctrine, etc 

John W. Powell, 

Director of the U. S. Geological Survey. 
American Archseolc^^ and Ethnology. 

Ira Remsen, M. D., Ph. D., LL. D., 

Professor of Chemistry', Johns Hopkins University. 
Chemistry and its Applications, etc 

AiNswoRTH R. Spofford, LL. D., 
Librarian of Congress. 
U. S. Geography, Statistics, etc 

Russell Sturois, A. M., Ph. D., F. A. L A., 

Ex-President Architectural League of New York. 
ArchsBology and Art. 

Robert H. Thurston, Doc. Eng., LL.D., 

Director of Sibley College, Cornell University. 
Mechanical Science 

Benjamin Ide Wheeler, Ph. D., 

Professor of Greek and Com. Philology, Cornell Univ. 
Comparative Philology, Unguistics, etc 

William II. Whitsitt, D. D., 

Profes.sor of Ciiiirch History, Baptist Theological 
Seminary, Louisville, Ky. 
Baptist Church History, Doctrine, etc 

Theodore S. Woolsey, A. M., 

Professor of International Law, Yale University. 
Public Law, Intercourse of Nations. 



MANAGING EDITOR, 
ROBERT LILLEY, M.R.A.S., 

ONE OF IHS EDITORS OF THE CENTURY DICTIONARY. 



ASSISTANT TO THE EDITOR-IN-CHIEF. 

CHARLES II. THURBER, A.M., 
rRorxssoB of pvdaooot, Colgate university, and principal of coloatb aoadeitt. 



JOHNSON'S UNIVERSAL CYCLOP JEDIA. 



VOL. vn. 



CONTRIBUTORS AND REVISERS. 



♦Abbot, Ezra, S. T. D., LL. D., 

Professor of New Testament Criticism and Interpreta- 
tion, Cambridge Divinity School, Cambridge, Mass. 

Abbot, Henry Larcom, LL. D., M. N. A. S., 

Colonel U. S. Engineers ; brevet brigadier-general U. S. 
army. New York. 

Adams, Charles Kendall, A. M., LL. D., 

President of the University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

Adams, Ctrus C, 

Editorial staff of The Sun (New York) ; President of 
Department of Qeographj, Brooklyn Institute, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. 

Adams, Henry C, Ph. D., 

Professor of Political Economv and Finance, University 



"^roiessor or Political £iConomy anti 
of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 



Alexander, Joseph H., 

Cashier, Union Savings-bank, St Charles, Mo. 

Aloer, Philip R., 

Professor of Mathematics, Bureau of Ordnance, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Allen, Charles H., 

Formerly principal of State Normal School, San Jos^, Cal. 
Allen, Frederic Sturges, A. B., LL. B., 

Member of the New York Bar, New York ; one of the 
editors of Webster's International Dictionary, 

Ames, James Bare, A. M., 

Bussev Professor of Law, Harvard University, Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 

Anderson, Hon. Rasmus B., 

Formerly Professor of Scandinavian Languages, Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin ; ex-U. S. minister to Denmark ; 
Madison, Wis. 

Anthony, Susan B., Rochester, N. Y. 

Armstrong, Samuel T., M. D., Ph. D., 

One of the' collaborators of Foster's Eneydopcfdic Med- 
ical Dictionary, and editor of an American Appendix 
to Quain's Dictionary of Medicine \ New York. 

Abhhurst, John, Jr., A. M., M. D., 

John Rhea Barton Professor of Surgery and Professor 
of Clinical Surgery in the University of Pennsylvania, 
Department of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Atterbury, William W., D. D., 

SecreUry of the New York Sabbath Committee, New 
York. 

Atwood, Isaac M., D. D., 

President of the Canton Theological School, St Law- 
rence University, Canton, N. Y7 



Bailey, Liberty H., M. S., 

Professor of General and Experimental Horticoltare, 
Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Baker, Ira Osborn, C. E., 

Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Illinois, 
Champaign, 111. 

Baldwin, J. Mark, Ph. D., 

Stuart Professor of Experimental Psychology, College 
of New Jersey, Princeton, N. J. 

Barton, Clara, 

President of the American National Red Cross, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Beach, O. B., 

With R. Hoe & Co., printing-press manufacturers. New 
York. 

Beadle, William H. H., LL. D., 

President of the State Normal School, Madison, S. D. 
Beaver, W. J., of Roe & Beaver, San Bernardino, Cal. 
Beecher, Rev. Willis J., D. D., 

Professor of Hebrew Language and Literature, Auburn 
Theological Seminary, Auburn, N. Y. 

Beers, Henry A., A. M., 

Professor of English Literature, Yale University, New 
Haven, Conn. 

Belknap, Lieut-Com. Charles, U. S. navy. 

Head of Department of Mechanics and Applied Mathe- 
matics, U. S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md. 

Benjamin, Marcus, Ph. D., F. C. S., 

Editorial staff of the Standard Dictionary ^ and of T/ic 
Annual Cyclopcedia^ New York. 

Bessey, Charles E., Ph. D., 

Professor of Botany and Horticulture, University of 
Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb. 

BioELOw, Frank H., A. M., 

Professor of Meteorology, U. S. Weather Bureau, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Birob; Edward Asahel, Ph. D., 

Professor of Zofllogy and dean of the College of Letters 
and Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

Blake, William P., A. M., 

Geologist and mining engineer, Shullsburg, Wis. ; foi^ 
merly Professor of Mineralogy and Geology, College 
of California, Oakland, Cal. 

Bland, Richard P., 

Ex-Member of Congress from Missouri ; Lebanon, Mo. 
Blunt, Capt. Stanhope E., U. S. army, 

Watervliet Arsenal, West Troy, N. Y. 

(vi) 



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▼Ill 



CONTRIBUTORS AND REVISERS 



George, Henrt, 

Author of Progress and Poverty , etc.. New York. 

OlDDINOS, F&ANKLIN H., A. M., 

Professor of Sociology, Columbia College, New York. 
Gilbert, Grove Karl, M. N. A. S., 

Geologist, U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. 
Gildersleeve, Basil L., Ph. D., LL. D., D. C. L., 

Professor of Greek, Johns Hopkins University, Balti- 
more, Md. 

Gill, Theodore N., A. M., M. D., Ph. D., LL. D., M. N. A. S., 
Professor of Zodlogy, Columbian University, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 
GiLLETT, Rev. Charles R., 

Librarian, Union Theological Seminary, New York. 
Gilmore, Joseph Henrt, A. M., 

Professor of Logic, Rhetoric, and English, University 
of Rochester, Rochester, N. Y. 

GoDET, Fr^d^ric Louis, D. D., 

Minister of the Reformed Church of Switzerland, Neu- 
ch&tel, Switzerland. 

(JoEBEL, Julius, Ph. D., 

Professor of Germanic Literature and Philology, Leland 
Stanford Junior University, Santa Clara co., Cal. 

GoEssMAKK, Charles A., Ph. D., LL. D., 

Professor of Chemistry, Massachusetts Agricultural Col- 
lege, Amherst, Mass. 

GooDE, George Brown, LL. D., M. N. A. S., 

Assistant secretary Smithsonian Institution, in charge 
of National Museum, Washington, D. C. 

GossE, Edbcund, M. a., 

Author of From Shakespeare to Pope^ History of Eigh- 
teenth Century Literature, etc., London, England. 

GoTTHEiL, Richard J. H., Ph. D. Leipzig, 

Professor of Rabbinical Literature and the Semitic 
Languages, Columbia College, New York. 

Gould, R R. L., Ph. D., 

Professor of Statistics, University of Chicago, Chicago, 
111., and lecturer on Social Economics and Statistics, 
Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 

Grosvenor, Rev. Edwin A., A. M., 

Professor of French Language and Literature, Amherst 
College, Amherst, Mass. ; formerly Professor of His- 
tory, ilobert College, Constantinople, Turkey. 

Groth, p., a. M., 

Author of a Dano-Norwegian Grammar for English- 
speaking Students, New York. 

GuDEMAK, Alfred, Ph. D., 

Professor of Classical Philology, University of Pennsyl- 
vania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

GuMMERE, Francis Barton, A. B., Ph. D., 

Professor of English and German, Haverford College, 
Pennsylvania. 

Hadley, Arthur Twining, A. M., 

Professor of Political Economy and Dean of Courses of 
Graduate Instruction, Yale University, New Haven, 
Conn. 

Haoar, George J., 

Member New Jersey Historical Society, Newark, N. J. 
•Haldeman, Samuel S., LL. D.. M. N. A. S., 

Professor of Comparative Philology, University of Penn- 
sylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Halsted, George Bruce, Ph. D., 

Professor of Pure Mathematics, University of Texas, 
Austin, Tex. 

Hare, Hobart A., M. D., 

Professor of Materia Medica, Therapeutics, and Hy- 
giene, Jefferson Medical College. Philadelphia, Pa. 



Harper, John M., A. M., Ph. D., F. E. L S., 

Inspector of Superior Schools, Province of Quebec, Que- 
bec, Canada. 

Harrington, Mark W., A. M., LL. D., F. L. S., 

Chief of the U. S. Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C. 

Harris, Willlam Torret, A. M., LL. D., 

U. S. Commissioner of Education, Washington, D. C. 

Hart, Albert, Acting Secretary of State, Sacramento, Cal. 

Harvey, Rev. Moses, S.T. D., St. John's, Newfoundland. 

Haskins, Charles H., Ph. D., 

Professor of Institutional History, University of Wis- 
consin, Madison, Wis. 

Hates, John S., 

Librarian of the Public Library, Somerville, Mass. 
Hearn, Thomas A., Methodist missionary, Suchow, China. 
Helbig, Wolfgang, 

Formerly secretary of the Archaeological Institute, 
Rome, Italy. 

Hendrickson, George L., A. B., 

Professor of Latin, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 
Wis. 

Hervet, Daniel E., organist, Newark, N. J. 
HicHBORN, Commodore Philip, 

Chief constructor U. S. navy, Washington, D. C. 
Hill, David J., LL. D., 

President of the University of Rochester, Rochester, 
N.Y. 

Hirst, Barton C, M. D., 

Professor of Obstetrics, Department of Medicine, Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Hitchcock, Edward, Jr., A. B., M. D., 

Professor of Hygiene and Physical Culture, and direc- 
tor of the Gymnasium, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

HiTTELL, John S., 

Author of a History of San Francisco, etc. ; San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 

*HoDGE, Archibald A., D. D., LL. D., 

Professor of Exe^etical, Didactic, and Polemic Theol- 
ogy, College of New Jersey, Princeton, N. J. 

Hodge, Frederick Webb, 

Ethnologist and librarian in the Bureau of Ethnolo^^, 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 

*HoLLET. Alexander Ltman, C. E., LL. D., 

President of the American Institute of Mining Engi- 
neers ; Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Holmes, William H., 

Professor of Archasologic Geology, University of Chica- 
go, Chicago, 111., and honorary curator of the Na- 
tional Museum, Washington, D. C. 

Hooker, Henrietta Edgecomb, Ph. D., 

Professor of Botany, Mt. Holyoke College, South Had- 
ley, Mass. 

HoTT, Rev. Charles K, A. M., 

Formerly Professor of English Literature, Wells Col- 
lege, Aurora, N. Y. ; now pastor of First Presbyterian 
church, Brookfleld, Mo. 

Hudson, William Henry, 

Assistant Professor of English, Leland Stanford Junior 
University, Santa Clara co., Cal. 

Hughes, Rev. Thomas P., D. D., 

Rector of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, New York ; 
formerly missionary at Peshawar, India; author of 
Hie Dictionary of Islam. 

HuMPHRETS, Milton Wylie, Ph. D., LL. D., 

Professor of Greek, University of Virginia, Charlottes- 
ville, Va. 



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CONTRIBUTORS AND REVISERS 



MUNBO, WiLFEBD H., A. M., 

Professor of History, and Director of the University 
Extension, Brown University, Providence, R. I. 

MukbIe, Chables Edwabd, S. B., Ph. D., 

Professor of Chemistry, and dean of the Corcoran Sci- 
entific School and of the School of Graduate Studies, 
Columbian University, Washington, D. C. 
Newcomb, Simon, LL. D., M. N. A. S., 

Superintendent of The United States Nautical Alma- 
nac, Washington, D. C; formerly Professor of Mathe- 
matics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 
Baltimore, Md. 
Nichols, Edwabd L., B. S., Ph. D., 

Professor of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 
Nichols, Stabb Hoyt, 

Formerly of the editorial staff of The Social Economist^ 
New York. 
NoBWooD, Thomas M., 

Attorney and counselor-at-law, Savannah, 6a. 
NoYES, Alexandeb D., 

Editorial staff of The Evening Poet, New York. 
Nutting, Rev. Wallace, 

Pastor Plymouth Congregational church, Seattle, 
Wash. 
Oates, James W., attomey-at-law, Santa Rosa, Cal. 
OsBOBN, Rev. Albebt, B. D., 

Registrar, American University, Washington, D. C. 
Packabd, Alpheus Spbino, M. D., Ph. D., M. N. A. S., 

Professor of Geology and ZoOlogy, Brown University, 
Providence, R. I. 
Pabk, RoswEL^ A. M., M. D., 

Professor of the Principles and Practice of Surgery 
and Clinical Surgery, Medical Department, Univer- 
sity of Buflfalo, Buffalo, N. Y. 
Peppeb, William, M.D., LL.D., 

Ex-Provost of the university and Professor of the Theory 
and Practice of Medicine" in the Department of Medi- 
cine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Pebby, Rt. Rev. William Stevens, D. D., LL. D., D.C. L., 
Bishop in the Protestant Episcopal Church, Davenport, 
la. 
Phelps, Willlam Lyon, Ph. D., 

Instructor in English Literature, Yale University, New 
Haven, Conn. 
♦Phillips, Hon. Wendell, Boston, Mass. 
Piebsol, Geobge a., M. D., 

Professor of Anatomy, Department of Medicine, Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Powell, Maj. John W., Ph. D., LL. D., M. N. A. S., 

Director of the Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, D. C, 
and ex-Director of the U. S. Geological Survey. 

E*YLE, J. G., 

Editorial staff of The Pioneer Press, St. Paul, Minn. 

•Ralston, William R. S., 

Assistant librarian, British Museum, London, England. 
Ramsey. Mabathon Montbose, 

Professor of Spanish, Corcoran Scientific School, Colum- 
bian University, Washington, D. C. 
Ravenstein, Ebnest G., P. R. G. S., 

Member of councils of Royal Geographical Society and 
Royal Statistical Society, liondon, England; editor of 
The Earth and its Inhabitants. 

Reavis, John R., 

Secretary of the Chamber of Commerce, Spokane, Wash. 
Rbddino, C. H. E., editor of Harness, New York. 
Reichebt, Edwabd T., M. D., 

Professor of Physiology, Department of Medicine, Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Remsen, Iba, M. D., Ph. D., LL. D., M. N. A. S., 

Professor of Chemistry and director of the chemical 
laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 

Reuck, J. M., journalist, Stockton, Cal. 

RiCHABDS, C. R., 

Director of the Department of Science and Technology. 
Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

RicHABDSON, S. T., lawyer, Salem, Ore. 

♦Riley, Rev Isaac, Buffalo, N. Y. 

RiOBDAN, J. E. 

Principal of the Sheboygan High School, Sheboygan, 
Wis. 
Robebts, Isaac P., M. Agr., 

Director of the College of Agriculture, Professor of Ag- 
riculture, and Director of the Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Robebts, Ralph A., A. M., 

Author of a TrecUise on the Integral Calculus, etc.. 
New York. 
Robinson, John, 

Treasurer, Peabody Academy of Science, Salem, Mass. 

Rogebs, William Augustus, Ph. D., LL. D., M. N. A. S., 
Professor of Phvsics and Astronomy, Colby University, 
Waterville, Me. 

Rolfe, William James, Litt D., 

Shakespearean scholar and editor, Cambridge, Mass. 

Rose, Thbo. C, 

dfiicial stenographer Sixth Judicial District of New 
York, Elmira, N. Y. 

Russell, Isbael Cook, M. S., C. E., 

Professor of Geology, University of Michigan, Ann 
Arbor, Mich. 

Russell, James E., Ph. D., 

Professor of Philosophy and Pedagogy, University of 
Colorado, Boulder, Col. 

Sansone, Fbancisco, 

Editorial staff of Dry Goods Economist, New York. 
Sabgent, Chables Spbague, A. B., M. N. A. S., 

Editor of Garden and Forest, New York; Arnold Pn»- 
fessor of Arboriculture. Harvard University, Cam- 
bridge, Mass. ; Brookline, Mass. 

Schmidt, Nathaniel, A. M., 

Professor of Semitic Languages and Literature, Theo- 
logical School of Colgate University, Hamilton, N. Y. 

Schmidt-Wabtenbebq, H., Ph. D., 

Assistant Professor of German, University of Chica^i>. 
Chicago, III. 

SCHOENFELD, HeBMANN, Ph. D., 

Professor of German and Continental History, Cohiin- 
bian University, Washington, D. C. 

ScHOTT, Chables Anthony, M. N. A. S., 

Assistant, U. S. Coast Survey, Washington, D. C. 

ScHUBZ, Cabl, LL. D., 

Ex-Secretary of the Interior ; editorial staff of Harper ^ 
Weekly \ Pocantico Hills, N. Y. 

ScHWEiNiTZ, Geobge E. de, M. D., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Scott, Austin, Ph. D., LL. D., 

President of Rutgers College, New Brunswick, N. J. 
Seddon, Thomas, librarian of the public library, Sedalia, Mmi 
Shaw, Thomas, 

Professor of Animal Husbandry, Minnesota Ajsriiui 
tural Kxperiment Station, St. Anthony Paric, Minn. 

Sheldon, Edwabd S., A. B., 

Professor of Romance Philology, Harvard Universii\j 
Cambridge, Mass. 



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MAPS IN VOL. VII. 



POLITICAL. 



RHODE ISLAND . 

r:>MAX EMPIRE . 

Rl'S^IA 

nOTLAND . 

N I'TH CAROLINA 

xCTU DAKOTA . 

<PAIN AND PORTUGAL 

SWITZERLAND 



90 
170 
213 
386 
630 
683 
640 
855 



CITIES. 



RlME . ^ 172 

<T. LOUIS 255 

-VX FRANCISCO V 292 



LIST OF FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS. 



:ITISH BATTLE-SHIP BOYAL SOVEREIGN 
S. PROTECTED CRUISER COLUMBIA . 

iSXrH BATTLE-SHIP HOCHE 

:wEXTINE CRUISER NUEVE DE JULIO) 
< MONITOR AMPHITRITE ) 

:.AR AND OTHER SPECTRA 

-TAG E-ST AMPS 



496 
497 
500 

501 

658 
694 



PECULIAR PHONETIC SYMBOLS 

USED IN THE WRITING OR TRANSLITERATION OF THE DIFFERENT LANGUAGES. 



&, 6, etc. : long vowels ; in the Scandinavian languages the 
accent (d, i^ etc.) is used to denote length. 

% : a nasalized a ; so used in the transliteration of the Ira- 
nian languages. 

A : labialized guttural a in Swedish. 

m : open o of Eng. ?iat, used chieflj in O. Eng. 

af : used in Oothic to denote e (open), in distinction from 
dij the true diphthong. 

au : used in Gothic to denote o (open), in distinction from 
du, the true diphthong. 

bh: in Sanskrit a voiced labial aspirate (cf. eh), 

h: voiced bilabial (or labio-dental f) spirant, used in dis- 
cussions of Teutonic dialects. 

9 : voiceless palatal sibilant, similar to Eng. «A, used espe- 
cially in transliteration of Sanskrit. 

6 : frequently used, e. g. in Slavonic languages, to denote 
the sound of Eng. eh in cheek, 

c : voiceless palatal explosive, commonly used in translit- 
eration of Sanskrit and the Iranian languages. 

ch: as used in the transliteration of Sanskrit, a voiceless 
palatal aspirate, an aspirate being an explosive with 
excess of breath; as used in German grammar, the 
symbol for a voiceless palatal or guttural spirant. 

dh: voiced dental aspirate (cf. ch) in Sanskrit. 

d : voiced cerebral explosive, so used in transliteration of 
Sanskrit. 

dh : v<ftced cerebral aspirate (cf. ch) in Sanskrit. 

d : voiced dental (interdental) spirant, equivalent to Eng. 
th in then ; so used in the Teutonic and Iranian lan- 
guages and in phonetic writing. 

§ : a short open e, used in Teutonic grammar, particularly 
in writing O. H. G. 

d: the short indefinite or "obscure" vowel of Eng. gar- 
dener ; used in the reconstruction of Indo-Eur. forms, 
and in transliterating the Iranian languages. 

gh : in Sanskrit a voiced guttural aspirate (cf. ch), 

q: voiced velar (back-guttural) explosive, used most fre- 
quently in Indo-Eur. reconstructions. 

2 : voiced guttural (or palatal) spirant, equivalent to Mod. 
Greek 7, and used in transliteration of Iranian lan- 
guages and O. Eng. 

h : a voiceless breathing, the Sanskrit visarga, 

hr: a labialized A, similar to wh in Eng. wh€U\ used in 
transliteration of Gothic and the Iranian languages. 

1^: voiceless guttural (or palatal) spirant, equivalent to Ger- 
man cA, and used in transliteration of the Iranian 
languages. 

J : the semi-vowel y, or consonant fonn of t ; used in pho- 
netic writing and reconstructions of Indo-Eur. forms. 



n: 
fi: 
d: 

ft: 

5: 

0: 
ph 



r*- 



§: 



35: 



in the transliteration of Sanskrit and the Iranian lan- 
guages a voiced palatal explosive; in the Teiltonic 
languages a semi- vowel (= y), for which in Indo-Eur. 
reconstructions % is generally used. 

in Sanskrit a voiced palatal aspirate (cf. ch\ 

in Sanskrit a voiceless guttural aspirate (cf. ch). 

the guttural (" thick " or " deep ") of the Slavonic and 
some of the Scandinavian languages. 

vowel /; used in transliterating Sanskrit, in reconstruct- 
ing Indo-Eur. forms, and in other phonetic writing. 

nasal vowel ; used in reconstruction of Indo-Eur. forms 
and in phonetic writing. 

in Sanskrit the cerebral nasaL 

in Sanskrit the guttural nasal (see following). 

the guttural nasal, equivalent to Eng. n in longer; used 
in transliteration of Iranian languages. 

palatal nasal, similar to gn in Fr. regner ; used in trans- 
literating Sanskrit and in phonetic writing. 

palatalized o ; used in German and in phonetic writing. 

short open in Scandinavian. 

short palatalized (Q) in Scandinavian. ^ 

in Sanskrit, voiceless labial aspirate (cf. eh), 

voiceless velar (back-guttural) explosive ; used in recon- 
structions of Indo-Eur. forms and in other phonetic 
writing. 

vowel r; used in transliterating Sanskrit, in reconstruct 
tions of Indo-Eur. forms, and in other phonetic writ- 
ing. 

voiceless cerebral sibilant, equivalent to Eng. ah ; use<l 
in transliterating the Iranian languages and in pho- 
netic writing. 

voiceless cerebral spirant ; used in transliterating San- 
skrit. 

in Sanskrit a voiceless dental aspirate (cf. eh), 

in Sanskrit a voiceless cerebral aspirate (cf. ch), 

in Sanskrit a voiceless cerebral explosive. 

a form of dental spirant used in transliterating the 
Iranian languages (represented in Justi's transliter- 
ation by t). 

voiceless dental (interdental) spirant, equivalent to Bn|2:. 
th in thin; used in Teutonic dialects and in phonetic- 
writing. 

consonant form of u ; used in phonetic writing. 

voiced cerebral sibilant, equivalent to « in Eng. pleaa- 
ure^ and toj in ¥r.jardin; used in Iranian, Slavonic, 
and in phonetic writing. 

a symbol frequently used in the writing of O. H. O. to 
indicate a voiced dental sibilant (Eng. z\ in distinc- 
tion from z as sign of the affricata (ta). 



EXPLANATION OF THE SIGNS AND ABBREVIATIONS 
USED IN THE ETYMOLOGIES. 



> , yielding by descent, L e. under the operation of phonetic ]aw. 

<, descended from. 

=, borrowed without change from. 

: , cognate with. 

+ , a sign joining the constituent elements of a compound. 

* , a sign appended to a word the existence of which is inferred. 



ablat. 


ablative 


a.-ijus. 


accusative 


i-jjec. 


adjective 


diiv. 


adverb 


cf. 


compare 


" njnnc. 


conjunction 


•l^riv. of 


derivative of 


'Ln:in. 


diminutive 


f-m. 


feminine 


C'TvX. 


genitive 


L-iifier 


imperative 


irupjf. 


imperfect 


\A\o. 


indicative 


.nr'.iL 


infinitive 


:::is« . 


masculine 


" min. 


nominative 


r'"*r?ic 


participle 


■-Tt. 


perfect 


'■ --xT. 


plural 


r--fx 


preposition 


rrvs. 


present 


"'D. 


pronoun 


s,-. 


scilicet, supply 


-".r.^. 


singular 


- .rr^.. 


substantive 


• • - Tit- 


vocative 


\-i:lr>Pr. 


Anglo-French 


> -sh. 


Arabic 


* . • -t. 


Avestan 



Dan. 


Danish 


Eng. 


English 


Fr. 


French 


Germ. 


German 


Goth. 


Gothic 


Gr. 


Greek 


Heb. 


Hebrew 


Icel. 


Icelandic 


Ital. 


Italian 


Lat. 


Latin 


Lith. 


Lithuanian 


Mediffiv. Lat. 


Mediaeval Latin 


Mod. Lat. 


Modern Latin 


M. Eng. 


Middle English 


M. H. Germ. 


Middle High German 


0. Bulg. 


Old Bulgarian (= Church Slavonic) 


0. Eng. 


Old English (= Anglo-Saxon) 


0. Fr. 


Old French 


0. Fris. 


Old Frisian 


0. H. Germ. 


Old High German 


O.N. 


Old Norse 


0. Sax. 


Old Saxon 


Pers. 


Persian 


Portug. 


Portuguese 


Prov. 


Provencal 


Sanskr. 


Sanskrit 


So. 


Scotch 


Span. 


Spanish 


Swed. 


Swedish 


Teuton. 


Teutonic 



KEY TO THE PRONUNCIATION. 



aa as a in faiher, and in the second syllable of 

armada, 
ik same, but less prolonged, as in the initial syllable 

of armada^ Arditi, etc 

a as final a in armada, peninsula, etc. 

a as a in fat, and % in French fin, 

ay or &. . as ay in fMy, or as a in fate, 
liy or a., same, but less prolonged. 

S as a in welfare. 

aw as a in fall, all, 

ee as in meet, or as i in machine, 

ee same, but less prolonged, as final i in Arditi, 

e as in men, pet, 

e obscure e, as in Bigdow, and final e in Seine, 

6 as in lier, and eu in French -eur, 

i as in it, sin, 

I as in five, sufine, 

\ same, but less prolonged. 

6 as in mole, sober, 

d same, but less prolonged, as in sobriety, 

o as in on, not, pot, 

oo as in fool, or as u in rule, 

db as in book, or as u in put, pull, 

oi as in noise, and oy in boy, or as eu in Oerman 

Beust, 

ow as in now, and as au in German haus. 



6 as in OUthe, and as eu in French neuf, Chintreuil 

fi as in but, hub, 

u obscure o, as final o in Compton, 

fi ^s in German slid, and as u in French Buzan- 

ffais, vu, 

y otI see / or y. 

yu asu in mule, 

yu same, but less prolonged, as in singular, 

eh as in German ieh, 

g as in get, give (never as in gist, congest). 

hw as u^A in whieh, 

kh as eh in German naeht, g in German tag, eh in 

Scotch loch, and/ in Spanish Badajos, etc. 
n nasal n, as in French fin, Bwirbon, and nasal m, 

as in French nom, Portuguese Sam, 
fi or n-y.. Spanish il, as in eafton, pifton, French and 

Italian gn, etc., as in Boulogne, 
I oTj French /, liquid or mouill^, as (-i)ll- in French 

BaudrUlart, and (-♦)? in ChintreuiL 

th as in thin. 

th as in though, them, mother, 

v SB win German zioei, and b in Spanish Cordoba. 

sh as in shine, 

zh as e in pleasure, and j in French jour. 

All other letters are used "with their ordinary £ngli».b 
values. 



NOTE. 

The values of most of the signs used in the above Key are plainly shown by the examples given. But those of 
0, fi, eh, kh, fi, and v, which have no equivalents in English, can not be sufficiently indicated without a brief explanation, 
which is here given. 

6. The sound represented by this symbol is approximately that of -u- in hurt or -e- in her, but is materially different 

from either. It is properly pronounced with the tongue in the position it has when A is uttered and with the lips in 

the position assumed in uttering o. 
tL This vowel is produced with the lips rounded as in uttering oo and with the tongue in the position required in att4>r- 

ing ee, into which sound it is most naturally corrupted, 
ch and kh. These are both rough breathings or spirants made with considerable force, ch being made between the flati 

of the tongue and the hard palate, and kh between the tongue and the soft palate, eh approaches in sound to £n^^ 

lish sh, but is less sibilant and is made further back in the mouth ; A;h is a guttural and has a hawking sound. 
/ or y. These are both used to represent the sound of French 1 mouilld, in (-i)ll- and (-i)l, which resembles EnglisH -t^ 

in lawyer. Final I, that is, (-i)l, may be approximated by starting to pronounce lawyer and stopping abruptly ^^ith 

the -y-. 
ff or n-y. The consonants represented by fi (Spanish fi, French and Italian gn, etc.) are practically equivalent to En^lisVi 

-ni- or -ny- in bunion, bunyon, onion, etc., and, except when final, are represented by n-y. Final iX, as French -gTi(e>i 

may be produced by omitting the sound of -on in the pronunciation of onion. 
V, This may be pronounced by attempting to utter English v with the use of the lips alone. 

See Preface (vol. L, p. xxiv.) and the article Fhonunciation of Foreign Names. 



114 .Lv 



< V< I.Ul:iEL>I7 



[«T^tiili ^11 1 



■r««M|M« tr/ltt ••Hit i'tt^-r! - Srtn] Sf*Hh* TI'Mlitur lii t -li 




llil 
lift 



RALLID^ 



RAMAYANA 



was wounded, Juno, 1596; was readmitted at court May, 
1507; sailed with the Karl of Essex to the Azores in the 
same year and took Fayal, but q^uarreled with his com- 
mander and contributed to the rum of Essex; obtained a 
grant of the fine manor of Sherborne, Dorsetshire ; went as 
aml)assador to the Netherlands 1600; became governor of 
Jersey 1601 ; lost favor at court on the accession of James I., 
was accused of conspiring to raise Lady Arabella Stuart to 
the throne, committed to the Tower in Julv, and condemned 
to death at Winchester, Nov. 17, 1603; suftered confiscation 
of his estates, which were given to Carr, the new favorite ; 
was kept thirteen years in the Tower, during which time lie 
wrote and published his principal work, The History of the 
World (1614) ; recovered his liberty, though not his pardon, 
through the influence of Villiers,' Jan. 30, 1616; obtained 
from James a commission as admiral, and sailed with a fleet 
of fourteen ships for the discovery of his promised El Do- 
rado in Guiana Mar. 28, 1617; had several engagements with 
the Spaniards, in one of which he lost his oldest son ; lost 
several vessels, and was foiled in his objects; landed at 
Plymouth on his return June, 1618; was imprisoned on 
complaint of the Spanish ambassador, Gondomar, in conse- 
quence of his conduct in Guiana, and it having been decided 
by the judges that the sentence of death pronounced in 1603 
was still valid, he was executed at the palace yard, West- 
minster, Oct. 20, 1618. Raleigh was a man of splendid ge- 
nius and extensive attainments, wrote many miscellaneous, 
literary, and political essays, anil a few poems of high order. 
His Complete Works were edited at Oxford in 8 vols. 
(1829). Biographies have been written bv William Oldys, 
Arthur Cayley, r. P. Tytler, James A. St. John, and Edward 
Edwards, the two latter having api)eared almost simultane- 
ously in 1868. Revised by C. K. Adams. 

RariidflB [Mod. Lat., named from Jtallue, the typical 
^enus, from the Fr. rdle^ rail. See Rail] : a family of birds 
including the rails and gallinules. The neck is moderately 
elongated; the head rather small; the bill more or less 
elongated, compressed, and with the culmen advancing to a 
greater or less extent upon the forehead and decurved to- 
ward the apex ; the nostrils are lateral, rather inferior, and 
in a membranous groove ; the wings moderate and rounded, 
rather short; the tail rather short, inclined upward, and 
rounded ; the tarsi rather long and slender, and in front 
covered with transverse scutella?; the toes three in front, 
and well developed, the hinder comparatively short and 
rather elevated ; the claws curved and sharp. 

Revised by P. A. Lucas. 

Ralph, James : poet and pamphleteer; b. in Philadelphia, 
Pa., about 1698; became a schoolmaster in his native city, 
where he made some pretensions to literarv ability ; was an 
early friend of Benjamin Franklin, with whom he sailed for 
England 1724, abandoning his wife and child ; published in 
1728 a poem entitled Niglit^ which was sufficiently bad to 
merit notice by Pope in the Dunciad ; sought favor with the 
Whig politicians by writing pamphlets and plays ; was pa- 
tronized by Frederick, Prince of Wales, and received a pen- 
sion on the accession of George III. D. at Chiswick, Jan. 24, 
1762. Author of Zeuma, a poem (1729); The Use and 
Abuse of Parliaments (2 vols., 1744); History of England 
(2 vols, folio, 1744-46); and The Case of Authors by Profes- 
sion or Trade Stated (1758). Revised by 11. A. Bkers. 

Rama: See Rama vana. 

Ramadan : Arabian form for Ramazan {q, v.). 

Ra'mah [from Ileb. RCimdh, liter., lofty place] : the name 
of several {Haces in Palestine, two of whicli are historically 
interesting and important. One of these, first mentioned iii 
Josh, xviii. 25, and identified by Robinson in 1838. is on the 
top of a high hill about 5 miles ^J. of Jerusalem. It l>elonged 
to the tribe of Benjamin. Tlie other, where Samuel was born 
(1 Sam. i. 1), has not yet been identified with certainty. 

Rama'yana fSanskr. adjec. rdmayana, concerning Rama, 
sc. noun dk hy ana, siory] : the name of a celebrated |>oem of 
ancient India. It is the first great Indie literary or personal 
epic, as distinguished from the iM)nular epic, exemplified in 
the Mahdhhdrata, Much critical work is yet to be done 
ere all the specific problems concerning the genesis of the 

{K>em can l>e solved; but their ultimate stfhitions are sure to 
)e most illuminating for tlie student of the genesis of epic 
f>oetry. R<'specting the general theory of the origin of the 
i»oem, see Epic J^oetry. The original nucleus of the lid- 
mdyana differs wholly from that of the Maiiabiiarata {q. r.) 
in two most important respects: First, it is the work of 



one man ; and, second, it is of unitary design and charac- 
ter. The man is called Valmiki — a fact quite bare of m;:- 
nific^nce, as compared with the fact that he is namaMe ; 
and whereas the Bhdrata is inordinately episodical, and i^ 
in effect a grreat cyclopaedia of Indie legend, the Hdrndymnt 
concerns itself with the legends clustering about the one 
great name of Rama. 

Valmiki's material (like that of the Bhdrata) is truly 
popular. It consists of the legends of Rama of the ra-*- 
of Ikshvaku in the land of Kosala. These were the sul»jc«t 
of many little epic songs sung by the bards {sutat*) at th»' 
courts of the Ikshvaku princes. A Brahman, Valmiki. of 
pre-eminent poetic gifts, made himself master of these sonu'-, 
transfused them into a consistent whole, and so cn»ateii an 
epos. This was learned by the professional rhapscnlists, and 
by them recited in public. The date of the written n^dnr- 
tion we do not know; but it was doubtless ma<le whih* th-* 
institution of wandering minstrels or professional re<iters . .f 
the poem was still in full vogue, and while their oral tradi- 
tions of the poem possessed as much authority as the then 
extant written copies. It is probable that the fixation nf 
the poem in writmg took place independently in different 
localities, and that each of the now extant recensions is an 
independent reflex of one of the locally or otherwise vary in tc 
oral traditions. 

The most important recensions are three : One is the l^^n- 
gal recension, edited by Gorresio; and another, tlie so-call»d 
"northern," which has the widest currency, and is the ba^i** 
of the Bombay editions. The poem, like some medi»*val 
cathedral, has suffered additions and changes'at the hands of 
successive generations, but not in such wise as greatly t«> 
obscure its original compass and design. In its pres^^nt 
forms the Jidmdyana consists of seven books, of wliich. 
however, the first and last are doubtless later ailditioo'-. 
The seven books contain about 25,000 double versi»s — «sa>- 
about twice as much as the Iliad and Odyssey together*: 
but Jacobi believes that a reconstructed text would contain, 
after casting out all provable additions, some 8,000 or 1U,U(HI 
double verses. 

Story of the Poem (after Monier-Williams). — To Dayara- 
tha. King of Ayodhya, by his three wives, are bom fntir 
sons: Rama, the eldest; and, bv Kaikeyi, BharatA. Karnn 
is taken to the court of King Jauaka, knd by his stren^'th. 
shown in bending a wonderful bow, wins for his wife Situ. 
He returns, and preparations are made to install him a^ 
successor to his father's throne. Kaikeyi now demands *»f 
Da^aratha — by way of fulfillment of an old promise that ]u' 
would grant ner any two requests she might make — tlmt 
Rama be banished, and her own son Bharata be made kini^. 
Rama dutifully goes into exile with Sita. The king die> m 
grief. Bharata goes and proffers Rama the kingdom, ami 
is refused. 

Sita is carried oflf bv Riivana, the demon-king of I^nkri. 
The ape Uanumant seelcs and finds her. R&ma makes aiii- 
ance with Sugrlva, king of the apes, and with his aid, ami 
that of Vibhishana, brother of Ravaufi, he invades Hava- 
na's capital, slays him, and recovers Siti. He then return^ 
to Ayodhya and assumes his crown. 

Here are two parts fundamentally different. Vp to Ka- 
ma's refusal of the kingdom all is natural, human, aiui }m w- 
sible. From the rape of Sita on, all is unnatural and fati- 
tastic to the last degree. This instructive combination i- 
an instance of what has taken place also among other i>im»- 

f)les — the mingling of heroic-legendary elements with my t h« .- 
ogical elements. The first part gives us the story of Itain.., 
as a popular hero; the second blends the conceptions i- 
Rama the hero with those of Rama the divinity. As earl*, 
as the Rig- Veda, Sita appears as the j)ersonified Furn>\% ^ 
She is a genius of the corn-field and wife of the rain-g*»<l. 
The battles of Rama and Havana are only another ft>rni « .*! 
the battles of the rain-god Indra with the demon of dn»uirl. t , 
What to the nomad herdsman of Vedic times was a iHMiniu * 
up of the heavenly waters, that was to the husbananuui * • j 
enic times a carrying away of the goddess of their corn-fiel • : -, 
Iianumant, son of the wind-g(Ml, is a rain-god, the genin?- < -j 
the monsoon, who recovers Sita, i. e. brings back to life i)\,\ 
dead and j)arched fields. 

Place and Date. — The place of the human part of t ^ ^ 
poem is Kosala, the region about Ayodhya ((hulh). Tli«»^ 
is not the slightest allusion to the most important fart m 
the j)re-('hristian political history of Imlia. the cmpin* « .| 
the great Mauryan dynasty of the neighboring Magadl>;t t 
founded by contemj)oraries of Buddha, nor to its capii ,] 
l*ataliputra. In short, the whole political and geograpl>u:i 



RAMSAY 



RAML^S 



Ramsay, David, M. D. : physician and author ; b. in 
Lancaster co., Pa., Apr. 2, 1749 ; graduated at Princeton 
1765 ; studied medicine at the University of Pennsylvania ; 
settled as a physician at Charleston, 8. C., 1773 ; served in 
the war of the Revolution as a field-surgeon, participating 
in the siege of Savannah ; was a leading member of the 
South Carolina Legislature 1776-83, and of the council of 
safety at Charleston, on the capture of which city he was 
treated by the British as a hostage and kept eleven months 
in close confinement in St. Augustine, Fla., 1780-^1 ; was a 
member of the Continental Congress 1782-84, and again 
1785-86 ; was acting president of Congress during most of 
the latter period, on account of the sickness of llancock ; 
published a History of the Revolution of South Carolina 
(2 vols., Trenton, 1785), History of the American Revolution 
(2 vols., Philadelphia, 1789), a Life of Washington (New 
York, \S07), A History of South Carolina (Charleston, 1809), 
and History of the United States 1607-1808 (3 vols., Phila- 
delphia, 1816-17), besides medical and other essays. Ilis first 
wife was a daughter of President Witherspoon, of Prince- 
ton ; his second was Martha, daughter of llenry Laurens, 
and of her he published a memoir m 1811. During the last 
fourteen years of his life Dr. Ramsay was a member of the 
South Carolina Legislature, and for much of the time presi- 
dent of the Senate. I), at Charleston, May 8, 1815, from a 
wound inflicted by a lunatic two days before. 

Ramsay, William Mitchell, D. C. Tj. : scholar ; b. in 
Glasgow, Scotland, Mar. 15, 1851 ; was e<lucated at the Tni- 
versities of Aberdeen, Oxford, Qottingen, and Berlin ; held 
the traveling studentship of Oxford University in 1879; 
was fellow of Exeter College in 1882 ; resided and traveled 
in Asia Minor 1880-84, and ma^le frequent excursions to 
that land 1885-91 ; was Lincoln Professor of Classical Art 
and Archffiology in Oxford 1885 ; and since 1886 has been 
Professor of Humanity in Aberdeen University. Dr. Ram- 
say has published numerous articles in magazines of Europe 
and the U. S. : Historical Oeoaraphy of Asia Minor (1890) ; 
The Church in the Roman Emmre before 170 A. D. (1893) ; 
and St. PauVs Travels: the ^arrative^ its Author^ aiid 
Date; Morgan lectures in Theological Seminary, Auburn, 
N. Y. (London, 1895). C. K. Uo\t. 

Ram'ses, or Ram'eses (Egypt. Rd-me^u) : the name of 
thirteen Kings of Egvpt belonging to the nineteenth and 
twentieth dynasties. HAaisBS I., the first king of the nine- 
teenth dynasty, ascended the throne at the close of a period 
of confusion consequent upon the religious reforms at- 
tempted by Khunatkn (g. v.), during which the Nubians 
and the Shasu or Eastern nomads had thrown off the yoke 
of Egypt. All that is known of him is that he waged war 
in a small way in Nubia, where he left memorial steUc ; that 
he made a treaty with the Hittites ; and that he did some 
building at Thebes, where he commenced the great hypostyle 
hall at Karnak. His chief claim to distinction is that he 
was the father of Seti 1., one of the greatest of Egyptian 
warriors and conquerors, who claimed to have extended bis 
sway till it included all that Thothmes ITI. had held. Seti 
thus handed on a united and powerful kingdom to Ramses 
II., whom he had alrcadv associated, in his twelfth year, 
with himself as king. Ramses II. niled for sixty-six or 
sixty-seven years, lie was a powerful monarch, a great 
builder, and a liberal patron. The Oreek writers ascribed 
to him many wonderful deeds under the name of Sesostris, 
but this name was a sort of conglomerate in which the per- 
sonalities of several kings were combineil, such, e. g., as 
Usertiisen II. of the twelfth, Ramses II. of the nineteenth, 
and Ramses III. of the twentieth dynasty. The name of 
Ramses 11. is found on monuments or buildings from Beirut 
to Napata and from one end of Egypt to the other, as well 
as throughout the length of Nubia. (See Ipsambcl.) In 
many cases, however, his name was inserted in the inscrip- 
tions of other kings by a process of usurpation in which he 
was the worst offender in Egyptian history. His principal 
residence appears to have been at Tanis, where lie erected a 
granite temple which he adorned with a coloss^il statue of 
himself. At Thebes he ere('te<l the Ramesseum, besides ex- 
tending the buildintJfs of his predecessors. He built also at 
Abydos (see Mkmnonh'M), at Memphis, and Heliopolis, be- 
sides a multitude of otlier places. The UHmessoum, a large 
temple on the W. of the Nile opposite KHrnak, was devoted 
to the w<irship of the manes of the great Ramses. On its 
walls were inscribed the accounts r)f his wars, especially the 
account of the expedition a;,'ainst tlie Hitiites which is com- 
memorated in the famous poem of Peiitaur. 



His warlike operations liegan while he was coregent with 
Seti I., when he led expeditions into Nubia and Lil»\a. 
Near Beirut are inscriptions which record his advance* to 
that point in his secona and fourth vears. In his fifth year 
he marched against the Hittites, whose principal seat'wii«> 
in the region about Carchemish. With them were allied all 
the neoples of the entire region. At Kadesh, on the Oronte**. 
battle was jointed, and in the confiict Ramses was successf iil 
over Mftutenure, the Hittite king, largely by reason of his per- 
sonal daring and prowess, if we may credit the monument<tI 
record. In his eighth vear another expedition was under- 
taken against certain cities in Palestine, Ascalon being the 
principal place capturetl. In his twenty-first year RMmM'> 
entered into an offensive and defensive alliance with Cheta- 
sar, the Hittite king, and to confirm this treaty, which re- 
mained in force during the rest of his reign, he took to wift- 
the daughter of the Hittite. In consequence, more intimate 
relations of friendship and trade were established betwe<Mi 
Egypt and the East. After a reign of sixty-seven (Josephii^i. 
sixty-six) years, Ramses died, and was succecKled by his s<m 
Meneptah (Egypt. Mer-en-Ptah, beloved of PtahJ, who i> 
usually regard ea as the Pharaoh of the Exodus, under whom 
the kingdom rapidly lost presti|2:e. 

Ramses III. was the second king of the twentieth dynasty, 
and ten others bearing the same name followed in immtnliate 
succession. The period which preceded the reign of RamM s 
III. was almost one of anarchy, and in it even a Syrian a|»- 
pears to have succeeded in gaining t«mtx>rary royal power, 
buring the period following his death tne power exenisiMl 
by the priests was such as to lead to a speedy deterioration 
of the Kingdom, and to a final usurpation of the throne l>y 
Her-Hor (^. t'.), the priest-king. Ramses III. waffe<l war 
with the Libyans and with his neighbors to the N. E., th«- 
Hittites and their allies, while Punt and Ethiopia wen* 
forced to pay tribute. His reign was brilliant>, and wa- 
commemorated on the walls of Ramses*s memnonium at 
Medinet Habu {q. v.\ at Thebes, which in its various exten- 
sions presented the annals of the kincr. For ethnoU»gic-al 
purposes its mural decorations, giving life-like portrait.s of 
prisoners taken in war, are very valuable. See Petrie's Ra- 
cial Types from Egypt (1887). 

The most notable events of the following reigns were tlio 
thefts practiced in the necropolis at TheVies and elsewhen\ 
in the times of Ramses IX. and X., which were made the 
subject of investigations. The results of these inquirit-^ 
have come down to us, showing the extent of the depreda- 
tions. 

The mummies of the first three Ramses are at the Gi/^h 
Museum, having been among those found in 1881 near I>«ir 
el-Bahri, W. of Thebes. Charles R. Gillett. 

Ramses, or Raamses: the name given in Ex. i. 11 to 
one of the "store-cities" built by the Israelites for lh»- 
Pharaoh of the Oppression, who usually has been identit1*-<l 
with the great Ramses II. of the nineteenth dynasty. It^ 
Ux'ation is unknown, but it was probably a frontier t«»\* n 
like PiTHOM (g. f'.). By some it is supposed to have Ih-»ii 
lot-ated in the Wadi Tumilat, W. of rithom, while otln-rs 
identifv it with Tanis, which in some inscriptions Invars tin- 
name Pi-Ramses, dwelling or house of Ramses. C. R. G. 

Ranisgate: town; in the countv of Kent, England : on 
the southeast coast of the Isle of I'hanet; 72 miles E. by >n. 
of London (see map of England, ref. 12-L). It is an iin|>or- 
tant fishing-station, with a harbor of refuge 51 acres in ex- 
tent inclosed between two piers. Among its features aro 
an iron i)romenade-pier, a beautiful Roman Catholic ehurt ti 
designed by Pugin, a Benedictine monastery, and a Jewi*.»i 
college. It is much frequented as a watering-place bv Li»ii- 
doners. Pop. (1891) 24,676. 

Ranins, Petris (Pr. Pierre de la Ramee): humanist an«\ 
mathematician ; b. at Cuth, department of Somme. FraiK«». 
in 1515, in humble circumstances; studied under gn^it 
difficulties at the University of Paris, and published in 154;; 
his Animadrersionum in Dialecticam Arisfofelis Libri A'A 
and Institutionum Dialect icarum Libri II I.^ in which In 
attacked Aristotle and the scholastic method of phih •^« »- 
phizing with great Iwldness. The university, the Chun h^ 
the Parliament, took great offense; the books were i-oii^ 
demne<l. and the author forbidden to teach. By the fa^«»< 
of the king he was nevertheless afterward appointed at tl i . 
university, and continued till his death his onpositi. -i i 
against the empty subtleties of the philosophy of iiis ti-i..- 
Among other works were (hometria (1569) and Srh»U * 
Mathemaf ic(f iloQ^J). In 1561 he embraced ProtestHiiti-r ?: 



6 



RANDOLPH 



RANSOM 



committee of vigilance chosen Mar. 10, 1773, and an effi- 
cient worker in promoting through correspondence a con- 
cert of action with the other colonies ; presided over the 
Virginia convention at Williamsburg, Aug., 1774; was 
chosen a delegate to the Continental Congress; was first 
president of that body upon its meeting at Carpenters* Hull, 
Philadelphia, Sept. 5, 1774, though from ill-health he soon 
resigned that post ; presided over the second Virgina con- 
vention at Richmond, Mar. 20, 1775; was again chosen 
president of the Continental Congress when it reassembled 
at Philadelphia, May 10, 1775, but resigned May 24, return- 
ing to Virgmia to preside over the house of burg*?sses ; re- 
sumed his seat in Congress a few months later. D. in Phila- 
delphia, Oct. 22, 1775. 

Randolph, Thomas : poet ; b. near Daventry, England, 
in 1605; d. 1635. He was educated at Westminster and at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, of which he became a fellow. 
His plays include Amyntas, a pastoral comedy, and The 
Muses' Jjooking-glass, a morality in defense of stage-plays. 
His best-known poem is his Oae to Sir Anthony Stafford. 
He was a friend and disciple of Ben Jonson. ll. A. B. 

Randolph-Macon College: an educational institution 
chartered in 1830 and opened in 1832, endowed and sus- 
tained by the Virginia and Baltimore conferences of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church South. It was first located in 
Mecklenburg co., Va. ; suffered severely during the civil war, 
and was removed in 1866 to Ashland,'Hanover County, and 
re-endowed. — Randolph-Macox Woman's College, Lynch- 
burg, Va., is an endowed institution for women with courses 
of instruction parallel to those for men at Ashland. It 
was founded in 1891. — Raxdolph-Macon Academy, Bedford 
City, Va., was established in 1889 as a fitting school for the 
college; and Randolph-Macon Academy, at Front Royal, 
Va., practically a duplicate of the one at Bedford City, was 
established in 1891. — These institutions are all controlled 
by the board of trustees, and under the supervision of Presi- 
dent William W. Smith, A.M., LL.D. 

Rang^oon' : chief city of Burma, and third port in impor- 
tance in British India ; on the eastern arm of the Irawadi 
delta, 20 miles from its mouth (see map of S. India, ref. 4-L). 
It is in unimpeded connection with the main stream and 
with the coast, and is accessible for large craft. It is the 
center of a system of canals, and the terminus for two rail- 
ways running northwai*d, one to Prome, the other to Man- 
dalay. It is provided with street-cars, fire brigades, and 
other modern improvements; but ^ badlv built and unsani- 
tary, with the houses often on bamboo piles, and the narrow 
streets intersected by canals. The teak forests in the region 
about it and the excellent character of the port early caused 
the development of a considerable ship-building industry, 
which has latterly declined. The principal exports are rice, 
teak, cotton, spices, and skins. Rangoon is tne chief port 
of importation for the trade of Upper Burma and Yunnan. 
The city has few noteworthy buildings or monuments, but 
near by is the Shway-Dagou Pagoda, a massive and imjjos- 
iiig structure, with a* tower 321 feet high capped by an enor- 
mous gilded crown and containing a bell weighing 30 tons. 
Tlie pagoda is the repository of eight hairs from the head 
of Gautama Buddha, and is a favorite object of pilgrimage 
and seat of an annual fair. 

Rangoon was in 1753 selected by Alompra as capital of 
Pegu, and given its present name Ran-kun, or "en(l of the 
war." Before that it was named after the pngoda. which 
wiis built, according to tradition, about 585 b. c. The city 
was occupied by the British in 1821, but soon returned to 
the Burmese. It was again t^iken in 1852, and has since 
been held by the British. It has prospered under their rule, 
and the population increased from 25.000 in 1852 to 180,324 
in 1891. Ihe citv forms a separate administrative district 
of 22 sq. miles. The population is chiefly Buddhist. 

Mark \V. Harrington. 

Rang'pnr' : district of Bengal, British India; between 25° 
16 and 26" 21' N., and bounded K. bv the Brahmaputra. 
Area, 3,486 sq. miles. Pop. 2.100.000. 'The surface is very 
low, and in the wet season entirely inundated. Cotton does 
not succeed. Indigo is the principal product; fiftv large 
fa<!tories are in operation, M. \V. H, 

RanMdflB [Mod. Lat., deriv. of Lat. ra'na, frog}: the fam- 
ily of anurous batrachians which contains the true frogs. 

Ran'ke, Johannes, M. D., Ph. D. : physiologist and an- 
thropologist : b. at Thurnau, Bavaria, Aug. 2ii, 18:^6; stud- 
ied at the Universities of Munich, Tubingen, Berlin, and 



Paris, graduating M. D. in 1861 at the first named, fmm 
which he received Ph. D. in 1882. He was appointed Kxtra* -i - 
dinary Professor of Physiology in the Tniversity of Mum. h 
in 1869. He was the co-editof of the Btitr&ge zur Anthn,- 
pologie und Urgeschtchte Bayems (1877); and has be*ni « li- 
tor of the Archiv fur Anthropoiogie since 1882. His prui- 
cipal work is OrundzUge der Physiologie des Menschen. 

S. T. ARM>TRoNCi. 

Rank e, Leopold, von : historian: b. at Wiehe, Thuriuiria. 
Dec. 21, 1795; studied at Halle and Berlin; was appoini.,! 
teacher at the gymnasium of Frankfort-on-the-Oder m IMn, 
and Professor of History at the University of Berlin in 1 VJ"). 
His principal writings are Oeschichte der romanischcn uuti 
germanischen Vdlker von 1494-1^^5 (1824); Fur»ien nn»i 
Vdlker von Sudeuropa im 16, und 17 Jahrhundert (l?*,*?); 
Die serbische Revolution (1829), one of his most bnlliai.r 
productions; Ueber die Verschwdrung gegen Vtnedtq mi 
Jahre 1688 (1^1); The Popes of Borne, their Church nud 
State (3 vols.. 1834-87; translated into English bv Mrs. 
Austin in 1840, by Scott in 1846, and by E. Poster in*lH4S; ■. 
History of Germany in the Time of' the Reformation (<> 
vols., 1839-47; translated into English by Mrs, Au>(im; 
Memoirs of the House of Brandenburg, and History of 
Prussia during the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Ceuturi*^ 
(3 vols., 1847-48; translated into English by Sir A. I»iitf 
Gordon); Jahrbucher des deutschen Reichs unter dem Mtlrhs- 
ischen Hause (3 vols., 1837-40); Franzdsische Gei^chirhff 
vomehmlich im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert (5 vols., l852-5.*ii; 
A History of England principally in the Seventeenth ^Vi*- 
/wry (6 vols., 1859-68 ; English translation 1875); U^schicht*^ 
Wallensteins (1869); Weltgesehichte (1881-88). The ctnii- 
plete edition of his works comprises forty-seven voluin*-^. 
His very first productions immediately attracted great at- 
tention, both on account of the high merit of their st\ \v 
and composition, and on account of the ingenuity evinrirl 
in gathering and sifting the materials. It is also to thi^ 
latter point that the expression "the school of Ranko *' 
principally refers — to the method of studying histor)- railirr 
than to the method of writing it. D. in Berlin, Gerinaiiv, 
May 23, 1886. 

Rankine, William John Macquorn: physicist and enL'i- 
neer ; b. in Edinburgh, Scotland, July 5, 1820. In his t-ai 1 > 
education his father, a retired lieutenant of the rifle briiradt', 
was his chief instructor. He early displayed fondne>s fi -r 
the natural sciences, and was fortunate in'having the emi- 
nent Prof. J. D. Forbes as his tutor in natural philosoph\. 
To him he dedicated his earliest and a somewhat remarkaM** 
j)aper, advocating the use of cylindrical wheels for railwav 
carriages. Civil engineering naturally attracted his attm- 
tion, and from 1841 to 1851 he was employed on the rail- 
ways of Scotland. One of the most noticeable of his pii\ >- 
ico-mathematical researches was based on an hyp<)tho>i< '« f 
*' molecular vortices," by which was detluced'the laws ..l 
elasticity, and of heat as connected therewith; fn»m this Ji.- 
took at once prominent rank as an original invest ii:ai t .»• 
His theoretical results, conforming closely to those miI-^i-- 
quently obtained experimentallv by Hegnault and Dr. Ur* . 
were in their ultimate form published in The Philosojthirfi 
Magazine, Dec. 1851 (^>/i the Centrifugal Theory of Ehr.^- 
ficity as applied to Gases and Vapors). Important pajM-r-. 
on kindreii subjects succeeded this, among whicli are (hi <> 
General Law of the Transformation of Energy and fh, *. 
lines of the Science of Energetics. In 1855 Rankine bwa n j • 
Regius Professor of Civil Engineering and Mechanics ^ i j 
the University of Glasgow. Soon after taking the chair h«- 
turned his attention to the production of a series of manti- 
als for engineering students and practical men. D. in Cila<^- 
gow, Dec. 24, 1872. 

Ransom, Matthew VVhitaker : U. S. Senator ; b. in War ^ 
ren co., N. C, Oct. 8, 1826; graduated at the University < •!' 
North Carolina 1847; mlmitted to the bar in the same >*-nr ^ 
l)ecame a planter and politician; attorney-general of Xort \ :| 
Carolina 1852-55 ; member of the Ijegislatiire 1858-00 ; |knu •• i 
commissioner to the Montgomery convention 1861 ; enteri*» Ij 
the Confederate service as lieutenant-colonel; rose to l«»i 
major-general, serving through the war; surrendere<l at Ap^ 
pomattox Court-house; elected as a Democrat in Jan.. lSTv.», 
to the U. S. Senate for the terra expiring in 1877; ^e-<?le<-•to^ i 
for 1877-83, 1883-89, and 1889-95. 

Ransom, Robert : officer ; b. in North Carolina, Feb., lS-2t » 
graduated at the Military Academy, and promoted brcv« - i 
second lieutenant of First Dragoons July 1, 1850; hocarn .| 
captain First Cavalry Jan., 1861, resigned May 24, 1861, an • I 



ul ' tfi^ Ufwinf iiM 



lUfllllllO. H ItAftllAtil 



8 



KAPHIDES 



RASKOLXIKS 



Raphides : See Rhaphides. 

Rapidan' Rirer : a stream of Virginia which rises by sev- 
eral head-streams at the base of the Blue Hidge, and 'flows 
between Green and Orange Counties on its right, and Madi- 
son and Culpeper on its left. Ten miles above Fredericks- 
burg it joins the Rappahannock, after a course of about 80 
miles. 

Rapid City : citv ; capital of Pennington co., S. D. ; on 
the Rapid river and the Fremont, Elkhoni, and Mo. Valley 
Railroad ; 45 miles S. E. of Deadwood, about 140 miles W. by 
8. of Pierre (for location, see map of South Dakota, ref . 7-B). 
It is in the famous Black Hills; is the seat of the State 
School of Mines, created by act of the territorial legislature 
in 1885 : and contains 2 national banks with combined capi- 
tal of $125,000, a State bank with capital of $50,000, and a 
daily and 5 weekly newspapers. Pop. (1880) 202 ; (1890) 2,128. 

Rapid-fire tinns : See Machine and Rapid-fihe Guns. 

Rapp, George : founder of the sect of Harmonists (q. v.) ; 
b. at Iptingen, WUrteraberg, Germany, Oct., 1770; founded 
in early manhood a communistic religious association to re- 
store the practices of the primitive Christian Church ; came 
into conflict with the authorities ; emigrated to the U. S. 
in 1808 with a number of his associates ; founded the town 
of Harmony, Butler co., Pa., and later the town of Economy, 
now Harmony, in Beaver co. D. at Economy Aug. 7, 1847. 

Rapjpahannock Rirer: a stream which rises in the foot- 
hills of the Blue Ridge, near the northwest border of Fau- 
quier CO., Va., and flows southeast, generally parallel to the 
Potomac, reaching Chesuncake Bay through abroad estuary. 
Its largest branch is the Rapidan. At its rapids at Freder- 
icksburg a fine dam affords extensive water-i>ower. Below 
Fredericksburg it is a noble tidal stream, the navigation of 
which is important. It is about 250 miles iu total length. 

Rapto'res, sometimes Raptatores [Mod. Lat. pi., from 
Lat. raptor, a robber] : a ^roup, or order, of birds containing 
the binls of prey, comprising the hawks (FalconuliF), owls 
{Strigidcp), secretary-bird {(xypogeranidie\ and American 
vultures {Cat hart id(p). These last differ from the others in 
many important particulars, and should, very likely, be 
placed apart. The Raptorea are birds of powerful dight, 
characterized by a hooked, cered beak, and, with few excep- 
tions, powerfulfeet and sharp, curved claws. The palate is 
desmognathous, there ard two carotids, the oil-f land is pres- 
ent, as are also ca^ca, except in Cath<trtidce, The feraide is 
generally larger than the male ; the young are helpless when 
hatched. There are about 500 spcies, distributed through- 
out the world. Accipitees (a.^v.) is by many authors restricted 
to the hawks or diurnal birds of prey. F. A. Lucas. 

Raritan Rirer : a river in New Jersey, which rises in 
two branches in Morris co., flows S. E. through SonierstM 
and Hunterdon Counties, and falls into Raritan Bav at 
Perth Am boy. It is navigable as far as New Brunswick. 

Raschid : See Uaroun al RascuId. 

Rash : a popular name for the acute exanthematous or 
eniptive diseases, or more fremiently for the eruption itself 
which attends such diseases. r*'ettle-rash or urticaria, scar- 
let rash (roseola), and canker-rash (scarlet fever) are the 
diseases generally called by this name, which, though con- 
venient for nursery use, is of no scientific value. 

Rashi [a combination of the initial letters of his title and 
name! : the celebrated Jewish commentator Rabbi Solomon 
Ben Isaac ; b. at Troves, in Champagne, France, in 1040. 
Little is known about his life, except that he studied at the 
theological schools of Mayence ana Worms. He died July 
13, 1105. He wrote commentaries on all the books of the 
Bible except Chronicles ; which, though they contain much 
of the traditional rabbinic exegesis, st»ek to determine the 
Mim])le meaning (Peahat) of the text. They have been held 
in the highest esteem not only by Jewish writers, but also 
by Xicolaus de Lyra, Luther, S*«l)'astian MOnster, etc. His 
commentary on the Pentateuch was the first Hebrew book 
printed (1475). He also wrote a commentary on twenty- 
three of the treatises of tho Babylnnian Talmud, which is 
printed in every edition <if tluit work. Among his other 
writings may he mentione«l a commentary to Bereshith 
Habba\ Ilappardt's, coni&ining tlecisions on ritual and legal 
matters; and a few hymns. In his commentaries Rashi 
cites a large number of Provenc;al words which have been 
collected by Arsene Darmesteter. and which are of value in 
determining the pronunciati(m of the particular dialect used 
by the Jews in that part of Provence. See Zunz, Ztitschrift 



fUr die Wiasenseh. des Judenthums (Berlin, 1822, iii., p. 
277); Graetz, History of the Jews (Philadelphia, 181M, p. 
286); Siegfried, Rasehi^e Einflt^ea auf Nieolaiie i*on Lira 
und Luther (in Merx, Archiv, i., p. 428); Maschkow.ski. 
Raechfa Uinjfluaa auf Nikolaua von Lyra (in Zritschrtft 
far altteet, Wiaaenschaft, xi., p. 268) ; Clement-Mullet, Docu- 
mentapour aervir d Vhiatoire de Raaehi (Troyes, 1855) ; Ar- 
sene Darmesteter, Gloaaea et Gloaaairea Uibreux^Fran^aU 
du Moyen Age (in Romamaf i., pp. 146, aeq.), 

Richard Gottbkiu 

Rask, Rasmus Kristiax: scholar; b. at Bnpndekilde. 
on the island of Fiinen, Denmark, Nov. 22, 1787; studi<«i 
at the University of Copenhagen. In 1808 he published hi^ 
Introduction to the Study of the Icelandic Language, whidi. 
with his edition of the £adaa (1818), the first critical and 
complete one published, forms the foundation for the study 
of Icelandic literature and language. In 1818 he b«*^uii 
his extensive travels. He spent first two years in Iceland, 
the result of which was his celebrated Reaearchea concf ru- 
ing the Origin of the Icelandic Lanauage (1818), whicli 
received the gold medal of the Danish Scientific Society, 
and in which the first oliservations of the trans[>ositii'i'>N 
of sounds in the Teutonic languages were published. 1 It- 
next spent two years in Stockholm, where ne publishc<i a 
grammar of the' Anelo-Saxon language (1817}, translattd 
into English by B. Thorpe (1830), and studied Finnish, ami 
then, in 1817, fte proceeded by St. Petersburcr, where he rv- 
mained over a vear, studying the Slavonic aialects, to As- 
trakhan, through Persia, and to India, which he traveriH-d 
in its whole length from 1820 to 1822, returning home. l»y 
C-eylon, in 1828. He brought to Copenhagen a great niiiTi- 
l)er of rare Oriental manuscripts, one of the greatest treas- 
ures of the Royal Library ; but incomparably greater wius 
his working knowledge of most of the languages composinj^ 
the Indo-European family, from the English to the Mant- 
chu. But his health was broken, and the results of hi-i 
enormous linguistic acciuisitions were fragmentary. He 
wrote essays on the Zend language, the genuineness of th** 
Zend'Avetttn, the ancient Egyptian and Hebrew chronology, 
and published grammars of the Spanish (1824), Fri>iaii 
(1825), Italian (1827), and English (1832) languages. Hi- 
richest and most original work is liis Introduction to a 
Scientilic Orthography of the Daniah Language (1826), in 
which he gave comparative philology a new and T)owerfiiJ 
impulse, and foreshadowed many ideas later estab]ishe<l a> 
truths. He undoubtedly anticipated Grimm in the discovery 
of the law of the permutation of consonants. D. in Coinn- 
hagen, Nov. 14, 1832. Samlede Afhandlinger (vols. iii„ 
1834^38). Revised by D. K. DowiE. 

RaskdFnlks [from Russ. raskolenik\ schismatic, hero- 
ticl : members of the Raak6l\ or schism, which dates ofti- 
cially from the year 1666. During the long period of ttie 
Mongol yoke numerous errors crept into the ritual and lit- 
urgical books of the Russian Church. In the seventeen! h 
century, during the reign of Alexis Mikhailovich, the patri- 
arch >fikon introduced numerous reforms, which were me t 
by great opposition. Nikon fell, but the council which de- 
posed him in Maj, 1667, confirmed his reforms. From that 
time the schism m the Russian Church became establishe<l. 
The Raskolniks objected to the alterations in and the print- 
ing of the church-books, to the form of the cross, and t < > 
various other matters. Thence they took the name of 
Staroobryadtayy or Old Ritualists (from atary, old, aiul 
obryad, a rite) ; but, as they professed to be the preservers 
of old faith, as well as of old rites, they called tnems«dve?* 
also Starovertav, or Old Believers (from fern, faith). When 
Peter I. introduced his reforms into Russia the Ra>k«»l 
waxed stronger, its old religious opposition being fom- 
fie<l by a political resistance to the census, to military con- 
scription, to shaving, to giving up the national dress. 'Peter 
I. vainly endeavored to crush tneir opposition. Since his 
time their treatment has fluctuated. Peter III. was their 
avowe<l protector. Catherine II. treated them lenient ly 
for a time, granting them the official designation of Edirtfl^ 
rerfsy, or Like- Believers, and allowing them to retain their 
old ritual. After the insurrection of Pugachef, an outbreak 
of schismatic and rebellious fury, they met with less favor. 
Nicholas I. in vain tried severe measures. Towanl the em I 
of his reign advances were made to them by the Poles an<l 
the Russian socialists, but the only result was the installa- 
tion in 1846, at Belokrinitsa in Bukovina, of a Rai^kolnik 
metropolitan, Ambrose, formerly Metrojwlitan of Bosnin- 
Ills successor, Cyril, visited Moscow in 1863, and there held 



10 



RATAFIA 



Ratafl'a [Pr. ; Malay, araq, arrack + tafia, a spirit distilled 
from molasses] : a name given to a large class of liqueurs, or 
sweet alcoholic drinks strongly flavored with aromatics. 

Ratel : any one of three carnivorous mammals of the 
family Muatdidie and genus MilUvora, found in Africa and 
India, and sometimes known from their habits as honey- 
badgers. The typical species, M. ratel or capensis, a native 
of South Africa, has a stout, batlger-like body and short 
tail; its toUl length is about 3 feet. The back is iron- 
gray, with a white crown and streak down each side. The 
other si>ecios, J?/, indica and M. leuconota, differ only in size 
and amount of white in their pelage. F. A. L. 

Ratio [= Lat. ratio, reckoning, account, calculation, rela- 
tion, deriv.of re'ri, ratiis, reckon, believe, think, judge] : the 
numerical measure of the relation which one quantity bears 
to another of the same kind. The only way in which two 
quantities can be compared is bv division. The operation 
of dividing one quantity by another of the same kind con- 
sists in dividing the number of times that any assumed unit 
is contained in the former by the number of times the 
same unit is containetl in the latter. The operation of 
finding a ratio is therefore purely numerical, and the result- 
ing ratio is consequently an abstract number. If the terms 
of the ratio are commensurable, their ratio is exiiet ; if the 
terms are incommensurable, the expression of their ratio by 
quotient of two abstract numbers is only approximate ; but 
it is to be remarked that the approximation to the true 
value may be made to any desirable degree of exactness. 

Prime and ultimate ratios were used by Newton as the 
method of analysis in his Principia. It is a simplification 
of the method of exhaustion as used by ancient geometers. 
To conceive an idea of this method, let us suppose two vari- 
able quantities whose values approach each other so that 
their ratio continually approaches a, and finally differs from 
a by less than any assignable quantity ; then is a the ulti- 
mate ratio of the two quantities. Again, if two variable 
quantities simultaneously approach two other quantities, 
which on the same hypothesis remain constant, the ultimate 
ratio of the variable jauantities is the same as that of the 
constant quantities. The ratios are called prime or ultimate, 
according as the ratio of the variable quantities is rececling 
from or approaching to the ratio of the constant quantities. 

Revised by S. Newcomb. 

Rationalism [from Lat. rntiona'lis, rational, reasonable, 
deriv. of ratio, rationis, reckoning, thinking, ludgment, 
reason, deriv. of re ri, ra'fus, reckon, think, judge] : that 
tendency in modern thought which claims for the unaided 
human reason the right of deciding in matters of faith. It 
asserts the prerogative of the intellect to be supreme arbiter 
in all departments of revealed truth. It requires certainty 
as the condition of its favor, and promptly rejects what does 
not come before it with all the exactness and clearness of a 
mathematical demonstration. Like naturalism, supernatu- 
ralism, and other terms expressive of the relation of reason 
and faith, the term rationalism was first used in its present 
sense by the philosopher Kant. The scene where rationalism 
has exerted its chief sway is (iermany. The sources were vari- 
ous, not only embracing difl'erent countries, but likewise dif- 
ferent departments of investigation. The deism of England, 
one of the most polished and powerful of all forms of free 
thought, was industriously propagated in Germany, where the 
works of Lord Herbert, 1 1 obbes, Shaftesbury, Tindal, Wools- 
ton and Wollaston were circulated in the language of the 
peoi)le and read by wide circles. In Holland the philosophy 
of Descartes and Si»inoza was very powerful, and its influ- 
ence was very decided east of the fthine, particularly in the 
univei-sities of Germany. The pantheism of Spinoza was 
very attractive to many minds, and was regarded as a wel- 
come relief from the cold and heartless banishment of G(>d 
from his own creation. France, however, was the chief 
foreign country which contributed to the rise and sway of 
German rationalism. The influence of Voltaire and the 
KncyclopaHli>ts was very great, and Rerlin became as much 
a home to these men as Paris had ever been. The domestic 
causes were, first of all, the i)hilosophy of Leibnitz, popu- 
larized and simplified by Wolf at Halle University; the 
destructive theology of Sender ; the influence of the skepti- 
cal court of Frederick the (Jreat, with its French surround- 
ings; the Wolfenbuttel Fragminia, published bv Lessing ; 
and the Universal German Library, issued by Nicolai. 
Rationalism was in the ascendant in Germany from 1750 to 
1800, but with the beginning of the new century it began to 
lose its hold upon the best minds. Schleicrmacher was the 



RATRAMNUS 

transitional theologian from the old rationalistic to the xwv, 
evangelical faith of Protestant Germany. His Di»rourx,M 
on Religion : Speeches to its Cultured Despisers (Eng, irun^. 
London, 1893) diverted public attention from the rati.)iini- 
istic criticism to the necessity of feeling and a sense *)f d*- 
pendence on God. Jacobi was really the first to intro<lur». 
the sense of dependence into the domain of religious phil<»-o. 
phy, but Schleicrmacher was the first to apply it to the man 
of general culture. Neander, the Church historian, was t lir 
first positive theologian of the so-called ** mediatory " scIkm.I. 
His historical works breathe a fervent and devout spirit, at 
the same time that they evince the profound scholan^hip <.f 
the original student. In 1835 a new impulse was given to 
rationalistic criticism by Strauss's Life of Jesus (n. e., Kni^. 
trans. London, 1893)— a work proceeding directly from thi- 
Hegelian school. It advocated the mythical origin of tlu* 
Gospels. This work was promptly replied to by Xeand*r. 
Ullmann, Tholuck,and many other representatives of cvun- 
gelical thought. The most recent phase of rationalistic 
thought is materialistic. The views of BQchner, Carl Vuirt, 
Moleschott, and others have gained a wide influent^'. 1 
Evangelical theology is, however, in the ascendant again in 
most of the German universities. On the literature of ra- 
tionalism compare Farrar, Critical Ilistory of Free Tliought 
(Bampton lectures, 1863) ; hecky, History of the Bix^ and 
Influence of the Spirit of Rationalism in Europe (2 voi>.. 
London, 1865); Hurst, History of Rationalism (New York. 
1865 ; 9th ed., rev., 1875) ; Fisher, Faith and Rational tsm 
(New York, 1879) ; Pfieiderer, The Developnient of Thtolotpj 
in Germany since Kant (London, 1890). J. P. HuR^T. 

RatMsbon, or Regensbai^: town of Bavaria; on thf 
right bank of the Danube, opfK)site the influx of the Rcgvn : 
82 miles by rail N. N. E. of Munich (see map of German Kn»- 
pire, ref. 6-F). It is surrounded with walls pierced by »*!X 
gates, and has a Gothic cathedral begun in 1275, but not 
finished till the middle of the seventeenth century; a to^n- 
house, in which the imi)erial diet assembled from 1662 ti. 
1806 ; a magnificent stone bridge over the Danube, 1,100 I«»-t 
long, connecting the town with the suburb of Stadt-am-Hnf : 
and a monument of Kepler, who was born here. Gohl. ^\\- 
ver, brass, iron, steel, earthen and porcelain ware, lealh.i. 
tobacco, and glass are manufactured, and there is an «i - 
tive trade in wheat and salt. Originally a Celtic to>*ii 
(Radasbona), it was made a frontier fortress by the Ronwm-. 
In 1245 it was matle a free imi)erial city. It wa.s stonmtl Ji> 
both the French and the Austrians in 1809, and was cedcil 
to Bavaria in 1810. Pop. (1890) 37,635. 

RantiB [Mod. Lat., liter., fem. plur. of Lat. rati tu.^^ 
marked with a raft (sc. a'ves, birds), deriv. of ra'iis, rafr 1 : 
an order or sub-order of birds, considered by many authori- 
ties as a sub-class, contrasting with all tlio other livim; 
forms of the class, and containing the ostriches, cassowarit- ^, 
and kiwis. It is distinguished, according to Huxley, by i h»- 
sternum being devoid of a crest, and ossifying only frtaii 
lateral and paired centers, the parallelism or identity of t h»- 
long axes of the adjacent parts of the scapula and cornc<»iU. 
and the non-development of an acromial process tu tho 
scapula, and of a clavicular pn)cess to the coraeoid ; ih» 
vomer has a broad cleft; the hinder and i)osterior end> t.f 
the palatines and the anterior ones of the pterygoids an- 
very imperfectly or not at all articulated with the ba-i- 
splienoidal rostrum. It may be further added that in all t h«- 
living representatives the feathers are characteristic, tht- 
barbs being disconnected. The group embraces the InrLM-st 
of birds, all of which are incapable of flight, and pro^'n-^- 
by running. The species, though comparatively few. n'prt- 
sent several well-defined families— viz., Stntthionidfr, vu>- 
bracing the African ostriches; i?/*ct</ff, including the S<»ui li 
American ostriches or nandus; Casuaridw, with the ch'--.**- 
waries and emus of the Papuan Archipelago, Australia, ct<.-. : 
and -4;>/rr^</ic/«', including the kiwis of New Zealand: th.- 
order was also well represented in former geological eyMM h-, 
especially in New Zealand, by the gigantic 7>iwor«i7/M(/*/ . 
which seem to have been destitute of true wings. 

Revised by F. A. Iatas. 
Raton: town; Colfax co., N. M.; on the Atch.. T.»|w'k** 
and S. Fe Rail mad ; 111 miles N. by E. of Las Vegas (for 1» -- 
cation, see map of New Mexico, ref. 8^T). It is in a co,i : - 
mining region, and contains the machine-shops of the rarl 
wav company, a national bank with capital of $50,000, aiit . 
three weekly newspapers. Pop. (1890) 1,255. 

Ratram'nns, also called Bertramas by an error of cop> 
ists: a learned monk of the famous abbey of Corbie, iio*n 



12 



RAVENNA 



RAWLINS 



It continued part of the states of the Church (with the ex- 
ception of intervals during 1797-1815) until it was incor- 
porated in the kingdom of Italy in 1860. 

No Italian city seems more apart from the currents of 
modern life. Ravenna is not so much a city as a museum. 
Here better than at Rome may be studied primitive Chris- 
tian art from the fifth to the ninth century. In the Cathe- 
dral of Sant' Urso, partly of the fourth century but recon- 
stnicted in the eighteenth, are frescoes by Guido Reni ; the 
original campanile still remains. Close by is the octagonal- 
domed baptistry of the fourth century, containing the fa- 
mous fifth century mosaic, representing the baptism of our 
Saviour in the Jordan. Near the Church of San Francesco, 
built on the ruins of a temple of Neptune about 450, but 
completely modernized, is the mausoleum of Dante Ali- 
OHIERI (q. f.), who died at Ravenna in 1321. In SS. Nazario 
e Celso, erected (440) in the form of a Latin cross by Placi- 
dia, daughter of Theodosius the Great, are the sarcophagi 
of that empress (d. 450) and of Plonorius I. and Constantius 
III. The round tower of St. Giovanni Battista was con- 
structed in 488. Santo Spirito and Sta. Maria in Cosmedin, 
embellished with mosaics of the sixth century, were built by 
Theodoric for the Arian bishops. Sant' Apollinare Nuovo, 
erected by Theodoric about 500 as the Arian cathedral, is 
resplendent with mosaics, mostly of the sixth and ninth 
centuries. San Vitale (consecrated in 547), a work of Justin- 
ian, is a partial copy of St. Sophia in Constantinople. Its 
forgeous mosaics, admirably preserved, give the whole New 
'estament story; especially interesting are those of Justin- 
ian and his suite, and of his empress Theodora and her 
retinue. In the Carthusian monastery is the library found- 
ed in 1714, with over 50,000 volumes and 700 MSS. Among 
the latter is an autograph MS. of Dante of the fourteenth 
century. Half a mile outside the Porta Serrata is the ro- 
tonda or mausoleum of Theodoric. The cupola, 36 feet in 
diameter, and weighing over 200 tons, is hollowed from a 
single block of stone. Also outside the walls is the impos- 
ing Sant' Apollinare in Classe, on the site of a temple of 
Apollo, dedicated in 549 and restored in 1779, a specimen 
or the purest early Christian art. Two miles from the city 
is La Ck)lonna dei Francesi, the square pillar raised in 1557 
to commemorate the battle of Ravenna (1512), in which 
Pope Julius II. was defeated by Gaston de Foix. S. of 
Ravenna toward Rimini extends the Pineta, the vastest and 
most ancient pine forest in It«ly. It begins not far from 
Sant' Apollinare in Classe, on the site of the ancient harbor, 
and stretches 25 miles along the Adriatic, with a breadth of 
from 1 to 2 miles. Pop. (1881) of city, 18,571 ; of commune, 
60,573. E. A. Grosvenor. 

Rarenna: village (settled in 1799); capital of Porta^ 
CO., O. ; on the Penn., the Erie, and the Pitts, and W. rail- 
ways ; 16 miles E. N. E. of Akron, 38 miles S. E. of Cleveland 
(for location, see map of Ohio, ref. 3-1). It contains 6 
churches, 3 large public schools, a Roman Catholic school, 2 
national banks with combined capital of $250,000, gas and 
electric light plants, water-works system owned by the vil- 
lage, and a semi-weekly and 2 weekly newspapers. The 
manufactories include glass-works, coach ana hearse fac- 
tory, carbon- works, flour and planing-mills, foundry, ma- 
chine-shop, novelty- works, large dyeing establishment, 2 
brick ana tile works, 2 shoe-factories, and basket, chair, 
sad-iron, and spoke and hub factories. Pop. (1880) 8,255 ; 
(1890) 3,417. Editor op " Repubucan." 

Rarenscroft, John Stark, D. D. : bishop ; b. near Bland- 
ford, Prince George co., Va., in 1772 ; taken to Scotland in 
infancy; received there a classical education; returned to 
Virginia 1788; studied at William and Mary College; ad- 
mitted to the bar, but ultimately studied theology: took 
orders in the Episcopal Church 1*817 ; a minister in Meck- 
lenburg CO., Va., 1817-23, and pastor of churches succes- 
sively at Raleigh, N. C, and at Williamsburg, Va., when he 
became Bishop of North Carolina. D. at Raloigh, Mar. 5, 
1830. Two volumes of his Sermons were edited by Dr. 
(afterward Bishop) J. M. Wainwright in 1830, preceded bv 
a memoir. See biographical sketches in American Church 
Review and in Butterson's Sketch-hook of the American 
Episcopate, Revised by W. S. Perry. 

Rarensteln, Ernest Georok : geographer and statis- 
tician ; b. at Frankfort-oii-tlie-Main, Germany, Dec. 30. 
1834 ; son of an eminent local geographer and cartographer ; 
educated chieflv in his native town ; removed to London 
about 1852; held an appointment in the intelligence de- 
partment of the War Oflicc 1805-75 ; member of the coun- 



cils of the Royal Geographical and Royal Statistical So<m»»- 
ties; founded the German Gymnastic Society 1861, and f«>r 
ten years was its president ; has published Tk€ Russians on 
the Amur (London, 1861); Oeogrciphte und Statistik ti*M 
Briiisehen Reiehes, in Wappftus^s Handbueh der Oeograph i* 
(Leipzig, 1862); London^ one of Meyer's Handbooks fnr 
Travelers (1872, subsecjuent editions); Cyprus (Londmi. 
1876) ; The Laws of Migration and other papers in Tranji- 
actions of the Royal Geographical and Statistical Socictir^ : 
A Handbook of (gymnastics and Athletics (London, 1HI>4) : 
also a map of Eastern Equatorial Africa (twenty-five sheets i, 
published by the Royal Geographical Society (188^-8;)) : a 
Systematic Atlas for private study and superior sch<M»N. 
fifty-two sheets (London, 1893); a topographical map of 
England and Wales (1893). 

Rarlgnan, raa'veen'yaan', Gustave Xavteb Delacroix, 
de : pulpit orator ; b. at Bayonne, France, Dec. 2, 1795. I It- 
first studied and practiced law, but in 1822 entered the 
Jesuit seminary at Montrouge and was ordained priest in 
1828. After some years of teaching his talent as orator re- 
vealed itself, and in 1836 he succeeded Pere Lacordaire at 
Notre Dame, Paris, where he remained till 1848. He wtm 
also an ardent champion of the Jesuits in pamphlets, an<l 
active in charitable works and foundations. D. Feb. 2r». 
1858. See his Life, by Pere de Pontlevy (2 vols.. Pari*, 
1860 ; Eng. trans.. New York, 1873). A. G. Canfieli>. 

Rawal Plndi : a district of British India, in the NortlH-rn 
Punjaub. It lies on the south slopes of the Western Ihiua la- 
yas ; is noted for its fertility and salubrity ; embraces 4,t>'^ \ 
sq. miles, and since the extension of the railway has carrii «I 
on considerable trade with Afghanistan (see map of Nort h 
India, ref. 3-C). Pop. over 1,000,000. Its largest town i^ 
Rawal Pindi; pop. (1891) 73,460; best known in rwent tiinr^ 
for the great durbar held there (1885) by the Vicen>y oi 
India, in honor of the Amir of Afghanistan. 

Revised by C. C. Adams. 

Rawdon-Hastlngs, Francis, Marquis of Hastings: ^>]- 
dier and statesman ; b. in Ireland, Dec. 7, 1754; was educaii^l 
at Oxford ; entered the army 1771 ; was sent to America in 
1773; was present at the battle of Bunker Hill ; became aiclt< 
de-camp to Sir Henry Clinton; participated in the battles nf 
Long Island and White Plains and the attacks unon Fort < 
Washington and Clinton ; soon afterward raised in New V« irk 
a corps called the Volunteers of Ireland, of which he toi-k 
command; distinguished himself at Monmouth ; was niaiit- 
general and sent to the Southern States with re-enforcement > 
for Cornwallis 1780 ; took a prominent mrt at the battle of 
Camden Aug. 16 ; remained m the Carolinas after Comwal- 
lis's return northward ; attacked and defeated Gen. Grwn<» 
at Hobkirk's Hill Apr. 25, 1781 ; relieved Fort Ninety-six ; 
fortified himself at Orangeburg ; incurred much obloquy on 
account of the execution of Col. Isaac Hayne July 31 ; 8ail<M \ 
for England Aug., 1781 ; was captured by a French crui^t-r 
and taken to Brest ; was made Baron Rawdon and ai<le-<i«'^ 
camp to the king 1783; succeeded his father as Earl «»f 
Moira in 1798; was given command of a force of 10,000 ni*-ii 
sent to the relief of the Duke of York in Flanders in 17iM ; 
was intrusted with the direction of the e3medition to Qni- 
beron in 1795; was made lord-lieutenant of Ireland in 18iW ; 
made an unsuccessful effort to form a cabinet on the assii^> 
sination of Mr. Perceval in 1812; was honored with thf 
order of the Garter and appointed Governor-General *»f 
British India in 1813 ; successfully conducted the Nepau I , 
Pindaree, and Mahratta wars ; was created Marquis of Hast- 
ings in Dec, 1816; retired from the government of In«! i^x 
after a successful administration of nearly ten years in lH-^:5, 
and became Governor of Malta in 1824. D. on board tin* 
Revenge in the Bay of Baia, near Naples, Nov. 28, 1826. 

RawHns : citv ; capital of Carbon co., Wyo. ; on the Unit *t i 
Pac. Railroad; 136 miles W. N. W. of I^aramie, 710 niiU-^ 
W. of Omaha (for location, see map of Wyoming, ref. 11-1 \. 
It is in a mining and stock-raising region, has an elevati« .ti 
of 6,540 feet above sea-level, and contains a valuable sul- 
phur spring, quarries of limestone and building-stone, a iiii- 
tional bank with capital of $75,000, and two weekly now — 
papers. The city has large trade, especially with Norths «-• ^ t 
Colorado. Pop. (1880) 1,451 ; (1890) 2,235. 

Rawlins, John Aaron: soldier; b. at East Galena, III,,, 
Feb. 13, 18i^l ; the son of a farmer and charcoal-bum •♦ r . 
He had but limited opportunities for obtaining an educatior ^ . 
and at the age of twenty he began to attend schot^l ; nx 
Nov., 1854, began the study of law, and in 1855 was t^*i^ 



14 



RAYMOND 



READE 



special attention to promoting legislation for the improve- 
ment of the school and canal systems; retired from The 
Courier and Enauirer 1850; on Sept. 18, 1851, issued the 
first number of The New York Times, Raymond took an 
active part in the Baltimore Whig convention of 1852 ; 
elected lieutenant-governor of New York 1854 ; prominent 
in the organization of the Republican party 1856, having 
been the author of the Address to the People issued by the 
Pittsburg convention ; warmly urged Seward for the presi- 
dential nomination 1860, but ^ave efficient support to Lin- 
coln when nominated and during his administration, though 
often differing from him on Questions of war-policy ; elected 
a member and Sj>eaker of the New York Assembly 1861 ; pre- 
sitled over the Union convention at Syracuse 1862 ; defeated 
by Gov. Morgan in his candidacy for the U. S. Senate 1863 ; 
chairman of the New York delegation in the national Re- 
publican convention 1864 ; elected to Congress in 1864, but 
separated from the majority of his party in that body by 
giving a partial support to the policy of Johnson; took part 
in convoking the Pniladelphia " Loyalists' convention ' of 
1866, and wrote its Address and Declaration of Principles ; 
refused to be a candidate for re-election to Congrass 1866; 
declined the mission to Austria offered him by President 
Johnson 1867. D. in New York, June 18, 1869. He pub- 
lished a History of the Administration of President Lincoln 
(New York, 1864), which in a revised edifion was entitled The 
Life and Public Services of Abraham Lincoln (1865), and a 
few other works. 

Raymond, John T. (original name, John (XBrien) : actor ; 
b. in Buffalo, N. Y., Apr. 5, 18^36. He was educated in the 
common schools ; matle his first appearance at the Roches- 
ter (N, Y.) theater as Lopez in The Honeymoon ; afterward 
appeared at Charleston, S. C, as Asa Trenchard in Our 
American Cousin^ with Edward Sothem as Lord Dun- 
dreary. On July 1, 1867, he played with Sothem the same 
ohanicter in the same piece at the Haymarket theater, Lon- 
«lon, and afterward made a tour of the British pro\inces, 
lie returned to the U. S. in the autumn of 1868, and ap- 
peared in New York as Toby Twinkle in All that Glitters 
iM not Oold. His artistic triumph was achieved in 1874, 
when he brought out at the Park theater. New York, TVic 
(Hided Aae^ founded on Mark Twain's novel. As (>ol. Mul- 
berry Sellerj?, he acted with much humor and originality. 
The piece did not prove popular in England. He appeared 
on the stage for the last time in Hopkinsville, Ky. T). at 
Evansville, Ind., Apr. 10, 1887. B. B. Vallentink. 

Raymond, Miner, D. D., LL. D.: minister and educator; 
b. in New York, Aug. 29, 1811 ; spent childhood and vouth 
in Kensselaerville, N. Y. ; studied 1830-34, and taught 1834- 
41 at Wilbraham Academy, Mass. ; joined the New Eng- 
land conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church 1838. 
lie was principal of Wilbraham Academy from 1848 to 
1H64, then l)ecame Professor of Systematic Theology in the 
(larrett Biblical Institute at Evailston, 111. ; published Sys- 
tematic Theology (3 vols., 1877-79). lievised by A. Osborn. 

Raymnnd Lully : Sec Luu Raimon. 

Raynal, ro'naal', Guillaume Thomas Francois : histori- 
an ; b. at St.-Geniez, department of Aveyron, France, Apr. 
12, 1713; studied theology at the college of the Jesuits at 
Toulouse : entered their order and began to preach, but 
went in 1747 to Paris, and, enjoWng the company of Dide- 
rot, Holbach, Helvetius, etc., he entered on an entirely op- 
posite coui-se. Of his numerous historical works, Histoire 
dn Divorce de Henri VIII. avec Catherine (1763) attracted 
some attention, ahd his Ilistoire philosophiqne ef politique 
dfii EfablisHements et dn Commerce des Europeens dans les 
DeuX'Indes (first published anonymously in 4 vols., 1770, 
tlien in an enlarged edition under his name, 5 vols., 1780) 
was condemned by the parliament of Paris, and a warrant 
of arrest issued against the author. lie fled to Switzerland, 
lived subso(]uently at the court of Frederick II., but was al- 
lowed to return to France in 1788; received several marks 
of distinction from the authorities. D. at Chaillot, near 
Paris. Mar. 6, 1766. He also wrote Tableau et Revolutions 
dr.s Colonies nmjlaiAt^s dons V Amn'ique septentriouale (2 
Vols., 1781), which was translated into English, and sharply 
criticised by Thomas Paine. 

Raynonnrd. ra nooaar', Franvois Jtste Marie: poet 
and philologist ; b. at Brignolles, Provence, France, Se|)t. 
IS, 1761. He was bred a lawyor, elected to the Legislative 
Assoinbly in 1791, and was a deputy in 1806 and 1811. His 
poem, Socrate dans le temple d'Aylaure (1803), and his trage- 



dies. Cat on d'Vtiqye (1794), Les Tempi iers (1805), and Les 
Etats de Blois (1814), gave him a literary reputation, and he 
was chosen to the Academy in 1807. He is best remem- 
bered as a philologist. He did much to revive the inten-^t 
in the older literature of France, and contributed to a belter 
knowledge of the Provencal language by his important 
works, Choix de Poisies originates des lYoubadours (6 vuls., 
1816-21) ; Lexigue roman^ ou Dictionnaire de la Langu*- 
des Troubadours (6 vols., 1838-44) ; Orammaire romauf 
(1816); Recherches sur Vancienneti de la langue romane 
(1816). D. at Passy, Paris, Oct. 27, 1836. A. G. Canfield. 

Razor-clam : the common name of various bivalvi-s of 
the genus /So/e», given in allusion to the shape of the 
shell. 

Razzlonere, Pablo de : See Cespedes. 

R6, ra : an island of France, department of Charente-ln- 
ferieure ; in the Bay of Biscay, in front of the haibor <»f La 
Rochelle. It is 18 miles long, 4 miles broad, treeless, with 
steep coasts; is strongly fortified, and has about 15,000 in- 
habitants, who are mostly employed in fisheries, oystor- 
f arming, wine-cultivation, and the manufacture of salt. 

Read, George : jurist ; b. in Cecil co., Md., Sept. 18, 17:^3 ; 
became a lawyer at Newcastle, Del., 1754 ; attorney-general 
of Delaware and member of the Delaware Legislature f<ir 
many years ; a member of the Continental Congress 1774-77. 
and one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence : 
president of the constitutional convention of Delaware 1776 ; 
member of the convention that framed the Federal Const it u- 
tion ; appointed judge of appeals 1782; U. S. Senator 17bl>- 
93 ; ana chief justice of Delaware from 1793 to his death, at 
Newcastle, Sept. 21, 1798. 

Read, John Meredith, Jr. : diplomatist; b. in Philadel- 
phia, Pa., Feb. 21, 1887 ; gnwluated at Brown University lK">s. 
and at the Albany law school 1859 ; adjutant-general of New 
York during the civil war ; published An Historic^d Inguirt/ 
concerning Hendrick Ihidson (1866); wrote much for period- 
icals ; appointed consul-general at Paris in 1868 ; also aclt-d 
as consul-general of Germany during the Franco-Ciemjan 
war, and afterward for nearlv two vears directed all the c*on- 
sular affairs of that empire, including the protection of Cier- 
man subjects and interests during the first and second sic;r«s 
of Paris ; appointed U. S. minister to Greece in 1873, biit i«'- 
turned in 1879, the office having been abolished by Congn*^*-. 
He was president of the Social Science Congress at AUrniiy, 
N. Y.. in 1868, and vice-president of the one at Plymontlw 
England, in 1872. Revised by James Mercir. 

Read, Thomas Buchanan : poet and painter ; b. in Ches- 
ter co.. Pa., Mar. 12, 1822; studied sculpture at Cincinnati, 
but soon turned his attention to painting, which he pra*-- 
ticed at New York (1841), and soon afterward at B(>st<Mi ; 
removed to Philadelphia 1846; went to Florence, Italy, in 
1850, and resided there with few intermissions until 1^72, 
when he returned to the U. S. D. in New York, Mav 1 1 , 
1872. Author of Poems (1847) ; The New Pastoral (It^.V,) : 
The Wagoner of the Alleghanies (1862); and A Sumwt r 
Story, Sheridan's Ride and Other Poems (1867). Aiuoult 
his paintings are the well-known portraits of Mrs. Brown- 
ing and of Longfellow's children ; the portraits illustratinir 
his compilation, i^^wo/^ /V>p/« of America (1848); and iLo 
painting illustrating his Sheridan's Ride, 

Revised by H. A. Beers. 

Reade, Charles: novelist; b. at Ipsden, Oxford^hirf, 
England, in 1814; educated at Magdalen College, Ox for* 1, 
and graduated 1835; was elected toaVinerian fellowship tw 
Oxford 1842; was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn lS4:-$ : 
published in 1852 Peg Woffington, a novel which gave him 
an immediate reputation, and afterward issued many nov«-lj4 
and tales, among which are Christie Johnstone (1853) ; JSTi r* r- 
Too Late to Mend (1856); Love vie Little, Love me Lon^r 
(1859); The Cloister and the Hearth (1861); Hard ('<!,</, 
(1863); Griffith Gaunt (1866); Put Yourself in his Plat ^^ 
(1870); A 'Terrible Temptation (1871); A Woman Ilof^ r- 
(1878); and The Jilt and Other Tales (1884). Reado ili — 
played great skill in plot and incident, had a piotur»*jN<|n ♦• 
style, and often wrote with a s(>cial or political objoc-t » 1 1 
view. Most of his novels were successfully dramati/oil I . \- 
himself or by Boucicault, and he wrote several indeiH^inU- 1 % \ 
fdays. He gained some note from his lawsuits on que^tioiY -. 
connected with the rights of authors and the limits of ]►« \--. 
missible literary criticism, and from his vigorous ad v<ic*ary • . r 
international copyright with the U. S. D. at Sheph»*n i >^ 
Hush, London. Apr. 11, 1884. Reviso<l by H. A. Bekr>. 



16 



REALISM IN FINE ART 



another, its successor. Hence each individual thing is 
only a momentary phase of some process which has many 
potentialities; these potentialities it realizes in the series 
of individual things, each thing realizing some of them. 
Thus the process, as embracing the rise and dissolution of 
many individuals, is generic or a universal ; it possesses the 
potentiality of each uiing, and at the same time possesses 
the reality of each ; the reality of each thing is the reality 
of the universal process which causes it. Inasmuch as it — 
the process — annuls individual things, and likewise origi- 
nates them, it includes in itself the total of reality, and is 
therefore real in a more complete sense than any individual 
thing. Again, it must be noted that what we call indi- 
vidual things are arbitrarily limited phases of processes. 
Each individual, so called, is identified bv nominalism with 
only a portion of its history, as it were, for it can be traced 
by degrees back into another thing, in which it originated, 
and forward into another, in which it finally disappears. 
Moreover, it is correlated in space with other thin^, and 
it is arbitrary in the Nominalist to assume that he nas an 
individual thinff before him when he has only a dependent 
part of the whole process of interrelated things. Thus the 
word process, to which natural science in our day has ar- 
rived (Darwinism teaching that things are to be studied in 
their history and development, evolution and the congela- 
tion of forces being doctnnes of the supreme reality of uni- 
versals in the shape of a law or persistent force), interprets 
realism, and reinstates it as a more advanced stage of 
thinking than nominalism. Realism may be (a) psycholog- 
ical, holding in reganl to artificial things — e. ^. table or 
chair — ^that the general notion or name conventionally sig- 
nifies the purpose or design which creates such things, and 
therefore corresponds to what reality they possess ; {b) nat- 
ural, a realism which recognizes the natural objective proc- 
esses in nature and mind. Mind is considered immortal as 
individual (not as a thin^), for the reason that it is a total 
process within one reality; each thinking bein^ has po- 
tentially in his mind the universal reason, and is able to 
realize the same by his own activity. In thus realizing 
his possibilities by culture and education he does not annul 
his individuality (as the process of forces annuls things), 
but rather intensifies his consciousness of self, and deepens 
his subjectivity by the same act in which he realizes his 
universality. This doctrine is expressed by Aristotle's " en- 
telechies." First entelechy (self-contained being — ** End- 
in-itself "^^ntire process in one reality) has all the possi- 
bilities and the power to develop them, but has not ener- 
gized as yet (the man as infant or savage); second entelechy 
has developed its potentialities through self-activity (the 
man as cultured, civilized, and enlightened). — Realism, as 
contrasted with idealism in the school of common sense, is 
the theory that we cognize external objects by direct per- 
ception instead of by means of interposed ideas. 

William T. Harris. 

ReaHsm in Fine Art : the art or practice of expressing 
the real in contradistinction to the imagined, the ideal, or 
the traditional. Thus, in the choice of subject, the repre- 
sentation of a glory of angels may be called imaginative or 
imaginary. The frieze of the Parthenon is a strongly ideal- 
ized treatment of a procession, very abstract inoeed, and 
not at all a complete statement of the facts. The picture of 
a saint with his or her attributes is generally very traditional. 
In opposition to these, realism would choose religious en- 
thusiasm seen among living and humble people, or a faith- 
ful portrait of a military or civic parade, or a sailor risking 
his life in the way of duty. That is to say, the realist paints 
what he has seen and known, and whatever ideas of dignity 
or humility he may wish to convey will be given to the 
common scenes and the actual persons of his own expe- 
rience. Apart from the choice of subject, realism chooses 
a manner of representing men #ind things which will give 
them nearly as they are to ordinary human observation. A 
realistic study of slaves or poverty-stricken peasantry would 
insist on their dull and fatigued expression, their stooping 
and often malformed bodies, and their hard and hopeless 
toil. The same subject, the same scene and incident, might 
be treated so as to insist upon the close communion with 
nature, the healthful out-of-<loor life, the strength of body of 
iKjth'men and women. Also, to come still further away 
from the mere choice of subject, the peasants or the slaves 
in the realistic picture will he shown ugly because of mo- 
notonous work and poor foo<l, ill-clothed and dirty, un- 
pleasing and even repulsive to look at. The same men and 



REAL PRESENCE, THE DOCTRINE OF THE 

women may be invested with beauty of form and color, and 
may be so painted and so grouped as to give a ver\' l»eau- 
tifiil resultmg composition, without obvious and admitted 
falsehood. 

Realism in art is generally assumed to be a debabinir 
theory and practice. The term is more often used in re- 
proach, and applied to artists whose work is not approve<l. 
In this there is a constant though unconscious reference t« » 
the French term ricdisme^ which is commonly used in thi^ 
evil sense. Some years ago a photograph from a drawiti;: 
by Couture was handed about the studios ; it repre^sentt^d 
a student of art seated on a cast of the head of an A]k>]1<> 
and drawing carefully from the head of a large hog. whih* 
cabbages and old boots lay about as further models ftir 
study. The title written below was Un HicUi&ie, and t bt^ 
idea was, of course, that realism turned away from the high- 
est beauty to see truth in the ugly, or at least the indifferent ; 
but this again is a mere satire of assumed vulgarity in choice 
of subject; and no one woiUd have been quicker than 
Thomas Couture to state that choice of subject has little t<i 
do with fine art, and that it would be better to treat a gr<>up 
of swine ideally than a group of men of heroic stature and 
beauty realistically. In all the French horror of le realtime 
there is the assumption that it is in some way oppasc<i Ut 
Vidial; that is to say, that realism is the antagonist of 
idealism. As all artists are in pursuit of the ideal in one 
form or another, this antagonism can hanlly exist to the 
degree supposed. Rembrandt in his etchings was a realist 
as to the figures of men and women ; he took them as he 
saw them, ill-grown, ill-nourished, clothed in hideous gar- 
ments ; but in light and shade and the composition of light 
and shade he was an idealist in the highest sense* The 
student who compares the Adam and iTve of Rembrandt 
with a photograpn or a cast from the Parthenon frieze in 
free to say, as he is apt to feel, that the one is vulgar real- 
ism and the other is noble idealism ; but a further consid- 
eration brings with it the sense that one is as idealistic a> 
the other — it is only a question what the ideal is. 

Again, a landscape painting may show the rocky struct un* 
of two low hills on tne Newport coast, and the thin bed <»f 
morass which fills the hollow between them. It is perfectly 
traceable how the hills are built up and how they are wear- 
ing away ; and the bit of swamp which separates them is a< 
obviously there merely because the rock is impervious to 
water, and holds vegetable mould and pulverized rock t* »- 
gether in a soft, spongy, saturated mass, as if we couM 
sound it and take up a shovelful for examination. Thi^ 
treatment of the natural facts with a strong insistence oti 
their true character is certainly realistic ; but the nieati> 
taken to show it are probably very idealistic, probal>ly so 
because it is unlikely tnat the whole story would be at* vlettr 
to the eye of the observer at any one point of the natural 
landsca[)e as it is made to the student of the picture. Tlir 
picture as a piece of coloring and line composition is mi 
ideal work, of course, but it will be ideal also in the matter 
of this insistence on a hi^h and important truth, which trui h 
could only be shown in its fullness by a very decided aban- 
donment of mere copying. 

The conclusion is that in fine art there is none of tliat 
clear distinction between realism and idealism that is main- 
tained in metaphysics. Idealism is merely the higher real- 
ism, the realism of very intelligent and clear-seeing men. 

Russell Stcrois. 

Reality : the fundamental truth, underlying all thin^rs^ 

See Metaphysics. 

Real Presence (sc. of Christ in the Eucharist), The l)oe- 
trine of the : part of the professed belief of the Roman Cat 1 1> 
olic, Greek Catholic, and other ancient Churches. Acconl- 
ing to it "Christ is contained whole and entire under eith4.-r 
species — i. e. that his body, blood, soul, and divinity are g"i voti 
both under the form of bread and under that of wino '* 
{Addis and Anwld), In the Anglican Church the n*/il 
presence is maintained, but so defined as to avoid the im- 
putation of being a belief in the corporal presence — i. e. in 
" the presence in the holy sacrament of the Lord's Sun|>«.r > 
of the body and blood of C'hrist in a corporeal or matermi J v 
substantive manner" {IIool). On the contrary, the r«»*il | 
presence is not *' to be sought for in the sacrament, but i n 
the worthy receiver of the sacrament** (Hooker); but «»>;. 
"with the natural bread in the sacrament, there is pn»sont 
the spiritual bread which is Christ's body," it is none iU^ 
loss real. See Eucharist and Transubstantiation'. 

Samuel Macaulky Jackson. 



18 



REAPING AND MOWING MACHINES 



eral use. Several forms of rake, as Wood's chain-rake and 
Miller's table-rake, have been introduced into the U. S. 
and other countries. C. W. and W. W. Marsh invented and 
patented a machine in 1858 in which the cut grain was re- 




Fio. 7.— Harvester. 

ceived on an endless apron and carried therebv to another 
apron, which elevated the grain to a stand on tlie machine, 
wnere two men, while riding along, bound it into bundles. 
This machine (Fig. 7) considerably advanced the art of 
cutting grain. The automatic wife self-binder, marking 
a progressive step in harvesting machinery, followed the 
Marsh harvester. The wire bands proved 
to be objectionable in both wheat and 
straw. Magnets were required in the 
mills to remove the pieces of wire from 
the wheat, and cattle were injured by the 
wire when eating the straw. Marquis L. 
Gorham invented a cord-binding attach- 
ment which, with various improvements 
by J. F. Appleby, has been generally 
aaopted by the manufacturers of bind- 
ers, with one or two notable exceptions. 
All self-binding machines are now so 
perfected that they give universal satis- 
faction. In all this claiss of machines 
the grain is delivered by the elevating 
aprons upon a slanting table, where iron 
packers work continuously through slots 
m the table and rake the grain down to 
the knotter and upon a trip-finger, which automatically sets 
the knotter in motion when enough grain has accumulated 
for a bundle. The knot is tied in the cord by a single revo- 
lution of a bill-shaped hook with a hinged tongue that is 
moved by a cam. The self-binder (Fig. 8) has rapidly re- 
placed the self-rake reaper (Fig. 9). Briggs and Carpenter, 
Feb., 1886, secured patents for a heading-machine; since 
then over 100 have oeen granted on these machines, which 
have proved to be well adapted to cutting large harvests 
in dry climates. The essential parts are a cutting device 
from 16 to 20 feet long, mounted upon wheels, a reel, an 
endless horizontal apron, which carries the severed heads to 
a second apron, extending 4 to 6 feet at an upward angle, 
whereby the heads are deposited in a large wagon-box, the 
side next to the header being low, the opposite side high. 



on steamboats. Four horses abreast, attached to the toiiL' 
near the trucksjpush the machine. The cutting de vice i ^ ; i ; 
that shown in Fig. 10. Six men and t^n horses are alh i 
cut and stack the grain from 15 to 30 acres daily. Tlie ci: 




Fio. 9.- A modern self -rake reaper. 

bined harvester (Fig. 10) unites the header, the thrcslirr jii 
separator, the fanning-mill, the sacker, and straw-rMrrit-r :: 
one machine. The large machines are propelled eiilitr l.\ 
traction-engine or by thirty to thirty-six horses. If ^{«^i!l 
power is used, seven men are required ; if horse-powiT. f" 
Of the combined harvesters 10 per cent, are steam-j»ow. r. ' 
per cent, horse-power. Either will cut from 60 to li") n< i 





Fio. 8.— New Osborne harvester and binder (the self-binder). 

A large, long tongue extends to the rear, supported by a 
truck, and with wheel-steering device similar to that used 



Fio. 10.— Combined harvester (shown as at work in the field). 

and thresh from 1,700 to 3,000 bush, daily. The avera-. 1 ' 
of one of these harvesters is about eight years if usvd i^'i' 
to fifty days each season. From the grain-cradle t(» t- 
steam-harvester is a long way, yet the larger part of » 
harvests of the world is secured by the aid of the foiiip 
or implements still more primitive. 

The corn-harvester (Fig. 11) is the greatest improvem- r 
in the late inventions of harvesting machinery. It i»« ti 
binder modified, strengthened, and adapted to the heavi. 
and most difficult work — that of cutting, elevntint:, tm 
binding com 8 to 14 feet high, weighing from 15 to 20 t- 1 
per acre. 

Simultaneously with the reaper came the mowinff-iTu 
chine. At first it was practically the reaper dismantlr«l < 
its platform and other parts not needeti for cutting ^r.a 
As it required a higher speed to cut ^ru\ 
than grain, no satisfactory coidImmi 
mower was made until a device was ii 
vented for changing the knives fr«'in 
low to a high speed. Separate mM< In m 
for mowing are now the rule : they ai 
without reels or platforms.. The cutt^^ 
bar is hinged at the inner end to all**w 
to follow the inclinations of the gn-im 
Levers are provided for elevating t-r cj 

f)ressing the cutter-bar and for c«>iitn| 
ing the dip or angle of the giirtrd> ai| 
knives. Cyrenus Wheeler pHnhufl 
successful mower in 1853, whii h w 
s<K)n followwl by the Buckeye ami 
ers, which were modifications of H 
sey's and Wheeler's machint^s. K^ar- 
machines were most common |»rinr 
1880; since that time front-cuttim: n 
chines have come into general u>«r F 
12). In 1870 Rudolph Eichemoy«r 
cillating gear mower converted, hy in<>| 
of cams in the main wheels, their r. ti 

motion into reciprocating motion reouired by the knife, tt 

obviating the necessity of gear-wheels. 



20 



r£camier 



RECEIVER 



politiea ; a version of the book of Job, called La constancia 
victorioaa^ and one of Jeremiah, Trenos de Jeremias (both 
Cologne, 1655). He wrote also a poetical version of the 
Psalms, a life of Christ in verse, and several ballads and 
epiRraras. D. in Madrid in 1676. liis works were printed 
in three volumes, at Madrid, in 1778. A. R. Marsh. 

R^camler, ra'ka&'mi-ft', Jeanne Fran^oise Julie Ade- 
Uk^lDE Bernard, Madame : b. at Lyons, France, Dec. 4, 
1777 ; a woman of great charm of person and mind, she 
married in 1793 Jacques Recamier, a Paris banker, three 
times her age, and made her house the gathering-place of a 
group of brilliant personages, among wnom Chateaubriand 
and BalUnche were conspicuous. The reactionary political 
and religious ideas there current made her the ooject of 
Napoleon*s displeasure, and in 1811 she was ordered to leave 
Paris. At the restoration she returned to Paris and estab- 
lished herself modestly in the old Abbaye-aux-Bois, where 
she a^in became the center of a brilliant intellectual circle. 
Her beauty and intelligence gained her many worshipers 
and suitors, among whom Chateaubriand and Prince Au- 
gust of Prussia are famous. D. May 11, 1849. See Madame 
Lenormant, Souvenirs et correttporidance tires dea paptera de 
Madame Ricamier (2 vols., Paris, 1860), and Madame Re- 
camier, les amis de aa Jeunease (Paris, 1872), both trans- 
lated into English by Isaphene M. Luyster (Boston, 1867 
and 1879) ; also Chateaubriand, Memoir es d Outre Tombey 
vols, viii.-x. A. G. Canfield. 

Recanatl, ra-kaa-naa'u^e : town ; in the province of Mace- 
rata, Italy ; on a hill about 900 feet above the sea ; 15 miles 
S. of Ancona (see map of Italy, ref. 4-E). The adjoining 
country is very productive, the grapes and figs being of the 
finest quality. The town has a Gothic cathedral dating 
from the fourteenth century. The Palazzo (Jomunale has 
on its facade a bronze representation of the translation of 
the Holy House to Loreto (g. v.). Leopard i was bom here, 
and his monument adorns the principal piazza. Recanati 
was sacked by the French in 1799. Pop. 5,824. Porto Reca- 
nati, 6 miles N. £. on the coast, has 3,040 inhabitants. 

Recapture : in international law, the recovery of a cap- 
tured vessel by a cruiser of the same nation or of an ally. If 
retaken before an^ sentence of a prize-court of the captor's 
sovereign has decided upon the validity of the capture, and 
thus determined the ownership of the captured vessel, it goes 
to the owner ; after such sentence, if retaken, it goes to the 
captor. The captor in the first of these two cases is entitled 
to a reward, (bee Salvage.) This is the usage in the courts 
of the U. S., but a majority of the maritime states of Europe, 
including (>reat Britain, restore a recaptured ship to the orig- 
inal owner, even after she has been condemnea by a prize- 
court and adjudged to the captor. It would seem tnat a 
neutral purchaser for value from the captor might thus lose 
his property. A French privateer is not compelled to restore 
a recaptured ship if an enemy has held it twenty-four hours, 
while a man-of-war must do so. Spain restores a recaptured 
ship to the neutral unless she is loaded with enemy's prop- 
erty. The amount of salvage payable to the recaptor by an 
owner differs. In Great Britain and the U. S. the usual rate 
is one-eighth of the value of ship and cargo, though the latter 
nation observes reciprocity in the matter, levying the same 
rate that would he applied to its ships by the state to which 
the recaptured vessel belongs. France charges one-tenth, 
but if recapture has taken place within a day only a thir- 
tieth. Spain and Portugal charge one-eighth, but more if 
the recaptor is a privateer. Denmark and Sweden allow 
one-third and one-naif respectively. The rate may be modi- 
fied by treaty. Revised by T, S. W oolsey. 

Receipt [from 0. Fr. recete < Lat. recep'fum, liter., some- 
thing ret^eived, neut. perf. partic. of recipere, receive]: the 
transaction by which property is delivered by one to another, 
or a writing a<"knowle<lging such a transaction. It is used 
in the first sense in the Statute of Frauds. (See Frauds, 
Statute ok.) A written receipt is to be distinguished from a 
Release {q. v.) in that it does not destroy a subsisting right, 
but is merely evidence of a fact, and therefore may be ex- 
plained or refuted. As it is merely evidence of a fact it is 
not a Contract (q. r.), although the written instniment in 
which it appears may contain a contract also. A familiar 
example is a Bill of Lading (q. v.). which sets forth a receipt 
of certain goods by a carrier and a contract to transport them. 
It is at times difficult to decide whether a particular instru- 
ment is a simple receipt or superadds to this a contract ob- 
ligation. Even in the latter ciise the rocoint is open to ex- 
planation, except in cases where the contraaiction of the re- 



ceipt would work a destruction of the contract. {Bosch vs. 
Humboldt Mutual hisurance Companyj 85 N. J. L. 429.) 
Whether the person delivering property or making payment 
pursuant to a legal obligation has the fight to a simpk' re- 
ceipt has not been settled by the courts, but statutes ^i\e 
sucn a right in certain cases. Francis Jl. Bu&du k. 

Receiver: a person appointed by the court to rec<*ive 
rents, issues or profits of land, or other property which is in 
question between the parties to a litigation, or which belongs 
to one who is legally incompetent, as an infant The ap- 
pointment of receivers was resorteid to by equity tribunals 
for the purpose of doing justice in cases where the juris<lic- 
tion and remedies of the common-law courts were inade- 
quate. The general principles upon which a court of equity 
acts in appointing and controlling receivers are stated briefly 
by the L. S. Supreme Court as follows : "A receiver is aj)- 
pointed upon a principle of justice for the benefit of all con- 
cerned. Every Kind of proi)erty of such a nature that, if 
legal, it might Jbe taken in execution, mav, if equitable, be 
put into his possession. Hence the appointment has W't-w 
said to be an equitable execution. He is virtually a repre- 
sentative of the court, and of all the parties in interest in 
the litigation wherein he is appointea. He is required to 
take possession of property as directed, because it is deemt-d 
more for the interests of justice that he should do so than 
that the property should be in the possession of either of t he 
parties in the litigation. He is not appointed for the l>ene- 
nt of either of the parties, but of all concerned. Money (»r 
property in his hands is in custodia leais. He has onlv such 
power and authority as are given him by the court, and must 
not exceed the prescribed limits. The court will not allow 
him to be sued touching the property in his charge, nor for 
any malfeasance as to the parties or others without its con- 
sent ; nor will it permit his possession to be disturbed by 
force nor violence to be offered to his person while in the 
discharge of his official duties. In such cases the court wiU 
vindicate its authority, and, if need be, will punish the of- 
fender by fine and imprisonment for contempt." Davis va. 
Gray, 16 Wallace 203. 

