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THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

FOUNDED BY JAMES LOEB, LL.D. 

EDITED BY 
tT. E. PAGE, C.H., LITT.D. 

t E. CAPPS, PH.D., LL.D. t W. H. D. ROUSE, litt.d. 

L. A. POST, L.H.D. E. H. WARMINGTON, m.a., f.e.hist.soc. 



JOSEPHUS 

III 



JOSEPHUS 

WITH AX ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY 
H. ST. J. THACKERAY, M.A. 

HON. D.D. OXFORD, HON. D.D. DURHAM 



IN NINE VOLUMES 

III 

THE JEWISH WAR, BOOKS IV-Vll 




WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD 

CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

MCMLXI 



PR 



riz 



^2G 
I/. 5 



f !>«< printed 1928 
Reprinted 1957, 19G1 




R A i;j 



NOV 3 1S55 

K^^^^SiTY OF T<>^^^1< 




1145078 



Printed in Great Britain 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME III 

PAGE 

List of Josephus' Works , . . . vi 

THE JEWISH war- 
Book IV 2 

Book V 200 

Book VI 378 

Book VH . 504 

Appendix : The principal additional Passages 

in the Slavonic Version . . . . 6S5 

Indexes to Vols. II and HI — 

Index I. General . , . .661 

Index II. Biblical Passages .... 686 



Maps — (1) Galilee and surrounding 

District at end of Book 

(2) Central and "ScJutherN 

Palestine . . . „ „ „ 

(3) Jerusalem . , . « « « 



LIST OF JOSEPHUS" WORKS 

SHOWING THEIR DIVISION INTO VOLUMES 
IN THIS EDITION 

VOLUMX 

I. The Life. Against Apion 

IL The Jewish War. Books Mil 

in. The Jewish War. Books I\'-VII 

ly. Jewish Antiquities. Books I-IV 

\'. Jewish Antiquities. Books \ -NTH 

Vl. Jewish Antiquities. Books IX-XI 

MI. Jewish Antiquities. Books XII-XH'' 

\TII. Jewish Antiquities, Books X\'-X\TI 

IX. Jewish Antiquities. Books XVIII-XX 



VI 



THE JEWISH WAR 



UTOPIA lOYAAiKOY nOAEMOY nPOS 
PnMAIOYS 

BIBAION A' 

1 (i- l) "Ocrot Se fiera ttjv ^lajTaTrdrajv dXcoonv 
FaAtAatot 'PojfjLaLOJV a.(f)€GTrjK€Gav, ovtol tojv iv 
Tapix<iio.is TjTTrjdevTOJv TrpoaexojpovVy kol rrap- 
iXaBov rravra Pco/xatoc ra (j)po-6pia Kai ras" 77oAei? 

TtXt^V Yl(7-X^6.X(JL>V KOL TOJV TO ^iTa^VpLOV OpOS 

2 KaT€LXrj(^6T0jv . ovveGTT] Se totjtols kol TdfxaXa 
TToXis ^api-x^aiajv dvTiKpvs vrrep ttjv Xljjlvtjv K€L[ievr]. 
TTJg 8' 'AypiTTTra Xrj^eojg avTTj re -^v kol Hcoyavrj 
Kal SeAeu/ceta, /cat at /xev ck ttjs TavXavLTLSog 
dfidioTepaL- tov yap dvoj KaXovfievov FauAam 
jilpos Tjv Tj Hojydvrj, tov KdTco S' rj TdfiaXa- 

3 SeAeu/c€ta §e rrpos ttj llejJLexojvLTCuv XlpLvrj. TavTr) 
TpidKovTa fjLev evpos, e^-JKovTa Se pLrfKo^ cTTaStot- 



"^ Usually identified with KuTat el Hosn, close to the E. 
side of the lake, opposite Tiberias ; by others with Dschamle, 
a day's journey E. of the lake, Schiirer, G.J.V.^ i. 615 f. 
At the opening of the war it kept its allegiance to Rome, 
under the influence of Agrippa's officer Philip, Vita 46-61 ; 
afterwards it joined the insurgents. 



HISTORY OF THE JEWISH WAR 
AGAINST THE ROMANS 

BOOK IV 

(i. 1) Such Galilaeans as after the fall of Jotapata Most of 
still remained in revolt from Rome now, on the reduc- ^u^jlrenders ■ 
tion of Tarichaeae, surrendered ; and the Romans places stiii 
received the submission of all the fortresses and 
towns except Gischala and the force which liad 
occupied Mount Tabor. Gamala ^ was also in league 
with these rebels, a city situated on the other side 
of the lake, opposite Tarichaeae. Gamala formed 
part of the territory allotted to Agrippa, like Sogane 
and Seleucia ^ ; Gamala and Sogane were both in 
Gaulanitis, the latter belonging to what is known as 
Upper, the former to Lower, Gaulan ; Seleucia was 
near the lake Semechonitis.^ That lake is thirty 
furlongs in breadth and sixty in length ; but its 



* Sogane (in Gaulan, unidentified ; distinct from S. in 
Galilee) and Seleucia {Selukiyeh, N.E. of Bethsaida Julias) 
are mentioned together in Vita 187, B. ii. 574, as places 
fortified by Josephus. 

" Baheiret el IliihJi, the little lake N. of Gennesaret ; B. 
iii. 515. Its length as here given (60 " stades " = nearly 
7 miles) must include part of the northern marshes ; the 
dimensions on the modern map are 4 miles by 3 (at its 
broadest part). 

VOL. Ill A 2 3 



JOSEPHUS 

bcareLueL d' avrris to. eXrj /^e'xP^ i\d(f)vrjs^ )(^ajpLov 
TO, T€ dXXa Tpv(f)epov /cat TTrjyds exovros, at 

Tp€(f>OVGaL TOV fJLLKpOV KaXoVfXCVOV lopdaVOV^ VTTO 

Tov TTj? XP^'^^i^ ^oog veojp TrpoTTepLTTovGL TO) fieydXcp. 

4 Tovs fJL€v ovv €771 HojydvTjs Kai HeXevKelas^ vtto* 
TTjV apx'TjV rrj? drroGrdaeajs he^ials AyptTrrra? 
TTpoarjydyero, TdfiaXa S' ov 7Tpoa€Xojp€L TreTTOiBvla 

.") rfj hvGxojpia rrXeov rcbv ^Icor air draw, rpax^s 
yap avx'f'i'^' dcf)* viprjXov Kararelvajv opovs p-eGov 
€7raLp€L revovra, p-qKTjverai S' eV rris VTrepox'^S 
€LS rovpTrpoGdev eKKXivcov ogov KaTomv, oj? 
€LKdL,€G6aL Kap.rjXa) to Gx^jp-o., Trap" tjv ojpopiaGTaL, 
TO rpavov Trjg KXrjGecos ovk e^aKpL^ovvrujv tcup 

^j iTTLXojpLOJV. Kara TrXevpd" pkv h'q /cat rrpoGcoTroi' 
€LS (^dpayyas d^drov? TTepLGXi-^^TaL, to /car 
ovpdv S' oXiyov dva(f)€vy€i ra?® hvGxojpcas, odev 
aTTrjpTTjraL rod opovg- /cat tovto h emKapGia 
TTapaKoipavre? rdopoj bvG^arov ol emx(-opLoi /car- 

7 €GK€vaGav. rrpo? opOlcp Sc ri] XayovL dedoprj- 
pevat TTeTTVKvojvTo SeLvo)? err dAAr^Aats- at ot/ciat, 
Kp-i-jpi'LLopevri re r) ttoXl? ioLKvla Karerpex^i^ ft? 

5 iaVTTjV (1770 TT]S O^VTTjTOS . /Cat 77^0? p€.GrjpL^piaV 

pev e/cAtvev, o vonos S' avrrjg oxOog et? aTreipov 
vipO£ avareivojv a/cpa ttjs TToXecog rjv, aretxi-GTos 

^ Aai'-qs Reland ; cf. A. viii. 226. 

* PA (as in A. vii. ■210+) : 'lopddvrjv the rest. 

^ Xiese : ^tti 1w,6.vr)v k. "ZeXevKeiav mss. 

* L : ewl PA : irapa the rest. 

^ A Lat. : TrXevpai' the rest. 

® Xiese : rf/j mss. 

• Probably Khurbet Dufna, a little S. of Dan (Laish), tht- 
suurce of one tributary of the Jordan. 



JEWISH WAR. IV. 3-8 

marshes extend as far as Daphne,"^ a delightful spot 
uith springs which feed the so-called httle Jordan, 
Ijcneath the temple of the golden cow,^ and speed 
it on its way to the greater river.*' Now Sogane and 
Seleucia had quite early in the revolt been induced 
Ijy Agrippa to come to terms ; but Gamala refused Gamala 
to surrender, relying even more confidently than of."^"^ ^'^^ 
Jotapata upon the natural difficulties of its position. 
From a lofty mountain there descends a rugged spur 
rising in the middle to a hump, the declivity from 
the summit of which is of the same length before as 
behind, so that in form the ridge resembles a camel ; 
whence it derives its name, the natives pronouncing 
the sharp sound of that word inaccurately .'^ Its sides 
and face are cleft all round by inaccessible ravines, but 
at the tail end, where it hangs on to the mountain, 
it is somewhat easier of approach ; but this quarter 
also the inhabitants, by cutting a trench across it, 
had rendered difficult of access. The houses were 
built against the steep mountain flank and astonish- 
ingly huddled together, one on top of the other, and 
this perpendicular site gave the city the appearance 
of being suspended in air and falling headlong upon 
itself. It faced south, and its southern eminence, 
rising to an immense height, formed the citadel ; 

"* One of the two golden calves erected by Jeroboam at 
Dan and Bethel respectively (1 Kings xii. 29, Jos. A. viii. 
226). 

" The eastern stream descending from Caesarea Philippi, 
Banias. 

<* i.e. they slurred the sharp (lit. "clear") K into r, 
calling it Gamala, not Kamala. The remark is made purely 
from the Greek point of view ; " camel " both in Hebrew 
{Gdmdl) and in Aramaic {Gamld') has initial G. 

5 



JOSEPHUS 

ISy Se V7T*^ avTTJs^ Kp'qfivos els rrjv ^advTdrrjp 
Karareivcov (jxipayya- rrrjyr] 8' evro? rod relxov?, 



i<f>* T]v TO aorv KareXrjyev. 



9 (2) OvTCos ovuav (fivaet hvaixrixo.vov*' ttjv ttoXlv 
T€L)(iCcov 6 ^IcfjarjTTO? iiTOL'qGev o)(ypojrlpav vtto- 

10 POjJLOLS T€ Kal hiOjpV^LV. OL 8 €V avrfj (f)V(J€L pL€V 

rod )(ajpLov dappaXeojrepoi tojv Kara T'r]v 'Icura- 

TTOLTrjV TjGaV, TToXv 8' iXoLTTOVS pLa)(^ipiOl , Kal TOJ 

roTTcp TreTTOidoTes ovhe TrXelova? vireXapL^avov 
TTeTrX-qpcoro yap rj rroXtg Sua ttjv oxvpor-qra 
GVjKJivyovTOjv' TTapo Kal rots vn AyptTTTra Trpo- 
TTEfK^delcnv IttI TTjV TToXiopKLav a.VTeZ-)(€v iirl 
p.rjvas eTTrd. 

11 (3) Oi)€G7TaoLav6s S' dpa? aTTO rrjs ' ApLpLaOovs , 
evda rrpo rrj^ Tt/SeptaSos" iGrparoTreSevKeL- pieO- 
eppLrjvevopLevq S' ^Appiadovs deppid Xeyour av, 
€GTL ydp ev avri] Trrjyrj deppLOJV vbarojv rrpos 
aKEGLv €7Ti,Tr]SeLCov' d(f)LKV€LraL npos TTjv TdpaXav. 

12 Kal rraGav pcev /cu/cAtacracr^at (j)vXaKfj ttjv ttoXlv 
ovx olos re rjv ovtojs hiaKeLp.evrjV , npog 8e rols 
SwaroLs (f)povpovs Kadl.Gr'qGi Kai to VTrepKeipievov 

13 opos KaraXapL^dveTat . TeLX^Gapievcov 8e coGirep 
eOos rdjv TaypLdTa>v vrrep avrov GrpaTOTreoa 
Xojpidrajv TJpxero /car' ovpdv, /cat to puev Kar 
dvaToXds avTOj /xepo?, fl'^^P o avcoraroj ttjs 
TToXeojs TTvpyos rjv, exov° to TrepLTTTOv Kal hcKarov 
rdypLa, to TriixrrTov 8e <ra> /card pLeGrjv i^eipyd- 

1 ins. PAL. 

* Niese : virkp mss., irepi Destinon perhaps rightly {cf. § 74). 
^ avrrjv L. 

* 5'''a-/xaxov C and perhaps Lat. 

^ Destinon : e<p' ov mss. The text of the next line is 
unrertain : I follow Niese, who inserts the bracketed rd. 

6 



JEWISH WAR, IV 8-13 

below this an unwalled precipice descended to the 
deepest of the ravines. There was a spring \\ithin 
the walls at the confines of the town. 

(2) This city, which nature had rendered so im- 
pregnable. Josephus had fortified with walls ^ and 
secured still further by mines and trenches. Its 
occupants felt greater confidence in the nature of 
their site than did those of Jotapata. though far 
inferior to them in the number of combatants : 
indeed such trust had they in their position that 
they would admit no more. For the citv was packed 
with fugitives owing to the strength of its defences, 
which had enabled it to hold out for seven months 
against the force ^ previously sent by Agrippa to 
besiege it. 

(3) A^espasian now broke up the camp which he Vespasian 
had pitclied in front of Tiberia«: at Ammathus ^ (this Q^nffia^ 
name may be interpreted as " w^arm baths," being 
derived from a spring of warm water within the city 
possessing curative properties) and proceeded to 
Gamala. Finding the complete investment of a city 

in such a situation impossible, he posted sentries 
wherever this was practicable and occupied the moun- 
tain that overhung it. The legions having, according 
to custom, fortified their camps on these heights, 
Vespasian commenced the erection of earthworks at 
the tail end ; those on the east of the ridge, over 
against the point where stood the highest tower in 
the town, were raised by the fifteenth legion, those 
opposite the centre of the city were undertaken by 

" B. ii. .37 1-. 

" Under Aequus Modius, V^ita 114. 

* IJntnmam, between Tiberias (X.) and Tarichaeae (S.j ; 
cf. B. iii. 462, and for the warm baths A. xviii. 36. 

7 



JOSEPHUS 

^ero TTjv ttoXlv, rag Se hto'jpvyas ayerrX-qpov Kai 

14 ra? (bdpayyas ro heKarov. Kav rovroj TrpoaeXdovra 
Tols T€L)(€Giv AypLTTTTav Tov j^aGiXia Kol Trepl 
TTapahooeaJS rots €(f)€aTOjaL Treipojpievov BiaXeyeadai 
^dXXeL rL£ TOW uc^evhov-qTwy Kara tov Se^iov 

15 dyKOJva Xidoj. Kai 6 fxev vtto tow OLKetojv So-ttov 
7T€pi€G)(€drj, 'PojpLalovs S eTTiqyeLpev els ttjv 
TToXiopKLav opyrj T€ Trepl tov f^aGiXeojs Kal jrepi 

16 G(j)6w avTow decs' o'u yap aTToXeiijjeiv wp^oTTiTOs 
VTTep^oXrjV KaT* dXXo4)vXojv Kal TToXefxlojv tovs 
TTpos 6fJL6(i>vXov Kal Tojv (JV\L^ep6vTO}V avTols 
GVjijSovXov ovTOJS aypiojOevras. 

17 (4-) Y^vvTeXeadevTow ovv tow )(a)fidrajv daTTOV 
TrXijOei x^ipojv Kal tow TrpaTTOjievojv edet Trpoorjyov 

18 Tas fXTjy^avds. ol he rrepl tov XapT^ra Kal 'It-j- 
GTjTTOV,^ OVTOL yo.p TjGav TOW KaTa TTjV ttoXlv 
hvvaTOJTaTOi, Kaiirep KaTaTTerrX'qyoTas tovs 6- 
rrXiras TdrTOVGLV^ erreLSrj fiexpt' ttoXXov irpos ttjv 
TToXiopKLav drde^ELV ov^ vrreXdfi^avov, uSart Kal 

19 Tots dXXoLs e—LTriheiois l-L'f] biapKovpLevoL. rrapa- 
KpoTrjGavTes S ofiojs i^ijyayov Ittl to Tel^os, 
Kai TTpos oXiyov pLev aTT-qpLVvavTO tovs rrpoGayovTas 
Tas p.r])(avds, (SaXXopLevoL Se rots' KaTarreXTLKols 
Kai TOLs TzeTpo^oXoLS dvexojpovv eis ttjv ttoXlv. 

20 Acat TTpoGayayovres^ ol 'Poj/iatot Tpi^odev tovs 
Kptovs hiaGeiovGi pLev to Telxos, vrrep de tojv 
epei(hOevTOJV elGx^6p.evoi pLerd ttoXXov GaXmyyojv 
rjxov Kal KTVTTOV TOW ottXojv avTOL T e7TaXaXdt,ovTes 

21 avvepprjyvvvTO tols Kara ttjv ttoXlv. ol be Teojs 
p.ev Kara Tas TTpojTas elGohovs evLGrdp-evoi 
TTpoGOjrepoj x^-^p^l'^ eKwXvov Kal Kaprepojs tovs 

^ lilxnjv L^ ; cf. § 66. * M : Trpoadyovres the rest. 

8 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 13-21 

the fifth, while the tenth legion was employed in 
filling up the trenches ^ and ravines. During these 
operations King Agrippa, who had approached the Agrippa 
ramparts and was endeavouring to parley \vith the 
defenders about capitulation, was struck on the right 
elbow with a stone by one of the slingers. He was 
at once surrounded by his troops, but the Romans 
were thus stimulated to press the siege alike by 
resentment on the king's behalf and by concern for 
themselves. con\inced that men who could so savagely 
attack a fellow-countryman, while advising them for 
their welfare, would shrink from no excess of cruelty 
towards aliens and enemies. 

(4) With such a multitude of hands accustomed to Romans 
the task, the earthworks were rapidly completed oamaia 
and the engines brought into position. Chares and Y''^, 

^ ^ 1 1 • -I disastrous 

Joseph, the most prominent leaders m the town, results. 
drew up their troops, though the men were dispirited 
by the thought that they could not long withstand 
a siege owing to a deficiency of water and other 
necessaries. Their generals, however, encouraged 
them and led them out to the ramparts, where for 
a while they kept at bay those who were bringing 
up the engines, but the fire of the catapults and 
stone-projectors drove them back into the to\\'n. 
The Romans then applying the battering-rams at 
three different quarters broke through the wall, and 
pouring through the breach with loud trumpet-blasts, 
clash of arms, and the soldiers' battle-cries, engaged 
the defenders of the to%vn. The latter, when the 
first Romans entered, for a time held their ground, 
arrested their further advance and stubbornly re- 

° Previously dug by Josephus, § 9. 



JOSEPHUS 

22 'Pojf.iaLovs avelpyov ^ta^d/iei^ot 8e vno ttoXXcov 
Kal TravTodev rpeTTovrat npos to. vtprjXa rrjs 

TToXeOJS Kal 7TpOGK€i/JL€VOLS TOtS" TToXefJLLOLS €$ 

V7TOGTpo(l)rjs imTTeaovTes ovvcodovv et? to Karavres 
Kal rf] GrevorrjTL Kai SfCTp^ojpta dXi^ofxevovg av- 

23 ripovv. OL 8e /LtT^re rovs Kara Kopv(f)riv apvvaadaL 
SwdfievoL fJLrjre hieKiraUtv rcov G(f)eTepajv Trpocroj 
^LaCopLevojv eVt rag ot/cta? tojv TToXepLLCov, Trpoo- 

24 yetot yap rjaav, av€(j)evyov . at Se rax^cv? Kanqpet,- 
TTOvro TrXrjpovpievaL Kal to ^dpo£ ixr] OTeyovaau, 

KaT€G€L€ Se TToXXds /Xttt TCUt' V7T aVTTJS^ 7T€GOVGa 

26 Kal rrdXiv eKelvau Tag vtt avTas. tovto irXeiGTOvs 
hL€(f)deLp€ T(ji)v 'PajfjLalojP' vtto yap dfx'qxo.vias 
KaiToi GVvit^avovGas opowTes iTTeTrrihcov rat? 
GTeyat?, Kal ttoXXoI fxev KaT€)(OJvvvvTO toZs 
epeLTTLOis, rroXXol 8 V7TO(j)€vyovTes P-^P''f 'T^v 

GOJjJLaTO? KaTeXafJiBdl'Ol'TO , TtXeLGTOVS S O KOVLOpTOS 

26 dyxojv dvrjp€L. Gvvepyiav deov tovto TafiaXei? 
vTTeXdfJL^avov Kal Trjg KaTa Gcpds afxeXovvTes 

^Xd^TjS i7T€K€LVT0, TTpoS T€ TOL TEyq TOVS TToXepLLOVS 

dva)6ovvT€s [Kal rot]^ KaToXiGOdvovTas ev o^ecrt 
Tolg GT€vajTTols Kal del tov£ TTLTTTOVTa? VTTepdev 

27 ^dXXovT€s eKT€Lvov. Kal rd piev ipeLTna x^ppdbcov 
TTAea i)v^ avTolg, GlSrjpov 8e Trapelxov ol tojv 
TroXepiiojv v€Kpor TrapaGTrwvTes ydp Ta tojv 
TTeGovTOjv ii-^^f] KaTa TCOV hvGOavaTOJVTCOV^ €Xpa)VTO. 

28 TToXXol 8' diTO TTLTTTovTCov rjSrj Ta)v Scu/xdrcDV G<f)ds 

^ V*: the other mss. have avr-qv, ai'roFs, or ai'TQv. 

* p.epeL Dindorf with one ms. 

^ Bracketed by Niese: the text is doubtful and the Lat. 
suggests that some words have fallen out. 

* TrXe'a ^i'] ir\ri6os L Lat. 
° ov<^davarovvT(j}v PA. 

10 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 22-28 

pulsed them ; then, overpowered by numbers pouring 
in on all sides, they fled to the upper parts of the 
town, where, rounding upon the pursuing enemy, 
they thrust them down the slopes and slew them 
while impeded by the narrowness and difficulties of 
the ground. The Romans, unable either to repel the 
enemy above them or to force their way back through 
their comrades pressing forward behind, took refuge 
on the roofs of the enemy's houses, which came close 
to the ground." These, being crowded with soldiers 
and unequal to the weight, soon fell in ; one house 
in its fall brought do^^^l several others beneath it 
and these again carried away those lower doA^ii, 
This disaster was the ruin of multitudes of Romans ; 
for, having nowhere to turn, although they saw the 
houses subsiding, they continued to leap on to the 
roofs. Many were buried by the ruins, many in 
trying to escape from under them were pinned dowTD 
by some portion of their persons, and still more died 
of suffocation from the dust. Seeing in this the 
interposition of divine pro\'idence, the men of Gamala 
pressed their attack regardless of their own casualties; 
they forced the enemy, stumbling in the steep alleys, 
up on to the roofs and with a continual fire from 
above slew any who fell. The debris supphed them 
with boulders in abundance and the enemy's dead 
with blades ; for they wTested the swords from the 
fallen and used them to dispatch any still struggling 
in death. Many flung themselves from the houses 
when in the act of collapsing and died from the fall. 

" The " perpendicular " nature of the site (such as that of 
Clovelly or Koi'ca di Papa) has to be remembered, § 7: the 
roof at the end hiirher up the slope woukl be vpodyeLos, while 
its other end would be well above the ground. 

11 



JOSEPHUS 

29 auTOTj? /SaAAorre? edviquKov. rjv 8' o?)Se rpaTrevrojv 
Tj cf)vyTj padio?' Kara yap ayvoiav row ohojv Kai 
TTaxvTTjra rod KOVLoprov /i,7]8e dXX-qXovs €Tn- 
yLVcLcTKOvreg aveiXovvro Kai Trept (7(f)ds €.7ti7ttov. 

30 (5) 01 fiev ovv jjloXi? evpiaKovres ras i^oSovs 

31 avexojpViGav eK rrjs TToXeojs' OveGTraaiavos 8' 
del TrpoGjievoji' roZs TTOvovfJLevois, SeLvov yap n 
TTados avTOv elafjet KarepeLTTOiJievqv opowra irepi 
TO) Grparo) ttjv ttoXlv, iv X-qOrj rod KaO^ avrov 
dacfiaXovs yevop-evos XavQavei Kara puKpov avco- 
rdroj TTJs TToXeojg TrpoeXdcov, evda fjLeaoL? eyKara- 
XeLTreraL rots" klvSvvols /xer oXr/ojv TravreXaJS' 

32 ovbe yap 6 Tral? avro) Titos rore (jvp,7Tapfjv, 
rrji'LKavTa Trpog MouKtavov els Hvplav dTrearaX- 

33 p.evos. TpaTTrjvaL fiev ovv ovkIt^^ dcr^aAe? ovre 
TTpcTTOV rjyrjGaro, p.vqoOels Se row airo veorrjTOs 
avTO) 7T€7Tov'qpL€i'OJV Kai rrjs iSta? aper-qs, ojairep 
evdovs yevojievos, GvvaGTnt^i p.ev rovs ap. avro) 

34 rd re Gcopara Kai rag rravoTrXias, ii'V(f)LGTaTaL 
Se Kara Kopvchrjv eTTippiovra tov rroXepLOV Kai 
ovre dvSpojv ttXt^Oos ovre ^eXojv VTTOTTrrj^as 
CTTep^eve, P-^XP'- 8at/xdytov ro uapaGT-qpia rrjs 
ipvx'qs ovvvoijaavres ol TToXepaoL rals oppLals 

35 ivedoGav. drovojrepov 8e TrpoGKeip-evajv avros 
VTiO rroha dvexcop^t,, vojra p.rj heLKvvs ews efcu 

36 rod retxovs iyevero. TrXeiGroi pL€v ovv 'PcopLaicov 
Kara ravrrjv erreoov rr]v p,dxT]V, iv ols 6 SeicaS- 
dpx'TjS AWovrLOs, dvqp ov p,6vov 6(f> '^s CTrecre 
vapard^ecos , dXXd Travraxov Kai rrporepov yev- 
vaioraros (j)avels Kai rrXelGra KaKa ^Xovhaiovs 

^ FAL : ovT€ the rest. 
12 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 29-36 

Even those who fled found flight no easy matter ; 
since through their ignorance of the roads and the 
dense clouds of dust they failed to recognize their 
comrades and in their bewilderment fell foul of each 
other. 

(5) Thus, with difficulty discovering the outlets, vespasians 
these fugitives beat a retreat from the to\vn. Mean- position, 
while \"espasian, always keeping close to his distressed 
troops, being deeply affected by the sight of the city 
falling in ruins about his army, had, forgetful of his 
own safetv, gradually and unconsciously advanced to 
the highest quarters of the to\\Ti. Here he found him- 
self left in the thick of danger ^\^th a mere handful 
of followers : even his son Titus was not with him 
on this occasion, having been just sent off to S^Tia 
to Mucianus." Thinking it now neither safe nor 
honourable to turn, and mindful of the hardships 
which he had borne from his youth and his innate 
valour, he. like one inspired, linked his comrades 
together, with shields enveloping both body and 
armour, and stemmed the tide of war that streamed 
upon him from above ; and so, undaunted by the 
multitude either of men or missiles, he stood his 
ground, until the enemy, impressed by such super- 
natural intrepiditv, relaxed their ardour. Being now 
less hard pressed, he retreated step by step, not 
turning his back until he was outside the walls. In 
this engagement multitudes of Romans fell, including 
the decurion Aebutius, a man who had shown the 
utmost gallantry and inflicted the severest losses on 
the Jews, not only in the action in which he perished, 

" Governor {legatus) of Syria, and subsequently one of the 
strongest supporters of \'espasian's claims to the empire. 

13 



JOSEPHUS 

37 ipyacrdfievog. iKarovrdpx'r]? Se '^'■S, YdXXos 6v6- 
fjLariy fierd GrpaTiojroJv deara 7reptcr;>(6^ets" €v rfj 

38 rapaxfj Karedv fiev et? tlvos olklcv, tow 8 iv avrfj 
hiaXaXoTjVTOJv Trapa oelirvov oaa Kara row Pa»- 
fialojv Tj rrepl uchojv 6 drjfJLOs i^ovXevero Kar- 
aKPoaadfievo?, rjv 6 airos t€ fcat ot cruv avTco 
^vpoL, vvKTOjp eVavtcrrarat xrat Travra? aTToacfid^as 
IJLera row GrparLOjrojv eig rovg Poj/^at'ou? Sta- 

39 (6) OveaTTaaiavos § advpLovaav ttjv arpariav 
dyvotq} Trratcr/xarcoy /cat Stort recu? ovhapov 
T-qXcKavTrj Gvp.(j)opa Kexpfivro, ro ye p-qv rrXeov 
alhovpivovs eVt ro) top orparrjyov p.ovov rols 

40 KLvhvvoL? iyKaraXLTTelv, TrapepydelrOy irepi /xev 
rod KaO^ avTOv VTToareXXofxevos , ojs prjSe rrjv 
^PXW pepcjieGdai doKOLT], delv be rd KOLvd 
Xeyojv dvhpeiojs (j>epeLV, ttjv rod TToXepov d>vGLV 
ivvoovvras, ws ovhapov to viKav avaLpcurl 
TTepiyiveraL, TraXipTTOvs S tj tvxt] TrapiGrarai} 

41 TOGavrag pevroi pLvpiddas lovbalojv dveXovras 
avTOvs oXlyrjv rep haip^ovi hehojKevai avpL^oXr^v. 

42 elvai S' ojGTrep dTreipoKdXojv ro Xiav irraipeGOaL 
rals ev—payiais, ovrojg dvavdpow ro KaTarTrrjGGeiv 
ev rols TTraiGpaGLV "o^ela yap ev ap.(j)orepois 
rj pLera^oXrj, KaKelvos dpiGros 6 Kav rols evrvxT]- 
p,aGLV vqSojv, Iva pievrj Kal 8t' evOvpaas dva- 

^ Destinon : avola yi^s. {ff. Vita 1^1 for similar confusion) : 
evvoia, •' at the thought of," Bos. 

* TraXifj-TTois kt\. Niese (and so apparently the first hand 
of L) : dawava S ij tvxv t"' 'f'^' irapiaTaTai, PAM^ : i] ydp 
TToKlinrovi rvxv TrepuffraraL VPiCM^. 

■^ Aebutius had skirmishes with Josephus in Galilee early 
in the war. Vita 115-120, and as " a man of marked energy 

U 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 37-42 

but on all previous occasions.*^ One centurion. named 
Gallus, being cut off with ten of his men in the fray, 
crept into a private house, where he — a Syrian like 
his companions — overheard the inmates discussing at 
supper the citizens' plans of attack on the Romans 
and of self-defence ; during the night he arose and 
fell upon them, slew them all, and ^\ith his men 
made his way safely back to the Roman camp. 

(6) Vespasian, seeing his army despondent o%\ing Vespasian 
to their ignorance of reverses and because they had u°s troo^ps. 
nowhere so far met Mith such a disaster, and still 
more ashamed of themselves for leaving their general 
to face danger alone, proceeded to console them. 
Refraining from any mention of himself, for fear of 
appearing to cast the slightest reflection upon them, 
he said that they ought manfully to bear misfortunes 
which were common to all, reflecting on the nature 
of war, which never grants a bloodless victory, and 
how Fortune flits back again to one's side.^ "After 
all," he continued, " you have slain myriads of 
Jews, but yourselves have paid but a trifling 
contribution to the deity .<^ As it is a mark 
of vulgarity to be over-elated by success, so is it 
unmanly to be downcast in adversity : for the transi- 
tion from one to the other is rapid, and the best 
soldier is he who meets good fortune with sobriety, 
to the end that he may still remain cheerful when 

and ability " was selected for special duty at the outset of 
the siege of Jotapata, B. iii. 144. 

*• The rare word TraXt'uTrois ("with returning foot" or 
" retrograde ") occurs, together with another word, dvavwoKXTosy 
only attested elsewhere in Jos. A. xv. 208, in an epigram of 
Meleager of Gadara {Anth. Pal. v. 163), from which 
Josephns or his awepyos not improbably borrowed it. 

* i.e. the god of war (or Fortune), who demands blood. 

15 



JOSEPHUS 

43 TTaXaicDV ra acfyaXfiara . ra /xeWot cru/x^e^i^/coTa 
vvv ovT€ ixaXa KLG 9 ivTCOv rjjiojv^ ovre rrapa Tr)v 
row lovSaLOJV dperr]v yeyovev, aAAd KaKeivois rod 
TrXeoveKrrJGai /cat rod StafxapreXv rjfxlv alriov rj 

44 hvG-)((jjpLa. Kad^ rjv dv^ rt? VfMOJV fx^LifjaLro rrj? 
op/JLTJs ro drafiUvrov dva(f)vy6vr(jov yap errl rd 
vip-qXd ra)V TToXefilajv avrovs VTroareXXeiv ixprjVy 
Kat fi7] Kara Kopv(j)riv tcrrajLteVot? roZs klvSvvols 
€7T€<jdaL, Kparovvras Se tt)? Karco rroXecos Kar* 
oXiyov rrpoKaXeLcrdai rovs dva(j>evyovras ^Is dG(f)aXrj 
/cat €opaiav ixd)(rjv. vvvl he dKparo)? inl rrjv 

45 VLK-qv iTTCLyoixevoL rT]£ dcr^aAetas' rj/JLeX-qaare. ro S' 
arrepiGKeTTrov ev TToXefxco /cat rrj? opiir^s fJLavLOjSes 
01) TTpos VcoiiaiojVy ol rravra ipLTreipia /cat rd^ei 
Karopdovfxev, dXXd ^ap^apLKov, /cat cp /xdAtcrra 

46 lovSaloL Kparovvrai. XPV '^oivvv inl rrjv avrcov 
aperrjv dvaSpafielv /cat dvpLOvadai pLoXXov 7) 

47 irpoaaOvpielv rep Trap' d^lav TrratCT/xart. r-qv S' 
apLcrrrjv eKaoro? e/c rrj? tSia? ;\;etpds" eTrit^-qreircxi 
Trapafivdlav ovrco ydp roZs re dTToXcoXooL n- 

48 pLOjprjGecrde /cat rovs aveXovrag ap.vveZa9e. Treipd- 
(jofMai S' €yco, Kaddrrep vvv, errl nda-qs fidx^qs 
npodyeiv re vjjlojv el? rovs TToXepiiovs Koi reXev- 
ralos aTTO)(cop€.lv.'' 

49 (7) p.ev ovv roiavra Xeycxjv rr]v orpandv 
aveXdpL^avev y rots Se TajiaXevGLV rrpds oXiyov 
fiev dapprJGau rw KaropdcoijLan TrapeGrr] Trapa- 

50 Xoyojs re Gvp^^avn /cat fieydXaJS, Xoyit,6p.evoL S* 
VGrepov d(l)r)prJG9aL G(f)ds avrovs /cat Se^tas" 
eXmSas, ro re fXTj SvvaG9aL hiacjyevyeiv iwoovvres, 

^ L Lat. : i^uiiz/ the rest. 
• L : dyai' the rest : 7' ciy Destinon. 

16 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 43-50 

contending ^^dth reverses. What has now happened, 
to be sure, is attributable neither to any weakness 
on our part nor to the valour of the Jews ; the one 
cause of their superiority and of our failure was 
the difficulty of the ground. In view of that, fault 
might be found Mith your inordinate ardour ; for 
when the enemy fled to the higher ground, you 
should have restrained yourselves and not by pursuit 
exposed yourselves to the perils impending over your 
heads. Instead, having mastered the lower town, 
you should gradually have lured the fugitives to a 
safe combat on firm ground ; whereas, through your 
intemperate eagerness for victory, you neglected your 
own safety. But incautiousness in war and mad 
impetuosity are alien to us Romans, who owe all our 
success to skill and discipline : they are a barbarian 
fault and one to which the Jews mainly owe their 
defeats. It behoves us therefore to fall back upon 
our native valour and to be moved rather to ^^Tath 
than to despondency by this unworthy reverse. But 
the best consolation should be sought by each man 
in his ovm right hand : for so you will avenge the 
dead and punish those who slew them. For my part, 
it shall be my endeavour, as in this so in every 
engagement, to face the enemy at your head and 
to be the last to retire." 

(7) By such words as these he reanimated his 
troops. The people of Gamala, on their side, derived 
a momentary confidence from their unlooked for and 
signal success ; but when they subsequently reflected 
that they had deprived themselves of all hope of 
terms, and thought of the impossibility of escape (for 

17 



JOSEPHUS 

rjoT] yap eTTeXnre raTTLT-qheia, SetvcDs' rjdvfiovv /cat 

"'I rats' ijjvxo.'^? ava7T€7TT0JK€(jav . ov (jlt^v et? to 

8vvo.t6v rjjjieXovv ocorripiaSi dAAa kol to. rrap- 

apprj)(d€VTa^ rod r€Lxov? ol yevvaioraroi kol to. 

fievovra 7r€pL(T)(6vT€£ icjivXauaov ol XolttoL tcuv Se 

■"'- 'PojpLaLOJV €77 Lppojvvvvrojv^ ra )(OJiiaTa Kai ttoXlv 

7T€Lpojiievojv Trpool^oXfjg ol 770XX0L dtedtSpacr/cov 

eK TTjg TToXeojs Kara re hvo^drow (jyapayyajv , 

fjTrep ovK €K€Lvro (hvXaKai, koI Sia rwv V770v6fjLOJV. 

■'>-^ OGOL ye iiTjV hiei rod Xrjcf}6rjvaL 77ap€fievov, [iv] 

ivBela SiechOeLpovTO- Travra-x^oOev yap rpo(f)rj rots 

IxaxeoOaL SvvapLevoLs GVVTjd potter o. 

54 (8) Kat 01 fikv iv roiovroi? rrdOeoL hieKaprlpovv, 
Ov€G7TaGLav6s he rrdpepyov erTOLelro rrjs TToXtopKias 
rovs ro Ira^vpiov KareiXrjcf^orag opog, 6 eon 

55 rov pieydXov rreSlov Kal HKvBorroXeoJS [leoov ov 
TO fiev vipog 677t rpidKovra Grahiovs dviG^ei, 
fjLoXtg rrpoG^arov Kara to rrpoGdpKTLOv KXljia, 
TTeoLov 6 eorlv rj Kopv(i)'q UTahicov e^ Kal €lkogl, 

56 77dv rereiy^Lcrpievov. rjyeipe §e tooovtop ovra rov 
rrepipoXov 6 ^Iojgtj770£ ev reaoapdKovra 'qp-epais 
T7J re clXXt] X'^P''^l'yo'^H-^^o? ^^T) KdrojOev Kal 
voaTL' Kai yap rols eVotVots" pLOVov tjv opL^pLov. 

ol TToXXov ovv rrXyjOov? eVt rovrov avvecXeypievov' 

^ Herwerden : 7repipp/;x^e>'Ta mss. 
^ i7rLX0Ji"^ivT(j}i' MVRC. 

^ TToW^s o!'u Tr\r]6uos eirl rod tottov avveiXey/j.^vrjs Niese. 
avoiding the double hiatus. 



" §9. 

^' If " the Great Plain " means here, as usual, the plain of 
Esdraelon, the description above is inaccurate, as Mt. Tabor 
lies well to the X. of a line drawn through that plain, and its 
18 



JEWISH WAR. IV. 50-57 

their supplies had already failed them), they became 
sorely dejected and lost heart. Nevertheless, thev 
did not neglect to take what precautions they could 
to protect themselves : the bravest guarded the 
breaches, the rest manned what still remained of the 
wall. But when the Romans proceeded to strengthen 
their earthworks and to attempt a fresh assault, the 
people began to run from the to\\Ti, down trackless 
ravines, where no sentries were posted, or through 
the underground passages " ; while all who staved 
behind from fear of being caught were perishing 
from hunger, as every quarter had been ransacked 
for pro\'isions for those capable of bearing arms. 

(8) \\'hile the people of Gamala under such straits Diversion 
were still holding out, \"espasian undertook, as a jft*.' xa'^bor ; 
minor diversion from the siege, the reduction of the success of 
occupants of Mount Tabor. This lies midway be- 
tween the Great Plain and Scythopolis,^ and rises to 
a height of thirty furlongs,*' being almost inaccessible 
on its northern face ; the summit is a table -land 
twenty-six furlongs ^ long, entirely surrounded by a 
wall. This extensive rampart was erected in forty 
days by Josephus,^ who was supplied from below 
Nnth all materials, including water, the inhabitants 
depending solely on rain. To this spot, on which a 
vast multitude had assembled, \'espasian dispatched 

continuation, the valley of Jezreel, to Scythopolis. If the 
plain of Asochis (described as " the great plain in which my »^ 
quarters lay " in Vita 207) is meant, the description is 
approximately correct. 

* These fiffures are absurdiv inaccurate : the summit is 
only 1843 feet above the Plain of Esdraelon (1312 ft. from 
the base), the platform on the summit is 3000 ft. long and 
1300 ft. at its greatest breadth {EncycL Bibl. s.v.). 

■^ Tabor is mentioned in a list of places fortified bv him in 
Vita 188. 



JOSEPHUS 

0v€G7TaaLaV0£ UXcIKlSoV GVV LTTTTeVOlV e^aKOOLOlS 

58 7T€ix7T€i. rovrcp TO fxev rrpoG^aiveiv ayi'q-^avov tjv, 
iXTTihi Se he^LOJv koL TvapaKXijaei} npos elpijvrjv 

.59 rovg ttoXXovs TrpoeKoXelro.^ KarrjeGav 8e avr- 
em^ovXevovres' o re yap UXo-klSos tu/xiAet Trpad- 
repov OTrovhdt,iov avrovs eV roj rrebioj Xa/^elv, 
KaKelvoL Karrj€Gav cos TreiOopievoi hrjdev, iv 

60 a(j>vXaKTW TTpouTreocoGLV. iviKa ijl€vtol to ITAa- 
Kihov TTavovpyov ap^afjievcov yap tojv lovhatcov 
ixdy^-qs (f>vyr]v VTroKpiverai Kai hicoKovras eXKvaas 
IttI ttoXv tov rrehiov rovg l7T7T€ls CTnorpe^eL, 
rpeipdp.evos 8e 7tX€lgtov? [jl€V avrcov avatpet, 
TO he XoiTTOv TrXrjdog VTTorefxopLevos eipyet rrjs 

61 dvoSov. Kal ol fxev to iTa^vptov KaTaXiTTovTe? 
€7tI 'lepoaoXvpLCov e<f>evyov^ ol 8' i7Ti\ojpLOL 7tlgt€ls 

apOVT€?, €7nA€AOL7T€L O aVTOV? VOOjpy TO T€ OpOS 

Kal a(f)dg avTOVs YlXaKihoj Trapehouav. 

62 (9) Twv §' €771 TTJg TapudXas ol Trapa^oXojTepoL 
pLev (f)€vyovTes hteXdvOavov , ol S' dadevels Ste</)^et- 

63 povTO XipLOj' TO pidxi^piov 8' dvT€i)(^ev ttj TToXiopKLa, 
pL€Xpi' hevTepa Kal et/caSt pLT]v6s 'YTrep^epeTatov 
TpeZs Twv diTO TOV TTepLTTTOV Kal SeKdTov TdypiaTOs 
GTpaTiojTai TTepl ttjv iajdwqv (f)vXaKr]v vtto- 
SwTes" TOV TTpov^ovTa KaTa tovtovs Trvpyov vtt- 

64 opvGGOVGLV rjGvxrj- rols 8' VTrep avTOV (f)vXa^Lv 
ovTC TrpoGiovTCxjv aLGdr]GL£, vv^ yap tjv, ovt€ npoG- 
eXOovTOJV iy€V€TO. ol 8e GTpaTLcoTaL (jjeLSopievoL 

^ L : 7rapaK\r](i€ws the rest. 
' Destinon : TrpocreKaXeLTo mss. 

" The tribune who had seen sendee in Gahlee before 
Vespasian's arrival {Vita 213) and after {ib. 411, B. iii. 59, 

20 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 57-64 

Plaridus « with six hundred horse. That officer, 
finding the ascent of the mountain impracticable, 
made peaceable overtures to the crowd, holding out 
hopes of terms and exhorting them to avail them- 
selves of the offer. They descended accordingly, but 
with counter-designs of their own ; for while the 
object of Placidus with his mild address was to 
capture them in the plain, they came down ostensibly ^ 
in compliance Avith his proposal, but ^\'ith the real 
intention of attacking him while off his guard. The 
craft of Placidus, hoMever, won the day ; for when 
the Jews opened hostilities he feigned flight and, 
ha\ing drawn his pursuers far into the plain, suddenly 
wheeled his cavalry round and routed them. Masses 
of them were slain; the remainder he intercepted and 
prevented from reascending the mountain. These 
fugitives abandoning Mount Tabor made off to 
Jerusalem ; the natives, under promise of protection, 
and pressed by the failure of their water-supply, 
surrendered the mountain and themselves to Placidus. 

(9) At Gamala, while the more adventurous were Overthrow 
stealthily escaping and the feebler folk dying of at Gamala 
famine,^ the effective combatants continued to sus- 
tain the siege until the twenty-second of the month '•. 9 Nov- 
Hyperberetaeus, when three soldiers of the fifteenth J;?^^^ ^•"• 
legion, about the time of the morning watch, crept 
up to the base of a projecting tower opposite to 
them and began secretly undermining it ; the sentries 
on guard above failing, in the darkness, to detect 
them either when approaching or after they had 
reached it. These soldiers, ^\•ith as little noise as 

110, etc.), and who subsequentlv subdued Peraea {B. iv. 
419 ff.). 

*• Resuming and partly repeating the narrative in §§ 52 f. 

21 



JOSEPHUS 

Tov ifiofhov '^Kat'l 7T€VT€ Tovs KparaiOTaTovs €fC- 
65 KvXlcravTe? Xidovs viroTT-qhojcn . KaTepelneraL^ 8* 
o TTvpyos i^ai(l)vqs jJiera {xeyLGTOv ilj6(^oVy kol 
cruyKaTaKprjiJLVL^ovTaL /xey ol (f)vXaK€s avroj, dopv- 
^TjdlvTes Se ol Kara ras d'AAa? (f)vXaKa? €4)€vyov' 
Hf) Kal TToXAovs dL€K7raULv ToXfiowras ol 'PcofialoL 

Le(pU€LpaV, €V OL? Kat lOJG-qTTOV TiS VTTCp TO 

7rapeppriyp.evov tov T€L)(ovg eKdiSpaGKovTa /SaAojv 

67 avaipel. tow S' ava ttjv ttoXlv hiaueLuBivTajv 

VTTO TOV IpOcjiOV hiahpOjlTj T€ TjV KaL TTTOa TToXXtj, 

KadaTTep eiGTrerraLKorajv rravTOJV tow rroXep^iajv. 

68 €v6a Kal 'Kaprj^- KaTaKeifievos Kat voG-qXevofievo? 
eVActVct, TToXXa Tov^ deovs avv^pyqaavTos €ls 

69 ddvaTov tt] vogoj. PojpLaloi ye fxrjv pLepLvrjixevoL 

TOV TTpOTepOV TTTaLGfiaTO? OVK €LG€^aXXoV €005 

70 TpiTTj Kol etVaSt tov Trpoeip-qfiivov firjvos (lO) 
TtTO?/ TJdr] yap TraprfV, opyfj TrJ£ TrXTjyrjs y]v 
Trap' avTOv irrXriyqGav arrovTa Pco^atot, to)V 
i7T7T€OW imXi^as otaKOGLOVS, TTpos ols 7Teiovs,° eiG- 

71 ep^^erat ttjv ttoXlv tjgvx^- xal TrapeXBovTOs ol 
fjLev (hvXaK€£ alGdojievoi fxera ^oijs ixojpovv eVt 
TO. OTrXa, d-qXrjg be ttjs elG^oXrjS Tax^oj? Kal tol£ 
eiGOJ yevojxevqs, ol p.kv aprrd^ovTes ra TCKva Kat 
yvvalKas irrLGvpopLevoL Trpos tt^v aKpav avecftevyov 
juera kojkvtov Kal ^orjs, ol 5e tov Tltov vtt- 

72 avTidCovTe'^ dhiaXeirrTOj? eTTLTTTov ogol Se an- 
€KOjXvd'qGav €7tI TTjV Kopvchrjv avahpapL€LV vtt 
dirrjXo.vias elg rds tow 'Poj/xatcov (ppovpdg i^- 
iTTL—rov. drreLpog h tjv TravTa^ov (jiOvevopLevojv 6 

^ Niese : KaTrjpeirreTO or KaTappLirreTaL MS8. 

2 'Id-avf L^ Lat. ; cf. § 18. 

^ TToXXa TOV Niese : iroWov mss. 

22 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 64-72 

possible, succeeded in rolling away the five chief 
stones and then leapt back ; whereupon the tower 
suddenly collapsed with a tremendous crash, carrying 
the sentries headlong with it. The guards at the 
other posts fled in alarm ; many who essayed to cut 
their way out were killed by the Romans, and among 
them Joseph, who was struck dead while making his 
escape across the breach. The people throughout 
the town, confounded by the crash, ran hither and 
thither in great trepidation, beheving that the whole 
of the enemy had burst in. At that same moment 
Chares, who was bedridden and in the hands of 
physicians, expired, terror largely contributing to the 
fatal termination of his illness. The Romans, how- 
ever, with the memory of their former disaster, 
deferred their entry until the twenty-third of the 
month. 

(10) On that day Titus, who had now returned,^ leads to the 
indignant at the reverse which the Romans had sus- ^Le town, 
tained in his absence, selected two hundred cavalry 
and a body of infantry, and quietly entered the 
town. The guards, apprised of liis entry, flew ^\•ith 
shouts to arms. News of the incursion rapidly 
spreading to the interior of the to^^•n, some, snatching 
up their children and dragging their \Wves after 
them, fled with their wailing and weeping families 
up to the citadel ; those who faced Titus were in- 
cessantly dropping ; while any who were debarred 
from escape to the heights fell in their bewilderment 
into the hands of the Roman sentries. On all sides 
was heard the never ending moan of the dying, and 

" From his visit to Mucianus in Syria, § 32. 

* + 5e Mss. : omit Dcstinon and Xiese (ed. min.). 
* A numeral has perhaps dropped out. 

23 



JOSEPHUS 

(TTOvog, Kal TO alfia Trdaav erreVAute Tr]V ttoXlv 

73 Kara Trpavovs x^oiievov. 77po? be rous" dva- 
(f)evyovTas els r-qv aKpav irre^oTJOeL OveurraGiavos 

74 Trdaav etcrayayojv tt^v hvvafXLV. rjv 8' rj re Kopvcfirj 
rravroOev TT€rpojdr^5 Kal hvG^aros , el? drreLpov 
vijjos irr-qpfievr], Kal navraxoOev rov J ^ddovs^ 
Kareye/iev rrepLeLXrififievrj Kp-qfivols [/careVe/xi^ov 

75 T€ . ivravda rov? Trpoa^aivovras ol 'louSatot 
ToXs Te dXXoLs fjeXeGL Kal Trerpas KaraKvXivhovvres 
iKO-Kovv avTol §e St vipog rjoav dvae(f)LKTOL ^eXec. 

76 yiverai he rrpog aTrajXeiav avrcvv dvTLKpvs OveXXa 
SaLjxovLog^ T] rd fxev 'Vajp^aicov ecpepev els avrovs 
^eX-q, rd 8 avrcov dveGrpe(f)ev Kal TrXdyta Trap- 

77 euvpev. ovre Se rots VTTOKprjpLvoLs e(l)LGTaGOaL hid 
TTjV /Stai' ehvvavro rod rrvevp.aros, jJLrjSev ehpalov 

7§ e)(ovre£, ovre rovg rrpoGfjaivovras KaOopdv. iirava- 
^aivovGL he ^PojfJLaloL, Kal TrepiG^ovres ovs uev 
afivvofievovs ecfydavov, ovg he )(elpas TrpoLG^ovras' 
erovov he rov Ovfiov avrol? errl Trdvras rj fjunjfirj 
rd)v eTTL rrj£ Trpojrrjs elG^oXrjs d7ToXwX6ra>v . 

79 aTToyLvcoGKovres he rr)v Gwrripiav TravraxoOev ol 
TToXXoL TTepLG^ofievoL reKva Kal yvvacKas avrovs 
re KareKp-qpivi^ov eis rrjv <j)dpayya' ^aOvrdrrj h 

80 avrrj Kard rrjV aKpav VTTcopvKro. Gvve^rj he rrjv 
'PajfiaLotv opyrjV rrjs els eavrovs drrovolas rojv 
aXovrcjv Trpaorepav (f)avrjvaL' rerpaKLG'x^iXioL /xeV ye 
vrro rovrojv eG<i)dy'qGav, ol he pu/javres eavrovs 

81 VTTep 7TevraKLG)(LXiovs evpedrjGav. hieGOjQ-q he ttXtjv 
hvo yvvaLKwv ovhels' ri^s OlXIttttov S' rjaav 

^ TXrjdovs LP^M^, " crowded with people " : text doubtful: 

? read irddovs, " fraught with tragedy." The words in 
brackets appear to be a doublet of KariyefKy. 

24 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 72-81 

the whole city was deluged with blood pouring down 
tlie slopes. To aid the attack on the fugitives in 
the citadel ^"espasian now brought up his entire 
force. The summit, all rock-strewn, difficult of access, 
towering to an immense height, and surrounded with 
precipices, everywhere ya^^Tled to depths below.'' 
Here the Jews worked havoc among the advancing 
enemy with missiles of all kinds and rocks which 
they rolled down upon them, being themselves from 
their elevated position no easy mark for an arrow. 
HoM'ever, to seal their ruin, a storm miraculously 
arose which, blowing full in their faces, carried 
against them the arrows of the Romans and checked 
and deflected their ovm. Owing to the force of the 
gale they could neither stand on the edge of the 
precipices, having no firm foothold, nor see the 
approaching enemy. The Romans mounted the crest 
and quickly surrounded and slew them, some offering 
resistance, others holding out their hands for quarter ; 
but the recollection of those who fell in the first 
assault whetted their fury against all. Despairing 
of their hves and hemmed in on every side, multi- 
tudes plunged headlong with their wives and children 
into the ravine which had been excavated ^ to a vast 
depth beneath the citadel. Indeed, the rage of the 
Romans was thus made to appear milder than the 
frantic self-immolation of the vanquished, four thou- 
sand only being slain by the former, while those who 
flung themselves over the chfF were found to exceed 
five thousand. Not a soul escaped save two women ; 



• Literally " was full of depth " : see critical note. 
* See § 9. 



25 



JOSEPHUS 

d8eA(/)7]S" dvyarepes avrai, avros S' o ^lXlttttos 
laKLp.ov TLVog dvhpos eTTLG-qfiov, GTpaTap\rjGavTOs^ 

82 AypLTTTTO. TO) ^acTtAct. hLeGojQ-qaav 8e ra? Trapa 
T-qv dXojGLV opyas PcvfiaLcov XaOovGav rore yap 
ouSe vrj—LOjv i(j>eihovTOy ttoAAo. S' eKaGTore dpTrd- 

83 ^orres" eGc^evbovajv aTTO rrjs aKpas. Tdp.aXa p.kv 
lovvY ovTixJS idXoj rptrrj /cat etVaSt fJLrjvos 'Yrrep- 

^eperalov, rrjs drroGrdGeajs dp^a/xeVry? Vopmaiov 
p,i]v6s reraprrj Kal et/cdSt. 
*^ (ii. 1) MdvT^ Se rtcr;^^'^*^ TToXL)(yT] rrjs FaAtAata? 
d;)(;eipajTOS" KareXeiTTero, rod jiev TrX-qdovs elprjVLKa 
(f)povovvTOS, Kat yap -qGav to ttXIov yeojpyoL Kai 
rat? aTTO tcov KapTTCJV eX—LGiv aet TrpoGavexovres , 
7TapeLG€(f)9apiJL€vov S' avTols ovK oXiyov XrjGrpLKOv 
rdyjxaros, cb nves /cat rod ttoXltlkov gvv€v6govv. 

85 ivqye 8e tovtovs et? t7]v drroGTaGiv Kal gvv- 
eKpoTCL \rjtov nvos vlos lojdwrjSt yorjs dvrjp /cat 
TTOLKiXojraTOS TO rjQoSy TTpox^Lpos fxev iXTTLGaC 
/xeydAa, Setvo? Se tcop iXTTLGdevTcov rrepLyeviGdaty 
TTavTL T€ dw SrjXos dyarrdv rov rroXepLOV els 

86 hvvaGTeias eTTideGLv. vtto tovtoj to GTaGLOjSe? 
€P TOL^ i LG)(aAoL? €TeTaKTO , OL ovs Ta^ av /cat 
TTpeG^evGdjievov rrepl TrapaboGeajs to S-qfiOTLKOv 

€V TToXeflLOV* pLOLpa TTJV PcopLaLOJV €(f)ohoV e^€8€)(€TO. 

87 Ov€G7TaGLav6s be irrl pev tovtovs 1 trot' eKTrep^irei 

* reTpapx/jiTauros PAL Lat. 

* om. PA Lat. 

^ rdxo. av L: tvxov the rest. 

* conj. : TToXe/jLov mss. For the phrase ei> iroXe/xiov fxoipa 
cf. Demosthenes 639. 

* Vita 46, etc., B. ii. 421, 556, with note a on § 2 above. 

^ El-Jish, in the north of GaUlee. 

26 



JEWISH WAR. IV. 81-87 

these were nieces, on the mother's side, of PbiUp. 
son of Jacimus, a distinguished man who had been 
commander-in-chief to King Agrippa." They owed 
their escape to their ha\'ing concealed themselves at 
the time of the capture of the town ; for at that 
moment the rage of the Romans was such that they 
spared not even infants, but time after time snatched 
up numbers of them and slung them from the citadel. 
Thus on the twenty-third of the month Hyperbere- '-■ ^^ ^''^• 
taeus was Gamala taken, after a revolt which began 
on the twenty-fourth of Gorpiaeus. c. 12 Oct. 

(ii. 1) Only Gischala,* a small town in Galilee, Gischala 
now remained unsubdued. The inhabitants were revoVAy^ 
inclined to peace, being mainly agricultural labourers, John, 
whose whole attention was devoted to the prospects 
of the crops ; but they had been afflicted by the 
invasion of a numerous gang of brigands, from whom 
some members of the community had caught the 
contagion. These had been incited to rebel and 
organized for the purpose by John, son of Le\i, a 
charlatan of an extremely subtle character, always 
ready to indulge great expectations and an adept in 
realizing them ; all knew that he had set his heart 
on war in order to attain supreme power.*' Under 
him the malcontents of Gischala had ranged them- 
selves and it was through their influence that the 
townsfolk, who would otherwise probably have sent 
deputies offering to surrender, now awaited the 
Roman onset in an attitude of defiance. To meet ntus, sent 
these rebels Vespasian dispatched Titus with a JfJscba^ia, 

« Cf. the character sketch of John in ii. 585 ff., with the 
parallel there quoted from Sallust's description of Catiline ; 
here Trot/ctXcoTaroj recalls " varius " of Salkist, and with the 
last clause cf. " hunc . . . hibido maxuma invaserat rei 
publicae capiundae " {De Cat. conj. 5). 

VOL. m B 27 



JOSEPHUS 

avv )(l\lol? LTTTrevcnv, ro heKarov he rdyfia aTraipei 
8S etV HkvOottoXlv. auro? 8e gvv hval rols Xolttols 
eTTavrjXOev et? Katcrapetav, rod re avvexovs Kafidrov 
hibov? dvarravGLV avrolg /cat St' evdrivlav rcjv 
TToXeojv rd re Goj[iaTa Kal to irpoBvixov VTroOpeipetv 

89 oloixevos irrl tov£ jieXXovras dyojvas' ov yap oAt- 
yov avTO) rrovov ecopa Trepi rols lepoaoXvpLOLS 
XeLTTOfxevov, are Srj ^auiXeiov p.kv ovorjs Trjg 
TToXeojs Kal TTpoavexovcnjs oXov rod eOvovs, ovp- 
peovTOJV he els avrrjv row ear rod rroXepLOV hia- 

90 hihpaGKov-ijjv. ro ye firjv (j)VGei <re>^ 6-xypov 
avrrjs Kal Std KaraaKevrjv rei^o^v dycoviav ov 
TTjv rv^ovGav eveiroiei' rd he (fjpovrjiJLara rwv 
dvhpoJv Kal rd? roXjxas hvGpLera)(eLpLGrovg Kal 

91 hlxa reixojv VTreXdpL^avev. hio hrj rovs orpa- 
TLcora? Kaddrrep ddXrjrds TrpotjaKei rcov dyojvajv. 

92 (2) TtVoj he TrpoGL7T7TaGafj.evaj rolg TLG^dXats 
evTTeres {lev rjv eg ecpooov rrjv ttoAlv eAeiv, eLOcos 
he^ el ftla X-qSOelr], htachdap-qGOfievov vtto rcov 
GrparLOjrujv dvi&qv ro rrXrjdo?, tjv S' avro) Kopo? 
rjh-q (j^ovojv Kal hC oIktov ro TiXeov aKpcrajg 
ovvaTToXXvi-Levov rols alriois,^ e^ovXero fiaXXov 

93 ojJLoXoylaLS TrapaGrrjGaGdaL rrjV ttoXlv. Kal h'q rod 
relxovs dvhpojv Karayep-ovros, ol ro ttXeov rjGav 
e.K rod hiecbdappLevov rdyp.aros, davp.dl,eiv e4>ri 
TTpos avrovs, rivL TTeTTOiOores TrdG-qs eaXcoKVias 
TToXeojs p-ovoi rd 'Poj/jLalajv orrXa p.evovGiv, 

9^ eojpaKores pLev oxvpojrepas rroXXo) TToXeis vtto 
fjLLav TTpoG^oXrjv KarearpapLpLevas , ev dGcbaXela he 
rcov Ihiojv KrripLdrojv drroXavovras ogol rats 
'PwpiaLOjv he^Lals errLGrevGav, as Kal vdv irpo- 

" ins. Bekker. * + to /htj alTi.ov M. 

28 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 87-94 

thousand horse ; the tenth legion he dismissed to 
ScythopoHs. He himself with the two remaining 
legions returned to Caesarea, to recruit them after 
their incessant toil, and with the idea that the 
abundance of city life would invigorate their bodies 
and impart fresh alacrity for coming struggles. For 
he foresaw that no light toil was in store for him 
under the walls of Jerusalem, seeing that it was 
not only the royal city and the capital of the whole 
nation, but the rendezvous to which all fugitives had 
flocked from the seat of war. The strength of its 
defences, both natural and artificial, caused him 
serious solicitude ; and he conjectured that the spirit 
and daring of its defenders would, even without 
walls, render their reduction a difficult task. He 
accordingly trained his soldiers, like athletes, for the 
fray. 

(2) Titus, on riding up to Gischala, saw that the urges the 
town might easily be carried by assault. But he i^^^b't^^^^^ 
knew that were it taken by storm a general massacre smrender. 
of the population by his troops would ensue ; he was 
already satiated with slaughter and pitied the masses 
doomed along with the guilty to indiscriminate 
destruction ; he therefore preferred to induce the 
towTi to capitulate. Finding the ramparts crowded 
with men, mainly of the corrupted gang, he told 
them that he wondered on what they were relying 
that, when every other city had fallen, they alone 
stood out to face the Roman arms. They had seen 
cities far stronger than their o^^^l overthro^^^l at the 
first assault, but beheld in the secure enjoyment of 
their possessions all who had trusted the pledges 
proffered by Roman hands — hands which he now 

29 



JOSEPHUS 

T€LV€LV avToi? jiTjhev fJLVTjGLKaKOJv TTJ? ai^^aSetas". 

95 etvai yap dvyyvcooTOV eXevOepias IXrTiha, jxr^Keri 

96 fievTOL TTjv iv Tols dSvvdroLS impLov-qv el yap ov 
TTeLaOrjGOvrai Xoyois (j>iXav6p(I)7TOLs /cat Se^tat? 
TTiareoj^, TTeipaaeiv avrovs a^eihrj rd onXa, /cat 
oGov ovSeTTOJ yvojGeadai^ TraitopLevov^ rdls 'Poj- 
pLalajv pLTjy^avrjpiaGiv to reZ-)(^os, a> 7T€7tol96t€s 
iTnSeLKWVTaL /xovot FaAtAatcDV, on elalv avdaSecs 
aiXP-dXajTOL. 

97 (3) Upos ravra rcov jLtcv h'qpLoriKOJV ov pLovov 
ovK OLTTOKpLvea-OaL TLVL pLerijv, dAA' oi3S' eVt to 
relxo? dva^rjvaL' TTpohieiXrjTTTO yap aTrav rol? 
XrjGrpLKoZs, /cat (hvXaKes rcov ttvXcov rjoav, cu? /XTy 
Ttye? rj TrpoeXOoiev iirl rd? GTTovSd? rj he^aivro 

98 rivas rcov IrrTTeojv els ttjv rroXiv. 6 S* ^lojdwrjs 
avros re dyaTrdv ecfi-q rds TTpoKXrjuei? Kal rovg 

99 aTTtCTTOWTas'^ rj Treioeiv tj avvavayKdaeiv heZv 
pievroi rrjv r^ptepav avrov eKeivrjv, e^So/xas" ydp 
rjv, xapLGaadai rcp^ 'lovSalcov vopLcv, /ca^* rjv 
coGTTep orrXa Kcvelv avrols, ovrco Kal ro avv- 

100 nOeGOai Trepi eLprjVTjs ddepirov. ovk dyvoelv he 
ovhe 'PcopiaLovs, cLg dpyrj jrdvrcov avrols eGriv 
rj rrjs e^SopidSo? rrepLoSos, ev re ro) Trapa^aiveiv 
avrrjv ov^ rjrrov dGe^elv rcov ^caGOevrcov rdv 

101 ^laodpLevov. (jiepeiv 8' eKeLVco pLev ovhepiiav ^Xd^rjv 
rd rrj? vrrepdeGecos, ri ydp dv ris ev vvKrl ^ov- 
XevGairo SpaGpLov rrXeov, e^ov TrepiGrparorrehev- 

102 Gavra rrapacfivXd^aL; pLeya Se KepSo? avrols rd 

^ AM : yfcjadrjcrea-dai. the rest. 

^ L^, cf. Lat. ludura fore: Tne^ofievov the rest, 

^ aTretdovvTas P. 

* +t2'u L. 

SO 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 94r-102 

extended to them without a thought of vindictiveness 
for their obstinacy If hopes of hberty were pardon- 
able, there was no excuse for holding out under 
impossible conditions. For, should they decline his 
humane proposals and pledges of good faith, they 
would experience the relentlessness of his arms and 
learn all too soon that their walls were a mere 
plaything for the Roman engines — those walls on 
the strengtli of which they alone of the Galilaeans 
were displaying the obstinacy of prisoners. 

(3) To this speech not one of the townsfolk had John of 

Giscliala 

an opportunity of replying, not being allowed even imposes 
to mount the wall ; for it had all been already "P^° '^'^'''• 
occupied by the brigands, while sentries had been 
posted at the gates to prevent either the exit of any 
anxious to make terms or the admission of any of 
the cavalry into the town. It was John who replied, 
saying that for his part he acquiesced in the pro- 
posals and would either persuade or coerce refractory 
opponents. Titus must, however (he said), in de- 
ference to the Je^vish law, allow them that day, 
being the seventh, on which they were forbidden 
alike to have resort to arms and to conclude a treaty 
of peace. Even the Romans must be aware that 
the recurrence of the seventh day brought them 
repose from all labour ; and one who compelled 
them to transgress that law was no less impious than 
those who so acted under compulsion. To Titus the 
delay could cause no injury ; for what plot could be 
laid in a single night, except for flight, and that he 
could guard against by camping round the city ? To 

.SI 



JOSEPHUS 

fjL-qSev Trapaf^jjvai rcov narpLcov iOwv. 7Tpe7T€i^ 
Se TO) TTapa rrpoaSoKLav elpujvrjv ^apt^o/xeVa> rolg 

103 GOjtoixevoL? rrjpelv koI tovs vojjlov?. tolovtol? 

€00(I)L^€TO TOV 1 LTOV , OV TOOOVTOV TT]? e/?§0/XaSo? 

Groxo-iojJLevogy ogov Tr\<; iavrov GOJTrjpcas' eSc- 
SoLKeL Se €yKara\i-j(j)6rjvai^ 7TapaxpT]f^(^ ttjs TroAecos" 
aXovurjs, €v vvktI koI (j>vyr] ras iXTTiSa? excov rod 

104 ^Lov. deov 8' Tjv epyov dpa rod aojt^ovro^ rov 

lojdvvrjv €7tI rov rcov 'lepoCToAv/xtrctjy^ oXedpov 
ro /jlt] fjLovov TTeLaSrjvaL Tirov rfj GK-qipeL rrjg 
vrrepOeaeojg, dXXa Kal rrjs TToXeco? TToppcorepco 

105 GrparoTTeSevaaadai vpo? KvSacrots'" ixeaoyetos 8' 
ecrrt Tvpiojv kco/jltj Kaprepd, hid filaovs del Kal 
TToXepLov TaXiXaloLs, exovaa TrXrjdog re OLKrjropcvv 
Kai rrjv oxvp6rr]ra rfjs npos to edvos Sta^opd? 

