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DEC 7 1922 


Vermont Botanical and 

Bird Clubs 

OCTOBER, 1922 

Published Annually by the Clubs 

burlington, vt.: 
Free Press Printing Company. 

Joint Bulletin No. 8 October, 1922 

Published Annually by the Clubs 



Officers of Clubs o 

Editorial 5 

Secretary's Report 5 

Treasurer's Report 8 

Botanical and Bird Clubs at Willoughby Lake. Inez Addie Howe.. 9 

Summer Meeting of 1922. Nellie P. Flynn 11 

The Revision of the Vermont Flora, Nellie P. Plynn 12 

Nesting of the Virginia and Sora Rails in Windsor County, Ver- 
mont, Karl A. Pember 13 

Charles C. Prost's Trip to Willoughby Mountain, W. W. E rsleston. . IG 

Thompson's Willoughby Lake Guide, W. W. Eggleston 21 

Notes of the Early Botanical Explorations of Willoughby Lake, 

W. W. Eggleston 23 

Pour New Lichens, D. Lewis Dutton 25 

Eyebright in Vermont, Francis H. Sargent 25 

Some Florida Birds and Plants, Mary A. Loveland 26 

Notes from Collins, N. Y., Anne E. Perkins 28 

Notes from Perrisburg, E. M. Kittredge 31 

Some Plants of My European Trip, Nellie P. Flynn 32 

Clarendon Notes, L. Henry Potter 35 

Useful Nature Books, Anne P. F^erkins 35 

Interesting Plants at Swanton, Clarence H. Knowlton 3(> 

1921 in Woodstock, E. M. Kittredge 37 

A Variety of Maidenhair Fern New to Vermont. L. Frances Jolley. . 40 

What the Season of 1921 Brought to Me, Inez Addie Howe 41 

Notes 43 

New Members: 

Botanical Club 48 

Bird Club 48 

Change in Name or Address 48 

Members Dropped 49 


Botanical Club 

President Dr. Ezra Brainerd, Middlebury 

Vice-President Harold G. Rugg, Hanover, N. H. 

Secretary-Treasurer Mrs. Nellie P. Plynn, Burlington 

Librarian Lewis H. Flint, Burlington 

Editor George L. Kirk, Rutland 

Bird Club 

President Dr. H. F. Perkins, Burlington 

Vice-President Dr. Anne Perkins, Collins, N. Y. 

Secretary-Treasurer .Mrs. Nellie F. Flynn, Burlington 

Editor George L. Kirk, Rutland 


The plan of issuing the Bulletin in the spring has been done away 
with and hereafter it will appear annually in October. This change 
was brought about by discontinuance of the winter meeting, when all 
papers were formerly presented and business sessions held. For the 
present, at least, only one meeting will be held each year, in the 
summer, and the time will be given up to both field work and an in- 
doors program which will permit the reporting of "finds," discussions 
and the presentation of articles on natural history. 

There is urgent need of more matter for publication in the Bul- 
letin. The organ is issued for the benefit of the members that each 
may know what the other is doing in adding to the knowledge of 
the flora and fauna of the State, for the publication of local lists and 
any other items that show progress along the lines of the clubs' en- 
deavors. Suggestions for intensive study are especially desirable. The 
Bulletin belongs to the members and it is for them to say whether it 
shall consist of few or many pages. There are ample funds to issue 
a much larger Bulletin than we are now putting out if the material is 


Nellie F. Flynn 

Report of Meetings 

A business and field meeting of the Vermont Botanical Club and 
the Vermont Bird Club was held at Willoughby Lake in July, 1921, 
with 33 members present. In the absence of the president, Dana S. 
Carpenter of Middletown Springs was elected chairman and Dr. George 
P. Burns, Burlington, secretary pro tern. 

After a full discussion of the matter of meetings, it was voted not 
to hold a winter meeting in 1922, but to combine the winter and sum- 
mer sessions, the members presenting at the July gathering papers 

6 Joint Bulletin 8 

which were formerly the feature of the winter meetings. The secre- 
tary was asked to arrange the program. 

Invitations were received from a number of towns for the summer 
outing of 1922. It was finally decided to go to Montgomery. The 
chairman appointed a committee consisting of the secretary, Mrs. L. 
Frances Jolley of Berkshire, Miss Mary Gates and Prof, George P. 
Burns of Burlington to make arrangements. A program committee 
was also named, consisting of Mrs. Flynn. Harold G. Rugg of Hanover, 
N. H., and Miss Inez Addie Howe of St. Johnsbury, 

Miss E. M. Kittredge urged the immediate revision of the State 
Flora and it was voted to appoint a committee to have charge of this 
work. This committee shall consist of five members, who shall have 
general supervision of the work and they may appoint as many district 
leaders as they see fit. Mrs. Flynn is the general chairman. 

The matter of organic union of the Bird and Botanical Clubs was 
again considered and it was voted to request the secretary to write to 
the life members and get their opinions on the matter, reporting at the 
next meeting. 

It was voted that notice be given of an increase in dues from 50 
cents to $1 a year. 

Several persons were elected to membership. 

Montgomery Meeting 

The field and business meeting of the Vermont Botanical Club and 
the Vermont Bird Club at Montgomery in July, 1922, was called to 
order by President Ezra Brainerd with 18 members in attendance. The 
minutes of the 1921 meeting were read and approved. The question of 
uniting the two clubs was taken up and Mrs. Nellie F. Flynn read 
opinions on the subject given by life members, on request. 
It was voted to keep the clubs separate. 

A nominating committee, consisting of Prof. George P. Burns of 
Burlington and Mrs. Elizabeth B. Davenport of Brattleboro presented 
the following names of officers for the two clubs and they were elected. 
Botanical Club: 

President, Dr. Ezra Brainerd, Middlebury. 
Vice-President, Harold G. Rugg, Hanover, N. H. 
Secretary-Treasurer, Mrs. Nellie F. Flynn, Burlington. 
Librarian, Lewis H. Flint, Burlington. 
Editor, George L. Kirk, Rutland. 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 7 

Bird Club: 

President, Dr. H. F. Perkins, Burlington. 
Vice-President, Dr. Anne Perkins, Collins, N. Y. 
Secretary-Treasurer, Mrs. Nellie F. Flynn, Burlington. 
Editor, George L. Kirk, Rutland. 
The report of the treasurer was read and approved. It was voted 
that the summer meeting of 1923 be held at Bread Loaf Inn, Ripton, 
and at Middlebury, assembling, probably, June 29, and that an invita- 
tion be extended to the National Ornithological Club and the Brookline 
Bird Club of Massachusetts to meet with the Vermont Clubs. 

Mrs. Davenport and Dr. Burns voiced the enthusiastic apprecia- 
tion of Dr. Brainerd's work on "The Violets of North America" and its 
free distribution by the State Agricultural College of the University 
of Vermont. 

The following papers were read: "Plants of My European Trip," 
Mrs. Nellie F. Flynn; "Notes on Plants at Collins, N. Y.," Dr. Anne 
Perkins. Others were read by title, some coming too late to be given 
before the meeting. All of these will appear in the Bulletin. 

Bird List 

Dr. Anne Perkins and others reported that the following birds were 
observed during the Montgomery outing: 

Spotted sandpiper, ruffed grouse, red-tailed hawk, barred owl, 
kingfisher, hairy woodpecker, downy woodpecker, yellow-bellied sap- 
sucker, flicker, whip-poor-will, chimney swift, hummingbird, kingbird, 
phoebe, olive-sided flycatcher, wood pewee, alder flycatcher, chebec, 
blue jay, American crow, bobolink, cowbird, red-winged blackbird, 
meadowlark, bronzed grackle, purple finch, English sparrow, gold- 
finch, vesper sparrow. Savannah sparrow, white-throated sparrow, 
chipping sparrow, field sparrow, slate colored junco, song sparrow, 
swamp sparrow, rose-breasted grosbeak, indigo bunting, scarlet tanager, 
cliff swallow, barn swallow, tree swallow, bank swallow, cedar wax- 
wing, red-eyed vireo, warbling vireo, blue-headed vireo, Nashville 
warbler, Tennessee warbler, parula warbler, yellow warbler, black- 
throated blue warbler, myrtle warbler, magnolia warbler, chestnut- 
sided warbler, black-throated green warbler, pine warbler, ovenbird, 
mourning warbler, Maryland yellowthroat, Canadian warbler, redstart, 
catbird, house wren, winter wren, black-capped chickadee, wood thrush, 
veery, olive-backed thrush, hermit thrush, robin, bluebird. 

8 Joint Bulletin 8 


Nellie F. Flynn 
Botanical Club 


Cash on hand, January 1, 1921 $ 97.53 

Dues 123.41 

Club pins 1.30 

Bulletins .50 



Half printing bill, Bulletin 7 % 43.20 

Postage 12.08 

Printing notices, etc 5.38 

Subscription, Rhodora, two years 4.00 

Half dues, N. E. F. of N. H. S., two years 3.00 

Dues Wild Flower Preservation Society 1.00 

Half typewriting bill, Bulletin 2.00 

Stationery .91 

$ 71.57 
Cash July 10, 1922 151.17 


Deposited in Chittenden County Trust Company Savings 

Department $100.00 

Life membership fund 150.00 

Accrued interest 58.00 

Bird Club 


Cash January 1, 1921 ' $ 33.85 

Dues 81.50 

Bulletins 50 


Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 9 



Half printing bill. Bulletin 7 $ 43.20 

Postage 9.80 

Dues National Audubon Association 5.00. 

Printing notices, etc 5.37 

Half dues, N. E. F. of N. H. S., two years 3.00 

Half typewriting. Bulletin 2.00 

Stationery 91 

$ 69.28 

Cash July 10, 1922 46.57 


Life membership fund $ 30.00 

Accrued interest 13.18 



Inez Addle Howe 

It was on the afternoon of July 4, 1921, that delegates to the num- 
ber of 30 from the Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs assembled at 
the Oilman Cottage on the shores of Lake Willoughby for their annual 
field meeting. It was a free and easy camping party of whole-souled 
men and women who so genuinely love everything that is beautiful in 
nature that this outing meant four days of intensest delight as well as 
four days of scientific investigation of great value to Vermont. 

It was our aim to miss no opportunities, so on the morning of 
July 5th at 4.30 the bird enthusiasts were abroad despite the protests 
of those who wished an additional "forty winks." During this trip 
and those that followed 63 species of birds were observed, many of 
them rare warblers that love to nest at high altitudes. 

The trip planned for this day was to the famous Long Pond 
region which was reached by an easy walk of two miles over very good 
roads, the sides of which abounded in rare ferns and orchids as well 
as the commoner plants. After exploring the vicinity of the pond and 

10 Jo^^"T Bulletin 8 

looking at large-leaved orchis, coralroot, twayblades, and several species 
of rattlesnake plantains, listening to the songs of six different warblers 
at once, to say nothing of the exclamations of each of our party when 
some new treasure appeared, we decided to return to the shores of the 
pond for our basket lunch supplemented by hot coffee, very graciously 
served by Mr. and Mrs. Carpenter, who were travelling with camping 
outfit, complete. On assembling for lunch we were joined by W. W. 
Eggleston of Washington, D. C, who was one of the founders of the 
Vermont Botanical Club, 25 years ago. After dinner we were photo- 
graphed by one of the "bunch" and then decided to take the hike over 
the old "County Road" back to the cottage. A walk of several miles 
along a road bordered by Braun's holly and dilate spinulose ferns, 
luxuriant in the extreme, brought us to the "County Road," long since 
unused as a highway, and overgrown with grateful shade, but carpeted 
with ferns and flowers, rare and beautiful. At five p. m. we reached 
the cottage after a 12-mile walk as tired, dusty, happy and hungry 
as only a party of field naturalists can be. With "just time to dress 
for dinner," which meant, in our cases simply clean faces and clean 
clothes, the jolliest of parties assembled to partake of a hearty and 
toothsome dinner, prepared by Mrs. Wheeler of Westmore, who catered 
for us, making our experience truly "Camping de luxe." 