Whether a receiver should be appointed in a given case is 
a matter of judicial discretion, which is exerciser cautiously 
bv the courts, especially in the case of a Corporation (q. t*.). 
Modem legislation has given to law-courts authority to em- 
ploy receivers, and has increased their powers and usefulness. 
The cases in which receivers are appointed fall into four 
classes : (1) Where there is no legal owner of the pro|)ertv, 
as in the case of an intestate's estate, or the owner is legally 
incompetent to manage it, as in the case of infants and lu- 
natics. In the U. S., statutes often provide for a tenifwrary 
administrator and give to guardians and committees an au- 
thority so wide as to render receivers unnecessary. (2) 
Where the litigants are legallv competent to manage the 
property, but iustice demands tnat neither party should con- 
trol it, as in the case of winding up partnership affairs by 
judicial proceedings, or of the partition of property. (H) 
Where the legal title is held by one in a fiduciary capacity 
who is abusing his trust, as in the case of a suit against an 
executor, or a mortgagor, or of creditors' suits. (4) Where 
the proper enforcement of a judgment requires a receiver. 

Receivers' Certificates, — Courts of equity are accustomed, 
at present, to authorize the receiver of a railroad com|>any 
to borrow money for the operation of the road, and to issue 
therefor certificates which are made a first lien upon the 
property of the corporation. This extraordinarv power is 
exercised because of^the quasi-public character of railroads, 
and has been denied in the case of a private corporation, 
whose chief business was mining and selling coal. ^' A rail- 
road corporation ... is charged with the duty of operating 
its road as a public highway. If the company becomes em- 
barrassed and unable to perform that duty the courts, pend- 
ing proceedings for the sale of the road, 'will operate it by 
a receiver, and make the expense incident thereto a first 
lien. . . . Private corporations owe no duty to the public, 
and their continued operation is not a matter of public ct»n- 
cem." (FarmerfC Loan and Trust Company vs. Grape Crt-tk 
Coal Company, 50 Federal Reporter 481.) Such certificat**s 
are non-negotiable securities ; they do not pledge the general 
credit of the maker, but are payable out of a particular fund. 
Their validity depends upon the order of the court, and even 
a hona-fide purcliaser will not be able to enforce them if the 
order has not been strictly followed in their issue. Their 
payment is not compelled by a suit at law, but by an order 
of the court. One who assigns or indorses them does not 



22 



RECLUS 



RECONNAISSANCE 



of Bonn, Wttrzburg, and Berlin, gnuluatinp M. D. from the 
last in 1855 ; was assistant at the Berlin Pathological Insti- 
tute from 1858 to 1864 ; in 1865 was appointed Professor of 
Pathological Anatomy at the University of Konigsberg; in 
1866 occupied the same chair at Wflrzburg ; and in 1872 went 
to the Strassburg university. lie has contributed many val- 
uable papers to the literature of pathology. 8. T. A. 

Rficlns, re-klft', fiusEK: geographer; b. at Ste.-Foy-la- 
Grande, department of G iron de, France, Mar. 15, 1830 ; was 
educated in Rhenish Prussia, and studied in Berlin under 
Karl Ritter; traveled from 1852 to 1857 in England and 
America, and published after his return to Paris a number 
of valuable geographical works, partly in the Jtetfue dea 
Deux Mondfs^ partly in book-form, of which the most prom- 
inent are The Earth (2 vols., 1867) and The Ocean^ Atmo8- 
phere, and Life (1872; translated into English bv B. B. 
Woodward, New York, 1871 and 1872). His Nouvelle Gio- 
graphie universelle^ regarded as the most complete geo- 
graphical survey of the world ever written, occupied him 
for twenty years (1874-94), and consists of nineteen volumes, 
of from 7()0 to 1.000 pages each. Among its illustrations 
are more than 3,5(X) maps. Holding extreme democratic 
views, when the revolution of Mar. 18, 1871, broke out he 
sided with the Commune, and later was sentenced to trans- 
|>ortation for life, but upon the appeal of leading scientific 
men his sentence was commuted to banishment. Pie then 
resided in Italy, the U. S., and elsewhere. Having i-eturned 
to Paris, he again became involved in communistic plots and 
fled to Switzerland. Though al)sent he was sentenced in 
1894 to transportation for twenty years. 

Revised by C. C. ADi.MS. 

Reclns, Paul, M. D. : surgeon ; b. at Orthez, Basses-Py- 
renees, Prance, Mar. 17, 1847: studied medicine in Paris, 
graduating M. D. in 1876 ; in 1878 passed the concoura for 
the hospitals; in 1880 was appointed associate and subse- 
quently full professor of surgery. Among his writings are 
Clinique et critique chirurgicaies (Paris, 1884); Cliniques 
chirurgicales de fUo/el'Dieu (Paris, 1887). S, T. A. 

Rednse [from O. Fr. reclua < Lat. recln'sus, shut up (in 
Mediiev. Lat., a recluse)] : in strict language, a monk or mm 
wlio from choice retired from communication even with mem- 
bers of the same order. The secluded person sometimes 
adopted this life by way of penance, sometimes as a means 
of spiritual progress. No one could be thus secluded with- 
out permission. The door was sealed in the presence of a 
superior oflicer, and could be unlocked only by the command 
of a bishop. The name '" recluse " was given to the inmates 
of Port-Royal, the famous Jansenist retreat in Paris. 

Recognition : the feeling of familiarity with which an 
image or object affects us. We say feeling, since the recog- 
nition, in itself, accompanies the act of knowledge in which 
the object or image is again presented ; that is, reproduction 
is assumed in recognition. This feeling of familiarity is 
vague and often misplaced, and ordinarily goes unanalyzed. 
The means by which recognition arises vary as the recog- 
nition is of an object or of an image. In the case of the 
second perception of an object its recognition is probably 
accomplished by means of an image which is already recog- 
nized. We have a comparison between the percept and the 
image, and feel them the same or similar. This is seen to 
be the case in frecjuent instances in everyday life. If we 
are asked whether an object is the same as one seen before, 
we often say we do not know, for we do not remember how 
the former object looked ; which means that we are unable 
to call up and recognize anv image with which the object 
present may be compared, in the case of the recognition of 
an image such a procedure is impossible. It would pre- 
suppose another image still, and so on indefinitely. The 
question, therefore, is narrowed down to the means by 
which we recognize a reproduced image. 

The recognition of an image depends upon the degree in 
which its apperceptive relations are re-established. The 
reproduction of an image consists in the reinstatement of 
the conditions, physical or mental, of the original percep- 
tion. Such a reinstatement of the conditions suflnces to 
bring an image back into consciousness ; but it is not then 
necessarily recognized. It is only when some of the mental 
connections — the relations established among the perceptual 
elements by apperceptive attention — are again more or less 
consciously presente<l that the sense of familiarity is felt. 
It is necessary that there be some accompanying conscious 
elements to which the recognized elements are related. 
Often when an image arises in consciousness we do not rec- 



ognize it till we bring back some association with it. Often, 
also, we see a face and in so far recognize it as to feel vague- 
ly familiar with it, while we strive to bring up more of it^ 
apperceptive connections in onler fully to identify it. Tlu^ 
first vague recognition is probably due to the felt beginninir^ 
of the revival of the spatial proportions of the face. TIim 
is further proved by tne fact that percepts which are nnt 
related in the first presentation — for example, single i>M- 
lated sensations, as the stroke of a bell — ^are not generally 
recognized. We say of such presentations that there is 
nothmg distinguishing or characteristic about theoi where- 
by they should be recognized; but this is only to say IIim» 
there were no specific points of connection between thi^ 
image and others, or between the parts which are sepanite- 
1^ apperceived. As soon as some sign is made of a (K^culiur 
land in connection with the image it is recognized. Ex- 
periments by Lehmann on the recognition of differences of 
color strikingly confirm this view. Different shades of gray, 
which could not be recognized when seen alone, were nn-d^'- 
nized when they were given names beforehand, or when a 
number was attached to each in the first perception. Of 
nine shades without names or numbers only 46 per ceni. 
gave true recognitions ; while the same shades, with num- 
bers, gave 75 per cent, of correct identifications. Here the 
introduction of a simple local relation in the perception 
gave the necessary clew. Further support is denved from 
the phenomenon of so-called psychic blindness, deafuex. 
etc. — i. e. recognition is absent in animals deprived of the 
higher co-ordinating brain-centers. 

This view of the case also enables us to take account of 
the subjective element of recognition, which is often over- 
looked. There is more in recognition than the sen.se of 
familiarity with an image. There is the feeling of ourselve«< 
as in familiar circumstances. This feeling of self develojis 
largely in connection with active attention. Attention, 
however, is the organ of the process of apperception. Cun- 
sequentlv, when by reinstatement of this process the fact of 
recognition is experienceil, it carries with it essentially the 
feeling of an emphasized self : the self of the first apper- 
ception is again evident in the self of the reapperception, 
and the sense of sameness of the apperceptive content really 
arises with the sense of the sameness of the individual wiii* 
has it. Recognition of the image, therefore, and sense of 
persona] identity, both rest ultimately in differences in t he 
amount, ease, facility, and good adjustment of the attention. 

J. Mark Baldwin. 

Recognizance [from 0. Fr. recognoismnce (> Fr. rerun- 
naismnce), recognition, deriv. of recognoistre (> Fr. rfcitn- 
naif re), recognize < Lat. recognoscere^ know again, reeog- 
nize] : in law, an obligation of record which a man enters 
into before some court of record, or magistrate duly author- 
ized, with condition to do some particular act, as to appear 
and answer in criminal proceedings, to prosecute a casu or 
an appeal, to keep the peace, etc. (2 Bl. Coni^ 341.) The 
recognizance is an acknowledgment (recognizine) of the ex- 
istence of a debt or obligation appearing upon the record of 
the court, and need not be. like a bond, sealed and signed 
by the party. It is proceeded upon by a writ of scire facum 
or a summons, without the necessity of an action as in the 
case of a common bond. At common law it is a preferred 
debt, but in many States of the U. S. the preference ha.s 
been abolished or modified. See Blackstone's Commeu- 
taries, and. the American and English En^yclopcedia vf 
Law (under Recognizance), F. Sturges Allks. 

Rec'ollet Friars and Nnns : a name usually applied to 
one of the congregations of Franciscans of tHe strict ol>- 
servance, but sometimes designating reformed bodies of 
other onlers. A congregation of Augustinian Re<'oilets 
dates from 1530. The Franciscans who bear this name are 
especially those of the French congregation, founded in 
1592 by the Duke of Nevers, Louis de Gonzaga (1539-95). 

Reconnaissance [= Fr., liter., recognition, examination, 
deriv. of reconnattre, earlier reconnoitre, recognize, exam- 
ine, whence Eng. reconnoiter'l : a preliminary or rough sur- 
vey of a portion of country. A civil reconnaissance may U* 
undertaken for the purpose of selecting suitable points* f<»r 
trigonometrical stations preparatory to a geodetic survey ; 
for ascertaining the relative advantages and disadvantasrt s 
of two or more routes preparatory to locating a line of rail- 
way, canal, or aqueduct ; or for the purpose of acquiring u 
general idea of the features of an unexplored count rv. A 
military reconnaissance may be undertaken to ascertafn xVv 
military resources of a tract of country ; for determining 



24 



RECORDING OP CONVEYANCES 



RECOUPMENT 



ing titles. This project is modeled on the Prussian law of 
May 5f 1872, which will therefore be taken as the basis of 
the following sketch of the modern German system. 

The recom {Grtindbuch) is so arranged that all entries 
affecting a special parcel of land are made in one " folio/' 
A special folio is regularly assigned, in the cities, to each 
lot, and in the rural districts to each farm or estate (Out). 
In the latter case the several fields belonging to the es- 
tate are enumerated. The tax-number of each lot or field is 
given, with its area and its assessed rental value. (The tax- 
rolls and maps give the metes and bounds of the property 
as determined by governmental survey.) After the property 
has thus been described, the remainder of the folio is dividea 
into thr^e parts. In the first are noted all changes of owner- 
ship ; in tne second, all permanent charees UTK>n the land, 
except taxes ; all limitations of the owner s right (see Servi- 
tudes), and all restrictions upon the owner's power of alien- 
ation. In the third part are entered all mortgages, with the 
amount, the rate of interest, the date of their establishment, 
and the date at which pMiyment is due. In parallel columns 
are entered assignments and payments, whether partial or 
in full. 

The record is kept by the court of first instance in each 
judicial district. Entries are made only by order of the 
court, and on certain legally specified grounds, of which the 
most important are contract and judgment. In case of con- 
veyance, the law requires a formal declaration from the re- 
corded owner that he transfers the property to the conveyee 
and a demand from the conveyee that he be recorded as 
owner. The declaration and demand may be made in per- 
son or by attorney or in writing ; but if by attorney or in 
writing the documents presented to the recording officers 
must ha certified. Similar rules govern other entries based 
on the contract of the parties. Ii an entry is demanded on 
the ground of judgment, the judgment must be authenticated. 

The recording officers determine the presence or absence 
of the grounds on which entries may legally be made, but 
they do not decide controversies. He who impugns the cor- 
rectness of an entry alreadv made, or protests against an en- 
try which the recording oAcers are legally bound to make, 
must bring action in the proper court ; but pending the ju- 
dicial determination of tne controversy, he may save his 
rights by securing the insertion of a " note " ( Vormerkting). 
The saine course is open to the person who demands an 
entry which the recording officers can not legally make until 
his claim is affirmed by a judgment. The '* note " has about 
the same effect as notice of Lis pendens {q. v.) in the U. S. 
Where this safeguard seems insufficient, the court before 
which the controversy is pending may prohibit alienation, 
and such prohibition is then placed upon the record. 

Effect of the Record, — The record enjoys pnhlica fides. 
It is presumed to be accurate and complete. Re who pur- 
chases from the reconleti owner is therefore owner, unless it 
can be shown that he knew the record to be erroneous. In 
like manner, he who hiis taken a mortgage from the recorded 
owner, or an assignment of mortgage from the recorded 
mortgagee, has the rights of a mortgagee, unless it can he 
shown that he knew the record to be erroneous. Against 
the assignee of a recorded mortgage no defenses are admis- 
sible except those which are indicated on the record and 
those of which he can be proved to have had ktiowledge. 

Mistakes in the record, it is claimed, are rendered ex- 
tremely improbable by the rules governing entries. When 
they can be shown to exist, the record may of course be cor- 
rected, but no such correction will be permitted to prejudice 
the vested rights of third parties. The {)ersou who has suf- 
fered damage from a mistake in the record has therefore 
t!ie following additional remedies : (1) An action, based on un- 
just enrichment (see Quasi-Coxtract), against the person 
primarily benefited ; (2) a subsidiary claim against the record- 
ing officers, when thev are chargeable with willful wrong or 
negligence ; and (3) if the recording officers are liable but 
insolvent, a claim against the State. 

Modifications of the Law of Mortgage.— Thfi German 
system of recording has led to importunt changes in the 
whole law of re«l property, some of which have already been 
indicated. Special innovations in the law of mortgage are 
as follows : 

(1) Specialty. — No lien can be imposed upon the entire 
estate of a debtor, nor even on all his realty. Judgment 
liens, for example, can be made effective only by having 
special mortgages rect)rded a;rainst special pieces of property. 

(2) Owner's Mortgage. — When the owner of property pays 
off a mortgage he may elect to have the mortgage assigned 



to himself. In such case no Merger {q. v.) takes place ; tb*' 
mortgage, whether it remains in the name of the owner or \> 
assigned by him to a third person, retains its validity and 
its priority. 

(3) Land-debt. — A lien on the land which operates like a 
mortgage may be created without any accompanying jiersoiml 
obligation upon the part of the mortgagor. Such a lien tlie 
Germans call a "land-debt" {Orundschuld). No such «h- 
fenses as are derived, in the case of the ordinary mort^a<:*' 
(Ilgpothek)^ from the invalidity of the personal claim can U* 
pleaded against the land-debt, for it is not a collateral but 
an independent claim. On the other hand, the land-debt is 
not enforceable against the person who created it except 
while he holds the land. 

(4) Owner's Land-debt. — The land-debt may be estublished 
in favor of the owner himself. This rule enables the own* r 
of realty to give a second mortgage and at the same time u> 
reserve a first. 

(5) A letter of mortgage (Hypothekenbrief) is an authen- 
ticated extract from the record, issued by the recording 
officers, attesting a particular mortgage, and showing all tlx^ 
facts that are of importance to the holder. In the ca^e of 
the ordinary mortgage such an extract may be issued with 
the consent of the mortgagor, and its issue is noted on the 
record. In the case of the land-debt such an extract is al- 
ways issued ( Qrundschuldbrief). The purpose of the ex- 
tract is to facilitate assignment by avoiding the necessity of 
entering each successive assignment upon the reconi. Any 
person who presents the extract and shows that it has come 
into his hands in the manner provided by law (certitle<l 
transfer) is entitled to receive interest, and, in case of default, 
to foreclose. The original creditor, of course, can exercise 
none of these rights unless he is still in possession of the ex- 
tract. The extract is thus practically a secondary recH>nL 
separated from the parent record but enjoying the sanu* 
publica fides. The lien on the land is put into circulation 
after the fashion of a negotiable instrument. In the caM> of 
the land-debt, where most of the defenses available against 
the ordinary mortgage are excluded, the analogy to ciun- 
mercial paper is particularly obvious, and the German ju- 
rists describe the " letter of Iclnd-debt '* as "a bill of exchange^ 
on the land." 

It is claimed, and with apparent justice, that the German 
system makes the ascertainment of title simpler and th».» 
security of title greater than any other system yet deviled ; 
and that it therefore gives a safer basis to credit than any 
other system. 

See (iide. Le Rigime ffypothScaire en Pruase (1873) : and 
Achilles, Grundei gent hum und Uypothekenrecht (ISHl). 

Munroe Smith. 

Reconpnient [from Fr. recouper, cut again, cut off] : a 
species oi defense in actions brought to recover dainup^s 
for the non-performance of a contract, whereby the defend- 
ant alleges that he has himself sustained damages by t he 
plaintiffs breach of the same contract, or by the plaintiff's 
fraud in procuring him to enter into it, which he sc^eks to 
cut off or ** recoup " from the amount that would otherwise 
be recovered against him. The doctrine of recoupment has 
become established by judicial decision both in England 
and in the several States of the U. S., although there are s<»me 
slight differences in the extent to which it has been carried 
by the various courts. Like the defense of set-off, it is con- 
fined to actions upon contract, and must itself arise fri>n) 
contract, but here all resemblance ends. A set-off must \>e 
for a debt, a certain fixed sum ; recoupment is of damages 
often entirely unliquidated ; a set-off is necessarily a demand 
arising upon a different contract from the one in suit : n»- 
coupment is necessarily of damages arising from a breach 
of the very same contract sued upon ; in set-off the defend- 
ant may sometimes recover a balance from the plaint itT; 
in recoupment this can never be done. Recoupment (as is in- 
dicated oy the etymology) can strictly be useti only as a de- 
fense, and can do no more at most than defeat the pluin- 
tifTs recovery ; even if the defendant's damages should ex- 
ceed those of the plaintiff, he can have no judgment for 
such excess. In this last-mentioned particular the dtK^trim* 
of recoupment has been greatly enlarged by the reformed 
system of procedure prevailing in the U. S. in many of the 
States, which pennits the defendant by means of a counier- 
claim to recover an affirmative juagment for dainap'^ 
against the plaintiff when the grouncis for such rec(»\ery 
have been established by the proofs. See Se<lgwick on tl..- 
Measure of Damages. Revised by F. Sturoes Allln. 



26 



KED CROSS 



REDPIKLD 



Red Cross : the name applied to the international treaty 
arranged by the Geneva convention of 1864, as well as to the 
various societies organized to carry out its aims. These 
center in the cause of humane and merciful treatment of 
wounded, sick, and dying soldiers in time of war. The Red 
('ross is the distinctive flag designated in the treaty, by which 
all hospitals (field or permanent), ambulances, persons, ma- 
terials, and appliances employed in the relief service are 
known as such ; and whenever the flag is displayed accom- 
panied by the national flag to which the hospital, etc., be- 
lonffs, it is treated, respected, and protected as neutral. 
Under the treaty soldiers disabled by wounds or sickness 
who have fallen into the hands of the enemv may be sent 
through the lines ; if healed in the hands of the enemy and 
incapable of bearing arms, they must be delivered to the out- 
posts to be sent to their homes, upon request ; if capable of 
further military service, they may be sent to their homes on 
condition of not aeain bearing arms during the war. Thus 
the spirit of the Red Cross treaty makes of a wounded or 
sick soldier a neutral, a non-combatant. The Red Cross 
movement is civil in its origin, and the various national com- 
mittees, societies, or associations organized to carry into ef- 
fect the objects of the treaty are purely civil. They place 
themselves in communication with their respective govern- 
ments, and in time of military activity they co-operate with, 
and become auxiliaries and aids to, the medical and surgi- 
cal departments of the armies. In time of peace they 
variously employ themselves in preparing for emerffencies. 

At the battle of Solferino, Italy, June 24, 1859, the terri- 
ble and needless suffering and loss of life caused by days of 
neglect to care for the wounded and dying were witnessed 
by a philanthropic Swiss &;entleman, Henri Dunant, of 
Geneva. He personally aided the insufficient medical forces 
of the armies, and realizing that such conditions ought not 
to exist, and need not, if the humanitarian impulse and 
eflforts of the people could prevail, he conceived the idea of 
pledging the nations of the earth to regard and protect as 
neutral all sick and wounded combatants, and all persons 
and means engaged in giving them succor. He elaborated 
these ideas and feelingly described the scenes on the battle- 
field in a book which he wrote, Un Souvenir de Solferino, 
The cause was warmly espoused by La Soci6t6 Genevoise 
d*Lrtilit6 Publique, of which Dunant was a member, and 
through the co-operation of the Swiss Federal Council an in- 
ternational conference was assembled at Geneva in Oct., 1863. 
This meeting was attended by delegates from sixteen govern- 
ments, and continued in session four days. It was followed 
by a convention, to which all nations were invited to send 
representatives, and which convened in Geneva, Aug. 8, 1864. 
Twenty-five delegates representing sixteen governments at- 
tended. The session continued until Aug. 22, and culmi- 
nated in the agreement to nine '^ articles of the convention 
for the amelioration of the condition of wounded in armies 
in the field." These articles were signed by twelve govern- 
ments before the convention adjourned, and the treaty was 
left open for the accession of others. The signatory powers 
have reached forty in number. 

The treaty designates " a red cross on a white ground " as 
the distinctive and uniform flag and arm-badge that shall 
be adopted for all hospitals, ambulances, and personnel ; 
and provides that it must on lUl occasions be accompanied by 
the national flag ; also that the delivery thereof (m time of 
action) shall be left to the military authority. The red cross 
on a white ground was adopted as a well-merited compli- 
ment to the Swiss confederation, whose national flag is the 
reverse — a white cross on a red ground. 

The Geneva conference stipulated that each treaty nation 
shall have one national committee or society, civil in char- 
acter and functions, which shall be the medium of commu- 
nication with its government, and shall alone possess the 
right to use the rtd cross, and to authorize its use at its 
discretion. The national committees are usually composed 
of the most distinguished philanthropic persons in public 
and private life, with the chief magistrate or ruler frequently 
at the head. 

To prevent desecration of the insignia by unauthorized 
use, severe governmental prohibitive measures have very 
generally been adopted. 

A committee at Geneva, Switzerland, of which Gustave 
Moynier is president, is reco/2^nized as the international com- 
mittee, through which all international communication is 
had. An international bulh'tin is published by that com- 
mittee, and many other national committees publish jour- 
nals or other literature of their work, whicli are inter- 



changed. Many of the societies have been permanently en- 
dowed with large sums of money. Others receive the tlirivt 
patronage of their royal heads or members. 

Similar articles pertaining to naval warfare were formu- 
lated at Paris in 1868, but have not been generally adopt rd 
and ratified. 

Upon the formation of the American National Red Cro^. 
its president. Miss Clara Barton, perceiving a far wider use- 
fulness for its work by applying it to the relief of great na- 
tional calamities other than war, such as famine, pestilencr^. 
fires, or cyclones, incorporated such a feature into the chjir- 
ter of the association which she formed. The innovation 
received unanimous sanction by the international and other 
national committees, and the broader scope thus inaut:- 
urated was denominated the "American Amendment." 
Money, food, clothing, buildings, agricultural implements 
seed, and other means aggregating over $1,000,000 in value 
have been distributed on thirteen fields of relief by thn 
American National R«d Cross under the " American Amen»l- 
ment"; notabljr at Johnstown, Pa., after the flood, in Russia 
during the famine, and on the South Carolina Sea islands 
devastated by cyclone and tidal wave. No money estiniat** 
can be made of the practical benefits educationallv, as [mr- 
ticularly exemplifiea in teaching the colored suAerers on 
the Carolina islands the advantages of frugality, of concen- 
trated action in reclamation of their ruined lands, and of 
self-reliance generally. Claba Babtox. 

Redding : city ; capital of Shasta co., Cal. ; on the South- 
ern Pac. lUilroad ; 170 miles N. by W. of Sacramento (for 
location, see map of California, ref. 8-C). It is in an agri- 
cultural, lumbering, and mining region, and contain » 2 
State banks with combined capital of $175,500, and 2 week- 
ly newspapers. Pop. (1880) 600 ; (1890) 1,821. 

Reddle, Raddle, or Red Chalk : an argillaceous oxide 
of iron exported from Germany and England. It is used 
for carpenter*s chalk, for marking sheep, for drawing on 
paper, and in the case of fine grades for polishing spectacle- 
lenses. 

Redemptionists, called also Matharins, Fathers of 
Mercy, and Trinitarians {Ordo SanctisaimaTrinitatinw 
a brotherhood of the Roman Catholic Church founded by 
John de Matha and Felix of Valois at Cerfroi in France for 
the deliverance of Christian captives in Barbary. It was aji- 
proved by Innocent III. in 1199. 

Redemptorist Fathers, or Lignorians (Congrfgafw 
Sanctissimi Hedemptoris) : a congregation of missionar}- 
priests founded in l732 by Alfonso de' Liguori at Snlii 
in Italy. They are most numerous in Italy, Austria-Hun- 
garv, and the U. S. They devote themselves chiefly to th.- 
holSing of "missions" lor the increase of religious activ- 
ity among the people. The original rules of the congrega- 
tion were unusually severe, allowing only sacks of straw 
for beds, hard bread and soup at table, and imposing lom; 
seasons of worship every night, self-flagellations three tinus 
a week, and missionary activity among the very iXH>rf^i 
classes. In addition to the usual vows of poverty,' chastity, 
and obedience, a fourth vow was enjoined, by wliich the 
member was obliged to refuse all honors and bienefices out- 
side of the order, except upon the express command of iht- 
pope. In course of time, however, the rules have much n- 
laxed. The congi'egation has twenty houses in the proviiKo 
of Baltimore, and seven in that of St. Louis. 

Revised by J. J. Keaxe. 

Redfleld : city ; capital of Spink co., S. D. ; on the Januw 
and Turtle rivers, and the Chi. and N. W. and the Chi., Mil. 
and St. P. railways; 41 miles S. of Aberdeen, 87 miles N. 
by W. of Mitchell (for location, see map of South Dakota, 
ref. 6-F). It is in a wheat and stcxik-raising region, and con- 
tains Redfleld College (Congregational, chartered in 18?<T), h 
national bank with capital of f 50,000, and a monthly aiul 
two weekly periodicals. Pop. (1890) 796. 

Redfleld, William C, A. M. : meteorologist ; b. at Si-»uth 
Farms, near Middletown, Conn., Mar. 26, 1789; was in early 
life a mechanic ; conceived the fundamental idea of his fa- 
mous "law of storms" as early as 1821 ; soon afterwanl es- 
tablished a line of steam towboats on the Hudson ; is^iittl 
many essays and pamnhlets in favor of steamboat navii^n- 
tion; was subsequently an active promoter of railways, fa- 
cially such as would connect the Hudson with the Missis- 
sippi ; published at different times forty essays upon metc<»r- 
ology; promulgated his Tlieory of Storms in 1831, and hi^ 
views upon hurricanes in 1833 ; devoted much attention U* 



2S 



RED RIVER OF THE NORTH 



RED SEAWEEDS 



slowly move up stream. In 1854 the lower end of such a 
raft was located at a point 53 miles above Shreveport, La., 
extended 13 miles up-stream, and was forming at the rate 
of H to 2 miles a year. It is stated that at an earlier date 
this raft was 200 miles lower down the river. Vegetation 
takes root on the older portions of the rafts, and what are 
termed "floating forests" are formed. In 1873, when a 
navigable channel was opened in the raft above Shreveport, 
it was 32 miles long. This great raft, before it was dis- 
turbed, formed a dam, which checked the flow of the river, 
and produced a lake-like expansion from 20 to 30 miles long 
above it. When a channel was opened through it the water 
above was lowered 15 feet. In recent years the river has 
been patrolled by "snag-boats," and thousands of trees, 
stumps, and other obstructions removed annually. 

Owing to the timber-dams formed naturally in Red river, 
and to the abundant silt deposits left on its immediate 
banks during high-water stage, natural levees are formed 
along its borders which deflect tributary streams and fre- 
quently cause them to form lakes. 

Consult Physics and Hydraulics of tJie Mississippi River ^ 
bv Humphreys and Abbot (1861), and the Annual Reports 
of the Chief of Engineers U. S. army. Israel C. Russell. 

Red Rlrer of the North : a river which rises in Western 
Minnesota, near the source of the Mississippi, flows north- 
ward for 250 miles through the so-called Red river valley, 
and empties into Lake Wmnipeg. Its source is at an eleva- 
tion of 1,600 feet, where it enters Canada it is 767 feet, and 
at its mouth 710 feet above the sea. Its drainage area, not 
including that of the Saskatchewan with which it unites, is 
between 43,000 and 44,000 sq. miles, of which three-fourths 
are S. of the U. S. -Canadian boundary. The region it trav- 
erses is a nearly level plain, once the bed of Lake Agassiz, 
and is famed for the abundance and excellence of its wheat 
harvests. The river has cut a narrow channel from 20 to 
50 feet deep through lacustral deposits, and furnishes a typ- 
ical example of recent drainage on a nearly horizontal, new 
land area. The river is navigable from its mouth to near 
its source. During high-water stages it is connected by 
way of Lakes Traverse and Big Stone with the Mississippi, 
ana steamboats can occasionally pass from the Mississippi 
to Lake Winnipeg. Israel C. Russell. 

Red root : See Ceanothus americanus. 

Red Sea, or Arabian ^JsXti a long, narrow inlet of the 
Indian Ocean; between Arabia on the E. and Abvssinia, 
Nubia, and Egypt on the W. ; separated from the Mediter- 
ranean by the Isthmus of Suez, which is only 80 miles 
across, and communicating with the Indian Ocean through 
the Gulf of Aden and the Strait of Bab-el- Mandeb, which is 
only 14 miles broad. The entire length of the Red Sea is 
1,450 miles; its greatest breadth is 230 miles; its depth 
varies from 1,054 fathoms in lat. 22° 30' N. to 3 fathoms in 
the harbor of Suez. It is called in the Old Testament " the 
sea of suph" a seaweed resembling wool. Why, in later 
times, it was called the Red Sea, writers are not agreed. 
Herodotus {Hist., ii., 11) reports "a flow and ebb of the tide 
every day." Recent scientific surveys have shown a tide of 
5 to 7 feet at Suez, but much less to the southward. Much, 
however, depends upon the strength of the wind, which 
blows from the S. S. E. from October to May, and is strong- 
est in February ; and from the N. W. the rest of the year, 
and is strongest in June and July. Near its northern ex- 
tremity the sea forks into two branches — one, the Gulf of 
Akaba, length 100 miles and breadth 15, occupies a depres- 
sion which is the continuation southward of the valley of 
the Jordan and Dead Sea; the other, the Gulf of Suez, 
length 200, breailth 20 miles. In the Sinaitic isthmus, ly- 
ing between these arms, is Mt. Sinai. The Israelites (see 
Exodus) are supposed to have crotssed in April the Gulf of 
Suez, near the existing town of that name, the sea at that 
time extending with small depth some 30 miles farther N. 
On account of the violence of its winds, and the great num- 
l)er of islands, shoals, and coral reefs which lie along its 
shores, the navigation of the Red Sea has always been con- 
sidered very difficult; nevertheless, from the very earliest 
times it has formed one of the commercial highwavs of the 
world, being the shorte^st and most convenient road between 
Eurojje and India. After the discovery of the route around 
the Cape of Good Hope the traflic which first the Ej^yptians 
and Pna?nicittns, and then the Greeks, the Romans, and the 
Venetians, had carried on with India over the Red Sea, de- 
clined great Iv, but the construction of the Suez Canal has 
once more led this commerce back into its old channel. 



Red Seaweeds: the Rhodophycecp ; a class of aquatic^ 
plants (mostlv marine) notable for their red or purple c<»l<»r. 
The many-celled plant-body is of various forms, from a sim- 
ple flat thallus to a branching, leaf -bearing axis. Sexual 
reproduction takes place by the fertilization of a car|M)^'nTi.' 
(by non-ciliated antherozoids), this resulting in the growth 
of* carpospores, and sometimes of a pericarp (Fig. 1) aU>. 
Asexual reproduction takes place by the germination of tet ra- 
spores, which are produced in various places on the plant- 
body by the subdivision of cells into four parts. The v\iis< 
is equivalent to the RhodospermecB of many authors, and iu- 
cluaes but one order {Flortdecs), 




Fio. 1.— A red seaweed {L^oli$ia) : a, antherid ; 6, carpogone with 
Blender trichogyne ; c, gporocarp ; d, sporocarp in vertical sec 
tion ; e, an escaped carpospore. Magnified 150 diameters. 

According to Agardh, the known species are between 1,5<K> 
and 2,000, widely distributed in all seas, and to a limit< •! 
extent in fresh water (e.g. species ot Batrachospermum, Jlil- 
denbrandtia, Lemanea, etc.). The plants are never of lari:»» 
size, rarely attaining a length of more than a few inclu-H. 
and in some cases they are minute. They are frequently "f 
delicate texture and beautiful outline. The red or purpl*' 
color is due to the presence in the cells of a soluble >ul»- 
stance, phycoerythrin, which hides the chlorophyll. r|H)n 
immersion in fresh water the red color of many marine ^^|M'- 
cies is discharged, thus disclosing the underlying green. 

Agardh has arranged the many families in six groiij>« 
(which he terms "series") upon characters derived from tht* 
structure and development of the spore-fniit (cystocar].*. 
Here only a few general characters will be given, to which 
there are many exceptions. 

Series I. GoNOYLosPERMEiE. Sp(tre-fruits external or im- 
mersed in the substance of the thallus, surrounded by a 
gelatinous envelope; spores irregularly arranged; plant 
mostly filamentous, sometimes solid or compressed. 

Two families, the CeramiacecB and the Cryptoneminc^'fT, 




FiQ. 2.—Ceramium rtibrum : a. portion of plant ; 6, spore-fruit, 
maguifled. 



contain many beautiful species — e. g. Ceramium ruhrtn** 
(Fig. 2), very common along the coasts of the U. S.. lithit.- 
f*€rrata, and species of Griffithsia and CaUitkamnion, tlu» 
latter often minute and of givat delicacy. 



30 



RED SNOW 



REED 



Red Snow : real snow tinted by the presence of Hcemch 
toeoccus lacustris (or Protococcua nivalis)^ microscopic algie 
of the order ProtococcoidecB, The cells are sub-globose, and 
about 50 microiniilimeters (5^ inch) in diameter. In 1819 
Ross found banks of red snow on the eastern shore of Baffin 
Bay extending for miles, and these were in some parts 12 
feet deep. Revised by Charles E. Bessey. 

Red Salphar Springs : magisterial district ; Monroe co., 
W. Va.; on Indian creek and a turnpike 12 miles from 
Lowell Station on the Ches. and 0. Railway ; 38 miles S. W. 
of White Sulphur Springs (for location, see map of West 
Virginia, ref. 11-G). It is in a beautiful valley of the Alle- 
ghany Mountains, is a fashionable watering-place, and is 
said to contain the only springs of their kind in the country. 
The water contains phosphorus and a peculiar sulphur com- 
pound or gelatinous substance, which is its distinctive fea- 
ture. The curative properties of the water have been known 
for more than half a century. Pop. of district (1880) 2,557 ; 
(1890) 2,845. 

Rednetio ad Absnrdnm : a process of reasoning by which 
the statement in dispute is made one premise of an argument 
and an acknowledged truth the other, the conclusion drawn 
from them being so absurd that the falsity of the premise in 
dispute must be conceded. 

Reduplication : the repetition or doubling of a syllable, 
a root, or even a complete word, as a method of word-lorma- 
tion. It is a widcspre^id phenomenon of language, and 
serves a variety of purposes in expression ; thus it expresses 
plurality, reciprocity, repetition, continuousness, intensity, 
superlative quality, completion, imitation of natural sounds, 
etc., and is characteristic of nouns as well as verbs. The 
Indo-European languages abound in traces of an extensive 
use of this method m the primitive stages of the mother- 
speech, and cases also occur of its use within the separate 
history of the languages. (1) The reduplication may con- 
sist of the doubling of a root ; cf. Lat, murmur^ a murmur- 
ing noise, gi/€r^Men/«, shivering cold; Gr. /ucp^cpof, marvel- 
ous, fidpfiapox, unintelligible in speech, AxoAo, battle-cry, 
ydpyapa, muddle. (2) The doubling appears as incomplete, 
or one syllable of the reduplicated form is weaker than the 
other; cf. Lat. quisqnilim, scraps, memor, mindful, momordi, 
1 have bitten ; Gr. 8i8ax4« doctrine, 9i8diric», teach, S49opiUL, I 
have seen, 6wmwa, I have seen, vop^^pw, be in movement, 7^ 
yvKos, round, iAA^Awy, one another, yiypofuu, become (Lat. 
gigno), (3) A word is doubled ; as Lat qiiiaqina, quidqtiidj 
guaqua^ jamjam, quamquamy qitotqtioty meme, sese ; Gr. wdfi- 
iray, wp6woo, wk4o¥ w\4w, more and more ; Sanskr. dharahar, 
day by day, pad4-pade, step by step. See K. Brugmann's 
Compar, Grammar of the Indo-Oermanic Languages^ vol. ii., 
^g 51-54, 465-476 ; A. P. Pott, Doppeluna, als eins der tvich- 
iigaten Bildungsmittel der Spraehen^ beleuehtet aus Sprac?^ 
en alter Welttheite (1862). Benj. Ide Wheeler. 

Red Water, or Biack Water: a disease of cattle, sheep, 
and goats, characterized by the passage of reddish, brown, 
or black urine. This disease is most frequently observed 
among cattle at pasture on low lands, new fields, or soils 
imperfectly drained. It is thought to be caused by irritating 
plants which grow in such localities ; it may usually be pre- 
vented by the amelioration of the soil. L. P. 

Red Wing : city (founded in 1853) ; capital of Goodhue 
CO., Minn. ; on the Mississippi river at the nead of Lake Pe- 
pin, and on the Chi., Mil. and St. P., the Duluth, Red Wing 
and Southern, and the Minneapolis and St. L. railwavs ; 41 
miles S. by B. of St. Paul, m miles W. N. W. of Winona 
(for location, see map of Minnesota, ref. 10-F). It is situ- 
ated on a plain between the river and bluffs that rise to a 
height of over 300 feet above tide-water, and is one of the 
most important wheat-shipping points in the U. S. It is 
substantially built; has water, sewerage, electric-light, and 
street-railway plants ; and contains flour and saw mills, 
boot and shoe factories, stoneware, sewer-pipe, and lime 
works, and furniture-factories. There are 14 churches, 4 
collegiate institutions, Evantjelical Lutheran Seminary 
(chartered in 187H), State Reform School, Library of the 
State Board of Health (founded in 1873), a national bank 
with capital of $100,000, 2 State banks with combined ca[)i- 
tal of f 111,000, a savinirs-lnink, and a dailv and 5 weekly 
newspapers. Pop. (1880) 5,876: (1890) 6,294: (1894) esti- 
mated, 8,300. Editor of " Replblu an." 

Red-winged Blackbird : See Blackbird. 
Redwitz-Sclinittlz, Oskar, Freiherr von: poet; b. at 
Lichtenau, Bavaria, June 28, 1823 ; studied law at Erlangen 



and Munich, and later on German philology at Bonn : was 
for a short time Professor of Literature at the University of 
Vienna, but resigned his position and devoted himself' en- 
tirely to literature. He gained a wide reputaticm by hi^ 
first work, Amaranth (1849), an epic poem written in prui^r 
of the Roman Catholic religion, ana filled with sentimen- 
tality. His later works. Das Lied vam Neuen iJtuhrhtn 
Reich (1871), Odilo (1878), and his novels Hermann Stnrk, 
deutaches Lehen (1869), Haua Wartenberg (1884), and //*///<» n 
(1887), are the productions of a genuine poet. He die<i July 
16, 1891. Julius Golbel. * 

Redwood: the Sequoia aempervirena, a noble coniftTon^ 
timber tree of California, second in size to the Sfipuna 

?iganteay or big tree, alone among North American tnt^. 
t occurs in great forests upon the coast mountains of Culi- 
fomia, and often attains a neight of 275 feet and a diaincti r 
of 15 feet. It is extensively sawn for building puriMj'**^. 
When fresh its wood is of a fine red color, but it slowlv fafU-N 
when exposed to light. (See Sequoia.) The redwoo<! sonic- 
times used by dyers is from Adenanthera pavonina^ a lar;:*- 
leguminous Last Indian tree. 

Redwood City: town (founded in 1849); capital of San 
Mateo CO., Cal, ; on Redwood creek, navigable for vess^N nf 
light draught to this point, and on the ^uthem Pac. Knii- 
road ; 28 miles S. of San Francisco (for location, see mnp ff 
California, ref. 8-B). It is in an agricultural, lumbtrinir. 
and grape-growing region; contains 4 churches, a pul»li<' 
school, a State bank with capital of $102,800, and 2 wctkiy 
newspapers; and is an important shipping-point f<»r r»MU 
wood lumber. Pop. (1880) 1,383 ; (1890) l|572 ; (1894) esti- 
mated, 3,000. Editor op "Times-Gazette." 

Redwood Falls: city; capital of Redwood co., Minn.: 
on the Redwood river, and the ChL and N. W. and tin* 
Minneapolis and St. Louis railways ; 26 miles N. N. \V. ot 
Sleepy Eye Lake, 110 miles S. W. of Minneapolis (for Un-tt- 
tion, see map of Minnesota, ref. 10-C). It is in an agri<'nl- 
tural region, and contains Methodist Episcopal, Protestant 
Episcopal, Presbyterian, Christian, Roman Catholic, anil 
Adventist churcHes, a handsome graded school build in <:. 
county court-house that cost $30,(X)0, 3 State banks wit h 
combined capital of $100,000, and 2 weekly newspapers. I n 
the vicinity are mines of coal, gold, and mineral paint. 
Pop. (1880) 981 ; (1890) 1,238 ; (1894) estimated. 2.200. 

Editor of ** Gazette." 

Reed TO. Eng. hr^od : 0. H. Germ, riot > Mod. Gtrni. 
ried, reed] : a name proper to certain tall woody gra-^>»-^ 
smaller than canes and bamboos. The common reiMl 
(Phragmitea communia) of North America, Euro fie, an<l 
Asia is employed on the Eastern continent as thatch. h> a 
material useful in clay walls and floors, etc. The more ex- 
tensively grown reed of Europe is Arundo donax, the w<><Hly 
stems of which are used for a great variety of purposes, t-i- 
pecially by the horticulturist and in making musical in^t^l- 
ments, fisnin^-rods, canes, etc. The smaller cane of tlu* 
U. S. {Arundtnaria tecta) is often called a reed. Its chit f 
use is in making stems for tobacco-pipes. — Reed is also ilu- 
vibrating tongue or spring, fixed in a narrow slit, whirh 
produces musical tones in many wind instruments, siu-h as 
the melodeon. It was once made of the reed {Arundo d*/- 
nax), whence the name. See Reed Instruments. 

Reed, David Boswell, M. D. : chemist ; b. in Edinburgh, 
Scotland, in 1805 ; educated at the High School of Edin- 
burgh, and in medicine at the university of that city, whtre 
he was an assistant to Prof. Sir John Leslie; was elect <d 
president of the Royal Medical Society and member of tlM- 
Royal College of Physicians and of the Royal Society of 
Edinburgh : became instructor in chemistry in the univer- 
sity, teaching that science also to private classes: sunenn- 
tended the improvements in ventilation made in the llou^*- 
of Commons 181^6, in the House of Peers 1839, and hu! 
charge of the ventilation department in the construction i-: 
the new houses of Parliament 1840-45; afterward a|>plnit 
his principles to public buildings in Liverpool and oth»i- 
large cities ; visited Russia for a similar purpose ; settled iti 
the U. S. 1856; was for some time Profe^ssor of Applnd 
Chemistry in the University of Wisconsin ; became a iv^i- 
dent of St. Paul, Minn.; became medical insjxx.'tor to th^- 
U. S. Sanitary Commission 1863. I), at Washington, I>. i\. 
Apr. 5, 1864. He was the author of many books and publi- 
cations upon chemistry and ventilation. 

Reed. Sir Edward James, K. C. B. : chief constructor ••f 
the British navy; b. at Sheerness, Kent, Sept 20, INU) :| 



32 



REEVES 



Beeres, John Sims : singer ; b. at Shooter's Hill, in Kent, 
England, in Oct., 1822 ; son of the organist of the village 
church. At eight years of age young Reeves could read 
any music at sight. At the age of fourteen he himself be- 
came the organist and the choir-master of the village church. 
Under Calcott and Cramer and other masters he became 
proficient in harmony and counterpoint Under the name 
of *' Johnson," at Newcastle-on-Tyne, he made his first real 

Sublic appearance in June, 1839, singing the part of the 
ypsy Boy in Ouy Mannering, Ilis voice at this time was 
looked upon as barytone, and it was not until 1847 that he 
sang as a tenor. After studying in Paris and in Milan he 
made his Italian debut at La Scala Opera-house, Milan. 
He ap^red, Dec. 6, 1847, at Drury Lane, Ijondon, as Ed- 
gardo in Lueia di Lam?nermoor, and was enthusiastically 
received. In 1848 he was engaged with the company at 
her Majesty's theatre, London, but owing to a dispute with 
the management appeared but once. Ue then attempted 
sacred music, with which his fame and memory must al- 
ways be associated. Singing in Judas Maccalmus at Exe- 
ter* Hall he astonished the critics, who had not suspected 
his versatility. He afterward devoted himself entirely to 
concerts, sacred and secular. In July, 1802, he retired from 
the stage and accepted a professorship in the Guildhall 
School of Music, London. B. B. Vallkntine. 

Re-exchange : in the usual application of the term, the 
loss resulting from the dishonor of a bill in a country differ- 
ent to that in which it was drawn or indorse<l. (Chalmers's 
Bills of Exchange^ 4th ed. 193.) A New York merchant 
wishes to pay a debt in London. He bu^s a bill on Lon- 
don; it is dishonored at maturity; he is entitled to the 
amount of money called for by the bill in London ; he would 
not be indemnified by recovering in New York the amount 
of the bill with interest and protest fees ; he has a right to 
draw in London a re-draft on the drawer or indorser in 
New York for an amount which will put him at once in 
possession of the money called for and promised to him by 
the original bill : this re-draft is called re-exchange. It will 
include not only the sum promised by the original bill, but 
the exchange on New Yoric, the interest, and necessary ex- 
penses of the transaction. {Suse vs. P&mpe, 8 Common 
Bench, N. S. 538 ; Bank vs. U. S., 2 Howard 737.) Although 
this re-exchange bill is seldom drawn, the right to draw it 
fixes the damages recoverable by the holder m case of the 
dishonor of the original bill, unless the terms of the bill 
limit the damages, or a statute prescribes them. (See N. Y. 
Revised Statutes, 8th ed., p. 2501 ; Mass. Public Statutes of 
1882, ch. 77.) The term re-exchange is used to signify, also, 
the loss on a particular transaction occasioned oy the ex- 
change being adverse, and the course of exchange itself. 
For further information, see Chalmers's Bill of Exchange^ 
4th ed., p. 194 ; Daniels, Negotiable Instruments, ch. xlv. 

Francis M. Bubdick. 

Beferendnm [Lat., neut of referendus, ^rundive of 
referre, refer] : the practice of submitting legislative meas- 
ures to the voters for ratification. It is observed in Switzer- 
land, and favored by many political writers in the U. S., 
Oreat Britain, and Belgium. See Law-making, Methods of 
(Switzerland), 

Reflecting Circle: an astronomical instrument for 
measuring angles by the reflection of light from two plane 
mirrors which it carries. It differs from the sextant cniefly 
in having an entire circle. See Sextant. 

Reflection [from Lat. reflec'tere, reflect; r«-, back -k-flec- 
tere, bend, turn) : the act of the mind whereby it examines 
itself or looks upon its own states as its objects. It is one 
of the most unique activities of the mental life. It is dif- 
ferent from simple consciousness, in that in the latter there 
is no such thing as self-examination, and no act of setting 
up a conscious relation between the subject, or thinker, and 
the object, or what he thinks about Reflection in its full 
}«ense stHMns to characterize man alone in the range of ani- 
mal life; although wherever there is the beginning of the 
notion of self, there is also probably the be^Mnning of this 
function of thinking about self which constitutes refleclion. 

This mental act is the great resource of self-observation 
and analysis, ujKm which the psvehologist de[>ends for most 
of his information. As a metfuxl, its use is called "intro- 
sf)ection.'* In philosonhy. reflection has always been the 
function U|Hm which iaealistic thought has ba-seil itself : for 
there is in nature nowhere else than in consciousness the 
fact of one kind of event setting itself over against another 



REFORMATION 

and criticising it. The inference is that this relation can 
not be accounted for in terms of the play of objective forcr^ 
in nature, and so must be an ultimate kind of activity i»r 
reality. The theory of reflection is closely allied to that of 
Judgment and Knowledge (qq. v.), J. Mark Baldwin. 

Reflection of Light: that bending which occurs in 
the path of a light ray when it is turned back from a sur- 
face upon which it falls. When a light-ray falls u|H»n an 
unpolished surface, it is irregularly reflected or scattered 
in consequence of the different inclinations of the innu- 
merable facets of which such surfaces are com[>osed, as 
may be seen under the microscope. Non-luminous lKMlie> 
are made visible by the scattering of light from their sur- 
faces. When a ray falls uiion a perfectly smooth surface, it 
is regularly reflected, and a virtual image of the illuminat- 
ing body is seen behind the reflecting surface. Most sur- 
faces which reflect regularly also reflect irreppularly to sotne 
extent. The two portions of a reflected light-ray, U- ft ire 
and after bending, are called respectively the incident and 
reflected ray. If a perpendicular or normal be erecte<l t«» 
the reflecting surface at the pjoint of incidence, the angl<H 
made with this normal by the incident and reflected ra\ are 
called the angles of incidence and reflection. The law of re- 
flection is : The angles of incidence and reflection are tfpiai, 
and the incident and reflected rays and the normal lit tu 
one plane. 

From the law of reflection it is evident that all rays di- 
verging from a point and reflected from a plane surfac»> 
appear to emanate from another point situated at the oth«r 
side of the surface, and at an equal distance from it. Heiu-e 
when an object is placed in front of a plane mirror the a{>- 
parent image is of the same form and magnitude and at an 
equal distance from the other side of the miiTor; but all 
the parts are reversed, like the negative of a phototrrapli. 
the right hand of the object appearing on the left in the 
image and ince versa. For parabolic reflection, see Liout- 
HOUSE (Lighthouse Ulumination). 

The intensity of reflected light varies with the nature anil 
the position of the reflecting surface, the reflecting lowers 
of various substances being greater for small angles of in- 
cidence than for large ones, and depending uuon the iinli-x 
of refraction between the surface and the medium in which 
the light is traveling. See Refraction. 

The phenomenon of reflection takes place equally wit h 
ether viorations of all kinds, such as those of nuliant heat 
and electro-magnetic undulations, and its laws are the same 
as in the case of light. Revised by R. A. Roberts. 

Reflex Action [reflex is from Lat. refle'xus, perf. i>artic. 
of reflec'tere^ bend or turn back ; re-, back -^flec'tere, turn] : 
direct response of the nervous system to external stimula- 
tion — for example, the winking of the eyes when an objett 
approaches, moving when tickled, etc. These actions an» 
contrasted in physiology and psychology with ** voluntary a<»- 
tions," those which owe part of their stimulus at lea.st to 
central processes. Reflex actions are regular, definite, Ih^- 
yond control, inherited, and presided over by the lower o«mi- 
ters of the brain and spinal cord. J. M. H. 

Reformation : the name usually given to the i*eligious n^ v- 
olution of the sixteenth. century which divided the Western 
Church into the two sections known as Protestant and H« »- 
man Catholic. This movement was not an isolated event, Itut 
was closely connected with the intellectual and social chantcis 
which marked the transition from the Middle Ages to the 
modem era of civilization. It was also long in preuara* 
tion. The disaffection with the hierarchy which aisch»?i«Ml 
itself in the rise of sects like the Waldenses, and within 
the Church in the reforming councils of the fifteenth i*on- 
tury held at Pisa, Constance, and Basel; the rise of nuln-iil 
reformers, " forerunners " of Protestantism, as Wickliffe ami 
others; the spiritual doctrine of the Mystics; political o|>- 
position to the Roman see, dating from the ola contests of 
the empire with the pof)e; and especially the infiuence «.f 
the revival of learning in promoting general culture, in 
hastening the downfall of scholastic theology, and in pr«»- 
ducing a diligent study of the Bible and of Christian nn- 
tiquity — these are antecedents of Protestantism which de- 
serve special mention. Under this last head the work .»f 
?]rasmus is very important. Protestantism, as a n»ligi«Mi^ 
system, had two main principles — viz., the exclusive auth« »r- 
ity of the Bible as the rule of faith, as opposed to the norm.-i- 
tive authority of the pope or the Church — a principle t h:»' 
involves the right of private judgment ; and tne doctriri<* » .f 
justitication by faith alone, in contradistinction to salvati«>n 



34 



REFORMATION 



VII. The Reformation in France. — A class of mystics, of 
whom Lefevre was the roost conspicuous, and among whom 
were Margaret, sister of Francis I. and Queen of Navarre, 
and Bri^onnet, Bishop of Meaux, sympathized with the 
doctrine of justification by faith, though they were not 
averse to the traditional doctrine of the sacraments. Hu- 
manism was favorable to reform, and Francis I., who was 
proud of being styled the " father of letters," encouraged 
innovation up to a certain degree, when his interests prompted 
him to lend it assistance. On other occasions he was a cruel 
persecutor of Protestantism at home, even when, out of hos- 
tility to the emperor, he was giving help to Lutheranism in 
Germany. His vacillation was productive of great mischief. 
Yet Protestantism, mainly from the influence of Calvin and 
of Geneva, gained a foothold in France in his reign. His 
successor, Henry II., was inimical to the Reformed faith, 
especially after the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis with Spain. 
Nevertheless, Protestantism in his reign made great prog- 
ress. In 1558 it was estimated that there were 2,000 places 
of Reformed worship scattered over France, and congrega- 
tions numbering 400,000 organized after the German pat- 
tern. In 1559 they ventured to hold a general synoa in 
Paris. The Huguenots, as they were called, became, bv the 
force of circumstances, a political PArty* The family of 
Guise gained such ascendency in tne Government during 
the reign of the young Francis II., and eventually under 
Charles IX., as to come into inevitable conflict with the 
great houses of Bourbon and Chatillon, and at the same 
time the Guises set themselves up as intolerant champions 
of the old religion. The consec^uence was that the political 
and religious elements of opposition coalesced. The Protes- 
tants found leaders in Conde and Coligny, who adopted 
their faith, and the latter of whom honored it by a signally 
pure and elevated career. Anthony of Navarre first es- 

goused, but finally deserted, the Protestant cause. His 
eroic wife, Jeanne d'Albret, the mother of Henry IV., was 
their steadfast defender. The history of the Reformation 
in France would include a full narrative of the civil wars. 
The edict of St.-Germain in 1562 granted a measure of toler- 
ation to the Huguenots ; but the massacre of Vassy shortly 
after opened the long and bloody struggle which went on, 
with intervals of peace, down to the accession of Henry IV. 
and the Edict of Nantes (1598). The massacre of St. Bar- 
tholomew in 1572, when Coligny and thousands of his co- 
religionists were slaughtered, was due to Catherine de Me- 
dicis as its main contriver, and sprang out of the mingled 
motives of political, religious, and personal hostilitv. The 
Huguenots were always a minority of the nation, but, be- 
sides the nobles who were attached to their side, they com- 
prised a multitude of the sober and intelligent middle 
classes and of the inhabitants of towns. The Edict of 
Nantes, following upon the abjuration of Henry IV., re- 
duced them to the condition of a stationary or declining 
party, but one furnished as a means of defense with polit- 
ical privileges of an extraordinary character, which they 
continued to hold until the time of Richelieu. There were 
times in the course of the sixteenth century when the Prot- 
estant cause seemed likely to triumph in France. Its failure 
to achieve the victory in that country was the tragic event 
of the Reformation. 

VIII. The Reformation in the Netherlands. — The inhab- 
itants of the Low Countries were highly prosperous and 
intelligent. The contiguity of the country to Germany 
and France facilitated the incoming of Protestant opinions. 
Merchants and emigrants brought them over from England. 
In 1523 two persons were put to death at Brussels as here- 
tics — an event that called forth a stirring hvran from the 
pen of Luther. The |)ersec'uting edicts of Charles V. led 
to the destruction of a great number of Protestants in the 
Netherlands. Grotius nuikos the whole number who per- 
ished in this reign 100,000 — probably an exajrgerated esti- 
mate. Philip II., who WHS unpopular in this part of his 
dominions, set about the strict enforcement of the laws 
against heresy. The cruelties of the Incjuisition, in con- 
nection with the evident puri>(>se to destroy the liberties 
of the country and subject it to Spanish alisolutisin, pro- 
voked armed resistance. The horo of the great revolt, 
which was a stru^r^le for politicnl and reli«riou8 freedom, 
was William of Orange. In tlie cours** of the protracted 
conflict a Protestant state grew up in the north under the 
lead of Orange, while the southern i)rovinces finally sub- 
mitted to Spam and retained the old form of religion! The 
Dutch republic confronted the whole power of Spain and 
achieved its independence. At first, Lutheranism had been 



introduced into Holland, but the Calvinistic type of doc- 
trine and polity prevailed, and was incorporated in the ec- 
clesiastical institutions of the country. The Confeiutio Btl- 
giea was composed in 1561, and was revised and adopted by 
a synod at Antwerp in 1566. 

fX. The Reformation in England and Scotland. — The 
Lollards, a remnant of the followers of Wickliffe, were nu- 
merous in England at the beginning of the sixteenth cen- 
tury among the lower classes. The revival of learning pre- 
pared the ground for ecclesiastical change. The friends of 
the *• new learning " had a spirited contest with the devi)ter«» 
of scholasticism. More, Colet, and Erasmus during his stay 
in England, exerted themselves in behalf of letters and 
against superstition. The writings of Luther found readers, 
especially among young men at the universities. Tyndale's 
translation of the Bible was eagerly perused, notwithstand- 
ing the efforts of the authorities to suppress it, and the 
martyrdom of its author. The Reformation in Englaml 
had two distinct sources, which at times worked in con- 
junction with one another. The first was the moral and 
religious feeling, which was enlisted in favor of the Pn it ex- 
tant movement. The second was the quasi political opiH>- 
sition to the foreign rule of the papacy, which was re-cn- 
forced by the difficulties encountered by Henry VIII. in 
attempting to procure a divorce from Catharine of Aragon. 
The reluctance of Clement VII. to comply with the kinj^'s 
petition moved Henry to reduce the power of the clergy and 
to oblige them to declare him the head of the Church of 
England. Finally, he cut the knot by marrj'ing Ann*- 
Boleyn without the papal i^ermission in 1532. This was fol- 
lowed by the Act of Supremacy, which put an end to paj'al 
authority in England. In 15*36 followed the act for abol- 
ishing the monasteries and confiscating their prop^crly. 
The king still professed the Catholic dogmas. There was a 
Protestant and a Catholic party in the Church, the leader of 
the former bein^ Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, a man 
of pure and upnght intentions, but of a timid nature. The 
Protestants were led in the council by Thomas Cromwell, 
the king's vicegerent in ecclesiastical affairs. The Ti-n 
Articles (1586) were, on the whole, favorable to the Prot»>- 
tant side; but the bitter matrimonial experiences of the 
king, taken in connection with the Catholic rebellicm in 
the North, led to the issuing of the Six Articles (15:^'.h, 
which were more in the Roman Catholic interest ; ami tht* 
same circumstances caused the fall of Cromwell (154(h. 
Cranmer was saved from the vengeance of the opiMi>iiig 
faction by the king's personal favor. Op the death «»f 
Henry VIII. and the accession of young Edward VI. (1547) 
the Protestant party obtained complete control. In h\< 
brief reign, under the auspices of Cranmer and his a>so- 
ciates, the Protestant Church of England received its con- 
stitution, liturgy, and creed. Evangelical theologians from 
the Continent ftlletl the chairs of theology in the univer- 
sities. Under Mary (155S-58), the successor of Edward, tlie 
old order of things, the papal supremacy include<l, was 
restored. Her matrimonial connection with Philip II. and 
subservience to Spain, and the popular sympathy excited 
by the martyrdom of Cranmer, Ridley, Latimer, and others^ 
prepared the nation for the restoration of Protestantism 
under the auspices of Elizabeth, in 1558. During her loiit; 
reign the Protestant religion took firm root in English soil. 
The defeat of the Spanish Armada (1588) rendered it cer- 
tain that the authonty of the papacy could not be reinstattnl 
by foreign intervention. The conservatism of Elizabfih 
in matters of religion provoked into activity the Puritan 
sentiment, which was anxious to assimilate English Pn>t- 
estantism to that of the Continent, where numerous Knar- 
lish exiles had lived during the preceding reign. The* 
Puritans likewise demanded a greater independence for 
the (-hurch in relation to the state than the Tudor love <«f 
power and a widespread feeling of repugnance to e<'cleM- 
astical control would allow. The result was the division 
of the Church of England into two great parties whose con- 
tests fill many a page of English history for the century 
that followed the accession of Elizabeth. 

In Scotland, at the outbreaking of the Reformation, tfip- 
clergy were ignorant and vicious, and the Church was m 
iK)ssession of a great portion of the landed property of il.t* 
Kingdom. The evangelical doctrine, of which John Knnx 
was the most effective apostle, gained a lodgment in tl.^- 
hearts of the people, and the co-operation of the nobles w«>^ 
founded partly in religious conviction and partly in th*- 
desire to appropriate to themselves the property of th«' 
Church. Protestantism in the Calvinistic and Presbyterian 



36 



REFORMED CHURCH OP AMERICA 



REFORMED EPISCOPAL CHURCH 



The Reformed Church in the U. S. publishes 29 periodi- 
cals, of which 23 are English and 6 German. It is actively 
engaged in the work of missions, and has been especially in- 
terested in the evaneelization of Japan. In the U. S. it has 
found an extensive neid for missionary labor among immi- 
grants from Germany and Switzerland. Several Hungarian 
churches have recently been founded. The Church sustains 
four orphanages and a home for deaconesses. 

The following are the statistics for 1894: Synods, 8; 
classes, 55 ; ministers, 938 ; congregations, 1,646 ; communi- 
cant members, 221,473 ; benevolent contributions, $257,947. 
See Presbyterian Church. Joseph Henry Dubbs. 

Reformed Church of America : a religious denomina^ 
tion known prior to 1867 as the Reformed Protestant Dutch 
Church in North America, a name which exactly described 
it, as Protestant vs. Roman ; Reformed — i. e. Calvinistic in 
doctrine and non-prelatical in order; Dutchy as descended 
from Holland and inheriting its religious type. 

1. Origin and History.— The first settlers m New Amster- 
dam brought with them the schoolmaster and the visitor of 
the sick, and in 1628 a church organization was formed. 
The emigration from Holland followed the Raritan, the 
Hudson, and the Mohawk rivers and their affluents, and at 
first was considerable, but aft^r the English conquest in 
1664 fell off rapidly. Still, the Hollanders held the ground 
they had taken, and everywhere multiplied ministers and 
churches. Their subsequent growth was hinderctl by three 
great causes — ^too great tardiness in relinquishing the Dutch 
languaee in public worship; a bitter controversy among 
themselves on the question whether they should act inde- 
pendently of the mother-Church in supplying their pulpits ; 
and the waste of the Revolutionary war, whose chief scenes 
of conflict in the Middle States lay in the territory occupied 
by the Dutch ; but after the return of peace the (Icnoraina- 
tion consolidated its institutions and set to work repairing 
the desolations of the past. It increased its funds for edu- 
cational purposes, enlarged its corps of theological profes- 
sors, prosecuted in various directions missionary enterprises 
at home, and also engaged in the same work abroad — at 
first, in connection with other denominations, afterward in- 
dependently. It numbers (1894) 612 churches, 614 minis- 
ters, and over 100,000 communicants, who are organized 
into 34 classes, 4 particular synods, and 1 general synod. 
The strength of the denomination lies at the East, but seven 
classes have been formed among the many thousands of 
Hollanders who have settled in various Western States from 
Michigan and Illinois to the Dakotas. 

2. iJoctrine and Worship. — The Church is eminently con- 
fessional. It owns five creeds — the Apostles', the Nicene, 
the (so-called) Athanasian, the Belgic Confession, and the 
('anons of Dordrecht. It requires the Heidelberg Cate- 
chism to be taught in families and schools, and also to be 
regularly explained from the pulpit on the Lord's Day. A 
short compendium of this catechism is the standard oi doc- 
trine for all who seek full communion ; and ministers are 
required to pledge themselves in writing not to promulgate 
any change of views they may make witliout previously con- 
sulting the classis to which they belong. There is a Litur- 
gy, which is mostly optional, but the forms for the admin- 
istration of the sacraments, of ordination, and of church 
discipline are of imperative obligation. No psalmody mav 
be used unless it has been approved by the Greneral Synoa. 

3. Polity. — The affairs of each congregation are managed 
by a consistory, consisting of elders and deacons chosen for 
two years, but in such a way that only half go out of office 
at once. The elders, with the pastor, receive and dismiss 
members and exercise discipline ; the deacons have charge 
of the alms. Both together are trustees of the church, hold 
its property, and call its minister. Ex-meinl)prs of this bo<ly 
constitute what is called the ** great consistory," who may 
be summoned to give advice when necessary. The minister 
and one elder from each congregation in a certain district 
constitute a classis, which supervises spiritual matters in 
that district Four ministers and four elders from each 
classis in a larger district make a particular synod, with 
similar powers, and representatives from each classis, pro- 
portioned in numbers to the size of the classis, constitute 
the General Synod, which has sui)er vision of the whole, and 
is a court of the last resort in judicial cases. 

Educational and other Institutions. — Rutgers College 
(1770), New Jersey, Hope College (186,5), Michigan, North- 
western Academy, Orange City, la. (1883), and Pleasant 
Prairie College, German Valley,*lll. (1893), are controlled by 



members of this Church, but are unsectarian in teaching 
and influence. The chief theological seminary, at New 
Brunswick, N. J., has five professors and a library of over 
40,000 volumes. There are two others— one at Holland, M ich., 
the other at Palmaner, India— each with three profes.-tors 
and a respectable library. Foreign missions are maintainfd 
in Japan, China (Amoy), India (Madura), and Arabia. 
There are 23 ordained missionaries, 55 churcnes, 6,226 C(»in- 
municants, and an annual outlay of about $112,000. T)ie 
board of domestic missions aids in sustaining over 1.'^) 
churches and expends about $65,000 yearly. The board < >f 
education aids over 100 students in preparing for the mini>- 
try and expends $30,000 yearlv. A board of publication, 
organized m 1854, besides other good work, issues two 
monthly journals. The salient characteristics of the Chunh 
are zeal for doctrine, order, and a learned ministry, unyield- 
ing attachment to its own views and usages, and a large 
charity for all other Christians. 

Literature. — Demarest, History and Characteristics of 
the Reformed Dutch Church (2d ed. 1889); Corwin, Man- 
ual (3d ed. 1879). T. W. Chambers. 

Reformed Church of Scotland: See Scotland, Church 

OF. 

Reformed Episcopal Church : a religious body founded 
Dec. 2, 1873, by a few clergymen and laymen who left the 
Protestant Efiiscopal Church of the U. S. under the lead<»r- 
ship of the Right liev. George David Cummins, D. D. Un- 
willing longer to share responsibility for what he l)elieve<l to 
be the Romeward tendencies of that church, he resigned his 
bishopric in it, and and was chosen the first presiding bislu^p 
of the new Church under the following resolution : •* That we, 
whose names are appended to the call for this meeting as 
presented by Bishop Cummins, do here and now, in humbJt- 
reliance upon Almighty God, organize ourselves into a 
Church, to oe known by the style and title of * The Refonned 
Episcopal Church,' in conformity with the following declara- 
tion of principles, and with the Right Rev. George David 
Cummins, D. D., as our presiding bishop : 

"I. The Reformed Episcopal Church, holding * the laith 
once delivered unto the saints,* declares its belief in the 
Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, as tlie 
Word of God, and the sole rule of faith and practice; in 
the creed * commonly called the Apostles' Creed'; in the 
divine institution of the sacraments of baptism and the 
Lord's Supper; and in the doctrines of grace substantially 
as they are set forth in the Thirty-nine Articles of Religion. 

"II. This Church recognizes and adheres to episeof»a*'v, 
not as of divine right, but as a very ancient and desirable 
form of Church polity. 

" III. This Church, retaining a liturgy which shall not l>e 
imperative or repressive of freedom in prayer, accepts the 
Book of Common Prayer as it was revised, proposed, anil 
recommended for use by the General Convention of tin* 
Protestant Episcopal Church, a. d. 1785, reserving full lib- 
erty to alter, abridge, enlarge, and amend the same, as may- 
seem most conducive to the edification of the people, * prc^- 
vided that the substance of the faith be kept entire.' 

**IV. This Church condemns and rejects the followin;^ 
erroneous and strange doctrines as contrary to God's Woni : 

'*(!) That the Church of Christ exists only in one order 
or form of ecclesiastical polity. 

"(2) That Christian ministers are * priests' in another 
sense than that in which all believers are ^a royal pnes^t- 
hood.' 

** (3) That the Lord's Table is an altar on which the ohla* 
tion of the body and blood of Christ is offered anew to t)ie 
Father. 

** (4) That the presence of Christ in the Lord's Supper is m 
presence in the elements of bread and wine. 

**(5) That regeneration is inseparably connected witH 
baptism." 

At its General Council in New York in May, 1874, it n>- 
vised the Prayer-book of 1785 to meet the needs of th^- 
changed times* but without making any variations of prin- 
ciples or doctrines. The use of the Prayer-book was ma<l%>- 
obligatory at Sunday morning services arid optional at othi- r- 
times. At the same time it adopted its first constitutioTi 
and canons. At its thfrd General Council at Chicago a vei^i- 
later it adopted its Articles of Religion, based substantial! v 
upon the Tnirty-nine Articles of the Church of England. 

The Reformed Episcopal Church is governed by a generic I 
council, its president being the presiding bishop for thi^^ 
time being, meeting annually, biennially, or trienniAlly ^^ 



38 



REFRACTION 



comes more striking as the eye recedes from the glass, the 
divergencies being more noticeable at a distance. Most opti- 
cal instruments are dependent upon refraction, and are con- 
structed in accordance with its laws. See Aberration, Lens, 
Microscope, and Telescope. For the different refrangi- 
bilities of each colored ray in the spectnim, see Aberration, 
Interference, Lens, Liquids, Spectrum. For the history 
of discovery, see Optics. Revised by R. A. Roberts. 

Double Refraction, — That particular case of refraction 
in which a ray of light on entering a medium is divided into 
two rays. One of these, called the ordinary ray, is propa- 
gated m accordance with SnelFs law. The other, called the 
extraordinary ray, is propagated in accordance with a much 
more complex law, wnicn was first shown by Huyghens in 
1690 to be a necessary consequence of the assumption that 
the luminiferous ether in the medium is unequally elastic in 
two directions, each perpendicular to the otner. The phe- 
nomena of double refraction are seen to the best advantage 
in the mineral calcite, a crystalline variety of calcium car- 
bonate. (See Optics.) In other double refracting bodies the 
separation of the two rays is not wide enough to be easily 
perceptible, but by special contrivances (see Polarization) 
they may be made to interfere, and many of the most brill- 
iant color effects are thus attained. Bv such means it has 
been ascertained that the property of double refraction is 
exceedingly common in transparent media, bein^ absent 
only from those homogeneous bodies which are uniform in 
density, non-crystalline, or isometrically crystallized. (See 
Crystallography and Mineralogy.) The two beams are 
always polarized, the plane of polarization of one being 
perpendicular to that of the other, except in the case when 
they coincide in the direction of the principal optical axis of 
the crystal. In calcite this direction is equally inclined to 
the three faces whose intersection forms an obtuse triedral 
angle. The widest separation of beams is in a plane perpen- 
dicular to this axial direction. Under this special condition 
each ray is propagated in accordance with SnelFs law, the 
index of refraction of the ordinary ray being 1*658 for mono- 
chromatic yellow light (D line), while that of the extraordi- 
nary ray is 1*486. Since the velocity of propagation varies 
inversely as the index of refraction, the velocity of the ordi- 
nary ray is not quite nine-tenths of that of the extraordinary 
at maximum separation. In the case of quartz under simi- 
lar conditions the velocity of the ordinary ray slightly ex- 
ceeds that of the extraorainary. On this basis double re- 
fracting crystals are divided into two classes, negative and 
positive, calcite being a typical example of the negative and 
quartz of the positive. Calcite and quartz, moreover, have 
each but a single axis, along which tnere is no double re- 
fraction, while in many other crystals, such as niter, there 
are two such directions. On this basis, therefore, crystals 
are still further divided into two classes — uniaxial and bi- 
axial. It was shown by Fresnel that in transmission through 
biaxial crystals both rays fail to meet the requirements of 
Sneirs law ; each therefore may be properly called extraor- 
dinary. In certain varieties of mineral, such as mica, some 
specimens are found to be uniaxial and others biaxial. 

For Huyghens's determination of the direction of either 
ray in a double refracting medium, see Polarization. 

Index of Refraction, — The constant ratio of the sine of 
the angle of incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction 
when a ray of homogeneous light passes through the bound- 
ing surface between two media. Thus if a ray of mono- 
chromatic yellow light (D line) at a temperature of 15''C. 
pass from a vacuum into water at an incident angle of 60°, 
the angle of refraction will be found to be 40' 29'. The in- 
dex of refraction, n, under these conditions is 

n = «inj?5;00;= 1.3339. 
sin 40' 29' 

If the first of these media be air instead of a vacuum, since 
the index of refraction of air is 1*000294, the relative index 
of refraction of water with respect to air is found by dividing 
the former result by the latter, giving 1*3335. Since ordi- 
nary measurements are made in air rather than in a vacuum 
the refractive index referred to a va<;uura is usually called 
the absolute index by way of distinction. 

The index of refraction affords a convenient means of 
comparing the refracting powers of different media. For 
the indices of refraction of different kimls of ^lass and sev- 
eral liquids, see Lkns and Liqitds. For a full table of re- 
fractive indices for various media, the reader is referred to 
Landolt and B(5rnstein's PhysikaJ iAch-Chemische Tabellen 
2d ed., pp. 384 to 447). W. Le Conte Stevens. 



Refraction of Sound. — The change in direction of sound- 
waves on passing from one medium into another. A beam 
of sound — regarded as any very small segment of an advanc- 
ing spherical wave-front — moves normally in a radial line, 
but it is bent from its rectilinear course whenever it under- 
|poes an unequal acceleration or retardation, necessarily turn- 
ing toward the side of least velocity and from the side of 
^^reatest velocity. In other words, the direction of acoustic 
impulse is always perpendicular to the wave-front of sound, 
whether it continues as an expanding spherical surface, or, 
by reason of unequal velocity, oecomes in any way deformed. 

There are four ways in which sound-waves may be sub- 
jected to an uneaual disturbance of velocity, and the sound- 
beams become tnereby refracted : 1. By variation of elastic- 
ity in the medium. If the density be unchanged, the veloc- 
ity of sound varies directly as the square root of the elastic- 
ity. 2. By variation of density in the medium. If the 
elasticity remain unchanged, the velocity varies inversely as 
the square root of the density. 8. By variation of motion, 
or current^ in the medium. Sound traveling with the wind 
is propagated a little more rapidly than against the wind. 
4. By variation of temperature in the medium. If other 
elements remain unchanged, the velocity of sound in air 
varies directly as the square root of the absolute tempera- 
ture. The enect of heat on a ^as is to increase its elasticity 
if confined, and to diminish its density if unconfined ; in 
either case equally it accelerates the velocity of propa- 
gation. 

(1) Perhaps the only practical example of acoustic refrac- 
tion by differences of elaaticity is furnished by the passage 
of sound from water into air or from air into water. Sound 
moves more swiftly through liquids (and still more so 
through solids), not in consequence of their greater density, 
but in opposition to their density, and by virtue of their far 
greater energy of resilience or elasticity, measured in inten- 
sity, not in quantity. The concentric sound-waves sent up- 
ward bv a submarine explosion to the level surface of the 
water there suffer a large amount of internal reflection, with 
a reverse curvature, giving the sound-beams the same amount 
of divergence downward that they previously had upward. 
A portion of each of the sound-waves, however (with great ly 
diminished amplitude of vibration), is propagated into the 
air. These have their convex fronts very much flattened, by 
reason of being reduced to less than one-fourth of their 
previous velocitv. The radii of these deformed surfaces, rep- 
resenting the directions of the sound-rays, are thus bent or 
refracted upward (or toward the vertical) at the surface of 
the air, ana have a focus of divergence much more distant 
than the position of the origin of the sound-waves. In the 
case of an aSrial sound, as the discharge of a gun, the de- 
scending sound-waves are largely reflected upward from the 
surface of the water ; but a small portion of the impulse 
passing this plane, the convex wave-fronts, acquiring sud- 
aenly more than four times their previous velocity, are 
hurried into greatly increased convexity, and the sound-ra \ s 
are refracted toward the horizon, with a divergence repre- 
senting a much lower or nearer focus than the origin of the 
sound. Those sound-rays which by refraction would coin- 
cide with the horizontal plane or water-surface would neces- 
sarily suffer total reflection. 

(2) The refraction of sound resulting from differences of 
density was first demonstrated by Carl Sondhauss in l^r>2 
by means of a convex lens of carbonic-acid gas confined in 
an envelope of collodion film. The ticking of a watch was 
heard, with the lens interposed, most distinctly at a foc*a.I 
point where it could not be heard on the removal of the len^s. 
{Poggendorffs Annalen, 1852, Ixxxv., 381.) In this case tlio 
wave-front on entering the convex surface of the lens is *>, > 
far retarded by the denser gas (commencing at the axis •-*f 
the lens) as to have a concave form impressed upon it, tiinl 
on emerging from the second surface of the lens in re- 
versed order becomes still more concave by being acH'el or- 
ated first at the outer annulus. The normals of these con- 
cave waves converge to a focal point. 

(3) The refraction of sound by inequality of wind was fi r--t 
suggested by Prof. Stokes in 1857. Winds, being ordinari I v 
more retarded near the earth than aloft, would act unequuPi > 
upon the concentric sound-waves advancing against them • I > \ 
retanling the upper portion of the wave- fronts more than t h\- 
lower portion. Being thus tilted backward more and iiioro 
as they advanced against the wind, these wave-fronts w<-nil«i 
have their lines of impulse, representing the acoustic bcAm-^^ 
l>ent gradually upward from the surface, so as to leav«^ t^ 
sound-shadow at no great distance on a plane. On the 00 n~ 



ITS 




40 



REFRIGERATING PROCESSES 



sion. Ninety per cent, of the ammonia is therefore in the 
liquid state when it has attained the temperature of ebulli- 
tion corresponding to the pressure existing in the cooler, 
and if no heat could be supplied from surrounding bodies it 
would remain lic^uid; but it is practically in direct con- 
tact with the brine, whose temperature is so much higher 
than that of the ammonia that the latter must receive heat 
from the brine, and, as the compression-pump by its suction 
prevents the pressure in the cooler from increasing, the 
effect of the heat received will be to evaporate the liquid 
ammonia without increasing its temperature. The brine 
may therefore be cooled by an amount equivalent to the 
latent heat of 90 per cent, of the total ammonia introduced 
into the cooler. All of the ammonia is not, however, allowed 
to vaporize in the cooler in some types of compression-ma- 
chines, while in other systems particular care is taken to 
insure its complete vaporization. This difference of treat- 
ment gives rise to two classes of apparatus, one known as 
the wet or cold compression and the other the dry-com- 
pression type. In either case all of the ammonia is drawn 
into the compressing-pump. which forces it into the con- 
denser, where sufficient ammonia is gradually accumulated 
to cause the pressure to equal that at which it will be lique- 
fied, by means of the cooling water with which the con- 
denscr'is supplied. When a sufficient amount has liquefied 
to fill the reservoir A to the desired extent, as shown by a 
gauge-glass attached to it, the charging of fresh ammonia 
to the cooler is discontinued, and the expansion-cock B is 
opened so that liquid ammonia flows into the cooler from 
the reservoir A at the same rat« as the latter receives am- 
monia from the condenser. This ammonia undergoes free 
expansion and evaporation in the cooler, and the opera- 
tions are then continuous, the temperature of the brine 
gradually approaching that corresponding to the boiling- 

Coint of* ammonia at the pressure maintained in the cooler 
y the suction of the pump. When the desired brine tem- 
perature is reached its circulation throug[h the cold-ston^ 
rooms is commenced. Generally the brine returns to the 
tank, after passing through the storage-rooms, at about 6^ 
higher temperature than that at which it leaves the tank, 
and its mean temperature is from 6" to 16^ higher than the 
boiling-point of tne ammonia corresponding to the suction- 
pressure, according to the efficiency and extent of the pipe- 
surface in the brine-tank. The mean temperature oi the 
brine is about 6* less than that of the storage-space required 
to bo cooled. For the storage of beer a temperature of 
about 36' F. is required, and this is therefore afforded with 
a pressure of about 28 lb. above the atmosphere in the cool- 
er. Slaughter-houses require about 25° F. in their storage- 
rooms, which may be afforded by about 24 lb. suction or 
cooler pressure ; while for the storage of fish, requiring a 
temperature of about 0° F., a suction-pressure of aoout 5 lb. 
above the atmosphere must be used. 

Air and Chloride of Calcium Circulating Systems. — In- 
stead of brine chloride of calcium is used as a circulating 
medium, first, because the corrosion of iron pipes is thought 
to be less by its use than with brine, and, second, because at 
temperatures approaching 0^ F. brine, unless made from 
the best uualities of rock-salt, is liable to partly congeal, 
whereas chloride of calcium is perfectly fluid at tempera- 
tures considerably below zero. In cold-storage practice 
at Boston air from centrifugal fans is blown over the 
surfaces of the cooler, and by a system of wooden conduits is 
circulated through storage-chambers. Pipes in the storage- 
chambers are thus avoided. The expenses of such a system 
are possibly a little greater than that of a brine system, but 
by Its use' a storage-chamber freshly filled with material 
can be more quickly cooled to a given temperature than by 
either a brine or a direct-expansion system. 

Direct-expamion Comprejision Sydema. — If instead of 
using cold brine in the pipes in the storage-chambers the 
liquid ammonia is circulated through them, we have what 
is called a direct-expansion system. The storage-chamber 
piping then constitutes the cooler. If it is desired to re- 
frigerate spaces at lung distances from the compressor, this 
system is necessary, as the liquid ammonia from the con- 
denser can be conveyed to an expansion-cock at any point 
without the expensive insulation necessary on conduits for 
cold brine. In St. Louis and Denver, for example, areas of 
half a mile radius are successfully refrigerated by ammonia 
conveyed in underground pipes. Where, however, the re- 
frigeration is confined to a })art of a building near by or 
containing the compressor, the use of brine is by many re- 
garded as a desirable safeguard against damage of stored 



material by the accidental escape of ammonia from the cir- 
culating pipes, notwithstanding the fact that the cost for 
piping is less for the direct-expansion system, and that it 
saves in cost of operation to the extent of most of the p<)w«T 
consumed by the brine-circulating pump, and by permitting 
the suction-pressure to be from 5 to 10 lb. higher to sec tin* 
a ^iven temperature in a storage-spa<;e than is possible with 
brine as a medium of transmission between the ammonia 
and the material to be cooled. 

" Wet^* versus '^Dry " Compression System. — In the wpt pts- 
tem, which is known also as the Linde system, the presoiiee 
of some liquid ammonia in the compression-cylinder limits 
the highest temperature in the latter to about the boiling- 
point, corresponding to the highest pressure produced by 
compression, whereas with the dry system the maximum 
temperature in the compressing-cylinder is upward of 100 
F. higher. If the compressing-cylinder was absolutely non- 
conducting, the wet process should be more economical than 
the dry method, but the influence of the cylinder-walls aj>- 
pears, by tests, to make the two syst-ems practically equal 
m economy. See the table near the end of this article. 

Ammon%arab8orj)tiofi System, — If instead of being drawn 
into the compressing-pump the ammonia gas leaving tlu* 
cooler is led into contact with hydrate oi ammonia sur- 
rounded by a bath of cooling water, it may be dissolved or 
absorbed oy the hydrate as rapidly as it would enter the 
cylinder of a compressing-pump. The resulting hydrate of 
ammonia being then withdrawn by an ordinary pump from 
the vessel, called the absorber, in which the absorption nas oc- 
curred, and forced into a still or closed vessel containing a 
steam-coil, the ammonia absorbed may be distilled from the 
hydrate as a gas at the same pressure which could be given 
it by the compressing-pump — that is, the liquefying pressure 
corresponding to the temperature of the cooling water avail- 
able for the condenser, the hydrate resulting from the dis- 
tillation being meanwhile returned to the absorber to react 
upon more gas from the cooler. The distilled gas being led 
to a condenser produces liquefied anhydrous ammonia, which 
can be used through an expansion-cock and cooler like that 
coming from a condenser of a compression system. Such a 
series of operations constitutes the ammonia-absorption sys- 
tem. In other words, for the compressing-pump, with its 
steam-engine in a compression system, there is substitutc<l 
a vessel called an absorber, a common liouid-pump, and a 
steam-still. All the other elements, namely, the condenser, 
liquid-ammonia reservoir, expansion-cock, and cooler. Fig. 
1, are identical for the two systems, 

A section of a leading absorption refrigerating-machine 
is given in Fig. 2. G is the still or generator containing 
the steam-coil c, which is supplied with steam by pip<* c 
and drained by a steam-trap, 1. The distilled gas leaves the 
generator at J affer passing over the baffle, or separat in Ex- 
piates K, to be freed of entrained water. It then pasi^t's la 
the condenser E, which is in two sections, arranged so that 
water-vapor condensed in the part L can be drained back to 
the generator. The hydrate or weak liouor resulting fn»ni 
the distillation sinks by its increase of specific gravity to 
the bottom of the generator, and thence passes by the pi)>c 
a to the absorber D to reunite with gas entering the latter 
bv the pipe d from the cooler C. Simultaneously the re- 
charged hydrate or strong liquor from the absorber is de- 
livered to the generator by the pump P and pipe e. In the 
vessel called the interchanger the weak liquor at about 270 
gives up heat to the strong liquor, which leaves the absorlK?r 
at about 130^. The cooling water which is supplied to the 
condenser E acts afterward to cool the absorber, the chem- 
ical union of the gas and weak liquor being accompanied 
with generation of heat. A is the liou id-ammonia reservoir* 
B the expansion-cock, and C the cooler and brine-tAnk. 

All the above remarks regarding the brine, chloride of 
calcium, air, or the direct-expansion methods of circulation 
apply as well to the absorption as to the compression system. 

Ammonia Compression versus Absorption System' — If a 
compression system is driven by an ordinary non-condens- 
ing Corliss engine affording an indicated horse-power with 
3 lb. of fuel, tests of performance show that its economy of 
fuel is about equal to the best absorption systems when* the 
efficiency of the boiler is equivalent to the evaporation <»f 
ll'l lb. of water per pound of combustible from and at 212 
F., and the suction-pressure is about 20 lb. above the atmo«v- 
phere — that is, when the temperature of the material to h< 
refrigerated is recjuired to be about 20' F. For higher tem- 
peratures or higher suction-pressures the compression-ma- 
chine is superior in economy of fuel, but for lower tempera- 



42 



REFRIGERATION OP THE EARTH 



REGATTA 



The abflorption principle described above can be applied 
with water or brine as the refrigerating substance, and sul- 
phuric acid as the absorbent. The water or brine is fed into 
a chamber or cooler in which a vacuum of about '16 inch of 
mercury, or less, is maintained by an air-pump. A portion 
of the liquid evaporates by free expansion, and temperatures 



as improbable, and making use only of Fourier's mathe- 
matical theory of heat has arrived at some im[>ortant re- 
sults, lie assumes that at a certain critical epoch a super- 
ficial layer of rocks became solidified, at a temperature of 
about 7,000° F., and shows that it is probable that the amount 
of heat of the crust went on diminishing by a quantity pro- 



ACTUAL PERFORMANCE OF ICE-UAKINO MACHINES. 



CLASS or MACmME. 



Ammonia wet compressor. 



Pictet fluid dry compressor 



Air, atmospheric cycle 

Air, clomd cycle 

Ammonia dry compressor 

it t» *» 

tt »t »i 

Ammonia ahsorption 



AoUMtUy. 



X. 



ScbrOter. 



I Renwlck. i 

I Jacobus. \ 

Denton. 



Abtoiut* pf«M- 
UN, is lb. par 



» Q 
0*9 
9-9 
9-9 
9 9 
9-9 
99 
9-9 
9-9 
9-9 
U-8 

11 8 
11-3 

lis 

11-3 
11-8 
11-8 
11-3 
11-8 
11-8 
11-3 
28-0 

10-0 

180 
12-0 

12 
12-0 



, 16*5 

' 16-6 

16-5 

! 16 5 

I 16-S 

16-5 

I 16-5 

■ 16-6 

, 16 5 

I 16-5 

24-4 

24-4 

24 4 

24-4 

24 4 

24-4 

24 4 

24 4 

24-4 

24-4 

24 4 

288 

18-0 

800 
300 
800 
80-0 



185-4 
131-4 
1280 
126-4 
199-5 
135-8 
1814 
185-61 
118-9 
130-0 ! 
66 7; 
65-6, 
54-6 
60 4 
90 9 
610 
59 3 
58-7 
54-3 
88-7 
62-1 
58-8 

175 

1660 
167 
162-0 

176 
152-3 



6. 

56-3 
41-9 
80-8 
222 
41-9 
60 
451 
28-7 
410 
60-8 
20-9 
14-9 
9-7 
6-7 

14 9 
22-3 
156 

6-7 
22-3 

15 6 
6-5 

14 7 

58-7 

42-7 
229 
27-7 
422 
40-4 



T«tcp«mtan 
eomrftpondiag to 



duguM Fahr. 



723 
70 5 
69-2 
68-6 
96-5 
72-4 
70-6 
68 2 
64-2 
700 
778 
76-2 
75 2 
80-6 

104 4 
81-2 
796 
791 
74-9 

102-9 

64 8* 

81-3* 

84 2 
84-6 
82-7 
87-7 
79- 1 



8. 

26-6 
14-8 
0-5 

-11-8 
14-4 
80-2 
17-8 
-94 
181 
80-7 
28-5 
14-4 
-25 

-159 
14-4 
31-5 
16-2 

-15-9 
81-8 
16 2 

-16 9 

-52-6* 

-40-2* 

150 
-10-8 
-3-2 
14-5 
12-6 



of brino, lo 
Fahr. 



9. I 10. 

42 8 I 87 2 
28 4 ! 23 
140 I 8-8 

-0-8 -5-5 
28-3 I 28-0 
48 7 I 87-2 
28-3 28-0 

-0-4 -5 8 
28 4 28-0 
42-8 I 37-3 
43-0 , 37-5 



28-6 
14-1 

-0-8 
283 
43 5 
2H-4 

-0 4 
42 8 
28-3 

-01 



36-8 
6-3 
14 3 
36 4 
20-7 




8-8 

-5-7 
280 
37 6 
28-0 

-5.6 
37-5 
23-1 

-5-3 



28-9 
20 
2 8 
286 
15-7 





Horn- 


iUvo- 


|ww«r 


lutiofu 


of 


pw 


•UWD- 


miaul*. 


eylto- 




dw. 


11. 


12. 


44 9 


17 9 


46- 1 


180 


45- 1 


16-8 


44-8 


16-6 


450 


24-1 


45 2 


17-9 


46- 1 


180 


44 7 


15 6 


45-0 


16-4 


81-7 


120 


570 


21-5 


668 


206 


57- 1 


185 


57-6 


157 


69-8 


272 


67-3 


216 


67 6 


20-5 


578 


16-9 


858 


12-4 


42-9 


19-9 


34-8 


99 


68-2 


88-2 


93-4 


381 


581 


860 


677 


72 6 


57-9 


73 ft 


58-9 


88-6 



oflodi- 



le»-ni«)tinic cti'mr ti tr 
IbiMrlb. of roUt . 
p«r boar |«r horw-p - < < 
of ■train-C}llniltr of c-i ■ 
pmriiig-oiKlkiD*, ar.il 42 

— «Tft|«rktloD of !'•' It 

cmted nolllof watwpwlb.of ci.u.hu.i 
powor cauw- ^l«fro<n *iu1b< •'• * i 
of iJTto "" •J««n^'*^»''"»' 



Tboorttlcal. DO 
cylladvr htitinr 
during Hplr»- 



cylto- 
dor kot 

In 
Mctfoa. 



13. 



144 
167 
160 
19 6 
10-6 
10-7 
12-1 
180 
18-6 
14 8 
22 9 
22-9 
24-0 
26-7 
16-9 
14 
12-8 
21-1 
22-3 
14 7 
24-3 
21-9 

82-1 

22-7 
1H6 
19-3 
197 



No ' Wiib 
Mcilim. frktloo. 



14. 15. 16. 



262 

19-5 
18-8 

9-0 
16-6 
29-8 
21-6 

9-9 
20-0 
19-5 
25 6 
179 
11-6 

5-7 
167 
28-1 
19-8 

6-8 
170 
11 9 

85 
10 8 

4-9 

78-9 
87 9 
46-6 
74 4 
42 2 



58 67 
45-14 
35 M 
28:29 
29-79 

64 74 
48 40 
29-83 
50-63 
69 40 

65 01 
4105 
.')0-22 
22 28 
25-16 
54 %2 
40-13 
22 72 
62 83 
26 78 
21 51 
12-09 

14-8 

35 91 
28 IH 
26 94 
83 54 

38-5 



17. 



50 23 


4JI •. 


;J7 5y 


3«» «' 


•J9 44 


*^J It 


2270 


i». ; 


26 ON 


\^ <■ 


57 K') 


4<. J 


42 5(1 


;v'. •/ 


24 m 


ir :. 


48 70 


a^i : 


69 0CI 


Ki 


42 4.S 


Xt •! 


31 71 


'ii \ 


23 3fi 


i: i 


165(» 


\0 1 


WHf^ 


i»'. 


46 tI7 


:». I 


as 01 


2»i X 


17 9(» 


11 '. 


49 17 


:i> ' 


22W-I 


V' < 


16 .'i»i 


•.♦ • 


7 W 


3 i 


81 


3 <: 


27:« 


24 1 


18 7»* 


It : 


21 f.<i 


17 ! 


26 U4 


'£\ ! 



* Temperature of air at entrance and exit of expansion-cylinder. 



as low as 82** are produced with water, or as low as 14'' with 
brine. The unevaporated liquid is frozen to ice if it is water, 
or circulated throu|i^h the spaces to be refrigerated if it is 
brine. The vapor is drawn into a vessel or acid-chamber, 
adjoining the cooler, containing anhydrous sulphuric acid, 
which absorbs it. The resulting mixture, or dilute acid, is 
pumped into the still or generator, which frees it of water, 
and it is then returned to the acid-chamber to reabsorb the 
vapor. Experiments with the apparatus on a small scale in- 
dicate that the economy of the process for general refrigerat- 
ing purposes may be superior to that in which ammonia is 
used, and that it may afford a means of making ice with con- 
siderably less expense and space for plant than by the use 
of any other of tne refrigerating substances. This method 
is employed in one of the oldest forms of refrigerating-ina- 
ohines, where, by means of a hand-pump, a vacuum is pro- 
duced in a glass bottle or caraffe nlled with water, and ice 
is formed inside the bottle for table use. One-fourth of the 
water is vaporized and absorbed by sulphuric acid or other 
substances having a strong affinity for water, and the remain- 
ing three-fourths is converted into ice. D. S. Jacobus. 

Refrigeration of the Earth : the gradual cooling of the 
earth in the course of ages. According to the Nebular 
Hypothesis {q, v.) the earth was originally a mass of fiery 
liquid, and known geological facts have established that its 
surface was at one period much hotter than it is now. The 
fact that the temjjerature increases from the surface inward 
implies that there is a continual loss of heat from the inte- 
rior by gradual conduction through the outer crust and at- 
mosphere to external space. (See Energy, Dissipation of.) 
This loss is very small, in proportion, compared with that of 
the sun— owing, doubtless, to the existence of the crust. It 
has been suggested, however, that the internal heat might 
be kept up by chemical action — that is, by the transforma- 
tion of chemical energy of combination into heat, or by the 
passage of the earth through a hotter region of space, a hy- 
pothesis due to Poisson. Lord Kelvin regards these views 



portional to the s<juare root of the time from the eporl 
Further, his analysis would lead to the inference that du 
ing the last 96,000,000 years the rate of increase of the t«n 
pcrature from the surface inward has diminished fn»m aU)i 
i^th to about ^th of a degree P. per foot, and that tl 
thickness of the crust through whicn any degn»e of >tat^ 
cooling has been experienced nas increased up to its pn»s<r 
thickness from a fifth of that thickness. Lord Kelvin b 
lieves also that the earth is not, as is commonly supinwid, 
mass of fiery liquid covered with a crust of from 80 i«> h 
miles thick, but on the whole more rigid than a solid gl«il 
of glass, or even of steel of the same dimensions, anti ht» i* 
serves that a decided negative should be given to the Mi»rg< 
tion that internal heat exerted any sensible effect on cliiimi 
See Earth {Internal Temperatures), R. A. Roberts. 

Refuge, Cities of: See Cities of Rbfuob. 

Regal'di, Giuseppe : poet ; b. at No vara, Italy, in Xoi 
1809; began the study of jurisprudence in theUniversi 
of Turin, but failing in his first examinations, and havi 
heard the improvisatore Giustiniani, he resolved to rii 
him. From 1»38 to 1856 his course was a continual triump 
he improvised in all the principal cities of Italy, in Franj 
in Switzerland, in Germany; visited Greece, Asia Minj 
Mt. Lebanon, and Egypt, and there gathered fresh ins' 
rations. In 1860 he was appointed Professor of History 
the Lyceum of Parma; then (1862) in the University 
Cagliari; and finally, in 1866, in the University of l^>logi 
D. at Bologna, Feb.,* 1883. Among his volumes of ver-^4»J 
La guerra (18;32); I^e»ie estemporanee e pensate (isa 
Canti (1840); Canti nazionali (2 vols., 1841); La liiM 
(1852); Canti e prose (1861-65); Poesie scette (1874); L^t 
(1878). We have also a volume of travels, Dora (2d c«i. 1 
and a collection of essavs, Storia e htteraiura (1S7SM, 
F. Orlando, Giuseppe Regaldi (1880). Many ilhist 
French and Italian poets nave written verses in his h« 
among others Lamartine. Revised by A. R. Marsi 

Regatta : See Rowing and Yachting. 



44 



REGGIO NELL' EMILIA 



REGNAULT 



fifth centary b. c. it lost its republican organization ; after 
an obstinate resistance it was captured by Dionysius the 
Elder, tyi*ant of Syracuse (387 B. c). Under the I^bmans it 
became again wealthy and magnificent. The Castor and 
Pollux with St. Paul on board entered the harbor (63), and, 
according to tradition, St. Paul landed and founded a 
church. The ecclesiastical history of Reggio is interesting 
and somewhat important. The city shared all the vicissi- 
tudes of Southern Italy during the Middle Ages. It was 
burned by Alaric (410), captured by Totila, £ing of the 
Goths (549), by the Saracens (918), by the Pisans (1005), by 
Robert Guiscard (1060), and by the Ottomans (1552 and 
1597). Nevertheless, it was nourishing and opulent when in 
1783 it was utterlv overthrown by earthquake. Though 
suffering from earthquakes often since, it has been partially 
rebuilt and presents a modem appearance with handsome 
and spacious streets. The city now rises in amphitheatrical 
form upon a gently sloping hill ; its suburbs are attractive 
and it enjoys splendid sunset views over the strait, with Etna 
and Sicily in tne foreground. It has a few manufactories 
and an inconsiderable maritime trade. Pop., with the sub- 
urban villages (1893), 43,000. E. A. Gbosvenob. 

Regvio neir Emilia, red'jo-nel-Io-mee'lee-ak (anc. Bhe- 
gium jbepidi): city of Italy, in the province of the same 
name ; on the railway between Parma and Modena (see map 
of Italy, ref. 3-C). It is a walled town, with broad streets, 
many of which are lined with arcades. Some of the churches 
are imposing and contain precious objects of art. Over the 
altar of St. Prospero once stood the Nativity of Correggio, 
known as La Notte, now in the Dresden Gallery. Reggio 
contains a fine cathedral, partly of the twelfth* century, a 
spacious theater, a library with 56,000 volumes, an academy 
of fine arts, and a museum with the natural historical col- 
lection of Spallanzani, born here in 1729. The small house 
in which Ariosto was bom (1474) is still seen. The Asylum 
for the Insane, outside the town, is one of the best-man- 
aged philanthropic establishments in Italy. The origin of 
the town is uncertain, but it is often mentioned by Latin 
writers. It was cantured by the Goths in 409, was oppressed 
by the Exarchs of Ravenna, and was rebuilt by Charlemagne 
in the ninth century. It suffered severely during the Guelph 
and Ghibelline wars. An independent commonwealth in tne 
twelfth century, during the thirteenth it was prominent in 
mediieval learning. For several hundred years it was gen- 
erally ruled by the Este and Austro-Este family, and joined 
the modern kingdom of Italy in 1859. Now it is the com- 
mercial center of a fertile province, carries on a large trade 
in country products, and has some industries of its own, as 
manufactures of carriages, brooms, and sailcloth. Pop. 
18,634. E. A. Grosvenob. 

Regiment ffrom 0. Fr. regiment, government, later a 
regiment of soldiers < Lat. reginien turn, government, rule, 
deriv. of re'gere, rule] : a military organization made up of 
one or more battalions of infantry, squadrons of cavalry, or 
batteries of artillery. The organization being permanent, 
its history, records, and traditions become matters of regi- 
mental pride and a potent factor in preserving its esprit dt 
corps. Regiments are generally designated by numbers ; but 
they frequently have special names, derived from the local- 
ity of their enlistment or from some marked service ren- 
dered by them. 

In the U. S. the infantry regiment is made up of ten com- 
panies and varies in strength from about 500 men on a peace 
looting to about 1,000 men on a war footing. In the more 
modern organization of the European armies it consists of 
three, or sometimes four, battalions, of about 1,000 men each 
on a war footing, reduced to about 600 on a peace footing. 
The cavalry regiment of the U. S. contains 12 troops, or 6 
squadrons, and the artillery regiment 12 batteries. In Euro- 
pean armies these numbers vary somewhat widely. 

The regiment is commanded by a colonel, or in his absence 
by its lieutenant-colonel. Each battalion is commanded by 
a major, and each company by a captain. The regimental 
staff usually consists of an adjutant, quartermaster, com- 
missary, and surgeon. Some regiments have also a chap- 
lain. 

The regiment is the administrative unit of the army, the 
battalion the tactical unit, and the company the unit of 
combat. See Army. James Mer( ur. 

Regi'na [Lat., Queen] : town of Assiniboia, Canada, and 
capital of the Northwest Territories; station on the (Cana- 
dian Pacific Railway, 857 miles W. of Winnipeg (see map of 
Canada, ref. 9-G). It contains fine public buildings, and is 



the headquarters of the Northwest mounted police. It is 
well provided with churches and schools, and has the nucleus 
of a parliamentary library. Pop. 2,500. 

Regionionta'nns, Johann MOller: astronomer ail 
mathematician; b. at K5nigsberg in Franconia, June t). 
1436; studied mathematics under Purbach at Vienna, an* 1 
astronomy at Padua; lived for some time at the court <'f 
Matthias Corvinus of Hungary, afterward at Nurembor>:. 
and was invited to Rome in 1474 by Pope Sixtus IV. in or<l» r 
to reform the calendar. D. in Rome, July 6, 1476— some "ay 
by the plague, others by assassination at the hands of i hy- 
sons of George of Trebizond, in whose writings be had 
pointed out some glaring errors. His Ephemerides ah A n n o 
1475-1606 (continued by Bernhard Walther) made him vcrv 
famous among astronomers. Among his numerous oth< r 
works are Detteformatione Calendarii (1489^ and De Tn- 
angulis Omnimodia (1533). See Alexander Ziegler, Rtgm- 
montanus (Langensalza, 1874). 

Registration (of conveyances) : See Recording. 

Regnard, ran-yaar', Jean Francois : dramatist ; b. in Pan -, 
France, Feb., 1655. Of a wealthy family, he was well edu- 
cated, and traveled extensively in Italy, Algiers, whither li- 
was taken as captive by pirates in 1678, Scandinavia, Laplam . 
Germany, Poland, and Hungary. He settled in Paris in 
1684, and began first to write for the Theatre Italien, but 
after 1696 wrote entirely for the Theatre Fran^ais. He fol- 
lowed Moliere, but at a long distance, naturalness and deline- 
ation of character being sacrificed to the comic effect, f' r 
which his talent was great. Le Joueur (1696), Les JUenech m > .v 
(1705), imitated from Plautus, and Le Ligataire uniitr/-"' 
(1708) are his best-known comedies. D. Sept. 4, 1709. Hti 
also wrote an account of his Voycures and a partly autobio- 
graphical story. La Provengale, Editions of nis works hn\ m 
been given by Michiels (2 vols., Paris, 1854-55) and Mr»lan<l 
(Paris, 1875). A. G. Canfielh. 

Regnanlt, re-no', Alexandre Georges Henri: historic, 
al, genre, and portrait painter; b. in Paris, France, Oct. :^n, 
1843. Pupil of Montfort, Lamothe, and Cabanel ; grand 
prix de Rome 1866; painted in Italy and Spain 1866-6^t| 
and in Africa in 1870. He returned to France and enli-ti«l 
in the Sixty-ninth Battalion of the National Guard at ih^ 
outbreak of the war with Germany, and was killed in i 
skirmish at Buzenval, Jan. 19, 1871. His works are ver^ 
fine in color and possess qualities of the highest onl. r 
Though only twenty-eight years of age at the time of hit 
death, he had already painted a number of important < om 
positions, one of the most famous of which is his equestrini 
FOrtrait of General Prim, now in the Louvre. In the L* »u\ r 
also is his Execution without Judgment — Granada. In t h 
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, is a picture entitled Autam 
edon with the Horses of Achilles, which, though not r»ne <i 
his most successful works, gives a fair idea of nis power n^ 
draughtsman and his ability to handle a large canvas wit 
unity of effect. William A. Cof fix. 

Regnanlt, Henri Victor: physicist and chemist ; b. n 
Aix-la-Chapelle, Germany, July 21, 1810; studied at tli 
Ecole Polytechnique of Paris ; was appointed ProfoK*ior < 
Chemistry at that school in 1840, in Physics at the CNlL^ij 
de France in 1841 ; chief engineer of mines in 1847. an<l .i 
rector of the porcelain- works of Sevres in 1854. Tho ti n 
work of his which attracted attention was his Action d 
ChJore sur rather chlorhydrique (1840), but his physiojil r 
searches, especially concerning heat, gained for him his trr»-i 
reputation. In 1848 he received the Rumford medal fn> 
the Roval Society of London for his Experiments to d* t-\ 
mine the Laws and the Numerical Data which enter in to f\ 
Calculation of Steam-engines. His investigations in v«'i 
fication of the law of Mariotte and Boyle were cominiinitat* 
in vols. xxi. and xxvi. of the Memoires de V Acad*' fa i* J 
Sciences. His Premiers Elements de Chimie (18r)0>. i 
abridgment of his Cours ilementaire de Chimie (1H47-4I 
has been translated into several languages. His work on t 
practical treatment of steam-engines forms vol. xxi. ot t 
Mimoires de VAcadimie des Sciences. D. Jan. 19, 187H. 

Regnanlt, Jean Baitiste, Baron: painter; b. in Vt\\ 
France, Oct. 19, 1754; led for some time a roving lif«» «i 
sailor, and visited Africa and America; entered in 1771 i 
studio of the painter Bardin, whom he acconipanitil 
Rome; gained in 1774 the great medal for his Aleuat.' 
and Diogenes; l)ecanie a member of the Academy in I 71 
subsequently professor in the School of Art, and sttHni 
the side of l)avid at the head of the French school of pa i 



46 



REID 



REIN 



Reid, Thomas : philosopher ; b. at Strachan, Kincardine- 
shire, Scotland, Apr. 26, 1710. His father was a minister. 
He received his first instruction at home and in the parish 
school of Kincardine. In 1722 he was sent to Marischal 
College in Aberdeen, where he graduated in 1726, and occu- 
pied a position as college librarian and in studying mathe- 
matics and ohilosophv until 1737, when he was appointed 
minister at New Machar in Aberdeenshire. His parishion- 
ers are said to hayo opposed his appointment very strenu- 
ously, and he had so little confidence in his own powers that 
he never himself composed the sermons which he preached, 
but used such as were published bv English divines, espe- 
cially Tillotson and Evans. Nevertheless, his life as a min- 
ister at New Machar turned out to the satisfaction of all. 
In 1740 he married, and in 1748 he published his first philo- 
sophical essay, On Quantity, in the Trafisactiotis of the 
Royal Society of London. It was a criticism of the manner 
in which the mathematical terminology was used at that 
time in metaphysics and morals, especially by Hutcheson. 
In 1752 he accepted the position of Professor of Philosophy 
at King*8 College, Aberdeen, where he had to teach mathe- 
matics, natural philosophy, and moral philosophy ; but in 
1763 he moved to Qlas^w as the successor of Adam Smith 
in the chair of Moral Philosophy. Here he published his 
Inquirff into the Human Mind on the Principle of Common 
Sense, in 1764, and read at the meetings of a philosophical 
society several papers, such as Examination of Dr. Priest- 
ley's Opinion concerning Matter and Mind and Physiolog- 
ical Reflections on Muscular Motion. In 1781, however, he 
resigned his office in order to devote himself exclusively to 
philosophical studies, and published Essays on the Intellec- 
tual Powers of Man, in 1785, and Essays on the Active Pow- 
ers of Man, in 1788. D. Oct. 7, 1796. Originally, he was a 
disciple of Berkeley, but David Hume's Treatise upon Hu- 
man Nature, published in 1740, showed him at once to what 
consequences idealism might lead, and roused him to inde- 

Eendent speculation. In opposition to, Hume's skepticism 
e tried in his Inquiry into the Human Mind on the Prin- 
ciple of Common Sense to establish a series of fundamental 
truths independent of experience and indisputable as primi- 
tive facts of the consciousness. On the Scottish school of 
philosophy, and more especially on the study of psychology, 
he exercised a powerful influence. This influence has ex- 
tended to Prance (Royer-Collard and Victor Cousin); and 
to America and the British colonies, nearly all professors of 
philosophy in colleges for thirty years (1830 to 1860) being 
loUowers of Reid in all important respects. See English 
Literature {Philosophy). Revised by W. T. Harris. 

Beid, WnrrELAW : journalist ; b. near Xenia, 0., Oct. 27, 
1837 ; graduated at Miami University in 1856 ; after acting 
for a year or more as superintendent of the graded schools 
at South Charleston, O., bought and edited the Xenia Xews ; 
joined the Republican party at its birth and made political 
speeches in support of Fremont in 1856 ; advocated in the 
News the nomination of Abraham Lincoln in 1860 ; became 
city editor of the Cincinnati Gazette ; during the civil war 
served on the staff of Gen. Morris in West Virginia and 
later on that of Gen. Rosecrans, and was war correspondent 
of the Gazette, writing over the signature of " Agate " ; in 
1863 was ap|>ointed librarian to the House of liepresenta- 
tives ; in 1865 accompanied Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase 
on a tour of the South, undertaken by the latter at the re- 
quest of President Johnson for the secret purpose of study- 
ing the condition and interests of the white and black race's, 
and published After the War, a Southern Tour (Cincin- 
nati, 1866) ; durin|» the next two years engaged in cotton- 
planting in Louisiana and Alabama, and published Ohio 
«n the War (2 vols., Cincinnati, 1868) ; in 1868 became one 
of the editors of the Cincinnati Oazette; at the invitation 
of Horace Greeley joined the editorial staff of The New 
York Tribune in 1868, and in 1869 became managing edi- 
tor. Upon the nomination of Greeley for the presidency 
in 1872 Mr. Reid became editor-in-chief, and when the 
former died in the fall of that year he became chief pro- 

Srietor as well as editor of the' lyihune. In 1878 Presi- 
ent Hayes offered him the U. S. mission to Berlin, which 
he declined. The offer was renewed under the administra- 
tion of President Garfield, and again declined. In 1878 he 
was elected b^ the New York Ijogislature regent of the 
State University, to succeed Gov. Dix. In Mar., 18H9, Mr. 
Reid accepted from President Harrison the appointment of 
minister to France, and resigned the editorship of the 
Tribune. After securing the repeal of the French decree 



prohibiting the importation of U. S. meats, and negotiat- 
ing extradition and reciprocity treaties, he resigned offir*<» 
and returned to the U. S. in Apr., 1892. In June, 1892, he 
was nominated for the vice-presidencv of the U. S. by the 
Republican national convention, but failed of election. His 
time since then has been divided between foreign travel 
and the direction of the Tribune. Among his occAsirmail 
addresses, afterward published in book form, are Schools 4»f 
Journalism (New York, 1871) ; The Scholar in Politico 
(1878) ; Some Newspaper Tendeficies (1879) ; Toum-hall Sug- 
gestions (1881). Revised by W. F. Johnsi>n. 

Reid, William, D. D. : minister and editor; b. in the 
parish of Kildrummy, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, Dec 10, 
1816; was educated at the University of Aberdeen; went 
to Canada as missionary of the Established Church of Scot- 
land ; was pastor at Graton and Colbome, Upper Cana4ln, 
1840-43; was one of the founders of the Presbyterian Church 
of Canada 1843 ; was pastor at Picton 184fi^3 ; editor r if 
77ie Ecclesiastical ana Missionary Record 1853-75; since 
1853 has been clerk of synod and treasurer of the schemes of 
the Church. Dr. Reid was moderator of the Synod in 1850 
and 1878, and of the General Assembly in 1879. 

C. K. HOYT. 

Reid, William James, D. D. : clergyman ; b. at South 
Argyle, N. Y.. Aug. 17, 1834 ; was educated at Union Col- 
lege and Allegheny Seminary; corresponding secretary of 
the United Presbyterian boam of home missions 1868^72 ; 
principal clerk of the United Presbyterian General Asst^m- 
oly since 1875; and since 1889 pastor of the First United 
Presbyterian church, Pittsburg, Pa., and editor of The 
United Presbyterian. Dr. Reid has published numerrms 
sermons and pamphlets: Lectures on the Revelation (Pitts- 
burg, 1878); and United Presbyterianism (1881; 2<1 e<K 
1883). C. K. HoYT. 

Reidsvllle: town (founded in 1865); Rockingham co.. 
N. C. ; on the Southern Railway ; 24 miles N. of Qreerif*- 
boro, and 24 miles S. W. of Danville, Va. (for location, see 
map of North Carolina, ref. 2-F). It is in the heart of the 
** bright " tobacco belt, and is a large leaf-tobacco market. 
selling about 8,000,000 lb. per year. There are 4 large ware- 
houses for the sale of the leaf , tobacco, cigar, and cotton 
factories, flour and lumber mills, 8 churches, high school 
for boys, graded public schools, a female seminary, a State 
bank with capital of f 50,000, an incorporated bank with 
capital of $50,000, and 3 weekly newsjiapers. Pop. (18^h 
1,316 ; (1890) 2,969 ; (1894) estimated, 3.500. 

Editor op " Review/* 

Reigate : town ; in the county of Surrey, England ; 21 
miles S. of London (see map of England, fef. 13-J). Tli«» 

Parish church of St. Mary (mixed Transition Norman ainl 
•erpendicular) dates from the reign of Henry VIL It e<)Ti- 
tains a library with MSS. and rare books. Reigate carrie-^ 
on a considerable trade in fuller's earth and sand used, in 
the manufacture of glass. Pop. (1891) 22,646. 

Reign of Terror : the name given to that period of t he 
French Revolution which lasted from Jan. 21, 1793, the dav 
of the execution of Louis XVI., till July 27 (9 Thermidor), 
1794, when Robespierre was guillotined and the committee 
of safety broken up. See France, History or. 

Reims : a city of France. See Rheims. 

Rein, rin, Johannes Justus : scholar and compiler : b. at 
Rauenheim, Hesse-Darmstadt, 18Ji5 ; studied at the Univer- 
sity of Giessen, and taught for several years. In 1878 he 
undertook a mission to Japan on behalf of the Prussian 
Government for the purpose of studying Japanese industries 
and commerce, and spent two vears in that country, i^n 
his return he was appointed Professor of Geography at 
Marburg, and in 1883 was transferred to a similar j>ost at 
Bonn, where he succeeded Baron von Richthofen. In ISIKJ 
Dr. Rein served as a judge of art industry at the Columbian 
Exposition in Chicago. The results of his Japanese re- 
searches were embodied in his valuable Japan nach ReiMtn 
und Studien dargestellt (2 vols., Leipzig, 1881. 1886), of which 
an English translation has appeared under the titles Jap^tn, 
Travels and Researches (London, 1884) and The IndusiritM 
of Japan (London, 1889). A later work treats of Colum- 
bus and Spanish subjects — Oeographische und uaturtci^4vn- 
schaftliche Abhandlungen (Leipzig, 1892). J. M. Dixox. 

Rein, Wilhelm, Ph.D.: professor of pedagogy; b. at 
Eisenach, Germanv, Aug. 10. 1847 ; studied at Gymnasitiin 
Eisenach, 1857-66, Jena University 1866-68, Ueidelbt»r^ 
1808-69, Leipzig 1870-71 ; teacher in Realschule, Barmen, 






nsrv; 



u^^rijii^t^U. :riC€ oImi AJiu 









48 



REISKE 



RELIEF 



highly gifted of the pupils of Qottfried Hermann, and an in- 
spiring teacher of ereat learning and critical talent. He died, 
after occupying the chair of Classical Languages at Halle 
for a few years, at Venice, Jan. 17, 1820. His principal 
works, which have not yet lost their value, are Vorlesungen 
<fi6er Lateinische Sprcichwissenschaft (3d revised and en- 
larged ed. in 8 vols., 1888) ; Coniectanea in AristopJianem ; 
critical and exegetical edition of Sophocles's (Edipus Colo- 
neus (2 vols., 1823). Cf. Pr. Ritschl, Opusc, (v., pp. 95 fl.) ; 
0. Ribbeck, F. W, Ritachl (i., pp. 34 fl.). 