106 (4) Nu/CTOS" S' o ^lajdw-qs cLs ovhepLiav Trepl rfj 
TToXei *Pa>fJLaLCov icjpa (f)vXaKrjv, rov Kaipdv dp- 
7Taora[jL€VOs, ov fiovov rov<i Trepl avrov onXiras 
aXXd Kal row dpyorepojv avx^'ovs a/xa rals 

107 yeveals avaXa^ojv errl ^lepoooXvjJLOJV e^evye. /x€;^pt 
/xey ovv e'lKooi orahioav otov re "^v orvve^ayayeiv 
yvvaiKOJV Kal Traihiajv oxXov dvOpcorrcp Kara- 
(TTTepxojJLevo) rot? VTrep aiXf^OLXojGLas Kai rov Crjv 
(po^OL£, TTepairepoj Se TrpoKoirrovros d-neXeLTTovro , 

108 Kai ^eival rcov ecofjLevojv rjaav oXocjiV poets' duov 
yap eKaaro? rcov oLKeiojv eyivero rroppcorepco, 
rocrovrov eyyvs vveXdp^avev elvai rcov TToXepnajv , 
Trapelvai re rjhrj rovs alxP'CiXajrLGOfJLevovs SoKovvres 

^ irpeweiv Dindorf with Lat. decere ; but speeches tend 
to drift into oratio recta at the close. 

2 eyKaraXeKpdrjpai, " deserted," PA^LV^ Lat. 

32 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 102-108 

tliem there would be great gain in being spared any 
transgression of their national customs. \Ioreover, 
it would be becoming in the gracious bestower of an 
unexpected peace to preserve the laws as well as the 
Hves of his beneficiaries. By such language John 
imposed on Titus ; for he was concerned not so much 
for the seventh day as for his own safety, and, fearing 
that he would be caught the instant the city was 
taken, rested his hopes of Ufe on darkness and 
fliffht. But after all it was bv the act of God. who 
was preserving John to bring ruin upon Jerusalem, 
that Titus was not only influenced by this pretext 
for delay, but even pitched his camp farther from 
the city, at Cydasa." This is a strong inland village 
of the Tyrians, always at feud and strife with the 
Galilaeans, having its large population and stout 
defences as resources behind it in its quarrel with 
the nation. 

(4) At nightfall John, seeing no Roman guard John's flight 
about the town, seized his opportunity and, accom- jemsaiem. 
panied not only by his armed followers but by a 
multitude of non-combatants with their families, 
fled for Jerusalem. For the first twenty furlongs 
he succeeded in dragging with him this mob of women 
and children, goaded though he was by terror of 
captivity and of his hfe ; but after that point as he 
pushed on they were left behind, and dreadful were 
their lamentations when thus deserted. For. the 
farther each was removed from his friends, the nearer 
did he fancy himself to his foes ; and believing that 
their captors were already upon them they were 

" Probably Kedesh Naphtali, called Kedasa or Kadasa in 
ii. 459. 

' P"^AM : 'lepoaoXvfxiai^ the rest. 

33 



JOSEPHUS 

iiTTO-qvrOy Kai rrpos rov aXXrjXwv €K tov hpouov 

lp6(f)OV i7T€GTp€(f)OVTO Kada7T€p TjOTj TTapOVTOJV OVS 

109 €(f)€vyov' avohiai? r ivemrrrov ol 77oAAot, /cat Trepl 
TTjv X€Oj(f)6pov Tj row (j)6av6vTcov kpts (Jvverpi^ev 

no Tovs TToXXovs. OLKrpos hk yvvaiKOJv Kau TTaihicov 
oXedpos Tjv, Kai TLV€s TTpos avaKXiqoeis dvhpojv 
re Kai Gvyyevcov edapurjoav fxera kcukvtojv Ik€' 

111 revovaaL Trepipieveiv . aXX iviKa to lojdwov 
TrapaKeXevGjJia 0(x>l,eiv eavrovs ipL^ocovTOs Kai 
KarachevyeLv evda Kai Trepl rcov aTToXeLTTOfievajv 
djivvovvrai 'PcopLalovs dv dpTrayajGL. ro fiev 
ovv rojv SiaSiSpaGKovrajv ttXtjOos cL? e/cacrro? 
LG^vos ^^X^^ V '^dxov? eGKehaGTO. 

112 (o) Tiros Se pLed" rjpLepav eirl rds GvvOrJKas irpos 

113 ro relxos Traprjv. dvoiyec 8 avrqj rds TTvXas d 
SrjpLOS, Kai p^erd rd)V yevewv rrpoeXOovres^ dvev- 
(hrjpovv ojs evepyerrjv Kai (jjpovpds eXevdepojGavra 

114 Tr)v ttoXlv iSrjXovv ydp a/xa rrjv rov 'lojdwov 
(f)vyr)v Kai rrapeKdXovv c^etcraa^at re avrd)V Kai 
TTapeXOovra rovs VTToXeLTTopLevovs rojv veojrepi- 

115 t,6vrcov KoXdGai. d Se rds tov S-qpLOV he'qGets 
ev Sevrepcp Oep^evos pLolpav eTrepLne rcbv LTTTrewv 
Tojdvv7]v hioj^ovGav, ol rov p.ev ov KaraXapL- 
^vovGLv, e(f>dr] ydp eus TepoGoXvpia SLa(f)vya)V, 
rcov Se GvvaTTapdvrojv aTroKreivovGL puev els 
i^aKLGXi'Xiovs, yvvaia 8e Kai naiSia rpLGXi'Xicov 

116 oXiyov drroheovra TrepteXaGavres dv-qyayov. d he 

Tiros TjX^^'^*^ H-^^ ^"^^ '^^ H-V TTOLpo-XRVH''^ ripLcopTJ- 
GaGdai rov lojdvvrjv rrjs aTrdrrjs, LKavdv he 
aGToxTjGavrt rw dvpLcp TrapapLvdiov excov rd 
ttXtjOos rdJv alxpLO-Xcorajv Kai rovs hLe(f)dappLevovs, 

117 etCTT^et re avev(f>rjpLOvpievos els Tqv rrdXiv, Kai rots 
34 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 108-117 

panic-stricken and turned at every sound made by 
their comrades in flight, under the impression that 
their pursuers had overtaken them. Many strayed 
off the track, and on the highway many were crushed 
in the struggle to keep ahead. Piteous was the fate 
of the women and children, some making bold to 
call back their husbands or relatives and imploring 
them \\'ith shrieks to wait for them. But John's 
orders prevailed : " Save yourselves," he cried, " and 
flee where you can have your revenge on the Romans 
for any left behind, if they are caught." So this 
crowd of fugitives straggled away, each putting out 
the best strength and speed he had. 

(5) Early next day Titus appeared before the Titus enters 
walls to conclude the treaty. The gates were opened ^^"^ * *' 
to him by the people, who came out ^^'ith their 
wives and children and hailed him as benefactor 
and the hberator of their town from bondasre ; for 
they proceeded to tell him of John's flight and 
besought him to spare them, and to enter the town 
and punish the insurgents who remained. Titus, 
regarding the citizens' petition as of secondary 
importance, at once dispatched a squadron of cavalry 
in pursuit of John. These failed to overtake him, 
the fugitive making good his escape to Jerusalem, 
but of his companions in flight they killed some six 
thousand and rounded up and brought back nearly 
three thousand women and children. Titus was 
mortified at faihng to \'isit John's trickery ^\'ith 
instant chastisement, but, with this host of prisoners 
and the slain as a sufficient solace to his disappointed 
resentment, he now entered the city amidst general 

* Xiese : irpo<xe\d6vTes mss. 
VOL. Ill B 2 35 



JOSEPHUS 

crrpariojTaLs oXcyov rod r€L)(OVS TrapauTraaai k€- 
Xevaag vojjlo) KaraXrjipeojgy arreiXai? jiaXXov rj 
KoXaaei rovs rapdrrGovrag rrjv ttoXlv aveoreXXe' 

118 TToXXovg yap dv Kal 8ta rd oiKela pLLG-q Kal Sta- 
cfiopdg Ihlas Ivhei^rxaOai rovg avainov^, el hta- 
KpivoL Tovg Tt/xajptas" d^iovg' dp.eivov S elvai 
p.€T€Ojpov ev (jiajjoj tov atrtov KaTO-XiTrelv rj riva 

WJ row ovK d^iojv avroj ovvaTToXelv rdv pLev yap lcjcos 
Kav^ (joj4)povT](jai Seet KoXdaeajg, r'qv em roZs 
TTapcpxi'iKOGL Gvyyvcopirjv aihovfxevov, abiopOojTOV 
8 6 rrjV €77L rols TrapavaXcxjOeiGL ripLajpiav eivat, 

120 (j)povpa p.€VTOi rrjv ttoXlv rjocf^aXLaaro, St rjs rovs 
T€ vea>TepLtovTas ecj^e^eiv kgl rovg eupijvLKa 
(fypovovvrag OappaXeojrepovg KaraXenpeLv eixeXXev. 
TaXiXala p.ev [ovv \' ovtojs edXco Trdoa, voXXots 
tSpojOL TTpoyvpLvdaacra 'PojpLalovg iirl rd 'lepo- 
(joXvpia. 

121 (iii. l) Yipd? he rrjv etcroSov rod ]a)awov 6 irds 
hrjpLos i^eKexvro, Kal Trepl eKo.orov rojv GvpL- 
7T€(^evy6rojv p.vplos opLiXo^ (JwiiSpoiaaevoi rds 

122 e^LoBev cru/xc^opas" dv€7TVv9dvovro . ron> Se rd pL€v 
dadpLa 6epp.dv ert K07Tr6p,€vov ehrjXov rrjv dvayK-qv, 
-qXatovevovro Be Kav KaKols, ov 776</>eL'yeVat 
'PojpLalovs (f>doKOvreS) aXX r^Keiv rroXep-rjaovres 

123 avrov<£ i^ do(f)aXovs' aXoylarcov ydp elvac /cat 
dxp'TjGrajv irapa^oXajs TrpoKLvhvveveiv Trepl TlcrxaXa 
Kal TToXix^OiS daOevels, heov rd OTrXa Kal ras" 
d/</xa? rapLLeveadai rfj p.-qrpoTToXei, Kal (JVpL(f)vXdG- 

124 (leLV. evda St) rraped'qXovv rrjv dXojaiv rcov 
TiG^dXajv, Kal rrjv Xeyop^ev-qv evax'r}p.6va>s vtto- 

^ Bekker : Kai mss. ^ P : om. the rest. 

36 



JEWISH WAR. IV. 117-124 

acclamations ; and. after directing his troops to pull 
down a small portion of the wall in token of capture, 
he proceeded to repress the disturbers of the city's 
peace rather by threats than by punishment. For 
lie feared that, should he attempt to pick out the 
offenders who deserved chastisement, many from 
private animosity and personal quarrels would accuse 
the guiltless, and he thought it better to leave the 
guilty in suspense and alarm than to involve any 
innocent persons in their destruction ; since the 
sinner might perhaps learn wisdom through fear of 
punishment and respect for the pardon granted him 
for past offences, whereas the death penalty unjustly 
inflicted was irremediable. He secured the town, 
however, by a garrison, calculated to check the rebels 
and to give confidence to the peaceable citizens on 
his departure. Galilee was thus now wholly subdued, -^i Galilee 
after affording the Romans a strenuous training for 
the impending Jerusalem campaign. 

(iii. 1) When John entered the capital, the whole Jerusalem : 
population poured forth and each of the fugitives john of 
was surrounded by a vast crowd, eagerly asking Gischaia. 
what had befallen outside. The newcomers, though 
their breath, still hot and gasping, betrayed their 
recent stress, nevertheless blustered under their 
misfortunes, declaring that they had not fled from 
the Romans, but had come to fight them on safe 
ground. " It would have been stupid and useless," 
they said, "recklessly to risk our lives for Gischala 
and such defenceless Uttle towns, when we ought 
to husband our arms and energies for the metropoHs 
and combine to defend it." Then they casually 
mentioned the fall of Gischala and their own 

37 



JOSRPHITS 

125 X^PV^^^ avToJv ol 77oAAot hpaayiov ivevoovv. to? 
yievTOi ra Trepc rov? aixixaXcoriadevTa? 'qKovaOr^, 
(jvyxvcrt? ov [xerpia Kariax^ tov SrjfjLOv, Kal 
[leydXa rrjg iavTCJv dXcvaeco? ovveXoyit^ovro rd 

126 T€Kp-qpia. lojaw-qq 8' iiTi fxev rois KaraXet- 
(f)6€l(7Lv^ -qrrov rjpvOpia, Trepuajv S' eKaarovg iirl tov 
7ToX€[iop ivrjyev rals eXrriuLv, rd puev 'Pcu/xatcuv 
aadevrj KaraoKevdtojv , ttjv S' olKciav hvvapLiv 

127 i^atpow, Kal KaT€Lpcov€v6[i€V0£ rrj? rcov aTreipajv 
ayvocas, chs ovS dv Trrepd Xaf^ovreg vrrep^aZev 
TTore PajfialoL to 'lepoaoXvfJLOjv Tel^os ol nepl 
TOLS TaXiXaLOJV Kcopbai? KaKOTraOovvTe? Kal rrpos 

TOL£ €K€L TELX^GL KaTaTpLlpaVT€S TO-S" fJLrjXO-vds 

128 (2) TouTOt? TO TToXv fJLev Twv i^eojv TrpocrSi' 

€d)9€Lp€rO Kal TTpOS^ TOV TToXefJiOV rjpTOy TCOV Se 

aaj(f)povovvTOJV Kal yqpaiwv ovk tjv ootls ov ra 
lieXXovTa Trpoopojii€Vos co? rj^y] ttjs TroXecos 

129 OLxo/JLevqs eTrivOei. 6 fiev ovv brj/xog rjv iv TOiavTrj 
GvyxvaeL, rrpobieGTrj §e to /card ttjv x^P^^' 

130 TrXrjdog Trjs €v 'lepoaoXvfJLOL? GTaaeajg. 6 fxev ydp 
Tiro? 0.770 TiGxdXojv etV Katadpecav, OveGTra- 
Giavos §6 0,770 Katcropetas' ct? *IdpiV€Lav Kal 
"A^corov d^LKOjievos napLGTaTai re ourd?^ Kal 
<f>povpovs iyKaTaGTTjGas VTreoTpeifse, ttoXv ttXtjOo^ 
€7rayofX€vos tojv iirl he^LO. TrpoGKexojprjKOTCov. 

131 €KLV€LTo 8' iv eKaGTT) TToXeL Tapax'Tj Kal TToXejXO^ 
ep.(i)vXLOSy OGOv T€ drro 'PcopLaLcov dverrveov et? 

^ A^L^ Lat. : KaraXtjcpOeiaiv the rest. 
^ + fj^ev Mss. ' C : aifrais the rest. 

" § 130, describing the movements of Titus and Vespasian, 
comes in rather awkwardly, breaking the close connexion 
between §§ 129 and 131. 

38 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 125-131 

" retreat," as they decently called it, though most 
of their hearers understood them to mean flight. 
When, however, the story of the prisoners came out, 
profound consternation took possession of the people, 
who drew therefrom plain indications of their own 
impending capture. But John, Httle abashed at John as 
the desertion of his friends, went round the several ^ar-iLrty in 
groups, instigating them to war by the hopes he J'^nisaiem. 
raised, making out the Romans to be weak, extolling 
their o\vn power, and ridiculing the ignorance of the 
inexperienced ; even had they ^vings, he remarked, 
the Romans would never surmount the walls of 
Jerusalem, after having found such difficulty with 
the villages of Galilee and worn out their engines 
against their walls. 

(2) By these harangues most of the youth were 
seduced into his service and incited to war ; but of 
the sober and elder men there was not one who did 
not foresee the future and mourn for the city as if 
it had already met its doom. Such was the confusion 
prevailing among the citizens, but even before sedition 
sedition appeared in Jerusalem, party strife had s^rife^jy 
broken out in the country. For when Titus moved Judaea, 
from Gischala to Caesarea, Vespasian proceeded 
from Caesarea to Jamnia and Azotus, and, having 
reduced those to^^TlS and garrisoned them, returned 
with, a large multitude who had surrendered under 
treaty .'^ Every city ^ was now agitated by tumult 
and civil war, and the moment they had a respite 
from the Romans they turned their hands against 

" In this picture of the effects of sedition the historian 
probably has in mind, as elsewhere, the famous reflections 
of Thucydides (iii. 81-84) on revolution. 

S9 



JOSEPHUS 

aXX-qXavg ra? x^^P^'^ €7r€GTp€(f)Ov . -qv 8e tojv 

epojVTOJV TOV TToAe/XOU TTpOS TO'U? eTTiOvfJiOVVTaS 

132 etprjvrj? ept? ;\;^Ae7r?]. Kal Trpchrov fxev Iv oiVtat? 

'r]7TT€T0 TOW OflOVOOVVTOJV TTO-XaL TO (f)iX6veLKOV , 

erretTa ach-qvLaCovTeg dXXriXojv ol (j)iXraToi^ Kal 
ovvLOjv CKaaros Trpo? rovs ra avra npoaipov- 

133 piivovs rjhr] Kara ttXtjOos avTerdouovro . /cat 
Grdcns jJ-ev rjv Travraxov, ro veajrepiL^ov he Kal rwv 
ottXojv iTTidv/jLovv i7T€KpaTe(, veorrjTL Kal roXpLj] 

134 yqpaLOJV /cat GOj(f)p6vajv. erpdrrovTo Se Trpdjrov 
liev €LS aprrayds eKauroi tojv €7n)(ajpiOJVy eTTCtra 
avvracrcropevoL Kara Xo^ovs 677t Xr)OT€Lav tojv 
Kara ttjv x^P^^> ^S" wfJLor-qro? Kal TTapavojiia? 
ev€K€v avTois pLTjSev 'Pa)iJLaLOjv rovg opioc^vXovs 
hia(f>epeLV Kal ttoXv rot? TTopSovjievoLS Kov<f)o- 
rdpav hoKeiv rrjv vtto PcojialoLg dXojoiv. 

135 (3) Ot (f)povpoL he row TToXecov rd fiev okvoj tov 
KaKOTTaOelVj rd he /xtcret tov eOvovg, ovhev rj fiLKpa 
Trpocjrjfivvov rots' /ca/cou/xeVot?, P-^XP'' Kopco tojv 
Kara ttjv xojpav dpTrayow adpocodevTes ol tojv 
TTavTaxov cruvray/xarajr dpxi-XrjGTal Kal yevofievoL 
TTOv-qpias orTLcjios el? ra 'lepoooXv/JLa Trapeicr- 

136 (f>deLpovTaL, ttoXlv dcFTpaTT^yrjTov Kal TraTpco) fiev 
eOei rrdv d—apaTTjprjTOJS hexopievrjv to 6p6(j)vXov, 
Tore d oloiievojv drrdvTOJv rovs emxeopievovs^ 

137 irdvTas citt' evvolas rjKeiv Gvp.p,dxov£. o hr] Kai 
hixo. TTJs GTdoeojs voTepov e^dTTTiaev ttjv ttoXlv 
TrXijOec yap dxp'qGTOj Kal dpyo) TTpoe^avaXdtdrj 
ra rots' fiax^uoLS hiapKelv hvvdjxeva, /cat Trpos" 

^ + Xaoi Mss. : expunged in A. 
* ^7ret(rxeo,;te»'oi;s MC (similar variant in § 307). 

40 



JEWISH WAR. IV. 131-137 

each other. Between the enthusiasts for war and 
the friends of peace contention raged fiercely. 
Beginning in the home this party rivahy first attacked 
those who had long been bosom friends ; then the 
nearest relations severed their connexions and join- 
ing those who shared their respective views ranged 
themselves henceforth in opposite camps. Faction 
reigned everywhere : and the revolutionary and 
militant party overpowered by their youth and reck- 
lessness the old and prudent. The various cliques 
began by pillaging their neighbours, then banding 
together in companies they carried their depreda- 
tions throughout the country ; insomuch that in 
cruelty and lawlessness the sufferers found no differ- 
ence between compatriots and Romans, indeed to 
be captured by the latter seemed to the unfortunate 
victims far the hghter fate. 

(3) The garrisons of the towns, partly from irruption 
reluctance to take risks, partly from their hatred brigands 
of the nation, afforded little or no protection to (Zealots) 
the distressed. In the end, satiated with their Jerusalem. 
pillage of the country, the brigand chiefs of all 
these scattered bands joined forces and, now merged 
into one pack of villainy, stole into poor Jerusalem — 
a city under no commanding officer and one which, 
according to hereditary custom, unguardedly 
admitted all of Jewish blood, and the more readily 
at that moment when it was universally believed 
that all who were pouring into it came out of good- 
will as its allies. Yet it was just this circumstance 
which, irrespectively of the sedition, eventually 
wTecked the city ; for suppUes which might have 
sufficed for the combatants were squandered upon 
a useless and idle mob, who brought upon themselves, 

41 



JOSEPHUS 

Tcp TToXefJicp araoiv re eavroZs kol Xl/jlov eTnKar- 
ecTKevaaav. 

138 (4) "AAAot re airo rrj? x^^P^^ Xrjarral napeX- 
dovres els ttjv ttoXlv Kai rovg evSov TrpocrXa^ovreg 
XOiXeTTCxjrepovg ovSev en row heivojv Trapieaav 

139 ol ye ov fiovov^ aprrayais Kat XajirohvaiaLS rrjv 
roXjJiav e/jLerpovv, dXXa /cat l^expt' (f)6va>v exojpovv, 
ov vvKros 7) Xadpaiojs tj IttI rovs rvxovras , dAAa 
(f)avepajg kol fied^ rjuepav Kal rojv eTTiG-qyiorarajv 

140 KarapxofJievoi. Trpojrov jxev yap Avrlnav, avhpa 
rod ^aGcXiKOV yevovg Kal rcov Kara rrjv ttoXlv 
Suvara>rdra)v , cu? Kal rovs SrjpLocriovs d-qaavpovs 

141 TTeTTLGrevaOaiy avXXa^ovres elp^av errl rovrco 
A-iqoviav nvd rcov eTTiGrjpiOJV Kal Hvd>dv vlov 

Apeyerov ,' ^aaiXiKov S' tjv Kal rovrow ro yevos, 
Trpos Se rovs Kara rrjv vojpav rrpovxeiv SoKovvras. 

142 SeLVTj he KardTrX-q^Ls etxe rov Srjpiov, Kal Kaddrrep 
KareiX-qpiuevqs rrjs rroXews rroXefXcp rrjv Ka9 
avrov eKacrros acorr^pLav rjydTra. 

143 (5) Tot? 8' ovK d—exp'q rd Secrfxa rojv GVveiXrjyi- 
fjuevajv, ovSe d(j(j>aXes (povro ro fJ-exRf' ttoXXov 

144 Svvarovs dvSpas ovro) (fivXdacreiv LKavovs /xev yap 
eLvai Kal rovs oIkovs avrwv rrpos dfjLVvav ovk 
oXtydvSpovs ovras, ov firjv dAAa Kal rov hrjpiov 
erravaorrjaeGd ai rdxa KLvrjdevra rrpos Trjv rrapa- 

145 vopaav. ho^av ovv dvatpetv avrovs, ^lojavvrjv riva 
TTepLTTOVGLv rov l^ avrcov els (f)6vovs npox^i'porarov' 

^ r read aopais. 

* PA, cf. ' ?€yeTov L, Rageti Lat. : Pa7(Pe7-)c6\oi', Pa7ouT7Xoi' 
the rest. 



** He, with two other relatives of Agrippa II, Saul and 
Costobar, had sought through the king's influence to nip 

42 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 137-145 

in addition to the war, the miseries of sedition and 
famine. 

(4) Fresh brigands from the country entering the They arrest 
city and joining the yet more formidable gang within, eminmvt^ ^^ 
abstained henceforth from no enormities. For, not citizens, 
restricting their audacity to raids and highway rob- 
beries, they now proceeded to murders, committed 

not under cover of night or clandestinely or on 
ordinary folk, but openly, in broad daylight, and 
with the most eminent citizens for their earliest 
victims. The first was Antipas.** one of the royal 
family and he carried such weight in the city that 
he was entrusted wdth the charge of the public 
treasury. Him they arrested and imprisoned, and 
after him Levias, one of the nobles, and Syphas, 
son of Aregetes — both also of royal blood — besides 
other persons of high reputation throughout tlie 
country. Dire panic now seized the people, and as 
if the city had been captured by the enemy none 
cherished any thought but that of his personal 
security. 

(5) The brigands, however, were not satisfied mth 
having put their captives in irons, and considered it 
unsafe thus to keep for long in custody influential 
persons, with numerous families quite capable of 
avenging them ; they feared, moreover, that the 
people might be moved by their outrageous action 
to rise against them. They accordingly decided to 
kill their \-ictims and commissioned for this purpose 
the most handy assassin among them, one John, 

the Jewish revolt in the bud (ii. 418) ; later, he remained in 
Jerusalem when the others fled (ii. 557). 

43 



JOSEPHUS 

AopKfiSo? ovTos CKaXetro ttoIs Kara rrjv 67rt;)^ojptov 
yXojGGav oj SeVa crvveXOovre? et? tt-jv etpKrrjv 
^Lch-qpecg drroachdrrovuLV rovs GVveLX'qp.ii€Vov<; } 

146 TTapavojiTjiiarL 8' eV^ r-qXiKovroj fi^ydXojs irreipev- 
Bovro^ Kal —pocbaGLi'*- hiaX£-)(SrjVo.i yap avTOVs 

PajfiaLOLg TT€pl —apahoGeojg tojv 'lepouoXvjiojv, 
Kai TTpohora? dvr^prjKevai rrfs KOLvrjg iXevOepias 
€(^aGKov, KadoXov t' iTTTjXalovevovTo rolg toXjitj- 
fiaatv ojs eTjepyerai Kal aojTrjp€<; ttj^ TToXeojg 
yeyevTjjjievoL. 

147 (^6) ^vvefSrj §e et? roaovrov rov p.ev drjpLOv 
TaTTeLvorrjTog Kal SeoL'S", €K€lvov£ §' drrovoias 
TTpoeXdelv, OJS eV avrol? elvai Kal ras" ;)(etpoToyia§- 

148 row ap)(L€p€Ojv. o-Kvpa yovv rd yevrj TTOirjaavres, 
€^ chv Kara duaBoxd? ol dp^Lepels dTTeheiKWVTO, 
KaOiGraGav dG'qpLov? Kal dyevels, Iv* €XOL€v 

149 Gvvepyovs tojv aGe^rjfidrojv toZs ydp Trap dctav 
€7TLTVX0VGi T7]? di'ojrdroj ripLrjs vrraKoveiv rjv 

150 avayKT] rolg rrapaG^ovGL. GVveKpovov he Kat 
Tovs eV reAei TTOLKiXaL? eTrivoLais Kal AoyoTTOttats", 
Kaipov eavTol? iv rats rrpog dX)<rjXovs tojv kojXvov- 
Tojv SiXovetKLais TroiovpLevoL, p-expi^ tojv els dvOpoj- 
TTOVs v—epefi—Xr]GdevTes dhiKrjpdTOJv errl to delov 
fieTT^veyKav tt^v v^piv Kal pLefJuaGpLevois tols ttogl 
TTaprjeGav els to dyiov. 

^•5^ (T) ^K—avLGTafievov re avTols yjhrj tov TrXiqdovs, 

^ fipyuevots LC Exc. and inarg-in of PA^I. 

^ fTTt CA™^2' : Xiese (ed. rain.) omits. 

^ Dindorf: a.Tre\j/€vbovTo mss. 

* 7rpo(pdcreLS dvewXarTOP PAM. 

« i.e. " Gazelle," in Aramaic Bar Tabitha (c/. Acts ix. 36) : 
Dorcas was used also by Greeks as a woman's name ( Wetstein ). 

44 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 145 151 

known in their native tongue as son of Dorcas ** : 
he with ten others entered the gaol with drawn 
swords and butchered the prisoners. For such a 
monstrous crime they invented as monstrous an 
excuse, declaring that their \dctims had conferred 
with the Romans concerning the surrender of Jeru- 
salem and had been slain as traitors to the liberty 
of the state. In short, they boasted of their audacious 
acts as though they had been the benefactors and 
saviours of the city. 

(6) In the end, to such abject prostration and 
terror were the people reduced and to such heights 
of madness rose these brigands, that they actually 
took upon themselves the election to the high priest- 
hood. Abrogating the claims of those families from 
which in turn the high priests had always been 
dra^\Tl,^ they appointed to that office ignoble and 
low born indi\'iduals, in order to gain accomplices in 
their impious crimes ; for persons who had unde- 
servedly attained to the highest dignity were bound 
to obey those who had conferred it. Moreover, by 
various de\ ices and libellous statements, they brought 
the official authorities into collision with each other, 
finding their own opportunity in the bickerings of 
those who should have kept them in check ; until, 
glutted with the ^^Tongs which they had done to 
men, they transferred their insolence to the Deity 
and with polluted feet invaded the sanctuary. 

(7) An insurrection of the populace was at length 

* For this limitation of the high priesthood to a few 
privileged famihes see Schiirer. O.J.V. (ed. 3) ii. 222. The 
contents of this section are partly repeated in that which 
follows ; a duplication perhaps indicating imperfect editorial 
revision. 

45 



JOSEPHUS 

€vfjy€ yap 6 yepairaros:^ tojv ap^iepeow Kvavo^, 
dvTjp ooj4)poveGraTos koI Ta^a av Siacrojaag ttjv 
ttoXlv, el ras tojv €7tl^ovXojv ;^erpa? 6^€(f)vy€V, oi 
Se Tov v€cbv Tov deov ^povpLOV avrols Kai row 
a770 TOV SrjiJLOv Tapa-)(0)v rroiovvrai Kara^ivyrjv , 

152 KOI TvpaweZov tjv avrols to dytov. TrapeKipiaro 
Se roLs Setvots" eipojveia, to twv evepyovjJLevojv 

153 dXyeivorepov drrorreipajpievoi yap rrjs rov S-qfiov 
KaraTrXrj^eojs /cat T'qv avrojv SoKLfjLdl,ovr€s lo-^yv 
kXtjpojtovs €7T€X€Lpr]Gav 7T0L€LV Tovs ap^^tepet? 
ovGTjs, OJS" €(f)aiJi€v, Kara yevos avrcov rrjs StaSoxrjS' 

154 Tjv Se TTpoGXVH-^ 1^^^ '^V^ €7TL^oXrjs^ edos dpxolov, 
eTTeihrj /cat TrdXat KXrjpojr7]v e(/)aCTav etvat rrjv 
dpx('^pojGvi''qv, TO 8* dXrjdes rov ^e^aiorepov^ 
KardXvGis Kal rex^'Tj Trpog BwaGreiav rd? apxo-S 
St avrojv KadiorafievoLs. 

155 (8) Kat hr] fjLeraTTepupdiJLevoL fiiav rcov dpx- 
leparLKCov ^vXtjv, ^^VLaxf^v /caAetrat, hieKXrjpovv 
dpy^iepia, Xayxdvei 8' diro rvx''!^ o fidXiGra 
ScabeL^as avrojv rrjv rrapavofiLav, OavFt ns ovofxa, 
vlog Y.ajjiovrjXov Kcvfir]? Ad)9ias, avrjp ov pLOVov 
ovK ef dpxi-^p^ojVy aAA' ouS' emordpLevos Gacfxjjg 

156 rt TTor rjv dpxf-^poJGvvq hi aypoiKiav. aTro yovv 
rrjs x^'^P^^ avroi' aKovra Gvpavres ojOTrep ettl 

GKTjvijs dXXorplo) KareKOGpLOVV TTpOGOJ7T€LO), TTjV 

^ ye pair epos PAM. 
* Xiese : eTrijiovXrjs aiss. 
^ L^ : + vofiov the rest. 

" For his murder and an encomium on his character see 
§§ S16-3-25. * Or " by families " ; see § 148. 

* The (pvXri (" clan ") is a subdivision of the Trarpia or 
i<pT]ixepis (" course "). Josephus himself belonged to the 

46 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 151-156 

pending, instigated by Ananus. the senior of the insurrection 
chief priests, a man of profound sanity, who might zealots 
possibly have saved the city, had he escaped the ^^aded by 
conspirators' hands." At this threat these wretches 
converted the temple of God into their fortress and The Zealots 
refuge from any outbreak of popular violence, and temple ^^^ 
made the Holy Place the headquarters of their 
tyranny. To these horrors was added a spice of and select 
mockery more galling than their actions. For, to by'iot.^"*^^* 
test the abject submission of the populace and make 
trial of their own strength, they essayed to appoint 
the high priests by lot, although, as we have stated, 
the succession was hereditary.^ As pretext for this 
scheme they adduced ancient custom, asserting that 
in old days the high priesthood had been determined 
by lot ; but in reality their action was the abrogation 
of established practice and a trick to make them- 
selves supreme by getting these appointments into 
their own hands. 

(8) They accordingly summoned one of the high- 
priestly clans,*' called Eniachin, and cast lots for a 
high priest. By chance the lot fell to one who proved 
a signal illustration of their depravity ; he was an 
individual named Phanni, son of Samuel, of the 
village of Aphthia,*^ a man who not only was not 
descended from high priests, but was such a cIowti 
that he scarcely knew what the high priesthood 
meant. At any rate they dragged their reluctant 
victim out of the country and, dressing him up for 
his assumed part, as on the stage, put the sacred 

first of the twenty-four priestly courses, and to the most 
eminent of its constituent clans, Vita 2. The clan Eniachin 
is mentioned here only : the suggestion of Lowth to read 
t) 'la/ci/i for Evcdx'-i' {'EuiaKel/ui), comparing 1 Chron. xxiv. 12 
(the course Jakim), is uncalled for. <* Site unknown. 

4,7 



JOSEPHUS 

T ioO'fJTa TTepiTiOevTes rrjv lepav kol to ri Set 

157 TTOLeZv eTTL Kaipov StSaCT/covre?. '^Xevrj 8* rfv 
eKetvois /cat Traibia ro T'qXiKovrov daelSrjfxa, rolg 
d'AAot? UpevdLv inLdeoJiievoLg noppcodev Trat^o- 
fi€vov Tov vopLov haKpv€LV i7Tr]€L Kal Kareurevov 
Tiqv Tcjv Lepojv npLov KaraXvaiv. 

158 (9) TavrT]v rrjv roXfjiav avrcbv ovk -qveyKev 6 
SrjfjLos, aAA' a)G7T€p iirl rvpavvihos KaraXvoiv 

159 iopfi-qvro Travreg- Acat yap ol irpovx^LV avrcov 

hoKOVVT€£, YojpiojV T€ vloS ^IcOCTTJTTOV Kal 6 

T afxaXiT^Xov Hvfiecov, TrapeKporovv ev re rals 
€KKXrj(7LaLg adpoovs Kal Acar' tStW TrepuovTes 
eKaarov -qSr] ttote riaaGOai tov? XvpLeaJvas Trjg 
eXevOeptag Kal KaQdpai twv yuai^ovajv to dyiov, 
lt>('j OL re boKLpLcoTaTOL TLov ap)(Leplojv , YapdXa pikv 
VLog IrjGovg Avdvov §e "Avavog, rroXXd top 
orjpop €L£ vcoBeiav KaTOveihiCovTes iv rat? cruvoSots" 

161 eiTiqyeipov rot? t^iqXojTals' tovto yap avTovs 
eKaXecrav cLs e-rr* dyadoZs iiriT'qhevpaGiv , dXX 
ovx^^ /^rjXojcravTeg to. KaKiGTa tcov epycov [/cat]"^ 
VTrep^aXXofievoL . 

162 (lO) Kat h-q avveXdovTos tov ttXtjOovs els 
eKKXrjOLav Kal TravTCov dyavaKTOvvTcov pkv irri 
TTJ KaTaXr^ipeL tcov dyiojv rats' Te dprrayals Kal 

rots' 7T€(f)OV€Vfl€VOLg , OVTTO) §€ TTpO? TTjV dpVVaV 

ojpprjfjLevajv to) 6vg€7tl)(€lptJtov£, OTrep -qv, tovs 

^rjXaj-ds VTToXapi^dveiv , /caraards' eV /xeaots' d 

^ dW ovxi L Lat. : 6.Xkov% the rest. ^ om. PA Lat. 

'^ Probably the Joseph, son of Gorion, who, along with 
Ananus, was given supreme control in Jerusalem at the out- 
break of war, ii. 563 ; the younger Gorion here mentioned 
bears his grandfather's name. 

48 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 15(3-162 

vestments upon him and instructed him how to act 
in keeping with the occasion. To them this mon- 
strous impiety was a subject for jesting and sport, 
but the otlier priests, beholding from a distance this 
mockery of their law, could not restrain their tears 
and bemoaned the deo^radation of the sacred honours. 

(9) This latest outrage was more than the people Popular 
could stand, and as if for the overthrow of a despotism l-oased^ '°° 
one and all were now roused. For their leaders of 
outstanding reputation, such as Gorion.son of Joseph,** 

and Symeon,^ son of Gamahel, by public addresses 
to the whole assembly and by private visits to in- 
dividuals, urged them to delay no longer to punish 
these wreckers of liberty and purge the sanctuary of 
its bloodstained polluters. Their efforts were sup- 
ported by the most eminent of the high priests, 
Jesus,^ son of Gamalas, and Ananus, son of Ananus, 
who at their meetings vehemently upbraided the 
people for their apathy and incited them against the 
Zealots ; for so these miscreants called themselves, 
as though they were zealous in the cause of virtue 
and not for vice in its basest and most extravagant 
form. 

(10) And now, the populace being convened to a General 
general assembly, when indignation was universally ^^^^eech 
expressed at the occupation of the sanctuary, at the of Ananus. 
raids and murders, but no attempt at resistance had 

yet been made, owing to a behef, not unfounded, 
that the Zealots would prove difficult to dislodge, 

*» Probably identical with Simon, son of Gamaliel, of whom, 
notwithstanding his opposition to Joscphus, the historian, 
writes in the highest terms in Vita 190 If. 

" Befriended Josephus, Vita 193, 201; for his death and 
the historian's encomium upon him see §§ 316 ff. 

49 



>1 



josp:phus 

Avavo^ Kal rroXXaKLg els rov vaov aTnhcov i/m- 
163 nX'/jGag re rovs ocpdaXfiovs haKpvojv " rj KaXov 
y ," elrrev, " rjv ifiol redvdvat Trplv eTTihelv rov 
OLKOv rod Oeov TOcrovTOig dyeau KarayejiovTa /cat 
rds" d^drov<; Kal dyias )(wpag ttogl fiLaucfiovajv 
lt>4 orevo-xcopovfievas . aAAa 7TepLK€LpL€vos rrjv dp)(L€pa- 
TLKTjv eaOrjra Kai to rt/xtcorarov KaXovfievos rcJoi 
G€^aap.LOJv ovopLdrcDV, ^cD Kal (jicXoifjvxf^, p-'Tjh 
VTTep rovp.ov yrjpojg VTrop^ivajv evKXerj ddvarov 
Jet Se SeV [jlovos elpLL^ Kal KaOdirep iv iprjpLLO. rrji' 
efiavrov ijjvxriv imhojGOJ piovrjv vrrep rov deov. 

165 TL yap Kal Sel [,rjv eV Sry/xcu Gvp.(f)opa)V dvaia- 
6r]TovvrL Kal Trap* 0I9 diroXajX^v rj tojv iv X^P^^ 
7ra6a)V dvTiXrjijjLs ; dpTraC^ofievoi yovv dvex^ode 
Kai TVTTTopievoL GLajTrdre, Kai rols (f)OV€vofJL€VOLs 

166 o'db imoT€V€L rig dva(i>avS6v. d) rrjg TTLKpds 
rvpavvlhos. rl [Se] pieii(f)oixai tovs Tvpdvvovs ; 
fJLTj yap ovK iTpd(f)TjGav i3^' vpLcJov Kal rfjs Vfierlpas 

167 ave^LKaKLas ; firj yap ov^ vpLels TTepuhovres rov? 
7Tpojrov£ ovvLGrapLevovs, eVt 8 I'-jGav oXlyoL, 
TrXeiovs eTTOLTJaare rij GLCorrfj Kal Ka6oTrXLl,op.evcov 
TjpepLovvres KaO^ iavrcov iTTcarpeipare rd drrXa, 

168 Seov rd? Trpojrag avrdw imKOTrreLV oppidsy ore 
Xoihopiais KaO-qTrrovro rdJv evyevcbv/' vpiels S' 
afieXijcravres e0' dpTrayd? Trapoj^vvare rovs dXt- 
rrjpuovs, Kai TTopdovpiivwv oIkojv Xoyos rjv ouSet?" 
roiyapovv avrovg rjpjral^ov rovs SeoTToras, Kal 
avpop.evoL? oid fiearjg rrjs rroXeajs ovhel? €7njp.vvei'. 

^ Destinon (Lat. nee . . quidem) : fxrjd' PAML : fjLtjKeri. 
the rest. 

^ ei oe del conj. : et del ur] PA : et Or] ixrj L : el d^ 6ri 
the rest. 

50 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 162-168 

Ananus arose in tlie midst and, often gazing on the 
Temple vriih eyes filled with tears, spoke as follows : 
" Truly well had it been for me to have died ere 
I had seen the house of God laden with such abom- 
inations and its unapproachable and hallowed places 
crowded with the feet of murderers ! And yet I 
who wear the high priest's vestments, who bear that 
most honoured of venerated names, am alive and 
clinging to life, instead of braving a death which 
would shed lustre on my old age. If it must be 
then, alone will I go and, as in utter desolation, 
devote this single life of mine in the cause of 
God. Why, indeed, should I live amongst a people 
insensible to calamities, who have lost the will to 
grapple with the troubles on their hands ? When 
plundered you submit, when beaten you are silent, 
nay over the murdered none dares audibly to groan ! 
What bitter tyranny ! Yes, but why blame I the 
tjTants ? For have they not been fostered by you 
and your forbearance ? Was it not you who by 
allowing those first recruits to combine, when they 
were yet but few, swelled their numbers by your 
silence, and by your inaction when they were arming 
drew those arms upon yourselves ? You should have 
cut short their opening attacks when they were 
assailing the nobles with abuse ; instead, by your 
neghgence you incited the miscreants to rapine. 
Then, when houses were pillaged, not a word was 
said — consequently they laid hands on their owners 
as well ; and when these were dragged through the 
midst of the city, none rose in their defence. They 

' Destinon with Lat. : elfii mss. 
* Destinon : (rvYyevuv mss. 

51 



JOSEPHUS 

169 ol §€ Kal h^G^ols fjKLGaPTO TOVS V(i> VfXOJV TTpO- 

Sodevra?, ioj Xeyeiv ttogov? Kal TToSaTTOVS' dAA 
aKaTaiTidrois aKpiroLs ouSets" i^oijO-qae rots' SeSe- 

170 fievoL?. riKoXovdov Tjv imheiv rovs avrovg (f)0- 
vevojievovs. iTreldojxev Kal tovto, KaOdrrep i^ 
dyeXrjs L^ojcop dXoycov iXKoiievov rod Kpan- 
arevovTos det dufiaroSy ovbe (f)a>vqv tls a(f)rJK€v, 

171 ovx OTTCog €KLvqc7€ rrjv Se^idv. cbepere Sr] tolvvv, 
(l>epeTe Trarovjieva ^Xerrovres Kai / ra ay La xrat 
Trdvras vrrodivreg avTOL rols avoGLOtg rovs tujv 
ToXfrripArajv ^adfiovs pLTj ^apvvecrde ttjv vrrepoxTj'^' 
Kal yap vvv Trdvrojg dv errl ii€lt,ov TrpovKoipav, 

172 et TL TOW dylajv KaraXvaai jielCov el^ov. KeKparrj- 
rat fjiev ovv to oxvpojTarov rrjs TrdAecos" XeyeaOoj 
yap vvv TO Upov co£ aKpa ng iq (jipovpiov ky(OVT€s 
S' i7TiT€T€LX^Gfi€vrjv TvpavviBa rooavTTjV Kai Tovg 
€)(dpovs vrrkp Kopv(f)rjV j^XlirovTes , ri ^ovXeveaOe 

173 Kal TLCTL rag yvojpias TrpoGdaXTrere ; 'Paj/jLatovs 
dpa 7Tepii±€velTe, tv^ TjfKjjv ^oTjd-qcrojOL rote ayioLg; 
^x^L fxev ovTOjg rd rrpdyiiara T'rj ttoXel, Kai rrpos 
TOOOVTOV rJKOfjL€v GviJL(f)opii)v , Iv^ rj/J-dg eXerjcraxjL 

174 Kal TToXepLLOL;^ ovk i^avauT-qaeaOe , oj TXqjxove- 
GTaToi, Kal rrpog Tag rrX'qydg emGTpad>evTeg ^ o 
Karri tojv drjplojv €Gtlv Ihelv, Tovg TVTTTOVTag 
diivveloSe ; ovk dvapLV/JGecOe tojv cdiajv eKaGTog 
GVfjLOopojv, oL'd' d Trerrovdare irpo o(j)daXp.djv 
defJLevoL Tag i/jv^dg eTr^ avTovg dij^ere rrpog ttjv 

^ ins. L^ Lat. : om. the rest. 
^ Mark of interrogation substituted for full stop in m3s. 

" €7nTeTeLxt<Tu^vr]v Tvpavvioa. : the phrase comes from 
Tvpavvibo. . . . iv-€Teixi<j€t' v/xlv in the fourth Philippic attri- 
buted to Demosthenes (133). 

52 



JEWISH WAR. IV. 169-174 

next proceeded to inflict the indignity of bond*;; upon 
those whom you had betrayed. The number and 
nature of these I forbear to state, but though they were 
unimpeached, uncondemned, not a man assisted them 
in their bondage. The natural sequel \vas to watch 
these same men massacred ; that spectacle also we 
have witnessed, when as from a herd of dumb cattle 
one prize ^^ctim after another was dragged to the 
slaughter ; yet not a voice, much less a hand, was 
raised. Bear then, yes bear, I say, this further sight 
of the trampling of your sanctuary ; and, after your- 
selves laying each step of the ladder for the audacity 
of these profane ^^Tetches to mount, do not grudge 
them the attainment of the climax I Indeed by 
now they would assuredly have proceeded to greater 
heights, had aught greater than the sanctuary re- 
mained for them to overthrow. 

" Well, they have mastered the strongest point in 
the city — for henceforth the Temple must be spoken 
of as a mere citadel or fortress — ; but with such a 
tvrants' stronghold entrenched in your midst,*^ with 
the spectacle of your foes above your heads, what 
plans have you, what further cherished hopes console 
vour minds ? Will you wait for the Romans to 
succour our holy places ? Has the city come to such 
a pass, are we reduced to such misery, that even 
enemies must pity us ? Will you never rise, most 
long-suffering of men, and turning to meet the lash, 
as even the beast may be seen to turn, retaliate on 
thom that smite vou ? Will vou not call to mind 
each one of you his personal calamities and, holding 
before your eyes all that you have undergone, whet 

5S 



JOSEPHUS 

175 dfjLvvav; OLTToXcoXev dpa nap* v[jllv to rLfJLLcorarov 
TOW rradoji' Kal <l>vGLK<jjrarov, eXevdepiag eTTcdvpLLa, 
(J)lX6SovXol Se Kal (^iXobeaTTOTOi yeydra/xey, ojGTTcp 
EK TTpoyovcov TO VTTOTaaueoO at TrapaXa^ovTes . 

176 dAA' eKelvoi ye ttoXXovs Kal /xeyaAous" virep ttjs 
avTOVopLLas iroXipiovs hiriveyKav Kal ovre ttjs 
AlyvTTTLCov ovT€ TTfS Mt^Sojv hvvaGTelas rjTT^OrjGav 

177 VTTep Tov pLTj TTOieZv TO KeXevofievov. Kal tl Set 
TO. TOW TTpoyovojv Xiyeiv ; dXX 6 vvv rrpos 'Pa>- 
fialovs TToXepLOs, ecu SteAeyx^^^ rroTepov XvaLTeXrjs 
o)v Kal GvpL(f)opos 7] TOVvavTLOv , TLva S' ovv ex€i 

178 7Tp6(l)auLV ; ov ttjv eXevdeplav ; etra tov? ttj? 
0LK0vpL€i'r]£ hearroTas pit] (fiepovTes twv 6pocf)vXow 

179 Tvpdwojv dve^opLeda; KaiToi to pLev toIs e^ojdev 
u7TaKov€LV aveveyKai tls olv et? Tqv drra^ rjTTT]- 
uaaav TV)(^rjv, to Se toXs olk€lols €lk€lv TTOvqpols 

IgO dyevvojv ecrrt /cat rrpoaLpovpLevcov. eTreihr] he 
drra^ ipLinjaOrjv 'PojpLaLOJV, ovk drroKpijipopLaL 
TTpos vpds eLTTelv o /xera^u tcov Xoycov epLTrecrov 
errecTTpeipe ttjv Stavotav, ort kclv aXcopLev vtt 
eKeivoiSt drreiri Se 77 Trelpa tov Xoyov, ;^aAe77C/jT6pov 
ovdev Tradelv e^op^ev Sv rjpLas Stare^et/cacrtv ovtol. 

181 TTcbg S ov SaKpvojv d^Lov eKeivojv piev ev to) lepco 
Kal dvaOrjp.aTa ^XerreLv, to)v he 6po(f)vXajv Ta 
(jKvXa GecruXriKOTOjv Kal dveXovTOJV ttjv ttj? 
pLTjTpoTToXeoJS evyeveiav , Kal 7Te<f)OvevpLevov£ dvhpa? 

182 ajv dneoxovTO dv KaKeZvoL KpaTijoavTes ; Kal 
'Poj/xatous' pL€v pLTjheTTOTe virep^rjvaL tov dpov tcjv 



54 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 175-182 

your souls for revenge upon them ? Have you then 
lost that most honourable, that most instinctive, of 
passions — the desire for liberty ? Have we fallen in 
love with slavery, in love with our masters, as though 
submission were a heritage from our forefathers ? 
Nay, they sustained many a mighty struggle for 
independence and yielded neither to Egyptian nor 
to Median domination, in their determination to 
refuse obedience to a conqueror's behests. But why 
need I speak of the deeds of our forefathers ? We 
are now at war with Rome ; I forbear to inquire 
whether such war is profitable and expedient or 
the reverse, but what is its pretext ? Is it not 
Hberty ? If, then, we refuse to bow to the lords of 
the inhabited world, are we to tolerate domestic 
tyrants ? Yet subservience to the foreigner might 
be attributed to fortune having once for all proved 
too strong for us ; whereas to surrender to villains 
of one's own country argues a base and deliberate 
servility . 

" Now that I have mentioned the Romans, I will 
not conceal from you the thought which struck me 
while I was speaking and turned my mind to them : 
I mean that even should we fall beneath their arms 
— God forbid that those words should ever be our 
lot I — we can suffer no greater cruelty than what 
these men have already inflicted upon us. Is it not 
enough to bring tears to the eyes to see on the one 
hand in our Temple courts the very votive offerings 
of the Romans, on the other the spoils of our fellow- 
countrymen who have plundered and slain the 
nobihty of the metropoUs, massacring men whom 
even the Romans, if victorious, would have spared ? 
Is it not lamentable, that, while the Romans never 

55 



JOSEPHUS 

^e^rjXojv iirjbe rrapa^rjvai n rcov lepojv idcov, 
TTechptKevaL de TToppajdev opcovras rov? tCjv aylojv 

183 7T€pL^6Xov£y yewiqBevras^ de rcva? iv rfjhe rij 
X^P^ ^<^^ Tpa<f)evTas vtto toIs rjiierepois edeoi 
KOL 'louSatozj? KaXovjievovs ip^TTepirrareLV fiiaoLs 
Tols dyloLg, depfxa^ ert rag )(eLpa£ ef 6p.o(f)vXajv 

184 exovra? (f)6vojv ; elra n? oeBoiKev top e^cudev 
rroXepLOV Kal rovg ev GvyKpiaeL ttoXXoj rwv oiKeicov 
rjpuv pLerpLwrepovs; Kal yap av^ el ervp-ovs del 
rolg rrpdypLaGL ra? /<Arycrets" e(f)appL6ie(v, rdxo. dv 
evpoL ns 'PojpiaLovg pLev rjp.lv ^e^'HOjrds rcuv 

185 v6p.ojv', TToXepLLovs §6 rov5 evhov. oW on p.ev 
e^ojXeis ol eTTL^ovXoi rrj? eXevOepias, Kal rrpos 
d dehpdKauLv ovk dv rts" errLvoTjcreiev Slktjv a^iav 
Kar' avTOJV, ot/^at Trdvras rjKeiv TTeTTetcrpLevovs 
o1.Ko9ev Kal npo rcov ep.6jv Xoyojv Trapoj^vvOai 

iS6 ToIs" epyois err avrov?, a rre—ovdare. KaraTrXrjO- 
uovrai S' Igojs ol ttoXXoI to re ttXtjOos avTOjv Kal 
TTjV ToXp^av, eTL be Kai ttjv €K tov tottov TrXeove^iav. 

187 TavTa S' ojUTrep ovveoTi] hid ttjv vpieTepav dpLe- 
Xeiav, Kal rvv av^r^Q-qaeTai TrXeov VTrepdepLevajv 
Kal ydp TO ttXtjOos avTols eTTLTpecheTai Kad 
TjpLepav, TTavTOS rrorripov rrpos tov£ opioiovs avTO- 

188 pLoXovvTOs, Kal TTjV ToA/xav i^aTTTei p-expi vOv 

pLTjdev ep-TTohiov, tco re tottco KaOvTrepdev ovTes 

XpTjuaLVT^ dv^ Kal p.eTd TTapaGKevrfS, a.v TjpLel^ 

^ natos Lat. : ',ivr)OevTas Niese. 

* om. df L. 

^ Niese : xp^'^°-'-^'^° 'siss,. 

• Or, if Tiav ^eSqKujv is neuter, " the limit of the unhallowed 
(permitted ) ground." The reference is to the stone balustrade 
{oyi(paK~o^) separating the inner temple from the outer 
court, with its warning inscriptions in Greek and Latin, 

5^ 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 182-188 

overstepped the limit fixed for the profane,'* never 
violated one of our sacred usages, but beheld with 
awe from afar the walls that enclose our sanctuary, 
persons born in tliis very country, nurtured under 
our institutions and calling themselves Jews should 
freely perambulate our holy places, with hands yet 
hot \dth the blood of their countrymen ? After that, 
can any still dread the war with the foreigner and 
foes who by comparison are far more lenient to us 
than our own people ? Indeed, if one must nicelv fit 
the phrase to the fact, it is the Romans who may well 
be found to have been the upholders of our laws, 
while their enemies were Avithin the walls. 

** However, of the abandoned character of these 
conspirators against liberty and that it would be 
impossible to conceive any adequate punishment for 
what they have done, I feel sure that you were all 
convinced when you left your homes, and that before 
this address of mine you were already driven to 
exasperation against them by those misdeeds from 
which you have suffered. Perhaps, however, most 
of you are overawed by their numbers, their audacity, 
and the further advantage which they derive from 
their position. But, as these arose through your 
supineness, so \vi]\ they now be increased, the longer 
you delay. Indeed, their numbers are growing 
daily, as every villain deserts to his hke ; their 
audacity is fired by meeting so far vvith no obstruc- 
tion ; and they will doubtless avail themselves of 
their superior position, with the added benefit of 

forbiddinff foreigners to pass under pain of death, v. 193 f. 
While the ordinary Roman scrupulously observed the rule, 
(ii. 841 Xeapolitanus pays his devotions " from the permitted 
area "), conquerors such as Pompey, and even Titus himself, 
penetrated to the Holy Place (Ap. ii. 82, B. i. 152, vi. 260). 

57 



JOSEPHUS 

189 XP^'^^^ hojixev. TTLGTevaare 8 cos", eav rrpoa- 
^aivcofjiev evr' avrovg, eaovrat rfj avveio-qaeL 
raneLVOTepoL, kol to TrXeoveKTrjixa rov vi/jovg 6 

190 ?^oyL(7fJL6? (iTToXei. to-XO. to Oelov v/Sptcr/xeVov dva- 
GTpeifjeL KaT avTCOv to. ^aXXofieva, kol toZs (J(f>€T€- 
poL£ SLa(f)9apTjaovTaL jSeAecrtv ol hvuae^eis. p^ovov 

191 6(f)9a)p.ep avTolg, kol KaToXeXvvTai. KaXov hi, 
KOLV Trpoafi TLS KLvhvvos, dnodvrjGK^LV rrpos toIs 
Upols TTvXojai Kal T-qv i/jvxrj^, ct /cat p,rj rrpo 
TTaihwv T] yvvaiKCJV y dXX virkp tov deov Kai tcjv 

192 dyiojv Trpoeadai. TTpoaT-qaop^aL S' iyuj yvajpLT] 

T€ KOL X^'^P^' '^^^ °^''^' ^''TT'tVota TL9 VpXv X^llpeL TTpOS 

doc^dXeiav i^ rjp.cov ovt€ tov G<jop.aTO? oipeade 
(fieihojievov." 

193 (ll) To-UTOLS 6 "Avavos TrapaKpoTei to nX-qdos 
irrl Tovs l,r]XojTds, ovk dyvoojv [xev cu? etev tJStj 
SvaKaTaXvTOL rrXriOei re koI veoTTjTi /cat irapa- 
GT-qixaTL ^vxrjs, to ttXIov he cruveihrjaei tow elp- 
yaap^evow ov yap ivhojaeiv avTovs eis eoxo-Tov^ 

194 GvyyvcvpL-qv icf)^ ot? ehpaoav aTreXTTLGavTas^ • opLOJS 
he Trdv oTLOvv iraOelv TrporjpeiTO p^dXXov tj Trepuheiv 

195 ei' TOiavTTj rd Trpdyp.aTa Gvyxvcr^i^- to he ttXtjOos 
dyeiv avTOVs e^oa KaO^ coy Trape/cciAet, /cat npo- 
KLvhvveveLv eKaoTOs rjv CTOLpLOTaTOS . 

196 (12j 'Ev oGcp he 6 "Avavos /careAeye re /cat 
GVveTaGGe tovs emTrjhecovs Trpos pLax'T^v, ol 
LrjXojTal TTVvOavopievoL ttjv eTTix^Lp'qGiv, TraprJGav 
yap OL dyyeXXovTe^ avTol<^ iravTa ra Trapa tov 
hrjpiov, TTapo^vvovTai /ca/c tov cepov Trpou-qooji'Tes 
dOpooL Te /cat /card Ad;!^ou? ovdevos e^eidovTO tcov 

^ Hudson with one ms. : iaxo-r-qv the rest. 

58 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 189-196 

preparation, if we give them time. But, believe me, 
if we mount to the attack, conscience will humble 
them and the advantage of superior height will be 
neutralized by reflection. Maybe, the Deity, whom 
they have outraged, will turn their missiles back upon 
them,<* and their own weapons will bring destruction 
upon the impious wTetches. Only let us face them 
and their doom is sealed. And, if the venture has 
its attendant risks, it were a noble end to die at the 
sacred portals and to sacrifice our lives if not for 
wives and children, yet for God and for the sanctuary. 
But I ^^'ill support you both with head and hand : 
there shall be no lack on my part of thought to 
ensure your safety, nor shall you see me spare my 
person." 

(11) Thus did Ananus incite the populace against Ananus and 
the Zealots. He knew full well how difficult their p^eparSo' 
extermination had already become throua-h their attack the 

• • Zealots 

numbers, vigour, and intrepidity, but above all 

through their consciousness of their deeds ; since, 

in despair of obtaining pardon for all they had done, 

they would never give in to the end. Nevertheless, 

he preferred to undergo any suffering rather than 

allow affairs to remain in such confusion. The people 

too now clamoured for him to lead them against the 

foe whom he urged them to attack, each man fully 

ready to brave the first danger. 

(12) But while Ananus was enlisting and marshal- Fierce 
Ung efficient recruits, the Zealots hearing of the pro- ^s^^^'^s- 
jected attack — for word was brought to them of all 

the people's proceedings — were furious, and dashed 

out of the Temple, in regiments and smaller units, 

" As at Gamala, § 76. 

* Destinon (c/. v. 3o-t) : iXiriaavras (or -es) 3iss. 

VOL. Ill c 59 



JOSEPHUS 

197 npoarvyxoLVOVTOJp . adpoil^eraL 8' vtt^ ^ Avdvov ra- 
Xiu)? TO S-qiioTLKOv, TrX-qdeL /xev vnepexov, ottXols 
8e Kal TO) fiTj GvyKeKporrjcrdaL Xeirrop-evov row 

198 iC,'qXojTOjv . TO rrpoBvpLOV 8e Trap' eKarepoig av- 
€7rXrjpov ra XetTTovra, tojv ^xkv airo rrj? TToXeoJS 
dveLXrj(l)6rojv opyrjv LGxvporepav rwv ottXojv, tojv 
S' drro Tov Upov ToXp-av TravTOs TrXijdovg VTrep- 

199 exovaav xrat ol pev aoLKT]TOV VTToXapL^dvovTes 
avTols TTjV ttoXlv el piTj Tovs XrjOTas iKKoipeiap 
avTTjS, ol iy-jXcjJTal 8 et /xt^ KpaTolev ovk €gtli' 
rjcTTLVos VGTeprjoeiv Tipaopias, Gvvepp'qyvvvTO^ UTpa- 

200 Tr]yovpi€voL Tolg TrddeGL, to p.£v TrpojTov KaTa ttjv 
ttoXlv Kal TTpo TOV Upov XldoLS ^dXXovT€S dXXijXovs 
Kal rroppcodev hiaKOVTitopevoiy KaTa 8e ras" 
Tporrds OL KpaTovvTeg expoji^TO toIs ^LcjyeGL' Kal 
TToXvg rjv eKaTepojv (j)ovos, rpau/xartat re eyivovTO 

201 GVX^OL. Kal T0V£ pikv drro tov hiqpiov hieKopiitov 
els Tas OLKias ol TrpoG-qKOVTes, 6 he ^X-qdelg tcov 
^rjXcoTOJV elg to lepov avrjeL KaOaip-dGGwu to delov 
eha(j)OS' Kal piovov dv tls elrroL to eKeivojv alpa 

202 pidvac rd dyia. KaTa p.ev ovv Tas Gvp,^oXds 
eKTpe^ovTes del TrepirJGav ol XrjGTpiKoi, TedvpLco- 
pLevoi 8' ol SrjpLOTLKol KaL rrXeiovs aei yivop-evoL, 
KaKiCovTes TOVS evSLSovTas Kal pt.rj SihoPTes tols 
TperropevoLS dvaxcop'^criv ol KaTonLV ^La^6f.iei'Oi, 
ndv piev e7TLGTpe(f)0VGL to G(f)eTepov et? tovs 

203 VTTevavTLOvs' KdKeivcov pVjKeT dvTexovTOjv tt] ^lo., 
KaTa pLLKpov 8' dvaxojpovPTOjp eLS to tepov gvv- 

204 eLGTTLTTTovGLv ol TTepl TOV " Avavov . TOLS 8e /cara- 

TtXtj^LS epTTLTTTeL GTepopeVOLS TOV rrpojTov TTepL- 

^oXov, Kal KaTa(f)vy6vTes ets" to evooTepco Tax^cos 

^ A} : + oe the rest. 
60 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 197-204 

and spared none who fell in their way. Ananus 
promptly collected his citizen force, which, though 
superior in numbers, in arms and through lack of 
training was no match for the Zealots. Ardour, 
however, supplied either party's deficiencies, those 
from the city being armed with a fury more powerful 
than weapons, those from the Temple with a reckless- 
ness outweighing all numerical superiority ; the 
former persuaded that the city would be uninhabit- 
able by them unless the brigands were eradicated, 
the Zealots that unless they were \ictorious no form 
of punishment would be spared them. Thus, swayed 
by their passions, they met in conflict. This opened 
with a mutual discharge of stones from all parts of 
the city and from the front of the Temple and a 
long range javelin combat ; but, when either party 
gave way, the victors employed their swords, and 
there was great slaughter on both sides and multi- 
tudes were wounded. The injured civilians were 
carried into the houses by their relatives, while any 
Zealot who was struck climbed up into the Temple, 
staining with his blood the sacred pavement ; and 
it might be said that no blood but theirs defiled the 
sanctuary. In these engagements the sallies of the 
brigands proved invariably successful ; but the 
populace, roused to fury and continually growing 
in numbers, upbraiding those who gave way, while 
those pressing forward in rear refused passage to 
the fugitives, finally turned their whole force upon 
their opponents. The latter no longer able to with- 
stand this pressure gradually withdrew into the 
Temple, Ananus and his men rushing in along ^\dth Ananus 
them. Dismayed by the loss of the outer court, the ^^ter^coun 
Zealots fled into the inner and instantly barred the 

61 



JOSEPHUS 

205 drroKXeLOVGL ra? rrvXag. rep S' 'Ami^oj Trpocr- 
^aXeh' fJLEV ovK iboKei rolg tepolg ttvXojglv, 
d/\XciJS re k6.k€lv(jl>v ^aXXovrojv avujdev, ddeiitrov 
8' j-jyelro, Kav Kparrjcrr], firj rrporjyvevKog elo- 

206 ayayelv ro ttXtjQos' htriKX-qpajGag S* 6/c Trdvrojv elg 
e^aKLGy^iXiovs orrXlras KaOLGTTjGLv errl rat? gtools 

207 (hpovpovs' StehexovTO S dXXoL rovrovg, /cat Travrl 
/jLev dvdyKTj Trapelvat Trpos rrjv (f)vXo.Kriv e/c TreptoSou, 
TToXXol Se row iv d^LajjiaGiv ecjieOevreg vrro roiv 
dpx^iP hoKOvvrojv iiiGdovjievoi rrevLy^^porepovs dvd^ 
eavrojv em rrjV 4)povpdv enefJiTTOV. 

208 (13) TiveraL de rovrois tto-glv oXedpov Trapainos 
lojdvy-qg, ov €(f)afJL€V djro TiG^dXcvv SiaSpavat, 

SoXtojrarog dvqp Kal hecvov epojra rvpawtSo? iv 
rfj 4'^XfJ '!^^pi'4>^p^v, o? TToppojOev irre^ovXeve rols 

209 TTpayfiaGLV. kol hrj rore rd rod drjpLOV (^povelv 
VTTOKpLVoiJLevo? GVpLTTepirjet fiev rqj 'Avdvcp ^ov- 
Xevofievo/' gvv rol? Svvarols /xe^' rjfiepav /cat 
vvKrojp i—Lovn rds (f)vXaKds, SirjyyeXXe 8e rd 
aTTopp-qra rol£ I'qXojraLg, kgl rrdv GKefifia rod 
drjfiov rrplv KaXojg ^ovXevdrjvai rrapd rols ix^pols 

210 iyivojGKero hC avrov. firj^^avdofievo? §e ro firj 
3t' v—oijjias iXOelv dpilrpois ixprJTO rals depa- 
ireiais els top re " Avavov /cat rovs rod S-qpiov 

211 TTpoeGrcoras. e^^jpei S' el? rovvavnov avro) ro 
(jaXorLfiov Sia yap rds dXoyovs /coAa/ceta? fxdXXov 
VTTOjrrrevero , kol ro Travraxov rrapelvai {jltj KaXov- 
jievov eiJL(f>aGLV rrpoSoGLag row drropp-qrajv 7TapeZ)(e. 

^ -i- ixev PAVR. : + re Destiuon. 

- §§ 106 ff. 

'" Cf. § 85 with note. This passage again recalls Sallust's 

62 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 205-211 

gates. Ananus did not think fit to assail the sacred 
portals, especially under the enemy's hail of missiles 
from above, but considered it unla^^'ful, even were 
he victorious, to introduce these crowds without 
previous purification ; instead, he selected by lot 
from the whole number six thousand armed men, aod , ^ 
whom he posted to guard the porticoes. These were the Zealots 
to be reheved by others, and every man was bound ^^^^^ 
to fall in for sentry duty in rotation ; but many 
persons of rank, with the permission of their superior 
officers, hired some of the lower classes and sent 
them to mount guard in their stead. 

(13) The subsequent destruction of this entire John of 
party was largely due to John, whose escape from ^g^t^aitor 
Gischala we have related.^ He was a man of extreme to Ananus, 
cunning who carried in his breast a dire passion for 
despotic power and had long been plotting against 
the state. ^ At this juncture, feigning to side >\ith 
the people, he would accompany Ananus on his 
rounds, whether holding consultations with the 
leaders by day or \'isiting the sentries by night, and 
then divulge his secrets to the Zealots ; so that every 
idea proposed by the people, even before it had been 
thoroughly considered, was through his agency 
known to their opponents. Seeking to escape 
suspicion, he displayed unbounded serviHty to 
Ananus and the heads of the popular party, but this 
obsequiousness had the reverse effect ; for his 
extravagant flatteries only brought more suspicion 
upon him, and his ubiquitous and unin\'ited presence 
produced the impression that he was betraying 

portrait of Catiline: "animus audax, subdolus (parallel to 
bo\i(JcTaTos here) . . hunc . . lubido maxuma invaserat rei 
publicae capiundae." 

