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HIS LIFE AND WORKS. 1735-1810 




DESBOROUGH, LADY, Panshanger, Hertford. 

The other picture named on p. 192, is a portrait, full length, of George, Earl Cowper, 
about 24 x 1 8. 

There is a replica of this picture in the possession of Admiral of the Fleet, 
Lord Walter Kerr, G.C.B., of Brocket Hall. 

EILOART, MRS. BERNARD, 55, Cathcart Road, Earl's Court, London. 

Group representing her great grandfather, General William Palmer with his wife, a 
Begum of Delhi, and their three children. General Palmer was at one time a Private 
Secretary to Warren Hastings. He died May 2oth, 1816, and his wife in May, 1828. 

A large picture, which in parts appeared to be unfinished. 

KERR-LAWSON, MR. J., 3, Turner Studios, Glebe Place, Chelsea, S. W. 
Portrait Group, representing an old gentleman and an old lady. 
The former is in profile and wears a plum-coloured coat and a grey wig. He is 
holding a book of poetry and appears to be reading from it or expounding it to 
his companion. She is in a low cut dress with a fichu and has a lace cap on her head. 
The colouring is dark and rich and there is a representation of a cloudy sunset in the 
background of the picture. Size about 22 x 19. 

LECON FIELD, LORD, Petworth House, Petworth. 

He possesses a painting attributed to ZofFany, representing David Garrick at 
tea, on his lawn at Hampton, and his brother, George Garrick, fishing. 

The picture, however, which we have not seen, differs, we are told by its owner, 
in almost all respects from the painting belonging to Lord Durham described on 
p. 104 and illustrated opposite p. 142. There was an interesting discussion concerning 
it in "The Fishing Gazette" for January 24, 1920, p. 43. 


It is possible that the picture named on p. 218 is a replica of a more important work. 

NEVINSON, MR. H. W., 4, Downside Crescent, Hampstead, N. W. 3. 

Two family portraits which we have not been able to see before going to press. 


It has been suggested that it is possible that the portrait of William Lock (spelled 
Loch in error on the plate) named on p. 237 may represent William Locke of Norbury 
Park (1732-1810), the connoisseur and collector. On the other hand, another 
correspondent suggests that there was an important person named William Loch in 
India when ZofFany was there, and the portrait may be of him. 

For information respecting other pictures by Zoffany which do not appear in their proper 
places in Appendix A, see p. 248, on which is a list of pictures which were heard of 
whilst the book was passing through the press. 

We have recently seen a fireboard decorated with flowers, very similar to the one 
represented in the portrait of Maria, Duchess of Gloucester, illustrated opposite p. 164. 
These fireboards are now exceedingly rare and the existence of this one proves how 
meticulously correct Zoffany was. No adjunct of " parlour decoration " appears to have 
escaped his attention. 


It should have been stated that the picture alluded to on p. 222 is the property 
of Capt. Spencer-Churchill and that it represents a scene from a play stated to 
include Garrick, Mrs. Betterton, and someone else who has been styled Mr. Betterton 
but who is more likely to be Mr. Gibber. It is a good picture and about 36 x 35. 
Dr. Lionel Cust, who is preparing a catalogue of the pictures in the gallery, has 
supplied us with this information. 

p. 35, 11. 2, 5, for Dolland read Dollond. 
p. 53, 1. 24, for Cosways read Cosway's. 
p. 54, 1. 9, for Humphrey's read Humphry's. 
P- 99> 1- 2>Tif or Serampur read Serampore. 
p. in, 11. 26, 27, for Cater read Cator. 

p. 136, note 2, for Tremamando in two places read Tremamondo. 

p. 172, 1. i, for Maria' Walpole (Duchess of Gloucester) read Maria Walpole (Countess 
Waldegrave), Duchess of Gloucester. 


IN presenting the following pages to our readers, it is desirable that 
I should take upon myself the responsibility for them, and assume the 
burden of such errors as may be discovered. 

Lady Victoria Manners, and I, have acted throughout in complete 
unity as regards purpose, intention and scheme, but the actual composition 
of the book has fallen to me, while for the discovery of the pictures, 
their examination and description, my colleague is mainly responsible. 

Where it has been practicable, we have inspected the paintings to- 
gether, and aided each other's judgment, but while this has been possible 
in London, it has been difficult to accomplish elsewhere, and it is due to 
the unceasing industry and perseverance displayed by Lady Victoria, 
that so large and full a catalogue of Zoffany's works has been compiled. 

The lists of exhibited works and of pictures recently sold we owe 
to the remarkable volumes compiled by Mr. Algernon Graves, and to 
his ready and generous courtesy in permitting ample use to be made of 
them. For the other appendices I am responsible, and it is believed 
that they may be found of service to the collector and critic. 

For the work of finding out the pictures and the allusions to them, in 
connection with the chapters on the " theatrical groups " and " con- 
versation pieces," Lady Victoria Manners is chiefly concerned, while, 
on the other hand, for all the researches concerning Zoffany's life in 
India and for the personal chapter I have to assume responsibility. 

In all the chapters we have consulted one another at every stage. 

We are greatly indebted to the various members of ZofFany's family, 
who, when once discovered, have met us in generous fashion, given us 
such information as they possessed, and placed at our entire disposal 
documents, photographs, drawings and miniatures, as also the Patent of 
Nobility and the papers belonging thereto. 

In this connection especial gratitude is due to the painter's only 
surviving granddaughter, Mrs. Oldfield, and to her daughters, as also 
to Mrs. Everard Hesketh, a great-granddaughter, and particularly to 
Miss Beachcroft and Miss Ellen Beachcroft. 



It has been our regret that we have been unable to get into similar 
touch with those who are descended from the two elder daughters of the 
painter, to trace many pictures painted by him, and to find a host of his 
studies, sketches and papers that should still be in existence, but which 
seem to have disappeared since they were sold in 1810 by Robins, the 
auctioneer, at his " great rooms " in the Piazza, Covent Garden. 

We have to tender our hearty thanks for kindly assistance rendered 
us in connection with Zoffany's career in India, by Earl Curzon, who has 
taken a vivid interest in that part of the book and supplied very much 
valuable information ; by Mr. Stephen Wheeler, who has supplied a 
mass of invaluable material concerning the Cock Match picture, and 
generously placed all his notes at our disposal, including the correct 
Indian names in Persian script ; by the Archdeacon of Calcutta, the 
Chaplain to St. John's Church, the Rev. Frank and Mrs. Penny, and 
Messrs. H. E. A. Cotton, J. J. Cotton, William Foster, S. C. Hill, T. G. 
Sykes and by the authorities of the Victoria Memorial Exhibition, 
notably by Mr. Frank Harrington. 

We have also to thank Dr. Lionel Cust for much kindly aid, Sir Claude 
Phillips for many a valuable hint and some important advice, the Rev. 
Charles Swynnerton for information concerning Angelo's portraits, and 
Mr. W. T. Whitley for various pieces of information and for many useful 
suggestions and hints. 

To His Majesty the King we owe a very special and respectful ex- 
pression of our gratitude for a splendid photograph of the " Tribuna " 
picture, Zoffany's chief work, for photographs of many other paintings 
and for details of all those contained in the Royal Gallery ; but to almost 
all the owners of Zoffany pictures we have also to express grateful thanks. 
They have treated us with much consideration, and in many cases have 
supplied us with photographs and referred us to documents. 

Without their aid the book would have failed in its illustrations and 
lost its especial attraction, and we would desire particularly to mention 
the aid of Mr. Asch, the Duke of Atholl, Mr. Bridgeman, the Duke of 
Buccleuch, the Marquis of Bristol, Mr. G. E. Lloyd Baker, Miss Boothby, 
Colonel Bradney, Miss Bevan, Earl Curzon, K.G., Mrs. Somers Cocks, 
the Hon. Evan Charteris, the Earl of Durham, Mr. G. and Mr. Maldwin 
Drummond, Lady Desborough, Colonel Daniell, Messrs. Ehrich, Sir 
Reginald Graham, Rev. R. Holden, Mr. Impey, Mrs. Kennedy, Mr. 
Longman, Mr. Middleton, Mr. Robert Marshall, Sir R. C. Munro- 
Ferguson, Lady Muir Mackenzie, MacLeod of MacLeod, Sir Hugh 
McCalmont, Mr. Mathias, Sir E. Nugent, Mr. Oswald, Lord O'Hagan, 
Sir H. Parry, Mrs. Spencer Perceval, Capt. Pepys, the Duke of Port- 
land, Lord Ribblesdale, Colonel Roundell, Mr. R. S. Strachey, Lord 


Sherborne, Sir Douglas Seton-Stuart, Lady Sayer, Mr. Harry Verney, 
Rev. Wentworth Watson, the Hon. Frederic Wallop, Lord Willoughby 
de Broke, Sir William Young, Mr. Yorke, the Earl of Yarborough and 
many others. 

Finally, in this respect we must make separate mention of the Com- 
mittee of the Garrick Club for their goodness in relaxing, for this occasion 
only, their hitherto inflexible rule against photographing or copying the 
theatrical paintings which form an unrivalled collection in their Club 

Yielding, most gracefully, to our importunate desires, they have tem- 
porarily suspended the rule and allowed us to have photographed for this 
volume many of their chief treasures, and for this favour, which renders 
our book unique in its attractions, we return them very grateful thanks. 

We must not fail also in expressing our sincere thanks to our 
publisher, Mr. John Lane, for the pains he has taken in searching for 
pictures by Zoffany. In this search he has been very successful, and, 
moreover, has been able to acquire for his own collection some 
important examples, all of which appear amongst our illustrations. 
He desires still to continue this search, and to hear of any other 
paintings by Zoffany, or any engravings of his work not here recorded. 

Our thanks are also due to the Editor of the Connoisseur for much 
consideration, and to all our numberless correspondents whom we have 
troubled with our inquiries, as also to Messrs. Agnew, Ehrich, Colnaghi 
and Knoedler for information and to the latter for the loan of a photo- 
graph of Zoffany's house at Chiswick. We had considerable assistance, 
in the early stages of our book, from the late Sir Walter Armstrong, 
who was a great admirer of Zoffany's work, and regarded Mr. Wallop's 
group as " the best he had ever seen." The late Mr. Lockett Agnew also 
interested himself in our researches, and gave us many pieces of important 
information, as also did the late Mr. Martin Colnaghi. 


Burgh House, 


THERE has been a full flood of literary effort concerning the wonderful 
eighteenth century, and the numberless artists of repute who represented 
British art at that time. So ample has it been that it may recall Solomon's 
dictum that " of making many books there is no end." There can be 
little left for writers to add concerning the great protagonists of the 
struggle. Almost every scrap of information about Reynolds, Gains- 
borough, Romney or Hoppner has probably by this time been gathered 
and made use of, but of several of the minor masters, even in the very 
front of the second rank, there still remains considerable material for 
literary research. Many of the artists who in the eighteenth century were 
considered as of equal importance with the very greatest, have in these 
later days been practically neglected, and amongst these is Zoffany. It 
is clear from the records of the Academy, that he was regarded by his 
colleagues as an artist of repute, and that he took a prominent position in 
their councils. His works received high praise from Horace Walpole, 
he was patronised by the King to a very marked extent, and his com- 
missions were numerous and important, while from his time down to 
our own, his paintings have always received attention and interest. Yet, 
however, there has been no book devoted to him, and the aim of the 
writers of the following pages has been to supply this need in artistic 
biography, and to make the work as complete and as exhaustive as possible. 

Zoffany has two great claims upon the attention of the present genera- 
tion. In his theatrical groups he hands down to posterity, not merely 
the likeness, but also the mannerisms, customs and stage environment 
of some of the greatest English actors, in a way that has been done by no 
other English artist. Thus, as has been wisely said, though both Rey- 
nolds and Gainsborough have portrayed for us Garrick the man, it has 
been left for Zoffany to hand down to us Garrick the actor, and he alone 
is able to make us understand how Garrick could rivet the sympathies 
of his audiences in pieces such as Macbeth, etc., despite the quaint and 
curiously unsuitable costumes in which he used to appear. Furthermore, 
Zoffany is almost the only artist of his period who hands down to us views 
of the intimate life of the people of his time. He represents them in their 



own rooms, surrounded by their own furniture and ornaments, engaged 
in amusement or in eating and drinking, and he sets before us with loving 
devotion the very objects they possessed, whether of silver, glass, porce- 
lain, bronze or marble, and painted in such clear fashion that we can 
identify the very things, and see for ourselves the whole scene as it 
appeared to the artist of the day. These two characteristics should be 
sufficient to entitle Zoffany to be regarded as a painter of no mean repute. 
More, however, can be said. He would appear to have been a profound 
student of the best elements of Dutch painting, and to have trained him- 
self upon the works of the Dutch masters, such as Gerard Dow, Van 
Mieris, Terborch, Metsu, De Hooghe and others, men who delighted 
in painting interior scenes, and who had great appreciation of detail, and 
a love of rich material. The only English artist who approximated to 
these Dutch painters was Hogarth, and the art of Hogarth and the paintings 
of Zoffany have often been compared. Hogarth was undoubtedly the 
master of the so-called conversational pieces in England, and it is clear, 
in considering the works of Zoffany, that he was largely influenced by 
Hogarth, and, while deriving considerable inspiration from the Dutch, 
built upon the example of Hogarth, adding to his skill of composing the 
groups, that love of meticulous detail and exquisite treatment which he 
derived from Holland. 1 To the breadth and grandeur of Hogarth he 
never attained, but his contribution to English art is the adoption of the 
style of the Dutch painters to the conversation pieces of which Hogarth 
was the originator in England. In painting such family groups, the 
artists who have excelled are comparatively few. Franz Hals, of course, 
stands at the head of them, followed by Hogarth, Terborch and Zoffany, 
and the last we do not regard as the least. There has, in fact, been made 
a comparison between the work of Hals and that of Zoffany, and it has 
been pointed out that both men were extremely successful in composition, 
both delighted in bringing together a number of persons united by some 
common thread of interest, and arranged in a group somewhat corre- 
sponding to that of a family, and that both were successful portrait painters, 
but the comparison can be more easily drawn between Hogarth and Hals 
than between Hals and Zoffany, because in skill, in spacing, in values, 
and in breadth, the two men first named more nearly resemble one 
another, while Zoffany's peculiar skill consisted in that which he drew 
from the Dutch masters, his fine draughtsmanship and elaboration of 
detail, and his correct and almost affectionate representation of textures 
such as velvet, satin, silk, brocade and the like. In this, it may be said, 
that in a measure his paintings act as a corrective to the more loose style 

1 His admiration of Hogarth is revealed to us in the Catalogue of his sale. Fine 
impressions of engravings after Hogarth fill no less than eleven lots. (See Appendix.) 


of the greater English masters of his period. It would appear, from a 
consideration of Zoffany, that he was probably attached to objects almost 
as much as he was to persons, and one would consider him as a man who 
had a great love for his own household goods, and was not really com- 
fortable unless he was surrounded by such things as made his rooms 
beautiful, and appealed to his sense of luxury and comfort. That being 
so, he realised that, in order to make his family portrait groups perfect 
and interesting, he must give an almost equal attention to the fittings of 
the parlour in which he represented the persons, as to the persons them- 
selves, and, in consequence, his paintings reproduce in their structure 
the sense of comfort and of family life which, it is clear, he aimed to 
set upon his canvas. The furniture, the mantelpiece, the porcelain or 
bronzes on the mantelshelf, the pictures on the walls, the panelling and 
the framework of the doors and the windows, the tea equipage with its 
fine porcelain and choice silver, the carpets and the rugs on the floors, 
the curtains and the children's toys, were all treated by Zoffany in his 
best pictures as parts of the family life, which must be illustrated if the 
family portrait was to be a true reproduction, and, moreover, he believed 
that all these adjuncts deserved care on his part, and he accordingly 
painted them with great skill and attention. At the same time, it must be 
mentioned that Zoffany never allowed accessories to usurp or to assume 
too high a position in the picture. They were always accessories to the 
group, and the persons who were represented occupied, as they naturally 
should occupy, the chief position. If Zoffany was painting a musical 
family as, for instance the Sharps the instruments upon which they 
were playing, or which they held in their hands, were a necessary part of 
their life, and were, in his opinion, not to be merely suggested, but to 
be carefully and judiciously painted. If his sitters were reading or 
writing or playing, the same attention was to be given to the letters, 
newspapers, books or playing-cards with which they were engaged, and 
a strong conscientiousness of purpose marked the work of Zoffany in all 
these groups. There are, of course, examples when Zoffany overdid this 
love of accessories, for instance, in those two fine pictures " The Tribuna " 
and " The Sharp Family," where the compositions are distinctly over- 
crowded. The same remark applies to many of his Indian groups. 
There are far too many persons represented in them, but that perhaps 
was partly the fault of those who commissioned the picture, and who 
desired that it should include almost every member of the family. Even, 
however, in these larger out-of-door compositions, Zoffany always deter- 
mined to make the group a homely revelation, by introducing drinking- 
vessels, a chess-table, a pipe-bearer, or some servants, all adjuncts to the 
picture, rendering it more interesting at the time when it was executed, 


and to us who see it now, intensifying its interest a hundredfold, because 
Zoffany's pictures reveal to us the persons whom he painted, in their own 
surroundings, far more than do the works of the greater portrait painters 
of his days. 1 

He put right away from him the ideas of classic drapery and classic 
arrangement that were so dear to Sir Joshua Reynolds. He appears to 
have had little sympathy with the fashionable landscape, the ordinary 
stone vase or red curtain, or even with the distant view over town, river 
or country, which sufficed as a suitable setting for the greater portraits of 
the day. Zoffany aimed at something more intimate. If a house was 
to be introduced, it was a view of the family residence ; if gardens or the 
river, the details were so carefully painted that the scene could be easily 
recognised, and all its adjuncts were correct. In consequence, many of 
Zoffany's best pictures not only give us the persons in the habit in which 
they lived, but also views of their houses, gardens or farmyards, that are 
of unusual interest in the present day. 

Another comparison may also fittingly be made. There are a few of 
Zoffany's pictures notably his portrait of Dollond the optician, which is 
now at Buckingham Palace in which a complex system of lighting is 
challenged, attacked and conquered, and in which his painting, with its 
dry excellence, accurate draughtsmanship, and extraordinary fidelity to 
life, claims a distinct connection with that of Chardin. 

On the other hand, almost as an extraordinary antithesis to it, there 
is a group of paintings by Zoffany, the chief of which is the one called 
' The Minuet," which hangs in the Glasgow gallery, in which there is a 
strong feeling of Watteau. In this, the artist had an instinct of poetry, 
an almost overwhelming one, and there is a dreamy grace about this 
particular group, and about one or two others painted in this special 
manner, which lets us see that ZofTany was aiming at something rather 
higher, and was at the moment sacrificing his conscientiousness in por- 
traiture and in accessories, to the conception of a family group painted 
with a certain poetic feeling. 

As regards his theatrical work, to which we have already made allusion, 
he was evidently a profound lover of the stage himself, or he could never 
have painted his theatrical subjects so well. Doubtless he was attracted 
by the composition of the theatrical groups, and by the glowing colour 
of the costumes and the scenery. He appears to have made sketches on 

1 Mrs. Piozzi in her Glimpses at Italian Society, written in Genoa in 1784 (see p 53) 
has an interesting allusion to Zoffany. She says, " My chief amusement at Alexandria 
was to look out upon the huddled market-place, as a great dramatic writer of our day 
has called it; and who could help longing there for Zoffani's pencil to paint the lively 
scene ? " * 

Coll. of the Hon. F. U'allofi 


By some critics it is su^'estcd that this represents 

Lord Carlisle 
It appears to have an F on the reverse 


the stage itself for his principal compositions, and he was not content 
with giving us the portraiture of the actors in question, but he let himself 
go upon the rich materials used in the costumes, and upon all the various 
accessories, representing them with a brilliance, an almost jewel-like 
quality, that marks his best works. His pigments must have been very 
carefully prepared, probably he ground his own colours, and was exceed- 
ingly particular respecting them. They have stood well, and in many 
examples the colour values are as clear and well defined as they must have 
been when the work was first completed. There are occasions, of course, 
where the colouring has its smooth, enamel-like quality somewhat over- 
done, but one of the features of Zoffany's work is the conscientiousness 
with which it is carried out. Nothing is scamped, neglected, overlooked. 
The picture in its way is perfect, and in this respect is almost unrivalled. 

In his single portraits he is not as great as he is in his interior groups, 
but even here the same careful attention to details marks his work, the 
same effect of rich colouring and of beautiful textures. That he was at 
times inadequate in his single portraits is undoubtedly true, and he does 
not occupy a very prominent position, either with regard to such single 
portraits, or with regard to religious pictures. There were many men of 
his day who could paint small single portraits better than Zoffany often 
painted them. There were numbers who could paint them just as well 
as Zoffany, but not perhaps with exactly the same consideration of the 
textiles and materials. 

His Scripture pictures are negligible in the consideration of his art. 
He did not possess the power of creating religious emotion, nor had he 
either the sympathy or the deep respect for the subjects which he trans- 
ferred to his canvas, enabling him to make of them successful pictures. 
That he painted too many pictures may readily be granted, that he was 
careless in some of his compositions is quite certain, and that many of 
the pictures attributed to him are not worthy of him, may also be said, 
but, as he was not in the habit of signing his works, 1 it is quite possible 
that some of the paintings attributed to him, even upon fairly distinct 
evidence, may have little or nothing to do with him, and may be the 
work, either of his pupils, or of those who were painting similar pictures 
in his time, but his greater paintings are well known, easily recognised, 
and triumphant in their particular way. 

1 We have only seen one picture, the portrait of Mr. Maddison, belonging to Mr. 
John Lane, in which we are convinced the signature is a genuine one. Mr. Lane also 
possesses a signed self-portrait in the form of a drawing dated 1761, undoubtedly 
genuine, and there are signatures to be found on other drawings (e. g. the self-portrait 
which forms our frontispiece and the fine drawing of Lord Heathfield). Mr. Wallop's 
important miniature is also signed. 


The writers of this volume have endeavoured to trace all the paintings 
that have been attributed to Zoffany, to inspect most of them, and to 
decide, as far as they could, which might rightly be considered to be the 
work of the master himself ; with the result that they are able to present 
a very full list, and to illustrate Zoffany 's work in a manner which it has 
long been desirable should be done. 

The man himself had a romantic career, and every effort has been made 
to gather up, not only from the memoirs of the period, from newspapers, 
and from correspondence, but also from those persons who are con- 
nected with the family, all the testimony that can be obtained concerning 
the different events in his life, and it has been interesting to prove that 
many of the current stories respecting the artist were not merely apocryphal 
legends, but were actual facts. 

The narrative has been set forth of his first adventures in England, of 
his desertion by his first wife, which left him almost penniless, of his 
painting of clock-faces and moving figures, of his romantic second marriage, 
and of his feeling for adventure, which would not permit him to settle 
down to a prosaic career in England, but urged him to seek relief, first 
in a projected journey with Sir Joseph Banks, and then in his trip to 
Italy, and finally to his sojourn in India. Every scrap of information 
respecting him that has been known to the authors, has been gathered 
together, and nothing has been neglected, however trivial, provided that 
it shed some light upon a part of his career. 

The search for his pictures, and for information respecting him, has 
been rather more difficult than would have been the case with some of 
the better known artists, because Zoffany worked among the smaller 
country squires of England, and for the people of lesser degree, especially 
for those who lived away from London, while his great rivals, Reynolds, 
Romney, Gainsborough and others, had as their sitters, the more notable 
people of the day, those whose history and career it is more easy to trace. 
Considerable use has been made of the diaries of Mrs. Papendiek, be- 
cause, as she was a personal friend of Mrs. Zoffany, she spoke from intimate 
knowledge, but, as has been mentioned further on in the book, she is 
not wholly to be depended upon, for she was a garrulous old lady, who 
wrote about events long after they had transpired, and often mixed up 
dates and names in almost inextricable confusion. 

For public events, Zoffany had not much interest. His life, like that 
of his pictures, was of an intimate character, and the recollections of his 
granddaughter are of the smaller and more homely details of his life, 
rather than of the greater events. So far as can be told, he does not 
appear to have kept any diary, and his books of accounts were destroyed 
when Mrs. Zoffany died of the cholera. His letters are but few, not 


numbering a dozen in all, but there are many allusions to him in the 
diaries and correspondence of the day, and as far as possible, the writers 
of the volume have endeavoured to make use of them, and to present, 
to the best of their ability, a faithful portrait of an artist of no mean repute, 
and one whose works deserve to be better known and more appreciated 
than they have been hitherto. 

G. C. W. 


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Hyde, H. B. : Parochial Annals of Calcutta. 1901. [4744. g. 22.] 

The Parish of Bengal. 1899." [4767. d. 38.] 

India, Imperial Gazeteer of. 1909. 

Jerdan, Wm. : Autobiography. 1852. [10856. aa. 24.] 
Johnson, S. : Life of Boswell. 1887 edit. 

Lives of the Poets. 1905 edit. 

Thrale Letters. 1788. 

Karr, Sir W. Seton : Calcutta Gazette Extracts. (5 vols.) [09057. dd. 23.] 
Keen, H. G. : Madhata Rao Sindhia. 1890. [10603. dd. 28.] 

Lawson, Sir C. : Memoirs of Madras, 1905. [010057. & 4^-] 

Leslie, C. R. (and Taylor) : Life of Reynolds. 1865. [10826. cc. 20.] 

His Autobiography. 1860. [010827. e. 5.] 
Levy, Miss F. N. : American Art Annual. 
Literary Anecdotes. Nichols. 1812-1815. 
Literary Gazette, July 8, 1826 and July 15, 1825. 

Monthly Magazine, The. 1808. 2 vols. [257. C. i. 19. PP. 5460.] 
Moore, E. W. : Privy Council Appeals. 1836. [709. e. 1-15. j 
Appeals to Privy Council. 1836. [5310. f. i.] 

Nevill, R. : Sporting Prints. [R.P.P. 1931. pcx.] 
Nichols, J. : Literary Anecdotes. 1782. [275. h. 3-11.] 
Nollekens and his Times (see Smith). 
Northcote, J., Conversations of. 1901. [12352. dd. 34.] 

Memorials of. Gwynn. 1898. [10825 i- !5-] 

Book of Fables. 1845. [12304. ee. 27.] 

Life of Reynolds. 1818. [1044. e. 20.] 
Notes and Queries. loth Series, VII. 429 ; VIII. 14 ; and many other references. 

Papendiek, Mrs. : Court Life in the time of George III. 1887. [ I0 8 2 5- dd. 19.] 
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Pasquin, Anthony (John Williams) : Memoirs of the Royal Academicians. 1796. 
[1044. d. ii.] 

Poems. 1789. [992. b. 25.] 

Liberal Critique on the R.A. [1422. g. 23.] 

Critical Guide to the R.A. [1044. d. ii.] 

Royal Academicians, [ii. 777. g. 70.] 


Paston, G. : Life of Mrs. Delany. 1900. [10856. c. 2.] 

Penny, Rev. F. : The Church in Madras. 

Pindar, Peter : His Works. 1794-6. [992. h. 29.] 

Punjaub Educational Journal. Feb. 1906. 

Pye, John : Patronage of British Art. 1845. [786. h. 33.] 

Ralph, James : The Case of the Authors. 1762. 
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Yesterday and To-day. 1863. [12633. k. 12.] 
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Redgrave : Dictionary of Artists. 
Robinson, H. Crabb, Diary of. 1872. [2408. b. 4.] 

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Sieveking : Sir H. Mann. 1912. [010827. K. 16.] 
Smith, J. T. : Nollekens and His Times. Whittens edit. 

Book for a Rainy Day. Whittens edit. 1905. 
Smith, T. C. : British Mezzotinto Portraits. 1878. 
Spielmann, M. H. : British Portrait Painting. 1910. 
Stage, The English. Genest. 1832. 

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Walpole, H. : Letters. Toynbee edit., 1904, etc. 

Memoir of, by Austin Dobson. 1890. 
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A boy, the eldest 
child, who died from 
an accident, aged 
1 6 months and is 
buried at Kew. 

Maria = John Doratt of 
Theresa Bruton Street, 
surgeon, after- 
wards Sir John 
Doratt, c. 

| June 1799 
Cecilia Rev. Thomas 

c. 1777. 

C.I 750- . 

Home, Jr., 
of Chiswick. 

.ouisa, Edwin 
832 Oldficld. 


I I I 

.ugustus. David. Jeannie, 
married and 
lived in 


Thomas. Alfred. 

Robert, George. 
Judge Home. 


married her 

cousin Charles. 


Major Urquhart Ethel Mary 
Bartholomew. Zoffany. 





1733. Born. 

c. 1750. In Austria and Italy. 

c. 1755. At Coblenz. 

c. 1759. In London. 

1761. Painted his own portrait. See National Portrait Gallery. 

1762-3. Exhibited at Society of Artists. 

1764. Moved to Great Piazza, Covent Garden. 

1765. Moved to Lincoln's Inn Fields. 

1765, 6, 7, 8 and 9. Exhibited at Society of Artists. 

1770. First exhibited at the Royal Academy and continued to show 

there till 1774. 
1774. In Florence, probably went there in 1772 or very early in 

1776. In Vienna and created Edler von Zoffany a Baron. 

1779. Back in England. 

1780. The date of the Conyers picture. 

1781. Exhibited picture of the Sharp Family. He was robbed this 

year also. See Walpole. 

1782. Date of the Verney picture. 

1783. Went to India. 

1786. Date of the Cock-Match. 

1788. Date of the Bridgeman picture. 

1790. Back in England. Exhibited the Towneley Marble picture. 

1796. Lived at Strand-on-the-Green. 

1800. Last Exhibit at the Royal Academy. 

1804. Named for the Royal Academy Council, but was abroad, 
where is not at present known. 

1810. Died. 


ustus. David. 

A boy, the eldest Maria = John Doratt of 
child, who died from Theresa Bruton Street, 
an accident, aged Louisa, surgeon, after- 
16 months and is c. 1777. wards Sir John 
buried at Kew. Doratt, c. 

June 1799 
Cecilia Rev. Thomas 
Clementina ' Home, Jr., 
Elizabeth, ' of Chiswick. 
c. 1750- . 


-ouisa, - 


\ . i r r~ 

Jeannie, Rose. Thomas. Alfred. Rob 
married and Judge ] 
lived in 

jrt, George. Cleme 
iorne. marrif 
cousin C 

ntina, Cec 

Major Urquhart Ethel Mary 
Bartholomew. Zoffany. 




1733. Born. 

c. 1750. In Austria and Italy. 
c. 1755. At Coblenz. 
c. 1759. In London. 

1761. Painted his own portrait. See National Portrait Gallery. 

1762-3. Exhibited at Society of Artists. 

1764. Moved to Great Piazza, Covent Garden. 

1765. Moved to Lincoln's Inn Fields. 

1765, 6, 7, 8 and 9. Exhibited at Society of Artists. 

1770. First exhibited at the Royal Academy and continued to show 

there till 1774. 
1774. In Florence, probably went there in 1772 or very early in 

1776. In Vienna and created Edler von Zoffany a Baron. 

1779. Back in England. 

1780. The date of the Conyers picture. 

1781. Exhibited picture of the Sharp Family. He was robbed this 

year also. See Walpole. 

1782. Date of the Verney picture. 

1783. Went to India. 

1786. Date of the Cock-Match. 

1788. Date of the Bridgeman picture. 

1790. Back in England. Exhibited the Towneley Marble picture. 

1796. Lived at Strand-on-the-Green. 

1800. Last Exhibit at the Royal Academy. 

1804. Named for the Royal Academy Council, but was abroad, 
where is not at present known. 

1810. Died. 




















List of the Works of Zoffany, at present known, arranged under the names of 
owners, and with details as to their having been exhibited, their sizes, 
colouring, etc. ........... 171 

List of Works that have been heard of while this book was passing through 

the Press .248 

List of Pictures by Zoffany exhibited at the Galleries of the Society of Artists, 
1762-1769 ; of the Free Society of Artists in 1766 and of the Royal Academy, 
1770-1800, with some extracts from Walpole's Catalogues, and the names 
of the present owners of the pictures, so far as they can be traced . -251 



List of Engravings after the Works of Zoffany in the British Museum and else- 
where, and some references to the engraved portraits of Zoffany that are known 259 

List of Pictures by Zoffany that have been exhibited from time to time. British 
Institution, 1814-1867; Suffolk Street, 1833-1834; Manchester, 1857; 
International Exhibition, 1862 ; Royal Academy Winter Exhibitions, 
1871-1912; Wrexham, 1876; Edinburgh, 1883; Grosvenor Gallery, 1888- 
1890 ; New Gallery, 1891-1898 ; Grafton Gallery, 1894-1897 ; Birmingham, 
1900-1903; Glasgow, 1902; Whitechapel, 1906-1912; Burlington Fine 
Arts Club, 1907; Franco-British Exhibition, 1908; Paris, 1909; Japan 
Exhibition, 1910; and National Portrait Exhibition, 1867 . . . 269 

Catalogue of the Sale of Zoffany's Pictures and Effects after his decease, 

May 9, 1811 287 

Copy of the Last Will and Testament of Zoffany, dated April 22, 1805 . . 297 
Translation (from the German) of the Charter granted to Zoffany by the Empress 

Maria Theresa, with Grant of Arms and Title of Nobility, December 4, 1776 301 

List of some Pictures by Zoffany that have been sold in recent times . . . 307 
List of Pictures by Zoffany which have been exhibited but which cannot now be 

traced, or of which the present owner's names are unknown . . . 313 

Note concerning Zoffany and Mrs. Warren Hastings 319 

INDEX 321 


PORTRAIT OF ZOFFANY BY HIMSELF. (Signed) ..... Frontispiect 

(Coll. of Miss Beachcroft) To /ace f age 


(Coll. of the Hon. F. Wallop) 
DRAWING OF ZOFFANY BY HIMSELF. (Signed and dated 1761) ...... 4 

(Coll. of Mr. John Lane) 

(Coll. of Mrs. Alfred Aslett) 

(Coll. of Mr. T. W. Greene) 

(Coll. of Mrs. Hope) 

to Zoffany ............ 6 

(Coll. of Messrs. Harris & Sinclair) 

(Coll. of the Garrick Club) 


(Coll. of the Garrick Club) 

(Coll. of the Late Mr. Asher Wertheimer) 
GARRICK AND MRS. GIBBER IN " THE FARMER'S RETURN." (From Garrick's Sale) . . 10 

(Coll. of the Earl of Durham) 

1823) 12 

(Coll. of Dr. G. C. Williamson) 


(Coll. of the Duke of Atholl) 

ABOVE PICTURE. (These two pictures on one Plate) 

(Coll. of the Duke of Atholl) ) 


the Print) 16 

(Original in Coll. of the Earl of Yarborough) 

GUARDS PARADE ............. 18 

(Coll. of Sir E. C. Nugent. Bart.) 


(Coll. of Colonel Bradney, C.B.) 
GROUP OF FIVE FIGURES ENTITLED THE MINUET. (These two pictures on one Plate) 

(Coll. of Major Saville) 
PORTRAIT OF Miss STEVENS ............ 18 

(Coll. of Lord Glenconner) 



To face page 

THE PORTER AND THE HARE ............ 20 

(Coll. of Messrs. Ehrich Bros.) 

(Coll. of Mr. George Drummond) 

(Coll. of Mr. George Drummond) 


(Coll. of H.M. the King) I 24 


(Coll. of Mr. A. Amor) Plate) J 


PALMER AS SUBTILE AND FALL. (From the Print) ....... 26 

(Original in the Coll. of the Earl of Carlisle) 

(Coll. of Lady Sayer) 

(Coll. of H.M. the King) 

KEY TO THE ABOVE PICTURE ........... 28 

(By the courtesy of the Cocoa Tree Chib.) (Facing each other) 

(From the original signed copy belonging to the Royal Academy of Arts.) (By kind 


(Coll. of the Royal Academy of Arts) 

(Coll. of H.M. the King) 


HOUSE ........... 36 

(Coll. of H.M. the King) 


AND TWO OF HER OWN CHILDREN. (Gravure Plate) . >(, 

(Coll. of H.M. the King) 

Coll. of the Trinity House) 


(Coll. of Lady Sayer) 



(Coll. of Sir Hubert Parry, Bart.) (By the courtesy of the Arundel Society) 

(Coll. of Messrs. Leggatt) 

to Zoffany) . 

(Coll. of Mr. Wm. Haffety) 
ZOFFANY'S HOUSE AT CniswiCK. (Water-colour drawing by Rowlandson) . 44 

(By kind permission of Messrs. Knoedler <& Co.) 


(Coll. of Mrs. Hesketh) 


(Coll. of Messrs. Tooth &> Co.) 


(Coll. of Miss Boothby) 


AND SISTERS. (Gravure Plate) 52 

(Coll. of Lady Desborough) 
GROUP OF WANDERING MINSTRELS. (Painted for Duke Ferdinand de Bourbon) -u 

(Coll. of the Parma Gallery) 


(Coll. of the Vienna Gallery) 




(Above three items from the Coll. of Mrs. Everard Hesketh) 
THE TRIBUNA, FLORENCE. (Gravure Plate) ......... 62 

(Coll. of H.M. the King) 
KEY TO THE SAME ............. 62 

(By permission of the Royal Academy of Arts.) (Facing each other) 

(Coll. of Sir Reginald H. Graham, Bart.) 


(Coll. of Mr. Granville Lloyd Baker) 
JOHN WILKES AND HIS DAUGHTER. (Gravure Plate) ....... 72 

(Coll. of Sir George S. Baker, Bart.) 


(Coll. of Colonel Prideaux Brune) 

(Coll. of the Rev. R. Holden) 

(Coll. of Mr. Harry Verney, C.B.) 

dated.) (Colour Plate) 78 

(Coll. of Mr. John Lane) 
PORTRAIT OF BOSWELL ............. 78 

(Coll. of Sir Cosmo Antrobus, Bart.) 
PORTRAIT OF BOSWELL ............. 78 

(Coll. of Messrs. Craddock & Barnett) 

(Coll. of Lord Teignmouth) 
COLONEL MORDAUNT'S COCK-MATCH IN 1786. (Gravure Plate). ..... 84 

(Coll. of Mr. R. S. Strachey) 
KEY TO THE SAME ............. 84 

(By the courtesy of Mr. Stephen Wheeler.) (Facing each other) 

(From the mezzotint by Earlom after the original in the possession of the Marquis of 

KEY TO THE SAME ............. 88 

(By hind permission of the Cocoa Tree Club.) (Facing each other) 

(Coll. of Mr. Henry Sinclair) 

(From the mezzotint by Earlom. The original picture or an oil-sketch for it belongs to 

Mrs. Alexander Kennedy) 
KEY TO THE PICTURE ............. 94 

(By the courtesy of the Cocoa Tree Club.) (Facing each other.) (Folding Plate) 

(From the mezzotint by Earlom) 
KEY TO THE PICTURE ............. 96 

(By the courtesy of the Cocoa Tree Club.) (Facing each other.) (Folding Plate) 

(From a copy of the original which is now in a small pagoda near Poona) 

(Coll, of the Earl of Curzon, K.G.) 

AYAHS AND SERVANTS ............ 98 

(Coll. of Mr. Edward Impey) 

(Si. John's Church, Calcutta) I IOO 

THE DEATH OF CAPTAIN COOK, FEBRUARY 14, 1779. (These two pictures on one Plate) 

(Coll. of Greenwich Hospital) J 


To face page 

(Coll. of Mr. William Asch) 


(Gravure Plate) 108 

(Coll. of Mr. W. C. Bridge-man, M.P.) 
THE AURIOL FAMILY GROUP . . . . . . . . . . . .no 

(Coll. of Mr. Dashwood) 


(Coll. of Mr. A. P. Cunliffe) 


(Coll. of Captain A. Pepys) I 


(Coll. of Mr. Robert Marshall) on one Plate) J 


(Coll. of Sir Claud Alexander) [ 

PORTRAIT OF EDWARD PEARCE. (These two pictures on one Plate) j 

(Coll. of Sir Robert Edgcumbe) 



(Above two pictures from the Coll. of Mr. H. 13. Middleton) 

AN IMPORTANT MESSAGE FROM AN OFFICIAL. (Gravure Plate) . . . . .112 

(Coll. of Captain and Miss Blunt) 

FROM INDIA TO AMERICA . . . . . . . . . . .112 

(Coll. of Captain and Miss Blunt) 



PORTRAIT OF MRS. WATTS .......... .112 

(Above three pictures from the Coll. of Mrs. Watts) 

(Coll. of Mr. F. Edwards, formerly in that of Miss Winter who had it from Warren 

AN INDIAN SCENE ...... 1 12 

(Coll. of Mr. E. S. Mostyn Pryce) 


(Coll. of Mr. C. Nugent Humble) 

(Coll. of Miss Ellen Beachcroft) 

(In Brentford Church, Middlesex) 

(Coll. of Lord O'Hagan) 

(Coll. of Lord O'Hagan) 

(Coll. of the Garrick Club) 

1771) 12 6 

(Coll. of Mr. W. J. Davies) 

(Coll. of Mr. John Lane) 


(Coll. of Miss S. J. Beachcroft) 

(National Portrait Gallery) 


To face pagt 

PORTRAIT OF MRS. ZOFFANY ............ 130 


(Both in the Coll. of Mrs. Everard Hesketh) 

(Coll. of Sir Ronald C. Munro-Ferguson) 

(Coll. of Mr. H. Burton Jones) 

(Victoria and Albert Museum) 

(Coll. of the Garrick Club) 

(Coll. of H.H. The Maharajah Gaekwar of Baroda, G.C.S.I.) 

(Coll. of the Garrick Club) 

(Coll. of the Garrick Club) 


(Coll. of the Earl of Durham) 

(Coll. of the Earl of Durham) 

(Coll. of the Garrick Club) 

(Coll. of the Hon. Evan E. Charteris) 

(Coll. of the Garrick Club) 
PORTRAIT OF DAVID Ross AS HAMLET .......... 144 

(Coll. of the Garrick Club) 

(Coll. of the Garrick Club) 

(Coll. of Mr. Somerset Maugham) 


(Coll. of the Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry) 

(Coll. of the Marquis of Lansdowne) 

(Coll. of the Garrick Club) 
PORTRAIT OF WILLIAM PARSONS . . . . . . . . . . .148 

(Coll. of the Garrick Club) 

(Coll. of the Garrick Club) 

(Coll. of the Garrick Club) 

(Coll. of the Marquis of Lansdowne) 

(Coll. of Sir D. A . Seton-Steuart, Bart.) 


(Coll. of Lord Queenborough) 


(Coll. of the Marquis of Bristol) 

(Coll. of the family of the Late Sir Henry Bulwer) 


(Coll. of the Rev. Wentworth Watson) 

THREE CHILDREN . . . . . . . . . . . . .152 

(Coll. of Lord Willoughby de Broke) 


To face page 


LESSON ............... 154 

(Coll. of the Hon. F. Wallop) 


(Coll. of Laura, Lady Simeon) 
THE DUTTON FAMILY GROUP ............ 154 

(Coll. of Lord Sherborne) 


(Coll. of Messrs. Ehrich Bros.) 

(Coll. of Mrs. Payne Whitney) 

(Coll. of Mrs. Spencer Perceval) 

OF ZETLAND .............. 156 

(Coll. of the Marquis of Zetland) 
MASTER JAMES SAYER AT THE AGE OF 13. (Colour Plate) ...... 158 

(Coll. of Lady Sayer) 
PORTRAIT OF MRS. OSWALD ............ 158 

(Coll. of Mr. R. Oswald) 


(Coll. of Sir R. C. Munro-Ferguson) 


(Coll. of Miss Alice de Rothschild) 

(Coll. of the Corporation of Glasgow) 



(Both in the Coll. of Mr. Joseph C. T. Heriz-Smith) 
PORTRAIT OF DR. HANSON ............ 162 

(Coll. of Mr. Fleischmann) 

(Coll. of the Corporation of Brighton) 
PORTRAIT OF MR. PHIPPS ............ 162 

(Coll. of Sir Hugh McCalmont) 
PORTRAIT OF LADY CAROLINE HERVEY . . . . . . . . . .162 

(Coll. of the Marquis of Bristol) 

(Coll. of the Marquis of Bristol) 

(Coll. of the Marquis of Bristol) 

(Coll. of Mrs. Morland Agnew) 

(Coll. of Messrs. Agnew) 

(Coll. of Messrs. K needier. Formerly in that of Lord Ribblesdale) 

(Coll. of the Earl of Crawford) 


(Both in the Coll. of Mr. Paul de Castro) 

(Coll. of the Duke of Portland, K.C.) 

(Coll. of Mr. T. Norton Longman) 

(Cull, of the Hon. Evan Cliarteris) 

(Coll. of Messrs. Ehrich Bros.) 


To face p 


(Coll. of Admiral Sir E. Rice, K.C.B.) 

(Coll. of Macleod of Macleod) 

(Coll. of Mr. Seymour Boothby) 
THOMAS GAINSBOROUGH. (Gravure Plate) . . . . . . . . .166 

(The National Gallery) 

(Coll. of Miss Austin) 
PORTRAIT OF GENERAL HON. WM. HERVEY . . . . . . . . .182 

(Coll. of the Marquis of Bristol) 
PORTRAIT OF LADY MARY FITZGERALD . . . . . . . . . .184 

(Coll. of the Marquis of Bristol) 

(Coll. of the Marquis of Bristol) 

IT." (Gravure Plate) ............ 200 

(Coll. of the Garrick Club) 

(Coll. of H.M. the King) 

(Coll. of Lord Lee of Fareham) 

(Coll. of Major Otway Mayne) 

(Coll. o] Mr. J. M. Newborg) 

(Coll. of Lord O'Hagan) 

(Coll. of the College of Physicians) 


(Coll. of Viscount Ridley) 

(Coll. of Miss Alice de Ifothschild) 
GROUP REPRESENTING MR. JOHN YORKE AND HIS FRIEND. (These two pictures on one Plate) [ 2 3 

(Coll. of Mr. Thomas E. Yorhe) ) 


(Coll. of Mr. J. L, Travers) 
PORTRAIT OF WILLIAM LOCK. (Attributed to Zoffany) ....... 235 


(Coll. of the Late Mr. Asher Wertheimer) 


(Coll. of Sir W. L. Young, Bart.) 

(Coll. of Sir IF. L. Young, Bart.) 

TIONS ............... 260 

(Coll. of H.M. the King) 




FOR our information concerning Zoffany's early years we have to 
depend almost entirely upon tradition ; there seems to be no documentary 
or other actual evidence in existence. 

We are told that his father was a Bohemian Jew, a cabinet-maker and 
decorator at Prague, and that he was employed upon some decoration or 
internal fittings in the Hradshin of that famous Bohemian city, where his 
skill attracted attention and he was advised to seek a wider scope for his 

It is said that he then migrated to Ratisbon, where he studied archi- 
tecture, and entered into the service of the Prince of Thurn and Taxis, 
eventually becoming Court Architect, in which capacity he was entrusted 
with some notable commissions. 

It would appear, however, that his son John (or Johann) was born at 
Frankfort-on-Main in 1735, and this information was discovered by Sir 
Melvill Beachcroft (who is of the same family as the Robert Beachcroft 
who married one of Zoffany's daughters) in a Master's Report in the 
Public Record Office of a lawsuit between the painter and an Italian 
named Tremando. The usual books of reference are therefore in error 
when they give his birthplace as Ratisbon and the year as 1733. 

We learn from family tradition that from a very early age young 
Zoffany showed himself possessed of a talent for drawing. 

At school he devoted himself to drawing portraits of his masters and 
schoolfellows instead of giving attention to his lessons. Pronounced 
incapable of further learning, he was placed by his ambitious father in 
the studio of one Michael Speer, a painter of religious and historical 
subjects, who in his turn had been educated in Italy by Solimena, called 
1' Abate Ciccio. 

To this studio he appears to have been sent at first, in a very humble 
capacity, and set to clean the brushes and palettes and to assist in the 
more menial work of the place. Speedily, however, he proved, to his 
slow and serious master, that he was not without some skill of his own, 
and before he was twelve years old he was assisting in painting draperies 



and embellishments in the " furniture " pictures for which Speer was 
then becoming well-known. 

The scope for his activity was, however, too narrow, and when he 
had spent rather more than a year with Speer the lad determined to widen 
his experience. 

Failing to obtain permission from his father, who had different inten- 
tions for his son, he took the matter into his own hands, ran away from 
home, having, it is said, " borrowed " a substantial sum in gold from his 
father's money-box, and fled to Vienna, thence making his way down 
the Danube on a timber raft, and so journeyed into Italy, where, by slow 
degrees, he made his way to Rome. 

In Rome, it is said, he remained for some ten or twelve years, until 
he heard of the death of his father, and during that time worked very 
hard, copying in the galleries and supporting himself by the sale of 
the copies he made and by the aid of the treasured gold coins he 
had brought with him, which he spent with the most parsimonious 

He is reported to have resided at the Convent of the Buon' Fratelli, 
having, by the kindly offices of one of the cardinals, obtained an intro- 
duction to this monastic house. 

When over twenty years old he found his way into Germany once 
again, and took up his abode at Coblenz, where he married a girl who 
had a small fortune of her own and who was said to have been the niece 
of one of the priests in the place. Here he remained for two or three 
years, but his married life was not a happy one, and Mrs. Papendiek, 1 
writing in 1833, from information derived from Zoffany's second wife, 
who was her particular friend, says that the artist treated his first wife 
in very unkind fashion. 

Finding that his circumstances did not improve and that his wife's 
small fortune was rapidly dwindling, Zoffany determined once more to 
set out on his travels, and this time to come to England, where he believed 
fame was awaiting him. 

The Literary Gazette of July 8, 1826, in an allusion to him, says that 
when " Zoffany first arrived in the British metropolis, he brought with 
him some trifle short of a hundred pounds," mainly, it would appear, his 
wife's money. ' With this," said he, relating his adventures, many 
years after, to an old friend, " I commenced ' Maccaroni,' bought a suit 
a la mode, a gold watch, and a gold-headed cane." 

His efforts to make a living in this country (circa 1761) as a painter of 
small portraits met with no success, and the difficulties between his 
wife and himself increased to such a point that she finally left him, taking 
1 Court and Private Life in the Time of Queen Charlotte, I. 82. 

rf! 5 ! v 



2 off any. 

Coll. of M,. //, /.,, 

Signed and dated 1761 

Coll. nf Mrs. Alfred Asle/l 

/'. 7'. lletson photo 



with her what money she still possessed, and returned to her old home 
in Germany, where soon afterwards she died. 

Meantime Zoffany, now left wholly without means, got into deeper 
difficulties than ever, and was, it is said, near to starvation in his one 
room in Short's Gardens, Drury Lane, when a painting of a village scene, 
girls dancing upon the green, was brought to the attention of Stephen 
Rimbault, the celebrated clockmaker, great-uncle of Edward Rimbault, 
the musical author and antiquary, who was carrying on a flourishing 
business in Great St. Andrews Street, Seven Dials. 

The clever satirist John Williams who wrote under the nom de plume 
of Anthony Pasquin 1 gives us another address where Zoffany was to 
be found. He says 

" He lodged in the attic tenement of a Mr. Lyons, a kind Hebrew, 
who resided in Shire Lane near Temple Bar; his fortunes were 
then so low that his cates were more scarce than rare. The harp of 
his fathers was hung on a willow in the desert, and there was no 
musick in his soul : his thought introduced misery, and misery 
desperation. At this eventful epoch the heavy clouds which darkened 
his existence began to pass away : he saw the promised Canaan in 
a vision, and his nerves were restrung by fortitude. By the bene- 
ficent offices of his Levitical inmate he was introduced to Mr. B. 
Wilson, a portrait painter in oils, who instantly engaged Mr. Zoffanii 
to paint his draperies." 

J. T. Smith, in his Nollekens and His Times 2 receiving the story, 
he says, through Nollekens from Philip Audinet (a pupil of John Hall, 
the engraver), whose father served his time with Rimbault tells us of 
the event preceding the engagement with Wilson, Zoffany 's engage- 
ment to work for Rimbault. He says that the famous clockmaker's 
chief trade at that time was with Holland, where he supplied what were 
known as Twelve-Tuned Dutchmen, " clocks which played twelve tunes 
with moving figures variously occupied, having scenery painted behind 
them." Smith goes on to state that " the pricking of the barrels was 
complicated, and was executed by a man named Bellodi, an Italian, who 
lived in Short's Gardens, Drury Lane, and whose son was a maker of 
barrel-organs." He one day " solicited Rimbault in favour of a poor 
man, an artist, living in his house," who was almost starving in a garret. 
Rimbault said, " Let him come to me," and he went and received imme- 
diate employment in painting the fronts of musical clocks. Later on, 

1 Authentic History of the . . . Royal Academicians, by Anthony Pasquin. 

2 Nollekens and His Times, by J. T. Smith. 1828. Lane's 1914 edit., pp. 67, 68. 


Zoffany (for he, it was) suggested that he should paint the portrait of his 
patron, which he did in admirable fashion, and in Smith's time this 
very portrait was preserved over the chimney-piece of his nephew's 
front parlour, 9, Denmark Street, Soho. This Mr. [Stephen Francis] 
Rimbault was then " organist of St. Giles 's-in-the-Fields, and one of the 
most extensive collectors of Rowlandson's drawings." 

It has been stated that the moving figures in Rimbault's clocks did 
not meet with Zoffany's approval, for the mechanism in use was not 
capable of giving the figures a graceful motion, and only swung them to 
and fro, and therefore that class of work, which had actually effected 
the introduction of the two men, was speedily dropped, and Zoffany 
confined his attention to painting the dials with village and rustic scenes, 
and with figures of gallants and ladies in the approved Watteau-like 

We have been able to discover three clocks, the dials of which are 
stated to have been painted by Zoffany. In one of them, that belonging 
to Mr. Greene, the mechanism is by Rimbault; therefore the tradition 
may be assumed to be satisfactory. On another, belonging to Mrs. 
Hope, the movement is by Fladgate, but the decoration so closely resembles 
that of Zoffany, that it is probable the movement has been placed in the 
old case and the decoration left as it was. The third, which we have not 
indeed seen, is a clock of unusual and complex character, but there is a 
definite tradition connecting the decoration with the work of Zoffany, 
and on that basis we illustrate it in these pages. 

In 1764 it was that Zoffany painted the excellent portrait of Stephen 
Rimbault holding a piece of music in his hands, to which Smith alludes, 
and that also, we are glad to be able to illustrate in this volume. 

One of the Zoffany clocks is stated to have passed into the possession 
of Benjamin Wilson, then living at 56 Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, 1 
in the house in which Philip Audinet afterwards lived. Wilson had always 
been interested in science and mechanism, and published many papers 
relative to electricity, receiving the gold medal of the Royal Society for 
his experiment. 

He, it is said, required a good clock, in what he termed his laboratory, 
and was at first attracted by the elaborate mechanism of the movement 
in the clock he purchased, and then by the accuracy of its timekeeping 
qualities. Wilson, moreover, had studied under Thomas Hudson and 
practised as a portrait painter in Dublin, and then in London, and on 
examining with some care the dial of his clock, discovered that the figures 
upon it were painted with unusual skill, and made some inquiries con- 
cerning the artist. 

1 Or, as one writer states, at Great Queen Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields. 

Coll. of Mr. T. W. Greene 


Di\on photo 

Coll. of Mrs. Hope 



Coll. of Messrs. Harris & Sinclair 


liy I'ciLJ.imin Wil^m 

Coll. of the Gn.rick C6. 391 



By Benjamin Wilson 


The result of these inquiries was that Zoffany, while not wholly relin- 
quishing his work in Rimbault's factory, entered the studio of Benjamin 
Wilson at a salary of 40 a year to paint draperies and backgrounds for 
his eccentric master. 

Wilson was not a great artist, but a man of strictly limited powers, 
and his portraits were frigid representations of their subjects, hard, often 
ungainly and wanting in atmosphere and relation. In representing drapery 
he was especially weak, and there he felt the younger man would be of 
service to him; but he seems to have at first pledged him to secrecy, 
forbidding his telling any one that he worked in Wilson's studio and 
determining to take to his own credit all the advantages he gained from 
Zoffany's greater skill. 

Two of his paintings find a place in these pages by kind permission 
of the committee of the Garrick Club, to whom they belong. One is a 
stiff formal figure of King, who was the original Sir Peter Teazle, and it 
will be noticed that the draperies might, from their appearance, be 
fashioned out of tin. 

The other is a group depicting Powell and his family, formal and 
hard in its arrangement, and bespeaking little grace of composition save 
in the figure of the young girl. Here again the draperies are wholly 
lacking in softness or grace. They hang in stiff form, without any care 
or charm, and in some instances actually refuse to hang at all, but jut out 
in awkward fashion. 

Wilson was also well-known as an avaricious person, and this we learn 
from his autobiography which, contrary to his express wishes, was pub- 
lished by Herbert Randolph in the work he wrote on Sir Robert Wilson, 
the painter's son. In it Wilson is reported to have said of his wife that 
all he could say in her praise was that " from the time he first knew her 
he had saved more money than at any other during his life." 

He treated Zoffany, as might therefore be expected, harshly; his hours 
were long, his food scanty, his pay often delayed and subject to many 
irritating conditions, so that in process of time Zoffany began to rebel 
against a position from which he was gaining no credit and in which he 
was the subject of vast discomfort. 

In what way the change came about is not very clear. According to 
family stories Zoffany was a great lover of the theatre, and, meeting in 
Wilson's studio many theatrical notorieties, received from them little 
attentions in the way of tickets and passes, and so was able to gratify his 
love of the stage. On one of these visits it is said that he recognised in 
Mrs. Garrick an actress whom he had greatly admired in past days, 
perhaps in Vienna or in Italy, and that he made himself known to her 
and she presented him to her husband. 


Bearing out this statement, we find a reference by Smith, in his Book 
for a Rainy Day, 1 to a picture he saw in Garrick's home when he visited 
it just after the death of the actor. " In the dining-room," says Smith, 
" on one side of the chimney-piece, hangs a half-length picture of Mrs. 
Garrick, holding a mask in her right hand. This was painted by Zoffany 
before her marriage, who was one of her admirers." 

Another story goes that Wilson, having painted a group of Garrick 
and Miss Bellamy as Romeo and Juliet, the actor was of opinion when 
the picture came home that it was too good to be the work of Wilson, or 
at least to be his alone ; and that he did not rest till he found out who had 
assisted the painter, and especially who was responsible for the costume 
and draperies which were painted in a manner very different from that 
usually adopted by Wilson. 

This story, however, gives credit to Garrick for a quicker artistic 
perception than one would have expected to find in the popular actor, 
and to a determination in searching out a matter which could not have 
concerned him very deeply. 

It has also been stated that the Deus ex machina was Miss Bellamy, 
who greatly admired the manner in which her gown was represented, 
and cross-questioned Zoffany in the studio; and yet another story goes, 
that there was a certain spite against the parsimonious Wilson, and a 
disbelief in his artistic powers, about which he was so often talking, and 
that Garrick, scenting out a mystery in the studio, and feeling convinced 
that Wilson was engaged in some underhanded sharp practice, determined 
to know what it was and to expose it. 

Such an explanation does not oblige us to concede unusual skill in 
artistic perception to David Garrick, and seems to be a more likely version 
of the story. 

Still another version we find in Anthony Pasquin, who says it was 
Zoffany's " good hap to be discovered " in Wilson's studio " by Mr. 
Garrick, who proposed to sit to him for a dramatic portrait which he 
finished so well, as to lay the foundation of an enviable fame," and " he 
now journied through life on a path of roses "; while the Literary Gazette 
of 1826, to which we have already alluded, tells the same story in a some- 
what different way, saying that Zoffany, tiring " of the monotony of his 
employment," determined " to try his fortune by trading on the capital 
of his talent on his own account." " He accordingly," says this writer, 
" took furnished apartments at the upper part of Tottenham Court Road, 
near where was so long exposed the sculptured figure of the piper, and 
commenced his practice as a limner, by painting the portraits of his land- 
lord and landlady which, as a standing advertisement, were placed on 

1 Methuen's 1895 edit., p. 285. 

oil, of the late Mr. Asher Wenheimer 



each side the gate that opened into the area before the house. Garrick, 
by chance, passing that way, saw these specimens, admired them, and 
inquired for the painter. The interview ended in his employing the 
artist to paint himself in small, and hence were produced those admired 
subjects in which our Roscius made so conspicuous a figure." 

In the Earwig, which is a descriptive pamphlet of the Royal Academy 
of 1781, and is said to have been written by Mauritius Lowe, is a curious 
introduction into which the author has dragged, for no apparent reason, 
some notes about Zoffany's drunkenness and destitution when he was 
working for Benjamin Wilson. 1 

They allude to the fact, if fact it is, that Zoffany entered into a 
contract to paint drapery for Wilson for three years, and was to be paid 
250 for the first year, 350 for the second, and 500 for the third ; 
but after receiving an advance of 50, and instructions to paint some 
blue silk drapery, which he did not specially admire, he disappeared and 
Wilson was unable to find him. Many weeks afterwards, the Earwig 
says, he was discovered in an ale-house in St. Anne's, Soho, without shoes, 
engaged in making sketches of the frequenters of the ale-house, in return 
for the drinks supplied to him. He was rescued and set to other work, 
but Wilson strove to bring him back to the original contract, and there 
was some considerable difficulty before an arrangement was made by 
which the contract should be broken and Zoffany allowed to work for 
himself. The book in question is dedicated to Reynolds, and it also 
refers to Zoffany's picture of 1781 the Sharp family in the barge 
which it declares in tout ensemble is abominable, but as regards its 
separate figures, many of them were good. It says that the scaly 
monster behind the barge resembles Apollo on Parnassus. 

The whole article is written in a spirit of rather bitter satire, and the 
statements it contains do not seem likely to be true. 2 Smith is far more 
reasonable in the amount of salary he mentions (40), and Wilson's par- 
simony would surely have never permitted him to pay such fees as the 
Earwig mentions. 

It is, however, quite possible Wilson soon discovered that in Zoffany 
he had found a treasure, and endeavoured to bind him to work in the 
studio for a period of years with an increasing pay for each year, but the 
Earwig article seems written with the express purpose of doing Zoffany 
some discredit. We need not, therefore, attach much importance to the 
Earwig statements, as they are wholly unsupported by any other allusions 
or documents. That some disagreement between Wilson and Zoffany 
took place is quite certain, but of what nature it was we do not know. 

1 See B. M. 11630. e. 10 (i), 1781. 

2 We are indebted to Mr. W. T. Whitley for drawing our attention to this article. 


However it came about, this also is certain, that Zoffany left both 
the workshop of Rimbault and the studio of Wilson, and, encouraged by 
Garrick and by numerous other actors to whom Garrick introduced him, 
determined to devote his attention to portrait painting and especially to 
the representation of theatrical scenes, for which his neat and careful 
work and his excellent manner of representing costume, made him specially 
suitable. Thenceforward we know him exclusively as a painter of 
portraits and groups. 

He entered himself as a pupil at the St. Martin's Lane Academy 
and joined the newly-founded Society of Artists, exhibiting in its 
gallery in 1762 the first of his theatrical groups, and at once scoring 
a success by it. This first picture (138), which represented Garrick in 
the character of the Farmer returned from London, received the special 
distinction of being praised by Horace Walpole and in no measured 

" Good," said Walpole, " like the actors," " and the whole better," he 
adds, with a burst of extraordinary enthusiasm, " than Hogarth's." 

We can form our own opinion of the value of this criticism, for the 
picture is still in existence. It belongs to the Earl of Durham and came 
directly into the collection at Lamb ton Castle from Garrick 's sale. Wai- 
pole's praise is well justified, although we hesitate to go as far as he did in 
its praise, but the composition is excellent, the colour scheme admirable, 
the technique neat and adequate, and the manner of painting so good that 
the picture has stood exceedingly well and is still a pleasing work in 
every way. 

The companion work, equally good, and representing Garrick and 
Mrs. Gibber as Jaffier and Belvidera (137), is in the same collection. It 
appeared at the Exhibition of the Society of Artists in the following year 
(1763), and both paintings passed direct to Garrick and remained in his 
possession all his life. 

Zoffany, it is clear, had found himself, and the result of long years of 
difficulty and privation was seen in a fully-equipped genius well-fitted 
for the work to be accomplished. 

When first he came to England our artist appears to have been known 
as Zauffely, and this was probably his original Czech name. By 1762 
the word had become to a certain extent anglicised and more easy of 
pronunciation. It is spelled in the early catalogues as Zaffanii or Zaffanij, 1 
and then a little later in catalogues of 17681770 as Zoffanij, the " a " 
having become an " o " with a corresponding greater ease in pronuncia- 
tion and perhaps greater euphony, but by the time the artist became a 

1 The " ij " suffix to the name, would, according to Slavonic rules, denote the 
possessive case, and the name would mean " of Zoffa," if there be such a place. 

Coll. of Hie Karl nf Durham 

Ganick's .S'fl/c 



Royal Academician the foreign affix of " ij " had given place to the 
English " y " and Zoffany he became from that time and was so styled 
both in English documents and in those issued on the Continent. His 
Christian name, however, he does not seem to have wholly anglicised, 
and he signed himself Johan, or Johann, using the former for his signature 
to his will. 

We have just alluded to Zoffany 's two Garrick pictures of 1762 and 
1763, but in addition to these he exhibited a family group and three 

The portraits were anonymous, as was the custom of the day, and 
we have not been able to identify them, but, thanks to Walpole's notes 
on his catalogue, we know that the group (140, 1763) represented 
" Mr. Palmer the actor, looking at his wife and a little boy in her 

Walpole goes no further ; he does not comment on the excellence of 
the work, and we have not been able to trace the picture despite this 
description of it. 

Zoffany 's success in these two years was such that he was enabled to 
change his lodgings and take rooms in the most aristocratic district which 
artists affected at the time, that of the neighbourhood of Covent Garden. 
Here in the Great Piazza, he settled down, and we are told that he had 
fine " light rooms," " with great windows " and " plenty of honest 
furniture " in them. 

Here it was that he first began to be well-known, especially in theatrical 
circles, and amongst other acquaintances who knew him in these rooms 
was John Hamilton Mortimer, R.A. 

Henry Angelo, 1 in his Reminiscences thus describes the scenes which 
took place between the two artists, and indirectly acquaints us with the 
fact that Zoffany had a strong foreign accent in speaking. 

Angelo writes thus 

' The late John Hamilton Mortimer, an artist whose great and 
promising talent, but for his own thoughtlessness, would have raised 
him to the highest rank amongst painters, ancient or modern, resided 
for some years over the shop of the well-known Jemmy Moran, 
the bookseller. Here he was visited by Garrick, Sterne, Churchill, 
Goldsmith, Quin, Caleb Whiteford, Albany Wallace, Malone, 
Stevens, all the tiptop dramatic writers, players, sculptors and 

1 Henry Angelo (1760 1839?) was the eldest son of Domenico Angelo Malevolti 
Tremamondo, the fencing-master (1716 1802), who in England assumed the simpler 
name of Angelo, and dropped his original patronymic of Tremamondo, which, however, 
his younger brother continued in formal documents to use. 


painters. His studio was indeed the morning lounge of many 
distinguished noblemen, and almost all the professional men of 
talent of his day. 1 

" Mortimer's portrait, whole-length, is introduced in the picture 
of the Royal Academicians, painted by Zoffany, which picture he 
began at his apartments at the Great Piazza, Zoffany residing here 
also, in the year 1764. 

" Mortimer and he were very intimate, until one day, whilst sitting 
for his portrait, Zoffany began to play off his wit against the authority 
of Scripture, and turn the Old Testament into burlesque. Mor- 
timer, though a bon-vivcmt, and a choice wit, having too much sense 
of propriety to endure this, called him an ass, which, abstracted of 
his professional talent, was not far from the truth. Zoffany, highly 
offended at this, for he was as vain as he was weak, bade Mortimer 
quit his room, which he did, but not without first giving him such a 
lecture as he might have well remembered, had he not been too much 
addicted to this weakness, which lasted him even to old age. But 
what gave the greater offence, it seems, was a repartee which closed 
the dispute and then the door, which Mortimer shut with a loud 
bang. ' Why, Sir Godfrey Kneller thought upon the subject as I 
think,' said Zoffany. ' Perhaps so,' replied the other, ' and when 
you can paint half as well as he, then you may prate. To be a bad 
painter, and a fool to boot, is rather too much to bear, Master 

" Mortimer was a man of fine personal appearance, of great gaiety 
of manners, and a most delightful companion. He had, moreover, 
an excellent heart. 

" He, and a knot of worthies, principally ' Sons of St Luke,' or 
the children of Thespis, and mostly votaries of Bacchus, met at the 
Turk's Head, in Gerrard Street. Here, one evening, he happened 
to be sitting in the common coffee-room, wherein were a mixed 
company, taking their punch and smoking, the prevailing custom of 
the time. Theophilus Forrest, an honest lawyer and amateur 
artist, well-known to all the coterie at the Turk's Head, both above 
and below stairs, happened to drop in ; the landlord, Swindon, a 
worthy German, handed him a petition, from the widow of a journey- 
man coach-painter, who had lately died suddenly in Long Acre, 
and had left her and several children totally destitute. Forrest took 
the petition into the public parlour, entered his subscription, five 
shillings, and pinned it over the chimney-piece, that it might be 
seen by the guests, saying, ' I shall open a book here,' placing his 
1 Reminiscences of Henry Angelo, I. 106. 



Co. o/ Dr G. C. U'.HMW 

DAVID GARRICK (1717-1779) 


From finwiV* Srfc, /?, 1823 


pocket-book upon the table, ' and be widow's clerk till twelve, when, 
gentlemen, by your leave, we will close the account.' 

" Several of the company entered their names for crowns, half- 
crowns, and shillings. Mortimer was seated under a brass sconce, 
reading the St. James's Chronicle, when, calling for pen and ink, he 
began to sketch groups of monsters, heads, caricatures, figures and 
grotesques, upon the margin. It is well-known that he drew not 
only with greater rapidity, but with greater spirit and grace than 
any one, not excepting, perhaps, even Guercino himself. Hence, 
an hour at least before the time appointed, he had entirely filled the 
whole of the blank four pages. 

" ' What are you about, Mortimer ? ' inquired one. ' What an 
industrious fit, Hamilton ! ' exclaimed another, but he persisted 
nevertheless, nor would he allow any one to look at his performances 
until his task was done ; when getting upon the table, and spreading 
his work to view, he began, in imitation of Cock, the celebrated 
auctioneer : ' This lot, gentlemen, this matchless lot, this unique 
effort of art, the property of a great amateur of wine and venison 
and a renowned connoisseur in tobacco and punch, is offered to the 
notice of the cognos. It is to be disposed of without reserve. Come, 
gentlemen, shall I say ten pounds five one pound, gentlemen, 
yea, even five shillings anything for a beginning ? ' 

" ' I offare von guinea, mine friend Mortimare,' said Zoffany, who 
happened to be in the next box. ' Thank you, sir,' returned Mor- 
timer, with a forgiving smile. ' Charity covereth a multitude of 
sins.' ' Guinea and a half,' said another. ' Two guineas,' said 
Zoffany. ' Give me your hand,' cried Mortimer. ' Ton mine 
soul, 'tis peaudiful,' added Zoffany. ' Two and a half,' said Caleb 
Whiteford : and so the worthies, with that generous competition 
which is so catching in glorious old England, when the object is 
charity, pushed it on, until the lot was knocked down for five guineas, 
to some good soul, whose name I regret to say I cannot record." 

Another friend whose acquaintance Zoffany made at this time was 
Richard Wilson, and the three men became very intimate, were in and 
out of each other's studios and at times even worked upon the same 
picture. Ozias Humphry, and Romney, it will be remembered, are said 
to have both of them worked on the famous picture of the Ladies 

Wilson painted Mortimer's portrait, and it is to be seen in the Diploma 
Gallery of the Royal Academy, and he put in, it is said, the landscape 
backgrounds for at least three of Zoffany 's groups. Zoffany, on his 


part, painted so it is stated the figures in the foregrounds of several 
of Wilson's groups, while Mortimer did others, notably those for Wilson's 
" Niobe " now in the National Gallery. 

It is furthermore a tradition in the family that in two instances all 
three artists collaborated, Wilson doing the background of landscape, 
Mortimer the figures in the nude and Zoffany the costumes or draperies 
that covered them. 

Certainly several of Zoffany 's groups have landscape backgrounds 
that recall the work of Wilson, and Wilson's landscapes have figures that 
closely resemble those of Zoffany, so we may well suppose that the 
tradition is founded upon fact. 

Zoffany is also declared to have assisted Wilson's pupil, William 
Hodges, in his productions, and in several instances to have painted the 
figures for him, and this may account for the fact that certain pictures, 
indubitably by Hodges, have at times passed as works of Zoffany. One 
landscape by Hodges exhibited at the Pantheon (circa 1770) was expressly 
stated at the time to have the figures in it painted by Zoffany. 

For nearly two years Zoffany lived in the Great Piazza, 1 and while 
there produced one of his ablest theatrical pictures, the portrait of Foote 
in the character of Major Sturgeon in The Mayor of Garratt (140). This 
is now the property of the Earl of Carlisle. Walpole thought exceedingly 
well of it. He drew attention to the fact that Baddeley also comes into 
it, that it did not represent Foote alone, and that this fact should have 
been mentioned in the catalogue; and then he proceeds to call it '' A 
very fine likeness, a picture of great humour." 

Angelo, also, alludes to it in the following interesting passage from 
his Reminiscences - 

2 " Captain William Baillie, who knew all the distinguished artists, 
for more than half a century, as I have heard him say, used to pass 
his mornings for a considerable time in going from one apartment to 
another over the Piazza, to the respective artists who resided there. 
It appears from the memoranda before me, that in the year 1764 no 
less than ten painters occupied houses or apartments on this side of 
Co vent Garden. 

" It was here that Zoffany painted Foote in the character of Major 
Sturgeon in the Mayor of Garrat : and Moody in the character of 
Foigard. He also took his first studies from Garrick, for the drunken 
scene in the Provoked Wife here : and my father accompanied him 
thither from his house in Southampton Street, adjacent, and Fosbrook 

1 Where, in later years, Robins, the celebrated auctioneer, dwelt. 

2 Reminiscences of Henry Angelo, I. 112. 

Coll. of the Duke of Alholl 


Painted (or Hl.iir C.istlu in 1767 


Coll. of the Duke of Alholl 



brought the dress from the theatre, for Garrick to put on, to be 
painted in. This picture was not finished, however, until Zoffany 
had removed to Lincoln's Inn Fields." 

It would be interesting to identify the persons depicted in another 
important group for which Zoffany was responsible at this time. Walpole 
evidently did not know them, as he merely describes the work thus : 
" A boy flying a kite, the father sitting, and a younger boy standing by 
him and looking at the other." Zoffany called it only " A Family," and 
sent it to the Society of Artists in 1764, and at their Exhibition it was 
hung and will be found in the catalogue under item 141. It now belongs 
to the Hon. Mrs. Goldman, who lives in Zoffany's own neighbourhood, 
Chiswick, and it came to her by bequest from a Mr. Friedlander. 

It is an exceedingly good picture, as delightful as any group Zoffany 
ever painted, but it is annoying that we are not able to find out who are 
the persons there represented. 

Unfortunately we have not been able to illustrate this fine work in 
these pages. 

His other pictures belonging to this period were a portrait of the 
actor Moody, in the character of Foigard, which at one time belonged 
to Lord Charlemont, and then to Sir Henry Irving, who regarded it as 
a very precious work ; three anonymous portraits 1 and a picture described 
in the catalogue as that of " A Lady playing on the Glasses." 

In 1765 the artist moved into Lincoln's Inn Fields, as the quotation 
from Angelo's Reminiscences has already informed us. 

His residence was in what was then known as Portugal Row, and later 
on as Portugal Street so-called from the presence in it of the home of 
the Portuguese Ambassador and Zoffany, who, like Nollekens, was (at 
least in his early life) a devout Catholic, is said to have moved there in 
order to save shoe-leather in attending the Sardinian Chapel, his usual 
place of worship, as it was far nearer to his new residence than when 
he was in Covent Garden. 

Here he remained for nearly five years, busily engaged the whole 
time, and produced some admirable pictures. 

Upon one of the most important of them he was engaged for a con- 
siderable period. It was a group representing John, third Duke of 
Atholl, with his wife and seven elder children, and hangs now at Blair 
Atholl, a large painting (63 x 36) having been executed specially to fit 
over the mantelpiece of the room. 

1 Perhaps one of them represented Lord Charlemont, for on October 29, 1764, he 
drew a bill on Arnold Nesbitt & Co., in the favour of Zoffany for 20 for work " done 
for him." 


Zoffany began it in July 1765, as the original entries from the Duke's 
account-book, still in existence, set forth. They read thus 

1765. June. Mr. Zophany in part payment for a family 

picture ...... jioo 

1767. Feb. To Mr. Zoffany, Painter, for a family pic- 
ture of nine figures at 20 guineys each, 
but 100 being paid formerly, I only 
pay him now 89 .... 89 

and Zoffany 's receipt which, by the late Duke of Atholl's permission, 
we reproduce in these pages runs thus 

London. i6th Jan. 1767. 

Received from the Duke of Atholl 1 Eighty-Nine Pounds which 
with One Hundred Pounds formerly Receivd Makes in All One 
Hundred and Eighty Guineys being in full for, a Family Picture of 
nine Figures at twenty Guineys Each. 


The picture was not exhibited till 1769, and then at the rooms of the 
Society of Artists, and it will be found in the catalogue under 215. 

It possesses a special feature of interest, for, referring to our 
previous allusion to joint work on the part of various artists, we believe 
the background for this painting, which certainly represents the Tay 
and the Hill of Craigvenian, with the Atholl cairn on it, to be the work 
of Charles Stewart (brother to Anthony Stewart (1773-1846) the miniature 
painter), who was on Tayside and painted for the Duke various land- 
scapes which now form five panels in the dining-room, and are signed and 
dated 1766, 1767, 1768, 1777 and 1778. It would appear as though the 
canvas, having been prepared for the exact place in the room, Stewart 
first painted upon it the landscape, the view of the River Tay at Dunkeld ; 
and then the canvas was brought up to town by coach so that Zoffany 
could carry out his work from sittings when the family were in town. 

It does not seem at all likely that Zoffany painted the picture in Scot- 
land. It probably was worked upon from time to time, as various mem- 
bers of the family came to London, for the Duke of Atholl was at that 
time doing up and refurnishing Blair Atholl and brought nearly everything 

1 The same Duke paid Zoffany 8, in 1772, for a picture of the Royal family, but 
this we have been unable to trace. It does not appear to be at Blair Atholl. 


From tlic' engraving. The original painting belongs to the- I-':iil ni Varboroufih 


for that purpose from London, as so much of the furniture and pictures 
from the Castle had been looted or sold during the '45. 

This procedure of slow completion was not an unusual circumstance 
with Zoffany, because many of his groups represented entire families, 
and it was seldom possible for them all to sit together, or, indeed, for 
more than one at a time to be in the studio. Such groups, in conse- 
quence, were not executed in a hurry. In one notable case, as we shall 
see in the next chapter, these delays were responsible for a serious state 
of affairs. 

In what way Zoffany first attracted the attention of George III is not 
known. It is said to have been due to the intervention of Lord Barring- 
ton, or to Lord Bute. Zoffany is known to have painted the portrait of 
the former nobleman (the second Lord), and the family tradition is that 
Lord Barrington brought Lord Bute, whose children Zoffany painted, 
and Lord Bute then interested the King in the painter. 

Certainly during Zoffany 's residence in Portugal Row he received his 
first Royal commission, which was, as we shall see, to be followed by 

The work was executed in 1765, and represented " Their Royal 
Highnesses, the Prince of Wales and Prince Frederick as cupids," and it 
was exhibited at the Free Society's Exhibition in 1766, Zoffany's only 
exhibit in the gallery of that Society. 

It does not appear to be now in the Royal collection, and we have at 
present been unable to find it. 

The catalogue states that it was painted " on copper." 

Of the other pictures which belong to this period six were theatrical 
groups. " Mr. Garrick, as Lord Chalkstone " (198), now to be seen in the 
Garrick Club; " The Miser, in the same Entertainment " (199), a picture 
we have not been successful in finding. " A scene in Love in a Village " 
(194), which now belongs to Mr. Acton Garle, and was bought by his 
grandfather (circa 1830) for a thousand pounds, and another scene from 
the same play (138), which is, we believe, the one now in the possession 
of the Earl of Yarborough. 

In these groups we have representations of that clever comedian, 
Edward Shuter (1728-1776), who often acted under Garrick and distin- 
guished himself in minor comic parts. 

Of him Angelo has a good deal to say in his Reminiscences, and he 
refers to this actual picture also. 

" ' Shuter,' says he, ' was so genuine a humourist, that he was 
noticed by many persons of the highest rank. Some of these were 
permitted behind the scenes at the theatre, by a special privilege of 


the management ; though, until a certain period of the last century, 
this was pretty general; so much so, indeed, that these amateur 
visitors were occasionally sufficiently numerous to impede the actors 
in their lawful occupation. 

" ' Two illustrious personages, members of the Royal family, one 
evening, being behind the scenes at Covent Garden Theatre, dis- 
posed for a little humour, went to have a chat with Shuter in his 
dressing-room. He, having an arduous part to perform, was anxious 
to be left alone, for in their gay mood they were following him about. 
He had to dress for two characters; so having a ready wit, and 
knowing their princely condescension, he said to one, " By Jupiter, 
the prompter has got my book, I must fetch it; will you be so 
obliging as to hold my skull-cap to the fire, your Royal Highness ? " 
And to the other prince, " Perhaps you will condescend to air my 
breeches ? " Yielding to his humour, they good-naturedly did as 
they were required. Away he flew, shut the door, and, relating in 
the green-room what he had done, several of the performers and 
others following upstairs they peeped through the keyhole, and to 
their astonishment beheld the Royal brothers thus employed. 

" ' I have heard Zoffany say that this lively actor, however, was a 
very dull fellow off the stage, unless half tipsy, but in that state he 
was the most amusing of all the dramatic fraternity. Zoffany's por- 
trait of him in the character of " Justice Woodcock " was pronounced 
an incomparable likeness; indeed my own recollection of him is 
sufficiently strong to vouch for this; for, having repeatedly seen 
him in that character, in the favourite piece of Love in a Village, 
though I was then but a boy, a recent view of the print brought this 
old favourite, to my imagination, at once to life again.' ' 

Mr. Garrick's drunken scene in the Provoked Wife (167) is another of 
Zoffany's theatrical groups painted at this time. It passed to George 
Garrick, and still belongs to one of his descendants ; and the last of the 
six is a scene in The Devil Upon Two Sticks (214), now in the gallery of 
the Earl of Carlisle. 

Of these, four were engraved, a compliment proving how popular 
Zoffany's theatrical pictures had already become. 

All of them were seen at the Exhibition of the Society of Artists, and 
they will be found recorded in our List of Exhibited Works in the 

Walpole praised two of them, and in the scene from The Devil Upon 
Two Sticks noted from memory the words of the conversation in which 
the actors are engaged, upon the margin of his catalogue. 

Coll. of Sir E. C. Xugeiit, liar!. 


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In addition to all these there were exhibited some six portraits, which, 
being anonymous, it is not possible to identify. One of them, repre- 
senting a child with a dog, has also, says Walpole, " a cradle," but whether 
the child is in it or not he does not state. 

Finally, in addition to the Atholl group already mentioned, Zoffany 
exhibited at the Society of Artists three other groups of figures. 

Of one we have no information whatever. It is simply called " A 
Family," and appears as item 195 in the Exhibition of 1767. 

Another, however, in the 1765 Exhibition (168) Walpole enables us 
to identify. He notes against it the significant words " Dr. Nugent's," 
and we find the original picture still at West Halting Hall in the possession 
of Dr. Nugent's descendant, Sir E. C. Nugent. It was painted in London, 
perhaps in the family town-house and from the room in which the scene 
is set the Horse Guards Parade may be viewed. 

Lord Clare (afterwards Earl Nugent) is the principal figure, and with 
him are his son and daughter with his half-sister, usually known in the 
family as Aunt Peggy. It is a brilliant conception well carried out in 
the neat, careful, painstaking manner so characteristic of Zoffany 's 

The third group was probably that now belonging to Colonel Bradney, 
and represents Sir John Hopkins with his wife, two sons and three 
daughters. Here, again, the room in which the group is represented is 
a typical London drawing-room of the period, well-lit from a large 
window, having the tea equipage in full view and a harpsichord near at 
hand. On it one of the ladies is performing, while another assists her 
in turning over the music. 

It would be interesting to know whose were the portraits that Zoffany 
painted in Portugal Row, but about them, alas ! we can only surmise. 

Perchance one was a clever portrait of Miss Fenton (now belonging 
to Sir Wilmot Fawkes) and which seems to belong to this period, and 
very probably others were those of Charles Banister, Miss Stevens, 
Thomas Doggett and Thomas Jackson, but this is all mere surmise, as we 
have no certain evidence that will enable us to identify any of the anony- 
mous portraits he painted while residing in Lincoln's Inn Fields. 

One other painting does, however, deserve attention, that entitled 
" The Porter and the Hare." 

It is said that Zoffany from his window witnessed the scene, and at 
once committed it to canvas. A porter is carrying a hare as a gift to some 
person and is uncertain of the position of the house. A boy is reading 
the direction on the label, another near by is looking up and is busily 
eating bread-and-butter. It is just an episode but of a pleasing nature, 
and it met with Walpole 's approval when he saw it in the Exhibition of 


1769 (213), and noted down his comments upon it on his catalogue. With 
the general public also, it gained instant approval, and the excellent 
mezzotint which Earlom made of it and published in 1774 sold exceedingly 


It even seems possible that Zoffany painted a replica of the picture 
for some client, for there are two versions of it, both of which appear to 
be the work of the artist himself. The better of the two seems to be the 
one in New York, which originally belonged to the Ehrich Gallery and 
which, for a wonder, has a signature upon it, 1 but there is another version 
in the possession of Colonel Baskerville which exactly resembles the 
mezzotint, and has also good claims to be considered the original work 
from which it was taken. 

Possibly the very reason why there is a name on the New York version, 
to wit " Mr. Zoffany pictor," an unusual form for a signature to take, is 
the fact that there are two versions and thaf one owner got Zoffany to 
put his name to his or himself added the signature. It certainly appears 
to be contemporary with the picture and a genuine part of it. 

The important group from Swaylands representing the Drummond 
family must have been painted somewhere about this time, as Andrew 
Drummond, the old man in the picture, died in 1769, at the age of eighty- 
one, and he was clearly a very old man when he sat for this portrait. It 
is a very happy composition, one of Zoffany's best out-of-doors conver- 
sation pieces, and as it gives the portraits of three generations of the 
Drummonds, is of peculiar interest. It was painted at Stanmore, and in 
the extreme distance in the centre of the picture the town of Harrow-on- 
the-Hill is lightly indicated. The picture is fully described in the 
Appendix. To the same period belongs the large oval portrait of Mr. 
Drummond, now in the same house. In Mr. Drummond's hand can 
be seen a gold-topped crutch-handle walking-stick, used by its owner in 
his famous walk from Glasgow to London when he came up to found the 
agency which grew with great rapidity into the famous Bank which now 
belongs to his descendant. 

This actual walking-stick, carefully preserved as a valued treasure, 
can be seen in a glass-case in the Bank parlour. 

The similar portrait at Cadland and the one representing the group 
of Mendicants also belonging to Mr. Maldwin Drummond, and another 

1 Zoffany seldom signed his pictures. We have only seen one work, the portrait of 
Maddison, belonging to Mr. John Lane in which we are convinced the signature and date 
are genuine. In two other cases we are sure that the signature has been painted on 
at a later date, and on several works reputed to be signed we have failed to discover 
the signature at all. Of several of his works, however, there exist undeniable proofs 
of authenticity, such as entries in diaries, allusions in letters, or even receipted bills. 

Coll. of Messrs. Ehriili Brothers 

This picture is the subject of an cnRrnvir? 

Elirich Gallery fijinlo 

Co//, o/ .Mr. Gt'orge Drumtxond 


He died 2 February, 1/69, aged Si. The walking-stick sron in the picture w;i* used in his famous walk to London, ami is Mill 

preserved in the Bank Parlour 


group of mendicants somewhat similar belonging to Mrs. Jervis were 
all probably painted in the very same year. 

Another notable person whose portrait, however, we have not yet 
succeeded in tracing, was painted by Zoffany at this period. This was 
Francis Grose the antiquary (1731-1791), a man of unusual corpulence 
whose portrait was known as that of " Zoffany's fat man." 

