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JOHNSON'S 
UNIVERSAL CYCLOPEDIA 



Dr. Johns. r.aVn^s^, 
• U. S. Hrrn'j. 
A NEW EDITION 

PREPARED BY A CORPS OF THIRTY-SIX EDITORS, ASSISTED BY 
EMINENT EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN SPECIALISTS 



OHAELES KENDALL ADAMS, LL.D. 



EDITOE-ra-CHIEP 



ILLVSTRATED WITH MAPS, PLANS. AND ENORAVINOS 



COMPLETE IN EIGHT VOLUMES 

VOL. in 



NEW YORK 
J. JOHNSON COMPANY 
1894 



THE NEW 



YORK 
PUBLIC LIBRARY 

596522 

AfToH. LENOX AND 
TILO N FOUMOATIONa. 

R i^ia ■ 



Copyright, 1874, 1877, 
Bt ALVIN J. JOHNSON. 

CopTRiGHT, 1886, 1889, 
By a. J. JOHNSON AND COMPANY. 

Copyright, 1898, 
By a. J. JOHNSON COMPANY. 



\ 



» « • 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 



••• • 



•• » 






• • 
•• • 

• • 



# •• 



Note. — The puiilish4rt«ifetrbf J3b record the death of Dr. Philip Schaflf, the senior associate editor in the department of 
General Church Ifistdf^ aftti *Biblical Literature. His name has been retained in the list of associate editors because the 
articles and thShS^feio^i^d^pl^tljd \)j him are found in every volume. Full charge of the department now devolves on 
his colleague, Itr. 'Samuel ^facauley Jackson. 



EBlTOK-l.V- CHIEF. 

CHARLES KENDALL ADAMS, LL. D., 

Hlrtoiy, PoUU«, and EducMJon. 
ASSOCTATS EDITORS. 



K and Literature, 



LItRTY H. BilLBT, M. S., 

Profanor at Honlcullurv. Cornell UnlTenlty. 
ABiioolture. Hortlcultiire. ForMtrr, eM. 

iLLi» J. Beeches, D. I).. 

Proleacor or Hebrew LanicusKt 

Auburo TbeoUiEical S«inuiar>'. 

PmbTtsiisn Chnrcli Ulstor;, Doctrine. «t«. 

:nrv a. Beers, A. M., 

ProraiBor of EDjcllah Literature, Yale Uniierelt;. 
Engllvh Utermtore, ete- 
IHLES E. BesseT, Ph.D., 

Protenor of Bolanr, Rtale Unfrerslly of Nebnukk. 
Botuir. TeBOtuble PhjiloIoBT, eta. 

Composer and Organist, Brooklyn. N. Y. 
Mnalo, Tliearj of Hkruiaii)', Maaleal Term*, eto. 
oR.iE P. Fisher. D. D.. LU D., 

professor of Church Hlatorj, Yalo Dniversilr- 
CoDKrCKaUoil*' Clmnili Hlatorj, Doctrine, eto. 

i.vE K. Gilbert. A.M., 

Geologist. U. S. Geological Surre;. 
Phjalenl Oeogntphj', G«o1an'. and FaUeontologr. 

-I[. L. GUiDEBSLEEVE, LL. I>.. 

Profeasor of Oreek, Johns Hopklm Univenltj-. 
Grecian and Konun Utermtim. 

TiriR T. Haulev. a. M.. 

Professor of PoUtlcal Economy, Yale Unlveniity. 
Political Economy. Flnanoe, and Tranaportatlon. 
>HK W. tURaiNUTtJs, A.M., P. L.S., 

Chief of the U. 6. Weather Bureau. 
GeoKtapby, Metearolacy. CllnuktolOKT, eto. 

ii,i.u« T. Harris, LL. D., 

U. B. Commliisianer of Education, aod 

Makk Baldwin, Ph.D.. 

Profeaor of Experimental Psychology, CoUefe oT 
PhUoaaptijF, Paycbology, Etblca, etc. 
IIS F. HuBST. D.D., LL. D.. Bisimp (M. E.). 

Chancellor American University, Waslilngton. 
MethofUat fHinrch HUtory. Doctrine, ete. 
yRY E Jacobs, D. D., LL. [>., 

Professor of Sj-stematic Theoloey. Evangetfcal Lu- 
theran Theological Seminary, PhiladplpTiia. Pa. 
Lntheran Chorcli Hlatory, Dftctrlne, etc. 
mi S. Jordan. LU D.. 

ppestdenl Lelaud Stanford Junior University. 
ZonloKT, Comparative Anatomy, and Animal Pbyal- 
olocy. 

IS J. Keane. D. n.. LL. D., Bishop (R. C). 
Hwtor of the Catholic UniverBity of Ame 
Bvman Catholic Cbnreh HUtory, Doctrine 
.iRLES KiRfHHOFF. M. E.. 

Editor o( the Iron Age, New York, 
MlnloB EnElDoeiiuB, MlDeralogy, and Met 
•■■HKN R Ll-c'B, 



Aktiiur R. Marsh, A. M., 

Professor of Cotnparatlvo literature. Han 
Foreign Literature, etc. 
James MnRcrR, 

Professor of Mil. Engineering, West Point 
Bfllltary EnglneeriDK, Science and Mnnltlol 

MA.V-S1.-IEI.D M 



CItU GnglneerlnK. < 

SmoM Xewcomb, LL.D.. 



Edward L. Nichols, Ph. 1).. 

Professor of PhyKi.-s, Cornell DniTersfty, 
Pbyllca, Electricity and tU Applications. 

William Pepper, M. D., LL. D.. 

Medicine, anr^ery, and Collateral Sciences 
WiLUAii S, Perrt. D, D. Oxon., LU D., Bishop (P. E.), 

EpUoopal Chorcb SUtory. Doctrine, etc 
John W. Powell, 

liirwtor of the U, 8, GeolOEical Survey. 

American Arcli^4>lo^ and Ethnology. 
IBA Remsen, M. D.. Ph. D., LL. D.. 

Professor of ChemLatry, Johns Hopkins tTnlvenl^. 

Cbemlatry and Ita Appllcatltma, etc 

Henry Wade Rociers LU D., 

Piwiident Northweirtfm Un 
Hnnldpal. Clrll, and Conatltut 

Philip Sciufr, S. T. D„ LL. D., 

Profexsor of Church History, Union Theological Se 
inary. Now York, and 
Samiel Macaulev Jackson. D.D.. LL.D,. 

fieneral CboTCb History and Biblical Llteratnrv. 
AlSSWORTH H. SptlKFORD. LL. D., 
Lihrarian of Congress. 
V. 8. GAOKTaphy, Statlstica, etc 

HrssELL Stl-rhis, a. M., Ph. D., P. A. L A., 

Ei Pn^dent Architectural League of New York, 
ArctUBoU^y and Art. 
Robert II. Tiicrstcis, Dnp. Ene„ LL.D.. 

lllrei-tor of Sibley College, CoroeU Unlversfty, 
Mechanical Hcleuea. 



t. Evanston, HL 



Benjamin Iuk. Wheklkb. Ph.D.. 

Professor of Oreek and Com. Philology. Cornell Univ. 
Comparative Fhllolosy, UngoUtlo, etc. 

William IL Whitsitt. D. D.. 

- " r of Church HiKtory. Baptist Theological 



e. Ky, 



It Chni 



Public I«w, Interei 



MAXAGiyO EDITOR. 

ROBERT LTLLEY. M. R. A.S.. 



ASSISTANT TO THE EniTOR-lS-CHIEF. 

CIIARLRS H. THURBKR. A.M.. 



JOHNSON'S UNIVERSAL CYCLOPEDIA. 

VOL. ra. 



CONTRIBUTORS AND REVISERS. 



Abbot, Hbxbt L., LL. D., M. N. A. S., 

Colonel U. S. Engineers; brevet brigadier-general U. S. 
army, Willets Point, N. Y. 

Abbott, ALSXAyDBR C^ M. D., 

Assistant Professor of Hyeiene, Uniyersity of Pennsyl- 
yania, Department of J^icine, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Adams, Chablbs Kendall, LL. D., 

President of the Uniyersity of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

Adams, Ctbus C, 

Editorial staff of New York Sun ; President of Depart- 
ment of Geography, Brooklyn Institute, Brooklyn, 
X. Y. 

Aldbx, Edmuxd Kimball, A. M^ 

Professor of History, Packer Collegiate Institute, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Allbk, Fbbdebic Stubobs, a. B., LL B., 

Member of the New York Bar, New York. 

Amdbbson, Hon. Rasmus B., 

Formerly Professor of Scandinayian Languages and 
Literature^ Uniyersity of Wisconsin ; ex-U. S. minis- 
ter to Denmark ; Maaison, Wis. 

Badbau, Brig.-Cren. Adam, 

Author of Mililary History of General Oront, 

Bailet, Libebtt H., M. S^ 

Profes^ior of General and Experimental Horticulture, 
Cornell UniTersity, Ithaca, N^. Y. 

Baldwin, Henbt, A. B^ New York. 

Baldwin, J. Mabk, Ph. D., 

Stuart Professor of Experimental Psychology, College 
of New Jersey, Princeton, N. J. 

*Babnabd, Fbedbbick a. P., S. T. D., LL D., etc.. 
President of Columbia College, New York. 

*Babnabd« John G^ LL D., M. N. \. S., 

Brevet major-general U. S. army. 

Bean, Tableton H., • 

Assistant -in -Chanre, Division of Fish Culture, U. S. 
Fi<h ronunission antl Honorary Curator of the U. S. 
National Museum, Washington, D. C. 

Beech EB, Willis J^ D. D^ 

Pn»f«*^?sor of H»»l>ivw Ijintruaffe and Literature, Auburn 
ThtH»l«»jncal St'iiiinary. Aul»um, N. Y. 

Beers. Henbt A.. A. M-. 

Pn»fessor of Enfirli-ih Literature. Yale University, New 
Haven. Conn. 

Bemls, Edwabd W^ 

University Exton^inn A<5SO<'iate Professor of Political 
E«^"»n«»niy an«l '!»H'i\'tar>' of the Training Department, 
University of Chicago, Chicago. ilL 



Bbssby, Chables E., Ph. D., 

Professor of Botany and Horticulture, Uniyersity of 
Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb. 

Brts. Rev. Beverlet R., A. M., 

Former librarian of Columbia College, New York. 

Billings, John S., M. D., LL. D., 

Professor of Hygiene, Johns Hopkins Universitjr, Balti- 
more, Md. ; Pepper Professor of Hygiene, University 
of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. ; and SuperiDtend- 
ent of Army Medical Museum, Washington, D. C. 

Blake, Wiluam P., A. M., Ph. B., 

Formerly Professor of Mineralogy and Geology, Collet' 
of California; geologist and mining engineer, Shulls- 
burg, Wis. 

BoTBSEN, Hjalmab H., Ph. D., 

Professor of the Germanic Languages and Literatures, 
Columbia College, New York. 

Bbabbook, Edwabd W., F. S. A., 

Chief Registrar of Friendly Societies, London, Eng- 
land. 

Bband, Rev. William F., A. M., 

Rector of St. Mary*s church, Emmerton, Md. 

Bbandt, H. C. G., a. M., Ph. D., 

Professor of the German and French Languages, and 
Philology, Hamilton College, Clinton, N. Y. 

Bbown, Thomas E., Jr., 

Consulting engineer. New York. 

Buck, Dudley, 

Composer and organist, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Buboess, John W., A. M., Ph. D., LL D., 

Professor of History, Political Science, and Constitu- 
tional Law, Columbia College, New York. 

BuBB, Chables W.,* M. D., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Canpield, Abthub G., A. M., 

Professor of French Language and Literature, Univer- 
sity of Kansas, Lawrence, Kan. 

Chadwick, Rev. John W., D. D., 

Unitarian clergyman, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Chandleb, Chables F., Ph. D.,LL. D., etc.. 

Professor of Chemistry and Medical Jurisprudence, Col- 
lege of Physicians and Surgeons, New York ; Profess<»r 
of Chemistry and Dean of the Faculty of the Scho^^l 
of Mines, Columbia College, New York. 

Chase, George, LL. B., 

Dean of the New York Law School, New York. 

Chubch, John A., M. E., 

Author of TU Mining Schools of the United States, etc. 

(vi) 



CONTRIBUTORS AND REVISERS 



VU 



Chi'rch, William Conant, 

Etiitx)r of T?ie Army and Navy Journal, New York. 

Churchill, John W., A. M., 

Jones Professor of Elocution, Andover Theological 
Seminary ; associate editor of The Andover Review, 
Andover, Mass. 

(.'oFFiN, William A., 

Artist; secretary of the Society of American Artists, 
New York. 

t'oLBY, Fbank M., a. M., 

Lecturer in History, Columbia College, New York. 

CoLLiTZ, HEBXAinr, Ph. D., 

Associate Professor of German and Teutonic Philology, 
Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pa. 

Com STOCK, John Henry, B. S., 

Professor of Entomology and General Invertebrate Zo- 
ology, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. ; non-resident 
Professor of Entomology, Leland Stanford Junior 
University, Palo Alto, Cal. 

(Vx)K, Albert S., Ph. D., L. H. D., 

Professor of the English Language and Literature, Yale 
University, New Haven, Conn. 

Cooke, Josiah P., A. M., LL. D., 

Erving Professor of Chemistry and Mineralo^, and 
director of Chemical Laboratory, Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Mass. 

Crane, Thomas P., A. M., 

Professor of the Romance Languages and Literatures, 
Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

CusHixQ, Marshall, 

Journalist, Washington, D. C. 

Davidson, Thomas, A. M., 

Specialist in Literature and Medieval Philosophy, New 
York. 

♦Davis, Charles H., 

Keur-admiral U. S. navy. 

Davis, William M., M. E., 

Professor of Physical Geography, Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Mass. 

Dawson, Sir John William, LL. D., F. R. S., F. G. S., 

Emeritus Principal, McGill College, Montreal, Canada. 

Day. Edward C. H., 

Professor of Geology and Physiology, New York Nor- 
mal College, New York. 

DiLLMAN, Christian Friedrich August, Ph. D., 

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis and Semitic Lan- 
guages, University of Berlin, Germany. 

r>RisLER, Henby, a. M., LL. D., 

Jay Professor of Greek, and Dean of the Faculty of 
Art^s, Columbia College, New York. 

Drummond, Hon. Josiah H., LL. D., Portland, Me. 

Dulles, Charles W., M. D., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Din-bar, George H., 

Manager, Eagle Iron Works, Buffalo, N. Y. 
Dlrfee, D. C, 

Newspaper correspondent and author, Gloversville, N. Y. 

♦D WIGHT, Theodore W., LL. D., 

Prnfessor of Municipal Law, Columbia College, New 
York. 

Kmerson, Alfred, Ph. D., 

Associate Professor of Classical Archjwlogy and curator 
of the Museum of Casts, Cornell University, Ithaca, 
N. Y. 

Ernst, Oswald H., 

Major U. S. Engineers: Superintendent of U. S. Mili- 
tary Academy, West Point, N. Y. 



♦Eve, Paul P., M. D., 

Professor of Operative and Clinical Surgery, Medical 
Department, University of Tennessee, Nashville, 
Tenn- 

Fernow, B. E., 

Chief of Division of Forestry, U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

Fisher, Rev. George P., D. D., LL. D., 

Titus Street Professor of Ecclesiastical History, Yale 
University, New Haven, Cono. 

Foster, Frank H., Ph. D., 

Professor of Systematic Theology, Pacific Theological 
Seminary, Oakland, Cal. 

Fox, George Henrt, M. D., 

Clinical Professor of Diseases of the Skin, College of Phy- 
sicians and Surgeons (Columbia College), New York. 

Fbothingham, Octavius B., a. M., 
Author and critic, Boston, Mass. 

Gage, Simon Henry, B. S., 

Associate Professor of Anatomy, Histology, and Em- 
bryology, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Ga&rison, Rev. J. H., D. D., 

Editor Christian Evangelist, St. Louis, Mo. 

GiDDiNGS, Franklin H., A. M., 

Professor of Political Science, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn 
Mawr, Pa. 

Gilbert, Grove K., A. M., M. N. A. S., 

Geologist, U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. 

Gildebsleeve, Basil L., Ph. D., LL. D., D. C. L., 

Professor of Greek, Johns Hopkins University, Balti- 
more, Md. 

Gill, Theodore, M. D., Ph. D., etc.. 

Professor of Zoology, Columbian University, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Gillett, Rev. Charles R., 

Librarian, Union Theological Seminary, New York. 

GoEBEL, Julius. Ph. D., 

Professor of Germanic Literature and Philology, Leland 
Stanford Junior University, Palo Alto, Cal. 

Goessman, Charles A., Ph. D., 

Professor of Chemistry, Massachusetts Agricultural Col- 
lege, Amherst, Mass. 

♦Gray, Asa, M. D., LL. D., M. N. A. S., 

Fisher Professor of Natural History, Harvard Univer- 
sity, Cambridge, Mass. 

Greene, Charles W., M. D., Merchantville, N. J. 

Groome, F. H., 

Author and editor, London, England. 

GUBEBNATIS, AnOELO DE, 

Professor of Sanskrit and Comparative Literature, In- 
stitute di Studii Superiorii e di Perfezionaraento, 
Florence, Italy. 

Gudeman, Alfred, Ph. D., 

Professor of Classical Philology, University of Pennsyl- 
vania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Gummere, Francis B., Ph. D., 

Professor of English and German, Haverford College, 
Haverford, Pa. 

*GuYOT, Arnold. Ph. D., LL. D., M. N. A. S., 

Professor of Geology and Phvsical Geography, College 
of New Jersey, Princeton, >«. J. 

Hadley, Arthur T., A. M., 

Professor of Political Economy and Dean of Courses of 
Graduate Instruction, Yale University, New Haven, 
Conn. 

Hagar, George J., Newark, N. J. 



Vlll 



CONTRIBUTORS AND REVISERS 



Hamlin, A. D. F., A. M., 

Adiunct Professor of Architecture, Columbia College, 
if ew York. 

Hare, Hobart A., M. D., 

Professor of Materia Medica, Therapeutics, and Hy- 
giene, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Harrington, Mark W., A. M., F. L. S., 

Chief of the U. S. Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C. 

Harris, William T., LL. D., * 

U. S. Commissioner of Education, Washington, D. C. 

Hendrickson, George L., Ph. D., 

Professor of Latin, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 

Wis. 

*Hbnry, Joseph, LL. D., M. N. A. S., 

Secretary of Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 

Hervet, Daniel E., 

Organist, Newark, N. J. 

HiGGiNsoN, CoL Thomas W., Cambridge, Mass. 

Hine, C. C, 

Editor of The Insurance Monitor, New York. 

Hitchcock, Charles H., A. M., Ph. D., 

Hall Professor of Geology and Mineralogy, Dartmouth 
College, Hanover, N. H. 

Hitchcock, Edward, Jr., A. B., M. D., 

Professor of Hygiene and Physical Culture, and director 
of the Gymnasium, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

♦HrrcHcocK, Roswell Dwioht, S. T. D., LL. D., 

President Union Theological Seminary, New York. 

*HoLLEY, Alexander L., C. E., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Hodge, F. W., 

Ethnologist, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 

Holmes, Benjamin Blake, A. B., New York. 

Hughes, Thomas, Q. C, 

Author of Tom Broum's School Days, London, England. 

Humphreys, Milton W., Ph. D., LL. D., 

Professor of Greek, University of Virginia, Charlottes- 
ville, Va. 

Hurst, John F., D. D., LL. D., 

Bishop in the Methodist Episcopal Church, and chan- 
cellor of the American University, Washington, D. C. 

HuTTON, Frederick R., C. E., Ph. D., 

P^fessor of Mechanical Engineering, School of Mines, 
Columbia College, New York. 

HuTTON, William R., C. E., New York. 

♦Inglis, David, D. D., LL. D., 

Pastor of Reformed Church, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Irvine, R. T., M. D., 

Physician, Sing Sing Prison, Sing Sing, N. Y. 

Jackson, A. V. Williams, A. M., L. H. D., Ph. D., 

Adjunct Professor of the English Language and Litera- 
ture, and instructor in the Iranian Languages, Colum- 
bia College, New York. 

Jackson, Samuel Macauley, D. D., LL. D., 

Editor of A Concise Dictionary of Religious Knowledge^ 
and associate editor of the Schaff-Herzog Encyclo- 
poedia^ New York. 

Jacobi, Abraham, M. D., 

Clinical Professor of the Diseases of Children, College 
of Physicians and Surgeons (Columbia College), New 
York.' 

Jacobs, Henry E., D. D., LL. D., 

Professor of Systematic Theology, Evangelical Lutheran 
Theological Seminary, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Jennings, John E., 

Proof-reader, New York. 



Jewett, James R., Ph. D., 

Associate Professor of Semitic Languages and Huston-. 
Brown University, Providence, R. I. 

♦Johnson, Oliver, 

Managing editor Christian Union, New York, 

Jordan, David S., LL. D., 

President of the Leland Stanford Junior University, 
Palo Alto, Cal. 

Keane, John J., D. D., LL. D., 

Bishop in the Roman Catholic Church, and rector of the 
CatnoUc University of America, Washington, D. C. 

*Kelton, Col. John C, 

Adjutant-general, U. S. army. 

Kern, F. L., A. M., 

President, Florida Agricultural College, Lake City, Fla. 
KiNOSLEY, J. S., S. D., 

Professor of Biology, Tufts College, Massachusetts. 

EiRCHHOFF, Charles, M. E., 

Editor of The Iron Age, New York. 

Ejttredoe, George Lyman, A. B., 

Assistant Professor of English, Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Mass. 

♦Krauth, Charles P., S. T. D., LL. D., 

Vice-provost of the University of Pennsylvania, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

KuNZ, George F., M. N. A. S., 

Gem expert with Tiffany & Co., and of U. S. Geological 
Survey; Mineralogist in charge of eleventh L. S. 
census ; New York. 

Lang, Henry R., Ph. D., 

Instructor in the Romance Languages, Yale University, 
New Haven, Conn. 

Leland, Charles G., 

Author of The Hams Breitman Ballads and The Gyp- 
sies, London, England. 

LiLLEY, Robert, M. R. A. S., 

One of the editors of the Century Dictionary, New York. 

Lucas, Frederic A., 

Curator of the Department of Comparative Anatomy, 
U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 

Luce, Stephen B., 

Rear-admiral U. S. Navy, Newport, R. I. 

Macdonald, Neil, 

Canadian writer ; Jersey City, N. J. 

Marsh, Arthur R., A. B., 

Assistant Professor of Comparative Literature, Harvard 
University, Cambridge, Mass. 

*Marsh, George P., LL. D., M. N. A. S., 
Formerly U. S. minister to Italy. 

Mason, Otis T., 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 

Maspero, Gaston, 

Member of the Legion of Honor and keeper of the 
Boulak Museum, Boulak, Cairo, Egypt. 

Mercur, Lieut.-Col. James, U. S. A., 

Professor of Civil and Military Engineering, U. S. Mili- 
tary Academy, West Point, N. Y. 

Merriman, Mansfield, C. E., Ph. D., 

Professor of Civil Engineering, Lehigh University, 
South Bethlehem, Pa. 

Mooney, James, 

Ethnologist. U. S. Bureau of Ethnology, Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington, D. C. 

Morton, Henry, Ph. D., M. N. A. S., 

President of Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, 
N. J. 



re of the Almanae/i 



i:nr.,>iR. SiKOM, LL.D^ M.N.A.S., 

l*id(fssorof Mai hematics Hnd Astronomy, Johns Hopkins 
[iiiviirsity, Baltimore, Md., ami nupwrintendent of 5^« 
Caited Slater Nautical Almnnac, WashiUBton, D. C. 
l.WKLL, W. W., 

Sfi retary, AmerieaD Polk-loro Socaetj, Cambridge, Mass. 
\' iir.LS. Edward L., B. S., Ph. D., 

Profi-Bsor of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 
I'rKMAS's, Capl. August, 

Kiiitor for Genealogy and Diplo 
dr l/ollia, Gotha, Saxony. 
iHThlES-, Hon. WlLUAM J.. 

(joviTnor of Georgia; Atlanta, Oa. 
(rnKiN. Charles Ledvard, 

Author of A Handbook of Florida ; New York. 
-ihjhn, Rev. Albert, B. D., 

l{.'),'istrar, American University, Washington, D. C. 
i( R ABH. Alpbkus S., Jr., M. D., M. N. A. S.. 

l)iri'(:tor of tho Peabody Academy of Seience, Salem. 
.Ma:^ 

E\-Command»r-in-chief, Grand Armyof the RepubUo; 
Albany, N. Y. 
IRK. KoswEU, A. M., M. D., 

I'rofpwsor of the Principles and Practice of Snrpery 
and Clinical Kursery, University of BuSato, Medical 
Department, Buffalo, N. Y. 

'AnSKR, POIHALL A., 

.SiLifrintendeut of U, S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md. 
'arker. WiLLARD, A. M., M. D., LL. D., 

i'rcjfessor of Surgery, Columbia College, New York. 
uos. Lucy A.. A. M., 

Author of The Character of Dante (in Seporfa of the 
A merican Danle Saeiely) ; Harvard University, Cam- 
bridge. Mass. 
11 NE. William H., A. M., Ph. D., LL. D., 

(.'liBnecIlor University of Nashville, and President Pea- 
Ixfdy Normal College, Nashville, Tunn. 
:.iRiiDr. Miss Elizabeth P., 

Author of Moral Cullure of Infancy, Letlert to Kin- 
dergarlneTB, etc.; Cambrid^. ^Uass. 

•tXK. WtLLIAM 0.. Ph. D., LL. D.. 

Professor of Mathematics and Astronomy, Columbia 
College, New York. 

E' KHAM, STEPUE» P., A.M., 

Formerly Professor of Chemistry. University of Minne- 
.Mita; Butlior of the monoifraph on I'elroUum, tenth 
I'. S. census ; Ann Arbor, Mich. 
CPHER, William. M.D., LL.D., 
Pr. 

RRV. WiLUAM STBTEys, D. D. Oxon., LL. D,. D.C.L., 

Ui-ihop in the Protestant Episcopal Church in the U. S 
" 7nport, Iowa. 



POWEI 



, JoHK W., Ph. D., LL. D., 



:-EX, Clemens, A. M., 

iithor and jonrnaliEit, Kc 
KINO, Edward C, B. S., 5 
lireetor of the Observalor 
..U Georoe A., M. D., 



' York. 
.N.A.S., 

\ Cambridge, 



Survey; and director of the Bureau of Ethnology, 
Washington, D. C. 
Prudent, P.. 

Lieutenant-colonel, French Top. Engineers (retired), 
Paris, France. 
Ravensteis, Erhest O., F. R. G. S., 

Member of councils of Royal Geographical Society and 
Royal Statistical Society, London, England. 
Reichert, Edward T„ M. D., 

Professor of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania, 
Department of Medicine, Pluladelphia, Pa. 
Reid, John, 

President of St. Andrew's Golf Club, Yonkers, N. Y. 
Remsen, Ira, M. D., Ph. D., LL. D., 

Pi-ofessor of Chemistry and director of the chemical 
laboratory, Johns Uojjkiiis University, Medical De- 
partment, Baltimore, Aid. 
Riley, Charles V„ M, D., Ph. D., 

Entomologist of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, 
Washington, D. C. 
Roberts, Isaac P., M, Agr., 

Director of the College of Agriculture. Professor of 
Agriculture, and director of the Agricidtural Experi- 
ment Station, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 
Rogers, Henrt Wade, LL. D., 

President Northwestern University, Evanston, IlL 
Russell, T bo has, 

Professor of Meteorology, U. S. Weather Bureau, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 
Ryan, Harris J., M.E., 

Associate Professor of Electrical Eniniieering, Cornell 
University, Ithaca, N. Y. 
St. John, Samuel B., M. D., Ilartford, Conn, 
ScHAEFFER, Prof. Edwabd M., M. D., Washington, D. C. 
•ScHAFF, Rev. Priup, S.T.D., LU D., 

Washburn Profesiior of Church History. Union Theo- 
logical Seminary, New York. 
'ScHMiBT, Henry I.. S. T. D., 

Professor Emeritus of German Languages and Litera- 
tures, Columbia College New York. 

SCBWAB, JOHM C. Ph. D., 

Instructor in Political F^conomy, Yale University, New 
Uaven, Conn.; associate editor, Yalt Redevi, 
ScHWEiN'mi, Georoe E. de, M. D., Philadelphia, Fa. 
Seelte. Julius H.. S. T. D., LL. D., 

Ex-President of Amherst College, Ainhcrsl, Mass. 
Seelve. L. Clark. D. D., 

President of Smith College, Northampton, Mass. 
Seouin, Edward C, Jr., M. D., New York. 
Shaw, Thomas, 

Professor of Aniinnl TTusban'lrv, Ontario Agricultural 
College, Guelph, Ontario. Cuiiuda. 

Shedd, William 0. T., S. T. D.. LL, D., 

Emeritus Professtir of Svslematie Divinitv. Union 
Theuiogieal Meiniuary, Ni^w Yurk. 
SuELDoN, Edward S.. A. B., 

Proffw^nr of Romance Philology, Har^'ard 



Li.sBi-RV. Charles A., 
JIanaging director, Pillsbury-Wuahburn Floi 
Company, Minneapolis, Minn. 



Uni 



aty, Cai 



ridge. Ma.. 



Shields. Cuari.es W.. I). D., LL. D., 

Proft'Hsiir of the llarmunv of Science and Revealed Re- 
ligion, College of New 'Jersey, Princeton, N. J. 



CONTRIBUTOBS AND REVISERS 



Cjtrk^ r. S. Boani of Engiueos, New York. 

Slowas^ J. P^ Glasgov. ScotlaiML 

Ssrra. HnBSXT H^ A. M^ 

XAnszmliaC Brooklrn, X. T. 

SrovTouk. Adbwo«th R, LL. D^ 

Lilrmnan of Congress, Washington, D. C. 

STAOGl A- AL0520, A- K, 

AfK^ZAni PTv«fes?«>r and director of the Department of 



F^jyx^ Cuiinre, UniTeraty of Chicago, Chicago, IlL 

•SiACTTtM;. WnxiAM, S. T. D., 

Frcsder and fint rector of St. Peters church. Brook- 
Irn, X. Y. 

•STirHi55, Ai.EtAyi>c« H^ A-IL, LL.D^ 

Vice-Presient of the Southern Confederacy, and later 
G-: Ten>3r of Georgia. 

SmtacTT. J. R- S^ Ph. D, 

Xewt.ro Professor of the Greek Language and Litera- 
tant, Amhrrst College. Amherst, Mass. 

SH.H3 *, Abxu A- M^ LL. D^ 

Fcrc-friy e«iiior of The MethodUi, New York. 

SrtLLJLkS, WiLLlAJI J^ 

Ar:i5t and critic ; correspondent of the London Times ; 
^AL^ Icalr. 



Syr»GS. Rr^5sini.. A- M-, Ph. D^ F. A. L A^ 

Ei-Prv>: ient of the Architectural League of Xew York ; 
Xew Yi^rk. 



•Smxas. Thcxas O^ S.T.D^ LL.D., 

Prrff-a&i-kr of STjtematic Theology, Vanderbilt UnlTer- 
sty. XaahrilLe. Tenn. 

Thtkbek. Chakixs H^ A. M., 

Pr-'f-^rw^r of PeiAe»-*eT. Col gate University, and princi- 
fAl of Ccl^ate Acaiitrmy. Hamilton, X. iT. 

THUiuaT*Ef, RrDOLPH, Ph. D., 

Pr-f-jasor *^t C<:«c:i:AratiTe Phflology, University of Prei- 
b&rg. B^irn. GCrnzukoy. 

T hl ay t o 5. R*>bekt H-. LL. D.. Dr. Eng., 

D:r?c:r.r of Sitley C«^"^se and Professor of Mechanical 
EE^.a«ncrinz. Cornell University, Ithaca, X. Y. 

ToaaA^rcK. Snus A., 

Corr.irli Uaiversty. Ithaca. X. Y. 

Tot. CaAWFoao H., LL. D« 

Haixxck Pr:fr-a?*>r of Hebrew and other Oriental Lan- 
jTiajrv-s^ ar. i iKrirer Lecturer on Biblical Literature, 
HATTATi Um verity, Cambridge, Mas& 

TrcKZT. Miss Jaxft, 

Bmish Mu5eTim. London. Enfrland. 

TuayoL FREi-Eai-rK Ja«tl?ox. Ph. D.. 

Pr f-^^s* r r.f American Hiatnry. University of Wisconsin, 
M^L^ G. Wis. 

•TryifxLU JoH^c. LL. D^ F. R. S., 

Pr *f^sr^T "f V-%t:iraI Ph:!«*5«:'phy and Superintendent of 
H> vaI iL.^itati.a, Lc'r^don, Ecgliind. 

Vail. < 'HAai£? D-, 

RrjKrar ^-f H:bar: College. Geneva. X. Y. 



VALLEXnXB, B. B., 

Dramatic critic, Xew York. 

Wakfikld, Rev. Ben jamix B., S. T. D., LL. D., 

Professor of Didactic and Polemic Theology, Princt>tnn 
Theological Seminary, Princeton, X. J. 

Wakren, MciToy, A. B., Ph. D., 

Professor of Latin, Johns Hopkins University, Balti- 
more, Md. 

•Weld, Mason C, Ph. B., Closter, N. J. 

Wells, Hon. Dayid A., LL. D., 

Late U. S. Special Revenue Commissioner, Norwich, 
Conn. 

Wheeler, Benjamin Ide, Ph. D., 

Professor of Greek and ComparatiTe Philology, Cornell 
University, Ithaca, X. Y. 

•White, Richard Grant, 

Author and Shakspearean critic. New York. 

WnrrNET, James A.. A. M., LL. D., 

Counsellor at Law, Xew York ; formerly editor of Th^ 
American Artisan, and first President of the New 
York Society of Practical Engineering. 

Whttsitt, William H., D. D., 

Professor of Church History, Baptist Theological Semi- 
nary, Louisville, Ky. 

Williams, George H., Ph. D., 

Professor of Inorganic Geology, Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity, Baltimore, Md. 

WiLUAMS, Henrt Shaler, Ph. D., 

Professor of Geology, Yale UniTersity, New Haven. 
Conn. 

Wilson, Gen. James Grant, 

Author and editor ; President of the Xew York Gene- 
alogical and Biographical Society, Xew York. 

WiNQ, Henrt H., M. S., 

Assistant Professor of Animal Industry and Dairy 
Husbandry, Cornell University, and deputy directcr 
and secretary of the Agricultunl Experiment StAtioii, 
Ithaca, X. Y. 

Wood, Horatio C, M. D., LL. D., 

Professor of Materia Metlica, Pharmacy, and General 
Therapeutics, and Clinical Professor of Nervous 
Diseajjps, University of Pennsylvania, Department vi 
Medicine, Philadelphia, Pa. 

•Wooi^EY, Theodore D., S. T. D., LL. D., 

Ex-President, Yale College. 

Woolset, Tdeodore S., LL. B., A. M., 

Professor of International Law, Yale University, New 
Haven, Conn. 

WoRMAN, James H., A. M., 

EJtlitor of Outing; formerly Professor of Modern Lan- 
guages, Danville University, Tena. 

Wright, Hon. Carroll D., 

Superintendent of the Eleventh Census, Washington. 
1). C. 

♦Wyckoff, Wiluam C, Xew York. 

Z<Vkler, Otto, 

Pnifessor of Ecclesiastical History and Apol(\s.'oiit^ 
University of Greifswald, Germany. 



♦ r. r.T:' .v.r? to VoL IIL of former editions, now deceased, whose articles have been revised and retained in the 
prvs*::.: tr'i.tin. 



MAPS IN VOL. III. 



KNT.LAND AND WALES. 

El'ROPE 

FI-OKiDA 

KIIAXL'E 

'IKiiKGIA . 

itKKMAS EMPraB. 



HISTORICAL AND LINGUISTIC. 



GEOLOGICAL. 



rXITED STATES: SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE GEOLOGIC SYSTEMS . 
IMTEl) STATES: SHOWING THE PLEISTOCENE ICE-WORK AND WATER-WOEK . 



FI..\GS OP VARIOUS NATIONS 



PECULIAR PHONETIC SYMBOLS 

USED IN THE WRITING OR TRANSLITERATION OF THE DIFFERENT LANGUAGES. 



&, e, etc. : long vowels ; in the ScandinaTian languages the 
accent (d, S, etc.) is used to denote length. 

% : a nasalized a ; so used in the transliteration of the Ira- 
nian languages. 

& : labialized guttural a in Swedish. 

fe : open a of Eng. hat, used chiefly in 0. Eng. 

ai : used in Gk)thic to denote e (open), in distinction from 
di, the true diphthong. 

ad : used in GK>thic to denote o (open), in distinction from 
dUf the true diphthong. 

bh: in Sanskrit a voiced labial aspirate (cf. eh). 

b: voiced bilabial (or labio-dental f) spirant, used in dis- 
cussions of Teutonic dialects. 

9 : voiceless palatal sibilant, similar to Eng. ah, used espe- 
cially in transliteration of Sanskrit. 

d : frequently used, e. g. in Slavonic languages, to denote 
the sound of Eng. ch in cheek, 

c : voiceless palatal explosive, commonly used in translit- 
eration of Sanskrit and the Iranian languages. 

ch: as used in the transliteration of Sanskrit, a voiceless 
palatal aspirate, an aspirate being an explosive with 
excess of breath; as used in German grammar, the 
symbol for a voiceless palatal or guttural spirant. 

dh : voiced dental aspirate (cf. ch) in Sanskrit. 

d : voiced cerebral explosive, so used in transliteration of 
Sanskrit. 

dh : voiced cerebral aspirate (cf. ch) in Sanskrit. 

d : voiced dental (interdental) spirant, equivalent to Eng. 
th in then ; so used in the Teutonic and Iranian lan- 
guages and in phonetic writing. 

6 : a short open «, used in Teutonic grammar, particularly 
in writing 0. II. G. 

9: the short indefinite or "obscure" vowel of Eng. gar- 
dener ; used in the reconstruction of Indo-Eur. forms, 
and in transliterating the Iranian languages. 

gh : in Sanskrit a voiced guttural aspirate (cf. eh). 

g: voiced velar (back-guttural) explosive, used most fre- 
quently in Indo-Eur. reconstructions. 

2 : voiced guttural (or palatal) spirant, equivalent to Mod. 
Greek 7, and used in transliteration of Iranian lan- 
guages and 0. Eng. 

h : a voiceless breathing, the Sanskrit visarga. 

Iv: a labialized A, similar to tch in Eng. wJuU; used in 
transliteration of Gothic and the Iranian languages. 

\l : voiceless guttural (or palatal) spirant, equivalent to Ger- 
man ch, and used in transliteration of the Iranian 
languages. 

i : the semi-vowel y, or consonant form of i ; used in pho- 
netic writing and reconstructions of Indo-Eur. forms. 



jh: 
kh! 
1: 

1: 



n: 



n: 

• 

fi: 
d: 

Q: 

6: 

Q: 
0: 

pk 



j : in the transliteration of Sanskrit and the Iranian lan- 
guages a voiced palatal explosive; in the Teutonic 
languages a semi-vowel (= y), for which in Indo-Eur. 
reconstructions % is generally used. 

in Sanskrit a voiced palatal aspirate (cf. eh). 

in Sanskrit a voiceless guttural aspirate (cf. ch). 

the guttural (" thick " or " deep '*) of the Slavonic and 
some of the Scandinavian languages. 

vowel I ; used in transliterating Sanskrit, in reconstruct- 
ing Indo-Eur. forms, and in other phonetic writing. 

nasal vowel ; used in reconstruction of Indo-Eur. forms 
and in phonetic writing. 

in Sanskrit the cerebral nasaL 

in Sanskrit the guttural nasal (see following). 

the guttural nasal, equivalent to Eng. n in longer; used 
in transliteration of Iranian languages. 

palatal nasal, similar to gn in Fr. regner ; used in trans- 
literating Sanskrit and in phonetic writing. 

palatalized ; used in German and in phonetic writing. 

short open in Scandinavian. 

short palatalized (5) in Scandinavian. 

in Sanskrit, voiceless labial aspirate (cf. eh). 

voiceless velar (back-guttural) explosive ; used in recon- 
structions of Indo-Eur. forms and in other phonetic 
writing. 

r : vowel r ; used in transliterating Sanskrit, in reconstruc- 
tions of Indo-Eur. forms, and in other phonetic writ- 
ing. 

S : voiceless cerebral sibilant, equivalent to Eng. sh ; used 
in transliterating the Iranian languages and in pho- 
netic writing. 

voiceless cerebral spirant ; used in transliterating San- 
skrit. 

in Sanskrit a voiceless dental aspirate (cf . eh). 

in Sanskrit a voiceless cerebral aspirate (cf . eh), 

in Sanskrit a voiceless cerebral explosive. 

a form of dental spirant used in transliterating the 
Iranian languages (represented in Justi's transliter- 
ation by t). 

voiceless dental (interdental) spirant, equivalent to Eng. 
th in thin ; used in Teutonic dialects and in phonetic 
writing. 

consonant form of u ; used in phonetic writing. 

voiced cerebral sibilant, equivalent to s in Eng. pleas- 
ure, and toj in Fr.jardin; used in Iranian, Slavonic, 
and in phonetic writing. 

^ : a symbol frequently used in the writing of O. H. G. to 
indicate a voiced dental sibilant (Eng. 2), in distinc- 
tion from z as sig^ of the affricata (ta). 



s: 

th 
th 

• 

t: 



>: 



n: 
i: 



<, descended from. 

=, borrowed without change from. 

: , cognate with. 

+ , a sign joining the constituent elements of a compound. 

* , ft sign appended to a word the existence of which is inferred. 



*]]«;. 


adjectiTe 


udT. 


adverb 


cf. 


compare 


conjunc 


conjunction 


(ieriv. of 


derivative of 


dim in. 


diminutive 


fem. 


feminine 


gonit- 


genitive 


imper. 


imperative 


impf. 




indie 


indicative 


iiifin. 


infinitive 


masc. 




nnmin. 


nominative 


partic. 


participle 


|*rf. 


perfect 


[ilur. 


plural 


prep. 


preposition 


pres. 


present 


pron. 


pronoun 


sc. 


scilicet, supply 


sing. 


singular 


sutet 


substantive 


v.>tat. 


vocative 


Ang!<^Pr. 


Anglo-French 


Arab. 


Arabic 


AvcsL 


Avestan 



Dan. 


Danish 


Kng. 


English 


Fr. 


French 


Germ. 


German 


Goth. 


Gothic 


Qr. 


Greek 


Heb. 


Bobrcw 


Ici-1. 


Icelandic 


Ital. 


Italian 


Lat. 


Latin 


Litb. 




Medi»v. Lat. 


Me-liieval Latin 


Mod. Lat. 


Modem Ijatin 


M. Eng. 


Middle English 


M. H. Germ. 


Middle High German 


0. Bulg. 


Old BulgarJHn (= Church Slavonic) 


0. Eng. 


Old English {= Anglo-Saxon) 


0. Fr. 


Old Frcn.h 


0. Pria. 


Old Frisian 


0. B. Germ. 


Old High German 


O.N. 


Old Norse 


0. Sax. 


Old Saion 


Pers. 


Persian 


Portug. 


Portuguese 


Prov. 


Provencal 


Sanskr. 


Sanskrit 


Se. 


Scotch 


Span. 


Spanish 


Swed. 


Swedish 


Teuton. 


Teutonic 



KEY TO THE PRONUNCIATION. 



aa as a in fcUher, and in the second syllable of 

arfnada, 

A same, but less prolonged, as in the initial syllable 

of armada, Arditiy etc. 

a as final a in armada, peninsula, etc 

ft as a in fcU, and % in French fin, 

ay or ft. . as ay in Hay, or as a in fate, 

tHyor a., same, bat less prolonged. 

S as a in welfare, 

aw as a in fail, ail, 

ee as in meet, or as • in machine, 

e& same, but less prolonged, as final • in Arditi, 

e as in men, pet, 

e obscure e, as in Bigelotc, and final e in Heine, 

e as in h^, and eu in French -eur, 

i as in »7, sin, 

i as in five, swine, 

I same, but less prolonged. 

o as in mole, sober, 

same, but less prolonged, as in sobriety, 

o as in on, not, pot, 

oo as in fool, or as u in nUe, 

6b as in book, or as u in put, pull, 

oi as in noise, and oy in boy, or as eu in Gbrman 

Beust. 

ow as in now, and as au in German Jumus, 



6 as in Odthe, and as eu in French neuf, Chintreuil. 

ii as in but, hub, 

a obscure o, as final o in Compton, 

fi as in German sM, and as u in French Buzan- 

pais, vu, 

J or I,,., see / or y. 

yu as i« in mule, 

yu same, but less prolonged, as in singular, 

eh as in German ich, 

g as in get, give (never as in gist, congest). 

hw as wh in which, 

kYi as e^ in German nacht, g in German tag, eh in 

Scotch loch, undj in Spanish Badajos, etc. 

n nasal n, as in French fi/n, Bourbon, and nasal m, 

as in French nom, Portuguese Sam, 

S or n-y. . Spanish H, as in cafUm, pifton, French and 
Italian gn, etc., as in Boulogne, 

Z or y. . . . French /, liquid or mouill^, as (-1)11- in French 
BaudrUlart, and (-«)/ in Chintreuil, 

th as in thin, 

th as in though, them, mother, 

V as 10 in German zwei, and b in Spanish Cordoba, 

sh as in shine, 

zh as s in pleasure, andy in French /our. 

All other letters are used with their ordinary English 
values. 



NOTE. 

The values of most of the signs used in the above Key are plainly shown by the examples given. But those of 
5, fi, eh, kli, fi, and v, which have no equivalents in English, can not be sufficiently indicated without a brief explanation, 
which is here given. 

5. The sound represented by this symbol is approximately that of -u- in hurt or -e- in her, but is materially different 
from either. It is properly pronounced with the tongue in the position it has when & is uttered and with the lips in 
the position assumed in uttering 5. 

11. This vowel is produced with the lips rounded as in uttering oo and with the tongue in the position required in utter- 
ing ee, into which sound it is most naturally corrupted. 

rh and kh. These are both rough breathings or spirants made with considerable force, eh being made between the flat 
of the tongue and the hard palate, and k\i between the tongue and the soft palate, eh approaches in sound to Eng- 
lish sh, but is less sibilant and is made further back in the mouth ; A:h is a guttural and has a hawking sound. 

/ or y. These are both used to represent the sound of French 1 mouille, in (-i)ll- and (-i)l, which resembles English -y- 
in laufyer. Final /, that is, (-i)l, may be approximated by starting to pronounce lawyer and stopping abruptly with 
the -y-. 

ft or n-y. The consonants represented by fi (Spanish ft, French and Italian gn, etc.) are practically equivalent to English 
-ni- or -ny- in bunion, bunyon, onion, etc., and, except when final, are represented by n-y. Final fi, as French -gn(e), 
may be produced by omitting the sound of -on in the pronunciation of onion, 

V, This may be pronounced by attempting to utter English v with the Mse of the lips alone. 
See Preface (vol. L, p. xxiv.) and the article Pronunciation of Foreign Names. 



JOHNSON'S 
UNIVEESAL CYCLOPEDIA. 




diet [from Lat. edic'tum^ proclamation ; e, 
fortn + di'cere^ speak]: a public decree 
or proclamation issued by a soverei^ or 
other potentate ; an instrument sij^ed 
and sealed as a law. In ancient Rome 
the power of making edicts was princi- 
pally exercised by the prcetor urbanus and 
the prcBtor peregrinus, who on entering 
office published rules for regulating the practice of their 
courts, etc. The edicts of a praetor were not binding on his 
MKoes^ior, but if confirmed oy the latter they were called 
tdicia Vetera (old edicts), as distinguished from the edicta 
nova (new edicts) framed by himself. A digest of the best 
(ieii^ions of the praetors was made under the Emperor Ha- 
'irian by Sylvius Julianus. It was called Edictum Perpetii- 
um, and made the invariable standard of civil jurisprudence. 

Fldict of Nantes: one of the most famous edicts of his- 
tory ; issued by Henry IV. of France, Apr. 13, 1598, to se- 
cure to the Protestants a legal existence within the French 
monarchy. They obtained permission to celebrate sen-ice 
wlierever they already had formed communities, and to es- 
tjir)lish new churches wherever they cliose, with the excep- 
Tion of Paris and the royal residences. They were also per- 
niirtt'd to found universities or theological seminaries, and 
Tlie s<"hools of Montpelier, Montauban, Saumur, and Sedan 
^>on became prominent centers of learning. Nor should 
their faith be any impediment to their promotion to any 
4'ivil or military office, etc. The restrictions imposed upon 
Mi»*m were few and lenient. Though the act was solemnly 
on tinned by Mary of Medici, regent after the assassination 
of Henry IV., by Louis XIII., and even by Louis XIV., it 
wii> never fully carried out. The Huguenots were always 
more or less exposed to vexations, especially after the fall 
of La Koehelle in 1628, when they lost nearly all political 
ini f>rirtance. Nevertheless, it was not until the latter part 
of the seventeenth century, under the reign of Louis XlV., 
tiiat the vexations assumed the character of open perse- 
cution. The Edict of Nantes was revoked by Louis XIV. 
Uit. 17, 1685, and its revocation led to a renewal of the 
hilotxly scenes which before the issuing of this edict had 
l».f»n enacted among the Huguenots. The depopulation 
« aiised by the sword was also increased by emigration. 
The Huguenots were very generally skilled artieuns, and 
ahout half a million of her most useful and industrious sub- 
lert.s deserted France, and exported, together with immense 
^miis of monev, those arts and manufactures which had 
.'arj^^ely tended to enrich the kingdom. About 50,000 refu- 
^'^•t.s passed over into England, and many more into Ger- 
jiiuny and America. The Huguenot refugees became very 
ui) j.x:)rtant elements in the industrial development of Ger- 
rruiiiy, Holland, England, and the U. S. 

Revised bv C. K. Adams. 

Fdi'na: town (founded in 1839); capital of Knox co., 
M'». (for location of county, see map of Missouri, ref. l-II) ; 
-ituated on railway, 47 miles N. W. of Quincy, 111. It has 
^\ 'hurehes, a fine public school, a convent school, 2 carriage 
;i:nl wagon factories, a flouring-mill, a creamerv, water- 
A.^rks and electric lights. Pop. (1880) 1,156; (18i)0) 1,456; 
,ivj:i) estimated, 1,500 

EorroR of " Knox County Democrat." 
118 



Edinboro : borough ; Erie co.. Pa. (for location of county, 
see map of Pennsylvania, ref. 1-A) ; 18 miles S. of Erie. It 
is the seat of the Northwestern State Normal School, and 
has manufacturer of lumber, pumps, sash and blinds. Pop. 
(1880) 876 ; (1890) 1,107. 

Edinbargr : town ; on railway ; Johnson co., Ind. (for lo- 
cation of county, see map of Indiana, ref. 7-E) ; situated on 
the Blue river, 80 miles S. S. E. of Indianapolis. It has 5 
churches, a hiffh school, 2 public schools, good water-power, 
a cereal-mill, nouring-mills, starch-works, ice-plant, foundry 
and machine shops, cabinet-factx)rv, carriage and wagon 
factory, and water-works. Pop. (1880) 1,814 ; (1890) 2,031 ; 
(1893) estimated, 2.500. Editor of " Courier." 

Edinburgh, ed'in-biir-ru [said to be a corruption of Ed- 
win's burgh, the castle having been built bv Edwin, King of 
Northumbria (61^-633)] : capital of Scotland and of Edin- 
burghshire or Midlothian; picturesquely situated about a 
mile S. of the Firth of Forth ; 399 miles ^. N. W. of London; 
lat. 55'^ 57' N., Ion. 3° 12' W. (see map of Scotland, ref. 11-H). 
It is divided into the Old and New Town, the former of whicn 
occupies the middle and highest of three ridges extending 
east and west. The Old Town is separated by a narrow hol- 
low or ravine from the New Town, which is built on a 
broa<ler ridge with more gently sloping sides. Edinburgh 
is remarkable for the elegance and solidity of its buildings, 
which are all of stone. The adjacent country is pleasantly 
diversified with hills and plains. On the southeastern bor- 
der of the city a hill called Arthur's Seat rises to the height 
of 822 feet. 

The principal street of the Old Town is that which ex- 
tends along tne crest of the ridge, bearing in different parts 
the names of Canongate, High Street, Lawn Market, and 
Castle Hill. It is more than a mile long, and rises with a 
regular but rather steep acclivity from the palace of Holy- 
rood, which is at its eastern end, to the huge rock on which 
stands Edinburgh Castle, 443 feet above the level of the sea. 
This street is lined with lofty and antique residences, many 
of which have seven or more stories. The houses of the 
New Town are built of a fine white freestone quarried in 
the vicinity, and are remarkably handsome. Here are three 
parallel avenues called Queen Street, George Street, and 
rrinces Street, the last of which extends along the south 
side of the New Town, close to the hollow which separates 
it from the Old. Princes Street is the most agreeable prom- 
enade in the city, and, as it is lined with houses only along 
its northern side, it commands a fine view of the Old Town 
with its lordly castle and of the intervening valley adorned 
with public gardens. At the eastern end of this street is a 
rocky eminence called Calton Hill, the broad verdant sum- 
mit of which commands a beautiful view of the Firth of 
Forth, here about 6 miles wide Arthur's Hill and another 
high hill called Salisbury Crags afford prospects of almost 
unrivaled beauty and map:nificence. 

The most remarkable public edifices and monuments are 
the ciistle, which is a large fortress canable of accommodat- 
ing 2,(K)0 men, and is one of the oldest stmctures in the 
city; the royal palace of llolyrood, or Holyrood House, the 
oldest part of which was built about 1528 : this palace is 
quadrangular in form, with a central court 94 feet square, 
and is famous as the residence of Mary Queen of Scots ; the 

U) 



EDINBURGH 



EDISON 



cathedral of St. Giles, a large and ancient edifice of un- 
known date, in the lat«r Gothic style; Victoria Hall, or 
Assembly Hall, a magnificent structure, which stands at the 
head of High Street, has a spire 241 feet high, and is the 
place where the General Assembly of the Church of Scot- 
land annually meets; the Parliament House, now a hall 
connected with the courts of law ; and the admirable monu- 
ment erected to Sir Walter Scott, which stands on Princes 
Street, is 200 feet high, and is unequaled among the monu- 
ments of this metropolis for artistic beauty. Among the 
other objects of interest are the old Tron church, the Free 
St. George's church, the Free High church, the university 
building, the observatory, the National Gallery of Art, the 
Royal Institution, a beautiful Grecian edifice containing 
the apartments of the Royal Society, a chapel belonging to 
the ruined abbey of Holyrood, founded by David I. about 
1128, the theater, ^nd the' National Monument (an uncom- 
pleted imitation of the Parthenon) on Calton Hill. 

Edinburgh contains over one hundred churches and 
chapels belonging to various denominations — the Free 
Church, Church 01 Scotland, United Presbyterian, Presbyte- 
rian, Episcopal, Baptist, Congregational, Roman Catholic, 
Methodist, Evangelical, Unitarian, etc. It is the seat of a 
bishop of the Episcopal Church and of a Roman Catholic 
vicar-apostolic. It has numerous large and richl^r endowed 
hospitals and charitable institutions, among which is Heriot*s 
Hospital, founded for the education and maintenance of 
poor boys. This city is important as a center of learning, 
and is distinguished for the number and excellence of its 
literary, scientific, and educational institutions. The aristoc- 
racy, the literati, and professional men form an unusually 
largo proportion of its population, which is extensively 
engaged in the business of printing and publishing books. 
EkSnburgh is the head(^uarters of the book-trade in Scotland, 
and as a literary mart is second only to London among the 
British cities. Here is the celebrated University op Edin- 
burgh {q. v.). The other chief educational institutions are 
the High School, which occupies a handsome Doric edifice 
270 feet long, the New College, or Theological Seminary of 
the Free Church, the Royal College of Surgeons, the medi- 
cal school, the Royal Acatlemy of Fine Arts, and the Royal 
Society. The Advocates' Library has the largest and most 
valuable collection of books in Scotland — 300,000 volumes ; 
that of the Writers to the Signet nearly 90,000 volumes. 
There is also a free public library. 

Edinbui'gh is the seat of the supreme courts of Scotland, 
the principal of which is the court of session, composed of 
thirteen judges. This court tries all civil causes, and de- 
cides not only on the law of the case but also in questions of 
equity. This city returns four members to Parliament. By 
virtue of ancient charters and modem acts of Parliament it 
is a royal burgh, governed by a town council elected by 
popular vote, and by a lord f)rovost, who is elected by this 
town council. It is the terminus of the North British, the 
Edinburgh and Glasgow, and the Caledonian railways. This 
city has two ports on the Firth of Forth — Leith and Gran ton. 
Pop. (1881) 228,190; (1891) 261,261. 

History, — Edinburgh was recognized as a burgh by David 
I. in 1128, and a Parliament was held here in 1215. David 
I., who before his ascension to the throne of Scotland had 
been Earl of Huntingdon, and was well acquainted with the 
military and ecclesiastical architecture of the Anglo- Nor- 
man kings, built the abbey of Holyrood, which often re- 
ceived the Scottish court as guests. Edinburgh became the 
capital of Scotland about 1456, when its castle was selected 
as the only place of safety for the royal household and the 
Parliament. It was inclosed by walls in the fifteenth 
century, and for a long ixTiod was confined to the central 
ridge. The hollow between this and the northern ridge was 
filled with water, culled the North Loch. The New Town 
origiimted aUmt 176o, when a bridge was erected across that 
loch to connect the Old Town with the New. Here occurred 
in Mav, 1S4^J, tlie disruption of the Established Church, 
from the General As>euil>ly of which 203 members seceded 
and organizetl the Free Church. 

Edinbnrgh, Alfred Ernest Albert, Duke of: second 
sf)n of Victoria, Queen of Great Britain : b. at Windsor 
Ctistle, Aug. 6, 1K44. He was educateil chiefly by private 
tutors. lie entered the Briti-^h navy in 18.>8, and served 
chiefly on fon*ign stations. In 1862 he was offered the 
crown of Greece, but declined it. In 1866 he took a seat 
in the House of Peers by his present title. In 1867 he set 
sail in command of the frigate Gtilatea, visiting Australia, 



Japan, China, India, etc. At a picnic at Clontarf, New 
South Wales, Mar. 12, 1868, he was slightly wounded by a 
pistol-shot fired by a Fenian named OTarrell, who was soon 
afterward executed. On Jan. 28, 1874, he married the 
Grand Duchess Marie, only daughter of Alexander II. of 
Bussiik In Nov., 1882, he was promoted to the ruik of vice- 
admiral, and in 1886 was appointed admind in command of 
the Mediterranean squadron. The full title of this prince is 
" his Royal Highness Prince Alfred Ernest Albert, Duke of 
Edinburgh, Earl of Kent, and Earl of Ulster, K. G., K. P.** 
He is also a Duke of Saxony, and became reigning Duke of 
Saxe-Coburg-Gotha Aug. 22, 1893. 

Edinburgh Review: a celebrated critical ma^zine 
founded at Edinburc^ in 1802, the oldest of the great British 
quarterly reviews. Francis Jeffrey, Svdney Smith, Henry 
Brougham, and Francis Homer were tne founders and first 
contributors of this review, which was a strenuous advocate 
of Whig principles. Sydney Smith edited the first numl>er, 
of whicn750 copies were printed. Mr. Constable was the 
original publisher. Lord Jeffrey became its ^itor in 1803, 
and conducted it with great ability and success for twenty- 
six years. The brilliant wit, the critical keenness, the eU>- 
quent style, and the extensive knowled^ displaved by the 
contributors produced a great sensation in the literary 
world. Its circulation had risen to 9,000 in 1808. and 12,000 
or more in 1813. Among the eminent men who contributiii 
largely to it were Macamay, Carlyle, Lord Brougham, Sir J. 
Mackintosh, and Henry Rogers. Macvey Napier succee<U-<i 
Lord Jeffrey as editor in 1829. The price paid to contribu- 
tors was at first ten guineas a sheet, but it was soon raised ti * 
sixteen guineas. It is now published in London. 

Edinburghshire, or Hidlothian: a countv in the south- 
east part of Scotland ; area, 363 sq. miles. It is bounded 
N. by the Firth of Forth. The surface is diversifie<l >»y 
plains and high ridges, among which are theMoorfoot Hi IN 
and the Pentland Hills, composed of porphyry. The high- 
est point of the Pentland Hills rises 1,839 feet. The nn ks 
of tnis county belong mostly to the Carboniferous and Silu- 
rian formations. Valuable coal mines are worked in th»- 
valley of the Esk. The soil is .generally fertile and well 
cultivated. Near the metropolis, Edinburgh, are many 
nurseries, dairy pastures, and vegetable gardens. The coun- 
ty is traversed by five great railways. Pop. (1881) 389,164 : 
(1891) 444,055. 

Edinburgh, Uniyersity of: an institution of leamin-: 
in Edinburgh, Scotland. It was founded in 1582 by a 
charter granted by James VI., of Scotland, and in 16:^l'tht 
Scottish Parliament granted to it all the privileges enjoytil 
by other universities in the kingdom. This grant was c^.n- 
flrmed in the treaty of union between England and Scct- 
land, and again in the act of security. The constituti>»ii 
was, however, modified by the act (1858) relating to th< 
Scottish universities, and the University of Edinburgh ^^♦'- 
came a corporation consisting of a chancellor, rector, prin- 
cipal, professors, registered students, alumni, and matricu- 
lated student.s. More than 3,000 students matriculate each 
year. The essential (qualification for graduation at Thi> 
as at other Scottish universities is attendance at certain ^- 
ries of lectures or classes. The course for the arts decre** 
extends over four winter sessions, each lasting from t he Ik*- 
ginning of November till about the middle of April ; and t h*- 
degree of M. A. is conferred on all who have completed th»ir 
course and passed the ordinary examinations in Latin anl 
Greek, mathematics and natural philosophy, logic and nuJ- 
aphysics, moral philosophy, rhetoric, and English literatun-. 
The university comprises the faculties of arts, laws, medicmr. 
divinity, and science. The buildings were for many years wr} 
deficient in the necessary accommodation, but much ha^^ Uiii 
done in the way of improvement. The library coniaii.^ 
nearly 140,000 volumes and 700 MSS., and there is alx» a 
theological library of 10,000 volumes. The chancellor i^ 
(181)8) the Rt. Hon. Arthur J. Balfour, the ConservH»i\»' 
leader. The universities of Edinburgh and of St, Andnvr% 
together have one representative in Parliament. See Sir A. 
Grant, The Story of the Unit'ersity of Edinburgh (2 vi.U.. 
London, 1883). Revised by C. H. Thi'ebfr. 

Edison, Thomas Alva, Ph.D.: inventor; b. at Milan, ()., 

Feb. 11, 1847 ; taught to read by his mother, a Scotch wo in.iu 
of some intellectual attainments; began life as a train-U>\ 
on the (Jrand Tnink Railway running into Detroit. And-i- 
tious, energetic, eager for knowledge, he devoted every >\^\r\: 
moment to study. Securing a press, he learned print in,. 
and before long was editing and printing The Orarui Tru,.\ 



EDUCATION 



experiments under all conceivable conditions. The earliest 
pnase was doubtless the practiecU, as when a father taught 
nis son how to construct the rude instruments needed for 
fining food. Education soon became prudential^ consist- 
mg of maxims or proverbs embodying the net results of 
human experience concerning good conduct. Another early 
phase was the religious, inculcating man's duties to unseen 
powers. Physical education and education for the contem- 
piative life were products of Greek thought. The Jews 
developed a system of indiiatricU education, while the Phce- 
nicians, a trading people, devoted more attention to corn- 
mercial training. Education for the civil service has been 
typicid of China for ages. In modem times manual train- 
ing has become one of the forms of industrial education; 
and moral training, which now receives so much emphasis, 
finds its type in the religious education of the Jews. 

Types of Education, — All the phases of education that 
have been developed through the experience and thought of 
the race may be reduced to two main types — the culture 
or humane type and the industrial or professional type. 
Starting from the conception that the man is superior to 
the instrument, and that the quality of the instrument de- 
pends on the quality of the man, thinkers in all ages have 
devised schemes of education aiming at the perfection of 
human nature. The religious and ethical systems of edu- 
cation in vogue among ancient peoples were based on the 
permanent and universal needs of man, and not on his inci- 
dental needs as a workman or instrument. The culture 
tvpe of education took permanent shape in Greece, and 
Plato's Republic is an exposition of a course of training be- 
fitting the ideal man, for only out of such a man could the 
ideal citizen be produced. Indeed, the serenity, harmony, 
and poise of the Greek ideal presuppose an almost entire 
exemption from industrial pursuits, and seem adapted to 
beings leading a purely contemplative life. In order that 
arithmetic may serve its highest purpose, Plato expressly 
states that it must not be taught for commercial purposes, 
as to shopkeepers and merchants. This type of education 
has persisted through the ages, and has a clearly marked 
place in the schools of to-day. The classics, tne belles- 
lettres, history, music, and art are humane studies, and the 
general pursuit of the sciences is best defended on the 
ground of their culture value — they interpret nature for 
purposes of contemplation. 

Roman education was as distinctively practical or pro- 
fessional as the Greek was humane ; it provided for a select 
few a career in the army or in the forum. All schemes for 
industrial, commercial, or professional education belong to 
this type; they regard man chiefly as an instrument, and 
their direct purpose is the narrow one fitting him to earn a 
livelihood. This may be called the popular type of educa- 
tion, for among the people at large the notion is thoroughly 
ingrained that the chief end of school training is to fit the 
young for "getting on in the world." Alexander Bain 
speaks of the difficulty of reconciling the whole man with 
himself, that is, of bnnging the instrument into harmony 
with the man, and this is doubtless the most difficult prob- 
lem of modern education. The ideal is to make all eauca- 
tion, high and low. of the culture or lilK?ral tyj)e, and at the 
same time to guard the child's interests as a wage-earner ; 
but this ideal is hard to realize. 

The Patrons of Education, — The earliest education was 
domestic, and the best type of this home-school existed 
among the ancient Jews, where the father was the teacher 
and the law of Moses the text. Later, through that differ- 
entiution of function which is common to all peoples ad- 
vancing toward civilization, the teaching otfice was rele- 
gated by the family to the Church, and for centuries the 
Church was tiie patron of the school, as it continues to be in 
some countries at the present day. But education gradu- 
ally became secularized, especially in three ways: subjects 
not essentially religious, as history and science, have been 
given a i)hu*o in the education of the young ; laymen have 
bi^n a<lmitteil to the teaching office; and the state has 
gradually displaced the Church in the patronage of the 
sch(M)l. In all the i)r«>gressive nations of modem times ed- 
ucation hiis become to a greater or less degree a function of 
the state. The secularizaticm of the school is most com- 
plete in France, where ecclesiastics are excluded by law 
from teaching ; but in all other countries in which education 
is »wl ministered by the state the Church is not molested in 
her right to maintain panx'hial schools. The modern state 
has become a public educator on the ground of self-preser- 
vation, holding that ignorance is a menace to the naticmal 



life, and therefore claiming the right to diffuse enlighten- 
ment among its citizens. The secularization of the scho«:>l 
is the logicS outcome of the rising democratic spirit which 
characterizes modern nations. An ignorant and degradtnl 
people may be governed, but only an enlightened and virtu- 
ous people is capable of self-government. This modem doc- 
trine of education by the state was embodied by Plato in his 
Republic, where it is followed out to the extreme of giving 
the state complete ownership of children, and even sanction- 
ing the destruction of the sickly. 

The Old and the New, — Essential changes in modes of 
human thought have always been followed by corresponding 
changes in education; and a new philosophy which pro- 
founaly affects the religious nature necessarily g^ves rise to 
a new education. As the Reformation wrought a radical 
change in men's religious philosophy and practice, there is 
eminent propriety in speaking of tne ^neral system of edu- 
cation in vogue before the Reformation as the Old, and of 
the system that had its rise at that period as the New. 
There was not an abrupt cessation of the old order of thini:>. 
for what was essentially good and true necessarily pass^-ii 
into the new order of things. The old education was basini 
essentially on authority; the child was mainly a passive 
recipient, and his warrant for believing the truth of what 
he was taught was the authority of the lKK)k or of the mar«ter. 
The one great principle of learning was to believe and take 
for granted, to assume the accuracy of authorized statement > 
without asking questions and without mental unrest. It is 
not difficult to see how such a conception of teaching and 
learning resulted from a system of education based on a re- 
ligion in which dogma played a very large part. Again, 
the older system of education was addressed almost entinlv 
to the memory, and learning was but little more than niern- 
orizing a text or a formula verbatim. In this particular 
the infiuence of religious training is also manifest. Not 
only was the thought or content of a text held sacred, but 
so also was the form of words in which it was emlxxlit'ti ; 
and the effectual way to lodge the truth in the soul whs to 
loflge the verbal expression of it in the memory. 

The later system of education embodies a reaction against 
the abuses of authority and memory. It appeals to free in- 
quiry, and involves the exercise of the learner's own powers 
of thought and discovery. A thing is true, not beeaiiM- 
some one has declared it to be true, but because it has the 
sanction of one's own reason and experience. The motlem 
teacher therefore addresses the pupil's powers of observa- 
tion, reflection, and reason, rather than his memory ; and 
learning becomes a process of discovery rather than a serv- 
ile following of authority. The product of the teacher's art 
is not to be a disciple, docile and reverent, but an independ- 
ent thinker, capable of reaching his own conclusions. The 
older system erred by exaggerating the importance of au- 
thority and memory, but the reaction of the modem systiin 
threatens to involve education in errors of equal gravity. 
A distrust of authority is as absurd as a distmst of reason : 
and education can no more dispense with memory than it 
can with observation and free inquiry. The ideal system f»f 
education is to be found in maintaining the just equilibrium 
between the old and the new tendencies. 

Universality. — Generally speaking, ancient education af- 
fected only a select number of minds, while the masses of 
the people* were left uninstracted and unenlightened. His- 
torically, universities preceded common schools. The Ref- 
ormation made the education of the common people a neet'>- 
sity, but it was left to the genius of Comenius to devi^^ a 
system of graded instruction which has made possible the 
downward diffusion of culture. The greatest achievem«'n! 
of modem education is the gradation and correlation of 
schools, whereby the ladder of learning is let down fmni 
the university to secondary schools, and from the^ to tiu 
schools of the people. 

The aim of modern education, as administered by the 
state, is universality, though the organization for effect in i: 
it from above downward is partial and incomplete. Even 
with the conception of Comenius generally embodied in m 
working organization, as it is in Germany and in some <»f 
the U. S., two subsidiarv measures are stiU necessary* in or- 
der to make education universal : free schools should K- 
provided, and school attendance should be made compul- 
sory ; without the first the second will often work hanlsiiip. 
In the U. S. the public schools are free, but in some Mic- 
tions illiteracy exists to an alarming extent. In scnne of 
the States there has been a resort to compulsion, but ir. 
most cases the laws on this subject are only putiiUly effect- 



EDWARD 



EDWARDS 



matrimonial alliance between Mary Stuart and Edward VI. 
He defeated the Scots at Pinkie in 1547. Somerset's enemy, 
John Dudley, Earl of Warwick, obtained the ascendency in 
1550, and caused him to be executed. Dudley persuaded 
the young king to exclude the princesses Mary and Eliza- 
beth from the throne, and to appoint Lady Jane Grev as his 
successor. Edward died July 6, 1553. See Sharon Turner, 
Hiatary of the Reigns of £dward V7., Mary, and Eliza- 
beth (1829) ; Froude, History of Engkmd. 

Edward: Prince of Wales, called the Black Prince 

(from the color of his armor) ; b. June 15, 1330 ; the eldest 
son of Edward III. of England and Philippa ; was created 
Duke of Cornwall in 1337 and Prince of Wales in 1343. He 
commanded a nart of his father's army at the battle of 
Crecy (1346), ana then adopted the crest of ostrich feathers 
and the motto Ich dien (I serve), which crest and motto 
had been borne by John, King of Bohemia, who was slain 
at that battle. Ever since, it has been borne by the Princes 
of Wales. In 1355 Edward commanded the princif>al of 
the three armies raised by the English for the invasion of 
France. Landing at Bordeaux he took the city, and in 1356 
gained a brilliant victory over the French at Poitiers, where 
he took their king. John, a prisoner. In 1361 he married 
his cousin Joanna, a daughter of the Earl of Kent, and re- 
ceived from his father the title of Prince of Aquitaine. In 
his new possessions he lived for a long time a quiet life, 
until drawn into Spanish politics. He defeated Henri de 
Transtamare in battle, and in 1367 restored Henri's rival, 
Peter the Cruel, to the throne of Castile. The heavy taxes 
caused by the Spanish campaign brought about rebellion in 
Aquitaine, and Limoges fell into the hands of the French 
by treason. Edward retook it and ordered every living being 
in the city to be killed, closing his military career with this 
act of unparalleled cru^y. He shortly after returned to 
England, utterly broken in health. D. June 8, 1376, leaving 
a son, who became king as Richard II. The Black Prince 
was a splendid example of the virtues and vices fostered by 
the spirit of chivalry. See Creighton, Edward the Black 
Prince (London, 1869). 

Edwards, Amelia Blandford, L. H. D., LL. D. : novelist 
and Egyptologist ; b. in London in 1831. Among her novels 
are My Brother's Wife (1855) ; Barbara's History (1864) ; 
and In the Days of My Youth (1872). In her later years 
she devoted her attention mainly to Egyptology and Egyp- 
tian exploration, and was the chief promoter of the Egyp- 
tian Exploration Fund. She published A Thousand Mites 
up the Nile (1877) and Pharaohs^ Fellahs, and Explorers 
(1892) ; translated Maspero's Egyptian Arch(eology (1887) ; 
contributed articles on Egyptology to the Encyclopcedia 
Britannica; and was secretary of the Egypt Exploration 
Fund and a member of various other learned societies. D. 
Apr. 16, 1892. H. A. Beers. 

Edwards, Arthur : journalist ; b. in Ohio in Nov., 1834 ; 
graduated at Ohio Wesleyan University in 1858; entered 
the Methodist ministry in the Detroit conference in 1858 ; 
during the civil war was chaplain in the army for two years 
and a half, and served for some years as assistant editor of 
the Northwestern Christian Advocate, the official organ of 
his denomination in that part of the country. In 1872 he 
became editor-in-chief. 

Edwards, Bryan: English West Indian merchant and 
historian ; b. at Westbury, Wiltshire, May 21, 1743. In 
1760 he went to live with his uncle, a merchant in Jamaica, 
who gave him the means of completing his education and 
ultimately took him into partnersnip. On his uncle's death 
he fell heir to the business. In 1791 he visited the revolted 
districts of Santo Domingo, and in 1792 he returned finally 
to England, where he settled at Southampton and open«l a 
bank. He was elected to Parliament in 1796, and in that 
position opposed the abolition of the slave-tratle. Mr. Ed- 
wards is list known for his History of the British Colonies 
in the WeM TndieJt (1793-94 ; new edition, with tulditions, 5 
vols., 1819) and his Historical Survey of St. Domingo (1797; 
generallv appended to later editions of the History). Both 
are works oi great value. As secretary of the Association 
for Promoting Disco verv in the Interior of Africa, he wrote 
for the s<xjiety's Proceedings an abstract of Mungo Park's 
travels, and he also published various political and eco- 
nomical tracts and a volume of poems. D. at Southamp- 
ton, July 15, 1800. Herbert H. Smith. 

Edwards, Bela Bates, D. D. : theologian; b. in South- 
ampton, Mass., July 4, 1802 ; graduated at Amherst College 



in 1824, and at Andover Theological Seminary 1830. In 
1833 he founded the American Quarterly Observer, He l)e- 
came editor of the Biblical Repository in 1835; Professor 
of Hebrew at Andover in 1837 ; and editor of the Bihlit^ 
theca Sacra in 1844. In 1848 he became Professor of Bibli- 
cal Literature at Andover Seminary. He was equally dis- 
tinguished for the exactness of his scholarship and for the 
modesty and beauty of his character. He published a Lifr 
of Elias Cornelius (1842), a work on the Epistle to the 
(ralatians, and other works. Two volumes of nis sermons, 
addresses, etc., with a memoir of his life by Prof. Edwanls 
A. Park, were published in Boston in 1853. D. at Athens, 
Ga., Apr. 20, 1852. 

Edwards, Henri Milne : See Milne-Edwards. 

Edwards, James T., D. D., LL. D. : minister of the M. E. 
Church; b. at Barnegat, N. J., Jan. 6, 1838; educated at 
Pennington Seminary and WesleyaQ University 1860 ; prin- 
cipal of East Greenwich Seminary 1864-70, during which 
time he served three terms in the Rhode Island Senate; 
president Chamberlin Institute, Randolph, N. Y., 1870-92 ; 
elected to the New York State Senate as an Independent 
1891 ; elected principal of McDonogh School, Baltimore, 
1893 ; author of The Grass Family (1877) ; The Voi<^ Tree 
(1883) ; The Silva of Chautauqua Lake (1892). C. H. T. 

Edwards, Jonathan: divine and metaphysician; b. at 
East Windsor, Conn., Oct. 5, 1708; son of Timothy E<1- 
wards, a man of uncommon learning for those times, who 
was minister at East Windsor. His mother, a woman of 
superior intellect and attainments, was a daughter of Rev. 
Solomon Stoddard, of Northampton, Mass. Jonathan is 
said to have begun the study of Latin when only six years 
old. When he was ten years of age he compost an essay 
in which he ridiculed the idea, which some one had reeently 
put forth, of the materiality of the human soul. In 1716 he 
entered Yale College, and graduated in 1720. Strong reli- 
gious impressions appear to have been made on his mind in 
early childhood, but ne dated his *' conversion " from about 
his seventeenth year, after which all nature seemed changi?<l 
in his view, everything revealing to his purified understand- 
ing the wisdom, glory, and love of God. In 1723 he took at 
Yale the degree of master of arts. He was tutor at Yale 
1724-26. In the early part of 1727 he was settled as f^astor 
of the church at Northampton, Mass. He was soon after mar- 
ried to Sarah Pierrepont, the dau^ter of Rev. James Pierre- 
pont, of New Haven, who resembled him in the sweetness 
and purity of her spirit, in the elevation of her character, 
and m her entire devotion to duty. After many years of 
comparative peace and happiness a difficulty arose in his 
congregation which put his firmness and conscientiousness 
to a severe test. It had become a custom in the church to 
admit to the communion-table all who profe^ed with the 
congregation, without any inquiry as to whether they ha«l 
been tnily converted, or whetner their spirit and life' were 
consistent with their external profession. Jonathan Ed- 
wards was opposed to " the half-way covenant," as it was 
called. But nis attempted reform caused great dissatisfac- 
tion, and he was at length driven forth from his congrega- 
tion, June 22, 1750, not knowing whither to go and without 
any means of support for his family. In 1751 he became 
missionary at Stockbridge, among the Housatonic Indians, 
and pastor of the white church there. About this time he 
wrote out his celebrated treatise on the Freedom of thr 
Will, the plan of which had been matured, it is said, while 
he was still a student at college. In 1757 he was appointed 

President of Princeton College in New Jersey, where ne died 
[ar. 22, 1758. 

Among his various writings are a Treatise concerning the 
Religious Affections (1746), and An Inquiry into the Quali- 
fications for Full Communion in the Church (1749); his 
great work. An Inquiry into the Modem Prevailing No- 
tions Respecting that Freedom of the Will which is Sup- 
posed to oe Essential to Moral Agency (1754) ; The Great 
Christian Doctrine of Original Sin Defended (1757): and 
The History of Redemption. His works were published at 
Worcester, Mass., in 1809, in eight volumes ; and again, in- 
cluding much new material, in New York, 1830, in ten vol- 
umes. A work of his, entitled Charity and its Fruits, was? 
published in 1852 for the first time. See his Liff, h\ 
Sereno Edwards Dwight (New York, 1830), Samuel Ho^ 
kins, and in Sparks's American Biography, by Samuel Mu- 
ler, and by A. V. Allen (Boston, 1889). 

Edwards, Jonathan, D. D. : theologian ; son of Jonathan 
Edwards, and commonly known as "the younger Ed- 






Hinlory of England under the Anglo-Saxon King* (trans- 
Uted hy Thorpe. 1845.) 

E^ede, ege-de, Hins: the apnstle ot Greenland; b. at 
Harstad, Norway, Jan 31, 1686. He Iwaine pastor of the 
church at Vaagen in 1707. After lotig enileavors he suc- 
ceeded in interealing the Danish authorities in his project 
(or the conversion of the Esquimaux, aiul in 1721, accom- 

Knieil t)j bis wife, he set out for Greenland, where he ta- 
red for some fifteen years, enduring manv hardships but 
meeting with marked success. The death of his wife (173S) 
and his own failing health compelleil his return to Copen- 
hagen in 1730, but he continued to work for the cause, and 
was appointed superintenitent, or missionary bishop, of 
Greenland in 1740. He wrote an account of liis missiouarj 
labors. Rrtalion angaaende. den grimlandiike Mimiont Be- 
^ndeUe og ForttrrlMse (1738), and a description of the 
island, Del gamle (/ranlandg nge Perlu«iration (1729 ; 2d 
and enlarged e.1. 1741). D. Nov. 5, 1758. (See Rudelbach, 
ChHMiche Biographie, i., 284 ff.)— His son Poul, b. Sept. 
9, 1708. went with his parents to Greenland in 1721, where 
he remained, except for the time necessary for hLs e<lucation 
(1728-34), till 1740, a.^L3ting and Hnally succeedingi his 
father. In 1779 he was appointed missionary bishop of 
Greenland. His publications incluile a valuable Esquimaux 
dictionary (1750) and grammar (1760), an Esquimaux trans- 
lation of the New Testament (1706). and an Aeetyunt of 
Oreenland {Efterrelningen om ffrenland, 1788). 

G. L. KlTTBEDOE. 

Eger: town of Bohemia; situated on the river Eger 
(which enters the Elbe 33 miles N. N. W. of Pr^niel, 93 
miles W. of Prague; at the Junction of six railway tines 
(see map of Austria- Hungary, ref. 3-C). It is built on a 
rock, and was an important fortress. Here are the ruins of 
a citadel or cuttle, fonnerlv the residence of kings and em- 
perors. Eger has 7 churches, a line town-hall, and 2 mon- 
asteries : also manufactures of broadcloth, cotton gtKids, 
chintz, and soan. Wallenstein was assassinated here Feb, 
25, 1034. Near Egerislhe watering-place Franzensbad, with 
five springs. Pop. (1890) 18,658. 

E^'rta: a nymph who. according to the Roman mythol- 
ogy, was one of Ihe Carnenn. and was a prophetic divinity 
from whom Xuma derived religious inspiratirm and direc- 
tions reiipecling the forms of worship. The poets feigned 
that Numa had inten'iews with her in a grove, and that 
when he died she melted away in tears, which became a 
fountain. An asteroid discovered at Naples by De Gasparis 
in Nov., 1850. bears the name of Bgeria. 
Eserton, Prantib Henri; Sec Bbidoewateb. Earl OP. 
Egerton, ejcr-tiln, Francis Leveson Gower, Earl of 
ElK'smere: author and patron of art; b. in Ixradon, Jan. 1, 
1800. He wan the second son of the first I>uke of Suther- 
land, and his original name was Francis licveson Gower, 
but he assumed the name of Eecrioii in 1833. when he in- 
herited the estate of the last Duke of Bridgewater. lie 
enteroil Ihe Hou*e of Commons in 1820. bi'came chief seere- 
tary for Ireland in 1828, and was Secretarv at War tor sev- 
eral months in 1830. He wrote M'viTal bookK, incluilinK a 
poem call.-.! The Camp of Wnllfii^ein. He was created 
Earl of Ellestnere in 1846. D. Feb. 18, 1857. 

Egg [loan-word from Norse egg : O. Eng. trg : Germ. Ei ; 
closely connected if not idenlical with Ijit. drum. Gr. yrfr] : 
the s[>ecialized cell in the female of all animals which is set 
apart for the sexual reprmluclinnof thespi-cies. In its typi- 
cal condition it Is sui'h a i-ell without acce«^>rv portions, but 
usually there are added various envelojies and su)>stances 
for Ihe protection and nourishment of the germ which is 
to fonn laler. In the egic of llie biriis these secondary en- 
vetopi-s, etc.. reach their highest development. Here jhere 
is an outer calcareous sliill piTforaleil by minute holes for 
the [wwHge of air, which later is needeil for respinitiim; 
next within this is a louirh (ilouble) shell ni<-nd<nine, which 
contains the white or albumen. In the while. Mi]>|-nrted by 
B twisted membrane {chalHZii'a) at either end. floats the yolk, 
and on the uii[K-rsirle of the lalter isaciri'ular. liKhters[Hrt. 
the germ. The bulk of the v..|k is nouhshm.Til, an.l is not 
directly, but as ti>od. converted into the cliiik. In fune 
forms ejK,™ are ca|)uble of dcvclopmeni without tcrlili/Jition 
(see PARTUKN-0(HiSE.-is). S.nie e^ifpi. like thiwe (if H.vdm.are 
wiihout envi.'ln|a-s, (ithers,like insects, have bul a sint'le 
outer coat. The lari.i-st known pl'b is llmt of ihc extinct 
-Epyomis of Mwliipi-^Hr. the shell of which has n cai.ncity 
of abi>ut 2 gal., or about »ix limes that of the ostrlcn-egg. 



EGG-PLANT 

Aside from food, birds' eggs find considerable use in the 
arts, as a source of albumen which is used for the prepara- 
tion of photographic paper, etc. Egg albumen differs con* 
siderably chemically frotn that derived frotn blood. See 
Food, EuBRVOLoaT.'and Evolution ; also, for Ihe egg of in- 



Egg, or El^ : an island of Scotland ; 8 miles S. W. of 
Skye. and 12 miles from the west coast of Invemess-shire. 
Length,4i miles. Here are some remarkable cliSi of tnp or 
basalt, and columns of pitchstone nearly 2 feet in diameter. 

^'gSD : a populous town of Africa : in the British Ni^rer 
Territory; on the right bank of the Niger; in laL 8° 42' N. 
and Ion. 6° 20' E. (see map of Africa, ret. 4-C'). It extends 
nearly 3 miles along the river. The dwellings are mostly 
small huts of clay. Narrow cotton cloth is manufactured 
here in large quantities. E^an has an active trade iu com. 
yams, calabashes, dried fish, etc. Pop. 12.000. 

E^-blrt, or Sctoty Tern [Sterna fuliginosa) ■ a bird 1^ 
longmg to the gull family, having the bauk and wings sooty 
black and the under parts white. The wings and tail are 



Hence Ihe 
name. Revised by F. A. L. 

Eg'ger. £iiiLE, Dr. Lit. ; classical scholar; b. of German 
parents in Paris. July 13, 1813 ; received his degree in letters 
in 1833. Held various professorships of ancient languages, 
and was a member of the French Academy and an officer of 
the Legion of Honor. A learned and prolific author. Among 
his best-known works are Mintoires d'Hislotre el de Phi- 
lologie(.\9m): L'ffel{eHiiimeenFranee{2vo]a..ima); Eiuini 
sitr I'lTUtoire de la Critique ehez lea Green (1890); La Lit- 
tfralure (/reeque (1890). D. at Royat, Aug. 31, 1885. 

Alfred Qudenan. 

EgKlMton, EnwABD : novelist and historian; b. inVevar, 
Ind.,Dcc. 10, 1837; joined the Methodist ministry in his 
nineteenth year, and preached during l«n years in Minnesota. 
He began his literary career in 1866 as editor of The LifllK 
Corporal (Kvanston, III.); founded in 1867 the Sunday- 
srhool Teacher (in Chicagft); in 1870 went to New York 
city and became literary editor of 77ie Independent; was 
some time eAltnr ot Hearth and Home. In 1871 appcare<l 
his Jloonier Sehoolmaaler, a novel which has had a large 
sale and has been several times translated. Among hi.s 
other books are Th'-Circiiil Rider ^lii^4)■. fiorj(1878); Thf 
(irayxoii^ (1888); The Faith /Joctor (18i)l) ; and a popular 
school History of the United Stales (1888). 

EEgle8toil,OEOROECART: journalist; brotherof Edward 
KgiTleston ; b. at Vevay, Ind., Nov. 26, 1838. He was in the 
Confederate service during the civil war. Since 1870 he has 
been connected with perimlicals in New York ; was chief 
editor of The Coninipr<-i'«f -4difr/iser 1880-89. and an edi- 
torial writer on The World since then. Published A Reber-t 
Rrfolleetions (1875); AmeHi-an War Ballads and Lyrirv 
(1889); e.\tA Juggernaut (imi). 

Egg-plant {Sola'num melon'gena, var. esculent urn) : a 
plant of the nightshade family, of the same genus as the 



ilo. It is cultivated for its large fniits, which are eaten 
n co.ikiil in a variety of ways. It has been cultivated 
n the earliest times, and its native country is supposed 



10 ™ 

l«nd sterile. The only variety olTeretl to the eye is that of an- 
cient citjr mounds and the low embankments whivli serve as 
diims ajjainst the Nile floods. Toward the N. K. the level is 
said to be gradually sinking (i^ee Mekzilkh), while at Suez a 
rising has occurred within historic times. It is almost certain 
that the Red Sea ha.i receded from it« tormor limits, whieh 
must hare included the Bitter Lakes and Lake Timsah. See 
_ BxODns. F • 

Divisions. — The division of KkvpI into Upper and Lower 
is prehistoric, and the usual royal title " king of the two 
lands" (dual) points to an original inde|>endc[irc, whose 
termination tradition ascribes to Menes. the first king. Up- 
per Blgypt always had precedence and was mentioned first 
in the roTal nomenclature. It was known as 7b-re«, or with 
the article Po-ta-res. " the south land." the Pathros (o. »,) 
of the Hebrews. The Delta was Ta-meh, '• north land, the 
Hazor of the Hebrews. For ail minist rati ve reasons the 
Ptolemies and Romans maile a third district, Middle EgypL 

Nomoi. — In the geographical lists from the times of Thoth- 
mes III, (eighteenth drnasty)and his successors, smaller difi- 
sions are noteii. twenty-two in Upper and twenty in Lower 
E|;ypt (the numbers are not always the same). These dis- 
tricts, called nomoi by the Greeks, had each its own partic- 
ular deity or deities, worehip. festivals, and sacred animals. 

Although DiodoruE (i.. 54) ascribes the nomos-di vision to 
Scsoosis (."jEsosTBis. q. i:\ Ramses II.. nineteenth dynasty). 
that of Upper Egypt is supposed to have antedated the es- 
tablishment of the kingdom, and that of Lower Egypt to 
have been arranged merely by way of imitation. The par- 
ticidar names ot these subdivisions had reference to the 
deity worshiped, the chief city, local characteristics, or geo- 
graphical position ; Greek designations were bWd on the 
first two grounds. Complete lists ate to be found in any 
good history of the land. 

Boundariea. — The natural southern boundary was near 
SvENE (9. v.) at the first cataract, though under Usertasen III. 
(twelfth dynasty) 
it was pushed 
forward to Sera- 1 
neh, just beyond 
the second cata- , 
raet (in order to 
gain control of 



" wall of the print 



9 applied. It was by n<i 



Sl Petersburg ascrilies its construction t 

fourth dyntu<ty (see below), and a papyrus of the twi'lrih 

dviiast^. at Kerlin, recounts the difficulty which a fULHuvi- 

t'gyptian had in passing the sentries set to watch again^l 

maraudere. 

Citits. — The cities of Eg vpt rank according to s doilhh- 
standard — religious and political. Each nomos had its chii'f 
city, its principal deity and cult. The principal plai'i? in 
Upper Egj'pt were the following; Syenc, ^Hfi. a stnUvinr 
[Miint on the southern frontier ; Elephantine, ^frw, a plmv 
ot trade ; Ombos, iV'uii, devoted to the peculiar dual wor- 
ship of Scliek and Horns; Silsilis, Chtnu, with valiiiiMi' 
quarries; Edfu, 'feb, devoted to Bonis and an impurtuui 
place in Egyptian mythology ; Esneh. Sen, Latopolis. the 
relifrious capital of the third nomos : Elkab, Ntehenl. Eilei- 
thyia. a place ot pilgrimage, devoted to Nechabt. the pro- 
tecting goddess of the south; Erment. On. Hermonthis. the 
foreranner of Thebes. Us. JV'u. Hu^Amon, Heb. No-Anion, 
the most powerful city ot Egypt, though neither the lunst 
ancient nor most sacred; Koptos, QiAti, devoted to Min. 
the Greek Pan, a place of importance in the Red Sea trade 
(sinc^ the caravan route started thence for Koser). and val- 
uable for its quarries of hard dark stone; Chemmis. Pan<il>- 
olis, modem Akhmim. was devoted to the same deity ; I)en- 
derah in the sixth nomos was an important religious center, 
devoted to Hathor. and contained a temple whose founda- 
tion is ascribed to the earliest times ; Abydos (see Menko- 
kium), the most faolv place in Egypt on account ot its tomb 
of Osiris; Thinis, ten, the native place of Menes, the fttA 
king; Kau el-Kebir, Du Qau, Anl«opolis, the capital of the 
—""'"• SiUt,S(i«(. I.ycopoliB. devoted to Anul.is. 



the 



of 



Nubia), and lat- 
er still under 
Thothmea 1. the 
conq^uest was 
continued to the 
third cataract, 
andbyThothmes 
III. to the Sudan. 
At Syene was a 
place of bart«r 
with the Mublaos 
and the blacks of 
the south, and 
from one of the 

tirincipal articles ; 
ivory) of this 
trade the island , 
of.Jfru, Elephan- : 
tin^, got its 
name. At Sem- 
neh a stele was 
erected by User- 
tasen III. forbid- 
ding the north- 
ward passage of 
foreigners in oih- 
er than Egvptian 
boats. At' Abu- 
Simbel (see [p- 
SAMBUL) Kamses 

II. executed two wonderful rock-hewn temples. Across the 
isthmus of Suez, marking the northeH.-^l>-ni fMntier, there 

with thf Plolfinu" m»rB.c.,'in<-luilini iheolJ Kinedom il'iyniutin 
I.-V1.1. the lll-ldlt Kliiinloin iXll.-XIII). th- New Kiiiu-.lom iXVIll.- 
XX. I. ibe TBi)i(t>. Biihs-'iiie. himI Salt.- ilynaRtien iXXI.-XXlV.I, the 
Etblaplau doiiiinatlmi i.\XV.i. (br mniiuA fMitr iXXVl.). th.- Pemian 
IXX\'1I.1, goiil^mmrarv in purt with tli.- third Sail", the Mfnilesian 
and SebeDDTte i.XXVIIl.-XXX.i. ud flnslJy Che ptulemalc period. 



Temple of Denderah, 

I beyond value: ('hnmiiH. moilcm Aschmunen. Greek Ilir- 
niopoli*. an important religious center: Tell el-Ainama,ihf 
city of the heretical King Amenophis IV.. the place win^re 
many euneifonn tablets were dist-overed in 1887; Beni \W- 
an (set! Hasan), in the sixteenth nomos. containing lonii-s 
from the twelfth dvnasly, and the Speos Aktbhiihis (9. r.i : 
Ahnes. dipnens'i. IleracleoiKilis. of great important^ im «i-- 
cuunt of its mythological connections; and the Favvv 

I iq, V.) belonging to the twentieth nomos. The sites of th'"-<' 



12 



EGYPT 



" Horus, the mighty bull, beloved of the goddess of truth, 
lord of the * vulture and serpent* diadems, protector of 
Egypt, sub<luer of the V)arbarian3, the golden Horus, rich in 
years, great in victory, King of Upper and Lower Egypt, 
* Ra strong in truth, chosen of Ra, son of Ra, Kamses be- 
loved of Ra." Similarly the queen is called " the consort of 
the god, mother of the god, the g^reat consort of the king " — 
god and king being interchangeable terms. She was usually 
of royal blood, oft4tjn own sister of the king, his equal in 
birth and place — ** Mistress of the House." Crown prince 
and princes came next in order. The upper classes con- 
sisted of " the nearest friend " of the king, and friends of 
various grades, generals, high priests, officers, physicians, 
overseers, district chiefs, presiding judges, keepers of the 
seal, master builders, treasurers, fan-bearers, scribes, and 
many others. Offici^dom ramified in numberless class gra- 
dations, whether the order was priestly, military, literary, 
, architectural, mechanical, or agricultural. Advancement 
went by roval or other favor. (See Bnigsch, A^yptologie, 
p. 212 ff.) "the middle class of the kingdom remained in the 
oackground, and is less known because its members could 
not, nke the kings and nobles, erect those enduring tombs 
from which knowledge of the times is obtained. After the 
removal of the necropolis from Memphis to Abydos during 
the period of the Middle Kingdom, and owing to the growth 
of tne practice of erecting memorial stelse, tne monuments 
of untitled persons bepn to appear, giving a conception of 
their number and position. Tney possessed households sim- 
ilar to those of officials, and in many ways appear to have 
been their equals. They were merchants, trailers, artisans, 
free workmen, weavers, potters, carpenters, joiners, smiths, 
etc. The lowest class was composed of the slaves, native or 
taken in war, who were hewers of wood and drawers of wa- 
ter, performing all menial offices. They were mere chattels, 
belonging to temple, necropolis, or landed estate, and were 
often organized as a part of the military establishment. 
Closely allied to them were the shepherds, the pariahs of 
Egvptian society. 

Employments. — Each administrative department had its 
own ** troop " of laborers under its own overseer, who kept 
minute tally of work performed, rations distributed, and of 
absentees. The troop, not the individual, was the unit. All 
artisans as well as the slaves were regarded superciliously 
by the scribes and held in lower repute than the agricultur- 
ists, though the products of their sKill still command admi- 
nition. Weavers, working with papyrus reeds or with linen 
thread, produced baskets, mats, boats, or the finest Unen 
cloths; joiners, though handicapped bv lack of good raw 
material, nevertheless produced creditable work by the use 
of instruments most simple in their character. Potters 
through all periods reproduced patterns tenaciously and 
with little variation, but atoned for the rudeness of miich of 
their work by the fineness of their products in faience, the 
glazing of stone objects being si>ecially noteworthv. Metal 
workers used gold, silver, bronze, iron, and tin, the source 
whence tin was derived being problematical. A bronze is 
mentioned which was an alloy of six met-als. Objects in 
bronze and iron have been found among the remains of the 
Old Kingdom, though the ctirliest bronze statue is one of 
Ramses II. The sources of most metals were the mines of 
Nubia and Sinai. In value silver exceeded gold, afid a mix- 
ture of the two is frequently mentioned. The processes of 
agriculture are well ix)rtrayed on the walls of the tombs. 
The plow was simply a sharWned stick dragged through the 
ground by oxen; the hoe abroiwl blade fastened to a han- 
dle, a second cord midway of each preventing too great a 
strain. The seed once scattered was trampled in by ani- 
mals. Harvesting was done by a short sickle; the grain 
was carried in sheaves to the thresliing-fl(K)r, wliere the 
hoofs of cattle j>erfornied the ro(iuiro(l labor. Winnowing 
was done with shovel and wind, and the grain was stored in 
conical rece[)taclos ojn^n at tht* top, to which the bearers 
mounted on ladders. Suj)])lcinentary irrii^ation was by a 
well-sweep similar to the modern shnduf. These lal)ors 
wert» s<> essential a fiart of P^tjyptian life that the future life 
was {M>rt rayed umier exactly the same circumstances, hapj)i- 
ness consisting essentially in the degree in which j)ersonal 
pt»rformunce could be avoided. Cattle of all sorts, asses, 
slieep, piijs, anil goats existed in immense herds, and were 
tended by slaves and [K'asants whose wcupations and lives 
in marshy districts so far removed them from civilization 
that they were regarde<l with detestation (Gen. xlvi. 34). 
Their disrepute is the more remarkable in view of the evident 
pride with which landed proprietors enumerated their flocks. 



Education. — The school, " book-house " or " house of in- 
struction," presided over by a scribe, was an institution of 
the Old Kingdom, which received all classes alike, and pre- 
pared them for the technical education of the special bu- 
reau. In the New Kingdom both branches were combined 
in departmental schools. Orthography, calligraphy, style, 
and tne formulse of etiquett* comprised the known curricu- 
lum; the rest was learned by practice. Many corre<»tt^l 
school exercises have survived containing various specimens 
of literature ; tales, religious and magical texts, poems, 
codes of rules, or *' instruction " of ancient sages for the 
pro{^r regulation of daily life, and ex-varte statements of 
the unlovely condition of soldiers and laoorers as contrasted 
with the beauty of the scribe's life, at once inciting to in- 
dustry on the part of the pupil, and to profound respect for 
the teacher. These papyri are of great value in affonling 
knowledge of orthography, language, and literature. 

Landed Property. — The tombs of the Old and Middle 
Kingdoms represent the various operations of large landed 
estates in all their complexity. Such private ownership of 
the soil, of large tracts, and even of whole villages, seems to 
have been a survival from the time when the princes of the 
nomoi were at the head of the independent districts which 
collectively constituted Egypt. A decided change is seen 
in the New Kingdom when the title to all land except that 
attached to the temples was vested in the king, and when it 
was worked for the state by slaves or let out at an annual 
rate per cent. The change came about durin|]^ the Hyks^is 
pjeriod or in the transition to the revived native dynasties. 
The biblical account of Joseph is of interest in connection 
with this. 

Houses. — The dwellings of the common people probably 
resembled those of the fellahin of to-day, being mud hovels 
whose destruction accounts for the formation of the tells 
which mark city sites. The dwellings of nobles and kinp» 
were more pretentious, but no remains have survived. The 
only models by which to judge are some ancient sarcophagi 
of house-like torm, and some mural representations. Rec- 
ord has survived of a palace which stood 300 ^cubits square. 

Family. — The position occupied by woman was quite 
extraordinary. In the household there was usually only one 
tcife,, though there might be several concubines or female 
slaves. Actual polvgamy was infrequent, though the royal 
harem often contained 200 women. Private persons also 
maintained harems, the number of inmates de^>ending on 
the financial ability of the individual. Inheritance and 
genealogy were reckoned by the mother, not the father, and 
while a man's possessions might descend to his sons, the line 
might also pass through the daughter to her sons. St)nie- 
times marriages were contracted u{>on these consideration>. 
It was a fathers ambition to hand dow^n his official jwsition 
to his sons, and the title of "hereditary prince " is often 
found. The practice of marriage with a sister is met in 
early periods, out under the Ptolemies it was quite the rule. 
and tne marriage contracts specified the amounts which the 
husband engaged to give annually to his wife for family 
purposes. 

Costume. — There is a constant development observable in 
the dress of the upper classes. Royalty set the fashions, and 
thev were followed at intervals by those standing on the 
various social levels. There was a distinction between kini: 
and noble and between noble and plel)eian. The sim[>le 
apron bound about the loins was always the essential gwr- 
ment. To this the king added a lion's tail and the noble h 
panther's skin during the period of the Old Kingtiom. In 
that of the Middle Kingdom the apron took a pointed tri- 
angular shape in front and became longer. Next comes a 
douhle aj^ron, a short one beneath, opacjue, and a long an4l 
transparent one outside. The priest continued to wear the 
short apron, however, while tlie king hatl advanced to a 
mode of dress which covered the whole body, and was com- 
plex in ari*an^ement and structure. That which before wii.-^ 
holiday attire Ixjcame the garb of every day. The dn»ss of 
women was more uniform. It consisted at first of a c1om»- 
fitting garment which extended from the breasts to the an- 
kles, and was fastened by straps over the shoulders. Only 
in the latest |)eriods were sleeved or sleeveless mantles wi»ni. 
Transj)arent cloth was used for female wear, a^s for the outer 
apron of males, but without the inner garment. The dn*ss 
of peasiints consisted simj)ly of the apron, which in s<»me 
cases amounted only to a band with pendant ends. Tht^e 
simple articles were made of papyrus mats, leather or ch^th. 
The hair was worn short, but the shaving of the head din^s 
not ap|)ear to have been practiced daily. Wigs of various 



u 



EGYPT 



nix t$ |Hi^blT deriTed from Bmim of Heliopolis, which ap- 
jHvirs ^ A h^»fv>n. 

(riM/,* f>/ Saturn. — In Twrioiis periods of the history cer- 
tain iUntiW «(>(v«r ft$ doitications of the powers of nature : 
Ka. tho $un« tho rtilerof the Wi>rld. having his sanctaary at 
Htshnx^iis* was e^vn in pr^^hisitoric tinu's ooni'eived as a 
ivri^m ; Horus* the brins:^»^ of livrht^ is reprviJented in con- 
tticc with S^t« the ^xiof darkn^nss; Ra-Uarmaehis was the 
r(5i!iar sutu Ka^Tum the sun at evening. Thoth was also 
wv^rshijxxi as the miX^o, 

Tht» ttumlvr v>f ^i^^f v»/' viV«W b^iiufx^ such as Nun the orig- 
iiiai \xvan. iHit v^f which lui priKve^ltHi. is beyond number. 
Mat^ the cvxitJt*!«i of iruih, rer»res»;»nis a large class which 
sttoIxv.-'vnI K%C'<ttr*>rt n\^ion>. IVitie* are alsti portrayed in 
fiunk *uoh as ^^K cvxi of earth, and Xut, goildess of 
Kr^axfn, Si\u ar.d To fuut. Osiris and Isis* Set-Tvphon and 
N«^t^h:h>*^ In :he?se ^>airs b seen also the /ami7y triation 
wTxwTi IS v.'amixi out in numenHis wars^ not without g-reat 
HI. lla:h^^. Isis* Nevhrhvs. and Xut were dausrhters 



''v/'-is;*^ 



of Ka. Hon5> a::vi S^t were :^>as of Isis. Turn was lx?i:otten 
\}t N-i the ^^lor^xt'k^iSs litih^^ep vi^reek, Esculapias\the 
K-TM'vicia cxl v^f '.uxHiivine* was s«.^n ot Sechmel, who was 
sk.;.'.v>d m tlv 55i-:ie ktx^w axI^^^. 0.>mi*i Miliums are very fn^- 
\(\;«*r\: lu :.*v lA:erix*n«xi>* :r.vHi^ that of Ka-Tura is most 
a:v:v/T, RA-blAr:*'Ac-.v.s h*s K?en ment^^*^TxL Uor-Xub was 
the ""c V l-^"- H^ri<* rerresentmc the hsiriif sun. Amon- 
Ka^ l^jk»"'-Svur~<.Vtr*s are firt.ier eiaiu^ U^s;. TVuk/*, oon- 
s5<ivjc ' fa:.*^r. "ti'-ciier. a::*i s*.»q. were aiiruoroiLs : such as 

i\. of Thebes ; l^ah. Seeh- 






A'Ji^ji. V ;:. ar.i ev:iv'=2^ .nr v^hoiis^ 
•v.€. A'i I'l.t ^«H\of Meiur^^i; S:ix'i, Hathv>r. and Khonsu 
ic:^.** »**—S.^ r?,e erLr^^ad was ihev^retioallv a 
fcL :i«'cri i?-*;iv:i'lT :he number fell short, in 
w ♦ i .'jfc* i: » AS rvokr»k\i st;ni?Iy as a divine court 
tM»;:cr=L-Ai af:v*r i.'^a; .'^ t^ixr*^'::!. As ,**"»>>> of deities 
^w-o yTAx ;.v -^^ ■•":«roL ::ie .'cv.;>k of Ra aiid Horus^ and 
:.**r >^Tin»" ^( :^«' *->vT^t -vv'y. K.Vivr. For ^particulars 
vXi:» v- .: ' "'X* : ." • >w ■?*^ str^inre ar::-*lesv 

y. .^ 1 , — Hi"x f :>.e rv-,r chas its explanation 
V c "* -* > c.ir:\ •:,'.■ Q •::j.:i- r^:.Lrv !::>. tS?e Metuip^ycho- 
sTv \k >c :r* 5iHi. .*c ** i- *ir.e " see K_k» left :be Ixxiy, 
: *», ♦r-^r «^jc yorsvr*-^: w* •'Vrvr^e oare see Mimwy^ and 
i .•^'ssAi 1 4 ^v ^7e : r* ■- ^x? Hista^a^ f ^r the pergonal 
ev>.w'iv'e i. :"»? !:->*••' **\L>i sr>~: i :x:n i>i uiv^ the ab- 
s^.^.if vc^-^o'i"; 1 :* :je .:i^« -«^. T'ji-e f«:j.re v*f ;he in- 
i. vi:»i. <r»6r. ^f«.c'm.*i»xi ."* 4 - Lr=?eci: w^^.\i 2s rerretjectcrd 
«{> 4 v' -r*-''-r i" " >* ivikr: ?t rl.r.iSw wic^ v-^ uztcrisLarx-es it 
• • "T "v s" ": > L t :*H Tr*:.-^ Xvc. tr.e jr»i of tni'h, 
•^ > *• ^ : ^v vr -4 ■ ' r^ i:v • T"" f ^ ?t r. . e ^C : ".^ ^xis. revr>ter? 
. r* ^I'^H^". r> H.»- C .' .>r.«,v 4:1.1 :^r f ny--:*.^ ~as5?es- 
:!*.c^' .lA- 4.*^ ^r •! %r:A^' r«kr:. "^» '^-ta :..c w:i.,.e :s tvX" 
>.«*' x^- •! : .V •*''».Tir^*f»i > -Tf. Sxr rL.T'.'A^ .'r rsr I^kjld. 
T. t... s*f — '.T "re fAr-»:SC 7*-^. »is -o^- Ic rvlirfs as to 
**• *'»*..'-. : .^ .-TN 4.7»i -> v-"^ '. i>?c<:rv''i a^**:: 'he in- 
i . .^fci. i» .' ^ r.i" " •• -^ !■: r< ." >\'vc:e a tri-; zi}rh'lv'cy 

,f . *»' :*»..• r»i. ^:.« c •». *e i» .•!• ». T'i»' >.-.:: -"-1:0 w :.v.'h 

T*-^*i ' >: w u. 1 1^' ^-^k. "7 .»?«ki ■ 4~*.'rirrs 4; rLAr^jioiT, an-i 

». •, * ,^ w i'- •» * »> «'^> <*^ 7i*^ *<<? •"■k?- r-^* n«-.. c^'^c- Bit. 

*C "• •:♦> *1 » » . ' > i"! V"! 'i' * *»* " iN> :t t^.i? TV- 






'i» 



1»- 






'nav -^-1.:^ 



, * ~ ►. 



A '-? r 



1 



Vl^ 1 A^« iLI'l Jl ^Tsjrr TVi^-Tl 12> :«?XT- 






'♦ • 



•• 



I -1 



r- 



i*T' ▼^ »—• 



1* 1- I, -• 1«- f 



* ^ f 






1 • . - 



- » * 



-- r 






iwV'.-i* :* the 



.1. 









» '«*• "".^.l^ ¥"*•'"' 






as extant documents show. The royal papyrus at Turin 
might have furnished a valuable guide had it not been shat- 
tered beyond repair. The lists of Manbtho (9. v.) are valu- 
able, but they have been preserved in such fragmentary and 
contradictory shape by Etisebins, Josephus, .^Mcanus, and 
others, as to have lost much of their usefulness. They f urn i^h. 
nevertheless, the only practicable way of locating Listoncal 
events by dynasties^ In terms of our era only the latest 
dates can be fixed accurately : e. g. Necho, 6(^9-595 b. r. ; 
Shishak about dSO b. c. ; Ramses 11. in the thirteenth c^^d- 
tury, and Thothmes 111. possibly in the fifteenth oentun 
B. c. Amenemha I. is variously put at 2130. 2360 and 2'4()6 : 
Khufu (Cheopss. Suphis) at 2830 (Meyer), 3124 (Lepsius). liim 
(Brugsch); while Menes is put at 4400 (Bmgsch), 3892 (I^[k 
sins), 5613 (Vnger), 5004 (Mariette). 5867 (Champollion), and 
5650 (Wiedemann). Each of these estimates is as little 
capable of proof as the others. The inunense differences 
are due to the various theories touching contemporary dv- 
nasties, a problem of exceeding difficulty. It seems probaMV, 
however, that Manetbo gives in his list only the iegitima:*- 
rulers, and has passed over in silence those whoee claims 
were ill founded. 

General. — Of the development of the Egyptian kingdom 
and of the conditions which preceded the' reign of Men*-^, 
the first king, the inscriptions tell nothing. Manetho sp-aki 
of gods, demi-gods. and sovereigns from Thinis and ilt-m- 
phis, while the n.»yal papyrus at Turin enumerates beinr? 
called " F*>lk>wers of Horus." as the precursors of Ment'^. 
These beinsrs of course were mere myths. It has be«-ri 
claimeii that tTa<:-es of a stone age are found in EIgTi:>t, \>u\ 
vTvot is still lacking, since the remains thus far found can 
w assigned to historical times^ At the opening of tht-ir 
histor}" the Egyptians seem to have st4X>d on about the sarrf 
level as the present inhaldtauts of the Somali coasts so far 
as drvssi was concerned, but otherwise they were pf»*se5<»^l 
of an ancient culture which pnc>iipj^<ises a long peric«j "f 
development. The kingdom of Menes was alreaov onrstn- 
ized as fuUy as that of the later kings, the main differt>n«v 
UfiRiT only in its extent. 

The data of the early history of Egypt are mainlv isi»lar»?ti 
facts, statements of the expk-its of various kings and pri\3i»* 
ixTs/ns. A conneotrd history of native origin dc*-?« ni'* 
exist. The Turin papyrns anii Manetho ai^ often in a n- 
tradiction with thr in- cuiiirn:;5^ The lists of kin^ at A'rv- 
dv>s .see MuiNOMi « ci^e only a selection, though the tat .-• 
of >eti 1- ci^n tarns 76 i:an:es and that of Ramses IL 18 nam—. 
The list of Sa*; ;;arah o:tr.r rises 42 names. It is np<»n siit.h 
a t^sis as this that the frarjitwork of Egyptian history .11 1 
ohr» rolvcy has be^n t nrLrd. surr-'.emented by manv 11.- 
s^riicL" cs^ whivh suiily ac imnec?*? amount of bi>ml'a>*:c 
:»hr:ise of a laitiat. ry character, con: c iced with a vani^h:^ c 
r.vxiuuKi of h:sJor::aI m: rmarivrL The gaps in the 1:< 
ar. i the iVlental rari: of c.'Xssini: over defeat and intcnu: 
•ijS5?<r-s:oa have left lis w::h a v^ry fragmt-ntarr noti^'U "f 
:he chrv c Iccy v»f the txv i Ir wbc- f^cstt-jstrd the mo£t ancitrLt 
kn wn ciiiturf *.»' th« w rli. 

IT. rajv l^ :s a list ct th^ E^rrxtiaa dynasties, compi^i 
irai!:> fr.^m W-.-xi-rraTin's hist. ry. si:- w— ^r the order of thr 
iT^.asr:-fSw the iiar/.-et? ' v w'—. h th-y are knowiu the nuniKr 
:t iir.ii?i :r. ta^h aitvvriirc t* v.ir-- us acithorities, the it-iir:!: 
•^ :xi«r :yr.asti-*s a*.v^ -*;:--: tv Manet::*., and the names f 

• •': A~ «•/•:• *«. — No fs* -'rcivr:? ha're survived fr«tm th*^ 
^T^ :hr*^ :vrast>.Sw rS ':cti the - -refMryramid "" c»f Sa-j- 
:arah is as.r.*r»i t. Uciirile^ Rjy.^ A'a. the fourth Vin-z 

t '.Zk Irst ':>:ascT, ar-i s«.'>^e s-'a'.:-^ K.t fjjLt-ri.-naries v.f the 
• —e irarxf Ixm c r»f!?erv^ekL •.*t X£X£> ,•.•-., the first k:n^. 

:~> 2? ir.v w:: ex.vrc tra: h»* haL»:^i tr jtl Th.is -Thixis. •^. r. . 
.- V- rer r\r^- '. :ir- : t ■— : -i Mr y^s^ Tn- List;- of kli\:> 
r '-■• * y Mi" "' ' A"^ *^ * T .♦:clr-~-: hy 'hv m. nuiwt!.:- 

:" :*. V w-^i-: tir tSw VV' -:. -,> i .^-— i'.rascy octemt^KnirA 
r»if».'rLs .x^'-- t.- a: -.rar :r. "he t. =. -s :^-e Ma^taba' an j 
^^?^-:r .is :z vTirei a: i ^u•: : ATih. efii.T hy >r..^ira iMar.n' h : . 
> 'i.-^ / •■- . K- :t-. . ::-» :-: Mir-c:: . S:-?his q.v.x, l'b>f- 
->- ■ **rfc. K. .*'^. AT-i M-rTitr^ Xy FXiM~k y, • .^ f r 
" *-■■■•-* .v::i i*- : :'-..- ".. :T?v Ft 11 thr t.~,l.«5 a kn« wlr»:::> 

: :j«^ "_:- :* :'■.■• -> ^ l-r.v-i. ^^.i .- i^sr exevuiivn • i 

1" ^^z.'< > : 'I ' r: ~js rT-..i--'/e :* a irv^lop^i ai-t :<*i 

"H"-'*- 7*- .'"c r*- -r':> f '"--^e i"- j^ w rv rn:r-*.'"'y.^i :r. 

- - c**'-^ V •! • ■ " >'-- '"i-vi '1 ill r^irts i-f'the 1.^ 1. 

Ai -^i- . - •♦: :.t --- 1: >v. rr*e-vl _r^ tc.ls of an 11 - 

». ■'. : ■ '• 1* ^ -• A-a •> T :.«r tiz^e .fSc.fro, ip^hi^h 
'•1 : "J. , - - ^ ^: :.:- : r. ~ »:. •-> j- thie bthxuus a: 
- *tf A*. .- ^tT> ; A. •. r*-*. I. S.T >^£vi^ I'sssatT or. 



""■ 


"■"■ 


M— >ta AkM-. T.«. s.^™l.. I^"^; 


U^ 


F,<.«Jp^ »«(.,«.' 
















Ueoes. 




II 


Memphne 
U«ri>pb.tr 

Uiruipliile 


8 


i 








1 


Spofni, Khiifu. Khafi*. Ueokara. 

TBI*. Fepi (Phiosi. PepI (Phiop.). Queen Nib 
















i« 








Herat k..p(ait« 












4I'J' 






\ 


Huule' polile 


















\1 


Tbeban 




















^Me 




7 
















1 










xW 


s;k 






aeo 










■ 1 














Dhhp< lite 










Ahm(» 1.; Ammophto I,-IV.: Tbolhrnea l.-IV.: lUUni. 


Xl-C 


I>io.foli^ 












Sell 1. -11.: KsmiMfsII.: Menepiab. 






DiBpoble 

Tanrie 

Bubaffiite 


S 1 








1*0 


Kamsea III. 
tihiibalE ; Osorlion. 




vi 


ill" 










i'" 


FBtuomeUcliiuil.;Necho: Hophra. 




Mil 


Salw'" 


6-e 
















S«brnDfUi 












Necuuiebo I.-U. 
























Uar-edoDlui 
















\1II 




' 








Si 


aoB.c.».i,.p. 





T Buhastlte 1S3 yearH. Id another v. 



septiiu IT kin 






r>'irinsthn p*nod and the fnllowinK chants occurred; 

it li~t its pnmitne himplKit) and [rcsliness Inking on a 

ri ••i\ ped fi)riu which was an olottt of imilatinn m hitcr 

ni t Lnder tho liLst kiDji; of the hftli d\niistt LiiHs(Ma- 

ih I Obios qv),tbe practice of in^nhing the (hambers 

' he pvraiiiids bej,«n which was continued undi r the siith 

Mil n bTTeU(Uthoe9 of Maiiethn) Ptpi 1 (Phios) and 

i u ll (Phiop^) Toward the end o( the rcign of Pepi I., 

ir i kiii^ of the si\th dtnifti a most notable ruler nhoM 

] nuint nts extend from Taiiis to Denderah a decintraliza- 

I II » ems to have bc^n Memphis was no lon^ror tlie 

r>|Hdi9 of thi whole land but Abvdos where m\th lo- 

I 1 Ilie gravi of 0~ina sprang into prominence neier to 
li-plapwl Many other reslinft-pliM-c^ for the dead wore 

-.> ~<iULht out Nearlr all that 1^ fcuuwn of thi8p«no(l and 

II ll of the fi'iloning two kiiiBs la denieii from a Ioiir in- 
ri[ tinn of Una, a conteiiiporarr noblo already mentioned, 

t--|ii II,, the fifth king wa„ed war with the Bediiin (>>ee 

1 le) and dtfendfd the mines of Sinai which had been 

rr\ luu^lv wiirkwl (jueen Nitixbis(5 ii)Uo»ed the dv nasty. 

' "lli-e till the eleventh ■Ivna.stv tliere is a long period u( 

irJin<--B but the mterial t^cems to have bwn iillc<l uii with 

n _rarliial development of ihe power of the uomarctis, till 

1 1 h in the eleventh rhHies '<toud forth in the leail In 

p-riod the Muient religion ami writing undLrwt.iit 

iii_e for in the twelfth dtiiiulv manv new foniib appear. 

If Iks became the ehiif citv ami maintained its po^iiion 

' r i.i'- It was from Thelws al«o that the later opposition 

I lu which cniled la the expuliion of the Hyk^is after the 

\t liiirk perKKl in the histiin In eat h case tlic country 

I t hatL gone throuffh troublous time^ and while the 

tii^-^ of manv kiiiga are known they are incapable of 

r niil'.gical arraii|!emeut. Ihe eleventh diimsty how- 

r was a ptrnxl of ren'Usaance though it was rude i.om- 

r>-d with what preceded Changes are wen in thestili' 

1 in the sarcophagi white tilt, hierotrliph^ an. clumsj. 

I ll pnnceflof the tune wore obscnte. but thtpowtr of rulers 

1 krowing ami in the following dinast* (twelfth) it was 

'( ^.rttd undtr the UsmTASEHsfn ii) and Amcneinhas. 

iliit from bi inv limited to the Thibaid thtse kintnt 

r lir 1 .Hit to blliionia and Svria acquinng the former by 

1 {iiLst while tra>k opened friuidly relations with the 

til Ihe stale was renrgani^id anil placid on a firmer 

tiEig and in wider relations than e\er before Fortlie 



"aym^Uus, lUyeara. 
first time the nation entered upon foreign conquest, the 
territory conquered being that south ol the first cutiiract aa 
far as s'l-nineli and Kumneh (see Halpa, Wadi), where User- 
lascn III. placed fortresses to guard the new frontier. At 
home temples were erected at various places, and tombs 
were excavated from the rock at Beni Hasan andSit;T(y,r), 
.Some colossi at Tanis and Aliy<los come from the name 
^source. From Amciicmha III. 'proceeiled an undertaking 
which rcfiuired great engineering skill, the construction trf 
I.ake MoERis (q. t:), in the Favum, excavated as a reservoir 
for surplus water to be used for irriiration in seasons of low 
Nile. The dynusty lasted 16(1 years, its kings were regarded 
as ideal rnttl^i, and its language and orthography were clas^ 
ical niudels for after ages. 