63 



JOSEPHUS 

212 crvveojpcov fiev yap aladavofievovs airavra rov? 
6x0 pov? TOW Trap' avrols ^ovXevfidrajv, TTiSavco- 
Tepos h ouSets" rjv Yujdvvov rrpos vrroipLa? tov 

213 StayyeAAeti'. drroaKevaGaodai /xev ovv avrov ovk 
Tjv fxihiov, ovra <t€>^ Svvarov eK TTOv-qplas Kai 
aAAoJS" 01) rojv darjiJiajv, VTreLcoGfJievov re ttoXXovs 
Tojv GvvehpevovTOJV rol? oAot?/ eSoKei S avrov 

214 OpKOlS TTLGTOJOaGdaL TTpOS CVVOiaV . a)fXVU€ 8 o 

^lojdvvrjs iroiiJLOjg evvo-qaeLV re ro) hrjixco Kai p.'qTe 
^ovXtjv Tiva jJLTJre rrpd^iv Trpohojaeiv rols^ ex^pols, 
arvyKaraXvaeLv Se rov? eTTLTLdejjLevovs Kai x^'-P^ 

215 Kai yvajpLTj. ol Se Trepl tov Kvavov TTiGTevoavTes 
Tols dpKois rj8r] x^P'-'^ VTTOvoiag elg ra? cru/x- 
^ovXias avrov rrapeXd/jL^avov, Kai Srj Kai Trpe- 
G^evTTjV eLGTrefiTTOVGL TTpos rovg ^'qXojrds irepi 
hiaXvaeajv tjv yap avrols GTTOvhrj ro rrap avroZs 
pLTj jjLidvaL TO lepov fjLTjSe Tiva twv oiJLO(f)vXajv ev 
avTO) 7reG€LV. 

216 (14) '0 S* ojGTTep Tols trjXojraZs vrrep evvoias 
ojjLOGas Kai ov Kar avTOjv, irapeXOdjv eiGw Kai 
KaraGTas ^Is fieGovs TToXXdKLS piev ecjyr] KLvSwevGau 
St avTovs, Lva pi-qSev dyvorjGOJGi Tchv a7Topp7]Tajv, 
oGa KaT^ avTwv ol Trepl tov "Avavov e^ovXevGavro' 

217 vvv he TOV p.eyiGTOV dvapptTTTelv Kivhvvov ovv 
TTaGLv avTol?, el pLij TL? TTpoGyevoLTO ^o^deta 

218 SaupLovLos. ov yap en pieXXeiv "Avavov, aXXa 
TTeiGavTa puev tov Stjijlov 7Te7TOpL<f)evaL TrpeG^eis 
TTpos OveGTTaGiavov, Iv^ iXddjv Kara rdxos Trapa- 

^ ovra re Dindorf : 6vTa most MSS. : o^re VR. 
2 oTrXois PAL2. 

" Literally "girt about (or 'under') him many," cf. ii. 

275 tbiov <jTl<po% vTe^ujrr/j.ei'os " with his own band of followers 

64 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 212-218 

secrets. For it was observed that their enemies 
were aware of all their plans, and there was no one 
more open to the suspicion of disclosing them than 
John. It was, however, no easy matter to shake off 
one who had gained such influence through his 
villainy, who was in any case a man of mark, and who 
had won many followers ° among those who met in 
council on the general weal ; it was therefore decided 
to bind him over to loyalty by oath. John promptly is bound 
swore that he would be true to the people, that he ?Jyaity 
would betray neither counsel nor act to their foes, 
and would assist both with his arm and his advice 
in putting doAvn their assailants. Relying on these 
oaths, Ananus and his party now admitted him with- 
out suspicion to their deliberations, and even went and sent as 
so far as to send him as their delegate to the Zealots the^ieaiotl 
to arrange a treaty ; for they were anxious on their 
side to preserve the Temple from pollution and that 
none of their countrymen should fall within its walls. 

(14) But John, as though he had given his oath of John incites 
allegiance to the Zealots instead of against them, S^sS'Sd 
went in and, standing in their midst, addressed them ft'o™ outside 
as follows. " Often have I risked my life on your ^anus. 
behalf, to keep you fully informed of all the secret 
schemes devised against you by Ananus and his 
followers ; but now I am exposing myself to the 
greatest of perils, in which you ^vill all be involved, 
unless some providential aid intervene to avert it. 
For Ananus, impatient of delay, has prevailed on the 
people to send an embassy to Vespasian, inviting 

grouped around him " ; a metaphorical use of the verb un- 
attested elsewhere. 

65 



JOSEPHUS 

XdBfj TTjV ttoXlv, ayveiav he TTaprjyyeXKevat, Kar 
avTow els TTjv e^7]S" r)fJ-epav, Iv rj Kara BprioKeiav 
elaeXOovres rj Kal /3tacra/^evot cru[JLiiL^ojGLV avrols. 

219 ovx opav he piixp^ rivos t) t7]v (fypovpav oIgovgiv 
Tj TTapard^ovrat irpos roGovrovg. TTpoGerldeL 8 
COS avTos el(77T€}jL(i)0eiq Kara, deov rrpovoiav ws 
TTpea^evrrjS virep^ hiaXvoeajv tov yap "Avavov 
ravras avrols rrporeiveiv, orrojs avvrroTrrorepois^ 

220 eTTeXOrj. Selv otjv t) roj Xoyqj rod l,rjv rovs (f)pov- 
povvras LKereveiv tj TToplLeaOai riva Trapa rcJijv 

221 e^codev eTTLKovpiav rovs he OaXTTopievovs eXnihi 
ovyyvojpLrjs el KparrjOelev, eTTiXeXrjudai rojv Ihlojv 
roXfJLTjfidrojv rj vojiiC^eiv djia roj jxeravoelv rovs 
hehpaKoras evdecos oc^eiXeiv hirjXXdxOai Kal rovs 

222 nadovras. dXXd row jiev dhiKrjadvrow hid jiiuovs 
TToXXdKis yiveaBaL Kal rrjv p^erapeXeiav , rols 
dhiKTjdelGi he rds Spy as eV e^ovuias ;)(aAe77ajTepas"" 

9,9^ icfiehpeveLv he ye eKeivois (j^iXovs Kai avyyevels 
row diToXojXorow Kal hijfJLOV roaovrov vrrep Kara- 
Xvoeojs vojxojv Kal hiKaorrjpiojv reOvjiojpievov, 
OTTOV Kav fj ri jiepos to eXeovv, vtto TrXeiovos av 
avro rod hiayavaKrovvros d(j}aviodrjvaL. 

224 (iv. l) Toiavra fiev eTTOiKiXXev ddpoojs hehiGGo- 
pevoSy Kal rrjv e^ojQev ^orjdeiav dvaSavhov jxev 
ovK eddppei Xiyeiv, fjVLGoero he rovs ^Ihovpiaiovs' 
Iva he Kal rovs rjyepovas row t^rjXojrojv Ihia 

1 Trept p. 

* L^ (Lat. nihil suspicantes) : droTrXoWpots PAL^ : dy)6ir\oLs 
the rest. 

•* A specious statement, in view of his kno-vm reluctance to 
allow his followers to enter the Temple without previous 

purification (§ 205). 

''In the collocation of " laws and law-courts " we seem 

66 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 218-224 

him to come at once and take possession of the city. 
To your further injury, he has announced a puritica- 
tion ser\ice " for to-morrow, in order that his followers 
may obtain admission here, either on the plea of 
worship or by force of arms, and attack you hand to 
hand. Nor do I see how you can long sustain either 
the present siege or a contest with such a host of 
opponents." He added that it was by the providence 
of God that he had himself been deputed to negotiate 
a treaty, as Ananus was offering them terms, only 
to fall upon them when off their guard. " It behoves 
you, therefore," he continued, " if you care for your 
lives, either to sue for mercy from your besiegers, 
or to procure some external aid. But any who 
cherish hopes of being pardoned in the event of 
defeat must either have forgotten their own daring 
deeds, or suppose that the penitence of the per- 
petrators should be followed by the instant recon- 
ciliation of the victims. On the contrary, the very 
repentance of vvTongdoers is often detested and the 
resentment of the wronged is embittered by power. 
Watching their opportunity to retaliate are the 
friends and relatives of the slain and a whole host 
of people infuriated at the dissolution of their laws 
and law-courts.^ In such a crowd, even if some few 
were moved to compassion, they would be crushed 
by an indignant majority." 

(iv. 1) Such was the embroidered tale he told to TheZeaiota 
create a general scare ; what " external aid " was aid of the 
intended he did not venture to say outright, but he idumaeans. 
was hinting at the Idumaeans. But in order to 
incense the personal feelings of the Zealots' leaders 

to hear the historian's Greek assistant speaking ; cf. § 258 
and Vol. II. Introd. p. xiii. 

VOL. Ill c2 63 



JOSEPHUS 

TTapo^vvT], Tov *'Avavov €LS T€ (hiiorTjTa SU^aXXc 

225 ^'^■^^ dTreLXelv €K€lvols i^aipercos eXeyev. rjaav he 

LAea^apo? jxev vlos 1 lcovo?, os oi] Kai Tnuavoj- 
raros iSoKet raJv iv avrols vorJGai re rd heovra 
Kol TO. voTjdevra rrpa^aL, Tudyupias he rt? vlos 

226 '' Xp.(f>iKdXXeL ,^ yevos eK row lepecov eKarepos. ovtol 
TTpos rai? KOLvals rds tSta? Kad eavrwv aireiXas 
aKovGavres, en 8' cos" ol Trepl rov "Avavov hvva- 
oreiav aurot? TrepLTTOLOvpievoL 'IPojpiaLovs eiri- 
KaXolvTO, Koi yap tovto ^Icjodw-qs TrpoaeiJjevoaTO, 
p^expi' TToXXov pLev -qTTopovvro, ri XP'^ Trpdrreiv ets" 

227 o^vv ovTOJS Kaipov GVveojGpLevovs' TrapeuKevaodai 
pLev yap rov brjpiov eTTixeipelv avrols ovk eis 
p,aKpdv, avrojv be to gvvtojiov^ rrjs eTTL^oXrjs^ 
VTrorerpLrjadaL rds e^ojdev emKovplas' rrdvra yap 
dv (jidrivai rraOelv rrplv kol TTvOeodaL rivd rchv cru/x- 

228 p-d^oji'. eho^e 8' 6p.ojs eTTiKaXeladaL rovs \oov- 
pLOLOVs, Kal ypdifjavres emoroXriv ovvrop^ov, ojs 
*' Avavos piev TTpohihoiri 'Pco/xatoiS" r-qv pLrjrpoTToXu' 
e^aTTarrjGas rov S-qpiov, avrol 8' virep rrjs eXev- 

229 depias drroardvres ev roj lepoj (f)povpolvro, oXiyos 
8' ert XP^'^'^^ avrols ^pa^evoL ttjv aojrrjpLaVy ec 
he pLTj ^orjdrjGovGLV eKelvoi Kara rdxos, avroi pcev 
vrr* ^ Avdvoj re Kal rols exOpols, rj ttoXls 8 vtto 
'PcopLaloLs'" (f>6dGeL yevop.evrj. rd he rroXXd rols 
dyyeXois evereXXovro rrpos rovs dpxovras rcjv 

230 ""Ihovpaiojv hiaXeyeodai. TTpoef^X-qO-qaav 8' eVi rrjv 
dyyeXiav hvo row hpaGrripiojv dvhpojv, eiirelv t€ 

- PAL Lat. : lUi^vos the rest. 

2 PAL Lat. : (TvvTovoi- the rest. 
* Niese : ^tti^SoiX-^s mss. ' 'Pwyua^ouj PL*. 

68 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 224-230 

as well, he accused Ananus of brutality, asserting 
that his special threats were directed at thera. 
These leaders were Eleazar, son of Gion,<^ the most 
influential man of the party, from his ability both 
in conceiving appropriate measures and in carrying 
them into effect, and a certain Zacharias,^ son of 
Amphicalleus, both being of priestly descent. They, 
on hearing first the menaces against the whole 
party and then those specially levelled at themselves, 
and, moreover, how Ananus and his friends were 
summoning the Romans in order to secure supreme 
power for themselves — this was another of John's 
hbels — were long in doubt what action they should 
take, being so hard pressed for time ; since the 
people were prepared to attack them ere long, and 
the suddenness of the scheme cut short their chances 
of aid from without, as all would be over before any 
of their alhes even heard of their situation. They 
decided, nevertheless, to summon the Idumaeans, 
and drafted a letter concisely stating that Ananus 
had imposed on the people and was proposing to 
betray the capital to the Romans ; that they them- 
selves ha\'ing revolted in the cause of freedom were 
imprisoned in the Temple ; that a few hours would 
now decide their fate, and that unless the Idumaeans 
sent prompt relief, they would soon have succumbed 
to Ananus and their foes, and the city be in posses- 
sion of the Romans. The messengers were instructed 
to communicate further details to the Idumaean 
chiefs by word of mouth. Those selected for this 
errand were tvvo active individuals, eloquent and 

" Or, with the other reading, E. son of Simon, who plays 
an important part elsewhere, ii. 564 f., v. 5 ff. 
" Not mentioned again. 

69 



JOSEPHUS 

LKavol KOL TT^luai TTepl TTpayfidrcov, to 8e toJtcmi' 

231 XPV^''H'^^'^^P^^ > ^K^'^'i^'T^ TTohojv hia^epovre'S' rovs 
[lev yap ISovpiaLovg avroOev fjSeLaav Treiodrjuo- 
pLevovs, are dopyf^ajSeg /cat draKTov edvog alei re 
piereojpov rrpos ra Kivqpiara Kai piera^oXaZs xatpov, 
77/30? oXiyqv re KoXaKeiav rwv Seopievcov ra onXa 
Kivovp Kai KadaTTep ecg eoprrjv et? ra? Trapard^eis 

232 eveiyopLevov . ehet he rd^ovs els rr^v dyyeXiav' 
eis o pLTjhev eXXecTTOvres TrpoOvpLLag ol irepi^devresy 
eKaXelro 8 avrow Avai^ta? eKdrepos, Kai hr^ rrpos 
rovs apxovras rcov 'ISou/xatcoy Traprjaav. 

233 (2) Ot Se rrpos rrjv emGroXrjv Kai ra prjdevra 
rrapa row acfuypLevojv eKrrXayevres , ojorrep ijip-avels 
TTepiedeov re ro eSvos Kai hLeKTjpvoGov r'qv orpa- 

234 reiav. rjOpoLO-ro S' tj ttXtjOvs rd^Lov rod rrap- 
ayyeXfiaros, Kai Trdvres ojs ctt eXevOepia rrjs 

235 pLrjrpo—oXeojs rjpirat^ov rd orrXa. avvraxOevres S 
ets dvo pivpidhas rrapayLvovrai rrpos ra \epo- 
GoXvpLa, ;)(;paj/i,evot reoaapGiv rjyepiocnv, lojdvvQ 
re Kai laKoj^qj rraihl^ ^ojad, Trpos Se rovrois rji' 
Hipiajv Vids QaKTjov' Kai ^tveas }\XovGojd . 

236 (3) Tov be "Avavov rj pLev e^oSos rcov ayyeXcov 
ojGTTep Kai rovs (j^povpovs eXaOev, rj 8 e(f)ohos 
rd)v ISovp^alajv ovKerc Trpoyvovs ydp drroKXeieL 
re^ ras TTvXas avrols Kai hid (j^vXaKTjS ftX^ '^^ 

237 reL)(r]' Kaddrrav ye pLTjv avrovs eKTToXepLelv ovk 
eho^ev, aAAa XoyoLS rreiOeiv rrpo rojv ottXojv. 

238 Grds ovv errl rdv dvriKpvs avrcov rrvpyov o pLera 

^ Perhaps Traicrl should be read (Niese). 

* KXa^a or KadXa the inferior mss.; c/. -271, v. 24-9, vi. 148. 

^ a.7roK\ei€L re Destinon : dTroK\eieraL or aTroKXeiei mss. 

" Or perhaps " John and James, sons of S." John was 
70 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 230-238 

persuasive speakers on public affairs, and, what was 
still more useful, remarkably fleet of foot. For the 
Zealots knew that the Idumaeans would comply 
forthwith, as they were a turbulent and disorderly 
people, ever on the alert for commotion and dehght- 
ing in revolutionary changes, and only needed a 
little flattery from their suitors to seize their arms 
and rush into battle as to a feast. Speed was 
essential to the errand ; in this no want of alacrity 
was shown by the delegates, each named Ananias, 
and they were soon in the presence of the Idumaean 
chiefs. 

(2) The leaders, astounded by the letter and the The 
statements of their \'isitors, raced round the nation ma^h to"^ 
like madmen, making proclamation of the campaign. Jerusalem. 
The mustering of the clan outstripped the orders, 

and all snatched up their arms to defend the freedom 
of the capital. No less than twenty thousand joined 
the ranks and marched to Jerusalem, under the 
command of four generals : John, James son of 
Sosas," Simon son of Thaceas, and Phineas son of 
Clusoth. 

(3) Though the departure of the messengers had 
eluded the ^igilance ahke of Ananus and of the 
sentries, not so the approach of the Idumaeans. 
Forewarned of this, he shut the gates against them 
and posted guards upon the walls. Un\\'illing, how- 
ever, to make complete enemies of them, he deter- 
mined to try persuasion before ha\dng recourse to 
arms. Accordingly Jesus, the chief priest next in 

subsequently slain by an Arab archer in the Roman army, 
V. 290; James appears often in the sequel, iv. 531, v. 249, 
vi. 92, 148, 380. Simon is the orator of the party, iv. 271, 
and wins special distinction in the field, v. 249, vi. 148. 
Phineas is not heard of again. 

91 



JOSEPHUS 

"Avavov yepatraro? tcjv apxtepeajv ^Itjgov?, ttoa- 
Xojv €(f)rj Kal ttolklXojv rrjv ttoXlv KareG-)(r}KOTOjv 
Oopv^ojv €v ovhevi OavfiaGai rrjv tvx'Tjv ovtoj?, 

COS TO) (7VfJLTTpdTT€LV Tols TTOVqpols Kal Ttt TTapa- 

239 So^a' TTapelvai yovv vjids avOpomoLS e^ojXe- 
Grdrois fierd Toaavrrjg Trpodvpnas eTrapLVvovpras 
Ka9' Tjpojv, p.eB^ oG-qg etVos" '^i' eXOelv ovhe rrjs 

240 p^rjTpoTToXeojs KaXovar]? eirl ^ap^dpovs. " Kai et 
pjkv iojpojv TTjv Gvvra^LV vpLwv ef opLOLOJV rots 
KaXiaaoiv dvdpojv, ovk dv dXoyov ttjv opprjv 
V7TeXdp.^avov' ovhkv yap ovrais (TVVlgttjgl ras 
evvoias cLs rporrow Gvyyevaa' vvv h , et piev ns 
avTovs i^erdCoL KaO eva, pivpLwv eKaaros (=vp€- 

241 6rjG€TaL Bavdrow d^Los. rd yap X-upara^ xat 
KaOdppara rrjs ;\;ojpas'^ dXrjs, KaraGCOTevGapeva 
rag tdta? ovGcag Kal rrpoyvpLvdaavTa ttjv aTTOvotav 
€v rals TTepL^ Kojpais re Kal 77oAeat, r^Xevrala 
XeXrjdorojs TrapetGeppevGav et? ttjv Updv ttoXlv, 

242 XrjGTal hC v—epBoXrjV dGe^rjpdrajv p^iaivovres Kau 
TO dfjelj-qXov eda(f)og, ov£ opdv eGn vvv dheels 
ipLpedvaKop^evovs rols dyiois Kal rd GKvXa rwv 
7Te(f)ov€vpL€va>v KaravaXiGKovras els ^ds aTrX'qGTOvs 

243 yaarepas. to S vpeTepov ttXtjOos Kai tov Koapov 

TOJV OTtXoJV opdv eGTiV OLOS €Trp€7T6V KaXoVGTjS pL€V 
TTJS pLTjTpOTToXeOJS KOLVO) ^OvX€VT7]pLa) , GVpLpidxOVS 

Be /car' dXXo(f)vXajv . tl dv ovv elrroL tovto tls rj 
TVX'f]S inripeLav, oTav Xoydoi TTOvqpols avTavbpov 

244 edvos 6 pa GwaGTrit^ov^ ; p^exp^ ttoXXov pL€v anopd), 

^ Lx)wi;h : dvp.ara mss. : ludibria Lat., whence advpixara 
Hudson. 



2 



5\€ws PAL. 



' + avToh MSS. : avpacnri^ovras (Destinon) or, with altered 
72 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 238-244 

seniority to Ananus, mounted the tower opposite to 
the Idumaeans and addressed them as follows : 

" Among the many and manifold disorders which jesnsthe 
this city has %^'itnessed, nothing has astonished me addresser 
more than the decree of fortune by which even the 
the most unexpected things co-operate to aid the from the 
wicked. Here, for instance, are you. come to assist ^?'^^- ,„, 

- ■ . - • T_ L •'^"^ parados 

these most abandoned of men against us, 's\ith such of a nation 
alacrity as Mas hardly to be looked for even had the jJ^eSo?" 
mother city summoned you to meet a barbarian in- scoundrels. 
vasion. Had I seen your ranks composed of men Hke 
those who in\'ited you, I should not have thought such 
ardour unreasonable ; for nothing so unites men's 
affections as congeniahty of character. But as it is, 
were one to re\'ie"sv these friends of yours one by 
one, each would be found deser\'ing of a myriad 
deaths. The scum and offscourings of the whole 
country, after squandering theu' own means and 
exercising their madness first upon the surrounding 
villages and toMns, these pests have ended by 
stealthily streaming into the holy city : brigands of 
such rank impiety as to pollute even that hallowed 
ground, they may be seen now recklessly intoxicating 
themselves in the sanctuary and expending the spoils 
of their slaughtered victims upon their insatiable 
belhes. You, on the other hand, in your numbers 
and shining armour present an appearance such as 
would become you had the capital in pubhc council 
summoned you to its aid against the foreigner. 
What, then, can this be called but a spiteful freak 
of fortune, when one sees a nation armed to a man 
on behalf of notorious scoundrels ? 

punctuation, awaaTri^ov : ai'roy (Bekker) should perhaps be 
read. 

73 



JOSEPHUS 

T6 Sr) 7TOT€ Kai TO KLvfJGaV Vfld? OVTCO Ta^^iJ^S 

eyevero' jxtj yap av hi)(a fieyaX-qs atria? dvaXa^eiv 
ras TTavoTrXlas vnep Xtjgtojv kol Kara hrjixov 

245 (Jvyy€vovs . €7T€l Se rjKOVGafjLev 'Poj/xatous" f<ai 
TTpohoaiaVy ravra yap v/jlcov iOopv^ovv nveg dpTccos, 
Kai TTJs fJirjTpoTToXeojs in iXevdepcocreL Trapelvai, 
irXeov rcjv dXXojv roXpLTjiidrajv idavpLacrajJiev rovs 

246 aXirriplovs rrj? Trepl tovto ifjevSovs eTTivoias' dvhpas 
yap <f)VG€i (biXeXevBepovs Kai hid tovto /xaAtcrra 
Tols e^ojdev 7ToXepioL£ pd^^odai TrapeaKevaGp^e- 
vovs ovK Ivrfv d'AAcos" i^aypcwGat Kad^ rjpLcov tj 
XoyoTTOii^GavTas rrpohoGiav ttjs TrodovpLevrjg^ eXev- 

247 depias. dXX vp.ds ye XPV GKeTTTeodat TOV<i T€ 
Sta^aAAovra? Kai Kad^ cov, Gvvdyeiv re Tr]v 
aXrjdeiav ovk eK tojv iTrnrXdoTcov Xoyojv dXX eK tojv 

248 KOLVojv TTpayfxdTOJV. tl yap St) Kai nadovTeg dv 
rjpels Poj/xatot? TrpoGTTcoXolfJLev^ iavTOVS vvv, rrapov 
7] pLTjSe dTTOGTrjvaL TO TTpcoTOV T] TrpoGX^jprjoaL 
Tax^ajs arroGTdvTas, ovtojv ert tow nept^ drrop- 

249 6 TjT ojv ; vvv piev yap ouSe ^ovXopievoLs SiaXvGa- 
oBai pdhiov, OT6 'Poj/xatofS" p-ev vnepoTTTas rre- 
TTOLTjKev VTToxeipLOs T) TaXtXala, (f)€p€L S' alaxvvTjv 
rjplv davdTov p^aAeTictj repay to OepaTreveiv avTOVs 

250 oyras" rjSr] ttXtjglov. Kdyco Kad^ iavTOV /xev dv 
eLprjvrjv TTpoTipnqGaipn OavdTOVy TroXepiovpievos S 
aTTa^ Kai GvpL^aXdw ddvaTOV evKXed tov ^rjv 

251 atxpidXojTos . rroTepov Se cjyaGiv rapids tovs tov 
oijpLOV TTpoeGTCOTas TrepuJjaL Kpv(f)a Trpos 'Pojpalovs 

252 Tj Kai TOV hrjpov KOLvfj ifj-qcf^iGdpLevov ; et pev 

1 Tropdov/xeurjs PMV^R Lat. 
* Havercamp with one ms. : 7rpocrircj\ovij.(u the majority. 

" i.e. like yourselves. 
74 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 244-252 

I have long been wondering what motive could The charge 
have brought you so promptly ; for never, without ° ^®*^ ^^ 
grave cause, would you have armed yourselves from ridiculous, 
head to foot for the sake of brigands, and against a 
kindred people. But now that we have heard the 
words * Romans 'and * treason ' — for that was what 
some of you were clamouring just now, and how 
they were here to protect the freedom of the 
metropolis — no other audacity of these wTetches has 
amazed us more than this ingenious He. For indeed 
men with an inborn passion for hberty,'^ and for it 
above all ready to fight a foreign foe, could by no 
other means be infuriated against us than by the 
fabrication of a charge that we were betraying their 
darling hberty. You, however, ought to reflect who 
are the authors of this calumny and at whom it is 
aimed, and to form your opinion of the truth not 
from fictitious tales but from public events. For 
what could induce us to sell ourselves to the Romans 
no?v ? It was open to us either to refrain from 
revolt in the first instance or, ha\ing revolted, 
promptly to return to our allegiance, while the sur- 
rounding country was still undevastated. But now, 
even if we desired it, a reconciliation would be no 
easy matter, when their conquest of Galilee has 
made the Romans contemptuous, and to court them, 
now that they are at our doors, would bring upon 
us a disgrace even worse than death. For my own 
part, though I should prefer peace to death, yet 
having once declared war and entered the lists, I 
would rather die nobly than live a captive. 

" Do they say, however, that we, the leaders of 
the people, communicated secretly with the Romans, 
or that the people themselves so decided by public 

75 



JOSEPHUS 

TjfjLds, etTT-arojcrav rovs TT^fxcfidevTas (fylXovs, tovs 
SiaKOvyjaavras ttjv Trpohouiav OLKera^. i(f)Ojpdd'r] 
TLS aTTLCjv; avaKoyLLL^ojievos edXoj; ypaynxdrcov 

253 y^yovaoiv iyKpareis ; ttojs Se tovs pL€v togovtovs 
TToXiras iXddopLeVy ots Kara Trduav wpav Gvvava- 
arpe(^6p.eda, roZs §€ oXiyois koL (f)povpoviJ.evoLS Kat 

pLTjh €L£ TTjV TToXiP CK TOV UpOV TTpoeXOelv hvva- 

pLCVois eyvcoadr] rd Kara rrjv 'x^ojpav Xadpaiajg 

254 evepyovfieva ; vvv S' eyvcjoaav, ore^ Set Sovvai 
SiKas Tcov T€ToXfjLrjjjLevcDV, ecu? S' '^crav dSeets" 

255 avTOL, TTpohoT'qs rjiiojv ovhels vTTOjTTTevero ; el o 
em TOV hrjiJLov dvacjiipovai ttjv aiTLav, iv (^avepo) 
hrjTTOvdev i^ovXevcravTO, ouSet? dTrecrraret Trjg 
€KKXr]Gla?, cucrre Tdxi'OV dv Trjg p.iqvvGe(jJS koTrevaev 

256 iq (f^ijp^y] TTpds Vfids <^avepojTepa. tl Se; oz;;(t Kat 
Trpia^eiS ehei TrefiTTeiv ifjrjcf)iGa[JL€vov£^ rd? Sia- 
XvG€Ls; Kal Tis 6 -)(eLpoTOvrideLS ; enraTajGav. 

257 dAAd TOVTO [JL.ev SvGOavaTovvTOJV Kal TrXrjGLOV 
ovGas rds" rt/xcoptas" SiaKpovofievajv GKT^ipLS cgtlv 
€1 yap St] Kal TrpoSodrjvai ttjv ttoXlv etfjcapTO, 
fiovovs dv ToXfJLrJGai Kal tovto tovs Sia^dXXovTas , 
Sv Tois ToXfjLT^fjiaGLV €v pLOvov [/ca/cov] AetVet, TTpo- 

258 hoGia. XPV ^^ vpidSi eTTeLhrjTrep dira^ irdpeGTe 

p,€Td TOJV OTtXcDV, TO fJLeV SiKaiOTaTOV, ap.VV€LV TTj 

pi.rjTpoTToXeL Kal Gwe^acpelv tovs Ta hiKaGTrfpia 
KaTaXvGavTas Tvpdwovs, ot rraT'^GavTes tovs 

VOjJLOVS i^rl Tols aVTCOV ^L(f)€GL 7T€7TOLrjVTaL TaS 

259 KptGeis* dvhpas yovv aKaTaiTiaTovs t(x)V ent- 

^ Bekker with Lat. : on mss. 
^ L : \l/r](pLao/xivovs the rest. 

76 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 252-259 

decree ? If they accuse us, let them name the 
friends whom we sent, the underhngs who negotiated 
the betrayal. W^as anyone detected lea\dng on his 
errand, or caught on his return ? Have any letters 
fallen into their hands ? How could we have con- 
cealed our action from all our numerous fellow- 
citizens, with whom we are hourly associating, while 
their small and beleaguered party, unable to advance 
one step into the city from the Temple, were, it 
seems, acquainted with these underhand proceedings 
in the country ? Have they heard of them only 
now, when they must pay the penalty for their 
crimes, and, so long as they felt themselves secure, 
was none of us suspected of treason ? If, on the 
other hand, it is the people whom they incriminate, 
the matter presumably was openly discussed and 
none was absent from the assembly ; in which case 
rumour would have brought you speedier and more 
open intelhgence than your private informer. Again, 
must they not have followed up their vote for capitu- 
lation by sending ambassadors .'' Who was elected 
to that office ? Let them tell us. No, this is a mere 
pretext of die-hards who are struggling to avert 
impending punishment. For had this city been 
indeed fated to be betrayed, none would have 
ventured on the deed save our present accusers, to 
complete whose tale of crimes one only is lacking — 
that of treason. 

" But now that you are actually here in arms, the Three 
duty which has the highest claims upon you is to now open 
defend the metropolis and to join us in extirpating ^o >o"- 
these tyrants, who have annulled our tribunals, 
trampled on our laws, and passed sentence with the 
sword. Have they not haled men of eminence and 

77 



JOSEPHUS 

<pava>v €K iieGTjg Trjg dyopd? apTrdoavres heofjLOis 
T€ TTpofjKioavTO Kat fiT^hk (l)Owrjs p^r]S LKeuLas 

260 avaG)(6jj.€V0L hi€(^6eipav. e^ecmv S' Vfjilv rrap- 
eXdovGLv eiGOj p.-q noXepiov vopLOj OeduaGOaL rd 
TeKpLTjpia rojv Xeyofidvajv, oIkovs r]prjpLajpLevovg 
rais" 6K€ivojv aprrayals Kai yvvaia Kat yeueag 
rwv aTT€(7(f)ay[xevoju p.e\av€ijxovo-6uo.s , kojkvtov oe 
KaL Oprjvov dvd ttjv ttoXlv oXtjV oudet? ydp ianv, 

261 OS ov yeyevrai rrjs tojv dvoGtow Karahpopirjs' ol 
y€ €7n roGovTov i^ojKeiXav drrovoLag, ojgt€ pLrj 
pLOVov €K rrjs p^cuoa? /cat tojv e^ojdev TToXeojv ettl 
TO TTpoGOjTTOv Koi TTjV Ke<i>aXrjv oXov Tov eOvovs 
pL€T€PeyK€lv TTjV XriGTpiKrjV ToXpiav, dXXd Kal airo 

262 T-rjs TToXeojs irrl to Upov. opp.'qT'qpLov yovv avTols 
TOVTO Kal Krj.Ta(l>vyrj Tap.iel6v re tojv e<^' rjp.ds 
TTapaGKevojp yiyovev, 6 S' vtto Trjg OLKOvpLevrjg 
TTpoGKVvovpLevos ^^jpos Kal Tols diTo TrepaTOJV yrj? 
aXXo(f)vXoLg d.Kofj TETtjirjfxevo'g rrapd tow yevvrj- 

263 OivTOJV ivSdhe B'qpiojv Ka.Ta.rraTelTai' v€avievovTai 
T€ ev Tals d7ToyvojG€GLV -qh-q hrjp.ovs re Sr^/xots" Kai 
TToXeGi TToXeis GvyKpovELv Kal KaTa TOW GTrXdyx^^J^^ 

264 TOJV LdLOJV TO eOvo? GTpaToXoyelv. dv6^ d)V to pLCV 
KaXXiGTov Kal TTpeTTOV, ojs '^(ji'qV) vp.iv GVve^aipeZv 
Tovs aXi-riplovs Kal vrrep a-UTrj? Trjg drrdT-qs 
afxvvopL€vovs, OTL GvpLpA^ovs iToX/jL-qGav KaXelv 

265 ov? eSet Tip.ojpovs SeSteVat- et S' atSetcr^e ra? 

TOJV TOiOVTOJV i77LKXrjG€L£, dXXd TOL TrdpeGTL 

uepLcvoLs Ta orrXa Kal rrapeXdovGLV elg ttjv ttoXiv 
G^cqpLaTL Gvyyevojv dvaXaf^elv to jieGov GvpLptdx^^v 

T€ KaL TToXepLLOJV OVOpta, SiKaGTaS y€VOpL€VOVS' 

78 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 259-265 

unimpeached from the open market-place, ignomin- 
ously placed them in irons and then, refusing to 
listen to expostulation or entreaty, put them to 
death ? You are at liberty to enter, though not by 
right of war, and behold the proofs of these state- 
ments : houses desolated by their rapine, poor widows 
and orphans of the murdered in black attire, waihng 
and lamentation throughout the city : for there is not 
one who has not felt the raids of these impious 
wretches. To such extremes of insanity have they 
run as not only to transfer their brigands' exploits 
from the country and outlying toN^ms to this front 
and head of the whole nation, but actually from the 
city to the Temple. That has now become their 
base and refuge, the magazine for their armament 
against us ; and the spot which is revered by the 
world and honoured by aliens from the ends of the 
earth who have heard its fame, is trampled on by 
these monsters engendered in this very place. And 
now in desperation they wantonly proceed to set at 
variance to\Miship against township, city against city, 
and to enlist the nation to prey upon its ovm \'itals. 
Wherefore,^ as I said before, the most honourable 
and becoming course for you is to assist in extirpating 
these reprobates, and to chastise them for this deceit 
which they have practised on yourselves in daring 
to summon as allies those whom they should have 
dreaded as avengers. 

" If, however, you still respect the appeals made 
to you by men such as these, it is surely open to 
you to lay down your arms and, entering the city in 
the guise of kinsmen, to assume a neutral role by 

° Or perhaps " On the contrary " or " Instead of aiding 
such a cause " (Traill). 

79 



JOSEPHUS 

266 Kairoi XoyLGaaOe, ttogov KephrjUovGLV icf)^ ofiO' 
XoyovfievoL? Kal TrjXiKOVTOLg Kpivoixevoi Trap* vfxlv 
OL rol? aKaraLTLaroLS jJL'qSe Xoyov fJLeTahovreg' 
Xafi^averojaav S' ovv Tavrr]v e/c rrjs vjierepas 

267 a(f)L^€OJ? rrjv x^puv. el S' ovt€ crvvayavaKreXv 
Tjiilp ovT€ KpLveaOai Set/ rplrov icrrl KaraXiTrelv 
€Karepovs Kal /XT^re ralg rjiierepais eTrepL^aLveLV^ 
ovpn/yopoLS piTJre rols Ittl^o-uXols ttjs firjrpoTToXeojs 

268 Gvvepx^crdaL. el yap Kal ra fidXiara 'PajfiacoLS 
VTroTTTevere SteiXexOoLL rivds, Trapar-qpelv e^eon 
ras ecf)6Sovs, kolv tl tow hia^e^Xripbevcov epycp 
hLaKaXvTTrrjTai, rore c^povpelv ttjv fjLTjrpoTToXLV 
eXOovras, KoXd^euv re rov? alriovs Trec^copa/xeVovs" 
ov yap dv u/xa? (fiOdaeLav ot rroXep^Lot rfj TToXei 

269 TT poG oj KTipievov s .^ el S' ovhev vpuv rovrojv ev- 
yvajpiov t) pLerpLov SoKel, prj davpidt^ere rd KXeldpa 
Tcov TTvXow, eojg dv (^eprjre rd oirXa.' 

270 (4) ToLavra p.ev 6 ^IrjGOvg eXeye' rd)V 8e 
*ISovpLaLa>v ovSev* ro ttXtjOos irpoGeix^v, dXXd 
reOvfJLOjro p.rj rv^ov eroLp,r]£ rrjg elGohov, Kal 
SLTjyavdKrovv ol Grparrjyol Trpos dirodeGLV raJv 
ottXojVj alxp-aXojGLav rjyovpievoL ro KeXevovrwv 

271 rivcov avrd ptipai. Hljiwv Se vlos Kaa^a^ row 
7]yep.6vojv etg, /xoAt? tojv olKeiojv KaraGreiXas tov 
dopv^ov Kal Grds els eTrrjKoov roZs d/3;)(tepeu(Ttv', 

272 ovKen 6avp.dl,eLV e(f)'q (^povpovpievojv ev rat tepo) 
rcop TTpopdxojv rrjs eXevOepias, el ye /cat ro) 

273 edvei KXelovGL nves tJStj rrjv kolvtjv ttoAiv, Kai 

^ 00/ce? Hudson with one ms. 

* M VC : iiTL^alveiv the rest. 

^ L: TrpofTW/cicraei'Ois the rest. 

* PAML (Lat. ?) : ovre the rest. 

• llKaBa M : Ka^Xa VRC Lat. ; cf. § 235. 

80 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 266-273 

becoming arbitrators. Consider, too, what they will 
gain by being tried by you for such undeniable and 
flagrant offences, whereas they would not suffer 
unimpeached persons to speak a word in their 
defence ; however, let them derive this benefit from 
your coming. But if you will neither share our 3 

indignation nor act as umpires, a third course re- 
mains, namely to leave both parties to themselves 
and neither to insult us in our calamities nor join 
with these conspirators against the mother city. 
For, however strongly you suspect some of us of 
ha\ang communicated with, the Romans, you are in a 
position to watch the approaches, and if any of these 
calumnies is actually discovered to be true, you can 
then come to the protection of the metropolis and 
punish the detected culprits ; for the enemy could 
never take you by surprise while you are quartered 
here hard by the city. If, however, none of these 
proposals appears to you reasonable or fair, do not 
wonder that these gates are barred, so long as you 
remain in arms." 

(4) Such was the speech of Jesus. But the Abusive 
Idumaean troops paid no heed to it, infuriated at not smioa° the 
obtaining instant admission ; while their generals idumaean 
were indignant at the thought of laying down their 
arms, accounting it captivity to fling them away at any 
man's bidding. Thereupon Simon, son of Caathas, 
one of the officers, ha\'ing Mith difficulty quelled the 
uproar among his men and taken his stand within 
hearing of the chief priests, thus replied : 

" I am no longer surprised that the champions of 
liberty are imprisoned in the Temple, now that I 
find that there are men who close against this 
nation the city common to us all ; men who, while 

81 



JOSEPHUS 

*\*CL>fjLatov£ ^€v £Lahe-)(eoOai TTapaaKevat^ovTai , toluol 
Kal (JTe(^avajGavr€s ra? TTvXas, ISovfiatoLg 8e oltto 
Tojv TTvpycov SiaAeyovrat /cat ra vrrep ri]? eXev- 

274 depias orrXa KeXevovGL plipat, firj Tncrrevovres Be 
rots' crvyyeveGL rrjv rrjs fjL'qrpoTroXeoj? (f)vXaKr]v rovs 
avrovg StAcacrra? TTOtovvraL rcov Sta^opcov, /cat /car- 
TjyopovvTes tlvqjv c5? aTTOKreiveiav aKpcrovs, 
avTol /caraSt/ca^otey oXov rod eOvov? drLp.Lav 

275 TTjv yovv aTraoL rols aXXocjivXois avaTTeirraiJLevqv 
ets" BpfjGKeiav ttoXiv rot? olk€lols vvv arro- 

276 rerelxt'GdaL.^ " Trdvv yap irrl acjiayds ioTrev- 
Sofiev Kal Tov Kara tojp 6iJiO(f)vXa)V TroXepLov 
ol Sta TOVTO Taxvvavres , tv' t'/xas' T-qp-qoojixev 

277 eXevdipovs. roiavra pevroi /cat Trpo? tow (fypovpov- 
pL€va>v rjSLKrjaOe, Kal Tndavds ovtcds VTTOipias OLpLai 

278 /car' iKeivojv avveXe^are. eVetra tojv €vhov (^povpa 
KpaTovvTes ogol K-qhovTai tojv koivojv Trpay- 
jiaTOjv, /cat rot? uvyyeveGTaToi^ edveatv aOpooLS 

OLTTO KXelaaVTCS pL€V TTjV TToXlV vf^pLGTLKa 8 OVTOJS 

TTpoGTaypaTa KeXevovres, TvpavveXadai XeyeTe /cat 
TO TTjS hvvaareias ovopa toIs y(l>^ vpiojv Tvpavvov- 

279 pievois TTepiaTTTeTe. tls dv eveyKai ttjv elpojveiav 
TOJV Xoyojv dcbopojv ecg ttjv evavTioTT^Ta tojv 
TTpaypaTOJV ; el pLTj /cat vvv vpds^ aTTOKXeLovoiv 

ISoUjUatot^ TT]s p-rjTpoTToXeojg, ovg avTol tojv 

280 TTarpLOJv lepdjv etpyeTe. pbepibaiT dv eLKOTOJS tls 
Tovs ev TO) lepo) TToXiopKovpevovs , otl daporjGavTes 
Tovs TTpodora? KoXaLeuv, ovg viieis dvdpag eTTLGnj- 
pov£ /cat d/caratrtarou? XeyeTe Std tt]v Koivojviav, 

^ cLTTOTeTeix^ffde A, making the drift into aratio recta begir 
earlier. 

2 rifxas PAL. ' 'ISovfjLaiois PAL Lat. 

82 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 273-280 

preparing to admit the Romans, maybe crowning 
the gates with garlands, parley with Idumaeans 
from their towers and bid them fling down the arms 
which they took up in defence of liberty ; men who, 
refusing to entrust to their kinsmen the protection 
of the mother city, would make them arbitrators in 
their disputes, and, while accusing certain individuals 
of putting others to death without trial, would them- 
selves condemn the whole nation to dishonour. At 
any rate, this city, which flung wide its gates to 
every foreigner for worship, is now barricaded by 
you against your o^vn people. And why ? Because 
forsooth, we were hurrying hither to slaughter and 
make war on our fellow-countrymen — we whose sole 
reason for haste was to keep you free ! Such doubt- 
less was the nature of your grievance against your 
prisoners,'^ and equally credible, I imagine, is your 
list of insinuations against them. And then, while 
detaining in custody all within the walls who care 
for the public welfare, after closing your gates against 
a whole body of people who are your nearest kins- 
men and issuing to them such insulting orders, you 
profess to be tyi-ant-ridden and attach the stigma 
of despotism to the victims of your own tyranny ! 
Who can tolerate such ironical language, which he 
sees to be flatly contrary to the facts, unless indeed 
it is the Idumaeans who are now excluding you from 
the metropolis, and not you who are debarring them 
from the national sacred rites ? One complaint 
might fairly be made against the men blockaded in 
the Temple, that, while they had the courage to 
punish those traitors whom you, as their partners 
in guilt, describe as distinguished persons and un- 

" Viz. that they wished to keep you free. 

83 



JOSEPHUS 

ovK d(/)' Vfiow rjp^avTO kol to, Kaipiojrara rrjs 

281 TTpohoaias fJ^^pf] npoaTreKoipav. aAA et KaKelvoi 
TTjg ;)(p6ias' iyevovTO ixaXaKcvrepoL, Tqp-qGOjxev^ 
^IbovfialoL Tov oIkov rov Oeov Kai rrjs Kowrjg 
TTarpthos 7rpoTroX€p.-qGO[i€v ,^ afjua rovs re e^ojOeu 
iiTLovTas Kol Toijs 'ivhov -npohihovras dfjivvojievoi 

282 TToXe/JLLOVs. ivddbe rrpo tow r€L-)(ojv fievovixev ev 
ToZs oirXoiSi €aj£ dv 'VcojialoL KafjiOJUL TTpouexovres 
VfjLiv'^ Tj vfjL€ls eXevdepa (f)povij(javTeg iiera^dX-qade. 

283 (o) TovTOLg to jxev row ^ISovpLaloju erre^oa 
ttXtjOos, 6 he ^IrjGOVs ddvjjLOW dv€.)(^ojpei rovs /^€V 
'ISou/Ltatou? pLTjSev (j^povovvras opow pbdrpLOP, 

28-1: Sixddev be rrjv ttoXlv TToXejjLOVfjLevqv. tjv d ovde 
Tols 'ISof/xatotS' €V rjpejJLLa rd cftpovijixaTa' /cat 
yap redvfJLOJVTO rrpds rrjv v^piv elpx^evre? rrj? 
TToXeoj'^ KOL rd row 'CtjXojtow Icrxvpd SoKovvre?, 
CO? ovhev eirafivvovrag eo'jpow, rjuopovvro Kai 

285 fM€r€i'6ovv 77oAAot rrjV d(l)L^LV. rj 8e at8oj? rod 
riXeov dTrpd-Krovs V7Tourpe(f)eLv iviKa rrjv jiera- 
fieXeiav, ware fxeveiv^ avroOc rrpd rov reixovg 

286 KaKcbs auAt^o/xeVous" Std ydp rrjs vvKros dixrixo.vos 
€Kpriyvvrai ;;)(et/xcuv dvepLOi re ^laioi uvv 6[x^poiS 
Xa^pordrois kol (Twexets darparral ^povrai re 
(^piKOjheLS KOL fJLVKijjjLara (jeLopLevqs rrjg yrjs 

287 e^aioLa. TrpohrjXov S' tjv err^ dvdpojTTOJV oXedpo) 
TO Karda-rrjfjLa ro)v dXoov GvyKexvpLevov, Kai ovx^ 
fxiKpov ng dv ecKdaat avpLrrrcofxaros ra repara. 

288 (6) Mta Se rot? ^IhovpLalois Kai rols ev rfj 
TToXec TTapearr] So^a, rot? f-iev 6pyL(,eadaL rov 
Oeov eVt rfj arpareia Kai ovk dv hLa(^vyelv enevey- 

^ Many mss. have Tripqao^ixev . . . TrpoTro\€/j.rj(Tu}/JLep. 
* Hudson: -qpLiv mss. ^ ififj-eveiv PAM. 

84 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 280-288 

impeached, they did not begin with, you and cut off 
at the outset the most vital members of this treason- 
able conspiracy. But if they were more lenient 
than they should have been, we Idumaeans will 
preserve God's house and fight to defend our common 
country from both her foes, the invaders from \\'ith- 
out and the traitors ^\ithin. Here before these walls 
will we remain in arms, until the Romans are tired 
of hstening to you or you become converts to the 
cause of liberty." 

(5) This speech being loudly applauded by the The 
Idumaeans, Jesus withdrew despondent, finding them encr^np^°* 
opposed to all moderate counsels and the citv i^^'orethe 
exposed to war from two quarters. Nor indeed were thumier-^ 
the minds of the Idumaeans at ease : infuriated at '^^^'^• 
the insult offered them in being excluded from the 

city and seeing no aid forthcoming from the Zealots 
whom they beUeved to be in considerable strength, 
they were sorely perplexed, and many repented of 
having come. But the shame of returning, having 
accomplished absolutely nothing, so far overcame 
their regrets that they kept their ground, bivouacking 
before the walls under miserable conditions. For 
in the course of the night a terrific storm broke out : 
the winds blew a hurricane, rain fell in torrents, 
lightning was continuous, accompanied by fearful 
thunder-claps and extraordinary rumblings of earth- 
quake. Such a convulsion of the very fabric of the 
universe clearly foretokened destruction for mankind, 
and the conjecture was natural that these were 
portents of no trifling calamity. 

(6) In this the Idumaeans and the city folk were Concern of 
of one mind : the former being persuaded that God for^thetr"^* 
was ^^Toth at their expedition and that thev were idumaean 

•■^ « allies 

85 



JOSEPHUS 

Kovrag onXa rfj yL-qTpoTToXei, toIs Sc 7T€pi rov 
*" Avavov v€VLK-qK€vaL x^P''^ TrapaTOL^eoj^ Kal rov 

289 B^ov vrrep avrojv Grpar-qyelv. KaKol 8' rjaav apa 
Twv jjLeXXovTOJv GTO)(aGTai Kai /care/xavreuovTO 

290 TCtJV exOpoJV ol toI? tdtot? avrcjv eTTTjei TTcdeiv oi 
{lev yap 'ISou/xatot uvGTTeipaOevres rots crcvpLaGLV 
dXXijXovs avreOaXTTOV Kal rovs dvpeovs virep 
K€(f)aXrjs uvix(j)pd^avres tjttov €KaKovvro roZs 

291 werots", ol Se L-qXcorai fidXXov rod KaO avrovs 
Kivhvvov VTTep eKeivcov e^aaavitovro /cat ovveX- 
66vT€s iaKOTTovv, et TLva /xT7;^av7]v avrols dpLVvqs 

292 eTTivoijaeLav. rols jjikv ovv depfiOTepoi? €ook€l 
fjLerd Tojv ottXcov ^ta^ecr^at rovs 7Tapa(f)vXdaGovTa? , 

67T€ira 8' €LG7T€(j6vTaS €tV fJLeGOV TTJ? TToXeOjg 

dva(f)avS6v dvolyeiv rol? Gvpiixdxoi? rds TTvXas' 

293 Tous" Te yap (f)vXaKas e'l^eiv irpos to dhoK-qrov 
avTOiv rerapaypievovs , dXXojs re Kal rovg nXelovas^ 
ovTas dvoTrXov? Kal rroXepuxJV aneipovg, Kai rGiV 
Kara rrjv ttoXlv hvGGvvaKrov eGEGdat ro rrXrjOos 
KareiX-qfievov' vtto rod ;Yet/xtuyos" €ls rds OLKiag. 

294 et §6 /cat rug yivoiro KLvhvvos, TrpeTTeiv avrols Trdv 
OTLovv TTaOelv Tj TTepaSelv roGovrov ttXtjOos St 

295 avTOV? aiG^pd^S dTToXXvpievov. ot he Gvver core pot 
^La^eGOaL puev dTreyivcoGKov, opcovres ov povov rrjv 
avrajv <f)povpdv TrXrjdvovGav dXXd Kai ro rrjs 
TToXecog reZ^os Sta rovs 'ISou/xatous" eTTipieXws 

296 <f>vXaGG6p,evov , qjovro re Travraxov rov ' Avavov 
TTapelvai Kal Kara iraGav copav eTTiGKeTrreGd ai 

297 rds (hvXaKas' o Stj rals p^ev dXXais vv^lv ovrojs 
etx^i^, dveldrj Se /car' eKeivriv, ovrt Kara rrjv 

^ L: + aur(2'/^ the rest. ^ Bekker: KaTeiXruxfi^ov idss. 

86 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 288-297 

not to escape retribution for bearing arms against 
the metropolis, Ananus and his party beheving that 
they had won the day without a contest and that 
God was directing the battle on their behalf. But 
they proved mistaken in their divination of the future, 
and the fate which they predicted for their foes was 
destined to befall their friends. For the Idumaeans, 
huddling together, kept each other warm, and by 
making a penthouse of bucklers above their heads 
were not seriously affected by the torrents of rain ; 
while the Zealots, more concerned for their allies 
than for their own danger, met to consider whether 
any means could be devised for their relief. The 
more ardent advocated forcing a way through the 
sentries at the point of the sword, and then plunging 
boldly into the heart of the city and opening the 
gates to their allies : the guards, disconcerted by 
their unexpected assault, would give M'ay, especially 
as the majority were unarmed and had never been 
in action, while the citizens could not easily be 
collected in force, being confined to their houses by 
the storm ; even if this involved hazard, it was only 
right that they should suffer anything rather than 
leave such a vast host disgracefully to perish on 
their account. The more prudent, however, dis- 
approved of these violent measures, seeing that not 
only was the guard surrounding them in full strength, 
but the city wall carefully watched on account of 
the Idumaeans ; they imagined, moreover, that 
Ananus would be everywhere, inspecting the sentries 
at all hours. Such, indeed, had been his practice on 
other nights, but on this one it was omitted ; not 

87 



JOSEPHUS 

^Avdvov padvfiLav, aAA cus* avrog <re>^ eKelvos 

OLTToXoiTO Kal TO TtXtJOo? TiOV (f>vXdKOJV OTpaTI)- 

298 yovGTjg ttj? elfxapfievqs . rj §17 Kal t6t€ rrjg vvktos 

TTpOKOTTTOVGrjS Kal TOV ^eipicbvOS €7TaKpidl,OVTOS 

Koifxit^eL fiev rovs eVt rfj aroa (f)povpovs, rots 8e 
^T^Acurats" eTTLVoiav e/x^aAAet tojv UpoJv alpovras 
TTpiovcuv eKr€p.€lv Toijg pLOxXovs TcJov TTvXwv. 

299 avvrjpyqae S' avrots" irpos ro pLTj KaraKovadrjvai 
TOV iIj6(J)0v 6 T€ rojv dvepLiov rjxos Kal to tojv 
^povrojv eTrdXX-qXov . 

300 (7) lS.iaXaB6vres S' €/c tov lepov Trapayivovrai 
Trpos TO TeL^ps Kau toI? avTOtg TrpioGL ;YP^ftevot 
TTjv Kara tovs loovp^atovs avoiyovoL ttvXtjv. 

301 ToTs Se TO pLev TrpcoTov e/XTTtTrret Tapax'rj tovs 
7T€pl TOV *'Avavov €7TLX€Lpetv olrjdeLGL, Kal nds irrl 

TOV ^L(f>OVS ^O^X^ TTjV Se^LOLV d)£ dpiVv6pL€VOS^' 

Tax^ojs he yvajpL^oPT€£ tov£ rjKovTas eLGrjeaav. 

302 et /-tei' ovv eTpdTTOVTO Trepl ttjv ttoXlv, ovSev 
eKcoXvaev dv aTToXojXivai tov SrjpLOv avTavSpov, 
ovTOJs elxov opyrjs' vvv he irpcoTovs tovs l,r)XajTds 
CGTTevSov^ TrJ£ (j)povpds e^eXeGdai, SeopLevcov noXXd 
Kal TOJV eLGbe^apLevcuv pL-q TrepuSelv 8t' ovs rjXdov 
iv pL€G0L£ TOts" SeLvoT? /-tT^S' avToXs ;\;aAe77cuT6pov 

303 eTTLGelGaL tov klvSvvov tGjv piev yap (f)povpa)v 
dXovTOJV pabiov avTolg euvai x^P^^^ ^'^^ '^'^^ ttoXlv, 
et S' drra^ TavTTjv TrpoKLvqGeiaVy ovk dv er* 

304 i.K€LVOJV KpaTTJGaL' 7TpO£ ydp TTjV aLGdr^GLV GVV- 

TCt^eo-^at* avTOV£ Kal rots' dvohovs dTTot^pd^eiv. 

^ ins. Herwerden : the re appears to have been misplaced 
in most mss., which read wore for ws. 

^ d/j.vi'ov/j.ei'os R. ^ C : airevdoi'Tes the rest. 

* Bekker : crvvrd^aadai. mss. 

88 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 297-304 

through any remissness on his part, but by the over- ^ 
ruhng decree of Destiny tliat he and all his guards 
should perish. She it was who as that night advanced 
and the storm approached its climax lulled to sleep 
the sentinels posted at the colonnade, and suggested 
to the Zealots the thought of taking some of the a party of 
temple saws and severing the bars of the gates, saluy^from 
They were aided by the blustering wind and the ^^e temple 
successive peals of thunder, which prevented the 
noise from being heard." 

(7) Escaping unperceived from the Temple, they ^ and open 
reached the walls and, employing their saws once grates to the 
more, opened the gate nearest to the Idumaeans. idumaeans. 
They, supposing themselves attacked by the troops 
of Ananus, were at first seized with alarm, and every 
man's hand was on his sword to defend himself, but, 
quickly recognizing their visitors, they entered the 
city. Had they then turned upon it in all directions, 
sucli was their fury that nothing could have saved 
the inhabitants from wholesale destruction ; but, as 
it was, they first hastened to hberate the Zealots 
from custody, at the earnest entreaty of the men 
who had let them in. " Do not," these urged, 
" leave those for whose sake you have come in the 
thick of peril, nor expose us to graver risks. Over- 
power the guards and you can then easily march 
upon the city, but once begin by rousing the city, 
and you will never master the guards ; for at the 
first intimation the citizens will fall into line and 
block every ascent." 

" Reminiscent of Thucydides' account of the escape from 
Plataea : \p6(pu) 8^ . . . avmraTayovi'Tos rod avifxav ov Kar- 
aKovadvTOjv (iii. 22). 

^ i.e. a small party of the Zealots, as the sequel shows. 

89 



JOSEPHUS 

305 (v. l) HvveSoKei ravra rols IbovfxaLOLg, Kai 
Std rrjs TToXecos dve^acvov Trpos to Upov, fxereajpoL 
T€ ol l^rjXojTal TTjv d(f)i^LV avrow eKapahoKovv /cat 
TTapiovrojv etaoj Kal avroL dappovvres TTpor^eaav €K 

306 rod ivhorepov Upov. pnyevTes be TOt? 'ISou- 
/xatot? 7Tpo(J€^aXXov rals (f)vXaKaLS, Kal nvas [xev 
Twv TTpoKOLrovvTOJV d7Te(j(f>a^av Koiixojjxevovs, Trpos 
Se rriv rchv iyp-qyoporujv ^otjv hiaviorrj ndv to 
TrXrjdo? Kal /xer' eKTrXrj^eoJS dpTrdt^ovres rd onXa 

307 Trpos- TTjv d[ivvav ixcopovv. ecos" /xei^ ovu fJLOVOVs 
Tovs ^rjXojrd? iTnx^Lpelv VTreXafJi^avov, iOdppovv 
COS" TO) TrXrjdeL TTepLeGOfievoL, Kanbovres S' e^coOev 
ineiGX^oiievovs^ a'AAou? fjaOovro rr]v eLG^oXrjv rcov 

308 'ISoD/xatcuv, Kal to jiev rrXeov avTtov dpia rats' 
ipv^oJ^? KaTe^aXXe ra oTzXa Kal rrpos olpaoyals 
rjv, (^pa^dp^evoL 8e oXiyoL tlov veojv yevvaicxjg 
ehexovTO tovs ^IhovjxaLOVs Kal p^xpi' noXXov ttjv 

309 dpyoTepav ttXyjOvv euKeirov. ol Se Kpavyfj 8i- 
eGTjpaLvov Tols KaTd ttjv ttoXiv ra? GvpL(f>opa£, 
KaKeivajv dpivvai pcev ouSet? eToXpurjoev, ojs 
ejxaOov eiGTTerraLKOTas tovs ^ISovpLacov?, dpyd S' 
dvTe^oojv Kal dvTa>Xo(f)vpovTO, Kal ttoXvs kwkvtos 
yvvaiKcov -qyelpeTO klvSwevovtos eKd^Trj tivos 

310 TOW (f}vXdKajv. ol 8e ^T^Acorat toIs 'ISou/xatotS" 
GVveTTTjXdXalov Kal ttjv Ik TrdvTOJV ^otjv 6 x^^l^djv 
i-noUi (i)o(jepojT€pav. e^eihovTO re ovhevos Ihov- 

pLalOL, (f)VG€L re cLpOTaTOL (f)OV€V€LV OVT€S Kai TCp 

vetucijyt KeKaKOjpLevoL /cara tcov diTOKXeLGavTajv 

^ iirix^o/xevovs PA . 

90 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 305-310 . 

(v. 1) Yielding to these representations, the Idu- Wholesale 
maeans marched up through the city to the of^tife^^'^ 
Temple. The Zealots, who were anxiously awaiting guards of 
their arrival, on their entering the building boldly 
advanced from the inner court, joined the Idumaeans 
and fell upon the guards. Some of the outlving 
sentries they slew in their sleep, till, roused by the 
cries of those who were awake, the whole force in 
consternation snatched up their arms and advanced 
to the defence. So long as they believed the Zealots 
to be their only assailants, they did not lose heart, 
hoping to overpower them by numbers ; but the 
sight of others pouring in from outside brought home 
to them the irruption of the Idumaeans. There- 
upon, the greater number of them flung courage 
and armour away together and abandoned them- 
selves to lamentation ; a few of the younger men, 
however, fencing themselves in, gallantly received 
the Idumaeans and for a good while protected the 
feebler crowd. The cries of the latter signified their 
distress to their friends in the city, but not one of 
these ventured to their assistance, when they learnt 
that the Idumaeans had broken in ; instead they 
responded with futile shouts and lamentations on 
their side, while a great wail went up from the 
women, each ha\'ing some relative in the guards 
whose hfe was at stake. The Zealots joined in the 
war-whoop of the Idumaeans, and the din from all 
quarters was rendered more terrific by the howling 
of the storm." The Idumaeans spared none. Natur- 
ally of a most savage and murderous disposition, they 
had been buffeted by the storm and WTeaked their 

" C/. iii. 247 if. (Jotapata : the din of battle heightened by 
the echo from the mountains), vi. 272 if. (Jerusalem : similar). 

VOL. Ill D 91 



JOSEPHUS 

311 i)(pojpro Tols Oviiois:^' rjaav 5' ofioLOL rols t/c€- 
T6V0VGL Kal rols a/xfj-'o/xeyot? /cat ttoAAous- ttiJv 
re avyyeveiav avafUf-LvrjaKovrag Kal heoyievovs 
Tov Koivov lepov Xaf^elv aldoj di'qXavvov rols 

312 ^L(f)eGLv. Tju de (f)vyi]£ fxev ouoei? tottos ov8e 
GOjrrjpLas iXrris, ovvojOovfievoi he rrepl aAAT^Aous" 
KareKOTTTOvTO, Kal to uXeov eK^iaL^6p.evoL, ojg 
ovKer^ rjP vTToy^ojprjoeoJS rorro? eTTTjeuav 3 ol 
(povevovres, vtt" aii-q-x^avLas KaTeKpi^pivit,ov eavrovs 
els TTjV ttoXlv, OLKTporepov epLOiye hoKetv^ ov 
htecfievyov oXeOpov top avdaiperov vrropLevovreg. 

313 eTTeKX-uaOrj be to e^codev lepov Trdv at/xartj Kal 
veKpovs 6KTaKLG-)(iXi0VS rrevraKOGLOvs tj -qjiepa 
KareXafj-^avep. 

314 (~) OvK eKopeGdrjGap he tovtols ol OvpLol tojv 
^Ihov/JiaLOjp, dXX eiTL tt]v ttoXlp Tparropiepoi iraGav 
fiep OLKiap hirjp—aLop, eKTeiPOP he top rrepLTvy(6pTa. 

315 Kal TO p.ep dXXo ttXtiBos avTols ehoKei rrapapdXajp.a, 
rovs 8' dpx^epels dpet-qTovp , Kal /car' eKeiPwv rjp 

316 rots" TrXeLGTOis tj (fiopa. Ta)(eaj£ h aXoPTes hi- 
ecbSelpoPTO, Kal toIs peKpolg avTcop eTTiGTaPTes top 
fiep "Apapop TTjS ~po5 top hrjpLOP evpotag, top he 

^IrjGOVP TOJP 0.770 TOV TeL)(OV9 XoyOJP e—eGKOJTiTOP. 

317 TTporjXdop he els togovtop aGe^elas, ojGTe Kal 
aTacpovs plipat, KatTOi TOGavTTjP lovhatcop rrep^ 
rds Ta(j>ds Trpopoiap TroLovpiepcoPy ojGTe Kal tovs 
€/c KaTahiKTjS dpeGTavpajpLepovs Trpo hvPTog tjXlov 

318 KadeXetP re Kal ddrrTeLP. ovk dp dpidpTOLjjLL 8' 

^ VM^ : oTrXoij or ix&pois the rest. 
^ Dindorf: So/cet mss. 

*» At the outset of the blockade the guards on duty at 
92 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 311-318 

rage on those who had shut them out ; supphants 
and combatants were treated ahke, and many while 
reminding them of their kinship and imploring them 
to respect their common Temple were transfixed by 
their swords. No room for flight, no hope of escape 
remained ; crushed together upon each other they 
were cut do^^Tl, and the greater part, finding them- 
selves forced back until further retreat was impos=^ible, 
with their murderers closing upon them, in their 
helplessness flung themselves headlong into the 
city, devoting themselves to a fate more piteous in 
my opinion than that from which they fled. The 
whole outer court of the Temple was deluged with 
blood, and day dawned upon eight thousand five 
hundred ° dead. 

(2) The fur>' of the Idumaeans being still un- The 
satiated, they now turned to the city, looting every murder*^^ 
house and killing all who fell in their way. But, Ananus 
thinking their energies wasted on the common people, 
they went in search of the chief priests ; it was for 
them that the main rush was made, and they were 
soon captured and slain. Then, standing over their 
dead bodies, they scoffed at Ananus for his patronage 
of the people and at Jesus for the address which he 
had dehvered from the wall.^ They actually went 
so far in their impiety as to cast out the corpses 
without burial, although the Jews are so careful 
about funeral rites that even malefactors who have 
been sentenced to crucifixion are taken do\vn and 
buried before sunset.*^ I should not be wTong in 

one time numbered not more than 6000 (els e^a/ctcrxiX'oi's 
§ 206). That number was apparently afterwards increased. 
We are told that on this night they were " in full strength " 
or " above strength " {TrXTjevovaau § 295). 

* §§ 238 ff. Cf. Deut. xxi. 22 f. ; John xLx. 31. 

93 



JOSEPHUS 



€L7T(jjv aXcoGeoJS ap^ai rfj TrdAet rov ^Ai'dvov 
ddvarov, Kal drr* eKeivrjs rrj? rj^xipa^ dvarpaTTrjvai 
TO T€LXOS Kal SiacfidaprjvaL rd Trpdyfiara 'lou- 
Saiois, iv fj rov dp)(^i€pia Kal rjyefjiova rrjs ISla? 
aojrrjpLas avrcbv ern fxear^s tyjs TToXecos etSov 

319 aTr€G(f)ayiJLevov. rjv yap Srj rd re d'AAa uefivos 
dvqp Kal hiKaioraros , Kal Tvapd tov oyKov rrjs 
re evyeveias Kau ttjs a^ta? /cat rjs €i)(€ TLfjLTJs 
rjyaTTrjKOJS to iGOTipiov Kai rrpos tovs raTretvora- 

320 Tovs, (^iXeXevdepos Tt eKTOTTOJS Kal Sr]fioKpaTLas 

ipaOTlj?, TTpO T€ TOJV lSlOJV XvOLTeXoW TO KOLVJ] 

GVfi(f)€pov a€L Tidefievos Kai Trepc rravTos ttolov- 
jxevos TTjV elprjVTjv dfiaxa yap rj^^t to, 'PojjjiaLOJV 
TTpoGKOTTOVjxevos S' vtt' avdyKT]? Kal ra Kara rov 
TToXejjLov, oTTcos, €L pLTj hiaXvGaLVTO louSatot, 

321 Se^tcu? SLa(f)epoivro. KaOoXov 8' etVetv, ^covros 
^Avdvov Trdvrajs dv <7^>^ SceXvdrjGav Seivog yap 
TjV elrrelv re Kal 77etcrat rov brjfJLOv, tJStj Se ixetpovro 
Kal rovg ipLTToSt^ovras' tj rroXepLOvvres^ nXeLGrrjv 
dv rpL^Tjv 'VcojxaioLs napeG^ov vtto roiovrcp 

322 Grpanqyo). rrape^evKro 8' avrco Kal 6 l7]Govs, 
avrov /xey XeiTTOfievo^ Kara GvyKpcGLV, Trpovx^^'^ 

323 Se T(x)v dXXojv. dXX ot/xat KaraKpivas 6 Oeds cos 
fJLefJLLaGfievrjs ttjs noXeaJS airajXeiav Kai irvpt, 
^ovXojJLevos €KKadapdrjvaL rd dyia rovs dvre^o- 
fxevov? avrdjv Kal (jyiXoGTopyovvras TTepieKonrev. 

324 ol Se 77po oXiyov rrjv Updv iGdrjra irepiKeipLevoi, 

^ ins. Niese, 
^ Destinon : TroXe/xovvras MSS. 