Angelo relates the story of the sketch from which the portrait grew, 
and it is so well told and of such an amusing character, that it is well 
worth repetition in extenso. It is not certain whether the sketch to which 
Angelo alludes did not grow up into a double portrait; in fact, there is 
a family tradition that it did, and that both the two men, with whom 
Zoffany was very intimate, figure in one of his groups side by side. It 
would, in the circumstances, be of interest if this picture could be 

Angelo 's story is given in these words 

' The bare mention of Captain Grose brings many an instance 
of his facetiae to mind. I never remember a more amusing day than 
that which, of all others, happened to be one of those entitled a 
Fast, or annual day of humiliation by Act of Parliament, for the 
manifold sins of the people, pending the years of war : a custom, by 
the way, which, during the days of peace (a period for general thanks- 
giving) is left alone, which neglect, perhaps, gave occasion to the 
old distich 

" ' In time of war, and not before, 
God and the soldier we adore ; 
When peace is come, and war is not. 
Soldiers may starve God is forgot.' 

" However this may be, the elder Angelo at Acton, being a cele- 
brated Cake-house for all his numerous and very multifarious friends 
and acquaintances, on this particular Fast-day walked hither two 
worthies, who, for bulk, might have been weighed against any two 
aldermen in our renowned old metropolitan city. These were 
Captain Grose and Alexander Gresse : the first the celebrated anti- 
quary, the latter an artist of celebrity in his day, teacher of drawing 
to her late Majesty and the Princesses, and a great favourite of his 
late Majesty King George the Third. 1 

"It is a curious fact, that these two corpulent gentlemen were 
great walkers, and, although they did not get over the ground very 

1 On account of his corpulency John A. Gresse was known amongst his comrades as 
" Jack Grease." 


rapidly, yet, by ' taking time by the forelock,' that is, by rising early, 
they contrived to be in time to many a good dinner, within a circuit 
of eight or even ten miles of town. 

" Sebastian Bach, and his friend Abel, who had been invited, 
were already there, when my father, looking out from the window, 
beheld these ponderous pedestrians approaching the house. Bach 
and Abel, being called to the window, on viewing them, laughed so 
lustily, that my father, catching their fit of risibility, could not go 
down to receive them, as he was accustomed to do; for Bach ex- 
claimed, patting Abel's corporation, which was very protuberant, 
' Mine Gote, mine teer friend Angelo, vot, is two more such pellies 
as this gome down to keep the fast ? Diable ! If we feast to-day, 
we must fast to-morrow, and so tromper the act of barliament.' . . . 

" Gresse and Grose at length arrived : and after each taking a 
glass of liqueur before dinner was announced, we walked into the 
grounds, where Calze, an Italian painter, who had practised here, 
had painted a large piece on a blank wall, at least eighteen feet high, 
being the gable of our coach-house, the subject of a Roman structure 
with an arch, through which he has represented a wide gravelled 
path, between a long vista of trees. This having become dingy, 
Zoffany was restoring it, and having seen our two fat friends through 
the hedge, as they turned the road to my father's front gate, he filled 
his painting brushes, and from this slight glance rubbed their por- 
traits in with vast rapidity, and with marvellous resemblance. My 
father and others, who accompanied them down the avenue that 
faced this artificial ruin, were actually startled, thinking these figures 
the wraiths of Gresse and Grose. On nearing them, however, they 
appeared mere daubs. This frolic of Zoffany's caused the fat, 
facetious Grose, great merriment, at the expense of Gresse, who 
could not, or would not, see the joke. Though a good-natured and 
friendly-hearted man, Gresse was very irritable, and could not 
patiently endure the least observations upon the stupendosity of 
his figure. This, indeed, is verified in a story of his late Majesty, 
and the too-sensitive painter, which happened whilst my father 
was in attendance upon the Royal family. 

" Gresse, on his first introduction as a teacher at the Royal palaces, 
had been told by Muller, page to the then young Prince Edward, that 
the etiquette was, if by accident he met the King or any member of 
the Royal family within the palace, to stand respectfully still let 
them pass, and take no notice, unless those great personages con- 
descended to notice him. 

" It happened that during his many professional visits at Bucking- 


ham House, at Kew, and at Windsor, during the first two years' 
attendance, he had never by any chance met the King. 

" One day, however, whilst waiting to attend the Queen, and 
amusing himself in looking at the painted ceiling in the great audience 
chamber, a door suddenly opened, and by a side glance he perceived 
himself in the Royal presence. It was no less a personage than His 
Majesty, King George the Third, who entered alone. 

" Struck, no doubt, with the extraordinary bulk and general 
contour of the figure of the artist, for he stood with his hands behind 
him, grasping his cocked hat, and his legs straddled wide, with his 
head thrown back, the King advanced to the middle of the room, and 
eyed him with apparent surprise. Gresse, remembering the point 
of etiquette, dropped his head to its natural position and stood 

" After his Majesty had taken this survey, he walked round, whilst 
Gresse, wishing a trap-door to open under his feet, remained, nothing 
short of a waxed figure, beneath a tropical sun. At length the King, 
unconscious, we may reasonably suppose, of the misery of the sen- 
sitive artist, walked to some distance, and, turning round, took a 
view of him right in front. Gresse, determined to show the King 
that he really was not a statue, regardless of further etiquette, made 
to the sovereign a most profound bow, which the King, understanding, 
as it is supposed, he immediately retired. 

" To Calze, and his painting of the Roman ruin also, a tale is 
attached, which may not be entirely unworthy of relating. . . . He was 
capricious and litigious, though, by fits, as generous as the most liberal 
of his compeers. Like most Italians, however, being no economist, 
he got into pecuniary difficulties, and to get out of them again would 
sometimes fix the consequences upon an employer, or even a friend. 

" Zoffany, who ever had his wits about him, had known Signor 
Calze well, and advised my father, before he left England, to beware 
of his tricks : saying, ' Mine friend Angelo, I would advise you to 
obtain in writing, that this fine temple, at the bottom of the garden 
this ruin is not to be rebuilt up at your expense ; for ' (putting his 
finger on his nose) ' if the Signor should happen to want some monies, 
though this is painted con amore, it may chance to end al contrario : 
Gourde lo chi e take care he not send a you se long bill.' 

" My father smiled at the precaution, and was incredulous, saying 
' No no my dear Mister Zoffany he can never treat me so.' 

" My mother, however, who had more penetration, by a little 
playful management, procured a written testimony from him, of the 
work being done as a tribute in kind." 



WE have already alluded to the fact that Zoffany's skill in portraiture 
was brought under the notice of the King, who honoured the artist with 
his approval, and, when the Royal Academy was founded, nominated 
him as one of its original members. 

Not only did His Majesty do this, but his interest in the painter went 
further, for he sat himself for a portrait, commissioned one of the Royal 
family, another of the Queen and yet other works to which we refer 

George III also purchased from time to time several examples of 
Zoffany's work, showing altogether an unusual interest in the artist. 

The first picture of the Royal family exhibited by Zoffany at the 
Royal Academy (211), is that of the King, the Queen and six of their 
children. It still hangs at Windsor Castle. 

Walpole commented upon it in sneering fashion. " In Vandyke 
dresses," says he, " ridiculous a print of it," l and to the one of the 
King exhibited in the following year (230) he is no more complimentary. 
" Very like," says he, " but most disagreeable and unmeaning figure." 

In fact Walpole, while commenting on most of the pictures sent in 
by Zoffany to the Exhibitions of the Royal Academy and supplying us 
with many of the missing names, does not seem to have held a very 
favourable opinion of the artist, as a portrait painter, reserving his praise, 
and that is generally full and definite, for the theatrical compositions in 
which he considered Zoffany excelled. 

We must not, however, dismiss the Royal group in Walpole's airy 
fashion, as the painting, although weak in composition and wholly un- 
satisfactory in its grouping, has a special interest of its own. It was 
engraved in mezzotint by Earlom, and then from the figure of the King 
and from those of the Queen and the children there were modelled Derby- 
Chelsea groups in porcelain biscuit. These are now rare. Of the one 
of the King there appears to have been two models, differing slightly 

1 The Windsor Castle one was engraved by Earlom. 



By permission from Blacker's " Old English China' 

Coll. of H.M. The King Lord Chamberlain's Department plioio 


Exhibited at Royal Academy in 1770 and engraved 


one from the other. George III is represented standing by a pedestal, 
upon which he rests his left arm, his right hand resting on his hip. The 
head is turned towards the right. On the pedestal, in one of the models, 
is the crown with the sceptre on a cushion. In the other model there 
is a different crown with the orb, and there are other minor distinctions 
between the two. One example is in the British Museum, and is illus- 
trated in R. L. Hobson's Catalogue of the Old English Porcelain (Plate XX). 
The British Museum example, according to Mr. Hobson's catalogue, is 
mentioned in a catalogue of the principal additions made to the stock 
of the Bedford Street warehouse in 1773 or 1774, thus : " Their present 
Majesties, the King and Queen and Royal family, in three grouped pieces 
in biscuit, the centrepiece represents the King in a Vandyck dress " 
(see p. 61). 

In the example in the British Museum the figure is set upon a pillar 
and base, " glazed and coloured lapis lazuli blue, veined in gold." The 
mark is a combined anchor and D in gold. 

Lord Lincolnshire has in his possession the two groups belonging to 
the set of which the British Museum possesses the figure of George III. 1 
It is believed that this particular figure was sold away from the other 
to the Museum, by one of his ancestors. The two groups 2 which he still 
possesses are, first, one of Queen Charlotte with the two young Princesses, 
and second, one of the four younger Princes, one of whom is playing with 
a dog, another should be holding a cockatoo, and the two elder stand at 
the back. Both these groups are extremely fine in their execution, and 
the treatment of the lace collars and draperies is of unusual delicacy. 
The cockatoo which Prince William should be holding in his hand is, 
however, missing in Lord Lincolnshire's group. Mr. Amor, of King 
Street, St. James's, also possesses two of the groups, the one representing 
Queen Charlotte and the Princesses, and the figure of George III. From 
these two our illustration is taken. The third group, of the four children, 
is of extreme rarity. We have only been able to hear of Lord Lincoln- 
shire's example, but we have been told that there is in a private collection 
yet another, and that in it the cockatoo, which is missing from Lord 
Lincolnshire's group, can be seen. 

It will be noticed on comparing our illustration with the one taken 
by the King's permission from the original painting, that the workers in 
porcelain have not followed the painting in all its details, but while aiming 
at a general resemblance have varied the composition, probably for 
technical reasons, at their own will. Thus the vase at the back of the 
group of the Queen does not appear in Zoffany's picture, nor does the 

1 An example of the figure of the King was sold at Christies, in 1875, for 47. 

* Lord Lincolnshire's groups were exhibited at the Bethnal Green Museum in 1875. 


ornamental pedestal on which the King rests his arm. Again, the crown, 
orb and cushion are quite differently placed in the painting, and the 
draperies, especially those of Princess Charlotte, fall in different fashion. 
On the whole, however, the arrangement made by Zoffany has been 
followed, and the existence of the groups is proof of the admiration with 
which the original painting was greeted by the general public. 1 

Zoffany did, however, create a sensation at the first Exhibition of the 
Academy by his picture of " Abel Drugger " (212). 

He called it " The last scene of the 2nd Act in the Alchymist," and 
Walpole's long and interesting note upon it reads thus 

" This most excellent picture of Burton, J. Palmer and Garrick^as 
Abel Drugger is one of the best pictures ever done by this Genius. 
Sir Joshua Reynolds gave him 100 for it. Ld. Carlisle offered the 
latter 20 guineas more for it. Sir Joshua said he should have it for 
the 100 if his Lordship would give the 20 to Zoffani which he did." 

The story, so alluded to by Walpole, and which does great honour to 
Reynolds, is told also by Mary Moser, 2 and again in somewhat different 
fashion by an anonymous contemporary writer who gives, moreover, a 
larger sum (50 guineas) as the premium paid. 

This is borne out by the tradition at Castle Howard which is to the 
effect that one hundred and fifty guineas was paid for the painting. 

The other narrative reads thus 3 

" The late Earl of Carlisle, at this period, conversing with Sir 
Joshua, again expressed a wish that he had been the possessor of this 
said picture of Garrick in the character of ' Abel Drugger.' He had 
often endeavoured to persuade his friend, Sir Joshua, to part with 
it. ' Well, my Lord,' said he, ' what premium will you pay upon my 
purchase ? ' ' Any sum you will name,' replied the Earl. ' Then 

1 See Haslam's work on the Old Derby Porcelain Factory, 1876, p. 248 ; and Slacker's 
work on Old English China. 

2 Mary Moser, R.A., so Smith tells us, wrote to Fuseli concerning the Royal Academy 
Exhibitions, and thus refers to the picture : " I suppose there has been a million of 
letters sent to Italy with an account of our Exhibition, so it will be only telling you 
what you know already to say that Reynolds was like himself in pictures which you 
have seen ; Gainsborough beyond himself in a portrait of a gentleman in a Vandyke 
habit, and Zoffany superior to everybody in a portrait of Garrick in the character 
of Abel Drugger with two other figures, Subtile and Fall. Sir Joshua agreed to give an 
hundred guineas for the picture ; Lord Carlisle half-an-hour after offered Reynolds 
twenty to part with it, which the Knight generously refused; resigned his intended 
purchase to the Lord and the emolument to his brother artist. (He is a gentleman !) " 

3 Literary Gazette, July 8, 1826. 


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it is yours, my Lord, if you will pay me one hundred guineas and add 
fifty as a gratuity to Mr. Zoffany.' His lordship consented, and so, 
to the credit as well as satisfaction of all parties, it was settled. The 
picture is now in the gallery at his lordship's late seat at Castle 

" Sir Joshua x not infrequently added to the means of contemporary 
artists of merit, by this delicate method of transferring what he 
himself had purchased in the first instance as a compliment to the 
talent which he thus brought into notice. Indeed, it could not fail 
to serve a rising artist to receive so marked a compliment as to have 
one of his works placed in the private collection of the most illustrious 
living painter in the world; one, too, whose opinion almost gave 
universal law to the taste of his age." 

The painting is certainly one of the best that Zoffany ever produced 
and has always been a popular one. It has often been exhibited, was 
twice at the British Institution (1814 and 1840), twice at Whitechapel 
(1906 and 1910), once at the Grafton Gallery (1897), and once at the 
New Gallery (1891). Its dimensions are 41 1 x 39, and in it Burton 
and Palmer are playing the parts of Subtile and Fall. 

Lord Carlisle greatly admired Zoffany's work and was the purchaser 
of two more of his pictures, one representing Foote as Major Sturgeon 
in the Mayor of Garrett, and the other depicting Foote and Weston in The 
Devil Upon Two Sticks (Act II, Scene ii.). 

Both of these also have frequently been exhibited, and the latter, as 
well as the Abel Drugger group, were engraved. 

The only other picture Zoffany sent in that first year of the Academy 
was a small whole-length portrait of a young gentleman. 

It is suggested that either this picture, or one exhibited in the following 
year under an almost identical description, is the portrait of James Sayer 
at the age of thirteen, represented fishing, which now belongs to Lady 
Sayer, inasmuch as the portrait in question was engraved by Houston 
in mezzotint and published by Robert Sayer, the boy's father, in 1772. 
It was probably, therefore, exhibited in 1770 or in 1771. 

One of the two portraits is almost certainly that representing Ralph 
Izard, as a boy, seated under a tree, holding an open book and with a dog 
at his feet, because that work is dated 1771, and, moreover, is stated to 
have Zoffany's signature upon it, both very rare occurrences in works 
by this painter (see p. 20). 

1 Sir Joshua commissioned Mr. Garrard, then a young and promising artist, to 
paint a picture of a brewery, in compliment to the great talent exhibited by him in a 
similar painting of the brewery of Messrs. Calvert. 


Izard eventually became a notable man in the United States, and 
was one of the delegation from South Carolina to the first Congress. 

The portrait still belongs to his descendants and is now in the posses- 
sion of Mr. Louis Maingault of Charleston, South Carolina, the great 
grandson of the boy represented in the painting. 

Two of the pictures exhibited in 1771 it is possible still to trace. 

One is that of the King, to which we have already alluded, Walpole's 
" disagreeable and unmeaning figure," and represents George III in scarlet 
uniform with a white waistcoat and wearing the ribbon and star of the 

The other, called " A Beggar's Family " (232), belongs to Mr. Maldwin 
Drummond, and is a spirited representation of a group of mendicants set 
in a landscape. 

Then, in 1772, we come upon one of Zoffany's most notable works, 
and again he was honoured by a lengthy comment from Walpole. 

The picture (290) was styled " The Portraits of the Academicians of 
the Royal Academy," and it was a high compliment to Zoffany that he 
should have been selected to paint this, the first group in which the 
members of the newly-founded society were represented. It was at 
once bought by George III, and is now in the Royal collection at 
Buckingham Palace. 

Walpole said of it 

" This excellent picture was done by candle light; he made no 
design for it, but clapped in the artists as they came to him, and yet 
all the attitudes are easy and natural, most of the likenesses strong. 
There is a print from it." 

Anthony Pasquin (John Williams) in his Authentic History, is not 
so complimentary, but his efforts to be sardonic in his criticism : are not 
quite so successful when he refers to this picture as when, later on, he 
alluded to other works by Zoffany. Of this he says 

' His combined portraits of the Royal Academicians is a picture 
so similar to all his best efforts, that it may be offered as an instance 
of his manner and ability. The characters are well preserved, 
but the outline is too coarse, and the colouring wants harmony ; I 
shall consolidate any farther critique in this declaration, that I believe 
he cannot paint with common estimation, in the absence of a model." 

On the other hand, the Literary Gazette of July 8, 1826, commenting 
on the picture when it was exhibited at the British Institution, gives us 

1 Authentic History of . . . (he Royal Academicians, by Anthony Pasquin. 

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several pieces of interesting information concerning the work and some 
good-natured criticism. It thus speaks of the painting, and we give the 
extract in extenso with its own footnotes 

" It was well observed by Jeremiah Meyers 1 that ' some men 
become ancients even in their own age.' Meyers said many good 
things, and this was said upon the picture of the Royal Academicians, 
now chronicled as part and parcel of that Royal collection, which, 
by the liberality of our King, is at present exhibiting as the chief 
lion of this great sight-seeing epoch. Little did Frank Hayman 2 
think, who rarely thought for to-morrow, when he sat to his friend, 
Johan Zoffany 3 that he should be so soon handed down to fame, 
in such company too, as one of the old English masters. His portrait, 
which is a very strong resemblance, was not entirely finished from 
the life ; for Master Frank was of too volatile a temper to afford even 
a brother Academician a fair number of sittings. 

" Zoffany, however, managed to stamp the canvas with this, his 
faithful portrait, partly, we may suppose, from the strength of his 
memory. There is a head of Hayman, by Sir Joshua Reynolds, 
which was copied by his pupil, Mr. Taylor, on whose authority we 
venture to vouch for the fidelity of Frank's face and figure in the 
picture of the R.A.'s. 

" It is said, and on good authority we believe, that Zoffany, at 
the period of painting this artistic group, having a pique against 
Richard Wilson, the landscape-painter, erst his bottle-companion, 
determined to let off a graphic squib at his new propensity, that of 
preferring a pipe and a pot to the drawing of a cork. In the sequence, 
he introduced on the chimney-piece immediately over Wilson's 
head 4 a quart tankard of stout, with its foaming top, and two crossed 
tobacco-pipes, carefully covering the sottish symbols with gold- 
beater's skin, on which he painted a plaster case of a Gorgon's head. 
It was so sent for public exhibition, under the suspicion of Zoffany's 

1 Jeremiah Meyers, a native of Tubingen, miniature painter to the Queen of 
England, and one of the earliest Royal Academicians. His portrait is in this picture. 

2 Francis Hayman is seated near him, whose portrait describes to the life his bold, 
athletic person. In this we behold the renowned painter who had the pugilistic set-to 
with the great Marquis of Granby, whose magnificent portrait by Reynolds is on the 
opposite side of the gallery. 

3 Zoffany has introduced his own portrait in the group. He is seated in the front, 
with his palette and pencils. 

4 Wilson is represented at the back of the group. His nose herein is of moderate 
dimensions, not having attained to that remarkable prominence subsequently repre- 
sented in the sketch by Sir George B . . . t [Beaumont], and other no less faithful 
resemblances, alike done con amore. 


intending to remove the skin secretly, and thus expose the falling of 
his former convive. But whether his splenetic humour subsided, or 
he more prudently thought the disclosure of the trick would offend 
the gravity of the magisterial committee of the R.A.'s, he kept his 
secret till the exhibition closed ; and after bantering Wilson, through 
the whisperings of a select few, to whom he showed this sport of his 
pencil, he painted out the Gorgon, the pipes and the pot, and com- 
pleted the composition as it now appears. 

" The Royal Academy of Painters, Architects and Sculptors, like the 
theatres, under whose roofs have flourished the actors, singers and 
others, will serve from age to age as a memento mori ; for new genera- 
tions of painters and dramatic performers, rapidly succeeding those 
whom we, by way of contradistinction, call old, in the course of a 
very few years, in the ' Mind's eye,' really convert them into ancients. 
Thus the very picture before view, which records the portraits of the 
Royal Academicians of the last reign, all, with their honoured founder, 
gone to the tomb, presents to the mind a band of worthies already 
endeared to their posterity by the tender associations of the past, 
wrapping their memory with that sacred mantle which imagination 
draws between the living and the illustrious dead. 

"It is doubtless from this general respect for men of genius in 
the arts, who have done honour to their age, that the next age delights 
to preserve their memory, by dwelling on all the minor operations 
of their ingenious career ; hence every trait of their habits, private as 
well as professional, is sought with avidity, related with pleasure, and 
listened to with delight. 

;< It seems that all the members of the Royal Academy sat to 
Zoffany for the occasion, excepting one, Sir Nathaniel Holland." x 

In a later issue of the same Gazette, the writer comments still further 
upon some of those who are represented in the picture. 

' Francis Hayman,' he says, ' who makes so important a figure 
in his coat, waistcoat and breeches of drab broadcloth and his Sunday 
wig (to use the words of his favourite pupil, now in his eighty- 
seventh year, and sitting at my elbow), looking as large as life.' 
This Francis Hayman was the ingenious author of those graphic 
decorations at Vauxhall, the painted walls. 

" Frank, another nightingale . . . kept his summer nights in the 
bowers of Vauxhall, and returned to his dormitory with the uprising 
of the lark. 

1 Nathaniel Dance when an R.A. He assumed the name of Holland when he 
retired and obtained his title ten years later still. AUTHOR. 


" He lived in the early days with old Jonathan Tyers, in Craven 
Buildings, and was a useful man in the parish of St. Mary-le-Strand. 
The respectable inhabitants of his silent street, situated, to be sure, 
in the murky bosom of a vile neighbourhood, the far-famed Drury 
Lane these were wont to open their windows past midnight, to look 
for the watchman, who, even while going his limited rounds, was by 
certain timid matrons, unreasonably expected to be in his box. 
Complaints were preferred at the vestry, and the guardian of the 
night, though as trusty an old officer as any upon the staff, would 
have been cashiered had he not summoned ' a worthy gemman, one 
Mr. Hayman, who could speak to his character.' Frank, who was 
every man's friend, cheerfully obeyed the summons. ' Now, 
gemmen,' said old Time, ' now I shall be supported. There is 
Muster Hayman, who comes home at all hours. Did you, sir, ever 
find me off my post ? ' ' Never,' replied Hayman. ' Your testi- 
mony is sufficient, sir,' unanimously exclaimed the Board. . . . 

" Several members of this first list of R.A.'s . . . used to meet 
after the Vauxhall season at the Turk's Head in Greek Street, Soho ; 
Hayman, Zoffany, Wale, Moser, Carlini, Meyer, Peter Toms, Richard 
Wilson and others. . . . Zoffany and Hayman, familiarly Johann 
and Frank, were inseparable. Zoffany, who had a liberal supply of 
game, presents from his patrons, used to take a pheasant, a brace of 
partridges or woodcocks, to the bar and whisper mine hostess 
' Dress these for Mr. Hayman and me.' Frank used to entertain 
his friend with the frolics of London and Johan made him laugh in 
return, with the comicalities and naivete of his former friends in 
Yharmany. They were everlasting smokers. 

" John Gwynn, who was considered of sufficient talent to be 
incorporated in this band of artists, on the royal foundation, is now 
scarcely recognised even by name. Yet he was an ingenious 
designer, drew architectural subjects correctly, understood the 
contour of the human figure and was principally employed by the 
publishers. He drew all the figures for that capital folio work on 
the science of Fencing, published at a great expense by the elder 
Angelo, the plates to which were beautifully engraved by that able 
artist, the unhappy William Wynne Ryland, and his clever co- 
adjutators Grignion and Hall." 

Walpole's statement concerning the painting of this picture of the 
Royal Academicians must not be taken quite literally, as there are in 
existence at least two studies for it, one of them being in the possession 
of the Royal Academy itself. 


The group is really one of amazing interest and extremely cleverly 
lighted from the chandelier with its heavy shade in the centre of the room. 

The portraits of the two lady Academicians, Angelica Kauffmann and 
Mary Moser are depicted upon the wall, the former in a rectangular, 
the latter in an oval frame, as it was not considered seemly that the ladies 
should be seen in the " Life School." Leslie and Taylor, in their Life 
of Reynolds, thus allude to the painting * 

" ' The canvas which drew the densest crowd about it this year, 
and had almost as much success as West's " Death of Wolfe " the year 
before,' they state, ' was Zoffany's picture of the Academicians 
gathered about the model in the " Life School " at Somerset House. 
The picture is in the Royal collection, and is invaluable as a collection 
of characteristic figures and faces. Moser is setting the figure, which 
Zuccarelli and Yeo study the pose of, of the model, and Dr. William 
Hunter, a little behind them, with his hand on his chin, scans the 
action of the muscles on which he has lately been lecturing. Nathaniel 
Hone, with an expression and attitude of swaggering self-importance, 
leans on the screen which backs the model. Cosway, the Maccaroni 
miniaturist, displays his clouded cane and gold lace at full length 
in the left-hand corner. He is the only one present, besides Sir 
Joshua, who wears a sword. Zoffany, himself sitting, palette on 
thumb, in the right-hand corner of the composition, is the pendant 
to Cosway. Behind him, West leans on the rail, with more abandon- 
ment of action than we should expect in the formal and ceremonious 
young Quaker, in conversation with Cipriani and Gwynne, the 
architect, on his left. Seated on a drawing box, his figure set square, 
his legs apart, and his hands firmly planted on his knees, is the burly 
Hogarthian figure of Frank Hayman, looking like an incarnation of 
British sturdiness and straightforward manhood. Just before him, 
Sir Joshua, the centre figure of the composition, directs his ear- 
trumpet to the talk of Wilton and Chambers. The less conspicuous 
members of the Academy are ranged in a second line, even Tan 
Chet Qua, the ingenious Chinese modeller, is not forgotten. Wilson 
leans moodily in a corner, his hand thrust into his waistcoat, looking 
gloomy and unsuccessful. Hoare is seen in profile behind Cosway, 
but Gainsborough is absent. He lived in Bath, and never troubled 
himself with the meetings or business of the Academy, which had, 
in fact, taken him into its bosom, in spite of the most manifest 
evidences of indifference to that honour on his part.' ' 

1 Leslie and Tom Taylor's Life of Reynolds, I. v. 446-7. 


As regards the portrait of Richard Wilson, just alluded to, it may be 
well to mention that he stands in the recess of the room, hard up to the 
mantelshelf on which there certainly is the appearance of some slight 
alterations in the paint-work, as though something had been removed from 
the picture and the spot re-painted. Of several of the Academicians 
of 1770 this group gives us practically the only portraits extant, so that 
its interest is of a special character in that respect. 

It was, as we have said, engraved in mezzotint by Earlom in 1773, and 
a key also was prepared. The print is a rare one, as after a few impressions 
had been made from it, the plate was accidentally destroyed by fire, in 
Sayer's warehouse in Fleet Street. 

We reproduce an illustration from the original picture by gracious 
permission of the King, and also give the mezzotint by Earlom and his 
key to the figures in it. 

This, although the best known, is, however, by no means the chief 
work which Zoffany executed respecting the Royal Academy. Such an 
epithet belongs most certainly to his picture which now hangs at Burling- 
ton House in the Saloon, and which is entitled " The Antique School of 
the Royal Academy." It depicts the first occupants of the stately room 
at Somerset House, which in 1780 was used as the Antique School, and 
from the point of view of skilful composition and careful lighting, it 
was never excelled by any work the artist carried out. The room is a 
large one, with a panelled ceiling, richly decorated, it is said, by Angelica 
Kauffmann, West, and other Academicians. A meeting of the School 
is taking place by night. The casts from the antique are illuminated by 
oil-lamps with large triple reflectors, set up on high standards, and each 
student's easel is likewise illuminated by its own oil-lamp and reflector. 
Furthermore, there is a special lamp and reflector of more than ordinary 
power in front of the desk of the Keeper, which places his features in 
strong vivid light, and finally, the door of the apartment stands partly 
open, and some light from the staircase steals through the aperture, 
revealing the figure of a man in a wig, who is about to go out of the room. 
It will be seen, therefore, that Zoffany had set before him a very complex 
problem of lighting, and splendidly has he risen to the occasion. The 
painting is also a remarkably skilful composition. The casts, which 
include the Farnese Hercules, the Quoit Thrower, and other well-known 
antiques, are well set up, and the glow is reflected from them over that 
corner of the room, and spreads partly upon its ceiling and walls. Each 
student is seen busy with his sketch-book, and the separate groups 
scattered about the room produce a pleasing and satisfactory result, 
while the face of the Keeper (George M. Moser) is admirably painted, 
and gleams out from a shadowy wall of pictures with excellent effect. 


There is a visiting Academician or Professor, who is possibly Westmacott, 
to be seen just below the Keeper's desk, overlooking a student's work, 
and the painting on the whole may be regarded as one of the most successful 
that Zoffany ever executed, an absolute tour de force in dealing with a 
very complicated system of artificial lighting. 

The Literary Gazette states, however, that the famous " Life School " 
picture was not the first Zoffany had painted of a group of artists. 

Its allusion runs thus 

" This picture of an assembly of artists is not the first which Zoffany 
composed; he painted a group of the members of the St. Martin's 
Lane Academy, and made the studies from the individuals on the 
spot. Moser, who is represented as the foreground principal figure, 
was looking over the drawing of a student, Mr. Taylor, then a young 
man; and several are therein introduced who afterwards became 
distinguished members of the Royal Academy. 

' This picture, which was small, 1 was purchased by Nicholas 
Thomas Dall, scene-painter to Covent Garden Theatre, at whose 
death, in 1777, it became the property of Mr. Richards, Keeper of 
the Royal Academy, scene-painter, and Ball's successor. It was 
disposed of again by public auction, after Richard's decease, but to 
whom we know not. It would be worth inquiring, however, into 
whose hands this curiosity may have gotten; for such an interesting 
record should be preserved, as it would help to complete the portrait 
history of the artists of the English school, from its foundation in 
the last century. Such a picture, indeed, if equal in fidelity to the 
other early works of this master, might be entitled to the honour of 
a place in the Royal collection." 

This reference is one of considerable interest, but despite our most 
diligent inquiries we have been unable to learn anything of the missing 
small picture, which had evidently gone astray before 1826 and was even 
then being sought for. 

If only it could be found, this group would possess an interest quite 
equal to that of the " Life School " or the " Antique School," and in 
certain respects would surpass them in importance. Perchance the 
allusion to it here may lead to its discovery. 

At the same Exhibition in 1772, where the " Life School " appeared, 
there hung next to it (291) another group by Zoffany which was probably 
a commission from the King, and is still to be found at Windsor Castle, 
a prominent object on the Visitor's Landing. 

1 It cannot, therefore, be the picture at Burlington House just alluded to, although 
Moser is prominent in that one, as the Burlington House painting is a large one. 

Coll. of His Majesty the King Lord Chamberlain's Department photo 




It was only called " An Optician with his Attendant," but it represents 
Peter Dolland, the King's official instrument-maker, who just prior to 
1772 had supplied His Majesty with some new spectacles which had 
given great satisfaction. 

Dolland is depicted at work seated at a bench beneath a window and 
holding in his hand a lens. His assistant stands behind him. Walpole's 
praise of the picture is sincere, but critical. He wrote beside the entry 
in his catalogue, " Extremely natural, but the characters too common 
nature and the chiaroscuro destroyed by his servility in imitating the 
reflexions of the glasses." 

The group is not one that would appeal to the aristocratic Walpole. 
The figures are depicted in their ordinary working clothes, and the 
treatment is realistic to the last degree, partaking almost of the manner of 
Chardin and as true to life and character as in a picture by Velazquez. 
Zoffany, in this painting, shows himself thoroughly modern. For once 
he was done with the fripperies of fine clothes, court life or theatrical 
make-believe. He never painted a picture more honestly life-like and 
true than was this. It had no meretricious aid in the way of colour or 
effect, but was admirably lit, and the effect of the light was perfectly 
portrayed. It could be hung at the New English Art Club of to-day 
and might almost have been called an early work by Orpen in the catalogue 
or attributed to Wilson Steer. 

It stands alone in Zoffany's ceuvre, and was the finest piece of direct 
lighting he had yet attempted, and the most truthful he had created. 
Unfortunately, it was not generally approved, and Zoffany seems never 
again to have attempted a plain, simple group composed close to a 
window in a strong light, and to have relinquished for ever any attempt 
to paint in what we may now term the Chardin manner. 

It was in this year that Zoffany was naturalised, so the report on the 
lawsuit of Zoffany versus Tremando, referred to on p. 3 informs us, 
and his parish was declared in the deed of naturalisation as that of 
St. Anne's, Soho. 

The only other notable group which this period produced is presumably 
that depicting Queen Charlotte with her two brothers, Ernst and Georg, 
her sister Christiana, and three of her children. It is in the corridor at 
Windsor Castle, and is a very satisfactory and attractive picture. 1 

Zoffany describes it (1773, 320) as a "Portrait of Her Majesty in 

1 Of this picture Tom Taylor, in his Life of Reynolds, speaks thus : " Mr. Zoffany 
had the honour of exhibiting a portrait of Her Majesty in conversation with her two 
brothers and part of the Royal family, a commission from the King. The King liked 
Zoffany because he worked neatly, and painted the players in whom the King took a 
great interest." (Vol. II. p. 24). 


conversation with her two brothers and part of the Royal family," and 
there is no other work which corresponds to this description. Walpole, 
however, has unaccountably added to his catalogue the pencilled words, 
" And Lady Charlotte Finch," but the lady behind the Queen, who holds 
Princess Elizabeth as a baby in her arms, has always been styled Princess 
Christiana, the elder sister of the Queen, and Dr. Lionel Cust is convinced 
that this attribution is correct. 

It will be remembered that the lady was engaged to the Duke of 
Roxburgh prior to Queen Charlotte becoming affianced to the King, 
but as it was considered that it would be improper for her to marry a 
man who would be the subject, so to speak, of her younger sister as Queen 
of England, the match was abruptly broken off by the Prime Minister of 
the day, and owing to this interference by Lord Bute neither the Duke 
nor the Princess ever married. 

Walpole was usually so well informed and so accurate that to detect 
him in a slip, where the Royal family or his own personal friends are 
concerned, seems incredible, and yet there is no other picture to which 
he can have referred, and we can but conjecture that in his haste he did 
not recognise who the lady was or else that succeeding generations have 
been wrong in the attribution to this figure. 

On close examination it will surely be considered that the family 
likeness between the two sisters is of a marked order, and further that in 
so intimate a group Lady Charlotte would hardly have been represented, 
and even in such a case would not have been put into such close proximity 
to the Queen and Royal children. 

The Prince of Wales is represented standing on a seat by the side of 
his mother, while at her knee stands the Princess Royal, who is holding 
a doll. The mise en scene is in Windsor Park, and the group is depicted 
resting by a rustic bench under the trees. 

It is well conceived and cleverly grouped, and the technique is excellent, 
the portraits well drawn and finely delineated, the painting solid, crisp 
and pleasing, and the colour-scheme, albeit somewhat brilliant and a 
trifle over-showy in its strange mingling of colour, is not unpleasant, while 
the fabrics, always strong points with Zoffany, are exceedingly well 
represented and painted with accuracy and skill. 

As a companion to the group there hangs near to it in the same corridor 
another painting by Zoffany, probably executed at much the same time, 
in which Queen Charlotte is shown with her two elder children, but this 
time the scene is in Old Buckingham House, and the Queen, who is in 
white satin, sits near to her dressing-table and her profile reflection is 
cleverly depicted in the mirror upon it. 

Zoffany delighted in painting glass, and whether it was a mirror or 

Coll. of His Maiesly III,- K,n K 

GRori' Kiii'KKSKXTiNc 

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Lord Chamberlain's Department 



a wine-glass, a window or a decanter, it was always painted with con- 
summate skill and with complete control of his materials. 

In this picture the Prince of Wales is represented in Roman military 
costume and the Princess Royal in Oriental costume, as though, perchance, 
they were to appear at some children's party or masque in fancy dress. 

It is of interest to notice in it, the representation of a large and tall 
French clock, which now happens to stand in the corridor at Windsor 
Castle in close juxtaposition, with the painting in which it is actually 

Of the other paintings sent in by Zoffany to the Royal Academy, 
prior to his journey to Italy, we have not been able to trace either of them. 
The " Portrait of an Officer, small whole length " (292), has no name or 
other adjunct attached to it by which it can be identified ; the figure of 
" St. Cecilia " (1773, 368) and that of " A Sybil " (369), both three- 
quarters, have so far eluded our search, and " The Repose in the Flight 
into Egypt " (352), which is the only work he sent home for exhibition 
while he was in Italy, is probably to be found in some gallery or private 
home under quite another artist's name, as the work of Zoffany in religious 
pictures is not characteristic nor very acceptable. Walpole did not approve 
of either of these pictures. 

Of the " Sybil " he said : " Style of the good painters, but affected," 
while " The Repose " he dismisses with the one word, " wretched." There 
is no special interest, therefore, in tracing any of these works. 

The only other painting, a portrait (1773, 321), Walpole says, repre- 
sented Prince Ernst of Mecklenburg, and there is a portrait answering 
to this description in Queen Charlotte's old home in Germany, but as 
we have not seen it and are not likely to do so, it is impossible to say 
whether or not it is the picture which Zoffany sent to the Academy in 
that year. 

It seems almost certain that two other groups belonging to Lord 
Durham were painted at the time we are just now considering, especially 
as they appear to have been commissions to the artist from Garrick and 
represent him and his wife in their country home. To these we refer 
in detail later on. 

Yet other groups, closely resembling those at Windsor, merit some 
attention before we turn to two which are in some respects quite different 
in composition to them. 

If we are correct in our identification (see p. 27) of the portrait of 
Master Sayer fishing, as one of the pictures painted at this time, it is 
pretty certain that two other groups which belong to Lady Sayer were 
executed at the same time. In one of these Sayer, the print-seller, with 
his wife and son, are represented, in the other the same persons with a 


great-grandchild and a Madame de Pougens, who was Sayer's sister. In 
the former the family home is represented in the background and near 
by the river are some trees painted in similar fashion to those we have 
described in Lord Durham's pictures, but in somewhat broader fashion 
corresponding to the increased size of the picture. 

In both of them the painting of the fabrics betokens Zoffany's hand, 
and the tradition has been steady and persistent regarding their history, 
while what is very important is that neither of the three pictures has ever 
left the family and one of them certainly was engraved. 

Amongst single portraits painted at this time we must certainly place 
those of Benjamin Stillingfleet and Lord Sandwich. The former died 
in 1771, the portrait of the latter was engraved in 1774. Engravings of 
both were the work of Valentine Green. 

Stillingfleet, the naturalist (1702-1771) is alluded to by Nichols in 
his Literary Anecdotes, where we are told that the portrait of him by 
Zoffany was engraved with the following inscription : ' To revive in 
their memory the image of so worthy a man, many of these prints have 
been distributed amongst his friends. Multis ille bonis flebilis occidit." 
The plate was engraved by Valentine Green, but purposely destroyed 
after the prints were made, and in consequence the prints are very rare. 
It was republished by Basire. " The picture then," says Nichols, " be- 
longed to Mr. E. H. Locker." It now belongs to Mr. Godfrey Locker- 
Lampson, M.P. 

The one of Lord Sandwich (John Montagu, fourth Earl, 1718-1792), 
hangs in the Trinity House, another version of it is in the possession of 
his descendants, and there is a copy of it in the National Gallery. 

Zoffany's acquaintance at this time with Lord Sandwich led to some 
interesting developments and became responsible for several pictures of 
an unusual character. 

Sandwich, then First Lord of the Admiralty and a Secretary of State, 
was much interested in Captain Cook ; and to acknowledge the confidence 
and assistance he had rendered him, Cook had given his patron's name 
to a group of islands he had discovered, and the Sandwich Islands they 
are to the present day. He interested Zoffany in the question of circum- 
navigation and in general exploration and introduced him to some of the 
seamen of the day who were eagerly discussing such questions. 

Cook, who was about to set out on one of his voyages, desired to have 
an artist with him who could picture the places that the explorer visited, 
and make sketches of people and scenery and animals which might be 
brought back to England as evidence of what had been seen. 

It was, it would appear, Lord Sandwich who suggested to Sir Joseph 
Banks that he should face all the perils and trials of another long journey 

Coll. of [he Trinilv f louse, Lomlon 

V. Gnvn rn^rnvcd thi* picture 

Cull. <>//.<() Surer 

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round the world, and he, with his accustomed energy, was ready not only 
to take the journey, but also to bear the enormous expense of it. 

Everything was this time to be carried out in princely fashion. Books 
and instruments were purchased with lavish expenditure, and Zoffany, 
who was offered the position of principal artist on board, was to have 
three draughtsmen under him. 

He, having always the restless spirit of adventure within him, and 
tempted by the emoluments he was likely to receive, agreed to accept 
the post, and set about making preparations for so long and momentous 
a voyage. 

Presently, however, it was found that the Navy Board was unable to 
provide accommodation for all the party, and so Banks had to retire from 
any personal share in the expedition. 

Then a more serious difficulty arose. The report upon the chief 
ship that had been provided, the Resolution, was exceedingly unsatisfactory. 
Even the pilot declined " to take charge of her further than the Nore 
without a fair wind," and she was condemned as quite unequal to the 
work that was proposed, nay, more, as " unseaworthy " and " unsafe." 

Mr. Edward Smith, who wrote the Life of Sir Joseph Banks, 1 dis- 
covered an important paper which relates the whole story and this he 

The ship, it reported, " had a small cabin and was remarkably low 
between decks." 

This was altered and the cabin was raised eight inches in height, 
but then a round-house was built over it and this made the vessel top- 
heavy; " so cranky," says the paper, " that she could not go to sea." 

There were other objections to the vessel, and it was found also that 
a great deal of jealousy and bitter feeling had been aroused by the expedi- 
tion, so much so that the Navy Board not only took no trouble to give 
proper accommodation for the astronomers, botanists, naturalists and 
draughtsmen who were to have gone out at Banks' own expense, but put 
every obstacle in the way of their going. 

At length, all the scientific men withdrew from the expedition and 
carried with them the artists, " convinced," says the document, " of the 
impossibility of our going out in the state the ship was now reduced to," 
but the Navy Board ordered the vessels to start, and Hodges, who was at 
that time only a student in architecture, joined as Landscape and Figure 
Painter, and so the Resolution and Adventure set sail from Plymouth on 
July 12, 1772, and were safely back in England in 1775. 

Meantime, some of those persons whom he had met at Lord Sandwich's 
house gave Zoffany commissions and he started to paint some broad 
1 Life of Banks by Smith (1911), p. 25. 


simple groups of portraits of men in naval uniform and amid naval 

To this period belong two delightful groups. 

One represents the cabin of H.M.S. Norfolk, in which are depicted 
Admiral Sir Samuel Cornish, Richard Kempenfelt, his flag-captain, 
memorable for his death in the Royal George ; and Thomas Parry, Secre- 
tary of the Expedition to Manila and ancestor of the late Thomas Gambier 
Parry and Sir Hubert Parry who now owns the picture. 

The portraits were, it is stated, begun prior to 1762, the date of the 
expedition, or at least one of them was, but the picture does not seem 
to have been completed till somewhere about 1772, having perhaps been 
laid aside in view of other and more pressing work, or, perhaps, to obtain 
the portrait of one of the three personages represented in it. 

Another similar composition belongs to Colonel Prideaux-Brune 
and represents John Wilkes and Sergeant Glynn in conversation. 

To this we refer later on when allusion is made to another portrait 
of Wilkes. 

Attributed to this same period is a painting of Commander Phipps, 
afterwards Lord Mulgrave, who was in charge of the Racehorse in its 
expedition to the Arctic regions and whom Zoffany has accordingly 
represented in the midst of Arctic snows and holding a long harpoon. 
This is now in the National Portrait Gallery. 

There are yet other portraits of men connected with the Navy or 
Mercantile Marine which Zoffany seems to have executed at this time, but 
the portrait of Captain Cook himself , l which hangs at Greenwich, although 
closely resembling the work of Zoffany, is given to Nathaniel Dance 
(afterwards Sir N. Holland), and in all probability the attribution is 
correct. The picture is not at the present time shown to the public, so 
we have been unable to inspect it. 

Of Captain Cook, however, Zoffany did paint a picture, but it was 
later on, and represented his death in 1779. Perhaps he painted it just 
after he returned home from Italy. 

The scene is derived from a drawing by Hodges and sets forth the 
foul murder of Cook by some savages at Hawaii, when he was claiming 
restitution of a boat which these islanders had seized and which they 
refused to return. The explorer, Lieut. Phillips, who was with him and 
the sailors of the party, are skilfully painted, and two at least of the figures 
are worthy of Zoffany at his best, especially in the fine painting of fabrics 
and uniform and in the admirable draughtsmanship, but the savages, 
whom he had never seen, are disproportionate and absurd, while some of 

1 Mr. John Lane, the publisher of this book, has in his possession the bracket clock 
which stood in Captain Cook's cabin when he went round the world. 

Coll. of Sir Hubert I'arry, Hart. 

Plmto by the courtesy at the Aruniiel Society 


Coll, of Messrs. Leggatt 


Coll. of Mr. Wm. Hafjtly 


Attributed toZoffauy 


them are gigantic in figure far beyond ordinary possibilities, and they 
are arrayed in all sorts of strange and imaginary costumes. Zoffany has, 
in a romantic vein, exaggerated the details of Hodges' sketch, and produced 
a picture of small importance as an historical document and of comparatively 
slight interest as a work of art. 

There is a very odd picture in the Rotherham Museum which is 
attributed on an old tradition to Zoffany, and is declared to represent 
Captain Cook and his family. They are all seated on a flight of steps 
and hold various objects relative to circumnavigation, a log, a square, a 
map, sealed papers, etc., but the painting does not offer much resemblance 
to the work of our painter. 

After all, however, Zoffany never went with Cook. He is said to have 
spent over 1000 making elaborate preparations for the voyage, buying 
sketch-books and paper, canvasses and colours with his usual extravagance 
and impetuosity, and then found that the accommodation to be provided 
for him was so inadequate that all his preparations had been in vain. 

Banks, also, was exasperated at the arrangements contemplated by the 
Navy Board, and did not at all approve of the additions that were being 
made to the ships for accommodation of artists, naturalists and botanists 
with all their paraphernalia. 

He considered that the safety of the ships was being endangered and 
that the persons whom he had selected would not have suitable places for 
their accommodation and comfort, therefore he withdrew his support, 
and with his withdrawal came that of Zoffany also. Hodges, as we have 
seen, went instead and brought back with him a vast number of drawings 
and sketches. 

Zoffany's enterprise came to a premature end, and the artist, who had 
set his mind on travel, was grievously disappointed and much annoyed. 

The offer, however, for him to go to Italy, to which we refer in the 
next chapter, came just at the opportune moment. 



HAVING been sorely disappointed in respect of the voyage to the 
South Seas, Zoffany became even more restless and seemed unable to 
settle down quietly in England. 

He was also, it is said, in some financial difficulties arising partly from 
the preparations he had made for the voyage with Cook, and partly from 
the expensive way in which he had been living. His success had turned 
his head. He had become persona gratissima at Court and had found 
many acquaintances amongst the rich and influential persons in Society, 
with the result that he strove to vie with them in fine clothes and sumptuous 
entertainments, and soon found that his earnings, large as they were, were 
not commensurate to such an expenditure. 

He was to have had a considerable fee for his journey with Cook, so we 
are informed in the Press of the day, and this with the right of disposal of 
the pictures afterwards, would have put his affairs straight. 

The newspapers of March 26, 1771, thus speak of the projected 

" We hear that Mr. Zoffany, the painter, who has engaged to go 
with Mr. Bankes on his voyage to the South Seas, is to have one 
thousand pounds, a third share of all curiosities, and other profits 
that may arise from the voyage, with the right of disposal of such 
pictures as he may make of the different people, countries, etc., he is 
also to forfeit the penalty of one thousand pounds should he not go." 

As all this had come to naught Zoffany bethought himself of a journey 
to Italy, and thence of a visit to his own native parts, where he expected 
to be able to acquire new commissions and greater dignity. He appears 
to have suggested this idea to the King who was quite ready to encourage 
and assist him, and a contemporary writer 1 speaks thus of the King's 
generosity - 

" Having expressed a wish to visit Italy, his late majesty generously 
assisted Zoffany in providing the means for his journey. It was 

1 Good Old Days of Hon. John Company, II. 191. 


owing to a desire hinted by the Queen, on his departure, that Zoffany 
produced the picture of the Florence Gallery which is now exhibiting 
in this magnificent collection. The Queen requested Zoffany, if 
he visited Florence, and could find convenient opportunity, to make 
a sketch of the celebrated gallery there. Exceeding his commission 
he produced the elaborate and highly meritorious picture in question, 
which, after his return to England, finishing with the utmost care, 
he submitted to their Majesties at Buckingham House." 

According to this statement it was Queen Charlotte's suggestion that 
a picture should be made of the Tribuna, and this was exactly what 
Zoffany desired. It gave a reason for his journey and enabled him to 
travel as the possessor of Royal commands and to draw his pay from the 
King for a definite object and purpose. Mrs. Papendiek tells us, however, 
that in her opinion, " when the proposal was made to him to go abroad, 
he was in the receipt of a good income, and was classed as one of the 
first, if not the first, in his line. He was," she adds, " to be paid for his 
journey to Florence and back, and was to be allowed 300 a year while 
painting the Tribune of the Gallery." l 

Such an arrangement was eminently satisfactory and Zoffany prepared 
to leave England. 

First of all he had to resign from the Society of Artists, 2 a step which 
he ought to have taken when nominated a member of the Royal Academy, 
but which he had neglected to do, and accordingly he wrote the following 
letter to the Secretary which is still preserved in his archives in the Library 
of the Royal Academy and for a copy of which we are indebted to the 
kindly aid of Mr. W. T. Whitley. Thus he writes 

" SIR, 

" Sensible of the regard shown me by you and the Directors 
and Fellows of the Incorporated Society of Artists, by their unanimity 
in re-electing me a Director of the Society for the present year, as 
well as in their choice of me into the Committee for the Government 
of the Academy : it is with great regret that I am constrained to 
acquaint you that my business requires me, very soon, to leave 
England for some time and consequently must deprive me of all 
opportunities of attending to the affairs of the Society, and being also 
sensible that there are many ingenious gentlemen amongst us who are 
equally desirous to give all possible attention for the promoting of 
so useful an institution, and that my continuance in the direction and 
in the Committee during my absence will be attended with much 

1 Mrs. Papendiek, I. 82. 2 The Society continued to exist until 1791. 


inconvenience to the body by keeping such other gentlemen from 
giving the necessary assistance, I must beg leave of you and the 
Society to resign my opportunities. Assuring that I am with the 
greatest respect for you and the Society in general, 
" Sir, 

" Your most obedient servant, 


" November 22, 1769." 

Then in an extravagant mood he had purchased the lease of a country 
villa near Brentford, called London Style, had furnished it with some 
taste, and had spent a considerable sum of money upon it. 

This had to be sold prior to his departure, and the sale was thus 
advertised in the public press for 1772 

' To be sold by auction by Mr. Christie on the premises on Monday 
next at one o'clock. The improved lease of a pleasant villa with 
Coach House, Stabling and convenient offices. Pleasure-grounds 
beautifully laid out and Lawns refreshed with Canals. The whole 
between seven and eight acres, the property of John Zoffany, Esq. 
The above premises are situate near the six-mile-stone on the road 
leading to Brentford. At the same time will be sold by auction the 
neat household furniture and other effects." 

A curious anecdote, signed by an unknown writer, E., concerning this 
house 1 appeared in the Examiner for Jan. 27, 1828. Part of it con- 
cerns Zoffany's return from India, but the story may well be introduced 
at this stage as we make no other allusion to the residence in question. 

It would appear that the property was not sold prior to Zoffany's 
departure but after he had left, and that then the villa was entirely rebuilt. 

E. writes thus 

" At the time this artist was disposing of his property pre- 
paratory to going to India, he had several dozens of favourite port, 
of which , in the event of his living to return to this country he wished 
to resume the possession ; and accordingly, none but his old gardener 
being in the secret, a deep pit was dug in the garden of his country 
house (London Style; near the six-mile-stone on the Brentford 
Road). Into this pit a butt was lowered, and at night the wine 
was closely packed in it, the pit filled up, and the gardener left to 

1 We are indebted to Mr. Stephen Wheeler for drawing our attention to this 
reference. See also a painting of the Wetton family in appendix under Kennedy. 


; ''^ l*^: 


permission vf Messrs. M . Knottier C- Co. from their K\lii!>itj<m of the r.o;7:s <>/ Thomas Rn^huuison, March, 




take care of the premises until they were sold. This being settled, 
Zoffani sailed for India in search of wealth, and was successful. 
Returning with a comfortable independence, and three hundred and 
sixty-five shirts (fine Indian manufacture, with a supernumerary 
one for leap-year), this ample stock of body linen was seized by the 
Custom-house officers as contraband goods; the shirtless artist 
memorialised the Board; the Board gravely discussed what was a 
reasonable number of shirts to supply a gentleman with a change, 
decided it to be about six dozen, and confiscated the remainder. 
He now turned his thoughts to London Style, found it belonged to 
Mr. Wetton, a retired confectioner, whom he saw, and made over- 
tures for the re-purchase of it; but as this could not be arranged, 
he communicated to Mr. W. the secret of the hidden wine, and 
offered to point out the spot, and give him half, if he would allow 
it to be dug up. The offer was as freely accepted as given. On 
the appointed day labourers were in attendance ; the Brentford stage 
set down Zoffani early at the door of the ex-confectioner's new-built 
house, where he was cordially received ; and with as little delay as 
possible they proceeded to the garden. But now a difficulty arose 
that Zoffani had not anticipated ; the new house had not been built 
on the site of the old one, the grounds had been enlarged, new 
walks had been made, the old trees had been removed, new ones 
had been planted; the whole scene had been so changed that none 
of the land-marks in the artist's mind could be traced. The old 
gardener could probably have told where the wine was buried, had 
he not been buried, too. Many borings and diggings were made on 
that and on a succeeding day, but almost at random, and quite 
without success. After half-spoiling the garden and grounds, the 
search was abandoned ; and it remains in doubt whether the wine 
is still interred, or whether the old gardener . . . 


We have alluded in an earlier chapter to Zoffany's first wife, who had 
returned to her own people and her own land, and who is declared to have 
died at Coblenz. 

Of his second wife, who accompanied him to Italy, Mrs. Papendiek, 
who knew her well, gives a long account in her Court and Private Life 
in the Time of Queen Charlotte, a work which is now somewhat scarce. 
The story is not one which is to Zoffany's credit, and as Mrs. Papendiek 
was a garrulous old lady, upon whose memory complete reliance cannot 
be placed, it may be an inaccurate one, but it is well to give it in Mrs. 
Papendiek 's own words. Thus she writes 


" Dear Mrs. Zoffany was the friend of my youthful days; it was 
always a holiday to go to see her. She was a perfect beauty, good- 
natured, kind, and very charitable. She was not of equal rank with 
her husband, and when she married him, at fourteen years of age, 
having had no education, her mind was not formed. During the 
seven years they spent in Italy, however, she did receive some 
instruction, and spoke the language perfectly. Their eldest child 
was a boy, who died from an accident at sixteen months old. This 
calamity nearly lost poor Zoffany his life ; indeed, he never thoroughly 
overcame it. 

" At the time of which I am writing, I was too young to understand 
the position in life of Mrs. Zoffany, which was not wholly respected, 
but I subsequently learnt all the particulars of the story, which, 
though it began sadly, ended in perfect happiness as far as her husband 
was concerned. As it is full of interest and incident, I will here 
briefly relate what in later years I heard from her own lips. 

" Mr. Zoffany, talented as he was, and always in the best society, 
yet in his leisure hours prowled around for victims of self-gratifica- 
tion. He found out the humble dwelling of Mrs. Zoffany 's parents, 
and the beauty of their daughter he determined to possess. Very 
soon after he made her acquaintance came the order for him to pro- 
ceed to Italy, to copy the Florentine Gallery, and as this poor child, 
who was at that time only fourteen years old, already bore the mark 
of criminality, she hastened to the vessel in which he was to sail, 
and got on board before Mr. Zoffany and the other passengers 
arrived. During the voyage she discovered herself to him, and he 
resolved, on landing, to place her where she would be educated, and 
taken care of during her confinement. A boy was the child 

' Immediately after this event, Mr. Zoffany made inquiries about 
his wife, to whom he had been married some time, and who had 
returned to her native place in Germany on account of the unhappy 
manner in which she dragged on her existence in England, for he 
was far from kind to her ; and finding that she had died a few months 
before, he married the object of his admiration, who had become a 
mother at fifteen. 

" Her heart was devoted to doing the best she could to render 
herself worthy of her husband. She made rapid progress in learning 
Italian, and also in reading and writing her own language, and in 
that polish of manner so essential to the position of a lady. She was 
a good mother to her boy, though still so young, and her beauty, 
good dressing, and a natural elegance of appearance, combined with 

Coll. of Mrs. Ertrard Hcsktth Photo by Mr. Heskelli 





the feeling of happiness which shone in her countenance, soon fitted 
her for any society, and she and her husband were taken up in the 
most hospitable and flattering manner by the Tuscan family, the 
Duke being related to Joseph II, Emperor of Germany. 

" The boy, being now more than a year old, it was advised that he 
should be weaned, and the governess or head-nurse of the Royal 
family was to have him, with his maid, under her care. Poor little 
fellow, all was going on well, when on one sad day he was in his go- 
cart, and running to the door, where this lady was speaking to some 
one, he fell down a whole flight of stairs. No bones were broken, but 
the head much bruised. Those who remember Mrs. Zoffany will 
suppose that she ran frantic to the spot, but fortunately so conducted 
herself as not to offend. The baby sucked again, and knew his 
mother, which augured favourably, but % at the end of three weeks 
he died of abscess at the back of the head. 

" Mr. Zoffany was not to be comforted, and, as I before observed, 
he never wholly got over this terrible calamity. However, he was 
encouraged to go on with his work in the Gallery, and though this 
interest, in a measure, distracted him from his own private sorrow, 
it had an evil effect in another way for it was at this time that, in 
order to drown his thoughts, he overworked himself, which brought 
on the first attack of paralysis, when he lost the use of his limbs, 
and for some time his senses. 

" Their eldest daughter, Theresa, late Lady Dorat, was born some 
little time after, and before they quitted Florence, Cecilia, late Mrs. 
Home, was also born. 

" On their return to England we made their acquaintance. I 
was then fourteen, and the impression she made upon me caused me 
to think all she did and said perfection. Before she was introduced 
to his friends, Zoffany should have married her according to the 
Protestant religion and our law. 1 The neglect of this laid the founda- 
tion for the supposition that she was not his wife. She could not be 
expected to know much about these ceremonies, and never thought 
about them from a religious point of view. He was aware of the 
good conduct of his spouse, and took care that his friends held her 
in respect, but it was cruel to leave her fair fame under a cloud that 
could have been so easily removed. 

" Mrs. Zoffany 's father died soon after the flight of his poor child; 
but the widowed mother was settled comfortably by Zoffany in a 

1 According to the family records it is clear that this did take place and in London, 
and that proper deeds in connection with the marriage of persons of different religions, 
were duly sealed. The Zoffanys had, however, already been married in Italy. 


little home of her own, not very far from his house at Strand-of-the- 

" Greatly were my parents blamed for allowing the affectionate 
intercourse between Mrs. Zoffany and myself. I can only say that 
industry, care, and a spirit to do right were the examples I met with, 
and a kind and warm heart ready and anxious to return every senti- 
ment of friendship. 

" Notwithstanding the doubt about her marriage in the minds of 
a few, she was very generally admired and beloved, and was able to 
introduce her two daughters after a time into good society." 

So much for Mrs. Papendiek's story, true or not ! 

Where actually Zoffany married his second wife has not transpired, 
but it was certainly in Italy, and according to the rites of the Catholic 
Church. Genoa is said to have been the city where the wedding took 
place, and prior to the ceremony, Zoffany, it is declared, obtained legal 
proof of the death of his first wife in Coblenz. Even so, there were 
officious persons who were ready to throw doubt on the legality of the 
second marriage, and the idle rumours started by these people were a 
cause of much disturbance and some distress to the Zoffanys while they 
were in Italy. Accordingly, on their return home, a further ceremony 
took place, this time according to Protestant rites, and in a church in 
Wood Street, Cheapside, which is not now standing. Zoffany's four 
daughters, to whom we allude later on, were all born after this second 
ceremony had taken place. 

Walpole wrote to his friend, Sir Horace Mann, on September 20, 
lyya, 1 announcing the fact that Zoffany was coming out to Italy and 
alluding to the projected voyage under the auspices of Sir Joseph Banks. 

Thus he wrote in his inimitable fashion 

" Zoffany is delightful in his real way, and introduced the furniture 
of a room with great propriety : but his talent is neither for rooms 
simply, nor portraits. 

" He makes wretched pictures when he is serious. His talent is 
to draw scenes in comedy, and there he beats the Flemish painters 
in their own way of detail. Butler, the author of Hudibras, might 
as well be employed to describe a solemn funeral, in which there was 
nothing ridiculous. This [his journey to Florence to paint the 
Tribuna] is better than his going to draw naked savages, and be 
scalped, with that wild man Banks, who is poaching in every ocean 
for the fry and little islands that escaped the drag-net of Spain." 

1 Walpole' s Letters, Toynbee edit., Vol. VIII (not VII, as in Index Vol.) p. 207. 



Sir Horace interested himself in the new arrivals, and soon realising 
that Mrs. Zoffany was an attractive and charming personage, gave them 
various introductions and did his best to admit them into the social 
festivities of Florence. The fact that the artist had come out under Royal 
auspices furnished him with a position in the place, and the English 
minister arranged for his presentation at Court and for various other 
social advantages. 

Luckily Zoffany admired the work of Thomas Patch, who was at 
that time in Florence engraving and publishing many valuable reproduc- 
tions of early frescoes, and as Patch was a special proteg of Mann's, this 
was all in his favour. 

Dr. Doran, in his Man and Manners, 1 at the Court of Florence, 1740- 
1786, tells us that Sir Horace loved and admired Patch and that Zoffany 
was charmed with his genius. 

This admiration did not, however, prevent him later on from playing 
a practical joke on Patch, as we shall see, when we come to consider 
Zoffany's finished picture of the Tribuna. 

Doran, in a further passage, alludes to Zoffany, and, says he 

" Zoffany has been sent here by a Great Personage (George III) 
to make a perspective view of the Tribuna, with small figures 
(portraits) as spectators. This, it seems, is his stile, and, it is said, 
he is excellent in it. From hence he is to go to Rome to do something 
of the same kind." 

The actual painting of the picture seems to have caused quite a sensa- 
tion in Florence. Zoffany, styling himself the Queen's Painter, gave 
himself great airs, insisting upon special privileges in the gallery, and 
especially in the room known as the Tribuna, in which for a time he 
seems to have claimed almost the entire rights. He gave instructions 
that many of the pictures it contained should be re-hung according to 
his own ideas, persuaded the Duke to place several of his own servants 
at his disposal, and had such pieces of statuary and bronze placed in the 
room as he thought fit, requisitioning also rugs, carpets, busts, ivories, 
armour, cups, jewels, coins and furniture from other rooms in the gallery 
(for example, the bronze animal which was in quite another part of the 
Palace, and is now to be seen in the Bargello) until he had the place 
strewn with such objects as he desired to represent, and it presented 
more the form of a studio or even of an auction-room than that of the 
choicest room in a public picture-gallery. 

Zoffany revelled in sumptuous effects of colour and fabric, and when 

1 Pp. 220, 236. 


he had completed the arrangement of the room in this fashion, and 
crowded it up with beautiful things, he let it be understood in Florence 
in an indirect fashion, that he was prepared to receive the elite of the place 
in the room and to paint into his picture the portraits of all the best -known 
of the connoisseurs who were at that time visiting Florence, or who 
resided in the city. 

His great desire was to get himself well-known and to make his standing 
in the place secure, and he spared no pains to make himself popular and 
to obtain the important position that he so coveted. 

Mann writes thus about him 

" You will laugh when I tell you that Mr. Zoffany is now waiting 
for me in the next room, to put my portrait into the picture which 
the King sent him hither to make of the Tribuna of the gallery. 
It is a most curious and laborious undertaking." 

Further on, the same author says that all the English personages 
then in Florence were eager to appear in this picture, that Zoffany painted 
them in, and when they left Florence, rubbed them out, for the picture 
became too crowded and he had more than once thus to dismiss many of 
his minor spectators. Some of the English who cared for the distinction 
of standing in the picture were careful not to offend the artist, because 
on small provocation he avenged himself by the obliteration of the offender 
from his canvas. 

All this behaviour on the part of the artist, and especially the exhibi- 
tions of quick temper, to which the visitors to the Tribuna were often 
treated, gave rise to a great deal of concern, and many persons resented 
the airs which Zoffany adopted. 

Sir Horace himself did not agree with the idea of depicting so many 
persons in the picture, and expressed his opinion in very clear fashion, 
although without any result. 

Says he, speaking of the general effect of the work 

" I told him of the impropriety of sticking so many figures in it 
and pointed out to him the Grand Duke and Duchess, one or two 
of their children, if he thought the variety was picturesk, and Lord 
Cowper. He told me that the King had expressly ordered my 
portrait to be there, which I did not believe, but did not object to it, 
but he made the same merit with all the young travellers then at 
Florence, some of whom he afterwards rubbed out, such as old 
Felton Harvey, and one of the Queen's chaplains, with a broad, 
black ribbon across his forehead, and filled up their places elsewhere. 


If what he said is true, that the Queen sent him to Florence to do 
that picture, and gave him a large sum for his journey, the impropriety 
of crowding in so many unknown figures was still greater, but it is 
true that it is for the Queen's Closet, and that she is to give him three 
thousand pounds for it. This he asserted, and it got him the name 
of Her Majesty's Painter, and in that quality he had leave to have 
any picture in the gallery or palace taken down, for you may have 
observed that he has transported some from the latter place into 
his ' Tribuna.' I should think, too, the naked Venus, which is the 
principal figure, will not please Her Majesty as much as it did the 
young men to whom it was shown. As to the question you make me 
of my own personage, I can only say that everybody thought it like 
me, but I suppose Zoffany took pains to lessen my pot-belly and the 
clumsiness of my figure and to make me stand in a posture which I 
never kept to, but then I remember that I was sadly tired when I 
was tortured by him to appear before their Majesties in my best shape 
and looks." 

Zoffany had, however, important friends in Florence. 

The Grand Duke was charmed with him, and when his cousin, the 
Emperor Joseph II, came on a state visit to Florence, presented " the 
Queen of England's State Painter " to the Emperor, who commissioned 
him to paint his portrait, and this he did with great success as we shall 
narrate presently. 

Another very important friend was Earl Cowper, to whom Dr. Doran 
refers in the following terms. He calls him " one of the most eccentric 
of the English residents in Florence." He states that he was sent when 
young by his father on the Grand Tour, visited Florence and never again 
left it. " Lord Cowper there fell in love with a Florentine lady, and 
kept household with her. In 1764, his dying father entreated him to 
return to England, but he paid no attention to the entreaty. When his 
passion for the Florentine lady died out he married a Miss Gore. Their 
children were in due time sent to England to be educated, but the Earl 
and Countess lived and died in Florence." 

To this brief summary of his career we must add further details, 
because Lord Cowper is intimately concerned with the career of Zoffany, 
and his portrait occupies a prominent position in the picture Zoffany 

The nobleman in question was the third Earl and was a godson of 
George II ; the King, Princess Amelia, and the Duke of Grafton attending 
at St. George's, Hanover Square, on September 17, 1738, when he was 


He inherited in 1754 the large fortune and estates of his grandfather, 
the last Earl of Grantham. He then entered the Army, and for two 
years, from 1759 to 1761, he, as Lord Fordwich, sat in Parliament in the 
Whig interest for Hertford. 

Later on in due course he made the Grand Tour of Europe, as did 
most young men of his position and means, and in Florence fell in love 
with one of its most beautiful citizens, the Princess Corsi, to whom it 
may be supposed Dr. Doran makes allusion. 

The lady was, however, married " or the young lord would doubtless 
have carried her to England as his wife and thus escaped the blame cast 
upon him by Horace Walpole of disobeying the summons of his dying 
father in 1764." 

It was in December of that year that the second Earl Cowper died, 
and his only son succeeded to his title and estates, but he refused to 
return home to take up his inheritance or carry out its obligations, much 
preferring his life in Italy to what he termed " the dull melancholy " of 

In 1775 he married Hannah Anne, youngest daughter and co-heir of 
Charles Gore, of Horkstowe, Lincoln, who was at that time residing in 
Florence with his family, and who is said to have been the original of 
Goethe's travelled Englishman in Wilhelm Meister. 

Lord Cowper made himself very popular in the Grand Ducal Court 
of Tuscany, by reason of his vast revenue and of the state and magnificence 
he kept up. 

He was an ambitious man and the Grand Duke interceded on his 
behalf with the Emperor, Joseph II, with the result that Lord Cowper, 
after entertaining the Emperor in superb fashion, was created a Prince 
of the Holy Roman Empire, " Sacri Romani Imperii Princeps de Cowper," 
and later on given permission to add the royal surname of Nassau to his 
own patronymic as one of the representatives of the Earl of Grantham. 
These honours cost Lord Cowper a considerable sum in fees, and Walpole 
rather unmercifully poked fun at the recipient of them. 

ZofFany painted a fine portrait of the noble Lord, which for some 
time hung at Wrest Park and has lately come into the market. 

In it he is represented as a man of portly and imposing appearance, 
lifting his hat in smiling recognition of some acquaintance. He is 
depicted in a blue velvet coat and yellow vest with lace at the neck and 
wrists. He is holding a cane and wears a sword on his left side. 

Moreover, Zoffany painted a delightful group representing Lord 
and Lady Cowper and Lady Cowper's father, mother and sisters. 

This was painted either at the Villa Palmieri or at the Villa Del 
Cipresso, it is not certain which. 

'oil. of Miss Hoothby 

WITH li K.H. 





Lord Cowper is in the centre of the group in a green coat, white vest 
and breeches, and Lady Cowper is in a pale pink gown. Her sister Emily, 
in blue, is represented playing on the harpsichord, accompanying Mr. 
Gore, who plays the violincello, while near by are Mrs. Gore in grey, 
and another sister in white brocade. On the wall hangs a famous picture 
and from the window can be seen the Arno and a hilly landscape. 

The group is one of Zoffany's successes, the figures well composed 
and exceedingly well painted, the fabrics represented with extraordinary 
skill and all the furniture with the utmost facility. 

Curiously enough the picture passed out of the family possession 
until 1845, when it was purchased in Florence by the brother of the 
sixth Earl for 20. 

It was probably stolen from the Villa Del Cipresso with other objects 
of value when Lady Cowper died there in 1826 at an advanced age. 

The most notable portrait of Lord Cowper, however, appears in the 
scene of the " Tribuna " picture to which we refer shortly. 

It may be well to mention, before we leave the subject, that Dr. Doran 
was right in stating that all three of Lord Cowper's children were born 
in Florence, but were sent over to England to be educated, although, 
says Walpole, " it is astonishing that neither parent nor child can bring 
your principal Earl from that specific spot but we are a lunatic nation." 

Lord Cowper did, however, come over once to London, although for 
a very short time. It was in 1786, and Walpole owns to going to a concert 
at Mrs. Cosways, " out of curiosity, not to hear an Italian singer sing one 
song at the extravagant sum of 10 . . . but to see an English Earl 
who has passed thirty years at Florence and thought so much of his silly 
title and his order from Wirtemberg. You know," he goes on to say, 
" he really imagined he was to take precedence of all the English dukes 
and now he has tumbled down into a tinsel titularity. I only meant to 
amuse my eyes, but Mr. Dutens ( ?) brought the personage up and 
presented us to each other. He answered very well to my idea, for I 
should have taken his Highness for a Doge of Genoa. He has the awkward 
dignity of a temporary representative of a nominal power. Peace be 
with him and his leaf-gold." " I wonder," he concludes in another 
letter, " his Highness does not desire the Pope to make one of his sons a 
bishop in partibus infidelium." x Lord Cowper soon returned to Florence 
and died there in 1789. 

While Zoffany was in Florence the Duke of York 2 visited the city, 

1 Walpole' 's Letters, Toynbee edit., XIII. 382. 

2 Zoffany painted a group which included the Duke of York, Colonel St. John, and Sir 
Wm. Boothby. It now belongs to Miss Boothby. Perhaps it was painted on this very 


attended by Sir William Boothby and Colonel St. John. Zoffany was 
presented to them and craved the favour of a visit to his studio, in the 
Tribuna, where he did the honours of the palace as though it had been 
his own house and excited the ridicule of the members of the Duke's 
suite by the elaborate adulation he paid to his Royal Highness and by 
the claim he set forth of special attention consequent on his being the 
Queen of England's State Painter in Ordinary, a title to which he had 
not the slightest right. 

We learn of him in Florence once or twice from Ozias Humphrey's 
correspondence, and in every way he seems to have aimed at creating a 
sensation and to have succeeded in doing so. One letter especially 
alludes to his grand clothes, notably to a coat of pale pink velvet, which 
he wore in the street on state occasions and which apparently did not 
please Lord Cowper who complained that it made " an artist look like an 

Of his return home we hear in a letter he wrote from Florence on 
January 15, 1774, one of the few of his letters that has survived. 

It is in the Anderdon collection and the owner considered that it was 
addressed either to Cosway or to Fuseli and that the Mr. Bruce mentioned 
in it was the well-known Abyssinian traveller. It has been suggested, 
however, that it was more probably addressed to a traveller than to a 
painter and certainly to some friend of Dr. Hunter and Dr. Solander. It 
alludes to Captain Phipps, afterwards Lord Mulgrave, whose portrait 
we have already mentioned. It reads thus 

" Florence, 

" January 15, 1774. 


" It was with sincere pleasure that I received your kind letter, 
and it added much to it to find that I was not quite forgotten by you 
in London, you will wonder much perhaps at the trouble I give you 
in sending so great a Pacquet, but by opening it you will find it comes 
from a same-sized great man, the wonder of the age, the terror of 
married men and a constant lover, Mr. Bruce, who, having great 
number of drawings of architecture and natural history and divers 
others of his works should be glad if you could find ways to get an 
order to prevent an inspection at the Custom House, as by the enclosed 
you will be better informed of. My works, I hope, will be finished 
by the latter end of March when I shall immediately set out on my 
return to Old England. I am very sorry to hear of the impossibility 
of succeeding in the attempt of passing the North Pole. The per- 
severance of Captain Phipps merited a much better success. We 

Parma Callery 

The | ictil 

; stated to have liccn paintei] for Duke Frnlinaiicl < 

Alintlri phnto 


had the other day passing here Lord Clive, who was very much enter- 
tained here, and is now set off for Rome and Naples. He should 
have liked a picture similar to what I am now painting of the Tribuna, 
but, poor man, he could not go to the expense. I saw a print of the 
Academy which very little pleased me, as there is no likeness in the 
heads, and I very much wonder at the success of it. Your books of 
the last voyage go off here amazingly, and I hear it is to be translated. 
How is Mr. Hunter ? I don't hear anything of him. 

" I beg my best respects to him, to Dr. Solander, and all the rest 
of the gentlemen of the Club, and remain, with the sincerest respect, 
Dear Sir, 

" Your most obedient humble servant, 


" P.S. Lord Cowper sends his compliments to you and is sorry 
he cannot have the pleasure of seeing you in Italy." 

From Florence Zoffany, after sending home his great picture, moved 
on to Rome in 1773, then to Parma, and thence to Bologna, being 
everywhere received with great distinction and admitted into the 
Academies of each city. He was especially pleased with his membership 
of the Academy of St. Luke, the oldest artistic society in Europe, and with 
his admission into the Academy of Parma, in the latter place being greeted 
with the cry of " Greater than our Correggio." 

To Parma, in consequence of this flattery, he presented a picture, 
and a clever one it is, as can be seen by a visit to the picture-gallery of 
the place. 

It represents a band of strolling mendicant musicians whom he had 
encountered on his way and persuaded to sit to him. They are nine in 
number, cleverly arranged in a group, three of them seated and the rest 
standing. Their faces all betoken great amusement, probably at the fact 
that the notable English painter cared to make a picture of them, and 
although there is some hasty and careless drawing in the group, the figures 
are well represented on the canvas and the features painted with un- 
common care and skill, while, as usual, to the cloth and velvet of the 
costumes, to the instruments, the conductor's staff and money-bowl, 
and to the various accessories, Zoffany gives just the right measure of 

Anthony Pasquin, in his amusing but scurrilous account of Zoffany 
in alluding to his visit to Italy, says that 

" Zoffany 's ' knowledge of theology was so perfect that he under- 
took to write annotations upon the chronicle of Father Jerome ; 


in a public disputation at Padua, he upheld the honour of St. Luke 
above the other evangelists, and challenged an Empiric at Leipsig 
for calling the worthy apostle a house-painter.' At Loretto ' He 
touched the cheeks of the Lady of Loretto with his best carmine 
gratis.' " 

From Florence Zoffany had sent home to the Academy the " Holy 
Family," to which we have already referred (see p. 37), and to it Walpole, 
in a letter to Horace Mann, April 17, 1775, with reference to the Royal 
Academy thus alludes : l " Zoffany has sent over a wretched ' Holy 
Family.' What is he doing ? Does he return or go to Russia as they 
say ? He is the Hogarth of Dutch painting, but no more than Hogarth 
can shine out of his own way. He might have drawn the Holy Family 
well if he had seen them in statu quo." 

The Parma picture, just mentioned, can be considered as in Zoffany's 
Hogarthian manner, and the faces in it would do no discredit to that 
great master. 

From Florence Zoffany made his way to Vienna and there appears 
to have completed the picture of the Emperor for which he had taken the 
first few studies in Florence, and which he desired to present to the 
Empress Maria Theresa. It gave unbounded satisfaction, so much so 
that three other groups were at once commissioned and were still to be 
seen ten years ago with the portrait in the Imperial Gallery. One repre- 
sents the Archduchess Maria Christina, seated and holding a dog on her 
lap, another, four of the grandchildren of the Empress Maria Theresa, 
and the third shows the Archduke Leopold of Tuscany and his wife 
and family of eight children. 

It is also stated that he painted a fine Court picture of the Empress 
Maria Theresa herself, and two more Royal groups are attributed to his 
hand, but the pictures were not available when this book was being written 
and cannot, therefore, be described. In those, however, that we have seen, 
Zoffany was not quite so successful as in his less formal and more intimate 
groups. He has overstated the dignity of the royal personages and has 
made their portraits stiff and formal, only relaxing this severity of treat- 
ment in the case of two young children in the Archduke's family group, 
who are presented with something approaching vivacity. 

Even with them, however, he has been afraid to let himself go, and 
seems to have been overawed by the grandeur and importance of his 

In depicting their costumes he has been, as usual, successful. The 
gown of the Archduchess Maria Christina is a marvel of exquisite delinea- 

1 Walpole' s Letters, Toynbee edit., IX. 186. 

rientta Gallery 


From the original Patent of Nobility ami dram of \nu- \>\- pcnni^sjon of it-; owner, Mrs. lAi-ranl Hiski-th 

Erom the original Patent by permission of its owner, Mrs. EvL-r;ircl Heskuth 


tion, and yet is not so overdone as to take a wrong position in the picture, 
the main attention of which is concentrated on the face of the Princess 
and on a wonderful marble figure by her side, which is painted with 
meticulous attention. Another of these Austrian Royal portraits is in 
England. It is a group and belongs to Mrs. Mainwaring Kynaston. It 
represents one of the Grand Dukes and another member of the Imperial 
family, with a dog. 

Zoffany was, moreover, highly successful in pleasing his Imperial 
patrons, for not only was he handsomely paid for his paintings, but was 
rewarded by the gift of a patent as a Baron of the Holy Roman Empire, 
and as Edler von Zoffany he swaggered about in the Court. 

The patent was granted on December 4, 1776, and is still in the 
possession of the artist's descendants. It is an imposing document 
bearing the Empress's signature, richly illuminated and with a magnificent 
seal attached. By kind permission of its present owners we are enabled 
to illustrate the page with the Imperial signature and those of the various 
officials, the illuminated grant of arms and the seal, while in the appendix 
we give a full translation of the document from the original German. 
It sets forth in fitting and grandiloquent language the " moral goodness 
and noble virtues, the skill and other praiseworthy attributes," with 
which " our dear and faithful Johann Zoffany has been represented to us 
to be possessed," and it there alludes to " his indefatigable zeal and pre- 
eminently happy results to the art of painting," and to the fact that not 
only from his youth upwards had he worked to " the approbation of all 
competent judges," but that he intended to do so " unto his death." In 
accordance, therefore, with " Our Royal and Arch-Ducal Sovereign 
Power " it goes on to say it raises him and " his legitimate issue and the 
heirs of their heirs of either sex in direct line for ever to the dignity of 
nobility" and to be equal to all the persons of noble birth in the Empire. 
It grants a coat-of-arms to Zoffany and it calls upon all the nobility of 
the Empire to receive him as their equal, and to give him their proper 
precedence amongst them under pain of Imperial displeasure, and in its 
magnificence and stateliness is a document worthy of the Court from 
which it emanated, and one well-calculated to fill the heart of the painter 
with great joy and satisfaction. " His unfailing faithfulness, services and 
good conduct," as the patent expresses it, had indeed received an exalted 
reward. As a piece of Court phraseology the patent merits perusal and 
its execution marks it as a beautiful piece of illumination. 

Its value at the time in the Imperial Court must have been remarkable, 
and we suppose from its wording all those who descend from the painter 
would have been entitled to important precedence in Vienna and be 
still regarded as belonging to that very select body the high aristocracy 


of the Austrian Empire. Johann, Edler von Zoffany had yet, however, to 
learn in what way this high foreign distinction, well and ably won although 
it was, would be regarded in England. 

From Vienna Zoffany journeyed into Germany to revisit the home of 
his first wife, and there he was received, under his new honours, with 
much distinction. He is said to have painted an important panel picture 
for the Court Chapel, at Coblenz, but we have been unable to verify this 
statement. He certainly was in the city in the summer of 1779, but soon 
afterwards left for England. Whether his picture of the Tribuna 
arrived in London before the artist came or whether they arrived simul- 
taneously we cannot tell, but certainly by November 12, I779, 1 the picture 
was in England in the artist's studio, and Walpole had been to see it, for 
thus he wrote to his old friend, Sir Horace Mann, on that very day in 
chaffing mood, concerning it. 

" I went this morning to Zoffani's, to see his picture or portrait 
of the Tribune at Florence, and though my letter will not put on 
its boots these three days, I must write while the subject is fresh 
in my head. The first thing I looked for was you and I could not 
find you. At last I said, ' Pray, who is that Knight of the Bath ? ' 
' Sir Horace Mann.' ' Impossible,' said I. ' My dear sir, how you 
have left me in the lurch ! You have grown fat, jolly young; while 
I am become the skeleton of Methusalen.' 

1 The idea I always thought an absurd one. It is rendered more 
so by being crowded with a flock of travelling boys, and one does 
not know or care whom. You and Sir John Dick, as Envoy and Con- 
sul, are very proper. The Grand Ducal Family would have been 
so too. Most of the rest are as impertinent as the names of church- 
wardens stuck up in parishes whenever a country church is repaired 
and whitewashed. 

' The execution is good; most of the styles of painters happily 
imitated ; the labour and finishing infinite ; and no confusion, though 
such a multiplicity of objects and colours. The Titian's Venus, as 
the principal object, is the worst finished ; the absence of the Venus 
of Medici is surprising; 2 but the greatest fault is in the statues. To 
distinguish them, he has made them all of a colour, not imitating the 
different hues of their marbles, and thus they all look alike, like casts 
in plaster of Paris. However, it is a great and curious work, though 
Zoffani might have been better employed. His talent is representing 
natural humour; I look upon him as a Dutch painter, polished or 

1 Walpole' s Letters, Toynbee edit., XI. 48. 

2 This was Walpole's oversight, the Venus is in the picture. 


civilised. He finishes as highly, renders nature as justly, and does 
not degrade it, as the Flemish school did, who thought a man vomiting 
a good joke, and would not have grudged a week on finishing a belch, 
if the mere labour and patience would have compassed it. ... 
' Well, but are you really so portly a personage as Zoffani has repre- 
sented you ? I envy you. Every one can grow younger and plump 
but I.'" 1 

Further down in the same letter he adds a postscript : 

" I do allow Earl Cowper a place in the ' Tribune; ' an English 
Earl who has never seen his earldom, and takes root and bears fruit at 
Florence, and is proud of a pinchbeck principality in a third country, 
is as great a curiosity as any in the Tuscan collection." 

In reply to this letter, Mann writes thus to Walpole, and alludes to 
the reports in Florence concerning Zoffany's second marriage 3 

" I am glad that you have seen Zoffany and his portrait of the 
Tribuna. So, then, it is not true that he was hanged for bigamy, 
as was reported amongst the Italians in spite of all I could say to 
convince them that with us, though he has two wives, 4 it is not a 
hanging matter. Your opinion of his laborious performance in all 
the parts you mention agrees with that of our best judges here, but 
they find great fault with the perspective, which they say is all wrong. 
I know that Zoffany was sensible of it himself, and used to get 
assistance to correct it, but it was found impossible, and he carried 
it away as it was. How or whether it has been done elsewhere, I 
know not." 

From the artist's studio, where we suppose it was given a sort of 
private view, the painting was carried down to Kew, and, says Mrs. 
Papendiek, it 

" was placed in a room at Kew House, when the Royal Academicians 
were desired by the King to come down and make their report 
upon it. They were unanimous in their opinion of its super- 
lative excellence. The beauties of every master were so well 
preserved in the copy of the pictures, that the ignorant many could 
almost point out the name of each artist. In the foreground is the 
beautiful Titian Venus, held by the man who is supposed to be fixing 

1 Walpole s Letters, Toynbee edit., XI. 48. 2 Ibid. 50. 

3 Doran's Man and Manners at the Court of Florence, 1876, p. 358. 

4 This was not true (see p. 48). 


it for Zoffany to copy, while he himself is seen in the Gallery listening, 
as it were, to the observations of the spectators. Every countenance 
is lighted up with animation ; but the number that he has so wonder- 
fully grouped, I am ashamed to own, I have forgotten. Sir Horace 
Mann, our Ambassador at Florence at the time, is conspicuous, as 
well as many other Englishmen who were there, and were well known 
among their countrymen. The cognoscenti, in addition to the pro- 
fessors, were agreed that an allowance of 1000 a year for life would 
not more than pay him for his vast labour, and that less than 700 
could not be offered. Alas, poor Zoffany ! The moment the 
question of money was raised, all sorts of objections were made to 
the work; as to the different persons introduced, that could not 
interest the King, and might even be unpleasant to His Majesty to 
look at; that he had deviated from the order given him, simply to 
copy the Tribuna; that he had painted portraits of the Imperial 
Family of Vienna, and others, thereby having lengthened his stay, 
and retarded the business upon which he left England, and so forth. 
To these charges he answered first, the impossibility of daily 
attendance at the Gallery, as the public could only be kept from it 
at certain times, and that by favour; that its being built of stone, and 
very cold, rendered a too-close application dangerous, and as it was, 
Mr. Zoffany had once been brought home with loss of power from 
intense study, that state of inanition being afterwards considered 
as the first seizure of paralysis, which some years later carried him 
to his grave. To the objection made to his having painted certain 
portraits, he answered that the Emperor of Germany, Joseph II, 
was accidentally passing through Florence at the time, on his way 
to the family of Tuscany, his relations, and being delighted with 
Zoffany's performances, he himself sat for his portrait, and ordered 
all the members of his family to do the same. These pictures, 
however, were done in the intervals of his great work, with which 
they did not in any degree interfere. Zoffany was well rewarded by 
the Emperor Joseph and was made a Baron of the Holy Roman 
Empire. The Emperor, moreover, strongly urged his coming to 
Vienna, but Zoffany refused on the ground of his commission for 
the King of England. 1 On account of his having accepted these 
rewards from the Emperor, Zoffany proposed dropping the 300 
a year that was promised to him, but requested payment of his 
expenses to Florence and back. 