But this pcriiHl was as an oasis in the deserL In times 
following, till the elose of the seventeenth dynasty, there 
must have been great commotion and Interna) unrest. The 
moiinments are few, though the names of ruleis who must 
be assigned lo this interval number upward of 150, The 
state was in a weakened condition, oSedn^ itself an easy 

Brev to the invading HvKSOS {g. v.). Concerning these people 
ttle is known ; they left few trat«s of themselves in oiiild- 
ings and monuments to tell their story. The lenglli of their 
stay is unknown, only that they were worshipers of Sltech 
(?.('.), and that their stri'ngholdswere Avaris(see Peh'sii-s). 
San (see Tams), and Bubastis (see Pi-Beseth). They threw 
the country into still greater eonfusion, but seem lo have 
been content for the niost i>art. to remain quietly within 
their strong places in the Ea^ternDelta,and to receive Iribule 
from the vassal Kgvplian princes. But civilisation was not 
dead even under llie weight of this barbarian oppression, 
and in the seventeenth dynasty it began again to apiiear. 
The tomlis at Ui-rnah (q. r.) testify that an organized state 
exisleiL and it is evident that the native kings were in con- 
trol at lenst as far north as Thelics. The eniise of the out- 
break which ended in the expulsion of the Ilyksos honles was 
religious. Apepi, the Ilyksos, demanded of Ita-sekenen, the 
" prince of the southern citv," Thebes, that he renounce the 
worshipof Amen-Ka and adopt that of Siitech. A refusal led 
hich becniiie aggressive on the part of the Thebans 



irought to a 
first king of the eighteenth dyni 
jiaign not only drove the Hylisu 



J (or 

.. the 



trt 



VAiYVT 



AwmIn, lull immhihmI IIumm litln INiloNliiut. hi «> iXaUxn \\t' 

llpt'hl'll It HOV^ l>|llM>lt, NVllMlOIIM hofolK KKVpl llfMJ ShH'U *wlf' 

iiinhdnt'il, I'ltiiiiMtl In tvniiiin silllilit Mm iinrflii«rli bonhfrH, 
mill ititiv Miluiiii*liia In ooiii|itoM| (nwiinl IIh* wiulh, tiow the 

)ii«ti| III \»lH llOi'inilO fllllllllHl, llhll lIlO (IHlUlf tMllMjIH'Mt lH*|(lill. 

VSlIti «uiiiil'>hi)^ lopiihl) *>lio ItiM'Hiiio II wurllkM iiuMori, urid 
n^\^\\\ «>hnf«M| lii'i rtiiii« \\\ I ho KiiplimloH iitiil ti) tli« Siidiiri. 
MoiiiihloM i\f lhi> i\«ulli\Mihl nunoniiMil iirt^ himui lit tlio in- 
h>iilH«Moit «>f Hu* N^of«liip of lUiil aittl AmIiu'Iis ami lit tho 

Mm* ^\{ \\\}\\\\ f«M*ol«U Mrtn^o*. 

t\^Uo>M\»H nil* niMiwH>( llh')Mh\ot)ml oviMilH of tliiMlyniiNty. 
Sn\ot^«MOM^ 1. il««^ lhM^I Vin)j« Milvduotl llio liihyiuiH At Uio 
\\»»«1 \\\ \\w K'lirt Thoihiuiv* I., hw »\ii'00H*i«»r, inart'lu'd 
xo^ithx>fMNl ^> H\oil\i^>l oHtniMtt \\\ lii« tlrM fuinniil^n, and 
^ ^i*h U'»'Hn»o f^n l«:». X pt m^\ pt>n \n«i> \\\\\\%>Y a !«p«»oiiil tfovorncir, 
who \\H* A \s'>\'^^^\\ ol |Mv-(\«v M( i>MtH, His mvona oxpocii- 
\\y\\\ <o.s^ Imiu ih^sM»^l\ l^AU'^tnu' Atut Su'ia tolho KuphratoH, 
o^\ who'v r^>ih, \ iMMk ho »M>shsl 1* «\onttimMt! to ivooixl hiH 
^N\N«\N> .% Uo xx/*» i\slK\vv*l l>> Thothiut^^ U., lUTAsr (</.«.), 
AtMi \»u\>»«yiN \\\ uv nV j^n 1\<H oh>Khvtt. hut by diflfcreitt 
\\>\>^* \\w \\v^\\w\ ot Vhoihu\»v^ m.not \viu^of l>\Vrtl blood, 
tUi^M> »x ^i,>i.^\\,s\.i)\\ fxM \\\i> *N\\MsJuuMi xi^hioh .sbo lltt^jd 
H^..i »,^ tM..\v u«,vMv,v, \^>svt au\>\\f*K MtoK ♦V'* tho oytuHvph- 
^ .-s ,M ,i,v^ l.oi.Ksi .^)s^ .M K><l\vM\, ot\\. fivm tho land of 
iS \> ,t* ^ '« >< tvssNA^ IN ^^^^>^ v\»>l \u Mom^ \\\ tho tomplo 
\>^ N t»' ;V;^iN, :>h;»hm ^>^v i\<vmNV xx\ih p»otu!>Ml dotnils of 
^ >v,. •. ,»>x%j U«\i w ^1^ uo»iiM rhxMhu\o> III. that K;;Ypt 

^. V V ,^ \x«»!.>vj ,\.»>^v>,sn ,M xv^xw^r, Klt'ttVU o\|HHittion8 
^ , ^ , ^'^ ,M >s. iV ;}«-,-N \^,vv| ,\f tho Kupht'HttVi atid 
* ,N V ^^ V «^ * !N '.'^t h*^ n^..'*r\ hisl unr\*s\sttHi to 
V,>v . \ » s v "V ,^N,.\^ > X* ^iN ,ii.,:Ai f^s^s. III hts sixth 
K, \.. \N, V ^, ,, , V >ft ^ .. "^i j^isvvAr aur.uc h\> nncn. 
% ^ >sv ^ NX K ^'* N . * . > K%.T»xh h\;ho Su.iHii ho was 

NH * N '. .V /N .'^ • .» ^ .V K \j> h.ixi ;ho\rown» 

> • » »-> s *•' "vxi^ \ "^ ^ V ,x*n»?*i"' »n; :v >j*n>«\ Ho \ii^ 
. * X V*. •• . •.%. •' » ^ » I mifc.x ,j^ ,\; *.;.^, :V :i,vno 

V s V ■•- ^v V» V* .X «. ^ y.^r >^"' .-^r r\sV- r,5 



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Hii\A\nt\ the flittite kingvlom and to liave advanced by bind 
and wttt^T atrainst Egypt. It is probable that these weiv 
th<; \n'ii\Ait who later appt^ar as mercenaries, and who finally 
^rew to U* a dangerfius [)Ower in the landL The remainutV 
of t}ii» liameshide d^iiasty (Ramses IV.-XIIL) was weak : 
ih<i wivonng^riM were the tm>U of priests and mercenaries by 
turn, till the priest dynasty (twenty-first) of Herhor {q. v., 
Manetho, Smendes) and Pinotem (Manetho, Psuskxxes, q. i\\ 
UHurfM'd the throne. Our main indebtedness to those sover- 
I'ijfnH Ih in the fact that they hid the remains of their pivat 
pr«<l<K,e»8or8 so thoroughly that they remained in a rockr 
c'hamlKjr at Der el-Bahan undiscovered till 1881. During 
th(!Ht< {Miriods of weakness the Libyan power was develoj»in<j 
again, and under Sheshonk L (feibl., Shishak, q. v.) anil 
Ohorkon {q, V.) of the twenty-second dynasty, fjx)ut J^JO 
H. c, it so dominated Egypt that even the governors of 
citios and the high priests at Memphis and Thebes were 
Libyans. The adherents of ^he royal priesthood fle<i t«» 
Kthiopia and there founded an Egyptian kingdom with 
Napata {q, v.) as its capital, and with the priests of Anum 
in actual power. This kingdom continued through the two 
following dynasties, twenty-third and twenty-fourth. Dur- 
ing the earlier the Ethiopian Pianchi conquered Egy]^t as 
far as Memphis; the later, consisting of one long, the B^h- 
choris of the Greeks, was overthrown to make room fur thv 
Ethiopian (twenty-fifth) dynasty under Sabaka {q, r.) in 71 »> 
u. c. vVlth Sabaka, who is supposed to have been the '• S.. " 
of tho Bible, and with Taharka (Bibl., Tirhakah, a. rX rhv 
Hobrews had relations of confederation, as also with Xf« h«» 
(V- ♦*.) »iid A pries (Manetho, Uaphris: Bibl., Uophsla, q. ».. 
i»f tho following (twenty-sixth) dynasty (see below). Tr.t- 
otTortii at foriMgn conquest put forth bv those kings cam*r :».» 
, nothing in tho face of superior power, but at home there w<i5 
|i*\»u*o for alHuit 188 years. During this lime Psemtik 1. 
^tirwk. INammftiohos.^. v.\ built in many fjarts of the lan.l : 
otTorts won* mado to establish commerce in new resrions. aii.l 
undor Noi'ho a fleet oinumnavic^it^i African. The e>ial»- 
lixluuont of Greek c\>lonies in ihe Delia at Xaucraiis and 
Dnphnae was ai>o promi^eii. but with resuit> which in the 
Ivmijt nin wore dotriir.oniai to ihr ancien: oriierof ihiniri>. Id 
:ho t\»rlior i'^^n!o>t< w::h As^vria :hr ■.-:'r.fr^i'-ra:i«'n> canif to 
*.k*Ui:h:, and fir.HlW Es?tt»rL:>-j:a . n o i. ijUrr-r^i ihe land ti^ f:ir 
.vi tiH'U^ Tv^akiiij: EiP"j^< as Astorr.aD pr^'viiioe fn«m 6*i2- 
tVVI B. o. W i:h the a:ji of Grv^k zr.-r'.-eLArtes 



V hv>< L exi>'.\>i thru 

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:e 1 



Psamm. Ti- 
. *r>i ei>'.rAT rv-: :. tv-<" tv 'h«* *an'j :«• 



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18 



EGYPT 



East as well as from the West. But his failure at Acre de- 
feated this purpose, and iiad an immeasurable influence on 
his subsequent career. After the first ^reat battle Bona- 
parte left E^rypt in the hands of Gren. Kleber, whose early 
death made it possible for the united forces of Turkey and 
England to acquire the ascendency. After the withdrawal 
of the French, however, in 1801,'the several military ele- 
ments lost their cohesive power, and the control was gained 
by Mehemet Ali, who was raised to the rank of Pasha of 
Cairo in 1804. In one respect an important service was 
rendered to Egyptology by the French invasion. Bona- 

Krte took into Egypt with the army a large number of 
eneh savants, who were directed to explore the topogra- 
phv. natural historv, and antiquities of the country ; and 
their report, published in 1809-18 in 25 vols. (2d ed. 26 
volf^ 18^1-^), with more than 900 verv*elaborate engrav- 
ings« exerted a powerful influence on tne advancement of 
the knowleiige oi ancient Egvpt. 

Mehemet Ali, though nominally a vassal of the Turkish 
sultan, ac<]uired and maintained a substantial independ- 
ence. He was fully imbued with the European spirit, and 
founded a vast number of schools and colleges. Manu- 
factures were encouraged and commerce was organized. 
The full extent of his power and influence was not confined, 
however, to internal improvements. In 18d0 he invaded 
and ci>nquered Syria, and a few vears later, encouraged by 
his militarv successes, he threw bimself into revolt against 
Turkey, 'the Turkish army was defeated at the battle of 
Nizeeb in June, 1839. Two years lat^r the great powers of 
Eun^pe interfered to check the victorious progress of Me- 
hemet Ali, and by treaty in 1841 established Egypt as a 
Ticeroyaltv of Turkev, hereditary in the family* of the 
rii^p^y. Yhis most celebratetl of modem Egyptian rulers, 
however, became imbecile in his last days, and'tne sultan, in 
July. IS48. appointed his adopted son Ibrahim regent. Ibra- 
him lived, however, only five months, and at his death was 
sB^-tvt^ied by Mehemet Ali's grandson. Abbas Pasha, whose 
air.bi^:on seeraeil to be limited to the restoration of Moham- 
•Etf'iAn p^wer and the overthrow of the reforms be^un by 
hi> grafiifAther. On his death, however, in 1854, ne was 
su- Ax?rdeu by Said Pasha, a younger son of Mehemet Ali. In 
l*^i be "was sut-oeeded by Ismail Pasha (a son of Ibra- 
•im-. who received from the sultan in 1867 the title of 
k±.-»i:veL Ismail Pasha devoteii himself to internal im- 
f'Trvrzients wi:h gr^at zeal, though not with equal intelli- 
pei: -r- By vArious mtrans he acquired great personal 
Wtm-'Ji while lie was nei^xialing immense foreign loans for 
tb* irT:rr»-Tement of the ci^untry. Taxes became so op- 
rr?sKv^ i^a: tte pe«.'ple refuf^i to pay them. They finally 
r-?^ in nrv,.li. ai>i m AiiiT^ 18T9. drove the khe<live from 



t^ 



AS 5«^\:'er»it>i by his son, Mohamed Tewfik, 
kn-edive fc»aisd the financ^es in such confusion 



t--I lift De 

ti^ iit was 5a:*:n oc*Ii^ed to invoke the aid of European 
r v-r-j^--*^ ia r^^ier to rai^ the means necessary to pay 
::!•* ::L:-rrv< • c :ne p^iblic debt. The British and Prencn 
•>:T-rn.z=^rrr.'- w-!>r pr:»..:ka:ly given control of all the 
i«:«^r-=s ;f r-T-^n-e- TJii? e» urse was so repugnant to the 
r*r *-_ -r ti^' _n i-T 5^ rji^ of 1N!C2 a rvvolt brxike out headed 
:t^ Arkii Pia-::.*. tLr Mini-;er of War. The party cry of 
•E^-c^frr ""-•* Ejryy tiizis " seemed for a time destined to 
•A.— 7 L- r«rf :rr rL Bii :h^ p'vemment was supportetl and 
<-'''rr^i tj i:l- amy ar.i navy of France and Great 
t-rr.»^^L^ Ax' rL'.^.y. *ariy in July the insurgents di- 
rv-'.<*i an arifc.£ -i^.n ire Se^ lyin^ near Alexandria for 
"Lir- zr.r^ii -:. 'it f r-ijr: intrrvsis. On the 11th the British 
f — • :- rr^LT:: *• -^ ^ari-i Alexandria, and two days later 
'.zr- Br^:^! *^^T i-f-A-r^i ArtiU aX Tell-el-Kebir, and rein- 
s' t*^i ^--r±^ m t. »-r- Tir ti»ntn»l of the finances now 

LLT' Brli^h hands, and for the protec- 
. T Br.tii^ tr»> -p? rvmained in practical pos- 
Ti-y Vrre s«-»n <-aUeil into active 
«*'-'— -vr, t r k* rr^'iA'le r^v It •■*? the Mahdi tq. v.) in the 
>- -kL '-r-iVi-i z. c zlj trr j- ver of Eirypt in the 
fkT '. .'1^ ' j: k^- ::i.i^ Br.:-:^*: a.- w^ll as the Ktryptian in- 
'-r-?< LiL '.ir- :?--! <. a' A. T-je Br.:>n- however, did not 
r»-r^-T a v-_r r ::.* r« - y. Tl ^.rn txt-n. G onion with a 
* •- - . i -.^- ^-- »- ^^^ >;.lftn in ls>*4. he was in- 

t-^Wj t«rf re T*\iA cnuld be 

r". ^r^ III Jjiu. 1SS5, The 

r. Ird to ihiir with- 

A^ fr d '--r '*•- -AT. a- i tr-r A.'*ki. : n-i,rnt of ihe south- 

^<: •: r*f. ^'f the e«»uaior 

-ir-^i al.rirlang? to 

* Br^t^av- xti<c remaining 









, v_ "■ "" • ^ --• ^_ ^^ 






XIj" ilH,— ..-Ve^ w .!_ t^jc 5s.. ;• 



1^^ ^ iTjt 



years of Tewfik were free from turbulence. He died in Jan., 
1892, and was succeeded by his son, Abbas Pasha. 

Land. — The limits of the territory which is now subject 
to the Government of Egypt can be only approximately 
fixed, for the reason that tfie southern and western bounda- 
ries are not exactly defined. An expedition under Ismail 
Pasha, third son of Mehemet Ali, overran and occupied 
Nubia in 1821-22, and since that time other expeditions 
have pushed the frontiers to the S. as far as Berbera on the 
Red ^ea and up the Nile valley to a point between Khar- 
toum and the equator, but at present Egypt proper em- 
braces but a snudl portion of the territory included be- 
tween the Me-diterranean on the N., Wadi Haifa on the S., 
the Red Sea on the E., and the Libyan Desert on the W. 
The total area is very nearly a rectangular parallelogram 
800 miles long and 550 miles* broad, but the cultivated por- 
tion covers only 11,342 sq. miles. The Egypt of politics and 
trade lies between the mouths of the Nile and the first cata- 
ract, in lat. 24° 3' N., and consists of a narrow strip averag- 
ing only about 7 miles in width. This territory, however, 
broadens out at the north into a rich and prosperous plain 
known as the Delta. The fertility of this narrow belt is in 
striking contrast with the arid and desolate re^on lying on 
either side. The source of the country's fertility is its great 
river, the Nile, which, having its sources in the heart of 
Africa, pours down it« volumes of fertility and annually 
distributes them over the surface of the adjacent country. 
Below the cataract it receives no tributaries, but the rain- 
fall and the melting snows in the mountainous regions of 
the south are enough not only to overcome the loss from 
evaporation, but also to add so enormously to the volume of 
the water at periodical intervals as to prove a source of 
great fertility and wealth. For 8,000 years the average an- 
nual rise of the river at Thebes has been about 36 feet, an<l 
at Cairo about 25 feet, while near the mouths of the river it 
has been about 4 feet. The whole of the level country in 
the valley is inundated every autumn, and as the water sub- 
sides the soil is found to be covered with a thin film of fer- 
tilizing material. The average permanent addition to the 
soil by the inundations amounts to about 4^ inches in a cen- 
tury. The river discharges itself into the Mediterranean at 
the rate of more than 150,000,000,000 cubic meters per day 
during the low period, and at the rate of more than 700,000,- 
000,000 during high Nile. Ordinarily it is from half to 
three-quarters of a mile wide, but from the middle of July 
to the middle of December it formerly gave the country the 
appearance of a "sea," as the Egyptians themselves de- 
scribed it. The ancient nilometers show that considerable 
changes of level have occurred since the twelfth dynasty ; at 
Semneh, near the se^x)nd cataract, the lowering has amount- 
ed to 24 feet As the Nile is the only water-supply for land, 
man, and beast, it was found necessary to provicie means for 
conserving it. To-day a very elaborate system of irrigation, 
especially in Lower Egynt, retains a considerable part of 
the water in reservoirs and canals for subsequent use. 

Products, — In a great many localities the soil is from 10 
to 15 feet in depth, and the climate is such that the agri- 
cultural year includes three crops. The inundation subsides 
in November, after which the winter crops, including nearly all 
cereals, are sown, and are ready for harvest in May and June. 
The summer cro{«, including cotton, sugar, and rice, are sown 
in July and harvested just before the autumn floods in 
September and October ; while the autumn crops, consisting- 
of vegetables, maize, sorghum, and rice, are sown in June 
and July and gathered in September and October. The 
most important protlucts of tiie country are cotton and 
wheat ; of the former, 871,241 acres were planted in 1891, 
and of the latter in the same year the acreage was 1,215,- 
841. The area in maize (1891) was 1,530.983 acres ; that in 
clover, 820,263 ; in U^ans, 643,751 ; in barley, 460^90 ; and 
in rice, 167,164. 

People, — The Turks, although the ruling class, constitute 
but a small portion of the population. The number of for- 
eiijners residmg in Egvpt was estimated in 1892 as follows: 
Greeks, 37,301 ; Italians, 18,665 ; French, 15,716 ; Austrians^ 
8.1^22 ; English. 6,118 ; Germans, 948 ; other foreign nationali- 
ties, 4,1 16. The Aral>s constitute the larger part of the popu- 
latiDU. though the Copts, who are supp<Ssed to be deseenaed 
from the ancient Egyptians, number over 500,000. During- 
the nineteenth century the average annual increase in the 
nuniU^r of the [H^pulation has been 1^ percent. In 1800 the 
Freneh Government ostiinate<i the population at 2,000,000. 
In 1846 the first census showetl a population of 4,463,244. 
In 1872 there were 5,203,405, and in 1892 6,806,381. Of the 



20 



EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE 



EGYPTIAN LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE 



history see the works of Vogt (1882) ; Royle (1886) ; Plan- 
chett (1889) ; and Maspero (1B80). C. K. Adams. 

Egyptian Architecture: the architeeture of ancient 
Egypt; characterized by the grandeur of its conceptions, 
the simplicity of its constructive scheme, the massiveness of 
its forms, and its masterful use of carving and color to 
enhance the splendor of its architectural details. The 
Egyptians in all their important structures eschewed the 
arch, with whose form and principles they were nevertheless 
perfectly familiar, but produced overwhelming effects of 
solemn majesty by the use of enormous built-up columns 
bearing lintels oi prodigious size. Their architecture, so 
far as known by its remains, was one mainly of temples and 
tombs, having bequeathed to us no important vestiges of 

Ealatial or domestic edifices, and its greatest works are 
uildin^ of one story, but of vast extent. Symbolic carv- 
ings, hieroglyphics, and paintings play a large part in 
its decorative scheme, but are never allowed to disturb the 
impressive repose of the architectural forms themselves. 
The temples of Kamak, Luxor, Medinet-Abou, Abydos, 
and the rtamesseum are the grandest examples of the art 
of the Ramesside epoch ; Edfu, Denderah, and Phila«, of 
the Ptolemaic; while the temple-caverns of Abu-Sirabel 
and the innumerable rock-cut tombs of the Nile valley ex- 
hibit another phase of Egyptian architecture, unrivaled un- 
less by the cave-temples of India. The pyramids hardly 
rank as architecture, but evince the constructive resources 
and daring of the Egyptians in the time of the fourth dy- 
nasty, perhaps 3500 years b. c, and point to a previously ex- 
isting architecture, of which no traces now remain. Lime- 
stone and granite, with a coarse sandstone for the rougher 
masses of masonry, and brick dried in the sun for exterior 
circuit walls, seem to have been the materials most in use. 
Further particulars may be found in the article Architec- 
ture. A. D. P. Hamlin. 

Egyptian Langrnage and Literature : the language and 
literature of ancient i^gypt ; covering the same period which 
the jM}litical history (given under Egypt) included, with the 
addition of the life of the Coptic language. Altogether, it 
must be reckoned at about 5,000 years, extending from the 
fourth millennium b. c. to the tenth or eleventh century a. d., 
having the antecedents of the pyramid texts at the beginning 
and the latest Coptic writings in the Boheiric dialect at the 
end. The Coptic was the only key to the elder forms of the 
language, and yet its earliest remains were separated by 3,000 
years from the beginnings of the literature. But this im- 
mense interval was not the main difficulty. The language 
itself had undergone a development from a simple to an ag- 

Slutinative character. The original form has been found to 
iffer widely from the forms which characterize the Middle 
and the New Kingdoms, and these again from each other. 
The differences are so great that each period has to be pro- 
vided with a special grammatical treatment of its peculiar 
features. 

Periods of the Language. — Taking a broad view, there 
are five periods in the development of the tongue of Egypt, 
marked off more or less distinctly by breaks in the history 
of the land. (See historical sketch in the article Egypt.) 
The first belongs to the fifth and sixth dynasties, the second 
is that of the eleventh and twelfth dynasties, the third in- 
cludes the eighteenth and following dynasties till the ap- 
pearance of the fifth, in the Demotic character, and sixth 
the C()ptic. (See C'OPTIC Language and Literature.) Each 
one of these shows features unknown to the preceding, and 
in these altered features the linguistic development con- 
sisted. 

Styles of Writing. — Similarly there were three styles of 
writing, exclusive of the Coj)tic. The earliest was the hiero- 
glyphic, but of its origin nothing is known, since in its first 
appearance it is a finished product. This style of picture- 
writing remained unaltered in its essential features through 
all the grammatical changes which the languaice uinlerwent, 
and was always the othcial s(!ript used for stone monuments. 
(See Hieroglyphics.) Out of it was developed, for more 
rapid writing on iwipynis and similar materials, a shortened 
form known as tne hieratic, so called because it was sup- 
posed to be the script used by the priestly scribes. The 
third style was the demotic, consisting of further contrac- 
tions of the hieratic forms so abbreviated that all resem- 
blance to the hieroglyphic entirely tlisappeared. The litera- 
ture contained in this script forms a special field of study 
by itself. Under Greek and Christian influence it was re- 
placed by the Coptic alphabet, borrowed from the Greek, 



which retained only six or seven letters from the old to rep- 
resent sounds foreign to the Greek. 

Alphabet and Graphic System, — The basis of the Egy]v- 
tian writing was an alphal)et representing twenty-four ciin- 
sonants, four of which were used in the later periods as vow- 
els or semi-vowels. (For a careful statement of the values 
of the primitive alphabetic signs, illustrated by a wealth of 
special learning, see Dr. Georg Steindorff's article. Das alt- 
dgyptische Alphabet und seine Umschreibung, in the Zeit- 
schrift der aeutschen morge^Udndischen Oesellschaft^ vol. 
xlvi., 1892, pp. 70ft-730.) But these simple alphabetic signs 
were far from exhausting the wealth of characters poss<^ssi'<l 
by the Egyptians. Syllabic and word signs were emplov«<l 
in large numbers and in an increasing proportion as time 
passed, either alone or in connection with alphabetic com- 
plements which served the purpose of indicating the partic- 
ular value attaching to a sign in any given connection. De- 
terminatives were wso employed after individual words to 
indicate the nature or quality of the thing or act men- 
tioned. 

Relation to Hebrew, — The question ot, the relations be- 
tween the Egyptian and other languages rose early. Lcp- 
sius (Nubische Grammatik, Berlin, 1880) investigated the 
languages to the south, but the difficulty exists that the 
comparisons which are possible are between phases of the 
languages which are separated by lone intervals of time, 
and ^ve no reliable results. Benfey {Ueber das Verhditniits 
des Agyptischen zum semitisch^n Sprachstamm, Leir)zig, 
1844) compared the Coptic and Hebrew, but with mislead- 
ing results. His knowledge did not extend far enough, and 
leading scholars are content to await the results of com- 
pleter investigation before expressing a conviction. That 
there was some connection between the Semitic and Egyp- 
tian is clear from considerations deeper than the mutual 
borrowing of individual words. In fact these borrowed 
words which occur in the periods subsequent to the Ilyks^js 
domination are to be regarded with suspicion, unless* they 
can be traced back to a period anterior to the thirteenth 
dynasty, i. e. to the Middle Kingdom. A large number of 
such words exist, and also some which have the appearance 
of a common origin. But the signs of linguistic relation- 
ship which are most striking are those which relate to 
grammar and syntax. As in Hebrew, the signification of a 
word depends on its consonantal constituents, while the 
modal relation depends upon the vowels, which remained 
for the most part unwritten in both the Semitic and Egj^p- 
tian. The roots in both were formed by radicals numberinir 
from two to five, the higher number being obtained usually 
by reduplication. The Ilebrew status construcius is a sin- 
gle example of a general law of the Egyptian by which verb 
and subject, verb and object, the genitive construction, and 
even the verbal clause are combined as in a single word, 
with the accent at the end. The use of pronomin^ suflRxi^ 
was similar, and the pyramid texts show a usage analogous 
to the aieph prostheticum of the Hebrew. See Erman, IVr- 
hdltniss des Agyptischen zu den semitischen Sprachtt* 
(Zeitsch. d. deutsch. morgenl. Oesellsch^ 1892, vol. x\\i., pp. 
93-129); Bondi, Dem hebrdisch-phoniziHchen Sprachztrt igt 
angehorige Lehnw5rter in hierogtyphischen undhieratifichni 
Texten (Leipzig, 1886); Wiedemann, ^/M^/)<t>c7i« Worter 
wehhe I'on klaf<»ischen Autoren umachriehen oder uberst-tzt 
warden sind (Leipzig, 1883), and Die dltesten Beziehungen 
zwischen Agypfen und Griechenland (Leipzig, 1883). 

Grammar. — The study of Egyptian grammar in any 
proper sense is a work of recent date. Its slow progress i:« 
due to the peculiar difficulties which b(»sf»t it. Tne script i*< 
confused, liable to be misunderstood, and defective in that 
it leaves the vowels unnoted and frequently omits even eon- 
sonants. The texts are often in a ruinous condition, and 
their contents are of a nature difficult of comprehensit»n. 
The only aid outside of tlie hieroglyphic writing itself is 
that supplied by the Coptic, which is not only widely sejwi- 
rated in time, but has retained only the infinitive and a S4>rt of 
participle from the many forms discovered in the ancient lan- 
guage. Nevertheless it has been found possible to learn muih 
concerning tlie grammatical structure of the ancient languii ir*' 
of the Old Kingdom, as distinguished from the Middle ami 
New, in s[>ite of the fact that it is largely comiK>sed of ma>r- 
ical contents, and is written in a peculiar orthography new 
to Egyptologists. 

Each word had a single accented long vowel, the others 
being merely serviles. When words were combined to form 
a compound expressi»m, vowel changes occurre<l as in C<>]>- 
tic, and the accent went to the end. Pronominal relati<»ns 



EGYPTIAN LAN'GCAGE AND LITERATURE 



tant textH, both formal and material, which are capable of 
no other explanatioD. The extent Ui which the most sacred 
reti^uua text was changed aad amended is aeea in Narille'g 
monumental edition of the liitual of the Dead of the eigh- 
teenth dynasty (Dae AgyptiKhr. Tudlenbtich dtr n-iii. bin 
XX. Dyna»tie, 2 vola. fol., Berlin, 1»86). The corniplion of 
the text has proceeded so lar thai it is nol in the power of 
textual eritieiam to restore it to its orifiiaal (otm so that 
each word shall appear in iU proper form. 

Rdigioua ZrtVeroiu re.— Although the number of texts 
writt«n in the hieroglyphic and allied characters is im- 
mense, the bulk 
nf them is of a 
religious nature, 
conjjisting large- 
ly of copies of 
the Ritual of 
the Dead, com- 
plete or partial, 
written on fra- 
gile paiiynis, on 
the bands and 
sarciphagi of 
the dead , on tem- 
ple walls and in 
tombs. The lit- 
erary activity of 
the living was 
exercised mainly 
in the prepa- 
ration for the 
lite in the fields 
of Amenti, the 
land ol the 
West, the future 
home of the de- 
ceased. The gods 
and the dead 
were objecLs of 
es|>ecial care, 
fiut in snite of 
the wealth of 
materials there 
is dilUculty in 
o btain i ng a c lear 
TJewof thereliK- 
iousmnceptions 
of the Egyp- 
tians, because 
behind all their 
tormuleand rit- 
ualistic observ- 

bachicrounil of 
mythology as 
yet im|)erfectlT 
comprehended, 

the less eswntiol 
to a complete un- 
ite rstanding of 
t he religion in 
its essence. The 
references te 
these myths an 
t«nded <lo not 
mere directorle: 
■» a ■v.ngbmct 
aifCH. 

Taitn and .Vorro/tfe*.— Egyptian literature is at its best 
in the tales which have been preserved dating from the 
periods of the Middle and N'ew Kinfr<lams. The Egyptian 
was so lacking In iiimpnation that when he left the region 
of simple prose he i»i'nine bombastic, groti'soup, and absurd. 
Yet the literary Egyptian, even when ri'latmga plain and 
simple story, was wont to interiifl sjH'whcs and long let- 
ters which wore evidr>ntly intended as lilerarv adornments. 
It in a remarkable fni-t lliat must of Ihi-st- IhIis, and all of 
those eiiuched in siinj.le prusi' H|ieech, corae from the period 
subsiiiuent to the Uykus invasion and nccujiation. The 
go-calfed prose namiliv™ of the previous pi-riod are prob- 
ably poetic in their stnicture. luring more arlifit'ial, leas in- 
telligible, and in marked contrast to those of the eighteenth 
dynasty, which show a style truer te the contemporary idiom 



and more natural than the official texts and the inscriptions 
in the bombastic style and antique language ol their ancient 
models. 

Poetry. — Closely allied to the tales are the poetical writ- 
ings. Susie and singing were practiced In all periods to 
express joy and Rriel. and the son|r was the amversal ac- 
companiment of labor. The specimens from the ancient 
kinj^lom ore valuable mainly as showing the origin of the 
folk song. In the more artistic pieces of later tunes, allit- 
eration was practiced frequently, and plavs on wotxjs were 
n.— i^ *" a great length. The " paiaUel^ of members," 






Zodiac of thf Temple r>f t 



', but the particular events in- 
pear in delail. The ritualistic books are 
t ol>servanees: the RUuai of the Dead 
• made up of accretions during long 



familiar te us in the Hebrew poets, is frequent and s-mie- 
times very artistic. This parallelism is sometimes si rir I. 
sometimes free, and a poetical composition is occasionally 
arranged strophicolly. Rhythm was also introduced, wilh a 
regular beat of accents, dependent upon theuiiual laws nf 
Egyptian phonology. Long lines are interrupted in snnn' 
of the manuscripts of the iliddle Kingdom by shorter lin.'* 
which mark transitions of thought as well as of meter. A\ 
times these lines are marked in red. 

Letters. — A peculiar form of literature has been pn^ 
served in the collection of letters prepared by teachers fur 
their pupils. Some conUin praise ol the occupation and 
advantages of the learned scribe, who is released from the 
toil and fatigue of the soldier and the laborer. Others con- 
tain moral instruction, the precepts of etiquette, and the 
formula of elegant intercourse. Tney are cast in the form of 
instruction given to the young by their elders, or to pupils 
bv their teachers, in a style that is to us often far fn>in 
clear. In the later, and estiectally in the demotic, perioiLs. 
letters, contracts, and private documenU afford glimpaes of 



EGYPTOLOGY 



royal tgyplien de Turin (2 vols^ Parjg, 1834-26), the general 

hT<:\\mit\u^\n\iisSotictdeacriplivtdtsMoniimrtiU&gyptitn» 
du Mwif-^ 'Ckarla X. (Paris, 1H27). In 183S-30 he seitrched 



his return he was made Professor of Egjptiati Literature in 
tho Collece de Fraiiw, but his strenuous activity, and es- 
pecially Lbu hardships to which he had snbmillvd during; 
his recent joumev, had overtaxed his atrenRtb. He was 
seized vilh a fatal fevor and died Mar. 4, 1»32, a few days 
after he had delivered his first lecture. His rapid success 
hod raised up a bust of detractors and opponents. Klap- 
roth criticised hts work with a bail faith and a virulence 
which cvuD death did nol abat« {Examtn erifiqut da fra- 
raupT df J'ru Jf. Champollion tur lea Hiiroglgpheg, Pari.i, 
1832): Spohn and Scyllarth started a rival system, which 
was ivjocteil in Europe after the death of Uhlcmann (1955), 
but which continued to find some degree of acceptance in 
the U. S. for more than thirty years. Tlie ^neral public, 
however, had received his laliors with deiijiht and imme- 
diately proclaimed bis discoveries as among the most won- 
derful ever achieved in the domain of antif|uity. After 
his death, men of every nation took up his tenchines and 
advanced the work he 'had begun so well: Kestor Lhfite, 
Charles Lenormant, and Dulaurier in France; Salvolini, 
RoscUini, Ungarelli,and Baruccbl in Italy; Leemans in ihe 
Netherlands; Wilkinson. Birch, and OAum in England. 
Chompollion-Pigeac devoted himself to the memory of his 
younf^r brother, and published the most imjKirtAnt of his 
unfinished books, his Letlrta icriUa d'&gyptr (Paris, 1833) ; 
his <ri-amniai>r.^jiifp/t>RNi!(Paris. 1836-41); his DtWionnat'n' 
^gyptitn ni eeriliire kieroglyphique (Paris, 1841-46); his 
Monamtnta da rtgyple el dr la Niibie (Paris, 183S-T5). 
coinpleted, however, only by Maspero. Since then the story 
of EKypIolo^ has been a per|>c1ual record of success and 
discoveries. Ijepsius analyzed criticallv In his Lftire A M, 
h ProfraaeHT RostUini afirCulphabei hifroglyphiqtif (Rome. 
18.17) the structure of the old language, aixl elucidated the 
origin and mechanism of the syllabic characters, the exist- 
ence of which had onlv been surmised by Champollion. 
Lepsius, however, early left philological for historical and 



from his pen: Diis Todltnbiirk der Jigypttr; C'tber die 
xii. SgypliarJie KGniydymtalie ; Einltilung in die Ckro- 
nolngie; Leber den erxleit Sgyptiachtn QSIterkrfia; KBnigit- 
biieh der alien Aggpler, and many more. Large portions 
of these have lieconie antioualed. hut they formed the solid 
ground upon which the ennmoUvry and 'history of ancient 
Egvpt have been built up. JIjs three years' stav in the Nile 
valley at the head of a commission of 'German draughtsmen 
and scientists (lM43-4.'>) produceil the gigantic DenkmUler 
aua Aggplrn uitd Alhiopien (12 vols., ItcrUn, 1840-^!)). in 
which all the historical texts known at the time were re- 
pmduceil by the skillful hand of Weidenbach. llimsen 
pnpuUri/nl the ideas of Jiei>sius in his Jigvpieiu S/elfe in 
der Welhiexrhifhtt (ll.iiuliurg. 184!)): lUinrich Itnigsch. 
thi'n a viimu iimn, applii-.! himsi'tr t<i demotic texts (Srrip- 
lura ^'lyiliorum drmolirn. lltTlin, 1848): Orainmaire de- 
miiliipie (ilcrlin. IKJ-l). Whili' Ihint-s went thus in Ger- 
m:inv. Kmniiiiiuel ile K'nige cnmmencei! his liilmrs in France 
wilh'hi- A'j-.Kyi'-N rr<fi:,;e de C.mrrnqe de it. le CbrrHlier 
de Hun^ei,. in which the m-Tiis ..f liunsen's and l.ei.sius's 
work were fully re.oiriii /.'<!. while their err»r>i and fallacious 
hyji.li h.'si's were jK.iiiml out with a vig.ir of method and a 
cortrtintv which pliiceil tlie vniLiig aullii.r at the heail of 
livinc Ki:vpli'l"(.'i'"^. KTnninnu.'l rle li.xv;;!- hii- i->un termed 
the sec..i.'.l f..urid.r of K-vi.1.il..i;v. and h.. \ms a iH-rfect 
riuht lo thi' tide. Ilu reNi<>.l,'l.-.l [he t'mmiii.ir in liis Chrri^ 
U,mnlhie ^■r/v^'^"!"' ll'nris lNfiT-T«i: her-Hll.-.l hac^k to life 
the first .him-Tii'S in his lierherehen -Hr /« mm.y,m'nla 
qa'on pent ii'fri'nier niir *i> premierer .li/iiiitlii'f de ilniii- 
Ibon (Paris. IHtHil ; he giive tii.- i-rfi'^-t !n.-lel>iif lli,. [mthod 
in which Ku'vi.lKM. t,-st,^.sh..iil.| !«■ cnminciK,"] u|K>n leder 
l.vleneraM.lwi.r.1 l,y w.ini ij> hi. Memo.re sur n.tfripfion 
d'Abmej,, fbefdeM nmil.,«ier> fWn-^. IK-,]), in his h<-de 
fir !,-«. »l.le ;:,;plien„e de In ls,t.li,.ll.;,,'i, Im/ifrMe 
(PHri-s. l>i,V>-.-.;i). 1,11.1 in his >iii,ill.T piiiuphlels. and he was 
the Hrst wlio n'HJlv tnin-hir-'d wh-ile Kirviitiiin Ijrioks nnil 
invri,,(i..M-. l...tli lii.Ti.L'lv|,l,i.- and hi.r»rl.-. He gave a 
n.-v,- impulse t.i K-y[.i..)._.-y M..t ..uiy in Knince. «h.Ti. Mii- 

afler him, but aL~. in knglund'. where hi= ijillueiicr was fell 



by Birch, Hinclffi, Jjep^e-Henouf, and in Germany, where 

Brugsch. nUmichen, Ebers, and Elsenlobr seconded the 

efforts of Lepsius. The elders of the German school are 

irly all practical archieologists, who, like DQmichen. 



ularized in ingenious novels (Die dgyptiaehe K&n\g»- 
lorhltr. I'arda. Ihe Setiirealtm) the knowledge they hod 
acquired in their scientific researches. They are headed by 
tho veteran Heinrich Brugseh (Brugscb Pasha), who may 
be said to be the last of the heroic generation which diil 
not specialize within a narrow branch of the science, but 
took the whole field for its specialty. Hia Qramatiirt 
(Leipzig, 1872); Dietionnaire hifroglypbique (Leipzig, 1867- 
82): Oeographitche In»ehrifien (Leipag. 1857-60); and 
Dielionruiire gfographiqae de I'andennt &gyptt (Ijcipzig, 
1877-80) ; bis Matinuuxjponr atrvir d la reeonslruetion du 
caUndritr dea aneiena Egyptiena (Leipzig, 1864) ; his Ge- 
acbichte .igyptena (Leipzig, 1877) ; his Religion und Mytho- 
logie der alien Apgpler (Leipzig. 188.5-88): his Thetauruf 
Ittacripfionum ^gypliacarum O^ipzig. 1883-81) ; and his 
Agyptoiogie (Leipzig, 1691) are fundamental works, the 
great faults of which are lost in greater merits. With 1hf> 
exception of Wiedemann, whose turn of mind is deciiledly 
historical, the more recent German school inclines mo;^ 
and more to grammars and philology under the Icai) of 
Adolf Erman. the successor of Lepsius' both in the Museum 
and at the University of Berlin. On tlie other hand, ihi- 
French school, though not adverse to philolo^,hasdirecti..<l 
its strength towant history and archaeology since the death 
of Emmanuel de Rougi^ (1872) and of Cliabas (1885). Aii- 
guste Mariette (Marictle Pasha) had opened the way for 
them by his immortal labors among Ihe Egyptian ruins in 
the interest of both the French (1849-54) and Egvptiaii 
(1858-81) Governments. He had discovered the Serajieum 
of Memphis, freed the temples of Edfu, Kamak, Deir el-Ba- 
hari, Denderab, and Abyilus from the rubbish which cum- 
l>ered them, explored the whole Nile valley from Tanis to 
Napata, and collected! in Boulak in 1839 that museum of 
antiouities which, transferred to Gizch (1889). is one of the 
wonders of modem Egypt. The direction of Egyptian ex- 
cavations passeit from his bands to those of G. Maspero 
(1881-86) and E. Orebaut (1886-92). and descended -in 
1893 upon De Morgan, all of them Frenchmen. Moreover, 
tlie French Government maintains in Cairo a Alitaian a 



baut (1883-86), and Buuriant. Young Egyptologists are 
sent every year to Egypt to excavate, draw, c'opv, and puli- 
Hsh the monuments. They are heliieii in the work of iiiid- 
ing and preserving the remains of antiquity by an Anj;!'" 
American society, the Egypt Exjiloration fiiiid, the lir-t 
si^cretarv and real promoter of which was Miss Amelia 1). 
Kdwar<fc (1882-1)3). In 1883 they sent out their first agunt. 
fidouord Saville, of Geneva, and he cleared the site of 
I'ithom in the land of Goshen. Since then Naville, 
Flin<lers, Petrie, Griffith, Gardner, and Newberry have be.>n 
at work. Naucratis has come to light, Tanis and Buhaslls. 
the Pyramids of the Fayum, the tombs of Beni-llasan and 
El-Ainarna have yielded unexpected treasures of archffiilm;!- 
cal and liislorical lore. 

Hecords bcfin to appear with the third dvnasty of Sfa- 
netho. The Sphinx of Gizeh is certainly older, b'ut being 



26 



EGYPTOLOGY 



deity: thus Pierret, Easat 8ur la mythologie Sgyptienne 
(Paris, 1879) and Le panthian igyptien (Paris, 1880), and 
Brugsch, IHe Religion und Mythologie der alien Agypter 
(Leipzig, 1885-88). Le Page-Renouf {Lectures on the Ongin 
and Growth of Reliqion aa Illiistriiied by the Religion of 
Ancient Egypt, London, 1880) considers the Egyptian my- 
thology as being a disease of the language, according to the 
principles of the Max Mtiller school, while Maspero {Etudes 
de Mythologie et d^Archiologie £gyptienneSy Paris, 1892-93) 
insists on the animistic and naturalistic character of the 
Egyptian myths, as does also Wiedemann {Die Religion der 
alten Agypter, MtXnster, 1890). Detailed accounts of the 
common life have been drawn by Wilkinson (Manners arid 
Customs of the Ancient Egyptians, edited by Samuel Birch, 
3 vols., London, 1878); by A. Brraan {Agypten und dgyp- 
tisches Leben im Alterthum, 2 vols., TObingen, 1889) ; and by 
Maspero {Lectures historigues: ^gypte et Assyrie, Paris, 
1890; Life in Ancient Egypt and Assuria, New York, 
1892). The art and architecture of Egypt have been treated 
by Perrot and Chipicz in the first volume of their great His- 
toire de Vart (Paris, 1881 ; English translation, 2 vols., Ix)n- 
don, 1883), and more briefly by Maspero in VArchhlogie 
Sgyptienne (Paris, 1887 ; English translation by Amelia B. 
Edwards, London and New York, 1887 ; German translation 
by Georg Steindorff, Berlin, 1889). Some very good repro- 
ductions of Egyptian statues are to be found in O. Rayet's 
Monuments de Yart antique (Paris, 1880-84). The materials 
for historical and artistic subjects has been collected in sev- 
eral great works, the first of which was the Description de 
r Egypt (Paris, 1809-30 ; 2d ed. 1820-30, followed by Cham- 
pollion's Monuments de VSgypte et de la Nubie (Paris, 1835- 
79) ; Rosellini's Monumentt cTEgifto e di Nubia (Pisa, 1832- 
44) ; Lepsius's Denkmdler aus Agypten und Athiopien (Ber- 
lin, 184^-59) ; and the smaller collections of J. DUmichen, 
Altdgyptische Kale nderinschrif ten (Leipzig, 1868) ; Alt- 
dgyptische Tempelinschriften (Leipzig, 1867); Die Flotte 
einer dgyptischen K6nigin (Leipzig, 1868) ; Mistorische In- 
schriften altdgyptischer Denkmdler (Leipzig, 1867-69) ; Re- 
sultate der archaeologisch-photographischen Expedition 
(Berlin, 1869-71); Brugsch and Dtlmichen, Recueil de 
monuments Sgj/ptiens (1862-85) ; E. de Rouge, Inscriptions 
reeueillees en Egypte (Paris, 1877-79) ; Marietta, Monuments 
divers (1871-90), and others. But the time is past for 
these unmethodical compilations of material, in which texts 
of all periods are mix^, some complete, some in a frag- 
mentary state. The better custom of publishing mono- 
^aphs'in which one temple or one class of monuments 
IS described as completely as possible is illustrated by 
Mariette*s Denderah (Paris-Cairo, 1869-80), Abydos (Paris, 
1869-81), Deir el-BahaH (Leipzig, 1877), and Karnak (Leip- 
zig, 1875) ; the Notices of Tneban Tombs, published by the 
members of the French mission ; bv Rochemontiex's Edfu 
(Paris, 1892); Benedite*s Phila '(Paris, 1893); Gayet's 
LouxoT (Paris, 1893), which are yet in course of publica- 
tion. 

The bulk of Egyptian literature has been preserved in 
papyri, nearlv all of which are scattered in the various 
museums of Europe. Nine papyri out of ten contain the 
religious books and rituals wnich were placed with the 
mummies in the coffins or in the sepulchral rooms. The 
most famous of them is the Book of the Dead, or Rituel 
Funeraire, a compilation of prayers and magical incanta- 
tions intended to msure the security of the soul in the other 
world, and to sen'e it as a sort of password in the travels it 
was compelled to undertake l)efore reaching the Hall of 
Judgment and the Elysian Fields. Several copies of this 
book have been reproduced in facsimile by Lepsius {Da^ 
Todtenbuch der alten Agypter, Berlin, 1842) and by E. de 
Rouge {Rituel Funeraire des anciens £gyptiens, Paris, 
1861-64), but the standani edition is that proiected by the 
International Congress of Orientalists in Lonclon (1874) and 
executed in part i)y Naville in Das thehanische Todtenbuch 
der xriii. bis jrx. Dynn^tie (Berlin, 1886). It gives, how- 
ever, those cha})ters only which are to be found in the 
manuscri[)ts of the Theban period; for those which belong 
to the twelfth dynasty one must resort to Die dlteHte Texte 
des Todtenbuchs, bv Lei>sius (Berlin, 1867), to Maspem's 
Mf moires de la Misxioti fran^aine. du Caire (toni. i., fasc. 
2), and to the Ancient Texts from the Coffin of Amamu in the 
British Musi'um, hy Birch and Le Pa^'e-Renouf (London, 
1887). Translations of the whole lKK»k exist in English, 
prepared by Birch (in Bunsen's Egypt's Place in Univfrml 
History, vol. v., 1866) and by Le rage-Renouf (in the Pro- 



ceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology, from vol. 
xiv.) ; in French, by Pierret {Per-mr-hru, le Livre des Morin, 
Paris, 1882). Some of the principal chapters have been 
translated or edited by Pleyte {Jitude sur le Chapitre J::> 
du Rituel Funiraire, in £tudes £gyptologiques, iL, Levden. 
1868-70, and Chapitres supplSmentatres du Livre des ifnrfM 
102-174, Leyden, 1881-82) ; by Guieysse {Rituel Funfrairt 
:6gyptien, Chapitre 64\ Paris, 1876); by Goodwin {On iht 
IWh Chapter of the Ritucd, in the Agyptisehe Zeitsehriff, 
1871); by Lefebure {Traduction comparh des Bymnejt au 
Soleil eomposant le 150* Chapitre au Rittiel (Paris, IbGS), 
and by others. The most common books of this sort, next 
to the Book of the Dead, were, in Theban times, the BfHik 
of Knowing what there is in the other World, and, in the 
Saite perioS, the various Books of Breathing Anew. Tin- 
former has been edited bv Lanzone {Le domicile des Esprit^*. 
Paris, 1879), and by Lef^ture, Le Tombeau de Seti /., in Mt- 
moires de la Mission du Caire, tom. ii.) ; and it has l)eeii 
translated by Maspero {Etudes de Mythologie, tom. ii.i. 
The Book of Breathing Anew has been both edited and 
rendered into Latin by Brugsch (<Sal-w-*Sin«», sive lib*-r 
metempsychosis veterum ^gyptiorum, Berlin, 1851). Ritu- 
als proper — that is, collections of the ceremonies and prayers 
performed in the temples and tombs — are very numeroiL-^ ; 
such are the ritual for the cult of the Theban Amon (O. 
von Lemm, Das Ritualbuch des Ammoftdienstes, Leipzig. 
1882), the ritual for the services celebrated in the sevt-n 
chapels of the temple of Seti I. at Abydos (Mariette, Abydo», 



iX the ritual used while preparing tne mummies (Masf>ero, 
Le Rituel de V Enibaumement, in JfSmaires sur gas. papyrus 
du Louvre, Paris, 1879). The Opening of the Afouth and 



the other rites performed on the day of burial, whether 
inside or outside of the tomb, have been preserved to us in 
the pyramids of the fifth and sixth dynasties, Ounas, Tet i, 
Pepi I. and II., Mihtimsasuf, and in the private and ruyal 
vaults of the Theban cemeteries. The texts in the pyramid> 
have been collected and translated by Maspero {Recueil df 
Travaux, i. to xiv.), and those of the Theban hypogees by 
Schiaparelli (// libra dei Funerali degli Antichi Egizinni, 
Rome, 1880-90) and by DUmichen {Der Orabpalast drs 
Patuamenemap in der thebanischen Nekropolis, Lei{)zig, 
1884-^5). Books of magic abound, though tney are not a> 
numerous as the strictly religious or ritualistic works. Mo»t 
of them are unpublished as yet, but the translations of 
Chabas {Le papyrus magigue Harris, Chfiions-sur-Saone. 
1861), Pleyte {^tude sur une rouleau magique de Musee de 
Leyde, in Etudes i^yptologiques, i.), Golenischeff {Die Mft- 
temich-Stele, Leipzig, 1877), and Lefebure {Un Chapitre 
de la Chroriique Solaire, in the Agyptisehe Zeitschrift, 
188I^J ^ive a sufficient idea of the ways m which Pharaoh's 
magicians were wont to conjure the demons. That they 
were sometimes prosecuted as adepts in the black art is 
proved by the proceedings in a trial for high treason at 
Thebes during tne reign of Ramses III. (Deveria, Le I'lapy- 
rus judiciaire de Turin, Paris, 1865-68). Magicians acttnl 
oftener as physicians or surgeons, and no remedy could l* 
properlv applied without their help. Al)out twenty treat is»»s 
on medicine are known to exist, of which only two have 
been published : the Papyrus mediccde de Berlin, by Brugsch 
{Recueil de monuments, torn, ii.), and the Papyrus Ebers, by 
Ebers and Stem {Papyrus Ebers : ein hieratisches Hana- 
buch altdgyptischer Arzneikunde, Leipzig, 1875). Kln^rs 
studied ana published comments upon the portions of his 
papyrus which relate to diseases of tne eye {Papyru0Ebers : 
die ' Maase und das Kapitel uber die AugenkrankJieii efi, 
Leipzig, 1892), and a German version of the whole has lieen 
published bv Dr. H. Joachim {Papyrus Ebers : das dlfeste 
iuch Uber neilkunde, Berlin, 1890). No papvrus treating 
of astronomy has yet been discovered, but the calendars, 
zodiacs, astnmomical and astrological tables which abound 
on the walls of temples and toml)8 at Ombos, Esneh, Edfu, 
Denderah, the Ramesseum, the Memnonium of Abydos, the 
funerary rooms of Seti I. and the Ramessides of the twen- 
tieth dynasty furnish a large (quantity of material. Very 
little remains of the papers of Biot, but the identification of 
Egyptian with modem stars and constellations by Brugs<»h 
{Thesaurus Jnscriptionvjyi ^gyptiacarum, i., Astronomische 
Inschriften, Leipzig, 1888) are, if not certain, at least very 
probable. Three mathematical papyri have been found, one 
at Tanis lielonging to Roman times and one from the twelfth 
dynasty found in the Fayum by Petrie, the third at Thebes 
by Rhihd. The last has been interpreted and annotated by A . 
Eisenlohr {Ein mathematisches JIandbuch der alien Agyp- 



EIBENSTOCK 



leOI, after the peace of Luneville, dertroyed the works. The 
citadel was rebuilt in 1915 bf the Pnissian general A9t«r. 
the projector o( all the woriis at Coblentz. Pop. (1800) 

ElbenBlock. fben-atok : town of Saxony ; on railway, 18 

miles S. S. B. of Zwickau (see map of German Empire, ref. 
5-F>. It has manufactures of muslin, lace, ohemii^ls, and 
tinware. Pop. (18B0) 7,186. 

Elchberg, leh'bArch, Julius: composer and t<>acher; b. 
at Dflsiwldort, Germany, June 13, 1824; receiveii his flrst 
instruction from his father and afterward studied in the 
Brussels Conseri-atorT. In 1857 lie became a. naident of 
New York, and in 1859 removed to Boston, where in 1867 he 
eatablishe-i the Bi.ston Conservatory of Shisie. He composed 
much tor the violin, on which he was an e seel lent performer, 
bnt is best known as the composer of the opew.*, Tlie Doctor 
of Alcantara (Boston, Apr. 7, 1862): The Hose of Tyrol; 
The Two Cadis; and A Night in Rome. D. in Boston, 
Jin. IB, 1893. D. E. Hebvby. 

Elohendorir, Ieh>n-dorf, Joseph Fbeiherr. von: lyric 
poet; b. near Ratibor, in Pni^ian Silesia, Mar. 10. 1788. 
He studied law at Ilalle, where he met Nuvalis, and at 
Heidelberj;, where he became acquainted with the romanti- 
cists, Amim, Brentano, and GOrres. EichendorS himself be- 
longs to the later Romantic school, whose prealest representa- 
tive he raay be considered. His poems (1837) are of ait un- 
usual sweetness of melody, tenderness and depth of feeling, 
and elegance of form. He also wrote several dramas and a 
numberoinoveKof *hich/lu«(fcmi,e6*nfrnej Tavgeniektt 
ia the best and most widely read. He was by faith a Roman 
Catholic, and from the standpoint of his faith wrote Oe- 
schichte der poetischen Lilltraliir Dealschlands {History of 
the Poetical Lil*rature of Germany. 1857), which is an in- 
teresting and valuable work. See Richard Dietze, Eichen- 
dorff'a Ansicht Ober romanlitche Poesie (Leipiig. 1883). D. 
at Seisse, Nov, 36. 1857. JuLifs Guebel. 

Eichhoff, leh'hilf, Fbiediiicb Gubtav: philologist; b. at 
Havre, France.Aug. 17, 1790; son of a merchant formerlv 
of Hamburg. As a student in Paris he devoted himsi-lf 

Earticularly to Oriental languages; in 1830 became the 
ing's librarian; in 1843 Professor of Foreign LHnguages at 
Lyons ; in 1855 inspector-general of the University of Paris. 
Among bis numerous works are Parallite dea Ijaiiguea de 
r Europe el de Vlnde (1836) : Mudes itur Niniix. PerxijmH-. 
tl lamylhologif. del' Edda {\i5^\: Orammaire ginerale indo- 
europhnae (1867). He aided in compiling a Dietionnaire 
iluuudogique dra racines allemandea (1840; new eii. 1855). 
D. in Paris, May 10, 1875. 

Elchhorn, ich horn, Joiiann Gotti'Iiied : German scholar 
and biblical critic; b. at DOrcnziminem, Oct. 16. 1752; edu' 
catcd at GiiltinRcn ; became Professor of Oriental Language! 
at Jena in 1775. In 1788 he was called to the chuir of 
Oriental and Biblical Literature at GOItingen. which be ftlled 
nearly tliirtv-eight years. He edited the Allgnneine Biblio- 
thek der bibliaehen Lilleraiur (10 vols., 1787-1801), and wrote 
numerous works which display an eminent knowledge of 
Oriental and biblical antiquities. He is noted for having 
introduced to the German world the famous hyjiotliesis of 
Astruc (if, indeed, he did not come upon the idea ■ — 

Sorarilv), and for having proiiucod the first systematic i 
uclion to the Old Tesiament, Hislurinth^rilische Ei 
tang in das Aile Teala'itiU (3 vols.. 17»:J), which reached a 
fifth edition. Among his other works are Einleihing 
AVm* Teatamenl (3 vols., 1804-14); Urge^.hichfe (Prii 
History, 2 vols.. I700-9a) : Wellgeech ie/ile (Universal llisl. 
5 vols., 1799-1814); and OeschicliU dtr Lillrrnlnriiin ihrem 
Anfang bis auf die iiniealtn Zeiirn |8 vols., lHtfc)-13). D. it 
Guttiiigen. Juno 25, 1827. K*!viscd by C. II. Tor. 

Eichhorn, Kabi. Frikobich : jurist and historian ; a sol 
of J-ihann (J.ittfrie.1 Eieldiom ; b. at Jena. Nov. 30, 1781 
Professor of German I.bw at Gottingcn from 1817 to 182!^ 
Ho puWisheil, U'sides olhcr works, Deuliirhe Slaalt- vni 
JirrhliKit«chichlt{IJvmMn Political ami Legal llistory.4vols.. 
1808-23 ; 5th ed. 1843-15). U. in i;..l.igiie, July 4. 18.14. 

Eickler. ifhler. Auovst Wjuiei.ii: botanist; b. nea: 
Zieirenhaiii, Hes.-i4>n, Apr. 22, 1830; eiliu-ati-d in the Univer 
silv of Mnrlmrg; privat d.K-cnt at Munich lM6r.-71; Pni 
tessor of Botany at Uralz 1871-73; at Ki,-I 18T:t-7H: and a 
Berlin 1878-87. His numerous pulilisli.-d wrilinir* an 
mainly upon systematic Imlnuv and the Mruclurc c.f hiirhc 
plants. For niany years he wh.- tiie edihir of iVi/m liniiti 
Uensis. to which he was a frequent contributor. His book 



EIDER DUCK 

floral structure, BlUlhendiagramma (1875-7B), is a stand- 
ard work. D. in Berlin, Mar. 2. 1887. 

Charles E. Bessbv. 
Elcbstiidt, ieh'stet (Lat. Aurea'twn. or Dri/opolis) : town 
of Bavaria ; on the river AltmQhl ; about 42 miles W. S. W. 
of Katislion (see map of German Empire, ref. 7-F). It has 
a Gothic cathedral founded in 1259, a ducal palace once 
belonging to Eugene de Beaubamais. a public library, a 
"""""m, and the castle of St. Wilibald, used as a barrack ; 
lanutactures of hardware, cotlon and woolen fal)rii-s. 
. The bishopric of EichstJIdt was founil'-d 
here about 745 a. d.. and in 1802 became a principality, with 
the city Eichstiidt a.1 capital. The principality was given 
to Prince Eugene de HeHutiamaia in 1817, and dissolved in 
■"55. Pop. of town (1800) 7,475. 
Eichw«ld, ich'caktt, Edwabd: naturalist of German ex- 
action : b. at Mitau, Russia, July 4, 1795. He visited the 
Caspian Sea and Persia, and becarue Professor of Mineral- 
ogy and Zofilogy at SI. Petersburg in 1838, after which he 
made scientific excursions t^i several parts of Russia and 
Italy. Among his works are Travels to the Caspian iSea 
attdthe Caucasus (1834): Fauna Caepio-Caueasta (1841); 
Tlie Primiliit World in Ruagia (4 vols.. 1840-47) ; and The 
Palteontologg of Russia (\85l). D. in St. Petersburg, Nov. 
10, 1876. 

Elder, i'd*r (hat. Eidera): a river of Germany, forming 
the boundarv between .Schleewlg and Holstein ; rises alHiut 
10 miles S. W. of Kiel, flows nearly westward, and enters the 
German Ocean at TSnning. It ia alx>ut 90 miles long, and 
is navigable from its mouth to Kendsburg. A canal cut 
from Rendsbnrg to Kielfiord opens a communication from 
the Baltic to the North Sea. 

Elder Duck : any one of several species of sea-ducks, es- 
pecially the European eider (Somateria mollissima), wluch 
furnishes the eider down of commerce. This duck also oc- 
curs in the northern parts of North America, but the com- 
mon American eider is tiomaleria dresseri, while still an- 
other species (S. t'-nijfnini) is found on the Pacific con.-Jt. 
The eider duck is larger than the common duck, and the 
color of the plumage in the male varies with the changing 



sea gn'cii on the head. But he does not acquire this I'lu- 
iiiiige until his third year; before that time it resembji-s 
that of the female. The nest is constructed of fine mos.sc» 
and seaweeiis. anil the epKs. from five to seven in number, 
lire about 3 inches long ami 2 broad, and of a light-green 
I'ulor. During incubation the female deposits in the nest 
tlie down wluch she plucks from her breast, and if this is re- 



30 



EISLEBBN 



EL^IS 



Eisleben, Is'ld-ben : town of Prussian Saxony ; about 20 
miles W. of Halle, with which it is connected by a railway 
(see map of German Empire, ref. 4-F). It is divided into 
the old and the new town, the former of which is inclosed 
by walls. It has an old castle and a gymnasium, also man- 
ufactures of potash and tobacco. Copper and silver are 
mined in the vicinity. Martin Luther was bom here in 
1483, and died here in 1546. The house in which he was 
born was partially consumed by fire in 1689, but has been 
restored. In the Church of St. Andrew are presei-ved his 
cap, cloak, and other relics. A bronze statue of the great 
Reformer was erected in 1883. Pop. (1890) 23,903. 

Eisteddfod, d-steth'vod: a congress of Welsh bards and 
musicians for promoting the cultivation of the national 
poetry and music, and secondarily of maintaining the tradi- 
tions and customs of the country." Its origin is very ancient, 
probably dating from a time long previous to the Christian 
era, but the first meeting of which there is any record was 
held on the Conway in North Wales in the sixth century. 
The terra Eisteddfod, however, was probably not applied to 
these sessions till early in the twelith century, when such 
an assembly was callea at Caerwys, in Flintshire, and at- 
tended by all the bards of Wales and some from England 
and Scotland. Here and at other royal seats the congresses 
were held for a long time every three years, and bein^ under 
the patronage of the princes were generally occasions of 
magnificent display. Poetical and musical contests were 
the chief features of these gatherings. Degrees and prizes 
were conferred upon the successful competitors, who were 
therebv raised to a position of hi^h honor and admitted to 
the halls of the Welsh princes and nobles. Edward I. sanc- 
tioned these bardic congresses by his statute of Rhuddlan, 
and they occurred in the reigns of Edward III., Henry VI., 
Henry VIII., and Elizabeth, often under the royal permis- 
sion or patronage. There was an important one held at 
Bewper Castle, Glamorgan, in 1681, but from that time till 
1819 little is heard of them. At the latter date the re- 
awakening of the Welsh national spirit gave them a new 
impulse, and they have since then l)een held annually and 
attended by large numbers. The Eisteddfod for 1892 was 
held at Rhyl ; that for 1893 was appointed to be held at 
Pont-y-Pridd in South Wales. F. M. Colby. 

Eitelberger von Edelbergr, i'tel-barch-er-fon-a'del-bSrch, 
Rudolf: art-historian: b. at Olmtltz, Austria, Apr. 14, 
1817; became in 1852 Professor of Art History at the Uni- 
versity of Vienna, and contributed much to the improve- 
ment of Austrian industry and art. He wrote, amon^ other 
works. Die Reform des KuThstunferrichts (1848) ; MitielcU- 
terliche Kunsfdenkmale des Oesterreichischen Kaiserstaata 
(2 vols., 1858-60) ; and Quellenschriften zur Geschichte der 
Kunst des Mitielalters und der Renaissance (1871). D. in 
Vienna, Apr. 18, 1885. 

^ectment [from Lat. eji'cere, ejec'tum, cast out ; e, out, 
-^ja'cere^ cast] : in law, a mixed action, as it is resorted to 
in order to recover the possession of land, and damages for 
the wrongful withholding of it, though the damages are 
nominal. Originally, it was a " possessory " action — that is, 
adapted to the recovery of the possession of land. By a 
series of fictions it finally came to be a convenient means of 
testing the title. The substance of the fiction was a suppo- 
sition that a lease for a certain number of years had been 
made to a tenant, John Doe, who had entered into posses- 
sion, and had then been ejected by a person supposed to rep- 
resent the party to be ultimately made defendant. This 
person was termed " a casual ejector," and was usually rep- 
resented as Richard Roe. An action was then brought sud- 
stantially under the following title : ** Doe, as tenant of Ed- 
wards (claiming the land), against Roe." A written notice 
was thereupon sent in the name of Roe by Edwards's attor- 
ney to the opposing claimant (Archer), wno is the party in 
possession. By this notice Archer was ail vised to defend 
the action, otherwise Roe would allow judgment to be taken 
against him and the possession would be lost. Archer, on 
making application to be made defendant, was allowed to 
defend upon condition that he would a<lniit the validity of 
the fictitious portion of these proc»eedings ; so that the mat- 
ter was narrowed down to a trial of the merits of the case. 
The action was now deemed really to be between Edwards 
and Archer, though Doe still remained plaintiff on the rec- 
ords of the court. It is a well-settled rule in this action that 
the plaintiff can only recover upon a legal title, as distin- 
guished from a title m a court of equity. He can succeed 
only upon the validity of his own title, and not upon the 



weakness of that of his adversary. He must also have, in 
legal phrase, a ** right of entry." Where that does not exist 
another form of action must be adopted. There was one 
serious practical inconvenience following this method of 
procedure. There was no limit in law t-o the number of suc- 
cessive actions of ejectment that could be brought by a 
plaintiff, although he had been worsted. He had only to 
substitute another fictitious tenant in the place of Doe, and 
all the proceedings might be ^one through with again. The 
only check upon repeated actions of this kind was a resort 
to a court of equity for an injunction to prevent harassing, 
and perhaps exhausting, litigation. The fictitious portion 
of the proceeding was abolished in England by the Com- 
mon-Law Procedure Act of 1852, and the action placed upon 
satisfactory grounds. The same result had been accom- 
plished as early as 1830 in New York. 

Should the plaintiff succeed in his action, he has also an 
independent cause of action for the loss of profits sustained 
by reason of the defendant's wrongful possession. This is 
known as an action of trespass for mesne (intermediate) 
profits. In some of the U. S. — e. g. New York — this cause 
of action may be united with the action of ejectment. The 
recovery would, by the statute of limitations, commonly be 
limited to the mesne profits for the last six years. 

T. W. DWIOHT. 

Ekaterinburg, d-kaa-ta-reen-boorg' : fortified town 
(founded in 1722); government of Perm, Russia; 160 miles 
S. E. of Perm (see map of Russia, ref. 6-1). It has straight 
broad streets, many cnurches, manufactures of metals, and 

fovemment mints, and is the principal city of the mining 
istrict in the Ural Mountains. Pop. (1887) 33,739. 

Ekaterinodar', or Jekaterinodar : the chief town of the 
Kuban territory, Southern Russia ; on railway, and on the 
right bank of the Kuban river ; in lat. 45° 3' N., Ion. 38' 30' 
E. ; 555 miles N. W. of Tiflis (see map of Russia, ref. 11-E). 
It is on a swampy site, subject to overflow, and the houses 
are wooden structures. It was founded in 1792, in the reipn 
of Catherine II., and is now the seat of the hetman of the 
Chernomonan Cossacks. It has an active though local trade, 
and one of the government horticultural institutions is es- 
tablished in the vicinity. Pop. (1871) 17,622 ; (1886) 39,610. 

M. W. H. 

Ekaterinoslar : a government of Southwestern Russia ; 
bounded N. by Kharkof and Poltawa, E. by the count rj' of 
the Cossacks of the Don, S. by Tauria and the Sea of Azof, 
and W. by Kherson. Area, 2o,148 sq. miles. It is traversed 
by the Dnieper, the Samara, and the Waltschija, and con- 
sists almost entirely of large steppes. The soil is fertile. 
Pop. (1889) 1,874,182. 

Ekaterinoslaf : city of Russia; capital of the goyem- 
ment of same name ; situated on the Dnieper, 115 miles S. W. 
of Kharkof (see map of Russia, ref. 10-D). It was founded 
in 1784 by Prince Potemkin, and named after the Empress 
Catherine II., in whose honor a monument has been built. 
It has a large cloth factory, and many other manufactures. 
Pop. (1888) 46,876. 

Ek'ron : one of the royal cities of the ancient Philistines, 
and the seat of an oracle of Beelzebub ; in Judea ; about 25 
miles W. by N. from Jerusalem. Its site is identified with 
the modem Akir, or Akree, Although no longer powerful, 
it was a large yillage in the time of the crusades, but now 
consists of about fiity mud huts. 

Elfeagna'ceie [deriv. of Lat. elceag'nus = 6r. ixaiaypot, a 
Boeotian marsh-plant] : a family of exogenous plants (trees 
or shrubs), natives of Europe, North America, and other 
parts of the northern hemisphere, being rare south of the 
equator. They have entire leprous or scurvy leaves, a su- 
perior ovary, and apetalous flowers. Several species indifje- 
nous in Persia and rfepaul bear edible berries. This order 
also comprises the Shepherdta argentea^ or buffalo berry, 
which grows near the upper Missouri river, and bears a 
pleasant acid fruit; this and the Shepherdia eanadt^nsis 
and the Elceagnus argentea (silver berry of the Northwest) 
are the only known North American species. The oleaster 
{Elteagnus august if olio) is a native of the Levant and 
Southern Europe. This tree is often planted in shrubberies 
for the sake of its fragrant yellow flowers and it« silvery 
white foliage. It attains a height of nearly 20 feet. 

Elseagnns : a genus of the family EL^fiAGNACSiE (q, t\), 

ElaB^is [from Gr. lAaioy, olive oil, iAxdoy olive-tree] : a ge- 
nus of trees of the family Palmacece. The Elmis guinren^ 
sis, or oil-palm, a native of Western Africa, produces the 



32 



ELASTIC CURVE 



ELBE 



rhinidcBf in some respects the hiehest and most wide-rang- 
ing of the class. To this family belong several of the most 
common species of the eastern American coasts. Equally 
wide-ran^mg, and perhaps still more admirably adapted for 
a wandering life, and even more formidable in their arma- 
ture« are the Lamnidm, which include the mackerel sharks 
and the formidable man-eater {Carcharodon carcharias, etc.). 
The families of more limited distribution are the Scylliida, 
which are chiefly represented along the shores of the Old 
World and Australia ; the Pristiophoridce^ which are pecul- 
iar to the oceans of China, Japan, and the neighboring seas ; 
and the HeterodontidcB^ whicn are confined to the Pacific. 
The representatives of the order Rai(B are distributed in an 
analogous manner. The most widely diffused of the types 
is the family of RaiidcB ; all the others are more limited in 
their range, at least toward the northward and southward, 
and are, on the whole, less represented by species and by in- 
dividuals in the regions where they occur at all. The Gh inuB- 
ridm of the present epoch are rather cold-water types ; and 
of the generic or super-generic types one {Chimmra) is rep- 
resented by species of the northern seas, and another (Ccdfo- 
rhynchus) by species in southern waters. The oceans are the 
stations for wnich all the members of the class are most 
fitted ; but although, on the whole, they are essentially ma- 
rine types, nevertheless some are found at times, and a few 
permanently, in fresh waters. Theodore Gill. 

Elastic Garre: in mechanics, defined by James Ber- 
noulli as the figure which would be assumed by a thin hori- 
zontal elastic plate if one end were fixed and the other 
loaded with a weight. The curve assumed by a plate or 
beam when resting upon two supports and loaded with 
weights is also an elastic curve, provided that the weight be 
not so g^eat as to impair the elastic properties of the ma- 
terial. These curves belong to the class known as cubic and 
quartic parabolas, the cubic ones being for single loads and 
tne quartics for uniform loads. See Flexure. 

Mansfield Mebriman. 

Elasticity [from Gr. ^Xotm^s (as if *i}iaaruc6$), driving, 
i\«r^o^ driver, deriv. of ikaop^iyy drive] : the property pos- 
sessed by certain bodies of recovering their original form 
and size after the external force is withdrawn by which they 
have been compressed. Matter is believed to be composed 
of molecules or small particles, acted upon by attractive 
and repulsive forces, ana from the combined action of these 
forces result the various forms and properties of matter. 
According to this yiew, molecules are not in contact, but at 
an infinitesimal distance from each other, which, however, 
may be increased or diminished. When the body is at rest 
the opposite forces which any of its molecules exercise on 
each otner are in equilibrium. If the distance between the 
molecules be increased within the limits of the action of the 
forces, both forces are diminished ; and if the distance is 
lessened, both are increased, but not in the same proportion. 
Solid bodies are imperfectly elastic, and do not entirely re- 
cover their form when the disturbing force is removed ; but 
there seems to be no limit to the elasticity of gases. The 

Ehenomena of elastic bodies are — 1. That a perfectly elastic 
ody exerts the same force in restoring itself as that with 
which it was compressed ; 2. The force of elastic bodies is 
exerted equally in all directions, but the effect takes place 
chiefly on the side where the resistance is least ; 3. When a 
s<»lid elastic body is made to vibrate by a sudden stroke, the 
vibrations are made in equal times to whatever part of the 
body the stroke may be communicated. No theory of elas- 
ticity founded on any assumed hypothesis as to the molecu- 
lar constitution of matter has as yet been found satisfactory 
when applied to solids. In this case, therefore, the theory 
of elftsticitv is best investigiited without resorting to any 
such hy|H)theses. 

Eiastic Limit: the limit to which a body can Ite strained 
and yet recover its original shape when the strain is re- 
moved. A strain carried beyond this causes permanent de- 
formation. See Fatkk'e of Materiai«s. 

Elastic Tissue : a form of fibrous tissue, sometimes called 
Yellow Fibrous Tissue, which may be drawn out to twice 
its original length, to which it returns when released. It is 
found in the membranes which connect the cartilaginous 
rings of the trachea an<l various other structures of the 
animal botly requiring elasticity. In the human lK)dy per- 
haps the most remarkable exam[)le of the elastic tissue is 
seen in the lignmentn suhtJnva^ or intervertebral ligaments. 
Almost all other ligaments are unyielding and inelastic, 
but these are extremely elastic. Their action is to help re- 



store the spinal column to its vertical position when it ha>« 
been deflected by muscular action. In some of the lower 
animals the ligamentum nitc?ice, the great ligament of the 
nape of the neck, is highly elastic, and serves to maintain 
the proper equilibrium between the muscles that erect and 
those that depress the head, as when the animal is grazing. 

El'ater [Gr. iXarfip, driver, deny, of iKaOy^iu, drive] : a 
LinnaBan genus of coleopterous insects, now the type of a 
very large and distinct family of the serricorn Coleoptera, 
called SlateridcB, They have a narrow, elongated CMKly, 
and are distinguished by the presence of a strong spine pro- 
jecting from the posterior margin of the prostemum, and 
a groove or socket fitted for tne reception of the spine. 
If they fall on their back, they recover their feet by a vio- 
lent muscular effort, which throws them into the air with a 
ierk and a clicking sound. Hence they are called click- 
Deetles, snap-bugs, etc. This moyement is the rebound caused 
by the sudden disengagement of the spine from its scKkct. 
•Die wireworms of the U. S. are larv© of the Elaieridiv, 
and are very destructive to growing crops. The elaters feed 
on fiowers, leaves, and other soft parts of plauts. The fire- 
fiy of tropical America is the Elater or I^ophortis nocti- 
lucu8y and it has been discovered that the larve of at le&^t 
one North American species of Mdanactes are luminous. 

Elate'rinm [Gr. iKaeHioww (sc. ^ficacw^ medicine), cathar- 
tic, driving, deny, of Aavytiv, drive]: a drug obtained fnvm 
the Echalium eJuterium, or wild cucumber, called alsu* 
squirting cucumber. It is an annual belonging to the fani ily 
Cucurhttace(By with a trailing stem, heart-shapcKi leaves, 
lobed and toothed, yellow fiowers, axillary; fruit gravi^h 
green, about 1| inches long, covered with soft prickles, ^'he 
iruit in parting from its stalk expels the seeds, along with a 
mucus, througn the opening in which the stalk was in- 
serted. Elaterium is contained in the thick green mucus 
surrounding the seeds. It is a powerful hyurogogue ca- 
thartic, dangerous when used in excess, and is very irritatini: 
to the eyes and skin. The active principle called elaterin is 
obtainea from it. Elaterium is sometimes used in dr(>[t.>y. 

E'lath (Heb. Eloth, trees ; Lat. JEla'na or Ela'na) : a 
town several times mentioned in the Bible; situated at the 
foot of the valley El Ghor in Idunnea, and at the head *»f 
the Elanitic arm of the Red Sea (now known as the Gulf of 
Akabah) ; near lat. 29** 30' N., Ion. 30' E. ; 10 miles K of 
Petra. It was conquered by King Dayid, and under Solo- 
mon became an important commercial emporium. It con- 
tinued to be a seaport of importance under the Romans. It 
was twice taken by the crusaders (1118 and 1182 a. d.), but 
after their time fell into decay. It stood on or near the 
spot now occupied by the fortress of Akabah, which is held 
by a small garrison of Egyptian troops. 

El'ba(Pr. Elbe; anc. Jl'va a.ud ^tlia'Ua; Gv.AidaXia): 
an island of Italy ; in the Mediterranean Sea, between Cor- 
sica and Tuscany; from the latter it is separatee! by a 
channel 6 miles wide. It is about 18 miles long, and A'ari»»s 
in width from 2^ to 10 miles ; area, 87 sq. miles. The co««.t^ 
are bold and deeply indented by several gulfs which fonn p»t kI 
harbors. The surface is mountainous, and the highest |H>iiit 
has an altitude of about 3,500 feet. The island has no manu- 
factures; among its agricultural products are wine, wheat, 
oliyes, and various fruits. Excellent iron ore is found here, 
which on account of the lack of fuel is not smeltcil, but 
shipped directly to the opposite coast of the mainland. The 
sarame and tunny fisheries are of some importimce. The cli- 
mate is mild and equable, and the whole island salubrious 
with the exception of a few spots on the coasts. Pop. 23,()<M I. 
Capital, Porto-Ferraio. By the Treaty of Paris this isltnul 
was designated as the residence of Napoleon I., who re- 
moved to it May 4, 1814, and escaped Feb. 26, 1815. 

Elbe (anc. Al'bis; Bohemian, La' be; Dutch, Elve): an 
important river of Germany; rises in the northeastern part 
of Bohemia, among the mountains called Ricsencebirc^*. 
One of its sources is about 4,500 feet above the le vol «if 
the sea. It flows generally in a northwestern direction, 
drains the northern part of Bohemia, intersects Saxony aiul 
Prussia, and enters the German Ocean near Cuxhaven : iit 
this ix)int the tide rises about 10 feet. It drains an area <if 
over 55,000 sq. miles. Its total length is alx>ut 725 mili-<. 
This river is several miles wide at every point between 
its mouth and Altona, a distance of nearly 70 miles, lt> 
principal affluents are the Havel, the Moldau,the Saale, ami 
the Eger. The chief towns on its banks are Dresden, Mat:- 
deburg, Hamburg, and Altona. Between Dresden and Aii^- 



34 



ELDON 



£L DORADO 



monly, each synagogne had also it« board of elders, although 
in smaller towns there was often but a single rabbi. Tne 
early Christian Church is believed by many to have bor- 
rowed its eldership from the Jewish synagogue. In the 
New Testament elder and bishop are thougnt by many 
Christians to be identical, but opinion on this point is by no 
means uniform. But at least as early as the second century 
(in the Ignatian Epistles) we find the three orders of bish- 
ops, presbyters (or elders), and deacons. Presbyterians have 
both " teaching " and ** ruling " (or lay) elders, but whether 
this distinction existed in the apostolic age is still a 
mooted question. See Presbyter. 

Eldon, John Scott, Earl of : Lord Chancellor of England ; 
b. at Newcastle. June 4, 1751. He was educated at Oxford, 
where he gained in 1771 a prize of £20 for an English prose 
essay. In 1772 he contracted a clandestine marriage with 
a lady named Elizabeth Surtees, and by this act forfeited 
a fellowship which ho had obtained in the college. He 
studied law in th6 Middle Temple, was called to the bar in 
1776, inherited £3,000 from his father in that year, and be- 
gan to practice in the northern circuit. After four years of 
moderate success, he gained great distinction, and rose rap- 
idly to fame and affluence. He became in 1783 a member 
of Parliament, in which he supported Mr. Pitt, and showed 
himself an able debater. He was appointed solicitor-gen- 
eral in 1788, and attorney-general in 1793. During the ex- 
citement of the French revolution he prosecuted Home 
Tooke and others who were accused of treason, but they 
were defended by Erskine and acquitted. In 1799 he be- 
came chief justice of the court of common pleas, was 
created Baron Eldon, and entered the House of Peers. On 
the formation of a new ministry by Mr. Addington in 1801, 
Lord Eldon was appointed Lord Chancellor. He contin- 
ued to fill that high office under several successive admin- 
istrations for a period of twenty-six years, except an in- 
terval of nearly a year in 1806-07. His reputation as a 
judge was very high, but as a statesman his merit was not 
f^reat. D. Jan. 13, 1838. His brother William was an em- 
inent judge, and bore the title of Lord Stowell. See 
Twiss, The Public and Private Life of Lord Eldon (3 
vols., 1844) ; Lord Campbell, Lives of the Lord CJumcel- 
lors. 

Eido'ra: town and railway junction ; capital of Hardin 
CO., la. (for location of county, see map of lowa^ ref. 4-H) ; 
situated on the Iowa river, about 66 miles N. N. E. of Des 
Moines. It has eight churches, a state reform school, a flour- 
ing-mill, planing-mill, potteries, lar^ brick and tile works, 
electric lights, etc., and is a shipping-point for coal, live 
stock, and grain. Pop. (1880) 1,584; (1890) 1,577. 

Editor of ** Herald." 

El Dorado, el-do-raa'do (Sp., the gilded): the fabled 
king of an equally fabulous Indian city, long supposed to 
exist somewhere in the northern part of South Amenca. In 
its most definite form the story described a lake in which 
was an island with a city marvelously rich in gold, silver, 
and precious stones. The chief or "king" of the city was 
daily or periodically anointed with thick oil, in which 
gohl-dust was stuck until he appeared to be covered with 
the metal. This king was " El Dorado " of the Spaniards, 
and the name has been erroneously transferred in com- 
mon language to the supposed city or region which he gov- 
erned. 

This widespread delusion was probably the result of 
various causes which we can only conjecture at this day. 
It is quite possible that vague reports of Cuzco and other 
Andean cities passed from tribe to tril)e of the Indians, and 
were rcHounted by them to the Spaniards. Or we may ex- 
plain the numerous stories of golden cities as bits of aborig- 
inal folk-lore, come down from more ancient times, just as 
the child's tale of a pot of gold under the rainbow is a 
legacv of the Middle Ages It is even possible that El 
Dorado may have been a real personage whose wealth was 
magnified by time and distance. It is said that the Ind- 
ians about the sacred lake of Guatavita, in the Bogota 
highlands, celebrated a strange yearly sacrifice. " On the 
appointed day the chief smeared his body with balsam and 
then rolled in gold-dust. Thus gilded and resplendent, he 
entered a canoe, surrounded by his nobles, while an im- 
mense multitude of people with music and songs crowded 
the shores of the lake. Having reached the center, the chief 
deposited his offerings of gold, emeralds, and other precious 
thin^, and then jumi>ed in himself to bathe" (Acosta, Des- 
cubrimiento y Conquista de la Nueva Granada, p. 199). 



But it is not averred that the Spaniards ever witnessed this 
ceremony, and the story itself may be but a fonn of the Kl 
Dorado myth. 

The sixteenth century was a very credulous period, and 
the cupidity of the Spaniards eagerly grasped at stories of 
golden cities and rich kings. Tales imperfectly understood 
were embellished to suit tlieir imagination ; and, above all, 
they constantly asked leading questions, which savages al- 
most invariably answer in the affirmative. No doubt, also, 
the Indians often concocted stories of distant mines and 
towns, hoping that their unwelcome guests would go in 
search of them ; or, seeing how the Spaniards loved gold, 
they invented stories to please them. In 1492 Columbus 
heard, or thought he heard, of rich mines and cities back 
from the coas& of Cuba and Hispaniola, and in 1502 he 
named Costa Hica and Castilla del Oro from similar reports. 
At Darien Balboa heard of the rich temple of Dabaiba, 
vaguely located somewhere about the heaa of the Atrato ; 
the temple, it was said, was lined with gold, and slaves 
were sacrificed there. In 1512 he led an expedition in 
search of it; there were others in 1515 and later, and it was 
long a tempting bait. Some of the explorers found tombs, 
rich in golden ornaments, but no temple. In 1580 Alfinger 
marched into the mountains of Venezuela searching for a 

g>lden citT, and he and most of his men perished. In 15:^1 
lego de Ordaz explored the Orinoco with a similar object ; 
one of his officers, Martinez, afterward claimed that he ha<l 
actually been in the golden city, which he called Manoa : 
and he, it is said, was tne first to apply the name El Dorado 
to the ^Ided king. It was natural enough that lying report s 
like this of Maitinez should grow up around the story, all 
the more so that they were readily believed. For a time 
the mountains of New Granada were the favored region of 
El Dorado. In 1587 Ouesada, marching from Santa Mart a, 
reached the plateau of Bogot^ and the country of the Chib- 
chas ; soon aiter he was joined there by Federmann, who bad 
come from Venezuela, and Benalcazar from Quito, all cha<^ 
ing the same golden phantom. The spoil of the Chibchas 
only whetted their appetites: when it was known that Kl 
Dorado could not be found in the highlands, his city wba 
located farther and farther toward the center of the (con- 
tinent, in the g^eat forests of the Orinoco and Amazon. 
These wilds arg almost unknown at the present day, but in 
the sixteenth century they were traversed a«;ain and again 
by bands of Spanish adventurers. The early knowledge of 
the Orinoco and Amazon, with their tributaries, was al^]o^t 
entirely due to these expeditions. In 1541 Philip von Hut en. 
starting from Coro, passed clear across the Orinoco ba^in. 
and actually reached the country of the Omaguas, near the 
Amazon, a journey that seems nearly incredible. He failed 
to conquer the Omaguas, and probably for no better reaM»n 
they became for a time the guardians of El Dorado. Peiln> 
de u rsua started from Bogota to find a ** golden city of the 
sun," and his expedition founded the town of Pampluna. 
In 1560 the same leader was appointed " governor of Oma- 
gua and El Dorado," and he started to find his domain by 
way of the Huallaga and Amazon. Ursua was murdered by 
Lope de Aguirre, who finally descended the Amazon and 
reached Venezuela after one of the maddest piratical crui>* > 
ever recorded. By this time the myth had taken many new 
forms. On the southwestern tributaries of the Amaz<>ti 
there were the fabled districts of Enim and Pavtiti, said t** 
have been founded by Incas who had fled from Peru, and 
to have surpassed ancient Cuzco in splendor ; these were t he 
objects of numerous expeditions, ana even intheeighte»^nth 
century they were universally supposed to be realities 
North of the Amazon the supposed tlown of El Dorado wa*^ 
shifted eastward until it reached Guiana. There the Kni:- 
lishman Raleigh searched for it in 1595, believing that he 
had located this much-desired city in a lake called Pariiim, 
Raleigh's expedition led indirectly to the modem colonv of 
British Guiana; and the Lake Parima remained on Eni^Ii^h 
maps until Schomburgk's explorations conclusively pn>vtHl 
that it was a pond and swamp. The emerald mountain ol 
Espirito Santo, and the Martyrios gold mine, long s«»ujrht 
for in Western Brazil, recall the El Dorado myth; while f.nr 
southward in the Argentine plains, the city of Cesar, witi) 
silver walls and houses, was another alluring phant4>m. It 
was said to have been founded by shipwrecked Sjvini>h 
mariners, and even late in the eighteentn century ex{>t'di- 
tions were sent to search for it. 

References. — Schomburgk, introduction to Italei(7h\t 
Discovery of Ouiana (Hakluyt Society, 1859); Marklmni. 
Search for El Dorado (Hakluyt Society, 1861); WinsT ji- 



I 






3« 



ELECTION 



ELECTRICAL MACHINES 



fttiX^l fnitr fj^Hereft or clAims that the declared nuijority 
ove« it*) «ucee-iA Ui election frauds, the elections are likely to 
be rif>ut*r<4^L At ele<ctionK to le^«»Uti%'e a^ssemblies such a»- 
»wmbli*2* dw/ide finally ordinarilv on the claims of rival can- 
di<lAt«r^: but in i^^irne caf^es the ifecision re*>ts with the courts. 
If a pn^idential elw'tion is conteste<i in a republic, there is 
dariffer of civil war, of which, in (larticular, tne republics of 
S'lUth and Central America fumi>h many examples. The 
C. S., which, on the whole, have U*en free from the sad ex- 
jjerienc<-» of the Scmth and Central American republics, had 
m l>i751 a c<in«<pir-uouH instance of a contcste<l gubernatorial 
eWftion and iu di.sa?>trouj« consequences in Louisiana, where 
for H**veral months two rival governors claimed each to be 
the lawful executive of the State, and tried to enforce his 
claim, until on May 22. IHTi, the Pn^ident of the U. S. inter- 
fered bv a proclamation in favor of one. The raf)st serious 
c&*)e o{ a dii'putef] natioruil election was the memorable 
Hayes and Tilden contest of 1^576, which was decided in 
favor of the former by an electoral commission comp<jsed of 
five .Senat'irs, five Repres<'nlatives, and five ass4x:iate judges 
of the .Supn^me Court. (See Presidential Electoral Com- 
msHiox.j F'or information as to presidential elections in the 
U. S., w-e Stanwrjod, A History of Presidential Elections 
(4th in\. 1802). S*'e Ballot Reform, Xomixatiox, Pl£bis- 
ciTK, Keprese-vtative System, Suffrage, and Vote. 

Eleetlon, in theologj' : See Calvinism. 

Elector [I^t. e/ec7or, <'\n)fy^T. deriv. of eli gere, select : e, 
out from + U'gere, c1kx>j«*']: a title of those German princes 
who hairl the right or privilege of electing the Emperor of 
Germany. There were originally (1256 a. d.) seven — namely, 
the Kle<;t/>rH of (Joli)gne, Mentz, Treves. Br^hemia. Branden- 
burg, Saxony, and the Elw-tor Palatine. The first three 
were Archbishoris of Cologne, Mentz, and Treves. The elec- 
tfirs ha*l several important privileges, and a very peculiar 
p<isition in the empire. They usually chrxsc the heir or near 
relative of the precerling emperor. As the electoral dignity 
of the Palatine had been transferred to the Dukes of Bavaria, 
an eighth electorate was established by the peace of West- 
phalia in 1648 for the PaUtine, which ceai»e4l in 1777, when 
the house of Bavaria l)ecame extinct. In 16(^2 the elector- 
ate or dignity of elector was conferral on the Dukes of 
Brunswick-LQneburg, who were aftem-anl stvled Electors 
of Hanover. The electors were entitle<l to all royal digni- 
ties and honors except the title of majesty. On the disK)lu- 
tic»u of the Holy Koinan Empire in 1806, the office became 
obsolete, but the title was retained by the rulers of Hesjve- 
Cassel till 1866, when that state was unite^l to Prussia. The 
term elector is also applied to each of thf>se fierscjns who. 
under the Constitution of the U. S., are chosen to elect the 
President. See Electors. 

Electoral College: See CoNSTiTrTxo.v of the C S., Art. 
XII., and Electors. 

Electoral GommiMion : See Presidextial Electoral 
Commission. 

Electoral Crown, or Cap : a crown worn by the electors 
of tlie German empire. It was sunnounted bv two golden 
deniicircles, ornamented with pearls and havmg a golden 
orb an<l cross at the toj). 

Electors : in the political system of the U. S., the persons 
who are chosen by tne peo[>le of the several States to elect 
the President and Vice-Pre>ident. Ew'h State chof)ses a 
numlier of electors equal to the whole number of members 
it sends to both hous«'^ of Congress*. No S<*nator or Kejire- 
sentative, or |H'rson holding an office of profit or trust under 
the v. S., can be api)ointed an elector. The electors must 
be chosen on the same (lav in all the States — that is, on the 
Tuesilav next after the first Mcmdav in Noveinlwr. The 
Constitution onluiiis that the electors simll meet in their 
respective States on the first Wednesday in I)eceiiil»er. and 
vole by billot for President and Vice-President, one of whom 
at least shall not bean inhabitant of the same State with 
thems<^lves ; and they shall make distinct lists of all pers^ms 
vott^d for as Presi(h»iit, etc., and of the nuniljer of votes for 
each; wJiich lists they shall sign and certify, an«l transmit 
seale<l to the seat of government of the U. S., directed to 
the president of the Senate. The electors of all the States 
constitute the elect<»ral college*. A majority of tlie whole 
numU»r of electoral votes is necessary to elect the Pre>»i(lent 
and Viee- President. In 1802 the whole number of electors 
\*;»s 444. They meet at the capitals of their respective 
Slates on tiie first Wednesday in December. The electoral 
Voles are opene<l and counted on the second Wednesihiy of 



Pebmary by both houses of Congress, which meet in the 
chamber of the Representatives. If no candidate ha^ a 
majority of all the votes, the House of Representative^ ha^ 
a right to choose either of the three persons baring xhf 
highest number of votes. It was supposed by the frainrrs 
of the Constitution that the electors would exercise a fr.-«- 
discretion and choose the best man for the offices, but the 
position has lost its importance from the fact that the elit-- 
tor is obliged by usage to vote for the candidate of his fiany. 

Revised by C. K. Adams. 

Electra (in Gr. *BXjfKrpa): a daughter of Agamenin.»n. 
King of ilycenae; sister of Orestes, and wife of Pylad*-.. 
She was sometimes called Laodice. Her story is the sul)jr<t 
of dramas written by -^schylus, Euripides, Sophocles, and 
Racine. The most perfect* of the ancient tiagedie> of 
'* Electra "is that of Sophocles: in this she stimulates her 
brother Orestes (whose life she has saved from the vif^l.'net• 
of her father's murderers) to avenge the death of that jian nt. 
This he accordingly does, with the aid of Apollo. No K?.- 
than five other persons of this name are mentioned in the 
Greek mythology. 

Electrical Fishes : fishes having the power of giving sen- 
sible shocks of electricity, a power possessed probably by no 
other animaL At least fifty marine AniniRU of ver}' diverse 
character are known to have this power. Among' the U-<1 
known are several sf»ecies of Torpedo and Xarcine (of Uh- 
ray family), one of which is occasionally found on the At- 
lantic coast of the C. S. The Electrophorus electricuA. a 
fresh- water eel of South America, sometimes 20 feet Ion::, 
has the power of overcoming men, and even horses, by its 
tremendous shocks. Two species of Ifaiapterurus of' the 
African rivers are also electric. Faraday ol»erves that th* 
Electrophorxis may produce a shock equal to that of fift*t n 
Leyden jars, containing in all 3,500 sq. inches, charge^l t.. 
the highest degree. The force is that due to ordinary 
static elect ricitv, and readily affords a spark. The Torjndo 
and the electnc eel have electric organs intimately con- 
nected with the nenous svstem, consisting of a series of 
highly vascular cells or hollow prisms containing a walen 
fluid. Other electric fishes have a less definite apjiaraiuV 
for this function. It is not known that this remarkaitle 
power is of any service to these fishes, except in self -protec- 
tion. See Electricity, Animal. 

Electrical Machioes: machines for the electrostatic 
generation of differences of potential, that is to say, f«'r 
electrification by friction or by electrostatic induction. In 
frictional machines the body rubbed is a revolving ghi-^ 
plate (in early forms a cylincfer or ball rubbed bv the hami), 
passing between rubbers of soft leather to which a dreeing 
of sodium amalgam has been applied (Fig. 1). 

In the process of electrification, equal and opjH»site 
charges are always generated. In frictional machines t h» 
glass plate and the metal parts which gather charge there- 
from (combs and prime conductors) become positively, tlie 
rubber negatively, electrified. The latter is usually" con- 
nected metallically to the earth. In a dry atmo'sjih»'re 
I under such circumstances the prime conductor soon Ix-gins 




FlQ. 1. 



to show signs of strong electrification, and after a few rapid 
revolutions of the plate sparks may be drawn. 

In all such machines, however, even under the niosi 
favorable conditions, a scarcely appreciable portion of the 
work done ap[H»ars in form of electrical energy, the remain- 
der being wasted as heat. For this and for other reHx)n> 
friction-machines have gonealmosteutirely out of use. 1km n.: 
re[)laced by a class of machines which produce elect ritica- 
t ion by electrostatic induction. There are manv forms i4 
such apparatus, the best known being the "influeiuv-inn- 



ELECTRIC ARC 



ELECTRIC BLOWPIPE 



■0 of the current. At 
lost infinite electrical 
(I establish an arc between two points, there- 
fore, it is necessary to heut the intervening air to a degree 
at which it is capable of carrpn^ the current. This can be 
done iu some cases hj the application of a flatne, bnt the 
usual method is to briiiK the terminals together for an in- 
stant. Current then flows, and at the point of contact 
where the resistance is high much heat is generated, the 
points glow, and the air-Aim between reaches a temperature 
such as to make it a conductor. The terminals maj now 
be separated without extinguishing the arc. If, however, 
neither of these methods is fulloned, but the difference of 
potential between the two points is increased Ui a verj high 
value, the insulating power of the intervening medium will 
be ovoroome. and a discharge will take place. With most of 
the devices by means of which sufficient potential difTer- 
ences can be reached (the induction-coil, influence-machine, 
etc) the result is simply a spark which differs from the are 
in being of short duration (rarely more than ^^^ of a 
second). After the passage of the spark, the medium, beins 
mobile, will re-establish itself, and no further discharge wifi 
occur until the potential difference has risen again to its 
former high value. The term " electric arc " is applied to 
the permanent air-path established for the current by one 
of the previous methods. 

The surfaces between the terminals and the arc offer 
greater resistance to the current than does the arc itself. 
These then are the regions of the highest temperature. If 
the terminals are of metal, however refractory, it is at once 
fused and rapidly volatilized. Almost the only material 
capable of withstanding the heat developed is 'carbon in 
graphitic form, and even this, under the action of the arc, is 
atowly disintegrated and oxidized, and it is necessary to 
keep the points at the required proiimity cither bj gravity 
or by a mechanical device. When an arc is maintained in a 
continuous-current circuit, the contact resistance at the posi- 
tive terminal is greater than at the negative. The former, 
therefore, is always hotter. Both carbons, however, are ren- 
dered vividly incandescent, and it is to the light which they 
emit that the system of illumination known as " arc-light- 
ing" owes its brilliancy. See Electbic Liohtisq. 

According to R<issetti, the temperature of the hottest part 
of the positive carbon of the arc-lamp is 3,900° C, that of the 
negative carbon 2.450° C. Owing to tliLs difference, also to 
the electrolytic action of the current, the two terminals are 
attacked in a different manner, and each assumes a char- 
acteristic form. /The positive is consumed the more rapidly, 
in general about twice as fast as in the negative carbon. 

Fig. 1 is from a photograph of the arc, made by the 
writer. Owing to the high actinic value of its rays the arc 
appears in the photograph relatively brichter than to the 
eye, but the illustration brings out several of the points al- 
ready mentioned, viz., the greater brightness of the upper, 
or positive, carbon, the difference in the shape of the two, 
and the fact that the incandew;cnt carbons are more im- 
portant as a source of light than the arc itself. It will be 
seen that the positive pencil is eaten away at the end, form- 
ing a cavity (technically known as the crater), which is the 
brightest region of all ; also that the lower carbon is pointed, 
with a little crest or nipple. This is formed in great part 
of carbon which has bi^-a iletached from the positive pencil, 
transferred througli the arc by the current and deposited 

In order that an arc may be maintained across an appreci- 
able air-gap, a difference of potentibd of about twenty-two 
volts must exist between the terminals. As the voltage 
rises, the maximum length of arc increases until at fifty 
volts it is perhaps as much as a centimeter. 

Are-lamps in commercial practice are maiDtalneil at a 
voltage of approximately the Utter value. 

The reaialantt of the electric arc varies with the current 
flowing, but it seems surprisingly small when we consider 
the materials of which it is coiiijHiscd, With ten amperes 
flowing and fifty volts lietwecn terminals, the resistance (by 
Ohms law) is only five ohms. f)f this a considerable and 
nearly constaut factor is the "contact-resLstance" between 
the terminals and the intervening gas. It follows that the 
resistance of the arc is not dint-lTy ])roportional to the ilia- 
tance between the oarlwiis. but is exprestcd by a formula of 
the following 



R. : 






quantity which expresses the 



of the gas layer per 



The electric arc acts like any conductor carrying current. 
When placed in the magnetic field, for instance, it tentis to 
move at right angles to the lines of force. Since the medium 
is a mobile one, this tendency is indicated by marked dis- 
placement of the arc (as in the well-known experiment of 
the repulsion of the arc by means of the horseshoe magnet). 

In an alternating-current circuit many of the phenonienii 
of the arc differ from those just described. The terming 



no. 1.— The el 



itlrwi-rurrpot circuit). 



tend to assume the same shape, they are equally bright, and 
they are consumed at nearly the same rate. In siii-h <'in'iiit4 
the current passes through zero at every alternation, and the 
are is extinguished at every reversal ; but it is re-eslabli.slied 
as the current rises, before the air-gap has had an opjHir- 
tunity to cool. The familiar humming of the altemaiiiig 
arc is due to this reignition at each alternation. The fad of 
the extinction of the arc has been established by photo- 
graphing it upon a rapidly moving plate. 




Fig, 3 is from such a photograph, made by Mr. J. (*. 
McAfvnn (Trans. Am. IhsI. E. E.. 18B1). 

The trace of the imasfe of the arc is not continuous, but 
consists of alternate light and dark spaces, which corresjxind 
in time to the periixTof reversal. The continuous trait'> 
above and below the image of the are are due to the incan- 
descent tips of the upper and lower carbons. 

The materials present in the are depend upon the chamo- 
ter of the terminals and of the intervening medium. The 
are-spectrum alwavs shows bright lines, which are tracea'ilr 
to the vapors of whatever metals chance to be present. Bi-- 
tween carbon points are obtained, besides the lines charai-- 
terlstlc of carbon compounds, the sodium lines and litii-:^ 
due to iron and to various other metals. 

Aside from its value in artificial illumination, the are is 
of importance in metallurgy and in various processes wherp 
vcTv high temperatures are essential. For some dcscriplinn 
of its application, see Klectbic Lioht, ELECTHir Wei.di\o ; 
also ELGCTRicrrv and Electric DisrHiBOE. 

E. L. Nichols. 



40 ELECTRIC BEL 

ona-cumnt arc it is tooler thftn the positive — these and & 
maltitudo o( other questions are in great meaaure undeter- 
mined. The details of the work alread; done in this inter- 



Fio. I.— TbnODvlUMurj discharge (aller a photOKraph b; Prof . Boja). 

estinK domain of experimental physics are scattered through- 
out the Bcientiflc journals and transactions. Excellent sum- 
Duries are to be found in such wcirks as Riess's Reibvngg- 
rleklTieitSt, and iu the (ourth volume of Wiedemann's trea- 
tise, Dit Lthre von dtr Eltktriciiat 



Tvt. 8.— Oroup of BpBTlu paniDg becweeii Uie polea of a Holti ma- 
cblne dunnd halt a aeoand (from a pnoti^raph). 

Electrical discharges occurring in nature are treated in 
the article Liohtnino {q. v.). For explanation of various 
terms used in this article, see CAPAcrrv, Condenser. Con- 
DVCTOR, DiELEiTBK', ELEcTBinTV, Specteum, and Vacuum. 
K L. Nichols. 
ElMtrio Eel: See Electrical Fisses a:id Gvunotl 
Electric Fnmsce : an apiuratuB in irhich verj high 
temperalures are nttained bv surrounding the electric arc, 
or sometini<>!> h group of arcs, in jiarallel with carbon, lime. 
or other rcfractorv substance. The material within which 
the arc i»i imliedilnl (should he a poor coniluelor of heat anil 
of eli-clricity : it should be extreiDely n'traclory. and it. 
should \k a rethicitif; agent. In mnic fornix of furnace a 
carbon (xit is used, inin which is inserted a heavy carbon 
pi'ncil or a l>nnch of penrtlA. the Iwittom of the pot forming 
one lerminnl. The material to he fu^ied xn placed between 
(lie end of the pencil and the IhiIIoui of the pol, surrounded 
with suitalilc mixing iiiHifrial. Aiioilier form coummIs of 
two gniu|>s of pencils dipping dingoiiully into a furnace 
box, one groiin serving an |M)silive. the other as nejnitivc 
terminalK. The tenijicnitiireH produced suDti-e to rctluce 
the most, refractory ores, such as the oxides of nlnniinium 
and mugiicsiuiii. '\ furnace of small ^in;, consisting of two 
slender |M'ncils lni«rteil into a cylinder of linie, Inis been 
u:4ed for the reduction of the rare metals, erbium, yttrium, 
etc. B. L. Njcuols. 



.wledge for 2,U(K> 



BLBCTRICITY 

Electrieit7 [from Lat. ebc'fruin=Or. J|x«Krp«v, amber] : 
the cause of an important class of phenomena, the science 
of which may 1m said to have its origin in the experinients 
of William Gilbert, of Colchester, physician to ^ueen Eliia- 
lieth (1540-1603). The isolated fact, generally ascribed to 
Thalea, that amber when rubbed attracts other bodies was 
known to the Syrians and Persians at an early day, as well 
as to the GreeilBi but, aside from the statement of Theo- 
phrastus that the fabulous mineral lyicurion shared with 
amber the property in question, Bcarcely an addition s 
to have been made to this branch of knon 

Gilbert studied the phenomenon of amber-rubbing ^rs- 
temalically. and made out a Ions list of substances which 
he found capable of being excited by friction. He was the 
first to propose the term " electric " by which to distinguish 
the forces thus brought into play from those due to magnet^ 
ism. From his time on, the students of electricity rapidly 
3nth century there were among its 

_, _ ^wton, Boyle, von Guericke. and 

Hawksbee; in the eighteenth, Du Faye, Symmers, Kollet, 
and Franklin. Modem electricity began, however, with 
Cavendish, toward the end of the eighteenth century. His 
more precise investigations, followwl by those of Davy, 
Oersted. Ohm, Ampere, Faraday, Weber, Heurv, and their 
disciples, made possible the work of the CTeat scSiooI of elec- 
tricians of which Maxwell, von Helmboltz, and Kelvin are 
the leaders, as well as the important industrial achievementa 
of the closing years of the nineteenth century. 

The nomenclature in vogue in electricity is strangely at 
variaiice with the present opinions concerning the nature of 
the phenomena with which the science deals. It is a sur~ 
vival of the time when the two-fluid theory of Du Fave 
and Symmer and the one-fluid theory of Franklin were trie 
two conflicting "modem views of electricity." We still 
speak of the separation of the electricities; of the positive 
(or ncKative) electricity flowing off to earth, when a IxkIv 
electrifled by induction is connected metallicly with the 
ground. We speak of current, of the direction of the cur- 
rent, of flow and rate of flow. The term cAorae originallv 
conveyed the idea of filling a body with the electric fluid, 
and discharge referred to the supposed escape of that fluid. 
Terms indicative ol the existence of the electric fluid are 
still used, but it is merely for cmivenience, and with recog- 
nition on the part of every welf-informed student that the 
nomenclature is an artificial one. Electricitv, from Ihe 
standpoint of the present day, is a science whicli deals with 
certain transform^ions of energy. It is the purpose of this 
article to describe some of the more important of then' 
transformations, and to point out their relation to the |>he- 
nomena with which other parts of the science of physics have 
to do. In the course of the discussion it will be neces-arv 
to deal primarily with a process called electriflcation. and 
indirectly with a large number of important and interes-t- 
ingphen'omena which result therefrom. 

Eltelrifiealion is a process which involves the expenditure 



of potential) between neighboring bodies or between parts 

_. .L_ i._i_. 1. : . 1 to determine precisely in 

1 consists, but there is an 
analogy between electriflcation and other physical processes, 
in which potential energy is produced, which may in some 
degree aiu in the understanding of the nature of the ca."^. 
The processes in question arc those in which difference of 
temperature is created or difference of level in liqui<ls, or in 
which a spring is stretched or a chemical com{>ound is 
broken up. In all such cases there is a tendency for the <tif- 
ference of potential to be equalized. In the equalization. 
energy in one form or another is always dcvelo)>cd. giving 
rise lo the innumerable phenomena which it is the proviiuT 
of the scii'iicc of phvsics lo describe. When the differcnci- 
of potential producecl manifests itself in certain wavs it ts 
clflssified as electrical, and the process by means of which 
the ])Otential difference has been producM is called electri- 



heat, by the movement of a conductor in the magiietie fieM 
(or by variation in the strength of the maenetic field m 
whicli conductors lie), and in other ways. These will l«- 
considered in turn, and in connection with each the niun- 
im;K>rlaiit phenomena which characterize the re-oslaiilish- 
iMOiit of equilibrium will be touchwl upon. It will be seen 



43 



ELECTRICITY 



The condition of the body thus infiuenced is as follows: 
It csrriea upon ite surface two equal and opposite electriS- 
cations. The difference ol potential teods toward equaliza- 
tion, but it is kept u(i bjr the continued action of the induc- 
ing body. It the latter be removed, or if its electrification 
disappear, instant equalization wilhin the body carrying the 
induced eharBes will take place (if it be a good conductor). 
In the case ofa poor conductor the return to the neutral 
condition will be more frradual. In both cases, however, 
the restoration of equilibrium wilt be accompanied by the 
development of energy in some form. 

For a long time thtse effects were regarded as cases of 
action at a distance. It is now generally accepted that the 
action tAkes )ilace through a universal medium filling all 
space and permeating all matter : and that the medium poe- 
tcteea properties such as to establish its identity with the 
luminiferous ether. See Lioht. 

It is usual Ui eipress the above condition of affairs by say- 
ing th^ every electrified body possesses a field of force of 
which it forms a center. Particles of matter within this 
fleld tend to move toward or away from a body, according 
to the manner in which thej may be electrified. The paths 
which they tend to follow are called lines of force. 

The simplest cose is that of a field in which there are only 
two bodies, a and b, at a distance, d, from one another. The 
force of their mutual attraction or repulsion is eipressed by 
the equation 

I- a. • 

where qi,and q* are factors which eipress the electrical con- 
dition of the two bodies. They are called the quantUie* of 
eltelneil^ with which a and b respectively are charged — a 
name which has come down from a time when there was 
thought to be an electric fluid. 

Considering electrification as a process by means of which 
a difference o[ potential is produced, q. and qt may still be 
used, defined as the amount of work done upon the bodies 
a and b to electrify them. 

It is of importance to note that the eouation for the force 
between two electrified bodies is precisely analogous to that 
which expresses the law of gravitation between any two 
particles of matter in space, and also to the formula for the 
attraction or repulsion between two magnetic poles, viz., 
M,Mi 



'.' 



d' 






d' 



where f, and f_ are the forces in question, and MiMi the 
masses or mimi the strength of the poles respectively. 

All three are examples of what are known as central 
forces, and act inversely as the square of the distance. 

Since every material particle in the neighborhood of an 
electrified body suffers electrical disturbance (insulated 
bodies having difference of potential between their parts, 
bodies in metallic connection with the earth coming to a 
different potential from the latter), and since the production 
of those enanges involves the exi>enditure of energy which 
is restored in one form and another whenever the potential 
differences cease, it follows that the electrification of a body 
always implies work done, the quantity of which depends 
upon the amount and the arrangement of matter in the 
neighborhood. 

Whenever a field of force is established within which 
there is matter Ui be acted upon inductively, a temporary 
storage of ein'trica! energy takes place, and in certain ca»cs 
the amount stoml is very large. Apparatus designed for 
thus storing definite quantities ot electrical energy is called 
a eondennrr. 

A condenser generally consists of two or more parallel 
walls or coatingK of conduct ing mutcrial. separated from 
each other by a layer of some insulating substance enlled the 
dielectric. A familiar form of condenser is the Leyden jar. 
Sec CosDENSEa. 

Elerlrijiralion bi/ Induetion. — Electrostatic induction af- 
fonU the most conveiiierit itud effri'live means of Ijringing 
about differences of iKitentinl, and it is in the eiiuiilirjit ' 
ot such differcniH's that many of the most strikiilit pherii 
enn of eli-ctrioity occur. In Ihc early days of the »i-ici 
boilies were elec'trifieil chielly by friclion. ' A s[iliere of glass 
mainlained in rapid nrtuticm and excileil by contact with 
the dry hands of the ex|H>rinient<T (Kij;. 2) cunsiituted the 
celebrated electrical machine of llawkslve. l^Ier a cylin- 
der wa-s Hulistiluted for the revolving sjilicn-. and later still 
« revolving <lisk of plate glass, rubbed with leather. About 



s based upon the principle of electrification by ii 



lo. v.— Paoslmlle of ai 
Paris. ITHl. 



AbM Nollet'l i 



■iDB.diowirpH.-k* 



Stated in the most general way the process in all such 
machines consists ot the tollowiug cycle of operations : 

(1) A conductor of electricity is brought very near to some 
body previously electrified. 

(3) The former is connected metallically with the earth. 

(3) The earth connection is severed. 

If at this point the inducing body and tlie conductor >>e 
sejiarated, the latter will be found to be charged (i. e. to \<e 
electrified, and at a different potential from the earth). The 
sign (±) of its charge will be opposite to that of the inducinj; 

ITiis cycle of operations may be gone through with over 
and over again without depreciation of the inducine chart'i'- 
The source of the electrical energy develoi)ed each time l^ 
the work necessary to separate the two bodies ot unlike 
electrification (inducing and induced) from one another. 

The simplest form of apparatus by which elect rificat inn 
by induction can be carried on is the well-known electropli- 
orus. The replenisher of Lord Kelvin and the influence- 
machines of Holtz, Toepler, Wimshurat, etc.. are to be re- 
garded simply as devices for the continuous and automHtic 
performance of the electrophonis cycle (just described). See 
ELETTRirjiL Machines. 

Experiments showing the development of energy durinjj- 
the discharge of electrified bodies are much more numerous 
than those indicating the e)ipcnditure of work in produoini; 
electrification. The latter is a gradual, cumulative proi'i'^-.. 
and in the case of most machines the amount ot energy ci in- 
verted into heat is so much greater than that which lak,?* 
lectrical form that It is difficult to distinguish the latliT. 



In influence-machines ol the Holtz type, for example. 

amount of power used when a high dinerence ot |iotc- 

maintained lietween the terminals of the machine i^ 



much greater than for small differences. Determinatinnst-f 
electrical output in terms ot the energy applied show s 
scan'ely appreciable efliciency. It is nevertheless fn-ijui^nily 
possible todeteet fluetuationsin the speed ot such a machine 
when driven by a small water-motor or other source of [uini-r 
of inadequate regulation, the power necessarv to j)naUi<-'' 
rotation rising steadily before each spark and dropping t» ii 
small value at the moment of discharge. 

Whenever electrical discharge takes place, there is. how- 
ever, immediate and complete reconversion of the energi- • .f 
clei'trifiealion into other forms. The transformation int.. 
energy of motion, tor instance. may be made to manifest ii- 
wlt in a variety ot ways. The experiment of the electric.-il 
tuurniqiirl if a familiar Illustration. 

A body (Fig. .SI. charged by connection with one of 1 li.- 
lerminala of a Holtz machine, carries a pair ot revolviiiu' 



At each point the degree of electrification is very great, s 



kI 




n-aclion in Biirker's mill, tendu to thrust tbe point bock- 
vunl. naA motion of rotation results. 

A siill room striking- eaperiment, showing the conversion 
■.■'. I'l^'OIrica) enerffv into motion, is that of the reversibility 
■ ■! i\m Uoltz mM'hine. 

If two such machines be taken and their terminals con- 
iitH:tu<l by means of a line of wire, as in Fig. 4, and it manhine 




Fia. 4.— Tbe HolU mtchlDe driten ae a, motor. 
I, duly cjtcileil, bo driven, producinR potential differences 
U: w)-t-n its lerniiiial^ ui bi. which are in mi-tallic ci inn motion 
«]<li the terminals a,l>i of mac-hinc 2, the lalter will be 
'lr:vi'n as a motor. The movable jiIhId of machine Swill 
: Tiiv.'i in the o[i])09ite direction from that in which it would 
I'' 'Iriven when the machine is to be used as a generiLtor. 
'I :ii.-< n-versibiltty of the influence-machine was discovered 
l>% lliiltz at an earl; stage of his experiments, and was de- 
^ riU.-d by hira in 1867. 

\'-'llixir, KUctricily. — Bj the means of nriHliioitie' electri- 
ti'Miion just discussed, i. e. friction and elcctrostalic induc- 
t.ui. irrcat differences of electric [Kitential are priHluceil, re- 
■■:,i'i[ii; in the man j brilliant phcnuiuena usually classified 
iiii.li-r the heail of "-•-■■- -■-■----■-" 
■r>i.- i 

'■Ibmv ,, . 

Ui'i aiiracled the widest inturcst amonj; physiolofris 
;.-;i^ii^U'ts. were found to lead to so many new ph - 
-:,it the disciiwiion of the source of nervous eici 
t 'ii' fri i|^'9 lei; (of Ualvani's exiicriment) soon became of see- 
■ .iri'irv iniiHirtaiice. Phvsiolc)Kical ellectji were the Hrst 
i'j'nL'i tor. but in the hands of Banks, to whom (as president 
■■f tlic Itoyal Six^iety of Liondon) Volta early comtnunicuted 
tji' discovery, and of Carlyle, electrolysis within the volluic 
I discovered, together with 



lecinciiy wnicti are capable 
of acting uptm one another chemically are in contact, a dif- 
ference of potential is sot up ix'tween them. The usual 
combination consists of two unlike metals placed in a liquid 
which conducts electricity and is capable of attacking one 
of them. >juch a device is a voltaic cell; a collection of such 
ceils constitutes a BiTTEHV {q. ):). That a difference of 
potential exists lietweeti the metals of a voltaic cell can be 
dctcrtniiieil by connecting them respectively to the quad* 
rants of an electrntnctcr of fair sensitiveness. It will then 
be found that metals maybe ctassitled into two groups: 
cop])cr. platinum, gold, etc., on the one hand, showing a 
dec'idi'd positive (vitreous) electrification when used in a cell 
in which a member of the other group, zinc, iron, magnesiuin 
(and nearlv all casilv o;cidized metuls). forms the other ter- 
minal. When the iBrst-nanie<l terminal is connected with 
the earth the other shows a correspondingly great negative 
(resinous) charge. 

Electrification by the voltaic method is di9tinguished by 
the followinpr charai-teristics: 

(1) It owes its origin to chemical action between theparta 
of the cell, the energy neeessarj to bring alKJUt the differ- 
ence of potential and tu mainlain it being the result of de- 
generative chemical reactions which lower the potential 
energy of the system. 

(2) With given metals and a given solution separating 
them, the potential difference is a definite one, both aa to 
direction and amount, being entirely independent of the size 
and shape of the cell. 

(3) The difference of potential between the terminals of a 
cell cannot be reduced to zero by connecting them metallic- 
ly. As in the case of two bodies previously charged by fric- 
tion or induclion. continual tendenry toward equalization of 
condition manifests itself, but this tendency is overcome by 
continued chemical reaction within the cell, the reaction be- 
ing of such a character as to re-establish the potential differ- 
ence. There results the phenomenon known as the eUctrit 
currenl. which fur convenience is spoken of as flowing from 
the positive terminal of copper, platinum, or carbon (in ac- 
cordance with previous conventions established in the study 
of electrification by friction) through the outer connecting 
circuit to the other terminal (zinc). 

Tlie energy drreloptd in the outer circuit of a voltaic 
battery may lie made to take useful forms — heat, motion of 
ma-vses. chemical activity, etc. It may be used to establish 
fields of force — a process which involves the expenditure of 
energy — or in the production of radiation, and in many 
other ways. Thus the discovery of (he voltaic pile under- 
lies the Hrst really important attempts to utilize electrical 
energy. 

The electrometer, as has already been indicated, serves to 
show the relatioti of voltaic electricity to the "static " forms 
previously known, but it is to another and almost infinitely 



. ...it elfclrvmeter is sensitive to a hundredth of a volt, per- 
ha|)s ; gntvanomeiera have been constructed by means of 
which differences of potential of less than a millionth of a 
volt can be mcnsurcil, or currents down to the hundred- 
thousand-millionth of an ampOre. 

The laws governing the development of energy in the 
electric circuit have lieen very fully studied anil precise 
qiiahtitive ndations have been established. The most im- 
portant of these are Paradav's law of the chemical action of 
the current. Joule's law of tlie heating effect of the current, 
and the laws of electro- magnetic induction. These last 
govern (1) the production of motion by the agency of the 
eleetrii! current, with transrormiitlon of energy from the 
electric to the kinetic form ; (2) the production of eurrtnl 
by the movement of a c<inductor through a magnetic field, 
w'ith transform III ion of kinetic energy into electrical form; 
{H) the establishment and modification of magnetic fiehls of 
force, by which means electrical energv is transferred from 
one system of conductors to another tlirough space, or into 

Farridiiy'i litm of elecfrolyis deal with ph( 
occurring when an eWtric current traverses any liq 
an element) which is capable of transmitting it. 



iquid (not 



44 



ELECTRICITY 



Under the above conditiong the liquid is decomposed. The 
acid radical contained in it always aiipeiixs at tbe teimitiftl 
wbenM the current enters the liquid ; the metallic com- 
ponent of the liquid always appears at the terminal toward 
which the current is flc)wiiig, Faraday investiftated this 
subject and expressed his results in two laws, which maj be 
stated as follows : 

(1) Tht chemical aelion per unit of lime in an, rlectrolylic 
ctil is directly proportional to the sirenglh of the turrenl 
flowing through it. 