Alfred Gudeman. 

Relske, rls'k^, Johann Jacob : Greek scholar ; b. in Zdr- 
big. Saxony, Dec. 25, 1716; matriculated in 1733 at the 
University of Leipzig;, where he devoted himself especially 
to the study of Arabic. In 1738 he went to Leyden to study 
the Arabic MSS. in the university library, and eked out a 
spare living by correcting proof-sheets and by giving pri- 
vate lessons. Amid such nardships he still found time for 
the study of medicine, graduating in 1746. Soon afterward 
he returned to Leipzig, and here also he lived in abject 
poverty for twelve years, when he secured the rectorate 
of the famous Nicolai Gymnasium. This position he re- 
tained till his death Aug. 14, 1774. Reiske is one of the 
greatest Greek scholars that Germany has |)roduced, and his 
genius, though depreciated in his lifetime, is now becoming 
ever more generally recognized. His productivity is as- 
tounding ; his most celebrated works are editions, commen- 
taries, and translations of Plutarch (12 vols., 1782) ; Dio- 
nysius of Halicarnassus (6 vols., 1777) ; Oratores Giwci (12 
vols., 1770-75) ; Dion Chrysostomos (2 vols.) ; Libanius (4 
vols.) ; Theocritus (2 vols.) ; Maximus Tyrius (2 vols.J ; and 
many other minor editions. To these must be added a 
collection of Animadveraionea in Grcpcoa aucforea (5 vols., 
1757-66). Many of his works were published posthumously 
by his wife, Ernestine Christine (1735-98 ; married 1764). 
See his Autobiography, pp. 818 (1783); M. Haupt, Opt/«- 
eula (iii., pp. 137 If.) ; Bursian, Oesch, der claaaiachen Phi- 
lologie in Deutachland (pp. 407-416). Alfred Gudeman. 

Relsuer-work : See Buhl-work. 

Reiss, WiLHELM : traveler, ethnologist, and naturalist ; b. 
at Mannheim, Germany, in 1838. He graduated at Heidel- 
berg 1864; visited Greece 1866; and from 1868 to 1876 
traveled in South America, generally in company with A. 
StQbel. Their most extended explorations were m Colom- 
bia, Ecuador, and Peru, where they ascended and measured 
many peaks of the Andes, and maue valuable archaeological 
and geological studies. Their most important joint publi- 
cation was Daa Totenfeld von Ancon in Peru (3 vols, folio, 
1880-67), a magnificently illustrated work on the Indian 
burial-grounds of Ancon, near Lima. They also published, 
*y or separately, many papers in Spanish at Quito; and 



eiss is the author of several works m German on South 
American geology and topography. H. H. Smith. 

Relapsing FeTer, also known as Famine FeTer, and, 
technical Iv, as FebriB Recurrens [relapaing is from Lat. 
relabi, relap'aua, fall back, relapse ; re-, back, again + la'bi^ 
slide, fall]: a specific infectious and contagious disease due 
to the action of a micro-organism, the Spirochceta obermeieri, 
which flourishes in the blood. It occurs onlv at intervals of 
some years, and generally during seasons of privation and 
insalubrity, attacking chiefly the lower classes, ill fed and 
housed. The idea was formerly held that relapsing fever 
is a dietetic disease pure and simple. This is not the case, 
though famine makes large masses of people susceptible to 
the specific germ. Its formative or incubating stage is from 
four to ten days. Its onset is sudden ; the patient, having 
been perfectly well at the time, is able to fix the exact time 
of the attack. It begins with an abrupt and severe rigor, or 
chill with nervous tremor, and immediate sense of extreme 
weakness. There is sharp frontal headache, pain in the 
back and limbs ; then follow flushed face, thirst, dry 
tongue, high pulse, and a steady ascent of body heat. The 
facial expression and temperature are characteristic. The 
mind is unaffected, and the face, with the sunken but clear 
and full eyes, wears a pitiable, helpless, appealing look. 
The complexion has a bronzed hue, and may be slightly 
jaundiced. The temperature rapidly ascends' and during 
four or five days remains 105*, 106% 107\ 108' F.— an un- 
usual fever heat unaccompanied by brain symptoms or 
danger of death. Physical examination may detect en- 
largement of the liver* and spleen ; the urine may contain 
not only albumin and urea in excess, but blood and casts 
indicative of acute congestion of the kidneys. The fever 



and extreme depression last from five to seven days, when, 
with some critical evacuation, as profuse perspiration, diar- 
rhoea, or urination, a sudden abatement and rapid con- 
valescence set in. Appetite and strength are slowly re- 
turning, and the invahu is about, when, on the fourteenth 
day from the first attack, he is seized by a second or relap?^* 
resembling the first. Very rarely, a third, fourth, and even 
a fifth relapse, occurs. Tne mortality is not as high as in 
typhus fever, nor as great as the severe symptoms would in- 
dicate. The treatment during the active penod is essent i a 1 1 y 
anti phlogistic and expectant — cooling arinks, gentle salinV 
laxatives, sponging, light diet; during convalescence, fre*' 
use of concentrated liquid diet, tonics, especially liberal use 
of quinine and brandy. Revised by W. Pepper. 

RelatlTity: the principle in psychology accordin/; to 
which all mental states are influenceid by preceding an<l ac- 
companying conditions of consciousness. The principle wa*s 
formerly a theoretical doctrine of philosophy, and was dis- 
cussed in all early English philosophy under the phrase 
" relativity of knowledge." According to this thcorv, no 
knowledge was of an object as it realh^ existed outside of 
the mind, but was only of an " idea " of this object in con- 
sciousness, subject to all the modifying influences, bot h uf 
the nervous system and of the come and go of other iiu- 

Sressions and ideas. The historical development of tl^ie 
octrine is due mainly to Stuart Mill ana Sir William 
Hamilton. The Kantian theory of knowledge, which made the 
mind's object a construction in certain forms native to tlie 
mind, was a further and important development of i he 
doctrine of relativity toward subjective idealism. In cur- 
rent thought the law of relativity has become an estal»- 
lished psychological doctrine. It gets its first application 
in the theory of Sensation {q. v.). It is found that none 
of the attributes of sensation is constant, but that they all 
vary with the condition in which consciousness alreacfy is 
when the sensation comes to it. Particular applications 
are found in the theory of "color-contrast," in the ni<Hlify- 
ing influence of attention on all sensations, in the workinr? 
of Weber's law (see Psycho-physics) upon the intensities t.f 
sensation-states, and in the influence of muscular states and 
strains at the time that the sensation in question makes us 
advent in the mind. See the Paychologiea of James, Hoff- 
ding, Baldwin, under the heading Relativity \ Hamilton, 
Lecturea on JUefaphyaica ; }Ai\l, Examination of the I^hi- 
loaophy of Hamilton ; and Lotze, Metajohyaic, 

J. MARK BAIJ>WrN. 

Release: in law, the extinguishment of a pre-exist int; 
right. It may consist in an agreement upon a legal con^iii- 
eration, or in a sealed contract, or it may result from t kit- 
acts of the parties or from the operation of law. W hi It- 
there is much authority for the statement that an oblig^at it »ii 
under seal can be released only by a contract under seal, the 
better modern view is that a release upon a legal considi-i j*- 
tion is equally effective in extinguishing an obligation wit h 
the common-law release under seal. The voluntary destruc- 
tion of an obligation, or its surrender by the obligee to t h*^ 
obligor, with the intention of discharging the latter, wili 
operate as a release. The law often works the disehar^^ * *f 
an obligor in cases where the parties intended no siioh re- 
sult. A contract for personal services is terminated by t ht.* 
death of either party. At common law the death of a joint 
contractor extinguished the obligation so far as he or hi^ 
estate was concerned. Likewise the release of one ii»iiit 
obligor workeil the legal release of his co-obligors, and Hie 
release by one joint obligee was binding on his co-ohlipet-s. 
The language of a release is to be dealt with according t,> 
the general rules of Interpretation (q, i\). 

The right which is extinguished by a release may be a 
title to real property ; hence a release may be a form of et>ii- 
veyance. Here it is classed as secondary or derivative >^e- 
cause it presupposes a preceding conveyance. It passes t >n^ 
releaser's right in land to one who has a former estate m 
possession therein. It is said to inure by way of enlarj^riiiLr 
an estate, or by way of passing an estate, or by way t»f 
passing a right, or by way of extinguishment, or by wa v «.»f 
entry and feoffment! (2' Blackstone*s Commentaries^ f5i>-4~ 
325 ; Miller vs. Emana, 19 N. Y. 384.) See Bargain an o 
Sale, Dower, Joint Ownership, Jointure, and LLANi>ix>R.t> 
AND Tenant. For Roman law rules, see Obligation. 

Francis M. Burdick, 

Relief: in sculpture and some decorative arts, the projeo- 
tion of figures from a background ; also a work of sculpt nr*«. 
in which the figures stand out from a background, insteA^l of 



60 



RELIGION. COMPARATIVE 



shall now endeavor to classify the religions of the world first 
after the line or tendency, then after the degree of their 
development. To determine the line or tendency of devel- 
opment which a family of religions has followed in the 
course of history, the principal characteristics of such a 
family must be found out. That which really character- 
izes a religion or a group of religions is the notion thev 
have formed of the relation between Qod and the world, 
God and man, and of the manner in which the Deity chooses 
to be worshiped. By applying this method to the religions 
with which we are best acquainted, some distinct families 
can be marked out with certainty even now, and by apply- 
ing it to those which are not so well known, the documents 
and information from which they must be studie<l being 
less abundant, less clear, or less accessible, some probable 
hypotheses about their mutual relationship may be drawn. 

Just as there are an Aryan and a Semitic familv of 
speech, there are two corresponding great families oi re- 
ligions, which provisorily and only for convenience' sake 
may be called tne Aryan and the Semitic religions. Study- 
ing these two groups we find that each of them develops, 
with marked and growing oneside^iness, one of the funda- 
mental ideas of religion without totally denving the other — 
viz., the Aryans the kinship between God and man, the 
Semites the eminence of G(xi above man ; the former re- 
garding the Deity as the father of gods and men, the divine 
protector of the human race and of the same nature with 
It, though higher and mightier ; the latter venerating their 
gods as lords, masters, and kings, whose obedient servants, 
nay, whose slaves, they are ; the former laving the greatest 
stress on that which is dogmatically called the immanence, 
the latter on that which is dogmatically called the tran- 
scendency of the Godhead. The former or Aryan religions 
mav be called thcanthropic ; the latter or Semitic may be 
called theocratic. 

Theanthropic JieligwtM. — The principal thcanthropic re- 
ligions are — (1) the Vaidic religion in India and its off- 
shoots; (2) the religion of the ancient Iranians, Medes, Per- 
sians, and Bactrians, of which the Zarathustric Mazdeism was 
a reform, protected by the Achaemenids and re-established 
under the latter A rsacids and the Sassanids, though |)erhajis 
partly altered under foreign influences. These two are 
Dranches of the same stem, as is proved by the many divin- 
ities, religious ideas and rites, especially the Soma-IIaoma 
worship, which they have in common, but they have devel- 
oped quite independently, and have really evolved into de- 
cided antagonists, the one led by uncontrolled theosophic 
speculation to the utmost limits of monistic pantheism, and 
even atheism, the other founding on a rather superficial 
dualism a practical system of religious observances and 
sober morality. Originally not less closely related are the 
religions of (3) the ancient Greeks and of (4) the Romans ; 
but the Greek or Hellenic religion, under the high pressure 
of various Eastern creeds and cults, grew into that most at- 
tractive, but from a moral standpoint dangerous, humane 
polytheism, the worship of beauty and genius, while the Ro- 
man religion was organized to a cold and formalistic ritual- 
ism, till it was totally reformed bv a gradual infiltration of 
Hellenic gods, ideas, and rites. Next come (5) the nearly 
allied Germanic religions, including the Scandinavian and 
the Teutonic, which, if the moral dualism of the Edda can 
be considered as old and original, show a great resemblance 
to the Iranian religious system ; (6) the rather primitive but 
vaguely p>etical W indie or Slavonic, and (7) the Keltic relig- 
ions, which are still imi)erfectly known, but as far as they 
are known seem to represent the most ancient form of the- 
anthropic religion, dissiuuilating its barbarous myths and 
bloody rites under a veil of magical mysticism. 

Theocratic RcliyionA. — The theocratic religions of West- 
ern Asia are much more closely related than are the thean- 
thropic religions, the former covering a limited area, while 
the latter are spread from the (fanges to Iceland. The more 
primitive forms of woi-ship belonging to this family 'must 
l)e sought among the Arabians and among other nomadic 
tribes of the desert. A marked theocratic character is 
shown by the Hahylonian religious system, of wliich the 
Assyrian is an olTshoot, only slightly differing from it in 
detail, though grafted on the really heterogeneous religion 
of the older inhabitants of the country, the so-called Sume- 
rians (Acca<lians), and having borrowed from it not a few 
gods and rites. The sjiine may be said of the religions of 
the Aramirans, the Canaan ites and Phtpnicians, and the lie- 
brews. In the religion of Israel the same fundamental idea, 
combined with the conception of God's holiness — by which 



originally is meant that the heavenly Sovereign is inac-ce-- 
sible — has been developed by the Mosaic reform aii<l the 
preaching of the propnets into that ethical monotbei>iii 
which stands unequaled among the religions of antiquiiv. 
Even Islam, the religion founded by Mohammed under t he 
influence of imperfectly understood Judaism and Christi- 
anity, though semi-universalistic, must be regarded not only 
as a theocratic religion but a^ the one in which the concr;^ 
tion of the Deity as an absolute sovereign has been workcil 
out to its utmost consequences. In Christianity, on the con- 
trary, the two currents meet ; it is constantly struggling lo 
maintain a kind of balance between the two principles, or 
even to combine them in a higher unity. It is only fair to 
say that the younger Judaism, which preceded it, had al- 
readv prepared the way, as it had weakened the old. one- 
sidecl theocratic doctrine by its moral dualism and its belief 
in personal immortality. 

The Egyptian Religion, — It might be expecte<l, as the 
Egyptian language contains so many Semitic elements, that 
the religion would likewise be theocratic ; but, thoug^h de- 
cidedly theocratic, it is theanthropic as well, and so repn^- 
sents a stage of development at which the two princinh's 
were still equally acknowledged. Perha^ the pre-Baby Ion- 
ian religions of Western Asia were more or less closely n»- 
lated to the Egyptian religion ; certain it is that some of tlie 
oldest Egyptian gods and myths show a great resemblan<*t* 
to gotls aria myths probably borrowed by the Babylonia n< 
and other Western Asia nations from their predecessor^. 
All this, however, is hypothetical. 

Some other Families of Religions. — It would be imp<>*»- 
sible to give a complete classiflcation of all religions with 
the present data. However, mention 'may be made of th«' 
patriarchal religions, in which the divine* beings, worsliii kmI 
as ''elders, old ones, grandparents," are mutually related in 
the same wav as the heads of different tribes or families, of 
whom one Is superior to the other inasmuch as be )<% 
mightier, but each of whom exercises authority indepernl- 
ently and in his own sphere. To these belong the religion** 
of the Ural-Altaic peoples (Finns, Lapps, Esthonians, an* I 
their relatives, though tne first named nave borrowed mmli 
from the Germans), and perhaps aLso some religions of Nort U 
American nations. The Chinese religions that are kn«»\M) 
are of another kind. They might be called anthroporert- 
trie, as the human spirits (shin) constitute the middle class 
between the two other classes, viz., the heavenly and tlit» 
earthly, strictly distinguished from both of them, but ju-t 
as well venerated by the living. Probably also these have 
formed a group or family with the religions of some kiii> 
dred jieoples, but of the latter little is known. 

As to the remaining religions only the classification whit-h 
coiTesponds to the ethnological and the glottological one 
can be given. 

Classification after the Degree of Development. — To olat- 
sify the religions acconling to the degree of their devel*»|>- 
ment, which is usually, but not quite correctly, called the 
morphological classification, one must observe them at the 
highest standpoint they have reached — not in their growili 
nor in their aecline. It is true that of some religions v^ e 
must assume that, having had their development check tM.1 
by adverse causes, they have remained stationary on a low»>r 
level than was possible for them to attain, and that of othor 
religions we may suppose that they have fallen into dccav 
through isolation, oppression, general degeneration of a 
people ; but as it is no longer possible to gather information 
concerning their better state otherwise than by puestsin^ 
from some vague traces, we are compelled to classify them 
only by what we know of them with certainty. Accortlintr 
to this standard of comparison religions are divide<l into thv 
two great categories of nature-religions and ethical relig^ioits. 

Nature-religions. — By nature- religions we mean thor^^^ 
whose highest divinities, be they spirits, fetishes, or inati> 
like beings, are mighty powers oi nature, connected in some 
way with a definite natural objector phenomenon. Krom 
these religions the ethical element is by no means excliidi^i. 
On the contrary, from the remotest times moral qualitic?^ 
have be€»n attributed to the gods or have been deifie<i thciit- 
selves, and this has been done more and more acconling n^ 
the deities have become more anthropomorphized. The ct h- 
ical element, however, remains subjected to the nature-gt>* 1 5., 
and the latter are by no means lK)und by it. 

Different Degrees of yature-worship. — Among the nature- 
religions there is a great difference as to developmoiir^ 
though all of them, even the highest, are still dominatcxl l»v 
the same principle. On the lowest plane stands what h«»\ 



52 



RELIGIOUS LIBERTY 



REMBRANDT 



Ugions of India (P. Max MQller, 1878) ; The Religion of 
Ancient Egypt (Renouf, 1879); Indian Btiddhism (Rhys 
Davids, 1881); The Native Religions of Mexico and Peru 
(Reville, 1884); Celtic Heathendom (J. Rhys, 1886) ; The Re- 
ligion of Ancient Assyria and Babylonia (Sayce, 1887) ; The 
Religion of the Par sis (Darmesteter, 1890) ; The Religion of 
the Ancient Hebrews (1892). Genei-al works in this depart- 
ment are : C. Uardwick, Christ and oth^r Masters (3a ed., 
London, 1874) ; A. Kuenen, Natiofuil Reliaions arid Uni- 
versal Religions (London, 1882) ; Tiele, Outlines of ths His- 
tory of Religion (London, 1884; 2d ed. 1888); A. Reville, 
Prolegomena to the History of Religion (Eng. trans., Lon- 
don, 1885) ; Chantepie de la Saussaye, Lehrbuch der Relig- 
ionsgeschichte (Freiburg im Breisgau, 2 vols., 1887-89, trans, 
of vol. L Manual of the Science of Religion^ London, 1891). 
Readable are J. F. Clarke, The Ten Great Religions (2 vols., 
Boston, 1870-83 ; n. e. 1886) ; G. T. Bettany, The World's Re- 
ligions (Ix)ndon, 1890) ; F. F. Ellinwood, Oriental Religions 
and Christianity (New York, 1892) ; Religious Systems of 
the World, by various authors (London, 1889 ; 3d ed. 1898). 
Samuel Macauley Jackson. 

Religions Liberty: See Liberty, Religious. 

Religious Orders : See Monachism. 

Remainder [from O. Fr. remaindre^ deriv. of remaindre, 
remain < Lat. remane're ; re, back + mane're, stay, re- 
main] : in law, a future estate in land to take effect imme- 
diately upon the termination of a prior, limited estate upon 
which it depends, and with which it was created. As is ex- 
plained in the articles Estate and Property, the estate 
m fee simple is conceived of at common law as being sus- 
ceptible of infinite subdivision. When a tenant in fee sim- 
ple grants a present, limited estate, as an estate for years, 
for life, or in tail, the residual interest not thus disposed of 
is itself an estate capable of being separately dealt with. If 
by the same conveyance the grantor parts with this residual 
estate or anv part of it to a third (>erson, it is called a re- 
mainder ; it he does not part with it, it " reverts '' to him, 
and is known as a reversion. (See Landlord and Tenant.) 
The present or '* particular " estate, as it is called, may be 
followed by any number of future estates in remainder un- 
til the whole fee simple has been taken up. Thus if a ten- 
ant in fee simple gives lands, by deed or will, to A for ten 
years or for life, then to B for lijfe, then to C in fee tail, then 
to D and his heirs, A is the particular tenant, and B, G, and 
D are remaindermen. If tne last limitation (to D and his 
heirs) had been omitted the remaining estate in fee simple 
would have, after the termination of the last remainder (to 
C), reverted to the grantor and his heirs. 

It was a peculiarity of the remainder at common law, 
which was inflexibly maintained by the courts, that it could 
be created only as a true remnant of a fee simple to follow 
a prior estate which was less than the whole estate of the 
grantor. In other words, a remainder could not take effect 
m derogation of or in substitution for a preceding estate. 
Thus if a tenant in fee simple should make a conveyance of 
his land to A in fee, but with the proviso that if A should 
die without surviving issue then the estate should go to B 
in fee, the limitation to B would be void and the estate be- 
long absolutely to A. The whole estate of the grantor had 
become vested in A, and it could not be divested and trans- 
ferred to any one else by the creation of a remainder. The 
result aimed at could, it is true, be secured by the creation 
of a shifting use (see Uses), or by executory devise (see 
Will), but it could not be accomplished by any form of 
limitation known to the common law. By legislation in many 
of the U. S. remainders have lost this artificial character. 
In the State of New York, for example, it is expressly pro- 
vided by statute that any future estate which is depenaent 
on a precedent estate may be called a remainder, and that 
a remainder may be limited up^m a contingency which will 
operate to abridge or determine the precedent estate. 1 R. 
S. 723 (sec. 11), 725 (27). 

In tlie remainder proper, as above described, the interest 
of the remainderman was said to be " vested " — that is, the 
remainder, althou&rh its enjoyment was postponed to a fu- 
ture time, and altnough it was described as a future estate, 
was really regarded as a present interest in the lands affect- 
ed by it, and was accordingly real j»r()|>erty, capable of alien- 
ation, or, if a remainder m* fee, of transmission by will or 
descents Like reversions, reniuiiulors were regarded as in- 
corporeal interests, and were, like easements and other "in- 
corporeal" rights in land, alienable only by grant. See 
Hereditaments {Incorporeal}. 



Originally this ** vested " remainder was the only form of 
future or "expectant" estate which could be create*! at 
common law. but in the course of time a gift to take effect ' 
in the future in favor of a person not now existing, or uot 
vet ascertained, or upon an event which might or might nut 
happen, acquired recognition under the description of a ' 
** contingent" remainder. Such a remainder was not, prop- 
erly speaking, an estate, inasmuch as it could not be alien- 
ated or devised, and would not descend to the heir of the 
contingent remainderman. It was, moreover, an interot of 
a most precarious character, as it was liable to destruction 
by any one of a variety of accidental or intentional circum- 
stances. If the event upon which the contingent estate wast 
limited to depend had not happened at the time when the 
preceding estate came to an end, the contingent remainder 
was destroyed. So also a release of the reversion to the 
particular tenant or the surrender of the estate of the latter 
to the revereioner, wherebv the reversion and the particulHr 
estate were mer^d (see Landlord and Tenant), had t he 
effect of destroying the intervening contingent remainder. 
This process may be illustrated by supposing A to have a 
life-estate, with remainder to the (unborn) son of B for his 
life, with remainder to C in fee. If B's son has not come 
into being when A's life-estate comes to an end, the contingent 
remainder of the former is destroyed forever, and the estate* 
vests at once in C. So if, before the birth of B's son. A 
should convey his life-estate to C, or his vested remainder 
to A, the estate would be lost to the contingent remain d^-r- 
man forever. If, however, B's son should be bom before 
any of the events above suggested have happened, his inter- 
est would at once become vested, and woula from that time 
on be wholly unaffected by such contingencies. By legisla- 
tion, whereby contingent remainders are preserved from 
destruction by the events above enumerated, and whereby 
they may be alienated or may descend to the heir of t he 
contingent remainderman, these interests have been very 
general I V assimilated to vested remainders both in England 
and in the U. S., and have thus in a greater or less de^n*e 
acquired the character of true estates. 

For further information, consult Digby, History of the 
Law of Real Property; Fearne on Remainders; Lea.ke*H 
Law of Property in the Land; the Commentaries of BltM.-k- 
stone and Kent, and the statutes of the several States. 

George W. Kirch we v. 

Remarqne Proofs : See Engraving. 

Rembang^ : a Dutch residencv of Java. East Indies, oom- 
prising 2,600 so. miles, with (1888) 1,241,093 inhabitants. <»f 
whom about 18,000 are Chinese and 700 Europeans. The 
capital, Kembang, on the flat, hot, northern shore of Juvh 
(see map of East Indies, ref. 8-E), has 25,000 inhabitants and 
some ship-building. Revised by C. C. Adams. 

Rembrandt (full name, Rembrandt Harmenszoon \'nn 
Ryn) : painter and engraver ; b. at Leyden, Holland, July 1 .">, 
1606. He first studied painting with Jacob von Swanenbun-h! 
and then under Peter Lastman, at Amsterdam. He retiirTK-ti 
to Leyden in 1623 and gave himself up to studying fr<»iii 
nature and painting portraits. About 1629 he settled m 
Amsterdam, where he remained till his death. His fame 
was great, his studio crowded with scholars, and his 'vcf trks 
in great demand, yet in 1656 he became insolvent. It i** 
supposed this may have been owing to the impoverish^! 
state of the republic, and to his reckless extrava^anoo in 
collecting works of art. Sufficient data exist contradict intj 
the oft-repeated tales of his miserly habits. Renibro.n«U 
was the greatest genius among Dutch painters, and his in- 
fluence in the art of his country is paramount. He wn^i 
married twice, and had in all four children. His son Tit i is 
by his first wife became a painter, but did not distinc^nish 
himself, and died in his father's lifetime. Amon^ Himh- 
brandt's best -known works are The Presentation #"»« //.^ 
Temple^ at The Hague; a portrait of a young man in t hf 
royal collection at Windsor ; the portrait of Coppenol nt ."^t. 
Petersburg; The Anatomical Lecture painted in 16C{-2, j4T 
The Hague ; The Night Watchy at Amsterdam, a proniiiu.iit 
example of his niaturer work, dated 1642; the portraits ^^f 
the Syndics, also at Amsterdam, dated 1661, whicn show < l, i^ 
later manner. He is supposed to have been paintiui*^ on 
The Betrothed Jewess^ Tiow in the Riiks Museum, Am^t«'r- 
dam, the year of his death, 1669. lie was burieil in t h«- 
Wester Kirk, Oct. 8 of that year. Of his engravinjr^ tho 
most fam()us are Jesus Christ Healing the Sick^ six iH»*r- 
traits of himself done between 1630 and 1654, Burf/fitp*n.sf, - 
Six, Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden^ Tfie I'^inf/ff 



i* Hevhfv 



■ n9%nffmfs'*i^^ 



54 



EENAISSANCE 



sculptor. In the same year Giotto was thirty-four years 
old, and had oainted the Arena chapel at PaAua and the 
chapel of the Florence Bargello, in which works are still to 
be seen the plain evidences of a combined realism and skill 
— a desire to think for himself, and a power to express 
thoughts in painting — which are at the bottom of later prog- 
ress in painting. These early dates show that the Kenais- 
sance in fine art was well under way before any influence 
from the humanists or the restorers of classical learning had 
reached the painters and the sculptors. Those artists were 
thinking out for themselves the great question why the an- 
tique sarcophagi and the Gnpco-lloman engraved gems 
showed an art so much more leanied and complete than 
theirs. Before Petrarch died, leaving the literary and phil- 
osophic Renaissance alive and in progress, if not vet as- 
sured, Andrea Pisano had completed the present south doors 
of the baptistery at Florence, Balduccio had put up his 
three or four important tombs at Milan, and Orcagna had 
adorned the Or San Alichele at Florence with his marvelous 
work, ahead of its time and reaching on towaixl another cen- 
tury, the shrine of the Madonna. Then indeed there seemed 
to come a pause, and it is hard to understand why so little 
important art was produced between 1860 and the year 1420 
or thereabouts, when Giacomo della (juercia and Lorenzo 
Ghiberti had come to the front, and Donatello was a prom- 
ising young sculptor — when, in painting, Fra Angelico and 
Gentile da Fabnano were gradually leaving missal books 
and bridal chests for wall-pictures, and the great innovator 
Masaccio was fairly at work. The year 1425 may be taken 
as a good date for the triumphant establishment of the new 
wisdom and power in fine art. Then Masaccio^s frescoes in 
the Brancacci chapel at Florence were well advanced. Then 
Oiacomo della yuercia, who had completed the lovely re- 
cumbent figure of Ilaria del Carretto a year or two before, 
began his sculptured work at San Petronio at Bologna — 
sculptures associated with a mediipval-seeming doorway, 
but as far as need be from mediaeval in character : indeed 
modern in conception and in modeling. Then, too, Lorenzo 
Ghiberti, who had just completed the present north doors 
of the Florence baptistery, nad begun the more elaborate 
east doors — not necessarily superior to the earlier ones in 
real merit, but immensely in ailvance of them and of other 
previous sculpture in power over material, and in boldness 
and grasp of subject. And at that time Donatello, whose 
work is often less easy to date, ha<i certainly completed the 
noble statues of the exterior of Or San Michele at Florence, 
the St. Peter and St. Mark, and the admirable St. George. 
Little had the Renaissance artists learned from the classical 
scholars up to this time, and yet mcxiern sculpture and 
modern painting were begun, their possibilities) shown, and 
their future course well ifidicated. 

The Fully developed HeiMismnee. — The year 1475 is the 
central point in the century of greatest artistic achievement 
of the Italian Renaissance, excluding the Venetian paintei-s. 
The one noticeable effect of the revival of letters ujjon fine 
art, the suggestion of subjects from classical antirpiit y, was 
then as noticeable as it was to l)ecome. This is not of great 
irajwrtance, for the great artists of that time, as of all times, 
cared little what stories their work was to tell to non-artistic 
beholders, and painted an allegorv of the Garden of Cupid 
as cheerfully as a martyrdom. The important thing is the 
extraordinary variety of artistic j)ower possessed by the 
men who were then at the head of the fine-art movement. 
In Florence Fra Filipf>o Lippi had been <lead seven years, 
leaving behind him a large numl)er of somewhat prosaic but 
vigorous and animated pictures. Berozzo (Jozzoli was about 
fifty years old, and had {tainted his remarkable frescoi's in 
the Pisan Campo Santo. S*indro Botticelli was twenty- 
eight years old ; he had painted those wonderful roun<i Ma- 
donna picturt»s which are now seen in the l^ouvre and the 
Uffizi ; and either had painted or was on the j)oint of under- 
taking that Triumph of Spring or Flora^ the famous al- 
legorical j)icture of the Florence Academy of Arts. The 
great Ghirlandajo was of about the same a^e. and had not 
quite reached his mature power. The two brothers Polla- 
juolo were at the hei^'ht of their joint career. Luca della 
liobbia had done all his best work, lK)th in marble and in 
glazed terra-cot t a, and was an old man. Mino da Fiesole 
bad finished the tomb and the altar of Fies<ile cathedral 
and the noble com i>osit ions of the Florence Badia. Veroc- 
chio, painter and s<.'ulptor, forty years old, was at work upon 
the David of the Florence Xaticmal Museum. His great 
pupil, licrmanlo da Vinci, was twenty-three years old and 
at work, but destined to so long a career that he belongs 



rather to a later epoch than this. In the north, where U 
nardo was to labor the most, Mantegna was fortv-tivc ) 
old, and had finished his work at the Eremitani at 1V| 
and the castle at Mantua, besides a host of separate pi( tiu 
and his jirincipal engravings. Of the Venetian j)hii.;:4 
even, later to reach greatness and destined to hold it i< i 
er, the founder of the school, Giovanni Bellini, wh> 
years old. He had painted the splendid altarpiece «•! t 
Church of SS. Giovanni e Paolo. Venice, which wai> bunu 1 
1867, and the gigantic altarpiece at Pesaro, which btiii 
mains, and had perhaps i-eache<l his greatest Mreii 
though he was to retain it long. These pictures are wi-ri 
to rank with those of Central Italy ; it w not becauv i 
unmatched achievements of the later Venetians surj 
them that they should be depreciated. The Renais>Hii(f;( 
fine art in its purest and loveliest form is in the bt-st \i 
tures of Giovanni Bellini. Still more powerful work \(ti>i< 
come than any of these mid-Renaissance paintinp^ 4 
sculptures could offer — more powerful, but witn not a grt;t| 
charm. 

The Late Ifenaissance. — Italian writers are extnii 
careful to mark the close as well as the beginning of t; 
Bina^tcimento or Risorgimenio, Jilost of them end li 
e])och with the early years of the sixteenth century, t 
Cinque Cento, and call the art of that century the ('/«• 
eisnw, because it is all, but especiallv architecture, slroi.j 
influenced by the study of ancient koman reniain>, or t 
art of the Decadenza, as having lost the charm of spont.iii^ 
ity and unaffected grace, or simply the art of the < ir^ 
Cento, The pre-Raimaelites had somewhat the sanie f«-t-:iii 
when they t<x>k RaphaePs work in Rome (1508 and foIl««ii]{ 
years) as the tuming-|x)int, with growth before, and ilm^ 
after. Michelangelo s long career begins with oureenm 
year 1475, lasts through the s])lendid years of highe-t .ifi 
purest achievement in Central Italy, anci outlasts ever}tli:i | 
that wa« precious and hofieful in Italian art anywhere ;; 
of Venice. 

By 1525 the artists who were great in 1475 were all iL-.i 
but this half century was filled with the labors and with '. 
fame of most of the men name<l under the earlier date, ni I 
iKJsides them, of the following: Filippino Lippi. who ili-i 
in 1505, Fra Bartolomeo, who died in 1517, and Lon-nz- i 
Cre<li — all three men of the Florentine Henaissance pri-p • 
Andrea del Sarto, modestly keeping up the older tnuliti. » 
except when the overwheliiiing force oi scune one of his ( . -i 
te m I )oraries swayed him, capableof anything, but oriK^inuI -ri 
in that he gave to his canvases an unwonted glow of to. i 
Among the Umbrians and so-called Roman sch<H)L there w . : 
Perugino. who hail died in 1524, and Francia (KailHiln 
who had died in 1517 — great workmen, whose art !.»• mmi ■ 
what lost in the splendor of Raphael's glory ; RapliHei. \» ■ 
had died in 1520, having made the dee))est mark u(>4>n ; 
artistic thought of his time, and gaintnl a celebrit}- hmi: 
recognition far beyond what other artists had reached ; m 
Luca Signorelli, of Venice and Central Italy, most |K>wi-n' 
and aceomplished of all the men who misseil supreme nvx a 
ness; finally (still excepting the great Venetians), Miiri. 
ungelo in 1525 hail painted the Sistine vault and bud mm: ; 
tured the Mones^ the Florence JMetd, the bronze J^pe Juit>. 
and the ChriM of Sta. Maria sopra Minerva. 

After 1525 decay was rapiu. Pont(»rmo and Hitl* '! 
Ghirlandajo, with such nuH!hanicians as Vasari and Vt-nu^t 
were in the field, and in the north Bernardo Luini \\j 
still alive and painting. Andrea Sansovino, be.>t kiitw 
by the splendid tombs in Sta. Maria del Popolo at K. n. 
was still alive in 1525, but near his end. Jacono Sj4nM.\ a 
rather architii-t than sculptor, had still the uivitie gin . 
form in sculpture. Michelangelo was still to comph-t*- i! 
Medici tombs at San Lorenzo, lienedettoda Rovezz^mi' t.. 
taken his splendi<l talent to England ; and both there and 
Florence has left l>eautiful worlc lK?hind him. 

The Venetian Painters, — In 1525 Giorgione wa^s d» . 
Titian was nearly fifty years old and in the fullness of i, 
strength. Of the other giants Tintoi-etto was a lH»y, ;i) 
Paolo Veronese unborn ; but in Venice the conditions wl.- 
obtained elsewhere were of no force. Venice was ban 11 \ j 
Italian city, but a little world by itself, poiscil iKilween • 
East and the West. Decay did not set in there till nn.' 
later than in the center. See the notice^s of the paint, 
named al)ove ; also Bellini and Tikfolo. 

In other Countries. — The descriptive term Renai^va]. 
hardly applies to the work of the painters and 8cnl|*'< 
elsewhere than in Italy. The art work in Franco, sp.n; 
Belgium, Germany, Holland, and England is rather a n 



56 



RENAISSANCE 



Italy, partly because of war and political decline, but partly 
also because of the substitution of a style of architecture 
made up of rules and fixed measurements for the fresh in- 
spiration of the earlier time. Thus in the year 1535 the 
full classical style is embodied in perhaps its loveliest cre- 
ation, the Library of St. Mark in Venice, and the Renais- 
sance makes its farewell in the front of the Scuola di San 
Rocco. In that same year Francis I. was surrounded by 
his Italian and French artists and artisans, and thev were 
still feeling their wav with hesitating steps. The Ch&teau 
of Chambord was well advanced but far from completion, 
and so with Francis's own wine of the Chateau of Blois, but 
the new Louvre had not been oegun. In Germany and in 
England the introduction of classical details had hardly 
begun, and not the least impression had been made upon 
the general character of the over-picturesque, gabled, and 
turreted character of the continental art, or of the prosaic 
Tudor style of England. 

The full charm of the Renaissance continued in France 
through the reigns of Francis I. and Henry II., 1515-59. 
Then with the religious wars of succeeding reigns compara- 
tively little was done. The style of Henry IV. succeeds, 
and the French writers are careful not to include that epoch 
in the Renaissance. If, however, we take the years 1600- 
10 as the reign, which it is, for our purpose, we find still 
the most marked difference in the character of the build- 
ings in Italy and in the north. The very ** orders," as un- 
derstood by Henry's architects in Paris, are plastic, modified 
almost at will ; and in Germany, where Ionic or Corinthian 
columns are seen at all, they are generally small colonnettes, 
decorating the bold bay windows and stepped gables of a 
style as picturesque and diversified as that of the Middle 
Ages. Meantime, in Italy, St. Peter^s was being pushed to- 
ward completion ; in fact, the great colonnade of the front 
was nearly complete in 1610. Palladio, chief of all clas- 
sicists, had died in 1580, and all his designs which remain 
to us had been completed as we have them before 1600. 
The reign of formality was complete in Italy for nearly a 
century before it had much hold upon the north. 

Buildings in the true classical spirit were built under 
Louis XIII., such as the wing of Gaston of Orleans at the 
Chateau of Blois. It was not, however, until the middle of 
the seventeenth century that the grandiose and formal style 
of Louis XIV. finally replaced the French Renaissance. 
The colonnade of the Louvre was begun in 1664. Before 
that time the country chateaux and the buildings in provin- 
cial cities kept much of the movement and variety of the 
sixteenth century. The colonnade of the Louvre, the 
Church of the Invalides, with its noble dome, and the colossal 
Chateau of Versailles, in which everything, even the chapel, 
was of a grandiose, pseudo-Roman type, finished the strug- 
gle. From that time the Roman style prevailed, even in 
Eastern Germany and in England. St. Paul's in London 
was begun in its present form about 1675. 

The architectural style of the seventeenth century toward 
its close certainly sins'on the side of coldness and formality. 
A singular result of this was the Barocco style which was 
so soon to follow — perhaps a natural and inevitable reac- 
tion. Germany, whose princes had tried to follow Louis 
XIV. and to build small imitations of Versailles, found the 
chilly grandeur of that style insupportable, and eagerly 
t(x>k up the novel variety and play of fancy, however insub- 
ordinate. The Zwinger" Palace at Dresden is one of the 
earlier instances of this new taste ; but that seems to have 
been thought extravagant. So fantastic a style in cut stone 
and out-of-doors was too much even for that period of 
doubtful tAste. A better type, and one of the best instances 
of the developed Barocco style, is the Schloss of BrQhl, 
near Bonn on the Rhine, begun about 1725. Hero the ex- 
terior is stately and grave, with a " colossal order " of pilas- 
ters — that is, an order occupying the whole height of the 
main wall and including several stories. The smaller de- 
tails indeed may be rather riotous, and the roof intemperate 
in curvature, but the full fancy of the designers is kept for 
the interior, where scroU-workand rocaille flourish in their 
fullest development. The Schloss at Bruchsal. near Heidel- 
berg, is another such building, built about 1741, while the 
BrQhl building was still incomplete. To find in France in- 
stances so characteristic of the Bartx?co style, it seems neces- 
sary to examine, for interiors, the Hotel de Soubise (now 
the Archives Nationalcs) and the Hotel do Toulouse (now 
the Bank of Franco). Something of the original exterior 
remains also in these buildings, but perhaps the great bar- 
rack called still the ^lilitary School, fronting on the Champ 



de Mars, and the Chateau of Corapiegne, N. E. of Paris, arc* 
the best exteriors of the time. These are both the work of 
an architect of exceptional ability and good taste, Jaquu< 
Ange Gabriel (1699-1782). It is to be noticed that in such 
an epoch of careful reference to authority and submission to 
generally admitted rules stately buildings will be erected iii 
the spirit of a previous epoch in spite of a more corrupt taste 
prevailing in minor arts. Thus m England the Cambridire 
University senate house, built in 1730, and the RatclitTe 
Library at Oxford a little later, each by James Gibbs (1674— 
1754), are wholly admirable as pieces of design in a style 
which admits of but little originality. They are worthy' t*> 
be compared, as to their exterior, with the French buildings 
of Gabriel, above named. It is in the interior fittings that 
the style alternates between unrestrained license and col* I 
monotony. In the minor buildings of the time the saiii*^ 
bad influence is at work, the only architectural fcatun* 
recognized as noble being the colonnade or the order ttf 
pilasters, with their high plain basement beneath. Build- 
ings which could not have these costly decorations were left 
with flat walls and square openings* evenly spaced. Th#* 
often complained of monotony of Baker Street and Recent 
Street in London came, not from the Renaissance pro|K»r» 
but from its unhappy successor, the grandiose Roman re- 
vival, begun in Italy in the seventeenth century. 

Some attempt at a reaction was made under Louis XVI. 
Jaques Germain Soufflot (1714 or 1709-«0) built the Chii re h 
of St. Genevieve, or Pantheon, all but the cupola. Pierrtr 
Rousseau (b. 1750) built in 17S6, for a private residence, t!ie 
Hotel of the Legion of Honor on the (^uai d'Orsay. In 
these and in other structures of tlie time an originality of 
conception is shown foreign to the previous epoch of a hun- 
dred years or more. As under Louis XVI. a new spirit i»f 
refined and delicate design is seen in furniture and orna- 
ment, so in the most important buildings of the time were 
the evidences of perhaps a new Renaissance, a return x<> 
reason and thought as a substitute for obedience to author- 
ity. The great French Revolution put an end to this. 

Modem Architecture. — In all the previous sketch it hiis 
been possible to speak of the style prevalent at any given 
time as universally and in all cases the same. At do time 
does any one builder deviate from the style used by others 
except as he makes slight modifications, which, at once 
adopted by others, who in their turn add and alter a litt ie 
at a time, end in the slow development of the style of the 
succeeding epoch. In the present era, beginning with t he 
end of the Napoleonic wars in 1815, we face a wholly new- 
condition of things, a condition which had never exi>te<l 
before in all history. From 1815 until 1894 architects have 
built classical buildings with huge rows of columns, as their 
fathers or grandfathers had done; Renaissance biiildin^^H 
with delicate details like those of the fifteenth or sixteen t h 
century; Gothic buildings copied from those of the thir- 
teenth or of the fifteenth century; Romanesnue biiiUIin«rs 
studied after models of the eleventh or twelfth century ; 
buildings supposed to l)e Greek, and copied from the Parthe- 
non ; and even Egyptian or Moorish attempts at novelty. 1 1 
is important to understand how completely this chaos of 
styles, existing in the absence of any reigning style, difft^n* 
from all previous experience. Probably no architect ur«\ I 
progress can be made under these conditions. Larger nn^i 
more elegant buildings may be built, and now and then a. 
pleasing result may follow in the way of an archRH>loj^i*«tl 
study of some ancient structure or group of structures^ but 
that can not be the beginning of a fine art of architecture. 

BiBLiooRAPHY. — There are few works on this subject in 
English. Fergusson's History of Modem Arehitfcturf^ i^ 
of very little value in this resjiect. Walter Pater's T'h^ 
Renaisaatiee (3d ed. 1888, a series* of essays) is very valuable 
for its truthful insight, and is a su^^estive book. J. a. 
Symonds's Renaissance in Italy (vol. lii.) is devote<l to th«* 
fine arts and gives much general information, but the fKiint 
of view is that of a literary man having little sense of the* 
true nature of the graphic and plastic arts. The work cT 
Crowe and Cavalcaselle on painting in Italy (9 vols., iimlfr 
different titles), is wholly confined to the i»eriotl of th«- 
Renaissance, although not so announced. This is true al's4, 
of Cliarles Perkin's Tuscan Sculptors and Italian Sculfttt^n*^ 
and his smaller and comprehensive work, Hintorical I/tMntfl 
book of Italian Sculpture; but these works do not grive the 
results of late researches, and their statements as to uiiii«>r 
matters of fact are not always trustworthy. The s^nie au- 
thor wrote a sketch of Sejmlchral Monuments in Italt/ f«»r j^ 
publication of the Arundel Society. 3Iark Pattisoii's 77, ,► 



58 



RENNET 



RENT 



IHe-et-Viiaine, France ; at the confluence of the I He and 
Vilaine, 234 miles W, S. W. of Paris (see map of France, 
ref. 4-C-). It consists of two parts — an upper or new town 
of an elegant and moilem appearance, and a lower or old 
I tart, mostly built of wood, with narrow and winding streets ; 
these are connected hj four bridges. Among the public 
buildings are the cathedral (Italian), completed in 1844; 
Notre Dame, with a dome surmounted by an image of the 
Virgin; the university (1855), with a picture gallery; the 
hotel de ville, with a public library ; and the Palace of Jus- 
tice (1618-54). It has manufactures of sailcloth, linen, lace, 
and embroideries, and an active trade in honey, wax, but- 
ter, and poultry. Pop. (1891) 69,232. 
Rennet: See Cheese {Coagulating the Curd), 

Rennie, Sir Johk, F. R. S. : engineer: b. in London, Aug. 
30, 1794. His father, a distinguished civil engineer (1761- 
1821), early introduced him to that profession as assistant 
in the construction of Southwark and Waterloo bridges. 
In 1821 he succeeded his father as engineer to the admiral- 
ty. The new London bridge was completed by him, from 
designs of his father, in l^Sl, when he was knighted. The 
important works of Sheerness dockyard, Ramsgate harbor, 
ana Plymouth breakwater, commenced by his father, were 
completed bv him, as well as the gi*eat svstem of drainage 
and land reclamation in Lincolnshire. Of the more impor- 
tant works designed and executed by himself are the White- 
haven and the Cardiff docks. With his brother George 
(1791-1866) the machinery for the mints of Bombay, Cal- 
cutta, and Mexico was designed and erected; also the 
Royal Clarence victuaiing-yard at Plymouth. Sir John was 
considered the highest authority on all subjects connected 
with hydraulic engineering, harfrars, canals, irrigation, stor- 
age of water, and the manairement of rivers. He was presi- 
dent of the Institution of Civil Engineers 1845-49; author 
of The Theory^ Formation^ and Contttniction of British 
atul Foreign Harbors^ and many valuable professional 
papers. D. Sept. 3, 1874. 

Reno : city ; capital of Washoe co., Nev. ; on the Truckee 
river, and the Nev., Cal. and Or., the S. Pac., and the Vir- 
ginia and Truckee railways; 11 miles E. of the base of the 
Sierra Nevada Mountains, and 51 miles N. W. of Virginia 
City (for location, see map of Nevada, ref. 5-E). It is in an 
agricultural and mining region, and has large trade inter- 
ests. The city contains the State University of Nevatia, the 
State prison, the Bishop Whitaker School for Girls (Protes- 
tant Episcopal, opene<l in 1876), a high school, 2 libraries 
(State t niversitv and Whitaker Hall), a national bank with 
capital of 4;2(X),000, a State bank with capital of |;150.000, 
and 2 daily, a semi-monthly, and 2 weekly newspapers. Pop. 
(1880) 1,3()2 ; (1890) 3.563. 

Reno, Jesse Lee: soldier; b. at Wheeling, West Va., 
June 20, 1823; graduated from the U. S. Military Aca<lemy, 
and entered the army as brevet second lieutenant of ord- 
nance July, 1846; captain 1860. In the war with Mexico he 
was engaged in the siege of Vera Cruz and in the battles of 
Cerro Gordo, Contreras, Churubusco, and Chapultepec, and 
breveted first lieutenant and captain for gallantry ; subse- 
uently served on duty with his corps, l)eing in command of 
It. Vernon Arsenal, Alabama, at the time of its capture Jan., 
1861 ; apiK)inte(l brigadier-general of volunteers in Nov., 

1861, he accompanied Burnside's expeditiim to North Caro- 
lina; was promoted to be major-general of volunteers July, 

1862, and in August assigned to the command of the Ninth 
Armv-corf>s, which he le<l in the second battle of Bull Run 
and at Chantilly, Aug. 29-Sept. 1. At the battle of South 
Mountain, while at the head of his command, he was killed 
Sept. 14, 1862. Revised by James Mercub. 

Renonf, r«-noof , ^mile: genre, marine, and landscape 
paint<»r ; b. in Paris, June 23, 1845; pupil of Carolus Duran, 
of Boulanger, and of liefebvre; second-class medal. Salon, 
1KS(); first -chvw, Paris ?]xposition, 1SH9; first-class, Munich 
KxhTiiitiou,.lHH:J; Legion of Honor 1K89. He spent several 
years in the V. S., and had a studio in New York for the 
greater part of the time. A large picture by him of the 
East river bridge, taken from the Brooklyn side at sunset, 
was painted in New York in 1887-88. arid attracted much 
attention when exhibited there. His Helping Hand, a rep- 
resentative work, and one possessing many excellent quali- 
ties, is in the Corcoran Gallery, Washington. W. A. C. 

Renoaf, Peter Le Page : Egyf)tologist and Orientalist ; 
b. in the island of Guernsey in 1H24; stu<lied at Peinbroke 
College, Oxford ; became a member of the Roman Catholic 



I 



Church in 1842, and in 1855 was appointed Professor of An- 
cient History and Oriental Languages in the Catholic Uni- 
versity of Ireland at its first opening. While professor he v< us 
one of the editors of Atlantis and of The Home and Foreujn 
Review, From 1864 till 1885 he was an inspector of .scho^iiN, 
and from 1885 till 1892 Keeper of the Egyptian and Assy riHn 
antiquities in the British Museum. Since 1887 be has'ixi'n 
president of the Society of Biblical Archeology. liea^iiK^s 
some early works oh questions concerning the Roman ( hun h 
in England he wrote The Condemnation of Fope Honor ittn 
(1868), and The Case of Pope Honortus Jieconsidered with 
Reference to Recent Apologies (1869). The former work nut 
with strong ultramontane criticism, and was placed on t he 
Index. His principal Egyptological works are as follows -. 
I^^otes on some Negative Particles of the Egyptian Languagf 
(1862); A Prayer from the Egyptian Ritual, TramUai'td 
from the Hieroglyphic Text (1862); Sir O, C, Lewis on //if 
Decipherment and Interpretation of Dead Languages (l^(>i). 
occasioned by an attack upon ChampoUion and othen^; 
Miscellaneous Aoteson Egyptian Philology (1866); ^^ofe *»n 
Egyptian Prepositions (1874); An Elementary Manual of 
the Egyptiati Language (1875); Lectures oti the Origin and 
Growth of Religion, as Illustrated by the Religion of An- 
cient Egypt (llibbert lectures, 1879): and The Egyptian 
Book of the Dead: Translation a fid Commentary, first 
printed in the Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archae- 
ology (Mar., 1892, ff.), and afterward sejiarately (I>on<lon. 
1893, ff.). He edited for the trustees of the British Must*uin 
Ancient Egyptian Texts from the Coffin of Amamu (lfc^6h 
and Facsimile of the Papyrus of Ani, with an intro<Iucti<>ii 
to the contents of the Book of the Dead (1890). lie alsc. 
contribute<l to the Chronicle, 77ie North British Herteir, 
The Academy, and the Aegyptische Zeitschrift, 

Charles R. Gillett. 

Reno^TO: Iwrougji (founded in 1862, incorporated in 
1866); Clinton co.. Pa.; on the west branch of the Sus<|ue- 
hanna river, and on the Phila. and Erie division of the IVnn. 
Railroad; 28 miles N, W. of Lock Haven, the couiity-M*Ht 
(for location, see map of Pennsylvania, ref. ^E). It 'v^a.<4 
founded by the Philadelphia and Erie Railroad Company, 
which established here a large foundry and extensive U til- 
er-works and car and repair shops. It is in an oval-sha[>*<l 
valley with mountain-sides over l.OOO feet high, and is t In- 
center of a great tract of pine forest. The princijial iiidu<- 
tries are coal-mining and luml)ering. The l)orougn con tu i 1 1 ^ 
7 churches, 14 public and 5 parochial schools, a rnilwav 
Y. M. C. A., national bank witn capital of $50,000, private 
bank, and a daily and 2 weekly newspapers, and is a |M)pii Inr 
summer and autumn resort for tourists and sjK)rtsmen- 1 N .i ». 
(1880) 3,708 ; (1890) 4,154. P^ditor of "Evening News/* 

Rensselaer, ren'se-lfr : town ; capital of Jasper co., Iml. ; 
on the Irocjuois river, and the Louis., New Albany and C'ln. 
Railway; 46 miles N. W. of Logansport, 72 miles S. K. ot 
Chicago (for location, see map of Indiana, ref. 8-<.'). It is in 
an agricultural, dairying, ana stock-raising repon; contmn^ 
a public high s<^'hool, St. Joseph's Indian Normal S<-|!«m.I 
(Roman Catholic), a State bant with capital of t^80.(MH). :\ 
private banks, and 3 weekly newspapers, and has manufac- 
tories of flour and cigars. Pop. (1880) 968 ; (1890) 1,455. 

Rent [from O. Fr. rente : Ital. rendita : Span, renfn -- 
Lat. ^rendita, re-formed on analogy of vendita{vendere) f n »im 
red'dita (sc. peeunia\ money paid, perf. partic. of rrd r/» rr, 
pav back]: a payment for the use or land. In feudal t inn-^ 
thfs payment was made in labor. Toward the closi* of ih>> 
Middle Ages labor rents were generally commuted, citlior 
for a share of the pro<luce (see Metayee) or for a fixed ^i,ni 
of money per vear. For some centuries these money rt nj^ 
were chiefly Axed by custom; in modem times they iir,> 
usually fixed by competition. Kent, as ordinarily rtH'k*« ^in « 1. 
involves compensation for the improvements as well as f,,r 
the laud. If we deduct interest on these improvements, vi». 
have the amount of rent in its economic sense. Thus if .i 
man invests $10,000 in improving a piece of land, and t»i,n 
rents the proi)erty for f 1,200 a year, part of this f:i/2l»«> i^ 
due not to tlie land, but to the capital invested; aiid v^,> 
must deduct something like $500 in order to find tJie «i«.- 
nomic rent. Kent is partly due to pnxluctiveness, esiH.Hi:i;- 
ly in the case of mines and water-power, but chiefly to .i-l- 
vantages of location. Improvetl means of traDS|H>rtat :«'tt. 
by lessening the effect of differences in location, tend l«» r*-- 
dlice rent — witness the fall in agricultural rents in iin ji* 
Britain, due to the fiujt that the lower trans{K>rtatiiin m». ^ 
enable the farmers of other countries to compete i»n nti-rc 



60 



REPORTS, LAW 



REPRESENTATION 



and their delivery into his own possession. The plaintiff 
when successful, if the goods have remained in the defend- 
ant's custody, recovers their possession, or in default thereof 
their value (assessed by the jurv), together with damages for 
the unlawful detention or taking. If he has taken them 
into his own custody his title is confirmed, and he recovers 
the damages alone, while a judgment in such case for the 
defendant restores the possession, or the value, and lays the 
foundation for a suit for damages hj him against the plain- 
tiff. The title to the goods is not tried unless it is necessary 
to the decision of the (][uestion as to who has the right of 
possession, nor can the title to the land be directly brought 
into question. Sir Henry Maine, in his Early History ofln- 
siitutiona, traces the origin of this remedy to the right of a 
tenant to recover goods unlawfully distrained by his landlord 
— ^a right that can be traced among the Saxons prior to the 
Conquest, and in some of the primitive Germanic codes. 
See Wells's Laie of Replevin as administered in the Courts 
of the United States and England, and Sedgwick on the 
Measure of Damages, F. Stueoes Allen. 

Reports, Law : See Law Reports. 

Reposia'nns : a Latin poet, perhaps of the early fifth cen- 
tury, although commonly assigned to the reigu of Diocletian. 
(See Eskuche, Jiheinisc/ies Museum, 45, 256.) His hexameter 
poem De concuhitu Martis et Veneris may be found in 
Baehrens's Foet, Lat, Miiwres, vol. iv., p. 348. M. W. 

ReponsB^, r«-pt)b'sa' [Fr., liter., thrust back, perf. partic. 
of repoxisser ; re-, back -f pousser, push < Lat^ pulsare] : a 
French term for the art of producing reliefs, and even round- 
ed forms, in metal by beating thin plates from behind (Germ. 
das treiben ; Eng. embossing). The metals employed are 
those that by their malleability lend themselves most easily 
to the work — gold and silver, brass, copper, tin, and lead. 
This is a very ancient art ; the Egyptians, Cypriotes, and 
Etruscans practiced it, and specimens of their skill in the 
art are preserved. In the Middle Ages it was widely em- 
ployed both in Europe and in the East, and it has continued 
m use down to our own times. Some splendid pieces of re- 
poussd work were produced in Italy in the fifteenth century. 
These were chiefiy for the decoration of altars and shrines 
and for use in the ceremonies of the Church. The art was 
in a flourishing state in Europe in the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries, but the design was artistically inferior 
to that of an earlier time. The art then fell into disuse for 
a time, but it has shared in the general revival of the arts, 
and is much in fashion. In Italy, France, Great Britain, 
and the IT. S. much repousse work is now produced, and, 
so far as mechanical excellence is concerned, American 
smiths are not behind the rest of the world. The results 
produced by this process are superficially similar to those 
attained by casting, but the effects are more artistic and 
free, and in the best work, whether of semi-barbarous or of 
civilized peoples, there is more individuality expressed than 
any casting could give. In the old repousse work, the 
coarse as well as the fine, the relief is distinguished by soft- 
ness of outline and the design has a look of spontaneitv. 
The workman has used his toK^ls as if they were the pencils 
of a painter or the dab-sticks of a modeler in clav. In the 
C'astellani collection of antique jewelry exhibited at Phila- 
delphia in 1876 were specimens of Etruscan repousse work 
which, though small in size and minute in execution, had 
all the largeness of antique sculpture. These were extraor- 
dinary pieces, but much of the Japanese, Indian, Arabic, 
Persian, and Moorish work of modern times has the same 
quality, though more rudely manifested. The repousse 
work of modern French, British, and American smiths is 
chiefly applied to gold and silver, and is distinguished by 
great sharpness and decision of line, so that the work is 
scarcely to be told from casting. See Metal-work. 

Representation : in the political sense of the term, the 
method of transmitting the will of the people into law or ac- 
tion by means of a few persons chosen oy the people. 

In the ancient city democracies the people made their own 
laws. When different states took part in government, as in 
the Achaean League, any citizen had, as a general rule, the 
right to appear, and representatives in the modern sense 
were nut chosen, though of course the persons present from 
any state had authority to bind their constituents. 

There seem to have been, however, certain instances of 
real representation in ancient times, as in provincial councils 
summoned by Augustus and in city leagues in Asia Minor. 
From very early times the Church employed the principle, 
and probably this had influence in determining its use among 



western nations. It first came into general political ii>e 
among the Germanic nations, and has had its fullest devel- 
opment in Great Britain and the U. S. Representative iio> 
mocracy, the system of government that relies solely u|M»n 
representation, as Bluntschli says, developed in the Nortli 
American colonies and the U. S., where the causes of iu 
development are to be found especially in the character of 
the people and in the extent of the territory that necf>Ni- 
tated representation if free government were to exist. Thi> 
representative system, however, is found fully devfloj)e«l 
in nearly all civilized modem states, whether republics as 
France and Switzerland, or monarchies, as Germany, Austria, 
Italy. In the monarchies usuallv some check is placed u{Min 
the representative bodv by an hereditary or appointed up- 
per house, as in Great Britain and Germany, ana sometini<'> 
the monarch even is able to exert much power in this direi-- 
tion. See Legislatures and Law-making, Methods op. 

Nature of Constituencies. — Generally speaking, in the 
U. S., in Prance, in the German empire, and in some other 
countries, the constituencies are divided territorially, eac-h 
representative being voted for by all classes of voters r€»>i- 
dent in his district. A system of class constituencies is in 
vogue, however, in some countries; for the classification of 
electors in Prussia, see Legislatures (Compositiofi), In 
local representative bodies in Austria members are t'lof^tcd 
by the great landed estates, by the most highly taxed indus- 
tries and trades, by the towns and markets, bv the rural com- 
munes, by boards of commerce, or trade-guilds. Somewhat 
similar constituencies are found in rural local government 
in Prussia. Even in England constituencies have been i^> 
divided as to separate cities from the rural districts, and 
economic conditions have divided constituencies in pnicti<M* 
even more accuratelv than that. 

Relation of the Representative to his Constituency. — <">f 
grave import, both theoretically and practically, is the qtio?- 
tion whether a representative is to act merely as the mouth- 
piece of his constituency, blindly preferring its intpn»>l a< 
its members see that interest, or whether he is to act witii 
independent judgment, preferring the interests of the whol»» 
country to that of his constituency in case of conflict. M««st 
writers adopt the latter theory as the right one from t Uv 
standpoint of political science. In practice, however, repre- 
sentatives as a rule wish a re-election; and in con8eqiu>n«-»' 
the expressed or understood wishes of their const ituenci**^ 
are likely to determine their votes. Indeed, some reprfsenia- 
tives have openly confessed that they were voting contrary 
to their own opinion of what was best for the country- in <h'f- 
erence to the wishes of their constituencies. This is a(>t t«> 
be of tener the case when the member represents a certain 
economic or social class than when hisconstituencv indud*-^ 
all voters within a certain geographical district. If in p'li- 
eral, however, the constituency determines the vote. 1 1 it- 
special advantage of the representative system — acticm hy 
traine<l men after careful detiate and consideration — wtMilTl 
be lost, and the system might as well be abolished and tin- 
compulsory referendum introduced instead. On the <>th«r 
hand, it may be argued that the people's interests will In- 
best guarded if the people instruct the representatives li< >w 
to vot«, as each penwrn cares most for nis own intort-it --. 
Nevertheless, the desire for re-election will usually give t li«» 
representative sufficient interest in conforming to the wish< ^ 
of his constituents. The superior educational effect uf^in 
the constituencies of carefully deliberating upon siKtit-t' 
measures so as either to vot« themselves or to instruct th<M r 
representative, instead of simply making a choice botw«^«Mi 
two or three candidates, can not be doubted, but is prol>al>ly 
too small to outweigh the disadvantages mentioned. 

Majority vermis Minoritu or Proportional Representati\»n 
— In most countries members of representative bodies ntM 
elected each in a single territorial aistrict, or when eltH-t*-*' 
in larger districts, as earlier in France by the serutin de li^/r 
all members of each party are put on the same ticket, so t h ji 
the majority of voters are likely to secure all the represent ?% 
tives and toleave the minority unrepresented. For exam i » . . 
in 1892, the Congressional vote of Iowa stood as follows : i i 
publican, 210,215 ; Democratic, 201,923; Prohibition, 6,(>4 i-j 
People's, 13,6:^3. These votes elected ten Republicans n i 
one Democrat, whereas a fair division, according to the i-v^ 
tive strength of the parties, would have elected six Repu i • 
cans and five Democrats. liikewise, in Kentuckv, in 1 ^' » 
122,308 Republican votes, 170,3o9 Democratic, 1,559 Pnd . . , 
tion, and 2ii,735 People's elected one Republican an«i • 
Democrats, instead oi four Republicans and six I>em<««'^ i 
as would have been just. In Maine, 1894, with 65,6:ir l^ 



62 



REPRODUCTION 



in the bulblets in the axils of the leaves of some lilies, and 
in the inflorescences of some onions, the runners of straw- 
berries, the trailing runner-like steins of buffalo-grass, the 
tubers of many plants, as the potato, and perhaps the spon- 
taneously deciduous twigs of cotton woods and some willows. 
In all these cases the essential feature is the separation from 
the parent plant of one or more living cells, wnich continue 
to grow, eventually producing a plant like the parent. We 
go but a step further when we purposely cut on portions of 
plants, which are then grown as cuttings by being placed 
in moist earth. Even the familiar operations of grafting and 
budding are essentially those of asexual reproduction (Figs. 
1 and 2). 



cases the fusion appears to involve the whole of each cell, 
in the higher plants it is confined to the nuclei. 

Upon a close examination of sexual reproduction it 
is found that 
in the classes 
C htorophyc-ecB 
and PkcRophy- 
cecB the two 
uniting cells 
may be alike in 
size and other 
obvious char- 
acters (isoga- 





Fio. 1.— Asexual reproduction : a. division of Glcrocapaa : b. formation of zoospores 
otClothrix; c, conldlA ot Podonphcera ; d, brood-masses of a moss ; e, bulblets 
of UJy. 



Fio. S.— Sexual reproduction (isoframous) : a. fu- 
sion of zo^^spores of Pondorina ; b, fmJun of 
cells of Me»ocai-pus (highly magnified). 



In marked contrast to the foregoing are the various modi- 
fications of the sexual reproductive process, in which the es- 
sential feature is the union of two cells in the formation of 
the first cell of the new plant. In the simplest cases two 
apparently similar cells fuse into one (Fig. 3), but as we 




Fio. 2.— A.sexual reproduction : n. bulbs In place of flowers in the on 
ing new plants by its '' runner '' ; c d, cuttings set in the ground 

pass to higher plants there is an increasing difference be- 
tween the cells concerned ; moreover, while in the simpler 



mous), or they may be unlike in size and otherwise quite 
different also (o^a mous). Thus all except the highest /Vr>- 
tococcoidecp, all of the Conjugates, all but the higher Sipho- 
nem and CofifervoidecB of the first-mentioned class, ati«l 
nearly all of the second class, are isogamous. In the family 
VolvocacecB (of the order Proiornr- 
coidea) some genera are isogamous, 
while othera are o5gamous. The 
families Vaucheriaceo?^ Saprohipn- 
ciceift and Peronosporacea (of tht* 
order Siph<yne€(i)^ and Sphtpropha- 
cerp, CylindrocapsaeefP, and ffiV/oe/r/- 
neacecp (of the order Confert^idnf), 
are oogamous. Among the Phtr-- 
ophyceie the FueoidetB alone arc 
o5gamous. In all classes above tho 
ChlorophyeecB and Phcfophycem 
o<)gamy is the invariable rule. 

As we pass from the lower plant.s 
to the higher there is an increasiDi;- 
complexity in the results of the cell- 
union. In the Chlorophyctcp an<l 
Ph<Pophyce(P the result is a sin;:lo 
egg-li]{e cell (odspore), which s<w hut 
or later develops into one or more 
new plants (Figs. 3 and 4). The 
plants of these two cla.«tses are htMico 
sometimes very properly called e^^ir- 
spore plants. In passing to the 
Coleochcetacem and Florxdetr vse 
find that in the former the single 
spore soon becomes invested with a 
cellular layer of protective tissue, 
and the sjwre it.<elf ut)on geniiinH- 
tion becomes several-celled, thux 
forming a simple kind of s|>on» fruii. 
•In the Fhn'ae(F the fertiliziHl ctll 
not only divides early, but each sei:- 
ment emits a branch whose end s<\::- 
ment becomes detached asas]H>iv. 
and in the meantime the whole has 
become invested by a layer of pro- 
tective tissue. In the Charapht/mr 
the growth of the protective tissue 
precetles fertilization, so that fn»in 
a protective device which only f<>/- 
loirs fertilization we have now the same device develoiiinc 
much earlier and serving as a protection to the unfertiliziti 



ion ; fe, strawberry produc 
e, graft set in a root. 



64 



REPUBLIC 



which varies considerably in form, usually has the bones 
distinct. Among the peculiarities separating these from 
other groups are the union of maxillary and preniaxillary 
bones with the skull, the ossification and more or less com- 
plete union of palatine and quadrate with the cranial bones, 
the presence of a single occipital condyle on the basioccipi- 
tal, and the distinctness of the bones (dentary, angulare, ar- 
ticulare, etc.) of the lower jaw. The quadrate bone, hj 
means of wliich the lower jaw is connecteid with the crani- 
um, is movable in some forms, firmly fixed in others. 

The appendicular skeleton varies with the development 
of the limbs. A shoulder-girdle is present in all except the 
footless forms, while the pelvic girdle occurs even in some 
of these. The limbs vary greatly in character. Usually 
present and fitted for running or walking, they are modi- 
fled into paddles in the ichthyosaurs and most Sauropter- 
ygii^ while in the Pterosauria the anterior limbs are modi- 
fied into organs of flight. In some lizards and all snakes 
tlie limbs are not developed, while in other lizards one 
(either) or both pairs are present. It is to be noted that in 
pythons and boas rudiments of the hind limbs exist. For 
the classification of Reptilia, see Herpetolooy. 

Besides the literature cited under Herpetology, see espe- 
cially Hoffmann, RepHlien^ }sx Bronn*s Classen und Ord- 
nunaen des Thierreich^s ; Leydig, Die in Deuischland le- 
benaen Arten dtr Saurier (1872); Rathke, Entwickelung 
der Natter (1839); Schildkrdien (1848); Crocodile (1866); 
Agassiz, EmbryoU of Turtle (1857) ; QUnther, Anatomy of 
Ilatteria, Phil. Trans. (1867). J. S. Kinqslby. 

Republic [from Ijat. resnub'lica, commonwealth ; res, af- 
fair +fem. of publieus, of the people, public, deriv. of po'jou- 
lus, people] : a political community in which the sovereign 
power is lodged in the whole body of the people or in a por- 
tion of them, and exercised through representatives or 
agents directly or indirectly elected by them for that pur- 
pose. It is called an aristocratic republic when the exer- 
cise of the soverei^ power is confined to a privileged class 
of whatever description, to the exclusion of all others ; a 
democratic republic when all classes of the people partici- 
pate in the exercise of that power alike. The purest form 
of the democratic republic exists where all the people peri- 
odically assemble in general meeting to make their own 
laws and to appoint their agents for the execution and en- 
forcement of those laws — a system which has been found 
practicable only in small or at least very compact commu- 
nities, while in larger states the sovereignty of the people 
can act only through the instrumentality of representation, 
atjpresent generally adopted. 

Of the republics of ancient Greece, Sparta had a strictly 
aristocratic government, while Athens might have been 
called a democratic republic but for the circumstance that 
a majority of its population were slaves, and as such ex- 
cluded from all political rights, at the time of its greatest 
prosperity the number of its free citizens being only 135,000, 
while that of the slaves rose to 365,000. The republic of 
Rome was, during the first centuries of its existence, aristo- 
cratic in its political organization, but in the course of time 
the patrician aristocracy found itself compelled to vield to 
the lower orders of the people, the plebs, access to the high 
offices of the government, which thereby acquired a more 
democratic character ; all the while, however, as in all re- 
publics of antiquity, a large part of thepopulation remained 
slaves and without political rights. The Italian republics 
which became the most flourishing and powerful commer- 
cial communities of the Middle Ages — notably Venice and 
Genoa — were strictly aristocratic; a number of patrician 
families, who chose from among themselves the head of 
the government, called the doge, enjoyed a monopoly of 
political power. The first important republic of the mod- 
em era, the Uniteti Netherlands — formed, after their sepa- 
ration from Spain, out of seven confe<lerate provinces (1580), 
and recognized by Spain as an independent republic (1609) 
— was of a more democratic tendency, as was also the re- 
public or ** Commonwealth" sprung from the English revo- 
lution, which, however, after an existence of only eleven 
years (1649-60), wits overthrown by the restoration of the 
Stuart (lynasty. Of a similar character were most of the 
free cities and Hansc towns of (Jennany, only three of 
which— Hamburg, Bremen, and Lubeek — have to this time 
preserved their republican institutions as meml>ers of the 
German empire. Two miniature re|)ublics in the south of 
Europe have survived to our day — Sun Marino, in Italy, and 
Andorra, in the Pyrenees — remarkable mainly for their in- 



significance as independent states. Spain had, imroediatc^ly 
after the abdication of King Amadeus (1873), a short |ie- 
riod of democratic republican government, which, however, 
appeared only as a mere episode in a series of revolutions 
and reactions. At present there are only two republics t)f 
importance in Europe — Switzerland and France. (For the 
historv of the Swiss republic, see Switzerland, History of.^ 
The third French republic was proclaimed Sept, 4, 1870, 
when Napoleon III. had fallen into the hands of the Ger- 
man forces after the battle of Sedan. The National Assem- 
bly, organized in 1871, ultimately frame<l a constitution 
which went into effect in 1876, and has been in successful 
operation ever since. It is not unlike the English const it u> 
tion, with the substitution of an elective president for th<- 
hereditary sovereign and an elective senate for the Uoum^ 
of Lords. See France, History of. 

In America all states except the colonial possessions of 
European powers have republican governments with demo- 
cratic institutions. The largest and most powerful of them, 
the republic of the U. S., presents the realization of the 
democratic republican idea on the greatest scale. 

The distinction between aristocratic and democratic re- 
publics has now scarcely more than historical importance, 
inasmuch as there is at present not a single state with a re- 
publican form of government in existence in which a nobil- 
ity or a privileged class of any description enjoys a moni^fH 
oly of power; and since the abolition of slavery and the 
enfranchisement of the colored race in the U. S. there is 
none in which any considerable class of people is exclude*! 
from the exercise of political righta. But while all re pu li- 
lies, with a uniform tendency, have drifted toward democ- 
racy, as far as the equality of political rights among citizens 
is concerned, we fina an essential difference between them 
as to the character of their political institutions in another 
resi)ect. (1) The constitution of a republic may be such as 
to make the general government in its legislative and execu- 
tive capacity the depository of the whole sovereignty of the 
people, so as to give it control not only of national afrain», 
out also of local administration ; or (2) the general govern- 
ment of a republic may be one of strictly limited powers, 
being confined in its constitutional sphere of action to a 
certain class of things which concern tne nation as a whole, 
while the administration of affairs of a local nature is left 
to the ** self-government" of the people in their local organ- 
izations respectively, with entire independence of the cen- 
tral authonty ; or (3) these two systems may be so mixed as 
to leave to the local self-government of the people only a 
limited range, subject to supervision and interference *l>y 
the central government. A government of the first de:?crii^- 
tion would be called a centralized, of the second a dertri- 
tralized government, and of the third either one or the 
other as it more nearly approaches the first or the secoinl 
standard. The French republic presents an illustration i>f 
the centralized system in a but slightly modified sense, 
while the so-called /edferaZ republics — and among them m«i>t 
conspicuously and on the greatest scale the republic of the 
U. S. — exemplify that which combines the independent a«l- 
ministration of local interests by the people in their ]oi*h1 
organizations with a central government controlling affairs 
of national concern. For the system of centralization the 
advantage is claimed that it imparts to the government 
great power, energy, and rapidity of action by enabling it 
to employ the whole machinery of general and'local admin- 
istration for its purposes. It is therefore by many th<»ught 
preferable in a country whose surroundings and interna- 
tional relations are such as to render the possibility of an 
instantaneous employment of all its resources desirable, or 
whose internal peace is threatened by a lawless and turbu- 
lent spirit, so as to require prompt and vigorous measur«»s 
for the maintenance oi order and security. But while tho 
centralized system thus creates, in the common acceptatit»n 
of the term, a " strong government " which may be usc*d for 
good ends, it produces at the same time an accumulation 4>f 
power which may become, and sometimes has shown itself „ 
very dangerous to popular lil>erty and to the permanciicv 
of republican institutions. The* centralized system hi»hi-s 
out a tempting prize to popular insurrection at the seat v»f 
government, as well as to the coup d'Hat on the part c»f 
those in power; and what appears as an element of 
strength and energy in the government becomes thereby in 
reality an element of instability. This tendency is t ho 
more dangerous as the centralized system fosters among tli»» 
peoi)le the habit of looking for all'that is to be done for 
their interests not to themselves, but to the su|)erior wis<k»iu 



66 



REPUBLICAX PARTY 



rights of the States as to their domestic institutions, but 
proceeded along the line of least resiistance. It did not set 
out to abolish slavery, but merely to prevent its further ex- 
tension. The first expressions of this anti-slavery move- 
ment, in a national way, were in the Free-soil and Liberty 
parties, both outside the two great parties and polling only 
a small vote. They had the effect that a balance of power 
vote sometimes attains in closely divided States, of defeat- 
ing one of the great parties with the other, but they achieved 
little of their direct purpose beyond showing that the Demo- 
cratic party would stand firm for slavery, and that the Whig 
party as an organization was useless against it. The anti- 
slaverv vote defeated Clay in 1844, and gave New York to 
the Whigs in 1848. Even after this the Whigs, accepting 
the compromise of 1850, still refused to take up opposition 
to slavery, and the elections of 1852 were disastrous to them. 
The canvass of the Frec-soilers, small as their vote was, 
joined with the general discontent of the Northern Whigs, 
together with the helplessness of their party against the 
slave power, wrecked that great organization in nearly every 
Northern State. Thus the ground was cleared for the de- 
velopment of a party which should take the place and as- 
sume the traditions of the Whigs unencumbered by their 
obligations to slavery. 

The Formation of the Reptihlican Party, — As always hap- 
pens in such periods of political change, the dissolution of 
the Whig organization gave rise to various side movements, 
of which the most conspicuous was the Knownothing or 
Native American party. This outbreak had a brief and in 
some places an overwhelming success, but its career was 
short, for it had no firm resting-place of principle, and did 
not recognize the great question which was tne one then 
really in the public mind. It served, however, as the recent 
elections had, to clear the field for the new party organiza- 
tion which the times demanded, and it was in this situation 
of politics that the Republican party came into existence. 
It is generally admitted now that the first formal adoption 
of the name Republican was made by the Michigan State 
convention early in June, 1854, and that it was due to a sug- 
gestion in a letter from Horace Greeley. Certain it is that 
the name spread rapidly and was adopted by State conven- 
tions in Maine, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Iowa. 
The new party principle prevailed in the Northern States, 
and wherever tne Republicans ran a straight ticket they 
carried everything before them. It had looked in 1852, after 
the Democrats had swept the country without cflfective re- 
sistance from the perishing Whigs, as if resistance to the 
Democratic party was hopeless, and as if the compromises 
of 1850 were really built on the rocks and not upon the 
sands. Yet only two years later this new party, because it 
gave the first o])portunitj for an expression of a deep popu- 
lar feeling and because m the midst of negations it meant 
something real, carried the Northern States. In spite of its 
lack of national organization, it elected enough members of 
('ongress to control the House and to choose Nathaniel Banks 
Speaker after a long and bitter contest. Such sudden suc- 
cess showed how greatly a new means of expression for 
popular feeling was needed. 

Stimulated alike by their victories at the polls and by the 
Kansas-Nebraska Bill and other measures, which proved' that 
to the South compromises were merely stepping-stones to 
further aggression, the new party went quickly forward to 
a national organization. The first convention met at Pitts- 
burg on Feb. 22, 1856. A national organization was there 
formed, and a call issued for another convention to nominate 
candidates for President and Vice-President This second 
convention met in Philadelphia on June 17. 

The serious character and the importance of the new 
movement were strikingly shown by the quality of the dele- 
gates who assembled in tnis convention. There were to l)e 
seen not only those who had been leaders of the Free-soil 
movement in the days when it was a forlorn hope, but many 
men who had been' conspicuous in the Whig party, while 
delegations of Democrats were also present. Edwin I). Mor- 
gan, afterward Governor of New York, called the conven- 
titm to order, Robert Emmett was made its temporary chair- 
man, and Henry S. Lane, of Indiana, its permanent presi- 
dent. The platfonn was reported by David Wilraot, the 
author of the famous proviso, and was practically confined 
to the single issue which had (?alled the new party in to exist- 
ence. It declared against the establishment of slavery in 
the Territories, and tlie third resolution, which has become 
in political literature a familiar quotation, ran as follows: 
"Resolved, That the Constitution confers up<m Congress 



sovereign power over the Territories of the Unitetl States 
for their government ; and that in the exercise of thi^ {x^^er 
it is both the right and the imperative duty of Congre'^s to 
prohibit in the Territories those twin relics of barban>ni. 
polygamy and slavery." The fourth resolution discusxnl at 
length the condition' of Kansas and denounced the Di'Iikm 
cratic administration for their policy in that Territory. 1'lie 
fifth resolution demanded the admission of Kansa-s; the 
sixth assailed the doctrines of the Ostend circular. The »«'> - 
enth and eighth comprised the only portion of the platfonn 
which went outside the slavery issue. These two res<>luti<>n> 
declared in favor of national aid for a railway to the Pa- 
cific coast, and also for liberal appropriations for rivers and 
harbors. Like all new organizations which are engager! in 
mustering their forces from different elements of the <'(»in- 
m unity, the Republican convention of 1856 had a great d^^ul 
to say about the issue on which all were agreed and whi« h 
was the vital question of the day, and very Tittle about i»th«'r 
questions of longer standing ana upon which there hatl U*fu 
earlier party divisions. Nevertheless, these two eoiuj»ani- 
tivelv unimportant resolutions about railways and rivtr-i 
and harbors marked at the start the political ancestry of 
the Republicans, for they commit the party to the doctrin** 
of internal improvement, which was one of the doctrine> 
growing out of the liberal construction of the Constitution, 
and which had formed the fundamental principle of Fe<ler- 
alists and Whigs alike in opposition to the strict construc- 
tion of the Democrats. 

Upon this platform the Republican convention plaee«l as 
its candidates John C. Fremont, of California, and Will iam 
L. Dayton, of New Jersey. There was no serious coiiitM 
over either nomination, but it is interesting to notice that 
the leading candidate against Dayton for the vice-pn*>i- 
dency was Abraham Lincoln, of Illinois. Fremont ha<I n<» 

Colitical record, but had been for some little time a iH>i»nlar 
ero, owing to his exploring expeditions and his brilliaiit 
services in California. The event proved that he was a will- 
chosen candidate for the purpose of getting votes, and tl»»* 
Republican campaign was full of enthusiasm and energ\ . 
The Democratic candidate was James Buchanan, who \»as 
elected, but the Republicans carried every Northern Stati- 
except Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Indiana,'lllinois. and ( uli- 
fomia, and gave their ticket 114 electoral votes. Of ih»* 
popular vote the Republicans polled 1.341,264. When it i^ 
considered that only four years before all effective opjK»*it iiMi 
to the compromise measures and to the Democratic |k«rt\ 
had appeared to be extinct, the results achieved by the Re- 
publicans in the elections of 1856 were most impressive. 

During the next four y^are events steadily strength taut I 
the Republican cause. The subserviency of Buchanan ti* 
the South, the publication of the Dred bcott decision, the 
continuance of the atrocious Democratic policy toward Kan- 
sas, and finally John Brown's raid intensified the hostility 
of the North to slavery, and day by day added votes to the 
Republican partv. 

The Election 'of 1860,--The War.— When the national 
Republican convention assembled in Chicago on Ma\ U>, 
1860, they faced a situation very different from that which 
had confronted them in 1856, and they now saw success well 
within their grasp. The Democratic party bad met in «^ in- 
vention on Apr. 23 at Charleston, S. C, and had thert» >\A\\ 
hopelessly on the slavery c|uestion. They had atljuunied 
without action and the wamng factions hatl called two con- 
ventions, one of which nominated John C. Breckinridgi^ hiuI 
Joseph Lane on an extreme pro-slavery platform, while th«' 
other, adopting the squatter-sovereignty theory, noniinnted 
Stephen A. Douglas and Herschel V. Johnson.' With tht-ir 
enemies thus divided and with so sure a promise of vict«»ry 
the contest for the Republican nomination was both ^ha^j» 
and determined. The first choice of a majority of Repul li- 
cans was William H. Seward, of New York, to whom the Kn^t - 
em States were especially devoted. It was very natural l hui 
this should be the case, for Seward had been for years km.*> 
of the boldest and most effective opf)onents of slavery, Ih.i u 
as Governor of New York and in the Senate of the l\ ?^, 
He had, however, many active enemies, which a career likn 
his was sure to produce. These men, led by Ilora(*e Gn^t-I*- \ , 
united with the Western candidate and thus defeated S-wani 
and secured the nomination of Lincoln. It was the ni« r^t 
fortunate choice ever made by a political convention. 'I'l ■ 
often repeated statement that Lincoln was an unknown n\z\\\ . 
selected merely on account of his availabilitv, is a mi<ti»W» . 
lie had long been distinguished in the pu\)lic life of tl»»- 
West. He had been voted for as a candidate for Vi* .. - 



68 



REPUBLICAN PARTY 



publicans swept the counlrv. Lincoln had the electoral 
vote of every State not in the rebellion, excent Kentucky, 
I)elaware, and New Jersey. He receive<l 212 electoral votes 
against 21 for McClellan. Ilis popular vote was 2,213,665 
against 1,802,237. This sweeping victory at the polls con- 
firmed the victories of the armies in the field. Early in the 
following spring Richmond fell and Lee surrendered at Ap- 
pomattox. In the midst of the popular rejoicing at the end 
of the great struggle, which resulted in the preservation of 
the nation, Lincoln was assassinated by Wilkes Booth on 
Apr. 21, 1865. 

Bficofistniciion.-'The death of Lincoln was not only a 
terrible calamity to the nation, but a great misfortune to 
the Republican party, for the work of reconstruction which 
confrontefl the victorious North demanded both from Presi- 
dent and Congress the exercise of the highest wisdom as 
well as great firmness and moderation. These Qualities pos- 
sessed in an unequaled ilegree by Lincoln were almost wholly 
lacking in Andrew Johnson, who succeeded him in the 
presidency. Johns<^n was a hot-headed man of unbalanced 
judgment'. He began by taking an extreme petition against 
the South, uniting witlf the most radical wing of the Re- 
publican party, whence opposition to Lincoln had always 
proceeded, lie then suddenly changed his attitude and 
swung to the opposite extreme, entering upon a policy of 
ardent opposition to the Republican measures of recon- 
struction. The effect of this course was to place the party 
in antagonism to the President, and by alienating all mod- 
erate men from the administration, to' throw the guidance 
of the party into the hands of its more extreme members. 
Such a situation was most unfortunate for the country, and 
could not fail to damage the work of reorganization. 5fever- 
theless, the party succeeded in passing its reconstruction 
laws, which gave a vote to all men in the South, black and 
white, except those who had partici[)ated in the rebellion. 
The Republicans also passed the Fourteenth Amendment to 
the Constitution, whicfi established the freedom of the Negro 
and provideti that no debts contracted in aid of the rel)ellion 
should be paid by the U. S. or any State. All these great 
measures were forced through over the President's veto, and 
the bitterness between the President and the Republican 
party reached such a point that in Feb., 1868, the Itouse of 
Representatives impeached him, resting their charges on 
his illegal removal of Stanton, his attacks ujwn Congress, 
and his stopping the execution of some of the acts of Con- 
gress. The President was acquitted, the vote standing 
guilty 35, not guilty 19 — not a two-thirds majority, as re- 
quired by the Constitution. 

In that same year a new presidential election came on. 
President Johnson's efforts to build up a personal party 
failed as completely as those of Tyler under like circum- 
stances. No one followed him and neither of the great par- 
ties would have anything to do with him. The Republican 
party met in Chicago on May 20 and nominated Gen. Grant 
for the presidency by acclamation. Schuyler Colfax, of In- 
diana, was nominated for Vice-President on the fifth ballot. 
The Democratic national convention met in New York on 
July 4, and nominated Horatio Sevmour for President and 
Francis P. Blair, of Missouri, for Vice-President. The Re- 
publican platform sustained the Constitutional amendment, 
which recognized the results of the war, and the freedom of 
the slave, and which guaranteed protection to the Negro in 
his rights. They also sustained the reconstruction acts of 
Congress, pledged themselves to maintain the national credit 
and to provide for the soldiers, and denounced all forms of 
repudiation which had been much advocated by the Demo- 
cratic leaders. 

The Democrats took ground against this platform, and 
showed by their attitude and their nominations alike their 
hostility to the Republican policv. The people, however, 
wearie<l by four years of war and by the angry struggles 
with Johnson, were anxious above all* things for a final set- 
tlement of these war issues. Gen. Grant tersely summed up 
the situaticm in his famous phrase : " Let us have peace. 
This became the watchword of the contest, and the Demo- 
cratic campaign really broke down before the polls were 
reached. Gen. Grant' was elected by a popular vote of 
3,012,S:i8 against 2.70J^24SK receiving in the electoral college 
214 votes against 80 for Seyniour. This election was de- 
cisive in favor of the accejjfance of the results of the war, 
and drove the Democrats fnun any further attempt to take 
ground against them. It also sustained tlie Republican 
policy of equal suffrage and the rights of citizenship to all 
citizens without regard to color, and this policy was finally 



secured by the Fifteenth Amendment to the C<mstitutioii, 
which soon after passed Congress, and, after ratification Itv 
the States, was proclaimed on Mar. 20, 18T0. 

Under the administration of Gen. Grant the leading qiit's- 
tion was the condition of the Southern States under the Re- 
construction acts. The State goveniment^ which were th<-n 
set up. resting on the black vote, were generally feeble and 
gave rise to many scandals. On the other hand, the mur- 
derous outrages committed by the Southern whites against 
all Republican voters angered the North and kept all the 
States lately in rebellion in a condition of disorcler whif h 
invited the constant interference of the national authoriiv 
From every point of view the situation in the Southern 
States was depressing, and the dissatisfaction which it caust-d 
was directed very naturally against the party in jK>wer. 
This period also was one of general demoralization, the in- 
evitable outcome of four years of fierce civil war, and the 
demoralization extended not only to politics but to business 
and society. It gave birth to wild stm'k S()eculations an<l 
to manv scandals and comiptions, and the ourden of tb»-H- 
also fell, as it was sure to fall, on the partv in power. 

The Liberal Republiean Moi^ement— The discontent tlnis 
engendered took snape in an independent movement in the 
Republican partv headed by a number of Republican lead- 
ers who had broken with tlie administration on account of 
the San Domingo policy of Gen. Grant, and who were als<i 
desirious of attackinj^ the abuses and corruptions to which 
the war period had given rise. These dissatisfied or Liberal 
Republicans, as they called themselves, held a national con- 
vention in Cincinnati in May, 1872. The plan was to nomi- 
nate Charles Francis Adams for the presidency, a seleition 
which would have made the movement a formidable one. but 
the convention broke away from the leaders and nominatril 
Horace Greeley for President and B. Gratz Brown for Vi«'.-- 
President. Th'ey declared in their platform that sectional 
issues should be buried, that all the settlements of the war 
should l)e accepted, that civil-service reform should be lie^ruu, 
and that sj)ecie payments should be immediately nstunil. 
They left the tariff' an open question and opposetl'all furtlicr 
grants of land to railroads. The regular Republicans n»et 
in Phila<lelphia in June and renominated Gen. Grant bv 
acclamation, placing with him on the ticket Henry WilM»ri, 
of Massachusetts, for Vice-President. Their platform \Mt> 
more elaborate and touched upon more questions than tbnt 
of the Liberals, but on those subjects in regard to whi<h 
both platforms spoke the declarations were in principle the 
same. The regular Reimblicans reviewed the historj' of 
their partv, demanded the acceptance of the results of the 
war and the protection of the coloretl voter, opposed grants 
to the railroads, and favored the reform of the civil s««rvi<'e. 
They denounced the repudiation of the public debt an«l 
supported specie payments. The Liberals had left the tariff 
an open question, but had nominate<i a high protectioni>t as 
President. The regular Republicans declared sqiiarely f<»r 
protection, which had always been one of the cardinal prin- 
ciples of the party. 

The Democrats met in July at Baltimore, ratified the nom- 
inatiim of the Liberal Repuljlicans and adopted their j>lHt- 
form. Thus they accepted as their candidate for the pro>i- 
dency a lifelong opponent, who had been an extreme al«»h- 
tionist and was always a zealous pi-otectionist, while thev 
adopted as their platform a set of Republican principles in 
no one of which tney l)elieved. The result of such a |>«»r- 
formance it was not difficult to foresee. On the one hainl 
it demoralized the Democratic party, while on the other the 
absurdity of the whole i)osition' prevented any SM'ri<»us 
break in the ranks of the Republicans. A strai>rht-i»ut 
Democratic ticket, nominated at Ixiuisville in SeptemlN^r, 
came to nothing and played no part in the election, (imnt 
carried every State, except Georgia, Kentucky. Maryland, 
Missouri, Tennessee, and Texas. His popular vote wh^ 
8,597,070 against 2.834.070 for Greeley. In the eltMtorul 
colleges Grant receivwl 286 votes against 80 thrown for va- 
rious candidates, Greeley having died betwwn the election 
and the meeting of the colleges. 

Although the Liberal movement broke down so compU'to- 
ly in the presidential campaign, it made itself felt v»•^^ 
strongly two years later, stimulated as it was by siai\fl:i:< 
which were connected with appointees and friends' of the ?•■ J- 
ministration. During the preceding years, moreover. o>%- u . i^ 
to the business disasters which followed the panic of 1S7*^ _ 
?.}, a strong movement for "cheap money — that is. f*ir 
the unlimited issue of greenbacks— had grown up in citImmi 
States. Gen. Grant's veto of the infiation act of 1874. ft .1- 



70 



REPUBLICAN PARTY 



REQUISITIONS 



tion of lapsed land grants. It favored also liberal pensions 
and the building up of the navy, and declared against Chi- 
nese immigration, and fraud and violence in the South. The 
leading rojjolution, however, concerned the tariff, which of 
late years had been coming more and more steadily to the 
front, and upon this the Republican party took, as it had 
always taken, bold and advanced ground in favor of protec- 
tion to American industries. The Democrats met on July 
8, at Chicago, and nominated Grover Cleveland for presi- 
dent and Thomas A. Hendricks for Vice-President. The 
platform declared in favor of reform in general after the 
manner of opposition platforms, but most particularly for 
tariff reform. 

Platforms, however, played but little part in the exciting 
and bitter campaign which followed. There was a great 
deal of Republican opposition to Blaine, especially in the 
Eastern States, where it took the form of an open revolt of 
a most serious character against the Republican party. Al- 
though the Republicans tried to fight their battle on the tariff 
issue, this revolt made the campaign a purely personal one, 
and it had all the oilious features of savage abuse of the 
candidates, which such contests are sure to engender. Issues 
were lost sight of, and the struggle finally turned solely on 
the question whether Blaine should or should not be Presi- 
dent of the U. S. Despite the great schism, Blaine's personal 
popularity was so great that he attracted large bodies of 
Democratic voters and made up the Republican losses. New 
York, which decided the election, gave Cleveland, instead of 
the 192,000 plurality, which he had received in 1882, less 
than 1,200, and it was by many persons believed that even 
this narrow margin was obtained only by counting in New 
York city for Cleveland the vote cast there for Gen. Butler, 
who ran as an independent candidate for the presiileney. In 
the electoral colleges Cleveland and Hendricks received 219 
votes against 182 for Blaine and Logan. During the first 
two years of Cleveland's term the general talk in favor of 
reform went ori, but very little was accomplished of a sf)e- 
cific kind, and the fact that the Senate remained Republican 
prevented any violent legislation, if such had been desired. 
The elections of 1886 went against the Democrats, but they 
still retained control in the House by a narrow majority. 
The failure thus far to accomplish anything le<^l, however, 
to a new departure. President Cleveland sent in to the Fif- 
tieth Congress a message devoted to the single subject of the 
tariff and demanding instant and radical reductions. This 
message resultetl in tlie introduction of the Mills Bill, which 
the House del)ated at great length for three or four months. 
It passed the House on July 13, 1888, and on the issue thus 
raised the two great parties appealed to the country. 

The Administration of Harrison. — The Republicans met 
on June 19 at Chicago. Blaine withdrew his name, and on 
the eighth ballot Benjamin Harrison, of Indiana, was nomi- 
nated for Pressident, and this was followed by the nomina- 
tion of Levi P. Morton, of New York, for Vice-President. 
The Republican platform favored bimetallism, the building 
up of tlie merchant marine, the admission of new States, 
and the reform of the civil service. It attacked the Demo- 
crats for their failure to settle the fishery question and for 
their feeble foreign policy, but, as in 1884, it mmlc the tariff 
the leading issue, and declared more uncompromisingly than 
ever in favor of protection. 

The Democrats met in July at St. Louis and nominated 
Grover Cleveland for President and Allen G. Thurman. of 
Ohio, for Vice-President. They too raatle the tariff the lead- 
ing issue, and, although they did not declare for absolute free 
trade, they demanded such heavy red iictions tliat the practical 
result would have been the same. The campaign turned on 
the issue of protection or free tratle, and the Republicans 
were victorious throughout the Northern States, except in 
Connecticut and New Jersey. They also carrie<l the House 
and kept their hold upon the Senate. They were therefore 
in control of eveiT branch of the (Jovernment, and the Fifty- 
first C-ongress, which followed, was a remarkable and mein- 
orable one. 

The first great contest was in the House of Representa- 
tives, where the Democratic minority undertook by the use 
of the rules to prevent the transaction of business. * Thomas 
B. Reed, of Maine, was elected Speaker, and under his lead 
a reform of the rules was accomplished, which gave the ma- 
jority power to act. Ree<rs policy and rulings were the 
subject of bitter attack, but every one of his principles has 
since been adopted by the Democrats themselves and sus- 
tained by the Supreme ('ourt, thus completely vindicating 
his action. The Republicans were in this way enabled to 



pass a large amount of most important legislation. To this 
Congress is due the international copyright law, a longnh*- 
layed measure of justice and good sense. To it are also due 
the ins()ection laws which opened the markets of Kurofie io 
the meat proilucts of the U. S., generous appropriations for 
building up the navy, and mail subsidies to develop stt^mi- 
ship lines. Manv other valuable measures of a nou-{)oliti(ul 
character were also carried through. The two erreat f lart y 
measures were the bill to regulate national elections, which 
passed the House and failed in the Senate, and the new pro- 
tective tariff, which became law on Oct. 1. 1890. In tht- 
elections which followed for the House of Representative>, 
the Republicans were very badly beaten. The amount of 
legislation which they had secured brought, as it aIwn>H 
does, reaction and opposition, but the chief cause of their 
defeat was the outcry raised against the McKinley Act on 
the ground that it was too extreme and that it would rai^^ 
prices. During the remaining years of President Harrisons 
administration the fact that tne two Houses were control le<l 
by different parties prevented action. 

The Campaign of 189^.— In 1892 the Republican party 
met in convention at Minneapolis, and after a contest c^m-^-d 
by the hostility to the admmistration among manv party 
leaders. President Harrison was renominated and W'hitelaw 
Reid, of New York, was put on the ticket with him as 
Vice-President. The Democrats renominated Grover Clev<^ 
land, who was bitterly but unavailingly opposed by the flele- 
gates from his own State, and nominated with him for Vice- 
President Adlai E. Stevenson, of Illinois. 

This campaign, like the preceding one, turned upon t ht* 
question of the tariff, the McKinley Act furnishing the text 
as the Mills Bill had done in 1888. The Renuhlicans nia<lt> 
a partial recovery from the disasters of 1890, but were never- 
theless decisively beaten, several Northern States givintr 
their votes to the* Democrats for the first time. In the e let - 
toral colleges C'levcland and Stevenson received 277 vote^ tci 
145 votes for Harrison and Reid, and 22 votes for Wravi^r 
and Field, the Populist candidates. The Democrats al^) 
carried both the Senate and the House, and on Mar. 4^ is!>:<. 
came for the first time in thirty-five years into full control 
of all branches of the Government. In April a bu>ine>- 
panic began, which reached in the following summer grrai 
mtensity. The Democrats declared that this was due to t ho 
existence of the Sherman Act passed by a Republican Con- 
gress as a compromise measure, pro\idi'ng for the puix»ljh»ie. 
by the Treasury, of $4,000,000 of silver bullion every uu)iit h. 
President Cleveland called Congress in extra session on Ani;. 
7, and after an obstinate struggle of three months the ptir- 
chasing clauses of the Sherman Act were finally r«*jH-uI«ii 
by a combination of Republican and Democratic* vote**, but 
the repeal, which was a wise measure, did not relieve or im- 
prove business. The business depression still eontintiod 
while the Democrats were engaged in a revision of tli»- 
tariff, which bore no resemblance to the promises of th«*ir 
platform, and the Republican party made large gains at all 
the bv-elections. At last in August the Democrats pHs<«Ml 
their tariff Bill just as it came from the Senate, where the 
House bill received over 600 amendmentji of a protfctixe 
character. The President refused to sign the bill, and, aft»T 
denouncing it in the severest terms in public letters to two 
members of the House, permitted it to uecome law witlioui 
his signature. In the general elections of Nov., 1SJ>4, tlie 
Republicans appealed t-o the pieople against the Demixratie 
failure in the matters of tariff and finance, the busin«'s< 
disasters they had caused, and also against their feeble arxi 
blundering foreign policy. The Republicans carrieil tlu* 
elections overwhelmingly, gaining over 100 seats in the 
House and seven seats in the Senate. H, C. IjOImje. 

Repndiation [from Lat, repudia're, divorce, reject, scorn, 
reputfiate, deriv. of repu'diutn, a casting off: re-, back ■+■ /*»/- 
def, it shames] : an act by which an administration declin«-< 
to he bound by the debts contracted by the goveniuit-nt^ 
which have preceded it. In European history there are 
numerous instances of a government annihilating a portion 
of its debt by converting it into a lower denomination, ari«l 
similar instances have occurred in Mississippi and Penus> l- 
vania. 

Reqnisitions [from Lat, reqttisi'tio, a search for, reouir^»- 
ment, deriv. of requi'rere^ search for, require; rp-, W<'k. 
again 4- qtup'rere, qumai'ium, seek, ask] : (1) formal deman«i> 
by one government on another for the extradition of crimi- 
nals (for treatment, see Kxtradition) ; (2) in the internatioti- 
al laws of war, demands for necessaries by an invader on an 



72 



RESERVOIR 



RESERVOIR DAMS 



for their original purpose of making agriculture possible in 
regions where the seasons of rainfall and of the growing 
crops are separated by a considerable interval of time, while 
of many others traces alone remain. It is claimed that in 
Egypt the building of such reservoirs may in all probability 
be traced back to the days of the patriarch Joseph. In 
India there remain traces of the Poonairy reservoir, which 
by the construction of 30 miles of dams flooded 40,0()0 acres 
of land, and the Veeranum reservoir, which flooded 22,000 
acres. The great Mudduk Masoor reservoir in India, con- 
stnicted in the fifteenth century, was 108 feet deep, flooded 
26,000 acres, and held 280,000 million gal. In the island of 
Ceylon there is an ancient reservoir covering an area of 10,- 
000 acres. 

No reservoirs of such magnitude as these have been con- 
structed for several hundred years, but there are many thou- 
sand smaller ones. In Madras alone there are 50,000. In 
the nineteenth century the largest have been built by the 
British in India for storing water for irrigation, and several 
of considerable size have been constructed in California and 
New Mexico for the same purpose. A number of large res- 
ervoirs have been built in Spain, also for irrigation. In the 
rest of Europe and in the eastern portion of the U. S. the 
principal purpa««e for which storage reservoirs have been 
constructea is the supply of water to cities, and a large 
number of such have been built. 

The (question of the capacity necessary to insure the most 
economical results in reservoirs fed by sti-eanis which are 
subject to great variations of flow and the water of which 
is to be used for supplying the demands of a population 
which is constantly increasing and which at the same time 
is irregular in its requirements, has received careful study 
from civil en^neers. The determination of this ouesticm 
involves considerations of climatic peculiarities, tne rela- 
tion between different topographical and geological condi- 
tiorfs and the amount of water which a watershed will an- 
nually yield to a stream, and the rate at which at different 
seasons of the year a given population will consume water. 
The general conclusions reached by hydraulic engineers 
with reference to the economical dimensions of storage 
reservoirs for city water-supply in the temperate zone are 
that such reservoii-s shoultl contain a quantity of water 
equivalent to one-half of the total annual consumption 
anticipated in the city, and that the greatest efficiency can 
be obtained from any reservoir when its capacity is about 
100 million gal. for each scjuare mile of territory from which 
its sup|)ly is derived. 

Among the largest storage reservoirs for water-supply to 
cities are the Vvrnwy for Liverpool, containing 11,900 mil- 
lion gal.; the Vehar for Bombay, containing 10,800 million 
gal. ; the San Mateo for San Francisco, holding 31,000 million 
gal. ; the Yan Yean for Melbourne, Australia, 6,400 million 

fal. ; on the Croton river. New York, the Boyd's Corners, 
^,727 million gal.; the Middle Branch, 4,004 million gal.; 
the East Branch, 9,028 million gal. ; the Titicus, 7,000 million 
gal. ; the Carmel, 9,000 million ^al. ; and the new Croton, 
begun in 1894, to hold 32,000 million gal. There are numer- 
ous storage reservoirs for other cities in both Europe and 
America holding from 500 to 1,000 million gal. See the 
article Reservoir Dams. 

For the immediate daily demands of cities service reser- 
t'oirs are required, and their capacity need not be much in 
excess of a single day's supply, their function being merely 
to keep the supply constant during the varying draughts at 
different times of day and different seasons of the year. 
They are generallv located as near tlie center of distribu- 
tion as practicable, and the water furnished to them by 
gravity from storage reservoirs or by pumping from the 
source of supply. Wherever possible, they are constructed 
on a summit by excavating sufficient material to make an 
embankment around the pit, and thus give the greatest ca- 
pacity at the highest elevation. The largest reservoir of 
this typ>e is in Central Park, New York city, and covers 96 
acres and contiiins 1,200 million gal. A goo<l example of a 
service reservoir constructed entirely above the surface of 
the ground with masonry walls is the Murray Hill reservoir 
in New York city, which is 400 feet s(iuare and holds 24 
million gal. In many cases of small supply in flat regions 
service reservoirs are iron tanks or staiul pi|)cs from 5 to 40 
feet in diameter and 50 to 250 feet in height. A fine exam- 
ple of such a reservoir is at Princeton, N. J., where a tank 
20 feet in diameter and 60 feet high is placed on an iron 
trestle 60 feet high. On top of the tank is a meteorological 
observatory, J. James ii. Croes. 



Reserroir Dams: artificial structures built across valley<; 
through which streams flow, for the purpose of obstniclin:: 
the natural flow of the water, raising its level, and theri'l.y 
forming lakes or reservoirs. The simplest dam is one formal 
by filling a narrow gorge between high banks with loose nxk 
and stones and gravel and then permitting the interstioe> to 
become clogged by the sediment brought down by the strcHui 
in freshets or by earth thrown in above the dam for the f uir- 
pose. This method has been adopted even in works of r<»- 
cent construction in the western parts of the U. S., but Mich 
dams have in several instances been destroyed by fre^sbet*.. 

Where this crude method seems impracticable or injudi- 
cious and yet small expenditure is essential, dams are built 
of a cribwork of timber filled in with stones and sometimts 
faced with plank with close joints and frequently ba<'k»Ml 
up with earth. There is a dam of this type, 1,017 feet l<nii: 
and 28 to 82 feet high, across the Connecticut river at Sunt ii 
Hadley Falls, Mass. In such dams as those above nanitd 
the water of freshets in the stream may be allowed to flo« 
over the top of the dam. In cases where the water of fn^sli- 
ets can be carried off by an indej^endent channel, the U-^t 
form of construction of a dam not exceeding 40 to 50 fict 
in height is usually an earth embankment, the width at the 
bottom being from three to four times the height of tho 
dam. It is essential to the safety of a dam of this kind that 
its foundations should be made secure against the {>er<(»la- 
tion of water through the bank, that the bank should l>o 
built of selected material put on in thin lavers and thor- 
oughly moistened, rammed, and rolled, and that the fa<-e of 
the dam on the water side should be protected with a stone 
paving. Owing to the difficultv of making an earthen dam 
under heavy pressure absolutely tight, it is customary to 
build in the center of the embankment a wall either of pud- 
dled clay or of masonry. The neglect of proper precautious 
to prevent the percolation of water through high earthen 
dams, either with or without masonry heart wfdLs, has re- 
sulted in severe disasters, such as the failure of the I)«lr 
dyke at Sheffield, England, in 1864, the Mill river dam in 
Connecticut in 1875, the Worcester dam in MassachuM'tt> 
in 1876, the South Fork dam at Johnstown, Pa., on Mav 21. 
1889, the Pottsville dam in 1892, and the Portland, Me..' rt^s- 
ervoir dam in 1893. There are in the U. S. ten earthen daiits 
more than 60 feet high for waterworks, two of which — thr 
dam at Pilarcitos. Cal., 95. feet high, and that at San An- 
dreas, Cal., 98 feet high — have no central wall either of pud- 
dle or masonry. The highest is that at Druid Lake at Bait i- 
more, which is 119 feet high and has a puddle heart w^all. 

A structure of water-tight stone masonry is the type of 
dam which is most susceptible of being built on sciVutiti<- 
principles, so that the minimum amount of material may be 
used with the maximum beneficial effect. The earliest ap- 
plication of masonry to the construction of large dams i> 
believed to have been made by Spanish engineers about tin- 
middle of the fifteenth century. The dam of Almanza, O'.f 
feet high with a thickness of 10 feet at top and 34 feet at 
bottom, has stood for over 300 years, and sustains a greater 
pressure per square foot than any other reservoir dam • •r 
than is considered prudent in construction at present. Tljt» 
Alicante dam, 141 feet high, is still in use, creating a rcM-r- 
voir for irrigation which holds 975 million gal. 

In France the earliest high masonry dam was built at 
Lampy about 1776. Several others were constructed dur- 
ing the first half of the nineteenth century. All the mas* »n- 
ry dams over 50 feet in height built prior to 1850 are be- 
lieved to be as follows ; 



Alinan/a, Spain 

Alicante, Spain 

Elche, Spain 

Hiiesca, Spain 

Lampy, France 

Puenl^s. Spain ♦ 

Val de Inflerno, Spain 

Grois Bois, France 

OhaziUy, France. 

Niiar, Spain 

Zola, France , 

Lozoya, Spain 



DM*. 


Height. 


1660-65 


69 


1579-94 


141 


1590 


76 


1600 


66 


l776-«2 


68 


1785-91 


165 


17S5-91 


116 


1830-88 


08 


1W(M5 


74 


iKia-w 


101 


lK4*-60 


120 


1850 


la-s 



THICKNETM 



Top. 

10 
66 
30 
86 
16 
86 
41 
21 
18 
94 
19 



34 
lit 
40 

r>* 

'AT 
i:>t 

4C> 

.V5 

l:i^ 



• Failed. 

It will l)e observed that there is a great difference in tho 
proportions of these dams, displaying great diversity of opiii> 
ion among the engineers who designed them. It was ii« *t 



74 



RESILIENCE 



RESPIRATORY SOUNDS 



Reslllenee [from Lat. resili're, sprin|r back ; re-, back + 
scUi're^ leap]: the capacity of a material to resist shcK^ks 
or repeated strevsses, the measure of which is one-half the 
product of the force by the linear elongation or compres- 
sion produced, provided the material is not strained beyond 
the elastic limit. Thus if two bars of metal stretch 0*03 and 
.0*06 inches under tensile stresses of 1,000 and 2,000 lb. re- 
spectively, their relative resiliences are as 0*03 by 1,000 to 
0*06 by 2,000, or as 1 to 4. The modulus of resilience is the 
resilience for a bar 1 inch in length and 1 sq. inch in cross- 
section when the stress is equal to the elastic limit of the 
material. Approximate average values of the modulus of 
resilience for timber, cast iron, and wrought iron are 8, 1, 
and 12 inch pounds respectively. The total work done in 
rupture of a beam or bar is called its ultimate resilience. 
See Strength op Materials. Mansfield Mereiman. 

ResPna: town of Italy; province of Naples; 5 miles 
S. E. of the city of Naples"; at the foot of Vesuvius between 
Portici and Torre del fcrrcco (see map of Italy, ref. 7-F). It 
is built on masses of lava which cover a large part of an- 
cient Retina and Herculaneum. The sinking of a shaft 
here in 1709 led to the discovery of remains of the theater 
of Herculaneum 90 feet below. In the vicinity are many at- 
tractive villas, the most frequented being La Favorita, the 
principal hall of which is inlaid with marbles from the pal- 
ace of Tiberius at Capri. Pop. 13,626. E. A. Grosvenor. 

Resins [via O. Fr. frf)m Lat. reai'na, from Gr. Afrrity, 
resin, pitch] : a class of bodies that occur very widely dis- 
tributed in plants mostly together with volatile oils, dis- 
solved in which they frequently flow from trees accidentally 
or intentionally cut. Crude resins are never crystallized, 
but have the form of drops, like gum. They are generally 
colored yellow. Most resins consist of several simple com- 
pounds which, however, as a rule, can not be separated from 
one another. The number of resins is very large. They are 
used for preparing Varnishes {q. t\), sealing-wax, soap, for 
stiffeniiig hat-bodies, etc. The most important are Amber, 
('OPAI-, Dammar, Dragon's Blood, Mastic, Lac, Rosin (or 
colophony), and Sandarach (qq. v.). See also Gum-resins. 

Ira Remsex. 

Resolntion of Forces: the mathematical separation of 
forces into component parts ; the converse of Composition 
OP Forces (y. v.). 

Resolntion of Rotations : See ^Iotion. 

Resoi^cin [resin + orcin], or Resoreinol : CeH4(0n)a, a 
diatomic phenol prepiared on the large scale by the action of 
caustic soda on oenzene-disulphonic acid. It i^i soluble in 
water, alcohol, and ether, and is uned for preparing fluores- 
cein, eosin, and other phthalic acid colors. See Phthalic 
Acid. 

Respiration [from Lat. rettpira'tio, breathing, deriv. of 
respira're, breathe, inspire and expire ; re-, again -f- spira're, 
breathe] : the special function of the lungs, the prcxxjss 
which has for its ultimate object the supplying of red blood- 
globules with oxygen for transmission to the various parts 
of the body. To accomplish this result, atmospheric air 
must be introduced frequently and continuously, an exten- 
sive surface of c<mtact for air and bloo<l must exist, and 
the effete products of the chemico- vital interchange must 
be exhaled. 

The physical act of respiration or breathing embraces 
two parts, inspiration and expiration, and there are two dis- 
tinct methcxls of breathing, the abdominal and the thoracic. 
In abdominal breathing the muscles of the abdomen by 
contraction force the viscera upward against the diaphragm, 
which becomes arched into the thoracic cavity and forces 
the air out of the lungs. Then the diaphragm, contracting, 
pushes the abdominal viscera dowiiwanl, and thereby makes 
room for entrance of inspiratory air. In the thoracic tyi)e 
of breathing various external muscles elevate the ribs and 
sternum, and thus materially increase the chest ca|)a<'ity, 
causing inspiration. This completed, the weight of the 
chest walls, with the assistance of certain muscles, causes 
descent of the sternum and ribs, and, in conjunction with 
the natural contractility of the lung siibstantie, forces the 
air out. The abdominal type of breathing is predominant 
in men, the thoracic in women. 

Respiratory action of the lungs is involuntary, although 
it may be voluntarily modified. The hesoin de refijnrer, or 
involuntary incentive to breathe, is the result of impres- 
sions received by the medulla oblongata from the several 
regions of the body, which constantly demand oxygen, and 



transmitted to the respiratory muscles of the thorax and 
abdomen. From eighteen to twenty respiratory acts take 
place per minute, at each of which an average of aU>ut 26 
cubic inches of air is inspired and expired. This definite 
volume of air which ebbs and flows is termed tidal air. hi 
addition, fully 100 cubic inches of air, unaffected by n»sj»irtt- 
tory movement, remains in the smaller bronchi and air->H<>, 
and is termed residual air. Tidal inspiratory air is fn-^h 
and pure; it enters aa far as the fourth divisions of the 
bronchi, and becomes a part of the relatively impure n- 
sidual air. Tidal expiratory air contains carbonic-acid p»>, 
which is exhaled and removed from the body. Each inspi- 
ratory act, therefore, adds an increment of oxygen to the 
bulk of air in the lungs; this oxygen, by the law of diffu- 
sion of gases, permeates the residual air and reaches the air- 
sacs. The air-sacs are thin-walled ; indeed, their wall^ an* 
essentially a network of capillary vessels held together by a 
film of elastic tissue. In tne aggregate, the walls of th*' in- 
numerable air-sacs constitute a surface of many hundn^d 
square feet, upon which the reie mirabile or delicate nt^t- 
work of capillary blood-vessels is spread. The pulmonary 
artery brings impure or venous blood to this extensive sur- 
face, carbonic-acid gas is exchanged for oxygen, and tin' 
purified, reddened, oxygenated blood is returned by the pul- 
monary vein to the left side of the heart, thence to l>e pro- 
pelled through the entire circulation. The red blood-glob- 
ules are the carriers of oxygen, and the full object of the 
preliminary respiratory efforts and the intermediate chcm- 
ico-vital interchange is really attained as the.se red globules 
yield their quota of oxygen to the cells and tissues which 
constitute the Inxly. For a description of the re^pinitor)' 
organs see Histology; for artificial respiration see Kems- 
ciTATioN ; and for respiration in animals see Anatomy, Com- 
parative. See also Respiratory Sounds. 

Revised by W. Peppkr. 

Respiration (in plants): See Physiology, Yegetablk. 

Respirators [from Lat. ^respirator, one who breatlM-s, 
deriv. of respira're, breathe] : mouth-pieces of fine gau/c 
and cloth, to be worn by persons with diseased or wt-nk 
lungs to prevent the ingress of cold and damp air or foniirn 
matter, as smoke, dust, or the grit of stone. They are lit t It- 
used in the U. S,, but are much employed in Great Britain, 
especially by grinders and stone-carvers, and wherever the 
air is permeated by impalpable particles. 

Respiratory Sounds [respiratory is from I^t. r^^pt- 
rare, oreathe] : the sounds produced by inspiration and ex- 
piration, as heard by the method termed auscultation, tin- 
anplication of the ear to the chest directly, or iiulirecilx 
through the medium of the stethoscope. If the entirt* 
period of a respiratory act be represented by ten, inspirath 'ii 
will occupy five-tenths of this period; expiration imm«'di- 
ately follows during the succeeding four-tenths ; and finally 
a period of silence and rest from breathing during the su]»- 
plementary period of one-tenth. During the entire i>erii *\ 
of the inspiratory act the ear applied to a healthy cheM d«-- 
tccts a clear, full, breezv, or blowing sound, gentle at it^ 
commencement, full and well defined at its middle, aiul 
graduated and faint as it is terminating. The inspirator\ 
sound is soft and low-pitched in adults; in children is ruder 
and exaggerated, possessing tubular or friction quality. 
Expiratory sound is comparatively faint, occupying but \\ 
small part of the period of the expiratory act. It alM» i^ 
soft and low-pitched, but more feeble and distant than in- 
spiratory sound, since the recedence of expired air from tlio 
cnest-walls conducts the sound-waves away from the t»ar i»f 
the listener. Expiratory sound is loudest at its comnu-iKi-- 
ment, just as the transition from inspiration has takiii 
place, and gently graduates until it ceases. Insjuratory 
sound is the result of air-friction with the syst-em of bmn- 
chial tubes through which it passes. Hence inspiration i^ u 
compound sound, jjossessing an element of laryngeal origin, 
elements of sound developed in the trachea, the large urn i 
small bronchial tubes, and especially where the tubes l»ifur- 
cate; and finally an important element developed hj the en- 
trance of air into the numberless air-sacs or pulmonary v«*^i- 
cles. This vesicular element of inspiratory- sound is a t<^t 
of the healthy lung. Departures from the normal respira- 
tory sounds are eviiiences of bronchial, pleural, or pulmonary 
disease. The sounds are harsh in early bronchitis, repla<iHi 
or accompanied by rale or musical sounds in advanctxi 
bronchitis; they are masked or completely oliacured by pleu- 
risy ; their inspiratory and expiratory periods have cfiange«l 
relations and qualities in asthma and emphysema ; and iu. 