1 Mrs. Papendiek is not quite correct here. Zoffany did at first certainly refuse, 
but afterwards consented and went, and two of his pictures were painted in Vienna 
and have a statement upon them to that effect. 

From the original Patent by permission of its owner, Mrs. Everard Hesketh 


" On this point another difficulty was started, namely, that the 
agreement had been made with him as a single man; that he had 
since married, and that, therefore, his expenses had been increased. 

" What in the end Zoffany received, I cannot assert, but I am 
certain that it was under 1000. The picture was put out of sight, 
and it was not till it was exhibited in the collection of George IV that 
it was again even recollected. His old friends stuck by him, and he 
was made a Royal Academician and Visitor immediately. 

" He took a house in Strand-of-the- Green, and one in town at 
the corner of Albemarle and Stafford Streets." l 

In another allusion to the same picture, Mrs. Papendiek tells us that 
Zoffany expected to receive two thousand guineas for the work, 
in fact, at one time he hinted that he considered its value at three 
thousand guineas, but all his hopes were frustrated, and although the 
painting was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1780 (68) and attracted 
considerable attention, 2 the Royal purse was not opened to the extent 
Zoffany had expected, and in consequence the picture came back after the 
Exhibition to Zoffany 's studio. 3 Walpole, however, refers again and 
again to it and had a high opinion of its merits. 

In a letter to Sir Horace Mann dated April 23, 1781, he says : 
" Zoffany's picture, however, will rise in value as a portrait of what that 
room (the Tribune) was, yet its becoming more precious will not, I doubt, 
expedite the sale of it." 4 While, in one to the Countess of Upper Ossory, 
November 14, 1779, he writes 

" Now I have tapped the chapter of pictures you must go and 
see Zoffani's ' Tribune ' at Florence, which is an astonishing piece of 
work with a vast deal of merit. 

Some years subsequent to the painter's return from Italy, this picture 
of the Florence Gallery, however, was purchased by the Queen, and it is 
stated at the instance of the late President of the Royal Academy, for six 
hundred guineas, " a sum," says a contemporary writer, " perhaps com- 

1 Mrs. Papendiek, I. 83. 

2 Leslie and Taylor say it was " the subject of much curiosity." 

3 Says the Literary Gazette of July 8, 1826 : " It is true that the munificent founder 
of the Royal Academy had bestowed his patronage to the extent of one thousand 
guineas for one picture painted by a living artist ; but that was given in the shape of a 
royal bounty to a distinguished individual, to encourage his zeal in pursuit of the epic 
style of composition. The late Mr. West received that sum of His Majesty for his 
picture of ' Regulus.' " 

4 Walpole' s Letters, Toynbee edit., XII. 40. 


mensurate with the value of the picture in those days, though not an 
entire remuneration for the labour bestowed upon it." 

Another statement is to the effect that Zoffany, by dint of great 
pressure, eventually obtained 1500 from the Crown for his time and 
expenses in Italy, and 800 for the picture itself, and this latter statement 
is in accordance with a definite family tradition. 

There is a lengthy notice concerning the picture in the Literary Gazette 
for July 15, 1826, which is worth quoting in full. With regard to Zoffany's 
time in Italy it states again that the story was told in Florence to the 
effect that Zoffany 

" took sittings of certain gentlemen who were desirous of being 
transmitted to future times, thus surrounded by objects of virtue 
at twenty guineas per head : but that, after their departure from this 
illustrious city, the said heads vanished, and their places were supplied 
by others, who paid the same price for the same privilege. Hence," 
it adds, " on the appearance of the Florence Gallery in England, many 
a disappointed tourist, who looked for a duplicate of his own veritable 
phiz in this picture, having boasted that it was therein, was suspected 
by certain good-natured friends of using that travellers' privilege so 
unjustly ascribed to the late Mr. Bruce, whose very faithful portrait 
is the last depicted on the left side of the composition. The afore- 
mentioned Lord B. . . . asserted that he himself had paid his 
twenty guineas, but certainly his lordship's head is not there. 

" The painter in this piece, too," it goes on to say, " has not 
neglected to introduce his own portrait, however, and there he stands 
another Jew, doing a little business in the Temple. He is ex- 
hibiting to a group of virtuosos, a Madonna by Raffael, which is intro- 
duced by way of episode, and a profitable one it turned out to the 
artist. The picture did not belong to the gallery it was picked up 
by accident by Zoffany and for a small sum. He was wont to ask all 
English comers to Florence, ' Have you seen my Raffael ? Ah ! den 
you must see it.' He is herein submitting it to the admiring group, 
Sir John Dick, the Earl of Plymouth, Mr. Stevenson, the Earl Dart- 
mouth, and last, though the first, par eminence, the late Earl Cowper, 
who, charmed with its gusto, purchased it ; and brought it to England. 
It is now in the collection of the present worthy Earl. 

' The picture is considered an original Raffael and a treasure of 
art. His lordship paid down a certain liberal sum, and granted, by 
way of residue, an annuity of a hundred pounds, which the fortunate 
painter (who lived, as is said and pretty generally believed, to be 
between ninety and a hundred) enjoyed to the last. Hence this 

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' Madonna,' perhaps, whatever may be its merits, is the dearest 
Raffael that ever was purchased, even by a travelling English 
lord ! 

' When the gallery picture was placed in the Royal collection it 
was the source of many a jeu cT esprit, and his late Majesty laughed 
heartily at an observation of Lord M y, a favourite courtier, who, 
commenting upon the vrai ressemblance of certain portraits, turning 
to that of one who is eyeing the Titian Venus, 1 ' I see, my lord, you 
leave the chaste Madonnas to the sprigs of virtu, and group with the 
more recherche in the carnations of a Venetian Venus.' This cele- 
brated Venus has been copied by many artists, from age to age, and 
of every country, the last which we have seen is by the pencil of a 
living member of our own school, one whose works have already 
added splendour to the British art. We need not name the inde- 
fatigable Etty. ..." 

It remains to describe the picture, which is now happily regarded as 
one of the gems of the Royal collection, and which, as the repre- 
sentation of an historic room with its varied treasures, and as a portrait- 
gallery of the connoisseurs who at that time frequented the city, has no 
equal in importance. 

It will be seen from the key to the engraving of the picture that the 
persons who were eventually depicted were Earl Cowper, Sir John Dick, 
the Earl of Plymouth, the Earl of Dartmouth, the Earl of Winchelsea, 
Lord Mount Edgcumbe and Lord Russborough, Mr. Felton Hervey, Sir 
John Taylor and Sir Horace Mann, and Messrs. Stevenson, Lo rain- Smith, 
Valentine Knightley, Bianchi, Gordon, Bruce, Patch, Watts, Doughty, 
Wilbraham and the artist himself. 

" Zoffany, who was a humorist," says a writer of his period, " is 
said," in this picture, " to have paid off a grudge against one whose 
portrait is in the foreground of the group, namely, Mr. Patch, who, 
it seems, had obliged the painter, rather unhandsomely, to pay a sum 
of money on a mere verbal responsibility, for another. Hence he 
put a black patch on the seat of honour, upon one of the sculptured 
fighting gladiators, and made the figure of Mr. Patch, which had 
been previously introduced, pointing at this pun upon his name. 
This story is transmitted on the authority of Zoffany himself. He, 
however, was known to be a waggish narrator." 

1 The painter has skilfully introduced this Titian Venus, which hangs in that angle 
of the gallery, behind the spectator. He has herein made it an episode to his general 
design, as it is taken down from the wall to be thus examined. 


The evidence for the truth of this story cannot now be detected in 
the painting, and perhaps Zoffany, repenting him of the practical joke, 
removed the offending black patch before the picture came into the Royal 
collection. Certainly it is not now to be seen. 

The main interest in the whole composition centres about the little 
group on the left in which the painter is himself exhibiting to Lord Cowper, 
Sir John Dick, Lord Plymouth, Mr. Stevenson, and Lord Dartmouth the 
painting of a " Holy Family " by Raphael 1 to which allusion was made in 
the Literary Gazette and which eventually passed into the hands of Lord 
Cowper. It can still be seen, in the Gallery at Panshanger, and is for- 
tunately not the painting by Raphael, from that same Gallery, which passed 
into the hands of the late Mr. Peter Widener of Philadelphia. 

Walpole rightly calls the " Tribuna " picture " a great and curious 
work." It is, of course, overloaded and over-full, as a composition, but 
as will be seen from the reproduction we have been permitted by the 
King to obtain, it is a consummate piece of work in its own special genre. 

The faces of the spectators are admirable and exceedingly well varied. 
The arrangement is, on the whole, clever, and does not give the 
appearance of a made-up composition, while the details kept in due 
subordination, are exceedingly well painted. All the paintings on the 
wall can be recognised and identified, and so, too, can most of the marbles 
and bronzes, and as a pictorial representation of a remarkable scene the 
painting has high merits. 

Its brush-work is good; it is still in brilliant condition, and all the 
colours have stood well. Zoffany must have taken infinite pains with it 
and it stands pre-eminently as his greatest work. He had never equalled, 
and he never excelled it, in certain respects, the draughtsmanship, on the 
whole, being excellent and the colouring warm, rich, even brilliant, and 
yet subdued to a suitable key throughout, while in respect to the painting 
of such details as costumes, silk, velvet and drapery, it stands as the finest 
example in existence of our painter's special facility. 

In the possession of Mr. R. Logan is a fine portrait of Gabriel Mathias, 
Keeper of the Privy Purse (1719-1804). By his side is represented a 
bust by Nollekens, dated 1779, representing his brother, James T. 
Mathias, the author of the Pursuits of Literature. 

It has been suggested that the 1779 might also refer to the date of 
the painting, but in that year Zoffany was in Florence. It does not, 
however, follow that the picture was not executed at that time. Mr. 

1 The clever couplet that Gilbert puts into the Major-General's song deserves to be 
quoted in this connection : 

" I can tell a genuine Raphael from Gerard Dow's or Zoffany's, 
I know the Croaking Chorus from the Frogs of Aristophanes." 

Coll. o/Sir Reginald II. l,r,iliam. Han. 

I III l.KAIIAM I AMII.Y (,ki il I' 
hirhnliiii; Mr IMIuiuli.iNi I lr.ih.ini. lih win, .illc-l w.inh siMli't, .111. 1 hi- twn il.nuhli-r~. Ml-, 'inilli .ni<l Ml- I ulk. l.nAilli-, ,ill 

UMcliT Ihr " /..II.I1IV " Irrr 


Mathias may have been in Italy then and have sat for his portrait. It is 
not a very early work and yet almost certainly one executed before the 
artist went off to India. 

In 1780 we know that Zoffany was in Yorkshire by reason of the 
fact that a group belonging to Sir Reginald Graham and two sketches, 
one of Sir Bellingham Graham and the other of his housekeeper, Mistress 
Ellis, are attributed to that year, it being stated in the family that the 
sketches were actually drawn at that very time. 

The group is an important one. It depicts the fifth Baronet, Sir 
Bellingham Graham, with his son and two daughters, afterwards Mrs. 
Smith and Mrs. Fulke Greville, all grouped around a tree in the Park at 
Norton Conyers, which was selected as the mise en scene by the artist him- 
self and which has ever afterwards been spoken of as the Zoffany tree. 

This method of grouping under a tree was a favourite scheme of 
Zoffany. We shall meet with it many times in his pictures. 



SUCH information as we possess concerning Zoffany's life in London 
after his return from Italy and prior to his departure for India, we owe 
almost exclusively to the gossipy pages of Mrs. Papendiek's diary, but in 
quoting rather extensively from them we should again premise that when 
dates are of importance, too much reliance must not be placed upon that 
good lady's memory. 

For example, in one of her entries she alludes to Mr. Zoffany's absence 
in India having been away for " fourteen years," whereas he was not 
absent from England more than seven, as he was certainly painting in this 
country in 1782, and back again at work in 1790. 

She says he was in Italy for seven years, and this statement also, it 
seems probable, is a little in excess of the truth, as there is no evidence in 
favour of his having left England before 1773, and he was certainly back 
here again in the autumn of 1779. 

Where exactly the artist resided in Albemarle Street after his return 
from Italy has been doubtful, as the Royal Academy catalogues give 
no number to the house, but it is clear that Zoffany was a successful man 
and able to take an important residence. 

Mrs. Oldfield, his grand-daughter, a lady of very advanced age, who 
was good enough to favour us with such memories as she could recall, 
stated that the house was, as Mrs. Papendiek implies, at the corner of 
Stafford Street and .Albemarle Street, and so would correspond to the 
block now rebuilt and forming Shelley's Hotel and restaurant. 

Northcote x expressly states that " Zoffany made a fortune in England 
by his pictures, which he soon got rid of, and another in India, which 
went the same way." 

According to various accounts, it would appear that one of the artist's 
chief extravagancies was in connection with his love for music, and that 
he delighted in giving concerts at his house in which the notable artists of 
the day took part, and which were attended by the elite of society, much 

1 See Waller and Glover's edition of Hazlitt's Works, VI. 386. 



as similar concerts were given in Pall Mall and in Berkeley Square by 
Mrs. Cosway. 

Mrs. Papendiek was also very fond of music, and her diaries abound 
in allusions to the singers and players who were famous in her time. 

She it is who tells us that Zoff any " had recourse to Opera performers 
for subjects to exhibit," l and hence these concerts were of service to him 
from a professional point of view. 

For example, we hear of various musical people in the following extract 
from Mrs. Papendiek's pages 

" On leaving Kew for St. James in November, the Zoffanys, who 
lived in Albemarle Street, became more intimate with us, and we 
soon assembled round us an agreeable and artistic society. Bach 
had married the famous singer, Calli, who assisted him with her 
savings of 2000. She was of good character and well-regulated 
conduct, rather passde for a prima donna, and singing, therefore, 
now only at concerts, public and private. Miss Cantilo was their 
articled pupil, and, being quick and clever, very soon became useful. 
I had been, as it were, brought up with the party, and as I wished 
to catch at every opportunity to improve, Miss Cantilo and I became 
very intimate. These ladies sang at the Queen's concerts in London, 
and upon the marriage of Miss Linley with Mr. Sheridan, which 
prevented her coming any longer as a singer to the ' Queen's House,' 
Madame Bach's and Miss Cantilo 's attendance was established." 

In another she says 

" We were present at the King's Theatre with the Zoffanys and 
the Bachs. Bach gave his benefit in the season as usual, and there 
introduced Miss Cantilo, after two years' instruction. She always 
sang scientifically, and had a lively and engaging manner, with a 
natural talent for music; but nature had given a huskiness to her 
voice which never could be overcome, and which rather increased 
with age. She was at this time about seventeen, rather pretty than 
otherwise, with fine expressive eyes, and an interesting little figure. 

" As Mr. Zoffany's occupation of portrait painting was much 
diminished by his absence of seven years, he had recourse to the 
Opera performers for subjects to exhibit. This opened the way to 
gratis admissions, and often did Mrs. Zoffany fetch me to accompany 
her. We were constantly in the dressing-rooms of those she was 
acquainted with, Simonet, Bacelli, Theodore, etc., and happy am 

1 Mrs. Papendiek, I. 136. * Ibid. log. 


I here to affirm that we never saw anything reprehensible. When 
the dressing and undressing were over, acquaintances came in to 
chat as we did, but all was decorum, with the leading characters at 
all events. Miss Farren was one of our intimate friends." 1 

Not content, however, with the expense of a town house, Zoffany 
at this time launched out still further, and took also a riverside residence. 

Whether this was the house at Chiswick now known as Zoffany House, 
or whether it was the house bearing the same name at Strand-on-the- 
Green, facing the river, and in which he afterwards resided, is not clear, 
but the evidence is in favour of the latter. 

Wherever it was, he certainly made considerable use of it, and, as 
was the fashion of the day, had his own sailing-yacht and used to give 
concerts on board. 

Mrs. Oldfield called the boat " a shallop," and tells us that it was 
painted green, pink and drab, while the servants were put into a magnifi- 
cent livery of scarlet and gold with blue facings, the heraldic colours 
of the coat-of-arms that had been granted to him by the Empress Maria 
Theresa, while on the shoulder-knots appeared the Zoffany crest of a 
sprig of clover in silver between buffalo's horns rising out of a baron's 

She has a vivid remembrance of her grandfather's chief waterman, 
Humphreys, clad in this resplendent array. 

In order to gain access to his vessel, Mrs. Oldfield tells us that 
Zoffany had a summer-house built opposite to the house, fastened on 
to a tree and projecting partly over the river, and that there was an 
overhead passage made from the house right across the road in order to 
reach it. 

She says it was used for music parties, could accommodate many 
people, and contained a harpsichord, several harps, and various other 
musical instruments. 

These recollections confirm us in the opinion that the riverside 
residence was at Strand-on-the-Green, as there are traditions in the 
former place, on the part of old inhabitants, of such a summer-house having 
existed, and, moreover, there are facing the house the remains of some 
woodwork and of a tree that might well have been used to sustain it, 
and the road is so narrow at the spot that the idea of an overhead passage- 
way crossing the road is not a preposterous one. 

Mrs. Oldfield 's memory is to the effect that this overhead passage- 
way, composed of rough timbers, was wholly erected in the course of one 
night in consequence of a promise made by the Prince of Wales that he 

1 Mrs. Papendiek, 136. 

Wake field photo 


would attend one of the concerts on Zoffany 's shallop and afterwards drink 
tea at his house with Mrs. Zoffany. 

This is not at all unlikely, as Mrs. Papendiek also refers to the sailing- 
vessel and to the concert in the following passage 

" This spring, 1781, the whole of the Royal family returned to 
Kew, to stay till after the prorogation of Parliament, which brought 
back for a time our former pleasures with increased gaieties. The 
nobility, on fine afternoons, came up in boats, other boats being 
filled with bands of music, to take the Prince to the promenade at 
Richmond. His Royal Highness was always accompanied by his 
governor and sub-governor, and returned for the Queen's party in 
the evening. Mr. Zoffany had a decked sailing-vessel, elegantly 
and conveniently fitted up, on board of which we frequently went, 
the Bachs being of the party. He used to take his pupil, as he wished 
to give her every opportunity of being heard. She sang with Madame 
Bach, whose voice was beautiful on the water." l 

To the Bachs whom she mentions here, she again refers in the following 
year, mentioning Zoffany as one of the chief mourners at Bach's funeral. 
Thus she writes - 

" Dear, amiable Bach, after being for several months in a declining 
state, was now removed to Paddington for change of air. Some 
kind friends never forsook him, and I believe few days passed without 
one or other of our family seeing him. The Zofranys, poor Abel, 
and others supplied him entirely with provisions sent ready prepared. 
Mr. Papendiek saw him every day, and assisted him by many kind 
acts, which are all the more comforting when done by the hand of 
one we love. Here I urged him to close the eyes of his beloved friend 
in happiness, by offering marriage to his protegee, Miss Cantilo, 
but on that subject Mr. Papendiek was deaf to entreaty. The last 
visit we paid was together with my father and mother. Bach, on 
taking a final leave, joined our hands I think now I see his enchant- 
ing smile. Not a word was said : we were motionless. . . . 
This great patron was carried to the grave and buried with the 
attendance only of four friends, my father, Mr. Papendiek, Zoffany 
and Bautebart, but they were indeed sincere mourners. They 
deposited their charge, who was a Roman Catholic, in St. Pancras' 
churchyard. The Queen, finding how things were, could not 
undertake the debts, but the funeral expenses she discharged, and 
gave the coachman 100, which he had lent to his master." 
1 Mrs. Papendiek, I. 138. 2 Ibid. 150. 


We learn something of the nature of these concerts on the river 
from the notable picture which Zoffany painted in 1779-81 (R.A., 85) for 
his friend William Sharp, representing him and his family on board their 
yacht in the Thames, Fulham Church being visible in the background. 

This fine picture, for which the artist was paid eight hundred guineas, 
we are enabled, by the courtesy of its present owner, Mr. Granville Lloyd 
Baker, to reproduce in these pages, and it is of interest to notice on the 
right of the Church a house with balconies which belonged to William 
Sharp, but which was usually inhabited by Granville Sharp the Philan- 
thropist, and from which the family were wont to emerge when they went 
on board the yacht for their afternoon concert. 

Of this picture Walpole writes on his catalogue : " The Sharps in 
their barge, a musical family who went every summer on the river in a 
large vessel in which were." [sic.] " The figures are most natural and 
highly finished, but a great want of keeping on the whole." 

Zoffany's house, which is still standing in the little hamlet of Strand- 
on-the-Green, on the Middlesex side of Kew Bridge, a very few minutes' 
walk from the end of the bridge, somewhat resembled it. It appears to 
be an early Queen Anne house, with a central porch, and windows on either 
side. Zoffany's studio is a later erection, and is built out from the back 
of the house overlooking the garden. The bay window of it rests on 
columns. There are three windows forming the bay. It is possible that 
this room was added to and improved as a studio by the addition of this 
triple bay. There is an interesting old staircase in the house with a 
fine carved newel-post. Many of the rooms are panelled, and attached 
to two of the bedrooms are the original powder-closets. 

There is a small walled-in garden in the rear of the house. It over- 
looks the river, and there is still only a narrow path between it and the 

At one time the windows of one storey had balconies, which were 
later on removed, as they were found to be unsafe. According to some 
of the older inhabitants of the hamlet, the windows on both of the upper 
storeys possessed balconies, and from the centre of the upper one there 
opened a doorway. This, no doubt, was the door to the overhead passage 
already named. 

The house that Zoffany occupied in Chiswick called " London Style " 
(see p. 44) we have not been able to identify, but its appearance is 
shown us in a water-colour drawing by Thomas Rowlandson, one of our 

This shows a pretty countrified residence with sloping lawns and high 
trees. The drawing l is inscribed " Mr. Zoffany's House in Chiswick," 
1 We have to thank Messrs. Knoedler for supplying us with a photograph of it. 


and was exhibited at Messrs. Knoedler's Exhibition of Rowlandson's Work 
in New York in 1915. 

The Sharp's cottage communicated by an underground passage with 
Fulham House, where William Sharp and his family lived, so that it was 
easy for all the members of this talented family to come together when a 
concert was in view. 

The whole family was well-known for its musical talent, and George III 
and Queen Charlotte often drank tea in the yacht and listened to the 

The picture of the Sharp family in question is, of course, over- 
crowded, but Sharp desired that the entire family should be represented 
in it, and so there are, including the boatman and his boy, no less than 
fifteen people depicted, together with their instruments, the very names 
of which appear strange and curious in our ears. 

Mrs. Prowse (Elizabeth Sharp) is at the harpsichord, 1 Mr. James 
Sharp holds a serpent, Miss Judith a lute, while other mysterious-looking 
wind-instruments, the hautboy and theorbo are resting on the top of the 
harpsichord, and in the hand of Granville Sharp is a double flageolet. 

The present owner of the painting, to whom it came from his grand- 
mother, who is the baby in the picture, remembers the boatman's boy, 
who in his childhood in 1848 was still living in Fulham, and who 
recalled sitting for his portrait. 

He stated that the picture was a long time in course of execution, 
as it was not easy to get sittings from all the family nor from the boatman, 
who had a strong dislike to sitting at all. 

The dog in the picture belonged to Zoffany, and was called Poma. 
It was much attached to the Sharps, and when its master was painting 
the picture, left him and settled down at the feet of Mrs. Francis Sharp, 
and accordingly so appeared in the picture. 

As a representation of expression the painting is one of remarkable 
ability, there is a vivacity about many of the persons depicted which is 
exactly what is desired, but this criticism cannot be applied without 
reserve, for some of those in the group are quite the reverse, dull, apathetic 
and formal, while the grouping is so artificial and so insecure, especially 
considering that the scene is a sailing-boat, that the general effect of 
the composition is marred. 2 The lady at the harpsichord, the philan- 
thropist who leans towards her, the child near, the older man with the 
serpent, the boatman behind, are all admirable, and as a document 
representing a phase of Georgian life that has wholly passed away, nothing 

1 See details concerning the picture in the Appendix. 

* A criticism on the picture from the Earwig has already been quoted, see 
p. 9. 


can be more delightful, while in colouring and in technique it is one of 
Zoffany's best works, but as a composition it leaves a great deal to be 

Zoffany is also stated to have painted a separate portrait of Mrs. 
Prowse, the lady at the harpsichord, and to have carried out this work 
at her country residence, Wicken Park, Northamptonshire, an estate which 
at her death went to her husband's nephew, Sir Charles Mordaunt, whose 
descendant, the late Sir Charles Mordaunt, sold it to Lord Penrhyn. 
While waiting for an opportunity to carry out this portrait (which cannot 
at present be traced), the artist caught hold of the door of an old 
travelling-chaise, and on it painted the portrait of Jonathan, Mrs. Prowse 's 
gardener at Clare Hall, and this clever work belongs to the Rev. C. C. 
Murray Browne, whose wife was great-grand-niece to Mrs. Prowse, 
Granville Sharp's sister. 

On his return home Zoffany, it should be stated, had at once taken up 
his old position in the Royal Academy, and, by reason of his success in 
India, received more attention at the hands of his colleagues than before. 
Thus it was he who took the leading part in the difficulty, which ensued 
in 1789, concerning the election of Bonomi as an Associate, and the desire 
of Reynolds that the position of Professor of Perspective, vacant since the 
death of Samuel Wale in 1786, should be given to this man. 

Joseph Bonomi was a native of Rome, who had come to England at 
the request of the Brothers Adam to help in their architectural and 
decorative work. He had settled down in England, and adopted it as 
his permanent home, but many of the Academicians were opposed to 
him because he was a foreigner, and also because, up to that time, he 
had not become a member of the Academy. Reynolds had taken up his 
cause somewhat strongly, and had been injudicious in supporting Bonomi 
as a candidate for the Chair, prior to his election into the Academy as 
an Associate. If he had waited till after the election, he would have 
deprived Bonomi 's adversaries of their strongest argument ; that he was 
being elected for the purpose of becoming Professor. Bonomi was put 
up for election in 1789. The voting was equal. Reynolds as President 
gave it in favour of his protege. A year later there was a vacancy in the 
ranks of the Academicians, in consequence of the death of Jeremiah 
Meyer, and Bonomi offered himself for election. His opponents were 
supporting the claim of Edward Edwards, who temporarily had filled 
the position of Professor of Perspective. They, however, abandoned him 
and decided to support Fuseli, another foreigner, but then ensued a 
controversy respecting the rule which stated that the candidate for the 
Professorship must submit a drawing. Edwards declined to submit any 
drawings, but Bonomi's drawings were produced, and Reynolds himself 



placed them upon the table. Some of the Academicians objected to 
their introduction as premature. Reynolds desired to explain and was 
refused a hearing, and then Fuseli was elected Academician by an over- 
whelming majority. Thereupon Reynolds left the chair, and the follow- 
ing day resigned his position as President of the Academy. His opponents 
made matters much worse by preparing the notice of a General Assembly, 
which was to be held on March 3, 1790, " to consider a resolution thanking 
Sir Joshua for his able and efficient Presidency," and sending it to him 
signed only by the Secretary and by the hands of the Academy errand- 
boy, in the form of a note closed with a wafer, which Miss Earland, who 
describes the whole difficulty, 1 says was " an informality which Sir Joshua 
took as a studied insult." The resolution accepting the President's 
resignation was, however, carried at the meeting, and a further resolution 
also passed, summoning another General Assembly to elect a new Presi- 
dent. Then Zoffany appears to have stepped into the breach, and he 
drew up an address, which was signed by Barry, Opie, Northgate, 
Nollekens, Rigaud, Sandby and himself, expressing approval of the 
President's action in exhibiting Bonomi's drawings. It was presented to 
Reynolds, copies appeared in the paper, public attention was drawn to the 
quarrel, and various pamphlets were issued. A reconciliation speedily took 
place, the idea of electing a new President was abandoned, and a deputa- 
tion was appointed to wait upon Reynolds, and ask him to withdraw his 
resignation. He consented to do so, and invited the deputation to dine 
with him. The King then requested Reynolds to resume the President- 
ship; he did so, and the whole squabble was quickly smoothed over, 
and the council of March 18 was presided over by Sir Joshua. 

Of the paintings which the artist exhibited at this time, special mention 
must be given to one which he called " A Conversation," and sent to the 
Royal Academy in 1782 (No. 53). As we learn from Walpole's notes, 
this represented none other than the notorious John Wilkes and his 
celebrated daughter Polly. Walpole's comments are thus : " Mr. and 
Miss Wilkes horridly like." 

The painting belongs to Sir George Sherston Baker, to whom it has 
come in direct succession from his great-grandmother, Mary Wilkes, the 
sister of the celebrated old politician. " The Merry, Cock-eyed, Curious- 
looking Sprite," as Byron called him, was at that time Chamberlain of the 
City of London, and had recently done valiant service in connection with 
the Gordon riots. He had, greatly to the indignation of some of his 
opponents, also retained his Alderman's gown, which he had worn since 
1771, and he was still Member for Middlesex, a seat he was to hold for 
another eight years. 

1 See John Opie and His Circle, by Miss Earland, p. So. 


He was just commencing his estrangement from Charles James Fox, 
whose loyal supporter he had been, but in the very year in which this 
amazing portrait was painted Fox had not only " tried to prevent," says 
Mr. Bleackley, " the resolution concerning the Middlesex election from 
being expunged from the journals of the House," but had " retired from 
office because he disapproved of Shelburne as Rockingham's successor," 
and, furthermore, " had rent the party in twain by a coalition with Lord 
North, the late Tory Premier." All this completely upset the old Whig, 
who became more independent than ever, came out in violent opposition 
to the Coalition Government under North, but mirabile dictu " began to 
be a regular attender at the King's levee." 1 

Here in the painting Zoffany had cleverly set the head of Wilkes on 
one side, turned towards his daughter, whom he is regarding in a some- 
what leering fashion, with that strange and intense affection which he 
poured forth upon her alone, and by this clever stratagem the cross-eyed 
appearance of the old demagogue is less noticeable than it would other- 
wise have been. " Polly " stands erect by his side, holding his hand, 
" a fine figure of a woman," and Poma the dog, whose portrait we have 
just seen in the Sharp picture (see p. 71), lies at her feet. The con- 
ception is excellent, the portraits both of them admirable, and the 
costumes painted with exceeding skill and ability, the details of the 
ribbons, gloves, buttons, etc., marvellous in their truth and finish. 

As a group Zoffany seldom surpassed this delightful portrait, it is so 
natural and so well-composed. 

Walpole, of course, poked clever fun at it ; writing to the Countess of 
Upper Ossory on November 14, he thus speaks of it- 

" There, too, you will see a delightful piece of Wilkes looking 
no, squinting tenderly at his daughter. It is a caricature of the 
Devil acknowledging Miss Sin in Milton, and I do not know why, 
but they are under a palm-tree which has not grown in a free country 
for some centuries." 2 

Walpole is unfair in one part of his criticism, if not in all. The tree 
does not bear the least resemblance to a palm. The picture was executed, 
so far as is known, in the garden of the Balcony House, Elysium Row, 
Fulham, Wilkes' country residence, and the view in the background is of 
the Thames, and painted with some dexterity in the Wilson manner. 

This was not the only portrait Zoffany painted of Wilkes. He was 
also responsible for the group which belongs to Colonel Prideaux Brune, 

1 Life of Wilkes, by Horace Bleackley, 1917, p. 373. 

2 Walpole' s Letters, Toynbee edit., XI. 53. 

Coll. nfl'nl. TVi.Mnii lirutif 


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to which we have already made brief allusion, as it belongs to an earlier 
period (circa 1768). 

In it Wilkes and Sergeant Glynn are represented in conversation. 
Wilkes holds in his hand a paper endorsed " Wilkes, Esq., v. The Earl of 
Halifax " alluding to the celebrated warrant of arrest, and signed by his 
pugilistic legal-adviser John Reynolds. 

Glynn is carefully considering the knotty question Wilkes is submit- 
ting to him, while on the table rests a copy of Magna Charta, and near 
by is a medallion of the patriot Hampden. The composition is clever, 
well-fitted to commemorate the most striking episode in the career of 
the old Whig leader, and with the exception of one hand, is admirably 
painted. The various adjuncts are ably combined to form parts of the 
picture, and not to detract from the general effect of it. 

Another group, even more attractive, belongs to the same year as the 
portrait of Wilkes and Polly. This is the painting belonging to Mr. Harry 
Verney, and representing an old gentleman and his two sisters seated. 
The man is Charles Hope Vere, youngest son of the first Earl of Hope- 
toun and great-grandfather of the present owner of the picture, while 
the two ladies are Lady Christian Graham and Lady Charlotte Erskine, 
who afterwards became Lady Mar. With his customary aptitude for 
introducing accessories that bear upon the subject of the painting, Zoffany 
has put into the hands of Lady Christian Graham the Gazette Extraordinary, 
dated London 1782, which contained an account of the battle of Gibraltar, 
the first naval engagement in which Mr. Hope Vere's son (afterwards 
Admiral Sir George Hope) took part, and then to add to the family 
interest in the painting, he has placed between the two ladies a pole 
firescreen on which is represented their own home, Blackwood. 

This screen is still in the possession of one branch of the family, while 
the little round table on which Lady Charlotte has placed her book 
and spectacles, belongs to the owner of the picture, and stands in the 
room in which it hangs near at hand. Mr. Hope Vere, of serious 
countenance, is dressed in the scarlet costume of the Archers, with his 
bow and arrows beside him. He holds between his fingers a book that he 
has been reading, on which Zoffany has marked 1782, the date of the 
painting, and he wears round his neck the badge of the famous Corps 
to which he belonged. The two ladies are delightfully posed, and Lady 
Charlotte especially, looking out from the room, in arch expression, is 
evidently quite enjoying the opportunity of having her portrait painted. 
The group is delightful, simple, restrained, dignified, a striking example 
of Zoffany at his very best. 

Of the other pictures exhibited at this time we have been able to find 
one of the theatrical groups, and that is a portrait, so Walpole tells us, of 


Baddeley the actor. Zoffany called it " A Character in the School for 
Scandal." It was Baddeley represented as Moses, and it now belongs to 
Mrs. Hutchinson, and was exhibited in the Whitechapel Gallery in 1910 
(No. 122). 

The other theatrical group, also styled by Zoffany " A Character," 
but which Walpole says was Morigi in Viaggiatori Felici in comic opera, 
we have not been able to find, 1 nor could we trace with certainty three 
portraits which Zoffany exhibited and which Walpole tells us represented 

Mr. Sympson, Musician (1782, No. i). 
Mr. Ma . . . [name undecipherable] (1783, No. 44). 
2 Mr. Maddison (1784, No. 2). 

nor two other anonymous portraits to which Walpole does not allude 
at all 

A Young Lady (1781, No. 175). 

A Gentleman (1781, No. 223 ). 3 

The Mr. Chase, whose portrait Zoffany exhibited in 1784 (No. 98), 
was a well-known raconteur of the day, and his portrait is at Burderop 
Park and belongs to General Galley. 4 

The only other group of the exhibited works remaining for notice 
is that which Zoffany styled " Girl with Water Cresses," and which he 
sent in to the Royal Academy in 1780, No. 204. This was the subject 
of an engraving in mezzotint by Young, dated 1785, and the original 
picture, together with the companion portrait called " The Flower Girl," 
belongs to Lord Revelstoke. 

It was at one time a cherished possession belonging to Mr. Moberley 
Bell, the Editor of The Times, and eventually came into the hands of 

1 It is possible that the picture belonging to Mrs. Asquith may be the work in 
question, or the scene depicted in the painting now in Berlin which once belonged 
to Mr. T. Humphry Ward. 

2 This is, we certainly believe, the portrait of Mr. Maddison, now belonging to Mr. 
Lane. It is dated 1783 and came to light while these pages were in the press. See p. 79. 

3 One portrait which he sent in before he left for India (1780, No. 163) and which 
Walpole says represented John Burke, we believe we have identified, but unfortunately 
the owner of it declines to give us permission to mention it, or to give the slightest 
clue which would enable his name or his residence to transpire. Mr. Perceval's group 
depicts a Mr. Burke and his family. 

4 Of this picture exhibited at the Academy after Zoffany had left for India, the 
critic in the Morning Post thus spoke 

' This artist (Zoffany) is gone to the East Indies and we should have had no 
additional cause for regret had he taken his picture along with him." This particular 
critic seems to have had a spite against Zoffany, his criticisms were generally unfavourable. 


Messrs. Colnaghi, from whom Mr. Thomas Baring acquired it and the 
companion work. He has lately passed them over to their present owner. 

Such other information as we know of Zoffany at this period, comes 
to us from Walpole or from Mrs. Papendiek. 

Walpole says that in 1781 Zoffany was robbed, and he thus alludes 
to the story : In a letter to the Countess of Upper Ossory, dated October 
17, 1781, he says that " Zoffany, the painter, was robbed, and his footman 
was ready to take his bible to the person of a haberdasher intimate of the 
corn-factor, but Mr. Smallwares proved an alibi, and the corn-factor gave 
a ball and none but the dancers acquit him and so much for an idle 
story." In the same letter he has already referred to the corn-factor in 
relation to his own robbery, when Lady Browne and he were going to 
the Duchess of Montrose's at Twickenham Park, when " she lost a trifle 
and he nine guineas," and says that the " great corn-factor, who is in bad 
odour here on the highway, arrived at the ' George ' a moment after or 
before our robbery and was suspected, and my footman thought he could 
swear to the horse." Walpole, on this occasion, says he slipped his 
watch up his sleeve, and Lady Browne, it is stated, had the presence of 
mind to hand the thief a purse of bad money, which she had been in the 
habit of carrying in case of such an attack. 1 

Mrs. Papendiek 's notes then refer to her own and her sister's portraits 
which Zoffany painted, but despite the most careful inquiries we have not 
been able to find either of these interesting works. In 1782, she writes 

" On this eventful day, my mother and I were taking a quiet dinner 
at Zoffany's when Mr. Papendiek came to conduct us home imme- 
diately. It was then about four o'clock. Every shop was shut, and 
only a few stragglers were to be seen in the streets, hurrying home 
like ourselves, while at the House multitudes had collected. All 
was dismay, discontent, and want of confidence, and so it continued 
for some time until the change, in fact, was settled, when Pitt's 
long administration began. 

" Nothing of private interest marked our sfy'our at St. James's, 
and we moved to Kew as usual ; but before our return thither 
Mr. Zoffany began my sister's portrait, which, when finished, was 
an excellent likeness, and was a great solace to my mother when some 
years later she died." 2 

Again in the same year she thus writes 

" On Christmas Day ... I now sat for the first time to Zoffany 
for my portrait. I passed the day with them, the Farrens met us 

1 Walpole' s Letters, Toynbee edit., XII., 64 and 66. 2 Mrs. Papendiek, 1. 156. 


at dinner, and in the evening we all repaired to Drury Lane to see 
Miss Farren act. I am ashamed to say I have forgotten in what." x 

Her second sitting for the portrait took place in the following January, 
and was speedily followed by the third and final sitting, and it is in the 
notes concerning these that we learn of the permission given to Zoffany 
by George III, that in his forthcoming journey to the East he might 
assume the name and style of a knight rather than that of a baron, which 
was singularly inappropriate for him. Mrs. Papendiek thus writes 

" A few days after this, I went to Zoffany's for the second sitting 
of my picture. A dreary morning in winter, and the fidget of not 
being at home to receive Mr. Papendiek added to the cramped attitude 
for many hours, no doubt caused the expression of countenance so 
distasteful to my family. I reached home in time for dinner, which 
seemed to please, and the smiles returned. The arrangements in 
the house I had made were highly approved of, particularly that of 
Mr. Papendiek's own room, where he could, and did, have his friends 
to practise their duets, etc., with him." 

And again 2 

" After this party, my third and last sitting to Zoffany took place, 3 
and then he sailed for India. He was permitted to assume the title 
of Sir John Zoffany, by the King, as he thought it more appropriate 
than that of Baron, which had been conferred upon him by the 
Emperor Joseph II (really by the Empress Maria Theresa) at Vienna. 
Poor Mrs. Zoffany, with her little girls, Theresa and Cecilia, went 
down to Strand-of-the-Green after depositing her jewels, plate 
and other valuables with her banker ; disposing of the superfluous 
furniture, and letting the house in Albemarle Street. We just saw 
her, but she was too wretched to be amongst her friends. Her 
loss was indeed great to me. Zoffany stayed in India fourteen years, 4 
and then returned to England, where he remained till his death in 
i8io." 5 

Two more pieces of information are all we have to record concerning 
Zoffany before he left for India. 

1 Mrs. Papendiek, I. 173. * Ibid. 182. 

3 We have tried, hard, to find these portraits of Mrs. Papendiek and her sister 
(nee Albert). Our five letters to the Delves-Broughton family have all remained 
unanswered ! 

This was not correct, see p. 66. 8 Mrs. Papendiek, 184. 




the collection of Mr. John l.unc 

Coll. of Sir fnsmn (',. Antrohus. Hurl. 



From a note in The Morning Herald of January 6, 1783, we learn that 
he wrote to Dr. Johnson before he left, praying for the honour of painting 
his portrait, and that Johnson sat twice to him. Unfortunately the only 
portrait of Johnson by Zoffany that we have been able to identify, is the 
very small representation of him in the group depicting Mrs. Garrick's 
tea-party, in the possession of the Earl of Durham. 

Probably the more important work executed in 1783 still exists, but 
the painter of it has not been recognised. 
The extract reads thus 

" Mr. Zoffany, the celebrated painter, within these few days paid 
a compliment to merit which will greatly redound to his honour. 
He sent a card to Dr. Johnson, informing him that he was about 
to leave the kingdom but could not depart without having the 
pleasure to take the portrait of a man whom all the world admired 
and esteemed ; he hoped, therefore, the Doctor would please sit 
for his picture that he might have the honour to present it to him 
when finished. The Doctor was much pleased with the attention 
and respect paid to him by Zoffani, and has already sat twice to him." 

It may be well to mention here in connection with Johnson's name 
that Zoffany painted a small portrait of Boswell, which is now in the posses- 
sion of Sir Cosmo Antrobus. Another belongs to Messrs. Cradock & Co. 

Finally we learn that Mr. Maddison of the Goldsmith's Company, 
whose portrait Zoffany exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1784, was his 
stockbroker, and he was, so Mr. Tennyson has discovered, one of the 
artist's securities with the East India Company in connection with his 
journey to India, and, says Mrs. Papendiek, had much to do " with 
the preparations for his departure, managing all his affairs for him." 

She adds, that the portrait of Maddison was engraved, but in this we 
fancy she must have been in error. 1 

At this time Zoffany was styling himself Baron von Zoffany, greatly 
to the displeasure of many of his friends and to the indignation of persons 
in Court circles, as George III had never given him permission to assume 
his title in England, and had, indeed, viewed the patent and the pre- 
tentions of the artist to noble rank with some scorn. 

Later on, however, when Zoffany was actually starting for India, he 
was permitted, so he gave out, to style himself Sir John Zoffany, and it 
was under this form, it has been stated, he took, or tried to take, a passage 
in the sailing-vessel. 

1 Mrs. Papendiek, I. 281. The picture has recently been discovered and now 
belongs to Mr. John Lane. It is illustrated here and described in the appendix 
(see p. 76). 



WE have already mentioned that William Hodges, with whom Zoffany 
was on friendly terms, had taken his place in Captain Cook's expedition, 
and had returned laden with sketches and studies. 

Since then Hodges had gone on to India, where we are told he secured 
the patronage of Warren Hastings, and speedily obtained many com- 

He appears to have written home to Zoffany, telling him of his success, 
and from other artists who were working in the same country, Zoffany 
heard so many tales of rich fees and generous commissions that he 
determined, he, also, would try his luck in the East. 

His fortune, owing to reckless extravagance, was fast melting away, 
and as he hated to reduce his expenditure, more money was urgently 
needed, so, as we mentioned in our last chapter, he let his studio in 
Albemarle Street, packed off his wife and family to the riverside villa at 
Strand-on-the-Green, and set sail for India in 1783 (not in 1780, as has 
been stated in error), buoyed up by great expectations of success. 

He was bound for Lucknow, where Paul Sandby said he expected 
" to roll in gold dust," and where eventually he was certainly to make a 
definite success, but even he, with ample commissions, even more than 
he could carry out, was not wholly satisfied with the result of his journey, 
so boundless were his visions of " limitless gold and lacs of rupees." 

That he actually left London as " Sir John " Zoffany cannot be 
stated. The records of the India Office give us no information on that 
point, and as to his obtaining Royal permission to adopt the title, we have 
the gravest of doubts, but he certainly used it while in India, and there are 
allusions to him as " Sir John " in connection with the pictures he was 
to paint for Colonel Martin and in the correspondence concerning the 
altar-piece at St. John's Church, Calcutta. 

Mr. William Foster of the India Office has been good enough to make 
an exhaustive search in the records for information concerning Zoffany's 
voyages to and from India, and to place the results at our disposal. Our 
very hearty thanks are tendered to him, and with special gratitude, because 


Coll. of the Lord Tfiqtunoutli 

Ha:dl plmln 

Presented to Sir John Shore by the Nawfib, in 1798 

ZOFFANY IN I N D I A 1783-1789 81 

our own search, not merely casual, but one which extended over a 
prolonged period, was not rewarded, as we had hoped it would have 
been ; although we were able to discover some new information concerning 
the painter's works and his acquaintance with Colonel Martin. 

Mr. Foster has found in the Court Minutes, under date November 20, 
1782, that a petition was read from " Mr. John Zoffani for leave to proceed 
to India, and to provide for himself there in his profession of a Painter." 

It was referred to a Committee for consideration, and on November 
27, 1782, the Court Minutes state that " leave was given to proceed, but 
not in any of the Company's ships." 

The Petition is recorded in the Miscellaneous Letters Received?- and it 
shows that the request was endorsed by Mr. Jacob Wilkinson, one of the 
Directors of the Company. 

The matter came again before the Court on January 22, 1783, when 
Zoffany's securities were approved. They were John Maddison of 
Charing Cross, to whom we have already alluded (see p. 79), and Robert 
Preston of Lime Street. 

Notwithstanding the prohibition against Zoffany going out in" any 
of the East India Company's ships, he did actually sail, Mr. Foster has 
ascertained, in the East Indiaman Lord Macartney, but under a subterfuge 
as a midshipman ! In a list of officers and seamen prefixed to the log 
of that vessel, 2 we find John Zoffany as one of the midshipmen, with the 
added item of " Run (i. e. deserted) at Calcutta, September 15, 1783." 
Probably, Mr. Foster suggests, this entry was but a further piece of 
deception to cover Zoffany's quitting the ship. 

The Lord Macartney sailed from the Downs on January 17, 1783, 
reached Madras July 22, and Kedgeree for Calcutta on September 13. 

For what reason he was prohibited from using an East Indiaman we 
do not know, but it is clear that he carried out his original determination 
despite the prohibition. 

The Commander of the Lord Macartney was one Captain Pierce, a 
man of some cultivation, of whom a chronicler says, " He had a great 
taste for the polite arts, and was the means of making the fortune of 
Mr. Zoffany the painter, by taking him to India, and recommending him 
there." This Captain Pierce made his last voyage in charge of the East 
Indiaman The Halswelle, which, on its outward voyage, was wrecked 
near St. Alban's Head, on the Dorsetshire coast, on January 6, 1786, the 
tragic story, says Mr. Whitley, 3 causing " a sensation in England, some- 
thing akin to that occasioned by the sinking of the Titanic in our own 
times." The wreck was suggested as a subject suitable for pictorial 

1 Vol. 71, No. in. 2 India Office Marine Logs, 

3 Gainsborough, by W. T. Whitley, p. 254. 

'. G 


representation, and Northcote took it up, and exhibited a picture at the 
Royal Academy in the same year, entitled " The Loss of the Halswelle, 
East Indiaman." 

We know, moreover, that a friend from Isleworth accompanied Zoffany, 
one Thomas Longcroft, and this we learn from some notes made by 
Thomas Twining while in India. 

He says 

" Zoffany had a friend, Thomas Longcroft, who lived at Isle- 
worth. He went with Zoffany to India in 1794, and the two friends 
were together for some time. Eventually, however, they quarrelled, 
and Longcroft left Zoffany, bought some land at Jellowllee, and 
started as an indigo planter. When Thomas Twining went out to 
India, he was given an introduction to Longcroft, and spent a very 
pleasant day with him, but, owing to the fact that the person who 
had written the letter of introduction, had not written Twining's 
name clearly in it, Longcroft did not realise till after his guest had 
left that he and his guest were closely related through a mutual 
relative named Powell. Longcroft sent a messenger after Mr. 
Twining, striving to persuade him to return and talk over family 
matters with him, but Mr. Twining was too far on his journey for 
him to make the necessary arrangements, and he had to go on to 
Lucknow, where he visited Colonel Martin, and Colonel Polier, and 
stayed with Colonel Polier and met Zoffany. Longcroft was never 
able to see his friend Zoffany again, and soon after Mr. Twining's 
visit, died all alone, having no Europeans about him." 1 

It is mentioned in the same book that Zoffany said of the Taj, 
when he saw it at Delhi, " it wanted nothing but a glass case to 
cover it." 

Before we leave Longcroft it will be well to mention that he himself 
was a skilful artist, and is declared to have been Zoffany 's pupil, receiving 
daily instruction from him on board the vessel where they both were, 
and proving himself an accomplished draughtsman. 

Many of his sketches were, after his death, sent back to England 
and came into the possession of his various friends, one of whom, Miss 
Twining, presented several of them to the British Museum and others to 
the India Office. 

They are distinguished for marvellous accuracy and meticulous attention 
to detail rather than for artistic effect. 

1 Notes and Reminiscences of Thomas Twining concerning his Travels in India. 
Published in 1893. 

ZOFFANY IN I N D I A 1783-1789 83 

The representations of buildings which Longcroft made, are almost 
as accurate as modern photographs would be. 

That Zoffany was actually in Lucknow in 1784 we learn from the 
inscriptions on the backs of two pictures now in the India Office, represent- 
ing Asaf-ud-daula, 1 the Nawab Wazir of Oudh, and Hasan Raza Khan 2 
his Prime Minister. These pictures are inscribed 

" John Zoffany painted this picture at Lucknow, A.D. 1784 by order 
of His Highness the Nabob Vizier Asoph Ul Dowlah [sic] (or, in the other 
instance, by desire of Hussein Reza Caun [sic], Nabob Suffraz Ul Dowlah), 
who gave it to his servant (or in the other one ' friend ') Francis Baladon 

It is clear, therefore, that Zoffany speedily found favour with the 
Nawab, who succeeded his father Shuja ud daula 3 on the throne of Oudh 
in 1775, and who enriched Lucknow with so many magnificent buildings, 
and that he was one of the fortunate persons who found commissions in 
that Court, the scene for twenty-two years of so much extravagance and 
such shocking misgovernment. 

These very same exalted personages had at a later time their portraits 
painted in miniature by Ozias Humphry, and it was in connection with 
work for them that Humphry contracted a very heavy debt, payment 
of which he was never able to obtain. 

The Prime Minister, Hazan Raza Khan, was, we are told, utterly 
unfitted for the post which the Nawab gave him. He had originally been 
only the superintendent of Shuja ud daula's kitchen office, and is described 
as " an indolent voluptuary." Tennant, 4 however, speaks of him in 1799 
as very popular, but also describes an attempt that was made to assassinate 

Francis Baladon Thomas, from whom these two fine pictures 
came, was a surgeon-major on the Bengal establishment and surgeon to 
the Lucknow Residency. He was, however, dismissed from the service 
in 1785, the year after he had received as presents these two works. 

In 1786 Zoffany painted his celebrated picture of Colonel Mordaunt's 
" Cock Match," at Lucknow, one of his best-known works. 

This was painted for the Nawab Wazir of Oudh, and the original 
painting, was, it has been often stated, destroyed during the Indian Mutiny. 

Here we enter upon an interesting controversy. There are two 
versions of the " Cock Match " (generally spoken of as The Cock Fight) 
in England, one belonging to Colonel Strachey, usually known as the 

u j cr 
4 Indian Recreations, by Sir E. Tennant, II. 409. 


Ashwick version, and one belonging to the Marquis of Tweeddale. From 
the latter picture, Earlom made his famous mezzotint. The sporting 
event, which is commemorated in the picture, and which created a con- 
siderable sensation in Lucknow, took place, as we have stated, in 1786, 
in which year Warren Hastings was in England. He therefore was not 
a witness to the event, nor could he have seen Zoffany's picture. He 
perhaps heard of the merits of it, and is said to have commissioned a 
replica of it. Zoffany, it is declared, made the replica, but did not take 
it with him when he sailed for Europe, as he had already despatched it 
by another vessel. On reaching England, he learned that it had been lost 
in a wreck. He had, however, to carry out the arrangement he had 
made with Warren Hastings, and having with him in London many of 
his sketches and studies, he set to work with their aid to paint another 
picture, which was duly delivered and hung at Daylesford House, 
Warren Hastings' country place in England. 

In Once a Week for April 2, I864, 1 is a note, signed by the initials 
J. W. A., 2 referring to the Daylesford picture. The writer says that 
Zoffany took the loss of his replica with philosophic equanimity, remarking 
that it would do for Neptune's gallery, " that ancient collector but sorry 
connoisseur." This note is probably taken from the reference James 
Elmes makes in his Art and Artists? in which he thus speaks of the same 

" Earlom's print of Colonel Mordaunt's ' Cock Match ' at Luck- 
now, from the famed picture by Zoffany, was originally painted in 
the East Indies by commission for Governor Hastings, and shipped 
for England. The ship was wrecked and the picture lost. Zoffany 
fortunately took his passage in another vessel. He arrived safely, 
and heard, with the philosophy of a stoic, that his labour was gone 
to the gallery of that ancient collector but sorry connoisseur, old 

" Zoffany, luckily, had his original sketches and studies on board 
his own ship. He set to work again, and made out a second picture, 
with all the grouping, portraits of Hindoos and Gentoos, Rajahs 
and Nabobs, of all castes and colours, that choice spirit, Jack Mor- 
daunt, and his game-cocks into the bargain, and behold another 
composition, a facsimile of the first. 

1 Quoted by Rev. John Pickford in Notes and Queries, 6th Series, XII. 325, and see 
X. 404. 

2 Mr. Wheeler suggests that in all probability J. W. A. was John Wykeham Archer, 
engraver and antiquary, and a recognised authority on subjects of this kind. 

J Arts and Artists, 1825, 1. 12. in. possession, of Mr. RicAarii S.Strachey 

/>'y //;< cmtrlesy of Mr. Stephen Whedet 

1 Asaf-ud-daula 

2 Xfiwab Salar Jun 

3 Hasan Raza Khan 

4 Mr. Wheek-r (afterwards Sir 


5 ColotiL-1 Murdaunt 

6 Colonel A. Polier 

7 Mr. John \Vomb\\vll 
S Culonul C. Martin 

9 Mr. George Johnstonc 

19 Mr. Gregory's Cocktiy liter 

10 Lieut. J. I*iot 

11 Lii-ut. \V. (iuliiini,' 

12 Mr. M.S. Titylur 

13 Mr. las. Orr* 

i i Mr. Robert liiv-nry 

15 Mr. Ozias Humphry, R.A., or 

Lieut. Isaac Humphry 

16 Mr. Zoftany 

17 Colonel Mordaunt's Cockfighter 

18 The Xitwab \Va/.ir's Cocktiyhti r 

ZOFFANY IN I N D I A 1783-1789 85 

" The Painter kept his own counsel, the story goes, and Governor 
Hastings was never let into the secret." 

The picture which was sent to Daylesford remained there till after 
the death of General Sir Charles Imhof, Hastings' stepson, when it was 
sold for 215 guineas to Colonel Henry Dawkins, " a neighbouring squire, 
who had served with the Coldstream Guards in the Peninsula and at 
Waterloo." He possessed it at Over Norton House until 1898, and 
while it hung in his possession it was the subject of considerable corre- 
spondence in the pages of Notes and Queries. 1 In 1898 the picture was 
again sold, this time fetching only 210 guineas, and it now belongs, as we 
have already stated, to the Marquis of Tweeddale. 

We now come to the Ashwick version. Mr. Stephen Wheeler, who 
has taken considerable pains to investigate the history of the picture, 
and to whom we are greatly indebted for references and information, 
explains how the Ashwick version came into the possession of the Strachey 
family. He says that, " rather more than a century ago, the Governor- 
General, Lord Hastings, had reason for disapproving of the way in which 
British interests were looked after by Colonel John Baillie, whose name is 
commemorated in the famous Baillie Guard." It had been stated by 
Bishop Heber that Colonel Baillie interfered too much with the " private 
affairs " of the Nawab, and " in the internal administration of the country," 
and there were many other complaints which had reached the Governor- 
General, concerning what was termed " the mischievous activity of the 
Resident." Accordingly, Colonel Baillie was recalled, and " Mr. Richard 
Strachey, of the Civil Service, was sent to Lucknow in his place." Strachey 
was " the third son of the first baronet, Clive's secretary, and he lived 
long enough to see his own nephews, afterwards Sir John and General 
Sir Richard Strachey, making their way to fame in India." The new 
Resident managed " to repair his predecessor's mistakes, and instead of 
being regarded with dislike and suspicion at the Court of Lucknow, 
became the Nawab Wazir's warm friend." His term of office lasted for 
two years, and in 1817 he resigned the Service, and came home. This 
was during the nominal viceroyalty (but practically the reign) of Ghauzea- 
ud-Din Hyder 2 (a nephew of Asaf-ud-dowlah), who had succeeded his 
father Saadut AH 3 (brother of Asaf-ud-dowlah) in 1814. He received 
several tokens of friendship before he left from the Nawab, and 
amongst them, Zoffany's picture of " The Cock Match," which now 
belongs to his grandson, and a portrait of the Nawab himself, " which 

1 See 6th Series, XII. 325 ; 8th Series, VII. 288, 338, 473 ; 8th Series, VIII. 38, 96, 
138; X. 263, 351. 


the recipient gave to the Oriental Club, where it now hangs." That 
appears to explain what became of Zoffany's original work, but the ques- 
tion then arises whether Zoffany had not painted, in India, a replica of 
it, and that the usual statement that the original of the Cock Match 
perished at the time of the Mutiny, refers to this replica. The existence of 
such a picture is proved by two separate statements. Mrs. Fanny Parks, 
in her Wanderings of a Pilgrim in Search of the Picturesque, refers to her 
two visits to Lucknow, in December 1827, and in January 1831, and on 
the last occasion she says that, on the 24th of the month, she went on an 
excursion to a palace, the Daulat Khana, built by Asaf-ud-daula, which 
she says was then uninhabited, except by some of the ladies and attendants 
of the late king's zenana. " We went there," she writes, " to see a picture 
painted in oils by Zoffani, an Italian artist, of a match of cocks between 
the Nawab, Ussuf-ood-Dowla, and the Resident, Colonel Mordaunt. 
The whole of the figures are portraits, the picture excellent, but fast falling 
into decay." 1 Mrs. Parks, of course, was wrong in calling Zoffany 
an Italian, and she was also in error in describing Mordaunt as the Resi- 
dent. He never held that post, but Mr. Wheeler points out that the error 
she makes is repeated by no less an authority than Mr. William Crooks 
in his Things Indian, where he also mis-spells the pilgrim's name. 

Twenty-two years later than the visit of Mrs. Parks, according to a 
writer in Notes and Queries, 2 Musawar Khan, the Court miniature painter 
of Lucknow, was employed by an English officer stationed there to make 
" reduced copies, in water-colour, of Zoffany's " Cock Fight," and of other 
pictures in the Kaiser Bagh and Chutter Munzil, by permission of Wajid 
Ali Shah," the last King of Oudh. These copies, which, it may be pre- 
sumed were miniatures, from the use of the word " reduced," were 
stated still to be in the possession of the English officer. His name was 
not given, but, at the time the commission was placed in the hands of 
Musawar Khan, he was serving in political employ at Lucknow. We only 
learn of the existence of these copies from the reference to them in Notes 
and Queries. It would be exceedingly interesting if they could be traced. 

Furthermore, another writer in Notes and Queries, 3 who signs himself 
as " Senex," declares that he was in Lucknow before the annexation of 
Oudh, and saw the picture in the royal palace, which was destroyed 
" during the Mutiny." If these statements are correct, and there seems 
no reason to doubt their accuracy, there must have been two versions of 
the original picture of the Cock Match, one which was taken away 
from India in 1817 by Mr. Strachey, and the other, which remained in 
the country, and which was seen by Mrs. Parks and by " Senex," and 

1 See Parks' Wanderings of a Pilgrim, 1850, Vol. II. 181. 

2 Notes and Queries, 8th Series, VIII. 97. 3 8th Series, X. 351. 

ZOFFANY IN I N D I A 1783- 1789 87 

copied by Musawar Khan. This picture very possibly did perish in the 

We now come to consider the grave differences which exist between 
the Ashwick and the Tweeddale version of the Cock Match, which we 
think prove, beyond any contention, that the Ashwick version was the 
original, and the Tweeddale picture painted in England, when Zoffany 
had forgotten many of the circumstances connected with the original 

The Strachey painting is thoroughly oriental in its atmosphere. The 
central group consists of four persons, three of them are natives, while 
the fourth is Colonel Mordaunt. The attitude of the Nawab Wazir 1 
towards Mordaunt is that of " frank friendliness, claiming and conceding 
equality, while in the sporting Colonel's countenance and demeanour 
there is an alert intelligence scarcely visible when one turns to " the 
Tweeddale picture. On the other hand, Nawab Salar and Hasan Raza 
Khan, who stand between the Nawab Wazlr and Mordaunt, in the Tweed- 
dale picture appear " keenly interested " spectators of the Cock Fight, 
whereas in the Ashwick picture " their attitude shows no departure from 
the dignified reserve which men of their position and breeding might 
be expected to maintain in the circumstances." Either Zoffany when 
he was in England had altogether forgotten " how they bore themselves, 
or else he considered that the group would look more picturesque if all 
the principal persons in it appeared to be thoroughly enjoying the spectacle." 
Either theory, Mr. Wheeler points out, would account for the variation. 
Moreover, to return for a moment to the principal figure in the group, 
the Nawab Wazlr, in the Tweeddale picture, has lost all his courtesy 
and friendliness, and might almost be taken for a common " obsequious 
bunnia." Furthermore, the Indians who are designated in the key to 
the engraving as the Nawab Wazlr's cock-fighter and the Colonel's cock- 
fighter are treated quite differently in the two pictures. The Colonel's 
man, in the Ashwick version, will be recognised at once as " a typical 
Maratha," an excellent example of the race which is the keenest, intel- 
lectually, of all those in India. " He is intent on the combat, his eager 
face, the play of his hands, the concentrated vigilance of his regard, are 
all vividly depicted, but from anything one could gather from the Tweed- 
dale picture, the fellow might be of any race, and rather inclined to go to 
sleep." In the Ashwick version the other cock-fighter " is manifestly 
a man of Oudh, the distinction between the Maratha and the Purbiah 
types being clearly marked." 

Compare, again, the two figures on the extreme right, Messrs. Orr 
and Gregory. In the Strachey picture they are engaged in an animated 


betting contest (see the display of their fingers) as to the merits of Mr. 
Gregory's and Lieut. Golding's cocks, which the respective owners are 
holding. In the print the two men " might be quietly judging at a 
poultry show," and their original likenesses also are quite lost. Mr. 
Gregory has also lost his hat. 

Again, in the Strachey picture Zoffany has an unimportant position, 
his head and shoulders being just visible, with palette and brushes, over 
the top of the sofa. In the native Court as an artist, he was probably 
only regarded as a superior kind of artificer, but in the picture painted 
in England he is given the dignity of a chair and depicted to the waist 
and legs. 

In the Strachey picture the match is taking place in a real shamiana, 1 
with natural scenery, in lieu of a crowd in the distance. In the print, 
there is a sort of stage-drapery with no adequate support visible. 

Another divergence should be marked in the print and the Daylesford 
picture, " a man in the background is stretching out his hand to catch the 
water that pours in a copious flood from a bhisti's mussak." " Now, as 
any reader acquainted with India must know, this is anything but a 
faithful presentment of the ways of the East. In real life the hand would 
be held, almost like a funnel, close to the thirsty one's lip, and a minute 
stream would trickle into it so nicely regulated that hardly a drop would 
be lost. The bhisti and the absurdly impossible water-drinker were after- 
thoughts, and they are not depicted in the other picture, the Ashwick 
version. Again, in the Daylesford picture there is a group of nautch 
girls either waiting to give a performance after the cock-fighting, or, per- 
haps, they have already obliged the company. They are chattering, 
moving about and gesticulating with a vivacity which is altogether at 
variance with the usual behaviour and deportment of nautch girls. They 
would be sitting silent and apparently very much bored, or at any rate 
indifferent to what was going on; and so they are shown, betraying no 
sign of motion or animation, in the Ashwick picture. Here, again, there 
is unmistakable evidence that it was painted when the artist's first impres- 
sions were still distinct; whereas, when he painted the later picture, 
they were either blurred by lapse of time or Zoffany saw fit to embellish 
them with decorative effects which, though outrageously defiant of truth, 
may have seemed to him more likely to suit the taste of the uninstructed 

The single figure of a native guard in the background, clearly of 
Dravidian type with ear-pendants and a curious headdress, possibly that 
of the Nawab Wazlr's own troops, is omitted altogether from the Daylesford 

1 Or tented house. 





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ZOFFANY IN I N D I A 1783-1789 89 

The dresses of the Europeans, both officers and civilians, are in it 
made richer, the ornamental hats and moustaches have been taken off 
two figures (Colonel Polier and Mr. Wheeler), and the latter's elegant, 
crescent-pointed native shoes have been replaced by doubtful-looking 
boots of the Hessian kind. In the Strachey work he is chatting apart, 
side by side, with the Commandant of the British forces, Colonel Martin 
(the latter elegantly posed), quite unconcerned by the cock-fighting, while 
in the Daylesford picture he is seated opposite Colonel Martin and is 
holding a new cock, one of the six which increase the early number of 
eight to fourteen in the later work. 

We think it will be granted that all these critical remarks for most 
of which we are indebted to Mr. Wheeler and to Mr. R. S. Strachey, 
who both speak from an intimate knowledge of Indian affairs tend 
to prove the truth of our contention that the picture at Ashwick, if 
not actually the original work, was certainly painted in India in 1786. 
The painting, which was at Daylesford, and from which the Earlom 
print must have been made, as Earlom did not visit India, was a later 
composition, made more fashionable and less oriental and embellished 
by Zoffany and his assistants with various additions which detract very 
much from its effect, but which possibly may have made it more pleasing 
in the eyes of those English persons who were to behold it, and who 
knew little or nothing of native habits or native Court life. 

It was evidently a popular work, inasmuch as it was considered worthy 
of a mezzotint by Earlom. 

It seems to us to be certain that Zoffany had no complete sketch for 
the picture in his possession when he was in England, and that he inter- 
polated various other studies he had made from time to time into the 
composition, with what we are disposed to consider very unfortunate 

Colonel Mordaunt is the hero of the picture, and it will be of interest, 
therefore, if we give some account of him from an Anglo-Indian paper. 1 

" John Mordaunt and his brother Henry were natural sons of an Earl 
of Peterborough. If the dates vaguely indicated in a magazine article 
more than a century old can be trusted, it was the fourth earl to whom 
they owed their birth; grandson and namesake of that famous com- 
mander, Charles Mordaunt, third earl, called by Macaulay the most 
extraordinary character of his time. John Mordaunt was sent to school 
by his noble parent, but does not seem to have acquired even the rudi- 
ments of a liberal education. This, at least, may be inferred from the 
letter in which he told a friend, " You may kip the hos as long as you 
lik." He never became either a ready or a correct writer. Rather than 
1 The Pioneer (Allahabad), January 23, 1918. 


put his pen to paper he would travel all the way from Lucknow to Calcutta. 
According to his own account preceptors spared no pains to make a 
scholar of him. As nothing, he said, could be done with his brains they 
did their best to impress instruction on the opposite seat of learning. 
Manifestly unfitted for a learned profession the boy was removed from 
school, and an East Indian cadetship was obtained for him. Even in 
those days, however it was in the latter half of the eighteenth century 
candidates for a commission in the Company's military service were 
required to show that they were not hopelessly unintelligent. There was 
some sort of viva voce examination before a committee or board at the 
India House in Leadenhall Street. Young Mordaunt duly appeared, 
and at first failed ignominiously to answer a single question put to him. 
Then one of the examiners a friend, perhaps, of the family, and thus 
aware that the boy was not wholly without accomplishments asked him if 
he knew anything about cribbage. Pulling a well-worn pack of cards out 
of his pocket John Mordaunt offered to play a game with any of the 
gentlemen for whatever sum they pleased. So the cards were dealt, 
and he proceeded to give his seniors indubitable proof that there was one 
subject in which he was competent to instruct them. He rose a winner 
and they passed him. In after years he became noted for his proficiency 
in all the card games then fashionable. No one was quicker to detect 
foul play, and he could himself perform all the feats of legerdemain which 
sharpers practice for the confusion of the unwary. On one occasion in 
India, when he had seen enough to feel sure that his opponent was cheat- 
ing, he took the first opportunity to deal out thirteen trumps to his own 
hand. ' This is to show you, sir," he calmly remarked, " that you can't 
have all the fun to yourself." He only consented to let the matter drop 
on receiving the offender's promise to clear out of the country. . . . 

In 1782, and possibly before that date, Mordaunt was aide-de-camp 
to Warren Hastings, in which capacity he escorted the Governor-General's 
wife, when she hurried from Bhagalpur to Calcutta, to join her husband 
then lying ill. " Sydney Grier " quotes a letter from Mordaunt to 
Hastings reminding him of the incident. . . . 

It has been stated that Mordaunt had the honour, when on a sporting 
expedition, of being presented to the Nawab Wazir, and that this led to 
his entering Asaf-ud-daula's service. Whatever may be the true facts, 
however, there is no doubt that Mordaunt won the Nawab 's confidence, 
and became a person of considerable importance in the State. In addition 
to military duties, which were not very arduous, he was more or less a 
master of the ceremonies, and at times, perhaps, a leader of the revels 
at the Lucknow Court. That the Nawab treated him as a friend is not, 
of course, conclusive proof of the Englishman's merit. Asaf-ud-daula, 

ZOFFANY IN I N D I A 1783-1789 91 

says the author of the Siyar almuta' akhkhirin, took delight in associating 
with the lowest and most worthless characters. He adds, however, that 
you might occasionally see him in conversation with men of birth and 
talents, and evidence is not wanting that Mordaunt should be placed 
among the latter. Lord Cornwallis must have thought well of him, or 
he would have resented Mordaunt's reply when the Governor-General 
asked him if he did not long to return to his regiment. " Not in the 
least," said Mordaunt. " But your services may be wanted," Cornwallis 
remarked. " Indeed, my lord," was Mordaunt's rejoinder, " I can't do 
you half the service there that I can in keeping the Nawab amused while 
you ease him of his money." Needless to say that no record of this 
conversation will be discovered in any official " Proceedings " or other 
State document ; but it is sufficiently characteristic of both men to be 

More than one instance is given of the tact which enabled Mordaunt 
to hold his own amidst the intrigues of an Indian Court. The same 
quality sometimes served also to get other people out of tight corners. 
Zoffany, whilst staying at Lucknow, must needs draw or paint a caricature 
of the Nawab Wazir and show it to his friend, General Claud Martin. 
Less friendly courtiers saw or heard of the picture, and, in the hope of 
discrediting the artist, told their master about this affront to his dignity. 
Asaf-ud-daula declared he would have a look at the offensive portraiture, 
and decide for himself on the proper way of marking his resentment. 
The affair, which threatened to bring about the abrupt termination of 
Zoffany's comfortable sojourn in Oudh, came to Mordaunt's knowledge. 
He at once sent for the painter, warned him of the impending storm, 
and earnestly advised him to transform the caricature into something 
less likely to enrage the potentate it depicted. Zoffany was astute enough 
to perceive the wisdom of this counsel. Working all night he retouched 
and improved his satire in paint so effectively that, when the Nawab 
had it shown to him, it proved to be quite a flattering likeness. The 
abashed tale-bearers were the only persons who had cause for dejection; 
whereas the artist, thanks to Mordaunt's timely and good-natured inter- 
ference, got Rs. 1 0,000 for his handiwork." 

On another occasion it is said that the Hajam, or barber, for the 
Nawab Wazlr, by an accident drew blood when shaving His Highness. 
This was regarded as a capital offence, and the man was ordered to be 
baked alive in an oven. Mordaunt interceded for him, and knowing that 
Colonel Martin of Lucknow was at that time interested in ballooning, and 
had two or three balloons in his possession, suggested that the barber 
should be put into one of these balloons and sent aloft. The Grand Vizier 
agreed to change the punishment according to Colonel Mordaunt's 


suggestion, the terrified man was fastened into the balloon, and it made its 
way to a place called Polier Gorge (the residence of Colonel Polier), five 
miles from Lucknow, where, very fortunately, it came to the earth, and 
the man was rescued almost dead with fright. He took good care never 
again to come within the range of the power of the Nawab Wazir of 
Oudh. Mordaunt, it should be mentioned, frequently visited Lucknow 
for the cocking for which it was celebrated and in which the Nawab, 
who had many famous birds, took a keen delight. He died on board his 
Budgerow near Chunar, on November n, 1790, aged forty, and his tomb 
is in the old European Cemetery, close by the quarter called Colonel Ganj. 

Mr. Wheeler has taken considerable pains to identify the various persons 
who are portrayed both in the Ashwick and in the Tweeddale pictures, 
and has generously placed all his notes at our disposal, and from them 
our information is taken. 

It will be noticed that, in the key to Earlom's engraving, the names 
of the persons read thus 

(1) Asof-u-Dowla Nabob Vizier. (n) Lieut. Golding. 

(2) Nabob Salar Jung. (12) Mr. Taylor. 

(3) Haseen Reza Khan. (13) Mr. Orr. 

(4) Colonel Martin. (14) Mr. Gregory. 

(5) Colonel Mordaunt. (15) Mr. Humphry. 

(6) Colonel Polier. (16) Mr. Zoffany. 

(7) Mr. Wombwell. (17) Colonel Mordaunt's cock- 

(8) Mr. Wheeler. fighter. 

(9) Mr. Johnson. (18) The Nabob Vizier's cock- 

(10) Lieut. Pigot. fighter. 

(19) Mr. Gregory's cock-fighter. 

As regards the Nawab Wazir, Louis Ferdinand Smith's character 
sketch of him reads as follows 

" He is mild in manners, generous to extravagance, affably polite 
and engaging in his conduct; but he has not great mental powers, 
though his heart is good. He is fond of lavishing his treasures on 
gardens, palaces, horses, elephants, and, above all, on fine European 
gems, lustres, mirrors, and all sorts of European manufactures, more 
especially English, from a 2d. deal board painting of ducks and 
drakes to the elegant paintings of a Lorraine or a Zoffani, and from 
a little dirty paper lantern to mirrors and lustres which cost up to 
3000 each." l 

1 See Asiatic Annual Register, 1804, " Misc. Tracts," p. 10. 

Coll. of Mr. Henry Sinclair 


ZOFFANY IN I N D I A 1783-1789 93 

The portrait of him which appears amongst our illustrations is one 
which belongs to Lord Teignmouth and has been specially photo- 
graphed by him that we may use it in this book. It came to his 
ancestor, Sir John Shore, known in India as " Honest John Shore," 
direct from the Nawab who tried hard to influence Shore in his favour, 
but wholly without effect. The Governor-General thus simply recorded 
the story in a letter he wrote to Lady Shore 

" Lucknow, 8th of Feb., 1797. This day I had a private 
audience with the Nabob, from which we separated both much 
pleased. I have, however, refused a fortune for you and your 
younger children. Notwithstanding he was repeatedly told that I 
would accept nothing, he had prepared five lacs of rupees and eight 
thousand gold mohurs for me; of which I was to have four lacs, 
my attendants one, and your Ladyship the gold. My answer to his 
Excellency was this : That a barleycorn from him was equal in my 
sight to a million ; but that I could not but express my concern 
that he and his people were so ignorant of our customs and of my 
character, to make such an offer, which I peremptorily declined. 
I added, that I had seen in his Shusha kana some pictures of his 
Excellency, of which I begged to have one, as a memorial of his 
friendship. And I took one, about 15 inches square, done by 
Zoffani (not set in diamonds), which is a strong resemblance to 
the Nabob; and for which, to say the truth, I would not give 
two-pence. It pleased him." 1 

Asof-ud-daula succeeded to his throne in January 1775 and died 
September 21, 1797. The Nawab Salar Jung was his uncle, being a 
brother of the once celebrated Bhac Begum. The Begum had two 
brothers, the other being Mirza AH Khan; and Middleton, 2 the Resi- 
dent, described them as " not brilliant but experienced men, mild and 
just in their administration and beloved by all." The author of the 
Tarikh Farahbaksh, on the other hand, denounced them as cowards and 
profligates. " The Minister, Hasan Raza Khan, is mentioned in 
Thornton's History of India, and his name frequently occurs though 
not always spelt the same way in the official papers of the period." 

Antoine Polier was French by descent, but was born at Lausanne 
in Switzerland in 1741. He was at one time Chief Engineer at Calcutta ; 
he collected Sanskrit manuscripts, and was murdered by robbers after 
his return to Avignon. 

" John Wombwell was the Company's Accountant at Lucknow. He 

1 See The Spectator of Oct. 18, 1919, and Bengal Past and Present, Calcutta 
Historical Society. A gold Mohur in 1797 was worth two pounds. 

2 Whose portrait Zoffany painted (see p. in). 


was one of the donors of the silver cup presented to Warren Hastings 
by " Old Westminsters " and two or three others (Wombwell among 
them), who, though not at the school, were allowed to join in that tribute 
of esteem. The Wombwells were a Yorkshire family, one of whom 
was Consul at Alicant. This George Wombwell's daughter married 
Archdeacon John Strachey, a brother of the first baronet." 

" Mr. (afterwards Sir Trevor) Wheler was assistant to the Resident, 
and was a nephew of Edward Wheler of the Bengal Council, who died in 
I783- 1 George Johnstone (not Johnson), another Assistant Resident, 
retired from the Company's service in 1798, and ten years later, gave 
evidence before a House of Commons Committee on the charges against 
Lord Wellesley. Lieutenants John Pigot and William Golding were in 
the Company's Corps of Engineers. Lieutenant Isaac Humphrys, a brother 
officer, may have been the Humphry of the list, or the reference may be 
to Ozias Humphry, the miniature painter, who was at Lucknow at the 
time. Mr. Marcus Saville Taylor was Second Assistant to the Resident 
in 1788, and, as he entered the Company's service in 1781, it is likely 
enough that he was at Lucknow in 1786. James Orr, a merchant at 
Lucknow, went to India in 1779. He is mentioned in Thomas Twining's 
travels. Robert Gregory, yet another of the Resident's assistants, had 
been warned by his father that if he persisted in risking his money at 
cock-matches he would be disinherited. Gregory senior went home, 
and walking down the Strand one day saw Earlom's engraving in a shop 
window. He recognised the figure of his son holding a white cock under 
his arm, and, after making further inquiries, altered his will, cutting out 
Robert's name in favour of a younger son." 2 

Zoffany painted in India two other notable pictures, which also were 
the subjects of engravings in mezzotint by Earlom. Both are said to have 
been commissions from Warren Hastings, and one certainly was intended 
for presentation to the Nawab of Oudh. 

One is called " Tiger Hunting in the East Indies," and represents, 
so the inscription upon the print informs us, " the attack and death of the 
royal tiger near Chandernagur, in the Province of Bengal, in the year 
1788, by a party of gentlemen and their attendants mounted on elephants, 
according to the custom of the country." In the howdah on the right 
are depicted Sir John Macpherson and Zoffany himself, the latter with a 
gun; in that on the left are General Carnac and (behind him) Mr. Stables. 
In the foreground is a native woman advancing to pluck the whiskers off 
the dead tiger. 

1 See Worthies of Warwickshire, by Colville (1870), 806. The reference to William 
Wheeler is in error, as he died in 1783. 
2 Autobiography of Sir Wm. Gregory, 1894. 



Q N 

X. > 



ZOFFANY IN I N D I A 1783-1789 95 

Forbes, in his Oriental Memoirs,^ prints a letter from Sir John Day 
to Sir William Jones describing another tiger- hunt, in which Zoffany 
took part in April 1786, and with reference to the native woman in this 
picture, he adds that the natives deem the tiger's whiskers " a deadly 
poison, and most anxiously, but secretly, seek them, as the means, in 
drink, of certain destruction to an enemy." 

Mrs. Alexander Kennedy has in her possession what is either an 
elaborate study in oil, by Zoffany, for this picture or else the picture itself 
unfinished, probably the former. It is thoroughly characteristic and a 
work of much interest. We have not been able to trace either in India 
or in England any other version of the work. 

The last of the three great pictures which were engraved by Earlom 
sets forth " The Embassy of Hyderbeck to Calcutta from the Nawab of 
Oudh by way of Patna in the year 1788 to meet Lord Cornwallis," and 
this work, so well-known from Earlom's spirited mezzotint of it, we have 
been quite unable to find. 

It also is said to have perished in the Mutiny. " Haidar Beg's 2 
mission," says Mr. William Foster, " to Lord Cornwallis was to negotiate 
for a reduction of the contributions levied from the Nawab of Oudh, and 
took place at the beginning of 1787, not in 1788, as stated on the picture. 
The enemy's cavalcade," he continues, " is seen marching in the rear of 
the European troops, towards Patna, which is shown in the distance, as 
also one of the huge granaries erected by the Bengal Government against 
time of famine." 

The central incident is thus described in the index plate, which was 
published with the mezzotint, and which is the subject of one of our 
illustrations. " A male baggage-elephant, irritated by his driver, who is 
taken from his seat and destroyed, and by the violence of the elephant's 
action are seen the women and children falling from his back. This 
was the moment when Mr. Zoffany took his design for the picture." 

Mr. Foster further states that " the second elephant " in the picture 
carries a howdah in which are Captain (afterwards Sir John) Kennaway, 
Lord Cornwallis's aide-de-camp, and the Nawab's native interpreter. 
" Zoffany rides on a horse by the side. In the foreground are introduced 
several types of natives, soldiers and others. Near the Nawab's colours 
are seen his Portuguese doctor, with his wife and son." 3 

All these three pictures are overcrowded compositions, and in that 
respect unsatisfactory. The best is that of the " Embassy of Hyderbeck," 
because in that the incident of the irritated baggage-elephant stands out 
with some grandeur and effect, but the proportion of the figures in this 

1 Vol. II. p. 489. 2 ek^ 

3 See also Bengal Past and Present, II. 388-9, 401-2. 


work is not correct, the elephant having all the effect of a mammoth, and 
in its gigantic proportions dwarfs everything about it. 

The elephants in the other picture, the " Tiger Hunt," are more 
accurately drawn, but in all of them the legs are anatomically incorrect, 
and Zoffany, desiring an effect, and wholly unaccustomed to painting an 
elephant, has neglected to make careful studies of its unusual character- 
istics. The tiger also, in the " Tiger Hunt " picture, could not have 
been sketched from life, its legs, thighs and tail are all inaccurately 

Tegetmeier, the celebrated naturalist, writing in the Magazine of 
Art concerning the engraving of the " Cock Fight," comments on the in- 
accurate manner in which Zoffany had drawn the two cocks. He said 
the feathers were drawn in wholly incorrect fashion, pointing in the wrong 
direction and arranged in impossible order. 

The three paintings are, however, notable illustrations of native life 
and habits, many of the figures being exceedingly well painted and as 
usual, the costumes, fabrics and ornaments are represented with care 
and fidelity and in the neat manner in which Zoffany rejoiced. The 
colour-scheme also and atmospheric effect may be praised, but there is 
too much of a set effect about the pictures, they are too theatrical and 
too artificial to be really true to life. 

One notable native portrait should be mentioned here. 

It was whilst he was at Agra that Zoffany most probably painted the 
portrait of Mahadjl Sindhia 1 (Madhava Rao Sindhia, the Maratha 
Chief, 1759-95), who conquered Delhi in 1789, and which is referred 
to by Sir James Mackintosh in the Journal of his visit to Poona in 1805. 
He says 

" Near the monument which is being erected to the memory of 
the Mahdajee Sindia, is a sorry hut where the ashes of this powerful 
chieftain were deposited for a time, and there they may now lie long 
undisturbed. It is a small pagoda where, in the usual place of the 
principal deity, is a picture of Sindia by Zoffany, very like that in 
the Government House at Bombay. Before the picture lights are 
kept constantly burning, and offerings daily made by the old servant 
of the Maharajah, whose fidelity rather pleased me, even though I 
was told that the little pagoda was endowed with lands which yielded 
a small income sufficient for the worship and the priest." 2 

2 Good Old Days of Hon. John Company, Vol. II. It has been declared in Bombay 
that Zoffany did not paint this picture of Sindhia, but that it was the work of an artist 
named Welsh (see Appendix, under Poona). 

P- x 

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Photographed from a copy made of the original by Xolfany, now preserved in a small pagoda near Puona 

ZOFFANY IN I N D I A 1783-1789 97 

This picture is probably the only work of European art which is now 
an object of adoration. 

Sindhia in it is represented in that curious coat which it was the 
fashion amongst the Rajahs at that time to wear, and which had arms as 
long as a yard and a half. 

Rai Bahadur B. A. Gupte, the Curator of the Victoria Exhibition, 
tells us that the Dhobi (washerman), or the dresser, had often to spend 
more than half-an-hour in putting on such a coat to the Rajah and in 
arranging the folds, so multitudinous were they. The effect when 
finished was to give to the sitter a stiff doll-like appearance, which is very 
marked in the picture now under consideration. 

There is a replica of this picture at Government House, Bombay, 
which is also stated to have been the work of Zoffany, and a clever copy 
of it by Mr. Cecil Burns was shown at the Victoria Memorial Exhibition 
in Calcutta. From that our illustration is taken. 

Zoffany, however, painted many other important portraits in India 
besides this one. 

The first that should be mentioned are those of the Governor-General, 
Warren Hastings, and his wife. These came by bequest into the posses- 
sion of Miss Winter, the great-niece of Mrs. Hastings, and for many 
years, although their existence was well-known, they were not accessible 
either to the general public or to connoisseurs. Lately, in consequence 
of the decease of Miss Winter, both the pictures have been brought to 

The delightful group representing Hastings and his wife in an Indian 
landscape attended by her native maid, and with the official residence 
and troops, with elephants, in the distance, was bequeathed to Earl Curzon, 
and by his kind permission finds a place amongst our illustrations. It 
is, we understand, to be passed on to that famous gallery of Indian portraits 
at Calcutta, with which Lord Curzon's name will ever be associated, 
and in the Victoria Exhibition will find a fitting place. It does not, per- 
haps, convey the idea of a lovely woman (as Mrs. Hastings is said to 
have been), as well as does the larger painting, but as a piece of simple, 
charming and satisfactory portraiture it would be hard to excel it, and 
as an historic work of unimpeachable authenticity, it is in the highest 
degree important. 

Of Mrs. Warren Hastings l Zoffany painted a showy portrait, 2 which 
delighted her husband, and of which he wrote in enthusiastic fashion 
after her departure for England in January 1784. 

1 Anna Maria Chapusetten, better known as the Baroness Imhoff, married Hastings 
in St. John's Church, Calcutta, in 1777. A Mr. Winter married one of her nieces. 

2 See S. G. Crier's Letters of Hastings to His Wife, especially under Feb. n, 1784. 



This has been bequeathed by Miss Winter to the National Portrait 
Gallery, and there it is at this moment. It was Hastings' favourite 
portrait of his much-beloved wife, and it was so hung, by him, in Calcutta, 
that he could see it when he was lying in bed. 