The Vermont Botanical Club stands for plant protection as well 
as for plant study, so the most of our specimens which we brought 
away were some that are needed to complete some really valuable 
herbaria, not a ruthless collection of rare plants that should have 
been left for posterity to study. 

On Wednesday, July 6th, it was voted to climb the slides, to the 
"Garden of Eden," just at the foot of the cliffs on Mt. Pisgah. The 
morning was smoky and humid, so that a climb to the summit was 
not considered profitable. The ascent to the cliffs was strenuous, but 
the rare little ferns, and saxifrages nestling among them, more than 
repaid the effort. After the descent had been made we lunched at 
the famous Boulders Tea House, then explored the marl bogs south 
of the lake. This was an afternoon long to be remembered. 

At dinner all save one unsuspecting lady were bubbling with 
mirth, for word had been passed to our hostess that it was "Some- 
body's" birthday. Accordingly when dessert was served and the tell- 
tale birthday cake, with the requisite number of chocolate creams rest- 
ing in its frosting, in lieu of candles, was brought in, the secret was 
out and congratulations and best wishes were in order. 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 11 

But all things have an end, and the birthday party abruptly ad- 
journed to the porch and lawn, where a formal business meeting was 
held. At this session it was voted to consolidate the summer and 
winter meetings of the clubs and to hold one annual meeting in July 
of each year. 

The extreme heat of Thursday, July 7th, somewhat abridged the 
explorations of the party, although some good work was done in the 
bogs and swamps at the north end of the lake. 

On Friday morning it was voted to break camp as many of our 
party were obliged to leave on that day. 

The summer meeting of 1921 will go down in the history of the 
clubs as one of the best. Much of the success of the occasion was 
due to the expert guidance of Mr. E. J. Winslow, who knows the region 
of Lake Willoughby as well as he knows the ferns of New England. 
When reports are all in from each individual's work, substantial 
additions to the Willoughby Flora will have been made. 

But better than all of this, 30 members went to their homes the 
better citizens for the week's intercourse with nature, face to face, and 
for the bonds of human love and sympathy that are always cemented 
more closely, by such a convention of kindred spirits. — From The 


Nellie F. Flynn 

The summer meeting of 1922 was held at Montgomery Center with 
an attendance of about 25. 

The first day's trip was from Montgomery to Eden through Avery's 
Gore and Belvidere and back to Montgomery through Hazen's Notch, 
stopping on the way at the numerous ponds, swamps and boggy places 
to collect the interesting plants growing there. 

After eating our lunch at the foot of Belvidere Mountain we 
climbed to the asbestos mine to see the particular object of the trip, 
the new variety of maidenhair fern, Adiantum pedatum var. aleuticum. 
This is the first station for this fern in Vermont and also the first in 
the United States. An account of its discovery here is given elsewhere 
in this Bulletin by the finder, Mrs. L. Frances Jolley. It was first 
seen in eastern North America on Mt. Albert in the Gaspe penin- 

12 Joint Bulletin 8 

sula and occurs in the Selkirks and on Vancouver Island. In these 
places it is on serpentine rock, and a professor of geology tells me that 
asbestos is derived from serpentine rock. 

This station on Belvidere Mountain may be destroyed at no distant 
' day as they are mining the asbestos rock for commercial purposes. 

The second day's trip was to Hazen's Notch between Lowell Moun- 
tain and Montgomery Mountain. The frowning cliffs, almost perpen- 
dicular on the notch side, kept the majority of the party from the 
climb to the top of Montgomery Mountain, but two of the party did it 
from another direction and came back with one of the mountain 
saxifrages, Saxifraga Aizoon and Clematis verticillaris. The rest of 
us, made lazy by the heat, wandered around in a rather small area, but 
found Braun's holly fern, Polystichum Braunii, and the maidenhair 
spleenwort, Asplenium TricJiomanes in the rocky woods, and strangest 
of all the sweet William, Dianthus barbatus. in the woods not far from 
the road. We looked around for signs of an old habitation but found 
nothing except a few stones that looked as if the hand of man had 
once thrown them together for some purpose. This plant is very 
persistent, as I know of a place where no one has lived for 25 years 
where it still grows and blooms along with Artemisia pontica. 

The third day opened with rain and it was afternoon before we 
could get out to explore. We went to Black Palls, but nothing note- 
worthy was found. A few stopped at the station for Polypodium 
vulgare var. cambricum. This fern as lately shown by Prof. M. L». 
Fernald in Rhodora for July, 1922, should be called Polypodium vir- 
ginianum L. forma bipinnatifldum Fernald. 

While this meeting was not as productive of new plants as some 
we have had, the new maidenhair fern makes up for that and at least 
we now know something of what is to be found in this territory. 


Nellie F. Flynn 

The writer was appointed chairman of a committee to revise the 
Vermont Flora and Dr. Ezra Brainerd of Middlebury, Dr. George P. 
Burns of Burlington, Dana S. Carpenter of Middletown Springs and 
Harold G. Rugg of Hanover, N. H., have been chosen as the other 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 13 

members of the committee. The following are named as sub-chairmen 
with power to appoint their own local committees: 

Mrs. Elizabeth B. Davenport, Brattleboro; Harry C. Ridlon, Ben- 
nington; George L. Kirk, Rutland; Mrs. L. Frances Jolley, Berkshire; 
Miss Elsie M. Kittredge, Proctor; Miss Inez Addie Howe, St. Johns- 
bury; Mrs. Carrie E. Straw, Stowe; Jay G. Underwood, Hartland; Mrs. 
Mabel S. Heselton, Taftsville. 

We want this State Flora to be accurate, above all, and at the 
same time to be as complete as possible. It is not probable that it 
can be printed for about five years and that time will give every 
opportunity to gain the desired end. 

I wish that those members who feel that they can do so would 
send 25 cents to Miss Mary A. Day, Gray Herbarium, Cambridge, Mass., 
for a check list of Gray's Manual. In this all plants found in Vermont 
may be checked. Every plant checked must have an herbarium speci- 
men back of it, in either a public or private collection. There have 
been many new species and varieties recognized since the seventh 
edition of Gray's Manual appeared and a list of these will, it is hoped, 
be ready for the next Bulletin. Let every member of the club do 
his part in making this new Flora accurate and complete. 

I am sure that Charles A. Weatherby, 11 Wells Avenue, East Hart- 
ford, Conn., or Dr. B. L. Robinson, 3 Clement Circle, Cambridge, Mass., 
will be willing to help verify doubtful plants. 


Earl A. P ember 

The collecting of bird's eggs first interested me as a boy back in 
the early nineties. I made the usual boy collection of that period 
along with the other lads of the neighborhood, but kept at it longer 
and became interested in the subject not only as a pastime but as an 
enjoyable scientific study. I have been at it intermittently ever since 
and now have a collection big enough to be of considerable interest 
and scientific value. Recently I have gone at it still harder, special- 
izing in different species from time to time. One of my boyhood 
friends has accompanied me more or less along these lines. 

14 Joint Bulletin 8 

At the beginning of a recent attack of this collecting fever I 
took considerable interest in obtaining a good representative series of 
eggs of the red-winged blackbird. This bird being fairly common 
and its eggs showing wide variation, the result was quite successful 
and led to other matters along zoological lines as you shall see. 

In the search for locations of red-wings' nests my friend and I 
were discussing where to try next, and he remarked incidentally that 
30 years before a small boy had brought him a hat-full of rail's eggs, 
which he claimed to have found in a small swamp near Hartland. This 
looked encouraging to us for both red-wings and rails, and so we 
went to the locality. The finding of the small swamp was not so easy 
as might have been expected. Neither of us had ever been there 
before and the information was 30 years old and rather sketchy. 
Finally, however, we found the swamp typically located in a rolling 
meadow and not more than 200 feet long and 100 wide. Upon our ap- 
proach about a dozen red-wings started into the air with their usual 
clatter and assured us of a chance to examine some of their nests, at 
least. In fact, we found five red-wings' nests, each containing from one 
to five young birds. 

This was all well enough so far as it went; but we were anxious 
to solve the rail problem and made a careful search of the whole 
swamp with this in mind. The reward was a nest containing one ad- 
dled egg of the Virginia rail. As we gathered about the nest strange 
squawking noises greeted us and later a glimpse or two of the funny 
little rails dodging here and there among the reeds. My first impres- 
sion was of a lively little toy duck swimming about. There appeared 
to be only one pair of rails breeding here and this condition had doubt- 
less obtained for upwards of 30 years. We watched these strange, 
shy little birds for a short time, but refrained from disturbing them 
much for fear that they wouldn't come back the next season. 

Within a few miles of this swamp is a larger one covering nearly 
20 acres. We visited this and found in it countless red-wings' nests 
in all stages, from incomplete nests to those containing well fledged 
young. This swamp, situated about 500 feet from a main highway 
and quite near a village, is composed of large areas of tussock grass 
growing in from one to four feet of water and furnishing most un- 
certain footing. These areas are interspersed with small tracts of 
low-growing bushes, with here and there a bit of open water. A great 
confusion of sounds accompanied us through the swamp as frogs, red- 
wings, swamp sparrows, rails and possibly other creatures were dis- 

Nest and Eggs of the Virginia Rail — Winusok County, Vermont. 
(Reed canopy pulled aside to show eggs.) 

Photographed hy Karl A. Pember, 1920. 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 15 

turbed by our unexpected and unwelcome, not to say splashy and 
uncertain, progress. 

Near the place of our entrance we found an empty rail's nest with 
egg shells scattered about below it. This was on May 25th, and it 
seemed probable that some bird or animal had dined here rather than 
that young birds had hatched and departed. During the hunt we 
located nine rails' nests — ^six Virginias and three soras — containing 
from eight to 12 eggs each, slightly incubated. 

The nests were, in some instances, of dry cat-tail rushes bent down 
to form a shallow cupped platform canopied over with the same 
material; in others, they were on bunches of tussock grass and of 
similar design. All were difficult to find, being so well hidden that 
one might stand almost within reach of the eggs and not see them 
without the most diligent search. Then, too, the birds either slipped 
off their nests long before we came near or darted away from almost 
under our feet and vanished imimediately, thus rendering discovery of 
the nests by flushing the bird most uncertain. We marked each nest 
as we located it so that we could choose the best sets of eggs from the 
total find without needlessly disturbing any. 

Later in the afternoon we went the rounds again to collect the 
chosen sets; but had considerable difficulty in re-locating the last one 
and were diligently hunting over the immediate vicinity when, just 
as I was about to step from one tussock to another, a rail fiushed from 
almost under my foot and I, somewhat startled, just missed stepping 
into a nice little Virginia rail's nest containing 11 eggs; but didn't 
miss going splash into the water and getting thoroughly soaked! Thus 
the imperfect end of a perfect day and the opportunity for the critic 
to say, "Good enough for you, egg-robber!" 

I have visited both swamps since and found only a single sora in 
the small swamp, and numerous nests of the Virginia in the large one, 
but no further sora's nests. 

No one would suspect the presence of rails in either of these 
swamps, except perhaps by reason of the nature of the terrain. Only 
by careful search may one find any sign of the birds, so quiet are they 
and so craftily expert in keeping out of sight and hiding their nests. 
I believe these birds are said to have a variety of call-notes, but I 
have rarely heard them; and then only when in the close vicinity of 
their nests. Suddenly from out the tangle of marsh grass and reeds 
may come a short, disgusted sounding "chuck"; a squawk, with rising 

16 Joint Bulletin 8 

inflection; or a low chuckle; and these together with other indescrib- 
able squeaks, quavers and chudderings, I attribute to the rails. 

We probably found only a small part of the nests that this large 
swamp actually contained, those that we did find being so cunningly 
camouflaged. They ranged from six to 16 inches above water level 
and were placed near the edge of the swamp rather than toward the 

Such eggs of the Virginia rail as I have seen show a ground color 
of light buff or dirty cream color, while those of the soras were light 
tan. The Virginia's eggs remind me of a small edition of the Florida 
gallinule and the spots are smaller than those on the sora's egg«. 
Also the Virginia's are shorter and blunter than the more elongated 
eggs of the sora. 