^ if the aamt amount of current flotBg through a eerieii 
of eelu eotUainittg miriout electrolytes, the uieight of the 
maleriaia »et free (called by Faraday the "ions'") in each 
will be proportional to the chemical equivalent of the »ub- 
stances (which mar be elements or radical groups). 

The amount of any ion liberated b^ the passage of a 
coulomb of eleetricitv (i. e. bycne ampere of current in one 
second of time) is called its electro-ehemical eijuivalfnt. 

The following iaa table of the electro-chemical equivalenls 
of some of the more important elements : 

Hydronu DOIOBB 

OntcBD O'0eS88 

Sodium O-MST 

Chlorine OXri 

Potusliuii O'**! 

IrDDirromfeiTlculM) 0-1994 

Iron (trom ferrous wItHi 0-»00 

Nickel 0-aOffi 

Copper (froTD cuprtc ulu} ... 0-SS7V 

Oopper ((rom cuproui BBIM) O'ttsee 

ppn iTiinB asm 

8U»or I-II80 

Tin (rrom nantiic aalU) OttM 

Tin (from ■Unnoui ulta) OflOM 

Iodine I-BIM 

Gold 0«JW 

Hercurj (from mercuric Mlta) 1 (187 

UercuiyjrrommercurousMlUi tOT* 

LcMl 1-071 

Uf the above, oxygen, chlorine, bromine, and iodine were 
termed anions by Faraday, the others Imlions. The ter- 
minal at which the former claae. which includes the acid 
radicalx, is set tree is called the cmode; that at which the 
metallic elements appear is the kathode. The current 
travels through the electrolyte from anode to kathode, and 
metals therefore may be considered as moving with the cur- 
rent to the point of deposition, while tbe acia group travels 
against it. 

Familiar examples of the electrolysis of metals are found 
in the plating of copper, nickel, silver, gold, etc Where 
tbe deposited metal takes crystalline form, very striking 



effects are produced, as in the case of the "lead tree," 
Fit'. .■>. 

1'he jihc[iomcnon of elcctrolrsis is well brought out in the 
followini; exporimont : 

In a V-slift|icil lulie (Fij;. 81 is [ilwcl a wOutinn of neutral 
sulphate of soilium. The platiniiTn terminals p » intro- 
duce the electric current to the cdi anil eonducl it away. 
Tbe solution is previously stained purgile by the action of 



« through from p to n the fol- 



litmuR. When current 
lowing reactions occur, 
Na^O. + mH.O = SO. + mH.O + 2Na = O + H,SO. + 
(m-3)H,0 + 3NaH0 + 2H. 
Here we have two sets of chemical changes: (1) Those due 
to electrolysis, viz.. SOt set free at the positive pole, 3Na at 
the negative. (8) Secondary reactions purely chemical. Free 
SO. forms H.SO,, setting free 0. aNa at the other [wle 
forms the hvdrate 2 Nail 0. and two parts of hydrogen are 
liberated. The free acid shows itself by the reddening of 
the litmus solution in the regions surrounding the piisi- 



-lydi ,. . 

solution blue in its neighborhood. Oxygen and hydmgci 
are given off as gases at their respective tenninaK and may 
be collected and tested. 

If. after electrolysis has proceeded for some time, the crtl is 
taken out of circuit and the poles connected to the terminals 
of a galvanometer, that instrument will indicate the pas- 
sage of current in the direction opposed to that in which I he 
electrclyzing current has been flowing. This current will 
continue as long as there is a difference between the liquids 
in the two arms of the cell. The current in electrolysis has 
broken up a neutral, inactive compound, Na^SOi. producing 
two chemicallv different and very active substances. Hi:S<.>, 
and NaHO. ^he separation of these, then, has been ac- 
complished by the expenditure of energy now stored in the 
cell. Difference of potential will exist between them, ani^ 
so, by contact, between the platinum poles. Flow of cur- 
rent in direction opposite to that which charged the cell 
tenils to recombitte the acid and alkali of the two amis of 
the tube; and it is their recombination that creates the 
current which the cell has become capable of generating. 
Such a cell, after the passage of the charging current, \» a 
form of storage battery or AcroHULiTOH [q. t,), giving 
current as long as the difference between the solutions sur- 
rounding the platinum terminals continues. 

Vidtamelr!(.—^t having been established by many criiicHl 
and precise in vest uat ions that the first law of Faraday 19 
rigorouslytrue.it follows that the quantity of electricity 
transmitte<l in a circuit (i. e. the integral of the cum-ni n'r 
product of the average current and the time) may be nieii.-'- 
urcd by electrolysis. Any instrument for such purpose is 
called a Voltameter {g. v.). 

The electrolyte selected for voltamolry must contain as 
one of its ions a aubslance insoluble in the liquid, chemicallv 
slable and easily colleeteil and weighed. In practice biit 
lew materials are used: viz., oxygen and hydrogen (frmn 
ciecom[H)sition of water), silver, copper. and-Einc. Sdvi-r 
and conper voltameters are used where precision is desireil. 
since they can be inaile to give results ai-cordant, within 
I'd -per cent. Zinc has lieeii founil to be the best metal 
fur ci'mniercial ineasuremeiils extending over considcra- 
lile intervals of time. It is used in chemical mi'ters fi.r 



46 



ELKCTRICITY 



positive pole of the ^nerator to its negatiye pole. The rate 
of fall for each portion of the circuit depends upon the re- 
sistance per unit of length of the conductor traversed by the 
current. Through regions of high resistance the fall of 
potential is rapid ; through ^ood conductors of large cross- 
section it may be inappreciable. 

In the accompanying diagram (Fig. 8} a circuit between 
two points is represented. The total difference of potential 
between a and / is 100 volts, maintained, say, by a storage 
battery of fifty cells. This is indicated by the vertical dis- 
tance between a and b. The fall of potential from a to the 
successive points h cd e f\a represented likewise b^ vertical 
distance, the rate of fall by the gradient of the line which 
connects them. 

Abscissas in the diagram represent lengths of the various 
conductors used in the circuit. 

The circuit contains : 



(1) 20 ohms of copper wire (between a and h) 

(2) " platinum " " 6 " / 

(3) " silver " " c " d 

(4) ** iron " " d "" e 

(5) " gold ** " e " / 



The cross-sections of these wires are all the same, and 
their lengths respectively indicate the relative conductivity 
of the metaL Tne fall of potential through each piece will 
be the same, since the resistances are the same, and by 
Joule's law the amount of heat developed in each (PR) per 
second will be the same. If all other resistances beyond a 
and /be supposed to be negligible, the current by Ohm's law 
will be one ampere, the energy developed in each section 
will be 20 watts, or 4*8 calories per second. In wires of 
equal diameter the radiating surface will be proportional 
to the length. The good conductors, copper, silver, and 
gold, being long and of relatively large surface, will remain 
cool while carrjring current sufficient to raise the tempera- 
ture of the platinum and iron to points high above the sur- 
rounding atmosphere. The difference may be brought out 
in a striking manner by sending a heav^ current through a 
composite circuit of the kind under discussion. It will be 
found that the platinum becomes white hot and the iron red 
hot, while the copper and silver are still barely warm to the 
touch. This is an illustration of the physical principle 
made use of in lighting by incandescence (see articles Elec- 
tric Lighting, Electeic Aug, and Glow-lamp); also in 
heating by electricity. 

Resistance, which is one of the factors which ent-ers the 
ecjuation for Ohm's law, is the reciprocal of conductivity, is 
directly proportional to the length of the conductor, and in- 
versely proportional to its cross-section. Resistance in the 
diagram (Fig. 8) is measured by the fall of potential through 
a unit length of the conductor in question, i. e. by the gra- 
dient of the lines joining the successive points, a b c, etc. 
As thei% is a direct and constant relation between the re- 
sistance of a conductor and the heat evolved by the passage 
of a current, it is evidently possible by using conductors of 
ecjual length and equal cross-section to compare the re- 
sistances of different substances in terms of heat-units. For 
a fuller explanation of the methods of measuring resistance 
and for data concerning the specific resistance of various 
substances, see articles Resistance (in electricity), Wheat- 
stone's Bridge, etc. 

Electricity from Heat (thermo-electricity). — The direct 
production of difference of potential in a metallic circuit by 
application of heat is perhaps a less important phenomenon 
tnan that of the transformation of electrical energy into 
heat (discussed under heading Joule's Law). It has, how- 
ever, numerous interesting applications. Wlienever two 
metals are arranged so as to form a closed circuit and the 
surfaces of contact differ in temperature, a voltaic current 
will flow through the circuit. The electromotive force, 
generally verv small, depends upon the difference of tem- 
perature of the junctions, although rarely in direct propor- 
tion to that difference, excepting through small ranges. 
The electromotive force varies greiitly with the nature of 
the metals in the circuit. For each temperature it is pos- 
sible to arrange a list of substances so that, when any two 
of them are made into a thenno clement, current will flow 
through the hot junction from the metal which is first in 
the series into the other. Such a list is called the thermo- 
electric series for that teniperature. By measurement of 
the electromotive forces generated by a difference of one 
degree (centigrade) in the case of the union of each member 
of the series with some selected metal, the relation of each 



to all the other members of the list may be expressed quan- 
titatively, and the performance of any given couple may be 
indicated. The following is such a table : 

Thermo-electro series and E. M. F. in yolte between each member 
and the metal lead, when a difference of one defO'ee (centisrade) 
exists between junctions. (The average temperature of £e two 
junctions is 20° C.) 



Bismuth + 89* x 10-« volts. 
Cobalt + 22- X 10" • 
Mercury 4- 0*418 x 10-« " 
Lead +0-0 X 10-* " 

Tin-0-lxlO-« 
Platinum - 0*9 x 10- • " 
Gold - 1-2 X 10-« 



Silver — 3-0 x 10" • volt.^. 
Zinc - 8-7 X 10- • 
Copper -3-8 X 10-* 
Iron (soft) - 17-5 X 10 -« *• 
Antimony — 2*8 x 10 - • to 
26-4 X 10-* volt*. 

Tellurium - 502-x 10 - • •• 
Selenium — 807- x 10" • ** 

Compiled for other temperatures or ranges of temperatures, 
other values would be obtained, and certain memDers. not- 
ably iron, would have other positions in the series. This is 
due to the fact that the electromotive forces are never 
simply proportional to temperature differences. In nearly 
all cases, indeed, the current generated in the circuit eon- 
twining a thermo element will reach a maximinn at some 
definite temperature difference, falling off again as the 
difference between the junctions increases, and finally being 
reversed in direction. This phenomenon, in the case of au 
iron-copper element, is shown graphically by means of the 
curve, Pig. 9. 



I 



/ 



/ 



t 



\ 



100' 



200' 



- Temperaturea 



\ aoo< 
% 
I 
I 

I 
I 



I 



Fio. 9. 



One junction of such an element being kept at 0" centi- 
grade (§2° Fahrenheit), the other is heated slowly, and the 
deflection of a galvanometer with which the element is in 
circuit is followed. Starting from zero, the deflection ris«-> 
at first in direct proportion to the rise of temperature, thrn 
more slowly. It reaches maximum at 169"^ centigrade (8;^6'2 
Fahrenheit) and zero again at 270" centigrade (518^ Fahn-n- 
heit), after which it continues indefinitely in the negative 
direction. 

Thermo-currents afford a most convenient and delicate 
means of measuring temperatures. The method is em- 
ployed especially in cases where the temperatures to l>e 
measured are in localities inaccessible to direct observatic»n 
by means of ordinary thermometers; as for example, in the 
study of subterranean or deep-sea temperatures, or of th** 
fluctuations occurring within the cylinder wall of a s»toarn- 
engine, or where the temperatures lie beyond the range of 
the mercury thermometer, as in the measurement of th»* 
heat of furnaces, or of the extreme cold obtained by tho 
liquefaction of oxygen, etc. 

Another and even more interesting fleld is in heat motis- 
urements of such character that ordinary thermometers are 
of insuflioient delicacy, as in the exploration of the sixx.'- 
trum. The materials used in thermo elements for hf*it 
measurements depend upon the temperatures to be studitM. 
To determine flame temperatures, metals of the platinum 
group would be selectea; where great delicacy is de5inisl 
the metals at the ends of the thermo-electric series are o<iin- 
bined, notably antimony and bismuth; where greater sensi- 
tiveness than can be obtained with a single element ts^ 
necessary, or higher potential-difference is desired, severa,! 
elements are united to form a Thermopile (y. t\). \Mieii a 
current is sent through a thermo element from any other 
source, it is found that, aside from any heating effects com- 



ELECTRICITY 



From the repellent and attractive forces between Uoes, it 
follows that the conductors a und b, carrying current in the 
same direction, will bo drawn together, while 6 and e will be 
repelled. 




This mutual action ofeurraits was observed by Ampere, 
who stated his results llius: 

Ampere's Rate.— {I) Currents in parallel circuits attract 
each olhcr when flowing in the same direction, and repel 
when flowing in opposite directions. 

<2) C'Ircaits making any angle with one another tend to be- 
come parallel witli the current flowing in the same direction 
through thcra. 

■■ is usual to attribute these forces between -■ — -' ' 



the analogous eSocts which o 






Q) 



carrying cur- 
rent are brougiit 
near to magnets or 
when one mag:ict 



the two fields of 
force. The effect 
is entirely inde- 
pendent of the 



no. II. 

which will tend 
the direct 

Thus a wire (fp|. Pi);. 14) iiiimial . . , , 

ing current away from the observer, in the uniform fleld of 
force represented bv the long, parallel arrows, will tend to 
move downward. Wire (tc,) carrying current toward the 



ob-*npr will trnvcl upwiir 


1. l>>ii tliis rpaction is bn 


oncnf the most iiii|KirlMnl 


t electrical devices— the mo 


Sec Klb(th[.' Motor. 




Fanulav's <lisk molor i' a 




an escceii'inKly simjile aud 


nstructivc form. 



Between the poles of a horseshoe magnet (Pig. 15) ii 
mounted a thin disk of copper, its axis parallel to the liiict 
of force, so that the sector vertically below the axis is in tlir 
fleld. At its lowest point the jieriphery of the disk di[i~ 
into a trough of mercury. If current be sent through tin 
disk, entcnuK through the mercury and leaving by nay of 
the axle, the lines of flow will be veitical and at right angli'> 
to the magnetic field, which will act upon that portion of the 
copper which carries current, driving it out oi the field in 
the direction indicated by the arrow. The result is a rapid 
rotation of the disk, the direction of which depenils u|H>n 
the direction in which current passes through it and tl><' 
polarity of the magnet. 

Even the earth's fleld exerts such action upon every con- 
ductor which carries current. The effect is shown in ■ 
striking manner by the apparatus shown in Fig. IS. 




■e frequently i 



angedsc 



Two parallel troughs of clipper aie ftlled with a cnndniM 
ing liquid, preferably an ai' id ulated solution of copiHT sul 
phatc. Two lioat-shspeil copjier vessels arc joined by a n.i 
of the same tuetut. forming a sort of catamaran. This d<ii. 
ble boat is allowed to float in the two troughs as in<lic«i. 
in the diagram. Current introduced at a will flow li 
means of the connecting bar to the other trough, fimliii 
exit, and returning to llie battery at b. By the attioii i 
the earth's magnetic fleld upon the connecting bar the Ixut 
will be driven from end to end of the trough at consideral>l 

The application of the general principle to this case ma 
1)6 seen bv reference to Fig. 17, in whieti «• is the conducin 
lietween the boat,* seen in emss-section, the current flowiii 
from the observer. The vertical component of the earth 
magnetism t' t'. acting upon the lines of force sumumdiii 
the wire, tends to drive the latter in the direction of tb 
dotted arrow a. 

Thus far the case of straiglit wii 
Conductors 
ca! coil (helix 
When current traverses suc-h 
a coil, the lines of force unite 
to form a single set. They en- 
ter the coil at the end in wnich 
the current viewwl from with- 
out nxially travels clockwise, 
and issue from the other end. 
Such a ciiil. hung from its cen- , 
ter. its axis horizontal and free 
to rotate about a vertical siia- 
|>ension. will set itself axially 
in the magnetic meridian 
when current is sent through 
it. To an observer looking 
northward toward the south- 
[H)iiitiiiic end of the coil (lie 
curn-nt then flows elockwiiie. 
The svstcm of lines of force Ijelongiiw to such a coil or- 
ruspoiid preciselv in arranpi'meni to those of a bar-in»t;iii-t 
i-X(-epting that tlierc is not the same difference in penm-H- 
bility between the external and internal circuit, 

Il'is, indiHil. i>ossililc to utilize a coil of wire cBrrjinj; cu r- 
rent inslemi of a mnt-nct for the needle of a galvanonu'ti-r 
(q. v.). Wciwr's wi'll-known instrument, the elect nulyriii - 
mometer, WHS con<!lriicted u|>on that principle, the neclli 
iH'ing a I'oll into which current was introduced through tht 
wires l>y which it wa.s siisjiended. 



■■e 



Fio. 17. 



ELECTRICITY 





■ f\ 







ia>po»r» iht motimt must be in & ilircclion opposite t< 
the pritDBiT. The law may be stated thus: 
In ■aeigMxiring iciren Ike introdu((ion of currenf into a 



\ oppositr indwrd currenl in the olhfm. iht dura- 
tion oj irnich comsponds to Iht interval required to compute- 
ly eatablisk the fittd of forte doe to the primary current. 

The instant that the primary (mrrent has reached jls 
normal value all iiiduetton ceases. Let the current be 
itoppeil, however, by breaking circuit, and a disappearance 
of the Held of force follows, which is equivalent to the re- 
moval of the secondary circuit to a dislAoce, and which in- 
liuees a current to oppose such motion. 

In general, therefore, m neighboring wires, one of tehieh 
Carrie* current, the effeet of breaking fireuit is to induce 
currenl in the othere, the dirertion of which is the same n» 
that of the primary, and the duriition of which ie the in- 
terrat neeemary for the complete disappearance of the field 
of force due to the primary current. 

The duration of these induced currents is a question in- 
volving the resistance, self-indnetion, and capacity of the 
two circuits ; also the character of the medium within which 
the Held must be established or destroyed. The complete 
discussion liea quite beyond the scope of this article ; it may. 
however, be noted as of some practical import that the rise of 
the priinary current is in general less rapid than its deca- 
dence, and tliat therefore the induced current rises to a 
higher value, aud is of shorter duration in the latter case. 
For example, the photographic record of the dying away of 
the current in the 70-ohm coil, already re- 
ferred to. when circuit was suddenly broken, 
is shovrn in Fig. 21b (curve e,f) and the in- 
duced current by the dotted curve (g. h.). 

These photographic traces (a 6 and ef) 
were obtamed by the movement of a mirror 
attached to the plate of a telephone receiver, 
according to the ingenious method devised 
by Dr. F^iihlich, of Berlin (18tW-91). 

The oscillations shown in the curve e. f. 
are the natural vibrations of the teleph< 



above the boiling-point of water. A strip of copper mounted 
to oscillate between the poles of such a magnet (see Fig. 22) 
will swing freely so long as the magnet is not in circuit, but 
when the Held is established, puwertul eddy ci 



Pio. U. 
up within the copper, resisting its motion. Whatever be its 
amplitude of vibration, the strip will be brought tu rt-^^ 
witoin the period of a single oscillation. The experiment 
is a most striking one, the motion of the pendulum being 
checked as if by passing through some viscous metliutu. 
These eddy currents, or Foueault currents (after their di*- 
coverer), are a serious source of loss in many forms of tlec- 
Irical machinery. They can be guarded against in a gTcat 
measure bv lamination of those parts of the machine which 
cut lines of force. 

The induction coil (RuhmkorS coil, spark coil) is a form 
of apparatus for the utilization of the induction effects pro- 
duced by making and breaking circuit. It consii'ts of a 
primary and a secondary coil, one within the other, the 
of the two being occupied bya core of iroa 



'V of current. The ph» 

arising wlicn a voltaic circuit is opened or 
closed are not always of the simple character 
shown in these two diagrams. It is found, 
for instance, that when the capacity of the 
circuit bears eerUin relations to tKe resist- 
ance and self-induction, the rise of current or 
its decadenee will be oscillatory, with corre- 
sponding oscillations of induced current in 
the secondary circuiL 

Electro-magnetic induction is a phenomenon involving 
the transformation of enerfy. The mere establishment of 
an electro-magnetic field of force, like the creation of an 
electrostatic fteld. involves the expenditure and storage of 
energy, to be utilized when the tleld disappears again. 
Ever)' movement of a conductor through a Held meets with 
resistance, the surmounting of which requires the expendi- 
ture of energy equivalent to that which is represented by 
Ihc induced current. The induced currents, for example. 
which circulate in a block of metal driven rapidiv through 
the magnetic tteld are transformed into heat untfer Joule's 
law. If the Faraday disk (P'ig. 15) be driven between the 
poles of a powerful magnet, it will soon rise in temperature 



wires. Since the onlinary use to which the induction coil 
is put is tr< obtain spark discharges similar to those obtained 
from the Holtz machine and devices of that character, the 
primary usually consists of a few turns of l*eavy trire. the 
secondary coil of very many turns of fine teire. The details 
of construction of such coils, and some account of their |>(.t- 
formance, are given under Isductiob Coil (q. r). 

The currents obtained by induction, either in the move- 
ment of eonductors in the magnetic field, as In the case of tlie 
dynamo, or by making or lireakinf circuit, as in the Uuhni- 



52 



BLEOTBIC UOHTING 



cault, Sieroens, and others belong to the former, nearly all 
l&mps in onJinary eominereial service to the latter tilaaa. 
As soon as contact between the carbon tips has been intule 
tbo penciln are drawn apart, either by the clockwork train, 
driren by a spring but started and stopped electrically, or 
by a clutch operated directly by an electro-magnet. This 
play of the carbons, in which they approach each other at 
every diminution of the current and iieparate whenever the 
current iocreases again, constitutes the regulation of the 

Innumerable devices for performing these operations have 
been resort«d to, most of them based upon the principles 
just touched upon. One of the earliest of arc-lamp, Arch- 
ereau's regulator, is shown in Fig. 1. In this lamp the 
lower tarlion is movable, being balanced by a weight which 
acts over a pulley. When the current passes through the 
solenoid, the lower carbon- 
hcjder. which is partly of iron, 
is drawn down into the core of 
the coil until the resistance of 
the arc reduces the current to 
the extent necessary to bring 
ftlwut equilibrium between 
the mo^etic forces and grav- 
ity. Figs. 2 and 3 show other 
early forma o( the arc-lamp. 
They illustrate the two types 




most frequently met with in modem practice. In the Sie- 
mens regulator (Fig, 2) the electro- magnet E, which is in 
circuit with the arc attracts the anchor A. moving the gang 
of toothed wheels in nuch direction as to slightly separate 
the carbons. By means of the contai-t device, c d. which 
throws the magnet out of circuit, this movement of the 
anchor is repeattil over and over again until a balance is 
obtained. Fig. 3 shows one uf the older forms of the Brush 
lamp, of which many moilem commercial lamps are modifi- 
cations. The lower carbon-holder is flxnl. 'Die upper one. 
B B. plays freely within the iron cylinder C. which in turn 
forms the movable core of the large solenoid A, The clutch 
consists of a flat bra.is collar. I>. which surrounds the car- 
bon-holder. When no current is flowing. C drops to the 
bottom of the l>oi E F^ and the ring assumes a horizontal 
position, relcwing the carbon, which falls until contact oc- 
cutsbetWBen F and P. The circuit Ihuscompleted, thecore 
rises within the coiL, D is thrown into an oblique position, 
clut^'hing the carlion-rod li and lifting the pencil out of 
contact The arc once established, the upper carbon is held 



in its proper position magnetically, every fluctuation of cur- 
rent being followed by a slight rcadjuBtmeat of Jte position. 
tending t«ward the maintenance of equilibrium. 

In the case of an arc-lamp fed with di- 
rect current, it is found that the positive 
carbon is much hotter than the negative ; 
also that it is consumed more rapidly. 
Roughly speaking, the rate of consump- 
tion IS as two to one. but this ratio, which , 
is by no means fliod, depends upon the -j- 
voltage of the arc. the amount of current 
flowing, and the quality of the pencils. 
The shape of the two pencils is also char- 
acteristic, the upper or positive terminal 
being flattened or even indented, forming 
a ■' crater," while the lower carbon is 
pointed, and there is a tendency for the 
carbon particles transferred through tjie 
arc by the current to build a nipple in the 
axis of the pencil. These features are 
shown in Fig, 4. 

The crater is the surface of highest in- 
candescence in the arc-lamp. Conse- , 

quently the illumination will be a maxi- 
mum in those regions surrounding the 
lamp from which its surface is visible 
(viz., obliquely below the tamp and at an 
angle between 40° and 60° from the hori- 
zontal plmie). Fig. 5 is a diagram indi- 
cating the vertical distribution of light 
from a direct current arc-lamp. 

The length of the radius vector gives p,^ ^ 

the can<lle-power emanating in the direc- 
tion selected. The form of the curve of illunitnation will 
vary in different cases with the length of the arc. the diam- 
eter of the carbons, and the amount of energy developed in 
the lamp. The diagram may be regarded as typical ^r Ihi' 
case of an ordinary commercial lamp with carbons half an 
inch in diameter, a potential -difference of 50 volts and 10 
amperes of current flowing through the lamp. 

In the case of arc-lamps ted with altemating currents ihr 
conditions are altogether different from those which exi>l 
whore the direct current is employed. The distribulion uf 
lif^it above and below the horizontal plane is more ni-arly 
equal, and the difference in form of the two carbons is h-s> 
marked. The illumination at any given instant is bv nn 
means uniform, but the distribution shifts so rapidly ka to 
defy close measurement. 

2'Ae eanrfie-pouwr of arc-lights, in general, has been great Iv 
overrated. For example, according tt> the system in Ti>gii'F 
up to 1890, and used to some extent even after thai year, 
lamps were rated at 3,000 " nominal candle-power, the 
" mean spherical " illuminating power of whicn was fniin 
250 to 400 candles, and whose hnghtnees in the directi 



of 



\ i^ 


^ 1 1 




i^K(\ 


:yH 







Fia. & -Curve or the distribution 



wasfrmn l,CK)0tol,500candies. Fig.Sistakon 
from measurements upon such a lamp, the mean spherical 
candle-power of which is but 4!)1 candles. The maxiniutn 
radius of the curve, which indicates the intensity of tti< 
light in the direction of greatest brightness, correspi>iii!~ 
to 1.056 candles. 

The candle-power of the average arc-light when viewnl 
in the direction of greatest brightness is found to be hbiiut 



54 



ELECTRIC LIGHTING 



The light of the glow-lamp, however, is due to a carbon 
surface all at one temperature, which temperature varies 
with the electrical energy expended in the lamp, while that 
of gas and petroleum flames is made up of radiation from a 
gnat number of separate carbon particles, the temperature 
of which depends upon their position within the flame. The 
mean temperature of the flame, on the other hand, is al- 
ways nearly constant. 

in spite of this slight difl!erenceof condition, it is possible 
to flna a temperature at which an incandescent lamp will 
give li^ht, the distribution of energy of which throughout 
the visible spectrum will agree approximately with that of 
an ordinary naked "bat*s-wing £^as flame. Five lamps 
tested for the purpose in 1891 (Mr. J. C. Shedd observer) 
were found to reach the condition of incandescence most 
nearly corresponding to that of the gas flame (at 15*1 
candle-power), the eneiv)r expended then being 4*8 watts 
per candle (average), lliis was at a somewhat lower tem- 
perature than that at which the lamps were intended to be 
used, viz., 16 candles. 

At lower temperatures than the above the light of the 
glow-lamp differs from that of gas in being relatively richer 
in the reo, and at still higher temperatures in being richer 
in the blffe. 

Distribution of light from the glow-lamp is a question 
of the cross-section of the filament. Filaments of circular 




Fio. T.—Dkignan showing the distribution of light in the caee of 
glow-lamps with filaments of rectangular cross-section. 

cross-section give almost uniform distribution in the hori- 
zontal plane. Filaments are, as a rule, rectan^lar in cross- 
section. These are placed with the longest diameter in the 
plane of the filament, or at right angles to that plane. 
The result is that different amounts of radiating surface 
are exposed, according to the direction from which the 
lamp is viewed. Curves a and 6, Fig. 7, show the results 
of candle-power measurements upon lamps of these two 
types. 

Tht electric maintenance of arc and incandescent lamps 
is carried out upon entirely distinct systems. Arc-lamps 
are placed in series (Fig. 8), the same current traversing all 
that are in circuit. Glow-lamps are arranged in multiple 
(Fig. 0). The ' condition to be met in dynamo machines 
for arc-lighting is complete and automatic regulation for 
constant current through wide ranges of external resist- 
ance. The dynamo for incandescent lighting, on the other 
hand, must possess complete power of regumtion for con- 




Fio. 8.— Arc-lampe arranged in series. (C is commutator of dy- 
namo ; M, M, the fleld magnets ; L, L . . ., the lampa) 

stant potential. The means by which these requirements 
are met is described in the article Dynamo-electbic Ma- 
chine {q. v.). The desirability of furnishing both arc and 
glow lamps from the same circuit has led to many attempts 
to operate arc-lamps on constant-potential circuits and m- 
candescent lamps in series. It has been found possible to 
do lx>th, but the conditions are such as to lead to a separa- 
tion of the two types wherever practicable. 

In arc-lighting the number of lamps which can be fed 
by a single machine is limited to about sixty. The differ- 
c\wv of |x>tential at the terminals of the dynamo, about fifty 
volts for each lamp in circuit, reaches a value at this limit, 
beyond which it is not found possible to maintain the insu- 
lation of the machine. In incandescent lighting the num- 
ber of lamps which can be supplied from a given center is 



limited only by the cost of the copper conductors necessary 
to carry the current. Since the potential-difference is inde- 
pendent of the number of lamps, the amount of current 
must increase in direct proportion to that number, and with 
it the weight of copper usea. 

Thus far this article has dealt with electric lights main- 
tained on direct-current circuit. It is equally practicable, 

A 
LLLLLLLL 







LLLLLLL L 
B 




^^<^^^^^^ 



LLLLLLLL 



Fig. 0.— Arrangement of glow-lamps in multiple : A, three-wire sys- 
tem ; B, two- wire system. (C, C, C, commutator of dynamo ; 
L, L . . ., lamps.) 

and under many circumstances more advantageous, to use 
alternating currents. 

In the earliest days of arc-lighting alternate-current gen- 
erators were employed, and the delicacy of regulation poisi- 
ble in alternate-current dynamos, without loss of efficiency, 
has led to a return to the older practice. For incandesc-ent 
lighting also, wherever it is necessary to transmit to consid- 
erable distances, the alternate current permits the carrying 
of large amounts of energy over small wires. This is accom- 
plished by the use of the Transformer (a. v. ; see also Alter- 
nate Currents and Dynamo-electric Machine), a device 
by means of which the current and voltage in a circuit mav 
be raised and lowered almost at will, their product whick 





Fio. 10.— The arrangement of glow lamps in an altematlnff-ciuTent 
circuit : A is the armature of the altematcH* ; T is the timiw- 
former ; L, L, L . . ., arc-lamps. 

represents the energy remaining constant. Fig. 10 shows 
the arrangement of a circuit for transmission of ener^- to 
glow-lamps at a distance by means of an alternate-current 
generator and transformers. 

77ie economy of the electric light is a Question involving: 
many^ factors. One does not have to deal, as in light pn*- 
duction by direct combustion, simply with the consumpt i« m 
of fuel by oxidation. In the arc-lamp, nevertheless, the car- 
bon pencils undergo continual disintegration, and have to 
be renewed dailj at an appreciable cost. Even the glow- 
lamp, although incandescence takes place in the absence of 
oxygen, is subject to more or less rapid depreciation durinv: 
service, and the renewal of degenerated lamps is an item of 
expense to the consumer. The life of the incandescent lamp 
diminishes as the temperature at which it is maintained 
rises. The amount of light per unit of energy expended, on 
the other hand, increases veiy rapidly with the temperature. 
The relationship between life and the degree of incandes- 
cence has been carefully studied b^ John W. Howell {TranA- 
aciions Am. Institute of Elec, Engineers^ vol. v., p. i^9). Tlu- 
curve in Fig. 11 gives graphically the results widch he hn^ 
obtained from the life study of a very large number of 
lamps. 

Abscissas in this diagram represent the degrees of incan- 
descence (indirectlv the temperature of the filament), e^- 
{)ressed in terms of the number of watt| expended in t h«» 
amps to produce a candle-power of light. Now, the co-st ^ >i 
light Xo the consumer is made up of two factors — viz., tin- 
cost of developing the necessary amount of energy in thv* 
lamps, and that of renewing the broken lamps upon' his cir- 
cuit, lie may, for instance, pay 50 cents apiece for lani|»<. 
and 3, 5, 10. or even 20 cents per kilowatt (one horse-imwi-r 
is equal to 0*7459 kilowatts) per hour; or the price of lamp- 
may be 20, 30, or 40 cents, with power at any one of the alx >\ *• 
rates. Whatever may be the relative cost of power and of 
lamp renewal, the sum of these two factors can be so pr«>- 



66 



ELECTRIC METERS 



ELECTRIC MOTOR 



Regarded as a light-making device, the efficiency of the 
arc and glow lamps is not very much higher than that of 
the sources of artificial light which they have in a great 
mefljsure superseded. 

The question of actual relative cost of production is a 
most complicated one, involving the cost of power, of at- 
tendance, of interest upon the money investea, as well as 
the price of copper and of machinerv. The adoption of 
electric lights is more frequently basea upon other consid- 
erations than upon mere cheapness of production. Sanitary 
or lesthetic conaitions often prevail, or the adaptability of 
the light to the circumstances under which it is to be used. 
The applications of the electric light are almost innumera- 
ble. In some cases, it is true, where much was expected, 
unforeseen difficulties have led to the return to the older il- 
luminants. This is the ease in coast lighting, for which 
purpose the brilliancy of the arc-li^ht seemed to indicate it 
as tne most desirable of sources. The experiments of Tyn- 
dall in the service of the Trinity House, 1876-77, showed, 
however, that in thick weather the shorter wave-lengths of 
the spectrum, which are especially prominent in the arc- 
light, «re wholly absorbed by the atmosphere ; so that the 
fluctuations both in quantity and quality, with changes of 
weather, rendered the electric arc the very worst of lights 
for lighthouse purposes. In many other situations, as in 
lighting mines, steamships at sea, in submarine work, etc., 
the electric light possesses advantages such that the question 
of cost becomes unimportant. In these and in innumerable 
other services where it is not in the same sense indispensa- 
ble, it has come to be regarded as an essential feature of 
motlern eouipment. Many details concerning the electric 
light may be found in the following special treatises : 

Dredge, Electric Illumination', Maicr, Arc and Glow 
Lamps ; Hedges, Continental Electric-light Stations ; Des- 
mona. Electricity for Engineers ; also in the admirable 
summaries published from time to time by MM. Palaz, 
Richard, and others in La Lumiere ^lectriqtie (Paris) ; also 
in the reports of the commissions of the electrical exhibi- 
tions of Philadelphia, Paris, Munich, Vienna, Antwerp, 
Frankfort, etc. E. L. Nichols. 

Electric Meters: appliances for the measurement of the 
energy developed in an electric circuit. These are of three 
kinds : (a) clockwork recorders, {b) chemical meters, (c) mo- 
tor-meters. In the first a known fraction of the current to 
bo measured passes through a galvanometer which records 
by means of a stylus upon a chronograph sheet driven by 
clockwork. Large first cost and the difficulties of maintain- 
ing clockwork devices in continued use have kept this class 
of meters out of general use. Chemical meters are zinc 
voltameters, the plates of which are weighed from time to 
time. Motor-meters are electric motors, the speed of which 
is recorded by a dial device like that of the gas-met<»r. See 
Meters and Wattmetees. E. L. N. 

Electric Motor : a machine for the conversion of electri- 
cal energy into the form of mechanical power. The first 
mot<ir of any real importance was constructed by Jacobi in 
1838. This motor, like all its predecessors, depended for its 
action on the attraction and repulsion of electro-magnets. 
Its efficiency was very low. chiefly because of the large 
amounts of energy that had to be expended in producing 
magnetization in magnetic circuits, completed only through 
large air-gaps. The iron masses or electro-magnets, which 
are set in motion by the action on them of stationary electro- 
magnets, are called armatures. A great advance was made 
by the invention of the Siemens shuttle armature in 1855. 
This machine is the highest development of the old ideas of 
the electric motor — the repulsion and attraction of electro- 




Fio. 1. 

magnets. The shuttle armature is illustrated in Fig. 1. As 
an electro-magnet it is an iron cylinder magnetized trans- 
versely by means of a single coil wound in two deep, longi- 
tudinal, and diametrically opposite grooves. The ends of 
the coil are connected to opposite halves of a metallic ring, 
insulated and mounted on the shaft, forming a two-part 
commutator. Electric connection through the annature coil 
is made by means of brushes resting on the commutator, as 
shown in Fig. 2. Fig. 2 shows the form of the stationary 




Fxo. 2. 



ma^et and the arrangement of the armature with res{tect 
to it. The poles present the surface of a cylinder in diame- 
ter slightly larger than that 
of the armature. It is seen 
that the function of the two- 
part commutator is to reverse 
the current in the armature 
at the proper instant for con- 
tinuing the rotation through 
the action of electro-mag- 
netic repulsion or attraction. 
By the adoption of this form 
of moving and stationary 
electro-magnets the magnetic 
effects were enormously in- 
creased, owing to the fact 
that the magnetic circuit is 
made up almost entirely of 
iron. The electro-dynamic 
effects and the efficiency of 
the electric motor were in- 
creased in proportion. Ow- 
ing to numerous causes, the 
efficiency and output for a 
given size of machine were, 
however, still hopelessly low. 
Chief among these causes were the Poucault current lessees 
in the core and the energy wasted, and the trouble encoun- 
tered in reversing the current suddenly through the large 
number of turns in the armature coil. 

The great and effective advance of the electric motor was 
made shortly after the introduction of the Gramme dyna- 
mos in 1871. It was found that these dynamos would work 
equally well as motors, and with this discovery came a 
clearer understanding of the nature of electro-magnetic in- 
duction, which may be briefly stated as follows : 

A conductor carrying a current and moving across the 
lines of force in a magnetic field takes up or gives out me- 
chanical energy in amount equal to the product of the cur- 
rent through the conductor into the electromotive force de- 
veloped in it by its motion through the magnetic field. The 
mechanical energy is given up to the conductor when the 
electromotive force generated in it is positive with res|>ect 
to the current, and is given up by it when the electromotive 
force is negative. It is this knowledge that has enabled an 
improvement in electric motors to be made each time that 
an improvement has been made in electric generators. It 
follows from the absolute reversibility of the electro-mag- 
netic induction of electric currents that good electric gvu- 
erators make good electric motors. It does not necessarily 
follow, however, that a good dynamo operated under one set 
of conditions will make an eqiially good motor when o{)er- 
ated relatively under entirely different conditions. 

Electric machinery for motor practice is required to oper- 
ate almost universally under different conditions from thnt 
of the ^nerator as to speed, load, and speed regulation. 
Where it is reauired to meet conditions dinerent from tin ►be 
that are met by the dynamo, it must be different in de^iirn 
and construction. These special requirements have enlist <-< I 
the attention of some of the ablest engineers of the wirKl 
since the introduction of the dynamos with the Gramme 
and Hftfner-Alteneck armatures. 

The great use of the electric motor is for the transmissicm 
and distribution of power. The electric motor and the eft>e 
with which electric energy may be transmitted without 
serious loss to great distances make possible the commercial 
use of many waste powers. Served with current fri»ni 
neighboring electric-light stations, it is a re«dy and tH«»- 
nomical power in small and large units in citiesl The ajv- 
plication of the electric motor to railway propulsion foruiN 
now a great industry by itself. 

There are two great classes of electric motors, direct cur- 
rent and alternate current. The simple law that a dynamo 
acts as a motor when a current from an external source is 
passed through its armature in a sign opposite to the elect r*-!- 
motive force it develops extends to direct current, alteniHt^- 
current, and all forms of motor alike. In any motor, a> n\ 
the dynamo, there are two distinct organizations of parts 
the field and the armature. The field is generally e5>tal»- 
lishetl by current from the source supplying the' rrmtor. 
The current is allowed to pass through tne armature, whi<h 
sets up a rotation due to tne force exerted by the action t»f 
the field on the armature. Now the motion of the armatur*-^ 
conductors through the field produces in them an elect n.^ 



58 



ELECTRIC RAILWAYS 



ceaL At Frankfort b "st«p-down" tronafonnatioD look 
place tbroogh tmnstonners similar to those used at Laut- 
fen; from Cbese the current, once mora at ordinary voltage 
and coirespoDdingly increased stren^h, was dalivered to an 
Orehstrom motor that developed 75 II.'P. in retnrn for the 
too B.-P. given up to the dynamo by the turbines at Lauf- 
fen. Harhis J, Ryan. 

Electric BailwajS: those railways on which electricity 
is the motive potrer. The first step toward the applica- 
tion of the electric motor to railway propulsion was made 
by Thomas Davenport, of Brandon, Vt. He constructed in 
1835 a model electric car operated on a circular track. The 
car motor was ol the pole-attracting type, and was operated 
by means of batteries carried on the car. In Apr., 1S51, 
Prof. Page, of the Smithsonian Institution, operated a 16- 
H.-P. locomotive that derived electric current from 100 large 
Qrove cells carried with it. This locomotive attained a 
speed of 19 miles an hour, and was run on the Baltimore 
and Washington Railway. The motor was likewise of the 
pole-attracting type. The experiments of Page demonstrated 
the entire possiodity of nidway propulsion by means of 
electricity, but with primary batteries the cost was prohibi- 
tive. The next decided advance came with the commer- 
cial introduction of the Gramme and Siemens dynamos, 
which provided at once an economical means for the pro- 
duction of electrical energy and an efficient motor when the 
operattoD of those dynamos was reversed. From 1873 to 
1887 experiments were made in Europe and in the U. S. 
with Tatying success. Among the promoters of these enl«r- 

Srisea were Fontain and Breget, Siemens and Ilalake, 
ramme and Emr, of Europe, and George F. Green, Kill- 
son, Stephen D. Field. J. C. Henry, Daft, V an Depole, Short, 
and Sprague, of the U. S. Through the eCForta oC these tnen 
a dozen or more eiperimental roaiu were operute<l, and while 
they were not all successful, each one constituted a great 
practical lesson. 

Numerous forms and methods of mounting the motor 
were tried. Methods of every kind were used for gener- 
ating and conducting the current to the motors. The direct 
supply of electrical energy in the form of constant current 
or constant potential from the generators to the motora was 
made by sliding or rolling coiitact through the rails insu- 
lated from each other and from the earth; through a third 
rail insulated and mounted at the center of the track in a 
slotted conduit, or just above the ground, using the track as 
a return; or through a conductor mounted on insulated 
supports overhead, with the track and the earth as a return 
for the current. Storage Latteries were used by charging 
them at the generating stations, and then loading them on 
the cars to supply the molora with current, thus avoiding 
the need of running conductors along the road. 

Out of all these practical trials, attempts, and experiments 
there was developed the system of electric street-railway 
propulsion that is now bciiig used in most o( the cities in 
the U. S., and has been introduced in Europe. In 1887 
Frank J. Sprague undertook to equip the Union Passenger 
Railway, of Richmond. Va., operating twenty cars, for elec- 
tric traction. The work was completed ana the road went 
into operation with electric motive-power early in 1888. 
This, therefore, was the first road to be equipped in a real 
engineeriDg spirit and determination : consequently the re- 
suUa of all previou.s attempts and experiments w~~~ 




(ully lookeii into, and the methoils that were found to be 
best and most practicable were adopted. The final outcome 
was the adiiption of the single overhead trolley system. 
using the earth and the rails as a return. The success of 
the Richmond road invited public conf^ciencc to .such an 



In modern practice the current is supplied at a constant 
potential of 500 volts from the dynamos in the generating 
' '' ' " motors direct by means of a bore copper 

alley-wire, suspended in the air over the 
of each ear-track. Fig, 1 givee one a good idea of 
the manner in which the troQey-wire is suspended in the 
streets and the method adopted for taking the current from 
it to the motors on the car-trucks, from which it is returned 
to the power-bouse through the wheels, track, and earth. 
The trolley-wire is suspended by means of cross wir«s at- 
tached to poles erecl«a at the curbs in the streets. These 
cross wires are insulated from the trolley-wire except where 
it is electrically joined to the feed-wiree. The feed-wires 
provide all extra conducting capacity needed for keeoing 
up the full supply of current in all parts of the trolley-line. 
They are given a weather-proof insulation and mounted ou 
glass insulators carried on the poles, or they are given a su- 



perior insulation, covered with lead, and placed in conduits 
underground; to these the trolley-lino is joined eleetricallv 
at intervals. The current is taken from the trolley-liiie ti> 
the moving car through the trolley and trolley-pole that are 
carried by the car. The troiley-jiole has a pivot attaclunent 
to the top of the car. and by means of springs presses the 
trolley uniformly against the trolley-wire. The trolley and 

ele being metallic, the current is led through them to tlio 
p of the car. and thence through metallic conductors to 
the motors below. It is necessary, on account of its weight, 
to give the motor flexible suspension on the car-trucks, id 
order to lessen the wear on the tracks and the tendency tu 
damage the insulation of tho wires on the fields and arma- 
tures of tho motors, due to the excessive shocks that would 
otherwise be experienced. This is accomplished bj pivot- 
ing one end of the motor to the car-axle, and suspending the 
other with spring from the truck-frame. The power of the 
motor is transmitted from the armature to the axle bv 



solid oil. 



; method of mounting and connecting the 




motor is illustrated in Fig, 8, Series motors are used, and 
for driving a Ifi-fool car in ordinary practice two 15 U.-P. 
motors, one on each axle, are used. The speed of the mi> 
tors is regulated by changing the electrical pressure appliiil 



60 



ELECTROCUTION 



of the chair. The wire attached to the head electrode de- 
scended from the ceiling, and that of the lower one passed 
alone^ the floor to the chair, being protected by a strip of 
wood. The dynamo and engine were located in one of the 
prison shops, several hundred feet from the execution room ; 
the voltmeter, ammeter, switch-board, etc., were located in 
a room adjoining the execution-room, which contained the 
death-chair, electrodes, and connecting wires. 

Communication between the meter-room and dynamo- 
room was by means of electric signals. The apparatus used 
in all the subsequent executions at Sing Sing and Auburn 
was substantially a duplicate of that described, except as re- 
gards the location of the measuring instruments, switch- 
board, etc., and the form and points of application of the 
electrodes. 

In the execution of Kemmler the voltmeter, ammeter, 
and switch-board, etc., were not in the execution chamber ; 
hence there is no official record of the electromotive pressure 
and current-strength at the time of making and during the 
continuance of the first contact. But reasoning from cases 
of accidental death and experiments on some of the lower 
animals, and also from tne subsequent electrocutions, it 
must have been at least 1,500 volts. The amperage also 
was not recorded in this case. An account of the execution 
of Kemmler will give a very correct idea of all subsequent 
executions by electricity, except in regard to some matters 
of detail in the points and length of time of contact of the 
electrical current. After Kemmler was seated in the chair 
and properly strapped and the electrodes moistened, all of 
whicn time occupied about three minutes, the warden sig- 
naled the assistant in charge of the switch in the next room 
to turn the lever which closed the circuit and sent the 
deadly current through the prisoner's body. The moment 
the contact was made the body was thrown into a state of 
extreme muscular rigidity. Every muscle of the body 
seemed to be in a state of tonic spasm. Synchronously witn 
the onset of rigidity, motion, sensation, and consciousness 
were apparently absolutely suspended, and remained so 
while tne contact was maintainea. At the end of seventeen 
seconds the prisoner waspronounced dead, and the contact 
immediately broken. When the electrical contact was 
broken the rigidity noted was succeeded by complete muscu- 
lar relaxation ; at the same time superficial discolorations 
appeared on the face. The body remamod limp and motion- 
less for about half a minute, when there occurred a series 
of slight spasmodic movements of the chest, accompanied by 
the expulsion of a small amount of mucus from the mouth. 

There were no evidences of return of consciousness or of 
sensation, but in view of the possibility that life was not 
wholly extinct, and in order to take no risk, the current was 
ordered to be reapplied, which was done about two minutes 
after the first contact was broken. The sudden muscular 
rigidity noted on the first contact was observed, and contin- 
ued until the contact was again broken, when the same state 
of complete muscular relaxation again set in. The second 
current lasted about seventy seconds, and toward the end 
was accompanied by a small volume of smoke issuing from 
the points of contact, due to scorching of the sponges on the 
electrodes. There was also some desiccation of the already 
dead body under the electrodes. 

After this contact there was no radial pulse or heart- 
action, and the corneas were depressed and fiaccid. The 
sudden and painless character of the death of the criminal 
was demonstrated. In point of fact the criminal was abso- 
lutely dead at the time of breaking the first current. The 
movements referred to have been noticed in some of the 
subsequent executions, and also in animals experimentally 
killed by electricity, and afford no evidence of conscious 
suffering. 

These movements were very slight in comparison with 
those usually found after decapitation and hanging, which 
have sometimes been noted an hour after the execution, 
where4ks in subsequent executions by electricity no reflex 
muscular action was found three minutes after the last 
contact was broken. 

No doubt there were certain minor defects in the arrancre- 
ment and operation of the apparatus used in the Kemmler 
execution, but notwithstanding these defects unconscious- 
ness was instantaneous and death painless. This was clearly 
demonstrated in subsequent executions, four of which were 
witnessed by the writer. The object to be attained in the 
infliction of the death penalty, so far as the individual is 
concerned, is sudden and painless death. One celebrated 
electrical expert recommended the passing of the electrical 



current through the hands instead of Vertex of skull and legs, 
as then the current would have a more direct paralyzing effect 
on the heart. In the case of McElvaine (Feb. 8, 1892) this 
was shown to be erroneous and not practical. It has been 
shown by physiologists and medical electricians that the 
arrest of the heart's action can be as readily effected by de- 
stroving or paralyzing the brain center, which presides over 
the heart's action. It has been conceded by all the medictal 
and electrical experts present during these executions that 
by including the brain directly in the circuit the action of 
the heart would probably be quickly arrested, while at the 
same time all the vital centers, including that of conscious- 
ness, would be paralyzed. The brain it«elf is very suscep- 
tible to the influence of electricity, as is shown sometimes to 
an alarming extent by the passage of mild currents into it 
through the skull. The nerve tissues also contain an excess 
of saline moisture, and hence are among the best of conduct- 
ors, while the amount of brganic matter in live bone also 
renders it a fairly good conductor. 

In all the executions following Kemmler*s one electrwle 
was applied so as to cover the forehead and temples, and 
the otner to the calf of the leg, this one being the larger. 
The point of contact of the body electrode is not one of 
great importance. It may be applied to the hand, foot, or 
any other part. The eiectroaes were kept thoroughly 
moistened by a continuous flow from two suspended foun- 
tain syringes containing salt water. The preparations of the 
prisoners from the time they entered the execution-room to 
the closure of the circuit which rendered them unconscious 
varied from about four minutes in Kemmler's case to one 
minute and nine seconds in Tice's case (May 17, 1892). 
The electromotive pressure in the executions succeeding 
Kemmler's, as shown by the voltmeter taken by Prof. Landry, 
varied from 1,458 to 1,716 volts, while the ammeter showeii 
a variation in current of from two to seven amperes. In 
each instance the prisoner walked deliberately to the chair, 
and quietly submitted to the application of the stra^is and 
electrodes. There was nothing unduly repulsive in the exe- 
cutions. About the only objective phenomena observed 
were instantaneous and complete tonic rigidity of the mus- 
cular system on closure of the circuit and marked miiscular 
relaxation as soon as the contact was broken. The length 
and number of contacts varied from two contacts of seven- 
teen and seventy- two seconds respectively in Kemmler's 
case to four contacts of nine seconds eacn in Tice's case. 
There were chest movements and possibly heart-beat after 
first contact in Kemmler's case ; in Jugiro's (three contac^ts 
of fifteen seconds each, July 7. 1891), slight radial flutter; 
in Tice's case, none after breaking the last circuit. The 
length of time which elapsed from the time the condemned 
person entered the room until he was absolutely dead varied 
from about eight minutes in Kemmler's case to* two minutes 
and forty-nine seconds in Tice's case. Executions by hanging 
usually required from fifteen to thirty minutes, and fre- 
quently the heart has been found beating thirty minutes 
after the fall of the drop. Additional time is consumed in 
adjusting the rope and cap and in pinioning, and frequently 
the victim is simply strangled. 

In the opinion of C. F. MacDonald, M. D., there are abun- 
dant reasons for believing that conscious life is destroyetl so 
rapidly by electricity that the application of the current 
could be repeated several times witnin the interval that is 
known to elapse between the receipt of an injury or a jh»- 
ripheral sensory impression and its conscious perception by 
the brain through the medium of the sensory nerves. In 
other words, the electrical current would travel frt>m the 
point of contact to the brain many times faster than sonsor>' 
impressions or nerve currents would — the rate of velocity of 
the latter being, roughly s|)eakin&:, only about 155 feet per se<*- 
ond, while elect ricitv travels at the rate of millions of feet i»er 
second. Thus it will be readily seen that an electrical cur- 
rent of lethal energy coming in contact with the body so as 
to include the brain in the circuit would reach the latter 
and produce unconsciousness long before any sensory im- 
pression at the point of contact could be conveyed to and 
appreciated by that organ through the process of nerve-con- 
duction, which, as has been shown, requires a distinetlv af>- 
preciable period of time — the rate of transmission of pamful 
sensations being even slower than that of ordinary tactile 
impressions. 

This was shown very clearly by a series of experiments 
in instantaneous photography made by Prof. Muybridge. 
A careful post-mortem examination was held on eacn of the 
persons thus executed, but nothing, either macroscopic c»r 



ELECTROMETER 



ELECTRO-PLATING 




F between the at- 
tracted disk and the 
panllel plane is 
sufficient to bring 
ihe (onner to a se- 
lected position (the 
zero of the iodex). 
The difference of 
potentinl between 
the plnnee is Ihus 
measured. 
A tar more sensi- 

the quadi-ant elec- 
trometer, one of the 
simplest forms of 
irhich is shown in 
Fia.5. The essen- 
tial parts are the 
needle, which is 
simply a strip of 
metal, and the 
quadrants. The 
a flat cylindrical 



a cut into quadrants which are separated 



B sufficient to give compiet* 
mounted ujKin a glass 
post. The needle, 
swinging in the 
center of the bpi, 
touches none of 
the quadrants. The 
sus|iension is usu- 
allT bifllar, al- 
though in some 
fonns of the in- 
strument the tor- 
sion of a single 
suspension Bber is 
substitnted. The 
nonnai ;iosition of 
the needle with 
reference to the 
quadrants is shown 
in Fig. 6, The 
quadrants are con- 
ne(-tcil pairwise by 
wires diagonally 
, acniss. 1 with 3 
and 2 with 4. 

The quadrant 
electrometer may 
be used in four 



Fro. a 



(1) The needle is given a large constant charge and the 
quadrant pairs are tirought to Uie potentials, the difference 
of which is to be measureil. The deflection o( the needle is 
then determined by the method of the mirror and scale. 

The following is the law of the instrument thus use<l : 



Sind = j,(V,-V,)V„. 



where d is the deflection 
the di 



is a constant depending upon 

and adjustment of the quadrant'' and needle 
the bifllar su»|N'nsion: V, anil V, are the potentials 
of Ihe quailrant pairs ; and Vn is the potential of the needle. 
To hold the nwdie at the high potential necessary to great 
sensitiveness Lorii Kelvin (in the Thomson electrometers) 
moimted the needle and quadrants upon a Levden jar. the 
inner coaling of whirh consisted of strong sulphuric acid. 
The needle was connected wilh the inner coating by means 
of a line platinum wire which dipped into the acid, and thus 
always shared the elect riflcal ion of the jar. For the ex- 
tremely ingenious devii-cs by means of which Ihe charfje of 
the ni-tsUe is replenisliinl and gauged, and the sensiiiveiipss 
of the instrument is varied, tlie reader Is n^ferred to the 
nionc^raph On Khrlrom'li-n (Thonwm's llififTg on Ehc- 
Irottatitt find Jlagni'l I'mn). or to JCnryelopirdta Brilannirtt 
viii..p. 117, or lo dray's Abtoliitt MeaaHremfii/s in £lec- 
iricity and ilagnrtiam, vol. i. 



(2) In the second method of using the electrometer the 
quadrant pairs are given a large potential-difference and the 
body, the potential of which is to be measured, is connected 
with the needle. The same formnla applie& 




Smd = ^^{\,-\\f. 

where V, — V, is the difference of potential between Ihe 
quadrant pairs. 

{4) In the fourth method the quadrant pair which is not 
connected with the needle is brought to zero potential 
(earth). The formula becomes: 



Sin<j = 



2C 



Methods 3 and 3 are of small sensitiveness, but they have 
the ailvantage of bein^ applicable to the measurement of 
alternating potential differences. 

Valuable modifications of the Thomson electrometer have 
been made by Kirchhoff, Mascart, CBr[>en(ier, Kyan. and 
others, and an entinOy different principle has been intro- 
duced by Lippmann in his " capillary electrometer.*' In llii.-i 
instrument advantage is taken of the movement of a mercurv 
column in a small tube (owing to changes of the surfaM- 
tension when electrifled), and it is found possible to measure 
very minute differences of potential (■0001 volts). Sec 
Electricftt, Electroscope, etc. E. L. Nichols, 

EI«ctroph'orDH [from tlectro- (Gr. tjAorrpor. amber), nsi-d 
as meaning electricity, + Gr. -^opei. bearing, <leriv. of p4ptai, 
to boar]: the simplest form of apparatus for the coniiiiued 
production of electricity bv electrostatic induction. It con- 
sists of a disk of vulcanite, sulphur, or of some re$ini>us 
com|>osition, and a metallic disk of smaller diameter with 
an insulated handle. The resinous surface having been cler- 
trifled by friction, the metallic disk is placed u|)on it. The 
latter is then momentarily connected with the earth to al- 
low of the cscuie of the negative charge, which, having bei'ii 
generated by the inductive action of the resinoiisly eleclri- 
tled surface below, is repelled and escapes to the ground. 
The metallic disk then possesses a positive charge, which 
may be removed by withdrawing the disk from its resinous 
beil. and may be utilized in charging Leydeii jars. etc. Sincv 
in tliis cycle of o|ieratiDns. which is known as the i']e<'tri>- 
phorus cycle, and which is performed automaiically in influ- 
ence machines, accumulators, and replenishers, the original 
charge is not depleted, the performance may be re|H'ated as 
often as is desired without recharging the resinous pluti.-. 
The source of the electrical energy thus developed Ik'k in 
Ihe work which must be done in removing the |insitivelv 
charged disk from the neighborhood of the negativelv 
electrifled plate upon which it has been lying during th« 
first portion of the cycle. See ELEcTgiciTT. 

E. L. NicHot^. 

Electro-plating: the covering of the surface of articles 
formed of the cheajtfr metals with gold, silver, platinum, 
nickel, copper, or other costly metals by means of Ihe ektt ric 
current, on the same principle as that which is employed in 
elect rot yping. German silver is one of the best siib8taa<>«^ 
lo receive an electro-plate, though copper and its allovs urv 
excellent. If iron. zinc, or pewter were to be used, tliev 
were formerly first plated with copper, but improvements 
reniler that unnecessary. All Hrti<'k'S to be plated are most 
carefully cleaneil and scounxl. They are then dipped in ct 
solution of nitrate of mercury, and receive therefrom a thin 



c-l'.nng ana isrimzing (i-ona.m), auu oruQurs nacii 

tUrtro^atiT (New York. 1893). 

Electroscope [from rJedm-, electricity <Qr. JJAcrrpsv, a 

txT) + Or. -mm 

observing] : an 



eating electrillca- 
liim. The forces 
between chHrgeU 
bodies are either 
reyiellent or ntlnu!- 
tive, Hml both are 
niucle use ot in the 
cli-etroseope. The 
fctmi Kciif rally eni- 
nloveii is shown in 
Fig. 1. It cunsi.sts 
of a pair of jnild 
leaves attached to 
the lower end of a 
vertical metallic 
rod. For protec- 
tion the teivcsare 
mounted within a 
metal box with 
elH:s3 windows. 
The rod which ter- 
minates without in 
4 ball or disk is 
careful Iv insulated 
from the case by 
means of a layer 
of shellac or glass. 
When a charged 
hoilv is brought 
I neiir to the disk or 
' knob, the liitter, 
together with the 



rold 



1(1 the leaves diverpie. Used in 
ilicatea electritication, but docs 
not show the 
character of the 
(lischari^ If 
tbelcaviHibeiriy- 
en a permanent 
I'lmrt,-!^, the in- 

dieattlheaiifnas 
well lis the rela- 
tiif ilfffrefiitvu- 

ehargetl body 
broiiglit near. 
Bodies of simi- 
lar electrifica- 
tion to Ibc elec- 
troscope 

the dilation of 
the leaves; those 
with the charge 

of opiNisite KJjni 

will draw the 

loivcs together. 

Til is form of 

elettrostopc was 

no, s. firct desi-ribed 

byBonnet(l(t»7). 

Hither tvpe of electroscope (Fig, 2) contains but one 

> "t gold leaf, which hangs vertically between two ter- 




The eK'troscope just (iescribed was first used by Bohnen- 
beryer (1H19). who maintained the cluirge of the terminals by 
means of a dry pile. In the hands of Ilankcl, who substi- 
tuteil ^ hundred cells of water battery for the drv pile, and 



Annahn der Pbytik, e4. p. 28). the Bohiieiil>erper elect__ 
scope was rendered canalilc of accurate <)iiaiititftlive indica- 
tions. Ilankela niodincation should titerefore be clo^tsed as 
on elect roiucler. 

In cusi!S where considerable charges are lo lie studied 
■h less sensitive devices may be niailc to serve as electro- 



s(^o|M'8. A pith tail hung by a silken thread, a rod of vul- 
canite or of sealinp-was susliciuled in a stirrup, even a lath 
balanced upon a point, may be used. See ELEcmicinf and 



ELDUTHOUIil 



X L. Ni,n. 



Electrotype [formed from elerlra- (Or. JfAdtrw, ambei^ 
used as meaning electricity. -|- fi/pe. Iiwm Or. riwai, image, 
figure] : the cast of an object procureii by the gradual deiKwi- 
tion of a metal frotu a solutiiui by means'of a current of dec* 
tricitv. When two pieces of clean platinum are put into a 
solutionof sulphate of copper, no change takes place. But if 
an electric current is transmitted through the solution by 



anode remaining clean, if the current lie reversed, the cop- 
wr will be transferred frnra the jijattnum plate on which it 
had l)een deposited to the clean jilale. By thus reversing 
the direction of the current the cop]ier may lie sent back- 
ward and fgrward, being always deposited upon the negative 
pole, or that surface by which'the electric current leaves the 
electrolyte or solution that is undergoing det'ompositifm. 
By continuing the electric currents, and keeping up thti 
strength of the solution by otlding fresh portions of the salt 
of co]i]icr, the metallic film on the eutlnide may be made of 
any rcipiired thickness, and afterward peeled oS the plat- 
iiiiitu surface. The texture of the <'oiiiier deposited varies 
witii the batten-'powcr employed and with the stn^nglh and 
temiieralure of the solution, and may be hard, brittle, and 
crystalline, or ti High and malleable, acconling to the man- 
agement ot till! operator, A current ot low intensity, a 
muilerately slmug si'lution of sulphate of copper acidulated 
with sulphuric acid, ami a temperature not oelow 60'. are 
the most favorable circumstances for obtaining the best de- 
jKisit of copiier. When the negative pole oroulhoiie is ir- 
-■igular (like a coin or medal), instead of bein^ a plane sur- 



may be sulistilutnl for copjier by proper management, or if 
the precipitated metal be left upon the surface im which it 



requires but little apparatus, and involves no great expense. 
A medal niay be either copiul directly, ami ati inverted im- 
pression obtained from which a second electrotype can be 
taken, or a cast of the metal may In; first miuie in stearin or 
plaster. In the latter ojieratiou, which is the most generallv 
used, the mold, if of plaster, must be first soakeil in oil, 
tallow, or melted s|iermaceti, so as to render it imjierviouB 
to water. It must then be niatle a conductor of the current, 
and this is done by thoroughly brushing black teail over the 
snrfac« which is to lie reproduced. In case the medal itself 
is used, in onler to prevent the deposition of cojijier which 
would take place u|ion tlie e<lgesand u[K>n the reverse of the 
medal, those jMirts shoidd lie covered with sealing-wax, var- 
nish, or shellac. The tntro(hietion of this valuable art has 
been ascribed to different penmns. Daniell is said to have 
been the first to notice the deposil.iiin of metallic copper by 



64 



ELECTRUM 



ELEPHANT 



electricity while working with his battery ; Jacobi, of St. 
Petersburg, first published in 1889 a practical application of 
this fact, which publication called out announcements from 
Spencer and Jordan, two Englishmen, who were both work- 
ing independently at the same object as Jacobi. Messrs. 
Elkington, of Birmingham, soon after applied the process 
to the gilding and plating of goods on a large s^ale. Elec- 
trotypins has to some extent superseded the old stereotype 
process for making plates for printers' use, especially for the 
reproduction of engravings and where large numbers are to 
be printed. For a summary of the various processes used 
by printers in the departments of stereotyping and electro- 
typing, see Peintiuq. 

Electrnm [Lat. = Gr. IlK^terpoy^ amber] : a natural alloy 
of gold and silver, in the proportion of two of gold and one 
of silver. It is found in Siberia, Norway, and California, 
and occurs in tabular crystals or imperfect cubes of a silver- 
white color. 

Electuary [from Late Lat. eUctua'rium (also electa'rium), 
a deriv. from a corrupted form of 6r. 4K\tuer6v, cf. iitXtty/M, 
derivatives of iKXtlxtiy, lick up. The word appears in Ital. 
laitovaro (under the influence of latte) and in Germ, as 
LcUwerge] : in pharmacy, a variety of confection tliinner 
than a conserve, and composed of powdered drugs mingled 
with honey, sirup, glycerin, or other vehicle. Electuaries are 
not now recognized in the U. S. and British pharmacopoeias. 

Elegiac Distich : a couplet consisting of a dactylic Hex- 
ameter and a Pentameter {qq, v.). The second verse repeats 
the movement of the hexameter, as if reconsidering it 
Hence its reflective, emotional character. Schiller's famous 
distich is translated by Coleridge thus : 

In the bexametoi: rises the fountahi's silvenr colomn ; 
In the pentameter aye falling in melody back. 

The elegiac distich was the flrst step toward the Strophe 
{q. v.), and was used in tlie elegy (iKryuoy), the poetry of 
subjective reflection. As to the inventor, the ancients did 
not agree. There are extant elegies, or fragments of them, 
by some fift^ poets, from Callinus (730 b. c^ down ; but the 
period specially marked by elegiac composition closes not 
long after Theognis (540 b. c), of whom we have about 1,400 
verses. This form of poetry was much used in epigrams, 
epitaphs, etc. The chief Roman elegists are Catullus, Pro- 
pertius, TibuUus, and Ovid. Milton W. Humphreys. 

Elegy [vifi Lat. elegi'a^ from Gr. rk iKrvM^ an ele^ac 

Coem, a lament, collec. plur. of iKtyuou] : the name given 
J the ancient Greeks and Romans to poems of various 
kinds, being applied to the martial lyrics of Tyrtjcus, the 
aphorisms of TTieognis and Solon, the melancholy effusions 
of Mimnermus, and the erotic poems of Ovid, Catullus, and 
Tibullus. In modem times the name is applied chiefly to 
poetical compositions of a melancholy character, such as 
Gray's Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard, 

Element [from Lat. elementum^ a constituent or funda- 
mental part ; the word possibly originated in the names of 
the letters, /, m, n, i. e. el-em-en-tumy and was afterward felt 
to be a noun with the common sufiix -mentum ; cf. En^. 
a h c'«, pron. dbee8eez\ or it may be connected with Skr. dni- 
man-, smallest piece] : a term used in various senses ; a flrst 
principle ; a rudiment ; a constituent part of a compound ; 
sometimes the proper state or sphere of a person or an ani- 
mal. In the plural, the first principles or rule^ of a science 
or art ; also tne bread and wine in the Eucharist. Ancient 
philosophers applied this term to fire, air, earth, and water, 
each of which, in their several systems, was supposed to be 
the first principle of all things. The elements of the al- 
chemists were sulphur, mercury, and salt. As a modem 
scientific term, element signifies a simple substance, or one 
which chemists have not yet decomposed. 

Elements : in astronomy, the data required in order to 
compute the place of a planet, satellite, or comet ; those nu- 
merical quantities, etc., which are employed in the construc- 
tion of tables exhibiting the motions of the moon and planets. 
They comprise tlie least mean distances of the planets from 
the sun, the eccentricity of their orbits, their mean motions, 
daily and annual, their' masses, etc. 

Elements, Chemical : See Chemistry. 

Eleml [cf. Fr. elemi. Span, elemi, Ital. elemi ; the word is 
of Eastern originj : a fragrant resinous substance procured 
from several species of trees of the natural order Amyrida- 
cea. It exudes from incisions made in the bark, is at first 
soft, but becomes hard and brittle. It is generally pale 
yellow, semi-transparent, and soluble in alcohol, except a 



residue called elemin. It is obtained from the Idea irica- 
riba, which grows in Brazil ; from Elaphrium elemiferum, of 
Mexico ; ana from Canarium commune., of Manilla. Elemi 
is used in the preparation of ointments and plasters. 

Elephant [from Lat. elephantus, or elephas, from (tr. 
i\4^, -ovTOf ; origin obscure]: the common name of the 
members of the sub-family Elephant ims, a group of thick- 
skinned mammals of the order Proboscidea, distinguishe<l 
among living mammals by the possession of a long trunk, 
or proboscis, forming a prolongation of the nose. The head 
is large and rounded, and, owing to the shortness of the 
neck, seems to be set directly on the shoulders. The limbs 
are straight and massive, the ears large, flattened, and in re- 
pose carried along the side of the neck ; the dark wrinkle<l 
skin is nearly naked, being sparsely sprinkled witli black 
hairs, while the end of the tail bears a tuft of coarse whale- 
bone-like hairs. The dentition is remarkable. There art* 
but two incisors; these, which are in the upper jaw, are the 
successors of two small milk incisors, and grow throughout 
life as two pointed, slightly curved tu^s. In many of the 
Asiatic elephants, however, the tusks are poorly developed. 
The tusks consist of that fine-grained, elastic modification 
of dentine termed ivory. 

The grinders are formed of vertical, transverse plates of 
enamel, arranged in compressed U-shaped folds, imlKnldt^d 
in dentine, and having tlie hollow of the U filled with ce- 
ment. During the life of an elephant there are altogether 
six molars on each side of each jaw, but, owing to the ptviil- 
iar mode of their succession, not more than one entire 
tooth and part of another is in place and in use at any one 
time. The teeth are not developed one below the other, a.s 
in mammals generally, but one oehind the other, the tooth 
in use moving slowly forward in the jaw, being replaced by 
the one which forms at its back. The lower jaw is very 
heavy, and is loosely articulated with the cranium, being. a> 
it were, suspended by the large masticatorv inuj«i'lt*<. 
While the upp>er bones of the legs are unusually long, the 
bones of the feet are small and imbedded in a mass of 
Umgh spongy tissue, which forms an elastic pad ami ren- 
ders the step of these huge beasts springy and noLseles^. 
The bones of the forearm are crossed one over the other, 
and there is no round ligament {ligamenfum teres) running 
from the center of the thigh bone to its socket. The hea<i 
of the elephant is large, but this is not due to the size of the 
brain, this being comparatively small, but to the neccs-^ity 
for providing surface for the attachment of the mus<lfs 
whicn form the trunk, and for those which sustain the 
weight and leverage of the trunk and tusks. A large^>orti« »n 
of tine skull is formed of bony air-cells which give great in- 
crease in bulk, with but slight additional weight, and thc^o 
constitute so large a proportion of the cranium that a ball 
may — and frequently does — pass entirely through the hea<l 
without causing death. The most striking feature of the 
elephant is the trunk, which, formed of thousands of inter- 
lacing muscles and capable of the most varied movements, 
compensates for the shortness of the neck and enables the 
animal to reach objects far above his head or lying on the 
ground at his feet. With it he conveys food to his mouth, 
or drinks bv drawing up water in the nostrils and discharg- 
ing it into his mouth, a peculiar valve-like arrangement pre- 
venting the water from reaching above a certain point in the 
proboscis. The trunk of the Asiatic elephant is provi«le<l 
with a little finger-like projection, but the African species has 
none. In the case of the African species, which furnishes 
the bulk of the ivory of commerce, the tusks, although weji}>- 
ons of defense, bid fair to be the cause of its extermination, 
from 75,000 to 100,000 animals being killed annually. As 
the animal grows but slowly, and as Africa is being yearly 
rendered more and more accessible, the end can not be vt'r>- 
far off. Tusks have been obtained 9 or 10 feet in length, an<l 
150 lb. in weight, but such are rare, the average weight i»f 
tusks from Africa now brought to market being about 510 Ih., 
that of tusks from India much less. Elephants are polyirn- 
mous, and usually associate in small herds, although former- 
ly the African species was found in great numbers. The |k*- 
riod of gestation is twenty-one months, and the female briiii^ 
forth but one young at a birth, the baby elephant Ih'iucp 
about 3 feet high and from 150 to 200 lb. in weight. The 
rate of growth is slow, an elephant requiring from twenty 
to thirty years to attain its full stature and full weight, thiV 
latter varying from 6,000 to 9,000 lb. Its food is strieily 
vegetable, consisting of the twigs and leaves of trees, sh«>4'>t's 
of young bamboo, grass, and aquatic plants. There are but 



Elephaiit-«lii«w IMaeroKtlidri typicui}. 

what resemble the juinpine-mi<;e of North America, and 
fuv some^im<^H loc&llj termed elephunt-iiiice. F. A. L. 

Eleta: A town ot Russia i ^vcmment of Orel; od Che 
Sosna; 230 miles S. S. E. of Moscow {se« map o( Russia, ref. 
8-E). It has many factories, and a largtt trade in leather, 
grain, and flour. Pop. (1888) 86,33B. 

Elensl'lie: a eenus of gxvsses {Oraminur). comprising 
several species whieh are natives of India and other warm 
ciimatCB, and are cullivateii for food. EUtisiiif eoraeana is 
extensively cultivated (or lis lar^ farinaceous erain (:;alled 
korakan or dociissa) in India, Chma. Japan, and throughout 
Africa. The Eleu«ine indiea is naturalized about dooryards, 
etc. in the U. S. 

El«Dsln'lft, or GleaslnlKn HjBterleB: an annual festi- 
val celebrated in ancient Greece in honor of Demeler (Ceres) 
and Persephone (Proserpine). The worship of Demeter orig- 
inally took place at Eleusis only, but after the conquest of 
that city by the Athenians feasts were celebrated in her 
honor In various Grecian cities. The origin of these mys- 



o Attica, where she taught the inhabitants the 
corn and institute<l the mysteries. The festiTal consisted of 
the greator a:id the lesser mysteries. The lesser feast was 
held in the spring at Agrte, on the Ilissus. and wad only a 
preparation for the real or greater mysteries. The latter 
took tilace in October. On the first day, calleii Ayivti^ (the 
assembling), the mystie — i. e. those who haii U'en ini- 
tiated in the itt/aer Eleusinia — assembled at Athens. On 
the si>cnnil_they walked to the sea in procession and were 



cateH o( harlev from the Karian plain were offered. On the 
fourth day the procession of the sacred liasket {Kixafdot 
iciBoSoi) took place. This basket contained pomegranate^^ 
and poppy-seeds, and was drawn on a cart oy osen, and 
fotlowea by women bearing mystic cases. The fifth day 
appears to have been known as the torch-day, and prob- 
ably synilioliii'd the warcli o( Demeter for Persepnone. 
The roysta' walked with torches tj) the temple of Demeter 
at Eleusis. where they seem to have remained all night. 
The sixth day, called lakchos, from a son of Demeter, was 
the most solemn of aU. A <lecorated statue of lakchos was 
carried from Athens to Eleusis. where the votaries again 
passed the night and were initiated into the last mysteries. 
Under an awful oath of secrecy they were admitte<l Into the 
inner sanctuary, where they were allowed to see the sacrod 
things, after which thev were called tpopiif — i. e. watch- 
ers. On the seventh ilav ther n'tumeil to Athens with 



siipi)os»t to have Xwvn aildiil to the original number, so that 
thooe might be Initiateil who hail bern unable to attend on 
the sixth day. On the ninth anil last day two vessels filled 
with wine or water were emptieii — one toward the east, the 
other lowanl the west — by the priests, who at the same time 
uttered some mystical wonls. Resides these ceremonies 
there wen' several others "f which the Eleusinian games, 
supiMMfl to have taken place on the seventh da v, and t^^ 
have l)een the most ancient in Greece, were the chief. The 
Emperor Theodosius suppressed the festival. Nothing cer- 



BLEVATORS 

tain is known respecting the doctrines revealed to the ini- 
tiated, but thev are supposed to have containeii comfurtiii^- 
assu ranees with reganl to a future Btal«. Distinc1iiin> '1 
class were abolished at the Eleusinia, and with this view l.v - 
curgus forbade any woman to ride in the procession m j 
chariot, under fwnaltvof a heavy tine. f>ee ilermann. l.-ht- 
Imch der golle*ditiuilliehfn Allerlunur der Oritchtn; Fiin-- 
ter, lier liaul und die HUekltehr der Ptruphont ; Ilngu'in- 
macher. Die Elewinitektn Mysterien; Grote, Uitlury of 
&rrece, part i., chap, i. Revised by B. B. UoLUkS. 

Eleo'sts (in Gr. 't\*uait. or *EX«imM: an ancient >n>] 
celebrated citT of (Srecce: situated in Attica, near the nnrlh- 
ern shore ot the Gulf ot Salamts ; Bl>out 12 miles X. W. uf 
Athens. It was the chief seat of the worship of Ueiuitir 
(Ceres), who had here a large temple, and whose mysiji- 
rites, called Blbusinia (9. k.), were jierformed annually with 
great pomp. The site of Eleusis was near the modern vil- 
lage of Levsina See Wordsworth. Orerw (1853). 

Elen'thent: one of the Bakaha Islands (g. v.). 

Elenthe'iia [from Or. iXtMtfot. free] ; a national festival 
of the ancient Greeks, instituteil in 470 b. c. to comniem<~ 
rote their deliverance from the Persian armies whicli hm\ in- 
vaded Greece. It was celebrated annually at Platoa in ih? 
early part of autumn. 

Elevation [from Lat. elera'lio; e, out -f teva'rt, light(-M. 
raise] : the act of raising to a higher level or plac« ; the nil 
of exalting in rank; altitude ; ncight above the siirfai''': 
sometimes exaltation of mind or st^te ; a hill or eleval'->l 
ground. In engineering and architecture, a geomotriiu] 
representation ot a building or other object, as if pn'jeii.'i 
(see Descbiptcve Geohetrv) upon a vertical plane by jier- 
pendicular lines drawn through its defining lines or [h>iiiI-. 
It is generally a projection of the exterior, therein differ- 
ing from a utiion which shows the interior, or a part, as if 
cut through. 

Elevation in astronomy is the angular height or the atti- 
tude of a celestial object above the horizon, measiircl l>y 
the arc of a veriical circle passing through it and thezciiiiti. 
Thus the elevation of the pole denotes the arc of the m.'rid- 
ian intercepted between the pole and the horizon, and i-> 
always equal to the latitude of the ol>server. The grenli-i 
elevation of a star occurs when that star is on the meriilmn. 

Elevation in gunnery is the inclination of the axis id i he 
cannon or gun aoove the object aimed at, in order to c<>uq- 
teract the effect which the force of gravity causes, li va- 
ries with the range. 

Elevfttlon of the Host (in Lat tltva'lio hot'lia): in the 
Roman Catholic ritual of the mass, the bfting up of the 
elements after consecration Tor the adoration of the pcoplf. 
It forma one of the most solemn and impressive featum of 
the whole Itoman Catholic liturgy. 

Elerators, or Lifts: machines for lifting passengers or 
freight, consisting essentially of a car which is raised by 
ropes or is pushed up by a ram from below, power ln-ini; 
applied to the ropes or ram, the car heme maintain.il m 
lateral position by rails of wood or metal, upon which it 
moves. The term is usually applied to mochmes of whi.li 
the vehicles move in a vertical direction. Elevators nf 
crude form have been known and used since the I'arhi-i 
times, being propelled by man, animal, and water po»i-r. 
but have wen applied extensively to buildings onlv ^inn- 
about the year 1850. 

Elevators ore classified as hand, power or belt, steam, hy- 
draulic, and electric elevators. Hand elentlora, as the nann- 
implies, are worked by hand-power, Potcrr rlfvalor> an' 
those in which the ropes supporting the car are wound upun 
drums, revolved by gearing and pulleys driven by lietts. and 
are applied to factories where power is distributed by shaft- 
ing. Steam eltvalors are those in which the ropes are 
wound on drums revolved by steam-enginca, the engin--# 
formine part of the machine, and are used principally in 
mines, blast furnaces. an<l warehouses. 

Hydraulic ehralim are of two principal fonns. the ram 
type much used in Europe, and the suspended type. Tlu- 
ram elevator, which was first used extensively by M. I^^'ii 
Ecloui, of Paris. France, consists of a cylinder, usually sunk 
in the earth, containing a ram, on top of which is plactil ihr 
cage. When water pressure is admitted to the cylinder, thi^ 
ram b foreed upward, pushing the car above it ; when the 
pressure is relieved, the car and plunger descend by thoir 
own weight. In the susiiended type the cables are carrii-ii 
over sheaves at the top of the building, and thence down and 



68 



ELGINSHIRE 



ELIOT 



sculptures are described and figured in Michaelis's Der Par- 
therum, and many of them also in works on Greek sculpture, 
for which see Sculptuke. Russell Sturqis. 

Elff lush ire, called also Moray : a county of Scotland ; 
bounded N. by the German Ocean, E. by Banffshire, S. b^ 
Inverness, and" W. by Nairn. Area, 482 s'q. miles. The cli- 
mate is mild and dry, and the soil open, sand v, and grav- 
elly ; very fertile in the northern part. The cnief agricul- 
tural products are wheat, oats, and other kinds of grain ; the 
county was formerly called the granary of Scotland. The 
chief articles of export are cattle, salmon, grain, and timber ; 
there are also some woolen-mills. Together with Nairnshire, 
it sends one member to Parliament. Chief town, Elgin. 
Pop. (1891) 43,448. 

Eli (Seut. 'HA./) : high priest at the temple of Shiloh when 
the ark of the covenant was ih the tabernacle at that place 
(1 Sam. i, 3, 9), and civil judge of Israel for at least twenty 
years. In his old age his sons, Hophnl and Phinehas, whom 
ne had invested with authority, profaned the sanctuary and 
received from him only a feeble rebuke. In conseciuence 
judgments were pronounced against his house by Samuel, who, 
as a child, had ministered to the Lord before Eli. Several 
years after this Israel was defeated in battle by the Philis- 
tines. Hophni and Phinehas were slain, and the ark of God, 
which they had taken to the field, was captured (1 Sam. iv.). 
A messenger from the army brought the fatal news to the 
aged high priest, who, on hearing that the ark was taken, 
fell from his seat and died. 

Elia*: See Lamb, Charles. 

Elias, d-lee'ti^, Dominoo : Peruvian statesman ; b. in lea, 
1805; educated in Europe. He was a prominent agricul- 
turist and statesman, acting president for a short time in 
1844, and was otherwise prominent in Peruvian politics. 
D. at Lima in 1867. 

Elizas Leyi'ta : a Jewish rabbi ; b. at Neustadt, near Nu- 
remberg, Feb. 8, 1472. He taught Hebrew at Rome and 
Venice, was distinguished as a grammarian, and published 
numerous works, among which are a Hebrew Grammar, & 
Chaidaic, Talmudic, and Rabhinical Lexicon, and Mas- 
sorah, containing critical notes on the text of the Bible. 
Among his pupils were Sebastian Miinster (who translated 
several of his works into Latin), Pr. Buxtorf, Cardinal Egidio, 
of Viterbo (in whose house he lived for many years, and 
whom he aided in unraveling the enigmas of the Cabala), 
Dr. Ekik, and others. He was neither a deep nor an original 
spirit, but he was learned and sound. He remained a Jew, 
although so much with Christians. He first popularized the 
views tnat the canon of the Old Testament was formed by 
Ezra and the great synagogue, and in the face of the cur- 
rent Jewish theory denied that the Hebrew vowel-points 
were earlier than tne Talmudists. D. in Venice in 1549. 

£lie de Beaamont, a'lee'de-bo'mdn', Jean Baptists Ar- 
MAND Louis L^oxce: geologist; b. at Canon, Calvados, 
France, Sept. 25, 1798. He was educated in the Polytechnic 
School, and became Professor of Geology in the College 
of France in 1832, chief engineer of mines in 1833, and a 
member of the Institute in 1835. Among his works are 
Carte geologique de la France (2d ed. 1855), and Noiic^a sur 
Us syatemes dea montagnes (1852), in which he gave his 
theories on the elevation of mountain-ranges. He succeeded 
Arago as perpetual secretary of the Academy of Sciences in 
1853. D. in Canon, Sept. 21, 1874. 

Eiiiall [Heb. 'Elijahu, for whom Jehovah is God; Gr. 
*HX/af J : a Hebrew prophet concerning whose ancestry the 
Scriptures are silent. The chief events in his life, as related 
in the first and second b(K)ks of Kings, were his prediction 
of the great drouth which afflicted Israel; the confounding 
and dcMt ruction of the priests of Baal; his persecution by 
Jezebel; his prediction of the violent deaths of Ahab, Jeze- 
bel, and their son Ahaziah; his appointment of Elisha to 
succeed him in the prophetic office ; and his own translation 
in a chariot of fire. H. B. 

E'llm [Heb., stout trees] : the second station mentioned 
in the march of the Israelites after crossing the Red Sea 
(Ex. XV. 27). It has been identified with Ghurundel, al)out 
halfway between Suez and Sinai. 

Elio, a'lee-6, Frantisco Javier: general; b. at Pam- 
plona, Spain. Mar. 4, 1767; entere<l the army in 1785. In 
1805 he was sent to the Rio de la Plata with re-enforce- 
ments against the English; was appointed commandants 
general of the Banda Oriental ; forcea the English to give 



up Montevideo (Sept. 9, 1807), and was made governor of 
that city; returned to Spain in 1810, and was am>oint<<l 
viceroy of Buenos Ayres; but he was opposed by tne junta 
and people. (For events of the period, see Uruguay.) Gen. 
Elio returned to Spain in 1811, and as commander of the 
Spanish troops in Catalonia and Valencia won brilliant vic- 
tories over the French in 1812-13. He was made governor 
and captain-general of Murcia and Valencia soon after tlu' 
restoration of Ferdinand VII. ; in 1^20 he was imprisont^i 
by the revolutionists; accused of instigating an armed at- 
tempt to liberate himself, he was condemned by a court 
martial, and executed at Valencia, Sept. 4, 1822. 

Herbert H. Smith. 

Eliot, Andrew, D. B. : b. in Boston, Mass.. Bee. 28, 1718 ; 
a descendant of Andrew Elliott, of Somersetshire, England, 
who settled at Beverly, Mass., about 1683. He graduated 
at Harvard in 1737, and became associate pastor of the New 
North church, Boston, Mass., in 1742. and sole pastor in 
1750. He took an active interest in the conversion of tlie 
Indians, and in defending the Congregational polity against 
the attacks of the Episcopalians. In 1773 he decllne<l an 
election to the presiaency of Harvard College. D. in Bos- 
ton. Sept. 13, 1778. 

Eliot, Charles William, LL. B. : president of Har>'Hrd 
University ; b, in Boston, Mass., Mar. 20, 1834 ; educated at 
Boston Public Latin School ; A. B., Harvard, 1853 ; tutor in 
mathematics at Harvard 1854-58; assistant Professor of 
Mathematics and Chemistry 1858-61 ; of Chemistry 1861-6:i ; 
Professor of Chemistry iii the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology 1865-69 ; president of Harvard since 1869 ; au- 
thor (with F. H. Storer) of Manual of Inorganic ChenitHtry 
(1866); Manual of Qualitative Chemical Analysis (IhOiM. 
President Eliot's chief writings since his election to the i»re-- 
idency of Harvard have been his annual reports ; these nave 
ranked among the most valuable contributions to the litera- 
ture of higher education. His influence has been widely 
felt, and has strongly promoted progress in university meth- 
ods and management. . C. IL T. 

Eliot, George: pseudonym of Mary Ann (or Marian) 
Evans, an English novelist : b. at Arbury farm, in Warwick- 
shire, England, Nov. 22, 1819. She remained under t!je 
parental roof, first at Griff, on the same estate, afterward at 
Coventry, until 1849. Her father, a man of considerable 
business ability, was agent of the estate on which Art>ury 
farm was situated, and afterward also of Lord Ayle$;fonl, 
Lord Lifford, and others. His children were well educated 
and strictly trained, but Mary Ann very early exhibited great 
independence of character, and in 1841 abandoned the beliefs 
in which she had been reared, choosing a spiritual patii of 
her own. In 1846 she published anonymously a translation 
of Strauss's Life of Jesus, which in 1854 was followed by a 
translation of Feuerbach's Essence of Christianity, After 
the death of her father, in 1849, she resided for one year ai 
Geneva, and then settled in London as assistant editor of 
the Westminster Review, to which she contributed a gr**at 
number of remarkable articles. She enjoyed the intimate 
friendship of all the most advanced thinkers of her day. nnd 
in 1854 she formed a union with George Henry Ltwhs 
{q. v.), which was somewhat embarrassing, as Mr. l^ewes. v bo 
had separated from Mrs. Lewes, but was not divorced fr>»in 
her, was unable to make Miss Evans his lawful wife. Other- 
wise the union was a happy one, and it was Mr. Lewes who 
first gave her the idea of attempting a work of fiction. In 
1858 Scenes of Clerical Life appeared, and was imroeiliatel y 
recognized as the product of a erreat and original power. It 
was followed by Adam Bede (1859J, which was a still crroAt«T 
success, and by The Mill on the /7o/w(1860); tSilas Mnrn* r 
(1861); Romola (1863); Felix Holt (1866); Middlemftrrh 
(1871-72); Daniel Deronda (1878); The Imprest<ions t.f 
Theophrastns Such (1879). She published, also, a draniii. 
The Spanish Gypsy (1868), and the poems Aaatha, 77* •^ 
Legend of Jubat and Armgart (1869). After tne death * f 
Mr. Lewes, in 1878, she married John Walter Cn>j«, mI, . 
published an elaborate and very interesting biography » f 
her, George ElioVs Life as Related in her Letters *<t/o/ 
Journals (1885-86). SW died at Cheyne Wjdk, Chelsea 
Dec. 22, 1880. 

Eliot, John; "the apostle to the Indians"; b. in Kn in- 
land ; baptized at Widford, Hertfonlshire, Aug. 5, 1604« lT» 
was educated at Cambridge, removed to Boston, Masss>.. i.-. 
1631, and in 1682 began his connection with the churx*h «- 
Roxbury which he held at his death. He acquired the luii 
guage of the Indians, and from 1646 he devoted hims^olf t- 



70 



ELIZABETH 



ELK 



money and troops. In 1568 the Parliament, anxious that 
she should have an heir, entreated her to marry, but she re- 
turned an evasive answer, and would neither accept the 
hand of any of her suitors nor decide in favor of any 
claimant of ' the throne. Among her suitors were the 
French Duke of Anion, the Archduke Charles of Austria, 
and Robert Dudley, Earl of Jjeicester, who was for many 
years her chief favorite. William Cecil, Lord Burleigh, was 
ner Prime Minister and most trusted adviser during the 
greater part of her reign, the prosperity of which was 
uirgely due to his prudence and influence. 

Mary Queen of Scots, fleeing from her rebellious subjects, 
took refuge in England in 1568, and was detained as a pris- 
oner by Elizabeth. The latter regarded Mary as a danger- 
ous rival, because the English Catholics wished to raise ner 
to the throne of England, and formed several plots and con- 
spiracies for that object. (See Mart Stuart.) Mary was 
beheaded Feb. 8, 1587. Philip II. of Spain had long medi- 
tated a hostile enterprise against Queen Elizabeth, who had 
offended him by aiding his revolted Dutch subjects and by 
persecuting the English Catholics. For the invasion of 
England he fitted out the Invincible Armada, which con- 
sisted of about 130 vessels, with over 19,000 soldiers, and 
sailed in May, 1588. A violent storm dispersed the Spanish 
ships, many of which were wrecked, and the rest were en- 
countered by the English fleet, mostly consisting of small 
but excellentlv equipped vessels, under Admiral Howard, 
and thoroughly beaten, Aug. 8, 1588, The disastrous fail- 
ure of this expedition did not terminate hostilities between 
England and Spain. An English fleet took Cadiz in 1596. 
After the Earl of Leicester di^ (1588) the Earl of Essex was 
the queen*8 favorite courtier. The Puritans were severely 
persecuted in the latter part of her reign. She died Mar. 
24, 1603, and was succeeded by James VI. of Scotland, who 
became James I. of England. Her reign was one of the 
most prosperous and glorious in English history. The 
Elizabethan age was almost unequaled in literature, and 
was illustrated by the genius of Shakspeare, Spenser, Bacon, 
Sidney, and Raleigh. 

Authorities. — Froude, History of England (vols. vii. to 
xii.) ; Green, History of ths English People ; Camden, His- 
tory of Queen Elizabeth (1625) ; Dr. Thomas Birch, Memoirs 
of the Reion of Quten Elizabeth (1754); also Motley, The 
Rise of the Dutch Republic and History of the United 



Netherlands, 



Revised bv C. K. Adams. 



Elisabeth, Saint, of Hungary: a daughter of Andrew II., 
King of Hungary ; b. at Presburg in 1207. She became in 
1221 the wife of Louis, landgrave of Thuringia, who died in 
1227 at Otranto. on a crusade to the Holy Land. His eldest 
brother Henry seized his possessions, and banished his widow 
and children. The knights of Thuringia restored her son 
Herman to the throne, and Elizabeth received as a dower 
the city of Marburg, where she retired with her daughters, 
and spent the remainder of her life in what became one con- 
tinued penance. D. Nov. 19, 1231. Says Mrs. Jameson, 
**0f all the glorified — victims must I call them, or mar- 
tyrs f— of that terrible but poetical fanaticism of the thir- 
teenth century, she was one of the most remarkable ; and of 
the sacn*d legends of the Middle Ages hers is one of the most 
interesting and most instructive. See Charles de Monta- 
leinbert, Vie de S. Elizabeth de Hongrie (1836), which has 
been translated into English ; also Charles Kingsley's SainVs 
Tragedy, 

EHz^abethan Architecture: a term applied to the style 
which prevailed in England after the decline of the GotHic, 
mainly during the reigns of Elizabeth and James I, It re- 
sulted from the intnxluction of Renaissance or classic forms 
from Germany and Holland during the reigns of Henry 
VIII. and Elizabeth ; and, while it retained the muUioned 
and traceried windows and bays, the hood-moldings and 
parapets of the preceding Tudor style, it employed many 
classic details and a somewhat monotonous stvie of surface- 
carving derived from Holland and Germany. It appears 
chiefly in domestic archite<?ture, and was succeeded by the 
Jacobean, in which the Gothic details wholly disappeared. 

A, D. F, Hamlin. 

Elizabeth, Cape : See Cape Elizabeth. 

Elizabeth City : town; capital of Pasquotank co., N. C. 
(for location of county, see map of North Carolina, ref. 
2->r) ; situated on railway and on the Pastjuotank river, 46 
miles S. of Norfolk, Va. It is the center of an agricultural 
district producing chiefly grain and cotton, and has Creecy 
Park, a State normal school, steam grist-mills and saw- 



mills, a cotton-factory, shingle-factories, and planing-mill ; 
also a fine harbor, safe and sufiSciently deep for large ves- 
sels. Pop. (1880) 2,315 ; (1890) 3,251 ; (1893) with suburbs, 
6,000. Editor " Ecoyomsr and Falcon.** 

Ellzabethgrad, or Jelissawetgrad : town of Rusi^ia; 
government of Kherson ; 160 miles N. E. of Odessa (see map 
of Russia, ref. 9-C). It has an imiK)rtant trad&and is a great 
market for horses. Pop. (1889) 57,884 

Eiizabethine Nans : a congregation of monastic womeri 
in the Roman Catholic Church, belonging to the third ordtr 
of St. Francis. The name Elizabethines was at first applit*<l 
to voluntary associations of women who imitated the zeal of 
St. Elizabeth of Hungary, without taking monastic vow> 
or retiring from the world. But from the tradition that 
St. Elizabeth belonged to the third order of St. Francis, ilw 
name is sometimes given to Franciscan nuns. It is prribable. 
however, that the Franciscan nuns of the third order wen* 
not established till 1395. 

Elizabeth Islands : a group of sixteen small islands be- 
longing to Dukes CO., Mass., lymg between Vineyanl Sourul 
and Buzzard*s Bay. Since 1864 they have constituted the 
township of Gosnold. The largest of the islands in the order 
of their size are Naushon, Nashawena, Pascjue, Cuttv- 
hunk, Nonamesset, Uneatena, and Penikese. Cuttyhunk 
was the seat of Bartholomew Gosnold^s first colony in'** Vir- 
ginia," founded in 1602, but abandoned the same year on 
account of troubles of the colonists with each other and with 
the Indians. The islands are a favorite resort for fishing 
and yachting, and were fonnerly much more thickly in- 
habited. Pop. (1880) 152 ; (1890) 135. 

Elizabeth Petrov'na: Empress of Russia; b. in De<>. 
1709 ; daughter of Peter the (Jreat and Catherine I. Sin- 
was dissolute in morals, and appears to have been unambi- 
tious, as she made little effort to obtain the throne. Ivan, au 
infant, was proclaimed emperor in 1740, but the French sur- 
geon Lestocq and other partisans of Elizabeth consj)ire«i 
against Ivan with success, and she became empress in 1741. 
As an ally of Austria and France she waged war against 
Frederick the Great in the Seven Years' war. Her anny 
gained a victory at Kunersdorf, and entered Berlin in 1760. 
She had several children by Count Rasumovski, who was 
first her servant, subsequently her chamberlain, and was at 
length secretly married to her. T), Jan. 5, 1762, and was 
succeeded by her nephew, Peter III. 

Elizabeth Stnart : Queen of Bohemia ; daughter of James 
I. of England ; b. in the palace of Falkland, Scotland, A\ig. 
19, 1596. She was married in 1613 to Frederick V., ele<tnr 

gilatine,* who was chosen King of Bohemia in 1619 by thi- 
rotestant party. She is said to have been beautiful, and is 
considered a heroine. Her husband was defeated in bat th- 
in 1620, and she passed the remainder of her life in exile and 
adversity. She was the mother of thirteen children, includ- 
ing the famous Prince Rupert. D. in England, Feb. 13. 
1662. George I. of England was her grandson. See her 
Life in Mrs. Everett Green's lAves of the Princesses of Eng- 
land (1851). 

Elizabeth'pol, or JelissawetpoF : a government of 
Transcaucasia, Asiatic Russia ; bounded N. oy Tiflis, E. by 
Baku, S. by Persia, and W. by Erivan ; area, 17,038 sq, 
miles. The government consists' in the west of high moun- 
tains, while tiie east is more level. It is drained bv the Kur 
and numerous other small streams. Chief town, tllizabeth* 
pol. Pop. (1889) 753,395. 

Elizabethpol : city ; capital of the government of the 
same name ; 90 milesS. E. of Tiflis (see map of Russia, ref. 
12^G). It has a number of churches, mosques, and fruit- 
gardens. Silkworms are raised here. Pop. (1886) 20.294. 

Elizabethtown : city and railway junction; capital of 
Hardin co., Ky. (for location of county, see map of Kentucky, 
ref. 3-F) ; 42 miles S. by W. from Louisville. It has various 
manufactures, and is an agricultural center. Pop, (1880i 
2,526 ; (1890) 2.260. 

Elizabethtown: borough; Lancaster co.. Pa. (for loca- 
tion of county, see map of Pennsylvania, ref. 6-H) ; situated 
on railwav, 18 miles W. N. W. of Lancaster and 18 miles E. 
S. E. of llarrisburg. It has a farming-implement manufac- 
tory, a machine-shop, and a fiouring-mill. Pop. (1880) 980 ; 
(181)0) 1,218. 

Ellt [0. Eng. elch, eolh, though k <ch remains unex- 
plained : M. H. Germ, elch < 0. H. Germ, elaho ; the word 
has been displaced in Mod. Germ, by Elen, Elenthter, a Baltic 



72 



ELLEXSBrRGH 



ELLIOTT 



Bt his death the earldom became extinct, and the barony 
reTerted to his nephew. 

ElIeBskwn^k: citT; capital of Kittitas eo.. Wash, (for 
kx-ation of cr»antT. see map of Washington, ref. 5-F); situ- 
ate<l on Yakima river and on the Northern Pacific Railroad, 
185 milf'55 E. .S. E. «>f Seattle. It has six churches. State nor- 
mal <«-h«oI and fine public schooLs and is chiefly engaged in 
a^icuiturp. st«<'k-raisiag, and mining. Pop. (1890) 2,768 ; 
(l!ft«:i) e<tiina;e«L SjSuU. EnrroB of "Capital.*' 

EUeBTille: rillaje: Ulster cc, X. Y. (for location of 
c»»«ntT. <ee map of New York, reL 7-J) : on rail war and on 
the Delawarp- and Hn*i-^ Canal ; 100 miles N. X. Vf. of New 
York citr. It is -sitaated in a beaut ifal and fertile valley at 
the fotit of the >hawan:runk Mountains, and is a favorite 
summer resort. It is the seat of UUter Seminary, and has 
an ac-a<iemy and ?rad*Ki public <oh<x>Ls many handsome 
pahiie and private t»»iiMinjr*. a ffla-ss-manafaciory, cutlery- 
works, «ston**irare i«»tT«rry. hi it-?tone quarries, manufactories 
of leather and Uuis. excellent water-works, and electric 
lights. Imraerjse uiiantitit^ of huckleberries are shipped 
fr^Kn this fioiuL P-»p. ilSSii 2.750: tlS9U) 2.881: (1893) in- 
cluding parts of village outside corporation limits, 3.o(X). 

Editor of *" Joubxal." 

Ellerr, William: fiat riot : h, at Newport, R. I., Dec. 22, 
17J7. He was a raerr-hant in his youth, and began to prac- 
tice law in 1770 at New|»«»rt. Having sained a high reputa- 
ti<^»n for integrity and wisdom, he was chosen a delegate from 
Rh«xle Inland to the national Congress of 1776, in which he 
signeii the Declaration of Independence. He was re-elected, 
and remaine*! in Conpvss until 1785. In that year he ac- 
tively <up(»one«l Rufus King in his attempt to secure the 
aU'lirion of slavery. In 1790 he was appointed collector of 
Xewywrt, a j»»>^ition which he held till his death. He sup- 
ports i the Fe«ieral party. D. at Newport, Feb. 15. 1820. 

EUet. CiiAALEs: engineer; b. at Penn*s Manor, in Bucks 
CO., Pa., Jan. 1, 1810; devoted himself to mathematical and 
engineering pursuits, and became an assistant engineer on 
the ChtjT^peake and Ohio Canal. He then visited Europe, 
an i after a ctnirse at the Pohtechnic School in Paris re- 
tumt;<i to the pmotice of his nrofe?<sion, holding successively 
tht* pr»*itions of ensrineer on tne Ut lea and Schenectady Rail- 
way, on the Erie Railway, and chief engineer of the James 
River and Kanawha Canal. He was the author of an Essay 
on thf Latr« of Trade, and of other works of a similar char- 
acter. He built the bridge acniss the Schuylkill at Pair- 
m«»ant. the fir^t wire suspension bridge in the'U. S. In 1845 
h'^' affinn»-ii that a bridge might be built across the Niagara 
l»^'i«»w the fall*. <*^'ure and fitted for railway uses; and he 
wa-* in 1**47 ilie d»-^ijminjf and constructing engineer of the 
preliminary wire su-^nsi^tn brieige (a light foot-bridge), in- 
tende«l a* a *rvif»; bridge for the construction of the main 
work. During the ci\"il war he was commissioned to do 
what he o>uid to pn»tect the MisMssippi gunboat squadron 
again-t a fl»^t of b«r»tile rams untlersiood to be coming up 
ttie river. He ha.-tiiy ei|uip()ed a fleet of nine river steam- 
boats a- rams, of which he wa-* given the command. In a 
sul«-<iiuirnt Uittle tJunn 6. 1*:<62). tenninating in a decisive 
d^-feat of the C«»nf-«ien4»e s^^uailron, he received a wound, 
fr»m which he di»^l at Ciiin>, Dl., on June 21. 

Ellice I^Uods: a group of small islands in the South 
Par-iti<-: S. \V. of Sam** and N. of Fiji : discovered in 1819. 
They are atoll* or ci»r«il islands and contain lagoons, which 
in twr. of the gr«»iip. Lak^ria and Olo^nga or Quiros Island, 
are of fre-h water. Nui, another of the islands, is remark- 
al4e f'T tht- fine natural f«>: in tains caused by the water from 
the >ca gaining a< '-^ to tij»- iagocm underneath the reef. 
The [>«»puiation, which exiiiJ»it^ the same general traits as 
that of Samoa, nuratjer* atii»ut 2.5'J<J. 

Ellichpiir': a di-trict 'and city» of Ea-^t Berar, British 
India: l^r-tw^^n th*- f*ira... ,- 2> 51 and 2P 46 N.. and the 
men-lian* 76 40 an.l ?< :^j F.: along the sr.uth side of the 
Tap*i nv«-r. An-a. 2.f;>:{ ^j. mil.--. Th.- northern half is in 
th»* Satpura m"'iii*ain-: ti.- •*Mjih,-rn i> flat and intersected 
by -jtri-ain^ It fta- n^ rai»«ay«<w The prineipal agricultural 
pro-iuct> are wtieat (of en-eii-nt <^uality). rire. pul^»s, oil 
s«Hf<i>,and timU-r. Th»- prir.ci|«al t"wn i^ KUichpur. formerly 
a «'aj.jTal of the IV**an. and a pla^H of iui{><jrtance, now 
with lutle tra*le. Pop. of th.- t-.wn. 27/K>0; of the district 
^li.'*''. M.W.H. ' 

Eiiirott. Axirp.EW: civil eni-inf^r: b. in Bucks co., Pa„ 
Jan. 24, 17*4. \\k ftm:«i.-il E.li«-«.tr*« Mills in Marylami! 
and removeti to Baltimon.-. He was a friend of Dr. Frank- 



lin and of Washington. In 1790 he was employed by the 
Federal Government to survey and lay out the capital of the 
U. S. He was appointed surveyor-general of the U. S. in 
1792, and became Professor of Mathematics and Engineer- 
ing at West Point in 1812. D. at West Point, Aug. 29, 
1820. ® 

EUieott Charles Johk, D. D. : theologian ; b. at Whitwell, 
near Stamford, En^^Und, Apr. 25, 1819, and was educated at 
Cambridge, where in 1859 he was appointed Hulsean lecturer 
and in 18iS0 Hulsean Professor of Divinity. In 1861 he l»e- 
came Dean of Exeter, and in 1863 Bishop of Gloucester and 
Bristol. His commentaries on the Epistles of St. Paul, 
which began to appear in 1854, put him into the front rank 
of biblical scholars. His Historical Lectures on the Life uf 
our Lord Jesus Christ (1860) were the Hulsean lectures for 
1859. His first work was a Treatise on Analytical Statics 
(1842). 

EUIcott Cl^: town (incorporated in 1867); capital of 
Howard co., Ma. (for location of county, see map of Mary- 
land, ref. 2-E) ; situated on the Patapsco river and the Baft, 
and 0. R, R., 10 miles W. of Baltimore and 31 miles N. N. E. 
of Washington, D. C. It has 8 churches, a college, 6 public 
schools, a large flouring-mill, 2 cotton-factories, 2 barrel- 
factories, a large paper-mill, a stone-crusher, several impor- 
tant granite quarries, electric lights, etc. Pop. (1880) 1,7W ; 
(1890) 1,488. Editoe of " Times." 

EUinwood, Frank Fields, D. D. : clergyman ; b. in Kirk- 
land, Oneida co., N. Y., June 20, 1826. He graduated fnim 
Hamilton College 1849, and took the theological course in 
Auburn (1851-52) and Princeton (1862-53) Seminaries. He 
was pastor in Belvidere, N. J., 1853-54, and in Rochester. 
N. Y., 1854-65; then was secretary of the committee of 
church erection for five vears, and of the memorial fnncl 
committee 1870-71; in iSTI became secretary of foreign 
missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U. S. He pub- 
lished The Great Conquest (New York, 1876) and Orieittal 
Religions and Christianity (1892). Wilus J. Beech er. 

Elliott, Charles, D. D., LL. D. : clergyman ; b. in Glen- 
con way. County Donegal, Ireland, May 16, 1792; entered 
the ministry of the Methodist Episcopal Church. He emi- 
grated to the U. S. in 1814, and went to Ohio in 1818. where 
ne edited the Me^/erw Christian Advocate and other jour- 
nals. He was a Profcv^^sor of Languages at Madison College, 
Uniontown, Pa., 1827-31, and president of Iowa Weslevan 
University 1^56-60 and 1864-67; author of A Treatise' tm 
Baptism (1834); Life of Bishop Roberts (1853); Ddinra- 
tion of Roman Catholicism (2 vols.. New York, 1842); *Vm- 
fulness of American Slavery (2 vols., Cincinnati, 0., 1851); 
History of the Great Secession from the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church (1855) ; The Bible and Slavery, etc. D. in 
Mt. Pleasant, la., Jan. 3, 1869. 

Elliott, Charles Lorino : portrait-painter ; b. at Scipio, 
N. Y., Dec., 1812 ; pupil of Trumbull and of Quidor, New 
York ; National Academician 1846. His portraits are well 
painted and excellent in color; he was considered by his 
fellow -artists the best portrait-painter of his time. His por- 
trait of Prof. T. A. Thacher is in the Yale Art School ; those 
of Erastus Corning and Asher B, Durand, the artist, are in 
the Corcoran Gallery, Washington. He painted the portrait 
of Matthew Vassar, at Vassar College. D. in Albanv, N . Y., 
Aug. 25, 1868. W.*A. C. 

Elliott Ebenbzer : poet, called the " Corn-law Rhymer " ; 
b. near Rotherham, Yorkshire, England, Mar. 17, 1781. He 
was not liberally educated, and was considered a dull boy at 
school. In early youth he worked in an iron-foundry, in 
which his father had been employed. He produced in 1798 
Thf Vernal Walk\ a poem. After he had worked for many 
vears in the foundry he married and removed in 1821 to 
ShefBeld, where he engaged in the iron-trade on his own ac- 
count, and was successful. His most iH)pular poems are 
lite Corn-la IP Rhymes, which promoted the repeal of the 
corn-laws, and were much aduiired. He afterward wmte 
The Village Patriarch (1829); Byron and Napoleon {1^1); 
Lot*e, and other ix)ems. His works are commended for their 
energy and the sympathy with the poor which they exhibit. 
D. at 'Great Houghton, near Barnsley, Dec 1,1849. See 
Ward's English Pbets (2d ed. 1883). 

Elliott Samuel Mackenzie: physician; b. at Inreme^ 
Scotland. Apr. 9, 1811 ; studied at tfie Royal College of Sur- 
geons in Glasgow, where he grailuated in 1828. and in Ixm- 
don; removed in iaS3 to the U. S,; visited (Cincinnati and 
Philadelphia, and settled finally in New York, where he ac- 



74 



ELLORA 



ELMINA 



Ellora: town of Hindustan. See Elora. 

EllBWOrth : cit)r (founded in 1867) ; capital of Ellsworth 
CO., Kan. (for location of county, see map of Kansas, ref. 5- 
P) ; situated on Smoky Hill river and on the Union Pacific 
R R. ; 155 miles W. by S. of Topeka ; also the terminus of 
a branch of the St. Louis and ban Francisco Railway. It 
has 7 churches, a fine brick school-house, and 3 pnmarv 
schools, and is the center of an extensive wheat l)elt ana 
grazing section. Here are found valuable clays, gypsum, 
and mineral paints, and here was first discovered the im- 
mense salt-bed which underlies Central Kansas. Across the 
river are situated the G. A. R. reunion grounds, 160 acres, 
belonging to the State. Pop. (1880) 929 ; (1890) 1,620 ; (1893) 
estimated, 2,000. Editor of ** Reporter." 

Ellsworth : city and port of entry ; capital of Hancock 
CO., Me. (for location of county, see map of Maine, ref. 
8-E) ; on railway and on the navigable Union river ; 2 miles 
from its mouth, and30 miles S. E. of Bangor. Several bridges 
cross the river here. The city has a public library, shoe- 
factories, and many sawmiUs. Ship-building is carried on, 
and the trade in ice and lumber is important. Pop. (1880) 
6,052 ; (1890) 4,804. 

Ellsworth, Ephraim Elmer: soldier; b. in Mechanics- 
yille, N. Y., Apr. 23, 1837. At the outbreak of the civil war 
he became colonel of a zouave rep men t in the Union army, 
and in taking possession of the city of Alexandria, opposite 
Washington, May 24, 1861, was shot dead by an inn-keeper 
from whose roof he had removed a Confederate flag. 

Ellsworth, Oliver, LL. D. : chief justice ; b. in Windsor, 
Conn., Apr. 29, 1745 ; son of a farmer ; entered Yale College 
in 1762, but left in his junior year and completed his studies 
at the College of New Jersey, graduating with honor in 1766, 
He studied theology for a year, but abandoned it for the 
law ; in 1771 was admitted to the bar of Hartford co., Conn. ; 
in 1772 married Abigail Wolcott, member of an illustrious 
family of East Windsor ; was appointed State attorney for 
Hartford County in 1775; in 1777 settled in Hartford and 
became the most eminent practitioner in the Stat4». He 
represented Windsor in the General Assembly at the out- 
break of the Revolution, and was one of the committee 
called the " Pay-table *' that managed the military flnances 
of the colony. In 1778 he was sent as a delegate to the (Con- 
tinental Congress, where he served on the marine committee 
and the committee of appeals. From 1780 till 1784 he was 
a member of the State CounciL He left Congress in 1783, 
declining a re-election, and in 1784 became a judge of the 
superior court of Connecticut. In 1787 he was sent as a 
delegate to the convention at Philadelphia which framed 
the Federal Constitution, and took a leauing part in its pro- 
ceedings, but owing to temporary absence was not able to 
sign the instrument ; was ttie most influential member of 
the State convention which in 1788 ratified this Constitution. 
In 1789 he was elected to the U. S. Senate, in which he 
gaine(l distinction as a debater, as the chairman of the com- 
mittee for organizing the U. S. judiciary, as a supporter of 
Washington's administration, and as the leader of the Fed- 
eral party in the Senate. Through his influence John Jay 
was sent' to England in 1794, and the treaty negotiat'Cd by 
Jay was upheld by the Senate. In 1796 President Wa,shing- 
ton appointed him chief justice of the Supreme Court of the 
U. S., to succeed John Jay, and his official conduct and de- 
cisions were approved by both political parties. In 1799 
Judge Ellsworth was by President Adams appointed, with 
Gov. William Richardson Davie and A^'illiam Vans Murray, 
envoy extraordinary to Prance, and aided in negotiating the 
treaty of Mar. 2, 1800, which terminated the strained rela- 
tions between the two countries. Judge Ellsworth then re- 
signed his office on account of ill-health, and. after a visit 
to England, returned to the U. S. in 1801, and in 1802 was 
re-elected to the State Council of Connecticut, on which he 
servetl until his death. In 1807 he declined the office of 
chief justice of the State. President Dwight {Traveli*) de- 
claretl that after Mr. Ellsworth entere<i public life "no man, 
whi'n Washington was not present, would be more readily 
aokn<m'lod^e<l to h<»ld the first character." lie received the 
di';;ree of LL. D. from Yale, Dartmouth, and the College of 
New Jersey. D. at Windsor. Conn., Nov. 26, 1807. See Van 
Santvoord, Livrs of the Chief Just icen, 

Ellsworth, William Wolcott, LL. D.: jurist; son of 
Oliver Ellsworth, chief justice ; b. at Windsor, Conn., Nov. 
10, 1791; graduated at Yale College in 1810; studicnl law 
at Litchfield and at Hartford, Conn., which became his 



home ; was admitted to the bar in 1818, and in that same 
year married Emily, eldest daughter of Noah Webster, the 
lexicographer. In i827 he was appointed Professor of l^aw 
in Washington (Trinity) College, and held that office until 
his death. From 1829 till 1884 he served as a Whig in Con- 
gress, resigning to pursue his profession. While in Congress 
he prepared and reported a law of copyright which wils 
adopted by the Government. From 1838 till 1842 he was 
Governor of Connecticut He twice declined an election to 
the U. S. Senate, but in 1847 was elected judge of tbe su- 
perior court and of the supreme court oi errors, retiring 
from the bench in 1861. D. at Hartford, Jan. 15, 1868.— His 
twin-brother, Henbt Lkavitt Ellsworth (1791-1858), a 
lawyer by profession, was from 1836 till 1848 U. S. commis- 
sioner of patents ; published a number of reports on t he 
science of agriculture, and Digest of Patents from 1770 to 
1839 (1840). 

Ellwangen, el-t*aang'en : an old town of WUrtemberg ; 
on the Jaxt ; 45 miles E. N. E. of Stuttgart (see map of (ler- 
man Empire, ref. 7-E). It has a cathedral, a castle, a lios- 
pital, and a gymnasium ; also tanneries and bleach-works. 
Pop. (1890) 4,606. 

Ellwood, Thomas Crowell : author ; b. in Oxfordshire, 
England, in Oct., 1639 ; a minister of the Society of Friends. 
His friend Isaac Penington secured for him in 1662 the 
position of reader to the poet Milton, who showed him the 
manuscript of Paradise Loaty and requested him to take it 
home and read it. On returning the manuscript, Ellwood 
suggested to Milton the idea of Paradise Regained, by ask- 
ing, ** What hast thou to say of Paradise found!'* Among 
Ell wood's works are a Sacred History (1705) ; a poem called 
DaHdeis (1712); and an autobiographv (1714), frequently 
reprinted (e. g. Boston, 1877, London, 1885). D. in Anier- 
sham, Mar. 1, 1713. 

Elm [O. Eng. elm: 0. H. Germ, e/m, cognate, though 
with dinerence of ablaut, with Lat. ulmus, to which O. 
Norse almr exactly corresponds ; Mod. Germ. Ulme shows 
direct dependence on the Latin word]: any tree of the 

fmus Utmus of the order Ulmaeea, natives of Europe and 
orth America, with alternate serrate leaves, which are 
oblique or unec]ually heart-shaped at the base. The ovary 
is two-celled, with a single anatropous ovule. The fruit is a 
one-celled membranaceous samara, winged all round. This 
^nus comprises numerous species, five or more of which are 
mdigenous in the U. S. The most remarkable of these is 
the Utmus americana (white or American elm), a large 
ornamental tree, usually with spreading branches and 
drooping, pendulous boughs. It grows rapidly, often at- 
tains the height of 100 leet, and is admired as one of the 
most noble and beautiful of forest trees. Its favorite habitat 
is in moist woods where the soil is rich, and in the vicinity 
of rivers and creeks. The trunk sometimes ascends with- 
out branches 50 or 60 feet, and then separates into a 
few primary limbs, which gradually diverge and present 
long arched pendulous branches floating in the air. The 
wowl of this tree is used for making huos of wheels. An- 
other species native of the U. S. is the slippery elm (r7mw« 
fulva), a smaller tree with a very mucilaginous inner bark, 
which is used in medicine as a aemulcent. Among the im- 
portant trees of this genus is the common English elm ( (7- 
TMAS campestris), which grows in many parts of Europe, and 
is extensively planted in Great Britam. It is one of the 
chief ornaments of English scenery. The wood of this 
tree is compact, fine-grained, very durable in water, an<l 
is used for various purposes by wheelwrights, machinists, 
joiners, and ship-builders. It has a mucilaginous bark, 
which is esteemea as a medicine. The Ulmus montana. or 
wych elm, is a native of Scotland, and a tree of rapid gn^wth, 
valuable for timber, which is used for the same purj)oses as 
the English elm. Europe also produces the cork-barke*l 
elm {llmHs suberosa), a tall tree extensively plantetl in Eng- 
land, and nameil with reference to the corky ridges or 
wings on its branches. A valuable fine-erained wood is ob- 
tained from the Ulmns alata, winged eun or wahoo, which 
grows wild in the Southern U. S. 

El Mahdl : See Mahdi, El. 

Elmer, John : See Avlmer, John. 

El Mesherif : See Berber. 

Elmi^na: fortified town and seaport of Africa; lat. 5* 
5' N., and Ion. 1 23 W. (see map of Africa, ref. 5-C) : 
former capital of the Dutch possessions on the Guinea 
coast. It is defended by a strong fort. Elmina was taken 



76 



ELOCUTION 



body. Breath, as the material of tone, must be properly 
economized and directed. Control of the respiratory mus- 
cles must be acquired through systematic exercise in deep 
breathing. Any safe and effective system of vocal training 
must be grounded in the physiological laws of speech. The 
three physical properties of tone — (1) force (energy, loudness, 
intensity), (2) pitch, and (3) quality {timbre, clang-tint, 
character)— must be regarded as essential structural elements 
in a true method of vocal development. 

Through the aid of the laryngoscope, and the researches 
of physicists like Helmholz, Czermak, Mayer, and K&nig, a 
vocal technique for the formation and training of the voice 
need no longer be a matter of experiment and speculation. 
Vocal culture may proceed by a method which shall be at the 
same time natural, trustworthy, and scientific. The result 
of skillful training and persistent practice is the control of 
a voice which is at once powerful, resonant, svmpathetic, of 
good compass, and that can be produced witli ease and en- 
durance. 

In speech the natural effect of true vocal training would 
be a firm, incisive, yet easy and agreeable, enunciation ; and 
closely allied with the utterance of language in complete 
discourse is a correct pronunciation, which is conformed to 
the standard authorities, that is, the best dictionaries of the 
English language. It is impossible to overestimate the 
value of the commonplace but fundamental virtues of enun- 
ciation and pronunciation in giving clearness and precision 
to speech. 

Gesture, as the second instrument in revealing the idea 
and manifesting the speaker*s personality, includes all sig- 
nificant movements of the body and limbs, and the expres- 
sion of the countenance ; it is the symbolical language of 
the emotions and passions of the soul. Hence gesture is 
significant action ; out to be significant it should be reason- 
ably rare. Insignificant action must be repressed ; signifi- 
cant action must not be overdone. In teaching gesture 
great care should be exercised lest the instruction result in 
a mechanical and self-conscious style of action. T4ie ground- 
work of discipline in gesture should be the use of aesthetic 
^mnastics of some approved method. Systematic practice 
m such exercises gradually corrects awkwanlness, gives 
flexibility to the bodily movements, and a command of all 
the physical agents of expression. Significance in action is 
secured by observing the gestures which intelligent people 
spontaneously use when speaking under the influence of 
genuine feeling. 