Mr. Tennyson found out that this picture caused an infinity of trouble. 
It was returned from the ship Berrington as being too large for transport, 
and Zoffany undertook to pack it into a smaller compass. This (with his 
usual carelessness) he did so ineffectually that on its arrival in England 
by the Cormvallis it was found to be seriously damaged. Its frame, we 
understand, was removed, and the canvas crushed into a case far too 
small for it. Signs of the damage can still be seen. As a painting it 
was highly praised, the attitude of the lady compared to that of 
Mrs. Siddons ; the painting of the green satin dress extolled as in- 
comparable and magnificent, and the features were, so Hastings declared, 
those of a perfect likeness. Mrs. Hastings was not, however, so well 
satisfied with it, and while in her possession it occupied a less important 
position. As the painting which of all others Warren Hastings himself 
preferred, it has peculiar importance and should be regarded as a 
precious possession for the nation. It is life-size, however, and in 
consequence not an easy picture to place in a gallery, save in a very 
large one. 1 

One of Hastings' portraits (called a Zoffany) was engraved in Calcutta 
by R. Britridge, and published by him in 1784. It was sold, framed and 
glazed, at two gold Mohurs per copy. 2 The same picture, but set in an 
ornamental oval frame and the work of an anonymous engraver, was 
published by J. Murray in 1786, and forms the frontispiece to Memoirs 
relative to the State of India. It is not, however, clear that either of 
these were really by Zoffany. 

A portrait of Mrs. Hastings, attributed to Zoffany, is said to have 
belonged to Mr. John Clark Marshman at Serampore. 

The picture to which Sir John Doyle refers in a letter quoted by Mr. 
Tennyson, and which he calls " an abominable one, it is true, by Zophanee " 
[sic] was, so far as we can ascertain, a single portrait, and was not by Zoffany 
at all, but by Devis. 

In the Government House at Poona are, we are informed, portraits 
of Madhavrav II, the last Peshva of Poona but one, and of his Finance 
Minister, Nana Fadnavia, and these are both attributed to Zoffany. We 
have no evidence, however, in their favour. 

In Government House, Calcutta, is a portrait of John Zephaniah 

1 It has been suggested that it also should be sent to Calcutta, and probably some 
arrangement will be made by which this result can be obtained. 

2 See Good Old Days of Hon. John Company. 






.__ X 

G, &, 

5 '^ 

~- o 

ZOFFANY IN I N D I A 1783-1789 99 

Holwell, 1 Governor of Fort William in Bengal, 1760, attributed to Zoffany, 
and there is said to be another portrait of the same Governor at Delhi. 
Mr. Holwell is represented in the Calcutta picture as superintending the 
erection of the monument, which he placed (at his own expense) over the 
grave of his fellow sufferers in the " Black Hole " atrocity. This monu- 
ment, by the way, was demolished in 1821, but another somewhat similar, 
but not identical with it, has recently been erected by Earl Curzon on 
the same spot. 

It is, however, almost inconceivable that this portrait can have been 
the work of Zoffany. In any case he could only have been responsible 
for part of it, although the frame bears his name upon it. Holwell left 
India in 1760. Zoffany did not arrive till 1783, and when Zoffany was 
back in England Holwell was a man of seventy-nine, whereas in the 
picture he is represented in the prime of life. Moreover, he has in his 
hand a sheet with a drawing of his monument, and this he himself erected. 
The only possible explanation seems to be that Zoffany may have altered 
a portrait already in existence, and supplied the detail concerning the 
monument, painting on to another man's work. This is, of course, 
just possible, but the simpler explanation would be that the frame-maker 
was given wrong instructions, and that the portrait has nothing whatever 
to do with our artist. 

Another portrait in Calcutta is that of Sir Elijah Impey, Chief Justice 
of the Supreme Court of Judicature at Fort William in Bengal, 1774-82, 
which hangs in the Judge's Library in the High Court. 

Here, again, there is a difficulty. The picture is a huge full-length, 
and does not resemble the seated figure in the portrait of Impey by Zoffany 
in the National Portrait Gallery. The portrait is dated on the label 
1782 (perhaps an error for 1783), but Zoffany only arrived in Calcutta 
in the autumn of 1783, and Impey left on December 3 of the same year. 
The interval seems hardly long enough for the execution of this great 
State picture. Zoffany did, of course, paint Impey with his family, and 
the picture still belongs to his descendants (see Appendix and p. no). 
There is, however, a definite tradition connecting Zoffany with the large 
portrait, and this must not be lightly disregarded, despite the error on the 
label and the frame. 

The portrait of Carey, the Baptist missionary, with his moonshee, 
which hangs in the Baptist College of Serampur, near Calcutta, once given 
to Zoffany, is now attributed to Nathaniel Hone. 

1 He was the author of a book, which is now very scarce, entitled HolwelTs " De- 
plorable Deaths of One Hundred and Twenty-three English Gentlemen and others, 
who were suffocated in the Black Hole of Calcutta," folding front., i2mo, cloth. John 
Fairburn, N.D. 


Then we have two portraits of Sir Eyre Coote, one now at West Park 
Salisbury, and the other at Ballyfin in Ireland; one of John Lumsden, a 
Director of the Hon. East India Company, now belonging to his grand- 
daughter, Mrs. Bevan; one of Henry Vansittart of the Hon. Artillery 
Company's Establishment at Bengal, now belonging to Mr. D. N. Vansit- 
tart, while no doubt there are many others that we have not been able 
to trace, as in addition to the groups for which he was noted, and to 
which we refer later on, Zoffany appears to have had many commissions 
for single portraits from the native potentates and statesmen, and from 
the officials of the Government and East India Company while he was 
in the East. 

One of his best-known paintings was, however, the one he executed 
for St. John's Church in Calcutta, and this deserves some special 

It was painted in April 1787, and thus the Calcutta Gazette of the i2th 
of that month speaks of it 

" We hear Mr. Zoffany is employed in painting a large historical 
picture, ' The Last Supper ' : he has already made considerable 
progress in the work, which promises to equal any production which 
has yet appeared from the pencil of this able artist, and, with that 
spirit of liberality for which he has ever been distinguished, we 
understand that he means to present it to the public as an altar- 
piece for the new Church." 

Unfortunately for our artist he was addicted to the practical joke of 
introducing into his groups, " without the permission of the original 
and often in unflattering guise," the representations of living persons 
with whom he had quarrelled or against whom he had a grievance. 

He is said to have scandalised the English Court by sketching out 
and showing to his friends a bold replica of his " Life School," in which 
he had introduced a portrait of Queen Charlotte before she was married, 
and had placed opposite to it the figure of one of her former admirers 
in Germany. He is also declared to have painted in his " Tribuna " 
picture, when first he exhibited it, a caricature portrait of a well-known 
man in Florence of notoriously bad character, with whom he had a bitter 
dispute, and then have been compelled, under pain of a challenge, to 
remove it. Here in Calcutta he had a great disturbance with a certain 
Mr. Paull, a servant of the Hon. East India Company. He had been 
promoted to be Resident at the Court of Oudh by the Marquess Wellesley, 
but repaid his patron with gross ingratitude. On his return to England 
Mr. Paull became a Member of Parliament, and attacked the policy of 


In SI. Julia's Church, Calculla 

PAIMIXC, Ki:i'Ki:si:Mi\<; mi-: LAST SITPK 

Greenwich Hospital Gallery 

TUT7 T-1T7 \ TUI 

ZOFFANY IN I N D I A 1783-1789 101 

Lord Wellesley with great severity. On the dissolution of Parliament, 
however, he lost his seat, and shortly afterwards committed suicide. 

This man Zoffany had, it is stated, the bad taste to introduce into his 
painting of " The Last Supper," in the person of Judas Iscariot, and 
to give him a prominent position in the picture, portraying in a very 
marked manner " the conflict of passion and strife " upon his countenance. 
Paull had made himself particularly disagreeable both to the Nawab 
and to the painter, and Zoffany had already caricatured him in a lewd 
fresco which he painted, and which was defaced along with others of a 
similar character by order of Sir Robert Montgomery in I858. 1 It was 
quite unpardonable on the part of the artist to introduce Paull's features 
into the altar-piece upon which he was engaged. 

It has been stated by another writer that the original of the portrait 
was a well-known auctioneer in Calcutta named Tulloh, and that he went 
to law about it. A careful search in the records of the Supreme Courts 
for the years 1786 or 1787, or " within the next few years " has, however, 
found " no traces of such a suit between Tulloh and Zoffany." 

Moreover, the weight of evidence seems to be in favour of the 
portrait being that of Paull, who was very much disliked, and the 
Englishman already quoted has stated in his Diary that, although 
such pictures make one ashamed of his species, " still the person so 
gibbeted richly deserved the treatment, for, like his prototype, Judas 
Iscariot, he afterwards committed suicide." Zoffany 's bad taste was, 
however, much resented at the time, but it did not end with the figure 
of Judas. 

All the portraits of the other apostles were asserted to be taken from 
leading merchants of the city, and in order to scoff at the very Church 
for which he was painting the altar-piece, Zoffany selected as his model 
for the figure of St. John the Divine, who is shown leaning on the breast 
of our Lord, a Mr. Blaquiere (or de Blaquiere), a man whom John Clark 
Marshman in his biography of Carey, Marshman and Ward describes as a 
" Brahmanised European, notorious for his hostility to Christianity and 
his indifferent character." This Mr. Blaquiere was of a very feminine 
countenance, and, in fact, as Police Magistrate, was known to have made 
some of his cleverest captures, when a young man, in female disguise. 
His face, therefore, lent itself to the popular conception of the features 
of St. John, and the Magistrate is said to have chuckled in somewhat 
indecent fashion at the dignity given to his portrait. He survived Zoffany 
many years, dying only in 1853 at the advanced age of ninety-four. 

The countenance of our Lord in the painting was, it is declared, 

1 See The Diary of an Englishman at the Court of Oudh, and see The Statesman for 
1888, and Calcutta Old and New. 


taken from that of Father Parthenio, a Greek priest, well-known in 

Warren Hastings and Lord Cornwallis took much interest in St. John's 
Church, which was the sixth building erected as the Presidency Church, 
the third having been destroyed in 1756; the fourth, which was originally 
Portuguese, given back to its original owners in 1760; and the fifth pulled 
down to make room for the new building. 

Zoffany presented his altar-piece to it on April 9, 1787, and when on 
June 24 the building was consecrated, the painting was in its proper place 
over the altar. 

By October, however, it was found to be in bad condition owing to 
the dampness of the wall on which it had been hung, and the following 
extracts from the Vestry proceedings, which were printed in a work 
entitled Calcutta Old and New, written by Mr. H. E. A. Cotton, refer to it, 
and are quoted by permission of the author, to whom also we must express 
our thanks for much information kindly given us respecting Zoffany's 
work in the place. The minutes read thus 

" 1787, i$th October. The picture made by Mr. Zoffani and hang- 
ing over the Communion Table having been represented by Mr. 
Alefounder (a painter and friend of Mr. Zoffani) to be damp and in 
some degree injured, the Churchwardens accepted the proffered 
services of Mr. Alefounder to have it dried, and this has been done 
as well as circumstances would admit, as appears from the following 
letter from Mr. Alefounder 

"To E. HAY, ESQ. 

" SIR, I have this forenoon aired and cleaned the mildew of the 
picture with the utmost care and attention. I fear the painting is 
injured by the mould, as it remains spotty after cleansing it off. The 
cause I believe to have arisen from a canvas having been fixed behind 
the picture to preserve the original one, and being oiled after it was 
nailed on. The damp air remaining between the two must have in 
some measure occasioned it. I took the liberty of having it un- 
nailed sufficient to admit a small quantity of air. 

" I am (etc.), 


" nth October, 1787. Mr. Alefounder attending the Vestry repre- 
sents that the cloth or canvas put at the back of the picture ought 
to be removed that the admission of air may prevent any injury from 
the dampness of the wall. 

ZOFFANY IN I N D I A 1783-1789 103 

" Ordered that the cloth be removed from the picture without 

This was not, however, the end of difficulties concerning this notable 
altar-piece, for a correspondent writing in 1888 to the Statesman under 
the designation " A Quille Penne," denounced the condition of neglect 
into which it had then fallen. 

" To see the damage done," he says, " and to observe the rapid 
progress in the shameful treatment which must end in the total ruin 
of an invaluable work of art, cannot but excite the indignation of 
the most indifferent visitant. The painting is so badly hung that 
. . . only when the church is fully lit, one can examine the picture. 
At any time, it is possible to see only too well the tarnished, broken 
wooden frame, denuded in many places of the gilding, the scratched, 
dented surface, the torn, frayed canvas, and the large hole near the 
nose of Judas Iscariot." 

The result of this letter was that the picture was again taken down 
and attended to, and its mount and frame carefully repaired. Mr. Cotton 
says that it was " first removed from the altar, when it lay in the large 
covered verandah now an open portico, then it was moved to the vestry, 
and finally to a ... place over the gallery. It now appears to be in an 
excellent state of preservation." 

Since 1888 it has again been moved, and at the present moment, 
Lord Curzon tells us, it hangs over the altar of the Lady Chapel. 

It is clear that, despite the scandal attaching to the portraits, the 
altar-piece formed a very acceptable gift to the Church, was much 
admired and greatly appreciated. The Bengal Obituary thus speaks 
of it 

" Sir John Zoffany bestowed on the Church that admirable altar- 
piece painted by him, representing ' The Last Supper.' It was 
proposed by the Rev. W. Johnson and Cuthbert Thornhill, Esq., as 
Sir John Zoffany was about to leave Calcutta, to present him with a 
ring of Rs-50oo value 1 in consideration of this signal exertion of 
his eminent talents. The low state of their funds prevented other 
members of the Committee from supporting the motion of Messrs. 
Johnson and Thornhill, but they unanimously agreed in sending 
Sir John Zoffany an honourable written testimonial of the respect 

1 Zoffany at this time was charging Rs.iooo per figure, and he regarded his gift 
to the Church as the equivalent to a present of more than Rs. 13,000. 


in which they held his great ability as an artist. From their handsome 
and appropriate letter the following is a paragraph 

" ' We should do a violence to your delicacy were we to express, 
or endeavour to express, in such terms as the occasion calls for, 
our sense of the favour you have conferred on the Settlement by 
presenting to their place of worship, so capital a painting, that it 
would adorn the first Church of Europe, and should excite in the 
breasts of its spectators, those sentiments of virtue and piety so happily 
portrayed in the figures.' ' 

In 1865 an application was made by Colonel J. P. Beadle on behalf of 
the Dalhousie Institute that the picture should be transferred there as a 
gift, that it might be more carefully guarded and, moreover, be seen by 
many more persons than could view it in its dark position in the Church. 
The Vestry, however, replied that they did not feel at liberty to part with 
the picture, and accordingly it still hangs in St. John's Church, but by 
reason of its present position it is not at all easy to see it or to obtain a 
good photograph of it. 1 

When at the Court of Oudh Zoffany became acquainted with another 
remarkable man, Major-General Claud (not Claude, as often misprinted) 
Martin, and they struck up a firm friendship, which lasted the rest of 
their lives. 

Martin was then a rich man, and commissioned many pictures by 
Zoffany, some of which still remain in the College he founded. 

Mr. S. C. Hill, Record Officer for the Government of India, is good 
enough to supply us with the following information concerning this 
extraordinary man 

" Major-General Martin," so he says, " was born in Lyons in 
1735, and died at Lucknow in 1800. He went to India at the age 
of sixteen and entered the French service. After the surrender of 
Pondicherry, he became attached to the Madras Government, and 
was in the service of the Hon. East India Company for many 
years, being especially remarkable for his skill in surveying. In 
1779 he left the direct service of the East India Company, and 
became attached to the Court of Asaf-ud-daula, the Nawab Wazfr 
of Oudh, for whom he became the military councillor and the adviser 
upon political affairs. He came into intimate contact with Hyder 
Beg Khan, the Nawab 's able Prime Minister, and was on terms of 
friendship with him. He was present at the siege of Seringapatam, 
and was responsible for casting a gun which was used at that siege. 
He had charge of the Arsenal at Oudh. 

1 See The Handbook to St. John's Church, Calcutta, 1909. 

ZOFFANY IN I N D I A 1783-1789 105 

" He built two houses at Lucknow, one known as Farhad Buxsh, 
part of which still remains, and the other, Constantia, in which 
he was afterwards buried, and which was dedicated as a college, and 
is now known as the Lucknow Martiniere. 

" He was a successful horticulturist, and was particularly in- 
terested in the manufacture of indigo. He held such a high position 
at the Nawab's Court that he was frequently in receipt of considerable 
sums from persons who required his assistance, and by such means, 
and from the presents which he received from the Nawab and other 
persons, and from his pay at the Court of Oudh, he was able to 
accumulate a considerable fortune, amounting, it is said, to nearly 
forty lacs of rupees. The greater part of it he bequeathed, by a 
munificent and most extraordinary will, to the support and founda- 
tion of various establishments, charitable and literary, mainly for 
the education of children, girls as well as boys, and under his will 
schools were established in Lucknow, Calcutta and Lyons, the 
former of which were open to native children of all persuasions, 
who were to be instructed in the English language, literature and 
the Christian religion. There was considerable litigation with regard 
to his will after his death, 1 lasting for nearly thirty-five years, but 
the accumulation of interest during those years swelled the sum 
originally bequeathed, and provided more amply than was expected 
for the fulfilment of the purposes laid down in his will. He was a 
personal friend of Warren Hastings, who speaks of him as a brave 
and experienced officer, and a man of strict honour, and he is charac- 
terised by Hawkesworth as ' that brave, impetuous, fortunate, and 
munificent Frenchman.' He was himself a clever mechanic, and 
responsible for the casting, not only of the gun already referred to, 
but of bells, a large example still remaining at Constantia, also for 
the striking of medals. He was a great collector and got together a 
library of over four thousand books, a large collection of Persian 
and Sanscrit manuscripts, and a gallery of over four hundred pictures, 
included in which were forty-seven oil-paintings and sketches by 
Zoffany. He was also a collector of precious stones, jewellery, coins, 
medals, guns and pistols, and possessed an unusually large quantity 
of otto of rose of peculiarly fine and pure quality, which he had 
made a great effort to obtain. Constantia 2 was a remarkable building, 
eccentric in its architecture, adorned with a number of figures, and 
richly decorated in its interior. It was damaged in an earthquake 
in 1803, and seriously injured at the time of the Mutiny. It contains 

1 There is an important Mural Tablet of black marble to his memory, in the South 
Gallery of St. John's Church, Calcutta. - Zoffany named his daughter Constantia. 


an important picture by Zoffany of Colonel Martin in the scarlet 
uniform of a Major-General of the Hon. East India Company's Service 
and a fine bust representing him. The statements made concerning 
Colonel Martin's character by Lord Valencia are inaccurate in almost 
every respect, and were apparently derived from the gossip of persons 
whom he met in Lucknow." 

To this information, we can add that there is another fine painting 
attributed to Zoffany in the Martiniere representing the Gora Bibi l 
(White Lady or Fair Lady), or Boulone Begum, 2 a Persian girl whom 
Martin bought from a Frenchman and with whom he lived. She is 
depicted with a slave boy, Zulficar Khan, 3 otherwise known as James 
Martin, who pre-deceased her. ' They are shown," says Mr. Sykes, " as 
fishing in the Martiniere lake. The lady has just caught a fish, and the 
boy is taking it off the hook. She was usually considered as General 
Martin's wife, and he always regarded her as such, but in these matters 
he conformed to a considerable extent to the customs of the country 
and of the times in which he lived. There appear to have been no 
Christian women in the circle of society out there at that time." 

These two portraits, so Mr. Aldobrand Oldenbuck states, were acquired 
by the College about 1872 from a descendant of Zulficur's, who had 
concealed them in his house during the Mutiny, when the Martiniere 
was looted, and the General's tomb, in the vault, under the central tower, 
was desecrated by the rebels. 

Mr. T. G. Sykes, the late Principal of the College, from whom we 
have just quoted, gives us the following notes concerning it, some of 
which appeared in the Punjab Educational Journal for February 1906, 
and are supplemented by further information from Mr. Sykes himself, 
dated February 23, 1916. 

' The Martiniere College," he says, " is the most remarkable 
educational institution in India. It has been stated that there is 
no English Public School, not even Eton, which can surpass the 
special dignity of its surroundings, and, unlike many of the schools 
in India, it is marked by the note of strong historical associations. 
The whole of the resident pupils, including eighty on the Founda- 
tion, are educated, clothed and fed, and, in fact, fully provided for, 
out of the funds left by the founder, Major-General Martin. It is 
one of the oldest foundations amongst European schools in India. 
It possesses General Martin's brass cannons and brass bell, bearing 
his name and the date 1786, and its history was intimately connected 


ZOFFANY IN I N D I A 1783-1789 107 

with the days of Warren Hastings, the Great Mogul, Lord Corn- 
wallis, Tippoo Sultan, and the siege and capture of Seringapatam. 
Lord Roberts refers to the fact, in his Forty -one Years in India, that 
the building was at one time held by the rebels at the time of the 
Mutiny, that at another it was the headquarters of the Commander- 
in-Chief, Sir Colin Campbell, and that there was a great deal of fight- 
ing round about it in November 1857 and March 1858, when Sir 
Colin finally returned to crush the rebels and pacify the province. 
The position which the Martiniere boys and their masters held to 
defend the Residency, is still marked by a marble slab bearing the 
inscription ' The Martiniere Post.' The volunteers associated with 
the School have the honour of wearing the badge and scroll marked 
' Defence of Lucknow, 1857.' All the boys receive military instruc- 
tion. The gallant Hodson, Hodson's Horse, and Lieut. Otway 
Mayne, were both killed and buried close up to the Martiniere." 

Martin, the founder of this famous place, was so lavish a patron to 
Zoffany, that we find from searching the Bengal Inventories, 1 in the India 
Office, he possessed at his death no less than nineteen pictures by 
Zoffany in addition to forty-five sketches, and that all these were sold 
by Quieros the auctioneers on December 29, 1801. 

Martin is also declared by the same books to have owed " Sir John 
Zoffany when he died the sum of Rs-332." This money was duly paid 
to the artist some few years afterwards, " with compound interest up 
to date," by Martin's executors. 

The paintings are thus described 


Portrait of Mirza Jewaun Burkht the Shazada. 
Portrait of Asof ud Dowlah [sic], the Nawab of Oudh. 2 
Full-length portrait of Mrs. Bruere. 
Group representing Mrs. Bruere 's children with a dog. 

(We are inclined to suggest that this is Mr. Asch's painting.) 
Portrait of General Martin on horseback. 
Portrait of Sir Eyre Coote. (See Appendix under Coote.) 
Portraits of General Martin and Sir Eyre Coote together. 
Picture of General Martin's house painted by Daniel and 
Zoffany. (See one of our illustrations.) 

1 Bengal Inventories, 1801, 1802, 1803, Range I., Vols. 24, 26 and 28. 

1 Oudh was a province of the Mogul Empire. Its rulers were Prime Ministers to 
the Mogul. There was a Shah or King in 1819. It was annexed by Dalhousie in 1856. 
The last Shah died in September 1887. 


Portrait of Hasan Raza Khan. 

One picture of Nagaphon Ghut. 

One sketch for the portrait of Sir Eyre Coote and General Martin 


A group, the names of the persons are not given. 
Picture of a Fakir. 
Picture of an Elephant. 
Another portrait of Asof-ud-Dowlah [sic] . 
Two other portraits of Hasan Raza Khan. 
A sketch of Sir Eyre Coote. 

Portrait of Colonel Polier, General Martin and a native planter. 
Seven sketches, various. 
Thirteen sketches, various. 
One small sketch. 
Twenty-four sketches, various. 

At the Royal Academy, in the Library, we have discovered two letters 
from Colonel Martin, in which allusion is made to Zoffany. In one of 
them, dated from Lucknow, October 15, 1788, he says that he " is coming 
to Calcutta, and intends sitting to Zoffany with Colonel Polier in the 
middle of November." l This letter also refers to Hodges (see pp. 41 
and 80), and says that Hodges has bought some prints, and is " coming to 
Calcutta to see " Colonel Martin. 

The other letter from Colonel Martin is written to Ozias Humphry, 
and was sent to London. It is dated March n, 1789. In it he refers to 
Zoffany as " a good, worthy man," hopes that Humphry has seen him, 
and says that Zoffany has taken a passage in an Italian ship called the 
Grande Duchesse, but has not yet been paid a penny for his work for the 
Nawab, adding that this Eastern potentate does not like paying 
Europeans, and if one could see his heart, it would be found " loaded 
with dark and sinister intentions." Martin writes this information in 
order to cheer up Ozias Humphry, who was in exactly the same predica- 
ment, not having yet received his payments from the Nawab Wazir of 
Oudh. It may be added that Humphry never received the money, but 
that Zoffany, who had been clever enough to get the British resident to 
endorse his account against the Nawab and guarantee its payment, did so. 

The only other letter we have been able to discover respecting Martin 
and Zoffany we owe to the kindness of Mr. W. Westley Manning, who 
owns it. 2 There are so few letters of Zoffany 's in existence, that this 

1 This may be the Bridgeman group (see Appendix). 

2 In the possession of W. Westley Manning, R.O.I., R.B.A., 12, Edith Villas, West 
Kensington, W. 

ZOFFANY IN I N D I A 1783-1789 109 

has peculiar interest, especially as it concerns his friend and patron. It 
is addressed to Messrs. Raikes and Co., and reads thus 


" In consequence of an order I received from General Claud 
Martin for a mechanical Shew-Box, I paid Mr. Weeks of Coventry 
Street the sum of 9 8s. which had been laid out by him for sundry 
coloured views, &c. to be introduced in the Shew, his not having 
completed the machine before the news of General Martin's Death 
arrived, I stopped the Order, and have settled with him by taking 
the Prints, which he had bought, and which I herewith send and 
shall be obliged to you for the above sum of fg 8s., and am 

" Gentn, 

' Your most obedt. servt., 


" July 17, 1801. 

" Being lame and indisposed, prevents me the pleasure of waiting on 
you personally." 

It will be well here to refer to the important group by Zoffany belong- 
ing to Mr. William Bridgeman, because it has special interest, inasmuch 
as Zoffany has introduced himself, into it, seated at an easel, painting a 
picture, and has represented five other of his paintings on the wall of the 
room in which the various persons are seated. Furthermore, Colonel 
Claud Martin, to whom we have just made considerable allusion, is the 
principal person in the group, and is represented explaining to Major 
Wombwell, who sits next to him, the plans and drawings of the house, 
afterwards called La Martiniere, he was about to build on the river-bank 
near to Lucknow, the plans being held before him by a native servant. 

At the opposite end of the picture we find Colonel Polier, Martin's 
great friend, represented as ordering some fruit from the natives who are 
presenting specimens to his notice (see pp. 92-93). This picture is 
perhaps the group which was in Colonel Martin's possession at his decease 
(see above), and the paintings on the wall ought to enable us to identify 
other works by Zoffany. It was very likely painted in the artist's own 
rooms or studio, and his favourite monkey is to be seen close to the easel. 

Zoffany's principal work in India consisted in the many groups he 
painted of families who were important in the Anglo-Indian Society 
of the day, or who were connected either with " John Company " or with 
the Government. Some of these groups were successful compositions, 
albeit somewhat straggling in their arrangement, and they are generally 


clever works painted with careful attention, marked by a fine colour- 
scheme and by a proper sense of sound portraiture. 

Of one of them Mr. Austin Dobson, in his " Memoir of Zoffany " in 
the Dictionary of National Biography speaks in specially high terms. 

This represents the Auriol family. It forms one of our illustrations, 
and belongs to the Dashwood family. It is composed of three distinct 
groups, one taking tea, another playing chess, and a third engaged in 
conversation, while near at hand are native servants and attendants. The 
composition is long and straggling, almost necessarily so, when so many 
figures are to be introduced, but the colour-scheme is delightful and the 
adjuncts to the picture, the silver and porcelain of the tea-equipage, the 
chessmen, the tables, etc., are painted with consummate skill, while the 
features of each person are carefully portrayed, and the costumes rendered 
with great care and ability. 

Of this style of family-group there are many fine examples to be found, 
the one belonging to Mr. Asch, an anonymous group as to the identity 
of which we make a suggestion on page 107, being one of the most success- 
ful. It is more cleverly composed, and in colour and execution is unrivalled, 
the painting of the ladies' costumes being a veritable tour de force. 

Zoffany delighted in painting European children in India, and they 
are always depicted full of youthful vivacity. 

Take, for example, the famous Impey group, in which occurs the 
portrait of the celebrated judge, Sir Elijah. Here we find him with Lady 
Impey, his children and servants, and though once again the word strag- 
gling must be applied in criticism of the composition, yet the whole series 
of persons are naturally arranged, and the boy who is dancing in the 
foreground and the two younger children, one with the mother and the 
other in the arms of an ayah, are all full of life and activity, while it is 
clear that Zoffany has exulted in the foil that the dark countenance of the 
ayah, makes against the exquisite colour, blue eyes and fair hair of the 
youngest child. Sir Elijah is, perhaps, the weakest figure in this group. 
Lady Impey is far more successful, and the many native attendants in 
the distance are painted with remarkable skill. 

An even prettier group of children is the anonymous one once be- 
longing to Messrs. Tooth, and now to Mr. A. P. Cunliffe. It is believed 
to represent the three children of some high official, and to have been 
painted in the East, but its early history is incomplete. The masses of 
curly hair which each child possesses makes the head of each appear 
rather large in proportion to the figure, but the disproportion is rather 
apparent than actual, accentuated perhaps by the close-fitting costume of 
the boy in the centre of the picture, who is blowing bubbles. As a picture 
of child-life nothing can well be more delightful. 

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ZOFFANY IN I N D I A 1783-1789 in 

Another charming group is that belonging to Captain Pepys, represent- 
ing the owner's great-grandfather, Colonel Blair with Mrs. Blair, their 
two children and the ayah, and here we may again comment on the exceed- 
ing skill with which Zoffany has painted the dark glowing countenances 
of the native attendants, delighting, it is evident, in the foil they afforded 
to the clear complexions of the English children. One daughter in this 
group is seated at the pianoforte, the other, a much younger child (the 
grandmother of Captain Pepys), is close up to the ayah and playing with 
a kitten. The group is well composed, and is quite delightful in its 
familiar natural arrangement. It was painted in 1789, and is one of 
Zoffany 's thoroughly successful works. 

A simpler group, representing Claude and Boyd Alexander with their 
native servant and their dog, belongs to about the same time, but is a far 
larger picture, as all three figures in it are life-size. 

It belongs to Sir Claude Alexander, and his ancestor in it is reading 
a letter to his brother just received from his wife, announcing the purchase 
of the estate of Ballochmyle, where now the painting hangs. 

On the same simple lines Zoffany painted Nathaniel Middleton, the 
Resident at Lucknow (see p. 93), whom he depicts seated in a certain 
dignified splendour, attended by three Asiatic officials of high rank, 
who stand near him, and whose costumes, ornaments and jewels are 
painted with great skill, and add largely to the resplendent general 

Yet another is the Morse group, belonging to Mr. Middleton, in which 
Robert Morse is seen playing on the 'cello and his two daughters, Sarah 
(afterwards Mrs. Cater) and Anne Frances (afterwards Mrs. Middleton) 
are at the harpsichord, Cater standing near by resting his hand on the 

Even more successful, because simpler still, is the group belonging to 
Captain Blunt, in which Suetonius Grant Heatly, a Judge in the East 
India Company's Service and Magistrate for the province of Dana, is 
depicted with his sister Temperance (afterwards Mrs. William Green), 
attended only by the bearer of the hubble-bubble, the mouthpiece of 
which the Judge is holding in his hand, while receiving some important 
native servant, who carries a long, elaborate staff in his hand, and is 
explaining something to them. 

Here the figures and the composition in the open space could hardly 
be improved, and the look of evident interest which overspreads each 
countenance is admirably rendered. The splendid carpet upon which 
the chairs are placed and the costumes of both persons, the fine Dacca 
muslin of the lady and the elegant small clothes, silk stockings and buckled 
shoes of Suetonius, and his bunch of seals and pipe are all triumphs of 


sound painting, while the modelling of the faces and hands in this delight- 
ful composition is of the very best, and does infinite credit to the artist 
responsible for it. 

Just as good is the single figure of Patrick Heatly, belonging to the 
same owner. Zoffany has depicted his sitter on a rock overlooking the 
sea, shading his eyes with his beaver hat. His face bears an anxious, 
thoughtful aspect ; he is looking out to sea, watching the ship which bears 
away his sister, Temperance, to America with her husband, Captain 
Green, and the whole story is cleverly set forth in the picture. Even the 
dog near him has caught the same anxiety; he, too, has lost a friend and 
is distressed, not quite understanding why the person who has so often 
fed and petted him should be going away from his master and himself. 
The painting is a charming one, very simple, natural and attractive, and 
possessing a delightful sense of atmosphere and space. 

Other delightful Indian 1 groups are the two large ones at Oxford 
belonging to Dr. Blakiston, painted in about 1790 or 1791, representing 
members of the Dent family; that depicting John Wombwell (already 
mentioned in connection with the Bridgeman group, p. 109) and his 
friends, belonging to Mrs. Cartwright, a picture about which we are 
doubtful; the Macleod groups, painted also in about 1788, belonging 
to Macleod of Macleod and hanging in Dunvegan Castle, where at one 
time there certainly was a portrait of Dr. Johnson by Zoffany ; the Watts 
group, introducing the figures of Mir Jafar 2 and his son, Mlfan, 3 
reproduced in S. C. Hill's Bengal in 1756-7 which belongs to Mrs. Watts 
of Hanslope Park, and the portraits of Beau Wilton and Lady Chambers, 
which belong to Canon Oldfield. 

There are, moreover, many other groups in existence, both in India 
and England, which Zoffany painted in India, several of which we have 
been unable to describe, but a sufficient number has been mentioned to 
give an adequate presentation of the class of painting the artist carried 
out in that country, and by which he obtained much renown and high 

One only of them, so far as we know, appeared at the Royal Academy, 
and that was the painting of Haidar Beg's 4 mission to Lord Cornwallis. 

This, Zoffany on his return to England, sent in to the exhibition of 
1795, and bitterly did Anthony Pasquin criticise it. 

His critical remarks were evidently intended to be sarcastic, and they 
must be quoted as evidence of the sort of coarse abuse with which Williams 
treated the artists of his day. 

1 Mr. Tennyson alludes to a picture by Zoffany painted " in the Indian manner," 
but does not specify to which picture he refers. 

2 j**?^ 3 el*-* 4 Also spelled Hyderbeck and Hyderbeg. 

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ZOFFANY IN I N D I A 1783-1789 113 

Thus he speaks 

" From the same, p. 20, No. 125, Hyderbeg on his mission to 
Lord Cornwallis, with a ' View of the Granary,' erected by Warren 
Hastings, Esq., at Patna. J. Zoffani, R.A. 

" This performance furnishes a melancholy proof how far the 
human powers may decay, before the agent in error will resign his 
weak propensities; in speaking of the grouping and the colouring, 
we know not which to condemn first, as both so irresistibly demand 
our scorn. In the management of this picture (as in that he exhibited 
last year, of the " Parisians plundering the King's Cellar at Paris "), 
he has laboured hard to sacrifice the dignity of humanity, to the 
pride and parade of aristocracy; indeed, he seems so familiar with 
slavery, and so enamoured of its effects, that we doubt if even the 
black catalogue of governing infamy can furnish a subject equal to 
his hunger of degradation." 

It may be permissible in completing this chapter to mention that the 
Prince of Wales (now the present King), in speaking at the Royal Academy 
banquet in May 1907, made reference to the relation of the Empire to 
Art, and recommended artists to go to India to learn for themselves 
how " great are the beauties of the vast and silent jungles, how gorgeous 
the sunset effects of the deserts "; while he reminded his hearers that one 
of the earliest Royal Academicians, Zoffany, faced all the difficulties of a 
journey to India more than 120 years ago, and with " great success both 
to the world of art, notably to that of portraiture, and to himself." 

1 Pasquin's Guide, p. 20. 



WE hear of Mrs. Zoffany during her husband's absence in India, from 
the gossipy pages of Mrs. Papendiek's Diary, in which there are repeated 
allusions to her. 

Thus, for example, Mrs. Papendiek writes 

" Mr. Papendiek now took lodgings at the house of Clarke, the 
Queen's footman, in Eaton Street, Pimlico. . . . Mrs. Zoffany then 
came to stay with us for a week. She told us that a friend had 
lent her a house in Hart Street, Bloomsbury, for one year, while her 
house at Strand-of-the-Green l was being repaired. She wished us 
to go to her whenever we liked so to do, but it was too far from 
our beat to afford any convenience." 

A page or two later on she again refers to the house in Hart Street, 

" The Royal family, going for a week or two to town on account 
of some foreigners, we took the opportunity of paying a long-promised 
visit to Mrs. Zoffany. Her house in Hart Street was at the corner 
of Church Passage, and one watchman's box was close to her front 
door, a second being stationed up the passage. It was a comfort 
to feel so well protected, for just after . . . housebreaking and 
robbery of every description were very prevalent. 

" Just after I left, having stayed a week in every comfort of friend- 
ship, Mrs. Watkins arrived from India, and by Mr. Zoffany's desire, 
made his wife's abode her home pro tempore. She was protected 
on the voyage by Maddison, the great stockbroker, 3 who managed all 
Zoffany's affairs, and of whom Zoffany painted such an admirable 
portrait that it was engraved." 4 

1 Mrs. Papendiek styles this place Strand-of-the-Green. It should really be called 

2 Mrs. Papendiek, I. 266. 3 See pp. 79 and 81. * Mrs. Papendiek, I. 281. 



Again briefly she adds 

" Poor Mr. Papendiek was in great anxiety at leaving me, as I was 
very near my confinement, but Mrs. Zoffany promised she would 
remain with me, and very kindly did. She brought me the silver 
tags to lace my gown ornamentally, which Augusta now has in her 
amateur theatrical wardrobe." r 

Then in 1789 Mrs. Zoffany went out to Strand-on-the- Green and 
Mrs. Papendiek went to stay with her, and made her house the place 
from which she was to come up to London in connection with the 
public thanksgiving for the King's recovery from his long and serious 

She says 

" And now a letter arrived from Mr. Papendiek desiring that I 
would immediately repair to Kew to partake of the general joy, saying 
that he had secured me a bed at dear Mrs. Zoffany's, where he knew 
I should be happy. Her daughters were still at home, so I did not 
attempt to trouble her with any of my children, but Charlotte, who 
still suffered from her chilblains, I took to my mother's, where she 
was a welcome guest both to her and to my brother. With warmth 
and good nursing she began to get better, yet the spring had quite 
set in before we could say she was really well. 

" After making all necessary arrangements for my other children 
I went off to Strand-of-the-Green, which was near Kew, where I 
was most kindly and hospitably received by Mrs. Zoffany. . . . 2 

" In the meantime," she adds, " public rejoicings (for the King's 
recovery) had full vent, and a general illumination and great demon- 
stration were fixed for March 9. On that morning Mr. Papendiek 
arrived in a chaise to take Mrs. Zoffany and myself to see all the 
preparations. She excused herself on account of her children being 
at home and of her own illuminating difficulties. I therefore started 
off with Mr. Papendiek alone, he telling Mrs. Zoffany that she was 
not to expect me till she saw me, nor to sit up one moment beyond 
her usual time for me, as he thought I should probably remain in 
town." 3 

For one night Mrs. Papendiek could not return to Mrs. Zoffany 
and had to go back home to Kew, but the day afterwards she was at 
Strand-on-the- Green again, and thus refers to her friend 

1 Mrs. Papendiek, I. 306. 2 Ibid., II. 67. 3 Ibid., II. 68. 


" Our object in hurrying on to Kew the preceding night, was that 
my father and Mr. Papendiek should be at their posts. They could 
not, in consequence, take me round to Mrs. Zoffany's; besides, it 
was a pleasure to Mr. Papendiek that I should witness the scene 
which I have just endeavoured to describe. . . . 

" The next morning early, I went back to my dear friend at Strand- 
of-the-Green, in the hope of either taking her to see the Queen's 
illumination, or of persuading her to go to London with Mr. 
Papendiek while I remained to take care of her house. She 
declined both, so we passed the day together in quiet rest and pleasant 

" Mrs. Zoffany," she adds, " then lived in the first of four houses 
near the river, of which the frontage was precisely the same, and 
the residents of these houses made their devices of lamps to encom- 
pass the four. 1 This gave space; the idea was well imagined, and 
the chaste effect drew the attention of the Queen, whose carriage was 
ordered to stop on the bridge that their party might see it. The 
tide was high, and the reflection in the water was almost more 
beautiful than the thing itself." 2 

Alluding to the hope of Zoffany's return from India she next 

" When my husband left Windsor with the Royal family, my 
mother came down to me for a few days, bringing my sister, who 
remained with me till the term recommenced at Mrs. Roach's. Miss 
Meyer and the Zoffanys also returned, but my friend could not be 
prevailed upon to remain with me, as she was now expecting Mr. 
Zoffany's return from India almost daily." 3 

Of that journey home we have heard of but one incident, and that 
relates to a terrible experience the travellers had in the Indian Ocean. 
The vessel 4 was wrecked and the passengers escaped in boats, but that 
in which Zoffany was, came short of food, and according to the traditions 
in the family, which are said to rest upon fact, lots were cast on the boat 
as to who should be killed; and eventually one sailor, who was in a very 
weak state, either succumbed to his injuries or was put out of his misery 

1 Zoffany had evidently sent over plenty of money from India, for this illumination 
must have been a costly affair. 

2 Mrs. Papendiek, II. 75. 3 Ibid., II. 116. 

4 It has been stated, and in print, that Zoffany returned from India on the 
Brilliant, but that is not possible, as the vessel was wrecked in 1782. 

Coll. of Miss Ellen Deachcrofl Gray pholo 




and the others had to eat his flesh, roasted in some primitive fashion, in 
order to keep themselves alive. 

Whether this horrible occurrence took place on the boat, or on an island, 
is not clear, but it is generally said to have happened on one of the Andaman 
Islands ; and it is stated that the experience had such an effect on Zoffany 
that he from that time had a melancholy cast of countenance, 1 and was 
very different in every respect from the jovial, enthusiastic, gay man he 
had been in India. 

From Mrs. Papendiek we hear that he had also been seized with an 
attack of paralysis. This is supposed to have arisen from his experiences 
after he left India, and it is declared to have happened in the Mediter- 
ranean during the later part of the voyage. He was certainly lame in 
1801 (see p. 109). 

Of his actual return, Mrs. Papendiek speaks in the long and curious 
account she gives of a concert at her house. It is worth referring to as 
there are three allusions in it to Zoffany, who appears to have arrived 
home at quite an unexpected moment. 

She writes thus 

" No one else in any way peculiarly remarkable was at this meeting 
except Mr. Zoffany, who surprised us at dinner. He had only 
recently returned from India, whither he had gone so many years 

" We could but be rejoiced at his return, although sorry to see him 
so changed. For during the voyage home he had been seized with 
an attack of paralysis, from which he certainly never thoroughly 
recovered. During dinner we began to explain to him the nature 
of the evening's amusement, but he told us that he had heard all 
about it at Mrs. Roach's, where he had called to see his daughters 
on alighting from the coach." 

She then goes on to describe the concert to be held at her home " to 
hear the boy Bridgetower 2 play," and all the difficulties connected there- 
with and adds 

" Zoffany (was) extremely satirical upon the whole affair; and, 
as may be easily inferred, I was tired and agitated by my exertions, 
and became almost hysterical, but in the occupation of getting all 
completed by the time appointed, I recovered my power of action, 
and went through the whole evening with credit to myself under the 

1 See an allusion to his portrait, painted after his return, on p. 128. 

2 A young negro violinist very popular at that time. 


continued sarcasm of Zoffany and the very few smiles of approbation 
from Mr. Papendiek." 

Finally she adds 

" Twenty-five guineas Mr. Papendiek put into Bridgetower's 
hand, taking nothing from Mr. Jervois as he compelled him to come. 
The ladies being gone I went to bed, after making arrangements for 
Zoffany, but the gentlemen made a merry evening of it." x 

One of the notable pictures which Zoffany painted after his return 
rom India was certainly not amongst his successes, and in its compo- 
sition and technique betrays the hand of a man who was weakened and 
exhausted by exposure and suffering. 

Later on, he was to regain almost all his accustomed vigour; but in 
this work, the altar-piece at Brentford, which he executed in the early 
days of arrival home, when full of the memories of the somewhat similar 
work he had painted in Calcutta ; he fell distinctly below his average 

Moreover, Zoffany was never at home in sacred subjects. He painted 
in a far too theatrical manner, and the emotion was superficial and stagey. 
He could not rid himself of his method and style in painting dramatic 
scenes on the boards, and the sacred pictures gave no opportunity what- 
ever for his love of splendour in costume, his enthusiasm over a rich 
colour-scheme, nor even for his neat manner of painting fabrics and 
accessories. This is not to say that the Brentford altar-piece is an unim- 
portant picture far from that. The faces are well painted, the figures 
ably grouped, the contrast between the white cloth on the table and 
the prevailing gloom cleverly accentuated, but the composition partakes 
of the stage, and the feeling is forced and sentimental without being 
religious. The picture was, it is stated, intended for Kew Church (not 
for St. George's Chapel, Windsor, as one authority states), and it is said 
that reports having reached the King concerning the Calcutta altar-piece 
and its high merits, His Majesty suggested that a similar one should be 
done for Kew. When finished, however, the authorities at Kew refused 
to pay the price Zoffany demanded for the work, and he, to show his 
independence, forthwith made it a gift to St. George's Church, Brentford 
(hence the confusion with St. George's Chapel, Windsor), and there it 
still is. 

Again in this picture Zoffany pursued the very course which had got 

1 Mrs. Papendiek, II. 137. 





him into discredit in India. He had a furious quarrel with an attorney 
at Kew over the draft for his will, and forthwith used his countenance 
in the altar-piece, in the figure of Judas Iscariot, thereby setting the people 
of Kew against him, for the man was respected in the place and was in 
high office in connection with the Church. Mrs. Oldfield, who as a child 
was taken to worship at Brentford, used constantly to gaze at the picture 
which was her grandfather's work, and she declares that at least three 
persons, including the attorney in question, have been pointed out to her 
as those whose portraits appeared in it. In this picture Zoffany himself 
is represented as St. Peter, a strong, full face, with a small grey beard; 
and the face of St. John is that of the painter's wife, taken from a portrait 
he drew of her when she was quite a girl. The other apostles were 
painted from local fishermen. 

" The grandson of one of these men," says a contemporary writer, 
" was so exactly like his grandsire that he might have been taken for the 
original of the figure in the canvas." 

" The two altar-pieces," he continues, " do not agree in their arrange- 
ment. In the foreground of the painting at Calcutta are a great laver of 
brass with an ewer and small dish, while in the Brentford picture their place 
is occupied by two figures, who appear about to descend from the ' large 
upper room ' by steps, to which access is given by an opening in the floor. 
The figures are those of a white youth and a negro, the latter a portrait 
of the artist's ' black slave.' It is thought that Zoffany, by the introduc- 
tion of these two figures, negro and Caucasian, in connection with the 
Jewish type, wished to exemplify the three races of mankind the descen- 
dants of Shem, Ham and Japhet sharers alike in the blessings of the 
new dispensation." 

Zoffany was fond of painting negroes. He painted, so Angelo tells, 
a small whole-length of a black man named Soubise, who though not 
tall, was well proportioned, and, what is so rare with the black sons of 
Africa, had well-formed legs. Zoffany " painted this picture for Doctor 
Kennedy, who presented it to the Duchess of Queensberry as it was under- 
stood, to further the interests of the subsequently unfortunate Doctor 
Dodd," his intimate friend, " whom," adds Angelo, " in my young days, 
I often met at Doctor Kennedy's. 1 

Later on the Duchess of Queensberry gave away the portrait to Mrs. 
Angelo, and by Mrs. Angelo it was given to Burgess, her solicitor in 
Curzon Street. There is no further trace of it. 

Elmes gives us a story of a picture painted at about this time which 
is another proof of the independence of our painter. He says that 
" Zoffanii once painted a small whole-length of a gentleman, standing by 

1 Angelo' s Reminiscences, 351. 


his favourite Arabian horse. When the piece was finished the owner, 
thinking the price very high, refused to take away his picture, on some 
frivolous pretence, such as the buttons of the blue coat being white instead 
of yellow, upon which Zoffany sent the painting to a public sale-room, 
where it remained long exposed; and the owner was, at last, so much 
ashamed of his meanness as to send for it at the painter's price." l 

The pictures which he sent to the Royal Academy in his later years 
were sometimes received with applause and sometimes with caustic 
criticism. 2 

Upon one picture which Zoffany sent in for the Exhibition in 1795 
Anthony Pasquin poured out the vials of his wrath. It was called 
" Plundering the King's Cellar at Paris, August 10, 1793," and was the 
subject of a brilliant mezzotint scraped by Earlom and published in the 
same year. 

It was not a pleasing picture, and the Morning Herald of the day says 
that it was painted in accordance with a very broad hint given to Zoffany 
by the Royal family and was intended as a sort of moral lesson or 
warning. 3 Forcible it undoubtedly is, and very cleverly composed, while 
from the engraving it would appear to have been painted with great skill, 
but the original picture cannot now be traced. 

It certainly did not deserve the bitter and cruel comments passed 
upon it by Williams, when in his Authentic History of the Artists of England 
and Royal Academicians* after referring in scurrilous fashion to Zoffany's 
career in India, he goes on to say that 

" In the moments of his weakness, or his antipathy, he embodied 
a group of Parisians plundering the King's cellar : and this vulgar 
untruth was exhibited with all the pride of a gothic sacrifice to 
Prejudice ! 

1 Elmes's Art and Artists, II. 207. 

2 It was to this period of Zoffany's career that Peter Pindar alluded in his sarcastic 
lines in which he pokes fun at two of the Academicians, Dominic Serres and Zoffany. 
Thus he wrote 

" Serres and Zoffani I ween, 
I better works of yours have seen; 
You'll say no compliment can well be colder, 
Why, as you scarce are in your prime, 
And wait the strengthening hand of Time, 
I hope that you'll improve as you grow older." 

If these lines from Ode X were written, as is supposed, in about 1793, Serres must have 
been seventy-one at the time and Zoffany nearly sixty, so the sarcasm was very self- 
evident and needlessly cruel. 

3 There is little or no evidence for the accuracy of this statement. 4 Page 34. 


" Every candid observer must consider this foul production as 
one of those irregular tributes to the malice and folly of the moment, 
which every mean man is eager to pay to those who have purposes 
to answer, which are not very consonant with truth, humanity, or 
justice. Of all the pieces I have seen from the pencil of Mr. Zoffanii, 
this is the most unlike himself; he evidently labours to tread in the 
steps of Mr. Hogarth, but is truly unsuccessful. This savage 
assemblage of monsters are denied the possession of human linea- 
ments by this indignant German. It is but too certain that the mobs 
of Paris committed atrocities at which a generous nature will shudder ; 
yet I do not think that the cause of morality will be much strengthened 
by making the perpetrators of a crime singularly deformed and 
repulsively hideous : this offending spectacle can only be reviewed 
with pleasure by a blackguard or an assassin." 

Speaking of the picture Zoffany sent to the Academy in the following 
year entitled " Mr. Townsend as the beggar in the pantomime of Merry 
Sherwood," another work which, unfortunately, we cannot find, Anthony 
Pasquin is rather less severe, but still a little cruel. He declared that the 
portrait was not that of Townsend, but was taken from Lord Mansfield, 
and added' 

" This portrait is eminently characteristic, with a strict adherence 
to the minutiae of the stage dress. The countenance partakes of all 
the muscular whim of the original the contour and expression of this 
supplicating visage is so like the EARL OF MANSFIELD, that many have 
supposed it the amiable Peer trying his powers in a masquerade habit." 1 

This picture, however, which marks Zoffany's best work after his 
return from India, is the famous one of the Towneley Museum or Towneley 
Marbles which now belongs to Lord O'Hagan, and was the subject of a 
large mezzotint scraped by W. H. Worthington. 

Charles Towneley, the famous collector, had taken a house near to 
St. James's Park, 7, Park Street (now 14, Queen Anne's Gate) for the 
reception of the priceless treasures he had brought from Italy, as his 
principal residence was away in Lancashire, a place impossible for the 
connoisseurs of the day to reach, and one widely removed from the neigh- 
bourhood of those who would admire his treasures and help to unravel 
their history. 

Here, in an inner hall lighted by a skylight, he arranged some of his 
vast collection, and the picture Zoffany painted show him seated amidst 
what a recent writer calls " a welter of statues," surrounded with marble 

1 Memoirs of the Royal Academicians, p. 13. 


figures, sepulchral tablets, cinerary urns, sarcophagi, bas-reliefs, columns, 
winged creatures, busts and the like, a treasure house of the spoils 
he had gathered up in Rome when the contents of Hadrian's Villa 
were dispersed, and which he had captured by the strength of his 
purse from those who were striving to obtain them for such august per- 
sonages as Prince Borghese, the Empress of Russia, the Kings of Prussia 
and Sweden, and even the Pope himself. 

Towneley sits in a stately chair with " his faithful dog, Kam, at his 
feet, a native of Kamschatka, whose mother was one of the dogs yoked to a 
sledge which drew Captain King in that place," 1 holding open on his 
knees a folio- work on classic art, and is in conversation concerning an 
attribution with the renowned M. d'Hancarville, then his intimate friend. 
In the background stand Charles Greville and Sir Thomas Astle, also in 
conversation, and all four portraits are worthy of Zoffany at his very best. 

D'Hancarville, it will be remembered, was " one of the band of 
virtuosos who helped to explain the basso-rilievos on the Portland Vase," 
and for a while Towneley relied on his judgment and agreed with his 
decisions. Later on, they quarrelled, concerning, it is said, the authen- 
ticity of a torso, and Lord O'Hagan has in his possession a pocket-book 
containing a list of statues and busts, against which Mr. Towneley has 
written in red ink " scathing marginal notes demolishing the pretensions 
of some of d'Hancarville 's finds." 

In this picture Zoffany, however, pursued the plan he had adopted in 
Florence, years before. As in the " Tribuna " picture he crowded into the 
one room treasures from all parts of the gallery in a glorious, rich and 
grand profession, so here, to produce a " fine, grand eloquent effect," 
he has enlarged the appearance of this inner hall, which was far too small, 
Lady Strachey tells us, in her article on the Towneley marbles, to receive 
all the statues. It is still in its original proportions, and Zoffany has 
crowded in many more groups and urns, busts, columns and tablets 
than it could ever at any time have received. 

It was really in the beautiful dining-room of the house a room of 
elegant and dignified proportions the same writer assures us, that 
Towneley had placed his largest and best statues, and in this room he 
entertained the artists and critics of the day. 

The " Diana," the " Drunken Faun," the " Clytie," 2 " Discobolus," 

1 Smith's Nollekens, Lane's edit., I. 213. 

2 Towneley was so attached to the famous bust of Clytie, which he regarded as 
his most precious possession, that he often spoke of it as " his wife," and when his 
house was threatened by the rioters in the Gordon Riots and he himself as a Catholic 
had to leave it in great haste, he carried this precious bust with him into his carriage, 
saying, that even in all his hurry and speed he could not be separated from " his wife " ! 




" Adonis," " Venus," and other great treasures were all exhibited in this 
room, and the " Elegant Memoirs of Towneley," which appeared in the 
General Chronicle and Literary Magazine of 1811, speaks of the beauty of 
this apartment. 

" Lamps," it adds, " were placed to form the happiest contrast of 
light and shade, and the improved effects of the marble amounted by this 
means almost to animation. . . . To a mind replete with classical imagery 
the illusion was perfect." 

Zoffany's task was, however, to paint the inner-hall, to show all 
the treasures in it that he could, 1 and in that respect he has ably 

The apartment appears in the picture to be of imposing size, and, 
even though the marbles are somewhat crowded, each is well seen in the 
space given to it, and the arrangement is so skilful that each object has 
its proper place, and an adequate view of it is not obscured by any other 
or any larger statue or figure. There is, moreover, a vacant space in the 
foreground on which the eye can rest with relief, and as regards the four 
persons depicted in the room, Zoffany was never more successful in viva- 
cious clever portraiture. As in the " Tribuna " picture, the result is a 
pictorial document of great importance, rendered even more precious 
by its delightful scheme of colour and sound portrait painting. 

Smith, in his Nollekens and His Times f gives us a full description of 
the room in Park Street and of the treasures they contained, and he con- 
fesses that all the best of the marbles were brought into the painting by 
Zoffany who made the contents " up into a picturesque composition 
according to his own taste." He also alluded to Towneley 's dinner-parties, 
at which both Reynolds and Zoffany figured amongst the guests. 

Further, he tells us, and he was qualified to judge, that " the likeness 

1 In Towneley' s note of instructions to Zoffany he desires him to represent in his 
picture, the following marbles 

Statue of Discobolus found near Tivoli. 

Statue of Diana crouching, found in the Veroosi (sic) Villa. 

Head of Marcus Aurelius. 

Statue of Venus found at Ostia. 

Group of Faun and Nymphs found near Tivoli. 

Bust of Isis (the Clytie) in a very prominent position in the picture. 

Head of Homer found at Baiae. 

Statue of a young Bacchus. 

Bust of Lucius Verus. 

Head of Decebalus. 

Head of a Bacchante. 

Small statue of Cupid bending his bow. 

Statue of Silenus. 

2 I. 213, in Lane's illustrated edit. 


of Mr. Towneley is extremely good. He is seated and looks like the 
dignified possessor of such treasures." 

Of his three friends it suffices to add that Pierre Francois Hugues 
d'Hancarville was the author of Recherches sur I'Histoire I'Origine, V Esprit 
et les Progresses Arts de la Grece, 1785; Astle was the antiquarian and 
palaeographer, who became, in 1783, Keeper of the Records and was a 
correspondent of Dr. Johnson; and Greville was the second son of the 
first Earl of Warwick, a fashionable connoisseur, whose name is chiefly 
remembered in connection with that of Lady Hamilton. 

The picture was engraved first by Stow, who left it unfinished, 
and it was completed by Garden. The better-known print is, however, 
the one by Worthington. 

The marbles, urns, busts and other treasures are now in the British 
Museum, as they were purchased by that institution, in 1808, after the 
decease of Mr. Towneley. 1 

Lord O'Hagan owns also another important painting by Zoffany 
representing six connoisseurs more or less connected with the Society 
of Dilettanti. Towneley had joined this Society in 1786, but he did 
not present his portrait to it as the members were generally " ordered by 
the Society " to do. Whether he intended to give Zoffany 's group to 
the Society we do not know, but if he did not make such an arrangement 
he must have paid a guinea a year " face money " during all his twenty 
years of membership. Whatever may have been his intention, the Society 
never obtained the painting, which now hangs at Pyrgo Park. 

The six persons in it are Mr. Charles Towneley, Mr. Charles Price, 2 
Dr. Verdun, Dr. Oliver, 3 Mr. Richard Holt, and Captain Wynn. 4 

1 We should, perhaps, refer in brief fashion to these marbles because no 
such collection was ever before brought together, and it constitutes the main artistic 
importance of the classical collection in the Museum. It includes representations of 
Zeus, Hera, Demeter, Apollo, Artemis, Endymion, Actaeon, Athene; (4 examples) 
Aphrodite; (5 examples) Hermes, Dionysos; (n examples) Ariadne, Pan; (4 ex- 
amples) Eros, Thalia, Victory, Fortune, Cybele, Atys, Hecate, Heracles; (6 examples) 
Midas, Mithras, and the Nymphs and Satyrs, besides twenty other figures, many 
sarcophagi, mural reliefs, votive reliefs and the like. 

Furthermore, there are in this famous collection busts of Homer, Sophocles, Hippo- 
crates, Epicurus, Nero, Trajan, Hadrian, Sabina, Antoninus Pius, Faustina, Marcus 
Aurelius, Septimus Severus, Caracalla, Gordianus Africanus, Otacilia Severa, and 
many other notable persons, and it was from the Bacchic scene on a vase in the Towneley 
collection that Sir Sidney Colvin, in his Memoir of Keats (p. 416), suggests that the 
poet drew his inspiration for some of the well-known phrases in his Ode on a Grecian 

2 Sir Charles, 2nd Bart. (1732-1788), 

3 William Oliver, physician. 

4 None of these men save Towneley were ever actual members of the famous 
Society of Dilettanti. 

Lord O'Hagan 


11 MR. i IIAKI.HS KI\\M:I.I:\, I\SI'I-:CIIN<; 


Cull, nf :/:, darrick Club. I id 

'IIIOMAS KNK.HT (171,4 ?-ifijo). ACIOK AM) I'l. A~i \\KK.IH 

A-; ROt.l K IN " 1 UK I, HUM " 

KiMKhtV \viii- w:i< M:ir;;:Hvt ]-';irrrn, si<ti-r ..I Ilic- Cuiinlis-. nl Dcrliv 


Of the other pictures sent in by Zoffany to the Royal Academy we 
have only been able to trace one, that representing " Mr. Knight as the 
Clown in the farce of The Ghost" (no). That is now hanging in the 
Garrick Club. 

To the " Hyderbeg on his mission to Lord Cornwallis " (125) which 
was also hung in 1796, we have already alluded in Chapter V. The 
picture was engraved in mezzotint by Earlom, but where the original now 
is, we cannot say. 

" Susanna and the two Elders " (195), exhibited in 1796, " Moses and 
Pharaoh's Daughter" (101), exhibited in 1800, and no less than three 
versions of " Joseph and Mary on their flight to Egypt," also exhibited in 
the same year (224, 225 and 522), were doubtless unsatisfactory pictures 
as Zoffany's religious works were perfunctory, but " A Beggar's Family " 
(152), exhibited in 1797, and a " Professor of the Harp " (167), exhibited 
in 1798, it would be interesting to find, if only for the fact that they were 
the last important works sent in to the Academy by the artist, who at the 
time he exhibited them was over seventy years old. 

They, however, and the portrait of Miss C. Zoffany (283), exhibited 
in 1790, have so far eluded our most careful search. 

Another important work which Zoffany painted was called " The 
Wreck of the Brilliant." It was an imaginary scene depicting a wreck 
which took place off the coast of India in 1782 while Zoffany was in that 
country, but we have been unable to find it. 

The picture has often been mentioned, but no one appears to know 
where it now is. 



(ZoFFANY, his grand-daughter tells us, was a very tall man, and she 
adds that this, indeed, was one of the reasons why he had to relinquish 
the journey round the world with Cook and Sir Joseph Banks, since the 
cabin accommodation was far too small for him. 

She also informs us that he was a quick and hot-tempered man, and 
frequently got into trouble with his friends and family. 

Angelo also describes him as " a very tall man," and goes on to say 
" he was a very ugly man, and very much marked by small-pox " in later 

The fact of his unusual height is an argument in favour of the authen- 
ticity of the portrait of a young man holding a palette and brushes which 
belongs to Mr. W. J. Davies, and has always been known as a portrait 
of Zoffany. Who painted it, is not known, but it has been attributed to 
Zoffany himself and also to Mortimer, and if it be Mortimer's work 
there is another argument in its favour, as we have already seen how 
intimate were the two artists in their early days (see p. 14). 

In other respects, however, the painting in question does not offer 
very close resemblance to the pictures we possess of the artist which are 
of undoubted authenticity, save in respect to the hair, which, both in the 
manner in which it falls over the forehead and stands off by the ears, does 
undoubtedly resemble the hair in the later portraits. There is no par- 
ticular reason, therefore, for refusing to accept the traditional ascription, 
more especially as Mr. Davies' portrait is the only one with which we are 
acquainted that even professes to show us the appearance of our painter 
when he was young, save a fine signed drawing belonging to Mr. Lane. 

To a much later date belongs the fine portrait of Zoffany by himself, 
now in the collection of Mr. John Lane, a remarkable oil-painting, and of 
unusually large size and brilliant colouring. 

Here we see the artist as a fashionable young man, when concerts 
and water-parties were the order of the day, and when he was making and 
spending money freely. He wears a scarlet coat, greenish-grey waistcoat 
trimmed with gold lace, breeches to match and silk stockings. There 


Cull, nj Mr. II'. ./. 7>inii 

I'okTKAir 01- X01-TANY AS A YorNC. MAX 


Possibly tin- portrait cxhibitcil at the Royal Academy in 1771 

Taken from Museo Florentine Ritratti cli Pittori 


are lace ruffles at his wrists, and he lolls back in a comfortable red-covered 
chair, against a large cushion, with his legs crossed and a book in his 
hand, supremely satisfied with the world and himself. 

Even more interesting, as representing the artist of mature age, is the 
signed portrait he drew of himself in pastel and pencil, which has 
never left the family possession. It now belongs to Miss S. J. Beachcroft, 
who has been good enough to have it photographed for the first time 
in its history, in order that it may adorn these pages. Here we see Zoffany 
as the artist, at his easel, and holding a port-crayon in his hand. His face 
is full towards the spectator, and he looks out in cheerful fashion from 
the canvas. 

It is not so easy, with this portrait before us, to regard him as the short- 
tempered man he was declared to be. He looks amiable and benevolent 
enough, and it must not be forgotten that the latter term can fittingly 
be applied to him, for all the family traditions unite in stating that he was 
" a generous soul " and that he gave away many pictures, received small 
sums for others when his sitters were unable to pay his usual prices, and 
spent money freely on giving pleasure to other people. 

These kindly attributes may well be assumed from this delightful 

The same benevolence is expressed in a curious engraving of Zoffany 
taken from his portrait in the Uffizi Gallery, which appears in a book 
called Museo Fiorentino Ritratti di Pittori, a collection of engraved and 
coloured portraits of the world's greatest painters of all countries, from 
the fourteenth century onwards, published between 1731 and 1766. 
The volume contains 324 portraits, and seems to comprise every artist 
of note from the fourteenth century down to the date of issue of the last 
part. Very few copies of the book were issued in colours, and it is seldom 
that any of the illustrations can be found apart from the book. The 
volume itself is of considerable rarity. Zoffany 's portrait bears the 
following inscription upon it 

nato in Francfort l sopra il Meno 1'anno 1773 
vive in Londra 

and the number 231. He is depicted in a rich fur-trimmed robe holding 
in one hand a skull and in the other an hour-glass. An Italian landscape 
is in the distance, while nearer at hand are figures of the Three Graces, 
a tall marble figure of Apollo, a portfolio inscribed " Ars longa Vita 
brevis," some books, a palette and brushes. Benevolence coupled with 

1 Bearing out the statement concerning his birthplace made on p. 3. 


some smug self-satisfaction is again a leading characteristic of his counte- 
nance, and the print gives altogether a pleasing view of the painter. 

Somewhat otherwise is the impression to be gathered from another 
family portrait, also photographed for the first time by its obliging owner, 
Miss Ellen Beachcroft, that it may appear in this book. This is a minia- 
ture, painted by Zoffany of himself, when he first reached London after 
his return from India. 

We have already alluded to the terrible experiences of that shipwreck. 
They had evidently made their impression upon the man. He is seen 
old, querulous, in poor health and inclined to be irritable, but the face 
is a striking one, and some resemblance can still be traced between it and 
the face of the young man in the Davies' portrait. The miniature is a 
fine piece of self-presentation, the likeness quite unmistakable, the features 
clear-cut and deep-set, the hand, with its long fingers, eminently that of 
an artist, and one who was not in strong health ; the mouth that of a 
quick-tempered, testy man, and the eyes reveal the same attributes. We 
see the mind clearly set forth in this portrait, and it enables us to com- 
prehend many of the subtleties of his character. 

The other miniature preserved in the family, and which belongs to 
Miss S. J. Beachcroft, represents Zoffany at a far earlier period and in 
fancy costume. This was not his own work, but painted by some con- 
temporary artist friend, perhaps by Luke Sullivan, whose technique it 
somewhat resembles. Unfortunately, the ivory on which it is painted 
has split, but the features are not interfered with by the accident, and the 
likeness is unmistakable. The owner has had it photographed that it 
may form another of our illustrations. 

These portraits are by no means all that we possess of the artist, as he 
was fond of introducing his own likeness into the groups which he painted. 

We see him as already mentioned in a prominent position in the 
" Tribuna " picture, and when in India he is seen in the group repre- 
senting Colonel Martin and Major Wombwell, seated at his easel. 

In his trip to Scotland he comes, in rather melancholy guise, into the 
Raith group of the coming of age of William Ferguson, and there is an 
admirable likeness of him in the Burke group belonging to Mrs. Spencer 
Percival, where he is to be seen holding his god-daughter in his arms. 

We must not overlook the portrait of himself in the National Portrait 
Gallery in which his hand rests upon the top of a book or sketching-block, 
while between his fingers he holds a double port-crayon. This he 
painted in 1761, when quite a young man, before ever he exhibited with 
the Society of Artists. 

Furthermore, there is the notable self-portrait belonging to Mrs.Everard 

Coll. of Miss S. ]. Beaclicroft 

W. Gray pholo 




Artist unknown, possibly painted 
by Luke Sullivan 



We are not, therefore, at a loss to determine what manner of man he 

Unfortunately he was, as has been stated, of a quick, hasty temper, 
all his life, and could also be very sarcastic upon occasion. 

As an illustration of this, Mrs. Oldfield, his grand-daughter, tells us 
that her mother, his daughter Laura, when a girl of only twelve, wandered 
one day into his studio, and seeing on the easel a portrait of a child 
which to her ideas looked far too pale for the little school-friend whom 
it represented, helped herself to some carmine and put a little more to the 
face where she thought it was needed. Zoffany came in soon afterwards, 
and finding out what had been done, was so incensed by the child's action 
that Laura had to be kept out of his sight for nearly a fortnight after this 
exploit. 1 

Of the children we learn a great deal from Mrs. Papendiek. They 
are first alluded to by her in 1788 when two of them (the elder two) 
were, she says, eleven and eight years old, and their education was being 

The elder was Maria Theresa Louisa, so named after the great 
Empress of Austria, and the younger Cecilia Clementina Elizabeth. 

Thus Mrs. Papendiek writes 

" On my way home I called upon Mrs. Zoffany and I invited her 
to stay with me, with her two little girls, Theresa and Cecilia, then, 
I should say, about eleven and eight years old. In a few days she 
arrived, and at once consulted me about sending her daughters to 
school, for they were now evidently losing time. I strenuously 
recommended Streatham, but again Mrs. Roach's establishment 
found favour on account of its more accessible position, and with her 
they were placed in due course. They were to be my little pets, 
and I begged Mrs. Roach to lose no opportunity of bringing them 
forward in all points of elegance. They appeared to be amiable, 
but, poor dears, they preferred joining in all the domestic arrange- 
ments, and cared little for accomplishments." 

1 Angelo, in his Reminiscences (I. 280), gives us a story relative to Zoffany's hot 
temper. He and Zuccarelli, he tells us, were criticising West's famous picture of 
" Regulus." " Zuccarelli," says Angelo, " who used to visit at my father's, exclaimed 
' Here is a painter who promises to rival Nicolas Poussin ! ' Zoffany, who was not 
very friendly with Zuccarelli, tauntingly replied : ' A figo for Poussin, West has already 
beaten him out of the field.' At length these two irritable foreigners got into such a 
heat with each other, that my father was obliged to interpose. Garrick, who enjoyed 
their petulance, in relating the dispute, said, the irritable phizzes of these two knights 
of the palette changed hues, like the throttles of two choleric turkey-cocks." 

2 Mrs. Papendiek, I. 302 (the names of the children are quoted wrongly). 

i 3 o JOHN Z OFF ANY, R.A. 

A little later she again refers to their going to school 

" My mother and brother came down one day to see baby, and 
went back the same evening. None of my family were at the christen- 
ing except my father, and no old friends but Mrs. Zoffany, who, in 
bringing her little girls to school, again stayed a few days. A few 
Cheltenham medals struck in honour of the visit were all that Mr. 
Papendiek had to offer. Mamma had, however, already had a pretty 
and useful needlebook." 1 

And again 

" Mrs. Roach called now and then, and my sister and the little 
Zoffanys often passed the Sunday afternoons with us after coming 
out of church, and went home at dusk in the sedan, but this only 
when the cold, which showed little sign of abating, was not too 
severe." 2 

Her later allusions are not couched in so kindly a spirit. 

She tells the story of the marriage of the second girl, the elder girl, 
Maria, having already married a physician, John Doratt, who was 
knighted in 1838. Mrs. Papendiek, however, confuses in this narrative 
two separate persons who were both named Martin. The Colonel 
Martin of Leeds Castle, Kent, whom she mentions was not the same 
person as the Colonel Claud Martin whom Zoffany met in India and who 
founded (see p. 104) the Martiniere College in Lucknow. 

Mrs. Papendiek is quite in error in saying that the Colonel Martin 
who asked the hand of Zoffany 's daughter in marriage, was identical with 
the personage who appears in the Cock Match picture. 

Here is her account of the second girl's marriage 

" Of the two men standing in the foreground of the cock-fight 
painting," she says, " whose birds are supposed to have been brought 
to the cruel sport, one is a portrait of the late Colonel Martin of Leeds 
Castle in Kent, who on coming to this country was introduced to the 
family of his friend Zoffany, whose acquaintance he had made in 
India. He immediately demanded the hand of Cecilia Zoffany in 
marriage, she being then about sixteen or seventeen years old, and 
beautiful in the extreme. The Colonel was a fine, handsome-looking 
man, amiable and kind-hearted, and of immense property. She, 
foolish girl, refused this eligible offer, and he retired to his castle 

1 Mrs. Papendiek, I. 315. 2 Ibid. II. 35. 

-.-'-> . . . . '. 

Call, of Mrs. 1-verard lleskelh 



disappointed and mortified. 1 He lived secluded, and at his death 
left his riches to a family of the name of Wykeham, strangers to 
him, as he had no relatives. His castle became a complete ruin. 

" Cecilia contrived to fall in love with Mr. Thomas Horn of 
Chiswick, fearing that her father would marry her to some one she 
could not bear, as she termed it. He was an amiable man, but 
extremely plain, and not very prepossessing. His habits were 
retiring, and he devoted himself to the school which his father kept 
at Chiswick with universal honour and credit to himself. Both families 
entirely disapproved of the match, but Thomas Horn was flattered 
by the preference of the young lady and they were united. Mr. 
Zoffany afterwards recommended a general reconciliation on all 
sides, to encourage the young people to do well; and at last they 
were received by both families. They had a fine family and went 
on remarkably well. Zoffany painted a whole-length portrait of 
Dr. Horn, the father, in his full canonicals, with spirit, and in 
his first style of excellence. It was a capital likeness and was 
exhibited. 2 

" The young couple after a time had the school, which they con- 
tinued upon the same plan at the Manor House, where all for some 
time proceeded well. Eventually, however, one circumstance and 
another brought on most unfortunate disputes, and the Horn 
family interfering too severely and very injudiciously, Cecilia left her 
husband, and they were never again reconciled." 

Whether Mrs. Papendiek, who mixes up names in hopeless confusion, 
was correct in the story of the quarrel cannot now be stated, but it is 
clear that the daughters inherited something of their father's hasty and 
imperious temper, and that this did not tend towards happiness in the 
domestic circle. 

Mrs. Papendiek then goes on to speak of the two younger daughters. 
One was Claudina Sophia Ann, who married Robert, the fourteenth child 
of Samuel Beachcroft, a Governor of the Bank of England, and amongst 
her descendants are Mrs. Everard Hesketh, Miss S. J. Beachcroft and 
Miss Ellen Beachcroft, to all of whom we are greatly indebted for 
information given us in connection with this book and for the loan of 
paintings, photographs and documents. 

The other daughter, Laura Helen Constantia, who received her last 

1 He was then over sixty. He died a bachelor at the age of eighty-eight. 

2 Dr. Home (as the name should be spelled) was, we are informed, Rector of St. 
Katharine's, London Docks, and a rich man. His wife, Mrs. Oldfield says, was " a 
great beauty." 


name in commemoration of the residence of Colonel Claud Martin in 
Lucknow which was called Constantia married in 1821 in Chiswick 
Church, Lewis Bently Oliver, a physician of Brentford, and it is her 
daughter Mrs. Oldfield, Zoffany's sole surviving grand-daughter, who, 
as already stated, has been gracious enough to place at our disposal such 
memories as at her advanced age she still possesses, and to lend us 
documents, photographs and portraits. 

Of these two daughters Mrs. Papendiek, in somewhat harsh manner, 
thus speaks 

" Mrs. Zoffany had two more daughters after Mr. Zoffany's 
return, now Mrs. Beachcroft and Mrs. Oliver, and as they grew up 
they were injudicious intruders at the Manor House, and it was 
principally through the violence of their tempers coming into collision 
with the equally bad ones of Mrs. Thomas Horn and of Miss Horn, 
that the disputes began which ended in the unhappy way that I have 
mentioned. It was never supposed by Cecilia's friends that she 
acted criminally. Indiscreetly, certainly; for as her beauty never 
faded with her increasing years, her vanity kept pace with them; 
but her unhappiness arose more from her dreadfully passionate 
temper than from any other cause. She evinced resentment and 
vindictiveness to her husband and her children, who gave him great 

" The school diminished, not unnaturally. Thomas Horn, there- 
fore, gave it up, and retired to his living, which was in the city of 
London. His wife died early." 1 

All the children appear in an interesting group by Zoffany, which 
now belongs to Mrs. Everard Hesketh, his great-grand-daughter, and 
there is a curious incident in connection with this painting. 

Zoffany himself, an old man, is seated in the middle. One daughter is 
playing on the harpsichord, and near by is the other, playing on the harp. 
The two younger girls are one at each end of the group, but their figures 
have never been completed they are only slightly sketched in, and for some 
reason or other Zoffany never finished the picture. In the rear is the 
figure of the old nurse, Mrs. Ann Chase, a connection of the well-known 
raconteur, Mr. Chase, whose portrait Zoffany also painted (see p. 76). 
In her arms is yet another child, although the painter had but four children 
at the time. 

1 From Old Kew we learn that old Mr. Home lived at Manor House Farm and that 
the wedding between his son and Zoffany's daughter took place in June 1799. A 
tenement near Kew is still called " Home's garden." 

Co. of Mrs. Ei-cratJ Heskelh 


r. Heskelh 

all. Of He Klglil Him. Sir I Minim I-'triuum 

C.KOIT KM'Ki'SKX I INC, WILLIAM i-i-:K(;rs< IN, i ,KI:A i -i . KANI > 
\virn ins ruii-.sns ins srcci-.ssmN m im 

Xnlt.Hl\ llilll~< It i~ XMlr.l ,lt lllr 

.1 Irtllr fiL:ht 


It is stated that this is an imaginary portrait of the little boy who 
died in infancy, Zoffany having a sort of curious fancy for depicting the 
entire family in the group, but another member of the family declares 
that it is not so, and that it is the youngest girl, afterwards Mrs. Oliver. 
The third girl, who was Mrs. Beachcroft, is by this person stated to 
come twice into the painting, once on the left, where she is being repri- 
manded for treading on her sister's dress, and again on the right, where 
she is leaving the room, having been dismissed from the apartment in 
disgrace, and that Zoffany was so pleased with the composition of the 
picture with its five figures, that he left it as it was as a record of the 
event. It has certainly never been out of the possession of the family, 
nor has it ever been photographed until now. 1 

We are disposed, with some diffidence, to suggest that there may yet 
be a third manner of explaining this picture. Is it certain, we would 
ask, that the lady seated at the harpsichord, who appears to be some- 
what matronly in face and figure, is the eldest daughter ? May she not, 
conceivably, be Mrs. Zoffany, and in that case the family is complete ! 
The figure of the old artist himself is wonderfully well painted and a 
striking likeness of him. 

The same lady also owns a portrait of Mrs. Zoffany, and one of Lady 
Doratt, and she possesses the " Patent of Nobility " already mentioned 
(see p. 57). 

As regards family life we have little more to tell. 

Mrs. Oldfield reminds us that her grandfather was so much appre- 
ciated by George III that she says the royal carriage used often to stop 
in Kew, and Zoffany be requested to leave his easel, get into it and drive 
with the King for an hour to entertain him, and to tell him all about the 
paintings he was then carrying out and the persons who were sitting to 

So little however were his sketches appreciated that she remembers 
a number of them in her nursery with which she used to play, and with 
which she adorned her doll's house. She also remembers a whole 
set of oil-sketches by Sir Joshua Reynolds which Zoffany did not care 
for. These were given to her for the same purpose, and very gay they 
made the rooms of the doll's apartments. All have, of course, disappeared 
long ago. She still owns a pewter mug which belonged to her grandmother 
and was a present to her from the King, and also possesses one of the 
four miniatures that Zoffany painted of himself for his four daughters, hers 
being the one which belonged to Mrs. Oliver. Furthermore she has in 

1 It should be mentioned that the talent for drawing and painting has descended 
from Zoffany to his great-grand-children, notably to Miss Zoffany Oldfield, who has 
inherited it to a marked degree. 

i 3 4 JOHN ZOFF ANY, R.A. 

her room a clever representation in colour of the arms granted to Zoffany 
by the Empress Maria Theresa, and one of the rare coloured prints of 
the artist from the Italian volume of which allusion has been made 
(see p. 127). 

Her doll's house was of exceptional importance, finely furnished and 
set out, and for its walls Zoffany painted some tiny portraits. It was called 
Lilliput Hall, and Zoffany painted its name on the door. 

She also remembers her grandfather's parrot, which belonged also 
to her mother, and finally to her, and about which her brother-in-law, 
Dr. Home, wrote some appropriate lines. It died, she says, of extreme 
old age and had a tombstone erected to its memory, which Mrs. Oldfield 
preserved for many years, but has now lost. 

She says that her grandmother, Mrs. Zoffany, made lace of remark- 
able beauty, and was an expert needlewoman. For each of her grand- 
children she appears to have made a lace cap, and one which she made 
is still in Mrs. Oldfield's possession, and in perfect condition. 

Almost the only anecdote that she remembers of her sisters is con- 
nected with Mrs. Beachcroft, who, she says, when sitting by the drawing- 
room window overlooking the Thames at their house in Strand-on-the- 
Green, saw a child fall into the water, when she rushed out, plunged in 
as she was, rescued the child, and then strolled indoors to the amazement 
of her sisters, to change her sopping clothes. 

Of the eldest daughter, Mrs. Doratt (afterwards Lady Doratt), and 
whose descendants we have been unable to discover as they settled in 
Belgium, we know but little. We learn however from Miss Beachcroft that 
she was an accomplished painter of flowers and also a clever guitar-player. 

Her tutor for the instrument was one Armand Ciciez, who is said to 
have dedicated to his favourite pupil an important piece of guitar-music 
which he had composed, and which she, almost alone of his pupils, was 
able to render in satisfactory style. 

Of Mrs. Papendiek the family do not speak in agreeable terms. 
They say that she was certainly warmly attached to Mrs. Zoffany, but 
did not get on at all well with her children, ^eventually quarrelling with 
all of them ; and that in consequence many of the bitter things she men- 
tions of the daughters were inserted in her diary in pique and are for 
the most part untrue. They say that Mrs. Papendiek was an inveterate 
gossip and not a satisfactory chronicler, as her memory failed her as to 
names and dates, and she confused many incidents together, while when 
the book was issued there was no one then living who was in a position 
to refute its statements. 

Of Zoffany 's last days there is little more to be said. We have only 
a few detached facts to chronicle. On February 2, 1792, he acted as a 

Coll. of Mr. H. Burton Jones 

Signed by ZotYany 


pall-bearer at the funeral of Aiton, the botanist, with Sir J. Banks, Jonas 
Dryander, Aiton's assistant, Pitcairn and others. 

There is, also, in the Royal Academy, a letter from Zoffany, dated 
April 26, 1792, in which he presents his compliments to Mr. Benjamin 
West, and is very sorry that, owing to a previous engagement, he cannot 
come to see him. 

In 1794 Zoffany served on the Council of the Academy and took 
his full share in its duties, and in 1804 he was to have served again but 
was " abroad," where we do not know, but in any case a journey when 
he was eighty-one and partly paralysed and lame was of itself an 
accomplishment, especially in those days ! 

In 1804 or 1805 Zoffany is said to have made a journey to Canterbury, 
having been requested by a famous miser, one Betty Bolaine, to paint her 
portrait. Whether he ever did so or not cannot be told, for the engraving 
representing her bears no artist's name, and the portrait does not look 
like the work of Zoffany, but it is said that Zoffany insisted on being paid 
for his journey and trouble, and took up so determined an attitude that 
the old woman, who protested she was dreadfully poor (she died worth 
40,000), at length produced some guineas which Zoffany carried off in 
triumph, and boasted to the end of his life that he was the only person who 
had ever persuaded Betty Bolaine to part with any of her cherished gold. 

Zoffany died on November n, iSio, 1 and was buried in Kew 
Churchyard close to the tomb of Gainsborough. 

His tomb can still be seen. It is at the east end of the churchyard, 
and is a large, oblong, altar-tomb. The inscription upon one side is as 
follows : " Sacred to the Memory of Johan Zoffanij, Esquire, R.A., who died 
November n, 1810, aged 87 years.' 2 His widow caused this tomb to be 
erected as a Memorial of her Affection." On the other side of the tomb 
is a memorial to Mrs. Zoffany, this : " In Memory of Mary Zoffanij, 
widow of Johan Zoffanij, R.A., who departed this life, March 30, 1832, 
aged 77." 

On the foot of the tomb is a statement referring to the decease of 
Laura C. R. Oliver, grand-daughter of Johann Zoffany, who died at the 
age of nine months, March 15, 1825, and at the south end is a brief allu- 
sion to the fact that there was buried in the same tomb Mrs. Ann Chase, 
September 24, 1810, aged eighty-one, the devoted old nurse whose 
portrait appears in Mrs. Hesketh's family group. 

1 In the same year died Ozias Humphry, Hoppner, Rigaud and Richards, all 
Royal Academicians, and there is said to be no other instance of the death of five 
members of the Society in one year. 

2 The Gentleman's Magazine, in referring to his decease, says, " he was often styled 
Sir John Zoffany." 


Mrs. Zoffany, as the inscription tells us, survived her husband many 
years, and Smith thus speaks in his Nollekens and his Times l of the old 
lady who was evidently a delightful and engaging person. 

" Mr. Nollekens, who had been extremely intimate with Mr. 
Zoffany, when approaching his eightieth year, offered his hand to 
his widow, who very civilly declined it, prudently observing, ' No, 
sir, the world would then say she had married him for his 
money.' ' 

The old sculptor was, however, much attached to Mrs. Zoffany, and 
showed his sense of her character by bequeathing to her a sum of 300. 
Of this Smith says 

" Mrs. Zoffany, when she found poor Bronze, the servant, had 
been set down in his will for only nineteen guineas, very generously 
gave Mrs. Holt a guinea for her, long before she received her own 

Later investigations have gone to prove that Mrs. Zoffany 's father 
was a glover and a member of the Glovers' Company, in the roll of 
which Company the name of Thomas certainly appears. There was also 
a John Thomas in the Haberdashers' Company in 1768, who may, 
perchance, have been a relative. 

Both Mrs. Zoffany and her daughter, Lady Doratt, who happened to 
be with her at the time of her decease, died of cholera, and so great was 
the alarm at the outbreak of that disease that almost all the drawings and 
pictures that were left in the house were at once destroyed for fear that 
they should convey the infection, and in this manner all the rest of 
Zoffany 's sketch-books, many portfolios of studies in pencil and oil, most 
of his account-books, his diaries and family papers perished. 

By his will Zoffany appointed Angelo's nephew 2 and his friend, 
Mr. Dumerque, his executors, 3 and subject to the transference to the 
Trustees of his two elder daughters, of the sums he had settled upon them, 
he left all his estate to his wife, who was to maintain the two younger girls, 
and on her death they were to succeed each of them to 2000 in three 
per cent, consolidated annuities and a sum of 300 each in cash, while 
all the residue was to be divided equally between the four of them. 

1 See p. 41, Lane's illustrated edit. 

2 This Mr. Anthony Angelo Trememando was the " Captain Angelo of the body- 
guard," whom Zoffany met in India and who was particularly friendly with Warren 
Hastings and on intimate terms with Zoffany. Angelo mentions him (II. 82). He 
was his younger brother and kept to his original family name of Trememando. 

3 Zoffany painted a portrait of Dumerque. It now belongs to Mrs. Crosse. 

Coll. of Victoria and Albert Museum By the courtesy of Messrs. Seciey Service & Co. 


There are also slight sketches on the reverse. Size io,\ x n^ 


We give the will in extenso in the Appendix. 