• Ananus is here almost the counterpart of Pericles ; the 
94 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 318-324 

saying that the capture of the city began with the 
death of Ananus ; and that the overthrow of the 
walls and the downfall of the Jewish state dated 
from the day on which the Jews beheld their high 
priest, the captain of their salvation, butchered in 
the heart of Jerusalem. A man on every ground Encomium 
revered and of the highest integrity, Ananus," Mdth and Jesus. 
all the distinction of his birth, his rank and the 
honours to which he had attained, yet delighted to 
treat the very humblest as his equals. Unique in his 
love of hberty and an enthusiast for democracy, he 
on all occasions put the pubhc welfare above his 
private interests. To maintain peace was his supreme 
object. He knew that the Roman power was irresist- 
ible, but, when driven to provide for a state of war, 
he endeavoured to secure that, if the Jews would 
not come to terms, the struggle should at least be 
skilfully conducted. In a word, had Ananus lived, 
they would undoubtedly either have arranged terms 
— for he was an effective speaker, whose words carried 
weight with the people, and was already gaining 
control even over those who thwarted him — or else, 
had hostihties continued, they would have greatly 
retarded the victory of the Romans under such a 
general. With him was linked Jesus, who, though 
not comparable Math Ananus, stood far above the 
rest. But it was, I suppose, because God had, for 
its pollutions, condemned the city to destruction and 
desired to purge the sanctuary by fire, that He thus 
cut off those who clung to them with such tender 
affection. So they who but lately had worn the 

encomium on the latter in Thuc. ii. 65 is doubtless in our 
historian's mind. 

95 



JOSEPHUS 

KrA T-qg KOGfXLKTJs 6prjGK€Lag Karap'xpvTes Trpoo- 
KVVovyL€voi re toIs €k rrj? oLKovfJLevrjg irapa.- 
^dXXovcTLv et? T7]i' ttoXlv, ippifXfievoL yvjjivoi ^opa 

325 Kvvcijv Kal drjpiojv iBXeTTOvro. avrrjv err €K€Ivois 
orevd^aL rols dvhpdaL Soko) ttjv dpeTijv, oAo- 
(f)upofJi€vrjV on togovtov ^Trrjro rrjs KaKLa<;. aAAa 
yap TO fiev \vdvov Kal Irjaov reAos" tolovtov 

326 (S) Mera d' eKeivovs ol re trjXojral /cat rcbv 
^IdovfjiaLcov TO ttXtjOo? tov Xaov coGTrep avoGicov 

327 Icoojv dyeX-qv emovreg eG^atov. Kai to pL€V 
eiKaZov 6<i>' ov KaTaX'qc^delrj tottov Ste^^etpero, 
tovs 8e evyevelg Kal viovg GvXXa[if8dvovT€s €ls 
€LpKT7]v KareKXeiov heSejievovs, KaT eXTnda tov 
TrpoGdrjGeGdac TLvas avTolg ttjv dvaipeGiv v—ep- 

328 TiOdfJievoi. TrpoGEGX^ S' ovSecs, dXXd ndvT€s tov 
Td^aGOai fxeTa twv TTOvrjpojv KaTa Trjs TrarptSos" 

329 rrpoeiXovTO tov OdvaTOV. hewdg he Trjg apvqGeojs 
aLKcag vrrejievov pLaGTiyovp.evoi re Kal GTpe- 
^Xovjievoi, /xera Se to pb-qKeT dpKelv to GOjp.a 

330 rat? BaGdvois p.6Xig tj^lovvto tov ^L(f)OV£. ol 
GvXXrj(j)9evTes Se p.ed'' rjuepav dvr^povvTO^ vvKTCup, 
Kal Tovs veKpovs eK(l)opovvTes eppiTTTOV, co? eTepots 

331 etr] SeGficoTaig tottos. -qv he TooavTrj tov h-qpLOV 
KaTdTrX-q^iS , (hs pL-qSeva ToXpLrjaat pLiJTe /cAatetv 
(f)avepa)5 tov TrpoGrjKovTa veKpov p-TJTe daiTTeiv, 
dXXd XaOpala pLev -qv avTcov KaTaKeKXeiGp.iv(jjv Ta 
haKpva Kal jxeTa TrepiGKeipeajs, p^Tj Ti£ erraKOVGr] 

332 Tcov exOpoJv, eGTevov tcra yap toIs TrevdovpLevois o 

^ dvTjyovTo L Lat. 

'^ Literally " cosmical," meaning either " open to the 
whole world " or perhaps " emblematic of the mundane 

96 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 321-332 

sacred vestments. led those ceremonies of world-%\'ide" 
significance and been reverenced by visitors to the 
city from every quarter of the earth, were now seen 
cast out naked, to be devoured by dogs and beasts 
of prey. Virtue herself, I think, groaned for these 
men's fate, bewailing such utter defeat at the hands 
of vice. Such, however, was the end of Ananus and 
Jesus. 

(3) Ha\-ing disposed of them, the Zealots and the The Zealots 
Idumaean hordes fell upon and butchered the people jdumaeans 
as thousrh tliey had been a herd of unclean animals, torture and 

o J kill the 

Ordinary folk were slain on the spot where they nobility. 
were caught ; but the young nobles ^ they arrested 
and threw into prison in irons, postponing their 
execution in the hope that some would come over 
to their party. Not one, however, listened to their 
overtures, all preferring to die rather than side with 
these criminals against their country, notNvithstand- 
ing the fearful agonies which they underwent for 
their refusal : they were scourged and racked, and 
only when their bodies could no longer sustain these 
tortures were they grudgingly consigned to the 
sword. Those arrested by day were dispatched at 
night and their bodies cast forth to make room for 
fresh prisoners. To such consternation were the 
people reduced that none dared openly weep for or 
burv a deceased relative ; but in secret and behind 
closed doors were their tears shed and their groans 
uttered with circumspection, for fear of being over- 
heard by any of their foes. For the mourner in- 

system " (Traill) ; cf. Ant. iii. 123, 180 if. (the Tabernacle a 
symbol of the universe), with Westcott's note on Heb. L\. 1 
{jh ii'yiov Koa/JLLKOp), 

^ TOL'S €vy€P€is Kai p^ovs parallel with tu>p evyepQp viusv 
below (§ 333). 

97 



JOSEPHUS 

TTevBrjGas €v6vg enacrx^' vvKTOjp Se koviv aipovres 
X^polv oXlyrjv iTreppLTrrovv rol? croj/xacrt, Kai p-ed 

333 rjp^epav ei rt? Trapd[3oXos . pvpiOL Kai hiaxiXioi 
row €vy€va)v veojv ovrojs Si€(f)6dpr]Gav. 

334 (4) Ot he 7]8r] hLaiiepLcrrjKoreg ro (^oveveiv dvdhrjv 

335 elpojvevovro hiKaur-qpia Kai KpiaeiS- Kai h-q riva 
Tojv i7n(f)aveGrdrajv drroKTeiveLv irpodepevoL Zap(a- 
piav VLOV Bdpeis^' Trapoj^vve 8' avrovs ro Xiav 
rdvhpos fXLGOTTOvqpov kol (^iXeXevdepov, rjv he Kai 
ttXovglos, (Lore pr] pLOVov eXTTL^ecv rrjv dpirayiqv 
rrjs ovcjia?, dXXd Kai TrpocraTToaKevdGeGdaL' hvva- 

336 rov dvdpojTTOV els ttjv eavrow KardXvGiv Gvy- 
KaXovGL pLev e^ eTTLrdyparos e^dopLrjKovTa tojv ev 
reXei hrjpiOTCov els to lepov, TrepiOevres h avrols 
ojGTTep irrl GKTjvrjs G')(fipa hiKaGrow eprjpLOV 
i^ovGias rod Z^axaplov Karrjyopovv, ws evhihotrj 
rd Trpdypara 'PcopaloLs Kai rrepl rrpohoGLas hia- 

337 TTepdiaLTo rrpos OveGTraGcavov. -qv he ovr eXeyxos 
ris rojv KarTjyopovpevojv ovre reKpurjpiov, dXX 
avrol TTeTrelGdai KaXojs ecjiaGav Kai rovr eivaL 

338 TTLGriv rrjs dXrjOelas rj^lovv. o ye piTjV Za;^apias 
GWihajv p-qhepiav avrqj KaraXeuTTopLevrjV GOjrrjpias 
eXTTiha, KeKXrJGOai yap Kar evehpav els eipKr-qv, 
ovK errl hiKaGrrjpiov, eTTOurjoaro rrjv rov Lrjv airo- 
yvojGLV OVK d7TapprjGLaGroi>, dAAd Karaoras ro 

1 PAVR Lat. : Bapovxov M^C : BapiaKaiov LM*. 
^ ed. pr. and Lat. : ir poaaTrocr Keva^ecrdai MSS. 

" This incident has gained an interest for N.T. students 
from an old suggestion revived by Wellhausen {Einldtung 
rn d'(^ drei ersteaEvangelien.td. 2, 191 1, pp. 1 18 fF.) to identify 
this Zacharias son of Baris (or Bariscaeus : the reading 
Baruch is negUgible) with the " Zachariah.son of Barachiah," 
whose death in the temple is referred to by Christ in Matt. 

98 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 332-338 

stantly suffered the same fate as the mourned. Only 
by night would they take a little dust in both hands 
and strew it on the bodies, though some venturous 
persons did this by day. Twelve thousand of the 
youthful nobility thus perished. 

(4) Having now come to loathe indiscriminate Mock trial 
massacre, the Zealots instituted mock trials and murder of 
courts of justice. They had determined to put to Zachanas, 
death Zacharias, son of Baris," one of the most 
eminent of the citizens. The man exasperated them 
by his pronounced hatred of wTong and love of liberty, 
and, as he was also rich, they had the double prospect 
of plundering his property and of getting rid of a 
powerful and dangerous opponent. So they issued 
a peremptory summons to seventy of the leading 
citizens to appear in the Temple, assigning to them, 
as in a play, the role, ^vithout the authority, of 
judges ; they then accused Zacharias of betraying 
the state to the Romans and of holding treasonable 
communications with Vespasian. They adduced no 
evidence or proof in support of these charges, but 
declared that they were fully convinced of his guilt 
themselves and claimed this as sufficiently establish- 
ing the fact. Zacharias, aware that no hope of 
escape was left him, as he had been treacherously 
summoned to a prison rather than a court of justice, 
did not allow despair of life to rob him of hberty of 
speech. He rose and ridiculed the probability of 

xxiii. 35, as the last of a series of Jewish murders beginning 
with that of Abel. The theory, which rests on a rather 
remote resemblance of names, is on many grounds untenable. 
The author of the first Gos])el refers to the murder of Z. 
ben Jehoiada (2 Chron. wiv. 19 ff.) whom, like some Jewish 
Rabbis, he confused with Z. ben Berechiah, the prophet of 
the Restoration (Zech. i. 1). 

VOL. Ill D 2 99 



JOSEPHUS 

fi€v TTidavov Twv Karr^yoprjfievojv Ste;)(Aem(7e Kai 
dta ^pay^ecov arreXvaaro ras eTTL'jiepoiievas alrlag. 

339 eVetra be rov Xoyov et? tov£ Karriyopovs arro- 
crpeipag i^rjs Trdaa? avrojv Sce^TJeL ras Tiapavopias 
Kril 77oAAd TTcpl rrj? avyxvoeojs KarcoXo^vparo 

340 Tojv Trpayjidrojv. ol L'qXojTal 8' edop-uj^ovv Kai 
/xdAi? rojv ^Lcfiojv aTTeKpdrovv, to gxtJP-ol Kai rrjv 
elpojveiav rod hLKaur-qpiov /-tep^pt reXovg Tral^ai 
TrpoaipovpievoL, Kai aAAoj? Treipdaai OeXovreg rovg 
hiKaGrdg, el Trapd rov avrcvv KLvhvvov iiv~qadrj- 

34:1 oovraL rod biKaiov. (jiepovai 8' ol e^dofjLrjKovra 
TO) KpLvofievcx) ras" ipT](i)OV£ airavres Kai gvv avrco 
TTpoeiXovTO reOvdvcLL fxaXXov rj rrjg dvacpeaeajg 

342 avTov Xa^elv ttjv €7nypa(l)r]V. rjpOrj he ^orj tojv 
IrjXojTOJv Trpos rrjV aTToXvcnv, Kai navrajv ptev rjv 
ayavaKT'^GLs errl rols hiKaaraZs (Lg pLT] cruvielGL 

343 TTiv elpojveiav ttjs doOeLGrjg avrot? e^ovGiag, Svo 
he TOJV ToXfi-qpoTdTOJV TrpoG—eGovTes ev peGOj to* 
lepqj hiacfideLpovGi tov Za;^aptav /cat TreGovTL 
imxXevdGavTes echaGav " /cat 77ap* rjp.ojv Tr)v 
tpfj(l)Ov exeL? Kai ^e^aioTepav drroXyGLVy" piTTTOVGi 
re avTov evOeojs drro tov lepov /cara ttjs vtto- 

344 Keipevrj£ (j)dpayyos . tovs 8e dt/cacrra? Trpos v^ptv 
drreGrpaiipLevoL? tols ^IcbeGL TV—TOVTeg e^eojGav tov 
Trepi^oXov, 8t' ev tovto (jjeiGdpevoL ttjs G(f)ayrJ5 
avrojv, Lva GKeSaGdevTes dva ttjv ttoXiv dyyeXoi 
TTaGi TTjs SouAeta? yevowTai. 

345 (^5) Tot? 8' 'ISou/Ltatot? rjhrj ttjs TrapovGuas 

346 pieTepeXe Kai TrpoGLGTaTO id TrpaTTOpLeva. gvv- 
ayaycbv be avTov? tl£ dTTO twv 1,tjXojtojv /car 
Iblav eXOojv evebeLKvoTO ra GvpTrapavoprjdevTa 
Tolg KaXeGaGL Kai to Kara, tt^s" prjTpoTToXeoJS 
100 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 338-346 

tlie accusation, and in few words quashed the charges 
laid against him. Then, rounding upon his accusers, 
he went over all their enormities in order, and bitterly 
lamented the confusion of public affairs. The Zealots 
were in an uproar and could scarce refrain from 
dra\\-ing their swords, although they were anxious to 
play out their part and this farce of a trial to the 
close, and desired, moreover, to test whether the 
judges would put considerations of justice above their 
own peril. The sevent}^ however, brought in a 
unanimous verdict for the defendant, preferring to 
die with him rather than be held answerable for his 
destruction. The Zealots raised an outcry at his 
acquittal, and were all indignant ^^ith the judges for 
not understanding that the authority entrusted to 
them was a mere pretence. Two of the most daring 
of them then set upon Zacharias and slew him in the 
midst of the Temple, and exclaiming in jest over his 
prostrate body " Now you have our verdict also and 
a more certain release,'* " forthv.ith cast him out 
of the Temple into the ra\ine below. Then they 
insolently struck the judges Mith the backs of their 
swords and drove them from the precincts ; sparing 
their lives for the sole reason that they might dis- 
perse through the city and proclaim to all the 
servitude to which they were reduced. 

(5) The Idumaeans now began to regret that they a Zealot 
had come, taking offence at these proceedings. In denouifces 
this mood they were called together by one of the the crimes 
Zealots, who came to them privately and showed up to the 
the crimes which thev had committed in conjunction idumaeans 
with those who had summoned them, and gave a them to 

depart. 

" The Greek word dTroXicrts means both '' acquittal " and 
" decease." 

101 



JOSEPHUS 

347 hi€^i^€L' TTaparduGeGOaL jxev yap ojs vtto tojv 
apy^iepeojv 7TpoSLbofj.€vr]£ Paj/xatot? rrjs pLrjTpo' 
TToXeojg, evprjKevai be rrpohoGLas p-kv reKprjpLOV 
ovSev, Tovg §' iKeivrjv viroKpivopiivovs <^vXar- 
readai kol rroXepov kol rvpavvihos epya ToXp.ojv- 

348 ras. TrpoGrjKeiv pev ovv avrols SiaKcoXveLV a— 
dpxT]S' i7T€Ldrj 8' o-Tra^ els KOivowiav ep.(l)vXLOV 
(f)6vov Trpoerreoov,^ opov yovv emdelvaL rots ap^aprrj- 
pauL KOL pLT] TTapapLeveLV -x^op-qyovvras iu)(yv rols 

349 KaraXvovGL rd Trdrpia. koI yap el TLves p^aAe- 
TiaivovoL ro)^ KXeLoOrjvai rag —vXas Kal pLTj hodrjvai 
pLera rcov dirXcov avrols eroLpL7]v ttjv euGooov, 
dXXd Tovs elp^avras reripojprjaOai' Kal reOvavai 
pev ^Avavov, hiecjiSdpdai 5' IttI pads vvktos 

350 oXlyov help rrdvra top brjpov. ecj) ols tojv p.ev 
OLKelcop TToXXoijs aladdveaOai peravoovvras, rcov 
eTTLKaXeaapevojv he opdv d.perpov ttjp ojpLoriqra 

351 pLTjhe St ovs iaojOrjGav alhovpievcov ev o^/xacrt 
yovv TOJV Gvppd)(ojv rd aLG)(LGra roXpLav, /cat ras 
eKeivcjjv TTapavoptas 'ISou/xatot? TrpoGdirreGOaL, 
p,expi-£ dv pL'rjre kojXvtj ns pLijre ;)(coptc,7]Tat rcov 

352 BpojpLevojv. helv ovv, eTreihrj hia^oXr] puev 7Te(f>T]ve 
rd rT]s TTpohoGias, e(j)oSog he 'PajpLalcov ovSepaa 
TTpoohoKaraL, hvvaareia 8' eTTLrereixi-orai rij 
TToXeL hvGKardXvros , avrovs dvaxojpelv en oIkov 
Kai roj pLTj KOLvojvelv rois (/javAot? airavrajv 
arroXoyqGaGd ai Trept, ojv (f)evaKLGdevres piera- 
G^piev . 

353 (vi. l) Tourot? TreLodevres ol ^Ihovpalot irpoj- 

* R : irpoaiTreaov most MSS. : /leTeireaov L. 
* Dindorf : to mss. 

102 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 34.7-353 

detailed account of the situation in the capital. 
They had enlisted, he reminded them, in the belief 
that the chief priests were betraying the metropohs 
to the Romans ; but they had discovered no evidence 
of treason, whereas its professed defenders were the 
daring perpetrators of acts of war and despotism. 
These proceedings, he said, the Idumaeans should 
have checked at the outset ; but having once become 
their partners and plunged into civil war, they ought 
now at least to put a limit to their sins and no longer 
continue to lend support to men who were subverting 
the institutions of their forefathers. Even were there 
any still indignant at the closure of the gates and the 
refusal of prompt admission to them while bearing 
arms, well, those who had excluded them had now 
been punished : Ananus was dead and in one night 
almost the whole population had been destroyed. 
Such actions, he could perceive, had produced re- 
pentance in many of their o^^^l party, but among 
those who had invited them he saw nothing but 
unmeasured brutality, without the slightest respect 
for their deliverers : under the very eyes of their 
alhes they dared to commit the foulest atrocities, 
and their iniquities would be ascribed to the Idum- 
aeans, so long as no one vetoed or dissociated himself 
from these proceedings. Since, then, the charge of 
treason had been shown to be a calumny and no 
invasion of the Romans was expected, while the city 
had had planted upon it a despotism not easily to be 
overthrowii, their duty (he said) was to return home 
and by severing their connexion with these scoundrels 
to make some amends for all the crimes in which 
they had been duped into taking a part, 

{vi. 1) Acting on this ad\'ice, the Idumaeans first 

103 



JOSEPHUS 

rov fj.€v XvovGi Tovs iv Tol? heaiiojTrjpLOL? rrepi 
hiu-x^iXlovs b-qjioras, ol TTapaxprjua (f)vy6vT€5 e/c 
rij? TToXeoJS acfjLKVovvraL Trpo? Hip^ajva, Trepl ov 
p-LKpov VGTepov epovptev eTreira eV tcdv 'lepo- 

354 GoXvpLOJV ave)(0)prjGav Irr oIkov. Kal Gvve^r] rov 
XOjpLGpLOv avTOJV yeveGdai Trapddo^ov dpLcfiordpoLS' 
o T€ yap drjpLog ayvowv rrjv pLeravoLav aveddpG-qae 

355 rrpog oXiyov ojs e'x^Opojv K€KOV(f)LGpL€vos , ot re 
^7]Xa)Tal p.dXXov eTraveoTrjaav, ovx cLs vtto Gvpi- 
pidxojv KaraXeL<j)divTes , dXX aTrrjXXaypLevoL tojv 
SvGOjTTOVVTOjv Kal SiarpeTTOvrajv TrapavopLelv. 

356 ovKeri yovv p.eXXrjGi? t) GKeipL? tjv rcov aoLKTjpLarojv, 
dAA' o^vrdraLs pL€v expojvro rats ImvoiaLS els 
eKaGra, rd SoxOevra Se rd^i^ov Kai rrjs emvoLas 

857 evqpyovv. pidXiGra 5' eV drhpeiav re Kac ev- 
yeveiav €(/)6va>v, rrjv fiev cfidovoj Xvp.aLvopLevoi, ro 
he yewalov heei- povqv yap avrdw^ aGcLdXetau 
VTTeXdp.^avov rd pLrjSeva row hvvardjv KaraXiTrelv. 

358 avTjpeOrj yovv gvv ttoXXol? erepois Kal TovpicoVy 
a^idjfiari p.ev Kal yevei rrpovyajv, hy]ixoKpariKos 
he Kal (j>povrjpiaros eXevOepiov p.eGr6s, ei Acat rts" 
erepos ^lovhaicov drrcoXeGe S' avrov r) TrapprjOLa 

359 p-dXiGra rrpos roZs dXXois TrXeoveKrijpLaGLV . ouS' 
d Ylepatrrjs Ntyep avrojv rd? ■)(elpa'S hie^vyev, 
avTjp dpLGrog iv rols rrpds 'Pajpialovs TroXep.ots 
yevopLevo?' os Kal ^oojv rroXXdKLs rd? re coreiXas 

360 emdeiKvvs hid p.eG-qs eovpero ri^s TToXeo)?. errei 

^ avTC:v MSS. (as often). 

« §§ 503 ff. 

* Probably identical with Gorion ben Joseph, § 159. 

* " Teeming " ; cf. Plato, Rep. 563 d /xeard iXevdeplas, 
" ready to burst with liberty " (Jowett). 

104 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 353-360 

liberated the citizens confined in the prisons, number- The 
ing about two thousand (these immediately fled from of the*^^^^^ 
the city and joined Simon, of whom we shall speak idumaeans 
presently °) ; they then left Jerusalem and returned "^ '^^^ 
home. Their departure produced an unlooked-for 
effect on both parties : the citizens, unaware of their 
repentance, recovered momentary confidence, as if 
relieved of an enemy ; the Zealots, on the other leads the 
hand, grew yet more insolent, not as though they ?rea°e? *^ 
had been abandoned by allies, but as quit of critics atrocities. 
who discountenanced and sought to deter them from 
their lawlessness. No longer now was there any 
delay or deliberation about their crimes ; they de- 
vised their plans with lightning rapidity, and in each 
case put their decisions into effect even more swiftly 
than they devised them. They thirsted above all for 
the blood of the brave and the nobility, massacring 
the latter out of envy, the former from fear ; for 
they imagined that their own safety depended solely 
on their leaving no person of authority alive. Thus, Further 
to take one instance among many, they murdered q^^q ' 
Gurion,^ a person of exalted rank and birth, and 
yet a democrat and filled '^ with liberal principles, 
if ever Jew was ; his outspokenness, added to the 
privileges of his position, was the main cause of his 
ruin. Nor did even Niger the Peraean ^ escape and Niger. 
their hands, a man who had shown exceptional 
gallantry in his battles with the Romans : vehemently 
protesting and pointing to his scars, this veteran 
was dragged through the midst of the city. When 

** He distinguished himself in the opening battle with 
Ccstius, i?. il. 5-20; was at one time governor of Idumaea, ii. 
566 : and led two unsuccessful attacks on the Roman 
garrison at Ascalon, when he again won dis inction and had a 
miraculous escape, iii. 11-28. 

105 



JOSEPHUS 

S' efco Twv TTvXujv -qKTO, TTjv uojT-qpiav aTToyvovg 
7T€pl racfirj? lk€T€V€v ol he TrpoaTreiX'qGavres r)? 
eneOvfJieL /jLaAtara yrjg /xt] fxerahojaeiv a-urqj, tov 

361 (f)6vov ivqpyovv. avaipovpievo? Se o Ntyep rt/xcD- 
pov? 'Pojfiaiovs avTols irr-qpaGaro, Xifiov re Kat 
Xoijiov irrl ro) TroXdpLO) Kat rrpos arraGi rag aXXr^Xow 

362 X^'^P^^' ^ ^V Travra Kara rcov aae^ow eKvpojoev 
6 deos, /cat TO hiKriLoraroVy on yevaaadaL rrjs 
dXXriXcov drrovoLas e/xeAAov oi}/c et? ptaKpav crraata- 

363 cavres. Ntyep piev ovv dvrjprjpievog rovs Trepi 
rrjs KaraXvaecxjg avTOJV So^ovs eVeKou^tcre, rod 
Xaov 8e pL€po£ ouSev t^v, o) piTj Trpos dirajXeLau 

364 eTTevoelro rrpofj^aGL?. to /^tev yap avrow hievexOeu 
TLVL TTaXai SLe(l)dapTO, ro Se pirj irpoaKpovGav Kar 
elprjirqv eTTiKaipov^ iXdpi^ave rds alrias' Kat o 
pL€V pLr]h^ oXojs avTols TrpoGiajv wg vrreprjcfiavos, 
6 TTpoGidjv 8e p-era rrapp-qaLas wg Karacjipovow, o 

365 depaiTevajv S' o'js eTrifjovXog VTTWTTTevero . /xta 
Se riv TOW re p^eyiuTOW kol pL€TpLajraTOJv ey- 
KXrjpLaTajv TLpLcopla ddvaTOs, kol SUcfivyev ovSets, 
el pLTj Gcfiohpa TLS rjv raTreivos \rjY 8t ayevetav t) 
Std Tvxf]v. 

366 (2) 'PojpLaLojv Se ol p.ev dXXoL TrdvTes -qyepLOves 
eppLaiov Tjyovpievoi ttjv uTaoiv row TToXepaojv 
wppi'qvro TTpos rrjv ttoXlv kol tov OveGTraoiavov 
TJrreLyov cL? dv ovra Kvpcov row oXojv, (f)apievoi 
TTpovoiav deov ovpLjiaxov G(jiLGL ro) rerpd(f)OaL 

^ ora. fi L. 

• Or "... had quarrels having long since been " : 
TrdXat in the central position may be intended as adverb to 
both verbs. 

'' In the manner of Thucydides in his reflections on civil 

dissensions ^crrdcrets), iii. 82. 
106 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 360-366 

brought without the gates, he, despairing of his hi*., 
besought them to give him burial ; but they fiercely 
declared that they would not grant him the one 
desire of his heart — a grave — and then proceeded 
to murder him. In his dying moments Niger im- 
precated upon their heads the vengeance of the 
Romans, famine and pestilence to add to the horrors 
of war, and, to crown all, internecine strife ; all which 
curses upon the wretches were ratified by God, 
including that most righteous fate, by which they 
were doomed ere long to taste in party conflict the 
effects of their comrades' frenzy. Niger's removal 
anyhow reheved their fear of being deposed from 
power ; but there was no section of the people for 
whose destruction some pretext was not de\'ised. 
Those with whom any had ancient quarrels having 
been** put to death, against those who had given 
them no umbrage in peace-time accusations suitable 
to the occasion were invented : the man who never 
approached them was suspected of pride ; he who 
approached them with freedom, of treating them 
^^ith contempt ; he who courted them, of conspiracy.* 
The one penalty for charges of the gravest or the 
most trifling nature was death ; and none escaped 
save those whose humble birth put them utterly 
beneath notice, unless by accident." 

(2) The Roman generals, regarding the dissension Vespasian 
in the enemy's ranks as a godsend, were all eager to ^fth hS^^ 
march against the capital, and urged Vespasian, as generals 
commander-in-chief, to take this course. " Divine attacking 
providence," they said, " has come to our aid by Jerusalem. 

* I omit the first v with L. The natural rendering " those 
whose humble birth or fortune" etc. gives tvxv a sense 
which appears unwarranted. 

107 



JOSEPHUS 

367 Tovg i-)(dpovs Kar dXXrjXojv etvai fievTOt Tqv 
poTTTjv o^elav, Kal rax^oJ? 'louSatou? ofiovo-qaeiv^ 
Tj KOTTidaavTag ev rot? €fJL(f)vXiotg KaKolg r) [lera- 

368 voTjuavras • OveGTraaiavos 8e TrXeiGrov avrovg ecjiTj 
Tov heovTos ajiapro-veLV y ajGirep ev Oedrpcp x^ipajv 
re Kal ottXojv iTrihei^iv TTOLrjaaaOat yXixofJievovg 
ovK aKLvSwov, dXXd (jltj to GVii(j)epov Kal raCT^aAe? 

369 GKOTTOVvras. et fxev yap evOecog opfJLrjcreLev em 

TTjV TToXiVy aiTLOS OflOVOLag eaCCT^Qt Tols TToXefJLLOiS 

Kal T7]v Icr^vv avrow aKfjid^ovcrav ecji' eavTOV 
iTTLcrrpeifjeLv'^- et he rrepiiieiveiev, oXiyujrepois XPV' 

370 aeaOai darrav-qOelaLV iv rfj urdGei. arparrjyelv 
fiev yap dpieivov avrov tov Oeov, aTTOvrjTL^ Pco- 
fiaiois TTapaSiSovra 'louSatoi'? Kal ttjv vlktjv dKiv 

371 Svvcog rfj crrpar-qyiq} ^aptCo/xevov ojare XPW'^''* 
SiacfydeLpopLepojv x^P^'-'^ olKeiais TCiyv ex^pow Kai 
TO) fieyiO-TO) KaKO) Grduei ;(paj/i,eycoy, deardg 
fjidXXov avTovs aTTOKaOrjaOai rcov klvSvvojv rj 
davardjGLV avdpd>7TOLS Kai XeXvGGiqKOGLV Kar 

372 dXX-qXcov X^^P^ fJLLGyeiv. "el Se ns o'ierai r7]v 
ho^av rrjs VLK'qs ecoXorepav eGeGBai Stp^a p-O-X'')'^* 
yi'coraj rod Sta rojv ottXojv G(f)aXepov ro p.e6 

373 rjGvx^CLS Kar6p6cop.a XvGireXeGrepov <6v>^' /cat yap 
ovx Tjrrov evKXeels oteGdai xP'h "^^^ Kara X^^P^ 
XapLTTpdw rovs eyKpareia Kai Gvveoei ra tcra 
TTpd^avras." a/xa p.evroL fjieiovp-evow rojv rroXe- 
pLLOJV Kal rr^v avrov Grparidv, avaX-q(f)deLGav eK 

374 rojv Gvvexdiv ttovojv, eppajpLevearepav e^eiv. dXXojg 

^ ed. pr. with Lat. : + r|^uv mss. 
^ Bekker with Lat. : iiria-Tp^cpeiv mss. 

' iKOVLTL VRC {CLKOI'TL L). * (TTpaTiq. LVC. 

' ins. Herwerden with Cobet. 
108 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 367-374 

turning our adversaries against each other ; but "Our 
changes come rapidly and the Jews will quickly to^slt^stiiL 
return to unanimity through weariness or repentance 
of civil strife." To this Vespasian repHed that they '^ 
were gravely mistaken as to the right policy, and 
were anxious to make a theatrical, though hazardous, 
display of their gallantry and arms, without regard 
to expediency and safety. For, were he immediately 
to attack the city, the effect would be merely to J 
reunite their opponents and to turn their forces in 
fullest strength against himself ; whereas by waiting 
he would find fewer enemies, when they had wasted 
their numbers in sedition. God was a better general 
than he, and was delivering the Jews to the Romans 
without any exertion on their part and bestowing 
victory upon them without risk to Roman general- 
ship. Consequently, while their adversaries were 
perishing by their own hands and suffering from that 
worst of calamities, civil strife, their part was rather 
to sit as distant spectators** of their perils, than to 
contend with men who courted death and were 
raving against each other. " But," he continued, ^ 
" if anyone thinks that the glory of victory will lose j 
its zest without a fight, let him learn that success 
obtained by sitting still is more fruitful than when 
won by the uncertainty of arms ; indeed those who / 
attain the same ends by self-restraint and sagacity 
should be deemed no less famous than those who 
distinguish themselves in action." Moreover, while 
the enemy's numbers were diminishing, his own 
army would have recruited their strength after their 
continuous labours and be at his service rein vigor ate d. 

• As at gladiatorial shows. 

109 



JOSEPHUS 

T€ Kal Tojv GTO)(alofJLeva)v rrjs Trepl T'r]v vlktjv 

375 XajjLTTporrjros ov rovrov elvai rov Kaipov ov yap 
TTepl KaraoKevrjV ottXojv rj reixojv ovSe irepl 
uvXXoyrjV imKovpajv ^lovSalovs daxoXelaOaL Kal^ 
rrjv vrrepdeuLv ecrecr^at Kara rwv hiSovTajv, dAA* 
i{jL(f)vXLqj TroXejJLOj Kal 8tp(ovota rpaxrjXL^ofJLevovs 
Kad^ rjjjLepav OLKTporepa ttolgx^lv cLv dv irreXOovreg 

376 avTOL SiaOelev avrovs aXovras^ etr' ovv Taac^aXe? 
TLs GK07T0LT], )(prji'ai Tovs V(f)^ eavTOJV avaXiGKO- 
fievovs edv, etre to evKXeeGrepov rod Karopdo)- 
fiarog, ov Setv rot? olkol vouovglv emxeipeZv 
prj9rjG€Gdai yap evXoycos ovk avrojv rrjv vlkyjv 
aXXd rrjg oraGeaJS. 

Zll (3) Tavra OveGTraGiavo) Xeyovn Gvvrjvovv ol 
T)y€}i6ves, Kal 77apaxpT]IJLa to GTpaTTjyiKOV ttjs 
yvcopLTi? dvec^aiveTO' ttoXXoi yovv^ Kad "qjjiepav 

378 r]VTO(L6Xovv tovs L^'qXojTas SiaSihpaGKovTeS' X^' 
XeTTT] 8' ■^v Tj (j>vy-q cf)povpal? SL€LXrj(f>6TOJV Tag 
Si€^6dovs TTaGas Kal tov ottcdgovv ev avTais 
dXiGKOjievov cos TTpos ^Vajjiaiovs dmovTa Sta- 

379 p(poj//ei'6oy. o ye [jltjv ;)^p7^/xaTa Sous' i^rj(l)L€TO 

Kai pLOVOS TjV 6 pLT] SlSoVS TTpoSoTTjSy OJGT€ KGT- 

eAetVero tojv eviropajv ttjv (f)vyrjv (hvovpievajv fiovovs 

380 iva7T0G(f)dTTeG9aL tovs TrevqTas. veKpol Se Kiara 
Tas Xeoj(i)6povs TTaaas iocopevovTO 7TapLTrXr]d€LS, 
Kal TToXXol Tcov 6p{xa)pLeva)V avTOpLoXeXv TrdXiv ttjv 
eVSoy dTTwXeLav rjpovvTO' tov yap €7tl ttjs TraTpioos 
ddvaTOV cXttIs TacjjTis eTToUi hoKeZv jxeTpiojTepov. 

381 ol S' els TOGovTov (LpLOTrjTOS e^wKetXav, d>s fM'r]Te 



* ws Destinon : atque ideo Lat. Text doubtful. 
^ L : 5e the rest. 



110 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 374-381 

Above all, this was not the occasion for aspiring to 
the honours of a brilliant victory ; for the Jews were 
not busily engaged in forging arms, erecting fortifica- 
tions or levying auxiliaries, in which case delay would 
be prejudicial to those who granted it, but were 
risking their necks in civil war and dissension and 
daily enduring greater miseries than they themselves 
would inflict on them after defeat, if they advanced 
to the assault. Whether, therefore, they looked to 
the path of safety, these Jews should be left to 
continue their own destruction ; or Mhether they 
considered the success which would bring the greater 
renown, they ought not to attack patients suffering 
from their own domestic disorders ; for it would be 
said, with reason, that they owed their victory not 
to themselves but to sedition. 

(3) In these observations of Vespasian the officers Many Jewd 
concurred, and the soundness of the general's judge- Rodmans*!* 
ment was soon made evident by the numbers who 
daily deserted, eluding the Zealots. But flight was 
difficult, because guards were posted at all the out- 
lets and anyone caught there, on whatever business, 
was slain, on the assumption that he was going off 
to the Romans. If, however, he paid the price, he 
was allowed to go, and only he who offered nothing 
was a traitor ; the result being that the wealthy 
purchased their escape and the poor alone were 
slaughtered. Along all the highways the dead were 
piled in heaps ; and many starting " to desert changed 
their minds and chose to die within the walls, since 
the hope of burial made death in their native city 
appear more tolerable. The Zealots, however, carried 
barbarity so far as to grant interment to none, 

" Or " who had been eager." 

Ill 



JOSEPHUS 

rot? evSov avaLpovfxevot? ixTjre roT? dva ra? 

382 ohov? {jLeraSovvaL yrjg, dXXa KaOdrrep GvvOrjKa? 
TTe—oiTjiievoi T0I5 rrj? TrarptSos" crvyKaraXvaaL Kal 
Tou? rrj? (f)V(T€ajs vop-ovs dfia re rots' et? dvSpcv- 

383 770U9 dSiKTjiJLacnv avixiiidvai Kal ro delov, v(f)^ -qXlu) 
rovg veKpovs pLvhcovras avreAetTTOV. rots' Sc ddrr- 

TOVGL TLVa TOJV TTpOGTjKOVTCjJV , O /Cat rots' CLVTO- 

fjLoXovcjLv, eTTLTLfiLov ddvaTO? rjV , /cat helaOai 
TTapa-x^prijia racf^rj? eSet rov erepco )(^apit,6pi€vov. 

384 KaOoXov re eLTrelv, ovhev ovrcos aTToXcoXei ■)(^priOTOV 
Trddos ev rals rore GV{jL(f)opaLS d)s eAeos" a yap 
€XpT]t^ OLKreipeiv, ravra napoj^vve rovg aXiT'qpLov? , 
/cat drro jiev rojv l,(x>vrcov i—l rovs dvrjpijjjLevov?, 
d—o be TOJV veKpojv irrl rovg ^oji^ras' rots' opyd^ 

385 iJL6T6(f)€pov /cat 8t' v7T€p^oXrjv Seovg 6 TrepLOJv 
rov? 7TpoXri<^devTas ojs avaTravoafievov? ifxaKa- 
pi^eVy 61 re ev rols SeGpLCor'qpLOLg at/ct^o/xevot 
/card ovyKpiGiv /cat rous" ara<^ov? arr€<f)aivov 

386 evhaifiovas . KaTeTrareiro [lev ovp Trdg avrols 
decrpLOs dvdpojTTOJp, iyeXdro Se ret Oela, Kal tovs 
TOJV 7Tpo(f)rjTa)v xprjGpov?^ woTrep dyvpriKCLS Xoyo- 

387 TTOttas" e;)(A£L'a^oi^. ttoAAo, S' ovtol nepl dperij? 
Kal /ca/ctas" TrpoedeoTnaav, a rrapa^dvres ol 
^rjXajTal Kal ttjv Kara rrj? Trarpihos 7Tpo(f)r]T€Lav 

388 reXovg rj^LOjaav. t^v yap S-q ns TraXaios Aoyos' 
dvhpojv evOeujv^ rore rrjv ttoXlv dXojGeadaL Kal 
KaTaSXe^eadai to dyiajTarov vopLco rroXep-ov, 
OTaais edv KaraGK-qiprj Kal ^(elpeg ot/cetat npo- 

^ L Exc. : deauoi's the rest (from previous line). 
112 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 381-388 
whether slain -v^ithin the city or on the roads ; but, Barbarity of 

7^^1ofcs to 

as though they had covenanted to annul the laws riead and 
of nature along with those of their country, and to ^'^^g- 
their outrages upon humanity to add pollution of 
Heaven « itself, they left the dead putrefying in 
the sun. For burying a relative, as for desertion, 
the penalty was death, and one who granted this 
boon to another instantly stood in need of it himself. 
In short, none of the nobler emotions was so utterly 
lost amid the miseries of those days, as pity : what ^ 
should have roused their compassion, only exasper- 
ated these miscreants, whose fury shifted alternately 
from the li\ing to the slain and from the dead to the 
Hving. Such terror prevailed that the survivors 
deemed blessed the lot of the earlier \'ictims, now 
at rest, while the tortured WTetches in the prisons 
pronounced even the unburied happy in comparison 
with themselves. Every human ordinance was They fulfil 
trampled under foot, every dictate of religion predictions 
ridiculed by these men, who scoffed at the oracles o^ ^"^•^'i^* 
of the prophets as impostors' fables. Yet those 
predictions of theirs contained much concerning 
virtue and \dce, by the transgression of which the 
Zealots brought upon their country the fulfilment 
of the prophecies directed against it. For there 
was an ancient saying of inspired men that the city 
would be taken and the sanctuary burnt to the 
ground bv right of war, whensoever it should be 
visited by sedition and native hands should be the first 

" Literally " the deity " ; cf. ii. 148 of the scrupulous care 
of the E »senes " not to offend the rays of the deity," i.e. the 
sun. 

* Holwerda : ivdeov ms. quoted by Havercarap : ii'da the 
rest. 

113 



JOSEPHUS 

fxidvajGi TO Tov deov refxevog' ols ovk aTrtCTTTycrayres 
ol ^7]XajTal hiaKovovs avrovs eTreSoGav. 

389 (vii. l). "HSr^ 8e lajdwrj rvpavviajVTL ro rrpos 
TOV? o/JLOLOVS IcjoTLjJLOV Tjho^eiTO , Kol KaT* oXiyovs 

TTpOOTTOLQ-UfieVOS TCOV TTOVTipOTepOW d(f>rjV Lat^€^ TOO 

390 GwrdypLaros. del Se rols piev rcov dXXcov hoy- 
pLaGiP aTTeidcov, rd Se avTov TrpoordoGcov heGiro- 
TLKojrepov, hrjXog tjv piovap)(^ias dvrnroLovpievos . 

391 eiKov S' avTO) rives p^ev Seei, rives Se Kar' evvoiav, 
Seivog yap tjv dTrdrr) /cat Xoyco TrpoGayayeGdai, 
TToXXoi Se TTpos dG(f)aXeias rjyovpevoi rrjs avrcov 
rds alrias Tjhr] rojv roXpLCopevow ecf) eva kol 

392 piTj TToXXous dva(j)epeGdai. ro ye pb-qv SpaGrT]piov 
avrov Kard re X^^P^ '^*^^ Kara yvwpirjv hopv(f)6povs 

393 el)(€v OVK oXiyovg. ttoXXtj he piolpa rcov dvri- 
KadiGrapievojv^ aireXeiTrero, Trap olg iG)(ve piev 
Kai (j)66vos, heivov rjyovpevojv vnorerdxOai ro^ 
TTplv iGoripicp, ro rrXeov S' evXd^eia rrjs povap)(ias 

294 dTTerperrev ovre yap KaraXvGeiv pahiojs rjX—it^ov 
avrov dira^ KparrjGavra, Kai Kad avrow 7Tp6(f)aGiv 
e^eiv ro rrjv dpx^'^ avrirrpd^ai' rrpoTjpelro 8' ovv 
TToXepLcov eKaGros oriovv rradeiv r) SovXevGas 
€KOVGia)S iv dvhpaTTohov pioipa TrapaTToXeoQai. 

^ acp-qvid'^fTO L ExC. 

' PC : duTLKadij/xePuv the rest. 

3 PAC : rw the rest. 

* I can quote no " ancient " authority for the saying. 
The following vaticinium post eventara occurs in a work 
WTitten c. a.d. 80 : rivlKa 5' dtppoavvrjdL TreTroidoTes evae^ii-jv 
re I oL-^ovaiv arvyepovs re reXovai cpovovs irepl vrjov, \ Kai tot' 
. . [reference follows to flight of Nero and the Roman civil 

114 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 388-S94 

to defile God's sacred precincts.'^ This saying the 
Zealots did not disbelieve ; yet they lent themselves 
as instruments of its accomplishment. 

(vii. 1) But now John, aspiring to despotic power, Split in thf 
began to disdain the position of mere equaUty in p^^ty^: 
honours with his peers, and, gradually gathering John 
round him a group of the more depraved, broke despotic 
away from the coalition. Invariably disregarding po^er. 
the decisions of the rest, and issuing imperious orders 
of his o^^^l, he was evidentlv laving; claim to absolute 
sovereignty. Some yielded to him through fear, 
others from devotion (for he was an expert in gaining 
supporters by fraud and rhetoric) ; a large number 
thought that it would conduce to their own safety 
that the blame for their daring crimes should hence- 
forth rest upon one individual rather than upon 
many ; while his energy both of body and mind pro- 
cured him not a few retainers. On the other hand, 
he was abandoned by a large section of antagonists, 
partly influenced by envy — they scorned subjection 
to a former equal — but mainly deterred by dread 
of monarchical rule ; for they could not expect easily 
to depose him when once in power, and thought 
that they would have an excuse for themselves if 
they opposed him at the outset.^ Anyhow, each man 
preferred war, whatever sufferings it might entail, 
to voluntary servitude and being killed off like slaves. 

war] €K 1,vpLr]s 5' ij^ei 'Pwfxrfs irp6/j.ot 6s TVpl vtjov \ avfi(f>\^^a<i 
ZoXi'incoi' kt\., Orac. Sibyll. iv. 117 ff. 

" Meaning doubtful. tt]v dpxvy (which is certainly 

adverbial, not a noun as in Whiston's rendering, " that they 
had opposed his having power ") usually has a negative ; 
possibly we should read to C"^> '''V^ '^PXW duTLvpa^aL, i.e. 
" that he would have a pretext against them if they did not 
oppose him at the outset." 

115 



JOSEPHUS 

395 Statpetrat fxev ovv rj crracrts' €K tovtojv, koi tols 

396 evavTLOjOeloiv \ojdvv7]s avre^aoiXevGev . dAAd ra 
fjLev rrpos aXX-qXovs avrols Std (j)vXaKris rjv, koL 

Ovhkv Yj fllKpOV et 7T0T€ SirjKpO^oXiC^OVTO TOtS" 

ottXols, rfpil^ov be Kara rod h-qpiov Kal rrorepoi 

397 TrXelova Xeiav d^ovatv^ avTe(f>iXoveiKOVV . inel be 
7] TToXig rpcm rots' fieyiGTOis KaKols €)(^eL}JLat,ero y 
TToXepLOj /cat TupawtSt Kal crrdcret, Kara GvyKpiaiv 
fxerpLajrepov rjv rots' br]jioTLKols o TToXefios' 
d/xeAet StaStSpdo-Koyres" eV row olKeiojv €(f)€vyov 
Trpog rovs dXXo(j)vXovs Kal Trapd 'Poj/xatots" rj? 
aTTTjXTTLGav €v rols Ibiois (Jcor-qpias rj^Lovvro. 

398 (2) Teraprov be dXXo KaKov eKiveZro irpo? rrjv 

399 roi; eOvovs KardXvGiv. (jipovpiov tjp ov TToppoj 

lepoGoXvfiojv Kaprepcvrarov , vtto rcov dp)(aL<jjv 
^aaiXecov els re v—eKdeaiv KrrjGea>? ev TToXefiov 
poTTals Kal aajpLarajv do-c^dAeiay KareGKevaafie- 

400 vov, o eKaXelro MaadSa. rovro KareiXrjcfiores 
OL TTpouayopevopLevoi ot/cdptot reajs" /xev ra? 
TrXrjGiov -x^djpas Karerpe^ov ovbev ttXIov rcbv eiri- 
rTjbelow 7TopLl,6fjLevoi' Seet yap dvearcAAovro 

401 r-^s" TrAetovos- dpTrayrjs' co? be^ rrjv 'Pco^atojy fiev 
urparidv -qpepiovGav, Grdaei be Kal rvpavvibi 
Ibia roijs ev 'lepoGoXvpLOLS 'louSatous" invdovro 
btrjp-qpevovs, dbporepcov rjirrovro roXpnqpidrajv . 

402 Kal Kara rrjv eoprrjv ra)v d^u/icov, rjv dyovGiv 
'louSatot' Gcor-qpta i^ ov rijs vtt* AlyvTrrLOLS 

^ PA : dvdhvcnp the rest. 

' cos oe] cos PA^ Lat.: eld' cos Xiese with A*. 

^ 'ESoatoL L Lat. 

• Sebbeh, above the W. coast of the Dead Sea, near its 
116 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 395-402 

Such, then, was the origin of the spht in the party, 
and John confronted his adversaries as a rival 
sovereign. However, their attitude to each other 
was purely defensive, and there were seldom if ever 
any skirmishes in arms between them ; but they 
were rival oppressors of the people and vied with 
each other in carrying off the larger spoils. While 
the ship of state was thus labouring under the three 
greatest of calamities — war, tyranny, and faction — • 
to the populace the war was comparatively the 
mildest ; in fact they fled from their countrymen 
to take refuge ^ith aliens and obtained at Roman 
hands the security which they despaired of finding 
among their o^^'n people. 

(^2) But yet a fourth misfortune was on foot to The Sicarii 
consummate the nation's ruin. Not far from Jeru- °^^^^J 
salem was a fortress of redoubtable strength, built make raids 
by the kings of old as a repository for their property 2"^^^^, 
and a refuge for their persons during the \'icissitudes 
of war ; it was called Masada.** Of this the so-called 
Sicarii had taken possession. So far they had con- 
fined themselves to raids upon the neighbouring 
districts, merely \^'ith the object of procuring suppHes, 
fear restraining them from further ravages ; but 
now when they learnt that the Roman army was 
inactive and that in Jerusalem the Jews were dis- 
tracted by sedition and domestic tyranny, they em- 
barked on more ambitious enterprises. Thus, during 
the feast of unleavened bread — a feast which has 
been kept by the Jews in thanksgiving for deliverance 
ever since their return to their native land on their 

lower end. Its capture by the insurgents is mentioned in 
B. ii. 408 ; a detailed description of the fortress and of its 
final capture by the Romans is given in vii. 280 ff. 

117 



JOSEPHUS 

SouAe/as" dveOevreg et? rrjv rrdrpiov y-qv KarrjXOov, 
vvKTOjp Tovs efiTTodojv ovras diaXadovreg ttoXl^- 
VTjv TLvd KararpexovGLv KaXovfxevrjv 'EvyaSSt, 

403 ^v fj TO }ikv djivveGdaL Svvdfxevov , irplv ottXojv 
diJjaGdaL Kal GweXSelv, (f^ddaavres eaKebaaav^ Kal 
rrjs TToXeojs l^ej^aXov, to hk <j)vy€.Zv TjTrov 6v, 
yvvaid re Kal Traldas, vrrkp eTTTaKouiovs dvai- 

404 pOVGLV. e77€Lra T01J£ T€ OLKOVS i$€GK€VaG[JL€l'OL 

Kal Tojv Kapnujv tovs aKpLaioraTovs^ aprraoaPTes 

405 dm^veyKav etV Trjv Macradav. Kai ol puev iXrj- 
L,ovTO rraGas Ta? rrepl to <^povpiov /ccu/xa? Kal 
TTjv x^'-^P^-'^ eTTopOovv drraGav, 7TpoGdLa(f)d€Lpofxevajv 
avTolg Kad^ rjjiepav eKaGTaxodev ovk oXiyajv 

406 EKLvelro Se Kal Kard TO.XXa rrfs 'louSata? /cAi^ara 
TO T€OJS rjpepLOVv TO XrjGrpiKov^ Kadairep hk ev 
Gcofian Tov KvpiujTdTov (^Xeyp-aivovTos rravTa ra 

iO~ fjLeXrj gvv€v6g€L' Sta yovv ttjv iv ttj firjTpoTroXeL 
GTdGiv Kal Tapax'T]^ dheiav ^g^ov ol Kara ttjv 
Xojpav rrovTjpol tojv aprrayow Kai Tag oiKeias 
eKaGToC Kojjj.as dprrdiovTes erreLTa eis Tiqv ipt]- 

iuS [liav dSiGTavTO. Gvvad poiL6p.€voi re Kai avv- 
ofivvfievoL Kara Xoxovs, GTparids /xev oXiyaoTepoL 
TrXeiovs 8e X'rjGTrjpLOV, TrpoGemrrTOV lepols Kal 

409 TToXeGLv, Kal KaKovGdau [xev Gwe^acvev ecj)' ovs 
oppL-qGeLav d>s iv TToXepLco KaTaXr](f)8evTas, (l>9dv€- 
Gdai be Tas dfivvas oj? Xtjgtojv dp.a tols dpirayals 

^ PAM : dKuoAovs the rest. ^ L : eKaaros the rest. 

° And when, consequently, the bulk of the population 
\\ uuld be absent at Jerusalem. 

^ Engedi, 'Ain Jldy, on the W. coast of the Dead Sea, 
some 10 miles N. of Masada. 

J18 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 402-409 

release from bondage in Egypt ^ — these assassins, 
eluding under cover of night those who might have 
obstructed them, made a raiding descent upon a 
small town called Engaddi.^ Those of the inhabi- 
tants who were capable of resistance were, before 
they could seize their arms and assemble, dispersed 
and driven out of the town ; those unable to fly, 
women and children numbering upwards of seven 
Imndred, were massacred. They then rifled the 
houses, seized the ripest of the crops, and carried off 
their spoil to Masada. They made similar raids on 
all the villages around the fortress, and laid waste 
the whole district, being joined daily by numerous 
dissolute recruits from every quarter. Throughout similar 
the other parts of Judaea, moreover, the predatory |'^^^^^o^\ 
bands, hitherto quiescent, now began to bestir them- Judae^ 
selves. And as in the body when inflammation 
attacks the principal member all ttic members catch 
the infection,'^ so the sedition and disorder in the 
capital gave the scoundrels in the country free 
licence to plunder ; and each gang after pillaging 
their own village made off into the wilderness. Then 
joining forces and swearing mutual allegiance, they 
would proceed by companies — smaller than an army 
but larger than a mere band of robbers — to fall upon 
temples '^ and cities. The unfortunate \'ictims of 
their attacks suffered the miseries of captives of war, 
but were deprived of the chance of retaliation, be- 
cause their foes in robber fashion at once decamped 

* Cf. 1 Cor. xii. 26 etre Trdcrxei iv /xeXos, avvwdax^i- irdvTa rd 
/j.€\t], and for the same simile B. i. 507. 

<* Apparently synagogues or " prayer-houses " are meant ; 
these were often built outside the towns near rivers or sea 
coast for purification purposes. Judaea had but the one 
" temple " at Jerusalem. 

119 



JOSEPHUS 

aTTohihpacrKovrojv . ovhkv 8e fiepo? tjv rrjg 'lou- 
Satas", o jjLrj rfj Trpoavexovcrrj TToXei GvvaTTOjXXvro. 

410 (3) Taura OvedTraGiavo) napa tow avrofxoXcxjv 
hLTjyyeXXero' KatTrep yap (jipovpovvrow ras i^- 
obov? Tcov araaiaGTCov arraoas kol hia(l)deip6vra>v 

TOVS OTTOJGOVV TTpOGlOVraS, OjJLOJS TjGav ot St- 

eXdvBavov Kai KaTa(f>€ijyovTes €Ls rovs Pco/iatous' 
Tov urparviyov evrjyoi' dfivvaL rfj TToXei /cat rd 

411 TOV hrjiiov TTepiGcoaaL Xeiijjava- hi,d yap ttjv rrpog 
'PojfjLaLOVs evvoiav dvT]p7JG6aL re tovs ttoXXovs 

412 /cat KLvhvV€V€LV TOVS TTCpiOVTaS". O Sc OLKT€LpOJV 

rjbrj ras" GVfjL4)opds avTcov to^ fiev ooKelv e/c- 
TToXiopK'qGOJV dchiGTaTai^ TO. 'lepoGoXvpia, to 6' 

413 dXrjdes dTraXXd^cuv TToXiopKuis. ehei fievTOL^ irpo- 
KaTaGTpeipaGdai Ta XeLTTOfieva /cat pnqSev e^ojQev 
ipTTohiOV TTJ TToXiopKLa KaTaXiTTelp' eXdojv ovv eTTL 
Td Tdbapa jjLr]Tp67ToXLV ttj? Uepaias KapTepdv 
rerpadt \vGTpov pLTjvog etG€LGLV et? T7]V ttoXlv. 

'il'i /cat ydp eTvy^ov ol hvvaTol Xddpa tcov GTaGLOjhow 
TTpeG^evGdjievoi rrpos avTOV Trept TrapaooGecos 
TTodcp T€ elpi^vrj? /cat Sta ras" ovGias' ttoXXol Se 

415 rd rdSapa KaTcoKovv ttXo'uglol. tovtojv ttjv 

^ PC : TcJ the rest. 

^ Niese (ed. min.) : ecpicrTaTaL PAML (which should perhaps 
stand = propius accedit Lat.): dpiffTaraL the rest. 
^ Destinon : fxev tov L : fxev PA : 5e the rest. 

" §378. 

^ Gadara is here identified by all commentators with the 
important place of that name S.E. of the Sea of Galilee, 
modern Urnm Kels or Mukes, a principal city of Decapolis, 
and a seat of Greek culture, being the home, among other 
^Titers, of Meleager the epigrammatist and Philodemus the 
^' Epicurean. This identification, though favoured by the 

reference to its " many weaJthy residents," is open to serious 

120 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 409-415 

with their prey. There was, in fact, no portion of 
Judaea which did not share in the ruin of the capital. 

(3) Of these proceedings \^espasian was informed Vespasian, 
by deserters. For, although the insurgents guarded by'^S^ters 
all the exits and slew any who for whatever reason prepares tx) ' 
approached them,** there were not\Wthstanding some leru^iem" 
who evaded them and, fleeing to the Romans, urged 
the general to protect the city and rescue the remnant 
of its inhabitants, assuring him that it was owing to 
their loyalty to the Romans that so many had been 
slain and the survivors were in peril. Vespasian, 
who already pitied their misfortunes, broke up his 
camp, with the apparent purpose of taking Jerusalem 
by siege, but in reahty to dehver it from siege. It 
was, however, first necessary to reduce anv places 
still outstanding, so as to leave no external impedi- 
ment to hinder his operations. He accordingly 
marched on Gadara,^ the capital of Peraea and a and occupies 
city of some strength, and entered it on the fourth Gadara (in 
of the month Dystrus. For the leading men had, c. 21 March 
unbekno^^Tl to the rebels, sent an embassy to him '^•^- ^8. 
offering to capitulate, ahke from a desire for peace 
and from concern for their property, for Gadara had 
many wealthy residents. Of the leaders' deputation 

objections. (1) Mukes was in Decapolis, whereas the 
Gadara here mentioned is called the capital or metropolis of 
Peraea, of which district Pella, some 15 miles S. of Mukes ^ 
was the northern boundary {B. iii. 46 f.) ; (2) Gadora 
(Gadara ?) es Salt, is actually in Peraea and satisfies the other 
data, for (3) it is not far from the village to which the 
Gadarene fugitives fled (§ 420 note) ; (4) that village was on 
the direct line to Jericho, for which they were making 
(§431), an unnatural refuge for fugitives from the northern 
Gadara ; (5) Vespasian was marching southwards from 
Caesarea upon Jerusalem (§412), not northwards towards 
Galilee, which was already subdued. 

121 



JOSEPHUS 

TTpea^eiav rjyvoTJKeaav ol hid(j>opoL, ttXtjotlov Se 
rjSrj ovTOS OveGnaGLavov hieTTvdovro, kol Kara- 
Gx^lv jjiev avTol ttjv ttoXlv drreyvajGap SvvaGdaiy 
TOW T€ evSov exOpojv TrXriOei XeiTTOfxevoi kol 
'PcofJiaLov? opowres ov jiaKpav rrjg TToXeojs, 
(j)€vyeiv he Kpcvovres^ rjho^ovv dvaipLCjorl kol 
[iTjhefjLiav Trapd tojv atTLCxJV elaTrpa^dfievoL rt- 
410 pLCoplai'. GvXXaBovres hi] rov AoAecrot', ovtos yap 
rjv ov p-ovov d^LojpLari kol yivei rrjs TToXeojg 
TTpojros, dAA' ihoKei koL ttjs irpeG^eias atrLos, 
KT€LvovGL T€ avTOP Kau Sl v7r€pj3oX'qv 6pyrj£ 

V€Kp6v alKLGdp.€VOL hUhpaGaV CK TTj? TToAecus". 

417 imovG'qs Se rjd-q rrjs ^PcxjpLa'iKrjs hvvdpLeoJS o re 
Srjp.0? TOJV Tahapeojv pL€T CTjcfirjpLLa? tov Ove- 
GTTaGiavov eiGhe^dp^evoL he^ids Trap' avTOV 7tlgt€oj£ 
eXa^ov Kal (f>povpdv Lmreojv t€ kol 7T€L,o)v rrpos 

418 ra? Ttov (f)vyddojv Karabpopias' to yap Telxo? 
avTol rrplv d^tojcrat 'Poj^.aiou? KaOelXov, ottojs 
etrj 7TLGTLS avTols rod Tr]v elpjjvqv dyairdv to pLTjhe 
^ovXrjOevras hvvaGdai"^ rroXepLelv. 

419 (■!■) Ov€GTraGLav6g S iirl pL€V tovs hiaSpdvTas eK 

TCOV TabdpOJP YlXdKtSoV GVV LTTTreVGLV TZeVTaKOGLOLS 

Kal 7Te^oi£ TpLGXi-XLOig 7Tep.7T€i, avTOs 8e pi^Ta rrjs 

420 dXXqs GTpaTids vrreGrpeipev etV Katadpetai^. ol 
Se (/)uyd§es" cLg al(l>VLhiov tovs SiojKovTas iTnreLS 
ededaavTO, Trplv els x^'^P^'^ eXdelv e'is nva Kcopi-qv 

421 GwecXovvTaL ^T^devva^plv rrpoGayopevopieviqv ev 
fi veojv^ TrXrjOos ovk oXiyov evpovTes Kal tovs pLev 
eKovras tovs he ^lo. KadoTrXiGavres elKaloJs, 

^ Kpifai^res MVRC. 
2 dvvaadai A^ Lat. : om. the rest. 
^ \'RC Lat. He^. : '\ovdaiu)i' the rest. 

122 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 4.15-421 

their adversaries Mere ignorant and only discovered 
it on the approach of Vespasian. Despairing of their 
abihty to hold the city themselves, in view of their 
inferiority in numbers to their opponents within the 
walls and the proximity of the Romans, visible not 
far without, they determined to flee, but scorned to 
do so without shedding blood and exacting punish- 
ment from those responsible for their situation. So 
they seized Dolesus, M'ho was not only by rank and 
family the first man in the town, but was also re- 
garded as the originator of the embassy ; having 
slain him and in their furious rage mangled his body, 
they fled from the city. The Roman army now 
appearing, the Gadarenes admitted \^espasian with 
acclamation and received from him pledges of security 
together with a garrison of horse and foot to protect 
them against invasions of the fugitives ; for they had 
pulled down their walls of their O'svn accord without 
requisition from the Romans, in order that their 
powerlessness to make war, even if they wished, 
might testify to their love of peace. 

(4) Vespasian sent Placidus " with 500 horse and Piacidus 
3000 foot to pursue those who had fled from Gadara, Qadarene 
while he himself "vvith the remainder of liis army fugitives. 
returned to Caesarea. The fugitives, on suddenly 
catching sight of the pursuing cavalry, before any 
engagement took place swarmed into a village called 
Bethennabris ^ ; finding here a considerable number 
of young men, they armed these with any available 
weapons, some consenting, others by force, and 

" §57n. 

* Doubtless Beth-Nimrah, Tell Nimrin, some 1^ miles 
S.W. of the Peraean Gadara, and on the direct line for 
Jericho, which lay nearly opposite it on the other side of the 
Jordan. 

VOL. Ill E 123 



JOSEPHUS 

422 TTpomTjhojGLV €7Ti Tovs TiepL Tov YlXaKihov . OL 8e 
7Tp6? fiev TTjV TTpojriqv €fx^oXr]v oXiyov el^av, a/xa 
Kal TTpoKaXeaaa 6 ai Te-xyirevovre? avrovg dno 

423 TOV reixovs Troppojrepaj, Xa^ovre? S' els i-ni- 
T-qheiov 7T€pL-qXavv6v re Kai Kar-qKovn^ov, Kal 
ra? fikv (f)vyas^ avrwv ol LTTTrelg VTrerepiVOVTO, ra? 

424 GvpLTrXoKa? Se to 7Tet,6v evTovcDs '6i€(j)d€ipov.'^ ov 
jievTOL rrXiov tl roXfir]? einheiKvvixevoi ol 'louSatot 
hLe(j)deipovTO' TTeTTVKvajjJLevoig yap rots 'Paj/JiaLOLS 
irpoGTriTTTOvres Kal rat? TravoTrXiais ajGrrep re- 
reLX^Gp-evoi?, avroL p.€.v ovx evpuGKov ^eXov? 
TTapdhvGLV ovh^ rjvrovovv pri^au rrjv (f)dXayya, 

425 TTepieTreipovTO he toIs eVetVcuv ^eXeGL Kal rots 
dypLcordroL? TrapaTrXrjGLOL Q-qploc? ojppiojv irrl 

TOV Glhl-jpOVy SLe(f)6€LpOVTO S' OL pL€V KaTa GTOpLa 

TTato/xevot toI? ^i(f)eGiv, ol he vtto tojv LTTiTecov 
OKehavvopievoL . 

426 (5) UttovStj yap rjv rep UXaKLho) rd? eTrl rrjV 
421 KcopLTjv op/xd? avrdjv Sia/<Aetetv, /cat Gvvex^JS 

irapeXavvcov Kar eKelvo to p^epos, eneLra eiTi- 
GTpe(f)Ojv d/xa Kal rolg ^eXeGL xp^f^^'^'o? evGToxoj? 
dvfipei Toijs 77XrjGLdl,ovTas KaL Seet rovs rroppajdev 
dveGTp€(f)€v, p^expt' ^ta hteKTreGovres ol yevvaLo- 

428 raroL Trpos to relxo? hLe<^evyov. drropLa 8' et^^e 
rovs (fivXaKas' ovre yap aT/o/cAetcrat rovs diro 
TOJV Tahdpojv VTTepLevov Std rovs G(f)eTepovg Kal 

429 he^dpievoL GwarroXelGOaL TrpoGehoKOJV. o hr) kol 
Gvve^rj' GvvojGdevTOJV yap avrojv et? to reZx^S 
Trap' oXiyov p.ev ol tcov Pojp.aLOjv LTTTrels GVveLG- 
eireGov, ov pcqv dXXd Kat (f)daGdvTa>v aTTOKXelGai 
rds TTvXa? TTpoG^aXojv 6 nAd/ctSos" Kal p-expt- 

^ ras /jLeii (pir^as Destinon : tovs jxeu (pvyddas MSS. 
1£4 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 422-429 

dashed out upon the troops of Placidus. The Romans 
at their first onset fell back a httle, manoeuvring to 
entice them further from the walls, and then, having 
drawn them to a suitable spot, rode round them and 
with their javelins shot them down ; the cavalry 
intercepting their flight, while the infantry \-igorously 
broke up their entangled masses. The Jews, in fact, 
were cut to pieces after a display of mere audacity ; 
for, flinging themselves upon the serried Roman 
ranks, walled in, as it were, by their armour, they 
found no loophole for their missiles and were power- 
less to break the hne, whilst their own men were 
transfixed by their enemy's javelins and rushed, like 
the most savage of beasts, upon the blade. So they 
perished, some struck down by the sword facing the 
foe, others in disorderly flight before the cavalry. 

(5) For Placidus, anxious to intercept their rushes 
for the village, kept riding his cavalry past them in 
that direction, and then, wheeling round, with one 
and the same well-aimed volley of missiles killed 
those who were nearing it and intimidated and beat 
back those further oif ; but in the end the most 
courageous cut their way through and fled for the 
ramparts. Here the sentries were in doubt what 
they should do : they could not bring themselves to 
exclude the Gadarenes because of their own men,** 
whereas if they admitted them they expected to 
perish with them. That was in fact what happened ; 
for in the crush of fugitives at the wall, the Roman 
cavalry very nearly burst in with them, and, although 
the guards succeeded in shutting the gates, Placidus 

* The recruits obtained from the village, § 421. 

* dieipepuy of Destinon is needless ; cf. 5ia(p8eipeLV Tr]v 
ffvvovaiav, " break up the party," Plato, Prot. 338 d. 