The third principle of aesthetic science, that of form, the 
special object of study and criticism, is the delivery of the 
complete discourse before an audience. The interi)reting 
function 'of expressive speech, especially in the delivery of 
appropriated thought, is a deoartment of literary criticism. 
All elaborate composition, like poetry or artistic prose, ^re- 
(|uires interpretation. The interpreting power of delivery 
is operative in every sentence a speaker utters. Complete 
oral expression implies a faculty of mental analysis of 
thought and language, and a power to sympathize with the 
purpose and feeling of an author, and witn the order and 
movement of his ideas. Impressive utterance is often the 
truest revelation of an author's thought. Reading aloud in- 
creases the power of literary analysis. The interpreting 
power of the speaker is directly related to the receptive 
power of the hearer. *' The best style," says Herbert Spencer, 
"is that which best economi7A»s the recipient's attention." 
The law of mental economy is no less true of vocal than of 
literary style. Style in delivery involves the proper man- 
agement of the voice in its method of enunciation, and in 
the use of both the intellectual and emotional elements of 
expression. The intellectual elements are emphasis, pause, 
and inflection ; the emotional elements are force, pitch, qual- 
ity, and rate of utterance. A slovenly enunciation, or a 
faulty use of anv one of the elements of expression, dissi- 
pates and disturbs the hearer's attention ; itj)uts an unnec- 
essary strain upon his mental receptivity. The natural ex- 
pression of clear thinking and true feeling, in the correct 
use of these elements, stimulates the hearers attention, and 
enlarges his capacity for receiving ideas. 

Style in gesture is directly related io form. Feeling sug- 
gests when action should be made ; jii<lgment and taste dic- 
tate the form of the gesture, and also a true economy of 
action with reference to frequency and significance. The 
mastery of the significant symbols* of feeling contributes to 
varietv in action. 

The secret of an interesting and impressive style of speak- 
ing is an intelligent sympathy working through the imagi- 



nation. The true method of delivery, both in public address 
and in artistic speech, is the natural method. True natural- 
ness consists in observing the cardinal law of all expressive 
art, propriety, or the adaptation of manner to the varj'ing" 
form 01 the matter. Through the creative power of the 
imagination, spontaneously giving shape to all the intona- 
tions of the voice and to the significant movements of ges- 
ture, the speaker's personality is most completely manif este<l : 
" The stjle is the man." 

In original discourse the natural method is that of good 
conversation, ennobled and idealized ; it is a person's natural 
manner in earnest conversation on worthy tnemes raised to 
its highest power. 

A good speaker always regards two things : one is found 
in the address itself, in the character of the subject matter ; 
the other in the place, occasion, and circumstances of de- 
livery. It is assumed that the speaker is master of the 
topic he is to present. Clearness and vigor of thinking, 
earnestness of purpose, and an active sympathetic imagina- 
tion working in unison, spontaneously create the a{){)rr>- 
priate forms of utterance and action, and dispose the va^ 
rious elements of expression in harmonious relations. In the 
general management of delivery the speaker is careful to 
adapt his manner to the different parts of discourse. In 
the introduction he regards the place, occasion, and circum- 
stances of delivery. He begins by directing eye and voice 
to the farthest auditors, speaking to them with the easy de- 
liberation of pleasant conversation. His initial pitch* and 
force take care of themselves, being instinctively and natur- 
ally determined by his dignified colloquial address to the dis- 
tant auditors. Gesture is rarely needed in the introductory 
matter. If used, it is used sparingly, and in the colloc^uial 
and expository style. Deliberateness is the characteristic of 
the introduction. The discussion is conducted with an in- 
creased warmth of feeling, issuing in firm, full, resonant 
tones, an animated rate oi utterance, and a positive expn.»s- 
sion of earnestness in countenance, attituue, and action. 
Variety is secured through the force and brilliancy givon 
to the important ideas, and through fidelity to the tht»ory 
of speaking in the method of impassioned conversation. 
Gesture is likely to be used because the feelings and imag- 
ination of the speaker are active. Energy of earnest nes> is 
the characteristic of the discussion. As the speaker enters 
upon the conclusion, he leads the audience to infer from his 
tones and manner that he is closing. Sometimes he conc^m- 
trates his discussion into a brilliant climax ; at other tinu^ 
he comes into a subdued and sympathetic relation to liis 
audience ; the force is softened, the quality is slightly as}>i- 
rated, the rate is deliberate, and the pauses frequent though 
brief. The whole manner is persuasive. Even in the methixi 
of eloquent climax the artistic sense of the skillful speaker 
leads him to express a natural subsidence of emotion ov de- 
livering the few closing sentences in a slow and sympathetic 
manner. He returns to the mental plane of his auditors, 
but both speaker and audience are on a higher plane of 
thought and emotion than at the beginning of the dis- 
course. The characteristic of the conclusion is impressive- 
ness. 

The artistic g^uping of the parts of discourse into an 
organic whole imparts unity ana concentration to delivery. 
The order, movement, and structure of discourse should l>e 
observed at the rhetorical points of transition. Transitions, 
or " landing-places," which mark the change from one as- 

Cect of the subject to another, should be properly indicated 
y changes in vocal treatment through some natural differ- 
ence in force, pitch, rate, and pause. If a speaker, unrler 
the excitement of the occasion, feels that he is losing s*'lf- 
control in one or more elements of expression, let him take 
advantage of his ** landing-places " to recover himself, and 
speak in his natural, key ana rate of movement. Sentences 
tnat contain an impassioned quality of thought should be 
delivered with appropriate energy and brilliancv, with the 
proper gradation of voice in approaching and in leaving the 
vigorous passage. Subordinate ideas are given with a force 
and an animation of movement consistent with a distinct 
enimciation and the clear communication of ideas. 

Naturalness as related to the interpretation of elevated 

Srose and to poetry desen'cs a passing mention. Prose, as 
istinct from colloquial speech, is an artistic or at least an 
elalwrated production; therefore it must be delivered artis- 
tically — that is, under the influence of feeling and imagina- 
tion. The l)est form of every-tlav s[>eech is the basis and 
guide to the deliverv of prose, fiut prose and alma^^t all 
pul)lic address is ordinary speech idealized; feeling ami im- 



78 



ELMWOOD 



ELr^SIWAH 



On the art of deliverr: Ras«*^D and MuH'c-h. V''>rnJ Ov/- 
iurti Lewis B. Mr»aiMf, Vf^'jJ o^'y^n-uCK^i avi Fs%**^»24 
Training; Juut< E. Munich, A /^'*<i f^r >i».i>-n i>ji^ 

i}TXh**'\*y'. Th»* .•Ue:i'»nAr:»-*, \V«.r".r^-.-r. \V.-*»<r-r. S?.>r- 
month. CVntunr. I:nr*rnAl: K.!--*!. ni-i M^r:» t. a.* a»^«.Tv^ : 
Phrfe, H'f^r Ah»t*il'j I Pnrft*fuuj^* * i^ i N- -^^ 7~^-.•^^*J••«/ 
Words of t^n Uttyr'tH^funr^d : Arrvs. 7^*.^ '"^ s *•":•. *r : S--«.tr 
and Whe»^:»-r. A Mannni of £*^j,M<h P^ s**^. ir.-ni and 
Spelhng: AU«Tt Saii-tiarr, /^"h-*- .7* 7*wj '^'•. "'zfjt. 

Expression: Ku'^^U and M .^ri • -^ V*r.7r< v :.*--•: Mar- 
dnch, Ana^u**^ £hf^ufu/n: IV -L /^t <►-»:#-* /' £"' -r*^*iv«i: 
ReT. F. T. Ru>B*lL r«f of :h^ Vof^ »* i^;^: :• • V .7-»i >;" li- 
in^; McIIvaiutr, JEr-'**'»i'i^/i»: Ravii*:.:..!. is- '^-^-'rV J/jj»- 
i«<ii: Baii»*T, Jntn^iurtt'^ to £t-.«r^:tonz Lt-s -fr. Art <»/ 
R^^ingi A^Jje Bau'^iiru 7>^ Arf of Lj"* »,:»*'^H**fU^ 
Spt^ak^kgi Holy.^ike. T***^ Rudiment* 'f P^ *• %^ >;,...i*-,s^ : 

Vor/il Erprrjutioni Nairiao SLvi-j^rxi, B'f'r' i-i A ••'ii '»!<•<•. 

Ge^iurv : iMtMtriei B»«^tn. Jl'tHt'T of '/♦a**.*-'-: Kav- 
mofid, iPm/ors Jfanvnl i M cl I vainer, JLV-Oi^fc.'iva : Btr^ /Vii»- 
cipl^s of E'^f^ufion. 

Phy-'i'-al c«il*'irv: Gut t man, JE'fh^fir Ph%,*%^n2 Ci'^^rei 
G*fnevieve St«'i»f»infs, S>M'»''*y Gymttfi-^iirsi M;att S. Tr. mp- 
son, Rhttthmi^ni Oymtuf^ttrjti Emtriv-n, Ph^Ai^.tl f\^t'4r«, 

Crilu>m: lii:r.nii'^»n, Wridug *iud Sp*.^eh-moiin43',\jt'wis^ 
AriorM aiui Artttuj', Matth**w«s *fr*\iory aud ifr*it'tr«\ Ctury. 
TV Pnjrinr^ t,f Erpr^Aifion : Henrr Irvms, 7**^ Dromn : 
Arxrh^T, A '>"«</ 'Xe Thtatrt ; Franc i^4ue Saiwy. R^r/jUrrtiun* 
of M*ddU Lift. J. W." Chi a* HILL. 

ElsW90d : town; Pef»ria co„ IlL {for I<ieation of county, 
see map of IiliTi'»i«, ref. 4-D»: on the C-.B-,and <^. Railruttfl: 
26 miie> W. hy N. of Pe»>ria. The chief invia>tri^ are ac- 
ri^'ultare. mining, and manufacturing. Pop. tl5!*J» 1,504: 
(l«l«»i l..>4><. 

EloB^tioB [fn>m Lat, tlou^ rr. remove to a distance] : 
in astn>nomy. tr.c ap[«arvrit aii;rular di:^^anc'e of a planet 
from the Mill. The jjreare^l eloitjaUoD of Mercury amounts 
to aUmt 2i9 :jU, that of Venu^ t<» about 47 49, and that of 
the superior planets may have any value up to IW. 

Elo'n. or Ellon : a d^>av^l town of Hindustan, near 
DowIataliA^l : lat, 2^)' 5 X^ iW 75 13 E. '-s^m- map of X. 
India, ref. 9-D>. H«*re an? numerrius remark:* Me cave- 
temples, whi«h -urjia-v-i in mairnitude all othen* in India, and 
are a^ionie^i wiih 'jtatue^ and oiner sculptures. Besides the 
cave-temp i»*< hi-wn out in the Hjojie of a rrw-ky hilL there 
are vast e litiees or pa:rr,<las can'e*i ««at of s«»!id jrranite hills, 
90 as to fonn matniiti'^-nt mon«»liihs, having an exterior 
as Well as interior aR-hiteclure, richiv dec«»rate<l. Thev are 
among the m<»>t stu{ien<lous monuments ever rai?e«l by 
man. The most remarkable of these, the temple called the 
KaiitU, detJir-aleil to Siva, is al>«>ut 145 feet long and KK) 
feet hi^rh, an«l Is supfMjrte<l bv four n)ws of pilasters with 
c<»lo:%sal elejiliants beneath. In the court which surrounds 
the Kaila> temple are several oK-li^ks, sphinxes, and col- 
onna4le>. Many mythcilogical fi;rures are carve<l on the 
walli^. The date of the construction of these temples is 
not kn'»wn. A^-f'^'nlinjj to Fer«russon, they were execute<l 
not later than 2<J<I B. c. Se** I^Assen's Indii*rhe Alttrfums- 
kun^U and Ferjfusson's Hnndb^jok of Arehitt-rture. 

El Paso. el-}»aaso: city and railway junction; Wood- 
foni c*».. 111. (f«»r l«ication of county, see map of Illinois, 
ref. A-K): 17 miles X. of Hl<K^mintrton. It has larjre mills, 
several prain -elevators, ear riatre- factory, and agricultural- 
impj»-m»'Tit Wijrk''. A ci^ial-shaft has been sunk here. Pop. 
(IH^J; l.:r.K); (1**1K); K:i.>J. 

El PmM>: f'ity, railway center, and port of entry; capital 
of El Pa"^> c««.. T»'X- ifor hif-ation <)f county, see map of 
Teia>, T*^{. '^Ht: ^imaXe*! on the Rio Grande, Xear it the 
riv»-r f»4-«'^-^ tnrouk'h a mormtain-srap calle<l El Paso del 
Xr>rte iXorth Pa-<"»». wni<h i-* the chief thoroughfare l)etween 
Mexico and Xew Mexico. On the <»j»f»o*5ite bank of the Rio 
Grand*', in <'h:h'i:ih-.La. M«xi«-r». is Ciudad Juarez, formerly 
caij«-«i l*n^f ili-i X'tft*'. a \jli;i::»* imfM»rtant as the starting- 

tc'int of th»- M'-xi'-afi r«-iitrai Kailroaii. and haviimacu'»tom- 
lou'^e. lhn»u.'h i»fi.«'h a iarj"** amount of c«'hnIs |«iss in tran- 
Nl ljetw»-»-n th** r. S. and M«'\u^». Kl Pa-*** has numerous 
chunh*-, five wfj.p.;*, a ^'^PtJ'^l fed«'ral b»ii]dinsr. smelters 
<in<jiiiiiiij; a 'K'pji'-r p!«irj*'. a r* fr:;:trHT'»r for l>eef and other 
in^'a?", \i *—iH4 *->ri^. f#.«iiiirjL'-riiiii-. ♦rj«."^work««, electric li>;hts, 
♦'•••. Pop. ilf^}i 7;>i: tiS^J/ 10.;;.;^: d^^trii UK-al census 
Vi.'Mii). Ei>iTOR OF - Tribixe.** 



ElpklBstoae, Admiral 

EU'HDSSTOXE. 



See Keith, Gborob Keith- 



ElpkiBStooe, Hon. Moi-^rrsruABT : historian; b. in Scot- 
laii'L 17711: a youni:er s<»n of L<»rd Elphinstone. He en- 
tere«l the Benpil ci%'il s«*rvice in 1795. was sent as ambas- 
sawior to the i-ourt of (*abul in IHIb. and was governor of 
Bi»mluy l*<ll#-27. Bishop Helier expressed the opinion tliat 
h»* wa.'» "in every resjiecl an extraordinary man/* and that 
Li< Indian |iolicy was wise and liberaL Mr. Elphinstone 
nr^i^^le«i in 1K29. and returned to En{?Iand. lie publisIuHl 
an Account of Caubul (lt?15 : 2d e<l. 1841) and a liUtory of 
It%*iia : the Hindoo and Mohammedan Periods (2 vids., 
IMl : 6th e^l. H<74j, bi»th of which are highly esteeuicti. 
Hi-* Life {\><i*4) was written by Sir EL Colebrooke, who 
e»iit»-d liis fjosthumous volume The Rim of British Pourer 
in the East aW7). D. Nov. *20. lbo9. 

EIpkiBStoDe, William: prelate and statesman; b. in 

4t!as^»w, S<M»tland, 14^il : graduate«l at the University of 

(»ias^)w 1452: and afterward, taking; holy orders, officiat«^i 

a> priest of the Chureh of St. Michael for four years. He 

l»ei.-ame a student of civil and canon law in the University of 

ParLN where hi> reputation for learning caused his ap{M)int- 

meni to a pn»fe>s<»rship. which he held six years. Returning 

to Scotland, he was .appointed rwtor of the University t»f 

Glasgow, and sul^sequently held the important office of 

I official of I>othian. In 1478 he became a member of the 

I pri^-y council. With the Bishop of Dunkeld and the Earl 

' of Buchan he bmiight about a re(*onciliation between James 

, III. and Lcuiis XI., a service that pnKnirwl for him the see 

I of Ross, which was afterwanl excnanged for that of AlK*r- 

■ deen. Having bwn made chancellor of the kingdom in 

1484. he again di>tingiiished himself as a diplomatist by the 

success of his negotiations with the English king and of his 

mediations between the liarons and his own sovereign, now 

James IV. He was next intrusted with the mission to the 

En)|»en>r Maximilian to arrange a marriage l)etween James 

and the empien^r's daughter. In this he faileil, but suc- 

I ceeile<l in ctmif>letely restoring friendly relations with the 

Dutcli. From the year 1492 to his death he held the office 

of privy seal. It is as a patnm of learning that he is U>st 

known. The foundation of the university at Aberdeen was 

due almost entirely to his influence, and King*s College 

owes its erection and maintenance to his care and liberality. 

D. Oct. 25. 1514. lie wrote a history of Scotland, a book of 

canons, and some biographies of Scotch saints. 

P. M. Colby. 

El Rosar'lo: town of Sinaloa, Mexico; 55 miles R of 
Mazatlan (see map of Mexico, ref. 5-E). Here were rich 
gold mines, which are no longer worked. It is an entrejuH 
of trade between Mazatlan and the interior. Pop. 5,000. 

EPmss : See Alsace. 

El8«8»-Lothriiigen : See Alsace-Lorraine. 

Els'helmer, Adam: landscape-painter; called bv the 
Italians II Tedes(X) (i. e. the (lenuan); b. at Frankfort- 
on-the-Main in 1574. His works are highly finished. He 
excelled in chiaroscuro and in faithfulness to nature. He 
worked mostlv in Rome, and died in that city in want in 
1620. 

Elsinore, el-si-nr>r' (Dan. HetMnydr) : an old town and 
seaftort of the island of Seeland, Deimiark : on the western 
shore of the Sound (here only 2^ miles wide); 24 miles X. 
by E. of Copenhagen. It is defende<l by the castle of Kn»n- 
lK)rg, which commands the Sound at its narrowest part. It 
hivs a cathedral, a custom-house, and a r<»yal palace called 
Marienlist, from which is obtained a magnificent view of 
the Sound and of Hel<ingborg in Sweden. At Elsinore 
until 1887 dues were collect eil fniin foreign vessels navigat- 
ing the Sound. It has an active trade, and some manufac- 
tures of arms, bnunly, hats, etc. Here was laid the s<u»ne. 
of Slmksix^are's Hamlet, and a mile from the city Hamlet's 
grave is shown. Pop. (1890) 11,082. 

El-Siwah. el-see'waa (aiic. Ammonium): the most north- 
erlv of the five Etrvptian oases: about 440 miles W. N. W. 
of ancient Theln^s. It is 6 miles long and 3 broad. The 
i>asis aU>unds in salt ami alum, whicn were anciently ex- 
{Mirtt^l. Dates, j>oniegranates, and other fruits are pn>- 
ducwl in very larp* quantities. Sheep and cattle are brwi in 
great nunil)ers. The oasis abounds in fresh-water springs, 
and is in j>art rather marshy. The ruins of the temple of 
Amnion and of other ancient buildings are still in exist- 
ence. Pop. about 8,000. Chief town, Kebir. 



80 



ELYTEA 



EMANCIPATION, PROCLAMATION OF 



an island in the Western Ocean, or as located in mid-air. 
Some of the ancients imagined that the kingdom of Pluto 
was divided into two regions — Tartarus, in which the wicked 
were punished, and Elysium, the abode of the good. 

Elytra : See Entomology. 

Elze, erts6, Friedrich Karl: German Shakspeare schol- 
ar ; b. at Dessau, May 22, 1821 ; studied at Leipzig and 
Berlin ; taught in the Dessau gymnasium ; called to the 
University of Halle as " ausserordentlieher " Professor of 
English in 1875 ; promoted to a full professorship in 1876. 
Elze's interests lay chiefly in the direction of modern Eng- 
lish literature. lie was a zealous member of the Deutsche 
Shakespeare-Gesellschaft and a frequent contributor to its 
Jahrbuchy which he edited 1868-79. Of his separate pub- 
lications may be mentioned lives of Scott (1864) ; Byron 
(1870) ; and Shaksi)eare (1876) ; an edition of Hamlet (1857 ; 
2d ed. 1882); Notea on Elizabethan Dramatists (3 vols,, 
1880-86 ; 2d ed. 1889) ; and Orundriss der e^iglischen Philo- 
logie (1887; 2d ed. 1888). D. Jan. 21, 1889. 

Q. L. Kjttredoe. 

El'zerir, or Elzeyler : the name of a family of Dutch 
printers who lived at Amsterdam. Leyden, and other places, 
and were celebrated for the accuracy and beauty of their 
typop'aphy. They published excellent editions of many 
classic authors between 1583 and 1681. The first eminent 
printer of the family was Louis or Lodewijk, who was bom 
at Louvain about 1540, settled in Leyden, and died about 
1617, leaving five sons — Matthias, Louis, Giles (or ^gidius), 
Joost (or Jodocus), and Bonaventure, who were aU pub- 
lishers. The business was continued by Abraham, a son of 
Matthias, and his partner Bonaventure, who published duo- 
decimo editions of the classics which are still highly prized 
for their beauty and correctness. The Greek New Testa- 
ment is among their masterpieces. A press was established 
in Amsterdam in 1638 by Louis Elzevir (a grandson of 
Louis first mentioned), who published good editions of nu- 
merous authors. Several other members of the family were 
distinguished printers. At least 1,600 works were published 
by the Elzevirs. 

Emanation [from Lat. emana'tio^ an oozing out, deriv. 
of emana're ; e, forth + mana're, flow, ooze] : m the reli- 
l^ons of India and of ancient Persia, in Neoplatonism, and 
in Gnosticism, a theory of ontology and of cosmogony 
which ascribes the origin of the universe and of all inferior 
beings to an outflow from the Deity. The name has also 
been applied to the good and evil influences which the 
heavenly bodies were fonnerly believed to send forth, and 
which were thought to determine the destinies of men. 

Emancipation [from Lat. emancipa'tio, deriv. of eman^ 
eipa're, formally release from authority or ownership; e, 
forth 4- mancipa're, transfer, release by the formal act of the 
manei'pium, deriv. of manceps, one who acquires, purchaser, 
contractor ; man- (manus), hand + ca'pere, take] : the act of 
freeing from subjection of any kind. In Roman law a son 
was regarded as the slave of his father, and could by a fic- 
tion of that law be freed by being sold {mancipcUtts) three 
times by the father. This enfranchisement was termed 
emancipation. Different modes of emancipation were after- 
ward recognized by Roman jurisprudence. In countries 
where that law prevails the word signifies the exemption of 
the son from the power of the father, either by express act 
or implication of law. By the civil law of France, majority 
and emancipation are attained at twentv-one, and a minor 
is emancipated by marriage. The wora emancipation is 
used in a general sense to signify the liberation of a slave, 
or the admission of certain classes to the enjoyment of civil 
rights, as Catholic Emancipation (g. i\). 

Emancipation, Proclamation of: the most important 
document ever penned by a President of the U. S. ; isvsued 
by President Lincoln, Sept. 22, 1862, as a notice to the Con- 
federates to return to their allegiance, emancipation of the 
slaves being proclaimed as a result which would follow their 
failure so to return. The real Proclamation of Emancipa- 
tion was the supplementary document of Jan. 1, 1863. Tnis 
act was simply a war-measure, based solely upon the Presi- 
dent's authority as commander-in-chief of the army and 
navy. 

Proclamation of Emancipation. 

I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, and 
Commander-in-c;hief of the Army and Navy thereof, do 
hereby proclaim and declare that hereafter, as heretofore, 
the war will be prosecuted for the object of practically re- 



storing the constitutional relation between the United Stat<>s 
and the people thereof in those States in which that rela- 
tion is, or may be, suspended or disturbed ; that it is my 
purpose upon the next meeting of Congress to again recom- 
mend the adoption of a practical measure tendering pti-ii- 
niary aid to tne free acceptance or rejection of all the slave 
States, so called, the people whereof may not then be in re- 
bellion against the United States, and which States may 
then have voluntarily ailopted, or thereafter may voluntar- 
ily adopt, the immediate or gradual abolishment of slavery 
within their respective limits, and that the effort to colonize 
persons of African descent, with their consent, upon the 
continent or elsewhere, with the previously obtained con- 
sent of the government existing there, will be continued ; 
that on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord 
one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, all pers<ms 
held as slaves within any State, or any designated part of 
a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against 
the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and for- 
ever FREE ; and the military and naval authority theivof 
will recognize and maintain the freedom of such pers<»ns, 
and will do no act or acts to repress such persons, or any of 
them, in any efl!orts they may make for actual freedom : 
that the Executive will, on the first day of January afore- 
said, by proclamation, designate the States and parts of 
States, if any, in which the people thereof respectively shall 
then be in rebellion against the United States ; and the fact 
that any State, or the people thereof, shall on tliat day U? 
in good faith represented in the Congress of the Uniteil 
States by members chosen thereto, at elections wherein a 
majority of the (j[ualified voters of such State shall have par- 
ticipated, shall, m the absence of strong countervailing tes- 
timony, be deemed conclusive evidence that such State and 
the people thereof have not been in rebellion against the 
United States. 

That attention is hereby called to an act of Congress en- 
titled "An act to make an additional article of war," ap- 
S roved March 13, 1862, and which act is in the words and 
gures following : 

*' Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representa- 
tives of the LTnited States of America, in Congress assemble*!. 
That hereafter the following shall be promulgated as an ati- 
ditional article of war for the government of the Army of 
the United States, and shall be observed and obeyed as such : 

"Article — . All officers or persons of the military' (»r 
naval service of the United States are prohibited from em- 
ploying any of the forces under their respective command;* 
for the purpose of returning fugitives from service or Ial>»r 
who may have escaped from any persons to whom such serv- 
ice or la'bor is claimed to be due ; and any officer who shall 
be found guilty by a court martial of violating this article 
shall be dismissed from the service. 

" Sec 2. And be it further enacted, that this act shall 
take effect from and after its passage." 

Also to the ninth and tenth sections of an act entitled 
"An act to suppress insurrection, to punish treason and re- 
bellion, to seize and confiscate property of rebels, and for 
other purposes," approved July It, 1862, which sections are 
in the words and ngures following : 

" Sec. 9. And be it further enacted, that all slaves of {per- 
sons who shall hereafter be engaged in rebellion against the 
Government of the United States, or who shall in any way 
give aid or comfort thereto, escaping from such persons and 
taking refuge within the lines of the army; and all slaves 
captured from such persons or deserted by them, and com- 
ing under the control of the Government of the United 
States, and all slaves of such persons found on (or beiiu: 
within) any place occupied by rebel forces and afterwnn! 
occupied by the forces of the United States, shall be tleenuti 
captives of war, and shall be forever free of their servitude 
and not again held as slaves. 

" Sec. 10. And be it further enacted, that no slave escap- 
ing into any State, Territory, or the District of Columbia, 
from any of the States, shall be delivered up, or in any way 
impeded or hindered of his lil)erty, except for crime or some 
offense against the laws, unless the person claiming said 
fugitive shall first make oath that the person to whom the 
labor or service of such fugitive is alleged to be due is hi-* 
lawful owner, and has not been in arms against the Unite«i 
States in the present rebellion, nor in any way given aid or 
comfort thereto ; and no person engaged in the military or 
naval service of the United States shall, under any preteni^"^ 
whatever, assume to decide on the validity of the claim of 
any person to the service or labor of any other person, or 



82 



EMBALMING 



selyeB profoundly alter the tissaes are (1) cold ; (2) the disr 
placement of the water in the body by some gum or resin ; 
^) dr3ring; (4) saturation of the tissues by antiseptics. The 
durability of the dead body will then depend directly upon 
the time during which tKe conditions antagonistic to the 
living ferments can be maintained. That cold may pre- 
serve indefinitely is shown by the well-known case of the 
extinct hairy mammoth found in the melting ice of Northern 
Siberia* the flesh of which was so fresh that it was eaten by 
dogs and wolves. Insects in amber show how complete ana 
permanent the preservation may l)e when the water of the 
organism is replaced by a resinous substance; and every 
large museum of natural history contains specimens of great 
antiquity in which the preservation is due to complete dry- 
ing, or to a combination of drying and antiseptics, or to the 
use of antiseptics alone. 

In the historical consideration of embalming the mind 
naturally turns to ancient Egypt on account of the extent 
to which embalming was carried in that country and the 
lar^ number of bodies, or mummies as they are called, 
which remain practically as they were deposited in the 
catacombs thousands of years ago. It is thought that with 
the Egyptians the custom was largely due to a profound be- 
lief in the immortality of the soiu, which would in some of 
its stages need the body again for perfect development. 

Embalming as it was practiced in Egypt is sometimes 
said to l>e a lost art. In the sense that it is no longer 
practiced, this is true ; but the way in which it was done is 
quite well known from the descriptions of Herodotus (484 
B. c.) and Diodorus Siculus (44 b. c), as well as by ex- 
aminations of the mummies themselves, the last source of 
information being the most satisfactory in many respects, as 
it verifies both authors and gives much additional informa- 
tion. The process consisted in its simplest form of desicca- 
tion, with nttle or no wrappings or a light smearing with 
pitch. In the more elaborate methods, aromatics and the 
antiseptics found in their natron beds were used in addition 
to the drying. In the application of the natron (a mixture 
of 8<Mlium sulphate and chloride and potassium nitrate) a 
strong brine was made in which the boay was soaked, some- 
times as long as seventy da3rs. In many but not in all cases 
of the best embalming the abdominal viscera were removed, 
and in part pn*served separately or after preservation re- 
tumeii either to the outside or the inside of the body. The 
brain was in many cases broken up and removed by a curved 
metal rod inserted into the skull through the nostrils. In 
many cases the hair was clipped, but in others, especiallj 
women, it was left in tresses or arranged on the head as is 
still the custom. After the pickling process the cavities of 
the body were often partly filled with aromatics, cedar-wood 
dust, and dry earth, and in some cases parts of the body were 
gilded, es[>ecially the nails, and artificial eyes were inserted. 
The body was then wrapped in strips of linen cloth of vary- 
ing degrees of fineness, and finally it was desiccated. S(jm*e- 
times the desiccation precetled the wrapping, as shown by 
the charred condition of the mummy, in other cases part of 
the wrapping at least preceded the drying, as indicated bv 
the charred condition of the wrappings next the body; both 
the circumstances just given show that artificial heat was 
used. Finally the wrapped and dried mummy was placed 
in one or more cases or coffins and then in the perfectly dry 
catacombs. Instead of the salting process just described, 
some of tlie mummies were embaluuHl bv soaking or prob- 
ably heating them in pitch, the pitch displacing the water 
and furnishing also a pmtective covering. These mummies 
are bhuk and heavy and the features scarcely recognizable, 
while those previously (le^^crilied are brown in color, light, 
and althouj^'h very ^'reatly shrunken, still retaining some 
resemblance to the individuaL If one considers for a mo- 
ment the principles given aliove on which the preservation 
of the \hm\\ (lefx'nds, it will Ik* <ieen that all the conditions 
were fulfilled by the Egyptian ineth(Ki, viz., the use of anti- 
septics, flesiccatinn, nie<hanical protection by the wrappings 
and coffins, and finally the dry catacombs. 

The Peruvian niuniniies were apparently simply desiccated 
by expo^^ure to the dry cool air of the Andes, by covering 
them with «lry sand, or by burial in calcareous earth. In 
such re<;ions of cont inuous sunshine and dryness, septic organ- 
isms are almost wholly absent from the air; meat dries with- 
out l)econiing tainte<f, and wounds heal without the compli- 
cations known and feare<l in a less pure atmosfihere. For 
jH.'rmanence in such situations mechanical protection is all 
that is needed, and c«Ttainly sune of the mummies of Peru 
retain the featuro of the individual in a condition as per- 



fect as most of the elaborately preserved mummies of Egypt. 
There is. however, a certain weirdness in the appearance of 
the Peruvian mummies, due to their sitting posture. 

In modern times the desire to preserve the distinguished 
dead, or those especially beloved, as well as the need of pre- 
serving the bodies of animals and of men for scientific pur- 
poses, has made constant demand for some means for tem- 
porary or pennanent preservation, and as the knowledge of 
the causes or conditions under which putrefaction tak<>5 
place have been determined with greater certainty, so much 
the more perfect have been the results obtained, b^au*^ 
all the organs are left intact and much of the natural full- 
ness of the body is preserved. The best examples are tho;** 
saturated with and preserved in some antiseptic liquid like 
alcohol. Such bodies are as permanent as the vessels and 
the liquids that contain them. If they receive proper care 
there seems to be no end to their permanence, as may be seen 
by specimens in the great museums of the world. There are 
also great numbers of specimens first saturated with soiim 
antiseptic, like alcohol, mercuric chloride, zinc chloride, 
arsenic or some of the essential oils, or by a combination of tv^ o 
or more of the above, then dried and varnished. Such dry 
specimens have shown less tendency to deteriorate in the 
museums of moist climates like that of Elngland than t he 
Egyptian mummies. For the most permanent and perf^ni 
preservation, the method of nature in imbedding insects in 
amber must be imitated. This is done on a great scale in 
every biological laboratory in the world. The water of the 
specimen is displaced by alcohol or carbolic acid, etc., and 
then more or less indirectly by the use of turpentine, oil of 
cloves, etc. ; the object is filled with Canada balsam, dammar, 
shellac, etc., and inclosed in the same. With a large \xn\y, 
like that of a man, the process would be somewhat ex[>ensive 
and require considerable time ; but the time and ex(H-it^- 
would be far less than that attributed to the best Eg}})tian 
embalming (seventy days' time ; cost, $1,0(X) to $1,500)' while 
the results would be far superior. A body prepared in this 
way would require only mechanical protection to render a 
indestructible. 

Most of the embalming of human bodies at the present 
day is not for the purpose of rendering them permanent, 
but to preserve them in their natural color and lulliiesi^ un- 
til arrangements can be made for a funeral or during th*- 
time necessary for transportation in case of death away frMi:i 
home. The permanence depends on the thoroughness wuh 
which the body is saturatea with the antiseptics, and the 
permanence of the antiseptics themselves. As ordinarily 
accomplished the body, except the eyes, which becMmie 
greatly sunken unless specially preservea, retains its natural 
appearance for weeks or mohtns if sealed in an air-ti;:lit 
coffin, to prevent evaporation and shrinkage. A b<Kly lim*^ 
embalmed, if it were slowly dried, would retain far gn-at^^r 
naturalness than most of the Egyptian mummies |)osn<^>. 

The method for temporarily embalming the dead is v( r\ 
simple. As it is necessary to saturate all the tissues with 
the antiseptic, a solution is made and injected slowly intotht 
arteries (method of Ruvsch and William Hunter). A \vui 
is opened to allow the blood to escape and to aid in <ieter- 
mining when the system is filled. The injection Is iisuaih 
continued till the embalming liquid runs out of the vein. It 
is usually better to inject part of the required amount an«! 
then the* remainder after several hours. After the arterin; 
injection the thorax is filled through a hollow needle pas>e<i 
through the body wall, and by the same means any uas or 
liquid in the abdomen or any of its organs is drawn off an i 
the abdominal cavity filled with the antiseptic. The with- 
drawal of gas and the injection of the liquid into the al*- 
domen may need to be repeated. For an adult from 2 to 4 
quarts of embalming liquid usually suffices. Very si>t>n aft*— 
the arterial and other injections all odor of decomj>*iMtio:. 
will disappear, for the antiseptics will destroy the putrvfa^.- 
tive ferments, and thus cut off the possibility of their furt h. r 
action. If the body is to be kept for a considerable tiuir , 
all but the face, neck, and hands are wrapped or bantiai>it 
with strips of cloth saturated with the antiseptic To pn - 
vent the sinking of the eyelids, thin shelb of wax (** eye c«J'^ " 
are put under the lids. 

Tne substances used for teniporary embalmment are mer- 
curic chloride (introduced by (Jhaussier about 1800), arstr.i. 
(introduce<^l by Tranchina, of Naples, 1835), zinc chloride air- 
troduced by Sucquet, about 1840). In the publishe<l U r- 
mulae of embalming fluids two or more of the ahi»ve an- 
usually employed. Sodium chloride or common salt is aS 
an ingredient, and instead of water alone as a solvent, ^-.^ • 



I 



84 



EMBIOTOCID^ 



EMBROIDERY 



less than three years of penal servitude, or else by impris- 
onment at hara labor for a fixed period. In the civil law 
embezzlement is recognized as a wrong, subjecting him who 
commits it to an action for damages or other proceeding by 
way of reparation. A salvor may forfeit his share of sal- 
vage compensation by embezzlement; the forfeited share 
accrues, not to the other members of his class, but to the 
owner of the property saved. T. W. Dwioht. 

Embiotoe'ldn fderiv. of Embiotoea^ the typical genus, 
from Gr. If/i^ios, living + rUos, offspring] : a remarkable 
familv of fishes limited to the Northern Pacific Ocean, and 
especially represented on the shores of the U. S., and dis- 
tinguished by their vivinarity. It belongs to the order 
TeleoeephaliMiii sub-oraer Acanthopteri, The body is 
compressed and oblong ; the scales are cycloid and of mod- 
erate size, and cover the entire trunk as well as head : on 
the back they form a sheath of from one to three rows wide 
at the base of the dorsal fin ; this sheath diminishes back- 
ward to the end of the fin, and is separated from the back 
by a well-defined groove ; the lateral line is continuous, and 
parallel with the back ; the head is compressed and moder- 
ate ; the nostrils double ; the eyes lateral ; the mouth has a 
moderate or slight lateral cleft ; the lips simple, and more 
or less developed ; the teeth are present on the jaws, but ab- 
sent from the palate ; the branchial apertures are ample, and 
continuous below ; branchiostegal rays five or six on each 
side ; the dorsal fin is oblong, and modified in two ways, 
severally characteristic of distinct sub-families; the anal 
fin is oblong, and armed in front with three slender spines ; 
the anterior portion of the anal fin is developed in a pecul- 
iar way as a conduit for the milt and eggs ; tne pectoral fins 
are produced and more or less angulated, and the ravs 
branched ; the ventrals are inserted behind the bases of the 
pectorals, and each has a spine and five branched rays ; the 
vertebral column has an increased number of vertebne ; the 
lower pharyngeal bones are confiuent together ; the stomach 
is simple, and pyloric caetca are absent. The family exhibits 
two distinct modifications of structure; in one (Emhioto- 
cifUB) the dorsal has its spinous portion rather less developed 
than the soft, and only composed of from nine to eleven 
spines. In the other {ffyaieroearpiiue) the dorsal has the 
spinous portion much longer than the soft, and sustained by 
about fifteen or more spines. (1) The EmbiotocincB are by 
far the most numerous m forms, and the species are marine. 
By American naturalists fourteen genera are admitted — viz., 
Ditrema, Jlypsunia, Phanerodon, Emhiotoca^ Tmniotoca^ 
Damaliehthys, Rhacochilus^ Amphistichus^ Uolconotuf^ Cy- 
matogaster^ Hypocritichihya^ Hyperprosopon^ Brachyistius^ 
and Abeona, (2) The Hyaterocarpincp are, as far as known, 
represented by but one species {Hyaierocarpua traakii)^ 
which is peculiar to the fresh waters of the Sacramento 
river. All the species are viviparous, and the young are 
develope<l in small number in special uterine sacs. Some 
of the species are among the most common of the Califor- 
nian fishes, and are brought to the markets in large numbers ; 
they are known to the inhabitants by the name of perch, al- 
though they have no relation whatever with the perches 
properly so called of Europe and the Eastern U. S. On the 
whole, they are mostlj nearly' related to the LabridcB and 
Gerrid(By but their differential characters are very positive. 

Theodobe Gill. 

Embla : in Scandinavian mythology, the first woman on 
earth. Usually explained as derived from o/m, German 
Ulme^ English elm. 

Emblazonry : See Heraldry. 

Emblem [from Ijat. emble'ma^ mosaic work, inlaid work, 
ornament = (ir. I^AT^fw, insertion ; iv, in + 3aXfir, throw] : 
a figurative representation which by the power of associa- 
tion suggests to the mind some idea not expressed to the 
eve ; a symlx)! ; a tyi>e ; thus a balance is an emblem of jus- 
tice. In bibliograpny, the book of emblems is a book con- 
taining a series of plHti-s or pic'tun»s of emblematic subjects, 
with explanations, as the poems of Jacob Cats. 

EmblementR [O. Fr. emblnemeni, deriv. of emblaer^ sow 
with grain : Ital. imbiadnre : (). Fr. blef > Mo<l. Fr. W^, 
wheat < Lat. abln'tum, what is carried from the field, 
grain] : the growing crof)s of cereal grains and vegetables 

Srodiice<l annually, not spontaneously, but by labor and in- 
ustry. By the common law a tenant for life, or other ten- 
ant, whose estate depends on an uncertain event, is entitled 
to the emblements, although his lease may terminate before 
harvest-time. If a tenant for life die, his personal repre- 



sentatives may after his death claim the products of hbt 
labor. But if a term be brought to a close by the volantar> 
act of the tenant, he is not entitled to the emblements. 

Revised by F. Sturges Allbn. 

Em'blica offlclna'lis [for etymolog^y of embliea cf. Pers. 
cmUhf Skr. dmalaka^ the name of this tree] : a species of 
trees of the natural order EuphorbiacetB ; a native of India 
and the Malay Archipelago. It produces a small round 
fruit, which is very acid, nas medicinal properties, and is 
used to make pickles. The wood is hard and valuable. 
The bark is usea for tanning and for dyeing cotton black. 

Embolism [from Gr. i/ifioXiff/tSs, intercalation ; iw, in •«- 
3aXcir, throw] : in the calendar, an intercalation of a day, as 
Feb. 29 in leap-year, or of a lunar month, as in the Greek 
and Hebrew calendars. 

Embolism, in patholo^, is the presence of any foreign 
substance (emboluaX, being usually a portion of a clot of 
blood in the circulating blood. EmlK)li frequently come 
from the heart, where blood clots are common and the bl<KMi 
is much agitated. Embolism in the brain is a recogniz(><l 
cause of apoplexy. An extensive embolism of the lungs 
may lead to sudden death ; a smaller one may lead to local 
pneumonia, abscess, pyaemia, or gangrene. When air enters 
the veins through wounds or other paths, it circulates as an 
embolus and has frequently caused sudden death. Embtv 
lism, though frequently fatal, is sometimes followed by re- 
covery. The best treatment is the frequent administration 
of concentrated food and stimulants, keeping the patient in 
fresh air, and allaying irritation by opiates. 

Revised by William Pkpper. 

Embolite: a chloro-bromide of silver, found in the silver 
ores of Mexico and Chili. 

Embossing [from deriv. of 0. Fr. boce > Mod. Fr. 6o*v, 
boil, swelling : Ital. bozza : Span, bocha ; borrowed from 
Teutonic ; cf. M. H. Genu butze^ lump] : the raising of parts 
of a surface in relief above the other parts, usuauv for or- 
namental purposes. The term is usually limitea to the 
beating up of thin plates or sheets of metal, or the molding 
of leather, moistened paper, or the like, rather than to re- 
lief cut in marble or stone or cast in plaster or sulphur. It 
is also applied to embroidery in which the pattern is raised 
above the surface of the stuff. See Chasing, Relikf, and 
Repouss^ Work. Russell Sturois. 

Embracery [from O. Fr. embraser, set on fire] : in law, 
the offense of endeavoring to corrupt or bribe a jury or t4» 
infiuence a jury by anjr corrupt motive. This offense is 
punishable by fine and imprisonment. 

Embrasare [deriv. of embraaer, ebraaer^ to splay, cham- 
fer] : in fortification, an opening made in the parapet of a 
fortified place or the breastwork of a battery througn which 
the guns are pointed. The embrasures are usually mnd«' 
about 2 feet wide at the interior extremity or neck^ and half 
as thick as the parapet at the exterior crest. The sole or 
lower surface is at the height of about 2^ feet above the 
platform on which the carriage of the gun is placed. The 
object of such embrasures is to shield as much as possible 
the interior of the place, and yet leave space for the free ac- 
tion of the gun. 

Embroidery [from 0. Fr. embroder, deriv. of a subst. ap- 
pearing in Ital. bordo, Fr. bord, border, hem, outer e<lge. a 
loan-word from Teutonic ; cf . 0. II. Germ, bort] : needle- work 
upon textile material, leather, or the like, with which are 
sometimes combined applied pieces of colored material, 
feathers, jewels, or even pieces of looking-glass. The obj«H*i 
of embroidery is usually decoration, but names and initials 
are often worked upon articles of clothing, etc., for conven- 
ience, and heraldic bearings and other (ievices, who^e pur- 
pose is only in a secondary sense decorative, have often bevn 
embroidered. In the nineteenth century embroidery has 
been much in use at times for women*s' garmcntj«, an<l at 
others almost wholly abandoned, except that done witli 
linen thread on undergarments, which has never gone out 
of fashion altogether. The colored embroidery which ha> 
been used the most commonly and for the greatest length of 
time during the nineteenth century is that of India shawls, 
called Kashmir shawls, and often, erroneously, oamels*-hair 
shawls. Apart from these, women of European race some- 
times use embroidery in color on gowns or other outer gar- 
ments of silk or other un washable material, sometimes em- 
broidery in crewels on cotton or linen, and sometimes white 
embroidery on white; but none of these fashions is lastinLT. 
At times it is considered elegant to have curtains embnud- 



EMBRYOLOGY 



1y known aa the maluralion of Iht oeum. 
These phenomena take place while the egg is still withm 
the ovfU7, and consist ussentititly of a repeated vcrv unequal 
diviaioH o( the germinal vesicle or nucleus, resulting in the 



Fro. S. — Unlmprenuted on 
exiMiMl tnembnuie nr u 

Mpulsion from the ovum of two minute particles, thepolar 
bodies, whose significance is still uncertain. The ongiosl 
germinal vusiclu is replatcd by a new body known as the 
female pronvclea*; alter the eitrusion of the ^Jar bodies 
and Ihe appearance of the pronucleus, the oTum b ready for 
the reception of the male element. Maturation takes place 
in every completely developed ovum, irrespective of the pos- 
Bibility of future impregnation. 

Concrplion or terlilization of the ovum follows the union 
of the ripe egg with the spermatozoon under favorable con- 



^^iEuft 



lacuUu A ihowaap- 
, alDirle Bpennatic Ala 

IB underjiol uj; chuic« 

ditions. This union probably takes plaio in the human 
subject in the upper third of the oviduct, or Fallopian tube, 
the impregnated egg subspijuently passing into Ihe uterus to 
form the attachments est^ntiol for the nutrition of the 
embryo during its development within the mother. When 
conception is alnrnt to take place, the male clement pene- 
trates the envelopes of the ovum and within the vitellua 
gives rise to the mate pronueUaa ; this t>ody a|mroaches the 
previously formeil female prowielni*. the two tinally fusing 
to produce a new structure, the seamenMioH niielfus. the 
immediate element in which the formation of the future 
embryo begins. The new being therefore originates from a 



'■ BttfT fprtfllzatkin ; ak and ek. the mote and 



cell which results from Ihe fusion of the sexual elements of 
AoM piir«n<ii. and which cnnlain4 the potcntialitieacontribntcd 
by both father and mother. In the history of conception. 
OS now understood, is found the explanation of the striking 



transmission to the offspring of the characteristics of both 
parents which often seems so remariiable. 

In all instances, without exception, the first indicaliun of 
the commencing formation of the embryo in the ovum is 




the establishment of eeffmenlation. whereby the original cell 
becomes divided by repeated cleavage into innumerable 
smaller elements from which are derived the various tis.Mii--' 
and the organs of the new being. This process consist." in 
the separation of the aegmentaiion nudeut into two smaller 
nuclei, the division bein^ occomimnied Irr a corresponding 
constriction and separation of the cell-body or the vitcllus 
into segmentnliuH spheres bv the appearance of a furrow run- 
ning arounil the vitelliis like an equator, which graduallv 
devjiens until it has com|)lc1cly separated the two hemi' 
spheres from each other. At the same time, or a Lttle latrr, 
a second furrow, placed at right angles to the first, run' 
around the viteltus in another direction ; and thus the Iwu 
secondary globules are divided into four. By a reiiciiiiun 
of this process the oriKinal cell, which hod the form of a 
simple sphere, becomes converted into an agf^gation of 
ugmenlation spheres, which from its external appeBnui<« 
is known as the morula, or mulberry mass. 




Fig. T.— DiOKnun o . . . 

area ; C. enloderm ; D, » „. 

uUr ka;er ot Rauber'l cetlB (ifler Bonne 

The compMe and practically equal srgmentation of tho 
mammalian ovum results in the production of a holliiw 
sphere. Ihe Maslodermie remcle, which in its eariy sta|>i' t> 
composed of two cell-layers, a complete external, and an in- 
complete inner stratum. Within a limited tifid known oji 
the germinal area the elements composing Ihise layers un- 
dergo proliferation, which process results in a marked Ihii-k- 
ening of the blastoderm. Coincident with these chonct^ a 
Ihini stratum ot cells appears between the outer and Ih.' 
inner layers; these now constitute the eonlinol embrT<iti»l 
formative tracts, the eeloderm. the rttlodrrm. and the nrjio- 
lUrm. From the establishment of these jjrmtmi^ layerti thi- 
future history ot the embryo consists essentially la the un- 



EMBRYOLOGY 



during embrjonio lite which will require a Turther descrip- 

The fltst of these is kDOwn as tlie umbilical regieU. In 
the process ot development, as already deBcribod, the ab- 
dominal walls, growing together upon the median line, 
inclose direclly the whole of the vitelline oarity, which 
aubaequentir, ot course, becomes the cavity of the intes- 
tine. But ID many of the fishes and reptiles, and in all 
birds and maramHle, the abdominal walls approach each 
other before thev have embraced the whole of the vilellus, 
BO that the vitelline cavity is thus .separated, by a kind of 
constriction, into two parts. The internal part, which is 
fuUf embraced by the abdominal walla, is, as before men- 
tioned, the cavity of the intestine ; but the external part, 
which is left by this constricti<in outside the abdomen, is 
the umbilical vesicle. This name is given to it because it 
is really a vesicle, containing some of the remains of the 
vitcltus, and because it still cotninunicates with the cavity 
of the intestine through the umbilicus or navel. This com- 
munication is at first short and wide ; but as development 
Kroceeds, the umbilical vesicle gradually retreats farther 
'om the alxlomcn, while the passage of communication be- 
comes converted into a comparativoly long and narrow 
canal. In many mammals and in the human species this 
canal is partially obliterated at an early period, so that the 
umbilicaJ vesicle then forms an isolated cavity or sac, coii- 
neot«d with the abdomen only by a slender solid pedicle. 
In the earlier stages blood-vessels run out along this pedicle, 
and ramify upon the surface of the umbilical vesicle. 

Another important accessory organ of the embryo is the 
amnion. This is a delicate anil transparent membrane, 
which turns up from the edges of the body walls over the 
back of the embryo, and thus envelops it in a secondary 
cavity called the "sac of the amnion": the albuminous 
protective liquid which it contains, and in which the embryo 
IS bathed, is called the " amniotic fiuid." The amnion is ac- 
cordingly an extension of the outer layer of the blastoder- 
mic membrane, and Is continuous with the integument of 
the embryo at the umbilical orifice. In other words, the ex- 
ternal layer of the blastodermic membrane in these cases 
develops into two different parts ; that which immediately 
ests the body of the embryo is its integument, while that 



The amnion at first closely embraces the body of the em- 
bryo, but afterward it expands more rapidly with the in- 
crease of the amniotic Quid, so that the young animal may 
move freely within its cavity when the muscular system be- 
gins to exhibit signs of activity. 

The third accessory embryonic organ is the allanlois, 
so called from the Greek iuiu, iuuroi, a "sausage," be- 
cause of its elongated cylindrical form In some cases. The 
allantois is an outgrowth from the hind-pit or lower part 
of the intestine. It shows itself where typically developed, 
but not in the human embryo, as a small bud or diverticu- 
lum, shaped somewhat like the finger of a glove, which pro- 
trudes from the abdominal opening in front, and then 
rapidly expands in every direction until it has entirely en- 
veloped the embryo, as well as the amnion, in a second ex- 
terior covering. Laterits waits are exceedingly vascular; by 
thr time the allantois has become completely formed, the ex- 
ternal surface of the embryonic mass forms a continuous 
vascular membrane, in 
which the blood-vessels of 
the embryo ramify in great 
abundance. 

This anatomical feature 
will serve to Indicate the 
usefulness and the function 
of the allantois. It is the 
I organ of nourishment and 
respiration for the embryo. 
In the fowl's egg the allan- 
tois. which is plated imme- 
w,^ lo irn.k™nn». 1.1 1.™.!.. diately undenicHth the cal- 

'^''■..'i:::?"i?7?,''T'^.y*'^??."L* c«r(Hiussh..iUti,i«hpii-,„i.n,- 









■e during 



^ of i lieu I ml Ion. It atisorbs 
oxygen from the external 

air throuiih the porous egc-shell, and exhales tsrimnic acid, 
thus s>-rving to re-iovale and ari(-riHli?:e the bloml ns the 
lungs will <lo in Ihe young chick after being hutched. In 



mammals the allantois is still more important. The ovum 
in these Aiimals being of minute size, without any abund- 
ant store of nutritious material, and being retained, after 
fecundation, within the body of the female parent, the you nir 
embryo is entirely dependent upon the maternal system both 
for respiration and nourishment. The vascular allantois 
here, enveloping the embryo, comes in contact with the 
vascular lining membrane of the uterus, and thus the blool- 
vesscls of the embryo constantly absorb from the blood- 
vessels of the mother the substances requisite for its nour- 
ishment and growth. In many kinds of animals the allan- 
tois even contracts a more or less intimate adhesion with the 
lining membrane of the uterus at particular spoCa. resulting 
in the formation of the pioftnta, where the process of »>>- 
sorption and transudation is carried on witii greater rapiililv. 

In the human species the allantois commences its growt'h 
in the same manner as in the Inferior animals, but very 
soon exhibits certain modifications in its subsequent de- 
velopment. In man the allantois never exists as a free sac, 
but grows out largely as a solid structure which early par- 
ticipates in the formation of a continuous vascular envelope. 
the chorion. 

The human chorion at an early period becomes ihu;gy or 
velvety by the growth of a muhitude of minute fllaihen- 
tous projections or d'Hi upon Its outer surface. These pro- 
jections become branched and divided, forming so manv 
tufted filaments, which greatlv favor absorption. S"tiii 
after tlie first month, however, the villi cease their growth 
over about three-quarters of the surface of the chorion. 
which parts thus become smooth and bald ; while over the 
remalnmg quarter they grow more rapidly than before, be- 




coming excess! velv developed both In numbers and in ramifi- 
cation and vascularity, so that the chorion here becomp^i 
converted into a thicliened and spongy mass, penetrate^l 
everywhere with an abundance of looped and ramifyiiii: 
blood-vessels. The union of this portion of the cho'ri'>n 
with the maternal tissues of the ulerine walls when fully 
developed forma a distinct organ, the plaemfa. The pla- 
centa, accordinglv, is the e3|iecutl organ of nourishment for 
the embrvo. It nas become well developed and easily disi- 
tinguishable from the remaining portions of the chorion bv 
the end of the tliird month of embryonic life. 

The amnion and the chorion, although termed " mem- 
branes"and "appendages." are in reality connerted with 
the body of the embryo. The placenta includes also a por- 
tion of the tissues of the mother; for at the same time Ihnt 
the chorion is becoming excessively sha^Qr and vascular at 
the spot at which is afterward lo be the pttuvtitA. the lining 
membrane of the uterus also assumes, at (he correspond I nfr 

C Dint, a similar increased development. In bolh cases th(> 
lood-vcBsels preponderate over the remainine tissues, the 
existing maternal vascular channels especi^y becomltitr 
enormously enUrged and Intimately unite<l with the fofliU 
constituents of the placenta— I he vascular villi of the chorion. 
Thus the placenta, when fully formed, is a double oi^n, 
containuig both embryonic and maternal veswis, present- 



90 



EMBRYOLOGY 



The aseinal generation develops from the lertilized egg- 
cell much more direcllj, but Btill there is a distinct emlirj- 
onic stage, ciinsbting of an elongateil moBS of growing c^tls 
(Pig. 4(. This eventuatlf develops into the stalked sporo- 
earp with its complex structure. 




I, a Bp.ire of a ina» IFunaria hmmaietrici'i beglniiliig lo 
ilnal*: B and C. Kerminnlion further Bdvuiii^ed ; D. proto- 

uB-^ wilh twn biidB ral (.), from which K^afy shoots wiH grow : 

E. (Unbrjo of awiual ploiib of Ihe Hame moBB. 

In the Kemworta upon the gerniinalion of the spore a suc- 
cession of embryonic stages is pas.-ied before the sexual 
pUnt attains its adult form (Fig. 5, A). The asexual 



5, B) consisting o( eijtht ceils, from one of which ae 
the stem, from another the cotjledon, from still another 
the root, while one produces a temporary structure, the foot 
(an o^ptn of suction which remains in the archegone). In 
the Oymnosperros the sexual generation is still a mass of 
tissue of consiilerable size, but as compared with the pri>- 
thallium of ferns or the oSpbore of Bryophytes it must be 
regarded as embryonic. It develops from the macrospore 
(embryo-sac) by continued subdivision, resulting in an ovoid 




! oospore) by the subdirision of the Utter, resulting in the 
onuation of several long, tortuous filaments, the true ends 
of which give rise to cell-musses, one of which increases in 
sije, becomes cylindrical, and eventually produces a whorl 
of leaves (the cotyledons) at one end and the primary root 
at the other. After the young plant is free from the seed- 
coats its successive nodes produce more iierteclly fornied 
leaves, while the structure of the slem liceomes more com- 
plex. 

In Aneriosperms tlie sexual generation (oJiiihorc) is still 
more nidimentary than in Qymnnsj>erms, and it imdergocs 
this interesting modification, that its development is actu- 
ally delayed until after Ihe egg-cell is fertilized, when the 
two generations, oOphorc and sporophore, develop simulta- 



levelop 

I .. s represonti'd by little 

more tban the egg-cell (oilspherc}. but after the Fertill: 



Iletore tlilK the oflphor 



of the latter the macrospore (embryo-sac) develops a ir 



The asexual gencruti 
fertilized egg-cell by a 
the production first of a 



1 the Gymnos|ierms. anil which 
endosperm. 

I (sporophore) develops from the 
;ries of subdlvisiuns. resulting in 
jw of more or less elongated cells, 



tually forms a short 




The Huspensor cells make i 



with endosperm (Bibuminous), and without endosperm (ex- 
albuminous). See ENtHispBBH. 

The young plant upon emerging from the seed in ger- 
mination has root, stem, and leaves, but these arc vet of 
much simpler structure than in the adult plant. This Ls 
well seen in the leaves which appear successively u^Hin 
the stem, the earlier ones differing: much from the later. En 
compound- leaved plants Ihe earlier leaves are simple, ami 
even the first compound leaves are smaller and simpler than 
those which follow. 

This brief sketch of plant embryology is all that can lie 
given here. It will serve to show that in all plants the 
l>eginning is a single cell, and that the development of the 




omed). 



; L, young embryo ot pea <• 



(the higher plants) go fartber, others 
lower plants) go a shorter distance. 
LiTEBiTURE. — W. Hofmeirter, The Oerminaiion, Drrr 



Entwiekehmg de» Ktiines drs jfonocoiylm and Dienlulnt 
(1870); F. Hagelmaier, VfrgUichendt Inlrrmithtingni uf'^r 
Entwiel-rlung dieolylrdonrn Krime (IrtTS); E. StrasljurK-r. 
Urbfr Brfruchting iind Zelll/>filii»g (18TB) ; J. Ve«iuc. /W- 
vetoppftnenl dii Sar Embn/onnaire des Phanetvffamrji An- 
gioHuermfH (18T8-7B); E. finignard, RrehtrehM d'Embrgt^- 
genie Vegilate Comparfe (18H1-1»2), 

D. H. Campbell has studied the embryology ot manv Pte- 
ridoplytes 1885-93 {Bot. Oaietle, Am. A'o/iirWwr/, Annalt 
of Sotany). Chaki-bs K. Bkssky. 



92 



EMERSON 



EjMEjRY 



led to some excesses and affectations, but was on the whole 
aTaluable impulse toward many good thin^. The four 
volumes of The Diai contain a lasting memorial of that im- 
portant seed-time of thought. 

Mr. Emerson's Essays were collected and published in 
two volumes in 1841 and 1844, and his Poems in 1846. His 
miscellaneous addresses remained uncollected till 1849, in 
the U. S., though they had been reprinted collectively in 
England in 1844. Visiting the mother country in 1847, Mr. 
Emerson found awaiting him a large circle of admirers, 
whose allegiance he always retained. In 1850 he published 
Representatii'e Men, given previously as a course of lectures 
in Boston. In 1852 hie took part in preparing the memoirs 
of Margaret Fuller Ossoli. tlis English Traits appeared in 
1856, The Conduct of Life in 1860. and May-Day and other 
Poems, and Society and Solitude in 1869. 

Though Mr. Emerson is often assigned to the class of 
metaphysicians or " philosophers/' yet the actual traits of 
his intellect clearly rank him rather among poets or literary 
men. All his methods were literary rather than scientific, 
although he won some of his warmest admirers among scien- 
tific men, as in the case of Prof. Tyndall. His statements 
are sometimes subtle, sometimes profound, sometimes noble 
and heroic, but scarcely ever systematic. He rested in his 
intuitions, rarely attempted even the rudiments of method, 
but constantly recognized, in his own words, " the oppo- 
site negations between which, as with cords, our being is 
swung." 

In viewing Mr. Emerson simply as a literarv artist, the 
reader must still complain of this tantalizing iragmentari- 
ness, this disregard of all the unities, this structural defect. 
Even in his poems his genius is like an solian harp that 
now gives, now willfully withholds, its music ; while some of 
his essays seem merely accidental collections of loose leaves 
from a note-book. Yet as one makes this criticism, one is 
shamed into silence by remembering many a passage of prose 
and verse so majestic in thought and rhythm, of quality so 
rare and utterance so delicious, as to form a permanent ad- 
dition to the highest literature of the human race. 

Mr. Emerson wrote in 1844 that all the books read in the 
U. S. were European, that " we are sent to a feudal school 
to learn democracy "; and demanded that his fellow-country- 
men should advance out of all hearing of others' censures, 
out of all regrets of their own, into a new and more excel- 
lent social state. More than any previous literary man, he 
set the example of ignoring European traditions, methods, 
and literary properties wherever these could be better super- 
seded by home products. He drew his habitual illustrations 
from the society and manners of the U. S., and was more 
ready to write of the pine woods and the humble-bee than 
of the nightingale and asphodel. It seems hardly credible 
that this should have been ridiculed by the critics as " a 
foolish affectation of the familiar"; but the fact of the 
ridicule shows the need of the innovation. If that state of 
things has now passed by, and if the literature of the U. S. 
is no longer provincial, it is to Mr. Emerson that it is most 
indebted. 

It is well known that his position on religious questions 
was that of a philosophical radical, and that he became en- 
tirely detached from the church or^nizations of the time. 
He took this position, once for all, in a sentence which at- 
tracted much attention in his Divinity Hall Address : " The 
as.suni[)tion that the age of inspiration is past, that the Bible 
is clobed, the fear of degrading the character of Jesus by 
representing him as a man, indicate with sufficient clearness 
the falsoliood of our theologv." His precise attitude as to 
the conception of a Deity and the belief in personal immor- 
tality might be harder to define. He dec^res eloquently, 
however, in one of his orations, that " there is a sublime and 
friendly Destiny by which the human race is guided— the 
race never dying, the individual never spared — to results 
affecting masses and ages." 

Though Mr. Emerson was, like Goethe, a prophet of Self- 
Culture, he never held himself aloof, like Goethe, from the 
immediate public agitations of his time, but always prac- 
tically recognized the truth of his own formula, " ^o-a&y is 
a king in disguise." He always lent his voice in behalf of 
any momentous public interest. He was always frankly 
identified with tne anti-slavery movement, and, though 
averse to extemporaneous speech, and ill at ease in that 
form of service, ne often took part in the meetings of the 
abolitionists. In 1844 he gave an elaborate and remarkable 
address on the anniversary of emancipation in the British 
West Indies. He signed, with his wife, the call for the first 



National Woman's Rights Convention in 1850. He wa&( a 
vice-president of the Free Relipous Association, and sev- 
eral times addressed its conventions. He was also an ov(>r- 
seer of Harvard University, and received from that institu- 
tion the degree of doctor oi laws in 1866. He was a member 
of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, of the Amer- 
ican Philosophical Society, and of the Massachusetts His- 
torical Society. 

Mr. Emerson was twice married — in 1829, to Ellen Louisa 
Tucker, of Concord, N. H., who died in 1881 ; and in 1835, 
to Lidian Jackson, of Plymouth. He had three children, 
two daughters and one son. The son, Edward Waldo, grad- 
uated at Harvard College in 1866, and afterward pursued 
the study of medicine. Ralph Waldo Emerson died at Con- 
cord, Apr. 27, 1882. See his authorized Life by J. Elliot 
Cabot (2 vols., 1887); also biographies by 0. W. Holmes, 
George W. Cooke, Richard Gamett, and Alexander Ireland : 
Conway's Emerson Abroad and at Home\ The Genius and 
Character of Emerson, edited by F. B. Sanborn; E. B. Em- 
erson. Emerson in Concord ; D. G. Haskins, Emerson's Ma- 
ternal Ancestors ; Correspondence between Carlyle and Em- 
erson, edited by C. E. Norton. T. W. Hiooinson. 

Emerton, Ephraih : professor of history ; b. Feb. 18, 1851, 
at Salem, Mass. ; educateu at thepublic schools, and graduated 
at Harvard College in 1871. He spent two years in journal- 
ism and the study of law, and was m Europe 187^76, spend- 
ing two years at the universities of Berlin and Leipzig, from 
the latter of which he received (1876) the degree Ph. D. In 
1876 he became instructor in History at Harvard, and in 
1882 received the appointment of Professor of Ecclesiastical 
History. He has published Synopsis of the History of Con- 
tinental Europe ; The Study of Church History ; Sir Wiil- 
iam Temple und die tripleaUianz vom iahre 1668', The 
Practical Method in Higher Historical Instruction (in 
Methods of Teaching History, ed. by G. Stanley Hall, 2d 
ed. 1885) ; An Introauction to the Study of MeduBval His- 
tory (1888-93). 

Emery [from Fr. im^ri < O. Pr. esmeril < Lat. ^smiri - 
lis, from Gr. afupis, <r/Aiipif , a polishing powder] : one of the 
hardest minerals known, ranking next to the diamond in its 
power of cutting or abrading hard substances. It is a va- 
riety of the species corundum or sapphire, of a dark rerl- 
dish-brown, black, or ^ay color, and consists of nearly pun* 
alumina and oxide of iron. Sapphire contains 97^ per cent, 
of alumina, and corundum about 92 per cent. The percent- 
age in emery ranges from 60 to 78, with 25 to 35 per i^ent. 
of oxide of iron, and a few per cent, of silica and of water. 
Emery is found in large masses, and much resembles 
fine-grained iron ore, for which it has often been mis- 
taken. It is obtained chiefly from Asia Minor and the 
island of Naxos in the Grecian Archipelago. The chief 
supply of foreign emery in the U. S. comes from Turkey, 
about 70 miles from the port of Smyrna, where it c*osts 
about $22 per ton. It has also been found at Chester. 
Mass., where it was at one time mined. A better qual- 
ity of stone, properly called corundum, but serving the 
same economic purposes as emery, has been found in 
Georgia and the Carolinas, and an important industry Ims 
sprung up in Rabun co., Ga., and Macon co., N. C. The 
production in 1890 was 1,970 tons, valued at $89,395. In 
the same year imports of crude rock amounted to 3,867 tons, 
valued at $97,939, and crushed rock to 534,968 pounds, valued 
at $20,382. 

Emery is scarcely inferior to the sapphire or ruby in 
hardness, and it will not only cut the hardest steel or 
chilled castings, but will wear away quartz, a^ate, topaz, 
and other gems, being for the last-named purpose the 
chief reliance of the lapidary. It was used by the ancient s. 
for cutting gems. Dioscorides mentions it uiider the name 
of sniyris as the stone with which engraved gems are \nA- 
ished ; and there is even a rabbinical tradition which indi- 
cates that the *'smyris" was used for gem-engraving in 
the time of Moses. ' How far it was known and used in 
prehistoric times must be left to conjecture, but the many 
neatly cut and polished stone implements and ornament's 
indicate the use of a material not less hard than emery. 
Theophrastus mentions whetstones made of the mineral 
ase<l to engrave gems, and mentions Armenia as furnishiii|? 
the best kind. Naxian whetstones are also mentione<l by 
ancient authors, and Pliny speaks of polishing marble 
statues and filing down gems. The backs of antiquo iii- 
tagli have deep furrows uf)on them, indicating that they 
were filed into shape by rubbing with an emery-stone. It 



94 



EMIGRATION 



rope, the former crossing the Rhine and the latter pourine 
through the Rhsetian Alps. These incursions were checked 
by the victories of Claudian, Aurelian, and Probus (270- 
282), but the Qoths established themselves during the fol- 
lowing century on the borders of the Euxine, and spread 
through Thrace toward Italy. Between 376 and 410 was 
the chmax of the movement of Northern races. The Huns, 
a nation of Tartar origin, coming down from the Ural 
Mountains and the table-lands of Siberia under Balamir, 
established an empire at the expense of the Goths, whom 
they drove out of the countries N^ of the Danube ; the latter, 
soon afterward marshaled under Aiaric. after ravaging 
Greece, descended upon Rome, effecting its capture a. d. 
410. During the same period the Vandals from between 
the Elbe and the Vistula, with tbe Sueves and Burgun- 
dians of kindred origin, and the Alans from the Caucasus, 
swept through Italy, and, thence withdrawing, through 
Southern France into Spain ; the Burgundians alone stop- 
ping in the valleys of tne Vosges, the rest, pressed by the 
Goths who followed them, finally reaching Andalusia. In 
429 Moorish tribes from the base of Mt. Atlas were ravag- 
ing Northern Africa ; in 439 the Vandals and Alans from 
Spain, under Genseric, following in the path of the Moors, 
extended the kin^om of the Vandals over the southern 
shore of the Mediterranean, and then crossing into Italy, 
captured and sacked Rome in 455. During the rise of the 
Vandal kingdom the Huns under Attila (435-450J swept 
down on the western provinces, and made an irruption into 
Gaul, but being defeated at Chalons in 451 they afterward 
withdrew to the £. of the Carpathian range. After Attila's 
death (458) the bulk of the remaining Huns retired to the 
shores of the Volga. During the same period the Saxons 
from between the Baltic and the Elbe, witn the Angles to the 
N. of them, and the Jutes of Jutland, became dissatisiied 
with their homes, and in 449 descended on the coasts of 
Great Britain, establishing themselves on the island. 

Before the year 470 the Slavi had overrun what are now 
Prussia, Poland, and Russia ; about the middle of the sixth 
century this Slavic territory — and in fact the whole region 
from Franconia to the Caucasus, from Moscow to the Dan- 
ube — was taken possession of by the Avars, a Tartar tribe. 
They unsuccessfully besieged Constantinople. Thencefor- 
ward, and indeed until the thirteenth century, the Byzan- 
tine empire was a bulwark against the Asiatic races, and 
prevented their penetrating Europe except by paths N. of 
the Euxine or S. of the Mediterranean. Starting from Ara- 
bian deserts in 632, the tide of Saracenic invasion rolled 
over the Levant and Northern Africa, entering Spain in 
711, and was checked on the Loire by Charles Martel in 
732. The Saracens spread from the Indus to the Atlantic, 
from the Pyrenees to the African desert, from the Caspian 
to the Red Sea, They invaded Sicily in 826, and held that 
island 265 years. The date of their conquest of India is 
1004. Within the century when Europe was saved from 
the sword of the Saracen by the valor of Charles Martel, 
the victories of Charlemagne and his lieutenants (791-798) 
dislodged the Avars, and they withdrew to the eastward 
The Bulgarians, partlv of Tartar extraction, entered on a 
portion of the deserted territory. The Magyars, a Finnish 
tribe from the Ural, about the year 855 united with the van- 

Siiished Avars, and spread in camps of 1,000,000 men over 
le Dacian plain. A century later Otho defeated their de- 
scendant's, and they afterward settled on the Danube. 

The Danish vikings in 852 effected a permanent settle- 
ment in Russia, but not till 980 did they become ajQiliated 
with the native Russians and Sarmatians. The incursions 
of Danes on the British coasts began early in the ninth 
century ; in 1016 Canute's kingdom included Denmark, 
Norway, and England. The Danish and Norwegian vikings 
that were afterward called Normans ravaged the French 
coasts during this period, and settled in great numbers in 
Normandy in 912: they effected the conquest of England 
in 1066, and by 1072 haii overrun Sicily and Southern Italy. 
From the ninth to the eleventh century the Tartars rav- 
^ed China. In 1050 the Uzzi and Cumani, of Tartar ex- 
traction, overran all Southern Russia ; they kept possession 
for 170 vears. From 1216 to 1250 the Mongols under 
Genghis khan, starting from the frontiers of China, created 
an empire, at a cost of 14,000,000 men slain by the sword, 
that extended from the Pacific to the Adriatic and the 
Baltic, overrunning all Southern Asia and Eastern Europe. 
The Mongols were probably allied to the Huns. After their 
victory on the Kalka in 1224, they held Russia subject for 
two and a half centuries. In the latter half of the thirteenth 



century, after the withdrawal of the Mongols from Hungary, 
its king invited immigration, and obtained uiAuy Italian. 
Flemish, and Saxon settlers. The empire of Tamerlane 
(1363-1405) again spread the Mongolian power over all 
Southern Asia; the conquest of Hindustan was effected in 
1399, and Delhi afterward became the capital of the Great 
MoguL 

The crusades (1095, 1147, 1189, 1202, 1217, 1227, 1248, 
1270), though involving great emigrations, created no per- 
manent states. 

The Ottomans had partially established themselves in 
Europe in 1356; by 1460 they had overrun Turkey. In 
1550 the Turkish power was at its zenith, reaching from the 
Tigris to the Carpathian chain, from the snows of the Cau- 
casus to the deserts of Abyssinia. The expulsion of the Mo- 
hammedans from Western Europe was an affair of centuries. 
Thev were driven out of Sicily in 1091; Valencia, 1238; 
Portugal, 1252 ; Granada, 1492. 

From 1562 to 1577 the Russians pushed their conques-ts 
over the Mongolian races through two continents, and, 
crossing the Pacific to a third, effected settlements in North 
America, which in 1794 were estimated as containing 50.000 
souls. The measures which culminated in the Kevocatiun 
of the Edict of Nantes (1685) caused the Huguenot emigra- 
tion from France, which numbered from 250,000 to 300,000 
souls ; Sismondi assigns even a higher figure. In 1739 India 
was subjected to a terrible invasion by the Persians ; in 
1765 the British conquest followed, and after it came a 
steady flow of Englishmen. The French emigration con>e- 
quent on the revolution of 1790 consisted of noble familii'>, 
and was exceptional in this characteristic. The czars, U^ 
ginning with Peter the Great, have made notable and suc- 
cessful efforts in inducing foreigners to form colonies within 
their domain ; and the last important movement of emigra- 
tion within Europe was after Napoleon's wars, when Ru^^^ia, 
by liberal offers, obtained 250,000 settlers, principally from 
her Western neighbors. In the Franco-German war*(187<h 
102,(XX) Germans were expelled from France, and after the 
war there was a large movement of the French population 
from Alsace and Lorraine, and subsequently an emigration 
thither from Germany. 

There are evidences of extensive movements among the 
native populations of America before the advent of Colum- 
bus. The Esquimaux — or, as they call themselves, th«' 
Inuit — inhabiting the northern and northwestern coasts of 
America, are of a race found at the N. in the eastern hemi- 
sphere. The North American tribes of the interior were 
nomadic, but have left few definite records of their wander- 
ing; the mound-builders spread all over the valley of tht» 
Mississippi and its tributaries, but did not reach the At- 
lantic coast, and the dates of their progress and extinction 
are alike unknown. The Shawanese within historic tinu^ 
moved down from the Northern Alleghanies along their 
western slope, and penetrated nearly to the Gulf of Mexico. 
There are records of many of the great movement's of tht» 
races in the southern portion of North America. Tonjui-- 
mada, among earlier, and Clavigero, among later historian >. 
have shown that the Toltecs, who during 104 years wen- 
advancing into Mexico from a re^on to the N. W. of it. 
founded the kingdom of Toltecan m the latter part of the 
sixth century. A famine nearly destroyed this nation in 
1052 ; it was replaced in the next century by the iessr-eivil- 
ized Chichimecas, and in the century following by <>th»'r 
races from the N. and N. W., including the Aztecs of Mexi- 
cans from California. During the supremacy of the Tolte<-s 
in Mexico their fifth king invaded Guatemala, and tber^ 
established a dynasty of Toltec sovereigns, of whom iho 
eighteenth was reigning when the Spaniards arrive<l. In 
South America the Toupis emigrated from the northern 
borders of the Amazon, spread to the Caribbean Sea an«i 
most of its islands, and advanced southerly along the At- 
lantic coast to S. lat. 82°. penetrating inland to the head- 
waters of the Rio de la Plata; through all this vast region 
one native language was spoken. The origin of the n».f.^i» 
that entered Peru and buut the monuments around Laiki- 
Titicaca is unknown. 

With the progress of civilization the large movements < >f 
population en masse have been lessened, but the aggrecr&te 
movement of individuals greatly increased. Large numX»*T> 
of Europeans, in particular, have moved to other part2> *>f 
the world, either in organized bodies to found states of their 
own — colonization — or to become citizens of states alrt^&iiT 
established — immigration. Of the aggregate amount vTf 
such colonization or immigration it is naM to obtain full 



96 



KMMKNSITK 



EMPKDOCLKS 



one cif the* App<»Anincf« of ChriM on tb<* day of his rmurrrc- 
titm (Luke xxix. i:)>. It wu d(<9(troT(yl by an e*rth()Uiike in 
131 A. u, and wku^n M>uiU in th<* thini ti^ntunr wa» calUnl 
Nu^»|M»h4. It IS now cmlr • ^nml\ viIIa^, the mfuforn AmwaA. 

Kaai^ri^ll. <*tn mi*r-irh (anr. Kmhrwa): town (»f Pruti^ui: 
cm thr ri^ht tmnk of the Khine; aUmt 5()niileM X. N. W. of 
DawrMorf mui\ 20 luilm S, K. of Amht^im, with both of 
whu'h it t* r«>iiii(*t't4'<il by • niilw«y («i«v mm{* of (ftrman Km- 
|urr, t^t, 4-<\ It hmn •cu«»toin-h«»u««e. f^ymnaiuunt. and »ev- 
rrml rhun*hf**, al«i manufju*tun^ of inm, ^Imut*^ w<xtlon cloth, 
iinrn^ h<w«UTy. eic^ and an atUve tnuic in wine. Pop. ( I8W)) 



Kaaet, R^mnrr: natnoc am) orator; b. in C<irk, Ireland, 
tn 177H: *»n of a phr'^ioian, and for a lime a Mudi'nl in 
Trimly lV>lU«jrp, I>ublin. Mr wai a Iwwior of the Tnit^Hl 
ln«hrorn. wh«» ilr^in-ii i4> IilM«rat4» their «N>untry fn»m Bnli'^h 
domination, and ri<%it«M| FmiKv in Xf^ti in UOmlf of tho 
cauM*. Harini; *?«»n*tlT cMtlhi^twl ann» and |H»wdi'r in l)ul>- 
Un and formiMl a o»n«*|»jr»<'y. ht» and hu fri«'fid«» n'vnlitMl in 
July, IHIM, The in^ur^frntB killwl thr rhu*f justht*. U^nl 
KtlwanlfU. but wen* *«»n di^iicrntNl by a |»rty of w>Idi(TS. 
Kmnirt (\r%i t4t the W irk low Mountainn, Init having ri'tumed 
to vuit thr daiiirhtcr of J<ihn FhiltMit l*umui. tiio orator, 
wa*k am-^t**! and inwl for trvaiitm. He pleatb'd hi-* own cauM* 
tn a lonjf an*! rrrr «*l«wjurnt *j»w'4*h, which has Ui-n |»n*»4»rve<i, 
but hi* wa« cNinviVt«Ml ami citn^uted S*(>t. dU, iNKt. llix fate 
and hi« aiTt^ttion for Mi» Curran an* the «»ul»jtM'iii of two of 
M<M>rr'<i InMh MeUmitr*, St^ Mat! den, Litts of thf I'mtni 
Inthm^H M •rrie^ Toi. iiu 1H46). 

Emael. Thi»ma* Ai»i»i% LI*.!),: lawyer; a brother of 
Rob<*rt Krnmot ; U in Cork m I TIM, Hr irnwluatt**! at Trinilr 
i'oitt*^^, Ihiblin. and wa.4 admittcvl tAPtht* I>ublin tuir in 179f, 
•iMin attaininic «li<*tin4-tion, but wa^ a Irwlrr of the riiit4*d 
In«hmt*ii, aui) an «U('h wa^ arr»*<*tc«i m 171^. mud confiniHl in 

Cnmm f«ir nc-arly thrw y<^r*, IIi« i^entc^no** wa.* c<tmutut<*<i 
ilo fiilr, and hr «*iiii>:r»tt^l in 1WI4 !•• Nvw Yorkcitv, wht-rt* 
he jifaftHMMi law with ili*tinrtii»n, lie wa^ i*ItM-i«*d altomey- 
irrneraJ id thr Matt* of New York in 1H|2. He wa* an elo- 
ouvnt a«l«iH«tr>. aii<l hail f^rrml (|UA)itie<i ait an <»rator. S<»me 
iikrt*-ht*« of ln«h hf^tonr b« Mr. Kininet are inrliidtnl in Me- 
Ne%ur« IStTf of Iri*\ lltsior^ tNew York^ 1H07). D. in 
New York, Nof. 14. lKi7. 

Eaa^UbariT : city and railway junHion {f«mnde<l in 

lH<fr<i; r»{iital of Palo Alt^i e*>,. la. (for l<Ma!i'»n of e^Minty, 
•re ma^i of lowa. ref. Ij-K); «»n tho lKi» Moine-t river; W 
mile4 N. N. W. of F«'rt iKulffr and 25 niil«*n W. of Aip>ria. 
It ha* .1 ehurt'h*^ i^ * hun-h ^tKU'tH-^K J< i»ubli»'-«»<'h«*»l bmld- 
In^^^ • l*r)p' |ia*'kiiiir-hiniM*, fl«»unrij:-n»ill. watrr-work^ et<\. 
auil u thr iYHtor of a dajnriiit; and MtM-k-raKUif^ di^trii't. 
Poji. <l*^>» l,uM; tlHW) nfjwial tviiMii. 'i.iWWi. 

KlM'niR or " REFoaTER.** 

EamltabviT: vilU^; on rail war; KrtNlrnrk <<«»., Md. 
(f«»r liMati'in or iN.untr. iw-r map of 5far%lniitL, ref. 2-1)); H 
mil«*« N. <»f Mr><'hani<-*t4>«ii« 1 tiiiU' from Mawm and Uixon'ft 
lin#*. and |0 miU*^ fn»m tJHti^bur):. Pa. It w»i« Uid out by 
Wi harn Kmniitt, it* f«»'indtT, alN»ut tht> ynr 1773. The 
i»ru':iu»l •tf.ltm m-re N«>t«h and In'^h. Mt, St. MaTk*^ 
(' .it,-r vat retail i-i,>^\ ii««r M in l**>9 by Kev. J<ihu I)uU>K 
Bi'*i*i»of New Y«»rk: it i» a Koiiian (aihnlu' institution, 
otir of ibr larvTi'^t in thr l'. S. .M Jo*«'ph'* Aiii'b inv. aUmt 
half a nuir fr»ra town. wa<» r-i.ibli^h*'*! in l**10. (»\ Mn*. 
K.i/a \r»n >>« !'»n, of NfW York. It i^ the iH";hrr-hou«*f of 
tJi* >!•!* r» i»f rhanti in the l*. S., nurnUp* 2.'>*W ni«riil>rp«, 
axid ha.* otir of tht'Iar,^«t t-«liii-«lionai buildiii^ tn Mary- 
laii'l. pop i\***t H4;; (1'<»Mh44. 

EamlB*. I'luw*: h.o*<r).«n : b. at (intth. in thr |in»tin«f 
of <Hi Kru**aii'l. Hoi^aihI. iKf. .'i. 1'>47. Hr Muiht-*! nt Km- 
ti»n Hrrnifii. N..ri«rt. ••.■! U-'^ti- k b.it r%*l.)rn«d to Ui* iia- 
tnr t..»ri iti I^T'i III l'»74 h»- ••'1 "tit liti « n« • tnp throij^'h 
tlx Hl.!».»" ''^•ui.! r.» * 'I w n to III ti' ^ .1 wlti-n h*- w \^ « -trji . r1* 
*•! by It* /4 U» Pr •'■*i''.«in. H n ii,; nt.rTi.d ilir-^i^'h 
'Krar.i**. h*- w »• iti 1 Ml* ".ail* n» ''-r of i tir * h'««i i»f N'titih a. 
I»'it r*f'i«»»liii I V*? to • iti^ r.*i» \\tt I 'tnfi***: '11 Iff A»u*"l'<iru. 

attd w«« *■ I *••)'!♦ '<* » « IJ* . .-it it\ thi- I/iMji TAliV ill l.V.*l 
h» w«* rr,^ 1«- ■!.•■»»♦ -r of *h" * • 1 • ^*** ••' K • r* I'.-l Hi II ft » 

V •»■• h* !• vi* I •■ of it.i rn<^* « .« 'i*-»*i.| I -1 .• ,i: i>**i.it in* 
•t.' i'i"*i* III H . %'i 1 Aim- • t! K.« w 'fk* «'»• tff'H* i ^t^"H4^~ 
U ^% wn i». 'H"^ * IP t..t.k*i n. 1*1 ■'•'. an at'* 'lip! i' a i hn ii«»- 
l „• a. *r*%»i^Tfin ii* of ri *\>'T\ fn tn 4 ri a:i"n . I ^'w* ^»rifri*i 
i.itaa/rtj.'j tl>»tj. ji, IfiJfii, ^ * iTal tirn** r pnntfil . It* nr%- 



ginf e/ ontiqHifnfp Frimomm ((Jrvrntnireo, l^fft): Rrr%m 
FriMiearum Hiniorin (Fmneker, 15M), a work whirh *•• 
oountereil rtmMilerable opposition on acooont of tU ir.i»r< 
tivea aKaintt tho Koioaii Catholic Cburrh. l>. at(tn•r•^ 
t^-n, I)w. ». 163«. 

EaaoBR, Nathamakl. P. D. : tbeolotpan ; b. at Rw* H*: 
dam, Conn., Apr. 30, 174«5; ^n^uat^Hl at Yale t'oilr^t .• 
1767. He wai« onlained pastor of the ('onicTi*i3:f m 
c'hurrh in Kranklin, Majv., in 1778, and wa^ itn \mi^x**r «r\ 
hi* death, and it."* !H>Ie |ia.stor for fifty- four year*. In *: . 
ti<m, he trained fiftr-seTcn vounu men for the mtri **n 
many of whom liecaine eminent. He wan al*<» a pr<ri ■ • 
advotrate of fon'ijoi minsionn and of the anti-*tla«rri -*-* 
Hi» theolofncal views were nearly tho* of hi* fn«f»i l»r 
Samuel Hopkins. The diMinctive' tenrtu of hi« fty^trTit ^r* 
** Holiness and sin otmsi*! in free, roluntary exenl**"*. V'*i 
a4't freely under the divine ajfencr. The rra«t traiisr^-" '• 
of the di%ine law deserved eternal punbihment. U*tc it *-.! 
wronfc are founded in the nature of thint:^ <ti«l tx*n «•« 
mere yc^tAx in pardoning or Juntifyinjc |»«'nitr«t l^-li. tf-i 
Ihrouirh the atonement of Chn-rt, and mere (o*»«lni^» il •* 
warding them for their fC^^A works. N<»twith*tanitin,r tr. 
t<nal depravity of sinners (JimI has a ripht to re<juin t* 
t<» turn from sin to holineas.** His sermoa* wen* d •* • 
fished by lop<-a] thought and bv di^itv aii«l jM>mfr ' 
1 style, I). 'in Franklin. Maw*,, S^-pU 22<. IMO, III* ■- '^i* 
(sermons, essays, etc. L publi!«he<i at different timc^ il .".'** 
his life, were after nis death piiblisho<l U^^^ton. iHi.* - 
M'vrn and afterwanl (And<«ver. 1H61| in six toIuttk-v « • 
niemoirn of hi"* life br J. Ide, I). I)., in the ^r< rtliti.-n, *; i 
a full bioi^raphy by Prof. K. A. Park in the netiuuL 

Emory, Jonx. D.I).: bi^thop of the Meth««ili«t Kft« vaj 
Chureh; b. in i^ueen Anne c<»., Mtl., Apr. 11. 17>»1»-. ^r.y 
uateil at Wawhington I'oUeice. Md., IWM; wa* aftntiU'*; • 
the l»ar, IHOH, but l>e<*ame a MrtluMhi%t iiri-a* hrr in 1*1' 
prea4'hed f<»r many years thrtm^h the Muldlr Statr*. %i, 
was Heiit as deU'i^ate of liii* deiuiminatioii, in 1*«'JIK ti ' < 
Britiidi Wesley nil confen»nee. He wa» eh'4t4Ml in 1^J4 M 
Hi<«taut book a^Mit at New York, mgi*nX in IkJm. an^l t-t* | 
in 1H32. In 1H17 he had a (laniithlet i^>ntro%«r«> w «{ 
Bishop White, of Philailelphia. lie wai» authi*r of 7% 
Divinity of ChrijU Vindiratfd, Dffrnse of th^r /'i.M^-i 
and other publieatiiins« which nhow miwh lomi al a' 
and a pun* and %i»:orous stvle. U. at K«'i%ter<«<wrn, M i 
\h'<\ !«, 1835. S-e his Life \)y his *>n Kt>tiert (Nrw Y. H 
1K40). 

Eaorj. WiixiAM Hkhm^ky: V. S. armT4»fTl<^r; «n •-•.• \ 
John Kimiry ; b. in Quwn Anne n*^ Mil-. .*^*fH. V. I*! I 
cnuluated at Wi««t Point in iKtl, and wat ap|H iti**-«l i 
tenant of artillery; wrvwl chiefly at draiMirt* in lb-- V^m 
ern Statr^ and in the Crerk nation IKil-^i*^; *i»|- ' *« 
tlrst liriiti'iiant toiioirmphieal «*iicinr4T« 1M3H; «iri •Xm£ 
Oen. Kraniy in ( alifoniia aiwl during the Mrttt^an «« 
a«tn*rioiiirr of U»un«lary Itrtwtvn Califoniia ai>*l Mt i i 
1K4H-«V{; and e4iii)int^ii*itrr and a^^trononirr lH.Vl-^%7 •) -• ^ 
lieutrnant-eoU»nrl»; re*tii:no«l in lh01. and was n*«i>f*< •:.' < 
npfiointetl brik'iwlier-jfriH'ral of Tolunt^-em m lN«ti . . < 
innntbHl a di\i«ion untler (trn. Banks in I^otit^tAjia tH 
and a corm m 1h64; in 1H«H fou^'ht tilth tU^tiiif t> -. 
Plra^ant liill, OjHHjuan ('n^'k. anti at CfHUrl'rr^k .'-ii 
llmJor-(^'nrml^ : in t^nnmantl of dii^nrtnirnt »if W«-*. \ 
mnia 1H6.V-66, iif dt i^rtMHiit of Wa»(uni,t4«n \^A^ 71, ai i 
: d< |»artment «)f the (lulf 1^71-75 : n tin*«l with rank * .f I • j 
I dier-jceneral Xt^VS, D. in Wa5hHi>:t4»n, I). t'„ lK<-. I, :-*^ , 

Eaonr Collf^: an inMitution (»f Iranitnir !•««*• 
(>xf«*rfl. ua. ; 41 milr* R of Atlanta and a noi* ff 
<t«<<*rKia linilway. Thr < ollrtj»» waa ehartrntl in l*v 7 ( 
wa* i»|M*nril m 1*<W undrr the itrr^idriu^ of th*- K' * 
mitm* A- Krw, I). I»„ LI*. I). Tnr roUri^- » urn» ti luni .• I 
in ailthr «lr|kartinriit« tau^'ht in t)ra-4 law Ui%l.»ut \ 

thr r. S, Tnrrr an* 15 uhiiiUt* in the faf-ti.iy. a 
t nn^lhitent ft»r l*<M W nuiiilM>nii 2HI Mi^bnl^ 1 
.I'Cr L<« wrll •upplltil With btitldlliC* r*>r U-^ i\mXv*n a*. | 

u*4-«. It ha« ati riidoa tiiriit of ^.T^'i.tKMI. inu* h ■ f .* »m 
!h«' ^nft of Mr. <ir«»r»;r I. ?vin\. pn^hlrnt of thr M« t r- . 
lUiiik, Nrw York. U arrrti A. « arutlrr, I). I>., h^ l-^ : i 
d' nt -in"-*' .lutir. l*o^M, Th« in*.iiliiti.-ii i«ur»il4rtr^ \ 
a^'t' tif llir M« lh<>*ll*>t Kjil^ o|ial riiUP II N'Uth. iKJt «| i* 
aii<t broojl «tioiit;ri t4> {ta%r );.«tlirntl fttuilrut* fr>ct» ^ i 
t ktAnt di noiniiiati'>n^. 

EMfe^'orlMi till 4tr ^C^vslMAafi: (innek pl..:« ««-f ^.\ 
it A^'r.tn*ntiirfi 111 Sii ilr ; ti^nl alM»ut 45t) a. f . Ii«* ^ j 



98 EMPORIA 

adarned vitli paintings by QioKo ; also manufactures of 
cotton tabricB, straw huts, etc. Pop. 7,500. 

EmpoiiA ; citj and railway center ; capital ot L;on co., 
Kan. ((or location of county, see map of Kansas, rof. <-I); 
6 miles above the junction ol the Neosho and Cottonwood 
rivers, in a tine a^icultural and stock-raising region : has a 
Stat« normal school, the College of Emporia (Presbyterian), 
endowed by the synod of Kansas, excellent graded schooK 
a business college, coDservatory of music, a canning-factory, 
street railways, gas, and electric lights, excellent water- 
works, etc. Pop. (1880) 4,631 ; (1890) 7.551. 

Editok of ■' Republican." 

Emporlnm : borough and railway junction ; capital of 
Cameron Co., Pa. (for location of county, see map of Penn- 
sylvania, ref. 3-D); »B miles W. N. W. of Williamsport. It 
has iron-worhs and an important trade in lumber and coal. 
In the vicinity are valuable salt-wells. Pop. (1880)1,156; 
(1890) 2,147. Editor of "Camekon Counts Pkess." 

EmpBOii,SirRicnABD: the est«rtionate minister of Henry 
VII. and associate of Edml'nd Dudley (a. v.) in lev^-ing the 
taies and collecting the fines imposed by the kmg: was 
Speaker of the House of Commons in 1491, and subsetjuently 
held other important offices. He was brought lo trial soon 
after the accession of Henry VIII., and, in spite of his de- 
ten.se claiming the strict legality of all his acts, wo.'' con- 
victed of constructive treason an^ executed with Dudley on 
Tower Hill, in Aug., 1510. 

EntB, (anc. Amitia or Ami'aius): n river of Germany; 
rises in Pru^an Westphalia, near Paderbom. Its general 
dirtction is northward. Afler a course of about 300 miles 
it enters the Dollort, on inlet of the North Sea, near the 
town of Emden. It is connected by a canal wilh the Lippe. 

Ems (anc. Amitia), or Bad-Ems. baal'ems' (i. e. bath of 
Ems): a watering-place in Hesse Nassau. Germany; on the 
river Lalin ; about 7 miles S. E. of C'Oblentz (see map of 
German Empire, ref. 5-D). It is surrounded by picturesque 
scenery, anil is situated in a beautiful valley among wooded 
hills. Hero are warm mineral saline sjirings, the temper- 
ature of which varies fn)m 93° to 135' P. It has ^x>d 
hotels, and is frequented by many visitors, both native and 
foreign. In 1785 the Archbishops of Treves, Mayence, Co- 
logne, and Salzburg formed an agreement here, called the 
Punctation of Ems. in which they demanded in twenty- 
three articles the change of several papal privileges in favor 
of the German archbishops. The real object, however, was 
the establishment of a national German Church. But in 
consequence of the opposition of their own bishops and the 
firmness of the pope, Ihev were compelled to submit to the 
authority of the pope within a year. On July 13, 1870, the 
French ambassador. Count Benedetti, had at Enis the 
famous interview with King William of Prussia which pre- 
cipitated the outbreak of the great war between France and 
Germany. Pop. (1B901 6,350. 

Em'ser. Hiero.nvmus : Roman Catholic theologian and 
adversary of Luther; b. at Ulm, Germany, Mar. 86, 1477. 
He studied at Tubingen and Basel; accompanied Cardinal 
Raymond, of Petrandi, on his tour of visitation through 
Gi-fmany ; lectured afterwanl in the true humanist man- 
ner at Erfurt, where he ha<l Luther among his hearers; 
and finally became private secretary to Duke Georg of 
Saxony and the incumbent of several rich benefices. Bis 
first literary efforts were some essays on the propriety of 

e 'ring toasts when drinking, on the improvement of wine, 
er, and vinegar, etc Inen followed a life of Bishop 
Bonno." which is found in the 
Ada Sanctorum, His prin- 
ciinl work, however, is his 
notes on Luther's translation 
of the llible, which Luther 
approved in many cases. His 
own translation (1527) from 
the Vulgate is, however, de- 
pendent on Luther's. See 

- eililion of his writings by 

- Eiiders (Hiille, IWKl). D. at 
: Drcsien. Nov. 8. 1527. 

Emn. or Emen : a large 

j-iim Australian binl [Dromaiun 

nora liiillanclim). belonging lo 

the taluilv l>r(imaiitl<F and onler CVixHiirti, and allied to 

the oslrich and ciL-^iowttry. It dilTere from Ihe caswiwary 

in being taller, having the bill horizontally depressed, and 



EMYDID.£ 

in being destitute of the bony crest and pendent wattli-<. 
When full-grown it is of a brown color, mottled with grav. 
It has only rudimentary wings, but is exceedingly fleet in 
running. The eggs are dork green, and at>out seven in 
number. Both the eggs and fiesh are esteemed excellent for 
the table. Its plumage is long and almost hair-like. Thi' 
plumes are readily dyed of various colors, and appear to 
some extent in commerce as a substitute for ostrich-feath- 
ers. The emu has become rare in the more settled parts of 
Australia, having been hunted for the sake of its oil, which 
the skin contains in large quantities. It feeds mostly on 
fruit, herbage, etc, and is easily domesticated. 

Emn Wren: a passerine bird (S/ioifuru^ malathuniM] 
of Australia; a member of the thrush family {TuTdid<F\ 
The genus includes about a dozen Australian species. This 




bird haunts marshy districts, never alighting on high trii-«, 
and seldom taking to flight, but running rapidly alHiut ll^i' 
grass with its long tail-feathers erect. It takes its iiume 
from the.-ic feathers, which are six in number and from I !,.■ 
looseness of their barbs suggest those of an emu. F. A. L^ 

EmnlslD (Synaptaet): an albuminous substance fouii-1 
in almonds. It acts a.s a ferment upon the glueosiile amvi;- 
daliti of bitter almonds, transforming it into bitter b1ri<>ii<1 
oil (hydride of benzoyl), hydrocyanic (prussic) acid, and (:lu- 
cose (grape-sugar). 

Emydldn [deriv. of £mys, the typical genus ; from I,«t. 
emgs, Gr. i/iit. fresh-water tortoise] : a family nt tiinl*?- 
containing the majoritj- of the smalter fresh-water anil Imul 
turtles; in all, some sixty sjiccics. The up|ier and mul.T 
shells (carapace and plastron) are well develo[icd ; th*' fv.i 
are usually webbeil and adapted for both walking and siviiii- 
ming: and. with few exceptions, there ore five claws nn th.- 
fore feet, four on the hind. Some species ot (be faiiiil\. 
like the box-turtle (Cisluiio. or Terra^tit rarolinn). arv «\- 
clusively terrestrial, and have the high, arched bai-k, l.tii 
not the club feet of the tnie tortoises. A few dwell in 
brackish water, but the majority are found in the fr.'^h 
waters of the north temperate and tropical regions. Th,--.- 
turtles are rather omnivorous, feeding on various |ilnni-. 
fl.shes, and worms. The tiimily numliers among its in.'in. 
bers some which are quite extensively used for finti). \]„. 
most noted being t lie diamond-back terrapin (Afalofnc/frnrn'.f 
paliislris) of the Southern U. S. By some authoril ics i ti.- 
^niutJiWie are considered as belonging to the Te»ludtniil,r, 
while others consider the box-turllo as forming a alisiiii.t 
fainilv, the Vialudinida. See Testudisata. 

F. A. Luf AS. 



100 



ENCHATITES 



ENDERMIC METHOD 



sequently. He also found that its period was about 1,200 
days (3*303 years), its successive returns being accelerateci 
and its period shortened by a minute interval of time. It 
has the shortest period and the least aphelion distance of all 
the known comets. 

En'eratites [Or. 'E^k^otitcu, the self-controlling], also 
called Hydroparastatie, from their substitution of water for 
wine in the Eucharist: an heretical sect dating from the 
second century, which inculcated and practiced total absti- 
nence from flesh, wine, and marriage. Subsequently the 
name was applied to the ascetic Onostics generally. 

Encrinite [deriv. of enerinu^ ; Or. ^i^, in + Kplpov, lily] : 
the popular name for crinoids, radiated animals which form 
an oruer in the class Echinodermata, The encrinites com- 
prise many genera and species, nearly all of which are fossil. 
They abound in the Palaeozoic rocks, and are quite numer- 
ous in the Mesozoic formations. Encrinites are exceed- 
ingly rare, and for many yeArs only one species {Peniacri- 
ntM caput medusm of the West Indian seas) was known. 
Deep-sea dredging expeditions brought to light two or 
three more. Uamatula in its earij st^age of existence so 
much resembles the encrinites that it was described as a cri- 
noid {Pent(terinus europmus)^ but in Comaiula the stem is 
temporary, in the crinoids permanent. The stem consists of 
disks like button-molds in form, set in a pile together, and 
in the living animal has some flexibility. It is mostly round 
or ()entagonal, and is often finelv sculptured on the articu- 
lating surfaces. Elach joint of the arms is furnished with 
two cirri or appendages, which the animal uses in capturing 
its prey. The number of joints in the Pentacrinun hriareus 
is, according to Buckland, about 150,000. Immense num- 
bers of these animals lived in the seas of the Palaeozoic 
ages. Revised by J. S. Kinoslet. 

Encnmbraiice : See Incumbrance. 

Encyclopn^dift, or Cyclopaedia [encyclowBdia is from 
Or. #yiriMrXovai^^ a questionable compound for iynvkkwi 
voiSfio, regular (course of) education, the liberal curricu- 
lum] : a compilation usually, but not always, in alphabetic 
arrangement, which professes to impart information, more 
or less complete, upon the whole circle or range of human 
knowledge. The most noted of the earlier cyclopiedic works 
were the work of Speusippus (the nephew of Plato, d. b. c. 
339), not now extant ; the great collections of Varro, of the 
Elder Pliny, of Stobapus, Suidas, Isidorus, and Capella, 
crude summaries of the then known arts and sciences ; the 
Speculum Majus^ in four parts, of Vincent de Beauvais (3 
vols., 1264) : and other similar compilations. The work of 
Alfarabi, of Bagdad (d. a. d. 950) is also worthy of mention. 
The Chinese in the course of their long history have com- 
piled and issued many remarkable and usually ver^ volumi- 
nous encyclopiedias. Among them may be mentioned the 
Tai-ping-yu-lan in 1,000 b^ks, compiled by order of the 
second emperor of the Sung dynasty, and completed in 983. 
In 1568 a new edition of 500 sets was printed from movable 
type, and a later one in 1812. In the reign of the second 
emperor of the Ming dynasty another great cyclopaedia, 
called the Yung-ld-ta-tien, was compiled in 22,877 books 
(with 60 books of tables of contents). It comprised the 
whole round of Chinese learn ing^lassical, historical, philo- 
sophical, and literary, embracing astronomy, geography, 
medicine, the occult sciences, Bdddhism, Taoism, and the 
arts. Over 2,000 scholars were engaged in the work, which 
WHS finished in 1407, and ready for printing two years later. 
Xo complete copy is now in existence. In the period K'ang- 
hi, the second of the present dynasty, another greaX. cyclo- 
pieiiia, the T'u-shu-tMeih'Ch'in-g^ in 10,000 books, forming 
5,020 volumes, was prepared, and printed at Peking by im- 
perial command, from movable copper ty|)e (in two sizes) in 
the following rtngn (1?26). A copy of this immense and 
valuable work was secured in 1877 lor the British Museum 
in Ijondon. Its subjwts are arranged in six categories and 
thirty-two stn-tions, under 6,109 headings. The indexes ex- 
tend to twenty vohinu's more. 

The earli»'st mcxlern oncyclopaMlia was that of J. H. Alsted 
(b. 1588, d. 16'J8), whit-h HJ)|M'Hre<l in Jio IxKjks in the year 
1630. L. Moreri's Grand Diciioniuiire appeared in 167iS; 
H(>fmann*s Lexinm Vnivernnle (2 vols.) in 1677; T. Cor- 
ni'ille's Dirtionnftir^ des Arts (2 vols.) in 1694; and P. 
Bayle's Diet ionna ire Iliatoriijue et Critique (4 vols.) in 1697. 
In the eighteenth century the principal works were J. Har- 
ris's LejriMH Technxcum (2 vols, folio, Londim, 1710); Eph- 
raim Chambers's Cyriopadia (2 vols, folio, 1728); Zedler's 
Universal- Lrj-ikon (64 vols., Leipzig, 1732-50); the French 



Encyel^idie of the ''Encyclopedists" Diderot, d*Alembert, 
Voltaire, Rousseau, Orimm, ana Helvetius (28 vols., 1751-72 ; 
7 vols., 1776-80); the EneydopcRdia Britannic^ (3 vols., 
1771 ; 2d ed. in 10 vols., 1776-83; 8d ed. in 18 vols., 1797) ; 
the Deutsche Encyklopddie of K5ster and Roos (1778-1804) ; 
and the EncyclopSdte Mithodique par Ordre des Matihrts 
gOl vols., 1781-1832). In the nineteenth century the first 
European work was Dr. A. Ree's Cyclopcedia (45 vols,, 1802- 
19). A work called the British JSncvclopcedia, edited by 
Thomas Dobson, was published in Philadelphia, 1798-1804*: 
Dr. Brewster's Edinburgh Encyclopadia (i8 vols., 1810-:iO) 
followed. The Conversatians-Lexikon of F. Brockhaus ( Leip- 
zig, 1813), of which thirteen editions have appeared, was the 
basis of many other cyclopKidias. The Encyciopo'dia Metr«>- 
politana (30 vols. 4to, 1818-45) was a series of scientifii- 
treatises, as was also Lardner's Cyclopcpdia. The Encyrlo- 
p(edia Americafia (1829-33, 13 vols., and supp. vol., l'S4Si, 
edited by Prof. Lieber, was based on the Conversctiions-L^x- 
ikon. The Penny Cyclopaedia (28 vols., 1833-43), sulise- 
quently rearranged in four divisions and twenty-seven vol- 
umes as the English Cydopoidia; the Encydopcsdia Bri- 
tannica (4th to 9th editions, of which the nintn appeanMi 
in 24 vols, and index vol., 1875-89) ; the London EncyrUt- 
pcedia (22 vols., 1829) ; and Messrs. W. & R. Chamber^t's En- 
cyclofKBdia (10 vols., 1859-68; new ed. 1888-92). are the 
principal British cyclopapdias of the nineteenth centiirv. 
The Aclgemeine Encyklopddie of Erst^h and Oruber (160 v<iN., 
1818, seq.); Meyer's Grosse Conversations- Lexikon (52 vol>.. 
1840-55): Pierer's Universal- Lexikon (34 vols., 1840-46: 
5th ed. 19 vols., 1867-71); Brockhaus (13th ed. 188^-87) and 
Meyers' Conversations- Lexikon (16 vols, and 2 supps.. IHKV- 
91) are the best cyclopiedias in Oennan. Of the snmll 
encyclopiedias, the Hand-Lexicon of Meyer (2 vols., 18U2- 
93) is by far the best. The French have Eneyelop4die des 
Gens du Monde (22 vols. 8vo, ia33-44); Encyclopidie Mod- 
erne (36 vols. 8vo, 1848-57); EncyclopMie Caiholique (18 
vols, and sup.); and Larousse, Grand Diciionnaire Uni- 
verselle du XIX"** Siecle, published in fifteen volumes, lar^r** 
quarto, with two supplementary volumes of the same si/«-. 
This work was intended to replace the famous Encyclopf^tiit 
of the eighteenth century (Paris, 1865-W). The later cy- 
cloptt'dias published in the U. S. have been The iVVir Amrr- 
ican Cyclojpcedia (IQvois,^ 1857-63), revised as The American 
Cydopcedia (16 vols., 1873-76) ; Zell's Encyclopasdia (2 vol>. 
large 4to, 1869-72; an abridgment in 1 vol. 4to, 1872); 77./ 
National Encyclopcedia (8vo, 1872, se^.); an ^ition of 
Chambers's Encyctopcedia, printed from imported plates (lo 
vols. 8vo); Schem's German- American Eneyclopcedia (S 
vols., 1869); Johnson^s New Universal CydojicBdia (4 imp, 
8vo vols., 1874-77) ; People* s Cydopcedia of Universal Kmnrf- 
edge (3 vols., 1881-83) ; Johnson's New General Cyclopa ti in 
and Copper-plate Iland^atlas of the World (2 vols, Mvo. 
1885) ; International Cydopcedia (16 vols,, 8vo, prepare<l nu 
the oasis of a former ed. of Chambers's); Johnson's Uni- 
versal Cydopcedia, Bevised (1893, 8 vols.). See also Diction- 
ary, Lexicon, Bibliography, and Biographical Diction- 
aries. Revised by C. K. Adams. 

Eiidele^chins, Severus Sanctus: Christian Latin \nn'X. 
perhaps from Oaul, who taught rhetoric at Rome ti>warti 
the end of the fourth century. He is the author of uii 
amoebean pastoral, relative to a murrain among cattle {Ih 
Mortibus Bourn). Tityrus ascribes the preservation of his 
herd to the sign of the cross impressed upon their fore- 
heads. See Riese's Anthologia, 893, and a sepsLrate chH- 
tion by J. A. Oiles (London, 1838). M. Warren. 

Endellionite : See Bournonite. 

• 

Endemic [from Or. ^i^, in -h Siyfiof , people]: peculiar t«» 
some locality; often occurring in a particular region : said 
of diseases. The investigations of endemic influenci*$ i\x\\\ 
with climate, topography, geolopy, water-supply, pers<triai 
habits and character, moral, religious, and political comli- 
tions, and (since the origin of the germ-theory of du^Hset 
with the study of minute animal and vegetable organism^. 
The study of endemic influences has given rise to the n»'w 
science of medical geography. See Altlhry, Noso-€we*Hjra- 
phie (2 vols.) ; Boudin, Tratti de Gio^raphie et de Siaf%At\q^,f 
Medicates, et de Maladies Endemtques (2 vols., 185 7>; Ssr 
Ranald Martin, On the Influence of Tropical Climute ; th»- 
British Army Medical Reports, annual since 1859. 

Endermic Method [endermic is from Or. 4p, in + 6^pua, 

skin] : a manner of administering medicines formerly ^ttiit- 
times employed, by which the skin was made to abs^>rb th< 
remedy used. In some instances a blister was raises I, nnc 



I 



102 



ENERGY 



Energrj [from Gr. Mpy^uiy force, activity, deriv. of iytpyfis, 
active ; ^. m + ^pyw^ work] : an ideal physical quantity 
which serves as a common measure of ceitain forces or re- 
sults of action in nature. There is a remarkable analogy 
between the ideas of energy and of matter, in that neither of 
them can be created or destroyed. When matter disappears 
from sight, for example, when water evaporates, its form is 
merely changed into thiat of an invisible vapor, which, if 
condensed, will again turn into the original Quantity of 
water. At first sight it would seem that other things than 
matter can be created out of nothing, and la{ise back 
a^ain into nothingness, without any change of form. Mo- 
tion is an example of this. A stone allowed to drop ac- 
quires motion ; when it reaches the ground the motion 
ceases. So far as ordinary observation goes, nothing has 
been expended to make this motion, nor has the motion 
yielded anything that can afterward be used. So electricity 
can apparently be made out of nothing by rubbing two 
bodies together. When thus created it can apparently be 
destroyed without producing any result. 

Modem research seems to indicate that these conclusions 
are not true, but that all physical effects are subject to the 
law of causation; that tney can not be produced except 
by expending or using up a proportional quantity of some 
active agent, which may then be regardeci as their cause. 
Thus arises the idea that the expenditure of the cause in 
producing an effect is siipply a transformation of one thing 
mto another, like that which takes place when water is trans- 
formed into vapor. This idea has been developed histori- 
cally in the following way : When mechanics was reduced 
to a science, by applymg mathematical analysis to Newton's 
law of motion, tne following general theorem was discov- 
ered : Let there be any number of bodies (for example, 
those ^hich compose the solar system) moving under the 
influence of their mutual gravitation, but never coming into 
actual collision. Conceive the following two quantities to 
be formed: (I) the sum of all the prwiucts obtained by 
multiplying the mass of each body into half the s<|uare of 
its velocity; (2) the sura of the quotients obtained by 
dividing the products of every pair of masses, taken two 
and two, by their mutual distance. In algebraic language, 
if we represent by Wi, Wa, mi, etc., the masses of the bodies, 
the unit of mass being taken as that quantity of matter 
which will attract an equal quantity with unit force at unit 
distance : V|, t'a, Vt, etc., the velocities with which the several 
bodies are moving at any instant ; rn, rn, rja, etc., the dis- 
tances apart of the first body from the second, of the first 
from the thinl, of the second from the third, etc. ; then if 
we represent the first quantity above defined by T and 
the second by P, their algebraic expressions will be 

T = i (miVi* -f- msVj* + mtv^* + etc.) 
r = + 4- + etc. 



ri. 



ri% 



rit 



In modem physics the quantity T is called the kinetic 
energv of the system of bodies. 

Owin^ to the continually varying velocities of the bodies 
and their varying distances, the two quantities T and P are 
continually varying, but the conclusion of the theorem is 
that their difference never varies so long as no external 
force acts on the bodies. Thus we may write the equation 

T — P = a constant, 
or T = P -I- C. 

If the negative of P be regarded as the representative of 
another quantity, called the potential energy of the body, 
putting 

E = potential energy = — P 
then T + E = a constant, 

so that whenever T increases the potential energy will 
diminish by the same amount, and ince versa. Thus arises 
the conception that through all the motion of the bodies 
there is a transformation of one of these forms of energy 
into the other without any gain or loss. Such was the idea 
as developed by the geometers of the time of Lagrange and 
Laplace. 

An apparent exception was seen to occur if two of the 
bodies came into collision. It was shown that then the 
kinetic energy T would l)e lost, without any potential energy 
being gaine<l. so that there would be an apparent loss in the 
sum of the two. Hut Rum ford showed that in such a case, 
although energy disappeart'd. something else took its place — 
namely, heaf. That is, he showed that hy using up energy, 
or the forces which could be «'hang«Ml into energy, a corre- 



sponding amount of heat could be produced. Thus if II 
be put for a quantity proportional to heat produced, there 
will result the equation 

T + E + H = constant. 

Subsequently Joule, and after him a number of experi- 
menters, determined the exact amount of energy which had 
to disappear in order to obtain a given amount of he;it. 
To explain the constant relation thus arising, the relation 
between energy and work must be shown. 

Work is saia to be done whenever a force acts \i]Km a 
body in motion. The amount of work is equal to the prod- 
uct of the force into the distance through which the Iwxly 
is moved under its action. For example, if a weight «if 
1 lb. is raised to a height of 16 feet, an amount of work La 
done which may be called 16 foot-pounds. Suppose tliat 
the effect of this work is undone or annihilated oy letting 
the body fall back through the 16 feet. Apparently wIumi 
it reaches the ground the work is undone without any 
effect being produced. But really a certain quantity of heat 
has been generated by the blow in striking, and there is an 
exact correlation between the amount of the fall, the ener^'v 
with which the body struck the ground, and the amount of 
heat generated. This relation may be expressed by saying 
that the temperature of the water at the bottom of Xiagjtra 
Falls must be a quarter of a degree Fahrenheit higher tlian 
at the top, in consequence of the energy product by t he 
fall being changed into heat. The amount of heat' gen- 
erated or absorbed in various processes may be accural tly 
measured, and a common measure is that necessary to rai^^^ 
a kilogramme of water from 0° C. to VC.^ called a Calorie 
{q. v.). The instrument used in measurement is called a 
Calorimeter {q. v,). 

There are two fonns of potential energy — ^the one, that al- 
ready described, dependent on the positions of bodies, the 
other dependent on their internal constitution or eheniicul 
combinations. For example, let us touch with a flame a 
mixture of oxygen and hvdrogen. An enormous amount of 
heat is instantly produced, apparently out of nothing. Hut 
the mixture of gases is changed into water, or, more j>re- 
cisely, into steam. We therefore conclude that oxygen and 
hydrogen, as pure gases, have stored up in them a definite 
quantity of potential energy which is spent or transfornied 
into heat when they combme to form water. The truth <»f 
the theory is shown by the fact that the water requires the 
expenditure of a corresponding amount of energy in some 
other form to be decomposed into its elements. If it is tie- 
composed by an electric current from a djmamo, then t )»»» 
amount of work done by the dynamo is the exact equivalent 
of the heat which was evolved by the combination of the 
gases and a condensation of the steam which they fonne<l. 

There is still a fourth form into which the three form** 
already described may be transformed, namely, electricity. 
To produce electricity of a given potential, one of the i>ther 
forms of energy must be expended, or work of some kind, 
internal or external, must be done. 

The general principles of the subject having been illu?- 
trated, certain more exact numerical statements resf>ooting 
it are necessary. The various forms of the physical quant it y 
called energy may be classified as follows : 

(1) Actual or kinetic energy^ exhibited whenever a IkxIv 
is set in motion, and measured by the product of the xnas.^ t>f 
the body into half the square of its velocity. (2) Patent inl 
e^iergyy which means a quantity dependent on the p<>!^itn>n 
or internal state of a boay, of such a nature that it chan^t •» 
by a certain amount whenever that condition or posit i< in 
changes. (3) Work done, which has alreadv been defintMi a^ 
the product of a force acting upon a body into the disiante 
through which the body moves m the direction of the fon-e. 
Strictly, however, work should not be regarded as a distinrt 
form of energy; it is simply the process of changing the 
amount of potential energy. (4) Electricity^ or, to spt uk 
more exactlv, electric potential. (5) Heaf, 

Each of these quantities may he taken to have a oertnin 
value or price in nature, as measured by the others* Their 
production and expenditure is then subject t^ the law th,i* 
no one of them can be produced except at the exwnse «tf 
one or more of the others, and can never t>e annihilntt^l ex- 
cept by producing one or more of the other four. Thoy wen* 
formerlv called forces^ and the relations between thoiu wt-ro 
called the correlation of forces. 

The law that no energy is created or destroyed is calltMl 
the law of conservation of energy. See Energy, Conskrv ^- 

TION OF. 



ENO AND CHANG 



Eng (right) and Chan; (left); the Siamese Twins; b. 
at Bsneesttii, SJam, Apr. IS, 1811. the offspring of a Clii- 
neae father anil a ( 'hino-Siamese mother. Thej were broup;ht 
to the U. S. in 1839, and after a number of tours of exhibi- 
tion lired about twenty years as Eag and Chang Bnnker 
near Ml. Airy, N. C. and died in Jan.. 1874. They differed 
wiitely in appoarante. character, and strength, performed 
their physical fiineticms separately, and were addicted to 



Edb iwiJ Chang itbx Siaiiiesf Tirlna). 
different habits. ChanK being intemperate and irritable, Eng 
sober and palicnl. Both were married and had large fam- 
' ilies ol children, a number of whora die<l ^oung, but none 
exhibited any maUorination. Chan;r received a paralytic 
strokein Aug., 1870. He died uneipncl«dly while his brother 
was asleep, and Eng died a fev hours afterward, prolwblv 
chiefly from the nervous shock on learning Ihc sudden death 
of his bnrthor. They are the best known of the "double 
monsters" on record, none others of whom ever lived to the 
advanced age of siity-three. 

The ctmuection of the Siamese twins was near the navel. 
The connecting band was a tew inches long, after having 
elongated a little during the long life of tiie twins, and 8 
inches in circumfervnce (2^ in diameter). Inside the skin 
there was normal subcutaneous and muscular tissue, poi^ 
tions of the muscles of one crossing those of the other. 
The intJ^riiir was occupied bv ilie prolongations of the 
[leritoneum crossing from one to the other. 

Tlie livers of the twins were located in close proximity to 
the connecting band, and connected with each other by 
small bliMHl-vnttiels, which were lined with a thin layer of 
genuine liver tissue. It is possible that by operation the 
twins might have been sepwuted. though the necessary in- 
jury to the peritoneum of ooth and the division of the con- 
necting blood-vessels and accompanying liver tissue might 
easily have lead to a fatal result. 

Revised by WiLUAH Peppbk. 

Engadino, en-ga-deen, or Engadin : the upper part of 
the valley of the river Inn. in the canton of Orisons, Switz- 
erland 1 about 65 miles long, with an average wi<ltb of 1^ 
miles ; separated by the noble Ilemina Mountains from the 
Valtelline. For 30 miles the mean height is S,500 feet above 
sca-lcvel. while the village of St. Moritz on the banks of the 
Inn is at a height of 6.000 feet. The climate, which is very 
cold, even in the summer, has been found very beneficial to 
certain classes of invalids, and the Rngadiiie nas become a 
popular ri'sort for Euro|)ean tourist-s who are attracted as 
well by the great beauty of the valley, esjiecialty of the 
Upper Engadine. The inhabitants, a jiiiius, simple class of 
pt^ssants mostly of the Protestant faith, number about 
12.000, and speak a peculiar Komanic dialect, called Ladin. 
The young meu are Known througlioul Buropc a« good con- 
feclionen and coSee-house keeiiern. Tliey uxualty amass a 
competence, and return to enjoy their small fortunes in 
their native valley. The government is a pure deniotraey. 



ENG ELBERT 

Engano, en-gaa'no: an island of the Malay Archipelago; 
lat. 5^21' S., Ion. 102' 20 E. ; 75 miles from the southwiAi. 
coast of Sumatra. It has an area of 138 sq. miles, and is 
rather high and well wooded. The people are of Malar rai-e. 
and are included in the Dutch Sumatran government of 
Benkulen. The Island has a gowl harbor, but is mostly sur- 
rounded by coral-reefs. Pop. 6,400. 

Engedl, en-ged'e'u [Heb. Eyn (iedi. spring of the king] : a 
town several times mentioned in the Bible (e. e. Josh. iv. 82 ; 
Song i. 14 ; Ezelt. ilvii. 10), and also called llatfzon-tnmar 
(citj of palm-trees. Qen. xiv. 7), alluding to its palni-lrees, 
which have now disamieared. It stood, as its ruins show, 
on the we«t side of the Dead Sea, at a point about equallv 
distant from its north and south extremities, and in a very 
fertile spot near the fine fountain which gave it a name- 
There are numerous caves in the vicinity. These served as 
hiding-nlaces for David (1 Sam. xxiv. 1-4) ond his followed 
in the days of their outlawry during tiie reign of SauL 

Eag'el. Ebnst: statistician; b. in Dresden, Germany 
Mar. 28, 1821 ; studied in Freiburg and later in Paris; had 
charge of the bureau of statistics in Dresden for nearly a 
decade; in 1860 became a director of the bureau of statistics 
in Berlin ; and in 1663 presided at the International StalL''- 
tioal Congress in Berlin. He published the ZeiltehTifl dm 
ttatiatiarhen Bureau (begun in I860); the Jahrbtieh fur dir 
amtliche Slati»tik des Preuaaiselitn S(oa/e« (1865-76) ; Prrun- 
MKcAeStaftXiit (begun in 1801); and numerous other statisti- 
cal works. He retired from Prussian service in 1682. anil 
removed to Oberlftssniti, near Dresden. 