Immediately after the artist died, a sale was carried out by Messrs. 
Robins at their rooms in the Piazza, Covent Garden, practically in the 
very building in which Zoffany had himself resided in his early days. 

In the Appendix we give the entire catalogue, but are unable, unfortu- 
nately, to mention either the purchasers or the sums realised by the various 
lots, as no information of this kind appears on the only copy of the catalogue 
which we have chanced to see. 

The artist was a profound admirer of Hogarth's works, and fine 
sets of his prints appear in it. There were also a large number of his 
sketches and studies sold, 1 and many unfinished paintings, some of which 
ought still to be in existence. 

The sale, furthermore, included three fine suits of armour and a collec- 
tion of Oriental costumes which Zoffany brought back from the East, 
with various curiosities, such as weapons, horns, curious shells, a gong, 
an ivory carving, a fine copy of the Koran, and there was included in 
it an interesting portrait in enamel, by Spicer, of Sir Joshua Reynolds. 

Zoffany's possessions also included a copy, by himself, of the portrait 
of Raphael, a painting of the Virgin and Child, which was attributed to 
Leonardo da Vinci, and a considerable number of books having reference 
to Italian art and literature or to portraiture. Amongst them were a 
few volumes that Zoffany had probably brought with him from Germany 
when he first came to England from his native land. 

Zoffany had one pupil. He may have had others, but one, Henry 
Walton, we know he had, as a certain Mr. Ambrose Humphreys is de- 
clared to have interested himself in Walton " and placed him under 

In 1772 Walton painted a portrait of his patron, Humphreys, repre- 
senting him with two lads, W. and J. Mason, to whom he had been 
tutor, playing cricket at Harrow, and this work and some others by 
Walton, notably those of some young men fishing, and of Rev. C. Tyrrel 
under a tree, are very reminiscent of Zoffany, and show clearly from whom 
Walton obtained his ideas. 

Walton, about whom little is known and whose dates are 1741-1813, 
is the subject of an illuminating article in the Connoisseur for November 

1 We only know of six genuine drawings by Zoffany. Two, which are really 
sketches in oil, are in the Ashmolean Museum. The third, representing two gentle- 
men, is in the Victoria and Albert Museum, and appears in these pages. It is also 
illustrated in Randall Da vies' English Society of the Eighteenth Century (1907). The 
fourth, which came direct from Zoffany's sale, is in Dr. Williamson's collection, and 
is a drawing of Garrick in pencil and wash. It also is illustrated in these pages. 
The fifth is Mr. Lane's drawing of Zoffany himself, signed and dated. The sixth is 
the signed drawing representing Lord Heathfield. 


1909 (p. 139), from which the above facts are taken. He is represented 
in the National Gallery. 

Whether Philip Wickstead, who calls himself a " disciple of Zoffany," 
ever actually worked in his studio cannot be told. Probably it was not 
so, but that the two men met in Rome or Florence, as they were certainly 
in Italy at the same time, and Wickstead was painting portraits somewhat 
in the manner of Zoffany in the Eternal City in 1773. There it was, that 
he met Beckford, whom he accompanied to Jamaica, where for a while 
he practised as a painter, eventually relinquishing the art and going into 
business as a planter. Wickstead died in 1790 in the West Indies. 

One other person we know worked under Zoffany's tuition. 

In Granger's Biographical History of England l is the following state- 
ment : "A genuine picture of her (Mother George) is in the possession 
of Mr. George Huddersford, late of New College, Oxford, who, in pursuit 
of his genius in painting, is now, or was lately, under the instruction of 
Zoffanij, the celebrated Italian painter." We are indebted to Mr. Grundy 
for this reference, but we have not been able to add any information to it. 

A somewhat curious instance has come to our notice of the way in 
which Zoffany's portraits were accepted and copied by other artists. 
William Chamberlain, who studied under Opie, was instructed by George 
III to prepare a State portrait of the King, which the monarch desired 
to present to Lord Hotham, and which is still in the possession of the 
Hotham family. On examination, it has been found that this picture 
is practically identical with one painted by Zoffany, the only difference 
being that the face is a little younger in its expression, and that the 
monarch is seated at a different table. The pose of the figure, the details 
of the uniform, and the drawing of the chair, are absolutely identical 
with the Zoffany picture. So exact is the copy, that the sash crosses the 
breast at the same place, and shows the same number of buttons above 
and below, and all the smaller details of the costume are absolutely copied 
from the picture by Zoffany. 

The head of the King does not resemble in technique the rest of the 
picture, and it would almost seem as though the figure was prepared by 
one artist from Zoffany's painting, and the face painted by some one 

1 Second edit., 1775, IV. 218. 

Coll. of Hie Garrick Club. 386 

SCICXI-: 1'ROM " MACBi-nil " (AC! II) 
-K A^ \i \CI;I:TI[. MUS. |'KIKII\KI> A- I.\D\- MACIU-:TII 



ZOFFANY has not inaptly been termed by Horace Walpole the 
" historian of the stage of Garrick," and in a previous chapter we have 
referred to the early connection of the painter with the great actor, 
which led to the long series of representations of Garrick in his theatrical 

There can be no doubt that the picture which laid the foundation 
of Zoffany's fame as a painter of the theatre was his " David Garrick 
as Abel Drugger in Ben Jonson's play of The Alchymist," which was 
sent by Zoffany in 1770 to the Royal Academy, and at once achieved a 

To the delightful story of its purchase by Sir Joshua Reynolds and 
to the manner in which he ceded it to Lord Carlisle we have 
already referred. 

This important picture is still at Castle Howard and has been 
extremely well engraved by John Dixon. Certainly Zoffany has ad- 
mirably expressed in it the stupid cunning of Abel Drugger, who is 
leering round at Fall and Subtile, while he presses his tobacco into his 
pipe bowl with his thumb. 

Two of Zoffany's rough sketches in oil, representing Garrick in the 
part of Abel Drugger, done directly from the life, immediately after the 
actor's return from the theatre, are now in the Ashmolean Museum at 
Oxford. So few of Zoffany's sketches are extant that these two have a 
special interest. They are said to have been executed in the theatre 
itself (see p. 137). 

Hogarth, who painted Garrick several times, saw his performance of 
" Abel Drugger," and was so struck with it that he said to him : " You are 
in your element when you are begrimed with dirt, or up to your elbow 
in blood." 

It is impossible to dwell at length on the different presentments of 
Garrick by Zoffany. He is known to have painted at least eight portraits 
of him, in different characters, and among the best is a scene from the 
first act of Bickerstaff's Love in a Village, which is painted with Zoffany's 

i 4 o JOHN ZOFF ANY, R.A. 

usual vivacity and skill. The actors depicted are Shuter, Beard and 
Dunstall in the characters of Justice Woodcock, Hawthorn and Hodge. 
Zoffany, taking a leaf out of Hogarth's manner, has introduced a picture, 
" The Judgment of Solomon," into the background. 

Another of these clever theatrical scenes is that of Garrick and Mrs. 
Gibber in The Farmer's Return. This picture is the one now in the 
possession of Lord Durham, and was probably actually painted for 
Garrick, as it was purchased at his sale. 

The colour-scheme is fine, and, like most of Zoffany's work, it remains 
in perfect preservation and condition. Garrick is in a bluish-grey 
costume, and is smoking a pipe. Mrs. Gibber is in green, with a white 
apron and fichu. Lord Yarborough possesses another fine version of 
this same picture. 

Zoffany's dramatic pictures, apart from their artistic value, have a 
great histrionic interest, as they show the general arrangement of the 
stage and the costumes of the actors and actresses of the period. Nowhere 
is this better demonstrated than in the painter's picture of the dagger 
scene from Macbeth, with Garrick as Macbeth and Mrs. Pritchard as 
Lady Macbeth, now at the Garrick Club. To us who are accustomed 
to performances of that tragedy, in which the modern stage pays such 
scrupulous regard to accuracy of dress, it seems that the costume of 
the Thane of Cawdor is singularly inappropriate, but it must be re- 
membered that Garrick was only following the fashion of his day and 
of his predecessors in arraying Macbeth in the rich gold-laced apparel 
of a gentleman of the eighteenth century. 

The great actor was especially good in the parts which needed strong 
expression, and contemporary eighteenth-century literature is full of 
allusions to his wonderful rendering of Macbeth and to that of the peer- 
less Mrs. Pritchard. From a pictorial point of view, it is unfortunate 
that Garrick 's shortness of stature is accentuated as he stands beside 
the imposing actress who is robed in ample satin draperies which, by 
the way, Zoffany has painted with even more than his usual skill. 

Zoffany depicted Garrick in " private life " several times. One of 
the best of these portraits is the small sketch in oils, now hanging in the 
library of the Garrick Club. Mr. Fitzgerald considers this " portrait 
together with that by Pine, in the drawing-room, about the best records 
we have of the great player." The picture originally belonged to the 
actor Baddeley, who is now remembered chiefly by reason of his curious 
legacy to Drury Lane Theatre providing cake and wine for a Twelfth 
Night Feast. It represents Garrick in early middle life, full face; he 
wears a white wig, the background is unfinished and the coat merely 
indicated, but this in no way detracts from the picture which may be 


Coll of the Carrick Club. 135 


Coll. oj the 1-arl cf Durham 


i' nnu ' ntn'ji k's S,ilt : 
SIMS Ul- >IIAK1-:S1'I-:AK1-:'S Tl^Ml'I.M A']' I IIISNYK K 


described as a brilliant " impression " in oils and was most probably 
an excellent likeness, for the wonderful eyes with their alert expression 
are cleverly painted, and the whole head is alive with character and 
expression. It is interesting to compare this forcible sketch with the 
finished portrait of the great actor by Sir Joshua, hanging in the dining- 
room at the Club. Zoffany's production stands the ordeal well. He 
has seized, in a wonderful way, the chief characteristics of Garrick. 
Reynolds' work, though splendid in point of technique, strikes the 
spectator as being somewhat stiff and wooden, and lacking in the vivacity 
with which Zoffany has, with his forcible brush work, managed to invest 
his canvas. 

Mr. Fitzgerald, in his interesting life of Garrick, states that many 
of these theatrical impersonations, together with those of Hogarth, were 
placed among the pictures and treasures in Garrick's delightful villa at 
Hampton near Chiswick. Perhaps among them was the charming 
portrait of Mrs. Garrick, painted in her days of brilliant youth and charm, 
holding a mask 1 (see p. 8). 

Fortunately for us, Zoffany has chosen to represent Garrick in all 
the charm of his vie intime in two other delightful pictures belonging to 
Lord Durham. One depicts the great actor and his Violette standing 
before the celebrated Shakespeare Temple erected in the grounds of 
the villa, while on the steps of the building a child is playing, possibly 
one of Garrick's nephews, to whom he was much attached. A servant 
to the right is seen bringing in some light refreshment, while one of the 
favourite dogs is in the foreground, and a man stands near the river- 

1 The following extract from Christies' Catalogue of Garrick's sale, June 23, 1823, 
refers to pictures by Zoffany : 

42. Mr. Garrick and Mrs. Gibber in Jaffier and Belvedere (sic). 26 5s. 

(Lambton.) : 

43. Mr. Garrick in The Fanner' s Return (the companion). 33 I2s. (Lambton.) 

50. A small whole-length portrait of Mr. Garrick in the character of Lord Chalk- 

stone. 21 los. 6d. (Wansey.) 

51. Portrait of Mr. Garrick as Sir John Brute. 12 I2s. (Earl of Essex.) 

52. Pair of small views of the villa and grounds of Mr. Garrick at Hampton. 

12 I2s. (Smart.) 

53. Mr. and Mrs. Garrick and Mr. Bowden taking tea on the lawn of the villa at 

Hampton, and Mr. George Garrick angling. 49 ys. (Lambton.) 

54. Shakespeare's Temple, and portraits of Mr. and Mrs. Garrick resting on the 

steps of the Portico with a Favourite Dog in the foreground, and the view 
of a Reach of the River. Companion picture to the preceding one. 28 75. 

N.B. It is clear that lots 42, 43, 53 and 54 are the pictures now belonging to Lord 
Durham. Lot 50 is probably the one at the Garrick Club. Lot 51 still belongs to 
Lord Essex. The pair of views (Lot 52) bought by a certain Mr. Smart, cannot now 
be traced. 


bank. This Shakesperian Temple looms large in all the literature and 
memoirs of Garrick. It was adorned by a statue by Roubiliac, which 
was bequeathed by Garrick to the nation and now stands in the entrance 
to the British Museum. Mrs. Delany, 1 in her memoirs, describes, in 
her usual vivacious manner, a visit to the Garricks which she and her 
devoted friend, the Duchess of Portland, paid in July 1770. She writes 

" The house is singular, which you know I like, and seems to owe 
its prettiness and elegance to Mrs. Garrick 's good taste. On the 
whole it has the air of belonging to a genius. We had an excellent 
dinner, nicely served, and when over, went directly into the garden, 
a piece of irregular ground, sloping down to the Thames, very well 
laid out, and planted for shade and shelter with an opening to the 
river, which appears beautiful from that spot, and from Shake- 
speare's Temple at the end of the improvements, where we drank 
tea, and where there is a very fine statue of Shakespeare, in white 
marble, and a great chair, with a large carved frame, that was Shake- 
speare's own chair, made for him on some particular occasion, with 
a medallion of him fixed in the back." 

In the other picture Zoffany has depicted for us a " tea-drinking 
party " in the grounds amid the surroundings so clearly described by 
Mrs. Delany. The guest of honour is the great Dr. Johnson, seated 
next to Mrs. Garrick, who is apparently about to hand the Doctor one 
of his favourite " dishes of tea." Another guest is Mr. Bowden, who 
stands behind the chair of his hostess, and George Garrick, the actor's 
brother, is seen fishing on the river-bank. A fifth personage, who is 
clearly David Garrick himself, stands between Mrs. Garrick and 
Bowden holding a cup and saucer, and the group is completed by 
the presence of their favourite dogs guarding a three-cornered hat 
which lies on the grass. We may wonder whether the great actor 
and Dr. Johnson were perhaps discussing those far-off days, when they 
journeyed up from Lichfield in the same coach, both penniless and un- 
known or possibly it may have been at this veritable tea-party that the 
great moralist, as he gazed around on all the delightful surroundings, 
the spacious villa with its wealth of pictures and the charming garden and 
grounds, expressed his well-known sentence : " Ah, David, it is the 
leaving of such places that makes a deathbed terrible " 

The landscape in the painting is serene and lovely, perhaps rather 
too minute shall we say pre-Raphaelite, in its details but suffused 

1 Past on' s Life of Mrs. Delany, 1900, p. 199. 


Coll ofthtGaniikClub, 23 

SCKNK I-KOM "nil-: a,A\]>KSTJNi: \IARKI. \(,\ : . " 

KING AS LORD OGI.IUiV, MK>. I(AI H >M. I- V A- I-ANN^' ~TIK].]\C,, AM> HADll] ]. 

Painted by the exprc-s conun.iii'l of (".ronjc III after witiussjn- Mix. Hadtli'K- 


with wonderful light, and the trees in the middle distance and those at 
the extreme rear of the picture are remarkably well painted. The hand- 
ling of Benjamin Wilson, in part, is rather suggested, but the blending of 
the whole picture leads one to expect that Zoffany was responsible for 
the whole composition. The willows in the distance and the water, 
bespeak the same brushwork and period as in the other picture, but the 
St. Bernard dog in the foreground of the Shakespeare Temple picture 
is, although finely painted, wholly out of proper proportion, and its extreme 
prominence rather spoils the general good effect of that painting. 

It is interesting also to note the strong influence of Benjamin Wilson 
in Zoffany's picture of the Garricks before the Shakesperian Temple. 
In his conversation group of Mr. and Mrs. Richardson, now hanging in 
the National Art Gallery, Dublin, and supposed to be the artist's master- 
piece, this resemblance is very striking. In both pictures the couples 
stand in a park-like garden before a classical building, while in each 
there is a curious weeping- willow tree which is characteristic. No wonder 
that often Wilson's work is attributed to Zoffany and that so much 
confusion exists between the paintings of the two. 

To pass to the general theatrical groups, it is well to recall Horace 
Walpole's dictum, that Zoffany's talent "is to draw scenes in comedy, 
and there he beats the Flemish painters in their own way of detail," and 
to remember that it requires an artist of exceptional talent in this metier 
to make such works successful, as otherwise they are very apt to look 
artificial and to seem but " shadows of a shade." 

Zoffany's method of painting his dramatic groups was to frequent 
the theatres during the actual performances, and while there to make 
sketches from the actors and actresses. 

The plays are as dead as the actors, but in the pictures they certainly 
live, and Garrick and Foote, Weston, Shuter and Beard, are presented 
to us in their very garb and attitude visualised for us as no mere descriptions 
could ever do. 

To us, of course, these stage-land pictures lose somewhat of their 
interest and charm owing to our unfamiliarity with the literature and 
the plays from which many of the scenes were painted, but all who are 
interested in dramatic art, and in Zoffany in particular, will find in the 
Garrick Club a splendid and representative collection of theatrical 
pictures, from the earliest period up to modern times, in fitting surround- 
ings, and amongst them a notable series by Zoffany which fully displays 
his skill in the branch of painting he made so peculiarly his own. 

In the dining-room of the Club is, perhaps, the chef-d'cenvre of all 
Zoffany's theatrical pictures, the scene from the play of the Clandestine 
Marriage, with King in the character of Lord Ogleby, Mrs. Baddeley 


as Fanny Stirling and Baddeley as Canton the valet in the background. 
This comedy was written by Garrick and Colman, was first acted in 
February 1766 and at once had an enormous success. The collaborators 
probably divided the work of writing the play between them. Zoffany 
has chosen to depict the scene in the Fourth Act, when the old beau 
exclaims : " O thou admirable creature, command my heart, for it is 
vanquished." The dramatic situation is brought out admirably. Lord 
Ogleby, as the old lady killer, is excellent, while Mrs. Baddeley makes a 
perfect " Fanny." 

The grouping of this work is excellent, the richness of its colouring 
and the brilliancy of execution throughout is remarkable, and it remains 
in perfect preservation as fresh as if painted yesterday. 

This picture was painted by the express command of George III 
after witnessing Mrs. Baddeley's performance. The actress was honoured 
by a message from the King, brought by the Royal page, Mr. Ramus, 
desiring her to give sittings " to Mr. Zoffany, the artist, that her portrait 
might be included in the scene from the Clandestine Marriage, he was 
about to paint by command of His Majesty." 

Needless to say this incident brought the actress into immediate 
fame, her success and her beauty became the talk of the town, but alas ! 
this brilliant career was not of very long duration, and after many vicissi- 
tudes of fortune, the beautiful Mrs. Baddeley died in extreme poverty 
at the early age of thirty-six. Earlom scraped a very fine mezzotint of 
this picture which is well-known and much prized by collectors. 

Zoffany has admirably characterised the figure and gait of the old 
beau, and it is interesting to remember, when studying this picture, 
that it was upon his excellent acting of " Lord Ogleby " that King's fame 
as an actor was established. The artist also painted an excellent small 
full-length of the same actor, which is now in the possession of Mr. 
Charteris, and this may possibly have been the preliminary study for 
King's figure in the work at the Garrick, although it differs from it in 
the attitude of the hands, and in the details of the costume. It repre- 
sents the actor standing in a landscape, dressed in a pink costume, with 
a three-cornered hat under his arm, the beautiful quality of the painting 
fully displaying the artist's powers, and the delicate colour scheme is 
characteristic of Zoffany 's best period. 

Another of these dramatic scenes, painted by the express desire of 
George III, is the scene from Reynolds' play Speculation, with Munden 
as Project, Quick as Alderman Arable and Lewis as Tanjore. Hazlitt, 
in his Calcutta Works, 1 has a story relating to this picture (or, perhaps, 
to another version of it). He states that the King " who was fond of 

1 Personal Identity, p. 198 f.n. 

Co//, of the Hon. Evan E. Chartt-ris 



. of the Gatrick Club. 104 



Painttxl by desire of His M,ije~t\ i (imix'e III. Quirk's portrait is repeated in the plctuie behind him 

Coll. ofl/te Garrkk Cluli. 

DAVID KoSS (i;.'S-i7ij,,), ACTOR AND MA.\A(,liK 


Coll. of tile Garnck Club. .| 19 

SCENE 1 ROM " Till-! VI1.I..U.E E.UVYEK" 



low comedy," commissioned Zoffany to paint a scene from Reynolds' 
Speculation, in which Quick, Munden and Miss Wallis were to be intro- 
duced. The King called to see it in its progress, and at last it was done 
" all but the coat." The picture, however, was not sent, and the 
King repeated his visit to the artist. Zoffany with some embarrassment 
said : " It was done all but the goat." " Don't tell me," said the im- 
patient monarch ; " this is always the way : you said it was done all but 
the coat the last time I was here." " I said the goat, and please your 
Majesty." " Aye," replied the King, " the goat or the coat, I care not 
which you call it. I say I will not have the picture," and was going to 
leave the room, when Zoffany, in an agony, repeated, " it is the goat 
that is not finished," pointing to a picture of a goat that was hung up in 
a frame as an ornament to the scene at the theatre. The King laughed 
heartily at the blunder, and waited patiently till the " goat " was finished. 

The situation portrayed is that in Act IV. 

Alderman : " Oh, you consummate scoundrel, this is your speculation, 
is it?" 

Tanjore : " Why, Billy, the tables are turned indeed." 

Project : " They are, indeed. Did the Alderman hear? " 
Miss Wallis does not come into the Garrick Club version, nor is the 
goat to be seen, but Quick's likeness is repeated in the portrait hanging 
on the wall. 

Hanging on the staircase-wall of the Club is a scene from the Village 
Lawyer with John Bannister as Scout and Parsons as Sheepface. Zoffany 
is here seen almost in a Whistlerian mood, for the picture is a harmony 
in grey and black, and the whole effect is subtle and distinctive. Unfor- 
tunately, its present position is not in the very best light, but the picture 
is specially interesting and curiously modern in this subdued colour- 
scheme. It also illustrates, in striking manner, the fleeting popularity 
of dramatic literature. The play, originally a French farce, was once 
popular who now knows anything of it ? The lawyer in it wins the 
case for his client by instructing him to answer ' Ba-a-a " to every 
question, but when he comes to claim his fees, the rustic applies his 
same tactics and keeps answering " Ba-a-a " to every request for payment. 1 

There are several small full-length portraits by Zoffany of actors in 
their different impersonations scattered about the rooms of the Club, 
but it is impossible to dwell at length on all of them. 

Perhaps of special interest, as showing how Hamlet was presented 
in the eighteenth century, is the small portrait of the actor Ross as " The 
Prince of Denmark." Nothing more unlike our ideas of Hamlet can be 
imagined. He is depicted as a plump, full-faced, short personage, 

1 The Garrick Club, Percy Fitzgerald, p. 146. 


arrayed somewhat like a divine of the Georgian period, a funereal- 
looking person, in a suit of black velvet, one of his stockings is carefully 
turned down (why we wonder) and in one hand he holds a book, and 
bears no resemblance whatever to the modern stage Hamlet we all 

A few of Zoffany's finest dramatic groups are to be found in private 
collections. Lord Lansdowne has the interesting group from the 
Merchant of Venice, with the great actor Macklin as Shylock. This 
picture is a representation of what was probably Macklin's last appear- 
ance in this, his great part, at the extreme old age of ninety. It is interest- 
ing to remember that Pope, after witnessing the great actor's earlier 
performance of this character (which made his reputation) wrote the 

"This is the Jew that Shakespeare drew " 

and Doran tells us that the poet asked the actor why he dressed Shylock 
in a red hat, and that Macklin replied : "It was because he had read in 
an old history that the Jews in Venice were obliged by law to wear a 
hat of that decided colour," which was true. 

One of the most delightful of these theatrical groups is the 
beautiful picture in the possession of the Duke of Buccleuch 
and supposed to represent Mrs. Robinson (Perdita), and Sheridan. 
Here we see Zoffany in his most Watteau-like mood, the idyllic sur- 
roundings, the graceful pose of the figures and the delicate coloration, 
showing how entirely the artist sometimes succeeded in breaking away 
from that harshness of outline and greyness of colour, which are amongst 
the faults of his earlier work, and reveals him as a master of tone, and 
delicate subtleties of handling, while he has invested the lady with all 
the allure and charm of femininity at its most attractive moment. 

Mr. Wallop possesses a fine scene from the first act of Foote's comedy 
of the Mayor of Garratt. Foote is represented in military costume in 
his well-known part of Major Sturgeon, while the character of Sir J. 
Jollup is taken by the actor Hayes. Zoffany exhibited this picture, or 
the similar one belonging to Lord Carlisle, at the Society of Artists in 
1764, as we have already mentioned, and both pictures are so fine that 
we are convinced that each is an original work, and that Zoffany must 
have been instructed to make a replica of his famous painting. Horace 
Walpole's note in the catalogue is interesting ; he says : " Mr. Foote, in 
the character of Major Sturgeon, in the Mayor of Garratt (and Mr. 
Baddeley). A very fine likeness, a picture of great humour." The sage 
of Strawberry Hill is probably mistaken as to the identity of Baddeley 
for other authorities are unanimous in ascribing it to Hayes. Zoffany's 

Coll of Mr. Somerset Maugham Campbell Gray phf>\o 


Coll. of the Duke of Bucdeitch and (lueetisoerry Campbell Gray pilots 



Cr,ll. ujll.f Mailing "/ /. ins,ln:,;ie 


1A-I AI'l-l \KAMI IN IIII^ (HAIiUII'K A 1 1H! A(;l: OF M NT: I -!' 

Till' li^iu-c- si'.-iti'd .in i In- i'\t!i -mi- K-ft i- l lit.' ]-:.ul of .\I:iiislk-ld 


love of detail is rather quaintly shown in this picture, for the scene is 
supposed to take place in the house of Sir Jacob Jollup, and the painter 
has placed a row of fire-buckets in the background, on which he has 
inscribed the initials J. J., which presumably stand for Sir J. Jollup, 
while he has also depicted hanging on the wall, a map of London. 1 

There is a mezzotint of this picture engraved by J. Haid which was 
published by Boydell in 1765. It is a good impression, but for the 
purposes of engraving slight artistic liberties have been taken with the 
picture. The print has been considerably shortened at both ends so 
as to give more concentration to the figures, and the furniture has been 
" moved up " slightly with a view to this effect. 

Mr. Somerset Maugham is the possessor of a remarkably fine scene 
from Otway's Venice Preserved. 2 This play, once so popular, is now 
hardly known except to the student of dramatic literature. 

Yet in the first act are the well-known and beautiful lines 

" Oh, woman ! Lovely woman ! Nature made thee 
To temper man : we had been brutes without you ; 
Angels are painted fair, to look like you : 
There's in you all that we believe of Heaven, 
Amazing brightness, purity, and truth, 
Eternal joy, and everlasting love." 

The scene Zoffany has chosen to depict is the tragic dialogue between 
Jaffier (Garrick) and Belvidera (Mrs. Gibber) which takes place in the 
fourth act. The situation is indeed tragic for the unfortunate pair for 
when Belvidera was delivered by Jaffier, in pledge of his own good faith, 
into the hands of the conspirators, he gave them a dagger, charging 
them to despatch her, should he prove traitor ; the Senate, false to their 
oath, condemned the rebels to death with torture ; indeed, the latter had 
refused to accept their lives with bondage at the hands of the Republic. 
Belvidera tells Jaffier this, and then he feels tempted to slay with that 

1 The Mayor of Garratt. Garratt is between Wandsworth and Tooting ; the first 
Mayor of this village was elected towards the close of the eighteenth century ; and his 
election came about thus : Garratt Common has been often encroached on ... and 
in 1780 the inhabitants associated themselves together to defend their rights. The 
Chairman of this Association was entitled Mayor, and as it happened to be the time 
of a general election, the Society made it a law that a new " Mayor " should be chosen 
at every general election. The addresses of these mayors, written by Foote, Garrick, 
Wilkes and others, are satires on the corruption of electors and political squibs. The 
first Mayor of Garratt was " Sir John Harper, a retailer of brick dust in London, and 
the last was 'Sir' Harry Dimsdale, muffin seller in 1796." (Brewer, Dictionary of 
Phrase and Fable.) 

2 " Hallam remarked that Venice Preserved had been more frequently seen on the 
stage than any other play, except those of Shakespeare. He relates that when he 
saw it he was affected almost to agony." (Thomas Otway, Honble. Roden Noel, p 289.) 


very dagger the woman who has incited him to compass the ruin of his 
beloved friend. 

There is another version of this picture at the Garrick Club (378). 
Other notable dramatic pictures painted by Zoffany and to be found in 
the famous collection at the Garrick Club, are those illustrating Charles 
Bannister; Thomas Weston as Billy Button in the Maid of Bath, one 
of his most famous impersonations; Thomas King as Touchstone in 
As You Like It ; Thomas Knight in his wonderful representation of 
Roger in The Ghost ; and William Parsons as the Old Man in Lethe. 

All these we have, by kind permission of the Club, the special privilege 
of reproducing in our pages. 

That Zoffany 's work as the most skilful painter of dramatic scenes 
was well recognised we have evidence in an extract from Mrs. Piozzi's 
Glimpses at Italian Society, where, writing from Genoa she says : " My 
chief amusement at Alexandria was to look out upon the huddled market- 
place, as a great dramatic writer of our day has called it ; and who could 
help longing there for Zoffani's pencil to paint the lively scene." 

Of Zoffany 's representations of actors and actresses on a large scale, 
one of the finest is the full-length portrait of Miss Farren as Hermione 
in A Winter's Tale, now in the possession of Sir James Seton Stuart. 

Zoffany seems to have painted at least two portraits of Miss Farren 
and to have been attracted by her charm and personality to a marked 
extent. Mrs. Papendiek has one or two interesting references to these 
portraits. Writing in 1790* she says 

" While I was in town this time I called on Sunday after service, 
with my brother, upon the Zoffanys, who had now established them- 
selves in one of the new houses in Keppel Place, Fitzroy Square, 
Zoffany having resumed his portrait painting. We found them just 
going to dine, and by their desire we remained to partake of their 
hospitality. The painting- room did not exhibit a welcome on the 
return of the once favourite artist, for not a portrait was there except 
one of his old and sincere friend, Miss Farren a small whole- 
length, in a light green satin dress and black velvet Spanish hat 
(then the costume for dinner-parties). Zoffany was particularly 
great in drapery, both as regards the folds and taste, and in copying 
the elegancies of dress ; and this portrait being faultless in these 
points, and also an excellent likeness, was a perfect gem." 

Unfortunately the painting alluded to in this extract seems to have 
disappeared. The writer then goes on to say that she told Zoffany 

1 Memoirs, p. 125. 

Coll. oj Hie Giirruk Club. 447 





Coll. of /lie Garrick Club. 101 



Coll. of /he Garrick Club. 384 

THOMAS KING (1730-1805) 


Coll, of the Marquis <>f /.u/iWoiViu' 



(See Hay ward's Autobiography of Mrs. Pio/zi (I. jnj) ;ind Mis. Piozzi's Letter of Requests, Oct. iii, i 


of Lawrence's portrait of Miss Farren and that he intended to exhibit it, 
upon which Zoffany replied : "I shall go and look at it, and if I think 
that by exhibiting it he will gain credit to himself, I will keep mine back, 
for a young man must be encouraged." 

Mrs. Papendiek l afterwards relates how she called upon the 
Lawrences and saw there the beautiful and well-known full-length portrait 
of Miss Farren by the painter. 2 In her own words 

" Such a likeness, such an exquisite portrait riveted me to the 
spot. I said : ' Zoffany yields the palm to you, and does not mean 
to exhibit his gem,' when Lawrence answered that he had been 
kind, and he considered himself obliged to him." " He then told 
me," continues Mrs. Papendiek, " that he was in a dilemma, which he 
proceeded to explain to me. Two gentlemen, who had called to 
see his pictures, were so struck with this portrait of Miss Farren 
when only the head was done, that they offered him a hundred 
guineas for it, with permission to exhibit it. He answered that 
Lord Derby having seen it just before, was so pleased with it that 
he at once said he would purchase it for sixty guineas, the price 
Lawrence put upon it. Lord Derby called often, being interested 
in the progress of the picture, and Lawrence told him of the offer 
made by these gentlemen. Lord Derby could only say that he 
was prepared to keep his agreement Mr. Lawrence could do as 
he thought proper. 

" The mother was of my opinion, that an agreement ought to 
be adhered to, the father rather hankered after the additional sum 
offered; the friends of Lawrence advised him to take the first line 
of conduct, which he eventually did. The portrait was admirable. 
It brought him great fame, but the cavil about the price did not 
add to his credit and my Lord Derby never employed him after." 

Further on Mrs. Papendiek states 

" Zoffany the following year painted another full-length portrait 
of this enchanting actress leaning against a pedestal in theatrical 
costume, which was most beautiful. The expression of her counte- 
nance and the penetrating look of her lively eyes, was fully as well 
portrayed as by Lawrence, or even more so ! " 

It seems probable that here Mrs. Papendiek is, according to her very 
unfortunate habit, confusing her dates. The picture to which she 

1 Memoirs, p. 198. a Now in the possession of Mr. J. P. Morgan. 


seems to be alluding is apparently that of Miss Farren as Hermione 
in A Winter's Tale, for the description fits it exactly. This portrait 
was, however, painted some years earlier, for we know that in 
December 1778 the actress appeared at Drury Lane in the part of Her- 
mione. Zoffany painted her in that character, his picture was not 
exhibited but mezzotinted by Fisher and the print published in July 
1781. An interesting anecdote is attached to this very picture. The 
beautiful actress was wooed by both Lord Derby and Mr. Archibald 
Seton. As is well known she chose the former suitor and the tradition 
is that she sent the full-length portrait by Zoffany of herself to the un- 
successful wooer, Mr. Archibald Seton, of Touch, near Stirling. This 
gentleman never married, but the portrait is still at Touch in the possession 
of Sir James Seton Steuart. It must be ranked as one of the best of 
Zoffany's full-length portraits, which are, by the way, very rare, and is a 
good example of his work on a grandiose scale. 

Coll. of Sir Douglas A . Seloti-Slettarl, Hart. 





ZOFFANY'S chief claim to immortality, as a painter, must certainly 
rest on his conversation groups or " conversation pieces " as they were 
called in the eighteenth century. His reputation as an artist has suffered 
woefully by reason of the many badly-drawn, badly-composed and stiff 
little pictures which have frequently, without any reason, been assigned 
to him. So little is known of the work of contemporary artists of that 
date that the name of Zoffany has been labelled on many paintings that 
have no connection at all with our artist. As an example, the works of 
Arthur Devis, senior, whose pictures have a certain na'ive charm and 
whose groups bear a resemblance to the earlier and stiffer work of Zoffany, 
often bear Zoffany's name, although they certainly do not possess his 
dexterity of handling. That attractive and little-known painter, Charles 
Philips, also painted pleasing conversation groups, and it is possible that 
some groups attributed by their owners to Zoffany are in reality his work. 
The same thing may be said of paintings by De Wilde, Clint, Mortimer, 
and even Rigaud, as Zoffany's name has been found attached to portraits 
or groups by all of them. Zoffany, it may here be stated, like Reynolds, 
frequently placed a tree as a background to his figures, while in his interiors 
of rooms he was especially fond of a small round table as an " artistic " 
property and of an oriental table-cover, and his pictures not only repre- 
sent the persons, but also give us an excellent idea of the beautiful Georgian 
furniture in the homes of that date. 1 

The work of tracing these conversation pieces by Zoffany has not 
been an easy one, for the majority of them are scattered in the smaller 
English and Scottish country-houses, where in many cases they have 
remained perdu to the world since they were first painted. 

Lord Bristol, at Ickworth, possesses a large and important group in 

1 Randall Davies in his English Society of the Eighteenth Century in Contemporary 
Art, says of Zoffany's groups : " His people occupy the room they happen to be in 
with precisely the air of being discovered there without knowing it, and consequently 
without any appearance of having been arranged into a lively but artificial group as 
we have seen in the work of Hogarth and Copley." 


what may be described as the artist's earlier manner. It represents 
Captain John Augustus Hervey taking leave of his mother and family 
on his appointment to the command of a ship. As the personages depicted 
in this work all figure more or less prominently in the eighteenth-century 
world, a detailed description of it may be of interest here. The 
gallant Commander had a somewhat chequered career, as early in life 
he had the misfortune to marry the notorious Miss Elizabeth Chudleigh. 
The result of this union was disastrous. His wife eventually became 
Duchess of Kingston, and her trial for bigamy was one of the eighteenth- 
century causes celebres of the day. Hervey became third Earl of Bristol, 
but did not again venture into matrimonial toils. On the extreme right 
of the picture is his mother, Lady Hervey, who before her marriage was 
so well known as the beautiful Polly Lepel, maid-of-honour to Queen 
Caroline. Pope and Grey wrote poems to her, and Voltaire addressed 
to her the only English verses he is known to have written, beginning 
with the lines 

" Hervey, would you know the passion, 
You have kindled in my breast," 

while Horace Walpole always spoke of her with high esteem, and in 
1762 dedicated to her his famous work, Anecdotes of Painting in 
England. Zoffany has depicted her tatting, a typical eighteenth-century 
employment, in one hand holding the shuttle. She seems to bear her 
son's imminent departure with great composure. Opposite to her are 
her two daughters, Lady Mulgrave and Lady Mary Fitzgerald, with their 
respective husbands. Zoffany's colouring in this delightful picture is 
especially fine and he has devoted particular attention to the rendering 
of the beautiful textures of the satins and fine clothes worn by his sitters. 
As already mentioned, he painted another portrait of Lord Mulgrave 
a full-length in naval uniform representing him in the Arctic regions 
on his expedition to the North Pole, which is now in the National Portrait 
Gallery. Lord Bristol also possesses a very fine series of single family 
portraits by Zoffany, which are described in another chapter. 

Another pleasing conversation group is that belonging to the late 
Sir Henry Bulwer, representing Dibdin, the popular song-writer, with 
his second wife and daughter. He is depicted seated at a spinet and has 
apparently been writing a song with music, as he has a pen and paper 
in his hand. His wife appears to be asking him to go for a walk, because 
she holds his hat in her hand. 

Zoffany was very fond of children, and painted their portraits with 
great charm and skill. Some, indeed, of his pictures of these little 
eighteenth-century folk with their prim airs, rank amongst his most agree- 
able works. One of the pleasantest is the fine work at Rockingham 

1 of the Marquis of lirntul 

GROIT Ki:i'ki:si.Mi\<; CAI-T. JOHN \i <;i sn s 111 R\ i:\- IAKIM, I.KAVI-. OF 1111. I'AMII.V ON HIS AITOINTMKM 

10 Illl: COMMAND OI-' A SIII1 1 


. o/llie l\tv. \Yi~nlhorlh \\'itt^m 


or THIC ]'RI:SI:\T O\VNI-:K 

Cull, of IjtrJ \VtUougMn ,/, ISn,ke 
GROUP KKI'RKSKNTINi; JOHN, i|i" l.OKI) \\ll.l.or<,l II'.Y, \\IIII IMS \\lli: AND I III IK lllkl.l. llIII.I)ki:N 

JOHN, AFTlvKWARDS IStll I.OKII. HKNR\', I'llll I.OKll.AMl I.OL'I^A [\[Hs. H \ It N A K I ' ! . \VI 1 1 > lilt \\ll MMIH1 K 111. KllUlKF |oll\, l^lh 1.OK1) 


Castle, representing the Sondes children. They are depicted 
under a big tree one boy holding a cricket-bat of old-fashioned shape 
in one hand and a cricket-ball in the other, the second by a squirrel, 
which the youngest is feeding with nuts. This is a typical Zoffany in the 
arrangement of the group and with the tree in the background, and the 
quality of the painting is very good throughout. 

Another of these children and family groups is that already referred 
to at Blair Atholl, representing John, third Duke, his Duchess, and their 
numerous family. The Duke is dressed in blue, holding a fishing-rod, 
beside him stands his eldest son, Lord Tullibardine, in grey with a prim- 
rose-coloured waistcoat he holds a fish in one hand and a fly in the other. 
The Duchess is a charming figure dressed in the elaborate apricot satin 
gown of the day with a lace fichu, so beloved by the painter and a 
lace cap, and she holds a baby on her knee. Her eldest daughter, Lady 
Charlotte Murray stands near her wearing a yellow dress with a lace 
pinafore and holding a small wreath of flowers, and around the Duchess 
play the three younger children. Just behind the group is a large apple- 
tree in whose branches sits the young Lord James and a tame Racoon, 
with which he is playing. In this delightful canvas Zoffany seems quite 
to have broken away from the stiffness and hardness of his earlier work. 
There is a feeling of gaiety and charm throughout, and it is typical of the 
artist's work at his best " Watteau " period. This is the picture with 
the landscape background, which was, we believe, the work of Stewart 
(see p. 15). 

Perhaps the finest of these groups with children is the beautiful one 
representing John, Lord Willoughby de Broke, with his wife and their 
three children. In this picture Zoffany seems to have grasped the charm 
of English domestic life in unique fashion. Nothing can be more natural 
than the figure of the father with an admonishing finger held up to the 
small child who is standing to the left of the tea-table and is surreptitiously 
helping herself to buttered toast, or the third child on the right dragging 
a red wooden horse on wheels. In this masterpiece Zoffany is at his 
very best, also, in the exquisite finish of the still life, of the tea equipage. 
The silver urn in the picture is still preserved at Compton Verney. 

Lord Willoughby is represented in a brown coat and red waistcoat, 
and Lady Willoughby wears a blue silk dress which Zoffany has painted 
with consummate skill. By many critics this picture is considered the 
artist's chef-d'oeuvre ; the quality of the painting is wonderfully good 
throughout, the composition is also excellent; and, most important of all, 
there is life and action in the figures the sitters seem actually alive, not 
merely posing. 

In the charming " conversation piece " belonging to Mr. William 


Asch the large family are treated with equal vivacity and skill the five 
children and the little black page realistically painted and this picture 
also must rank as one of Zoffany's happiest achievements. 1 

Another charming group is that which he exhibited in 1764 and which 
now belongs to the Hon. Mrs. Goldman. Here the artist has managed to 
convey the feeling of air, space, atmosphere and movement to a wonderful 
extent. The kite with which the boy is playing actually seems to flutter 
in the air, and the action of the child is natural and vivacious. 

Still more remarkable is the Button group depicting Mr. and Mrs. 
Button with their son James, afterwards first Lord Sherborne, who 
married Miss Coke, and their daughter, Jane, who married Thomas 
Coke of Holkham, afterwards Earl of Leicester. The father and daughter 
are playing cards, Mr. Button hesitating which card to play, and at the 
moment consulting his wife, who puts down the book she is reading and 
turns towards him. The son is leaning on the table, perhaps giving his 
sister some advice in the same difficulty, but he is not taking very keen 
interest in the game, and Miss Button, quiet, composed, dignified and 
alert, is awaiting her father's play with some impatience. Here, again, 
as in the Willoughby de Broke picture, all the accessories are finely rendered. 
The mantelpiece with its vases upon it, the pole screen, the mirror, 
the card-table, the pictures on the wall, all are painted with consummate 
skill and dexterity, and yet never once has the painter permitted them to 
usurp more than their proper position in the picture. 

It has been stated in a recent book that a companion picture was 
painted by Zoffany representing the same family depicted reading the 
Bible, but this is apparently not the case, and it is not easy to account 
for the story having got into print. Perhaps Mrs. Button's book was 
the Bible and she resented her husband's and daughter's play, and did 
not wish to be disturbed in her reading. This may have started the 
story, but it is practically certain that the companion picture was never 

A fine mantelpiece such as we see in this Button group also appears 
in a conversation group belonging to Mrs. Smart, and in this case the 
pair of black basalt vases of Wedgwood ware which Zoffany shows us 
upon it and also the centre-piece still remain in the possession of the 
family. These groups were, it is evident, in most instances painted by 
the artist in the actual room in which his sitters lived, and Zoffany delighted 
to render the fittings and treasures in the rooms with the utmost skill, 
and so added to the charm of the painting, and in our day very greatly 
to its interest. The Smart group, which depicts Mr. and Mrs. Hodgson 
and their family, was probably painted at Bowles, Chigwell, Essex. Mr. 
1 See a suggestion concerning the identity of the persons on p. 107. 

Coll. Oj the Hon. Frederic Wallnp 

r.ROl'P (>r MR. AM) MKS. PAI.MKK AM) TIIKIK DAl'C.I I 1T!R. A F'l I K\\ '\ Rl ) 

H. of Ijinl S/HTI 




Hodgson was a Commissioner for the Relief of American prisoners, and 
holds in his hand a paper so inscribed. 

Another card-playing picture is the Simeon group, and here two men 
only are represented. Mr. John Simeon in a plum-coloured suit, and 
his brother-in-law, Colonel Cornwall, in uniform. It is not certain where 
this picture was painted. The room may have been one of those at 
60 Queen Anne Street, London, or a room in the country home Wallis- 
cote, near Reading. Here, again, there is a fine mantelpiece, and an 
exquisite cut-glass lustre upon it fitted for candles, with the glittering 
pendants and fine metal-work painted with most loving care, while, as 
usual, the card-table, the chairs and the costumes of the two players have 
received the same neat discriminating attention. 

Just as delightful is Mr. Wallop's charming group of Mr. and Mrs. 
Palmer and their daughter, afterwards Mrs. Landon of Dorney Court, 
Bucks. The familiar round table is again before us, its gleaming maho- 
gany, painted with great skill. All three persons are seated at it, Miss 
Palmer receiving a drawing-lesson from her father, Mrs. Palmer in a 
blue silk dress busily engaged in needlework. Nothing can well be less 
exciting, and at the same time nothing more delightful, more intimate 
or more true. 

Zoffany certainly had a wonderful skill with these family groups. 

To the Bradney picture we have already made brief allusion. 
It deserves, however, more attention. Sir John Hopkins, the great- 
grandfather of the present owner, is the chief personage in it, and with 
him is his wife, his two sons, his three daughters and a friend, Dr. Bout- 
flower. There is the customary round table, and as in the Willoughby 
de Broke picture and many others, the tea-things spread out upon it. 
One daughter is at the harpsichord, another turning over the music, the 
elder son stands near to the elegant mantelpiece, one sister by him and 
another near to her mother. It is just a family scene, quiet, simple and 
without pose, a charming pictorial record. 

Another notable group is that which is now in New York, belonging 
to the Ehrich Gallery, and setting forth the Hunt Breakfast at Mr. 
Palmer's house, Holme Park, near Reading. Here, again, Zoffany has 
had every chance with the accessories of still-life. The white table-cloth, 
the silver urn and teapot and the fine porcelain cups and saucers, have 
been painted with his usual neatness and dexterity. The group is a 
little straggling in line, as the various sportsmen all stand or sit near to 
the wall, but their attitudes are simple and natural, and the portrait 
group is rendered delightful in colour-scheme, by the gay clothing of 
the gentlemen. All their names have been preserved, and from left to 
right we have the Duke of Grafton, Sir Richard Aldworth, Mr. Robert 


Palmer, in whose house they are all meeting ; his son-in-law, Sir Thomas 
Beauchamp Proctor; another son-in-law, Mr. Francis Pym; a third 
son-in-law, Mr. George Beauchamp Proctor (Sir Thomas's brother); 
and, finally, the Duke of Bedford, while we must not forget Mr. Palmer's 
favourite dog Tiny, who is perched up on one of the chairs between Sir 
Thomas Proctor and his brother-in-law, Mr. Pym. 

The Ehrich Gallery used to possess another group of sportsmen by 
Zoffany. It now belongs to Mrs. Payne Whitney. The picture at one 
time was in the possession of Sir William Bass, and five sportsmen are 
presented in it. From left to right we have Edmund, Earl of Cork, Mr. 
Bingham, the Rev. Charles Digby, Colonel Cox and the Rev. Mr. 
Hume with three hounds. Lord Cork leans over a seat on which Mr. 
Bingham is lolling. Mr. Digby and Colonel Cox are near by, while 
Mr. Hume approaches the group holding out his hand to one of the dogs. 
The landscape in the distance is not like the work of Zoffany. It may 
have been painted by one of his friends, like that in the Atholl group, but 
the portraiture is admirable, and the stone group under the tree by which 
they all stand cleverly rendered. 

Another group of sporting men offers some resemblance to those 
just described. This is the Roundell group, now hanging at Gledstone, 
representing Richard Roundell and his three youthful friends in a stone 
summerhouse, in a garden, on the banks of the Isis, with a view of 
Oxford in the distance. They were all four Gentlemen Commoners of 
Christchurch, and, taking advantage of a visit paid by Zoffany to Oxford, 
were depicted in a group about a round table on which stand a bottle and 
some glasses. There is plenty of colour in this picture, as Mr. Hawkes- 
worth (afterwards Fawkes) is in a red coat with white breeches, Mr. 
Dashwood (afterwards Sir Henry) in a blue coat, Mr. Noel (afterwards 
Lord Wentworth) in grey with a claret-coloured gown thrown over it, 
and the host in buff with red breeches, but also wearing a claret-coloured 
gown trimmed with fur. The whole effect is charming. 

Another delightful interior is the one belonging to Lord Zetland. 
In this case the very room that is represented still exists in Arlington 
Street, and the chairs, bronze ornament on the mantelpiece and picture 
by Van Der Capelle over the mantelshelf are still cherished possessions 
of the family. 

Fishing rather appealed to Zoffany as a suitable employment to be 
represented in pictorial form. Perhaps the very necessity for a fisher- 
man to keep still was a reason for selecting that attitude when a portrait 
was desired. Whatever may have been the reason, it is characteristic of 
Zoffany's groups that there are several in which the characters are shown 
similarly engaged. We have already seen it in the Blair Atholl picture, 

> O 

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Coll. of Mrs. Payne HVii.'iKT, *'~" York 


At one time in the collection of Sir \\'illiain Ha- 

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and we have alluded to it in the portrait of the Sayer boy, who appears 
in the well-known engraving published by his father as in the act of 

The same incident appears in the group belonging to Mrs. Spencer 
Perceval, a delightful composition. Here we have Mr. and Mrs. John 
Burke, with their son and daughter, and Zoffany the artist forming one 
of the family. One girl holds a fishing-rod and her brother has his foot 
on a basket which contains fish. Mr. Burke is reading the newspaper, 
his wife standing near him and resting her hand on his shoulder, while 
Zoffany, holding a silver snuff-box (exquisitely painted, by the way), 
has gathered up in his arms the youngest and favourite child, who was, 
if tradition tells a true story, also his god-daughter. 

The children are painted with much charm and sympathy, their 
expression and attitudes being easy and unconscious. In grouping the 
figures of this picture Zoffany has departed from the conventional pyra- 
midal arrangement, and by so doing has made his composition more 
natural and unstudied, so that the spectator feels that the family, instead 
of being formally posed, has been caught unawares without that stiffness 
which sometimes characterises a portrait group. 

Yet another fishing group is the one representing Mr. John Yorke 
and Colonel Coore, now belonging to Mr. T. E. Yorke. His ancestor is 
seated holding a book, but the friend has just landed a fish which he is 
in the act of taking off the hook. The colouring of this picture is delight- 
ful, the scarlet coat with green facings, and Mr. Yorke's brown suit being 
well set off against the stones and trees in the distance. 

Children, again, are charmingly represented in Lady Melville's group, 
although in this case they are not playing but studying. The scene is 
set in a library, and the bookcases and the globe that one sees in the 
picture are still in the possession of the family. The elder girl Elizabeth 
stands by the globe pointing out some place upon it, a younger one holds 
a map of Europe in her hand, and the third is seated at a desk copying 
a map when their brother suddenly disturbing the geography lesson comes 
marching into the room carrying a satchel and some books, and upon 
one of them the painter has inscribed the words " Robert Dundas, his 

Probably this group was painted in Scotland, for to that country 
Zoffany certainly went at one time in his later career. 

Of that we have evidence in the Raith collection, for Sir R. C. Munro 
Ferguson, K.C.M.G., still possesses the famous group Zoffany painted 
to commemorate the coming of age of William Ferguson, his great-grand- 
father, in 1781. It may be of interest, if, before describing the picture, 
we say something of William Ferguson himself. He was William Berry, 


and had a brother, Robert, the father of Mary and Agnes Berry, Walpole's 
two interesting friends. The mother of these two brothers was a sister 
of Robert Ferguson, a Scottish merchant in Broad Street, Austin Friars, 
who made a fortune of about 300,000, and in 1725 bought Raith from 
the Melville family. Robert Berry, who married a distant cousin of his 
own, was in the counting-house of his uncle; at whose death, however, 
he found himself passed over (save for 10,000, a small annual income of 
300 a year, and the dingy old residence in Austin Friars) in favour of 
his brother William, who had married an heiress, a daughter of Ronald 
Craufurd of Restalrig, and now assumed by royal licence the surname 
and arms of Ferguson. According to Mary Berry, her father was 
" choused " out of his inheritance. 1 This was in 1781, when she was 
eighteen, and some years before she and her sister made the acquaintance 
of Horace Walpole (then over seventy), who secured a house for them as 
is well known at Teddington. Two years later they settled down at 
Little Strawberry Hill (earlier known as Cliveden), where Kitty Clive 
lived, so that the old beau, now Earl of Orford, could enjoy their 
society " without the ridicule or the trouble of a marriage," to use a 
phrase of Mary's. The uncle had died in 1781, but soon after that, as 
we have seen, Zoffany went to India, and it was certainly after 1790 that 
Zoffany must have made the journey to Scotland. The landscape depicts 
the scenery about Raith, the tree can, it is said, be still pointed out, and 
the wine-cooler, which appears in the foreground of the painting, is still 
in the house, and according to tradition has never left it. 

Who the men are, cannot now be stated, save with three exceptions. 
Ferguson himself has been identified and one friend, a Mr. Adam of Blair 
Adam (probably John, eldest brother of the more famous William), and the 
painter himself, who is fittingly in the background and does not look 
particularly happy, as though the letter he holds in his hand had conveyed 
bad news to him, or at all events news that was unwelcome at the time. 
The round table is, of course, introduced, and upon it as in the Roundell 
group are glasses and a bottle. The portraits are excellent, no better 
group did the painter ever execute. It is full of movement and vivacity 
as befitting such a happy occasion, Zoffany's own countenance the only 
depressing one in the party, and, thanks to the rich variety of the costumes, 
the colour-scheme is like the rest of the picture delightful. 

In the same house are other portraits by Zoffany, probably painted at 
the same time, and representing Lady Dumfries ; Mrs. Ferguson and Mrs. 
Fullerton together seated at a spinet ; and one supposed to represent 
Admiral Forbes, so that Zoffany, it is evident, had plenty of work to do 
whilst there. 

1 William, however, settled on Robert a sum to make his annuity up to 1000 a year. 

Coll. of Mr K. OsvnW 

(Circa 1770) 
Full Isngtb 

Coll. of 111' Kl. Hcmble. Sir Ranald C. Minim Ferguson 


Coil, of -Wiss A lift ilc KolhscliilJ Harfslangl fliolo 


At one time in the National Gallery, but iuv.iliilly l'qneutheil and cccli'd to the C'orkburn Kimily 


Probably the portrait of Sir James Cockburn, the sixth Baronet, and 
his daughter, belongs to the same visit. It was at one time in the National 
Gallery, but having been bequeathed to it by an invalid will, had, in 1892, 
to be ceded to the Cockburn family, and now belongs to Miss Alice 
de Rothschild, who also owns Zoffany's portrait of the Duke of Dorset. 

We surmise that at this same time Zoffany also painted the full-length 
portrait of Mrs. Oswald, as James Townsend Oswald, Auditor of the 
Exchequer, in Scotland, son of a prominent politician, and father of a 
distinguished soldier, lived in the same shire and not far off from Raith. 

Moreover, the elder Ferguson and Oswald's father had married sisters, 
daughters of Joseph Townsend, M.P. for Westbury, Wiltshire. The 
elder sister married Robert Ferguson, the younger, James Oswald (1715- 
1769). Both men were educated at Kirkcaldy Grammar School, where 
they made one another's acquaintance. James Oswald was eventually 
M.P. for the Kirkcaldy Burghs. 

Of this fine painting one of Zoffany's very few full-lengths it is 
said in the family that the artist endeavoured to introduce a portrait of 
Mr. Oswald on to the same canvas as that on which he was painting his 
wife, but that Mr. Oswald objected to it, and eventually made Zoffany 
cover his image with a cloud. Mrs. Oswald died in London in 1780, 
and her body was brought down and buried in the family vault at Auchin- 
cruive in Scotland. Robert Burns, we are told, finding the poor lady's 
funeral retinue in the public house he was in the habit of frequenting, 
vented his indignation and spleen by writing a scurrilous poem, entitled, 
" Dweller in yon Dungeon Dark," in which he abused Mrs. Oswald to 
his heart's content, in spite of the fact that she was a most estimable 
lady. Mrs. Oswald in this picture wears a blue silk dress of much the 
same colour as Lady Willoughby de Broke in the beautiful picture 
already described. 

It seems to be possible that the reason Zoffany was invited to Raith 
is because years before he had painted a portrait group of Mary and 
Agnes Berry when quite young girls. This may have been done when 
they were in Florence or by Zoffany soon after his return from Italy, 
say, perhaps, in 1779 or 1780, and possibly when they and Zoffany were 
near neighbours, for, as we have seen, Zoffany had a residence in Chiswick 
and the Berrys lived with their grandmother, Mrs. Seton, in the College 
House in that place. The two girls are playing with a large black-and- 
white retriever dog, and their expressions are arch and piquant, full of 
the enjoyment of life, and just what we should expect in the countenances 
of two sisters who were to have such an amusing and delightful time in 
old age, and were to be so much beloved by all about them. 

Yet other important groups must not fail to be mentioned. 


In Miss Boothby's possession is the famous one in which the Duke 
of York appears seated in the midst of the picture with several of his 
boon companions. Harry St. John, Sir William Boothby, Lord Lucan, 
Topham Beauclerk and others, all grouped under a tree as usual and about 
a fine classic stone urn. Here, again, is a fine group of portraits, delightful 
colouring and every evidence of life and vivacity. This was perhaps 
painted in Florence (see p. 53). 

Then there is the curious Sayer group representing three generations 
of the family, old Mr. Sayer, his son and daughter, and their infant child, 
and Mr. Sayer's sister, Madame de Pougens. A tree shelters them all 
as usual, and in the distance is to be seen part of the family estate and 
its gardens. 

The two groups of the Cocks family must not be overlooked. In 
one they are depicted out of doors and seated on a block of stone, and in 
the other, represented in the room in their own home, and which 
apparently just at that moment they had entered. 

Special allusion must be made to these two fine groups of the 
sons of Thomas Somers Cocks the banker, because they bear upon them 
the words " Zoffany pictor," a most unusual circumstance, and one 
which makes the paintings more than usually important. 

Another quite charming group is the Hussey one, said to have been 
painted at Wargrave Hill House, and now belonging to Mr. Robert Marshall. 
There are just the father, mother and daughter, and the child, holding 
a rose, is advancing towards her parents with graceful attitude and mien. 
It is in what we have ventured to call the painter's Watteau-like manner, 
and a peculiarly pleasant example of Zoffany's later work. 

It seems possible that Zoffany commenced at one time early in his 
career a group of the Royal children, which he never completed. Elmes 
tells a story about it, but no such group containing fifteen children or 
even one of ten can now be traced. Elmes says that 

" when Zoffany began the picture of the Royal family there were 
ten children. He made his sketch accordingly, and attending two 
or three times, went on finishing the figures. Various circumstances 
prevented him from proceeding His Majesty was engaged in 
business of more consequence, Her Majesty was engaged, some 
of the Princesses were engaged, and some of the Princes were unwell. 
The completion of the picture was consequently delayed, when a 
messenger came to inform the artist that another Prince was born, 
and must be introduced in the picture; this was not easy, but it 
was accomplished with some difficulty. All this took up much time, 
when a second messenger arrived to announce the birth of a Princess 

Coll, of the Corporation <jf Glasgow 


. of Mr. Josif/i C. T. Hen: Smith of SlitJe Park 



r . of Mr. Joseph C. T. Hcti: Smith of Sluile Park 




. of Mr Jose/tli C. T. Hen: Smilli of Slailc Park 



and to acquaint him that the illustrious stranger must have a place 
in the canvas ; this was impossible without a new arrangement ; one 
half of the figures were therefore obliterated, in order that the group- 
ing might be closer to make room ; to do this was a business of some 
months, and before it was finished a letter came from one of the 
maids-of -honour, informing the painter that there was another 
addition to the family, for whom a place must be found. ' This,' 
cried the artist, ' is too much ; if they cannot sit with more regularity, 
I cannot paint with more expedition, and must give it up.' " * 

Exigencies of space forbid one to dwell on the very many other fine 
and interesting groups by Zoffany : to describe them in detail would be 
impossible as they are scattered throughout the various country-houses 
of Great Britain, but we must briefly cite one more the beautiful 
" Minuet at Glasgow." By many critics this picture is considered 
Zoffany's masterpiece. It is very broadly painted the figures live 
and move in it, and it is interesting to the student in studying this 
work, to compare it with Zoffany's earlier and tighter manner, and 
to see also how entirely he left behind him the stiff and somewhat 
doll-like figures of his first period. The composition is, perhaps, some- 
what faulty, but this defect is atoned for by the wonderful dexterity 
of the painting, and the brilliancy and charm of the colour ; par- 
ticularly effective is the young girl's dress with its shimmer of pink 
seen through the white, and the gleam of silver on the shoe, while the 
whole effect of the picture is similar to that of the spirit of Watteau. It 
would be of great interest to discover the names of the personages in this 
group, for Zoffany so rarely, if ever, painted, like so many of his con- 
temporaries (Peters, for instance), fancy groups as subjects, as they are 
termed, that one is inclined to think this was a real family portrayed 
whose names have been lost in the mist of ages. It is unfortunate that 
England at present does not possess one group by Zoffany in her public 
galleries, a serious mistake for many reasons, but mainly because no 
artist of that period has had so many " conversation pictures " attributed 
to him, quite regardless of date and style. It would thus be an excellent 
thing if our public galleries were to contain two or three well-authenticated 
groups by the painter, so that the student of painting in the eighteenth 
century should be able to form a comprehensive idea of Zoffany's work, 
as under present conditions it is almost impossible for him to do. 

1 Elmes's Art and Artists, I. 61. 




WHEN we leave the groups and come to consider the single portraits 
attributed to Zoffany, our task as critics is rendered far more difficult. 

As we have said in another place, Zoffany's name has been very freely 
used, and portraits with which he had nothing whatever to do often have 
his name attached to them. 

This has been more frequently the case with regard to separate 
portraits than with groups, as in the latter it has generally been possible 
to determine when the picture was painted, whether in England, Italy 
or India, and to attach the right name to it. 

Moreover, the groups have remained in many cases in the hands of 
some members of the family for whom they were originally painted, but 
this has not often been so, with the single figures. 

Of some, therefore, we can be quite certain, of others we must speak 
in far less definite terms. 

There is no series of portraits to equal that at Ickworth belonging 
to Lord Bristol, and it would appear likely that Zoffany must have made 
a prolonged sojourn with the family, so many different portraits did he 

To the large group, reference has already been made, but there are 
beside it no less than eight single portraits which have been attributed 
to Zoffany. Respecting one of them, that of a lady, name unknown, 
we are gravely doubtful, but the remaining seven are probably ascribed 
to the right painter. Six appear amongst our illustrations, and although 
we are rather concerned respecting the one of Lady Mary Fitzgerald, 
yet it does approximate in some measure to the technique and style of 
Zoffany, and so we include it in the volume. 

The two of Lady Mulgrave and Lady Caroline Hervey, seated figures, 
cleverly presented and with accessories and fabrics painted in thoroughly 
Zoffany fashion, bespeak his hand in every piece of their brushwork, 
while the Lady Emily Hervey, so different in many respects from the 
other two in pose, composition and lighting, must surely have been the 
work of the same painter who was responsible for the others, and is 
graceful charming and attractive. 


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The men's portraits are those of Colonel William Hervey and the 
Bishop of Deny. 

Lady Mary, Lady Caroline, Lady Emily and Lady Mulgrave were 
all sisters, daughters of John, Lord Hervey, and of the fascinating Polly 
Lepel. Colonel Hervey was their brother. 

The Bishop of Deny was the fourth Earl of Bristol, and the remaining 
picture, which does not appear in this volume, but which was engraved 
in mezzotint by Watson, represented George William Hervey, the second 

Another portrait about which there can be no doubt is that of Mr. 
Phipps, in which the breakfast-service so carefully set out upon a white 
cloth, on the invariable round table, supplies the needful identification, 
if one were needed. As a matter of fact, the history of the picture is known, 
for Phipps left it to his college friend, Mr. Barton, who was the great- 
grandfather of Miss Barton, half-sister to Sir Hugh McCalmont, in whose 
possession the painting now is. It is quite a charming example of Zoffany's 
love of an interior setting, with furniture and accessories. 

Just as certain is the portrait of Dr. Hanson, which belongs to Mrs. 
Fleischman. The tree under which he sits is unmistakable, and all the 
details of the costume, to the buttons on the coat and to the stick in the 
hand, speak of Zoffany's careful, neat work. 

The same can be said of the portrait of another aged man, the renowned 
Dr. Richard Russell, to whose wise recommendations the town of Brighton 
owes its great popularity and importance. Here, again, tradition is at 
hand, as the work has always borne the name of Zoffany, and we believe 
that the attribution can be fully sustained, for the picture is characteristic 
and a very skilful presentation of character. It may be compared with 
that of Mr. Andrew Drummond, to which it bears some resemblance. 

Another interesting portrait is that of Benjamin Stillingrleet, the 
philosopher and poet, who was brother to Mrs. John Locker, and whose 
portrait has always remained in the possession of the Locker family and 
now belongs to Mr. Godfrey Locker-Lampson, and hangs in his house 
at Rowfant. 

Stillingfleet was the man who 

" cultivated the society of those learned ladies, Mrs. Montague, 
Mrs. Talbot and Mrs. Elizabeth Carter and always made his appear- 
ance at their gatherings in a full suit of dark brown, a wig, gilt sword 
and buckles, also stockings of a bluish-grey, by which last portion 
of his attire the notable coterie especially distinguished him. In 
consequence of this recognition the wits of the time, perhaps rather 
irreverently, dubbed them the ' Bas Bleu Club,' and it is thus that 


the phrase ' Blue Stocking ' has become a cant term for learned 
ladies generally." 1 

Stillingfleet died in 1771 and was buried in St. James' Church, where 
Mr. Locker raised a monument to his memory. 

A pair of portraits we have not seen, belonging to Mr. Longman, 
and representing a brother and sister named Harris, the latter of whom 
married Mr. Longman's great-grandfather, may also be accepted. The 
girl's attitude is that of one of the figures in the group at Blair Atholl, 
and she is carrying a wreath, as is the girl in that picture, while the boy 
is equally characteristic, and the tradition had been permanent and 
sustained. The paintings are probably early works, as they are somewhat 
stiff and formal. 

Again there can be no doubt as to the portrait of Maria Waldegrave, 
Duchess of Gloucester, which came from the Duke of Cambridge's collec- 
tion, and now belongs to Messrs. Agnew. No one but Zoffany could have 
painted that costume ; besides, the inevitable round table, the mantelpiece 
with its vases, the fan, books and cloak all proclaim that the painting was 
executed at his best period, and no better example of his work could 
be desired. 

The one of Queen Charlotte belonging to the King is just as certain ; 
moreover, the print by Lawrie, although not identical, announces whose 
work it is. The engraver has not, however, done justice to the original 
work, as will be seen by a comparison of the picture which we are graci- 
ously allowed to reproduce, side by side with the print. The omission 
of the vase of flowers, the column and the drapery all are to be regretted. 
The painting is far finer than the print, even the portraiture far more 
satisfactory, and the engraver has failed to impress upon his work the 
rich, luxurious effect of the painting in which the fabric, lace, jewels and 
cushion are all represented with exceeding skill. 

We have not seen the two De Castro portraits, but have no reason 
to doubt their being also the work of Zoffany, whose name they have 
always carried. The male portrait is a very characteristic one, and 
probably both of them were painted in India, where Daniel De Castro 
was a successful merchant. 

Another old man's portrait is the one belonging to the Duke of Port- 
land, and representing Charles John Bentinck, the youngest son of William, 
Earl of Portland. Here, again, we may compare the Andrew Drummond 
and the Brighton portraits and see the same skilful handling in all three, 
although in the Welbeck picture the painter has centred his efforts on the 
face, and has not given as much attention as he usually did to the costume. 

1 My Confidences, by Frederick Locker-Lampson, 1896. 

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Mr. Charteris' second single figure may, perhaps, be that of an actor. 
Is it Baddeley in the School for Scandal, or is it simply a man standing under 
a tree in a landscape in sight, perchance, of the grounds of his country 
home ? The landscape bears a close resemblance to that in Lord Durham's 
picture, the tree is quite unmistakable, while the details of the costume, 
especially the richly-coloured waistcoat, all lead us to feel quite confident 
that it is rightly attributed. 

Another single figure is that of Edward Pearce of Camelford, belonging 
to Sir Robert Edgcumbe, a man in riding costume with his dog, while 
yet another similar in style is the one of Henry Duncombe, belonging to 
Lord Crawford. Tradition in this instance says that he is leaning against 
Lord Muncaster's tomb. It is certainly a monumental block of stone 
against which he is posed, under a tree, of course, and with an open 
landscape in the distance, but there is no inscription or other evidence 
to lead us to infer that it represents a tomb. 

The portrait of Lunardi the balloonist, giving a display at Windsor 
Castle, we have often examined, and feel confident that it is rightly given 
to Zoffany. It is just the sort of picture he loved to paint, with plenty 
of accessories to the portrait, Windsor Castle in the distance, the Royal 
family viewing the balloon, a delightful little intimate group ; the balloon 
itself, the gun upon which Lunardi rests his hand and the details of his 
costume so cleverly indicated in just the right manner, all go to prove 
that this charming painting, which once belonged to Lord Ribblesdale, 
is an interesting and attractive work by our artist. 

When we come to a portrait of Wm. Burton we are not quite as 
certain; although the statuary and marbles, which are its accessories, are 
painted very much as are those in the Towneley picture, and the details 
of the costume resemble those of Zoffany. The painting is probably 
his work, but is not wholly convincing ; we do not refuse it a place in 
our illustrations, but are not certain that another man may not have 
been responsible for it, although bound to say that it is good enough 
for Zoffany. 

It may, perhaps, be well to mention among the single portraits one of 
David Garrick, belonging to Mr. Kyte, which certainly offers some 
resemblance to the work of Zoffany, although we are by no means satisfied 
that it is from his hand. Its special interest consists in the fact that it 
presents him gazing at two miniatures, a pose he adopted when playing 
Hamlet, " pulling out two portraits to look upon this picture and upon 

A picture we would gladly have discovered is that of George Steevens, 
" Shakespeare Steevens," which was engraved by Sylvester Harding for 
Boydell for his edition of Shakespeare. It was sold before Zoffany went 


to India to a Mr. Clark of Princes Street, so a contemporary account 
tells us, and represented the conceited author with his favourite little 
dog. It was painted in early days, for Smith l tells us that then, Steevens 
loved to have his portrait taken, but later on " he not only refused to sit 
but actually took the greatest pains to destroy every resemblance of his 
features, and never suffered himself to remain in the company of an artist 
for any length of time lest he should steal his likeness." Perchance 
he got hold of Zoffany's portrait of himself, and it shared the fate to 
which Smith alludes. 

A delightful picture is that of Jane Austen as a girl, which must have 
been painted in 1790 or thereabouts, and which gives a charming represen- 
tation of a prim but amusing, cheerful maiden, just such as we should 
have fancied Jane Austen to be. 

We have not space to do more than refer briefly to the portraits belong- 
ing to Sir Cosmo Antrobus, the Earl of Desart, and Sir T. Boothby, 
the one of an unknown man, miscalled Ozias Humphry at the Ehrich 
Gallery; the one of Charles James Fox belonging to Mr. Holden, or 
the splendid warrior belonging to MacLeod of MacLeod, but of all 
these and many others, details will be found in our Appendix. 

One portrait must not, however, be overlooked, the one of Gainsborough 
in the National Gallery, a brilliant sketch-like production in a small oval, 
showing the painter's face in profile and exhibiting a mastery in technique 
quite amazing, wonderful brushwork with splendid result ; an enchanting 
little painting and evidently a splendid likeness to boot. 

If the portrait called that of James Quin which belonged to Sir Cuthbert 
Quilter is included in our survey, it must be praised with very similar 
words, but we doubt very much whether it could possibly represent Quin, 
if Zoffany painted it, and on the other hand, it does resemble the accepted 
portraits of Quin to a marked extent. 

Generally speaking, Zoffany is not at his best in single portraits, 
although a few stand out amongst his supreme works, say, for example, 
the portrait of Gainsborough, the portrait at Welbeck, and Dr. Russell at 
Brighton. 2 

It is by his groups, however, that he will live, and these, though 
small in scale, are yet broad and vital, and the very fact that Zoffany 
possessed no sense of imagination, but was gifted with an insatiable 
curiosity, great restlessness and a supreme vanity, help to give to these 
wonderful pictures a part of their charm. 

He loved to delineate in clear fashion and with precise detail, he 

1 Nollekens and his Times, Lane's edit., I. 65. 

2 His actual full-length portraits are rare. We may mention those of Mrs. Oswald 
and Miss Farren as two examples. 

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exulted in the effect of light in an interior, and in representing the gleaming 
surfaces of silver, porcelain or glass, while for the colour-effects of costumes, 
especially in silk, satin or brocade, he had an absolute passion. 

All this with " patient and conscientious art," as has been well said, 
he set out upon his canvas with deft and facile handling, and as a result 
we have in his family groups a perfect representation of Georgian life 
which has no parallel. 

Almost pre-Raphaelite in his usual treatment of minutize and shadows, 
he was able to present the accessories of his pictures with an enamel-like 
perfection, and yet never did they usurp more than their proper place in 
the composition. 

At times he varied this treatment by adopting what we have termed 
his Watteau-like method, gay, vibrant and vivacious, broad, feathery 
and light, and yet executed with a precision that is remarkable. 

Above all, his works, although sometimes similar are never mono- 
tonous, never uninteresting, never unsuccessful in colour-scheme, and 
although Zoffany must not be claimed as a really great master he yet 
stands well in the front rank amongst the minor men, and his works are 
always a joy to behold, while he has no competitor and no equal in the 
particular manner which he made so successfully his own. 

Sir Claude Phillips in his Life of Reynolds remarks that Zoffany almost 
alone in his generation was much influenced by Hogarth, and became, 
although a Bohemian 1 born, as thoroughly English as any Englishman 
in his art; in fact, he adds, " Zoffany grasped with greater strength and 
subtlety certain elements of British character than any other artist had 
done since Hogarth." 

May we not also suggest that Watteau, Longhi and Gainsborough 
had their influence upon him, and that in his really best work he is not 
unworthy of being placed in close juxtaposition with all these masters, 
as well as being regarded as the only real follower of Hogarth and the 
Dutch painters in his groups and composition. 

1 He was born in Frankfort (see p. 3), not at Ratisbon as generally stated. 




The descriptions in most cases are those supplied by the owners. 
The items marked P are illrstrated in these pages. 


83, Eaton Square. 






Portrait, believed to represent Horace Walpole, 
and to have been painted at Strawberry Hill. 

Two portraits of David Garrick, which were 
at one time in one frame, and are said to have 
been painted to give an idea of his facial 

Small painting representing a man seated in 
a mahogany chair, by a round mahogany table. 
He wears a long pink and blue waistcoat, 
elaborately trimmed with gold lace, and knee 
breeches, and a white wig, and bears some 
resemblance to Garrick. By his hand, on the 
table, is a letter, on which two words can 
be read 

TO ... and 

At the lower part of the letter appears to be 

The signature part of the inscription is not 

Near to the letter there stands on the table a 

silver standish. 
The man is represented seated in a room, the 

walls of which are panelled. 
This is more probably by Benjamin Wilson. 

Portrait of Miss Mary Dacres, daughter of 
Admiral Dacres, and afterwards wife of Mr. 
Compton. Her sister married William Adams, 
Esq., M.P., who was the great-grandfather of 
the present owner of the picture. 


AGNEW, MRS. MOR- Portrait of Maria Walpole (Duchess of Glou- 
LAND. cester), seated, wearing a very rich silk gown, 

and holding a book in her hand. Near by is a 
round table, on which is a lace-trimmed cape, 
and two books; a fireplace having a picture 
of fruit and flowers set inside it, and a 
mantelpiece, on which are various vases, can 
be seen in the background. 35^ x 27. 
Originally in the collection of the Duke of 
Cambridge. P. 

ALBANY, H.R.H. THE Portrait of a man, small full-length, in white wig 
DUCHESS OF. and pigtail, holding in his hand a cocked hat 

Kensington Palace, and cane. He wears a star and the blue ribbon 
of an order. 14 x 9. 

Regent's Park, 
Officers' Mess. 

Portrait of Rt. Hon. H. T. Seymour Conway, 
father of Mrs. Dawson Darner, as Colonel of the 
Blues, 1770-1795. 32 x 28. 

A young man leaning against a boulder holding 
a gun at his knees. 

Costume red and grey tricorn hat. Cannon on 
the left. Foliage background. 

ALEXANDER, SIR CLAUD. Group representing two of his ancestors, Claud 


The Tofte, 

and Boyd Alexander, with their Hindoo servant 
and a dog, painted in India, circa 1768, all 
three figures life-size. 

The taller man is Claud Alexander, and is 
dressed in brown. He is reading a letter, sup- 
posed to be from his wife, telling him of the 
purchase of the estate of Ballochmyle. This 
paper is dated. 

The other brother is in a green coat. At the 
time when the picture was painted, Claud 
Alexander had a rather important appointment 
in India. P. 

Portrait of Richard Pocock, African traveller, 
afterwards Bishop of Ossory and then of Meath 
(1704-1765). He is represented full-length, 
standing figure, in brown caftan and blue under- 
garment, leaning against a Turkish tomb, 



holding a book in one hand, and resting the 
other on his belt. In the distance can be seen 
a view of Constantinople with many turrets, 
an island, some water and several caiques 
79^ x 52^. 

R.A.," 1856 (51). 

N.B. The picture very much resembles the 
work of Liotard. 

ANTROBUS, SIR Portrait of Boswell. 28$ :: 35, inside measure- 

COSMO G., BART. ment. 

Amesbury Abbey, Represented wearing a chocolate-coloured coat, 

Salisbury. and yellow waistcoat with gold braid. His 

hands are together, resting upon a book, and 

between them he appears to be holding a 

snuff-box. P. 

South Street, 

South Audley St., 

Stanyon Lodge, 

20, Cavendish 

Family group of a lady, gentleman, and five 
children (three girls and two boys), with a 
favourite black servant. The lady wears a 
green and gold silk dress, which is exceedingly 
well painted. The two boys are in red. 
40 : 50. P. 

Bought at Christie's, November 1903 (420), 
and sold to its present owner by Mr. Martin 
Colnaghi (see pp. 107 and 154). 

Portrait of Dr. Rimbault, musician, said to be 
the first portrait Zoffany painted in England. 
At one time it belonged to Dr. E. F. Rimbault, 
godfather to E. Rimbault Dibdin, of the Walker 
Art Gallery, Liverpool, and now to his daughter. 

Half-length representing the musician in a brown 
coat, richly adorned with yellow lace, wearing 
a wig, and having a piece of music in his hand. 

Picture representing some masqueraders, two 
ladies in fancy costume, one in yellow and one 
in blue, and a man wearing a mask and the 
dress of a harlequin. He is holding a bottle of 
wine and a glass. In the background can be 


seen a coach with horses, and some farm build- 
ings. Bought from Agnew. 

It is probably a scene from a play. 

N.B. Mrs. Asquith also possessed one other 
Zoffany, which was destroyed some years ago 
in a fire. It represented an old man and a 
middle-aged woman in a garden. 

ATHOLL, THE DUKE OF. Family group representing John, third Duke of 

Blair Castle, 
Blair Atholl. 

AUSTIN, Miss. 

8, Edward Street, 



Atholl, with Charlotte his wife, and the seven 
elder children (four boys and three girls), on 
the banks of the Tay at Dunkeld. 03 x 36. 
Dated 1767. 

Painted in 1767 to fit over the carved mantelpiece 
at Blair Castle, where it still is. P. 

Also the receipt for the payment for the 
picture. P. 

This lady owns a water-colour copy (from which, 
by her permission, our illustration is taken) 
of a painting by Zoffany of the Rosoman family 
on their estate near Richmond. The original 
was at one time at Laleham but since the death 
of its owner has been lost sight of. The group 
depicts a fishing-party, and the little girl 
under the tree was Miss Austin's grandmother. 
The original was once exhibited during the 
early part of Queen Victoria's reign in some 
provincial exhibition and was then styled " A 
Smug Citizen." The water-colour drawing 
is declared to be a very faithful copy of it. 
When Miss Austin, on Dec. 20, 1918, gave the 
information detailed above, she had reached 
the advanced age of ninety-three. 

Portrait representing a lady drawing the shadow 

of a soldier on a white wall, while at the back 

of them is the figure of Cupid, perched on a 

, pedestal, holding a candle. The lady is in a 

blue tunic and a yellow cloak. 

The picture, which is said to represent an incident 
in a play, was purchased in Bath ninety years 
ago by Sir William Bagshaw. 



BAKER, G. E. LLOYD, The Sharp family on a yacht on the Thames at 
ESQ. Fulham. The figures are as follows 

Hardtcick Court, (i) Dr. John Sharp (1693-1758), the eldest 

Gloucester. brother, Prebendary of Durham, Archdeacon 

of Northumberland. He is in the right corner. 

(2) His wife Mary, daughter of Dr. Dering, Dean 
of Ripon. She is behind her husband. 

(3) Anna Jemima, their only child, in green and 
pink. She is on the right at the top. 

(4) William Sharp, who is steering, ana for whom 
the picture was painted, surgeon. 

He declined a baronetcy offered him by George 
III for successful attendance on Princess 
Amelia. He is at the top of the picture, wears 
the Windsor uniform, and is waving his hat. 

(5) His wife Catharine, daughter of Thomas 
Berwick, Esq. She is in a blue riding-habit, 
and is just below her husband. 

(6) Mary, their only child, carrying a kitten on 
her lap. She married the owner's grandfather, 
T. J. Lloyd Baker, and was the only person 
in the family to leave descendants. 

(7) James Sharp, a skilful engineer, represented 
holding a musical instrument called a serpent. 

(8) His wife Catharine, daughter of John Lodge. 
She is wearing a lilac costume, and a black 
lace shawl, and is seated by Mrs. William 

(9) Catharine, their only surviving child, in 
white muslin, with pink sash, and black feather 

(10) Elizabeth, Mrs. Prowse, the widow of George 
Prowse, Esq., of Wichen Park, Northampton, 
and Berkeley- She is seated at the harpsichord. 
Her estate after her decease went to her hus- 
band's nephew, Sir Charles Mordaunt, and his 
descendant sold Berkeley to Lord Bath and 
Wichen to Lord Penrhyn. 

(n) Judith Sharp, sister of Mrs. Prowse, repre- 
sented seated next to Jemima her sister, wear- 
ing a brown riding-habit and holding a lute. 

(12) Frances Sharp, her youngest sister, repre- 



sented in blue moire, and holding a piece of 

(13) Granville Sharp the philanthropist, repre- 
sented handing a piece of music to Mrs. Prowse, 
and close by him is a double flageolet. 

There are also depicted in the picture the boat- 
master, the cabin-boy, and Zoffany's favourite 
dog, Roma, while other instruments represented 
in the group are the oboe and the theorbo. 

The church is that of Fulham, and on the right 
can be seen the cottage with balconies belonging 
to William Sharp, but usually inhabited by 
Granville. It communicated by an under- 
ground passage with Fulham House, where 
William Sharp lived. George III and Queen 
Charlotte on many occasions went to drink 
tea with the Sharp family on their yacht in 
order to listen to their singing and playing. 

The cabin-boy was still living in the recollection 
of the owner of the picture in 1848, and remem- 
bered the work being done. The picture cost the 
family eight hundred guineas. It was exhibited 
at the Royal Academy in 1781 , and again in 1879, 
No. 27, and was at the Whitechapel Exhibition 
in 1906, No. 148. P. 

Portrait of the owner's grandmother, eventually 
the heiress of the Sharp family. 

N.B. Archdeacon Sharp was almoner to Queen 

Mrs. Battine of St. Hilary, Bexhill, did a copy of 
this picture. 


Portrait of John Wilkes, M.P., and his daughter, 
small figures, full-length. Wilkes is seated, 
holding his daughter's hand, and she is standing 
at his right. Wilkes is in a dark blue coat 
with scarlet revers, yellow vest and breeches. 
Miss Wilkes is in a pink dress over a bluey 
green underskirt. There is a dog represented 
at the foot of the canvas. Canvas 50 x 39! . 

Exhibited South Kensington Museum. Exhibi- 
tion of National Portraits, 1867, (654). P. 


N.B. This is the picture about which Horace 
Walpole in writing to the Countess of Upper 
Ossory on November 14, 1779, stated as follows : 
' There, too, you will see a delightful piece of 
Wilkes looking no, squinting tenderly at 
his daughter. It is a caricature of the Devil 
acknowledging Miss Sin in Milton. I do not 
know why, but they are under a palm-tree, 
which has not grown in a free country for some 

See Toynbee edition, Vol XI. p. 53. 

BANKES, MRS. Picture believed to represent a Mr. Bankes with 

Kingston Lacy, his wife and family, and to have been painted 

Wimborne. at Kingston Lacy. 

BARODA, H.H. THE Group painted in 1768, representing Garrick and 
MAHARAJAH GAEK- Mrs. Pritchard in Macbeth, a performance 
WAR, G.C.S.I. given for Mrs. Pritchard's benefit (she died a 

few months later). There were two paintings 
made by Zoffany of this subject, one for 
Garrick and one for Mrs. Pritchard. One 
is in the Garrick Club (see p. 140), the other 
is this one, and from it the mezzotint was 
scraped. In the Garrick Club painting Lady 
Macbeth is in white and the hand holding the 
dagger is held down. In the Baroda one the 
dress is black and the hand held up (see the 
print). This picture was at one time in the 
possession of the Rt. Hon. Walter Long, and 
was exhibited as follows 

B.I., 1859. 

Grafton Gallery, 1897. 

Whitechapel Gallery, 1910. 

BASKERVILLE, COLONEL. Picture representing the Porter and the Hare. 

Crowsley Park, Similar to that in the engraving by Earlom. 

Henley-on-Thames. Declared to be either the original by Zoffany 

or a contemporary copy. ( Vide Ehrich Gallery.) 

BEACHCROFT, Miss S. J. Oval pastel and pencil drawing of Zoffany, with 
11, Prince's Square, his signature, executed by himself, and has 
Bayswater. never left the possession oif the family. P. 


Miniature representing Zoffany in fancy costume. 
This has been split by accident. The family 
have attributed it to the pencil of Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, but there is no special claim that 
the President ever painted it. It is the work 
of an artist of the eighteenth century, and 
somewhat resembles the handling of Luke 
Sullivan, but it might have been painted by 
Zoffany himself. P. 

BEACHCROFT, Miss Miniature painted by Zoffany of himself, repre- 
ELLEN. senting him after his return from his shipwreck, 

n, Prince's Square, He stated at the time of the shipwreck, lots 
Bayswater. were cast respecting one man, who was to be 

selected for food for the rest, and eventually 
one sailor was actually killed, and it is said 
that some of the others in the boat had to eat 
his flesh to keep themselves alive. Zoffany 
appears to have borne the marks of the terrible 
time he went through in this shipwreck for 
several years. The family state that the minia- 
ture was painted immediately upon his return, 
for his wife. P. 

BELL, MRS. HORACE. A group representing three children. We have 
12, St. Leonard's not seen this painting. 

BERLIN. Group representing a lady and gentleman. Small 

Kaiserliche Gallery, full-lengths in a landscape. The lady is in a 

blue and white striped dress, with wide lace 
sleeves, and is seated ; the gentleman stands 
beside her with his legs crossed. He is in a 
rusty brown coat, waistcoat and breeches, his 
hat and stick are in his left hand, his right rests 
on the back of the seat. Canvas, 27 x 35. 

The picture was purchased by Mr. Martin 
Colnaghi in May, 1895, sold by him to Mr. 
Humphry Ward, and by the latter sold to the 
Berlin Museum. 

It was exhibited at the Royal Academy in igo8. 