We found a number of nests of the swamp sparrow, some in the 
tussock grass and others in the bushes. All contained beautifully 
marked eggs, more heavily blotched than usual. 

Altogether it is most desirable to slosh about in such a swamp 
with the alluring hope and anticipation of the next possible find; but, 
although I have thus sloshed about in a goodly number of swamps 
hereabouts, I have found no rails in any other than those above 



W. W. Eggleston 

In November, 1852, John Lewis Russell published in the Magazine 
of Horticulture (18:481-485) the following account of Frost's visit, the 
latter part of July, 1852. Quite plainly railway travel was a new 
diversion and as much appreciated by the botanists of Frost's time as 
automobile travel is by present day botanists. It also seems that they 
had no through trains from Boston to Montreal at that time. 

Some of the Rarer Plants of Vermont 

The substance of the following article I was kindly permitted to 
use by Rev. A. H. Clapp and Charles C. Frost of Brattleboro, who, in 
the latter part of the month of July, last, made an excursion to a re- 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 17 

markable botanical region, in the neighborhood of Willoughby Lake, 
in quest of plants and other objects of interest. Deeming such in- 
formation congenial to the spirit of your magazine, I have placed it at 
your disposal, as subserving the cause of botany and floriculture. 

Have you ever heard of Willoughby Lake? If my reader says no, 
let me inform him that said Willoughby Lake is in the small township 
of Westmore, Vermont, 21 miles north of St. Johnsbury. St. Johns- 
bury is easily accessible from any quarter, but we were borne first 
along the Vermont Valley Railroad on the banks of the Connecticut, 
catching glimpses through the opening hills, on either hand, of such 
delightful bits of landscape as Fisher, or Brown or Cole would have 
loved to paint. An hour — ^and we were at Bellows' Falls, where, by 
delay of the Boston train, we indulged in admiration of the scenery 
adjacent, and of other noticeable subjects, until, admonished by the 
shrilly whistle of the time of departure we embarked on the Sullivan 
train, and off again through a succession of other delightful scenery, 
looking now down on quiet farms ornamented with the graceful elm 
side by side, yet in striking contrast, with the staid and proper maple — 
and now at Ascutney, with its sociable peaks, 3,100 feet high, wooded 
to the top, and seemingly sloping gently down into the plain, and so ta 
Windsor. Hence, the Vermont Central Railroad enabled us to reach 
White River, where, by another railroad, viz., the Connecticut and 
Passumpsic, we were transported to St. Johnsbury. The scenery has 
been changing its character, meanwhile, for these last 60 miles. North- 
eastward, the White Mountain range — elements of the grand mingling 
with the bewitching beauty of the nearer view. 

Everybody knows what a wonderful and curiously contrived con- 
venience a railroad is; and to him who would fain explore mountain 
streams or mountain lakes for the finny tribes, or, in no less exciting 
devotion, to flower hunting would engage, such modern innovations on 
the primitive style of forest traveling are, with all their injuries in- 
flicted on Dame Nature, of an available commodity. We can easily 
imagine the delight which sprung up in the breast of one of our 
tourists, who, thus, in the brief space of a day's time, was rapidly 
approaching — not, my reader, the, but — a Garden of Eden — where the 
plants, if not the fruits, of tempting beauty, had almost wasted their 
charms and fragrance on the desert air. It were not necessary, then, 
to tell you of all the wonders to be seen about the last mentioned town, 
nor how there is a great factory, where one of the emblems of justice 

18 Joint Bulletin 8 

is produced in vast quantity, nor how proverbial for thrift, industry, 
and morality the village is; for to reach Willoughby Lake, you must 
betake yourself, after due refreshment by bed and board, an' you like, 
to some vehicle which shall carry you through Lyndon. Emerging 
thence into the rural districts where good farms, well cultivated, and 
fine specimens of grazing cattle, engage your attention close at hand; 
while Burke Mountain, 3,500 feet high, of ever-changing, but ever 
noble outline, continually attracts your eye eastward. The first good 
view of the mountains between which the lake lies, is obtained about 
eight miles this side of it. On the east,, Pisgah or Annance, so named 
in the latter instance from a chief of the St. Francis tribe of Indians, 
its western face bare and rocky. Hor, on the west, presents a long 
tabular outline, sloping gently to the north, and dropping suddenly 
off to the northern and southern extremities. Ascending now a wooded 
slope, the height of land separating the tributaries of the Connecticut 
from those of the St. Lawrence, a scene of grandeur and of beauty 
opens upon you; the lake, of clear deep blue, calmly sleeping between 
its two overhanging sentinels — in the distance. Owl's Head, rising out 
of Memphremagog like a giant, keeping also its ceaseless watch over 
the region. 

Once upon the bosom of the lake, you begin to appreciate the 
features of your locale. There you may glance your eye upwards, 
from its waters on the perpendicular fronts of those two mountains, 
the eastern towering 1,950 feet, and the western one 1,500 feet, from 
where you are lying in your boat. Annance is the more striking object, 
however. Its base is wooded for about 600 feet; then a sheer precipice 
of slate rock for 800 feet, with a granite tower pushed through it, and 
perhaps 550 feet more of woodland crowns the whole. A cave on the 
east shore, just where the granite cloven foot of Annance steps down 
Into the lake, bears the universally accepted if not acceptable name, 
wherever anything strange or mysterious is found, of Devil's Den; on 
the wet rocks in the entrance of which, some interesting lichen was 
detected by Mr. Frost — a Collema, I presume. 

It is by the aid of a road, and while opposite this place, that you 
must turn directly east u^ the mountain, on an angle of 40 degrees, 
and difficult of ascent from fallen trees, undergrowth, and, worse than 
all, branches of the white cedar. Would you enter the domains of 
Flora, in her modern Garden of Eden? Never mind, then, but crawl 
on for 500 or 600 feet, and you shall be more than repaid by coming 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 19 

into an open field of five or six acres, clear of trees, a part of it over- 
hung by the precipice, protected from the winds and storms — a natural 
conservatory. This is the flower garden. It was on this ascent that 
Mr. Frost felt himself entering a region of great botanical interest. 
The southwestern slope of Mount Annance he found covered with trees, 
principally Thuja occidentalis and Cupressus tUyoicles, as far upward 
as the 600 feet just mentioned. There was scarcely a rock or boulder 
to be seen. The surface consists of a rich black soil, and cold; and he 
found those plants which usually occur in such soils. The specimens 
were of unusual size and luxurance; Clintonia horealis, with leaves 
four to six times as large as are common, and with scapes having two 
or even four umbels. The beautiful mosses, viz., Hypnum splendens and 
Hypnuvi crista castrensis, were of great extent. Passing these and 
arriving at the open field, nearly destitute of stones and grassy sod, the 
area was covered with flowers of almost innumerable kinds and colors. 
The declivity on which the "Garden" lies is much less than that of the 
rest of the mountain, and above it towers the precipice of naked rock, 
projecting in some places 20 or 30 feet, and affording by this feature, 
and by its crumbling character, both shelter and richness to the sea 
of flowers which grow at its base. 

The region had been explored some years previous by Mr. "Wood, 
a botanist of merit, and through whose remarkable discoveries there, 
our tourist was induced to visit the spot. Here Mr. Frost detected 
again the Hedysarum boreale (Nutt.), not known to exist in any other 
locality in the United States and which Professor Gray calls a "fine 
discovery," also Saxifraga oppositifolia and Saxifraga aizoides! Here, 
likewise, he collected the rare Primula mistassinica (Mx.) a veritable 
Primula, reader, bringing in a co-species, "the primrose by the river's 
brim" of Old England into a pleasant proximity with its representative 
of our dear New England. Would not some of our florists delight to 
have them growing together on some rich border of their gardens? 
Here, also, grew two sedges of some variety, viz., Carex scirpoidea 
(found likewise on the Alpine summits of the White Mountains), and 
Carex ehurnea, which we had previously noticed on the picturesque and 
rocky limestone banks of the Winooski. Here, lastly, among other 
treasures beside, occurred the very rare Woodsia glabella, a tiny fern 
of the Arctic regions — though found once before on the rocks about 
Little Falls, New York, as we learn through Gray's Botany, etc., p. 630. 

The face of the precipice itself would be a fine place for rare 


Joint Bolletix 8 

lichens, but the muddy surface of the constantly crumbling rock renders 
its approach very difficult. Pteris atropurpurea, a fern of much beauty, 
grew here; and with an undetermined species of Collema, two or three 
lichens, elsewhere noticed, occurred; as likewise on the same rock 
were seen AraMs lyrata. Braha arabisans and Phaca Robbinsii. Nor 
were any mosses noticed here — although elsewhere on the mountain, 
beside the two species before mentioned, were Hypnum umbratum and 
Hypnum cupressiforme in abundance, with several others. 

The Gramineae found in the garden were Lolium perenne, Dantho- 
nia spicata, Panicum nitidum and P. depauperatum, Muhlenbergia syl- 
vatica, Calamagrostis canadensis, and Oryzopsis melanocarpa. 

Among the more common plants, 17 of them in flower, were the 
following, viz.: 

Achillaea millefolia, 
Anemone cylindrica, 
Anemone virginiana, 
Antennaria margaritacea, 
Apocynum hypericifolium, 
Artemesia canadensis, 
Asclepias cornuti, 
Asclepias quadrifolia, 
Campanula rotundifolia, 
Circea alpina. 
Clematis virginiana, 
Cirsium lanceolatum, 
Eupatorium ageratoides, 

Eupatorium purpureum, 
Fragraria virginiana, 
Helianthemum canadense, 
Lonicera ciliata, 
Oenothera fruticosa, 
Rosa blanda, 
Rubus occidentalis, 
Rubus odoratus, 
Rubus strigosus, 
Rubus triHorus, 
Solidago corymbosus, 
Solidago lanceolata, 
Vitis cordifolia. 

As we have observed already, the above list contains but a part of 
what might be obtained by visiting the garden at the different seasons 
when the species make themselves conspicuous by flowering. Indeed, 
its geology and mineralogy present not a few unusual phases to excite 
and reward investigation. But a rich return is in store for the botanist, 
or for the lover as well as cultivator of our native plants, who shall 
make a thorough exploration of this Garden of Eden, and of its ad- 
jacent rock and mountain side. 

C, F. and R. 

Hingham, October 3, 1852. 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 



W. W. Eggleston 

Vermont naturalists as well as historians are immensely indebted 
to Zadock Thompson. Graduates of the University of Vermont and 
all other Vermonters have a right to be proud of his work. A sketch 
of his life and work ought to be prepared. 

Brought up from boyhood on Thompson's Vermont History and 
with some knowledge of his other publications I received a most agree- 
able surprise recently in an old bookstore in New York when I found 
his Northern Guide. The first edition was published in 1845, three 
years after his History of Vermont. But it is with the second edition 
of the Northern Guide (1854) that we are interested now because this 
edition describes Willoughby Lake. The title page reads as follows: 




Montreal and Quebec, 





Maps and Tables of Distances. 

Author of History and Gazetteer of Vermont. 

Published by S. B. Nichols, 
' 1854. 