76 



RESURRECTION PLANT 



RETAINING WALL 



united in sin and redemption, will be united in judgment 
and glory or shame. It confirms the divinity of Christ and 
his atonement, and is intimately related to justification, 
faith, repentance, sanctification, and the whole Christian 
system. It is the foundation of the Christian week and 
year. 

The resurrection implies the continued identity of the body 
— ^that the future body is in essence identical with the present 
body, one being the veiled germ, the other the glorious de- 
velopment. Concerning identity, it has been taught that 
(1) ail the particles of matter that have ever been in the 
body are brought together again ; (2) only the particles 
present at death ; (8) certain more enduring parts are pre- 
served, as an indestructible corporeal germ from whicn is 
made by divine power an organ of the soul adapted to its 
higher condition ; (4) some of the particles remain, however 
few ; (5) there is a " vital germ " ; (6) a spiritual, ** ethereal, 
luminous " body is evolved at the moment of death ; (7) that 
the plastic formative principle of lite {anima, psyclu) is con- 
tinually gathering and casting off the matter it needs for a 
body wherever it may be. The continuance of the vital 
principle constitutes identity, however the particles of mat- 
ter may change, as in a flowing stream. In the case of 
Christ and those alive at his coming, the body then present 
supplies the material ; in the case of the dead, the anima or 
psyche gathers in matter as it needs and makes the psychical 
Dody. The fundamental "form" or principle of bodily 
organism, which here appropriates earthly materials, shall 
in the resurrection appropriate higher materials. (8) That 
identity is in the spirit (wwj), the rational, immortal principle 
which shows itselt in the body which it occupies and stamps 
with its own personality. Identity in an inorganic body — 
e. g. a stone — is in its substance and form ; in an organic 
body, in the whole organism ; in a person it rests in the 
consciousness. 

The resurrection body is (1) spiritual (soma pneumatikanV 
as opposed to the " natural " {soma psych ikon) ; (2) like Christ s 
body ; (3) glorious, powerful, incorruptible, immortal. 

The doctrine, held by some, of two resurrections at dif- 
ferent times— one of the righteous, to which the New Testa- 
ment specially refers, and the other of the wicked — rests on 
(1) the declaration, Rev. xx. 5, 6 ; (2) the use of the phrase 
"resurrection from the dead," used fifty times, and always 
referring to the good ; the phrase " of the dead," referring 
to the bad ; (3) on the New Testament distinctions concern- 
ing the resurrection of the just and unjust, the resurrection 
to life or condemnation ; (4) the longing of the apostle to 
attain the first; and (5) on the order given, 1 Cor. xv. 23. 
Isaac Riley. Revised by F. H. Foster, 

Resarrection Plant : a popular name of several plants 
which, after drying, on the application of moisture expand 
again. One of these is the Rose of Jericho (see Jebicho, 
Rose of) of the east Mediterranean region. Another com- 
mon one is Selaginella lepidophylla^ a Lycopod of the fami- 
ly Selaginellace(e, a native of >lexico and Central America. 
It is a vivid green, rosulate, branching plant, covering a 
space on the ground from 5 to 8 inches in diameter. When 
dry it rolls up into a dull-grayish ball, but upon the return 
of moisture it expands again into a beautiful green rosette. 
These plants are imported into the U. S. in considerable 
numbers, and sold as curiosities. Charles E. Bessey. 

BesDScitation, or Artificial Respiration [re^iscitation 
is from Lat. resuscita'fio, deriv. of resuscita're, stir, rouse up 
a^in ; re-, again + »ubs, from under, up + cita're, ur^e, ex- 
cite, rouse] : motion of the ribs and exchange of air pro- 
duced by external instead of internal and vital force. The 
natural exchange of air in respiration is effected by a me- 
chanical process; and when the muscles which conduct it 
are deprived of their nervous stimulus by poisoning of the 
nerve-centers, that mechanical process can be kept going or 
be recommenced by mechanical means, and thus life be re- 
kindled from apparent death. By compression of the ribs 
the chest-cavities are diminished, and a proportionate quan- 
tity of foul air is forced out by the mouth. On relinquish- 
ing that compression, the ribs by their own ehisticity bound 
back to their former poj^ition, the chest-cavities are enlarged, 
and the air (if that be the surrounding medium) is sucked in 
to prevent a vacuum. Whatever the method, it is upon this 
principle alone, with the observance of proper alternation 
and rhythm, that siich an exchange of air can be effected as 
to be a substitute for natural breathing. Its use is in sus- 

E ended animation from sufftK'ation, as in drowning and 
anging, also from vaj>or of chloroform or other noxious 



gases, in which, death occurring from exclusion of air, a 
supply of air to the lungs is the one remedy. 

Tne following is known as the "direct method " for arti- 
ficial respiration : 

Bule i. To drain off Wafer from Chest and Stomach {in 
cases of Drouming). — instantly strip the patient to the whim. 
Place him face downward, the pit of the stomach Inin^' 
raised above the level of the mouth by a large, hard rt^ll of 
clothing placed transvei-sely beneath the boay. Throw ymir 
weight forcibly two or three times, for a moment or tuu, 
upon the patient's back, over the roll of clothing, so a.s to 
press all fluids in the stomach out of the mouth. 

Rule 2, To perform Artificial Breathing.— (^mcVXy turn 
the patient upon his back, the roll of clothing being so 
placed beneath as to make the breast-bone the highest iK>iiit 
of the body. Kneel beside or astride patient's hips. Gni'^p 
front part of the chest on either side of the pit of the stom- 
ach, resting your fingers along the spaces l)etween the ^^liort 
ribs. Brace your elbows against your sides, and, stead ilv 
grasping and pressing forward and upward, throw your 
whole weight upon the chest, gradually increasing the pn-s- 
sure while you can count one — two — three. Then sudclfnly 
let fo with a final push, which springs you back to your lir-^t 
position. Rest erect upon your knee while you can count 
one — two; then make pressure again as before,' repeating thi- 
entire motions at first about four or five times a niinuti>. 
gradually increasing to about ten or twelve times. V>e the 
same regularity as m blowing bellows and as is seen in nat- 
ural breathing, which you are imitating. If another i»ersniv 
he present, let him with one hand, by means of a dry nirc- 
of Inien, hold the tip of the tongue out of one comer of iho 
mouth, and with the other hand grasp both wrists and pin 
them to the ground above the patient's head. 

Sylvester's method is the most generally applicable. Tho 
body being placed upon the back, with the head slightly cU- 
vated, the flexed arms, grasped just above the elbow's, a i»^ 
carried outward and upwani from the chest almost j>er|K*n- 
dicularly, and retained in their position for about two m »•- 
onds. I'hey are then lowered and brought closely to tl.. 
sides of the' chest, against which they are firmly pressed f-.r 
the same length of time, in order to expel the air ai> <Iuriiii: 
the act of expiration. These alternate movements of elevM- 
tion and depression are repeated from twelve to fourttMii 
times a minute, and are performed with all possible gent U - 
ness. I^eWs method of direct artificial respiration is aj)ph- 
cable especially to opium-poisoning or other forms of nar- 
cosis. A tube is inserted into the larynx and trachea aii<l 
warmed air forced in by a bellows. By this method pers« ^ij^ 
apparently dead have been resuscitated. Mouth-t<>-nn)Ui fi 
insufflation, in children especially, is easily practicable ami 
very useful. 

The length of time persons have been underwater, «»r 
have remained apparently dead after leaving the water. at)«I 
yet been resuscitated, is uncertain. The reported time is ^« . 
remarkably long in some cases as to justify efforts for resu.— 
citation for at least an hour, the patient having breat In ^i 
within half an hour or perhaps an hour. In experiments 1 • v 
a committee of the Royal Medico-Chirurgical Society t t 
London in 1862, dogs after complete submersion a minute 
and a half never recovered. After respiratory acts hit* I 
ceased, the heart continued to act never more than four 
minutes. In the human subject these periods doubtles.< mn \ 
be much longer, governed largely by tne continuousnevs « . f 
submersion, the rate of the circulation at the last moment <.« ' 
consciousness, the temperature of the water, the amount *.*{ 
it which enters the lungs, etc. Revised by W. Pepper. 

Retaining lYall : a wall of stone built to sustain Imi i k s 
of earth in position. The lateral pressure of the earth «i' - 
pends upon its nature and upon the inclination of the v^iil 
(See Earthwork.) The thickness of the wall at the top w i . 
be usually 2 feet or more, and its thickness at the Ims^^ is t •< 
be so determined that ample security against sliding. r*»iiii ^ 
ing, and crushing will be secured. *rhe last of these is M ^ 
able to occur only in very high walls, and the first can k ••! 
always avoided by inclining the joints backward. The ii-- i 
of formulas for computing the thickness is hence mail . i m 
confined to the case of rotation for ordinary walls, and tb«--.! 
are deduced so that under the most unfavorable cireu t n . 
stances the line of direction of the resultant of the eart i 
pressure and the weight of the wall shall cut the base w it h * i 
its middle third. The cross-section of the wall is usuh . ^ 
trapezoidal, but walls with curved front surfaces are « .. , 
casionally built. If the back of a trapezoidal wall be vi-x" 



78 



RETZ 



REUTER 



Betz, Jean Francois Paul de Gondi, Cardinal de: b. at 
Montmirail-en-Brie, France, Oct., 1614. Ilia family held 
high ecclesiastical dienities^ and forced hira against his will 
into the Church. He led, nevertheless, an irregidar life, 
and devoted himself to the service of a restless political ambi- 
tion. He was active in intrigues against liichelieu, after 
whose death he was, in 1643, appointed by the queen-regent 
coadjutor to his uncle, the Archbishop of Paris. The power 
he acquired as a pulpit orator he turned to political ends 
and tried to supplant Mazarin, taking advantage of the 
troubles of the Fronde. He acquired a cardinaVs hat in 
1651 by his intrigues, but was outgeneraled by Mazarin, ar- 
rested in 1652, and imprisoned, first at Vincennes, then at 
Nantes. While in prison he became Archbishop of Paris. 
He escaped, fled to Spain, and remained a fugitive there and 
in lUly and Holland till after Mazarin's death, when, in 
1662, he made his peace with Louis XIV., exchanged his 
archbishopric for the abbac}^ of St. Denis, in Paris, and 
spent the rest of his life in dignified and sumptuous quiet, 
employed in some delicate diplomatic missions to Rome, in 
writing his Mimoires, and in paying his debts. I), in Paris, 
Aug. 24, 1679. His Memoir es cover the years 1643-55, are 
very frank, not always truthful, but brilliantlv written. 
They were first published in 1717; the best recent edition is 
that in the series of (jhrantU JBcrivains de la France (first 9 
voK, Paris, 1872-87). A. G. Canfield. 

Retziius, Maonits Gustaf: histologist; b. in Stockholm, 
Sweden, Oct. 27, 1842 ; widely known and quoted as an au- 
thority in anthropology. His work Finska Kranier (Fin- 
nish Skulls), published in 1878, is standard. In 1884 he 
compiled his German work Daa Gehdrorgan der Wirbel- 
thiere. Since 1872 he has edited the volumes of Ur ivlr tida 
Furskning, and in 1881-82 he edited Biologische Unter- 
suchungen, mainly written by himself. R. B. A. 

Reochlin, roich-Ieen' (Hellenized Capnio), Johann: clas- 
sical and Hebrew scholar and humanist ; b. at Pforzheim, 
Baden, Germany, Feb. 22, 1455. He was educated in the 
chapel of the Margrave of Baden, and followed in 1473 the 



Dictionarium, nngtdas Voces lAitinag breviler explicans; 
and during a second visit to France in 1478 he studied law 
at Orleans. In 1481 he lectured on jurisprudence and 
belles-lettres at the University of TQbingen, received the 
title of imperial councilor from the emperor, and lived sub- 
sequently for several years at the court of the elector pala- 
tine, Philip, at Heidelberg (1492-96). To this period belong 
his first studies of the Hebrew language and his coraetly, 
Sergiits, 8i've Capitis Caput, whose satire against the clergy 
was heartily enjoyed. In 1498 he went to Rome, his patron, 
the elector palatine, having fallen under the papal ban, and 
he succeeded in procuring his absolution. After his return 
he was appointed president of the Suabian confederate tri- 
bunal, but he found time to continue his studies of Hebrew, 
the results of which were his Rudimenta Ilehraica (1506), 
De Arte Cabbalistica Libri III., and De Ac^ntibus et Or- 
tho^raphia Hebrcpor^im Libri IlL (1518). By these works 
he inaugurated the study of the Hebrew language in West- 
em Europe. He exercised a similar stimulating influence 
bv his handbooks, editions (e. ff. Xenophon's Agesilaus, 
JJiero. and the two speeches of Aschines and Demosthenes 
on The Crown), and personal exertions in the study in Ger- 
many of Latin and Greek. The pronunciation of the Greek 
language known as lotacism originated with him. He was 
t4Mi liberal to escape clashing against the prejudices of his 
age. A converted Jew, Johann Pfefferkoni, protK>sed in 
1510 that all Hebrew books, with the exception of the Bible, 
should be burned. The Dominicans were in raptures over 
the p»ro[K)?;ition ; the Inquisition immediately recognized it 
as H new weapon of persecution ; the emperor ac^iuieseed. 
Meanwiiile Keiichlin remonstrated, the emperor withilrew 
his consent, and the Inquisition and the monks flew into a 
fury. Keiichlin published his Specuhim Oculart (Augt^n- 
spiegel) {UiVZ) and Deftnuio contra Cat until iatorea (15i:^), 
while ririch von Hutten and Franz von Sickingen kept 
guard over his personal safety. In 1515 appeared the first 
part of the Epintolie (ibHcnrornm Virorum, most of which 
were written by a friend of Kouchlin, Crotus Kubianus, 
others by L'lrich von Hutten. The success of this famous 
satire was instantaneous, and did not a little in paving the 
way for the lit* format ion. With Luther himself Reuchlin 
felt a deep sympathy, but he declined an invitation to come 



to Wittenberg, sending in his stead his nephew Melanch- 
thon, and maintained his connection with the Roman Catho- 
lic Church to the last. In 1520 he was appointai professor 
at Ingolstadt, but when the plague broke out in that city h*- 
determined to retire to Tttbingen, but died at Liehenzi'll, 
June 30, 1522. His Life was written by Gehres (IHir))! 
Meyerhoff (1830), Geiger (1871), and Horawitz (1877). (leiger 
also edited his Letters (1876). Revised by A. Gudema.n. 

R6nnlon, r5'a'ni-on', called Bourbon prior to 1848; also 
lie Bonaparte ; an island and French colony in the Indian 
Ocean ; belonging to the Mascarene group; about lOO mih-s 
S. W. of Mauritius ; lat. 20' 51' 43" S., Ion. 55 30 16* E. h 
is 38 miles long, 28 miles wide; area, 965 s<|. miles. It is 
volcanic, and is traversed by a mountain-chain thetliroction 
of which is N. and S. This mountain-range, of which r.iM- 
peak rises 10,000 feet al)ove the sea, divides the island int<» 
two portions, differing in climate and productions. TIk* 
Piton de la Fournaise, 7,200 feet high, is an active volcan«», 
the eruptions of which occur on an average at least twice a 
year. The soil in some parts is verv fertile, and the st^nirv 
IS generally extremely beautiful, the climate was fornuTlV 
healthful, but Europeans now suffer much from typhoid fi-vi»r 
and dysentery. The mean annual temperature is about 77 F. 
The island is often visited by terrific hurricanes, which de- 
molish houses and tear up trees by the roots. The chi^f 
articles of export are sugar, coffee, and dyewowis. Mai/.*-, 
rice, and tobacco are also cultivated. Reunion has no ^'<mh1 
harbors, and the coast is consequently dangerous. Cai«it«l, 
St. Denis. The chief port is Fointe-ile-Galeta, from which 
extends a railway 78 miles long. This island was di.s<M>v- 
ered in 1545 by the Portuguese, and was occupied bv the 
French in 1649. Pop. (1889) 165,915. of whom 25.000 are 
Hindus. Revised by M. W. Hakrisotox. 

Benss, rois : the name of two small princijialities of (ier- 
many belonging to an elder and younger line of the famil v 
of Reuss, and consisting of several separate territories situ- 
ated between Prussia, Saxony, and Bavaria. The domin- 
ion of the elder line, Reuss-Greiz, ha* an area of 122 ^\. 
miles. Pop. (1890) 62,754. Capital, Greiz. That of i\u^ 
younger line, Reuss-Schleiz Gera, has an area of 319 S4i 
miles. Pop. (1890) 119,811. Capital, Schleiz. The surfacn- 
of bothrjrincipalities is hillv, reaching over 2.000 feet hiirli 
in the Thttringer Wald. W'ore than a third is covered w it h 
forests, and there are extensive meadows on which cattle are 
fattened. Woolen, cotton, and silk goods are woven. 

Benss : a river of Switzerland. It rises in the canton i .f 
Uri, near St. Gothard, descends in its upper course 4..*><«> 
feet in a series of wild cataracts and magnificent cascadt-v, 
enters the southern end of Lake Lucerne, issues from th** 
northern end as a clear, deeji-green, navigable stream, aii<l 
joins the Aar in the canton of Aargau at Windisch after tt 
course of about 100 miles. 

Benss, fioouARo Gl'illaume EuotxE, D. I). : theolc»gian : 
b. at Strassburg (then a part of P>ance).' July 1». 1N04 ; 
educated at the seminary of his native city; studied the- 
ology at GSttingen under Eichhorn, Oriental philology at 
Halle under Gesenius, and pursued the latter braucii at 
Paris under Silvestre de Sacv ; taught biblical criticism and 
Oriental languages in the theological school of Strassburic 
1829-34 ; became extraordinary professor there 1834, and or- 
dinary (regidar) professor 1836; retired on a pension IJ^hh ; 
declined a call to the University of Jena; published (in Ger- 
man) a Bistory of the Books of the New Testament (Ilallv. 
1842; 6th ed. Brunswick, 1887; Eng. trans, from 5th e«l. 
1874, by E. L. Honghton, 2 vols.. Boston, 18H4), and (it - 
Schick te der heiligen Schriften Alten Testaments (1881 ; t}d 
ed. 1890) ; Histoire de la Thiol ogie chritienne au si tele fifHn<- 
foliqm (2 vols., Strassburg, 1852; 3d etl. 1864; Eng. tran^^, 
Edinburgh, 1872); Histoire du Canon des Saintes J^m- 
fures dans TEglise chritienne (1863; Ene. trans. Kdii»^ 
burgh, 1884); and prepared an annotated French trans-la- 
tion of the entire Bible (19 vols., Paris, 1874-81), ami th«- 
same in German (Brunswick. 1892, seq.). He edited for man v 
years a German review which appears at Jena {Beitraat . 
etc.), contributed largely to C'oiani s Revue de Theologif^ an» i 
was one of the most learned and liberal theologians of tit.- 
French I*rotestant Church. With Baum and Cunitz. itm 1 
after their death alone, he edited the monumental edit ion «♦ • 
Calvin's Opera, not yet finished (vol. 1., 1894). I), in Stni>--- 
burg, Apr. 15, 1891." Revised by S. M. Jackson. 

Benter, roi't/»r, Paul JrLirs, Baron: promoter of tin- 
telegraphic system on the continent of Eurofie; b. at CasM-l^ 



80 



REVELATION 



ties working upon natural data and that obtained in a su- 
pernatural mode as well as from a supernatural source. 
Again, in the knowledppe of God, communicated by the ob- 
jective activities of his Spirit upon the minds of special 
organs of revelation— supernaturally, thus, as to immediate 
origin as well as to ultimate source — ^some may emerge into 
consciousness along the lines of the ordinary action of the 
human faculties. Such knowledge would form a still higher 
intermediate class — between that obtained by the natural 
faculties working according to their native powers on super- 
natural data and that obtained in a purely supernatural 
mode, as well as from a supernatural source and by a super- 
natural agencv. These moiles of revelation are not to be 
overlooked, but neither is it to be overlooked that among 
the ways in which God has revealed himself is also thw way 
— that he has spoken to man as Spirit to spirit, mouth to 
mouth, and has made himself anu his gracious purposes 
known to him in an immediate and direct word of God, 
which is simply received and not in any sense attained by 
man. In these revelations we reach the culminating cate- 
gory of special revelation, in which its peculiar charact^er is 
most clearly seen. And it is these direct revelations which 
modern thought finds most difiicult to allow to be real, and 
which Christian apologists must es|)ecially vindicate. 

Theories of Revelation, — In the state of the case which 
has just been pointed out, it is a matter of course that recent 
theories of revelation should very frequently leave no or but 
little place for the highest form of revelation, that by the 
direct word of God. The lowest class of theories represent 
revelation as taking place only through the purely natural ac- 
tivities of the human mind, and deny the reality of an^ spe- 
cial action of the Divine Spirit directly on the mind m the 
communication of revealea truth. Those who share this 
general position may differ very greatly in their presuppo- 
sitions. They may, from a fundamentally deistic stand- 
point, jealously guard the processes of human thought from 
all intrusion on the part of God ; or they may, from a fun- 
damentally pantheistic standpoint, look upon all human 
thought as only the unfolding of the divine thought. They 
may differ also very greatly as to the nature and source of 
the objective data on which the mind is supposed to work 
in obtaining its knowledge of God. But they are at one in 
conceiving that which from the divine side is spoken of as 
revelation, as on the human side, simply the natural devel- 
opment of the moral and religious consciousness. The ex- 
treme deistic theory allows the possibility of no knowledge 
of God except what is obtained by the human mind working 
upon the data supplied by creation to the exclusion of provi- 
dential government. Modem speculative theists correct 
the deistic conception by postulating an immanent divine 
activity, both in external providence and in mental action. 
The data on which the mind works are supplied, accord- 
ing to them, not only by creation, but also by Goil's moral 
government ; and the theory grades upward in proportion 
as something like a special providence is admitted in the 
peculiar function ascribed to Israel in developing the idea of 
uod, and the significance of Jesus Christ as tne emboiliment 
of the perfect relation between God and man is recognized. 
(Biedermann, ChriniL Dogmatik, i.. 264 ; Lipsius, Dogmatik, 
41 ; Pfleiderer, ReligionsphiloHophie^ iv., 46.) The school of 
Kitschl, though tht^y speak of a "positive revelation" in 
Jesus Christ, make no real advance upon this. Denving not 
only all mvstical ccmnectioh of the soul with God, \)ut also 
all rational knowledge of divine things, they confine the 
data of revelation to the historical manifestation of Christ, 
which makes an impression on the minds of men such as 
justifies us in speaking of him as revealing God to us. 
(Uerrmann, Der Begriff der Offenharung, and Der Verkehr 
des Christen mit Uott\ Kaftan, Das Wesen^ etc.) 

We are on higher ground, however, although still moving 
in essentially the same circle of conceptions as to the nature 
of revelation, when we rise to the tneory which identifies 
revelation strictlv with the scries of redemptive acts (Koeh- 
ler. Stud, und Jiritiken, 18.")2, p. 875). From this point of 
view, as truly as from that of the deist or speculative theist, 
revelation is confined to the purely external manifestation 
of God in a series of acts. It is ditferentiated from the con- 
ceptions of the deist and speculative thoist only in the na- 
ture of the works of God, which are sup|)oso^ to supply 
the data which are observed and worked into knowledge by 
the unaided activities of the human mind. In emjibjusiz- 
ing here those acts of a special pr(ivid«*nce which constitute 
the redemptive activity of God, this theory for the Ur-st time 
lays the foundation for a distinction between gi-neral and 



special revelation; and it grades upward in proporti(»n as 
the truly miraculous character of God's redemptive work i«» 
recognized, and acts of a truly miraculous nature are in- 
cluded in it. And it rises above itself in proportion «**, 
along with the supernatural character of the series of ob- 
jective acts with which it formally identifies revelation, 
it recognizes an immediate action of God's Spirit on tlie 
mind of man, preparing, fitting, and enabling him to appre- 
hend and interpret aright the revelation made objectively 
in the redemptive acts. J. Chr. K. Hofmann in his earlier 
work. Prophecy and Fulfillment, announces this theory in 
a lower form, but corrects it in his later SchriftheweiH, 
Richard Rothe {Zur Dogmatik^ p. 64) is an outstanding ex- 
am pie of one of its higher forms. To him revelation c<ni- 
sists fundamentally in the "manifestation" of God in tho 
series of redemptive acts, by which God enters into natural 
history by means of an unambiguously supernatural and pe- 
culiarly divine history, and which man is enabled to under- 
stand and rightly to mterpret by virtue of an inward work 
of the Divine Spirit that Rothe calls '* inspiration." But 
this internal action of the Spirit does not communicate new 
truth ; it only enables the subject to combine the elements 
of knowledge naturally received into a new combination, 
from which springs an essentially new thought which he is 
clearly conscious that he did not produce. The theory pro- 
pounded by Prof. A. B. Bruce in nis well-known lectu're> on 
The Chief End of Revelation stands possibly one stairc 
higher than Rothe's, to which it bears a very express relation. 
Dr. Bruce speaks with great circumspection. He represent s 
revelation as consisting in the " self-manifestation of G(k1 in 
human history as the God of a gracious purpose — ^the mani- 
festation being made not merely or chiefly by words, but 
very specially Tby deeds" (p. 155); while he looks \i\nm "in- 
spiration " as ** not enabling the prophets to originate a new 
idea of God," but "rather as assisting them to read aright 
the divine name and nature." Dr. Bruce transcends the \h>- 
sition of the class of theorists here under consideration in 
proportion as he magnifies the oflRce of inner "inspiration.*' 
and, above all, in proportion to the extent of meaning whi<-h 
he attaches to the saving clause that revelation is not meruit/ 
by word, but also by deed. The theory commended l)y the 
great name of Bishop B. F. Westcott (The Oospel of Life) 
is quite similar to Dr. Bruce's. 

By these transitional theories we are already carrioil 
well into a second class of theories, which recognize that 
revelation is fundamentally the work of the Spirit of G<mI 
in direct communication with the human mind. At it^ 
lowest level this conception need not rise above the pan- 
theistic postulate of the unfolding of the life and thought 
of God within the world. The Divine Spirit stirs mcn'^ 
hearts, and feelings and ideas spring up, which are n(» li^.-^ 
revelations of God than movements of tlie human soul. A 
higher level is attained when the action of God is conccivt'il 
as working in the heart of man an inward certainty of oli- 
vine life — as, for example, bv Schultz {Old Testament Th* - 
ology); revelation being confined as much as possible to th*- 
inner life of man apparently to avoid the recognition of 
objective miracle. A still higher level is reached where thf 
action of the Spirit is thought of — after the fashion of 
Rothe, for example — as a necessary aid granted to certain 
men to enable them to apprehend and interpret aright t)»f 
objective manifestation of God. The theory rises in char- 
acter in proportion as the necessity of this action of tli*- 
Spirit, its relative importance, and the nature of the effiHt 
produced by it are magnified. So long, however, as it c<-ii- 
ceives of this work of the Spirit as secondary, and onlinanly 
if not invariably successive to the series of redemptive a«t -^ 
of God, which are thought to constitute the real core of tht- 
revelation, it falls short, of the biblical idea. Accortling i* » 
the biblical representations, the fundamental element in 
revelation is not the objective process of redemptive M<^t^. 
but the revealing operations of the Spirit of God, which run 
through the whole series of modes of communication j»ro|.fr 
to Spirit, culminating in communications bv the objo<'ti\ ♦- 
worn. The characteristic element in the Bible idea of nMi-- 
lati(m in its highest sense is that the organs of revelatn»ti 
are not creatively concerned in the revelations mmlo thn»UL'- \ -. 
them, but (K*cupy a recef»tive attitude. The contents of tin' i t* 
messages are not something thought out. inferred, ho|KMh ^^\ 
feared by them, but something conveyed to them, ofti-i. 
forced ufmn them by the irresistible might of tlie reveahn^ 
Spirit. No conception can do justice to the Bible iilca « 'ij 
revelation which neglects these facts. Nor is justice doii.i 
even to the rational idea of revelation when thev arc ne- ^ 



82 



REVELATION, BOOK OP 



a fourth, the introduction of monachism, etc. Such a di- 
versity rises simply from the imagination having been set 
free and working without any fixed rule. It is, moreover, 
inadmissible that it should be necessary to possess the whole 
treasury of learning belonging to a professor of history in 
order to understand a book which God has given to his peo- 
ple for the purpose of edification. The modem rationalists 
nave broken with this method of interpretation for many 
reasons, good and bad ; first, no doubt, because it presup- 
poses divine inspiration, but also because their whole sys- 
tem leads them to seek the key to the interpretation of a 
book in the circumstances under which it was written. 
Hence the interpretation of the beast as the Roman em- 
pire, and of the head wounded to death, but reappearing as 
Antichrist, as the Emperor Xero. Insurmountable difficul- 
ties are, however, involved in this method of explanation ; 
and it seems very singular that a book so holily conceived 
and so severely planned should be a mere tissue of fancies 
and hallucinations. 

There remains the method which recognizes in the Reve- 
lation a picture of the general progress of the Church, to 
whose understanding no other premises are necessary than 
such as may be drawn from the Scriptures themselves. 
There is still room for individual views. Thus Bossuet sees 
in the destruction of the beast the fall of the Roman empire ; 
Hengstenberg considers the reign of a thousand years as 
the predominance of Christianity from Charlemagne to our 
days ; John Nelson Darby, the principal founder of the Plym- 
outh Brethren, holds that the whole history of the Church 
from the apostolic age up to that preceding the return of 
Christ is omitted in the picture, and must be placed in the 
interval between the thira and fourth chapters, so that the 
whole vision (iv.-xix.) relates exclusively to the future, to 
that which precedes immediately the coming of the Lord. 
It is impossible to enter here into a discussion of these in- 
dividual points of view, but it is hoped that the reader, fol- 
lowing the outline which has been given, will find in the 
Revelation points sufficiently precise to indicate the course 
of the religious progress of humanity, and at the same time 
sufficiently elevated to enlighten and fortifv his heart under 
all the various events of his life. There is the same power in 
this vision as in that through which God revealed to Moses 
in six successive pictures the origin of the world. At every 
moment of a person's life he finds himself in contact with 
the religious bearing of this vision in Genesis. At every 
moment, too, but especially when he is under the cross, his 
soul gathers new life from the spirit of the apocalyptic 
expectations. It is solelv for this purpose of edification, 
and not in order to satisfy our curiositv, that God has per- 
mitted us to see, on the one hand, through the eyes of 
Moses, the stream of the times issuing forth from eternity, 
and on the other, through the eyes of John, the times re- 
turning to the sea of eternity. Christ is coming (the Old 
Testament) ; Christ has come (the ^spel) ; Christ shall come 
again (the Revelation) — such is the sum of the history of 
mankind. 

One of the chief problems of the book relates to Anti- 
christ. There are two leading opinions respecting his per- 
son. Some consider hiin merely as a poetical personinca- 
tion of a principle, of the spirit of reoellion against God 
and Christ, which shall go on increasing till the final tri- 
umph of the gospel. Others recognize in him a real man, 
who shall concentrate in his own person to the utmost ex- 
tent the spirit of apostasy. The second chapter of the 
Second Epistle to the Thessalonians, in which his apparition 
is described, speaks decidedly in favor of the second ex- 
planation. Antichrist is here designated as the man of sin, 
who shall place himself as a god in the temple of God ; he 
is called the wicked man whom the Lord shall destroy by 
the breath of his mouth. Uis theological system may be 
summed up in the three following theses : (1) There is no 
personal God without and above the universe; (2) man 
IS himself his own god — he is the god of this world ; (3) 
'*I am the true representative of humanity; bv worship- 
iuji^ me mankind worships itself." Even from this general 
point of view there still remain certain differences of opin- 
ion. According to some this person has already appeared 
on the stage ; he is the pope. It is evident, however, that 
the pope has never actually substituted himself for God or 
Christ ; on the contrary, he rests his authority on that of 
Christ and God. The pone may be said to be on the way 
which ends with the arrival of Antichrist, but he is not yet 
Antichrist himself. Others hold that the Antichrist an- 
nounced in the Revelation is only an empty supposition, 



which has never been revealed. The author of the proph- 
ecy, they say, thought of the Emperor Nero, that matcliIesEk 
monster, the first persecutor of the Church, whose death the 
world could not believe in, and whom the terrified Church 
feared to see return suddenly and assume the part of t he 
man of sin and the universal suppressor. The number 666. 
which, according to xiii. 18, is the number of the beast, wa> 
explained in accordance with this view. The letters of the 
two words KAISAR NERON, when taken as ciphe^!^ 
and counted in Hebrew, give indeed the sum of 666. Thi< 
fear was never realized, nowever, and thus the Revelati(»ti 
became an unfulfilled prophecy on this capital point. It i> 
difficult to understiina how under such circumstances the 
book can have survived in spite of the discredit which fell 
on it immediately after its appearance, and how the au- 
thor, if he was a serious man, could suffer it to circulate 
without retraction. It must also be noticed that in order to 
obtain the sum of 666 from this name it must be written 
Keaar^ and not Kaisar, which is against custom and ortho- 
graphical rules. Finally, it would be somewhat strange if 
the name which was to be figured out of the number ha<l 
been put down in Hebrew, while all the rest of the work is 
in Greek. In speaking of the man of sin, St. Paul, far f rt>xii 
identifying this person with the Roman emperor, hints that« 
on the contrary, it was the imperial power which prevented 
Antichrist from appearing. ** Ye know," he says (2 The«.««. 
ii. 6), ^ what withholdeth that he might be revealed in his 
time." The apostle considers Antichrist as the realization 
of the false Messiah, the terrestrial king, the new Solomon, 
whom the carnal Israel expects. What was it that pre- 
vented the Jews of that time from putting forth this false 
Messiah, the object of their hearts* longings f It was the 
Roman legions, which on the mere nod of the emperor 
would have invaded the Holy Land and put down any at- 
tempt at insurrection. It is the powers instituted by and 
inherited from the Roman empire which up to this very 
day have prevented Antichrist, the false Messiah of the 
Jews, from appearing; but he will not fail to come forth 
as soon as these powers fall; the Jewish people will then 
have acquired that preponderance in all civiuzed states which 
is necessary before it can give its insatiable ambiticm the 
reins. With respect to the number 666 numerous solutions 
of this enigma nave been given, but none which is thor- 
oughly satisfactory. A peculiar fact has lately attractcnl 
attention. The Greeks do not designate numbers by par- 
ticular signs called ciphers, but by the letters of the alf>ha- 
bet, to which a numerical value is assigned. Thus 600 is 
expressed by the letter X {ch\ 60 by ^ (x), and 6 by f (^>. 
The name of Christ (Christos) is represented by the first 
and last letters, x^ cu^d these two letters represent the two 
numbers 600 and 6. If between these two letters the letter 
(, which signifies 60, is introduced, the sum of 666 is ob- 
tained ; and the three letters, x^^ represent the abrid^e<l 
form of the name of Christ, but in such a manner that the 
first and third letters are separated by the (, the emblem of 
the serpent. Thus in Greek 666 is the emblem of the Mes- 
siah, of Satan, or of Antichrist. It may also be notiee<i 
that, according to the symbolism of numbers employe^l in 
the Revelation, the number 7 always expresses tne divine 
plenitude, and that God, as the Father, the Son, and the 
Holy Spirit, must consequently be represented in ciphers by 
777. Thus the number 666 would signify the creature*^ 
highest though still impotent effort at attaining divine 
glory and power, and the representation would comprise 
the three persons which form the diabolical trinity — namely. 
Satan, or the dragon, the beast, or Antichrist, and the ^4^^'- 
ond beast, or the false prophet. Satan can not become 
God, nor can Antichrist attain the dignity of the Son-Mes- 
siah, nor the false prophet equal the Holy Ghost. Never- 
theless it is no doubt wise to apply to our age that which in 
the second century the pious Irenwus said to his: "If the 
author of the prophecy would have made the name known 
to this time, ne would have designated it more plain It/* 
Irenn?us mentions several explanations propoundend in his 
time, of which the least improbable is the word Latein*^ — 
that is, Latin, Roman, the Roman emperor. The Greek 
letters of which this word is composed give, indeed, wheu 
added together as ciphers, the exact sum 666. 

Fr£d£ric Godet. 
The author calls himself '* John " in i. 1, 4, 9, xxii. K an<I 
traditionally the Revelation has been assigned to the a pits- 
tie John. Bishop Boyd Carpenter, in Elliott's Commenfttft/ 
on Revelation, thus sums up the case on the orthodox siiU* : 
' The author represents himself as John in a way and at a 









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84 



RETEB 



REYNOLDS 



settled in 1830 in Paris, and devoted himself to literature, 
writing for many liberal journals ; edited Histoir^ acienti- 
'aue et militaire de VExpidiHon frangaiae en EgypU (10 
. 18d0>d6) ; published from 1836 to 1840, in the RewiB 



des Deux Mondes, his Eludes sur lea Riformaleura, ou So- 
eialialea modemea^ which in 1841 received the Montyon prize 
from the Academy and has since passed through several edi- 
tions; published in 1843 JSrome Balurol d la Recherche 
d^une Position aociale, his most popular work, which was 
followed in 1848 by Jir6me Paturot d la Recherche de la 
meilleure dea ripubliouea (1848). He became a member of 
the Academy in 1850, and continued to write romances, 
economical essays, political pamphlets, and literary and so- 
cial criticisms. ' He was several times elected to the legisla- 
ture, and after t^e coup d'itat of 1851 was a member of the 
consultative commission. D. in Paris, Oct. 28, 1879. 

Revised by P. M. Colby. 

Beyer, rd'i-&', Louis £tienne Ernest (real name Bey) : 
composer ; b. at Marseilles, France, Dec. 1, 1823 ; began to 
study music there ; when sixteen years of i^e went to Al- 
giers, in the service of the Government. In 1848 he re- 
turned to France and continued to study in Paris. His first 
important composition was Le Selam, an Oriental symphony 
with choruses, produced Apr. 5. 1850. Since then he has 
composed several operas with more or less success, promi- 
nent among which are Sacountala (1858) ; La Statue (1861) ; 
-&ro«^ra/« (Baden, 1862 ; Paris, 1871); and ^i^wrfi (Brussels, 
1884). His latest work is Salammho (1893). He is also an 
accomplished feuilletonist. He was decorated with the Le- 
gion of Honor in 1862 and raised to the rank of commander 
m 1891. He is a member of the Academy of Fine Arts. 

D. E. Heevby. 

Beykjarlk, ilk'yaa-vik: the capital of Iceland, on the 
southwestern coast of the island, in lat. 64° 8' N., Ion. 21* 5' 
W., at the head of Paxafjord. It is the seat of the govern- 
ment, has a college with a library of 10,000 volumes, medi- 
cal and divinity schools, an observatory and a museum, an 
important annual fair, and regular communication bv steam- 
ships with Leith and Copenhagen. It was foundea in 874. 
Pop. 1,400. Revised by P. Gboth. 

Bej^nard the Fox : a popular epic of European oriein. 
Despite the efforts of Jacob Grimm {Reinhart Fueha, 1§34) 
to establish the existence of a native and purely popular 
Germanic beast-epos, of which Reynard the Fox formed the 
most conspicuous example, scholars now agree in regarding 
this beast-epos in general, and Reynard in particular, as an 
outgrowth of the old fables which were worlced into this or 
that shape for prevailingly satirical purposes. To be sure, 
we must admit a certain admixture of native material, and 
not ascribe every shred of these fables to the Orient. Yet in 
any case, whatever the material, monks, not popular fancy, 
were responsible for the development of the fables into later 
forms ; they used the stories which came mainly from the 
East and drifted, by way of Greece and Italy, over Western 
Europe. A fable of uEsop got footing in German literature 
as early as the seventh century ; another, the story of the sick 
lion and the fox, soon followed, and was treated as inde- 
pendent or purely local tradition. In the tenth century this 
Table was used as a convenient allegory for the fortunes of 
a monk ; and a few years later, probably in Flanders, names 
were given to the principal beasts : Isengrim (iron-masked) 
to the wolf ; Noble to the lion ; and Reynard (originally the 
Germanic word meaning good or firm m counsel ; the Low 
German form is Reineke or Reinke, while French Renard, 
as a generic name, has actually supplanted the Old French 
goidpil^ from Latin vulpesS to the fox. Bruin for bear is al- 
most as common in Englisn. The earlier literature had been 
in Latin and was didactic or satirical ; but now, like the 
medieval legend, this popular material found voice in the 
vernacular. It grew into a sort of epos ; and indeed the 
Latin laengrimua (about 1150) had already assumed epic 
proportions. The first German epos of Reynard was com- 
posed about 1180. French jongleurs worked the material 
into a sort of romance, the Roman de Renart, with many 
so-called branches. About the middle of the thirteenth cen- 
tury one of these French versions was used by a Fleming 
named Willem as basis for the admirable Roman van den 
Voa Reinaerde. This, again, was worked over and furnished 
with sundry additions by an unknown Fleming in the four- 
teenth century, under the name of ReincerVa JTistorie ; this, in 
turn, toward the close of the fifteenth century, was enlarged by 
explanations in prose : and flnallv it was translated into Low 
German as the famous Reinke de Voa, or Reineke VoSf appear- 



ing about 1500. Enormously popular, these versions made 
their way into the various toneues of Europe. Caxton tran.s- 
lated one of them and printed it, June, 1481, as TA« Hiatory 
of Reynard the Fox, (See Arber's reprint in the Englmh 
Scholar' a Library,) In modem times Goethe has told us t his 
familiar stoiy, the Unheilige Weltbibel, as he called it — in 
hexameters which hold a nice balance between epic and 
satire — Reineke Fue?^; an English translation was mad** 
by T. J. Arnold, and was published with Kaulbach's and 
Wolfe's illustrations. 

It was Willem who gave Reynard his commanding pla<*<* 
as hero of the little epic and representative of des^rat*^ 
craftiness. Willem, however, takes sides against his hero ; 
while later versions make the fox a thoroughly triumphant 
rascal. The ethical problem involved is discussed half 
humorously, half seriously, by Froude in his Short Stud if if 
on Oreat Subieeta, The student must be referred for detail:* 
of bibliography to E. Martin, Le Roman de Renart (Stra>s- 
burg, 1882 d.), and Reinaert (Paderbom, 1874) ; also to the 

Ereface of Arber's reprint of Caxton, and the introducti'm 
y W. J. Thoms to The Hiatory of Reynard the Fox (Perc y 
Society, 1844). Francis B. Gcmmere. 

Bevnolds, Henry Robert, D. D. : clergyman and author : 
b. at Romsey, Hampshire, England, Feb. 26, 1825 ; educat<Ml 
at University College, London; became minister of a Ci»ii- 

fregational church at Halstead, Essex, England, in 1846; <>f 
ast Parade Congregational church, Leeds, in 1849 ; presi- 
dent of Countess of Huntingdon's College, at Cheshunt, in 

1860, and also Professor of Theology and Exegesis; was one 
of the editors of The Britiah (^arterly Review 1865-74 ; 
author of Beginninga of the Divine Life (1858); John 1?te 
Baptiat, a Contribution to Chriatian Evidencea (1874) ; 
Tl%e Philoaophy of Prayer, and other Eaaaya (1881); com- 
mentaries on Hosea and Amos, on the Gospel of John, Athn^ 
naaiua, hia Life and Work (1889), and of important contri- 
butions to theological cyclopa»dias and reviews. 

Revised by G. P. Fisher. 

Beynoldg, Ignatius Aloysius, D. D. : bishop; b. n€:-»ir 
Bardstown, Ky., Aug. 22, 1798 ; educated at St. Mary's C* .i- 
lege, Baltimore, Md.; ordain^ a Roman Catholic priest 
1823 ; was successively vicar-^eneral of Kentucky, rector of 
St. Joseph's College, and president of the Nazareth Female 
Institute of Kentuckv, and was consecrated Bishop of 
Charieston, Mar. 19, 1844 D. at Charleston, Mar. 9, 185.5. 

Beynolds, or Bainolds, John, D. D. : clergyman and au- 
thor; b. at Pinhoe, Devonshire, England, in 1549; stuili«-d 
at Merton College, Oxford, 1562; became fellow of Corpus 
Christi 1566; lectured on Aristotle; was appointed reader 
of the theological lecture founded by Sir Francis Walbiiij;- 
ham 1586; was dean of Lincoln 1598; refused a bishoi»ri<> 
in order to accept the presidency of Corpus Christi College 
1598; was eminently distinguished as a Hebraist, re^rarUt'd 
as the leader of the Puritan party, and was said by HallMni 
to have been "the most eminently learned man of Quovn 
Elizabeth's reign "; rook a prominent part in the Hampton 
Court conferences of 1603, where he mamtained the neces*.it v 
of a new version of the Bible; executed a small portion r.'f 
King James's version, and revised much more in the wee k 1 y 
meetings of the translators held at his chambers. I>. at 
Oxford, May 21, 1607. His works consist chiefly of sor>arat«.« 
sermons, controversial treatises against the Church of liom*', 
academical discourses, and some writings upon biblical crit i> 
cism, the most elaborate being one successfully dire^-t^'^i 
against the admission of the A]x>crypha as part of the CM«i 
Testament canon — Cenaura Librorum Apocryphorum Vet*'ri s 
Teatamenti, posthumously printed (Oppenheim, 2 vols., 1 t>l i v. 
— His brother, William Reynolds, b. at Pinhoe about li>4o! 
was educated at Oxford; became a Roman Catholic ; Mas 
Professor of Divinity and Hebrew at Douay and Hhoims ; 
took an important part in the translation of the Kheims 
Testament; translated from English into Latin all tlio 
works of Thomas Harding; wrote several theological a.ii(i 
controversial treatises, and became chaplain to the Be^uin 
nunnery at Antwerp, where he died Aug. 24, 1594. 

Beynolds, John Fulton : soldier ; b. at Lancaster, 1>|^ 
Sept 20, 1820; graduated at the U.S. Military Aca^^lomy' 
and appointed brevet second lieutenant of artillery, Julv 
1841; captain 1855; served in the war with Mexico, 'wii^^ 
ning the orevets of captain and major ; in Sept., I860, ^ h^h 
selected as commandant of cadets at West Pomt ; iri >lav 

1861, was transferred to the infantry with rank of lieuten^ 
ant-colonel (colonel, June, 1863), and in August Appointed 
brigadier-general of volunteers, and assigned to oommux^^ ol 



86 



RH^TIA 



RHAPSODISTS 



out of Crete by Minos and fled to Boeotia, where, after the 
death of Amphitryon, he married Alcmene. As a special 
favor Zeus translated him to the Elysian Fields, where later 
on he became a judge. J. R. S. S. 

Rhn'tia: an ancient province of the Roman einpire; 
bounded N. by Vindelicia, E. by Noricum, S. by Grallia 
Cisalpina, and W. by Helvetia. It corresponded to the 
modem Tyrol and the Swiss canton of Orisons. Its inhab- 
itants, the Rhaeti, who' lived as shepherds, were said by Livy 
and Pliny to be of Etruscan descent, and were subdued by 
the Romans 15 b. c. During the last days of the Roman 
empire, when the barbarian hordes swarmed around its 
frontiers and devastated its provinces, Rh»tia became near- 
ly depopulated. 

Bhnto-Bomance, or Rhnto-Bomanic Dialeetg : a^oup 
of Romance dialects on the border between Qerman and Ital- 
ian speech. The region in which they are spoken embraces 
most of the canton GraubQnden (Orisons), including the 
Engadine, in Switzerland, two or three strips of territoir in 
Tyrol, and the whole of Friuli in the comer of Italy N. E. 
of Venice and extending as far as the Isonzo. The Swiss 
part of the territory has a population of about 40,000, the 
Tyrolese about 11,000, and the Friulan about 464,000, mak- 
ing a total of about 515,000, according to Gartner in his 
^ammar of these dialects (1 883). The name Rhaeto-Romance 
IS given from the Roman province Rhietia (or Rastia) ; other 
names, not generally applied to all the dialects, are Romansch, 
Romaunsch, Rumonsch, etc. (from a Latin adverbial form 
^omanice), and Ladin (i. e. Latin). These dialects vary 
considerably in vocabulary, phonology, and inflections, ana 
they have not many distmctive features common even to 
most of them, which at the same time distinguish them from 
the adjoining Lombard and Venetian dialects of Italy, nor 
is it possible to draw a sharp line of division from these 
latter. Some generally convenient tests are, for example, 
the words for head, brother, sister, son, daughter, sun, 
which in these dialects usually are descended from Latin 
(or Low Latin), caputs frater, soror^ filinSy filia^ aoliculus (a 
diminutive of «o/), while the Italian dialects here concerned 
have forms corresponding to the literary Italian testa, fra^ 
tello, sorella, fialiuoloy Jigliuola, sole. The treatment of 
Latin vowels after the accent is not dissimilar to that in 
French or Proven9al ; Latin initial bl, pi, fl, cl, gl are gen- 
erally retained and not changed as in Italian; the treat- 
ment of original ca and ga shows a resemblance to that seen 
in French ; Latin final s is retained in certain inflectional 
endings ; the imperfect subjunctive is much used as a con- 
ditional also, and perhaps this use was formerly regular in 
regions where now another conditional form is found. There 
are interesting features of certain dialects, and not all those 
which may serve to distinguish Rhasto-Romance from Italian 
are here mentioned. In the phonology occur vowels like 
those written u and eu in French, alsoa vowel resembling 
the French so-called " mute «." Latin au is in some regions 
retained without change. Some dialects have also peculiar 
inflectional formations in verbs, for instance, the conditional., 
The future indicative in the western region is formed by 
using an auxiliary from Latin venire ; in Tvrol and Friuli 
the common Romance formation is found, the descendant 
of the Ijatin perfect indicative is nearly or quite lost in the 
spoken dialects. Both Gennan and Italian nave exerted a 
considerable influence on these dialects. 

In literary production only Graubttnden and Friuli need 
be considered, and in Friuli, though documents are pre- 
served from the fourteenth century on, yet the strong Vene- 
tian influence has prevented the development of an inde- 
pendent literature, and the productions are comparatively 
unimoortant, serving for temporary amusement only — as 
comeaies, or otherwise having little value, as newspapers. (See 
the Archivio glotfologico italiano. iv., 185 IT.) In Graubttn- 
den, however, in the dialects along the Rhine (Oberlfindisch, 
including Obwaldisch, or Sursclvisch, and Niedwaldisch) and 
in the Engadine (Upper and Lower are here to be distin- 
guished) a stronger literary movement has produced more 
ambitious works, the main caus<> being the religious feeling 
due to the Reformation. Noteworthy especially are Bifrun's 
translation of the New Testament (1560) in the* Upper Enga- 
dine, Chiampel's translation of the Psalms (1562) in the 
Lower Engadine, Bonifaci's Cater htsmus (a translation from 
German, 1601) in an Oberland dialect, L. (iabriel, Ilg yief 
Testament (The New Testament, 1648), also some epic or 
historical verse, as Tobia (probably of the sixteenth cen- 
tury; see Homanische Studten, i., 336 ff.), Travers's Chan- 



zun datta guerra dalg ChiastS (VMHseh (sometimes referred 
to as the Miisserkrieg, sixteenth century), and Gioerin 
Wietzel's poem, commonly referred to as tlie Veltlinerkrieg 
(seventeenth century). Tnere are some dramatic works be- 
longing to the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries ; those 
of the sixteenth at least are nearly if not quite all trans- 
lations. To the sixteenth century belong a Susanna, Jo- 
seph, and some others (see Zeitsehrift fur romaniaehe Phi- 
lologie, ii., 515 ff., v., 461 ff., and Romanische Siudxen, vi., 
239 ff.). To the seventeenth century belong some by Fadri 
Wietzel and others (see Zeitsehrift fur romanische Philolo- 
gie, iv., 1 ff., Le Sacrifice d* Abraham in Eomania, viii., 374 
ff., Susanna in Archivio glottolo^eo italiano, viii., 263 ff.. 
Revue des langues romanes, xxvii., 121 ff., 162 ff.). Some 
early Oberland texts of interest under the general title Quat- 
tro testi soprasilvani, among them a Barlaam and Josaphai 
( Vita de Soing Giosaphat, etc.), were published by Decur- 
tins in Archivio glottologico italiano, vii., 149 ff. The later 
literary production comprises (besides religious composi- 
tions) lyric poems, tales, translations, schoolbooks, etc. A 
fairly adequate view of the literature can be obtained from 
J. Ulrich's Rhdtoromanische Chrestomathie (2 vols., with 
glossaries, 1882-83), supplemented by reference to texts and 
articles in the periodicals mentioned above, particularly the 
bibliographical lists of B5hmer entitled Verzeiehnies Adto- 
romaniseher Litteratur in Romanische Studien, vi, 109- 
238. The Catalogue of the Rhceto-Romanic Collection pre- 
sented to the Cornell University Library by Willard Fiske 
(1894) contains some other titles ; see also the bibliographies 
in the Zeitschr, fUr roman, PhiloL For the ^mmatioal 
and historical study of the dialects, see especially Ascoli, 
Saggi ladini in Archivio glottoloaico italiano, i. ; Gartner, 
Rcetoromanische Grammatik (1883); id,, in Gr5ber*8 (irun- 
driss der romanischen Philologie, i., 461 ff. (1888), etc. See 
also Romance Languages. E. S. Sheldon. 

Rhamnns : See Buckthorn. 

Rhamphas'tldn [Mod. Lat., named from Rhamphas'tus, 
the typical genus, from Gr. ^dft^s^ a crooked beak of birds] : 
a family of carinate birds, including the toucans. They are 
distinguished by their bills, which are long, high, and com- 
pressed, decurved at the tip, and with the latenil margins 
serrated; the nostrils are in- 
conspicuous, superior, and at 
the oase of the upper mandi- 
ble ; no bristles are developed ; 
the wings are rather short and 
rounded; the tail is moderate 
and more or less convex ; the 
tarsi are rather robust and cov- 
ered with broad scales ; the toes 
in pairs, two being directed 
forward and two backward ; 
the inner toes anteriorly and 
posteriorly, shorter than the 
outer ; the claws strong and 
curved. They are somewhat 
related to the cuckoos. The 
species are peculiar to America, 
especially tne tropical regions ; 
a few, however, extend north- 
ward into Mexico, but none is 
found within the limits of the U. S. They are generally 
combined under two genera — Rhamphastus, in which tho 
nostrils are concealed, including seventeen species: and 
Pterogloseus, with the nostrils exposed, comprising forty- 
five species. They frequent lofty trees, feeding upon vari- 
ous fruits, especially the banana, but also live partly upon 
insects, and even reptiles, as well as young birds and e#rsrx. 
The female makes her nast in holes in the trunks of treos, 
and generally deposits therein two eggs. See Aracari. 

Revised by F. A. Lucas, 

BhaphMdes, or Raphides [Mod. Lat., from Gr. ^mpis^ 
plur. ^c^Scf. needle] : the crystals, often needle-shapetl, of 
salts found within certain plant-cells. The oxalates^ car- 
bonates, and sulphates, and other salts of lime are thivse 
most commonly found. See Histology, Vbgetablk. 

Rhapsodists [from Gr. ^i^s, a rhapsotlist; /k(v-r«&y, 
^ai, sew. stitch, natch together + i^, song] : a clas-* of 
wandering minstrels in ancient Greece whose occupation 
WHS the recital of the Homeric and other poetr}*. Aft«T 
these poems were reduced to writing these rhansodivt^; 
ceased to be the honored singers of the early uays <.f 
Greece. 




The ariel toacan. 



88 



RHETORIC 



with the praotice of the best writers and speakers. The 
precepts of rhetoric are not the arbitrary enactment of any 
man or any body of men, but simply deductions from the 
generalized experience and observation of generations of 
writers and speakers, with which all who propose to write or 
speak will do well to familiarize themselves. 
Rhetoric recognizes three forms of discourse: 

1. Representative discourse, in which the matter is pre- 
sented for its own sake, without especial purpose or espe- 
cial regard to form. Under this head are treated (1) things 
— description ; (2) facts — narration ; (8) truths— exposition. 
Clearness, accurac^r, and completeness are the prime essen- 
tials of representative discourse. 

2. Poetry^ in which the matter and the purpose are sub- 
ordinate to the form. Under poetry the lollowing classi- 
fication may be recognized : (1) The poetry of thought, or 
didactic poetry; (2) the poetry of feeling, or lyric poetry; (3) 
the poetry of action, or epic poetry, and dramatic poetry. 
The prime essentials to poetry are, first, a poetic thought ; 
second, poetic diction — to characterize either of which would 
fall under the province of a special discussion. 

3. Oratory, which proposes an end to be attained, to 
which the matter ana form of discourse are merely ancil- 
lary. The ancients recognized three kinds of oratory — 
demonstrative, judicial, and deliberative. Blair proposes to 
recognize, instead, the eloquence of popular assemblies, the 
eloquence of the bar, and the eloquence of the pulpit. If a 
classification of oratory be attempted at all, it is better to 
make the basis of classification the purpose, rather than the 
occasion, of its exercise. Oratory is commonly regarded by 
rhetoricians as the normal type of discourse, embc^ying the 
fullest and loftiest ideal of the art. The orator generally 
seeks to bring something to pass ; hence he appeals not to 
the intellect or to the feelings alone, but to the will. He 
must sway the whole man, or he must fail in the object 
he has in view. It is especially necessary for him to study 
adaptation, and his discourse, while not deficient in clear- 
ness and not offensive to the taste of his hearers, must ex- 
cel in energy. 

Inventive rhetoric has to do with the choice of themes, 
the accumulation of material, and the disposition of mate- 
rial. It was much more fully treated bv the ancient rhet- 
oricians than by those of the present day, many of whom 
ignore it altogether, regarding it as a mere department of 
ethical rhetoric, which does, in fact, greatly limit it. 

Ethical rhetoric has especially reference to the purpose 
contemplated in discourse. This purpose may be either (1) 
enlightenment — i. e. to develop in tne mind a new cognition ; 
(2) conviction — i. e. to lead the mind to adopt a given 
opinion; (3) excitation — i. e. to move the feelings; or (4) 
persuasion — i. e. to determine the will to action. Excitation 
IS not regarded as a distinct end of discourse by many rhet- 
oricians, since, ordinarily, we seek to excite emotion only 
that through emotion we may influence the will. But the 
distinct recognition of excitation is essential to a complete 
analysis of ethical rhetoric ; the methods of excitation may 
be separately studied ; and excitation is sometimes (as in 
demonstrative oratory and in certain kinds of poetry and 
fiction) an end in itself. In all discourse — but especially in 
oratory — some one of the purposes mentioned above domi- 
nates. It is the function of rhetoric to show how discourse 
may, in matter and manner, be made subservient to that 
purpose. 

AsJsthetie rhetoric has reference to style, or the art of ex- 
pressing clearly, energetically, and elegantly, the products 
of inventive rhetoric in adaptation to the ends of ethical 
rhetoric. Under the head of style the things of prime im- 
portance are (1) naturalness ; (2) adaptation ; (3) clearness ; 
(4) energy ; (5) elegance. These characteristics of style are 
discussed, with greater or less fullness, in all rhetorical trea- 
tises. Clearness, the most important attribute of a good 
style, is admirably treated in j/ow to Write Clearly, by Prof. 
K. A. Abbott, of the City of London School. 

Figurative language (or language which deviates from 
the plain and ordinary method of describing an object or 
stating a fact) may be included under the head of style, 
since it tends to promote clearness by asvsociating the ob- 
ject or fact under discussion with more familiar objects or 
events; energy, by associating the object or fwt under 
discussion with more exciting objects or facts; elegance, by 
associating the object or fact under discussion with more 
pleasing objects or facts. Fitrurative language embraces 
figures of speech, which consist in a mere modification of 
the form of expression, and figures of thought, which in- 



volve an essential modification of the conception. Theso 
figures depend on three principles — (1) the principle of simi- 
larity; (2) the principle of dissimilarity; (3) the principle 
of association. Under the head of figures of speech come 

(1) alliteration, or the repetition of similar sounas at the be- 
ginning of successive words ; c. g. 

Apt alliteration 'b artful aid.— Churchill, 

(2) Paronomasia, or the use of words in the same connecticm 
which are similar in sound, but dissimilar in sense ; e. g. 

Not OD thy aoU ; but on thy mouI, harsh Jew. Shakapeare. 

(3) Meiosis or litotes, in which an affirmative is represi'nttMl 
bjr the negative of its contrary ; e. g. " A citizen of no mean 
city" (Paul), (4) Pleonasm, which consists in the use <*f 
more words to express one's meaning than are strictly neces- 
sary, and which should be sharply discriminated from tau- 
tology, or the meaningless reiteration of thought (5) Hy- 
perbole, which consists in representing an object as larger 
than it really is, or stating a fact more strongly than is con- 
sistent with literal truth; e. g. "The English gain tM-o hours 
a day by clipping their words" (Voltaire). (6) Climax, 
which consists in gradually rising, by more and more ein- 
phatio statements, to the fullest and most expressive utt4*r- 
ance of thought; e. g. "Jesus of Nazareth pours forth a 
doctrine beautiful as light, sublime as heaven, and true a> 
God " (Theodore Parker), Figures of speech comprise al>o 
ellipsis, asyndeton, polysyndeton, aposiopesis, epizeuxis, ej>- 
analepsis, and interrogation, for the careful discriminatii>ii 
of which references must be made to s|)ecial treatises. 

Under the head of figures of thought that are founded ftn 
the principle of similarity there are-— (1) The simile. whi<h 
is an expressed comparison ; e. g. ** Like as a father pitiet h 
his children, so the Lord pitieth them that fear him." (2> 
The metaphor, which is an implied comparison ; e. g. " I aiu 
the Good Shepherd, and know my sheep." Similes are mc»re 
conducive to clearness, metaphors to energy. Either may 
be made conducive to elegance. The metaphor may W> 
tested by reducing it to an equation of ratios ; e. g. "The 
ship plows the sea" equals "Tne ship is to the sea as the 
plow IS to the land." Any metaphor which will not submit 
to this test is radically defective, introducing more than 
four terms or suggesting an unreal similarity. Under tliis 
head are recognized aSo (8) the allegory, which is an ex- 
tended metaphor. BxinjhcC^ Pilgrim's Proaress is the Xn^^x 
example. (4) The fable, which is essentially similar to the 
allegory, altnough briefer, more obviously didactic, an. I 
characterized by the free endowment of the brute (and even 
the inanimate) creation with the attributes of reason an<J 
speech. The fables of -^^sop will at once suggest tht-iii- 
selves. (5) The parable, which is a religious allegory. <«> 
Personification, which regards things inanimate as it t hi-y 
were animate ; e. g. " The pyramids, doting with age, hav«- 
forgotten the names of their founders ''(Fuller). Under t h i-^ 
head, too, are included prosopopoeia, vision, and apostrophe-. 

Under the head of figures of thought that are foumitii 
upon the principle of dissimilarity there ^re contrast, ant it It- 
esis, irony, which hardly require to be characterized or ex- 
emplified. 

Founded on the principle of association is metonymy, or 
a transference of names (Gr. $t»Td and tfyofw), involving t h*- 
substitution of — (1) The cause for the effect and vice vt r.'*t't ; 
e. g. "The Lord is my song. He is become my salvation,'* 
(2) The container for the thin^ contained ; e. g. " He i«^ a 
slave to the bottle.'' (8) The sign for the thing signili»^«l ; 
e. g. " The scepter shall not depart from Judah." (4) Th*- 
instrument for the agent : e. g. " The pen is mightier t)i»ii 
the sword " (Bulwer). (6) The author for his works ; e. tr. 
" They have Moses and the prophets'' (6) The plac-t* « .f 
manufacture for the thing made ; e. g. " I prefer Axmin^tt^ r 
to Brussels." 

Synecdoche must be classed under the head of simibirtt y 
and* dissimilarity combined; it is concerned with obj^M-tV 
that are similar in kind, but disvsimilar in extent or (hg-r*-**. 
By synecdoche one puts a part for the whole, as a sail f« >r a 
ship, or a blade for a sword, etc. More sjiecifically, syn<M»- 
doche consists in the substitution of — (1) the concrete f.»r 
the abstract; (2) the species for the genus; (3) the indivui- 
ual for the species; (4) the member for the individual ; *,"»» 
the material for the thing made. Its employment is hi^hU 
conducive to energy. 

It falls within the province of rhetoric accurately to *lisc. 
criminate between the figures of speech which have Ih"**!! 
mentioned, and to give rules which shall facilitate lii<.'.r 
effective use. 



.,4^f«ffU*- 



mr 



09 



ifti 



Ofi^^H (*W: flw 



:*I.i 



90 



RHINEBECK 



RHODE ISLAND 



from 5 to 28 feet ; its elevation is 814 feet at Basel, 121 feet 
at Cologne. Its principal affluents are the Aar in Switzer- 
land, the Neckar and Main in the Rheinthal, and the Lahn 
and Moselle in the highlands of the lower Rhine. 

Revised by M. W. Harrington. 
Rhinebeck : village ; Rhinebeck town, Dutchess co., 
N. Y. ; on the N. Y. Cent, and Hudson River (station name, 
RhineclifO and the Phila., Reading and New Eng. rail- 
ways ; 2 miles E. of the Hudson river, opposite Kingston, 
15 miles N. of Poughkeepsie (for location, see map of New 
York, ref. 7-J). It is in an agricultural and stock-raising 
region, and is the chief shipping-point for the surrounding 
country. There are five cnurcnes, union free school with 
academic department, Starr Institute (founded in 1860), a 
national bank with capital of $125,000, a savings-bank, and 
a weekly newspaper. A part of the town was laid out for 
settlers from the Rhine palatinate in 1714, a precinct was 
organized in 1737, a hamlet named Rhinebeck Flats was 
laid out in 1792, and the hamlet was incorporated as a vil- 
lage iu 1834. Pop. (1880) 1,569 ; (1890) 1,649. 

EorroR of " Gazette.** 

Bhlnelander: village; capital of Oneida co.. Wis.; on 
the Wisconsin river, and the Chicago and N. W. and the 
Minn., St. P. and Sault Ste. Marie railways ; 65 miles N. of 
Wausau, 255 miles N. by W. of Milwaukee (for location, see 
map of Wisconsin, ref. 3-D). It is in a lumbering region, 
has considerable milling and manufacturing interests, and 
contains a national bank with capital of $50,000, a State 
bank with capital of $50,000, and three weekly newspapers. 
Pop. (1890) 2,658. 

Rhinoceros : See Rhinocerotid.£. 

Rhinocerot'ldn [^Iod. Lat., named from Rhino' ceros^ the 
typical genus, from Gr. pu^Mpws, pwoK^ptrros^ rhinoceros ; ^/r, 
/iiSrfs, nose + Kipca, horn] : a family of ungulate mammals 
embracing the various species combined under the popular 
name rhinoceros. They are distinguished by their massive 
form ; short neck ; long head : the presence in all the living 
forms of one or two horns on the middle of the nasal region, 
and the broad clavate feet, each of which has three toes. 
The teeth are M. }, P. M. f C. g, I. variable— i. e. entirely 
wanting, }, or, in extinct forms, | ; the upper molars have a 
continuous outer wall, are without complete transverse 
crests; the lower molars (P. M. 2, M. 8) have two curved 
transverse crests. The family embraces few recent species, 
which have been variously grouped, but appear to repre- 
sent only two ^nera— <1) Rhinoceros^ including the Asi- 
atic species, which are distinguished by the elongate and 
free intermaxillary bones, the long upper incisor teeth, the 
produced nasal bones, and the skin corrugated by well- 
marked folds. To this genus belongs the Indian rhinoceros 




Indian rhinoceros. 



(R. Hniconiifi), the largest of the group, having a single horn 
and the folds of skin unusually well developed. It is now 
restricted to a part of Nepal. Bhutan, and Assam, in North- 
eastern India. The genus also includes the sinnllest species, 
the Sumatran rhin(H-eros {R. ^urnafrenMifi), which has two 
horns. It ranges from Northea'^tern India to the Malay 
Peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo. (2) Tf/iuj^z/i^/r, embracing 
the African species, in which the intermaxillary bones are 
very small and free, the upper incisor teeth wanting, the 
nasal bones broad and rounded, and the skin smooth and 
not corrugated. There are but two species, each having 



two horns. One of these, R, aimus, improperlv known as 
the white rhinoceros, is almost extinct, and tfie other. R. 
bicomis, is rapidly disappearing. In geological epochs < >i Imt 
forms flourished, and one of the.<«e (Ccelodonta) sur vivid 
long after the appearance of man on the globe; this form 
was distinguishea by the union of the nasal and intermaxil- 
lary bones into one mass, and the ossification of the iia>al 
septum. The existing species of the family are peon liar t<> 
Asia and Africa, but formerly the range of the family ex- 
tended far northward into Europe and Siberia, and at a 
still earlier period the group was represented in North 
America. Revised by F. A. Lrc as. 

Rhinthon of Tarentnm : Greek poet; originator of the 
so-called Bilarotragoedia {Ixapcrpay^ia), a serio-comic t reat- 
ment of tragic themes, drawn from Greek mythology. See 
Veiker, Rhtnthonis fragtnenta (1887). B. L. G. 

RhipsB'an Mountains (in Gr. r& 'Piwam J(pf): in Grty 
cian m}'thology, mountains lying in the extreme north (or 
west^. Servius derived the word from ^Jwrciy, because l he 
north wind came from these mountains. Ancient geograj.h- 
ers identified them now with the Alps and now with the 
western outliers of the Ural range. See IlYPERBOKKASr^, 
IIesperides, and GrjE^e. J. R. S. S. 

Rhinidoglos'sa [Mod. Lat., from Gr. Paris, fan + yKinnra, 
tonguej : a term sometimes employed for the abalonei*. kt y- 
hole limpets, and allied molluscs,' usually called Zygobran- 
chici. See Gasteropoda. 

Rhlzocarps : See Plants, Fossil. 

Rhlzoceph'ala : See Cirripedia. 

Rhizome : See Morphology, Vegetable. 

Rhizop'oda [Gr. ^ffa, a root + iro^i, irMs, foot] : a cla*^ of 
E*ROTOzoA {q. V.) characterized by the ability of the individ- 
uals to extend temporary protoplasmic processes of the l>.-iv 
by means of which locomotion is effected and food obtaiiud 
(psetidopodia). There is no cell- wall, but the animals n)hv 
secrete internal or external calcareous or siliceous skel(t<»i!s 
or they may form protective cases of homy matter or by (•»- 
menting together solid particles found in the water in w'hu h 
they dwell. The Rhizopods (which live in the o<»ean, m 
fresh water, and in moist earth) are usually divided into th«' 
Lobosa^ Reticularia (Foraminifera), Hehozoa, and Rnfft*y- 
laria; while the Monera of Haeckel differ from the Loh^-^n 
only in the fact that in them a nucleus has not yet l)oon iii--- 
covered. Here, too, may possibly belong those forms t lav>, ,1 
sometimes as Mycetozoa in the animal kingdom, sonietiin.s 
as Myxomycetes or slime moulds in the vegetable kingdom. 
Reference should be made to the different divisions ftir .1%- 
scriptions of the forms included. J. S. Kingslly. 

Rhode Island : one of the U. S. of North America (N. .rt h 
Atlantic group) ; the last of the thirteen original States t hat 
ratified the Federal Constitution; the smallest State in tht- 
Union, and the thirty-fifth in population in 1890. 

Location and ^rm.— It lies between lat. 41° 18' and 42' 
3' N., and Ion. 71" 8 and 71" 53 W. ; is Iwunded on tho N. 
and E. by Massachusetts, on the S. by the Atlantic Ocean, 
and on the W. 
by Connecticut; 
extreme length 
from N. to S.. 48 
miles ; extreme 
width from E. 
to W. about 87 
miles; area, 1,- 
250 sq. miles 
(800,000 acres), 
of which 165 sq. 
miles is water 
surface. 

Physical Fea- 
tures. — Narra- 
gansett Bay, ex- 
tending inland 
about 30 miles, 
divides Rhode 
Island into two 
une(|ual parts. 
The surface of 
the State is for the most part hilly, though the hills nevf»r 
rise to any great height. Woonsocket Hill, the highest j><>iT.t 
of land, rising only 570 feet above the sea-level. Extendi \ ,. 
salt-marshes Iwrder the ocean. In Narragansett Bay a to 
many islands. Of these the most widely known is Kh-ui,. 




Rhode Island seal. 



THE NEW YORKl 
PUBLIC LIBRARY 



AS^O", LFNOX AND 
Til D N FOUNDATIONS. 



92 



RHODE ISLAND 



894*11 miles of railways and 107*66 miles of horse, electric, 
and cable traraWavs. Of the railways 226*70 miles were con- 
trolled by the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad, 
The total mileage of track was 501-78 ; passengers carried, 
85,529,028; tons of merchandise carried, 14,536,469; and the 
net earnings were $5,556,559. Various steamship lines con- 
nect Providence with the other towns upon the bay, and 
with New York, Philadelphia, Norfolk, and Baltimore. 

Churches,— The census of 1890 gave the following statis- 
tics of the religious bodies having a membership of 600 and 
upward each jn the State : 



DENOMINATIONS. 



Roman Catholic 

Baptist, Regular 

Protestant Episcopal 

Congregatlonttl 

Methodut Episcopal 

Baptist, Free-will 

Unitarian 

Baptist, Seventh-day 

Univsrsolist 

Christian < 

Advent Christian 

Jews 

Friends, Orthodox 

Presb. in the U. S. of America. 
African Methodist Episcopal . . 



Or|».te. 


ChvAm 


Mmibcn.' 


Uou. 


UdlMUl. 


1 


51 


53 


96,755 


68 


75 


12,055 


60 


68 


9,45H 


84 


42 


7.192 


89 


40 


6,0M 


2& 


28 


3.252 


6 


7 


>,505 


7 


7 


1,271 


10 


10 


996 


8 


8 


972 


12 


12 


950 


6 


5 


910 


11 


11 


617 


4 


4 


608 


4 


4 


595 



Vkluef 
efaarch 
profMrty. 



$2,295,700 

1,151,960 

1,189,700 

905,800 

495,000 

226,757 

898,600 

65,700 

801,500 

48,800 

27,460 

46,000 

68.800 

61,000 

96,000 



Schools. — The principal educational institution of the 
State is Brown University {q. v.). Other suoerior institu- 
tions are the Rhode Island College of Agriculture and Me- 
chanic Arts, with large agricultural experiment farm, in 
Kingston ; the Rhode Island School of Design and the State 
Normal School, in Providence ; 10 high schools and 5 acad- 
emies. In the year ending Apr. 80, 1893, the public schools 
had 47,031 pupils, the parochial schools 10,532, and other 
private schools 2,201. The expenditures on account of the 
public schools aggregated $l,lo5,058. 

Libraries, — According to a U. S. Government report on 
public libraries of 1,000 volumes and upward each in 1801, 
Rhode Island had 73 libraries, which contained 481,729 
bound volumes and 85,141 pamphlets. The libraries were 
classified as follows: General, 54; school, 5; college,!; law, 
1 ; medical, 1 ; public institution, 3 ; Y. M. C. A., 2 ; histor- 
ical, 2; garrison, 2; society, 1 ; and unreported, 1. In the 
year ending June 30, 1893, 42 public libraries received aid 
from the State board of education. 

Charitable, Reformatory, and Penal Institutions. — The 
charitable institutions comprise the Butler Asylum for the 
Insane, opened 1847; the Rhode Island Hospital, 1868; the 
State Home and School for Children, 1885 ; the Rhode Isl- 
and Institute for the Deaf, 1893 — all in Providence; and 
the State Soldiers' Home, 1891, in Bristol. The reformatory 
and penal institutions are located on the State farm of about 
538 acres, in Cranston, and comprise the State Workhouse 
and House of Correction, the State Asylum for the Incurable 
Insane, the State Almshouse, the State Prison and Provi- 
dence County Jail, the Sockanosset School for Boys, and the 
Oaklawn School for Girls, the two last being departments of 
the State Reform School. 

Political Organization. — The Governor, general State 
offlcei"s, and members of the Legislature are elected annual- 
ly. The Governor has no veto power. He exercises the 
pardoning power only ** by and with the advice and consent 
of the Senate." The Lieutenant-Governor is a member-at- 
large of the State Senate, which numbers, besides thirty-six 
members, one from each of the thirty-two towns and four 
cities. The representation in the lower house is unequal. 
Its membership is limited to seventy-two. Each town and 
city must have one representative, but no town or city may 
have more than one-sixth of the whole number. Thus the 
city of Providence, with its papulation of almost 150,000 
(1894), had but twelve representatives. This principle of 
representation accounts for the peculiar existence of the 
district of Narragansett. In 1888 this district was taken 
from South Kingstown and given all the pfjwers of a town 
except representation in the General Assembly. Every male 
citizen of the age of twenty-one years, who has been a resi- 
dent of the State two years and of the town or city six 
months, is entitled to vote in town and ward meetings and 
in the election of all civil officers, if registered on the last 
day of the prece<ling December. No person may vote in 
the election of city councils, or on any pro{)ositi()*n involv- 
ing the expenditure of money, unless he has paid a tax in the 



year preceding on property valued at least at $134. Every 
male citizen of the age of twenty-one, who has been a resi- 
dent of the State one year and of the town or city six 
months, may vote on all questions and in all elections if ho 
possesses in his own right real estate valued at $134. Until 
1894 a majority of votes was necessary to an election by tht* 
people, but in that year a plurality amendment was adopt tti. 
History. — The founder of the colony was Rooer Williams 
(g, v.). In the winter of 1635-86 he was ordered to leave t he 
colony of Massachusetts Bay within six weeks, nnder penalty 
of being sent back to England. He fled to the Narraganj^^t t 
country, and in 1636 settled near the mouth of the " M<x »s- 
hausick" river and gave his place of abode the name Provi- 
dence, ** because of God's merciful providence to hira in 
his distress.'* The first written compact that has come 
down to us from the settlers of Providence set* forth t he 
ideas which ever after ^joverned the colony. In it the sub- 
scribers promise to subject themselves " in active or passive* 
obedience to all such orders or agreements as shall be maile 
for the public good . . . only in civil thin^.'* The utnu'st 
liberty was allowed in matters of religion. It was by request 
of the colonists that the patent obtained b^ Williams limit oil 
the authority to be exercised under it to civil matters. Tlio 
colony originally consisted of four towns — Providence (16:^B), 
Portsmouth (1638), Newport (1639), and Warwick (1642). 
The executive heads of Portsmouth and Newport were calU-<i 
judges until 1640, when on the union of the towns the ex- 
ecutive was called governor. Providence and Warwick had 
no executive head until 1647, when the four towns were 
united under a patent granted by Parliament in 1643. Thi> 
was too feeble an instrument to answer the purposes of a char- 
ter. It produced a confederacy, not a union, and allowed the 
magistrates of the various towns to usurp dictatorial power**. 
In 1651 the two island towns separatea from those on the 
mainland, and in 1654 they were reunited. In 1663 a char- 
ter was obtained from Charles II. This instrument was re- 
markably liberal. In its provision that no person sht>ul«l 
be " in anywise molested, punished, disquieted, or called in 
Question for any differences in opinion that do not actuall> 
aisturb the civil peace," it used almost the exact words i .f 
Charles's famous Declaration from Breda, which in Itk^u 
had done so much to secure to him the throne of Eii^lan<i. ' 
Under this charter the colony and State of Rhode Islan<i aiui 
Providence Plantations were governed for 179 years, Rh< •* it- 
Island ofjoosed the policy of the other colonies which ie<l i<» 
King Philip's war, and yet suffered most severely from thai 
war. King Philip was killed in what is now the town of Bris- 
tol. In the Narragansett country, in 1675, was fought the 
*' great swamp fight," when more than a thousand Indians }< st 
their lives. In 1686-87 Sir Edmund Andros suspende<l ihr 
charter, though he was not able to get possession of ihe 
document. On his deposition in 1690 the government wa^ 
reorganized under it. Early in the nineteenth century it 
was seen that the charter had become too antiquated for the 
needs of the State, and repeated efforts were made to n^ 
place it with a constitution ; but the General Assembly v :ts 
supreme. It was dominated by the county-towns, which did 
not propose to surrender their power to the large seaport s«t- 
tleraents. In 1841 a people's convention, not ordered by the 
General Assembly, met and framed a constitution. 'This 
illegal action precipitated a crisis. (See Dorr Rebellion.) 
A new convention was soon called. The present constitu- 
tion was prepared in Nov., 1842, ratified by the people. an«i 
put in operation 1843. The defect of the charter was its 
provision for a limited suffrage. In 1840, out of a ]M»|»ula- 
tion of 108.830, about 9,500 men composed the elec"t orate. 
Not until 1888 were the present suffrage laws adopted. 

With its privateers Rhode Island took a conspicuous part 
in all the wars waged upon the ocean in which Great liritatn 
was engaged. When the news of the declaration of tht- 
war with Spain reached the colony in 1740 six vesji^^U tf 
war were at once placed in commission. In 1756 there \\ er« 
upon the ocean fifty Rhode Island privateers manned by 1 ,.%^ h > 
sailors. Privateering was ever a favorite pursuit, an«i m 
the Revolutionary war great wealth came mto the c*oi«>i)\ 
from this source. In the war of 1812 the privateer Yank* 
of Bristol took more prizes than any other privateer hailit i. 
from the.U. S., and sent into Bristol more than $l,fK.MMMM» 
as the profit from her six cruises. Commodore Oliver Ila/.a r . i 
Perry, of Rhode Island, and his sailors made the naval r« - 
nown of the State immortal in the battle of Lake Eri#». 

The colony first suggested to Congress the establish rn«'i>'; 
of a navy. This was natural, as naval hostilities l^e^an ui, 
Rhode Island. In June, 1772, his Majesty's armed sc>h<.H»ni r 



Hi* ; ftiti*«ri^ |t. 






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94 



RHODODENDROX 



RHUS 



Rhododen'dron [Mod. Lst., from Gr. poM^vipWy olean- 
der ; ^^8oy, rose + 94if9^, tree] : a lar^ genus of plants of 
the heath family {Ericacece\ comprismg trees, shrubs, and 
rootlet-climbing epiphytes, with entire, alternate evergreen, 
or rarely deciduous leaves, and showy flowers in terminal 
clusters ; these with funnel-form five-lobed corollas and usu- 
ally ten declining stamens. Passing S. of the equator only 
into Java and the neighboring islands, the rhododendron is 
found throughout the mountainous districts of the northern 
hemisphere. The i^reatest number of species occurs in the 
high mountain regions extending from Java and Borneo on 
the S. to Yun-nan and the Sikkim Himalaya in the N. Sev- 
eral are found in China and Japan, two reach Kamtchatka, 
and one Alaska. The arctic R. lapponicum of Lapland and 
Greenland occurs in the alpine region of the White Mountains 
of New Hampshire. The only two other European species 
are R. ferrugineum and R. hirsutum^ the Alpenrosen of the 
Swiss Alps. The species peculiar to North America are, on 
the Atlantic side, R. maximum, which occurs sparinglv as 
far N. as Canada, and abundantly throughout the wnole 
length of the Alleghany Mountains ; R, catawlnense, a lower 
and earlier-flowered species on the higher mountains from 
Virginia southward ; and R, pttnctatum, a graceful but less 
showy species of the middle country of the Southern States 
E. of the mountains. In the higher Northern Rocky Moun- 
tains there is a peculiar deciduous-leaved species, R, albi- 
florum ; in Oregon, R, macrophyllum, apparently near R, 
maximum ; in California, R, califomicumy nearer R, cataw- 
biense^ but taller, and with more showy blossoms. The con- 
trast in the size attained by the different species of this 
genus is as remarkable as its geojgraphical ran^i^e is exten- 
sive. The arctic R. lapponicum is but a few mches high, 
while R, rolliasonii of Ceylon attains a height of 30 feet, 
with a stem over a foot in diameter. The useful properties 
of this genus are few and unimportant ; the Siberian R, 
chrysanthumt however, supplies a narcotic sometimes used 
meaicinally. Horticulturatly, rhododendrons play a more 
important part. Several of the South Asiatic species are 
conspicuous inhabitants of conservatories, the best suited 
for such cultivation being R, arboreum, R, dalhousicB, R, 
argentium, R. hodgsoni, R. javanicum, and R, jasmini- 
florum. Of hardy species, the most so in the nbrthern parts 
of the U. S. is the Siberian R, daurieum, with small decidu- 
ous leaves and rose-colored flowers, appearing very early in 
the spring ; but to the patient skill of tne hybridizer we owe 
a race of hardy rhododendrons with showy flowers and foli- 
age, and of greater horticultural value than any of the orig- 
inal types. These hybrids, the result of crossing the Alle- 
ghany R. eaiawbiense with the Eastern R.pontinum or with 
the Indian R. arboreum, are deservedly more generally 
planted than any other rhododendrons. Loving moisture 
and unable to withstand the severe summer droughts so 
common in many parts of the U. S., and not thriving m soils 
strongly impregnated with lime, the rhododendron as a gar- 
den-plant can be successfully cultivated onlv in the Atlantic 
States from Massachusetts to Virginia. To develop its great- 
est beauty the rhododendron should be planted in well- 
drained peat or in soil largely composed of decaying leaf- 
mould, and situations should be selected for it somewhat 
protected from the winter sun, the greatest enemy, with the 
summer droughts, to all evergreens in the U. S. 

C. S. Sargent. 

Rhodope, rod'd-pee (in Gr. *Vo9Swfi) : a lofty mountain range 
in Thrace, noted in poetry as the scene of the revels of the 
Bacchantes, or female followers of Dionysus. 

Rhdne, rdn : a department of France, bonlering E. on 
the Saone and Rhone, and comprising an area of 1,077 sq. 
miles. It is mountainous, covered with offshoots of the 
C^vennes, but with the exception of some fertile valleys the 
soil is mediocre. Copper, iron, and lead are found ; excel- 
lent wine is produced, and the manufactures of silk and 
muslin are of great importance. Pop. (1891) 806,737. 

Rhdne (anc. Rhodanus) : a river of France which rises 
in Switzerland, in the Aljw, on the western side of the St. 
Gothard, flows through the Lake of Geneva, crosses the 
Jura Mountains, turns at Lyons, where it receives the 
Saone, to the S.. and falls. 644 miles distant, into the Medi- 
terranean, through two branches which form the island of 
Camargue. Its lower course is through swampy and un- 
healthiul districts, but its whole middle course leads through 
beautiful and fertile regions producing st)ine of the finest 
wines of France. It is everywhere very rapid, and the dif- 
ficulty of navigation caused by the rapidity of the current 



18 increased by the suddenly shifting sandbanka and other 
obstructions, especially near the mouth. An extensive sys- 
tem of canals connects the river with the Mediterranean, 
and with the Seine, Loire, Garonne, and (by the Saone; the 
Rhine. 

Rhopaloc'era [from Gr. ^^ira^or, club + x^pof. horn]: thu 
group of butterflies, the name being given in allusion tu the 
club-shaped antenn®. See Lepidopteba. 

Rhotacism : the change of an « (2) to r ; a technical terni 
in historical grammar. The voiced form of «, i. e. z, shows 
a tendency in many different languages to become r. The 
sound of r as it appears, for instance, in English differs 
from z only in a slight retraction and elevation of the tip of 
the tongue. Rhotacism appears, e. ^., in the Teutonic lan- 
guages (except Gothic) where a medial s is preserved, but a 
medial z becomes r; thus Eng. u^aaiwere; lose: forlorn 
(Germ, verloren) ; also in Lat. between vowels ; thus ^entris 
for *gen€9i8t cf . genua ; dirimo for ^dia-imo, cf . disstlio ; in 
certain Greek dialects as Laconian and Elean ; cf . Laconian, 
trUp = ^€6st Elean, rip = ris, Benj. Idk Wheele&. 

Rhubarb [vifi 0. Fr. from Late Lat. rheubar'barum, from 
Gr. ^fjoif $dpfiapw; ^ir, rhubarb, liter., the plant from the 
Rha or Volga (Gr. 'Po) + neut. of fidpfiapos^ foreign] : a plani 
of the genus Rheum^ or its root employed in pharmacy. The 
botanical source of the drug is not definitely knoVm, the 
United States Pharmaeopaia defining it as the root uf 
Rheum ojficinale and other undetermined species of Rheum ^ 
the British as the sliced and dried root of Rneum palmatum^ 
R, officinaie, and probably other species collected ami pre- 
served in China and Tibet. A specimen of Rheum was 
obtained through French missionaries in 1867 and sent to 
France, where it fiowered at Montmorenci in 1871. It seemed 
to correspond in all respects with the descriptions of the true 
rhubarb-plant, such as they are, and the root was appar- 
ently identical with the Asiatic rhubarb of commerce. This 
species has been described by Baillon under the name of 
R. officinale. Rhubarb has been known as a drug from a 
remote period. It was first brought to Europe bv lantl 
from China to the Levant ports, whence the name l^urkey 
rhubarb, or was shipped airectly from China or by w«y 
of India, whence the variety called China, Canton, or Ea*i*t 
India rhubarb. Later, a direct trade between Russia an<i 
China was established, and under supervision of the Rus- 
sian Government rhubarb was transported overland throujrh 
Central Asia to Russia. For a lonjg; time, owing to the rigid 
inspection of Russian officials, this Russian or Turkey rhu- 
bare was of unvarying good quality. Chinese rhubarb ij?. 
now shipped direct from China. Chinese rhubarb is a rusty 
brown m color, and the texture is finely veined and mar- 
bled. Rhubarb has a peculiar smell, a disagreeable, bitter, 
and astringent taste, and a complex composition. A bit of 
the root if chewed feels gritty, from the presence of cr>s- 
tals of calcium oxalate. In small dose rhubarb behaves' a< 
a stomachic bitter, but in larger quantities is an active 
purge, producing liquid mucous evacuations. Bj reason of 
the tannin it contains it is also secondarily astringent. It 
is used in medicine as a stomachic and a laxative or purg(\ 
and is especially useful in summer diarrhceas from relaxa- 
tion of the bowels or improper diet. The pharmaceuticnl 
preparations are very numerous. Among the most com- 
monly used is the spiced or aromatic sirup, which is a tinc- 
ture of rhubarb, cloves, cinnamon, and nutmeg diluted wit h 
six times it-s measure of sirup. The prof>ortion of rhubarb 
is small, the preparation being intended as an aromatic as- 
tringent stomachic in the bowel complaints of children. R, 
rhaponticum, R. undulatum^ and R. paJmafum, or hybrids 
between them, are cultivated for their leaf-stalks, and to 
some extent for their roots. Revised by U. A. Hare. 

Rhnmb [from 0. Fr. rumb, from Span, rumbo, appar, 
from Gr. ^dfifiot, magic wheel, whirling motion, derir. of 
P4fi0tiv, turn] : in navigation, the track of a ship sailing on 
a certain course. A rhumb-line cuts all the meridians at the 
same angle, and when this angle is acute the rhnmb is a 
species of spherical spiral, continually approaching the pole, 
but reaching it only after an in finite number of turns. The 
angle under which a rhumb-line cuts any meridian is callcMi 
the angle of the rhumb, and the angle that it makes with the 
prime vertical at any point is called the complement of tho 
rhumb. The projection of a rhumb on the plane of the 
equator is a logarithmic spiral. 

Rhns [Mod. Lat., from Lat. rhua = Gr. povs, sumachi : a 
genus of shrubs or trees of the Anacardtaeam or cashew 













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96 



RHYS 



RHYTHM 



lent to the less acid ffranites. The groundmass may be lith- 
oidal or porcelain-like, earthy, porous, or cavernous ; or it 
ma^ be dense glass or pumiceous elass. Its color varies from 
white and shuSes of gray to black. The lithoidal forms gen- 
erally exhibit lighter colors, the glassy ones the darker colors, 
except in the case of pumice. The colors are white, blue- 
gray, greenish and purplish gray, pink to red, yellow, orange, 
brown, and black. The color mav be uniform through the 
mass, or variegated in patches ana streaks (eutcucitic), or in 
bands and layers (flow-structure). The rock may be massive 
and compact^ or split into layers or laminae parallel to planes 
of flow. It may be cracked into prisms or columns like those 
often seen in basalt. It may carry soheroidal stony bodies 
(apherulites) of various sizes', and hollow ones called lith- 
ophtfsa. These spheroidal bodies are special forms of crys- 
tallization of the magma. 

Varieties of rhyolites based on textural features are ne- 
vadite, having relatively many phenocrysts; liparite, rela- 
tively few ; lithoidal rhyolite ; hyaline rhyolite, when glassy. 
The most glassy forms are perlite, pitchstone, obsidian, 
and pumice. When the groundmass is more crystalline, it 
grades into porphyry. With increasing calcium, magiie- 
sium, and iron, it grades through dacite into andesite. 
With increasing alkalies and decreasing silica, it grades into 
quartz-trachyte and trachyte. 

The name rhyolite was introduced by von Richthofen in 
1860. Liparite (Lipari islands) was introduced by J. Roth 
in 1861 for essentially the same rocks, and is in quite gen- 
eral use in Germany for the whole rock-group. Rhyolite 
forms lava-sheets of great size and extent throughout the 
western part of the XL S., where it was erupted during Ter- 
tiary times. Its most notable occurrence is in the lellow- 
stone National Park. It is well known in Wyoming, Idaho, 
Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona. It also 
occurs in Mexico, Iceland, Hungary, Lipari, and elsewhere. 
As a building-stone its delicate color adds greatly to its 
value. J. P. Iddinos. 

Rhys, rees, John : Celtic philologist ; b. at Abercaero, Car- 
diganshire, Wales, June 21, 1840 ; educated at Jesus College, 
Oxford; studied at the Sorbonne and at Heidelberg and 
Leipzig 1868-71. Professor of Celtic in Oxford since 1877. 
He IS the author of Lectures on Welsh Philology (1877 ; 2d. 
ed. 1879); Celtic Britain {IS82; 2d ed. 1884); Hibbert 
Lectures on Celtic Heathendom (1888); Studies in the Ar- 
thurian Legends (1891); Rhind Lectures on the Early 
Ethnoloay of the British Isles (1890-91) ; joint editor of 
various Welsh texts. B. I. W. 

Rhythm [vifi O. Pr. from Lat. ryth'mus = Gr. fvBfJs, flow, 
measured motion, rhythm, deriv. of fti¥ (f ut. ^vfiaofiw), flow] : 
the division of time into small approximately equal units 
by corresponding units of sound, or less sensibly by muscu- 
lar movement or visible motion. Rhythm bears the same 
relation to time that symmetry bears to space. The arts of 
space and rest, or completion — statuary, architecture, and 
painting — are based on symmetry, while'the arts of time and 
motion, or execution — dance, music, and poetry — are based 
on rhythm. Symmetry and rhythm are often confounded, 
as when it is stated that the windings of a valley form an in- 
stance of rhythm. One of the most common perversions of 
the term is its application to accentual as distinguished 
from quantitative verse. In English the accent, which 
is chiefly stress, marks the rhythmical unit, while in Latin 
and Greek, where the accent was chiefly pitch, the unit was 
marked, not by the accent, but by stress, usually that of 
long syllables as compared with short ; but in both kinds of 
verse, if there is rhythm, the units, whether marked by ac- 
cent or by stress, must be virtually equal. The fact that the 
quantity of syllables is more unsettled in English than in 
the ancient classics does not prevent us from making the 
feet equivalent. 

Rhythm mav be felt in movements of the body, as in 
marcninp or tiancing (for even the deaf enjoy the dance), 
but it will be sufficient to treat of the rhythm whose sub- 
stance (iiqwyuoy or ^v6fu(6fi9i^¥) is sound. 

Just as a vast expanse of uniform color, however pleasant 
to the eye, does not show symmetry, so one continuous uni- 
form sound, however agreeable to the ear, does not present 
rhythm. Any kind of sound may be made rhythmical, but 
here only music and speech need be recognized. Again, 
poor music and bad poetry may have faultless rhythm, so 
that rhythm may be treated independently of the other 
characteristics of music and poetry. 

The quantitative relation of syllables to each other is 



much more delicately perceived in singing than in reciting. 
Rhythm of the former kind is indicated by musical nutf ?<, 
of the latter by metrical marks. Recited poetry may be 
rendered more exact by the accompaniment of some time- 
measuring device, such as the metronome or icXc^i^i^of : but 
even that often regulates the feet rather than the individual 
syllables. 

The ancient musical notes did not indicate quantity, but 
when the latter had to be marked, as in instrumental niu^ic, 
it was done by writing metrical marks (the same that ^ e 
use) over the notes. Even the modem system of notaiion 
is faulty, being based on the flction of the " whole not e." 
The whole note has no flxed length, and is not the unit nf 
rhythm (though it may happen to be). The true unit is tin' 
bar or measure; hence in |--time, for instance, the so-called 
i-note is really one-third of the unit The tempo or time- 
rate of performance is, in any case, flxed by the composer, 
and approximately indicated by the words andante, alle- 
gro, etc., or more exactly by indicating how the metronome 
18 to be set. 

Each unit of rhythm contains a loud or strong part and a 
weak part. In beating time the hand or baton descends and 
remains down during the strong part, then rises and remains 
up during the weak part (except when the bar calls for more 
than two movements). The foot, in marching, perfurin^ 
analogous functions. Hence the strong part is called the- 
sis (M<rtf, putting down ; also fidtruy step, and 6 iccirw x/^^or. 
the down time), and the weak part arsis (Itpo'if, lifting up; 
also 6 &rw xp^vm^ the up time); but in meter many follow t h*^ 
Roman grammarians and interchange the terms arsis aii<l 
thesis. Each movement of the hand was called let iis 
(beat) by the Romans, but we apply this term only to the 
down beat or the accompanying stress. 

Bare or measures are to music what feet or measures are 
to verse ; but bars always begin with the stress or musical 
accent, whereas feet may begin with the weak part. Th»» 
anapffistic dimeter (tetrapody), for instance, has the metri<al 
form |ws-.-^|v^s-.-^|ww-^|ww^-^|; but if sung in 
f-time it becomes f f \f f f\f f f|# f •!• 
the flrst and last 1^ ^ N U U 11 > • I I U • . t » 
bars being supplementary. In verse of this kind the weak 
part or arsis of the flrst foot is sometimes called anacrusi«q 
[kifdKpcvcis, up beat — a modem use of the word), and th» 
scheme written v-^wl-^wwl— s^s^|, etc. 

The ancient rhythmists recognized a great variety of ct»ni^ 
pound bars, some of them containingseveral simple bars or fett^ 
so that a rhythmical bar (vo^s ^vBiuk6s) was often really a cc >1< >ij 
or musical sentence. In modern music the bars or nie^is^ 

J n.ijr rj.i 
2 1 i r I. J I r r r I. 
l\rtn n\,-%\:t 

analogously J, f, and V^. In J-time the third note reoeivt-i 
secondary stress, and in all the bars consisting of multipU^j 
of three the flrst note of each triplet receives stress. II 
really makes no difference what note is taken as the unil 
of the measure, so that J-time and f-time, for instance, an 
practically the same. There are other bars (for instaiit^e 
the very rare f), but a full discussion of this subject k»e 
longs to technical works on music. For the application o; 
rhythm to speech and for the metrical feet of poetry, s<r^ 
Metres, Peosody, and Quantity. 

The equalization of seemingly different bars or feet in ani 
cient poetry is the subject of endless controversy, some deny 
ing that they were in any way modified from their appan* x\ 
form, others maintaining that an approximation to et^uali 1 1 
was made, while still others assert tnat absolute equality wtij 
established. It is certain that in trochaic and iambic mctt- 
the seeming spondee, by a partial shortening of one syllal »li 
so that it became irrational {$Xoyot) with respect to th 
other, the foot was made to approximate a pure foot, ati^ 
there is no proof that it was not by change of tempo niatii 
virtually equal to such foot — that is, the trochaic moaMir 

— w is really — w— >, in which > is irrational vlxm, 

— > is equivalent to — w. So the light dactyl, -v^ w, ami] 

ogous to I 5 * U C L *nd the cyclic anapjpst were probal »1 

made respectively equivalent to the trochee and ianibti^ 
(See Prosody.) It must be granted, however, that Ih^^r 
were changes of the rhythm in the same composition ; t.ij 
that a change could taKe place in the same colon seems 1 1; 
credible. Milton W. Humphreys^. 



ures most ^ 
used are: 2 

3 I ^ <9 






ir • 

-3. If 

8 \^ 



r r 



: 



98 



RIBP]RA 



RICASOLI 



little precise information about him, and the difficulty in 
this regard has increased by the appearance at the same pe- 
riod 01 several persons of the same name. At the age of 
twenty -one he had to leave his home for the court, because 
of a plague that was devastating his native province. He 
became the friend of the best poets in Lisbon, FaleSo, S& de 
Miranda, and Mont«mayor. He had also a tragic love- 
adventure, the object of his passion being possibly a certain 
Donha Joana de Vilhena, cousin of the King, Dom Manuel, 
and wife after 1516 of Dom Francisco de Portugal. Count of 
Vimioso. After the failure of his suit he seems to have 
gone to Spain, and probablv to Italy. D. about 1550. He 
IS a noteworthy figure in Portuguese literature, as having 
been one of the introducers of the Italian pastoral style that 
has ever since held such sway in Portugal. There are ex- 
tant five idyls, or eglogas, in which experiences of his own 
and of his poet friends are idealized ; and also a pastoral ro- 
mance in prose, interspersed with verse, in which the main 
theme is nis own love, under the name Bimnarder, for a 
ladv disguised as "Aonia." This romance is commonly 
called 3fen(na e Mo^a^ but the author probably knew it as 
Tristezas, or Saudadea. Two parts of it have come down 
to us, but it is uncertain what share, if any, Ribeiro had in 
the second. The work's chief defect is that so many mat- 
ters besides the main theme are interwoven as to make the 
whole extremely confused ; yet it had a very great influence 
in both Portugal and Spain, and to some extent outside the 
Peninsula. I&sides the above Ribeiro wrote a number of 
lyrics in the style of the older Portuguese poets, some of 
which are printed in the so-called Cancioneiro de Resende. 
The first edition of the Jlenina e Mo fa was published at 
Ferrara in 1554 ; the second, better known, at Evora in 
1557. In 1559 it was aarain printed with the addition of the 
lyrics. The Obras de Bernardim Ribeiro appeared in 1645, 
1785, 1853. An excellent edition of the Menina e Mo^a is 
that of D. Jose Pessanha (with PrefaciOy 1891). 

A. R. Marsh. 

Ribera, ree-ba'nia, Josk, called Lo Spognoletto (the lit- 
tle Spaniard): painter: b. at Jativa, near \alencia, Jan. 12, 
1588. He studied art with Ribalta. and then went to Italy, 
where in extreme poverty he worked at painting, depending 
on the charity of his fellow students in Rome. Later he 
went to Naples, where he married the daughter of a rich 
picture-dealer, and was emploved by the Spanish viceroy, 
the Count de Monterev, for Philip IV. of Spain. In 1630 
the Academy of St. Luke at Rome elected him as one of its 
members, "f he pope decorated him with the insignia of the 
Abito di Cristo in 1644. Some biographers assert that he 
died in Naples, rich and honored, in 1656, while Dominici, 
the Italian historian, says that Lo Spagnoletto disapj)eared 
in 1648, and was no more heard of. Luca Giordano and 
Salvator Rosa were his most eminent pupils. 

W. J. Stillman. 

Ribot, ree'bo', Alexander F£lix Joseph: statesman; b. 
at St.-Omer, France, Feb. 7, 1842; was etlucated for the bar; 
received an official appointment in 1870, but afterward re- 
turned to the practice of his profession in Paris, and in 1878 
was elected to the Chamber of Deputies as a representative 
of the moderate republican party. In 1890 he became 
Minister of Foreign Affairs, and was Prime Minister from 
Dec, 1892, to Mar., 1893. In Jan., 1895, he again became 
Prime Minister after the election of Faure as president of 
the republic. Ribot is the author of several works, includ- 
ing a tiography of Lord Erskine (Paris, 1866). R. A, R. 

Ribot, AuousTiN TniSoDULE : genre and portrait painter ; 
b. at Breteuil, Eure, France, Aug. 8, 1823; punil of Glaize; 
medals. Salons, 1864 and 1865; thinl-class medal, Paris Ex- 
position, 1878 ; Legion of Honor 1H78. His work is robust in 
style and notable for strong modeling. His charcoal draw- 
ings are exceedingly good. St, Sfbastinn (1865), Christ 
and the Doctors (1866), and The (rood Samaritan (1870) are 
in the Luxembourg (iallery, Paris. D. at Colombes, Seine, 
Sept. 12, 1891. W. A. C. 

Ribot, Theodule Armand: psycholoirist ; b. at Gningainp, 
France, Dec. 18, 1839; educated "at the Lycco de St.-HricMic 
and at the ftcole Normale in Paris ; was p'rofessor in ditfer- 
ent lycdos 1869-71 ; engaged in laboratories and clinics in 
Paris until 1876; founder and editor of La Rente Philo- 
sophique 1876-94; lecturer at the Sorbonne 1K85-88 ; pro- 
fessor in the College de France since 1888. His princijml 
works are La I^yehologie anglaise contfwporaine (1870); 
VlUrfditl psychologique (1873; 4th e<l. 1892) ; La PMi/nholo- 
gie allemande contemporaine (1879; Eng. trans. 188(5); Les 



Maladies de la JlSmoire (1881 ; 9th ed. 1894) : Les Malawi i * ^ 
de la Volonte (1883 ; 10th ed. 1894) ; Les Maladies tU- In 
Personnalite (1885); and La Psychologie de VAtttrnt\^»n 
(1889). J. Mark Bali^imn. 

Ribs [0. Eng. rib : O. H. Ger. rippa (> Mod. Ger. ripp* : 
Icel. rif < Indo-Europ. rebhyo- ; cf. O. Bulg. rebro, rib] : i !.• 
curved bones which form the lateral framework of the tliorax 
or chest. They serve as substantial points of attachment f ♦ r 
the thoracic muscles, which perform the respiratory mo- 
tions, and by their resistance and elasticity protect the liin u"-, 
heart, and great vessels from external violence and iiijur\. 
The ribs, in man, are usually twenty-four in number, \^A\ »■ 
on each side, but may be one or two more or less in ex«»*j - 
tional cases. They are articulated to the spine behinii, I mi 
in front only the upper seven are connected with the st«Tiiii m 
or breast-bone by intervening costal cartilages. Of tlie n*- 
maining five, three connect with the cartilage of the S4'v<n! fj. 
while the lower two are unattached and terme<l free or floH» - 
ing ribs. The ribs are elastic, and being articulated in fn »nt 
and behind move freely upward and outward in insi»initi« .r,, 
and reversely downward and inward in expiration. The ti\>^, 
like other bones, may be infiamed and thickened from <<'ii- 
tusion or from blooil-disease ; they are often dislort***! I.v 
collapse of a part or whole of a lung and external atni«»^- 
pheric pressure. The chief injuries to the ribs are s<-|.h ra- 
tion from their attachments to the spine or sternum, aini 
fracture. The fractured rib is detected by local crepital i« -li 
of the fragments in respiratory movement, and by the ><.*v»'i. 
local stitch or pain it gives the patient. The treat iihiiv 
consists in application of a firm bandage or broad a4ihe-i\ « 
band around the body to suspend thoracic movement nut i- 
the rib is united ; respiration meanwhile is conducted chirtr* 
by motion of the diaphragm. Revised by W. Pei'Fer. 

Ricar'do. David: political economist; b. in Lonil..ii, 
Apr. 19, 1772. His father, who was a Jew and a native . f 
Holland, settled in London, and as a member of the Sio<k 
Exchange gained a fortune. David Ricardo was a part n. r 
with his father till in 1793 he embraced the Christian fni: h 
and fonned a marriage connection contrary to his futh«r h 
wishes, which caused the partnei-ship to be di<M)lvtM', 
Through the aid of other members of the Stock Exihni);:*! 
the younger Ricardo started in business by himself, ami 
succeeded in a few years in securing a fortune. He tlo ii 
gave his time to the study of mathematics, chemistry, iiuii^ 
eralogy, and geologv, and wtis active in securing the or^'^un^ 
ization of the London Geological Society, In 1809 he jtuL 
lished a tract entitled Tlte High Price of Bullion, a Pvi,-, r 
of the Depreciation of Bank-notes; in 1817 pnblishe«l h.i 
most important work on The I^nnciples of Political Kcf^f 
omy and Taxation, Its leading feature was a theory <-! 
rent, which, though embodying ideas before announce<l J.^ 
others, was received by the public as a new and importMisI 
theory, especiallv in connection with the theory of Malthui 
on population, tlien much discussed. He subsequently 1« 
came a member of Parliament, where he took a proiuiiui. 
part in the discussion of economic questions. I), at G»it^ 
comb Park, Gloucestershire, Sept. 11, 1823. Ricardo stan. 
next to Adam Smith in the British free-trade sehcud «. 
political economists, and his writings have exerted a \h*\\ 
erful influence upon subsequent students of the scien<-e. J 
collection of his works, edited by J. R. McCulloch, wa«< |.uli 
lished in 1846, and his Letters to Malthus api>eanHl in ls>^ 1 

Revised by F. M. Ci»lb\ . 

Ricas^H, ret'-kaa's5-le>, Betting, Baron: statcMnaii ; \ 
in Florence, Mar. 9, 1809, of an old noble Florentine fann 1 -^ 
In 1848 he was a prominent advocate of the unity of Ita . \ 
was elected to the Tuscan narliament, and was offer«Ml 
place in the ministry, which he declined, as the grand tliiK 
had turned against the democratic movement. After i ^i 
defeat of Novara, hoping to prevent the entrance of 1 » i 
Austrians into Tuscany, he took the initiative in reialln 
the grand duke, but retired from the court when the l;it r»! 
with<lrew the constitution. In 1859 he again put hini.<» i f :| 
the head of the Tuscan liberal movement, and aidetl in tli 
expulsion of the grand duke, and. as provisional dictator, i 
the union of Tuscany with Piedmont. This being a***-, mii 
plished, he was appointed governor-general of Tuseanv, m 
office which he held till Mar., 1861. The city of Floroi.. 
elected him deputy to the Italian parliament, and after i \\ 
death of Cavour he lx»came president of the council in i^i 
new ministrv which was afterward overthrown by the ••! •! »i 
sition of Rattazzi. In June, 1866, Baron Ricasoli return. i 
to power and resumed the din^ction of public affairs, ln| 



100 



RICE 



RICHARD I. 



^ain. The primitive method of removing the hull was by 
hand, using a pestle and mortar. The mortar was a lar^ 
block of wood set on end ; the pestle was about 24 inches m 
diameter, and 2 feet long. By light pounding and then 
winnowing the hull and the cuticle were removed and the 
grain was fitted for use. 

In a modem rice-mill the rice is emptied from a sack into 
a hopper at the storehouse; it passes from the hopper into a 
large fanning-mill or separator, where it is freed from all 
foreign substances ; it is then transferred to the mill by a 
belt-conveyor; the hull is removed by passing the grain 
between heavy millstones (about 5 feet in diameter) which 
revolve rapidly, but are not close enough toother to break 
the kernel ; it then goes to the mortar and is pounded for 
two hours, or in some mills the Engleburg huller is used in 
place of the pounding process ; by these processes the hull 
and cuticle are removed and the grain is scoured. The hulls 
are disposed of as worthless refuse ; the cuticle and undercoat- 
ing scoured off are the rice-bran. The rice then passes 
through an inclined cylindrical wire revolving screen, with 
the meshes becoming coarser toward the lower end, thus 
assorting the rice into three or four grades; the finest is 
the brewers* rice, the second — a middling rice — includes the 
larger broken rice, and the third is the whole rice or head 
rice ; the head rice passes from the screen into the polisher, 
where it is brushed and finished. Rice-bran and rice-polish 
are excellent food for cattle and hogs, rating higher than 
wheat-bran and wheat-middlings; brewers* rice is used for 
the production of light beer, and usually brings about one- 
half the price of head rice ; middling rice sells for nearly 
one cent per pound less than head rice. 

Rice as a food (see Food) is deficient in the flesh-forming 
principles, but its almost perfect digestibility increases its 
food- value 20 or 25 per cent., and makes it exceetiinglv val- 
uable for the sick or people inclined to dyspepsia, l^hysi- 
cians quite generally prescribe a rice diet in some form 
where there is any inflammation of the mucous membrane, 
whether of the lungs, stomach, or bowels. Two precautions 
should be observed: the rice should be more than three 
months old, and should be thoroughly cooked. With beef, 
fish, milk, cheese, or beans it makes a well-balanced nutri- 
tive ration. In warm countries rice is extensively used in 
meat souns and as a substitute for the potato. No meal is 
considered complete without it in some form. It is made 
into bread, puddings, biscuits, griddle-cakes, and other foo<l. 
It makes an effective paste, and in Oriental countries it is 
use<i in the production of a spirituous liquor known as arrack. 

Rice-straw is more palatable to animals than oat-straw, 
and preferred as a coarse fodder; it is largely used for win- 
tering stock. It makes an excellent (quality of paper. 

Rice production in the U. S. attained considerable pro- 
portion m the colonial times. In 1707 seventeen ships left 
South Carolina with cargoes of rice. In 1730 the product 
was 21,153,054 lb. ; in 1755 it reache<i 50,747,090 lb.; and in 
1770, 75,264,500 lb. This was raised with slave-labor, and 
mostly exported to Europe and the West Indies. For the 
next seventy vears there was practically no increase. The 
product of 1^ was 84.145,800 lb. In 1860 it was 117,- 
885,000 lb. During the civil war little rice was raised, and 
in 1865 the total amount was only 4,740,580 lb. In 1880 it 
had increased to 85,596,800 lb. ; in 1890 to 131,722,000 lb.; 
and in 1893 to 237,546,900 lb., of which amount Jjouisiana 
produced 182,400,000 lb.. North Carolina 6,818,400 lb.. South 
Carolina 33,250,500 lb., and Georgia 15,078,000 lb. This 
marvelous increase in Louisiana was due to the introduction 
and adaptation of the most improved agricultural ma- 
chinery. The crop in 1894 fell off nearly one-half ; this was 
due to drought in Louisiana and floods in the other States. 

S. A. Knapp. 

Rice, James : novelist ; b. in Northampton, England, in 
1844 ; was educated at Queen's Collejre. (Jambridge ; called 
to the bar in 1871; edited Once a Week 186H-?2; and for 
eight years was Loudon correspondent of the Toronto Globe. 
I), in London, Apr. 25, 1882. lie was joint author with 
Walter Besant of many novels. See Besant, Walter. 

n. A. Beers. 

Rice-bird, or Rice-banting : the Bobolink {q. v.) ; the 
Java Sparrow {q. v.) is also called rice-bird. 

Rice, Indian, Water-rice, or Water-oats: an annual 
a(^iiatic grass (Zizania aquaticn) helon«;ing to the true rice 
tril)e, though of inferior value, from 5 t(» 10 feet hif»h, which 
abounds in marshy regions of the U. S., e*?])coially in Min- 
nesota. }ts grain was formerly much used by the Dakota 



and Chippewa Indians, and forms an important nortion <> 
the fooa of the game-birds of the Northwest. Us stem i.- 
employed as a paper-stock. 

Rice Lalce: city; Barron co., Wis.; on the Red Ce4l:it 
river, Rice Lake, and the Chi., St. P., Minn., and Oinalu 
Railway; 48 miles N. of Menomonie, 56 miles N. of Ka' 
Claire (for location, see map of Wisconsin, ref. 3-B). Ii i 
in an agricultural and lumbering region, is engHged ii 
manufacturing, and has a State bank with capital of !^.%n. 
000, a private bank, and a weekly newspaper. Pop. (is^u 
862; (1890)2,130. 

Rice-paper : See Paper. 

Ricli, Edmund {Saint Edmund): Archbishop of Cant*'r 
bury; b. at Abingdon, England, about 1170; educatetl ti 
Oxford, where he "wedded the Virgin Mary," as he call. . 
his vow of special service, and at Paris; became an in^trtic 
tor at Oxford, where the university was then develofiii^ i 
revival of scholarship; was prebendary of Calne and tn-a^ 
urer of Salisbury Cathedral 1219-22 ; was a famous preaclnT 
at the pope*8 command preached the crusade over a c<>n*^i<} 
erable part of England, probably in 1227; was ap{M>intt4 
Archbishop of Canterbury 1233, and was consecrated Apr 
2, 1234 ; exhibited energy as a reformer in the face of oj»i ^ » 
sition from the clergy and from the Roman hierarchy ; y^^'U 
to Rome in 1238 and again in 1240 to settle various difTim; 
ties with his monks, but finding that the pope demandiM 
more and more unreasonable concessions he resigned his m « 
and retired to the monastery of Pontig^y, in France, in th. 
summer of 1240; thence a little later he went for his heah I 
to the priory of Soissy, where he died, Nov. 16, 1240. 1 1 1 
remains were taken to Ponti^ny, and having been canon iz«. 
by Innocent IV. in 1247, his shrine (known in Franco a 
that of St. Edme) became a place of pilgrimage. Cariliit:t 
(then Archbishop) Manning and Lord Edmund Howar-] 
with 500 British pilgrims, went thither to invoke his itiu i 
cession in behalf of the Roman Catholic Church Sopt. :'. 
1874 He wrote a volume of Constitutions in thirty-^i> 
canons (1236), Speculum Ecclesicp, and left MS. troati>4s 
now in the Bodleian Library. There is a MS. biography h^ 
his brother Robert in the Cottonian collection. AiH»tlnr 
written by Bertrand, prior of Pontigny, was published ii 
Martene's Thesaurus Anecdotorum, lii., 17*4-1826; <f 
Hook's Litvs of the Archbishops of Canterbury, s, v. 

Revised by S. M. Jackshn. 