BEVAN, Miss. 

33, Burton Court, 


Trinity College, 

Portrait of Dr. Thomas Hanson of Canterbury, 
a well-known philanthropist. Sold to the 
Gallery by his son, John Hanson Walker of 

This picture has been engraved. See under 
Fleischmann picture. 

A life-sized portrait of Mrs. Bevan's grandfather, 
John Lumsden of Cushine, Aberdeenshire. 
He was a Director of the East India Company, 
and the picture was painted in India. He is 
represented as seated on a red-stuffed chair, 
and holds his left hand up to his chin. His 
face is clean shaven, his hair long and powdered. 
He wears a brown coat, blue and yellow striped 
waistcoat, and white cravat. 

Small full-length portrait of a man in green, 
evidently in a Quaker's costume, holding a long 
walking-stick in one hand, and a black hat in the 
other. In the distance is a landscape and a 
large tree. 

The portrait is said to represent a Mr. Russell, or 
a Mr. Bevan. 29 >'. 24 L 

Small full-length portrait of Garrick, evidently 
impersonating a character in a play. He is 
dressed in a buff-coloured coat and breeches, 
with a red waistcoat and white stock. He 
wears a three-cornered black hat, and holds 
his left hand up to it, apparently saluting. On 
the left of the figure is a large garden-seat, in 
the Chinese Chippendale style. In the back- 
ground are trees. 

Purchased at Christie's a few years ago. Ex- 
hibited at the Shakespeare Exhibition at White- 
chapel 1910, No. 12. 

Group representing William Dent, Hon. East 
India Company's Service and his brother, John 
Dent, Captain, Hon. East India Company's 
Service with a native orderly, a bailiff and a 
labourer. 84 x 60. 



Companion picture representing Mrs. William 
Dent (Louisa, second daughter of Sir C. W. 
Blunt, third Bart.), and her two elder children, 
Sophia Louisa Dent (grandmother to the owner), 
and Charles William Dent. 48 x 48. 

They were both painted in India with Indian 
landscape background, horses and cattle, in 
about 1790 or 1791. 

The portrait of William Dent represents him 
in a plum-coloured coat with yellow breeches. 
He is pointing to an Indian servant who is 
digging, and appears to be showing his pro- 
perty to his brother, who is in red and white 
uniform. Behind him stands another Indian 
attendant holding a shield, and at the extreme 
left of the group is the estate bailiff in white 
muslin. In the background is represented 
Mr. Dent's residence in India. 

The group of Mrs. Dent and the two children 
represents them seated under a large tree. 
She is in white with a cloak of sea-green colour 
edged with orange. In the background is a 
lake and a view of the house. 

Adderbury Manor, 
BLUNT, Miss J.H. 

Portrait group representing Suetonius Grant 
Heatly (elder brother of Patrick Heatly), with 
his sister Temperance, afterwards the wife of 
Captain William Green, R.N. Both are seated 
in an apartment with an Indian pipe-bearer 
standing behind, and either a head-servant 
(native major-domo) or an important visiting 
servant, standing, bending in front of them, 
and holding a long and elaborate staff in his 
hand. The lady is in white, and holds a book, 
the man holds the mouthpiece of his hubble- 
bubble. 40 x 45. 

Suetonius Grant Heatly was the eldest son of 
Andrew Heatly, of Newport, Rhode Island, 
America, and of his wife Mary, daughter of 
Suetonius Grant and Temperance Talmage. 

Suetonius Heatly was born 1751, and died in 
Bengal in 1793. He was Magistrate of the 


Province of Dana : and a judge in the East 
India Company's Service. He died unmarried. 

His sister Temperance (Mrs. William Green), 
and her husband, afterwards settled at Utica, 
N.J. in the United States, where they still 
have many descendants. 

(Her sister Mary Heatly, who married Captain 
James Tod, was the mother of Colonel James 
Tod, the Historian of Rajasthan, and great - 
grandmother of the present owners of these 

The Heatlys were all Loyalists in the War of 
Independence. They left the country, but 
Captain and Mrs. Green went back to America 
(U.S.A.), after the War. 40 x 45. 

The picture was sold to its owner by Agnews. P. 

A portrait representing Patrick Heatly, second 
son of Andrew Heatly of Newport, Rhode 
Island, America, merchant, and of Mary 
his wife. He is seated in a landscape, on rocks 
(a building up behind), with an Irish red setter 
dog. He wears a green coat, with yellow 
breeches, white vest and hose. He is shading 
his eyes with his beaver hat. He is supposed 
to be looking out to sea, watching the ship 
which takes his sister Temperance (of whom 
he was very fond) away from India to America, 
with her husband, Captain W. Green. P. 

Patrick Heatly was in the East India Company's 
Service, and after he settled in England was of 
the East India Company's secret Council. He 
was born in 1753 (in America), and died in 1834 
(in England). He lived in Hertford Street, 
Mayfair (36 or 39 I believe J. H. B.). He 
married Miss Anne Carey, but they had no 
children. 37.^ x 31^. 

BOOTHBY, Miss. Large group of seven figures in the open air. 

15, Carlyle Square, The Duke of York is in the centre seated. 

Chelsea. On his right stand Harry St. John with Sir 

William Boothby and two greyhounds. On 

his left is Lord Palmerston. In front of him 


is Murray, and to the left of these two Lord 
Lucan and Topham Beauclerk. P. 
N.B. There is said to be a replica of this picture 
at Windsor Castle in a corridor. 

BOOTHBY, SEYMOUR, Portrait of Sir William Boothby the General 
ESQ. on horseback. P. 

BRADNEY, COL., C.B. Portrait group representing Sir John Hopkins, 

Queen Victoria Rifles, great-grandfather of the owner, Lady Hopkins, 

Fovant, his wife, two sons, William, born 1751, and 

Salisbury. Charles, born 1761, and three daughters, Mary 

Anne, born 1753, Elizabeth 1755, Amelia 1757 

(one of the three becoming Mrs. Bradney, the 

owner's grandmother) with Dr. Boutflower. 

The group is represented in a room having 

a large window. There is a round table on 

which is a tea equipage. One lady is playing 

on a harpsichord and another turning over 

the music. This latter is Elizabeth, afterwards 

Mrs. Bradney. 

The picture is at Talycoed Court, Monmouth, and 
is believed to have been the group exhibited 
in the Royal Academy in 1769. The ages 
of the children agree almost exactly with 
the apparent ages of the children in the picture. 
41 x 33. P. 

BRENTFORD. A painting of the Last Supper, included in which 

St. George's Church, are portraits of the artist and his wife. P. 

BRIDEWELL HOSPITAL. Full-length portrait of Sir Richard Glyn (1769), 
New Bridge Street, President of the Hospital. 
Blackfriars, E.G. 

BRIDGEMAN, WILLIAM A group of persons in a room. Colonel Polier, 

C. ESQ., M.P. a Swiss, who was afterwards murdered by his 

13, Mansfield native servant, is represented ordering some 

Street, fruit from two native attendants. Colonel 

Portland Martin, a Frenchman, from whom a house 

Place. called Martiniere took its name, is explaining 

the drawings and plans of this house, which he 

was about to build on the river-bank, near to 

Lucknow, to Major Wombwell, who is sitting 

near to him. The plans are held by a native. 

Coll. of tkt Marqmi of Ilruliil 

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Bury St. 

Zoffany is also represented seated before an 
easel, and on the wall are several other pictures, 
also the work of the artist. 

The picture, which is a very large one, is said to 
be dated 1788. P. 

Portrait of Dr. Richard Russell. Green coat, 

reading a book. 49 >: 39. P 
Whitechapel Exhibition, 1910 (321). 

Lady Mary Fitzgerald (1726-1815) seated. Cos- 
tume, puce-coloured dress, white satin cloak 
over the shoulders, and white wool scarf round 
the neck with a band of violet ribbon round the 
throat. On the right wrist is a bracelet with 
a miniature. P. 

This was Mary, daughter of John, Lord Hervey, 
by his wife Mar)', daughter of John Nicholas 
Lepel, wife of George Fitzgerald of Turlough 
Park, Mayo. She was burnt to death at the 
age of eighty-nine. (33.) 

Lady Caroline Hervey (ob. 1819 at the age of 
eighty-three). Seated figure in pink costume, 
with black lace over-bodice, white lace sleeves. 
She wears a miniature on the right wrist, 
which may, perhaps, represent Lady Mulgrave, 
and a glove on the left hand. P. 

This was Caroline, fourth daughter of John, 
Lord Hervey, by his wife Mary Lepel. (49.) 

Lady Emily Hervey. Full-face figure, leaning 
over a balustrade, blue costume, black lace over 
the powdered hair, the hands in a muff. P. 

This was Lady Emily Caroline Nassau, daughter 
of John, Lord Hervey, by his wife Mary Lepel. 
She died unmarried in 1814 at the age of 
eighty-three. (57.) 

General the Hon. William Hcrvey (1732-1815). 
Figure in uniform, with the right hand on the 
hip, and the left pointing downwards. Oval. 

This was William, fourth son of John, Lord 
Hervey, by his wife Mary Lepel. (114.) 

Group representing Lord and Lady Mulgrave, 

1 84 


Lady Hervey, Augustus, third Earl of Bristol, 
Mr. George and Lady Mary Fitzgerald. 

Lord Mulgrave is in a blue coat, Lady Mary 
Fitzgerald in a blue dress, Lady Mulgrave in 
a white dress with pink apron, Mr. George 
Fitzgerald in a puce coat, Lord Bristol in naval 
uniform, and Lady Hervey in a pink dress. 

The group represents Captain John Augustus 
Hervey taking leave on his appointment to the 
command of a ship. 39! x 49. P. 

R.A., 1891 (97). 

Lepel, Lady Mulgrave. Seated figure in blue 
costume, with lace over the shoulders, and a 
lace cap on the head. The right hand holds the 
end of the lace fichu, the left a blue bag which 
rests on the lap. P. 

This was Lepel, daughter of John, Lord Hervey, 
and Mary Lepel. She married in 1743 Con- 
stantine Phipps, first Lord Mulgrave, and 
died in 1789. 

A lady, name unknown. Seated figure, in puce- 
coloured dress, trimmed with fur, and having 
a fur muff. Painted about 1760, and attributed 
by some critics to Zoffany. 

Frederick Augustus Hervey, fourth Earl of Bristol, 
Bishop of Cloyne and Derry. Seated figure, in 
black gown with white bands, the right hand has 
the fourth finger upwards. There is a ring on 
the little finger, the left hand holds a book open 
at the title-page with an engraving. Oval. P. 

George William Hervey, second Earl of Bristol. 
Figure standing in peer's robes holding a coronet 
in the left hand beside a table. On the chair 
near by rests the Privy Seal Bag. 

This picture has been engraved in mezzotint by 



Richard Savage Lloyd and Miss Cecil Lloyd 
of Hintlesham Hall, Suffolk. Miss Lloyd 
is seated on a white garden-seat and Richard 
Savage Lloyd standing by, amid park-like 
scenery. 30 x 24. 

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2, Grosvenor Place, 





Portrait of Jonathan, the old gardener at Clare 
Hall, to Mrs. Prowse of Wichen Park, North- 
amptonshire. The lady was the sister of 
Granville Sharp, and is also represented in Mr. 
Lloyd Baker's picture. She was the great- 
grand-aunt to the wife of the owner. The 
portrait of the old gardener is said to have been 
painted on the door of a travelling chaise, while 
Aoffany was waiting to have the opportunity 
of painting the portrait of his mistress. 

Group representing two persons. Supposed to 
be Sheridan and Mrs. Robinson (Perdita). The 
man is in a brown coat, green breeches, white 
stockings, black shoes, and has a black hat. 
The lady is in a pink under-dress, with a white 
muslin skirt over it. She is on a low seat near 
the ground, and is listening to him ; he is upon 
a higher seat, or upon a stile, near to a tree, 
and apparently is either reading or reciting 
from a book in his hand. P. 

Bought in 1868 at Christie's from the C. K. 
Sharpe Collection. Exhibited in 1867 as a 
Romncy. 49 >: 39. 

Sir William and Lady Mary Duncan. Lady to 
the left in white, seated in red chair. Man 
standing to the right in white wig, black coat 
and breeches and white stockings, red drapery 
over table in centre between figures, and falling 
over globe on stand. Pilasters in centre with 
looped-up curtains and books below. View of 
trees and park to the left. Small size. Not seen. 

Group representing Dibdin, his second wife 
and his daughter. He is seated at a spinet, 
and has, apparently, been transcribing a song 
with music, as he has a pen and paper in his 
hand. He is turning round to greet his wife, 
who is entering the room, perhaps with the 
idea of asking him to come out for a walk, 
because she holds his hat in her hand. With 
her is her daughter. P. 



In the catalogue of the Whitechapel Gallery, 
item 93, appears a note respecting this picture, 
to the effect that Dibdin, according to an old 
playbill of the Beggar's Opera, May 16, 1767, 
accompanied Miss Buckley upon a new instru- 
ment, perhaps the spinet. 

BUTE, THE MARQUIS OF. He is believed to have a portrait of the children 

of the Prime Minister, Lord Bute. 


Government House. 


Judges' Library. 

Portrait of Governor J. Z. Holwell, Governor 
of Fort William in Bengal, 1760. Lent at one 
time to the Victoria Memorial Hall. 

N.B. There is said to be another picture of the 
same Governor at Delhi, possibly by Zoffany. 
Probably neither are by Zoffany, see p. 99. 

Portrait of Sir Elijah Impey, represented standing. 
The picture is inscribed " Zoffany 1782 " but 
is believed to have been painted in 1783. 
Perhaps not by Zoffany, see p. 99. 

Painting of the Last Supper, see various details 
separately given. P. 

Portrait of Mr. Chase, the well-known raconteur. 


St. John's Church. 

Burderop Park, 

CARLISLE, THE EARL OF. Garrick as Abel Drugger with Burton and 

Castle Howard, 

Palmer in the Alchemist, Act II. scene vi. 

44 x 39- 
R.A., 1770. 

R.I., 1814 (80); 1840 (81). 
Whitechapel, 1906(125); 1910(32). 
Grafton, 1897 (97). 
Guelph, 1891 (361). 

Foote as Major Sturgeon in Mayor of Garrett. 

39i x 5- 
R.A., 1764. 

R.I., 1814(99); 1840(80). 
Grafton, 1897 (76). 
Whitechapel, 1910. 
Bought of Michael Bryan. 



Foote and Weston in Devil Upon Two Sticks, 

Act III, Scene ii. 40 x 50. 
R.A., 1769. 

R.I., 1814(04); 1840(82). 
Whitechapel, 1910 (10). 
Grafton, 1897 (79). 
Guelph, 1891 (317). 
Bought of Michael Bryan. 

CARTWRIGHT, MRS. Water-colour group representing John Wombwell 
i, Campden Hill and a friend in India (attributed to Zoffany). 

Terrace, Whitechapel, 1908 (165). 

Kensington, IT. Also a portrait of a Persian lady who lived with 
John Wombwell and whose daughter married a 
Mr. Cartwright. 

CHARTERIS, HON. EVAN. Portrait of Thomas King as Lord Ogleby. 
96^, Mount Street, Small full-length standing in a landscape, pink 
Berkeley Square. costume, richly laced waistcoat, three-cornered 
hat under his arm, white wig. Canvas 14 . 1 1 

R.A., 1908. 

Portrait of a man in a red costume, with a long 
deep greenish-coloured waistcoat, white stock- 
ings, and black shoes, standing near to some 
trees in a landscape. This part of the picture 
is cvidcntlv the work of Wilson. P. 


Portrait of Mr. John Clarke, of the Rookery, 
Lower Tooting, painted between 1780 and 
1795. We have not seen this portrait. 

COCKBURN, MRS. or Portrait group representing the grandfather and 
Miss. grandmother and mother of the owner's mother, 

29, Crafton Road, all members of the family of Jewell. We have 
Acton. not seen this painting. 


Portrait of William Eden, first Lord Auckland. 
Small full-length seated in his studio. It 
originally belonged to his daughter, the Hon. 
Mrs. Colvile. 



1 3th Corps, 


Portrait of Sir William Congreve, F.R.S., Bart. 

Inventor of the life-saving rocket, being shown 

round the ramparts of Woolwich by his father, 

Lieut.-Colonel Sir William Congreve, Bart., 

who was then in command. 

COOTE, EYRE. Portrait of Sir Eyre Coote. 

West Park, 

COOTE, SIR ALGERNON. Portrait of Sir Eyre Coote. 
Bally fin, 
Queen's Co., 

CRADDOCK & Small portrait of James Boswell, in a wig, wearing 

BARNETT (MESSRS.) a light grey coat, showing the head and upper 
10, Dudley Road, part of figure only, possibly cut from a much 


Heigh Hall, 

larger picture. 

On the back of the panel on which the canvas is 
mounted is written in old ink " J. Boswell, by 
Zoffany." A similar inscription is written in 
pencil with the initials " W. J. A." which refer 
to Sir William James Alexander. On the 
frame is written " Fisher, Leadenhall Street." 

Sir W. J. Alexander is stated to have formed his 
collection about 1850, and on his death he left 
a portion of it to his niece, Mrs. Leicester Hib- 
bert, who resided in Tunbridge Wells, and the 
picture was purchased in the sale of her goods 
after her death. There appears to have been a 
family connection between the Alexanders 
and the famous collector George Hibbert. 

Standing portrait representing Henry Buncombe, 
uncle to the first Lord Feversham, a personal 
friend of John, first Lord Muncaster, great- 
grandfather to the present owner, and from 
whom the picture descended. 

Costume, light buff-coloured coat, breeches, hat 
and stock black. The figure is represented 
standing in a brown olive-toned landscape, a 


few inconspicuous red poppies being the fore- 
ground. 38^ x 29. 

Exhibited at the Birmingham Exhibition, July 
1900 (81) ; New Gallery 1898 (151). 

N.B. The family tradition states that Mr. Dun- 
combe is leaning against Lord Muncaster's 
tomb. There is certainly a large block of 
stone of a monumental character near to the 
figure, but there is no inscription or other evi- 
dence to show that it is a tomb. P. 

CROSSE, MRS. WARREN. Half-length portrait of Mr. Charles Dumergue, 
Cresu'ell Gardens, one of Zoffany's executors, wearing a scarlet 
South Kensington, coat, and having powdered hair. 

CUNLIFFE, MR. A. P. Portrait of three children in a group, names un- 

9, Arlington Street, known, blowing bubbles. The boy in the 

S.W. middle is in scarlet with a large white muslin 

collar, the other two children are in white 

with pink sashes. Engraved in colours by 

Martindale. Bought from Messrs. Tooth. 

CURZON, THE EARL. Group representing Warren Hastings and his 

i, Carlton House wife and her ayah bequeathed by Miss Winter 

Terrace, W. to whom it had passed from Mrs. Warren 

Hastings. The man is in white with a purple 

(For the Calcutta coat and holds his hat in his hand. The lady 

Memorial Build- is in a yellow costume and wears also a double 
ing.) row of pearls. The ayah stands behind her 

under a tree. In the distance is their house 
and a bodyguard of troops with elephants. 

DANIELL, MR. Superb representation of Love in a I'illage, 

JAMES W. Shuter, Beard and Dunstall. It belonged to 

7, Royal Crescent, Beard, and came to its present owner through 
Bath. nieces, direct from its original possessor. 

DASHWOOD, MRS. Very large group representing different members 

Wilton House, of the Auriol Family. In the centre of the 

Shenley, g rou P are two ladies, Charlotte, afterwards 

Herts. Mrs. Thomas Dashwood, in green, and Sophia, 

afterwards Mrs. John Prinsep, in gold satin, 
represented seated at a round table drinking 
tea, while behind arc two native servants, 
who appear to be pouring out the tea and hand- 
ing it. There are tea-cups and saucers on 

i go 



The Friars' House, 

i, Essex Court, 
Temple, E.G. 

Desart Court, 


the table, and two silver ornaments. Near by 
is Thomas Dashwood, second son of Sir James, 
of Kirklington, Oxford, in purple coat, white 
vest, black breeches and shoes and white 
stockings, seated at another table playing 
chess, and on the opposite side of the table 
is his companion James Auriol, wearing a green 
coat, white vest and breeches, green stockings 
and black shoes, standing receiving a letter 
from a native servant. Another native servant 
stands close by. 

At the opposite side of the picture are three men, 
two standing and one seated, and behind one 
of them is a native servant in pink costume, 
holding a pipe. The standing figures are 
Charles Auriol, in red uniform with white 
facings, white vest and breeches and black boots, 
and John Auriol in purple coat and white vest, 
black breeches, white stockings and black shoes. 
The seated figure is John Prinsep, the other 
son-in-law, and he wears a brown coat. P. 

There is a copy of this picture belonging to Mrs. 
Praed at 108, Gloucester Place, Portman Square. 

Portrait of Warren Hastings. 28 x 22. 
R.A., 1879 (12). 
Whitechapel, 1906 (238). 

Portrait of Zoffany by himself. Standing figure 
in sage-green coat, waistcoat and breeches, 
white neck cravat and white stockings and 
black shoes. He is leaning upon a maul- 
stick, and in the other hand carries a palette 
set with colours and a sheaf of brushes. Back- 
ground brown. Canvas 40 x 18. P. 

Perhaps the one at the R.A. in 1771. 

, Portrait of Daniel De Castro, East India Mer- 
chant, married August 6, 1766. 
Portrait of Sarah Judith De Castro, wife and 
niece of above, ob. 1824. 

Large portrait of Colonel the Hon. William 
Cuffe, M.P. for Kilkenny, represented standing. 

N.B. It hangs in the entrance hall, see Georgian 
Mansions in Ireland. 




George, third Earl Cowper, Countess Cowper, 
Mr. and Mrs. Gore and the two Miss Gores. 

Lord Cowper is standing in a green coat, pink 
waistcoat and breeches; Lady Cowper is in 
a pink dress ; her father, Mr. Gore, is playing 
the violincello; Mrs. Gore in a grey gown ! 
Miss Emily Gore, in blue, playing the harp- 
sichord and the youngest in white brocade. 
Canvas 37 x 30. P. 

Countess Cowper was the daughter of Charles 
Gore, Esq., of Southampton. Her parents 
took her to Italy for her health, where the 
family resided for a long time. Mr. Gore is 
supposed to have been the original of Goethe's 
" travelled Englishman " in Wilhelm Meister. 
Mrs. Delany, in one of her amusing letters, 
mentions the meeting of Lord Cowper and 
Miss Gore at Florence, " when little Cupid 
straightway bent his bow." 

They were married at Florence, and on that 
occasion Horace Walpole condoles with Sir 
Horace Mann on the prospect, as he would 
lose so much of the society of his great friend, 
Lord Cowper. Both Lady Cowper and her 
husband were in high favour at the Grand- 
Ducal Court of Tuscany, and the former was a 
great ornament of the brilliant (but by no 
means straight-laced) society of the day. Miss 
Berry speaks in very high terms of Miss Gore, 
who resided with her married sister. Three 
sons were born to the Cowpers in Florence. 
(Panshanger Catalogue, p. 308.) 

Painted at the Villa Palmieri, Florence, which 
belonged to George, third Earl Cowper. 
He is standing up in the picture; Lady Cowper 
is in a pink dress; her father, Mr. Gore, is 
playing the violincello; Mrs. Gore and her 
youngest daughter are in grey, and Miss Emily 
Gore is playing the harpsichord. This picture 
was given to the sixth Earl Cowper by 
his brother, the Hon. Spencer Cowper, who 
bought it at Florence in 1845 for /ao. It was 
strongly suspected that it was stolen from the 


Drummond' s Bank, 


Villa with many other objects of value when Lady 

Cowper died there at an advanced age in 1826. 
II. Nat. Loan Exhibit, Grosvenor Gallery No. 

80, p. 94 

Whitechapel, 1908 (157). 
There is also another picture at Panshanger 

attributed to Zoffany. 

Portrait of Andrew Drummond. The portrait 
of Mr. Drummond is a large oval one repre- 
senting him seated, holding his crutched-top 
walking-stick with one hand and his hat with 
the other. He wears a wig, and his black- 
and-white dog is beside him. They are both 
on a bench under a tree. 89 x 70. P. 

B.I., 1855. 

R.A., 1872 (274). 

This picture has been engraved. 

A group of the Drummond family. 

The picture represents Andrew Drummond, 
the fifth son of Sir John Drummond, by his 
wife Margaret, daughter of Sir William Stewart 
of Innernytie. This Sir John was the grand- 
nephew of Lord Maderty, and brother of the 
fourth Viscount Strathallan. 

Andrew Drummond married in 1716 Isabella 
Strahan, and by her had two children, John 
Drummond, of Stanmore, M.P., and Isabel, 
wife of Captain Peters. Andrew Drummond, 
who was the founder of Drummond 's Bank, 
died on February 2, 1769, at the age of eighty- 
one. His wife pre-deceased him, and died 
on February 13, 1731. 

The picture gives the portraits of three genera- 
tions. Andrew Drummond himself is repre- 
sented seated. In one hand he holds his 
gold-headed walking-stick, in the other his 
snuff-box and hat, and inside the latter is 
represented his silk pocket-handkerchief. The 
stick is still to be seen at the Bank, in the Bank 
parlour. He used it in his famous walk from 
Glasgow to London. Seated beside him on 
the right is his daughter-in-law Charlotte, 


daughter of Lord William Beauclerk, and wife 
of his only son, John Drummond. She has 
a costume of pale yellow and cream-coloured 
material over a blue petticoat. Beyond her 
stands their daughter Charlotte, afterwards 
married to the Rev. Henry Beauclerk, the 
sleeves and over-dress of her costume being 
deep rose-coloured satin over a white under- 
dress. On the extreme right of the picture 
stands her brother George, holding his hat, 
in which is a bird's nest, and with the other 
hand exhibiting to his sister an egg from the 
nest. He afterwards married Martha, the 
daughter of Thomas Harley, the son of the 
third Earl of Oxford. P. 

Mr. John Drummond the M.P. is seen standing 
on the left of the picture talking to his youngest 
son John, who is being held on to a pony by a 
groom, dressed in the Drummond grey-coloured 
livery. Near by, on horseback, is Mr. John 
Drummond 's daughter, Jane Diana, who was 
afterwards married to Mr. R. Bethel Cox. She is 
wearing a light blue riding-habit and yellow vest. 

The figure of the old gentleman, Mr. Andrew 
Drummond, who has his dog by his side, is 
practically the same as that in the full-length 
portrait of him by Zoffany, which also belongs 
to the same owner. The picture was painted 
at Stanmorc in Middlesex, and is one of 
Zoffany 's happiest out-of-door conversation 
pieces. In the extreme distance in the centre 
of the picture, the town of Harrow-on-the-Hill 
can be seen lightly indicated. 

The group is peculiarly important, because of 
the presence in it of the old gentleman who 
appears alone in the other picture. 63 :: 41. 

Another portrait of Mr. Drummond in a coat 
trimmed with gold lace and holding a snuff-box. 

DRUMMOND, MALDWIN, He also possesses another version by Zoffany 
ESQ. of the portrait of Andrew Drummond, the 

Cadland, same portrait as the one in London. 

Southampton. Picture representing some beggars, stated to 

i 9 4 


have been drawn from life near Stanmore. 
There is a woman in red seated near the road 
nursing a baby, two other figures are standing 
near, one of them being an old man. 30 x 36. 
Exhibited at the British Institution in 1840. 

Lambton Castle, 

Garrick and Mrs. Gibber in the Farmer's Return. 
Garrick is in bluish-grey costume, with yellow 
breeches, and wears brown rough boots. Mrs. 
Gibber is in green with white apron and fichu 
and white cap with blue ribbons. The maid is in 
similar costume, and has red ribbons in her 
cap, the boy is in green. The interior is a 
cottage, Garrick is smoking a pipe, Mrs. Gibber 
holding a jug. P. 

Exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1762. 

No. 10 in Lord Durham's catalogue. 

Garrick and Mrs. Gibber as Jaffier and Belvidera 
in Venice Preserved. The scene is Venice 
at night, with water, moonlight, and a lighted 
lamp on the pavement. Garrick, holding a 
dagger, is in deep blue with a yellow vest, 
Mrs. Gibber, kneeling before him, is in a 
greenish-blue costume, elaborately trimmed 
with black. 

Exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1763. 

No. 9 in Lord Durham's catalogue. P. 

Mr. and Mrs. Garrick at tea at Garrick's villa 
at Chiswick. Dr. Johnson is seated on a 
chair apart from the group, and wears a 
blue costume, trimmed with gold lace, and 
a wig. Mrs. Garrick is at the tea-table, and 
is in white costume with a hat. There are two 
dogs near her. Garrick in violet costume 
stands behind her. Mr. Bowden is sitting 
near, and is in blue with a yellow vest, his 
three-cornered hat lies on the ground, and a 
third dog is near to it. George Garrick is 
fishing, and wears a red coat. The scene is 
on the banks of the Thames, and there are 
trees and houses in the distance. 



N.B. According to one account, the lady is 
said to be Mrs. Thrale, and not Mrs. Garrick, 
and according to yet another she is declared 
to be Mrs. Bowden. 

No. 7 in Lord Durham's catalogue. P. 

Shakespeare's Temple at Chiswick, sometimes 
called "Pope's Villa," with Mr. and Mrs. 
Garrick. Mr. and Mrs. Garrick stand on 
the steps of the temple. He wears a white 
coat, blue breeches, a long blue vest, and a 
stick in his hand, she is in blue and holds a fan. 
A child is also standing on one of the steps, 
and by the side of the temple is the figure 
of a servant who is bringing in some food. 
A man stands near the river-bank, and a very 
large St. Bernard dog is seated in the fore- 
ground. Is this, perchance, Dragon, the dog 
to whom Hannah More addressed an ode ? 

No. 8 in Lord Durham's catalogue. P. 

The above four pictures are said to have been 
bought by the second Earl of Durham at 
Garrick's sale for 25 each. 

DYSART, THE EARL OF. A group of six men, said to be members of the 
Ham House. Tollemache family- in the smoking-room is 

attributed to ZoiTany. 


Quay House, 
New quay. 


Portrait of Edward Pearcc (1725-1810), great- 
grandfather of the owner, represented in brown 
coat and waistcoat, the latter showing a lining 
of rose pink, pale buff breeches, and black 
top boots. Canvas 25 x i8.J. P. 

Portrait of Beneram Pundit, the Vakeel, or Minister 
of the Rajah of Bcrar. 33 i x 24. 

The original painting executed at the request of 
Warren Hastings (and until now in the pos- 
session of a member of the Hastings family), 
as a record of his gratitude and friendship for 
a man who rendered him great service during 
the Benares Insurrection. Hastings had a great 
affection for the picture and it was always 
hung in his dining-room. 


New York. 


" Beneram Pundit and his brother have shewn 
an uncommon attachment to me. You will 
like them for it." Hastings' Letters to his Wife. 

" When I was at Benares in 1780, I bestowed a 
piece of land in Gazeepor on Beneram Pundit. 
... If ... the family have been deprived 
of this property I will entreat you to put them 
in the way to obtain the restitution of it."- 
Hastings' Letter to Sir Charles D'Oyly. 

An account of the services rendered by Beneram 
Pundit will be found in selections from the 
State Papers of the Governor-General (Warren 
Hastings); Vol. II., pp. 165-167. Mention 
also is frequently made to Beneram Pundit in 
Hastings' Letters to his Wife. 

Picture entitled " The Porter and the Hare," 
depicting two schoolboys reading a tablet 
attached to a hare which is being carried by a 
porter. The picture is signed " Mr. Zoffany 
Pictor," and is probably the original. 30 x 25. 

R.A., 1769 (213). 

Portrait of a man unknown, bought as a portrait 
of Ozias Humphry but not representing him. 
26 x 21. 

Cassiobury Park. 

Picture of Garrick as Sir J. Brute. 30 x 24. 
R.A., Winter Exhibition, 1884 (55). 
N.B. Lord Normandy exhibited a picture with 
a similar title at the Grafton Gallery in 1897. 

FAIRBAIRN, J. BROOK, Group representing two men seated over a 

ESQ. table on which is a punch-bowl, and smoking 

Ardwick, long clay pipes. Behind the two figures is 

Walton-on-Thames. represented a picture hanging on the wall, 

and part of another one. The group is 

evidently a part of a much larger picture, from 

which it has been cut. The foot of the table 

is missing, and part of the shoe from one man's 

foot, while the unusual perspective proves 

that there were originally more figures in the 

group. It is a very full rich colour, and 



The Mount, 


Steelcross House, 


(Address unknown.) 


59, Brook Street. 


The Uffizi Gallery. 

I' -< i 

Wych Cross Place, 
Forest Row, 

originally belonged to the owner's father, 
the late Sir Thomas Fairbairn, but there is 
no record concerning the place where he 
obtained it. 

Portrait of William Farren, her great-grandfather, 
in fancy costume. He was the father of 
William Farren the actor, and grandfather of 
the third William Farren, also an actor, the 
last of whom is said to have been the best, 
Sir Peter Teazle, who was ever seen on the 

Portrait of Miss Fenton, daughter of William 
Fenton of Carr House, York, whose sister 
married the great-grandfather of the present 
owner, Mr. Lee. 

Miss Fenton is represented as a Vestal Virgin 
holding up her veil with her left hand, and 
having in her right hand a vase with a handle. 
She wears sandals, and in the background 
is a purple curtain and a column. She after- 
wards became Mrs. Hoyle. The picture has 
never been out of the possession of the family. 
Circa 36 x 27. 

Two groups by Zoffany, both painted between 
1770 and 1790, and lent to an Exhibition at 

(1) Peter Friell and a friend. 

(2) Mrs. Friell and her sister. 

Portrait of Dr. Thomas Hanson in mulberry- 
coloured costume, seated under a tree, and 
holding a walking-stick. Circa 36 '< 24. 

Japan Exhibition, 1910 (15). P. 

There is a portrait in Berlin of the same man. 

Portrait of Zoffany in a fur robe. Reproduced 
in Museo Fiorentino Ritratti di Pittori. 

Portrait of a woman unknown, twenty to thirty 
years old, in a pink dress open in front, with 
what appears to be a sprig of jasmine fastened 
on the bodice. Her hair is dark, and has 
pearls entwined in it. She has blue eyes. 


On the back of the picture is the following 

" Susanna Trusson gives this her picture to 
Mrs. Ann Lynn by her desire and that if 
she wished to part with it, to give it to some 
of Susanna Trusson's family, either brother 
or sister, 10 July, 1790." 

Oval, 12 x 10. We have not seen this. 

GARLE, JOHN ACTON, Scene from Love in a Village, representing Foote, 
ESQ. Shuter and Dunstall. 50 x 40. 

Chipstead, The portrait was bought by the owner's grand- 

Surrey. father, circa 1830, for 1000, and was lent to 

the Portrait Exhibition at South Kensington 
in 1867. 
Item 614, R.A., 1767 (?). 

GARRICK CLUB. 23. Scene from the Clandestine Marriage (1768- 

(The numbers and ^Q). King as " Lord Ogleby," Mrs. Badde- 

critical remarks are ley as " Fanny Stirling," and Baddeley as 

from the Club catalogue.) " Canton." 

This picture was painted by the express com- 
mand of George III, after witnessing Mrs. 
Baddeley's performance. Purchased in 1851. 
Engraved by Earlom. 

101. Thomas Weston (1737-1776), Comedian. 
As Billy Button in the Maid of Bath. Small 
full-length, brown coat, pink waistcoat. 
A comedian distinguished by his breadth of 
humour, by-play, and absorption in the busi- 
ness of the scene. Garrick had a high opinion 
of his ability, and specially as " Abel Drugger," 
Garrick 's own part. As " Scrub," Beaux 
Stratagem, it is reported Weston's humour 
was too much for Garrick 's equanimity as 
"Archer." Weston died early a victim to 
habitual intemperance. 

104. Scene from Speculation, Covent Garden, 
1795. Munden as " Project," Quick as " Alder- 
man Arable," and Lewis as " Tanjore." 
Painted by desire of His Majesty King George 
III. Quick's portrait is repeated in the picture 
behind him. 



116. Thomas Knight (1764-1820), Actor and 
Playwright, as Roger in The Ghost. Small 
full-length, wearing a white smock. 

Of a Dorsetshire family of good position. Intro- 
duction to Macklin, led him to adopt the stage. 
Chiefly connected with Covcnt Garden Theatre. 
Excellent in coxcombs and rustics, associated 
with Lewis in management of the Liverpool 
Theatre, of which he was part lessee. His 
line of business had much in common with 
his contemporary " Edward " or " Little 
Knight." After his retirement he took up 
the life of a country gentleman. Knight 
died at Manor House, Woore, Shropshire. 
His wife, Margaret Farren, was sister of the 
Countess of Derby. 

R.A., 1796. 

120. David Ross (1728-1790), Actor and 
Manager. As Hamlet. Small full-length, 
black velvet suit, holding a book. P. 

Of Scottish extraction. Educated at West- 
minster, pupil of Quin, engaged by Garrick, 
a good personality and pleasing address dis- 
tinguished him in the " fine gentleman," 
and he had every requisite for the stage save 
application. Management of the Edinburgh 
Theatre landed him in difficulties. Indolence 
and high living contributed to his troubles. 
Churchill sums him up fairly 

" Ross (a misfortune which we often meet), 
was fast asleep at dear Statira's feet." Buried 
in St. James* Piccadilly, James Boswell posing 
as chief mourner. 

The story of the young man whose conscience 
was smitten by witnessing Ross's performance 
of George Barnwell (very effective), and who 
for many years is reported to have sent the 
actor annually a ten-pound note in recognition 
of the donor's reformation, is not a mere green- 
room tale, but a fact. 

Grafton Gallery, 1897 (93) when belonging to 

2 oo JOHN Z OFF ANY, R.A. 

124. David Garrick (1717-1779), as Lord 
Chalkstone. Small full-length, holding a 
crutch, red waistcoat. 

Garrick introduced this character in his dramatic 
satire Lethe, for Mrs. Clive's benefit, Drury 
Lane, March 27, 1756. 

B.I., 1865 (176) 13. 

135. David Garrick ( 1 7 1 7- 1 779 ). ( Full face) . P . 

378. Scene from Venice Preserved, Act IV. 
Garrick and Mrs. Gibber as " Jaffier " and 
" Belvidera." 

384. Thomas King (1730-1805.) As Touch- 
stone in As You Like It. (See No. 28.) In 
harlequin dress. 

386. Scene from Macbeth, Act II. Garrick 
as " Macbeth " ; Mrs. Pritchard as " Lady 
Macbeth." Engraved. P. 

447. Charles Bannister (1738-1804). Actor 
and Singer. Father of Jack Bannister. Pre- 
sented by William Banting. 

449. Scene from the Village Lawyer. John 
Bannister as " Scout," Parsons as " Sheepface." 
Treated by de Wilde. (See No. 114). Pre- 
sented by William Banting. 

475. William Parsons (1736-1795). 

As old Man in Lethe. 

N.B. An anonymous author, writing in 1824 
on " British Galleries of Art," refers to several 
of Zoffany's pictures which were then in 
Mr. Mathews' theatrical gallery, and are 
now in the Garrick Club. The picture of 
King and Mrs. Baddeley he describes as 
" truly exquisite, merely as a work of art, but 
when regarded as including the portraits of 
two most accomplished artists in their way, 
doubly valuable." Further on, he speaks of 
it as painted in " every part with great care 
and skill." Writing about the group of Garrick 
and Mrs. Pritchard, he says that, " the coun- 
tenance of Garrick is highly expressive and 
characteristic, but," he adds, " there is a 
singular want of truth and propriety in the 



(A descendant of), 
in London. 


34, Queen Anne's 


Walpole House, 

attitude of the lower limbs." He comments 
unfavourably upon the costumes worn at that 
time upon the stage, saying that Macbeth 
was attired in a suit that would form an excel- 
lent model for a Lord Mayor's State footman. 
The same writer alludes very favourably to 
Zoffany's picture of " Garrick and Mrs. Gibber," 
while the group of " Quicke, Lewis and 
Munden," he characterises as admirable, and 
says that the expression of Garrick in his 
picture of " Lord Chalkstone " is given " with 
great spirit and force, and shows in a very 
striking manner the comic powers of Garrick's 
countenance." He also refers briefly to 
Zoffany's portrait of Ross in the same gallery. 

Group representing a scene in The Provoked 
Wife, by Vanbrugh. Sir John Brute (David 
Garrick), is masquerading in female attire 
when the " Watch " attempt to arrest him. 
Sir John knocks down one, and lays about him 
on the rest. 

The watchman as well as Sir John Brute are 
all portraits, and in the order in which they 
stand are (from the left), Vaughan, Halle t, 
Clough, Parsons, Watkins and Phillips. The 
picture passed from David to George Garrick 
and has never left his descendants. P. 

It was engraved by Finlayson as after a picture 
by Zauffelly an error on the part of the 
engraver. The print is very rare. 

Group representing a family party, or " the 
Minuet." From the McLellan Gallery, bought 
by Glasgow in 1854. 39 x 49. 

Portrait of Miss Stephens the actress, afterwards 
Lady Essex. 12x9^. P. 

A group of three figures, a father and two sons, 
in a garden, the boy on the right, flying a kite. 
The father wears a long blue coat and breeches 
and red waistcoat ; the boy beside him a brown 


coat and pale yellow breeches, and the boy 
flying the kite in similar costume. The names 
of the persons are unknown. The picture 
was left to its present owner by a Mr. Fried- 
lander, who bought it from Mr. Martin Colnaghi. 
He acquired it at Christie's, June 1900, for 105. 
Exhibited by Zoffany at the Society of Artists 
in 1764, No. 141, when it was described 
as a family group. It is an exceedingly fine 

GRAHAM, SIR REGINALD Family group representing Sir Bellingham 

H., BART. 

Norton Conyers, 

Graham, fifth Baronet (1729-1790) seated, 
his son Bellingham in a red coat, afterwards 
sixth Baronet, standing near, and Elizabeth, 
his daughter, who married John Smith in 1765, 
and Catherine, another daughter, who married 
Henry Francis Fulk Greville in 1766. They 
are all under a tree in the park, which has ever 
since been known as the Zoffany tree. 
391 x 49. P. 
R.A., 1878 (230). 

A sketch of Sir Bellingham Graham, fifth Baronet. 

A sketch of Mistress Ellis the Housekeeper at 
Norton Conyers in 1780. 

A clock by Rimbault with the face painted by 
Zoffany in the early days of his coming to 
England. On it in a panel are five men's 
figures, one at a forge, one knife-grinding, 
one at an anvil, etc. There is a windmill in 
the distance. The men's arms move with 
the minutes, the windmill with the hours. P. 

GREENWICH HOSPITAL. Group representing the death of Captain James 

22, Park Square East, 
Regent's Park. 

Gallery in the 
Painted Hall. 

Cook at Owyhee, February 14, 1779. No. 57. 
Presented by J. K. Bennett, Esq., executor 
to Mrs. Cook the widow, in 1835. 
The group represents the scene when Cook 
had landed, accompanied by Lieutenant 
Phillips of the Marines and several of his men, 
and endeavoured to obtain possession of the 




The Ring of Bells, 

88, Eaton Square. 

47, Nassau Street, 

C. T., ESQ. 

Devon . 

King of Owyhee whom he intended to hold 
as a hostage until the boat which had been 
stolen from his ship was restored, but a large 
concourse of the natives pressed upon him, 
and obliged him to retreat to the shore, while, 
turning to restrain the fire from the boats, he 
was stabbed from behind by one of the chiefs, 
and immediately afterwards despatched by 
another. P. 

Picture attributed to Zoffany, and believed to 
represent Captain Cook and his family. It is 
now being exhibited at the Rotherham Museum. 

It represents a group of persons seated on a 
flight of steps, holding various objects illustrative 
of circumnavigation one a packet of sealed 
papers, another a log, a third a square, a fourth 
a drawing-board. In the distance can be 
seen a ship in full sail. 53 34. P. 

Portrait of a Lord Craven. 24 x i8i. Not seen. 

Fine clock with figures painted by Zoffany, 
musical movement. P. 

Portrait group representing Thomas Somers 
Cocks, the banker (1737-1796) and Richard 
Cocks, his brother (1740-1821), seventh and 
eighth sons of John Cocks of Castleditch. 

The picture shows two small full-length figures 
in a landscape, one seated on a block of stone 
under a tree, holding a newspaper in his hand, 
at which he is pointing, the other stand- 
ing, resting his left hand on his brother's 
shoulder, and holding his cocked hat behind 
his back. Both of them have long coats with 
velvet collars, white stockings and buckle 
shoes, and the picture is inscribed with the 
names of the sitters and with the words " Zof- 
fany pinxit " in a later hand. 27^ :: 35$. P. 

Portrait group representing the Rev. John Cocks 
(1731-1793) and James Cocks (1734-1804), 


Court Road, 


the third and fifth sons of John Cocks of 

The scene is the interior of a room. On the 
right the elder brother is seated, with his left 
arm resting on a round table, and holding a 
book in his right hand. He is in clerical 
attire with silk gown, wig and bands. Oppo- 
site to him stands his brother, in a suit of 
dark blue velvet with gold buttons, white 
stock, buckle shoes and white stockings. He 
is leaning his right arm on the back of a chair 
which, like the one in which his brother is 
seated, is covered in a chequered material, and 
he holds a three-cornered hat and a stick in his 
left hand. There is a picture hanging upon 
the wall, which appears to represent a group in 
India, or else a classical subject. The principal 
figure is that of a woman holding a child. 
The picture is inscribed with the names of the 
sitters, and with the words " Zoffany pinxit " 
in a later hand. Canvas 28 x 36. P. 

The above two pictures were exhibited at the R.A. 
Winter Exhibition in 1891 (Nos. 8 and 16). 

Photographs of the pictures belong to Mr. Edward 
Cocks, of 47, Wilton Crescent. 

Portrait representing Joseph Cocks, grandfather 
of the owner, represented in blue velvet, reading 
a book. 

Portrait representing the Rev. Philip Cocks, sixth 
son of John Cocks of Castleditch (1776-1797). 

Group representing Zoffany and his children. The 
artist is seated in about the centre, and wears a 
blue coat with a white collar. It depicts him 
in old age. One of his daughters in white is 
playing on a harpsichord, another, also in white, 
is playing a harp near by. The two younger 
children are represented one at each end of 
the group, but their figures are only slightly 
sketched in, and have never been completed. 

In the rear is the figure of the old nurse, Mrs. 
Ann Chase, who died in 1810 at the age of 



eighty-one, and was buried in the same grave 
as Mrs. Zoffany. In her arms she is carrying 
one of the children. The tradition in the 
family is somewhat complex respecting this 
picture. By some it is thought that the child 
in the nurse's arms is an imaginary representa- 
tion of the little boy who died as an infant, by 
others it is stated that it is the youngest girl, 
afterwards Mrs. Oliver, and that the third 
girl is twice represented in the picture, first 
of all on the left, where she is being reprimanded 
for treading on her sister's dress, and the other 
on the right, where she is just leaving the room, 
it having been stated that she was dismissed 
from the apartment in disgrace. There are 
certainly representations of five children in 
the group, and Zoffany had but four living 
at the same time. 

The group was painted for the family and has 
never left its possession. Circa 30 - 35. P. 

Portrait of Mrs. Zoffany in a black dress, with 
a white bow, wearing a white tulle and satin 
cap, and having very white hair. Her arms 
are folded, and rest upon what appears to be 
a white cushion. Circa 25 :: 20. P. 

Companion portrait of Lady Doratt, daughter of 
Zoffany, represented in black dress with a white 
collar, having a blue band in her hair, and wear- 
ing large earrings. She has her hand up 
to her face. P. 

N.B. The same owner possesses Zoffany "s 
" Patent of Nobility " already referred to and 
illustrated in this book. P. 

HILL, ARTHUR F., ESQ. Portrait of Dr. Arne at one time in the possession 
140, New Bond Street. of Mr. Littleton. Illustrated in the Musical 

Times in 1900, in the catalogue of the Musicians' 
Exhibition, and in the Burlington Magazine. 

HILL, LADY. Portrait of Mrs. Everitt. Head to the waist, 

4, Ovington Gardens. powdered hair, blue dress with fichu, white 

lace cap. Oval, 13x8. 
Originally purchased from Agnew's. 



Nuttall Temple, 


39, Thurloe Place, 
London, S.W. 

The Lodge, 

Drinks ton, 
Bury St. Edmunds. 

H. B. L. 
Kinmel Park, 
North Wales. 

MRS. K. G. 


Portrait of the Right Honourable Charles James 
Fox. Three-quarter length. Blue costume. A 
landscape with temple in background. 50 x 40. 

S.K., 1867 (747). P. 

Portrait of David Garrick. Brown coat, scarlet 
revers, grey powdered hair, holds a pen in his 
hand. Oval, 21 x 18. 

Clock with figures painted by Zoffany. P. 

Portrait of her grandfather, Thomas Home, D.D., 
whose son, also a Thomas Home, D.D., married 
Cecilia Clementina Louisa, Zoffany's daughter, 
in 1799. He is represented in a black gown, 
wig and bands, standing in a library, surrounded 
with books, and is pointing to one which is 
open on the table near by. 57 x 46. 

Portrait of Queen Charlotte. Life-size figure, 
seated . Costume, whitish brocade with coloured 
flowers and stripes of brown trimming. Hair 
powdered, adorned with pearls. Right hand 
on the back of the chair. There is a crown 
on a red-draped table behind the Queen. She 
is wearing the pearl necklace which now belongs 
to Her Royal Highness, the Duchess of Cum- 
berland, four rows of pearls close round the 
neck, and three graduated rows below with 
four large drops. 

The chair is gold, with a red back. In the rear 
of the portrait is a column and a red curtain. 
60 x 39. We have not seen this. 

Picture representing Baddeley as " Moses " in 

The School for Scandal. 
Whitechapel Gallery, 1910 (122). 
R.A., 1781. 

Portrait of Samuel Squire, son of Thomas Squire 
of Warminster (1714-1766), Clerk of the Closet 
to George, Prince of Wales, afterwards George 
III, Dean of Bristol and Bishop of St. Davids. 
Three-quarter figure, seated to the right, full 



The Corner House, 
Steeple Ashton, 


face, episcopal robes and wig, represented as 
turning over the leaves of a Bible. 51 x 41. 

Large group representing Sir Elijah and Lady 
Impey, with their three children, ayahs anil 
servants, one child being depicted as dancing, 
another in the arms of her ayah, and the third 
by her mother. The children are all in native 
dress, the attendants playing musical instru- 
ments. 48 x 36. P. 

Portrait of Lady Impey, full-length, seated, in 
evening dress, with a dog in her arms. 

Sketch for the head of the portrait of Sir Elijah 
Impey, now in the National Gallery. 

Portrait of Asaf-ud-daula, Nawab Wazir of 
Oudh. Three-quarter length, seated figure, 
the right hand resting upon one knee, the 
left pressed against the side. Costume, muslin, 
with necklaces and armlets of pearls and gems, 
the red turban is also ornamented with jewels. 
51 (41. No. 109. Whitechapel, 1908 (8). 

The following note is at the back of the canvas 

" John Zophany painted this picture at Lucknow, 
A.D. 1784, by order of His Highness, the Nabob 
Vizier Asoph Ul Dowlah, 1 who gave it to his 
Servant Francis Baladon Thomas." 

Francis Baladon Thomas was a surgeon-major 
on the Bengal Establishment, and also surgeon 
to the Lucknow Residency. In 1785 he had 
a quarrel with Mr. Bristovv, the Resident, from 
whom he had demanded payment for medical 
attendance. This led to his being brought be- 
fore a Court-martial and dismissed the service. 

Portrait of Hasan Raza Khan. 2 He is seated on 
a sofa, with his right hand on his sword, and 
his left holding the stem of a hookah. The 
costume is of muslin with a rich sash, and a 
plain red turban. The note on the back of the 
picture is as follows 

" John Zophany painted this picture at Lucknow, 
A.D. 1784, by desire of Hussein Rcza Caun, 



Colon House, 

Doddington Hall, 

West Wood, 



Nabob Suffraz Ul Dowlah, who gave to his 
friend Francis Baladon Thomas." 51 x 41. 
No. in. 
Whitechapel, 1908 (4). 

Head of Charles Macklin, Irish actor, represented 

in the part of " Shylock." 9x7. 
Bought at Christie's in 1888. 

Portrait of Garrick. 

Bought of William Permaine, 1903. 

Group representing an old lady in a rose silk 
skirt and white over-dress seated to the right 
holding out her hand to a small child perhaps 
her grand-daughter of about two years old. 
The child is in white and running towards 
the old lady. Near by stands a lady in green 
with a blue cloak on her arm, perchance the 
child's mother. She is wearing a pearl neck- 
lace. The picture was purchased from Mr. 
Martin Colnaghi. 

Small group of mendicants, representing an old 
man seated, a woman standing near by holding 
a baby, and another child at the back. 36 x 30. 

The picture was endorsed by Mr. Edward 
Delaval, in 1814, as being the work of Zoffany. 

Portrait of Hester Maria Johnston, daughter 
of the fifth Lord Napier, and great-grand- 
mother of the owner, with her little son, after- 
wards Sir Alexander Johnston, who married 
Louisa, the daughter of Lord William Campbell. 

The picture is a very large one, and represents 
a tall woman, wearing a kind of bonnet or 
hat with long strings to it, and carrying a basket 
of roses in one hand, while with the other she 
is scattering similar flowers. By her side 
stands her son, who is in knee-breeches with 
white stockings, shoes with rosettes, and has 
a ruff about his neck. 

Steevens bequeathed to him Zoffany 's portrait 
group of Garrick and Mrs. Gibber. 



(nte WETTEN). 
Lyceum Club. 

Portrait group representing Mr. and Mrs. Peter 
Wetten of London Style House, Chiswick, 
near neighbours and close personal friends 
of Zoffany's. They were the grandparents 
of the owner of the picture. Mr. and Mrs. 
Wetten both died at Chiswick, and lie in the 
Wetten vault at Kew. (See p. 45.) 

The man has a pink vest, yellow breeches and 
brown coat, and holds a hoe. The lady is 
in blue and white and holds a bird. Another 
bird is being brought to her by a servant who 
wears a black hat. Near by is a young soldier 
in blue uniform with white facings. In the 
distance a dog in a kennel, trees, and a rick of 
hay. 80 x 55. 

Unfinished picture of the " Tiger Hunt " in 
India, declared to have been painted for Warren 
Hastings. 50 x 40. 

KER, Miss. Small picture, believed to represent a meeting 

Ladies' Empire Club, of the Royal Academy with the King in the 

69, Grosvenor Street, foreground, wearing a light blue coat and the 

Garter ribbon, and represented as looking 
at one of the pictures and talking to a lady. 
N.B. There is some doubt as to whether this is 
by Zoffany. 


Kimberley House, 



Buckingham Palace. 

Portrait of Lady Wodehouse (1769). She is 
wearing a shot opal-coloured dress with prim- 
rose sleeves and sash. She has a tulle veil 
powdered with silver stars on her hair, and some 

Portrait of George III. In scarlet uniform, with 
white waistcoat, wearing the ribbon and Star 
of the Garter. Painted in 1771. 64,^ x 535. 

Portrait of Queen Charlotte. Seated at a table 
her arms resting on a crimson cushion. Cos- 
tume blue silk dress trimmed with lace, and 
black scarf. 1771. P. 

R.A., 1882 (268). Engraved by Sayer. 65 

N.B. The above two pictures are in the East 



Windsor Castle. 


Portrait of George, Prince of Wales, and Frederick, 
Duke of York, as children in knee breeches. 
The Prince in crimson, the Duke in blue. 

57i x 79i 
B.I., 1827 (i43)- 
Charlotte Augusta, Princess Royal, and William 

Henry, Duke of Clarence, as children. The 

Princess in a white and gold costume, the 

Prince in blue with knee breeches. 51 \ x 79 \. 
R.I., 1855 (122). 
N.B. The above two pictures are in the Throne 

Frederick, Duke of York, second son of George II. 

In red coat with blue facings, yellow waistcoat 

and yellow breeches. 71 x 60. 
Painted for George III. This hangs in the 


The Lapidaries. A portrait of Peter Dollond, 
the optician, who is represented seated at a 
bench beneath a window, holding in his hand 
a lens. His assistant is standing behind him. 

B.L, (171). 

International, 1862 (32). 

This was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 
1772, and has been engraved. The picture 
is on the visitor's landing. 

Queen Charlotte and her two eldest children. 
The Queen is in white satin and is seated in 
Old Buckingham House, by her dressing-table. 
Her reflection can be seen in the mirror. There 
is a fine view from the open window. The 
Princess Royal is in an oriental style of costume, 
the Prince in Roman military dress. In the 
picture is represented a large French clock, 
which now stands in the corridor close by the 
picture. 44! x 50 J. P. 

B.L, 1828 (121). 

Queen Charlotte with her brothers, sister and 
children. The Princess Royal is holding a 
doll, the Prince of Wales standing on a seat. 

IHI l>[ kl M| i I \l;l M I \\|i 111! l>l Kl c| kl N 1 V* III1I.HUI-.N 



Princess Elizabeth as a baby is being held by 
the Queen's eldest sister, Christiana. Near 
to the Queen stands her two brothers, Ernst 
and Georg. 46 x 50. 

R.A., 1773. 

B.I., 1858(155). P. 

These two pictures are in the Grand Corridor. 
There are also two other pictures at Windsor 
Castle which were commissioned by Queen 
Charlotte. One represents George III, Queen 
Charlotte and six children, which has been 
engraved by Earlom. They are in what was 
termed Vandyck dresses. 46 : 50. 

R.A., 1770. 

The other one represents the Duke of Clarence 
and the Duke of Kent at Buckingham House 
as children, playing with a dog. 44 ,: 50. 

Interior of the Florence Gallery. 47 , 59. 

R.A., 1780; 1895(95). 

International, 1862 (155). 

R.I., 1814 (2). 

B.I., 1826 (162). P. 

" The Life School " in the Royal Academy and 
Key. 39 ;: 57^. 

R.I., 1814(63). 

R.A., 1895 (100); 1872 (2). 

B. I., 1826(158). P. 

N.B.X group of the family of George III, 
Queen Charlotte, etc., was exhibited at 

International, 1862 (93). 

B.I., 1826 (125); 1827 (140). 

George III and a family group was exhibited at 

International, 1863 (94). 

B.I., 1827(175). 

KING, His MAJESTY Repetition of seated figure of George III at 
THE. Buckingham Palace. 


KYNASTON-MAINWAR- Group representing a Grand Duke of Austria, 

ING, MRS. exhibited at Wrexham Exhibition in 1876, 

Oteley, No. 377. The picture is thus described by 

Ellesmere. the owner 


" There is a brown stone triumphal arch in the 
rear, with carved figures and inscription upon 
it. Near by is a standing figure, with dark 
hair, eyes and lashes. Costume, dull plum- 
coloured coat, long waistcoat and knee breeches, 
white stockings, black shoes and buckles, hold- 
ing a cane in the left hand, and showing the 
point of the sword. The man wears a lace 
cravat and ruffles. Near by is a second figure 
of a man, who is seated on natural stonework, 
and has one leg crossed over the other. His 
hair is powdered and tied with a black bow. 
He wears a blue coat with a red collar and 
blue frogs, a long red waistcoat, braided and 
ornamented with gold, a coat lined with white 
satin, black satin knee breeches, white stock- 
ings, black shoes and buckles, lace cravat and 
ruffles. His cane is leaning in the crook of 
his left hand, his sword -handle is shown, and 
he has a three-cornered hat lying near him. 
On the ground is a white spaniel dog." 

The background represents hills with sea and 
lighthouse. 53 x 38^. 

LANE, JOHN, ESQ. Portrait of Zoffany himself as a young man. He 

The Bodley Head, is wearing a red coat and yellow breeches, 
Vigo Street. and is seated with his legs crossed. The 

identity of the portrait with the rare engraving 
of Zoffany in the " Museo Florentine," evidently 
drawn a few years later than this portrait, 
renders the attribution at one time a matter 
of conjecture, now a matter of certainty. The 
features are almost identical with those in 
the engraving. It may also be noted that a 
book very similar to the one in the engraving 
appears in the portrait. 50 x 35. P. 
Portrait of John Maddison, of the Goldsmith's 
Company. He acquired his freedom by re- 
demption in 1763. He became a member of 
the Livery in 1767, and of the Court in 1771, 
afterwards serving as Warden in 1780, 1781, 
1782 and 1784, in which year he was Prime 


Warden. He died between 1795 and 1801. 
He was Zoffany's stockbroker, and stood as 
security for him when he went to India (see 
p. 81). The picture represents him in a red 
coat and wearing the fur-trimmed black robes 
appertaining to his office of Warden. It is 
signed by Zoffany a most unusual circum- 
stance and dated 1783. P. 

It was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1784. 
Bought in London in 1919. 50 x 40. 

A Drawing of Zoffany by himself. Signed and 
dated 1761. 

LANE, THE LATE SIR He had in his collection at one time a full-length 
HUGH. portrait of Mrs. Yatcs the actress. It is believed 

now to be in America. 

See Shakespeare Exhibition, Whitechapel, 1910. 
No. 7. 

LANSDOWNE, MARQUESS Portrait of Macklin as " Shylock," in a group 
OF. representing what was probably his last appear- 

ance at the age of ninety. The figure on the 
extreme left in the group is that of the Earl of 
Mansfield. 45 x 57. P. 

R.A., 1884(54). 

X.P.G., 1867 (806). 

Portrait of Mrs. Salusbury. Standing in a paved 
chamber, with black silk dress with white 
lace collar and white cap, over which is a thin 
black veil, falling below the shoulders. In 
her right hand, resting on the back of a chair 
in dark velvet, is a parchment document with 
red seal, in the left, a large white silk handker- 

In the foreground is a brown and white spaniel, 
to the right marble columns surmounted by an 
archway through which can be seen a flight 
of steps leading to a garden. On the left hangs 
the portrait of a gentleman in a blue coat and 
red vest. Canvas 50 x 39. P. 

The picture was found at Tully Allan, where it 
haa been taken by Lady W. Osborne Elphin- 
stone, whose mother, Lady Keith, was the 



daughter of Thrale, and grand-daughter of 
Mrs. Salusbury. In a letter from Mrs. Piozzi, 
dated Weston-super-Mare, October 18, 1819, 
she thus writes respecting this picture : " My 
mother's portrait by Zoffany should go to Lady 
Keith, who alone of my family can remember 


Chesterfield House, 
May fair. 

Two portraits in the library, one representing 
Miss Taylor, in a grey-green mannish costume, 
holding a stick in her hand. Her hair is 
dressed very high and powdered. 30 x 25. 

The other representing Mrs. Hannah More in 
a red dress with white mob cap, and with 
folded hands. 36 x 28. 

Portrait of Tom Law. Painted to the order of 
the great-grandfather of the present owner, 
Ewan Law, before Tom Law went to America. 
Information derived from Sir Algernon Law, 
K.C.M.G., of 74, Brook Street. 

Portrait of a gentleman, name unknown. P. 

Portrait of Admiral Lord George Anson standing 
in an apartment before a hemisphere. 19^ x 
13. P. 

From Martin Colnaghi's sale, October 1908. 

LOCKER-LAMPSON, Portrait of Benjamin Stillingfleet, represented 

GODFREY, ESQ., M.P. as an elderly man in drab coat with ruffles 

Roivfant, and small grey wig. 42 x 33. 

LOCKO PARK. There is a picture attributed to Zoffany in this 

Near Derby. house, which at one time belonged to Shep- 

(W.Drury-Lowe collection), herd's Gallery. It is believed to be illustrated 

in a back number of The Connoisseur. 

LONGMAN, T. NORTON, Portraits of a brother and sister named Harris, 
ESQ. painted at the ages of fourteen and sixteen 

Shendish, years. The sister married the great-grand- 

King's Langley, father of the owner of the picture. P. 

The Common, 

Chequers' Court, Bucks. 

St. James Street. 

U. uf I rU I ft "I / t 

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Wenttcorth House, 
Chelsea Embankment, 

Portrait of Lord Wentworth with his three sisters, 
afterwards Lady Milbanke, Lady Lamb, and 
Lady Scarsdale. 50 x 39. 

Lord Wentworth is in red with black and gold 
robes over his costume. He holds an engraving 
in one hand and a book in the other. His three 
sisters and a dog are near to him. In the 
distance is a view of London. 

LUCAS, SEYMOUR, ESQ. He is said to possess a head by Zoffany. 



Portrait of a man in a white coat, seated at a 
round table, covered with a white cloth and 
having a breakfast-service upon it. He is a 
Mr. Phipps, and the portrait was left to his 
college friend, Mr. Barton, the great-grand- 
father of Miss Barton, who is half-sister to 
the owner. The man is represented holding 
a book in his hand, and on it is the inscription 
which probably refers to some joke of the 
period, " All eggs under the grate," that is 
to say " Alexander the Great." P. 

Group representing two Generals in uniform, 
General Sir James Pulteney Murray, seventh 
Baronet and Sir John Murray his half-brother, 
eighth Baronet, children of Sir Robert Murray, 
the sixth Baronet. 

Sir James was Secretary-at-War and Adjutant- 
General of the Forces on the Continent in 
1793. He married Henrietta, Countess of 
Bath in her own right, and in consequence 
assumed the name and arms of Pulteney. I Ic 
died without issue in 1811. 

Sir John was Lieut. -General, and married the 
only daughter and heir of the second Lord 
Mulgrave. He also died without issue, and 
was succeeded by his brother as ninth Baronet. 
They arc seated in a room near to a table, one 
is in red uniform with blue facings and white 
breeches, the other is in a reddish-brown coat 
and white breeches. The latter is pointing 



Dunvegan Castle, 

Late of the Indian 
Civil Service. 
(Address unknown.} 

Ardmore Lodge, 

Co. Londonderry. 

to a map. In the room is an important mantel- 
piece on which is a black vase, and there is 
also a sofa covered in gold-coloured material. 

Portrait representing General Norman MacLeod 
in uniform, twentieth Chief of the Clan. He was 
born 1754, and succeeded his grandfather in 
1772. It was during his time that Johnson 
and Boswell visited Dunvegan Castle. In 
1780 he raised the second battalion of the Black 
Watch, 42nd Highlanders, and shortly after 
commanded the British troops against Tippoo 
Sahib. P. 

He returned to England in 1789, and died in 1801. 
His second wife, represented in another picture, 
is Sarah, the daughter of Mr. N. Stackhouse, 
a member of the Council in Bombay. There 
is also in this picture a child of about three. 
Both were painted in India in about 1788, 
and in the background of the man's portrait 
are elephants and tents, and an officer in uni- 
form receiving a native lady of rank who has 
just arrived in a palanquin. Further back 
can be seen the Highland regiment. 

Both pictures are 96 x 60. 

Is believed to have some Indian portraits by 

Group representing the Needham family of 
St. Edmondsbury, Lucan, near Dublin. Said 
to have been painted by Zoffany in Ireland, 
circa 1780. 54 x 42. Not seen by us. 

Mr. Needham was a banker. The owner's late 
wife's mother was Miss Needham, daughter 
of the gentleman in the group. 

The following is the description of the picture 

" Mr. and Mrs. Needham are walking together. 
They were the owner's mother's father and 
mother, his grandparents ; also his great- 
grandmother seated with children around her." 





South Carolina. 

New Croft, 

North End Road, 
G aider's Green. 



(1) Uncle Thomas Needham in green coat and 
frilled collar. 

(2) Aunt Rachel with a basket of flowers. 

(3) Uncle Richard, who entered the Army, with 
a dog. 

Thomas Needham, was the eldest child of a large 
family. There was a difference of twenty years 
between him and the owner's mother, who was 
not born at the time the picture was taken. 

The picture was, it is said, painted by Zoffany 
when he visited Ireland, as the background 
represents part of the extensive park at St. 
Edmondsbury, where the Needhams lived. 
The visit to Ireland took place, it is stated, 
somewhere between 1778 and 178^. 

Portrait of Ralph Ix.ard, who was one of the delega- 
tion from South Carolina to the first Congress. 
It represents him as a boy, seated under a tree, 
holding an open book, and with a dog at his 
feet. It is dated 1771, and the signature of 
Zoffany, with a word or two which cannot 
be read, is to be found on a stone just below the 
boy's feet. 

The picture is reproduced in C. W. Bowen's 
History of the Centennial Anniversary of the 
Inauguration of Washington (B.M. K.T.C., 9. 
b. 6. 1892) page 101, and there is some informa- 
tion contained in the same book respecting it, 
gathered from G. E. Manigault, Esq., M.D., 
of Charleston, S.C. 

The present owner of the picture is the great- 
grandson of Izard. 

Portrait of Miss Bowers, who married in 1777 
or 1778, Thomas Cook, a relation of Captain 
Cook, and was the great-grandmother of the 
present owner. She is wearing her wedding 
costume. We have not seen this picture. 

It is stated that there is a portrait of Lord Mans- 
field, by Zoffany, in this house. 




31, The Waldrons, 


8, Gay Street, 

Charlion House, 


440, Strand, 

Group representing Mr. and Mrs. Hussey and 
their daughter. They lived at one time at 
Wargrave Hill House, Berkshire. Mr. Hussey 
is in grey. Mrs. Hussey is in white satin with 
a lace cap. The child is holding a rose, and 
is dressed in white with an underskirt of pink 
and a pink sash. Background of trees in the 
distance, " a pretty picture, grey and silvery 
in tone." 48 x 39. P. 

It was bequeathed to the owner by a friend, to 
whose brother it was left by his godmother, 
a certain Mrs. Hussey, who many years ago 
lived at Rustington in Sussex, but exactly 
how her husband was related to the persons 
depicted in the picture the owner does not 
know, nor did his friend who left it to him. 

Portrait of General Claud Martin. 

Group depicting the lady who passed as Martin's 
wife, Goree Beebee with her son Zulficar 
Khan or James Martin. This canvas had a 
bullet through it at the time of the Mutiny. 
It has been patched up and a medallion of 
General Martin painted over the place which 
"is quite in keeping," Mr. Sykes says, "with 
the rest of the picture." Circa 30 x 24. 

Water-colour copy of a lost original by Zoffany 

called " A Smug Citizen." P. 
See under Austin for the same picture. 

Portrait of David Garrick. 29! x 
Portrait of Mr. Plot. 29^ x 24! . 

Portrait of Gabriel Mathias, Assistant Keeper 
of the Privy Purse, 1719-1804. He is repre- 
sented seated, wears knee breeches, white 
stockings, shoes with buckles, and has lace 
ruffles at his wrists. He is represented resting 
his arm on a table, and by his side is a dog. 
On the table stands a bust by Nollekens, dated 
1779, and representing his brother James T. 
Mathias as author of the Pursuits of Literature. 

I SMS'. II \\l \SI> Ml- Jl I \SSI . |i\l 
I >l \s|[iil<i '\ I -I \ I V >M. 

i ill 




6, Chesterfield St., 
May fair, W. 

See as to the bust, Nollskens and His Times, 
1.8 5 . 

N.B. The picture is at present in the care of 
his cousin, Mr. Robert Logan, 2, Knares- 
borough Place, Earl's Court, S.W. 

Picture representing Garrick and Mrs. Gibber 
as " Jaffier " and " Bclvidera " in Venice 

Preserved, Act IV. There is a somewhat 
similar work in the Garrick Club, Xo. 378. 

Garrick is represented in a blue coat, with a gold- 
coloured waistcoat, Mrs. Gibber in a black silk 
dress, with handsome black-and-white lace 
bodice, and the scene is at night by the banks 
of a canal in Venice. On the left side of the 
picture is a tall street lamp, lighted. The 
background shows San Giorgio Maggiore and 
Santa Maria della Salute. Circa 40 ,< 50. P. 

Purchased at David Garrick's sale in 1823. This 
representation is exceedingly well painted, and 
is declared to be the original for which the one 
in the Garrick Club was probably the sketch. 
The costume of Mrs. Gibber is finely executed. 

Portraits of Admiral Cunningham and his wife- 
Anne, daughter of Francis Otway of Ashgrove, 
Scvenoaks, Kent. The lady is seated, and 
looking through a telescope at a ship which 
her husband, who stands near her, is pointing 
out. Painted about 1774. 46 38. 

Group representing the children of Henry, First 
Viscount Melville : Robert, second Viscount 
li,Lozcndes Street (1771-1851) ; Elizabeth, who married the Right 
Hon. Robert Dundas, Lord Chief Baron of 
Scotland, and died in 1852 ; Anne, who married 
first Henry' Drummond.who died in 1794, and 
secondly James Strange, who died in 1840, she 
also died in 1852 ; and Montagu, who married 
George, Lord Abercromby, and died in 1837. 
The elder girl is in pink, and is standing by a 
globe, the youngest holds a map of Europe 
in her hand, the third girl is seated at a desk, 
copying a map, the boy is entering the room, 

Walton Lodge, 




with a satchel and some books, and on one of 
the books is the inscription " Robert Dundas, 
his book." The book-cases and the globe repre- 
sented are still in the possession of the family. 


Bradford Peverell, 

Great Bealings, 

HON. SIR T. C., 

, Nathaniel Middleton, Hon. East India Company, 
Resident at Lucknow under Warren Hastings, 
ob. 1807, represented seated with three Indian 
officials in attendance. P. 

Another portrait of him seated. Three-quarter 

Group of Robert Morse, ob. 1816, his daughter 
Sarah, afterwards Mrs. Cator, William Cator, 
ob. 1800, and Anne Frances Morse, after- 
wards Mrs. Middleton, ob. 1823. Mr. Morse 
is playing on the 'cello, his daughter, Anne, on 
the harpsichord, the other daughter is turning 
the music, and Mr. Cator stands near by. P. 

Portrait of Lord Cornwallis delivering up a son 
of Tippoo Sahib l to his uncle. 58 x 48. 
Bought in London, circa 1815. 

Group representing Mary and Agnes Berry 
as young girls, seated on a stone column under 
a tree, playing with a large dog. One wears 
a hat of white feathers, the other a hat of black 
feathers. 71^ x 59. P. 

Group representing William Ferguson, great- 
grandfather of the present owner, commemorat- 
ing amongst his friends his succession to the 
estate of Raith in 1781. The men, including 
the artist himself, are all grouped about a 
tree, and are enjoying some wine. There are 
glasses and a decanter on the round table, 
and other bottles in a large wine-cooler near 
by, which wine-cooler is still preserved at 
Raith. One man is holding a snuff-box, 
another a stick, and Zoffany himself a letter, 
but the names have not been preserved of 
Ferguson's various friends. 39! x 49^. P. 



William Ferguson was William Berry, and had 
a brother Robert, the father of Mary and Agnes. 
The mother of these two brothers was a sister 
of Robert Ferguson, who made a fortune, and 
in 1795 bought Raith from the Melville family. 
Robert, who married a distant cousin of his 
own, was in his uncle's counting-house, but 
at his death was only bequeathed a small annual 
income, and a house in Austin Friars, whereas 
William, his brother, who married an heiress, 
a daughter of Ronald Crawfurd, succeeded 
to the estate and assumed the name and arms 
of Ferguson. 

Portrait of Lady Dumfries, born Craufurd. 

Portrait of Mrs. Ferguson and Mrs. Fullerton 
seated at a spinet. 

Small and curious portrait said to represent an 
Admiral Forbes or a General Forbes. 35 J x 




OF Portrait of Charles Macklin, actor, in the part 

of Shylock (301). 
Portrait of David Garrick (539). 

Portrait of Thomas Gainsborough, in dull red 
coat and white neckcloth, face clean-shaven, 
natural hair, curled, powdered and gathered 
into a queue at the back of the head. P. 

The face nearly in profile to the left. Oval, 

7* : < 6|. 

Presented by the Misses Lane in 1896. 
R.A., 1887(19). 

Portrait of Zoffany himself, painted in 1761, 
purchased by the Trustees, February 1875. 
Figure to the waist, face nearly in profile to 
the left ; his hand rests upon the top of a book 
or sketching-block, and between his fingers 
he holds a double port-crayon. His hair is 
long and curly. The coat is open at the throat. 
20$ i6J. No. 399. P. 

Sir Elijah Impey (1732-1809), Chief Justice 
of the Supreme Court of India. Personal 
friend of Warren Hastings. 

Bequeathed by Sir Roderick Impey Murchison, 


New York. 


McAlpin Hotel, 
Corner of 34^ Street, 






Bart., K.C.B., F.R.S., and accepted by the 
Trustees, February 1872. It is now (1919) 
exhibited at the National Gallery. 

Seated figure to below the knees, face almost 
in profile to the left. 485 x 38^. No. 335. 

Constantine John Phipps, second Baron Mul- 
grave, R.N., F.R.S. (1744-1792). Commander 
of the Racehorse in 1773, on an expedition to 
the Arctic regions. Created a peer in 1790. 

Portrait purchased by the Trustees, May 1897, 
representing Lord Mulgrave, full-length, in 
naval uniform in the Arctic regions, holding 
in one hand a long spear or harpoon, and in 
the other his three-cornered hat. 49 x 39^. 
No. 1094. 

N.B. The portrait of John, Earl of Sandwich, 
in the Gallery, is after Zoffany. (45). 

Portrait of Captain Money, represented leaning 
on a piece of wood which rests between a tree 
and the stem of another tree. He is wearing 
his hat, has one hand up to his face, and with 
the other is holding an open book. In the 
distance is a scene with a cathedral very much 
resembling Salisbury. P. 

Attributed to Zoffany. 

Group representing George III, Queen Charlotte, 

and the Dukes of York, Clarence and Kent. 

50 x 60. 

R.A., 1770, and engraved. 
This is perhaps a replica or a copy of the picture 

about which Walpole made the following note 

in his catalogue 
" In Vandyck dresses. Ridiculous. A print of 

it." The original belongs to H.M. the King. 

Smith tells us that he possessed two drawings 
by Zoffany. " Presentations." 

Group representing Garrick, Mr. Baddeley (?) 
and another actor who is in clerical attire. 

CM ../ Mr. j v. .NY.*..,. 

I-OKIK.MI i>l i \M MS 




West Marling Hall, 

A group of persons represented in a room, from 
which can be seen the Horse Guards Parade. 

Pyrgo Park, 


The old man is Robert, Earl Nugent, when 
Viscount Clare. Near by is his son by his 
first wife, Edmund, Lieut .-Colonel in the First 
Foot Guards, who died unmarried at Bath, in 
1771. The child is Mary Elizabeth, his eldest 
daughter by his third wife. She afterwards 
married George, Marquess of Buckingham, 
who inherited under the limitation the Earldom 
of Nugent. Near to her stands Miss Mary 
Nugent, Earl Nugent's half-sister, usually 
known in the family as Aunt Peggy. 50 x 42. P. 
R.A., 1765. 

Group representing Charles Towneley, the col- 
lector, in his library with his marbles, which 
are now in the British Museum. He is sur- 
rounded by his books, and in conversation with 
D'Hancarville, near whose chair stand Charles 
Greville and Thomas Astle. 

Nollekens writes of the picture as follows 

' The best of the marbles were brought into the 
painting-room to the artist, who made them up 
into a picturesque composition according to his 
own taste. The likeness of Mr. Towneley," 
he adds, " is extremely good ; he looks like the 
dignified possessor of such treasures. At his 
feet lies his faithful dog Kam, a native Kams- 
chatka, whose mother was one of the dogs 
yoked to a sledge which drew Captain King 
in that island." 50 39. P. 

R.A., 1790. 

R.I., 1814(92); 1849 (124). 

Burlington Fine Arts Club, 1907 (25). 

A group representing certain connoisseurs of the 
period, six in number, Mr. Charles Towneley 
resting both hands on his cane, Mr. Charles 
Price, seated, Dr. Verdun holding a snuff-box, 
and having a muff under his left arm, Dr. 
Oliver, with his fore-fingers extended, Mr. 
Richard Holt, represented as opening a curtain, 



and Captain Wynn, who is with his left hand 
grasping the curtain. P. 

Portrait of Coleman the younger : the Dramatist. 
There is a playbill of The Provoked Wife on 
the chair near to him. P. 


Coleraine House, 
Nassau St., 

Small miniature portrait of Zoffany, painted by 
himself, given to her mother, Mrs. Oliver. 

It represents him as a young man. He is wearing 
a blue coat. It was evidently painted before 
the last of his daughters was born. On the 
reverse are five initials, " J.M.L.C.L.," com- 
memorating his own name and that of his wife, 
John and Mary, and three of his children, 
Louisa, Claudina and Elizabeth. The hair of 
the five persons was originally in the back of 
the miniature, but that has disappeared, and the 
miniature itself has been seriously injured. 

OLDFIELD, THE REV. Portraits of Beau Wilton and of Lady Chambers. 
CANON. Painted in India at the end of the eighteenth 

12, Wetherby century. 

Gardens, S.W. 

and Burrough's Hill, 



Portrait of Mrs. Oswald of Auchincruve. In a 
blue dress, trimmed with lace, painted about 
1770. Full-length, seated. P. 

N.B. There is a legend in the family that 
Zoffany attempted to paint Mr. Oswald, her 
husband, into the picture. He discovered this 
and objected, eventually making Zoffany cover 
his image with a cloud. 

The lady died in London, in 1780, and her body 
was brought down and buried in the vault in 
Scotland. It is said that Robert Burns, find- 
ing the funeral retinue in the public-house he 
was in the habit of frequenting, and being re- 
fused admission, vented his spleen by writing 
a most scurrilous poem entitled " Dweller in 
yon dungeon dark," in which he abused her 
to his heart's content. 

Coll. "I i 

II ,. ., ,'*,/., 

IllKIK Ml III c.l ciKl.l I "I 



Ashmolean Museum. 


The Picture Gallery. 


Highnam Court, 

She was, however, it is stated, a most estimable 
lady. The husband's portrait cannot be found. 
It is said to be in America, and that he ex- 
changed portraits with Benjamin Franklin in 
Paris. Both Mr. and Mrs. Oswald were 
buried in the vault, close to the Kirk at Auchin- 
cruve. Raeburn also painted a portrait of 
Mr. Oswald. 

Two small whole-length oil sketches of Gar- 
rick as Abel Drugger, made either from life, 
or immediately after the return from the 
theatre, for the picture now belonging to Lord 

Concert of wandering Minstrels. Nine persons, 
three seated and the others standing. One is 
a woman who bears a tambourine. One of 
the men carries a staff and a collecting bowl, 
the others musical instruments and music. 

The picture was for some time known under the 
title of the " Blind Minstrels," but the present 
catalogue questions the authority of this title, 
and points out that but one of the minstrels 
appears to be blind, and even about him there 
appears to be some doubt, as his eyes are only 
partially closed. The picture was painted for 
the Duke Ferdinand de Bourbon. It was 
deposited in the gallery in 1821, re-claimed in 
1851, kept in the ducal storehouse till 1865, 
and then re-deposited in the gallery. Panel, 
0,37 '.< 0,46. No. in. P. 

A portrait of Duke Ferdinand de Bourbon. 
Panel, 0,86 x 0,19. No. 346. 

Picture representing the cabin of the Norfolk 
bound for Manilla in 1762, when it was the 
flagship of Admiral Sir Samuel Cornish, and 
of Kempenfeldt his Flag-captain. Both these 
persons are represented in the cabin, and in the 
background, seated, is Thomas Parr)-, secretary 
of the expedition, an ancestor of the present 
owner. 68 x 56. P. 



Knozvle House, 
Budkigh Salter- 

Group representing the owner's great-grandfather, 
Colonel Blair, with Mrs. Blair, their two 
daughters and an ayah. Mrs. Blair is in white 
satin with pale blue over-dress, white head- 
dress, fichu and powdered hair. She and her 
husband are seated on a sofa. To the right is 
a daughter in white with rose-coloured sash 
and shoes, who is the owner's grandmother. 
She is playing with a kitten which the ayah 
has in her arms. On the left is another 
daughter in white satin with greyish-yellow 
over-dress, seated before a square piano which 
has music upon its desk. 

There are three pictures upon the wall of the 
room depicting Indian scenes. 38 x 53. P. 

Painted in India in 1789. 

R.A., 1885 (29). 

PERCEVAL, MRS. C. Group representing Mr. and Mrs. John Burke 

SPENCER. of Carshalton, with their son and two daughters. 

24, Chester Square. Zoffany, the artist, is in yellow, and is seated, 

and holds the youngest child (Elizabeth) on 
his knee. She is in white with red shoes, and 
her sister Mary, who stands near with a fish- 
ing rod in her hands is in similar costume. 
In his hand Zoffany holds a silver snuff-box. 
The boy, John, has his foot on a basket which 
contains fish. Mrs. Burke (Mary) stands near 
to her husband who is seated and reading a 
newspaper. He is in a brown coat and yellow 
waistcoat. P. 


Portrait of Dr. William Hunter, lecturing at a 
desk. He has an anatomical model in his 
hand. Presented by Mr. Bransby Cooper in 
1829. 51 x 41. 

Portrait of Sir Richard Jebb in lavender-coloured 
coat and black gown. 30 x 25. 

Presented by the Rev. R. F. Hallifax in 1827. 
S.K., 1867 (618). 

Picture representing Dr. Wm. Hunter delivering 
a lecture on anatomy at the Royal Academy 
to a group of students. 41 x 31. P. 

Co.'.'. of Ike CnlUgtof l'k 



New York. 


See Lucas' London Revisited, p. 26. 
Presented by Mrs. Baillie in 1823. 
International Exhibition, 1862 (36). 
Whitechapel Exhibition, 1906 (21). 
R.A., 1871 (265). 
S.K., 1867 (506). 

Portrait of Thomas Doggett. Full-face to the 
right, full-length, wearing a cocked hat. 

25 >< 3- 

Portrait of Garrick as Abel Drugger. Engraved 
in mezzotint by J. Dixon. 

Portrait of Madhava Rao Sindhia (see p. 96). 
This has also been attributed to an artist of 
the name of Welsh, but various contemporary 
allusions refer to it as by Zoffany. It was 
copied by Mr. Cecil Burne for the late Principal 
of the School of Art in Bombay for the Victoria 
Memorial Trustees, and our photograph is 
from his copy as the original is too dark to 
photograph well. It is suggested that the 
portrait at Government House is the original 
by Zoffany and the replica in the Temple (sec 
p. 96) by Welsh. 

PORTLAND, THE DUKE Portrait of Charles John Bentinck (1708 1779), 

OF. youngest son of William Bentinck, Earl of 

Welbeck. Portland. Half-length figure of an old man 

in a wig. No. 27 in the Welbeck collection. 

Mr. Bentinck married Lady Margaret Cadogan, 

whose sister was the wife of the second Duke 

of Richmond. P. 

N.B. There are three replicas in existence of 
this picture. One is in the collection of 
Count Bentinck at Middachten. 
A second is in the collection of Mr. Henry A. 

Bentinck at Indio. 

A third is in the collection of the Duke of Rich- 
mond at Goodwood. 

PRIDEAUX BRUNE, Picture representing John Wilkes and Serjeant 

COLONEL. Glynn (after whom Colonel Prideaux Brune's 

10, Grosvenor Gar- father was named). The family seat is Glynn, 
dens. near Bodmin. 


The Hall, 



39, Berkeley Square, 


Serjeant Glynn is seated by a table, and holds a 
pen in his hand. Before him are certain papers, 
one of which is endorsed " Magna Charta," 
the other addressed to Mr. Serjeant Glynn, 
and near by, at the edge of the table, is a 
volume bearing the name Sydney on Gov. 
Near to the table is a medallion of Hampden 
inscribed with his name. Wilkes is standing 
near to him, directing his attention to a paper 
in his hand, endorsed " Wilkes Esq., v. Earl 
of Halifax," and signed Reynolds. Both men 
are richly dressed, Wilkes having an embroi- 
dered waistcoat, and Serjeant Glynn a waist- 
coat with decoration of gold braid. Both men 
are wearing lace ruffles and lace cravats. P. 

Portrait of the owner's great-great-grandfather, 
Benjamin Collins, of Milford, Salisbury. Half- 
length, life-size. Not seen. 


Bawdsey Manor, 


(Once in the possession 
' of.) 

Representation of a house in Lucknow with 
native figures in the foreground. The picture 
is set in a mantelshelf in the house. P. 

Group representing three men, two women and 
a child, all members of the Townshend family. 
The child is resting by his mother's knee. 
She has a book spread open before her, from 
which she has evidently been reading to him. 
One man and a lady stand by an open window, 
the man directing attention to the view. The 
other two men stand behind the mother, one 
of them resting his hands on her chair. A 
bookcase and screen are near by. P. 