125 



JOSEPHUS 

SetAr^S" yewaLojg dycoviodiJ.€vo£ rod retxovs /cat 

430 raJv iv rfj KojfJirj Kparel.^ rd fxev ovv dpyd ttXtJOt] 
SL€(f}6€Lp€TO, (j)vyrj 8' -qv TOW SvvarcoTepcjv , rdg 8 
OLf^a? OL aTpanajTai hirjpTraoav Kat rrjv Kojfx'qp 

431 eveTrp-qaav. ol Se StaSparre? e^ avrrj? rovs 
Kara, ttjv )(a)pav Gwaveor-qaav , /cat ra? /xev 
avrchv GVjjL(l)opd^ i^alpovres errl pieZt,ov, tojv he 
'PajfiaLcov rrjv drparidv ndaav imevaL Xeyovres 
Trdvras TravraxdOev i^eaeioav tw 8eet, yevop^evoL 

432 re rrap.7rXrj6eLS e^evyov eTTi lepL)(ovvros' avrrj 
yap en pLovrj rdg eArrtSa? avrojv edaXrre rrjg goj- 

433 riqpia? Kaprepd TrXrjOei ye olK-qropcov. YlXdKihos 
8e rols LTTTTevGL Koi rals npoayovGaL? evTrpayiais 
redappr]Kcog iiTrero, /cat p.exp^ p-^^ ^lopbdvov rovg 
del KaraXap^avofievovg dvrjpei, GvveXdaas 8e 
TTpos rov TTorapov rrdv ro TrXrjdog eipyopevoig^ 
VTTO rov pevparos, rpacf^ev yap vtt^ op^pcov d^arov 

434 ^^j avriKpij rraperduaero. Trapoj^vve h rj avayKrj 
7Tp0£ pa-)(rjv rovs (j^vyrjs rorrov ovk e^ovraSy /cat 
Tat? 6x0 acs errl pnqKiarov TrapeKreivavres G(f)ds 
avrovg e8e)(ovro rd ^eX-q Kat ra? rwv LTTireoov 
ipL^oXdg, ol TToXXovs avrcov Traiovres els rd peu/xa 

435 Kare^aXov. /cat rd pcev iv ^epalv avrcov 8ta- 
(f)6apev pLvpLOL 7TevraKLG-)((-Xi0i , ro he ^iaaOev 
ipTTTjhrJGaL els rov ^JophdvvjV rrXrjdos eKOVGLOJS^ 

436 dneipov tjv. edXcDGav he irepl hiGxi-Xlovs /cat Sta- 
KOGLOVs, Xeia re vapLTrXrjd-qs dvcov re /cat Trpo- 
^drojv /cat Kap.rjXa>v /cat ^ocov. 

437 (6) lofSatots" pev ovv ovhevds* eXdrrwv -qhe rj 
TrXrjyrj TrpoGTreoovGa /cat pLell^cov eho^ev eavrrjs 

^ Niese : 5^ Kparel L : iKparet the rest. 
* eipyofjJfovs PM. ^ aKovcrius L. * oi/Sef MSS. 

126 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 429-437 

led an assault and by a gallant struggle prolonged 
until evening became master of the wall and of 
the occupants of the village. The helpless were 
slaughtered wholesale, the more able-bodied fled, 
and the soldiers rifled the houses and then set the 
village alight. The fugitives, meanwhile, roused the General 
country-side, and by exaggerating their own calami- Peraeans 
ties and stating that the entire Roman army was for Jericho, 
upon them drove all from their homes in universal 
panic, and with the whole population fled for Jericho ; 
that being the one remaining city strong enough, 
at least in virtue of its numerous inhabitants, to 
encourage hopes of salvation. Placidus, relying on 
his cavalry and emboldened by his previous success, 
pursued them, killing all whom he overtook, as far 
as the Jordan. Having driven the whole multitude 
up to the river, where they were blocked by the They are 
stream, M'hich being swollen by the rain was unford- wltif great 
able, he drew up his troops in Hne opposite them, slaughter ai 
Necessity goaded them to battle, flight being im- 
possible, and deploying their forces as far as possible 
along the bank " they met the missiles and the 
charges of the cavalry, who wounded and drove 
many down into the stream. Fifteen thousand 
perished by the enemy's hands, while the number of 
those who were driven to fling themselves of their 
own accord into the Jordan was incalculable ; about 
two thousand two hundred were captured, together 
Avith vast spoils of asses, sheep, camels, and oxen. 

(6) This blow was the greatest that had befallen 
the Jews, and appeared even greater than it was ; 

<• The plural can only refer to the one (left) bank, or 
rather perhaps to the terraces, one above the other, on that 
bank of the stream. 

127 



JOSEPHUS 

Ota TO fiTj jjLovov Tr]v p^copav dnaaav St' t)? €(f>€V'yov 
TrXrjpcvdrjvai (f)6vov, fi-qSe veKpolg hia^arov yeve- 
aOat Tov ^lopSdvrjv, ijirrX'qGOrjvaL Se tojv aojjjLdrcxJV 
/cat TTjv ACTtj^aArtrtv^ Xijiv-qv, ets" rjv TrafjLTrX'qdeLS 

438 VTTO TOV 7TOTap.ov Kareavprjuav. YlXaKihos Se 
he^Lo. TVXX] XP^^H-^^'^^ (Zpfirjaev iirl ra? Trepi^ 
TToXi-xyas re koI Kcojia?, KaraXa/jL^avopLEVos^ re 

A^tAa /cat 'louAtaSa /cat BrjGLpiOjO^ rd? re f^^XP^ 
rrj? Ao"(/)aATtTt3o? Trduas eyKadiGrrjoiv eKdcrrrj 

439 TOUS" i7TLTT]B€iOV? TOW aVTOpLoXoJV. €7T€LTa OKa- 

(f)€GLv im^rjGag tovs GTpaTiojTas atpet tovs els 
TTjv Xipvqv KaTa(f)€vyovTas . /cat ra ^ev /cara ttjv 
YlepaLav Trpoaexc^pTQcr^v ^ idXco irdvTa p-ixP'- 
'Slaxo.i-povvTOs . 

440 (viii. l) 'Ey he tovtoj to Trepl ttjv TaXaTiav* 
ayyeAAerat KLvqjia /cat OutVSt^ dpia toIs hvvaToZs 
TOJV iTTLxojplcov d(f)€GTdj? Nepajvo?, TTcpl d>v ev 

441 dKpL^€GT€poi? dvayeypaTTTai. OveGTraGiavov h €7t- 
TjyeLpev ets" ttjv oppLTjv tov TroXepLOV rd rjyyeX- 
pL€va, 7Tpoopojp.evov rjSrj tovs p.eXXovTas €p.<l>vXLOVs 
TToXepovs /cat top oXr]s KLvbvvov Trjs rjyepiOVLas, 
iv S 7Tpo€ip-qvevGas rd /card tt^v avaToXrjV e77t- 
KOV(j)iG€LV a)€TO TOVS /Card TTJV 'IraAtay (f)6^ovs. 

^ 'Acr<pa\Ti.K7]u PA. 
* KaToKaSouevos ML. ^ BTytrt/iw PA. 

■* C : T^j TaXariaj the rest. 

" The Bituminous Lake = the Dead Sea. 

^ Probably Abel-Shittim {KJairhet el-Keffrein), some 5m\\^?, 
due S. of Beth-Ximrah : mentioned in conjunction with 
Julias, B. ii. 252. 

" Julias or Livias, formerly Beth-Haram (Betharamatha), 

128 



JEWISH WAR, 1\'. 437-441 

for not only was the whole countryside through 
which their flight had lain one scene of carnage, 
and the Jordan choked with dead, but even the 
Lake Asphaltitis " was filled with bodies, masses of 
which were carried down into it by the river. 
Placidus, follo\Wng up his good fortune, hastened All Peraea 
to attack the small towns and villages in the neigh- 
bourhood, and taking Abila,^ Julias,*' Besimoth,^ 
and all as far as the Lake Asphaltitis, posted in 
each a garrison of such deserters as he thought 
fit ; then embarking his soldiers on shipboard he 
captured those who had taken refuge on the lake. 
Thus the whole of Peraea as far as Machaerus * 
either surrendered or was subdued. 

(viii. 1) Meanwhile tidings arrived of the rising Vespasian 
in Gaul and that Mndex f with the chiefs of that {^^[°^ of 
country had revolted from Nero, of which events revolt from 
fuller accounts have been given elsewhere. Ves- ^f^tei- of 
pasian was stimulated by the news to prosecute the *•!>• 67-68. 
war more \igorously, for he already foresaw the 
impending civil dissensions and the peril to the 
empire at large, and thought that, in the circum- 
stances, by an early pacification of the east he would 
allay the anxiety of Italy. Accordingly, while the 

modern Tell Rameh, 2 miles S. of Abel-Shittim, opposite 
Jericho : B. ii. 59 n., 168 n. 

•* Beth-Jeshimoth, Sueimeh, S. of Julias. 

• E. of the upper region of the Dead Sea. 

^ C. Julius Vindex, prefect of Gallia Celtica, headed a 
Gallic revolt against Nero ; and Virginius Rufus was sent 
with the legions of Lower Germany to oppose him. At 
Vesontio, where the armies met, Vindex and Virginius 
secretly agreed to conspire together, but the armies coming to 
no similar understanding, the troops of Vindex were cut 
to pieces and ^'index committed suicide. Dion Cass. Ixiii. 
22 ff., Plut. Galha, 4 fF., etc. 

129 



JOSEPHUS 

442 eoj? fJLev ovv e7T€i)(^€v o p^et/xcav ra? VTT-qyjievas 
SL7]a(f)aXLC€T0 KOJ/xas- re Kal 7ro\L\vas (f)povpaLs, 
SeKaSdpxo.? /X6V KWfiais eyKadiGrds, eKarovrdp^^as 
he TToAecTf TToAAa Se dvajKite Kai row Trenop- 

443 OrjfjLevow. vtto he rrjv dpxrjv rod eapos dvaXa^ojv 
TO TrXiov rrjg hvvdpLeoJS rjyayev (xtto rrjs Kat- 
crapeta? cttl 'AvTLTrarpihos, evda hvGiv rjpiepaLS 
KaraGrrjadjJLevo^^ ttjv ttoXlv rfj rpLrrj Trporjei 

444 TTopOojv Kal Ko.iOJV rds rripi^ rrduas. Karaarpe- 
i^dfievog he rd Trepl ttjv Qapivd roTrapx^'O.v^ eirl 
Avhhojv Kal ^lajjivelas ex^jpei Kal TrpoKexeipcj- 
fxevais" eKarepais eyKaraGrijaas OLKrjTopas rojv 
TrpoGKexojprjKOTCov LKavovs els ^A}ip.aovvTa d(f)- 

445 LKveirai. KaraXa^oiievos he rds eiri ttjv jJLTjTpo- 
ttoXlv avrojv elufjoXAs crrparoTrehov re retxi^eL 
Kal TO TTefiTTTOv iv avrfi rdypta KaraXiTrdw TrpoeiGi^ 
[lerd rrjS dXXrjs hvvdpLeoJs errl rrjv BedXe7TTrjV(f)a)v 

446 TOTrapyiav . rrvpl he avrrjv re Kai riqv yeiTViojuav 
dveXojv Kal rd rrepi^ rrjs 'ISov/xatas', (jypovpia fiev 

447 roLS eTTLKalpoLs rorrois e-ereix^oe, KaraXa^opLevog 
he hvo K(jjp.as rag jieuairdras rrjg 'ISof/xata?, 
Bi^ra^ptv Kal Yia(^dpro^av,^ Kreivei p.ev vnep 

448 pLvplovs, alxp-O-XojT Liberal he vvep ;)(tAtoi;s', Kal 
rd XoLTTOV rrXrjdos e^eXdoas eyKadiGrr^GLV rrjs 
OLKeias hwafxeajs ovk oXlyrjv, ot Kararpexovres 

^ L Lat. (composita) : eyKaraarTjad^ueuos the rest. 
^ rds TT. T. 9. Toirapxi-O-s L Lat. 
' TpodKex^'-'Vi-'-^^'^'-^ L Lat. * L : Trpbaeiai. the rest. 

° ed. pr. : Karacpapro^ap most MSS. 

° R<is el-Ain, in the S. of the plain of Sharon, N.E. of 
Joppa. ^ " toparchy." 

« S.E. of Antipatris. Here he turns S.W. towards the 
coast to Ludd and Yfhnah. 

130 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 442-448 

winter lasted, he employed himself in securing ^\^th 
garrisons the villages and smaller towns which had 
been reduced, posting decm-ions in the villages and 
centurions in the towns ; he also rebuilt many places 
that had been devastated. Then, at the first ap- spring 
proach of spring, he marched the main body of his He inov 
army from Caesarea to Antipatris." After two days southward 
spent in restoring order in that tovni, on the third he caSarea 
advanced, lapng waste and burning all the surround- subduing 
ing places. Having reduced the neighbourhood of ^ ^^* 
the province ^ of Thamna,^ he moved to Lydda and 
Jamnia ; both these districts being already subdued,^ 
he quartered upon them an adequate number of 
residents from those who had surrendered, and 
passed to Ammaus.^ Having occupied the ap- 
proaches to the capital of this province, he fortified 
a camp and, leaving the fifth legion there, advanced 
with the rest of his forces to the province of Beth- 
leptenpha/ After devastating with fire this and 
the neighbouring district and the outskirts of 
Idumaea, he built fortresses in suitable situations ; 
finally having taken two villages right in the heart 
of Idumaea, Betabris ^ and Caphartoba,^ he put and 
upwards of ten thousand of the inhabitants to death, i^i^n^a"?*- 
made prisoners of over a thousand, expelled the 
remainder and stationed in the district a large 
di\ision of his own troops, who overran and devastated 

«* § 130 (for Jamnia). 

* The toparchy (iii. 55) which took its name from Ammaus 
(or Emmaus). Arnicas, X.\\'. of Jerusalem. 

/ The correct form is probably Bethleptepha (or Bethle- 
tepha), Schiirer, G.J.V. ii. 184 n. ; it is the modern Beit 
Nettif, S.W. of Jerusalem, and ^ave its name to one of the 
provinces of Judaea, B. iii. 34 n. 

" Unidentified. 

VOL. TII E 2 131 



JOSEPHUS 

449 eTTopdovv airaaav rrjv opeLvqv. avrog he /zera tt^? 
XoLTTTJs Swdjieajs VTrearpeifjev et? 'A/x^aow, odev 
Sia rrj? Sa/xapetrtSos' Kal Trapa rriv Neav ttoXlv^ 
KaXovjjLEvrjV, Ma^apOa S' vtto tojv eTnxcopiojv, 
Kara^as els Kopeav Sevrepa AaLutov firjvos 

450 GrparoTTeSeverai . rfj 8' ^'^'^S" ets" 'lepL)(^ovvTa 
d(f)LKveLTaL, KaO^ tjv avro) GvpLfiLGyei Tpatavos" et? 
Tcov TjyefJLovcDv rrjV eK TTJg ITepatas" dyojv BvvapLiv, 
rjBr] TOJV virep rov ^lopSdvqv Kex^Lpajfievajv . 

451 (2) To fxev ovv ttoXv ttXtjOos eK rrjs ^lepixovs 
(f)6dGav TTjv e(f}oSov a-urojv els ttjv dvTLKpvg 'lepocro- 
XvfjLOJV opecvTjv hiaTTet^evyeiy KaraXetchOev S' ovk 

452 oXiyov hiachdeiperai. ttjv 8e voXlv eprjfjLOV Kar- 
eLXrj(f)eGav, ^tls tSpvraL fxev ev Trehio), xJjlXov he 
VTTepKeirai avrfi Kal aKapTTOv opos yL-qKiarov 

453 Kara yap to ^opeiov /cAt/xa /xep^pt tt^s" ^kvOo- 
ttoXltcov yrjs e/cretVerat, /card he to fiearjpL^pivov 

P-^XP^ '^V^ ^ohop^LTCOV X^P^^ '^^^^ '^^^ TTepdTCOV TT^S 

AG(l>aXTLTihos. eGTLV he dvcop^aXov re ttolv Kal 

io4: aoLKTjTov hid TTjv dyoviav. avTiKetTaL he tovtoj 

TO irepl^ Tov ^lophdv-qv opos dpxdfievov diro 

^ L: NedTToXti' the rest. 
* virep Destinon with Heg. {supra). 

<• Flavia Neapolis, mod. Nablus, the new town founded by 
Vespasian c. a.d. 72 on the site of the older Mabartha 
(Mamortha according to Pliny, H.X. v. 13. 69) in the im- 
mediate vicinity of Shechem. The most probable meaning 
of Mabartha is " pass " or " passage " {ma 'abarta), the 
name, like that of Shechem (" shoulder "), being taken from 
the watershed on which both places stood, forming an easy 

132 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 449-454 

the whole of the hill country. He then returned 
^vith the rest of his forces to Ammaus, and thence by 
way of Samaria, passing NeapoHs ° or, as the natives 
call it, Mabartha, he descended to Corea,^ where he 
encamped on the second of the month Daesius. On c. 20 June 
the following day he reached Jericho, where he was ve^p^sianat 
joined by Trajan,'^ one of his generals, with the force Jericho, 
which he had led from Peraea, all the country beyond 
Jordan being now subjugated. 

(2) The mass of the population, anticipating their Description 
arrival, had fled from Jericho ^ to the hill country bourhood 
over against Jerusalem, but a considerable number of Jericho 
remained behind and were put to death ; the city 
itself the Romans found deserted. Jericho lies in 
a plain, but above it hangs a bare and barren moun- 
tain range of immense length, extending northwards 
as far as the territory of Scythopolis ^ and southwards 
to the region of Sodom and the extremities of the 
Lake Asphaltitis ; this hill district is all rugged 
and owing to its sterility uninhabited. Opposite 
to it and flanking the Jordan lies a second range, 

pass between the Mediterranean and Jordan basins. Schiirer, 
O.J. V. i. 650, Encycl. BibL, and Hastings, D.B. 

^ From the pass of Shechem a Roman road followed the fc^ 
course of a tributary of the Jordan in a S.E. direction down 
to Corea or Coreae, Tell el-Mazar, on the N. frontier of 
Judaea, B. i. 134, A. xiv. 49. 

* Commander of the 10th legion and father of the future "^ 
emperor of that name, B. ill. -2S9 ff. 

^ Apparently the larger area of the toparchy {B. hi. 55) is 
meant, as opposed to " the city itself" mentioned below. 

* Bethshan, Beisan, the one city of Decapolis which lay W. 
of the Jordan. The name Scythopolis may owe its origin to 
the great Scythian invasion of Palestine in the 7th cent. 
B.C., mentioned by Herodotus i. 105; Syncellus (quoted by 
Schiirer) writes 'LKvdai rrjv T[a\aLaTivi)v Karedpaixov Kal ttjv 
Bacrdp /carecrxoi' rr^v i^ avruiv K\T]de'l<Tav "ZKuddiroXiv. 

133 



JOSEPHUS 

iovXidSo^ Kat Tcuv ^op€LOJV KXifiarajv, ttc pareivov 
he €L£ fJL€Grjfj.l^piav ecu? T^OjJLopcDVy -qTTep optLeL ttjv 
Ylerpav rrjg ^Apaj^ias. iv tovtoj S' iarl Kat ro 
'Z.lSt^povv KaXovfjievov opog pLrjKVvojJLevov p-expi- ttj? 

455 Moja^tViSos'. Tj pL€Gr) Se tojv Suo oplojv X^'^P^ '^^ 
jjLeya irehiov KaXelrat, oltto Kojpnqs Tivva^piv ^ 

456 hiTjKOV pL^Xpi' TTjS ^ AG4>aXTLrLhoS '^ €UTl S aVTOV 

fjLTJKog fi€V aradiaw ;)i(tAt6av hiaKoaiojv,^ evpos S 
eLKOGL Koi eKarov, kol fieGov vtto rod lopdavov 
repLverai, Xifivas re e;)^et rriv re 'Acr^aArtTti^ /cat 
rrjv Tif^epLeow (f)VGLV evavrias' rj p^ev yap aX- 
pLvpcoSrjg KOL ayovos, rj Ti^epLeow 8e yXvKela Kat 

457 y6vLp.os. eKrrvpovraL he ojpa Oepovs ro rrehiov 
Kol hi V77€p^oXr]V avxp-ov TTepuex^i' voaojhrj rov 

458 depa' Trdv yap dvvhpov ttXtjv rod lophdvov, rrapo 
KOL rov? p.ev errl ral? oxOatg (poLVLKowas evOaXe- 
arepov? Kal TToXvSopcorepov? etvac GvpL^e^r]Kev, 
rirrov he rovs rroppoj KexojpiGpLevovs . 

459 (3) riapa p.evroL rrjp 'lepcxovv eon TTrjyrj haipiX-qg 
re Kal rrpo? dpheia? XiTrapajrarrj , rrapa rrjv 
TToXaidv dva^Xvl,ovGa ttoXlu, rjv ^Itjgovs 6 Navij 

^ Aefva^pi L ; cf. iii. 447 IievfaSpis, whence 'Zewa^pt Niese 
(ed. min.) here. 

^ P : + x'^pcts A : + \li.i.vr)% the rest. 

^ Xi-\- OLaKoa.^ TfjiaKovra Kal OLaKoaiwv L Lat. Heg., through 
misreading of ,AC' as AC- 

* Bethsaida Julias, et-Tell, at the head of the sea of 
Gahlee, founded by Philip the Tetrarch, B. ii. 168. 

'' Literally "and the northern regions." perhaps = " or 
regions farther north." 

" Perhaps Khirhat al Samra shown in map (facing p. 1} 
> in Kennedy's Petra (1925). 

134 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 454-459 

which, beginning at Julias ^ in the north,'' stretches 
parallel to the former chain southwards as tar as 
Somora,'' which borders on Petra in Arabia ; this 
range includes also the so-called Iron mountain^ 
stretching into Moab. The region enclosed between and of the 
these two mountain ranges is called the Great Plain.* (/o^pian ^'" 
This extends from the village of Ginnabris ^ to the vaUey). 
Lake Asphaltitis, and is twelve hundred furlongs in 
length, and a hundred and twenty in breadth ; ^ it 
is intersected by the Jordan and contains two lakes, 
Asphaltitis and that of Tiberias, contrary in their 
nature, the former being salt and barren, the latter 
sweet and prohfic. In summer the plain is burnt 
up, and the excessive drought renders the surround- 
ing atmosphere pestilential ; for it is wholly \dthout 
water, apart from the Jordan, which, moreover, 
explains why the palm-groves on the banks of that 
river are more luxuriant and productive than those 
further off. 

(3) Hard by Jericho, however, is a copious spring'* Eiisha's 
of excellent value for irrigation ; it gushes up near ji^^^'Jo"^'^ 
the old town, which was the first in the land of the 

** Unidentified ; " stretching " {fi-qKVPOjxevov) probably 
means running out laterallv from W. to E. (as in B. iii. 40). 

• The Ghor ( = " Rift ")'or Jordan vaUey. " The Great 
Plain " (similarly used in A. iv. 100) elsewhere is the name 
for the plain of Esdraelon. 

^ Called Sennabris (iii. 447), between Tiberias and 
Tarichaeae. 

» i.e. (the " stade " being c. 606 feet) about 137 miles by 13. 
The actual length of the Jordan valley from the Sea of 
Galilee to the Dead Sea is Qo miles : the breadth varies from 
3 to 14 miles (G. A. Smith, Hist. Geography of Holy Land, 
48:2). Josephus apparently includes the two lakes ; this 
would increase the length to c. 124 miles. 

* Commonly identified with the Sultan's Spring, 1^ miles 
N. of the road from Jerusalem. 

135 



eai 



13. ^ 



i_l 



JOSEPHUS 

TTots Grparrjyos Itl^paiojv TTpwr-qv etAe yi^s 
460 y^avavalajv hopLKTr]Tov. ravrrjv rrjv TTrjyj^v Xoyos 
€\ei Kar apxas ov fiovov yrjs /cat hevSpojv Kaprrovs 
dTTaji^XvveLv, dXXa Kal yvvaiKOJv yovds, KadoXov 
re TidoLV elvai voGojSr] re /cat ^daprLKiqv, i^- 
T^p.epcod'qvaL Se /cat yeveadac rovvavriov vyieivo 
rdriqv t€ /cat yovLjicoTdrriv vtto 'EAtCTO-atof rivos 
7Tpo(f)rjTov' yvojpLjjLog 8' 171^ ovtos *HAia /cat 
4Q1 SidSoxos' 05 im^evajdels rot? /caret rrjv 'lepuxovv, 
TTepiGUov hrj tl (j}iXo(j)pov'qGajJLev(DV avrov rcov 
avdpojTTcov, avrov? re dfiei^erai /cat rr]v x^P^^ 

462 OLLajvLOj ;5^a/3tTt. TrpoeXOwv yap CTrt rr]v rr-qyrjv 
/cat Kara^aXojv els to pevjJLa TrXrjpes dXojv dyyelov 
KepafjLovv,^ eireira el? ovpavov Se^idv dvarelvas 
St/catav /caTTt yrjs^ orrovhas jJLeiXiKrrjpLOVS ;\;eojLtei^os', 
rrjv fjiev rfrelro /xaAa^at ro pevyia /cat yXvKvrepas 

463 (hXe^a? dvoZ^ai, rov S' eyKepdaaadai rw pevfian 
yovLfjLOjrepovs depas hovval re a/xa /cat Kapirchv 
evOrjviav rols eTTLXcoptoLS Kal reKvojv hiahox'r}'^y p^f]^ 
eTTiXiTTeZv avrol? ro rovrojv yevvqrLKOV vhojp, 

464 kojs p.evovGL St/catot. ravrais rats evxcng TToAAa 
TTpoGx^ipovpyriaas^ e^ eTTiGrrjp.'qs erpeijje rrjV 
TTTjyijv, /cat ro rrplv 6p<f)avLas avrois Kal XipLov 
rrapairiov vScop eKrore evreKvias /cat Kopov 

465 X^Piy^'^ Karearrj. rooavriqv yovv ev rats dpheiaLs 
ex^i^ SvvapLLV (hs, el Kal pLOVov ecjidipairo rrjs 
X(J^pOiS, voGripLwrepov etvat rcov P-^XP^ Kopov 

466 ;\;/30i't^oyTtov. Trapo Kal rcov piev, haipiXeurepaJS 
XpojpLepcov, Tj ovquLs eariv oXlyrj, rovrov 8e rod 

^ L Lat. : toO the rest. ^ Naber : Kepduov mss. 

^ fat eTTi yrjs A^ : Kal Tnjyrjs or /cat (ry) irrjy^ the rest. 

* Destinon with Lnt. : frpoivepi- R)xei/>ou/>7^o-aj mss. 

136 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 459-466 

Canaanites to fall before the arms of Jesus the son 
of Naue,° general of the Hebrews. Tradition avers 
that this spring originally not only blighted the fruits 
of the earth and of trees but also caused women to 
miscarry, and that to everything aUke it brought 
disease and destruction, until it was reclaimed and 
converted into a most salubrious and fertilizing source 
by a certain prophet EHsha, the disciple and successor 
of Elijah.^ Having been the guest of the people of 
Jericho and been treated by them with extreme 
hospitality, he requited their kindness by conferring 
a boon for all time upon them and their country. 
For he went out to this spring and cast into the 
stream an earthenware vessel full of salt, and then 
raising his righteous right hand to heaven and 
pouring propitiatory hbations upon the ground, he 
besought the earth to mollify the stream and to 
open sweeter channels, and heaven to temper its 
waters with more genial airs and to grant to the 
inhabitants alike an abundance of fruits, a succession 
of children, and an unfailing supply of water con- 
ducive to their production, so long as they remained 
a righteous people. By these prayers, supplemented 
by various ritual ceremonies,^ he changed the nature 
of the spring, and the water which had before 
been to them a cause of childlessness and famine 
thenceforth became a source of fecundity and plenty. 
Such, in fact, are its powers of irrigation, that if it 
but skim the soil, it is more salubrious than waters 
which stand and saturate it. Hence, too, M'hile the 
benefit derived from other streams is shght, though 

" The Septuagint name for Joshua, son of Nun. 
" Cf. 2 Kings, ii. 19-22. 

* Literally " working many things besides with his hands 
from (professional) skill." 

137 



JOSEPHUS 

467 oXiyov \x.oprjyLa~\^ haijjiXrjs. apSet yovv nXeova 
Tojv aXXcov aTTOLVTOW, /cat TreStoi' fji€v kTreccnv 
l^hofJLTiKovra oraSlajv firJKO? evpo? 8' e'cKOGCv, 
eKTpi(j)€i §* ev avro) napah^iGovs KaXXiarovg re 

468 Kal TTVKvordrovs. rwv he (J)olvlkojv eTTO-phop-eviov 
yevT] TToXXa rat? yevaeGi Koi rals Traprjyoplais^ 
Sid(f)opa' TOVTOJV ol TTiorepoi Trarou/xevot kol fxeXt 

469 haipiXes dvidcjiv ov ttoXXoj tov Xolttov •)(€Zpov. koi 
[jLeXiTTorpocho? 8' tj ^(ojpa' <^ep€L 8e kol otto- 
^dXaapov , o hrj ripioJTarov tojv rijSe Kap7Ta)v, 
Kvirpov re kol fxvpo^dXavov, cLs ovk av a/JLaprelv 
TLva elrrovTa Oelov elvai to 'x^ojpLOV, iv cb haiptXrj to. 

470 GTTaviojraTa Kal KaXXiora yevvaTai. tojv fiev 
yap dXXojv avTO) Kapircov eveKev ovk av paStoj? tl 
TTapaj^Xrjdei'q KXifia rrj? oiKovfxei^ris' ovtojs to 

471 Karaf^X'qdev ttoXtj^ovv dvaSidojaLV. a'triov jxoi 
hoKel TO depp-ov tojv depojv Kal to tojv vhdrojv 
evTOVov,^ TOJV pjev TrpoKaXovpevojv* to. (f)v6pL€va 
Kal Siax^oi^TOJV , ttj? 8' iKpdSog pilova-qs eKaoTOV 
lcr)(ypo)s Kal x'^PW-^^'-'^V^ '^W ^^ Oepei Svvapnv 
vepiKaes 8e ioTiv ovtojs to x^P^o^> ^S" /x7]SeVa 

472 paStcD? TTpo'ilvaL. to Se vhojp irpo dvaToXrj? 

^ PMA^: 77 x'^Pvyi-o^ L: om. the rest. 
2 Trpoa-rjyo plats N^iese with Lat. nominibus. 

^ Margin of PAM : evyovov the rest. 
* ed. pr. with Lat. : 7rpoa-Ka\ovfJ!.iv(i}v mss. 

" The article tQv (sc. aWov vdarup) must be dissociated 
from the following genitive absolute oa-^LXearepus xpw^^j'wi' 
(c/. A. vii. 159). 

* Jericho was " the city of palm-trees," Deut. xxxiv. 3, 
Judges i. 16. 

* Legend said that the first roots of the balsam were 
imported into Palestine from Arabia by the Queen of Sheba, 
A. viii. 174 ; the method of collecting the juice is described 

138 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 467-472 

they use them more lavishly,'* this little rill yields 
an ample return. Indeed, this spring irrigates a 
larger tract than all others, permeating a plain 
seventy furlongs in length and twenty in breadth, 
and fostering within that area the most charming 
and luxuriant parks. Of the date-palms^ watered The rich 
by it there are numerous varieties differing in flavour thel-egion'* 
and in medicinal properties ; the richer species of watered by 
this fruit when pressed under foot emit copious 
honey, not much inferior to that of bees, which are 
also abundant in this region. Here, too, grow the 
juicy balsam,^ the most precious of all the local pro- 
ducts, the cypress and the myrobalanus <^ ; so that 
it would be no misnomer to describe as " divine " 
this spot in \vhich the rarest and choicest plants are 
produced in abundance.* For, with regard to its 
other fruits, it would be difficult to find another 
region in the habitable world comparable to this ; 
so manifold are the returns from whatever is sown. 
I attribute these results to the warmth of the air 
and the bracing f effects of the water, the one caUing 
forth and diffusing the young plants, while the 
moisture enables them all to take firm root and 
supplies them wdth vitality in summer, when the 
surrounding region is so parched up, that one can 
scarcely venture out of doors. The water if drawn 

in B. i. 138, A. xiv. 54 ; Cleopatra appropriated from 
Herod's realm " the palm grove of Jericho where the balsam 
grows," B. i. 361, A. xv. 96 ; in the last passage Josephus 
speaks of the balsam as peculiar to Jericho, but in A. ix. 7 he 
mentions another habitat, Engedi on the Dead Sea. Strabo 
(xvi. 763) and other writers mention the balsam of Jericho. 

^ " Perhaps the ben-nut " (Liddell and Scott). 

* C/. the description of the fertile plain of Gennesareth, 
iii. 516 ff. 

^ Or, with the reading ^^-^ovov^ " fertilizing." 

139 



JOSEPHUS 

avrXovfxevov. CTTCtra i^aidpiaadev ytWrat ipvxpo' 
rarov Kai ttjv €vavriav rrpos to irepil'xpv ^vaiv 
XafjL^dveiy p^etjLtcuyos" Se dvaTraXiv ■)(XiaLverai koI 

473 rots' ifi^aivovGL yiverai Trpoa-qviorarov . euri hk 
Kai TO TTepUxov ovrcos evKparov, ws Xlvovv 

dp.(f>L€l1'V(79aL TOVS i7TL)(WpLOVS rt^O/XeVl]? TTJ^ 

474 dXXrj? 'louSaias". dTrey^ei 8' oltto 'YepouoXvpLWV 
fiev GTahiOVS €Kar6v TrevrrjKovra, rod Se ^lopSdvov 
e^rjKovra, /cat to fiev pi^xp^ 'lepocroXvpLcov avrrj? 
€pr]pov Kai Trerpcohes, ro Se l^^XP^ '^^^ ^lopSdvov 
Kai TT^s" 'Ao-^aATtrtSos' xOapiaXiLrepov [xev, eprjpLov 

475 8e o/jlolcjos Kai aKaprrov. dXXd yap to, jLtev Trept 
'lept;^^^^ €vhaLixov€GTdr7]v ovaav dTToxpo^vrujs 
SeSr^AcoTttt. 

476 (4) "A^toF 8' d(f)r]yTJGaG6aL Kai ttjv (^vglv rrjs 
'ACT^aATtTiSos" XtfjLvrjs, -^TLs earl iiev, cu? €(f)7]v, 
TTLKpd Kai dyovos, vtto 8e Kov(^6T'f)ros Kai rd 
^apvTara rcjv els avrrjv pi^evTCov dva^epei, Kara- 
8uvat 8' €tV Tov ^vdov Q-uSe eTTir-qhevGavTa pdhiov. 

477 d(f)LK6p.€vos yovv KaO^ LGTopiav €77* avrrjv Ove- 
GTTaGiavds eKeXevGe rivag tcDv vetv ovk eTrtcTTa- 
ixivcov, Sedevras ottlgcu rds x^^P^^> pi(f)T]vaL Kara 
TOV ^vdoVy Kai Gvve^rj Trdvrag inivq^aGOaL 

478 Kadairep vtto TTvevfJLaros dvco /Sta^OjLteVou?. eWt 
8' e77t rovTcp Kai rj rrjs ;\;poas' [JLera^oXrj davjJLdGios' 
rpls yap eKdorrj? rjixepa? rrjv €7n(f>dveLav dXXdo- 
GeraL Kai irpos rds rjXiaKds a/CTtvas" dvravyel ttol- 

479 klXoj?. rrj<; (livroL doc^dXrov Kara TToXXd p^^pr] 
140 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 472-479 

before sunrise and then exposed to the air becomes 
intensely cold," assuming a character the reverse of 
the surrounding atmosphere ; in ^\'inter, on the con- 
trary, it is warm and quite pleasant to bathe in. 
Moreover, the climate is so mild that the inhabitants 
wear Unen when snow is falling throughout the rest 
of Judaea. The distance from Jerusalem is a hun- 
dred and fifty furlongs and from the Jordan sixty.* 
The country from Jericho to Jerusalem is desert and 
rocky ; to the Jordan and the Lake Asphaltitis the 
ground is lower, though equally wild and barren. 
But of Jericho, that most favoured spot, enough has 
been said. 

(4) The natural properties of the Lake Asphaltitis Description 
also merit remark. Its waters are, as I said,*^ bitter Asphaltitis 
and unproductive, but owing to their buoyancy send (P^^^ Sea), 
up to the surface the very heaviest of objects cast 
into them, and it is difficult, even of set purpose, to 
sink to the bottom .°^ Thus, when Vespasian came Vespasian 
to explore the lake, he ordered certain persons who ^'^^^^ **^- 
were unable to swim to be flung into the deep water 
with their hands tied behind tliem ; M-ith the result 
that all rose to the surface and floated, as if impelled 
upward by a current of air. Another remarkable 
feature is its change of colour : three times a day it 
alters its appearance and throws off a different re- 
flection of the solar rays. Again, in many parts it 

" Cf. a similar statement on the water of the Sea of Galilee, 
iii. 508. 

* i.e. 11 1 and nearly 7 miles respectively. The actual 
distances appear to be about 16 and 5 miles. 

" §456. 

^ Cf. with this description Tac. Hist. v. 6 and Strabo, 7 
763 f. (who confuses it with the Lake Sirbonis in Egypt; 
context and details show that he refers to the Dead Sea). 

141 



JOSEPHUS 

^(JjXovs (jLeXalvas avahihajaiv at 8 e77t^'7];^OI^Tal 
TO re G)(fjiia koI to {leyeOos ravpois aK£(j)dXoLs 

480 TTapaTrXijaiat. TrpoueXavvovres 8e ot tt^S" Xtfip-qg 
Ipydrai Koi hpauoofxevoi rod GVveGrwros cXkovglv 
el? TO. GKa(f)rj, TrXrjpcjGaoi de aTTOKOTrrcLV ov 
pahioVy dXXd St' evzoviav TrpoGT^prrjTai ro) firjpv- 
fxari TO GKd(f)OS, ecu? dv ip.iM-qvLOj yvvaiKaJv atfian 
Kal ovpoj hiaXvGOJGiv avrrji', otg {jlovols et/cet. 

481 Kal -x^priGLiios he ov fiovov eis" dpyLOVia? vecov dXXd 
Kal 77 pos dK€GLV GOJjidrcov' elg TToXXd yovv rcov 

482 (j)appidKojv TTapap^LGyeraL. ravTrjg tt]s XifjLvrjs fxrj- 
Kos p-^v oySorjKovra Kal TrevraKOGioi GrdSiOL, 
Ka96 Srj pi€xpi' Z.odpojv tt]? Apa^iag iKreiverai, 

483 evpos Se TTevTrfKOvra Kal eKarov. yeirvia S' -f] 
^ohopiTLs avrfj, TrdXai ptev evhalpiajv yrj KapTTcbv 
T€ €V€K€v Kal Tfjs Kara ttoXlv TTepiovGias y vvv 8e 

484 K€Kavp.€vri iraGa. <j)aGl 8' cu? 8t' aGe^eiav oIkt]- 
ropojv Kepavvols xara^AeyT^rat^* €Gri yovv eVt 
Xelipava rod delov TTvpog, Kal rrevre pLev noXeajv 
Ihetv GKidsy en he Kav roZs Kapirols Grrohidv 
dvayei'vcopeirqv y ot -x^poidv p^ev e)(ovGi rcov ehtohi- 
pLOjv opLoiaVy hpeipap.evojv he x^P^'-^ ^^S Karrvov 

^ KaTe(p\eyr] L. 

" So Tac. loc. cit. " fugit cruorem vestemque infectam 
saiigTiine, quo feminae per menses exsohiintur. Sic veteres 
auctores." From Strabo 764 we learn that one of these 
"ancient authors " was Poseidonius (2nd- 1st cent. B.C.). Cf. 

142 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 479-484 

casts up black masses of bitumen, which float on the itsbitumea 
surface, in their shape and size resembling decapi- 
tated bulls. The labourers on the lake row up to 
these and catching hold of the lumps haul them into 
their boats ; but when they have filled them it is no 
easy task to detach their cargo, which owing to its 
tenacious and glutinous character clings to the boat 
until it is loosened by the monthly secretions of 
women," to which alone it yields. It is useful not 
only for caulking ships, but also for the healing of the 
body, forming an ingredient in many medicines. The 
length of this lake is five hundred and eighty fur- 
longs,* measured in a line reaching to Zoara ° in 
Arabia, and its breadth one hundred and fifty .<^ 
Adjacent to it is the land of Sodom,^ in days of old The blasted 
a country blest in its produce and in the wealth of yj^'Jjjf 
its various cities, but now all burnt up. It is said 
that, owing to the impiety of its inhabitants, it was 
consumed by thunderbolts ; and in fact vestiges of 
the divine fire and faint traces of five cities are still 
visible. Still, too, may one see ashes reproduced in 
the fruits, which from their outward appearance 
would be thought edible, but on being plucked with 

also B. vii. 181, where the same secretions are named as 
aids to the extraction of a certain root with medicinal 
properties. 

* This fijrure ( = about 66^ miles) is greatly exaggerated ; 
the actual length is about 47 miles. 

' The Biblical Zoar, familiar as Lot's city of refuge. Gen. 
xix. 22; perhaps (Smith and Bartholomew, ^^Za.?) el-Keryeh, 
a few miles S. of the Lake. 

"^ i.e. about 11^ miles ; the actual breadth at the broadest 
part is about 10 miles. 

« Perhaps the modern Jebel Usdiun at the S.W. corner of 

the lake. Many older authorities located the cities of the 
plain to the north of the Dead Sea. 

143 



JOSEPHUS 

485 StaAuovrat^ Kal recbpav. ra fiev Srj nepl ttjv 
HodopuTiv fivdevojJLeva roiavrrjv €)(€i, ttlgtlv oltto 

486 (ix. l) '0 Se O-ueairaGLavos navraxocr^^ Trepi- 
reixt-^ojv^ rovs iv rolg 'lepoGoXvixoLg ev re rfj 
'lepLxot Kal iv 'AStSot? iyeipei arparoTreha Kal 
(f)povpov£ dfi(f)OT€paLs iyKaOiGTrjGLv €k re rod 

487 PojpiaLKov Kai crvfip-axi-KOV rdypiaros.* 77€[17T€l 
o€ Kai €L? Yepacra Aq-uklov "Avvlov irapaSov? 

488 pLolpav lttttIojv Kal Gvxyovg 7Tet,ovs. 6 p.kv ovv 
ef iSoSov TTjV ttoXlv iXojv aTTOKTelveL [jl€v ^lXlovs 
raJv viojv, ogol firj hia(l>vy€.lv e(j)daGaVy yeveds he 
fjXP-o.XajTLGaro Kal rag ktt]G€Ls StapTracrat Tot? 
GrpaTLcoraLS iTTerpeifjev CTretra rds OLKia? e/x- 

489 TTprjGas €7tI rag Trepi^ KOjjjLas exojpei. (f)vyal 5' 
TjGav Tojv Svvarojv Kal (f)dopal raJv aGBeveGTipojVy 

490 TO KaraXeLcbdeu be Trdv eveTnpLTTparo. Kal 8t- 
etX-qcboros rod TToXefiov rijv re opeivqv oX-qv Kal 
TTjV TTehidha TrdGas" ol ev roZs 'lepoGoXvpLOig rd^ 
i^ohov? d(j)fjprjVTO' rovs piev ydp^ avropLoXelu Trpo- 
aipovpievovs ol t,rjXcoTal 7Tape(f)vXdGGovro , rovg Se 
ovTTOj rd *Pcu/iat6ov cjipovovvras elpyev rj Grparid 
TTavraxddev rrjv ttoXlv rrepLexovGa. 

^ avaXiovrai. L. ^ Travraxodev LC. 

^ eiTLTeLxi-C^v L. * aivrdyfxaTOS A, 

^ Destinon : Trda-av mss. 
® jj-ivTOi -,€ PA : ijjev ye Destinon. 

" Cf. Tac. Hist. V. 7 " et manere vestigia, terramque ipsam, 
specie torridam, vim frugiferam perdidisse. Nam cuncta . . . 
atra et inania velut in cinerem vanescunt " : and from a 
■^Titer of a thousand years later, Fulcher of Chartres, historian 
of the first crusade, Hiftt. Hi^rosol. ii. 4 (Migne) " illic inter 
arbores caeteras vidi quasdam poma ferentes, de quibus 

U4 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 485-490 

the hand dissolve into smoke and ashes. ^ So far 
are the legends about the land of Sodom borne out 
by ocular evidence. 

(ix. 1) Vespasian, with a \iew to investing Jeru- Vespasian 
salem on all sides, now established camps at Jericho campsat^^ 
and at Adida,^ placing in each a garrison composed Jericho and 
jointly of Romans and auxiliaries. He also sent 
Lucius Annius to Gerasa*^ with a squadron of cavalry L, Annius 
and a considerable body of infantry. Annius, having gerIaa. 
carried the city by assault, put to the sword a thou- 
sand of the youth who had not already escaped, 
made prisoners of women and children, gave his 
soldiers hcence to plunder the property, and then 
set fire to the houses and advanced against the 
surrounding villages. The able-bodied fled, the feeble 
perished, and everything left was consigned to the 
flames. The war having now embraced the whole 
region, both hill and plain, all egress from Jerusalem Jerusalem 
was cut off ; for those who desired to desert were i^o^^-*^- 
closely watched by the Zealots, while those who were 
not yet pro-Romans were confined by the army 
which hemmed in the city on every side. 

cum coUegissem, scire volens cujus naturae essent, inveni 
rupto cortice interius quasi pulverem atrum, et inde inanem 
prodire fumum." Dr. C. Geikie, The Holy Land and the 
Bible, ii. 117, writes that *' the ' osher ' of the Arab is the 
true apple of Sodom. ... Its fruit is like a large smooth 
apple or orange. . . . When ripe it is yellow and looks fair 
and attractive, and is soft to the touch, but if pressed, it 
bursts with a crack, and only the broken shell and a row of 
small seeds in a half-open pod, with a few dry filaments, 
remain in the hand." 

*• Haditheh, 3 miles E. of Lydda, and some 20 miles N.W. 
of Jerusalem. 

' Jerask, in Gilead, on the X.E. frontier of Peraea, B. iii. 
47. 

145 



JOSEPHUS 

491 (2) OvecrTTaatavco 8' et? KaLadpeiav imarpe- 
ipavTL Kal 7TapaGK€va(lofjL€Vcp fiera rracrrjs rrjS 
hvi'(ip.eaj£ €77* avTCL)v rcov 'IcpocroAi^/icuv e^- 
eAauvetv ayyeXXeTai ^epojv dvrjprjpievos, rpta Kat 
deKa ^aaiXevoas errj <Kal jj-TJvas okt(jj>^ Kai 

492 T/fiepas oktco. rrepl ov XeyeLV, ov rpoTTOv €ls rrjv 
d-px^jV i^v^piaev TTLorevaas to. TTpay^xara rols 

493 —ovTjpoTdroLS , 'Svp.cf^LhLOj Kal T LyeXXlvqj , rots ye' 
dva^LOLg rcov i^eXevSepwv, Kal d>s vtto rovrojv 
eTTL^ovXevdelg /careAet^^T] pLev vtto tojv cfyvXaKcov 
dTrdvTOJV, htaEpds Se crvv rerpaai tojv ttlgtojp 
aTTeXevOepajv eV rots' TrpoaoTeiois eavTov avelAev, 
Kal oj? ol KaTaXvoavTes avTOV /xer' ov^ rroXvv 

404 ypovov hiKas ehoaav tov t€ Kara ttjV YaXaTiai- 
TToXepov oj£ iTeXevTTjGey Kal ttcos" TdX^ag airo- 
heL)(dels avTOKpaTOjp els 'PojpLr]v e—avrjX9ev eK 
rrjs 'IcTTTavLaSi Kal ojs vtto tcov OTpaTiojTOJv 
alnadels errl TarreLVoSpoavvrj Kara pLea-qv iSoXo- 
(fjovTidr* TT^v 'PajjiaLajv dyopdv, dTreheiy^di] re 

495 avTOKpaTwp "O^cov ttjv re toijtov arpaTeiav^ 

1 ins. Niese. 2 mRC: re PAL: om. V. 

* fier' ov Cardwell : fxerd MSS. 
* Kara. u.ia. eo. Niese (avoiding hiatus): id. /card fxecrr/p mss. 

^ Dindorf: cTpanbiV mss, 

" The actual lengih of his reign was 13 years 7 months 28 
days (from 13th October 54 to 9th June 66). Dion Cassius 
(Ixiii. 29) reckons this in round numbers as 13 years 8 months. 
With this figure the statement in Josephus may be brought 
into conformity by altering ijuepas to iJ-ffpas ; more probably, 
as suggested by Niese, Kai fx'vas 6kti1' has dropped out 
through homoioteleuton. With the insertion of those words, 
Josephus makes the reign ten days too long ; cf. similar 
slight discrepancies in B. li. 168, 180, 204. 

'' Nymphidius Sabinus. son of a freedwoman, was, along 

146 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 491-495 

(2) Vespasian had returned to Caesarea and was Vespasian 
preparing to march in full strength upon Jerusalem death of 
itself, when the news reached him that Nero was f^^^^ 
slain, after a reign of thirteen years (eight months) a.d. 68, 
and eight days.*^ To tell how that emperor wantonly 
abused his authority by entrusting the administra- 
tion to the \'ilest wretches, Nymphidius ^ and Tigel- 
linus,*' the most worthless of freedmen ^ ; how, when 
they conspired against him, he was abandoned by 
all his guards, and, escaping \\'ith four faithful freed- 
men,'^ put an end to himself-^ in the suburbs ; and 
how punishment ere long overtook those who had 
caused his overthrow — falls outside my purpose. Nor 
do I propose to tell of the war in Gaul and its issue, 
of Galba's call to the imperial dignity and his return 
to Rome from Spain, of the charge of meanness '^ 
brought against him by the soldiers and how he 
was treacherously slain in the midst of the Roman 
forum '^ and Otho was made emperor; of Otho's 

with Tigellinus, prefect of the praetorian guards towards the 
end of Nero's reign. On Nero's death he attempted to 
seize the empire for himself, but was slain by the friends of 
Galba. 

" Sophonius Tigellinus, a man of obscure birth, appointed 
praetorian prefect a.d. 63, was the main instrument of the 
tyranny and profligacy which marked the end of Nero's 
reign ; he committed suicide on the accession of Otho. 
Juv. Sat. i. 155 "pone Tigellinum " etc., "dare to portray 
T. and you will be burnt alive." 

'^ Or, perhaps, " and to worthless freedmen." 

* Phaon, who offered him refuge at his villa 4 miles out of 
Rome, Epaphroditus, Sporus, and another. The dramatic 
story is told by Suetonius, Nero 47 f. and Dion Cass. Ixiii. 27. 

^ Epaphroditus assisting. 

" He alienated the praetorians by refusing the donative 
which Nymphidius had promised in his name. _^ 

* Near the pool of Curtius. 

147 



JOSEPHUS 

errl rovs OvcreXXlov GTparrjyov? Kal KaraXvuLV, 
€TT€Lra Tovs Kara OvltIXXiov rapaxovs Kal ttjv 
vepl TO KaTrerojAtor Gvp.^oXrjv, ottojs t€ *AvrowLos 
UplpLog Kai Mof/ctayos", hia(j)BeLpavTes OviriXkiov 
Kai ra TepfxavLKa raypLara, KaTeareiXav rov ipL- 

496 (/)uAtov rroXeixov iravra ravra hie^ilvai p.ev eV* 
aKpL^e? 7Tapr)rr]Gdpirjv, iTreiSrj §t' o^Xov Trdalv 
iuTLv Kal TToXXoLs 'EAAT^vojy re Kal 'PcopLalcov 
avayiypaTTTai, cruva(f)€La£ Se €V€K€V twv rrpay- 
pLOLTOJv Kal rod pL'q hirjprrjoBai Tqv laropiav 
K€(f)aXaLOjdojg eKaarov eVtcr7]/xatVo/xat. 

497 OveuTTaoLavos roivvv to /xev Trpcbrov dve^dXXero 
TTjV Tojv 'lepocroXvpLOJV GTparelav, KapahoKOJV 

498 TTpos riva peipet to KpaTelv pLeTo. ^ipojva' avOis 
he YdX^av aKOVGa? avTOKpaTopa, rrplv eTriGTelXai 
TL rrepl tov rroXepiov kolkeIvov, ovk iTrex^ipEL, 

7T€pL7r€L 0€ TTpOS aVTOV Wal^ TOV vloV T LTOV 

aGTTaGopLevov re Kal Xrjifj6p.€vov to.? rrepl 'lofSaicuv 
evToAas. oia oe Tag aura? atrta? apLa i. ltco Kai 

499 A.ypi7T-as 6 ^aGiXevg Trpos YdX^av errXei. Kal 
§ta TTJ? 'A;)^ata?/ x^ipiojvos yap rjv a)pa, p.aKpaZs 
vavGi TTepLrrXeovTOjv^" (jiddvec TdX^as dvaipedels 
pL€Ta pLi]vas irTTa Kal iGag rjpLepas' ii ov Kal Trjv 
TjyepLovLav TtapeXa^ev "Odojv dvTL7T0L0vpL€V09 tojv 

o(/j TrpaypLaTOJv. 6 p.ev ovv WypLTTTras els ttjv 'PcopLTjv 

^ om. Havercamp with one iis. - — avril-u L. 

^ TTapaT-\ebvTL:u Hudson with Lat. (praetervehuntur). 



"■ These last incidents ar^ narrated below, §§ 545-8, 585 ff. 

''■• The meaning " through Achaea " is obscure. We might 
expect, as has been suggested, " while [they were going by 
land] through Achaea (for it was winter) [and the rest] were 
sailing round " the Peloponnese ; possibly there is a lacuna 

148 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 495-500 

campaign against the generals of Vitellius and his 
overthrow ; of the subsequent commotions under 
VitelUus and the fighting around the Capitol, and 
how Antonius Primus and Mucianus, by the destruc- 
tion of Vitelhus and his German legions, finally sup- 
pressed the civil war.° All these matters I may be 
excused from narrating in detail, because they are 
commonly known and have been described by 
numerous Greek and Roman historians ; but to 
preserve the connexion of events and to avoid any 
break in the narrative, I have summarily touched 
upon each. 

Vespasian, therefore, when the news first came, and defers 
deferred his expedition against Jerusalem, anxiously jer^[e^^ 
waiting to see upon whom the empire would devolve 
after Nero's death ; nor when he subsequently heard 
that Galba was emperor would he undertake any- 
thing, until he had received further instructions from 
him concerning the war. But he sent his son Titus Titus sent 
to the new emperor to salute him and to receive his Ga^ba^^'^ 
orders with reference to the Jews ; king Agrippa 
also embarked with Titus on the same errand to 
Galba. However, before they reached their destina- 
tion and while they were sailing round through 
Achaea ^ (for it was the winter season) in vessels of war, 
Galba was assassinated after a reign of seven months 
and as many days," and was succeeded as emperor by 
Otho, the rival claimant to the sovereignty. Agrippa 
decided, notwithstanding, to proceed to Rome, in 

in the text. As the text stands, the parenthesis will account 
for the time taken over the voyage. The canal through 
the isthmus of Corinth begun by Nero (iii. 540) was never 
completed. 

* From the death of Nero, 9th June 68, to that of Galba 
15th January 69. The calculation is correct. 

149 



JOSEPHUS 

a(f)iK€Gdai hiiyvoj fJL-qhkv oppcuS-qaag irpos T7]V 

501 ixeTa^oXrjV Tiros he Kara haijioviov opfJLTjV arro 
TTJ? 'EAAaSos" ei? rrjv Hvpiav avirrXei Kal Kara 
rdxos els Y^aiudpetav d(j)iKV€lrai rrpos rov narepa. 

502 Kal ol fJL€V fxerewpoL vepl row oXojv ovres ojs av 
aaXevofUvqg rrjs 'PajfialcDV -qyepLovlas VTrepeojpojv 
rrjv irrl TovSalovs urparelav,^ Kal Stot rov rrepi 
rrjs rrarpldos (bo^ov rrjv em rovs aXXo<pvXovs 
oppirjv dcopov ev6p.itov. 

503 (3) ^Y^TTaviGrarai S' a7w\o? rots' TepoGoXvpiOLs 
TToXepLOS. vlos rjv Tiojpa Zt/xojv ns Tepao-qvos ro 
yevos, veavias rravovpyla p.kv -qrrojpievos Icoavvov 

504 rov TTpoKarexovros rjhrj rrjV ttoXlv, dXKrj 8e 
Gojp.o.ros Kal roXpLTj Sta^epcov', 8t tjv Kai vtto 
^Avdvov rov dpxi^epeojs (f)vyah€vO€l9 i^ tjs ft^e^ 
Tonrxpxias ^AKpaljer-ijvrjg npds rovs KareLXr](f)6ras 

505 rrjV Maodbav XrjGrds napayLverat. ro fiev ovv 
TTpdjrov Tjv avroLs 8t' vrroipcas' els ro Karcorepoj 
yovv (f)povpLov errerpeipav avro) TrapeXOeiv a/xa 
rals yvvai^lv, o.s dyojv fjKev, avrol ro viJj-qXorepov 

506 olKovvres' avOis 8e Sta ovyyeveiav rjOcov Kal on 
TTLcrros ehoKei, uv}X7Tpoev6p.eve yovv avroZs e^icuv 

507 Kal GwerropOet rd -rrepl rrjV MaaaSav. ov pcrjv 
irrl rd p.€LLoj rrapaKaXdw eTreiGev ol p.ev yap 
ev eOei ovres rd) (^povpLOJ, Kaddrrep ^ojXeov xoj- 

508 pLLeadaL pLaKpdv ihehoLKeGav, 6 Se rvpavvicov 
Kal jieydXajv €(f)iejJL€vos eTreih-q Kai rrjv Avavov 
reXevrTjV rJKovaev, els r-qv opeivrjv d<j)iGrarai, 

^ LC : arpaTri',io.v PAM : (TTfjaTiav VR. 
^ r/px^. Dindorf with one ms. 

• Active in the opening attack on Cestius, B. ii. 52), he 

had afterwards become a marauder, ii. 652. 

150 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 500-508 

no way deterred by this change of affairs ; but 
Titus, under divine impulse, sailed back from Greece rejoins 
to Syria and hastened to rejoin his father at Caesarea. on^hearfng 
The two, being; thus in suspense on these momentous of accession 

1 1 -r. • -I ii- T ofOthO. 

matters, when the Koman empire itseli was reelmg, ^Qg^j^^-igg 
neglected the invasion of Judaea, regarding an deferred, 
attack on a foreign country as unseasonable, while 
in such anxiety concerning their own. 

(3) But another war was now impending over Simon, son 
Jerusalem. There was a certain Simon,*^ son of|[jQ^°^|* 
Gioras and a native of Gerasa,^ a youth less cunning ^3"'|^^^°' 
than John, who was already in possession of the city, 
but his superior in physical strength and audacity ; 
the latter quality had led to his expulsion by the 
high priest Ananus from the province of Acrabetene,'' 
once under his command, whereupon he had joined 
the brigands who had seized Masada.^ At first they 
regarded him ^^^th suspicion, and permitted him and 
his following of women access only to the lower part 
of the fortress, occupying the upper quarters them- 
selves ; but afterwards, as a man of congenial dis- 
position and apparently to be trusted, he was allowed 
to accompany them on their marauding expeditions 
and took part in their raids upon the surrounding 
district. His efforts to tempt them to greater enter- 
prises were, however, unsuccessful ; for they had 
grown accustomed to the fortress and were afraid 
to venture far, so to speak, from their lair. He, on 
the contrary, was aspiring to despotic power and 
cherishing high ambitions ; accordingly on hearing 
of the death of Ananus,^ he ^^•ithdrew to the hills, 

" Jerashf § 487. ' In the N. of Judaea. 

«* Cf. ii. 652 f., and for Masada, iv. 399. ' § 316 

151 



JOSEPHUS 

Kal TTpoK-qpv^as SouAot? /xev eXevdepiav, yepag 
he eXevOepoLS, tov£ Travray^odev rroviqpovs ovv- 
riBpoil^ev. 

509 (4) 'Q.S 8' TjV avTW Kaprepov rjSr] to GvvTaypLa, 
TOL? dva TTjv opeiVTjv KWjjLas Karerpex^v, act 8e 
7TpoGyivop.evojv TrXeiovojv edappei Kara^aLveuv els 

510 rd xPap-aXajrepa. KaTreiSrj rroXeaiv jjSrj ^o^epos 
rjv, TToXXol jrpos rrjv laxyv Kal rrjv evpoiav rcov 
Karopdcofidrajv i(f)6€Lpovro hvvaroi, Kal ovKert rjv 
SovXcov pLOVojv ovhe XrjGrajv arparos, dXXd Kal 
hriiioTLKOJV ovK oXiyojv dts Trpog ^aaiXea Trecdapx^a. 

511 Karerpexe Se rrjv re ^AKpa^errjvrjv rorrapx^'OLV Kal 
rd p-^XP'' "^V^ pL€ydXr]g 'ISof/xata?" Kara yap 
Kcop^r^v TLvd KaXovfjLevTjv Natv^ relxos KaraoKevdaas 

512 a)G7Tep (^povpioj Trpog aG(j)dX€iav expT]TO, Kara Se 
TTjv (f)dpayya TTpooayop€Vop.6vrjv Oeperal^ iroXXd 
pikv dvevpvvag (JTTijXaLa^ rroXXd S evpcov erot/xa 
rapLeloL? ixpTJTo drjcravpow Kal ri^s Xetas eK- 

513 hox^^otg. dveriOeL Se Kal rovs dpjra^opLevovg ets 
avrd KapTTOvSy ol re 77oAAot rwv Xox^JV hiaLrav 
€LXOV iv €K€LVOLS' SrjXo£ S' T^V TO T€ GVVTaypia 

TT poyv pivat,cx)v Kai rag rrapauKevas Kara rtov 
*\epoGoXvp.ojv. 

51-i (5) "Odev ol t,rjX(jJTal heldavres avrov rrjv im- 
^oXrjv^ Kal TTpoXa^eZv ^ovXopievoi rov Kar avrcov 
rp€(f)6p.€vov i^iaai /xerd rojv ottXojv ol ttXciovs' 
VTTavTLdl,ei he Zt/xcov, Kal Trapara^dp^evos avx^ovs 
/xev avTcJv dvaipeZ, cruveXavvei he rovs Xolttovs 

515 et? TTjv ttoXlv. ovttoj he dappaJv rfj hvvdp.ei rod 

^ 'Xtv PA : aiam Lat. 

' 0ap. irpoa. ^€peTaL\ ^apa.(v) Trpocrayopevo/JLeprjv (pdpayya 
MVR(C). 3 Destinon : iwi^ovXrjp mss. 

152 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 508-515 

where, by proclaiming liberty for slaves and rewards 
for the free, he gathered around him the villains 
from every quarter. 

(4) Having now collected a strong force, he first and collects 
overran the villages in the hills, and then through maraudere^ 
continual additions to his numbers was emboldened f'^r^^^t-tack 
to descend into the lowlands. And now when he zealots. 
was becoming a terror to the toM^ns, many men of 
standing were seduced by his strength and career 

of unbroken success into joining him ; and his was 
no longer an army of mere serfs or brigands, but 
one including numerous citizen recruits, subservient 
to his command as to a king. He now overran not 
only the province of Acrabetene but the whole 
district extending to greater Idumaea. For at a 
village called Nain ° he had thrown up a wall and 
used the place as a fortress to secure his position ; 
while he turned to account numerous caves in the 
valley known as Pheretae,^ widening some and find- 
ing others adapted to his purpose, as store chambers 
and repositories for plunder. Here, too, he laid up 
his spoils of corn, and here most of his troops were 
quartered. His object was evident : he was training 
his force and making all these preparations for an 
attack on Jerusalem. 

(5) The Zealots, in consequence, alarmed at his Simon repels 
designs and anxious to forestall one whose growing ?h?zea*iot3 
strength was to their injury, went out with their 

main body under arms ; Simon met them and in 
the ensuing fight killed many of them and drove 
the remainder into the city. Misgivings about his 

•^ Unidentified ; apparently not far N. of the Idumaean 
frontier, § 517 (not the Galilaean village so named). 

" Perhaps Khurhet Farah^ a gorge some 6 miles N.E. of 
Jerusalem. 

153 



JOSEPHUS 

fjLCi^ Tols reiy^eaLv TrpoG^dXXetv arrerp 6.777], ^(^eipoj- 
oaodai Se Trporepov ttjv 'ISou/xatav eTTef^dXero- 
/cat hrj hiGiivpiovg €;\;ct)v oirXiTas 'qXavvev inl rov? 

516 opovs avTTJg. ol he dpxovres ttjs 'ISou/xata? Kara 
rdxos adpoiaavres e/c Trjs X^'^P'^^ '^^ puaxip-ojTarov 
rrepl 77evTa/ctc7;!^tAtous' /cat hiopuvpiovs, tovs Se 
TToXXovs eaaavres (j)povpelv rd ocjiirepa hid rds 
Tojv ev MacraS?^ oiKapiojv /caraSpo/xas", iSdxovro 

517 Tov Hifjiajva vpos rot? opoug. evOa avjJL^aXojv 
avroLS /cat 8t' 6X7]s TroXefxrjaag rjpLepag, ovre 
vevLK'qKOJS ouT€ vevLK-qjiivos hieKpidq, /cat o /xev 
et? TT^v ^atvy^ ol he 'ISou/^atot hieXuOrjaav eV* 

518 OLKOV. /cat /Lter oi) ttoAu HipLcov iieLt,ovi hvvdixei 
irdXiv et? T7]t^ x^P*^^ avrchv ojppn^TOy urparoTrehev- 
adfjiei'og he /cara rtva Kcvfirjv, QeKove /caAetrat, 
Trpo? rov£ ev 'Hpojbetto (f>povpov£, direp rjv ttXtj- 
GLOV, 'EAea^apoV rtva rojv eraipojv eTrepupe 

519 Treiaovra TrapahovvaL to epvp.a. rovrov ol (f)v- 
Aa/c£? eroLpLaJS' ehe^avro, ttjv alrlav dyvoovvres 
8t' T^p rjKOi, d'^ '.y^dpLevov he rrepl Trapaooaeojs 
ehiojKOV GTTaGapLevoL rd $L(f)r], P^XP^ (j)vyrjs tottov 
ovK exojv eppujjev o-tto rod reixovs eavrov els rrjv 

520 vTTOKeipievqv (f)dpayya. /cat o pLev avriKa reXevra, 
TOLS 8' ISou/xatot? TJhr] KaroppojhovGi ttjv lgxvv 
rod HipLcuvos edo^e vpo rod GvpL^aXeZv /cara- 
GKeipaGdaL rrjv orpandv rojv voXepLLOjv. 

521 (6) EtV rovro he VTT'qperrjv avrov eroipLCus err- 
ehihov 'la/cco/So?, els row rjyepopojv, rrpohoaiav 

522 evdvpioijpLevos. oppLijaas yovv drrd rrjs 'AXovpov, 

* aiam Lat. * irpodv/xus P. 

** Tekoa, 5 miles S. of Bethlehem. 
134 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 515-522 

forces, however, still deterred him from an as'^ault 
on the walls ; instead he resolved first to subdue 
Idumaea, and now marched with an army of twenty and invades 
thousand men towards the frontiers of that country. "'"^^'^• 
The chieftains of Idumaea hastily mustered from 
the country their most efficient troops, numbering 
about twenty-five thousand, and leaving the mass of 
the population to protect their property against 
incursions of the sicarii of Masada, met Simon at the 
frontier. There he fought them and, after a battle a drawn 
lasting all day, left the field neither victor nor '^^*^'^^®- 
vanquished ; he then withdrew to Nain and the 
Idumaeans disbanded to their homes. Not long 
after, however, Simon with a yet larger force again 
invaded their territory, and, encamping at a village 
called Thekoue,'* sent one of his comrades named 
Eleazar to the garrison at Herodion,^ which was not 
far off, to persuade them to hand over that fortress. 
The guards, ignorant of the object of his visit, 
promptly admitted him, but at the first mention 
of the word " surrender " drew their swords and 
pursued him, until, finding escape impossible, he 
flung himself from the ramparts into the valley 
below and was killed on the spot. The Idumaeans, 
now gravely alarmed at Simon's strength, decided 
before risking an engagement to reconnoitre their 
enemy's army. 

(6) For this serWce James, one of their officers, James the 
promptly volunteered, meditating treachery. He betrajruis 
accordingly set out from Alurus,^ the village where country to 



Simon. 



^ Some 3 miles N.E. of Tekoa ; the fortress built by Herod 
the Great, i. 2Qo, 419 ff., in which he was buried, i. 673. 

' Hulhul, some 4 miles N. of Hebron, and 7 miles S.W. of 
Simon's camp at Tekoa. 

VOL. in p 155 



JOSEPHUS 

531 Kooia er-q cruvapiOiielraL. ixvdevovoi he avrrjv 
Kai OLKyjTTjpLov W^pd{JL0V rod ^iovhaiojv Trpoyovov 
yeyovevai pLera rriv eK rrjs MecroTrora/xtas' OLTravd- 
GraGLv, rov£ re TralSas avrov XeyovGi KaTa^rjvai 

532 €LS AiyvTrrov evdev cbv /cat rd pLvripLeta p-^xp^ vvv 
€U T7]Se rfj TToXi-xyr] Set/cvurat, Trdw KaXrjg M^P" 

533 p-O-pov /cat (^iXoTtpiCos elpyaapLeva. Set/ci^rat 8' 
aTTo GTadLOJv €^ rod dureos repe^Lvdog pieyiaTq^ 
/cat ^aat to SevSpov aTTO rrjs /crtaeajs" P-^XP^ ^^^ 

534 hiapeveiv . evOev 6 T.LpLOJV Sta Trdor-qs i)(cup€L rrjg 

IdovpLacag, ov p.6vov KcopLag /cat TroAets" TTopdojv, 
Xvpau'opevos Se /cat rrjv )(ojpav, uj? prjhe rwv 
eTTLrriheiOJV i^apKovvrcov irpog to ttXtjOos'^ ^^X^ 
yap Tojv ottXltcov Teuaapeg avToj gvv€L7tovto 

535 pLvpidhe?. TTpoGTJv Se rat? ;)^p6tai? djpoTTjg t€ 
avTOV /cat npog to ylvos opyq, St' a pLoXXov 

536 e^epripovodaL Gvvefiaive ttjv 'IhovpLalav. KaBd- 

7T€p he '"V770] TtOV aKpihcOV KaTOTTLV vXtjV eGTLV 

Ihelv eipLXojpLemjv TraGav, ovtoj to /cara vojtov ttjs 

537 T.LpLajvos GTpaTids ep-qpia /careAetVero • /cat rd 

pL€V ipLTTLTTpdjVTeS TO. he KaTaGKdTTTOVTeS , TTOiV he 

TO 7Te(j)VK6s dvd TTJV ^(^ojpav -q GvpuraTOVVTes 
rjcf)dvLL,ov Tj vep.6pevoL /cat ttjv evepyov imo ttjs 
TTopeias GKXrjpoTepav enoLOVv ttj'S aKaprrov, Kad- 

^ ws fMTjoe . . irXyjdoi in the mss. stand after fivpiades : trans- 
posed here by Bekker. 