Engel, JoBANH Jakob: author; b. at Parchim, in Meck- 
lenburg, Germany, Sept. 11, 1741; educated in Rostock, 
BUtzow, and Leljalg ; became Professor of Belles-Lcttres in 
Berlin in 1778. Among his works are Idem zu finer Itimie 
(2 vols.. 1766). and I^rem Stark (1785). a romance which 
was very popular. His works are characterized by a refiiitHl 
lastc and elegance of diction. D. at Parchim, June :in, 
1802. 

Engel, Joseph ; anatomist; b. in Vienna, Jan. 90, 1F4I6; 
educated in Vienna: became Professor of Descriptive An- 
-' at the University of Zurich in 1844, Professor of 



lilzes (1850); Compendium der lopographisehen Anatumir 
(1859) ; and AUgemeine palhologiaehe Anaiomit (1885). 

En^elberg. eng>l-bftreh : village of the canton of I'nter- 
walden, Switzerland; in Engleberg valley, at the foot of 
Mt. Titlis (see map of Switzerland, ref. 5-F). It is famous 
for its school, which is connected with a stately Benedictine 
abbey, Mom Angtlorvm, founded by Pope Calixtus II. ii 



cheese-cellar of great extent. Pop. (1888) 1,873. 

Encelbert : a Benedictine author of noble parentage : ab- 
bot of Admont in Styria ; b. about 1250 ; educated at Pragui> 
and Padua ; became abbot in 1207, Of his numerous works 
the most important was a Roman history, De orfu, progreaxu 
el fine imperii Romani, publtehed in 1553, 1810, and later. 
Several theological tractates of his production have been 
published by Pez, with a biography and a full list of his 
works. D. in 1331. 

- Engelbert, Saint : son of Engelbert, Count of Berg, and 
of Margoretha, daughter of the Count of Geldem; b. in 
1185; studied at Cologne; was chosen cathedral provost in 
ll»9,butwasde[)(>sedm 1208 and not restored for two years. 
He I'epentcd of his lax life and became strict. In 1218 he 
became Archbishop of Cologne and elector of the empire 
of Germany, having when twentf-two years old declined the 
bishopric of Mtkister. He paid off the debt of the electorate, 
enlarged its territories, and reformed its administration. 
When the Emperor Frederick II. went to Italy, Engelbert 
was the principal regent in Germany. He reformed tlie 
corrupt clergy, check^ the power of the nobles, and zeal- 
ously advanced that of the Church. His energy and rigor 
made many enemies, and he was murdered by his own nephew 
at Gevelsberg, near Schwelm, Westphalia, Nov. 7, 1235. The 
murderer. Count von Isenburg, was broken on the wheel, and 
his accomplices, the Bishops of Dsnabrilck and MUnster, re- 
ceived excommunication. St. Engelbert is one of the char- 
acteristic figures of German medisval hiatorj. recalling 
Saints Dunstan and Thomas Becket, but be Mems to have 



106 



ENGINEERING 



ENGINEERING. EXPERIMENTAL 



This usually implies a practical knowledge and even, in some 
departments, experience in the f^rt so applied. It is for this 
reason customary to teach something oi the arts subsidiary 
to engineering as an advanced system of ** manual training 
in the schools of engineering. R. H. Thurston. 

Engrineeringr : the art of construction. During the ear- 
lier periods of the history of engineering all constructions 
were directed by men of rank, who were also necessarily sol- 
diers, and were usually military officers, but as civil construc- 
tions became more general, and as the military element fell 
into the background, the art was more and more generally 
applied to the provision of the needs of the people in times 
of peace, and nnally came to be divided into two grand de- 
partments, civil engineering and military engineering. Up 
to the early part of the nineteenth century civil engineering 
included the building both of structures and of machinery, 
and Smeaton, the greatest engineer of his time and a con- 
temporary of Watt, constructed roads, bridges, aqueducts, 
canals, harbors, and other hydraulic works, and also became 
famous for his success in the building of steam-engines. 
The extensive intro<luction of the now familiar forms of 
motors, as heat-engines and water-wheels, and the innu- 
merable machines i^ed in the textile manufactures rendered 
the extent of the art too great for any one man to compass, 
and it gradually came to be recognized that civil engineer- 
ing must be further divided, and mechanical engineering 
became known as the division relating to the construction 
of all kinds of machinery, the designation civil engineering 
becoming thus restricted to that department which has to 
do with static as distinguished from dynamic constructions. 
Still later, the development of the applications of electric 
energy and the construction of electrical apparatus and 
machinery have led to the separation of this branch from 
the older division of mechanical engineering, and " electrical 
engineering " has come to be another important subdivision 
of the art of engineering. The following classifications may 
meet the requirements of modern times as logically as any, 
but the continual increase in the complexity of construction 
is constantly modifying the relative extent and character of 
these various branches of the great constructive profession, 
and it is impossible to say what will be their final form : 

Military Enaineering. — The construction of works for 
offensive and defensive warfare, including the two main 
divisions, army or military engineering proper, and naval 
engineering, including the construction of engines, ships, 
and armor, and, in both sections, the construction of ord- 
nance, which last is almost a profession by itself. 

Civil engineering, now restricted largely by the assign- 
ment of other branches to special departments ; the con- 
struction of " public works," as railroads, canals, harbors, 
and bridges. 

Mining Engineering. — That department which assumes 
charge of all mining construction and operations from the 
preliminary location to the final operation of the completely 
organized and working establishment. 

Mechanical Engineering, — The designing and construc- 
tion of all forms of machinery. This is sometimes termed, 
in contradistinction with the preceding, " dynamic " engi- 
neering, as having to do only with moving structures, while 
civil engineering, concerned mainly with pennanent struc- 
tures, is sometimes called ** static " engineering. 

ElectricaZ Erhpineering. — A modern branch or offshoot of 
mechanical engineering, dealing with the design, construc- 
tion, and operation of the mechanism employed in the pro- 
duction, transmission, and utilization of electrical energy, 
as derived by transformation from some other form of en- 
ergy, through an appropriate system of " prime motors." 

Architecture should probably be classed as a branch of 
engineering, in which are combined the arts of carpentry 
and general construction with the fine arts, which latter are 
essential in all successful architecture in decoration. Civil 
engineering and architecture are often classed together. 

The profeAHion of engineering thus has for its province 
the construction of all classes of important works, whether 
static or dynamic, civil or military, public or private. It 
has for its basis the constructive aris^ and for its c<xle the 
principles of applied mechanics and the physical sciences. 
Its origin dates back to the prehistoric perio(l when smiths, 
in the person of Vulcan, were deified, and to the days of 
Tubal Cain, " who was an artificer in brass and in iron." 
The Temple of Karnac, the Egyptian pyramids, the Roman 
roaiis and water-works, the Saracenic constnictions of 
Southern Euro|)e. and later public works, illustrate the prog- 



ress of the art and its sciences. In the earlier days engi- 
neering was monopolized by the rulers of nations for tht- 
purposes of promoting their conquests, and military engi- 
neering thus antedated the engineering of civil life. WhiK* 
the engineer of modem times is neither an artificer nor a 
man of science, yet he is required to be so familiar with th<* 
arts and trades that he may direct constructions and distin- 
guish good work, and, if needs be, show how he expects work 
to be done. He is also expected to be so familiar with 
mathematics and the physical sciences that he may reailily 
make application of the principles of the scienc^ to tin- 
purposes of the work in hand. This is well illustrated iti 
the case of electrical engineering, for example, by the fact 
that the engineer must in this case be an electrician a^ 
well ; in marine engineering the engineer must be familiar 
with the principles of wave-motion, of fluid friction, and of 
resistances of " ship-shape " forms, as well as with the art 
of ship-building and marine-engine desiring, embodying, 
as does the latter, the principles of chemistry, of heat-pro- 
duction, and of applied thermodynamics, as well as of tht> 
strength and proportions of the elements of machinery. 

The training of the engineer, in modem times, is begun in 
the technical schools, and he is there taught the scieiir**^ 
and often something of the arts which underlie his profes- 
sion. These schools usually offer more difficult and en- 
grossing courses of instruction than the older institutions nf 
learning, and exact severe work of their students, the g«*n- 
eral result being the elimination of those unfitted for thr 
work and the final entrance into the profession of but a 
small proportion of all aspirants entering them. The i)rt)- 
fession has come to be fully the equal, in respect to prepara- 
tion by special education, of the other so-called ** learned 
professions," and, in respect to adaptation bv selection, is in 
advance of either of its older congeners. Specialization l< 
going on so rapidly, in consequence of the development of 
the arts and sciences and their more general application to 
the purposes of modem life, that the subdivision above indi- 
dicated is continually becoming more and more marked, 
and even in any one branch, as civil engineering, a pni<-ti- 
tioner, as a rule, is compelled to confine himself to some 
single subdivision, as to bridge-building, to railway work, 
to canal construction, or to harbor improvement, arid hav- 
ing himself comparatively little knowledge of the art of 
building mechanisms, commonly goes to the mechanical en- 
gineer for his machinery. In mechanical engineering, sim- 
ilarly, the practitioner, who as a rule, has little **exfH»rt 
knowledge of roads or canals, takes up as a specialty 
either the design or construction of the steam-«ngiue. t he 
building of hydraulic motors and machinery, the construc- 
tion of locomotives, or the application of energy thn^ufrli 
electrical transmissions from tlie prime motor. Only the 
specialist in engineering is usually fully successful 

R. H. Thurston. 

Engineering, Experimental: the investigation of pmlv 
lems arising in the jJractice of the engineer. Since al)i»ut 
the middle of the nineteenth century this has become a tlt- 
partment of professional work of exceptional important**', 
and researches in applied science are reganled as esseiit iul 
to success in the improvement of the arts subsidiary to i"ii- 
gineering. In modem technical schools the course of in- 
struction, where systematically arranged, usually inclutli-v 
investigations in regard to the strength and other valualde 
properties of the material employed in engineering con- 
struction and in the operation of machines, e. g. wood and 
the metals, oils and the fuels; investigations in reganl t«' 
the effect of stress and strain upon stmctures or on th. 
elements of structures and machines; test-trials of ht'at- 
engines, water-wheels, dynamo-electric machinery, and of her 
apparatus, in order to ascertain the distribntion and th»» 
extent of the utilization or waste of energy in their ofn* ra- 
tion under known conditions, etc. 

At first work of this kind was carried on in what wt^n 
known as "mechanical laboratories" attache<l to a ff»w of 
the older technical schools, mainly for research and com- 
mercial gain rather than for purposes of instmcticm. Thr 
first in the U. S. was established by the writer in a small 
way in 1H?2, and results of researches were made public in 
18f3. At the organization in 1885 of the Sibley College of 
Mechanical Engineering and the Mechanic Arts at C<»riu*'.! 
University, experimental engineering was made a part of 
the courses of undergraduate instmction, and now all im- 
portant technical schools include such courses of in.<«tni<'ti«>iK 
Some Euroi)ean laboratories have been longer est-ahlislit« I 



108 



ENGLAND 



which we may mention Mounts Bay, the harbor of Fal- 
mouth, and Plymouth Sound ; the last is protected by a mag- 
nificent breakwater, and the celebrated Eddystone light- 
house points out the way to it. The remamder of the 
south coast of England is generally level. The Bill of Port- 
land, a rocky promontory joined to the mainland by the 
Chesil Bank, bounds the roaastead of that name to the W. 
The only other secure harbors on the south coast are those 
of Southampton and of Portsmouth, opposite the Isle of 
Wight, the latter the most important naval station of Great 
Britain. Spithead is a secure roadstead between it and the 
Isle of Wight'. Farther to the E. the South Downs grad- 
ually approach the coast and form the bold Beachy Head 
(564 feet). The coast then again becomes level and, at 
Dungeness. marshy, but from Sand^te to the North Fore- 
land it is formed of white chalk cliffs. These '* white cliffs 
of Old England " have become proverbial, though their ex- 
tent is very limited. They owe their prominence in the 
popular estimation principally to the fact of their first 
meeting the eye of a traveler coming from the Continent.* 
There are no natural harbors along this coast (that of Dover 
has been created artificially), but the roadstead called the 
" Downs," lying between the land and the Goodwin Sands, 
offers some shelter to shipping. The estuary of the Thames 
is bounded by low coasts, and sandbanks render its naviga- 
tion exceedingly intricate. The estuary of the Medway, 
which opens into it, forms one of the most secure harbors, 
and has oeen strongly fortified. See Chatham. 

Relief. — The surface, as a rule, is undulating. Toward 
the sea the country occasionally broadens out into plains, 
while furze-clad hills of no inconsiderable height rise in the 
north, in Wales, and in the southwestern parts of the 
country. Loveliness rather than grandeur Ls the distinc- 
tive feature of English scenery — verdant plains, careful- 
ly kept fields inclosed within living hedges, clumps and 
groves of trees, and numerous genuy flowing rivers and 
rivulets. 

Northern England, from the foot of the Cheviots (which 
separate it from Scotland) to the middle of Stafford and 
Derbyshire, is intersected by a range of mountains forming 
the water-parting between the German Ocean and the Irish 
Sea. By geographers these mountains are called the Pen- 
nine chain ; locally they are known by a great variety of 
designations. The depression which separates this liilly 
region from the Cheviots is marked by the line of the old 
Roman wall which extended from Carlisle to Newcastle, and 
only rises 445 feet above the level of the sea. The Pennines 
divide themselves into two groups, separated by a depression 
at the heads of the rivers Ribble and Aire, where the Liver- 
pool and Leeds Canal crosses them at an elevation of 500 
feet. The northernmost of these groups culminates in the 
Cross Fell (2,892 feet), and is but loosely connected with the 
picturesc^ue Cumbrian Mountains toward the W., which 
abound m lakes, shady woods, and rich pastures. Scafell 
Pike (3,216 feet), the highest summit of the Cumbrian 
Mountains, is at the same time the culminating point of 
all England. The southern group of the Pennine chain is 
far less elevated than the northern, and the Peak of Derby- 
shire, its culminating point, only rises to a height of 2,080 
feet. It terminates with the Weaver Hill, in lat. 53" N. 
(1,154 feet). The region of the Pennine Mountains is one of 
the most sterile of England, and its moorlands are of great 
extent. In the rest of England there are no hill-ranges equal 
in importance to the Pennine chain, and the general level 
of the central portions of the country even but rarely 
exceeds 500 feet in height. The bands of lias and o51ite 
which extend from Yorkshire to Dorset form a series of 
hUls, interrupted by table-lands or plains, and having gen- 
erally a steep escarpment to the W., and sloping down 
gently towara the E. Among these may be mentioned 
the North York moors (1,489 Feet), to the N. of the Ouse ; 
the Lincoln Heights, to the S. of it; the Cotswold Hills 
(1,134 feet), to the E. of the Severn ; and the Dorset Heights. 
The valley of the Thames is bounded on the N. and S. by 
chalk hills, affording generally excellent pasturage. Those 
on the N. extend from Wiltshire into Suffolk, and attain an 
elevation of 904 feet in Wendower Hill. The southern 
chalk hills are known as the Downs, and attain scarcely an 
elevation of 1,000 feet; Inkpen Beacon (1,011 feet), on the 
boundary of Hants and Berks, is their culminating point. 
The Northern Downs (Leith Hill, 965 feet) extend from it to 

* The name ** Albion *^ which fa bestowed sometimea upon Qreat 
Britain m not derived from aUmt. white, but from the Gaelic eUbainn, 



which means " mountain island 



■;; 



the coast of Kent, at Dover, where they form white cliffs ; 
the Southern Downs terminate in the Beachy Head (564 
feet), on the coast of Sussex. These two ranges bound a 
fertile region called the Weald, formerly a forest of oak, at 
present one of the most productive agncultural districts uf 
the country. Geologists describe the Weald as a valley of 
denudation, and fre(][uently refer to it in illustration of 
that kind of geological action. The Mendip Hills (1,067 
feet), near the mouth of the Severn, are already beyond the 
chalk region of Southern England, for they consist of 
mountain limestone, and the Exmoor (1,407 feet), a range 
on the southern shore of the Bristol Channel, consist-s af 
Devonian rocks, which, with members of the Carboniferous 
series, occupy the greater portion of Devonshire and Corn- 
wall, and are intruded by granite and other igneous rook>. 
To this intrusion is due the origin of the so-called " Dart- 
moor Forest," a desolate moor region rising in Yes Tor to a 
height of 2,077 feet. The fertile plain of Cheshire and 
the valley of the Severn form the natural boundary 
between England and the mountain region of Wale^s, next 
to Scotland the most considerable in the British islandi<. It 
is frequently distinguished as the " Cambrian Mountains,'* 
though " Welsh Hills " is the more popular designation. 
The nighest summit is Snowdon (3,571 feet), close to the 
Menai Strait. A natural depression at the head of the 
Severn divides North from South Wales, and the hills of 
the latter are particularly distinguished by their barrenne^5^. 
their highest range being known as Black Mountains (Breck- 
nock Beacon, 2,910 feet), from the color of the heather whi<li 
covers them. The Welsh Hills, toward the E., merge int4> 
the table-lands of Salop, Hereford, and Gloucester, where 
several outlving hill-ranges rise, among which may Ih» 
mentioned the Malvern Hills (1,395 feet), the Clee IIill> 
(1,805 feet), and the isolated Wrekin (1,342 feet) in the cen- 
ter of Shropshire. Several of the valleys of this Cambrian 
region are distinguished for their loveliness, and amon^ 
these that of the Wye in the S. and of the upper Dee in the 
N. carry off the palm for beauty. 

Hydrography. — The rivers of England are mere brooks if 
compared with those of America, but as they all carry an 
abundant sui^ply of water throughout the year, and many of 
them are navigable for a considerable distance of their c*ourse, 
they are, nevertheless, of considerable ii^ portance to com- 
merce and industry. They belong to four oceanic drainage 
basins, viz., those of the German Ocean (Tyne, Humber, Ous*- 
and Trent), the English Channel, the Bnstol Channel (Sev- 
ern), and the Irish Sea. The most considerable of tlit»s«^ 
rivers are the Humber (catchment basin 9,293 so. miles, 
length 204 miles), Severn (8,119 sq. miles, 186 miles), Thames^ 
(5,935 sq. miles, 215 miles), the Great Ouse (2,766 sq. mile^. 
156 miles), and the Mersey (1,722 sq. miles, 85 miles). 

The Mersey rises on the confines of Cheshire and Derby- 
shire, and forms a wide estuary at its mouth, on which is 
situated Liverpool, the first shipping-port of Europe. It** 
tributary, the Irwell, is navigable for barges as far as Man- 
chester, and canals connect it with the principal rivers of 
the rest of England. The Severn rises on the slope of Plyn- 
limmon in Wales, and becomes navigable at Welshpool. 170 
miles above its mouth. It traverses the fertile plain of 
Shrewsbury and the vale of Gloucester, and enters the 
Bristol Channel below the town of that name. The tides at 
its mouth are of tremendous height (60-70 feet), and the 
country is protected against them by embankments. It2> 
most important tributaries are the Wye and the Avon. 
Bristol is situated on the latter. 

The Thames rises at Thameshead, 376 feet above the level 
of the sea, and enters the German Ocean at the Nore Light, 
between Shoeburyness and Sheerness. At its mouth it is 
5 miles wide, at London bridge, 46 miles above it> 692 
feet, and as far as the latter it is navigable for vessels of 3(Xl 
tons. Its most important tributary is the Medway, which 
forms an excellent harbor. The Ouse rises in Northamp- 
tonshire, and is navigable from Retford, 46 mile«t above it^^ 
mouth. It enters the Wash at King's Lynn. The Humber, 
properly speaking, is an arm of the sea. into which the 
Trent and Yorkshire Ouse pour their waters, and extends 
37 miles inland. Hull, an important commercial town, is 
situated on its north coast at the mouth of the small river 
Hull. The Trent rises in the moorlands of Staffordshire, 
intersects an exceedingly fertile district, and becomes navi- 
gable at Burton-upon-Trent. Small sea-going vessels can 
ascend it as hi^h up as Gainsborough. The Ouse descends 
from the Pennine chain, and is navigable for small craft as 
far as York. Still higher up the coast are the Tees and t>it^ 



B^^ 



.1 



— s s 

1=^ - nj (^ ♦ 10 



THE NEV7 YORK 
PUBLIC LIBRARY 



Ti. O N FOlNDA IONS. 



110 



ENGLAND 



Education. — Elementary education has made consider- 
able strides in advance since an act passed in 1870 compelled 
each locality to provide school accommodation for all chil- 
dren between the ages of five and thirteen, and provided for 
the election of school boards in all those districts where 
this accommodation had not been provided by voluntary 
agencies. These public elementary schools are annually 
inspected by Government officials, and they receive grants 
in aid out of the public treasury, in addition to what they 
may raise by rates or receive from voluntary contributions. 
All schools supported from the rates are undenominational, 
and no dogmatic teaching is permitted. In 1891 there 
existed 19,508 elementarv schools : viz., 4,7t58 under school 
boards; 11,957 connected with the Church of England; 951 
Roman Catholic ; 1,842 others. There were present at the 
inspection 4,426,060 children ; but the average attendance 
was only 3,749,956. See Common Schools. 

Middle-class education is mainly left to private enterprise. 
There are 4 universities (Oxford, Cambridge, Durham, and 
Manchester) and 15 colleges, with 924 professors and 13,940 
students, besides 4 university colleges for ladies, medical 
schools attached to the hospitals of most of the large towns, 
and a large number of tecnnical and art schools. London 
University is merely a board of examiners. 

Local Government. — By the Local Government Act of 
1888 England was divided into 122 administrative counties, 
inclusive of 62 county boroughs, all of which have over 
50,000 inhabitants. The crown is represented in each county 
by a lord-lieutenant, a sheriff, ana justices of the peace. 
The duties of the lord-lieutenant are at the present time 
merely nominal, while the justices of the peace, who not 
long ago carried on nearly the whole of the local adminis- 
tration outside the municipalities, now exercise hardly any 
but judicial functions. Each county has its county council, 
consisting of a chairman (mayor), aldermen, and councilors. 
The councilors are elected by the ratepayers for three years ; 
the aldermen by the councilors (not necessarily out of their 
own number). Smaller towns still retain a large measure of 
administrative independence. The whole of the administra- 
tion of the poor laws is intrusted to fi;iiardians elected by the 
ratepayers, while elected school boards administer the public 
schools. Women have votes in the election of these local 
authorities, and can themselves be elected guardians or mem- 
bers of school boards, but not county councilors. There ex- 
ist, in addition to the above, rural sanitary authorities, high- 
way boards, draina^ and embankment authorities, harbor 
ana pilotage authorities, etc. The total receipts of the local 
authorities (1890) amounted to £57,360,957, inclusive of an 
exchequer contribution of £6,531,000. Out of the expendi- 
ture, £8,439,180 was for paupers, £5,607,896 for schools. The 
local debt at the close of 1890 amounted to £198,871,312. 

Administration of Justice. — The judicial systems of Eng- 
land and of the U. S. are very similar. A distinction is made 
between common and statute law, and only occasionally, 
in admiralty and ecclesiastical crises, is recourse had to 
Roman or canon law. Four ancient corporations or " inns " 
enjoy the privilege of calling persons to the bar. Queen's 
council, as well as judges, are appointed by the Lord 
Chancellor, who likewise appoints many of the inferior 
judges, and thus exercises a considerable amount of political 
patronage. The Supreme Court of Judicature, with twenty- 
nine judges, none of whom is paid less than £5,000 a year, 
includes a court of appeal, a chancery division, a queen's 
bench division, a court of probate, divorce and admiralty 
cases, and a court of arches (for ecclesiastical cases). 
Thrice a year these judges go on circuit, and hold assizes in 
the principal towns. A central criminal court exists for the 
especial benefit of the metropolis, and is presided over by 
the recorder and the common sergeant of the city of Lon- 
don. The justices of the peace (magistrates) are appointed 
by the Lord Chancellor, and receive no salary. Tney hold 
petty and Quarter sessions ; these latter are frequently pre- 
sided over by a paid recorder. In London there are sixteen 
police courts. The seventy county court^j, whose judges are 
paid from £1,500 to £1.800 a year, exercise only civil juris- 
diction, while the coroner with his jury holds inquests into 
the cause of all violent or suspicious deaths. See Courts. 

The police force of England numbers 3s^680 men (in Lon- 
don, 15,975). Of 11,695 {)ersons committed for trial in 1891, 
9,055 were found guilty. 

History. — England first became known to the Western 
world through the Phoenicians and Massilians, who traded 
with it for tin; but its real history does not begin until the 
establishment of the Koman rule by Csesar in 55 b. c. The 



rule of the Romans, who called the present island of Great 
Britain Britannia^ lasted till the beginning of the fifth cen- 
tury, when they withdrew. (See Britannia.) In const- 
quence of the inroads of the Picts and Scots from the north, 
and the quarrels of the British chiefs among themselvo, 
the country appears to have soon become a prey to complete 
anarchy. A British Prince of Kent, Vortigem (Gwrtheyrn). 
is said to have been the first to secure the aid of two Saxon 
chiefs, commonly called Hengist and Horsa, in his struggles 
against the northern invaders. The statements as to the 
first appearance of the Saxons in England are conflicting 
and untrustworthy, and even the names of their leaders an? 
considered fabulous. Certain it is that in the course of 
about 130 years the Stixons, Jutes, and Angles completetl 
the conquest of the greater part of Englemd, establishing 
three Saxon kingdoms (Sussex, Wessex, and Essex), one 
Jutish (Kent), and four Anglian (Bemicia, Deira, East An- 
glia, and Mercia). The British maintained for a somewhat 
longer period five states (Strath-Clyde, Cumbria, North and 
South Wales, and Cornwall). Egbert, King of Wessex, b* 
commonly believed to have become the first King of all Eng- 
land. During his reign began the invasions of the Danes 
about 830, who for a period of twenty-four years (1017- 
42) became masters of the kingdom. In 1042 the crown 
again devolved on an Anglo-Saxon prince, Edward the 
Confessor, but his authority was little more than nominal, 
six powerful earls, Danes and English, dividing the country 
between them. 

Tht Norman Conquest. — Edward the Confessor died child- 
less in 1066, and Harold, the son of Goodwin, was eleeto<l 
by the nobles to the throne ; but in the decisive battle of 
Hastings (Oct. 14, 1066) against another claimant to the 
throne, William, Duke of Normandy, he was defeated and 
killed. With the reign of William, surnamed "the C<»n- 
queror," a new era of English history begins. The lands 
were divided among 600 tenants in capite, all followers of 
the Conc^ueror as feudal lords, and thus on the solid Imws 
of extensive landed estates the firm foundation was laid of 
a powerful aristocracy, which amid the social revolutions of 
centuries has more successfullv defended its ascendency than 
that of any other country of Europe. The population of 
England at this time appears to have been at most 2,UOO.U00, 
and-about 100 boroughs were governed by municipal customs 
or under the protection of the kings, nobles, or prelat*s, 
from whom in after times thej purchased their franohise>. 
In the course of time the distinction between the Norman 
conquerors and the conquered Saxons passed away, an<l 
from their union arose the English people as it now exists 
The Norman line gave to England only three kings — William 
I. and his two sons, William II. and Henry I. The death of 
the latter in 1135 was followed by a war of succession betwi-en 
Stephen of Blois, his nephew, and his only daughter, Matilda, 
who was married to Geoffrey Plantagenet. In 1154 the s<m 
of Matilda, Henry XL, was generally recogrnized as King of 
England. He was the founder of the house of Plantagenet, 
which in direct line ruled in England until 1485. Henry 
possessed, besides England, the provinces of Anjou, T(m- 
raine, and Maine in France, to which he added Guienne 
and Poitou by marriage and Brittany by conquest. He 
conquered Ireland in 1171, and by the Constitutions of 
Clarendon in 1164 curtailed the privileges of the Church, 
but was forced, in consequence of the assassination of Arch- 
bishop Becket, to make his peace with the Church. He 
was in 1189 succeeded by his eldest son, Richanl I. (Cu'ur 
de Lion), who distinguished himself in the crusades, but 
could not prevent the nobility from increasing their powir 
at the expense of the crown. The reign of his youiigvr 
brother, John (Lackland, 1199-1216), is one of the most in- 
glorious in the English annals. He lost nearly all the \My>- 
sesj^ions of the English sovereigns in France, and in V2VS 
consented to hold the English crown as a gift from Romt-. 
His weakness, however, had some good results for the people 
of England. 

The Beginnings of Consfitnfional Liberty and Representa- 
tive Government. — The separation of the Normans of Kng- 
land from those of France hastened the consolidation of t h«» 
English nation; and when involved in disputes with the 
pope, J(»hn had to conciliate the barons, who were backed by 
the j>eople, by tlie concession of the celebrated Great Charter 
{Magna Charta), signed at Runnymede in 1215. The char- 
ter secured to the English people, in advance of any either 
pecmle of Eurojie, two great rights — that no man should 
suffer arbitrary imprisonment, and that no tax shoul<l lie 
imposed without the consent of the council of the nation. 



112 



ENGLAND 



** supremacy *' and Protestants. (See England, Chuech of.) 
His only son, Edward VI. (1547-63), succeeded at the age of 
nine years, and the country thenceforth was governed by a 
council of regency favorable to the Reformation, which now 
advanced from questions of government to questions of 
doctrine. The Duke of Northumberland, who had cause<l 
one of his sons to marry Lady Jane (Jrey, great-grand- 
daughter of Henrv VIL, induced Edward to bequeath the 
crown to his daugnter-in-law ; but the reign of Lady Jane 
lasted only ten days when "bloody" Marv (155^-58), the 
daughter of Henry VIIL and his first wife, Catharine of 
Aragon, ascended the throne. Mary was a devout Cath- 
olic, who obtained the consent of her Parliament to re- 
peal (1553) the legislation of Edward VI., and that (1555) 
of Henry VIIL, thus re-establishing the papal authority. 
When tne chiefs of the Protestant party opposed the 
counter-reformation 290 of them suffered at the stake, in- 
cluding Cranmer, Ridley, and Latimer. Her marriage 
with Philip II. of Spain did not, however, save to the 
Catholic Cnurch its ascendency in England, for Mary died 
in 1558 without issue, and, on the other hand, it cost Eng- 
land the last possession in France, Calais, which was taken 
by the Duke of Guise. Mary was succeeded by her half- 
sister, Elizabeth (1558-1603), the daughter of Henry VIIL 
by his second wife, Anne Boleyn. She was strongly opposed to 
tne supremacy of the pope, by whom she had been declared to 
be a bastard. Parliament in 1559 restored the royal suprem- 
acy of the Church, which by the adjustment of the Prayer- 
book and the Thirty-nine Articles, substantially received 
the form in which it still exists. The power of the Roman 
Catholics in England was completely broken; and when 
most of them emoraced the cause of Mary, Queen of Scot- 
land, who, on seeking an asylum in England, had been im- 
prisoned, Elizabeth ordered Mary to be executed. Abroad 
she aided the Protestants of France and the Netherlands, 
and the crushing defeat of the Spaniards, whose armada 
was destroyed in 1588, elevated England to a higher posi- 
tion among the countries of Europe than she ever had held 
before. Ireland was reduced to a state of entire submission, 
and the commerce and naval power of England' received a 
wonderful impulse by the establishment of commercial in- 
tercourse with India (East India Company chartered 1600). 
Elizabeth was the last sovereign of the house of Tudor; 
she was succeeded by James VI., the son of the unfortunate 
Mary. Thus England, Scotland, and Ireland became 
united under one sovereign, and although the legislative 
union with Scotland was not consummated until 1707, and 
that of Ireland not until 1800, the three countries were in 
fact one empire. 

The Struggle between Parliamentary Privilege and Royal 
Prerogative, — James VI. — or. as he was called after his suc- 
cession to the throne of England, James I. — was proclaimed 
Mar 24, 1603, crowned July 25, assumed the title of King of 
** Great Britain, France, and Ireland " Oct, 24, and reigned till 
Mar. 27, 1625. He had received a good education, and showed 
great interest for science and literature, but he was pedantic 
and inconsistent. After the discovery of the Gunpowder 
Plot (Nov. 5, 1605) he banished the Jesuits and seminary 
priests from England, and afterward wrote several treatises 
nimself in defense of pure Protestantism. But he failed to 
give his son-in-law, the elector palatine, from whom descends 
the house of Hanover, the aid he had promised him ; and 
one of the principal reasons why he disappointed his Prot- 
estant allies in Germany was his eagerness to marrv his son 
to a Roman Catholic princess of Spain. In his time tlie trans- 
lation of the Bible into English and the colonization of Vir- 
ginia and New England took place. Meanwhile the political 
tendencies which at this time were carried out with such 
great success in France by Richelieu — namely, the consolida- 
tion of the royal power and the concentration of idl author- 
ity in the crown — also began to show themselves in England. 
During the time of James I. there was much talk about " the 
king by God's grace," and hardly had his son. Charles I. 
(1625-49), ascencled the throne when the conflict actually l)e- 
gan between the king and the Parliament. He had declared 
that he would not be a Venetian doge, and his two first Par- 
liaments he dissolved. But the third, which sat in 1628, 
passed the so-called Petition of Right, in which the consti- 
tutional rights of an Englishman are clearly defined, and 
the king was compelled to give his consent to the petition. 
After this event, however, he convoked no Parliament 
for eleven years, but ruled as arbitrarily as if tliere had 
never been a Parliament or a constitution. Justice was 
administered by the Star Chamber, money was levied 



C'l*^"*- 



Ni 



by proclamations, and the Puritans and other Nonconform- 
ists were cruelly persecuted. Charles wished to introdurn 
the liturgy in Scotland (1637), but the Scottish people rojje 
in arms, subscribed the National Covenant, invaded Eii^'- 
land. and defeated the royal troops at Newbum-on-Tynr. 
In Nov., 1640, the Long I^arliament assembled, and bepm 
business by impeaching Strafford and Laud. The Star 
Chamber was broken up, the dis|>ensing power abolished : 
but when the Parliament went further and demanded that 
the king should give up his right to dissolve Parliament, and 
even resign the supreme military command, open war broki- 
out between the king and the Parliament. 

The Civil War.— Jn the beginning the king was suc( 
ful, gaining several small victories; but in 1&4 he was dt 
feated at Marston Moor, and in the following year he was 
thoroughly beaten at Naseby that he had to ffee for h\» WW, 
and finally gave himself up to the Scottish army, which gavr 
him into the hands of the English Parliament. A hi^'li 
court was appointed, before which King Charles was trieil. 
He was convicted, and beheaded Jan. 30, 1649. Oliver Cmm- 
well, who commanded the right wing in the battle of Na-^c-hy 
and contributed much to the victory, controUed the anny, 
which belonged to the party of the Independents; and after 
the so-called Pride's Purge, in Dec, 1648, when forty-om- 
Presbyterian members were driven out of the Parliament, he 
also controlled that assembly. In 1649 he went to Ireland as 
lord-lieutenant, and put down the royalist rel^Uion there 
with extreme severity. In 1650 he was appointed commander- 
in-chief against the Scottish rising in favor of Charles II., 
and subdued the rebellion after the battles of Dunbar and 
Worcester. He was now the most powerfiU man in the king- 
dom, and in 1653 he assumed the title of Lord Protector of 
the Commonwealth, and governed as a monarch till hi-^ 
death, Sept. 8, 1658. 

The Restoration, — Cromwell was succeeded by his son, but 
almost immediately after his death a strong royalist react i(»n 
set in, and in 1660 Charles II. returned to England and wa< 
hailed with great enthusiasm. His reign (1660-85) was one 
of the most shameful periods in English history. The court 
was dissipated and licentious, and moral contamination 
spread from it into the upper strata of society. The Par- 
liament, which was very subservient at first and afterwanl 
only feebly contending against the evil, was broken up int4> 
faciions and corrupted by bribery. With respect to a for- 
eign policy, the king and the country as well became ^uh- 
servient to Louis XIV. of France. The two wars with Hol- 
land (1665-67 and 1672-74), which brought the English arms 
very little glory, were carried on in the French interest. The 
king in 1675 received 500,000 crowns from Louis in order to 
prorogue Parliament, and for several years he also recei vt^l an 
annual pension in reward of his subserviency to the French 
policy. As base was his internal policy. He had given the 
most binding promises of amnesty and loyalty. Neverthe- 
less, in 1662 the Presbyterian divines were ejecte<l fr<iin 
their livings. This act, however, did not cause any gre^t 
excitement. Indeed, Parliament itself voted that the b<.><lit^ 
of Cromwell, Bradshaw, and Ireton should be disiiiterr»Hi 
and hanged upon the gibbet of Tyburn. But when in 
the same year ne issued his declaration of indulgenct* to 
the Roman Catholics, people became suspicious ; and when 
his brother, the Duke of York, heir-apparent to the cn»wn. 
openly professed the Roman Catholic faith, a bill for his ex- 
clusion from the succession was brought into Parliament 
and passed by the House of Commons. It was rejpcte<L 
however, by the House of Lords, and on the death c'f 
Charles II., James II. succeeded (1685-88). 

The Revolution of 1688. — It was evidently James's inten- 
tion to overthrow the constitutional system of England and 
restore the Roman Catholic Church. For the accomplish- 
ment of the first purpose he meant to create a large stand- 
ing army, and, in spite of the great difficulties he had tt> 
encounter on this point, he partly succeeded. For the r^-^ 
toration of the Roman Catholic Church he first allie»J 
himself with the Episcopalians, afterward with the piss<^nt- 
ers. But he was much less successful on this point, ami 
when in 1688 he issued a declaration of indulgence to thf 
Roman Catholics, and ordered it read in all the churcht»-i, 
the crisis came. The Archbishop of Canterbury and six 
bishops |)etitioned the king against the order, but were s«nit 
to the Tower and tried on the charge of libel. Ant>ther 
event of decisive imjKirtance took place just at the same 
time. James II. htwl hitherto had no son, and it was hoi»od 
that on his death his Protestant daughter Mary, marrie«i to 
William of Orange, would succeed to the throne. But on 



114 



ENGLAND, CHURCH OP 



it was met with freauent and vigorous opposition — not only 
in England, but also in the other kingdoms of Europe. 
Appeals to Rome had been prohibited m England from a 
very early period, and a vacancy in an episcopal see was 
apt to lead to a protracted controversy between the pope 
and the reigning sovereign, neither of wnom was willing to 
admit the pretensions of the other. 

When in the reign of Henry VIII. the Church and Par- 
liament of England resolved to put an end to appeals to 
Rome, and to the claims of the pontiffs to a right to confirm 
the nominations of bishops (wnich, under certain circum- 
stances, had been stretched into a claim to nominate in the 
first instance), they conceived that they were merely re-as- 
serting those ancient rights of the Church of England which, 
though they had been suffered to fall into disuse, had never 
been abandoned. This position was t-aken with great una- 
nimity, and was adhered to consistently bv Bishop Gardiner 
and the national (or, as it might now be called, the old 
Catholic) party in England. The king was drawn into the 
violent measures of the dissolution of the monasteries and 
the spoliation of the Church by other counselors. 

The efforts of the Church of England to regain its ancient 
liberties were contemporaneous with,t.hough distinct from, 
the continental Reformation. That event, nowever, was not 
without its influence in England, and in the reign of Ed- 
ward VI, men who sympathized with Luther or Calvin, or 
even with the teachings of Zwingli, had gained control over 
the English Church, and nation. Under their influence 
England was becoming rapidly Protestantized, and, in all 
likelihood, had not their career been cut short by the death 
of the king, the religious condition of England would have 
been much the same as that of Switzerland or Scotland. 

The accession of Queen Mary led to a violent reaction. 
The Protestant school of Cranmer and Ridley was forcibly 
suppressed, and the national party, of which Gardiner was 
the leader, was compelled to chan^ its ground. The au- 
thority of the pope was restored m more than mediieval 
plenitude. Attempts were made not only to revive the state 
of things which existed in the early part of the reign of 
Henry III., but actually to destroy the ancient liberties of 
the Church of England. It is a grave question among 
historians whether Edward or Mary, both acting doubtless 
from the most conscientious motives, would, had tneir reigns 
been prolonged, have done more serious injury to the 
Church. 

Queen Elizabeth, on coming to the throne, found herself 
encompassed with difficulties. There were then three schools 
or parties in the English Church : first, that of Gardiner and 
his followers, which had changed its ground, and was now 
disposed to maintain the papal supremacy, with all that it 
involved ; second, that of Parker, which went beyond the 
former national school in its desire to reform what it be- 
lieved to be abuses; and third, the Protestants, many of 
whom had taken refuge in Switzerland during the reign 
of Mary, and these returned full of admiration of the form 
of religion which they found established tliere, and anxious 
to introiluce it into England. The private opinions of the 
queen, if indeed she had any, were not distinctly known, 
and it was for some time doubtful to which school she 
would give her infiuence and approbation. It may seem 
strange to minds educated in the ideas of the nineteenth cen- 
tury that the religious bt'lief of great nations should have 
been directed or influenced by the private opinions of their 
sovereigns; but in the sixteenth century, and even later, 
the Church formed a part of the constitution of the nations 
of Western Europe. There was no idea that there could be 
more than one religious society in a nation, and therefore 
no idea of toleration or religious liberty. The history of 
England in the sixteenth century is not different from that 
of other European states. If the civil authority could carry 
out a reformation of religion in England and Sweden, it 
could suppress it in France and Spain and Italy. 

Thus it was the purpose of any party that might succeed 
in gaining the favor of the (jueen to become not merely 
dominant but exclusive. Its peculiar views were to be 
forced on all men. The Protestant (or, as it was soon after- 
ward called, the Puritan) school speedily put itself out of 
the question by the fact that its teachings would have led 
to the destruction of the Church of England, and the estab- 
lishment of a new form of religion upon the plan adopted 
at Geneva. Various circumstances tended to alienate the 
queen from the papal (or, as it began to be styled, the 
Roman Catholic) party. The haughty discourtesy with 
which Pope Paul I V. received the information of her acces- 



sion, which she sent to him in the usual form ; the assump- 
tion of the title of Queen of England by Mary of Scotland, 
with the great probability that France and Spain would 
proceed to assert the claims of the Scottish queen by force 
of arms; and the persistent attitude of opposition to all re- 
forms maintained by the Marian bishops, compelle<l Eliza- 
beth to put herself in the hands of the national or reform- 
ing party, of which Matthew Parker was the acknowledgwl 
leader. Like the national party in the reign of Henry 
VIII., this school was prepared to remove the jurisdiction 
which the pope had exercised within the realm of England. 
Like those earlier leaders, it desired to preserve the faith 
and discipline of the Church unaltered, but it went beyr>nd 
them in proposing to remove certain abuses of teaching and 
practice which it conceived had led the people into sufxr- 
stition. These were the use of images, the invocation of 
the saints, the popular idea of purgatory, and the pocuILar 
definition of the manner of the Real Presence in the bless<yl 
saorament which is known as transubstantiation. The^e 
were doubtless developments, but, in the view of the schtx)! 
of thought which became dominant in England, unlawful 
developments of true doctrines. The Reformers thought thni 
they could trace the progress of variation from the simpder 
teachings of the earlier Church, and their purpose was to 
carry back the Church of England, as nearly as possible, to 
its primitive simplicity. Whether they succeeded or not is 
a question which need not be now discussed ; it will be suf- 
ficient to say that they proceeded to carry out their plans 
with promptitude and vigor, Parker was made Archbishop 
of Canterbury in the place of Pole, who had died almost at 
the same time as Queen Marv. The majority of the l»i>h- 
ops, refusing to co-operate with hiin, were removed or rt^ 
signed their sees, and their places were fiUed by men whoiu 
he could trust. Attention was at once given to the reform 
of the service-books of the Church. Two prayer-b<M)k5, 
compiled partly from the old Latin Uses of tne Chun^h nf 
England, had been set forth in 1549 and 1552, but had U't^u 
suppressed in the reign of Mary. After much delil)eratit>n. 
it was determined to make the second of these the ba^is of 
the Prayer-book, which was henceforth to be in English. 
The reforms in doctrine to which allusion has been nia^li* 
were indeed carried out, but care was taken to avoid touch ini: 
any part of the common faith of Christendom. The fam<»us 
pnnciple of Vincent of Lerins, of universal acceptance »-i 
the test of Christian truth, was affirmed, and the authority 
of general councils was acknowledged. These arranir*^ 
ments received the approbation of Convcxsation and Parlia- 
ment. Concessions nad been made to both the extPt^ne 
parties — to the Puritans, in adopting the second instead «»f 
the first praver-book of Edward VI.; to the Roman (ath«»- 
lics, in leaving out certain expressions which were justly 
obnoxious to them — and it was thought that religious unity 
would thenceforward prevail in England. 

This settlement, the joint work of Convocation and Par- 
liament, was accepted by the great body of the nation ; nrni. 
since all men continued to frecjuent the parish churchtv^ fi ^r 
about ten years, it was ho[)ed that the unity of the Entrli-^ti 
Church would continue unbroken. In 1576, however, aft* r 
the excommunication of Queen Elizabeth by Pius V., i h*- 
party afterward called Roman Catholics, acting un<ler t ht* 
direction of the pope, separated from the church. In tho-^* 
ages {X)litics and religion were so singularly intermingltHl in 
Western Europe that any religious agitation commonly in- 
volved plots and treasons against the state, and somet'inu'^ 
open war. In this respect England was no better nor woi^»- 
tnan other countries; and in this condition of affairs the 
true motive is to be found for the strin^nt laws which wt^n- 
enacted and put in force against " popish recusants." Th*- 
penal laws, however, were the work oi the state rather thHii 
of the Church ; and they were intended not as a measure • .f 
unnecessary persecution, but as a precaution against tli*" 
plots for the destruction of queen and government, whirh 
followed one another in quick succession. 

Some of the extreme Protestants followed the example of 
separation in 1580 under the leadership of Robert Br<»wn. 
who, however, returned to the Church and died in its <m>iu- 
munion. They were at first called Brownists or SejvirMt i--t <. 
afterward Independents, and finally Congregational i>t-*. 
Others remained in the Church and demanded a further ret* »r- 
mation ,which, however, has never been conceded. The Pra> »'r- 
book has indeed been twice revise<l, but the tendency »>n 
both occasions has been to bring it into nearer accon.ra)ii e 
with the first book of Edward V I., which is supposed to have 
contained the true sentiments of the earlier Reformers, 



116 



ENGLAND 



ENGLISH LANGUAGE 



Centuries of th^ Church of England (Oxford, 1881). Espe- 
cially on chureh-law, see Blunt and Phillimore, Law of the 
Church of England (2 vols., London). 

Beverley R. Betts. 
Revised by William Stevens Perry. 

England, John, D. D. : ecclesiastic ; b. in Cork, Ireland, 
Sept. 23, 1786, lie was educated at Car low College, and 
took orders in the Roman Catholic Church in 1808. He 
was soon after appointed lecturer at the North Chapel and 
chaplain of the ]prisons, and in 1809 he began the publica- 
tion of the Religious Repertory, a monthly. He was greatly 
distinguished for his zeal, his benevolence, and his bold 
championship of Catholic emancipation. He was also a 
prominent journalist, and was once fined £500 for his bold- 
ness in discussing political questions. In 1820 he became 
Bishop of Charleston, S. C, and there founded the Catholic 
Miaceilany, the first journal of his Church in the U. S. His 
works, in five volumes, appeared in Baltimore 1849. Bishop 
England's heroic behavior during an epidemic of vellow fever 
in Charleston endeared him to all classes of cftizens. He 
was a man of great energy and profound learning. D. in 
Charleston, S. C, Apr. 11, 1842. 

England. Sir Richard, G. C. B. : general ; b. in Detroit, 
Mich., in 1793; son of Lieut-Gen. Sir Richard England, an 
officer of Irish origin, distinguished in the British service 
during the Revolutionary war in North America. The 
younger Sir Richard entered the British army at the age of 
sixteen, and served against Napoleon I. He subsequently 
gained distinction in South Africa, India, Afghanistan, and 
the Crimea, and was made a full general in the army in 
1863. He also became a grand omcer of the Legion of 
Honor, colonel of the Forty-first Foot, etc, D. Jan., 1883. 

Envies, William Morrison, D. D. : author ; b. in Phila- 
delphia, Pa., Oct. 12, 1797 ; graduated at the University of 
Pennsylvania in 1815. In 1820 he became pastor of the 
Seventh Presbyterian church in Philadelphia ; m 1834 editor 
of the Presbyterian ; and in 1863 president of the Presby- 
terian Board of Publication. He published Rexiords of th^ 
Presbyterian Church (Philadelphia, 1840) ; a Bible Diction- 
ary (1850) ; Sailor's Companion (1857) ; Sick-room Devotion 
(1846); Soldier's Pocket-book (1861); and other works, chiefly 
devotional. D. in Philadelphia, Nov. 27, 1867. 

Englewood, eng'1-wdbd : town and railway junction, now 
incor|)orated in Chicago ; Cook co.. 111. (for location of 
county, see map of Illinois, ref. 2-C). It is the site of the 
county normal school (opened in 1868), which has a normal 
department, a training-school, and a high-school depart- 
ment. Editor OF " Call." 

Englewood: town; Bergen co., N. J. (for location of 
county, see map of New Jersey, ref. 2-E) ; on railway ; 14 
miles N. of New York city, near the Palisades of the Hud- 
son river. The township was organized in 1871 from part 
of Hackensack. Pop. (1880) 4,076 ; (1890) 4,785. 

English : a term used in billiards. See Billiards. 

English, Earl : rear-atimiral U. S. navy ; b. in Burling- 
ton CO., N. J,, Feb. 18, 1834 ; entered the navy as a midship- 
man Feb. 25, 1840. He was in the engagement with the 
Barrier forts at the entrance to the Canton river, China, in 
1856, and during 1862 and 1863 commanded several vessels 
of the Gulf blockading snuadron. In 1864 and 1865 he 
commanded the steamer Wyalusing of the North Atlantic 
blockading squadron, and m Oct., 1864, took part in the 
capture of Plvmouth, N. C. Retired Feb. 18, 1886. D. at 
Washington, D. C, July 16, 1893. 

English, George Bethune: a<lventurer and author; b. 
at Cambridge, Mass., Mar. 7, 1787; graduated at Harvard 
in 1807; was admitted to the bar, next was licensed to preach ; 
published in 1813 The Grounds of Chrinfiatnty Ejramined, 
a work favoring Judaism, which was replied to by Edward 
Everett and others, and was followed on English's jwirt by 
Five Smooth Stones out of the Brook (1815). After editing 
a newspaper for a short time, English entered the U. S. 
navy, but soon resigned to enter the Egyptian servicte, and 
gained distinction as an officer of artillery. Subse(juently he 
was U. S. agent in the Levant ; returned to the U. S. in 1827. 
Among other works published by him was a ^'nrrative of the 
Erpedition to Dongola and Sennaar (1823). I), in Washing- 
ton, D. C, Sept. 20, 1828. 

English, James Edward: statesman ; b. in New Haven, 
Conn., Mar. 13, 1812 ; became a successful mcrchiint and 
manufacturer; Democratic member of Congress 1861-65; 



Governor of Connecticut 1867-69 and 1870-71. He was ap- 

Sointed to fill a vacancy in the U. S. Senate caused by the 
eath of Orris S. Ferry, Nov. 21, 1875, and was nonunat»Ml 
for Governor of Connecticut by the Democrats Aug. 18. IfcftSO. 
D. in New Haven, Mar. 2, 1890. 

English, Thomas Dunn : poet, lawyer, and physician ; b. 
in Philadelphia, Pa., June 29, 1819 ; graduatea at the medi- 
cal school of the University of Pennsylvania 1839 ; was ad- 
mitted to the Philadelphia bar in 18fe ; e<litcd some Kht»rt- 
lived periodicals ; became in 1859 a medical practitioner n^ar 
New York city. Among his works are several succi'ssful 
dramas, numerous novels, among them Walter H'oo//e ( 1 S44 1. 
a volume of poems (1855), and American Ballads (1n*^2). 
The best known of his poems is the popular balla<l, Ii»^h 
Bolt. Revised by H. A. Beers. 

English, William Hayden : lawyer and politician ; l>. at 
Lexington, Ind., Aug. 27, 1822 ; educated at South Hamivcr 
College; practiced law, and was postmaster of Lexington, 
Ind. ; clerk of Indiana House of Representatives in 1H43 : 
was four vears in the U. S. Treasury department; secretary 
in 1850 of convention at Indianapolis to revise the constitu- 
tion of Indiana; member of Indiana Legislature in 1H51. 
and of the U. S. House of Representatives in 1852 ; was thnn* 
times re-elected to the latter, retiring in 1860 ; was presi<lonl 
of First National Bank of Indianapolis, and resignetl t hat 
office in 1877 on account of ill health. He was nominatcni 
for Vice-President of the U. S. by the Democratic eonv»*n- 
tion at Cincinnati, 0., June 24, 1880. He is president of 
the Indiana Historical Society, and the author of a work on 
the constitution of that State (Indianapolis, 1887). 

English Channel (in Fr. La Blanche, the sleeve) : that 
portion of the Atlantic which separates England from 
France. It extends on the English side from Dover to 
Land's End, and on the French from Calais to the island of 
Ushant. On the E. it communicates with the German 
Ocean by the Strait of Dover, 21 miles wide, and on th»' \V. 
it opens into the Atlantic by an entrance 100 miles widt\ 
Its greatest width is about 150 miles. On the English sid»». 
off the coast of Hampshire, lies the beautiful Isle of Wi^ht. 
Guernsev, Jersev, ana the other Channel islands are situat<'<i 
off the north coast of France. The channel has a curn-nt 
that sets from the westward, and it is noted for its rough- 
ness, which causes its passage to be dreaded by tourists. 

English Gothic, or Gothic : See Fan Vaulting. 

English Harbor: one of the finest ports in the Wot 
Indies; on the south side of the island of Antigua; in Int. 
17' 3' N., Ion. 6r 45' W. It is capable of receiving vessels 
of the largest class, has a dockyard and a naval hospital, 
and is perfectly sheltered in all winds. 

English Language: the language of the people d«^- 
scended from the Germanic tribes which, in the fifth ct-ii- 
tury or earlier, took |x>ssession of the greater part of tin* 
island before known as Britain. From the time of th«ir 
settled possession of that country their language was calli-il 
English, and their land England, at home and abroad. The 
term Anglo-Saxon, employed before the year 1000 to tli*.- 
tinguish the Saxons of Eingland from those of the Cmiti- 
nent, but never to designate their language, was, on the re- 
vival of Old English learning after 1600, employed by his- 
torians and philologists to denote the entire English peopU^ 
and language before the Norman conquest. The name 
Anglo-Saxon, properly understood, never signified a union « »f 
Angles and Saxons, but, as stated al)ove, English Sax«>nv- : 
it is important to bear this fact in mind, since the opjM»>iti' 
view is suggested by the fact that the invaders of England 
were chieiiy composed of two tribes, the Angles and th«» 
Saxons, with whom, in smaller numbers, were another triln* 
called the Jutes, of whom little more is known than thtir 
name. As nearly as can be ascertained, the Saxons caiiu- 
from the region VJetween the Ell)e and the Rhine, the AngU ^ 
from the district still called Angeln, in the south of S<^hli-s- 
wig. and the Jutes from the north of Schleswig. 

Affinities of Native Enalish. — These tril^es were an otT- 
shoot of that branch of the lnd(vEuropean, or Aryan, raot* 
known as the Gennanic or Teutonic family, which its»'lf 
branched into two divisions — the East Germanic ami tht- 
West Germanic. To the East Germanic branch are assign *• 1 
the Scandinavian tongues, subdivided into East and Wt«.t 
Scandinavia, and the Gothic. The Scandinavian divi<i«»n 
went northward; its representatives are now the peoph*^ of 
Norway, Sweden, Iceland, and Denmark. The Gothic brarn- \ \ 
was the southernmost. It has perished by absorption, aii*! 



118 



ENGLISH LANGUAGE 



is a phenomenon which appears in no other language, at 
least in anything like so gi^ac a degree. It makes modern 
English a two-sided — and, as we have words of both classes 
tor many nearly identical thoughts and things — almost a 
double-faced language. 

Influences Affecting Old Ejigliah. — The English language, 
as it was taken into Britain by the men who were to sup- 
plant the Britons and to change the very name of the coun- 
try, was simple and unmixed, except for a small proportion of 
Latin words, acquired by our continental ancestors through 
their intercourse with the Romans ; and, for the most part, 
it so remained for centuries. The Celtic dialect of the sub- 
dued Britains had but little influence upon the sturdy 
speech of the Teutonic invaders, who ere long filled the 
whole island from the Grampians to the English Channel 
with their language as with themselves. 

More influence was exerted by the Latin, which was con- 
stantly being read, translated, and imitated by learned men, 
who were then almost exclusively the clergy. Soon after the 
landing of Augustine and the missionaries accompanying 
him (a. d. 597), excellent schools were established, and the 
culture of the time, largely contained in the works of the 
Christian Fathers, but to some extent also in classics like 
Vergil and Horace, was enthusiastically fostered in England. 
In the year 669 Archbishop Theodore, a native of Tarsus, in 
company with Abbot Hadrian, an African by birth, arrived 
at Canterbury, and immediately established a school. The 
historian Bede relates of them (bk. 4, ch. ii.) : ** And foras- 
much as both of them were, as has been said before, well 
read both in sacred and secular literature, they gatherwi a 
crowd of disciples, and there daily flowed to them rivers of 
knowledge to water the hearts of their hearers ; and together 
with the books of Holy Writ, they also taught them the arts 
of ecclesiastical poetry, astronomy, and arithmetic. A testi- 
mony of which is that (here are still Umng at this day some 
of their scholars^ who are as well versed in the Oreek and 
Latin tongues as in their own, in which they were bom,** 
The same statement is explicitly made concerning Abbot 
Albinus (bk. 5, ch. xx.) and Bishop Tobias (bk. 5, ch. xxiii.). 
The consequence is that there is found in the Old English 
writing no inconsiderable number of Latin words, chiefly 
those m ecclesiastical use. many of which had been natu- 
ralized from the Greek. Prof. Lounsbury savs {History 
of the English Language^ p. 34) : *' Before tfie Norman 
Conquest six hundred wonls at least had been introduced 
from Latin into the Anglo-Saxon, some of them occurring 
but once or twice in the literature handed down, others met 
with frequently. Were this list of borrowed terms to in- 
clude the compounds into which the borrowed terms enter, 
the whole number would be swelled to three or four times 
that above given. It is also to be marked that not only 
were nouns directly borrowed, but also adjectives and verbs, 
though to a far less extent." This computation doubtless 
includes the words which our ancestors brought with them 
from the Continent, and which have only recently been dis- 
tinguished from the later borrowings (Paul, Grundriss der 
Oertnanischen Philologie, vol. i., p. 309 fif.), but a goodly 
residue will still be left, including words not confined to 
ecclesiastical usage, but yet familiar to the monks and 
clergy. From these classes may be instanced such as nuesse, 
mass (Lat. missa)\ preost, priest (ha.t. presbyter); mynster, 
monastery (Lat. monasterium) ; sealm, psalm (Lat. psalmns) ; 
seol, school (Lat. schola); popmg, poppy (Lat. papaver); 
pihten, comb (Lat. pecten) ; rose^ rose (Lat. rosa) ; aihtiany 
compose (Lat. dictare), etc. But the influence of Latin 
upon Old English was not confined to the vocabulary. It 
must also have had a considerable effect upon the syntax, 
though the latter has not been sufficiently investigated to 
enable positive and specific statements to be made. 

Less important wns the Scandinavian influence due to 
the incursions and settlements of the tribes which history 
ccmveniently comprehends under the general title of the 
Danes. They began tlieir inroads near the close of the 
eighth centurv. and effected a permanent s<»tt lenient as 
early as 855. i'hey at last distributed themselves over the 
northeastern part of the island, and even obtained control 
over it, under Cnut, for about fifty years. When they were 
driven out as a ruling power they left behind them, of 
course, many descendants, and also memorials of their 
presence in many words which had been taken into the 
language, and in * man v names of places. The termination 
by, as in Derby, Whitby, Naseby, Holdenby, etc., marks 
their presence, but so do also a number of words (xjcurring 
in Late Old English, esi»ecially in the English Chronicle 



and the Laws. Examples are eorl, earl (Old Norse jart) ; 
cntf knife (0. N. kmfr) ; utlaK outlaw (O. N. utlagr) ; teratig. 
wrong (O. N. iTang). A full list of the wonls thus far dis- 
covered may be found in Paul, Orundriss der Oermanittrht^ 
Philologie, vol. i., pp. 786-787, though this by no means rep- 
resents all that must have been borrowed before the Nor- 
man conquest, since literature, and especially if scanty in 
amount, is but an imperfect record of speech, and the lar^- 
number of Scandinavian words found in the Middle English 
period points to the same conclusion. 

A Specimen of Old English Prose, — Before stating the 
grammatical characteristics of Old English, a short s|H»ci- 
men will be given of the language in its Late Old English 
stage: 

"{)a-5a hig ferdon, 5a comon sume fta weardas on 5m 
ceastre, and cySdon 5»ra sacerda ealdrura eaUe 5a 5ing 5<' 
5ier gewordene wieron. ©a gesamnodon 5fi ealdras hig and 
worhton gemot, and sealdon 5(em ])egnum mycel feoh, and 
cwfi'don, Secgea5 5oet hys leorning-cnihtas comon nihtes, 
and forstfiplon hyne, 5a we slepon." 

This passage is not to be understood by any reader, hf»w- 
ever intelligent and well instructed, who has not matle a 
special study of the language in which it is written, although 
its meaning is familiar to almost every person, literate or 
illiterate. Only three words, and, we, aiid hys, would s<>#'ni 
to him at all vernacular, and yet it was the everyday Eng- 
lish of English people who lived in England. It is the Old 
English version of verses 11, 12, and 13 of Matthew, ch. xxviii. 
with our present version of which it would be well to com- 
pare it : 

" Now while they were going, behold, some of the piard 
came into the city,' and told unto the chief priests all t fie 
things that were come to pass. And when they w»»n' 
assembled with the elders, ana had taken counsel, they gavf 
large money unto the soldiers, saying, Say ye his dik*iph»< 
came by night and stole him away while we slept." 

Strange and foreign to us as at first the passage seems — 
as foreign as French or German — a brief examination of it 
will make clear to any person, although entirely tinac- 
quainted with Old English, that it is written in a toiiKiJ** 
with the accents of which he is not entirely unfamiliar. 
Ferdon is fared, went; comon, came; sume, some; iteardaA, 
wartis, watch ; ceastre, caster, city (as in Lancaster) ; sacfrdn, 
priests (sacred persons) ; ealdrum, elders ; ealle, all; tnfrou, 
were; worhton, worked; gemot, a meeting; sealdvn, sohl. 
gave ; ^egnum, thanes ; mycel, mickle, much ; feoh, fee, i «y, 
money; secgec^, say; leomina-cnihtas, leaming-kniplitV, 
disciples; nihtes, (o') nights ; /&r«/(?/on, stole; hyne, him; 
slepon, slept. It thus appears that almost all the wonls in 
this passage are essentially English now, though it mu^t Ih^ 
borne in mind that the Modem English word is not in all 
ca.ses the direct descendant of the Old English word hen- 
given (e. g. worhton gives tcrouaht rather than tcorked, nnd 
him and slept come from collateral forms of hyne nnd 
slepon, that is from the dative him and the weak prettMii 
slcepton). In the lapse of eleven hundred years they havr 
changed somewhat in form, and somewhat, but not vitall> . 
in meaning. 

Pronunciation of Old English, — The vowels sounded 
nearly as in German : a as in far, but shorter ; a as in /a r : 
a> as a in glad ; (g as a in dare ; <» as in /c/ : e as in they : # 
as in dim ; i as ee in deem ; o as in opine ; o as in holy ; n .hs 
in full ; u as 00 in fool ; v like the French u or the German 
U ; y the same sound prolonged. 

The diphthongs ea, eo, ie, both short and long, are pn>- 
nounced like combinations of the respective vowels; but the 
stress is always upon the first vowel of the combination, the 
second reducing to a neutral sound, scarcely more than h 

flide. The consonants are pronounced nearly as in modem 
Inglish. Still, it must be ooserved, c is sometimes k, some- 
times nearly ch ; / between vowels, occasionally elsewhere, 
has the sound of v, s of z, and 5 (p) of th in the (oiherwi^* 
as/, s, and th in thiji); g is sometimes hard g, sometirnv** 
nearly y ; eg, which stands for ag, almost like ag in bridge ; 
h, when not initial, sounded Hkc ch in German ich, atich. 
It is to be noted that there are no silent letters in Olil 
English; every vowel and consonant was pronounced, 
though the vowels of unstressed syllables had a less distinc»t 
sound. 

Phonology of Old Enalish. — The phonological system of 
Old English, or the relations of its s{)eech-sound's anions 
themselves and to those of its sister languages, is too compli- 
cated for exposition here. The most important modi ficat ion*-* 
to which vowels are subject through ttie influence of other 



120 



ENGLISH LANGUAGE 



Plural. 
Nom. Ace. 5S 

Gen. 6*ra (5ara) 

Dat. 5&m (5&in) 

The demonstrative 5e«, this, is thus declined : 

Singular, 

MASC. NEUT. 

Nom. 5es 5is 

Gen. 5isses 

Dat. 5issum 

Ace. 5isne Sis 



FEM. 

5§os 
5isse 
ftisse 
5fis 



Nom. Ace. 

Gen. 

Dat. 



Plural, 

5&S 

5issa 

5issum 



The interrogative ^ira, huHBt, who, what, is thus declined : 



Nom. 

Gen. 

Dat. 

Ace. 

Inst. 



MASC. FEM. 

hw& 



hwone 



hwaes 

hw£m (hwam) 



NEUT. 
hW8Bt 



hwaet 
hwy 



There is no inflected relative pronoun other than the de- 
monstrative, which sometimes assumes its function. 

There are a number of indefinites, which are mostly de- 
clined like strong adjectives. 

Inflection of Verba, — Verbs have four moods, the indica- 
tive, optative, imperative, and infinitive; two principal 
tenses, the present and preterit, the former being frequently 
emj)loyed for the future. The passive voice is formed by 
auxiliary verbs, much as in Modem English. Verbs are 
divided into strong and weak. 

Strong verbs change the radical vowel to form the differ- 
ent tense-stems, like the verbs called irre^lar in Modem 
English. As in Modem Enjjlish the verb drive has the 
preterit drove and past participle driven, so in Old English 
the same verb has the preterit singular draf and past par- 
ticinle drifen. However, instead of the three tense-stems of 
Modern English, there are four in Old English for strong 
verbs, the preterit being subdivided into preterit singular 
and preterit plural. The four stems of drlfan, drive, are : 



PBESEXT. 

drif- 



PRET. SINO. 

draf 



PRET. PLUR. 

drif- 



which are usually cited under the forms — 



INFINITIVE. 

drifan 



PRET. 8IN0. PRET. PLUR. 

draf drifon 



PAST PART. 

drif. 



PAST PART. 

drifen 



Of such strong vertw there are seven classes in all, besides 
three classes of weak verbs. 

Weak verbs in some cases have a variation of vowel be- 
tween the present and the preterit, but their distinguishing 
characteristic is that the preterit is formed by the addition 
to the stem of -de for the singular and -don for the plural, 
and the past participle by the addition of -ed. Sometimes 
these endings take a vowel before them, and sometimes a 
neighboring sound converts the d into /; but this does not 
affect the essential nature of the distinction between them 
and the strong verbs. 

The conjugation of a strong verb may be represented by 
that of hindan, bind : 



INDICATIVE. 

Pres. sing. 1. binde 
o J bindest 
'• { bintst 
binde5 
bint 



8 



Plur. 



■I 



binda5 



Pret. sing. 1. band 

2. bunde 

3. band 
Plur. bundon 



OPTATIVE. 

binde 
binde 

binde 

binden 

bunde 

bunde 

bunde 

bunden 



Imper. sing., Hnd\ plur., bind(^\ infin., bindan; pres. 
part., bindende ; past part., bunden ; gerund, to bindanne. 

The typical scneme for the conjugation of a weak verb 
may be inferred from that of the strong, if the mode of 
forming the preterit and piist participle is home in mind. 

There are a few preteritive presents from which are de- 
rived the modem auxiliary verbs way, can, etc. Their 



present is an old preterit, and their new preterit is formal 
as if the verb were weak. 

The optative is used for our potential and imperative, as 
well as for the optative proper. Relics of these uses are in 
English : // were a grievous fault = It would be a grievous 
fault ; Be it ao = Let it be ao. But a periphrastic potential 
with the auxiliaries may, can, must, might, etc., is used in 
Old as in Modem English. The infinitive is regularly with- 
out to, hence forms with auxiliaries still reject it, as' do fa- 
miliar idioms in which the infinitive is the object of a verb, 
and to is not needed to express purpose or the like. 

There was a verbal noun ending in -ing, -una, whirh 
seems to have been confused with the participle m -end*-, 
and given form to our present participle. 

The two tenses given above answer for all times — one f«ir 
all past time, the other for present and future; but forms 
with auxiliaries are also used. Bcebbe, have, for the perfwt, 
and haefde, had, for the pluperfect, are in full use : A« ha fh 
mann geworhtne, he has made man. 

For the future, aceal, shall, and wille, will, are common, 
though seldom free from some meaning of duty, promise, de- 
termination, such as indeed goes with them in English. The 
present distinction between ahall and will in the different 
persons is not established in Old English. The future i»er- 
lect is not discriminated. 

Adverba, — Adverbs are frequently formed from adiectiv#'s, 
less frequently from nouns. From adjectives they are 
formed by the addition of -e : wid, wide — ujide ; of -/i>e : 
heard, hard — h^ardlice; of -unga: ecUl, all — eallunga, en- 
tirely ; or an oblique case of an adjective is employed as an 
adverb; thus the ace: aenog, enough; the gen.: micrl, 
much — miclea, very ; the dat. : mielum, very. Of nouns the 

fen. is used : dceg, d&j—dcBgea, by day ; or the dat. plur. : 
ropm€elum, drop by drop ; or rarely the inst : adr, son? — 
adre, sorely. Another important class is adverbs of plactf, 
such as 5ar, there, hider, tJiither, the latter being represent- 
ative of those formed from pronominal stems. 

/Syn^aa;.-- There is nothing in which Old English differs 
moi-e from Modern English than its syntax, which is that <»f 
a highly inflected language like Latin or Greek. The mo>i 
general laws are common to all speech; a much larger 
number are common to all Indo-European tongues. The 
frequencv with which different combinations are used by 
each makes the great difference between them. Appar- 
ent anomalies of English syntax may often be easily under- 
stood by study of the Old English from which they sprang : 
Me thinka I aaw him, seems strange; but in Old EnplL-h 
the thinka is found to be a different verb from the commun 
English think, and to mean aeem, and govern a dative ; it 
aeetna to me = methinka. He taught me grammar — tabca^n, 
teach, ffovems an accusative and datixe^taught to me. I 
asked him a oueation — ascian, aak, ^ovems an accusative of 
the prson asked. Be went a-hunting — a is the preposition 
on m Old English. / loved him the more—the is in Uhl 
English the instmmental case of the demonstrative (5t, Ae), 
meaning bv that. And so examples might be given withvmt 
end. No diflBcult point in Enghsh syntax can be safely dis- 
cussed by one who does not know its history. 

Metre. — Old English verse reposes on stress and allitera- 
tion, rime being only an occasional ornament. There are 
at least four stressed syllables to each verse, two in each half- 
line, the half -lines being divided by a c»sura. Two of the^i*' 
stressed syllables in the first half-line and one in the sect mil 
begin with the same consonant sound or combination, or 
else with a vowel. Instead of three alliterative soundji to 
the line, there may be only two, one to each half-line, or 
four, two to each half-line, and exceptionally more. This 
metrical stmcture may be illustrated by a few lines from 
the poem of Judith (202-206), in which the alliterative let- 
ters are printed in Italics : 



/oron to ge/eohte 
hsdleb under ^elmum 
on 5a?t dmgred sylf ; 
Alude Alummon.' 
imilf in tralde, 



/or5 on gerihte 
of 5»re Ml^ran byrig 
djned&n scildas, 
Bips se Manca gefeah 
and se u^anna hrefo. 



The effect of which may be radely represented by the 
lowing version : 



fol- 



J'ared to the fight 
heroes with Aelms, 
At the day-</awning ; 
i?ang and resounded. 
The wolf in the trood. 



forth by the straight road. 
from that Aoly city, 
shields loudly efinned, 
Then reveled the lank one. 
with the wan bird, the ravVn. 



122 



ENGLISH LANGUAGE 



ENGLISH LITERATURE 



ages. Truly inflected case and personal endings are pre- 
served only in the pronouns. 

Words Derived from the Latin, — But the changes which 
the language underwent in the course of its transformation 
to modem English were, as has been seen, not wholly in- 
flectional. A large number of new words were introduced, 
the most of them being from the Latin. As this foreign 
element is the most important, a few words may be devoted 
to its consideration. The words which came directly or in- 
directly from the Latin language are of three sorts : First, 
those which came through the Norman-French, and which 
are ours by inheritance from the Normans who 800 years 
ago made England their home, and who in the course of 
two centuries became fused with the English people; of 
which castle, faith, spy, person, poor, custom, sermon, voice, 
place, and rage are examples. Secondly, words of general 
use formed by scholars in later years directly from the Latin, 
or from some one of the Romanic languages, or which have 
been adopted without modification from those languages ; 
examples of the first sort under this class bein^ index, con- 
sul, circus, opera ; of the second, trait, chagrin, porimafi- 
teau, puisne, or puny. Thii-dly, words common to science 
in several languages, which have come into simple or meta- 
phorical use in English by reason of the diffusion of knowl- 
edge and the immediate, everyday connection of science 
with the affairs of common life. Examples of this class are 
zenith, diameter, tangent, ellipse, fulcrum. 

Growing Depth and Richness of English, — Any discus- 
sion of English which leaves out of account its increasing 
capacity to express subtle distinctions of thought and the 
whole range of emotion is necessarily incomplete. This 
power has largely resulted from the miiltiplication of meta- 
phorical and other now senses of words, from the formation 
of new phrasal combinations upon the analogy of existing 
ones, from an imitation of such excellences of other tongues 
as could be conformed to English idiom, and, in general, by 
the greater flexibility imparted by thought to its chief in- 
strument and medium. The history of these changes is the 
history of English literature, in whicn there is no considerable 
author who has not added something to the stores bequeathed 
him by his predecessors. To trace this progress, though in 
the barest outline, is beyond the scope of the present article, 
and for suggestions under this head the reader is referred 
to the subjomed bibliography and to the article on English 
Literature. 

Bibliography. — General History, — T. R. Lounsbury, ITiS' 
toru .of ths English Language (New York, 1879); Fried- 
rich Kluge (assisted by D. Behrens and E. Einenkel), Ge- 
schichte der Englischen Sprache, forming pp. 780-930 of 
Paul's Grundriss der germanischen Philologie, bd. i. (Strass- 
burg, 1891), the most scientific survey of the subject ; James 
Hadlev, A Brief History of the English Language, revised 
by G. L. Kittredge, in the International Dictionary, Richard 
Morris, Historical Outlines of English Accidence (London, 
1873) ; Henry Sweet, A History of English Sounds (Oxford, 
1888), and A New English Grammar, Logical and Histor- 
ical, part i. (Oxford, 1892); Eduard Matzner, Englische 
Grammatik (3d ed. 3 vols., Berlin, 1880-85 ; English trans, 
by C. J. Grece, 3 vols., London, 1874) ; F. Koch, Historische 
Grammatik der englischen Sprache (Gottingen, 1863-69) ; 
Walter W. Skeat, Principles of English Etymology (Oxford, 
1887-91); J.Schinper,^/i^Zi/*r/ie Jfe/rtA-(Bonn, 1881-89); J. 
A. H. Murray, A^ew English Dictionary (Oxford, 1884- ) ; 
The Century Dictitmary (New York, 1889-90) ; L. Kellner, 
Historical Outlines of English Syntax (New York, 1892). 

Old English. — Eduard Sievers, An Old English Gram- 
mar, translated and edited by Albert S. Cook (2ti ed. Boston, 
1887) ; Francis A. March, A Comparative Grammar of the 
Anglo-Saxon Language (New York, 1870), for syntax only ; 
Bosworth-Toller, An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (Oxfonl, 
1882- ); R. Wttlker, Grundriss der atigelsdchsischen Lit- 
terafur (heipziR, 1884); James W. Bright, An Anglo-Saxon 
Header (New \ ork, 1891) ; Henry Sweet, An Anglo-Saxon 
Reader (4th ed. Oxford, 1884) ; Henry Sweet, A Second An- 
glo-Saxon Reader, Archaic and Dialectal (Oxford, 1887); 
C. W. M. Grcin, Bihliothek der angeisdchsischen Poesie, 
Texten mit Glossarium (Gottingen, 1857-64), of which a 
revision by R. WUlker is in progress; H. Sweet, The Oldest 
English Texts (London, 1885) ; A. L. Mayhew, Synopsis of 
Old English Phonology (Oxford, 1891); Albert S. Cook, A 
First hook in Old Engli.ih (Boston, 1893). 

Middle English. — Bemhardten Brink, Chauc-er's Sprache 
und VerskuuMt (Leiozig, 1HH4); F. II. Stratmann, ^ Dic- 
tionary of the Middle English Language, revised by H. 



Bradley (Oxford, 1891) ; Mayhew and Skeat, A Concise Dic- 
tionary of Middle English (Oxford, 1888) ; Henry Sweet, A 
First Middle English Primer (Oxford, 1884), and Second 
Middle English Primer (Oxford, 1886); Morris and Skrat. 
Specimens of Early English, part L, 1150-1300, part iL, 1298- 
1393 (Oxford, 1886); Eduard MStzner. ^//ena/tW*^ Sprach- 
prohen, vol- i., Sprachprohen, vol. ii., Wdrterbuch (Berlin. 
1878- ), the best dictionary of Middle English up to nearly the 
middle of the alphabet ; Forshall and Madden, WycXtffe and 
PiinWsNew Testament (Oxford, 1879) ; E. EinenkeU'iVr^iT- 
zUge aurch die mittelenglische Syntax (MUnster i. W., 1887) ; 
L. Morsbach, CTeber den Ursprung der neuenglisehen Schrift- 
sprache (Heilbronn, 1888). 

Shakspeare.—FAlwin A. Abbott,^ Shakespearian Gram- 
mar (London, 1870) ; Alexander Schmidt, Shakespeare- lexi- 
con (Berlin and London, 1886). 

Modem Efialish.—F, Hall, Modem English (London. 
1873) ; John Earle, Enalish Prose, its Elements, History, 
and Usaae (London and New York, 1891). 

Periodicals.^ Englische Studien, ed. by E. Kolbing (Heil- 
bronn, since 1876); Anglia, ed. by Eugen Einenkel and 
Ewald FlUgel (Halle, since 1878); Modem Lanmiage yotrA, 
ed. by A. M. Elliott (Baltimore, since 1886) ; Transactiunn 
of the Philological Society (London); Transactions of thf 
American Philological Society (since 1869) ; Publications of 
the Modem Language Association of America (Baltimore, 
since 1884) ; Publications of the Early English Text Society. 

Revisedf by Albert S. Cook. 

English Literature : the written or printed expression 
of the thought of English-speaking races, wherever pn>- 
duced. The subject is divided according to historicHl 
periods, Old or Early English literature, comprising all 
prose and vei-se written before the Norman conquest of 
England, or, to speak with definiteness, from a. d. 450 t<» 
1066, being classed as Anglo-Saxon. See Axolo-Saxon 
Literature. 

middle ENGLISH. 

The Norman conouest not only made a break in the natu- 
ral growth of English speech, but brought in new intel- 
lectual influences and novel literary forms. The Engli-h 
language was displaced from many of its former u«♦*^, 
From 1066 to the middle of the fourteenth century th«* 
learned literature of the country was mostly in Latin and 
the polite literature in French. ' English did not cea?^ to 
be a written tongue, but its extant remains down to tht' 
year 1200 are few and unimportant, if we except the con- 
tinuation of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, which was carried 
on to 1154. After 1200 English came more and more inXo 
use in books, but mainly at first ,in translations and imita- 
tions from the French. The Normans were the most brill- 
iant race of mediaeval Europe, and their literature refiecte«l 
their chivalrous, adventurous character, their passion f»»r 
prowess and courtesy, their love of pleasure and ma^iiti- 
cence. A people fond of exploits and devoted to deeds nf 
knight-errantry naturally took delight in the narrative of 
such deeds. Chronicles in Latin prose, history mingKtl 
with fiction and put into Norman-French verse* (cAan^o«/< 
de geste), and fflbuious tales of marvelous adventure {romauf. 
d'aventures) were their favorite reading. These metrical 
romances or chivalry stories were the most characteristi*.- 
contribution of the Normans to English poetry. They wen- 
sung or recited by minstrels and wandering jongleurs, ami 
numbers of them were turned into English verse during the 
thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries. Some of the 
earliest English romances were Havelok the Dane, Kintj 
Horn, and Sir Tristram. The heroes of some of these n>- 
mances were from national history or legend, as Ricbarti 
Canir de Lion, Guy of Warwick, and Bevis of Hampton. 
Others were of various times and places, as King Alexander. 
Sir Troilus of Troy, and Charlemagne. Still others were 
entireh' fabulous, as in the romances of William of Palermo , 
The iLing of Tarsus, Amis and Amiloun, etc. The nativ«« 
alliterative verse was now generally abandoned for PVeiK^h 
meter and rhyme, the commonest form in the romaiic**»*< 
being the eight-syllabled couplet. 

The favorite Anglo-Norman romance hero was that rayt h- 
ical Arthur of Britain whom Welsh legend had celebratt^^l 
as the most formidable enemy of the Saxon inva^lern. 
Arthur had figured among other fabulous British kings in 
tlie Historia Britonnm, a Latin pseudo-chronicle produiHti 
alx)ut 1135 by Geoflfrey of Monnimith, a Benedictine monk, 
seemingly of Welsh descent. In 1155 the Norman Wac-v 
turned Geoffrey's history into French verse under the till.* 



124 



ENGLISH LITERATURE 



Vision of Piers Ploughman^ to which some other writer 
afterward added The Creed, is a satirical poem written in 
alliterative verse. Together they form a national work, the 
first great original work in Engrlish literature. Neither the 
Vision nor the Creed has mucn coherence of plan, but the 
latter has more than the former. Langland was a humane 
satirist, and his purpose was to set forth the wrongs of his 
humbler countryinen, suffered at the hands of nobles and 

griests and lawyers, but chiefly at those of the priesthood. 
[e gave voice to the sorrow, the shame, and the subdued in- 
dignation of a deceived, oppressed, and pillaged people. 
The tiller of the soil, from whose labors nearly all wealth 
springs, and who then, as often since, starved amid the food 
tnat he raised for others, found in him an advocate, and the 
grasping noble and tne corrupt churchman a just judge and 
a pitiless satirist. The pathos and the humor of his work 
are not less remarkable than its causticity. It is in these 
respects, as in all others, thoroughly English in its tone 
ana character ; and as an exposition of popular feeling, and 
no less a picture of contemporary manners, it has not a 
superior in the whole range of literature. The following 
brief passages * are characteristic of the author's style and 
of his subject-matter : 

And thanne cam Coveitise * kan I hym naght discry ve, 
So hungrily and holwe • sire Hervev hym loked. 
He was bitel-browed * and babber-fipped also,. 
With two blered eighen • as a bljmd hagge ; 
And as a lethem purs * lolled hise chekes 
Wei sidder than his chyn • thei cheveled for elde ; 
And as a bondman of his bacon * his herd was bi-draveled. 
With an hood on his heed * a lousy hat above 
And in a tawny tabard • of twelve wynter age, 
Al so torn and baudy • and ful of lys crepyng 
But if that a lous couthe * ban lopen the bettre. 
She sholde noght han walked on that wolthe * so was it 
thred-bare. Vision, Passus v. 

And as I wente by the way • wepvnge for sorowe 
I seigh a sely man me by ' opon the plough hongen. 
His cote was of a cloute • that cary was y-called ; 
His hod was ful of holes ' and his heare oute 
With his knoppede shon • clouted ful thykke ; 
His ton toteden out * as he the lond tredede ; 
His hosen over-hongen his hok-shvnes * on everiche a syde 
Al beslomered in fen * as he the plow folowed. 
Tweye myteynes as meter • maad al of cloutes. 
The fyngres weren for-werd • and ful of fen hongec' 
This wit waseled in the feen * almost to the ancle 
Poure sotheren hym bvforne • that feble were worthi : 
Men mighte reknen icli a ryb * so senful they weren. 
His wiif walked hym with • with a long gode, 
In a cuttede cote * cutted ful heyghe. 
Wrapped in a wynwe shete • to weren her fro wederes 
Bar-iot on the bare iis ' that the blod folwede. 
And at the londes ende lyth * a little crom-bolle. 
And thereon lay a lytel chylde * lapped in cloutes 
And tweyne of tweie yeres olde • opon another syde 
And al they songen o songe * that sorwe was to heren ; 
They crieden alle o cry • a kareful note 
The sely man sighed sore • and seyde, Children, beth stille. 

The Creed, etc. 

It is worthy of remark that the first great work in Eng- 
lish literature was written in a language formed neither by 
scholars nor courtiers, but by the people at large, and that 
it was a protcvst against wrong*, against fraud, against priest- 
craft and hypocrisy — a demand for the recognition of hu- 
man rights, lor personal freedom and liberty of conscience. 
Wyclifff. — The KiWouand the Creed of Piers Ploughman 
bear the stamp of a great historical periwl. At the time of 
their production John Wycliffe and his followers were dis- 
turbing the established religion of England at its verv founda- 
tions, and the author or authors of Piers Ploughman, if not 
openly attached to the Lollartl party, must be reckoned as of 
it. As regards the Creed, this fact was recognized in the 
most emphatic manner by the ministers of the prevailing re- 
ligion, for they caused the copies of it to be so thoroughly 
destroyed that, whereas the old manuscripts of the Vision are 
many, of the Creed not one is known to exist. Piers Plough- 
man, itself eoually valuable as a record of the condition of lan- 
guage and religion, was thus one of the writings that ushered 

• Ag these passasres are quoted for their matter, and not for their 
language, I have cho«en the text edited by Wright, and with him 
have modernized the )> and the ^, in preference to following the 
more accurate but less generally readable text of Rkeat. 



in that great work, itself e<|uaUy important as to reli>:.- n 
and language, the Wycliffite translation of the Bible. Th:- 
was made from the Latin Vulgate by Wycliffe and somr i.f 
his followers about 1380. No other single work ever ox* r- 
cised so much influence upon the political, moral, literar\. 
and linguistic future of a people as the Wycliffite Bibh* dm. 
except, perhaps, Luther's translation of the same SctI]*!- 
ures into High German nearlv 200 years afterward. I* 
was the beginning of a revolutwm which freed EnglLsiimtn 
from the rule of a foreign hierarchv, and ended in the •im- 
position of the Stuarts and in the Bill of Rights. AhhouL'li 
It added little to the English vocabulary, it enriched En;:li-t- 
expression — we might almost say English idiom — with h 
strong and peculiar phraseology which sprang from ti* 
contact between Hebraic thought and English sjmh-* ii, 
and which, having been preserved through 300 y('ttr>. 
even to the revised translation of 1611, and having' b<>t^r] 
read and listened to and taken to heart by so many genfm- 
tions of Englishmen, came to affect in a measure the wh'h 
popular cast of thought and of speech. It was the Wyelitliif 
version that did this ; for although there was, as has brt n 
seen, an Old English version of the Bible, this did !!•.' 
spread among the English people ; and bein^ almost forgott* t. 
and quite incomprehensiDle to the English people at lit*- 
middle of the fourteenth centurv, there was no such (^n- 
nection between it and the Wycliffite version as there vkh> 
between the latter and the received translation ; in imx. 
there was no connection at all. This translation, conij>It'ti-ii 
about 1380, was revised by John Purvey, a learned \\ ydii!- 
ite writer who had made the subject of translation a pro- 
found study, and who sought to render this version nior- 
exact and more conformed to English idiom, which end )i'- 
attained with admirable skill, finishing his work about 1H'.k». 
Apart from the peculiar Anglo-Hebraic phraseology \wU>t* 
'mentioned, this translation tended to modernize the lar.- 
guage. It was, as to simplicity of forms of words and the 
untrammelled construction of the sentence, in advanct* (>{ 
the general English writing of its day ; and its unparailrK-l 
literary influence led to the confirmation of this fretHlon. 
from grammatical restraint amone all English people, (vir- 
ticularly those of the middle and lower classes. 

Chaucer, — Geoffrey Chaucer was a younger contemporary 
of the author or authors of Piers Ploughman, as he wa> Uiri'i 
about 1340, and died about 1400. He was connected n^ith 
the court, having married the sister-in-law of John of Gaun? . 
the father of Henry IV. He was pensioned, employwi u, 
diplomacy, and made comptroller of the customs. As'Ijhh^'- 
land*s poems were addressed to the middle and lower cla>>»>, 
and written in their interest, so Chaucer wrote for the nc»Mt-> 
and gentrv; and the tone of his poems was suited to th*- 
temper of his audience. 

Cnaucer was a voluminous writer, but his chief work* »rv 
The Canterbury Tales, Troilus and Creseide, and The R"- 
maunt of the Rose. Of these the Canterbury Tales are ihr 
most original and the most characteristic of his geniu^s al- 
though Troilus and Creseide is as fine a narrative poem, m i 
of the heroic cast, as exists in any literature. Cnauter i^ 
essentially a narrative poet. He is the earliest poet siiu v 
the revival of literature after the Dark Ages who ha> 
awakened an enduring svmpathy in the characters and i lit- 
feelings and the fate of his personages. He is the firsU in- 
deed, who portrays real individualitv of character, l-^h 
one of the personages in the pilgrimage to Canterbun. 
which is the occasion of the Tales, exists to this day in 
the minds of his readers as a living character that has ii> 
real and independent a being as any creature of flesh anti 
blood that is met in one's daily life. In this respect he i> 
a rival of Scott (in his novels), and almost of Snaksi>earv>. 
Like the former, he paints them; like the latter, he niakt^ 
them unconsciously paint themselves. He is English in all 
the traits of his mina and his stvle ; and in nothing mow >* • 
than in his humor. So early (also in Piers Pl<mghmau) <ittl 
this peculiar trait of Encrlish literature, in which it is un- 
rivalled by that of any other people, appear, and with all itx 
inexpressible and humanizing charms m fullest bloom aii<i 
subtlest fragrance. As an historical picture of the tiuit* in 
which they were written, the Canterbury Tales are as if thf 
veil of five centuries were lifted and we looked in upi>ii » 
gathering of our forefathers in the free enjoyment of e^ub 
other's society. But above ail Chaucer's other charms i> 
that of his strong and clear imagination. What he dt^ 
scribed he saw in his mind's eye as clearly as if it appeare<(i 
before him in the body. We see with him the very personal 
traits and tricks of the people that he sets before us, no U*^^ 



ENGLISH LITERATURE 



125 



ih«n the idTentures through which they pass or which they 
n-Ute. There is all the freshest charm of nature in hira, 
jviioni with the elegance of an accomplished man of the 
Torid, So in his langua£e there lingers some of the homely 
niQi^ness of early English, while at the same time it is 
.<p»nslT marked with the dainty splendor of the speech 
tlut, liie some other pretenders, came over with the Con- 
•t'lfmr. Chancer stands alone, not only in his merits but 
k hi* literary position. He had no fellows; few contem- 
{•>nnfs worth mentioning; and after his period a dark- 
t'-e* fell upon English literature, through which glimmered 
4 few dim and struggling lights whose only function was to 
' \Mke darkn«ss visible. 

6'tf«r.— John Gower, a barrister (b. about 1325 ; d. 1408), 
•is the chief of Chaucer's contemporaries. His reputation 
ra$ irreat Chaucer himself speaks of him with deference, 
and calls him the ** moral Gower." But the dull, dead weight 
- r hi» <jk has sunk him out of sight, and left only his name 
1<«tinz'opon oblivion. His Confessio Amantis (Confession 
4 the LoTer) is a long nondescript poem, to read which re- 
(jTiire* the patient, self-sacrificing courage of a conscientious 
mre^isator of the history of our older literature. It has 
j'lle cUim to attention even as a contemporary record of 
EiaoDen and moraK 

Bar^oHr.—Ot all the poets of Chaucer's day, John Barbour 
•w the only one worthy even of comparison with him. Bar- 
btMir (b. aboat 1316 ; d. 1395) was, according to the political 
dirisioo of the country, a Scotchman. But political oivisions 
bare nothing to do with literature or with language, and 
Barhonr merely wrote in Northern English as Chaucer wrote 
.0 SoQthem. Barbour and his neighbors rightly called their 
ao^uge English, and so it continued to be called until 
tjwaid the end of the sixteenth century, when local pride 
jod political jealousy caused it to be called Scotch — a change 
t< destination which has been the cause of much misappre- 
AHBion and confusion. Nothing more truly English in 
«(^h or in spirit was ever written than this passa^ from 
Barhoor's principal work — a long epic, or at least historical 
aimtiTe poem. The Bruce : 

Ah ! fredome is a noble thing 
Predome roayss man to haiff liking 
Fredome all solace to man giffis 
He levys at ess that frely levys. 
A noble hart may haiff nane ess, 
Na ellys nocht that mav him pless, 
Gyff fredome failvhe: for f re liking 
Is' yhamyt our all othir thyng. 
Na' he that ay hass levyt f re 
May nocht knaw well the propyrte. 
The anger na the wretchyt dome 
That i» cowplyt to foule thyrldome. 
But gyff he had assayit it 
That all percjuer he suld it wyt ; 
And suld think fredome mar to pryss 
Than all the gold in warld that is. 

Book /., 11. 225-240. 

No leas remarkable than the sudden uprising of such a 

Crt as Chaucer, and one may even say of Barbour, is the 
■* that within their century there appeared no writers of 
Cher poetry or prose who were worthy of being called their 
fc^><^efa, and that for nearly 200 years after the death of 
Haocer the standard of literature was low. For this there 
^f*" two reasons that can now be seen — perhaps others hid- 
*« by the distance of time. The first is the violent re- 
F*^*>a of all free thought which was brought about by 
•* efforts of the Church to crush Ijollardisra and extin- 
pish the very embers and sparks of the fire kindled by the 
•jrliifites; next the desolating civil War of the Roses, 
»^'^» broke out in 1455, and afflicted England with its con- 
»H*rftcrs for quite half a century, although the war itself 
*«*«i but thirty years. Of the anti-Wycliffite writers the 
»*•« eminent was Bishop Pecocke, who' had some vivacity 
^ *y1e if no strength of thought. The most remarkable 
IJ*^ book of the latter part of the fifteenth century is the 
*vit 4' Arthur oi Sir Thomas Mallory (b. about 1430). com- 
H-^ and translated from the French about 1470— a work 
■--h in its animation, and sometimes its simplicity and 
^||*^'^» of style, does something to relieve the liferar>' 
**'T*iiiew of its century. Mallory s language is remarkable 
** *» b^edom from Romanic words, to which fact it owes 
■*;* of its directness and its strength. 

Vj*'*°*- — At this period printing was introduced into Eng- 
•4 by William Caxton, who in 1474 printed his first book, 



a History of Troy^ translated from the French. Caxton was 
a translator and an adapter as well as a printer, but not 
even his wonderful mechanical art had at first much influ- 
ence upon either literature or language. Of poets, or writers 
of rhyming verse, in this period we have Occleve (about 
1370-1454) and Lydgate (about 1370-1450), whose names 
only need be mentioned in a sketch like this. 

It was in the North that the best literary work was done 
at this period, although Andrew of Wyntoun, a clerical 
chronicler in verse who flourished about the beginning of 
the fifteenth century, is little more than a rude rhymester, 
the value of whose work is chiefly historical. But James 1. of 
Scotland, in his King's Qttair, shows fancy, fine conceit, and 
the fruit of a careful study of Chaucer, whose works soon 
began to exercise a great infiuence upon poetical litera- 
ture. Robert Henryson (or Henderson) not only studied 
and imitatefl him, but also wrote a continuation of Trotlua 
and Creseide, which he called 7%« Testament of Fair Cre- 
seide^ which has been with some reason deemed not unwor- 
thy of being printed in company with Chaucer's poem. Of 
all the extreme Northern English poets, Henryson and 
James I. show most the influence of the Southern language 
and literature. Henryson, who lived until about 1^)0, is 
the author of other poems of merit, among them the beauti- 
ful pastoral Rohin and Maktyne, which was reprinted in 
the Percy Collection. A poet known as Henry the Minstrel, 
or Blind Harry, composed a long poem of which the life of 
William Wallace was the theme. It is a genuine strong 
piece of poetical ** making," quite Homeric in a rude and 
numble way, and full of hatred of " the Saxon " ; Blind Harrv 
himself being probably as good a Saxon or " Anglo-Saxon *' 
as there was to be found south of the Tweed. After this pe- 
riod the so-called Scots literature shows a wider divergence 
in spirit and in form from that of the South, or of Eng- 
land proper. 

MODERN ENGLISH. 

More. — The flrst part of the sixteenth century produced 
in Sir Thomas More (1478-1536), King Henry VIII.^s second 
lord chancellor, the first English prose-writer of merit after 
Chaucer, whose prose was, like his poetry, the best of its kind 
that England saw for more than a century. More was a man 
of learning for his time, wise, humorous, penetrative, and of 
noble impulse and purpose. He wrote many controversial 
works of timely interest, and in Latin his famous Utopia. 
Of his English writings the most important is his Life and 
Reign of Edward V. (called his Life of Richard III,). In 
this his narrative power and his characterization of the per- 
sonages whom he sets before us give him a conspicuous as 
well as an early place in the true historical English litera- 
ture. His writings were produced between about 1515 and 
1535, when he was beheaded. About the same time Sir 
Thomas Elyot (b. before 1490 ; d. 1546) wrote his political 
work. The uox'emour. 

Tyndale. — It was theology, however, which gave new life 
to English literature, upon which William Tyndale and 
his followers conferred a benefit only inferior in degree to 
that which they bestowed upon the cause of freedom of con- 
science and purity of religion. Tyndale (b. about 1484; 
burnt at the stake 1536) ma^e the first translations of parts 
of the Bible into English from the ori^nal Hebrew and 
Greek. But although he went to the original tongues, he 
did not lay aside the Wycliffite version, but on the contrary 
he kept it in mind, if not before his eye, and seems to have 
endeavored to preserve its phraseology as far as was consist- 
ent with a faithful rendering of the original text and a 
necessary conformity to the general speech of his own day. 
To this endeavor is due the continued life of that grand, 
strong, simple phraseology which English-speaking men 
recognize at once as ** the language of the Bible," andwhich 
has for more than 450 years exercised an elevating and puri- 
fying influence upon the English language and literature. 
Tyndale's translation is the most important literary and phil- 
ological fact between the time of Cnaucer and tfiat known 
as the Elizabethan period. Tyndale was also a voluminous 
writer in commentary and controversy, and a stout and a 
successful disputant with Sir Thomas More. His English, 
like his thought, is notably vigorous, manly, and clear, and 
he with his followers — among whom John Frith (b. about 
1503), a Kentishman, was conspicuous — were the salt of Eng- 
lish literature in the first part of the sixteenth centuiy. 
These men wrote in a simpler, homelier style, and in more 
nearly unmixed English words, than any writers after the 
beginning of the third quarter of their century. Arch- 



126 



ENGLISH LITERATURE 



bishop Cranmer (1489-1556), and notably Bishop Latimer 
(b. about 1485; d. 1555), were in their sermons and contro- 
versial writings apostles of simple English as wcp as of gos- 
pel truth. Latimer preached to the common people in their 
daily speech and witn the most unstudied homeliness of dic- 
tion and illustration. About this time there was an effort 
at English purism. Sir John Cheke (1514-57), one of the 
few (Jreek scholars in England, began a translation of the 
New Testament, in which, as in his other writings, he was 
studious to represent Greek words by English emiivalents. 
and went so far as to e^in such words as fore-snewera fur 
prophets, hundredera for centurions, and againrbirth for re- 
generation. 

Ascham, — Cheke's friend Roger Ascham (1515-68) wrote 
his Toxophihia less to teach hfc countrymen how to draw 
the bow, which they had drawn pretty well at Hastings, 
than to show them an example of a pure, idiomatic, and 
elegant Enelish style, which he did most effectually. In 
this effort he was seconded by Thomas Wilson (d. 1581) in 
his Arte of Rhetoricke (1553), and thirty years later by 
George Puttenham in his Arte of English Poesy, 

The Northern poet, Gawin Douglas (b. about 1474), de- 
serves a passing notice for his translation of the j^neid, 
said to be the first version of that classic published in Brit- 
ain. Next come the poets and prose-writers who were to 
usher in the brightest period of tne world's literature since 
that outburst of Greek genius which took place in the age of 
Pericles. 

Skelton, — John Skelton, Lord Surrey, and Sir Thomas 
Wyat (1503-42) were almost contemporarv poets, but the 
first was singularly unlike the last two. SSkelton (b. about 
1460; d. 1529) was the more learned, and in his day had 
the greater reputation, Erasmus having styled him the light 
and ornament of English letters. But ftrasmus doubtless 
had in mind only his Latin verses, which are esteemed by 
scholars as remarkably pure; for anything written in a 
" vulgar " — i. e. a living — tongue was even then regarded as 
much unworthy the consideration of such a scholar as Eras- 
mus. Skelton's English poetry is fantastic, extravagant, 
sometimes so incoherent as to be almost incomprehensible, 
and often so coarse as to l)e repulsive. But he introduced 
liveliness of movement and freedom of versification, much 
needed in English poetical literature, and with all his 
coarseness he was not without brightness of fancy and 
grace of expression. His Philip Sparrow^ a poem of nearly 
1,400 lines, has many passages distinguished in these re- 
s|)ects. 

Wyat. — Sir Thomas Wyat, a traveler, courtier, satirist, 
and writer of Ivric poetry, was bom in 1503. He and Lord 
Surrey (Henry Howard, b. about 1516)— -who translated part 
of the ^neidf introduced blank verse into English poetry, 
and first wrote English sonnets — were the first true refiners 
of modern English style. They became the models of grace 
an<l elegance to their contemporaries and immediate suc- 
cessors. They died within a short time of each other, the 
former in 1542, the latter, on the block, in 1547. Wyat's 
poems were published in 1557. 

Thomas Tusser (1527-80) wrote A Hundred Points of Good 
Husbandries but his verses have value only as bucolical an- 
tiquities ; George Gascoigne, a dramatist, satirist, and critic 
of merit, who was one of the earliest Enjrlish writers of blank 
verse (d. 1577) ; and Tliomas Sackville, Earl of Dorset (1527- 
1608), the author with Thomas Norton, of the first regular 
English tragedy, Gorboduc, or Ferrex atid Porrex, which 
was also written in blank verse. But more than a passing 
notice must be taken of Sir Walter Raleigh (1552-1618), 
whose bright intellect, daring spirit, and clieckered life 
make him one of tlie most conspicuous figures in English 
history and literature. He was praised by Spenser, and his 
praise abided to SjKjnser's glory. His poetry is i-emarkable 
for manly simplicity and freshness of feeling, mingled with 
sententiousness; his p>litical writing for sagacity and 
knowledge of mankind ; and his History of the World is 
full of wisdom, and closes with one of the grandest passages 
in p]nglish prose. 

Sidney. — Somewhat like Raleigh in the circumstances of 
his life, although not in the character of his mind, was Sir 
Philip Sidney (1554-86). A younger scion of a noble fam- 
ily, he too was a soldier, a courtier, a scholar, and a poet. 
According to all accounts, he was the most accomplished, 
the most admirable, and the most lovable among English 
gentlemen of his day. He wtis a patron of literature as well 
as a man of letters. His claim to notice as an author in the 
history of English literature rests ujKjn his Arcadia^ a col- 



lection of romantic and chivalric tales bound together with 
a slender threa<l of plan, somewhat extended and ^^enri- 
some, but full of graceful and animatetl passages: souic 
poems, generally cold and deceitful, but in a few instancf> 
lofty in tone and lovely in imagery; but chiefly upon hi'v 
Apoloyie for Poetry ^ the earliest example of lesthetic criti- 
cism in English literature, and admirable for the beauty of 
its style and the soundness of its critical judgments, few «if 
which have been set aside or superseded. 

Spenser, — Sidney probably deserves the credit of haviutr 
made possible the poetical career of one of England^s great- 
est poets, Edmund Spenser. Spenser, bom about 1552, 
after having written The Shepherd's Calendar, it is su|)- 
posed at Ponshurst, the seat of the Sidneys, where his 
friend Sir Philip took him to reside for some years, re- 
ceived a grant of 3,000 acres of crown land in Ireland, 
whither he went and where he wrote the first three books of 
his Fairie Queen, when, going to London to have them 
printed, Raleigh presented him to Queen Elizabeth, who, 
m consideration of his poem, gave him, in addition to his 
lands, a pension of £50, quite equal to $1.5(X) now. Therv 
and then he wrote, among other poems. Mother Hubbard'^ 
Tale, Returning to Ireland in 1592 he wrote two more 
books and two cantos of a third of his great poem ; hi^ 
series of eighty-eight sonnets, Amoretti, celebrating his 
courtship of the lady whom he married; his Ejnthalamion 
on his marriage ; Colin ClouVa Come Home Again, AMfn*- 
phel, and other poems. He returned to London in ITjlw. 
and died there in 1599. If not the greatest of the poets of 
the Elizabethan period (which may be regarded as includ- 
ing the half century from 1575 to 1625), Spenser was seiond 
to one only, and he was the greatest of all those who livttl 
entirely in Elizabeth's reign. Among all English {xx^ts he 
has but two superiors — Shakspeare and Milton — altliough it 
is only in the elevation of his aim and in the fine and lumi- 
nous name of his fancy that he surpasses Chaucer. S|>enM-r 
is the most purely poetical of all English poets. His groat 
work, The Fairie Queen, is poetry, and nothing else. It i< 
not dramatic, or theological, or satirical, or, strictly s|»eak- 
ing, narrative; and although it did fashion "the tw«*I\f 
moral Virtues," it is not didactic after the weary fashion of 
most moral poems. It is allegorical, but its peculiar nn-rit 
is not in the allegory ; rather is the allegory somewhat of a 
hindrance to the reader who is not capable of setting thr di- 
dactic purpose of the poem aside and enjoying for itvvlf ih*- 
golden wealth of its rich fancy. The language empl<»yj'd 
was somewhat old-fashioned for Spenser's own day. He 
used words that were not then familiar household w»>rd>. 
and forms and inflections that had passed away — for in- 
stance, the old plural in en. 

Among the Elizabethan writers a theologian like Richard 
Hooker (about 1553-1600) must at least be mentione*!. lli-^ 
sagacity and the logical clearness of his thought gaiiuHl h'wu 
the title of " the judicious," and his style places him hi.:h 
among the masters of English prose. 

Lyly. — The writings of John Lyly (about 1554-1606) murk 
a change in the character of that prose. He intnxlu<'*Ml .hu 
almost fantastical style of writing. He affected fine {)hra^ -, 
and wrote for courtiers and those who would have lin*r 
bread than is made of wheat. The title. The Euphuint o.n** 
who speaks well), is derived from his principal work. Ku- 
phues and his England, which had much influence, and cv.-n 
brought about a style of speech and writing calletl euphui-m. 
But it would be very wrong to assume that this w*»rk i> a 
mass of fanciful folly in affected language. The b*H»k i> 
full of good sense and knowledge of the world. He ai>4> 
wrote six court comedies, which have little genuine dram at io 
interest, but which are very elegant and highly finished |>n>- 
ductions of their kind. 

Fulke Greville, Lord Brooke (1554-1628), " friend to Sir 
Philip Sidney," a poet, dramatist, and critical writer, wln>-t 
style is cumbrous, but whose thought is far-reaching niu\ 
weighty, can only be thus mentioned. 

In the galaxy* of poets that lighted up the Elizal»ethan 
sky even a merely superficial glance distinguishes Winiuin 
Warner (b. about'l558: d. 1609), Samuel Daniel (1562-l«li»», 
Michael Drayton (1563-163U Bishop Joseph Hall (1574- 
1656), Joshua Sylvester (1563-1618), and George Chapman 
(1557-1634), the* first translator of the whole of Hoiutr-* 
poems into English, and whose version, often inexact and 
nide, has an occasional sinewy strength and pithiness kikI u 
felicity of phrase which his more polished and schi>l>irly 
successors have not attained. Chapman was also a draniH- 
tist, but his dramatic work, although always indicative of 



128 



ENGLISH LITEUATURE 



there is do evidence in the writings of either that he and 
Shakspeare, the two brightest intellects of modem times, 
strictly contemporaries and living in the same place, knew 
of eacn other's existence ; the reason of which strange fact 
is that one was a statesman and a philosopher, the other a 
player and a playwright. 

Burton. — In the reign of James, Robert Burton (1577-1640) 
produced the Anatomy of Melaiuiholy^ti compound of curious 
teaming, made piquant by the spice of splenetic humor and 
jocular sneers with which the quoted passages are seasoned 
to bring out their flavor. It is so fillea with Latin that it is 
hardly an English book, but it is a typical specimen of a 
school or fashion of learned writing which prevailed about 
this time ; and notwithstanding- its pedantic air it has been, 
and ever will be, a source of delight and a quarry of sugges- 
tion to a large class of highly cultivated readers, and greatly 
90 to those wno themselves are writers. The names of Donne 
(1573-1631), a metaphysical poet ; of Sir Thomas Overbury 
(1581-1613), the author of The Wifs; of Richard Sibbes 
(1577-1635), a Puritan divine ; of John Hales (1584-1656), a 
theologian and the author of Golden Remaxnea\ and of 
William Drummond of Hawthornden Q585-1649), a Scotch 
poet of merit and a historian of Scotland — must be men- 
tioned in an attempt to give a view of English literature 
at this period. 

A notably important fact in regard to the Elizabethan era 
in literature is that the English language, which was fully 
formed at the beginning of the sixteenth century, was used 
in that era with a freedom from formal restraint that since 
then has been unknown. The parts of speech changed 
places at the wiU of the writer. Not only were adverbs 
used as adjectives, and adjectives as adverbs, but adverbs 
as nouns, and not only nouns, but even pronouns were used 
as verbs. A like freedom reigned as to other parts of 
speech and in the construction of the sentence. Thus was 
bom, in full strength and activity, the genius of the Eng- 
lish language, which is that the nature and quality of a 
word depend not upon it« form, but upon its place in the 
sentence and its logical relation to other words. Thus 
the P]nglish of the Elizabethan period was more truly and 
absolutely English than that of any periotl before or since. 
This freedom prevailed most remarkably in the writings of 
the poets and the dramatists of the period, and chiefest of 
all the latter. But it pervaded all writing and all speech. 
That it was prevented from degenerating into chaotic li- 
cense is probably due in a large measure to the preparation 
and diffusion of the revised or King James's translation of 
the Bible, which was published in 1611. 

King James's Translation of the Bible. — In this transla- 
tion, made with extremest care and the interchanged la- 
bor of forty-seven of the most competent scholars in Eng- 
land, the language of the previous versions was not only 
kept in view, but retained whenever it was consistent with 
the original, and sufficiently modem to be comprehensible 
without losing the dignity which pertains to antiquity, or 
taking on the strangeness which goes with novelty. The 
translators touched the sacred old structure with reverent 
hands, and while they renovated and strengthened it they 
did not whitewash the mellow tints of time with glaring 
newness. This book was at once published abroad through- 
out England, and since that time it has been printed and 
reprinted and scattered, and read daily by people of English 
race as no other book was ever read by any other people. 
Its influence upon English literature nas been as great as 
upon the morality of English life. It has been the treasure- 
hcmse and the stronghold of the English language. It con- 
tains the best, the purest, the manliest, and the sweetest 
En<j^lish that was ever written. Its narrative style is be- 
yond that of all other writing in its own or in other tongues 
for siniplicity, for clearness, and for strength. No exhorta- 
tion is like its exhortation, and no other counsel comes 
clothed in such impressive dignity of phrase. In it the 
rich and glowing diction of its Oriental original is pre- 
served, and yet tempered with something of the cool direct- 
ness, the honesty, and the homely freshness of the Anglo- 
Saxon nature. Its influence upon the English language 
has been the most pervading and the most wholesomely 
conservative that was ever exercised by a single force. Its 
authority has surpassed that of any possible academy. 

After the death of Bacon and of James I. a few names of 
note attract attention l)efore the period of the (Commonwealth 
is reached : George Wither (1588-1667), a poet chiefly sacred, 
nervous in style, and remarkable for his simple, clear Eng- 
lish; Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), who wrote upon social 



and moral subjects and translated Homer into halting v«'rv»» 
— a strong, clear, but not always logical thinker, and the 
first English master of regularity and symmetry of sty]t»; 
Thomas Carew (d. about 1639), a tender and graceful writer 
of light amatory verse, which, based upon French mo<lt'l>. 
has the merit of character; Robert Herrick (1591-1674). 
who, writing both sacred and amatory verse, is known 
chiefly by the latter, in which he clothes his exquisite <-on- 
ceits m a rich style; Isaac Walton (1593-1683), a meek an<i 
pious angler, who wrote The Complete Angler and the Iiv<*s 
of Donne, Hooker, and other divines, and whose love of 
nature and simple pedestrianism of life and style win him 
admirers generation after generation ; George Herbert (15S»;J- 
1633), whose collection of short poems called The TemiA*- 
had an amazing popular favor. 520,000 copies having bet-n 
sold, according to his biographer Walton, in a few years. 
Herbert belongs to the metaphysical school of Donne. \\\> 
thoughts are almost a continued succession of quaint con- 
ceits and are steeped in ecclesiasticism ; but they are [mt- 
vaded with the spirit of tme piety and uttered m Enixli*ih 
notably simple and manly. 

Waller, — To the time of the Commonwealth and the Res- 
toration belongs Edmund Waller, who was born in 1605, and 
who devoted himself to politics and to literature. His 
verse unites grace and dignitv, although he is sometimes 
tempted into extravagance. Efis lines On a Girdle exf)n*ss 
one of the most exquisite amatory fancies in love-literature. 
He had a charming fancy, but little imagination. Contem- 
porary with him were Thomas Randolph (1605-34), whose 
poems are tame, but in whose plays there linger echoes of thf 
Elizabethan grandeur and freedom ; Sir William Davenant. 
playwright and poet-laureate, but a poor creature ; Sir John 
Suckling (1609-42), a dainty poet and an amorous; and the 
gallant Richani Lovelace (b. 1618 ; d. 1658), whose songs give 
the soul of chivalry and true love voice. 

Milton. — All the poets of this period were eclipsed by th** 
grand and luminous shadow of John Milton (160B-74). ' His 
prose works, chiefly controversial, and chiefly inspireii by 
the great civil war, need not be noticed, except by name. 
Their value was chiefly for their time, and neither in them 
nor in any other of his* prose works did his genius show, ex- 
cept fitfully, its peculiar power. Indeed, his prose, although 
strong in thought, is in style involved, cumbrous, and awk- 
ward. Of these the ablest are Eikonoklastes, A Defence of 
the People of England, Tetrachordon^ TTie Doctrine and 
Discipline of Divorce. The Tenure of Kings and Maqin- 
trates, A Tractaie of Education, and Areopagitica^ a PUa 
for the Liberty of Unlicensed Printing. But it is as a 
poet that Milton lives in the world's memory, and of ino«l- 
ern epic poets he is incomparably the greatest. His earlier 
and minor works have a serene and lofty grace of expre>- 
sion, united with a sustained power, that preludes the com- 
ing epos. But their merits, great as they are, are !♦*>"< 
imaginative than fanciful, although the fancy is of the very 
highest order. L^ Allegro shows that he could even be play- 
ful. His sonnets have been much praised, particularly sin<»e 
Wordsworth said of him that in his hand the sonnet " lie- 
came a trumpet." His powers were better displayed in his 
great epic poem. Paradise Lost, which has the singular ad- 
vantage of the grandest theme, the theme most interest injr 
to all Christendom, and the most suggestive of sul>liiiio 
thought, that could have been chosen. The style of thf 
Paradise Lost in its finest and most characteristic passap'-t 
has an almost indescribable grandeur and strength. Its \im^< 
are adorned with a wealth of illustration compelled from all 
literature and all history, sacred and profane ; and it^ au- 
thor marches along his royal road of verse like some gn'>it 
conqueror whose triumph is made splendid with the sp<ul> 
of subject peoples. But these are the mere tokens and de<*- 
orations of his own power. His thought and his purf»ose an» 
always supreme. In the Paradise Lost and the fiaradi^^ 
Regained the poet worked out to the utmost l)ound of jm^- 
sibility mere hints in the sacred writings of the Hebrews an* I 
the Christians, and thus became the originator of many of 
the popular "views of theology since his aay. Milton is iioi, 
properly speaking, an English poet, or an English prost*- 
writer. His stvle and the very character of his thought ar»» 
eminently un-finglish. His spirit is Hebraic, his form thjit 
of Latin and Greek models. His last work, and one of his 
greatest, Samson Aaoniste.% is remarkable in this resjx^ct. 
In its form it is modeled upon jEschylus : its spirit is cauirht 
from Joshua, from Ezekiel, and from Isaiah. In one i>^- 
markable respect Milton is eminently un-En^i^lish : he is en- 
tirely without humor, that peculiarly English, or at leA.<n 



130 



ENGLISH LITERATURE 



1640-1715) ; and the Earl of Rochester (1647-80), the most 
indecent and perhaps the most ptted of them all, and 
the author of the best epigram (written on the bed-chamber 
door of Charles II.) in tne language: 

Here lies our sovereign lord the king, 
Whose word no man relies on ; 

He- never says a foolish thing, 
And Aever does a wise one. 

Dryden. — The chief poet of this period was John Dryden, 
the son of a Puritan gentleman of Northamptonshire. He 
was born in 1631 and died in 1700. He began to write as 
early as 1649, but his most active period began in 1662. Dry- 
den began his poetical career in the school of Donne and Cow- 
ley, and in the extravagant absurdity of his conceits he out- 
Heroded Herod. Whoever wishes to learn what conceit is 
in poetry may best learn by studying it in the form of mon- 
strous and loathsome caricature in Dryden's Lines on the 
Death of Lord Hastings, But there was other stuff than 
this in the man, who merely began as most young geniuses 
do, whether in literature, in music, or in painting, by imitat- 
ing some one of their predecessors. Drvden, however, was 
nearly forty years old before he showed nis power, which is 
that of an impetuous flow of versification, embodying cogent 
argument, stinging satire, or graphic portraiture. Of pas- 
sion, of tenderness, and of pathos he showed none in his 
poetry, having, it would seem, none in his nature. He is 
fierce, but never warm, impetuous, but never earnest. He 
shows great strength, but not the greatest, which always car- 
ries with it a delicacy of touch to which weakness can never 
attain. His sentiments are never of the highest or the purest 
kind. He belongs to the race of time-servers and men- 
pleasers. But his satirical power is almost equal to Juve- 
nal's, and his portrait*? of his contemporaries — ^as, for instance, 
in Absalom and Aehitophel^ the best of his more impor- 
tant works — are grand nistoric caricatures, heroic in scale 
and in spirit. Ilis best lyric composition, Alexander's 
Feast, was once thought the finest tning of the kind in 
English literature, but time has been g^radually, and surely 
ana justlv, diminishing its reputation. He wrote thirty 
plays, both comedies and tragedies. They have little poetic 
merit and no real dramatic power. They were, however, 
written as many of the best works in literature were 
written, merely for the money they would bring. But in 
the prefaces to some of these plays Dryden stepped upon 
the field of dramatic criticism, of which he showed him- 
self a master. Thev are the earliest work of the kind in 
the language, and tney remain among the very best. Dry- 
den was not a great poet, but he seems like a great poet in 
arrested development. The perpetuity of his fame is due 
to the splendor of his style and tlie vigorous freedom of his 
versification. He was in these respects, and by his power 
of crowding an epigram into a couplet or touching off a 
portrait in a quatrain, the introducer of a new school in 
poetry, which prevailed during the early part of the century 
succeeding his death. 

The latter part of the seventeenth century was adorned 
by several prose-writers of eminence other than those al- 
ready mentioned : Ralph Cud worth (1617-88), Andrew Mar- 
vell — also distinguished as a poet (1621-78), Algernon Svd- 
nev (1622-83), Sir William Temple (1628-98), Isaac Barrow 
{imy-77\ John Tillotson (1630-94), Robert South (1633- 
1716), and Gilbert Burnet (1643-1715); as to whom, how- 
ever, there is room enough only for their names. 

Locke. — One man of this period, John Locke (1632-1704), 
demands particular attention as being an original thinker 
and one of the most eminent of England's philosophical writ- 
ers. Locke is indeed the father or political and social ideas 
which since his time have shaped the political and the social 
development of the English race in Great Britain and Amer- 
ica, In his Considerations of the Conseouences of Lowering 
the Interest and Raising the Value of Money he first taught 
the political and commercial necessity of absolute good faith 
on tne part of government as the creator of the legal repre- 
sentative of value and the medium of exchange of commod- 
ities, and that the issue of a deprwiated currency was a 
breach of good faith. In his Letter concerning Toleratitm 
he not only nobly sustains the arguments of Milton and 
Jeremy Taylor on the same subject, but he broaches the 
theory now established and acted u|x)n, that the function of 
government is to make secure the personal liberty and the 
civil interests of the individual, and that when it attempts 
to do more it oversteps its proper limits. His Treatises on 
Cii*il Oovemment develop and enforce this important politi- 



cal theory, resting it chiefly on an implied contract between 
the governing power and the governed. His Thoughts con- 
ceming Education have controlled, and wisely contrulhMU 
the action of the English peoples almost until the prevnt 
time, although the cold austerity of his views has been tmA- 
ified by a warmer infusion of parental feeling. But it is hi** 
Essay concerning Human Understanding which has given 
him his most enduring fame and power, in that he was ilw 
first to popularize the study of mental philosophy, and to 
turn the mind's eye of the whole world inward upon it^'lf. 
To John Locke more than to any other writer is owing Xh^ 
introspective character of the literature, even the imagina- 
tive and fictitious literature, of the nineteenth century. ( >f 
Locke it was admirably said by Mackintosh that ^* his writings 
have diffused throughout the world the love of civil lil)erty. 
the spirit of toleration in religious differences, the dis|)o?iiti(in 
to reject whatever is obscure, fantastical, or hypothetical m 
speculation, to reduce verbal disputes to their proper valu»», 
to abandon problems which admit of no solution, to distrust 
whatever can not be clearly expressed, to render theory th«- 
simple explanation of facts, and to prefer those studies whi<>l) 
most directly contribute to human nappiness." His style has 
the fault of \>eing in spirit unimaginative and in form \i*> 
diffuse and vague. 
Newton, — Contemporary with Locke were two distin- 

f:uished men of science, one of them very eminent — RoU-rt 
looke and Sir Isaac Newton. Hooke (1635-1703) wcu« an 
investigator and an inventor, but chiefly a critic and a <li>- 
putant, presuming, ill-tempered, and insolent. He did n<>r 
hesitate to attack I^ewton's theory of light and colors. New- 
ton (1642-1727) is admitted to have been the greatest master 
of exact science that ever lived. His discoveries of the law 
according to which the force of gravitation acts, and of tin* 
refraction and composite nature of the ray of light, are the 
most important in their kind of modern times. His genius, 
although sublime and far reaching, was eminently practicHl ; 
and to him England was indebted for the regulation of the 
dire confusion of her coinage. His works banlly e<inie 
within the range of pure literature, but the splendor of hw 
genius and the ^ranaeur of his fame forbid them to be passt^l 
by without notice. 