Ricliard I. (Plantaoenet), surnamed Cceur i>k Lioi 
(lion-hearted): Kin^ of England; third son of Ilt^nrv 11 
and Eleanor of Aquitaine ; b. at Oxford, Sept. 13, 1157 : ^^ a 
noted from youth lor i-ash valor and a turbulent disi>os it ion 
received the duchv of Aquitaine by the treaty of Moutinirai: 
(Jan. 6, 1169), under the feudal supremacy of Kinc: I^oui 
VII. of France, to whose youngest daughter, Adelaiile. li 
was at the same time betrothed ; joined his mother and hi 
two brothers in rebellion against his father 1173 ; was mon 
ciled to him Sept., 1174; l^came involved in wars with hi 
brothers, but was reconciled to them in London in 11 s4 
lie also made war upon the Count of Toulouse, aided hi 
father against Philip Augustus, and later, in alliance witj 
Philip Augustus, waged successful war on his father. Suo 
ceeding to the throne in July, 1189, he spent a few nmnth 
in arranging the affairs of the kingdom, and then st*t out «)i 
the third crusade, Julv, 1190, with the King of France. (>i 
his way to the Holy Land he captured Messina and eon 
quered the island of Cyprus. Arnving before Acre Jurit* < 
he took part in the capture of the city, but soon quarreled 
with the French king, who returned to France. Riihan 
advanced immediately toward Jerusalem ; defeated the Sara 
cens at Arsuf in September; took and fortified Jaffa; ad 
vanced on Askalon, which he took Jan., 1192; set out twici 
for Jerusalem, but was called hack each time by host i lit i<^ 
in his rear; lost and regained Jaffa; performed many hritl 
iant exploits of personal valor, but, iMjing obligiKi liy i h 
state of affairs in England to return, made a truce witti Su| 
tan Saladin, and sailed from Acre in October. On his wd 
home he was shipwrecked at the head of the Adriatic : ed 
deavored to make his way by land through Austria; w| 
seized and imprisoned by Leopold, Duke of Austria, \^il 
whom he had quarreled in the Holy Land ; was hancltnl on 
to the Emperor of Germany, by whom he was detained ihm 
than a year; was liberated on pledge of a heavy rans«a 
Feb., li94; found his brother John assuming tlie funrtioi 
of king, but soon forgave him ; engaged in a war with F*hil! 
Augustus of France, whom he defeated and forced to siirn 
disadvantageous truce, and renewed the war three >i-ai 



Rtrli«ril» 






llifF.M.r^iLm 



m 



102 



RICHARDSON 



RICHELIEU 



He has bt'cii since 1854 an earnest advocate of advance in 
national sanitation, and a zealous partisan of the temperance 
movement. Since 1884 he has been the author and editor 
of a quarterly journal. The Asclepiad. Among his works 
are T/ie Uealth of Sationa (London, 1887) ; National Uealth 
(London, 18iH)). Revised by S. T. Armstrong. 

Richardson, Charles: philologist: b. in England in 
July, 1775; studied but never practiced law: devoted him- 
self to literature in I^ndon ; published IHu»traiiof%s of 
English Philology (1H15); undertook the lexicographical 
articles in The Eticyclopcedia MetropoUtana, for which he 
also prepared his great work, a New Dictioiuiry of the Eng- 
lish Language, which (the first part appearing in 1818) was 
suspended soon afterwanl by the failure of the proprietors, 
ana completed (as a separate work) in 1837. The complete 
work appeared in new editions in 1837, 1838, and 1839. 
Richardson also published a Supplement to his dictionary 
(1855). a work On tlie Study of Language (1854), and an 
Historical Essay on English Grammar and English Gram- 
marians, several philological papers in the Gentleman'' s 
Magazine, and some comments on Shaksoeare: was a con- 
tributor to Notes and Queries; received a pension from 
1852 until his death at Peltham, Middlesex, Oct. 6, 1805. 

Richardson, Charles Francis : scholar ; b. at Hallowell, 
Me., May 29, 1851. He graduated at Dartmouth College 
1871, was connected with the New York Independent 1872- 
78, and in 1882 was appointed Professor of English at Dart- 
mouth. He has published A Primer of American Litera- 
ture {1S7Q); The Cross, a volume of poems (1879); The 
Choice of Books (ISSl) ; &i\d American Literature (2 vols., 
1887-89).* II. A. B. 

Richardson, Samuel: novelist; b. in Derbyshire, Eng- 
land, about 1689; learned the printing-tratle ; became a 
publisher in London, printer of the journals of the House 
of Commons, master of the Stationers' Company, and pur- 
chased in 1760 a half-interest in the office of king's printer. 
I), in London, July 4, 1761. His novels Pamela (1740, with 
a continuation in 1741), Clarissa Harlowe (1748), Sir 
Charles Grandison (1754) enjoyed an unboundeil success, 
and had numerous imitators not only in England, but in 
(jermanv and France, where they profoundly influenced 
the whole development of prose fiction, Richardson is the 
first English novelist. His novels are all in the form of 
letters, and are long and sentimental. They show little ujc- 
quaintance with men on the part of their author, but an in- 
tense and sympathetic absorption in the feelings of the 
female heart, and they had their strongest popularity 
among wom(>n. See Enulish Literature. 

Revised by H. A. Beers. 

Richardson, William Adams, LL. D. : jurist and finan- 
cier; b. at Tyngsb6rough, Mass., Nov. 2, 1821; graduated 
at Harvard 1843; admitted to the bar at Boston 1846; prac- 
ticed law at Lowell; was one of the revisers of the General 
Statutes of MaMMfirhusftts (1860), and of the Supplement to 
the same (1863-64) ; Ijecame judge of j)robate 1856, Assist- 
ant Secretary of the Treasury 1869-73. and was secretary 
1873-74; Judge of C S. court of clniins since 1874, and 
chief justice of same since Jan. 20, 1H85 ; published The 
Banking Laws of Mamarhusetts (Lowell. 1855); Practical 
Information concerning the Public Debt of the United 
States, with the National Banking Laws (1872); History 
of the Court of Claims (1882-85), and otlier works. 

Riehardt, Christian Ernst: poet; b. in Copenhagen, 
Denmark, May 25, 1831. After studying theology he ac- 
(•epU»d a call to a countrv church, and continued to Ih» a 
parish priest until his death. During the last years of his 
life he was chaplain of Vemmetofte Cloister in Zealand. 
His first work w»ls a comedy, Deklarationen (1851), which 
was later produce«l at the Ko'yal theater. In 1861 appeared 
Smaadigfe, consisting of a numl)er of delicate lyrics; in 
1874 Billedpr og Santje (Pictures and Songs); *in 1878 
Halvhundrede Digte {\^'\t{\ Poems); in 1884 Vaar og Host 
(Spring and Autumn); and in 1891 Blandcde Digt'f (Mis- 
cellaneous Pot-ms). His tnigic musicHlraina Drnt og JIarsk 
(King and Constable, 187H), with music by P. Hei^e. is one 
of the most popular pieces in tlie repertory of tlie Royal 
theater. In his religums depth, his |>Htriotic entlnisiasm. 
and his sincere love of nature, he stands first in later Dani>h 
lyrical poetry. D. 1893. His collected poems were pub- 
lished in Cojienhagen in 1894. 1). K. Doimje. 

Richelieu, ree-shf-loo'. also called Sorel, or Chambly: 

an historic and beautiful river of (jueU'c, (*ana(la ; right- 



hand affluent of the St. Lawrence, discharging Lake CMiuin- 
plain; length, 80 miles. Its course is northerly and \«r> 
straight; the width, at first 1 or 2 miles, becomes gradualjy 
contracted to 1,000 or 1,200 feet. It is navigable, except ! • -r 
rapids between St. John and Chambly, and this gaj> i*» >\i\>- 
1)1 led by a canal. Navigation closes between Nov. 16 ami 
Dec. 13, and o{)ens between Mar. 20 and May 1. The valb \ 
is fertile and attractive, and in it were made some of Mi»- 
earliest settlements in the province. It also starved h-» a 
battle-ground for over two centuries, beginning with i'liain- 
plain*s Iroquois campaign in 1609. M. W. li. 

RicheHen (Fr. pron. n^-shli-o), Armand Jean DrpLK*-^!**. 
de, Duke and Cardinal : statesman ; b. in Paris. France, s*- j )l . 
5, 1585; was educated for the military profession in the ( < d- 
lege de Navarre, but, having a prospect of succeeding to tin- 
bishopric of Lu9on, did not enter the armv, but studied IIm— 
ology, and was consecrated bishop Apr. 16,1607. Elect t-d « 
deputy of the clergy to the States-General in 1614, he alliiMl 
himself with the queen-mother and regent, Marie de Mc<n< i-^ ; 
was appointed her almoner, and became a meml)er of tht- 
council of state. When, shortly after, dissensions broke out 
between the king (Louis XIII.) and his mother, Richelieu ac- 
companied the latter to Blois, and retired subsequently to 
his diocese, but succeeded, nevertheless, in bringing aboiit n 
reconciliation between mother and son ; was rewardetl "wit h 
the cardinal's hat in 1622; re-entered the council of .•-tat*-, 
and was soon after made prime minister, which oflSce he fill. m1 
uninterniptedly to his death, exercising a most decisive in- 
fluence on the history of France, externally and internally. 
Ilis foreign policy centered in the idea of humiliatiiig Aust rm. 
For this purjjose he encouraged the rising of the Prote^tiint 

Srinces in Germany, the revolution of the provinces in the 
. etherlands, and even the revolt in Catalonia. Ho sul-^i- 
dized Gustavus Adolphus,and after the death of the latter li»- 
took the Duke of Saxe-Weimar and his army into the FreiM )i 
service, and carried on the war against the emperor with 
great vigor. He also declared war against Spain, and al- 
though his plans in the Netherlands failed, he su<-eeeiied 
in separating Portugal from Spain in 1640, and conqu«'n<l 
Perpignan in 1642. The final results of these wars he ihd 
not live to see, but by the Peace of Westj)halia (16-4HI tin- 
progress of the house of Austria was effectually chcckeil ni.ii 
its dream of establishing a world-empire was (!estn>yed. Ii> 
his internal policy he finished what Louis XI. had beiiuii— 
the overthrow of the feudal power of the nobility. Ili^ jr* 'V- 
eniment was marked by an almost uninterrupted series «.f 
conspiracies among the feudal nobility of the realm, hea<l« d 
by the queen-mother (whose favor had turned into a d(aiii> 
hatred), by the queen herself, Anne of Austria, by (laMon «.i' 
Orleans, tfie brother of the king, and by the royal priij««v 
A master in intrigue and the very genius of detective jh.,i. .- 
su[)erintendence, he was always well informed and fully {.r*- 
pared, and punished the conspirators with merciless bev^rit y. 
The king felt a deep antipathy against him, and on thi> <iV- 
cumstance the first conspirators based their hoj>e of ov«'p- 
throwing him. With the king, however, this alin(»st phys- 
ical avei-sion was wholly overawed by a mixture of admira- 
tion and fear of the towering spirit of his minister, and i»i\ 
Nov. 11, 1630 {la jovniee des dupes), when the king had 
consented to his dismissal and the whole court exulleil. 
Richelieu forced himself into the presence of Louis. turTit<l 
him around in a moment, and reappeared with great dra- 
matic effect among his enemies, stronger than ever. After- 
ward the conspirators sought and found support in foni^:!! 
countries, especial I v in Spain, and Richelieu needed arnn* ^ 
to maintain hiniself, but he j)roved unconquerable. Mjin«- 
de M^dicis fled from place to place in foreign count ri«N ; 
Gaston of Orleans was made utterly contemptible bv hi^ 
cowanlly submission: Montmorency, Marillac, Cinq-Liar's, 
and many others were beheaded. The scaffold, the dun- 
geon, an({ exile were the end of all resistance to him ^ ho 
wielded the royal jwwer. Resides the feudal nobility, th»T»' 
was another iKilitical power in France at the time wht-n 
Richelieu took the reins — namely, the Huguenots — and t.i 
crush this young but steadily increasing influence wj4> oi.f 
of the three great objects of his iMilicy. He laid si»'ce to 
their principal stronghold. La R<H'helle, and this^iege i.»» fi.t- 
of the most memorHlile events in the history of France. < iii 
Oct. 28, 1628, the city surrendered, four-fifths of its \uhn\ i- 
tants having perished by the sword and by famine. Hy t).f 
fall of La Hoehelle the political ix)wer of the Huguenots \n .i> 
wholly broken, but Richelieu's further measures concerning: 
them were moderate and even magnanimous. The cardinal 



104 



RICHMOND 



Richmond : city of Victoria, Australia : 2 miles £. of 
Melbourne (see map of Australia, ref. 8-H). Pop. (1889) 
37,550. It has a distinct municipality and the rank of a city, 
but is really only a suburb of Melbourne. 

Richmond : chef-lieu of the counties of Richmond and 
Wolfe, Canada; on the St. Francis, a tributary of the St. 
Lawrence ; 76 miles E. of Montreal (see map of Quebec, ref. 
5-C). It is an important center of the Grand Trunk Rail- 
way, the Portland section extending from it 221 miles, the 
Montreal section 76 miles, and the Quebec branch 96 miles. 
The river is spanned by a passenger-bridee connecting the 
picturesque village of Melbourne with Richmond. St. Fran- 
cis College, an institution aflaiiated to McGill University, is 
situated on a commanding site at the upper end of the 
town. Two newspapers are published in tne place. The 
chief industry is connected with the railwav-works and ma- 
chine-shops. Pop. (1890) 2,056. J. M. IIaeper, 

Richmond : city ; capital of Wayne co., Ind. ; on the 
Whitewater river, and the Grand Rapids and Ind. and the 
Pitts., Cin., Chi. and St. L. railways ; 68 miles E. of Indian- 
apolis, 92 miles S. by E. of Fort Wayne (for location, see 
map of Indiana, ref. 6-G). It is in an agricultural region, 
has an elevation of 700 feet above tide-water, and is en- 
caged in manufacturing and in general trade. The city 
has gas and electnc-light plants, an abundant supply of 
natural gas for fuel, excellent water and drainage sys- 
tems, and electric street-railways. There are 21 churches, 
9 public-school buildings, a high school, public-school 
property valued at about $300,000, Earlham College (Or- 
thodox Friends, opened in 1847), 5 libraries (Earlham Col- 
lege 3, Morrison Public, and County Law) containing over 
27.000 volumes, 3 national banks with combined capital of 
$450,000, 4 building and loan associations, and a semi- 
monthly, a quarterly, 4 daily, 7 weekly, and 3 monthly pe- 
riodicals. In 1890 there were 293 manufacturing establish- 
ments, which had a combined capital of f4,0SO.OOO, em- 
ployed about 3,000 persons, and had products valued at 
about $6,000,000. The public buildings include a new 
county court-house, a new State asylum for the insane, two 
orphans' homes, a Iloine for Friendless Women, and a city 
hospital. Pop. (1880) 12,742 ; (1890) 16,608. 

Richmond : town : capital of Madison co., Ky. : on the 
Louis, and Nash, and the Rich., Nicholasville, Irvine and 
Beattyrille railways : 25 miles S. S. E. of Lexington, 54 miles 
S. E. of Frankfort, the State capital (for location, see map of 
Kentucky, ref. 3-1). It is in an agricultural region ; is noted 
for breeding horses, mules, and cattle ; and contains the Cen- 
tral University (Southern Presbyterian, chartered in 1873), 
4 national banks with combined capital of $750,000, and a 
monthly and 2 weekly periodicals. Pop. (1880) 1,424 ; (1890) 
6,073. 

Richmond : town ; Sagadahoc co.. Me. ; on the Kenne- 
bec river, and the Maine Central Railroad ; 17 miles S. of Au- 
gusta, and 44 miles N. E. of Portland (for location, see map 
of Maine, ref. 10-C). It is principally engaged in the manu- 
facture of boots and shoes, has sawmills and planing-raills, 
and contains a public high school, public library (founded in 
1868), two national banks with combined capital of $170,- 
000, and a weeklv and a monthly periodical. Pop. (1880) 
2,658 ; (1890) 3,082. 

Richmond : city ; capital of Rav co., Mo. ; on the Atch., 
Top. and S. Fe Railroad; 40 miles E. of Kansas Qty, 68 
miles S. E. of St, Louis (for location, see map of Missouri, 
ref. 3-E). It is in an agricultural and coal-mining region, 
and contains several flour-mills, foundry, public high scnool, 
Woodson Institute, new water-works plant, electric lights, 
8 State banks with combined capital of $200,000, and a daily 
and 3 weekly newspapers. Pop. (1880) 1,424; (1890)2,895; 
(1894) estimated, 3,500. Editor of " Democrat." 

Richmond : city (named after Richmond, Surrey, Eng- 
land); port of entry; capital of Virginia and of Henrico 
County; on the north branch of the James river, and the 
Ches. and Ohio, the Richmond and Petersburg, the Rich., 
Fredericksburg and Potomac, and the Southern railwavs; 
100 miles S. bv E. of Washington, I). C, 127 miles N. W.'of 
the Atlantic Ocean (for location, st»e map of Virginia, ref. 
6-II). It has an area within incorporated limits of 4*85 scj. 
miles, and with suburbs of about 16 s(j. miles; is built on a 
series of hills, and ranges in altitude above soa-level from 
172 to 249 feet. The river is here crosse<l by five l)ri<lges, 
connecting the city with Manchc*«tcr, Spring Hill, and otlier 
suburban places. There are 106 miles of streets, generally 



wide, of which 36 miles are sewered and 23 miles paved ; 
sidewalks are chiefly of brick. Main Street is the pnncij>al 
business thoroughfare; Broad Street is the widest; W t-t 
Franklin and Grace contain the most fashionable residences. 
The streets are lighted by gas and electricity, and the |»riii- 
cipal ones are traversed by electric and hgrse railways. T h«* 
supply of water for domestic and fire purposes is obtaiix*! 
from two points on the river above the city, where it i^ 
pumped into two large reservoirs for distribution. Both th*^ 
gas and water-works plants are owned by the city. 




State Capitol, Richmond, Va. 

Parks and Public Buildings.— The most noted of tlir* 
parks and squares, which comprise 857 acres in all, is C'anit « •! 
Square, a tract of 12 acres on the summit of Shock«x^ Hill. 
It contains the State Capitol, a Grseco-composite build in ir 
with a portico of Ionic columns, erected in 1796 aft*»r tlx* 
plans of the Maison Carrie of Nimes, France. The buihlini:^ 
contains Houdon's marble statue of Washington, and many 
portraits of governors, military officers, and otlier distin- 
guished Virginians ; the two legislative halls; and the ^t«t«» 
Library, in which are preserved the parole signed by Lonl 
Cornwallis at Yorktown, the original Virginia bill of ri^rhts, 
and the Virginia ordinance of secession. The park siirrou nd- 
ing the Capitol has three fountains ; Crawford's equestrian 
statue of Washington surrounded by bronze statues of Pat- 
rick Henry, John Marshall, Andrew Lewis, George Ma>on. 
Thomas Jefferson, and Thomas Nelson, bv Crawford ai.<i 
Rogers ; Foley's bronze statue of " Stonewall " Jackson ; n n«l 
Hart's marble statue of Henry Clay. Other public bui ly- 
ings on the square are the Governor's mansion, the new 
Public Library, and the old bell-house. The largest park, 
of 300 acres, contains the new reservoir, a beautiful ]nk*\ 
and a fine boulevard, and is a favorite resort. Libby Park, 
on Libbj^ Hill, is terraced from the summit to Main Street, 
and on its highest point has a Confederate Soldiers' ami 
Sailors' Monument. Monroe Park contains a statue of Gen. 
W. C. Wickham. Chimborazo Hill Park has an area of 8rt 
acres, and an elevation of 200 feet. Howitzer Place ha^s a 
monument in memory of the Richmond Howitzer battalion. 
Gamble's Hill Park is on the James river and Kana^%})a 
Canal, and Jefferson Park is between Marshall and Pleasant 
Streets. Lee Circle, in the west of the city, contains a brc»n ze 
equestrian statue of Gen. Robert E. I^ee. In Holly wo«kI 
Cemetery, where 12,000 Confederate soldiers lie, is a' mem- 
orial of rough blocks of granite, forming a pyramid 90 feet 
high, erected by the women of Richmond. Other n«»tal-ie 
buildings are St. John's Protestant Episcopal church, r.n 
Church Hill, in which Patrick Henry made his famous de<-- 
laration for liberty or death ; the Colonial Stone House <.n 
Main Street, believed to have been occupied by Washington ; 
the " White House of the Confederacy," the home of JefTors* .n 
Davis during the civil war, and now a museum for Conf. »1- 
erate relics; the Masonic Temple, the first erected in t !;♦» 
U. S. (corner-stone laid 1785); Alonumental church (Prot*-^ 
tant Episcopal), erected on the site of the theater buni«M| m 
IHll, when sixty lives were lost; two armories; St. Luki < 
Hospital ; Retreat for the Sick ; Lee Camp Soldiers' H<»ni. ; 
the Male and Female Orphan asylums; the Virginia M«'.l- 
ieal College; the Colored Baptist church, in which the ifii- 
stitutional convention of 1850-51 wjis held; and the peni- 
tentiary, to which a farm is now attached. 



106 



RICHTHOPEN 



RICO 



tempts were not successful. His Or&nldndiaehe Proe^^sse 
(lawsuits in Greenland, 2 vols., 1784) and Atiswahl aus dea 
Teufels Papieren (Selections from the Papers of the Devil, 
1789) were not read; their satire is narrow, their humor 
forced, their form unripe. In 1793 his romance, Die Un- 
sichthare Loge (The Invisible Lodge, 2 vols.), turned the scales 
of fortune, and now followed in rapid succession, and with 
decided success, Hesperus (4 vols., 1795), Biographiache Be- 
luatigungen unfer der Gehimaehale einer Rieain (Biograph- 
ical Recreations under the Cranium of a Giantess, 1796), 
Lehen dea Quintua Fixlein (1796), Blumen-, Frucht- und 
Dornenstucke, oder Eheatand, Tod und Hochzeit dea Annen- 
adifocalen Siebenkda (Flower, Fruit, and Thorn Pieces, or 
Marriage, Death, and Wedding of Lawyer SiebeiikS.s. 4 vols., 
1797), Der Jubelaenior (1797), Das Kampamr Thai (1797). 
These writings made Richter the literary favorite of Ger- 
many. In 1794 he gave up his position as a schoolmaster, 
and began a life of visits to the different literary centers — 
Leipzig, Weimar, Dresden, and Berlin. He was everywhere 
well received, and made many intimate friends, among whom, 
however, Goethe and Schiller were not. It was especially the 
fair sex which was enthusiastic about him. In 1801 he mar- 
ried in Berlin the beautiful and spirited Caroline Mayer, and 
removed first to Meiningen, then to Bayreuth. From the 

Srince-primate Dalberg he received an annual pension of 1,000 
orins, which was continued afterward by the King of Bavaria, 
and the University of Heidelberg made him a doctor. In 
1803 he published his IHtan, and in 1804 Die Flegeljahre 
(Wild Oats, 4 vols.), which two romances, together with his 
first philosophical attempt, Vorachule der ^athetik (Intro- 
duction to Aesthetics, 8 vols., 1805), may be considered as 
indicating the culmination of his talent. In 1807 he wrote 
another ptiUosophical book on education, Levana oder Er- 
ziehnngalehre^ and in the following years he published a great 
number of political and satirical uamphlets, sermons, hu- 
morous sketches, etc. D. at Bayreutn, Nov. 14, 1825. Richter 
is without doubt the greatest humorist of modern German 
literature, but his utter disregard for literary form, the lack 
of artistic composition, and his barbarous style make it a 
laborious tiusk to read and enjoy him. Having, however, 
penetrated the hard shell of the imperfect form of his 
writings, one finds him a poet of divine inspirations, lofty 
sentiments, and irresistible humor. In onler to do him 
justice it is necessary not only to consider him in his literary 
relations to the earlier English and German humorists, like 
Swift, Sterne, Hippel, Lichtenberg, and others, but also to 
keep in mind the miserable political and social conditions of 
Germany in his time and the strong current of sentimental- 
ity which had not lH?en checked by the classic productions 
of Goethe and Schiller. While these latter poets and their 
followers had created in their works an ideal poetic world 
unconcerned about the miserable conditions around them 
in which they really lived, Richter makes the very con- 
trast between the German idealism and the prosaic reality 
of his time the subject-matter of his humorous representa- 
tions. With a loving spirit he embraces the lowest and 
most humble in this prosaic reality, and thus he produces 
idyls like (Quintua Fixlein, Lehen Fihela^ etc., in which his 
contemporaries found a picture of their own life, and which 
we could call classic but for their poor literary form. He is 
especially great in his descripti<ms of nature, while in the 
delineation of human charactei-s he is frequently less suc- 
cessful. As defective as his style was, it found a great 
many imitators. The tendency whieh prompts authors like 
Borne, Heine, and their literary offspring to parade their 
vain subjectivity is due to the exami)le of Richter, to whom 
Heine es[)ecially owes more than he might have been willing 
to acknowledge. 

See R. O. Spazier, Jean Paul Fr. Richter, ein hinqraph- 
ischer Commentar zu dennf-n Werken (1833); E. P^oi*stor, 
Denkwurdigkeitt-n ana dem Lehen J. P. F. Richfera (1863) ; 
Fr. Th. Viseher, Krifische Gauge ; G. Xerrlieh, Jean Paul 
und aeine Zeitgenosaen (1889); Carlylo, EMsags, 

Revised by Julius Goe^el. 

Rlchthofen, rirht'ho-ffn, Baron Fkrdixand, von. Ph. D. : 
geologist and geographer; member of a distinirnished Sile- 
sian family ; b. at Carlsruhe, Germany, Mav 5, 1H33 ; studied 
at Breslau and Berlin 1800-06. During 1856-60 he was in 
Austria studying the geology of the Tyrol, SiebenbUrgen, 
and Northeastern Hungary. He then accompanied, as ge- 
ologist. Count Eulenberg on the Prussian expedition to the 
far East, and remained twelve years in Cliifia, Indo-China, 
Java, Celebes, the Philippine islands, Formosa, Japan, Cali- 



fornia, and Nevada, returning to Europe in 1872. .Siii<-«i 
this time he has remained in Europe, engaged in workini^ 
up the results of his journeys and in professional and t4h»- 1 
geographic and geologic pursuits. His publications havti 
been numerous, among them the following in English : 7'A» 
Comatock [Nev.] Lode (1865); Prineiplea of the yaturtt/ 
Syatem of Volcanic Rocka {\ii&7) \ Letters to the Shungf**t • 
Chamber of Commerce {1HQ9-72), The most noteworthy «•• 
his works is China, Ergehniaae eigner Reisen und dnntu 1 
gegrundeter Studien (vol. i., 1877; vol. ii., 1882; vol. i\ ., 
1883). For the family, consult Oeschichte der Familie J***7- 
tortus von Richthofen (1884). Mark W. Harrington. 

Richwood: village; Union co.,0.; on the Erie Railnwul : 
15 miles S. W. of Marion (for location, see map of Ohio, nf , 
4-E). It is in an agricultural region, and has 2 large ffou r- 
mills, 2 steam tile-mills, several large grain elevators, a plai 1^ 
ing-mill, 2 private banks, and 2 weelcly newspapers. l*«»j», 
(1880) 1,817 ; (1890) 1,415. Pubusher of *• Gazette.^ 

Bic'inas : See Castor-oil Plant. 

Rickets: a disease characterizetl by deformities of tlfi 
bones and various visceral disturbances. It occurs a»* :n 
rule in infants from twelve to eighteen months of ago. T)i»i 
predis{X)sing causes are the influence of bad hygienic sur- 
roundings, and improoer food and clothing. The synij»t*»itiH 
develop gradually and almost imjierceptibly. The little i»u- 
tient seems to lose spirit, and indigestion sets in, ac('<»iii- 
panied by swelling of the abdomen and colic. There is 
early a tejidency to sweating about the head and rc>tU"-'-- 
ness during sleep. The muscles become soft and flabby, t l)»i 
face sallow, and the skin dry, and there is scanty and turl»t«l 
urine and thin fetid evacuations. The fontanelles and su- 
tures remain open until a late period. The teeth are vt-rv 
late in making their appearance, and decay rapidly aft*'r 
doing so. As the disease advances the hemes grow 'soft *t, 
and oecome' distorted bv the superincumbent weight ana 
muscular contraction. Various deformities of the h<'M»l, 
limbs, chest, and pelvis are brought alwut. (See ()RTHoi».t - 
Die Surgery^ As a disease of the bones, rickets i^ nt-vi r 
dangerous. It is from the deformities resulting. an<l tluir 
interference with the action of the lungs and other viM-t-rji, 
that the danger arises. The treatment can be sumnu-d \i\^ 
in a few words — fresh air, sunlight, good food, bathing, an.: 
cod-liver oil. It is remarkable that rachitic childn-n fi*- 

?[uentlv develop and* become unusually strong, though lU-- 
ormed, in adult years. Many, too, are brilliant mental 1\, 
as the records of great names in literature and scien<*i« vlu»vv , 

Revised by W. Peppkr. 

Ricketts, James Brewerton: soldier; b. in New Y<»rk, 
June 21, 1817; grathmted at U. S. Military Academy, au*! 
entered the artillery July, 1839 ; served in the Mexican unr 
and on frontier duty up to 1861, when ascaj>tain he connnaii«i- 
ed a battery in the capture of Alexandria May 24, as in t [}*-, 
battle of Bull Rim July 21, 1861, where he was sevi'r»'l\ 
wounded, and from which date he was breveted lientt'iumt 
colonel and made brigadier-general of volunteers. He v\iiH 
engaged in the battle of Cedar Mountain, at the second l>Mt t i»i 
of Bull Run, and at Chantilly commanded a division, a-, ai 
South Mountain and Antietam ; major First U. S. Artili»r> 
June, 1863; participated in the flnal Richmond canipaJLin 
in command of a division from the battles of the Wihh-rnt ^s 
to the investment of Petersburg; recalled to Wa^hintrl. n 
July, 1864, to aid in the defense against Early's thn^ai* ii» «i 
attack, and engaged in the subsecjuent pursuit of Ear]\'s 
army, participating in the battles of Monocacy, ()jH'«pi;o., 
Fishers Hill, and Cedar Creek, where he was sov«rt ly 
wounded; breveted major-general for gallantry; in Jan., 
1867, was retired on the full rank of major-general. I>. at 
Washington, I). C, Sept. 22, 1887. James MERriR. 

Ricketts, Palmer Chamberlaine, C. E. : civil engiiu « r 
and educator; b. at Elkton, Md.. Jan. 17, 1856; educ-uti «1 .-i! 
the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy. N. Y., wIuto h. 
graduated in 1875. During 1875-84 he was Assistant Tr..* 
fessor of Mathematics; since 1884 has been Professor of M. - 
chanics, and since 1802 director of the Rensselaer Pol\t«-<h- 
nic Institute. He has been consulting bridge-en gin«*vr |.»r 
two railways, and since 1891 engineer of the i>ublio im- 
provement commission of Troy, N. Y. In 1891 ne wa-* h|.- 
I)ointed brigadier-general and chief of engineers of the St. it. 
of Now York. He is the author of rejH)rts and tecbiii* a 
'discussions in engineering periodicals. 

Rico, ree'ko: town; capital of Dolores co.. Col. ; on t]i» 
Dolores river, and the Rio Grande Southern Railroad ; ♦'»«. 



li)))i«fivii.i 






"j ,«fiai l'i|^ '11^'iin^ |i'»ll, 



... ^ii-;-. 



uiiij 



108 



RIDGWAY 



RIENZI 



Bidg^way : borough ; capital of Elk co.. Pa. ; on the Clar- 1 
ion river and the Penn. and the Buffalo, Rochester and 
Pitts, railways: 118 miles S. E. of Erie, and 156 miles N. E. 
of Pittsburg (for location, see map of Pennsylvania, ref. 
3-D). It is in a lumbering region, and contains tanneries, 
foundrv, machine-shop, a private bank, and two weekly 
newspapers. Pop. (1880) 1,100 ; (1890) 1,903. 

Ridgwaj, Robert : ornithologist ; b. at Mt. Carmel, 111., 
July 2, 1850; educated in the common schools of that place. 
He was appointed zoologist to the U. S. geological explora- 
tion of the 40th parallel, under Clarence King (1867-69), 
and was curator of the (lei)artment of birds of the U. S. 
National Museum. He assisted Prof. Baird in the prepa- 
ration of the technical portion of the History of North 
American Birds (1871-74), The three volumes were upon 
land-birds, and in 1884 two more volumes, upon water-birds, 
were issued. Although published as the works of Baird, 
Brewer, and Ridgway, tne technical parts were entirely 
written by Ridgway, lie is also author of Report on Orm- 
thology of the 40tn Parallel^ an elaborate treatise on 262 
species, and a work of 367 Government quarto pages; A 
Jyomet^lature of Colors for Naturalists (Boston. 1886); and 
A Manual of North American Birds (Philadelphia, 1887). 
Besides this, he is author of about 200 separate papers, some 
of considerable extent. Revised, by P. A. Lucas. 

Ridlej, Nicholas, D. D. : bishop and martyr ; b. at Un- 
thank, ^orthumberland, England, about 1500; educated in 
^the grammar school at Newcastle-upon-Tyne ; graduated at 
Cambridge, 1522; obtained a fellowship at Pembroke Col- 
lege and was ordained priest 1524 ; studied theology at the 
Sorbonne, Paris, and at the University of Louvain 1527-29 ; 
became on his return to Cambridge under-treasurer to the 
university, and soon afterward senior proctor (1533) and 
public orator, in which capacities he protested against the 
usurpations of ecclesiastical jurisdiction by the papacy, pro- 
curing a decree of the univer>sity to the same effect; was 
appointed domestic chaplain to Archbishop Cranmer 1537, 
vicar of Ilerne, Kent, 1538, master of Pembroke College and 
chaplain to the king 1540 ; was accused of heresy, at the in- 
stigation of Bishop Gardiner, on account of having preached 
against the Six Articles, but acquitted by Cranmer 1541 ; 
became prebendary of Westminster 1545, Bishop of Roches- 
ter Aug. 14, 1547; bore an important part in all the ecclesi- 
astical measures of the reign of Edward VI. ; assisted Cranmer 
in compiling the Liturgv (1548) and framing the forty-one 
Articles of Religion; induced the king to change Greyiriars 
and St. Bartholomew's priories into charitable institutions; 
converted his own house at Bridewell into a workhouse; was 
instrumental in founding Christ's, St. Thomas's, and Bethle- 
hem Hospitals in Ijondon : was a member of the commission 
which deposed Bonner, and was his successor as Bishop of 
London Apr., 1550; aided in the deposition of Gardiner, 
Bishoi) of Winchester; visited the Princess Mary at Huns- 
don, desiring to gain her acquiescence in his views of Church 
reform, but was unsuccessful, 1552 ; concurred in the proc- 
lamation of Lady Jane Grey as (jueen, and was induced bv 
the Duke of Northumberland to preach a sermon at Paul s 
Cross in defense of her title July 16, 1553 ; was committed 
to the Tower on the accession of Mary a few days later ; 
was taken to Oxford Apr., 1554, to participate in a discus- 
sion with the court theologians on the Real Presence ; was 
formally tried for heresy with Cranmer and Latimer by a 
commission named by Cardinal Pole, and condemned to 
death as an obstinate heretic Oct. 1, 1555, and, having re- 
fused to recant, was burned at the stake with I^atimer in 
front of Baliol College, Oxford, Oct. 16, 1555. His Life was 
published by his descendant. Dr. Gloucester Ridley (1763), 
and his Works, chiefly tracts in favor of the Reformation, 
were edited, with a Life, by Rev. Henry Christmas for the 
Parker Society (London, 1841). Revised by S. M. Jackson. 

Ridolfo, Zexo : See Schadow, Rudolph. 

Ridpath, John Clark, A. M., LL. D. : historian and edu- 
cator; b. in Putnam co., Ind., Ai»r. 26, 1840; educated at 
Indiana Asbury (now De Pauw) University; has served as 
principal of Thorntown Academy, superintendent of Law- 
renceburg s<-h(K)ls, Professor of Knglish Literature, Pro- 
fessor of Belles-lettres and History, and vice-president of 
De Pauw University. He has published Amdcmic Hiatori/ 
of the Vnitnl States (1875): (iramtnnr School History of 
the rnifnl States (1H76) ; Popular liiston/ of the United 
SfaffM (1H77); Inductive (h-annnar of the Kfiffh'sh Lan- 
guage (1879); Life and W(frk of (iarficfd, in Knjjlish an<l 
German (1881) ; 'Jlistory of t/it World (3 vols., 1885 ; rev. 



ed. 4 vols., 1889); Life of Washington Charles De Pauw 
(1887); Christopher Columbus: the Epochs the Man, ajni 
tlte Work (1890); Columbia: a Quadricentennial Storu 
(1891); Great Races of Mankind (3 vols., 1892); Kpic oj 
Life, a poem (1894) ; and many monographs. A. Osbobn. 

Rie'desel, Friedrich Adolph, Baron von : soldier ; b. at 
Lauterbach, Hesse, June 3, 1738; studied at the Cnlh l'*- 
of Marburg; was an officer of a Hessian regiment in th*- 
British service during the Seven Tears* war, distinguisliin;: 
himself at the battle of Minden. In 1776 he was s^nt to 
America in command of the division of 4,000 Brunswi(k»T^ 
hired by Great Britain. Arriving at Quebec, he spent a yiar 
in Canada exercising his troops in the Indian metlnHls ^f 
warfare ; joined Bur^oyne in nis campaign against AH winy 
1777; surrendered with Burgoyne Oct. 17, and was h*'l«i ii 
prisoner for over two years. After his exchange he wa- 
placed by Sir Henry Chnton in command of Long Island ; 
was transferred to Canada, and returned to Germany, Atiir.. 
1783. D. at Brunswick, Jan. 6, 1800. His Memoi'rs, Let- 
ters, and JoumcUSf edited by Max von Eelking, were trnii— 
lated by William L. Stone (2 vols., Albany, 1868).— His wif. . 
Friedrike Charlotte Luise (1746-1808), w^rote an intrn>t- 
ing series of letters descriptive of life in Canada, of tlu* in- 
cidents of Burgoyne's camj>aign, and of her residence a^ a 
prisoner at Cambridge and elsewhere. They were traii>l.it» > : 
by William L. Stone, and published under the title of Lt*- 
ters and Journals relating to the War of the American Jit i »/- 
lution (Albany, 1867). 

Riehl, Alois: philosopher; b. at Bozen, Tyrol, Ayir. *27. 
1844; educated in Vienna, Munich, and Gratz univer-iti*--. 
became Professor of Philosophy at Gratz 1873, and at Kr»i- 
burg in 1883. He has published Der philosophisrhe Knf,- 
cismus und seine Bedeutung fur die positive Wissfn^rhft * * 
(Leipzig and Tubingen, 1876-87: Veber trissensehajf/i* h- 
UTul nicht toissenschaftliche Philosophie (Freiburg im' Br. i— 
gau, 1883) ; Beitrdge zur Logik (Leipzig, 1892). J. M. H. 

Riehl, Wilhelm Heinrich: historian and noveli>t ; b. h' 
Biberich on the Rhine, May 6, 1823; studied theuh»i:v u- 
Marburg, GSttingen, and Giessen; was for a numUr * ' 
years editor of various newspapers, and was finally apjH>iiit. ii 
Professor of Kulturgeschichte at the University of Munuh. 
He is the author of a number of excellent historical uu-i 
ethnological works, the most prominent of which are Nnfur- 
geschichfe des Volksals Grundlage einer deutsehen Natttoi- 
alpolitik (ISol-QO); Die Pfdlzer (1857); Culturstudi^n a.-* 
drei Jahrhunderten (1859). His historical and ethnol* 'irh a . 
studies also form the basis of a series of well-written st..i it> 
and novels, of which he is the author. Julius Goebkl. 

Rienzi, or Rieiize, Cola, di: political reformer; h. in 
Rome about 1313; the son of a tavem-keei)er : was an »ii- 
thusiastic student of the old Latin poets ana historians, ai.<i 
early conceived the purpose of restoring the ancient grea*- 
ness of Rome. The city was in a condition of anarchy, dis- 
tracted by the feuds among the lonls and violeniv an<l 
cruelties against the people. One of the nobles assa>>inat' ■> 
Rienzi 's brother, and the impossibility of bringing the rnui - 
derer to punishment gave his visions at once a pra<-ti(<ij 
bearing; from a dreamer he became a reformer. After h 
vain attempt to induce the pope at Avignon to return t^ 
Rome and protect the people against the oppression <^f tli. 
nobles, Rienzi beean the work of reform himself, well knn\^ • 
ing that he could not carry it through without a revohiti«»n, 
On May 19, 1347, he proixJsed the establishment of a Wdtr 
form of government, recalling to the minds of his hearers 1 1.. 
greatness of the ancient republic. Proclaimeti tribune i>f t In; 
"holy Roman republic," he straightway force*! the noMcs i. 
render him allegiance, and restored order in the city, s 
successful were his reforms that not only other Italiar 
cities, but foreign monarchs, sent deputations and eiDba^ 
sies to congratulate the tribune; but not content with n* 
storing order and peace to Rome, he now seemed to aim a1 
universal empire. The foreign princes were disgusted mu 
offended at his arrogance. The Roman populace grew tire* 
of his magnificent processions and of his taxes. Tlie i».Mjia 
legates declared him a traitor and a heretic, and the not ii-s 
taking advantage of the general discontent, attacked hi id ir 
Dec, 1347, and drove him from the city seven nionth'< uU*-\ 
his accession to power. After two years of retiivtu.n 
among the Franciscan monks in Southern Italy, be a^aii 
appeared in the role of a political reformer at the c<»urt o: 
the Emperor Charles IV., who sent him as a prisoner to \\h 
pope at Avignon. Innm-ent VI., however, the suec»es*:«»r oi 
Clement IV., thought that Rienzi ctmld be used to re^t<*r 



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110 



RIGA, GULP OP 



RILEY 



latter are laid out in broad streets with mo<1ern buildings. 
Among the public buildings the most notable are St. Peter's 
church, built in 1406, with a t^wer 460 feet high ; the gov- 
ernor's residence, formerly the palace of the grand-master of 
the order of the Knights of the Sword, built 1494-1515 ; the 
city-hall, and the new exchange. There are manufactories 
of cotton, woolen, linen, and iron goods, cigars, corks, spirits, 
oil, glass, paper, jute, etc., and the ship-building industry is 
very flourishing. Riga derives its greatest importance, how- 
ever, from its commence. An average of 2,400 vessels, of over 
1,000.000 tons, enter its harbor annually. The value of its 
annual imports — comprising coal, salt, iron, steel, dyewoods, 
fish and wine, etc. — averages about 22,000,000 rubles, and 
that of its exix)rts^omprising flax, hemp, timber, grain, 
hides, oilcake, camel and norse hair, and mineral oil — ^aver- 
ages about 55,000,000 rubles. The city was founded in the 
beginning of the thirteenth century by Albert von Apeldern, 
Bishop of Livonia. lie established the order of the Knights 
of the Sword, which within a few years was united to the 
order of the Teutonic Knights. The prosperity of Riga be- 
gan when it became a member of the Uanseatic League un- 
der the protectorate of Poland. It was taken by Gustavus 
Adolphus in 1621, and incorporated with Russia in 1710. 
Nearly half the inhabitants are Germans and German-speak- 
ing Jews, the remainder being about equally divided between 
Russians and Letts. Pop. (1890) 180,278. R. A. Roberts. 

Riga, Gulf of : an inlet of the Baltic, 100 miles long. 80 
miles broad, boundeil by the Russian governments of Kur- 
land, Livonia, ami Esthonia. It receives the Dwina, Oesel 
is a large island at its entrance. 

Rigdon, Sidney : Mormon elder ; b. in St. Clair township, 
Allegheny co.. Pa., Feb. 19, 1793; received a fair English 
education, and was working as a printer at Pittsburg when 
about 1812 a manuscript was offered for publication by an 
eccentric preacher named Solomon Spaulding. It was en- 
titled The Jfanuscnpf Found, or The Book of Mormon, and 
pleased Rigdon so much that he made a copy before it was 
returned to Snaulding, who died soon after. In 1819 Rig- 
don became a Baptist oreacher ; about 1821 a Disciple min- 
ister ; and though at nrst professing orthodoxy, soon began 
to propagate singular doctrines connected with the manu- 
script in question. In 1829 he became acquainted with Jo- 
seph Smith, and with him devised the publication of The 
Book of Monnon as the basis of a new sect. He accom- 
panied Smith to Kirtland, O., to Missouri, and to Nauvoo, 
where he was one of the presidents of the Church ; was one 
of the originators of the •* new revelation " permitting po- 
lygamy ; was twice tarred and feathered, several times im- 
{irisoned, and was a candidate for the succession to the 
eadership on the death of Smith. On the election of Brig- 
ham Young (1844) Rigdon refused to acknowledge his au- 
thority, was excommunicated, returned to Pittsburg, Pa., 
and lived in obscurity ; later removed to Friendship, N. Y., 
where he died July 14, 1876. 

Rigg, James Harrison, D. D. : minister and educator; b. 
at Newcastle-on-Tvne, England, Jan. 16, 1821 ; educated at 
the Old Kingswood School ; entered the Wesleyan Methodist 
ministry in 1845 ; appointed principal of West minster Train- 
ing College for Schoohuasters 1868: president of the Wes- 
leyan Methodist Conference 1878-79, and for the second 
time in 1892-93 ; member of royal commissi{m of national 
education in England 1886-88 : on the staff of 77ie Quar- 
terly Review from the first (1853) ; one of the editors for 
many years, and solo editor since 1885. He has published 
Princtpies of WeMict/an Methodism (London, 1850); Con- 
gregntionaiism and Conner iona Ham Contracted (1852) ; 
Modern Anglican Theolngy (1857; 3d ed. enlarged, with 
Memoir of Kingslev, 1879); Es.sai/s for the Times an Social 
and EccleHiastical' Subjects (1866); The Sabbath and the 
Sabbath Law before and after Christ (1869); The Living 
Wesley (1875; new e<l., enlarged as Centenary Life of 
We«/e^, 1891) ; Churchmanship of John UV.s^y (1878) ; The 
Connexional Economy of Wesleyan Methodism (1879) ; and 
important pamphlets on ecclesiastical and educational topics. 

A. OSBORN. 

Riggs, Elias, D. D., LL. D : missionary and linguist; b. 
at New Providence, N. J., Nov. 10. 1810 ; gruduatinl at 
Amherst College 1829 and at Andover Theological Semi- 
narv 18ii2. He was in Athens, Greece, 1832-^34, in Argos 
18:34-38, in Smyrna 18:^8-53, and from 1853 in Constanti- 
nople, except in 1857-58, when he taught Hebrew and the 
cognate languages in Union Theological Seminary, New 
York. He translated the Bible into Bulgarian, Armenian, 



and Turkish, and published A Manual of the Chaldee Lan- 
guage (1832; 2d ed. 1858); Grammar of the Moder^i Ar- 
menian Language (1847); Vocabulary of Words used i/i 
Modern Armenian, but not found in the Ancient Artnenian 
Lexicons (1847); Notes on the Grammar of the Bujgarutn 
Language (1847); Otitline of a Grammar of the Turkish 
Laf^guage as written in the Armenian Character (IKlH); 
Suggested Emetuiations of the Authorized English Vvrsion 
(1873); Notes on Difficult Passages of the New Testament 
(1889), and other writings. Revised by Benj. I. Wheelkr. 

Riggs, James Stevenson, D. D. : minister and Xew Tfsta- 
inent scholar ; b. in New York, July 16, 1853 ; graduatt<l «i 
the College of New Jersey in 1874 ; spent two years at L<'i|»- 
zig and Tubingen; graduated >it Auburn Theological Si-ini- 
narv in 1880. After a pastorate of four years in Fult<ni. 
N. v., he became Professor of Biblical Greek in Aul)urn 
Theological Seminary 1884-92 ; from 1892 has been Profes-^.r 
of Biblical Criticism and the New Testament. He is the au- 
thor of many articles and i)amphlets, and of The Bible in 
^rt (1895). W. J. B. 

Right Ascension : in astronomy, the angular distance 
between the first point of Aries {q. v.) and the jK)int iii 
which the circle, passing through a heavenly body and Ihf 
poles of the heavens, intersects the celestial equator. It i> 
always measurefl from W. to E., and coiTesponds to longi- 
tude on the earth, as Declination (o. v.) corresponds to lati- 
tude. The right ascension of a heavenly bodv is aM-^r- 
tained by a transit instrument and a clock. These dt»tfr- 
mine the meridian passage and the time at which it tak»s 
place, respectively. Right ascension is usually expre5*e<l in 
time, one hour corresponding to 15^ on the celestial sphere. 

R. A. Roberts. 

Rights : See Jurisprudence, Political Science, and Jr>- 

TICE. 

Rights, Bill of: See Bill of Rights. 

Rigi, or Righi, ree'gee : a mountain of Switzerland, in 
the canton of Schwytz. It is isolated between the lakes i.f 
Zug and Lucerne, and rises 5,902 feet above the sea, 4.ryM) 
feet above the lake. Several carriage-roads and two niil- 
ways lead from the base of the mountain to the top, whuh 
offers a very extensive view. 

Rigor Mor'tis [Lat., rigor or stiffness of death; cf. 
rige're, be stiff] : the condition of muscular rigidity develo|>- 
ing shortly after the death of the bcxly. It is due to >U''- 
pended nutrition of the tissues, and begins when their re- 
sponse to artificial irritation and elect ricitv ceases. Ki;:or 
mortis develops at a variable periotl after death, and wlnii 
established lasts a variable time. In persons who die sud- 
denly, as by accident or by heart disease, and in whom th«* 
muscles are well developed and nourished, rigor niorti> 
may be postponed for many hours — twelve or twenty-four — 
and may then persist for two or three days. Revers«'ly, 
when death is the result of exhaustive disease, the blrxwl 
is impoverished and the muscles are wasted and flabby, 
rigor mortis develops speedily — within an hour, or even a 
few minutes — and is incomplete and of brief duration. As 
soon as rigor mortis passes off, the relaxed body begins to 
decompose. Rigor mortis was formerly explained ai»a stntr 
of contraction, the death-act of the muscular filx»r. It i> 
now believed to be due to the separation and coagulation of 
the albuminoid substance in the fluid of the muscle, follow- 
ing the cessation of nutrition. Revised by W. Pepper. 

RigTeda : See Veda. 

Riley, Charles Valentine, M. A., Ph. D. : entomoloijist : 
b. in London, England, Sept. 18, 1843 ; studied at coIk'L:«\ 
Dieppe, France, 1854-57, and Bonn, Pnissia, 1857-5JI ; r»»- 
moved to U. S. 1800 ; studied practical agriculture 1860-6:^ : 
connected with Tlie Evening Journal and Prairie Fanner 
at Chicago 186J3-68 ; appointed State entomologist of Mi--- 
souri 1868, in which year he began, with Benjamin I>. 
Walsh, State entomologist of Illinois, the publication of Th*- 
American Entomologist ; president of the Acwlemy of Si- 
ence of St. Louis 187G-77 ; appointed chief of the U* S. ent.^- 
mological commission (with Dr. Alpheus S. Packanl, Jr.. aii«l 
Prof. Cyrus Thomas) under the Interior Department ISTT : 
U. S. entomologist under the Department of AgricuUnn" 
1878 ; curator of insects U. S. National Museum 1881 : jr»ii- 
eral secretary American Association for the Advancenieur 
of Science 1881. He has published nine annual rejM^rts « ii 
tlie insects of Missouri (1868-77) and three annual report.'^ a- 
U. S. entomologist. He is also the author of The Lorus* 
Plague in the United States and of Potato Pests, and of 



;••'> mw( 



mmM 



in 



112 



RINK 



RIO GRANDE DO NORTE 



find a nidus in the hair-follicles and excite secondary in- 
fiainmation of the skin. Ringworm is contagious, not only 
from person to person by close contact, but in the uncleanly 
is transplanted from spot to spot on the head and hands or 
wrists. The treatment is by parasiticides, or remedies de- 
stnictive to parasitic life; local application of tincture of 
iodine, iodine and ammonia, sulphurous acid, sulphur dry 
or in ointment, carbolic acid, creosote, oil of cade, mercurial 
ointment, oleate of mercury, solution of corrosive sublimate, 
and cantharidal collodion.' Revised by W. Pepper. 

Rink, Henrich Johann: naturalist; b. at Copenhagen, 
Denmark, Aug. 26, 1B19. He took part in the Galatea 
expedition around the world 1845-47, and as a result pub- 
lisned Die nikobarischen Jnseln (1847). He held many po- 
sitions in connection with Greenland, and made extensive 
researches in that country. In 1852 he published Dengeo- 
grafUke Beakaffenhed afaedanske Ilandeladistrikter i Nord- 
grSnland ; in 1866-71 he published his Eskimoiske Eveniyr 
og Sagn; in 1875 Om Ordfilands Indland og Muligheden af 
at bereiae samme. In 1877 he published in London Danish 
Greenlaiidy and in 1887, in Copenhagen, The Eskimo Tribes^ 
with a comparative vocabulary. D. Christiania in 1894. 
Revised by Rasmus B. Anderson. 

Biobamba. ree-o-baam'b^ : a town of Ek^uador ; 103 miles 
S. S. W. of Quito ; on a plain between the Chimborazo and 
Altar Mountains, 9,100 feet above the sea (see map of South 
America, ref. 8-B). It was an ancient Indian town, and 
important during the conquest. On Feb. 4, 1797, it was 
completely destroyed by an earthouake in which over 20,000 

Cersons are said to have perishea. The new town is badly 
uilt and has little importance except as a st-ation on the 
road from Quito to Guayaquil. Pop. 12,000. H. H. S. 

Rio Branco : See Rio Neoro. 

Rio BraTO : the Rio Grande {q. v.). 

Bio Coarto, ree'5-kwaar'td (formerly Cotieepcion) : a town 
of the province of Cordoba, Argentine Republic ; on the Rio 
Cuarto, 112 miles S. of Cordoba (see map of South America, 
ref. 8-D). Until 1874 it was a frontier post, exposed to Indian 
attacks ; it is growing rapidly, and is the second town of 
the province in population, an important railway center, 
and the emporium of a rich grazing district. Pop. (1892) 
14,000. H. H.S. 

Rio de Janeiro, Portug. pron. ree'd-da-^haa-na'i-rd [Por- 
tug., river of January, a name given to the bay, then sup- 
posed to be a river's mouth, because it was discovered on 
Jan. 1] : a maritime state of Brazil, bordering on SAo l*aulo, 
Minas Geraes, and Espirito Santo, and inclosing the Muni- 
cipio Neutro or federal district. Area (excluding the Muni- 
cipio Neutro), 26,634 so. miles. It includes the mountainous 
districts of the Coast Range and part of the valley of the 
Parahyba river, with lowlands near the mouth of the latter 
containing the Lagoa Feia (see Feia) ; there are also low- 
lands and lagoons along the coast. Rio de Janeiro is one 
of the great coffee-producing states, and sugar-cane and rice 
are raised on the lowlands. Most of the trade is through 
the port of Rio de Janeiro. The manufactures are consid- 
erable. Up to 1894 the capital was Nictheroy; it is now 
Petropolis. Pop. (1894) estimated, 1,390,398. H. H. S. 

Bio de Janeiro: capital and most important port of Bra- 
zil, and the largest city of South America ; on the west side 
of the bay of Rio de Janeiro ; lat. (of the observatory) 22' 54' 
24" S., Ion. 43' 10' 21' W. (see map of South America, ref. 7-G). 
The bay is perhaps the most magnificent harbor in the world. 
The entrance, between high rocks, is about a mile wide and 
perfectly clear ; within, it expands into a broad sheet with 
many bays, stretching inlana for 17 miles, the whole sur- 
rounded by strangely formed mountains and hills, with the 
needle-like pinnacles of the Serra dos Orgitos at the north- 
ern end. Most ships can be loaded directly at the fine docks. 
The city occupies flat land and hills partly surrounding a 
grx)up of wooded mountains. The older streets are narrow 
and often crooked, with few pretentious buildings; the 
newer ones, farther back from the bay, are wide and lined 
with substantial houses. The business center, from which 
street-Ciirs run to the outskirts, is tlie narrow Rua do Ouvi- 
dor ; it is lined with retail shops, rafe.% etc., and is a favorite 
afternoon nromena^ie ; no carrinj^es are allowed on it. The 
finest dwellings, surrounded by gardt-ns, are in the out- 
skirts and on the hills; the beauty of the scenery in these 
outskirts elicits the mlmiration of every tourist ; Botofogo, 
for example, lies between the mountains and a placid arm 
of the bay, with the Sugar Loaf rock, 1,200 feet high, be- 



fore it. There are several public parks, including theWain 
tiful Passeo Publico, and tne Botanical Garden in the sul>- 
urbs. The handsomest church and the most richly deco- 
rated building in South America is the Candelaria. llw 
old monasteries are now used for public buildings, and have 
been supplemented by handsome modern structures, such hs 
those of the Department of Agriculture, the national print- 
ing-office, and tne mint. There are several hospitals, and 
that called Mizericordia is said to be the largest and nio^t 
richly endowed in the world. There is a well-appointed t'b- 
servatory ; a national library, the largest and most valuable 
in South America, besides several other libraries ; polytechnic 
school, national college, schools of medicine, fine arts. et<'., 
and a naval school. The museum occupies the old imperiul 
palace, an unpretentious building, but surrounded by a lieau- 
tiful park ; the collections in some branches are very valu- 
able. The bay is defended by several forts, and there is an 
extensive navy-yard. The Corcovado Mountain, about 2JtiK) 
feet high, has precipitous sides looking down on the stn^t- : 
a mountain-radway runs to a hotel on the summit. Other 
beautiful resorts are the high valley of Tijuca, and Nicthen/v, 
on the other side of the bay. 

Rio de Janeiro has a large foreign element, and much of 
the trade is in the hands of foreign merchants. The com- 
merce is very important. Rio exports more than half of 
the total coffee product of the world, or some 400,000,000 It), 
annually ; the crop is brought in by railways. Tlie large*.t 
exports, especially of coflFee, are to tHe U. S. ; most of the ini- 

gjrts are from Europe. Regular steamers run to the V. S., 
urope, the western coast of South America, New Zealand, 
etc. The climate is warm from May to October, temi>erate 
during the rest of the year, and always damp and somewhat 
changeable ; lung diseases are consequently prevalent. Not- 
withstanding good drainage and modern sanitary impr<>v(>» 
ments, yellow fever is generally prevalent during the warm 
months, and at intervals there are severe epidemics. A gf mhI 
but somewhat inadeauate water-supply is obtained by fine 
aqueducts from the Corcovado ana Tijuca. The bay wais 
discovered (probably) by Joio Manoel and Amerigo Vespur- 
ci Jan. 1, 1502. French Protestants tried to form a si*ttle- 
ment on it, but were driven out in 1567 by the Portu^ue^<», 
who then founded Sfto Sebastiao, or Rio de Janeiro. It U- 
came the capital of Southern Brazil in 1762, and of t}ie 
whole of Brazil in 1774. From 1808 to 1821 it was the resi- 
dence of the Portuguese court, and hence the capital <»f 
Portugal. The revolution of 1889 broke out here ; durinir t he 
naval rebellion of 1893-94 the city was bombarded, but n<»t 
seriously injured. Population of the city proper (1893) aU>ut 
300,000. The Municipio Neutro, which includes the city, in 
a federal reservation, similar in character and government tc» 
the District of Columbia in the U. S. ; area, 538 sq. miles ; e^. 
t im at ed population, with the city (1893), 471,775. See VhIK- 
Cabral, Uuta do Viajante no Rio de Janeiro (1884) ; Agassiz, 
A Journey in Brazil (1868). Herbbrt H. S.mitb. 

Rio de la Plata : See Plata, Rio de la. 

Rio de Oro : a bay (mistaken by an early explorer for 
a river) l}[ing between the African* mainland ana the Ed- 
Dajla peninsula, on the Atlantic coast, N. of the Tropic i)f 
Cancer. It is in Spanish territory, and the Spaniards have 
establishments there devoted chiefly to fishing. The Span- 
ish possessions on this Saharan coast extend (since 1Kh4) 
from Cape Bojador to Cape Blanco, and part of the regit >ii 
inland consists of the oases of Adrar, where grain is rai^*d 
to some extent, and many sheep, goats, camels, horses, and 
cattle graze. The chief town of Adrar is Shingeti, and 
30,000 people live there. C. C. Adams. 

Rio Grande, or Rio Grande del Norte, ree'a-graan dri- 
d#^/-n6r'td [Span., great river of the north!: a large river 
which rises in Southwestern Colorado, flows nrst E. and ihi^n 
S. through New Mexico, flows thence S. E., forming for sev- 
eral hundred miles the boundary between the U. S. ami 
Mexico, and falls into the Gulf of Mexico after a course ..f 
about 1.800 miles. It is navigable for small boats only ft» r 
about 450 miles, or to Kingsbury Rapids; is generally shal- 
low, frequently interrupted by rocks and cataracts, and is 
subject to periodical inundations near its mouth. Its prin- 
cipal tributary is the Rio Pe<'os. Brownsville, Tex., ainl 
Matamoras, Mexico, are situated on opposite sides of the 
Rio Grande, 35 miles above its mouth. 

Rio Grande do Belnionte : See JEQurriKHONHA. 

Bio Grande do Norte: an eastern maritime state of 
Brazil, between Ceara and Parahyba, with a coast inchulintr 



lU 



RIOUW-LIXGGA 



RIPOX COLLEGE 



their assembling to do any unlawful act. For example, if hav- 
ing gathered in front of a theater without preconcerted de- 
sign to commit a breach of the peace, they attempt to force 
their way into the building and attack the police who are 
guarding the doors and rescue those who are arrested, they 
are rioters. {People va. Judwn, 11 Daly 1.) Nor is it nec- 
essary that they intend to terrify others. They may intend 
to engage in a mere frolic, as in a charivari or ** horning " 
of a householder, or in entering the stable of another and 
shaving his horse's tail ; vet if this is done in a tumultuous 
and terrifying manner the enterprise is a riot. State vs. 
Aiexander, 7 Richardson (S. C), 5. 

An unlawful assembly is the meeting of three or more 
persons with a riotous purpose. If thev enter upon the exe- 
cution of that purpose, yet fall short of an act amounting to 
a riot, their offense is a rout. Modern legislation has modi- 
fied the common-law rules governing these three offenses. 

Francis M. Burdick. 

Riouw-Lingga, re^b-owlinggak : an archipelago of the 
China Sea, making an extension of the Malay Peninsula; 
belonging to the Dutch and forming part of* the residency 
of Riouw. It is formed of two groups of islands, that of 
Riouw being the northern and adjacent to Singapore, and 
Lingga the southern. The Riouw ^roup consists of about 
thirty islands, the largest of which is Bintang with an area 
of about 400 sq. miles. The Lingga group is separated from 
the preceding oy the Strait of Dempo, 10 miles broad. It 
consists of two large islands — Lingga (area, 820 sq. miles) 
and Singkep (area, 20-4 sq. miles)— and many smaller ones. 
The area of the whole archipelago is estimated at 1,823 sq. 
miles. The islands are rocky, like the peninsula rather than 
the adjacent alluvial shores of Sumatra. The highest peak 
is that of Lingga, 3,711 feet high. The islands are covered 
with thick and valuable forests. Among the productions 
are sago, rice, pepper, and garabir.the last forming the prin- 
cipal export. Tin has long been mine<l. The aborigines 
are Indonesian and negrito, an<l have nearly disapf)eared. 
The inhabitants are now mainly Malays, Chinese, Klings, and 
Javanese, with a few Europeans. Pop. about 80,000. 

Mark W. Harrixotov. 

Riparian Riglits [riparian is from Lat. riparius, deriv. 
of ripa, the bank of a stream] : strictly 8|)eaking, such rights 
as appertain to the ownership of land upon the banks of 
rivers and other natural water-courses. Thus defined, the 
expression would inclmle the rights enjoyed by riparian pro- 
prietors over the public streams by which their lands are 
bounded (such as the right of access, of wharfage, of fer- 
riage, etc.), as well as those mutually exclusive rights of user 
in the private streams, whose beds are the property of the 
adjoining owners. 

The expression is sometimes, however, more loosely and 
with less propriety used to descrilxs all of the rights, whether 
of the puolic or of adjoining owners, which the law recog- 
nizes in any public or private waters. As thus employed it 
would comprehend the public right of navigation on tne sea 
or on navigable streams, as well as the mutual rights of the 
abutting ** littoral" proprietor and the public in the sea- 
shore. 

For these several classes of rights, see Lakes, Rivers, and 
Seashore. See also Filum Aqu^e and Watercourses, and 
consult the following authorities : Angell on Tidewaters and 
on Watercourses; Hall on The Seashore; Gould on Waters; 
and Poraeroy on Riparian Bights, Q. W. Kirchwey. 

Ripley : village ; Brown co., O. ; on the Ohio river and 
the Cncsapcake and Ohio Railway ; 50 miles S. S. E. of Cin- 
cinnati (for location, see map or Ohio, ref. 8-D). It occu- 
pies a site iKjtween the river and a steep bluff, is in a noted 
** white burley** tobacco-growing region, has a large river 
commerce, and contains flour and saw mills, piano and shoe 
factories, leaf-tobacco packing-houses, 2 national banks with 
corabine«l capital of |200,000, and 2 weekly newspapers. 
Pop. (1880) 2,546; (1890) 2,48;J; (1894) estimated, 5,(KK). 

Editor of " Bee." 

Ripley, Eleazkr Wheelock: soldier; b. at Hanover, 
N. H., Apr. 15, 1782; a nephew of President John Wheehx-k 
and a son of Sylvanus Riplev, I). D., Professor of Divinity 
at Dartmouth (d. Feb. 5, 1787): erraduHted at Dartmouth 
College 1800; practiced law in Maine, residing chiefly at 
Portland; was a member of the Massachusetts Legislature 
1810-11 ; Speaker and elected State Senator 18 12 : was ap- 
pointed colonel of the Twenty-tirst Infantry 1813; was wound- 
ed in the attack upon York (now Toronto), Canada, Apr. 24. 
1813; became brigadier-general Apr. 14, 1814; commanded 



the Second Brigade under Gen. Brown on the Niagara fron- 
tier; took part in the battles of Chi|)i)ewa anil Nihi^ura, 
being severely wounded in the latter, in which he won tin- 
brevet rank of major-general ; was conspicuous for gallant j \ 
in the defense of Fort Erie Aug. 15, and in the sortie of S< j « . 
17 ; received a gold medal from Congress ; resigne<l from I !«•• 
army 1820; settled in Louisiana, where he practi(e<l law ; 
served in the State Senate, and was a member of Congn--? 
1835-a9. D. at West Feliciana, La., Mar. 2, 1839. 

Ripley, George: critic and journalist; b. at Greenfic!-!, 
Mass., Oct. 3, 1802; graduated at Harvard 1823, and tit 
Cambridge Divinity School 1826; was pastor of a Unitarian 
church in Boston 1*82^-41; resided several years in Kurn|.«-. 
where he made a careful study of French and German lit- 
erature; wrote Discourses on the Philosophy of Jifliffiou 
(1839); Letters to Andrews Norton on the Latest Form of 
Infidelity (ISiO); and edited Specimens of Foreign StnnJ- 
ard Literature (14 vols., Boston, 1838^-42); was assoi'iattii 
with Emerson and Margaret Fuller in conducting The Jhnf 
1840-41 ; contributed to The Christian Examiner And othrr 
magazines; was the chief promoter of the celebrated so<'i:tl- 
istic experiment at Brook Farm, Roxbury, Mass., 1S41-47 : 
was one of the editors of The Harbinger^ a Fourierite organ, 
1844-48; removed to New York 1847; became literary edi- 
tor of The New York Tribune 1849, and remained so' until 
his death; published (with Bayard Taylor) A Jfandbtjok nt 
Literature and the Fine Arts (1852), and edited (with 
Charles A. Dana) The American Cyclopedia (New York. 10 
vols.. 1858-63), which was revised (Dr. Kiplev,editor-in-chirf», 
and appeared 1873-76. D. in New York, July 4, 1880. .Ve 
his Life, by 0. B. Frothingham (Boston, 1882). 

Revised by U. A. Bekrs. 

Ripon ; town ; in Yorkshire, England ; on the Ure : 2^ 
miles N. W. of York (see map of England, ref. 6-1). Th- 
cathedral was originally founded on the ruins of St. Wil- 
frid's Abbey about 680, but of this building the crypt rmiy 
remains. I'he present structure was begun in the twrlfi'i 
century, and was entirely restored b^ Sir Gilbert S<iitt 
(1862-76). Its chief interest is from its various styh-- «.f 
architecture. Ripon has been the seat of a bishoprie >inr.- 
1836. There are several tanneries and foundries. Pnp. 
(1891) 7,512. 

Ripon: city; Fond du Lac co.. Wis,; on the inlet <»f 
Green Lake, and the Chi., Mil. and St. P. and the Chi. and 
X. W. railways ; 20 miles W. by X. of Fond du La*-, "^^ 
miles N. W. oi Milwaukee (for location, see map of \Vl-^- 
consin, ref. 6-E). It is in an agricultural, dairying, and 
stm^'k-raising region ; has good water-power and water and 
sewerage systems; and contains Ripon Colle^. 9 church.-^, 
a public library, 2 national banks with combined capitiil of 
|llO,000, a monthly and 2 weekly periodicals, 2 flour and 
feed mills, several creameries, knitting- factory, pickle-w<.rk-. 
and box and crate factory. Pop. (1880) 3,117; (1890) 3.:i5*- : 
1894) estimated, 5,000. Editor of "Commoxwealtii.'* 

Ripon, George Frederick Samuel Robinsox, Mnn^ui-* 
of: statesman; b. in London. England, Oct. 24, 1H27 ; U- 
came attach^ to the British legation at Brussels 1H49 : s^i' 
in Parliament from 1852 until he succeeded his fatlier a- 
Earl of Ripon and Viscount Godeiich, Jan. 28. 1S59 ; in- 
herited the earldom of I)e Grey on the death of an unr.»- 
Nov. 14, 1859 : became in the same year Under-Secretary f..r 
War, and in Feb., 1861, Under-Secretary for India; beetimo 
Secretary for War, with a seat in the cabinet, Apr., isr»:? , 
was made Secretary of State for India Feb.. 1866, and Inni 
president of the council Dec, 1868; was chairman of th.- 
high joint commission which negotiated the Treaty of Wh-^I.- 
ington 1871 ; was rewarded with the title of marquis on h> 
return June 23; was installed grand-master of the Fte. - 
masons of England Apr. 23, 1870, but resigned that jHwiti..Ti 
Aug., 1874. ami was received into the Roman Catholic Chun h 
at Brompton Sept. 4, 1874. On the return of Glatlstone t.^ 
power the Marouis of Uipon was apjwinted Viceroy of Indi.i, 
which office he held until 1884. His attempts to extend 1 1 v 
rights of the natives and to curtail in some res|>»'ots 1 1 . 
priviletjes of the Europeans made him most unpopular wj- i 
the latter, lie was First Lord of the Admiralty in 1***^»*.. 
and was appointed Colonial Secretary in 1892. 

Revist^d by F. M. Coluy. 

Ripon College : an institution at Ri|>on, Wis.,in a^au' j •■> 
of 10 acres. It was organized in 1854. and is priva^ ^ 
endowed for the purpose of furnishing to young men a! i 
women opportunities for obtaining an education of tht- hi>:-. 



116 



RITSCUL 



RITTER 



of what the original Christianity was, he adopts no strict 
doctrine of inspiration ; and he and his school entertain very 
free views as to the prerogatives of biblical criticism, hold- 
ing that the essential thing is faith in the person of Christ 
rather than in his deeds or words or in dogmatic statements 
about him. 

The theology of Ritschl is original only m the sense of 
being a peculiar composite. Like Schleierraacher, he holds 
that the religious sense is something immediate and ulti- 
mate, and that theology is independent of all secular science. 
With ordinary orthodox Christians he holds that Christianity 
came by a divine revelation. With the rationalists he is in- 
clined to reject the mysterious and the supernatural, and to 
hold loose views of the inspiration and authenticity of the 
Scriptures; and in spite of Kitschl's denunciation of mysti- 
cism, the difficulty of combining this latter feature with 
perfect assurance of faith leads nim (and more especially 
some of his followers, as Herrmann and Kaftan) to a sort of 
mysticism in the exposition of the relation of the Christian 
to* Christ. 

Notwithstanding some marked divergences of doctrinal 
views among Ritschl's adherents (some of them, e. g., dis- 
agreeing with him respecting the pre-existence of Christ), 
there is among them a strong esprit de eorpa^ and they work 
together zealously in propagating their views and in secur- 
ing the appointment of men of their school for the vacant 
places in tne theological faculties. Among the more promi- 
nent representatives of the Ritschl school are W. Herrmann, 
of Marburg, Th. Haring, of Gdttingen, Julius Kaftan, of 
Berlin, and H. Wendt, of Jena (dogmaticians) ; A. Harnack, 
of Berlin, and P. Loofs, of Halle (historians) ; E. Schtlrer, of 
Kiel, and H. Schultz, of GOttingen (exegetes). 

C. M. Mead. 

BItsohl, Friedbich Wilhelm: classical scholar; b. at 
Grossvargula, Thuringia, Apr. 6, 1806; studied under R«i- 
sig at Halle ; privat docent there 1829 ; professor 1882 ; at 
Breslau 1833; at Bonn from 1839-65, when he resigned in 
consequence of pettv intrigues, accepting a call to Leipzig, 
where he died Nov. 8, 1876. Ritschl s magnetic influence as 
a teacher can only be compared to that of Gottfried Her- 
mann ; he may be said to have been the founder of a philo- 
logical school, and many of his pupils have been called to 
occupy chairs in German universities. His lasting fame as 
a scholar rests upon his work on Plautus^ and the epigraph- 
ical and linguistic studies of early Latin to which it gave 
rise. The complete edition of the comic poet was begun in 
1871 with the Trinummua, to which are added exhaustive 
and justly celebrated Prolegomena, and was completed in 
1894 by some of his pupils. Of his other contributions, many 
of which are of an epoch-making character, only a few can 
be here cited : Ptireraa Plauhna et Terentiana (1845) con- 
tain, among other valuable treatises, the famous dissertation 
on the FabulcB VarroniancB ; in the PHsccb Laiinitatis Monu- 
menta Epigraphica the author collected in 100 large folio 
plates artistic facsimiles of Latin inscriptions of the republi- 
can period, to which ho added an exhaustive commentary. 
His minor writings, among which the various articles on the 
Alexandrian Library and on the Literary Activity of Varro 
are perhaps the most noteworthy, have been republished in 
five volumes of Opuscula, See L. Mllller, Friedrich W. Ritschl 
(1877) ; Bursian, Qesch. der doss. Philol, in Deutachland, 
pp. 812-840 ; and especially O. Ribbeck, J^. W. Ritschl, Ein 
Beitrag zur Gesch. der Fhilologie, 2 vols., pp. 848, 591 (1879- 
81). Alfred Gudeman. 

Bitson, Joseph: scholar; b. at Stockton-on-Tees, Eng- 
land, Oct. 2, 1752; studied law; became a conveyancer in 
London and deputy high bailiff of the duchy of Lancaster; 
devoted most of his time for many years to antiauarian re- 
searches ; edited a vast number of reprints of old and rare 
books. D. at Hoxton, Sept. 3, 1803. Among his works were 
Observations on Wartons History of English Poetry (1782) ; 
Ancient Songs from the Time of King Henry IIL to the 
Remlution {1790); A Collection of Scottish Songs (1794); 
Robin Hood Ballads (1795) ; Bihliographia Poetica (1802) ; 
and Ancient Emjlish Metrical Romances, with Dissertation 
and Glossary (3 vols., 1802). See his Letters, edited with a 
memoir, by Sir X. Harris Nicolas (2 vols., 1833). 

Revised by H. A. Beers. 

Rittenhoase, Benjamin: instrument and clock maker; 
b. in Xorriton township, (now) Montgomery co., Pa., 1740 
or 1741 ; brother and assistant to David Rittenhouse. Prom 
Fob. 26. 1776, to Dec, 1778, the State of Pennsylvania 
maintained a gun-factory, of which he was sui)erintendent. 



He was representative in the Ninth, Tenth, and Twelfth Gi^n- 
eral Assemblies of Pennsylvania (1784-88); commis>i(>ti*'r 
to survey the Schuylkill river Oct. 20, 1789; associate judi^r 
of the court of common pleas of Montgomery co.. Pa., Mar. 
28, 1792, for ten or fifteen years, when he moved to Phila- 
delphia. In 1796-97 he made a surveyor's chain, by onhT 
of Congress, which has been the standard of the U. S* I^ml- 
office ever since. He was elected a member of the Americnn 
Philosophical Society Jan. 16, 1789. D. in Philadelpliia, 
Aug. 31, 1825. Anita N. McGee. 

Rittenhoase, David, F. R. S., LL. D. : astronomer and 
mathematician ; b. Apr. 8, 1782, at Paper-mill Run, Hox- 
borough township, near Germantown, Pa., where about 16i>0 
his great-grandfather, William Rittinghuysen, a Hollander, 
established the first paper-mill in America. In boybo<Hi 
he worked on his fatner*s farm at Norriton, during whi<.'h 
time he came into possession of some mathematical bcH>ks: 
made himself master of Newton's iVinct^'a ; discovere<l for 
himself the method of fluxions when in his nineteenth year ; 
made a clock at a still earlier age. and undertook ckxk- 
making as a profession in 1751. He afterward made an 
orrery, which was purchased by Princeton College 1770. and 
later a larger one for the University of Pennsylvania. In 
connection with Mason and Dixon he was employed in 176^t. 
to determine the initial point of their survey, which he did 
with instruments of his own construction ; fixed the north- 
ern, southern, and western boundaries of Pennsylvania, and 
performed similar tasks for other States; was appointed hy 
the American Philosophical Society to observe the t^an^it 
of Venus June 3, 1769, which he did successfully in his pri- 
vate observatory at Norriton; calculated the elements of 
the (future) transit of Dec. 8, 1874; and observed the tran- 
sits of Mercury of 1769 and 1782. In 1770 he settled at 
Philadelphia, where he continued the manufacture of chxks 
and mathematical instruments. He was elected to the pr<K 
vincial Legislature in 1776 ; was a member of the convent inn 
which formed the State constitution of Pennsylvania 1776 ; 
held various oflScial ix)sitions during the Revolution : wa» 
StAte treasurer 1777-89; director of the U. S. mint 179!J-1>.k 
In the latter year, after the death of Franklin, he became 
president of the American Philosophical Society, and was 
chosen a fellow of the Royal Society. D. in Philadeiiihia. 
June 26, 1796. His papers on astronomical, physical, and 
mathematical subjects are found in the first four volunK-s 
of the TraTisactiona of the American Philosophical Society. 
A Eulogium upon him was delivered by Dr. Benjamin Hu^h 
1796; his Life was written by his nephew, William Barton 
(1818), and by Prof. James Renwick in Sparks^s American 
Biography, 1st series, voL vii. (1834^. 

Revised by Anita N. McGee. 

Rltter, Carl : geographer ; b. at Quedlinburg, Prussian 
Saxony, Aug. 7, 1779 ; studied at Halle ; traveled much, and 
was appointed Professor of Geography at the University nt 
Berlin in 1820. By his lectures, as well as by his works', he 
exercised a decisive influence on the study of geoCTaphy, 
remodeling the whole science and attracting general at t»*n- 
tion to its problems and results. D. in Berlin, Sept. 29, 1K)9. 
His principal works are Die Erdkunde im Verhdltniss lur 
Natur una zur Gesehiehte des Mensehen (1st ed. 2 vnls.. 
1817-18 ; 2d ed. 19 vols., 1822-^9, comprising only Africa (i.) 
and Asia (ii.-xix.)); Europa, ein geographisch-histtprittrh- 
statistisches Gemdlde (2 vols., 1807); Dte Stupas {\^\Xm 
Einleitung zur allgemeinen vergleiehenden Geographit und 
Abhandlungen zu einer mehr wisstnschaftlichsn £fhan<I- 
lung der Erdkunde (1862). After his death were publishetl 
Gesehiehte der Erdkunde (1861); Allpemeine Erdkunde 
(1862); and Europa (1863). Parts of his works have bttn 
translated into English by W. L. Gage: Comparative Grog- 
raphy (1865) and The Comparative Geography of I^ale/ifine 
and the Sinaitic Peninsula (4 vols., 1866). His lAfe was 
written by W. L. Gage (Edinburgh, 1867). 

Revised by M. W. HARRUfOTox. 

Ritter, Heinrich: philosopher; b. at Zerbst, Germany. 
Nov. 21, 1791 ; studied theology and philosophy at Hallo. 
Gottingen, and Berlin, and was appointed Professor of Phi- 
losophy at Berlin in 1824, at Kiel in 1838, at Gottingen in 1 Si7, 
where he died Feb. 3, 1869. His principal work is his fir- 
schichte der Philosophie (Hamburg, 12 vols., 1829-55), endinir 
with Kant ; the most prominent of his works, all relating to 
the history of philosophy, are Vers^tch zur Verstdndiqung iih* r 
die Jieuste deutsche Philosophie (1853) ; Die HalbXaniinutr 
und der Pantheismus (1827); and Ueber Vnsterblichkttt 
(several times reprinted). 



'.vnm 



:U'$ IL S. 



'»). 



T r ■,,., ,^i'o. nun • . 4 y>' 









L. «M..v .-. ^ V -I, .Jm.i' , i^- i^nt.^ ../♦!.. ^:L 



118 



RIVERA 



RIVER HYDRAULICS 



Canal, and on the railway from Lyons to St.-fitienne (see 
map of France, ref. 6-G). It is a center of iron luanufuc- 
tunng and has important coal mines in its neighborhood. 
It has also glass-factories, tanneries, and factories of articles 
in leather. Pop. (1891) 13,070. M. W. H. 

Rl vera, reb-va'raa, Jos^ Frcctuoso : soldier and politician ; 
b. at Paysandu, Uruguay, about 1790. He was a partisan 
leader in the civil wars, and after Uruguay became inde- 
nendent was the first regularly elected president 1830-35. 
In 1836 he revolted against his successor, Oribe, heading the 
Coldrados party, whose long struggle with the Blancos marks 
the subsequent history of Uruguay. Oribe was driven out, 
and Rivera was again president 1838-42. Then Rosas, dic- 
tator of Buenos Ayres, aided Oribe, who began the " nine 
years* siege." Rivera acted against him in the field, but on 
Mar. 28, 1845, was defeated at India Muerta by Urquiza, 
Oribe's ally. In 1853 Rivera aided in the deposition of Giro 
at Montevideo, and became a member of the executive tri- 
umvirate. D. at Montevideo, Jan. 13, 1854. H. H. S. 

RiTer-buUhead : See Miller's Thumb. 

River FaHs: city (settled in 1851, incorporated in 1885) ; 
Pierce and St. Croix cos., Wis. ; on the Kinnickinnick river, 
and the Chi., St. P., Minn, and Omaha Railway ; 12 miles 
S. E. of Hudson, 16 miles N. E. of Hastings, Minn, (for loca- 
tion, see map of Wisconsin, ref. 4--A). It is in an agricul- 
tural region ; has abundant power for manufacturing from 
the river ; and contains 6 churches, 2 public-school build- 
ings, a high school, the Fourth Normal School of the State, 
gas and water- works, 2 State banks with combined capital 
of $64,000, and a weekly newspaper. The principal manu- 
factures are flour and starch. Pop. (1880) 1,499; (1890) 
1,783 ; (1894) estimated, 2,000. Editor op "Journal." 

RiTerhead : town ; capital of Suffolk co., X. Y. ; on the 
Peconic river, at the west end of Great Peconic Bay, and 
the L«)ng Island Railroad ; 4 miles S. of Long Island Sound, 
75 miles E. bv X. of Brooklyn (for location, see map of New 
York, ref. 8-P). It contains a national bank witn capital 
of $50,000, a State bank with capital of $5,000, a savmgs- 
bank, a weekly newspaper, grist, woolen, paper, planing, 
and moulding mills, and carriage, chocolate, organ, and soap 
works. Pop. (1880) 1,757 ; (1893) 2,017. 

River l^drauHcs: that branch of hydraulic*s which deals 
with the flow of water in rivers. The principles are also 
applicable in a simplified form to canals and otiier artificial 
conduits. In the early part of the seventeenth century Cas- 
telli and Torricelli, pupils of Galileo, applied the principles 
of that master to hydraulics. The latter discovere<l the law 
governing the issue of fluid-veins from small orifices in the 
sides of a reservoir, and suggested this law as applicable to 
the flow of rivers. Near the close of the century Gugliel- 
mini elaborated this theory, which was generally adopted 
by the scientific world because no one attempted to verify 
its consequences by actual experiment. In 1732 Pitot, by 
observing sub-surface changes of velocity with the tube 
which bears his name, overturned this school of hydraulics. 
Attention being thus called to the importance of a practical 
treatment of the problem, experiment was multiplied ; and 
finallv, in 1786, Dubuat laid the foundation of the modern 
school by announcing his great principle that the flow is 
due to gravity acting through the slope of the surface, and 
that the true method of enunciating in mathematical lan- 
guage the law of motion is to equate expressions for the ac- 
celerating and i*etarding forces. During the nineteenth 
century many investigators have attacked the problem upon 
this general basis, and the general la\*^s of cfistribution of 
velocities in a cross-section of a stream have become fairly 
known, while many formulas for mean ocity have been 
prop<jsed. 

Ihe elaborate hydraulic survey of the Mississippi river, 
made from 1850 to"l860 by Humphreys and Abbot, resulted 
in a system of river hydraulics of which the following is 
a brief outline : The law of distribution of vekx'ity in both 
vertical and horizontal planes was shown to be parabolic. 
The ratio between the mid depth and mean velocity is sensi- 
bly constant, being alK)ut 0*96, and it is independent of 
wind effect. This last discovery has been (»f particular 
value in reducing the labor of gauging streams. In alge- 
braic language, the most important of these laws for sub- 
surface velocity are expressed as follows, with I), rf,, and d 
denoting, respectively, the total depth, the depth of the axis, 
and the depth of any particular point; and r, T, Tp. F», 
VJd, Trf,, F» denoting, respectively, the mean velocity of the 



river, the velocity at any depth d, the surface vehKity. »! 
velocity at the bottom of the river (the depth being 7v . u 
velocity at half the depth, the maximum velocity, auti t 
mean of the whole vertical curve : 



(1) 



(2) 



(3) 



[-69 



v=,v-Vt(^--<)". 



r. = |T> + iF„f^(iro 



■iK.). 



(4) v\^=v^^.^^/bv. 

The formula for the mean velocity deduce<l is the f«.II' 
ing, in English feet: v denotes the mean velocity jur v. 
ond ; a, the area of cross-section : p, the wetted i)enmt {. 
W, the width ; 6, the value given in eq. (1) ; «, the mh- 
the slope corrected for bends — its numerical value i> ' 
quotient of the total fall in water-surface between thr u 
niinal stations, less the value of h in the bend formula. 
the total distance between them measured on the nii<l' 
line of the channel; N represents the number of aia'.; 
changes each 30" of the latter line. The value of v m i 
bend formula is found by successive approximations. 

(5) . = (/o.0081i-f('^^y-0.09v^)' 



(6) 



A = 



536 



(bend formula). 



Among other formulas for mean velocity that of Kui«i 
(see Hydraulics) has received the widest acceptanei'. nnl 
as it contains a coefficient of roughness, it can be adapt* «! 'I 
different classes of streams as well as to artificial cIimih • -i 

Oauging of Rivera. — For practically gauging the i.-i 
charge of a large river the following plan is recoinineml*': 
Select a locality in a straight portion where the currrnt .| 
regular. Lay out a base-line 200 feet long parallel i'* t^ 
direction of the flow, and determine accumtely the cr-^i 
section in front. Establish two theodolites, and,' for mn..- n 
ous floats well distributed between the banks, note th*- »»:. 
gular distance from, and the time of transit past, eaeh t .,.| 
of the base. These floats should be made double, the "Uii 
face float being a tin ellipsoid or other light botly Iwarinj I 
little flajET. The lower float may be a large o|K'*n k^-i:, I .' 
lasted with lead so as to hang vertically. The cuiine<MN 
cord should be as small as practicable. The rate of iiicni 
ment of the whole will thus be essentially that of tlie 1» «■ 1 
keg. The center of this keg should be placed at six-t. i;i' I 
of the depth below the surface, because in the al»s«nri' . | 
wind the velocity at that point very nearly repre>emv i-^ 
mean of the velocities in the vertical. The level I'f \U 
water on a gauge should be read at regular intervals I-l 
reduce the observations draw upon a sheet of sectioii-{':»p ] 
the base-line and two perpenaiculars to mark the Iii.»l 
across which the times of transit were noted. From \U 
reconled angles and a table of natural tangents the \n\\.\\^ • J 
each float are plotted, and upon each is written the s*imi .ii 
of its transit past the base. The total width of the hmf H 
next divided into as manv equal divisions as show -«iim^ 
bly unvarying velocity, the mean of all the se<-nn<U « i 
transit in each division is then reduced to feet per seoi .1, 
and adopted as the velocity in that division. A mean of all 
these velocities, interpolations l)eing made if any are ml--- 
ing, closely approximates to the mean velocity of the riM-r- 

Where the depth will permit, rods or tul)es, loaded to tl.-i:i 
vertically, and extending from the surface nearly to n-i 
bottom, are often used, thus integrating mechanically tl-i 
vehx?ities in a vertical. For small streams various form> > i 
meters are often employed, which consist essentially of a 
submerged wheel, with apparatus designed to reconl {'*.*i 
number of its revolutions ; and the accuracy of the n'^i.l'i 
of course, defends entirely upon the precision with vh < i 
these revolutions can be translated into feet p<»r s**'-* '-'^ 
Electricity has been skillfully applied to record the numl'f 
of revolutions of the wheel, and thus the registering ajjani- 
tus can be observed on land or in a boat. 

Oscillationa, — As the volume of water in the channel irj 
creases, the surface-level of the river rises. The amount A 
this rise varies greatly in different parts of the courH', t^^ 
pecially when the stream discharges into the sea or a ia^s:»i 
lake. In such cases the oscillation is insignificant near \U 



120 



RIVERS 



original constructional troughs of the country are called 
consequent valleys. All but the deepest of the construc- 
tional lakes are in this way drained, and the flow of the 
streams becomes more continuous. The river now enters 
well on its life-work of carrying along the waste of the land 
on its way to the sea, the waste being received partly from 
the cutting of the stream channels, partly from the creeping 
and washing of the soil from the steep sides of the young 
consequent valleys, and partly from the broad constructional 
slopes of the region. Whenever, during the process of chan- 
nel cutting, the streams pass from a resistant to a weak rock 
structure, an increase of slope is developed at the point of 
contrast, forming rapids ; wnere the contrast of resistance 
is well marked, the increase of slope may be abrupt, and 
thus many waterfalls may come to characterize youthful 
streams. See Cataracts, 

Adolescent Rivera, — A river of good size soon cuts down 
its valley close to sea-level, or base-level, as it is now gener- 
ally called, and on thus assuming a gently sloping course it 
enters its adolescence ; but its small side-streams may still 
retain youthful features. Adolescence of the trunk stream 
is therefore characterizes! not only by the disappearance of 
the initial constructional lakes, but also by the wearing away 
or recession of the youthful waterfalls, ana the attainment of 
a slope on which the ability of the river to do work is just 
equal to the work that it "has to do. The river course is 
then said to be graded. Large streams may attain a graded 
course on weak rocks during the youth of their system; 
small branches on resistant rocks will not grade their courses 
until after adolescence. The depth of an adolescent valley 
depends on several factors : First, the height of the land in 
which the valley is cut ; the rivers of low-lying Florida are 
unable to cut deep valleys, because their drainage area is 
hardly above base-level ; while the Colorado Riveb {q, v.) 
is cutting down a vast caQon, because the plateaus across 
which its course is laid have been lifted so high ; it still has 
rapids and falls, and is only entering adolescence. Second, 
the depth depends on how close the channel may approach 
base-level ; this depends on the grade that the' river may 
assume, and this in turn depends on the volume and load 
of the stream — for example, in a region of given height a 
large river will cut down a deeper consequent valley and 
assume a gentler grade than a small river; for the large 
one can carry its load on a faint slope, while the small one 
will need a steeper slope on which to gain velocity with 
which to do its work ; for this reason a graded river de- 
scends more rapidly in its upper course, where the volume 
is small, than in its lower course, where its volume is 
greater. Again, in two river basins of similar area and 
structure, but one in a dry and the other in a wet clinaate, 
the river in the first can not in its adolescence cut down so 
deep a valley as the river in the second ; for the volumes of the 
two rivers must differ. Still again, of two rivers of equal size, 
one trenching a region of hard rocks, the other at work in a 
region of similar form and height but of weak rocks, the 
former will cut a deeper adolescent valley than the latter, 
because the former will have but a moderate load of land- 
waste, while the latter will be surcharged with detritus from 
the easily weathered rocks of its basin, and will need a com- 
paratively steep grade on which to do its work. It is for 
two of these reasons, the dryness of the climate and the 
weakness of the rocks, that the rivers of the U. S. which 
cross the elevated western plains from the Rocky Moun- 
tains eastward have not cut deeply intrenched valleys; 
they are characteristic adolescent rivers with well-graded 
courses, but the land-waste from the weak rocks of the 
plains is shed into them so rapidly, and their volume is so 
reduced by the small rainfall, that they have practically 
ceased deepening their valleys, while their slope is still com- 
paratively steep and their channels are still high above base- 
level Other illustrations of the control of grade by load 
are found in those rivers which nin from the Alps out upon 
the plains of Lombardy. Some of them pass through lakes 
on the way, and are there filtered of their load from the 
mountains; then below the lakes they cut down the plain 
that they traverse, while others emerge from the moun- 
tains well charged with detritus and are unable to trench 
the plain ; they may even build it up by depositing some of 
their load upon it. 

Subsequent Bikers. — While the trunk river is grading its 
valley and the consequent lateral streains are advancing to- 
ward the graded condition as fast as they can, certain new 
branches, not represented in the original constructional 
river system, make their ai)j>earance. These are developed 



at various points, but especially wherever the walls of a con- 
sequent valley expose a weak stratum or rock-mass ; for us 
the consequent valley widens by the' wasting of its e'ul*.'- 
slopes, the widening wiU be fastest where the slopes conyi>t 
of weak rocks; and thus in time numerous lateral ravim-^ 
will be developed, lengthening headwards into valleys alontr 
the lead of the weak rocks by which they are guided. Siuh 
valleys and the streams that drain them are called siiliec^- 
quent. As the subsequent streams increase their draina^** 
area, the original basins of the consequent branch streams 
are split up ; thus the whole drainage area is more minutely 
subdivided and the rainfall is more promptly deli verc<l to 
the water-courses. Commensurate witn this change, the an^a 
of wasting slopes is increased, and thus the load washtMl 
down to the streams, and by them to the main river, is also 
increased. It may happen that the grade assumed by tlio 
main stream at the beginning of its adolescence is tbeii 
found to be too faint, and hence some of the load is laid 
down, buildine a Flood-plain (y. v.), and thus steepenini^^ 
the grade of the river and giving it a velocity that enahlt s 
it to carry the remaining load. The deep alluvium with 
which the trench of the Missouri river is partially filltMl 
may have been accumulated in this manner, for the upjMT 
branches of this river are actively gnawing into the plain <, 
and rapidly increasing the area of wasting slopes from whirh 
the load of the trunk river is chiefiy derived. 

Migration of Divider. — During the adolescent sta^re of 
river life it frequently happens that a stream may ^naw 
its way headward into the valley of another stream of the 
same river system or of an adjacent system, whose channel 
is at a higher level on account of greater distance to the 
sea, or of resistant rocks which have retarded its deejwninj; 
somewhere farther down its course. Then the growinjr 
stream, working to advantage on the steeper slope or on 
the weaker rocks which guide its growth, may tap the 
other, thus abstracting its upper part and diverting it tti 
the growing stream and leaving its diminished and beheadeti 
lower part to follow ita former valley. Subsequent stn^anw 
are particularly active in making captures of this kin<i. 
Thus one river system may grow at the expense of another, 
as the divide between them is forced to migrate away fmm 
the steeper streams at the heads of the deeper valleys. 
Changes of this kind are going on in the Alps, where the 
Italian streams are frequently gaining at the expense of 
those discharging north ward—as, for example, in tne upp^r 
Engadine valley, where the Maira is capturing the head- 
waters of the Inn. 

Deltas, — During all this time of river growth mos^t of 
the land-waste that has been carried down to the riviT 
mouth accumulates there, forming a Delta (^.f.), while the 
finest waste is carried out to deeper water. Rivers that enter 
the sea from steep mountain-slopes build stony deltas : hut 
ordinarily the delta is composed of silt, reduced to fine tex- 
ture during its long travel from its source down the valley 
to the sea. Under a fitting climate deltas are therefore 
fertile, and may support a large population, although ex- 
posed to the danger of sudden changes in the course of the 
river branches that traverse them and of Floods {q. t\) bot h 
from the rivers and the sea, the latter being caused by the 
high water of on-shore storm-winds. The outline taken by 
the growing delta varies according to the ratio of the power 
and load of the river to the activity of the shore-waves and 
currents. When the former are in excess, as at the mouth 
of the Mississippi, the delta grows rapidly forward with 
branching fingers wherever the distributary streams enter 
the sea; but where the waves and currents have the up|vi*r 
hand, the front of the delta is rounded, as in the case <if 
the Rio Grande, where there is a smooth curve, convex sea- 
ward. The delta of the Po is of intermediate form. Acutely 
pointed deltas, like that of the Tiber, are probably caused 
by the combined action of river and shore currenta. 

Flood-plains, — As the delta grows forward there is nec- 
essarily a slight building up all along the flood-plain in 
order to maintain the needed grade of the river; and this 
entails an extension of the flood-plain up the valley, parti<- 
ularly at that stage of river life when the load is increasinir. 
Hence with advancing adolescence this extremely valuahh- 
portion of the river valley increases its area, tempting tKcu- 
pation from its fertility, but, like the delta, subject to danirer 
from floods. The Ohio valley offers an excellent illustra- 
tion of this phase of river growth. The flood-plain and 
delta are somewhat higher along the river banks, where the 
silt is deposited at time of overflow; the plain slopes gentlj 
to either margin as well as down the valley. Conse«iuently', 



122 



Rn^RS 



cence or maturity of the cycle thus introduced. For exam- 
ple, the slantinff upland of Xew England in dissected by the 
Connecticut, whose valley deepens inland in consequence of 
the greater elevation that the old lowland has received in 
Nortnem Massachusetts than at the coast. The valleys of 
the Hudson, Delaware, Susquehanna, Potomac, and others 
are similarly accounted fur. 

Inequality of slope in adjacent river systems introduced 
by gentle warping is an effective means of promoting the 
migration of divides, the steepened streams gaining area at 
the expense of those whose slope is decreased. Thus it is 
believed that the present northwest course of the Tennessee, 
near Chattanooga, is a diversion from a former southwest 
course, in consequence of slight deformation of the region. 

More decided deformation is detected alon^ the northern 
margin of the AliJS, where the mountain-making forces seem 
to fcS invading the Piedmont districts and crushing them 
into incipient folds. When a land-surface is thus more or 
less warped the graded courses of its rivers are deformed ; 
thus lakes may be formed where the river trough is de- 
pressed, and more active valley cutting may be induced 
where it is elevated, and in this way the marginal lakes of 
the Alps are explained, although glacial action has also un- 
doubtedly contributed to their origin. The deformation of 
the Limmat, producing Lake Zurich, has been minutely 
studied. 

Similar changes have progressed to a more advanced stage 
in the southern marginal ranges of the Himalaya; but while 
ephemeral lakes may have been fonned on various outflow- 
ing rivers up-stream from the line of uplift, this stage is 
now past, and the rivers escape across the new ranges with 
unobstructed flow and essentially along their former courses; 
for the upturned strata of the foot-hilfi are the delta deposits 
of the earlier stage of river history. Rivers like these, of 
which the Sutlej may be taken as the type, maintained their 
flow in spite of uplifts across their course, and are called 
antecedent. The Green river of Wyoming, a chief head- 
stream of the Colorado, is by some regarded as antecedent, 
being thought to have kept its course tlirough the great up- 
lirt of the Uinta Mountains; but the argument to this con- 
clusion does not seem to be decisive. 

Volcanic Accidents. — The lava-flows poured forth by vol- 
canic or fissure eruptions run to the lowest ground that they 
can reach, and gradually congeal. In this way the rivers of 
the lava-buried areas are displaced and take new courses 
alongside of or across the lava surface. Thus the Snake 
river, gathering mature head waters among the mountains of 
Western Wyoming, crosses the lava-plains of Idaho in a 
young cafion; its upper and lower parts are as dissimilar 
as the upper and lower parts of an extended river that 
comes from older inland uplands to a newer coastal plain. 
If the region possessing displaced rivers of this kind is ele- 
vated the revived streams cut down new vallevs to one side 
of their buried valleys, such being the relation of several 
older and newer rivet* on the western slope of the Sierra 
Nevada in California, where the old river-gravels buried un- 
der the lava-flows are much sought for as a source of gold, 
while the new rivers flow in deep caflons. 

Climatic Accidents — Desiccation. — When the climate of 
a region turns from humid to arid the supply of a river 
system weakens, the head waters shorten, and the volume 
diminishes. In crossing lowlands the river is further less- 
ened by evaporation, so that it may at last disappear, though 
its course to the sea remains open. Withered rivers of this 
kind may be found in the Argentine Republic, where they 
fail to reach the ocean, although the country slopes forwarS 
from their lower en<ls. Manv witheretl rivers are found in 
the Great Basin of the U. i^., where the side-streams, de- 
scending from the mountains, are unable to reach their 
former trunk stream, while the dwindling trunk stream 
fades away on the desert plains. During winter rains 
the withered system is somewhat invigorated; in summer 
droughts it is reduced to dissevered remnants. In the Sa- 
hara the withering of the rivers is often complete; the val- 
leys or wadies remain, but they lead no water, unless beneath 
the sands of their trough. 

Climatic Accidents — Glacintion. — The effects of glaciation 
(see Glaciers) are among the most interesting accidents 
that can hapf)en to rivers; and they are of great impor- 
tance to civilized nations, inasmuch as they prevail over 
parts of Northeastern America and North west t^rn Europe. 
During the occupation of a country by an ice-sheet there is 
a peculiar drainage system upon and under the ice, as is ob- 
served in Greenland and Alavska. Streams fed by rains and 



surface-melting in summer flow for a time on the surfn<-«% 
and then disappear by plunging down crevasses: th*'> 
emerge from tunnels at the ice margin, sometimes burMiul: 
out with much energy, and bearing a heav^ load of cojipM- 
and fine detritus, wliich they spread out in their fiirthrr 
course, often building up stony flood-plains in their vh1U'\ h 
or deltas in the sea. 

During the retreat of an ice-sheet it sometimes evacuat*-^ 
a district that slopes toward its front. A marginal lak»> 
then accumulates in the depression and overflows at th«: 
lowest point in the rim, scouring down a valley treiii-h «>f 
considerable size; but when a still further retreat of the 
ice allows a lower discharge of the lake, this trench is aban- 
doned except by such hxjal drainage as it may receive f r« *n\ 
either side. In this way explanation is given of cert am 
small rivers in broad valleys in the northern part «>f the 
U. S.; the upper Minnesota,* the Desplainesby Chicntro. I-it- 
tle river between the heads of the Maumee and the >^'al)a>h 
in Ohio, the Mohawk by Rome, N. Y., all bein^ exaiiiplv^^ uf 
this curious kind {Popular Science Monthly^ Nov., 1894). 

The most striking glacial accidents in river hi»tor>' are 
found after the retreat of the ice from the glaciated country, 
when the surface streams again take unconstrained p<>^M's-«i< in 
of it. Supposing that the region had had a matunnl drain- 
age system before the ice invasion, then the ice roumN t»ir 
the peaks and ridges, deepens and widens the valleys, often 
eroding basins in their troughs, or clogging them with th»* 
drift tnat is left irregularly distributed over the count r>. 
The preglacial stream lines are therefore more or I««ss olV 
structed, and hence the post-glacial streams often lose tht-ir 
way, being here detainea in an eroded basin or in a holiow 
behind a drift barrier, and there turning across an oM 
divide or spur along a new line of flow. Streams thus af- 
fected are as a rule characterized by frequent lake's ai.<l 
long reaches alternating with rapids or gorges aloii^ thiir 
new courses. (See Lakes, Cataeacts, and Gorge.) Tho < K- 1 1- 
cacy of adjustment to structural lines that prevailtMl in 
the preglacial drainage system is confused or lost. Then* 
are little streams in large valleys; large streams in lit r It- 
valleys ; falls in the lower portion of the river courses ; and 
lakes everywhere. The rivers of Canada, Maine, Sean<lina- 
via, and other glaciated regions exhibit all these featnro in 
profusion. They are rapidly establishing better jfhi«hd 
channels; filling lakes, wnich appear as meadows; nushiiig 
back falls and cutting down gorges (see Niagara Fali.^. ; 
terracing valleys that were clogged with drift. The eco- 
nomic value of the rapids and falls thus produced is ver> 
great ; nearly all the manufacturing cities of New Kn^'land 
are located at water-powers of this accidental oriprin ; Ot- 
tawa, Rochester, and Minneapolis are similarlv deternuiitil. 

Complicated History of Large Rivers. — While the aeveml 
phases in the life and develoj)inent of rivers here outline<l are 
easily apprehended when considered separately, 8U<-h is not 
the case with the development of actual rivers of lar^e >i/f. 
such as the Mississippi, Amazon, Rhine, or Danube. The sn<-- 
cessive uplifts by which the present drainage area has btt>n 
constructed ; the various cycles or partial cycles of tieniula- 
tion through which one part or another of the river has ad- 
vanced ; the accidents that its different branches have Mif- 
fered — all combine to accumulate a history so complex timt 
geographical studv in its present state does not suflUe t<» 
apprehend it clearlv. Yet the real significance of ea<li jmrt 
is so closely de})enaent on its plan of development, and th^ 
relations of the various parts of a river system follow so 
distinctly from the history that they have' been throuirh, 
that nothing less than an analysis of their origin sufficvs t<» 
bring them clearly before the understanding. A full ac- 
count of the Mississippi system would require an extended 
monograph. Its oldest parts are probably to be found in 
the upper branches of the Tennessee and New rivers, whieh 
descend from the mountains of Carolina and Virginia. 
Similar ancient head waters in Pennsylvania have N>en 
turned by diversion or deformation into the Atlantic risers. 
Along the northern watershed the dcfwsits of glacial tlrift 
are at many points sufficient to alter the direction of j.rf»- 
glacial drainage ; the so-<'alled head of the Mississippi is i t-r- 
tainlv one of its youngest parts. The great western Dran<>hes, 
the ilissouri, Arkansas, and others, are young comj>an^<l to 
the Ohio. The lower course of the trunlt stream is a reetui 
addition to the upfHjr branches. 

Kconomic Jielafi(m<s of Bivers. — In the economies of na- 
ture rivers are the great avenues of transportation alnrig 
which the waste of the land, gathered by the creep *»f tho 
soil and the wash of the wet-weather streams, is carried to 



121 



RIVERS 



ROACH 



the name of *' accretion/* as a valid means of acquiring title 
to land. The legal consequences of accretion are the same 
whether it goes on in public or private streams or on the 
seashore ; but if the process of change be a sudden or vio- 
lent one, it will have no leeal consequences whatever. Thus 
if a watercourse should suddenly desert its ancient bed and 
form for itself a new channel, the original boundary-line 
between the opposite owners, ninning through the middle 
of the old bed, will be preserved unchanged. 

The rights of the public, so extensive, and important in 
the case of public waters, are greatly narrowed in the case 
of private streams. There is in general no common right 
of navigation or fishing or any other user in such waters. 
Nevertheless, a stream which is strictly private so far as the 
title to its shores and bed is concemea, may become sub- 
ject to a public easement of navigation or of floating logs. 
The public right in such cases is presumably acquired from 
the riparian owners, a grant or dedication by the latter be- 
ing presumed from the long and general use of the stream 
for such purpose by the pubuc. It is, however, highly prob- 
able that considerations of public policy will, in the newer 
parts of the U. S. at least, lead to a general recognition of 
common rights of navigation in suitable privat-e streams, 
even where there has been no general use of the stream from 
which to infer a dedication. 

For the distinction between riparian rights proper and 
such as pertain to waters percolating through the soil or 
flowing m undefined channels, see the article on Water- 
courses. For other similar and related rights, see Lakes, 
Riparian Rights, Seashore, and authorities there cited. 

George W. Kirchwey. 

Rivers, Richard Hexdersok, D. D. : educator and minis- 
ter of the Methodist Episcopal Church South ; b. in Mont- 
gomery co., Tenn., Sept. 11, 1814 ; graduated at La Grange 
ollege, Alabama, in 1835 ; electea Assistant Professor of 
Languages, and in 1836 Professor of Languages, in that 
institution ; was president of the conference school at Athens, 
Ala,, in 1843 ; vice-president and Professor of Moral Science 
in Centenary College, Louisiana, in 1848, and president in 
1849 ; was called to the presidency of La Grange College in 
1854, and remained in that position after the removal of the 
institution to Florence, Ala., and the change of the name to 
Wesleyan University, until it was broken up bv the civil 
war ; was subsequently president of Somerville Female Col- 
lege, Tennessee, Centenarv Institute, Summerfleld, Ala,, and 
Logan Female College, Kentucky ; was president of Martin 
Female College, Pulaski, Tenn., 1874-78 ; was pastor in Au- 
burn and Eufaula, Ala., 1878-83 ; took charge of Broadway 
church, Louisville, Ky., 1883-87 ; was a member of the Ten- 
nessee Conference ; published Menial Philosophy^ Moral 
Philosophy, Our Young /^op/« (1880) ; The Life of Robert 
Paine (1884); and Arrows from Two Quivers (1890). D. at 
Louisville, June 21, 1894. Revised by A. Osborn. 

Riverside : city (founded in 1870) ; capital of Riverside 
CO. (created from the southwest part of San Bernardino 
County in 1893), Cal. ; on the Santa Ana river, and the South- 
ern Cal. Railway ; 118 miles N. W.-of San Diego (for loca- 
tion, see map of California, ref. 12-G). It was founded by 
colonists from New England, who constructed two irrigating 
canals, one of which cost $50,000, and engaged extensively 
in the cultivation of oranges, lemons, figs, and grapes, the 
manufacture of potterv and cabinet furniture, and the pro- 
duction of raisins. There are several churches, public and 
private schools, high school, two libraries (Library Associa- 
tion, founded in 1879, and Public, founded in lS89), 2 na- 
tional banks with combined capital of $200,000, 3 State 
banks, a savings-bank, and 2 daily and 3 weekly newspa- 
pers. Pop. (1880) precinct, 1,358 ; (1890) city, 4,683. 

Rives, Am£lie : See Chanler, Am^lie. 

Rives, William Cabell : Senator ; b. in Nelson co., Va., 
May 4, 1793 ; educated at Ilampden-Sidney and William and 
Mary Colleges ; studied law under Jefferson ; served as a vol- 
unteer in the war with England 1812-15 ; became prominent 
in Virginia politics; was a member of Congress 1823-27; 
minister to France 1829-32, and again 1849-53 ; Senator from 
1832 to 1845, with a brief interruption ; a meml)er of the 
peace conference of 1861, and of the Confederate Congress 
at Montgomery. D. near Charlottesville, Va., Apr. 26, 1H6H. 
lie was the author of The Life and Timps of James Madison 
(Boston, 3 vols., 1859-69) and otiier works. 

Riviera, nH?-vee-a'raa (i. e. the shore) : name given to the 
coast of Liguria, Italy, from the French frontier to the Cape 



of Porto Venere, near Spezia (see map of Italy, ref. 4-P.i. 
It is celebrated for its natural beauty and the salubrity < ' 
its climate. Its winter climate is one of the most mild aini 
genial known, and this, with its readv accessibilitv, ttllraii- 
to it each winter a very large number of invalids. It i- 
customary to divide it into the Eastern Riviera (Rivifra Mi 
Levante) and the Western (Riviera di Ponente), the tu<. 
meeting at Genoa. See Black, The Riviera, or (hr (^t>*i^*i 
from Marseilles to Leghorn (1890); Murray, A JI*tndbtu,K 
for Travellers on the Riviera (1S90) ; Macmillan, The Ki- 
viera (1892). Mark W, Harrixoton. 

Riviere, ree'vi-Sr', BRrrox : figure and animal jnai nter : \k 
in London, Aug. 14, 1840; punil of his father, WilliHiu Hi- 
viere (1806-76); graduated at Oxford in 1867; Roval Ar««l— 
mician 1881; medal, Centennial Exposition, Phil»«i«*lplita. 
1876; third-class medals, Paris Expositions, 1878 afi<i 1h»-!i. 
Two of his most celebrated works are Let Sleepina Dttcfff Lf 
and The Astrologer. Studio in London. W. A. C. 

Riviere da Lonp (en Bas), -da-loo': post-vilJag^e (calh.; 
also Fraserville) ; Temiscouata Countv, Quebec, Canatia: 
on the southeastern shore of the river St. Lawrence, 125 nnh- 
below Quebec, and terminus of the Temiscouata Railway, at 
the mouth of the picturesque stream of the same naine\<^« »• 
map of Quebec, ref. 8-E). It is the seat of Fraserville In- 
stitute, a convent, and an academy, and has a good tnttlr. 
It is a place of summer resort. Pop. (1891; 4,175, nearly all 
French. 

Rividre da Loop (en Haut). now Looiseville : po>t-\ il- 
lage; capital of Alaskinong^ County, (Quebec, Canada; ni) 
the north shore of Lake St. Peter, 66 miles l)elow Montn-»i! 
(see map of Quebec, ref. 4-B). It has a gooil trade an-l 
manufactures of leather. Pop. about 2,000. 

Rix-dollar [from Swed. riksdaler : Germ, reirhsfhaltr: 
reich (Swed. riA), kingdom, realm + thaler (Swe<l. d<tUi •. 
thaler, dollar] : a silver coin formerly used in the Standi fia- 
vian countries and Germany. Its value varied in the d li- 
ferent countries from a little less than 40 cents to a littl>- 
more than a dollar. 

Rizzio, rit'see-5, or Riccio, rit'chee-o, David : miuivter of 
Mary, Queen of Scots ; b. at Turin, Itidv, in 1540 ; the sK»n t.f 
a dancing-master ; was brought up in France ; became an m- 
complished musician; obtained favor at the court of Savoy, 
where he was selected on account of his skill in langiih;.'<'^ 
to accompany an embassy sent to Scotland about !.■><»:]. 
Having attracted the attention of Mary, Queen of Scots, l»\ 
his musical talent, she appointed him one of the pages of 
her chamber, and soon afterward (Dec, 1564) made hini lu r 
secretary for foreign languages. He acquired great influ- 
ence over her, and was accordingly hated by less fortunat** 
courtiers; was an advocate of the marriage to Damloy, aft.r 
which he was appointed keeper of *the privy purse to tin- 
king and queen ; was bitterly denounced by Knox and tht- 
Reformers on account of his Koman Catholicism ; has o\tii 
been regarded by some writers as a secret papal leg^Hte. anu 
was regarded by many as the queen's paramour and fat hi r 
of Prince James. Several of tne most powerful nobles, es- 
pecially Morton, Ruthven, Lindsay, and Maitland, forniecl n 
conspiracy to assassinate him, and obtained the written eun- 
currence of the weak Darnley bv working upon his jealou-^y 
and by promising him the title of king. Introduce<i hv 
Darnley into the queen's chamber, Ruthven and (leor::*..- 
Douglass struck down Rizzio in her presence, dragpetl hirn 
into the adjoining room, and killed him Mar. 9, 1566. Ir 
has been charged that Knox and other Reformers were {>ri\ v 
to this murder. This is improbable, but Knox wrt»te of ii 
in his History of Scotland as " a just act, and most worth} 
of all praise. F. M. Colby. 

Roach [M. Eng. roehe, connected with 0. Eng. renhhn^ 
Germ, rocne, roach. The Eng. ray, name of same li^li < 
Fr. raie < Lat. rdja^ : a kind of fish, the Rutilus rutilun, of 
the family CyprinicCcg, It is placed with its associates in n 
group distinguished by the pharyngeal teeth being in sinel"* 
series of five or six each, with crenate ridges and slight 1\ 
hooked tips, the presence of twelve to fourteen anal n\><. 
and the position of the dorsal fin opposite to the ventraU ; 
the body is silvery, and the lower fins tinged with red. .hi 
least in the adult; the mouth is terminal. The roach m-n- 
erally attains a length of about 8 inches, and S4>nietini< - 
reaches as much as 10 or 12, and is under a pound ir 
weij;ht. It is distribute*! throughout Euroi»e N. nf ilu- 
Alps, and, though insignificant as a game-fish, it is jjen«*r- 
ally included in Euro[>ean works on angling. In the L\ S. 





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Ik 


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126 



ROADS 



lages and small towns, often called common roads to dis- 
tinguish them from paved city streets and from railways. 
The number of roads in a civilized community involves a 
large outlay for construction, and a heavy annual expendi- 
ture for repairs, so that the question of economy in road- 
making ana maintenance is an important one. Good roads 
promote traffic and industry, while poor ones are a constant 
bar to the development of the towns which they connect. 
The location, construction, and maintenance of roads form 
a branch of civil engineering, and it is only the engineer who 
can conduct these operations so as to secure the greatest 
public convenience with the least expenditui-e. 

The Romans built many roads extending to all parts of 
the empire, and portions of some of these are found at the 
present day in fair condition. Twenty-nine military roads 
centered at Rome, which with their numerous branches had, 
according to Antoninus, a total length of 52,964 Roman 
miles. The most important of these had a paved width of 
16 feet, with curbs and unpaved sidewalks, but the prevail- 
ing width was 8 feet. There were also roads for single car- 
riages, and for horsemen, of lesser width. The military 
roads were essentially pavements of dressed stone blocks, 
laid with very close joints on a foundation of concrete which 
rested on a sub-foundation of large flat stones, the entire 
thickness being about 3 feet. The road surface was c^uite 
smooth, and level transversely. Grade was usually disre- 
garded, and the course of the' road laid out in a straight 
line over hills and valleys. Milestones marked the distances 
from all parts of the empire to a gilt column in the Forum 
at Rome. In respect to durability, these roads were probably 
superior to any since constructed, but they were very ex- 
pensive and the steep grades often rendered portions ill 
adapted to traffic. Macadam has said that their construc- 
tion *' was a kind of desperate remedy t^ which ignorance 
has had recourse," and from the point of view of engineer- 
ing economy and the proper adaptation of means to ends 
Roman roads can not be recommended. 

A number of Roman roads were built in England in the 
second and third centuries, and later some of these were 
widened and made public highways. The roads in England 
and throughout Europe were, however, in a deplorable con- 
dition during the Middle Ages, and indeed until the begin- 
ning of the nineteenth century no systematic methotl of 
construction and repair was known. ' About 1350 certain 
roads in England were given to private companies to repair, 
and toll was allowed to be collected. In 1553 the parishes 
were made responsible for the maintenance of the roads, but 
the burden proved to be too heavy, and the results were un- 
satisfactory. 

The early explorers of Mexico and Peru found excellent 
roads between tne principal towns. One of the military roads 
of Peru is said to have been nearly 2,000 miles long, with tun- 
nels through mountains and bridges or ferries over streams ; 
this was 20 feet wide and paved with flagstones covered with 
bitumen. In India and Persia there were also a few good 
roads in earlv times. In the latter country royal roads for 
the use of the ruler were built by the side of the common 
roads and kept in better condition, from which originated 
the phrase " There is no royal road to learning." 