* Gen. xiii. 18. 

* Jacob's residence in Hebron is mentioned in Gen. xxxv. 
97, xxx-vii. 14. The historian, however, is dependent on local 
tradition, and ignores the Biblical narrative. 

* The cave of Machpelah, the burial-place of Sarah 

158 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 531-537 

two thousand three hundred years old. They further 
relate that it was there that Abraham, the progenitor 
of the Jews, took up his abode after his migration 
from Mesopotamia,'^ and from here that his posterity 
went do^^Tl into Egypt. ^ Their tombs are sho^vn in 
this little toA\Ti to this dav, of really fine marble and 
of exquisite workmanship.'' At a distance of six 
furlongs from the town there is also shoA\Ti a huge 
terebinth-tree, which is said to have stood there ever 
since the creation.*^ From Hebron Simon pursued Simon 
his march through the whole of Idumaea, not con- JjJi^aea?^ 
fining his ravages to villages and towns, but making 
havoc also of the countr\% since pro\'isions proved 
insufficient for such a multitude ; for, exclusive of 
his troops, he had forty thousand followers. But, 
besides his needs, his cruelty and animosity against 
the nation contributed to complete the devastation 
of Idumaea. Just as a forest in the wake of locusts 
may be seen stripped quite bare, so in the rear of 
Simon's army nothing remained but a desert. Some 
places they burnt, others they razed to the ground ; 
all vegetation throughout the country vanished, 
either trodden under foot or consumed ; while the 
tramp of their march rendered cultivated land 
harder than the barren soil. In short, notliing 

(Gen. xxiii), Abraham (xxv, 9), Isaac (xxxv. 27 fF.}, and 
Jacob (I. 13) is believed to be below the present mosque ; 
Jewish, Christian, and Moslem traditions are in agreement 
as to the site. The wall surrounding the mosque has been 
ascribed to the Herodian period (Conder, Tent ^york in ^"^ 
Palestine, 239). 

<* The "oak" of Abraham (so lxx; Heb. "oaks" or 
" terebinths ") is mentioned in Gen. xiii. 18, xiv. 13, xviii. 1. 
In the oth cent. a.d. it was called Tepeiivdos, and was the 
scene of an annual feast and fair, Sozomen, H.E. ii. 4 
(Robertson Smith). 

159 



JOSEPHUS 

531 KOGLa err] (jvvapidiJ.eiTai. ixvOevovat Se avrrjv 
Kai OLKyjTTjpLov W^pajj-ov rod ^iovSaLcov irpoyovov 
yeyovevai pier a rrjV eK rrjg Mecro770Ta/xtas' aTravd- 
GTaaiv, Tovs T€ rraZhas avrov XeyovoL Kara^rjvai 

532 €LS AiyvTTTOv evOev ojv kol to. piv-qpLela p-^XP^ ^^^ 
ev rfjhe rfj TroXlxyrj heLKvvrai, Trdvv KaXrjs pLap- 

533 p-cipov Kat (^iXoTLpLcog elpyacrpLeva. heiKVUTai S' 
aTTo (iradLcov 1^ rov acrreo? repe^ivBos pLeyldTrj, 
Kai (fiaol TO hevhpov aTTO rrjs Krlaeajg p-^XP^ ^^^ 

534 hLap.€veLV. evOev 6 2t/xcov 8ta Trdcr-qg ixojpei rrjs 

IdovpLalag, ov p.6vov Kojp.as kol TrdAet? TropOajv, 
XvpLaLv6pL€vo£ Se Kal rrjv p^^ojpav, wg pLTjSe rwv 
eTTLT-qheiajv i^apKovvrujv irpog ro ttXtjOos'^ ^^X^ 
yap rojv ottXitojv reaaapc? avroj GweiTTOvro 

535 pLvptdSe?. TTpoGTJv he rat? XP^^^^^ (JjpLOTrjs t€ 
avrov Kal rrpos ro yevos opyq, hi d pidXXov 

536 i^epripLovadaL GVvejjaLve rrjv ^IhovpLauav. KaBd- 
TTep he ^VTTo] rcov aKpihcov Karoinv vXrjv ecrrtv 
Ihelv iipiXajpLeinQv Trdaav, ovrco ro Kara vojrov rrjs 

537 HipLOJvos ur par ids eprjpLia KareXeiTrero' Kal rd 
pL€v ipLTTLTTpojvres rd he KaraoKdTrrovres , Trdv he 
rd 7re(f)VK6s dvd rr]v p^cupav t) GvpLTrarovvres 
rj(f)dvLl,ov rj vepi6p.evoL Kal rrjv evepyov vtto rrjs 
TTopeias GKXrjporepav enoLovv rrjs dKdprrov, Kad- 

* (is fxrjoe . . irXrjdos in the mss. stand after fj-vpiades : trans- 
posed here by Bekker. 

« Gen. xiii. 18. 

^ Jacob's residence in Hebron is mentioned in Gen. xxxv. 
27, xxxvii. 14. The historian, however, is dependent on local 
tradition, and ignores the Biblical narrative. 

* The cave of Machpelah, the burial-place of Sarah 

158 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 5S1-537 

two thousand three hundred years old. They further 
relate that it was there that Abraham, the progenitor 
of the Jews, took up his abode after his migration 
from Mesopotamia,'^ and from here that his posterity 
went doMTi into Egypt. ^ Their tombs are shown in 
this little toAMi to this day, of really fine marble and 
of exquisite workmanship.^ At a distance of six 
furlongs from the to\\Ti there is also sho^\Tl a huge 
terebinth-tree, which is said to have stood there ever 
since the creation.^ From Hebron Simon pursued Simon 
his march through the whole of Idumaea, not con- ijuml^!^ 
fining his ravages to villages and towns, but making 
havoc also of the countr^^, since provisions proved 
insufficient for such a multitude ; for, exclusive of 
his troops, he had forty thousand followers. But, 
besides his needs, his cruelty and animosity against 
the nation contributed to complete the devastation 
of Idumaea. Just as a forest in the wake of locusts 
may be seen stripped quite bare, so in the rear of 
Simon's army nothing remained but a desert. Some 
places they burnt, others they razed to the ground ; 
all vegetation throughout the country vanished, 
either trodden under foot or consumed ; while the 
tramp of their march rendered cultivated land 
harder than the barren soil. In short, nothing 

(Gen. xxiii), Abraham (xxv. 9), Isaac (xxxv. 27 if.), and 
Jacob (1. 13) is believed to be below the present mosque ; 
Jewish, Christian, and Moslem traditions are in agreement 
as to the site. The wall surrounding the mosque has been 
ascribed to the Herodian period (Conder, Tent Work in ^"^ 
Palestine, 239). 

** The "oak" of Abraham (so lxx; Heb. "oaks" or 
" terebinths ") is mentioned in Gen. xiii. 18, xiv. 13, xviii. 1. 
In the oth cent. a.d. it was called Tepe.iipdos, and was the 
scene of an annual feast and fair, Sozomen, H.E. ii. 4 
(Robertson Smith). 

159 



JOSEPHUS 

oXov re 6L7T€LV, ou3e GTifielov Tt /careAetTTCTO rot? 
TTopdovjjievoL?^ rod yeyovdvai. 
638 (8) Tavra ttolXlv tou? ^rjXcoras in-qyeipev, koI 
i^avepajs fJL€v avriTrapard^aGdai Karlheicrav, irpo- 
Xox^croLVTe? S iv raZs Trapohois apird^ovGi rod 
Hlficovos rrjv yvvaiKa /cat tt^? Trepl avrrjv depaireias 

539 uv)(yoi)S. CTreira ojs aurov at;(^aAcortcrajU.evot rov 
UliJLOJva yey-qOores els rrjv ttoXlv vrreGrpeipav Kal 
6(J0V ovheTTOj TTpoaeSoKOJv Karadefievov rd oirXa 

540 TTepl rrjg yvvauKos LKereucreLV. rov 8e ovk eXeos 
CLcrrjXdev aXX opyq Trepi rrj? rjpTraGfjLevr^s, /cat 
TTpos TO r€L)(os rcbv 'lepoaoXvpLiov iXOcov Kaddnep 
rd rpojdevra rojv Orjpiojv, iTreiSrj ro'us rpojaavras 
ov KareXa^ev, €</>' ovs evpe rov dvfJLov rj(f)UL. 

5-41 OGOL yovv Xa)(av€ias ev€K€v ^ (jypvyaviGyiov rrpo- 
eXrjXvdeGav efcu ttvXojv, dvoTrXovg /cat yepovras 
GvXXajJL^dva)v fjKLt,€To /cat Ste^^etpev, 8t' virep- 
^oXrjv dyavaKT-qGecos p.ovovov)(l /cat veKpojv yevo- 

542 P'^vos rcjv GOJixdrcov. ttoXXovs he /cat x^^P^' 
KOTT-qGas elGeTTepLTTe KaTaTrXi]^aGdai revs e^Opovs 
djjia /cat Stao'T'^crat'* rov Stjijlov iTTLx^ipcov rrpos 

643 rovs alrLovs. ivreraXro 8' aurot? XeyeLv ort 
HifjLcov deov opLWGi rov irdvr ojv €(f)opov, el firj 
ddrrov dTToScoGovGLv avrcp rrjv yvvaiKa, prj^as to 
rcLXOS roiavra Sia^T^aety rrdvras rovs Kara rrjv 
ttoXlv, ^T^Se/xtas" (^eLGdjjLevos T^At/cta? /^tT^S' ajro 

544 rcov dvairlajv Sta/cptVas" rovs alriovs. rovrois ov 
fjLovov 6 SrjiJLOs dXXd /cat ol ^rjXojral KararrXa- 
yevres aTTorrepLTTOVGiv avrcp rrjV yvvalKa' /cat Tore 
fxev e/c/xetAt;!^^ets' oXiyov dvenavGaro rov Gwe^ovs 
<j>6vov. 

^ + Toi'TOLs PA. * 5ta<rra(Tid(rai L. 

i60 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 537-5U 

touched by their ravages left any sign of its having 
ever existed. 

(8) These proceedings roused the Zealots anew ; The Zealots 
and, though afraid to meet Simon in open battle, ^j^|^™°°' 
they laid ambushes in the passes and captured his prisoner 
■wife and a large number of her attendants. Then, as 
if their prisoner had been Simon himself, they re- 
turned triumphant to the city, expecting that he 
would instantly lay down his arms and come to sue 
for his wife. It was, however, no tender feeUngs 
but indignation which her capture aroused in his 
breast, and advancing to the walls of Jerusalem Hke Simon by 
some wounded beast, when it has failed to catch its Jerusalem 
tormentors, he vented his ^vrath upon all whom he recovers 
met. Any who had ventured outside the gates to 
gather herbs or fuel, unarmed and aged individuals, 
he seized, tortured and killed, in the extravagance of 
his rage almost gnawing their very corpses. ° Many 
others he sent back into the city with their hands 
cut off, "svith the twofold object of intimidating his 
foes and of causing the people to rise against the 
responsible parties. These persons received injunc- 
tions to say that Simon had sworn by God, the over- 
seer of all, that unless they restored his wife to him 
forthwith, he would break down the wall and inflict 
similar punishment on every soul in the city, sparing 
neither young nor old, and making no distinction 
between guilty and innocent. These threats so 
terrified not only the people but even the Zealots, 
that they sent him back his wife ; whereat, moment- 
arily mollified, he paused for a while from his ceaseless 
slaughter. 

*» A similar " hyperbole " (the historian supplies the word !) 
occurs in vi. 373. 

I6l 



JOSEPHUS 

545 (9) Ov fjLOVov §€ Kara rrjV 'lovSaiW ordois rjv 
Kal rroXejJiog iiJi<f)vXLO£, dAAa kolttl rrjg 'IraAia?. 

546 avjip-qro fiev yap Kara p.e(j-qv Tr]v 'Pco/Ltatcoi' 
ayopav TdXf^as, aTToheheiyiiivos Se avroKpdrcop 
'Odcov eTToXejieL OvLreXXla) jSacrtAetojVTf rovrov 

547 yap flP'^j'TO rd Kara TepfJLavLav ray/Ltara. /cat 
yevopLevrjs Gvpi^oXris Kara ^prjySlaKov^ rrjg FaAa- 
Tta? Trpos" re OvdXevra Kal Kat^iVvav^ rovs 
OvireXXiov Grpar-qyovs, rfj Trpcorrj pev rjpepa 
7T€pi7Jv *'06(jjv, rfj Se hevrepa to OvireXXiov 

548 (jrpariWTiKov Kal ttoXXov (f)6vov yevop^evov 8t- 
exprjcraro pLev "OOojv avrov iv Bpi^eAAoj^ rrjv 
rjrrav 7Tv96p,€vo?, rjpipas hvo Kai rpeZs pLrjvag 

549 Kpar-qaas tow rrpaypdTOJV, rrpoaexcopT^cre Se to'ls 
OvLTeXXiov OTpaT'qyoLS t] GTpaTia, Kai KaTe^atvev 
avTOS els rrjv 'Vajp-qv peTa ttjs hwdpecog. 

550 'Ey he tovtoj Kal OveGrraaiavog dyacrras" e/c ttjs 
Kataapeta? TrepLTTTT) Aatulov pLTjvos wppL-qaev eVt 
Ta p-qheTTOj KaTeGTpapLpeva rcuv ttjs 'louSata? 

551 x^pLOJV. dva^ds S' els tt^^ opeivrjv alpel hvo 
TOTTapx^CLS, rriv re Vo<J>vitlkt]v Kal ttjv 'A/cpa- 
^eT-qi^v KaXovpLevTjV, p^ed^ as B-qOrjXd* re Kal 
'E^pat/x 77oAt;)(vta, ols cj^povpovs eyKaTaaTTjoas 
piexpf- 'lepoaoXvpLOJV LTTTrdi^eTO' (f^Oopd 8' rjv ttoX- 
Xojv KaTaXap^avopevojv Kal avx^ovs fjXP-OiXajTLL^eTo . 

* BijdpiaKoi' Hudson. * ed. pr. : Kii'va{p) mss. 

^ ed. pr. : Bpt^e^w mss. 

* VRC : Bat^vyXd M : Brje-nyd the rest 



« §§ 494, 499. 

^ A small town in Ci-nlpine Gaul, between Verona and 
162 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 545-551 

(9) Sedition and civil war were not, however, con- Civu war in 
fined to Judaea, but were rampant also in Italy. 
For Galba had been murdered in the midst of the Gaiba slain. 
Roman forum,'^ and Otho, being proclaimed emperor, a?d.T9?^^ 
was at war ^ith Mtellius, now aspiring to imperial 
sovereignty, having been elected by the legions in 
Germany. In the battle fought at Bedriacum ^ in 
Gaul against Valens and Caecinna,^ the generals of 
\^itellius, on the first day Otho had the advantage, 
but on the second the troops of VitelHus ; and such 
was the slaughter that Otho put an end to himself otho's 
at Brixellum,'^ where he learnt of his defeat, ha\-ing 17 AprU 
held the reins of government for three months and *-^- 69- 
two days.^ His army went over to the generals of 
VitelHus, who now descended in person upon Rome viteiiiua, 
with his entire force. 

Meanwhile, \^espasian had moved from Caesarea Vespasian 
on the fifth of the month Daesius and advanced f^^ades 
against those districts of Judaea which had not yet Judaea 
been reduced. Ascending into the hill country he £'d. es,^"^ 
subdued two provinces, those which take their names 
from Gophna ^ and Acrabetta ^ ; next he captured 
the small towns of Bethela ^ and Ephraim * ; leaving 
garrisons in these, he then rode with his cavalry up 
to the walls of Jerusalem, killing many of those 
encountered on the route, and taking numerous 

Cremona ; the Vitellians in their turn were defeated soon 
after in the same neighbourhood, §§ 634 ff. Tacitus, Hist. ii. 
41-49, describes the battle and the death of Otho. 

' Fabius Valens and A. Caecina Alienus. 

<* Brescello, about 12 miles N.E. of Parma. 

« From January 15 to April 17, 69. 

^ Some 12 miles due N. of Jerusalem. 

"In the N.E. corner of Judaea. 

" Bethel (Beitin) a few miles S.E. of Gophna. 

* et-Taiyibeh N.E. of Bethel. 
VOL. Ill F '2 163 



JOSEPHUS 

552 KepeaAtos" S' avrco rcov rjycfMovcoVy fiolpav l7T7T€ojv 
Kal Tre^cDv dvaXa^cov, ttjv dvco KaXovfidi^rjv 'ISou- 
[latav eTTopdei, /cat Ka</>6^pa^ fj,€v ip€vho7roXL)(VLOv 
i^ e(^6hov AajScuv iiiTTLTTpr^cnv, irepav 8e KaXov- 

553 fjLemjv }^a<f)apa^lv^ irpoo^aXajv eVoAtop/cet. ttow 
8' 7)v lo')(vp6v TO Ter;^os', /cat rpLipeaOac rrpoo- 
hoKOJVTL ttX^Lcl) •)(^p6vov at^i^tStoj? dj^otyouCTty ot 
evSov TO.? TTuAas" /cat /xe^' iKeriqpicDV TrpoeXdovres 

554 iavTOVS Trapehoaav . KepeaAtos" Se toutoi;? Trapa- 
arrjadpLevos €ttI yie^pojv irepas TToXecxJS dpxo-Lo- 
Tarrjs ixcopeu- Kelrai 8', (hs €(:f>r]v, avrrj Kara rrjv 
6p€Lvr]v 01) TToppoj 'lepoCToAu/Ltcov ^Laodpievos 8e rds 
eto-oSoyg-TO pikv iyKaraXrjcjiOev ttXt^Oos rj^rjBovavaipei, 

555 TO 8' ao-TU KaraTTipLTTp-qoi. /cat Trdvrcjjv rjSrjKex^ipoj- 
p,ivcjjv ttXtjv 'HpajSetof/cat Mao-a8as' /cat Ma;^atpow- 
Tos", ravra 8' utto tcov XrjGTOjv KaT€LXr]7TT0, okottos 
tJSt] rd 'lepoCToAu/xa TrpovKeLTo 'Pajp-aiot?. 

556 (lO) *0 8e 2tp,cuv co? ippvaaro rrapd tojv 
i^-qXojTOjv TTjv yvvalKa, irdXiv €7TL rd XeLipava rrjs 
'I8oup,atas" V7T€Grp€ifj€v, /cat TrepieXa'uvojv rravra- 
xddev ro edvos etV 'lepoaoXvpia rovs ttoXXovs 

557 ^€ijyeLV crvvrjvdyKacrev . etrrero 8e /cat auTOS" €7rt 
r)]^ TToAtv Kat KVKXcoodpLevos avdis ro r^lxos 
ovriva Xd^OL rwv Trpoiovrajv Kara rrjv xcjpav 

558 epyarcbv SiecjiOeLpev. rjv 8e to; SrjpLcp Hipnov pL€V 
€^(jjdev ^Vojpaiojv <j)o^€pa)repos, ol t,r]Xa)ral 8* 
evbov €Karipajv ;>^aAe7ra>Tepot, Kav rovrois emvoia 
KaKcov Kal roXpr] ro orvvraypLa rojv TaXiXaicov 

^ Hudson : Kacpalopa L : further corruption in other mss. 
^ Xacpapa^elv L: Xapa^iy most MSS. 

" Sextus Cerealius Vetilianus, legate of the 5th legion, 
who had defeated the Samaritans, iii. 310 ff. 

164 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 552-558 

prisoners. Furthermore, Cerealius.^ one of his officers, an^l ,. 
with a detachment of horse and foot, laid waste what r.'mm-.ea. 
is known as upper Idumaea ; here he carried at the 
first assault the petty town (as it falsely calls itself) 
of Caphethra ^ and burnt it to the ground, and then 
attacked and proceeded to besiege another town 
called Capharabis.^. The wall of this place was ex- 
ceptionally strong and he was anticipating a pro- 
longed delay, when the inhabitants suddenly opened 
their gates and, approaching him Avith ohve-branches 
as suppliants, surrendered. Cereahus, after their 
capitulation, advanced on Hebron, another city and 
one of great antiquity, situated, as I have said,^ in 
the hill country not far ^ from Jerusalem ; having 
forced the approaches he slew all whom he found 
there, young or old, and burnt do^^^l the town. 
Every fortress being now subdued except Herodion, 
Masada, and Machaerus, which were held by the 
brigands, Jerusalem was henceforth the one objective 
before the Romans. 

(10) Simon, « ha\'ing now recovered his wife from the Jerusalem ai 
Zealots, returned once more to the relics of Idumaea of simon* 
and, harassing every quarter of the nation, di*ove without the 
multitudes to flee to Jerusalem. Thither he followed 
them himself, and again surrounding the wall killed 
any of the labouring class whom he caught going 
out into the country. The citizens thus found Simon 
without the walls a greater terror than the Romans, 
and the Zealots within more oppressive than either ; and the 
while among the latter for mischievous ingenuity and horde of 
audacity none surpassed the Galilaean contingent, Zealots 



within. 



* Unidentified. ' Cf. § 530. 

<* Some 18 miles as the crow flies. 

• Resuming the narrative from § 5-t4.. 

165 



JOSEPHUS 

559 hie^epev^' rov re yap Icudvvrjv rrap-qyayov els 
Ig^vv ovroL, KOiKeXvo? avrovs i^ Tys" TTepieTroirjoav^ 
hwaareias ruiei^ero, Trdvra eTTLTpirrojv hpdv ojv 

560 eKaGTOS eTTedvjJLeL. ttoOoi h rJGav dpTrayrjs d- 
TrX-qpcoroL Kai tcqv ttXovglojv olkojv epevva, cf)6vo? 

561 re dvSpcov kol yvvacKcov v^peis iTraitovTO , pLcd^ 
at/xaros" t€ rd GvXrjOevra KareTTivov /cat jxer 
dheias eveO-qXvTTddovv ro) Kopoj, KOfias GVvOeri- 
lopLevoL Kol yvvaiKeias eGOi^ras dvaXaji^dvovres , 
KaravrXovfievoL Se fJiVpOLS Kal Trpos evTrpeTrecav 

562 v7Toypd(f)OVTes 6(f)6aXiJLOVS. ov [lovov 8e kogjjlov, 
aXXd Kal rrdd'q yvvaiKojv ifiLfiovvro Kal St' vrrep- 
^oXtjv^ dcreAyeta? dOep^irovs iu-evorjGav epcoras' 
ivqXivSovvTO d' aJS" TTopveico rfj rroXei Kal iraGav 

563 aKadaproi? ep^iavav epyotg. yvvaiKLL,6p.evoi he 
rds 6ip€Ls icf)6vojv rat? Se^tat?, Opyrrrop^evoL re 
TOts" ^ahiGpaGLv eTTLovres i^arrLvqs iyivovro TToXe- 
pLLGraL, rd re iicfi'q rtpo(j)epovres dird rcov j8e- 
^ajipevajv* ■xXavidiow rov npoGrv^ovra bL-qXavvov. 

564: TOt'S" aTrohihpdGKGvras he \ojdvvqv T.Lp.ojv (j)OViK(i)- 
repov e^ehex^To, Kal Sta^uycuv rt? rov evros 
rei^ovs rvpavvov vtto rod irpd ttvXojv hiecfydelpero. 

565 TTOLGa he ^vyrjs ohos roZs avropoXetv Trpos 'Pco- 
/xaiou? ^ovXojJLevoL? dneKeKOTrro. 

566 (ll) ^ieGraGidt,ero he rrpds rov ^lojdvvrjv r] 
hvvapLL£, Kal TTav OGOV rjv ^Ihovfialajv^ ev avrfj 
Xojptodev errex^LpeL rch rvpavvcp (l>96va) re rrjs 

567 LG)(vog avrov Kal pLLGeu rrjg ojfiorrjros. gvjjl- 

^ dUcf>d€Lpe{v) MSS. 
^ PAM : 7r€pc€TroLT)cravT0 the rest : -rjcraTO Lat. 
^ + daojTLas P. 
* L Exc. Lat. : iTepL^f.3\-nijAvb.^v the rest. 
° 'Ibovfxauov ALR Exc. 

166 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 559-567 

for it was they who had promoted John to power. 
and he from the position of authority which they had 
won for liim requited them by allowing every one 
to do whatever he desired. With an insatiable lust 
for loot, they ransacked the houses of the wealthy ; 
the murder of men and the violation of women were 
their sport ; they caroused on their spoils, with 
blood to wash them down," and from mere satiety 
unscrupulously indulged in effeminate practices, plait- 
ing their hair and attiring themselves in women's 
apparel, drenching themselves with perfumes and 
painting their eyelids to enhance their beauty. And 
not only did they imitate the dress, but also the 
passions ^ of women, devising in their excess of 
lasciviousness unla^^'ful pleasures and wallo\\'lng as in 
a brothel in the city, which they polluted from end to 
end with their foul deeds. Yet, while thev wore 
women's faces, their hands were murderous, and 
approaching with mincing steps they would suddenly 
become warriors and whipping out their swords from 
under their dyed mantles transfix whomsoever they 
met. Any who fled from John had a yet bloodier 
reception from Simon, and he who escaped the tyrant 
within the walls was slain by the other without the 
gates. Every avenue of escape was thus cut off from 
those desirous to desert to the Romans. 

(11) But John's army now mutinied; and all the Sedition 
Idumaeans ^ within it broke away and made an z^iots. 
attack on the tyrant, as much from envy of his power q?^^°[^ 
as from hatred of his cruelty. In the ensuing engage- is deserted 

by his 
Idumaean 
" Gf. vi. 372 iav\<j}v Kal . . . rpoipriv apird^ovres al'/ixaTt allies, 
ir€<pvpjj.hriv KaT^invov. * or "experiences." 

' It appears from this that some of the Idumaeans still 
remained in Jerusalem when the main bodv withdrew (§ 353). 

167 



JOSEPHUS 

^■-iXovres §6 avaipovai re ttoWovs rwv t^rjXojTOJv 
/cat ovveXavvovuL rovs Xolttovs els ttjv ^aaiXiK-qv 
avXrjv KaTaaKevaadeluav vtto TpaTrrrjs' cruyyevrjg 
8* -^v avrrj rod row ^ASia^-qvajv ^aaiXlajs I^a' 

668 ovveLOTTiTTTOVGL 8' ol 'ISou/xatot, KCLKeldev et? to 
lepov i^waavre?^ rovs l,rjXcoTas iff) dprrayqv erpa- 

669 TTOvro rwv ^Icoavvov xpripLdrojv' Kara yap r-qv 
7rpo€Lp7]ii€V7]v avX'qv a-uros re a>K€L^ Kai rd Xa(f)vpa 

570 rrjs rvpavvihos KareOero. iv Se rovrcp ro Kara 
rrjv ttoXlv iaKeSaafievov ttXtjOos roiv ^rjXajrcov els 
TO lepov npos rovs hiaTre^evyoras r]dpoLG6rj, Kai 
Kardyeiv avrovs TrapeoKevdaaro ^lojdvirqs em re 

571 rov hrjpiov Kai rovs ^Idovfialovs. rols 8e ov^ 
ovrco rrjv e(f)obov avrow KaraheZcrai Trapeor-q 
fiaxi'fJ'OjrepoLs ovcnv cJjs rrjv drrovoLav, [irj vvKrwp 
eK rov lepov Trapeiohvvres avrovs Te hiacfydeLpojcn 

572 Kai ro darv KaraTTipLTrpujai. avveXdovres ovv 
fierd rchv dp^Lepeow e^ovXevovro , nva XP'H Tporrov 

573 (f)vXd^aadaL r-qv eTrlOecnv. Beos 8' dpa rds yvaofias 
avrcbv els KaKOV erpeipe, Kai x^aXeTTo'jrepov arroj- 
Xeias errevo-qoav ro rrpos aojr-qpiav (f)app.aKov 
Lva yovv KaraXvoojotv ^\a>dvvqv , eKpivav hex^oOai 
JUpiOJva Kai /xe^' iKer-qpiiov Sevrepov eioayayelv 

674 eavroLS rvpawov. errepalvero 8' -q ^ovX-q, Kai 
Tov dpxt'^p^fi ^larOlav Trefitpavres eheovro HtpLOJvos 

^ Trep(.u:<TavT€s C : Trepie^ilxravTes L. 
* Destinon from Lat. : Cbv {^p C) ^ksI mss. 

• Elsewhere (B. v. 147, vi. 356 ; A. xx. \7, etc.) called 
Izates, -which should perhaps be read here. The story of the 
conversion to Judaism of Helena, Queen of Adiabene (in the 
upper Tigris region), and of her son Izates is told in full in 
A. XX. 17 ff. This royal family adorned Jerusalem with 

168 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 567-574 

ment they killed many of the Zealots and drove the 
remainder into the palace built by Grapte, a relative 
of Izas,'* king of Adiabene. Rushing in along ^^'ith 
them the Idumaeans chased them thence into the 
Temple, and then proceeded to plunder John's 
treasures ; he ha^ing made this palace his residence 
and the repository for the spoils of his tyranny. 
Meanwhile, the rank and file of the Zealots who 
were scattered about the city mustered to the 
fugitives in the Temple, and John prepared to lead 
them down against the people and the Idumaeans. 
The latter, as the better soldiers, had less fear of 
their attack than of their frenzy, lest they should 
steal out of the temple by night and murder them 
and burn down the town. They accordingly held a 
meeting \\*ith the chief priests and deliberated how 
they should guard against the assault. But God, 
as events proved, perverted their judgement, and 
they devised for their salvation a remedy more 
disastrous than destruction : in other words, in order 
to overthrow John, they decided to admit Simon who invite 
and ^\'ith suppHant appeals to introduce a second Jerusalem 
tyrant over their heads. This resolution was carried to oppose 
into effect, and the high priest Matthias ^ was 
deputed to beg the Simon of whom they had such 

buildings. We hear of her palace within the citj' (v. 253), 
and of the pjTamidal tombs 3 furlongs outside, in which she 
and Izates were interred {A. xx. 95 ; B. v. 55, 119, 1-iT) ; also 
of the palace of another son, Monobazus {B. v. 25-2). Of 
Grapte we hear no more. Queen Helena, like Paul and 1 
Barnabas, brought relief to Jerusalem during the famine ^ 
under Claudius {A. xx. 51 fF.). 

" Matthias, son of Boethus, belonging to one of the high- 
priestly famiUes (e«: riii/ df>x'-^P^^^'i B. v. 527 ; cf. iv. 148), 
was afterwards, with his three sons, murdered by Simon 
(v. 527 ff.). 

169 



JOSEPHUS 

elueXdeLV ov ttoAAol^ eheiaav GvyLTrapeKaXovv h 

ol 6K TOJV ^lepOGoXvflOJV T0V9 ^T^AaiTa? (f)€VyOVT€S 

575 TTodo) TOJV oiKOJV Koi TOJV K-rqixdrajv. 6 8 avrols 
V7Tepr](i)dv(jog Karavevcras to SecTTO^ety €iGep')(erai 
fjL€v cu? OLTTaXKa^aJv rcov l^-qXcorcov ttjv ttoXlv, 
GOjrrjp VTTO Tov S'qpLOV Kal Ki^Sepicbv eixfyrjpLovpLevo?, 

576 TrapeXdojv he pLerd rrjg hvvdiiecos luKOTrei Ta nepi 
rrjg eavTov hwaureias Kal rovs KaXeaavras ovx 
rjTTOV i)(Opovg iv6pLLL,€v 7} Ka6* Sv eKeKX-qro. 

577 (12) ^LpLOJV pL€v ovTCJS ivLauTO) rpircp rod iroXi- 
fjiov "RavdiKO) pLTjvl *lepoGoXvpiOJV eyKpar-qg yiverai' 
*lajdivrj5 Se Kal to tojv t^-qXcvrajv ttXtiSos eupyo- 
lievoi TOJV e^ohojv rod lepov Kal rd^ rrjg rroXeaJS 
aTToXcoXeKore?, TrapaxprjpLa ydp rd eKeivcjv ol 
Trepl TOV Hlpiaji'a hunp—aaav, ev aTTopco tt)v 

578 aojT-qpiav elxov. Trpoae^aXXe Be to) lepo) Zi/xcov 
Tou bijpLov ^OTjdovvTOS, KdKelvoL KaTaoTTavTeg em 
TOJV GTOojv Kal TO)V irrdX^eojv -qp.vvovTO ra? 

579 TTpoG^oXds. Gvx^ol S' emTTTOv tcDv TTepL HipLajva 
Kal TToXXol TpavpLaTiai KaTe(f)epovTO' pabioj? yap 
e( VTTephe^LOv ra? ^oXds ol ^-qXcoTal Kal ovk 

580 aGTOxovg e—OLOUVTO. TrXeoveKTOvvTes he to) tottoj 
Kal 7Tvpyov£ eTL TTpoGKaTeGKevaaav TeGoapas 
pbeyLGTOvs , d)S dcf)^ vijjiqXoTepwv ttololvto Tag 

581 d(j)eGeis, tov puev /card T-qv dvaToXiKrjV Kal ^opeiov 
yujviaVy tov he tov ^vgtov Kadvirepdev, tov he 
TpiTOV /card ycovtav dXXrjv avTLKpv ttjs KaTOJ 

582 TToXeojg- 6 he Xoltto? vrrep ttjv Kopv(f>r]V KaT- 
€GKevaGTo TOJV 7TaGTO(f)opia>v, evda tojv lepeojv ets 

1 TToWd/cts L Lat. ' tAk Bekker. 

" On the W. side of the Temple ; the Xystus lay in or just 
above the Tyropoeon valley {B. ii. 344 n.). 

170 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 574-582 

horror to enter the city ; the request was backed 
by natives of Jerusalem who sought refuge from the 
Zealots and yearned for their homes and possessions. 
Haughtily consenting to be their master, he entered 
as one who was to rid the city of the Zealots, ac- 
claimed by the people as their saviour and protector ; 
but, once admitted with his forces, his sole concern 
was to secure his own authority, and he regarded 
the men who had invited him as no less his enemies 
than those whom he had been invited to oppose. 

(12) Thus did Simon, in the third year of the war, simon 
in the month Xanthicus, become master of Jerusalem; Jerusalem 
while John and the Zealots, being debarred from all April-Ma.. 
egress from the Temple, and having lost their posses- 
sions in the city — for these had been instantly 
plundered by Simon's party — began to despair of 
deliverance. Simon now attacked the Temple, with Simon 
the support of the citizens ; their adversaries posting zealots ^ 
themselves on the porticoes and battlements and contined in 
beating off their assaults. The casualties in Simon's 
ranks were numerous, both in dead and wounded ; 
for the Zealots from their higher ground could main- 
tain an easy and well-directed fire. They, moreover, 
improved this advantage of position by erecting 
four huge towers in order to increase the elevation 
from which their missiles were discharged : one at 
the north-east corner, the second above the Xystus," 
the third at another corner opposite the lower town.^ 
The last was erected above the roof of the priests' 
chambers,*' at the point where it was the custom for 

" At the S.W. angle of the Temple. ^ 

* Small chambers, for the use of the priests and storage of 

utensils, ranged in stories round three sides of the inner 

court. 

171 



JOSEPHUS 

e^ eOov? LcrTaiJLevos €KauT-qv €[Sbojj.dha elaiovaav 
7Tpoe(j'qfxaiV€ GoXiriyyi SetXr]^ Kal TeAecr^etcrav 
aiJ^iS' Trepl iairepav, ore jikv avepyeiav rep Xaw 
683 KarayyeXXojv, ore S' epyojv execrdai. hUar-quav 
8* e77t ra)V TTvpyojv o^v^eXels re Kal XlSo^oXov? 

584 pr])(ava? rovs re ro^oras Kal u(^evhovriras > evda 
drj ra? p.kv Trpoa^oXas OKvqporepag evoLelro o 
Hipajv, p.aXaKLLop.evojv avrco rwv TrXeiovojv, avr- 
ei^e 8' OfJLOjg rrepLOVUia hvvdpeojs' rd 8* drro 
ra>v opydvojv ^eXrj TToppcorepoj (jyepop^eva voXXovg 
rwv p,a)(opievojv avr^pei. 

585 (x. l) Kara he rov avrov Kaipdv Trepieux^ Kal 

586 Tqv *Vujprjv rrddrj ;^aAe7ra. Traprjv pev yap diro 
Tepp^avias OvireXXtos dp,a rep arpariajriKO) ttoXv 
ttXtjOos emavpopevos erepov, pLTj )(Ojpovpevos 8e 
TOt? aTToheheiypevois els rovs urpariajras Trepi- 
jSoAots" oXfjv erroLrjcraro rrjv 'Pcopr)v arparoTrehov 

587 Kal Trdaav OLKLav ottAitcuv eTrXrjpwGev . at 8' 
dijdeGLV 6(j)BaXpols rov 'Pa>paLcov rrXovrov Beaud- 
pievoi Kal 7TepLXap(j)devres Trdvrodev dpyvpcp re 
Kal -x^pyGO) rds" ' emOvptas /xoAt? KareL^ov, toare 
pLTj ecf)" dpnayds rperreodai re Kal rovs epTTohojv 
yivopLevovs dvaipelv. Kal rd pLev Kara rrjv IraXlav 
ev rovroLs rjv. 

588 (2) OveuTTaGLavos 8e d)S rd TrXrjGiov *lepoGoXv- 
pLOjv KaraGrpeipdpevos VTreGrpeipev eus Kaicra- 



y " Cf. Talmud Bab. Sukkah v. 5 (trans. Greenup, S.P.C.K., 

1925) " On the eve of the Sabbath they sounded (the trumpets) 
six times in addition [to the 21 daily blasts] — 3 to cause the 
people to cease from work, and 3 to mark the separation 
between the sacred and the secular day " ; the custom is also 

172 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 582-588 

one of the priests to stand and to give notice, bycustx^mof 
sound of trumpet, in the afternoon of the approach, the^ga^bath 
and on the follo\\'ing evening of the close, of every by sound of 
seventh day, announcing to the people the respective ^^^™P®^ 
hours for ceasing work and for resuming their 
labours.** Along these towers they posted catapults 
and hallistae, together with archers and slingers. 
Thenceforth Simon's attacks grew less strenuous, 
as most of his men lost heart ; still by his superiority 
in numbers he was able to hold his ground, although 
the missiles from the engines with their longer range 
killed many of the combatants. 

(x. 1) About this very time^ Rome also was beset Viteiuus 
by heavy calamities. Vitellius had arrived from RjJiTinto 
Germany, dragging in the wake of his army a vast a camp, 
motley crowd besides ; and not finding room enough 
in the quarters assigned to the troops, he converted 
the whole of Rome into a camp and filled every 
house \\'ith armed men. These, beholding \\'ith 
unaccustomed eyes the wealth of the Romans and 
surrounded on every side by the glitter of silver 
and gold, could scarce restrain their avarice or refrain 
from plundering right and left and slaughtering any 
who obstructed them.'' Such was the condition of 
affairs in Italy. 

(2) Vespasian,'* after reducing the whole of the Vespasian is 
environs of Jerusalem, returned to Caesarea, where at?h?^ews 

of the 
mentioned in T.B. Shabbath 35 b, Talm. Jer. Shabbath, xvii. accession of 
16 a. " Resuming the narrative from § 549. ViteUius. 

* The entrv of Vitellius into Rome is described by Tacitus, 
Hist. ii. 89 (hardly prevented by his friends from marching 
in arms into Rome as into a captured city) ; Suetonius, Vitell. 
11, represents him as entering in arms. 

** Resuming the narrative from § 555. 

173 



JOSEPHUS 

peiav, aKov€i ras Kara rrjv *Pa)firjv rapa)(as Kai 

589 OvLreXXiov avroKparopa. tovto avrov, KaiTrep 
apx^crdai KaddjTep apx^i^v KaXoj? eTnorrdfievov , et? 
dyavdKrr)GLV irporiyayev, /cat rov fxev cos iptjjJLov 
KaTajxavevra rrjg riyepLovias rjSo^ei SeGnorrjv, 

590 rrepiaXyqaas Se toj irddei Kaprepelv ttjv ^daavov 
ovx otos T€ Tjv Kal rijs Trarpihos nopdovpLev-qs 

591 irepoLS TrpoaevaxoXelv 77oAe/xots". dXX ogov 6 dvpLO? 
7]7T€Ly€V eTTL Trjv dfjivvav, TOGOVTOV eipyev kvvoia rov 
StacrTT^/xaros" ttoAAo. yap <av>^ (j)ddGai Travovpyi^- 
oaGav^ TTjv T-uxW '^P^^ avrov €ls ttjv 'IraAtav 
TTepaLOjdrjvaL, Kal ravra ;(et/Lta;yos' cupa rrXdovTa, 
<KaL>^ G(f)a8di,ovGav rjS-q KareZx^v ttjv opyijv. 

592 (3) TiVVLovres 8e ot re rjyepLoves Kai Grpariajrai 
Kad^ iraipiav (f>av€pa)9 rjSr] piera^oXrjV i^ov- 
Xevovro Kal hiayavaKrovvres e^oojv, cLs ol puev 
€7tI rrjs 'PctJ/XT^S" GrpanwraL rpv(j)a)vr€s Kai pi-qh^ 
aKoveiv TToXefxov (^-qpL-qv VTTopLevovres Stap^^etpo- 
rovovGLV ots f^ovXovrai rrjv -qyep-OViav Kal npo? 
iXTTiSa Xrjp,p.drcov drroheLKVvovGLv avroKpdropas, 

593 avTol Se Sict roGOvrcov KexojprjKores ttovojv Kal 
y-qpcovres vrro rolg KpdveGLV irepois x^P^t^vrai 
rrjV e^ovGiav, Kal ravra rov d^tcvrepov dpx^iv 

594 Trap' avrolg exovre?. cp riva hiKaiorepav rrore 
rfjs els avrovs evvoias aTToScoGeiv dp.oL^'qv, el 
r7]v vvv Kararrpoolvro ; roGOvrco S elvat Ove- 
GrraGtavov -qyepioveveiv OvireXXiov SiKaiorepov, ogco 

595 Kal avrovs rcbv eKeZvov aTTohei^dvnov ov yap 
brj piLKporepovs rojv dno Teppiavlas Siev-qvoxevai 

* ins. Herwerden. 

" nova facere ( = /caii'oi'p777(ra(ra;') Lat. : KaWiovpyricraaav ]j, 
^ ins. Destinon. 

174 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 588-595 

he heard of the disturbances in Rome and that -* 
Mtelhus was emperor. Though he knew full as well 
how to obey as how to command, this news roused 
his indignation : he scorned to owti as master one 
who laid mad hands upon the empire as though it 
were forlorn, and such was his agony at this calamity '^ 
that he could not endure the torture or, while his 
own country Mas being devastated, devote attention 
to other wars. But, much as anger impelled him 
to avenge her, the thought of the distance no less 
deterred him : for fortune might forestall him 
by many a knavish trick before he could cross to 
Italy, especially as he must sail in the winter season. 
This reflection checked what was now becoming a 
paroxysm of WTath. 

(S) However, his officers and men, in friendly His 
gatherings, were already frankly discussing a revolu- sofjfg'^pg^^ 
tion. " Those soldiers in Rome," they indignantly take 
exclaimed, " now U\ing in luxury, who cannot bear th^e^^own"'^ 
to hear even a rumour of war, are electing whom ^^^^s 
they choose to the sovereignty and in hope of lucre 
creating emperors ; whilst we, who have undergone 
such numerous toils and are growing grey beneath 
our helmets, rre gi\"ing up this pri\ilege to others, 
when all the time we have among us one more 
worthy of the government. What juster return 
can we ever render him for his kindness to us, if we 
fling away the present opportunity ? Vespasian's 
claim to the empire is as far superior to that of 
\ itellius, as are we to the electors of that emperor ; 
for, surely, we have waged wars no less arduous than 

" The phrase, 7repta\7?7cras r^J wdtlei comes from Thuc. 
iv. 14. 

175 



JOSEPHUS 

TToXejjLOV? ou8e rojv eKeldev Karayayovrajv tov 
596 rvpavvov rjrrijcrOaL rots orrXoi?. aywvos ivSe-qaeiv 
he ovSev 01) yap rr^v cvyKXrjTOv 7) tov 'Pcojialajv 
SrJiJLOv avi^eaBai rijg OvLreXXiov Xayvelag dvrl rijs 
OvecTTTaGLavov Gaj(l)poGvviqSy ovh^ avrl fiev rjye- 
fiovos ayadov rvpavvov ajfiorarov, a77atSa^ Se 
avTL TTarpos aipiqG€G6ai TrpoGrdrrjv jieyLGrov yap 
Srj TTpo? dG(f)dXeLav elp-qv-qs elvai rds yvrjGLovs 
697 Tcjv ^aGiXeojv SiaSoxds.^ etre ovv ipLTTeipla y-qpajs 
TTpoG'qKei TO dp)(€Lv, OveGTTaGtavov avTovs ^X^^^> 
etre veoTrjTos dXKrj, Tltov Kpadr^GeGdai yap ttjs 

598 Trap' dfJi^ljo'LV -qXiKtas to dxj^iXijxov . x^PV'/V'^^''^ ^' 
ov iJiovov avTol^ TTjV LG^vv TOL£ d77oS€t;^^£rcrt Tpla 
ray/xara /cat Ta? irapd tcov ^aGiXiojv GvpLpLaxio.? 
€XovT€?, GvvepyqGeLv Se* ra re 77/50? ecu TrdvTa /cat 
Tr]s "EvpcoTTTj^ oGa Tojv diTO OvlteXAlov (f)6^a>V 
K€xajpLGTaiy /cat tovs eTTi rrjs 'IraAta? 8e GvpL- 
fjidxovs, dSeX(f)6v OveGTraGLavov /cat 77atSa erepov, 

599 (X)V Tip pL€v vpoGdrjGeGdaL noXXovg tcov iv d^tco/xart 

vioJV, TOV hk /cat TTjV TTJS TToXeW? <j)vXaK7]V 7T€7n- 

GTevGOai, jJLepos ovk oXiyov els iTTL^oXrjv^ rjy€fj.ovLas. 

600 KadoXov re dv ^paSvvojGLv avroi, rdxo. rrjv Gvy- 
KX-qrov dTToSei^eiv rov vtto twv GVvyeyrjpaKOTOJV^ 
GTpariojTdjv drLp^ovfievov. 

601 (4) Totaura /card GVGrpo^ds ol arparLcorai 

^ ed. pr. : TratSa mss. * Bekker : inrepox<is tiSS. 

' aiTovs most MSS. (+ T(STf VRC): avrol^ L. 

* (Tvv€pyr)cr€ii> 5e M : (Tvv^T-qp-qaajj.ei' PAL : text doubtful. 

* L: €Tri.^ov\T}v the rest. 

* Destinon : ffvvTeT-qpriKOTijiv "joint guardians (of the 
empire) " mss. 

" Or, with the M3. text, " is afforded by the sterling 
excellences of princes." 

176 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 595-601 

the legions of Germany, nor are we inferior in arms 
to the troops who have thence brought back this 
tyrant. Besides, there will be no need for a contest ; 
for neither senate nor Roman people would tolerate 
the lewdness of Vitellius in place of the temperance 
of Vespasian, nor prefer as president a most brutal 
tyrant to a wtuous ruler, a childless prince to a 
father, since the very best security for peace Hes 
in a legitimate succession to the throne.** If, then, 
sovereignty calls for the experience of years, we 
have Vespasian, if for the vigour of youth, there is 
Titus ; the pair of them will combine the advantages 
of their respective ages. Nor will the persons of our 
choice be dependent solely on the strength which 
we can supply, mustering as we can three legions ^ 
and the auxiliaries furnished by the kings ; they will 
have the further support of the whole eastern world 
and of all in Europe too remote to be intimidated 
by Vitellius, as also of our allies in Italy, a brother " 
and another son '^ of Vespasian. Of these, one will 
gain many recruits from the young men of rank, 
while the other has actually been entrusted with 
the charge of the city — a fact of no small importance 
for any designs upon the empire. In short, if there 
is any delay on our part, the senate will probably 
elect the very man whom his own soldiers, who have 
grown grey in his service, have disgracefully 
neglected." 

(4) Such was the conversation cmrent in military 

» V, X, and XV {B. iii. 65). 

* Flavius Sabinus, who had served with Vespasian in 
Britain, been for seven years j2:overnor of Moesia, and now 
held the important post of praefectus urhis in Rome. 

•* Domitian, 

177 



JOSEPHUS 

OLtXdXovv eveira avvaOpoiaBevres Kai napa- 
KpoTTjGavTes aXXiqXov? dvayopevovGc top OdeoTra- 
Giavov avroKparopa Kau GcoL,eiv rr]v KLvhvvevovGav 
02 -qyepLOvlav rrapeKaXovv. raJ 8e cfypovrlg [jl€v tjv 
TraAat rrepi tojv oXcxjv, ovtl ye firjv avrog dpy^eiv 
TTpo-fip'qTOy Tols p-ev epyoig eavrov d^tov rjyov- 
pLevos, rrpoKpivcjjv Se tlov ev Xap.TrpoT'qri KivhTjvcov 

ii03 riqv ev tbtcoretat? aG(j)dXeiav , dpvovjievcp he p.dX- 
Xov OL TjyepLoves eTreKeivro /cat TrepLxvOevres ol 
arparicjTaL ^t^Typet? avaipeXv avrov rjTTeiXovv , ei 

'04 piT] ^ovXoLTO ^7]v d^LCjog. rroXXd Se Trpo? avrovg 
SiareLvdpLevos e$ djv hiajdelTO ttjv dpy(rjv reXev- 
raZov, djs ovK erteidev, et/cet rots- ovopLdaaoi. 

505 (q) n porpenop.evojv S' avrov rjSr] }slovKLavov re 
Kai rojv dXXojv rjyepLovojv co? avroKpdropa /cat 
rrjs dXXr]g or par id? dyeiv "^(^oojarj? avrrjvy em 
TTOV rd dvrtTTaXoVy 6 he Trpojrov rwv cV 'AAe^- 
avhpeias etxero TrpaypLarcov, elhojs rrXelcrrov rrjs: 
TjyepLOVLas p.epo? rrjv AtyvTrrov ovaav hid rrjv rov 

• < 6 crtTOLi x^p-qyiav, ?}s" Kparrjoag el rrapeXKOL /cat 
^la KaOaiprjoeiv yjXTn^ev OvireXXiov , ov ydp 
ave^eoBai TTeivqs errl ^Pajpurj? rd TrXrjdo?, rd hvo 
re em rrjs AXe^avhpelas rdyp.ara rrpoarroLr]- 

607 oauOai ^ovX6p.evos. evedvpLelro he /cat 7Tp6^Xrjp.a 
rrjV x<^P^^ ^X^^^ '^^^ ^'^^ '^V^ TVX'QS dh-qXajv 
ean yap Kara re yrjv hvoepL^oXos Kai rd Trpdg 

^508 daXdaa-qg dXipLevos, Kard p.ev eorrepav rrpo^e^Xr]- 

^ ins. ed. j^r. with some ms. support : om. PAM (probably 
through homoioteleuton). 

" Liclnus Mucianus, legatus of Sj'ria (§§32, 621), shortly 
to be sent to Italy to secure the empire for Vespasian (632, 

178 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 601-608 

circles ; and then bandine together and encnuraginff and 
one another, they proclaimed Vespasian emperor \vspas'an 
and urged him to save the endangered empire, emieior. 
Their general had long been concerned for the public 
weal, but had never purposed his own promotion ; 
for, though conscious that his career Mould justify 
such claim, he preferred the security of private life 
to the perils of illustrious station. But on his declin- 
ing, the officers pressed him more insistently and the 
soldiers, flocking round with drawn swords, threatened 
him with death, if he refused to live with dignity. 
After forcibly representing to them his many reasons 
for rejecting imperial honours, finally, failing to con- 
vince them, he yielded to their call. 

(5) He was now urged by Mucianus ** and the Vespasian 
other generals to act as emperor, and the rest of the Egypt! 
army clamoured to be led against all opponents. 
His first object, however, was to secure a hold upon 
Alexandria. He realized the supreme importance 
of Egypt to the empire as its granary : ^ once master 
of it he hoped, by persistence, ^^ to force Vitellius to 
surrender, as the populace of Rome would never 
submit to be starved. He also desired to annex the 
two legions '^ at Alexandria ; while he further con- 
templated holding the country as a bulwark against 
the uncertain freaks of fortune. For Egypt ^ is at Description 
once difficult of access by land and on its sea-board ° ^^ ^^^* 
destitute of harbours. It is protected on the west 

654). His mixed character is tersely sketched bv Tacitus 
(Hist. i. 10). 

* Alexandria supplied corn sufficient to feed Rome for 
four months of the year {B. ii. 386). 

" Or perhaps "if (the war) dragged on " ; cf. A. w. 148 
el Trap^\K€iu Se'ot. 

<* III and XXII, ii. 387 note. • Cf. ii. 385 f. 

179 



JOSEPHUS 

{Jidvr] ra avuSpa ttjs Al^vt]?, Kara Se iJL€ar]^PpLav 
rr)v SLopiCovcrav airo AWlottcov ttjv HvriV7]v /cat 
Tovs aTrXwTOVs rod TTorap-ov KarapaKras , oltto 
§6 rrjs dvaToXrjs rrjv^ ipvBpav OdXaaaav dvax^o- 

609 pi-^v-qv pexpi' Kotttou. ^opetov 8e ret^^os" avri]?^ 'q 
T€ P'^xpi' Sfptas" yrj Kal ro KaXovpievov AlyvrrTLOv 

610 7TeXayo9, rrdv drropov oppLOJV. rereLXf^urai pev 
ovTOj? Tj AiyvTTTOs TTavToOev TO piera^v he IIt^Aou- 
CTtou Kai Y^vi^vris prJKos avrrjg arahiojv Stcr^^tAtcov, 
o T£ arro rrjs YIXlvOlvyj? dvairXovs els to H'^Xovglov 

611 orahiojv rpLux'-Xiojv i^aKooicov. 6 he NetAo? 
avairXelrai p^xpi tt^s 'EA£(^avTCov KaXovpevqs 
TToXecus, VTTep tJv etpyovcTi TTpoaajrepaj ji^copetv ou? 

612 TrpoeiprjKapLev KarapaKras . hvoTrpooiros he XcpLrjv 
vauGL Kat Kar eLprjinrjv ^AXe^avhpeias' arevos re 
yap etarrXovs Kal Trerpais v(f)dXoLs rov err* evOv 

613 Kaprrropevos hpopov. Kal ro pev dpiorepov avrov 
f.Lepos Tre(f)paKraL xeipoKp-qrois GKeXeGLV, ev he^ia 
he Tj rrpouayopevopiv-q ^dpos vrjaos TrpoKeirai, 
TTvpyov avexovoa peyiarov eKirvpaevovra rots 
KarairXeovoiv em rpiaKOGiovs orahtovs, co? ev 
vuKn TToppcodev opptCoLvro irpos rrjv 8uCT;)(epetai-' 

614 rov KardrrXov . irepl ravrrjv rrjv vfjaov xrara- 

^ TTJV Lat. : eiri t7]v mss. ^ Niese : avry mss. 

* Assuan. 

^ Koft, on the right bank of the Nile, N. of Rarnak ; 
named perhaps as the place where the river most nearly 
approaches the sea. The Red Sea, not including the Gulf of 
Suez, actually penetrates considerably farther north. 

* Tdl Farama, alias Tineh, situate at or near what was 
once the easternmost mouth of the Nile. 

180 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 608-614 

by the arid deserts of Libya, on the south by the 
frontier separating it from Ethiopia — Syene ° and 
the unnavigable cataracts of the Nile — , on the east 
by the Red Sea, which penetrates as far north as 
Coptus ^ ; while its northern barriers are the land 
towards Syria and the so-called Egyptian sea, totally 
devoid of havens. Thus is Egypt walled off on every 
side. Its length from Pelusium ^ to Syene is two '^- 
thousand furlongs <* ; the passage from Plinthine * to 
Pelusium is three thousand six hundred.-'' The Nile 
is navigable up to the city called Elephantine, ^^ 
beyond which the cataracts already mentioned bar 
further progress. The port ^ of Alexandria is difficult The port oi 
for ships to approach even in peace-time, the en- ^ 
trance being narrow and diverted by submerged 
rocks * which preclude direct passage. On the left 
the channel is protected by artificial moles ; on the '^ 

right juts out the island called Pharos, supporting an Fharos, / 
enormous tower, emitting a light visible three hundred f 

furlongs away to mariners making for port, to warn ^^ 

them to anchor at night some distance oflP because -^ 

of the difficulty of the na\'igation. Round this island 

** i.e. about 230 miles, a wholly inadequate figure ; the 
actual distance was c. 650 miles. 

* The Libyan frontier of Egypt, on the coast W. of 
Alexandria ; exact site unidentified. 

' i.e. about 414 miles ; this figure is nearly double the 
actual distance of the sea voyage round the Delta basin 
(c. 220 miles). Strabo 791 is nearer the mark in reckoning 
the distance by sea from Pelusium to Pharos as 1450 stadia 
(166 miles). 

" The island below the First Cataract, opposite Assuan. *^ 

'* i.e. the Great Harbour. Strabo, xvii. 791 ff., gives a 
fuller account of the three harbours. 

* C/. Strabo 791 Tp6s 8^ ry crTevSTrjTi tov /x^ra^v irdpov Kal 
irirpai ehiv al fx^f vcpaXot al 5^ /cat ^^^x^^'^'^'-- 

181 



JOSEPHUS 

^€^Xr)zaL ^6tpo7rot7]Ta reLxr} /xeytcrra, Trpoaapao- 
ooyievov he tovtols to ireXayos /cat rots' dvTLKpvs 

€pK€GLV dl.Lrf)rjyVVlJ.€VOV^ eKTpa)(yV€i TOV TTopov Kai 

G^aXepdv hid (jrevov rrjv etcrohov aTTepydLeraL. 

615 o fievTOL ye XLjirji' dacfiaXecTTaros evhov /cat rptd- 
Kovra Grahiojv to fieyedos, et? ov ra re Xeirrovra 
rfj X^'-'P'l rrpos evhatfjLOVLav Karayerai /cat rd 
TrepLcrrjevovra rcov €7n-)(^copL0JV ayadwv et? Trduav 
^ajpiCeraL^ rrjv olKovfJLevrjv. 

616 (6) ^YL(hUro pL€v ovv elKorcos rwv ravTQ irpay- 
ixdrojv OvearraGiavos elg ^e^atajGLV rrjs oXtjs 
rjy€[xovLa£, irrLGTeXXeL S' evBvs toj hieTTOvri ttjv 
Aiyvrrrov /cat ttjv 'AXe^dvhpeuav Ti^epioj 'AAe- 
^dvhpcp, hr]Xd)v TO Trjs GTpaTids TrpodvpLOV, /cat 
ojs auTos" VTTohvs dvayKaiojs to ^dpos ttj? ^y^- 
jjLOvias Gvvepyov avTOV /cat ^orjdov rrpoGXap-^dvoi. 

617 TTapavayvovs he ttjv eTnGroXrjV WXe^avhpo? Trpo- 
6vp.ojs rd Te ray/xara /cat to TrXrjOog et? avTOv 
ojpKOJGev. eKdrepoL §* dG p.ei'a>s vrt-qKovGav ttjv 
dpeTTjv Tdvhpos eK ttj? iyyvs GTpaTrjylag elhoTeg. 

618 /cat o [lev TreTTLGTevfievog rjhrj ra Trepl tt^v dp-)(rjv 
TTporrapeGKevaCev avTOj /cat ra npos t7]v dcju^iVy 
Td^iov 8' emvoias hirjyyeXXov at 07]/xat tov eVt 
TrfS dvaToXrjs avTOKpdTopa, Kat Tzdcra fiev ttoXls 
eajpraiev evayyeXia he^ /cat OvGias vrrep avTov 

619 err-TeXet,. rd he /cara Mucrtav /cat Ylavvoviav 

^ Xiese : cKpLKvvfj^vov, d<piKv{o)vfj.ei'oi' Mss. 
^ PA : fxepi^fJLeva L : fxepiferai the rest. 

" The Great Harbour seems to have been only half this 
lengih. The figure named { = c. 3^ miles) can barely be 
reached by including the Eunostus Harbour ; the two were 
originally separated by the causeway called the Hepta- 
stadion, but this had perhaps now disappeared (Strabo 793). 

18^ 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 614-619 

immense walls have been reared by human hands : 
and the sea dashing against these and breaking 
around the piers opposite renders the passage rough 
and ingress through the strait perilous. The har- 
bour inside is, however, perfectly safe and is thirty 
furlongs ^ in length. To this port are carried all the 
commodities which the country lacks for its welfare, 
and from it the surplus local products are distributed 
to every quarter of the world.^ 

(6) With good reason therefore was Vespasian Tiberius 
eager to obtain control here, with a view to the sJ^e^^^ 
stabiHty of the empire at large. He accordingly at Alexandria 
once v\Tote to Tiberius Alexander,^ the governor of vespasian. 
Egypt and Alexandria, informing him of the army's 
zeal and how, being forced to shoulder the burden 
of empire himself, he desired to enhst his co-opera- 
tion and assistance. Having read this letter in public, 
Alexander promptly required the legions and the 
populace to take the oath of allegiance to \'espasian ; 
a call to which they both gladly responded, knowing 
the sterling quality of the man from his generalship 
in their neighbourhood. Tiberius, now having the 
interests of the empire entrusted to his charge, made 
all preparations for Vespasian's arrival ; and quicker 
than thought rumour spread the news of the new 
emperor in the east. Every city kept festival for General 
the good news and offered sacrifices on his behalf ; ^^'^^^""^^'°" 
but the legions in Moesia and Pannonia,'^ recently Vespasian's 

accession. 

^ Strabo 798 calls Alexandria fxeyiarov iixirbpiov ttjs olkov- 
/.uvi]$ and speaks of the precious wares of which she kuI 
iTroSoxfiof ecrrt Aral x^PVl^^ ''"O'^ eKTos. 

' B. ii. 220 note (summarizing his varied career). 

^ The provinces on the south bank of the Danube : Moesia 
covering the eastern portion (Serbia and Bulgaria), Pannonia 
the western (Austrian and neighbouring territory). 

183 



JOSEPHUS 

ray/xara, jjLLKpcxJ irpoodev KeKLvqfiiva rrpos ttjv 
OvLTeXXiov ToA/xav, jiett^ovi X^P9- OveurraGiava) 

620 TTjV riyejiovlav ojavvov. 6 8' avat,€v^a<^ airo 
Katcra/De/a? et? Bt^/dutov Traprjv, evda TToXXal fiev 
aiTo TTJs ^vplas avTcp, TroAAat §€ koltto tG)v oSXojv 
errapxi'Cov Trpea^elai owqvTcov, ore^dvovs Trap* 
€KdGTT]s TToXeojs Kat ovy)(^apTiKd TrpoacfiepovoaL 

621 i/fTy^ta/xara. Traprjv Sc /cat MovKiavos 6 rrjg 
€7TapxiCLS rjyepLOJv, to npoOvpLov rcov bijfxojv koI 
Tov? Kara ttoXlv opKovg arrayyeXXcxiv . 

622 (?) YlpoxLopovG-qs Se Travraxov Kara vovv Trjs 
rvx^lS Koi Tcov TTpaypLaTcov avwevevKorcov ck rod 
TrXeiarov piepovs, rjSrj Trapiararo rep OvecjTTaoLavcp 
voeZvy cos ov hixo. SaLpiovLov npovoias dipatro rrj? 
apx^]?, dAAa hiKaia ns elpiappLevr] TrepLaydyoi to 

623 KpareZv rcov oXojv irr* avrov dvapupivrjGKerai 
yap rd re aAAa Gr]pL€la, TToXXd S* avrcp ye- 
yovei Travraxov Trpot^aivovra ttjv 'qyepLOvlav, /cat 
ras rod ^lajGTJTrov (jiojvdsy os avrov en t^cjvros 

624 ^epojvos avroKpdropa TrpoGeLrreZv IddpGTjGcv. i^- 
eTTeTrXrjKro 8e rov dvSpa SeGpLCjorrjv en ovra Trap* 
avrcp, Kal vpoGKaXeGdpLevos ^^lovKuavov a/xa rots' 
aAAots" TjyepLOGL /cat (jiiXois npajrov pikv avrov ro 
hpaGriqpLOV eKhnqyeZro /cat oca TrepV' roZs 'Icora- 

625 TTarois St ai^rov e/ca/xov, cTretra ras /xavretas", as 
avros pL€v VTTcoTTrevGe rore TrXdGpLara rod Seovs, 
dTToheixOrjvai he vrro rod XP^'^^^ '^ci^ "^^^ rrpay- 

626 fiarcov ueias. acGXpov ovv, ^9^^, rov rrpo- 

^ L : in Lat. : om. the rest. 

" Tacitus, Hist. ii. 85 f. The legions in Moesia were 
184 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 619-626 

exasperated by the audacity of Vitellius, more gladlv 
than any swore allegiance to Vespasian.^ The latter, 
leaving Caesarea, proceeded to Berytus,* where 
numerous embassies, both from Syria and from the 
other provinces, waited upon him, bringing croMiis 
and congratulatory decrees from the various cities. 
Thither too came Mucianus, the governor of the 
province, to report the popular enthusiasm and that 
every city had taken the oath. 

(7) Now that fortune was everywhere furthering Liberation 
his washes and that circumstances had for the most Jrom^bonds 
part conspired in his favour, Vespasian was led to 
think that divine providence had assisted him to 
grasp the empire and that some just destiny had 
placed the sovereignty of the world within his hands. 
Among many other omens," which had everywhere 
foreshadowed his imperial honours, he recalled the 
words of Josephus, who had ventured, even in Nero's 
lifetime, to address him as emperor.^ He was 
shocked to think that the man was still a prisoner in 
his hands, and summoning Mucianus with his other 
officers and friends, he first dwelt upon his doughty 
deeds and all the trouble that he had given them at 
Jotapata, ; and then referred to his predictions, which 
at the time he himself had suspected of being fabrica- 
tions prompted by fear, but which time and the event 
had proved to be divine. "It is disgraceful," he 

III Gallica (see § 633), VII Claudia, and VIII Augusta* ; m*^ 
those in Pannonia, VII Galbiana and XIII Gemina. 

' Beirut. 

" Various omina imperii are mentioned by Tacitus ( Hist. 
ii. 78), Suetonius ( Vesp. 5), and Dion Cassius (Ixvi. 1). The 
two last authorities include the prophecy of Josephus ; Weber, < r -" 
Josephus and Vespasian 45, believes that they drew upon 
some common source. Cf. B. iii. 404 n. <* iii. 401. 

185 



JOSEPHUS 

OeuTTLoavrd fioL ttjv ap)(rjv koI htaKovov ri^g rod 
Oeov (f)0jvrjs ert aiXfJ-aXojrov rd^tv r) deGficoTov 
Tvxrjv V7ToiJL€V€LV," Kal KaXeGa? rov ^lajG-qirov 

627 Xvdrjvai KeXeveL. Tot? fiev ovv rjyefioGiv e/c tt^? 
€LS Tov dXX6(j)vXov afJLOi^rjg Xaiirrpd. koI Trepl 
auTcov eX7TL^€LV TrapiGTTjy ovvajv Sc rw Trarpl 

628 1 iTO<s OLKaiov, CO Trarep, ^<p'']> "^ov iojo-qrrov 
Kal TO ovecSos d(f)aLpedrji'aL gvv to) cnStjpcp- 
yevrjaeraL yap opoios rw prj hedevri rrjv dp)(T]v, 
dv avrov pi] Xvacopev dXXd Koipojpev rd heapd." 
Tovro yap eTrl rchv pbr) Seovrcog heBevrcov Trpdr" 

629 rerai. cruvehoKei ravra, Kal TrapeXdcvv rts Tre- 
XeK€i SteVoj/fe rr^v dXvGiv. 6 he ^Icoarjnos elXrjfhoj? 
VTTep^ rojv TTpoeLprjpevojv yepag ttjv emTipiiav rjBrj 
Kal TTepl Tcov p,eXX6vTa)v d^ioTTLGTOS rjv. 

630 (xi. l) Ouea—aGLavos Be ralg Trpea^eiaLs XPV~ 
pLariGas Kal Karaar-qadpevos eKdaroLs rag ap^d? 
SiKaLcos Kal Sid rd)v d^iojv, els ^ Xi'tiox^i^clv 

631 dSiKvelrai. Kal ^ovXevopevog ttoI TperreoOaLy 
TTpovpyiairepa rrjs els WXe^dvhpeiav opprjg rd 
Kard T'qv 'IPcopLrjv eKpive, rrjv p.ev ^e^atov ovoav 

632 opdjv, rd 8' 13:70 OutreAAtoi; Tapauo6p.eva. Tre/x- 
TTei Srj ^lovKiavov els ttjv ^IraXlav rrapaSovs 
LTTTTeojv re Kal ne'i^djv gv^^'^ hvvapLv. 6 8e Std 
TTjv TOV ;>(et/xa)vos' dKprjv SeiGas to TrXelv' Tret^fj 
Trjv GTpaTidv -qye hid K.aTTTraBoKias Kac ^pvycas. 