Ijocke and Newton were the great literary and philosoph- 
ical ornaments of the reign of William and Mary, which w(t> 
sadly in need of all the glory that could be shed upon it by 
their genius; for the Revolution of 1688 crushed literatuTv 
far more effectually than that did which brought in tb.- 
Commonwealth ; one reason of which doubtless b that X\\vt\- 
was a much feebler thing to crush. For twenty years tii*- 
annals of literature are bare of interest except that which 
attaches to Locke and to an early performance of Matthi-ii^ 
Prior's The Country Mouse and City Mouse, But Prii>r*> 
career (1664-1721) stretched well into the eighteenth cen- 
tury, in the flrst quarter of which appeared that galaxy of 
admirable writers known as the wits oi Queen Anne, aniVkn*: 
whom Prior must be reckoned. The others were Swift, Pop •*% 
Steele, Addison, Gay, Garth, and Arbuthnot, of whom t b»» 
last three, with Prior, may be passed without further noli* <-, 
^Siri//.— Jonathan Swift (1667-1745), Irish by birth \>n\ 
the most English of men by blood and nature, first appoari-d 
in literature by the publication in 1704 of his Tnle of *i 
Titb and Battle of the Books, the former a religious sat irv. 
the latter a literary one, both highly flavored with a coHrs*> 
kind of comedy. The success of these works was verv 
great, and their reputation has continued even to xU*- 
present day. But it is safe to say that only their repiiiu- 
tion has survived; and that there are few even of Xhv nm^i 
cultivated readers nowadays who can read these c<irin«- 
allegories (for such they are) with much enjoyment of th.ir 
wit, or even with a very keen appreciation of their sAtir*-. 
But their writer has few equals as a wit or as a satirist in 
any literature. When he stepped upon the broad fieltl «»f 
human nature he produced that which will bo the sourvf . f 
delight and instruction until human nature has iK^^-ium* 
other than that which he found it. It is as the author «»f 
Travels by Lemuel Gulliver that he commands the wi«i,--» 
circle of readers. This pmduction had a political i)ur|>. .-.. . 
like most of its author s works, and contains allusioii> i . » 
and caricatures of some of the statesmen, churchmen, «Ti.i 
other public men of that day ; but the genius of its aiit h. r 
iin()elleii him to deal with mankind even more than ^i-i. 
party, and his satire is upon the human race. This i*^ i*.- 
cleed the weakness as well as the strength of Swift's wHtii- j- 
— his contempt for his fellow men. His own personal ta^^t* ^, 
no less than liis personal feeling^s, put in a strong apf K>a.r 



132 



ENGLISH LITERATURE 



as a literary artist he had the grand and fatal defects of a 
want of passion, of sentiment, and of tenderness, and also of 
any remarkable insight into character and power of portray- 
ing it. His Uiatory of the Plague is as real-seeming as 
Robinson Crusoe^ and is almost as purely fiction. Ilis other 
works are now little read, and bis satirical poem. The True- 
bom Englishman^ is known chiefly by name. 

After Swift and Pope and Addison and Steele had ceased 
to write there was a long dearth of originality in English 
literature. But contemporary with them, or immediately 
following them, are the poets Matthew Prior (1664-1742) ; 
Isaac Watts (1674-1748) ; Edward Young (1681-1765) ; Thomas 
Warton (1687-1745) ; John Gay (1685-1732) ; William Collins 
(1721-59), whose Odes are among the best in the langua^; 
and, far superior to all the others, yet still a poet of the third 
or fourth class, James Thomson (1700-48), author of The Sea- 
sons and The Castle of Indolence, Among the prose-writers 
of the period the following demand honorable mention: 
Richard Bentley (1662-1742), eminent as a classical scholar 
and critic ; Lord Shaftesbuiy (1671-1713), whose Character- 
istics is elegant, independent, thoughtful, but not profound ; 
George Berkeler (1684-1753^, who became Bishop of Cloyne, 
and who broached an ideal system of philosophy, the car- 
dinal principle of which was that perception is all that is 
known of reality; and Lord Chesterfield (1694-1773), the 
apostle of etiquette and good breeding. 

Richardson. — In the middle of the eighteenth century the 
English people were startled by the appearance in fiction of 
naiure^ an element which had been previously unknown. 
Defoe's power had been that of reality, which is akin to na- 
ture, but is not nature. The new style was introduced by 
Samuel Richanlson (1689-1761), a man bom in humble life, 
bred to a mechanical trade, and finally a bookseller. At the 
age of fifty-two he produced Pamela^ which was followed by 
Clarissa Harlowe and Sir Charles Orandison. The success 
of these books, particularly of the first and second, was pro- 
digious. But as one looks back at them, and wades through 
the endless succession of letters from and to their high- 
strung, sentimental heroines, he wonders at the avidity with 
which such masses of moral *' spooning " were devoured, and 
can attribute such appetites only to a long course of star- 
vation. Or, as Scott, in his explanation of this phenomenon, 
says, " Had we been acquainted with the huge folios of in- 
anity over which our ancestors yawned we should have un- 
derstood the delight they must have experienced from this 
unexpected return to truth and nature. ' Richardson was 
minute, like Defoe, and his personages being flesh-and-blood 
creatures of the period, and nis sentiment genuine of its kind, 
although inordinate in quantity, he also awakened the keen 
interest which always watches over the vicissitudes of those 
whose experience is what we feel that ours might have been. 
But his books are a weariness to the flesh. It may be possi- 
ble for some people now to read all of Pamela, but who for 
two generations has been able to struggle through Clarissa 
Harlowe and Sir (Charles Grandison ? — the hero of which is 
like a Washington in plain clothes turned beau, and eternally 
bowing over the hand of some pretty piece of female pro- 
priety, who worships him as if he were a fetish. But Rich- 
ardson was the occasion of the appearance of a real master 
of human nature. Henry Fielding (1707-54), a gentleman 
by birth and a man of liberal education, was tempted to write 
a burlesque of Pamela ; and, as in the case of some other 
performances of like motive, the burlesque proved more true 
to nature than the original. Fielding's novel was Joseph 
Andrews: and as Pamela's chief object of life was to pre- 
serve through six or seven volumes the point of female honor, 
so Joseph, her supposed brother, devotes himself to the as- 
sertion and preservation of his continence against the wiles 
of the opposite sex. The vigor and si>irit of Fielding's style 
and his creative power have never been surpassed. He showed 
that highest ability in fiction, the power of creating person- 
ages which are at once individuals and tyi)es. His Parson 
Adams, Lady Booby, Squire Western, Tom Jones, and Amelia 
have a vitality and a truth far above that which is produc- 
ible by the most elaborate work in the realistic school. They 
come from a knowledge of the real, from which the truth of 
highest art eliminates the non-essential. They are created 
from within, not built up from without. Fielding's humor 
is rich, free, and pervades his comic scenes like the natural 
atmosphere. That he was sometimes coarse, according to 
modem standards of taste, is the fault of his time. Tobias 
Smollett (1721-71), who soon ai)peared upon the field, was a 
much coarser artist. His object seems merely to tickle his 
reader into laughter by a succession of s<^'enes which seem 



like farce put into narrative form. But he has fine touches 
of satirical humor, and his Peregrine Pickls and Rodt-nek 
Random and Humphrey Clinker will always give pleiL-ure 
to readers of roV>ust tastes and strong stomachs. In the 
latter part of his life he wrote a continuation of the histor> 
of England from the point to which it was brought down 
by David Hume. 

Hume. — David Hume (1711-76) a Scotchman, first af*- 
peared in the field of philosophy, in which he showed him- 
self an original and daring thinker. H is philosophical work ^ 
are a Treatise ofi Human Nature (republished as Philosoph- 
ical Essays concerning the Human tJttderstanding), An In- 
quiry concern ing the Principles of Morals, and The Natu- 
ral History of Religimi. In the treatment of these .sub- 
jects he disregarded authority and accepted belief, making 
fact and reason his only guides. He was by nature a 
doubter and an inquirer. These works placed him in the 
front rank of modem moral and metaphysical writer?, aini 

groduced an effect which seems destined to be permanent. 
[is views as to the possibility and the necessity of mirach-s 
arrayed against him all the theologians of his day ; but a 
large number of the ablest and most sincere theologians of 
the present time accept his views as being sound in the 
main and not at war with the interests of true religion. 
Having taken this position, he turned his attention to hifj- 
tory, and wrote in three instalments what is known as hi> 
History of England, bringing his work down to the Kevt)- 
lution of 1688. This work is not of high authority as to 
matters of fact, and it is strongly tinctured with the writ^-r's 
personal prejudices. But its happy arrangement, the clear- 
ness and vivacity of its style, its charity and toleration of 
spirit, notwithstanding the obvious prejudices before re- 
ferred to, make it one of the most interesting of modem his- 
tories, as it was the first of the modem school of historical 
writing. Hume's style is too strongly marked with North- 
em peculiarities to be regarded as a good example of stand- 
ard English. 

Gibbort. — Contemporary with Hume, but younger, was Kd- 
ward Gibbon (1737-94), who produced between 1776 and 
1788 his History of the Decline and Fall of the Hownn 
Empire, a work upon which he was engaged for twenty 
years. The magnincent plan of this history, the vast extern 
of time which it covers, its colossal erudition — it being thr 
fruit of original investigation of facts hidden for the mi»''i 
part in the dimmest recesses of the Dark Ages — and its im- 
posing style, make it the greatest work of its kind known to 
literature. Its style, however, is too conscious, too preten- 
tious, too much infested with Romanic words and Galli. 
forms of thought, to be regarded as really English. 

Contemporary with the two distinguisned historical writ- 
ers, though not as eminent as they, was William Robert <«»n 
(1721-93), who wrote the history of Scotland, of Charles V.. 
and of America — works of sound and unpretending merit, 
written in an agreeable style, somewhat too strongly inarkt*il 
with Scotticisms. 

Gray. — The middle of the eighteenth century was adorn t-d 
by the highly finished poems of Thomas Gray (1716-7 1>. 
whose function in poetry seemed to be to show now hi^rti h 
point could be reached by a man who had a poetic natiir»\ 
strong poetic feeling, and "an exquisite ear for rl^hm, but war- 
without genuine poetic inspiration. Gray's Elegy Wrifft n 
in a Country Churchyard nas probably been more witit^lv 
read than any other poem in the language, and it has i-tr- 
tainly fumished more phrases to its collection of honseh< '1*1 
words than any other that ever was written; almi»st the 
whole of it has become a part of familiar speech. It is a I k'uh - 
tiful union of tender thoughtfulness and graceful expres^i* n. 
Contemporary with Gray was William Shenstone (1714— 4>:t^. 
a poet of considerable merit, whose best-retuembered "w^-rk 
is The Schoolmistress, an admirable imitation of SjK'ns^.-rV 
style, but more admirable as a poetical picture of a tyf>e it-ml 
of a time. 

Sterne. — To this period, too, belong the works of Laurviioe 
Sterne (1713-68), one of the greatest humorists found in an y 
literature. His is the only humor that could be iia.tnvri 
with that of Shakspeare or of Cervantes. His satire* hi»- 
the charm of a delicacy so exquisite that it seems like |>tin- 
gent aroma filling the atmosphere of his thought. Ilis s-ty\ 
has a corresponding daintiness, although it is soraetimt.*"* iU^ 
figured with afl!ectation. Admiration of The Life' *fi.-.' 
Opinions of Tristram Shandy and of A Sentimental •/'>**, 
ney through France and Italy has grown with the p«i:ss^i;j^. 
of each year since their first ap{>earance. 

Johnson. — Throwing the shadow of its sad humaait^ a 



134 



ENGLISH LITERATURE 



who roused the colonists to resistance to the tyrannical 
goYemment of G-eorge III., and finally brought about the 
severance from the mother country — John Adams (1785- 
1826), Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), Patrick Henry (1736- 
99), Thomas Paine (1737-1809), John Trumbull (1750-1831), 
Philip Preneau (1752-1882), and Alexander Hamilton (1757- 
1804). Of these, Adams was sound in judgment, logical in 
reasoning, a lawyer, and a man having respect for authority 
and demanding respect for it ; Jefferson, a calm but earnest 
and persistent advocate of equality before the law in all 
things, whose authorship of the Declaration of Independence 
not only secures him immortality, but gives him some claim 
to having helped to light the fires of the French Revolu- 
tion ; Patrick Ilonry, an orator of masculine tone and fervid 
phrase, equally daring and dexterous ; Thomas Paine, an in- 
tellectual iconoclast and a rebel against all authority, whose 
Common Sense and Bights of Man have done more to spread 
skepticism, if not to quicken it, than any other books ever 
written ; Philip Freneau, a poet of genuine patriotic feeling 
and lyrical skill ; Hamilton, a statesman oi true formative 
power, who was endowed with the ability of uttering his 
schemes and putting his arguments in a style of remarkable 
elegance and force. He was the principal author of 27ie 
Federalist, a series of papers which did much to bring about 
the formation of the American Union. But the place of all 
these men in literature is not a notable one, and is very in- 
considerable compared with that which they filled in the 
^at political movement of their time. They had very little 
mfluence on the literary tone of their own country, and are 
hardly discernible in the great stream of English literature 
which now flows yearly fuller and stronger with the inpour- 
ing of its American tributary. But it was not until well on 
in the first quarter of the nineteenth century that Anglo- 
American writers showed native, independent power. 

NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

The period succeeding the American war of Independence 
and the French Revolution was one of great activity in 
English literature, all departments of which were filled by a 
throne of new writers who sprang up with the spontaneous- 
ness of mushrooms, but not with their shortness of life. And 
now, as the names of authors increase — authorship having 
become so common that everybody writes, learned and un- 
learned — and as a period within tne memory of living men 
has been reached, remarks, even upon writers of eminence, 
must be more brief than they have been heretofore, and for 
the sake of convenience the various departments of literature 
will be considered each by itself. 

Poetry, — ^The bonds of continuity between eras, however 
unlike, are .rarely if ever entirely wanting unless they are 
broken by some prolonged as well as violent political and 
social convulsion, such as has been remarked in the case of 
the Wars of the Roses; and the link that binds the poetry 
of the eighteenth century to that of the nineteenth is (teorge 
Crabbe (1754-18JJ2), in whose works both the form and the 
spirit which more or less pervaded English poetry from the 
time of Pope to that of Wordsworth are so manifest, yet 
with the modification proiluce<l by a tendency toward the 
contemplation of simple nature and of the reality of lowly 
life, as to win him the sobriquet of ** Pope in worsted stock- 
ings." Crabbe's poems show close observation, a loving 
svinpathy with nature, and not a little shrewd humor. 
Walter Scott (1771-18:32), who followed soon after him, was 
very unlike him in the choice of his subjects and the style 
of his versification. Scott is the poet of chivalry and ro- 
mance, and the story of his jwems is always removed from 
modern times ; he writes loosely and freely, but with great 
spirit and vivacity of movement ; his fancy flies low, but his 
imagination is strong, and his love of nature and of the ex- 
ternal signs of man*s presence, as churches, castles, and 
buildings of all kinds, is very great. No poems ever received 
so quickly so large a share of public attention as his. They 
effected an entire change in the poetic taste of the time. 
After working his peculiar vein out, he turned his pen to 
prose fiction. 

Byron. — Scott was replaced in favor, as a poet, by Lord 
Byron ((reorge Gordon Noel, 1788-1824), who. entirely'unlike 
him in the spirit of his poetry, ha<l strong points of resem- 
blance to him in the form and structure of his compjositions. 
Like Scott's, Byron's {)rincipal poems are narrative, and 
have a free<lom of versificatitm and ea'^e of style entirely op- 
posed to the eighteenth-century manner. The heroic couplet 
and the epigrammatic period had disiippeared from English 
literature, perhaps for ever. Byron's style is rich, sensuous, 



and brilliant ; his motive rarely high or pure. He is satirical, 
but because of a contempt for his Kind rather than a hatn*<i 
of what is bad and base. H is descriptions, whether of nat u ml 
objects or human action, are truly splendid ; and in some 
passages, notably in his greatest work, Childe Harold, he 
rises into the higher regions of poetry. But the tendency 
of his writings is debasing, less because of their sensual and 
epicurean tone than by reason of their derangement of t h** 
moral perceptions and their deflance of the moral sens4>. 
His heroes are unnatural c^ombinations of incongmous quali- 
ties; his women mere compounds of beauty and unrestrained 
passions; and a gloomy and flerce egoism pervades his writ- 
ing. But he is the richest in style and the most copious in 
fancy of all modern English poets. He was followed in 
public favor by his friend Thomas Moore (1779-1852), a px^t 
of Irish birth, who wrote Lalla Rookhj The Loves of thr 
AnaelSy and Irish Melodies, but whose real excellence was 
in lyric compositions. Moore's songs are charming in their 
tenderness, tneir lively fancy, and the sweet cadence of their 
verse, but they do not rise into the hiehest range of lyric 
writing. They smack of society, and nave about them' the 
odor either of the drawing-room or the dinner-table. 

Campbell. — Next in the galaxy of poets which distinguished 
the reign of George IV. comes Thomas Campbell (1 777-1 k44>. 
a Scotsman by birth and a Celt by blood, who yet stands hij,'^h 
in the annals of English literature. His Pleasures of Hof*^ 
and Gertrude of Wyoming are his longest and his most am- 
bitious poems. They are full of bright fancy, generous sen- 
timent, and earnest humanity of feeling. But his Ivri* 
poems are his best, and they are of a very high order. T^h« y 
nave the true flre and energy of the highest lyric schm4. 
mingling in rare combination, fancy, passion, and refitn- 
tion. His critical and biographical 'wntings added large h 
to his literary reputation. Percy Bysshe Shelley (1 792-1 N^i) 
and John Keats (1795-1821) should be noticed here, al- 
though greater names await mention. They both lived un- 
completed lives, ileither of them producing a work whirh 
attained the excellence of which they seemed capable. Shel- 
ley's life was one of revolt against society, and his lonsr^^r 
poems are an utterance of his rebellious spirit. His min<ir 
poems express the exquisite tenderness ana sweet fancii>s (^f 
a really lovelv nature. Keats's Endymion and Ex*e of St. 
Agnes, full of beautiful passages, lack the coherence and 
consistency of style requisite in poetry of a high order ; but 
perhaps it may justly be said that he died too young for iis 
to know the real caliber of his mind. 

Among the poetical writers of this period these must In- 
mentioned : the brothers Horace (1779-1849) and Jani»»^ 
Smith (1775-iaS9), the authors of the famous Rejrct^d 
^rfrfre«s6«, parodies or burlesques of subtle humor and in- 
herent merit; Mrs. Felicia Ilemans (1793-1835) and Mi*v^ 
Letitia E. Landon (1802-38), both graceful and sentiment. ^1 
poets; Robert Montgomery (1807-55), the author of Suttin 
and other religious poems ; Theodore Hook (1788-1841), tht 
author of irreligious poems and jests that belied his name : 
Joanna Baillie (1762-1851), known as the authoress of an 
elaborate series of Plays on the Passions which could n<»t 
be played and are never read; and Sir Thomas Noon Tal- 
fourd, a common-law judge, whose one tragedy. Ion, ma4lt' 
a lasting reputation for him and for more than one represent- 
ative of its title part, and is read with delight by thf>*^> 
who eschew the theater. 

Wordsirorth. — At this time appeared what was styh»<i tho 
Lake school of poets, the first of whom was William Won I »«- 
worth (1770-1850), whose poem. An Evening Walk\ ati- 
dressed to a Young Lady from the Lakes of the \or(h *jt' 
England, was probably the occasion of the name given t.. 
him and his imitators. Wordsworth began to write in t hv 
old style, as appears by some poems written in 1786 whii-h 
he preserved. But reaching manhood, he broke loose f n Mr. 
this style, and set out to reform English poetry, and lu> 
effort was toward an admirable end — simplicity and tniih 
to nature. One means by which he hoped to attain hi<« 
end was, in his own language, '* fitting to metrical arntiiiri'- 
ment a selection of the real language of men in a statt- 
of vivid sensation.** He failed in accomplishing this t»iul, 
which is incompatible with the requirements of any iKH»tr% ; 
and one result of his efforts in this direction was the |Mit- 
ting in some form of verse, generally a sonnet, alini»^t 
every incident of an externally prosaic life. All his tn-^' 
works had their excellence (as nis friend Colejidge s^nt.i. 
in a tn^atment entirely at variance with his own theory, iii 
conforming to which he produced of what was pxxl *oiiU 
some short and simple poems of a remarkably pictur>g>'K<ni,. 



136 



KN(JLISII UTKUATURK 



iM'Ht of FIni;it«h j»i>rt«'**wTs wh«»«r I\trtu4jvf*e Stmnftn (in 
which ttH« \*i\r CT^twiuni br tluit m»mAC' i* «*«uorr«i by a 
^rrr trsn*i«nrnt reih arp BiiMiimblr fur fi-nor ntnl fntNl^nn 
of utt«'iurw<», urid irh4«* Aftrttfxt Ijrujh \% m fact A tiovfl t>f 
ptM^t'iY wroiiifht ftkillfutiv into « rhiinnini; luuTBtive |Hicm. 

/^/i^//.— Jtttfu^ Ku<%^ll i»wfll (tsiu Ut) anil MiiUhrw 
Artioltl tlHVJi-'^i nrr uiMMimmon rx««iiii»Ur» «if the union «>f 
ttw* fM«<ii4Aj »ncl the critical faiMiltr. So nnr can rrail Mr. 
|>i«rn\ Ijfijrnd of tir%ttany, hi* .S'lr lAiunfai, hi* ^'ow- 
m/ni««r(i/io«i /^//, antl hin minor f^icm** without wi^hinf? 
ttiat hf hiMl tnv<*n hi* life to the (lrvrlo|itnfnt and th«* |M*r- 
frv'tion of the in^^t natiirnl |H»t*lic ^ifl «hirh lUvy indicatt*. 
A* a huiiion*t hr ha« frw cNfuaU. and ht* i» mo«t wnlfW 
known br I ho H*'jtn$r l\tfi^rM, a mtic^ f»f huniMnMi^ satirical 
inwm* in the ni*tn" NVw KiiLrlantl tlialftt, of which l>owrll 
U a J* rfit I mivtcr. Hi« critical <«f#«ay*, i^juvially lh<»v» in 
Am'mti my li^MiLtt nnd J/y Stfui^ WtnJotrn, an* rnarktHl by 
■cantunt* in«if{icn<lciiiv i»f th*>uicht aiul the fntit<< (»f a wide 
ranjfr of rva^iiin'. enli\en«<«i bv t*>uch«** of hu* rarr and racv 
humor. Of Matthew Ani*»ld'« |»i«**rn's hi* dramatic S^thnth 
ami HuMtum i* the finest exhibition of hi:* {Ntwer in thin di- 
rv<*ti>in. It iia* th« tnie aniii|itr> >rrandeur, with the antique 
mmphcitr and »bre<'tnf*(s \U-* «-^>av* and critical wntinjr*, 
nhich an* numeroii*, an* markt^tl (ly unuMial nubtlcty of 
thoii^'ht And ail e\(]ui*>ite tbii^h of M\)<^ 

Strtnhum^. — Alp'nn»n Charh*^ Swinburne {h. IHI^T), the 
m«*«t pMtiiinent, if not tiie m«Mt a«lininible, of the youni^'r 
Knt?lc*h |"H*t% flr%t (Niinmaiuleil attention by hi.* drama, 
Attii*tnt(% in CtMlvtittrt. nMimrkublc for it** eX4{uisite fancy* itn 
^ itth of lantnmiTe, ant! it*» Mn>nf? infu'^ion of the old ttrwk 



*i»int. Hi* other dramntic {Htems althoiij;h n«tt e<{ual to 
till*, deli)(ht admin*rM tif «in»iij; i»af*"»ion aiid unn**<'i^ed ut- 
terance, A %«»luineof i\H'mjniH4t Hnllnds exhibits tlie name 
quAlttif^ in a |fr»*ater dcin^H*. clothc«l in a v**r.itication the 
ritemal rK'hne*^ and Mn'tu^th of «hi<-h comf>el an a<lttiira- 
tion «)metime« unwillingly fpven to Mich exhibitions of 
DakeilrH^w <»f w»ul and UhW. 

Jl^r>rr»j.— Then* af^ twolcindu of nakediifM: of f*»ul. and 
of Uidr ; the pun*r kind nerer was M^>n in a mon* alluring 
f«>rm tmui in the (inemtt of Willuun Morrij* (U lK:i4), wh«i«»e 
Jtimm and K^trtKJtf l^tmtiim hare place*! him hii;h in the 
■rciind rank of Kni;li*h jxw't*. Mom* jp>e« to the lejfcnd* of 
art< it-nt (in*'*'^ and of the Middle A^** f«»r bis *ubjiM-t* ; anil 
he tetU the^e old tali^ With «uch rivitlnt»i«i of inmiLn nation, 
•uth |>i4 tun<«4|ue and *rnMii>uii nchu<**rt of di**crii»tion- and 
•u«h fcwrrt «trnphi ity of fr^'lmif ttiat he n»newrt and freMietii 
ait I heir old U'autv and a<id* to it a chann of hm own. H19 
«er>il)i*ati tn i« rvtnarka)»le f<»r it* ea-^r flow and for tlie 
lu«-i*»u« n< ht»e*p* of It* Mounti. But hi* t?n*at •'tn'mrih lie* 
in hi* tma^Miatb^n. He ^n«^ U^fore him the tiubj«M t of hi*> 
^erw. A* a narratne i^wl he lia** no ^ui*eri<»r or e«|Ual but 
I'haucer. <»f ahofii he pptfi-^u***^ hitn**elf tne *cholar. 

H'Air/i^r — 4^ the |»<»'tji of minof fame John (in-^'iileaf 
Whitti»*r I IHllT-W* pnwlu«tMi *itme tine etainplc^ of tnie Iwl- 
lail [■••Iri— hiijh pru-*', for the true tiallA«l, «tne of the m"*l 
cliAniiirii; fornix of Unr f*<*'ii|HiHiti<in, ia in mo«b-ni dn%* 
a/n<>ric tbe ran**l of iM^*ti<«l pniiluction*; and tlie aiith«ir 
of /<*irr/ijy of Cry, Mttuti MuJi^r^ mini H*%rhtir<% ynrtrh%r^ 
aJ»a<» ptirv, frr^id. autj dini t, will 1k» n'tnemU'riil a In-n 
ni*n« a in •?>• ^-'lu'iiifi-m* and aiiiJ»itiMU« wri'cr 1* forir«»tten. 
M* II* -n ^ti'Mjid aS* !■* ma<lr «»f rhomiff Willi.iiri* I'tip-*!!** 
fl*»ll* !'.*!. the nii"*er of a true and ^tn'Otf |H<«-tic uttemiM-e; 
J» All I MO ow ; Hret H.»rte. wh<»**' huinonm* (HH'tn<« in 4liali'<'t 
h»»» ■(•«» 'It* re^k'^bil aa jiwuiiarly " AimTK an ** ; lU\anl 
'\ \\ *r \*^*.\ >»' nho ha» fna*!*' the Itr^t trari-.tut-*»n of /Viw«/ : 
K '. trd H- 'iri H» -1 I tnl, tictTL-*' Hfiir^ iV.k.T ■ |h|J t«»i, K^t- 
n\ f d • Uf w •• Ni.-tiii ui, and Wtlt Whi'iuaii 1 l*»U>- Kf^K 'iho 
a'M'l •:« .i|*« of f.i'M'ti ttip a'-r nit»*i *h in faiita«ltc form hii'* 
ij'i ; |««i ^''n* iiti*'* w«i.'*it.«| wi'h t'l'Mijht and true fct-lui;:. 

I '!•• p*""*! iii^i »Ir»Mi fi .*T* of the run* tf«'r.*h i-w-ntur* an* 
,l»,t'.« *^l,«* tti K. '«!•"■ < 17**^4-l**»U't. l»on H»ii*i<nu!t 
• I-,*-* '.*»■. I I Tt^I-r i!**!; *^>-. and T!."ma« \N t.l..iin 
K u r* •• !»*.••« TI t, t t|t no ofu- of thfiii an t*- n p!-»i a hii It 
Ka- *!.» »aiin *\ H ut-tfi irif •t^O" In tt»e Knu'ii"!! l«n- 
J,* . *..*. i' % I* I *t TA* !*>• M->i tii« ti> ha\e i*a*Mi( to e\i-tt, 
•: ,-1 It'- » "^'•. ' -Un (ITM l**trt the aii'l,.ir «.f />.* 

/»'• • • ** 1 /' *v ' -•. *.>r ,S. •t'i-/'l/. I" »/!•*: (•I'^l^ to t lie 

f /' '.t 'h I •,' .r», t* Km '**• "f t' *• tlr.»'M.»' ■ *. h-H 1, h jt 
r * . I » • -".• 1 . * a*^ • < "!• ii- * 'tf » it, !»' ' of t ti »f .»< *• r, an I 
•fit •■♦ :• %,a If* II »t "f '^:.« Ti 1 »n, II- 1 .if • Jn |- r»«'»^o'' » •»«» 

\ -'*/* - Jfi ff» ■!» inJ^'M. '.t t.f I '♦ r»t ir» h<*» the Ml n A*'^! 
ill** .ft'^aj a *.».** -f tilt ( .1,' ti • h'U « . 'il'jr* l»»«n •** *•*- 



piou.*Iy manife^tfvl as in that of pnM*o fiction. Tbean'.** 
of m>vel9i an« to be numltervnl nowaiUy* by tlie hur, i*. 
Mendy metitionintr the namt^n of Hannah M«»nr M74VK- 
the author of i\rUhn in S^arrh of a H'i/> ai^l i»tliiT w*-*. 
inf:» of a pietiMic-fcicial puruwie; William Beckfonl ::♦ 
1H44), whtw*» Vnthfk^ orimnally written in Freiwh, <]<»« r. • 
for it# merit (U'M'rve a notable pla<T in Kn^jli'^b litrr»i.* 
Anne Kmbliffe <lT64*lH*i^i) and Matthew iirriri.n Ui, 
(177.V1H1H) (calhnl "M<»nk" l^ewift, from the tiiir ..' ^ 
mof«t oelebralwi work), *x»th of whom rp>el«| m ^r'*-- 
and mv*terit^; and the two siictrr^ Jane (ITTU-KVi. r 
Anna Alaha Porter (ITHO-lKtt), the pnefil«*^*e« of ttK c 
dt*<« of M>nt«ibility — all of whotn Ud<»n(f rather in »{ '• %, 
they do much in time, to the ri^hte«'nth centurt-.*' • 
|iAMn to the con*ideration of the later and *tn»n^'^rwr' -^ 
tif fiction, only the m<*t eminent and charic*ten*tic of a^ » 
can 1h' notic«Hl here. 

Srott. — The great novelist of the century, of the T.tc ' 
laniruH^n* — and it i» luA too much to iiar of the wntM:- • 
Sir Walter S<*<itt, who, a» ban l>een «wn, ^old* al*«» t» ' ,-■ 
a pla<*e among it* |MM*tj*, The H'rttrr/^-y Aof*/*. «i ,« . 
fnun the title of the flr»t one of the wriea, an* ilii-fli • 
torical — that Ik, their plot.* are interwo\cn aith hw*'. * 
incitleiitn, and dome of their princifial la'ptonatre^ air t:r>"^ 
taken fn>m hi-^tory. In corrprlne» of hi*>ifntaJ «> a. 
an al«rf» in cNirre<'tne« of rtyle, they are o(«*n to Mii«r« 
eritici-m. But triflea of that kind are, or iiu^rbt to u - 
n'ganbMj by even the l>e«t-infonne<l aiHl m«p*t ru.tna* ■. 
n'H« ler* aA they an* Uime onward ujM»n the »tn«r.tf, -t**' 
idrmm of the rtory. S<*ott was siniply the jn>-att-»t ar-.* 
of storie* that ever livi'd. Hi» imaginatne n-aJi/ati. c. ■ ' • i 
|K*rHonagi*H, and hi* dramatic evolutiikn of th« ir r}iarto''*ii 
and maiuig(*ment of their intenMmr>*^ aith ta« h t4t ' m 
inferior only to Shaks(K<«re'K, fn*m ahom, in in.a^ « 1 
writing, cri'licinm ina> take one gn-at bap U% »i c.u \i 
<»ther writer but Shak«»|M'are hai« fllU-*! the aorUl * r.*-; n 
with fflich a thnmg of living figure«i, m> rane«l in t*i«* r i<:«4| 
M> lifelike and rvobM>4*min^ in their action. Hr *;• .^ 
little time in analyzing motiv«*i« and in cli<>^«e«tiitt: 1 Kara '■*; 
Imt with stntng, clear touchea, e^eri one of wt. t iM 
meaning, hi* pbMX'S the man or the woman tvfore i.a. ai<. •< 
kn<»w them, an we know our friemU or «»ur ent niir^ f •'•H 
afttT, anil at onc*e we lax^ime inten*Me<l in tbt.r f«* ,1 
their a<-t ion*, their ex|K*nem*e, and their fate, >t*'i .•- J 
Mntrulnrly healthful anter. Tlien* i» in hi» aori* Karl • j 
morbid fMivioige or one in an\ i*en** injuriou*. ihw n^-r^ f- 4 
them n-frewluMl, delijrhliti. invigi)rateib eie^ateil. It -a-n 
tive power, in truthful new, in pictures {Ui-nem. m . ' *i 
action, in the clear management of a (N»mplii«tf«l »• i 
unittil rtn-ngth and delicacy t>f jMirtraiture. in grai ■ ' •( 
movement, in humor, and in duuin of iii>U* Lr i* a." ^ 
a ri\aL Jane Austen (1775-lHlTK «lio followv^i ^ 1-. m\ 
young»*r <*t»ntemi»*trary, ii* one of the U-nt of Ki.4r.i*h ^ ^H 
lie n«»%eliM**. Her workn will alwayi^ be n-a<l f. r lb- .• 1 
tnn«ic inten*^t and ai* faithful and jdeaiung } %* t>i«>* • ' M 
*««icty of her time. (itH»rge I'. K. Janu^ tlF4it-«4) ««» ^ 
imitator of S-ott. and although a pn>ldb' antrr aii-t a U« i 
ite with the iniblic of hi* day. he hai* »haini tl^ fa2* .' ^ 
imitatorx, and ta ni»w little reait But the auth* r • f /^> | 
AuifuAtuA and ih%r %na Thu%isand aa* a tH»ieU«t < f b &-4 

|Mtwer«. 

//w/irer.— Kilwanl L]itti»n Bulwer (l>^W-7tl , afl^^wiri 
I>tnl L)tton, in \\\*, no\el I\lhttm intn«lut^«l tn iJb^ « H 
ahat t* di'*tinctivel> known a^ the no\cl uf fi^hwr.^* i 
ciety. He afteraanl ext4ndt«d hi* fleM and wr«<* hj^ ' I 
novel*. •I'ntimental novi-N. n«*\rN di-^-npt arn) fn v -^^ | 
A man of hi;:h cultnn-, of \anou» «i tiuin nient», ai. I a •- i 
tif cofi-uierable jH»wcr. he ctirninantlr'ti fuc in** % »*»r» | 
ailmiratioti of a aide cm le of rviaiier*. But h« «a# 1 
aav oru'inal ; hi« «MnlifniMit aa** ei^uaili fal^* ai*«l • \ •^ A 
hi« %t\le a a* artihcial: he liail no dnktnati* (■ w. r v 1 
|i*r»>i>iiH^'>'« ha^e no tnie life or charai tef, b.it ar* » *r ' • 
rlolheo with •••trnel hiiig in ihtin thai talk* ahat l*«lBar. .H 
aer thotik'h!. N«* one of ihelii lo en eX'^eiH l*« *ija ' a*« H 
hik'h 4 1a.«« diind\ of tlw lateM iti^iririan era. H:« t*^ a i 
are Tnt (aitnnji and .l/y AtttTi, antten m i.- .'a. 
.St. -rue 

/>i«r^i^/i— Benjamin !>i«raidMlH<H-**lv_ ih(. m^ * ^ 
I>iT.M ii t ITtW lH|s,, a lb bn « w1m» aa* 4« (i^t n«'«: (. * '.\ 
t.^ni'v. and aim i* anb \\ known a» ttir a A* r «'f 7*' | 
riitaiNr« ttf ls*tfr*itur*. 7A' .4iW'ai/i*« ••' l,*!mr*%f^^* i| 
7^1^ f 'ifAimi/ir« «f^ .lu'Aor* — «a* the authwr if «« « rr^ •■ \ 

t ►.• »-rt'l:<*t i.f whi h I* lie*!!*! //'r^v •!*»"-*» «A* I * | 

Lttti'^mi'tH kX''^^'. Hl^ at»rk« are britiUftitt. a* I Ka«« ■ •{ 



138 



ENGLISH LITERATURE 



The Ordeal of Richard Feverel^ Bea/uchamp^s Career, and 
other works, takes high rank for vigor ana indiriduality, 
though unknown to the general reader. Richard Dod- 
dridge Blackmore (b. 1825) has produced one book {Loma 
I)oone\ that has become a classic. Walter Besant (b. 1888) 
has dealt with social problems in many of his novels — in 
All Sorts and Conditions of Men, for instance — ^and given a 
decided impetus to the work of social reform. John Henry 
Shorthouse (b. 1834), the author of John Inglesant ; Will- 
iam Black (b. 1840), the author of A Princess of Thule ; 
and J. M. Barry (b. 1860), the author of The Little Minis- 
ter, men differing widely in style, have acquired great pop- 
ularity. 

Hardy. —TYioms^ Hardy (b. 1840), the author of The Re- 
turn of the Native, The Hand of Ethdherta, Tess, and a 
number of other stories, is one of the most original of 
English novelists. His plots are distinguished by piauant 
situations, the talk of his rustics has the quaintness of bhak- 
speare's simple folk, and his heroines are fallible but charm- 
ing. The most vivid and truthful presentation of social life 
in the U. S. in the center of its wealth and commerce that 
has yet appeared is Never Again, by William Starbuck 
Mayo, M.D. (b. 1812). George William Curtis (1824-92) 
also wrote one novel, Trumps, but he will rather be re- 
membered as the author of Prue and I, a series of confes- 
sions of a simple-minded old bookkeeper of exquisite ten- 
derness and sweetness of sentiment, and of the Potiphar 
Papers, a burlesque of New York society, and of the Howadji 
travels, in the style of Kinglake's Eothen. The latest 
school of society nction is represented in America by Will- 
iam Dean Howells (b. 1887), author, of A Chance Acquaint- 
ance, A Modem Instance, The Rise of Silas Laj)ham, etc. ; 
and Henry James, Jr. (b. 1843), author of Daisy Miller, 
The Europeafis, The Bostonians, etc. Both of these novel- 
ists are subtly anal3rtic in method, dealing largely in man- 
ners and in oelicate shades of character, and d^arding the 
old-fashioned " plot." They have originated " internation- 
al " fiction, in wnich the opposing ideals of American and 
foreign society are brougnt into amusing contrast. In 
their minuteness of observation and truth of detail they 
sometimes resemble Trollope, though their literary prin- 
ciples ally them more closely to recent continental fiction 
than to the English. 

Essayists and Miscellaneous Writers, — Pew tasks are 
more difficult than the classification of books and their 
writers. Where shall be placed William Cobbett (1762- 
1835), who wrote upon pohtics, gardening, and what notf 
It is chiefly as a political essayist, however, that he will be 
remembered. His writings show strong common sense, 
strong prejudices, independence of thought, set forth in 
a direct, manly, incisive style. William Godwin (1756- 
1836) wrote a novel, Caleb Williams, the fame of which 
still lives, but his chief distinction was that of a political 
essayist and historian of robust mind and strong liberal 
tendencies. His wife, Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-97), by 
her Vindication of the Rights of Woman, took the lead in 
a movement which seems to be still advancing. Charles 
Lamb (1775-1886) will be always read, and always lo veil, for 
the gentleness of soul and the exquisite humor, sometimes 
falling into mere personal whim, which appear in his 
Essays of Elia ana his correspondence. To him there 
could not be a stronger contrast than Walter Savage Lan- 
dor (1775-1864), who had all the virtues and most of the 
faults peculiar to the Anglo-Saxon race, and embodied 
them in his writings, although his peculiarities of temper 
kept him so at war with his Idndreu, and even his country, 
that he passed most of his life in voluntary exile. His 
Pericles and Aspasia, Imaginary Conversations, Last 
Fruit off an Old Tree, and Dry Sticks show a wide range 
of learning and strong criticiil sense, but narrow sym- 
pathies, and an absence of that g^At lubricator of the 
friction of life — humor. John Wilson (1785-1854), al- 
though he wrote some poetry, is remembered for his 
Christopher North papers upon literature and sporting sub- 
jects, which were published in Blackwood's Magazine, 
of which in its earlier years he was editor. His critical 
taste was sound, but much of his writing is mei-e animal 
spirits put on paper, and he was chief of a school all of 
whose pages reek with the fumes of whisky and tobacco, 
which can not, however, entirely becloud their strong sense 
and their scholarship. 

De Quincey. — For whisky and tobacco Thomas De Quin- 
cey (1785-1859) substituted opium, to which we owe his 
Confessions of an Opium-Eater, and perhaps its effects 



may be traced in Suspiria de Profundis and in many of 
his subsequent voluminous writings, which are crowded 
with the evidences of a wide range of desultory scholarship, 
with subtle criticism, rich fancy, and a peculiar hunior. 
all embodied in a stvle of remarkable richness and splendor. 
William Hazlitt (1778-1830) lived from early manhood until 
his death, not very happily, upon the miscellaneous pnxl- 
nets of his pen as a contributor to various periodical publi- 
cations of his day. He was conseauently able to do little 
as we may be sure he would have lixed and was able to do 
it. But as a critic of literature and art and of society he 
holds a high place, which he owes in a great measure to his 
manly and thoroughly English style, James Henrv LtML'h 
Hunt (1784^1859), another writer of the same sort, has less 
force, but is always graceful and pleasing. But the great 
modem master in English of grace and ease, and of a lam- 
bent humor much like that of Addison, is Washinj^ton 
Irving (1783-1859}, whose Sketch Book, Kniekerbochrti 
History of New York, and Legends of Sleepy HoUoir do 
more to secure his enduring fame than most of his xnoiv 
ambitious works, including his Life of George Washington. 

Carlyle. — Unlike Irving in every way was Thomas Carlyle 
(1795-1881), whose style is rugged and whose humor grim, 
but who was a critic of the first class, and whose Sartor 
Resartns is a subsoil plow driving deep beneath the surface 
conventionalities of society. A hke purpose prevails in hi^ 
Latter-Day Pamphlets and Hero- Worship. It is to be re- 
marked that Carlyle's peculiar style — so peculiar that it \\^ 
been called " Oarlylese —-does not appear m his earlier w<^rk^. 
Mr. Carlyle the reformer appears as a scornful, seourginc 
critic, and in that spirit he wrote his historical works. Thr 
French Revolution and Frederick the Oreat. To him Ralfh 
Waldo Emerson (1803-82) has been not very happily com- 
pared. The purpose of the two writers may be the same, but 
their manner is entirely different. Emerson had the calm 
observance and the serene thoughtfulness of a philo80|di»T. 
and he showed a strong love of external nature of which 
Carlyle seemed scarcely conscious. His style is aphori.stic 
and epigrammatic, and both his prose and his poetry an- 
full of wisdom. Caroline Elizabeth Norton (1808-77), a mis- 
cellaneous writer, inherited some of the talent of her gi^ud- 
father, the great Sheridan. 

Smith and Jerrold, — Among the wits of a past generation 
two were pre-eminent — Sydney Smith (1771-1845) and Doug- 
las Jerrold (1803-57), but their wit was almost their only 
point of likeness. Jerrold's wit was a scourge, while Syd- 
ney Smith's was the genial laughter of a lover of his kind. 
His essays touch many of the most important topics in 
which men of these times are interested, and they an* htmleil 
with sagacity. His style is remarkable for its clearness and 
manlv dignity. Another wit whose wisdom is greater thnn 
his wit is Oliver Wendell Holmes. M. D. (b. 1809), of who>o 
writings his Breakfast- Table books — the Autocrat, the P^et, 
and the Pro/(e««or— exhibit his mind and his style at thiir 
best. They present a curious and careful study of that van- 
ety of human nature which is found in the rJ^ew England 
of the nineteenth century, and are threaded through an«l 
through with gentle satire. The study of human follies and 
human weakness and of the conventional forms of nxNlem 
society which took Holmes to the breakfast^table and Syd- 
ney Smith to the dinner-table, drove Henry David Thoreau 
(1827-62) to a hermit's life, in which he lived in a cabin of 
his own building, chiefly upon beans of his own growing. 
He studied birds and beasts and inanimate objects for the 
purpose of reflecting severely upon man. But his love of 
nature was genuine, his love and knowledge of literaiiire 
great, and his own style beautiful. He can not be read with- 
out forgiveness for his gentle mistaken misanthropy. 

Helps, — Arthur Helps (1813-75) won for himself a peculiar, 
and, if not a very high, a long-enduring place in literaturv. 
With little that is strikingly new in his thought, he com- 
mands the respectful attention of a large circle of the v»^nr 
highest class of readers. This he does by the very clear and 
earnest way in which he brings up and' presses tionie half- 
forgotten truths which concern the daily life of all culti- 
vated people. He presented homely common sense in ttJf 
most elegant dress. He wrote two novels, Realmah^ ov»t 
which his Friends in Council entertain themselves ami his 
readers with wise and witty chat, and /fvw de Hinm, 
Among other writers of this class in America even such a 
sketch as this must notice Donald Grant Mitchell (b. 18*i2), 
a polished satirist of socictv and an observant critic of rural 
life ; Thomas Wentworth lligginson (b. 1823), whose essa> ^ 
are strong protests against physical and mental weakne: 



»5v> 



140 



ENGLISH LITERATURE 



work of the century. Written with strong partisan preju- 
dices, it not with a partisan purpose, it is filled with masses 
of moral light and shade, and must be read with corre- 
sponding allowance as to facts and its representation of in- 
dividuals. But in its grouping of facts, in its pictures of 
social life, and in the si)lenaor and the graceful ease of its 
style, it is without a rival in English literature. The re- 
search upon which it was founded and the minuteness of its 
picture-painting made it impossible for the author to bring 
it down, as he had intended, to a period within the memory 
of living men. Its five octavo volumes cover a period of 
only fifteen years. With its author's essays upon the char- 
acters of Bacon, Milton, Addison, Walpole. Jonnson, Byron, 
and Hastings, it forms a body of historical writing of almost 
unequaled splendor and interest. James Anthony Froude 

g}. 1818) has produced a very valuable historjr of England 
uring the times of the Reformation. His investigations 
have led him to take new views of the characters of Henry 
VIII. and Elizabeth, which the authorities quoted by him 
seem to support ; but upon the much-vexed question as to 
the characters of Mary of Scotland and Marv of England 
he ranges himself at the head of their conaemners. On 
the history of Ireland he has also written vigorously, and 
after much original research. Edward Augustus Freeman 
(1823-92) is the author of a History of the Norman Con' 
quest written from an entirely new point of view, in which 
he presents a philosophical appreciation of the causes which 
led to the invasion, of the condition of insular and conti- 
nental society at that period, and of the social and political 
consequences of the conquest. Its great merit gave him at 
once a high position in historical literature. The various 
biographical works of Mr. John Forster (1812-76) have so 
marked an historical bearing that he deserves honorable 
mention as a writer in this department. 

Continental history has been illustrated by two English 
writers of eminent ability. Thomas Carlyle's History ofth^ 
French Revolution is rather an expression of the spirit of 
the time of that great event than a record of its facts, a 
knowledge of which is almost assumed by the writer. But 
it is perhaps the most complete and characteristic manifes- 
tation of its author's peculiar genius. His History of Fred- 
erick the Great is truly historical, and presents new results 
of original research. It is written in *' Carlylcse," and is 
full of fantastic and grimly humorous passages, but its truly 
historical value is nevertheless very great. John Lothrop 
Motley (1814-77) has taken the hi^est position as the his- 
torian of the Netherlands and the Dutch Republic. To the 
results of patient research and logical analysis he added the 
attraction of a fervid style and an enthusiastic love of his 
subiect. 

Bancroft, — The history of the United States was writ- 
ten by George Bancroft (1800-91) with a minuteness of de- 
tail which often produces the impression that he looked at 
small and commonplace occurrences through the glorify- 
ing medium of their consequences. His style may also be 
regarded as often too ambitious for the subject immedi- 
ately in hand. But as a whole his work is worthy of the ad- 
miration it has received and of the authoritative position it 
has attained. Richard Hildreth (1807-65) wrote his History 
of the United States in a stjle directly opposite. It is colcl, 
dry, unpicturesque. and rigidly judicial But as a clear and 
well-connect«d record of facts it is of great value, and may 
be safely relied upon. James Parton (1822-91) produced 
several biographies of eminent citizens of the U. S. which 
have an historical purpose and value, John Gorham Pal- 
frey (1796-1881) wrote a History of New England in a most 
interesting and impartial manner, and John Fiske (b. 1842) 
has further enriched the history of the Colonial and Revolu- 
tionary periods of the same section. Francis Parkman (b. 
1823) has written in numerous volumes the history of the 
French explorations and settlements in North America. His 
pictures of Indian life and wilderness scenery have wonder- 
ful vividness and a romantic interest not inferior to the fic- 
titious a<lventures of Cooper's backwoodsmen. 

Prescotf. — Spanish and Spanish-American history has 
been illustrated by William Hickling Prescott (1796-1859), 
perhaps the most charming of all English historical writers, 
and inferior to none in patient research. His histories of 
Ferdinand and Isabella, of Philip II., and of the conquest 
of Mexico and the conquest of Peru, arc a most fascinating 
series of works. Arthur Helps (181Ii-75) wrote a History 
of Slavery, which, animated by a thoroughly humane and 
loftily philanthropic spirit, presents his subject with his 
characteristic calmness and reserve. 



The historjr of Greece was written by William Mitfonl 
(1744-1827) with learning and the feeling of a true scholar 
for his great theme; Bishop Thirlwall (1797-1875) als*) pro- 
duced a valuable history of the Hellenic peoples ; but the 
work which displaces all others in English literature u{K)n 
this subject is that of George Grote (1794-1871), who seenu. 
to have penetrated the very heart of Greek life, political, 
social, moral, and intellectual. His History of Greece and 
his Plato seem to present all that one can hope to know (if 
the national experience and the best intellectual period uf 
the great people who were the sources of modem civiliza- 
tion. 

Arnold. — Roman history to the end of the Second Punic 
war was treated by Thomas Arnold (1795-1842), a worthr 
disciple of Niebuhr, who added a certain simple English 
tone and charm to the manner of his master. His Lectures 
on Modem History are also admirable in the same whv. 
Charles Merivale (b, 1808) wrote a History of the Jiomam 
under the Empire^ which supplements acceptablv Arnolds 
more vifforous work. Henry Hart Milman (17§l-186t<), a 
poet and the author of Fazio, a powerful and successful 
tragedy, wrote a History of the Jews, a History of Grt-t-k 
Christianity, and a History of Latin Christianity, which 
form an admirable trilogy of reli^ous history. 

Of war histories, the two most important are the Fifteen 
Decisive Battles of the World of Sir Edward Shephenl 
Creasy (1812-78) in which the author treats only of sut h 
battles as have had a manifest effect upon the course of 
civilization; and the History of the Crimean War by Alex- 
ander William Kinglake (b. 1811), which as to fact is'a eUar 
result of careful investigation, but which in spirit is a fienv 
impeachment of the Emperor Louis Napoleon. Perhaj>s the 
volume of William Howard Russell (the well-known Lon- 
don Times correspondent) upon the same subject shoulil 
here be mentionea. Of the histories of the civil war in 
the U. S. a few are of value ; but most of them have been 
writt/cn by partisans living too near the events which tbej 
describe. 

Buckle. — An entirely new kind of historical writing has 
been produced by the speculative spirit of the age. It is the 
history, not of nations or of men, but of man. Pre-eminent 
in this department is the History of Civilization, left un- 
finished by Henry Thomas Buckle (1821-62), who soujjhi. 
with an aomirable if not a perfect measure of sucee^. to 
discover and describe the successive evolution of the m<»ral 
influences which brought about the changes in the course 
of the history of the modern world. Of a like kind are 
the History of Rationalism and the History of European 
Morals written by William Lecky (b. 1838>--works which 
to a certain extent pluck out the heart of the myst«>ry of 
man's moral nature and social life. And historians who 
deal with mere external facts now go beyond the historicid 
period, and we have in such books as Prehistoric Tinujt 
and Tfie Origin of Civilization, by Sir John Lubbock (li. 
1834), and Prehistoric Man, by Daniel Wilson (b. in lfc<l6». 
ingenious attempts, marvelously successful to a certain 
pomt, in reconstructing the physical life of man at t\u»e 
dimly remote periods of whicn there is neither i^cord ni>r 
tradition. 

Books of travel are so considerable an element of moih^n 
literature, whether regarded as a means of literary enter- 
tainment or in their more important function of diffusing; 
a knowledge of mankind and enabling us to study it under 
different climes and different forms and degrees of civiliza- 
tion, that they can not properly be passed over even in ihf 
briefest compendium oi literary history. But so vast ha> 
been their number that only those can tie noticed here whic h 
have some peculiar literary excellence, or which mark a 
period, or which have exercised some notable influence u(h>u 
opinion. 

Ledyard. — John Ledyard (1751-88) belongs in time to thi* 
eighteenth century, but he is noticeable as being the first 
of that series of travelers who set out with a purpose «»f 
establishing, verifying, or illustrating some Cf^micaf fact — 
who are discoverers, not of new countries, but of the j^t:«w 
graphical relations and topographical condition of count ru-s 
already known. Ledyard was the first of those travelers 
who have set out with the purpose of examining the Pedlar 
regions, and ended his life m Africa after making an unasiu-- 
cessful attempt to discover the source of the Niger. Amonc: 
the many British travelers who have described, or profes«^ 
to describe, the condition and the character of the people of 
the U. S., Frances Trollope (1780-1863) did more than any 
other to form the opinion upon that subject which long: |>n'- 



142 



ENGLISH LITERATURE 



ITaW.— Robert Hall (1764-1831), a Baptist minister who 
for eloquence has been compared to Burke, and for fanciful 
richness of illustration to Jeremy Taylor, is distinguished 
not only hj his sermons, but by his Christianity Consistent 
with the Love of Freedom^ his Apology for the Freedom of 
the Press, and his Modem Infidelity, John Foster (177(>- 
1843), also a Baptist minister, was not remarkable for pulpit 
eloquence, but nis essays, particularly those on Decision of 
Character and the Evils of Popular Igfwrance, are among 
the most thoughtful and weighty productions of their class 
in English literature. Thomas Chalmers (1780-1847) prob- 
ably has been unapprotiched in eloquence and the vigor of 
his personality by any clergyman of the century. He was 
the most fervid and earnest of pulpit orators. His Insti- 
tutes of Theology^ Commercial Discourses, Evidences of 
Christianity, tkxii Astronomicai Discourses are his principal 
works, Isaac Taylor (1787-1865), a religious essayist of dis- 
tinguished learning and ability, has discussed in Ancient 
Christianity the doctrine and the discipline of the early 
Christians, directing himself to the teaching of Tracts for 
the Times, a very remarkable and influential series of re- 
ligious publications with a strong leaning toward Roman- 
ism, of which the principal writers were Edward Bouverie 
Pusev (1800-82), John Henrv Newman (1801-IK)), John Keble 
(179^1866), and Richard Hurrell Proude (1803-36), all cler- 
gymen of the Church of England and of the extreme lligh 
Cnurch school, and all writers of independent theological 
works which have had a strong effect u[)on the tone of re- 
ligious thought amon^ the members of that Church. 

Robertson, — Fredenck W. Robertson (1816-53), a preacher 
whose sermons produced more effect upon the lives of men 
than those of any other modem minister of which there is 
record, stood at the ecclesiastical antipodes of the Trac- 
tarian men. His style was fervent, strong, and direct, his 
thought independent ; he labored for the bettering of the 
working classes, and he was suspected of rationalism in re- 
ligion and socialism in politics. 

Bishop Colenso. — Doubts which must have occurred to 
many thoughtful readers as to the literal truth of many 
passages in the historical parts of the Old Testament, par- 
ticularly in the earlier books, found strange and unreserved 
expression in a series of volumes by an eminent mathema- 
tician and clergyman of the Church of England, John 
William Colenso* (1814-83), Bishop of Natal, the first of 
which was The Pentateuch and the Book of Joshua Crit- 
ically Examined. Bishop Colenso had previously written 
several mathematical works, and he brought to his task 
habits of close reasoning and a calculating spirit, which led 
him to test these books by a standard to which Oriental 
writers, profane or sacred, never thought of conforming. 
Coming from such a quarter, his bookS, which he did not 
regard as at all impairing the divine origin of the Christian 
religion, produced a profound impression and very serious 
disturbance in the English Church, by the Convocation of 
which they were condemned. 

Theodore ParAr«r.— Theodore Parker (1810-60), at first a 
Unitarian minister, was a doubter of a very different char- 
acter to Colenso. His faith was in God and in man, but not 
at all in revealed religion. A man of wide an.l varied learn- 
ing, of independent spirit, of a tender and loving nature, 
the champion of the oppressed, the benefactor of the poor, 
his preacfiing the earnest utterance of his own strong per- 
sonal convictions, he did much to unsettle the l)elief and to 
confirm the disbelief of a ver^ lar^ number of the most in- 
telligent and purest minds In New England. Among his 
published works are Sermons on Theism, Atheism^ and Pop- 
ular Theology^ and Lessons from the World of Matter and 
the World of Mind. Octavius Brooks Frothingham (b. 1822), 
the ablest of liis disciples, has published little except from 
the pulpit; but his ability, his earnestness, and the polish of 
his style, in which he is superior to his master, make him a 
leader of rationalistic religion in the U. S. Henry Ward 
Bcecher (1813-87), the ablest member of an intellectually 
gifted family, and a Congregational minister of the broa<les't 
and most liberal theological views, was regarded as the great- 
est pulpit orator in America — an eminence which the style 
of his publishe<i sermons hardly warrants. Andrew Martin 
Fairbaim (b. 18^38), eminent among the Congregational min- 
isters of Great Britain, has puhlisliod a number of scholarly 
works dealing with religious questions. 

Political atid social science^ properly speaking, is the 
product of the nineteenth century. Among the English works 
in this field the most imjiortant are those of Jeremy Bentham 
(1748-1832), to whom, next to Adam Smith, belongs the 



honor of originating the science of political economy. The 
mere titles of the various works produced by hini in his 
laborious and self-sacrificing life would fill half this |ia<:t'. 
The spirit of all of them is concentrated in his famoiLs solv- 
ing, "The greatest good of the greatest number" — go(fd 
here meaning material comfort and the happiness consequent 
thereupon. David Ricardo (1772-1823) published works of 
authority on the principles of political econoin)', giving his 
attention chiefly to the subjects of labor and currency. 

Malthus.— 'Thomas Robert Malthus a 766-1834), also a 
political economist, in his Essay on the Principles of Poptt- 
lafton as it Affects the Future Welfare of Society, showt-il 
that population always rises to the level of possible suhsi>t- 
ence. This work, says Brougham, "divides (with Ricanln) 
claims to a second place after the Wealth of Nations.^" Thf 
greatest of Bentham's disciples, John Stuart Mill, by his 
Essays on Ufutettled Questions in Politie<il Economy, his 
Principles of Politiccu Economy, his essay on Liberty, his 
Contncterations of Representative Oovemment, and his *S'ii//- 
jection of Women, has wrought into a systematic working 
form the principles of the Benthamite school, of which he 
was, and will probably long be, regarded as the chief apfw- 
tle. His works are masterpieces of far-reaching thought 
and subtle reasoning. Of less note, but of high and wdl- 
deserved reputation^ are the works of Henry Fawcett (IK^i- 
84). Francis Lieber (1800-72), bom and educated in Ger- 
many, but for the greater part of his mature life a citizen 
of tfie U. S., was the author of several profound work?* in 
this department of literature, of which the most celebratf^l 
are his Manual of Political Ethics, Legal and Politiail 
Ilermeneutics, Essays on Property cmd Labor, and Civil 
Liberty and Self-Government. 

Carey. — Among champions of the " protective " syst<»m as 
opposed to free trade and unrestrained commercial inter- 
course, particularly in articles which are or may be of do- 
mestic manufacture, was Henry C. Carey (1783-1879), w1h»m* 
Principles of Political Economy and various other wiirk^ 
embodv in stringent phraseology all that can be said on 
this side of the question. Most of Mr. Carey's works have 
been translated into nearly all the languages of Eurf>j>e. 
Herbert Spencer is the most eminent of recent writers in 
this deuartment. His works cover the ground of psyche jlogy, 
biology^ what he calls "sociology" — i. e. the philosophy of 
society — and morality, which it woidd be difficult to separate 
from the latter. In a word, he has attempted to work out a 
complete system of practical philosophy. His views on edu- 
cation are original and far-reaching. Indeed, he is one of 
the clearest and coolest thinkers of the age. 

Of British writers upon education, one of the most im- 
portant subdivisions of this department of lit'Crature, an<i 
one which has received attention commensurate with its 
importance, the Rev. Henry Parr Hamilton (1794-1880). the 
variously learned Francis William Newman (b. 1805). and 
the distinguished physiologist Huxley (noticed again below ), 
must be mentioned. In the U. S. two distinguished writers 
on education are Henry Barnard (b. 1811) and Fretleriok 
Augustus Porter Barnard (1809-89). The latter's I^ttrr^ 
on College Oovemment is regarded as "the ablest treatise (»n 
the higher education yet published in the U. S." He wh.> 
also the historian of the U. S. Coast Survey and the author 
of an Annlytical Grammar. Besides these, Horace Mmin 
(1796-1859), Francis Wavland (1796-1865), Alexander Dalla.- 
Bache (1806-67), and William Torrey Harris (b. 1835) have- 
written upon this subject with marked and widely re<-os- 
nized ability. 

Jurisprudence is hardly a part of literature in the c*««ni- 
mon acceptation of that term, but the Commentaries of Sir 
William Blackstone (1723-80) upon the laws of Entrlaiid 
added a charm to their dry and technical subject, and jh r- 
haps even deserved the conventional term "elegant" whi< h 
was applied to them. They have certainly much of the in- 
terest of history. Appearing soon after the middle of xh*- 
eighteenth century, tney occupied this field with such h 
weight of authority that there seemed nothing to be done 
but to accept them and to comment upon them. In ihi> 
department mention must be made of Tlie Cmistitution n f 
England of John Louis Delolme (about 1740-1806) ; 7V»r 
Fedf^ralist, a collection of papers by Alexander IIaniilti>n. 
James Madison, and John Jay, which had a very imjH^r- 
tant influence in bringing about the adoption of the Fe<J- 
eral Constitution of the V. S. ; the Plan of the Penal Caffe o t' 
Louisiana of Edward Livingstone (1764-1836), and his «S »/,'•* 
tern of Penal Law for that State ; John Marshall (1 755-1 s;io», 
whose judicial de<'isions, according to an eminent British 



144 



ENGLISH PALE 



ENGRAVING 



brought to his adopted country a profound acquaintance 
with physical geography, previously set forth to the scien- 
tific worhi in works of recognized value, and now diffused 
among younger students by his books of elementary in- 
struction. 

Audubon. — Among naturalists, John James Audubon 
(1780-1851) must not be forgotttn, because of his close ob- 
servation of the habits of birds and his life-size paintings of 
the birds of America. Henry Maudsley's writings upon 
what may be called mental physiology are of the pro- 
foundest scientific and psychological interest, and have a 
sinjB^Iar literary charm. His Body and Mind and Psycho- 
logical Essays — in the latter of which is a subtle apprecia- 
tion of the character of Hamlet — ^and his Physiology and 
Pathology of Mind, are his principal works. The latter of 
these works, rich with the lore of various ages and climes, 
and seeking to penetrate to the very seat and reveal the very 
mode of thought, was published in 1873. To such a point 
has the English language and literature advanced. 

The following standard works may be consulted for 
further information : Gustav KSrting, Oru?hdriss der Ge- 
schichte der Englischen Litteratur (Milnster, 1887) ; Henry 
Morley, Enalish Writers (9 vols., London, 1887-82) ; Hip- 
polyte Adolphe Taine, History of English Literature^ 
translated by H. Van Laun ^ vols., New York, 1871); 
George L. Craik, Compendious Ilistory of English Litera- 
ture (2 vols.. New YoA, 1863) ; Thomas Warton, History of 
English Poetry (3d ed. by W. ( .arew Hazlitt, London, 1871) ; 
John Earle, Anglo-Saxon Literature (London, 1884) ; 
Thomas Wright, Biographia Britannica Literaria (vol. i., 
Anglo-Saxon Period ; vol. ii., Anglo-Norman Period, Lon- 
don, 1842-49) ; Bernhard ten Brink, Early English Litera- 
ture^ translated by H. M. Kennedy (^ew York, 18T3) ; 
Bleibtren, Geschichte der Englischen Litteratur im Zeit- 
alter der Renaissance und der Klassizitdt and Geschichte 
der Englischen Litteratur im 19 Jahrhundert (Leipzig, 
1887) ; (ieorge Saintsbury, History of Elizabethan Litera- 
ture (London. 1887) ; Edmund Gosse, History of Eighteenth 
Century Literature {hondoiiy 1889) ; Adolphus William Ward, 
History of English DrcNnatic Literature (2 vols., London, 
1875) ; Edmund C. Stedman, Victorian Poets (Boston, 1886) ; 
M. C. Tyler, History of American Literature^ 1607-1765 (2 
vols.. New York, 1878) ; C. F. Richardson, American Litera- 
ture (2 vols.. New York, 1887). Richard Grant White. 

Revised, by Henry A. Beers. 

EngHsh Pale, called also the Irish Pale, or simply The 
Pale: in history, that part of Ireland which was under 
English law previous to the final and complete subjugation 
of Ireland. In a general way the English Pale mav be de- 
fined as correspondingwith the present province of Leinster, 
besides Cork, Kerry, Waterford, Tipperary, and Limerick. 
But, in point of fact, the actual Pale, though of extremely 
variable limits, scarcely ever reached the dimensions indi- 
cated above. The counties of Dublin, Meath, Carlow, Kil- 
kenny, and Louth were almost always within the Pale ; 
Wexford and Waterford, though hardly within the Pale, 
were firmly English ; while Wicklow and Kildare, though 
nominally within the Pale, were Celtic, and to a consider- 
able extent independent. In strict language the Pale de- 
notes the " boundary-line," but it is commonly used for the 
region itself. 

English River: an estuary of Southeastern Africa, 
communicating with Delagoa Bay about lat. 25' 58' S. and 
Ion. 32^ 36' E. It receives several broad but unimportant 
streams (Tembia, Mattol, and Dundas rivers), and is sur- 
rounded with mangrove fiaU. 

English River: a river of Iowa; formed by the union 
of two forks, the North and the South; fiows eastward, 
entering the Iowa river 15 miles S. of Iowa Citv. — Another 
English river enters the Red Cedar river in Slack Hawk 
CO., la. 

English Seventh-day Baptists: See Seventh-day Bap- 
tists. 

Engrafting: See Grafting. 

Engrailed [partic. of vb. engrail <C Mid. Eng. engrele < 
0. Fr. engre.tler or Mo<l. Fr. ettgrtler, probably meaning 
hailed upon, indented with hail ; en < Lat. in -i- gr^le^ 
gresle, hail, loan-wonl from Teutonic ; cf. O. H. G. gn'oz, 
coarse sand]: in heraldry. e<l«red with small semicircles or 
crescents, the points of which are turned outward. The 
s(»micirrular marks or dots around the edge of a coin are 
called engrailments. 



Engra'tia, also called Encratis: a saint who lived at 
Saragossa, S^min, in 304. She was persecuted as a Christ jan 
under the Emperors Diocletian and Maximianus IlerculcN; 
and, according to the poet Prudentius, she undenn-cnt thJ 
most fearful tortures, but, notwithstanding the dn^adful 
mutilations which she received, she survivetl to a great a;:'*, 
and died in the odor of sanctitv. Her relics are pre^'n*-.] 
at Saragossa. Her festival, as observed by the Roman Cath- 
olic Church, occurs on Apr. 16. 

Engraving [prefix en + vb. grave < 0. Eng. grafnn : 
Germ, graben, dig, carve. Not connected with ur. ypk/^w, 
write, which corresponds probablv to Eng. cart^]: thepMr- 
ess of cutting grooves or small hollows in a hard surface, 
more especially letters, characters, or works of art ; by ex- 
tension, carving a surface with characters in relief, "as i« 
WooD-ENOEAViNO (q. V.). Engraving differs from chasing: in 
the fact that the substance is cut away, while in chasiiiir it 
is merely dej)ressed or beaten down. Engraving on a lariri- 
scale is seen in all incised lettering and cutting of emblem^ 
characters, and the like, as on marble or stone ; this was an 
art very much studied and followed among the aneifiit 
Greeks and Romans. (See Inscbiptions.) Among the enor- 
mous number of inscriptions cut in marble which are left us> 
from classical antiquity there are very few in which the 
letters are in relief; they are engraved, even when a lni<- 
i*elief of figures is sculptured on the same piece of sti.ne. 
Other engraving in large compositions, though the inci^*.! 
lines are narrow and not deep, is that to be seen in th^ 
numerous monumental brasses of the Middle Ages. A 
peculiar kind of relief sculpture, much used in Egyptian 
art for carving inscriptions and figure-subjects on verj* hani 
stones, and used also in the arts of China and Ja|)an. i> 
known as eat'o-riliei^o and by other names (see Rklikfi. 
and may be considered a kind of engraving. Engravins: mi 
brass or bronze plates is used in modem times chiefly iti 
memorials to the dead, and in simple lettering instftiil of 
the elaborate figure-subjects of the Middle Ages. !n<i><hi 
letters on marble, granite, or stone are common in t<>ii»l>- 
stones and sepulchral monuments, but rare in other plar^s 
in modern practice. On the other hand, the modems carrv 
further than the ancients seem to have done the art of en- 
graving on metal in small ornamental designs for the pur- 
pose of decorating vessels for table use ana for general dis- 
play, such as gift-vases, race-cups, etc. Thus there ar.- 
many showy pieces of silverware of the eighteenth «ii«l 
nineteenth centuries in which engraved festtwns, w^eath•^, 
scrolls, and the like form the chief part of the ornamen- 
tation. Sometimes parts of the same vessel are cha>ed in 
more or less high relief, and other parts are smooth and (or- 
namented with engraving, the contrast between the t\»o 
kinds of ornament being dwelt upon. The Orientals have 
sometimes used such engraving on metal with extraoniinun 
skill and good taste, far suri)assing the work of Ennii>«' ii. 
the effect produced by simple means; thus in Jajian.^.' 
metal-work of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries small 
objects of silver and bronze, and even pieces as largt» ^ 
sword -sheaths, are adorned with engraved bouquets avA 
sprays of flowers, suggestions of landscape, and the like. u\ 
which the varying width and depth of the incision are ma«lr 
to produce the most vigorous decorative effect. Other en- 
graving on a small scale and on metal is seen in the tiifHt 
of the later Roman times, the Middle Ages, and of the 
Renaissance; it is common also in Russian art of the nine- 
teenth century. (See Niello.) In these, as in the lar^n* 
monumental brasses of the Middle Ages, the incised lino is 
filled up with a black compound, whereas in other orna- 
mental engraving the play of light and shade in th** 
V-shaped groove is enjoyed and counted on. In enannl- 
work also much use is made of engraving, champlerf en- 
amels being prepared by engraving out the figure upnn 
the background. (See Enamel.) Die-sinking is onirno- 
ing upon fine steel which has previously been s<iftrn»-»l. 
(See Die.) Dies so prepared are used in coinage of nn)nev. 
in striking medals, etc.; but dies are also cut for stamp: nir 
seals in wax or upon paper, for raising ornamental letteiv * w 
fancy stationery, etc. That important branch of engraviTii: 
which consists in preparing plates from which impres>inn-i 
may 1^ taken upon paper is treated of lielow. 

In all these cases the tools used by the engraver are si»nn^ 
what similar in character. They are straight, sharp, *'<li:^tl 
or pointed tools, impelled by hard pressure or by li^lit tjip^ 
of a mallet, and are used as chisels, stone being cut away h> 
them in small fragments, and metal in curled-up shavi'n::^ 



146 



ENGRAVING 



a pencil or pen when used in making a drawing. A burr is 
raised by the strokes of the needle, but this is small and fine, 
and when partly left on the plate it takes the ink readily, and 
yields a rich velvety bloom which is much admired in those 
prints which are called especially •* dry-points." But apart 
from the plates which yield such prints as these, dry-point 
work is used continually in touching up and finishing all 
kinds of line engravings and etchings, and in these cases the 
burr is removed exactly as in line engraving. 

Mezzotint^ called by the French la mani^e noire (the 
black style), is produced by first scratching and notching 
the plate all over so that an ink-print from it would be one 
solid black, and then scraping and polishing parts of the 
plate so that it will no longer nold the ink, or at least not so 
much of it. This process is in one sense the reverse of 
burin-engraving and dry point, because in those the artist 
produces the dark upon the light, while in mezzotint the 
light is produced upon the dark. The plate may be rough- 
ened in any way that will produce a uniform surface, but 
the usual way is to employ what is called a " rocker *' or 
" cradle," or m French oerceau, a large blade like a chop- 
ping-knife, the edge of which is a regular curve, and is sharp- 
ened like a very fine saw, except that the teeth have sharp 
points. Philip Gilbert Hamerton, an excellent authority, 
nas counted the teeth in his berceau. He repoils 110 of 
them in a width of 2A inches, and he calculates that there 
will be 2,640,000 little points or dots produced by it in a 
plate 5 inches by 6, because the berceau must be rocked 
across the plate in different directions about eighty times 
to produce a well-prepared mezzotint plate. Upon this 
elaborately produced roughness the artist works with scrap- 
ers and burnishers. Where the copper is brought to per- 
fect smoothness again the ink will be removed when the 
plate is wiped, and the paper will come white in the print ; 
and between this and tne complete solid blackness of the 
mezzotinting all gradations are easily obtainable. The fault 
of mezzotinting, in copper at least, is that it allows of so few 
good impressions. Twenty or thirty prints are all that can 
be taken perfectly ; after that the plate must be retouched 
and reworked, or the prints are more and more feeble. 

As for the criblS, or dotted manner, it is not known how 
the curious and rare early prints known by this name were 
produced ; it is probable tbat they are from relief-engravings, 
not unlike woou-engravings in character. 

Etching is much the most important process of engraving 
by means of acid. It is done by exposing the plate to the 
acid at all the lines and points which are to be engraved, 
and protecting it everywhere else ; and by exposing some 
such lines or points for a longer time than others, if they 
are to be engraved deeper. The lines and points so engraved 
by the acid are said to be bitten, and the corroding itself is 
called the biting-in. The substance which protects the plate 
from the acid is called the ground, or the etching-ground ; 
it is generally composed of a mixture of wax, some vegetable 
resin, such as mastic or white pitch, and asphaltum. This is 
spread all over the plate while hot, and then allowed to cool. 
This ground is blackened by smoking it over the flame of 
wax candles, and the black surface is made to look very 
smooth and uniform. Upon this smooth and slightly glossy 
black surface the artist draws with his etching-needle, which 
easily cuts its way through the ground so as just to lay bare 
the copper below, or even to scratch it slightly. Some 
etchers prefer a sharp point which scratches the plate decid- 
edly, others a rounded point which glides over it. It is then 
ready for the acid bath. This is often nitric acid and water, 
though many different mordants are in use. It is quite pos- 
sible to bite the whole plate at one time and to leave it so, 
but it is usual to expose some of the lines to the acid for a 
longer time than others, and even to use mordants of differ- 
ent powers. It is customary also to clean the plate and 
print from it on paper one or two proofs to enable the 
artist to judge of his work. The plate can then be re- 
grounded by a simple apparatus which leaves unfilled the 
lines already cut in the copper, and these lines themselves 
can be protected from the acid at pleasure by stoppiyig-out 
with a varnish of some sort which can be put on with a 
brush. An etched plate is, then, an engraving of which the 
sunken or engraved lines have been eaten out by acid, the 
metal having wholly disappeared from those sunken places, 
leaving the plate around them clean and smooth. Stipple- 
engraving, as in Bartolozzi's work, is partly done by acid, 
which bites deeper the points made by the graver; it is 
then a variety of etching. 

Aquatint is the only other important kind of engraving 



with acid, and it is of much less importance than etching 
because it has never been much in favor among artists. In 
itself it is a beautiful art, and the results are often delicat^f 
and forcible ; but only a few workmen have found it to 
their taste, and it is used chiefly as a help in engravings of 
other kinds. The plate is covered with a ground which is 
much less solid and uniform than the etching-ground ; ur^xx- 
ally some kind of resin is employed, either in powder or 
dissolved in alcohol, which solution, as it dries, leaves the 
resin in a surface much broken up by the shrinking of \is 
parts. If the plate with this ground upon it be coverni 
with acid, a somewhat uniform granulation is produced. 
By using different grounds in succession, applying the aci<l 
in each case to certain parts and not to others, different 
degrees of granulation are obtained ; smaller parts of the 
plate are treated with varnish and a brush, and, aft«r the 
acid has done all it can, the scraper and burnisher may be 
employed as in mezzotint. 

Soft-ground etching is still another manner of engraving 
by means of a mordant. This also is not very frequently 
used by artists. It produces a print which strongly re:»c'm- 
bles a drawing in lead-pencil. The etching-ground u>ed 
is made very soft; a sheet of paper is stretchea tieht up)n 
it, and upon this paper the drawing is made. When this 
paper is removed, the ground comes away with it along all 
the lines of the drawing, and then the mordant is used as Id 
ordinary etching. 

These different processes are often combined one with 
another ; thus there is very often pure etching to be seen in 
what is mainly a line-engraving ; stipple and line eii grav- 
ing pass insensibly one into the other ; dry point is UM'd to 
touch and finish an etching, and a fine burin is used alv> 
by many etchers. But in addition to this there are some 
more deliberate and more notable combinations, as when a 
plate is etched with a design in what may be called outline, 
that is, the main lines only of the composition being givi^n, 
and is then covered with mezzotinting or with aquatint in^. 
in which second engraving the design is completed in li^^ht 
and shade and by the addition of many details. When a 
print is taken from such a finished plate, the soft gradati('n> 
and tints given by the mezzotint or aquatint are re>enforcMl 
and made more vigorous and telling by the strong line-> of 
the etching. This has been rarely done except by Earlom 
in the Liber Veritatis and in the iniportant instance of Turn- 
er's Liber Studiorum, 

Prints from plates prepared in any of these different wh\ > 
require a certain care and skill if they are to be as good a> 
possible. Although the ink is held readily by every lar^'*- 
or small groove, scratch, or dot in the plate, and then f»»rnf> 
out of it as readily when dampened paper is pressed a^ain^t 
it, yet to keep the plate in perfect onier, to apply so uni- 
form a pressure that all the ink shall leave the plate at 
each separate impression, and also without wearing out th<* 
plate unduly— ^1 requires training and some artistic skil.. 
even in the simplest kind of printing. But printing i^ 
sometimes done m a much more elaborate way, the jtlat** 
being left with its polished surface partly smeared with ti:e 
ink instead of being wiped absolutely clean. WTien thi> i^ 
done, every separate print becomes a separate work of art, 
in a sense, for the printer has deliberately, and with caku- 
latcd touches of a cloth, spread some of the ink which ba.i 
been in the engraved lines over the smooth metal betwtMii 
the lines. No two impressions in such a case are reaJJy x\* 
same. No two prints of an edition printed in that way nr*. 
facsimiles of one another. But as tnis process is very '^l* 'vv , 
and as there are but few printers living at any one tiine ^ h • 
can do such work well, nearly all printing is done simply, t L^- 
plate inked with a roller (formerly with dabbers), anil' tlun 
cleaned off bright between the engraved lines. Etch in gv; j^r. 
printed in the artificial way more often than other klnils> .-: 
engravings; burin-engravings very rarely. Different kin i- 
of paper are used for prints. It is thought that cert^tn. 
Japanese papers take tne ink with more uniformity, aT^t 
show a clearer and more beautiful impression thaTii u!:\ 
other sorts. What is called India paper comes next. Tt.> 
is generally stuck down fast to a sheet of heavy plate- pa] •*-* . 
the thin India paper being cut only a little larger tliun t h- 
plate, and a broad margin of the heavier paper bein^^ h : 
on all sides. These " proofs on India paper " have l>e^»n r 
use for many years for prints from line-engravings^» m^i'. • - 
tints, and all the kinds most used in the art tru^le, l .: 
Japan paper is more generally used for etchings t^tid ur\ 
points. 

Engraved plates wear down in printing in such a 'vr^'. 



148 



ENGRAVING 



Barthel Beham was not a time of great achievement in en- 
gjavin^. The prospect of its becoming a great imlependent 
art, bringing home artistic thought to people of small means 
as freely as printing was bringing to tnem literary thought, 
was growing dim ; it was one more disappointment of the 
bright hopes raised by the Renaissance. Theological con- 
troversy, often taking the shape of bloody persecution and 
often of set and recognized war, was what men were think- 
ing of, and the great living art of the time was protected by 
the Venetian lagoons. Italians like Giorgio Gnisi (d. 1582) 
were doing elegant work, more elaborate than Marcantonio. 
Stronger men, like Agostino C'arracci (d. 1602), carried on 
the elaboration of work without losing themselves in pretti- 
ness, and their especial success was in portraits of their con- 
temporaries. Flemings, of whom Henry Goltzius (d. 1617) 
was the chief, were eclectic in their tastes, now Italian in 
manner, now copying Dllrer's ways closely — at their best in 
original portraiture, as in Goltzius's famous Henry IV. of 
France, Portrait-engraving was indeed the one distinct and 
original success for the art, and at intervals ever since this 
has lieen evident, so that no one branch is, on the whole, so 
well worthy of study. Thomas de Leeuw, called also De Ijeu, 
as having been long resident in France, left behind him, 
when he died about 1620, some 500 different works, most of 
which are portraits ; these also mainly of his own drawing — 
admirable work, less in demand than it should be. Jacques 
(^allot (d. 1635) engraved also many original portraits, out 
being a man of immense energy, leading a very irregular 
and adventurous life, he engraved also hundreds of plates 
of scenery, costume, biblical subjects, and what mignt be 
called genre in curiously made up set«. of the Miseries of 
War^ of Beggars^ of the Twelve Mmiths, and many more. 
His work was mainly et<;hing, but he never took full advan- 
tage of the freedom which that art allows, and a really 
great etcher he never became. Still, had he possessed more 
gravity and purpose, no man would have come nearer than 
he to realize the indej)endent lifelong career of an artist- 
ongraver. lie left some 1,400 etchings, while George Cruik- 
shank left 2,500. Should the community care for graphic 
art as much as it does for literature, it would find its needs 
well supplied by such men as these, for it would give them 
fitting subjects and encouragement to do their b^t instead 
of their slightest and hastiest. 

A great change was now going on in the position of en- 
graving in the world, one which was destined to lead to 
200 years of mere copying. The great iminter Rubens 
brought around him a number of very able technical en- 
gravers, and undertook to show them how to interpret his 
numerous pictures into black and white. The two brothers 
Bolswert, Vorsterman, Paul Pontius, and Peter Soutman 
are the best known among these able workmen, and to these 
should be added Jan MilTler, as one of the most successful 
engravers after Rubens, though it is not known that he 
worked under that artist's immediate influence. The prints 
of these men have a great interest ; they are in many ways 
right as renderings into one art of another and more rich 
and varied one, but thev have this painful character, that 
they brought a great iiirfuence to l)ear on the side of copy- 
ing as the only missicm of the engraver. Another curious 
abuse in the art is to be seen in connection with the famous 
etchings of portrait heads by Antony van Dyk. That great 
painter undert<x)k to etch the heads, and perhaps part of the 
dress, of a series of rather largo an<l showy portrait-engrav- 
ings, and other and inferior hands were to put in backgrounds 
and the like. Prints from many of these plates exist. Those 
taken from the unfinishetl plate, when, imieed, only the com- 
pletely modoletl hcawl and slight -indications of the bixlyand 
<lress are given, are !n<>st lovely and precious works of art ; 
the mechanically fini>luMl portraits have but slight value. 
There were other able original portraitists at this time. Leon 
(faultier, who died the same year as Van Dyk (1641), was 
<me of them. 

ihxnl tendencies were at work, as well as bad ; and the 
greatest of all original etchers was contemporary with Van 
Uyk, thouph destiiuMl to outlivr him by nearly thirty years — 
Rembrandt, a master in portrait un' as in everytliing that he 
touched. Conirlis Viss<her (d. 1670) was another original 
jH)rtraitist, a burin-engraver, and a gooil one. As skillful, 
if less vivid and picture«4qiie. was Rol^ert Nanteuil (d. 1678), 
whose most famous portraits wcrt* entfravcd after Mi gnani 
and other painters, thouirh \\\v greater number of his works 
are original. In his hands the ren<lering of textures, as of 
armor, silk, and fur, n»ached great perfection. His contem- 
porary, Wenceslaus Hollar, is one of the greatest of engrav- 



ers, capable of anything, and yet his work looks archaic ami 
incomplete to us, because he never invests it with full lijrht 
and shade, but devotes himself to exact form, local col.ir. 
and the study of texture and surface. Another conteiniH^ 
rary was Claude Lorrain, the author of but a few etchiii;,'^. 
but some of those of admitted excellence. The first Eiur- 
lish engraver of prominence was William Faithome, »h.) 
died in 1691. 

The great school of French portrait-engraving was con- 
tinued oy Antoine Masson (d. 1700), G. Audran (d. 17iW». 
and Gerard Edelinck (d. 1707), men worthy to rankvith 
Visscher and Nanteuil, and by Pierre Drevet (d. 17:iS). 
and his son, Pierre Imbert Drevet, who died young, onlv k 
year later than his father. These are the great master^ <.f 
seventeenth-century engraving. Their technical skill \i&^ 
never been excelled, and probably can not be ; and tht ir 
sense of keeping of the artistic proportion of all parts of u 
picture was greater than that of earlier men ha*i Ijeen, S4i 
that even the most elaborate details keep their place in t In- 
composition. Portrait-engraving can hardly equal this 
hereafter. The day of rich and picturesque costume is g«iiie. 
and it will not sumce for fine pictorial composition to hav«' 
heads and hands alone of any interest, while costume, instead 
of a help, is almost wholly an incumbrance and a puzzle. 

If any man could make a success of portrait-engraving un- 
der such untoward conditions it would be William Ht»pirtli. 
who had around him, indeed, men and women more picttir- 
esquely dressed than those of the nineteenth century, Imii 
who took deliberately for his subject, not the elegant ni.<l 
graceful, but the rough and unseemly side of life. A g'H .] 
engraver, steadilv at work at large and crowded plati»>. hi^ 
example might fiave built up a popular use of engravinir h^ 
a popular and accessible original art ; but the epoch wa.^ uoT 
an artistical one. Another attempt, far removed from Jl«- 
garth's in spirit, but equally a popularizing of fine art l'\ 
means of engraving, was tHat of Giambattista PiranoM u\. 
1778) in his immense production of studies of Roman niin*: 
but Piranesi was far from being a faultless master of his nrt 
of etching, and his chosen subject could hardly be a tK>piil<ir 
one, limited as it is almost wholly Ur picturesque rum^ aii<l 
antique sculpture. £tienne Ficquet (d. 1794) mav Ih» ein- 
sidered the last of the French portrait school; hfs iniimto 
and delicate handling has preserved for us admirable studii^ 
of famous men and women of his time. Giovanni Vi>l]>at<> 
(d. 180^)) was a skilled but uninventive workman, who <ii'i 
work to order from paintings and antiquities at Kome. ai.i 
kept a school for engravei-s. Francesco Bartolozzi was fi.i- 
tunate in gaining the favor of influential {lersons in Knj- 
land, and perhaps owed this to the soft and delicate textur.- 
of the stipple-engraving which he practiced. A stn)iiL'' r 
man and a better artist was Charles Clement Bervic i«l. 
1822). His work, indeed, was chiefly reproducing the imii.t- 
ings of others, but he brought a fresh and original spirit \>> 
the task, and the great museum made by the first Napolc -ii 
at Paris gave him exceptional opportunities, as, for inManr^ . 
the euCTaving of the Laocoon group from the marble. • f 
which ne made what is considered his masterpiece. A S\kiu- 
iard of singular genius was Goya. Though not eminent a- 
an engraver he must still be mentioned here as one of ih« 
men who, in untoward circumstances, were original and in- 
dividual artists in an art almost wholly given up to ct»pyiii.: 

The term painier-efiaraver, taken from the French ptiufrt - 
graveur, has been applied to those engravers who cari'v •ui 
their own designs in their own art. These men and *th» ir 
work should undergo a wholly different criticism from th"-- 
whose lives have been spent in reproduction only. Tfie 
copyists have need of great and special ability, no dotilt. 
in translating color into black and white by means of iIa 
graving-tools, but the jminter-engraver is a man of a differ- 
ent cliuss. What we have to add to this brief hi>tnritai 
sketch is some mention of the attempts in the nineteenth 
century to give new life to engraving by artists of a!>ili;} 
who have chosen to express themselves in this Iang:\iage. 

David Wilkie is such an artist, and his few etchings ui.m 
dry-points have a peculiar value of their own. But, thoiijt. 
famous as a painter, he could never get people to look at I .- 
prints, and tney are few and small. J. M. W. Turner in t - 
great Liber Studiorum combined his own work with tl./ 
of other engravers, and left about eighty com posit ii>ns • ' 
wholly exceptional merit, where design and means of i \- 

f)ression are perfectly well balance<l, and nothing is lacku .: 
mt the |>ossibility of getting a proper number of prii -^ 
from the mezzotinted plates. Charles M6ryon wa8 <»nr ' 
the most powerful of painter-engravers, and his ft»w ini]»-r 



150 



ENNERDALE LAKE 



ENSIFORM CARTILAGE 



to Munich, where he practiced with success. Among his 
works are Der Magnetismus im Verh&ltnias zur Natur urid 
Religion (1842; 2a ed. 1853) and Gesehichte des tieriachen 
Magnetismus (1844), the first volume of which (the History 
of Magic) was translated into English by William Howitt 
(1854). D. in Egem, Sept. 19, 1854. 

En'nerdale Lake : a picturesoue sheet of water in the 
mountain region of Cumoerland, England, 7 miles X. E. of 
Egremont. It is an expansion of the river Eken, 2^ miles 
long and less than a mile wide. 

Ennls: market-town of Ireland; capital of the county 
of Clare; on the river Fergus; 20 miles W. N. W. of 
Limerick (see map of Ireland, ref. 10-D). It has a classical 
school called Ennis College founded in 1689, and the ruins 
of an abbey founded in i240 ; also an asylum for lunatics, 
an infirmary, a hospital, a public library, a fine court-house, 
a brisk traae, and some manufactures, and a colossal statue 
of 0*Connell by Cahill. Pour bridges cross the Fergus, 
and railways extend to Limerick and Athenry. Ennis is 
one of the see-towns of the diocese of Killaloe (Roman Cath- 
olic). Pop. 6,300. 

Ennis : city ; Ellis oo., Tex. (for location of county, see 
map of Texas, ref. 8-1); situated on railway, 34 miles 
S. by E. of Dallas ; in a good cotton region ; has a fine 
school, a very large cotton-compress, etc. Fop. (1880) 1,351 ; 
(1890) 2,171. Editor of " Commercial Recobdeb.'* 

En'niscorthy : market-town of Wexford, Ireland; on 
the river Slaney ; 14 miles N. N. W. of Wexford (see map of 
Ireland, ref. 12-1). It has a fine Roman Catholic church, 
and a stately Norman castle man^ centuries old, but still 
entire. It has a large trade in gram, is at the head of barge 
navigation, is connected bv railway with Dublin and Wex- 
ford, has a convent, five churches and chapels, and an asy- 
lum for lunatics. Enniscorthy was captured by Cromwell 
in 1649, and the Irish rebels took it by storm and burned it 
down in 1798. Pop. 5,660. 

En'niskillen : a municipal borough of Ireland ; capital 
of the county of Fermanagh ; finely situated on the river 
Erne, which connects the Upper and Lower Lough Erne, 
about 75 miles W. S. W. of Belfast (see map of Ireland, ref. 
5-G^. It has 2 barracks, 6 churches and chapels, a prison, 
an infirmary, tanneries, straw-hat works, markets for flax, 
com, pork, and butter, 2 forts, a linen-ball, and manufac- 
tures of cutlery. There are handsome mansions and beau- 
tiful scenery in the vicinity. The people of Enniskillen 
warmly supported the Protestant cause m 1689. Here the 
troops of William III. defeated those of James II. in that 
year. It is connected by railway with Dundalk, Londonder- 
and Bundoran, and steamers ply on the Erne. Pop. 5,700. 

Enniskillen, Earls of (1789): Viscounts Enniskillen, 
1776: Bardns Mountfiorence (Ireland, 1760); have seats in 
Parliament as Barons Grinstead (United Kingdom, 1815). — 
William Willoughby Cole, third earl, D. C. L., LL. D., 
F. R. S. ; b. Jan. 25, 1807, and succeeded to the title of his 
father, John Willoughby Cole, in 1840. He was educated 
at Oxford, and before 1840 was distinguished in the House 
of Commons as Lord Cole, and acted in the Conservative in- 
terest. D. without issue, Sept. 5, 1886, and was succeeded 
by LowRY Egerton Cole, fourth earl ; b. in 1845. 

E nonius, Quintus : Roman p(^t ; often called the Father 
of Latin Poetry ; b. B. c. 239, at Rudiae, a town in Southern 
Italy, not far from Tarentum. Greek was his native tongue, 
to which he early added a knowledge of Oscan and Latin. 
While in military service under the Romans in Sardinia, in 
204 B. c, he met Cato, and by him was taken to Rome. 
Here he supported himself by teaching the Greek lan- 
guage, and adapting Greek plays to the Roman stage. He 
enjoyed the favor of the elder Scipio Africanus and of other 
distinguished men. In 189 M. Fulvius Nobilior, the consul, 
took him with him to his province JEtolia to be the herahl 
of his deeds. For this service the son of Fulvius granted 
Ennius Roman citizenship in 184. In 169 he died of gout. 
A writer of great power aii<l versatility, he contributed 
largely to the formation of the national literature of Rome. 
His most imp>rtant work was an epic jK)em entitled ^nna/^«. 
treating in eighteen bo*)ks the historv of Rome, from the 
landing of ^^ncas down to his own times. This remained 
for a long time the most ixipular poem in the language, and 
was superseded only by \ ergil's jEneid. Ennius also wrote 
tragedies, comedies, and satires. His poetry was greatly ad- 
mired bv Lucretius and by Cicero, who often quotes him. 
Of all his works only fragments remain. See editions by 



Vahlen (Leipzig, 1854), and Lucian Mueller (St. Petersburg. 
1885), and Sellar, Roman Poets of the Republic, chap. iv. 

M. Warren. 

Enno'dluB, Maonus Felix : a Latin writer ; b. in Gaul in 
474, of excellent family, and Bishop of Pavia from about 51:) 
until his death in 521. His most important works an> a 
bio^^phy of his predecessor, Epiphanius, and a turgid |iMn>'- 
gyric on Theodoric, written about 507. Also extant an- a 
collection of his letters, two books of Carmina on various 
subjects, and twenty-eight speeches, including school (It*- 
bates. See the editions oy W. Hartel (Vienna, 1882) and K. 
Vogel (Beriin, 1885). M. W. 

Enns, or Ens (anc. An'isus, or An'esus) : a river of Ail<(- 
tria ; rises in the crown-land of Salzburg, 12 miles S. of Rtui- 
stadt. It flows through Styria, forms tne boundary l)etwH'n 
Upper and Lower Austria, and enters the Danube 11 miles 
below Lintz. Length, about 190 miles, only the last 20 of 
which are navigable. 

Enns (anc. Laureacum): town of Austria; on the Dan- 
ube ; at or near the mouth of the Enns ; about 96 mile^ W. 
of Vienna (see map of Austria-Hungary, ref. 5-D). It has 
manufactures of iron, steeU and cotton. It was the hea<l- 
quarters of Napoleon in 1809. Pop. (1890) 4,674. 

E'noch, or He'noch [Heb., initiated or teacher] : the name 
of five persons mentioned in the sacred books (canonical 
and apocryphal) of the Hebrews. The second in the onier 
of time, and the most important, was "the seventh fmrn 
Adam," who "prophesied, and was translated at the age of 
365. (Gten. V. 23.) 

Enoch, Book of: a book of 108 chapters, forming part of 
the Apocrypha, ouoted bv the apostle Jude (w. 14, 15). It 
is of uncertain aate, critical coniecture ranging from 144 
B. c. to 132 A. D., but it was probably written in Hebrew bv a 
Palestinian before the Chnstian era. The early Chri>tian 
Fathers used it, but for some centuries only fragments of it 
were known to European scholars, till in 1773 tfames Bnue 
, brought home with him from Africa three copies of an Kthi- 
opic version of it, made apparentlv from tne Greek aU>ut 
850 or 400 a. d. It was published in 1838 at Oxford by An-h- 
bishop Laurence, who had previouslv (in 1821) publishe<l an 
English translation of it, and by rrof. Dillmann (Leipzi::. 
1851). The latter is the principal edition of the Ethiopia. 
The best translation which utilizes the newly discovcn*<i 
Greek text is by R. H. Charies (Oxford, 1898^. The b^^.k 
contains many curious passages, but its leading idea is tliat 
of Divine justice dealing sternly with sinners. 

E'nos (anc. -^'no«, or j^nus) : seaport-town of Euro(>i'Hn 
Turkey; on the j^gean Sea, at the mouth of the ri\er 
Maritza {Hehrus) ; 80 miles S. by W. from Adrianople. of 
which it was the port before the completion of the railway 
from Adrianople to the neighboring port of Dede-Agat4*!i 
(see map of Turkey, ref. 4-D). Its harbor admits onlv Mimii 
vessels. Pop. about 8,000. Here is a small bay calfed t tie 
Gulf of Enos. jSnoa is mentioned by Homer in the Iliad, 
book iv. 

Enriqnez Gomez, Antonio, or Eniiqnei do Pai : dm- 

matic author ; the son of a C(m verted Portuguese Jew ; h. at 
Segovia, Spain, early in the seventeenth century ; enttT»Hi 
the army and rose to the rank of captain, but from the veiir 
1629 devoted himself almost exclusively to literary wi.rk. 
About that date several comedies by him were represent *si 
on the stag^ at Madrid with success, and in 1635 appear^^i 
\\\» Fama pbstuma d la tnda y muerte de Lope dt IVyn; 
but the fear of persecution on account of his alleged r»num 
to the Jewish religion drove him from Spain, and in ^♦vi^< 
he appeared in France, where he remained for eleven yt-ar^. 
Removing to Amsterdam about 1666, he openly pnif*»^-i*-d 
Judaism, for which he was burned in effigy at the auto^a-u 
in Seville, 1660. The date of his death is not known 
Twenty-two comedies were written by him and were all n»- 
ceived with great favor, although they betray the faults of 
a facile but careless writer. His Alo que obliga el hamtr, 
published with three other comedies under the title of 
Academias morales de las Musas (Rouen, 1642), is saiii t«' 
have suggested (^alderon's Medico de su honor. The *S'i'f;.'-. 
pitagdriS) (Rouen, 1647; Brussels, 1727) is a work <if a 
somewhat mystical character, containing satirical skt»ti-b«-^ 
in prose and verse. Enriquez is thought by some to Ir* i h« 
author of the comedies usually attributed to Femaiid 
Zarate. See Ticknor's History of Spanish Literature. 

Ensiform Cartilage, or Xiphoid Cartilage [en^t'fnnr*, 
is from Lat. etisis, swoni -^ forma, form; sipnoia is fr«»n. 



ol issue EUTTiving tjie flmt taker; in vhich case Ibc necond- 
My gift would be upheld, aixl would take effect should no 
issue survive. !jee P&BPETumEB and Kedoteness. 



En'UsIs [Gt. frrairw ; <■> + -rtinir, strain, stretch] : a deli- 
cate and almost imperceptible swelling out in the taper ol 
the shaft of a column, common in the architecture of an- 
cient Greece. It was adopted to prevent the shafts being 
strictly frusta of cones, in which case there would, by a sim 
pie optical law, be an incorrect impression made upon thi 
eye as to the proportions of the column. It was one of the 
most tielicnte yet important of the refinements of Greek 
architecture, and has not been accurately attained in mod- 
em imilations. in the columns of the Parthenon the en- 
tasis amounts to j^ of the whole height of the column. 

Entel'ech; [from Gr. irrtAJx"^ absolutenexs, actuality, 
deriv. of phrase irriKit fx<"'> '" ^ complete, or irrtK'lit, 

Effect + (x<v, be] : a metaphysical term from the Aristo- 
lian philosophv, denoting the fundamental idea of the 
whole system. Cicero defined this idea as energy, but the 
Greek philosophers who. in the fifteenth century, moved 
from Constantinople to Italy — and among them especially 
ArgvTOpolus — ridiculed him tor the definition, and ptve 
ptrftchon as the constituent element of the idea. Melanch- 
thon, however, and Leibnitz, and all modem philosophers 
almost without exception, follow Cicero; and when the 
" Bntriechy " of Aristotle is compared with the " Idea " of 



Plato or the "Absolute Xegativitat" of Ilegel. o 






toteltan idea tnan perferlion. The abstract repose of the 
Platonic Idea is suppliuited by the energy of reality in the 
Aristotelian Entelecny ; its potentiality IJecoracs actuality. 
Aristotle calls tmth an idea, but the soul he defines as an 
ipn\ixiia- The best explanations of the entelechy and its 
relations to the whole system of Aristotelian philosophy ore 
given by Brandts in his ArittoMft and triite Akadfmiiehen 
ZtUgenotsen (Berlin. 1857), and by Thurot in his ^tiidet 
atr Aritloti (Paris, 1860). 

EntellDs Monkey, or HknnmaD : a species of East Ind- 
ian monkey (Semnopitheeua enlellu*) about 3 feet in length, 
having long limbs and a very long and powerful but not 
prohcnsUc tail. These monkeys are regarded as sacred by 



the Hindus, who deilicste temples to Ihem, and erect hospi- 
tals for their benefit. The eiilellus monkeys exhibit a fa- 
miliarity bordering on impuiIerK-e. ami often 'pi undergariiens 
with impunitv, as the Hindus feel honored when rol)l)ed by 
them. The (lindlis also Wlieve thiit thev ar^ metamor- 
phosed princes, and to kill one i.4 coti^dered a deadly sin; 
hence these monkeys swartn in many places, espetiily in 
the vicinity of the temples. 

Enteral'gla [from (ir. trrtpm. intestine + bToi. pain]: 
a name givi>ti in sume meilical works to colic, espt-eially of 
the fnrm attended by spasmoilic contnu-tions in the mus- u 
cular coat of the intestine. See Cuur and Nkihaliiia. I <1 



ENTOMOLOGY 



Enterl'tis [from Gr. Irrffw, intestine ■¥ saffii of Greek 



what vaguely used by medical writers. Active iuflamms- 
tion of the bowels, in adults at least, is froquentiv (--in- 
fined, for the most part, to the peritoneal coat, and ttt- dis- 
ease is then called peritonitis. When the mucous coat of 
the bowels alone is actively involved, it ia frequently a fatal 
disease in children, but in adults, with care, the majority 
of cases recover. Catarrhal enteritis is benefited, and ofttn 
cured, bv gentle purgation. But in active disease <if this 
kind cathartics wili oiften greatly aggravate the eviJ, Such 
cases are liest treated by rest, opiates, noulticea to the abd.i- 
men, and bland nourishment. "Typhlitis," inflammalinn 
of or about the ca?cum, when caused bj abscess or iierfora- 
tion of the appendix ca?ci, is not unfrequently taXai; »hin 
otherwise caused, recovery may be looked for. 

Revised by Williik Pepper. 
Enteropnensta [from Gr. trrfw, intestine -i- wna. 
breathe]: a group of animals of very uncertain afllniin,-. 
constituting one of the main divisions of the Chordata (7. i-.j. 
They have at various times been classed with the c<Tiini- 
derms, with the annelids, and are now usually asMxiali-'l 
with the vertebrates. They are worm-like in shajie. anil 
live buried Jn the sand of the ocean. In Balanogloiviii. th>- 

Erincipal genus, there is an aeora-shaped proboscis folluwiil 
y a collar, and behind this the long body. The mouih i^ 
below at the base of the proboscis, and the throat is \wT' 
forated with gill openings, in allusion to which the nam.> 
Enleropneusta is given. In the proboscis there isaearlilat;- 
inous nwi of tissue believed to be homologous with tin' 
notochord of vertebrates. Some species have a direi:! ilfvrl- 
opment, while others have a larval stage which cIuh-Iv tv- 
sembles that of thcechinoderms. The nineteen known >|H'- 
cies are distributed into four genera. Allied to thctn an' 
probably the Kcnera Cephalodtacvs and Rhabdopirura . for- 
merly included among the Polyzoa. J. S. Kisuslkv, 

En'thyineiiie [from Gr. /rA!^ii>ia.aconsideration.Ilii)iight. 
En Aristotle a ■■ rhetorical syllogism." deriv, of irtutitiatt. 



of which one of the three parts (generally the mai< 
ippressed or held in mind — e. g. "The freedi 



„- -- - lujiln 

o vote, because they can not read." Acconliug to I>e 
Quinciy (Ilialorieal Essays, vol. ii., p. 215. »eq.). the Aristo- 
telian enthymeme is an argument in respect to matters proli- 
able rather than demouNlrable. (So al»> Thomson iMu-t 
of Thotight, p. 284.) Aristotle's own definition for the rh.- 
lorical enthymemc is "a sjUoeism from probable pri-jfr-i- 
tiiins or from signs." By probable propotiliotui he nutans 
thiBe which are general, but not at all universal, as " in- 
jured men seek revenge." By *igna he designates fB(■T^ it 
marks, such as attend upon other facts or concept i<m*. v) 
that from the presence of the sign we suspe*'! or know 1 li.ii 
the thing .signified is also present. The rhetorical eniliv- 
meme, when based on siarns, is always affimialive, taking; lio 
account of negative indications. Its resuitt) are univ.'r>al. 
and may amount to practical or even formal demonslmli.iii. 
Entomology [from Gr. fn-o^i. cut in pieces (fr. in -^ 
Ttiuur. cut; ncut. plur. Irro^ (sc. ft.. animals), insects so 
named from the divisions of their bodies, cf. Lat. imu-rt/i] 
-t- -AoyCo, <li»course]: the department of loSlogy which 
treats of insects. For the purposes of this article the miI>- 
ject can be treated under three heads: (1) the analomy of 
insects, (2) the metamor- 
phoses of insects, and (3) 
the classification of in- 

1. TheAnatomvocIk- 

cTs. — E-rtrmal Anal- 
ly. — Insects belong to 
that branch of the ani- 
mal kingilom known as 
the Artbro^ada, which 
is characterized by hav- 
ing the body eoiiipcwcd 
of a series of secments. 
and fumisheil with joint- 
ed appendages. In insects 
the f ' 



^^US, 




s, which arc so completely con-ii.li- 
The thorax is composed of Ihni- 



154 



ENTOMOLOGV 



fitted for piercing, and form with the lower lip an organ for 
sucking. 

The appendages ot the thorax arc the organs of loco- 
motion ; these consist of the legs and wings. Of the former 
there are Uiree pairs, of the latter nerer more than two 
pairs. Bach segment of the thorax bears a pair of legs ; the 
vings are borne liy the second and thinl segments. Each 
leg consists of the following parts ; coxa, trochanter, femur. 




Pro. 8.— Let; of Bfa7'beeCle, shovlnB relstlon of skeleton and m 
tibia, and tarsus. The coia is the scgmi 



e Joined t< 
of the leg. 
part; in certain Hiptttnopten 



>f the leg. and ie 



n inconspicuous 



8 of tt 



^he/rnnur is the principal segment of the leg. Following 
the femur is the tibia, consisting of a single segment. The 
remaining segments of the leg, Tarjing in number from one 
to six, compose the tarma or foot. The last segment of the 
taiBoa is furnished with one or two claws. 



Tia. r.-A cockroMh iPtTxplanrta nrimlnlii). (Froir 

a, uiKiinB ; bl. bt, bS. llble ; c, anal crrtl : rl. kudkUod od nvurrvnt 

•*lL»»rjr duct ; /. salivary bladder ( g. gli»rd : A, hpnatlc mbci 

HBlpiKOlan »ei««lB ; 1:, bihbII Inlesline ; (. large inleMlne ; m. re 

ganglion ; o, ovary : p, ■ebaceoiu glanda. 

Although the normal number of wings is two pairs, many 
insects have only a single pair, and other insects are wingloss. 
When but a single pair of wings is present it is aliiiiK<l in- 
Tariabiv the first. Each wing is a plate-like or membranous 
expansion, which is at first developed a** a sac-like projec- 
tion of the body walL The wing is usually strengthened by 



a firm network of thickened lines. These are termed Ih* 
veins or nerves of the wing, and their arrangemenl. ile- 
scribed as the venation or neuration of the wing. aRonl> 
useful characters for determining the afBnities of ina«i*. 
Consequently, special names are given U> the different veinn 
and also to the cells, as the thin spaces circnmKribed by the 

Except in the first order of insects (T^ysanum), the ab- 
domen ot the adult bears no locomotive appendages. Bui 
many larvm have fleshy appendages which aid in locomo- 
tion ; these are termed prohgs. In the adults the caudal 
end of the body is furnished with jointed filaments, thr 
eerci and eatidal attm (Fie. 7, f). Frequently also the b.«lj- 
is furnished in the males with organs for clasping, (he 
elatper». and in the females with saws, pincers, or borers, 
the avipoailor. In the females of certain insects there is ■ 
sting, a modified oviDositor, which is used as an organ of 
defense, and the abdomen of plant-lice and certain other 
insects bears a pair of tubes or tubercles, through which 
honey-dew is excreted. 

Internal Anatomy. — The outer wall of insect* is more or 
less firm, being hardened by a homy substance termeil 
chitine ; this outer wall serves as a skeleton within which 
are the muscles and viscera. The akeltton is therefore in 

Kneral outline a hollow cylinder. This hardening of the 
dy wall is not continuous, but takes place in a series of 
more or less regular ring-like bands, 
that have the well known segTnenlfd 
appearance chHracleristic of insecl^ 
and the animals clceely allied to them. 
Between the homy ring-like segments 
the body wall remains soft and flexi- 
ble. In this waj prorision Ls made 
for the various motions of the biidv. 
The movement of the legs, anlenni. 
and certain other appendages i:> pro- 
vided for in the same way ; each one 
is a cylinder made up ot 'several n-e- 
ments.and between each segmpnt th? 
wall of the cylinder remains flexible. 
Although the skeleton of an in^xl is 
chiefiy an external erne, there are pro- 
longations of it into the body caviiy. 
As these form support tor various or- 
gans, and attachment for many mas- 
cles, they are often described as th<- 
internal skeleton. 

The muscular tt/alem of inset^is is 
comp<^edof immense number^nf dr<u 
tinct isoUted straight fibens which 
are always free (i. e. not inclus^ in 
tendinous sheaths as with Vrrlr- 
bratea). Asa rule, the muscles that 
move the segments of the body are 
not furnished with tendons (Kfps. 4 
and S). while those that move the ap- 
pendages are thus united at the distal 
end (Fig, S), In appearance the mus- 
cles are either colorless and tran»[>Br- 
ent or yellowish whit*, and are of a 
soft, almos-t gelatinous consistencv. 
There are several layers of mu^-lr< 
lining the body wall or external skele- 
ton (I-lgs. 4 and S). These priividt 
for the movements of the budv aiHl 
its appendages, and constitute Ibo 
chief part of the muscular OTstem. 

The alimentary canal is a tnW 
passing from the moulh to the caudal 
end of the body ; in its simplest form 
it is a straight tube occupying tlir 
axis of the cylindrical bodv. Bui 
usually it is longer than tW Ixilv. 
Rolleeion.) and is Consequently more or less oi.n- 

e. voluted ; moreover, it is not of uni- 
ij form structure, but, as in higher ani- 
mals, different parts are adapltil t<' 
different functions. The names a)>- 
plied to these parts are similar to those used in the anatonii 
of higher animals (Fig, 7), 

The circWo/orw gyalem at insects is an open one, the ldi«ii| 
flowing in vessi'ls during only a part of its course. The 
greater part of the circulation of this fluid take«^ idni-e in 
the cavity of the body and ils appendages. The only IiIimxI- 



i, chjliflc swn „. 

un : n, flTBt abdotnlDal 



ENTOMOLOGY 



) the pupa- of be«a, wasps, and 



insect is said to b« viviparous. Tbe eggs of ii 



s vary | butterfly. This d. 



FlO, 6. -t.UIUI IIiiKh, .4cliiu luiu 

f^ally in their external characlerH. While many iif them 
are furnished with smooth oval shells, in others the sheila 
are beautifully ribbed or pitted {Pig. 10), or furnished with 
spines or other appenda^s. There exists also in one end of 
the ege of an inseet one or more pores known as mieropylt» ; 
through these the spermatozoa pass into the egg and thus 
fertilize it. 

The Larva. — The larva is the second of the four principal 
stages in the life of an insect. It is the stage in which the 
insect emerges from the egg. Familiar 
examples of tarvn are caterpillars, 
mafiBots. griilis. etc. (Pig. 8. 3). Tt is 
during the larval »tate that the growth 
of the insect is maile, and consc(|ueiit- 
ly in this sta^ nearly all the molts 
are undergMie. The molts subsequent 
to this (wriod are simply those made 
when the insect changes from one 
stace to another. 

Seariy all of Iho crealiires common- 
ly known as worms are not true woniis, 
but are the larva< of iiiseets. Away 
fniiu the seaNhore but few worms are 
known to other than zoflloffisls; these 
an' earth-worms, leeclies, hair-wonns, 

luiiiies of higher animals. The many 
worm-like animals found fectlin^ upon 
the tiiisues of plants, as tomato-worms, 
apple- worms, etc., are the larva> of Jn- 
_. . _ , , sects. Other larva; of insects are pre- 
'"dr^'n"?'"" aa.^nus or parasitic. 

^ * The P,ipa.—T\w pupa is the thinl 

of the tour stages in the life of an insect. In this stage the 
insect is usually quies<'ent. But a few pupn, as those of 
mosquitncs. are 'active. The change from the larval In the 
pupa state is maiie by moiling the skin of the fully grown 
larva. In the pupa the legs an<l wings of (he ailult are rep- 
resented in a rudimentary stale. In the pu|)H!of butterflies 
and moths these organs are closely fatitened to the breast of 




: 1, Imago ; 2. Pupa ; S, Larva. 

spots with which the puiMe of certain butterflies are msrli«i. 
Two forms of this word are in use : chrysalis, plural i'hr>»- 
lides; and chrysalid. plural chrysalids. 

Thf CoeooH. — Many larva", as those of moths when (utly 
grown and liefore they change to pU|>H>. spin about the limji 
a silken case within which the transfonnations are iinilirr- 
gone. This ca.te is tenned a cocoon. Frequently these ii- 
coons arc made within a 
rolled leaf (Fig. 11). or 
on the surface of the 
ground, where they are 
covered with dry grass 
or other rnbbish. Cer- 
tain hairy caterpi liars 
maketlu'ircix-oons large- 
Iv of their hair, which 
they fasten together by 
a thin film of silk. 

Imma/ure Fonnt af 
Ineects irilh Incomplrle 
Mrlamorphosia — The 
Nymph. — The terms lar- 
va anil pupa are appli- 
cable only to the early 
stages of insects with a 

complete melumornho- pig lo -Egg of motli invally rcJuc-l 
SIS, In the ca.se of those 

in which the transformation is an incomplete one i)"' 
changes through which the immature insect )ia«ses af'-r 
leaving the egg are so gradual that one can not i]iilii»t< 
any jioint at whi<-h the insect ceases to be a larva snil !•- 
conies a pnjM. Recent writers have therefore vfvA Ihe Icm 
nymph (which was formerly used as a synonym of pii|«> i" 
ilcsignatc Ihe immature forms of insects wilh an inci>Tn|>l<'t'' 
metamorphosis. This term is applied to all the slagvs be- 
tween tlic egg and the fully winged or adult state. 

A nymph when it leaves the egg has no indications "' 
wings. After undergoing a grcaler or less numlier <'i 
molls, differing in ilifferent species, small prolongation* 
ap]>car proje<'Iing from the dorsal aspect of the mesiv umI 



158 



ENTOMOLOGY 



t tail). 




1. Order Thgaanura (Irom Or. Aitavt. ttinge + ei 
— Tha Thyaonura JDcludes the insects communlj ki 
bristle-tftifs, xpriiig-tsila, and fish-moths. These are wingless 
insects which undergo no metainorpbosis, Iho larvai torm be- 
ing retained by the ailult. The man- 
ilibli!^ and maiills are retracted witti- 
in the tavity of the head, so that only 
their apices are visible ; tho^ have, 
however, some freedom of motion, and 
con be u^d fur biting and chewing 
soft sub<<tances. True (compound eyes 
are rarely present ; but in some gene- 
ra there is a group of agglomerated 
simple eyes on each side of the h^ad. 
The abdomen is sometimes furnished 
with rudimentary lees, and in one 
genas there are well-developod ab- 
dominal logs. 

The absence of wings in this order 

is believed to represent the primitive 

condition of these insects. None of 

the species show any indic-alion of the 

deTelopment of these DrgtinB, and the 

XBfi. thorax do<a not present tliat eompli- 

V^ T N. "^tion of structure which is the result 

r^ I ^^ of the development of wing- muscles. 

I In each of the higher orders we And 

I wingless species; but in these cases 

_, „ , . there is goo<i reason for believing that 

rt^rtlwrrCwte-iSr 'he wingless condition is the result of 

a retrograilc development. In some 

cases this degradation is the result of parasitic habits, as 

with lice, fleas, and many other parasites ; in other instances 

it is the result of the sepanUinn of the species into several 

castes, of which some do not require wings, as the workers 

and soldiers among Termes. 

the workers among ant«, and 

the sedentary generations of 

the Aphides. 

This onler comprises c hie t- 
ly minute insects, which live 
on decaying vegetable mat- 
ter, and can be found abun- 

Pla, lS,~I\ipiriui futeta, a spriiig- 



attention in popular writings on account of their ephemeral 
eiisl£ncc in the adult t^tatc. All have read of the inni'd^ 
that live but a day. Reference is made in tbeee aci-uunU I" 
members of this family; and although the popular iileu in 
fallacious, it has some foundation in fact. Strictly speaking:. 
the May-Sies are long-lived insects ; some sgiecies Hpi>-Hr 
twice annually, once in the sprinKand again in thcaulunm : 
but, as a rule, one, two. or even three vears are required for 
the development of a generation, TKo greater ptut of Ibi,- 
lime is passed, however, beneath the surface ol the whi-t. 
and after the insect emerges ii " ' " 
adult form its eiistence is 
very brief. With many spe- 
cies the individuals leave the 
wai«r, undergo two transfor- 
mations, mate, lay their eggs, 
and die in the course of an 
evening or within the early 
[uoming hours. 

With many sjiccies of May- 
flies there is great uniformity 
in the date of maturing of the 
individuals. Thus immense 
swarms of them will leave the 
waler at about 






the c 







'ay, Uiis being the 
only appearance of the s|>eeies 
until another jjeneration has 
been develo|)ea. The great 
swarms of '■ lake-Hies" {Ephe- 
mera simularm) which appear 
along the lakes to the north 
of the U. S. about the third 

week in July afford good il- p„. ,^^4 timj-IIj. 

lustrations otthispeculiaritv. 

3. Order Odonata (from ~Ur. Uait, MrToi, tooth).— The 
members of tWis order have (our membranous wings, which 
are flnelv netted with veins; and each wing has near the iiuil- 
dle of t[ie front margin a joint-like structure, the nii<]ii>. . 
The mouth-parts are furnished for biting. Themet«nii<r|>)>'-- 
sis is incomplete. The memliers of this order arecomni.nly 
known as dragon-flies, darning-needles, spindles, and sriak-- 
doctors (Pig. 17). The eggs ari> laid in the waler. In sum,- 
species the female flies back and forth over the surfa<-i- cif 
the water, sweeping down at intervals to touch it with i\n- 
tip of her abdomen, and thus wash off one or more egg> liiIi> 
it. In other cases the eggs are laid in a mass, attai'lied ii> 
some aquatic plant. The nymphs of drapon-flies pass tl»ir 
lives in water. They are predaeeuus, feeding on such aquBi ic 
animals as thcr cnn 
overcome- When the 
nymph of a dtsgun-tly 




e species, however, live 

arm and Jrv places, and 

teed upon starebed clothing 
and the binding of books and other dry substances. In the 
more common species the l>ody is cither elongati'd and fur- 
nished with six well-develo[>ed legs and two or more long, 
many-jointei) caudal apiiendages (Pig. 14). or short, thick, and 
with a forked springing apparatus, bent under the abdomen, 
instead of th»lhread-like caudal appendages (Fig. 15). 
The as m b o fi h as "^ -^ ^ * ' 

som m al ed L p ama ae ha 
*MiFg4isawrkwn)e u 
some parts of he U b 1 s ry 
wh w h a y wi h ng at>out he 
abd n n and egs n a^urei abgnt 

on h rd of an n h n I ngth It 
n urM h ng pec a y a hed 

h and e nd gs f bo ka 
So n mes upon h slareh 

w h wh h wa upe fas n d m 

2 Orde bph m nda from Q 
i^iMfti. living but a day).— The ortler 
Ephrmrrida is coraposud of the insects 
commonly known as Mav-flies (Fig. 
16), They have delicate, membranous 
wings furnished with a fine network of 
Teins ; the fore wings are large, and the 
hind wings are much smaller or want- 
ing. The mouth-parts are rudimen- 
tary. The metamorphosis is complete. 
This order includes only a single fam- 
ily, the Eph^mfridft. The May-flies 
or Ephemerids are often very common 
insects in the vicinity of streaiiis. [x>nds. 
and lakes; frequently the surface of 
such bo<lies of waler is thickly strewn with them. They I is fully grown it leaves the water to transform. The skin 
are attracted by light, and it is not an uncommon occur- the nymjih sjiliU open on the back of the thorax and In-;, 
rence in summer-time to sec hundreds of them flvingalKiut and the adult emerges, leaving the empty skin of the nvm 
a street-lamp. The May-flies have received considerable I clingingtolheobjectonwhichtho transformation tookpla. 



^^i^'^k-.iJia^ku.jw' 



Fio. 17.— A dragon-fly. 



Ititl 



ENTOMOLOGY 



scribed, there are somedmcs developed wingless sexual in- 
dividuals whiuh nevrr leave the nest. These arc Icrmeil 
eompleiMHlat malea and females, tmd they serve as substi- 
tutes for the winged males and females whenever a com- 
munity iloes nut nnd a true king or ijueen. The cotnple- 
mental females produce comparatively few egga, and conse- 
quently never become as large as do the true q^ueens. It 
requires several of these to replace a queen. Fntx MQller 
found in one case a king living in company with thirty-one 
complemental females. As these wingless males and fe- 
males never leave Ihe nest, they pair with their near rela- 
tives. The development of winged semal forms is there- 
fore necessary iu order to provide for intercrossing of indi- 
viduals not closely related. Doubtless here, as with the true 
ants, the winfi[ed males and females emerge from many nests 
at the same time and mingle in a single swarm : in this way 
there is opportunity for intercrossing. 