Tne earliest roads in the U. S. were mere Indian trails 
along watercourses and through gaps in mountain ranges. 
In New England the towns had control of roads, and there 
are records of some '* eight and ten rods wide " which were 
authorized to be laid out, but only about one or two rods were 
devoted to traffic, the remainder being left uncleared. The 
prevailing method of construction and repair, when any 
method at all was used, was to plow two parallel furrows 
about 20 feet apart and scrajw the loosened earth upon the 
space between them to form the road-bed. 

Turnpikes were maintained in the IT. S. during the eigh- 
teenth century by pnvate companies which were allowed to 
collect toll, and the surface of these was often of gravel or 
broken stone. In 1796 an act of Congress authorized a na- 
tional roa«l from Baltimore westward, which was built for 650 
miles through Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Illinois; its width is 
80 feet, of which 30 feet is of liroken stone, sometimes on a 
foundation of large stonos. Althmigli not properly kept up 
since the introduction of railways, it is still known'as a good 
road. 

The roads of Europe are in a far bettor oomlition than 
those of the U. S. This is due partly to the fact that they 
are older, but mainly to In^tter and more efTeetive methods 
of construction and maintenance. (Jravel or broken stcme 
is employed for a road surface, proper drainage is provided, 



and systematic repairs are made at stated inter>'a1s. T\if 
dirt fix)m the gutters is carted away instead of bein^? sfm a-i 
on the road-bed, while this is kept in good condition by tiiv 
frequent addition of broken stone properly compactcii* hihI 
rolled. Among the famous roads of Europe may be iiitn- 
tioned that from Geneva, over the Simplon Pass of tlie Al|»>. 
to Milan, which was built by Napoleon as a military nmit-. 
and which cost the French Government about $3.25<\(KKK or 
nearly $15,000 per mile; this is more than double the co^t 
of construction of good roads under ordinary condit ions. 

About 1885 public opinion in the U. S. began U* >>*' 
aroused, mainly through the influence of bicvcle riilcrs aij<i 
manufacturers,' as to the deplorable conditfon of c*anitry 
roads and the great atl vantage of better meth<xls of rt.ii'- 
struction and repair. This movement has been prtxiuctJXH 
of excellent results, vet very much remains to l>e done ii: 
order that these roaus may be in a condition coropaniMe i-- 
those of Europe. Methods of locating, building, anti n- 
pairing roads are well known to civil engineers, and can he 
as easily carried out as those for the construction ami nuun- 
tenance of railways, but the public refuses or ne^lo<'is t.. 
intrust the work to them. County commissioners, township 
supervisors, selectmen, and borough committees are the au- 
thorities who control the building and repair of roads, and 
these generally decide nearly all questions relating theret.-. 
irrespective of the experience of other localities or of thr 
rules of engineering. The method, so extensively jirevail- 
ing, whereby fanners are allowed to work out their mad- 
tax instead of paying it in money, is perhaps the ^reatt>>r 
evil of the present system, and wherever it prevails giwni 
roads can never be secured. Under this method the inu<l 'ti 
the gutters is annually loosened by the plow, tran>fem. • i 
by the scraper to the middle of the street, and s|irfuil to a 
rounded surface without any attempt at compacting or roil- 
ing, so that the rains wash it quickly back again to tit* 
sides and the condition of the road during a large part «»t 
the year is very poor. It is safe to sajr that in the majority 
of cases the money spent in such repairs is entirely waste«i.' 

The cost of road improvements in flftv counties of th.. 
State of New York during 1892 was 12,716,000, aii«l this 
does not include that 8|)ent in cities, towns, and villairt-. 
This annual sum, if expended in acconlance with engiii«-tr- 
ing princinles, is sufficient to produce in a few years row. is 
comparable in every respect with those of Euro{»e. 

It is one of the gratifying features of the road a^itatiini 
that State Legislatures are urged to make such laws a?* >\iil 
insure that the construction and maintenance of comnion 
roads shall be placed in the hands of civil engineers, Evi*ry 
effort spent in securing the passage of such laws tends t.i 
the improvement of roads. The building of a coiihihij 
road is easy compared to that of a railway: the prinriplri 
and methods are given in great detail in engineering lit«in' 
ture, and it is by the scientific application of these that th*! 
roads of Europe have been brought to such a high de^ii* t»i 
perfection. 

Location, — A road should be so laid out that its li-ntrth 
between the points to be connected is as short as (Ki?ssioU', 
the grades at the same time being such as to allow ea^\i 
ti-action for vehicles and also thorough drainage, A slitrli! 
grade will provide for drainage if proper ditches are vmu- 
stiiicted. The maximum grade for earth roads should Im 
about 10 j>er cent. — that is, 10 feet of vertical rise to ItHj 
feet of horizontal distance, while gravel roads may bt» lim- 
ited to 7 per cent,, and macadam roads to alK>ut 4 or 5 |h-« 
cent. On these grades a horse exerts twice as much force in 
pulling up the load as on a level. 

The width of roads in the U. S. has usually lK?en to<i 
great. Sixteen feet is sufficient for the easy passapt^ <»f tun 
vehicles, and it is better that this width should be kcf>t in 
good condition than that 30 or 40 feet should be maintaint <] 
in poor onler at gi-eater cost. In the neighborhood of t-it ..h 
widths of 24 or 30 feet are sometimes required. To theMi 
widths are to be added those necessary for gutters or dilclu>, 
and for sidewalks when such are necessary. 

The best transverse form is that of two planes <»f sli^rl.t 
inclination connected by a short curved surface nf»ir ii«i 
middle. It is a common error to make the s*»oiion t. i 
rounding and the inclination of the sides too steep. Mai»v 
good roa<ls show to the eye but little elevation in tht* miiji 
<lle. and the harder and smoother the road-covering llu» K^vi 
is the elevati(m required. 

Consfruction. — In order to render the road free frt>ni tlii^j 
and mud and the trncti<m easy to animals some kiml ..j 
roa<l covering other than the natural soil is usually n^x i-^^ 



128 



ROANOKE RIVER 



ROBERT II. 



from eighteen States and Territories and four foreign coun- 
tries in 1894-95. The college offers a four years* course, with 
electives. The grounds embrace about 20 acres. There are 
four brick buildmffs for college purposes. One of these is 
set apart for the library, which contains 17,000 Yolumes. 
An annex to this building was erected in 1894 for a refer- 
ence library and reading-room. The mineralogical and geo- 
logical cabinets contain about 14,000 specimens, and there is 
also a valuable numismatic collection. Two literary socie- 
ties and a Y. M. C. A. are maintained. Julius D. Dreher. 

Rdanoke Rlrer : a stream formed by the union of the Dan 
and Staunton rivers at Clarkesville, Va, It flows 250 miles 
in an E. S. E. course into Albemarle Sound near Plymouth, 
N. C. It is a tidal stream to Halifax Falls, N. C, *75 miles 
from its mouth, and is navigable 75 miles farther to Weldon 
by steamboats, and throughout its course by bateaux. Its 
valley is picturesque and fertile. 

Roaring.: the noise made by some horses while drawing 
in the breath, especially while traveling fast. It is caused 
by a kind of wasting oisease of the muscles of the larynx, 
and is incurable. Nevertheless, some of the best horses, like 
the great Eclipse, have been confirmed roarers. In England 
tracffeotomy and the continued use of the tracheotomy-tube 
have been successfully employed for its relief. 

Roasting : See Cookebt ; also Metallubot. 

Roatan : See Ruatan. 

Robbery [from 0. Pr. roherte^ deriv. of rober, rob : Ital, 
rubare, from 0. H. Germ, roubon > Mod. Germ, rauben, 

{)lunder, rob] : larceny from the pei-son of another by vio- 
ence or putting him in fear. The force or fear must pre- 
cede or accompany the larceny. Hence it is not robbery to 
snatch from tne hand of another and carry away his purse, 
or stealthily to take it from his pocket and then frighten 
him from retaking it. On the other hand, if the article 
taken is so attached to the person that violence is necessary 
to detach it, as where a watch-cord is broken in taking a 
watch, or where an earring is torn from the ear, or if the 
owner surrenders the property because put in fear by the 
taker, robbery is committed. The fear need not be of injury 
to the body of the person robbed. Fear of injury to that 
which he has a right to defend by force, as his child or his 
property, will suffice. It has been held that a threat to in- 

iure another's character in order to induce him to surrender 
lis property is a sufficient putting in fear. Other decisions 
hold that the threat of injury to character must consist in 
charging the victim with unnatural crime. Britt vs. 67a/e, 
7 Humpnrey (Tenn.) 45. 

The courts have given to " the person " an extended mean- 
ing in the definition of robbery. Whenever the stolen 
property is so in the possession or under the control of an 
individual that violence or putting in fear is the means used 
by the thief to secure it, the taking is from the person. Ac- 
cordingly, a thief commits robbery when he binds the owner 
in one room of his house and frightens him into telling 
where property is to be found in another part of the build- 
ing. 6taie vs. Calhoun, 73 Iowa 432. 

Robbery was a capital felony at common law. It is pun- 
ishable in Great Britain by jJenal servitude. In many of 
the U. S. it has been defined by statute and divided into 
degrees, punishable by imprisonment for periods of varying 
length. See Labceny. Francis M. Burdick. 

RoVbIa, LucA, della: sculptor; b. in Florence, Italy, 
about 1399 ; at first a goldsmith, he soon devoted himself to 
larger work in bronze and marble. At the age of fifteen he 
went to Rimini, where he sculptured some fine bas-reliefs 
for the tomb of the wife of Sigismund Malatesta. Being 
recalled to Florence by an order to do work for Santa Maria 
del Fiore, he executed six compositions for the campanile. 
At the age of seventeen he was further commissioned to de- 
sign the marble ornament of one of the organs of the cathe- 
dral, having Donatello in competition with him. Luca's de- 
sign was considered the finer, although neither was executed ; 
but the bronze door of the sacristy beneath this organ was 
intrusted to him, for which he modeled ten figures and 
many lovely heads and other ornaments. After these works 
he gave up bronze and modeled in clay, having discovered a 
glaze that protected his work from atmospheric injury. The 
first of his decorations in this medium are in Santa Maria 
del Fiore, in the arch over his own bronze door, as well as 
over the arch of the sacristy, as also a Resurrection of mar- 
velous lieauty, now in the Academy of Fine Arts in Florence. 
Luca afterward found out how to give color to his ware. His 



first experiment in the colored glaze was in Or San Mi(*h< I«\ 
and this reminds one of maiolica in its brilliancy. TIh- 
fame of this new decorative work soon spread through Itaiv 
and over Europe, and his orders were innumerable — b<>t h i* >r 
large panels for the inner decoration of churches as wt*Il a> 
for outer walls above doorways, etc. His works aboinul in 
Tuscany. His brothers Ottaviano and Agostino, who wrn- 
his pupils, helped him in the production of these works, and 
continued them after his death (in 1482). A2n>REA dli.la 
RoBBiA, nephew of the famous Luca and son of his brother 
Mark, was bom in Florence about 1436. He showed jrn-at 
artistic capabilities from an early age. After havings »h«>wn 
his skill in the marble decorations of the chapel of Santn 
Maria delle Grazie, outside Arezzo, he devotea himself to 
producing colored reliefs in terra-cotta for Santa Maria <lcll«' 
Grazie, for the Cathedral of Arezzo, and for the In^^ia of 
the Hospital of the Innocents in Florence, besides inn<h 
other work. He died in 1525. — His sons, Giovanni, Lit a, 
and GiROLAMO, also worked in their father^s manner. Al- 
thoujgh the elder Luca, as the founder of the art, enjoys a 
special prestige among the Robbias, Andrea undoubtedly 
was the most talented. W. J. Stillman. 

Robbins, Chandler, D. D. : clergyman ; b. at Lvnn. Mas*?.. 
Feb. 14, 1810; graduated at Harvard 1829, and became }m^- 
tor of the Second church (Unitarian) at Boston 1833, whi< h 
position he long retained. He was the author of many ad- 
dresses, sermons, and occasional publications: of a Hi'^fonf 
of the Second Church (1852) ; of idemoirs of Maria E. CMupi» 
(1858) and William Appleton (1863); and one of the editor^ 
of i\i^ Proceedings of tne Massachusetts Historical Sotieiy. 
of which he was an active member. D. at Weston, Ma*»<.. 
Sept. 11, 1882. For biographical sketch, see Rev. O. B. 
Frothingham's Boston Unitarianism (1890). 

Revised by J. W. Chadwhtc. 

Robert I. (King of Scotland) : See Bruck, Robert. 

Robert II. : King of Scotland; founder of the Stuart 
dynasty ; b. in Scotland, Mar. 2, 1816; son of Lord Walter 
Stewart, by Marjory, daughter of Robert Bruce ; fought at 
the battle of Halidon Hill (1338); became joint regent with 
the Eari of Murray 1334, and sole regent 1338-41, duriim 
the minority and absence in France of his uncle. King 
David II.; was again regent with the Earl of March from 
the capture of the king at the battle of Nevill's Cross Oct., 
1346-57 ; opposed a successful resistance to the project of 
imposing Lionel, Duke of Clarence, upon Scotlana as kintr. 
ana renewed his oath of fealty to David II. 1363 ; wa.s im- 
prisoned 1363-69; declared king after the death of Daviil 
Feb., 1371 ; was crowned at Scone Mar. 26, 1371 ; conduct «m1 
two wars with Richard II. of England, in the second of 
which the successful forays of Richard II. and the Duke of 
Lancaster into Scotland took place. These were avengvd 
in 1388 by a successful invasion of England by two arnii»'<. 
one of which, commanded by James, Earl of Douglas, fought 
and won the celebrated battle of Otterburn (or Chevy Cha*-!) 
July 21, 1388, but lost its leader. The kin^om suffen-d 
much from the border wars and from the disorders of the 
turbulent barons. D. at Dundonald Castle, Mav 13, 1890. 

Revised by F. M. Colby. 

Robert III.: King of Scotland; son of Robert 11. liv 
his first wife, Elizabeth Mure of Rowallan ; b. in Scotlaitd 
about 1340 ; was first known as John Stuart, Earl of Car- 
rick ; succeeded to the throne in 1390 ; renewed the war 
with England 1399; was an imbecile ruler and left the a<l- 
ministration in the hands of his ambitious and unscnipuluus 
brother, Robert Stuart, Earl of Menteith, by whom th<» hnr 
to the throne, David, Duke of Rothesay, was' imprisonetl and 
starved to death in Falkland Castle 1402. In 1400 occurrtMi 
the invasion of Scotland bv Henry IV. of England an<l ihr 
retaliatory expedition of the Scots resulted in their terriMr 
defeat at Homildon Hill 1402. Robert sent his surviviiiL' 
son. Prince James, to France for safety against the desijfiis of 
Menteith, and became the victim of incurable melancholy on 
learning the imprisonment of his son by the English, Mav, 
1405. D. at Rothesay, Bute, in 1406. 

Robert II., sumamed The Devil : Duke of Normandy : ««<>n 
of Richard the Good ; succeeded his brother Richard in U>-Js. 
He humiliated his vassals and kept order in his realm ; con- 
quered districts from his neighbors and regulated his fron- 
tiei-s; supported Count Baldwin IV. of Flanders against h'^i 
sons, King Henry 1. of France against his mother, an*! hi- \ 
nephews, Alfred and Edwnrtl of England. against Canuto of 
Denmark; made Normandy the most powerful state in 



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130 



ROBERTS 



ROBESPIERRE 



sylvania, he was appointed to important churches in Balti- 
more, Philadelphia, etc., and in 1816 was elected bishop. Ue 
immediately returned to Western Pennsylvania and thence 
removed to Indiana, then the far West. Ue did much for 
Western missions, and the Indians called him " the grand- 
father of all the missionaries." D. in Lawrence co., Ind., 
Mar. 26, 1843. Revised by A. Osbork. 

Roberts, Sir William, M. D., F. R. S. : clinician ; b. in 
Anglesea, Wales. Mar. 18, 1830 ; graduated M. D. London 
University 1854 : was physician to the Manchester Royal In- 
firmary 1855 to 1886, and Professor of Clinical Medicine at 
the Victoria University from 1876 to 1886. He practiced his 
profession in Manchester from 1885 to 1889, removing to 
London in the latter year. His more important publica- 
tions are A Practical Treatise on Urifiary and Renal Dis- 
eases (London, 1865 ; 4th ed. 1885) ; Lectures on Dietetics 
and Dyspepsia (London, 1885 ; 2d ed. 1886) ; On the Chem- 
istry and Therapeutics of Uric Acid, Oravel, atid Gout 
(London, 1892). S. T. Aemstrono. 

Roberts, Willum Charles, D. D., LL. D. : minister, 
educator, and secretarv ; b. at Galltmai, Canliganshire, 
South Wales, Sept. 23, 1832 ; educated at Princeton College 
and Theological Seminary ; was pastor of the First Presby- 
t-erian church, Wilmington, Del., 1858-61 ; of the First 
Presbvterian church, Columbus, 0., 1861-64; copastor in 
the Second church, Elizabeth, X. J., 1864-66 ; pastor of the 
Westminster church, organized from the Second church 
under his leadership, 1866-80 ; corresponding secretary of 
the board of home missions 1880-86; president of Lake Forest 
University 1886^92 ; and was reappointed corresponding sec- 
retary of the board of home missions in 1802. Dr. Roberts 
was chairman of the committee that established Wooster 
University, Ohio; member of the first Pan- Presbvterian 
council, Edinburgh, 1877, and of the third, Belfast, 188i 
where he read a paper on American colleges ; moderator of the 
General Assemoly, New York, 1889, and a member of the 
committee for the revision of the Confession of Faith. He 
is the author of a series of letters on the great preachers of 
Wales, the translator of the Shorter Catechism into Welsh, 
and has published occasional sermons. C. K. Hoyt. 

Roberts, William Henry, D. D., LL. D. : minister and 
professor ; b. at Holyhead, Wales, Jan. 8, 1844 ; was educated 
at the College of the City of New York and Princeton Theo- 
logical Seminary; statistical clerk in the U. S. Treasury 
Department 1863-65 ; assistant librarian of Congress 1866- 
72 ; pastor at Cranford, N. J., 1873-77 ; librarian of Princeton 
Theological Seminary 1877-86 ; Professor of Practical The- 
ology in Lane Seminary 1886-93 ; permanent clerk of the 
General Assembly 1880-^4, and since 1884 has been statod 
clerk of the same body. Dr. Roberts was elected American 
secretary of the Pan-Presbyterian council, London, 1888. 
He helped prepare the general catalogue of Princeton Theo- 
logical Seminary 1881, and the catalogue of the library in 
the same institution 18i86. He has published Inaugural Ad- 
dress, Lane Seminary (1886); History of the Presbyterian 
Church in the United States of America (1888) ; Ecclesias- 
tical Status of Theological Seminaries (1892) ; sermons and 
magazine articles. C. K. Hoyt. 

Roberts of Kandahar, Frederick Sleigh Roberts, 
Baron: British general; b. in Cawnpur, India, Sept. 80, 
1832 ; educated at Eton, Sandhurst, and Addiscombe ; en- 
tered the Bengal artillery 1851 ; promoted through various 
grades to that of lieutenant-general 1883 ; served with great 
distinction in the Indian mutiny campaign, the Abyssinian 
campaign, and the Afghan campaigns: commander- in -chiof 
in India 1885-93. His most noted exploit is the relief of 
Kandahar in the summer of 1880. He was created a baronet 
in 1881, and Baron Roberts of Kandahar, Jan., 1892. The 
soldiers nicknamed him Bobs Bahadur, the latter word mean- 
ing hero or champion. C. H. T. 

Robertson, Frederick William : clergyman ; b. in Lon- 
don, England, Feb. 3, 1816 ; abnndouod the plan he had 
formed of entering the anny: entered Bra'?<»n(>se Colloire, 
Oxford, IKH.aiid grwluatod 1840; was sett KmI in Winchester 
1840-42, in Cheltenham 1H42-47. in Oxford 1847, going that 
y«'ar to Brighton, where he diiMl An;:. 15, 1853. Of his works, 
there have been fmiilished SermonA prenched at Trinity 
C/inpe/, lirifjhtim (tive series, Iit)nd<»n, 1K55-64): Lfctures 
and AddiPAteH on Litcrnn/ ami Social Tapirs {\Hr^)i AV- 
jHtsifort/ Lvrtures on St. PaufH Kpistlvf^ to the Corinthinns 
(|M."iJ>) : and ^otes on Genesis (1H77). 11 is fai!io was posthu- 
nums, but it is {>ennaniMit. His writings and biography 
were reprinted in the U. S. and widely read. He was one of 



the greatest and most inspiring of modem preachers*. ait<] 
has exerted great influence in liberalizing religions thought 
He was, however, more a preacher than a theologian, and h« 
left little in systematic form. He is usually, although {tr- 
haps erroneously, classed with Maurice and Stanley as a 
founder of the modem Broad Church party in the Chun-h 
of England. See his Life and Letters, edited by Stopfonl 
A. Brooke (2 vols., 1865). 

Robertson, Georqe Croom: educator and metaphy-vi- 
cian ; b. at Aberdeen, Scotland, Mar. 10, 1842 ; educattvl* at 
Aberdeen, Berlin, and Gottingen Universities; becanif As- 
sistant Professor in Greek at Aberdeen in 1864; Pn)f«"-v.,r 
of Philosophy in University College, London, 1866-92 ; vi Jis 
editor of Mind 1876-91. D. in London, Sept. 21, 1H1«„>. 
His principal writings are Hobbes, in Blackwood's Philfh- 
sophxcal Classics (1886), and several articles in Encyrlop<rihfi 
Britannica (9th ed.) and in the Dictiofiary of National 
Biography, He aided Alexander Bain in editing Grotr^ 
posthumous work on Aristotle (1872). See Philosophical 
Kemaiihs of George Croom Robertsofi, with a brief memoir, 
edited by Alexander Bain. J. Mark Bai^uwin. 

Robertson, James : royal governor of New York ; b. in 
Fifeshire, Scotland, about 1710 ; served as deputy quarter- 
mtister-general in the campaigns against Louibburg and 
Ticonderoga 1758-59 ; was api)ointed lieutenant-colonel (»f 
the Fifty-fifth Re^fiment ; exchanged into the Sixteenth; 
was stationed at New York as barrack-master 176ii-75 ; Ih?- 
came notorious for his extortions and peculations ; was m[>- 
pointed colonel 1772 ; went to Boston July, 1775 ; was mi.- 
pointed major-general Jan. 1, 1776; commanded a briga.h- 
m the battle of Long Island ; went to England 1777 ; wa> 
appointed royal governor of New York 1779 ; took the c»arh 
of office Mar. 23, 1780; exerted himself with Gen. (m>vn. 
to procure the exchange of Mai. Andre ; became lieuten- 
ant-general Nov. 20, 1782; d. in England Mar. 4, 1788. 

Robertson, James, D. D. : minister and professor ; b. at 
Alyth, Perthshire, Scotland, Mar. 2, 1840; educated at the 
Universities of Aberdeen and St. Andrews ; missionary in 
Hasskeni, Constantinople, 1862-64; in Beyrout. Syria. 1M*>4- 
75; minister of Mavfield church, Edinburgh, 1876^77; sim-e 
1877 Professor of Oriental Languages in the University nf 
Glasgow. Dr. Robertson has published many articles' un 
Eastern topics in various magazines ; translated an<l editiMi 
Mailers Outline of Hebrew Syntax (Glasgow, 1882; thr»-f 
subsequent editions^; published Introduction to the I*tnta^ 
teuch in Virtue's New Illustrated Bible, republisheil in 
Boole by Book (London, 1892) ; T?ie Early Religion of Jh- 
rael, Baird lectures, 1889 (Edinburgh, 1892; three latt-r 
editions); The Old Testament and its Contents, in iiutld 
and Bible Class Text-books (Edinburgh, 1893) ; and Hie 
Psalms : their Place in the History and Religion of IsrtuL 
Croall lectures, 1894 (Edinburgh, 1895). C. K. IIoyt, 

Robertson, Thomas William : actor and dramatist : b. 
in England, Jan. 9, 1829; became an actor in a tra\flinL' 
company of which his father was manager; i)ro<luc<-<l a 
play, A Night^s Adventure, in 1851 ; settl^ at London and 
devoted himself to literature 1860, and wrote several \«ry 
successful dramas, including David 6^am>Jfc (1864); Sari^'v 
(1865) ; Ours (1866) ; Caste and Play (1868) ; Scliool (1S61M : 
M. P, (1870) ; and Dreams (1869). D. in London, Feb. 3. 
1871. See his Principal Dramatic Works (2 vols., Lon<h>n. 
1889). 

Robertson, William, D. D. : historian ; b. at Borthwiik, 
near Edinburgh, Scotland, Sept. 19, 1721 ; graduati'd at 
the Universitv of Edinburgh 1741 ; became a minist«»r <»f 
the Scottish Church at Gladsmuir 1743; joint minister of 
Greyfriars church, Minburgh, 1759; principal of the Uni- 
versity of P^inburgh 1762, and was appointe<l histi>rit.c- 
rapher of Scotland 1764. D. at Grange lloiiso, near Kdin- 
burgh. J]me 11, 1793. Author of b, History of Scotland dur- 
ing the Reigns of Mary and James VI, (2 vols., 17.>S-.">!««; 
History of the Jieign of the Emperor Charles V. {'A v«'!-.. 
1769); a Hist on/ of America (2 vols., 1777); and an Hi^f'"-- 
ical Disquisition concerning the Knowledge which the An- 
cients had of /n</i'a (1791). During his lifetime and hi-j 
afterward his name was ranked with those of Gibbon ntil 
Hume, and his c<miplete Works have been often reprint* <!. 
but are now little read. His Life was written by DuumI'I 
Stewart (1801) and by Lord Brougham, who was a fafu;i\ 
connection. 

Robespierre, ro'b^s-pi-fir', Maximilien Marie Isidorf 
revolutionist ; b. at Arras, France, May 6, 1758. Losing hi> 





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182 



KOBINSON 



BoblnBon, Charles Setmoub, D. D., LL.D.: clergyman 
and hymnologist ; b. at Bennington, Vt, Mar. 81, 1829; 
educated at Williams College and Union and Princeton 
Seminaries ; {Histor of the Presbyterian churches — Park, in 
Troy, N. Y., 1855-60; First, in Brooklyn, 1860-68; of the 
American chapel in Paris 1868-70 ; Madison Avenue Pres- 
byterian church. New York, 1870-87; Thirteenth Street 
1890-92 ; since 1892 of the New York Presbyterian church, 
New York. Dr. Robinson has published Songs of the Church 
(New York. 1862}; Sat^gs of the Sanctuary (1865); Songe 
f&r Christian Worship (1S69) \ Short Studies for Sunday- 
school Teachers (1868) ; Chapel Songs (1872) ; Bethel and 
Pknuel (1878) ; Church Work (1878) ; Calvary Songs for 
Sunday-schools {1S75); Psalms and Hymns (IblS) ; Spirit- 
ual Songs (1878) ; Studies in the New Testament (1880) ; 
Spiritual Songs for Social Worship (1881] ; Smritucd Songs 
for Sunday-schools (1881); Studies of Neglected Texts 
(1883); Laudes Domini (1884); Sermons in Songs (1885); 
Sabbath Evening Sermons (1886) ; Simon Peter : Early Life 
and Times (1887) ; The Pharaohs of the Bondage and JEx- 
odus (1887); Studies in Mark's Gospel (1888); Laudes 
Domini for the Sunday-school (1888) ; Laudes Domini for 
the Prayer Meetina (1889); From Samuel to Solomon (1889); 
Studies in Luke^s Gospel (2 vols., 1889); New Laudes 
Domini (1892); Annotations upon Popular Hymns (1893); 
Simon Peter: Later Life and Labors (1894), C. K. Hoyt. 

Bobinson, Edward, D. D., LL. D. : biblical scholar ; b. 
at Southington, Conn., Apr. 10, 1794 ; graduated at Hamil- 
ton College 1816; was tutor there 1817-18; remained in 
Clinton, engaged in classical studies, till the autumn of 1821, 
when he went to Andover, Mass., to publish an edition of 
eleven books of the Iliad (the first nine, the 18th, and the 
22d) ; was instructor in Hebrew in Andover Seminary 1823- 
26, under Prof. Stuart, whom he assisted in preparing the 
second edition (1823) of his Hebrew Grammar, publishing 
meanwhile (1825) his translation of Wahl's Clauis Philo- 
logica Novi Testamenti ; studied in Europe, mostly at Halle 
and Berlin, 1826-30; in 1828 married, as his second wife, 
Therese Albertine Luise von Jakob, daughter of a distin- 
guished professor at Halle (see Kobinson, Therese) ; returned 
to the U. S., and was professor extraordinary at Andover 
18^^0-33 ; broke down in health, and resided in Boston 1833- 
87; was professor in Union Theological Seminary, New 
York, from 1837 till his death Jan. 27, 1863. In 1838, 
and again in 1852, he traveled in Palestine with Rev. Eli 
Smith, the learned missi<mary. Besides the works already 
mentioned, he published Taylor's Calmet (1832) ; A Diction- 
ary of the Bible for the use of Schools cmd Young Perso'ns 
(lfe3) ; Buttman'*s Greek Grammar (1833 ; 2d ed. 1839 ; 3d 
ed. 1851); Gesenius's Hebrew Lexicon (1836: 5th ed. 1854) ; 
Greek and English Lexicon of the New Testament (1836 ; 
2rl ed. 1847); Greek Harmony of the Gospels (1845; 2d ed. 
1851); English Harmony of the Gospels (1846); Memoir of 
the Rev. William Bobinson (1859). In 1831 he founded The 
Biblical Repository, which he edited for four years, and in 
1843 the Bibliotheca Sa^ra, for which he continued to write 
till 1855. His greatest work was Biblical Researches (1841, 
8 vol8. ; compressed into two, and a third added 1856), for 
which, in 1842, he received the gold medal of the Royal 
Geographical Society. He also received the degree of D. JD., 
previously (1831) conferred by Dartmouth College, from the 
University of Halle in 1842, and that of LL. D. from Yale 
College in 1844. His Physical Geography of the Holt/ Land 
was edited by Mrs. Robinson in 1864, and published m 1865. 
See The Life, Writ ings, and Character of Edward Robinson, 
by R. D. Hitchcock (New York, 1863). 

Robinson, Sir Frederick Phillipse : soldier; son of Col. 
Beverley Robinson ; b. on the Phillipse Manor, New York, in 
Sept., 1763 ; became an ensign in his father's Loyal Ameri- 
can Regiment Feb., 1777 ; was wounded and taken prisoner 
at Stony Point ; served in the West Indies, and with ^reat 
distinction under Wellington in the Peninsular war, rising 
to be general ; was commander-in-c!iief of the British forces 
in Canada 1812; participated in the campaign on Lake 
Champlain Sept., 1814; was knighted 1815; was governor 
of Upper Canada 1815-16; removed to the West Indies, 
where ne commanded the forces ; became full general 1841. 
D. at Brighton, England, Jan. 1, 1852. 

Robinson, Henry Crabb : -lawver and man of letters ; b. 
at Bury St. Edmunds, England, May 13, 1775; was articled 
to a lawyer at Colchester, and afterward in London ; studied 
several years (1800-05) at Jena and other German universi- 
ties, where he acquired a very thorough knowledge of mod- 



em German literature and philosophr ; enjoyed the intimate 
friendship of Goethe, Wieland, Schiller, the Schlegel», and 
other emment people ; furnished data to Madame de Sta*'-! 
for her work on Germany ; was correspondent of 774« Timm 
in Spain at the beginning of the Peninsular war lb08-(/J ; 
was engaged on his return to London as a regular writtT 
for that journal ; was called to the bar at the Middle IVm- 
ple 1818 ; became a highly successful and prosperous lawyer 
on the Norfolk circuit, from which he retired with a fortune 
in 1828, and for the remainder of his life devoted hims<.^If to 
society and literary leisure, being prominently known as the 
intimate friend of Wordsworth, Blake, Clarkson, Flax man. 
Lamb, Coleridge, Southey, and their compeers. He was one 
of the first members of the Athenaeum Cluo, one of the found- 
ers of University College, London, and of the Flaxman (ial- 
lery, to which latter institution he left liberal beauesta. 1). 
in London, Feb. 5, 1867. He published little, but left a oopi- 
otis Diary and Correspondence, from which interesting st»K-c- 
tions were published m 1860. Revised by H. A. Beers. 

Bobinson, John : clergyman ; b. in England, probably in 
Lincolnshire, 1575; entered Cambridge University 15»2; 
pursued his studies in Corpus Christi College, and there \h^ 
came attached to Puritan doctrines ; took preliminary onit p* 
in the Church of England; obtained a bKsnefice near GrtHt 
Yarmouth, Norfolk ; was suspended by thebishop for nmj- 
conformity in ecclesiastical ceremonies 1602; grathered an 
Independent congregation at Norwich; formally separate •<! 
from the Church of England 1604; resigned his felJowhlnp 
at Cambridge ; became assistant, and soon after sole, pa>i< r 
of a Dissenting congregation (1604) gathered at S('rrK>l>\, 
Nottinghamshire (near the borders of Yorkshire and Lin- 
colnshire), where the Brewsters, Bradfords, and Mort<.Ms 
were among his flock ; suffered a persecution which )<•<! 
many of his congregation to emigrate with him to Am^t^'^- 
dam, Holland, 1608; removed to Leyden 1609; gathtred 
there a numerous church, constantly re-enforced by arrivals 
from England ; attended lectures at the university, of win* h 
he afterward became a member; held a public discn»i«»i«»n 
with the Dutch professor Episcopius, the successor of A r- 
minius, upon the Calvinistic doctrine of predestination, 161:? : 
entered into the plans for colonization in New England 
about 1617; was active in promoting the negotiations 
through Cushman, Carver, and Brewster, with the Plynmut [i 
Company of capitalists; dismissed a portion of his'c«»ni:p- 
gation with a memorable sermon on their embarkation f<>r 
America July 22, 1620, intending to follow them the mxt 
year; but before the negotiations were completed he difd «t 
Leyden about Mar. 1, 1625. He was buried in St. P^•t<T*^ 
church, the members of the university and the ministfrv of 
the city attending his funeral. Among his numeroii'* « i»r.- 
troversial publications were A Justification of Sepunttum 
(1610) ; Of Religious Communiofi (1614) ; Apologia Jutifa 1 1 
N ecessaria {IQld); A Defense of the Doctrine propffumitd 
by the Synod of Dort (1624); Essays or Ohseriyttiofm, Di- 
vine or Moral (1628); A Treatise of the Lawfulness of I fear- 
ing of the Ministers in the Church of England {l^U): and 
A7i Apology for Certain Christians no less contumfHou^/y 
than commonly called Brownists or Barrottists. nis<-<.ni- 
plete Works, with a memoir, appeared in London and !>« >^ 
ton in 8 vols., 1851. In 1891 a bronze tablet to his m«'rn- 
ory, placed on an outer wall of St. Peter's, was dedicatct) l«y 
representatives of the National Council of the Congregatinnal 
Churches of the U. S. Revised by G. P. Fisher, 

Robinson, John Cleveland : soldier: b.at Binghamton, 
N. Y., Apr. 10, 1817 ; entered the U. S. Military At-adrmy 
1885, but without graduating began the study of law in 
1838. In 1839, however, he accepted a second lientenaiu y 
in the Fifth Infantry, and served in the war with Mexi< o 
and in Florida against the Indians. In Sept., 1861, he \*hs» 
api)ointed colonel of the First Michigan Volunteers, and m 
Apr., 1862, brigadier-general of volunteers, serving in com- 
mand of a brigatie with the Army of the Potomac in t ho 
Virginia peninsular campaign of 1862, at the second battle 
of Bull Run, Chantilly, and Fredericksburg. At Geliv«4- j 
burg and in the Richmond campaign of 1864 he commainhd j 
a division with great bravery, losing a leg on the fourth diiy 
of fighting in the latter campaign, near Spottsylvania C<»urt- 
house, while leading the advance of the army; was mi*-, 
iwinted brevet brigtSier-general and major-general for gnl- 
lantry. In 1866 he attained the colonelcy of the Forty-tlnrd 
Infantry, and in 1869 was retired from active service'i>n ili* 
full rank of major-general. In 1872 he was elected Litu- 
tenant-Governor of the State of New York, and in lbl4 



134 



ROBY 



ROCHEFORT 



we should know more than we do of what graphic art 
18 capable. The best and best-preserved specimen of his 
historical or descriptive work is the Miracle of St, Mark^ 
in the Academy at Venice, which is splendid and deeply 
satisfying in color, while full of strenuous action ; and if 
its composition in line and mass is not altogether of the 
highest order, it only misses this excellence by a little. 
Still, for many art lovers, such smaller and more simple 
pictures, as the Death of Ahel, mentioned above, or the Bac- 
chus and Ariadne, or the Pallas defending Peace and 
Abundance, in the Anticollegio of the ducal palace, or even 
the not uncommon portraits of robed senators, are more 
precious than the lar^e pictures of action. 

Little is known of the details of this artist's life, for it 
was filled with hard work in Venice, which city he seldom 
left. The work in the Scuola di San Rocco was be^n in 
1660, and soon after this time his first paintings m the 
ducal palace were undertaken. After the fire which de- 
stroyea half the palace in 1577 he undertook other works 
there, and the San Rocco work was also continued during 
all those years. The great Paradise was painted about 
1586. D. at Venice, May 31, 1594. 

Of his numerous pictures the following may be men- 
tioned : In the Scuola di San Rocco, eight large pictures on 
the walls of the lower hall, thirteen on the walls of the up- 
per hall, and thirteen on the ceiling of the same, all of bib- 
lical subject except two or three, which deal with the legend 
of St. Koch (S. Rocco); also, in the Albergo, The Cruci- 
fixion and another large picture. In the ducal palace, ten 
historical pictures, besides the great Parcidise, on the wall of 
the Greater Council, and, in the smaller halls of the upper 
story, fifteen large pictures, mostly of Venetian historical 
and emblematic subject with several mythological subject 
and two of the Bible history, besides many portraits. In 
tlie Academy of Fine Arts, besides the three already named, 
there are a Crucifixion with the Three Marys, a Descent 
from the Cross, a Virgin and Child, each of these having 
portraits of Venetian nobles introduced, an Assitmption of 
the \irgin and Mary, and portraits of extraordinary value. 
In the Church of Madonna del Salute is The Marriage of 
Cana, a noble work. In the Madonna dell* Orto are the 
pictures descril^ed above and three others, of which the Last 
Judgment has been much described and commented on. In 
the Carmini, or Church of the Carmelite friars, is a Presenta- 
tion in the Temple. In S. Giorgio Maggiore are the Letst 
Supper, The Israelites gathering the Manna, and several 
other important pictures. Perhaps a dozen other churches 
in Venice have works which should be studied. Pictures 
of his hang in the galleries of the Ufiizi and the Pitti 
Palace at Florence, in the British Museum, in the Old Pina- 
kothek at Munich, in the Louvre, and in the National Gal- 
lerv of Ijondon. 

Little has been published about Robusti except the no- 
tices in biographical dictionaries and guide-books, probablv 
because the interest of his career lies in his art alone. A 
biography by W. R. Osier in the Great Artist Series was 
published in 1879. See Janitschek, Kunsi und Kunstler. 

Russell Stl'rgis. 

Roby, Henry John : educator: b. at Tam worth, England, 
Aug. 12, 1830; graduated at Cambridge 1853; became fellow 
of St. John's College 1854 ; was assistant tutor 1855-56, and 
reai)pointed 1860 ; was university examiner in law, classics, 
and moral sciences 1859-61 ; member of, and secretary to, 
the local examination syndicate 1858-59; took a prominent 

girt in urging university reform : was assistant master of 
ulwich College 1861-65; Professor of Jurisprudence at 
University (-ollege, London, 1866-68; was appointed bv the 
crown secretary to the schools inquiry commission bee, 
1864, to the endowed schools commission Aug., 1869, and 
was a member of that bodv 1H72-75. He was elected mem- 
ber of Parliament for Ec( les Oct., 1890. He edited the lie- 
port of the school commissioners an<l the numerous volumes 
of documents thereto appended (Mar., 1868); author of an 
Elementary Latin Grammar (1862; 2d ed. 1882); and a 
valuable Grammar of the Latin Language, from Plautns to 
Suetonius (2 vols., 1871-74; 5th ed. 1887); Introduction to 
Study of Justinian's Digest (1H84). 

Revised by Benj. Ide Wheeler. 

Boca, Julio A. : general and stntesuian; b. at Tuciiman, 
Argentine Republic. Julv, 1843. He sUuUimI in tlie military 
school at Parand, joined the army, and hiH'Jime general in 
1874. He was Minister of War iimlor President Avcllanefla 
1878-80, and in this capacity hemlod the expedition by which 



the Indians of Patagonia were finally reduced to pubjeotion. 
Succeeding Avellaneda, he was president Oct 12, 18^0, to 
Oct. 12, 1886. Specie payments were suspended in 1Kn\ 
marking the beginning of the ^reat Argentine crisis which 
soon after convulsed the financial world. U. H. S. 

Rocafuerte, rd-kiQi-fwfir'td, Vicente: statesman; b. at 
Guayaquil, Ecuador, May 3, 1783. He wa« educated in 
France and England, where he derived republican U\vii% 
from Miranda, £)livar, and their associates. In 1812 he wns 
elected deputy for Guayaquil to the Spanish Cortes. After 
his country became a part of Colombia he held diplomatic 
positions m North America and Europe, and he resided 
several years in Mexico, where he was a prominent joiimali>t. 
Returning to Guayaquil in 1833 he was elected to congress, 
but his liberal opinions caused him to be exiled. The sainu 
year the liberals revolted at Guayaquil and proclaime<l him 
supreme chief, but he was defeated and captured by Floret. 
The latter magnanimously offered to co-operate with him in 
the reorganization of the republic, and under this arran^ri'- 
ment Rocafuerte was president from 1835 to 1839. Tit is 
period was the most prosperous in the history of Ecuador, 
and the president won universal respect. Subsequently he 
held various civil and diplomatic positions. He published 
many works on political subjects. Rocafuerte was unriut*^ 
tionably the greatest statesman of Ecuador. D. at Lima, 
Peru, May 16, 1847. Herbebt H. Smith. 

Roc'ambole [= Fr., from Germ. rockenboUe, rocambole, 
liter., rye-bulb ; so called because it grows among rye] : I he 
Allium scorodoprasum, a plant of the garlic family, nnuh 
resembling garlic, but larger and milder. It is cultivated 
in European kitchen-gardens, and is a native of northern 
regions. 

Bochambean, rd'shiiaii'bo', Jean Baftiste Doxatifn de 
ViMEUE, Count de: marshal of France; b. at Vendorue. 
France, July 1, 1725; entered the army 1742; was (ii-<- 
tinguished m the campaigns of the Seven Years' war; 
was made lieutenant-general Mar. 1, 1780; commanded the 
French forces in the U. S. during the war of independence 
1780-82 ; took a prominent part in the campaign of York- 
town 1781 ; became governor of Picardy 1783 ; was nuule 
marshal 1791 ; commanded the Army of the North fri»m 
Mar. to June, 1792; was imprisoned during the Reign of 
Terror, and escaped the guillotine only through the deaMi 
of Robespierre : was appointed by Napoleon, when Fir-t 
Consul, grand officer of the Legion of Honor (1804). D. at 
Thore, May 10, 1807. His MSmoires were published in 1N09, 
and translated into English in 1838. 

Roeha Pitta, SebastiIo, da: author; b. at Bahia, Bm.^il, 
May 3, 1660; educated at Bahia and at Coimbra, in Por- 
tugal, he married early and settled on his property, living a 
life of studious leisure. He wrote there some' nie<li(KTe 
verse and a now forgotten romance. Late in life ho d»^ 
termined to write a history of Brazil, and undertook the 
most extensive preparations for the task. He even went to 
Lisbon in searcn of documents. In 1728 he completed the 
work, calling it Historia da America portugueza desde o 
seu descobrimento at4 o anno 1724. (Lisbon, 1730). His suc- 
cess was great, and brought him many honors. His lu<^t 
vears were spent in retirement on his estates near Caehoeira, 
brazil. D. Nov. 3, 1738. His book was the first real history 
of Brazil, and though he was often over-credulous in his use 
of documents, he gathered a ya.st mass of material for his 
successors. A, R. Marsh. 

Rochdale: town; in Lancashire, England ; on both sidc^ 
of the Roch : 11 miles N. by E. of Manchester (see map ««f 
England, ref. 7-G). St. Chad's parish church (twelfth cen- 
tury, restored 1885) is a Peri)endicular building, approacluul 
by a flight of 122 steps. The town-hall (186^-71) is a tine 
example of the Gothic style. Rochdale has larsre manufac- 
tures of woolen goods, such as baize, flannels, blankets, and 
kerseys, cotton goods, especially calicoes, and iron ami st# A i 
ware. It is distinguished as having made the first sucres^ 
ful attempt at Co-operation {q, f.). It returns one mom- i 
her to parliament. Pop. of parliamentary borough (l^t^) i 
71,401. 

Rochefort rosh'for', or Roohefort-snr-Mer, -sQr-mAr' 

(anc. Rupifnrtium) : town ; in the department of ChnnTiU.- 
Inforiourc, Fratico; on the right l>ank of the Charentf. l» : 
niilos from its nu)uth. It has a port and a naval arsenjil, k 
surrounded by walls and ramimrts planted with tre«'S. ami i< | 
(loftMided by forts at the entrance into the river (see map of j 
France, ref! 6-D). Outside is a roadstead protected by the , 



136 



ROCHESTER 



ROCKET 



(see Rochester, Unitersitt of) has taken high rank among 
the colleges of the U. S. There is also a flourishing Baotist 
Theological Seminary which maintains a German as well as 
an English department. The Western New York Institute 
for Deaf Mutes has achieved a worldwide reputation by 
its improved methods of instruction; and the Mechanics' 
Institute is placing technical instruction and familiarity 
with the homelier arts of life within reach of the masses. 
There is a young but vigorous Historical Society, and an 
Academy of Science. There are 38 public schools, 7 schools 
connected with orphan asylums but supported and super- 
vised by the city, and a Free Academv, in all of which 19,- 
250 pupils are instructed by 631 teachers, at an expense of 
f 29.d3 per annum for each pupil. It is estimated that 8,000 
pupils attend the parochial and other private schools. In 
the Free Academy building there is a public library of 
22,000 volumes ; in the court-house there is a valuable law 
library of 15,000 volumes; the Reynolds Free Library con- 
tains 30,000 volumes, and is especially complete in books of 
reference ; the library of the university contains 28,000 vol- 
umes, and that of the Theological Seminary 28,000 volumes. 
Public Institutions. — There are four hospitals (City, St 
Mary*s, Homoeopathic, and Hahnemannian) with spacious 
buildings, capable of providing for 700 patients. The State 
Industrial School is situated in the northern part of the 
city, and occupies an inclosure of 42 acres, on which there 
are nine large buildings. Juvenile offenders are received 
from ail parts of the state except New York and Kings 
County, and the school numbers about 650 bovs and 150 
girls. The Monroe County penitentiary, almshouse, and 
asylum for the insane are situated just S. of the city. Mt. 
Hope Cemetery, one of the oldest of its kind in the U. S., 
was established 1838, has a naturally beautiful site, and has 
been laid out with much care and taste. The Catholic Ceme- 
tery of the Holy Sepulchre, established 1872, is located on a 
fine site of 140 acres upon the river bank N. of the citv. 
A gas and electric company, with a capital of $4,300,000 
and 200 miles of mains, supplies the city with light. The 
Rochester Street-railway Company, with a capital of $5,000,- 
000, maintains 12 lines of electric cars, with a trackage of 
85 miles. A magnificent system of water-works was con- 
structed in 1874, with two sources of supply— one from the 
river, the water being forced through 10 miles of mains in 
the business center by the Holly patent, and used for sup- 

Sressing fires and running light machinery ; the other from 
[emlock Lake, 29 miles S. and 400 feet abiove the city. The 
water from this source is distributed through 252 miles of 
mains, which can furnish 22,000,000 gal. daily. The total 
cost of the system to 1895 was $7,000,000. 

Business Interests. — There are in Rochester 10 banks of 
discount, with a capital and surplus of $4,500,000 and de- 
posits of over $15,000,000 ; 4 savings-banks and 2 trust com- 
panies, with deposits of over $30,000,000 and a surplus of 
over $3,500,000. Owine to the surpassing fertility of the 
Genesee valley and its fine water-power, fiour was formerly 
the chief product of Rochester. There are still 17 flouring- 
mills in operation, with an aggregate capacity of 5,000 bar- 
rels a day. The nursery business has, nowever, become of 
far more importance, and in this line Rochester outranks 
every* other city. In the manufacture of clothing Roches- 
ter ranks third among the cities of the U. S., with an annual 
output of $13,000,000. In the manufacture of shoes it ranks 
fourth. Thirteen breweries send out 700,000 barrels of 
beer per annum. A single tobacco-factory employs 450 
hands, and the value of the city's output in that line of 
business is $4,500,000. The largest carriage-factory in the 
U. S., employing 800 hands, is situated here. The kodak 
camera business originated here, and there is $5,000,000 in- 
vested in it. Several large establishments are engaged in 
the manufacture of perfumery. Rochester looks, micro- 
scopes, and vacuum oil-protlucts have a worldwide celeb- 
rity, and contribute much to the prosperity of the city. Ac- 
cording to the U. S. census of 1890 Rochester had 1,892 
manufactories, employing 37,720 persons, and yielding prod- 
ucts valued at $65,091,156. From its proximity to the coal- 
fields of Pennsylvania, it has become a great' distributing 
center for coal, which, is loaded from railways on the banks 
of the river into vessels that convey it to all points on the 
lakes. In 1890 Rochester ranked sixth in exports and fourth 
in imports of the lake ports of the U. S. 

History, etc, — The first house was erected in 1812, and the 

?lace was incorporated as the village of Rochesterville in 
817 and as a city in 1834. From the first there has been 
a steady growth in wealth and population, which lately, 



through the influence of an energetic chamber of commerce, 
have increased with phenomenal rapidity. There are 36,U0<J 
dwellings within the twenty wards of the city. The as- 
sessed valuation is $100,000,000. From the ** Rochester rap- 
pings " (1848-49) the city may be regarded as the birthplace 
of modern Spiritualism ; it was also the center of the anti- 
Masonic excitement (1827-29). 

Pop. (1820) 1,500; (1880) 89,366; (1890) 183,896; (iHlri) 
144,834. J. H. GiLMO&E. 

Rochester : borough ; Beaver co., Pa. ; at the confluenc*- 
of the Ohio and Beaver rivers, and on the Pitts., Ft Wayn** 
and Chi. and the Cleve, and Pitts, railways ; 26 miles N.*\V. 
of Pittsburg (for location, see map of Pennsylvania, ref. 
4- A). It is in a fire-clay, coal, oil, and building-stone re- 
gion, and is connected by electric street-railway with N«'w 
Brighton, Beaver, and Beaver Falls, and by a bridge aom^v 
the Beaver river with Bridge water. There are 11 churche'<, 
2 graded public schools, 2 hotels, 22 societies and lo<l>:cs. 
Masonic temple, a national bank with capital of $50,o6(i, a 
private bank, and a weekly newspaper. The manufactures 
include tumblers, bottles, stoves, brick, flour, and luni ber. 
Pop. (1880) 2,552 ; (1890) 3,649 ; (1894) estimated, 4,000. 

Editoe op Beave& " Argus jlnd Radical." 

Rochester, John Wilmot, Earl of : b. at Ditchley, Ox- 
fordshire, England, Apr. 10, 1648 ; succeeded to the title 
1659. He became a favorite at the court of Charles II.; 
wrote poems in accordance with the prevailing taste ; was 
famous for his wit and infamous for his vices. He had 
Dryden beaten by a gang of hired bullies in 1679 in re- 
venge for a passage lampooning Rochester in Dryden *s al- 
leged Essay on Satire, jQis death-bed repentance was de- 
scribed by Bishop Burnet in a pamphlet which had an ex- 
traordinary sale. D. July 26, 1680. His Poems and Famil- 
iar Letters were posthumously published. See his Lift, by 
Dr. Johnson. Revised by H. A. Beers. ' 

Rochester, Uniyersity of: a college e8tablishe<t at 
Rochester, N. Y., in 1850. At that time the whole of West- 
ern New York was without any important institution of this 
kind. The founders were principally Baptists, idthough Ww 
charter contains no denominational restriction. The uni- 
versity has had two presidents, Martin B. Anderson, LIj. I).. 
L. H. D., who served from 1853 to 1888, and David J, Hill, 
LL. D., who was elected in 1888. Among the local benefac- 
tors have been Hiram Sibley, who gave $100,000 for the 
erection of Sibley Hall, a fire-proof building containing the 
library and museum ; Mortimer F. Reynolds, who built a 
chemical laboratory ; and Don Alonzo Watson, who esUib- 
lished a professorship in history and political science with 
an endowment of $50,000. The original campus, afterwanl 
enlarged to 24 acres, was the gift of the Hon. Azariah BotMlv. 
The assets of the university in 1894 were $1,203,077.44, of 
which $689,842.84 was invested in productive funds yield ini? 
an annual income of $35,179.37, and the remainder, $51:1- 
234.60, in buildings, books, and appliances. In 1894 the 
faculty was composed of 17 professors and instructors, and 
the students numbered 212, There are four courses of study 
leading to a degree, embracing 100 courses of instructi^-ii. 
The library contains nearly 30,000 bound volumes, and >fv- 
eral thousand pamphlets. The reputation of the institution 
has rested chiefiy upon the character of its work as a c-Ih-^- 
ical college, but within recent years the natural siMon« ts 
have occupied a larger place in the curriculum, and lalH>- 
ratories have been openea in chemistry, biology, physics, and 

rlogv. The geological museum is one of the finest in the 
S., being the origmal Ward collection amplified. 

David J. Hill. 

Rochet, ro'sha', Louis: scidptor; b. in Paris, Au^. 24, 
1813; studied under Pierre Jean David, called David d' An- 
gers, and be^an to exhibit in 1835, his first statue beini: a 
Boy extracting a Thorn from his Foot. Among his ni«>st 
prominent works are the Statue of Marshal Drouet, at i\w 
Versailles Museum ; William the Conqueror^ a statue at 
Falaise in Normandy ; a life-size statue of Napole(m, and 
another Napoleon as a Scholar at Brienne (1853) ; Madnmt- 
de Sen'gn^^&t Grignan (1857); a colossal equestrian statue 
of Pedro I., at Rio de Janeiro (1861); and a similar statue uf 
Charlemagne (1867). I), in Paris, Jan. 21, 1878. 

Rock-butter : See Butter. 

Rock-crystal : See Quartz. 

Rocker: an instrument used in mezzotint engraving. 
See Engraving {Mezzotint). 

Rocket : See Dyers* Weed. 



-r..!!.. riii.MH.«lAi..1 



uiWKnita* 



r^k fM»r.. 



>€a liiDtsoiiiit; • 



jy. ^^iii. 



UuiticiLi 



138 



ROCKPORT 



BOCKS 



Ann, known as Pieeon Cove, is a popular somroer resort. 
The town has a public high school, public library, national 
bank with capital of $100,000, a savings-bank, a weekly 
newspaper, and manufactories of cotton goods, isinglass, 
shoes, and organs. The new post-offlce in Boston was Duilt 
of Rockport granite. Pop. (1880) 3,912 ; (1890) 4,087. 

Bock port: town; capital of Aransas co., Tex.; on Live 
Oak Point peninsula in Aransas Bay, Gulf of Mexico, and 
on the San Ant. and Aran. Pass Railway ; 10 miles N. E. of 
Aransas Pass (for location, see map of Texas, ref. 7-1). It 
is in an a^cultural, fruit-growing, and stock-raising region ; 
has considerable oyster, nsh, and turtle interests, exports 
large quantities of cattle and hides, and is a popular sum- 
mer and winter health resort. There are several large 
hotels, a national bank with capital of f 60,000, and two 
weekly newspapers. The vicinity abounds in wild game of 
many varieties. Pop. (1880) not separately returned ; (1890) 
1,069; (1893) estimated, 1,500. 

Bock Bapids : town (founded in 1872) ; capital of Lyon 
CO., la. ; on the Rock river, and the Chi., St. r., Minn, and 
Omaha, the Burl., Cedar Rap. and N., and the 111. Cent, 
railways ; 22 miles W. of Sibley, 60 mile^ N. of Sioux Citj 
(for location, see map of Iowa, ref. 2-C). It is in an agri- 
cultural and stock-raising region, has gcfod water-power for 
manufacturing, and contains 5 churches, several graded 
public schools, a national bank with capital of $50,000, a 
privat-e bank, and 2 weekly newspapers. Pop. (1890) 1,394 ; 
(1894) estimated, 2,500. Editoe of " Review." 

Bock-roses : See Cistus. 

Bocks [M. Eng. rokke, prob. blending 0. Pr. roke ( > Fr. 
roche^ rocK) and O. Eng. *rocc in ston-rocc, stone-rock]: 
natural masses of solid mineral matter. The term is used 
in various ways. Popularly and in general literature a rock 
is characterized as hard and unyielding, and is placed in 
antithesis to sand, clay, or mud, and in almost all instances 
where it is used in a figurative sense this is the prominent 
idea. Modern geological usage extends the term so as to 
embrace any natural mass of solid mineral matter, whether 
compact or incoherent. Thus granite, limestone, sandstone, 
chalk, and deposits of sand, clay, and soil are all considered 
under the general head of rooks. A third usage arises from 
the closer discriminations of petrography, which has in effect 
defined a rock as any natural mass of solid mineral matter 
that possesses nearly uniform structure, texture, and compo- 
sition. Thus masses which may have like composition but 
different structure and texture are called different rocks, viz., 
granite, gneiss, porphyry, rhyolite, etc. ; and rocks with simi- 
lar textures but with Different compositions are different 
rocks, as granite, diorite, gabbro. A fourth usage springs 
from the petrological idea of the individual it v of a rock- 
mass as a geological body which has been brought into place 
by one act, as a continuous lava-stream, or which is the re- 
sult of the continued action of any set of forces upon a given 
kind of material, as a continuous bed of sand and gravel. 
One rock-body may consist of several kinds of nxiks, as a 
stratum whose basal portion is conglomerate and upper por- 
tion sandstone ; a lava-stream which is partly rhyolite, ob- 
sidian, and pumice. The language has not yet discriminated 
between these ideas, hence the uses of the term rocks are 
confusing. 

Formation of Rocks. — Conclusions regarding the forma- 
tion of rocks are partly a matter of observation, partly a 
matter of inference. 1. Lavas flow out from craters and 
crevices in the earth in a highly liquid condition and, upon 
cooling, solidify into rocks. Similar material is thrown into 
the air in dust-like particles and larger fragments, and ac- 
cumulates upon the surface in more or less compacted masses, 
as tuffs, breccias, etc. ; or the lavas may remain within fis- 
sures and openings in the earth's crust where their solidifi- 
cation can not be observed. Similarity in composition and 
analogies in texture and in mineralogical characteristics be- 
tween surface lavas and intratellural rock-lxxlies, as well as 
their disposition toward surrounding rocks, permit logical in- 
ferences to be drawn regarding the original nature of intra- 
tellural bodies as molten lavas or magmas. All such rocks are 
classed as igneous or eruptive. 2. Sand, silt, and soil are 
washed down slopes by water and carried along by streams, 
or as sand and dust are blown about by win»ls to be deposited 
when the force of the current lessens. They accumulate in 
layers or beds, horizontal or inclined, and by drying or ce- 
mentation may become more or less coherent masses. Min- 
eral springs deposit layers of calcium-carbonate, silica, etc., 
sometimes acquiring great thickness. These observed proc- 



esses result in the formation of rocks similar in cnrnpo^i. 
tion, texture, and structure to others whose formation mtiy 
be inferred to have been occasioned by similar agiiKcs. 
All such deposits are known sls sedimentary rocks. 3. Al- 
terations in rocks of the two first categories may atTxt 
their composition, texture, or structure. Changes that cau^' 
the rock to disintegrate are classed as weathering or liocotn* 
position. Changes that convert it into a mass still jK>S'ii'->. 
mg great durability are classed as metamorphism. Such 
metamorphism may be occasioned by heat, by solution^, or 
by dynamic forces, and the results may be recrysiaUi7a- 
tion, the production of new minerals, fracturing, and rear- 
rangement of the fragments. All rocks resulting from thf> 
metamorphism of igneous or sedimentary rocks, and thos« 
resembling them whose original nature may not be deter- 
minable, are called metamorphic rocks. See Metamorpui.hm. 

Igneous or eruptive rocks which solidified on or near the 
surface of the earth are called volcanic, if considerably lie- 
low the surface plutonic or abyssal. If lavas reached the 
surface they are extrusive or surface lavas, if not thev an* 
intrusive. The latter often metamorphose adjacent tocV^ by 
heating or by impregnation with hot solutions and vap(r>. 
and in turn often exhibit modifications in structure, i« x- 
ture, and composition resulting from cooling produced hs 
surroimding rocks. Intrusive igneous rocks form dike-*, 
sheets, laccolites, batholites, stocks, or necks. Extrusive 
rocks form lava streams and sheets, domes, breccias, &;:- 
glomerates, and tuffs. The last may be stratified and b(<i- 
ded, and if deposited in water are not distinct from sedi- 
mentary rocks. 

Chemical and Physical Characters. — All i^eous ^)cks 
consist of oxygen, silicon, aluminium, with sodium and (h> 
tassium, or calcium, magnesium, and iron in variable pr<>« 
portions. Usually all eight are present. Besides theite ele- 
ments are small amounts of titanmm, phosphorus, hydrop-u,, 
and often traces of manganese, nickel, cobalt, lithium, bu* 
rium, strontium, chlorine, sulphur. These are usually e\^ 
pressed in analyses as oxides, but are mostly combined io 
silicate minerals, together with some that are oxides. TIki 
molten magmas must be considered as solutions of com^ 
pounds of these elements at high temperatur^ their exart 
molecular character being unknown. Those with more than 
65 per cent, silica are called acid magmas; those between tVI 
and 55 per cent, silica, intermediate ; and those with K -i 
than 55 per cent, silica, basic. The extreme limita are alx'ut 
80 and 35 per cent, silica. Molten magmas are often vcr^ 
liquid at the time of eruption, especially those with l<-^i 
than 60 per cent, silica. The more siliceous ones are in4*r<3 
viscous at like temperatures. As the temperature falls \\ i 
magmas become more viscous, and crystallization usual i^ 
sets in. If cooling is very sudden, the magma forms an 
amorphous mass (glass) without crystals. With slower covi 
ing crystals form more or less perfectly, their shaj>o am! 
chemical composition depending upon the physical as wcii 
as the chemical condition of the magma, molecular shift in.j| 
and arrangement being more easily accomplished in ni<>i> 
liquid magmas, which, nowever, must be below the fiisioti 
point of the minerals crystallizing. Slowest cooling- jw-r 
mits most perfect molecular adjustment, resulting in frwti 
but larger crystals. Other agencies affecting crystalli/.»i 
tion are absorbed vapors, and possibly pressure. Tho si.i 
and arrangement of tne crystals control the texture of ti.i 
rock, which may be glassy or vitreous, stony or lithitfini 
and crystalline. When the grains are visible' to the nak.-.| 
eye the texture is phanerocrystalline ; if not, then aphan ifi-\ 
Rocks are porph y r it ic when they consist of a ground tiuiH 
of any texture bearing larger, prominent crystals {ph^ft\ 
erysts). Particular textures have special names, as (/rantti'i 
poikilitic, ophitic, trachytic, rhyolitic, etc. Structures i\\\ 
to the physical continuity of the mass are compact, />f#r/>»/ 1 
vesicular, pumiceous, jointed, columnar, laminated, it.j 
The commonest minerals that crystallize from moltt^n iiinj 
mas (pyrogenetic) are quartz, potash -feldspar or ort!i«»<iji-.^ 
lime-soda-feldspai-s, the feldspathic minerals (nephciiti- t| 
eleolite, leucite, and sodalite), and certain ferroma^i»"Hi.« 
minerals (amphiboles, pyroxenes, micas, and oliviiiri 
among others are titanite, magnetite, ilmenite, apatit(>, . :i 
con, and less often garnet, tourmaline, allanite, and spin, .i 
Minerals prominent in the most acid rocks (granitt**-) ;.] 
quartz, alkali (potash, soda) feldspars; less abundant Xmu 
soda-feldspars, with muscovite, biotite, and hornblende. i 
we pass to less acid rocks quartz diminishes; feld*«par«s t\ 
cretivSe to a certain point, and then diminish and disapi M'.nr j 
the most basic rocks (peridotitcs). Alkali-feldspars iinr. ..| 



uo 



ROCKS 



ROCKY MOUNTAIN GOAT 



between layers of schist, and have so nearly identical min- 
eralogical composition and characters that they are gener- 
ally considered together, and the whole series is classified 
on a basis of mineral composition — that is, rocks having 
similar mineral constituents are grouped together with little 
or no regard to the relative proportions of these minerals. 
At present this seems justifiable because of the lack of con- 
stancy in the composition of any considerable body of meta- 
morphic rock, and because of the abrupt and frequent 
changes in the proportions in which the minerals occur 
together. The principal kinds of metamorphic rocks are — 

I. Feldspar-quartz Rocks are those rocks whose predom- 
inant minerals are feldspar and quartz. They include : 

Oiieiss, a crystalline rock composed of potash-soda-feldsjjar 
and lime-soda-feldspar with quartz, and one or more min- 
erals of the mica, amphibole, pyroxene groups, besides other 
minerals, and having a banded or laminated structure, pro- 
duced by the parallel arrangement of some of the mineral 
constituents. It varies from quite massive forms to finely 
schistose ones. It bears a close analogy to granite in texture 
and composition, in some cases being scarcely distinguishable 
from it. When lime-soda-feldspars predominate over alkali- 
feldspars, the rock corresponds closely to quartz-diorite. Ac- 
cording to the ferro-magnesian mineral prevalent, gneisses 
are subdivided into mica-gneiss (biotite, muscovite, or both), 
hornblende gneiss, augite eneiss, sericite-gneiss, etc. 

QrantUite, schistose rock consisting of feldspar, quartz, 
and s^arnet, with other minerals subordinate, according to 
which the rock is subdivided into cyanite-granulite, tour- 
maline-granulite, etc. 

H&lleflinta and Adinole, dense, aphanitic or felsitic rocks, 
composed of minute particles of leldspar and quartz, and 
sometimes mica. 

II. Mica-rockSf ehlonte-rockSf or talc-rocks are : 

Mica schist, laminated rock consisting of mica and (^[uartz 
in variable proportions. According to the kind of mica, or 
of the other prominent constituents, they are muscovite- 
schist, biotite-schist, sericite-schist, paragonite-schist, and 
numerous other mica-schists depenaing on the accessory 
mineral, as staurolite, andalusite, epidote, etc. With in- 
crease of quartz it passes into micaceous (juartzite; with 
more feldspar, into gneiss; with calcite, into micaceous 
limestone. 

Chlorite-schist, laminated rock composed of chlorite and 
quartz, with other minerals subordinate. 

Phyllite, Argillaceous Schist, Argillite, micaceous, argil- 
laceous, schistose or slaty rock intermediate between clay- 
slate and mica-schist. Subdivisions are chiastolite-slate, 
staurolite-slate, ottrelite-slate, sericite-phyllite, etc. 

Talc-schist, laminated rock composed of talc, with quartz 
or feldspar and other minerals. 

III. Amphibole-rocks. — Rocks whose predominant mineral 
is amphibole, either schistose or massive ; the former is am- 
phiboie-schist, the latter amphibolite. With amphibole 
may be associated feldspar, quartz, garnet, etc. According 
to the variety of amphibole present the rock is hornblende- 
schist, or homblendite, actinolite-schist, glaucophane-schist. 
Nephrite, a variety of jade, is a compact microfibrous va- 
riety. Subdivisions are also established upon the character 
of the accessory mineral, as epidote-araphibolite, etc. When 
lime-soda-feldspar becomes prominent, the rock grades into 
diorite-schist ; by increase of quartz and feldspar, into gneiss. 

IV. Pyroxene-rocks are au^jite-schist, when laminated; 
augitite, when massive ; eustatite-rock, jadite (jade). As 
lime-soda-feldspar increases, and the augite becomes more 
like diallage, the rock passes into schistose gabbro. 

V. Other rocks are eclogite, crystalline massive rock, sel- 
dom schistose, composed of omphacite (light-green pyrox- 
ene), and garnet, with other minerals subordinate. OiiVine- 
rocks are essentially olivine, with pyroxenes, hornblende, or 
mica in varying amounts, corresponding closely in mineral 
composition to the peridotites. 

Epidote-schist and tourmaline-schist are schists in which 
epidote and tourmaline are prominent minerals, in combina- 
tion with others less characteristic. Greenstone-schists are 
schistose and green, and generally very fine-^jrained. The 
color is due to fibrous amf)hibolite (actinolite), chlorite, or 
serpentine with epidote, combined with other minerals. 

^Mar/-2-rocA«arechieflyconiposedof quartz, quart zite when 
massive, quartz-schist whon schistose, usually with mica. 

Calcite'rorks are crystalline limestone and Marble {q, v.). 

Bibliography. — (foneral works on rocks are: Rut lev. The 
Study of Rocks (London, 1879); Roth, AUgeintine chemische 
Geologic (Berlin, 1879, et seq.); Jannetaz, Les rochen (Paris, 



1884) ; von Lasaulx, Einfuhrung in die Oesteinslehre < Bre^- 
lau, 1886) ; Kalkowsky, Elernente der Lithologie (Heidell>er^' 
1886); Zirkel, Lehrbuch der Petroqraphie (2d ed.. 3 voN 
Leipzig, 1884) ; also Dana, Manual of Geology (latest t-oi 
tion); Dana, Manual of Mineralogy and Petrography (4in 
ed.; New York, 1887); and Geikie, Text-hook of O^oh^. | 
(8d ed.; London and New York, 1803). Works treatmi: I 
the microscopical characters of rocks and of the rock-muk 
ing minerals include a part of those just noted, and il)>! 
following: Ro^QiihwscYi, Mikroskopische Phusioaraphit d^t 
Minerahen und Gesteine (2 vols.: vol. i., 3d ed. 1892 : v..) 
ii., 2d ed. 1887, Stuttgart; vol. i., translated by J. P. Idilinirs 
Microscopical Physiography of the Rock-making Mtnf'rai-i 
New York, 3d ed. 1898); Fouqu6 and Michel L^vy. Mm^' 
ralogie micrographique des roches iruptives frati^aiscs rj 
vols., Paris, 1879) ; Teall, British Petrography (London, 1 ^^^ 
Zirkel, Microscopical Petrography (vol. vi. of GeoL Exj^lnf 
of 40th Parallel, Washington, 1876) ; Hawes, Mimralogj/ uuA 
Lithology of New Hampshire (part iv. of Geology of X»\i 
Hampshire, Concord, 1878); Wadsworth,2^7Ao/o^tc«/ Studu i 
(part i., Cambridge, Mass., 1884); Lehmann, Enstehung d,\ 
altkrystallinischen Schieferaesteine (Bonn, 1884) ; W il 1 i a it h 
Greenstone Schist Areas of the Menominee and Marqutt!\ 
Region of Michigan (BulL 62, U. S. Geol. Survey, Washint: 
ton, 1890). Joseph P. Iddixos. 

Boek-salt : See Salt. 

Bock-snake : See Bongar. 

Bock Springs: town; Sweetwater co., Wyo. ; on tlij 
Bitter creek, and the Union Pac. Railway; 258 miles W 
of Laramie (for location, see map of Wyoming, ref. 12-ii| 
It is in an extensive coal-mining region, and has 2 natiuna 
banks with combined capital of fllO.OOO, and 2 wtjckij 
newspapers. Pop. (1880) 763 ; (1890) 3,406. 

Bockrille : city (set off from the town of Vernon an; 
chartered as a city in 1889); Tolland co.. Conn.; on tiii 
Hockanune river, and the N. Y. and N. Eng. Railroad: II 
miles E. N. E. of Hartford (for location, see map of Conn» «i 
ticut, ref. 7-1). The river, which is the outlet of Lake Shim 
sic, has here a series of falls aggregating280 f eet, and affcrli 
abundant power for manufacturing. The principal Indus 
try is the manufacture of envelopes ; other important art i« 1. 1 
made here are woolen goods, silk goods, satinets, gin gh aim 
and warps. There are 8 churches, a public library, 2 n.* 
tional banks with combined capital of $500,(X)0, 2 savin u-s 
banks with aggregate deposits of over $1,750,000, an<i I 
weekly newspapers. Pop. (1880) 5,902 ; (1890) 7,772. 

Rockweeds : the popular name of the brown seawoe<.ls o 
the genera Fucus and Ascophyllum, common on nxks hti 
tween tide-marks along the U. S. coasts. See FuroiDs. 

Rockwood : town ; Roane co., Tenn. ; on the Queen an< 
Cresc. Route and the Rockw. and Tenn. Rivers rail why - 
6 miles N. of the Tennessee river, 45 miles W. S. W.' u 
Knoxville (for location, see map of Tennessee, ref. 6-11 ). 1 
is in a coal and iron mining region, and contains severe 
blast furnaces, a national bank with capital of $50,000. hih 
two weekly newspapers. Pop. (1880) 1,011 ; (1890) 2,42i*. 

Rocky Mountain Goat [so called on account of its rrouti 
like appearance] : a species of antelope {Mazama moniaiu^ 







Rocky Mountain ^oat. 



with short legs, round, black, decurved horns, long, whi'«i 
woolly hair, and a short beard on the chin. It is ver>* nun t 







i 

1 


^^^^B 




^^^H 










^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^B 








1 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^■r 








1 










1 












^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^wa • 1; 








H 










'( a ^^^^ 










1 ^^^1 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^Hi 











U2 



ftOCKY MOUNTAINS 



the ranges coalesce. Of the age of the dry land there is no 
certain knowledge, but the mountain forms due to upheaval 
and atmospheric degradation, and also the mountain forms 
due to extravasation, are of very late geological origin. 

There are about 100 ranges in this group. The highest, 
broadest, and most massive is the Wasatch. In this are 
found the principal geological formations of the other 
ranges of the system, and also some of the sedimentary beds 
of the Plateau System. The escarpment faces the W., and 
the highest peak, Mt. Nebo, is found at the southern ex- 
tremity. The streams which are used to fertilize the Great 
Salt Lake and Utah valleys have their sources in these 
lofty mountains. 

PRINCIPAL SUMMITS OF THE DESERT RANGE SYSTEM. 



NAME. 


RMgaorgmp. 


FmI. 


Authority, Klug. 
Clayton Peak 


Wasatch 


11,889 


Twin Peaks 




1],5(X) 


Lone Peak 


tt 


11.206 


Lewiston Peak 


Oquirrh 


10,023 


Tooele Peak 




10,396 


Mt Bonneville .. 


Aqui 


11,050 
10,900 


Pilot Peak 


Ourbe 


Gosiute Peak ... 


Eean 


10 491 


8pruc« Mountain 


Peoquap 


10,411 


Tenabo Peak 


Ck)rtez 


9240 


Dalton Peak 




9,232 


Shoshoni Peak 


Shoshoni 


9,760 


Mt. Poston 


Toyabe 


12,143 


Bunker Hill 




11,735 
11,287 


Globe Peak 


•i 


Mt. Moses 


Fish Creek 


8,725 


Slj^nal Peak 


Havallah 


9,387 


Mt. Bonpland 


East Humboldt 


11,:$81 


Star Peak 


West Humboldt 


9,925 
8,217 

11,680 
8,100 


Peavine Mountain 




Authority, Thompson. 
Mt. Nebo 


Wasatch 


Beaver Dam Mountains 


Virgin 


Virifin Peak 




8,000 
7,950 


Mt. Bauf^s 


»t 


Pine Valley Mountain 


Pine Valley 


10,250 


CraBTiry Head 




9,750 


Mt, ni»in.no- 


Tuahar 


12,240 
12,200 

11,414 
10,000 


Mt. Belknap 




Midget Crest 


ii 


Mt. Katherlne 


Pnvnnf 





The Park System extends from Southern Wyoming 
through Central Colorado into New Mexico; bounded on 
the K. by the Laramie Plains, on the E. by the Great 
Plains, and on the W. by the plateaus ; the southern limits 
can not yet be defined. There are a great number of ranges 
in New Mexico, on either side of the Rio Grande del Norte, 
having a N. and S. trend, the general structure and geolog- 
ical relations of which are unknown. They may constitute 
a system or sub-system by themselves, or they may be con- 
siflered as a part of the* Park System, probably the latter. 
The general trend of the Park Ranges is a few degrees W. 
of >r., but there are exceptions. These mountains are 
drained by the Platte and Arkansas, which flow into the 
Mississippi; by the Rio Grande del Norte, which flows into 
the Gulf of Mexico; and by the Colorado river of the West, 
which flows into the Gulf of California. The axial ridges 
of the system — i. e. those which separate the Atlantic from 
the Pacific drainage — constitute a part of the continental 
divide. The system is composed of ranges and irregular 
groui>s which stand as walls about the great parks. In 
North Park heads the North Platte ; in Middle Park heads 
the Grand, a tributary of the Colorado; in South Park 
heads the South Platte; and the Rio Grande del Norte 
drains the San Luis Park. These parks are elevated val- 
leys, nearly or completely surrounded by mountains. Be- 
sides the larger parks mentioned, there are many of smaller 
extent — mountam-valleys of great beauty in midsummer, 
but mantled with snow during many months of the year. 
Most of the ranges are known to be of the Uinta type — i. e. 
broad, plateau-like masses carved from blocks upheaved in 
part as integers and in part as bodies of man> parts — a 
structure more fullv described below. Many of* the park- 
spaces are zones of (diverse displacement. These nioimtains 
are composed of granites, schists, Pala»ozoic, Mesozoic, and 
Tertiary sediments, and the sedimentary groups are sepa- 
rated by many and well-define<l unconformities, giving evi- 
dence of alternating periods of dry-land condition and 
oceanic sway; but the last great orographic movement 
which upheaved the great masses from wliirh the moun- 
tains have been carved began in Tertian' time. These 
ranges are arranged eti echelon, the eastern mountain- 
front running N. and S., while the ranges trend somewhat 



E. of S. Hence, proceeding southward, one finds the front 
range dropping aown and disappearing, while its place i^ 
taken by that behind, which in turn comes to the front. 
The following are the principal ranges and groups of th.s 
system in succession from K to w. : Rising from tit*- 
plains in full view of Denver is the Front B^nge, which 
on the N. is nearly continuous with the Medicine Bow 
Range, the latter being the eastern wall of North Park. T«> 
the S. it becomes broken and spreads out into a mass of 
short ranges and hills, through which the South Platti- 
makes its way to the plains. Just N. of Pueblo, on the Ar- 
kansas, it gathers itself and rises suddenly into the gr«'at 
mass of Puce's Peak, and then drops down to the level r.f 
the plains. Between North and Middle Parks is the Park 
View Mountain, an eruptive mass which, with its spurs and 
outliers, separates the two parks. Next in order to th^* 
westward is the Park Range, which extends from Butlalo 
Peaks northward nearly to the junction of the Sweet watt-r 
with the North Platte fiver. Tnis range forms the western 
wall of South, Middle, and North Parks. The South and 
Middle Parks are separated by a series of eruptive moun- 
tains, among them Silverheels and Mt. Guyot. From the 
north end of this range, W. of North Park and the north 
end of Middle Park, long spurs and irregular mountains ex> 
tend westward to the plateaus. W. of the south end of t h»»' 
Park Ranpj is the valley of the Arkansas, and W. of th*- 
valley is the Sa watch Range, with the Mount of the \hA\ 
Cross at its northern extremity. This range trends 30 \V. 
of N. Still farther W. is the Elk Mountain Group, which 
consists of a series of short, parallel ranges closely ma.««cHl« 
trending in the same direction as the Sawatch Range. 

Returning to the border of the plains, the first range S. 
of the Arkansas is the Wet Mountain, a short range, front- 
ing the plains for a few miles only. Its trend is the s^tme 
as the last. To the W., and parallel with this range, is f he- 
Sangre de Cristo, called in one portion of its course th»» 
Sierra Blanca. This is a long, nigh range, fronting XUv 
plains for hundreds of miles, and breaks up near Santa Vv, 
To the W. of it lies San Luis Park, and beyond the park i> 
the enormous irregular rugged mass known as the San Juan 
Mountains, and beyond are the plateaus. 

PRINCIPAL MOUNTAINS OF THE PARK RANGE SYSTEM. 
Authority, Gannett, U. S. G. Q, 8. 



NAME. 



Gray's Peak 

Torrey Peak 

Mt. Evans 

Long Peak 

Mt. Guyot 

Cheyenne Mountain ... 

Platte Mountain 

Park View Mountain . . 

Mt. Lincoln 

Buffalo Peak 

Mt. Powell 

Pike's Peak 

Mt. Harvard 

Mt. Elbert 

La Plata Mountain — 

Massive Mountain 

Mt. Autoro 

Mt. Princeton 

Mt. Yale 

Holy Cross Mountain. . 

Mt. Shavano 

Mt. Ouray 

Grizzly Peak 

Castle Peak 

Maroon Mountain 

Capitol Mountain 

SnowmasR Mountain . . 

Pyramid Peak 

White Rock Mountain. 



Hn«« ©r groap. 



Front Range 



Park Range . 



Pike's Peak Group . 
Sawatch Range — 



Elk Mountain Range . 



Italian Peak . . 
Treasury Mountain. 

Mt. Day 

LopusPeak 

Gothic Mountain 

Crested Butt»» 

Greenhorn Mountain Wet Mountain — 

Blnnca Peak Sangre de Cristo . 

Garland Peak I 

Crestoue | " 

Mt. Rito Alto " '* " . 

Hunt Peak . i « »» » 



F«ri. 



Mt. Wilsf.n.. 

Uncomnahjfre 

Mf. Knf-fTels 

Mt . Eohm 

Hnndif* Peak 

Rio (irande I'yramid . 
Mt. Osa 



San Juan Mountains . 



I 



14.H41 

H.:i:iO 
14.i?7l 
13..V'.."i 

14.'J«»7 
1H..^4I 

H.ur 

14.«r5 
14.S51 

H.aii 

14/-»<.«H 
14.V45 
14.196 
14.1K7 
14.176 
14.1)03 
14.043 
13,956 
14. n 5 
14,<«»V1 
18, W7 
1H/.C0 

13.KN5 

IS.-V? 
13.a:4l 
13.a<iO 
13,U»3 

ie,r>;t> 

12.v*:'o 
]4.4»;4 

IS.'.'^"* 
l?.r ,n 
11,l-*> 

14.J.i.-> 

14, ir^ 

14.0M 

i3.o«,i: 

13.773 
13.»V4il 



144 



ROCKY MOUNTAINS 



Tiding them into two sab-srstems, the Northern and South- 
em Coast Ranges. To the N., beyond the head-waters of the 
Sacramento, the Coast Ranges topographically coalesce with 
the Cascade Mountains, and to the S., beyond the head- 
waters of the San Joaquin, with the Sierra Nevada ; but 
here the geological separation is plain, as shown by Whit- 
ney. The general trend of these ranges is 30° W. of N. 
The Coast Ranges are composed of more or less closely 
oppressed folds of strata degraded by rains and rivers — i. e. 
they have the Appalachian structure, but complicated and 
more or less masked by extravasated matter. The summits 
or axial planes are in general tipped westward or toward 
the Pacinc. The Appalachian type is not known to occur 
elsewhere in the Rocky Mountain region. The upheaval of 
these mountains began in the late Tertiary times, and may 
yet be in progress. 

PRINCIPAL MOUNTAIXS OF THE COAST RANGE SYSTEM. 



NAME. 


Ftot. 


Aalhority. 


San Carlos Peak 


4,9?7 
4,440 
8.8M 
8,700 


Whitney. 


Mt. Hamilton 


Mt. Diablo 


n 


Mariposa Peak 


t. 







The Cascade Mountains stretch from Southern Oregon 
northward far into British America. On the E. they are 
bounded by the great valley of the Columbia river, and on 
the W. by the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia river, where it 
bursts through this zone of mountains, plunges to the level 
of the sea in a series of great cascades, and from these the 
mountains take their name. They consist of an irregular 
volcanic plateau, upon which stand many volcanic peaks. 
They can not be separated topographically, nor is there yet 
sufficient data to separate them geologically from the north- 
ern extremity of the Coast Ranges and Sierra Nevada. Lit- 
tle is known of their general topography and geology, ex- 
cept that the p*oup is characterized by many lofty vol- 
canoes now extmct. The trend of this zone of mountains is 
a little W. of N. 

PRINCIPAL MOUNTAINS OP THE CASCADE SYSTEM. 



NAME. 


HdfbC 


Anthority. 


Mt.St. Elias 


18,101 
14,444 
18,2fi8 
11,225 


CJoast Survey. 


Mt. Rainier 


Mt. Adams 


Vansant 


Mt.Hood 


Williamson. 



In Northern California and Southern Oregon the Coast 
and Cascade Ranges are united by a mass of mountains 
having little apparent system, in which heads the Klamath 
river, and from which the group receives its name. These 
form apparently no part either of the Coast or Cascade Sys- 
tem, but are too little known to enable one to speak defi- 
nitely concerning their relationship. 

N. of the Front and Park Ranges there is a bi^ak in the 
mountain system in Central Wyoming. The Union Pacific 
Railway traverses this region, a great stretch of barren, ele- 
vated plateaus. On the N. the mountains rise again in a 
complex system which extends into Canada. These ranges 
will be called provisionally the Gevser Ranges. The eastern- 
most of them, known as the Bighorn Range, separates the 
head-waters of Tongue river from those of Bighorn river, 
both being tributaries of the Yellowstone. W. of this is a 
broad, high range, known as the Wind River Range, in 
which heads Wind river, the upper waters of the Big Horn, 
and Green -river, one of the two forks of the Colorado. 
The northward extension of this range, known as the Absa- 
roka, separates the head-waters of the Yellowstone from its 
main affluent, Bighorn river. W. of this range follows a suc- 
cession of short, broken ranges, the Tetons, the Gallatin, 
Madison, Ruby, and others. 

In Northern Montana the Front Range, which faces the 
plains, bears the continental divide, senaratin^the waters of 
the Missouri from those of the Columbia. This range ter- 
minates in latitude 46% where the divide swings to the 
westward, following a succession of low passes until it 
reaches the Bitter Iloot Range. So far as the limited geo- 
^aphical knowledge concerning this range informs us, this 
IS a long, continuous range forming most of the western 
boundary of Montana, and bearing for a long distance the 
continental divide upon its crest, separating the head-waters 
of the Missouri from those of the Salmon river, a tributary 
of the Columbia. W. of this range in Central Idaho is a 



section of ranges separating branches of the Salmon river, 
a region whicn is probably as little known as any part uf 
the U. S. 

An outlying range to the E., known as the BUck Hills of 
Dakota, is of the Uinta structure, as shown by Newton« 

PRINCIPAL MOUNTAINS OF THE 0ET8EB STSTEX. 
Authority, Hajrden Survey. 



NAME. 



Arrow Peak 

Mt. Blackmore 

BridgerPeak 

Mt. Cowan 

Crazy Peak 

Mt. Delano 

Electric Peak 

Mt. Ellis 

Emijsrant Peak 

Ubert y Peak 

Ward Peak 

Mt. Chauvenet 

Mt. Chittenden . . . . 

Mt. Dome 

Dunraven Peak. . . 

Fremont Peak 

GroB Ventre Peak . 

Mt. Hayden 

Mt. Holmes 

Index Peak 

Mt. Leidy 

Mt. Sheridan 

Mt. Washburn 



Montana . 



Wyoming 

Yellowstone National Park. 



Wyoming. . 



Yellowfitone National Park. 
Wyoming 



Yellowstone National Park. 



FmtL. 

7,420 
10.134 

9.106 
10,3M 
11,178 

lo.aiio 

11.155 

11. aM 

9,163 
10,371 
13,(ii*> 
10, KK^ 
10,713 

9,9f«4 
1S,7W 
ll.f.TO 
13.691 
10,&;W 
11.7inj 
11,177 
10.3HR 
10,^46 



In Canada the Rocky Mountain System is much narrowf»r 
than in the U. S., and the platform upon which the ranL'»-^ 
stand is much lower. From the boundary as far N. as Vem e 
river three members are distinguished : a front range, com- 
parativelv simple, known to Canadian geographers as tJie 
Rocky Mountains proper, and bearing the continental <li- 
yide; a broken volcanic plateau; and, bordering the Paoitli- 
coast, a northward extension of the Cascade Range, al^<> of 
volcanic origin and capped with enormous extinct vol- 
canoes. 

Still farther northward the Rocky Mountains contirju*' 
their northwesterly trend, greatly diminishing in importanr*' 
as they near the Arctic Circle, and finally (usanpearin^ »►<»- 
tween the Mackenzie and Yukon rivers. The Cas«<a.l«- 
Range continues through British Columbia and Soutbiu^^t 
Alaska, following the coast closely and rising in the latt«T 
territory until in the neighborhood of Mt, St. Elias it attaiii-. 
a ^at altitude, having many peaks exceeding 14,000 fett lu 
height and culminating in the great mass of Mt. I^o^hd. 
19,500 feet above the sea. The valleys and ^oi^s aiii..ni: 
these mountains are filled with numerous glaciers which <-\- 
tend very neariy to sea-level. Thence westward, follow in j^ 
the coast-line, this range diminishes in altitude, and final. \ 
drops into the sea, appearing above its surface in the chain 
of tne Aleutian islands. 

In the U. S. the Rocky Mountains, with the Great Plains 
that stretch eastward, constitute the great arid region vrhm 
irrigation is necessary to agriculture. In Northern lali- 
fornia and Western Oregon and Washington the pnx- imi- 
tation of moisture from the Pacific currents is very crtnt. 
and hence this region is not embraced in the arid cii^- 
trict. The arid region is about two-fifths of the area ♦in- 
braced in the U. S., excluding Alaska. From surveys hw: 
careful comparative estimates it is shown that it Will nt t 
be possible to redeem 4 per cent, of the entire rej^on \>\ 
irrigation when every broot, creek, and river is utilized. I.t-N 
than 10 per cent, of' the region is forest-clad. These f«>n ^tv 
are on the sides of the high mountains, and extend over x\.*- 
more elevated plateaus. This does not include large d ist ri« t - 
of country covered with a scant growth of dwarf cedars ud. ' 
pines which can be used for fuel, but are of no value m 
mechanical industries. Some portions of this forest re^). u 
are capable of being cultivated without irrigation, but oii,\ 
such crops can be raised as will mature in the short suniiii*-rs 
of a sub-arctic climate. Of the remaining lands, a Ian:' 
portion is covered with grasses and other plants which inav 
oe utilized to some extent for pasturage. The land nn >» 
suitable for cultivation lies along the streams, and is c^n- 
fined principally to the little valleys nestling amon^ t^i«< 
mountains. The mountains, hills, and plains can furni^^ 
nutritious but scAnt pasturage for herds and flocks, l.ut; 
altogether the agricultural resources of the reg-ion at<i 
limited. Gold, silver, iron, copper, lead, salt, coal, and mm v 
other minerals are found in abundance, and the reg^ion li 
chiefly valuable for its mines. J. W, Powell. 



itniti 



RnilVii 



' »TU4M* 



J (i I 



'(littrtUjivAi'ie ill iliti ^ai 



/mttf* Ji)amtHjiirL MiU JWti# lAii^ihJ, lUi' 



146 



KODMAX 



ROEBUXG 



Rodman, Thomas Jefferson : soUlier ; b. at Salem, Ind., 
July 80, 1815; graduated at the U.S. Military Academy 
and commissioned brevet second lieutenant of ordnance 
July, 1841 ; promoted through consecutive grades up to lieu- 
tenant-colonel Mar., 1865. Uis whole life wtis devoted to the 
interests of his profession. To him is due the honor of in- 
venting the method of hollow casting and, from the results 
of his exi)eriinents upon metal for cannon and cannon 
powder, the design and construction of the 15 and 20 inch 
cast-iron cannon, with their projectiles and suitable powder. 
The principles involved in giving to the gun its correct ex- 
terior form, tlie proper distribution of strains in the metal, 
and the regulation of the interior pressure by the progres- 
sive burning of the powder were developed by him largely 
through the use of his pressure-gauge. The path he markeil 
out has been followed by other investigators, and has resulted 
in the development of modem guns, lie was the author of 
a valuable Report of ExperimetitH on Mefala for (Mnnon and 
Cannon Powder (1861). D. at Rock Island. 111., June 7, 1871. 

Revised by James Mekcur. 

Rodney, Caesar : signer of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence ; b. at Dover, Del., Oct. 7, 1728 ; inherited a large landed 
property; was sheriff of Kent County 1755-58; member of 
the Legislature many years, and its Speaker 1769-73 ; delegate 
to the Stamp Act congress at New York 1765 ; was chair- 
man of the Delaware popular convention 1774; elected to 
the Continental Congress Mar., 1775; was soon afterwanl 
elected brigadier-general ; signed the Declaration of Inde- 
]>endence; served under Washington in the New Jei-sey 
campaign 1776-77; appointed judge of the Supreme Court, 
but refused the office ; defended Delaware from British in- 
vasion ; was made major-general of Delaware militia ; was 
president or executive officer of Delaware 177tM^2, and was 
again elected to Congress, but did not take a seat in that' 
body. D. at Dover, June 29, 1784. 

Rodney, C^sar ArorsTus : jurist ; nephew of Cajsar 
Rodney; b, at Dover, Del., Jan. 4, 1772; graduated at the 
University of Pennsylvania; studied law; was a prominent 
member of Congress 1808-07; Attorney-Geneml of the U. S. 
1807-11; comman<led an artillery company 1813; went to 
South America 1817 as member of a commission to report 
upon the insurrection against Spain ; was member of Con- 
gress 1821-22, U. S. Senator 1822-23, and in the latter year 
became first minister to the x\jgentine provinces. Author, 
with J. Graham, of Reports on the Present State of the 
United Provinces of South America (London, 1819). D. in 
Buenos Ayres, June 10, 1824. 

Rodney, George Brydges Rodney, Lord: admiral ; b. at 
Walton-upon-Thames, Surrey, England, Feb. 19, 1718; en- 
tered the British navy in his twelfth year; was governor of 
Newfoundland 1748 ; re-entered the navy 1752, rear-admiral 
1759; in 1762 he captured Martinique, St. Lucia, and Gren- 
ada: vice-admiral 1762, baronet 17o4, master of Greenwich 
Hospital 1765, commander-in-chief in Jamaica 1771, ad- 
miral and commander-in-chief at Barbados in Dec, 1779, 
when he sailed from Englaml with a fleet of 30 vessels ; (le- 
feated a Spanish s<]uadron off Cape St. Vincent Jan. 16, 1780, 
and broke through the Frenchfleet near Martinique Apr, 17, 
1780, for which achievement he n»ceivetl the thanks oi both 
hf)Usos of Parliament and a |)ension of £2.000. In the war 
against Holland (1781) ho captured Dutch Guiana; as com- 
mander-in-chief of the West India squadron engaged the 
Fn»nch fleet under Count de Gi*asse Ajir. 9, and again Apr. 12, 
1782, ctti)turing seven ships of the lino and two frigates : was 
thanko<I and f)ensionod by Parliament, and created Baton 
Rodney of RtMhiey Stoke. Somersetshire, 1782. D. in Lon- 
don, Mav 23, 1792. See liannay's Rodney (>Icn of Action 
Si»ries, 1891). 

Rodos'to (anc. Rh(pdtstn.% Turk. Tekirdagh): town of 
European Turkey; in the vilayet of Adrianonle, on the Sea 
of Marmora; 77 miles frcMU Constantinople (see map of 
Turkey, ref. 4-1)). Rising upon hills and surroim<le(l by 
thriving gartlens and onihanls, it pres<«nts an enchanting 
spectacle as seen from the walor. It exports grain, cotton, 
sdk cocoons, wool, skins, and wine, and largely supplies the 
capital with vegetahlos, fruit, and fish. Pop. estimated at 
25,000, of whom 14.(XK) are Ultomaus. 5,500 Armenians, 4.000 
Greeks, and 1,000 Jews. E. A. Grosve.nor. 

Rodriguez Lobo, Francisco : See Lobo, Francisco Ro- 

DRIUUES. 

Rodrlgnea, ro-dree'ges : an island in the Indian Ocean ; 
the easternmost of the Mascarene group and of the African 



islands, lat. 19' 41' S., Ion. BT 23' K; 3fi5 miles K. N. E. .f 
Mauritius, of which it is administratively a depeuden<-\. 
Area, 42*5 sq. miles. It is of volcanic origin, and consist ^ < .f 
a mountain ridge running K and W., with consi4]eral»li- 
plains N. and S. The highest point (Le Piton) is 1,1(50 fif 
nigh. It is surrounded by a coral reef through which tht- r.- 
are only two passages, each leading to one of tlie two pirT^. 
It is relatively arid, with a maritime tropical climate, and i- 
subject to hurricanes during the northwest, or winter, mou- 
soons. It is devoted to agriculture and fishing. The turt 1. - 
which once formed an important article of export !ia%e «li — 
appeared. Kodriguez was not permanently inhabited unt il 
1691, when it was occupied by a Protestant retugt-v. In 
time it ha<l a considerable population, mostly slaves, but, <.ii 
their emancipaticm, they emigrated, leaving in 1843 a jm.j. il- 
lation of only 250. In 1893 it was 2,068, mostly bla<!k> ..r 
of mixed Negro blood. The island is of strategic Hnp<»rtttn« •• 
and belongs to Great Britain. The language is French. 

Mark W. Uarrinutun. 

Roe, Edward Payson: novelist; b. at Mooilna, OraiiL''- 
CO., N. Y., Mar. 7, 18:^8. He studied at Williams ColKirr. 
and one year at Auburn and part of a year in Union TIh"- 
logical Seminary; in 1862 became chaplain of Second Nvw 
York Volunteers ; was subsequently a hospital chaplain at 
Fortress Monroe; at the close of the civil warliei'anu* pii>tt.r 
of a Presbyterian church at Highland Falls, X. Y. ; in l.**74 
removed to Cornwall, X. Y., and began the cultivati«*n of 
small fruits, publishing Success with Small PntitM i\i<iMi\ 
Ue was widely known as the author of many succe^lu 
novels, including Barriers Bunwd A way (1872) ; Opru t mj t, t 
a Chestnut iB«rr(1874); A Knight of the SineteMith ( t-ntm \ 
(1877) ; and Jliss Lou (1888). I), at Cornwall July 20. !♦»-•*. 

Revised by 11. A* liKkUs. 

Roe, Sir Thomas: diplomat, traveler, and author; h. Ht 
Low Leyt<m, Essex, England, about 156H; educated at Mni:- 
dalen College, Oxford; was knighted 1604: exjjlorod tli. 
river Amazon in Brazil 1609; was sent as envoy t<» tin- 
Great Mogul, Jahangir. and jienetrated to I>elhi 1614- is : 
was ambassador to Constantinople 1621-28. to Poland ami 
Sweden, charged with negotiating a pence l)etw«H'n iho-.- 
kingdoms, 1629 ; sat in Parliament for ()xf<ird Univei^itv 
1640; was sent to the Diet of Ratisbon 1641. He bn>tii:tjt 
from Constantinople a valuable collection of Oriental M>S., 
which he presented to the Bo<lleian Library, aD< I pnK-un-ii 
the Alexandrian MS. of the Greek Hible, now in the liriii^u 
Museum. D. in England, Xov., 1644. 

Roebling, W)'l>ling, John Aioistus : civil engineer : h. ai 
Mulhausen, Prussia, June 12, 1806; graduated at the l{o\ai 
Polytechnic School in Berlin, the subject of his thesis Leiii;: 
suspension bridges. In 1881 he emigrated to the V. S.. U»- 
catmg near Pittsburg, Pa., and began the practice of his pn^- 
ferssion on the slack-water improvement of the Beaver rivir. 
and later ma<Ie surveys for a railroad route across the Ail»'- 
ghany Mountains fn)m Ilarrisburg to Pittsburg, llavm^' 
begun the manufacture of wire rope at Pittsburg. h«» ol»- 
taine<l the contrac^t for replacing the wooden aquetliK-t i»f 
the Pennsylvania Canal across Allegheny river by a mi>|km)- 
sion aqueduct, which was opened in May, 1845. This mijih^ 
duct consisted of seven spans, each 162 feet in lenirth, iUv 
woollen tnmk which held the water being supported by t^«i 
continuous wire cables 7 inches in diameter. The ct>nst ruc- 
tion of the Mon<mgahela susjiension bridge next fi>lbiw4M I, 
and in 1848-50 four suspension aqueducts were ctunplotcfl on 
the line of the Delaware and Hudson Canal. In lt<r>l tb" 
great susfiension bridge at Xiagara river was begun, and in 
Mar., 1855, the first locomotive crossed. This structure \m»v 
erected in the face of most critical opposition by Briti*«li rut:]- 
neers, who then regarded the suspension system as inapitli- 
cable to heavy traffic. (See Bridoes.) Tlie elegant Lruti.'. 
over the Allegheny at Pittsburg and that over the *»)in. nt 
Cincinnati were his next works. His hist and greate«.t iitH{t>r- 
taking was the bridge across the Flast river. f«>niu'i-t iiit: 
BnMiklyn and Xew York, which at the time of its t*nM-t j..n 
was the longest bridge in the world. (See Brooklyn.) '1 h* 
reports, plans, and s])eciticati(ms for this work were all omn. 
pletcd and operations begun when he was severely iiijtiT«<i 
in the f(K>t; loc^kjaw succeeded amputation, and he «livd in 
Brooklyn, July 22, 1869. His Long and Short Span Urithjt ^ 
in press at the time of his death, treats of the advantai;«'s ..t 
combined sus})ension and arehed bridges. — His son « \Va-*i!. 
iN(}TON A. RoKHLiNO, succcetlcd him as engineer of the K;i-' 
river bridge, and under his direction it was completril iii 
188^3. lie vised by Mansfield Meb&iman. 



us 



ROGERS 



ROHLPS 



Rogers, Randolph : sculptor; b. at Waterloo, N. Y., July 
0, 18^ ; was in early life engaged in mercantile pursuits at 
Ann Arbor, Mich., and in New York ; became a sculptor in 
Rome ; returned to New York after a few years with the 
statues of Nydia, A Boy and Doa, and others, which pro- 
cured him reputation ; designed ana modeled the bronze doors 
representing scenes in the life of Columbus, for the eastern 
entrance to the Capitol extension at Washington (1858) ; was 
several years engaged in finishing the designs for the Wash- 
ington Monument at Richmond, Va., including statues of 
Mason, Nelson, and the two Marshalls ; executed a statue of 
John Adams, now in Mt. Auburn Cemetery ; llie Angel of 
the Resurrection^ for Col. Colt's monument at Hartford, 
Conn. ; a colossal memorial monument, 50 feet high, for the 
State of Rhode Island, erected at Providence 1871, and one 
still larger for Michigan, erected at Detroit 1873, surmount- 
ed respectively by statues representing America and Michi- 
gan. He designed, among other works, the colossal bronze 
statue of Lincoln unveiled at Philadelphia 1871, and a 
Oeniua of ConnectictU for the State Capitol at Hartford, 
Conn. He presented the entire collection of casts taken 
from his clay models to the University of Michigan. D. in 
Rome, Italy, Jan. 15, 1892. Revised by Russell Stubois. 

Rogers, Richard: clergyman; b. in England about 1550; 
became a Puritan minister 1575. His Seven Treatises (Lon- 
don, folio, 1605 ; also 1610, 1616. 1627, and 1630) constituted 
a kind of theological manual much used by the Brownists, 
and highly esteemed by Wilson, Hooker, and the early divines 
of New England. D. at Weathersfield, Essex, Apr. 21, 1618. 

Rogers, Robert : soldier and author ; b. at Dunbarton, 
N. H., in 1727; commanded during the "old French war" 
(1755-63) the celebrated corps of frontiersmen known as 
Rogers' Rangers, distin^ishing himself in the campaigns 
on Lake George, and taking a prominent part in the defense 
of Detroit against Pontiac ; went to England and published 
A Concise Account of North America (London, 1765) and 
Journals of Major liohert Rogers (1765 ; new ed. Albany, 
N. Y., 1888) ; was appointed governor of Mackinaw, Mich., 
but was soon accused of plotting to deliver that post to the 
French, and was sent in irons to Montreal and tried by court 
martial. On a visit to England in 1769 he was presented to 
the king; after imprisonment for debt went to North Africa, 
where he fought two battles in Algiers under the dey ; 
was in Philadelphia 1775, and on suspicion of being a spy 
was imprisoned by order of Congress; was paroled, but 
again arrested by Washington, Jan., 1776 ; was sent to New 
Hampshire, where he took sides for the crown, and raised 
a company of loyalists known as the Queen's Rangers, of 
which ne became colonel. He went to England about 1777 ; 
was proscribed and banished in 1778 ; returned to England, 
where he died in 1800. Besides the works already men- 
tioned, Rogers wrote Ponteach^ or the Savages of America^ a 
tragedy in blank verse (1766), now extremely rare, and left 
in MS. a Diary of the Siege of Detroit in the War with 
Pontiac (Albany, 1860; new ed.'l883). 

Rogers, Robert William, M. A., Ph. D., D. D. : educator; 
b. in Philadelphia, Feb. 14, 1864 ; educated at the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, Johns Hopkins University, and at the 
Universities of Leipzig and Berlin; was Professor in Haver- 
ford College 1887-90 ; Professor of English Bible, Dickin- 
son College, Carlisle, Pa., 1890-93 ; Professor of Hebrew 
and Old Testament Exegesis in Drew Theological Seminary, 
Madison, N. J., since 1893. He has published Two Texts 
of Esarhaddon (('ambridge, England. 1889) ; Catalogue of 
Manuscripts {ch iefly Oriental) in the Library of Haver ford 
( 'ollege (Cambridge, England, 1890) ; Unpublished luscrip- 
tions of Emrhaddon (Cambridge, England, 1891): The tn- 
seriptions of Sennacherib (London, 1892). A. Osborn. 

Borers, Sami'el: poet; b. at Newington Green, Lon- 
don, July 30, 176;J; son of a London banker, whose count- 
ing-house he entered in boyhood ; published some poetical 
trifles in The Gentleman's Magazine about 1780, ana issued 
a small volume of verse 1780, but attracted no attention 
until the appearance of his best poem. The Pleamires of 
Memory, in 1792. Succeeding to his father's large estate 
1793, he soon retired from aciive business, published another 
volume of verse 1798, and in 1H03 established himself in the 
house No. 22 .St. James's Place. London, which he made for 
half a century a kind of hoadi^uarters of literary societv. 
He was the intimate (and often tlie useful) friend of nearly 
all the noted literarv men in (Jreat Britain, and his wealth, 
liberality, and social qualiti»»s gave his productions a vogue 
to which they intrinsically haid no clanu. He issued edi- 



tions of his own works which are much prized for their 
artistic illustrations. Among them were The Voyage of 
Columbus {IS12); Jacqueline {ISIS) \ Human Life {ISlif): mill 
Italy (1822). D. in London, Dec. 18, 1855. See his Tabh- 
talk (1856), by Rev. A. Dyce, and Recollections of li**u*'rA 
(1859), by William Sharpe. Revised by H. A. Beer.s. 

Rogers, William Bartox: geologist and physi^iNt ; 
brother of Henry Darwin Rogers ; b. in Philadelphia, Pa., 
Dec. 7, 1804 ; gave scientific lectures at the Maryland In>ti- 
tute 1827 ; succeeded his father. Dr. Patrick K. Rogers, us 
Professor of Natural Philosophy and Chemistry at William 
and Mary College, Virginia., 1829: filled a similar posit it >n in 
the University of Virginia 1835-53; organized the Virginia 
geological survey 1835. and conducted it until its discont inu- 
ance in 1842 ; removed to Boston, Mass., 1858; lectured be- 
fore the Lowell Institute on the application of science to thf 
arts; aided in founding the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, and was its first president 1862-68; was |»n>'- 
dent of t!no American Association for the Advancement of 
Science 1876, and of the National Academy of Science fmni 
1878. Among his physical papers are Strength of Mattria.'x 
(Charlottesville, \a., 1838) and Elements of Mechanical 
Philosophy (Boston, 1852). In conjunction with his brot htr, 
he published an essay On the Physical Structure of the A p- 
palachian Chain, as Exemplifying the Laws which hove 
Regulated the Elevation of Oreat Mountain Chains (it n- 
erally (in Transactions oi the Association of Ameritan 
Geologists and Naturalists, 1842). His geological writings 
are reprinted in Oeology of the Virginians (1884). D. in Bos- 
ton, May 30, 1882. Revised by G. K Gilbkrt. 

Rogersrille: village; capital of Hawkins co., Tenn. ; on 
the Tenn. and Ohio Branch of the Southern Railwav ; 3 
miles N. W. of the Holston river, 50 miles E. N. K of Kin >\- 
ville (for location, see map of Tennessee, ref. 5-J). It is in 
an agricultural region, and contains McMinn Aca<li*ni>. 
Synodical Female College (Presbyterian, chartered in 1H4S', 
several quarries of variegated marble, a roller flr)iir-iinU, 
furniture-factory, a national bank with capital of $75,0(K). a 
private bank, and three weekly newspai)ers. Pop. (isvo, 
740 ; (1890) 1,153. Editor of "Herald.'* 

Roget, ro-zha', Peter Mark, M. D., F. R. S.: physician : 
b. in London, England, Jan. 18, 1779; graduated in intnlic-ine 
at Edinburgh 1798 ; became physician to the infirmary at. 
Manchester 1804; settled in London 1808; was an estri'intil 
lecturer in several scientific institutions, and the first Ful- 
lerian Professor of Physiology at the Royal Institution; for 
twenty vears secretary of the Royal Society 1827-47 ; b«.*t*4inH- 
a member of the senate of London University 1826 : was 
president of the Medical and Chirurgical Societv 1?^*29-4U». 
and became examiner in physiology to London Cniver>itv 
1839. D. at Malvern, Sept. 17, 1869. He published A n hn *ii 
and Vegetable Physiology (Bridge water Treatises, No. v., 
1SS4); Physiology and Phrenology (\mS); and A The«auru,^ 
of English Words and Phrases (1852 ; 12th ed. 1881). 

Rogae BiTer Indians: See Athapascan Indians ; aI>o 
Takilman Indians. 

Bohilkhand': a division of the Northwestern Provin<-»-^, 
British India; bounded E. by Oude, W. by the GaniJ^♦-^. 
Area, 10,884 sq. miles. It is traversed by the railway from 
Saharanpur to Lucknow. It received its name from the U« »- 
hillas, an Afghan tribe, which settled here in the middle of 
the eighteenth century. Pop. (1891) 5,345.740. M* W, J I. 

Bohlfis, Anna Katharine (Oreen) : novelist ; b. in Bro« »k- 
Ivn, N. Y., Nov. 1 1, 1846. She was marrieil in 1884 to Churl. - 
Rohlfs, and afterward removed to Buflfalo, N. Y. Her tiT-.t 
novel, The Leavenworth Case '(1878), was a very succvs.*-! u. 
"detective" story, somewhat after the school of Galx^riuu. 
This was followed by others of the same sensational c»h;ir- 
acter, including A Strange Disappearance (IHTO); 7 /,r 
Sword of Damocles (1881); Hand and Ring (18^J): 7>i/ 
Mill MyHtery (1886) ; besides a volume of verse. The Dtf» /,,s# 
of the Bride (1882), and a drama, Risifis Daughter (l?v*S7). 

H. A. BEtus. 

Bohlfs. Gkrhard: explorer ; b. at Vegesack, near Bn^rnt ^n . 
Apr. 14. 1831; studied medicine at Heidelberg, WOryUtir:^- 
and Gottingen ; served in the foreign legion of the Frtn«~i 
army in Algeria; went in 1860 to Morot^co, where he li\ , ,^ 
for some time at Fez, and traveled widely in Mohainiiio«i.'iti| 
attire. In 1862 he exj)lore<l the oases of Tafllet. lit* ^v^ 
plored (1863) t he eastern part of the Greater Atlas, and i>ii > h ♦ \ 
south to Tuat in the desert. In 1865 he startetl on lii^ f ;,, 
mous journey from Tripoli to Lake Tchad, crossed the Nu^i -i' i 



150 



KOLLIX 



ROLLING-MILL 



Bollin« ro lan', (Charles : historian : b. in Paris, France. 
Jan. 30, 1661 ; studied theolo*^' at the Sorbonne, but di<l 
not take orders; was appointed professor in the Collefje de 
Fralice in 1688 : became the rector of tliat university in 1694, 
and two years later was appointotl coa<ljutor at the College 
de Beauvais. He lost his position in 1712 because he was 
believed to hold Jansenist opinions, but was reinstated in 
1720. I), in Paris, Sept. 14, 1741. His Ijest-known work is 
Histoire ancientie (13 vols., 1730-38), which has often been 
reprinted bi»th in French and in English. His other works 
include Histoire romaine (9 vols., 17:38-48). continued by 
Crevier, Lebeau, and Aineilhon, and Trnite des ettides, 

Kevised by F. M. Colby. 

RolHn, Ledru : See Ledru-Rollin. 

Rolling-mills: establishments provided with machinery 
for rolling metal (generally in a neated state) into sheets, 
bars, rails, rods, or wire, 'f ho most important are for iron 
and steel, and it is these that are described in this article ; 
but in general the processes are the same for other metals. 
In such astablishments the typical machine, also called roll- 
ing-mill, is an apparatus consisting of two or more cylin- 
drical rolls, with smooth, rough, or grooved surfaces, so con- 
structed and operated as to reduce a billet or pile of heatetl 
iron from an initial form as received from the heating fur- 
nace to an intermediate or a final shape called for by the 
market or by the o^Mirations to which the metal is to be 
submitted. 

This reduction of a mass to forms of smaller cross-sec- 
tion is performed with great ease and raj)idity, and at com- 
paratively small cost where the alternative is hammering 
or the use of tlie hydraulic press. The introduction of the 
rolling-mill by Henry Cort in 1783 was the most effective 
step in the production of cheap wrought iron and malleable 
steel, with tne exception of the IVssemer process, which has 
signalized the pn)gress of invention in that imi)ortant field. 
The first operation preparatory to th« manufacture of wrought 
iron is that of puddlmg (see Iron), or the removal of the 
carbon and silicon from the cast iron, and the production of 
a puddle-ball, or a bloom, which is then sometimes given a 
preliminary shaping under the hammer, but is more often 
taken directly to the rolls. In steel-making, preliminarily to 
the use of the rolling-mill, the oxidizable constituents of the 
cast iron are removed by burning out, in the Bessemer con- 
verter or in the Siemens-Martin furnacie (open-hearth fur- 
nace), and the resulting ingot or bloom is treated as is wrought 
iron. 

The first milling o|>pration is that of roughing down, in 
the nmghing-mill (a |>air of rolls with rougheneil surfaces) ; 
the second reduces the slabs thus formed to muck-bars, be- 
tween smooth-surfaced rolls, and these bars are then rolled 
into the forms required for the market by a third set of 
rolls. The sjKJed of rotation of the rolls is the greater as 
the size of bar, nni, or wire is less, or as the sheet is thinner. 
In making heavy armor-plate rolls 3 feet or more in diame- 
ter, turning at the mte or fifty rt»volutions per minute, are 
used; thin plates and small r(>ds are often rolled at s))eeds 
several times as great, in mills having rolls 8 or 10 inches 
in liiameter. In merchant mills a number of stands of 
rolls are arranged in such manner as to j)ermit the con- 
venient passing j>f the metal from the larger to the small- 
er, the ingot being gra<lually reduced to the finished nxl. 
sheet, or wire. Tires of iron are rolle<l from a ring, which 
is made by first forging a disk of ]»ro]MT dimensions and 
punching out its center by a heavy press or hammer, and 
then rolling the rim thus left in a mill made especially ft>r 
the purpose. If made of sled, the ingot is ciist in the de- 
sired form for introduction into the mill. 

Mills for cold-n»lling are given exceptional strength, and 
reduce rods and bars very slightly, in tliccoNl state, thus 
greatly increasing their strength and still more their elas- 
ticity. The etfert of this process wjis found by Fairbairn, 
Whipjile, and Thurston, who maile a loiitr and complete 
study of the siibjt'ct, to raise the tenacity of the metal 50 to 
100 percent., to elevate the elastic limit in still higher pro- 
|)ortion, and greatly to reduce the ductility and malleabil- 
ity of the iron and' steel. (Hmjitift^riiKj, 1878, p. 347.) A 
slitting-mill consists of a s<»t of rolls with dc«'}> collars and 
grooves alternating, the upper collars fitting tlie gnK>ves in 
the lower roll. Between the>e n)lls slicets of thin metal are 
(>assed, and by them dividcnl, by slitting, intj) a number of 
rods of rectangular section, the collars and g^(K>vt•^ acting 
as shears. 

Nearly all the members of machines and structures for 



which iron and steel are suitable — shi|w, roofs, b< tilers, 
bridges, railways and their rolling stock, and those adapt<<l 
to the puriJoses'of g«meral engintMjring — are so desigiMHi t hat 
they can oe rolle<l or compounded of rolled forms, for tl.i^ 
method of manufacture is essential to their uniformity and 
cheapness, and this condition does not seriously emLarra-* 
designers, because the great majority of desirable forms can 
be rolled. If the direct prwliicts of the rolling-mill, tl .- 
leading types of which are shown in Fig. 1, are of unsuitabif 



■•^-X--^^ 





Fio. 2.— Two-higb 
mill. 



Fio. 1. 

figure or size, endless modifications may be produced by com- 
pounding them. It is only necessary in any rolled bar that 
the cross-section shall be uniform throughout its length, and 
that none of the grooves required in the rolling shall l»e 
wider at the bottom than at the top. The chair-bar Y and 
the form X (Fig. 1) coidd not be rolled directly ; the flanges 
must be folded down by a subsequent operation. 

The leading features of improvement have been (1) in- 
creased capacity, due to larger size, better proportiona, 
stronger materials, and notably to better 
workmanship. (2) The arrangement of the 
rolls so as to work both ways. In a simple 
two-high mill (Fig. 2), running constantly 
in one direction, the bar, after piussiiig be- 
tween the rolls, must be drawn back by 
hand over the top roll, and entered again 
for another compression; thus half the 
time and a considerable amount of heat are 
wasted, and unproductive labor is per- 
formed. The first remedy w»is to reverse the motion t^i 
the n)lls after the bar had pa.sse<l through, so that tlit-y 
would draw the liar back again, and in so doing com presv^ ii. 
The reversing is usually effectetl 
by gearing and clutches, and 
sometimes by reversing suddenly 
a double engine running without 
a fly-wheel. In any case the 
reversing machinery is costly to 
construct, wastes power, and re- 
quires many repaii*s. In the 
three-high mill (Fig. 3) the bar 
is entered at the front of the 
train, between the middle and 
bottom rolls, and at the n»ar of 
the train between the middle and 
toj> rolls. The engine runs con- 
stantly in one direction, thus 
avoiding the shock and delay of 
reversing ; and the additional 
labor, as compared with the reversing mill, is the liftiii,: 
of the bar on the back of the train through the heiirhi « - 
the middle roll. In light work, such as rails, which ur»> 
in any case pjussed to and fro by the workmen <m hor»k-s . t 
swinging levers, this additional* lal)or is very small, wLii, 
heavy work is raised by tables moved by steam-power. 