633 (t2) 'Ev Se tovtco Kal ^ Avtojvlos I\pipos dva- 
Xa^ojv rd rpirov rdyp,a rcov Kard Muotav, erv^^v 

* Niese : irep'i. mss. ^ Hudson from Lat. : irav mss. 

• Mucianus went ahead with some light-armed troops, 
being followed by the 6th legion (Ferrataj and 13,000 veterans 
{vexillarii)t Tac. Hist, ii. 83. 

186 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 626-633 

said, " that one who foretold my elevation to power 
and was a minister of the voice of God should still 
rank as a captive and endure a prisoner's fate " ; 
and calling for Josephus, he ordered him to be 
liberated. While the officers were only thinking that 
such requital of a foreigner augured brilhant honours 
for themselves, Titus, who was beside his father, 
said, "Justice demands, father, that Josephus should 
lose his disgrace along with his fetters. If instead 
of loosing, we sever his chains, he will be as though 
he had never been in bonds at all." For such is the 
practice in cases where a man has been unjustly put 
in irons. Vespasian approving, an attendant came 
forward and severed the chain with an axe. Thus 
Josephus won his enfranchisement as the reward of 
his divination, and his power of insight into the future 
was no longer discredited. 

(xi. 1) Vespasian, having responded to the em- Vespasian 
bassies and disposed of the various governorships ^JJcfamis 
with due reerard to the claims of iustice and tlie ^^ith an 
merits of the candidates, repaired to Antioch. Here itaiy. 
dehberating in which direction to turn, he decided that 
affairs in Rome were more important than a march 
to Alexandria, seeing that the latter was secured, 
whereas at Rome \ltellius was creating general 
disorder. He accordingly dispatched Mucianus 
to Italy with a substantial force of cavalry and in- 
fantry ; « that officer, fearing the risk of a sea voyage 
in the depth of winter, led his army by land through 
Cappadocia and Phrygia.^ 

(2) Meanwhile Antonius Primus, along with the 
third legion from Moesia, where he was then in 

^ Ordering the fleet from Pontus to concentrate at Byzan- 
tium, Tac. ibid. 

VOL. Ill O 187 



JOSEPHUS 

8 rjyefjLOvevojv avTodi,, OutreAAto) Trapara^ojievos 
•334 r)7T€Lyero. OvLreXXio? S' avro) avvavrrjaovTa /xera 
ttoXXtj? Svvdfieco? KaLKLvav^ ^AXnqvov eKTrefiTrei, 
fieya dappcov rdvSpl Slol ttjp Itt' "OOcovl vlktjv. 
o be aTTO rrjs 'PcopLT]? eXavrcov Slol rdxovs Trepl 
Kpefiojva Trjs YaXarias tov ^ Avtcovlov KaraXafi- 
^dv€i- jieOopios S' eoTLV tj ttoXl? avrr] rrjs 

635 IraXlas. Kanhcbv 5' ivravda to 7tXt]6os tcov 
TToXefiLOjv Kol rrjv evra^lau, ovpL^aXelv fiev ovk 
e6dpp€Ly GcbaXepdv Se ttjv dvaxcoprjGLV Xoyilo- 

636 fxevo? Trpooooiav i^ovXevero. ovvayayow hk tov? 
v(f> avTov iKaTOvrdpxoL? kol ;s^iAiap;\;ofS" ivrjyev 
lJi€Ta^rjvaL rrpos tov ^ A.vtojvlov , TaTreivcJv fjL€v ra 
OvLTeXXiov TTpdyfiaTa, Trjv OveaTraGLavov 8' laxvv 

637 enaipcov, xat rrap to iiev elvai Xiyojv p,6vov ttj? 
o-PXV^ ovofia, 77ap' a; he TrjV hvvajJLLV, Kal avTOvg 
Se dfjieivov elvai f TrpoXa^ovTa? ttjv dvdyKTjv 
TTOLTjaaL X^P''^ '^^^ fieXXovTag rjTTdoOai toIs ottXois 

638 rat? yi'cu/.iats' tov KLvhvvov 4>SdGai' OveaTrauiavov 
IjL€v yap LKavov etrat Kal x^P'-'^ avTcov TrpoGKTrj- 
aauOai^ Kal ra XeirtovTa, OvLTeXXiov h ovhe uvv 
avTols T'qprjaai ra ovra. 

•339 (s) IToAAa TOLavTa Xdycov eVetae Kal Trpos tov 
640 AvrajvLov avTop-oXel fieTa ttj? bwdfieoj?. ttj? b 

aVTTJS VVKTOS ipLTTLTTTeL pL^TdvOia ToZ? GTpaTLOJTaiS 

/cat heos TOV TrpoTrepupavTos, et KpetGaajv yevoiTO' 

^ C Lat. Heer. : Kt/ct\(\)ioi' the rest. 
* ins, L (Lat. ?) : om. the rest. 
' Dindorf: -rrpoKT-qaaadaLY^'. Trpoc^^uetr^at the rest. 

" M. Antonius Primus, in the sequel a rival of Mucianus, 
188 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 633-640 

command,** was also hastening to give battle to Antonius 
Vitellius ; and Vitellius had sent off Caecina Alienus leSS^'' 
with a strong force to oppose him, having great con- ^^^'^^qj^ 
fidence in that general on account of his victory over Moesia 
Otho.^ Caecina marching rapidly from Rome met yf^JJlJ^g^ 
Antonius near Cremona, a town in Gaul '^ on the Caecina, 
frontiers of Italy ; but there, percei\ing the numbers viteiuus, 
and disciphne of the enemv, he would not venture g°^f ^T^"^ ^' 

■T « ' Antonius. 

on an engagement and, considering retreat hazardous, 
meditated treason.'^ Accordingly assembling the 
centurions and tribunes under his command, he urged 
them to go over to Antonius, disparaging the 
resources of Vitellius and extolling the strength of 
Vespasian.* " The one," he said, " has but the 
name, the other the power of sovereignty ; and it 
were better for you to forestall and make a \irtue of 
necessity, and, as you are bound to be beaten in 
the field, to avert danger by policy. For Vespasian 
is capable, without your aid, of acquiring what he 
has yet to win ; while Vitellius, even ^^^th your 
support, cannot retain what he has already." 

(3) Caecina's words, prolonged in the same strain, 
prevailed, and he and his army deserted to Antonius. 
But the same night the soldiers \vere overcome ^\^th 
remorse and fear of him who had sent them into the 
field, should he prove victorious ; and dra\\ing their 

was now in command of the 7th legion (Galbiana ; Tac. Hist, 
ii. 86), in Pannonia, not in Moesia, as Josephus states ; but 
he was joined by the Moesian legions, the third (Gallica) 
taking the lead in revolt : " tertia legio exemplum ceteris 
Moesiae legionibus praebuit " (Tac. H. ii. 85). 

* § 547. 

* i.e. Gallia Cisalpina, Italy N. of the Po. 

"* Tacitus gives a fuller account. Hist. ii. 99, iii. 13 if. 
' " Vespasiani virtutem viresque partium extoUit . . . atque 
omnia de Vitellio in deterius" (Tac. Hist. iii. 13). 

189 



JOSEPHUS 

OTTaod^evoL Se ra ^i^rj tov Y^aiKivav^ wpfirjcrau 
dveXelv, Kav eTrpaxOr] to epyov avrols, et firj 
TrpoGTTLTTTOvTe? OL ;)(tAtap;(ot KadiKirevaav e/ca- 
641 crroL'S'.* ol he rod p.kv Kreiveiv OLTzeaxovTO, hrjoavres 
8e TOV TTpohoTTjV otoL T€ "i^crav dvarrepLTTeiv^ Oi3i- 
TeAAtoj. raur' aKovaas 6 Ylplp-o? avTiKa tovs 

G(f)€T€pOV£ dvLOTTjGL Kat fieTOL TOW OTtXoJV TjyeV 

f>t2 eVt Tovs aTTOOTavTas . ol he TrapaTa^dfievot Trpo? 
oXiyov pLev dvTeaxov, avdug 8e TparrevTes ecfyevyov 
eh TTjV l^pepojva. Tovg Se IrrTrelg dvaXa^ojv 
npt/xo? VTTOTepveTaL ra? etcrodous" ai^rcuy, Kat to 
pLev TToXv ttXtiBos KVKXojodpevos TTpo TTJg TToXeOJS 
hia(j>9eLpeL, to* he Xolttoj GweLUTreaajv hiapTrdaaL 

643 TO duTV Tols GTpaTLcoTats e(j>riKev. evda hrj 
TToXXol pev Ta)v ^evcov epLTTopoL, ttoXXol he tCjv 
eTTiXCJopiOJv drrcoXovTO, Trdaa he iKal] rj OviTeXXiov 
GTpaTid, pvpidhes dvhpojv Tpelg Kal hiaKooioL' 
Tojv 8* aTTO TTJ? Mucrta? Avtojvlos TeTpaKiax^'- 

644 Xiovs aTTO^aXXei Kal TrevTaKooiovs. Xvaas he tov 
Kat/ctVav TTepLTTeL irpos OveaTraaLavov dyyeXovvTa 
TO. TTeTTpaypieva. /cat o? eXdcov aTrehexOr] re vtt 
avTov Kal ra ttj? rrpohoaias oveihrj rat? Trap 
eX-niha Tipals eTreKaXvipev. 

645 (4) Wveddpaei he -qhrj Kal Acara tt^v ^ayprjv 
Ha^vos, d>s ttXtjglov ^ Avtojvlos cuv aTTrjyyeXXeTO, 

^ Lat. Hcg. : KiKL\(X)toy mss. 

* L : airrois or ai'roi's the rest. 

' L : weixireiv {irefi-^eLv) the rest. 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 640-645 

swords they rushed off to kill Caeeina and would 
have accomplished their purpose, had not the tribunes 
thro>\-n themselves at the feet of their companies and 
implored them to desist.^ The troops spared his life 
but bound the traitor and prepared to send him up 
to Vitellius. Primus, hearing of this, instantly called Antonins 
up his men and led them in arms against the rebels ; viteiuan 
these forming in hne of battle offered a brief re- ^^™y ^ 
sistance, but were then routed and fled for Cremona. 
Primus \\ith his cavalry intercepted their entrance, 
surrounded and destroyed the greater part of them 
before the walls, and, forcing his way in ^vith the 
remainder, permitted his soldiers to pillage the town. 
In the ensuing slaughter many foreign merchants ^ 
and many of the inhabitants perished, along with *" 
the whole armv of Mtellius, numbering thirty thou- 
sand t\vo hundred men ; of his troops from Moesia 
Antonius lost four thousand five hundred. Caeeina, 
being liberated by him and sent to report these 
events to \'espasian, was on his arrival graciously 
received by the emperor, and covered the disgrace 
of his perfidy ^\ith unlooked for honours. 

(4) In Rome, too, Sabinus ^ now regained courage Fights for 
on hearing of the approach of Antonius, and, muster- ^^^C^P^^^ 

" Details not in Tacitus, who merely states that the soldiers 
bound Caeeina and elected other leaders (Hist, iii. 14). 

^ " The occurrence of a fair {tanpus mercatxis) filled the 
colony, rich as it always was, with the appearance of still 
greater wealth " ; the sack of the town occupied four days 
(Tac. Hist. iii. 32 f.). 

« § 598 note. The full story is told in Tacitus, Hist. iii. 64 ff. 
Sabinus attempted to negotiate conditions with Mtellius, who 
was prepared to abdicate ; but the \'ite]lianists prevented 
this, and a collision between them and the followers of 
Sabinus drove the latter to seek refuge in the temple of 
Jupiter on the Capitol. 

191 



JOSEPHUS 

Acat ovvaOpoLcra? ra tojv wKTO(f)vXdKa)v orpa- 
TLCorajv rdyfiara vvKTcop KaraXaji^dveL to Kavre- 

646 tcvXlov. fJLed^ rjfiepav 8' avroj ttoXXol tojv eVt- 
G7]fia>u TTpoaeyivovTO /cat Ao/xertavos" o Td8eA(/»0L' 
Trats", pLeyLUTTj jiolpa rcov els to Kparelv cAttiScuv. 

647 OvLTeXXioj he Ylpi^ov jxev iXdrrajv (f)povrls rjv, 
redvfJLOJTO^ S' eVt tovs GvvarroGrdvTas ro) Ha^lvco, 
Kai Ota rr^v eficbvTov djfioTT^ra hiipcov alpLaros 
evyevovs rod GrparLOJTLKOv ttjv ovyKareXOovaav 

648 avroj SvvafJLLV eTTa^i-quL rco KaTrerojAtoj . 77oAAd 
/xev ovv e/c t€ ravrrjs Kal tCjv d-no rod lepov 
fiaxofievojv iroXfi-qOrj , reXog be ro) TrX-qBei nepL- 
ovres OL aiTO ttjs Teppiavias eKpdrrjaav rod X6(f)0V. 

649 Kai Aop^enavos pcev^ gvv TroAAots" rcov ev reXei 

Poj/jLalcov haipLOVLCijTepov hiaaajterai, to he Xolttov 
ttXtjOos drrav KareKorr-q, Kal Za^vo? dvaxdel? 
eTTL OutreAAtov dvaLpelrai, hLapTrdaavres t€ ol 
CTT/DartctJTat rd dvaO-qpiara rov vaov eveTrp-qcrav. 

650 /cat pLerd /xtay 'qp.epav eLGeXavvei p,ev W.vtojvlos 
puerd rrjs hwdptecos, {fTT-qvrajv S' ot OvtreAAtou /cat 
rpLy^TJ Kara nqv ttoXlv GvpLJ^aXovres arrojXovTO 

651 rrdvres. Trpoepx^Tat^ he piedvojv Ik tov ^auiXeiov 
OvLTeXXios Kal haipiXeGrepov ojGTrep iv eaxdrois 

652 rrjs docorov rpaTTe^rjs KeKopeapLevo?. onjpelg he 

^ redvfiwfiei'os LLat. ' Bekker with Lat. : 5f mss. 

' rapitur Heg. : hence Tpoe\KeTaL Destinon {cf. Tacitus, 
HiM. ill. 84). 

• " %igrilum cohortes " (Tac. Hist. iii. 64). Seven corps of 
night poHce had been instituted by Augustus " adversus 
incendia," a sort of fire-brigade (Suet. Aug. 30, Dion Cass. 
Iv. 26). 

192 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 645-652 

ing the cohorts of the night-watch,^ seized the Capitol is December 
during the night. Early next day ^ he was joined "^' 
bv many of the notables, including his nephew i? December 
Domitian, on whom mainly rested their hopes of 
success. Vitellius, less concerned about Primus, was 
infuriated at the rebels who had supported Sabinus, 
and, from innate cruelty thirsting for noble blood, 
let loose upon the Capitol that division of his army 
which had accompanied him (from Germany).'^ Many 
a gallant deed was done aUke by them and by those 
who fought them from the temple ; but at length 
by superior numbers the German troops mastered 
the hill. Domitian, \Wth many eminent Romans, 
miraculously escaped ; '^ but the rank and file were 
all cut to pieces, Sabinus was brought a prisoner to 
\'itellius and executed, and the soldiers after plunder- 
ing the temple of its votive offerings set it on fire. 
A dav later Antonius marched in with his army ; he ^"tonius 

•^ -r y enters 

was met by the troops of Vitellius, who gave battle Rome, 
at three different quarters of the city « and perished ^"^ ^^^ 
to a man.-'' Then issued from the palace Vitellius The end of 
drunk and, kno\^'ing the end was come, gorged with ^i^eiiius. 
a banquet more la\ish and luxurious than ever ; 

" " At dead of night " {concnhia nocte), Sabinus, o^ing 
to the careless watch of the Vitellianists and a rain storm, was 
enabled to bring in his own children and Domitian and to 
communicate with his followers (Tac. H. iii. 69). 

' According to the fuller account of Tacitus (H. iii. 70 f.) 
the soldiers acted ■without orders from Vitellius, now " neque 
jubendi neque vetandi potens." 

^ Domitian disguised as an acolyte, ih. 74. 

* The forces of Antonius advanced in three divisions : 
along the Via Flaminia, along the Via Salaria to the CoUine 
Gate, and along the bank of the Tiber (Tac. H. iii. 82). 

' " cecidere omnes contrariis vulneribus, versi in hostem " 
Tac. H. iii. 84. 

193 



JOSEPHUS 

Std rod TrXrjdovs Kal TravroSaTrat? alKiais i^- 
v^piadels €.7TL fidcrqs tt^S" 'Pcu^t]? a7Too(j)drreTaiy 
fjLTJva? OKTOJ Kpariqcra? /cat rjiJiepas 7T€vt€, ov €l 
Gvve^-q TrAeico ^Lcoaai xP^'^o'^> eTTiXiTTelv dv avrov 

653 rfj Xayvela ttjv rjyefiovLav olpai. rcov S* dXXcov 

654 veKpcov vrrep TreVre pLvpidhag^ rjpLdfJL-qdrjaav. ravra 

/X€V TpiTTj pLr]v6s 'ATTeAAatOf TTeTTpaKTO, rfj 8' 

vorepaia ^lovKiavos etcretcrt /xera r:^? Grpand?, 
Kal rovs ovv AvrajvLO) Travuas rod KretveLv, en 
yap i^epevvwiJLevoL rds OLKcas rroXXovs fxev rcov 
OvLreXXiOV Grpariujrchv ttoXXovs Se rwv hrjp.ori,KCx)v 
(jjs €.K€ivov dvfjpovv, (f)6dvovres rep dvfio) rrjv 
aKpL^i] hidKpLGLV, TTpoayayujv he rdv AofxerLavov 
(TVVLGrrjui rep TrXrjOet p^XP^ "^^^ '^^^ Trarpos 

655 d(^L^ea>? rjyepova. 6 he hijiJLOs aTrrjXXaypevos rjhrj 
rd)v ^o^CDV avroKpdropa OveuTrauLavov eixfrrjpLeL, 
Kal dfjia rrjv re rovrov ^e^aiojGLv ewprat^e koi 
rrjv OvLreXXlov KardXvuiv. 

656 (5) El? he rrjv ^ AXe^dvhpeiav d(^iyp.eva) rw 
OveoTTaGiavo) rd diro ri]? 'Pcopij? evayyeXta rjKe 
Kal TTpeo^eis eK Trdarj? rffs Ihias olKOvp,einrjg 
cruin-jhopevoi' peylarrj re ovaa pLerd rrjV PcopLrjv 

657 r) ttoXls arevorepa^ rod ttXtjOovs rjXeyxero. Ke- 
Kvpojpieirqs he rjhrj rij? dpxT]? drTdcrqs Kal oeuoj- 
Gpevwv Trap eXTrlha 'PajpatoLs rcov rrpayparwv 
OveGTTaGiavos errl rd Xelipava rrjs lovhauas rov 

658 XoyiGpiov e7TeGrpe(j)ev. avros p^evroi [yf ]^ eis rrjv 

^ /jLvpiddei PML. ^ + Tore L. 

^ ins. L : ora. the rest. 

" He was haled from hiding in the palace, after attempting 
escape, to the Gemonian stairs, where he was slain, the corpse 
being then dragged to the Tiber (Tac. iii. 84 f., Suet. 
Vitell 17). 
1Q4 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 652-658 

dragged through the mob and subjected to indig- 
nities of every kind, he was finally butchered in the 
heart of Rome." He had reigned eight months and 
five days ; ^ and had fate prolonged his life, the very 
empire, I imagine, would not have sufficed for his 
lust. Of others slain, upwards of fifty thousand 
were counted. These events took place on the third (20 or 21) 
of the month Apellaeus. On the following day Mudanus 
Mucianus entered with his army and restrained the ^^^^^ 
troops of Antonius from further slaughter ; for they 
were still searching the houses and massacring large 
numbers, not only of the soldiers of Vitellius, but 
of the populace, as his partisans, too precipitate in 
their rage for careful discrimination.'' Mucianus Domitian 
then brought forward Domitian and recommended acting rule-. 
him to the multitude as their ruler pending his 
father's arrival. The people, freed at length from 
terrors, acclaimed Vespasian emperor, and celebrated 
with one common festival both his estabhshment in 
power and the overthrow of V^itelHus. 

(5) On reaching Alexandria Vespasian was greeted Vespasian at 
by the good news from Rome and by embassies of -^^xandna 
congratulation from every quarter of the world,*^ now 
his own ; and that city, though second only to Rome 
in magnitude, proved too confined for the throng. 
The whole empire being now secured and the Roman 
state saved beyond expectation, Vespasian turned 
his thoughts to what remained in Judaea. He was, 
however, anxious himself to take ship for Rome * as 

'' From 17 April to 21 (or 20) December. 

" C/. Tac. Hist. iv. 1, 11. 

** Including one from King Vologesus, offering him 40,000 
Parthian cavalry (Tac. Hist. iv. 51). 

* He had received unfavourable reports of Doniitian's 
conduct, ibid. 

VOL.111 g2 195 



JOSEPHUS 

'^wfJLTjv atpfJLTjTO \-q^avTos Tov ;^et/xajvo? dmyecr^at 
/cat Td-)(0? TO. Kara rrjv AXe^avSpeiav huoK€i, 
TOV Se vlov Tltov /xera Trjs CKKpirov hvvdfieoj? 

659 OLTTeGreiXev i^aip-qaovra rd lepoaoXviia. 6 he 

TTpOeXdcOV 7T€t,fj fJ^^Xpi- Xl/COTToAeCOS", €LKOGL 8' aVTT] 

8te;^et rrjs 'AAe^avSpeta? crraStous", KaKeWev ettl- 
^iqaas ttjv arparidv fiaKpcov ttXolojv dvaTrXel 8ta 
rod Ne/Aof Kard^ rdv ^\.€vhrjGLOv vofiov p^^XP'- 

660 TToXeojs QpLOveo)?. eKeWev 8' drro^ds o8euet /cat 
/caret TToXlxvrjv [rivdY TdvLv auAt^erat. 86^X6^0? 
avTO) GraOpLO? 'Hpa/cAeous" TrdAts" /cat rplrog 

661 IlT^Aoucrtov ylverai. bvol 8 rjpLepatg [ivravOaY 
TTjv arparidv dvaXa^d)V rij '^P^'^T) 8te^etcrt ra? 
ipL^oXds rod IlrjXovaLov, /cat TrpoeXOajv oradp.6v 
eva hid rrjg ip-qpLov rrpog ro) rod Kaatou* Atos" 
tcpoj or par OTT eh ever at y rfj 8' varepaia /caret ri^v 
^OarpaKLVTjv ovros 6 aradpLog rjv dvvhpos, eir- 

662 etcra/crots- 8e vhaoiv ol eTrtp^ojptot )(pojvraL. pterd 
ravra rrpos VivoKopov pot's avarraveraL, KaKeWev 

^ L: yuera the rest. ^ om. PA Lat. 

' om. L. * LC^ : Kaacriov the rest. 

" Founded by Augustus in 24 b.c. on the scene of his final 
defeat of M. Antonius and in commemoration of the sur- 
render of Alexandria ; it lay on the coast some 2| (Josephus) 
or 3| (Strabo) miles E. of that citv (Strabo xvii. 795, Dion 
Cass. li. 18). 

* " Thirty " accordinsr to Strabo. 

* Or " up and across " (dtd tov yeiXov, not dva t6v NetXoi') ; 
he was crossing the Delta and part of the route would be by 
canal. 

** Or " over against." 

196 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 668-662 

soon as the ^v'inte^ was over and was now rapidly 
settling affairs in Alexandria ; but he dispatched his sends Titu 
son Titus with picked forces to crush Jerusalem. JfrJSIiem 
Titus, accordingly, proceeding by land to Nicopolis " 
(distant twenty^ furlongs from Alexandria), ^^^^^^ J^J^^'JcJ^^o^' ' 
embarked his army on ships of war and sailed up <^ xitus fmn 
the Nile into ^ the Mendesian canton « to the city ^^cTe^^^re 
of Thmuis.-'' Here he disembarked and, resuming 
his march, passed a night at a small towTi called 
Tanis.^ His second day's march brought him to 
Heracleopohs,^ the third to Pelusium.^ Having 
halted here two days to refresh his army, on the 
third he crossed the Pelusiac river-mouths, and, 
advancing a day's march through the desert, en- 
camped near the temple of the Casian Zeus,^ and 
on the next day at Ostracine ^ ; this station was 
destitute of water, which is brought from elsewhere 
for the use of the inhabitants. He next rested at 
Rhinocorura,^ whence he advanced to his fourth 

« The " nome " of which Mendes {Tell er-Bub', S.W. of 
Lake Menzaleh) was the capital. 

f Tmai or (Smith and Bartholomew, Atlas of Holy Land^ y 
Map 7) Tell Ihu es-Salam ; S.W. of Mendes. 

" San, the Zoan of the Old Testament, some 20 miles E. of 
Thmuis. 

'* Heracleopolis Parv-a ; site now covered by Lake 
Menzaleh. 

* Tell Farama alias Tineh (Biblical Sin, Ezek. xxx. 15), 
§610. 

' A temple of Zeus-Ammon near the summit of Mons 
Casius {Ras el-Kasrun), a sandstone range adjoining Lake 
Sirbonis and the Mediterranean : Pompey's tomb was on 
the hill-side (Strabo xvii. 760). 

* Unidentified. 

' Or Rhinocolura, el-Arish, on the confines of Egypt and 
Palestine ; " the river of Egypt," Wady el-Arish, marking 
the boundary in Old Testament times. 

197 



JOSEPHUS 

ets" 'Pa^etay rrpoeXdcov GraB^ov riraproVy ecrn 8 
7) ttoXls avTT] Zuptas" o.p\rj, to ttIixtttov ev Tdtr] 
663 rlOerai arparo—eSov, ^te^' t^v et? ' A cr /caAcui'a 

loTTTTTys- 61? Katcrapeta^' a(f)LKi'€LTaL SceyvajKajs av- 
Todi rag aAAa? SvvdfJLeis ddpoit,€Lv. 

• Refah ; Polybius likewise reckons it as the first city of 



198 



JEWISH WAR, IV. 662-663 

station, Raphia,'^ at which city Syria begins. His 
fifth camp he pitched at Gaza ; next he marched to 
Ascalon, and from there to Jamnia, then to Joppa, 
and from Joppa he finally reached Caesarea, the 
rendezvous fixed on for the concentration of his 
forces. 

.Syria, Facpias fj /cetrat fieTa 'FivoK6\ovpa irpdoTrj tQv Kara ^olXrjv 
1,vpiav TrdXeuv ws irpbs Trjv AtyvirTov (v. 80). 



199 



BIBAION E 

1 (l- l) IX€V Tito? ov TrpoeLprJKafJLev Tporrov 
diodevcjas ttjv virep Alyv—rov P-^XP^ Supta? 
eprjpLLav €L9 Kaiaapetav Trapfjv, ravrrj SceyvajKajg 

2 TTpocruvTa^aaS ai ras Sum/xet?. en S' avrov Kara 
rrjv AXe^dvdpeLav avyKa8iaTap.evov toj rrarpl 
TTjv -qyep.oviav veov^ avrols eyKex^ipiupievrjv vtto 
rod Oeov, avve^rj Kal rrjV iv roZg 'lepocroAw/xoi? 
oraGLv avaKpLauauav rpLfjLeprj yevicrdai Kal Kad 
avTOV ddrepov irTLGrpeipaL jjLepog, OTrep dv rts" co? 

3 €v KaKOis dyadov etVot koL hiK-q? epyov. tj /xev 
yap Kara rod dr]fiov rcov CrjXojrojv €77t^ecrt?, 
rjTTep Karrjp^ev dXojGeoj? rij TToXec, tt pohehrjXcDT ai 
pLerd OLKpL^elag oOev re e^u Kal TTpos ocrov KaKwv 

4 avr]v^tjdrj^' ravr-qv 8* ovk dv dp-dproL rt? elrrajv 
oraGei urdoLv eyyevlaOai, Kal KaOdrrep Brjpiov Xva- 
CTT^aav evdeia tojx' e^codev irrl rds Idlag rjdr] odpKas 

5 oppidv. (2) EAea^apo? ydp^ 6 rod ^Ipiajvos, o? Srj 
/cat ra Trpcora rod b-qpLov rovg (1,-qXajrdg aTrearrjaev 
€LS ro repievog, ojs dyavaKrow bijdev em rols 
oorip.epai rep YajdvyQ roX^LOJfievoLs, ov yap av- 
eiravero <f)ovdjv ovros, ro S' dX-qdes avrov /xera- 

* V Lat. (nuper) : peai/ the rest. 

» vv^rjev PM. 

• opfiav 'EXed^apos yap L : op/Mg., o&tus 'EX. the rest, 
200 



BOOK V 

(i. 1) Titus having thus, as described above, accom- Tripartita 
phshed the desert march across Egypt to Syria, /erusaiem. 
an-ived at Caesarea, the place where he had decided 
to marshal his forces before the campaign. But 
already, while he was still at Alexandria, assisting his 
father to establish the empire which God had 
recently committed to their hands, it so happened \ 
that the civil strife in Jerusalem had reached a fresh 
cHmax and become a triangular affair, one of the 
parties having turned its arms against itself ; a - 
discord which, as between criminals, might be called 
a blessing and a work of justice. Of the Zealots' 
attack upon the populace — the first step towards the 
city's ruin — a precise account has already been given, 
showing its origin and all the mischief in which it 
culminated." This new development might be not 
inaccurately described as a faction bred within a 
faction, which like some ra\'ing beast for lack of other 
food at length preyed upon its own flesh. 

(2) For Eleazar,^ son of Simon, the man who had Eieazar 
originally caused the Zealots to break with the faction Ind 
citizens and withdraw into the sacred precincts, now holds the 
— ostensibly from indignation at the enormities daily temple. 
perpetrated by John, who continued unabated his 
murderous career, but, in reality, because he could 
• iv. 128 S, * iv. 225. 

201 



JOSEPHUS 

6 yevearepcp Tupdwco fir) (f)lp(jL>v VTTorerdxOai, ttoOoj 
Tcov oXojv Kal hwaarelas Idla? irrLdufiLa SiLGTaraL, 
TTapaXa^ojv lovb'qv re rov XeA/ct'a^ Kal ^Ificova 
rov 'Eapcuvos" tcov Svvarcov, Trpos ols 'E^e/cta? 

7 \r}V^ Xoj/Sapet TraZg ovk dcr-qfio?. Kad^ eKaarov 
Se OVK oXr/OL tcov t^-qXcjjToJv rjKoXovd-qaav, Kal 
KaTaXa^ofievoL tov ivSoTepov tov veoj 7T€pLJioXov 
vrrep Tag Lepag rrvXag irrl tcov dyicov fieTcoTTCov^ 

8 TidevTai TO. orrXa. TrXrjpeL? p.€V ovv irTLT-qheiajv 
6vT€s iddppovv, Kal yap dcf)dovLa tcov Upcov iylve- 
TO TTpayfiaTCDV ToZg ye pirjdev doef^eg rjyovfievoLg, 
oXLyoTTjTL Se^ TT] AcaTO, CT^as" 6ppcohovvT€S iy- 

9 KadrjpievoL* ra TroXXd" /cara ')(Ojpav efievov. 6 Se 

Icodwrjs oaov dvdpcov vvrepelxe TrAry^et, touovtov 
eXei—eTO tco tottco, Kal Kara Kopvcf)i)v e^cov Tovg 
TToXefiLovs ovT dheels: iiroieLTo Tag Trpou^oXdg 

10 ovT€ St opyrjv r]p€[i€L' KaKovfievog he TrXeov 
TjTTep OLaTidelg Tovg rrepl tov ^KXedlapov ojjLCjjg 
OVK aytetj orvvex^Zs 8 eKSpofial^ Kal ^eXcov dSeaecs 
eyLvovTO, Kat c^ovois epLiaiveTO TravTa^ov to tepov. 

11 (3) '0 Se TOV Tio'jpa Zt/xcov, ov iv rat? dfirj- 
XdVLatg eTTLKX-qTov avTco Tvpawov o hrjpiog eA7rt8t 
^OTjOeiag TrpoGeLGTjyaye ,'' ttjv re dvco ttoXlv e^o^v 
Kai TTjs KdTOJ TToXv fjLepos, eppajjieveoTepov rjbr] 
ToZs rrepl tov ^Icodwrjv Trpoae^aXXev co? dv Kal 
KaOvrrepdev rroXefioviievoig' tjv §' vtto X^^P'^ 
TrpoGLOjv avTolsy^ ojarrep eKelvoi toIs avcodev. 

12 Kal TO) ^lojdwrj hcxodev TToXefiovpLevco crvve^aivi 

^ Hudson: XAi/ca (Chelicae Lat. ) mss. 

' /j.eroTT'^'i' P Exc. ' 5' €v PA. 

* P: 6-/ va^tcrdycievot or iyKaOiaTaaevoL the rest. 

' SirXa L Exc. * + Kar' clWtjXuv C. 

202 



JEWISH WAR, V. 6-12 

not brook submission to a tyrant junior to himself, 
and craved absolute mastery and a despotism of his 
own — seceded from the party, taking with him Judes 
son of Chelcias, and Simon son of Esron, persons of 
weight, along with a man of some distinction, Ezechias 
son of Chobari. Each of these having a considerable 
following of Zealots, the seceders took possession of 
the inner court of the temple and planted their 
weapons above the holy gates on the sacred facade. 
Being amply supplied with necessaries thev had no 
fears on that ground, for there was an abundance of 
consecrated articles for those who deemed nothing 
impious ; but they were daunted bv the paucitv of 
their numbers and as a rule sat still and held their 
ground. On the other hand, John's numerical John holds 
superiority was counterbalanced by the inferiority of tempie.^^ 
of his position : with his enemies over his head, he 
could neither attack them with impunity, nor would 
rage allow him to remain inactive. Though suffering 
more injury than he inflicted on Eleazar and his men, 
he nevertheless would not desist ; thus there were 
continual sallies and showers of missiles, and the 
temple on every side Avas defiled ^^ith carnage. 

(3) Then there was Simon, son of Gioras, M'hom the Simon hold 
people in their straits had summoned in hope of ^^^ ^''^- ' 
relief, only to impose upon themselves a further 
tyrant." He occupied the Upper and a large part of 
the Lower City, and now attacked John's party more 
\'igorously, seeing that they were also assailed from 
above ; but he was attacking them from beneath, as 
were they their foes higher up. John, thus between 

" iv. 573. 



"^ L : ■n-poarpf'aye most MSS. 
• Hudson with Exc. : ain-bs :mss. 



203 



JOSEPHUS 

^XaTTreadal re /cat ^XoLTrreLv [evKoXcug],^ /cat 
/ca^' oGov rjTTdro tojv a/Lt(^t tov 'EAea^apov ojv 

Ta7T€LVOT€pO£, TOGOVTOV eTrXeOVEKreL TO) viprjXo) 

13 TOV HifJLCvvog. Trapo /cat X^^P'' M^^ "^^^ KarojOev 
TTpoG^oXa? laxvpojs^ elpye, rov? 8' dvcodev oltto 
rod Upov Kara KovrLL,ovr as dveureXXe rols opydvoL?' 

14 o^v^eXels re yap aura) Acat /caraTreArat Traprjaav ovk 
oXiyoL Kal XlBo^oXol, St' Sv ov fjiovov rjpLVveTO 
Toijs TToXefjLOVvras, dXXd /cat ttoXXovs tcov Upovp- 

15 yovvTcov dvTjpei. KaiTiep yap rrpos vdaav dcre^etay 
eKXeXyGcr-qKoreg, ofio)? ro'us Sveiv edeXovras eucr- 
rjchteGav, fied VTTOipLOJV fxev /cat (jyvXaKrjs tov? 
€Tnxci>pLovs, SiepevvcojJLevoi Se rovs ^evovs'^ ot 
KaLTTep TTepl rd? etadSofS" hvaoiiT'qGavTes avrojv 
TTjv djfjLOT-qra TrapavdXcxJjxa rrjs ardcreaj? iyivovro. 

16 rd yap arro rcjv opydvojv ^eXrj filxP^ '^^^ ^ojpiov 
/cat TOV veoj hid ttjv ^iav v7Tep(j)ep6yieva rot? re 

17 LepevGi /cat rot? lepovpyovGiv €V€7ti7tt€, /cat TToAAot 
GrrevGavres airo yrjs irepdrcov Tiept* tov hiajvvyiov 
/cat TTaGLV dvdpo'jTTOis x^P^^ dyiov rrpo tcjv 
9vfJLaTa)v eneGov avTol /cat tov "KXXtjgl rraGi kgl 
^ap^dpois Ge^dGfiiov ^ajp^ov KaTeGrreiGav tStoi 

18 (f)6voj, V€KpoLS § eTTLXcjopiOis aAAo^uAot /cat tepeucrt 
^e^-qXoL Gvve(f)vpov-o, /cat TTavTobaTTwv alfjua 

TTTWpidTCJV £V Tols deloLS TTepi^oXoLS €Xipivdl,€TO . 

19 TL T'qXiKOVTOV, d) TXr]jJLOV€GTdTT] TToXug , 7T€7TOv9ag 

V7T0 Poj/xatojv, ot GOV Td e/X(/)uAta fivGrj rrvpi 

^ orn. Lat. ^ ev/xapivs LVRC. 

^ Tovs eTTix^pl-ovi diepevudjfjLevoL, tovs 5e feVous dSeecTepov LC 
Exc. * fTTt L Exc. Lat. 

" " Stone-throwers "= hallistae. " Quick-firers "= a species 
of catapult for discharging arrows, perhaps scorpiones 
(Hudson) ; cf. iii. 80 note. 

204 



JEWISH WAR, V. 12-19 

two fires 5 found losses befall him as easily as he inflicted 
them ; and the disadvantage from which he suffered 
in being lower than Eleazar was proportionate to his 
advantage over Simon in virtue of his higher position. 
Consequently, while he stoutly repelled attacks from 
below with hand missiles, he reserved his engines to 
check the hail of javelins from the temple above ; 
for he was amply supplied with " quick-firers," cata- 
pults and " stone-throwers," ° with which he not only 
beat off his assailants but also killed many of the 
worshippers. For although these frenzied men had Worship- 
stopped short of no impiety, they nevertheless ad- femVie 
mitted those who wished to offer sacrifices, native ^i^ied while 
Jews suspiciously and with precaution, strangers after "^ 
a thorough search ^ ; yet these, though successful at 
the entrances in deprecating their cruelty,'' often 
became casual victims of the sedition. For the 
missiles from the engines flew over with such force 
that they reached the altar and the sanctuary, lighting 
upon priests and sacrificers ; and many who had sped 
from the ends of the earth to gather round this far- 
famed spot, reverenced by all mankind, fell there 
themselves before ** their sacrifices, and sprinkled 
with libations of their own blood that altar universally 
venerated by Greeks and barbarians. The dead 
bodies of natives and ahens, of priests and laity, were 
mingled in a mass, and the blood of all manner of 
corpses formed pools in the courts of God. What 
misery to equal that, most wretched city, hast thou 
suffered at the hands of the Romans, who entered to 

" Or (with the other reading) " native Jews after a sus- 
picious and cautious search, strangers with less apprehen- 
sion." 

" Or perhaps *' successful in gaining entry by making 
them blush for their cruelty." '' Or " before offering." 

205 



JOSEPHUS 

Ka6apovvT€?^ elurjXBov; Beov \iev yap ovre tjs 
€Ti xojpos ovre filveiv iSvvaao, rdSos OLKeicov 
yevofievT] Gajj-Larcov /cat TToXefjLOV tov vaov ifi^vXiov 
TTOirjoaaa^ TToXvdvhpiov hvvaio 8' av yevlod ai 
TToXiv dfielvajVy elye TTore tov TTopdijcravTa deov 

20 e^iXdorrj. dXXd KadeKreov yap Kal rd TrdQ-q rco 
vojicp rrjs ypa^T]^,^ (l>s ovk oXo(f}vpiJLajv olKe'njov 6 
Katpog, dXX' d(f)7]yTJa€a)s Trpay^idrcov. SUljjll he 
ra e^rj? epya rrjs ordoecos. 

21 (4) TpiXT] Tcbv eTTL^ovXajv rrj? TToXecos Sirjprj- 
pLei'cov OL fxev Trept tov 'EAea^apov ra? lepds 
anapxas hia(f)vXdGGovTes Kara tov ^Yojdvvov ttjv 
[jLeOrjv e(f)epov, ol Se ovv tovtco hiapTrdt^ovres tovs 
h-qixoras rjyeipovro Kara tov HL]JLa>vos' rjv 8e 
KaKeivcp Tpo(j)-q Kara Tchv avTiGTaaiaaTcov tj 

22 TToXis. OTTore fiev ovv dii(j)OTep(x>Bev einxeipolTOy 
TOVS GvvovTas 6 IcodvvTjs dvreoTpe^e, /cat tovs 
fxev e/c TTJs TToXecos dvcovras aTTO twv gtocov 
^dXXojv, TOVS S' aTTO TOV lepov /cara/covrt^ovra? 

23 TjfivveTO Tols opydvoLS' el 8' eXevdepcodeit) noTe 
Tcbv Kadv—epdev eTTiKeijievajv , htaveTiave 8' avTOVS 
TToXXdKLS fxedrj [re] /cat KdfiaTos, dheeoTepov tols 

24 TTepL TOV Hifxajva fierd TrXeiovcov eTre^edeev. aet 

8' €(/)' OGOV TpeijjaiTO TTJS TToXeojs VTreTTLpLTTpa Tas 

^ TTvpl Kadapovvres Lat. {Trvpl Kadaipovres L Exc), rf. iv. 
323: TrepLKadaipovvTes (Trept Ka6.) the rest. 

^ Hudson (constitueras Lat.): TXrjaaaa mss. 
* (Tvyypa(prjs 'SIX RC. 

" Cf. Baruch iv. 18-21: "For he that brought these 
plagues upon you will deliver you from the hand of your 
enemies. . . . Cry unto God and he shall deliver you." 
Josephus would have countenanced the plea for penitence 

206 



JEWISH WAR, V. 19-24 

purge with fire thy internal pollutions ? For thou 
wert no longer God's place, nor couldest thou survive, 
after becoming a sepulchre for the bodies of thine 
own children and converting the sanctuary into a 
charnel-house of civil Mar. Yet might there be hopes 
for an amehoration of thy lot, if ever thou wouldst 
propitiate that God who devastated thee ! ° How- 
ever, the laws of history compel one to restrain even 
one's emotions, since this is not the place for personal 
lamentations but for a narrative of events.^ I there- 
fore proceed to relate the after history of the 
sedition. 

(4; The conspirators against the city being now The civil 
divided into three camps, Eleazar's party, having the thTwajFfor" 
keeping of the sacred first-fruits, directed their famine. 
drunken fury against John ; the latter with his 
associates plundered the townsfolk and WTcaked their 
rage upon Simon ; while Simon also to meet the rival 
factions looked to the city for supplies. Whenever 
John found himself attacked on both sides, he would 
face his men about in opposite directions, on the one 
hand hurhng missiles from the porticoes upon those 
coming up from the town, on the other repelling with 
his engines those who were pouring their javelins 
upon him from the temple ; but if ever he Mere 
reheved from pressure from above — and intoxication 
and fatigue often produced a cessation of this fire — 
he would sally out with more confidence and in 
greater strength against Simon. And, to M'hatever 
part of the city he turned his steps, his invariable 

in the former portion of that book, but not the vindictive 
spirit which appears in the latter part (written after a.d. 70), 
and which ultimately led to the fierce outbreaks under 
Trajan and Hadrian. 

"' Cf. the proem to B.J. i. 1 1 f. 

207 



JOSEPHUS 

otActa? GLTov fiearas Kal TravroSaTTCov iTTLTrjbeLCxjv 
TO 8 avTO rraXw VTTo-x^copovvros Ittlojv 6 2t/xcuv 
€7TpaTT€v, ojGTrep i77LTrjd€? 'PcxJfiaLOL? hia(^6eLpovres 
a TrapeGKevdaaro rrpos TToXiopKiav t] ttoXls, Kai 
ra vevpa rrjs avrojv VTroKorrrovres hwafxecog. 

25 Gvve^-q yovv ra [>tev] rrepl ro lepov Trdvra ctu/x- 
<j>\eyrivai Kal /i€Tat;^/xtov ip-qfjila? yeveGdau rrapa- 
rd^ecos otVeta? riqv noXiv, KaraKarjvat Se ttXtji' 
oXiyov Trdvra rov Glrov, 0£ av avroZs ovk ctt* 

26 oXiya BtijpKeGev errj rroXLopKovpiivoLs • Ai/xo) yovv 
idXojGav, orrep^ rjKLGra hvvarov rjv, et jxr) rovrov 
avrolg rrporrapeGKevaGav. 

27 (5) Ilavra)(69ev Se r-fj? TroAeoj? TToXepLOVixivrfS 
xmo rcov eTnj^ovXojv Kal GvyKXvhojv fi€Go? 6 

28 8i]po5 ajGrrep p.eya Gcofia hieGTrapdGGero . y-qpatol 
8e Kal yvvalKeg vtt* dpLrjxavia? rujv etao) KaKow]'^ 
Tjvx^ovro Pco/iatof?^ /cat rov e^coBev noXepLov eir 

29 eXevOepca row €lgoj KaKwv CKapaSoKovv. Kard- 
ttXtj^l? 8e bewTj Kal Sea? tjv rolg yvrjGLOi?, Kal 
ovre ^ovXrjg Kaipos et? p.era^oXrjv ovre GvpL^doeajg 

30 iXTTLS ovre (f)vyrjg* rots edeXovotv icjipovpelro yap 
Trdvra, /cat ra Aot77a oraoidtovres ol dp)(LXr](jraL 
rov? eLpTjVLKa ^Pajp-alocs (f)povovvras rj Trpog 
avropLoXtav VTTorrrovs ojs kolvovs TToXep-iovs dv- 
rjpovv Kal pLOVov ojpLOVoovv ro (j)Oveveiv rov? crcori^- 

31 pta? d^LOvg. Kal ro)v pikv pLaxopievwv d^taAetTrros" 
"^v Kpavyrj pLed^ rjpLepav re /cat vvKrcop, Setvorepoi 

32 he OL rcov Trevdovvrcov oSvppiOL Seet.^ /cat Bprjvojv 

^ wairep PAL: qua Lat. : whence t^rrep Destinon. 

* Perhaps accidentally repeated from below. 

' Destinon : 'Pw^wttou ms3. 

208 



JEWISH WAR, V. 24-32 

practice was to set light to the buildings stocked with 
corn and all kinds of provisions, and upon his retreat 
Simon advanced and did the same ; as though they 
were purposely serving the Romans by destroying 
what the city had provided against a siege and sever- 
ing the sinews of their own strength. At all events 
the result was that all the environs of the temple 
were reduced to ashes, the city was converted into a 
desolate no man's land for their domestic warfare, 
and almost all the corn, which might have sufficed 
them for many years of siege, was burnt up. Through 
famine certainly the city fell, a fate which would 
have been practically impossible, had they not pre- 
pared the way for it themselves. 

(5) The city being now on all sides beset by these Miseries 
battling conspirators and their rabble, between them populace. 
the people, like some huge carcase, was torn in 
pieces. Old men and women in their helplessness 
prayed for the coming of the Romans and eagerly 
looked for the external war to hberate them from 
their internal miseries. Loyal citizens, for their 
part, were in dire despondency and alarm, having no 
opportunity for planning any change of policy, no 
hope of coming to terms or of flight, if they had the 
will ; for watch was kept everywhere, and the brigand 
chiefs, divided on all else, put to death as their 
common enemies any in favour of peace with the 
Romans or suspected of an intention to desert, and 
were unanimous only in slaughtering those deserving 
of deliverance. The shouts of the combatants rang 
incessantly by day and night, but yet more harrow- 
ing were the mourners' terrified lamentations. Their 



LC Exc. Lat, : (pvyrj the rest. 
' PAM Lat. : del the rest. 



209 



JOSEPHUS 

fikv atrta? €7TaXXrjXov? at crufi(f)opal 7TpoG€(f>€pov ^ 
rag 8' oljJLOjyag iveKXeiev rj KardTrXrj^Lg avrcJov, 
(f)LiJLOVii€VOL he rd ye Trdd-q ro) (fio^co fiefivKocn 

33 roLS crrevayfioXs i^aGavLiC,ovro. /cat ovt€ irpog 
rov£ ^covrag -qv alhojs Irt rot? Trpoor^KOVGLV ovre 
TTpovoia TOJv aTToXcoXorajv raSij?. airiov 8 a/x^o- 
repcov Tj Kad^ eavrov aTToyvojGLs eKdorov Trapelaav 
yap ets" rrdvTa rds TrpodvfiLag ol fJLTj GTaGidt,ovres 

34 CO? aTToXovpievoi TrdvTUJs ogov ovSeTTOj. Trarovvres 
hrj rovs veKpovs eV dXXriXois GeGojpevfievovg ol 
GTaGiaGTal GwerrXeKOVTO koI ttjv aTTOVoiav ' aTToY 
TOJV ev 7T0GL TTTOjpidrojv GTTcovreg TjGav aypiajrepoi. 

35 TTpoGe^evpiGKOvres 8' det rt KaB avrojv oXedpiOV 
Kai ndv TO hoy^dkv dc^eihajs Bpa)VT€£ ovhepLiav out 

36 aiKLag ohov ovte wiioTrjTOS TrapiXenrov . d/xe'Aet 

lojdvVTjS TTjV lepdv vXtjV et? TToXejJLLGTTJpLOJV KaTa- 

GKevTjP opydvcov aTTexptlGaTO' So^av ydp ttote tw 
Aaa> Kal toI? dpx^epevGiv VTTOGT-qpi^avTas tov 
vaov eiKOGL 77rj)(^€ig TrpoGvijjojGai, /cardyet /xev drro 
TOV Ai^dvov [xeyiGTOLg dvaXojp.aGL Kal ttovols 
T7]v XPV^'-P'O'^ vXrjv 6 ^aGiXevs WypLTr-rra?, ^vXa 
dias dfia Tiqv t€ evOvTTjTa Kal to fieyedog- 

37 pLeGoXa^rjGavTos he tov TToXepLOV to epyov ^lajdwr^g 
reixojv avTo. TTvpyovs KaTeGKevaGev, e^apKovv 
ro firJKog evpojv Trpog tovs arro tov KaOvrrepdev 

38 lepov pia-x_op.evovs, Igty^gl re TrpoGayayojv KaTOTTiv 
TOV rrepi^oXov ttj? Trpog Svglv e^edpag dvTLKpvs, 

^ ova. PA : so Destinon, reading awbirvoLav for dirovoiay, 
•' sniffing the exhalations from," etc. 

210 



JEWISH WAR, V. 32-38 

calamities provided, indeed, perpetual cause for grief, 
but consternation locked their wailings within their 
breasts, and while fear suppressed all outward emo- 
tion they were tortured with stifled groans. No 
regard for the hving was any longer paid by their 
relations, no thought was taken for the burial of the 
dead — negligences both due to personal despair ; 
for those who took no part in sedition lost interest in 
everything, momentarily expecting certain destruc- 
tion. The rival parties, meanwhile, were at grips, 
tramphng over the dead bodies that were piled upon 
each other, the frenzy inhaled from the corpses at 
their feet increasing their savagery ; and ever in- 
venting some new instrument of mutual destruction 
and unsparingly putting every plan into practice, 
they left untried no method of outrage or brutality. 
Indeed John actually misappropriated the sacred John cfn 
timber for the construction of engines of war. For ^^[^t^rv 
the people and the chief priests ha\'ing decided in towers from 
the past to underpin the sanctuary and to raise it timber. 
twenty cubits higher, King Agrippa^ had, at immense 
labour and expense, brought down from Mount 
Libanus the materials for that purpose, beams that 
for straightness and size were a sight to see. But 
the war having interrupted the work, John, finding 
them long enough to reach his assailants on the 
temple above, had them cut and made into towers, 
which he then brought up and placed in the rear of 
the inner court, opposite the western hall,^ where 

* Agrippa II. 

* Or " recess," opening from the portico surrounding the 
va6s, in the middle of the west wall of the inner court ; the 
translation " gate-room " (Hastings, D.B. s.v. " Temple ") 
is unsuitable, because there was no gate at this point (v. 200). 

211 



JOSEPHUS 

fJTrep Kal jJLovr) Svvarov rjv, tojv dX\a)V fJLcpcbv 
^adjJLOLs TToppcoOev hieiXrjpievajv. 

39 (6) Kat o juev roZs KaraGKevaodeiaiv i^ due- 
^€Las opydvoig Kpar'qaeLv TJXTrLcre rcbv ixOpcJ^v, 6 8c 
Oeos dxprjcrrov avrco rov ttovov direSeL^e rrpiv 
iTTLUTrJGaL TLva TOJV TTvpyojv 'Pcu/xatous- errayaycov . 

40 6 yap hrj Ttros" ineLhrj rd fiev ovvrjyaye rrjs 
hvvdpLecos TTpos avroVy rols S CTrt 'lepocroAu/xcDV 
crvvavrdv eTnureiXas^ e^rjXavve rrj? Katcrapetas'. 

41 rjy Sc rpta fjiev ra Trporepov avrov rep Trarpi 
(jvvSrjcocravTa ttjv 'lovSalav rdyp^ara Kal ro TrdXai 
ovv Ys.eGTL(jp TTTaiGav hojheKarov , oirep Kal dXXcos 
eTTLG-qp^ov St' dvSpelav vndpxov rore Kard p,vr]pLrjv 

42 Sv €7Ta6ev et? dp^vvav -fjet Trpodvporepov. rovrajv 
fjLev ovv TO TTepiTTTOV St A/x^aaou? eKeXevGev avrcp 
Gvvavrdv Kal Sta *Iept;)(Oi}yros" to SeVarov dva- 
^alveiv, avTos S' dve^ev^e p,€Td twv Xolttcov, 
TTpos ot? at re tojv ^aoiXeajv Gvp.p.axiai ttoXv^ 
nXelovs Kal gvx^oI tojv drro ttjs Supia? €7tl- 

43 KOvpoL GvvrjXdov. dveTrXrjpcodr] Se Kal tojv t€G- 
Gapojv TayiidTOJV ogov OveGiraGiavos eVtAe^a? 
MouKtavo) Gvv€7T€pnp€v ctV 'IraAtav €K tojv eVeA- 

44 dovTOjv /Ltera Tltov. Sta;\;tAtot pikv ydp avTO) twv 
drr^ 'AAe^avSpeta? GTpaTevpidTOJV eVtAc/CTOt, TpiG- 

X^XlOL he GVV€LTTOVTO TOJV aTT* ^V(j)pdTOV (f)vXdKOJV. 

45 (^iXojv Se SoAct/xcoraros' evvoidv re /<:at gvv€glv 
Tt^Septos" 'AAe^avSpo?, TTpoTepov p,ev avTols ttjv 

46 AtyyTTTOv hii-ojv, tote Se rcoy crrpareu/xaTcoy 

^ L: €7re(7TeL\€v {iw^a-TeWev) the rest. 
* P : TrdXix' A : TrdXai L (? ^ TrdXat Lat.) : Tracrai the rest. 

212 



JEWISH WAR, V. 38-46 

alone this was practicable, the other sides being cut 
off from approach by flights of steps. 

(6) With the aid of the engines thus impiously con- Titus, with 
structed John hoped to master his foes, but God advanc^es °^' 
rendered his labour vain by brinffinff the Romans upon "p°" , 

- .J, 1 1 1 , . 1 Jerusalem. 

the scene beiore ne nad set a single man upon 
his towers. For Titus, haying assembled part of his 
forces at headquarters and sent orders to the rest to 
join him at Jerusalem, was now on the march from 
Caesarea. He had the three legions ° which under 
his father had previously ravaged Judaea, and the 
twelfth which under Cestius had once been defeated; * 
this legion, bearing a general reputation for valour, "^ 
now, with the recollection of what it had suffered, 
advanced with the greater alacrity for revenge. Of 
these he directed the fifth to join him by the Emmaus 
route and the tenth to ascend by way of Jericho ; 
while he himself set out with the others, being further 
attended by the contingents from the allied kings, 
in greatly increased strength, and by a consider- 
able body of Syrian auxiliaries. The gaps in the four 
legions caused by the drafts which \"espasian had 
sent with Mucianus to Italy*' were filled by the new 
troops brought up by Titus. For two thousand picked 
men from the armies at Alexandria and three 
thousand guards from the Euphrates accompanied 
him. With these was the most tried of all his 
friends for loyalty and sagacity, Tiberius Alexander,** 
hitherto in charge of Egypt in the interests of Titus 
and his father, and now deemed worthy to take 

«• V, X, and XV, B. iii. 65. 
" ii. 500-555. « iv. 632. 

•* For the diversified career of this distinguished Alex- 
andrian Jew see ii. 220 note. 

213 



JOSEPHUS 

dpx^t'V^ Kpid^LS d^Lo? i^ (jjv eSe^Loxjaro Trpcorog 
iyeLpoiievqv dpri rr^v -qyepLOVcav Kai fxerd TTLcrreajg 
XapLTrpd? i^ dh-qXov^ rfj rv^l] TrpoaiderOy Gvp.^ov- 
\6s ye p-rjv rat? rod TToXejJLOv xpelais, rjXiKLq. re 
TTpovxojv Kat Kar ipLTreipiav, €L7T€T0. 

47 (ii. l) UpoLOVTL Se els rrjv TToXefilav Tltoj 
TTporjyov fiev ol ^auiXiKol kol ttolv to avpLjiaxiKov, 
e<f) olg 0007T0L0L Kau fierpriTal GrparoTreSajv, 
eireira rd tow -qyepLovajv GKevo(f)6pa Kal p^erd rovs 
TOVTOJV oTrXtras avros ro-us re dXXovs emXeKTOvg 
Kal TOV£ Xoyxo(p6pov£ e)(0jv, KaroTTiv S avro) 

•^8 rod rdyp,aros to lttttlkov ovtol he Trpo rtov 
pnq'^avripdTOJV , Karr eKeivoi? per emXeKrcov X'-^^' 
oLpXot- Kol GTretpajv eirapxoi, pLerd he rovrovg 
TTepL rov aterov at crqpaxai, Kat epTrpoadev ol 
uaXmyKrai rojv GTjpiaicbv , e-TTL he roijroLg tj (j)dXay^ 

40 ro arl<hos elg e^ rrXarvvaua. ro S' olKeriKOV 
eKaurov rayparos ottlgoj Kat rrpo rovrojv rd 
GKevo4>6pa, reXevraloL he Trdvrcov ol pllgOlol kol 

50 rovrojv (h'uXaKes ovpayoi. TTpodycuv he rrjv hvvapLLV 
ev KOGpoj, Kadd 'PajpLaloLs GvvTjdes, ep^dXXei hid 
rrjg ^apapeinhos els Fo^va KareLXrjpLpievrjv re 
TTporepov VTTo rov rrarpos Kal rore ^povpovp,evr]V' 

51 evQa pLLav eGTrepav^ avXiGapevos vtto rrjv ea> 
TTpoeLGLy Kat, hiavuGas rjpepas GraOpLov Grparo- 
TTeheveraL Kard rov vtto 'louSatcuv Trarpiojs 

A.Kav6cx)v avXojva KaXovp.evoi' Trpos nvL Kojpir} 

^ Hudson with Lat. : a.px<^v mss. (om. M). 

' It' dSTjXoj Xiese : eV ahrfKii) irf. vii. 104-) is possible. 

^ LC Lat. : iriyApav the rest. 

214 



JEWISH WAR, V. 46-01 

command of these armies, because he had been the 
first to welcome the dynasty just arising and with 
splendid faith had attached himself to its fortunes 
while they were still uncertain. Pre-eminent more- 
over, through years and experience, as a counsellor 
in the exigencies of war, he now accompanied Titus. 

(ii. 1) As Titus advanced ° into enemy territory, order cf 
his vanguard consisted of the contingents of the Q^\b™^ 
kings with the whole body of auxiharies. Next to march to 
these were the pioneers and camp-measurers, then ^ ^^ 
the officers' baggage-train ; behind the troops pro- 
tecting these came the commander-in-chief, escorted 
by the lancers and other picked troops, and followed 
by the legionary cavalry. These were succeeded by 
the engines, and these by the tribunes and prefects 
of cohorts M'ith a picked escort ; after them and 
surrounding the eagle ^ came the ensigns preceded 
by their trumpeters, and behind them the solid 
column, six abreast. The servants attached to each 
legion followed in a body, preceded by the baggage- 
train. Last of all came the mercenaries with a rear- 
guard to keep watch on them. Leading his army 
forward in this orderly array, according to Roman 
usage, Titus advanced through Samaria to Gophna,* 
pre\-iously captured by his father and now garrisoned. 
After resting here one night he set forward at dawn, 
and at the end of a full day's march encamped in the 
valley which is called by the Jews in their native 
tongue " Valley of thorns," close to a village named 

* The following description should be compared with that 
of Vespasian's army on the march into Galilee, iii. 115-156. 

» Cf. iii. 123. 

« Jufna^ some 13 miles N. of Jerusalem ; for Vespasian's 
capture of the " toparchy " of Gophna see iv. 551., 

215 



JOSEPHUS 

Ta^ad SaouA Xeyofievr^, G-qjiaivei hk rovro Xo^ov 
SaouAou, 8te;)^ajv o-tto tcov ' lepoaoXv fxajv ogov dno 

52 rpLOLKovTa crraStcuv. dvaXa^ojv 8* ivrevdev ogov 
els i^aKooiovs tcov eTnXeKTOJV LTTTrecxjv rjei rrjv re 

TToXlV 7T€pLGK€lp6lJL€VOS, OTTCJ? 6xvp6Tr]TO£ ^X^^^ 

Kal TO. <f)poinjpLara rojv 'louSatcov, el Trpos rrjv 
oipLP avrov rrplv els x^^P^^ eXBeZv VTroheiGavres 

53 evholev TrenvGro^ 7^9* orrep rjv dX-qdes, roXs 
GTaGLojheGL Kal XrjGrpLKols rov hrjixov vrroTTeTTrrj- 
Xora TToSelv [lev elprjirqv, aGdeveGrepov he ovra 
rrjg enavaGTaGecDs rjpefieLV. 

54 (2) "EcDS" jJ-ev ovv opdiov LTTTrdt^eTO rrfv Xeaj(f)6pov 
KarareivovGav Trpos to relxos ovSeus Trpov(^a'.veTO 

55 Toyv rrvXa)V, enel S' c/c rijs oBov Trpos tov Wrj(f)Lvov 
TTvpyov dTroKXivas TrXdyiov rjye ro rcov LTTTreajv 
gtI<J)os, TrpoTT-qSrjGavres e^aL(f>vr]s arretpot Kara 
rovs TvvaLKelovs KaXovfievovs Trvpyovs Sta tt^s" 
dvTiKpv TCOV 'EAcVt]? fJLvrjfjLeLOJv TrvXr^s hieKTraiovGi 

56 TT^s" tTTTTOi;, Koi Tovs [lev en Kara rrjv oSov deovras 
dvTLpierojTroL Grdvres eKcoXvGav ovvdipai roZs 
eKKXivaGL, TOV Se Tltov dTrorepLvovrai ovv oXiyois. 

57 TO) he TrpoGoj fiev rjV X'^P^^^ dh-uvarov eKrerd- 
(^pevTO yap diro rod relxovs nepl rds KrjTreias 
aTTavra, tolxols^ re eTTLKapGLOis Kal ttoXXols epKeGt 

58 hLeLX-qpLjieva' rrjv he Trpos rovs Gcj^erepovs dvahpojJLTjV 
TrXijdeL tCjv ev fieGO) TToXep^lcov a/x7];)^avov eojpa 

* Hudson with Lat. and one ms. : -n-eireia-To the rest. 
* PA : KTiTTois the rest. 

" Gibeah of (/.^. birthplace of) Saul, 1 Sam. xi. 4, identified 
with Tell el-Fxd, about 4 miles X. of Jerusalem. The 
" valley of thorns " ma}' be a branch of the Wady Snxceinit 
(=" valley of the little acacias"); the maio valley so 

216 



JEWISH WAR, V. 51-58 

Gabath Saul,'* which means " Saul's hill," at a 
distance of about thirty furlongs from Jerusalem. 
From here, -with some six hundred picked horsemen, Titus daring 
he rode forward to reconnoitre the city's strength sance of" 
and to test the mettle of the Jews, whether, on seeing Jerusalem 
him, they would be terrified into surrender before 
any actual conflict ; for he had learnt, as indeed was '\ 
the fact, that the people were longing for peace, but / 
were overawed by the insurgents and brigands and ' 
remained quiet merely from inabihty to resist. 

(2) So long as he rode straight along the high road '^ '^"v;°T.f 
leading direct to the wall,^ no one appeared outside iiapeiiiied. 
the gates ; but M'hen he diverged from the route and 
led his troop of horse in an oblique hne towards the 
tower Psephinus,'' the Jews suddenly dashed out in 
immense numbers at a spot called " the W^omen's 
towers," through the gate facing Helena's ^ monu- 
ments, broke through the cavalry, and placing them- 
selves in front of those who were still galloping along 
the road, prevented them from joining their conn-ades 
who had left it, thus cutting off Titus with a handful 
of men. For him to proceed was impossible, because 
the ground outside the ramparts was all cut up by 
trenches for gardening purposes and intersected by 
cross walls and numerous fences ; while to rejoin 
his o\\Ti men was, he saw, impracticable owing to the 
intervening masses of the enemy and the retirement 

named, however, runs to the E. and N. of Gibeah of Saul 
(through another Gibeah or Geba, which cannot here be 
intended). 

*" Probably towards the present Damascus gate. 

* At the X.W. angle of the third wall, v. 159. 

^ Queen of Adiabene and a convert to Judaism, A. xx. 
17 ff. Her tomb is mentioned as a landmark in B. v. 119, 
147, and her palace in v. 253. 

217 



JOSEPHUS 

Kal rpaTTevrag rovs ava ttjv Acco^opov, ajv ol 
TToXXol fi-qde yivojGKovTes tov rod ^aGiXeojs 
KLvhvvoVy dAA' olojJLevoL (TvvavaarpacjirjvaL KOLKelvov 

59 dve(f)€vyov . 6 Se KanSajv d>g ev fiovr] rfj Kad^ 
avrov olXk-tj KeiraL to GOjteGOai rov re Ittttov 
eVtcrTpe</)et kol rols nepl avrov e/x^OT]cra? eTTecrOat 
jjLeGOLS efJLTT-qha rols TToXepaoig , SteACTratcrat rrpos 

60 Tovs Gcberepovs ^ia^ofievos. evda St) fiaXuGTa 
TTapeGrif voeZv, on Kat TToXepLOjv porral Kal 

61 ^aGiXeojv KLvhvvoi pLeXovrai Oeo)' togovtcov yap 
irrl Tov Tltov ac^LepLevcov ^eXcov p-T^re Kpdvos 
cxovra p,rjTe OwpaKa, TrporjXde yap cus" ec^rjv ov 
TToXepLLGTTjg aAAa KaraGKorro?, ovdev 7]ipaTO tov 
GojjiaTOSy KEvd 8' wGrrep eTTLT-qSes aGToxovvrcov 

62 7Tap€ppoil,eLTO rravra. 6^ Se ft^ft tovs Kara 
TrXevpov del hiaGTeXXwv Kal ttoXXov? tcov avri- 
TTpoGcoTTOJV dvarpeTTCDV TjXavvev vrrep Tovg cpeLno- 

63 pLevovs TOV Ittttov. tojv Se Kpavyq re tjv rrpos 
TO TTapdGTr]p.a tov Katcrapos" Kac TTapaKeXevGis 
oppidv eV avTov, (l)vyrj Se /cat ^^copta/xo?^ dOpovs 

64 Kad^ ovg eTTeXavvojv yevoLTO. gvvtjtttov S' ol tov 
KLvhvvov pu€Te)(ovT€s Kard viOTa Kal Kara TrXevpdv 
waa6pL€vof fjila yap iXTrls -qv aojTiqpLag eKaGTco 

TO GVV€^aVVT€LV* TO) T LTCp \ Kai'] pLT] (f)ddGaVTa 

65 KVKXojdrjvaL. Suo yovv tojv aTTOjrepoj^ tov piev 

GVV TO) LTTTTCp TT€pLGXO^T€£ KaTTjKOVTLGaV , 6dT€pOV 

8e KaraTTTj^-qGavTa hia<^6€ipavT€s tov Ittttov dTT- 
riyayov, p-erd Se rcov Xolttcjv Ttro? errt to OTpaTO- 

66 77eSoy Siacroj^erat. toZs p,ev ovv 'lofSatot? rrXeo- 
veKTrjGaai. Kara ttjv TrpaJT-qv eTndeaLV eTnqyetpe 

218 



JEWISH WAR, V. 58-66 

of his comrades on the highway, most of whom, 
unaware of the prince's peril and beHeving that he 
too had turned simultaneously, were in full retreat. 
Perceiying that his safety depended solely on his 
personal prowess, he turned his horse's head and 
shouting to his companions to follow dashed into 
the enemy's midst, struggling to cut his way through 
to his own party. Then, more than eyer, might the 
reflection arise that the hazards of war and the perils 
of princes are under God's care ; for, of all that hail 
of arrows discharged at Titus, who wore neither 
helmet nor cuirass — for he had gone forward, as I 
said, not to fight, but to reconnoitre — not one 
touched his person, but, as if his assailants purposely 
missed their mark, all whizzed harmless by. He, 
meanwhile, with his sword constantly dispersing 
those on his flank and prostrating multitudes who 
withstood him to the face, rode his horse oyer his 
fallen foes. At Caesar's intrepidity the Jews shouted 
and cheered each other on against him, but wherever 
he turned his horse there was flight and a general 
stampede. His comrades in danger closed up to 
him, riddled in rear and flank ; for each man's 
one hope of escape lay in pushing through with 
Titus before he was cut off. Two, in fact, further 
behind, thus fell : one with his horse was surrounded 
and speared, the other who dismounted was killed 
and his steed led off to the city ; Avith the remainder 
Titus safely reached the camp. The Jews thus 
successful in their first onset were elated with in- 

^ After Lat. (jootuit) : irapian L : irdpecrrl fxoL PA : TrapiaTT] 
fjLOL the rest. 