On pages 36 to 38 is the following: 

22 Joint Bulletin 8 

"Willoughby Lake 

"This lake, which has became a favorite place of resort for pleasure 
parties in the summer, is in the township of Westmore, Orleans County, 
Vermont. It is 5% miles long, and from half a mile to 1^^ miles wide. 
Its south end lies in a chasm between two granite mountains, the sides 
of which, facing each other, are nearly perpendicular, and about half 
a mile asunder. That on the east side is called Pisgah, and that on 
the west Hor. These names were given to the two summits long before 
there was any settlement in that part of the county, and there is no 
good reason why the former name should be supplanted by that of 
A7inance, which some are endeavoring to substitute for it. The surface 
of Willoughby Lake is 1,1G1 feet above the ocean, and the summit of 
Pisgah 1,586 feet above the lake, or 2,747 feet above the ocean. The 
bed of the lake is, for the most part, a clean white sand and pebbles, 
and the water clear and pure. The coldness and purity of the water, 
the salubrity of the air, and above all, the wild grandeur and beauty 
of the scenery (and I must add, the savory longe), render it one of 
the most inviting summer retreats from the dust and heat and turmoil 
of city and village, anywhere to be found. Three years ago the lake 
was hardly accessible, on either side. Now a good road passes along 
the whole length of the eastern shore, and at the south end a spacious 
public house, called the Lake House, has been erected for the accom- 
modation of travelers and visitors, where stages arrive and depart 
daily, evening and morning, in both directions. The site of the Lake 
House is 122 feet above the lake. The Natural Flower Garden, so in- 
teresting to the botanist, is situated on a sloping surface, in the western 
declivity of Pisgah, 583 feet above the lake. The ascent to the garden 
is somewhat difficult, but that from the Lake House to the summit of 
Mt. Pisgah is quite easy, and the view from it exceedingly fine. Wil- 
loughby Lake and the adjacent mountains, from a point three miles to 
the northward, form one of the finest views found any where in New 

"From Burlington there are three principal routes to Willoughby 
Lake. The most direct is by way of Johnson, Craftsbury, and Iras- 
burgh, mostly by stage. Another route is by the Vermont Central 
Railroad to White River Junction; thence by the Passumpsic Railroad 
to St. Johnsbury, and then by stage to the lake. Another route is by 
way of Montreal and Sherbrooke to Island Pond (page 43), then by 
stage 11 miles to Willoughby Lake." 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 23 



W. W. Eggleston 

Dr. G. G. Kennedy^ in his "Flora of Willoughby, Vermont," 
sketches the work of its early explorers. 

William Oakes in his "Catalogue of Vermont Plants" (Thompson's 
History of Vermont, 1842), does not mention Willoughby. Neither 
does Thompson in the Northern Guide of 1845. One could well wonder 
why two fine collectors like Dr. J. W. Robbins and John Carey did not 
visit these cliffs, for Robbins was at Brownington and Lake Mem- 
phremagog in 1829 and Carey at Sutton in 1835 or 1836, and they were 
in plain sight of the cliffs, if it were not for the lack of roads about 
Willoughby Lake at that time. 

It was the good fortune of Alphonso Wood," pioneer author of 

1 Rhodora 6: 93-114. June, 1904. 

2 Rev. Dr. Alphonso Wood was born in Chesterfield, N. H., September 17, 
1810. He graduated with honors from Dartmouth College in 1834. 

He immediately secured a position as teacher in Kimball Union Academy, 
Meriden, N. H., and taught there about fifteen years, becoming associate 
principal. One year was spent at Andover Theological Seminary and later 
he studied theology with the elder Dr. Barstow of Keene, N. H., but he never 
was to accept a pastorate because botany soon became his life work. 

His first Class Book of Botany was published early in 1845. In 1844 
he married Lucy Baldwin of Bradford, Vt., a teacher at Kimball Union 
Academy. His son was born in the spring of 184.5. The spring and summer 
of 1846 he went with his family to visit his parents in Indiana and did 
much exploration to perfect his Class Book of 1847, in which the range was 
extended to the Mississippi Valley. 

In 1848 or 1849 First Lessons in Botany were published. 

In 1849 his health failed him and he resigned from the Academy and 
took a position on the engineering force then making the survey for the 
Rutland and Bennington (Western Vermont) Railway (opened in 1852). 

In 1852 he went as principal of the Cleveland Female Seminary and 
in 1854 became principal of Ohio Female College, College Hill, O. In 1858 
he founded the Terre Haute Female College. Despite all of his professional 
activity he was hard at work getting material and information for another 
extension of his Class Book, visiting the South twice. The longer trip South 
in 1857 was extended well into Florida. 

In the fall of 1860, when preparing the third copyright of his Class Book, 
he moved to Brooklyn, N. Y. 

The first three parts of the new Class Book came out late in 1860 and 
the complete work early in 1861. 

In the spring of 1861 he opened the Brooklyn Female Academy which 
proved very successful, even during the war. 

In 1863 his "Object Lessons in Botany" was started. 

In October, 1865, he started on a trip to the Pacific slope which occupied 
him nearly 18 months. Starting in at San Diego in January, 1866, he traveled 
northward nearly to Puget Sound, visiting Yosemite Valley, Mt. Shasta and 
Mt. Hood, and returned via the isthmus. 

In the spring of 1867 he moved his family to West Farms, N. Y., where 
he resided until his death. 

In 1869 was published his Liliaceae of the Pacific Coast. 

In 1869 fourth copyright of Class Book, 

1870, Botanist and Florist. 

1877, Illustrated Plant Record. 

1879, Fourteen Weeks in Botany. 

1879, Flora Atlantica. 

In 1879 he became Professor of Botany in the New York College of 
Pharmacy, which he occupied until his death January 4, 1881. 

24 Joint Bulletin 8 

botanical lessons and manuals and the most successful botanical 
author and botanical teacher that New England has ever produced, 
to find the "flower garden" at Willoughby, in August, 1845. An "ob- 
servation" of his on page 279 of the Class Book of 1847, under Saxifraga 
oppositifolia. is as follows: 

"I discovered this and the foregoing species (S. aizoides) in the 
above locality (in the clefts of rocks, Willoughby Mt., Westmore, Vt., 
500 ft. above W. Lake), where they had passed flowering." The Class 
Book of 1847 also lists Hedysarum boreale and Artemisia canadensis 
and the Class Book of 1849 gives Primula mistassinica as his dis- 

By later botanists he is accredited with Woodsia glabella, Draba 
and Potamogeton praelongus. Professor Wood at this time must have 
been an extremely busy man as associate principal of Kimball Union 
Academy. He was married in 1844 and at the same time was preparing 
the first edition of his Class Book which tradition tells us was copied 
entirely by Mrs. Wood. This edition came out early in 1845. This 
same spring his son was born and it is quite likely that he took his 
trip to Willoughby Lake while visiting his wife's parents at Bradford, 
Vt. We have no evidence of another stop at Willoughby and this one 
must have been a hurried trip. Summer vacations of teachers in 
those days were extremely short. 

In July, 1852, C. C. Frost and Rev. A. H. Clapp visited Willoughby. 
They secured Pellaea atropurpurea, Carex scirpoidea, Braya humilis 
and Astragalus Blakei. They were the first botanists to use the rail- 
way to reach Willoughby. Lake Willoughby is on the outskirts of the 
great Essex County and northern Maine wilderness and must have 
been exceedingly wild and attractive before the opening of the rail- 
ways. The Central Vermont was finished in 1849. The Vermont 
Valley and the Connecticut and Passumpsic in 1851. With the open- 
ing of the railways Willoughby was bound to be better known and 
become exploited. The highway along the east side of the lake and 
the Lake House at the head of the lake were built between 1852 and 

In 1854 William Boott visited the region. Rev. Joseph Blake came 
in 1861 or perhaps earlier, and discovered Saxifraga Aizoon. 

In 1862 Horace Mann visited Willoughby. 

In 1873 came the Faxons and Dr. Cyrus G. Pringle. Dr. Pringle 
found Woodsia alpina and the Faxon herbarium treasured Asplenium 
viride, which was found on Mt. Hor by Mrs. Condit in 1887. I have 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 25 

no record of the first appearance of Dr. Kennedy on the scene, but he 
visited and summered at Willoughby many seasons, making many 
notable discoveries and at last recording them for us. 



D. Lewis Button 

About 10 years ago I collected several species of lichens in the 
town of Hancock, but I did not have them identified until compara- 
tively recently when G. K, Merrill named one Lecidea parasemoides 
sp. nov. and commented, "Seems to be a novelty." The specimens 
grew on a sugar maple tree among spruces and were about four feet 
from the ground. 

In 1920, while collecting near Lake Dunmore, in Leicester, I 
secured on shaded rocks a thin crustaceous formation of a grayish, 
brown color, the fruit appearing as small black dots. Mr. Merrill 
named this Bacidia Duttonii sp. nov. 

The following year on the edges of Lyon hill, Brandon, the writer 
collected a plant resembling Leoidea Russellii Tuck, but Mr. Merrill 
called it Lecidea (Psoi'a) palidella sp. nov. On a rock in a pasture 
nearby I secured a large Caloplaca which Mr. Merrill decided was also 
a new species, naming it Caloplaca ohliterascens sp. nov. 


Francis H. Sargent 

During the summer of 1922, the writer found growing abundantly 
on hillside pastures in parts of Enosburg, Montgomery and Richford 
a small plant which I decided was one of the eyebrights and speci- 
mens were later identified for me as Euphrasia canadensis Townsend. 
As far as I can learn no species of Euphrasia has heretofore been re- 
ported for Vermont. 

Another plant not listed in the Vermont Flora, which I collected 
in 1922, was Lysimachia punctata L. It is common as a dooryard 
escape in Franklin. 

26 Joint Bulletin 8 

Among other species not common in the State, seen by the writer 
recently, were Scirpus deMlis Pursh, Snipe Island pond; Veronica 
Chamaedrys L., maple woods, Lake Carmi, Franklin. 


Mary A. Loveland 

My first observations of birds and plants in Florida were made 
at Jacksonville, where we arrived early in the morning of January 13, 
1922. Having about three hours to wait before starting on the trip 
across the state, I took a walk in the city and saw palms, ferns and 
numerous other foliage plants, with lilies and poinsettias in bloom, 
besides many flowers that I did not know. The only birds noticed in 
Jacksonville were crows and English sparrows. 

One cannot study birds very well on a moving train, but, thanks to 
fellow travelers, I learned the names of some new trees during the 
ride. Live oaks, water oaks and scrub palmettos were pointed out. 
It was unnecessary to ask the names of some of the fine looking 
plants in the gardens — lettuce, for instance, grown in long rows. 

Trees of various kinds were festooned with the so-called "Long 
Moss," which is really not a moss at all but an air plant which does 
not injure the trees as a parasite might. There were many pines on 
the route and in some of the forests the bark was slashed and cups 
were hung to catch the pitch. At one place a fire had killed the 
young trees. A vine, covered with masses of yellow flowers, was 
noticed on houses and trellises. This was learned later to be Bignonia. 

The morning after my arrival in Auburndale, a friend and I took 
a walk on the street, beside which we found flve species of wild 
flowers in bloom. We discovered a dead bluejay not far from the 
asphalt pavement. The noisy jays were numerous in the trees near 
the cottage where we stayed. The Florida jay is much like our New 
England bluejay, but smaller. 

An early acquaintance was made with the cardinal or redbird, 
which, with its brilliant coloring, is sure to attract attention. The 
female, as in many species of birds, is duller in color although it has 
tinges of red. In March the song was noticed. Different people in- 
terpret it very differently. A neighbor thought the bird said "chew 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 27 

A few days after I arrived at my temporary southern home an old 
friend came and lingered long. It was phoebe. Her wilted look, 
flirted tail and reiterated cry made certain my identification. 

Of course, the mocking birds were eagerly looked for and listened 
to. They were always about the house and heard at all hours — before 
we were up in the morning and again in the ^heat of the day when the 
mercury was as high as 84. The song reminded me of our northern 
catbird when he is at his best. As Mrs. Doubleday says in "Bird 
Neighbors": "This is the angel that the catbird was before he fell 
from grace." 

Woodpeckers were common, the one we call flicker being the most 
familiar. They are seen working on the ground among orange trees. 
Query, was it ants that they dug up? 

On February 9, a 45-mile automobile ride to Tampa to visit the 
South Florida fair gave us our opportunity to see some birds and 
plants. A flock of blackbirds was noticed. At the fair, in addition to 
a great display of common poultry, there were pheasants, peacocks 
with brilliant plumage, as well as ducks and geese. On the way back 
we stopped near a swamp while some of the party visited a market 
garden to secure cabbage, strawberries and beets. The place was full 
of birds, many in song, but we could not see them. 