The other notable nieans of |)erforming work on tht* \ 
at both passes is Brown's double mill (Fig. 4), inlriMluctMi 
EnglaiHl. It consists of two com- 
plete anil distinct sets of two-high 
rolls in double housings, the two sets 
njoving in opposite din*cti<»ns. The 
bar Ix'ing enten*<i at II, passes be- 
tween the rolls A A without touch- 
ing them, deep gn>oves being cut in 
the rolls for the nuriMise. The bar 
is caught an<l nMiueiKl by the r(»lls 
B B. Before the return pass the bar is moved laterally 




Fig. 8.— Three-hiifh mill. 



1 2] 



.v^.!/^' 



r^ 



Fio. 4.- 



Brown*>i»at»>tit 
miU. 



«Tj. 



then it is entered in another groove and {lasses between i \ , 



152 



ROLLO 



ROMAN ARCHJEOLOGY 



must be kept at work in order to be profitable ; and this 
can be done only in extensive works. 

Later improvements have included the extensive employ- 
ment of automatic devices in all departments and of hy- 
draulic transmission of power, and the use of often enormous 
hydraulic presses in place of the steam-hammer for reducing 
ingots and shaping heavy plates, as well as in forcnng large 
masses of all descriptions. Alexander L. Holley. 

Revised by R. H. Thurston. 

Bollo : the celebrated conqueror of Normandy. Accord- 
ing to the saga of Uarald llaarfager he was a son of Ragn- 
vald, jarl of More, and was called Ganger Rolf — that is, 
Walking Rolf — because he was so large and heavv that no 
horse could carry him. Harald Pairhair drove him into 
exile, and this led to his crossing the seas and' founding Nor- 
mandy. According to Dudo, of St. yuentin, who wrote the 
history of Normandy in the eleventh century, Rollo was 
the son of a Danish chief, and on account of trouble with 
the Danish king fled from his native country, fought for 
many years in France, and finally ^ot possession of Nor- 
mandy. The Icelandic version making nim a Norwegian 
is that most generally accepted. In 012 Rollo made peace 
with Charles the Simple in St. Clair. He received for him- 
self and his followers the country along the banks of the 
Seine river, between the little rivers Epte and Kure. lie 
and his men accepted the Christian religion, and Rollo was 
baptized at Rouen and took the name and title Duke Robert. 
He is thought to have been over eighty years of age at the 
time of his death in 930. William the Conqueror was his 
great-grandson. See Normans. Rasmus B. Anderson. 

Rolls, Master of the : See Master. 

Romagnosi, rd-maan-yo s(H), Gian Domenico : jurist and 
philosopher; b. at Salso Maggiore, near Piacenza, Italy, 
I)ec. 13, 1761 ; in 1786 took his legal degree at Pavia ; at 
thirty years of age published his La Oetiesi del Diritto 
Penate, which was highly esteemed both in Germany and in 
Italy. In 1791 he occupied important civil offices in Trent, 
where he continued to pra(?tice as an advocate ; in 1803 was 
appointed Professor of Law at Parma, a position which he 
retained till 1806, when he was called to Milan to assist in 
digesting a code of penal procedure, which was afterward 
adopted. Later a chair was created expressly for him in 
Milan. Upon the fall of the Bonapartist kingdom of Italy 
he had to endure poverty and imprisonment. Being set at 
liberty, he continued his labors under great privations, sup- 
porting himself by private lessons. I), in C'orfu, June 8, 
18i}5. An edition of his works in 19 vols, was published in 
Florence (1832-35) and in Milan (15 vols., 18:i6^')). The 
most noted of his philosophical writings are Che eosa e la 
vienfe sana f, La auprema economia dell' umano sapere^ and 
Vedute fotvdamenlcui suW arte logicn, 

Romaic : the name applied to the vernacular language of 
the modern Greeks. See Greek Language. 

Romalne, William : clergyman ; b. at HartleiM>ol, Dur- 
ham, England, Sept. 25, 1714; studied in Oxfonl; was or- 
dained a clergyman of the Church of England in 1786, 
and was appointed Professor of Astronomy in Grcsham Col- 
lege, and rector of St. Ann's. Blackfriars, London, where he 
died July 26, 1795. His sermon on The Lord our Bight- 
eousness, published early in his career, was so strongly Cal- 
vinistic that immediately after its delivery he was i)racti- 
cally excluded from the pulpit in Oxfonl, but in London his 
preaching was much appreciated. He became an acknowl- 
edged leader in the evangelical party in the English Church, 
and his writings have a reputation among the adherents of 
this school of theological tnought. 

Roman Archeology: the history of ancient Home, as 
illustrated by the remains of its architecture and works of 
art. 

Development ok Art in Rome. 

The Period of IleUenie. and Etruscan Inflnenre. — Be- 
fore the establishment of Greek colonies in Southern Italy 
the site of Rome was occupied by liatins of a low civiliza- 
tion. Roman culture first received a higher impulse whon 
the colonies from Magna Gnecia began to extend their civil- 
izing influence toward Latium and Etruria. This was felt 
by Rome, partly in a direct and partlv.in an indirect wav, 
through the coast towns of Southern IiJtruria, where in earfy 
times a rich industrial art, inspired by (Jreek models, had 
been developed. The Etruscan temple, th(» tempi urn Thm- 
ranirum, followed, as far as our kiiowledi^e extends, the 
Grecian Doric type. The ground plan, however, aj)proached 



more to a square, the pediments were higher, the intera< 
lumniations wider, and the building rested upon a high. lA 
long terrace, up to the front of which led an orieii fliulit < 
steps. The olaest temple in Rome, the temple of Jujut^ 
upon the Capitol, built bv Tarquinius Priscus, was in \h 
Tuscan style. Also, the clay image of the gotl plactMl in tli* 
temple, and the quadriga of the same material over the pi-<!il 
ment, were works by an Etruscan artist. The statue l.i .! 
the thunderbolt in ita right hand, and in its left probably t 
scepter. The flesh was painted red, and the color wa> re 
newed from time to time. The costume of the figure vim^ 
sisted of a removable wreath, probably of gold, and of tf.^ 
toaa palmata, a garment decorated with Asiatic designs, iii 
which the statue was draped on festal occasions. On rh<j 
other hand, the wooden image of Diana placed in the ti'rn- 
pie dedicated to this goddess by Servius Tullius, on ifj.j 
Aventine Hill, appears to have been a Greek work, or ai 
least a copy of one, for it exactly resembled an idol that t{. < 
Phocieans had brought with them to Massilia (the uuMltrn^ 
Marseilles). 

Only a few examples of building in stone remain ti> .i 
from this ancient period. First among these is the Ser\i.t. 
city wall, built of colossal blocks of tufa, without cemri.i : 
then the reservoir (Tullianum), at the foot of the C«|)ii. .. 
the covering of which is formed with layers of stone pl:u • •: 
over each other, gradually projecting inward as they n-' 
and finally the vaulted Cloaca Maxima, built by Tarquiui..^ 
Priscus in onler to collect the subterranean springs ti.u: 
percolated through the Roman soil, as well as to drain ari.. 
dry the morasses of the Velabnim and Forum. The ori-- 
nal form of this gigantic work has been greatly nuMlif.. i 
by later restorations. Other sewers have been "dis<-over»-: 
which almost surpassetl the Cloaca Maxima in size anil 
length of channel and drained almost as vast an area. 

Of the first centuries of the republic evidences reniniri. 
showing an increase of the direct Greek influence. \VI»tt, 
it was decided to decorate the temple of Ceres (dedieaT.-i 
485 B. r.) near the Circus Maximus, two Greeks, Damophi- 
lus and Gorgasus, distinguished both as modelers in vlw 
(pla«t(e) and as }>ainters, were called to Rome. The types • : 
trie Roman copper coinage (which begins under the Dw* m- 
vii-s, 451-449 B. r.) are formed after Greek patterns. Tl .• 
statue erected upon the Comitium to the interpreter of il)-- 
Decemvirs, the Ephesian Ilermodorus, appears also to hav.- 
been the work of a Greek hand. Still we must not In* bliii'l 
to the fact that the earliest protlucers of works in bn»n/.' 
were called by the Romans ^ olkani (hence Vulcanus), fn»ni 
Vulci their place of origin and center of activity. 

Especially indicative of the physiognomy of Rome, a- it 
appeared in the fifth, fourth, and in some quarters of tl-. 
city also during the two following centuries, is the known 
fact of the employment of Damophiliis and Gorga>u> tL> 
architects. The manner of ornamentation em ploy wl \'\ 
these artists was that of a polychmme, terra-cot ta styl»-. 
early abandoned in Greece, but long in vogue in Latium bii«1 
Etruria. The walls, whether of brick or of timWr, wer»* in- 
crusted with plates of terra-cot ta, upon which were paiiitid 
ornamental, and sometimes also figurative, represenlatinn^. 
Polychrome figures in terra-cotta adorned the pediment ^ ^'f 
the temples. Fragments of stucco decorations made in tlii> 
manner have been found as well in the Etruscan cities as in 
Rome upon the Esijuiline. They show the vast exten>ion, 
and, since they represent a succession of different stape> i«f 
style following each other, the long duration as well, uf ihi> 
method of ornamentation. 

A contrast to this gay variety was offered by the dark-gray 
blocks of peperino, of which the substructions of the urn- 
pies and of tne public buildings generally were formetl, al- 
though it is prooable that even of these tfie most proniineTii 
architectural members were rendered more conspicuou^ l»y 
the addition of color or of metallic incrustations. 

A fact of much significance, in reference to the diffu^i"n 
of Hellenic views of art among the Romans, occurs at tin- 
end of this perifxl. In the year 301 B. c. a Roman patrician. 
(\ Pabius. executed with his own hand paintings in the tt*n»- 
ple of Salus ; and the branch of this distinguishe<l fannly 
that descended from him received the surname of "t!.«' 
painters " {Pictoren). The forms of the designs, howevt-r. 
nssunieil in many respects a peculiarly Italic character—u 
different stamp from tne true Greek art.' This fact is jinvnl 
by the di^icovery of a copy from one of the original paint- 
ings by Fabius'Pictor. This is illustrated by Viscoiiti in 
vol. xvii. (IHSO) of tlie Bulhttino areheologieo Comunal*, p. 
'MO. This copy, dating from the seventh century of Rome, 



154 



ROMAN ARCHEOLOGY 



ruins of which bear witness to the simple grandeur of the 
work. 

Meanwhile the terrible conflagration under Nero (a. d. 64) 
had occurred. Of the fourteen city wards {regiones) three 
were entirely, and seven well-nigh entirely, destroyed. A 
countless number of Roman monuments venerable for age, 
as well as many masterpieces of Greek art, were sacrificed. 
Yet this misfortune was not without its advantage to the 
city, for the government, in rebuilding the city after the 
conflagration in Nero*s time, took measures to make the 
streets wider and straighter. In consequence of the de- 
struction of entire Quarters of the city, room was obtained 
for the erection of large public buildings. Nero's Golden 
House, on the south side of the Esnuiline Hill, with its sur- 
rounding houses and parks extending into the valley be- 
tween the Rsquiline and Cjplian Hills, requires only a pass- 
ing notice ; for immediately after the emperor's death (a. d. 
68), the whole establishment, with all its luxurious appoint- 
ments, fell into decay. On the site of the artificial lake, 
within the gartiens of the Golden House. Vespasian began 
to build the Colosseum. The palace itself was utilized by 
Titus, in part, as a foundation for his baths. 

Architecture received a new impulse under Trajan, who 
employed an excellent Greek architet^t, Apollodorus of 
Damascus. Under the direction of this artist the Porum 
of Trajan was erected to the N. of that of Augustus. The 
constructive activity of the Emperor Hadrian is exempli- 
fied in the double temple of Venus and Roma on the Velia, 
the plan of which the emperor designed with his own hand 
(a. d. 135). It was composed of two temples, having a 
single roof covered with tiles of gilded bronze. The cellie 
of the two temples adjoined each other, and the whole was 
surrounded by a double |)ortico of granite columns. The 
Mausoleum of Hadrian (Castle of St. Angelo), begun by 
that emperor and completed (a. d. 140) by Antoninus Pius, 
consisted of a sc^uare substructure, upon which stood a ter- 
race-like superstructure covered with marble and adorned 
with statues. From the time of the Antonines, besides 
the column in honor of M. Aurelius, we have remaining 
only the temple of the elder Faustina, erected a. d. 141, on 
the north side of the Forum, and afterward likewise dedi- 
cated to the memory of Antoninus Pius. The portico, with 
its ten columns of costly Eulxpan (cipollino) marble, left 
un fluted, is still standing, besides a portion of the cella, 
which is, however, well-nigh robbetl of its marble facing. 
The back part of the cella has l>een turned into the Church 
of S. Lorenzo in Miranda. After the Antonines many sump- 
tuous buildings were erected in Rome. Caracalla strove 
to surpass all his predecessors in the colossal baths, capable 
of holaing 1,600 blithers, which he commenced on the south- 
east side of the Aventine Hill, near the Via Appia, but 
which were not completed until the time of Alexander 
Severus. Onlv the bnck-faced m^isonry walls which formed 
the main bo<{y of the building remain. The city wall of 
Aurelian was constructed in view of the constantly increas- 
ing danger from the encroachments of the barbarians. The 
Imths of Diocletian, on the Viminal, were still more exten- 
sive than those of Caracalla. Two large halls, which once 
formed a portion of the baths of Diocletian, are now in- 
cluded in tlie churches of S. Bernardo and Sta. Maria degli 
Angcli. The basilica on the Velia, with its three aisles, was 
built by Maxentius, and remodeled by his successful rival, 
Constantino. Throe of the arches still stand, though robbetl 
of their oricrinal ornamentation. They are of an enormous 
span, and have sorve<l as models to many architects of mod- 
em times. Constantine presented the'citv of Rome with 
baths which were situated on the yuirinal ; but the archi- 
tectural energy of that emperor was mainly expended ui)on 
his new capital in the East. 

Interior Decoration. — In interior decoration much was 
done with rare and l>eautiful colored niarl»les. and this 
manner of ornament ing wall -surf a^-es was maintained to 
the very end of the imperial e|MH*h. Inlaying of one mar- 
ble or other fiiie-veincMl st4»ne with another wjis freely used. 
Glass also, either colored in its b4>jly or with the surface 
moulded in ornamental reliefs, wrs u^^ed for wall-tiles. In 
the earlier stages of the Siiine period the decoration (»f in- 
teriors was chiefly fresco, ancl in private hous^-s the (4 reek 
manner of the time of Alexan«ler's successors w«s. for the 
most part, foUowni. During this fHM-iod the s|H>liation of 
the Grecian republics, partly by plunder and fmrtly by pur- 
chase, brought into the |)ossessi(iTi of the con<pier<»rs a con- 
siderable collection of punel-jjaintinirs, and the cu«;tnm wjis 
then intrmhiced (»f using these pi<*tures as the central orna- 



ment of the wall. Not every one, however, was able to (»l»- 
tain a sufticient number even to meet the demands nf .i 
moderately sized dwelling. It was necessar>', then, to call \u 
the aid of the fresco-painter, who supplied' the lack of tl.. 
actual panels by imitations executed on the stucco of th. 
walls. This m(xle of decoration, originating on the eastt-m 
shores of the Mediterranean, was imitated by the Romun^ 
even in the the third century before Christ, and ctmtinueil 
among the less opulent down to the period of the tle<'line of 
classical culture. In Rome and Pompeii, the pictures ^hidi 
occupy the center of the walls are clearly imitations of panrl- 
paintings, as may be seen from the simulated frames which 
surround them. Where more extensive compositions mere 
to be represented, the imitation of panel-pamtings would 
have given a heavy, cumbersome effect; to avoid thi^ tlje 
artists resorted to the device of representing the walls with 
imaginar}' openings, the pictures appearing as if seen thn>ut:li 
these openings. In this manner, for instance, the pictunn 
of lo and Galatea on the Palatine Hill were treated. More 
extensive spaces, such as corridors, courts, and garden-iN>r- 
ticoes, were sometimes decorated in fresco with imaginar> 
outlooks upon parks, grounds, and sea^iorts. The best tU^ 
covery in this line is that of the ''painted house'* in thr 
Trastevere. It came to light in 18H0, near the Imnks of 
the Tiber, at I^a Famesina. Its magnificent set of frcM-^ws. 
dating from the age of Augustus, is now exhibited in Michel- 
angelo's cloisters at La Certosa. 

ikulpture. — In the Roman sculpture of tlds period two 
tendencies, the idealistic and the realistic, may be distin- 
guished. The first occupies itself si)ecially with mvtholojrv. 
but also sometimes takes to the portrait and to the repri^ 
sentation of scenes from daily life. It work is not original, 
in the highest sense of the word, but is limited, in a grc^trr 
or less degree, to models from the preceding Greek deve]o|»- 
ment. This already shows itself among the artists ein- 

Sloyed in the service of Metellus Macedonicus. Several eM- 
ences lead to the conclusion that these artists s<mietini«^ 
re-treated archaic Greek types in the spirit of free art. 
Through a series of works tliat have l»een preserve<l we an- 
made acquainted with a group of Athenian artists who lived 
in the last century before Christ. The most distinguisheil 
among these are Apollonius, son of Nestor, the sculptor of t he 
Hercules torso in the Vatican (probably identical with that 
Apollonius who, after the bunting of the (*apitoline Jnpit«>r 
in the time of Sulla, executed the statue of the god dcsi^m-d 
for the new building); Cleomenes, son of Apollodorus. ihf 
artist of the Medicean Venus: Cleomenes, son of CMeomen«>. 
author of the fine portrait-statue in the Ijouvre mistaken l> 
called Oermanicus. This last statue re()eat8 the motive i>( 
an archaic type of Hermes. The Medicean Venus beltmirs i*> 
those figures which through a series of interme<Uate staiT'-^ 
are gradually derived from the Cnidian Aphrodite of Pnix- 
iteles. Glykon, one of the latest artists of tne group referred 
to, in the execution of his statue of Herakles (ramcsian 
Hercules, Naples), followed a type probably designed by tin- 
second Attic school in the fourth century b. c. The iiaiu- 
ralistic treatment and the exaggerate<l expression of physical 
strength belong only to the artists of the imperial tin»es. 
We may with entire certainty formulate our judgment <M.n- 
cerning these artists, that for the conception they were >ul»- 
stantially dependent upon ancient works, but that in th** 
execution they showed independence, and thus lent a ne\% 
charm to the motives repriKluced. 

A peculiar direction was taken by the school of Pa>^it«lc'H. 
himstdf a versatile artist of the last century before Clirivr. 
There is extant the statue of an Kphebus, with an instilla- 
tion (Villa A Ibani), executed by a scholar of Pasiteles. Sie- 
phanus; also a marble group (Villa Ludovisi), generally con- 
sidered to represent the meeting of Orestes and Elect ra. iimi 
shown by the inscTiption to be the work of Menelaus, a j n- 
pil of Stephanus. P^clecticism, which presupjxises, in aW 
cases, a def>endence upon earlier works, must be con^idm d 
the essential characteristic of the school of Pasiteles. \%lii!i- 
the kind and degree of that dej»endence may in some in- 
stances l)e disputable. The manner of treatment, howextT. 
' rtMuains as an unquesticmed merit of these artists. The mi no- 
is claimed f(»r Arcesilaus. who wrought the statue of l)»e 
goddess fc»r the temple of Venus Genet rix, deilicatt^l l»> 
Cnsar in 46 B. v. 

in other works of sculpture also, belonging to the ej^^xdi 

under c<»nsideration. the authors of which are unknown, n*- 

<'ent iTivestiiraticHis have shown the same def>enflen<'o upon 

I ancient unKlels. The well-known group representine Venn^ 

I and Mars, probably connectetl with a work placed in iK«' 



156 



ROMAN ARCHAEOLOGY 



so much to the execution, of which there was no reason to 
complain, as to the conception ; and this supposition is 
strikingly confirmed bv an investigation of the originals re- 
produced by the mural painters. The compositions occur- 
ring in these frescoes, representing scenes from Grecian 
mythology and from ancient daily life ideally depicted, are 
by no means conceptions of the imperial period, out rather 
creations of true Greek art, reproduced here with more or 
less freedom. Some of these compositions have been traced 
back with certainty, or at least probability, to known Greek 
masters. We can easily understand that the selection of 
the compositions to be reproduced in fresco should fall es- 
pecially upon those of the Alexandrian period ; for this de- 
velopment lay nearest the Romans in respect to time, and 
exercised also in other directions a manifold influence upon 
their civilization. Very few wall-paintings can, with any 
probability, be traced to originals earlier than the time of 
Alexander. Among the examples found in Rome we may 
reckon as properly belonging to these only the Nozze Aldo- 
brandini (Vatican Library), the composition and forms of 
which do not show the artistic principle which was brought 
to full development in the time of the Macedonian hero. 
On the other hand, the art of the Alexandrian and Diadochi 
age occupied itself less with grand subjects of a monu- 
mental character (megalographia) than with those suited 
for cabinet pictures intendea for private enjoyment. As 
these cabinet pictures were not rich in figures, and were 
of proportionally small dimensions, and as they did not so 
much attempt powerfully to strike the spectator by the 
grandeur of the subject as to impress him agreeably by 
graceful representations of situations easily understood, 
they were well adapted for reproduction in Roman mural 
painting. In Roman dwellings these pictures, being placed 
m the centers of walls generally very limited as to space, sat- 
isfied all the demands which could reasonably be made upon 
such a style of decoration, and afforded an agreeable rest- 
ing-point for the eye, without absorbing the attention. The 
subject of the scenes represented, and the sentiments asso- 
ciated with them, were as perfectly comprehensible to the 
Roman even if he did not understand the Greek language, as 
to the Greek of the Diadochi period ; for the Latin poetry of 
the Augustan age had borrowed many of its themes from the 
Alexandrian poetry which had inspired these very pictorial 
compositions, and they treated the same subjects as their 
predecessors had done, and in the same spirit. 

In Roman fresco-painting an important place is occupied 
by the landscape, a province of art which also came into 
independent development during the age of the successors 
of Alexander. The most beautiful extant paintings of this 
kind are the landscapes discovered on the Esquiline, with 
scenes from the Odyssey (Vatican Library). The essential 
merit of the artist who originated the Odyssean pictures 
lies in the plastic development of the landscape, in the 
clear arrangement of the planes, the harmony of the pro- 
portions, and the nobility of form in the figures introduced. 

An exclusively realistic tendencv manifests itself only in 
the mural painting of a very inferior kind. In Pompeii 
this class of pictures is almost entirely confined to houses of 
a very poor character. After the year 79 a. d., in which the 
Campanian towns were buried by the unexpected eruption 
of Vesuvius, we can no longer follow with any certainty the 
history of this art ; however, the few frescoes of later 'date 
which are preserved to us show that then, as before, they re- 
peated the traditional mythological motives transmitted 
from the eariier antiquity, but that at the same time the 
execution deteriorated from generation to generation. The 
paintings of a tomb on the Via Latina, belonging to the 
Hadrian period, show already a considerable decline, as far 
as the freshness and energy of the work are concerned, 
when we compare them with the average of the mytholog- 
ical pictures of Pompeii. The rise of Christianitvdid not 
tend to arrest this decline, but rather hastened its down- 
ward course. Unlike paganism, which in all times hatl 
permitted a high degree of independence in the treatment 
of the forms of the gods and of all mythological subjects, 
the Church kept art closely haiiipere<r by the bands of an 
orthodox discipline which could not but be detrimental to 
it. The programme of the Christian faith was especially 
announced by means of pictures in mosiiic, a species of art 
which makes any individual rendering of the outlines diffi- 
cult, but which answered admirably the purpose of the 
Church, to bring before the eye sacred forms ancl histories 
under orthodox ty])es and clothed with great brilliancy. 

W. IIelbio. 



Results of Recent Excavations. 

The works for the extension and embellishment of Rome 
executed since 1870 have l)een the occasion of a great num- 
ber of archaeological discoveries, which will be descriUtl 
briefly in order to show what immense progress knowled^^ 
of the history and topography of the ancient metropolis t.f 
the world has recently made. Properly, this description 
should classify the new monuments according as they belong 
to architecture, to painting, to sculpture, to epigraphy, but 
as most of the discoveries relating to the three latter c'lasx^ 
must necessarily be mentioned in connection with the edifi* e 
to which they belong, it will be simpler to give a topographic 
description of the architectural monuments. 

Fortificatiovha, — Rome has been defended at three dif- 
ferent periods by three different walls — that attributed to 
Romulus, which surrounds the Palatine; that of Servius 
TuUius, which encircles the Seven Hills; that of Aureli;iu, 
which forms the inclosure of the city at present. Four frau- 
ments of the wall of the Palatine have been discovereti, as 
well as the sites of the gates Mugonia and Romanula. 

A third ascent to the primitive city has lately Xx'vu 
traced on the side facing the Circus Maximus. It is' cut in 
steps and gradients, and well deserves its classic name of 
Scalm Cad, The prehistoric walls of the Palatine an* 
built with tufa quarried on the spot, the quarries hcinir 
afterward turned into reservoirs for rain-water in cas<* «'f 
siege. As to the walls of Servius Tullius, they can be tra^tMl 
to-day at fifty-six different points. They start fnun Jfj.* 
left bank of the Tiber near the Portal Flumentana, skirt tin- 
northern cliffs of the Capitoline (discovered 1715, 1878, isir2> 
and yuii'inal Hills (discovered in the Via di Marforio in 
1865, in the Piazza di Magnanapoli 1875, in the Colonnn 
gardens, in the Via delle Quattro Fontane 1873, in the Bar- 
berini gardens 1627, etc.). Near the Collina gate (Via 20 
Settembre) the system of defense and fortification of t la- 
city suddenly changes. From a simple wall, built on a led;:*- 
of the craggy slopes, half way between the bottom of th«- 
valleys ana the plateau above, it becomes an agger or bul- 
wark composed of a ditch 100 feet wide, 30 deep, of a wall 
40 feet high, and of an embankment inside the wall 1CM» 
feet wide, irom 30 to 40 feet high. The agger runs south- 
ward to the Porta Esquilina (transformed in 262 a. d. intt* 
a triumphal arch of the Emperor Gallienus). It has Kh-u 
discovered since 1870 in its entire length. From the Porta 
Esquilina to the banks of the Tiber the Servian walls follow 
the slopes of the Esquiline (discovered in the Via Buonarn»ii 
1887), of the Cielian (discovered in the Via della NavicelU 
1890, in the villa Mattel 1582), and of the Aventine (dis<-ov- 
ered at Santa Balbina 1884, at San Saba 1858, in the \'illa 
Torlonia 1854 and 1867, at Santa Sabina 1857), and fall in!.» 
the river near the modern Arco della Salara. The riv«r 
front inside the city was likewise fortified with a powerlul 
embankment, the remains of which were destroyed in tin* 
nineteenth century in widening the bed of the river its«'lf. 
The Transtiberine region was not protected by walls, but by 
a detached fort on the top of the Janiculum (the pn'i»t-ii't 
villa Savorelli-I ley land). 

Of the nineteen gates of Servius, seven have been found, 
and three are left standing. The Ratumena was f<»und 
in 1865 in the Via di Marforio; the Fontinalis in Nov., 
1875, under the Palazzo Antonelli ; the San^ualis in lH(;t> 
under the Piazza del Quirinale; the Salutaris in Sept., 1N»„\ 
under the Palazzo Crawshey, Via delle Quattro Fontane; the 
Collina in 1872 under the Treasury building. Via 20 Settem- 
bre; the Viminalis in 1877 near the railway station; the 
Capena in 1865 near the Church of St. Gregory on the 
Ctelian. 

In Dec, 1875, were discovered some vestiges of the citadi-L 
or arxj which occupied the northeast summit of the Capito- 
line, and which seems to have been defended by a double 
inclosure, the one contemporary with the wall of Romulus, 
the other with that of Servius. 

Temples, — The number of temples, either standing or un- 
covered, which in 1870 was twenty-one, was thirty in 18JM. 
Among those recently unearthetl are the temple of CyU-l.\ 
discovered in 1870 on the Palatine, with the statue of \\u- 
goddess; the temple of the Dea Dia (Ceres), discoverotl iti 
1868 outside the Porta Portose, at the station of the Magliuna, 
with 1,750 lines of i\\e Acta Fnttrum Arvalium engraxid 
on marble: the temple of the Fortuna Priinigenia, di-M-ox- 
ered in 1873 between the Imths of Diocletian and the I*n-- 
torian Camp, with many inscriptions and a statue repros*»nt- 
ing the Roman lady claudia Justa, with the attribute.^ i.if 



158 



ROMAN ARCHAEOLOGY 



plates of bronze ornamented with hiittorioal reliefs. Amon^ 
the ruins of the temples of Isis and Serapis, which stood 
near the Church Delia Minerva, had already been found the 
obelisks erected afterward in the open squares of the Pan- 
theon; of the Minerva, and in the grounds of the Villa 
Mattei. Recent excavations in the same place have given a 
fourth obelisk, entirely covered with hieroglyphics, with the 
cartouches of Ramses'the Great. 

Military Establiahmenta (Castra). — The military barracks 
were sumptuous edifices, built, or rather rebuilt, by'Septimius 
Severus, except that of the pretorians, which dates from 
the reign of Tiberius, and which was restored under the 
Gordians. Of this latter it was already known that three 
Bides were incorporated into the city walls bv Aurelian. 
The fourth — that is, the west side — has been discovered in 
consequence of the works in the new quarter of the Viminal 
{Castro Pretoria), It contains seventy-eight small cham- 
bers, each capable of lodging six or eight soldiers. A little 
beyond was found a small apartment, reserved {jerhaps for 
the superior officers, the pavement of which was in mosaic, 
representing scenes of combat, the names of the warriors or 
the gladiators being marked by the side of each figure. The 
site of the Castra Kquitum Singulariuin — that is, of the bar- 
racks of the imperial horse-guards — has been made known 
by the discovery of thirty-two magnificent monuments,dedi- 
cated to their gmls by the men who had honorably finished 
their service (miasi honesta misaione). Hundreds of names 
are engraved upon them, with indications of paternity, place 
of birth, dates and duration of service, etc. The men are 
grouped by squadrons, which are indicated bv the name of 
their commanders, such as the squadron of Marcellus, the 
squadron of Tranquillinus, etc. These monuments were 
found in the Lateran district crossed by the Via Tasso. The 
seven battalions of the vigiles, or policemen, were distrib- 
uted through the city in such a way that each one occu- 
pied the boundary-line between two regiories. Recent dis- 
coveries established the fact that the barrack of the first 
cohort (or battalion) was situated below the Palace Savorelli, 
on the boundary between the VII. (Via Lata) and IX. (Circus 
Flaminius) rtgiones. That of the second has been found on 
the Esquiline, very near the Arch of Gallienus ; that of the 
third at the southeast angle of the baths of Diocletian ; that 
of the fifth in the Villa Mattei, by the Church of the Navi- 
cella ; that of fourth near the Church of San Saba (Aventine). 
The sites of the sixth ami seventh are unknown. Besides 
the main barracks there were fourteen outposts called excu- 
bitoria. One of these, belonging to the men of the seventh 
cohort, has been discovered in the Piazza di Monte de* 
Fiori, near the Church of San Crisogono. Its preservation 
is surprising. 

Palaces and Houses. — The palace of the Caesars on the 
Palatine has no unity of plan or of decoration, but is com- 
posed of a suite of palaces, differing one from another, 
built at different epochs, and separated sometimes by 
streets and squares accessible to the public. The most an- 
cient portion is the house of Augustus, situated on the side 
of the Circus Maximus. Then follow the house of Tiberius, 
at the northwest angle of the hill, on the Velabnim ; the 
house of Caligula, at the northeast angle upon the Forum ; 
the house of Nero, at the southeast corner, toward the Col- 
osseum : the house of Vespasian, which occupies the very 
center of the hill ; and, finally, the house of Septimius 
Severus, at the southwest angle', toward the Porta fcapena. 
Although the condition of these remains is in general very 
ruinous, yet many aj)artments preserve sufficient traces to 
render possible a decision as to their decoration and primi- 
tive destination ; and the whole plan of the entire group 
has been reconstructed with as much precision as can* be 
obtained in a house of Pompeii. Among the palaces and 
private houses of which the position or new details have 
been discovered should he mentioned the palace of the Lat- 
erans, considerable [»ortions of which have been explored, 
especially in the garden of the hospital of St. John, where 
fragments of an imperial statue in iwrphyry and several 
mosaic pavements liave been found ; the house of Germani- 
cus, on the Palatine, in perfect preservation, the pictures 
which decorate the walls being considered as the liest among 
those thus far found at Koine; the house of Asinius Pollio, 
discovered in the Vigna Guidi, at the southeast angle of the 
baths of Caracalla; the house of (^. Fabius Cilo, the site of 
which is occupieil by the church antl convent of Santa Bal- 
bina, and where have been fotmd two superb busts of Caius 
and Lucius, nephews of Augustus; the house of the Cornelii, 
discovered in 1873 under the new ministry of finance. In 



the house of Avidius Quietus, governor of Galatia undrr 
Domitian, discovered Mar., 1876, near Sant* Antonio all' K— 
quilino, bronze tablets have been found on which are en- 
graved the decrees in honor of Quietus awarded by the ciJ i«s 
of the province which he had administered. On one of the 
walls of the vestibule of the house of Memmius Vitrasiu> 
Orfitus, a consul of the fourth century, inscriptions wero 
found dedicated to their master by the officers of the houM-- 
hold. Similar inscriptions preserved on the spot have d*- 
terrained the position of the palace of Neratius Cerialis. 
prefect of the city in the fourth century, on the piaz/a nf 
Santa Maria Maggiore ; of Numicius Pica Ca'sianus. qun*'»t(»r 
under Trajan, on the Via Strozzi ; of the senator Q. Octaviu'v 
Felix, near the Church of Santa Bibiana; of Nummius Al- 
binus and of Martial, the poet, under the new War ofiire^. 
Via 20 Settembre; of Vettius Agorius Pnetextatus, in th«' 
Via Merulana, etc. The number of private mansions tin- 
ownership of which has been established by late excavatii^n^ 
mav be estimated as 175. 

Villas and Oardens. — The gardens of Mavenas, on thn 
Esquiline. have been in a great measure excavated, from \h*' 
Church of Sant' Eusebio as far as the Via Merulana. Tlie 
most interesting monument as yet found is a magnifircnt 
conservatory in the form of a small oblong theater, the whII^ 
of which are decorated with beautiful landscapes. In the 
neighborhood of this conservatorv have been found six Cary- 
atides of Pentelic marble, as well as three Hermes of fauns, 
which were generally placed at the intersections of gunh'n 
avenues; two fountains, one of which is in the form <>f a 
rhyton, or drinking-horn, marvelously sculptured by P«m- 
tios of Athens; three busts of philosophers; and several 
other fragments of sculpture worthy of the age of Augu>tiis 
and of the artistic taste of Mtpcena's. Still more imfMtrtant 
are the discoveries made on the site of the Horti Lam inn i. 
which adjoined those of Maecenas, occupying the whole nl the 
rectangle comprised between Via Labicana, Via Merulnnu. 
Santa Croce, and San Matteo. In the very center of the*-, 
gardens the remains of a palace have been found, the ea<«»t and 
west sides of which. were adorned by porticoes with coluiiiiis 
of giallo antico. On the two other sides — that is, on the 
N. and S. of the rectangle — were found bath-rooms of ex- 
traordinary splendor. The floors were paved with slabs of 
precious marble, such as occhio di painmey fleece-alaba^te^ 
(a pecorelle), jasper, agate, etc. Some of the walls Here 
covered with slate ornamented with arabestpies in gf»l<l ; 
others were incnisted with op^is sectile mamioreum, or what 
is called " Florentine mosaic." It was in one of these nn^nis 
that on Dec. 24, 1874, there was discovered the group of 
sculptures which forms the principal ornament of the new 
museum of the Capitol. This group includes a statue of 
Venus, a Greek work anterior to the type of that gotldes*. 
created by Praxiteles ; statues of the muses Terpsichon* and 
Polymnia ; a bust of Commodus, represented as the Ronmn 
Hercules, perhaps the most perfect work of the kind wliit-h 
antiquity nas bequeathed ; and a head of the young Coin- 
modus. In the same room was found an inscription relat- 
ing to the improvement of the gardens and the reconsl ruc- 
tion of the palace by the Emperor Alexander Severus — that 
is, by the same who restored the gardens of Sallust. as i*. 
proved bv another inscription found Apr. 2, 1876, in tlie 
villa SpitiiSver on the Quirinal. 

Recent researches also show that almost the whole sur- 
face of the Esquiline was occupied by gardens, which, laid 
out at first for private use, had fallen by degrees into the 
hands of the emperors, who opened them to the public; s<» 
that Rome became perhaps as rich in parks and deliirhtful 
promenades as is London or Paris. Among the gardens re- 
cently discovered mav be mentioned those of Vettius A^'nn- 
us F*ra^textatus, the site of which is very near the Porta San 
Lorenzo. Nearly all the foundations of the buildings tH>- 
longing to these gardens are composed of fragments of stat- 
ues. A single one of these walls, scarcely 100 feet in lengt h. 
has yielded 2.500 pieces of sculpture, which, united with in- 
finite patience, have already furnished the museum of tl»- 
Capitol with seventeen statues and two sculptured vases. It 
is enough to say that the single statue of a Hercules carrv- 
ing off the mares of Diomed has l)een recomposcd out of 
nearly 250 fragments. Foundation-walls built with frair- 
ments of statuary are the work of the semi-barbaric R*»m»n«^ 
of the sixth to the ninth century of our era. They are di-*- 
covered by hundreds. One, found in 1890 on the banks of 
the Til)er by San Giovanni de' Fiorentini, contained tie- 
now famous account of the Ludi Sibculares celebratinl 1 y 
Augustus in 17 b. c. and by Septimius Sevenis in a. d. 2tM. 



160 



ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH 



ROMANCE LANGUAGES 



«xplicit form to beliefs that are implicitly contained either 
in Scripture or in tradition. The sources of tradition are in 
c^eneral whatever makes known to us the belief held by the 
Church at any time on any subject. The documentary 
sources are the writings of the early apologists, the acts and 
epistles of the apostolic churches, the works of the Fathers, 
doctors, and theologians. Moreover, the articles of faith 
have at various times been summarized in creeds or sym- 
bols. Such are the Apostles* Creed ; the Nicene, promul- 
gated by the Council of Nice (325) ; the Athanasian, by St. 
Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria (d. 378) ; and that pub- 
lished by the Council of Constantinople (381). 

2. The Means of Sanetification. — These consist in the ap- 
plication to each soul of Christ*s merits. The sacraments, 
the ordinary channels of grace, are seven in number : Bap- 
tism, confirmation. Holy Eucharist, penance, extreme unc- 
tion, orders, and matrimony. These are administered with 
ceremonies peculiar to each prescribed by the ritual of the 
Church. The Eucharist is not only a sacrament, but also a 
sacrifice, and as such is offered in the M^ss. This is the 
principal act of • worship in the Church and the center of her 
liturgy. The Office, or public prayer of the Church, is a col- 
lection of psalms, extracts from both Testaments, commen- 
taries of the Fathers, and short lives of the saints. It is di- 
vided to suit the different hours of the day, and is either 
•chanted in common, as is the case in monastic orders and 
canonries, or is recited in private, its recitation being obli- 
gatory on all who have received the subdiaconate. Both in 
the Mass and Office there are certain portions which vary 
according to the liturgical season and the festival which is 
observed on a given day. Ecclesiastical feasts are days set 
apart for honoring in a special way some event in the life 
of Christ, of the Blessed Virgin Mary, or of the other saints. 
The greater of these feasts are preceded by seasons of a 
penitential character — such as Advent before Christmas, 
Lent before Easter, and the vigil of many other festivals. 
The chief practices enjoined for this preparation are fasting, 
abstinence, and prayer. Beside the administration of the 
■sacraments, the Church attaches a sacred and symbolical 
character to various objects, the use of which is destined to 
inspire reverence and devotion. Hence the blessing of 
ashes, water, palms, candles, etc., in virtue of which these 
^acramentals profit those who employ them according to the 
intention of the Church and with proper dispositions. The 
language of the Liturgy in the Western Church is Ijatin, 
while in the churches of the East the vernacular, mostly in 
its archaic form, is employed. There exist also differences 
in the form of the Liturgy itself, and consequently a variety 
of rites, such as the Coptic, the Armenian, and the Greek. 
Along with these general means of sanetification for all the 
faithful, the Church has encouraged the founding of religious 
orders, i.e. of associations whose members are bound by spe- 
•cial vows, live under particular rules, and labor for some pe- 
culiar purpose, such as caring for the poor and sick, spread- 
ing the Gospel, and carrving on the work of education. 

3. Ths Oovemment of the Church. — To fulfill her mission 
of t-eaching and sanctifying men the Church must enact 
laws to be obeyed both by clergy and laity. While her doc- 
trines are unchangeable, her discipline varies according to 
circumstances of time and place. Ecclesiastical legislation 
is incorporated in the canon law. It is either general — de- 
crees of the pope and of general councils, or particular — 
statutes of national, provincial, and diocesan synods. As 
rcganls its subject, it is either public {jus ecclesiasiicum pub- 
lieum) or private {jus ecclestasticum privatum). The for- 
mer is for the government of the clergy ; the latter for that 
of the laity. The penalties infiicte<l for violation of ecclesi- 
astical law are of two sorts: the p<xn<F communes— excotn- 
imuncation and interdict — which may be incurretl by clerical 
and lay offenders, and the pcena^ particulnres — suspension 
and deposition — to which clerics only are liable. The penal 
law of the early Church was severe; but this rigor has been 
mitigated in the course of time. (See Penanck.) Finally, 
as the members of the Cluirch are at the same time subjects 
of the civil power, it has often been found necessary for 
Church and state to define their relations and settle upon a 
modus Vivendi. These agreements regarding the external 
relations of the Churcli are termed conconluts. 

Statistics. — 1. General: The number of Roman Catholics 
in the world is about 280,000.000. There are 04 cardinals 
and 12 patriarchs. In the Latin rite there are 820 archbi«»h- 
ops ana bishops, and in the Oriental riles 56; while the 
titulars, i. e. those who have no diocese, number 322. 2. In 
the United States: The Catholic population is about 10,000,- 



000. The Church has 1 cardinal, 1 apostolic delegate, 14 
archbishoprics, 72 bishoprics, and 9,700 priests. i 

See also the articles Papal States, Jesuits, Gallic an 
Church, Trent, Council of, and Vatican Council. 

Statistical Literature. — For the statistics of the medi- 
eval Church, the works of Carolus a Sancto Paulo, Miiu-iis. 
Holstein, Clericus, Schelstrate, and Weidenbach may he 
consulted with profit. In the nineteenth century Stiiu'dliu, 
Wiggers, Neher, Silbernagl, Carolus a Sancto Al()ysi<i, , 
Wiltsch, Petri, and others have treated the subject with 
more or less accuracy. The episcopal catalogues of the H«»- 
man Catholic Church have been edited or compiled down lo 
modern times by the Benedictine Gaius : Series Episcopth- 
rum Ecdesios Catholics ... a Beato Petro Apostolo { Itat- 
isbon, 1873). Diocesan, provincial, or national religious al- 
manacs and directories are published in most places, to 
which may be added the reports of the various missionarv 
bodies made known from time to time. The actual state of 
the Roman Catholic hierarchy is made known yearly in La 
Oerarchia Cattolica, a quasi-official Roman nublication ; 
Les Missions Catholiques, and the Annates de la proimga- 
tion de la fox furnish details of great value. The Propa- 
ganda issues an official yearly bulletin entitled MisKiunfi 
CatholiccB. The best and newest general summary of thf 

Sublic administration of the Roman Catholic Church is hy 
». Werner, S. J., Orbis terrarum Catholicus, etc. (Freibun:. 
1890), and for the Catholic missions, the same, Atlas dm 
Missions Catholiques {ibid., 1886), and Kaiholtscher Kirch- 
enatlas {ibid., 1888). Official reports of all dioceses, vicari- 
ates, prefectures, etc., are made to the projier Roman au- 
thorities at stated intervals, and are preserved in the s{»t'cial 
archives of the respective Roman congregations. For the 
actual working of the latter bodies, cf. Bangen (Catholic). 
Die ROmische Curie (MUnster, 1854), and 0. Meyer (Pna- 
estant). Die Propaganda (Gottingen, 1852), and the sixth 
volume of Phillips's Kirchenrecht (Regensburg. 1864). The 
latest statistics of the Roman Catholic Church in the U. S. 
are found in Satllier's Catholic Directory (New York) and 
Hoffman's Catholic Directory and Clergy List (Milwaukee). 
Special Catholic directories are annually oublished fur 
Canadii, England, Scotland, and Ireland. j. J. Keank. 

Romance Langnages, or Romanic Lan;na«re8 [Ro- 
manic is from Lat. Roma'nicus, Roman, deriv. of Roma nun. 
Roman, deriv. of Roma, Rome] : those modem languages 
which, as the result of continuous oral transmission, are the 
current forms of spoken Latin. The languages grou!)e<l u>- 
pther under this name are French, Provencal and Cata- 
lan (the latter is hardly more than a dialect of Provenvah, 
Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Roumanian, and the Kha^tn- 
Itomance dialects. The territory is in general that of the 
Roman empire, excepting those parts which by later popular 
migrations or conquest were afterw^ard removed from th«» 
sway of the Latin language, and those regions which were 
never completely Romanized. 

The Latin spread in the conouered provinces was nat- 
urally the vulgar speech of the soldiers and colonists, not the 
Ijatin of the classic writers. Though in the beginning dif- 
fering from the latter only as careless conversational ^p♦'t't•h 
always differs from the more elaborate usage of literary 
works, it was more subject to local variations, and ohangrV 
were more rapid than in the literary language. The luttor 
was also studied, however, in the provinces, and there wt're 
writers of a certain eminence in bjiain and Gaul long after 
those countries had become Roman provinces. Borrowing'-, 
from the Latin of literature became later verv considerable ; 
they are numerous in medi;pval times after tfie modern lan- 
guages began to be used in literature, and they have eonl in- 
ued up to modern times. In general, the old popular wuni^ 
can l>e distinguished by their strict observance of the law*- «»i 

Chonetic change, while learned or semi-learned wor<l> hiive 
een less altered. Compare Fr. pen. from paufum^ with 
paucile, pere with patemiti, chose with cause (both fr<un 
causa). 

The vulgar Latin of post-classic times was in the Iwi^in- 
ning very similar over the whole territory. In its v<K'al Hi- 
lary it differed somewhat from the literary Latin, nion» <i 
less vnlgar words or meanings being useti, as for '• ln'i^^^o.' 
cabnllus^ a nag, for "fire," focus, for *' to strike," hat*i*rt 
for " to turn,'' toniare, etc., and derivative words, esj>oc-iul! > 
diminutives, were use»l sometimes instead of thesimplo r.n» - 
Some words from foreign languages were atlded to tbo \4« 
cabulary. The oldest l»orrowings from Greek show tiriM '. 
sounds to have been imitated as heard in Italy. Many <»f 1 1.- 



162 



ROMANCE LANGUAGES 



were at the stage of voiced (except when unvoiced at the 
end of the word) spirants ; compare chantee from cantata{m)y 
nmur from nodare. The doubled consonants of Latin were 
simplified except in Italian, which language has by assimila- 
tion produced a number of new doublings, as in fatto from 
fctctum, freddo from frig{i)dum. The Roumanian treat- 
ment of some consonant groups is remarkable ; compare opt 
from oetOf demn from dignnm. The phencnnena of palatal- 
ization can not be discussed here. 

The most important final consonants in Latin are m, «, t 
Of these, final m early disappeared entirely except in a few 
cases where it followed an accented vowel; compare Fr. 
Hen from rem. Final a and / were lost in Italian and Rou- 
manian, but elsewhere a was retained, and final t, which was 
for the most part lost, was in French, under certain condi- 
tions, retained. Tlie retention of old final a and i in mod- 
em French is to a great extent only for the eye. 

The Latin inflections of nouns and adjectives have suffered 
considerable change. The fourth and fifth declensions dis- 
appeared, the former being absorbed in the second declen- 
sion, the latter in the first and third, so that only three of 
the old classes remain at all. The neuter gender is no longer 
distinguished in nouns, but neuter uses of adjective words 
(as in Spanish) and pronouns are not wholly lost. The old 
neuters became for the most part masculine, but there are 
many traces of Latin neuter forms. The Latin cases were 
reduced in number, partly by the results of phonetic change, 
partly by the substitution of prepositions with the accusative. 
The Roumanian still has, in the singular of feminine nouns, 
a case corresponding in use to the Ijatin genitive and dative, 
and the same language has a vocative which may be in part 
descended from the Latin vocative, but it has no distinction 
in form between nominative and accusative in nouns. In 
the other languages of the family the dative in nouns was 
soon lost, as were also the genitive and the ablative, except 
in a few instances. In Old French and Provencal a declen- 
sion with two cases, representing the Latin nominative and 
accusative, existed ; thus in Old Fr. nom. sing, mura (from 
munta), obj. sing, mur, nom. plur. mur, obj. pi. mura. Fem- 
inine nouns, however, from the Latin first declension were 
generallv alike in both cases, as in modern French. Traces 
of a similar declension exist in Rhaeto- Romance dialects still ; 
but the modem forms of the languages which had this de- 
clension have, with some exceptions, lost the old nominatives, 
and it can be said that, with the exception of Roumanian, 
nouns in the liomance languages no longer have any cases, 
the inflection being reduced to a distinction of plural and sin- 
giilar forms, and even this distinction is largely lost in spoken 
French. The modern fonns as a rule represent the Latin ac- 
cusati ve, but in Italian and Roumanian the single form of the 
plural is from the Ijatin nominative in nouns coming from 
the Latin first and second declensions: Ital. roae, Roum. rotiae 
from roa(ta, ItaL annt, Roum. ant from anni ; but Fr. roaea, 
ana. Span, roaaa, affoa, from roaas, annoa. The declension 
of adjectives is very similar to that of nouns* Some com- 
parative forms of Latin are witieljr retained ; compare Fr. 
meilleur, Ital. migliore. Span. mejQr with Lat, meiiorem; 
but commonly the comparative is expressed by the aid of an 
adverb meaning ** more " (modem forms of plua or magis), 
and for a superlative the comparative with tne definite arti- 
cle is regularly used, there being no true superlative. 

Among pronouns occur some forms which go back to 
Latin nominatives, accusatives, genitives, and datives, and 
these four cases are still more or less living, partly through 
the aid of new formations, as Fr. en, Ital. ««, from the a«l- 
verb inde, Ital. loro, Fr. leur are from illorum, though they 
are now used as datives (Ital. loro can also be used as an 
accusative or even as a nominative^ or as possessives. Ital. 
lui, colui, etc., Fr. /we, celui go back to vulgar Latin datives 
(as iUui\ compare \j&im cui, huic). It is true that these 
forms are no longer confined to use as object cases. Nomi- 
native forms from ego, tu, and vulvar Latin illi or ille are 
also preserved ; as from ego, Ital. to, Roum, eh, Fr.je (Old 
Fr. Also jo, joH\ Prov. #»m, tea. Span, yo. Port, en, while the 
accusative is shown, for example, in Ital. me, Fr. moi, etc. 
Among the descendants of Latin pronouns is to be especially 
noted the definite article which comes from ifle (in some 
dialects from ipse) in an unstressed form. Fr. le, /n, 
ItaL lo, la represent respectively ilium, illa{m), iust as the 
same forms are also used as unstressed personal pronouns 
in the accusative, while the sti-esscd form ilia gave Fr. elle, 
Ital. ella. The indefinite article goes hack to fjat. unun. 

In verb inflexion the passive voU-e is entirely lost, except 
the past participle, which is used to form the passive (over 



most of the territory) and tenses for completed action in tlir* 
active voice; furtKer are lost the future indicative, thr 
future or emphatic imperative, the perfect infinitive, the 
gerundive (not the gerund), the future participle, the supiu«> 
(in Konmanian the form of the past participle is used als) 
with prepositions in a sense like that of the Latin supine^i, 
the imperfect subjunctive (retained in Sardinia), and perhaj^i 
also the perfect subjunctive (see below). But of the remain- 
ing forms not all are found in every one of the Romance lan- 
giiages. The pluperfect indicative was retained in Spanish, 
Portuguese, Provengal, and the oldest French among the rei • 
ognized literary languages, and in these its sense has general) v 
been changed to that of a conditional or (as in Old PVenclj) 
to that of a simple preterite. The future perfect remains in 
Spanish, Portuguese, and the older Roumanian (but the })er- 
feet subjunctive may be in part the source of these formal. 
The present participle (lost in Roumanian) is mostly fouiul 
only as a vernal adjective, its place being largely taken 1>> 
the gerund. The old pluperfect subjunctive is now m<>H)|> 
an imperfect subjunctive ; in Roumanian it has becomt* ii 
plupenect indicative. The perfect indicative where retaim-ii 
has become simply a preterite. By the aid of auxiliaries, how- 
ever, and of new fomiations all deficiencies are well sufiplitij. 
New fomiations are those for the future indicative and th»' 
so-called conditional mood. The former is the result of an 
old combination of the infinitive with the present indicative 
of habere, the latter of a similar combination of the infini- 
tive with the imperfect or perfect indicative of the same 
auxiliary. *•! shall sing" was expressed by "I have t«i 
sing," cantare haheo, and "I should sing "by** I had \n 
sing," cantare habebam or cantare habtti (the latter is the 
basis for the usual Italian form). As such phrases coali's<-od 
into single words contraction somewhat disguised the origi- 
nal forms, but the terminations still show the connet-tinn 
with the verb ** to have." This method of formation is n< a 
the only one in use. Roumanian uses an auxiliarv corre- 
sponding to Latin volo to form the future, and in the wt^t- 
em part of the Rhieto-Romance territory is found a forma- 
tion for the future corresponding to venio ad cantare. T«« 
the Romance formations are to be added, besides the futiir'. 
and the conditional, man v new past participles, nee< let I t«> 
form compound tenses for intransitive verbs, and sunic 
others of less importance. 

The four Latin conjugations are still more or less vct-V 
preserved in much of the Romance territory, but the sc<*nrHi 
and third are to a great extent confused, and the greatv-*' 
vitality is shown by the first and fourth conjugations. In 
personal endings and in tense formation the influence i>f 
analogy has been strong, no conjugational type having «>v. 
caped it. Remarkable are the variations in the form <if tin 
stem, due to diflferent positions of the accent; compare Kr. 
tient and tenir, Ital. tiene and tenere, Fr. meurt and mourtr, 
ItaL mnore and morire. Old Fr. aime and amer (now aimt-r ., 
etc. In most verbs of the fourth conjugation an inclioat i \ v 
ending, originally -tsc-, was added to the stem, apjiearinjir m 
only some forms of the present tenses, in Italian and Kon- 
manian, spreading in French somewhat more, and in Spanish 
and Portuguese appearing in all the forms of the verb, so t hav 
the inflnitive in these last ends in -ecer instead of ir, and tht':^«i 
verbs cease to belong to the fourth conjugation. C'onipHni 
Fr. fima (pres. indic^, iiniaaaia, ^niaaant, with the infiniti vti 
finir, lia,hfiniaco with finire. The formation of the pret rri 1 1 1 
indicative and the past participle is somewhat complicattMl, 
especially in the so-called irregular verbs. The ocea>i«.>iial 
Latin reduplication, as in eucnrri, is lost and other fortune 
tions substituted, especially with a and u (cf. Ital. eorsi, l*r, 
eovnia)', but the perfects dedi and ateti (or vulgar at f tut \ 
extended their endings to other verbs considerably in vul trni! 
Latin. The past participle also shows influences of anal< »t; y ^ 
notablv for the many forms going back to the ending -ut u z^*, 
as in I^^r. eu (formerly «i, mi), ItaL aimto. 

The Romance languages are well supplied with deriviit ivri 
endings or suffixes forming nouns, ailjectives, and v«Tt"-, 
One of the most interesting sufllxes is the descendant . \ 
Latin men^, mentis, mind, now widely used as an advcrl»;;.| 
suffix: Fr. -ment, ItaL, Span., and Port, -mente. The.se ^i.f, 
fixes are mostly of Latin origin, but some are from Gri-. k, 
as Fr. -e-sae, ItaL -m-n^, forming feminines, from Greek -co-ir^ 
Fr. 'Oyer^ ItaL -egginre, Span, -ear^ and. in less po|»«4 .,i 
form, Fr. -iaer, ItaL -izzare. Si)an. -izar, from -<C«(y : «»t h. - \ 
are from the Germanic, as Fr. -flrrf, ItaL -ardo; anil i ^ 
origin of yet others is not quite certain, as of the dimin\it j • i 
-ei in Fr., -etfo in ItaL Slavic and other languages ha^ ^ 
supplied some suffixes to Roumanian. 



164 



ROMANES 



ROMAN LAW 



numerous family to which Cervantes paid his respects. It 
is impossible, however, to follow all the later and divergent 
paths of the romance, which lead not to distinct persons so 
much as to special subjects. Such are romances of the in- 
nocent wife, like Griseldis ; romance interwoven with alle- 
gory, like the Roman dt la Rose ; romance with satiric lean- 
ing* as in Reynard the Fox, which lays the beast-epic under 
contribution ; pastoral romances, like Sidney's oeautiful 
Arcadia ; and long romances of later date, such as those of 
Mile, de Scudery. 

The literature of the romances is enormous, but two works 
contain ample bibliographical as well as direct information : 
Ward, Catalogue of Romances in . , , the British Museum, 
(i., 1883), and Dunlop, History of Prose Fiction (revised ed. 
London, 1888). For English romances, see G. Ellis, Speci- 
metis of Early English Metrical Romances (1848), and the 
various editions in the nublications of the Early English 
Text Society. For the French, see Nyrop, Den oldfranske 
Heltedigtning, and G-. Paris, Ilisloire Poetioue de Charle- 
magne, Francis B. Gummebe. 

Romanes, rd-manz', George John, F. R. S., LL. D. : bi- 
ologist ; b. at Kingston, Canada, May 20, 1848 ; graduated 
with honors at Cambridge, England, 1870 ; fellow of Royal 
Society 1879 ; became an intimate friend of Charles Darwin 
while in Cambridge ; was Fullerian Professor of Physiology 
in the Royal Institution of London, and Rosebery Lecturer 
on Natural Historjr in the University of Edinburgh. He 
devoted himself principally to extending evolutionary doc- 
trines in the field of psychology ; published Animal Intelli- 
gence (1881) ; Mental Simlution in Animals (1883) ; Mental 
Evolutiofi in Math (1888) ; Origin of Human Faculty and 
Philosophy of Natural History before and after Darwin, 
and numerous scientific essays. D. at Oxford, May 23, 1894. 

C. n. Thurber. 

Romanesque : See Architecture. 

Romanic Languages : See Romance Languages. 

Roman Law : primarily, the body of rules which gov- 
erned the city of Rome and its citizens. As the power of 
Rome grew, this system of law was extended over a large 
part of Italy, but it was not generally introduced into other 
territories nor made applicable to Rome's subjects as dis- 
tinguished from her citizens. For the conquered provinces 
and their inhabitants a different body of rules was worked 
out. This new law was only in small* part a further devel- 
opment of the law of the city ; in the main it was a distinct 
and superior system. It was based on the customs of the 
various Mediterranean peoples, and representatives of nearly 
all those peoples ultimately played some part in its devel- 
opment. During the imperial period these two systems 
were gradually fused into one, and in the codification of 
Justinian they are presented as a single and substantially 
homogeneous* body of law. 

Much of the Roman law has only an historical interest. 
This is the case with the older law of the city as a whole ; 
this is the case also with the public law of the empire. On 
the other hand, the principles governing private relations, 
which were worked out in the later republic and the early 
empire and which were incorporated with little change in 
the law-books of Justinian, have more than an historical 
significance — they are to-day a living force. It was in large 
part on the basis of the lioman law that the mediaeval 
Church worked out for all Christendom its law of family 
and of testament. Toward the close of the Middle Ages 
the law-books of Justinian, as modified by the Roman canon 
law, became the chief basis of adjudication in the secular 
courts of continental Europe, and in the so-called " modern 
Roman law " Europe obtamed a body of substantially uni- 
form rules for property and obligations. The principles of 
the Roman law have not exercised a controlhng innuence 
upon the English common law ; but in all modem states, 
excent those founded by Englishmen, the existing law is 
based on Roman conceptions of private right, reveals in its 
form the influence of Roman legal science, and expresses 
itself in Roman terras. The modern civil codes of Europe and 
of Central and South America are Roman in much the same 
sense in which the existing law of the self-governing British 
colonies and of the U. S. is English ; and in this sense the 
Roman law and the English law are the two great systems 
that rule the modern civilized world. 

1. The Law of the City {Jhs (^irile). — According to one 
tradition the city was governed during the first three cen- 
turies of its existence (i. e. «luring the royal period and the 
first half -century of the republic) by unwritten custom. 



According to another tradition the earliest laws were royal 
enactments. A considerable body of ancient rules. descrilK'd 
as royal laws {leges regi<f), existed and were collected in 
the republican period. Many of these have come down in 
us, and it is evident that they are simply rules of early 
custom, similar to those which prevailed among other Aryan 
peoples. Precepts of a religious or moral nature are bleiuUd 
with rules of a legal character. Their formulation sugge>t> & 
strong sacerdotal influence — an assumption which is cor- 
roborated by other Roman traditions. 

The Twelve Tables. — Early in the republican peritxi the 
plebeians complained that the ancient customs of the city 
were misinterpreted by the patrician priests and misapjilittl 
by the patrician magistrates. They therefore demanded 
that the law be reduced to writing and enacted in statutory 
form. In compliance with this demand the law of the Twdvt 
Tables was drafted by a commission of ten elected for \\w 
purpose, and was approved by the popular assembly (4r)l 
and 450 b. c). Mucn of this early code has come down to 
us. It is clearly nothing but a compilation of the older 
customary law. It differs from the so-called royal laws in 
that it contains fewer religious precepts and gives a churer 
formulation of personal and property rights. It was regarded 
by the Romans as the great charter of their liberties. As 
late as Cicero's time Roman schoolboys learned its text by 
heart ; and during the greater part of the republican |K?ri<xi 
it was practically impossible to secure the adoption of any 
law which directly and overtly abrogated or changed the 
provisions of the Tables. 

The Republican Jurists. — Under these circumstances the 
development of the law was accomplished mainly by inter- 
pretation. The scanty and rude provisions of theTwtdve 
Tables were supplemented and modified by a free use of an- 
alogy and of nction. For nearly two centuries after tln« 
enactment of the Twelve Tables the priests of the pontifical 
college controlled the fonns of pleading and retained a 
practically exclusive power of interpreting the law; and it 
was not until the plebeians had forced their way into this 
last stronghold of the conservative party (300-254 b. c.) that 
Roman jurispnidence was secularized. Thenceforward Iht* 
Roman who wished to studv the great body of rules that 
had grown up around the twelve Tables was no lo!is:»r 
forced to seek an election as pontifex ; he placed hiniM.'lf 
under the instruction of some older jurist. The knowh'rli;..' 
of the law was not treated as a means of gaining a livt-li- 
hood ; legal advice was given gratuitously. Kext to or.n- 
spicuous service in war the knowledge of the law furnished 
tne ambitious Roman with the best opportunity of recom- 
mending himself to the favor and the suffrages of his fel- 
low citizens. The jurists did not plead cases; thU was the 
business of the orators. They did not directly decitle c-a-^N 
unless they happened to be elected judges or appointed ref- 
erees {judices) ; but in a doubtful case the opinion of some 
eminent jurist was brought to the referee or was s*>lifitetl 
by him, and such an opinion was regularly conclusive. 

Character of the Jus Civile. — The civil law of the republic 

I)resents many intei*esting analogies to the older conunnn 
aw of England. It was essentially a body of case lu\%, 
shaped by decisions. It was very strict and very f<»rninl. 
certainty of law being held in higher regard than equity, it 
was very technical, but nearly all its technical distinct i4»jH 
were based upon sound principles. The great advance which 
the Roman civil law represents in universal history is ft»un«i 
(1) in the unprecedented clearness with which private ritrliH 
were markea out and the extent to which tne indiviilunl 
was permitted to shape his own legal relations; and ("2) in 
the separation of law and religion. This last step was nn<i 
which no Asiatic or European people had previously taken, 
2, Toe Law or the Ancient World (Jus Oeniium).^ 
With the extension of Roman rule over the MeiliterrainaTi 
basin, legal problems were presented which could iu*i btj 
solved by the law of the city. The protection of the civil 
law could be accorded to aliens only through inti'r»-tni«i 
treaties, and the conquered provincials (as distiiigui^h*n| 
from the favored allies of Rome) were not merely aliens— 
they were stateless aliens. The states of which they ha-l 
been citizens had been destroyed by war. They theni^clvt-i 
wore simply subjects of Rome. In theory they wvr«' th< 
slaves of the Roman people, and their property belontri'd t^ 
the republic. In fact, they were treated as freemen, and il 
was necessary to administer justice to them. 

A more serious difficulty lay in the inade<juacv of the « it ] 
law to meet the needs of the new empire. 1 he {{onian <m\ 3 
law had been worked out by and for a people whor-e chi.i 



166 



ROMAN LAW 



The Edict of Caracnlla. — Durinp the first two centuries of 
the C'hristiHn era lioinan citizenship had Ijeen conferred 
upon great numbers of provincials. Early in the third cen- 
tury Caracalla declared all free inhabitants of the empire 
to lie Roman citizens. This etlict swept away the last re- 
maining differences between civil and provincial law. 
Technically speaking, the empire was henceforth governed 
by the law of the city ; but as the civil law had been com- 
pletely reino<leIod in accordance with the principles of the 
Jus gentium^ the substantial triumph rested with the latter 
system. 

The Later Empire atid the Codification of Justinian. — 
The list of the great jurists is abruptly closed about the 
middle of the third century. After Paul but one name of 
note occurs, that of Minlestine. The development of the 
law was henceforth carried (»n by imperial decrees or "con- 
stitutions." The breach with the old order, however, was 
less complete than it aptiears to be. Most of the constitu- 
tions issued during the last half of the third century were 
" rescripts." These were responses rendered in the name 
of the emperor to petitions recjuosting imperial decision of 
concrete cases. Such applications had been made through- 
out the early empire. In some cases the emperor decided 
these cases in council ; more frequently he assigned their 
decision to the ordinarv judges, with instructions, how- 
ever, touching the principles which should be applied. In 
substance, therefore, these rescripts were decisions rather 
than statutes. The rescripts issued in the reigns of Gordian 
and of Diocletian are similar in form, and not inferior in 
the quality of their legal reasoning, to the average re- 
sponses of Uloian and Paul. Jurisprudence had not yet 
sensibly waneu, as it did in the fourth and following cen- 
turies, out the jurists had disappeared behind the throne, 
and spioke only with the voice of the emperor. 

Technically, however, the rescripts, as well as the general 
decrees of the later emi)erors, were imperial *' laws " (leges)^ 
and were distinguished from the older law {jus) very much 
as we distinguish statutes from common law. 

The first attempts at codification were confined to the im- 
perial constitutions. A private collection of rescripts was 
made at the end of the third century {codex Greaorianus)^ 
and a supplement was issued late in the fourth century 
{codex Ilermogenianus), In the year 429 the East Roman 
emperor Theodosius appointed a committee of codification. 
It wasclearly his intention to have the entire law, both the 
Jus and the leges, brought into manageable com()ass ; but 
nothing came of his initiative except an official revision of 
the imperial constitutions {codex Theodosianus). This code 
was transmitted to the Empemr Valentinian III., and was 
published in both the Eastern and the Western empire in 
the vears 438 and 4;i^, 

The Emperor Justinian (527-565) and his minister Tribo- 
nian took up the wider plan of Theodosius. A new collec- 
tion of imperial constitutions was published in the year 
529. A committee was then appointed to dig&st the juris- 
tic literature, omitting all that was antiuuateil and avoid- 
ing contradictions. The result of their labors was the Di- 
gfst or Pandects, which consisted of more than 9,000 excerpts 
from the writings of thirty-nine jurists, arranged under 429 
titles and grouped into fifty books. Each excerpt or frag- 
ment is precetied by the name of the writer and the title of 
his work. As a rule, the excerpts were literally reproduced, 
without condensation or other change. During the prog- 
ress of this work an ofiicial text-book was drafted, intended 
primarilv for use in the imperial law schools. It was based 
on the Institutes of Gains, and bore the same title. The 
Institutes and the Digest of Justinian were published Nov. 
21 and Dec. 16, 5;W. In the meantime the codex of 529 had 
become antiquated. A number of controversies had been 
discovered in the juristic literature, and no less than fifty 
new constitutions had been issued for their tlecision. A 
i'odex "of the secoml reailing*' {reftetitte pnelertionis) was 
therefore published Dec. 29, 5ii4. It contains more than 
4.600 constitutions (more than half of them "rescripts"), 
arranged in twelve books. The Institutes, Digest, and Co- 
dex were declared to be henceforth the sole sources of the 
law, and to forestall further controversy it was made a 
penal offense to write commentaries upon these books. 
During the remaining years of his reign Justinian issued 
many new constitutions. Of these yocels {noveU(B leges) 
only private compilations were made. 

The value of Justinian's work lies mainly in the fact that 
the Roman law was not codified in the nKxlern sense of the 
word ; i. e. no attempt was made to set forth the entire law 



as a body of positive rules. In the excerpts from the juris- 
tic literature w^hich make up the Digest and in the rci^rif^i^ 
contained in the Codex we have a great body of rules stnt..! 
only by implication, and therefore capable of Peformulation, 
This gives the Roman law that elasticity which is inhfnni 
in all case law. This made it possible to apply the under- 
lying principles of the Roman law to the new and difTrniit 
social conditions of the Middle Ages, and this makes rln- 
law-books of Justinian of value to-day to the student of 
legal science. 

4. KoMAN Law in MEDiiKVAL and Modern Europe. — In 
the East, — The collections made by Justinian continutnl to 
l)e employed in the East Roman or Byzantine empire until 
the close of the ninth century, when tney were displaced hv 
a less bulky compilation, known as the Basilica (sc. uowl- 
ma), royallaws. This book remained nominally in fon t- 
until the fall of Constantinople (1453), but it was superset (>il 
in practice by a series of pnvate digests and comi)endium% 
eacn briefer than its predecessor. One of these, the HexabiUo*, 
compiled in the fourteenth century, was extensively \x>^*\ 
among the Christian subjects of the Ottoman empire, an'l 
was in force in the kingdom of Greece as late as the nii«l- 
die of the nineteenth century. It is said that the Roman 
law in its later Byzantine form exercised a consi<ierable in- 
fluence upon the development of the Turkish law. 

In the Teutonic Kingdoms, — Half a century before Jus- 
tinian ascended the throne at Constantinople the West H«>- 
man empire had fallen. In most of the Teutonic kingdiims 
established in Western and Southern Europe the coiU|iirrtd 
provincials were permitted to live by the Roman law <th«' 
so-calle<i system of the "personal statute "), and several of 
the kings had handbooks of Roman law compiled for the u-«* 
of their Roman subjects. The most important of these vk*. 
the so-called Breviary of Alaric II., King of the ViMpitli's 
(a. d. 506). It included a condensation of the Instituf*A of 
Gains, a portion of the Opinions ot Paul and a ccm^ider- 
able numV>er of constitutions from the older codices, {Mirtiiu- 
larly the Theodosian. 

Local Law, — As the Romanic and Teutonic elements in 
Western and Southern Europe were gradually fuse<l int<» 
new nations, the system of the " personal statute " was ne«-- 
essarily abandoned, and the Roman law became the i'Kal 
law of* those districts in which the Romanic element wn^s 
preponderant. In France, for example, the southern pn^v- 
inces, where it was regularly applied, were known as tiie 
"lands of written law {pays de droit icrit), in distinction 
from the "lands of custom" {pays coutumiers), wh< rr 
Prankish usages prevailed. Until the latter j>art of th«- 
Middle Ages, however, the economic conditions prevail ini: 
throughout Europe were so simple that the Roman law 
which was required and applied was but a slight part of th*- 
jurisprudence which had grown up in the second and third 
centuries. Until the twelfth century the BreHary was nl- 
ma«4t the only source of Roman law employed in We>terii 
KuTope. 

The Canon Law, — Of greater importance was the sur- 
vival and development of Roman law in the mtNlia»vHl 
Church. It was an unquestioned maxim that the Chureh 
lived by the Roman law. Its entire sacenlotal |»erst»nni*l 
stood outside of the tribal and local laws which governeil 
the laity, and in many matters which are to-day regarde<i 
as secular (marriage and the family relations, testainentarj 
succession, etc.) it claimed and obtained a practically ex<'lii'- 
sive jurisdiction over all Christians, From the court of thf 
bishop (see Ordinary) appeals ran to Rome and by the th*- 
cisions of the popes a great body of new law was grndually 
built uj) — the Jus canonicum. See Canon Law and Mar- 

RIAOK. 

Study and Reception of the Lair-books of Justinian (11<^>- 
1600).— Toward the close of the eleventh centun* the law- 
yers of Ijombardy began to have recourse to the Digent of 
Justinian for the* solution of questions U{Km which their 
local law was silent. In the twelfth century flouri-^hiu;: 
law sch(K)ls exi'^ted at Bologna and other Italian university 
centers in which the Roman law, both civil and canon, wa^ 
systematical! v taught, and to which students from We^te^l 
and Central ICurone {ultramontani) thronged by thousamU. 
In the course of the same century Roman law was reatl at 
Montpellier, at Paris, and at Oxfonl. In the following ivn- 
turics it iKJcame a regular branch of instruction in the new 
universities established in the Netherlands and in (iennan\. 
In those countries where Koman law was alreailv in f*»ree 
the law-books of Justinian began to be cited in the cH>urt^. 
and in countries where the Roman law had previou>l> 



Ilimiiiii' 



tiT !h» tt»nT(»ii \ 



mvH^wni 



nrr mtinr tif l^r »l^f^riH^r»?•* 



168 



ROMANTICISM 



ROME 



ticism, so many times badly defined, is simply liberalism in 
literature." 

Essential Qtialities,^ AW these definitions have something 
in common. There are evidently three essential qualities in 
romanticism : Subjectivity, love of the picturesoue, and a re- 
actionary spirit. By the first is meant that tne iispiration 
and vague longing of the writer will be manifest in his lit- 
erary production ; by the second, that element of strangeness 
added to beautv, which Pater declares is fundamental ; this 
may appear mildly, as where the writer is fond of ivy-man- 
tled towers and moonlit water, or may turn into a passion 
for the unnatural and the horrible, as in tales of ghosts and 
of deeds of blood. By the third is meant that the romantic 
movement in any country will always be reactionary to what 
has immediately preceded ; it may be gently and unconscious- 
ly reactionary, as in England, or proudly and fiercely rebel- 
lious, as in France. 

ifeeiMBt'a/t«m.— Taking these three elements, subjectiv- 
ity, picturesqueness, and reaction, it is easy to see why the 
romantic movement in Great Britain, in Germanv, and in 
France, went for its inspiration back to the Middle Ages. 
In the Middle Ages lay just the material for which the ro- 
mantic spirit vearned. ' Its religious, military, and social life 
can hardly be' better characterized than by the word mctur- 
esqiie; and souls weary of form and finish, and of the mo- 
notony of rules, naturally sought the opposite of all this in 
the literature and thought of the Middle Ages. And as the 
classicists had neglected this period above all others, and 
treated it with contempt, the reactionists began with an 
attempt to revivify and brighten this mediroval life. 

English Romanticism,— -fh^ most striking difference be- 
tween the romantic movement in France and in Great Brit- 
ain is that in the former the movement was conscious, 
while in the latter it was only instinctive. French roman- 
ticism had a definite programme, backed almost from the 
start by a critical school, and headed by one supreme cre- 
ative genius. English romanticism was a totally different 
thing. Its beginnings are so faint and so far below the sur- 
face that many writers seem to believe that English roman- 
ticism began with the nineteenth century, and that in the 
** age of prose and reason " there was no such thing as a ro- 
mantic movement at all. It is certainly impossible to name 
any author as the chief pioneer ; for even at the height of 
Augustan taste there were feeble signs of reaction shown by 
such writers as Pamell, Croxall, Latly Winchelsea, William 
Hamilton of Bangour, and Allan Ramsay. The reaction in 
form, which resulted in the overthrow of the heroic couplet, 
was brought about by Thomson. Blair, Dyer, Young, Aken- 
side, and others, who cultivated blank verse. The sonnet was 
revived by Thomas Edwards, Thomas Warton, Stillingfleet. 
and Mason. Perhaps the most marked change, both in 
thought and style, is indicated by the Spenserian revival — 
the renewed study of his poetry and the metrical imitations 
of his stanza. The latter oegan as early as 1706, with an ode 
by Prior, and the fad reached its highest popularity in the 
years 1735-55, when about forty poems by various writers 
appeared in Spenserian form. The influence of Milton's 
poems — especially his II Penseroso — was very effective after 
1750, giving to literature a dreamy, melancholy cast, which 
aided in developing the churchyard school. The Warton 
brothers, happily re-enforced by the lyrical genius of Collins, 
were the leaoers of the Miltonic group, and became promi- 
nently identified with the romantic movement. Joseph War- 
ton wrote blank verse and odes, but his most important con- 
tribution was his Essay on Pope (1756), in which he main- 
tained that Pope, being deficient in the higher qualities of 
poetry, imagination, and passion, could not be classed in the 
first rank of British poets. Thomas Warton wrote sonnets 
and poems on romantic themes, and aided the Spenserian 
school bv his Observations on the Faery Queen (1754). Fol- 
lowing tiie influences just mentioned came the rage for medi- 
levalism, shown in the revival of Gothic architecture, begun 
by the dilettante Horace Walpole. He did pioneer work by 
building a fantastic structure at StrawlK?rry Hill (1750), and 
by writing the extravagant Gothic romance, Ttie Castle of 
Otranto (1764). The love and study of chivalry, for which 
Thomas Warton made a strong plea in his Observations^ was 
greatly aided bv liurd's Letters on (Vn'valry and Bomanc^ 
(1762). Meanwhile a ta.«<te for old balluds. which was created 
in 1723 by a very popular collection of old ballads (anony- 
mous) and in 1724 by Ramsay's Evergreen^ reci'ived a tremen- 
dous impetus by the publication of Percy's Reiitfues (1765). 
The love of medi«?valism showed itself also in the opening 
of a new romantic storehouse — the Northern mythology, in 



1755 Paul H. Mallet published the first part of his Ifistotrf 
de Dannemarck, whicn treated of the religion, laws, and cu<>- 
toms of the ancient Danes, and which gave a translation of 
a large portion of the Eddaic mythology. Percy and tf ra> 
became enthusiastic students of this, and made Odin neari> 
as familiar to readers as Jupiter. Old Welsh poetry wa^ 
also cultivated ; and everything old or wild or sentimental 
leaped into popularity by the publication of Macpher>on\ 
Ossianic poetry (1760-63), which ultimately was tnkni 
more seriously on the Continent than in Great Britain, it 
was fortunate for the movement that the greatest fnu't of 
the time. Gray, finally threw his whole influence in its f«- 
vor. Beginning as a classicist and disciple of Dryden, (J my 
came strongly under the influence of the 11 Penseroso gr«»ii|', 
and finally ended in downright romanticism. Gray ^u^ 
also the first man of note in the eighteenth century to a|^ 
preciate natural scenery, and his Journal in tfie' IxUfM, 
written 1769, published 1775, is full of the Wonisworthian 
spirit. By 1770 the romantic movement was in full swing: 
Chatterton's poems were an important contribution, and t >*«► 
great sides of the movement — the taste for ballads and f < r 
chivalry — culminated in the poetry and prose of Walter 
Scott. Byron belongs to sentiraentalism more strictly thhti 
to romanticism, but his influence on the romantic sk-Ikm.n 
in France and Germanv was enormous. Coleridge and 
Keats are identified with romanticism, and Wordsworth*^ 
methods and theories would certainly give him a plure 
in the history of the movement. After 1830 roroaini- 
cism in Great Britain became less pronounced, l>efHU-«' 
everything in a sense was romantic; there was nothinAf to 
fight. 

jPr^jicA.— Speaking generallv of the literary historj' of t hf 
two countries. Great Britain has almost consistently m«hmI 
for romanticism ; France for classicism. The romantic ni« "X »- 
nient in Great Britain in the eight-eenth century was n»all> 
the heart of the people asserting itself, timidly and inMinc'- 
tively at first, against the domination of a critic^ sclirMU ; 
while the romantic movement of 1830 in France was a bit- 
ter, desperate fight between a band of young reformers and 
the national literary instinct. The beginnings of Fn nch 
romanticism may be seen in the writings of HiateaubriHnd 
and Madame de Stael, but it was with \ictor Hugo that tin-' 
school definitely began (and ended) its work. In the prt'fa( »• 
to CVotwi/W/ (1828) he laid down plainly and defiantly th** 
romantic programme, which was fought for by the prest-nta- 
tion of his Hernani in 1830, and the publication of his pn-at 
romance Notre Dame de Paris (1881). A group of youn:: 
writers followed enthusiastically in Hugo's wake; they and 
the movement are well set forth in Gautier's Histoi're dn 
Romantisme. The school directed its sharpest at t ark* 
against the classic French drama, and this reform was the 
most important literary result they accomplished. Tho 
emancipation proclaimed, and at last established, the move- 
ment naturally spent its force. 

German, — The German romantic movement is not so ea-«v 
to follow. Between the years 1770 and 1832 it flouri>h<Mf. 
drooped, and flourished again, Herder's enthusiastic inter- 
est in the past kindled a flame of mediievalism, which ^as 
re-enforced by Ossianic sentimentalism from Grejit Britain, 
Ossian's influence on Goethe's Wert her is well known, and 
Odtz von Berlichingen (1773) came from the heart of Goethe's 
youthful romanticism. Twenty years later, however, the in- 
terest in Greek antiquity put meditpvalism in the shade, 
and classicism became supreme. Then in the early year> 
of the nineteenth century the romantic school asserte4i it- 
self with renewed force, and a younger generation of jxHts 
took up eagerly the cultivation of old patriotic Gennan lit- 
erature. The Schlegel brothers, Tieck and Novalis, were 
the leaders of the romantic school proper; the younger, or 
new romantics, were represented ny Uhland, Brent ano, 
the Grimm brothers, Amim, and others. 

Wm. Lyon Pdelps. 

Romany Languafre: the language of the Gti>sies {q. vx 

Borne [from Lat. Roma (whence Gr. Tai/iij) > Ital. Rama : 
Fr. i?omc : Span. Roma]: the chief city of ancient Italy, 
giving its name also to a great rc^public and empire ; tl.o 
capital of the motlern kingdom of Italy. 

I. Rome from 753 b. c. to 476 a. d. 

The Epoch of the Kiyos {Legendary Dates, r."^.?-,:' .' 
B.C.)' — According to the legends current during the I.hiit 
republic, the city was founded in 753 b. c. by a s<»ltienietu 
from Alba Longa led by Uomulis {g, i'.). Tte earliest Kit- 



170 



ROME 



functions passed to the comitia centuriata^ reorganized on a 
democratic basis at some time in the third century, and to 
the comitia tributa^ in which the whole people met in their 
tribal divisions. ** As a righteous retribution for their per- 
verse and stubborn resistance," the patricians saw ** their for- 
mer privileges converted into so many disabilities," since 
thev were forced to share these privileges with the plebeians, 
and were excluded from election to the tribunate and from 
membership in the special plebeian assembly. 

While the popular assemblies thus "acquired the sem- 
blance, the senate acquired the substance of power.** The 
assemblies were unwieldy, the |x>wer of the magistrates was 
weakened by division and by the shortness of their terms ; 
the senate alone had a continuous policy, and it drew to it- 
self the control of elections and legislation and the general 
direction of the policy of the state. On the ruins of the old 
nobility of birth arose a new patricianism based upon wealth 
and possession of office. 

The Conquesl of Italy {509-276 B c.).— The same gen- 
eration that saw the formal completion of plebeian rights by 
the Uortensian law witnessed tne establishment of lioman 
supremacy in Italy. The wars that followed the expulsion 
of Tarqumius Superbus deprived Rome of her hegemony 
over Latitmi and reduced her almost to her original limits, 
so that for a time the very existence of the state was threat- 
ened. The chief enemies* of Rome in this period were the 
Volscians, situated to the southeast, the Sabine and .£quian 
mountaineers to the east and northeast, and the powerful 
EtruscflJi confederacy across the Tiber. Against these, in 
493, an alliance was formed between Rome and the towns 
of the Latin confederacy, and in 486 this league was joined 
by the neighboring Hernicans. The long and doubtful 
wars which follow^ embellished by Roman annalists with 
poetic details and the faalf-fabuloiis stories of Coriolanus 
and Cincinnatus, brought little advantage to Rome. The 
state was weakened by civil dissensions, and only after these 
were temporarily healed by the decem viral legislation and 
the reforms which immediately followed it, did the Romans 
begin the steady advance which brought them in 406 before 
the gates of the important Etruscan city of VeiL The cap- 
ture of Veil, aft«r a ten years' siege, was an event of ^reut 
importance in the territorial growth of Rome, siiice it re-, 
moved the most serious obstacle to tW prance of Rom'ftn 
power. In the year 990 Rome wais taken ahd bucn^ Jt)y. the 
Gauls, a Celtic people from the north of Italy. In i^nte of 
the immediate loss, the Gallic invasion., seems in the end to 
have favored tlie growth of the Roman pdwec. by weak- 
ening Rome's great rival, the Etruscans,' and^pu^ting Rome 
into the position of a defender of the rest of Italy against 
the foreigner. A war with the Latins ended in 838'm-the 
dissolution of the Latin league and the incorporation of 
most of its members into the Roman state. In 306 the 
Hernican confederacy met a similar fate. The overthrow 
of the powerful tribe of the Samnites in 290, after a struggle 
which had lasted with little intermission for more than 
fifty years, led to the subjection of their Etruscan and Um- 
brian allies, and the defeat of Pyrrhus at Bene vent um hi 
275 put an end to the independence of the Greek cities in 
the south, and left Rome mistress of Italy. The Roman 
territory {ager Romanns) received considerable additions, 
but Roman supremacy was most effectively secured by the 
founding of colonies, by the building of military roads, and 
by the grant of municipal rights and tlie establishment of 
treaties of alliance with the conquered cities. 

The Efitahli»hment of lioman Snpremo^cy in the Mediter- 
ranean {JUJ^-ISS B. C). — Rome's attempt to extend her do- 
minion beyond Italy brought her at once into conflict with 
Carthage, the leading power in the western Mediterranean. 
The immediate occasion of the first Punic war was the inter- 
ference of Rome in the affairs of Sicily, which was then in 
dispute between the Carthaginians and the city of Syracuse, 
The war lasted from 264 to 241, and resulted in the' victory 
of Rome only after she had created a navy and leanied to 
compete with the Carthaginians on the sea. Shortly after 
the conclusion of peace, Rome took advantage of the mutiny 
of the Carthaginian mentenaries to annex the possessions of 
Carthage in Sardinia and Corsica. While Rome was engaged 
in subduing the Gallic tribes in the %'alley of the Po, Ilaniil- 
car Barca conquered Spain for Carthage. His son Hannibal 
began the second Punic war in 218 by leading his army over 
the Alps into Italy. Important victories on the Trebia, at 
Lake Trasimenus, and at Cannae, gave him control of the Po 
vallev and the southern part of the peninsula, but he was 
unable to attack successfully the city of Rome or to shake 



the loyalty of the peoples of Central Italy. The defeat of 
his brother Uasdrultal on the Metaurus destroyed Hanni teal's 
hope of re -enforcements, and he was compelled to return to 
Africa, where the victory of the Roman general S<*if»io at j 
the battle of Zama put an end to the war. Sjwiin was cmmIimI ' 
to Rome, and the political and commercial suprema<*y <'f 
Carthage was at an end. ' ; 

The alliance of Philip of Macedon with Hannibal gHv«» ' 
Rome a pretext for interference in the Ktist, and the M^c-oiul I 
Macedonian war result-ed (197) in the destruction of Iht- 
Macedonian supremacy in Greece and the independence »>f 
the Greek states. In 190 Antiochus of Svria was defetittHl | 
at Magnesia and compelled to surrender Asia Minor, whi<'h 
went to increase the territories of Rome's allies. Illyricuni 
became a Roman province in 167. The third MaceHdonian 
war ended in 168 in the division of the Macedonian kingcb »in j 
into four republics under Roman supremacy. In 146 the<<' 
republics became the Roman province of Achaia, and in thv 
same year a desperate revolt led to the destruction ot < 'ar- 
thage and the fonnation of the Roman province of Afri<M. 
In 133 Attains, King of Pergamus, bequeathed his doniini< ►ns 
in Asia Minor to Rome. 

This rapid extension of territory was accompanied by far- 
reaching changes in Roman society. The increase of slavery 
and the growth of large estates in Italy hastened the dwliiir 
of the class of small proprietors, who formed the backbone < »f 
the old Roman state. Foreigners -and dispossessed farin«»rs 
flocked to the capital, where they formed an idle and dan- 
gerous proletariat. In spite of the efforts of such men as 
Cato, the simple and austere life of earlier times gave way 
before the spread of a cosmopolitan Hellenism. Politic-nl 
institutions nad not adjusted themselves to the chan^***! 
conditions; Rome was trving to p^overn an empire with the 
constitution of a city. The piovmces had no share in tlu* 
government, and were considered a legitimate source 4»f 
plunder by the governors and tax-gatherers. The s**iiate 
sank "from its original high position, as the aggregate <>f 
those in the community who were most experienced in 
counsel and action, into an order of lords filling up its rank^ 
by hereditary succession, and exercising collegiate misruk-.*' 
Sieform was imperativelv needed. 

TJie Decline of the 'Rep^iblic {b. C. 13S-S7).—The la-t 
century of the republic is a period of civil struggles, untier 
the strain of which the republican constitution bJoke d<iwn , 
and gave way to the empire. " It is a sign of the decay ui 
genuine republicanism at Rome, and the approach of aiito- 
cratic government, that from this time on its history centers 
about the names of individuals." Controversy first an-^« 
over the efforts of Tiberius Gracchus to remedy the cviN 
growing out of the Roman land system. Elected tribune of 
the people in 133, Gracchus at once proposed an agruriHii 
law which provided for the enforcement of the act of I-ici- 
nius, limiting the amount of public land which any oitiz^'ii 
could possess. LaiMl thus held in excess of the legal amount 
was to be parceled out among the citizens and Italians in 
inalienable holdings of thirty ^t^^era. The measure was < .n 1 y 
carried after the deposition of a tribune who int*riK»se«l his 
veto ; and in seeking re-election the following year Gra<.-t'hu'> 
was killed by his |X)litical opponents. In 123 Gaius Gnw-c-Jni'^ 
brought forward a more Ci)mprehensive scheme of reform. 
Besides re-enacting the agrarian law of his brother, the exe- 
cution of which had been suspende<l after fanns had Ik^-ii 
given to 80,000 citizens, he struck directly at the power of 
the senate by restricting its control over the government «»f 
the provinces. As a counterpoise to the senate, he sought t « » 
strengthen the influence of the e<piestrian onler, a ciji>.s <«f 
wealthy capitalists to whom the collection of the proviiuial 
taxes was let. The people were won over by pubhc sale?^ of 
grain at a re<luced price. Gracchus hoped to direct the {h»1 i<-y 
of the state bv securing his regular re-election to the tribnnat*'. 
but he was defeated in 122 and wwn afterward niurtierfd. 
After the death of Gracchus the selfish policy of the nolth-s 
ruled supreme. The occupied public land was granted to 
the possessors as absolute private property, and the condi- 
tion of Italy and the provinces grew 8tea<lily worse. The 
crowning example of aristocratic misrule is seen in the war 
with Jugurtha, King of Numidia, who bribed one after an- 
other of the inefficient generals sent against him. The war 
was finally brought to an end by Gaius Marius, a man f>f 
humble origin, whose further success in rej>elling the inva- 
sion of the (Mmbri and Teutones made him the leadini^ man 
at Rome. Marius was the first of the line of military liercH>s 
under whom the republic went out and the empire came in. ' 
He lengthened the term of enlistment and auolisiieU the i 



^■"-s* 



-. O'" ' 



172 



ROME 



Rhone. With scarcely an exception the emperors of this 
period were weak and incompetent; control passed more 
and more into the hands of German leaders, until in 476 
Odoacer deposed the Emperor Romulus Augustulus and 
ruled Italy as a German king. The sovereignty of the em- 
peror at Constantinople was nominally recognized in the 
West, but the real power was in the hands of the kings of 
the German tribes. 

Authorities. — The best general history of the Roman 
republic is that of Mommsen. Use should be made of 
Ihne's History of Rome and Nitzsch's Oeschichte der r5m- 
ischen Repubiik, For modern views on early Roman his- 
tory, Niebuhr*s History of Rome, Schwegler's Rdmische 
Oeschichte, and Lewis's Credibility of Eany Roman His- 
tory should be consulted. Arnold s History of Rome fol- 
lows Niebuhr on the earlier period ; it is most useful for the 
Punic wars (to 206). Long's Decline of the Roman Repub- 
lic is a careful narrative of the last century of the repuolic. 
Drumann*s Geschichte Roms treats thg same period bio- 
graphically. 

There is no work on the empire equal to Mommsen's on 
the republic. Merivale's History of the Romans under the 
Empire extends to the death of Marcus Aurelius, where the 
narrative of Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Em- 
pire begins. Schiller's Oeschichte der rdmischen Kaiser- 
zeit covers the period to the death of Theodosius. Duruy's 
History of Rome contains a fairly complete account of the 
empire. The work is particularly useful because of its il- 
lustrations. Bury's History of the Roman Empire covers 
briefly the same period as Merivale. Clinton's Fasti Ro- 
mani' is of value to the student of the chronology of the 
empire. Hertzberg's Oeschichte des rdmischen Kaiser- 
reichs is valuable, as are also the volumes of Ranke*s Welt- 
geschichte which treat of the empire. Mommsen's Prov- 
inces of the Roman Empire describes an important phase of 
imperial history. For the years after the death of Theodo- 
sius, see Kuhn's Stddtische und burgerliche Verfassung des 
rdmischen Reichs, Bury's History of the Later Roman Em- 
pire, and Hodgkin's Italy and her Invaders. Among the 
accounts of particular periods, Gardthausen's Augustus und 
seine Zeit and Burckhardt's Die Zeit Constantin^s des Oros- 
sen should be mentioned. Representative works on the so- 
cial history of the period are Friedlilnder's Siftengeschichte 
Roms and Schultze's Geschichte des Urhtergangs des griech- 
isch-romischen Heidenthums. 

Roman institutions are most completely presented in the 
great work of Marquardt and Mommsen, Die rGmischeih 
Staatsalterthumer, Good briefer works are Mommsen's 
Abriss des rdmischen Staatsrechts, Schiller's Rdmische 
Staats- und RechtscUterthUmer (in MUller's Handbuch der 
klassischefi Alterthumswissenschaft), Madvig's Verfassung 
und Verwaltung des rdmischen Staates, Willem's Droit 
Public Romain, and Bouche-Leclercq's Manuel des Institu- 
tions Romaines. Herzog's Oeschichte und System der rdm- 
ischen StaxUsverfassung is a valuable work which treats the 
Roman constitution historically as well as descriptively. 

For a study of the original sources of Roman history, 
Schafer's Abriss der Quellenkufide der rdmischen Oeschichte 
gives useful material. Charles H. Raskins. 

n. Rome from 476 to 1870. 

Upon the ruins of the ancient Roman empire, which fell 
in 476, there arose gradually a new empire, which soon be- 
came all the more powerful as it claimed control over the 
souls of men as well as over their bodies. Rome became, 
after a short interregnum, once more the seat of the central 
power in Europe, and thus earned its historic name of the 
Eternal City. It owed this supremacy to the gradual de- 
velopment of Christianity. The full supremacy of Rome 
as the capital of the new Church-empire may be referred to 
the time of Pope Gregory I. (590-604), through whose en- 
ergy and political wisdom the authority of the Church was 
everywhere established. 

Rome itself — and with Rome the whole of Italy — ^had in 
the meantime been the easy prey of the new races which 
at that time broke forth from their unknown home in 
the East, overran the whole of Europe, and gradually ob- 
tained the supreme power. Under various names, as Goths 
and Germans, as Lombards, Franks, and Avares, they con- 
quered one province after another. Large i)ortions of Italy 
were laid waste, cities were sacked and razed to the ground, 
and whole populations butchered or carried into captivity. 
The surviving inhabitants remained in possession of the 
land, which they were forced to cultivate for the benefit of 



the conquerors. The ancient laws of Rome ceased to \»> 
enforced, the municipalities became extinct, the c«murr> 
was divided into duchies and governed by foreign ma««i< r>. 
Although the Lombards at no time were masters of tin- 
whole of Italy, their influence was powerful enough to iri^ •• 
a new Gennan character to the whole peninsula, ReiH-.Hi'-.; 
efforts made by the Roman emperors at Constantinoplt '-. 
recover possession of Italy led to bloody wars, but remaiiK .1 
unsuccessful. A greater danger threatened Rome when t h. 
Church was violently agitated by a great schism between t Ji- 
followers of Arius, who denied the divinity of Christ, m <! 
the Roman Catholics, who condemned Arianism. Thanks 
to the skillful management of Gregory the Great and Ki> 
influence over Theodelinda, the Queen of the Ix)niliar<i>, 
the latter were won over to his side, Rome was saved f r« *\n 
destruction, and Roman Catholicism became supreme ti. 
Italy. This great triumph not only relieved the Church ir. 
Rome, but enabled it to increase its strength at home ar.<{ 
to extend its power abroad, untrammeled by the irks/iu- 
authority of Greek emperors or the barbarous interferu.« •^' 
of German invaders. About the same time that the law^ . f 
the Lombards were collected (644) the decrees of ouuin ki^ 
and the canons of the Church also were codified. 

The influence of Rome grew with the power of the i:">p«-». 
The Germans were converted by St. Boniface, and even tl.. 
Eastern nations of the Slavonic race began to acknowl»Mi j. 
the authority of the Church, but the appeal of the Frank. --ii 
king, Pepin, flrst established the claim of the popes to jmlp- 
in secular matters as well as in matters of faith. Pepin r- - 
warded the pope's assistance by a grant of land in Italy, uno 
thus the founaation of the secular power of the |xifH*-. w:»^ 
firmly laid. Pepin's successor, Charlemagne, relievefi tl*. 
pope of great danger, defeated his enemies the Lombard-, 
and after several bloody campaigns entered Rome, wliort- tit- 
accepted at the hands of Pope Leo III. the dignity of Kii:- 
peror of Rome and protector of Christendom (800). It wa^ 
little more than a restoration in name of the old R'ri.ini 
empire; Charlemagne; acquired no new provinces an«l i»o 
new powers, but" the deep-rooted reverence felt all over t^ •• 
world for ancient Rome was silently transferred to the nt v* 
Ca»sar. Thus the emperors gained much by this constcrn- 
tion of their power, while Rome resumed its sway over U* 
world. 

Italy was, however, not long to enjoy this newly won 
greatness in peace. ' New enemies _arose on all sides, ai.l 
m 846 the Saracens invaded the country and threaten..! 
Rome. Leo IV., a Roman by birth and a man of extrnoi- 
dinary vigor, inclosed that part of the city which ha* e\« r 
since been known as the Leonine City with strong w^aliv, 
and made it for a time impregnable. After a peritxl if 
turbulent warfare an appeal was made by John XII. t<* 
Otho, the German emperor, and the journey of the latter !•► 
Rome inaugurated a series of expeditions made by the em- 
perors of Germany into Italy. Otho was, like Charlemagu*', 
crowned in Rome (962), and confirmed and enlarged tl.- 
donations made by his predecessors, but reserved to hinis* f 
and his successors the sovereignty of Rome. Unfortunately, 
this divided authority led to the commission of atr<K*i<>u^ 
political crimes by the popes and the three Othos, and x\\i^ 
period of Roman history is full of shame and disgrace. Tlie 
papal party and the imperial party — later known as ihr 
Guelphs and the Ghibellines — were in constant eonfiict, an«i 
Italy was the blood-stained battle-field on which the war wu«- 
waged. At times the popes triumphed, as when the cvN- 
brated Hildebrand (Gregory VII.) compelled the EmjM»ror 
Henry to do penance at Canossa, a fortress in Ijombanlv, 
and, kissing tne pope's foot, to swear a formal <iath »<f 
submission. Hildebrand was deposed, Rome devastated bv 
Norman troops under Guiscard, the city burned, the inhab- 
itants slaughtered or sold into slavery, and he hirn>4.jf 
driven to seek refuge at Salerno, where he died (lOvTi. 
Crusaders, German armies, and lawless bands of sohiiir^ 
ravaged Rome by turns, and in the thirteenth century, a 
period of unbroken faction and fighting, the city sufTt'nii 
fearfully. Ancient tombs and monuments were tmn^- 
formedinto fortresses, towers were built everywhere, an-! 
the housi's of the tyrannical nobles were so many impn i:- 
nable strongholds. Within the walls vast districts wt-i.- 
lying waste, gardens were planted where once st<M^i ti., 
proudest temples and h)ftiest palaces, and the inhabit et 
portions of the city were filled with perpetual tumult. Ttn- 
popes were confnied to their castle, and yet their p<iuir 
abroad was greater than ever. Emperors, kings, and priii«-t ^ 
bowed before InncK'cut III., who claimed the government if 




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174 



ROME 



Angelo. The last structure {Moles lladnani), commenced by 
Hadrian and finished in 140 by Antoninus Pius, was in- 
tended for a mausoleum for Hadrian and his family, and 
connected with the Monte Pincio by the Pons ^lius. When 
the Goths conquered Rome under Vitiees, it was used as a 
fortress, and during the feuds of the early Middle Ages con- 
stantly formed a stronghold in the hands of the ruling fac- 
tion. Urban V. constructed the outworks ; in 1500 the cov- 
ered passage which connects it with the Vatican palace was 
built ; and in 1527 Clement VII. sustained here a long siege, 
in which Benvenuto Cellini was engaged and the constable 
of Bourbon was killed. The later popes used the structure 
principally as a dungeon. The southern portion of the city 
on the right bank, Trasterere, occupies the ancient Mon's 
Janiculus. Here was in the oldest time a fortified outpost 
against the Etruscans, and in the time of Augustus a popu- 
lous suburb. The Trastevcrc is mostly inhabited by working- 
men, who claim to be the descendants of the ancient Romans. 
The most remarkable points here are the Church of S. Pietro 
in Montorio, erected m 1500 by Ferdinand and Isabella of 
Spain on the spot where St. Peter is said to have suffered 
martyrdom, and the magnificent fountain Acqua Paola, 
built in 1611, under Paul V., by Fontana and Maderno, 
after the restoration of the ancient Aqua Trajana, an aque- 
duct erected by Trajan for the purpose o1 carrying the waters 
of the Lago di Bracciano (Locus Sabatinus)i over 80 miles 
distant, into the city. These two portions of the western 
part of the city are connected by the Via della Lungara, three 
quarters of a mile long, constructed by Sixtus V. It contains 
the Villa Farnesina, which was built in 1506 by Baldassare 
Peruzzi, and came into the possession of the Farnese family 
in 1580, and the Palazzo Corsini, in which Queen C-hristina 
of Sweden died Apr. 19, 1689. The Villa Farnesina contains 
a celebrated series of frescoes representir^ the myth of 
Psyche, after designs by Raphael, and the Palazzo Corsini, 
which has been assigned by the Government to the R. 
Accadenna dci Lincci, contains a picture-gallery, one of the 
largest collections of engravings in the world, and a val- 
uable library. 

The larger, eastern part of the city, situated on the left 
bank of the Tiber, occupies the famous seven hills. Farther 
to the N., near the Porta del Popolo, rises Monte Pincio 
{Colfis Hortorum), 175 feet above the level of the sea, which 
in ancient times was covered with gardens and not reckoned 
a part of the city; the famous gardens of Lucullus were 
situated here. Here are the Pincian gardens, a fashionable 
drive and promenade, which command a fine view of the 
city. Separated from Monte Pincio by the Piazza Barberini 
extend the Esquiline hill, the Quirinal. and the Viminal. 
Farther to the S. rises the Cielian. and between this and the 
river the Aventine. In the southern part of the plain, be- 
tween this range of hills and the Tiber, rise, isolated, two 
other hills — the Palatine and the Capitoline. The latter 
formed the most prominent point of ancient republican and 
imf>erial Rome, the principal [lart of which extended over 
the Capitoline, Aventine, CaBlian, and the southern part of 
the Esquiline. On the Capitoline hill are the Church of 
Sta. Maria in Araeeli, which was erecte<l Iwjfore the tenth 
century on the site of the temple of Juno Moneta; the 
Piazza del Campidoglio. designeu by Michelangelo, and be- 
gun in 1536 by Paul III., with a bronze equestrian statue 
of Marcus Aurelius in its center; the Palazzo del Senatore, 
enacted by Boniface IX., with steps by Michelangelo — it 
contains a hall for the meetings of the municipal coun- 
cil, offices, etc.; the Palazzo dei Conservatori, containing 
the Protonioteca, a collect i(m of busts of celebratecl Ital- 
ians, the new Capitoline Museum, in which are antiquities 
chiefly found during the construction of the new streets in 
the east quarter of the city, and a picture-gallery founded 
by Benedict XIV.; and the Capitoline Museum', founded 
by Innocent X., which is rich in atlmirable specimens of 
ancient scul|)tures and other antiquities. P>om the Cap- 
itoline, toward the Palatine, extends the ancient Forum 
Homanum. The Palatine contains the ruins of the ancient 
inq)erial palaces. Between the Palatine and the Aventine 
lay the Cncus Maximns; to the S. K. of the Aventine the 
l»aths of ('aracalla. In the depression l>etween the Pala- 
tine, Hsquiline, and Cvlian stands the Coliseum. (See Amphi- 
THKATER,) lietwccu the Cwlian and the Esquiline stand San 
Giovanni in Laterano, the oldest church of Christendom, 
and the Museum Grejrorianum Lateranense. (See Latkra.n.) 
The latter contains statues and mosaics, and a lar^e collc<*ti<m 
of sculptures and inscriptions from the Catacombs. Near the 
Lateran is the buihling containing the Scala Santa, a flight of 






twenty-eight marble steps brought from the palnoc «)f Pil 
at Jerusalem by the Empre.<is Helena in 32o. J^yond 
southern slope of the Esquiline the ruins of ancient U 
become scarcer and the monuments of mediaeval an<l nif*ii 
Rome more frequent. Ueve are the Church of Sxn, M; 
Maggiore, also called the Basilica Liberiana, erected bv 1' 
LiU>rius 852-366, altered in 4;f2 by Sixtus III., enlar-t • 
1292 by Nicholas IV., and restorer! in 1575 by Gregory \ 1 ^ 
the Palazzo Rospigliosi, founded in 1608 by Canlinal r> ii 
Borghese, and the Casino Rospigliosi, containing mnuy tl 
frescoes and pictures; the Palazzo Barberini, be^r^-i; 1 
Maderno, finished by Bernini, with a librarv <-<»ntait 
7,000 MSS. of Latin and Greek authors; the Villa AW' 
built in 1760 by Cardinal Albani, with admirable work- i 
art collected with the co-oj^eration of Winckelmann; " 
railway station, opposite the Therma? Diocletiani; iind ' 
Porta Pia, designed by Michelangelo in 1564, and u<' 
by Pius IX. 1861-69. Through the Porta Pia the ha. 
armv entered Rome Sept. 20, 1870. 

The modem city, occupying the space between the r 
and the hills, is divided into two parts by the Corso, « i. 
running in a straight line for a distance of nearly a i. j] 
from the Piazza del Popolo to the Piazza di Veiuv.i.i, i 
the finest and gayest street of the city. Among the n. 
elegant buildings' which line it on both sides are th<r 
lazzo Doha, one of the most extensive and most nm>: 
cent palaces of Rome, containing the Doria Gallery, a L 
collection of pictures of different schools, and UiePala 
Colonna with rooms beautifully decorated and a c*»llc«-: 
of pictures. The portion of the city siluateil betww n ibm 
river and the Corso contains many admirable nionunu v.\\ 
among which is the mausoleum of Augustus, erectt'^l • * 
that emperor as a burial-place * for himself and his fHtm'^ J 
it consists of an immense substructure containing the tmr' • 
chamljers, and covered with a terraced mound of car 
adorned with cypresses and a statue of the emiien.»r. 1: 
was used in the Middle Ages as a fortress by the Cuh«i na-. 
and is fitted up as a theater. Here is the Palazzo lUtr-^i «— . 
built in 1590 by the elder Longhi ; the Church of >*.. 
Maria Rotonda, or the Pantheon (q. r.), the only ancient < - 
fice in Rome which has been preserved entire. Near tt.- 
Panthe(m is the chun-h of Sta. Mariasoi)ra Minerva, t-ni •«'. 
about 1285 on the ruins of a temple of Minerva; it ctiniai* - 
Michelangelo's Christ trith (he Cross. Here is al?^) ! •• 
Palazzo Farnese, one of the finest palaces of Rome, \u .\ 
under Paul III. after the designs of da Sangallo, contii . 
under the direction of Michelangelo, and completea ■ 
della Porta. It afterward came into the possession (^f t 
Kings of Naples, and many of the sculptures and aiiti ; ••- 
ties which it contained were removeil to Naples. It is i! * 
the home of the French embassy to the papal court. It 
contains a series of fine fresc(x»s by Annibale Caracci hi. I 
Agostino. Here are the Palazzo di* Venezia (now the Aus- 
trian embassy), the Palazzo Massimi alle Colonne. content- 
ing the chapel of S. Filippo Neri, and many other pala« ♦•> 
of the paf>al nobility. The splendid new streets Corso \ i*- 
torio Kmanuele and Via Nazionale connect the head of th. 
Corso with the Ponte Sant' Angelo and with the cent nil 
railway station resf^ectively. Im|M)rtant streets too aiv !l.. 
Via 20' Settembre from the Porta Pia to the Quirinal. ai d 
the Via Cavour, which lea<ls from the railway station to ui. 
Forum. From the Piazza del Popolo the Via di Ri|»»t*.i 
diverges from the Corso on the right, and on the left the \ ;.. 
del Babiuno leails to the Piazza di Spagna. 

Among churches not already mentioned is S. Paolo fuorj 
le Mura, originally founded in 'l\HH, burnt in 1828 and rehu'i* 
in a magnificent style. S. Ix)renzo fuori le Mura, rebuilt m 
578 on the site of a church founded by Constant ine, and n-- 
mocleled afterwanl, still retains its ancient columns; St.u 
Agnese fuori le Mura, founded by Const antine and rebuilt in 
the seventh century, has many early inscriptions; Sta. ( hn .♦ 
is a basilica said to have been founded by the tJm press liclcTm . 
S. Clemente is remarkable in that it consists of thre*' st ma- 
tures — the upper one is a twelfth-century chun-h, nn.i. r- 
ground is a church of the fourth century, and below thi^ ntr* 
remains dating from the iinf>erial and republicim pen.il>: 
Sta. Maria in Cosniedin retains ten of the columns of tlic tem- 
ple of Ceres, out of which it was partly built. Outi^itle the 
Porta Pia is St^i. Constanza, founded by Cimstantine. w:ih 
mosaics of the fourth century. On the' CiPlian is S.S. (i-.- 
vanni e Paolo, foinnled in the fifth century and rebuilt in u «• 
twelfth; also S. (iregorio. founded in 575 on the site of tli«- 
house of the father of (iregory the Great. On the Rs«niil.rie 
is Sta. Pudeiiziaim, with mosaics of glass cubes dating fp i:i 



176 



ROMESCOT 



RONSARD 



Romescot : See Peter*s Pence. 

Rom'lllT, John. Baron Romilly of Barry: lawyer; son of 
Sir Samuel Romilly; b. in London in 1802; graduated at 
Cambridge, 1826; callefl to the bar at Gray's Inn 1827 ; sat 
in Parliament as a Liberal 1832-35 and 1846-^52 ; knighted 
and made solicitor-general 1848, attorney-general and privy 
councilor 1850, and was master of the rolls 1851-72, in 
which capacity he was instrumental in causing the publi- 
cation of the very valuable Rolls Series of Calendars of 
State Papers and other documents illustrating the earlier 
history of England; was made Baron Romilly of Barry, 
Glamorganshire, Jan. 3, 1866. D. in London, Dec. 23, 1874. 
Revised by P. Sturges Allen. 

Romilly. Sir Samuel : statesman and jurist ; b. in Lon- 
don, England, Mar. 1, 1 757 ; entered Gray's Inn May 11, 1778 ; 
was called to the bar 1783 ; became eminent as a chancery 
lawver, and was appointed king's counsel in 1800 ; chancellor 
of the county palatine of Durham 1805 ; knighted, and made 
solicitor-general and elected M. P. 1806 ; enjoyed the friend- 
ship of Mirabeau, and through him ac(juired the friendship 
and patronage of Lord Lansaowne. His great work was his 
attempt to reform English criminal law, which he began in 
1807, and urged in Parliament with great elooucnce and 
persistence ; besides which he advocated the abolition of 
the slave-trade. Catholic emancipation, and electoral reform. 
The number of capital offenses without benefit of clergy in 
1707 was 160, and it rose to 222, when the efforts of Sir 
Samuel Romilly for reform succeeded only so far as to have 
pocket-picking, which was capital if above five shillings, 
taken out of the list. Althougn his bills reducing the num- 
ber of capital offenses re{)eatedly failed to pass, being op- 
posed by the Government of the day, by the bishops, and 
even by the most eminent judges, as Lord Ellenborough, as 
dangerous innovations, his perseverance, his continual pro- 
testing against the severity of the criminal law, and the bar- 
barous f requencjr of capital punishment (which was the cause 
of the laxity in its enforcement), led to the final reformation 
of the criminal law of England. D. Nov. 2, 1818. His 
speeches were published in 1820, and his biographical me- 
moirs in 1840, with notes bv his sons. He wrote Tfioughta 
on the Probable Influence of the Late Revolution in Frafice 
upon Oreat Britain; Observations oyi the Criminal Law 
of England as it relates to Capital Punishments^ and on 
thf Mode in which it is administered (London, 1810), an 
able pamphlet. Revised by F. Sturues Allen. 

Rommany Race and Langaage : See Gypsies. 

Romner, George: portrait-painter; b. at Dalton, Lanca- 
shire, England, Dec. 26, 1734. He was apprenticed to a Cum- 
berland painter named Steel. At the age of twenty-two he 
married. For some years he wandered about the north of 
England painting iwrtraits — heads for two guineas, as is re- 
lated — and at last went to Ix)ndon, leaving his wife and two 
children in Lancashire. From 1762 to 1798 ho was either 
traveling on the Continent or residing and painting in Lon- 
don, lie gained fame and popularity as a portrait-painter, 
and was able to secure prices as high as those paid to Rey- 
nolds, especially after Reynolds's abandonment of his aft, 
alx)ut 17H8. Ho was far less skillful and accomplished than 
either Reynolds or (tainsborough, and his pictures, other 
than portraits, have but little \^lue. In 1798, broken in 
health, he joined his wife at Kendal, Lancashire ; soon after- 
ward he sold his studio and his colleotion of works of art, 
and settled in the north. D. at Kendal, Nov. 5, 1802. Among 
his best pictures are a number of portraits of the celebrated 
Ladv Hamilton. The National (lallery in London has one 
of these in the character of a Bacchante, and a fancy por- 
trait, The Parson's Daughter, In the National Portrait 
Gallery at South Kensington is another Lady Hamilton and 
a Portrait of Fiaxman, the scidptor. Uoinney's portraits 
are mostly in private hands. Russell Stukuis. 

Rom'nln.s : mythical founder of the city of Rome; the 
twin-brother of Remus antl a son of Mars by Rhea Silvia, 
who was a descendant of the Trojan ^-^^neas. and had been 
made a priestess of Vesta when her futlier, Numitr)r, King 
of Alba Longa, was dethroned by his brother, Amulius. The 
two infants were thrown into' the Tiber by the onler of 
Amulius, but the river lantled them safely at the foot of 
the Palatine Hill; a she-wolf carried them t<> her den and 
suckled them, and a she])herd afterwjird found them and 
educated thein together with his own chihlren. The legend 
goes on narrating how the two brethren discovered their 
descent, reinstated Numitor, emigrated from Alba Longa, 



determined to build a city on the Palatine Hill, but then fell 
out with each other; how Romulus killed Remus, built th« 
city, procured wives for the citizens, carried on many war^. 
and was finally translated and worshiped as a god under tin- 
name of Quirinus. It is impossible to distinguish the a'ti<»- 
logical and mythical from tne tnily traditional element in 
these stories, though there can bo no doubt that the latter 
is present See Rome. Revised by G. L. Hendricksox. 

Roncesralles, ron-thes-vaal'yes (Fr. Boneetxtux) : a small 
Spanish village, province of Navarre ; in a narrow valley on 
the southern side of the Pyrenees. It is famous as the plare 
where Charlemagne, on his retreat from his campaign against 
the Mohammedans in 778, was attacked and his whole rear- 
guard destroyed. Among those slain in this battle was tlje 
half-mythical hero Roland, whose name became the center 
of the romantic poetry which sung of Charlemagne and hi*» 
paladins. In the French-Spanish wars several bloody en- 
counters (in 1793, 1794, and 1818) occurred in the same val- 
ley, and in 1833 Don Carlos was first proclaimed king here. 

Ron'da : town of Southern Spain, 42 miles W. of Malatra : 
at an elevation of 2,300 feet above the sea, on a precii>it<»ua 
promontory of the Sierra Nevada, on the Guadiaro, whi<-h 
nere is crossed by lofty bridges built by the Moors (>»-♦- 
map of Spain, ref. 19-D). A large annual fair is held hen* 
in May, attended by a great number of merchants, and en- 
livened bv bull-fights. Elegant arms, fine woolen fabrio, 
and saddlery are the principal manufactures of the citv. 
Pop. 19,181. 

Rondo [from Ital. rondo, from Fr. rondeau < O. Fr. 
rondel, (Umin. of rond, round, a round] : in music, a com f po- 
sition, in which the theme, as it is given in the first strain, 
returns upon itself in the last, after passing through various 
expansions and elaborations. 

Ronge, rong'e, Johannes : religious leader ; b. at Bischof n- 
walde, Prussian Silesia, Oct. 16, 1813 ; studied theology nt 
Breslau; appointed a chaplain at Grottkau in 1840, but 
was opposed by the ultramontane clergy on account of his 
liberal views, and was suspended in 1843 because of an ar- 
ticle, Bom and das hrestauer Domkapifel, which he pub- 
lished in the Sdchsische Vaterlandsbldtter. In 1844 he w:us 
excommunicated on account of a letter to Bishop Arnoldi, 
denouncing as idolatrous the exhibition at Treves of thtr 
holy coat. Through a number of pamphlets, and by trav- 
eling from town to town preaching and lecturing, he ex- 
horted people to secede from the Roman Catholic Churcli, 
and, supported by the general irritation against the ultra- 
montane hierarchy he succeeded in forming several congre- 
gations of the so-called German Catholic denomination. Hv 
uegrees he was himself attracted by the political fenuenta- 
tion, sided in 1848 with the radicals, and fled in 1849 i.» 
England. Returning in 1861, he lived at Breslau and Fran k- 
fort-on-the-Main, w^here he founded a reform association in 
1863 ; after 1873 at Darmstadt. D. in Vienna, Oct. 26, 1?^7. 