Portrait of James Quin, the Actor (1693-1766). 
Half-length standing figure, in scarlet coat and 
white satin waistcoat. Right hand in pocket, 
left hand resting in waistcoat. Grey wig. 
Canvas 35 x 27. 

This was sold at the Quilter sale at Christie's, 
July 9, 1909, Lot 98, 190 guineas (see p. 166). 

Coll. / r,%.,,unl K,JSt\ 

'! Kl I'M . si NUM. MU MMIIIIU KIDM\ AM) A l-Klh.M> 



REID, MRS. WHITELAW. Group representing Mr. and Mrs. Ridgway. 
New York. Sold to her by Leggatt Bros., who obtained it 

from Agnew's. 

3, Carlton House 


Cavendish Hotel, 
Jermyn Street. 

Silbertswold Place, 

10, Carlton House 

Two pictures representing the Flower Girl and 
Watercress Girl, said to represent Jane VVallis. 
Both of which have been engraved. 49 x 40 

N.B. These pictures at one time belonged to 
Mr. Moberly Bell, the editor of The Times. 
They were bought by Mr. Baring about four- 
teen years ago from Colnaghi's. 

Portrait of Lunardi the balloonist (1759-1806) 
giving a display at Windsor Castle. 

Small full-length figure in uniform, standing in a 
landscape, pointing with his left hand to a 
balloon, which is seen in the sky hovering above 
Windsor Castle. His right hand holds a three- 
cornered hat, and rests on the muzzle of a gun. 
On the collar of a black dog beside him is 
inscribed his name. His uniform is a red coat 
with green breeches. In the distance is ;i 
group of persons, members of the Royal 
Family, who arc viewing the balloon. Bought 
from Agnew's. Canvas 38 x 28. 

R.A., 1908. (This now belongs to Messrs. 
Knoedler & Co.) P. 

Portrait of a child (or woman resembling a child) 
full-length in blue, carrying a bouquet of 
flowers. 15 x 14. 

Jane Austen (1775-1817) as a young girl in white 
holding a sunshade. 

Group of two men, one of whom, the standing 
figure, is Sir Mathew Ridley. The other was 
one of his friends. The picture was painted 
in Italy. P. 


ROTHSCHILD, Miss Portrait of Sir James Cockburn, G.C.H., eighth 
ALICE. Baronet of Langton, Under-Secretary of State, 

Waddesden Manor, 1806, Governor of Curacoa, 1807, and subse- 
Bucks. quently of Bermuda, with his daughter and 

only child, Mariana, who in 1834 was married 
to Sir J. J. Hamilton, Bart. Langton is repre- 
sented in the background of the picture. P. 
From the bequest of pictures made to the National 
Gallery by Lady Hamilton in 1892 and removed 
thence in 1900 as it was found that the Testator 
had no power to bequeath them, and they were 
ceded to the nine co-heiresses of Sir James 
Cockburn and then sold. 

Portrait of John Frederick Sackville, third Duke 
of Dorset, and Mr. Petley at Riverhead House, 
with their dog and horse, standing near to a 
stone vase on a pedestal and under a large 

Near Skipton- 

Portrait group representing Mr. Richard Roundell 
(circa 1740-72), Mr., afterwards Sir Henry, 
Dashwood, Bart., of Kirklington Park, Oxford 
(1745-1828), the Hon. Thomas Noel, after- 
wards second Viscount Wentworth (ob. 1815), 
and Mr. Walter R. B. Hawkesworth, afterwards 
Fawks (1748-92). Gentlemen Commoners of 
Christchurch, Oxford, at the same time and 
great friends. 

The four men are in a garden on the banks of 
the Isis, with a view of Oxford in the distance, 
Mr. Hawkesworth on the right, Mr. Dashwood 
in the middle, both in hunting dress, the other 
two, of whom the tall one in the centre of the 
group is Mr. Noel. Canvas 49^ x 38^. 

In the above group Mr. Hawkesworth is in a 
red coat, white breeches, brown hunting 
boots and carries his hat and whip in his 
hand. Sir Henry Dashwood is in a blue coat 
with white breeches, brown gloves, hat and 
whip. Mr. Noel is in a grey suit, with a claret- 
coloured gown over it. Mr. Roundell is in a 
buff coat with red breeches, and also wears a 

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Ladbroke House, 


Onslow Crescent. 

claret -coloured gown, which appears to be 
trimmed with velvet. 

The scene is in a stone summer-house and there 
is a round table, on which a bottle and some 
glasses are introduced. 

Portrait of Thomas Jackson (1715-1781) the 

composer, in blue coat, holding in his hand a 

piece of music. 29 \ x 24.1. 
Sold at Christie's, March 17, 1916, and bought 

by Mr. A. F. Hill, who presented it to the 


Picture entitled " A Minuet," representing two 
figures dancing a minuet with three others 
looking on, the background being the sea. 
Circa 24 >: 18. P. 

Group of three persons in a garden, with the 
family house in the distance, representing the 
owner's great-grandfather with his father and 
mother. The young man is standing, and 
wears a blue coat with gold buttons, bluish silk 
stockings and a white vest. He holds his hat 
in one hand, and a stick in the other. His 
mother, who is seated next to him, is in a 
brown silk gown, with a white muslin over- 
dress, holds an open book in one hand, and 
with the other nurses her small black Blenheim 
spaniel, who is seated upon her lap. She wears 
a high white cap and black mittens. 

The old gentleman is seated near to her, and is 
leaning one hand upon his hat, which is sup- 
ported by his stick. He is wearing a blue coat 
with white buttons and lace ruffles, white silk 
stockings and black buckled shoes. P. 

Another group of five persons, representing the 
owner's great-grandfather, with his wife and 
child, her grandfather, also her great-great- 
grandfather and a Madame de Pougens, who 
was a Miss Sayer. 

The old man and the lady are seated on the 
branch of a tree, the young man and Madame 


Castle Grant, 
(The pictures are at 
Cullen House.) 


de Pougens stand near by. The old man is in 
black, with white silk stockings and black shoes, 
has his hat resting upon his knee, and is holding 
a stick in one hand. The lady seated next to 
him is in white with a blue bow and a blue 
hat, and yellow gloves. The baby on her knee 
is in white with a red sash. At her feet sits a 
black-and-white dog. Madame de Pougens is 
in a white costume, and carries a black shawl 
over her arm. She has a blue bonnet on her 
head, and carries a blue parasol, and she wears 
yellow gloves. 

The young man, who is next to his wife, leaning 
over her, is in a blue coat, pale blue vest and 
brown boots. There is a view of a landscape 
in the distance. P. 

Portrait of James Sayer, son of Robert Sayer 
the print-seller, at the age of thirteen standing 
by a stream, taking a fish off the hook. He 
wears a blue coat with white buttons, yellow 
breeches, black boots, and near by, on the 
ground, lies his black laced hat and a fish 

This picture was engraved in mezzotint by R. 
Houston and published by Robert Sayer, his 
father, in 1772. P. 

Single portraits representing Sir Thomas Grant 
and his wife. 

Sir Thomas Grant was born in 1738 and died in 
1811 at the age of seventy-three. At different 
periods he represented the counties of Murray 
and Banff in Parliament. He was Lord Lieu- 
tenant of Inverness from 1794 to 1809. At the 
time of the threatened invasion by Bonaparte, 
he provided arms and accoutrements for seven 
hundred men of his clan and tenantry entirely 
at his own expense. 

His wife Jane was the daughter of Alexander 
Duff of Hatton by Lady Anne Duff, the eldest 
daughter of William, first Earl of Fife. They 
were married in 1763, and she died in 1805. 






Swains ton, 
I. of Wight. 

She bore a very high character amongst the 
family and neighbours. Not seen by us. 

David Garrick and his wife playing picquet. 
Garrick is in a white coat with green and gold 
waistcoat, Mrs. Garrick in a rose-coloured 
dress ornamented with \vhite lace. 41 : 32. 

Whitechapel, 1906 (176); 1910 (16). 

The picture was presented to the theatre by Mr. 
Algernon Graves, and had hitherto been known 
as a Zoffany. Many critics are, however, of 
opinion that it is the work of Allan Ramsay. 

The Dutton family group, representing Mr. and 
Mrs. Dutton, their son James, first Lord 
Sherborne, who married Miss Coke, and their 
daughter Jane, who married Thomas Coke, of 
Holkham, afterwards Earl of Leicester. Sir. 
Dutton and his son and daughter are seated 
around a mahogany card-table, playing at cards. 
Mrs. Dutton is seated by the fire-place reading, 
but has for a moment put down her book 
to look at her son's cards, which he holds out 
to her. There are pictures and a girandole on 
the wall, and near the fire-place is a pole- 
screen painted in flowers. The mantelpiece- 
is a fine carved marble one, and on it arc 
some ornaments and a bust. 39.4 : 50. P. 

R.A., 1907 (143). 

Half-length portrait of John Gwyn, R.A. Said 
to be a native of Shrewsbury, architect of the 
English bridge in that town, erected in 1774, 
and of bridges in Worcester and Oxford. He 
died in Worcester in 1776, and appears to have 
been about fifty-five years old when the portrait 
was painted. The face only is finished, the 
rest of the picture left in a more or less incom- 
plete condition. 30 x 25. Not seen by us. 

It is attributed in the catalogue to Zoffany. 

Group representing a handsome room with a 
card-table and two men playing cards. One 
is stated to be Mr. John Simeon, and he is 
wearing a plum-coloured suit, the other in 



uniform is his brother-in-law, Colonel Cornwall. 
The picture was painted before 1794. The 
room may possibly represent one of the rooms 
at 60, Queen Anne Street, or perhaps in the 
country house, Walliscote, near Reading. 
36 x 39. P. 

Dalkey Lodge, 


56, Leinster Square, 


23, Albemarle St., 
London, W. 


41, Ventnor Villas, 

Portrait of Marcus Saville Taylor of the Hon. 
East India Company, painted by Zoffany in 
India. Mr. M. S. Taylor was a friend of 
Warren Hastings, and his portrait also appears 
in Zoffany's group of Colonel Mordaunt's 
Cock-fight (see p. 94). P. 

Family group, representing Mr. and Mrs. Hodg- 
son and their family. He was a merchant of 
17, Coleman Street, and of Bowles, Chigwell, 
Essex, and great-grandfather of the present 
owner. He holds in his hand a paper bearing 
an inscription " To the Commissioners of 
relief to American Prisoners." There is in the 
background a mantelpiece, upon which is 
represented a pair of black Wedgwood vases, 
one of which is still in the possession of the 
owner of the picture, and a centre-piece. 
Circa 36 x 57. 

Pair of portraits representing Colonel Campbell 
and his wife. Purchased some years ago from 
a dealer. Two copies of these pictures ap- 
peared at Christie's lately, but were withdrawn. 

Colonel Campbell is in military uniform, a red 
coat with black and white facings, white 
breeches, and wears a wig. He has a fob 
with some seals, which is rather a prominent 
object in the picture. Mrs. Campbell wears 
a white dress, and a white fichu with black 
trimming, a blue sash and blue bows. Her 
hair is brown, and she holds a book in her 

This person is said to have a painting by Zoffany. 




22, Campden 




Ashwick Grove, 


Boston, U.S.A. 


45, Thurloe 


Portrait of Richard Bird, Solicitor, born at 
Chulmleigh, Devon, February 8, 1802, died 
July 2, 1842. 

Portrait in pastel said to have been executed from 
a miniature by Zoffany. Recently presented 
to the Victoria and Albert Museum. 

Portrait of Miss Farren, afterwards Lady Derby, 
standing near to a pedestal on which she rests 
her hand. She is in a long, flowing costume of 
satin and gauze. Full-length. P. 

The Countess of Derby is represented as " Her- 
mione " in the Winter's Tale, and is standing, 
full-face, with her arm on a cabinet. The 
picture was engraved in mezzotint by Fisher 
and published by Sayer and Bennett, 1781. 

Picture representing Colonel Martin's Cock- 
fight. Painted in 1786 in Lucknow for the 
Nawab Wazir, and presented to Mr. Richard 
Strachey by Ghazi-ul-Din-Hyder in 1817. 

Portrait of the Nawab Wazir of Oudh (see p. 80). 
This was presented to Sir John Shore by the 
Nawab himself. He had previously tried, but 
wholly in vain, to bribe " honest John Shore " 
by the offer of a vast sum of money. This 
having been refused (see p. 9^), Shore was 
compelled to accept some gift, and therefore 
selected this picture by Zoffany. 

Portrait of a boy, bought from Agnc\v and said 
to be by Zoffany. 

Portrait of the Venerable the Rev. Matthias D'Oyly, 
Rector of Uckfield, Sussex, Archdeacon of 
Lewes, and Prebendary of Ely Cathedral, born 
1743, died 1816. He was father of Sir John 
D'Oyly, the Official Resident at Randy, Ceylon, 
who was created a Baronet in 1821, and died 
unmarried in 1824. He is represented in black, 
holding a hat and stick, and in the rear is a 
view of Buxted, where many of his ancestors 
were buried. Rectangular. Circa 30 x 20. 

Portrait of Mrs. D'Oyly, Mary, daughter of 
George Poughfer of Leicester. She married 




155, New Bond 

Bredgar House, 


the Archdeacon of Lewes in May 1770. She is 
represented standing, wearing a costume of 
blue trimmed with white lace, and has a high 
headdress ornamented with pearls. 

Portrait of George, third Earl Cowper, in the act 
of taking off his hat in smiling recognition of a 
friend who is passing him. Painted in Flor- 

Trinity Square, 


y 'ester, 


Picture representing William Smith, M.P. for 
Norwich, 1756-1835, as a boy, and his father, 
Samuel Smith, then head of the firm which is 
now Travers & Co., in which he was succeeded 
by his son William. 

The father is represented seated at a table, 
holding a paper-covered book in his hand, and 
by his side, on the table, is a richly-bound 
volume. The boy is looking towards his 
father and is apparently engaged in sketching ; 
one hand is upon an open sketch-book, and 
with the other he appears to be dipping a 
pencil into some Indian ink. Near by, on 
the table, is a pair of dividers. The boy is in 
a dark coat with lace frill at the neck and cuffs. 
The father wears a richly ornamented waist- 
coat trimmed with gold braid, a handsome 
coat with gilt buttons, white stockings and 
black shoes. The picture is referred to in a 
privately printed work entitled Past and Present 
in an old Firm, and there is a reference to 
William Smith, M.P., in the Dictionary of 
National Biography. 

Portrait of the fourth Earl of Sandwich. See 
copy of same in National Portrait Gallery. 

Picture representing the Cock-fight at Lucknow. 
Sold at Daylesford House sale, 1853, for 215 
guineas to Colonel Dawkins, and at his sale in 
1898 to the family of its present owner for 
210 guineas through Agnew's. 40 x 60. 

B.I., 1862 (201). 

Whitechapel Exhibition, 1908 (9). 

I .]-: I K U I "I \\ II II \\l I ' 
\i iHiittJi i I- i / 1 1 ; 








Portrait of William Lock. 

Fisher's, March 23, 1910. Lot 154. 
See Connoisseur, XXVIII. 319. 

Sold at Robinson and 


50 x 


Portrait of Robert Price of Fox Icy, Hereford. 
Engraved by Basire in 1810. 

Price married in 1764, Sarah, daughter of John, 
first Viscount Barrington. He was the father 
of Sir Uvedale Price, author of Essays on the 
Picturesque. The picture was at one time in 
the possession of his son, Major William Price 
of the Third Dragoons, Vice-Chamberlain to 
Queen Charlotte, and Master of St. Katherine's 
Hospital, who died unmarried in 1817. 

Some of the Price pictures were sold at Christie's 
in May 1893, including one of Lady Caroline 
by Reynolds, but the Zoffany \vas not included 
in the sale. 

Portrait of David Garrick in plum-coloured coat 
with red vest, holding a plan in his hand, 
which appears to resemble that of the Colosseum 
of Rome. Probably painted after Garrick's 
return from Italy. He often mentions the 
Colosseum in his letters. 29} 24^. 

Sold at Christie's, item 78, March 17, 1916. 

Portrait of Abraham Vickery, Esq., a Principal 
Clerk at the Bank of England, in grey coat, 
white vest and buff breeches, standing with a 
paper in his hand; his assistant behind a 
counter on the left. 35^ x 27}. 

Portrait of George IV at the age of sixteen, in 
brown coat, with blue surcoat, holding his 
stick and hat. 35^ x 27. 

Offered at Christie's on Friday, June 23, 1916. 
Lot 77, and bought in. 

Three portraits by Zoffany from the J. II. Leigh 
collection, were sold at Christie's, July 7, 1916. 
They were not very important works, and were 
described in the catalogue as follows 

2 3 8 



(Believed to be a Mr. 

(In India.) 





" (157) Mr. Garrick and Mrs. Pritchard in the 
Tragedy of Macbeth, Act II, Scene iii. 39 x 49 J. 

Engraved by Valentine Green. 

Garrick is in a red coat richly trimmed with gold 
braid, Mrs. Pritchard in black, trimmed with 
fur, and wearing pearls. 

(158) David Garrick as Richard III with Norfolk. 
The Battle Scene. 49 x 39. 

Both actors are in richly striped and slashed 

(159) Portrait of Mrs. Pritchard, in blue decollete" 
dress, trimmed with white lace, holding a 
miniature in her right hand. 29^ x 24^." 

There was sold at Puttick & Simpson's rooms, 
April 25, 1917, a portrait group by Zoffany of 
Sir John C. Lettsom and his family (see as to 
Dr. Lettsom, Nollekens, I. 87). 

There was sold at the Watson Taylor sale in 
1832 a full-length miniature by Zoffany of 
C. Anstey, the author of the Bath guide. 

Portrait of Mary Bellamy, actress, sold at Christie's, 
January 1917, represented in yellow dress with 
yellow sleeves, blue cape, headdress and scarf 
and feathers, and holding a mask. Lot 248. 
28| x 23^. 

A portrait of Jacob Wilkinson, a Calcutta mer- 
chant, in a green coat and grey vest, and with 
a very ruddy face. 

Sold at Christie's to Peacock of Duke Street, 

March 14, 1919. Lot 44. 
The Lute Player, in a green coat. 29 x 24. 

Sold at Christie's, February 28, 1919. Lot 81. 
Colonel Ffarrington in a plain coloured coat 

holding his watch and a book, perhaps a music 

score. 34 x 27! . 

Sold at Christie's, November 21, 1913. Lot 104. 
Portrait of a sculptor in green coat resting his 
right hand upon the sculptured head of an old 
man. 29! x 24^. 





ESQ., C.V.O. 
i , Rutland Gar- 



Sold at Christie's, July 13, 1001. 

Portrait of Count Stacpoole holding a book. In 

a blue coat, nearly full-face. 30 x 25. 

(^39 185.) 

Sold at Christie's, February i, 1902. 

A young man with a black servant (44 25.). 

In the possession of Mr. E. B. Jupp in 1871, 
there was a drawing of a man and dog by 
Zoffany, with an autograph letter from Zotfany 
to Messrs. Raikes & Co., January 26, 1798, and 
an engraved portrait after Dance. 

Portrait of Henry Vansittart, junior, of the Hon- 
ourable Artillery Company's Bengal Estab- 
lishment (1771-1786). There is a photograph 
of this picture at the India Office in room 86. 

Portrait group of three figures, representing the 
Hon. Charles Hope Vere, youngest son of the 
first Earl of Hopetoun, great-grandfather of 
the present owner, in the scarlet dress of the 
Archers, with his bow and arrows beside him, 
and a book in his hand. Married 1782. Lady 
Christian Graham in lavender with white cap, 
represented as reading the Gazette Extra- 
ordinary, dated London, 1782, containing a 
report of the battle of Gibraltar which was 
the first naval engagement of the old gentle- 
man's son, who became Admiral Sir George 
Hope; and Lady Charlotte Erskine, afterwards 
Lady Mar, in black, with white lace cap. 

In the rear of the picture is a pole-screen with a 
view upon it of the family seat of Blackwood. 
This belongs to one branch of the family. The 
little round table depicted in the front of the 
group is in the possession of the owner of the 
picture. P. 

Drawing of two male figures attributed to 



Royal Picture 


A man is seated at a table holding a drawing to 
which his son has called his attention. The 
son stands with his left arm resting on the 
back of his father's chair, black chalk, faces in 
red. loA x iiyV. Dyce collection. P. 

There are some slight sketches on the reverse. 

Portrait of the Archduchess Maria Christina, born 
1742, married 1766 to Archduke Albert of 
Saxony, died 1798. She is represented seated, 
and has a pet dog in her lap. Her arm rests on 
a table on which is a Greek statuette of marble. 
In her bracelet is set a miniature of her husband. 
There is a curtain behind her, and a landscape 
in the distance. 131 x 94. P. No. 1590. 

Group representing four of the grand-children 
of the Empress Maria Theresa, children of 
of Ferdinand of Parma and Maria Emilia. 

(1) Ludwig (1773-1803) called King of Etruria. 

(2) Marie Antonie (1774-1841). Abbess of 

the Ursuline nuns. 

(3) Karoline (1770-1804), wife of Maximilian 

of Saxony. 

(4) Charlotte (1777-1825). 

In the picture is represented a letter which is 
addressed " A L'Imperatrice Reine, Ma Dame 
et Grande Mere." Believed to have been 
painted in 1778. 1,59 x 1,85. No. 1591. 

Group representing the Archduke Leopold of 
Tuscany and his family. He was the son 
of the Empress Maria Theresa, born 1747, 
died 1792. His wife, Maria, was the daughter 
of Charles III of Spain, born 1745, married 
1765, died 1792. She had sixteen children, 
of whom eight are in the picture. 

The eight children are 

(1) Joseph (1776-1847). 

(2) Leopold (1772-1795). 

(3) Theresa (1767-1827). 

(4) Karl (1771-1847). 


(5} Maria Klementina (1777-1801). 

(6) Maria Anna (1770-1009). 

(7) Franz (1768-1835); Emperor in 1792. 

(8) Ferdinand (1769-1824). 
3.25 x 3,98. 

Portrait of the Emperor Joseph II. 
Portrait of the Empress Maria Theresa. 

WALLIS & SON. Portrait group representing the Hunt Breakfast 

The French Gallery, at Mr. Palmer's house, Holme Park, Berks. 
1 20, Pall Mall. The persons represented are as follows 

Sir Richard Aldworth of Stanlake Park, Berks, is 
standing by the breakfast-table, holding his hat 
and whip in his hand. 

On the opposite side of the breakfast-table is 
seated Mr. Robert Palmer, M.P., owner of the 
house, and near by, on a chair, is his dog Tiny. 

Sir Thomas Beauchamp Proctor, of Langley 
Park, Norwich, is standing near to Mr. Palmer, 
placing one hand upon his friend's shoulder, 
and resting the other on the chair on which 
Tiny is seated. 

On the other side of the chair stands Mr. Francis 
Pym, M.P., of the Hassells, Bedfordshire. He 
is reading a newspaper. 

N.B. Sir Richard Aldworth, Sir Thomas Beau- 
champ Proctor, and Sir Francis Pym were all 
three sons-in-law to Mr. Palmer. 

Next to him, and seated on the extreme right of 
the picture is the Duke of Bedford, while 
immediately opposite to him, seated on the 
extreme left of the picture, near to the standing 
figure of Sir Richard Aldworth, is the Duke of 

All the gentlemen are in hunting costume. On 
the breakfast-table, which is covered with a 
white cloth, is a large silver urn, a teapot, some 
cups and saucers and other things. 

The picture is a large one. 44 x 34 J. P. 

Standing portrait of William Burton, represented 
out of doors under a tree, leaning his arm on a 





stone pedestal. Opposite to him is a small 
statuette, and near to his feet is a fragment of 
sculpture, representing three figures and a 
broken column. He is in a rich costume, 
trimmed with gold braid, and with lace ruffles, 
and holds his hat in his hand. P. 
(This now belongs to Agnew's.) 

WALLOP, HON. FREDERIC. Group representing Mr. and Mrs. Palmer and 

Bachelors' Club, their daughter, afterwards Mrs. 

and 39, Eaton Terrace, Dorney Court, Bucks. She is 

London. having a drawing lesson from 

Mrs. Palmer wears a blue silk dress, 
busily engaged in needlework. They 
seated at a round table. 36 x 28. P 

Sold at Christie's, May 31, 1902 (199 

Group representing Samuel Foote as 
Sturgeon, standing with Sir J. Jollop 
is evidently the original from which the mezzo- 
tint by J. G. Haid was executed, published by 
Boydell in 1765. 30 x 21. 

Once the property of Sir Guy Laking. 

Whitechapel Gallery, 1910. 

Mr. Wallop has also a miniature by Zoffany. 

Portrait of a gentleman unknown. Bust, three- 
quarters to the left, wearing blue coat with 
gilt buttons, striped waistcoat with lapel turned 
back over coat, white neckcloth and frilled 
shirt, hair powdered, face clean-shaven, blue 
eyes, and fresh complexion ; light admitted 
from the top right hand. Ivory 2| x if 
signed " zoffany Pinxt. 1781 "; in gold locket, 
with plaited hair and the initial F. at the 
back. P. 

Landon, of 
her father, 
and is 
are all 


This lady is believed to possess a portrait of a 
lady by Zoffany, painted in India. 

WATSON, THE REV. Group representing three boys, Lewis, Henry, 

WENTWORTH. and George, the latter being the grandfather 

Rockingham of the owner, the children of the first Lord 

Castle, Sondes. They are depicted as playing under 

Uppingham. a big tree, one boy having a curious sort of bat 

CaU. of tki Ut, Mr. A\kn \\alktimtr 

ItiKIKAII 01 IIIUM.V> l.AIN^HOKdl l.M, K.A. 




Hans lope Park, 
Stony Stratford, 

in one hand, and a cricket-ball in the other, the 
second holding a squirrel, which the smallest, 
who is in girlish costume, is feeding with nuts. 
There is another bat, represented as lying on 
the ground. P. 

There appears to be no date to the picture, but 
the children were born respectively in 1754, 
1755 and 1768. 

Portrait of William Watts, Governor of Fort 
William in Bengal, standing, in official 

Portrait of Mrs. Watts, called " the Begum 
Johnson," was a Miss Crooke, and after the 
death of Mr. Watts married a Bengal chaplain, 
the Rev. W. Johnson. One of her daughters 
became Countess of Liverpool. P. 

Portrait of Mr. Watts represented in the act of 
negotiating the treaty of 1757 with Mir Jafar 
and his son Miran. This picture is reproduced 
in S. C. Hill's Bengal in 1756-57. P. 

Zoffany was not in India in 1757, but it is stated 
that Mr. Watts desired that this treaty with 
which he was concerned should be introduced 
into the picture. 

WERTHEIMER, ASHER, Portrait of Gainsborough in grey coat edged with 

ESQ., EXORS. OF. fur, scarlet vest, dark breeches, and white 

New Bond Street, stockings. Seated figure, holding a crayon and a 

drawing, and with books on a table by his side. 

50 x 40. 

Bought at Christie's, May 10, 1912. 
Portrait of Mrs. Garrick, dressed in a white satin 
dress, blue waistcoat with silver braid and 
buttons, and orange-coloured short coat, and 
holding a mask in her hand. In her hair is 
twisted a white scarf. 49 x 39. 
Bought at Christie's, May 19, 1911. P. 
At one time he had also a portrait of Garrick. 

WHITEHEAD FREDERICK, Small oval portrait of the actor Parsons. 
ESQ. 10 x 7. 

174, Belsize Road, 




New York. 

The Rectory, 

DR. G. C. 
Burgh House, 

Portrait group representing five sporting gentle- 
men, Edmund, Earl of Cork, Mr. Bingham, 
the Rev. Charles Digby, Colonel Cox, and the 
Rev. Mr. Hume. 

Grouped beneath a stone pedestal, on which is a 
figure representing the river Tiber, and close 
to a stone seat on which one of the gentlemen 
(Colonel Cox) is seated. Three are standing 
behind the stone seat, one of them (Mr. Hume) 
leaning over its back, and holding his hat and 
a whip in his hand. The middle one (Mr. 
Digby) is holding out his hat, and the one near- 
est the stone figure (Mr. Bingham) rests his 
hands on the shoulders of the man in the middle. 
The seated figure has his hat and whip by his 
side, and rests one hand on the head of a dog. 
There are two other dogs in the picture, both 
of which are looking up at the youngest man 
of the five (Lord Cork), who is holding out 
his hand to one of the dogs, and with the other 
holds his whip behind his back. He is the 
only one of the five wearing his hat. In the 
distance is a country landscape. 40 x 50. P. 

Portrait of his great-grandmother, and his grand- 
mother as a baby. The mother, Mrs. Robert 
Bathurst, is seated on a sofa, holding the child's 
hand, and behind stands an ayah with a tam- 
bourine. The child was Catherine, who after- 
wards married J. E. Wilkinson. Painted about 
1800. Not seen by us. 

Portrait of David Garrick drawn in pencil and 

wash. P. From the Garrick Sale in 1823. 
Oval 8 x 6-| . 

WILLOUGHBY DE BROKE, Group representing John, fourteenth Lord 
LORD. Willoughby de Broke, his wife, Lady Louisa 

North, daughter of Francis, first Earl of Guild- 
ford, and sister to Lord North, and their three 



John, his successor. 

Henry, afterwards sixteenth Baron, who married 
Margaret, daughter of Sir John Williams, 
and Louisa, who married the Rev. Albert 
Barnard, Prebendary of Winchester, and be- 
came mother of Robert John, seventeenth 

Lord Willoughby is in brown coat and breeches, 
red waistcoat, heavily trimmed with deep gold 
lace, white stockings, short white wig with side 
curls, and is represented leaning against the 
back of a chair m which Lady Willoughby is 
seated, and shaking his finger at the second 
child, who is standing at the left side of the 
table and helping itself to a piece of hot 
buttered toast. 

Lady Willoughby is seated. She wears a blue 
silk dress, powdered hair, large pearl earrings, 
long white mittens, and blue and white ruffs 
round her neck, and she is holding the youngest 
child, who stands with one foot on the table, 
against her right shoulder. 

The third child is on the right, dragging a red 
wooden horse on wheels. 

All three children are in long white dresses, 
short sleeves, blue or pink sashes, and red 
morocco shoes. The table at which they are 
seated has upon it a white table-cloth , a service 
of tea-things and a large silver urn, which latter 
is still preserved at Compton Verney. A fire is 
burning in the open grate, and over the carved 
chimneypiece is a landscape in the style of 
Joseph Vernet. P. 

Birmingham, 1903 (62). 

Whitechapel, 1906 (31). 

WINTER, Miss, Portrait of Mrs. Warren Hastings, great-aunt 

THE LATE. of the owner of the picture. Full-length. 

Nether Worton A fine portrait, representing the lady in a blue 
Hall, silk dress. It is illustrated in S. C. Grier's 

Steeple Aston, Letters of Warren Hastings, opposite p. 247 
Oxon. (see p. 98). 




Castle Lewis, 

WYNDHAM-QUIN, LADY Portrait group representing Mr. Charles Wyndham 

holding his son, Mr. Thomas Wyndham, by 
the hand. The father is represented in a black 
coat and white stock, and wears buckle shoes. 
The boy, aged twelve, is in a green coat with 
lace at the neck and sleeves. Not seen by us. 
Portrait is 8 to 10 feet high. 

YARBOROUGH, THE Group representing Garrick in The Farmer's 

EARL OF. Return. He is seated. A woman near by is 

17, Arlington Street, giving the news, and another woman and a boy 

are listening in amusement. The scene is in a 

kitchen. P. 

Manchester Exhibition, 1857 (95). 
Whitechapel, 1910 (28). 
Group representing Shuter, Beard and Dunstall 

in Love in a Village. One man is standing 

smiling, listening to the second, who is bringing 

in some information, the third lounges near. 

There is a picture of the children of James I on 

the wall. P. 

Manchester Exhibition, 1857 (93). 
B.I., 1849 (54). 
Whitechapel, 1910 (20). 
R.A., i768(?) 

Group representing three men seated at a round 
table, one of whom is Sir Wolston Dixie who 
died in 1767. There are two candles on the 

Ince Hall, 


Bewerly Hall, 
Pateley Bridge, 

Portrait group representing Mr. John Yorke, 
in a brown suit, seated on a rock by a stream, 
holding a book. Between his knees is a large 
black and white dog. Colonel Coore, of 
Scruton Hall, Bedale, Yorks, stands on the left 
in scarlet coat with green facings, white satin 
knee breeches, and white silk stockings. He 
is represented as having just landed a fish, 
which he is taking off the hook. He wears a 
black beaver hat. P. 

John Yorke died in 1813, aged seventy-seven, 
and appears in this picture to be about forty- 
five or fifty. 

Coll. 0/3,, H'm. I. Voting, /tor'. 

SIK WM. YOUNG AKII-IKWAKIIS JUD i'.AK'iM-:!' AND (.< iVIiKM >|< , i| lnllA'.'", AM) OM-: "I UN SlSTICKS 



35, Lower Seymour 

Portman Square. 



Group representing a man on horseback holding 
a child in front of him. A boy is standing near, 
putting his hand in that of the child, and with 
the other holding a dog. There is a black 
attendant close at hand. The persons who 
are depicted are all members of the Young 
family, the two children being brothers of 
the second Baronet. The house in the back- 
ground must be Delaford. 33 x 25. P. 

A group of two children, a girl seated on what 
appears to be a stone seat, holding some papers, 
a boy is leaning over her, and apparently is 
springing from a stone seat to be near her, and 
she has her hand on his shoulder. The boy 
was afterwards Sir William Young, second 
Baronet and Governor of Tobago and the girl 
is his sister Mary. 25 '.< 19. P. 

Portrait of George III. 

Picture representing the interior of a room in 
19, Arlington Street, with two figures, one a 
small boy, the grandfather of the present Lord 
Zetland, and the first Earl, and the other Sir 
Laurence Dundas, Bart. 40 50. P. 

The chairs and fine bronzes on the mantelpiece 
and the picture over it by Van DC Capelle 
represented in this painting arc still in the 
possession of the family, but the room is now 
only a passage-room. Sir Laurence is in a 
deep blue velvet coat and breeches and red 
waistcoat. The boy is in white, with pink sash 
and red shoes. 

A Turkey carpet is on the floor. 

There arc writing materials on the table and 
many pictures on the walls. 


BEAUFORT, THE DUKE Queen Charlotte and two of her sons. 
OF. Grafton Gallery, 1895 (143). 

Badminton, Portraits also of George III and Queen Charlotte 
Glos. in Coronation robes are attributed to Zoffany. 

Not seen by us. 

HUMBLE, C. NUGENT, Group of several members of the Rice family, 

ESQ. Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Rice ; their son, Mr. 

Cloncoskraine, Stephen Rice, father of Thomas Spring Rice, 

Dungarvan, First Lord Monteagle ; their daughter, 

Co. Waterford. Christiana Rice, afterwards Mrs. Fosbery, and 

the sons of Mrs. Rice by her first husband, 

Mr. Collis. P. 

INGLEBY, H., ESQ., At this house there was a portrait by Zoffany 
M.P. representing one of Mrs. Ingleby's ancestors. 

3 1 , Grosvenor Place, 


JONES, H. BURTON, Fine Drawing of Lord Heathfield. P. 
ESQ. Signed. 

1 1 , Douglas House, 

Maida Hill, London. 
MUNROE, SIR T. A Landscape with an Indian Family. 

Lindirtis,Forfar shire. K Durbar with British Officers and Indians. 
NORMANBY, REV., Portrait of Garrick as Sir John Brute. 
THE MARQUIS OF. Grafton Gallery, 1897. 
Mulgrave Castle, 


OSBORN, SIR ALGER- Two portraits, Busts. 

Chicks ands Priory, Beds. 
RAMSDEN, THE LATE Portrait of a Lady. Canvas 30 x 25. 

MR. ARCHIBALD. Said to have been signed. 

SLIGO, MARQUESS OF. Portrait of George Augustus, Third Viscount 
Westport House, Howe, killed at Ticonderoga, 1758. 48x30. 

Co. Mayo. Portrait of Wm. Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, 

third son of George III. Bust, circa 14 x 14. 

SMITH, MR. Group representing Garrick as Lord Chalkstone 

WILLOUGHBY S. with two actors in Lethe. The figure of 

Benchams, Harp- Garrick is identical with that in the Garrick 
ford, Devon. Club which we illustrate. The picture is an 
important group. 










Mr. Zaffanii. 

1762. 138. Mr. Garrick in the character of the Farmer returned from 
London. (Good, like the actors, and the whole better 
than Hogarth's. WALPOLE.) [Earl of Durham] 
138*. A Gentleman's Head. 

I 7^3- T 37- Mr Garrick and Mrs. Gibber in the characters of Jaffier 
and Belvidera. [Earl of Durham.] 

138. Portrait of a Gentleman. 

139. Ditto. 

140. A Family. (Mr. Palmer, the actor, looking at his wife and a 

little boy in her lap. WALPOLE.) 

Great Piazza, Coven t Garden. 

1764. 140. Mr. Foote in the character of Major Sturgeon, in The Mayor 

of Garratt. (And Mr. Baddeley. WALPOLE.) 
(A very fine likeness, a picture of great humour. WALPOLE.) 
[Earl of Carlisle.} 

141. A Family. (A boy flying a kite, the father sitting, and a 

younger boy standing by him, and looking at the other. 
WALPOLE.) [The Hon. Mrs. Goldman.] 

142. A Portrait ; kit cat. 

1764. 143. Ditto; three-quarters. 

144. Small whole-length of a Lady. 

145. Ditto of Mr. Moody in the character of Foigard. [Sir 

Henry Irving (the late).] 

146. A Lady Playing on the Glasses. 

In Lincoln's Inn Fields ; Mr. Zaffanij. 

1765. 167. Mr. Garrick's drunken scene in the Provoh'd Wife. [The 

Garrick family .] 



168. A Family Piece. (Dr. Nugent 's WALPOLE.) [Sir E. C. 

Portugal Row, Lincoln's Inn Fields. 

1766. 198. Mr. Garrick in the character of Lord Chalkstone. [The 

Garrick Club} 
199. The Miser in the same entertainment. 

1767. 194. A scene in Love in a Village. (Shuter, Beard and Dunstal 

in the characters of Justice Wood, Hawthorne, and 
Hodge, Act I. WALPOLE.) [Mr. Acton Garle.] 
195. A Family. 

1768. (Special.) 138. Mr. Beard, Mr. Shuter, and Mr. Dunstal, a 

scene in Love in a Village. [The Earl of Yarborough.] 

Mr. Zoffanii, Portugal Row, Lincoln's Inn Fields. 

1769. 213. A Porter with a Hare. (A Boy reading the Direction, 

another looking up, eating bread-and-butter. WALPOLE.) 
Ehrich Gallery.] 

214. A scene in The Devil upon two Sticks. (The President and 

Dr. Last fetching his shoes. P. Well, Doctor ! Dr. L. 
I have left my shoes. WALPOLE.) [Earl of Carlisle] 

215. A Nobleman's Family. [Duke of Atholl] 

216. A Portrait of a Child with a Dog. (A cradle. WALPOLE.) 

217. A Portrait ; small whole-length. 

218. Ditto of a Gentleman. 

219. Ditto of a Gentleman and his Son. 

3 57 . A small whole-length . 

358. Ditto larger. 

359. A Gentleman's Family. (Probably Colonel Bradney's 



Mr. Zaffanii, Lincoln's Inn Fields. 

1766. 201. Their Royal Highnesses the Prince of Wales and Prince 
Frederick as cupids, with a landscape on copper. [H.M. 
The King] 


Johan Zoffanij, Frith St., Soho. 

1770. 211. The Royal Family. (In Vandyke dresses, ridiculous a 

print of it. WALPOLE.) [H.M. The King] 


212. The last scene of the second Act in The Akhymist. (This 

most excellent picture of Burton, J. Palmer and Garrick, 
as Abel Drugger, is one of the best pictures ever done by 
this Genius. Sir Joshua Reynolds gave him 100 for it 
D. Carlisle offered the latter twenty guineas more for it 
Sir Joshua said, he should have it for the 100 if his Lord- 
ship would give the 20 to Zoffani, which he did. WAL- 
POLE.) [Earl of Carlisle.] 

213. A Portrait of a Young Gentleman ; small whole-length. 

1771. 230. His Majesty; half-length. (Very like, but most disagree- 

able and unmeaning figure. WALPOLE.) [H.M. The 

231. A Portrait of a Young Gentleman ; whole-length. 

232. A Beggar's Family. [Mr. M. Drtimmond.] 

1772. 290. The Portraits of the Academicians of the Royal Academy. 

(This excellent picture was done by candle-light ; he 
made no design for it, but clapped in the artists as thcv 
came to him, and yet all the attitudes are easy and natural, 
most of the likenesses strong. There is a print from it. 
WALPOLE.) [H.M. The King.] 

291. An Optician, with his Attendant. (Extremely natural, but 

the characters too common nature, and the chiaroscuro 
destroyed by his servility in imitating the reflexions of 
the glasses. WALPOLE.) ' [H.M. The King.] 

292. A Portrait of an Officer ; small whole-length. 

1773. 320. Portrait of Her Majesty, in conversation with her two 

brothers and part of the Royal Family. (And Lady 
Charlotte Finch. WALPOLE.) [H.M. The King.] 
321. A Portrait. (Prince Ernest of Mecklenburg. WALPOLE.) 

368. St. Cecilia ; three-quarters. 

369. A Sybil ; three-quarters. (Style of the good painters but 

affected. WALPOLE.) 


1775. 352. The Repose, in the flight into Egypt. (Wretched. WAL- 

Alhemarle Street. 

1780. 68. A room in the gallery of Florence, called the Tribuna, in 
which the principal part is calculated to show the different 
styles of the several masters. [H.M. The King.] 
163. Portrait of a Gentleman. ( JOHN BURKE.) 
204. Girl with Watercresses. [Lord Revelstoke.] 


J. Zoffany, RJL. 

1781. 85. A Gentleman's Family. (Mr. Sharp, surgeon.) (The 

Sharps in their barge, a musical family, who went every 
summer on the river in a large vessel. The figures 
are most natural, and highly finished, but a great want 
of keeping on the whole. WALPOLE.) [Mr. G. E. L. 

175. Portrait of a Young Lady. 

223. Ditto Gentleman. 

246. A character in The School of Scandal. (Mr. Baddeley.) 
[Mrs. Hutchinson] 

1782. i. Portrait of a Gentleman. (Mr. Sympson, musician.) 

53. A Conversation. (Mr. and Miss Wilkes.) (Horridly like. 

WALPOLE.) [Sir S. Baker, Bart.] 
92. A Character (Morgi, in Viaggiatori Felici.) (In comic 

op era . WALPOLE . ) 

East Indies. 

1783. 44. Portrait of a Gentleman. (Mr. Ma . This is all that 

could be read in the catalogue copied from, the rest 
cut off.) 

1784. 2. Portrait of a Gentleman. (Mr. Maddison.) 
98. Ditto. (Mr. Chase.) 

Russell Place. 

1790. 157. A Battle Piece against Hider Ally. 

191. A Nobleman's Collection. (Mr. Charles Townley, Mr. 
Dankerville, Mr. Thomas Astle, Mr. Charles Grenville.) 
[Lord O'Hagan] 
283. Portrait of a Young Lady. (Miss C. Zoffany.) 

1795. 18. Plundering the King's Cellar at Paris, August 10, 1793. 

7, Bennet Street, St. James's. 

1796. 85. Mr. Townsend as the Beggar in the pantomime of Merry 


no. Mr. Knight as the Clown in the farce of The Ghost. [Gar- 
rick Club.] 

125. Hyderbeg on his mission to Lord Cornwallis, with a view 
of the granary erected by Warren Hastings, Esq., at 


195. Susanna and the Two Elders. 

Strand-on-the-Green , near Keto Bridge. 

1797. 152. A Beggar's Family. 

1798. 167. A Professor of the Harp. 

1800. 101. Moses and Pharaoh's Daughter. 

224. Joseph and Mary on their Flight to Egypt. 

225. Ditto. 
522. Ditto. 







Frontispiece to a work entitled Attempts to Compose Six Sonnets, by 
Master Southbrook, 1797. Engraved by T. Stow. It represents one 
Muse leading the boy to another. 

" The Watercress Girl," said to be a portrait of Jane Wallis, engraved 
by J. R. Smith, 1780. Mezzotint. 15 ,\ n. 

There is also a print of this by T. Young, 1785. 

Shuter, Beard and Dunstall as Woodcock, Hawthorn and Hodge in 
Love in a Village, Act I, Scene vi, 1768. Engraved by J. Finlayson. 
Mezzotint. 22 x 18. 

The Towneley Marbles. Large mezzotint. By W. II. Worthington. 
(S.K., G. 7 A.) 

The Key to the same. The four persons represented are as follows 

Mr. Towneley seated apart from the rest. Opposite to him 
Monsieur D'Hancarville standing, the Hon. Charles Greville 
with his hand on the table, and near to him Mr. Astle, the Keeper 
of the State Papers. 

Plundering the King's Cellar at Paris on August 10, 1793. R. Earlom. 
Mezzotint. Published 1795. 

The Porter and the Hare. A man holding a hare, speaking to two boys. 
Engraved by R. Earlom. Published in 1774. Mezzotint. Published also 
in colour by Sayer and Bennett, 1780. 

The Embassy of Hyder Beck to Calcutta, from the Vizier of Oudh by 
the way of Patna, in 1788, to meet Lord Cornwallis. Engraved by Earlom. 
Published in 1800. 21 i x 18$. 

Key to the above picture, also published in 1800. 

Colonel Mordaunt's Cockfight at Lucknow in 1786. Engraved by 
Earlom. Published in 1792. Mezzotint. 26^ i8i. 

The Life School in the Royal Academy. Zoffany is represented in a 
corner holding a palette. Engraved by Earlom. Published in 1773. 
(S.K., G. 7 C.) 28J :: 19$. 

Key to the above with the names of the various Royal Academicians 



Tiger hunting in the East Indies in 1788. Engraved by Earlom. 
Mezzotint. Published in 1802. 2i x i8. 

Key to the above. Zoffany is seated in the howdah on one of the 
elephants, and bareheaded, and with him is Sir John Macpherson. 

There is also a key to the Tribuna picture. It represents a group of 
connoisseurs looking at various pictures, and underneath are the names 
of the persons represented, as follows 

Earl Cowper. The Hon. Felton Hervey. 

Sir John Dick. Mr. Gordon. 

The Earl of Plymouth. Mr. Patch. 

Mr. Zoffany. Sir John Taylor. 

Mr. Stevenson. Sir Horace Mann. 

The Earl of Dartmouth. The Earl of Winchelsea. 

Mr. Lorain Smith. Mr. Watts. 

Lord Mount Edgcumbe. Mr. Doughty. 

Lord Russborough. Mr. T. Wilbraham. 

Mr. Valentine Knightley. Mr. Bruce and 

Mr. Bianelli. Mr. Wilbraham. 

Bransby Parsons and Watkins as ^Esop, old Man and Servant. En- 
graved by Young. Published by Simpson, 1788. 


Mrs. Baddeley. Engraved by Laurie. Published by Sayer in 1772. 
Mezzotint. In two sizes, 13! x io and cut down to i2f x 9^. 

There is also a vignette copy from this picture in stipple, engraved by 
H. R. Cook. Published by Payne in 1814. 3^ x 3! . 

Mrs. Baddeley with Mr. King as Fanny Sterling and Lord Ogleby in 
Colman's Clandestine Marriage. Act IV. Engraved by Earlom. Pub- 
lished by Sayer in 1772. Mezzotint. i6f x 21 f . 

Giacomo Bassevi. Performer on the violincello. Also called Cer- 
vetto. A Centenarian. Born 1682, died 1783. Engraved by Picot. 
Published in 1771. Represented holding his 'cello. Mezzotint. 13! x 

George, second Earl of Bristol. Standing, in peer's robes, holding 
coronet. Engraved by J. Watson. Mezzotint. 19! x 14. 

A second state of the engraving is known, with the purse introduced 
on the chair. 

Queen Charlotte. Represented nearly whole-length, leaning on a 
console, on which is a vase of flowers. Engraved by Houston. Mezzo- 
tint. Published by Sayer, 1772. (S.K., Box 14.) i8f x 


There is a copy from this with the vase omitted. Published by 
Sayer in 1773. Also a mezzotint, but engraved by Laurie. 14$ x iij. 

There is another copy half-length only. Engraved by Laurie. Mezzo- 
tint. Published by Sayer in 1772. i2 x 9$. 

There is a fourth copy, published by Sayer and Bennett, but the 
engraver's name is not given, and it is three-quarter length, a small mezzo- 
tint. 5 x 4. 

George Coleman, Dramatist (1732-1704) as a young man. Engraved 
by E. Smith, as a plate for Effigies Pceticte. Small line engraving. 4 / ; . 

Sir William Chambers. Romney sculp. Published 1817 by C. G. 
Dyer. Facsimile of signature. Full-length standing. 

Andrew Drummond, founder of Drummond's Bank (1688-1769). 
Seated under some trees, with a dog beside him. Engraved by J. Watson. 
Mezzotint. ioj x 15. 

Elizabeth Farren, Countess of Derby (1759-1829). Represented as 
" Hermione " in the Winter's Tale. Standing full-face, with her arm on a 
cabinet. Engraved by E. Fisher. Published by Sayer and Bennett, 1781. 
Mezzotint. 23 x 16. 

Ferdinando I, inscribed" Hispaniarum Infanti Rcgio et Corregio. Pinx. 
Zoffany Sculp." Large Fol. Very rare. Circa 1800. 

Samuel Foote, Actor, with T. Weston, as the President and Dr. Last in 
The Devil upon Tzvo Sticks, standing in a room. Engraved by J . Finlayson. 
Published by Zoffany in 1789. Mezzotint. (S.K., pp. 14.) 16^' 21^. 

The same actor as Major Sturgeon in The Mayor of Garrett. Standing 
with Sir J. Jollop. Engraved by J. G. Haid. Published by Boydell in 
1765. Mezzotint. (S.K., pp. 14.) 16 x 19,4. 

A Watch Paper. A copy from the last, i' inches in diameter. 
Engraver anonymous. Published by R. Sayer. 

Thomas Gainsborough, R.A. Bust looking to the left. A photo- 
gravure used on the title of Armstrong's Gainsborough, published in 1898. 

David Garrick as Abel Drugger in Jonson's The Alchymist, Act II, 
Scene vi. Holding a pipe, being a single figure from a group which 
represents Garrick, Burton and Palmer. Mezzotint. Engraved by J. 
Dixon. Published by R. Sayer in 1791 . (S.K., pp. 14.) Also published 
in 1771 and dedicated to Lord Carlisle. Engraved on the plate itself. 
14! x ii. 

The same picture published by Colnaghi's in 1825, and engraved by 
S. W. Reynolds. Mezzotint. i8 :: 13. 

The same actor in The Farmer's Return. Seated in a cottage with his 
family. Engraved by J. G. Haid. Published by Boydell in 1766. Mezzo- 
tint. 17 x 15!. 

The same actor as Sir John Brute, in Vanbrugh's Provoked Wife. 


A single figure from the group of Sir John with the watchmen. He is 
represented whole-length in his wife's clothes. Engraved anonymous. 
Published by R. Sayer, 1769. It was also engraved by Finlayson and 
published November i, 1768. (S.K., pp. 14.) 3f x 3. 

The same actor with Mrs. Cibber as " Jaffier " and " Belvidera " in 
Otway's Venice Preserved. He is offering to stab Mrs. Cibber who kneels 
before him. Act IV, Scene ii. Engraved by McArdell. Published by 
the same in 1764. Mezzotint. (S.K., pp. 14.) 17 x 2if . 

A copy from the above engraved by Stayner in line, and published 
by C. Sheppard. 8f x i2|. 

Another copy from the same engraving by Wilson. Published by R. 
Sayer. Mezzotint. 8 x 135. 

The same actor with Mrs. Pritchard as " Macbeth " and " Lady 
Macbeth." Act II, Scene iii. Engraved by Valentine Green. Published 
by Boydell in 1776. Mezzotint. Two states known. i6| x 21 f. 

A portrait of Garrick after Zoffany was lithographed by L. Dickenson. 
To the right, collar open at throat, animated expression, full-face. 

George III. Seated in an armchair, with a hat and sword on the table 
to the left. Engraved by R. Houston. Published by R. Sayer in 1772. 
Mezzotint. (S.K., pp. 14.) i8| x 15! . 

The same picture engraved by Fritzsch. Inline. Published by Beren- 
berg, 1779. i8| x 15$. 

The same picture, but the table with the hat and sword omitted. 
Engraved by R. Laurie. Published by R. Sayer in 1773. Mezzotint. 
141 x 11$. 

The same picture, but published by Laurie and Whittle in 1794. 
Engraver anonymous. Mezzotint. i2f x gf. 

The same picture, half-length only, in an oval frame. Engraved by 
R. Laurie. Published by Sayer in 1772. Mezzotint. i2| x 9^ . 

The same picture, published by Sayer and Bennett in 1774. Engraver 
anonymous. Small mezzotint. 5^ x 4. 

The same picture. A German book illustration in line, the bust 
only. 4! x 2\. 

Circular frame, with name on tablet. Engraved by Endner. 

George III. Their most Sacred Majesties George III and Queen 
Charlotte with His Royal Highness George, Prince of Wales, Frederick, 
Bishop of Osnaburgh, Prince William Henry, Princess Charlotte Augusta 
Matilda, Prince Edward, and Princess Sophia Augusta. J. Zoffany 
pinxit 1770. Earlom sculpsit London, October 1770. Published as 
the Act directs, January i, 1771, by R. Sayer. The plate measures 
23! x i8J. This does not include the lettering. 

Hanson Thomas. W. Dickenson fecit 1770. Zoffany pinxit 1767. 


Mezzotint. 16 x 12 J print. A man seated under a tree, holding a stick 
in his hand and his hat on his knee. 

Warren Hastings (1732-1818). Bust, almost full-face. Engraved 
by R. Brittidge, and published by him in Calcutta, 1784. Small line 
engraving. 8| x 7$. 

The same picture, but set within an ornamental oval frame. Anony- 
mous engraver. Published by J. Murray in 1786, as a frontispiece to his 
Memoirs Relative to the State of India. 

John Heaviside, F.R.S., Surgeon to George III (1748-1828). 
Represented lecturing, with his hand on a heart. Engraved by R. Earlom. 
Published by Laurie and Whittle in 1803. Mezzotint. From a picture 
belonging to J. Doratt, Esq. (S.K., pp. 17.) 17$ x 14. 

Sir Elijah Impey, Chief Justice of Bengal (1732-1809'). Standing 
full-face, in judicial robes. The picture is at Calcutta. A photograph of 
it is at the India Office. 

Hester Maria Thrale, afterwards Viscountess Keith, when twenty 
months old, sitting on the floor by a cradle, fondling a dog. Oval. 
Engraved by J. Marchi. Mezzotint. 17$ x 14. 

Thomas King, Actor (1730-1805). As " Puff " in Sheridan's The 
Critic. Holding papers and a cane. Engraved by J. Young. Published 
by T. King in 1803. Mezzotint. Also there is an Earlom mezzotint 
at South Kensington of this print, see Box 13. 2o x 17. 

The same picture representing him at a window. Engraved in line 
by J. Goldar. Published by Bellamy and Robarts, 1789. 6x4. 

Edmund Keene, Bishop of Ely (1714-1781). Seated by a table, 
resting an open book upon his knees. Engraved by C. Turner. Published 
by the same in 1812. Mezzotint. 15^ :: 13!- 

Robert Marsham, F.R.S. (1708-1791). Resting his head on his hand. 
Engraved by W. C. Edwards. Published by C. Musket t of Norwich. 
Line engraving, also an etching by Edwards drawn by Sands from a 
picture by Zonany. 7 x 53. 

John Moody, Actor, as Foigard in The Stratagem. Engraved by 
J. Marchi. Published by J. Wesson. Mezzotint. i8J :: 14. 

Richard Neville Neville of Billingbear, Berks. By P. W. Tomkins, 
1803. 5$ x 4f. 

Another engraved by Basire, same picture, bust only. 5 x 4^. 

Edward, third Earl of Oxford. Died 1755. Whole-length, standing 
in a room, surrounded by his family. Engraved in stipple by Posselwhite 
as a plate to Drummond's Notable British Families, 1846. loj x 9$. 

Robert Price of Foxley, Hereford. Father to Sir Uvedale Price, Bart. 
Died 1761. Bust to the right, oval, in a rectangular frame. Engraved by 
J. Basire in line. Published by J. Nichols in 1910. 4! x 4. 


Simon F. Ravenet, Engraver. Resting his face on his hand. In 
oval frame of masonry on pedestal. 1763. Engraved by Ravenet himself. 
Line. " Peiut par son Ami Zoffanii." (S.K., g. 56.) yj x 4|. 

A reversed copy from the above, plain oval. Line engraving by an 
anonymous engraver. 4 x 3^. 

Reynolds, Sir J. Full-length with ear trumpet. Romney sc. Zoffany 
pinxit G. W. Brightdel. 1817. W. Dickenson fecit 1770. 

John Montagu, fourth Earl of Sandwich (1718-1792). From the 
picture in the Trinity House. Engraved by Valentine Green and pub- 
lished by him in 1774. Mezzotint. Four states known. (S.K., pp. 26.) 
17! x 14. 

James Sayer, son of Robert Sayer the print-seller, at the age of thirteen, 
represented standing by a stream, taking a fish off the hook. Engraved by 
R. Houston. Published by R. Sayer, 1772. Mezzotint. i8 x 14. 

John Christopher Smith (originally Schmidt) Musician. Pupil of 
Handel (1721-1795). Stipple engraving by E. Harding, representing him 
seated at a table. 

George Steevens. Shakespeare Commentator (1736-1800). Seated 
at a table with two dogs. Engraved in stipple by W. Evans. Published 
by S. Harding in 1800. 5i x 4^. 

The same picture, half-length only, a plate for Dibdin's edition of 
Ames's Topographical Antiquities, 1816. Engraved by T. Hodgetts. 
Mezzotint. 8| x 6. 

Benjamin Stillingfleet, Naturalist (1702-1771). Seated at a table, 
holding a magnify ing-glass, with his hand on a volume of Linnasus. 
Engraved by Valentine Green. Mezzotint. Two states known. 
n| x 10. 

The same picture engraved in stipple by Shipster. 3! x 3. 

The same picture, bust only, used as a plate for Nichol's Literary 
Anecdotes, 1812. Engraved in line by J. Basire. 5 x 4^. 

James Thornton, the King's gardener at Kew. Engraved by R. 
Houston. Published by R. Sayer in 1770. Mezzotint. io| x 9. 

John Wilkes, bust only. Book Illustration. Engraved in stipple bv 
S. Freeman. 2f x 2f . 

Miss Mary Wilkes, daughter of John Wilkes. Bust in oval. Engraved 
in stipple by S. Freeman. Published by Longmans in 1804. af x 2%. 

Mrs. Catherine Wodhull. C.S. 124. 6-15. Rich Houston fecit 
1772. Mezzotint. R. Sayer. 19^ x 14. 

Mrs. Yates, Actress. Evans alludes to a portrait of her after Zoffany, 
engraved by Watson, but whether by Caroline James or Thomas is not 
clear. Houston also engraved a portrait of Mrs. Yates, as " Electra," 
which is declared as after Zoffany. 


Subject Painter 

ZOFFANY, JOHN, R.A., painter, 1733-1810. 

1 . Half-length right profile ; vignette from 

a crayon drawing. Published W. 
Daniell, 1814. 
Soft ground etching. 

2. Nearly whole-length to right, seated, in 

furred gown, holding skull and hour- 
glass. One set of plates from portraits 
of painters in the Uffizi Gallery. 
Printed in colours. Mezzotint. 

6* x 5- J 

3. Same picture. ' Bozzolini del." 

Line. 8J x 6|. J 



G. Dance. W. Daniell. 


C. Lasinio. 
G. Vascellini. 

Zoffany's portrait is believed to be one of those in the representation 
of the Society for the Encouragement of Art, distributing their annual 
premiums, painted by John Barry, R.A., Professor of Painting to the 
Royal Academy, in the room of the Society of Arts, and etched in Nlay 1791. 

Zoffany's portrait appears in the engravings of the Royal Academicians 
after H. Singleton. Engraved by C. Bestland, 1802. According to the 
Key, Zoffany is No. 22, one of two men whose heads are on a level with 
the top of Benjamin West's chair. The two are together, and Zoffany 
is the elder one, and the further one from the chair. 

Zoffany's portrait appears in a collection of Italian engravings of 
eminent painters, issued both plain and coloured, the latter being of 
extreme rarity. His portrait is No. 65 in the third volume (B.M. 209, 3), 
and is labelled Giovani Zoffani Pittore. He is represented in a grey 
gown trimmed with sable fur; there is a landscape background, and near 
to the artist is a skull and some yellow books. He is holding an hour- 
glass in his hands. 

It has been stated, but without any authority, that Zoffany's portrait 
appears in the painting called " Garrick in the Green Room, after Hogarth," 
by W. J. Ward. Published by Southgate in 1829. It is improbable that 
this print was after Hogarth at all, and it is quite unlikely that it should 
include Zoffany. Garrick is the principal person in the group, and he 
is surrounded by various actors, Baddeley and others. 




The greater part of this information is extracted, by kind permission, from the in- 
valuable works by Mr. Algernon Graves, notably from A Century of Loan 
Exhibitions. The remainder is taken from the catalogues of the Royal Academy 
and other Exhibitions. 

British Institution. 

1814. 2. Tribune of the Florentine Gallery. 
Lent by King George III. 

79. Mr. Cuffs. 

Lent by King George III. 

80. Garrick as Abel Drugger, etc. 

Lent by Earl of Carlisle. 

81. Macklin as Shylock. 

Lent by Sir G. Beaumont. 
88. Garrick in Provoked Wife, etc. 

Lent by Earl of Mulgrave. 
94. Foote and Weston in Devil on Two Sticks. 

Lent by Earl of Carlisle. 
99. Foote and Jacob in Mayor of Garratt. 

Lent by Earl of Carlisle. 
120. Garrick, Bransby and Aicken in Lethe. 

Lent by Sir G. Beaumont. 
124. Parsons, Bransby and Watkyns in Lethe. 

Lent by Sir G. Beaumont. 
163. The Royal Academy. 

Lent by King George III. 

Additions to Third Catalogue 

1814. 92*. Mr. Townley's Gallery, with D'Hankerville, Mr. Astell, 
Hon. Charles Greville, and Charles Townley. 

Lent by - Townley. 
131*. Time clipping wings of Cupid. 
Lent by John Birch. 


1826. 121. Interior of Buckingham House, with Duke of Clarence 

and Queen of Wiirttemberg. 

Lent by King George IV. 
125. Room in Kew Palace, with George III, Queen Charlotte, etc. 

Lent by King George IV. 
158. The Royal Academy. 

Lent by King George IV. 
162. Florence Gallery. 

Lent by King George IV. 

1827. 140. Room in Kew Palace. 

Lent by King George IV. 
143. George IV and Duke of York as Children. 

Lent by King George IV. 
147. The Royal Academy. 

Lent by King George IV. 
151. Florence Gallery. 

Lent by King George IV. 
171. Two Old Men. 

Lent by King George IV. 
175. The Royal Family. 

Lent by King George IV. 
1840. 80. Foote as Major Sturgeon, etc. 

Lent by Earl of Carlisle. 

81. Garrick as Abel Drugger, etc. 

Lent by Earl of Carlisle. 

82. Foote and Weston in Dr. Last. 

Lent by Earl of Carlisle. 
101. Mendicants in a Landscape. 

Lent by Andrew Drummond. 
1849. 54. Love in a Village, etc. 

Lent by Earl of Yarborough. 
59. The Farmer's Return. 

Lent by Earl of Yarborough. 
124. The Towneley Gallery. 

Lent by Charles Towneley. 
1855. 105. Andrew Drummond. 

Lent by G. J. Drummond. 
118. Queen Charlotte, Prince of Wales, and Duke of York. 

Lent by Queen Victoria. 
122. Princess Royal and Duke of Clarence. 

Lent by Queen Victoria. 
124. An Indian Scene. 

Lent by Capt. L. M. Strachey. 


131. Reading the Direction. 

Lent by Eyre Coote. 
1856. 100. An Indian Princess. 

Lent by Capt. L. M. Strachey. 

1858. 145. George III, Queen Charlotte and family. 

Lent by Queen Victoria. 
155. Queen Charlotte and Brothers. 
Lent by Queen Victoria. 

1859. 128. Garrick and Mrs. Pritchard. 

Lent by Walter Long. 
166. Gainsborough. 

Lent by Miss Clarke. 

1862. 201. Colonel Mordaunt's Cock-Match at Lucknow. 

Lent by Colonel Dawkins. 

1863. 119. A Child. 

Lent by Rev. V. Edwards. 

1864. 128. A Lady. 

Lent by Rev. V. Edwards. 
140. A Gentleman. 

Lent by Rev. V. Edwards. 

1865. 176. Garrick as Lord Chalkstone. 

Lent by Dr. Hamilton. 
1867. 208. Moody as Father Foigard. 

Lent by Earl of Charlemont. 

Suffolk Street. 

1832. 89. Macklin, Miss M. Clarke and Bentley in Merchant of Venice. 

Lent by D. Colnaghi. 
I ^33 > 47- J- Zoffany, R.A. 

Lent by W. F. Ayton. 
216. Mrs. Hartley (actress). 

Lent by S. V. Bone. 
1834. 154. J. Stackpoole. 

Lent by W. Hutchins. 

Manchester (Art Treasures). 

l %57- 93- Scene from Love in a Village. 

Lent by Earl of Yarborough. 
95. Garrick in Farmer's Return. 

Lent by Earl of Carlisle. 
International Exhibition. 
1862. 32. The Lapidaries. 

Lent by Queen Victoria. 


36. Dr. Wm. Hunter demonstrating Anatomy. 
Lent by College of Physicians. 

93. Group of George Ill's Family. 

Lent by Queen Victoria. 

94. George III and Family Group. 

Lent by Queen Victoria. 
155. The Tribune, Florence. 

Lent by Queen Victoria. 

The Royal Academy Winter Exhibitions. 

1871. 265. Hunter Lecturing. Oval, 30 x 41. 

Lent by the Royal College of Physicians. 

1872. 2. The Life School at the Royal Academy 39 x 

Lent by Her Majesty the Queen. 

274. Andrew Drummond. 89 x 70. 

Lent by G. J. Drummond. 

1875. 244. A Garden and Water Party near Molesey. 39 x 49. 

Lent by T. J. Austen. 

1876. 51. Richard Pocock, African Traveller, afterwards Bishop of 

Ossory, then of Meath. In Eastern Costume. (1704- 
1765.) 79i x 52|. 

Lent by F. Beilby Alston. 

1877. 267. Thurston in the Merry Beggars of Sherwood, a play by 

Leonard MacNally. 1784. 49 x 40. 

Lent by Merthyr Guest, Esq. 

He is represented kneeling, and has just written down in 
chalk the words " Such is my ability," which gives the title 
to the picture. (Since destroyed by fire. G. C. W.) 
273. A Scene from the Opera of The Decoy, or The Harlot's 
Progress, by Potter. 1733. 

Lent by J. T. Gibson-Craig, Esq. 

The interior of a room, a register office. A man at a 
table with papers. Another ragged man standing before 
him. 41^ x 44^. 

1878. 230. The Graham family group. Sir Bellingham Graham, the 

fifth Baronet, his son and his two daughters. 39^ x 49. 
Lent by Sir Reginald Graham. 

1879. I2 - Portrait of Warren Hastings. 28 x 22. 

Lent by Colonel H. F. Davies. 
27. The Sharp Family Party. 45^ x 49^. 

Lent by T. Barwick L. Baker. 

N.B. In the catalogue all the thirteen persons are named 
and described 


34. Garrick and his wife on the banks of theThames. 42$ x 52$. 

Lent by Frances, Countess Waldegrave. 
172. Reynolds, Bacon and Chambers. 

Lent by Montague Chambers. 

Half-length figures round a table on which is a plan. 
46 x 56. 

This represented Reynolds, Wilton and Chambers, and 
was found to be signed by Rigaud. It was bought in 1895 
at the Price sale by the N.P.G. G. C. W. 

1881. 41. Family Portraits. 

Lent by George Lionel Dashwood, Esq. 
Twelve small full-length figures, some seated and some 
standing, in a landscape, under the shade of a large tree. 
They comprise (beginning from the left) portraits of General 
Auriol, Mr. John Auriol, Mr. Prinsep, Mrs. Dashwood, 
Mrs. Prinsep, Mr. Dashwood and Mr. Auriol, besides five 
native attendants. The two ladies are seated at a tea-table, 
and Mr. Dashwood and Mr. Auriol are playing chess. 
Painted in India, about 1784. Canvas 53 x 76. 

1882. 268. Portrait of Queen Charlotte. 

Lent by H.M. the Queen (from Buckingham Palace). 
Charlotte Sophia, second daughter of Charles Louis 
Frederick, Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz; b. 1744; m. 
George III, 1761; d. 1818. 

Three-quarter figure, seated to left ; blue dress trimmed 
with lace; pearl necklace, high headdress; leans right arm 
on table, on which stands a vase of flowers; architectural 
and curtain background. Canvas 64 :: 54. 
1884. 54- Macklin as Shylock. 

Lent b\ Marquis of Lansdowne. 

Charles Macklin or MacLaughlin; said to have been 
born in 1690; first appeared as " Shylock" in February 
1741, on which occasion Pope said of his performance 

" This is the Jew 
That Shakespeare drew " ; 

wrote several plays himself; d. 1797. 

This picture probably commemorates his last appearance 
in the same character at the age of ninety. The figure 
seated on the extreme left of the picture is a portrait of 
the Earl of Mansfield. Canvas 45 x 57. 
55. Garrick as Sir John Brute. 
Lent by Earl of Essex. 


David Garrick, the celebrated actor; b. 1716; d. 1779. 
Here represented in the character of " Sir John Brute," 
in Act IV, Sc. i. of Vanbrugh's comedy, The Provoked Wife. 
Small full-length figure in a lady's hat and gown. Canvas 
30 x 24. 

1885. 29. Portraits of Colonel Blair and Family. 
Lent by Arthur Pepys, Esq. 

Family group ; Colonel and Mrs. Blair seated on a sofa ; 
to the right a daughter playing with a kitten held in the 
arms of a native girl; on the left another daughter, seated 
before a square piano with music upon the desk. Painted 
in India, about 1789. Canvas 38 x 53. 

1887. 19. Portrait of Thomas Gainsborough, R.A. 

Lent by Mrs. Lane. 

The celebrated landscape and portrait painter; b. at 
Sudbury, Suffolk, 1727; was chosen an original member 
of the Academy, 1768; d. 1788. 

Small bust seen in front, profile to left; reddish coat 
and waistcoat; dark background. Canvas 8x7 (oval). 

1888. 17. David Garrick, in the character of Lord Chalkstone. 

Lent by Edward Hamilton, Esq., M.D. 
Small full-length, standing in front; embroidered coat 
and waistcoat; the coat trimmed with fur; hat and wig, 
white kerchief, black ribbon, and eyeglass; the right hand 
rests on a crutch stick. Canvas 30 x 25. 

1889. 151. Portrait of A Gentleman. 

Lent by Arthur J. Scott, Esq. 

Small full-length figure, in shooting costume, leaning 
on a gate, near a tree; his gun and hat in his left hand, his 
handkerchief in his right; landscape seen to right. Canvas 
29 x 24. 
152. Portrait of A Gentleman. 

Lent by Arthur J. Scott, Esq. 

Small full-length figure, in blue and grey dress, standing, 
resting his right hand, which holds his hat, on a pedestal; 
landscape seen through a doorway behind, over which hangs 
a curtain. Canvas 30 x 24!-. 

1890. 50. Portrait of Thomas Hanson. 

Lent by J. Hanson Walker, Esq. 

Of Crosby Square, London, Danish merchant. Small 
full-length figure seated to right in a chair under some 
trees; his stick in his left hand, and his hat in his right; 
red dress, white wig. Canvas 27! x 36. 


1891. 8. Portrait Group. 

Lent by Joseph C. T. Smith, Esq., of Shortgrove, Essex. 

Portraits of Thomas Somers Cocks, the banker, b. 
1737; d. 1796; and Richard Cocks, b. 1740; d. 1821 ; seventh 
and eighth sons of John Cocks of Castleditch. 

Two small full-length figures in a landscape; one seated 
under a tree, holding a paper, at which he is pointing; the 
other rests his left hand on his brother's shoulder. In- 
scribed with the names of the sitters and the painter. 
Canvas 27 x 35 A. 
16. Portrait Group. 

Lent by Joseph C. T. Smith, Esq. 

Portraits of the Rev. John Cocks, b. 1731 ; d. 179^ ; 
and James Cocks, b. 1734 ; d. 1804; third and fifth sons of 
John Cocks of Castleditch. 

Interior of a room; on the right the elder brother seated, 
with his left arm leaning on a round table and a book in his 
right hand; opposite him his brother, in a suit of dark-blue 
velvet, is standing, leaning his right arm on the back of a 
chair, and holding a three-cornered hat and a stick in his 
left hand. Inscribed with the names of the sitters and the 
painter. There is a picture on the wall representing an 
Indian group. Canvas 28 x 36. 
1891. 17. Portrait Group. 

Lent by Lady Sarah Spencer. 

Two ladies seated facing the spectator in a landscape, 
with a gentleman in a grey dress lined with red, standing 
beside them with legs crossed ; the elder lady, in a grey 
dress, with large headdress, is looking at the younger 
one, who is dressed in pink, with plumed headdress, and 
is playing a mandolin. Canvas 35 x 27. 
97. Portrait Group. 

Lent by the Marquis of Bristol. 

The persons represented are 

(i) Augustus John, third Earl of Bristol, b. 1724; Vice- 
Admiral of the Blue, d. 1779; (2) Man,-, daughter of 
Brigadier-General Lepell; m. 1720, John, Lord Hcrvey; 
(3) Lepell, their eldest daughter, m. 1743; (4) Constantine, 
first Lord Mulgrave, and d. 1789; (5) Mary, their second 
daughter, m. 1725; (6) George Fitzgerald, of Turlough, 
and d. 1753. 

The scene represents Lord Bristol taking leave of his 
mother and sisters and their husbands. 


Six small full-length figures; on the right, Lord Bristol 
and his mother, Lady Hervey, who is seated, his two sisters 
and their husbands on the left ; the open sea and a man-of- 
war seen through columns in the background. Canvas 
39! x 49. 

1892. 99. Portrait Group. 

Lent by Mrs. Roundell. 

The persons represented are, beginning from the left 
Mr. Richard Roundell, b. about 1740, d. 1772; Mr., 
afterwards Sir, Henry Dashwood, Bart., of Kirtlington Park, 
Oxford, b. 1745, d. 1828; the Hon. Thomas Noel, after- 
wards second Viscount Wentworth, d. 1815; and Mr. 
Walter R. B. Hawksworth, who afterwards took the name 
of Fawkes, b. 1746, d. 1792 ; all four Gentlemen Commoners 
of Christ Church, Oxford, at the same time, and great 

Group of four full-length figures in a garden on the 
banks of the Isis, with a view of Oxford in the distance; 
Mr. Fawkes on the right, and Mr. Dashwood sitting in the 
middle, are in hunting dress; the other two, of whom the 
tall one in the centre of the group is Mr. Noel, are wearing 
their gowns. Canvas 49^ x 39^. 

1893. 43. Portrait of an Actor. 

Lent by W. E. Brymer, Esq., M.P. 
Small full-length figure. Panel, 29 x 24. 
48. Portrait of an Actor. 

Lent by W. E. Brymer, Esq., M.P. 
Small full-length figure. Panel, 29 x 24. 
1895. 95. Interior of the Florence Gallery. 

Lent by H.M. the Queen (from Windsor Castle). 
Represents the famous Tribune in the Uffizi Gallery 
at Florence, with portraits of distinguished English con- 
noisseurs inspecting the pictures. The keeper of the 
Gallery is showing Titian's Venus to a group in the fore- 
ground, while another group, on the left, is inspecting 
the Cupid and Psyche. Canvas 47 x 59. 

Exhibited in 1780 under the title, " A Room in the 
Gallery of Florence, called the Tribune, in which the 
principal part is calculated to show the different styles of 
the several masters." 
100. The Life School in the Royal Academy, 1772. 

Lent by H.M. the Queen (from Windsor Castle). 


Represents the Academicians gathered about the model 
in the Life School at Somerset House. All the Acade- 
micians are present with the exception of Gainsborough 
and the two lady members, whose portraits, however, hang 
on the wall. Sir Joshua is nearly in the centre, ear-trumpet 
in hand, conversing with Wilton and Chambers; Zoffany 
himself sits on the left, palette on thumb, a pendant 
to the standing figure of Cosway on the right. Canvas 

39 x 5?i- 

Exhibited in 1772 under the title, " The portraits of the 

Academicians of the Royal Academy." 

1907. 143. Family Group. 

Lent by Lord Sherborne. 

Portraits of James Lenox Naper (afterwards Dutton), 
Esq., and his second wife, Jane, daughter of Christopher 
Bond, Esq., their son, James, first Lord Sherborne; and 
daughter, Jane Mary, married to Thomas Coke, Esq., of 
Holkam, afterwards Earl of Leicester. 

Interior of a room; Mrs. Dutton is seated near the fire 
talking to her son, who is playing cards with his sister 
seated opposite him; Mr. Dutton, also seated at the table, 
is talking to his daughter. Canvas 39^ x 50. 

1908. 83. Portrait of Thomas King as Lord Ogleby. 

Lent bv the Hon. Evan Charteris. 

Thomas King, the Actor and Dramatist, b. 1730; the 
original Sir Peter Teazle in Sheridan's School for Scandal, 
1777; ruined himself by gambling, and died in poverty, 

Small full-length, standing in a landscape. Canvas 

14 x n. 

90. Portrait of Lunardi, the Balloonist, giving a Display at 
Windsor Castle. 

Lent by Lord Ribblesdale. 

Vincenzo Lunardi, the celebrated aeronaut; b. 1759; 
made the first ascent in England from the Artillery Ground, 
Moorfields, September 15, 1784; d. 1806. 

Small full-length figure in uniform, standing in a land- 
scape, pointing with his left hand to a balloon which is seen 
in the sky hovering above Windsor Castle; his right arm, 
holding his hat, rests on the muzzle of a gun; on the collar 
of a black dog beside him is inscribed his name. Canvas 
38 x 2 8. 


91. Portraits of a Lady and Gentleman. 

Lent by T. Humphry Ward, Esq. 
Small full-lengths in a landscape; the lady in a blue 
and white striped dress, with wide lace sleeves, is seated; 
beside her, with his legs crossed, stands the gentleman 
in a russet-brown coat, waistcoat and breeches; his hat 
and stick are in his left hand, while his right rests on the 
back of the seat. Canvas 27 x 35. 
95. Portrait of Dr. T. Hanson, of Canterbury. 

Lent by J. Hanson Walker, Esq. 

Small full-length figure, seated to right in a chair under 
some trees; his stick in his left hand, and his hat in his 
right; red dress, white wig. Canvas 28 x 34^. 
1912. 155. Portrait of George Steevens. 

Lent by Lieut.-Col. T. H. B. Forster. 
The well-known commentator on Shakespeare, b. 1736; 
d. 1800. 

Half- figure, seated to left, head turned and looking at 
the spectator, with one arm round a dog sitting on a table 
beside him; his left hand is thrust into his coat; beside 
him is the head of another dog. Canvas 32^ x 27. 


1876. 377. Grand Duke of Austria, etc. 

Lent by S. Kynaston-Mainwaring. 


1883. 182. Mr. Buller. 

Lent by Lord Elphinstone. 

Grosvenor Gallery. 
1888. 120. Parsons, etc., in The Kaiser (painted with R. Wilson). 

39 x 49- 

Lent by Sir G. Beaumont. 
126. Garrick and King in Lethe (painted with R. Wilson). 

39 x 49- 

Lent by Sir G. Beaumont. 

1890. 13. Tattersall's in 1776. 

Lent by E. Tattersall. 

New Gallery (Guelph). 

1891. 315. Foote and Hayes in The Mayor of Garratt. 40x50. 

Lent by Earl of Carlisle. 



316. Garrick, Burton and Palmer in The Alchemist. 41 x 39. 

Lent by Earl of Carlisle. 

317. Foote and Weston in The Devil on Two Sticks. 40 x 50. 

Lent by Earl of Carlisle. 
151. Henry Duncombe. 36 x 27. 
Lent by Earl of Crawford. 

Grafton Gallery (Fair Women). 

1894. 172. Mary Anne Boyle. 

Lent by Richard Davey. 

Grafton Gallery (Fair Children). 

1895. 143. Queen Charlotte and Two Sons. 

Lent by Duke of Beaufort. 
149. Lady with Child and Doll. 
Lent by Lady Freake. 

Grafton Gallery (Musical). 

1897. 60. Garrick and Mrs. Pritchard. 

Lent by P. and D. Colnaghi & Co. 
61. Moody as Foiguard. 

Lent by Sir Henry Irving. 
64. Garrick as Sir J. Brute. 

Lent by Marquess of Normanby. 
67. David Garrick. 

Lent by H. G. Hine. 
72. Charles Frederick Abel. 

Lent by Charles Davis. 
76. Foote as Major Sturgeon. 

Lent by Earl of Carlisle. 
78. Foote and Weston as President and Dr. Last 

Lent by Earl of Carlisle. 
90. Garrick and Mrs. Gibber. 

Lent by Sir Henry Irving. 
93. Scene from Hamlet. 

Lent by Sir Henry Irving. 
97. David Garrick as Abel Drugger 

Lent by Earl of Carlisle. 
973. David Garrick. 

Lent by Joseph Grego. 
112. David Garrick. 

Lent by Sir Henry Irving. 


120. Garrick and his Wife playing Picquet. 

Lent by Shakespeare Memorial, Stratford-on Avon. 


1900. 52. A Lady. 29 x 24. 

Lent by Mrs. Benson Rathbone. 
61. Henry Buncombe. 35^ x 27. 

Lent by Lord Balcarres. 
1903. 62. i4th Lord Willoughby and Family. 40 x 50. 

Lent by Lord Willoughby de Broke. 


1902. 130. A Lady. 

Lent by Arthur Kay. 
132. A Family Party. 

Lent by Corporation of Glasgow. 

Whitechapel (Spring Exhibition). 

1906. 120. Garrick and Mrs. Gibber. 

Lent by C. Newton Robinson. 
122. Baddeley as Moses. 

Lent by Mrs. K. J. Hutchison. 
125. Garrick as Abel Drugger. 

Lent by Earl of Carlisle. 
126 Garrick and Wife playing Picquet. 

Lent by Shakespeare Memorial. 
232. Family of George III. 

Lent by Martin H. Colnaghi. 
238. Warren Hastings. 

Lent by General H. F. Davies. 
280. Two Children and Dog. 

Lent by T. Humphry Ward. 
321 Dr. Russell. 

Lent by Corporation of Brighton. 
11. The Minuet, A Family Party. 

Lent by Corporation of Glasgow. 
23. William Hunter lecturing at the Royal Academy. 

Lent by College of Physicians. 
31. Family of i4th Lord Willoughby de Broke. 

Lent by Lord Willoughby de Broke. 
49. Maria Walpole, Duchess of Gloucester. 
Lent by Mrs. Morland Agnew. 


8za. Family Group. 

Lent by W. C. Alexander. 
85. Horace Walpole. 

Lent by A. Kay. 
913. William Hunter. 

Lent by College of Physicians. 
93. Dibdin, Wife and Daughter. 

Lent by Sir H. Bulwer. 
no. Mrs. De la Vaux. 

Lent by Rev. G. M. Livett. 
114. William Macartney and Wife. 

Lent by Rt. Hon. Wm. Ellison Macartney. 
118. Family Group. 

Lent by William Asch. 
133. Miss Stevens (actress). 

Lent by Sir Charles Tennant. 
138. A Lady. 

Lent by Edgar Speyer. 
148. The Sharp Family on a Yacht. 

Lent byG.E. Lloyd Baker. 
157. Earl and Countess Cowper and Mr. and Mrs. Gore. 

Lent by Countess Cowper. 
There were two sets of numbers in this Catalogue. 

Whitechapel (Mohammedan Exhibition). 

1908. 2. A Mogul Prince. 

Lent by Mrs. SeKvyn. 

4. Hasan Raza Khan. 

Lent by India Office. 

5. The Dashwood Family. 

Lent by M. G. Dashwood. 

8. Asaf ud Daula (Oudh). 

Lent by India Office. 

9. Colonel Mordaunt's Cock- Fight. 

Lent by Marquess of Tweeddale. 
32. Lord Cornwallis and Son of Tippo Sahib. 

Lent by Major E. C. Moor. 
165. John Wombwell and Friends in India. 
Lent fry Mrs. G. A. Cartwright. 

Whitechapel (Pageant). 

1909. 12. Admiral Anson. 

Lent by C. Newton Robinson. 


Whitechapel (Shakespeare). 

1910. 2. David Garrick in Costume. 

Lent by Lord Aberdare. 
3. Foote as Major Sturgeon. 

Lent by Earl of Carlisle; 
5. David Garrick. 

Lent by Asher Wertheimer. 
7. Mrs. Yates in Character. 

Lent by Sir Hugh Lane. 

10. Foote and Weston in The Devil on Two Sticks. 

Lent by Earl of Carlisle. 

11. Mrs. Pritchard. 

Lent by J. H. Leigh. 

12. Garrick. 

Lent by Mrs. Bischoffsheim. 

13. David Garrick in Costume. 

Lent by Lord Aberdare. 

14. Baddeley as Moses. 

Lent by Mrs. Hutchison. 
1 6. Garrick and his Wife at Cards. 

Lent by Shakespeare Memorial. 
18. Garrick as Sir John Brute. 

Lent by Earl of Essex. 
20. Shuter, Beard and Dunstall. 

Lent by Earl of Yarborough. 
25. Garrick and Mrs. Pritchard. 

Lent by ]. H. Leigh. 

28. Garrick and Others in Farmer's Return. 

Lent by Earl of Yarborough. 

29. Foote as Major Sturgeon. 

Lent by Guy Laking. 
32 Garrick, Burton, and Palmer. 

Lent by Earl of Carlisle. 
92. David Garrick as Don John. 

Lent by Felix Wagner. 

Whitechapel (Sports). 

1912. 20. Tattersall's in 1776. 

Lent by Edmund Somerville Tattersall. 

Burlington Fine Arts Club. 

1907. 25. Charles Towneley in Library. 
Lent by Lord OTIagan. 



1908. 64. Mrs. Morris of Haddo (more like Romney). 

Lent by Thomas Baring. 
72. The Flower Girl. 

Lent by Thomas Baring. 

Paris (Cent Portraits de Femmes). 

1909. 50. Marchande de Cresson. 

Lent by Thomas Baring. 

Japan Exhibition. 

1910. 15. Thomas Hanson. 

Lent by L. Fleischmann. 


MUSEUM, MAY i, 1867. 

458. Queen Charlotte. 

Lent from Buckingham Palace. 

Three-quarter length, blue dress trimmed with lace, 
leaning on a table on which stands a vase of flowers. 
Canvas 65 ;: 54. 
464. George III. 

Lent from Buckingham Palace. 

Scarlet coat, star and ribbon of the Garter. Sword 
and cocked hat on table. Canvas 65 x 54. 

505. Pennell Hawkins (1716-1792). Surgeon to George II. Sergeant- 

surgeon with his brother, Sir Ciesar Hawkins, to George 111. 
Surgeon to the Middlesex Hospital. 

Lent by Sir Caesar Hawkins. 
Plum-coloured coat, powdered wig. Canvas 27 A x 21. \. 

506. Dr. Hunter, lecturing in the Life School of the Royal Academy, 

with a living model. Oval. Canvas 41 31. 

Lent by College of Physicians. 
518. Thomas Gainsborough, R.A. (1727-1788). 

Lent by Miss Clarke and painted as a gift to Gains- 

Small size three-quarter length to right. Canvas 9 7. 
546. The Life School in the Royal Academy in 1778, with two nude- 
models. Canvas 58 x 40. 

Lent from Windsor Castle. 

582. The Sharp Family on their Yacht. Canvas 49$ x 45. 
Lent by Mr. T. B. L. Baker. 


614. Shuter, Beard and Dunstall in Love in a Village. 

Lent by Mr. John Garle. 

Edward Shuter, comic actor, ob. 1776, aged forty-eight. 

John Beard, eminent vocalist (1717-1791). He was a 

singer at the Chapel Royal, proprietor and acting manager 

of Covent Garden Theatre, married, as his first wife, the 

daughter of James, Lord Waldegrave. 