Later, while spending a few days in Tampa, we took an enjoyable 
ride to St. Petersburg. Gulls followed the steamer and we also saw 
pelicans, buzzards and a loon. It was interesting to watch the pelicans 
from a wharf at St. Petersburg. They would catch fish readily, but 
it required some time to swallow one, owing to the journey via the 
bill and long neck. My attention was called to the "woolly head." 
The pelicans there were mostly grey, but we saw one that had a white 
breast. On the return boat it was enjoyable to watch the gulls which 
followed for the food that was thrown to them. They would take 
pieces from each other and if a choice morsel sank beneath the water 
a bird was sure to dive for it. 

The last night I was in Auburndale we were invited to a country 
house. While we were at supper one of the ladies spoke of chuck 
will's widow which was singing near. Although the bird is closely 
allied to our whip-poor-will, the song is different. 

It was easier to observe the vegetable than the animal life because, 
as plants remain stationary, we could go time after time to see a cer- 
tain thing. Much pleasure was derived from the cultivated groves 

28 Joint Bulletin 8 

and gardens. Being in the midst of the citrus fruit raising, it was 
a never-to-he-forgotten sight to look at the rows of orange-laden trees, 
which covered many acres. In March the blossoms were out and, 
in many cases, one could still see the golden ripe fruit, still un- 
gathered, while the air was sweet with the fragrance from the blossoms 
on the same trees. 

Many old Hawaiian fruits were about. One in particular it was 
good to see — the papaya or paw paw, as they call it in Florida. "Melons 
on trees" seems an appropriate description of the fruit. At one place 
we were given some paw paw blossoms. The odor carried me back over 
many years, proving that the sense of smell is abiding and memory 

After making two calls one day, we carried home kumquats, limes, 
lemons, loquats, oranges, grapefruit and tangerines, and we found fresh 
guavas at home. 

Ponderosa lemons were seen as big as grapefruit. Mangoes and 
alligator pears were not in season so these old favorites were not 

Clusters of purple wistaria are associated with the oldest house 
in the United States, at St. Augustine, where the vine covered the 
garden fence. 

In the park surrounding the magnificent Tampa Bay hotel there 
are many fine cultivated plants and trees, some of which are named. 

At Ballast Point, we saw a banyan tree which had made quite a 
spreading growth by sending down branches to take root. 

Ferns, similar to our maidenhair, grew on the walls of one of the 
dungeons at old Fort Marion. Very few ferns were seen growing wild. 

Among the flowers we met blue violets, lupines, milkweeds, a 
portulaca, Cherokee rose, dwarf dandelion and blue iris. It was hard 
to find the names of some of the native flowers as there was no botany 
of the southern states at hand and not all were given in the familiar 
Gray Manual. Some were pressed and identified on reaching home. 


Anne E. Perkins 

We are situated, fortunately, on the edge of the Cattaraugus Indian 
Reservation, near the Cattaraugus Creek, in a thinly settled district, 
with much underbrush and thickety growth, but little woods. It is a 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 29 

rich field for botanizing and bird-study and a brief account of some 
of our plants and birds may be of interest. 

I find many plants not familiar to me in New England. I have 
collected considerable for the state botanist of New York, but not for 
myself. In June, 1920, I sent him Carex Mcolor, not previously re- 
ported in this state. Mertensia is very common and is sold, by 
bushels, on the streets of Buffalo, by squaws. Erythronium albidum 
is common, though less so than E. americanum. Fentstemon pallidus 
is fairly common, Hybanthus concolor local, Chamaelirium luteum not 
common but I have one good station for it. Orchis spectaMlis is 
common, and Ci/pripedium hirsutum I have seen most abundantly in 
the swamps and sold by the Indians. It is no exaggeration to say 
that I have seen a thousand blossoms at once in the train en route for 
the city. Cypripedium pubescens and parviflorum are common, C. acaule 
less so, other orchids I do not come upon as commonly as in New 
England. Spiranthes lucida is plentiful, Microstylis unifolia not very 
common, CorallorMza maculata not common; Habenaria dilatata 
Hookeri, lacera and ps^codes occasional. Habenarias in general not 
frequent. Lobelia syphilitica is extremely common, also Polemonium 
reptans, Phlox divaricata, DisporuTn lanuginosum, Evonymus atropur- 
pureus, obovatus, americanus. Less common are Cassia marilandica, 
Stachys palustris, Houstonia ciliolata, Euphorbia corollata, Vaccinium 
stamineum, Polanisia graveolens. Gaura biennis, both Polymnias, both 
Agastaches, Parnassia Caroliniana, are common as are Alliaria alliaria, 
Orobanche, Nicotiana rustica. Onobrychis stations, never reported 
nearer than Wisconsin, have become established in two places in a field 
in Gowanda (two miles from here), spreading through imported hides 
in a field near a tannery. Sorghostrum nutans, Arrhenatherum, Andro- 
pogon furcatus, Cynosurus cristatus are among the grasses found. 
Once I found Geranium pratense, but the station has been destroyed, 
the same being true of Cuphea petiolaris. Triosteum perfoliatum and 
aurantiacum both occur. 

The tulip tree, cucumber tree, spice-bush, Xanthoxylum america- 
num, tupelo, sassafras, Dirca palustris are all very common. 

The small white ladies' slipper has been reported, but I have not 
seen it and suspect it to be a white form of acaule. There is an active 
botanical section of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences, known as 
the Botanical Hobby Club, and various members are exploring the 
swamps and creek-banks. Ai'alia spinosa has been found near. Too 

30 Joint Bulletin 8 

often, the Indians cut and burn over sections containing one's rarest 
finds and in this way many of my best stations have been destroyed. 
The state botanist plans a trip here for collecting as there is un- 
doubtedly a rich field not thoroughly examined. 

Some plants so common in New England are rare here, for instance, 
Houstonia caerulea, Drosera, Cornus canadensis. Spiraea tomentosa and 
salicifolia. But the woods are full of hepaticas, yellow violets, chiefly 
pubescens, some rotundifolia, Canada, spurred and striata, Podophyl- 
lum, both Dicentras. Cardamine bulbosa, Dentaria laciniata and 
diphylla, Collinsonia, etc. I have never seen so much Caltha palustris. 

My time is so limited for exploration that I feel there is yet much 

Bird life is abundant. There are now several pairs of cardinal 
grosbeaks between here and Buffalo. T^'o males were recently shot 
for the Buffalo Museum. I have seen four at one time, year after 
year in the same location, and this season found two nests of the same 
pair. For resident warblers we have, abundantly, hooded, chestnut- 
sided, magnolia, blackburnian. oven-bird, Louisiana water thrush, 
parula, mourning, yellow, Maryland yellow-throat, redstart. The black- 
throated blue and black-throated green nest sparingly, also the Canada, 
rarely the Nashville. We have many rose-breasted grosbeaks and 
scarlet tanagers, chewinks, thrashers, wood thrushes, veeries, indigo 
buntings. Last season I found the nest of a parula partly built in a 
dead limb of a pine, which was broken off and hanging in the tree. 
I watched the female building while the male bird sang close by, but 
alas! the limb was blown dow^n before the nest was completed. I 
have found nests of hooded, magnolia, oven-bird, chestnut-sided, black- 
throated blue, Louisiana water thrush. Last season I found the 
marsh hawk's nest with five eggs, all of which hatched. In migra- 
tion we have yellow palm, palm, rarely the golden-winged and cerulean 
warblers, usually several Connecticut warblers, and once I have seen 
a blue grosbeak and a Philadelphia vireo and almost yearly the Lincoln 

The tufted titmouse has been taken a few miles away. The red- 
bellied woodpecker is rare but reported occasionally, also the pileated. 
A bald eagle or two appear by the creek rarely. 

I have found the nests of alder flycatcher, migrant shrike, rough- 
winged swallow. 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 31 


E. M. Kittreclge 

Last year much ground usually covered to a depth of several 
inches along the shores of Lake Champlain w^as laid bare by the 
steady fall of the water and plants not before noticed were found 
growing way beyond former limits. Cyperus esculentus, Stachys 
tenuifolia var. aspera, and Lactuca scariola var. integrata were col- 
lected in October, as were also some species of Xanthium. Of these 
latter X. curvescens and X. leptocarpum are new species described by 
Millspaugh and Sherff in their recent monograph as occurring only on 
the Vermont shores of Lake Champlain. X. commune has been the 
only species in this vicinity heretofore. 

Little opportunity for collecting was afforded me this spring, but 
it was a great pleasure to notice several plants and collect a few in 
my hum-drum coming and going between camp and railroad station. 
I traversed fields for part of the mile and the highway the rest, and 
although the trip was made about three times a week, something of 
interest usually presented itself — not always of wild excitement, but 
new or rare to me. In particular I was struck by the great variation 
in color of the blue vetch (Vicia Cracca) , ranging from two or three 
isolated plants bearing pale, almost white, lavender flowers, to large 
and many groups of deep red, purple (more red or crimson than pur- 
ple) flowered plants, as well as large areas covered with plants having 
the normal colored flowers. As I have been fairly observant of the 
fields and roadsides of that trip for several years, I wondered if the 
unusually wet season was accountable in any way for the color varia- 
tion. Another species to attract attention was the common stitchwort 
(Stellaria graminea), the variation there being in the size of the 
flowers. Large colonies of this plant flourish in the ditches both sides 
of the road, and some had such tiny flowers as to be almost unnotice- 
able, some were of normal size, and some bore flowers measuring half 
an inch or more in diameter. Stems and leaves as far as I could ob- 
serve were exactly alike. Near the station was a large group of Rumex 
altissimus just coming into bloom when the section men cleaned up 
the right of way, and growing abundantly among the cinders of the 
roadbed, was the little toad-flax (Linaria minor), its pale flowers, al- 
though tiny, showing clearly above the dirty leaves and stems. This 
species can no longer be considered rare in the State, as it follows the 
railroads in all directions. In one of the clay flelds near the track 

32 Joint Bulletin 8 

were several plants of the ray-less fleabane {Erigeron ramosus dis- 
coideus) reported by Mr. Ridloii as found in Bennington in 1920, and 
collected for Miss Billings in Woodstock last year. The Woodstock and 
Ferrisburg plants were truly ray-less. In this same field and further 
west of the track I collected the poverty grass {Aristida dichotoma) 
last fall, thus adding another station for that species. Just before 
I left Ferrisburg, I found what I have long searched for, a pure white 
flowered Vicia Cracca. Three years ago I saw a plant in a corn field, 
but had no means of removing it, and lost the specimens I collected 
and pressed. This year there were several plants growing freely with, 
the typical form on a steep bank. Again I had nothing to dig with, 
but plants are marked, and if fortune favors, the roots will be re- 
moved to a safe place later in the year. Specimens have been sent 
to Mrs. Flynn for the state herbarium. The flowers dried very nicely 
under press without acquiring even a tinge of blue as so many albinos 
disappointingly do. Has this form been reported before? 


Nellie F. Flynn 

In a two months' trip abroad there is no time to do real botanizing 
or collecting. The best that I could do was to carry a magazine around 
under my arm and grab a plant or a piece of a plant as I passed by. 
In a very few places I had a chance to see of what the Flora really 
consisted. On the train and on automobile trips I kept a pencil and 
book handy and jotted down plants that I recognized or the family to 
which they belonged if I was not able to tell the species. 

The wild carrot, Daucus Carota, was in every country that I 
visited, Italy, Switzerland, France, Belgium and England, and more 
common than with us. The blue weed, Echium vulgare, was also 
everywhere, even in the hills back of Algiers and up on the highest 
Alps. Fireweed, Epilobium angustifolium, both magenta and white, 
and the white and yellow sweet clovers, Melilotus alba and M. officinalis, 
were very common. The fireweed, especially, grew in great masses 
and was very showy even high up in the Alps. In northern Italy, a 
holly hock. Althaea officinalis, of a sort of lavender color, grew along 
the railway for miles. 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 33 

One of the loosestrifes, L^thrum Salicaria, was along most of the 
brooks and edges of swampy places. It made me think of a trip by 
automobile from Montreal to Quebec when it grew so thickly on the 
opposite bank of the St. Lawrence as to look like a broad red ribbon. 
The black medick, Medicago lupulina was ubiquitous. 