There is spHce here for but little regarding the habits of 
these wonderful insects. In the ljt>pics certain species build 
nesis of great size. Some of these are mounds lo or 13 feet 
in height. Other species build large globular masses upon 
the trunks or branches of trees. All of the Termites are 
miners, and all avoid the light. They therefore build cov- 
ered ways fnim their nests to rach places as they wish to 
visit. In some hotconntries they are the worst of all pests. 
They will feed upon almost any organic matter; they de- 
stroy wooden structures of all Kinds, including buildings 
and furniture. Libraries are often completely ruined by 
them. In infesting anything com|M>se<l of wood they usu- 
ally eat out the interior, leaving a thin nim on the outside. 
Thus a talile may appear t« be sound, but will crumble to 
pieces beneath a slight weight, entrance having been made 
through the floor of Ihc house and the legs of the table. 

The mounds of Termites are composed chiefly of the ex- 
creted undigested wood upon which the insects have ted. 
This is molded into the desireil form, and on rlrying it be- 
comes solid. The species that occur in the V. S. do not 
builil moimds, but make their nest in the ground and in 
logs, stumps, and other wood. 

6, Order Corrodtntia (from Lat. corrodere, gnaw). — The 
winged members of this order have four membranous wings, 

with the veins prominent and 
with comparatively few cross- 
veins ; the (ore wings are 
larger than the hind win^ 
and both pairs when not in 
use are placed root-like over 
tlie bo<ly, being almost verti- 
cal and not folilei] in plates. 
Tlie mouth-parts are t<>nneil 
for biting. The metamoi^ 
phosis is incomplete. Thp 
Flo. t».—Pt:^ua vraotui '"'^^ " known representatives 

of this onier are the minute 
insects found in old books— the book-lice. These wingless 
creatures form, however, but a small part of the onier. The 
more tvpieal forms (Fig. 23) bear a strong reseniblance to 
plant-lu'e (Aphides), and occur upon the leaves and trunks 
_• . 1 _^ _..__j walls and palings. Tliey feed ujxin 

e closely huddled together 

7. Order Mallophagn (from Qt. itoM^t, lock of p 




♦«y.a.,ei 



—The members ot this order are wingless [Mira. 
sitic insects, with biting mouth-parts. 
Their metanmrpbosjs is incomplete. Al- 
though some Hjiecics infest aheeit and 
goats, feeding upon their wool, bv fsr 
I he greater nunil^r lire among the /eath- 
em of tiiriis ; consequently, the name bird- 
lice is applied to the entire order. Fig. 
24 represents a species which infests the 
horMi. The bird-lice resemble the true 
lice in form, being winglcs.*;, and with 
the boily more or less flattened, but diffc-r 
in having biting mouth-parts. Certain 
species which infest domesliu fowls are 
well-known examples. Tiiey feed upon 
teal hers. hair, and dermal scales, while 

_. _ „„^, the tnie lice (family I'rdiculidir. onier 

loiue. Hemiplera) have sucking mouth-parts, 

feed u|K)n bliHHl.and infest on Iv mammals. 

Sfenopon paUidnm is one of the spocies which' infest the 

hen. It is to free themselves from this and allie<i pamsitcs 



Fra. M.-TVfcA<Ht<-c- 



that hens wallow in dust and scatter it among their fenili 

8. Order Eaplet-opiera (from Or, *}, well + vA^nw, rol'l + 
mtfit, wing). — This order includes only the earwigs (family 
FarfictUida). With these insects the 
flrst pair of wings are leathery, very 
smair, without veins, and when at 
rest meet in a straight line down the 
back, iwrtially covering the second 
imir of wings (Fig. 25). These wing- 
eovers strongly resemble those ot the 
rove - beetles. The second pair of 
wings (Fig. 36) are furnished with ra- 
diating veins which extend from a. 
point near the en<l of the basal third 
of the wing over the distal part ot 
this ol^n. When the wing is not in U 
use this part is folded in plaits like a a£ 
fat), and the wing is folded twice JA, 
transveiscly. The most striking 
character of this family is the form 
at the cerci, which are homy, and re- 
semble force lis. 

The earwigs are rare in the U. S., 
es|)ecially in the Korth. But in Eu- 
rope they are common, and are often ^la % —Ad «rwbr 
troublesome pests. They are noctur- 

nal. hiding in the daytime among leaves and iti all kiiirU i>( 
crevices, and coming out by night. They feed upon the n" 
rollas or flowers, fruit, and other vegetable substances. 
When troublesome they may 
be trapped with hollow ob- 
jects, into which they can 
crawl and hide during the 
davtirnc. The name of the 
typical genus, Forficula, is the 
I'jatin word for scissors. It 
was suggested by the curious 
form of the eor^i. The com- 
mon name, earwig, has refer- 
ence to a widely spread fancy that these insects creep into 
the ears of sleeping persons. 

S. Order UrI/ioplera (from Gr. ipUt, straight + -rrtpit. 
wing). — The members of this order have four wing^ ; lii.' 
first pair are thickened, and overlap when at rest : the x-i'- 
ond pair are thinner, and are folded in plaita like a fmi. 
The mouth-parts are lormed for biting, llie metamori'h'-- 
sis is incomplete. This order incluiles the cockroaches, lo- 
custs or grasshoppers, katydiiis. crickets. walking-stiek>. 
and soothsayers or praying mantes. The most familiar ex- 
amples are the locusts, commonly called grasshoppers in the 
V. & (Fig. 37). They abound everywhen 




■!i:«iES 



Tia. 2T,— The creMed locust. 



multiply to such an extent as to cause serious injury to vpt:*- 
tation. Scarcely lessabundant are the crickets. Thcirchirji- 
ingisasexualcallpn>ducedby the males by rubbing tJigi-t her 
the wing-covers, Bs the first pair of wings are t«rmed in these 
insects. Upon each ot the wing-co vera there is a stniiii; 



162 



ENTOMOLOGY 



borer, the arraj-womi, the cabbage-worm, the cotl^n-wonn, 

and the boll-worm. A few caterpillars feed upon scale- 
bugs, and must thecvfore be classotl amon^ beneBcial inserts. 
But the most important member of this order is the silk- 
worm (Pig. 35). The luna-molh (Fig. 8) is one of the most 
strikJDg in appearance of the moths native in the U. S. 



Fro. ».— TbP Hi 






I 



16. Order Diplera (from Gr, »i, lii. twice -!- wrtpir, wing).— 
This order includes the flies, which differ from other insects 
in possessing only a sin^e pair of wings. The second pair 
of wings is represented by a pair of knobbed threads, termed 
halUrta. The mouth-parts are formed tor sucking. The 
metamorphosis is complete. Thelarvmof flies are maggots; 
they are usually cylindrical in form, and are footless. Most 
species transform within the dried skin of the !ar»» ; a few 
have naked pupfe, and some make a cocoon. The different 
species vary much in habits. Some are very annoying to 
man : as the mosquito which attacks his person ; the flesh- 
flies which infest his food ; the bot-flies and gad-flies which 
torment his cattle; and the gall-gnals which destroy his 
crops. Other species are very beneficial, as the various 
species that are [irasitic upon other insects, as well as many 
other species which feed upon decaying animal and vege- 
table matter, thus acting as scavengers. Fig. 38 repre.senta 
a species which is parasitic 
upon the army-worm. In 
the lower part of the figure 
represi'Utiid the fore part 
an army -worm bearing 
I'Ugs of the fly ; the larva is 
siiown on the left, tlie pupa 
''^ on the right, and the adult 

in the middle., 

17. Order Siphonaptera 

(from (ir. al^m. tube + A*- 

rtpot, wingless). — This order 

Pro. ».-fltmoraa Uwnmia. ■ includes the fleas, and the 

d.pjj.™u»p««iieoril,e«r»r-r^^„^g jigger of tropical 

the tliree segments of the thorax arc distinct and nearly 
equal. The mesuthoral and metathorax l>ciLr short leaf-like 
apiiendages in the place of wings. The mouth-parts arc 
formed for sucking. The metamorphosis is complete The 
iarvie are worm-like in form, being long and slender. They 
can be found in the sice ping- places of cats and other ani- 
mals. When full grown Ihey spin a silken cocoon within 
which the pupa slate is pusseil. The Iiody of the adult is 
much comprcKsi'd, admitting of free movement among the 
hairs of the host, and the legs are fitted for leaping. 

18. Onler Coleoplera (from Gr. KoKtit. sheath + rrtpir. 
wing). — The membere of this onler have four wings, the 
first pair of which are teriued rlvlra, and are much thick- 
ened, meeting in a straight line down the liack ; tlie seccmd 
pair are membranous, and when not in use are folded be- 
neath the elytni. The muuth-t>arts are formed for biting. 
The metauiorphosiw is comjilctc. This order includes only 
the beetles, which can be distinguished from all other in- 



sects, exuept the earwigs, by the peculiar fonn of the fore 
wings or elytra ; they differ from (he earwigs in lacking tb* 
caudal forceps characteristic of tho^^e insects. The larrn* of 
beetles are commonly civl led grub.i. They are Qsually fur- 
nished with six thoracic legs, and often with a single pri>- 
leg at the caudal end of the body. The pupie liave tbe 
partially developed legs and wings folded u]»)n 
the breast, but in distinct sheaths. These in- 
sects usually transform in rude cocoims inaiie 
of earth or bits of wood fastened together lir 
a viscid substance excreted by the larva. Both 
beetles and their larve vary greatly in haliits. 
Uany species arc predaceous,and are thus U'n- 
eficial t« man by destroying insect pests; >>ul 
others feed upon vegetable matter, and are thus 
noxious. Amongtheimportantpestsare many 
species of borers infesting trees. Other iipecie! 
feed upon the foliage of plants, as the Colorailo 
beetle. Fig. 37 will serve to illustnte the form 
of the members of this otder. 

16. OtHot HymenopleraitroTaGr. Iftfir, jntm- 
brane + «T((>ir, wingV^The members of ihis 
order have fourwings; these are mpmbnuii>\L'<, 
and furnished with comparatively few or with 
no transverse veins. The second pair of winKS 
is smaller than the first. The mouth-^rts >ra 
formed both for sucking and biting. The ab- 
domen of the female is usually lumisheil with 
a sting, piercer, or saw. The metamorjihosis 
ia complete. The members of this order are 
well known toeveryoteerver. Theyarpann'og 
the first of insects to attract atlenliuu, alioiuid- 
ing wherever flowers bloom ; and the habi1^ "t 
certain forms, as the ants, bees, and wasps, bate 
excited wonder and admiration from the earliest time. fit;. 
1 represents a member of this order. 

Toe larvn ot Hymenoplera are usually footless, macg<>t- 
like creatures, incapable of any extended motion, and i ii- 
tirely dependent on the provision made for them by iln' 
adult insects. But in the two lower families, the s«w-flii--< 
and the honi-l ails, the larvie ure furnished with legs, anil 
frequently have a striking rcH>mblance to cuterpillars Imth 
in form and habits. As a rule, the larva? of saw-flies ( TVit- 
Ihredinida) feed upon the foliage of plants, and the Ikrw 
of the horn-tails {Siricidal bore in trie more solid parts. 
The gall-flies {Cynipida) also feed upon vegetable natter : 
but their method of attack is peculiar. The gall-fly lav* 
her egg within the tissue of the plant ; when the egg bati-ln'H 
the young larva tiegins to feed upon the plant, and immedi- 
ately there takes place an abnormal growth ot the plunt 
about the larva. The larva is thus inclosed in what ia 
known as a gait. Oalls are familiar objects, especially 
upon oaks. 




d.rf.b 



.—Colorado potatcliwllp : 



lefroi 



!>, Iw-TB ; r. pufvi ; 



c. pale I 



Several families of this order are parasites. The egiis nr* 
laid either in or upon the bodies of other inse<.'ts: aii<] t!,.. 
larvR obtain their growth within the body ot the h.v-- 
These parasitic Ilymenopltra play an important i"»trl m 
preventing the undue increase ot insects injurious to v<-i;.- 

In the higher families ot the order is found the most ri~- 



164 



ENVIRONMENT 



EPACT 



session of land. By the common law a person had a right, 
when deprived of the possession of his land by a person 
whose original entry was unlawful, to regain his legal pos- 
session by a formal and peaceable act of entering upon it 
with the declaration that he thereby takes possession. 
When the disseizor's original entry was lawful the owner 
was driven to an action. The common-law action of writ 
of entry is now disused. Any goin^ upon the land of an- 
other is often termed an entry, and unless done with the 
permission of the owner is in most instances unlawful and 
a trespass. Revised by F. Stuboes Allen. 

EnTlronment: in zoOIogy and botany, the sum of the 
conditions or surroundings of an animal or plant. Climate, 
the physical features of a country, absence or presence of 
enemies, and ease or difficulty of procuring food are among 
the more important factors of environment. F. A. L. 

EnTO^ [envoy is from 0. Fr. envoye (Mod. Fr. envoi), deriv. 
of envotier (Mod. Fr. envoyer), send : Ital. inviare : Span. 
inviar < Lat. in + via, way] : a messenger ; in political mat- 
ters a person deputed hj a ruler or government for transact- 
ing business witn a foreign ruler or government. In diplo- 
macy the term envoy extraordinary and minister plenipo- 
tentiary is applied to a diplomatic agent of rank next beiow 
an ambassaaor. See Ambassador, Diplomatic Agents, and 
International Law. 

Enzina, Juan del : See Encina. 

Enzio, or Enzo: soldier; natural son of the Emperor 
Frederick II. of Germany ; b. 1225 ; fought at his father's 
side in the battle of C!ortenuova at the age of thirteen ; in 
the following year married Adelasia, the widow of Waldo 
Visconti and heiress of Sardinia and Corsica, and received 
the title of King of Sardinia. In 1239 he was made vicar 
imperial, with the task of subduing the Guelph cities of 
Northern Italy, and in spite of his youth became the ablest 
of Ghibelline leaders. The cities of Umbria were reduced 
to obedience, and the best military talent of his enemies 
was enlisted as^ainst him in vain. Toward the end of the 
year he was excommunicated by the pope. Taking com- 
mand of the allied imperial and Pisan fleets, he defeated 
the Genoese in 1241 near the island of Meloria, sank three and 
captured nineteen of their vessels, and took 4,000 prisoners, 
including many prelates of high rank who were journey- 
ing to the Roman council. His next service to the emperor 
was his victory conjointly with his brother over the Tartars 
on the river Delphos. In 1247 he was again active in 
Northern Italy against the Guelphs, whose revolt, however, 
could not be suppressed, and though he captured Arola, 
where his murder of prisoners left a stain on his reputation, 
all but Modena ana Reggio were lost to the emperor. 
Gathering his forces for a final effort, he met the Bolo- 

?;ne8e in battle on the banks of the Fossalta, but was de- 
eatcii and taken prisoner. So g^eat was the fear felt for 
hira by his captors that the senate and people of Bologna 
decreed his perpetual confinement. Neither the offer of 
ransom nor the threats of punishment made by the em- 
peror could procure the release of Enzio, who, however, was 
treated with honor, and experienced no hardship save the 
loss of his liberty. His captivity lasted twenty-tnree years. 
D. Mar. 14 or 15, 1272. F. M. Colby. 

E^ocene Period [eocene is from Gr. 4i^s, dawn + Moiy^f , 
new] : the division of geologic time following the Cretace- 
ous {)eriod and preceding the Neocene : the earlier part of 
the Cenozoic {q. v,) or Tertiary era. Eocene life is distin- 
guished from Cretaceous by the disappearance or subordina- 
tion of archaic and the substitution of modern types. 
Among vertebrates domination passed from the reptiles 
to the mammals. The Ammonites and their aberrant con- 
geners, as well as the Rudistes and Inocerarai, became ex- 
tinct, and were replaced by representatives of such familiar 
genera as Ceritheum, ConuH, Ftunis^ Valuta, and Cardium. 
Arborescent ferns and cytyuls gradually disappeared, leav- 
ing the aspect of the forest essentially modern. 

in the U. S. Eocene rcK^ks occupy a brotul belt parallel 
hut not adjacent to the Gulf and Atlantic coasts, from 
Texas to North Carolina. In the Mississippi valley an ex- 
tt'usion of the belt reaches northward to tlie mouth of the 
Ohio, and there is another in Florida. A narrower belt 
eroHst^s New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia. A 
few smaller areas are known in California, Ore^^on, and 
Washington, and extensive lacustrine beds of the same ai^e 
(H'cur in Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico. The 
strata include marls of agricultural value in the eastern 



district, phosphates in Florida, and coal in the interior. 
See Geology. G. K. G. 

Eohip'pus [from Gr. Ii^s* dawn + Tmt, horse] : an ex> 
tinct genus of the horse family occurring in the Hower Eo- 
cene deposits of the West, and allied to Orohippus (see 
Horse, Fossil), but of a less specialized form, and apfmr- 
ently in the direct ancestral line. The feet had four toes in 
front and three behind, with a rudiment of the outer or fifth 
metatarsal, and may have had a rudiment of the first toe in 
the fore foot. This genus is represented by species from 
the lowest Eocene beds of New Mexico and Wyoming. 

Eolian Harp : See .^Eolian Harp. 

Eon (or Eado) de Stella: a fanatic of the twelfth cen- 
tury ; an ignorant (and perhaps insane) nobleman of Bre> 
tagne, who, having heard, during the act of exorcism, the 
words ** through Him " (per Eum, etc., in Latin) •' who will 
come to judge the quick and dead," concluded, from the re- 
semblance between his own name Eon and the Latin Eum^ 
that he was the one appointed as the final jud^ of man- 
kind. He taught a reiormed doctrine, and gained manv 
disciples. He was captured in 1148, and many of his i*A- 
lowers (called Eonians) were burned, but Eon himself wa> 
pronounced insane, and seems to have been spared. 

E^os [a personification of Ion. Gr. ^f. Attic Gr. ««t. 
dawn; cf. Lat. aurora, Sanskr. uaha's-]: in the Gretk 
mythology, a daughter of Hyperion, a sister of Helios (the 
sun), ana the wife of Tithonus. See Aurora. 

Eosine : See Phthauc-acid Colors. 

EtttTtts, or EoetToes, a'ot-vOsh, Joseph. Freiheir xow. 
Hungarian author and statesman ; b. in Buda, Sept. 13, 18i:{ : 
educated at the University of Pesth. About the age <»f 
twenty he produced Boszu, a tragedy, and two succesiiful 
comedies entitled Kritikusok and llazasulok. He al>^» 
gained distinction as a political writer and orator of the 
pNopular party. Among his works are a political novel en- 
titled Falusl iegyzd (The Village Notary ; 1844-46), which 
was translated into English, and another on Der EinfluiOi 
der herrschenden Ideen aes 19, Jahrhunderts auf den ^faat 
(Vienna and Leipzig, 1851-54). He was minister of pubii* 
instruction in 1848, but he resigned the same year. In 
1865 he be^an to edit a political paper. In 1867, after t ri*- 
reconciliation between the Magyars and the Emperor of 
Austria had been effected, he was again appointed Minister 
of Public Instruction, which place he retained until hi^ 
death. D. in Pesth, Feb. 3, 1871. 

Eozotfn [from Gr. ^e&s, dawn + Cf^oy* living being] : a f **- 
culiar mineral structure supposed to represent an organiMn. 
first disciovered in the pre-Cambrian or Archean limestones 
of Canada (see Archean Era), composed of concentric lii\- 
ers of dark-green serpentine with interstices filled with <-nl- 
cite or dolomite, or with irregular canals of those minomU 
running through it. The name was applied to these ohje<^> 
by Sir William Dawson, who interpreted them to be the f « — 
sil remains of foraminifer-likie organisms, giving the ntini»- 
Eozodn canadense to those first described. On accouikt of 
the great antiquity of the formations (Laurentian) frotn 
whicn they came, and the uncertainty as to the relationship 
of the structure to any known organism, much doubt l»a^ 
been cast upon the correctness of Dawson's interpretatioti. 

If organic, it represents the most ancient known or>:.i:-.- 
ism. While some palaeontologists and geologists belii»w it 
to be organic, many others, and particularly those ex|x>rtv 
in the knowledge of mineralogy and petrographv, consiihr 
eozocJn to be purely inorganic in origin. H. S. W'illiams. 

E^paci [from Gr. 4vcuct6s, deriv. of Miy^w, intereiklar.> : 
M, upon, to + &7Ciy, bring] : the excess of the mean si4»!ir 
niontn (the twelfth part of a tropical year) over the ni»-ATi 
lunar synodical month, or mean lunation — that is, inasmiK S 
as the mean lunation is less than the mean solar month. tli>- 
epact is properly the amount to be added to the former t«» 
bring it up, or make it equal, to the latter. Practical U . ij. 
the Church calendar, however, the epact is the nunil><»r i'. 
days which intervene between the end of the ecclesiHsti* .». 
year in December and the first day of January succ^j^nlixi- - 
or, as it is commonly expressed, the epact is tfie age of 1 1. 
moon, estimated in entire davs, at the beginning ol the ii\ ■.; 
year. According to the dcAnition given first above, it .- 
manifest that the epact must increase from month to mont *i. 
but for the purposes of the ecclesiastical calendar tU-^ 
monthly increase is not considered, the entire increasi* f . r 
each year being supposed to take place at the end •>f t>!.- 
year. This calendar is extremely artificial, the ealen.l.i- 



166 



BPAMINONDAS 



KPHEMERIS 



5=41- J (41) -i (41) + 2 = 41-10-13 + 2=20. In 
General Table II. of the Prayer-book we find opposite to 
4100 the number 11. And 11 + 9 = 20, thus verifying the 
statement made above. F. A. P. Barnard. 

EpamlnonMas (in Gr. "Ev^ucu^rSos, or 'Em^ui^ySar) : 
Greek statesman and general ; b. at Thebes about 418 B. c. 
He was a pupil of Lysis, a Pythas^orean philosopher. His 
youth was passed in retirement and study. He was temper- 
ate and virtuous, and is said to have despised riches. He 
formed an intimate friendship with Polopidas. In 385 he 
served with distinction at the battle of Mantinea, after 
which he passed niany years in private life. He was one of 
the deputies sent by Thebes in 371 b. c. to a congress of the 
Grecian states, in which he opposed the policy of Sparta 
and defended the interest ana rights of Thebes in an elo- 
quent speech. War speedily ensued between Sparta and 
Thebes, and Epaminondas was chosen commander of the 
Theban army, which amounted to only 6,500 men. He de- 
feated the Spartans at the battle of Leuctra, July 6, 371 
B. c, which was fatal to the supremacy of Sparta. In this 
action he displayed great military genius, and owed his suc- 
cess partly to his novel manceuvers and combinations. He 
invaaed Peloponnesus in 869, and marched against Sparta, 
which was defended with success by Agesilaus. He com- 
manded the Theban armv which defeated the Spartans at 
the battle of Mantinea, July 3, 362 b. c, but was killed in 
this action. He left a pure and exalted reputation as a pa- 
triot, a statesman, and a sage, and is universally admitted 
to have been one of the greatest captains of antiquity. 
Cicero expressed the opinion that Epaminondas was the 
greatest man that Greece has produced. See Cornelius Ne- 
pos, Epaminondas ; Grote, History of Oreece^ chaps. IxviiL, 
'Ixix., and Ixxx. ; and Curtius, History of Greece, 

Ep'arch [from Gr. Iiropxoy, governor, used to translate 
the Liat. prmfectus ; M, upon, over + ipx^f^t rule] : in an- 
cient Greece, the title of the governor of a province, a ship's 
master, a satrap, or the prefect of a region under the Roman 
rule. The province itself was called an eparchy. In mod- 
ern Greece the primary subdivision of a nomarchy is called 
an eparchy. In Russia an eparchy is the diocese or arch- 
diocese of a bishop or archbishop of the Greek Church. 

EfMialement [Fr. SpatUementy deriv. of ipaule, shoulder 
< Lat. spa'tuld] : a military term which, from its derivation, 
would signify a side work, a work to cover sidewise — e. g. a 
traverse, or a short parapet made at the flank of a battery 
or end of a parallel ; but practically its meaning is extended 
to any covering made of earth, stone, wood, or iron, when 
intended simply as a screen— «. g. to cover cavalry waiting to 
be brought into action. See Manan's Military Engineering, 

Epaalette [Fr. Spaulette, deriv. of Spaule, shoulder < 
Lat. spa' tula] : an ornamental article of uniform of military 
and naval officers, worn on the shoulders ; a plate or strap 
extending along the shoulder from near the collar, and ter- 
minating with a fringe of gold or silver bullion, which falls 
over the shoulder. Rank is indicated by the size of the 
bullion and by devices on the strap, such as stars, anchors, 
crowns, etc. In the U. S. army the epaulette is confined to 
general officers, its place bemg supplied, for the lower 
grades, by the " shoulder-knot of gilt cord, but in the 
navy it is worn by officers of all grades. The practice varies 
in the different services of Europe. 

E|ieira [trom Gr. iwttpopuu, I examine! : a genus of spi- 
ders in which the eight eyes are arranged in two rows, tne 
middle four forming a square; the two anterior pairs of 
legs are longer than the others, and the abdomen is large, 
ovoid, and usually brightly colored. Epeira and its allien 
are known as " orb-weavers," from the fact that they build 
circular webs with radiating threads and concentric cross- 
threads. J. S. K. 

Epeirns : See Epirus. 

Epenceph^alon [from Gr. M, upon, near + iyKi^^Xos, 
brain] : See Brain. 

Eperies, o-nd-ri-esh', or Presora (Ijat. Eperim or Fro- 
gopolis): an old town of Ilunprary ; the capital of the county 
of Saros; on the river Tarcza:' about 14H miles N. E. of 
Budapest {sec map of Austria-ilungary, ref. 4-1). It is sur- 
rounded by walls, and is one of the most beautiful towns of 
Upf)er Hungary. It is a bishop's see, has five cliurcbes, a 
C()lle*,'e, and manufactures of linens, woolen goods, and 
earthenware. A roval salt mine is worked in the vicinity. 
Pop. (1890) 10,400. ' 



Epernay, a'pftr'na (Lat. AqiKr Perennes): a town of 
France ; department of Marne ; on the river Mame ; about 
80 miles E. ny N. from Paris (see map of Prance, ref. S-ii). 
It is on the railway from Paris to Cnalons, 20 miles W, N. 
W. of the latter. It is well built, clean, and well p>aved, and 
has a public library, manufactures of hosiery, earthenware, 
and refined sugar, and many elegant villas, with wintv 
vaults. [Epernay is a great entrepot or market for cham- 
pagne proauced in the vicinity. Pop. (1891) 18,252. 

Ephem'era [from Gr. 4^/upos, living but a day ; M, upon 
+ fifUfMy day] : a genus of pseudoneuropterous insects, com- 
monly called dav-fly, or May-fly, belonging to the family 
EphemeridcBy and aUied to the aragon-mes, or LibeUulidtr. 
In the larva and pupa states they live a year or more in the 
water, but their existence in the perfect state is very briof. 
They are used by anglers as bait. They give name to the 
family EphemeridcSy of which many species occur in the 
U. S. See Entomoloot. 

Ephem^erls [Gr. i^fupis, diary, journal; M, upon + 
iffji4pa, day] : in astronomy, a table giving the positions of 
any heavenly body from time to time for a considerable pe- 
riod. Thus we have an ephemeris of the fixed stars, show- 
ing the place of the principal stars for every tenth day of 
the year. An ephemeris of the planets gives the position of 
each planet, usually for noon or midnight of every day, 
sometimes also for every transit over the meridian or soiiie 
one place. 

The astronomical tables which household almanacs con- 
tain are given with little precision, and are for the most 
part adapted only to a particular latitude. Such tables an^ 
said to have been constructed even in the time of Ptolemy. 
They were indispensable to the astrologers of later dayV. 
who doubtless used them for finding the positions of the 
planets at some future or past date, and were compiled wit h 
sufficient accuracy for their prognostications. 

An astronomical ephemeris is a collection of such ephem- 
erides for a particular year or series of years, witn the 
times of eclipses, occultations, and other astronomical phe- 
nomena, or the means of determining them. The more 
complete works of this kind are intended to furnish the 
astronomical observer, whether at an observatory, in the 
field of a survey, or at sea, with all the data relating to t he 
sun, moon, planets, and some of the principal fixed stairs,, 
which he needs to facilitate the prosecution of his work- 
From the design of some portions of them to the wants of 
navigators, they are also called noAitical almanacs. 

Such publications were issued by astronomers from the 
time that astronomy was extensively cultivated as a science. 
During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries they hare 
gener^ly been issued by governments, and during the nine- 
teenth century most of the governments of Europe have had 
some sort of an ephemeris or nautical almanac Those b«-st 
known belong to France, Great Britain, (Germany, and the 
U. S. 

The earliest astronomical ephemeris noticed in bibliog- 
raphies is that of larchus in 1150 ; the first printed ephenie- 
rides were published in 1475 for the years 1475 to 15(l6« 
and in 1499 for the years 1475 to 1531, though doubtless- 
portions were prepared earlier ; both were prepared by Re- 
giomontanus. The latter extends through three cycles of 
nineteen years, and gives the longitudes of the sun aii<l 
moon, and the phases of the moon and of eclipses occurring 
from 1483 to 1530, with explanations and useful table.-^. 
These have been the precursors of a succession of epheme- 
rides, defective at first, but improving as astronomy ail- 
vanced. 

The Connaissance des Temps ou des Mouvements c^leAtt^j<^ 
commenced by Picard for the year 1679, has appeared f * >r 
each succeeding year, without interruption, to tne present 
time. Additions and improvements were made by La Lain U* 
in 1760, who subsequently added lunar distances, with tin- 
design of making tlie book more useful at sea. Thi-^ an^t 
almost all the subsequent volumes have been eiiriche<l l>\ 
valuable memoirs by the most eminent French astn.>nomcr>. 
thus carrying out the purpose of La Lande to make this an- 
nual a journal of astronomy. For many years it ha^ Ih>»"h 
prepared under the direction of the Bureau des Longitud* -- 
of Prance. Improvements have been made in it from tinn 
to time bv the use of more precise tables in its prejiarati^.*!^. 

The Kautical Almanac artd Astronomical Epht^nert *, 
publisluMl by the British Admiralty, was commenced 1>> 
Maskelvne for the vear 1767. lie undertook ifcj prei>«rn- 
tion, after a plan sketched by La Caille. for the purp«»^- 



168 



EPICHARMUS 



EPIC POETRY 



rical, with occasional use of rhyme and assonance, and he is 
fond of the acrostic arrangement. But of his many works 
only a small number exist in the original Syrian text, the 
rest surviving in Greek, Latin. Armenian, and Slavic trans- 
lations. It is doubtful whether he himself understood 
Greek ; the Greek versions of his works, however, are cer- 
tainly translations. A complete list of his writings is given 
by I. S. Assemani in the Biblioiheca Orientalis (i. 59-164), 
and in the preface to the Roman edition of the Greek text of 
his works. The principal edition of the Syrian and Greek 
texts is that which appeared in Rome in o vols. (1732-46), 
under papal authority ; 3 vols. Greek text with Latin trans- 
lation, and 3 vols. Syrian text, also with Latin translation, 
by the brothers Assemani. The hymns and sermons were 
published, with Ijatin translation, by T. J. Lamy (Mechlin, 
Belgium, 1882^9). A German translation of a selection of 
his works was published by Zingerle (6 vols., 18ii0-3'n. 
English translation of selections bv J. B. Morris (Oxford, 
1847) and of hymns and homilies by H. Burgess (London, 
1853). D. 373. Revised by C. H. Toy. 

Epicharnms : Greek comic poet and thinker ; b. in the 
island of Cos about 540 b. c. ; emigrated to Sicily in early 
childhood ; settled in Syracuse, and died at the age of ninety. 
The Pythagoreans claimed him as a member of their order 
on the strength of his wise sentences, and it was on this ac- 
count that Plato ranked him in comedy with Homer in epic. 
Epicharmus gave artistic form to Sicilian comedy, of which 
the great features are the travesty of mythology and the 
representation of typical characters from daily life. Ilis 
language is the local Doric dialect, and the ** rapidity " said 
to be characteristic of his comedies is ascribed now to his 
verse, now to his plot, now to both. Scant fragments are 
to be found in Ahrens, De GrceccB Ungues dialeciis (vol. ii., 
appendix). See Mailer's Dor%ai\8\ Lorenz, De Epicharmo 

(1864). B. L. GllLDEBSLEEVE. 

Epic Poetry, or The Epos: poetry which narrates a 
series of adventures or events, usually of an heroic or super- 
natural order. No thoroughly satisfactory definition of epic 
poetry, however, has ever Ixjen given. Perhaps as ^ood as any 
& that of the Italian scholar Pio Rajna, " any poetic narration 
of memorable things" (Le Origini delV Epopea fraiicese^ p. 3) ; 
yet it would be easy to And critical objections to this. All 
authorities are agr(»ed that an epic poem must be a narra- 
tive, and of an imaginative rather than literal kind ; but as 
to the kind of " memorable things " suited to such narrative 
there remains great divergence of opinion. It is best there- 
fore to pass from a theoretical to an historical view of the 
subject. 

Even a slight study of existing epics, so called, brings out 
the fact that under this name are included poems of very 
different characters, at least in so far as the method ^ of 
their genesis is concerned. On the one side are works like 
the ritad and Odyssey, of a singularly objective and imper- 
sonal kind ; on the other, poems like the JEmid, the Geru- 
acUemme Liherata^ and Paradise Lost, which are the prod- 
ucts of individual geniuses, working in perfectly well- 
known conditions, and impressing their own personalities 
upon all that they write. When we try to pass from the 
works of Homer to Homer himself, and to imagine what 
manner of man he was, we find ourselves instantly at a loss. 
We can not even determine whether he was one or many, 
much less distinguish his personal opinions, sympathies, or 
qualities. All we are sure of is a certain poetic matter laid 
out before us with the noblest and most beautiful art. The 
poet has completely sunk himself in his subject, and has ap- 
parently taken no thought of preserving his own name and 
lame. And this subject, this poetic matter, furthermore, is 
evidently not something of the poet's own contrivance or in- 
vention. It existed and was esteemed before him ; so that 
it was enough for him to present it as clearly and charm- 
ingly as he could. It belonged to his audience, not to him ; 
and his audience required of him that he should be in the 
highest sense true to it. Ilis office was to revive and fix m 
beautiful forms certain precious memorials cherished by all 
j)ersoHS of his race and time. Hence the inlpersonality of 
the product. Accordingly, all that is left is the study of 
the poem, not of the poet. 

Tnis compulsory transference of attention to the subject- 
matter of poems like the Iliad and the Odyssey makes 
still clearer the difference between them and jK)eiiis like the 
uEfteid. The former are ess«»iitially the s|)(»ntane(>us and 
natural expression of the ethical and imaginative life of a 
whole sixjiety, a whole race; the latter are the proiiucts of 



a personal and intellectual art. Nor is this lilL A still 
deeper study of the genesis of the great popular epics shows 
us that they are the perfected result of long poetic prepara- 
tion, of what M. Gaston Paris has well callea ** une fermen- 
tation ipiqite" {Litt, fra/n^aise au Moyen Age, p. 36, WJO). 
Behind them are not epic models, but epic experiments, aini 
experiments in the same line as themselves. In the ^' per- 
sonal" or "literary" epics, on the other hand, even tin- 
greatest, there are everywhere the signs of imitation, of thr 
effort to come up to standards evidently derived from with- 
out. Homer, whoever he was, thought only of telling again 
the familiar heroic story of Troy; Milton was oonoemo<l 
quite as much with preserving in his poems the true epic 
manner — the manner of Homer and Vergil — as with tellint; 
of the Fall and the Redemption of man. 

The scientific study of epic poetrv must begin therefon- 
with the investigation of such periods of poetic preparation, 
or *' epic fermentation," as produced or might (but for wn-i- 
dent) have produced great spontaneous and natural enir^ 
The chief of these periods are undoubtedly that whicli in 
Greece culminated in the Hiad and the Odyssey, that which 
in India culminated in the Mahdbhdrata, ana that which 
in mediaaval France produced the Chansons de Geste (of 
which the Chanson ae Roland is the best representative). 
Besides these, however, we have numerous periods when 
essentially the same processes were going on among other 
peoples, though the product was either through obetruct iug 
causes rendered less complete, or was less directly and per- 
fectly the outcome of the epic fermentation itself. Thus 
among the Celts, both Cymric and Gaelic, a true epic ma- 
terial was developed far toward ultimate fullness and power; 
but the unhappy fortunes of the Celtic race left this mate- 
rial to be used by aliens. Among the Anglo-Saxons, as the 
poem of Beotntlf showB us, only the premature (in the p<H'tic 
sense) invasion of Christianity prevented the creation of 
great national works. Among the Scandinavian peoples we 
have in certain of the lays of the Elder Edda and in parts 
of the Volsunga Saga (though the latter is in prose) a nenr 
approach to epic success. The Spaniards began the prefMi- 
ration of material for epics, as the Poem of the Cid and the 
ballads prove ; and apparentlv only the attraction of foreign 
culture (that of Provence and France and Italv) for the uj>- 
per class, separating it in its imaginative life for a time 
from the mass of the people, caused this material to be left 
unused, except upon a minor scale. The Slavic races have 
rich funds of heroic matter peculiar to themselves ; but thev 
also too early came under the influence of other more devel- 
oped peoples, and have made little use of their own. The 
mediieval and modem Greeks, too, show traces of the matter 
from which epics are formed. On the other hand, the Ger- 
mans saw their heroic traditions, which Christianity with iXs 
accompaniments of classical education and French culture 
had caused to be in the main neglected from the time of 
Charlemagne down to the twelfth century, revived and em- 
bodied in two great poems, the Nibelungen and the Gudrun. 
But in these innumerable evidences of the influence of foreign 
social and literary ideals testify to a gap in the continuity of 
true epic creation. Again, the Persians have in their Shah- 
Namen a work which onlv a long previous poetic workin^j 
over of the traditions of the race could have made possible. 
Yet the author of it, Firdausi, was after all a court pNoet, l>e- 
longing to a circle of such, and too much of an artistic in- 
dividual, too much of a scholar, to be a perfect representa- 
tive of epic art. Finally, the Finns possessed in tneir pop- 
ular lays heroic matter of considerable epic possibilities; 
but the Kalevala, in which LSnnrot, a mooem scholar 
familiar with Wolfs hypothesis and all the discussions of 
the ()hilolo^ists, has attempted to weld these lays into an 
epic whole, is far from fulfilling the requirements of an epic 
masterpiece of the spontaneous and natural kind. 

Still, much may be learned of the genesis and nature of 
epic jioetry from the study of all these periods and works. 
Far the richest of the periods for this purpose is undoubt- 
edly that of the production of the French ChanAofin d^ 
Geste. To be sure, there were pnxUiced then no wi>rks of 
the incomparable excellence of the Iliad and the i>dy.<fify. 
But the latter stand at the very beginning of Greek liter- 
ature, not merely not prweded or accompanied by other 
poems of a similar character, but not even lightecl up by 
nints in contemporary literature of other kinds. All we c-mi 
learn of the manner of their production must come thnnigii 
the analogy of otlier epic periods, confirmed by the internal 
evidence of the poems themselves. In mediaeval France, on 
the contrary, though on many points we know far to«> littl*.-. 



170 



EPIC POETRY 



Chansons de Oeste must rest, as has already been indicated, 
to a considerable extent upon analogy. In the case of tlie 
Iliad and the Odyssey we have absolutely no hint as to the 
epic process until it appears in its perfection in these mas- 
terpieces. Yet the poems themselves upon examination 
bear out well the theory in it« essential elements. The 
Homeric iai96s clearly corresponds in every important de- 
tail with the French jongleur. Like him he is an enter- 
tainer, though perhaps with somewhat more of dignity. 
Like him he addresses an aristocratic society, proud of its 
past, loving splendor, and having leisure which must be 
adorned. Then the very persistence among scholars of the 
theory which Wolf suggested (Prolegomena ad Ilomerum^ 
1795), and which Lachmann amplifie<l in his so-called Klein- 
lieder-Theorie^ however wild the applications of it may often 
have been, would seem to be proof enough that the matter of 
the Homeric poems has not the unity and consistency of an 
effort of an individual imagination. On the contrary, there 
appear in it traces of the long and various working over of 
traditional materials. Finally, all that we know of the later 
reciters of Homer, the rhapsodists and Homeridae, as well 
as of the cyclic poems, corresponds well with our informa- 
tion about the \a\av jongleurs and the crop of French gene- 
alogical poems of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. 

If we turn now to the Mahdbhdrafa, we shall obtain the 
same results, though it may be said that we have here more 
hints as to the preliminary processes than is the case with 
Homer. It is certain that in India heroic song was from 
immemorial antiquity cultivated at the courts of princes 
and general I V among the knightly class (Kshatrivas). In 
the Mahdhharata itself the transmission of epic legend is 
connected with the Sdtas, a caste which resulted from the 
union of Kshairiya men and Brdhmana women, and which 
supplied chiLrioteers and heralds as well as professional 
minstrels. The legends which these minstrels made use of 
were partly historical, partly mythological, in their char- 
acter. But in India, as in Greece, it was rather history than 
m;^hology that was the mainspring of epic song. Divine 
beings, whatever their origin, must be associatea as deter- 
minate individuals with men before they can be employed 
in an epic action. The singer looking back into antiquity 
discovers gods involved by every possible tie of relationship 
and interest with his heroes, and he naturally does not 
discriminate between the two in his story. It will hardly 
do, after the fashion of certain ardent mythologists, to allow 
the mythical elements of epic to assume the more important 
ro/c, and attempt to resolve everything else into m}'thology. 

Already in the later Vedic literature we find specimens 
of the material later used in the Mahdbhdrata. Such ma- 
terial is there called Itihdsa, Purdna, or Akhydna — ^that is, 
tales, old stories, or legends. Some of these tales are re- 
produced bodily in the Mahdbhdrata ; and that the whole 
of this poem was felt to be little more than a collection of 
such is shown by the fact that the supposititious author is in 
the poem itself called Vydsa — " arranger," or " diaskeuast." 
In fact, in the now enormous whole of 100,000 slokas, or 
double verses, there are evidences (confirmed by the testi- 
mony of the poem) of three distinct handlings, and perhaps 
of a complete reversal of the original political and religious 
tendency. Furthermore, we find there matter both of the 
original epic impulse and of the later explanatory and am- 
plincatory kind. It is as if we had the Iliad and Odyssey 
fused into one with the cyclic poems, or the Clianson de 
Roland combined with the long list of poems of the Oeste 
du Roi. All this, however, but makes the Mahdbhdrata 
the more significant for the student of the genesis of epic 
poetry. 

Did the limits of this article permit, these investigations 
might be pursued in the other epic periods of which men- 
tion has been maiie, and in all the facts would be found to 
a^rce with those outlined above. In Persia Firdausi based 
his Shah-Nameh on collections of old Iranian traditions that 
had begun to be made before the conquest of Persia by Is- 
lam. (See FiEDAUsI.) Among the Celts we have bards {file, 
the Irish called them), corresponding on one side at least to 
the hoM, and the jongleurs^ using the combined historical 
experiences and mythological traditions of the race for the 
elaboration of the epic stories of heroes like Arthur and 
Tristram. Among the Germanic peoples we have the Scops, 
maintainers of the memorials of the past, and producing 

{Kjems like Beoiottlf, giving shape to materials that were 
ater and under ditferent conditions to be used for the 
Nibelungen and Gudrun in Germany, the Eddas and the 
Volsunga Saga in the Scandinavian lands. Among tlie 



Finns alone do we seem to find somewhat different conditions. 
Their lays are rather a possession of the whole people than 
of a class of singers appealing to an aristocratic upper cla^s. 
Yet here, too, it is national pride that preserves tnem, anrl 
they are consecrated to the memory of a period of strug^N* 
against the inferior Ijapps and of conquest over them. It 
may be remarked also that but for tne peculiar circu in- 
stances that produced a modem scholar like LSnnmt. no 
Finnish epic in the large sense would ever have been lK»ni. 
Such being the manner in which the great spontane()u> 
popular epics are bom, the question remains what connec- 
tion there is between them and that other class of epics of 
which mention has been made — the "personal" or ** liter- 
ary " epics. The gap between the two kinds is certainly a 
wide one, yet perhaps not so wide as would ap(>ear at fiV^t 
sight. The latter are indeed due to efforts of individual 
^nius striving to render after the great epic models su)h 
ject-matters of personal interest and choice. Yet even si». 
it will generally be found that where success has been at- 
tained the part of tradition has been greater than would a 
priori be supposed. As society advances in culture bey<»nfl 
the point at which spontaneous epic production is possihli', 
as experience and reflection increase the dignity of the indi- 
vidual, and especially of the artist, it is natural that efforts 
should be maae to obtain personal honor and fame by tht- 
imitation of works that have general renown. In almost 
every country where epics have been produced we firul 
this tendency. In India the traditional Mahdbhdrata t> 
succeeded by epic fonns written by single known p^x'tv. 
These are known as Kavyas, the work's of kdvis, i. e. definit*- 

Eoets. The most famous of these is the Rdmdyana, written 
y Valmiki, which in certain ways is so near the old tmdi- 
tion as to be almost a great popular epic. The traces of tht- 
individual hand, however, everyw^here appear in it, and hi>- 
torical legend is allegorized according to the tendencies of a 
single mind. Later than the Rdtndyana we have a series of 
Indian epics frankly artistic in character, two of them a^ 
cribed to the famous dramatist Kalidasa. These with four 
others have been called by Indian rhetoricians Mahdkdt-U't. 
or g^eat poems, as especially worthy of study. The subj»*« t 
matter oi all six, however, is drawn from the Mahdbhamtn 
or the Rdmdynna. In Persia the success of Firdausi'?* ;rr»*at 
work led to other attempts by court poets in the same linf. 
First, additional episodes in the national historv wtre 
treated, and especially the heroic deeds of the memWrs of 
the family of Rustem. Then other heroes were celebrated, 
and the series of would-be epics extends down into the nine- 
teenth century. 

Leaving the Orient for the Occident the same tendenoie*. 
are observed among the Greeks, though in a less markctl d«'- 
gree, because the growth of other powerful poetic forms, as 
well as the very unsurpassableness of Homer, made the 
temptation to imitate him less. Still epics continue*! to l-e 
written, such as the Ileracleia of Pisander of Cameims the 
Heradeia of Panyasis, uncle of Herodotus, the Thebaic ».f 
Antimachus of Colophon, the Perseis of Choeribus of Sa- 
mos, the Argonauttca of Apollonius the Rhodian, tlu- 
Dionysiaca of Nonnus, and the Sequel to Homer (to m^ 
"Otaiow) of Quint us Smyrnsus. Not in Greece, howe% er. 
but m Rome the first great literary epic was written — t he 
jiEneid of Vergil. And here it is worth noting thai aJ- 
though for Vergil the epic form and manner are matters '*f 
imitation, not of direct poetic inheritance, yet in a cer- 
tain way the conditions of his writing approximate thr>s<» i>f 
true epic creation. It was a kind of new national pride 
and hope that animated him, and he recited traditions that 
had become associated with the noblest ideals of the I-atin 
race. He freely used, too. the works of his pre<iec'esx»rs — 
Naevius, Ennius, Attius, A. Furius of Antium, and pn>l>a- 
bly others. Still, undoubtedly, the plan, the structure, ih. 
coloring of the JEneid are all his own ; and we feel its mk - 
cess to be of a very different order from that of the Ihn>i, 
Of the Latin epics subsequent to Vergil — the PharMha nf 
Lucan, the Punt'ca of Silius Italicus, the Thebais an«l Arh , '- 
leis of Statins — it is unnecessary to speak in detail. In t !). v 
the double imitation of Homer and Vergil alone gives ?^tr - 
blance of epic value. 

After the fall of the Roman empire, with the decline i-^ 
the literary life in general, literary epics ceased for a tun ■ 
to be written. This, indeed, was wnat made po^ibU» tl«. 
birth of that spontaneous mediaeval epic which nas aln a»i;. 
been described. One material only, subsequently to Ik* u>i •: 
by great masters, began to assume its epic sha(ie — the sIi.tn 
of the fall and the redemption of man as told in the <>;': 



173 



BPKTCLK 



KPIDKMK^ 



of rifcht««o ht riffitM Ath{>a\ afterwart) tinvrlrtl tii loniti, 
ftfiil u(K*oe<) A »rho«)| at Mitylene, whom* ht* Uuvcht new <l«>c- 
trincA. Alxml the year UU7 hererao%*wl to Athons, when* he 
pun^hji-vnl a CBrdcn mtui foumlMl a eeli*hnU<Mi iM'h<M>l of 
phil«i«>phy. lie wa4 very [M>pular an a teai^her, and piintHl 
a (Treat numl»er <»f «li'*<ip(eH, Ilr n*<*<»jrniz»'<I plea-Hun» a5 the 
chh'f ii^nni, atnl e<»n*Mi|u« iitly was (*alumniitt«*ii by the Stoieis 
l>ut It ap|»ettr^ that hi^ htthit.<< wen^ teruftemte and virtuouA. 
Kpu-uni^ t<H>k no fMtrt in pohtirtti affnirn. He wn>te numer- 
«»U4 «>»rkii on ettiirs natural phi !<»•«« iphy, ete., which are not 
extant. t>ut w*V4*niI of his letter* havi* U-^'n pn^^nred by 
Ihni^mi^ l^aertiiiv lli^ «»p|Nment» adinittcti that he was 
|Hr«>imtly atniMble aiul rirtuouii. KntmUiii^e of his doe- 
mm-** u «Jenve«i thit-fly from llie work* of C'leero an<l Lu- 
rrrtiut, who in hin |»oem IM /imtm \aturd amply illu*- 
tral«»* hi* phil«H»ophy, and expn*^""**^ K^^*^ ailmimtion of Kpi- 
eurut. Anions; the eminent men wh») favore^l Kpieun^an 
iirin<ipl«*» wen* IIoHMx*. Attieus Oav*en4li, Hou*««iiu. and 
Voltaire, I), in 271) ». c. S«v (ta<vH*ndi, J)f Vita et Mori* 
h*i* Kpiruri (1647); Kitter, Ilintory of Ifiti^Mtphy ; ZellerV 
Sto I rj, J^pt r M mi n J, a nd Skfpt t rs, 

Epirycle [ilr. Mm%mK0t; M. upon + c^tAm . eirele]: in 
ancient a.*(tnmomy, a rirele ha^ini; it.i cvrit4*r moving along 
I he circumf«'n»nce <if another cin^le. It wan a favorite 
opinion of the (Jrei»k a(»tr»»noiiH*n» that all the (vlential mo- 
tions mn'4 Ik* uniform and <'ircular. U^'aiw the circle ia 
the mtM jM-rfwt of plane fljrurt«js The phenomena of the 
»tation«t and retn>cnulatioii4 of the planetn were apparently 
incon*>i<«tt<nt with thi^ notion ; and in onler Ui explain them, 
Ap'dloniuji of Perpi imaKine«d the theory of epirucUn and 
dffertnf*. He ^up|MMr«i erery planet to ni<»ve uniformly in 
the flinall circle, or epicycle, the tvnter of which in carrie*! 
uniformly forwani aloitc the cin^umferemv of the lar^' 
cinde or deferent, of which tlie earth ix-cupies* the center. 
Hip|iarrhu4, havinj; di'^ofennl the e<*<H'ntricity of the solar 
oH>it, sumxnetl the motions to \h> |>erfonne«i in w-centric 
circlet The o«debrat*Hl afttmnomer Ptolemy adopted the 
hy|Mtthe^*n both of A(»olloniU4 and Hipfiarchu)*: that in, he 
fiup(Mn«^i the earth to tie plac4*d at a nmall distance from 
the t*<'nter <»f the »lrfer»'iit cinle (which wm^Mjuentlr was 
callwJ an ereenlnr^ ami the planet to more uniformly lU the 
epicycle, the wnter of which ahio movi<^ uniformly in the 
deferent. By mean* of the:** suppdAition^ and by amifcn- 
injc projier ratio* (detenu intni by i>b^rvation) b«»tween th«? 
ra<iiu« of the deferent and the radius of the epicycle, and 
ai^o brtwivn the velocity of the planet in the epicycle and 
the reUw'Hy of the <'ent<'r of the epicycle on the aeferent, he 
was enabled t4> rrpre^»nt with c<on^iderable accuracy the a|>- 
|MUvnt motions of the pUnet^^and particuUrly their stations 
and relnktcrailatioaa. As a flr«t step towartl conne<'tinff the 
w'lofH^e* of aiarcm<»my and (fe«»metry the hypothesis of epi- 
rycle« d<te« }fjvml honor t4) iti* inventors. 

EpIryrloM (from eptrf^r/e -^ -otd. a sufDx from (ir. clfct. 
fttrm) : a curve trat^eil by a f>oint on the circumference of a 
circle whirh rolN on the convex ^ide of a pven flxe«i cinde. j 
It l>elonc" t4) the claw of curves calUnl n>ulettes, and is n«>t 
invanablv a trau^'eiidetital curve. It is alwav** of a finite 
onier wht n the rircuiufereiui** 4if the two cin-di-^ art* c<im- 
nirn«unible. The nonual of the epicycloid is easily c<m- 
stnirttMl ; It alwa}« <»oincide» with the Une which join«» the 
i:«'n«*nitinic jwunt to the «>onv^|N»ndin(f jictint of c«mtai't of 
Ihr two rtp-U'*. The evolute of the epicycloid i* a similar 
rpK'K-Iiiid, the rvlti of the eircK<« Umiik merely alteml in a 
(^rtaju ratio. Wht n the cm li-* are eijual the epicycli>id i* 
•iMitlar. and •iiiiiUrlt pla^^etl U> the (MHial of the f^xe^i circle J 
with nr^j»>t U> a i-«ini in the circumferen<*e. The curve is 
the i'anihiid, whhh i^ the intrpte of a paralwtla. The epi- 
lul'.id wa« iritt'nt«<l bv ll4»mer. the I>aiu«h a*tn»nomer, 
wh I alwMit 1674 pn-jw-^^l thii i urvr m^ the U-^t U*nn for the 
tr^'th <if wh<< K in onif-r to pn^vrrit fnetuin. Newton (favc 
lt« ret tifii aiiofi m hi* /ViHri/^oi, 

Epi4ttM'B«Ji: .Ser 111 a4//4i. 

K|il4tt«'m« (m (tr. *twitumfi) : an ancirnt town of 
4 f r< «•••-.) 'ii the r»*t r'»a^l of ttw l*i I'jmnii* *u* ai»d on the 
Sftr •!ti« <«ulf. aU»ul V) iTti.e* >. W. of At tie 114. It ma* an 
111 1« III hdrtil •1a'«' and |"»*M»«-**i-«| »«njall lrrnt<»r% c*All«<i /.'/«- 
t/oNri.i. A* t ar^U a* fViM) n, ( . It wa* oiu- ttf th»* I hi»'f « <tni- 
H.'-r . fcl ri'-t* of itif p« >pMH-**i« It il«rn*'«l niuih iin- 
i->r**ii «• fr«-rn it« t« 'i.!'..' nf A'.--* .Up ii* i*ii iinl«d Ti iiint -^ 
fr •fii ll.i* t<'»t.L »(.i '1 »** «'tir> uf •!)# ni< '•t 1^ t« I'mltd vhk - 
tu4ri'* iTi 4f TTt^ t . Ai.il «A« frt |i|i It'll) \i\ fialti'iitt fn>in all 
of lUr> ||> . . rtrf* *Ia'''» «■«* fct'-iT a » ur»* fi>r th« ir ili-* %•** '^. 
Hin an *ht ruiti* of a n^^ii.l.t* rit tiHaier, *t7i) fi* t in «li- 



• • 



M 



amet«r, with flfty-fSve rows of seats. Once to four vra- 
nine days after the Lnthraian piinenat (\»nnth. a fr^tn*. «j 
celebrated here in honor of ^K>H'ulapiius with mu*!**. ^n 
trymnastic p^mcA. (hi or nt^tr the ^itr of Kpt<iaur. « . 
small villa^ calle^I ym-Kptdavru^oT Pida>ro. nt w! • 1 
flr»t national aAM^mbly of nuMJern (irei'iv a«>M iitl*l««l f. .•'j 
and drew up the instrument known a» the ( «m*t.iu'.. - i 
Kpidaurus. 

Eplllfaie«[from Or. ^vil4^MSf,amonK the )»^>pU,«i n 
in)( amoufc: M, to. upon + liji^i, iteople; the «ori i 
monly implios, as does alM) the verb, ^viH^«r. tlir - •^ 
infc of foriMtniers, as di^tini^inhetl from filttp" <■>' ' 
native; heiu"«» the dlMinction ^pidemif vrn»u» *•*'.' 
I)iM»a.ses which ap|M>ar from time to time in a ci-rta i. 
itr and sprewl widely, afTectinj? Ur}^* numV>rni «»f j- 
hndemie di.s«>a.<«c!(, t>u the other hand, are mic h as a^ 
stantly met with, i^^olateil cane» occurring n«>w aivi 
Many epidemic «lLM*ajM-9 are eiwlemic in ci»rta>n ci.;j- 
where the conditions an* eminent I v favoralde. at* in it- 
of cholera, which is endemic on the deltas of the (iano * •■! 
vtdlow fever, which is constantly prment in crrtain . * 1 
South American states. Some aite<*t ions are apitarvM 1 . | 
epidemic, but the number of such is exce«*«)inicl% •mail » 'I 
tain diM>ases which are endemic as a rule U*c«tmr f i'< 1 
when atmospheric or other influences preili»tMve tu • i 
munity to fceneral infection. This is seen in tne V . s .: '1 
case of typhoid fever atid dysentery, as well as iHh*r a 
easen. An interesting instancx) in point t» the rp'i< \ 
spreail of malaria which sometimes attend* extru^.i- \ 
oavations alonfc the lianks of rivfrs, where malarta^ or.j - %. 1 
prevalent, became unknown as the result of suitabUdr\ *^ 

The study of epidemics and the cauiies Iratlin^ u*\' . 
one of the most interestinf? and important braiM h«^« f ' ii 
ical history and patholotf\'. and has oeeafiionnl tti* «. 1 
diflferences of opinion. This was largrlT the r%-*u.i ■ f ^ 
norance of the causes of the various epidemic* d£*ra;»-« ■« 
has been to a lar^^e extent remov(*d by a fuller kn«t« > .«.• 1 
micro-ori^nisnui and their relation to disease. V* r H 
atmospheric and tell uric conditions, such ai» hum id [*«.«.. -i 
the character of the soil. maX moi»tun». and the U^*. «*i 
);ivcn the most prominent pla^*(* in the tmusation of t\\>- \ 
but, though there arc stiU some who maintain thr |<rr>^cu 
neuee of these causes, the majority of b%^ienK« an r-* 
strtm^ly inclined to refqird them of sectindary mj{K>r«.4 
to the actual cauMV, oiicroHirganumis, The •tu'iy of •:( 
demiolofi^ is therefore intinuitely cntncenit^ wiib tb*: \ 
(wcterioloffy on the one hand and pn*ventative m«ii>< • \ 
the other hand, ami a knowledf^e of the cau%«*<i of r\ !>i=.i| 
has in many instances led to almost complete eradi<a: * \ 
certain diseases. This was seen in the cai^ of tiun]i f I 
roerly the s(*4iurge of seamen and of armtr«, lH.t {.*■««) 
known excepting where the irroiwe^ carvl«*^nrw -t •! 
toward riri'um stances prevent a suitalde diecari Is U 
case of childbe«l fever, which in certain plac«-« anii tf «t 
tain times has attainetl epidemie clianM-tem, the |c»i'pi 
of antii«e|»tie precautions has almost extermwaicii \km M 



Diseases which are epi<lemic are for the moat part •/ \A 
in^mp de^iinufctc^l as infectious, and which ars i<«ictMii>r«4 \ 
be due to certain micrrwirganisma. Of tbr^p di s — w *^^ 
as typhoid fever, diphtheria, and scarlet fever, arr •-* J 
eluded ainonff the c«inta«;iou*i diseas«s — that Uk tlwi al 
communicated to other individuals by mere cK«tan. vfcJ 
othere, as tvphoid fever, cholera, and malana, arv »■• -c^ 
tafci<*u«, and are never tNimmunicatetl dirt**"! ly fro« p»^^ 
to per»i»n. ex«N«ptiri|f throiitrh water, f«»od. or ».{h*f •*£' 1 
infiH't«<4l by the afTinniMl indi%idual. Kxact linc« ««£ ' I 
(Irawn lM*lwi»**n non-i'onta^niHi* and ci»nlac>'"*i» «!*'*•** •■^ 
in the ('MM* of o*r1ain di^var<<*s th^rr u <loul4 as U* ti' ^ 
to whirh they U'loiitf. 

A«*ide fn>m rpitlnnie* of infe< tiou* dlw-aiw* I' •• »< 
^►nirtiint'* rurioii'* rpiilrini* * of mental «»r n» r«"<i» » ♦■H 
*»iiie of whuh 11) a im'a»un' are exa^'i:i'nitj<'*i* «-f «'» ^ 
jrrnemll) n*<'<>k;ui/«'«l a* i»a\e^ of impular l»tii*-f 7* • *" ^ 
tune t4» time a war "pint prs'^aiU. a* in I77t* to iTi*'* ' 
1K4H, Th»' rru-^aih*^ wcn* in a meaMirt* in^tai «*» 1 ( • . I 
mt'Tital inrtm*n*f^ The ihildn-n** cni*a*ie «a» •« •!•" 1 
in^tjifK**, Uipirnnj: on a |»nth"I«<i«'al o»nditi»>n Y\ \ 

of <iarii in^ fiianui. of «iti hi rufl, i»f miritir, atwJ tL« * ^ 
dt^tihiiU (-A*(-^ of lilt* iilal atM'rrai loiiN 

N>nn-tinie^ t-i-rtain di-M'a**-* are a*«*<«'iat»l an^l i-f*«» < 
fpiili'mi*"* •tiintill »tii'«»u-i*. Tht* waA thr • asr • .' ' *' ^ 
fr^iT and «>|Mittf4l U\*T in «t<%eral eptilemi'-m^ at»J » *•■ < ^ 



little is known ot its cftusation. It is more apt to begin in 
childhood. Direvt inheritance plajs a smaller part than is 
popularly suppoeed, but insanitf, drunkenness, and hysteria 
in the parents strongly predispose to it. Fright, over-eating, 
woniis, teething, are all said to be causative. Cases have 
been cii red after the removal of foreign bodies from the ear, 
cutting out a painful eicatrii, and circumcision. Such in- 
stances are, however, very rare. The seat of the disea.-!e, it 
is quite well esiablished, is in the gray matter of the surface 
of the hemispheres of the brain. There are three varieties 
of epilepsy : pelil mal, t/rand mat, and Jacksonian, or local, 
or focal epilepsy. 

In petit mat there is momentary unconsciousness without 
convulsion. Often the patient feels faint, or has a sensation 
of vertigo. He drops whatever he may have in his hands, 
ceases speaking, and turns pale, with eyes wide open and 
staring. In a moment consciousness returns, and he con- 
tinues whatever he may have been doing. 

Grand mal presents a very different picture. Often the 
patient can foretell an attack by means of a localized sen- 
sation called an aura. The commonest aura is an uneasy 
sensation in the pit ot the stomach. There may be. how- 
ever, simnly a feeling of terror, a flash of light, or a distinct 
vteual hallucination. In one case the patient always saw a 
landscape. Again, there raay be noises or sounds of music 
or voices in the cars. Almost immediately after the aura the 
patient cries out. falls unconscious, becomes rigid for a 
moment, and then is seized with violent convulsive mov^ 
mcnts of the entire body. The eyes roll, the lids oiwn and 
shut, and the face is livid and contorted into the most 
horrible griinacea. Proth, mixed perhaps with blood from 
the bitten tongue, escapes from the mouth. After a few 
minutes the convulsion ceases. A profound stupor suc- 
ceeds, and the breathing is deep and noisy. After a time 
the patient can be aroused, but if left alone he will sleep for 
some hours. Sometimes Bt follows tit rapidly, without the 

Salient ever regainin|r consciousness, producing the con- 
ition called gtalus e/iilrplicua. Death usually follows from 
exhaustion. Epileptic convulsions are sometitues followed 
by curious mental phenomena. The patient may pass into 
a condition of trance in which, like a somnambulist he may 
perform the most complicated acts without any subsequent 
recollection. Again a nt may be followed, or even replaced, 
by an attack of acute mania, in which the patient may have 
homicidal or suicidal tendencies. This is a fact of great 
moment in medical jurisprudence, as no doubt many appa- 
rently caiisclesss and motiveless assaults are commitltxl 
while in this condition. The tendency in epilepsy is toward 
chronic mental degeneration, though it mav accompany the 
soundest intellect. Napoleon, Pe^r the tireat, and Julius 
CiDsar were all afflicted with it. Indce<l, the Italian school 



was a genius in spite of epilepsy, not because of it. 

One of the rarer forms of the disease is the ao-calleil epi- 
lepsia procumit-a, which is characterized by attacks of vio- 
lent running, cither in a straight line or a circle, sometimes 
ending by a fall and coma. In epilrpaia nutarm there are 
noilding movements of the head from side to side, and up 
and down, lasting a tew moments. 

In tpilrpnia toqnai: the patient repeats time and again 

In JaekKonian epilepsy consciousness is unaffected, and 
the spasm is localized to one estremity or side of the face. 
It is usually due to a gross localixod lesion in the motor 
region of the brain — a tumor, abstts.-;, meningitis, or injury. 

The treatment of epilepsy depends u|>on the cause and 
the variety of the disease with which the patient is affeclc'l. 
During the fit the clothes should l>e loosenwl, and the pa- 
tient only restrained enough to prevent his injuring himself. 
William Pepi-ek and Cbables W. Burk. 

1 Or. M. upon -4- Aa3Ji, lobe of e 

.. __.'rb: a genus of herliaceoiis perenr 

plants of Ihe family OnagriireiF, natives of temperate and 
colli climates. They have eiflit stamens and four petals. 
The fruit is an elongated manv-secdefl pc«l or cniKiulc. 
Some of Ihe s|>ecics bear lieautitiif lli)wers. The EpiMiium 
angiinti/iilium, a native lit KiiroiieaniloftlicU.S., has showy 
pilik-piirple flowers, and is sumctimcs planted in ganlei— 
S<'veral oilier species are indi^n-noiis in the L'. S. The po, 
ular name willow herb was given in retcrence to the leaves, 
which n'semhie those ot a willnw. These leaves have astrin- 
i:enl pro)>ertles, and are reputed to have other active )iowera. 



EPIMETHEUS 

Epllo^ne [from Oreek Mttayoi. closing discourse as In a 
drama or oration, in contrast to wp6\jrfoi, introduction; iwl, 
upon + Xffyii, discourse!; in dramatic poetry, the clo^inc 
address to the audience at the end of a plav. It was unu- 
ally spoken by one of the actora, and was cheerful and fa^ 
roiliar in tone. The term is sometimes applied to the con- 
clusion of an oration. 

Eplm'achas [apparently from Gr. Miiaxt, assailablr. 
that may easily be attacked; M, upon + fiAxq, batlK]: a 
genus of birds belonging to the ParadiiuidiK, or binls <'t 
paradise, having a slender bill, densely feathered nostrils. 



and a long tail. Sometimes made the type of a separn'e 
sub-taraily, the Epimaehinw. Two species are known, xl.v 
largest being the grand plume bird {Eptmaehua ap(cii>/<ii-i. 
an -inhabitant ot New Guinea. This magnificent bini is a 
little over 2 feet in length, ot a velvety block above nT-.d 
below, with touches of coppery green about Ihe head and 
back. On each side of the breast is a tun-shaped tuft -•( 
plumes tip|>ed with a bund of steel blue. The two Cfiiir»l 
tail feathers arc steel blue, and other parts of the j>luniui:t 
are marked with metallic reHections. F. A. Luia,-^ 

Eplmen'idra (in Gr. 'ExfMxUiii; Fr. tpimfnidr): (irf k 
poet and prophet; a native ot Crete; flourished about t' ' 
B. c. According to tradition he fell asleep in a cave, a 
awaked after a lapse of more than fifty years, with a Iar;.-f 
increase of wisdom and inspiration. A poem on the vi>v[l^i> 
of the Argonauts is ascribed to him. At the reqnest nf ih. 
Athenians, who were afflicted with the plague, he vUit..| 
Athens about 5t>6 B. r. and purified that city. Goethe nr<>tt 
a poem called Des Epimeiudfs Eru-aehen. 

Eplme'thtin)! [Or. 'Erifi^fi, so named in presumed ti-n- 
trast to PrometheitB. as it to mean a/fer-thought as opp- <s<si 
to /ore-thought] : in the Greek mVthology, a brother . ■ 
Prometheus and the husband ot Pandora. His dauijlili r 
Pyrrlia became the wife of Deucalion. 



tid 



176 



EPISCOPAL CHURCH, THE PROTECTANT 



English race on the North American continent was built 
witnin the walls of Fort St George, and the Rev. Richard 
Seymour, a priest of the English Church, ministered here 
thirteen years before the landing on Plymouth Rock. In 
Marvlana, and in what are now called the Middle States, 
the Church of England was introduced at an early date. In 
New England, where Puritanism had a predominating in- 
fluence, the churchmen of the seyenteenth and eighteenth 
centuries were longer in gaining a footing, which, when 
gained, they were obliged to make good against determined 
opposition. 

Without tracing the history of the Church through the 
colonial period, it may be sufficient to say that, notwith- 
standing many drawbacks, it had in the year 1776 gained 
a yery respectable position. It had been all along, howeyer, 
obliged to contend not only with open enemies, but with 
injudicious friends. The yiolent measures of Andros and 
others had tended in some places to increase the dislike to 
the English Church which was felt by the Puritans of New 
England and New York, and by the numerous sectaries 
who, attracted by Lord Baltimore's proclamation of a gen- 
eral toleration, had swarmed into Maryland. The attempts 
which were made from time to time to procure bishops for 
America had failed, principally from political causes, and 
the Church,' thus depriyed of the presence of the highest 
order of its ministry, was necessarily crippled in the per- 
formance of its functions. The want of bishops threw dif- 
ficulties in the way of raising up a natiye ministry. Young 
men who sought noly orders were obliged to make a long 
and perilous yoyage to England to be ordained, and they 
were fortunate if they returned in safety. The smallpox in 
the eighteenth century was the peculiar scourge of the col- 
onists who yisited England, and this disease, justly dreaded 
in those days, carri^ off many of the most promising 
of the young men. The deyotion of colonial churchmen, 
howeyer, to their religion continued firm and unwayering, 
and although they encountered further trials at the time of 
the Revolution, they were able not merely to oyercome 
them, but to place their Church in a position which has en- 
abled it eyer since to increase in influence and members. 

At the beginning of the Revolutionary war there were in 
the Middle and Eastern States about eighty parochial cler- 
gymen. These gentlemen, with the exception of those in 
the great cities, were for the most part dependent for their 
support upon the Society for the Propagation of the Gos- 
pel. This society, however, withdrew its gifts after the ter- 
mination of the war. In other respects, also, the conclusion 
of peace left the Church in a depressed condition. Al- 
though the large body of church clergy and laity were on 
the side of the friends of freedom, still many of the clergy 
and laity had adhered to the crown during the struggle, 
and most of these at its close withdrew themselyes to Eng- 
land or to the colonies which continued ** loyal." The peace 
was soon followed by the confiscation of the landed endow- 
ments of the Church in Virginia, and the numerous church- 
men in that State were thrown upon their own resources. 
The Church was poor, and its prospects were not hopeful. 

Two important measures were immediately necessary — 
to obtain tne episcopate, and to promote a closer union be- 
tween the churches in the several States, The first was 
necessary to the existence, the second to the well-being, of 
the Church. Under the old confederation the States re- 
ganled themselves as independent sovereignties, and by 
consequence the churches in them conceived themselves to 
be so many national churches. This position, if it had con- 
tinued, would not indeed have affected their faith and doc- 
trine, which are unchangeable, but it might nevertheless 
have proiiuced many inconveniences. By the principles of 
the Church of England, every national church, while it is 
bound to adhere to the common faith of Christendom as a 
heritage from the apostles, has a wide liberty in regulating 
its own ceremonial, discipline, and worship. Thus the 
•Prayer-book might have been altered in a different way in 
different States, and divergences in disc-inline and govern- 
ment nii<;ht have been developed to siien an extent as to 
make the relations between the churches an alliance rather 
than a union. This danger was averted, almost by an acci- 
dent. A few clergymen from New York, New Jersey, and 
Pennsylvania met at New Brunswick, in New Jersey, to take 
measures for reviving an old society (which still exists) for 
the support of the widows and children of the clergy. They 
naturally discussed the condition of the Church, and made 
arrangements for a larger meeting to be held soon after- 
ward in New York, to which representatives of the laity 



were to be inyited. This meeting, however, did little more 
than lay down certain general principles— with reference: 
particularly to episcopacy and the Common Prayer- hook, 
which they rightly conceived would tend to promote a real 
union between the churches in the several States — and issue 
a call for a similar meeting to be held the next year in 
Philadelphia. This was the beginning of the General Con- 
yention, which has ever since been re^tfded as the govern- 
ing body of the Church in the U. S. 

The constitution of this body, as it was soon afterward 
established, required it to consist of all the bishops, an<l of 
four clergymen and as many laymen from each Stat«>. By 
later amendments, when more than one bidiop was plaetnl 
in a State, every diocese or episcopal jurisdiction became 
entitled to a representation of four clerical and four la^ 
deputies, and the lay deputies were required to be comrou- 
nicants. All the bishops were entitled to seats ex ojftcio \ 
and it was arraneed that as soon as there should be three or 
more they should sit in a separate house. Every act was to 
receive tne approbation of both houses. Authority was 
gjven to the General Convention to prescribe the qualifica- 
tions for ordination and to set forth a Book of Common 
Prayer — the two things that were most necessary for estab- 
lishing such a union as was desired. It was also dire< tt-d 
that there should be a conyention in eyery State, consisting' 
of clergy and laity, the powers of which were not in any wuy 
defined. It seems to nave been assumed, however, that 
these conventions were to exercise supervision oyer the 
affairs of the Church in eyery State— or, to use the niort 
recent expression, in every diocese — ^in all matters not c(»m- 
ing within the immediate jurisdiction of the bishop. 

This constitution was adopted in the seyend States, 
though not immediately in all. The conyention of \t^'% 
had consisted of delegates from what were afterward calUd 
the Middle States, and from Maryland, Virginia, and South 
Carolina. Much doubt was felt m the East, particularly in 
Connecticut, as to the wisdom of some of its le^sl&t'ion. 
The introduction of the laity especially, into what was itm- 
ceived to be a Church council, was regarded as an experinitnt 
of questionable expediency, and some of the powers whii h 
were given them were thought to be without prece<i«'r:t. 
These objections, however, were gradually obyiated or waives \ \ 
and in 1789 Bishop Seabury, with a aeputation from tt 
churches in New Eng[land, took his seat in the General C< >it 
yention, and the union of the Episcopal churches in th 
U.S. was completed. Although tne constitution prv>|N(;>4w! 
in 1785, and adopted in an amended and completed form 
in 1786, all along contemplated the presence of bLshop^, 
there really were none in the U. S. at that time cxtt^t 
Bishop Seabury, who took no part in the proceedings of thr-4 
conventions. This gentleman (the second of a family whi' r 
for five generations has furnished a line of clergyiuon. al'. 
able and some distinguished) had been sent to England s( n Hi 
after the peace by the clergy of Connecticut to obtain con- 
secration. Ten of the Connecticut clergy had met on ti!« 
Feast of the Annunciation, Mar. 25, 17oo, at Woodbury !ii 
that State, and had chosen Dr. Seabury as their bishop' ii*- 
structing him to seek consecration first m England, and fnM- 
ing there to go to Scotland for the coveted apostolical cnnu- 
mission. In England he had found an obstacle, however, ir. 
the oath of allegiance, which forms a part, of the Kn.t:Ii>h 
consecration oflice, and which, of course, could not b«» taktn 
by any one but a British subject. After some delay, ard 
much negotiation, he succeeded in obtaining cons#L-'rat i* v. 
from the Scottish bishops on Noy. 14, 1784, at Al>r- 
deen, and, returning to the U. S. in 1785, was received a> 
Bishop of Connecticut and, later, of Rhode Island. 

The rule of the Church, believed to have come down fn^m 
the apostles themselves, requires the presence of at leH>t 
three bishops at every consecration ; and it was necf^i^ary 
that there should be at least that number in the U. S. \\ 
maintain an episcopal succession. Application was thon- 
fore made in 1786 to the English bishops in behalf of ih.- 
Rev. William White and the Rev. Samuel Provoost who bji l 
been chosen to the episcopate in Pennsylvania an<i Ni -a 
York. The obstacle arising from the oath of alleE:ianco vk a^ 
removed by an act of Parliament ; but a new difficulty w it- 
found in a revised Prayer-book known as the ** Pr<»|Ki>;*- i 
Book," which had been proposed for use in Uie U. S. »:. 
1785, and in which the English bishops thought that tin y 
perceived indications of a disposition to depart from tii 
doctrine of the Church of England. After a corresp<in<l*'i)< ■ 
between some of the most learned divines in England hi;-: 
the U. S., in which the principle was clearly brought «.•.:♦ 



n»- 



['f 



178 EPISCOPAL CHURCH, THE PROTESTANT 



EPISTAXIS 



(c) The two sacraments ordained by Christ himself — ^bap- 
tism and the supper of the Lord — ministered with unfailing 
use of Christ's words of institution, and of the elements or- 
dained by him. 

(d) The historic episcopate, locally adapted in the meth- 
ods of its administration to the varying needs of the 
nations and peoples called of God into the unity of his 
Church. 

See The Lambeth Conferences of 1867, 1878, and 1888, 
edited by Randall T. Davidson (1889), Church Eeunion Die- 
cussed on the Basis of the Lambeth Propositions of 1888 (re- 
printed from the Church Review, 1890), and Bishop Perry's 
Accounts of the Second and Third Lambeth Conferences, 
the one printed in 1879, the other in 1891. 

The dioceses and missionary districts of the American 
Episcopal Church cover every portion of the territory of the 
XLS. There are flfty-two aioceses and twelve missionary 
jurisdictions or districts with seven foreign jurisdictions. 
The five dioceses of New York form a federate counciL 
The three dioceses of Illinois are organized as a province. 
There are twelve missionary districts. There are three for- 
eign missionary episcopates, viz. : Cape Palmas, Africa (west 
coast) ; Shanghai, China ; Tokio, Japan. Missions, besides, 
exist in Greece, Mexico, Brazil, Cuba, and Haiti. A bishop 
has been consecrated for the Church in Haiti, and one was 
consecrated for Mexico, who subsequently resigned. The 
churches on the continent of Europe at Paris, Rome, Flor- 
ence, Geneva, Nice, Dresden, and Lucerne are organized into 
a convocation. Seventy-six bishops are living (1893), of 
whom 5 have resigned their sees, 11 are missionary bishops, 
and 9 are assistant bishops. In 1893 there were 4,250 clergv, 
682 candidates for onlers, 1,806 lay readers, and nearly 
6,000 parishes and missions. During the three years 1889- 
91 there were 183,310 baptisms and 125,738 confirmations, 
and the total contributions for religious purposes amounted 
to $40,566,529. ' 

LiTEaATURE. — For the general history, consult Bishop W. 
S. Perry's History of the American Episcopal Church, 
1587-188S (2 vols., 1885) ; Anderson, History of the Church 
of England in the Colonies and Foreign Dependencies of 
the British Empire (3 vols., 1846 ; 2d ed., rearranged and 
enlarged, 1856) ; Wilberforce, History of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church of America (1846) ; McConneirs History 
of the American Episcopal Church from the Planting of 
the Colonies to the end of the Civil War (1890) ; Hawicins, 
Historical Notices of the Missions of the Church of Eng- 
land in the North American Colonies (1845) ; Updike, His- 
tory of the Narragansett (R, I.) Church (1847) ; Bolton, His- 
tory of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the County of 
Westchester (1855). For original sources of information, see 
Bishop Perry's Historical Collections of the American 
Colonial Church (1871-78); Perry, Journals of General 
Conventions, 1785-1836 (3 vols., 1874) ; Perry's Historical 
Notes and Documents UlustrcUing the Organization of the 
Protestatht Episcopal Church (1874) ; llawks and rerry. 
Documentary History of the Church in Connecticut (2 
vols., 1863-64) ; The Churchmaih's Year-book (2 vols., 1870- 
71) ; Connection of the Church of England unth Early 
American Colonization (1863) ; and Historical Sketch of 
the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States, 1784- 
1884 (1884) ; Bishop White, Memoirs of the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church in the United States (1820 ; 2d ed. by Francis 
Lister Hawks, 1836 ; 3d ed. by Rev. Dr. B. F. De Costa, 
1880) ; Beardsley's History of the Episcopal Church in Con^ 
necticut (2 vols.,' 1865 ; 4th ed. 1883) : Life and Correspond- 
ence of Samuel Johnson, D, D., Missionary in Connecticut 
and First President of Columbia College (1874) ; and Life 
and Correspondence of Bishop Seabury (1881) ; Dalcho, His- 
torical Account of the Prote-ntant Episcopal Church in South 
Carolina (1820) ; Perry's Handbook of the General Conven- 
tion (3d ed. 1880), and his ed. of Proctor On the History 
of the Common Prayer (186:J-89); Hill's History of the 
Church in Burlington (1876; 2(1 ed., enlarg<nl, 188.'5'); Dorr's 
Hi.tfory of (Christ Church (Philadolnhia, 1856): Dr. J. B. 
Cheshire's Church in the Province of Xorth Carolina (1890); 
and numerous monoifniphs, etc. The legislation of the 
Church is einbo<lied in the Journals of the General Conven- 
tion, publislied trienniallyund oftener (1785-1892); the jour- 
nals of the early and preliinirmrv conventions (1785-1814) 
were edited by Bishop White (Philudeljihia, 1814) ; those 
from 17H5-18^J5 were pul)lishe(l by authority of the General 
Convention, and edited by Bishop Perry in 3 vols., with 
notes, etc. Heverlky R. Beits. 

Revised by William Stkven's Peiirv. 



Episcopal System : in the Roman Catholic Church, tlmt 
theory according to which the highest clerical power in 
vestea in the whole body of bishops. This theory was mj»st 
prominently brought forward in tlie papal elections of ilie 
fourteenth century, and its followers declared the Church. «js 
represented in its general assemblies, to be above the fmjxf. 
In France the University of Paris was the chief 8upfK>rter 
of this theory, and the Ghollican Church accepted it &s out* 
of its fundamental laws. In Germany the coadjutant bishop 
of Treves, Nikolaus von Hontheim, who was one of it« chi»f 
supporters, wrote under the pseudonym of Justinus F»^ 
bronius a celebrated book, in which he clearly defined the 
episcopal system, De statu eeclesim et Ultima potest ate 
Romani Pontiflcis (Frankfort-on-the-Mam, 1763). The 
Punctations of Ems (see Ems) had the same fundamental 
idea, and, although they failed in their purpose, the system 
continued to spread in Germany. But the declaration of 
papal infallibihty has put an end to these differences, and 
made an impossibility of the episcopal system. In the Gor- 
man Protestant churches the episcopal system is that theory 
according to which the authority of the bishops, which ha^i 
been suspended in the Protestant countries in consequence 
of the peace of 1555, was transferred to the ruler of the 
country. 

Episco^pins, Simon : a divine whose original name was 
Bishop, or Biscop : b. in Amstenlam, Holland, Jan. 1. 15M:i ; 
studied at Leyden. He was distinguished for his liberality, 
moderation, and other virtues, and became the chief pillar 
and champion of the Arminians, or Remonstrants. He wius 
appointed Professor of Theology in the University of I>'y- 
den in 1612, but he was accused of Socinianism by the Cal- 
vinists (Gomarists), and was banished in 1618 by the Synf«i 
of Dort. He retired to France, returned to Hollanit in 
1626, and lived in Rotterdam, and became first Professor of 
Theology in the newlv established Remonstrant Seminary 
in Amsterdam in 1684 His principal works are the ( Con- 
fession of the Remonstrants (1621) and Institutiones Theo- 
logicm. His complete works appeared Amsterdam (2 v. .Is., 
1650-65). See his Life by F. (Jalder (London, 1835; New 
York, 1887). D. in Amsterdam, Apr. 4, 1643. 

Episode [from Gr. hnur&^iw, a parenthetic addition, in 
the Greek drama a dialogue introduced between the choral 
songs, neut. of hc^uri^utu coming in besides ; M, upon, in 
addition -i- cKro^oi, entrance (tli, into -h Ms, way)] : orijci- 
nally, one of those parts of an ancient classical drama whirh 
were performed between the entrances of the chorus. In 
modern use it signifies an incidental narrative or digressiou 
in the poem, more or less connected with the main plot, but 
not essential to its development. 

Epis'tates [Gr. hturrimis, commander, president ; hti, 
upon + crr^Mu, stand] : the title of the presidents of tho two 
great councils of the ancient Athenians — viz., the Eeclfsia 
and the senate of Five Hundred. Their term of office wa> 
one day. 

Epistaxis [from Gr. iwurriiew, to bleed at the nose ; ^rC 
upon + 0T(iCciy, to drop]: the technical medical term f«»r 
bleeding from the nose; a symptom traceable to varioits 
causes. It may be of slight importance, as very often in 
certain children who have repeated slight bleedings from 
the nose. In these there is no diseased condition disco v« r- 
able. Again, it is of slight importance in persons in wIkmu 
headache or confinement in a close room is apt to lead to 
bleeding, and indeed in. such cases not rarelv a measure* of 
relief is afforded bv the epistaxis. Besides t^ese eases tht^n^ 
are many serious aiseases in which nosebleed occurs, iiutt; 
are the various forms of diseases of the blood, purpura, an^i 
haemophilia ; diseases of the heart or kidneys m which t ti** 
bkKHi-vessels are apt to be diseased and congestions tK^t-iir ; 
and in whooping-cough during the paroxysms. Epista'^i-. 
is a symptom of considerable value as indicating the on^^^t 
of typhoid fever, as it is very common during the first wt^r-k. 
when the general symptoms are ambiguous. Bleetling fn.m 
the nose as a result of injury, or in children from pit^kmj 
with the fingers, is easily recognized. 

Generally the ha^norrhage soon stops of its own ai'coni, 
but sometimes it requires treatment. Cold water, tAiiiuT^ 
alum, and other agents may suffice. Pressure inward a^ai • i^r 
the septum nuiv prove eflicacious. In more serious «a.^-^ 
active medicinal agents may be recjuired, or even firm |vn k- 
ing of the cavity. Very rarely the bleeding is most ol>>^*j. 
nate, and in hhxKl diseases, or less frequently other eomii- 
tions, may Iw the immediate caiL<«e of death. 

William Pepped 



180 



E PLURIBUS UNUM 



EQUATION 



form. Among the more important epizodtic diseases are 
the rinderpest, the contagious pleuro-pneumonia, and the 
"foot-and-mouth disease*^ (all attacking neat cattle); the 
remarkable influenza which attacked horses and mules, 
arising in Canada, Sept. 30, 1872, and rapidly moving south- 
ward and westward over the whole of l^orth America ; the 
scab, foot-rot, and other diseases of sheep. The " reds," the 
mtiseardine, pebrine, and other diseases of the silk-worm 
have been the cause of serious calamities to operatives, and 
at times have almost threatened the existence of the silk 
manufacture. 

The epizoStic influenza of 1872-73, above alluded to, de- 
stroyed, according to Dr. A. B. Judson, of New York, 1,500 
horses and mules in New York, or 4 per cent, of the total 
number in the city. The disease reached Chicago Oct 29, 
St. Louis Dec. 1, Salt Lake Jan. 11, 1873, and San Fran- 
cisco Apr. 15. It is thought that the disease spread chiefly 
by contagion, and not by atmospheric influence. 

E Pla^ribas U^nnm [Lat., intended to mean one com- 
posed of many] : the motto of the U. S. After the Declara- 
tion of theiV independence had been announced by the States 
on July 4, 1776, and before the adjournment of that day's 
session, it was resolved, " That Dr. Franklin, Mr. J. Adams, 
and Mr. JefFerson be a committee to prepare a device for a 
seal for the United States of America." The result of their 
joint work was the present seal of the U. S., which has not 
been changed since its first adoption. The six sections, or 
ouarterings, upon the escutcheon or shield were intended to 
denote the countries (England, Scotland, Ireland, France, 
Germany, and Holland) from which the States so united 
had been, respectively, chiefly peopled. The motto adopted 
on this seal, and retained ever since, was intended to denote 
the character of the federal government in its formation. 

Epode [from Or. iw^s, sung aft.er] : in ancient prosody, 
1, {6 ^vyStfs) the shorter, usually the second, verse of a coup- 
let, as an iambic trimeter and dimeter : hence a poem con- 
sisting of such couplets, as the ^podea of Horace. Though 
the Elegiac Distich {q, v.) is epodic, elegies are not usually 
called epodcs. 2, {ii ii^s) in Greek poetry, a lyric system 
like a Strophe {q. v,\ occurring after a pair of strophes 
(strophe and antistrophe), so that the three sometimes mrm 
a compound unit, called a triad. All the odes of Pindar, 
some lyric fragments, and some choric odes of the drama 
contain epodes. Milton W. Humpbbets. 

Eppfng: town of Essex, England; at the north end of 
Eppmg Forest ; 16 miles N. N. E. of London (see map of 
England, ref. 12-J). It is noted for its cream, butter, and 
sausages. Epping Royal Forest, formerly Waltham Forest, 
covers 60,000 acres, but was once much naore extensive, cov- 
ering the whole of Essex almost to Uie very gates of Lon- 
don. Now only 13,000 acres are in woods and wastes, and 
the rest is inclosed as private property. It was formerly the 
seat of a famous fair held every year around Fairlop Oak, 
and of a stag-hunt held on Easter Mondav. In the midst 
of the forest Queen Elizabeth's hunting lodge is still stand- 
ing. Pop. 2,500. 

Epsom : market-town of Surrey, Enriand ; 14 miles by 
railway S. S. W. of London (see map of England, ref. 12-J). 
It has mineral springs containing sulphate of magnesia, 
which derives from this place the name of Epsom salt. 
They were first discovered m 1618, and for some time drew 
great numbers of visitors to the town. Charles II. and 
Prince Jorgou, of Denmark, the spouse of Queen Anne, often 
resorted to them. Gradually, however, they were deserted. 
Ep.sora has a royal me<licarcollege, and is famous for its 
horsjc-races, which are held yearly on the Downs, 1^ miles 
S. of the town. The races last four days, one of which is 
calle<i Derby Day, and are more numerously attend^ than 
any other races in the kingdom. They were i)ennanently 
established in 1730. Pop. (1891) 8,417. 

Epsom Salt (in Lat. ma^jnesicp sulphas — i. e. sulphate of 
magnesium; Germ. Schtrefehaure Ma(jneHia): the magne- 
sium sulphate (MgSO«.7Il90), a salt, when pure, usually 
found in colorless acicular crystals derived from the right 
rhombic prism, and containing 51-22 per cent, of water of 
crj'stallization. It is somewhat ef!lorescent, for at 32' F. 
water will dissolve over one-fourth its weit^'ht of the anhy- 
drous siilt, and as the temT)erature is rais<'d the solubility in- 
creases. The salt was if)rm(»rly manufactured from the 
waters of the mineral spring of * Kpsorn, Eriirland. It also 
exists largely in st»a-water, from which it was formerly pre- 
pared in large quantities. In Italy it is prepared from a 



schistose rock ; in England from dolomite; in Pennsylva- 
nia and Maryland from magnesite. This salt is used in 
medicine as a cooling and genendly safe cathartic The 
dose is from half an ounce to an ounce in a glass of water. 
It is nauseous to the taste, but may be easily taken in *' soda- 
water," with lemon sirup. In the* household it is an excel- 
lent addition to starch, decidedly increasing its stiffen ir»L' 
powers. Mixed with ordinary whitewash, it gives a fine 
pearly whiteness to walls. 

Epworth Leagae: a voluntarv organization composed nf 
young people of the Methodist Episcopal Church; bavin ir 
for its object the promotion of piety in its members and 
their development along social, intellectual, and religious 
lines. It was organized at Cleveland, O., May 14 and 1.'), 
1889, at a convention of the representatives of five gene ml 
young people's societies of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
Its headcruarters are at Chicago, where also is publishtnl 
weekly Tke Epworth Herald, its official organ. The league 
has now (1893) more than 10,000 chapters and 700,000 mem- 
bers. It was officially adopted and indorsed by the Gen- 
eral Conference at ()maha. May, 1892. The Metho<li-t 
Church of Canada and the Methodist Episcopal Chunh 
South have adopted the Epworth League for their work 
among young people. See Christian Endeavor, Yoixo 
People's Society of. John P. Hurst. 

Eqaation [from Lat. cequa'tio^ a making equal] : in al- 
gebra, a statement that two quantities having different al- 
gebraic expressions are equal. The equality is expres>*Hl 
by writing the sign = between the expressions asserted to 
be equaL E^h of the equal expressions is called a meniU^r 
of the ec^uation. Equations are of two kinds — identiial 
and conditional. An identiccd equation is one in which the 
two expressions must be equal from their very natur** or 
meaning ; as, for example, 3 + 8 = 6 and (a + of — 2ah = 
a* + 6*. In either of these equations the two members are 
equal because the^ express the same quantity in different 
ways, and so remain equal whatever values we assign to the 
quantities. CoTu^i/tono^ equations are those in which t i it- 
two expressions are not equal for all values of the quanti- 
ties, but which imply certain relations between them. For 
example, if we have the equation a; + y = 6, this equation i> 
not true from the nature of the case, nor is it true for ail 
values of a; and y. It is true only on condition that th** 

?uantities x and v are so chosen that their sum shall lio B. 
t is because of this that such equations are called condi- 
tional. 

Equations, Theory of.— The theory of ecjuations is that 
branch of algebra which treats of the equations called alge- 
braic, namely, those which can be reduced to the form 

«» + aaf'-'^ + &C"-' + ftT"-* + etc. = O, 

X being the unknown quantity, n a positive integer, an«l a, 
ft, c, etc., anv coefficients whatever which do not contain -r! 
The roots of such an equation are those special values of s 
which, being substituted in the equation, will satisfy it l»v 
reducing the algebraic sum of its terms identically to zer/». 

The degree of an equation is the exponent, n, of the liiirh- 
est power of x. Eouations of the second degree are called 
quadratic, of the tnird cubic, of the fourth quart ic, or hi- 
quadratic, etc. The fundamental theorem of the subjt»c»t i« 
that the roots of every such equation are equal in numK-r 
to the exponent, », or the highest power of the unkni>wn 
quantity which enters into it. But two or more of the r*>i »i> 
mav be e^ual. 

'fhe principles involved in such equations, the relation^ 
between their roots, and the possibility of expressing a rt . .t 
algebraically in terms of the coefficients, have been de% t 1- 
oped into a most extensive and interesting branch of ma t tit- 
matics. The solution of an algebraic equation consist «* i*. 
finding an expression for x which, being substitute<l in t in- 
equation, will satisfy it. The possibility of a solution ^:i. 
depend on the nature of the equation. One in whirh t'.^- 
coefficients of the powers of x, which we have called n, h, * . 
etc., are all separate and independent quantities, is call«^i j» 
general equation. General equaticms are classified aiH'.ir.':- 
ing to their degree, as just denned. It was long since ftnH-.i 
that the general equations of the second, third, and fourth 
des^recs aflmitted of being solved. But the equation <>f t K.- 
fifth degree defied all the efforts of the mathematiiiaii^ 
who attacked it. At length, early in the nineti>enth ^-^tj- 
tury, it occurred to the illustrious Al)el to inauire wht»th. r 
a sohition was possible. By a profound analysis ho su 
ceeiled in demonstrating the proposition that the solut:. ». 
of the general equation of the fifth degree was impossil..,- 



182 



EQUESTRIAN STATUE 



EQUITY 



licani *' comprised the flower of the Roman chivalry, the 
ornament of Rome, the firm support {firmamentum) of the 
republic." The badges of the equites were a gold nng and 
a robe with a narrow purple border. 

Equestrian Statue : a complete figure of a person on 
horseback, executed generally in bronze or stone. In ancient 
Greece, where plastic art attained its highest perfection, 
statues of men and horses were often of the first excellence; 
but horses were more commonly represented as attached to 
the chariot In Rome, equestrian statues of the emperors 
were common. The finest extant Roman work of the kind 
is a bronze equestrian statue of M. Aurelius Antoninus. 
Two remarkable statues of this kind have come down to us 
from the time of the Renaissance — ^that of Bartolomeo Col- 
leoni at Venice, by Verrocchio and Leopardi, and that of 
Gatamelata, at Padua, by Donatello. Among the famous 
modem equestrian works are the noble colossal statue of 
Peter the Great at St. Petersburg, and that of Frederick the 
Great at Berlin, by Ranch. 

Eq'uide [from Lat. e'^us^ horse] : the family of which 
the genus Equus (including the horse, ass, etc.) is a brpe, 
and which is a section {Sohdungvia) of the order UngtJata. 
The most characteristic feature of the Equidca is the solid, 
one-toed foot formed by the union of the central phalanges 
and the atrophy of the lateral ones. Single-toed norses be- 
gan in the Pliocene. In the Miocene epoch horses were rep- 
resented by Hipparion, etc., which had two small lateral 
to^ or hoofs, of which some traces may be often found in 
living horses. In the Lower Miocene Anehitherium repre- 
sents the £quidm, and connects the horse with FiilcBothenum, 
Piiolophus, etc., of the Eocene and with the tapirs of the 
present da^. The genealogy of the EqaidcB is better known 
and more instructive than that of any other group of mam- 
mals. Nearly twenty species of equine quadrupeds have 
been describea from the Tertiary and Quaternary deposits of 
America, but it is supposed that no horse existed in the New 
World at the time of the advent of the Europeans. See 
Horse and Hipparion. 

Equilateral [from Lat m'qatis^ equal + laius, -ertSj sidej : 
having equal sicfes. In geometrv, a rectilinear figure is said 
to be eqmlateral when ful its sides are equal. If, moreover, 
its angles are all equal, it is called re^mar. Every equilat- 
eral figure inscribed in a circle is equiangular, and therefore 
regular. The converse theorem, however, is true only for 
polygons with an odd number of sides. An equilateral hy- 
perbola is that of which the axes are equaL 

Equilibrium [Lat (Bquili'brium; csquus, even + Zt&ra, 
scale] : the state of rest produced by two or more mutually 
counteracting forces ; equipoise. Equilibrium is the foun- 
dation of the theory of mechanics ; it is, in its generalized 
meaning, the physical law of the universe. Equilibrium, in 
the fine arts, is the just place or balance of a figure or other 
object, so that it may appear to stand firmly. Also the due 
equipoise of objects, lignts, shadows, etc., against each other. 

Equinoctial : See Equinox. 

Equinoctial Points: the two opposite points of the ce- 
lestial sphere in which the ecliptic and equator intersect 
each other, the one beinp^ the first point of Aries, and the 
otiier the first point of Libra. These points do not retain a 
fixed position in relation to the stars, but retrograde from 
E. to W. with a slow motion, requiring 25,000 vears to ac- 
complish a complete revolution. This motion is called the 
Pre('ession of the Equinoxes (q. v.). 

Equinox [from O. Pr. eqtUnoxe < Lat cBquinoc'tium ; 
cequua, equal 4- nox, night] : in astronomy, the time when 
the sun pavSses through the enuator in one of the equinoctial 
points. When the sun is in the equator the days and nights 
are eoual all over the world, hence the derivation of the term. 
This Happens twice every year — viz., about Mar. 21 and Sept. 
22; the former is called the vernal^ and the latter the au- 
tumnal equinox. The equinoxes do not divide the year into 
portions of equal length, but the interval from the vernal 
to the autumnal equinox is greater than that from the au- 
tumnal to the vernal; in otlior words, the sun continues 
longer on the northern than on the southern side of the 
ecjuator, bociaiise it is more distant from the earth in our 
summer than in winter, and its anfrular motion in its orbit 
is consequently slower between March and Sei)teml>er than 
in the other part of the year. In 1800 trie difference 
amounted to seven days, sixteen hours and fifty-one min- 
utes. 



Equiseta'cen [from Equibetum (g. vX the only senus] : a 
family of cryptogamous plants, with hollow ana jointed 
stems, growing in ditches, wet ground, and rivers in many 
parts 01 the world. They are' related to the ferns and the 
extinct Calamites. They are found fossil in coal, and wetv 
in ancient geologic periods very much larger and mor« nu- 
merous than at present This family is now the sole repn*- 
sentative of the single surviving order CEquisetaceas) of tht- 
class Equiaetinm^ the lowest class of the great division < f 
the vegetable kingdom known as the fernworts (Pteridoph y- 
ta). See Fbbnworts and Fossil Plants. 

Revised by Charles E. Bessei*. 

Equlse'tum [Lat. equiseium, the horsetail; equus, hopM* 
+ sa/o, seta, bristles, coarse hair] : a genus of plants of t he 
family EquisetOfCecB, comprising numerous species calle<i 
horsetail. The fructification is in the form of a spore-bearing 
cone at the summit of the stem. The Equisetum hyemalf 
(scouring rush) is indigenous in the U. S. and also in EurojH». 
The abundant silica in its cuticle renders it useful for polif^h- 
ing furniture and for scouring utensils. The U. S. have also 
several other species. True Ekjiiiseta date back to the Trias- 
sic, when they were numerous, and attained the height of 20 
feet. In the Carboniferous rocks the Equiseta are repre- 
sented by Equisetites, as well as by the related Calami tt^t^ 
Calamoaenaronj etc. Revised by Charles E. Bessey. 

Equites : See Equestrlan Order. 

Equity [from Lat ce'quitas, equality, fairness; deriv. of 
(Bquus, even] : a portion of the mass of English jurispru- 
dence, derived from the decisions of courts and the rales nf 
approved text-writers. It originated in the same general 
way as that branch of jurisprudence technically calltMl 
" common law." It is, in a sense, common law itself when 
considered in contrast with statutes. The relation of equity 
to common law can be best understood by a brief historical 
survey. After the Norman conquest of England the kintr 
was deemed to be the fountain of justice. Ultimately, i^ef- 
tain great courts of general jurisdiction came into aetiv** 
operation, known as "king's courts." These were the com- 
mon pleas, the king's bench, and the exchequer. At fir>t, 
their functions were (}uite distinct, but in course of tiiiu-! 
by fictions of law, jurisdiction was assumed, so that in s<»ir t- 
respects it became concurrent in these tribunals. The reiz- 
ular mode of bringing a question before one of these cr)urr> 
for adjudication was by an action, in which there wa> a 
plaintiff and a defendant A formal statement of the plain- 
tiff's claim and of the defendant's defense was made in 
written allegations termed pleadings, and the question thus 
raised was called the issue. A judge and jury disposed of 
issues of fact. The action must b!e commenced by a so-called 
writ, purporting to emanate from the king and addrt^^s^^i 
to the sheriff, who caused the defendant to be brought be- 
fore the court. There was an office in chancery, from whiih 
the writs issued. They were framed in a technical roannt-r. 
The clerks would only grant a writ when they could find a 
precise precedent in their ofilce. Actions were real, per- 
sonal, or mixed. A real action was adapted to the recovorv- 
of land ; personal actions were used to recover money ; aii<l 
the two were combined in a mixed action. The perscmal 
actions were framed on the theory either of contract or 
wrong (technically called tort). Originally, they were dt^ht. 
covenant, and detinue in cases of contract; and in casi- *,{ 
tort, trespass, trover, and replevin. The object of the act ic »n 
of debt was to recover a specific sura of money due to tho 
plaintiff. The action of covenant was brought upon an in- 
strument under seal. "Detinue" was resorted to in order 
to recover a specific chattel which the defendant had r^«- 
ceiyed as a bailee. The action of trespass was institute<l for 
an immediate and direct injury to person or property ; trovt r 
was the appropriate means to recover the value of perstjnnl 
property wrongfully converted by the defendant ; while r%>- 
plevin was used to recover the property itself. 

It was found at an early day tnat the personal actions 
were quite insufficient to give full relief. A statute was en- 
acted m 13 Edw. L (ch. 24) which led to the introduction <»f 
a new form of action, terrae<l " trespass on the case." Th is 
was a comprehensive name for all actions for wrongs wh«.*r\- 
the injury was indirect and consequential, as in the case of 
negligence. It also included many cases now recognized a.s 
strictly actions upon contract, and called "assumpsit" If 
this statute had been wisely interpreted, no court of eouit v 
would have been necessary, nor would any probably have 
arisen. But the judges of the so-called common-law courts. 
adopted very strict and narrow rules of construction, and 



184 



EQUITY OP REDEMPTION 



ERASTIANS 



all of these topics is the subject of trusts. Strict trusts are 
solely cognizable in this court. 

The remedies in this court are flexible and readily adapt- 
ed to the exigencies of the case. The most liberal rules 
prevail as to parties. Every person can be made a party 
whose presence is necessary to a complete determination of 
the matter in controversy. The court has power to prevent 
apprehended injuries to propertv by means of an injunc- 
tion, or to place the property itself in the possession of one 
of its own officers, t«rmed a receiver, until the rights of the 
parties are finally established. 

The tendency of modem times would seem to be to blond 
the two systems of common law and equity jurisprudence 
into one, when the common law will prevail as modified by 
the rules of equity. T. W. Dwioht. 

Equity of Redemption : the ri^ht which the owner of 
mortgaged property has to redeem it after the condition of 
the mortgage nas been broken. A mortgage is in form a 
conveyance of property, with a provision that it shall be 
void on the performance by the maker, within a given time, 
of a certain condition, usually the payment of a sum of 
money ; and by the common law, if the condition is not per- 
formed the conveyance becomes absolute, and the maker of 
the mortgage, called the mortgagor, loses all right to the 
property. But the English court of chancery, an equity 
tribunal, as early as the reign of Charles I. asserted its power 
to remedy this hardship by compelling the mortgagee to 
give up the laud on payment of the debt with interest. This 
right in equity to redeem the property after the conveyance 
has become absolute at law has in modern times come to be 
regarded as an estate in the land, and can be conveyed or 
mortgaged or devised by its owner. It passes by descent to 
his heirs ; it is liable for the debts of his creditors, and can 
be sold on execution against him, and is subject to dower 
and curtesy. This right to redeem lasts till cut off by fore- 
closure of the mortgage, which is usually effected bv an 
action in a court of equity. The foreclosure may result in 
giving a complete title to the mortgagee (called a strict fore- 
closure), or it mav result in a sale of the premises and the 
payment of the clebt out of the proceeds, the surplus being 
returned to the mortgagor or to tnose who claim under him. 
The right to redeem from the mortgage extends to all who 
acquire an interest in the land under the mortgagor after 
the making of the mortgage ; and all such persons must be 
^ made parties to a proceeding to foreclose the mortgage, 
' otherwise their right to redeem will not be affected. For- 
merly, unless restrained by some clause in the mortgage, 
the mortgagee could at once take possession of the premises, 
although equity compelled him to account for the rents and 

Eroflts upon redemption. Now, however, the mort^gor 
as in general the right of possession till the condition is 
broken, and in some parts of the U. S. till foreclosure, ex- 
cept when after default, where the security is inadequate, a 
receiver is appointed to take charge of the property under 
the direction of the court. T. W. Dwiqht. 

Eqnns: the typical genus of the family Equid^ {q. v.). 

Era, Christian : See Christian Era. 

Era of Martyrs : See Diocletian Era. 

£rard, d'raar', S^bastien: an inventor and maker of 
musical instruments; b. in Strassburg, Apr. 5, 1752; son of 
a poor cabinet-maker. His first pianoforte, constructed in 
1780, may he said to have introduced that instrument into 
Franc-e. He soon became the best pianoforte manufacturer 
in Europe, and in connection with tiis brother established a 
manufactory in London. To £rard the piano owes some of 
its noblest qualities as a musical instrument. The grand 
piano, with single and double action, was his invention. He 
built the great organ for the royal chapel of the Tuileries. 
firard was also the inventor of a double-action harp which 
had immense popularity in London, and took out patents 
for many other improvements, all of which were of value. 
D. near Paris, 1831. See Pianoforte. 

Erasis'tratns (in Gr. 'Epaffitrrporos) : a Greek physician and 
anatomist ; supposed to have l)een a native of the island of 
Coos. He flourished about 300-2(J0 B.C., and practiced for 
many years at Alexandria, where he taught anatomy and 
founded a school. His principal discoveries were those of 
the viw laciem and the functions of the brain and nerves. 
He wrote several works, of which a few fragments are extant. 

Erasmus, Desiderius : scholar and philosopher ; b. at 
Rotterdam, Holland. Oct. 27-8, 1467 (or 1466). He was a 
son of Gerard de Praet of Tergouw ana Margaret of Zeven- 



bergen in Brabant, who were married all bat in name, and 
was called in his childhood Geert Geerts (Le. Geert^s or 
Gerard's son), which name he exchanged /or the Latin an<i 
Greek equiviUents of Gerard, each signifying ** the well-bt^ 
love<l." He attended from his ninth to his thirteenth year 
the school of the Brethren of the Common Life at I)event4r. 
where he was a pupil of Alexander Hegius. Having bec»onj«* 
an orphan about 1478, he was urged b^ his guardians t<» 
enter a monastery, in order that thev might defraud him uf 
his patrimony. Although he regarded a monastic life with 
aversion, he was at length induced in 1482 or 14i^ to entf r 
the Augustinian convent of Steyn by the hope that ho 
might there have opportunity for study. He pursued th«' 
study of the classics and distinguished himself as a Latin 
scholar. He became in 1492 a priest and secretary to the 
Bishop of Cambray, with whom he remained nearly fiv^* 
years, and in 1496 went to Paris, probably for the purp«>^«' 
of completing his education. He was then nearly oestituti^ 
of pecuniary resources, and gained a subsistence in Paris by 
teaching school. Between 1498 and 1500 he passed about 
two years in England, where he formed friendsnips with Sir 
Thomas More and John Oolet. He resided at both the uni- 
versities, and during his third and longest visit (1511-14) 
was Professor of Greek at Cambridge. Impelled by a stronj,' 
passion for travel, he visited various countries of Euroj>e, 
and never remained long in one place. In 1506 he com- 
menced a tour in Italy, where he passed several years, per- 
fected his knowledge of the Greek language, and associateil 
with the most eminent scholars. He obtained from the 
pope a dispensation from his monastic dress, and received 
the degree of D. D. at Turin in 1506. Ten years later he 
was absolved from his monastic vows. In 1511 he publish (hI 
The liaise of Folly (Encomium Morise), a witty satin*, in 
which he exposed the follies and foibles of monka, priests 
and men of various other professions. It was generally tu\- 
mired and obtained a large circulation (modem Eng. trans. 
London, 1878). 

Having established his reputation as the most eminent 
scholar and the most witty writer of his time, he receive* 1 
invitations from several monarchs, and in 1514 visited th^ 
court of the Archduke Charles of Austria (afterward Charlt>^ 
v.), who gave him the title of royal councilor, with a f)en- 
sion of wO florins, and liberty to travel or reside wherever 
he might prefer. He produced in 1516 a good edition <»f 
the Greek New Testament — the first edition ever publisht'^i 
— with a corrected Latin version and notes. He was on 
friendly terms with Luther in the first stage of the Refomia- 
tion, which he efficiently promoted by his witty satins 
against the monks and priests, and by his censure of t ht* 
corruptions of the Church of Rome. But he disliked dogiuu- 
tism, was too liberal and moderate to please the zeabxw 
supporters of either side in a religious controversy, and In* 
dissented from some of the doctrines of Luther* who de- 
nounced him in severe terms as a coward and time-server. 

Erasmus became a resident of Basel about the year \r*2\, 
and published there in 1524 his celebrated Colloquia (Colli r- 
q^uies ; Eng. trans., 2 vols,, London, 1878), which some con- 
sider his capital work. It is ostensibly intended for tlu- 
instruction of youth in Latin and morals, but abounds in 
satire and invective directed against the monks and tht* 
abuses of the Roman Church. It is stated that 24,000 copit-r^ 
of it were sold in one year. He was involved in a dii^piif »• 
with Luther on the doctrine of free will in 1524, and wroi<> 
on that subject De Libero Arbitrio (1526). He was CH>n- 
demned as a heretic bv the Sorbonne of Paris, but he ikt- 
sisted in maintaining \X}q attitude of a neutral or medii&ior. 
and never formally revolted against the pope. In 1529 li« 
removed to Freiburg, where he passed several years, lie 
died, when on a visit in Basel, on July 12. 15^^. Amon^ his 
works is Adagia (Venice, 1508 ; Eng. trans., 2 vols., Loii4l« .n. 
1814), a collection of proverbs, wnich displays imineit>«^ 
learning. He greatly excelled as an editor oi the (ire* k 
and Latin classics, for which he was qualified by sn).>^ri«>r 
critical sagacity as well as accurate scholarship. He wa^ 
pre-eminent as a restorer of classical learning and 9»<^iiii«: 
philosophy. His voluminous Epistles contain valuable ma- 
terials lor literary history. His complete works were pii(>- 
lished by Beatus Rhenanus (9 vols., 1541), and best li> 
Leclerc (10 vols., Leyden, 1603-06). See his Life by VU li. 
Drummond (2 vols., London, 1873). 

Revised by S. M. Jacksox. 

Erastians : a name originally applied to a distinct mrt \ 
in the Westminster Asskmbly (q. i«.), headed by S^«U*n, 



186 EREHACAUSIS 

EremiCAnslB : See Fernbittation. 

Ere'trlk (in Qr. t^pia; FV. £riirte): an ancient citj 
on the island ol Eubtca mentioned by Homer (Iliad, book 
ii). At im early period it was a prosperouH and independ- 
ent state, and one of the chief maritime cities of Greece. 
It was captured and ruined by the Pereians in 490 a. c, but 
was Boon rebuilt. Eretria was the seat o( a celebrated 
school of philosophy, founded by Heaedemus abont W 

Erfart, ar'foori, or Erforth (in Lat. Brphordia and Er- 
furtum): town of Prussian Saxony; on the river Gera and 
the Thuringian Railway; 15 miles W. of Weimar and 14 
miles E. of Gothafseo map of German Empire, ref. 6-E). 
It has an old Gothic cathedral with a bell which weighs 275 
cwL, fourteen Protestant churches, a royal academy, a pub- 
he library of about 60,000 volumes, a normal school, and an 
edifice formerly occupied by the University of Erfurt, which 
was founded in 1883 and dosed in the year 1818, The 
Augustine convent of which Luther was an inmate for 
several years is now used as an orphan asylum, Erfurt has 
manufactures of silk, cotton, and woolen fabrics, hosiery, 
shoes, leather, etc It was more populous in the Middle 
Ages than it is now. The Congress of Erfnrt, held here in 
Sept-Oct., 1808, was attended by Napoleon, Alexander I. of 
Russia, and several of the German princes. In Mar. and 
Apr., 1850, the so-called Union Parliament held its sessions 
here. See GEaHAHT. Pop. (1885) 58,385; (1890) 72,371. 

Ers, irg : the absolate (C. Q. S.) unit of work or of energy. 
It is the work of one dyne acting through a centimeter ^s- 
tance. The relation of the erg to the usual practical units 
of work and power is as follows : 

1 kilogrammoter = 100,000 g. ergs. 

1 foot-pound = 13,825 g. ergs. 

1 watt = W ergs per second. 

1 horse-power = 746 x 10" ergs per second, 

1 horse-power = (French) 736 x 10' ergs per second. 

E. L. Nichols. 
Enf : the most northern of the areas of sand wastes in 
the Sahara Desert. These sand regions are called by various 
names by Ihe tribes around them. The wastes just S. of 
Algeria are called the Erg or Areg, and are divided by the 
Wudi MU into the East and West Ei^, The East Erg is 
the beat known of all the sand regions of the Sahara, as 
many Europeans going to or from Ghadamos have trossed 
It. Singing sands are found in parte of the Erg, and in 
many places the sand b heaped by the wind into great 
dunts. See Duveyrier, Le Payt Touareg. C. C. Adams. 



ERICSSON 

perfect rest, while ergot causes a uniform and constant m- 
pnlsi ye effort In skilled hands it is aremedy of great value 
Adminislered late in labor, it often prevenla dangerous Ii>J 
of blood, and it is further asetnl in some cases of mcn.irrlui- 
gia and other hemorrhages. It is also useful in vertipi arm 
probably in other diseases requiring treatment because ..| 
functional disorder of the muscular coat of the blood- vf-di. 
Revised hy Chables E. Bessbv and H, A. Hase. 
ErroHsn : a disease or condition resulting from hn'- 
continued use of grain in which ergot is mixed. This f-rl- 
ditioji IB one whi<* has been known from remote tines, and 
most devastating epidemics of it have occurred in Eiifii, 
In America no cases have ever been observed ; but it is «« .1 
that m 1819 an epizootic of this nature occurred hm«nr: 
cattle in a part of New York, caused by ergot in the bin- 
^?^-''?'P- "^^^ symptoms of ergotism may be rooEh:i 
classified in two groups, the nervous and the gangrencL.; 
though cases usually present a mixed type. In the nerv^-u-^ 
fomi there is tingling and twitching, with later more or li~- 
spasmodic condition of the muscles, and as the disease CT>.». 
more severe mental disturbimces, delirium, stupor, and cumi, 
At the same time various gastric disturbances manJ.-- 
themselves, but especially ravenous hunger. Recoverv de^' 
ensue, but not infrequently the patient is left palsirtl ..V 
subject to habitual spasms, mental aberraUon,orevenidii.v 
In the gangrenous form intense itching and ticglinc li 
the skin, followed by appearance of a red or darkish siMrt ,« 
the extremities, and after this a form of dry gangrene, a- 1 
result of which thn KntiHo *«. fo^t mav be Itet or rifh'h 



result of which the hands o 



Ergot, or Spnr [Pr. ergat, a cock's spur; etvmol 
known]: a cunous lun^iis,^ the compitct mycelium of 



Clameeps purpurea of Tulasne, growing frequently in the 
heads of rye (then often called spurred rye), though found 
on aU grasses and some Cyperacea. It was long believed 
to consist of diseased ker- 
nels of rye, but microscop- 
ical examination shows 
that it has nothing at a. 
in common with the ryi., 
but, growing originally 
from the ovary, it natu- 
rally assumes something 
of the shape of the mold 
in which it grows. 

Ergot is usually shaped 
somewhat like a cock's 
spur, and is from half an 
inch to IJ inches long. 
It contains alkaloids, er- 
got! ne and ecboline, sele- 
B rotic or sclerolinio acid, 

° and several other com- 

pounds which are little 
understood, including an 
oil which ap|>ears to be 
inert, and myeose, a pe- 
ciiliar sugar. 
'^Ji^^i^/'^i^'fUV,,?-^^ '^"■f'*' '=* ""ch used in 
f^ujXl??'' Jl^i^i'^lTwt:!^ medicine, especially for 
MrT8Uipro|»K«toitho[unBii». "le purpose of exciting 
., ..,„ , ... uterineeontractioiisaftor 

the child s head is bom. As a rule, it should never be ad- 
ministeral except by ixT.'^jns skilled in its use. The con- 
tractions induced by ergot diCfer from the natural uterine 
eltort, which IB intermittent, with intervals of mure or less 



The cause of ergotism lies in the consumption as fon,! „( 

■e or oata tainted with the ergot paiasiU, and in man 

is^ it seems the lack of sufficient food played some laii 

_ the causation aside from the specific action of the era t 

itself. In certain years, especially when the suramer is f-li 

and damp, the grain is more apt to be diseased thnn it. 

other years. Nothing can be done in the way of treatnii^i,; 

except to maintain the straneth and minister to the n.jj- 

fort of the patient. The medicinal use of ergot may leii.1 u. 

a form of acute poisoning in which vomiting, purginc ai ' 

progressive loss of power play a part, but very few citi-.. ,-( 

ironic ergotism have arisen in this way. 

WllilAM PePPEK. 

ErtcXIT.: King of Sweden ; b. Dec 13, 1533; a s..ti -■( 
Uustavus Vasa, whom he succeeded in 1560 He m«. , 
overtures of marriage to Oueen Eliiiabcth of England \.< 
Mary Queen of Scots, and others, but Anally niarrin'i a 
bwedish peasant named Catharine Monsdotter He »^ 
capncious, imprudent, momentarily insane, and alwavs*!- 
dicted to violent [.aroxysms of anger and cnielty In hi. 
reiKU Sweden was involved in a war against Denmark S-i ■ 
eral noblemen were unjustly put to death by his order \ 
conspiracy was formed against him bv his own b^.tLp-x 
and other nobles, who deposed him in' 15«8, and contin.d 
him in prison, where he died Feb. 16, 1577. 