Dunstall, comedian, ob. 1779. Canvas 50 x 40. 

618. Sir Richard Jebb, M.D. (1729-1787). Physician Extraordinary to 
George III. 

Lent by College of Physicians. 

Lavender-coloured coat, black gown. Canvas 30 x 25. 
654. John Wilkes, M.P., and his daughter. 

Lent by Sir Henry Baker, Bart. 

Full-length, small-sized figures. Wilkes seated, holding 
his daughter's hand, who stands on his right, a dog at foot. 
Canvas 50 x 39^. 

703 . George, third Earl Cowper, with his wife, Anne, daughter of Charles 
Gore, and his three sons, George, afterwards fourth Earl, Peter, 
afterwards fifth Earl, and Edward Spencer. 

Lent by Earl Cowper. 
Six figures in a room. Canvas 36 x 33. 
747. The Right Hon. Charles Fox (1749-1806). 

Lent by Colonel Holden. 

As a young man, half-length, standing. Blue costume, 
right arm leaning on a pedestal. Canvas 50 x 40. 
806. Charles Macklin, Actor (1690-1797). 

Lent by the Marquess of Lansdowne. 
Believed to have lived to the age of 107. Represented 
as Shylock playing before the Earl of Mansfield. There 
are twelve figures in the group. Canvas 59 x 46. 




of a most Curious and Unique Assemblage of the 


of that Distinguished Artist 


(Mcmhtr of :kt Rnvjl Audtmj} 

Removed from his late Residence at STRAND-ON-THE-GREEN. 


It is confidently affirmed will be found highly-deserving the minute 
Attention of the liberal Amateur. 


Are of the best of this much-admired Artist, and include several highly-finished 

Also <i Selection 

Highly Illustrative of the Costume and Manners of India, taken from the actual 

Representation ; together with Some Fine Academical Studies ; a/to An Assemblage o! 

Curious Asiatic Armour and Weapons, Matchless Silver Hookers, 





Which will be Sold bv Auction, by 



By Order of the Executors 

On THURSDAY, the 9 /// day of MAT, 1 8 i i 

and following day, at Twelve o'clock. 

May be dewed Two Dayi prior to the Sa/f, and Catalogues had. 






Commencing at Twelve o'Clock. 


1 . Three Portfolios containing seventeen Prints, after the Antique and 

Robinson's China Navigation. 

2. A ditto, with thirteen Fine Prints, after the Antique. 
2*. Twenty-three Imitations of Drawings. 


3. Enthusiasm Displayed, and Frontispiece to Kirby's Perspective, 

Woollett, a proof. 

4. Eight, The Bathos, Times, Sleeping Congregation, Receipt Tickets, 


5. Before and After, Churchill, Wilkes, and Lord Lovat. 

6. Gates of Calais, France and England, and Cockpit. 

7. Three, of Paul before Felix, and Moses and Pharaoh's Daughter. 

8. Twelve, the Industrious and Idle Apprentices. 

9. The Four Stages of Cruelty. 
10. Six, the Harlot's Progress, 
n. Eight, the Rake's Progress. 

12. The Four Times of the Day. 

13. The Four Election Prints. 


14. Twenty-six various Sketches, 

15. Two of Elephants and seven Sketches, Landscapes, etc. 

1 6. Twenty-one, Elephants and Horses. 

17. Six, Studies and Academy Figures. 

18. Twelve ditto. 

19. Six ditto. 

20. Seven ditto. 



21. Six ditto. 

22. Six ditto. 

23. Four ditto. 

24. Four ditto. 

25. Six ditto. 

26. Nine, Colonel Martin and other Portraits, etc. 

27. Seven, Natives of India. 

28. Seven Views. 

29. Four ditto. 

30. Five, very fine, Natives of India. 

31. Four, ditto, ditto. 

32. Three, Elephants Fighting, and two Views. 

33. Four Interesting Views, with a variety of Figures. 

34. Six Views. 

35. Three, fine, with numerous Figures. 

36. Three, ditto, Buildings and Figures. 

37. Six, ditto, Views. 

38. Two, ditto, Ruins. 

39. Three, ditto, ditto. 


40. Abecedario, Lezioni di Antichita Toscane, Histoire de la Peinture 

Ancienne, La Certosa di Bologna. 

41. Da Vinci on Painting and two on Architecture. 

42. Chaucer's Works, 1602, and Coke upon Littleton, 1684. 

43. Orlando Furioso, Venetia, 1565; cuts. 

44. Metamorphoses D'Ovide, Paris, 1676; plates. 

45. Decamerone di Boccaccio, Londra, 1762. 

46. Herodotus and Livy, in German, Francfort, 1593, Strasburg, 1590 

and Livy, in Italian, Venetia, 1547. 

47. Baldinucci's Painters, eighteen volumes, Fcrin/e, 1767. 

48. RennelPs Bengal Atlas. 

49. Kirby's Perspective, two volumes. 

50. Two Numbers containing twelve Portraits, from Holbein's Drawings 

in the King's Collection. 

51. Antichita di Verona. 

52. Farnese Gallery. 

53. One from Annibale Carraccio. 

54. One from celebrated Pictures of the fine Italian Masters in the 

Churches at Bologna, 



55. Five of Dorigny's Cartoons. 

56. A pair of fine Drawings of St. Peter, from one of the Ancient Masters, 

by Mr. Zoffany. 


57. Four Sketches, Lucretia, The Flight into Egypt, and two of an 

Indian Boy with Two Heads. 

58. Three Sketches, Susannah and the Elders, Contemplation, and a 

Design of the Altar-piece of the Chapel at Brentford. 

59. Two ditto, Return from the Tyger Chace, The Triumph of Reason, 

French Revolution. 

60. Two ditto, a Romantic Rocky Scene in Cumberland, and Townsend 

in the Beggar. 

61. The Rape of Europa, and a Student by Candlelight. 

62. Mars and Venus, and the Crucifixion. 

63. The Gypsies at Norwood, and Diana and Calista. 

64. One of Indian Mythology, and a View in India, with Figures. 

65. Finding the Body of Tippoo Sultaun. 

66. Ditto, more finished. 

67. A Gold Mine on the Coromandel Coast, and a Storm near Madras. 


68. A Portrait of Marco Ricci, by himself. 

69. An Italian Landscape, S. Rosa. 

70. A ditto, with Banditti, ditto. 

71. " Take up thy Bed and Walk" Bloemart. 

72. Portrait of Raphael, a very fine and accurate Copy, by Zoffany. 

73. Virgin and Child, L. da Vinci. 


74. The Holy Family attended by Angels; unfinished. 

75. Susannah and the Elders. 

76. The Burning of an Hindoo Woman; unfinished. 

77. A Romantic View on the Indian Coast, ditto. 

78. Finding the Body of Tippoo Sultaun. 

79. A Scene in Piccadilly near St. James's Church during a Fog and 

hard Frost, exhibiting the various Amusements of the Populace 
at that period. 



80. The Portrait of Lady Preston, of Woodford, with the Servant, Horses, 

etc.; nearly finished. 

81. The Sacrifice of an Hindoo Widow upon the Funeral Pile of her 

Husband; unfinished. 

82. Ditto, ditto, in a more forward state. 

83. Latona, not finished, with the Punishment of the Lycian Peasants. 

84. The Death of Gholaum Cawdor by Elephants, containing a numerous 

assemblage of Figures. 

85. A Scene in the Champ de Mars on the I2th of August, with a Portrait 

of the Duke of Orleans. 

86. THE INSIDE OF A LARDER. Very fine. 

87. A Groupe of Mendicants ; well-known characters. 

88. MR. KNIGHT, as the affrighted Country-man, in the Farce of the 

Ghost, very expressive and fine. 

89. MR. TOWNSEND in the Beggar, full of expression and character, and 

a striking resemblance. 

90. A Florentine Fruit Stall ; a most excellent groupe, very highly 

finished, and one of his best performances. 

91. " As You LIKE IT." Mr. King in Touchstone, and the celebrated 

Mrs. Robinson in Rosalind. The countenances completely 
finished in Mr. Zoffany's happiest manner. 

92. A SCENE IN " SPECULATION," with Portraits of Mr. Leicis, Mr. 

Quick, Mr. Munden, and Miss \Vallis. Mr. Xoffany's well-known 
ability in the representation of Theatrical Characters renders it 
unnecessary to eulogize the present performance. The animation 
and spirit which pervades the whole, declares his merits, and 
makes it deserving the patronage of the distinguished personage 
for whom it was painted. 

93. The " PROVOKED WIFE." The celebrated Picture of Garrick in Sir 

John Brute, with portraits of Mr. Parsons, and other performers 
of the day. Engraved. 

94. THE IOTH OF AUGUST at the time of the Parisian Populace break- 

ing open the King's Wine Cellars; strongly characteristic of the 
furor of the French Revolution, and the Outrages then committed. 
This picture is engraved. 

95. THE DEATH OF THE ROYAL TVGER, with portraits an accurate 

Representation of the mode in which this dangerous Amusement 
is at present practised in India. Engraved. 

96. The March of a Native Indian Army ; completely illustrating the 

different Casts of the Inhabitants by their Dresses, Employments, 
etc., and with which Mr. Zoffany was so completely acquainted 



by his long Residence in India and by his attentive observation. 

97. " LOVE IN A VILLAGE," with portraits of Mr. Shuter, Mr. Beard, 
and Mr. Dunstal, in Justice Woodcock, Hawthorn, and Hodge a 
remarkable fine performance. Engraved by Finlayson. 




Commencing at Twelve o 'Clock. 


1. A MAHOGANY folding Camera Obscura. 

2. A mahogany rising Easel. 

3. A mahogany Painter's travelling box, with an oval Porphyry Colour 

Stone, a ground glass, mullers and four pallets. 

4. A Porphyry Colour Stone, fifteen inches diameter. 

5. An Indian Fire Screen. 

6. A fine Anatomical Model of a Horse on a Pedestal, with cupboard 


7. A curious Delft child -bed linen basket. 

8. A dried Cat, very curious, discovered in Herculaneum, and a 

Rhinoceros's horn. 

9. Four curious Mandrake Figures. 


10. Two Melons, a Helmet, and one more. 

1 1 . Two pair of Helmets, 

12. Seven, various. 

13. A pair of Imperial Pyramids, ditto Zebras, ditto Spotted Melons 

ditto Baccinums, and two Iris's Ears. 

14. Fourteen, various. 

15. Eighteen, ditto. 

16. Fourteen, ditto. 

17. A Cork Jacket, an Indian Lanthorn, and a Speaking Trumpet. 




18. Two Musquetoons, with Swivels. 

19. An Indian Bow and five Arrows. 

20. A ditto and four Arrows. 

21. A Shield of Buffalo's Hide. 

22. A transparent ditto, ornamented. 

23. A curious Dagger, with Wooden Case, and a pair of Sandals 

24. A singular Oriental Dagger, inlaid with Gold. 

25. A curious two-handed Spear Sword, Silver mounted. 

26. A Battle Axe, the head inlaid with Gold. 

27. An uncommon two-edged Sword. 

28. A reversed Oriental Scvmetar. 

29. A curious Scymitar, Sifver handle. 

30. A ditto, ditto. 

31. A Steel Battle Mace of singular form. 

32. A valuable Oriental Scymitar, handle inlaid and gilt mountings 

33. Ditto, with Ivory carved handle. 

34. A curious Asiatic Instrument for decapitation. 

35. An Oriental Matchlock Gun, curiously inlaid with Gold 

36. A ditto, ditto. 

37. A Kamschatska Dress made of Fishes Bladders. 

38. A large Indian Feather Brush. 

39. A BEAUTIFUL SUIT OF PERSIAN ARMOUR, richly and curiously inlaid 

with Gold, consisting of a Helmet, with Chain Mail defence, and 
singular Appurtenances ; a pair of Garde-bras, a Breast and Back 
Plate, and two Side Pieces. 

40. AN EMBOSSED SUIT OF PERSIAN ARMOUR, richly and curiously inlaid 

with gold, consisting of the same number and of a similar description 
as the preceding lot. 


consisting of the Head Piece, Coat, and Trowsers. 

42. A GONG, of very fine and deep tone. 

43. TANDAVAAR MOORTIE, a form of SIEB ; a very curious carving in ivory. 

44. AL-KORAN, a beautiful MS. on vellum, illuminated through, and with 

a superb and highly decorated Title page, rare. 

45. A Portrait of Sir Joshua Reynolds, a very fine and highly finished 



47. A pair of very rare and large Horns, from the Buffalo of the South 

of Africa, their Colour and Polish is natural and beautiful. 



48. A pair of smaller Horns, from a Species of Antelope, very rare and 

extremely Wild, called by the Natives, the Muff tee, their Colour 
and Polish is natural, and they are also from the South of Africa. 

49. A splendid Rajah's TURBAN, with rich Gold Ornament, decorated 

with Stones and beautifully enamelled. 

50. A Chintz Outward Vest. 

51. A Mazarine Blue Silk Chinese Jacket, with Gold Buttons. 

52. A Pink Silk Outward Vest, with Gold Buttons. 

53. A Lilac ditto, brocaded in Flowers, Silver and Gold, with Gold 

Buttons, etc. 

54. A DEEP PINK DITTO, brocaded in Silver Flowers, Gold Buttons, 

and a pair of Trowsers to correspond. 

55. A RICH YELLOW DITTO, brocaded in Silver Flowers, and Silver 


56. A VERY RICH AND SPLENDID VEST, brocaded with Gold Flowers, on 

a Crimson Ground, with Silver Buttons, and a pair of Trowsers, 
with Flowers, Silver and Gold. 

57. A pair of very elegant Gold and Silver Slippers. 

58. A pair of ditto. 

59. A pair of ditto. 

60. A pair of ditto, with Ties. 

61. Four Striped Muslin Oriental Vests and two pair of Trowsers. 

62. Four Plain ditto. 

63. Four Plain ditto. 

64. Four Plain ditto. 

65. Six ditto. 




Whereas on the marriage of my daughter Cecilia Clementina Eliza- 
beth with the Rev. Thomas Home, junior, of Chiswick, I advanced to 
him the sum of 300, and transferred to Trustees the sum of 2000 
Bank 3 per cent, consolidated annuities in trust for my said daughter 
and their heirs and in default to revert back to me or my estate. And 
whereas on the marriage of my daughter Maria Theresa Louisa with 
John Doratt of Bruton Street, surgeon, I transferred to Trustees ^2000 
Bank 3 per cent, consolidated annuities in trust for my last mentioned 
daughter and her heirs and in default to revert as aforesaid ; also since 
the marriage of my said daughter Maria Theresa Louisa I have paid to 
the said John Doratt 300 to make my last mentioned daughter's fortune 
equal with that of her sister. 

I give and devise unto my dear wife Mar}- Zoffany all that messuage 
wherein I dwell in Chiswick with the coach-house, stable, garden and 
appurtenances thereto belonging for the term of her life, if she shall so 
long continue a widow, but not otherwise ; also the use of all my house- 
hold furniture, plate, linen, china, etc., and from and after her decease 
or remarriage I direct the same to be considered as part of the residue 
of mv estate. 

1*0 Anthony Angelo Tremamando of Howland Street, S. Pancras, co. 
Middlesex, Esq., and Charles Dumerque of Piccadilly co. Middlesex, 
Esq., my Trustees and Executors twenty-five guineas each for a ring, 
and all the residue of my estate whatsoever I devise unto them in trust 
for the purposes hereinafter mentioned, that is to say, that immediately 
after my decease they sell and dispose of (either by public auction or 
private contract) all my messuages, tenements, lands and hereditaments, 
except the house and furniture given to my said wife for her life or widow- 
hood^ and also the said house after the decease or remarriage of my said 
wife and all such other parts of my estate as shall consist of money in 
the public funds, so as to turn and convert all my property into cash and 
the money arising from such sale shall be laid out in the purchase of 



some of the public stocks in the names of them my said Trustees or the 
survivor of them, and that they do stand possessed thereof to pay the 
rents, interest & dividends thereof unto my said wife Mary for the 
term of her life she maintaining thereby our two unmarried daughters 
Claudina Sophia Ann Zoffany and Laura Helen Constantia Zoffany so 
long as they shall continue unmarried ; and after the decease or remarriage 
of my said dear wife I direct that the said Trustees shall stand possessed 
of such residue upon the further trust to pay unto my said two unmarried 
daughters 300 each for their own use and 2000 bank 3 per cent, 
consolidated annuities. 

All the residue of such stocks, estate and effects shall be divided into 
four equal portions for the benefit of my said four daughters. 

I hereby appoint my said wife guardian of such children as are in 
their minority and the said Trustees as executors. 

Witnesses. W. Ward, Newman Street; Robert Harding Evans and 
James Fenoulhet. 

Proved in London 24th Jan., 1811, by the executors. 





DEC. 4. 1776. 

We Maria Theresia by the Grace of God Roman Empress, Widow, 
Queen of Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Galicia, 
Lodomeria, Archduchess of Austria, Burgundy, Styria, Carinthia and 
Kain ; Grand-Duchess of Siebenbiirgen, Margravine of Moravia, Duchess 
of Brabant, Limburg, Luxemburg and Geldern, Wiirtemberg, Upper and 
Lower Silisia, Milan, Mantua, Parma, Placentia, Anastella, Auschwitz, 
and Zator, Princess of Suabia, Countess of Habsburg, Flanders, The 
Tyrol, Hennegan, Riburg, Gbrz and Grandisca; Margravine of the Holy 
Roman Empire, of Burgau, Upper and Lower Lausnitz; Countess of 
Namur; Lady of the Windisch Mark & Mecheln; Dowager Duchess 
of Tuscany declare publicly and make it known to all with this Charter 
that although the Royal and Archducal Dignity and Highness in which 
Almighty God in His Paternal Providence has placed Us, is already 
adorned with exalted and noble men and subjects, We are nevertheless 
most graciously disposed to raise to higher Honours and Dignities those, 
who by their unfailing faithfulness, services and good Conduct towards 
Our Royal and Archducal House, have distinguished themselves, in 
order to stimulate others also, by means of similar rewards, to imitate 
good conduct and perform noble deeds. 

Now as We have graciously beheld, weighed and considered the 
moral goodness and noble virtues, and especially the skill, together with 
other praiseworthy attributes, with which Our dear and faithful Johann 
Zoffany has been represented to Us to be possessed and, it having Come 
to Our Knowledge in what manner he has devoted himself from his 
youth upwards with indefatigable zeal and preeminently happy results 
to the Art of Painting, and has gained for himself, because of the special 
Works of Art, executed by him, the Entire approbation of all Competent 
judges, and he also professing his readiness to continue his hitherto most 
faithful sentiments, and most zealous application to the Fine Arts, to 
Our greatest satisfaction, unto his death, and judging by his good qualities, 
he can, may and shall do so. We have on careful consideration, good 
advice and true knowledge, also by virtue of Our Royal and Archducal 



Sovereign Power shown Johann Zoffany the special favour of raising 
him, as well as his legitimate issue and the heirs of their heirs of either 
sex in direct line for ever to the Dignity of Nobility at the same time 
We have also added associated and made him equal to the Confederation 
Society and Community of others of the Holy Roman Empire as well 
as to persons of noble birth of Our hereditary kingdom hereditary princi- 
pality and lands and have most graciously conferred upon him the title 
and honour of EDLER VON. 

We raise to place in and deem them worthy of the rank of nobility. 
We join them make them equal to and associate them with the Con- 
federation Society and Community of others of the Holy Roman Empire 
as well as with persons of noble birth of Our collective Hereditary Kingdom 
Principality and Lands. We grant permit and surfer that they may 
henceforth at all future times make use of call themselves by and signe 
themselves with the title and honour of EDLER VON ZOFFANY. We 
intend determine arrange and wish that now and hereafter he Johann 
Edler Von Zoffany his legitimate issue and the heirs of their heirs of 
either sex each arid every one shall in all honourable and noble matters 
actions and occupations be considered honoured and called persons of 
nobility have every honour dignity and privilege liberty right and justice 
be admitted into spiritual offices chapters high and low functions and 
fiefs according to the traditional custom of every chapter and like other 
persons of our feudal association of tournaments and those of the Holy 
Roman Empire furnish fees sit in judgment find verdicts and administer 
justice be worthy clement and sympathetic. As a further testimony of 
his elevation to the rank of nobility we have graciously granted to Johann 
Edler von Zoffany the following coat of arms of nobility and have per- 
mitted him to bear in it a shield standing upright divided horizontally 
through the centre, its upper field is red and adorned with a golden 
chevron, in the lower field which is blue two bare arms stretched forth 
from clouds holding between them a silver ring. Under the latter rises 
on a small elevation a trifoliated silver sprig of clover. On the shield 
stands an open nobleman's tilting helmet, facing the right with a crown 
and a golden ornament. On either side hang coverings, the one on the 
right red and gold, the one on the left blue and silver artistically blended. 
On the helmet stands a sprig of clover similar to the one described above, 
between two divided buffalo horns, their mouthpieces turned outwards. 
In front the upper divisions of the buffalo horns are white, the lower 
ones blue, on the reverse side, the upper divisions are red, the lower 
ones yellow. We grant and allow Johann Edler von Zoffany his legiti- 
mate issue and the heirs of their heirs of either sex to use and enjoy the 
coat of arms of nobility described above, and the red wax seal in all 


honourable and noble matters deeds and affairs in jousts and serious 
encounters in fights assaults battles combats tournaments tilting fighting 
knightly games and campaigns on banners tents seals signets jewels at 
funerals on paintings and in all places and for all purposes to their honour 
and need at their will and pleasure. And in accordance with our judg- 
ment and desire the above mentioned is promulgated to all Electors and 
Princes Spiritual and Temporal Prelates Counts Freemen Gentlemen 
Knights and Bondmen. And herewith we most graciously order our 
subordinate authorities inhabitants and subjects of whatever dignity office 
standing or condition they may be by virtue of this charter to receive 
consider admit recognise and esteem Johann Edler von Zolfany his 
legitimate issue and the heirs of their heirs of cither sex for ever and at 
all times as already mentioned herebefore several times like others of 
the Holy Roman Empire and the feudal lords and associates of tourna- 
ments of noble birth belonging to our collective principalities and lands. 
They shall not offend against the favours and privileges enumerated 
above but shall use and enjoy them peaceably they shall nevertheless 
defend protect deal with and wholly abide by them they shall not do 
anything against them neither permit anyone to do so if they wish to 
avoid incurring our severe punishment and disfavour in addition a penalty 
of fifty marks of fine gold have of which every one shall irremissably have 
to pay to our treasury and half to the offended party as often as he acts 
criminally against these things. Such is our serious intention ratified 
by the deed of this charter, sealed with our great imperial and royal 
signet appended. Given at our capital and residential town of \ ienna 
on the 4th day of December in the year 1778 after the glorious birth of 
Christ our beloved Lord and Saviour and in the thirty-seventh year of 
our reign. 



1819 AND 1910. 







1819. July it 



T. Harris 



Townsend ae Lame Beggar 
George Colman the Elder 


1 I. t. 

13 4 


837. "june 10 

Fare brother 

Quarr Harris 


Garn< k oainted fur Colman the Elder 
David Garrick 


3 1 5 o 
'3 10 


Mn. Beltertot) 

1844. Mar. 15 


John Linnett 


Mn. Fitzherbert 

1835. Mar. 17 


Duke of Argyll 


Duke of Hamilton, Dr. Moore and 

1790. May 7 



Sir John with a Globe on a Table 
Foole and Wei ton as l*reudenl and 
Dr. Last 


17 * ft 
38 17 

1810. 'Feh. 14 


Sir H. L. Gott 


Foote as Major Sturgeon 
Duke of Cumberland on Horseback 


J8 17 o 

Windsor in distance painted 
by Lambert, the Hone by Sar- 



tori us 



l8lt. May i 
1814. Julys 
1815. Mar. 10 


M. Berry 


Dr. William Hunter Lecturing 
Garrn k as Cbalkslone 

Bought in 


210 O 
I 4 6 

1819. Mar. 8 




Mn'.' Elliott as liana as the CilUen 


A) O 

April 6 


Duke of Hamilton 


l>r. Samuel Johnson. Mn. Johnson 


31 I o 

and servant 

1813. June 13 


George Watson Taylor 


Mn. 1 Hi. .11 as Maria as the Cltiien 


I o 

'June 14 



Mn. Stevens and favourite Spjmcl 
Dr. Johnson and Family 

Bought in 
Rev. W. V. 

< I " 
I j 6 


David Garrick 


Garrkk and Mn. CiM*r, etc. 

Vernon Thwailes 

26 o 


n >i 


Garrt< k as Fanner's Return 

3)1 o 



ii ii 


Gamck as Lori Oialkst.>iie 


211 A 

p , 


it ii 


Gam. k as Sir John Hrute 


It l o 



Mr. and Mn. l.jrrxk and Mr. 


4'> 7 o 


ii i. 


Shakespeare Temple. Mr and Mn. 

33 70 

(*armk at tea 

1831. Jan. ii 




View of Charing t'r-ns. Aldrnnan 


II o 6 

Uerkfi.fd itt Krme:ubran< e 

1838. Mar. 30 

M. M. Zackary 


Gamck with a Ma-k 



1840. July 4 


Sir William Holland 


Mr. and Mn. (urn k at Hampton 

9 9 

with two doffs 

1849. April 16 


Jamej Watt 


William si,rii,t..r.- ith distant 


33 12 O 

view of Srawavt-s. Uodsley Colln- 

1867. Nov. 30 

C. Wolley 


1 Jlh August 


JO ) 6 

1883. Mar. 3 

Sacred Harmonic Society 


Thos. Angus Arne 


II! lo o 

(450 P.) 

1894. lone 9 

Alexander Dennittoun 


Garden S<:ene with i-'igun-s. 31 x 3<> 


M to O 

.. July 7 



Two Ladles with a (jentlrtiun 


1 V j n o 

1896. June 6 


Walter Long 


Gartick and Mn. Hit. urd. 

Io) o o 

40 x jo 

1897. May8 


Marquis of Normandy 


Contlantlne lohn Phlppa. 50 x 4r 

: 10 O 




<arri. k as Sir John Brute. 40 y> 

63 o o 

1898- Mar. 19 



Cork-hghtat Lu< know from Warren 


220 IO O 

IListmirs' Sale, imj 

1900. June 35 


Marianna Lady Hamilton 


Sir James Cockburn ami DauKhter. 


95 I) 

36 18 


Ontleman, two sons and d.iR 

If* O O 

1902. 'May 31 



Ttie l>rawincleson (1'almer Karnilvl 


t'ft IO O 

36 x 17 

1903. Nov. iS 


Lady and Gentleman, three daugh- 

1 ^ 

ten, two sons and negro page 
40 ' 50 

| Colnaghl 5 

420 o o 

1904. Mar. 19 


Scene from Ttu Dccny. 41x45 


103 o o 

June ll 


Duke of Cambridge 


Maria, Ducheu of Gloucester 


420 o o 

3^' 17 

1903. Feb. 1} 



Two boys and Porter with Har 


34 i o 

jo x 31 

,. Dec. 16 

Sir Henry Irving 

David Garrick. 30 i? 



1906. June 16 

G. H. Tod tie-ally 


Suetonius Grant, L'shrr and two 


175 oo 

ServanU. 40 x 45 

1909. July 9 

Sir C. Cjullter 

James CJuui. ssl x i?| 

Samuel son 

199 to e 



The foregoing list of Zoffany's pictures, which have been sold by 
auction, is taken, by kind permission of Mr. Algernon Graves, F.S.A., 
from a forthcoming volume of his valuable work, Art Sales from the 
Eighteenth Century to the early Twentieth Century, the first volume of 
which was issued in the present year. 


Sotheby's, July 27-30, 1901. 

ZOFFANY (JOHANN). Portrait of Margaret [" This is very doubtful 
owing to dates. Woffington retired about 1760 or earlier "] Woffington, 
whole-length, in a black velvet dress with white sleeves, holding a long 
white feather in her right hand, landscape in the background. 22 x 17. 
14 14?. 

An oil painting, and apparently a copy. 

Sotheby's, Dec. 9, 1901. 

SMITH (JOHN RAPHAEL). " The Watercress Girl," after J. Zoffany. 
39 1 8*. 

(Proof before letters. Believed to be a portrait of a Miss Jane Wallis, 
whose identity is not established. She is represented half-length, with 
a basket on her left arm. She wears a hood and a cloak, and her hands 
are clasped together. Published Sept. 9, 1780. About 15 x n. See 
Challoner-Smith, p. 1320, No. 200.) 

Christie's, May 31,1 902 . (68 .) 

ZOFFANY (JOHANN). " The Drawing Lesson." The Palmer Family, 
of Dorney Court, near Windsor, in an apartment, seated round a table. 
36 x 27. 199 

Christie's, Feb. i, 1902. (104.) 

ZOFFANY (JOHANN). A Young Man with his Black Servant. 44 zs. 

Sotheby's, May i and 2, 1901. (386.) 
SMITH (JOHN RAPHAEL). " The Watercress Girl," after J. Zoffany. 


(Proof before letters. This is supposed to be a portrait of a Miss 
Wallis, but the identity is not satisfactorily established. See Challoner- 
Smith's British Mezzotinto Portraits, p. 1320. The print was published 
in 1780, and measures some 15 x n. " The Watercress Girl " is a 
half-length figure, with a basket on the left arm.) 



Christies, July 4 , 1 90 1 . (82 .) 

HOUSTON (RICHARD, 1721-1775). Mrs. Yates, as " Electra," after 
Zoffany. 3 155. 

(There seems to be a portrait of Mrs. Yates as " Electra," by Samuel 
Cotes, engraved by P. Dawe, and published in June 1771. The actress 
made her first appearance in that character at Drury Lane Theatre on 
Oct. 15, 1774. It is one of the parts in Voltaire's Orestes. It seems that 
Mrs. Yates had not been seen at Drurv Lane for eight years. See 
Genestre's Some Account of the English Stage, Vol. V. p. 441.) 

Christie's, July 13, 1901. (30.) 

ZOFFANY (]OHANN, R.A., 1733-1810). Portrait of Count Stacpoole 
holding a book, 30 x 25. 39 iSs. 

(Half-length, seated, the left hand holding a book. The Count is 
dressed in a blue coat, upon which there is powder from his wig. Nearly 




Family group. 

Exhibited at the Whitechapel Spring Exhibition, 1906, No. 82/7. 


Portrait of Zoffany himself. 

Exhibited in Suffolk Street in 1833, No. 47. 


Group representing a garden and water party near Mok-scy. 
39 x 49. See under Miss Austin, p. 174. 

Exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1875, No. 244. 

Macklin as Shylock. 
Garrick, Bransby and Aicken in Let lie. 
Parsons, Bransby and Watkyns in Lethe. 

Exhibited at the British Institution in 1841, Nos. 81, 120 and 
124, and two of them exhibited again at the Grosvenor Gallery in 
1888, Nos. 1 20 and 126, on which occasion the two groups 
from Lethe were stated to have been painted in conjunction with 
R. Wilson, and each of them measured 39 49. 


Time clipping the wings of Cupid. 

Exhibited at the British Institution in 1814, No. 131. Men- 
tioned in the addition to the third catalogue. 

BONE, S. V., ESQ. 

Portrait of Mrs. Hartley the actress. 

Exhibited at Suffolk Street, 1833, No. 216. 


Two portraits of actors, each 29 x 24. 

Exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1893, Nos. 43 and 48. 



Moody as Father Foigard. 

Exhibited at the British Institution, 1867, No. 208. This is 
probably the picture that belonged to Irving. 


Group representing George III and family. 39 x 49. 

Bought at Christie's, January 1897, and believed to have been 
sold after Mr. Colnaghi's death. 
Portrait representing Woodward the actor, holding a mask. 

Bought at Christie's, July 1902, and believed to have been 
sold after Mr. Colnaghi's death. 
Group representing Garrick standing in a landscape. 

Bought by Mr. Colnaghi privately, August 1905. Present 
owner unknown. 


Group representing a scene called " Reading the Direction." 

Exhibited at the British Institution in 1855, No. 131. It is 
possible that this may mean the picture that is called " The 
Porter and the Hare." 


A scene from the opera of The Decoy, or The Harlot's Progress, by 
Potter, 1733, representing the interior of a room in a register 

A man is seated at the table with papers. Before him stands another 
man in rags. 41^ _x 44^. 

Exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1876, No. 273. 


Portrait of Mary Anne Boyle. 

Exhibited at the Fair Women Exhibition at the Grafton Gallery, 
1894, No. 172. 


Portrait of Charles Frederick Abel. 

Exhibited at the Musical Exhibition, Grafton Gallery, 1897, 
No. 72, afterwards sold at Christie's. 


Portrait of a child. 

Exhibited at the British Institution, 1863, No. 119. 
Portrait of a lady. 

Exhibited at the British Institution, 1864, No. 128. 


Portrait of a gentleman. 

Exhibited at the British Institution, 1864, No. 140. 
This was sold to him by Mr. Colnaghi, who bought it privately 


Portrait of George Steevens. 32 x 27. 

Exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1912, No. 155. 


Group representing a lady with a child and doll. 

Exhibited at the Fair Children Exhibition, Grafton Gallery, 
1895, No. 149. 


Portrait of Pennell Hawkins (1716-1792), Surgeon to George II, 
Serjeant-Surgeon with his brother, Sir Cssar Hawkins, to George 
II, Surgeon to the Middlesex Hospital. In plum-coloured coat 
with powdered wig. 27$ x 2oi. 

Exhibited at the Exhibition of National Portraits at South 
Kensington, 1867, No. 505. 

HINE, H. G., ESQ. 

Portrait of David Garrick. 

Exhibited at the Music Exhibition, Grafton Gallery, 1897, 
No. 67. 

Portrait of Moody as Foigard. 

Exhibited at the Music Exhibition, Grafton Gallery, 1897, 
No. 61. 

Portrait of a lady. 

Exhibited in Glasgow, 1902, No. 130. 


Zoffany painted a portrait in India of William Larkins, Jr., the 
Accountant-General of Bengal and friend of Warren Hastings, 
but it cannot now be found. 


Portrait of Mrs. de la Vaux. 

Exhibited at the Spring Exhibition at Whitechapel, 1906, 
No. no. 



Group representing William Macartney and his wife. 

Exhibited at the Whitechapel Spring Exhibition, 1906, No. 114. 


Portrait of a lady. 29 x 24. 

Exhibited in Birmingham, 1900, No. 52. 

Portrait of a lady. 

Exhibited at the Spring Exhibition at Whitechapel, 1906, 
No. 138. 


Portrait of a child. 29 x 24. 

Exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1889, No. 151. 
Portrait of a gentleman. 30 x 24! . 

Exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1889, No. 152. 


A Mogul Prince. 

Whitechapel Mohammedan Exhibition, 1908, No. 2. 


Portrait group. 35 x 27. 

Exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1891 by Lady Sarah Spencer, 
and since sold by her. 


Portrait of Lady Travers. 

Sold by Agnew's to the Fine Art Society, which they are unable 
to trace. 
A portrait of Mrs. Orme. 

Sold by Agnew's to Mr. C. Fairfax Murray. 
A portrait of Edward Gibbon. 

Sold by Agnew's to Sir G. W. Agnew, and by him sold, but it 
is not known to whom. 
A portrait of a child. 

Sold by Agnew's to Mr. L. H. McCormick. 
A portrait of David Garrick. 

Sold by Agnew's to Lord Brassey, and which he gave away, but 
does not know to whom it was given. 
A portrait of Miss Ashley. 

Sold by Agnew's to Mr. E. Fischoff of 50, Rue S. Lazaire, 
Paris, but which he has sold to some dealer in Italy. 



Group representing two children and a dog. 

Exhibited at the Spring Exhibition at Whitechapel, 1906, 
No. 280 and since sold. 


Portrait of David Garrick as Don John. 

Exhibited at the Shakespeare Exhibition at Whitechapel, 1910, 
No. 92. 


Group representing Garrick and his wife on the hanks of the Thames. 
Exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1879, No. 34. 42^ 


WHILE these pages are passing through the Press our attention has 
been directed by Dr. Lionel Cust to a curious statement made by Walter 
C. Metcalfe in his Visitation of Worcester (Exeter, 1883), in the" form of 
an addition to the pedigree of Hastings there given. 

This is to the effect that Warren Hastings' second wife was the 
daughter of Zoffany the painter ! ! 

Metcalfe, who could have had no reason for inventing such a state- 
ment, gives no authority for it, but states it in definite form. 

He gives Mrs. Hastings' Christian name as Appolonia [sic]. It was, 
in fact, Anna Maria Apollonia, and she is always declared to have been 
the daughter of Baron Chapuset (or Chapusset), by his wife, a lady named 
St. Valentin. 

The feminine form of the name was Chapusettin, and Mrs. Hastings' 
mother is generally spoken of as the Baroness Chapusetin (or Chapu- 
settin). Mrs. Hastings had a brother who is called Baron Chapuset. 

The family is believed to have been one of those which quitted France 
after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, and the St. Valentins were 
declared as being also of French descent. The Baroness Chapusetin 
was living at Stuttgart in 1797, and her visit to Daylesford some time 
afterwards, when she was seventy -seven years old, is often alluded to in 
Warren Hastings' letters. 

She died at Stuttgart in 1807, " preserving her senses to the last and 
sending her blessing to her daughter." 

It is inconceivable that all those who have written about Hastings 
should have fallen into so grave an error as to his wife's parentage. Not 
one of them, so far as we know, have alluded to Mrs. Hastings under 
any other name than that of Chapuset (or Chapusetin). Metcalfe gives 
the name of her first husband as Christopher Imhoff. He is usually 
known as Christopher Adam Carl von Imhoff, and his two children by 
Apollonia were Sir Charles Imhoff, who married Charlotte, daughter 
of Sir Charles Blunt, and Julius Imhoff. Metcalfe reverses them, making 
Julius the elder, but that according to Sydney C. Grier, who has care- 
fully investigated all the details of the pedigree, is incorrect. The Baron 
von Imhoff, after the divorce, married Louisa von Schardt, and bv her had 
several children, one of them being the well-known Amalie von Helwig. 



Hastings did not marry Apollonia until 1777, although the divorce 
from her first husband, Imhoff, had become operative two years before, 
and we are expressly told that the bride was described in the register as 
" Miss Anne Maria Appolonia Chapusettin " instead of Anna and 
Apollonia as usually given. In the Appendices to Sydney C. Grier's 
Letters of Warren Hastings to his Wife and The Great Proconsul, all the 
available facts concerning Warren Hastings' first and second marriages 
are set out with great fulness of detail and not a word is said concerning 
any connection with Zoffany. Many of the statements are documented 
and there seems to be no room left for doubt. 

On the other hand, we do not know the name of Zoffany 's first wife, 
nor the dates of her marriage or her death, and there is a persistent 
tradition that she had a child by him, although whether son or daughter, 
is never stated. If he married her in 1750 she could have had a daughter 
of twenty-six by 1777, but Sydney Grier says that the Baron and Baroness 
Imhoff were married ",not later than 1765," and " the marriage may," she 
adds, " have been even earlier." 

The earliest suggested date for Zoffany's marriage is 1750, and his 
daughter is hardly likely to have married at the age of fourteen or fifteen ! 
Apollonia is a well-known Christian name in Styria or in the Car- 
pathians ; not so well known in Germany and at Coblenz, but still quite 
possible there, but the evidence against the possibility of Baroness Imhoff 
as she was at first, having been the daughter of Zoffany seems to us to 
be insuperable, and we can only imagine that Metcalfe, a most careful 
and even fastidious genealogist, has in this statement been led astray. 

Zoffany had no daughter by his second wife, who bore the name of 
Apollonia. There is considerable confusion about the names of his 
children owing to carelessness on the part of Mrs. Papendiek, but the 
names are clearly set out in his will. 

Even, however, if he had such a daughter she would have been far 
too young to have been the wife first of Baron Imhoff and then of Warren 

It must, however, be pointed out that Mr. Metcalfe is in error as regards 
Hastings' first wife, although for that there is some excuse as Gleig and all 
subsequent biographers asserted that Hastings married the widow of a 
Captain Campbell, and it was not till 1899 that this error was corrected. 
In that year Mr. Hyde discovered in accidental fashion a bundle of papers 
in the Calcutta Mayor's Court Records which proved beyond doubt that 
Mary Hastings was not the widow of Captain Campbell, but of a certain 
John Buchanan. Even now there is great uncertainty as to her maiden 
name, her age, and the date of her wedding. Her age was clearly not 
that which is given on her tombstone. 



A., J. W . 84 

Abel, , 22, 69 

Academy oi St. Luke, 55 

Acton, 2 1 

Adam, the brothers, 72 

Adam, John, 158 

Adam, \Villiam. 158 

Adventure. H.M.S., 39 

Aiton, , the botanist, 135 

Albemarle Street, Zoffany's house in. 61, 66, 

78, 80 

Albert. Miss, 7811. J 
Aldworth, Sir Richard, 155 
Alefounder, John, i 2 
Alexander, Boyd, 1 i 1 
Alexander, Claude, 1 1 1 
Alexander, Sir Claude, 1 1 1 
Alicant, 94 
Amelia. Princess, 51 
America, 1 1 2 
Amor, , 25 

Anderson Collection, the, 54 
Angelo, Henry, 1 1 <t n. ', 14, 15, 17, 119, 

129 n. ', 136 
Angelo, Mrs., 119 
Antrobus, Sir Cosmo, 79, i(>f> 
Archer, John \Vykeham, H+ii.' 
Arctic Exploration, 40. 54 
Arlington Street, an interior in, 156 
Asaf-ud-daula. Nawab \Vazir of Oudli. 83, 

85, 86, 87, 92, 93, 94, 95, lot. 104, 

107, 108 

Asch, , 107, 117, 154 
Ashmolean Museum, 137 >;.' 
Ashwick version of the " Cock Fight " 

picture, 85 sqq. 
Asquith, Mr* H. H., 76 ' 
Astle, Sir Thomas, 122, 124 
Atholl. 3rd Duchess of, 15, 153 
Atholl family, 15, 19. 153 
Atholl. John, 3rd Duke of, 15, 16, 153 
Atholl Cairn, the, 16 
Auchincruive. 159 
Audinet, Philip. 5, 6 
" Aunt Peggy, 19 

Aunol family, the. no 
Austen, Jane, 166 
Austin Friars, 15* 
Avignon. 93 

BACEI.LI, , 67 

Bach, Madame, tiee Calli. 67. 6.) 
Bach, Sebastian. 22, 67, 69 
Baddcley, , 14. 76. 140, 144, 146, 105 
Baddeley, Mrs , 143. 144 
Bailhe, Captain Uilliam, 14 
Haillic, Colonel John. ^5 
Haillie Ciuard, tin'. 85 
IJaker. Granvillc Lloyd, -" 
liakcr. Sir Gt><jri!P Sherston. 73 
Balcony House. Klysium Kow, Fu!hani/74 
Ballvtin, lo<i 

liink.s. Sir Joseph, 38, 41, 4^. 4-. i;o. MS 
Banister, Charles, iy, 148 
Bannister, John, 145 
Bargello, th.-, 49 
Baring. Thomas. 77 
Barrmgtou, Yiicount. 17 
B.irry, , 73 
liarton, , 103 
Barton. Miss. I'M 
" Bos Bleu Club," the, i'. 
Basire, , 3)5 
Baskerville. Colonel, 20 
Bass, Sir \\illiam. 150 
Bath, 32 

Buutebart, . 09 
Beachcroft, Miss lilk-n. 12 s , 131 
Beachcroft. Miss S. J . 127, ijS, iu 
Beachcroft, Mrs. Holiert. tu'e Claudm.i 
Sophia Anne 131, 133, 134 
Beachcroft, Robert. 3. 131 
Beachcroft, Samuel, 131 
Beachcroft. Sir Melvill, ? 
Beadle, Colonel J. P., 104 
Beard. . 140, 143 
Beauclerk, Topham, lOo 
Beckford. . I3 
Bedford, LHike of, 156 



Bell, Moberly, 76 

Bellamy, Miss, 8 

Bellodi, , 5 

Bentinck, Lord Charles John, 164 

Berringlon, East Indiaman, 98 

Berry, the Misses Mary and Agnes, 158, 159 

Berry, Robert, i$&&n. J 

Berry, William, later William Ferguson 

(q. v.), 157-8 &n. 1 
Bevan, Mrs., 100 
Bhac Begum, the, 93 
Bhagalpur, 90 
Bianchi, , 63 
Bingham, - , 156 
Black Hole of Calcutta, the, 99 
Blackwood, 75 

Blair Atholl, 15, 16-17, I 53< J 56, 164 
Blair, Colonel, in 
Blair, Miss, in 
Blair, Mrs., in 
Blakiston, Dr., 112 
Blaquiere, , 101 
Bleackley, Horace, 74 
Blue-Stockings, the, 163, 164 
Blunt, Captain, in 
Bolaine, Betty, miser, 135 
Bologna, 55 
Bombay, 96 
Bonomi, Joseph, 72-3 
Boothby, Miss, 53 n. ^ 
Boothby, Sir T., 166 
Boothby, Sir William, 53 n. 2 , 54, 1 60 
Borghese, Prince, 122 
Boswell, James, 79 
Boulone Begum, the, 106 
Boutflower, Dr., 155 
Bowden, , 141 n. 1 , 142 
Bowles, Chigwell, Essex, 154 
Boydell, , 147, 165 
Bradney, Colonel, 19, 155 
Bridgeman, William, 109, 112 
Bridgetower, , negro violinist, ii7<. 2 , 


Brighton, 163, 166 
Brighton portraits, the, 164 
Brilliant, East Indiaman, ii6w. 4 , 125 
Bristol, 2nd Earl of, William Henry, 162 
Bristol, 3rd Earl of, John Augustus, 152 
Bristol, 4th Earl of, Frederick Augustus, 

Bishop of Derry, 163 
Bristol, 4th Marquis of, 151-2, 162 
British Museum, 142 
Britridge, R., 98 
Broad Street, Austin Friars, 158 
Bronze, Nolleken's servant, 136 
Broughton, Delves, family, 78 n. 3 
Browne, Lady, 77 
Browne, Rev. C. C. Murray, 72 
Bruce, James, 54, 62, 63 

Bruere, Mrs., and her children, 107 

Buccleuch, 7th Duke of, 146 

Buckingham House, 22-3 

Bulwer, Sir Henry, 152 

Buon' Fratelli, Convent of, Rome, 4 

Burgess, , 119 

Burke group, the, 128 

Burke, John, 76 n. 3 , 157 

Burke, Mrs. John, 157 

Burns, Cecil, 97 

Burns, Robert, 159 

Burton, , 26, 27 

Burton, William, 165 

Bute, 3rd Earl of, 17, 36 

Butler, author of Hudibras, 48 

Byron, 5th Lord, 73 


Calcutta, 81, 90, 97, 98, 99, 105, 108 

Galley, General, 76 

Calli, Signora (Madame Bach), 67 

Calvert's Brewery, 27 n. l 

Calze, , 23 

Cambridge, H.R.H. the Duke of, 164 

Canterbury, 135 

Garden, , 124 

Carey, , 99, 101 

Carlini, , 31 

Carlisle, 5th Earl of, 26 & n. <i , 27, 139 

Carlisle, nth Earl of, 14, 18, 146 

Carnac, General, 94 

Caroline, Queen, wife of George II, 21, 152 

Carter, Mrs. Elizabeth, 163 

Cartwright, Mrs., 112 

Castle Howard, 26, 27 

Cator, William, in 

Cator, Mrs., nee Sarah Morse, ill 

Chamberlain, William, 138 

Chambers, Lady, 112 

Chandenagar, 94 

Chapusetten, Anna Maria, Baroness Imhoff 

(Mrs. Warren Hastings, q.v.), gjn. 1 
Chardin, ,35 

Charlemont, ist Earl of, 15 & n. 1 
Charleston, S. C., 28 
Charlotte, Princess, 26 
Charlotte, Queen, 25, 26, 35tfcw. *, 36, 37, 

43, 51, 61, 69, 71, 100, 116, 164 
Charteris, Evan, 141 n. 1 , 144, 165 
Chase, , raconteur, 76 
Chase, Mrs. Ann, 132, 135 
Chiswick, 15, 68, 70, 159 et alibi 
Christiana, Princess of Mecklenburg, 35, 36 
Christie, , auctioneer, 44 
Chudleigh, Elizabeth (Duchess of Kingston), 




Chunar, 92 

Churchill, , 1 1 

Gibber, Mrs., 10, 140, 141 n. ', 147 

Ciccio, I'Abate (Solimena), 3 

Ciciez, Armand, 134 

Cipriani, 32 

Clare, Lord (later Earl Nugent), 19 

Clare Hall, 71 

Clarke, , of Princes Street, iM> 

Clarke, , 114 

Clint, ,151 

Clive, Kitty, 158 

Clive, Lord, 55 

Cliveden, 158 

Clytie, famous bust of, i.-j A-ii 1 . 

Coblenz, 4. 47, 4*. 58 

Cock, , auctioneer, i { 

Cockburn, Miss, i s<; 

Cockburn. Sir James, <>th Hamn-M. i vi 

Cocks' family, th (> , I'"' 

Cocks, Thomas Somers, n>o 

Coke, Miss (l^idy Sherboine), i s, ( 

Coke, Thomas, of llolkli.nn, ist Kail of 

I.eicestei . I s I 

College House, Chiswick, lyi 
Col man. - . \ \\ 
Colnaghi, Messrs , 77 

ompton Verney, 151 

'onstanti.i (nowth'- Martmieret. i" , >. HJ 

"ook. Captain, <s .-// , ji, So 

'oore, ColonH, 157 

"oote. Sir Eyre, ion, 107, |.is 

opley, J. S . 151 (i. ' 
Cork, Edmund. of, i v> 
Coinish. Admiral Sir Samuel, |o 
Cornwall. Colonel, 155 
Cornwallis, Marquis, <ii, '> ,, !", 1-17. 11.-, 

Cornwaltis, East Indiaman, "* 

Corregio, 55 

Corsi, Princess, 5.: 

Cosway, . ?-', 54 

Cosway, Mrs., 5^, >7 

Cotton', II E. A., loj. in ; 

Cowper, Countess, Y ll.mnih Anne (.on-. 

51. ">-. M 

Cowper. jnd Karl. 52 

Cowper, jnl Earl, 50, 51, S'i. <>-, ' ;, (i | 

Cowf>cr, '>th Earl, 55 

Cox, Colonel, i s'> 

Craigvcnian. Hill of, i'> 

Cniufurd, Ronald, I5S 

Craven Street, ji 

Crawford. 271(1 Earl of, i'i.s 

Crooks, William, N<> 

Crosse, Mrs., l ]<i >i. 3 

Cunlific, A. P.! no 

Curzon, Earl, 97, 99, 103 

Cust, Dr. Lionel, 36 

Y 2 

DALHOCSIE. Earl of, 107 
DalhoiiM,- Institute, the. 104 

Dance, Nathaniel (Sir Nathaiml Holland) 

3. -40 

Dartmouth, 4th Earl of, i,<, ij 
Dashwood family, the. 11 
Dashwood, Sir Henry. I y> 
Dava, province of. 1 1 1 
Davies, Randall. 117. 15111 ' 
Da vies, W. J , ii'i. i.-s 
DawkiiLs, ( oloni-l Henry, ->i 
Day, Sir |olm. .,, 
Daylcsford House. *\, ^5, s.s, >. ( 
I >e Castro, I '.inicl. i'.| 
De Castro. Mis Daniel. I'.j 
Del.iny. Mrs , I | : 
Delhi, S.-. .,1, 
I >eiit familv, the, i i j 
Derby, Countess of, u-f I am-n (/. r ), 

Derby. I I tli Kail of, i ).>, iyi 

Derry, liishopof, jtli l-.ulof lirislol, i'n 

I >es,nt, -)th I .ill of, !'.' 

I 'IMS. Arthui \'< , >, i ,i 

De \\ildi-. ,1,1 

D 1 1. UK. ii M!|I-. I'M in- 1 l. in, ois HII;;II .-.. I.'.', 

I J | 

DiNlin. l h.ul. s. i ,j 
DiUlin. Mis., i i-- 
Dilxlin. Mrs ith- 1 s '"ii'l . i -,_ 

Ml k, SlI |o|||], -,S_ .,_. (, ;_ ,,, 

>ii;l>v. Ri \ l h ill- s, i ,', 
Mvn. |"hn. l , i 
>o|isn, \iiit in, II' 
ild. I M . I !) 
'o'^yelt . I li'iln,i>. i i 
'olloml. IVfi. . 

'nl.lll. I >I , |'l, ,1. S.', , t. I I' 1 

>or.itt. l-iil\. ni, I h' f s.i /ollaiiy, |7. I V. 
i i-'. l l|. l i 1 ' 

'"r.Ut. Sir |o|,n, I V 

' HI1"V * olll I. lilli l-.-l. I S ) 
I >ors'-t. |nl I Mil,'- ol, 1,1 
I lought v. . ''I 
Dovle. Sir |"hn. -f 

Drumtnond f.uinlv. the. .-o 
I >iummoiid. M.ihlwin. J", .'S 
I )rury I-ine, <i 
Drury l-m'- Ih'-.itri-, jx, iyi 
I >ryaniler, I <5 
Dumerqtie. ('-s, I ('i<{-n. 4 
Dumfnes. Countess of, i<jS 
Duncombe, Henry, 105 
Dundas, l^dy, Elizabeth, 157 



Dundas, Rt. Hon. Robert, 157 

Bunstall, , 140 

Durham, 3rd Earl of, 37, 38, 140, 141 cfc w. ', 


Dutens, , 53 

Button, Jane (Countess of Leicester), 154 
Dutt'on, James (ist Lord Sherborne), 154 
Button, Mr. and Mrs., 154 

Fosbrook, , 14-15 
Foster, William, 80-1, 95 
Fox, Charles James, 74, 166 
Frankfort-on-Main, birth-place of Zoffany, 

3, I27<fcz. l , 167 n. 1 

Frederick, Prince (son of George III), 17 
Friedlander, , 15 
Fulham Church, 70 
Fulham House, 71 
Fullerton, Mrs., 158 
Fuseli, , 26w. a , 54, 72 

E., 44 

Earland, Miss, 73 

Earlom, , 20, 24 tin. 1 , 33, 84, 89, 94, 

95, 120, 125, 144 
East India Company, 79, 81, 90 
Edward, Prince (son of George III), 22 
Edwards, Edward, 72 
Ehrich Gallery, New York, 20, 151, 155, 156, 

1 66 

Elmes, James, 84 
Ellis, Mistress, 65 

Ernst, Prince, of Mecklenburg, 34, 35, 36 
Erskine, Lady Charlotte (Countess of Mar), 


Essex, 7th Earl of, 141 . l 
Etty, William, 63 



Farren, Eliza (later Countess of Berby), 68 

78, 148, 149, 150, 166 w. '- 
Farrens, the, 77 
Fawkes, Sir Wilmot, 19 
Fawkes, W. R. 13., 156 
Fenton, Miss, 19 
Ferguson, Mrs., 158 

Ferguson, Mrs. Robert, nee Townsend, 159 
Ferguson, Robert, 158, 159 
Ferguson, Sir R. C. Munro, 157 
Ferguson, William, 128, 157 st/i/. 
Finch, Lady Charlotte, 36 
Fisher, , 150 
Fitzgerald, Percy, 141 
Fitzgerald, George, 152 
Fitzgerald, Lady Mary, nee Hervey, 152, 

162, 163 
Fladgate, , 6 

Fleet Street, Sayer's warehouse in, 33 
Fleischmann, Mrs., 163 
Florence, the Tribuna at, 43 sqq. 
Foote, , 14, 27, 143, 146, 147 n. 1 
Forbes, Admiral, 158 
Forbes, James, 95 

Fordwich, Lord (later 3rd Earl Cowper), 52 
Forrest, Theophilus, 12 

GAINSBOROUGH, Thomas, 32, 135, 166, 167 
Garle, Acton, 17 
Garrard, , 27?;. 1 
Garratt Common, 147 n. 1 
Garrick, Bavid, 7, 8, 9, 10, n, 14, 17, 18, 
26, 37, 129 n, ', 137 n. 1 , 139 sqq.,1^, 


Garrick, George, 18, 141 
Garrick, Mrs., 7, 8, 37, 79, 141, 142 
Garrick Club, the, 7, 140, 141 n. 1 , 143 sqq., 148 
Garrick's villa at Chiswick, 141-3 et alibi 
Genoa, 48 

Georg, Prince of Mecklenburg, 35 
George, Prince of Wales (George IV), 17, 

35, 36, 37, 6l - 8 , 6 9 
George II, 51 
George III, 17, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 29, 

34- 35^'M- 1 , 4 2 - 49, 5, 7L 73, 7 8 , 
79, 115, 118, 138, 144, 145 

George V, 33, 64; on Zoflany, 113 

Ghauzea-ud-Bin Hydcr, of Oudh, 85 

Gibraltar, battle of (1782), 75 

Gilbert, Sir William, 64?*. L 

Glasgow, 20, 161 

Gledstone, 156 

Gloucester, Duchess of, Maria, Countess 
Waldegrave, nee Walpole, 164 

Glovers' Company, the, 136 

Glynn, Sergeant, 40, 75 

Goethe, W. A., 52 

Golding, Lieutenant William, 88, 93 

Goldman, Hon. Mrs., 15, 154 

Goldsmith, Oliver, n 

Gora Bibi, the, 106 

Gordon, , 63 

Gordon Riots, the, 73 

Gore, Charles, 52, 53 

Gore, Emily, 53 

Gore family, 52-3 

Gore, Hannah Anne, Countess Cowper, 51, 52 

Gore, Mrs., 53 

Graf ton. Duke of, 155 

Grafton, 3rd Buke of, 51 

Graham, Lady Christian, 75 



Graham. Sir Dellingham, 65 

Graham, Sir Reginald. 65 

Granby, John, Marquis of. 

Grande Dufhesse. ship, 108 

Granger, , 138 

Grantham. last Karl of, 5^ 

Gray. Thomas, 155 

Great Mogul, the, 107 

Great Piazza. C'ovent Garden. II. M7 

Great St. Andrew's Street. Seven lhals. 5 

Green, Captain William, R.N., iu 

Green, Mrs. William, "< Tempcrani e 

Ilcatly. MI, ii.! 
Green. Valentin'-, }S 
Greene, , O 
Greenwich, 40 
Gregory. Robert, 87, 88. <i| 
Gregory, Sir William. 1)4 
Gresse, John A.. 21 A- n, ' si/q. 
Greville, Charles, 122, 124 
Greville. Mrs. Fnlk, nfe Catherine Giaham. 


Grignion, , }i 

Grose. Francis, j| *.//. 

Grundy, , i>,.s 

Guer< mo. I } 

Gupte. Rai Bahadur U A . <>~ 

Gwynn, John, 31, j. 1 


Hadrian's Villa, treasures ul. i .: _ 
Haul. J., 1)7 
Haidar I'-ei; (llvder 15.-; Muni, oi, 

112 <( a ', IM. i.'i 
Halifax, Farl of. 75 
Hall. |ohn, eii^r iver, ',. ti 
1 1. 1 1 1. 1 in, - . 117;;.- 
lialsu'fl/e, lli:\ l-iast '.vie. I; ol 

Hamilton. I .adv. i^ | 

Ham|nlen. John. 75 

Hanson, Dr., I'M 

Harding, Sylvester, 105 

Harris, ,'and his sister (later Mrs 1 

man). I'M 

Harrow-on the Hill. 20 
Hart Street, lilooituburv. ' ' I 
Hasan, or rlann Ra/a Kh in. s '.. >7. oi 


Hastings. Mrs. Warn.-n. 'f. <>~. v s 
Hastings. Warren. H,i. s, ( 85, <H>. )(. <>7. '' s . 

loj. 105. iK7, ii}. i V"' ' 
II. i'.'.. in, murder at. of C<x>k. |o 
Hawkesworth, W. K H (later l-'awkes). i5. 


ILlyes, , 146 

Hayman. Francis. 29 :.'. 30. 31 

Hazlitt. William. 144 

Heatly. Patrick, n I y. Suetonius (Inint. in 

Heatly. 'I'emperancc (Mrs. William Green). 

in. n i 

Hi-lx-r. Bishop Reginald, 85 
Hervey, Captain the H<mt>le. John Auguttui 

( \n\ luul cif ISristiil). 15.' 
Hervey, Colonel the llonl.le William, 103 
Hervey. Feltnn. 'M 
Hervey, (ieorge William. ;nd I'arl of liristol. 

H<-rvry, Iidv, wife ol John. Ijird Hervey, 

> 1'ollv I j-pi-l. IT--, K.} 
Hervey, I -idy Caroline. HI.*. \<-\ 
Hi-rvey. I-uly ICmilv. i'>.'. I'M 
H'".keth, Mrs. ICvi-rard, Ml. I 15 
Hill. S ( , i u 
Ho.ire, . \2 
H.iUoii. R I., .'5 

Hi'ilq. s. \\illi.ini. i |. '/i. )<. (i. *>. i" 1 * 
HiMlgioii. Mr . Mrs .nd lamilv, i 'i | S 
Hod-nn. of H''-, Hurs.-. 107 
Hoy. nth. William, I", v. '-''. i 17. ' (''. 14". 

i 1 1. i--, i ' '. i'-7 
ll'ildi n. . !'' 
llollaiiil. Sir Nalh.iiin-1 ifonm-rly I>aniel. }w. 


H..IMI.- I'.irk. ii' Reading. 155 
II'. It. l\i< li.nd. u | 
llolw.-H. jolin /, ph.ini.ih. <,-< (< i. ' 
Hoiii-, N'.ith inii-1. ,-'. <n 
Hope, Admir.d Sir i Ii ul- -i, 75 
II. ,p,-. Mis , . 
I lopi-toim. i .t I ul i.f. 7 ', 
Hopkins, Sir |..lm. \\ifi .md f.nuilv. lo, I5 r , 
ll..].pn-T, |..lin, i (S " ' 
I loin. , I 'i I h.iin.ix pin . Ml. i '. '. M| 
Home. I 'I I linlll.lS. s. I) . Ml < I" 

I loin.-. Miss, i ;.. 

Hi >i II'-. Mis . /:., ( r> lll.l /oll.lin . (7. M ' 

llurs.- ( in inls I'.ii.ul.-, Ill'-, 'i 

Hotliain, ud Lord. I ( s 

Houston, . '7 

Hiiddeisford. (' it W. i O 

I Indsoii. lli.iiu is. o 

llniii.-. K. v . i y. 

I liiiuphn \ s. Ainliio. . I 17 

lluniplir. vs. Isaar. nJ. o| 

llumpliri", .. the waterman. -S 

lluinphr\. i >/i is. M. -,|. .. <i|. i" s . M r > '. 


Hunter. l>r . si. SS 
I liintrr. Sir William, t- 
I lus-iev faiiulv. I'" 1 
lliitrhmsipn. Mrs . 70 
Hyder lk-!{ Kli.m, s<- H.ndar IV n Kh..n 




Imhof, General Sir Charles, 85 

Imhoff, Baroness (Mrs. Warren Hastings, 

q.v.), 97 n. 1 
Impey, Lady, no 
Impey, Sir Elijah, 99, no 
India, Zoffany's visit to, 45, 66, 72, 76 n.*, 

78 sqq., 113, 158 
India House, the, 90 
Indian Mutiny, the, 86, 87, 95, 107 
Irving, Sir Henry, 15 
Isis, the, 156 
Italy, Zoffany in, 42 sqq. 
Izard, Ralph, 27, 28 

JACKSON, Thomas, 19 

Jamaica, 138 

Jellowlee, 82 

Jervis, Mrs., 21 

Jervois, , 118 

Johnson, , see Johnstone, George 

Johnson, Dr. Samuel, 79, 112, 124, 142 

Johnston, Rev. \V., 103 

Johnstone, George, 92, 94 

Jonathan, gardener at Clare Hall, 72 

Jones, Sir William, 95 

Jonson, Ben, 139 

Joseph II, Emperor, 47, 51, 52, 56, 78 


KAM, a dog, 122 

Kaufmann, Angelica, R.A., 32, 33 

Kedgeree, 81 

Kempenfelt, Captain Richard, R.N., 40 

Kennaway, Sir John (1788), 95 

Kennedy, Dr., 119 

Kennedy, Mrs. Alexander, 95 

Keppel Place, Fitzroy Square, 148 

Kew Church, 118 

Kew Churchyard, tomb in, 135 

Kew House, 23, 59 

King, Captain, 122 

King, Thomas, 71, 143, 144, 148 

Kingston, Duchess of, nee Elizabeth Chud- 

leigh, 152 

Kirkcaldy Burghs, 159 
Kirkcaldy Grammar School, 159 
Kneller, Sir Godfrey, 12 
Knight, Thomas, 125, 148 
Knightley, Valentine, 63 
Ivnoedler, Messrs., 70 n. 1 , 71 
Kyte, Mrs., 165 

LANDON, Mrs., nee Palmer, 155 

Lane, John, ign. 1 , 40 n. l , j6n., jgn. 1 , 

126, 13711. 1 

Lansdowne, 5th Marquis of, 146 
Lausanne, 93 

Lawrence, Sir Thomas, 149 
Lawrie, , 164 

Leeds Castle, Kent, 131, 132 &n. 1 
Leicester, Countess of, nee Jane Dutton, 154 
Leicester, ist Earl of, 154 
Leipsig, 56 

Leonardo da Vinci, 137 
Lepel, Mary (Lady Hervey), 152, 163 
Leslie and Taylor, Messrs., 61 n. * 
Lewis, , 144 
Lincoln's Inn Fields, 15 
Lincolnshire, ist Marqui's of, 2 5 (few. 1 
Linley, Miss (Mrs. Sheridan), 67 
Little Strawberry Hill, 158 
Locker, E. H., 38 

Locker, Mrs. John, -nee Stillingfleet, 163 
Locker-Lampson, Godfrey, M.P., 38, 163 
Logan, R., 64 
London Style, Brentford, Zoffany's villa at, 

41 -5 

Longcroft, Thomas, 82 
Longhi, , 167 
Longman, , 164 
Longman, Mrs., nee Harris, 164 
Lorain-Smith, , 63 
Lord Macartney, East Indiaman, 81 
Loretto, 56 
Lowe, Mauritius, 9 
Lucan, 2nd Earl of, 160 
Lucknow, 80, 83, 84, 104 sqq. ; siege of, 107 
Lurnsden, John, 100 
Lunardi, , balloonist, 165 
Lyons, , 5 
Lyons, 105 


MACAULAY, Lord, 89 

McCalmont, Sir Hugh, 163 

Mackintosh, Sir James, 96 

Macklin, Thomas, 146 

Macleod of Macleod, 112, 166 

Macleod groups, the, 112 

Macpherson, Sir John, 94 

Maddison, John, 76 & n. 2 , 79, Si, 114 

Mfldhava Rao Sindhia, Mahadji Sindhia, 96, 

Madhavrav II, Peshva of Poona, 98 

Madras, 81 

Mainwaring, Mrs. Kynaston, 57 

Malone, , n 

Manigault, Louis, 28 


Manila, 40 

Mann, Sir Horace, 48, 49, 50, 56, 58 50 60 

61, 63 

Manning, W. Wcstley, 108 
Manor House Farm, near Kew. i }i, 1^2 A- n. ' 
Mansfield. 3rd Earl of, 121 
Mar, Countess of, nte Lady Charlotte 

Krskino, 75 

Maria Christina, Archduchess, 50-7 
Maria Theresa, Empress, 56, 57, <>H, 78, 134 
Marshall, Robert, 160 
Marshman, , 101 
Marshman. John (lark. .,X, 101 
Martin, Colonel, of I>-eds ( astlc, i 50 
Martin, Colonel (later Major-denerall. (laud. 

So, 8|. S.-. c>i, .).', I0( ?/</. 1.17. 

lo.s, 128. 130, 13.; 

Martin. James, or Ziilticar Kh.m. mo 
Martiniere. the, at Lucknow, 105, 100-7. 

109. 130 

" Martinidrc Post. The." 107 
Mason, J. and \V , 137 
Mathias, Cia Uriel. 04-5 
Mathias. James T , 0.4 
Maugham, Somerset, i \~ 
Mayne, Lieutenant Otway. 1.17 
Melville, Viscountess. 137 
Meyer. Miss, 1 10 

Meyers. Jeremiah. -.!)<< it ', ji. 7 
Middleton, Mrs N , >; Ann'- ! ranees Morse, 

1 1 1 

Middleton, Nathaniel, ^t i(- n -', 111 
Mir Jafar. and his son Miiau, i u 
Mirza Ah Khm. 'i \ 
Mirza Jrwaun Hurkht. Sha/ad.i. 107 
Montague, Mrs . in 
Montgomery, Sir Uoliert. i"i 
Montrose, 2nd Purln-ss nf. -- 
Moran, Jemrnv, liooksellrr. i i 
Mordaunt, ( harles ( ?rd l-'ari (.1 IVtei 

Ixiroui-hl. Si| 
Mordaunt, Henry. s <i 
Mordaunt, Colonel John. * ;. NI. s,, >- 

*>> ='/'/. '<- 

Mordaunt, Sir Charle-,. the Lite. .m,l In 
ancestor of that name, ;j 

Morgan, J l'ierpi>nt, i \<t >i. 

Morse, Anne l-ranres (Mrs Muldletoiii. i i i 

Morse, Rolx-rt. i 1 1 

Morse, Sarah (Mrs Catori. MI 

Mortimer, John Hamilton, 11 . /,/ , ij<., i ,i 

Moser. (leorge M . 11. i !. <l 

Moser, Mary. K A . x>n '-. ^ 

Mother (leorgc-. i {S 

Mount KdgcumU'. ist Marl of. i.j 

Mulgrave. l^id\', tiff I-adv l^'|-l llervey, 
I5J, l'.. 1 , i o.{ 

Mulgrave. I,ord (Commander I'hipps), 40. 


Muller, , jj 

Muncastcr, Ijord. 165 

Mundcn, , 1^4. i.) 5 

Murray, I., 98 

Murray. Lady Charlotte. 153 

Murray. l.ord James. 15$ 

Musawar So. 87 


NAC.APIION (iiu T. iuS 

Nana Fadn.ivia. -,s 

National (ialli rv. the. i ( S el alibi 

Navy Hoard. lh.-. ii 

Neslntt, Arnold. A Co. i <; ' 

New York, -'o. 7 1 

Nichols. , t H 

Noel, (lat'-r lord \\Vnl\vortlil. 

No<-l, lion Kixl- n. i i; ii ' 

Nollekens. [oseph. i 15 71 MO 

.V,.r/../A. I! M S . ,.. 

North. Lord. 7 | 

Northn'te. . irf,. s_- 

NortliRate, . 7 t 

Norton Convers. o^ 

NiiUent. 1 'i . i'i 

Nugent, ist I .nl i Lord Clare). r< 

Nuijent. Sir ]'. (.' . lo 

> II M. vs. Lord, i - i. i --. i - | 

>ld Mm kmt;ham HOII-.I-. i" 

IdenUin k. \li|..l.rainl. i..i. 

ildtield. ( .in .11 i i 

'IdM'-ld. Mi-s /<.ltaii\. I n ' ' 

>ldli<-ld, Mr^ oo. '.>. i i<>. I -'. I .' i 

liver. I 'i \\ illiam. I | i<- >: 

'liver, l-tiira ( K . I ii 

Miver. Lewis Ik-mlv, i (_ 

liver. Mrs I ..-wi-. Mi nt I v. ore l-itira Helen 

'on t.llltl I /'ill lll\ . 1(1 .'. Ml. 

i !S 

< >pie. J'.lin. 7 ;. i ;S 

( (ill l-arl ol (H'lr.iie \\.ilpole. ./;(. 

I r >^ 

iienlal (lull. the. M) 
>i|> n. Sir William. l'> 

'II. (.lilies. S7. .,J. o | 

>'.wali|. [allies loun end. I VI 

>-\vald. Mi- lames. i:f. |own-.<-nd. iv 

|OO II : 

< >t wav. Thomas, i |7 ! ' 

< >udli. n>7 . l 

< liidh. the N'a\\ il> Wa/irs o(. H{ 
Over Norton House, 85 
Oxford, 150 




Palmer, J., u, 26, 27 

Palmer, Miss (Mrs. Landon), 155 

Palmer, Mrs. n 

Palmer, Mrs. Robert, 155 

Palmer, Robert, 155-6 

Panshanger, 64 

Papendiek, Mr., 77, 78, 114, 115, 116, 118, 

Papendiek, Mrs., 4, 43, 45, 66 sqq., 77, 

129 sqq., 148, 149 
Park Street (No. 7), 121 
Parks, Mrs. Fanny, 86 
Parma, 55 

Parry, Sir Hubert, 40 
Parry, Thomas, 40 
Parry, Thomas Gambier, 40 
Parsons, William, 145, 148 
Parthenio, Father, 102 
Pasquin, Anthony (John William-,), 5, 8, 

28,555517., 112-13, 120-1 
Patch, Thomas, 49, 63 
Patna, 95 
Paull, , 100, 101 
Pearce, Edward, of Camelford, 165 
Penrhyn, 3id Lord, 72 
Pepys, Captain, in 
Perceval, Mrs. Spencer, 128, 157 
Peter Pindar, 120 11. - 
Peterborough, Charles Mordaunt, 3rd Earl 

of, 89 

Peterborough, 4th Earl of, 89 
Peters, , 161 
Philadelphia, 64 
Phillips, Lieutenant, 40 
Phillips, Sir Claud, 167 
Phipps, Commander, R.N. (later Lord Mul- 

grave), 40, 5), 152, 163 
Pickford, Rev. John, 84 n. l 
Pierce, Captain, Si 
Pigot, Lieutenant John, g?., 94 
Pine, , 140 
Piozzi, Mrs., 148 
Pitcairn, , 1 35 
Pitt, William, '77 
Plymouth, 4th Earl of, 62, 63, 64 
Plymouth, 39 
Polier, Colonel Antoine, 82, 89, 92, 93, 108, 


Poma, the dog, 71, 74 
Poona, 96 
Pope, the, 122 
Pope, Alexander, 146, 152 
Portland, 3rd Duchess of, 142 
Portland, 6th Duke of, 165 
Portland, William, Earl of, 164 
Portland Vase, the, 122 

Portugal Row (later Street), 15 

Pougens, Madame de, nee Sayers, 38, 160 

Poussin, Nicolas, 129?!. l 

Powell, , 82, and his family, 7 

Prague, 3 

Preston, Robert, 81 

Price, Sir Charles, I24<fc. 2 

Prideaux-Brune, Colonel, 40, 74 

Princes Street, 166 

Princess Royal, the (Queen of Wurtemburg), 

36, 37 

Pritchard, Mrs., 140 
Proctor, George Beauchamp, 156 
Proctor, Sir Thomas Beauchamp, 156 
Prowse, Mrs., nee Elizabeth Sharp, 71, 72 
Prussia, King of, 122 
Pym, Francis, 156 
Pyrgo Park, 124 


QUEEN ANNE STREET (No. 60), 155 
Queen Anne's Gate (No. 14), 121 
Queensberry, Duchess of, 119 
Quick, , 144, 145 
Quilter, Sir Cuthbert, 166 
Quin, James, n, 166 


Racehorse, H.M.S., 40 

Raffael (Raphael), picture by, 62-3, 64, 

J 37 

Raikes, Messrs., & Co., 109 
Railh, 157, 158, 159 
Raith Collection, the, 157 
Raith group, the, 128 
Ramus, , 144 
Randolph, Herbert, 7 
Kesolution, H.M.S., 39 
Restalrig, 158 
Revelstoke, Lord, 76 
Reynolds, , dramatist, 144 
Reynolds, John, 75 
Reynolds, Sir Joshua, 9, 26, 27, zq&n. -, 32, 

72, 73, 123, 133, 139, 141 
Ribblesdale, Lord, 165 
Richards, , 34, 135 n. 1 
Richardson, Mr. and Mrs., 143 
Rigaud, Hyacinthe, 73, 135 11. 1 , 151 
Rimbault, Edward, 3, n 
Rimbault, Stephen, 5 
Rimbault, Stephen Francis, 6 
Roach, Mrs., 116, 117, 129, 130 
Roberts, Field-Marshal Earl, 107 
Robins, Messrs., auctioneers, 14 w. 1 , 137 
Robinson, Mrs. (Perdita), 146 
Rockingham, Marquis of, 74 



Rocltingham Castle, 152-3 

Rome, 4, 55, 72 

Romney, George, 13 

Ross, David. 145-6 

Rothschild, Miss Alice de, 159 

Roubiliac, , 142 

Roundel!, Richard. 156 

Rowfant, 163 

Rowlandson, Thomas, 70, 71 

Roxburgh, jrd Duke of. 36 

Royal Academy and Royal Academician*. 24. 

l&sqq., 31, 33-4. 43, 13511.' 
Royal Children, the, difficulties in pointing. 


Royal George, H.M.S.. 40 
Royal Scottish Archers, the, 75 
Russborough. Viscount, 03 
Russell, Dr. Richard, 103, i<><> 
Russia, Empress of. 122 
Kyland, William Wynne, 31 

SAADUT An, of Oudh, *5 

St. Alban's Head, wreck near, .Si 

St. Anne's parish, Soho. 35 

St. George's Chapel, Windsor, I is 

St. George's Church, IJrentford, altar pu-ie 

at. us 

St. James's. i>7 

St. fames' Church. I'ucadilly, i'.| 
St. John, Colon*-! H'Tiiy. 5 <.-'. 51, I'"' 
St. John's Church. Calcutta, altar piece at, 

So , loo, 1 o 2 , I * > 4 
St. Martin's I.ane Academy, i" 
St. Mary-le-Strand ;i 
St. I'ancras Churchyard, 'HJ 
Salar Jung. Nall>, 'j-. ') \ 
Sandby, 1'aul, 71, So 
Sandwich, .jth Karl of, ^ <//. 
Sandwich Islands, 3* 
Sayer, James, 27, 37. 157 
Saycr, Lady, 27, 17 
Sayer, Mrs. Kol>crt, 17 
Saycr, Rolx-rt, .17, U. .(/. 57- ''"' 
Scotland, /.off any in, u\ 157, i s s 
" Sencx," So 
Serami>ore, <)S 

Scringapatam. siege of, 104, 1*17 
Serres, Dominic. 1201;.* 
Seton, ArchiUild, 150 
Seton. Mrs., 15-; 
Shakespeare's Temple at Garruk's Villa, 

1. 1 1 s<i<i. 

Sharp, Eli/abcth (Mrs. 1'rowsc), 71, 72 
Sharp family, the, y 
Sharp, Granville, 70, 72 
Sharp, James, 71 

Sharp. Judith, 71 

Sharp, Mrs. Francis. 71 

Sharp. William. 70, 71 

Shclburne, 2nd Earl of (later 1st Marquis of 

Lansdowne). 74 
Shelley's Hotel, 66 

Sherborne, ist Lord (James Dutton), 154 
Sherborne. I-ady. nte Coke. 154 
Sheridan, Mrs. R. V, . nit Linlcy, 67 
Shendan, Richard Unaslev. 07. 14^ 
Shire I.ane, near Temple liar, 5 
Shore, Lady. <3 
Shore, Sir |ohn, 03 
Short's Gardens, Drury I-ine, 5 
Sliuj.i ml d.iiil.t. N.iu il> of Oudh, 83 
Shiiter. lulu.ird. 17-1^, I |>. 141 
Siddon<. Mr> . <>S 
Simeon. John. 155 
Simonet. . <>7 
Sm.irt, , I } I ' 
Smart. Mrs . i 54 
Smith Kdward. V) 
Smith, I. T.. s. ''. -' t. i \'< 
Smith, l.oui-i 1'Vrdmand. '12 
Smith. Mrs . IY (, 05 
SKII-IV of Ailisti. io. 11,. !>. i^s. 1,1, 
SK.iety of I 'il'-tt.iini, i .-.( 
Solander. I 'i , 51, s 1 ) 
Silimen.i (I'AUile lucio). 3 
Siinli-s cllililn II, the. i 5} 
Siubise. a black man. i l<t 
South Si-a.-.. voyage to. |>l.inn<-cl. v"> "/7 
S|>eer, Michael, \, | 
Stable-,, , i| | 
Stamnore, jo 
Steer, Wilson. (, 
Slcevens, (leorge. l''S 
Stevens, . i i 
Stevens, Mi^s. i>i 
Stevenson. . '>-, '!. <>\ 
Stewart, Anthony, i'> 
Stewart, < h.irl-., ii> . i <, \ 
Stillmgllei-t. Ik-njainin. v s . "''( 
Stow. - , i - | 

Strachey, Art hil'-.T on John, )( 
Strachey, Colonel. M 
Strachey. Sir Ruhaid. *5 
Strachey. l-'idy. I : - 

Strai hey. Mrs. John, nte Wombwcll. <>| 
Strachey, 1< S , H.> 
Stra> hey, Richard. S 5. &' 
Strachey, Sir . i:.t Itironct, 5 
Strachey. Sir John. *5 
Strand-of-thc-Green, 4^, (.1. <>*. 70. 7*. o, 


Stuart, Sir James Seton, 14*. 150 
Sullivan, Luke, I2S 
Swaylands. 20 
Sweden, King of, 122 



Swindon, , 12 
Sykes, T. G., 106 
Sympson, , 76 



Upper Ossory, Countess of, 61, 77, 94 

TAJ MAHAL, the, 82 

Talbot, Mrs., 163 

Tan Chet Qua, Chinese modeller, 32 

Tay, the, 16 

Taylor, , 29, 34 

Taylor, Marcus Saville, 92, 94 

Taylor, Sir John, 63 

Taylor, Tom, 35 n. l 

Teddington, 158 

Tegetmeier, , 96 

Teignmouth, 3rd Lord, 93 

Tennant, Sir E., 83 

Tennyson, Charles, 79, 98, ii2. 2 

Thames, the, 70, 134 

Theodore, , 67 

Thomas, Francis Baladon, 83 

Thomas, John, 136 

Thornhill, Cuthbert, 103 

Thornton, , 93 

Thurn and Taxis, Prince of, 3 

" Tiny," a dog, 156 
Tippoo Sultan, 107 

Titanic, the, 81 
Toms, Peter, 31 
Tooth, Messrs., no 
Tottenham Court Road, 8 

Touch, near Stirling, 150 

Towneley, Charles, 121, 124 

Towneley Marbles, the, 121 sqq., 124 tfr 11. l 

Townsend, , 121 

Townsend, Joseph, 159 

Tremamondo, Domenico Angelo Malevolti 
n n. l 

Tremando, , 3, 35 

Trememando, Anthony Angelo, I36cfr. 2 

Trinity House, 38 

Tubingen, 29 

Tullibardine, Marquis of, 153 

Tulloh, , auctioneer, 101 

Turk's Head, Greek Street, and the R.A.'s, 31 

Tuscany, Archduke Leopold of, 56 

Tuscany, Duke of, 47, 49 

Tuscany, Grand Duchess, of, 50 

Tuscany, Grand Duke of, 50, 51 

Tweeddale, 4th Marquis of, 84, 85 

Twelfth- Night Feast, founded by Baddeley, 

Twining, Miss, 82 

Twining, Thomas, 82, 94 

Tyers, Jonathan, 31 

Tyrrel, Rev. C., 137 



Van dcr Capelle, Adrian, 156 

Vansittart, D. N., 100 

Vansittart, Henry, 100 

Vauxhall, 30 

Velasquez, 35 

Verdun, Dr., 124 

Vere, Hon. Charles Hope, 75 

Verney children, the, 153, 155 

Verney, Harry, 75 

Victoria and Albert Museum, 137 n. l 

Vienna, 4, 56 sqq. 

Villa del Cipresso, 52, 53 

Villa Palmieri, 52 


WAJID ALI SHAH, last King of Oudh, 86 
Waldegrave, Countess, nee Maria Walpole 

(later Duchess of Gloucester), 164 
Wale, Samuel, 31, 72 
Wallace, Albany, n 
Wallis, Miss, 145 
Walliscourt, 155 
Wallop, Hon. Frederic, 146, 155 
Walpole, Horace, 10 el passim : and the 

Misses Berry, 158 
Walton, Henry, 137 
Ward, , 10 1 
Ward, T. Humphry, j6n. 1 
Wargrave Hill House, 160 
Watkins, Mrs., 114 
Watson. , 163 
Watteau, Antoine, 161, 167 
Watts, , 63 
Watts group, 112 

Watts, Mrs., of Hanslope Park, 112 
Weeks, , 109 
Welbeck, 160, 164 

Wellesley, ist Marquess of, 94, 100, 101 
Welsh, , 96 M. 2 
Wentworth, Lord (Mr. Noel), 156 
West, Benjamin, 32, 33, 61 n. 3 , 129, 135 
West-Harling Hall, 19 
West Park, Salisbury, 100 
Westbury, Wilts, 159 
Westmacott, , 34 
Weston, Thomas, 27, 143, 148 
Wetton, , 45 
Wheeler, Stephen, 44 n. \ 84 n. z , 85, 86, 87, 



Wheler, Edward, 94 

Wheler, Trevor (later Sir Trevor), 94 

Whiteford, Caleb. 11, 13 

Whitley, W. T, gn.*, 43. 81 

Whitne'y, Mrs. Payne. 156 

Wicken Park, 72 

Wickstead, Philip, 138 

Widener, Peter, 64 

Wilbraham, , 63 

Wilkes, John, 40, 73, 74, 75, 147 .' 

Wilkes, Mary- (Polly), 73, 74, 75 

Wilkinson, Jacob, 81 

William, Prince (William IV), 25 

Williams, John (see aJso I>asquin), 5. 120 

Williamson, lr. 137 n. 1 

Willoughby de Broke, John, nth Lord. 153, 


Willoughby de Broke, Lady, 153, 155. 159 
Wilson, Benjamin, 5, 6, 7, 10, 143 
Wilson, Richard, 13, 29 i- i. ', 30, 31. 33 
Wilson, Sir Robert, 7 
Wilton, Beau, 112 
Winchelsea, 9th Earl of, 63 
Windsor Castle, 23, 24, 105 
Winter, Miss, 97, 98 
Wombwell, George, 94 
Womuwell, John, 92, 93-4 
Wombwell, Major, 109. 112, 128 
Worthington, W. H., 121, 124 
Wrest Park, 52 
Wykeham family, the, 131 
Wynn, Captain, '124 


YARBOKOUGH, Earl of, 17, 140 

Yeo, . 32 

York, H.R.H. Frederick, Duke of, 53 <t n. -. 

Yorke, John, 157 

York*, T. E., 157 
Yorkshire, Zoilany in, 65 

ZAUFFELY, and other variants of the name 
Zoffany. 10-11 

Zetland, Marquis of, 156 

Zoffany, Cecilia Maria Theresa, Mn. 
T. Home. 47, 78. 125, 129. 130, 131 

Zottany, Claudina Sophia Anne. Mrs. Robert 
Beachcroft. 131 

Zoriany, Louisa. 129 

Zoriany. John, birth. 3, I27frn ', 167*1. '; 
characteristics, 117, 127 syy. . early 
days 3 fqy. . royal patronage. 1 7 lyy. 
passim : a* a Royal Academ.cian. 
24 i</^. . plan for visiung the South 
Seas, 38 s</'/ , in Italy, Austria, etc , 
42 syy. ; his Austrian patent of no 
hility, 57 Si/y., et aJibi, 300. in ling- 
land again. 5* w / : in India, Ho 
itjif. ; return home, 114 H)i). , life 
with liis family. 126 *;</ . last day*, 
death, and tomb. 134-5. last will. 

-95 </</ 
Family of. 47. 4\ 129 J-/^., iff a.'so under 


Painting.-* l>y, pussim, it- set Appendices. 
Conversation pieces, 151 57.7. 
Pictures of Children. 152 sy</. 
Self-portraits, see many, passim. 
Single Portraits, 102 s<i<j. 
Theatrical lectures, 139 j^. 
Portraits of, 12') itjif. 
Zoll.iny, I-;iura Helen Constanua, Mrs. L. B. 

Oliver, I2v, 131-2 
Zotiany, Mrs., the tirst, ^. 5, 45. 59 
Zotiany, Mrs. (Mary), trie second, 4, -5 S'/V 

V>, 7*, .H< i. "114 .</<;.. 119. 129. i 15 
Zoitanv, llieresa. Lady Doratt, 47, 7!*. i jo 
Zuccarelh. , 32, 12911.' Klun or James Martin. loo 




Zoffany, John 

John Zoffany, R 
Manners and Willia