Revised by S. M. Jacksox. 

Ro'nins [Jap., liter., wave-men] : Jaimnese warriors not in 
the service of any lord. As the ordinary Samurai (q, t\) n.- 
ceived regular pay, the ronin was without resources and usu- 
ally lived by highway robbery; he would offer hinist^lf f«»r 
any reckless deed of" daring. The story of the Fortf/seri n 
Bon ins is the most tragic in Japanese history, and has Wt-n 
well told by Mitford in Tales of Old Japan, It is the st4.ry 
of certain samurai, who, havinc been turned adrift by the 
death and disgrace of their lord, finally avenged his death, 
and then committed suicide by hara-kiri at his ^rave. 

J. M, Dixon. 

Ronsard, roiVsaar', Pierre, de: {x)et; b. at the Chateau 
de la Poissonniere, Vendomois, France, Sept. 11, 1524; wa.** 
educated at the French court as page to the Duke of Orlean«< ; 
followed James V. to Scotland and lived nearly three Vfjii^ 
at his court (1538-41) ; returned to the Duke of 'Orleans, and 
was sent on various embassies to Flanders, Holland, and Eiivr- 
land; ruined his health and lost his hearing, and retinal ti» 
the College de Coqueret, where he spent seven years stutU- 
ing the I^atin and Greek languages and literatures. Amoiii: 
his companions here were Baif, Belleau, Muret, Jodelle. aiul 
Du Bellay, and among them sprang up that new liternry 
i<leal whose first representative Ronsard became, and whi* ii 
for centuries reigned not only in France, but in all Kur»- 
f»ean literatures. It broke comj)letely with the ideals ni.-l 
traditions of the Middle Ages and the older native lileratuT-'. 
and substituted the clussical models of the Latin and (in* k 
literatures. Ronsard and his eager followers, styling tlu-in- 



178 



ROOK 



ROOT 



The trainshed of the Pennsylvania Railroad at Jersey City, 
N. J., has roof -trusses with a span of 252 feet, while its total 
length is 650^ feet. The roof of the St. Pancras Station in 

London is 690 feet long, with 

yKj^ ^ "^---^C?^ mensions of the building 

^^^^^ ^""^\ ^^^ ^^® exhibition of manu- 

factures at the Columbian 
Exposition of 1893 in Chi- 
cago were 787 feet by 1,687 
feet, and the main roof- 
trusses had a span of 368 
feet. 
Fig. 14 shows the iron 
These roofs (which have since 
a feature of French 



Fio. 11. 




Fio. 12. 





framing of a mansard roof, 
their invention formed so common 
architecture) of different styles, slopes, and coverings have 

been very generally adopted 
for many classes of build- 
ings both in the city and in 
the country. They were at 
first built almost exclusively 
of wood and covered with 
slate, but the great liability 
Fia. 18. to take and communicate 

fire has caused the use of 
iron and steel for framing purposes. 

The coverings for roofs are made of various materials, 
among which may be mentioned the following : Thatch of 
straw, reeds, and heath, used probably in primitive times, 

and even in the present age, 
in rude dwellings; tiles of 
various shapes, which have 
been used from the Roman 
period to the present, and 
which probably covered the 
Saxon buildings ; thin slabs 
of stone or flag ; slate ; lead, 
which was always used on 
mediseval roofs ; tin, iron, 
zinc, copper; asphalted felt 
coated with a hot prepara- 
tion of tar on which gravel 
is spread; shingles; canvas 
covered with cement and 
glass. 

The principles governing 
the design of roof -trusses are 
similar to those for bridge- 
trusses, the main differences 
being in the data regarding snow and wind loads. The 
snow load is taken at various values, depending on climate, 
up to 15 or 20 lb. per square foot of horizontal area. The 
wind pressure on a vertical plane is taken at from 30 to 50 
lb. per square foot. See the articles Arch, Bridges, and 
Stresses ; also Greene's Graphical Analysis of Roof Trusses 
(1876) ; and Kicker's Construction of Trussed Roofs (1885). 
Revised by Mansfield Merriman. 

Rook [0. Eng. hroc : O. H. Germ, hrtwh : Icel. hrohr ; cf. 
Goth, hrukjan, to crow : Sanakr. krug-, cry out, croak] : a 
bird (Corvus frugilegus) of the family Corvidm, closely re- 
lated to the common crow, which it also resembles nearly in 
size (it is a little smaller), as well as black color; but dis- 
tinguished therefrom by the bill being little longer than 
the head, and in the adult naked at the b^e ; the first pri- 
mary is shorter than the eighth, the second shorter than the 
fifth, and the third and fourth are the longest. It is gen- 
erally distributed throughout Europe and Eastern Asia. 
It lives in communities known as rookeries ; these some- 
times are very populous, occasionally containing from 2,000 
to 3,000 nests, and a corresponding numl)er of birds of differ- 
ent ages and sizes. In Great Britain they are considered by 
many an attractive feature in the landscape, and are there- 
fore protected. The nests are generally made in tall trees. 
The female lays, early in the spring, about four or five 
greenish-blue and spotted eggs. The sneoics is omnivorous, 
but does not trouble the farmer, like tlie crow. It is capa- 
ble, like its congeners, of mimicking the soimds of otner 
animals. The young are to some extent used as food in 
Great Britain and on the Continent. 

Revised by F. A. Lucas. 

Rooke, Sir George: naval officer; b. near Canterbury, 
England, in 1650; entered the navy; was made vice- 



admiral 1692 ; headed a daring and successful night attack 
in boats upon the French squadron off Cape La Iloguc. 
burning six vessels. May 19, 1692, for which exploit he was 
knighted and received a pension of £1,000; was appointed 
commander-in-chief of the navy at the beginning of the uar 
in Spain 1702 ; made an unsuccessful attack ufion Cadi/. : 
destroyed the Spanish plate fleet of seventeen vessels in th*- 
harbor of Vigo 1702 ; participated in the capture of Gibral- 
tar Aug. 3, 1704, and engaged the French fleet off Malatrn 
Aug. 24, 1704, but that fleet having escaped in the night. h»* 
was severely blamed, and he retired from the service Feb.. 
1705. D. near Canterbury, Jan. 24, 1709. 

Roon, ron, Albrecht Theodor Emil, Count von : soldier : 
b. near Kollierg, Prussia, Apr. 30, 1803; entered the anny 
in 1821 ; attended the military school of Berlin 1824-27 ; ap- 
pointed teacher to the cadets in 1828, member of the tn|»<^ 
graphical survey of the staff in 1833, teacher in the militarv 
school in 1835, and captain on the staff in 1836. In ]h42 
he was made a major, and subsequently' took charge of the 
military instruction of Prince Frederick Charles. Duriiit; 
the campaign in Baden he was chief of the staff of the 
Eighth Army-corps ; was made a colonel in 1851, com- 
mander of the Twentieth Brigade of infantry in 1856. and 
commander of the Fourteenth Division at DQsseldorf in 
1858. On Dec. 5, 1859, the prince-regent called him to take 
charge of the ministry of War, and (Apr. 16, 1861) als<i f»f 
the ministry of the Marine. After the war of 1866, whirh 
eave evidence of his talent for organization, he receiveci 
from the king the cross of the Black Eagle and a dotation, 
and after the war with France (1870-71) he was made a 
count and received a new dotation. The office of Minister 
of the Marine he resigned Dec. 31, 1871. In the Prussian 
Government he represented a specific Prussian tendency in 
opposition to the (ierman and progressive policy of Prince 
Bismarck, and (Dec. 21, 1872) having handed in his n\<iena- 
tion, he was made president of the cabinet, and a few day> 
afterward field-marshal, but resigned in 1873 and retirwi u* 
his estate. D. in Berlin, Feb. 23, 1879. See von Gossler, 
Graf Albrecht von Roon (Berlin, 1879). 

Rooserelt, Robert Barnwell : Congressman and author ; 
b. in New York, Aug. 7, 1829 ; studied law, and was engaged 
in active practice for many years, but finally devoted him- 
self to literature, rural sports, and politics, and in 1870 wh> 
elected to Congress; became president of the New York 
Sportsmen's Club; was one of the State commissioners of 
fisheries for manyyears ; U. S. minister to the NetherlaIl<i^s 
1888-89; edited T%e Citizen, a weekly journal devoted t«> 
literature and politics; published The Game Fish of Sorih 
America (New York. 1860). The Game Birds of the Coaj^t 
and Lakes of the Northern States (1866), and similar works ; 
and edited, with a biographical sketch, The JPbeiical Works 
of Charles G. Halpifie (1869). 

Rooserelt, Theodore: politician and author; b. in New 
York, Oct. 27, 1858 ; graduated at Harvard Colle^ in IHso ; 
member of New York State Legislature 1882-84 ; intnHiuot.l 
and secured the passage of the State Civil Service Reform 
law and other laws establishing great refonns in the govern- 
ment of New York city; member of national Republican con- 
vention 1884 ; was Republican candidate in 1886 for mayor 
of New York; member National Civil Service Commission 
1889-; published Hunting Trips of a Ranchman (1883) ; //f^- 
tory of the Naval War of 1812 (New York, 1885) ; Lifr r.f 
Thomas Hart Benton (Boston, 1887); Ranch Life arid th^ 
Hunting Trail (New York, 1888) ; Winning of the Wr.^t 
(vols. i. and ii., 1889; voL iii., 1894; vol. iv., 1895); Uistot y- 
of New York City (1891); The Wilderness Hunter (1893). 

Root [spec, use of root, origin ; cf. radicle, from Lat, 
radix, root] : in algebra, a root of an eouation is any quan- 
tity, whether real or imaginary, whicn being substitutt^l 
for the unknown quantity will "satisfy it ; that is, make the 
two members equal. Every equation which contains but ont* 
unknown quantity, and whose exponents are whole num- 
bers, can be reduced to the form 

iT" -h px*-^ -H qx""-* + etc., -h f* = 0, (1) 

in which n is a positive whole number. 

The root of a quantity is another quantity which, taken a 
certain number of times as a factor, will pnxluce the givou 
quantity. If a quantity is resolved into two equal factor?, 
one of these is the square root; if into three equal factor^, 
one of these is its cuoe root ; and so on. Every quantity ha> 
two square roots, three cube roots, four fourth roots, and so on. 
If the quantity is positive, both of its square roots are real ; 



180 



ROPES AND ROPE-MAKING 



ROSA 



est, thouffh when exposed to the weather not the most dura- 
ble, of all in common use. 

In the manufacture of manila rope the first step in the 
foregoing description, hackling by hand, is omittea, as un- 
necessary ; the manila is oiled to enable the harsher fiber to 
pass the more readilv through the preparation machines, 




rio. 2.— Wire rope : A, heart ; B, draw-off drum ; C, friction-drum ; 
D, driyiog-pulley ; F, bobbins ; T, top ; V, tube ; 8, driving-shaft. 

and the yarns are not tarred ; the remainder of the process 
is the same in both cases. The size of rope is designated by 
its circumference ; when smaller than IJ inch it goes under 
the general name of small stuff. Three roi)es laid up to- 
gether form a cable or hawser of nine strands. 

Wire rope may be made either of 49 coarse wires or 133 
fine wires, put in 6 strands, and 7 or 14 hearts, and laid up 
right-handed ; strands are laid left-handed. To make a 7- 
inch fine wire rope, as in the annexed diagram, fill the bob- 
bins of a 6-flyer machine, similar to Fig. 1, with No. 8 wire, 
Birmingham* gauge, and for the heart lead a sinj^le wire 
from its bobbin up through the vertical shaft. This will 




Fio. 8.— Cross-section of wire rope of 183 wires (full size). 

form a 7-wire heart for the strands. Next fill the bobbins 
of a 12-fiyer machine (Fig. 1) with the same size wire, plac- 
ing the heart just made as in the figure. Pass all the wires 
up through holes past the top, arrange the wires through 
the grooves of the top, twist them together by hand, splice 
in a piece of rope, ana pass it five or six times around the 
draw-off drum. Friction-straps attached to the bobbins pre- 
serve an equal tension on the wires. Putting the machine 
in motion, the 7-wire heart is drawn up the shaft, and at the 
same time the 12 single wires are wrar>ped about it as the 
disk revolves, each separate bobbin turning on its own cen- 
ter in an opposite direction, so as to avoid twisting the wire. 
As the strand is formed it is reeled upon a bol)bin. Having 
filled 7 bobbins, 6 are placed in a machine similar to Fig. 2, 
ami 1 in the rear for a heart. The heart, 
on motion being given to the machinerv, 
is drawn through, and the 6 strands 
wrapped about it, giving 1 central and 6 
outer strands of 19 wires each. In mak- 
ing strands for wire ri^r^ing it is the prac- 
tice to suV)stitute hemp for the single 
wire of the heart, and to make a hemp 
heart for the rope. It is plain from the 
^8°rand"of\45-'^^S 5»receding diagram that the diameter of 
rope. the retjuired rope, divided by 15, will 

give the diameter of the single wire, from 
which, by tables in common use, the proper gauge may be 
found. 
Fig. 4 shows the cross-section of a single strand of a 



^ 



49-wire rope, the 6 strands and the heart all bein^ of the 
same size. The size of the required rope being given, di- 
vide the diameter by 9 to find the diameter, and fn>m 
the tables the gauge of the wire to be used. Knowing 
by the old rules the proper size to make a given piece uf 
hemp rigging for a ship, tne corresponding size of wire n»i>e 
may be found from tables giving tne comparative strengi h 
of ropes of the two materials. When fiexibility is require.!, 
annealed wire is used and hemp hearts supplant the win- 
ones, as indicated by the deeply shaded centers of the 6 
strands in Fig. 8, ana a hemp neart takes the place of the 
central strand or wire heart (Fig. 3). In this case there i» i li 
be 18 wires to each of the 6 strandfs, making a total of lU** 
wires in all, instead of 183 as before. So, in Fi^. 4, if a 
twine heart in each strand be substituted for the wire, ther*- 
would be a wire heart in the rope of 6 wires, laid up in 6 
strands of 6 wires each ; total, ^ wires, instead of 49. as 
above stated. The size of the wire, it is evident, determiu»v> 
the size of the rope. Steel wire is about 56 per cent, stron^'er 
than iron wire and 65 per cent, stronger than annealed ir<»n 
wire. Both steel and iron wire may be galvanized without 
detracting from its strength. S. B. Lltl. 

Roquefort, Fr. pron., rok'for' : a small town in the tie- 
partment of Aveyron, France ; on a mountain 4,H<K) ft tt 
nigh, 10 miles S. W. of Millau (see map of France, ref. H-F>. 
It is famous for its cheese made iroin ewe-milk. <s«i- 
Cheese.) The limestone mountain is honevcombed with 
caverns, in which the cheeses are kept through the sumnier. 
Pop. about 1,000. 

Roqueulan, rok'plaan', Joseph £tienneCamille: painter ; 
b. at Mallemort, deimrtment of Bouches-du-Kh6ne, Fraiu •-, 
Feb. 18, 1802; studied painting at Paris under Gros niwi 
Pujol; began to exhibit in 1822; attracted great attentiin 
in 1827 bv two pictures for which he had chosen the suhj»Mt 
from Walter Scott's romances, and became soon one of t h*- 
leaders of the modern French school of painting. The nif •-! 
remarkable of his pictures* are The Amateur Antiquary, in 
which there is very skillful painting of rich and varie<l c»l^- 
jects of decorative art, and his genre pieces and landM-aj «*-« 
from the Pyrenees, among which is The Well near the Ttill 
Fig-tree, For several years during the latter part of hi-^ 
life he suffered much from ill-health. D. in Paris, Oct. ir>. 
1855. 

Rorqual : same as Fin-back {q. r.). 

Rosa, EupHROSYNE (Parepa): singer; b. in Edinburc>i. 
Scotland, May 7, 1836; daughter of Demetrius Partj n. 
Baron de Boyescu, a Wallachian nobleman, and ElizaKtn 
Seguin, a professional singer ; was carefully traineii by h. r 
mother ; made her debut on the operatic stage at Malta as a 
soprano singer; appeared with success at London ls,%7; 
married Captain Carvell of the East India service 186:^ ; U*- 
came a widow 1865; sang in the U. S. with the Bateiiian 
troupe 1865, and again 1866-67; enioyed great popularity, 
especially in oratorios ; married the violinist C^rl H. .^^i 
1867; organized with her husband an English opera-trotij^ . 
with which they sang in the principal cities of the I'. >. 
1869-72; was at the khedive's court in Egypt during il«o 
winter of 1872-73, and afterward made another tour in the 
U. S. (1873). D. in London, England, Jan. 21, 1874. 

Revised by B. B. Vallentink. 

Rosa. Francisco Martinez, de la : See Martinez de ijl 
Rosa, Francisco. 

Rosa, PiETRo: archa?ologist ; b. in Rome, Italy, about IHi 5. 
He was educated as an architect, but as early as 184*< he 
became almost exclusively interested in archaH)logital re- 
searches in Rome and its vicinity. One of his early under- 
takings was a large-scale map of Latium, with the aneimt 
sites determined, but the constant succession of new disco\- 
eries, overturning old theories, has kept this work in harvl 
and unfinished for many years. Meantime he was bu^it-.! 
upon the tombs of the Appian Way and their theoreti. al 
restoration. In 1861 the French Government charged hirn 
with the study of the camp of the Pretorian Guard at .A ;- 
bano, and of the buildings on the Palatine Hill. In INT2 
and later he conducted important researches in the Rom.-in 
Forum, and was director of these at the time of the disc-o vry 
of the Basilica Julia. His publications are chiefly paf>erN in 
the archaeological journals and monographs of no great ex- 
tent, but his services as a discoverer and organizer are s^n- 
erally recognized. He was senator of the kingdom of It.ily 
and a member of the Legion of Honor. D. in Rome. Aug. 
15, 1891. Russell Stirois. 



182 



ROSCHER 



ROSE 



tion of Roscelin, and laid it before the synod. Roscelin was 
condemned and recanted, but continued, nevertheless, after 
his return to Compiegne, to propagate his tritheistic doc- 
trines. He afterward settled as a teacher at Tours, and later 
at Loc-menaoh, near Vannes, in Brittany, and to this last 
period of his life belongs his controversy with Abelard. 
Abelard was a pupil of his, but in his De Trinitate (Intro- 
ductio in Theologiam) he found it expedient, evidently with 
an eye to the decisions of the Svnod of Soissons, to empha- 
size the unity of the Trinity with great strength. Enraged, 
Roscelin denounced him to Gisbert, Bishop of Paris, for vari- 
ous other heresies, and Abelard answered by a direct and 
violent attack (Ep. xxi.). After that time (1121) Roscelin 
disappears from history. The only writing of his extant is 
a letter supposed to be addressed by him to Abelard. It is 
probable that he wrote little. His importance in the history 
of nominalism has led to the close study of such represen- 
tations of his teachings as are to be found in the writings 
of his opponents. See the histories of philosophy by Ueber- 
weg ana Brdmann. Revised by S. M. Jackson. 

Boscher, Wilhelm Georo Priedrich, Ph.D.: political 
economist ; b. in Hanover, Germany, Oct. 21, 1817 ; educated 
in Hanover and at the Universities of GSttingen and Berlin ; 
professor at Gottingen University 1844-48; became profes- 
sor at Leipzig University 1848 ; was Doctor Honorariusof Law 
in the Universities of Kftnigsberg, Edinburgh, and Bologna ; 
Doctor Honorarius of Political Economy in the University 
of Tubingen ; member honorarius of the Universities of 
Kasan and Kiev, and Ehrenhurger of Leipzig University. 
His principal works are De hiatoriccB doctritUB apud sophia- 
ttM- mafores vMtiaiia (GSttingen, 1838) ; Leben, Werk und 
ZeitcUterdea Thulcydides {lSi2); Orundriss zu Vorleaungen 
aber die Staatswirthschaft (1843) ; System der Volkswirth- 
sehaft (4 vols., Stuttgart, 1854^6; vol. i., 20th ed. 1892; vol. 
ii., 12th ed. 1888 ; vol. iii., 6th ed. 1892 ; voL iv., 3d ed. 1889) ; 
Kolonien, KolonicUpolitik mid Anawanderung (1847 ; 3d ed. 
1885); Ueber Kornhandel uiid Theuerungspolitik (Stuttgart, 
1847 ; 3d ed. 1852) ; Zur Grundungsgeschicnte des Zollvereiiva 
(Berlin, 1870) ; Oeachichte der Nationaldkonomik in Deuiaeh- 
land (2 vols., Munich, 1874) ; Andichten der Volkawirthe aua 
dem geachichtlichen Standpunkte (2 vols., Munich, 1861 ; 3d 
ed. 1878) ; Umriaae zur Naturlehre des Cdaariamtia (1888) ; 
Umriaae zur Naturlehre der Demokratie (1890) ; and Politik„ 
geachichtliche Naturlehre der Monarchies Aristokratie und 
Demokratie (1892). D. in Leipzig, Saxony, June 4, 1894. 

Rosoias, QuiNTUs: a celebrated Roman actor, a con- 
temporary of Sulla and Cicero, who in his youth received 
instruction from him, and subsequently defended him in 
a civil lawsuit in an oration which is still extant. He was 
especially great in comedy, and carried his art to the highest 
degree of perfection which the Roman stage ever witnessed, 
accumulating an immense fortune. Cicero speaks often of 
him, and always with enthusiasm for his art and respect for 
his character. D. 62 b. c. Revised by M. Warren. 

Roscoe, Sir Henry Enfield, LL. D., D. C. L. : chemist ; 
grandson of William Roscoe ; b. in London, Jan. 7, 1833. He 
was educated at University College, London, and at Heidel- 
berg; graduated at London University in 1852; appointed 
Professor of Chemistry at Owens College, Manchester, in 
1858, and resigned in 1885. He was elected a fellow of the 
Royal Society in 1863, and received the royal medal of the 
society in 1873 for his chemical researches. In 1884 he was 
knighted for his services as a member of the royal commis- 
sion on technical instruction ; was elected Liberal M. P. for 
South Manchester in 1885, 1889, and 1892. He was jiresident 
of the British Association in 1887, and in 1889 received the 
decoration of the Legion of Honor in recognition of his 
services at the Paris Exposition of that year. In conjunc- 
tion with Prof. Bunsen he has published several investiga- 
tions on the measurement of the chemical action of light, 
and is the author of numerous papers in scientific journals. 
His Leasona in Elementary Chemistry has been translated 
into several European and Eastern languages. He is the 
author of Lectures on Spectrum Analysis (1869; 5th ed. 
1888), and conjointly with Prof. Schorlemmer of a Treatise 
on Chemistry (8 vols., 1877-90). R. A. Roberts. 

Roscoe, William: historian and biographer; b. near 
Liverpool, England. Mar. 8, 1753; was admitted to the bar 
1774; began practice at Liverpool: wrote several pamphlets 
against the slave-trade; published in 1796 The Life of Lo- 
renzo de' Medici^ and in 1805 a History of the Life and 
Pontificate of Leo X.\ sat in Parliament 1806-07; edited 
Pope's works (10 vols., 1824), and was author of many polit- 



ical and miscellaneous treatises. He was distinguished for 
his labors in the cause of philanthropy and his encourage- 
ment of younger literary aspirants. D. at Toxteth Park, 
Liverpool, June 27, 1831. His Life (2 vols., 1833) was writ- 
ten by his youngest son, Henry (1799-1836),- who was dis- 
tinguished at the bar, wrote numerous legal works, and wa> 
author of the Lives of Eminent British Lawyers (IXW; 
often reprinted). Revised by H. A. Bekrs. 

RoBCom'mon : an inland county of Ireland, in the prov- 
ince of Connaught, bordering E. on the Shannon.. An*a. 
949 sq. miles (see map of Ireland, ref. 8-F). The surfacv i^ 
level, with the exception of the northern parts, where ranj:»i 
of low hills are found; the soil is light but fertile, affording 
excellent pasturage in many places. Agriculture and tl.o 
rearing of sheep are the principal occupations. Pop. (IMJl) 
114,397. Chief town, Roscommon, which contains remains of 
a castle and a fine abbey of the thirteenth century, and ha> 
an important cattle-market. 

Roscommon, Went worth Dillon, Earl of : poet ; nephew 
of Wentworth, Earl of Strafford ; b. in Irelana about \^\^\ ; 
educated at Caen under Bochart ; spent a large part of hi.^ I if^:- 
in France ; obtained several offices about the court of Chari. s 
II. ; went to Ireland as captain in the Guards ; squauderivJ 
his estate by gaming; returned to England; reformeti }n•^ 
habits ; married a daughter of the Earl of Burleigh ; devotiMi 
himself to literature in conjunction with Dryden, and pn)- 
duced some poems, the best being the Essay on TranaloUd 
Verse (1660); a blank-verse paraphrase of Horaces Ar^ 
Poetica (1684) ; and a revision of Viea Ira, D. in London. 
Jan. 17, 1684, and was buried in Westminster Abljey. 

Revised by II. A. Beers. 

Rose [conjointly from 0. Fr. roae (< Lat. roaa) and < i>. 
Eng. roae, from Lat. ro'aa^ rose ; cf. Gr. ^6^^ rose] : a fli ^^- 
ering plant of the genus Rosa and family Rosacece, wbif h 
consists of shrubs, usually prickly, natives of the n(»rthiTu 
hemisphere from the Arctic zone to Mexico in the N»n* 
World, and to Abyssinia and the Indian Peninsula in t h*- 
Old. The genus is characterized by unequally piunnt»' 
leaves with serrate leaflets, or rarely simple leaves, iihi« h 
in one species (72. berberifolia) are entirely wanting, a.i- 
nately stipulate petioles, and single or corymbose terminf.l 
flowers, with five foliaceous sepals imbricated in ipstivatiin. 
five petals readily multiplying under cultivation, indefiniie 
stamens, and numerous one-seeded carpels inclosed in t he 
receptacular calyx-cup, which becomes fleshy when ni.*'. 
The most widely distributed North American species mv 
the Michigan pfairie-rose {R. setigera), with high-climb im; 
branches, armed with stout, straight prickles, showy oorj'ni- 
bose pink flowers, and globular fruit — ^a native of th.» 
Western and Southern States from Michigan to Louisiau.! 
and Georgia; the swamp-rose {R, Carolina), with stem*- 
4 to 8 feet high, armed with stout hooked prickles, corj m- 
bose pink flowers, and bristly, depressed globular fruit — a 
frequent inhabitant of low swampy ground from Cana<la t.- 
Florida and westward to the Mississippi; the dwarf wil«i 
rose (72. lucida), with stems 1 or 2 feet high, armed witti 
unequal bristly prickles, mostly deciduous flowers, s<»litarT 
or in clusters of two or three, and smooth globular fruit— 
common through Canada and the U. S., E. of the Rotky 
Mountains. 

The sweet-brier (R. rubiginosa), a native of Euro^ie, luis 
escaped from cultivation, and become widely naturalized in 
the Atlantic States. The Cherokee rose {R. sinica), a nat i vt> 
of China, with high-climbing branches, armed with stt.ut 
hooked prickles, coriaceous evergreen leaves, and lar^'e 
white flowers, has been naturalized in 'the Southern St«t«- 
for over 100 years, where it is also extensively cultivate*! a^ 
a hedge-plant. Where sufficient room can be given it, fiw 
plants equal the Cherokee rose for winter blooming in 
Northern conservatories. R.hracteata, a native of China 
and Northern India, with erect branches, armed with stout 
recurved prickles and large, white, solitary flowers Mir- 
rounded bv conspicuous bracts, has also become natural!/, u 
in some of the Gulf States, where it is successfully emplo) t-d 
as a hedge-plant, especially in deep rich soils. 

From the dried petals of /?. oa//ira, an Old World sj^*- 
cies of doubtful geographical limits, an infusion is mao.* 
which is employed as an agreeable vehicle for t<»nic anl 
astringent medicines. From the jwtals of R, centifolin. i\ 
native of the Caucasus, and R, damascena, whose n«ti\t' 
country is unknown, rose-water, the principal ingre<lirnt in 
astringent collyria, is distilled. (See Attar of Ho*ii^.^ 
In the south of France, Egypt, and other Mediterrant^an 



184 



ROSE-ACACIA 



ROSEMARY 



of The Theological Library, and projected Hose's New Gen- 
eral Biograpnieal Dictionary, a desi^i carried into effect 
after his death by his brother, Henry John, and other writ- 
ers. He was one of the principal foundere of the Tractarian 
movement. Revised by W. S. Perry. 

Rose-acacla : an ornamental shrub, the Rohinia hispida, 
of the order Leguminoece, growing wild in the mountains 
of the southern parts of the U. S. It has large, very showy, 
inodorous flowers of a deep rose-color in drooping loose 
racemes. It is common in cultivation. 

Rose-apples : See Eugenia. 

Rosebery, Archibald Philip Primrose, LL. D., Earl of : 
statesman ; b. in London, 1B47 ; educated at Eton and Ox- 
ford ; succeeded to his title on the death of his grandfather, 
the fourth Earl of Roseberv, 1868 ; seconded an address in 
reply to a speech from the tlirone in Parliament 1871 ; presi- 
dent of the social science congress Glasgow, 1874; elected 
lord rector of the University of Aberdeen Nov. 16, 1878 ; lord 
rector of the University of Edinburgh Nov., 1880; Under- 
Secretary of State for the Home Department 1881 ; first com- 
missioner of works 1884 ; Secretary of State for Foreign Af- 
fairs in Mr. Gladstone's government Jan. to June, 1886, and 
in this position won general approval for the firmness with 
which he conducted the difficult questions devolving upon 
him. He was appointed to the same post in 1892, and be- 
came Prime Minister on Mr. Gladstone s retirement in 1894 

C. H. Thurber. 

Rose-bag: a very common beetle, Macrodaciylua sub- 
spinosus, of North America, belonging to the family Sea- 
rabceidcB, It is small and dusky yellow, and is very de- 
structive, not only to the rose, but to other vegetation. In 
warm weather it will suddenly appear in swarms and then 
suddenly disappear again, having completed its devasta- 
tions, against which there seems to be no effectual remedy. 
In some caises air-slacked lime scattered over the bushes 
and under them seems to have the desired effect, but in 
other cases it has proved a complete failure. The same 
may be said of syrmging the bushes with a decoction of 
whale-oil soap or of ailanthus leaves. 

Rosebarg : city ; capital of Douglas co., Ore. ; on the 
Umpqua river, and the S. Pac. Railroad ; 76 miles S. of 
Eugene City, 197 miles S. of Portland (for location, see map 
of Oregon, 'ref. 6-B). It is in an agricultural, stock-raising, 
fruit-growing, and mining region ; is an important market 
for the fertile Umpqua valley; and contams flour-mills, 
breweries, wagon-shops, the Oregon State Soldiers' Home, a 
national bank with capital of 150,000, a private bank, and 
a semi-weekly and a weekly newspaper. Pop. (1880) 822 ; 
(1890) 1,4?2 ; (1894) estimated, 2,500. 

Manager of " Review." 

Rose'crans, William Starke: soldier; b. at Kingston, 
0., Sept. 6, 1819 ; graduated at the U. S. Military Academy ; 
promoted brevet second lieutenant of engineers July 1, 
1842. With the exception of four years (1843-47), when he 
was at West Point as Assistant Professor of Engineering and 
of Natural and Experimental Philosophy, he was engaged in 
the construction of fortifications until Apr. 1, 18M, when 
he resigned from the army and establishea himself in Cin- 
cinnati, O., as civil engineer and architect ; was president 
of a coal company in Virginia 1855-57, and engaged in 
the manufacture of kerosene in Cincinnati 1857-61. As 
volunteer aide to Gen. McClellan he served in organizing 
Ohio State troops ; was appointed colonel and chief engi- 
neer of Ohio June 9, and colonel Twenty-third Ohio Volun- 
teers June 10, 1861. He was commissioned brigadier-gen- 
eral in the regular army, and in the West Virginia cam- 
paign commanded a brigade at Rich Mountain, July 11; 
succeeded to command of the department of the Ohio on 
July 21, and of the department of West Virginia in Sept., 
1861 ; appointed major-general of volunteers Mar., 1862 ; 
in May ne commanded a division of the Anny of the Mis- 
sissippi at the siege of Corinth: succeeding to command of 
that army in June, he fought the battles of luka (Sept. 19) 
and Corinth (Oct. 3-4) ; w»is transferred to the command of 
the Army of the CumWrland Oct. 27. His exertions did 
much to win the battle of Murfrkeshoro {q. r.), fought 
Dec. 31, 1862-Jan. 8, 186:3, after tem[M»niry reverse on the 
first day. Advancing on Tullahoma June 24, he occunied 
Bridgeport and Stevenson July 24; crossed the Cunioer- 
land Mountains, and Sept. 19-20 fought the battle of Chick- 
amauoa {q. t'.), where, defeated and falling back on Chat- 
tanooga, he was relieved Oct. 30, 1863 (see Cuattanoooa, 



Siege and Battle of) : was placed in command of the de- 
partment of the Missouri Jan., 1864 ; repelled the invasion 
of Missouri by Price ; was mustered out of the vol u nice: 
service in 1866 ; again resigned from the army 1867 : wa^ 
for a short time (1868-69) U. S. minister to Mexico, aft»'r 
which he became a resident of San Kafael, Cal.. and wa> iii 
Alexico 1871-73, engaged in an unsuccessful effort to ne^'^i^- 
tiate the construction of a vast system of narrow-gau;?«- 
railways. He was member of Congress from Calif <»r ma 
1881-a5, and register of the Treasury 1885-93. On Mar. ^, 
1889, he was restored to the rank of brigadier-general and 
retired. Revised by James Mercub. 

Rose-gaH : See Gall Insects. 

Ros'egrger, Petri Kettenfeier : poet and novelist ; h. at 
Alpl, a small village in the Styrian Alps, July 31. 1K4:5 ; 
passed his youth in great poverty and was apprenticed t<> a 
tailor at the age of seventeen. Through the aid of a num- 
ber of patrons, whose attention he attracted by his excep- 
tional poetic talent, he was enabled to make up for his de- 
fective education and devote himself entirely to literature. 
In 1869 he published his first book. Zither und Hackhrt-tt. a. 
collection of poems in the Styrian dialect, which met with 
success. Since then he has produced a p^at number td 
stories, sketches, and novels, most of which describe tin- 
peasant life of his native country with great originality aiifl 
power of characterization. The best known of his st«»rie- 
are Aua dem Walde (1874); Oeschichten aus den Alpm 
(1873) ; Der Gottsucher (1883) ; Jacob der Letzte (1888) ; JJoch 
vom Dachstein (1892) ; Peter Mayr (1894). Julius Goebel. 

Ro8ellliil,ros-el-lee'nee, Ippolito: Orientalist; b. at Pisa, 
Italv, Aug. 13, 1800. After graduating at Pisa in 1821. lii^ 
studied Oriental languages at Bologna, and in 1824 w&s 
made Professor of (oriental Philology in the University i)f 
Pisa. Having been commissioned by the Grand Duke of 
Tuscany to examine the antiquities of I^Q'Pt, he visit oti 
that country and spent fifteen months (1827-S8) with Cham- 
pollion, who was under appointment by the French Guv- 
emment, in careful exploration. After the death of Charu- 
poUion, Rosellini became to some extent his literarv extn*- 
utor. The remainder of his life, after his return from ^g> | -t . 
was spent in editing and publishing his monumental v« fl- 
umes, / Monumentt delV Egitto e della Nubia (9 vols. <»c- 
tavo, and 3 vols, folio, containing 394 plates, Pisa, IKii- 
44). Ungarelli's Elementa linguce ^gypt\ac4E vulgo Copt ir(r 
(Pisa, 1837) contained the material delivered by Rosellini, 
who in turn depended upon Champollion's Gramma ire 
Copte, D. at Pisa, June 4, 1843. Biographies of him were 
written soon after his death by Bardelli (1848), Dei (1H4:1), 
and Cavedoni (1845). ^ Charles R. Gillett. 

Roselly de Lorgues. rd'ze'lee'de-ldrg', Antoike Frax- 
Qois Felix : religious writer; b. at Grasse, Alpes-Maritimt-s, 
France, Aug. 11, 1805; studied law, but soon left the l>Mr 
and devoted himself to religious writing and to researcht.*- 
in philosophy: became a member of the Legion of Hont.r 
in 1837, and ofilcer in 1855. His best-known work^ ar<* 
those in defense of the Roman Catholic Church, es[)e<iallv 
Le Christ devant le si^le (1835; 16th ed. 1847), translal* a 
into several languages, and La Croix dans les deux momfr,^ 
(1844; 3d ed. 1852). He also wrote several works with the 
purpose of obtaining the beatification of Columbus, anion c 
them Christophe Colomb (1856: 8d ed. 1886) and IliMvirt 
posthume de Christophe Colomb (1885). 

Rose-maHow : See Hibiscus. 

Rosemary [by analogy of rose and Mary < M. Eng. ms- 
marine, via O. Fr. from Lat. rosmari'nus, liter., sea-<iow ; 
ros, dew -h man"nu«, of the sea, marine, deriv. of mg r&^ 
sea] : a labiate evergreen shrub, Rosmarinus officinalis, . »f 
Europe and Asia, having fragrant aromatic leaves whiih 
yield a pungent volatile oil, valued as a stimulant nu'iii- 
cine and sometimes used as an ingredient in perfumery, m 
hair-dressings, and in liniments. Oil of rosemary is a prin- 
cipal ingredient of the perfume called Hunpiry watt-r or 
queen of Hungary water. The shrub, which ' n»ach«-s a 
height of from 4 to 8 feet, has linear leaves which an* t'i>v- 
ered beneath with a short whitish-gray down and t-nut a 
penetrating camphor-like odor; the flower is pale biui-h. 
It grows in sunny places, on rocks, old walls, etc., in tlu- 
countries around the Mediterranean, and is generally cul- 
tivated as an ornamental and aromatic shrub in tlu* w« st 
of Europe. The rosemary may sometimes be smelletl U>r 
many leagues off the Spanish coast. It affonls excflhui 
bee-pasture. Revised by L. H. Bailet. 



1 


^^fti 


1 




^H 


^^■n 




1 


^^^H 


^^D/ 




^H 


^^H 






^ 


H 








^^^^^NH^ 










, „ 




'it of Mt4in'* id^iHi^^ ami ^^H 



186 



ROSBTTI 



ROSLYN 



The stone contains a copy of a decree promulgated by the 
Egyptian priesthood assembled at Memphis in 195 b. c, in 
honor of Ptolemy V. Kpiphanes (205-182 b. c.) on account of 
certain benefits that he nad conferred upon Egypt in his 
eighth Year, by remitting certain taxes ana reducme others, 
by conferring privileges upon the priests and soldiers, by 
dedicating certain revenues to the temples, and by averting 
serious damage from the land by damming and regulating 
the waters of an unusually high Nile. According to the de- 
cree it was directed that its t«xt be engraved in three sorts 
of characters upon hard stone, and set up in all Egyptian 
temples of the first, second, and third order, to commem- 
orate these beneficent deeds of ** Ptolemy, the saviour of 
Egypt." It was also directed that statues of the king should 
be placed in all the temples, and that a shrine containing 
his image in wood should be carried with those of other dei- 
fied kings of Egypt in solemn processions. The first five 
days of the month of Thoth were set apart for the celebra- 
tion of special services in his honor. 

The inscriptions on this stone were similar to those on the 
Tablet of Tanis, also known as the Stela of Canopus, dis- 
covered at Tanis by Lepsius in 1866. The latter was set up 
in 238 B.C., the ninth year of Ptolemy III., Euergetes 1. 
(246-221 B. c.) to commemorate his good deeds, and particu- 
larly his restoration of the images of the gods, which had 
been carried off to Mesopotamia. These texts served to 
confirm the results of the decipherment based upon the 
Rosetta Stone. In the original work of decipherment great 
assistance was rendered to ChampoUion in 1822 by inscrip- 
tions on an obelisk then recently brought from Philae to 
London, which contained the names of Ptolemy Euergetes 
and Cleopatra, to whose identification he was led by the 
Greek inscriptions on the base of the obelisk. The name of 
Ptolemy was already known, and the decipherment of the 
name of Cleopatra added several alphabetic signs to those 
that had been previously determined on the basis of the 
Rosetta Stone. For an account of the decipherment, see 
article Egyptology. See also Budge, The Mummy (Cam- 
bridge, 1893), pp. 144 ff. ; Ebers, Cicerone durch JSgi/pteUy 
ii., pp. 24 ff. Buuge, pp. 109-1 10, ei ves an extensive bi bliogra- 
phy of works bearing upon the decipherment and interpre- 
tation of the Rosetta Stone. Charles R. Gillett. 

Roset'ti, or Roseti, Constantin : poet and politician ; b. 
in Bucharest, Roumania, June 14, 1816; in the army from 
1833 to 1836 ; wrote translations from Byron and others, 
and in 1843 published a volume of original poems under the 
title CeasuH de mulfumire (Hours of Contentment). He 
was concerned in the political disturbances of 1848, being a 
secretary of the provisional government. When the uprising 
was put down his journal, Pruncul romdn (The Roumanian 
Child), was suppressed, and he went to Paris, where he was 
active as a political writer. After the Crimean war he re- 
turned to Roumania and founded the journal Romdnul (The 
Roumanian), and as an ardent liberal was influential in poli- 
tics. He became a member of the chamber of deputies, and 
held other public positions. He urged the proclamation of 
independence, and the alliance with Russia against Turkey 
in 1877. From 1878 to 1880 he was Minister of the Interior, 
and was a senator at the time of his death, Apr. 20, 1885. 
A new edition of his poems, translations, and political writ- 
ings appeared in 1885 at Bucharest. E. S. Sheldon. 

Rosewood : (1) the beautiful and fragrant wood of sev- 
eral leguminous Brazilian trees of the genera Machferium 
and Triptolem(Ea, highly valued as a veneer for furniture, 
pianos, etc. ; (2) the almost equally beautiful wood of an 
East Indian leguminous tree, Dalhergia laiifolia; (3) Ca- 
nary island rosewood, the fragrant woody root of the con- 
volvulaceous Rhodorrhiza ecoparia and R. ftorida. The 
last is a delijjhtful incense, and its powder is mixed with 
snuff. From it is obtained the oil of rhodium, much vaunted 
as a charm for horses and highly prized by trappers. (4) 
Burmese and African rosewootls are the timber of legu- 
minous trees of the genus Pferocarpus. 

Revised by L. H. Bailey. 

RoBieraclans [Lat. ro'sa, rose 4- crux^ cruris, cross] : a 
secret society reported to havo Ix^en founded in the four- 
teenth century. The first mention of the society appeared 
in the Fama Fraternitatis den lohlichen Ordens des Rosen- 
kreuzes, anonymously published at Cassol in 1614. and in 
the Confession oder Bekenntniss der Sociddt nnd Bruder- 
schaft ii. C, published the following year. In those the 
most wonderful stories were told of the Hosicrucians, who 
were said to be possessed of the deepest wisdom, and most 



potently at work for the weal of mankind. Concerning the 
founder of the society. Christian Rosenkreutz — his ^e^idenf•e 
among the Arab and Egyptian magicians, his life in Spain 
and Germany as head of tne new order, his death and buria) 
— the most stirring revelations were made in a third Uw^k, 
Chymische Hochzeit Christian Rosenkreutz\ which apfjeari'd 
at Strassburg in 1616. Some theologians considered the s<^ 
ciety a means of salvation, others the organ of a foul soin>ine. 
Some physicians thought that it would give the fulfillment 
of the golden prophecies of Theophrastus Paracelsus (•<»n- 
cerning an elixir of life ; others, that it was only an impu<leni 
opposition to Galen. The alchemists particularly were anx- 
ious to ioin it, sure that it had found the philosopher's stc»n»- 
and could make gold, but the whereabouts of the broth erh< >* «! 
remained unknown. For several years the secret society t»f 
the Rosicrucians was the all-absorbing topic of the iay. 
Some think that the books were written by Johann Valentin 
Andrea, simply as a satire. Of the real existence of such 
a society there never was found the slightest trace. Sum 
there arose a multitude of Rosicrucian societies, and at tbt- 
end of the eighteenth century Cagliostro pretended to be a 
Rosicrucian. See Semler, Impartial Collections for the IJiA- 
tory of the Rosicrucians (Leipzig, 1768) ; and Waite, Th*^ 
Real History of the Rosicimcians (London, 1887). 

Rosin, or CoPophon^ [rosin is appar. dial, form of rej*in 
(see Resins); colophony is from Lat. coloplw'nia (sc. resi no. 
rosin) = Gr. KoKoipt^rta (se. frtritnfi, rosin), Colophonian rosin, 
rosin, liter., fem. of KoXo^yiof, pertaining to Colophon (< Jr. 
KoKoi^y)] : the residue which is obtained by distilling off th»- 
water and volatile oil from the crude turpentine from pine- 
trees. The yield is from 70 to 90 per cent, of the wn<'U\ 
(See Turpentine.) It is largely manufactured, together w it I. 
oil of turpentine, at Wilmington, Newbern, and Beanr »rt, 
N. C. When entirely freed from water it is translucoi.t. 
The color depends upon the purity of the original turpentim- 
and the care taken to distill at a low temperature. It is; 
chiefly the anhydride of abietic acid. 

Colophony is pale yellow and transparent (virgin rosin >. 
or brownish yellow and translucent, according to the care 
taken in its preparation. It may be obtained nearly cul<ir- 
less by distillation with steam or some inert gas, as' hydro- 
gen, carbon dioxide, or nitrogen, under a pressure of ten at- 
mospheres at a temperature not higher than 600° F. It has 
a peculiar luster, called resinous, is brittle when cold, ami 
breaks with a conchoidal fracture; sp. gr. 1*07 to 1*08. It is 
insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol, ether, wood-spirit, anti 
in fixed and volatile oils; partially soluble in petroleum. 
Nitric acid dissolves it, fonning chiefly isophthalic a< iii, 
together with trimcllitic acid and a resinous acid. It «li>- 
solves in caustic alkalies and alkaline carbonates. Col- 
ophony softens at 160" F. and melts at 275 F. At hiirhtr 
temperatures it gives off volatile oils, acouiring a dark < ♦ »1< ►r. 

Colophony is extensively used in making varnishes a»i*i 
cements, in the calking of ships, in the preparation i»f p Inci- 
ters and ointments, and as a reducing agent in the soldering 
of metals. Large quantities are consumed in the manu f hi - 
ture of yellow soap. A well-known use of it is for coverintr 
the bows of violins to prevent the bow from slipping ovor 
the strings without producing vibration. Before the int n>- 
duction of petroleum, rosin-oil was used to some extent in 
lamps. The rosin-spirit is sometimes used as a substitute 
for oil of turpentine. The viscid oil is used in paints, fi»r 
the manufacture of printer's ink, in soap-making, in eheaj» 
lubricators, etc. Revisea by Ira Remse>\ 

Rosin Bible : See Bible. 

ROs'kilde : town ; in the island of Sealand, Denmark ton 
a hill on a branch of the Isefjord. In the early Mid'iU* 
Ages it was a great city, the royal residence, with l()<».t»«H> 
inhabitants, and 27 churches and monasteries, but confl».irrji- 
tions, the plague, and the growth of Cojienhagen destn>)»Ml 
its prosperity. It has a magnificent cathedral, built 1047^*^4, 
which contains manv splendid monuments; the Danish kiiiir> 
are buried here. Pop. (1890) 6,972. 

Roslyn: village; Queens co., Long Island, N. Y. ; at :h»» 
south end of IIem])stead harbor, on the Long Island Rail- 
road; 23 miles E. N. E. of Brooklyn (for location, stn^ ni;»p 
of New York, ref. 8-K). It was named by William CulU n 
Bryant, who had a residence here and presented the villtiijt' 
with a public hall. It has an English classical school, a xti\ - 
ings-bank, a weekly newspaper, flour, paper, and planing 
mills, and canning-fuctories. Manv New York business ni»- 1 1 
have summer residences here. I^op. (1880) 1,101; 0*^*H>\ 
1,251 ; (1893) 1,409. Editor of " New^/' 



188 



ROSS 



ROSSB 



the Howland syndicate to build the Canadian Pacific Rail- 
way. He was a member of the Manitoba Leeislature 1878- 

82, and in the latter year was elected to the Canadian Par- 
liament. Neil Macdoxald. 

Ross, George William, LL. D. : educator ; b. in Mid- 
dlesex, Ontario, Canada, Sept. 18, 1841 ; educated at Nor- 
mal School, and became a teacher. In 1871 he was ap- 
pointed county inspector of schools in East Lambton ; sub- 
sequently became inspector of county model schools, and 
was appointed Minister of Education for Ontario Nov. 23, 
1883. He was a member of the Dominion Parliament 1872- 

83, and since then has held a seat in the Ontario Legislature. 
For many years he has been a leader in temperance and 
prohibition movements; was an honorary commissioner at 
the Colonial and Indian Exhibition, Loudon, 1885, and has 
been editor of the Strathroy Age and of the Seaforth Ex- 
positor. Neil Macdonald. 

Ross. Sir James Clark : navigator ; b. in London. Apr. 
15, 1800; nephew of Sir John Ross; entered the navy in 
1812, and accompanied his uncle on his first voyage in search 
of a northwest passage, and was also with Capt. Parry 
(1819-27) in the latter*s expeditions having the same object 
in view, being on one occasion wrecked in the Fury ; in 
1827 was appointed commander, and in 1829 again sailed 
with his uncle as second in command, and was absent four 
years. On June 1, 1831, he discovered the position of the 
north magnetic pole. Promoted to be post-captain on his 
return, he was engaged in a magnetic survey of Great Brit- 
ain and Ireland 1835-38 ; in Apr., 1839, was appointed to 
the command of the Erebus, and in September of that year, 
in company with the Terror, sailed for the Antarctic seas, 
reaching lat. 78° 10' S., the highest southern latitude over 
reached. A volcano was discovered in lat. 77" 32' S., nearly 
13,000 feet in height, which was named Mt. Erebus. It is 
in Victoria Land, discovered and named by him, and the 
most extensive Antarctic land yet seen. In 1844 the honor 
of knighthood was conferred upon him, and in 1847 he pub- 
lished A Narrative of a Voyage in the Antarctic Regions. 
He was a fellow of the Royal Society, and of many conti- 
nental scientific bodies. D. at Aston Abbots House, near 
Aylesbury, Apr. 3, 1862. Revised by C. C. Adams. 

Ross, Sir John, K. C. B. : explorer ; b. in the parish of 
Inch, Wip;onshire, Scotland, June 24, 1777 ; entered the navy 
in 1786 ; in Jan., 1818, received his commission as commander 
of the Isabella, and Apr. 25, in company with the Alexander, 
Lieut. Parry, sailed from London to ascertain the existence 
or non-existence of a northwest passage, returning in Nov., 
1818; in May, 1829, again sailed in the steamer Victory, 
equipped by ^ir Felix Booth, sheriff of London, but in Sept., 
1830, became ice-bound in the Gulf of Boothia, making but 
little subsequent advance, and May 29, 1832, the Victory was 
abandoned. In Aug., 1833, the party was rescued by the Isa- 
bella, formerly commanded by Capt. Ross, but at that time 
engaged in the whaling busmess. He arrived in London 
Sept. 19, 1833, was knighted the following year, and admit- 
ted to the companionship of the Bath. From 1839 to 1845 
he was consul at Stockholm : in 1850 departed, in command 
of the Felix, 90 tons, in search of Sir John Franklin, return- 
ing the following year ; in July, 1851, attained the rank of 
rear-admiral. D. in London, Aug. 30, 1856. (See Polar 
Research.) He published (1819) A Voyage of Discovery, 
made under the Orders of ths Admiralty for the purpose 
of exploring Baffin's Bay, and in 1835 a Narrative of a Sec- 
ond Voyage, ificluding the Reports of Commander James 
Clark Ross, and the Discovery of the Northern Magnetic 
Pole ; also published a treatise on steam-navigation and 
numerous other papers. Revised by C. C. Adams. 

Boss, Sir JoHx, K. C. B. : general; b. at Stonehouse, 
Cumberland, England, Mar. 18, 1829 ; entered the army as 
second lieutenant in the Rifle Brigade in 1846 ; served with 
that regiment during the C'rimean war, where he won dis- 
tinction and received the brevet rank of major and Turkish 
medal and order of the Medjidie. During the Indian mutiny 
he was present at the action at Cawnpur and the Ciinture 
of Lucknow; subseauently commanded the Camel Corps 
at the capture of Calpee and in the ensuing campaign m 
Central India, and for his services received the rank of lieu- 
tenant-colonel, the companionship of the Bath, and a medal. 
He commanded the Bengal troops during the operations in 
the Malay Peninsula 1875-76, and was assigned to the com- 
mand of a large force of Indian troops sent to the Medi- 
terranean in 1878, when war with Russia was threatened. 
He afterward commanded the second division of the Cabul 



army during the war with Afghanistan 1878-79, and receiv^il 
the thanks of Parliament and was knighted for his servn. > 
He was appointed to the command of the troops in ('aii:i<l.| 
in 1888, and stationed in Halifax. Neil Macdoxali>. 

Ross, John Jones, M. D. : Canadian senator; b. at .Vr, 
Anne de la Perade, Aug. 16, 1833. He is president of i\..\ 
Provincial College of Physicians and Surgeons ; was a nwir^ 
ber of the agricultural council of Quebec 1862-JH): ami 
elected vice-president of the North Shore Railway <"«::i^ 
pan y 1875. He was Speaker of the Legislative Conm i) ••i 
Quebec 1873-74 and 1876-81 ; commissioner of agri<ul!iif'i 
and public works 1881-82, and held this oflBce together we *i 
that of Premier of province 1884-87. He rep^e^♦•Ilh I 
Champlain in the Canadian Assembly 1861-^7, tlie ^an i 
seat in Parliament of Canada 1867-74, and was calleil to ti, i 
Senate 1887. Neil Macdonalu. 

Boss, LuDwio: archseologist ; b. at Altekoppel, HoKttiii.! 
Germany, July 22, 1806. Endowed with a traveling stln.lar 
ship by the Danish Government, he went to Athens in 1k;j 
for the scientific exploration of Greek antiquities. W}...t 
about to return home, he was appointed in 1833 by tl. 
Greek Government as superintendent of antiquities of ti.« 
Peloponnesus, and subsequently of the entire kingilom. Ii* 
1845 he became Professor of Archaeology at the Uni\»r- 
sity of Halle. Ross was one of the great pioneers in \U^ 
field of Hellenic archaeology, topography, and epigrajih^. 
He traveled all over Greece, excavating, copying iuMrip- 
tions, and fixing the topography of classical localities ^:ti 
such accuracy, scientific method, and descriptive talent tlia' 
his works have retained their value. Among his many pub- 
lications the following are the most important: Wami^r-\ 
ungen in Griechenland (1851); Reisen auf den (intrK- 
ischen Inseln des dgeischen Meeres (4 vols., 1840-52) : />»'• 
Demen von Attika (1846); Das Theseion und der Tftnft:' 
de^ Ares zu Athen (1852) ; Archdologische Aufsdize {1kV»- 
61), the second volume of which also contains a biograj'h- 
ical sketch by Otto Jahn. D. at Halle, Aug. 6, 1859. 

Alfred Gudeman. 

Ross, William : member of privy council of Canada : I. 
at Bouladine island, Cape Breton, in 1825 ; represente<l Vh - 
toria in Nova Scotia Assembly from 1858 till 1867, and ti i- 
same seat in the Canadian Parliament till 1874 ; colkrtnr 
of customs at Halifax 1874-88. He was sworn of the vrwy 
council Nov. 7, 1873, and was Minister of Militia an»l lU- 
fense from that date till Nov. 5, 1874. N. M. 

Ross, Sir William Chaeles, R. A. : painter; b. in Lon- 
don, England, June 3, 1794; son of a miniature-paintor auii 
teacher of drawing, from whom he received artistic train ir:t: ; 
gained a prize from the Society of Arts at the age of thir- 
teen ; in 1817 became an assistant to Andrew Robertscm, an 
eminent miniature-painter: was appointed miniature-pain ttT 
to Queen Victoria 1837; was knighted 1842; waspatruni/.*! 
by all the court circle, and occasionally executed historii.nl 
and imaginative pieces, having obtained a premium of i'KK) 
in the great cartoon competition for his Angel Raphael dis- 
eoursing with Adam (1842). D. in London, Jan. 2<), 1^60. 

Ross and Cromarty: a northern county of Scotlarui. 
washed on the E. by the German Ocean and on the W. hy 
the Atlantic, and bounded N. and S. by Sutherlan<Khire 
and Inverness-shire respectively. It comprises the di>tri( t5 
of Easter and Wester Ross, the Black Isle, the islauii «>f 
Lewis, and the ten detached districts which formerly nw»«lo 
up the county of Cromarty. Area, 3,078 sq. miles. P«p. 
(1891) 78,727. The surface is wild and mountainous. I'uf 
the soil affords good pastures, on which large herds of sh« ep 
and cattle are fed; agriculture and fishing are carried "n. 
The royal burgh of Dingwall, 166 miles N. W. of E^im- 
burgh, is the county-town. Pop. (1891) 2,300. 

Rossa'no (anc. Roscianum) : town ; province of Cosenia. 
Italy; on a hill near the Gulf of Taranto, which it "V.r- 
looks (see map of Italy, ref. &-H). There are quarrir- o( ' 
marble and alabaster in the neighborhood. Fish art' al'un- 
dant, and silk and cotton are raised in the vicinitv, rt> ^'^''^ 
as grain, olives, grapes, etc. The town, still walled ami il'- 
fended by a castle, was once a very strong fortress. H-'^- 
sano is the seat of an archbishop. Pop. of communt- h*'**''^ 
18,000. Revised by M. W. Harrinijton. 

Rosse, William Parsons, third Earl of : astrononit'r : ^. 
at York, England, June 17, 18(X); studied first at Tr.nH^ 
College, Dublin, and then at Magdalen College, 0\f«'r.l. 
where he graduated in 1822; sat in the House of roinn)«'''j^ 
as Lord Oxmantown, representing King's County from 1?^-1 



190 



ROSSINI 



ROT 



Rossini, ros-see'nee, Gioacchixo Antonio : composer ; b. 
at Pesaro, Italy, Feb. 29, 1792. In 1807 he entered the mu- 
sical school of' Bologna, studying counterpoint under the 
Abbate Mattel, and in 1810 he produced his first opera, 
La Cambiaie di Matrimonio^ at Venice. Other operas, 
since forgotten, followed, and in 1818 his Tancredi excited 
an immense enthusiasm, first in Venice, and soon on every 
stage on which lUlian opera was given. In 1815 he went 
to Naples as director of the opera, and composed among 
other operas Elizabetta (1815). Otello (1816), La Gazza 
Ladra (1817), Mo8^ in Egitto (1818). La DontM del Lago 
(1819), and Zelmira (1820); but his most celebrated pro- 
duction of this period is II Barhiere di Seinglia (origi- 
nally called Almaviva), first performed in Rome in 1816, 
and generally considered the masterpiece of the whole ^nre 
of opera bufita — irresistiblv gay, and as characteristic as 
graceful and brilliant. Semiramide (1823), composed at 
Bologna for the Fenice theater, Venice, was not appreciated 
on the occasion of its first representation. Rossini went to 
London in 1823, and next year to Paris, where he was made 
successively director of the Italian opera, inspector-general 
of song in France, and first composer to the Qrand Opera. 
In bringing out his old compositions on the Paris stage he 
felt compelled to make considerable alterations : the melo- 
dies required a greater simplicity and more character, the 
chorus a deeper connection with the whole organism and a 
fuller significance, the instrumentation greater variety and 
elaborateness. He made a penetrating study of his task be- 
fore he ventured to represent any new composition, but 
when at last, in 1828, he made the attempt witn Count Ory, 
and in 1829 with William Tell, his success was astonishing. 
A few days after the performance of the last work he left 
Paris and retired to his villa near Bologna, where he lived 
till 1847, declining all offers, even the most tempting, made 
in order to induce him to compose a new opera. In 1847 
he removed to Florence, in 1856 to Paris, where he died Nov. 
13, 1868. In the last forty years of his life he published 
only a Stahat Mater, and a Mesae solennelle, which was per- 
formed at his buriaL See Edwards's Life of RoMini (1869), 
and the biography by Azevedo (1865). 

Rossiter, Thomas Pbichard: figure and portrait painter; 
b. at New Haven, Conn., Sept. 29, 1818. He was a pupil of 
Nathaniel Jocelyn in New Ilaven, and studied in Paris, Lon- 
don, and other places in Europe 1840-46 ; National Acade- 
mician 1849 ; gold medal, Paris Exposition, 1855. Many of 
his portraits are excellent. He devoted the later years of 
his life to painting the Life of Christ in a series of pictures. 
Rehekah at the W ell is in the Corcoran Gallery, Washington. 
D. at Cold Spring, N. Y., May 17, 1871. W. A. C. 

Rost, rost, Reinhold : Orientalist ; b. at Eisenberg, Ger- 
many, Feb. 2, 1822 ; studied in the gymnasium at Alten- 
burg; graduate<l in 1846 at Jena; went to England 1847; 
from 1851 instructor in Oriental languages in St. Augus- 
tine's College, Canterbury ; became secretary to the Royal 
Asiatic Society 1863. and librarian to the India Office 1869. 
He prepared a descriptive catalogue of the palm-leaf MSS. 
in the Imperial Library of St. Petersburg 1852; edited Dr. 
H. H. Wilson's Essays on the Religion of the Ilindiis and 
on Sanskrit Liternture (5 vols., 1859-65). Mitor of the 
Trllbner series of Simplified Grammars 1882-88, and of the 
Oriental Record. Revised by Benj. Ids Wueeleb. 

Ros'tocit : town of North- 
ern Germany; in Mecklen- 
burg-Schwenn ; on the War- 
now, 9 miles from its mouth 
in the Baltic (see map of 
German Empirt», ref. 2-F). 
It has a universitv founded 
in 1419, with a library of 
140,000 volumes: many other 
gootl educational institu- 
tions ; manufactures of linen, 
leather, and toliacco, and 
an active tra<le. Vessels 
which draw more than 12 feet must load and unload at 
Warnemande, its port at the mouth of the Waniow. Pop. 
(1890) 44,409. 

Rostor: town of P^uropoan Russia, in the government 
of Yaroslaf (see map of Russia, ref. 6-E). It has 33 churches 
and large manufactures of linen and candles, and holds an 
annual fair from Feb. 21 to Mar. 11, in which transactions 
to the amount of about 2,000,000 rubles are carried out. Pop. 
17,439. 



Rostof : town of European Russia, government of Eka- 
terinoslaf ; on the Don, at the beginning of its delta ; foundt-^i 
in 1749 as a fortress, and rapidly growing into one of the 
commercial centers of Southern Russia (see map of Ru>>im. 
ref. 10-E). Ropes, linen, leather, soap, and tobacco are ex- 
tensively manufactured. Pop. (1888) 66,781. 

Ro8toptchIn',FEDORWAaiLiEvirH. Count: general; b. in 
the government of Orel, Russia, Mar. 23, 1763 ; was e<lii<at« «l 
at the court as a page of Catherine II. ; became Minister of 
Foreign Affairs under Paul I., and was governor-general of 
Moscow in 1812, when Napoleon approached. He was lonir 
believed throughout Western Europe to have set fire to the 
city before leaving it to the French, but in his La Verity ftur 
VIncendie de Moscov, (Paris, 1823) he denies this. It i^ cer- 
tain, however, that he set fire to his own palace and nia<i»' 
preparations for the burning of the magazines. I), in M«^- 
cow, Feb. 12, 1826. See Schnitzler, Rosloptchine et Koutitusof. 
ou la Russie en 181:2 (Paris, 1863). F. M. Colby. ' 

Rostra [Lat., liter., beaks. So called because decorated 
with the beiaks of the galleys of Antium, taken in the tir>t 
naval victory of the republic, 338 b. c] : the platform for 
public spealang at Rome; originally situated net ween the 
Comitia and the Forum. It was used also as a place f « ^r 
setting up statues of distinguished men, and on its si<i<:'S 
were displayed some of the most important public d«H-u- 
ments, such'as the laws of the Twelve Tables, international 
treaties, etc. At Ca*sar's initiative the old rostra was torn 
down, and a new one constructed (probably not earlier thiin 
42 B. c.) at the west end of the Forum, before the temple of 
Concord. This was about 10 feet high, 80 feet long, and :^:{ 
feet deep, its great size being accounted for by the nect-s-it y 
of providing a place for statues, as above indicated. The 
rostra was restored with great magnificence in the se<-oiid 
century a. d. (by Trajan or Hadrian). G. L. Uendrkkson'. 

Roswitlia: See Urotsvitha. 

Rot (in vegetable pathology) : any one of many diseases 
of plants, all due to the attacks of fungi or other ^ow vege- 
table organisms. 

The hitter-rot of apples causes upon the surface of tbt 
mature fruit brownish or blackish spots, which at lenjrth 
become studded with minute black raised points. On cut- 
ting through a diseased spot it is seen to extend far into 
the tissues of the apple. The fungus causing this disease 





Fio. 1.— a, section through black poiot of bitter rot : 6, itpore-bear 
ing threads (highly magnifled). 

is Gloeosporium fru^figenum, one of the so-called im|HT- 
fect fungi of the family Melanconiace(F. Its threads grow 
parasitically through the tissues of the apple, killing the 




«^^^'^ 



♦ 



Fio. 2.— a, grapes affected by black-rot 



b, escape of the conidia : c, section showing ascoepores < b and c 
maKnifled). 

cells, and finally come to the surface and produw the 
minute black points mentioned above, in which sponv* are 
produced (Fig. 1). Spraying the fruit in August with a 1- 
per-ceut. solution of ammoniacal copi)er carbonate is a pre- 
ventive. Another rot of the apple is called black-rot fn>ni 
the black color of the decayed portion, in which are found 
little |)oints or pustules containing spores. The f uncus 
{Mnrrosporiiifn malorum) is closely related to the precedini:. 
Black-rot of grajws attacks the fruit, leaves, and shtK»ts, 



192 



ROTHESAY 



befoTB Queen leahella. The Martyrs of the Colosseum^ Crom- 
well breaking up Service in an English Churchy his best- 
known pictures are suggested by American themes — De 
Soto discovering the Mississippi^ Patrick Henry before the 
Virainia House of Burgesses, The Battle of Gettysburg. 
Rotnermel belongs to the class of sensational artists, but 
his talent for composition and color gives him a high rank 
among these. 0. B. F&othinoham. 

Rothesay, roth'sd : a royal burgh and favorite watering- 
place of Scotland ; capital of the county of Bute ; pleasantly 
situated at the head of a spacious and sheltered bay on the 
northeastern coast of the island of Bu^e. Though the first 
cotton-mill established in Scotland was located here, the 
place has now no industries worth mentioning. Consider- 
able fishing, however, is carried on. Near the center of the 
town are the ruins of Rothesay Castle, founded in 1098. 
Pop. of burgh (1891) 9,034. 

Rothesay, David Stewart, Duke of : See Stewart. 

Rothrock, Joseph Trimble, B. S., M. D. : botanist ; b. 
at McVeytown, Pa., Apr. 9, 1839; educated at Harvard 
College and the University of Pennsylvania. He has been 
Professor of Botany in the Pennsylvania Agricultural Col- 
lege and the University of Pennsylvania, and was the botanist 
of the U. S. geographical surveys W. of the 100th meridian, 
made by Lieut. Wheeler in 1873-74-75. Among his scientific 
publications are the following : Morphology of the Andres- 
eium in Fumariacece (1863) ; Revision of the North American 
GaurinecB (1864) ; Flora of Alaska (1867) ; Botany of the 
Wheeler Expedition (1878). He has also written many papers 
on forestry. Charles E. Besset. 

Rothschild, Germ. pron. rot'sheelt. Meter Anselm : fin- 
ancier and founder oi a family celebrated for its great 
wealth ; b. at Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1743 ; was intended 
for the Jewish priesthood, but was placed in a counting- 
house at Hanover, whence he returned to Frankfort and 
started in business for himself on a small scale as a banker 
and broker. Devoting himself closely to his new business, 
he obtained a reputation for ability and integrity, and was 
intrusted with the money affairs of the landgrave, after- 
ward Elector of Hesse, who during Napoleon's possession of 
Germany confided to Rothschild the keeping of his im- 
mense private fortune without interest. D. in Sept., 1812, 
leaving a large fortune to his five sons, Ansel m, Solomon, 
Nathan, Charles, and James, who established themselves re- 
spectively in the cities of Frankfort, Vienna, London, 
Naples, and Paris. All of these were created in 1822 bar- 
ons of the Austrian empire. — The third son, Nathan, b. Sept. 
16, 1777, who established a branch of the house in England, 
employed with great judgment the immense sums confided 
to nis father, and raised the firm to the position of one 
of the leading banking-houses of the world. D. at Frank- 
fort, July 18, 1836.— Lionel Nathan, b. Nov. 22, 1808, eldest 
son of Nathan, was repeatedly elected to the Brit- 
ish Parliament, but declining to take the pre- 
scribed oath, '' on the true faith of a Christian," 
was not admitted until the act for removing the 
disabilities of the Jews was passed in 1858, when 
he took his seat, being the first Jew admitted to 
Parliament. D. June 3, 1879. — His son Nathan 
was raised to the peerage as Baron Rothschild 
in 1885. See Reeves, The Rothschilds (London, 
1887). F. M. Colby. 

Rotirera [Mod. Lat. ; Lat. ro7a, wheel -f- ferre^ 
to bear! : a group of microscopic animals which 
are of interest not only on account of their mo- 
tions and powers of withstanding desiccation, 
but from tne fact that they represent as adults 
a structure which occurs only in the embryos 
of other worms. The scientific name, as well as 
the popular term of wheel-animalcules, is due to 
the fact that around the anterior end of the body 
is a more or less modified circle of cilia, the mo- 
tions of which convey the impression of a wheel 
in rapid rotation. Just behind the wheel is the 
mouth, which communicates with a complicated 
apparatus of jaws (mastax) in the throat. There 
is a large stomach, and the vent is on the dorsal 
surface of the body. The nervous system con- 
A rotifer ^^^^ ^' * ganglion above the throat, from which 
nerves run to all parts of the body. Eyes are 
not infrequently present, as well as organs apnarently'tactile 
in character. I'wo tubes with funnel-shaped openings into 



ROUBLE 

the body-cavity serve as excretory organs. Organs of cir«^ 
lation and respiration are lacking. The sexes are sejiari^.., 
and the males are usually smaller than the females, and ur*' 
further characterized by the lack of intestine and \vt\\. 
Most of the rotifers live in fresh water, and are noticeable 
because they are able to withstand prolonged drying, aini 
upon the return of moisture again begin their active lif*-. 
See Hudson and G osse, i2oh/era (London, 1886), and paiMT^ 
by Plate, Salensky, Leydig, Jennings {Report Michigan VxAx 



Cbmmis., 1893), etc. ' J. S. Kingsley. 

Rot^eck, Karl Wevzeslaus Rodeckeii, von : historian ; 
b. at Freiburg, Baden, July 18, 1775 ; studied law, afterwani 
history ; was api)ointed Professor of History at the universit y 
of his native citj[; took part with much energy, thouL'fi 
with moderation, in the opposition against the political re- 
action which set in after 1815; was elected to the u( f-er 
chamber of Baden in 1819, to the lower chamber in \>*'4\, 
and was one of the foremost men of the liberal opiK>siti«'Ti. 
This brought upon him the hostility of the Govemniei.*. 
and in 1832 he was deprived of his professorship. I>. ui 
Freiburg, Nov. 26, 1840. By his Allgemeine Oescnichtt !» 
vols., 1813-27) and the minor compendium of it, Allgemei k^ 
Weltgeschichte (4 vols., 1830-34), ne exercised a great and | 
beneficial influence on the German middle classes. K^-Mi 
books were often reprinted, and have been translated iuiu 
several European languages. F. M. Colby. 

Rottenstone : a fine earth or softened aluminous stone, 
much employed in polishing glass and metals. True roi t^-n- 
stone comes from Wales ana Bakewell, Derbyshire. Trie 
name is also extended so as to include tripoli and the infu- 
sorial earths. See Infusorial Earth. 

Rotterdam: the second commercial town in Holland: 
on the right bank of the Maas, about 14 miles from the 
North Sea and 36 miles S. W. of Amsterdam (see map of 
Holland and Belgium, ref. 6-E). It occunies a site in tin- 
form of a nearly equilateral triangle, the base of which i<^ 
the Maas and the vertex the Delft Gate. The city is inter- 
sected by numerous canals (grachten or havens), and is t ra- 
versed by the Rotte, a small stream, at the junction of whit h 
with the Maas there is a large dike or dam; whence the 
name Rotterdam. The numerous vessels lying in the ca^ui^ 
and harbors, which are deep enough to accommodate thi^"**' 
of heavy tonnage and admit of their discharging their car- 
goes in the very heart of the city, always present a busy and 
picturesque scene. Along the nver, which opposite the'tow n 
IS 30 to 40 feet deep, is a fine quay IJ miles long, called titi 
Boompjes (Little Trees), from a line of elms planted in 16ir». 
now grown to a large size. Here is the birthnlace of Er *^ 
Mus {q. r.), to whom a bronze statue is erectea. Rotterdam 
is the entrepot of a large cattle-trade with England, and thi^ 
point of departure of numerous lines of steamships, an*!. 
besides being the seat of an extensive commerce with \\\v 
East Indian possessions of Holland and with Euroi>e and 
America, has important manufactures. The railway ntite ^ 
between Belgium and Holland, connecting the cities* kA 
Brussels, Antwerp. Rotterdam, The Hague, and Amster- 
dam, crosses the Holland Deep {Hollandsehe Diep) l>v tiie 
great bridge at Moerdijk. Pop. (1894) 228,597. 

Revised by M. W. Habrinotox. 

Rotti : a volcanic island of the Malay Archipelago : S. W. 
of Timor; in lat. 10' 40 S. and Ion. 123° R; is 36 miles 
lon^, 11 miles broad, hilly, and produces rice, millet, and 
maize, ebony and other valuable woods, sheep, bufTtiloe-, 
horses, swine, and fowls, edible birds' nests, and wax. P<r», 
64,000. M. W. H. 

Ronbaix, roo'ba' : a large manufacturing town of France, 
department of Nord ; 6 miles N. E. of Lille (see map < ►f 
France, ref. 1-F). It has extensive manufactures of wit»I« n 
and cotton fabrics, furniture cloth, carpets, and twists, hir^j*- 
dve-works and tanneries, and carries on a very active iratic. 
Pop. (1891) 114,917. 

Roabiliac, roobee'li-aak', Louis Fran^iois: sculptor: h. at 
Lyons, France, about 1695 ; became a distinguished sculpt* »r : 
settled in England probably during the reign of Gei.»rjro 1.. ; 
and executed many important works of art, among wliii h ' 
were the celebrated monuments of Mrs. Nightine:uK\ that 
of Juhn, Duke of Argyle, and the statue of Hanaol. all i>. ' 
Westminster Abbey, the statue of Shakspeare in the British j 
Museum, and of Sir Isaac Newton at Cambridge. D. in , 
London, Jan. 11, 1762. i 

Rouble, or Ruble [from Russ. rubli, ruble]: the prin<M- 
pal Russian money of account. The rouble is equal to UK' 



! tht^ RfTvtfnn: 



ttDt 



I , ♦' r fi^i>M . l*i«iWll^ fNi*M»rT h, In Purl* in !7«1 r 



U, -i!4k.W4', rtf j|r»ivr Jf^ifff* «inM 



J^ U, (J. 



194 



ROULERS 



ROUMANIA 



and Public Works, among the important acts of his adminis- 
tration being the negotiation, with Cobden, of the com- 
mercial treaty of 1860, when the grand cross of the Legion 
of Honor was bestowed upon him. He was raised to the 
rank of senator in 1856, and in 1863 succeeded M. Billanlt 
as Minister of State, which position he resigned on the occa- 
sion of the celebrated letter of the emperor *s of Jan. 19, 1867, 
announcing a more liberal policy, but was immediately re- 
instated, and the additional portfolio of Minister of Finance 
was confided to his charge. Following the election of May, 
1869, the ministry resigned July 18, and Rouher was nomi- 
nated president of the senate a week later. During the 
Franco-German war he was prominent, but on the downfall 
of the empire fled to England. Returning to France, he 
was arrested and held for a brief time. He became a mem- 
ber of the Assembly, where he took the lead of the Bona- 
partist party. D. in Paris, Feb. 8, 1884. F. M. Colby. 

Boulers, rdb'la' : town of Belgium, province of West 
Flanders ; on an affluent of the Lys, 13 miles by rail N. W. 
of Courtrai (see map of Holland and Belgium, ref. 10-B). It 
has i&T^e manufactures of linen and lace, and trade in flax, 
which IS largely grown in the vicinity. Pop. (1891) 30,839. 

Bonlette, rob' let' [ = Fr., dimin. of O. Fr. roule^ wheel 
< Lat ro'tula, dimin. of rota, wheel] : a game of chance 
played on a table in whose center is a cavity, the sides of 
which are firm and divided at eciual distances into thirty- 
eight compartments painted half black, half red, and desig- 
nated by tne first thirty-six numbers, besides a zero and a 
double zero. The bottom of the cavity is movable bv the aid 
of a handle in the form of a cross. When the banker puts 
the bottom in motion he throws down in the cavity a small 
ivory ball, and when the movement stops the ball drops into 
one of the painted compartments. Each end of the table is 
divided into spaces on which the players place the stakes they 
wish to risk. Each number has one, and a player betting 
on the winning number receives thirty-six times his stake. 
There are devices also by which a player may bet on two 
numbers, with odds of 1 to 17 ; three numbers, with odds of 1 
to 11; or twelve numbers, with odds of 1 to 2. Finally, 
there are six spaces, with even odds, on which the player 
bets respectively that the winning number will be (1) odd, 
(2) even, (3) one in a red compartment, (4) in a black one, 
(5) less than 19, and (6) more than 18. The advantage of 
the bank in the first bet^ described is evidently as 88 to 36. 
For the last six methods zero counts as odd, red, and less 
than 19, and double zero as even, black, and more than 18 ; 
but if a player wins on either of these compartments he 
loses half his stake instead of receiving it double. See 
BbuoE-ET-Noni, 

Boam : See Roumeua. 

Ronma'nla [from Lat. RomanuA^ Roman] : a kingdom 
of Europe, comprising the former principalities of Moldavia 
and Wallachia, together with the Dobrudja, a territorv E. 
of the Danube, ceded by the Ottoman empire at the (!:!on- 
gress of Berlin (1878). It is situated between 43° 38' and 48^* 
20' N. lat. and 22' 20' and 30° 15' E. Ion. (see map of Tur- 
key); bounded N. by Austria-Hungary and Russia, E. bv 
the Pruth, which separates it from Russia, and by the Black 
Sea, S. by Bulgaria and the Danube, W. by the Danube, 
which separates it from Bulgaria and Servia, and by Aus- 
tria-Hungary. Area, 48,307 sq. miles. 

Roumania is a crescent-shaped territory, rising gradually 
from the Danube and Pruth to the inland' frontier, the crest 
of the Carpathian Mountains, the loftiest of whose peaks, 
the Ciacleul or Pion, attains a height of 8,920 feet. It is 
drained entirely by affluents of the Danube. The principal 
rivers are the Aluta or Olto, 220 miles long, which rises in 
Transylvania, cuts through the Carpathians, and empties at 
Islar; the Sereth, 215 m^les long, which rises in Bucovina 
and flows by Roman to Galatz ; the Dumbovitza, on which 
Bucharest, the capital, is situated; and the Pruth. 247 miles 
long. The Danube is navigable from the Austrian-Hungarian 
frontier to the Black Sea for vessels of several hundred tons, 
and hence is a great commercial artery. The other rivers, 
save the Pruth, are not available for transport tra<le. Both 
salt and fresh water lakes abound in the interior, and the 
coast is skirted by brackish lagoons. In the Danube are 
over 800 islands belonging t^ Roumania. 

The territory naturallv divides into three regions : the 
mountainous, where are t^ie forests and mines ; the hilly, de- 
voted to vineyards and pasturage ; and the lowland of rich 
alluvial tracts, occupied bv grain-fields, along the lower 
Danube and the Pruth. Sixty-eight per cent, of the total 



area is productive, SO percent, being under cult i vat ion. 1 
per cent, for pasturage, and 17 per cent, forest. The ri'>u i i 
is waste. The upland plain between mountains and It^ 
land is of Quaternary formation ; the foot-hills of t he i 'n 
pathians are of Tertiary formation, containing Pliocciu* wri 
Miocene deposits, while the mountain summits reprt^st-tit t 
Secondary, Primary, and Metumorphic or Azoic rwks. A 
the birds and mammals of similar climate, large and miu. I 
abound in the forests, and the rivers and lakes teem win 
every variety of fish found in Europe. The forests cm»ii^ii 
mainly of pine, oak, fir, beech, box, birch, poplar, and plm. 
The apple, pear, plum, and cherry are extensively cnlti vat . i 
as also all the cereals and garden vegetables known to Kii n *! h 
The vines are exoellent. The climate varies accordinir % 
situation and elevation ; extremesof temperature, 98' F. ai.i 
—19. There are three distinct seasons: winter jm- — \ 
almost without transition into summer, just as autumn, t 'i 
agreeable season lasting through November, suddenly In 
comes winter, when all the rivers and even the Daniil'M* nt 
frozen over. The soil is exceedingly fertile, not exh>iii>rM 
by over-c-Mltivation, and would be most productive Imi t-i 
the scorching and long-continued droughts of summer. T » i 
chief agricultural products are inFiize (average viold. .'t? 
000,000 bush.), wheat (average yield, 30,000,000 b'ush.>, tm 
barley, oats, millet, flax, hemp, and tobacco. Various miti 
bles are found in the vallev of the Aluta; millstoIle^. «;:< 
baster.and gypsum abound ; fuller's earth and hydraulic lim 
are common; carbonate and sulphate of sodium, siit ]»!>.<' 
of aluminium, and magnesia ana native sulphur m^vur w 
certain localities. Gold, iron, copper and lead or<*s. a> w» 1 
as cobalt and arsenic, exist. Salt-works and petroleurn-w ••; i 
especiallv yield valuable returns. Live stock is a in».ii 
source of wealth. In 1890 there were 594.962 horw»s. 1*26,1 J* 
swine, 2,520,380 cattle, and 5,212,380 sheep and goat s. 

The decimal system for money, weights, and nieasur*^ ^ .ti 
introduced in 1876. The unit of value is the led (plu. Itii 
or franc. Gold is scarce, and silver the common mcHlium ..i 
exchange. In the financial vear 1891-92 the state n^c i\.- 
180,147,096 le! and expended 168,404,894. Direct and iimI 
rect taxes furnished 80,120,000 lei; state monopolies, 4"».7tM> 
000 lei; state lands, 28,453,000. The chief ex|)enses >!,,., 
interest on public debt, 68,135,293 le! ; war departmcMit, 4«> 
424,072; financial department, 23,860,645; eductttii)n mtk 
worship, 19,918,421. The public debt on Apr. 1, 1H!«. w.i 
1,082,519,125 lei, an enormous amount for so poor it ttM:ir 
try, being nearly 200 lei, or f40, for each inhabit am. I. 
1892 the imports, chiefly from Germany, Austria- llutiir:tr^ 
and Great Britain, amounted to 380,747,296 lei; the exp«.rt- 
chiefly to Great Britain, Belgium, German v, and Au^trh. 
Hungary, 285,884,057. Grain formed nearly flve-siirl hs . .f ' • ■ 
entire exports, or 251,900,000 lei; other exports were fru i 
and vegetables, animals and animal products, woven tm'^ 
rics, lumber. Nearly half the imports were woven g<KMi-, 
amounting to 155,900,000 lei; other imnorts were nuiaH 
and objects in metal, fruits and vegetables, and c'onil»u«-f:, 
ble materials. Foreign commerce is abnost exclusivelv in 
the hands of foreigners. Eleven thousand and sixty-ilxo 
steamers and 14,589 sailing ships, of 5,727,517 tons, entm-i:; 
Roumanian ports in 1892. The Roumanian men-bant ih.h 
rine consisted in 1892 of only 30 steamers, of 1,899 tons.. ii>.i 
235 other vessels, of 48.801 tons. liailways, posts, and !♦•:.- 
graphs all belong to the state. In 1893 there were l.."»*^! 
miles of completed railways, and 843 in construction. !•«•- 
tal communication was foVmerlv conducted by Russian ar 1 
Austrian commercial agencies, but in 1869 a regular |Ni^r.M. 
service was organized. In 1892 15,645,630 lett<?rs, 4.7^7.5ti'. 
postal -cards, and 7.960,771 newspafKirs and parcels pa**^ ' 
through the mails ; 1,091,819 domestic telegrams and 446.7 7 'i 
foreign telegrams were sent. Receipts for posts and tt U - 
graphs, 6,149,043 lei; expenses, 6,022,011 leT. NuniUr «•'* 
post-offices, 852 ; of telegraph stations, 411. Ijength of U-W- 
graph lines, 3,503 miles, generally with two wires. 

The government is an hereditary constitutional monarchy. 
The constitution, one of the most liberal in Europe, gmirai:- 
tees to every Roumanian equality under the law, and iiUr:* 
of conscience, with free<lom of the press and right of as- 
sembly. Legislation is vested in a senate of 120 meniU r^ 
and a house of 188 deputies. The person of the kintr :- 
inviolable, but his seven ministers, of the Interior, Finarn .•, 
Foreign Affairs, War, Worship and Public lnstnit'ti«' . 
Commerce and Public Works, and Justice, are res|H)n«»ii ". 
to the legislative bodies. The kingdom is adnunistrati\« U 
divided into the four provinces of Little and Gn^at W«t- 
lachia with 17 districts, Moldavia with 13 districts, ai. i 



VMnmiinUii 






tic 



196 



ROUMANIAN LITERATURE 



Exposed as the language has been to very different con- 
ditions from those under which the other Romance lan- 
guages have developed, it is not strange that it shows some 
peculiar features. It has preserved some Latin words lost 
m the others, and has lost some which thev have preserved. 
Its vocabulary has been much affected by foreign languages, 
which have also furnished it some suffixes, and have even 
perhaps somewhat affected its structure. Very many words 
are of Slavic origin, and it has also words from mediaeval or 
modern Greek, from Turkish, Hungarian, and Albanian, 
while the origin of a number is unknown. A remarkable 
feature of the language is its post-positive article : {un) so- 
cru (a) father-in-law, aocrul, tne fathor-in-law ; /oc, place, 
locul^ the place ; ctisd, house, caaa (from casd + a), the 
house. A similar use appears in Albanian and in Bulgarian. 
In some matters of phonology and inflexion, particularly its 
genitive and dative case (one form for both uses) in articles, 
feminine nouns, and adjectives, Roumanian is nearer to the 
Latin than is any other language of the family. (See Romance 
Laxouaoes.) There are so-called neuter nouns, which are 
masculine in the singular and feminine in the plural ; this pe- 
culiarity is due to old Latin neuter nouns. The simple parts 
of verbs, or those formed without auxiliaries, are the pres- 
ent, imperfect, preterite, and pluperfect indicative, the pres- 
ent subjunctive and imperative, the present infinitive, the 
gerund, and the past participle ; this last cah also be used 
with prepositions so as to correspond in sense to the Latin 
supines. The auxiliaries used for other verb forms are not 
always the same as those common in other Romance lan- 
guages. 

Apart from a few scattered words found, for example, in 
Slavic documents, the earliest specimens of the language 
preserved to us date from near the end of the fifteenth cen- 
tury. The first grammar was that of Klein, Elementa Un- 
gwB dacoromancB sive valachicfB (Vienna, 1780). Among 
modern works should be mentioned particularly GrOber^ 
Grundriss der rornanischen Philologie (i., 1888), where full 
references may be found ; here are added some other works, 
in part more recent, as Tiktin, Oramatica romina (i., 1892 ; 
ii., 1894), and Manual de ortografia ramind (1889) ; Indrep- 
tariu pentru ortografia romdnd (contains orthographical 
rules for st^hools in Bukovina, Vienna, 1893) ; G. Weiffand, 
Die Spraehe der Olympo-Walachen (1888), Vlacho-meglen 
(1892), and Die Aromunen^ ii., 1894 (planned for 5 vols.). 
A short grammar in English is Torceanu, A Simplified 
Grammar of the Roumanian Language (1883). Diction- 
aries : Ion Costinescu, Voeaholaru romdfw-francesu (1870) ; 
L. §Aineanu, Diefionar romdno-aerman (1889); F. Dame, 
Nouveau dictionnaire roumain-fran^aia (i., A-E, 1893 ; ii., 
P-L, 1894) ; Ilasdeu, Etymologicum magnum Romanice 
(in the letter B in 1895). The dictionary of the Rouma- 
nian Academy (see Laurianu) is not to be recommended, 
and Cihac's Dictionnaire d'etymologie daco-romane (i. 1870 ; 
ii. 1879) contains many errors. Gaster's Chrestom^iie ro- 
mdnd (2 vols., 1883^ has texts with a glossary, and an in- 
troduction on the literature and the grammar. Some pe- 
riodicals published in Roumania also deserve mention, as 
Columna lui Traian^ Convorhirl literare, Revisfa pentru 
iatorie^ areheoloaie pi filologie, etc. See also Roumanian 
Literature ancf the references under Romance Languages. 

E..S. Sheldon. 

Roamanian Literature: the literature of the people 
speaking the Roumanian or Wallachian language. It begins, 
so far as documents are preserved, about the end of the fif- 
teenth century or the beginning of the sixteenth, with trans- 
lations from the Bible, followed by other religious writings, 
such as catechisms, prayers, legends, etc., by legal documents, 
public and private, arid by chronicles, of which there are 
many in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The old- 
est texts published thus far are a psalter {Paaltirea Scheiand, 
i., 1889), which the editor Bianu dates in 1482 or 1485, and 
the Voronetz manuscript {Codirele Voronefean, edited by 
Sbiera, 1885), which contains a part of the Acts and of som'e 
of the Epistles, and belongs probabl^v to about the same 
time, Hasdeu's Limha romdnd vorbifd bit re 1550-1600^ i., 
1878, ii., 1879 (commonly referred to as Cuvente den hetruni 
or Cuvinte din bHrdnl), contains texts of the second half of 
the sixteenth century, with linguistic and litorary discussions. 
The Roumanian Academy has published (1881), among other 
texts, the psalter printed in 1577 by Coresi in Transylvania 
(Coresi was probably of Greek descent); this was. it' seems, 
printed from the same translation as that used in the psalter 
mentioned above. All these early texts have rather linguis- 



tic than literary interest; but it is to be noticed that Sfimi' 
of the religious productions were results of the Reformation, 
showing themselves in Transylvania through the Saxons. 
Of chronicles may be mentioned those of Ureche (see K. 
Picot's edition, Chronique de Moldavia^ 1878-83) and Mir<»ii 
Costiu (lived about 1628-92; two volumes of an edition bv 
V. A. Urechii were published, 1885-88). M. Cogftlniceanu 
has published Cramcele Romdniel (1852; 2d S. 3 t<.»1s., 
1872-74). 

It was not until the nineteenth century that Roomaniiin 
literature began to develop in sympathy with the literatures 
of the great nations of Europe. A powerful stimulus t4> 
the growth of a truly national literature has been the na- 
tional spirit, developing after the French Revolution an«i 
after the changed political aspect, as Wallachia and Mol- 
davia attained practical independence of Turkey and lat«*r 
became united, and finally the independent kingdom of 
Roumania was established. The new era be^an in the eigh- 
teenth century under the leadership of Roumanians in 
Transylvania, where they were aided by Catholic school^, 
from which some went to Rome to study. Klein's Oram- 
mar (see Roumanian Language) was followed by some oth«T 
grammatical writings. Klein wrote also many theologi<-al 
and historical works. Naturally the connection with the K« ►- 
mans and their language was emphasized during this f>eri« h\ 
of awakening, as indeed it has been since. Other n<itt>- 
worthy writers are Petru Maior (about 1753-1821), wh<»*^«* 
historical work marks the beginning of a more critical 
period, and who was one of the authors of the lexicon pul>- 
lished at Buda in 1825; §incai (about 1754-1826), wh«»>./ 
most important work is his Cronica Romtnilor, a history < »f 
all the Roumanians from the year 86 to 1741 ; lenaolie 
VAcirescu (about 1740-99), ban of Wallachia, remarkable 
for his grammatical work on the language, and author, 
among other things, of some verses. George Lazitr (1779- 
1823) came into Wallachia in 1816, and was allowed after a 
time to open a Roumanian school in Bucharest (previously 
the schools had been Greek); he may be considered the 
founder of the national schools in Wallachia. Venianiin 
Costache (1768-1846) and George Asachi (1788-1871) wc-r- 
similarly active even earlier in Moldavia; the many work< 
of the latter (lyric verse, dramatic and historical writitiirs) 
belong largely to the next i)eriod. Costache Conachc (1T77- 
1849) was distinsruished for his learning, and was active in 
public affairs. His poems were not published until 18r>6 (*J*i 
ed. 1888). Budai Deleanu (1770-1830), among other thin«r-, 
wrote the heroi-comic J'iganiada aau tabdra J'tgafttlor 
(The Camp of the Gypsies). 

The next period, beginning about 1830, is that in whirh 
the influence of Western Europe shows strongly, combin»H] 
with a national feeling, which, nowever, still rests too mm h 
on pride of assumed Roman ancestry. The strongest influ- 
ence is that of French, but an Italian influence shows it^^lf 
in Eliade (see H^liade), who, like Asachi in Moldavia, 
founded journals in Wallachia, and stirred up the youth *»f 
the country to an interest in education and literary pursuit v. 
Since about 1860 comes the most modem period, m whi<h 
the excessive admiration for French models is sotnewliiit 
tempered by a wider knowledge of modem European *ul- 
ture, and wtiich may be considered as introduced by T. Mu- 
iorescu's critical writings. (See Maiorescu.) In this tinj»» 
are to l>e noticed the organization of the society J uninivit 
(Youth) and the establishment of literary and critical |K»ri- 
odicals, such as the Convorhiri literare (Literary Conversa- 
tions ; since 1867). Both Maiorescu and Eminescu (1850-><^i, 
the latter one of the foremost poets of modern Roumania] 
made themselves acquainted with German literature. M«iny 
journals and periodicals have been started iir I^umani»i. 
from those of Eliade and Asachi on, for political, literary, «.r 
scientific purposes, which have had various degrees of merit 
and success ; some of them are mentioned under Roi'mania v 
Language. (See also IIasdeu.) In these much of the work 
of modern writers first appears. Not least im(K>rlaiit ar»» 
the popular songs, tales, etc., collected by Alecsandri, l^pi- 
rescu ( 1 830^7), and others. Many of these have l)een t ra n s> 
lated into German, notably by the Queen of Rouniaiiiii. 
See Carmen Sylva. 

Only Alecsandri (or Alexandri; see ALErsANDRi) am«>Tiir 
Roumanian writers has made his name well known out^{4it> 
of Roumania for purely literary work ; but sex'eral oth^-t-s 
are of some note in the country itself. (See Aleosandrf^ i 
BoLiNTiNEANU, i\ and I. Xeor'uzzi, C. Rosetti.) Vits«» has 
been written, among others, by G. Sion (b. 1822; has aK»» 
written comedies), ^rbanescu (b. about 18**39), and Vlahu^a 



198 



ROUSSEAU 



ROWAX-TREE 



to be imprisoned in a drawing-room, and in the spring of 
1756 he removed to a little cottage on the skirts of the 
forest of Montmorency, put at his disposal by Madame 
d*£uinay. He soon quarreled with her and took a house 
at Montmorency. Thence he issued the novel, Ixi Noiwelle 
IWolse (1761), which, by the eloquence and authority lent 
to the voice of passion and the glow and fervor of a new 
and wonderful stvle, created intense enthusiasm and was 
read with feverish eagerness ; the Lettre sur les spectacles 
(1758), condemning the theater for its moral influence; the 
Contrat social (1762), which contains the fullest statement 
of his political ideas, maintains radically the sovereignty of 
the people, and supplied the positive ideas of the lievolu- 
tion : iJmile (1763), which unfolds his fruitful views on edu- 
cation. This last work offended the authorities ; the Sor- 
bonne condemned it ; the Parlement had it burned, and or- 
dered Rousseau's arrest He was warned and fled to Ge- 
neva, Neuchatel, and finally to England (1765), where Ilume 
gave him a refuge at Wootton. But his irritability, sensi- 
tiveness, and suspicion were sharpened by his experiences to 
an unhealthf ul deeree ; he fancied himself the object of a 
conspiracy, and fled back to France. He spent a year un- 
der a false name with the Prince of Uonti and then fled from 
imagined pursuit to different parts of France. In 1770 he 
returned to Paris and resume<l the copying of music for 
his support, still haunted by the idea of persecution. In 
1777 he accepted a house on a friend's estate a few miles 
from Paris, and died there July 2, 1778, under circum- 
stances that to some have suggested suicide. In 1794 his 
body was transported amid great ix)pular enthusiasm to the 
Pantheon. The main work of the latter years of his life 
was his Confessions^ one of the most remarkable works of 
the kind ever written, surprisingly free* from reticence, and 
unsparing in the revelation of himself, but not always ex- 
act. It is hard to overestimate the influence of Rousseau 
upon his country and Europe. At the center of his ideas 
Was his sincere belief in the goodness of nature and what- 
ever is in accord with her. The primitive natural instincts 
and affections were sacred : the primitive natural Btate of 
society furnished criteria for the criticism and renewal of 
institutions. The sentimentalists date from him, and the 
view that to show that an act is natural is to prove that it 
is right. The standard editions of his (E^ivrts are bv Mus- 
set-Pathay (23 vols., Paris, 1823-26), and by Auguis (25 vols., 
Paris, 1822). One must add L. Borscha, Correspondance 
inedite dc J, J. Rousseau (Paris, 1S58); Streckeisen-Moul- 
tou, (KutTes ei Correspondnnre infdites d^ J, J. Rousseau 
(2 vols., Paris, 1861-65); H. de R(»thschild. LeUres incites 
de J, J, Rousseau (Paris, 1892). See H. Beaudoin, La vie 
et les opuvres de J, J. Rousseau (2 vols., Paris, 1871): Saint- 
Marc G-irardin, J. J, Rousseau, sa vie et sts oeuvres (2 vols., 
Paris, 1875); A. Chuquet, J. J. Rousseau (Paris, 1893) ; J. 
Morley, J, J, Rousseau (2 vols., Ijondoii, 1873). 

A. G. Can FIELD. 

SouBseaa, I>ovell Harrison: soldier: b. in Lincoln co., 
Ky., Aug. 4, 1818: received little earlv education, but sub- 
sequently studied law at Louisville aui at Bloomfleld, Ind. ; 
admitted to the bar in 1841 ; member of the Indiana Leg- 
islature 1844-45, and of the State Senate 1847. In the war 
with Mexico, as captain in the Second Indiana Volunteers, 
he served with gallantry at Buena Vista ; returne<l to Lou- 
isville in 1849; became a successful criminal lawyer, and 
in 1860 was a member of the State Senate, where he boldly 
opposed the secession of Kentucky. On the outbreak of the 
civil war he raised the Third Kentucky Infantrv, of which 
he became colonel Sept, 1861 ; appointed briganlier-general 
U.S. volunteers Oct 1. 1861 ; was distinguished at the bat- 
tle of Shiloh Apr. 7, 1S62 ; in command of division and con- 
spicuous for gallant r)' at Perry ville, Ky., Oct. 8, 1862, for 
which he was made major-general of volunteers ; partici|>ated 
in the battle of Murfreesboro, I>ec. 31, 1862 ; commanded the 
district of Tennessee from Nov., 1863, till the close of the 
war. He resigned Nov. 30, 1865: memU»r of Congress 1865, 
and in Mar., 1867, was appointed a brigadier-general in the 
regular army and breveted major-general. Assigned to com- 
mand the (department r>f Louisiana Julv 28. \Hi\H, he died 
in New Orleans, Jan. 7, 1869. Revised by Jamks MKRrra. 

Roomean, Philippe: still-lifo and animal p«iinter; b. in 
Paris, France, Feb. 22. 1816 : nunil of Bi'rtin and Baron (tros; 
third-class medal. Salon, 1845, first -class 1848 ; second-<4ass, 
Paris Exposition, 1855; first-class, Paris Ex|M)sition, 187H; 
officer Legion of Honor, 1870. I), at A<-<niig!iv, Dec. 4. 1H87. 
His pictures of still life are notabk* for exct'll«*nt teclinical 



qualities and strong sober color schemes. Importunate (1 .S50 
and The Rat Retired from the HWW(1885) are in the Lux- 
embourg Gallery, Paris ; and there are works in the muse- 
ums at Chartres,* Valenciennes, and Nantes. W. A. C. 

Roasseaa. Pikrre £tienn'e Theodore: landscape-naint(*r: 
b. in Paris, France, Apr. 15, 1812; first-class medal. Salon. 
1849, Paris Exposition, 1855; medal of honor, Paris Exjli*- 
sition, 1867; Legion of Honor, 1852. I), at Barbizon. !>*•«•. 
22, 1867. He was the friend and fellow worker of Mill«'i 
and Diaz, and worked with them at Barbizon on the bonier^ 
of the Forest of Fontaineblcau, finding in the forest aixi 
the surrounding country the subjects for his pictures. He 
was one pf the greatest of the modern French painters «»f 
landscape, and his works are characterized by profound s* n- 
timent, extraordinary technical qualities, ana great truth 
to nature. He represented detail in a marvelous fa.'*hioii 
without sacrificing breadth or harmony of color. One of 
his finest works is The Hoar Frost, in the collection of >^'. 
T. Walters, Baltimore. The Woods of Fontaifubleau < 1 SK* \. 
a magnificent picture of sunset etfect, and a number of 
other landscapes are in the Louvre. Momifig on the Oise^ a 
masterpiece of color-harmony and unity of effect, is iu the 
collection of Henry Graves, Orange, N. J. W. A. i\ 

RonRset, r<K)sS , Camille F^lix Michel: historian ; b. in 
Paris, France, Feb. 15, 1821 ; became in 1843 Professor ..f 
History at Grenoble, in 1845 at the Lyc^ Bonaparte, and 
was from 1864 to 1876 historiographer tothe ministry of War. 
Among his works are Histoire de Louvois (4 vols., 1861 -6:i) ; 
Les Volontaires de 1791-94 (1870); Histoire ds la (iuerrr 
de Crimee (2 vols., 1877); and Ijes Commencements d'unt 
congurte : UAMrie de IHSO d I840 (2 vols,, 1887). He he- 
came an academician in 1871. D. Oct. 1», 1892. A. U. C\ • 

Routh, rowth, Martin Joseph, D. D. : educator and e«h- 
tor; b. at South Elmham. Suffolk, England, Sept. 18, 17.Vi ; 
graduated at Oxford 1774; became college librarian 17hi. 
and in 1791 president of Magdalen College, which ])ost lie 
retaine<l till his death at Oxford, Dec. 22, 1854. He is U-^t 
known by his collection of the frogmentarv writinp ut the 
Christian Fathers of the second and thiru centuries under 
the title Reliquio' Sacra', sire Aucforum fere jam perdi fo- 
rum, etc. (5 vols., 1814-18; new ed., 5 vols., 1846-48). 

Rove-beetles: beetles belonging to the family jS/rr/>/«v- 
Unid(e, in which the wing-covers are ver}* short, leaving a 
large part of the abdomen uncovered. The beetle wht-n 
irritated turns this alxlomen about in such a way as to cm»ii- 
vey the impression that it is armed with a sting. The r^ive- 
beetles are small, frequently minute ; they live under stoiK*<K, 
in moss, on com(K>site fiowers, etc. 

RoTeredo, rw-vd-ra'do: town of Austria; in the Tynd : 
picturesquely situated on the I^no, near its junction viih 
the Adige ; 14 miles bv rail S. of Trent (see map of Austria- 
Hungary, ref. 7- A). Jfapoleon lionaparte here defeated the 
Austrians in 1796. It is the center of Tyrolean silk -manu- 
facture and has a large transit trade. Pop. (1890) 9.080. 

Rovlgno, rrJ-veenyo: town of Austria; in Istria, on h 
rocky promontory in the Adriatic; 40 miles S. by W. of 
Trieste (see map of Austria-Hungary, ref. 8^*). It 'has tw<. 
harbors, ship-building yards, ro])ewalks, manufactures of 
sailcloth, tunnv-fisheries, and an active trade in wine and 
oil. Pop. (1890) 9,662. 

ROYigO, ro-voe'go : town of Italy; province of Rovij»<.: 
lying Wtween the Po and the AdiiEfe on the Adigetta, aTk 
emissary of the Adige ; 38 miles S.Mr . of Venice (see map of 
Italy, ref. 3-1)). It has an octagon-shaj^ church (1594), a 
cathedral (1696). a picture-gallery, and a town-hall with a 
library of 80,000 volumes. Me<lia»val Uovigo belonged sonu*- 
times to Venice, sometimes to the house of Kste. Pop. 7.272. 

RoTigO, DrKE OF : See Savarv. 

RoTing: Sw Cotton Maxi'factl'rks. 

Rowan, roan. STKPnKN Clwjo : sailor; b. near iHiblin, 
Ireland, D(»c. 25, 1808; entorwl the U.S. navy as a nii<i- 
shipman Feb. 15, 1826; was distinguished for ability and 
courage on the west coast of Mexico during the war wii h 
that country, ainl during the civil war in the rivers of Vir- 
ginia, the sounds of North Carolina, and at Charleston, S. i '. ; 
for his long, honorable, and gallant service received a vote 
of thanks from Congress; was mmle vice-admiral Aug. I.%, 
1870; became su|»erintendcnt Naval Observatory, and wa» 
chairman of lighthouse board ; retired Feb. 26, 1889. I>. at 
Washington, 1). C., Mar. 31, 1H90. Revised by C. BELKyAi*. 

Rowaii-tre« : See MuuNTAiN-ASR. 



200 



ROWING 



The regatta of 1873 was held over the course at Saratoga, 
and eleven crews entered. Yale won. Columbia won the 
regatta of 1874 in 16:42^. In the following year the regatta 
was again held at Saratoga, and participated in by thirteen 
representative crews. Cornell won in 16:53, Harvard third, 
Yale fifth. In 1876 the Yale-Harvard races were again es- 
tablished for eight-oared shells with coxswains over a 4- 
mile straight-away course at Springfield on the Connecticut. 
Yale won by 21 sec. in 22:02. That year Yale was not pres- 
ent at the American College Regatta, but Harvard sent en- 
tries for all three events — University and Freshmen crews, 
also a single scull — each of which secured second place in 
their respective races, Cornell winning the three honors. 
Since 1876 the Yale-Harvard race has been an annual oc- 
currence. Of the nineteen races rowed, including that of 
1894, Yale has won twelve and Harvard seven. The best 
time has been made by Yale in 1888, being 20:10, which 
stands as the record for eight-oared shells over a 4-mile 
straight-away course. All but the first two of these .latter 
races have been rowed at New London, Conn., with varying 
tide and wind. In 1883 an annual race between Cornell and 
the University of Pennsylvania was initiated. 

Rowing at Cornell dates from 1869 with the formation of 
the Undine Boat Club. In 1870 the Cornell navy was or- 
ganized, and has existed as such ever since. In 1873 Cor- 
nell sent her first crew to compete with other colleges in the 
regatta of the American Colleges Rowing Association, and 
was annually represented in this contest thereafter until the 
association came to an end. In the first two'contests her 
crews finished fifth, but led in the latter two. In the last 
year of the regatta not only did the 'Varsity win, but also 
the Freshmen crew and her single sculler, Francis. Follow- 
ing these events, both Harvartl and Yale withdrew from the 
association, and have declined races with other colleges 
since. 

Since 1884 neither Cornell's 'Vai*sity nor Freshmen crews 
have met defeat in a series of nineteen races, the summary 
of intercollegiate races from 1873 to 1894, both 'Varsity and 
Freshmen included, being thirty-two victories and seven 
defeats. 

BEST ROWING RECORDS OF AMERICAN OARSMEN. 

MIn. See. 

1883. Eight-oared shell, 1 mile, Columbia OolleKe 5 4) 

1889. U miles, Cornell 'Varsity. 6 40 

1891. " " " 2 " Columbia College, freshmen. 9 48* 

1891, " " " 3 " CornelPVarsity 14 27| 

18KH. " " " 4 " Yale 'Varsity 20 10 

1872. Six- " '* 3 " Amherst College 16 821 

1888. Four- " " 1 '* Argonaut Rowing Associa- 
tion 4 51 

1R87. " " " 2 " Owashtanong Boat Club 12 27 

1875. " '* " 3 " Argonaut Rowing Associa- 

tion 15 87J 

1871. 4 *• Ward brothers 24 40 

1860. ** " '* 5 " John, James, and Barney 

Biglin and Dennis I^eary.. 80 44) 

1871. " " " 6 " E. Ross, S. Hutton, G. Price, 

and R. Fulton 89 20| 

1R76l Double sculls, 1 " J. Smith, J. C. Hayes 5 65j 

1876. " " 2 " F. E. Yates, C. E. Courtney . 12 16 
18K5. " '* 8 " P. H. Conley, C. E. Courtney 17 57* 
1876. Pair-oared shell, 8 " J. Faulkner and P. Regan ... 20 28 

1872. 5 " John and Barney Biglin 82 1 

1891. Single sculte. i " Edwin Hedley 67 

1872. " " 1 " Ellis Ward 5 1 

1868. " ," 2 " J.Tyler 11 20 

1890. " " 3 " H. J. Qaudaur 19 81 

1888. '* " 4 " E. Hanlan 27 57i 

1879. " " 5 " E. Hanlan 33 56i 

Since the introduction of rowing as a pastime in Great 
Britain there has been a vast change in all the departments 
of the sport — in the training for a race, selection of a crew, 
style of rowing, and, greatest of all, in the boats. Formerly 
the boats were built with a proportion of breadth to length 
of 1 to 6, but the present usage is 1 to 30 and even 1 to 40. 
Their finest racing boats were about 6 ft. 2 in. beam, 35 feet 
in length, weighed 700 lb., and were rowed by oarsmen of 
200 lb. weight, with two spare men to act as ballast and assist 
at the oars. A shell 24 inches beam. 66 feet long, ^nd weigh- 
ing 250 lb., can be rowed by eight men with coxswain, hav- 
ing total weight of 1,350 lb., at a rate of 12 miles an hour. 
This great reduction in width, with a corresponding increase 
of length and also speed, is due almost entirely to tlie out- 
riggers and consequent improvement in design unci materials 
of construction. 

To Harry C'lasper, probably, more than any other oars- 
man, credit is due for the adoption of the outrigging and 
many other improvements in ra<'e-boat building. In 1828 
Anthony Brown had fastened various pieces of wood, now 
known as false outriggers, to the side of the Diamond, of 



Ousebum, preparatory to its race with the Fly, of Scot5wood- 
on-Tyne, and in 1830 Frank Emmett had contrived a more 
perfect plan of iron outriggers for his boat, the £agle, yet it 
was not until 1844 that Clasper's four-ou^ ou trigged boat 
fully overcame the prejudice of the time, and racing boats 
began to be modeled with regard to the new innovation. 
Yet Clasper's first outriggers were but 8 inches long. To 
Clasper also are we indebted for improving the spoon oar. 

James Mackay, who appeared in 1857 at the Portland 
City Hegatta in a shell of his own construction, was prc»l>- 
ably the first builder of shells with outriggers in the L". S. 
He received an order from Harvard for a six-oared she IK 
which he completed in December of that year. It was 40 
feet long,.26 inches amidships, built of white pine, with ir«>n 
outriggers and spoon oars, and was the first six-oared shell 
launcned in the U. S. 

Another improvement which added materially to th'* 
speed of racing boats was the sliding seat, from which ha<^ 
been evolved the roller seat. The distance through which 
the seat moves varies according to the style of the stroke 
rowed. The sliding seat is claimed to have been first uschI 
by J. C. Babcock, of the Nassau Boat Club, in a sculling 
boat in 1857, but it was not until 1870 that its merits wero 
fully appreciated. The change to roller seats was made by 
Charles E. Courtney in 1878, and first used by him in IbTd 
in a race at Toronto, Canada. 

Charles E. Courtney is authority for the following general 
directions as to one style of stroke: The beginning of tht* 




/////// 11 iiwwwww^ 



Fio. 1. 



stroke, known as the forward reach, is illustrate<l in p<»>i- 
tion 1. In this the seat is pulled forward w^ith the feet unt i \ 
it is from within 9 to 12 inches from the bottom of the fu< a- 




///M|\\\\V\\\\\\\ 



Fio. 2. 

brace, the distance varying with individuals. The seat is 
held in position 1 while the oar catches the water, l>eiii^ ^.w 
dipped as to just fairly cover the oar-blade, and until swin*^. 
ing the body at the hips the shoulders are in f>osition *J. 
The shoulders go back no farther, and the stroke is finish t .1 
by the legs and arms, as in position 3. The arms are kt-pt 
straight until just before the logs are fully straightenetl, wh. n 
the elbows are bent and the hands brought shari)ly in to 1 1-.- 
h<Kly. and are then dropped almost into the lap to'brintr t Ji. 
oar cleanly out of the water. Then the wrist is turiieil t». 



liUATAN 



RUBIAN 



Bnatall^ or Koatan : an islttnd in the Day of Honduras 
(Caribbean Sea), 80 miles from tlie northern* coast of llon> 
<luras, to which it belon£^ ; area about 80 sq. mileft. It is 
long and narrow, partly billy, wooded, and has a good soil 
and climate ; its nihabitants (about 1,(X)0) are engaged in 
fishing and turtlo-cat<;hing. In 1742 this island was seized 
by Great Britain, and in 1797 about 5,(X)0 C'ariljs were trans- 
ported to it from St. Vincent ; most of them since passed 
over to the mainland. Subsequently Great Britain gave the 
island to Honduras, but temporarily held it again 1841-42. 
Kuatan is one of the Bay islands. H. U. S. 

Rabasse : a variety of crystalHze<l quartz, discolored and 
stained with specks of retX and yellow iron oxide, which 
give it a fine red. Artificial rul)asses of all colors are made 
from rock-crystal heated and dipped in cold colored aniline 
solutions, which cracks the crystal, when the color fills the 
cracks throughout the mass. It is also called Mont Blanc 
ruby. Revised by G. F. Kunz. 

Rabefacients [from Lat. ruhffa'cienfi, pres. partic. of 
rubefa'cere, make red ; rube're^ Ikj red + fa'cere^ make] : in 
medicine, agents cai>able of prcnlucing congestion, and thus 
riKlness of the skin, by local contact. Such irritant appli- 
cations have often the power of relieving congestion, pain, 
spasm, or undue irritability of deep-seated organs, and are 
much used for the purpose in therapeutics. Very many 
drugs have the property of reddening the skin, all blister- 
ing agents producing simple hypenemia as the initial ef- 
fect of their irritation, but the means most emplr)ycd strictly 
as rubefacients are the following: Jleat^ by means of hot 
baths, cloths wrung out in hot water, bottles of hot water, 
or heated solids, as earthen platters, bricks, bags of sand, 
et-c. : mustard^ in the form of prepared mustanl-paper mois- 
tened, or thick poultices of mustard-meal mixed with cold 
water; oil of turpentine^ applied by means of flannels first 
wrung out in hot water and then in the oil previously 
warmed ; capiticum (cayenne pepper), in the form of poul- 
tice, or, better, as a lotion mixed with hot spirits; and 
ammonia, in the form of liniment of ammonia (volatile lini- 
ment). Plaster of Burgundy pitch and resin cerate are also 
feebly rubefacient. Revised by U. A. Hark. 

Rubens, Peter Paul: painter; b. at Siegen, Westpha- 
lia, June 29, 1577. He was of middle-class family, but his 
parents were persons of influence. He was well educated, 
and for a time was a page in the household of the Count- 
ess of Lalaine at Brusst>ls. His masters in painting were 
first Tobias \ erhaecht, or Vanderhaecht, then Adam Van 
Noort, and finally Otto Van Veen, or Vaenius, all of Ant- 
werp. At the age of twenty-two he was received as a 
master painter by the Antwerp g^iild of painters. In 1600, 
during the summer, he made the journey to Italy, and seems 
to have gone first to Venice. Soon after he attached him- 
self to the ducal court of Mantua, then very brilliant and 
artistic in a certain way. The Duke Vincenzo Gonzaga 
employed Rubens permanently, and in 1601 sent him to 
Rome with letters of recommendation to the Cardinal Ales- 
sandro Montalto. There he copied pictures and also pro- 
duced original works, painting pictures at the order of the 
Archduke Albert VII., who at this time had become sover- 
eign of the Spanish Netherlands. His high character, thor- 
ough education, especially in languages, and dignified bear- 
ing seem to have given him a peculiar position among ar- 
tists ; he was trusted and treated as a ()ersoii of high rank 
by the sovereigns with whom he came in contact as a 
painter. In 16(Ki he was sent by the Duke of Mantua on a 
private mission to Madri<l, where he had an exceptional op- 
portunity to study the paintings of Titian. Many pictures 
of his own are in the Madrid (iallery, and it is thought that 
several of these were painted during this visit. He was in 
Mantua from 1604 to 1606, a second time in Home, and left 
Italy finally in 1608, after nearly eight years* employment by 
the Duke of Mantua. Once in Antwerp the Archduke Al- 
bert and his wife, Isaljella Clara Eugenia, daughter of Philip 
II. of Spain, forbade his depnrttire; in 1609 he was made 
their court painter, and in the same year he marriotl. In 
the next year he painted the Elevation of the CrosA, now in 
the cathedral at Antwerp, and in 1611 the Dencent from the 
CVoM,also in the cathedral, and commonly called the paint- 
er's best work. Until 1620 he remained at Antwerp, master 
of a large studio, with many pupils and assistants, many of 
whom rose to great distinction. Jakob JohIjumis, Franz Sny- 
ders, Gaspar de Crayer, Jan Breughel, and even Antony Van 
Dyck were among his fellow workmen. 

In 1620 Rubens undertook a scries of pictun's for the 



LuxemlK>urg Palace at Paris for the Queen Dowager Mari#* 
de Medicis. This business called for his presence in Paris on 
several occasions, but the pictures were painted at Antwerp. 
They are now at Munich. In 1626 he went to Holland, ainl 
in 1d28 again to Mad rid, on business almost wholly diplomat i«- 
in character. In 1629, while still in Madrid, Rubens wa> hj*- 
pointed secretary of the privy council for the S{>anish Net h- 
erlands, and was commissioned as envoy to London, whc-n- 
he arrived in May. He left London in Mar., 1630, having: 
previously received knighthootl from King Charles I., vili«. 
also granted him an augmentation of his escnitcheon. In 
Dec, 1630, he married Helena Pounnent, niece of his foriiu-r 
wife. Her portrait occurs very frequently in his jiiciiirt- 
from this time on. The remaining years of his life uir*- 
filled with artistic work. In 1635 ne' had to design a nic^: 
elaborate decoration of the whole city of Antwerp as a vitl- 
come to Ferdinand of Austria, son of King Philip III. of 
Spain, the new governor-genera