Ericsson. John, Ph.D.. I,L.D.: engineer naval c.>n- 
atructor. physicist, and inventor; b. at L4ngbansh«la.. 
Swrfen, July 31, 1803; fourth in descent from Ma-i,n~ 
Stadig, a miner, who died in 1739. His father. Olof F'n,-- 
Bon, was a graduate of the gymnasium of Karlslail. Bi„i 
John received a thorough training in the studies fltling him 
for his profession, having the advantage of instrueiii'u l,i 
engineer sent by Thomas Telford from England to .=ui.f> 
intend the eonstmction of the Gflta Canal. In 1814 he a»t 
appointwi a cadet of the Swedish Corps of Engineers, ami 
in 1820 an ensign in the Swedish army, where he nw,' to 
the rank of captain. In the army he acquired valuable ,-i- 
perience as an artillerist, and gained such skill in toixigracli. 
leal drawing that while engaged in surveving and ma i- 
ping Northern Sweden his labor was counted as that '.f 
two men. He showed prec<x'ious talent as an invenlor i\.^ 
signing at the age of ten years a pump to drain the nun,.; 
and inventing before he reached his maioritv a mai'hiic" 
for engraving and a flame-engine. The desire to find s 
larger field for his flame-engine mduced him to resign fr.,i., 
the army, »n<l remove in 1838 to England, where be r,- 
majned until Nov. 1. 1839, engsging in business Iheiv s.- a 
partner of John Braithwaite. He made use of surface c.n- 
dcn^tion as apphVl to steam in Sir John Ross's arx-tic v,--- 
the \ictory in 1837. In 1828 he emplove.1 compr,-'.— i 
to convey power to a Cornwall Un-mirie IvinE off il .■ 
)re, and in 1829 he used artificial draught in a slriun lin- 
etigino designed by him and successfully tested in Fn-- 



ERICSSON 



BRIE CANAL 



18T 



Isid and on the Continent. In the same year he applied 
irtifidal draught to his locomotive the Novelty, which en- 
(tfed the lists against Stephenson's Rocket in the famoos 
motest at Rainhill in Oct!, 1829, that opened the era of 
tnrel bf rmiL L^uling engineers of that time placed on 
ncord t^ statement that the Novelty was the firet engine 
that ever run really fast, as it ran a mile in fifty-six sec- 
cods, and that it was long remembered as a beau-ideal of 
I jocomotiTe. In 1832 Ericsson made the first use of the 
{ffithfugal 6ui-blower in the Corsair, and he used steam 
m mMDj new and ingenious wajrs. In 1883 he patented a 
*c*loric** engine with an "organ-pipe regenerator." This 
rxcited extraordinary interest in London, and laid the 
tuUBiUlioa for his future inventions in that line. In 1833 
be coadacted experiments with submerged propellers, and 
IS 18S3, in the iron screw-steamer the Robert F. Stock- 
bit made the first really successful application of the screw 
b) st«am-navigation, coupling his engine directly to the 
propeller shaft. IHscouraged oy Engli^ indifference to his 
vivYoeed ideas, Ericsson removed to the U. S., arriving 
Sor, S3, 1^H>, in New York, where he continued to reside 
ontil his de^th. During the ^ears immediately succeeding 
ka removal he made extensive iu)plication of the screw- 
DTopeller to merchant vessels on the inland waters of the 
r. ^L, and in 1843 caused a revolution in naval warfare by 
tppijine the screw to the U. S. S. Princeton by making 
ttft of ideas and inventions formerly regarded as mapplica- 
hie to the conditions of war. He was the first to employ a 
nnj^ftnder, to discard the use of breeching for heavy guns, 
u- pQt his machinery below the water-line and to protect it 
with coal armor, 'the first practical application of twin- 
KRws was made by Ericsson in the Marmora in 1843. 
During the twenty years from 1841 to 1861 he was engaged 
ii intervals in work upon revenue marine and other Gov- 
ffluoent vessels, some of which were used during the war 
vuh Hexioo, 1846-47. He also undertook various bold in- 
vtiitioos and constructions, not all of which were successful. 
i\iei of thes« was the caloric ship Ericsson, which voyaged, 
Pi^ 1853; between New York and Washington, and demon- 
«2it6d the impossibility of superseding steam with hot air. 
Bt^verer, Eriisson successfully applied hot air to the pro- 
iactioa of small powers, and thus made it a commercial 
ftetseK. His studies in the application of steam-power to 
w-Tcasels culminated in the invention of the Monitor 
iraior-clad, made in 1854 and first practically applied in 
tie ori^nnal Monitor, which defeated the Memmac in 
HuDpton Roads, Va., Mar. 0, 1862, staved the rising tide of 
Cnafederate success, and compelled the reconstruction of 
rt*rr great navj, substantially upon the lines laid down by 
Enf^>o. During the civil war, from 1862 to 1865, he was 
■mipied in the work of building a monitor fleet for the 
C. S. In 1868 he built for Spain a fleet of gunboats de- 
acaed for Cuban watei^ In 1878 he developed in the 
tjmdo-boat Destroyer ideas included in his scheme of 
uial warfare first conceived and submitted to Napoleon 
ilL in 1854 In 1866 he entered upon the study of solar 
}ibT>ics and devoted most of the remaining twent^^-three 
ymn <A his life to this, expending $100,000 m experiments 
sod the construction of ingenious apparatus to facilitate his 
cjiiea. Most of this apparatus was transferred upon his 
inth to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. He 
Ltviited a solar engine, which he left as a legacy for the 
f:^4Kre time, when the coal mines shall cease to supply the 
v-tfid with ooDcentrated heat. The main purposes of Erics- 
%x*» inventive studies through life were (1) to secure an 
t&««Dical substitute for the steam-engine or lessen its 
vaoe of power: (2) to devise some simpler and less danger- 
•w ma^ar ; and finally so to improve the mechanism of de- 
'•om m war that the weaker nations should no lone;er be at 
»'*■ mercy of the strong. Ericsson died in New York city, 
Iw. 9, 1889, the anniversary of the battle between the 
Kjaitor and the Merrimac. He was a man of extraor- 
^MTj physique, having the muscular strength of two or- 
teary men, and retained his ability to work twelve or 
Ivrtao hours a day almost up to his dying hour. Numer- 
^« tiiks, diplomas, medals, and orders of knighthood testi- 
W to the public appreciation of his services. After his 
ftath the Swedish Uovemment asked for the return of 
^ body to his native land, and it was transferred with dis- 
ta^ttiwed honors, in the U. S. S. Baltimore, to Stockholm, 
it was received with like honors and conveyed to its 




propriated $10,000 for the erection of a monument to this 
great inventor, and the ceremony of unveiling took place 
in Battery Park, New York city, Apr. 26, 1893. 

William Conant Chubch. 

Ericsson, Nils : brother of John Ericsson ; engineer ; b. 
at L&ngbanshyttan, Sweden, Jan. 31, 1802. He was in 1814 
appointed cadet of the Swedish Corps of Mechanical Engi- 
neers, and engaged upon the Gdta Canal, ultimately being 
placed in controlof it and completing it. He was then given 
charge of the construction of a system of Government rail- 
ways, and on completing them, in 1862, he was created a 
baron and retired with the largest pension ever bestowed 
upon a Swedish subject. He and two of his sons were 
members of the Swedish Diet^ and the eldest son, John, who 
inherited the title of baron, is governor of Jemtland, Swe- 
den. Nils Ericsson died in Stockholm, Sept. 8, 1870. 

William Conant Chukch. 

Erie: city and railway junction (founded in 1867); 
capital of Neosho co., Kan. (for location of county, see map 
of Kansas, ret 7-J); 116 miles S. by W. of Kansas City; 
near the Neosho river, which supplies excellent water-power. 
The city has four churches. The chief industries are agri- 
culture and stock-raisinff. Pop. (1880) 270 ; (1890) 1,176. 

Edftor op ** Republican Record." 

Erie: city and important railway and commercial cen- 
ter; capital of Erie co., Pa. (for location of county, see 
map of Pennsylvania, ref. 1~A^ ; the only lake port of the 
State ; has the largest landlocKed harbor on Lake Erie, 5 
miles in length by one in width. A line of first-class pro- 
pellers runs between this port and the upper lakes ; the im- 
ports are principally grain, lumber, iron ore, limestone, and 
plaster, and the exports bituminous and anthracite coal, en- 
gines, boilers, ana other manufactured products of the 
city. Railway facilities are excellent. Ene is on the L. S. 
and M. S. and the N. Y. C. and St. L. railways ; it is the 
western terminus of the Phila. and Erie Railroad, penetrat- 
ing the lumber and upper oil regions of the State, and con- 
necting with Harrisburg, Philadelphia, and the anthracite 
coal-fields ; and is also the northern terminus of the Erie 
and Pittsbuig and the Pittsburg, Shenango and Lake Erie 
railways, which pass through the bituminous coal sections 
and the lower oil regions of the State, and furnish direct 
connection at Pittsburgwith all rail and river routes. 

Manufactures, e/c— -The facilities for receipt of raw ma- 
terial and cheap fuel, and for the shipment of products by 
rail and water, make EIrie an important manufacturing cen- 
ter. Articles in great variety are manufactured here ; amon^ 
the chief are the products of foundries, machine-shops, and 
fiouring-mills. Erie is the market for a rich farming coun- 
try. It has a fine GK)yemment building, in which are lo- 
cated the post-office, customs and internal revenue offices, 
district court-rooms, and signal-service station ; an academy, 
electric street railways and street lighting, and an excellent 
water-works system, owned by the city and valued at 
$1,500,000. It is the largest and most central point in a 
section covering the ten northwestern counties of Pennsyl- 
vania. Pop. (1880) 27,737 ; (1890) 40,634. 

Editor of " Dispatch." 

Erie Canal : the most important, as well as the largest, 
canal in the U. S., extending from Buffalo to Albany, 
N. Y., 363 miles long. De Witt Clinton, whose name is 
identified with the construction of this great public work, 
was in 1810 appointed a member of a commission to explore 
and survey a route for the proposed canal from the lakes 
to the Hudson ; and his memonal to the State Legislature 
in 1815 insured the success of the undertaking. The bill 
for its construction was passed in 1817; but the ** canal 
policy" was for years strenuously opposed. In 1825 the 
canal was completed at a cost of $7,602,000. and navigation 
was opened in October. Clinton was at that time Governor 
of the State of New York, and at the head of a grand naval 
procession he sailed down the Hudson from Albany to the sea, 
and poured a keg of the water of Lake Erie into the Atlantic 
Ocean. In construction the canal presents features of para- 
mount interest It is carried over several large streams on 
stone aqueducts whose construction required the greatest en- 
gineering skilL It crosses the Mohawk river twice, at 
Schenectady and at Cohoes. It has in all 72 locks, of which 
57 are double and 15 single. At Albanyit rises 20 feet by 
two double locks, 110 by 18 feet, and at West Troy it is car- 
ried over a ridge 188J^ feet high by 16 double lift-locks. 
The commercial importance of this canal is very great. It 
is chiefly employed for transporting grain and such other 



188 



BRIE CLAY 



ERIODENDRON 



bulky articles as do not require quick transit, and its nayi- 
gation is free. See Canals and Cldtton, Dk Witt ; also 
Kavioation, Inlajo). 

Erie Clar : one of the Pleistocene formations of the re- 
gion of the Laurentian lakes. It occupies lowlands about 
Lakes Ontario and Erie, and about the southern parts of 
Lakes Huron and Michigan. Like the till on which it rests, 
it contains pebbles and bowlders, scratched and polished by 
glacial action ; unlike the till, it is finely laminated. Its 
color is usually some shade of gray or blue, changing at 
top, through oxidation, to yellow. The clay was deposited 
in a series of lakes which bordered the great Pleistocene ice- 
sheet during its final retreat. See Geology, Historic ; also 
Pleistocene. G. K. G. 

Erie, Lake : one of the chain of great lakes drained by 
the St. Lawrence ; constitutes part of the boundary between 
the U. S. and Canada. The province of Ontario adjoins it on 
the north, and the States of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, 
and Michi^n on the south, east, and west The Detroit 
river, entering from the north near its west end, brings the 
discharge of the upper lakes, and is its largest tributaiy. 
The Grand enters from the north, the Maumee from the 
west, and the Cuyahoga from the south. Its outlet, the 
Niagara, flows northward from its east end. The length of 
the lake is 246 miles, its greatest width 58 miles, and its 
area 9,900 sq. miles. Its surface lies 573 feet above the sea 
and 326 feet above Lake Ontario. It is the shallowest of 
the ^reat lakes, its general depth being less than 100 feet 
and its deepest sounding 210 feet. A group of islands near 
its west end are celebrated for their vineyards. Its com- 
merce is large, passing westward through the Detroit river 
to the upper lakes, eastward through the Welland Canal to 
Lake Ontario, and southeastward vi4 the ports of Buffalo, 
Erie, and Cleveland. 

The important Battle of Lake Erie was fought near 
the western extremity of the lake between a squadron of 
IT. S. vessels commanded by Lieutenant (afterward Commo- 
dore) Perrv, and a British squadron of six vessels under 
Capt. Barclay, Sept. 10, 1813. Perry's squadron, consisting 
of nine vessels, but manned by an inferior force and mount- 
ing fewer guns, captured the entire British squadron after 
three hours' combat. This battle gave the 17. S. the su- 

{)remacy on the lake, and permitted the co-operation of the 
and and naval forces in the West, with the result of freeing 
Michigan from the British occupation. G. K. G. 

Eries: See Iroquoian Indians. 

Erie Shale: the name given by the Ohio geologists to 
the westward extension of the Chemung and Upper Portage 
rocks of New York. The oil-wells of Western Pennsylvania 
are bored on this foundation, though the petroleum which 
is found in it emanates from the Huron shale below. 

Erig'ena, Johannes Scotus : the boldest and most brill- 
iant thinker of the ninth century. The events of his life 
are involved in some obscurity. He was born probably in 
Ireland between 800-815 a. d., and educated in the Irish 
monasteries. His name, Erigena, is probably a corruption 
of Hierugena, i. e. " of the Holy Isle," a common designa- 
tion of Ireland. About 843 he appears to have gone to 
France, where he was patronized by Charles the Bald. He 
is credited with one of the best repartees on record. At 
Uble one dav the kin^ asked him, "(Jjuid distat inter sotum 
et Scotum ? *' (What is the difference between a sot and a 
Scot f). Erigena instantly replied, " Mensa tantum " (Only 
the table). What happened to him after the death of 
Charies the Bald, in 877, is not so clear, bat he died soon 
after, probably in France. According to another account, 
he went to England about 883, on the invitation of Alfred 
the Great, and was murdered by his pupils at Malmesbury in 
891. Some who deny the Mahnesburv story say that Scotus 
Erigena has been confounded with an Anglo-Saxon monk 
whom Alfred invited over from France to teach at Oxford. 
Eri^^ena has been called "the morning star of scholasti- 
cism." He rebelled against Aupustinianism, asserted the su- 
nremacy of reason, and wrought out a vafjue pantheism, 
lie also translated into Latin the works (spurious) of Dionys- 
ius the Areopagit^ (of the fourth or fifth century), and thus 
planted the seeds of the media^yal mystit^ism. ' He wrote 
against Gottschalk (851 a. d.) on nredestination, and against 
Paschasius itadbertus on transubstantiation, and was con- 
demned as a heretic at Paris in 1209. Of his other works, 
the most important is a treatise in five books, De Dini»ione 
Naturm, it was printed at Oxford in 1681. The best edi- 



tions are those by C. B. SchlQter (Mttnster, 1838) and H. U 
Floss (Paris, 1853, see below); German translation by L. 
Noack (3 pts., Leipzig, 1874-77). It is written in the fcinn 
of a dialogue, and the process of reasoning moves on throu^'h 
syllogisms. But his speculation is very free and bold. Ji 
is not the given system of theology he will explain, but an 
original aspect of the universe which he wishes to set forth, 
and in the exposition of which he appeals to no external 
authority. In direct opposition to the theologians of hia 
time, and to the schoolmen in general, he does not start 
from a conception of the body of theological doctrines a-* 
being the truth, needing only elucidation. His start injj- 

e>int is a pliilosophical conception of the univei^. Poj>e 
onorius UL, in 1225, characterized his book as '* teem in;; 
with the vermin of heretical depravity," and ordere<l ail 
copies of it to be burned. His works, edited by H. L. ¥1 «<>, 
are in Migne*s Patrologia Latina, CXXIL (Paris, 185:^. 
See Christlieb, Leben und Lehre des Johannes Scotus Eri- 
gena (Got ha. 1860), and Huber, Johannes Scotus Eriqtna 
(Munich, 1861). Revised by S. M. Jackson. 

Erigeron, efe-rijc-ron [Gr. Iipijdpw, early-old ; V* eari? 
+ y4pwtf, old man; so named in allusion to their hoary ap- 
pearance] : a genus of herbs of the family Composito', in- 
cluding the fleabanes (which are weeds or several spetit*^, 
very common in Europe and North America) and othtT 
plants, such as robin's plantain {Eri^eron bellidifoliujt), t-Xc. 
The EHgeron philadelphicus, Ertgeron canadensis, an<i 
others are used as diuretics, and contain a volatile oil which 
varies somewhat in different species. The oil has a pungi'nt. 
disagreeable odor, and sometimes also a tarry or oleo-rea^in- 
ous character. It is used in medicine. 

Revised by Charles E. Besset. 

Erik the Bed : the discoverer of Greenland, and, Gre^-n- 
land being a part of the western hemisphere, probablv the 
first white man who visited America. lie was bom iib..\u 
the year 950 in JaBdem, in Norway, whence he with Ins 
father, Thorwald Osvaldson, removed to Iceland on account 
of manslaughter. From Iceland he was banished on ac- 
count of another case of manslaughter, and so he set out on 
a voyage of discovery. One Gunnbjorn, son of Ulf Krai:*-, 
had seen land lying in the ocean to the west of Iceland] 
when in the year 876 he was driven out to sea in a stnrm! 
Erik the Red resolved to go in search of the land thai 
Gunnbjorn had seen. He sailed W. from Iceland, and iu 
982 he discovered the unknown land, wliich he called Green- 
land, in order, as he said, to attract settlers, who would be 
favorably impressed with so pleasing a name. After n-- 
maining there three years he returned to Iceland. In 9H6 
he returned to Greenland, accompanied by many new M't- 
tlers, who established a colony in Eriksfjord, which i«^ 
thought to correspond to the present Tunnudluarbik an.l 
surroundings. Erik the Red lived at Bratlahlid, whiih 
after the death of Erik*s descendants became the resideinr 
of the lagman. Erik's son Leif was the discoverer of Amer- 
ica (Vinland). See Leif Ericsson and Vinland, 

_ , ^ , Rasmus B, Andersi^n. 

Erin : See Ireland. 

Erina'cens [Lat erina'ceus, hedgehog]: the gemis that 
includes the hedgehogs of the Old Worid, of which then- 
are several species, inhabiting Asia, Africa, and Eurt>iv. 
The common hedgehog of England mav be considered a t v i n 
of the group. It is a harmless little nocturnal anitnn. 
which subsists mainly on insects, though sometimes earii.- 
fruit and even reptiles. The back of the hedgeliog is cn>v"- 
ered with spines, and when attacked he rolls himself into a 
ball from which they radiate in every direction, and *»'r^ »- 
as a defence that enables him to defy all his enemies »>i.t 
man. Zo61ogically the hedgehog is of special interest, a.*=^ h. 
stands at the head of the order of Insectivora. See IlEi>«*t- 

HOG. 

Erin'na (in Gr.''Hpiwa): a Greek poet who lived about 
600 B. c, and was a friend of Sappho. She acquired a hij^ti 
reputation by her lyric and other poems, among which W^i^ 
The Distaff. It is said that she died at the age of nineteen 
Fragments of her poems may be found in Bergk's 1*0^ tr 
Lyrici Gr(pci. 

Erin'nyg (in Gr. 'Epiw^f, or *E^iv6t\ plu. Erlnnjea - a 
name given to the Furies or Eumenides {q, r.). 

Erioden'dron [from Gr. Iptoy, wool + d/vSpor, tree! - n 
genus of evergreen trees of the family MaltHicefr, nativ^V. .f 
tropical climates. They have large and beautiful flow,T> 
They are sometimes called wool-trees, because the ca|>^:tii.\ 



190 



ERNEST IV. 



ERRETT 



brother of the famous Bernard of Saxe^ Weimar. In the 
Thirty Years* war he served with distinction under Gus- 
tavus Adolphus as a colonel of horse. Ho completed the 
Tictorj of tne Swedish army at LQtzen, where Gustavus was 
killed. He was a zealous Protestant, and a ruler of great 
wisdom and activity. He instituted reforms, some of which 
were very fruitful of good. Many of his institutions were 
lasting. D. in 1675. 

Ernest (Ernst) IT., or Ernest II. of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha : 
Duke of Saxe-Coburg; b. at Coburg, June 31, 1818. His 
younger brother, Albert, married Queen Victoria of Eng- 
land. He succeeded his father in 1844, and sympathized 
with the efforts to promote the unity and nationality of the 
Germans. He composed operas entitled Zaire, UtmldOy 
Sainte Claire, Diana de Solanges, and wrote some memoirs. 
In 1863 he declined the crown of Greece. D. Aug. 23, 1803, 
at Coburg, the Duke of Edinburgh succeeding him. 

Ernest Angnstas : King of Hanover ; b. June 5, 1771 ; 
fifth son of George III. oi England. He was styled the 
Duke of Cumberland before he became king, and was a 
field-marshal in the British army. On the death of his 
brother, William IV., in 1837, he inherited the throne of 
Hanover, which was then separated from Great Britain, be- 
cause it was not lawful for a woman to reign over Hanover. 
He was the object of intensepopular dislike both in Eng- 
land and Germany. In the House of Lords he belonged to 
the extreme Tory party. In Hanover he was a tyrant, and 
in 1837 expelled from the University of G5ttingen seven 
professors of liberal tendencies. In 1848 he was forced, in 
order to keep his throne, to grant some liberal reforms. D. 
Nov. 18, 1851. 

Emesti, ffr'nes-te^, August Wilhelm : philologist : b. in 
Thuringia, Nov. 26, 1T33 ; a nephew of Johann August Er- 
nesti. He became a good Latin scholar, and was Professor 
of Eloquence at Leipzig in 1770. He produced a good edi- 
tion of Livy (3 vols., 1769) and other works, several of which 
were explanatory of the text of Livy*s writings, and are 
still valued. D. July 20, 1801. See Bnrsian, p. 400 ff., 
Allg. Biogr, ; Allg, deut, Biogr., vi., pp. 235-242. 

Ernesti, Johann August : a German critic and the founder 
of a school of theology ; b. at Tennstedt, in Thuringia, Aug. 
4, 1707. He was liberally educated at Wittenberg and Leip- 
zig, and was so excellent a Latin scholar that he was called 
the "German Cicero." He became Professor of Ancient 
Literature in the University of Leipzig in 1742, and ob- 
tained the chair of Rhetoric in 1756, to which the chair of 
Theology was added in 1758. In theology he was liberal or 
rationalistic. He was the founder of the grammatico-his- 
torical exegetical school of New Testament interpretation in 
his Instiiutio Interpretis Novi Testamenti (Leipzig, 1761 ; 
6th ed. by C. F. Ammon, 1809 ; Eng. trans, by Moses Stuart, 
Elements of Interpretation^ Andover, Mass., 1822 ; n. e. by 
E. Henderson, London, 1827; 3d ed. 2 vols., 1832). He 
wrote other theological works, and published an excellent 
edition of Cicero (6 vols., 1737-39), including a Clavia Cicero- 
nania. D. in Leipzig, Sept. 11, 1781. See A. W. Emesti, 
Memoria J. A, Ernesti (1781) ; J. van Voorst, Oratio de J, 
A. Ernesto (1804). 

• 

Ernst, Oswald Hubert : soldier ; b. near Cincinnati, 0., 
June 27, 1842 ; entered Harvard College July, 1858 ; grad- 
uated at the U. S. Military Academy in June, 1864, ana was 
commissioned first lieutenant in the corps of engineers; 
served as assistant chief engineer of the Army of the Ten- 
nessee to the close of the Atlanta campaign ; was detached 
to serve as astronomer with the commission sent by the 
U. S. Government to Spain to observe the solar eclipse of 
Dec., 1870 ; instructor of practical military engineering and 
military signaling and telegraphy at the if. S. Military 
Aca<iemy. He became assistant engineer on Western river 
improvements 1878-80, and afterwanl took charge of the 
river and harl>or improvements in the district whose head- 
quarters are at St. Louis, Mo. He has served since 1880 as 
member of various boanls of engineers, and has directed 
various surveys and examinations of rivers; member of 
Mississippi river commission May, 1888; on duty in Mexico 
under orders of Department of State Xov.-Dec., 1888; in 
charge of public buildings and grounds, Washington, D. C., 
lHSll-93; superintendent U. S. Military Acadeniy Apr., 
iHlKi. He was breveted captain in 1865, commissioned cap- 
tain of engineers in 1867, and major of enjjineers May 5, 
1883. His principal publication is a Manual of Prnciical 
Military Engineering (1873). lie vised by James Mercur. 



E'ros (in Gr. "E^f, gen. "EfMrros) : the Greek name of the 

f'od of Love, corresponding to the Cupido of the liomans. 
n Hesiod, Eros is one of tne great cosmogonic powers, but 
later poets represent him as a son of Aphrodite (the Iloman 
Venus). See Cupid. 

Erosion [from Lat. ero'sio, ^eriv. of ero'dere ; «, out + 
ro'dere, gnaw] : in geology, the action of a current of water, 
as in a river, in excavating or enlarging its channel. th»* 
gradual abrasion of strata, by rain, frost, glaciers, etc. Tht- 
deep hollows occupied by most lakes and rivers are su[h 
posed to have been fonned by the action of rivers or glaciers, 
and are called "valleys of erosion." The action of at- 
mospheric agencies, glaciers, etc., in wearing away the p-n- 
eral surface of a country or district is called surface eroMion, 
degradation, or deniidation. The changes wrought by thU 
agency on the superficial features of the earth are much 
more grand and interesting than they are generally su(»- 
posed to be ; and it may be said that tlie surface configura- 
tion of the earth and the whole " aspects of nature ** are the 
result of the antagonistic action of surface erosion and in- 
ternal elevatory forces. See Geoloot. 

Erpe'nins, or Tan Er'pe, Thomas: Orientalist; b. at 
Gorkum, Holland, Sept. 7, 1584 He studied theology- at 
Leyden, and took the degree of Master of Arts in l*6<i^. 
after which he visited France, England, Italy, and <irr- 
many. In 1613 he became Professor of Arabic and other 
Oriental Languages (with the exception of Hebrew) at the 
University of Leyden. A second chair of Hebrew was 
founded tor him in 1619. He printed a number of Arabic 
works with a press which he Kept in his own house. He 
produced in 1613 an Arabic Grammar, the first ever writ- 
ten in Europe, prepared an Arabic chrestomathy, and pub- 
lished Historia Saraeeniea, which is an edition of Elmaoin\s 
history, with a Latin translation (1625). D. Nov. 13, 1624. 

Revised by C. H. Toy. 

Errard, Sfraar", Charles : painter and architect ; b. at 
Nantes, France, in 1606. He was patronized by Louis 
XIV., for whom he adorned the Louvre, Tuileries, and other 
palaces. He was one of the twelve artists who founded th*? 
Academy of Painting in Paris in 1648, and was the princi- 
pal founder of the French Academy of Art in Rome (I6661. 
D. in Rome, May 15, 1689. 

Erratic Blocks, or Erratics : in ^logy, fragments of 
ix)cks on the surface of the ground which have been tran*- 
ported from a distance by glaciers, icebergs, etc. See Drift. 

Err&znriz, Federico: Chilian statesman; b. at Santiatro. 
Mar. 27, 1825. He graduated in law at the National Univer- 
sity, was a successful advocate, and an author of some re- 
pute. Early elected to the Chamber of Deputies, he btnanie 
a leader of the opposition to President Montt, and at one 
time was forced to leave the country. President Pen-z 
made him Minister of Public Instruction, Religion, and 
Justice (1861), and he brought about many needed reform^ 
in the department ; later he had the portfolio of War and 
Marine, and directed affairs during the war with S]kain 
1865-66. A combination of conservatives and modernto 
liberals elected him president to succeed Perez for the terrTi 
of 1871-76. By instituting various reforms, and espetially 
by the abolishment of ecclesiastical privileges, he s'uh-^i 
rather with the liberals ; public works and the reorganiza- 
tion of the army and navy were pushed forward with gnvit 
vigor, but the treasury was heavily burdened. At the tnd 
of his term he retired to private hfe. D. at Santiago, July 
20, 1877. Herbert H. Smith. ' 

Errett, Isaac, A. M. : preacher, editor, and author: b. in 
New York, Jan. 2, 1820. llis parents became identifieil with 
the Disciples of Christ in 1810, and in 1811 his father wr^.io 
in defense of the principles now advocated by the DiKij»b^. 
Young Errett's boyhooa was spent at Pittsburg, Pa., whor**. 
at the age of fourteen, he was baptized. He was thrown «'H 
his own resources at the age of ten, but diligently u^.i 
every opportunity for increasing his stock of knowleti::^!'. 
In 1840 lie began his career as a preacher, and soon wi»n n 
wide reputation for his eloquence and power. After serv- 
ing as pastor in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Michigan, h«> be- 
came in 1851 corresponding secretary of Ohio Christ Kt" 
Missionary Society, resigning that work after thrtv vi-a'^' 
service to become corresponding secretary of the Arnvri« mi 
Christian Missionary Society. On the death of Alexin. i«r 
Campbell, in 1866, he was elected its president. TVm* r v« r» .- 
tian Standard,, a weekly religious journal, was founde*! 4.5 
him in 1866. lie was president of Alliance College, Alliairi«>% 



192 



KRZGEBIRGK 



ESCAPEMENT 



under the Eastern Roman empire] : town of Armenia, Asiatic 
Turkey ; on a fertile plain on the river Kara-Su, a branch 
of the Euphrates ; about 120 miles S. E. of Trebizond (see 
map of Turkey, ref. 4-1). It is 6,200 feet alx)ve the level of 
the sea. The streets are narrow and filthy ; the houses are 
built mostly of mud, wood, or sun-dried bricks. The town 
is the seat of an Armenian archbishopric. It has a large 
citadel, a custom-house, about forty mosques, several Ar- 
menian and Greek churches, and a number of bazaars. 
Erzeroum has an extensive trade, which is carried on partly 
by caravans. The principal manufactures are of utensils 
of copper, tin, and iron, and leather. The inhabitants own 
large sheep-farms in the mountains or keep sheep and cattle 
in the town, sending them out daily to the mountain-pas- 
tures. The climate is very severe, snow covering the ground 
for about six months. Pop. estimated at 60,0(H), five-sixths 
of whom are Turks. A town called TheodotnopoHs was 
founded here in 415 a. d. In 1201 it was taken by the 
Seljooks, who are said to have destroyed here 100 churches. 
Erzeroum, as an important military ooint, has seen much 
hard fighting in the wars in which Turkey has been engaged. 
Its capture by the Russian general Paskievich, in 1829, 
brought to a successful close the Russian campaign in Asia. 
In the Russo-Turkish war of 1877-78 the town a^in fell 
into the hands of the Russians, who held it from Feb. till 
Oct., 1878. 

Erzgebirge, Srts-ge-beer'g6 (i. e. ore mountains): a moun- 
tain-chain of Southern Germany; extending along the 
boundary between Bohemia and Saxony; it is nearly 120 
miles in length and 25 miles broad. The Schwarzwald and 
Keilberg, the highest parts of this chain, have an altitude of 
about 4,000 feet, and are of granitic formation. The range 
is rich in minerals, among which are silver, tin, iron, and 
cobalt. On the southeast side it is steep, often rising in a 
perpendicular wall 2,000 feet high. On the northwest side 
it is broken by beautiful and fertile valleys, and gradually 
loses itself in the North German plain. 

Esarhad'don [called in the cuneiform inscriptions ^«8^ur- 
ahortddina, Asshur has given a brother] : the Old Testar 
ment name of an Assyrian king, the son and successor of 
Sennacherib. He appears to have reigned from 680 to about 
667 or 668 b. c. He is shown by the monuments to have 
been one of the most powerful of Assyrian monarchs. His 
rule extended northward to Armenia, on the W. it included 
Syria and Cyprus, while on the S. Egypt and even Ethiopia 
were claimed by him. He built a palace at Babylon. Among 
the numerous and splendid remams of his reign is the south- 
west palace of Nimrud. 

E'san (rough, hairy) : the elder twin-brother of the patri- 
arch Jacob (Israel), and the son of Isaac and Rebekah (Gen. 
XXV. 25). He took his name from his hairiness of body. The 
story of his marriage to two Canaanitish and an Ishmaelite 
woman, of his loss of birthright through the craft of Re- 
bekah and Jacob, and of his quarrel and reconciliation with 
Jacob, is beautifully told in the book of Genesis. He was 
the progenitor of the Edomites, who dwelt in Mt. Seir, 
otherwise called Edom. 

Esbjtfrn, as'bySm, Labs P, : founder of the Swedish Lu- 
theran Church in America; b. in Sweden, Oct. 16, 1808; 
educated at Upsala ; pastor for fourteen years before emi- 
grating to the U. S. in 1849; pastor at Andover, III, 1849- 
56; at Princeton, 111., 1856-58; professor in Illinois State 
University, Springfield, 111., 1858-60. In 1860 he organized 
the Swedish Augustana Synod, a body which in 1893 num- 
bered over 84,000 communicants, and became president of 
its theological seminary. Returning to pastoral work in 
Sweden in 1862, he died there July 2, 1870. He published 
ten volumes and pamphlets, all in the Swedish language. 

Henry E. Jacobs. 

Escalade, es-kd-lad' [Fr. from Span. esccUada^ from de- 
ny, of Lat. (tcala, ladder, steps] : in war, an assault in which 
ladders are used in surmounting the obstacles presented by 
the scarp and counterscarp walls (or sloi)es) of a fortifica- 
tion in which no breach has been made; sometimes even a 
rai)id blow directed at an unbesicge<l place with hope of 
success by surprise (e. g. the capture by the English troops 
of Almarez, Sept., 1812). Among the most famous escalades 
are those of Adrianople by the Goths; of Beauvais by 
Charles the Bold, in 1472; of Fecamp in 1593; of Prague 
in 1741. Still more remarkable was that at Corfil in 1717 
by Count Schulenberg, who, reduced to extremity in the 
defense by the capture of the outworks, hastily prepared 



ladders, and by a desperate assault by escalade reto«<k 
them, and thus saved the place. The second siege of Barln- 
jos (1B12) presents an event unparalleled in the history of 
sieges. Two entire divisions of troops were at the momeiit 
of assault employed to escalade the defenses where intact, 
and each succeeded, while the regular assault on the 
breaches was repulsed with terrible slaughter. The vh>\\*- 
was successfully scaled where the walls were 18 to 24 f»» t 
high, and "tolerably flanked"; the Bastion St. Vincriii.- 
had a scarp-wall 31i feet high, flanked by four ^ns. pah- 
saded covered way, a counterscarp-wall 12 feet high, ami a 
cunette ditch 5| leet deep. 

Escallop Shell : See Scallop Shell. 

Escanaha : city ; capital of Delta co., Mich, (for location 
of county, see map of Michigan, ref. 3-0) ; situated on tlu- 
C. and N. W. Railway and on Green Bay, BfiO miles N. of Chi- 
cago. It has 9 Protestant and 2 Catholic churches, 4 public 
and 2 parochial schools, a hospital, lumber-factories, water- 
works, gas and electric light, sewers, electric street railway, 
etc., and an excellent natural harbor. It ships annua l[> 
4,OC)0,000 tons of iron ore and large quantities of coal, lum- 
ber, and fish. Pop. (1880) 3,026; (1890) 6,808; (1892) oti- 
mated, 8,500. EnnoR of ** Mirror." 

Escape : in law, the departure of a prisoner from con- 
finement before he has been released oy process of Uw. 
Any liberty given to a prisoner not authorized by law i«^ 
technicall)? an escape. Escapes may occur either in civil or 
criminal cases. They are either negligent or voluntary— 
negligent, when the prisoner escapes without the consent of 
the oflRcer having him in custody; voluntary, when siivh 
officer consents to the escape. In criminal cases an escaj^- 
is a public offense, of whicn the prisoner may be convicttMl. 
as also the officer through whose act or neglect the cs^-afte 
occurs. An officer voluntarily permitting a criminal to es- 
cape is guilty of the same offense as the criminal, as he Xh\ n 
becomes an accessory after the fact. In civil actions then* i> 
an important distinction between mesne and final prrK*<'». 
the former being that which is issued between the com- 
mencement and the termination of the action ; and the Int- 
ter, that which is used to enforce the judgment If the (•>- 
cape be voluntary, the officer is liable in either case ; but if 
it oe negligent, he will not be liable in the case of m^vif 
process if the prisoner is again in his custody before an a< • 
tion is commenced against him for his neglect ; though In 
will be liable in any event in the case of final process. Tin 
damages recoverable are measured by the injury siistaitu*«i. 
In final proce^ these would in general be the amount of \l*- 
judgment. Nothing will excuse an escape but an act of 
God or of the public enemy or of the law. 

Revised by F. Sturges Allen. 

Escapement : the device in watches and clocks by which 
the rotatory motion of the wheels gives rise to or perpitu- 
ates the vibration of a pendulum or balance-wheel. 

Escapements have received various forms, manv of whi< h 
are still in use. The earliest, introduced by buyglicns 
about 1650, was called the crown-wheel or vertical esim *- 
ment. The crown-wheel has its teeth not in the plan«> of 
the wheel, but in a cylindrical surface of which the axis of 
the wheel is the axis. In the crown-wheel of the clock or 
watch the teeth were acute-angled, and inclined in a ci»iu- 
mon direction like saw-teeth. The axis of the pendulnm. 
or balance, was longer than the diameter of tne en>\%ri- 
wheel over which it extended. It carried two short amis mf 
projections, called pallets, set in different azimuths, in mu h 
a manner that when of one them, being encouutereil 1»> a 
tooth, was pushed out of the way by the advancing wheel. xU* 
opposite one was caught by another tooth, which pushed in 
the opposite direction. Thus the wheel made an intt^rmit- 
tent progress as the teeth successively escaped from tii- 
pallets. 

In a clock, when the pendulum is disturbed from th» 
mean position, it is brought back by gravity. In tho wat*f 
the same result is pro<iuced for the balance-wheel l»y tt.* 
action of the spiral spring attached to the verge, calU^'i \ • ■ 
hair-spring. The escapement most commonly in us*- f. r 
both clocks and wat<;hes is the anchor escapement, fir>i .ii 
troduced by Ilooke in 1656. It is so called from its restn 
bianco to the flukes of an anchor, the shaft of the anchor •- 
the clock being parallel to the pendulum and conne<-ttHl \i r < 
it. The escapcment-whe^l is a spur-wheel. The jicilj. - 
project from the extremities of the anchor flukes, iinrtnij 
the wheel at the points where tangent lines from the c«?if . r 
of motion would touch it. When one pallet is encJiu- 



194 



KSiOBAK Y MKNIK)ZA 



BSDRA8. BOOKS OW 



EaroWr f Meaiosm, c»-k^b«ar (Mvmpn-dA thak, Airro- 
mo : S(iani«h Jt^uit an<I c«fttiiM : h, at ValladoUd in 1580. 
Hp mTiiie Lther Th*^»i(M;i<r J/oi-o/m (1646) ; Summuia Camt' 
mm 4\t»Mcteniur (16:M): ami <»ther workiv The lax morality 
of hi« writitifC!* waA c^nwurtHi br Pawml in Mime of his /W- 
niM-io/ Ltihn, I). July 4, ICdU. 

Rarobe4o, -hA'ild, Makuxo : Mcxir«n f^*neral : b. in (}a* 
b'atia. Nurva Lc«m, Jan. 12, 1H27; in early life a tnuler 
on thf fn>ntipr. He iten^d ai* a noldier in the war with the 
r. S, IH47-4H ; wan prominent in the " ppform war " 1858-61, 
an<l in the rr^intance to the Fn^noh invaAion lH63-6;i; and 
held out with Juarei until 1864, when he retirMl to Texaa. 
In Nor., 1H6.V he iiuiii;Lrurat4*i| a new republican eampai^ 
in the north by ca|»turinff Monten'v; advancing in a*ten(« 
of virt4)ne<, he drfeateil Mimmon at San Jaomto, Feb. 1, 
1H67, be«i«*frr4l t he Km|ii'n»r Maximilian in Quer(^taro,and t4M>k 
him jiri-Miner Mar 14: he ratifltMl the dwree of the court 
martial which condemned Maximilian to dt^h. Promoted 
t4iKt*neral of division, he wan made i^immander-in-chief of 
the republican armicti. In Auf., IH76, Pre^iilent Lerdo 
ma'le him .Minister of War; on Lenlo's deposition. Nor. 6, 
1H76, he went into bani^ihment. In Feb., 1H7N. he tried U* 
enter Mexico, wai caplurwl, triinl, but' exoneret^yL, and in 
1HH<> he a^rain t<iok ofHt-r undiT the (iorcmmenU Since 
18K3 he ha« hv»l in retirement. IIkrbkrt II. Smith. 

EafOsnrm, •«<*() r^k. Patrkmo. de la : Rtate^man and au- 
thor; b. in Mailrid, Nor. 5. |H()7; studied mathematics in 
Valla4loli(L In \Xi4 he wan exiled for hin c<mnection with 
the "MMMety of the Nuraantin(M.aiid then studied in Parinand 
l^miloiu On hi«i return Ut Sfiain two yean» later he entered 
a rs'jfiment of artillenr, where he was soon pr*>moted to the 
rank of oflltx-r. Twuh* Imui^IuhI aAafmrtisan of the Car- 
ht^tn <in lH:i4 and in 1h;-(6k he retume<i to hi^ country in 
1H46, and l»e<»«me I'nder Secretary of Stale in the follt>wini? 
year. In I KM he was tent a« «»h|»»h'uU enroy t<» Portutn^l, 
after which he wan Minister of the Interior, and from 1872 
to 1H74 Spaninh ambavtiwlor to tlie (ierman empire. For a 
Ionic time FlrnxMara wa» one o^the mi«t prominent editors 
of the HeitMtn iU EspaHa^ in ahich he published a numtier 
of articles beanufc on S|kani«h literaturt' and art. He han 
written nereral hiHtorical workii, »uch a<4 the IIi*ioria Con- 
atitueioHnl de fnyieterra (IH/il*); dramas, Mjch hh Carte dtl 
hurn ^r/irt* (repre^*nt<Ml in lKi7); I^as MftredtuUs de Her- 
moM Cor tern (rfprv!«ent4Hl in 1H44); Hoqer de Flor, 6 Ion Enptk" 
tiiUeA en Ortente, an historical tra>:e*ly n*pn»«*enled in 1H46. 
and publishml in 1H77; ami historical novels such aa ^Vi 
He^ ni Huaut (IKU) and A7 I\tinarta del Voile (1846). I). 
Jan. 22, IhX IltJiaY R, Lajjo. 

Eatrow (O. Pr. tJieroe, w^rap. *hred, l<»an-word fr«>m Ger- 
man ; of. (>. H. (ierm. «rrf>/, KTap] : a detnl or other instm- 
meiit im)t<irtinic a Ici^l obli^tion de|M»Hit4Hi \tf the in^antor 
or |«rtr etecutuiir it with a thini ft«'rM>n, to t>e delivered to 
thr crantee ttr •»bhg»»*» on llie fulf)Ument of a certain tnm- 
diu«»n. Tntil the comiiiion in fultilletl a di^etl in e^'n>w has 
no rlTe«'t aa a dc*ed, and the title of the estate n*main» in the 
jfrmrttor. An e^on»w Lake* efT«»ct, in (fi^nerai, fn»m the time 
of the fulfilment of the <N*mlttion or of the ••4*<*<md delivery ; 
and where the "•c«Niml dehverr is expn'^sly nuMlc ntx.>e!«ary U^ 
jCite It eff«vl llic ilelMcry will l»e eiifontsl by a court of 
fsjiiiH. In certain viimvi, where theemUof jui^itv nM|uin* it, 
and mi iri)uMicv mil be tlonc, the instrument mar, by a (Ic- 
li-n of law u*ni)tsl *• relation," be rvfem^d for it* ralidity 
tttti-k to the flr*l delivery. Kerisoil by F. STvaiib* ALtkK. 

KaralntlA. e*-kwtsnt \nk: a wMithern dejiarlment of (lua- 
teniala; bcuntb^i N. by t'hiiiialtt naiipi, Za''ate)«*<|uez, and 
Ain^titlan. K. b« Santa ^^•Ml. S. by the Pat i tie, ami W. by 
Jmji itiir(wsjufi an'I >«»lt'lA. Ar*-a, l,9«V)s<|. niii«*^ The n«irth- 
rm f«rt t* tuil« f>r m<mtitaiiious. the tnmM n*^ons ifiMiemll) 
1 i« ; the *i»ii !• »• rr fertile, and then* an* injiny Inrjn' su^rar 
aiid « tu m* p'^iitat i* >rt«. '1 he i)e|Mirtifient hns «>xteii^i> e f<*r«*sts 
%u ! l,ri>;«i«hi'H t ii'"-U; at Ctnik\ rnttiip»aii.l Sinta Lin'ia there 
an- iii'r rvMoK* li.-lmi an!iiiui'i**s. Pi.p. i !**?f^i HI.;i<rj. — hj^ 
* \ i^Ti.4. the i-rtj.'Jnl, Mfi ihe t'entfal Kuilniml. is irn|Mirtant 
a* a ontral («>int Utwe^n duAteniala, >an .l«is«'<. Aniiirtia. 
ai.il Airi t'lt.tt't : Its tn^le with the sum>un<|jnc district m 
\Ar^ KnTn !>»•** »»:ts r to Mnnh it h nmch fnsjuenttMl by 
«4«.:h« <iaai« ui*tau». p4>|i, aiM»ut 6.<ltHI. 

HiaBKaT H. SMrm. 

Kara'rlal. <^ Raro'Hftf Mmr. of S|*n, e^rt^-ui, a heap 

«»f r\4M.'*h fp.fti m mine • ItAi ■rc#rni : Kr mrnne • IjiI. #ro - 
ri-i •,««:' a rTi«>tiA-t4 rr anil n>«Ai |mIimv near Mjuind. in 
.'*«) Aiti, t'Uitt bv i*hiii|) [|^ aiiil deilK ate*! to Nt. Lawn*iiteon 



occasion of the rictorr of Su-Quentin hi tS57,on tbat wis:'! 
day. According t4) toe aomewhat doubtfnl trailitH4'. a «« 
built in the form of the gridiron on wbicli that saini »i«4 
to hare be«n broiled alire. The work waa Ufcon bv J.^- 
Bautista de Toledo in 1A63, and comnlei«d br bt* f«r*^ 
Juan de Ilerrara, in bVM. Th« crtM*-bao uf ikt fr , < 
are represented br ranges of buiUlings setiaratrd b; itit* 
rening ocmrta. They were formerly inhalute«l by r--u 
and e<*clesiatftics. The mainportion of thebuildinc u TVI1«»i 
long aiul 550 feet wide, iTie proj«vtioo whub f.rn.» t*- 
royal palace is 460 feet in length. The height uf thr r>:^ « 
is about 60 feet, and at each angle ia a aqiiara tuwrr 2M> iM 
high. It is one of the largest and perhapa od* «kf the r < 
tasteless buildings in Eurufie, tboujgh graod frum u« k 
The church in the center of this eiionnoua uuum of <>«# .« 
rery large and rich. The Pantheon, a rvtM«itory two-* *i 
the churt*h« is the place of interment for the n>ya] (aj. . «, 
whose remains are deposited in tomb* of mart>l« ^fl^^. i 
niches, ooe abore another. The rieheat part oC th» cc. -^ 
howerer, was that which oontained picturta bf Hatwr*^ 
Titian, Raphael, Velasquez, and other gmat mastftv—iA^ 
best C4>llecti(m that any place in tlurufte disftlaytsl ' * 
FriMich, when in p(N«e«aion «»f the EwuriaU ifniovcv* mfi 
of thesi* works. The most raluable treasures ul tbe l^ : J 
constitute the ccdlinHioaof ancient manuscripts pravrwi i 
the library, espeiially thotie of the ArmUaQ wrrterk 

Esrntrkf»on (O. Fr. escusson^ from drrir. of L«i. sra hm 
shield]: in heraldry, a surface, usoally shirH r>haf<-»i i 
which heraldic bearings ar« charged, aiod whirii nak'-* i^ 
the larger part of the orAiri^emeai. An esoutcfart« U f*^ 
tense is the shield on which a man carries the arm* • ( I 
wife, if she is an heiren and has child rra. It i« pLM«^. j 
the center of his own shield, and is mostly of the wmiam t ti 
An e«cutcheoD is sometimes used as a brarlnip ?^«« ili| 

AU>RT. 

Eflrnl«kM>B,or The Milk Mirror: intbs<Su^^« r- I 
od of selecting milch cows, the shield-like outhr»r ut- .■ 
back of the cow *8 mlder ami the adjacent fiartsw f*'rr < 
the upward growth of the hair. Some wnter^ i-all it • • 
outline the *• mirror," and the upper |»art <mly iNe " #^ . 
eon.** The size and perfe4*ti<m of torse marks alf-'rl < 



U 






able means of judging the milking qualities of rt>wi^« 
much experience is nHjuirvd to make the e«timat». 

Efidnir'loa, in the afHieryphal l>ook of Jml.th. 
[from the (lr.*gs<fitXiW'.a i'omiption of the liettrrw J^r.*-«^ 
the m«iKt pi<'tun»)«iue, nnwt fertile, and hist<»n« a .y w-*^. 1 
portant plain in Palc?*tine, **lving hetwe^-n Tai* r ar *. M 
mel. and l»etween the hills of (Galilee on thr m»rth ar 'fi 
of Samaria on the soutlu** InS-riplure it 14 t«ii«- *£* ?.-1 
xxxr. 22: Zi-ih. xiL IDcalM "the valley tpUin f Mt^ 
do." Jexn-el is proix^rly the sttutheastem ^airt of it. a-** J 
this name is si>nictimes given t4> the whole. It k* tr*ar ci 
in form, the length of it 4 s«»utheasteni side bemc at* .* 
milcH, it» s<«ithwe?.tem aU»ut IH milts, ami it* r "."i 
alM)ut 12 miU*s. Its surface, wIkmc ele^atM'O t« mkm ^i \ 
fe«<t aU>ve the Mt*<literran6an, is slightly umlul*;- x 
sends off toward the Jonlan thrw firrMX arm« i>r I *%c- i 
which an» seiiaratwl fn>m one another h\ tbr n • ^:.*a. H 
(iillMin and Little llermon. (htir one 0/ thr-^ *rrr • "I 
erer<the miildle <me),de<"lines eastwanL Tb*- ctva: - ii 
of the tilain is draine«l by the Ktsh«m. whi* h f tE«{ * •« ] 
the Metiitermnean near Acre. This irr^'at plain h^ w- - 
wt'iie <if sereral itn{M)rtant liattles, and «ith it arv mm» • \ 
the nnmt« of linrak, (ii<l(<«>n, Saul. Jiv-^iah, th«- rr-.s^j 
and Nai>»»l»M>n. S**' l*Mwanl Kobinsuti, /Ifcyjt^'at' frV -. --^ 
0/ /Ae fiitl^ Land (IH60). 

En'inu, Books of: <^rtain bookn of the ot.l T'^ca.i 

and t)f the A|Hicrypha a^'riUni to Mjra, wl.«is«> n^av :« •! 
vitxA \uUi K»drfiM, f«*iloiiifiir the Srt»<uai;int. T ti« . »s. -i 
iMNiks of Fjtra and Neheiiiiah (as Ihet are c%ll«si «k • . 
th«»n/»Ml Kn^ltsh Versmni arv dem»niihale«l in tli^ \ | 
aritl Id the Thirty-niiie ArtH le* €»f the An»:.! -»a • * - \ 
Arst and s^'^^kiid (MM>ksof Ksilraa. while tlw a^s^r^i .-.a. •! 
tiow giiierally kiionn as the first ami •r«fml 1/ r.v^-«.^ 
there cnlleii the thinl and fourth of l*>drwsL T>^ *».\ 
Bible (bViiM fir^t ailoptM the prr«rnt mmi«n« !*t«irr 4 
the twt. sfMsr^phal Usiks flr^t ami ^^s^mI Ks-lrma. 

The flfxj («|MKr)phAli Uiok of Kstlrai* was wn*i«-; 
pH si (ir»t>k, but whether in Pallet iiH* or m fr.«^-«itf »| 
« hut time, call nt>t In- detrrmilinL It 1ia« « r- • ^ \ 

^alue. and is ft»r the m<*st fiart aht*t4iry<>f tt» r%*^» »^- | 
the Jiws itftfr the lUbOoiiian imi4Mtu. It i* bt4 ^^^i 
into the canon of either Jews tir Chnsti 



196 



ESLEN 



ESPIXEL 



brilliant defense of Cartagena against the English, Mar.- 
May, 1741 ; the fortifications which he constructed in expec- 
tation of the English attack were of great strength, and long 
made Cartagena invulnerable. After his return to Spain 
Eslaba was made captain-general, and for some years was 
Minister of War. D. in Madrid, Jan., 1759. 

Hebbert H. Smith. 
Eslen : See Esselenian Indians. 

Esmann, Gust ay Fbedrik : Danish journalist and dra- 
matic writer; b. in Copenhagen, Aug. 17, 1860. In 1885 he 
published two short stories {Gammel Ojcdd), but since that 
time he has written chiefly plavs. Of his dramas may be 
mentioned / Provinaen ; Per Bryllupet ; Enkenuend ; Den 
Kcere Familie ; Magdalene, 

Esmarch, Friedrich : surgeon ; b. at Tdnnig. Schleswig- 
Holstein, Jan. 9, 1823 ; studied at Kiel and 65ttingen, and 
afterward served in the hospital at Kiel. He was active in 
the Schleswig-Holstein war 1848-50, and in the latter year 
was made physician superior ; in 1857 director of the sur- 
l^ical clinic at Kiel, and in 1860 professor and director of 
the Kiel hospital. In the war of 1864 he distinguished 
himself by his excellent work in the hospitals, ana when 
war broke out between France and Germany he was nom- 
inated physician-general and consulting surgeon to the 
army. After the war he resumed his work at Kiel He 
has married twice, his second wife beins the Princess Hen- 
rietta of Schleswig-Holstein. Esmarcn*s work both as a 
practitioner and as a medical authority has been remark- 
able. He discovered and applied with success the method 
of performing operations upon injured limbs without loss 
of plood. Among his many important contributions to 
medical literature may be mentioned Ueber Resektionen nach 
Schusawufhden (1851) ; Ueber chronische Oelenkentzundung 
(1867) ; Ueber den Kampfder HumanitcU gegen die Schrecken 
des Kriega (1869) ; Der erste Verband auf dem Schlacht/eld 
(1870) ; Verband Platz und Feldlazarett (1871) ; Hamdbuch 
der Kriegaehirurgischen Technik (1885-86). 

Esmeraldas, es-ma-raal'daas : the northwestemmost prov- 
ince of Ecuador; bounded N. E. by Colombia, S. E. by Car- 
chi, Imbabura, and Pichincha, S. W. by Manabi, and W. by 
the Pacific. Area, 5,364 sq. miles. The surface is hilly 
rather than mountainous, the highest peaks attaining hardly 
2,500 feet ; the rivers Esmeraldas and Cay^pas, with their 
branches, form extensive vallevs in which the land is open 
and adapted for grazing ; the hills are covered with luxuri- 
ant forest. The climate is warm, but exceptionally healthy 
for the coast region. With great natural advantages, the 
province is in a very backward condition. Cattle-raising, 
farming on a small scale, and a little gold-washing are the 
only industries. Pop. (1892) about 15,000.— Esmeraldas, 
the capital, at the mouth of the Esmeraldas river, has about 
3,000 inhabitants. See Wolf, Memoria aobre la geografia y 
geologla de la provincia de EamercUdas (Guayaouil, 1879). 

Herbert H. Smith. 

Es'neh, or Isn^ (anc. Latopolia) : a town of Upper Egypt ; 
on the left bank of the Nile ; about 30 miles above Thebes. 
It has manufactures of blue cotton and pottery ; also an ac- 
tive trade with Sennaar and Abyssinia. Ilere are the ruins 
of the populous ancient city of Latopolia, so called from the 
worship of the laiiia fish. Among tnem is a well-preserved 
portico of a grand temple, with twenty-four beautiful col- 
umns standing* and a zodiac on the ceiling like that at Den- 
derah. All the rest of the temple is literally buried, the 
houses of the modern town standing even upon its roof. In 
visiting the portico, one goes down as into a deep vault. It 
was cleared of rubbish by order of Mohammed Ali in 1842. 
An older temple appears to have been built at Esneh by 
Thothmes III. of the eighteenth dynasty, but the present 
edifice dates from the time of the Cajsars. On the river- 
bank are the remains of a Roman quay. Pop. about 12,- 
Uuu, 

Esoc'idfe [deriv. of Eaox, the typical genus ; from Lat. 
esox {isox), name of a fish found in the Rhine, probably the 
pike] ; a family of fishes of the order Ilaplomi, containing 
the true pikes. The body is elongated, with the back and 
abdomen nearly straight and parallel ; the scales are cycloid 
and of small size, and cover the whole of the body and more 
or less of the head ; the head is oblong, and produced into 
a broad, depressed, and flattened snout; the mouth is large, 
and has a deep lateral cleft ; the teeth are developed on 
the jaws, vomer, palatine, and hyoid bones; on the jaws 
they are enlarged and sharp ; the dorsal and anal fins are 




Bbox lueiu*. 



situated far behind, opposite each other, and higher than 
long; the skeleton has numerous vertebne, and the alKlonii- 
nal ones are much more numerous than the caudal (e. ir I) 
41-43 + C. 20-21). The fam- 
ily is entirely confined to the _ ^ ~ 
northern hemisphere. It is 
chiefly represented in Amer- 
ica, where about five species 
are known, while in Europe 
only a single species — and 
that also common to the two 
con ti nents — is found. A 11 the 
members of the family are 
very voracious, and by the 
nature of their dentition well 
adapted for making havoc 
among their cohabitants of 
the water. The most notable species of the U. S. are the 
Esox maaquinongy, or true mascalonge, which is pre-emi- 
nent among the species of the family for the delieacv of its 
flesh ; the E, luctua, which is the same as the common nike 
of Europe ; and the E. reticulatus, or ordinary pickervl. of 
the Middle and Eastern States. In Great Britain the namt 
pike is bestowed on the Eaox Indus as a specific term, tt> 
well as a designation implying maturity, while the name 
pickerel is restricted to the young. In the U. S., howev.r, 
both these appellations are very diversely applied. S* 
Pike and Pickerel. Revised by David S. Jo&dax. 
Esop : See ^sop. 

Esoteric, es-o-ter'ik [from Gr. ^o-arrcpuc^s, inner, deriv, of 
flirw, lo-w, within] : designating or pertaining to those doc- 
trines which are designed for the initiated only. The an- 
cient philosophers are supposed to have had a set of mvst*- 
rious doctrines, which they imparted to their more enli^'ht- 
ened and intimate disciples, and other doctrines, morn 
popular, for the benefit of the multitude; the latter arc 
designated as exoteric. 

E'SOX : a genus of fishes which includes the pikes, and 
the type of the family of the EaocidcB {q, v.), 

Espafiola : See Santo Dominoo. ^ 

Espartero, es-pakr-ta'ro, Baldaxero : Duke of Vittoria , 
b. at Granatula, La Mancha, Spain, Feb. 27, 1792. He w.t^ 
the youngest son of a common cartwright, and on aceouni 
of feeble health was destined for the Church ; but in Ihih 
he enlisted in the army, became an officer, fought with 
great distinction in South America 1815-25, and put d<»wn 
the Carlist insurrection (1833-40) by a series of bnlliant ex- 
ploits, for which he was made a general, grandee of S[«iii'. 
and duke. In 1841 he took the place of the Dowager-Quet n 
Christina as regent during the minority of Queen Isaln lla, 
but in 1843 a revolution declared Isabella of age, an<l K>- 
partero was banished. He took up his residence in Enjrlami 
until 1847, when the law of exile was canceled and he n - 
turned. From 1854 to 1856 he was Prime Minister, ai.i 
after the revolution of 1868 he was twice mentioned as m 
candidate for the vacant throne. D. at Loinrofio. Jan, y 
1879. 

Espar'to [Span, esparto : Fr. epart < Lat spfarium = (ir. 
airipros, broomi : a species of grass {Stipa tenacissimd) throw- 
ing in Spain, Barbary, etc. It has a very strong fiber, whi. I. 
is used by the Spaniards for making cordage, mat«, iivi-, 
etc. Large amounts are used in Great Britain in the manu- 
facture of paper. Its culture in the U. S. has been re<fi:.- 
mended. Esparto, the half a of Algiers, was first u>e«i ft r 
paper by an Englishman named Routledge, whose j^atc!.: 
was issued in 1856. The paper produced is generally uf 
good quality. See Fiber. 

Espinasse, dc-les'pi-naas', Claire Frakpoisb, or Julik 
Jeanne SliSonore, de T: conversationalist and lettt-r- 
writer ; b. at Lyons, France, in Nov., 1732 ; distinguished for 
her wit and sensibility. In 1752 she went to live in Par - 
as companion to Madame du Deffand, in whose hoiist' bl . 
remained nearly ten years. She gained the affesction * i 
d'Alembert, and became about 1762 mistress of a ^ilf* 
which was frequented by a brilliant literary coterie. I> w, 
Paris, May 23, 1776. Her published letters (1809, 1887> ar- 
much admired. 

EspineP, ViNCENTE : poet and novelist ; b. at Ronda. Att- 
dalusia, Spain, between 1544-51. Little is known f»f h - 
life. He left his home very early, living for some vear^ •• 
Italy, and serying later as a Spanish soldier in the 'Not \u r- 
lands. In 1591, when, having returned to his native |>Ui • 



198 



KSQUIROS 



BSSBX 



1838). He became in 1826 chief physician of the asylum at 
Gharenton. D. Dec. 12, 1840. 

Esqalros, es'kee'rds, Henri Alphonse: a poet and novel- 
ist; b. in Paris, Prance, in 1814. On account of his work, 
VExHmgile du Peuple (The Gospel of the People), he was in 
1840 sentenced to eight months' imprisonment, during which 
time he became an intimate friend of Lamennais. After 
the revolution of 1848 he was elected a member of the Legis- 
latfve Assembly, in which he belonged to the Extreme Left. 
In consequence of the coup d'itat of 1851, he had to leave 
Prance, and lived in England until 1869, when the amnesty 

Eroclaimeil by Napoleon allowed him to return. Soon after 
e was elect^ a member of the legislative body. After 
the overthrow of the empire, in Sept, 1870, the provisional 
government sent him as administrator-general of the de- 
partment of Rhone to Marseilles, where he succeeded in 
suppressing anarchical tendencies. He favored the separa- 
tion of the south of Prance from the north, and for a while 
refused to recognize the decree of Gambetta which sus- 
pended him, but finally resigned in Nov., 1870, in order to 
avoid a civil war. In Feb., 1871, he was elected a member 
of the National Assemblv, and took his seat with the Extreme 
Left. He published, besides other works, Le Magicien 
(1837) ; Charlotte Corday, a novel (1840) ; VEvangiU du 
reuple (1840); UHiatoire des MorUagnards (1847); La 
Morale Universelle (1859) ; UAngleterre et la vie anglaUe 
(5 vols., 1859-70) ; and in the English language. Religious 
Life in England (London, 1867). D. at Versailles, May 10, 
1876. 

Esqaivel, cs-keVvel', Juan, de : Spanish soldier, conqueror 
of Jamaica; b. about 1470. He went to Hispaniola with 
Ovando in 1502, and commanded the Spanish troops in the 

firovince of Higuay during the struggle with Cotaoanama, 
504-05. In 1509 Diego Columbus sent him to conquer and 
colonize Jamaica ; he easily reduced the Indians to submis- 
sion, founded a colony, and governed it with wisdom and 
success. D. in Jamaica about 1519. H. H. S. 

Ess, Leandeb (his convent name, properly Johann Hein- 
rich), van : Roman Catholic theologian ; distinguished at 
once for his learning and his liberality of opinion, especially 
with respect to the circulation of the Scriptures ; b. at War- 
burg, in Westjphalia, Germany, Peb. 15, 1772. In 1790 he 
entered the Benedictine monastery of MarienmQnster in 
Paderborn, in 1796 became priest, and his monastery being 
secularized in 1802, pastor at Schwalenberg, and from 1813 
till 1822 was Professor Extraordinarv of Theology at Mar- 
burg. He aided his cousin, Karl van Ess (1770-1824), in 
publishing a German translation of the New Testament 
(1807), and in 1840, without assistance from his cousin, who 
had meanwhile given up his liberal opinions, published also 
a translation of the Old Testament. His edition of the Vul- 
gate appeared in 1822, and bis edition of the Septuagint in 
1824. He lived in literary seclusion for several years, and 
died at Affolderbach, Oct. 13, 1847. His library, rich in 
Bibles, patristic, medioaval, and Reformation literature, and 
comprising over 13,000 volumes, now belongs to the Union 
Theological Seminary in New York city. 

Es'segrg, or Es'sek (anc Mur^sia or Mur'aa) : a strongly 
fortified town of the Aiistro-Hungarian monarchy ; capital 
of Slavonia; on the river Drave, 13 miles from its entrance 
into the Danube, and 150 miles S. by W. from Budapest (see 
map of Austria- Hungary, ref. 8-G). It has a prosperous 
trade, facilitated by the steam-navigation of the river, and 
contains an arsenal, a town-house, and a normal school 
Pop. (1890) 19,600. 

Essele'iilan Indians : a distinct linguistic stock of North 
American Indians, comprising only the Eslen (Escelen, Ec- 
leinach, ete.) tribe formerly inhabiting a narrow strip along 
the coast of California, from Monterey Bay southward to 
the vicinity of Santa Lucia Piuik. Their habits and cus- 
toms differed somewhat from those of the tribes of Costa- 
noan and Stilinan stocks bounding the Essolenian territory 
on the north and south respt'ctively. The distinctness of 
their language is snifliciently determined by what is known 
through investigation among the Rumsen, a Costanoan tribe 
with whom the Eslen intermarried, and through the study 
of short vocabularies gathered by Lamanon in 1786 and 
Galiano in 1792. The names of ninot<»en of the villages 
formerly occupied by the Eslen are known, nearly all of 
them having been connected with the San Carlos mission. 

Authorities. — Voyage de La Perotute,p. 288 (Paris, 1797) ; 
Galiano, Helacion del viage hecho por las Goleias Sutil y 



Mexicana (Madrid, 1802) ; H. H. Bancroft, History of Cal- 
ifornia, i-vii. (San Francisco, 1684-90); H. W. Henshaw, 
in American Anthropologist (Washington, Jan., 1890). See 
Indians of North America. F. W. Hodoe. 

Es'sen : a town of Rhenish Prussia ; on the Cologne and 
Minden Railway, and near the river Ruhr ; 27 miles by niil 
N. E. of DQsseldorf (see map of German Empire, ref. 4-C). 
It has a cathedral, a gymnasium, a Realschule,and an asylum 
for deaf-mutes; also manufactures of steam-engines, fin'- 
arms, woolen cloth, paper, and iron wares. It derive^ its 
prosperity chiefly from the rich coal mines which surround 
it In the vicinity is a large iron-foundry, copper-mil Is. and 
Krupp's extensive manufactory of steel. Pop. (1885) 65,074; 
(1890) 78,723. 

Essen, Hans Henrik, Count of: a Swedish general: b. 
in West Gothland in 1755. He was appointed governor r»f 
Stockholm in 1795, and obtained in 18d7 the command of 
an army with which he defended Stralsund against the 
French. He was sent as ambassador to Paris by Charkt> 
XIII., who became king in 1809, and the result of the nego- 
tiation was the restoration of Pomerania to Sweden. In 
1814 he was raised to the rank of iield-marshal and Gov- 
ernor-General of Norway. D. July 28, 1824. 

Essenes, es-seenz', or Essieans: the latest, and apparent- 
ly the smallest, of the three Jewish sects in existence in tlh> 
time of Christ. They are not mentioned in the New Te>ta- 
ment. The etymology of the name is doubtful, and the hi?^ 
tory of the sect obscure. The Essenes were m>'stic-s. and 
most of them celibates. They are not to be confi)und»fl 
with the TherapeutiB. although a kindred sect. The grt-Atir 
part of them lived by themselves ne«r the northwest ^h* n' 
of the Dead Sea, but they were also scattered in vBriou> 
parte of Palestine, and are supposed to have numbered in 
all some 4,000 or 5,000. The nrst distinct trace of them i-^ 
about 110 B. c, and they disappear from history after the 
destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans. See C. D. Gin.>- 
burg. The Essenes (London, 1864), and the article in J. B. 
Lightfoot's commentary on Coloasians, pp. 82-179. S^v 
also Jewish Sects. 

Essential Oils [so called because they were fonnerlr 
supposed to contain the essence or active principle of the 
plant or substance from which thev are extracted], <'all< «! 
also Yolatile Oils: a large class of compounds, most 1> of 
vegetable origin, though some are derived from anima. 
sources. They mostly exist already formed in plants. With 
a few exceptions they are colorless, and have m roost ca*« > 
a powerful odor and pungent taste, resembling that of thi- 
plant whence they are derived. A large number of thoni 
are isomeric (or identical in composition) with oil of turpt-u- 
tine and with caoutchouc. These are called terpenes (Ci«Uis) : 
others are aldehydes ; still others ap[)ear to be com pounds 
of alcohol radicals with organic acids, etc. A very few 
contain sulphur. Most of them are obtained by distillation 
with water, others by pressure. They are in many caj<5 
changed by time and exposure into resins, or resolved int4> 
several distinct substances. 

Esseqnibo, es-se-kee'bo : the largest river of British Gui- 
ana, rising in the Acarai Mountains, 41 miles N. of the tn^ua- 
tor, and flowing, in general, northerly to the Caribbean St-a ; 
length, about 625 miles. Except in the last 50 miles of it> 
course it is much obstructed by rapids and falls* The moutl. 
is an estuary 15 miles broad, but dangerous for navigatioii 
owing to numerous islands and sand bars. The lower h^-^- 

2[uibo was originally bordered by forests, now largely olpan il 
or sugar-cane plantations; all the middle course is stiil 
lined witlf heavy forest growth, but the upper river flows 
through open land. The Rupununi, a western braruh uf 
the Essequibo, is 220 miles long. Venezuela claims t he E-<»- 
quibo as her eastern boundary, but a large region W. of the 
nver is in the possession of the British. 

Herbert H. Smith. 

Essex (East Saxons): a countv of England ; boun<l»Mi Y . 
by the North Sea and S. by the estuary of the Thaim-. 
Area, 1,542 sq. miles, of which nine-tenths are arable. It i- 
drained partly by the Stour, the Lea, and the t^hclnu r 
rivers. The surface is pleasantly diversified, except the tl.i* 
marshy land near the sea. The soil is mostly a feni.« 
loam, which produces wheat, barley, oats, beans, hops, j-- 
tatoes, etc. Essex is an agricultural county, with few inap- 
ufactures. Many sheep are raised. The chief town-* ar • 
Chelmsford (the capital), Colchester, Harwich, and Mal«l : 
Essex was a kingdom of the Anglo-Saxon heptarchy, whi*.:. 



200 



ESTATES, THE THREE 



ESTHER, BOOK OF 



on doe notice. Out of estates at will a class of estates has 
grown up called estates from year to year, which can be 
terminated only b}r six months' notice, expiring at the end 
of the year. An important element in creating this estiite 
is the payment of rent. An estate by sufferance arises 
when one conies into the possession of land by agreement, 
and holds over after his original estate has expired, and 
without any agreement, express or implied, by which it is 
continued. * The landloixi nas a right to enter at any time, 
and dispossess the cx^cupant without notice. 

These estates may be created upon condition — that is, 
their existence may depend on the happening or not hap- 
pening of some event whereby the estate may be created, 
enlarged, or defeated. A fee, a freehold, or a term for years 
may thus be upon condition. The condition must either be 
precedent — that is, must happen before the estate can vest 
or be enlarged — or subsequent, when it will defeat an estate 
already vested. 

Estates may also be legal or equitable. They are called 
"equitable" when the formal ownership is in one person 
and the beneficial ownership is in another. Another form 
of expression is that a trust is created. This distinction 
does not affect the nature of the estat-e. Thus a trust es- 
tate may be a life estate or a fee, and in the latter case is 
transmissible to heirs as though it were a strict legal estate. 

In regard to the time of enjoyment, estates are divided 
into estates in possession and estates in expectancy. An 
estate in possession is one in which there is a present right 
of enjoyment. Estates in expectancy are those which give 
either a vested or contingent right of future enjoyment. 
They are subdivided into remainders, which are created by 
the express words of the parties, as where one gives a life 
estate in land to A, and the remainder to B; and rever- 
sions, which arise by operation of law, as where one gives 
an estate for life to A ; here, on the death of A, the estate 
reverts to the grantor or his heirs, who, until the tennina- 
tion of A*s estate, are said to have a reversion in the land. 
Besides these, there are future estates introduced into the 
law by the doctrine of uses (see Uses) which are not gov- 
erned by the technical rules applicable to remainders. They^ 
are called "springing and shifting uses." Similar provi- 
sions in a will are termed ** executory devises." 

In regard to the number of owners, estates are divided 
into estates in severalty, in joint tenancy, in common, and 
in coparcenary. An estate m severalty is one which has 
only a single owner. An estate in joint tenancy is an estate 
owned jointly by two or more persons, whose title is created 
by the same instrument. The distinguishing characteristic 
is the right of survivorship. On the death of any tenant 
his interest is extinguished, and the estate goes to the sur- 
vivors. By the common law, where an estate is conveyed 
to two or more persons without indicating how it is to be 
held, it is understood to be in joint tenanov. But in most 
States of the U. S. this rule has been changed by statute, and 
persons to whom an estate is conveyed or given take as ten- 
ants in common, unless they hold as trustees. An estate 
in common is where separate and distinct but undivided 
interests in land are held by two or more persons. Each 
tenant is considered as solely seized of his snare, which on 
his death descends to his heirs. An estate in coparcenary 
is the estate which female heirs take in the land of an in- 
testate ancestor. In the U. S. this estate is essentially ex- 
titiguished, and heirs take as tenants in common. 

The English classification of estates in land has been 
much modified by statute in the U. S., but it forms the basis 
of the law of real estate everywhere, except in Louisiana, 
where the civil law prevails. T. W. D wight. 

Estates, The Three, or the Estates of the Realm : the 

three classes of feudal society: 1, the nobles; 2, the clergy; 
and S, the commons, including the bourgeois or middle class 
of towns and the peasantry. The term "estates of the 
realm " was used in Scotland Injfore the Union (1707) as 
synonymous with Parliament. It consisted of lords spirit- 
ual (or mitered clergy), lords temporal (including the nobles 
and the commissioners of shires and stewartries), and the 
representatives, called burgi'sscs or commissicmers, of royal 
burghs. Thev met in one jussembly, and usually voteil 
in a body, 'f he " States (tcneral " of France were rarely 
convened after the fourteenth century, and had little or no 
h'«;i.slative power. One of the exciting causes of the French 
Kovolution was the dispute which arose in 1789 between the 
"third estate" {tifra ettti), or bourgeois, and the nobles ami 
clergy, as to whether the third estate had a ri^ht to sit with 



the first and second. In Sweden there were four estate:y— 
nobles, clergy, Iwurgeois (middle class), and peasants, e««h 
sitting in a separate house; but since 1865 there an- hut 
two legislative houses, both representative. A con vent i««!i 
of the States General was long (1580-1795) the supreme 
power in the Dutch republic. 

Es'te (anc. Ates'ie): a town of Italy; in the province of 
Padua; picturesquely situated on the slope of the Km- 
ganean Uills; 18 miles by rail S. S. W. of radua (see ina|i 
of Italy, ref. 3-D). Here is a fine feudal castle, or Ri^cca, l>t- 
longing to the noble family of Este; also an intere>tiii<? 
Romanesque church with a leaning tower. Est« has manu- 
factures of silk goods, hats, and earthenware. Pop. 9,000. 

Este : an ancient sovereign family of Italy, from which 
the monarchs of Great Britain are descended. Amon<? the 
first princes of this family was Oberto L, who marritnl a 
daughter of Otho, King of Italy, and died about 927 a. i>.. 
leaving a son, Oberto II. The family received several dis- 
tricts and towns to be held as fiefs of the German empiiv. 
Albertazzo II., who succeeded Oberto II. about 1020, nmr- 
ried a German princess of the house of Guelph or Welf. 
Their son, Guelph IV., received in 1071 the investiture <»f 
the duchy of Bavaria. He was the ancestor of the huu^tr« 
of Brunswick and Hanover. 

Estella, es-tel'yrik : city of Spain ; province of Navarn- ; 
22 miles S. W. of Pamplona (see map of Spain, ref. VIAU. 
It is well built, and has a church with a lofty tower, a ((al- 
lege, and a hospital ; also manufactures of linen and woolen 
fabrics, brandy, and earthenware. Pop. (1887) 5,974. 

Estepa, es-ta'paa (anc. Astepa): town of Spain; prov- 
ince of^ Seville ; 60 miles E. S. E. of Seville (see nia[i of 
Spain, ref. 19-D). It has a church which is a noble spfri- 
men of Gothic architecture, and a fine palace ; also manu- 
factures of baize, oil, etc. Marble is quarried in the vicin- 
ity. Pop. (1887) 9,059. 

Estepo'na : town of Spain ; province of Malaga ; on i he 
Mediterranean; 25 miles N. E. of Gibraltar (see ma[) of 
Spain, ref. 20-D). It has an old Roman castle, is well built. 
and has extensive sardine-fisheries. Pop. (1887) 9,771. 

Esterhazy de Galantha, es-ter-haa'zee-dd-gak-laan'tiui. 
Nicholas, Prince: Austrian diplomatist; b. Dec. 12, Vt^'t; 
obtained the military rank of field-marshal. He was em- 
ployed as ambassador to Paris, London, and St. Petersburg 
between 1801 and 1816. He owned an immense fortune, 
and founded a rich collection of paintings in Vienna. D. at 
Como, Nov. 25, 1833. 

Esterhaz^ de Galantha, Paul, Prince: general; b. 
Sept. 8, 1635; became a field-marshal in the Austrian arnij 
before the age of thirty, and was chosen Palatine of Iluii- 

nin 1681. In 1686 he took Buda from the Turks. aii<i 
587 was created a prince of the empire. D. Mar. 26, 
1713. 

EsterhazT de Galantha, Paul Antony, Prince: dipl«)- 
matist; b. Mar. 10, 1786; son of Nicholas Esterhazv dt* (»»- 
lantha; was ambassador from Austria to London in IMV 
18, and again in 1830-38. In Mar., 1848, he became Minis- 
ter of Foreign Affairs in the liberal ministry of Himpiry, 
but he resigned about the time the war broke out, and t-^.k 
no part in the conflict. He owned more land than anv oiht-r 
subject of the Austrian empire, and had a fine palace at 
Eisenstadt. D. May 21, 1866. 

Esther, es't«r (star), the Persian name of Hadas'sah 

(myrtle) : a beautiful Jewish maiden who became the qutt^n 
of Aerxes, King of Persia (b. c. 486-465). She was a cuu>in 
and foster-daughter of Mordecai, the Benjamite, who Ih*- 
came prime minister of Persia in place of Hanian the 
AmaleKite. 

Esther, Book of: one of the latest of the canonical book* 
of the Old Testament, consisting of ten chapters, and niat- 
ing events which gave rise to the Jewish feast of Purun. 
The Jews call it emphatically Megillah, the RolL Th.* 
whole of it is read in Jewish synagogues every year at thi- 
feast whose origin it explains; and still, in many svnt*- 
gogues, with noisy demonstrations, such as hissing, and cla[>- 
ping of hands, and stamping of feet at the mentiim nf 
Ilaman's name. The inspiration of the book and its riir^it 
to a place in the canon have been sharply que5ti< mr.l. 
Much account is made of the singular fact that the naiin- of 
(Joil does not once wcur; that, although fasting is s[M>kin 
of , no mention is made of prayer; and that the n'li::ioiis 
tone of the book throughout is low. On the other side, it is 



202 



ESTRADES 



ETHER 



tural puiposes. This right may be claimed by any tenant, 
whether for life, for years, or at will, unless forbidden in 
his lease. But only a reasonable amount of wood can be 
taken ; the tenant must not commit waste by destroying the 
timber, or doing permanent injury to the inheritance. See 
Waste. Revised by P. Sturoes Allen. 

Estrades, (^odefroi, Comte d' : marshal and diplomatist ; 
b. at Agen, France, in 1607. He negotiated the cession of 
Dunkirk to France in 1662, and rendered important mili- 
tary services in Holland between 1672 and 1675. He rep- 
resented France at the congress of Nymwegen, 1678. D. 
Feb. 26, 1686. 

Estray' [from 0. Fr. eatraier, to stray, deriv, of estrAe^ 
road, street : Ital. atrada < Lat strata (sc. via), paved 
way] : in law, a domestic animal (the owner of which is un- 
known) found wandering outside the pasture or other inclo- 
sure where it belongs. In England the owner has a year and 
a day in which to claim such cattle, and the proprietor of the 
inclosnre where thev are found must make due proclama- 
tion in a church and in the two market-towns next adjoin- 
ing. When these conditions are fulfilled and the cattle are 
unclaimed thev belong to the sovereign, or now usually, by 
special grant from the crown, to the proprietor of the in- 
closure where they are found. The law of estrays varies in 
different States of the U. S. In general, estrays may be im- 

Sounded (in a public or a private pound), and after being 
uly held and advertised may be sold to j)ay damages and 
exi)enses. Revised by F. Sturoes Allen. 

Estremadu'ra : province of Portugal; bounded N. by 
Beira, E. and S. by Alemtejo, and W. by the Atlantic, and 
intersected by the river Tagus. Area, 6,876 sq. miles. The 
surface is mostly hilly ; the soil is partly fertile and partly 
sterile. It is subject to frequent earthquakes. Among the 
minerals are granite, marble, and coal. The staple produc- 
tions are wine, oil, cork, fruits, and grain. Pop. about 925,- 
000. Capital, Lisbon. 

EBtremadara : a former province of Spain ; bounded N. 
by Ijeon, E. by New Castile, S. by Andalusia, and W. by 
Portugal; intersected by the rivers Tagus and Guadiana. 
Between these rivers a long chain of mountains extends 
nearly B. and W. The northern and southern parts are 
also mountainous. The soil is feriile, but not cultivated to 
much extent. Large flocks of sheep are pastured on it. 
This province contains mines of copper, leBwl, silver, and 
coal, which are neglected. It is comprised in the present 
provinces of Badajoz and C^eres. Pop. about 750,000. ^ 

Estremoz, es-trd-raoz' : town of Portugal ; province of 
Alemtejo ; about 23 miles N. E. of Evora and 82 miles E. 
of Lisbon (see map of Spain, ref. 17-B). It has a strong cas- 
tle on a hill, around the base of which the town is built. 
Estremoz is noted for manufactures of porous jars which 
have the property of keeping water cool. Pop. 7,600. 

EB^taary [from Lat. a,e8tua'r%um^ tidal water ; deriv. of 
a^esttta, flood, streaming water, ebb and flow of tide] : the 
widening mouth of a river of moderate depth where the tides 
run in from the sea. An estuary is generally formed by the 
moderate submergence of the lower part of a valley, after 
which it may be widened by wave and tidal action on its 
shores and shoaled by deposition of land waste brought in by 
rivers and tidal currents. Estuaries are therefore frequent- 
ly of difficult navigation from their shifting bars oi sand 
and inuiL The tides of estuaries exhibit a rapid rise and a 
slow fall, thus making the period of flood ana ebb unequal. 
The rise of flood tide is sometimes so rapid as to form a wall 
of water advancing up stream. This is known as a bore in 
the estuary of the Severn, England, as a masraret in the 
lower Seine, as a pororoca at the mouth of the Amazon. 
Typical estuaries are seen in the lower course of the Dela- 
ware and Potomac in the U. S., the Thames and the Firths 
of Forth and Clyde in Great Britain, and the Elbe and Gi- 
ronde in continental Europe. W. M. Davis. 

Etah : a district (and town) of Agra, Northwest Prov- 
inces, British India ; on the right bank of the Ganges, be- 
tween the parallels 27' 30' and 28° 1'. Area, 1,789 sq. miles. 
It is an elevate*! alluvial plateau, with dry uplands in the 
W. and occasional saline efflorescence in tne cultivated 
plains nearer the Ganji^es. Extensive canals are used to irri- 
gate the western fK>rtion. The principal products are wheat, 
cotton, sugar-cane, in<lig(), and opium. The climate is dry 
and healthful, but sand and dust storms are common, fitah 
town is on the Grand Trunk Kailway, in lat. 27^ 34' N., 
ion, 78" 42' E. (see map of N. India, ref. 5-E). It has about 



10,000 inhabitants. Pop. of district nearly 800,000, nine- 
tenths Hindus. M. W. HARaiNOTON. 

Istampes, d'taanp', formerly Egtampes (anc. Stamva) : 
town of France ; department of Seine-et-Oise ; on the Paris 
and Orleans Railway ; 31 miles by rail S. S. W. of PanV (^e 
map of France, ref.' 3-F). It has three churches, a ctisil*-, 
ana many flouring-mills ; also manufactures of hositrv, 
linen thread, counterpanes, and soap. Pop. (1891) 8,270. 

Etawah, e-taa'w&: a district (and city) of Agra, North- 
west Provinces, British India; on the left bank of tl)»' 
Jumna; between the parallels 26" 20' and 27' N. Anji, 
1,694 sq. miles. It is on the great alluvial plain l>etwHn 
the Ganges and Jumna, and in general requires irri^'ation. 
About one-half of the district is cultivated. The YmA, 
Indian Railway runs through the district. Etawah ciiv l< 
on the Jumna, 70 miles S. E. of Agra. The town (st'e map 
of N. India, ref. 6-E) is intersect^ by ravines, crossed hv 
broad bridges, and has about 85,000 inhabitants. Pop. i>f 
district about 750,000, of whom about 95 per cent, are Hin- 
dus. M. W. Harrouton. 

Etchemins : See Algonquian Indians. 

Etching : See Engraving. 

Ete'ocles (in Gr. •ErtoicX^s) : a mvthical king of TheU^ 
(in BoBotia) and a son of GCdipus. He and his brother P«>U- 
nices agreed to reign alternately over Thebes, but Kt^^xlU 
usurped the throne when his brother's turn to reign caim'. 
The famous expedition of the Seven against ThelK?> uc^ 
undertaken to restore Polynices, who killed Eteoeles in sin- 
gle combat. 

Ete'slan Winds [eteaian is from Gr. ^nyo-lai, InHrlu 
fSofMiun, periodic winds; Ito», year]; northerly and noriti- 
easterlv winds which prevail in summer throughout a pivai 
part 01 Europe and in Northern Africa. The name wt ur- 
m its Greek form in several ancient writers, and is now ««• 
casionally seen in meteorological works. These winds aris* 
in a great degree from the heat of the African Sahara. 

Etex, o'teks', Antoine : sculptor, painter, engraver, an h- 
itect, and author; b. in Paris, Mar. 20, 1806; educattt! ih. re 
and in Rome, and achieved distinction in all the departim in- 
to which he gave attention. He published an Eattoi Aur U 
Beau (1851) ; Coura elemeniaire de Deaain (1859) ; ami J. 
Pradier, Ary Scheffer : ^tudea (1859). D. July 17, lHs.s. 

Eth'elbert: King of Kent; ascended the throne in W» 
a. d. He became the most powerful prince (l)retwal«l.n) -f 
the heptarchy about 590. His wife, IJertha, a daui:ht< r . f 
the King of Paris, was a Christian, and induee<l Kthtlln n 
and his subjects to profess Christianity in 597 a. n. St. 
Augustine was instrumental in their conversion. Etlulbt^r 
gave to the Anglo-Saxons their first written code of laws 
D. Feb. 28, 616 a. d. 

Eth'elred (or l^.thelred) I. : Anglo-Saxon King of Em- 
land ; succeeded his brother Ethelbert in 866 a. d. In tK». 
first year of his reign the island was invaded by Dancfj. wh.. 
conquered a large part of his kingdom. His brother Al- 
fred defeated the Danes in 870. Ethelred was killed in \^\- 
tle with the Danes in 871 a. d., and was succeeded by Alfn^i 
the Great. 

Ethelred II., sumamed The Unready : Anglo-SiiMT 
King of England; a son of Edgar; b, in 968 a. d. Hi- 
mother was Klfrida, notorious for her crimes. He sm- 
ceeded his half-brother, Edward the Martyr, in 978. In 1' - 
disastrous and inglorious reign the kingdom was in^aii* i 
and ravaged by the Danes, to whom he paid large suIIl<^ >•' 
money to purchase peace, but they soon renewed tlieir ju'-a:- 
ical incursions. The Danish king Swevn took l^»n«loii n 
1014, and Ethelred fled to the court oi the Duke of N <r 
mandy, who was his wife's brother. He iUed in 1016. Na- - 
ing two sons — Edmund Ironside and Edward the ('onft'rc-«r. 

Eth'elwolf: Anglo-Saxon King of England; the el^.< 
son of Egbert, whom he succeed^ in 836 a. d. II i> k:: »'- 
dom was harasfied by several incursions of the Pant-^. v» i 
pillaged London in 851. He defeated these invaders r 
Okely in that year. He married in 856 Judith, a daui;)'! ' 
of Chai-les the Bald, King of Prance. D. in 858 a. d. ii 
left four sons— Ethelbald, Ethelbert, Ethelred, and Alfn - 
the Great. 

E'ther [Lat. aether = Gr, al0^ip, clear sky, upper reir^t i - 
of air; cf. oWprj, fair weather; df0ciy, bum, glow] : h h\\< 
thetical medium which is assumed to pervade all sjnict-. a- 
is regarded as possessing extreme tenuity and elaMi«i". 
and as being the medium of the transmission of light a 



204 



ETHIOPIC LITERATURE 



the Semitic family. Its relation to the language of the Him- 
yaritic monuments (i. e. Sabean, q, v,) can hardly be said to 
be nearer than its relation to the Arabic as now written. It 
has, however, much in common with the entire Arabic group 
of languages, not only in regard to the stock of words, but 
also in regard to the system of sounds and the formation of 
words ; and although it has never attained the fullness of 
forms of the Arabic, it has developed some Semitic pecul- 
iarities, even more consistently tnan the written Arabic. 
But in many words, roots, forms, and even in many syn- 
tactic forms, it agrees more with the northern Semitic lan- 
guages, especially with the Hebrew, but also with the Ara- 
maic and the Assyrian. It must therefore be assumed that 
the Geez, after its branching off from the northern Semitic, 
<jontinued to develop itself m connection with the southern 
Semitic (Arabic) lan^ages, but separated itself very early 
from these, and continued to go along its own path. For 
this reason it has still many peculiarities of tne ancient 
Semitic languages — peculiarities which have been aban- 
doned even in the Arabic ; and in some respects has re- 
tained the most ancient forms (o. g. it has no article). 
Other forms it has developed in a peculiar manner, contrary 
to the method of all other Semitic languages (e. g. most of 
the prepositions and conjunctions). Especially in the 
method of construction it has formations which are hardly 
to be found in the other Semitic languages, and has acquired 
a flexibility of syntax which distinguishes it favorably from 
all the other languages related to it. On the other hand, be- 
sides many ancient and peculiar forms in the Geez, there 
are met, strange to say, many forms which the other Semitic 
languages only reached in their latest stajB^es of development 
(e. g. the disappearance of the inner passive and of the par- 
ticipial form, tne dropping of short vowels, etc.) ; and it may 
be inferred from this that the Geez, as it is presented in the 
Abyssinian books, has already passed through a long stage 
of aevelopment. From this it is seen that tne study of the 
Oeez is very important and instructive to the Semitic phi- 
lologist. 

The Geez has never been grammatically treated by native 
(Abyssinian) scholars. In Europe, after several very incom- 
plete attempts in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 
It was treated of in a grammatical and lexicographical ex- 
position, which for its time was excellent, by Iliob Ludolf 
\Orammar and Lexicon, 1661 ; 2d ed.. Lexicon, 1699, Gram- 
mar, 1702). In accordance with the demand of modern lin- 
Siistics, and on the basis of a much fuller knowledge of 
thiopic literature, the language has also been treated of by 
A. Dillmann {Grammar, 1857 ; Lexikon, 1865), and in shorter 
form by F. Pnetorius (grammar, with chrestomathy and 
glossary, 1886, one of the volumes of the Porta Linguarum 
Orientfdium), See also E. Schrader (comparison between 
Ethiopic ana the cognate languages, 1860) ; 13. Stade (on the 
<]^uadriliterals, 1871) ; and E. KOnig (on script, pronuncia- 
tion, and forms, 1877). 

The Geez is written with peculiar characters, which orig- 
inally were identical with the Ilimyaritic and old Arabic 
characters found in the inscriptions of Syria and Assyria, 
and were afterward only slightly modified. It is written 
from left to right, and is a^o remarkable in that it sepa- 
rates the single words by two dots (:), and that the writing 
of vowels by means of little lines and hooks, which are 
attached to the consonants, is uniformly carried out. These 
characters were subsequently used in Abyssinia for the other 
dialects and languages also, especially for the Amharic and 
the Tigrifla, but enriched by several new characters, so that 
they can be said to have become the universal alphabet of 
Abyssinia. August Dillmann. Revised by C, H. Toy. 

Ethiopic Literature: the literary monuments in the 
Ethiopic Language (q. v.). The oldest monuments of the 
Ethiopic characters and language which are known at pres- 
ent do not date beyond the first centuries of the Cnris- 
tian era. They are coins and inscriptions ; among the 
latter especially the large inscriptions of Axoom, which 
have been made known to the world by Rllppel in the 
account of his travels. They mostly show an archaic mode 
of writing the consonants, and the vowel-signs are only 
in their infancy. An Ethiopic literature came into ex- 
istence after the introduction of Christianity into Abys- 
sinia (in the fourth centurv), and has always retained a 
predominantly religious character. Its V)asis was the 
translation of the Bible, both the Old and New Testa- 
ments, together with the semi-biblical, apocryphal, an<l 
pseudef)igraphic books belonging thereto, which in the other 



churches were rejected or lost (as the book of JubilwN of 
Enoch, the Apocalypse of Ezra, the Ascension of Isaiah, the 
Shepherd of Hermas, and others). The entire traiislutjon 
was made from the Greek, but was afterward revised Mntml 
times — the Old Testament at last even from the Helm >» ; 
and it is necessary therefore to distinguish bctw^een thi- oi.l, 
middle, and latest revisions of the text. The ps<ii(J.pi- 
graphic books are nearly all printed. A critical editi(.ri <.f 
the Old Testament has l)een begun by Prof. Dillmann, urnl 
has progressed (1893) through the second book of Kiii^'^ 
The Psalms and Solomon's Song have been published ^'mthI 
times. The New Testament was printed at Rome in 154^, 
and was reproduced in the London Polyglot with man? mis- 
takes. The edition (now out of print) of the Engli>h'}{ihle 
Society (by P. Piatt, 1826) gives a mixed text, which can not 
be used for critical purposes. The other literature tt)nsi-ts, 
for a large part, of translations of Greek and even (V.ptio 
works, and after Mohammedanism had taken root in E^m j»t, 
the mother country of the Abyssinian Church, Arabic w«rks 
also were translated. The literature comprises thcvihi^jical 
and religious works of every kind, such as collections of nld 
canons (Clementina, Didascalia, Synodus), catenae, and homi- 
lies, exegeticAl and dogmatical writings (especially thf»sc of 
Cyril, Epiphanius, Chrysostom, and also of the Syrian 
Fathers, especially those of the Monophysitic Chuixh; 
Haun&nota A ban (i. e. a large collection of confessions of 
faith of the monophysitic teachers); lectionaries for the 
whole ]rear, especially for the fasts and the Passion-tinn •; 
horologia, liturgies of the mass, and church-books for t he 
other sacraments, and for burials, church discipline (Faus 
Manf&sawi), and church law (Fetha Na^ast), Acta Sani't<»- 
rum (Sjrnaxa), a large number of monastic rules and monH.<«- 
tic writings; in sacred and profane history and chnmoio^^ 
the works of Joseph Ben Gorion, George Ben Amid, Alui- 
shaker, and others, and even something relating to philo- 
sophy and the natural sciences. 

Among the native productions of the Abyssinians them- 
selves are dogmatic treatises, pseudonymous apocalyj>ticai 
writings, numerous prayer-books and formulas, meditation^?, 
eulogies and biographies of saints, martyrs, monks, and an h- 
angels in prose and verse, mostly productions of monkish 
imagination and an insane belief in miracles. 2^1ore im- 
portant in their way are the lai^e ancient hvnm-books 
(Degwfi, Maw&s*et, Me'rfif), with hymns and antiplionies not 
only for Sundays and holidays, but for every day in thf 
year, and containing formulas for the ceremonies in honor 
of all the saints oi the calendar, with peculiar notes for 
sinking, the use of which has been very imperfectly ex- 
plamea. Most of these works, which indicate a considerable 

Progress in religious poetry and music, have been tratrii 
acK to a certain Jareu in the sixth century. Besides th^-^*' 
there were also large works on native history, and explicit 
annals of the several kings (from which J. Bruce in the s<-<- 
ond volume of his travels has given extracts), which w»Tt' 
written in a peculiar language, a mixture of the Geez and 
the Amharic. After the extinction of the Geez a beginning 
of grammatical and lexico^aphical work was made. an<l 
was deposited in many Ethiopio- Amharic glossaries (Sava- 
sev). 

Much was also written during this period on meilirine, 
witchcraft, exorcism, and divination for the superstitious 
people, either in Ethiopic-Amharic or entirely in the Am- 
nanc language. The poetry was almost entirely in the 
service of the Church and of religion. At all events, pmnis 
on secular affairs in the Geez language have not bi»t*n pn^ 
served. Besides the peculiarly arranged hymns, only lyrical 
poetry was developed. The poems are divided into j«tn»ph*^ 
of equal length. The construction of the strophes shows 
many varieties: the lines are rhymed; the syllables art- 
neitner measured nor counted. Of real poetic genius then? 
are but few traces in these poems; many have of jiiM*tr? 
nothing but the rhyme. 

Of the entire lit^erature there have been prints bt*s>i«li ^ 
the Bible the Jlermas Paster (1860) ; Ethiopic liturgies and 
prayers (1865) ; Physiologus (1877) ; and a number of thin^'? 
in tlie journals of the French and German Oriental s^n ii- 
ties. It is very fully represented in manuscripts in all iht 
large libraries of Europe, especially in Rome, Paris, Oxford. 
London, Tubingen, Frankfort -on-the-Main, Vienna, an-i 
Berlin. Since the Abyssinian war in 1868 the coUtH,'tion of 
the British Museum has been so largely increased that it i^ 
without doubt the largest in EuroiMj. All the oIiKt hvA 
most of the later manuscripts are written on beautiful pnrrh- 
ment. Among the mahus(Tipts none date further back than 



206 



ETHNOLOGY 



received universal or even ^neral acceptance. An attempt 
has been made to classify languages genetically by throwing 
together those having a common origin. To a large extent 
this classification is based upon vocabularies, and to a slight 
degree upon grammatic characteristics. This classification 
is yet incomplete. Many families or stocks of languages are 
now recognized, but there are numbers of languages outside 
of the recognized stocks that have not yet been studied to 
such an extent as to reveal their proper afi)nities and indi- 
cate the groups to which the^ belong. The work of classify- 
ing languages is one of vast extent, requiring long and pains- 
taking research, and it must be many years before the task 
is completed. 

Formerly it was expected that linguistic research would 
reduce the families of languages to a very small number, 
and by some it was even supposed that all would be traced 
to a common primeval speech ; but these expectations have 
not been realized, though many languages so diverse as not 
to be mutually understood by the speakers have been traced 
to common origins. On the other hand, research has brought 
to light a greater number of distinct families or stocks of 
languages. With the progress* of culture languages of the 
same stock have differentiated, while the lower tribes of 
mankind appear to have a great number of languages be- 
longing to totally distinct stocks ; so that, while there has 
been some differentiation of languages within the same fam- 
ily, the general progress has been toward their unification. 
As culture progresses fewer tongues are spoken, and a single 
tongue is common to an ever-increasing body of people. 
Often distinct languages of the same stock are formed by 
amalgamating with languages of other st-ocks, so that inde- 
pendent tongues disappear and are found only as integral 
elements in stocks that are preserved. All eviclence goes to 
show that in savage society a vast number of wholly inde- 
pendent languages are developed, and that these languages 
coalesce to some extent and many become extinct. 

Literature. — The lower tribes of mankind who hate not 
developed written languages are always possessed of a great 
body of myths, folk-lore, and legen(ls, which are handed 
down orally from generation to generation. In it the super- 
stitions of the people are almost inextricably confounded 
with their history. Whenever such a people in the progress 
of its culture .becomes possessed of the art of writing, more 
or less of this oral literature is permanently recorded, es- 
pecially in songs and tales ; such is everywhere the root of 
literature. With the more advanced peoples poetry, romance, 
and drama are abundantly developed, until gradually a lit- 
erature of science springs up. 

The cBsthetic or fine arts also belong to the subject of 
ethnology. For this science the term cesthetology has been 
proposed. It treats of the origin, development, and charac- 
teristics of the fine arts. Authors are not wholly agreed as 
to what are the fine arts. Some would include poetry, ro- 
mance, and drama in the fine arts ; others classify these arts 
as literary. All agree that sculpture, painting, and music 
belong to the fine arts, and by most authors architecture is 
considered one of the fine arts, though perhaps with less 
substantial reasons. When the term architecture was ap- 
plied to the construction of temples and ^eat public works, 
and especially when these worl^ were highly symbolic, the 
inclusion of architecture in the fine arts could be supported 
with cogent reasons, but in modern times the term archi- 
tecture is applie'U to the construction of all classes of build- 
ings. To an overwhelming extent the art is applied to in- 
dustrial structures. For tnis reason architecture may be 
included among the industrial arts, its chief motive being 
the production of the economically useful. 

Sculpture has a very lowly beginning with primeval man, 
for the lowest tribes of which there is knowledge carved 
images of men and animals in stone, bone, wood, and other 
materials, chiefiy to develop the paraphernalia of religious 
worship. This art attained a very high degree of develop- 
ment in early civilization, especially among the Greeks, 
whose works are renowned for beauty and artistic expres- 
sion. 

Painting also begins in the lowest known stage of culture, 
when rude picturt»s are formed of human beings, the lower 
animals, and various inanimate objects. The purpose of 
these cnide pictures seems to be in the main mnemonic, and 
they are known as picture-writings. Such graphic art is 
rude and conventional, but it steadily develops through 
savagery, barbarism, and civilizution along two distinct 
lines. On one hand the picture-writings become more and 
more conventional, until ideographic writing is proiluced, 



then syllabaries, and finally alphabets. On the other hand, 
picture-writing develops into modern painting, and beconiee 
properly an festhetic or fine art. The stages of this develo(>- 
ment may in a general way be characterized as Uie flat 
stage, the reHef stage, the perspective stage, and the chiar- 
oscuro stage. In the first the picture-writings are mainlj 
flat representations of objects, without relief or perspective, 
and are often found as monochromes. The picture- writ in i^ 
of the North American Indians are chiefly of this character. 
In the second stage skill in the representation of relief i.s 
developed. Most of the known graphic art of Egypt is of 
this character. In the third stage the power to reprciif nt 
objects as related in perspective is developed. The stru^ru'le 
of art through the stages of perspective drawing is i»tU 
illustrated in Chinese and Japanese art, where imoerftrt 
perspective and conventional forms are often found^ Tlip 
lourth stage is represented by modem graphic art, where to 
relief and perspective is added aSrial perspective, with a nic«f 
gradation of lights and shades and a high appreciation of 
the values of the constituent parts in developing the central 
thought of a work of art. 

Music is bom of the dance, and the earliest is pure It 
rhythmic, its purpose being to mark time for terpsichon-ari 
t)erformances. Tne music of the American Indians is Inru^^- 
ly of this character, though a slight development of niel<Mir 
is discovered. The second sta^e is the melodic, in wliicii 
themes are repeated with variations. The third stage is the 
harmonic, which is a union of coexistent melodies. Th»' 
fourth stage is the symphonic, when music is a succes^ion of 
harmonies with varying themes. Often the s^thetic arts 
are combined in song, music, and poetry ; while in the ojiera, 
music, poetrv, drama or hlstriomc art, and even painting:. 
are combinea. 

Religions^ as naturally developed, are usually included in 
the subject of ethnology, while the subject or revealed re- 
ligion, or theology, is excluded therefrom. The subject cf 
natural religion is presented under two heads: mytholopi***, 
as theories of supernatural beings and their relation to man- 
kind and the universe ; and worship — to which the temi re- 
ligion is sometimes exclusively applied — ^which deals with 
the methods of propitiating and otherwise influencing mi« tt 
beings. It will thus be seen that the whole subject of my- 
thology is logically included in the science of opinions. mA 
the term religion should then be applied only to W(irshif>. 
but the more common usage makes it incluae roytholo*:) 
and worship. Religions are many. In tribal societv e\crT 
tribe has its own religion, consisting of a pantheon of su})tT- 
human beings and a system of worship. Each tribe rei^^< de- 
nizes the religion of other tribes, and ctdtivates it^ own 
religion for a variety of purposes: to preserve health, te 
cure disease, to bring abundant harvest, to prevent st* (rms 
floods, and droughts, and in general to avert all the e\ il> u> 
^hich mankind is subject, as well as for the pur}><>:«f <f 
exalting its own deities and obtaining their assistanr*' m 
thwarting the deities of hostile tribes. In these natural rv- 
ligions four stages of philosophy or theology are dis<.f>vtT»*'L 
The first has been characterized by Tylor as animi<m, m 
which inanimate things are supposed to have supematunil 
powers, and to be endowed with life and mind ; mountaii.% 
rivers, trees, stones, and other inanimate things are hehl to 
be of eoual power with the animate world, the lower ani- 
mals ana man. The second stage may be styled zo^ikfism, 
in which the distinction between the animate and inanimate 
is made; spirits of mountains, rivers, and other p^reat t:***'- 
graphic features there are still, but these are usually «-);;>- 
posed to have animal forms. The pantheon is chiefly* nijvk 
up of beings with animal forms — wonderful mammals, bini*. 
reptiles, and fishes, and mythic articulates, mollusks, and n\- 
diates. The people do not worship the live animals, but oi.iv 
mythic animals, to which are attributed many powers, .nni 
which are supposed to have a supernatural existence, an : 
to have been the progenitors or prototypes of the oxiMnn: 
animals. In this stage, too, the sun, moon, stars, anti o\\:k r 
heavenly bodies and phenomena are worshiped as gi>ds ai.v! 
they are supposed to have the forms of the lower aiiinmN. 
though sometimes, but rarely, of men. The third sta^ \\\a\ 
be characterized a,s phy8iiheism,in which the heavenly U^^ii- ^ 
and the great powers and phenomena of nature are fH»rs<^i«- 
fled and deified. The fourth stage may be deiiominat> : 
psychotheism. Gradually the natural gods, as pow*»rf . .i- 
suine especial psychic characteristics and come to prr^nl-- 
over realms of life, passion, and human interests : thus th«-r 
is a god of war, a god of love, a god of revenge, a gin! 
agriculture, etc. 



HP 
I 



208 



ETRURIA 



ETYMOLOGY 



ing the greater part of the historic period the political con- 
stitution was an aristocracy. 

Origin and History. — The question of the origin and 
affinities of the Etruscans has long exercised the ingenuity 
of scholars and antiauaries, but it still remains undecided. 
The opinion generally adopted by Roman writers ascribed 
to them a Lydian origin. The earliest authority for this 
tradition is Herodotus, who states that he received it from 
the Lydians. This opinion was rejected by Hellanicus, 
who represents the Etruscans as Pelasgians, and by Dio- 
nysius of lialicarnassus, who considered them indigenous 
{autochthones)y and states that in his time they were very 
distinct from every other people in language as well as 
in manners and customs. Nieouhr maintained that they 
were a miitture of Pelasgians and Umbrians with a race of 
northern invaders (Riisena), who conquered them at an 
unknown date. He believed that the Rasena or Etruscan 
nobility came originally from the Rluetian Alps, Knowl- 
edge of the history of the Etruscans, even during the period 
of their greatest power and prosperity, is very vae^e and 
imperfect. The Etruscan language is thought to be Indo- 
European in its grammatical construction, though its vocab- 
ulary, so far as ascertained, can not be with any certainty 
affiliated. There is no Etruscan literature extant, and no 
bilingual inscriptions of any length have been found. There 
were three Etrurian centers of occupation: (1) from the 
Tiber northward to Pisa, where the Etruscans seem to have 
been limited by the Ligurians; (2) the settlement on the 
Po, of which Bologna, Verona, and Mantua were the prin- 
cipal cities ; the Etrurian population is shown by inscrip- 
tions to have extended northward as far as the Rhzetian 
Alps ; (3) that in the Phlegrap-an plains surrounding Capua 
and Nola, which are regarded as Etruscan cities. Livy 
states that before the Romans became the dominant people 
of Italy the power of the Tuscans was widely extendea both 
by sea and land. Several Greek writers attest the facts that 
they were bold and enterprising navigators, and fitted out 
large fleets for naval warfare. In 538 b. c. they fought a 
naval battle against the Phocaeans at Corsica. The Tuscans 
and Cartha^nians were allies on this occasion, and in other 
battles against the Greek colonies of Italy. Besides the 
twelve cities of Etruria proper, these people possessed an- 
other state or confederacy on the northern side of the Apen- 
nines. According to the Roman traditions, the Tuscans 
were a powerful nation before the foundation of Rome, 753 
B. c. It probably attained its great-est power about 150 
years later. The Tuscan cities of Clusium and Veii were 
involved in several wars against the rising power of Rome. 
Tradition indicates the establishment of an Etruscan dy- 
nasty at Rome under the later kings, the two Tarquins, and 
assigns to this period of Etruscan domination the construc- 
tion of the Cloaca Maxima and the Capitol. About 508 b. c, 
Porsena, King of Clusium, marched against Rome, and, as 
the best critics believe, captured it. Hostilities continued, 
with occasional intervals, between the Romans and the 
Veientes from 483 b. c. to 396 b. c, when Veii was captured 
by Camillus and destroyed. It does not appear that the 
other Tuscan cities gave any aid to Veii during this period. 
This apparent neutrality may be explained by the fact that 
their northern frontier was then infested by predatory 
hordes of Gauls, whom they were scarcely able to repel. In 
the subsequent wars it was sometimes Tarquinii and some- 
times Volsinii that fought against Rome. About 309 b. c. 
the combined forces of several Etruscan cities were defeated 
by Fabius Maximus in a battle which gave the first decisive 
blow to their j)ower. The conquest was completed by a 
victory which the lioraans gained at the Vadimonian Lake 
in 283 B. c. The Etrusc^ans, however, retained long after 
this event their own language, customs, religious rites, and 
nationality. They were admitted to the Roman franchise 
in 89 B. c. 

ArtH and Cimlizaiion, — Ancient writers concur in repre- 
senting tlie Etruscans as the most cultivated and refined 
peojile of ancient Italy, and as especially skillful in orna- 
mental and useful arts, in which the ideas and patterns used 
singularly resemble those of Egypt. The Romans derived 
from them many arts and inventions that conduce to the 
comfort of life.' The genius of the Etruscans appears to 
have been practical ratlier than speculative. They excelled 
in agriculture, navigation, engineering, and in useful public 
works. They had made great progress in architecture, sculp- 
ture, and painting, and especially in bronze-work and gold 
jewelry ; but their artistic ability was far inferior to that 
of the Greeks. The so-called Tuscan order of architecture 



is a Roman, and more especially a Renaissance modificatir*r. 
of the Doric. The Cloaca Maxima at Rome proves that th<'\ 
were acquainted with the true principle of tne arch, and < x- 
emplifies their skill in the construction of sewers. Of tlnir 
temples, theaters, and amphitheaters no considerable u^ 
mains have been preserved. Among the existing monu- 
ments of their massive and cyclops^an masonry are frag- 
ments of walls which defended the cities of Cortona, Fa*s iil.»', 
Clusium, and Volaterne. Their tombs are in some chm > 
chambers hewed in a cliff or solid rock, and adorned outM«i« 
with tajqwXes like those of temples. The interior walls an 
decorated with paintings, and the tombs contain vast num- 
bers of vases, tripods, urns, etc. The Etruscans exceiknl in 
several branches of plastic art, especially in the fabricatiou 
of bronze articles and pottery. Bronze statues and uteuMh 
were exported from Etruria in immense numbers. Among 
the extant specimens of their bronze-work are probably t)h> 
figure of a sno-wolf in the Capitol of Rome, of which gn»uj.. 
however, the two children are modem, and the Chima^ra in 
the Museum of Florence. The painted vases called Etrus- 
can, which have been found in great numbers, especially at 
Chiusi (Clusium) and Vulci, are Greek in design and W(*rk- 
manship. The metallic specula or mirrors, adorned with 
figures on one side,^ peculiarly Etruscan manufacture, arv 
prized as illustrative of customs, mythology, etc. 

Authorities.— K. O. MilUer, Die EtnMer (2 vols., 1>^» ; 
Deecke's Etrvskische Forsehungen; Pauli*s Etr^inkischt 
Siudien ; Abeken, Mittel Itcdien (1843) ; Dennis, Cities and 
Cemeteries of Etruria (1848) ; Inghirami, Monumenti Etnt*- 
chi (7 vols., 1821-26); Micali, Storia degli Antiehi FupoU 
Italiani (3 vols., 1832); the writings of Isaac Taylor and 
of Crawford on Etruscan Inscriptions; Bninn's' Jiilitri 
delle Ume Etrusche (Rome, 187(5); Jules Martha, LWri 
£tru8que (1888); and E. S. Bugge, Etruekisch vnd Ar- 
menisch (1890). j^vised by C. K. Adaxs. 

Etrascan Language : See Etruria. 

Ett'mtiller, Ernst Morffz Ludwig : philologist and an- 
tiquarv; b. at Gersdorf, near L6bau, Saxony, Oct. 5, 1N(>2: 
studied at Leipzig and Jena. He became Professor of (it-r- 
man at Zuricn in 1833, and gained distinction br hi^ re- 
searches in mediaeval German literature. He producetl hu 
epic poem caXled Deutsche StammkSnige (1844), and Lfji- 
con anglo-saxoni/mm (1852). He also edited the works of 
several old German poets. D. in Zurich, Apr. 15, 1877. 

Et'trlck : a pastoral vale in Selkirkshire, Scotland : ex- 
tends along the Ettrick river, which, after a course of 2m 
miles, enters the Tweed 2 miles below Selkirk. It is n- 
markable for beautiful scenery. Ettrick Forest, a royal 
hunting tract, included all Selkirkshire. It is nearly di- 
vested of trees. James Hoqg {q. v.), the poet, calknl th»^ 
" Ettrick Shepherd," was bom in the vale and parish of Et- 
trick, which was also the haunt and residence of the famous 
freebooter Adam Scott, the King of the Border. 

Etty, William : figure-painter ; b. in York, England, Mar. 
10, 1787; pupil of Royal Academy, London, and of Sir 
Thomas Lawrence; Royal Academician 1828. He {wiint»il 
the nude successfully. His pictures are agreeable in color. 
Head of a Cardinal (1844) is in the South Kensingt<^n Mu- 
seum; four works, including Bather (1844), National Gul- 
lery, London. D. in York, Nov. 13, 1849. W. A. V, 

Etymology [from Gr. h-vitoXoyiax l^v/ioy, the true or 
original sense of a word (^rv/uos, true)+x47o», discourx^] : 
that department of scientific grammar which ccmcoms it- 
self witn the history of individual words both as to furin 
and signification. In the common usage of the ordiimry 
descriptive grammar, however, the term is applied to that 
part of the ejammar which deals with modifications in \ ho. 
form of words, i. e. with inflexion and derivation. The ety- 
mology of scientific grammar seeks to reconstruct the primi- 
tive form and meaning of words by tracing their earli. r 
forms and values and by comparison of cognate langu.*;:*'^ 
or dialects, or at least in* case of later formations tt) dtM •er- 
mine their connection as derivatives or compounds vMth 
primitive word-forms or with groups of word-iorms united 
severally in the possession of a common element kno%%n a* 
the root. The tracing of earlier recorded forms inoludt»s tho 
many cases in which a word can be followe<l into the terri- 
tory of another language from which it has been lx>m»W(Nl. 

Prior to the establishment in the nineteenth century of 
the science of comparative philology, etymology was litt)* 
better than learned guesswork. It relied merely uiion strik- 
ing resemblances of form or meaning, and lackou entirt'l\ 



210 



Erc'HARIST 



frtim Utr dc«iL'* Thr (»xrit4*m(«nt which f<il)(>WMl this an- 
titfunmurnt wm nuch thnt tin* Kni|M'n>r of (trriimnr, Charh'S 
11. (1. of Fnuu'<», fill 1«*<I ** the Buhl"), ilinM*t*«*l c-ounter-**!- 
IKMittortR t4» Im* pHMmriMl by J<»hiinn«*4 Statin nmi Rat renin 
^othcrwi^ rallcMl Ht'rtrenni). Th«» wurk of ^H•otu^ though 
oftvn cited in wiliMM{U(*ut crnturictt. has penshwl: that nt 
Hat rem n it Ktill extant. Hoth held that the coiuwret^Ml 
brratl and wine in the Kuchanttt are onlr ftij^riiA or HvnilioK 
and n<>i the veritable btwly anti bhMMi of i^?hrit(t ; but in the 
Work of K«tremn there are winie thin^ mid on thii« (M)int 
which are ambifoiou^ or ol>!«'ure, while SiH»tiw, on the other 
hand. i« (uiid to have been |M*n(|»icuou«, di.ttinct.and intelli- 
ffihle. t>ul of this dijtfmte anH(> m^mc extraordinary and nv 
imNive ATcondary iNititroverHifji, aa to the natural con?«*v 
quem-e* of taking into the «toma4'h and dif^*>tin*f the c«>n- 
•ecret4*d element*!, whatever view be taken of their nature, 
for which thi^r who dt^ire t4i untlerntaud them must refer 
to the e(>i'li*<»iji*ti<nl hiMorieM. 

The doi'tnnr of IV^^'aniuj^ or at leant his flrst proposition, 
found no sjuaII numlier of a<lherents, but the Htru^t^le, 
thi»uich warm, wan a Mru^^lc of privnte opinions, and not of 
ot>inion4 with authont v. The Church set forth no definition 
oi her own views on tfie subj<H*t, and the excitement after a 
time a>iat(*<L AUmt two centuries later, however, the t*on- 
irtivrrwy was renewed in a manner which prerw'ntly led to 
the interiMMition of the Kiiman [MmtifTs. and !(ulMH*<)uently 
of c^mnciU «»f the I'hun'h. The first inciijent in thi^ renewal 
was a de«'laretion, in lom, by Ijeutheric, Archbishop of Sens, 
to the effeet that none but the sincerely pious ntH-eive the 
boily of (*hn4t in the Holy (\>inraunion. It is eti.><^ to nee 
what questions may an««e tmt of a doctrine like this, eft|io- 
cially with tho«e wh(» hold the <>ertaintv of the real pn*st>nce. 
Ijater, in 104A. the cM^lebreteil Bereufn^rius, at that time Arch- 
deMMm of Anfc^ni, takinj; the work of Johannes Sc«»tus, 
above mentioiii^i. as his text and guide, attai'ked with veh^ 
mencv the dtN-tnne of the rwil prvsence. He was met by 
Bnin<i, hu own bii«hof> (of Anfrtrs). and also by Hufch <>f 
Lan^i^s and Adelman of Br<*sAe. But his mu«t powerful 
ami m(«<t danKertJus an tampon i«t was the pf>pe, beo IX.. who 
aMirmblcd two cxmncils in 1(XV)— one at Rome and one at 
V'erceMi — where he cau^ied the writings of BerenKarius to be 
c«»n4bMnneil an<l bumeit and excommunicated their author. 
Retinnff into Normandv, Beremn^riussoutirht the sum>ort of 
William (afterwanls "the conqueror** of Knf(land), but this 
pnm-e having; convenetl an ai«embly of the princi|)al prel- 
ates and the*>lo|Cians of his province, the unfortunate polem- 
i%t w«» aAin c^indemned; and in the (Nmncil of Paris, 
called by Hennr L in the same year <105(», he was not only 
c«>Ddrmiied still a thinl time, but deprivwl of his tM*neflce«. 
The »4ilMr«juent hi*t«»ry of Iterenf^rius iia jwinful one. t)n 
three tiifTrrrnt w^'jt^ions* under three ilinerent succt'ssive 
|iii|ie4, Viri<»r II., NirholjiA U., and (ire^pory VII., he was 
i^im(M-)liil by thn*at» and intimi«Uti<m to renoum*e hin 
opiiii«in**; and on two of th«*i«e (M'<-Hi<ions to sulHcribe to 
di^*Ureth*n« drewn up for him by hi** enenii<*s. The flm of 
tht'^e d«<«-Uretifin% ma<)e at what may l>e called his MH*ond 
triAl. under Nu-holas II., was to the effect that **the brt^ad 
aiwl wine after c^m^n'retion are not only a -tacremeiit, Imt 
ai«» thr rral Uwlv and blimid of Jwu^ i*hri«t ; and thnt this 
Ualy ami bliHMl are h»ndl«^l by the priests and c«msum(*4l by 
the faithful, ami not in a «a4'remental iien«e. but in reality 
and truth, as <»ther si-n^iblr i»l»j««<'t<i are." He was not only 
fim^i-^l to •ul»*'nl»r to the* diH'Urntion, but aNo to ccmfirm it 
with *n oath; but h«nll« had h*» rvtunied to F*nuu*e U«for»» 
hr al'juml It uttrrl}. and remiiiK^l the teai'hiiii; of hi« for- 
mrr %irn*, \\r wa^ ai I'tinbiiu'ly arraun"**! a thinl time and 
thi« arret i;TirTi**rit t<M>k iila*'e under (tn-jr^ry VII. (Ilildt^ 
Itrandt. whi«««'fn« hiin«fif not to have (tartAkeii of the ex* 
Ir^'me %!••»» »»f It* r»*iit:ariii*«'« n'U'iitli*^ |»»*rM-*'utoP». yrt to 
ha»r frit (MiniM-llr^l to o)ili^> him to n'lioutife In* own. The 
urif*>rluiLatr tiiaii t^iiti^lraitit'^l linii'^'lf e*iii«M*i|u«<iitIy to 4ul>- 
m rtiw tf> h»* tit ,u f «if thr f«'l]»i« luif pni|H»«i( ii>n. and to r»»n- 
flnn thi* d«x lare'i*«n b« an oath m/ . that ""thr bn^ail laid 
«»n t 'h aitar lw« ofui**, aft«*r 4 <iIi«n< ration, tht* true l»o<l\ of 
t hrt»t, «tiii h wa" \mtn\ of ihr Virt'ui, •ufTt-n-^l on thr vum^ 
ktid eiow vit* al thr ru'ht hand of thr Ki*thrr: an«l the wirir 

• i »• *n1 on thr ailar lii<i»fiif* a(t#"r «"• •(»••< rat imu. the true 

• I --I «h.< h rt <itt-«l fr>'Mi thr •! h of Thrift" Th» rv aa* 
a'^i'MMil to )■• an aiM-,^".iM in tfi:« di* i.*rnt ion, |H"rlm|r« 

^'r •« 'iif iw^i\ of thr * • riotr.i, * .|| ii. !«• put ut***!! thr Word" 
' I I. >' p.v • <1. tif>>'i Ihr at' tr " \t niM rnlr.it did Hot 
•.»• '» t»H ♦ ri* »',i«-» .»f lit ri i)tr«trii)«. anil hr aa* t'lrri forr >»nt>- 
j * •! (•> th* h .rii.iiAiiiin of *\i\t^ rihtru* AiHt in«kiiii,' oath to 
• !.., ii, *htf .i.f. -i.-in of faith, m th< fuliiia ji,^ ai»rd» — *.i,. 



It wM 



rcf^anis the ceremonial conmHTation and nla^^inc Df> 
altar of the elements as a sacrifice, in whirh tin 



I 



that **thf bread and wine are, by the rovsten<Ms mflvt • 
of the holy prerer and the wortls of our ft«Nlr«*mer. *»u*^' 
tially chan»red Into the tnie, pro|)er. and vtvtfvini; hmu .• t 
blood of Ji»su8 Christ"; to which was athd^l. tK»i -o* 
bread and wine an\ after conswretion, c<»n*« rir«i in ••. 
real borlyand blood of Christ, not only in qualit;i ofritt--k 
si^rns and sacremental representations, but in thnrr^* 4 
pn>(^H*rties and t«ulMtantial realitr.** Thi<tfonn of ^lf:< <- • 
navinic been fully complete<l, ftifie (Jn'>ff»ry di'^miw**; ". 
humble prelate with many marks of (iep*o'nal r<r»f «• • 
visible and liborel evidem^es of his friendship. S***"- 
standing which, no s(H)ner was Berenpiriu« in hi« rmn •• .t 
try apiin, than he retracted this last d«H'laretion. »• b* * » 
done all the former, and nretiared an eUUtrete rrfutat. r ' 
the doctrines to which he nau just suh^'nl»e<l. Thr \m^ t • « 
no notice of this retractation, whenct* the infervmT ha« *•-« 
drewn that Orej^ory himv»lf was perMtnallv not far tr n. • 
tertaininx the same opinions as BeriMip^rius. Thr nf. i 
of the days of this f^reatly tri*»d clmmpion of thr r.if ' 
fnMHlom of opinion where the C*hurT*h has n^it «fa>irr, v» 
(Missed in acts of nenance and mortification, t^i wht h *» 
subjected hinLself in expiation of the K^ilt of his dim t* 
lati(m and perjury at Rome. 

It was not till the af«embling of the fourth LA*«vir. 
Council by Innocent HI., in the year 1215, that the 1 •.* < ' 
the Roman (*hurch was authoritatively uttemlaa ti t.'- trv 
«lcH»trine of the Eucharist, That f»o|>e, thnmtrh a <l^f*» f 
that council, declared the true f