I have a fine specimen of rabbit's foot or stone clover from Pompeii. 

A species of mourning bride or scabiosa, Knautia sp.?, was also 
everywhere in Italy and elsewhere on the continent with its pale lilac 
heads. It looks like the Knautia arvensis that Mr. Ridlon found so 
much of in Bennington grass land. I saw plenty of Mediterranean 
heather on the Amalfi drive but was unable to get any. I secured one 
plant of a different species on the Rigi. Wild clematis, like our 
American Clematis virginiana, was common and very pretty, climbing 
over other vegetation with its wreaths of white flowers. 

Chicory, Cichorium Intyhus, made the roadsides and fields as blue 
as they are in Canada and are getting to be around Burlington. Other 
plants which I knew were coltsfoot, Tussilago Farfara, willow herb, 
EpiloMum hirsutum, bouncing bet, Saponaria officinalis, black mustard, 
Brassica nigra, prickly lettuce, Lactuca Scariola var. integrata, rose- 
colored and white yarrow, Achillea Millefolium, heal-all. Prunella vul- 
garis, English plantain, Plantago lanceolata, tansy, Tanacetum, vulgare, 
and butter and eggs, Linaria vulgaris. 

I was rather surprised to see so many of our common plants, but 
when I stopped to think that the botany said that they were all ad- 
ventive or naturalized from Europe, I understood. 

The only blackberry that I saw in Italy had a pink blossom and 
very good fruit. Afterwards at Kew Gardens, near London, I saw a 
double flowered form which was very ornamental. 

The big heads of the teasel, Dipsacus sylvestris, were prevalent 
and between Paris and Brussels I noticed a cattail that looked like the 
broad-leaved one, Typha latifolia. Weeds, like pigweed, Chenopodium, 
and Amaranthus, docks, Rumex, of various species, goat's beard, Tra- 
gopogon pratensis, a Silene, like our bladder campion, purslane, Portu- 
laca oleracea, and various mustards were plentiful by roadsides and 
in cultivated fields. 

On the Rigi, where we stayed overnight, I had a chance to see of 
what the flora was made up. There were two species of dianthus, or 
grass pinks, one having very much fringed petals, several kinds of 
campanula, or bluebells, one reddish, one or two species of Thi/mus, 

34 Joint Bulletin 8 

or wild thyme, eyebright, Euphrasia minima, a very handsome Senecio, 
six species of thistles, one of which Carlina acaulis had rays like thin 
white celluloid, an inch and a half long all around the flower head 
and mostly flat on the ground; wild margoram, Origanum vulgare, 
Galinsoga, a species of Eryngium, or sea holly, a beautiful dark red, 
almost black orchid, Nigritella nigra and Astrantias. I did not see 
edelweiss growing, but at most of the railway stations big stiff bunches 
were on sale, as was a blue gentian. I found Dryas octopetala to 
which Mr. Weatherby, one of our members, sent his respects, but I 
did not see the alpine poppy which he also included. 

Every possible square inch of land is cultivated in Italy and in 
the lowlands there were great fields of hemp, Cannabis sativa, and on 
the higher ground olive and fruit orchards, vineyards, chestnut groves, 
etc. They grew all sorts of fruit, but that set before us at the hotels 
was very poor and generally unripe. 

The green almonds, which I first thought were green peaches, 
made a delicious dessert. 

The American troops used to say that they raised nothing but 
carrots in France, but now, all over the continent, they seemingly 
raised nothing but string beans, at least we had them everywhere. 

To show the value of scientific names, I always thought that the 
celebrated Ilex groves of Italy were composed of holly, but they are 
an oak, Quercus Ilex, or holm oak. And the famous chestnut groves 
near Hampton Court are not chestnuts, Castanea, at all, but horse 
chestnuts, Aesculus. 

The famous gardens of the Louvre were very lovely, with great 
masses of flowers beautifully laid out, but not so interesting from a 
botanical standpoint as the species were few. The Jardin des Plantes 
in Paris was disappointing, but Kew Gardens in London made up for 
it. The rock garden alone was worth going to see; and there was so 
much besides, palm houses, and lots of other glasshouses, rhododendron 
and azalea plantations and everything belonging to a large, well cared 
for botanic garden. ' 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 35 


L. Henry Potter 

Rumex persicarioides, L., which is new to Vermont, was collected 
by me at our farm in Clarendon, July 8, 1922. The station, which 
contains several plants, is in a meadow. 

Another addition to the Flora is Polygonum cuspiclatum Sieb and 
Zucc, which I secured in Chittenden on September, 1921. The speci- 
mens were some distance from any dwelling. 

Asplenium Ruta-muraria L». and Pellaea atropurpurea (L.) Link 
var. Bushii were taken on a cliff in the west part of Clarendon in June, 
1922, and at the base of the same cliff, G. H. Ross of Rutland found a 
large colony of Polymnia canadensis L. 

Two stations for Botrychium lanceolatum (Gmel) Angstroem var. 
angustisegmentunn Pease and Moore, were located the same day in 
the town of Clarendon. One contained over 200 plants. 

Poly gala verticilata L. var. amMgua (Nutt.) Wood, was collected 
at Tinmouth in 1921. 


Anne E. Perkins 

In reply to the request for a list of good nature books, I would 
suggest many by John Burroughs, especially, "Wake Robin," "Ways 
of Nature," "Signs and Seasons," "Leaf and Tendril," "The Summit of 
the Years." 

Bradford Torrey's books, especially, "Birds in the Bush," "The 
Clerk of the Woods," "Footing It in Franconia," "A Rambler's Lease," 
"The Foot-Path Way," "Field Days in California," "A Florida Sketch 

Dallas Lore Sharp's "Face of the Fields," "The Lay of the Land"; 
Herbert K. Job's "How to Study Birds"; Ernest Harold Baynes, "Wild 
Bird Guests"; Trafton's "Methods of Attracting Birds"; "Our National 
Parks," John Muir. 

"The Nature Library" (large edition), Doubleday, Page & Co.; 
Illustrated Flora by Britton & Brown; William Hamilton Gibson's 
"Sharp Eyes"; E. H. Forbush's "Useful Birds and Their Protection"; 

36 Joint Bulletin 8 

"Natural Enemies of Birds"; "The Domestic Cat"; also the periodicals 
The Auk, Bird-Lore, magazines of bird life. 

Get lists of publications of the State of Massachusetts, New York, 
and the United States Department of Agriculture. Some are for sale 
at a nominal price; others free. They contain valuable information 
regarding birds, their food, etc. Several bulletins are on "Nesting 
Boxes," "How to Attract Birds," "Plants and Shrubs to Attract Birds," 
etc. Many are on plants. 

F. Schuyler Mathews has fine books: "Field Book of Wild 
Flowers," "Field Book of Birds and Their Music," "Field Book of 
Trees and Shrubs." 

Mrs. Parsons has a good book on "How to Know the Ferns." 
Harriet Keeler has a good book on trees and one on shrubs. 

Frank Chapman's "Bird Life" (for beginners); "What Bird is 
That?"; "Handbook of Birds" and "Warblers of North America," for 
more advanced students. 

"Wild Flowers of New York," House; "Birds of New York," Eaton; 
Gibson's "Mushrooms"; Atkinson's "Mushrooms." 


Clarence H. Knowlton 

On the east side of the main road leading from St. Albans to 
Swanton are some very interesting ledges of red rock. According to 
the geologists (Sixth Annual Report of Vermont State Geologist, 1907- 
08) these are Ordovician rocks of dolomite, or magnesian limestone. 
When polished they are the mottled red "marble" familiar to most 
people in the state. These ledges are covered with arbor-vitae trees, 
with Ostrya virginica, occasional slippery elms and at one place there 
are one or more trees of Quercus macrocarpa. The general appearance 
of the region is rather fascinating, and I was first led to stop there 10 
years ago, when I spied my first specimens of Trillium grandiHorum at 
the foot of the ledges in a beautiful glade. Since then I have paused 
here nearly every time I have passed in spring or summer, and last 
May I took a whole afternoon for my researches. 

The woods at the base of the rocks contain some very interesting 
carices. The most conspicuous of these is Carex laxiflora, var. lati- 
folia, a most striking calciphile sedge, with very broad pale green 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 37 

leaves and bracts. Two other striking sedges with long leaves and 
very long flowering stalks are C. cephaloidea and C. sparganioides. 
C. longirostris is another tall sedge that I discovered this year. In 
drier soil and among the loose fragments fallen from the ledges above 
is C. Hitchcockiana, which comes into fruit rather later than the others. 
In places the ground is carpeted with C. pedunculata, and this year I 
was pleased to detect with it, and superficially resembling it, some 
fine specimens of the rarer C. Backii. C. rosea and C. albicans are 
rather common here, as elsewhere in Vermont. In wet clay not far 
away across the road is an abundance of C. aurea. 

There are three grasses in the dry open woods, Melica striata, 
Oryzopsis asperifolia and Festuca nutans. They grow on the dry 
ledges and on the talus-slopes, often under the arbor-vitae. It is most 
surprising to find the bloodroot, Sanguinaria canadensis, not only in 
moist glades, but everywhere over and in the ledges. Many of the 
plants are very small with reduced leaves, but the crevices are full 
of them. At an old quarry nearby I once found the curious strawberry 
blite, Chenopodium capitatum, in similar crevices fully fruited in 

Viola sororia, V. rostrata, and V. canadensis are abundant and 
very characteristic of these woods. In rich woods not far away are 
other common violets. Where the ledges are exposed in the dry 
pastures, there are the two introduced borages so common in the lime- 
stone country, Cynoglossum officinale and Lithospermum officinale. 

I have found this region most attractive and promising, and further 
investigation ought to develop other surprises. There are abundant 
rich woods nearby, with the fiowers and ferns so familiar in western 
Vermont, the trees mostly sugar maples. West of Swanton is the big 
delta of the Missisquoi River reaching far out into the lake, with an 
entirely different association of plants. 


E. M. Kittredge 

The greater part of my few weeks' stay in Woodstock was spent in 
establishing a portion of the collection in the cases Miss Billings has 
had made to display the mounted specimens, so comparatively little 
collecting was done, but we feel that the record for the season is 
worthy of note. The first plant collected was the meadow fox-tail 

•38 Joint Bulletin 8 

grass {Alopecurus pratensis L.), which was found growing abundantly 
in a meadow near the highway. Unfortunately the meadow was mowed 
in a day or two, so additional specimens were not obtained. Another 
grass, tall oat grass iArrhenatherum elatius), was collected a few 
days later, and the next week at the field meeting of the Hartland 
Nature Club, held in Dr. Dana's grounds, Miss Rogers discovered a 
few plants of the dogs-tail grass (Cynosurus cristatus L.), which so 
far as we can learn is a new plant for the state. Later in the season 
I found a few more plants growing along the road, a mile or more 
from the Dana place. The rock muhlenbergia (Muhlenhergia sobo- 
lifera) was collected on the Billings estate late in August. 

About the same time the roughish meadow grass (Poa trivialis) 
was collected on the roadside near West Woodstock, and Panicum 
tennesseense was found on a dry hillside in a pasture. Of this latter. 
Dr. Hitchcock, who determined the grasses for me, wrote, "Unusually 
lax in habit." Panicum philadelphicum was again found, this time 
as a weed in ground that had been formerly used as a garden. Odd 
forms of the green fox-tail and the witch grass were also collected. 
Many sedges, new to the Billings herbarium, were collected, but only a 
few were of more than local interest. The wood bulrush (Scirpus 
sylvaticus) was collected during the season of 1920, but was not de- 
termined until last January. Carex stricta var. angustata was found 
in some abundance in a swampy meadow. Carex pennsylvanica var. 
lucorum was found on a very dry hillside, growing with the common 
reindeer moss (Cladonia) but, unfortunately, it was considerably 
infested with a rust. An interesting juncus was at first thought to be 
J. secundus, but a student of that group pronounces it "apparently a 
form of J. tenuis.'' A colony of Salix purpurea, the purple or basket 
willow, firmly established alongside the road on one of the hills of this 
locality, was of much local interest. Inquiry among old settlers in 
that region failed to elicit any information regarding any cultivation 
or use of the willow in former times. The strawberry blite (Cheno- 
podium capitatum) has occurred as a weed on the Blood farm for 
several years, but no special attention was paid to it until last year, 
when specimens were sent to Mrs. A. B. Morgan, and through her 
courtesy I met Mrs. Blood and obtained specimens for the Billings 

The nettle-leaved goose-foot (Chenopodium murale) appeared with 
other goose-foots and amaranths in a garden patch in which potatoes 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 39 

had been grown the previous season, and which owing to press of work 
elsewhere had been neglected until the plants had attained sufficient 
size to attract attention, and then several of my selection were allowed 
to remain some weeks longer for study. Unfortunately, one which 
from its leaves and other characters seemed to answer to C. ur'bicum 
did not mature in the time allowed and so, regretfully, I cannot report 
it as a find. The white goose-foot (C, album) appeared in so many 
forms as to bewilder one. It is certainly a variable species. Brassica 
Japonica, many years ago cultivated as a salad plant, has persisted 
as a weed in the Strong garden in Taftsville for years. It is a beau- 
tiful plant at all times, and before sending up the flower stalk resembles 
some of the curly lettuces. In that garden there also grows a hedge 
mustard {Sisymhrium) , dwarf, and so branched from the root as to 
appear bushy, with tiny flowers, and very purple stems and petioles. 
It has not been sufficiently studied at this writing to permit determina- 
tion. Several plants of the attractive rough-fruited cinquefoil {Poten- 
tilla recta) were found in a hay meadow in August. They bore evi- 
dence of having been cut when the meadow was mowed early in July, 
but were bravely blooming on short branches. The somewhat rare 
variety of the Virginia creeper {Psedera quinquefolia var. hirsuta) was 
found trailing along the river bank, all but smothered by the masses 
of the common form. Probably because of its struggle for a place 
in the sun it bore no fruit. An interesting St. John's wort (Hyperi- 
cum) was collected in two widely separated stations, but it may prove 
to be merely a form of H. majus. The wing-angled loosestrife (Ly- 
thrum alatum) was found in a swampy part of a pasture, its bright 
flowers very conspicuous among the rank growths of scirpus, typha, 
and other swamp plants. The gout-weed {Aegopodium Podagraria, L.) 
was found along the roadside, near the river, probably having been 
washed down during some period of high water, and now thoroughly 
at home. The common form, much used as a border plant in old 
gardens, is a variety of the species. A few plants were found in a 
field five years ago, their occurrence there occasioning much surprise. 
In the neglected garden patch before mentioned in connection with 
the goose-foot, was a very beautiful plant of the dragon head (Draco- 
cephalum pai'viflorum) . I believe H. L. Potter of West Rutland re- 
ported this species several years ago. The sand bur (Solanum rostra- 
turn) appeared in odd places on the Billings estate, but was not al- 
lowed to mature fruit. The pretty little Linaria minor is common 
along the Woodstock Railroad below Taftsville, and probably will be 

40 Joint Bulletin 8 

found in other situations before many more seasons. Of great local 
interest were the hare figwort (Scrophularia leporella) and the white 
flowered variety of the moth mullein (Verbascum Blattaria var. alti- 
florum). The typical form of the moth mullein still eludes us, but 
this variety was welcome as much for its beauty, as for its botanical 
interest. Several plants of the garden Valerian (V. officirmlis) were 
found in a field on the Billings estate. 

In the composites some interesting species were collected, one not 
before reported so far as we know. The ray-less fleabane (Erigeron 
ramosus var. discoideus) was collected on the edge of a "mowing" 
which showed many plants of the common form. Mr. Ridlon reported 
this variety from near Bennington in the last Bulletin. The two king 
devils {Hieracium Horentinum and H. pratense) were found in abun- 
dance in a meadow in West Woodstock. They had been found on 
the Billings farm two years previously, but only two or three plants of 
each and they were promptly removed. The cat's-ear (Hypochaeris 
radicata) was found in the Dana grounds at the time of the Nature 
Club meeting and a few days later on the roadside a mile or so from 
the Dana place. Specimens of what I have taken to be the red- 
seeded dandelion were collected and sent to several correspondents 
who had requested them, and E. J. Winslow of Auburndale, Mass., 
wrote that while my plants had the red seeds they were not Taraxacum 
erythrospermum, and he suggested they might be hybrids. As I lack 
material for comparison, I am sending specimens to New York Botan- 
ical Garden and Gray Herbarium for examination. Many species of 
hepatics, lichens and mosses were collected and have been determined 
at the New York Botanical Garden, but have not yet been checked up, 
so it is not known if there are any of special interest. 



L. Frances Jolley 

Adiantum pedatum var. aleuticum was first found by me two years 
ago in Canada at the foot of Orford Mountain. There it grows in 
great abundance and from 12 to 18 inches high and nearly as far 
across the fronds. I showed some specimens to C. H. Knowlton and 
he agreed with me that it certainly was different from the common 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 41 

Adiantum pedatum and took specimens to the Gray Herbarium for 
identification. They immediately said it was Adiantum pedatum var. 
aleuticum, found usually more to the north and west and in high 

Now I desired to find it in Vermont and, knowing that Belvidere 
Mountain in Eden was in the same range and of the same asbestos 
formation as Orford, I went there to look for it. To my joy I found 
it in abundance and beautiful plants, I now have plants from both 
stations growing in my garden. This last July several members of 
the Vermont Botanical Club visited the Eden station and collected 

The differences between Adiantum pedatum and its variety aleuti- 
cum are as follows: Typical maidenhair fern has the pinnae spread- 
ing horizontally, with the pinnules oblong and having rounded ends. 
It grows in moist shady soil. 

Var. aleuticum grows in crevices of rock in full sunshine. The 
pinnae are much more upright. The pinnules are wing-shaped and 
have pointed ends. The plant is of thicker texture and more heavily 
fruited than the type. — Nellie F. Flynn. 


Inez Addie Howe 

The season of 1921 was a peculiar one from the naturalist's 
standpoint. The unusually warm weather of March and early April 
brought many species of birds abnormally early and rushed trees and 
plants into bloom at unheard of dates. Then came the frosts of May and 
early June and the extreme heat and drouth of July and August. All 
of these conditions produced a strange sequence in the flower calendar 
of the season. 

By May 1 we had recorded 78 species at the museum. Things 
went on prosperously and by October 22 our list showed 839 species, 
many of which had been shown both in flower and fruit. This collec- 
tion was largely local and did not include many of the rare plants 
brought in from beyond our five mile radius. Included in this list 
were 36 additions to our local flora, as follows: Salix sericea, Viola 
renifolia var. Brainerdii. Vaccinium pennsylvanicum, Melica striata, 

42 Joint Bulletin 8 

Pedicularis canadensis, Geranium pusillutn, Allium vineale, Glyceria 
laxa, Agrostis hyemalis, Festuca rubra var. subvillosa, Valeriana offi- 
cinalis, Radicula sylvestris, Juncus tenuis, Panicum Boscii, Scirpus 
cyperinus, Onoclea seiisibilis var. obtusilobata, Rynchospora glomerata. 
Lychnis dioioa, Iva Xanthifolia, Lycopodium inundatum, Cyperus 
filmiculmis var. macilentus, Leontodon autumyialis, Lepidium sativum, 
Carex flava var. rectrirostra, C. platyphylla, C. eburnea, C. canescens 
var. subloliacea, C. Bebbii, C. Novae-Angliae, C. festucacea, Carex mira- 
bilis, C. straminea, C. vesicarea, C. Pseudo-Cyperus, C. lurida var. 

The treat of the season was, of course, the meeting of the clubs at 
Lake Willoughby, a full account of which was published in the Ver- 
monter, Autumn edition, Nos. 7 and 8, Vol. 21, reprinted elsewhere in 
this issue. In October, J. M. Perham, who was surveying on Wheeler 
Mountain in the town of Westmore, found a large station for Polypo- 
dium vulgare var. cambricum. 

The best single day's botanizing which I did last season was at 
Cole's Pond in Walden. The high altitude, the pond, and the extensive 
swampy land all contributed habitats for the rarest of plants. 

In working over my own area after the Willoughby meetings I 
found stations for many of the carices that we found there. 

I always combine birds and flowers and on June 22 I saw a pair 
of Arctic three-toed woodpeckers. They were seen on three different 
occasions and two others besides me saw them. 

On May 19 I saw a pair of starlings carrying nesting materials 
into a hollow tree. I saw them several times in that vicinity, and 
this spring there were six individuals in the same region. I wondered 
if these might have been the adults of last year, with their family. 

A pair of black-crowned night herons spent over two months, 
August to October, in St. Johnsbury in the region of Sleeper's River. 
This was quite an unusual visitation. 

Extreme drouth and killing frosts made our season for birds and 
flowers much shorter than usual, and everything passed so hurriedly 
that many plant specimens were much less perfect than usual, and 
fewer well-fruited specimens were obtainable. 

On the other hand, the receding of the waters in the ponds al- 
lowed many seeds of marsh and water plants to germinate in the oozy 
borders, so that furnished stations for several species new to our 

Taken as a whole, 1921 was a strange, but prosperous year. 

Vermont Botanical axd Bird Clubs 43 


New Form of Interrupted Fern 

The curious interrupted fern from Bridgewater Corners, discov- 
ered some years ago by Mrs. W. E. Mack of West Woodstock, and 
exhibited to the club, has been examined by several fern specialists, 
and a description and pnotographs will soon be published in the Fern 
Journal. It will be known as Osmunda Claytoniana, forma Mackiana. 
—E. M. Kittredge. 

White- Flowered Poly gala 

Several plants of Polygala paucifolia bearing pure white flowers 
were found near the village of Proctor by a school girl and later iden- 
tified by a visitor in the Proctor Library, where the children took 
their plants to compete for the prize offered by the librarian. Nature 
work such as is encouraged by the Proctor and Vergennes libraries — 
and others — is of the greatest benefit to the communities. Would that 
all villages maintaining libraries or community houses would see 
the advantage to their residents of teaching the children the value and 
beauty of the birds and flowers of the vicinity — E. M. Kittredge. 

Hartland Nature Club 

During the July, 1922, meeting of the Hartland Nature Club, held 
at North Hartland, nearly 150 plants were observed, and many of the 
less common were collected for the club herbarium. Of these latter 
several are of interest to the state at large. Mrs. A. B. Morgan dis- 
covered Selaginella apus in a little depression of the pasture which 
was the scene of most of the "birding and botanizing" of the day. 
This so far as we know makes the fourth station for this species. 
Brassica Napus, in fruit, was collected near the woolen mill, and Ver- 
bena hastata X urticaefolia, growing with both parents in fine flower, 
on the river bank by Miss Kittredge. Through the courtesy of the 
club the latter specimen was presented to the New York Botanical 
Garden in response' to Dr. Pennell's request for a specimen from that 
locality. The wound-wort Stachys palustris, Great St. John's wort, 
Hypericum Ascyron. and the small forget-me-not, Myosotis laxa were 
considered good finds in that field. Further down the sandy shore was 
carpeted with the creeping spearwort, Ranunculus Flammula var. 
reptans. and the banks were gay with quantities of the beautiful 
swamp milk-weed, Asclepias incarnata. — E. M. Kittredge. 

44 Joint Buu^etin 8 

Yellow- Flowered Veratnim 

Several plants of Veratrum bearing yellow flowers have been 
located in a meadow near the village of Woodstock. They differ in 
many particulars from the yellow flowered plant found in Plymouth 
two years ago; the flowers are less brilliant in color; the leaves not 
at all glaucus — quite like the common form in fact. The plants, while 
less robust than the common form, are not as delicate as the one from 
Plymouth. They are situated in wet, or at least damp places, and 
bloomed considerably later than the common form. Three or four 
plants of the common form are to be seen in adjacent fields, but none 
are in the immediate neighborhood of the yellow plants. It is hoped 
that they can be observed next year during the blooming season. It 
will not be possible to study them after maturing fruit, as the fields 
will soon be cut. — E. M. Kittredge. 

Three-Toed Woodpecker in Mendon 

Twenty-five years ago, before the conifers were cut off by lumber- 
men, it was not unusual to see one or more three-toed woodpeckers in 
the vicinity of Rutland, especially in the winter, and both the white- 
backed and black-backed species have been found breeding on Mount 
Pico in Sherburne by George H. Ross of Rutland. These birds have 
nearly disappeared from Central Vermont, however, and it gave the 
writer a great deal of pleasure to see a male of the black-backed species 
in Mendon on September 25, 1921. The bird was observed at a distance 
of 20 feet and it was feeding on a dead soft-wood tree, its favorite 
habitat. Although I have been afield a great deal in every month of 
the year, the only other records I have for three-toed woodpeckers for 
two decades are as follows: April 29, 1906; white-backed, Bald Moun- 
tain in Mendon, on dead spruce; June 12, 1912, white-backed, Mount 
Horrid, Rochester, on dead spruce, apparently breeding. — George L. 

Fern Culture 

Miss Nancy Darling of Sky Farm, Woodstock, reports growing suc- 
cessfully young ferns, sent from Florida. Polystichum adiantiforme 
(Forst) J. Sm., is a large luxuriant fern native to the West Indies and 
South America and having deeply notched, twice-pinnate fronds of a 
dark green color, glistening, coriaceous and evergreen. It is much 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 45 

handsomer than the house ferns usually cultivated and it is easily- 
grown. This plant, received in 1913 from Lake Helen, Pla., has been 
once divided and yet it measured last winter one yard in height and 
width. It produced yearly several beautiful fronds. 

The following ferns, grown together in one pot, were sent from 
Lakeland, Fla., in 1919: Woodwardia virginica (L.) Sm., which fruits; 
Woodwardia areolata (L.) Schott.; Dryopteris floridana (Hook) 
Kuntze, and a delicately beautiful fern unknown to Miss Darling. All 
are living and each has produced several new fronds. 

Eragrostis at Shushan, N. Y. 

Frank Dobbin of Shushan, N. Y., writes: "It may be of interest 
to club members, particularly in Rutland and Bennington Counties, that 
I found three species of Eragrostis, not given in the Vermont Flora, 
near my home, which is about three miles from the Vermont border, 
viz.: Eragrostis Frankii (Fisch. Mey & Lall.) Steud.; E. Eragrostis 
(L.) Karst. ; E. peregrina Wiegand., all growing on gravelly soil. 
These have been identified for me by the New York Botanical Garden 
and Professor Hitchcock of the Bureau of Plant Industry, Washington, 
D. C. 

A Giant Amelanchier 

The shadbush is generally found as a shrub or small tree in central 
Vermont, but the writer happened upon a specimen in Mendon during 
July, 1921, which was a veritable giant of its kind. The tree, Amelan- 
chier laevis Wiegand., stood 40 feet high and its trunk measured 16 
inches in diameter six feet above the ground. The tree had the 
spreading form of an apple tree rather than the usual slimmer type 
of the shad. The specimen is in a pasture on the Gleason farm. — 
George L. Kirk. 

Red Mulberry in Rutland County 

In September, 1921, the writer collected Morus rubra L. in West 
Haven, a number of the trees growing on a ledge. At the same place 
was found Quercus muhlemhergii Engelm. The mulberry had here- 
tofore been found in Vermont only at Pownal and this is an extension 
of its range in the State about 50 miles northward. The Flora gives 
only two stations for the oak, both in the Champlain valley. — G. H. 

46 Joint Bulletin 8 

Mammoth Horsetail 

A specimen of Equisetum fluviatile L. collected by Leston A. 
Wheeler, Townshend, near the "Salmon Hole" in Brookline has a 
rootstock 50 inches long; 17 stems, the tallest of which measures 56M> 
inches and with an average of 53 inches. In mounting the specimen 
Mr, Wheeler used 16 sheets of paper. Mr. Wheeler reports the location 
of several new stations for Selaginella apus in Townshend and Newfane 
during the past season. In some of the stations the plant is very 
abundant and beautiful. Mr. Wheeler has collected a considerable 
number of specimens of Rudbeckia hirta which show all forms of grada- 
tion in the flower from a bunch of irregularly shaped green leaves to 
large and perfect flowers. "It will be interesting to watch them an- 
other year in order to see if any of these forms again develop," he 

Program of the Hartland Nature Club 

Miss Nancy Darling 

The Hartland Nature Club, with Miss Elizabeth Billings of Wood- 
stock, President, reports for 1922, a full program, diversified by field 
meetings, colored slides and lectures. 

Among the last is one on "Geological Studies at the Gravel Pit," 
by Dr. Williams; "Edible and Poisonous Mushrooms," by Miss Bur- 
lingham; and "Another Year as an Egg Collector," by Mr. Karl Pember. 

The special subjects are "Mosses and Minerals of Windsor County." 

The Mother Nature Studies Class of Windsor High School, recently 
identified with the H. N, C, is making a collection of weeds and 

"I found Linaria canadensis in August, 1922, along the railroad 
track at Starr Farm beach, five miles north of Burlington. This is 
the most northerly station in the State as far as I know. Linaria 
minor (L.) Desf., first reported for Vermont at West Rutland by George 
L. Kirk in 1909, is getting very common along the railroad about 
Burlington and elsewhere." — Nellie F. Flynn. 

Leston A. Wheeler of Townshend writes: "A flower of Cypripe- 
dium acaule has just been handed me which was collected near Marl- 

Ver:mont Botanical and Bird Clubs 47 

boro Four Corners by Miss Eleanor Willard. The flower appeared 
somewhat larger than ordinary and upon investigation proved to have 
one perfect 'shoe' nearly enclosed in another, which was a size larger. 
Both 'shoes' were of good color and otherwise normal." 

D. Lewis Button of Brandon is endeavoring to compile a list of the 
lichens of New England and would like to receive information as to 
any local lists that may have been published. 

Mrs. W. E. Mack of South Woodstock has raised several plants 
from seed of the hybrid Mallow (Malva alcea X moschata) found a few 
years ago near Bridgewater. They are now beginning to bloom and are 
very beautiful, showing clearly the characters of both supposed parents, 
just as did the original plants. 

Vermont, like the rest of northern New England, was visited by an 
unusual number of crossbills during the summer of 1922, both the 
American and white-winged species being recorded, the former being 
the more numerous. The birds arrived unusually early, being first 
seen about Rutland, August 7. The majority soon passed southward, 
but a few remained through August and September, only an occasional 
one being seen after the latter month. Crossbills have not been so 
numerous in the vicinity of Rutland in many years as they were during 
the first few days of their incursion. — George L. Kirk. 

A third Vermont station for Juncus Torreyi Coville has been dis- 
covered, the writer having found it growing in West Haven. This 
station is several miles from any railroad, which the plant frequently 
follows. — G. H. Ross. 

The Bulletins of the Vermont Bird Club, Nos. 1 to 8, inclusive, 
can now be obtained of Mrs. Nellie F. Flynn, 251 S. Willard St., 
Burlington, Vt. 


Each summer for the past three years Miss Nancy Darling of 
Woodstock has found at or near her home morels, coral mushrooms, 
and edible boleti which she has enjoyed as table delicacies. 

48 Joint Bulletin 8 


Botanical Club 

Miss E. Mabel Brownell 196 S. Willard St., Burlington, Vt. 

Mrs. Maud Chisholm Proctor, Vt. 

Henry T. Douglas Burlington, Vt. 

J. A. Drushel Harris Teachers' College, St. Louis, Mo. 

Miss Litta B. Fisher 500 M Street, N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Mrs. Lynn W. Fullam Westminster, Vt. 

Miss Miriam Hill 60 Elliott Ave., Yonkers, N. Y. 

Miss Gladys W. Jones 10 High Street, Fair Haven, Vt. 

Irving F. Kelley St. Johnsbury, Vt. 

Mrs. Carroll K. Loomis Putney, Vt. 

Miss Minnie L. Marshall Lancaster, N. H. 

Mrs. Robert M. Schley 74 Summer Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 

p. V Mrs. Edward Welling North Bennington, Vt. 

I Bird Club / i_/ / • ^ 

Dr. John Brainerd 419 Boylston Street, Boston, Maw: 

J. A. Drushel Harris Teachers' College, St. Louis, Mo. 

Mrs. Lynn W. Fullam Westminster, Vt. 

Miss Gladys W. Jones 10 High St., Fair Haven, Vt. 

Irving F. Kelley St. Johnsbury, Vt. 

Mrs. Carroll K. Loomis Putney, Vt. 

Karl A. Pember Woodstock, Vt. 

Mrs. Edward Welling North Bennington, Vt. 


Botanical Club 

Stewart H. Burnham, Department of Botany, Cornell University, 
Ithaca, N. Y.; Herbert N. Dutton, as previously printed, should be 
Harry N. Dutton, The Tavern, Grafton, Vt.; Miss Violet S. French 
becomes Mrs. Harry C. Ridlon, Green Mountain School, Bennington, 
Vt.; Miss Louise C. Hazen, 63 Washington Square, New York; Miss 
Margaret Heatley, becomes Mrs. Margaret H. Moss, P. O. Box 1176, 
Johannesburg, South Africa; Dr. Luther P. Sprague, as previously pub- 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 49 

lished, should be Dr. Leonard P. Sprague, Chateaugay, N. Y.; Miss 
Phoebe M. Towle, Enosburg Falls, Vt; Dr. Phineas W. Whiting, Uni- 
versity of Iowa, Iowa City, la.; Mrs. Phineas W. Whiting, University of 
Iowa, Iowa City, la. 

Bird Club 

Miss Violet S. French, becomes Mrs. Harry C. Ridlon, Green 
Mountain School, Bennington, Vt.; Miss Lydia Heller, as published, 
should be Miss Lydia Hiller, State School, Vergennes, Vt.; Mason 
Towle should be William Mason Towle, Enosburg Falls, Vt. 


Botanical Club 

Mrs. Ezra Brainerd, Frank H. Brooks, Miss Edwina Butterfield, 
Mrs. A. H. Colton, Miss Ada Porter Crane, Miss Ethel A. Eddy, Ray- 
mond D. Flanagan, Mrs. Chester Loomis, Richard M. Marble, Prof. 
W. J. Morse, Miss Fannie J. Parkhurst, Prof. A. K. Peitersen, D. Eddy 
Potter, Mrs. Mary Goddard Potter, Oliver T. Presbrey, Miss Hazel H. 
Riley, Mrs. W. T. Scofield, Prof. E. A. Shaw, G. C. Shedd, Mrs. Emily H. 
Terry, Rev. Dr. John M. Thomas, Miss Dorothy Votey, Frederick W. 
Ward, Mrs. F. W. Ward, Mrs. D. C. Webster, Miss Emeline Webster, 
Miss Grace Wheeler, Rev. Levi Wild. 

Bird Club 

Miss Belle Anderson, Miss M. Elizabeth Bogg, Frank H. Brooks, 
Miss Julia A. Chase, Mrs. A. H. Colton, Miss Ada Porter Crane, Mrs. 
J. D. Davis, R. V. N. Davis, Miss Shirley Farr, C. C. Gates, Frank L. 
Hoag, Miss Annie M. Holcomb, Dr. Clifton D. Howe, Charles H. Jones, 
Duane E. Kent, Richard M. Marble, Mrs. L. H. Noyes, Mrs. Agnes M. 
Paxton, W. H. Phillips, C. P. Tarbell, Remington Vernam, Mrs. George 
W. Wales. 



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