* P : T(p the rest. ' PAM : Oiaxi^pi-crfjibs the rest. 

* L : avve^apoiyeiv the rest. * drof ct»Tepwv L Lat. 

VOL. Ill H 219 



JOSEPHUS 

TCL? SiavoLag aaKenros iXTrls, Kal ttoXv ddpaos 
avTols ets" TO /xeAAov [t^] TrpoGKaipos porrrj Trpov- 

67 (3) Katcrap 8 d>? avrco GvvejjLi^e 8ta vukto^ 
TO aTTO T7]S" A/x/xaoi}? rdyfxa, jJLed^ rjixepav eKeWev 
apas IttI tov ^kottov KaXovjievov TTpoetGiv,^ 
€v6ev '^ T€ TToXis rjSr] Kar€(l)aiV€TO Kal to tou 
vaov fieyedo? eKXa/jLTTOv, Kadd rep ^opelco /cAi/xaTt 
TT^g TToXecog -xdapiaXos avvdrrTajv 6 \ojpos irvpLcog 

68 S/coTTOs" djvopLaaraL. rrjs Se TToAecDS" orahiovs 
CTTTO, Sie;)(cuv eKeXevae TrepL^aXeaOai arpaTOTreSov 
Tols hvo rdypaoLv opiov, to 8e jrepLTrrov rovrcov 
OTTLGO) rpLGL GTahloLg' KOTTOJ ydp rrj£ 8ta vvktos 
TTopeias rerpip^pievovs^ ihoKei GK€7Tr]s d^Lovs etvat, 

69 COS" dv dh€€GT€pOV T€L)(LGaiVTO. KaTapXOpi€VCjDV 8* 

dpn rrjs SopLiJGeojs Kal to hcKarov rdypLa 8td 
'Iept;(o{'VTOS" t^'St] TraprjVy evda KaOrJGTO ns OTrXinKr] 
piolpa ^povpovGa rrjv ipL^oXrjv vtto O-ueGiraGLavov 

70 TTpoKareiX-qppievqv . TrpoGerlraKTO 8' avroZs e^ 
dTTexovra? rcov 'lepoGoXvfjLOJV GraStovs Grparo- 
TTehevGaGOai Kard to 'EAatcuv KaXovpL€VOV opos, 
o rfj TToAet Tjpog dvaroX-qp avTLKeirai p^€Grj (f)apayyi 
^adcla Steipyopevov, t] Ke8pcov (hvopaGrat. 

71 (4) Ta>v 8' ava to aGrv Gvpp-qyvvpLevojv dSta- 
XeLTrrco? rore Trpcorov dviiravGev ttjv err dXXrjXoi^ 
epiv 6 e^ojdev TToXepos i^aL(f)vrjs TToXvg iireXdajv 

^ TrpoeicTLP Bekker : 7rp6aet<ni> mss. ^ reTpvfi^povs Niese. 

" The phrase ddpaos irpov^evei comes from Soph. Track. 726. 

^ Legion V, § 43. 

'^ ^■.^. " Look-out man " (" look-out place "= Scopia) ; the 
Semitic name was Saphein (c/. Mizpah, "look-out place ") 
according to A. xi. 329. Here Cestius, with the 12th legion, 

220 



JEWISH WAR, V. 66-71 

considerate hopes, and this transient turn of fortune 
afforded them high confidence" as to the future. 

(3) Caesar, being joined during the night by the He encamps 
legion ^ from Emmaus, next day broke up his camp scopus witt 
and advanced to Scopus, as the place is called from fi^ree 
which was obtained the first view of the city and the 

grand pile of the temple gleaming afar ; whence the 
spot, a low prominence adjoining the northern 
quarter of the city, is appropriately named Scopus/ 
Here, at a distance of seven furlongs from the city, 
Titus ordered one combined camp to be formed for 
two of the legions ,<^ and the fifth to be stationed 
three furlongs in their rear ; considering that men 
worn out with the fatigue of a night's march deserved 
to be screened from molestation while throwing up 
their entrenchments. Scarcely had they begun Legion x 
operations when the tenth legion also arrived, having Mt.^^^^ °° 
come by way of Jericho,* where a party of soldiers Olives. 
had been posted to guard the pass formerly taken by 
Vespasian.'^ These troops had orders to encamp at a 
distance of six furlongs from Jerusalem at the mount 
called the Mount of Olives, M'hich lies over against 
the city on the east, being separated from it by a deep 
intervening ra\ane called Kedron. 

(4) And now for the first time the mutual dissension The faction 
of the factions within the town, hitherto incessantly ^'^ ' 
at strife, was checked by the war from without 
suddenly bursting in full force upon them. The 

had encamped four years before, B. ii. 528, 54^2 ; here, too» 
Alexander the Great on his approach to the city was met by *^ 
the high priest and people of Jerusalem, A. loc. cit. 

^ XII and XV, §§ 41 f. 

« Cf, § 42. 

^ Vespasian had established a camp with a permanent 
garrison at Jericho, iv. 486 {cf. 450). 

221 



JOSEPHUS 

72 Kal ficr* eKTrX-q^eaJS ol aracnaGral tovs *Pco/xaious" 
dcpopwvTeg GrparoneZevoiievovs TpLxrj KaKrj? ofio- 
volas Karrjpxovro Kal Xoyov dAA?^Aots" ehiboaav, 

73 TL jJLevoLev tj ri Tradovre? dvexotvro rpia rat? 
dvarrvoaZ'S avrajv eVtc^pacrcro/Lteva tclxtj, Kai rov 
TToXefJLLOV^ fier^ aSeta? avriTroXl^ovro? eavrov, ol 
8' wcjTTep dearal KaXcov /cat (JVii(f)opcov epyojv 
Kadetoivro TeiX'rjp^.is , toj X^^P^ '^°^^ "^^^ TTavoTrXia? 

74 TTapevres ; " KaO avTcov dpa yevvaloL fioifov 
rjfi€LS, egepo-qaav, rcojJLaioi o €K Trjg rjfierepag 

"^5 CTTaCTecos" KephrjoovGLv dvaipaoTL rr]V ttoXiv ; rov- 
Tois dOpoltovTe? dXXrjXovg TrapeKporovv, Kai rag 
TTavoTrXias dpTrdaavreg at^ytSio)? eTTeKOeovai rev 
SeKarcp rdyfian Kal 8ta rrj? (f)dpayyo£ a^avreg 
[lerd Kpavyijg i^aicnov Tet;(t^o/i,eyots' ttpogttltttovgl 

76 rots' TToXefjLLOL?. ol he rrpog to epyov hirjp-qixivoi 
Kal Sta TOVTO rd 77oAAa reOeiKore? rcov oTrXajv, 
ovT€ yap dapprjOELV' rovs ^lovSalovg Trpos €K- 
SpofJLT^v VTTeXdji^avov Kai TTpodvpLovp-evcjov Tiepi- 
GTTaodrjoeadaL rds opjjidg rfj ardcreL, avverapd^O'T}- 

77 oav dhoKTiTOJS, Kal rcov epycov dcfyepLevoL nveg 
p.€v avexcopovv evueojg, ttoAAol o €7Tl ra oirAa 
deovres Trplv eTnor pac^rjvai Trpos rovs ixOpovs 

78 €(f)ddvovTo^ Traiofievoi. Trpoueyivovro Se rot? lou- 
haioLs del TrXeuovs, errl rw KpareZv rovs Trpojrovs 
redapprjKores, Kal rcov ovrcov TToXXarrXaGLOvs 
iSoKovv GcjiLGL re Kal rols TzoAe/xtot? Se^ta XP^' 

79 fievoL rfj rvxf)- fidXiGra Se rovs ev edet Gvvra^eojs 
ovras Kal p-erd KOGpLov Kal TrapayyeXfidrcov 

^ M : TToXefxov the rest. 

' L Lat. : dapaelv the rest. 

' LC Lat. : i(povevovTo the rest. 

222 



JEWISH WAR, V. 72-79 

rival parties, beholding with dismay the Romans 
forming three several encampments, started a sorry 
alhance and began to ask each other what they were 
waiting for, or what possessed them to let themselves 
be choked by the erection of three fortifications ; the 
enemy unmolested was building himself a rival city, 
while they sat behind their ramparts, hke spectators 
of excellent and expedient operations, with hands 
and weapons idle ! "Is then," they exclaimed, 
** our valour to be displayed only against ourselves, 
while the Romans, through our party strife, make a 
bloodless conquest of the city ? " Stimulating each ^aiiy out 
other ^\'ith such language and uniting forces, they tenth legion 
seized their weapons, dashed out suddenly against 
the tenth legion, and racing across the ravine >\ith a 
terrific shout, fell upon the enemy while engaged 
upon his fortifications. The latter to faciUtate their 
work were in scattered groups and to this end had 
laid aside most of their arms ; for they imagined 
that the Jews would never venture upon a sally or 
that, if moved to do so, their energies would be dis- 
sipated by their dissensions. They were therefore 
taken by surprise and thrown into disorder. Aband- 
oning their work, some instantly retreated, while 
many rushing for their arms were struck down before 
they could round upon the foe. The Jews mean- 
while were continually being reinforced by others 
who were encouraged by the success of the first 
party, and with fortune favouring them seemed both 
to themselves and to the enemy far in excess of their 
actual numbers. Moreover, men habituated to 
disciphne and proficient in fighting in ordered ranks 
and by word of command, when suddenly confronted 

223 



JOSEPHUS 

TToXefielv eiSoras" ara^la ^^aaacra dopvBel. 8io 
Kal Tore 7TpoXrj(l)d€vres ol Poj/xatot rats' ifJi^oXatg 

80 €LK0V. Kal OTTore fikv eTTtcrrpa^eiev ot /caraAa/x- 
^avofjLCvoL, rod re Spofiov rovg lovhatovs i7T€'L)(ov 
/cat 8ta rr^v opfiriv fjrrov (jivXarroiievovs erlrpaxiKov, 
aet Se TrX-qdvovcrrj^ rrjg eKbpofMrjs pLoXXov rapar- 
TOfjievoL reXevTOLov arro rod arparoTreSov rpe- 

81 TTOvrai. Kal hoKel Tore av Kivhvvevaai to ray/ia 
TTav, el fJiTj Ttro? dyyeXOev avTO) to-xo? eTre^o-jdr^ae, 
/cat TToXXa oveihiaas els dvavSpiav eTTiGTpe^ei [lev 

82 Tovs (f)evyovTas , a-uTOs 8e TrXaylois toZ? 'louSatot? 
TTpooTTeowv pied (jjv rjKev emXeKTOJv ovxvovs 
pukv dvaipeiy TLTpojUKei Se TrXeiovs, TperreTai Se 

83 rravTas Kal orvvojOeX Kara rrjs (f)dpayyo?. ol 8' ii 
TO) KardvreL ttoAAo, KaKcoOevres, cL? hueceTTeaov, 
dvTLKpvs €7nGTpe<i>ovTaL Kal pLeo-qv e^ovres rrjv 

84 x^pahpav rot? Pco/xatots" SiepLdxovTO. p^^.^pi p^^v 
hf] pLeorqg r]p.epa? ovrujs eTToXepiovv, oXtyov 8' 
arro pLeG-qpL^pias IkkXivovtos '^'817, Ttro? rovs 
p.e9^ avTOV rrpoG^oiqO-qaavTas Kal rovg (xtto tujv 
OTTeipajv Tolg eKrpexovoLV dvTiTrapard^as to Xolttov 
Tayp.a irpos top reixi^crpiov aveTrepLrrev et? r7]v 
dKpojpeiav. 

85 (5) 'Iou8atots' he rovr e8o/cet ^vyr}, Kal rod 
GK07T0V KaraGeiGavros OoipLariov, os avrols €7rt 
rov relxovg KadrJGro, TrpoTTTjbojGL ttXtjOos d/cpat^- 
veGrepov^ pLerd roGavrrjs oppLrjs, d>s rov hp6p.ov 

86 auTcov rot? dypicordrois elKd^eiv d-qploLS. dpLeXet 
rojv dvrLTTaparaxOevrcxJV ovhels epLetvev rrjv avpi- 

* cLKpaLcppearaTOP L (frequentissima Lat.). 
224. 



JEWISH WAR, V. 79-86 

with disorderly warfare, are peculiarly liable to be 
thro^vrl into confusion. Hence on this occasion too, 
the Romans, being taken unawares, gave way to 
repeated assaults. Whenever, indeed, any were 
overtaken and turned upon the foe, they checked the 
Jewish rush and wounded many who in the ardour of 
pursuit were off their guard ; but as more and more 
Jews sallied out from the town, the disorder of the 
Romans increased, until they were finally routed Titus com. 
from the camp. Indeed, in all probabihty, the entire J-gfcuV^^ 
legion would then have been in jeopardy, had not^^peisthe 
Titus, hearing of their position, instantly come to 
their aid. Roundly chiding their cowardice, he rallied 
the fugitives and then falling upon the Jews in flank 
with his band of picked followers, slew many, wounded 
more, routed the whole body and drove them head- 
long down into the ravine. They suffered severely 
on the decli\dty, but having reached the farther 
bank turned to face the Romans and, ^\ith the brook 
between them, renewed the combat. So the battle 
raged till noon ; and then shortly after midday 
Titus, to check further sallies, deployed the rein- 
forcements brought by himself, together with the 
auxiliary cohorts, and dismissed the remainder of 
the legion to the ridge to resume their fortification. 

(5) The Jews, however, mistook this move for Fresh 
flight, and seeing the watchman, whom they had chSge up 
posted on the ramparts, signalhng by shaking his ^^® ^fop^s 
robe, another crowd, perfectly fresh, sprang forth 
with such impetuosity that their rush was comparable 
to that of the most savage of beasts. In fact not one 
of the opposing line awaited their charge, but, as if 

225 



JOSEPHUS 

^oXtjv,^ dAA' wGTTep i^ opydvov 7rato/x€vot hUpprj^av 
rrjv rd^LV kol Trpos to opos rpaTrevres dv€(f)€vyov. 

87 AetTrerat S ev pLecrcp ro) Trpoadvrei Ttros" ^er' 
oXiyojv, Kai TToAAa tojv (f)iXajv TTapaiVovvrojv , ogol 
hi alhoj rqv Trpos tov rjyepLova rod KLvhvvov 

88 Kara(j}povrjGavres earrjaav, et^at OavarcoaLV 'lou- 

SatOtS" Kal p.!) 7TpOKLvhvV€V€lV TOVTCOV, OVS ^XPV^ 

Trpo avTov p,€V€LV, Xap^dv€LV 8e ewoLav ri^s Kad^ 
avrov TV'XTjS kol pLTj GTparLQjTOV rd^LV dTTOTrXrjpovv 
ovra /cat rov TroXepLov Kal ttjs olKovpLCvrjs SeGTTOTrjv, 
pLTjh o^elav ovrojg xx^LGTaGOai poTTTjv iv to GaXevet 

89 Ta Trdvra, tovtojv ovd' aKov^LV eSo^e, rolg Se Kad^ 
avrov dvarpexovGLV avdiGrarai Kal Kara Grop^a 
TTaiojv ^iaL,op,ivovs dvrjpei, Kard r€ rov Trpavovs 

90 adpooLs Ip-rriTTrajv dveajdet ro rrXrjdo?. ol he rrpos 
re ro irapdGr-qpLa Kai rr]V lg^vv KararrXayevre? 
ovo ovrojs p^ev ave<^evyov els rrjv ttoXlv, Kad^ 
€Kdrepov^ 8 eKKXtvovres (XTt' avrov rols dvcorepoj 
(j)evyovGi rrpoGeKeivro. Kal rovrois he Kara rrXev- 

91 pdv rrpoG^dXXojv rds oppids vrrerepivero. Kav 
rovrcp Kal rols dvuj reL-)(il,ovGi ro Grparonehov, 
(JOS eOedGavro rovs Karoj cfievyovras, TrdXiv ip,- 

92 TTLTTret rapayrf) xal heos, Kal hiaGKidvarai rrdv ro 
rdypLa, hoKovvrojv dwTTOGrarov p,ev elvau rrjv rcjv 

lovhaiojv eKbpopLijv, rerpdcbdau S' avrov Tcrov 
ov yap dv TTore rovs dXXovs (f>evyeLV eKeivov 

93 pLevovros. Kal Kaddjrep TravLKO) Set/xart kvkXoj- 
devres aAAo? dXXaxT] hi€(f)epovro, P'^XP^ rives 

^ ifi^oXrjv LC. 
« LVRC Lat. : erepov PAM. 

*• i.e. apparently "(by a bolt) from an artillery engine" 
226 



JEWISH WAR, V. 86-93 

struck from an engine," they broke their ranks and 
turned and fled up the mountain side, leading Titus, 
with a few followers, half way up the slope. The 
friends who out of regard for the commander-in-chief 
stood their ground indifferent to danger, all earnestly 
entreated him to retire before these Jews who 
courted death, and not to risk his life for men who 
ought to have remained to protect him ; he should 
consider what he owed to fortune,^ and not act the 
part of a common soldier, lord as he was ahke of the 
war and of the world ; he on whom all depended 
ouffht not to face so imminent a risk. These ad- ^^^"^ ?p^° 

. rr'- 1 11-1 saves the 

visers 1 itus appeared not even to hear, but with- situation. 
standing the Jews who were rushing at him up the 
hill, confronted, struck and slew them as they pressed 
upon him, and then falling upon the masses thrust 
them backward down the slope. Yet, terrified 
though they were at his intrepidity and strength, 
they did not even then retreat to the city, but in- 
clining to either side to avoid him continued their 
pursuit of those who were flying up the hill ; where- 
upon he attacked them again in flank, and strove to 
check the rush. Meanwhile the troops who were 
fortifying the camp above, on seeing their comrades 
below in flight, were themselves once more seized 
with such consternation and alarm that the whole 
legion scattered ; for they imagined that the Je^^'ish 
charge was irresistible and that Titus himself had 
been routed, because the rest would never, they 
thought, have fled while he held his ground. Like 
men beset by panic, they sped in all directions, until 

{opyavov a<p€Tripiov, Hi. 80). The 6pyavov in the obscure 
simile in ii. 230 possibly bears the same meaning. 

* Or " consider his peculiar fortune " ; for Titus as the ^ 
favourite of Fortune cf. vi. 57. 

VOL. Ill H 2 227 



JOSEPHUS 

Karihovreg ev fieacp rod TroXefiov rov -qyejjLova 
(jTp€66[JL€vov Kal fjiiya deiGavre? afxc^^ avrco 

94 hia^ocoGL Tov Kivhvvov oXoj roj ray/xart. rovs 
8' aldoj? i7reGTp€(f)€, Kai TrXelov tl (f>vyri? KaKt- 
^ovres dXXrjXov? eVt rep KaraXiTrelv Katcrapa 
Trdcrr) ^Ca Kara rojv 'louSatcov €')(^pa)vro Kal 
KXlvavreg drra^ drro rod Kardvrov? Gvvcodovv 

95 aUTOL"? et's" to KoIXoV. OL d VTTO TTOOa )(OjpOVUT€S 

ifiaxoPTo, Kal TrXeoveKTOvvre? ol 'Pcj/xatot rip 
KadvTTepOev elvai uvveXavvovGL Trdvras els rrjv 

96 (f)dpayya. 7TpoG€K€LTO he rolg Kad avrov 6 Tiros 
Kal ro fJLev rdyp.a rrdXiv ijrl rrjv rei-)(07T0uav 
eTTep-xpev, avros he gvv olg irporepov avriGras ^'f-py^ 

97 rovs TToXepLLOvs' ojGr , ei XPV H-V'''^ BepaTreia ri 
vpoGrtOevra p-TjO^ v(^eX6vra (jiOovcp raXrjOes eirrelv, 
avros Kataap his /-tev eppvoaro KLvhvvevGav oXov 
ro rdyp.a Kal rou TrepipaXeGdai ro GrparoTrehov 
avrols dottav TrapeG^x^e. 

fi8 (lii. l) XaxhrjGavros he rrpos ^po-X^ '''^^ Bvpat,e 
7ToXep,ov TrdXiv rov evhov tj GrdGis err-qyeipev} 

99 Kal rrjs rojv dtvpaov evGrdGTjs rjpLepas reGGapeG- 
KaiheKdrrj 'E.avdtKov p.rjp6s, ev fj hoKOVGLV louSatot 
rov TTpojrov drraXXayrjvai Kaipov Ar/WTrrtajv, ol 
fjiev TTepl rov ^E.Xedl,apov Trapavoiyovres rds 
TTvXas ehey^ovro eV rod h-qp-ov rovs rrpoGKvvelv 
100 edeXovras eLGco, ^lojdwqs he rrpoKdXvpLpia rrjs 
eTTL^ovXrjs rrotrjGdp-evos rrjv eoprrjv rcov gvv avraj 
Kpvrrrols ottXols evGKevdGas^ rovs aG'qp.orepovs, 

^ L Lat. : TrdXtJ/ ^vbov rj ffrdais eTrrjyelpero the rest. 
^ L : crvaKeviffas the rest. 

• § 82. 
228 



JEWISH WAR, V. 93-100 

some, catching sight of their general in the thickest 
of the fight and greatly alarmed on his account, with 
shouts announced his danger to the whole legion. 
Shame rallied them, and, upbraiding one another 
with a worse guilt than flight in their desertion of 
Caesar, they put forth their utmost energies against 
the Jews and, having once made them give ground, 
proceeded to thrust them off the slope into the valley. 
The Jews retired step by step fighting, but the 
Romans, having the advantage of position finally 
drove them all into the ravine. Titus, still pressing 
upon his immediate opponents, now sent the legion 
back to resume their fortifications, while he, with 
his former band," withstood and held the enemy at 
bay. Thus, if, ^vithout a syllable added in flattery 
or withheld from en\y, the truth must be told, Caesar 
personally twice rescued the entire legion when in 
jeopardy, and enabled them to intrench themselves 
in their camp unmolested. 

(iii. 1) During a temporary lull in the war with- John, by a 



ruse at 



er 



out the walls, faction renewed its hostihties within, passov 
When the dav of unleavened bread came round on (^•?- "O). 

*" ^ t^tiins 6ntry 

the fourteenth of the month Xanthicus,^ the reputed to the inner 
anniversary of the Jews' first liberation from Egypt, '^ temple. 
Eleazar and his men partly opened the gates and 
admitted citizens desiring to worship within the 
building. But John, making the festival a cloak 
for his treacherous designs, armed with concealed 
weapons the less conspicuous of his followers, most 

^ The Macedonian month corresponding to the Hebrew 
Nisan (March-April). 

" The words " reputed " and " first " (as though first of a 
series of liberations from Egypt) rather suggest the hand of 
a non-Jewish awepyos ; but " first " may perhaps refer to 
the later liberation from Babylon. 

229 



JOSEPHUS 

ojv OL TrXeiovs rjaav avayvoi, Sta aTrouST^? Trapetcr- 

7T€IJL7T€L TTpOKaraXr^lpOfJieVOVS TO UpOV. OL S' d)S 

evSov iyevovrOy ras" iodi^rag aTToppiipavres i(f)d- 

101 VTjGav e^aTTU'Tjs oTrXlraL. rapax^] de fJLeyiGTrj 
TTcpi rov vaov avriKa /cat dopv^og tjv, rod fiev 
eSoj TTJg GTaaecos Xaov Kara rravTcov aKpnov 
OLOfxevojv elvai rrjv iTrideuiv, rdtv Se ^rjXcoTcov 

102 6776 G(j)LOl pLOVOtg. dXX OL pL€V a.(f)€pL€VOL TO 

(jipovpelv ert ra? rrvXas kol tojv eTrdX^eajv Kara- 
TT-qbijaavTeg Trplv elg y^^elpas iXdelv els tovs vtto- 
vopLOvg Tov Lepov KaTechvyov ol §' o-tto tov hrfpLOV 
rrpos TO) ^ojiioj KaTaTTTTjaaovTeg /cat nepl tov 
vaov cruv€LXovpL€voL KaTerraTovvTO, ^vXols t€ dveSr]v 

103 TTaLOpLCVOL /cat GLhrjpO). TToXXovg Se TCDV rjdvx^ojv 

/car e)(Opav kol p.lGos IdLov oug dvTLGTaGLaGTCLS 
avrjpovv ol hidc^opoL, kol rrds 6 rrpoGKpovGas toj 
Tcov eTTL^ovXojv TvdXaL TTjVLKavTa eTnyvajGdeis cu? 

104 t,rjXojTrjs Trpos at/ctav dvrjyeTO. TToXXd Se heivd 
TOVS avaLTLOvs Sta^eVres" e/ce;\;etptav rot? alTiois 
eooGav, KOL irpoeXdovTas e/c tojv vnovopLCUV Sttecrav. 
aOrot he /cat to evSoTepco lepov KaTaG^ovTe? /cat 
ra? €v avTO) TrapaoKevas Traaa? KaTeOdppovv tJSt] 

105 TOV T.LpOJV0?. Tj IJL€V OVV GTdGL? OVTOJ TpL[JL€pr]S 

ovGa TTpoTepov els Svo [xolpas TrepttWarat. 

106 {'2) he TtVo? eyyLov dno tov Hkottov rfj 
TToXeL TTapaGTpaTOTTehevGaoQaL Trpoaipovpievos Trpos 
fiev TOVS eKTpexovTas eGTTjGev e-niXe^as LTTTreajv 
re /cat Tre^wv ogovs dpKeGeLV VTreXdpL^avev, ttj 
8 oXrj SvvdjjLeL TrpoGeTo^ev i^opLaXll^eLV to p^^XP^ 
230 



JEWISH WAR, V. 100-106 

of whom were unpurified, and by his earnest endeav- 
ours got them stealthily passed into the temple to 
take prior possession of it. Once %Wthin, they cast off 
their garments and were suddenly revealed as armed 
men. The purheus of the sanctuary were instantly a 
scene of the utmost disorder and confusion, the people 
who had no connexion Mith the party strife regarding 
this as an indiscriminate attack upon all, the Zealots 
as directed against themselves alone. The latter, 
however, neglecting any longer to guard the gates 
and not waiting to come to close quarters with the 
intruders, leapt down from the battlements and took 
refuge in the temple vaults ; while the visitors from 
the city, cowering beside the altar and huddled 
together around the sanctuary, were trampled under 
foot and mercilessly struck with clubs and swords. 
Many peaceable citizens from enmity and personal 
spite were slain by their adversaries as partisans of 
the opposite faction, and any who in the past had 
offended one of the conspirators, being now recog- 
nized as a Zealot, was led off to punishment. But 
while the innocent were thus brutally treated, the 
intruders granted a truce to the criminals and let 
them go when they emerged from the vaults. Being John defeats 
now in possession of the inner court of the temple and theTwo ^° 
all the stores which it contained, thev could bid factions 
defiance to Simon. The sedition, hitherto of a tri- 
partite character, was thus again reduced to two 
factions. 

(:2) Titus, now deciding to abandon Scopus and Titus levels 
encamp nearer the city, posted a picked body of fronfscopus 
horse and foot of such strength as he deemed sufficient to Jem- 

111 » 11- 1 1 1 • salem. 

to check the enemy s sallies, and gave orders to ms 
main army to level the intervening ground right up 

231 



JOSEPHUS 

107 rov reixovs StacrrT^/xa. Kara^X-qdevrog Sc navro? 
epKov? Kai TTepLcbpayixaros, oaa ktj—ojv irpoav- 
earrjaavTO Kal Sevhpcuv^ ol oiK-qrope?, vXtj? t€ 
rjfjLepov rrjs jJLera^v rraG-qs iKKOTTeiarjs dveTrX-qadr] 

108 pL€v TOL KolXa Kal 'x^apahpojh'q rov tottov, ras Se 
TrerpojheLS e^oy^as GiS-qpcp Karepyal^oiievoi xdajMa- 
Xov eTToiovv Trdvra rov tottov airo tov Hkottov 
l-i^xpt' Tojv 'HpctjSou jjLVTjjjLelojv, d Trpoaex^L rfj 
rojv 6(f)€Cov iTTLKaXovfievr] KoXvpi^rjdpa. 

109 (3) Kat Kara ravra? rds rjfJLepas evehpav ol 
'lovSatot Kara tojv 'PcD/xatcov (jv(jKevdl,ovrai 

110 Toidvhe. rdJv urauLaurcov ol [ftey] roXyirjpoi 
TTpoeXdovreg e^oj rwv TwacKelajv KaXovfxevcou 
TTvpyojv, tu? iK^€^Xr][jL6voL Sijdev vtto tojv €ipiqviKa 
(f)povovvrcov Kal SeSot/cores" rrjv rcov 'Poj/Ltatcov 
e(f)oSov dveiXovvTO Kal Trap* dXXrjXovs VTT€7Trr]GG0v. 

111 06 he hiaGrdvres €77t rod relxovs hrjfJLOS etvai Sokojv 
elprivqv e^oojv Kal Sel'tav fjrovvro Kai rov£ 
'Pajfialovs eKdXovVy dvoi^eiv UTTLGX^ovpLevoL to,? 
TTvXas' dpa Se ravra KeKpayore? Kal rovg G(f)€- 
repovs e^aXXov Xidois d>S dTreXavvovres tcov 

112 TTvXdjV. KdK€LVOL ^idleGdai rds ELGoSoVS V7T€Kpi- 

vovro Kal rovs evhov LKereveLV, GVvexdJS Te Trpos 
Tovs 'Pojpalovs oppLrjGavre?'^ €7nGrp€(^6iJievoi rapar- 

113 TopevoL? 7TpoG€(JjK€iGav . TTapa pi€v ovv ToZs GTpa- 
TLcoraL? TO TTavovpyov a'urdjv ovk eXeiTrero TTLGrecos, 
dXX (l)s TOVS pev iv x^P^^'-'^ €xovT€s irolpLovg rrpos 

TLpLCOpLaVy TOVS S' dvOL^€LV TTjV TToXlV eXjTLl^OVTeS, 

^ devdpibviov Destinon (probably rii^rhtly). 
* AL Lat. : opfxTjaaPTas the rest. 

« Unidentified ; cf. § 507. Niese thinks that the Herod 
commemorated was the king of Chalcis, grandson of Herod 

232 



JEWISH WAR, V. 107-113 

to the walls. Every fence and palisade with which 
the inhabitants had enclosed their gardens and 
plantations having accordingly been swept away, and 
every fruit tree within the area felled, the cavities 
and gulHes on the route were filled up, the protuber- 
ant rocks demolished with tools of iron, and the whole 
intervening space from Scopus to Herod's monu- 
ments," adjoining the spot called the Serpents' pool,'* 
was thus reduced to a dead level. 

(3) Durinff this period the Jews contrived the -^ Jewish 

nil. -TIT* rni ruse leads 

loliowing stratagem to trick the nomans. Ine more to a Roman 
daring of the insurgents, issuing forth from the so- defeat. 
called Women's Towers,* as though they had been 
ejected by the partisans of peace and were in terror 
of being attacked by the Romans, kept close together 
cowering in a bunch. Meanwhile their comrades, 
hning the walls so as to be taken for the populace, 
shouted " Peace," begged for protection, and invited 
the Romans to enter, promising to open the gates ; 
these cries they accompanied by showers of stones 
aimed at their own men, as if to drive them from the 
gates. The latter made a feint of forcing an entry 
and petitioning those within, and constantly rushing 
towards the Romans and again retreating showed 
signs of extreme agitation. Their ruse did not fail 
to impose on the rank and file : imagining that they 
had one party at their mercy, to be punished at will, 
and hoping that the other would throw open the 
city, they were on the point of proceeding to action. 

the Great ; the latter himself was buried at Herodion, 60 
stades south of Jerusalem, B. i. 673. The Serpent's pool 
has been uncertainly identified with the Birket Mamilla, to 
the west of the city (G. A. Smith, Jerusalem, i. 114). 

* Unidentified : described in § 55 as opposite Queen 
Helena's tomb, which is mentioned below, § 119. 

233 



JOSEPHUS 

ll-i ixOJpOW eTTL TTjV TTpd^LV. TtTO) Sc St VTTOlfjia^ 

Tjv TO TTJs €7TLKX-^a€CjJS TTapaXoyov /cat yap rrpo 
fjLid^ rjfjLepag TrpoKaXovfievog avrovg inl crvfi^dGeL? 
8td rov ^laxjTjTTov jj-erptov ovhev evpiOKe, koi Tore 
Tov^ arpaTLCoTag Kara. •)(Ojpav fieveuv eKeXevuev. 

115 e(l)daGav be nveg tojv em toIs epyot? TrporeTay- 
fievcov^ dpTrdaavTes tcl orrXa irpo? ra? TTvXas 

116 eKSpaaelv. tovtols ol jiev eK^e^XriaOai hoKovvTes 
TO 7Tpcx)Tov v7Te)(^ujpovv, eTTel he fjLeTa^v tojv Trjg 
TTvXrjs eyivovTo TTvpyojv, eKBeovTes ckvkXovvto 

117 CT^as" /cat TTpoaeKeiVTO KaTomv ol 8' o-tto tov 
Tei)(0V5 TrXrjOos "x^epfj-dhcov /cat ^eXcuv TravTOiojv 
dOpovv /carep^eav, ojs ovxyovg p.ev dveXelv, rpwcrat 

118 de TrXeiaTOVS. rjv yap ov padiov tov Tecxovg 
hiaSvyelv tojv KaTOTTiv ^LaC^opLevajv, /cat dXXoJS 
atdojc Trjs hiaiiaprias /cat tcov -qyefiovajv deog 

119 TTapeKeXeveTO to) Trrata/LtaTt 77 p ogXltt a pelv. dto 
hrj I'-^xpi' TrXeioTov hiahopaTit,6pievoL /cat ttoAAo.? 
VTTO TOJV ^\ovhaiojv XafLBdvovre? TrXrjyds, a/xeAet 
S' o'UK eXaTTOVs dvTLOLdovTe?, reAo? avojdovcn 
Tovg KVKXojGapLevovs' VTToxojpovai o avTol? ol 
'Iou8atot [/cat] P-^XP^ '^^^ 'EAeVr]? fivrjjjLelajv 
elnovTO ^dXXovTes. 

120 (4) "Erret^' ol jiev direipoKaXaJS e^v^pu^ovTe? 
els r-qv Tvx'Tjy eGKOJTTTOV re tovs Pco/xatous" 
SeAeaa^erras" drrdrr] /cat tov? Bvpeovs dvaaeiovres 

121 euKLpTOJV /cat pierd x^P^^ dve^oojv. Tovg he 
(TTpaTLojTas dTTetXij re tojv Ta^capx^jv /cat ;)(aAe- 
TTalvajv KatCTap tovtols e^ehex^'^o , (jyaoKOJV ojs 
*Ioudatot pLev, ots dirovoia pLOvrj GTparrjyeZ, navTa 
^lerd TTpovoias rrpaTTovGL /cat crKeipeojs, eTn^ovXas 

^ ed. pr, : irpoareTayiJL^vijov mS3. 

234 



JEWISH WAR, V. 114-121 

Titus, on the contrary, viewed this surprising in- 
vitation with suspicion. For having only the day 
before, through Josephus, invited them to terms, he 
had met with no reasonable response ; he therefore 
now ordered his men to remain where they Mere. 
However, some who were stationed in the forefront 
of the works had, without awaiting orders, seized 
their arms and rushed towards the gates. The pre- 
tended outcasts at first retired before them, but, as 
soon as the Romans came between the gateway 
towers, they darted out and surrounded and attacked 
them in rear ; while those on the wall showered upon 
them a volley of stones and every species of missile, 
kilHng many and wounding most. For it was no 
easy matter to escape from the wall with the enemy 
pressing them behind ; moreover, shame at their 
error and dread of their officers impelled them to 
persevere in their blunder. Consequently, it was 
only after a prolonged combat with spears and after 
receiving many wounds from the Jews — inflicting, 
to be sure, no fewer in return — that they eventually 
repelled their encircling enemy. Even when they 
retired, the Jews still followed and kept them under 
fire as far as the tomb of Helena. ° 

(4) Then, with vulgar abuse of their good fortune, Titus 
they jeered at the Romans for being deluded by a h^^^il^ob^** 
ruse and brandishing their bucklers danced and ordinate 
shouted for joy. The soldiers, for their part, were ^°°p*' 
met by threats from their officers and a furious 
Caesar. " These Jews," he protested, " Mith des- 
peration for their only leader, do everything with 
forethought and circumspection : their stratagems 

* § 55 note. 

235 



JOSEPHUS 

re crvvrdaaovTe? kol Ao;^ous", eTrerat 8* avrayv 
TaZs iveSpatg Kal rvx^] Sta. to TTeidrjVLOv Kal rr^v 

122 rrpos aXXriXovs evvoidv re kol ttlotiv' 'PcD/xatot hi, 
ols Si evra^lav Kal ro irpos rovs -qyep.ovas 
evTTeidks aet hovXevei kol ^'u^f], vvv vtto tujv 
evavTtOJV vraLovGL Kal Slol y^eipajv aKpacrtav 
oXiGKOvrai, TO rravTow alG-)(^LGrov , darpar'q'yrjroL 

123 fxaxop-evoL Trapovros Yiaiuapo? . tj p-eydXa fJLev 
GTevd^eLV ecf)!] rov? rrj? Grpareias v6p.ovs, p^eydXa 
8 avTOV rov Trarepa r-qvhe ttjv TrX-qyrjv Trvdopievov, 

124 ei ye o p.ev ev 7ToXep.oi? yqpdGas ovSerroT enraiGev 
oxjTOJS, OL vopLOL 8 del Kal TOV£ ^paxv TL rrjg 
rd^eojg TTapaKLvrjGavras davdrco KoXdi,ovGLV, vvv 

125 8' oXrjV GTpandv eojpdKaGL XiTTordKrrjv. yvcoGeGdau 
ye pLTjV avTLKa tov£ aTTavOabiGapievovs on /cat 
TO vLKav TTapd 'Ptu/xatots" hixa. rrapayyeXpLaros 

126 dSo^elrai. roLavra diareLvdpLevog irpos rovs "^y^' 
piovas brjXos TjV Kara Trdrrcov ;^pT]0'eCT^at^ toj 
vopLOj. /cat OL pikv TrapelGav rd<£ ipv^ds d>S ogov 

127 ovdeTTOj redvq^opievoi hiKaicus, Trepix^devra 8e rd 
rdyp-ara toj Titoj rrepL rcov GVGTparLUjrojv iKereve 
/cat rr]v oXtycvv TTpoirereiav ;^aptO'aCT^at tt] rravrajv 
evTreiOeLa KaTr^vn^oXovv dvaXrjxjjeGd at yap to 
TTapov TTTalGpLa Tat? et? to pieXXov apeTalg. 

128 (5) Het^eTat Katorap d/xa Tat? re LKeGiai? 

/cat TO) Gvpi(j)epovTL- TTjv pikv yap KaO evog TLp-copiav 

weTO XPW'^'- H-^XP^^ epyov TrpoKOTTTeiv, T-qv 8 

^ Destinon : xP^^°-<^^°-'- o^" XPW^^'-'- mss. 
236 



JEWISH WAR, V. 121-128 

and ambuscades are carefully planned, and their 
schemes are further favoured by fortune because of 
their obedience and their mutual loyalty and con- 
fidence ; while Romans who, through orderly disci- 
pline and obedience to command, have ever found 
even fortune their slave, are now brought to grief 
by conduct the very opposite, are defeated through 
their intemperate pugnacity, and — direst disgrace of 
all — while fiffhtino; without a leader under the eves of 
Caesar ! Deeply indeed may the laws of the service 
mourn," deeply too my fatlier when he hears of this 
rebuff; seeing that he, though grown grey in warfare, 
never met with a like disaster, while those laws in- 
variably punish Mith death the very shghtest breach 
of discipline, whereas now they have beheld a whole 
corps quit the ranks I However, these rash adven- 
turers shall learn forthwith that, among Romans, even 
a victory without orders given is held dishonourable." 
From such determined language to his officers it was 
clear that Titus intended to put the law into force 
against all. The offenders, accordingly, gave them- 
selves up for lost, expecting in a moment to meet their 
merited death ; but the legions, flocking round Titus, 
made intercession for their fellow-soldiers, imploring 
him, in consideration of the obedience of them all, 
to forgive the recklessness of a few, and assuring 
him that these would retrieve their present error by 
future meritorious deeds. 

(5) To these entreaties, backed by considerations 
of expediency, Caesar yielded ; for he held that, 
while in the case of an individual punishment should 
actually be carried into execution, where numbers 

" Cf. the similar phrase used by the companions of 
Josephus in the cave at Jotapata, ill. 356. 

237 



JOSEPHUS 

129 €7n TrX-qOov? fj-^xpi- Aoyow. rots \ilv ovv or pa- 
TLorraLS hLi^XXdrrero ttoXXcl vovder-qaas avdis 
elvai ^poviiiojripovs , avros S' ottcos" ap.vvelrai 

130 TTiv \ovhaiajv im^ovXT^v eoKOTrei. Teauapoi h 
TjiiepaLg i^Lcrojdevro? tov P-^XP^ "^^^ t€lx<^v 
biaGrrjpiaToSy ^ovX6p.€vos /xcra aa(/)aAetas' rds 
T€ OLTTOGKevas KOI TO XoLTTOv ttXtjOo? TTapayayelv^ 
TO Kaprepajrarov rij? Svvap.eaj£ avrLTrape^ereLvev 
TO) reixei Kara, to ^opeiov KXlp-a Kal rrpos iaTrepav, 

131 e^' eTTTO. ^a^uVa? TrjV (f)dXayya, tcjv t€ TreLchv 
rrpoTeTayjxivojv Kal KaTOTTLV rcov lttttIcov, Tpi- 

GTOLXOJV €KaTepOJV, e^Sop-OL KaTOL p.eGov eLGTrjK€GaV 

132 OL TO^OTai. TOGOVTCp he GTL(f)€L 7T€(1) pay pL6V OJV 

lovSaCoLS Tcov eKhpopiOJV to. re VTTO^vyia tojv 
Tpi<2)v TaypLaTCDV Kal tj ttXtjBvs aSecu? TrapojhevGev, 

133 avTos pL€v OVV TItos aTrixojv ogov elg GTadlovg 
ovo TOV T€Lxov? KaTa TO yojvialov avTov pLepog 
avTiKpij TOV KaXovpL€VOV ^'-qcfylvov TTvpyov GTpa- 
TOTTeSeveTaL, Trpos ov 6 kvkXos tov TeL^ov? an 

134 apKTOJv^ KaOrjKOJV dvaKapLTTTei Trpos bvGLV r] § 
€T€pa pLOLpa TTJs GTpaTids KaTa TOV 'Ittttlkov 
TTpoGayopevdevTa nvpyov Teix^teTai hieGTOJGa ttjs 

135 TToXeOJ? OpiOLCDS SvO GTahioVS. to pL€VTOL SeKaTOV 

Tayp.a KaTa ;^c6pav errt tov 'EAattuv opovs efieve. 

136 (iv. i) TptCT: 8' d>xypo^p-evq Teix^Giv rj ttoXls 
Kadd^ pLTj rats' d^aTOis (^dpay^i K€KVKXa>TO, TavTj] 
yap elg -qv Trepl^oXos, avT-q /xev vrrep hvo Xocfxjjv 
avTLTTpoGcoTTOs eKTLGTO pi€Grj (jidpayyi Sirjp-qpievajv, 

137 €LS ^v eTrdXXrjXoL KaTeXrjyov at otVtat. T(jl)V be 

^ Trapdyeiv PA. 

' Destinon : &pktov or dpKTov mss. 

» LVRC {cf. hi. 464, v. 223 etc.): KaO' V the rest. 

2S8 



JEWISH WAR, V. 129-137 

were concerned it should not go beyond reproof. He 
was therefore reconciled to the soldiers, after strictly 
admonishing them to be wiser in future ; while he 
privately reflected how best to avenge himself on 
the Jews for their stratagem. In four days all the Titus 
intervening ground up to the walls was levelled ; and fn tw™^" 
Titus, now anxious to secure a safe passage for the divisions 
baggage and camp-followers, drew up the nower or from the 
his forces facing the northern and western portions ^*^^^- 
of the wall, in Hnes seven deep : the infantry in 
front, the cavalry behind, each of these arms in 
three ranks, the archers forming a seventh Une in the 
middle. The sallies of the Jews being held in check 
by this formidable array, the beasts of burden be- 
longing to the three legions with their train of 
followers passed securely on. Titus himself en- 
camped ^ about two furlongs from the ramparts, at 
the angle opposite the tower called Psephinus, where 
the circuit of the wall bends back from the north to 
the west. The other division of the army entrenched 
itself opposite the tower named Hippicus, hkewise 
at a distance of two furlongs from the city. The 
tenth legion kept its position on the Mount of Olives. 

(iv. 1) The city was fortified by three walls, ex- Description 
cept M'here it was enclosed by impassable ra\-ines, gaiem.^ 
a single rampart there sufficing. It was built, in 
portions facing each other, on two hills separated 
by a central valley,^ in which the tiers of houses 
ended. 

" On the 14th of Xanthicus (1 May), as appears from § 567. 
'' The Tyropoeon, in the modern city a shallow glen 
known as El-Wad, 

239 



JOSEPHUS 

X6(f)ow 6 jiev TTjv dvco ttoXlv e^oju vifjTjXorepos t€ 
TToXXo) Kai TO fxrJKog Wvrepog -qv dtd yovv ttjv 
oxvpoTTjra (fypovptov [jl€v vtto AaviSov rod /Sacrt- 
Aeojs" e/caAetro, Trarrjp ^oXojjlwvos tjv ovtos tou 
TrpojTOv rov^ vaov KTLGavrog, rj dvcj Se dyopa 
7Tpo£ rjpLcov drepog 8' o KaXovfxevo? "A/cpa /cat 

138 Tiqv Karoj ttoXlv V(^€gt(jjs ajj-cblKvpTog. tovtov 
S' dvTLKpvg rpiros tjv Xochos, TarreLvoTepog re 
<l)VGeL TTjs "AKpag Kal TrXareia (hapayyt Sl- 

139 eLpyopLevog dXXrj Trporepov avOlg ye ijltjv Ka9^ ovg 
OL AaapLajvaloL ^povovs i^acrlXevov Tr\v re <j)d- 
payya e^ojoav, Gvvdibai ^ouXofievoL to) Upo) ttjv 
ttoXlv, Kal rrjg "AKpag KarepyaadpLevoL to vipos 
CTTOLTjaav )(daiJ.aXajrepov, d)s VTrepcf^aiPOLTO Kal 

140 ravr-ff to lepov. rj he tujv TvpoTTOiojv TTpoa- 
ayopevofievq (j)dpay^, tjv ecfiap^ev tov re tt]? dvaj 
TToAectj? Kal tov KaTco Xocfyov StacrreAAetv, KaO^Ket 
pLexpL StAcuas" ovTOj yap ttjv TT-qy-qv yXvKeldv re 

141 Kai rroXXqv ovuav eKaXovpiev. e^ojdev 8' ol Trjg 
TToXeoJS dvo X6(f)0L ^aOelaig (f)dpay^Lv rrepLelxovTO, 
Kai Sta Tovg eKaTepcodev Kp-qpivovs TrpooLTov 
ovSap.6dev rjv. 

^ irp'JjTOv Tbv'\ TOV TTpC'-ov p. ' TavTrjs C. 

" Cf. 2 Sam. v. 7. ' 

^ Most archaeologists now hold that Josephus here and in 
his account of the capture of Jebus by David (A. vii. 65) is 
in error as to the ancient topography, and that the " City of 
David " or Sion lay, not on the western, but on the eastern 
hill on the part called Ophel above the Virgin's spring 
(G. A. Smith, Jerusalem, i. 134 f., 161 ff.). The historian's 
error is perpetuated in modern nomenclature ; the so-called 
" David's Tower " in the present citadel stands near the 
Jaffa Gate on the basis of Herod's Tower of Phasael. 

•= Literally " gibbous," like the moon in its third quarter. 

240 



JEWISH WAR, V. 137-141 

Of these hills that on which the upper city lay was The two 
far higher and had a straighter ridge than the other ; 
consequently, owing to its strength it was called by 
King Da\ad — the father of Solomon the first builder 
of the temple — the Stronghold,'^ but we called it the 
upper agora. ^ The second hill, which bore the name 
of Acra and supported the lower city, was a hog's 
back.*' Opposite this was a third hill, by nature lower 
than Acra, and once di\'ided from it by another broad 
ra\dne. Afterwards, however, the Hasmonaeans, 
during the period of their reign, both filled up 
the ravine, with the object of uniting the city to the 
temple, and also reduced the elevation of Acra by 
levelling its summit, in order that it might not block 
the view of the temple.*^ The Valley of the Cheese- 
makers,* as the ra\ine was called, which, as we said, 
divides the hill of the upper city from that of the 
lower, extends down to Siloam ; for so we called that 
fountain of sweet and abundant water. On the 
exterior the two hills on which the city stood were 
encompassed by deep ravines, and the precipitous 
cliffs on either side of it rendered the to^vn nowhere 
accessible. 

Cf. the name Ophel (= " hump ") given to a portion of this 
hill. 

<* Cf. B. i. 50 and the more detailed description in A. xjii. 
215-217 ; in both those passages the levelling of Acra is 
ascribed to Simon. But this is incompatible with 1 Mace, 
xiv. 37 which states that he fortified it. Josephus is writing 
of what had disappeared two centuries before his day, and 
his description is probably in some points erroneous. It has 
been suggested that the work was due to Hyrcanus I and 
that his erection of a Baris or castle at the N.W. corner of 
the temple led to the demolition of the Syrian Acra to the 
S. of it. (Smith, Jerusalem, i. 159 f., Schiirer, G.J. V. (ed. 3), 
i. 247.) ' Tyropoeon. 

241 



JOSEPHUS 

142 (2) Toiv Se TpLcJjv r€i\a)v to yikv dp')(aLov 8ta re 
rag (f)dpayyag /cat top vnep tovtojv X6(f)OV, ecf) ov 

143 KaT€GK€vaGTO y SvadXcoTOV rjv irpos 8e rco irXeo- 
veKTTJfJLan rod rorrov koI Kaprepojg ehehopLfjro, 
AavlSov re Kal HoXojjlojvo?, €tl Se rcov fjiera^v 
rovrojv ^acnXeojv (f)LXoTLijLr]devrajv irepl to epyov. 

144 dpxop-^vov 8e Kara ^oppdv drro rod 'Ittttlkov 
KaXovjjLevov TTvpyov Kal Staretyov eVt rov ^vorov^ 
€7T€LTa rfj ^ovXfj (TwdnTov errl ttjv loTrepLov rod 

145 Upov GTodv dn-qpTL^ero. Kara ddrepa Se Trpo? 
bvGLv, drro ravTOV pikv dpxojxevov, Sid Se rov 
Bt^^ctcu^ KaXovfievov )(a)pov KarareZvov cttl ttjv 

^ao-qvdjv TTvXrjv, KaTreira rrpos vorov vrrep rrjv 
Y^iXcodv e7TLOTp€(j)0v TTTiy-qv, evOev re TrdXiv IkkXIvov 
TTpog dvaroXrjv irrl rrjv ^oXojjlojvos KoXvfi^rjdpav 
Kal Sltjkov P-^XP^ ;COjpoi; rivos, ov KaXovaiv 

0(f)Xdv,^ rfj irpos dvaroXrjV crroa rov Upov ovv- 

146 rJTTre. to he Sevrepov rrjv p.€V dpx^jv dno 7TvXr]g 
€iX€^, Tjv Tevvdd^ €KdXovv rov irpcvrov reixovg 
ovaav, KVKXovfjL€vov Se to TrpoadpKriov KXtfia 

147 p.6vov dvjjei p-^xpi- TrJ9 ^Avrcovia?. rw rpiro) 8' 
o.pxf) ''7^ d ^Yttttiko'S TTvpyos, 69 ev p-^XP'' "^^^ 
^opelov /cAt/xaTOS" Kararelvov errl rov m^rjcjyivov 
TTvpyov, €7T€LTa KaOrJKov dvTLKpv rdjv 'EAeVi^j 

^ + Xeyofxevov LVRC (Lat.) : + KaXoi'ixevov M. 
2 B77(tol' pa : Betiso Lat. 

• Hudson with Lat. : 'u^Xa? (-a/x L) mss. * Vevad PC. 

• At the N.W. angle. 

*• Described below, § 163. « Eastwards. 

•* The gymnasium, used for public speeches, and connected 
with the temple by a bridge, B. ii. 344 note. 

• A hall in or adjoining the S. part of the temple area, in 
which the Sanhedrin usually met; Mishna, Middoth, v. 4 c 

242 



JEWISH WAR, V. 142-147 

(2) Of the three walls, the most ancient, owing The first 
to the surrounding ravines and the hill above them ^^°an. 
on which it was reared, was well-nigh impregnable. 
But, besides the advantage of its position, it was also 
strongly built, David and Solomon and their successors 
on the throne having taken pride in the work. Be- 
ginning on the north ** at the tower called Hippicus,* 
it extended '^ to the Xystus,** and then joining the 
council-chamber * terminated at the -svestern portico 
of the temple. Beginning at the same point in the 
other direction, westward, it descended past the place 
called Bethso ' to the gate of the Essenes,^ then — 
turned southwards above the fountain of Siloam ; 
thence it again incUned to the east towards Solomon's 
pool,-'' and after passing a spot which they call Ophlas,^ 
finally joined the eastern portico of the temple. 

The second w^all started from the gate in the first The second 
wall which they called Gennath,'* and, enclosing only ^^^ 
the northern district of the tovvn, went up as far as 
Antonia. 

The third began at the tower Hippicus, whence it The third 
stretched northwards to the tower Psephinus, and Agrippa's) 
then descending opposite the monuments of Helena * ^^aii 

(Holtzmann), Schiirer, op. cit. ii. 211. Its burning by the 
Romans is mentioned in vi. 354. The name by which it is 
called in the Mishna, Lishkath hag-Gazith, probably means, 
not, as usually translated, " Chamber of Hewn Stone," but 
" Chamber beside the Xystus " ; in the LXX Gazith = 
^varos (Schurer). ' Unidentified. 

" The Biblical Ophel (= " hump "), Neh. iii. 26, etc. ; in 
Sir G. A. Smith's opinion probably a synonym for Sion, 
Jerusalerriy i. 153. 

^ Perhaps = Garden Gate. Its position, like the course 
of the second wall, is uncertain ; it has been " placed by some 
between the towers Hippicus and Phasael ... by others 
at the latter tower," ih. i. 243. » § 55. 

243 



JOSEPHUS 

fjLvrjfieiOJV, ^ASLa^TjVTj ^aoiXl? rjv avrrj *lt,drov^ 
^aCTtAeoj? 9vya.rr]p, /cat 8ta OTn^Xaicov ^auiXiKcov 
IJL7]KVv6fjL€Vov e/ca/XTTTero fi€v yojviaia) TTvpyco Kara 
TO rod Tva^ecos Trpoaayopevofxevov [jLvrjpLa, rep 
8 apxo.LCi) TTepi^oXcp avvarrrov els Tr]V KeSpcova 

148 KaXovp-iv-qv (^dpayya KareXrjyev . rovro rfj TrpoG- 
KTiGdeioTj TToAet 7T€pL€drjK€v ^AypLTTTTa?, rfTTep r^v 
ndaa yvpLvrj- rrXridei yap VTrepx^OjJLevrj Kara 

149 fjLLKpov i^elpne rcov rrepL^oXojv. /cat rod tepov 
rd TTpoadpKTLa rrpos rep X6(f)cp GViX7ToXit,ovr€s €77 
ovK oXiyov TTporjXOov^ /cat reraprov TTepLOLKTqOrjvai 
Xocfyov, OS /caAetrat Be^e^a, Kelfievos /xev dvTLKpv 
rrjs 'AvTOJvlas, aTTorepLvopLevos S' opvypLan jSa^et* 

150 hiera(j)pevdri yap CTrtrr^Ses", co? /xt] to) X6(f)(i) cruv- 
aiTTovres ol OepLeXioL rijs Avrajvcas evTrpoaiToi re 

151 elev /cat tjttov vifjrjXor Sto Sr] /cat TrXelarov vipos 
roZs TTvpyoLS TrpoaeSiSov to ^ddos rrjs rd(f>pov. 
eKX-^drj 8' e7Tt;(a»ptaj? ^e^eOd to vcoktigtov pilpos, 
o pLedeppLrjvev6pL€vov 'EAAaSt yXcoGcrr] Kaivrj Aeyotr 

152 av ttoXls. SeopLevojv ovv tojv Tavrrj GK€7Tr]s o 
TTaTTjp rod vvv ^acrtAecos" K.ai opLcovvpLOs Aypnr- 
Tras dpx^Tai puev ov TrpoeiTTopLev Tei-yovs, 8eto-as' 8e 
KAau8tov Katcrapa, pLTj to pilyedos ttJs /cara- 
OKevrjs €7n veajTeptapicp TrpaypLaTcov VTTOVorjcrr) /cat 
ardaeajs, Trauerat depLeXlovg pLovov ^aXopievos. 

153 /cat yap ovh^ dv rjv dXwGipLOs rj ttoXls, et TrpovKOTrre 

^ 'Idfa Tov, 'Ifa rod or 'Af^a tov mss. ; cf. iv. 567, 

" The course of the third wall after Psephinus is un- 
certain ; some identifying it with the present N. wall, others 
making it embrace a wider area farther north. Recent 
excavations (1926) favour the latter theory. 

244 



JEWISH WAR, V. 147-153 

(queen of Adiabene and daughter of king Izates), 
and proceeding past the royal caverns it bent round 
a corner tower over against the so-called Fuller's 
tomb and joining the ancient rampart terminated at 
the valley called Kedron." This wall was built by built to 
Agrippa to enclose the later additions to the city, g^^g^^^j^ 
which were quite unprotected ; for the town, over- the new' 
flowing with inhabitants, had gradually crept beyond "i"*^^^^- 
the ramparts. Indeed, the population, uniting to the 
liill ^ the district north of the temple, had encroached 
so far that even a fourth hill was surrounded with 
houses. This hill, which is called Bezetha, lay 
opposite Antonia, but was cut off from it by a deep 
fosse, dug on purpose to sever the foundations of 
Antonia from the hill and so to render them at 
once less easy of access and more elevated, the 
depth of the trench materially increasing the height 
of the towers. The recently built quarter was 
called in the vernacular Bezetha, which, might 
be translated into Greek as New Town.^ Seeing 
then the residents of this district in need of 
defence, Agrippa, the father and namesake of the 
present king, began the above-mentioned wall ; but, 
fearing that Claudius Caesar might suspect from the 
vast scale of the structure that he had designs of 
revolution and revolt, he desisted after merely 
laying the foundations. Indeed the city would have 
been impregnable, had the Mall been continued as it 

* On which the upper town lay. 

" More correctly in ii. 530 : " the district called Bezetha 
and also New Town (Caenopolis)." Bezetha probably = 
Beth - zaith =" house of olives" (Smith, Jerusalem, i. 244 ^ 

note) ; it does not mean " New Town." Similar loose 
etymological statements occur in the Antiquities. 

245 



JOSEPHUS 

TO T€LXO? (hs rjp^aro- XlOol? fiev yap elKOGair-qx^f^^ 

TO fJLTJKOS Kal TO evpOS h€KaTrrjX^GL OVVTjppLol^eTO, 

fJLTjO^ VTTopvyrjvaL GLhrjpcp paStcus" p^rjO vtt opydvotg 

154 Stacretcr^T^vat bvvdfJLevov , SeVa Se TT-qx^ei'S avTO^ 
TO Tei^o? irrXaTvv€To , Kal to vijjos TrXeZov fxev dv, 
dj£ eLKos, ^crx^ p-'f] SLaKa)Xvd€i(jrjg ttjs tov KaTap- 

155 ^apiivov <f)iXoTLpLLas. avOus Se KaiToi /xera arrovhrj'^ 
iy€Lp6pL€vov 1)770 ^lovhaiojv €LS eLKOGL TT-qx^iS 
avduTT], Kal SL7TrjX€L£ pL€v Tas eTrdX^eiSy TpiTrrjx^f'S 
Se Tovs TTpop.ax'-^'^'o.s ^^X^^> ^^ '^° "^^^ vipos els 
eLKOGLTTevTe TTrjX^i-S dvaT€Td(jdaL. 

156 (3) Tov Se T€LXOVS vrrepelxov ol TTVpyoi Tr-qx^'^? 
eiKOGL p.kv els evpos, elKooL he els vxjjoSy TeTpdycovoL 
T€ Kal TrX-qpeis warrep avTO to Telxos ovTes' tj ye 
pLTjv appLOvla Kal to KdXXos tojv Xidojv ovhev 

157 aTTehei vaov. /xerd he to vauTov vipos tojv TTupywv, 
orrep rjv elKoodrrrixv , TToXvTeXels rjuav olkol, Kal 
KadvTTepdev vrrepcha, he^apLevai re Trpos Tas tojv 
veTcov vTTohoxds, eXiKes Te Kat TrXaTeZai Kad^ 

158 eKauTov dvohoi. tolovtovs ptev ovv rrvpyovs to 
TpiTov Telxos ^^X^^ evevrjKOVTa, ra pLeTairvpyia he 
TOVTOJV dm TTTjX^'-S hiaKOGLovs' TO h av pieGov 
els TeGGapas Kal heKa TTvpyovs, to 8' dpxoXov 

159 els e^i]KOVTa pLep.epLGTO. tt]s rroXecos S' d rrds 
kvkXos GTohiajv fjv TpLaKOVTaTpiojv . davpLaoLov 
8' ovTos oXov TOV TpLTOv ret^ofs" OavpiaGicjoTepos 
dvelx^ /card ycovlav ^opeios Te Kau rrpos hvGLV 6 
^'rj(f)Lvos TTvpyos, KaB^ ov eGTpaTOTrehevGaTO Titos. 

160 eirl yap e^hopi-qKovra TT-qx^'-S vip-qXos cov Wpa^lav 
T€ dviGxovTos rjXLOV TTapelx^v d(f)opdv Kal p^expi 

^ aiTi2 M : aiTw vat P : airo Kai A. 
• 33 stades= about 3^ miles. The circumference esti- 
246 



JEWISH WAR, V. 153-160 

began ; for it was constructed of stones twenty cubits 
long and ten broad, so closely joined that they could 
scarcely haye been undermined with tools of iron or 
shaken by engines. The wall itself was ten cubits 
broad, and it would doubtless haye attained a greater 
height than it did, had not the ambition of its founder 
been frustrated. Subsequently, although hurriedly 
erected by the Jews, it rose to a height of tM'enty 
cubits, besides ha\'ing battlements of two cubits and 
bulwarks of three cubits high, bringing the total 
altitude up to twenty-five cubits. 

(3) Aboye the wall, however, rose towers, twenty The towers 
cubits broad and twenty high, square and solid as the 
wall itself, and in the joining and beauty of the 
stones in no wise inferior to a temple. Over this 
solid masonry, twenty cubits in altitude, were mag- 
nificent apartments, and above these, upper chambers 
and cisterns to receive the rain-water, each tower 
having broad spiral staircases. Of such towers the 
third wall had ninety, disposed at intervals of two ^ 
hundred cubits ; the Hne of the middle wall was 
broken by fourteen towers, that of the old wall by 
sixty. The whole circumference of the city was 
thirty-three furlongs." But wonderful as was the 
third wall throughout, still more so was the tower 
Psephinus, which rose at its north-west angle and Psepinnus, 
opposite to which Titus encamped. For, being- 
seventy cubits high, it afforded from sunrise a pros- 
pect embracing both Arabia and the utmost limits 

mated by " the land surveyor of Syria " {ap. Euseb. Praep, 
Ev. ix. 36) in the second century b.c. was 27 stades ; for 
other exaggerated estimates of 40 and 50 stades see ^-ip. i, 
197 note. The circumference here given for the larger city ^ 
of the first century a.d. favours a more northerly position U 
for the third wall than that of the existing north wall. f 

247 



JOSEPHUS 

daXdrrr]? ra rrjs 'E^patcov kXtjpovx^cls eaxciTa' 

161 oKrdyojvog 8 rjv. tovtov S' dvTiKpvs 6 'Ittttlkos 
Kal Trap" avrov hvo KareoKevdadrjaav yikv v(f)^ 
*¥ipcoSov /SacrtAecD? iv rw apxaloj recx^i, fieyedog 
Se Kal KdXXo? rjGav Kal 6)(yp6r-qra tojv Kara ttjv 

162 OLKOVjJLevrjv hid^opoi' rrpos yap rep (f)VGeL jdeyaXo- 
ijjvx^i^ f^^^^ "^fj TT^pl TYfv ttoXlv (l>iXoTipiia rr]v 
VTTepox'qv Tcbv epycov 6 ^acrtAeus" rrddeoiv oIk€lol? 
ixapil,€TO, /cat rptcrt rots' rjSiGroL? rrpoacoTTOLS, 
d(f)^ coy (hvojiaae rovs irvpyovs, dSeA^oj /cat 
<j>iXcp Kal yvvaiKi, tt)v fjLvqfJLrjv dvidrjKe, rrjv piev 
CO? 7Tpo€LprjKapL€v [/cat]^ KT€Lvas St* epcora, tov£ 8' 
aTTO^aXdjv ev TToXep^co yewatco? ayajviaapievovs . 

163 o p-kv ovv Yttttikos arro rod (f)LXov rrpoGayopevdels 
rerpdyojvos pikv tjv, evpos Se Kal pu'qKo? cIkool- 
TTevre tttix^v eKaarov Kal vipo? rpidKovra, ovSapLov 

164 SidKevos. VTTep he ro TrXrjpeg Kal rals rrerpais 
cruvrjva>pL€Vov et? e/cSo;^)]^ op^pcov elKOGdin^xv? 

165 XdKKos TjV ro ^ddos, eTrdvco Se rovrov hiareyog 
oIkos [fi'^Y eiKOGi Kai Trivre ttt^x^'^ '^^ vipos eis 
TTOiKiXa rey-q birjp-qpievos, vrrep ov rvpcrei? pikv 
hnrrix^i'S Trpopiax^jves Be rrepL^e^X-qvro rpLTTrjX^^^> 
CO? ro TTav vijjos els oyhorjKovra tttjx^^? Gvvapid- 

166 pLetadaL. 6 8e hevrepos rrvpyos, ov (hvopaaev drro 
TdheX(f>ov ^aadrjXov, ro piev TrXdros Kal ro pLTJKog 
taov ^^X^^> reuoapdKovra tttjxojv eKaaroVy eirl 

^ AL : om. the rest. ^ om. L. 

" Phasael, Hippicus (strangely ignored in the narrative of 
Herod's reign), and Mariamme. ^ i. 443. 

^ Phasael, taken prisoner by the Parthians, committed 
suicide, i. 271 ; of the other's end there is no record. 

** Probably the N.W. tower of the present citadel (Smith, 

248 



JEWISH WAR, V. 160-166 

of Hebrew territory as far as the sea ; it was of 
octagonal form. 

Ov^er against this was the tower Hippicus, and and Herod's 
close to it two others, all built by King Herod into towe^rs: 
the old wall, and for magnitude, beauty and strength 
without their equal in the world. For, apart from 
his innate magnanimity and his pride in the city, the 
king sought, in the super-excellence of these works, 
to gratify his private feelings ; dedicating them to 
the memory of three persons to whom he was most 
fondly attached, and after whom he named these 
towers — brother, friend, and wife.'* The last, as we 
have previously related, he had for love's sake 
actually slain ^ ; the others he had lost in war, after 
valiant fight. '^ 

Now Hippicus,*^ called after his friend, was quad- Hippicus, 
rangular, its length and breadth being each twenty- 
five cubits, and to the height of thirty cubits it was 
solid throughout. But above this solid and compact 
mass of masonry was a reservoir, twenty cubits deep, 
to receive the rain-water, and over this a double- 
roofed chamber, twenty-five cubits high, with roofs 
of diverse colours ; this again was crowned by 
turrets, two cubits, and battlements, three cubits 
high, so that the total altitude amounted to eighty 
cubits. 

The second tower, which he named Phasael * after Phasaei, 
his brother, was of equal length and breadth, forty 

Jerusalem, i. 240). The three Herodian towers were pre- 
served by Titus for the admiration of future ages, vii. 1 f. 

* The N.E. tower of the present citadel, erroneouslj' called 
" David's tower." The dimensions approximate to the 
round statement of Josephus (a cube of 40 cubits = c. 60 feet), 
being actually 65.6 ft. high x 55.78 broad x 70.21 long; 
ih. 191. 

249 



JOSEPHUS 

167 reaaapaKovra S' avrov to vaarov -qv vijjos. iTrdvco 
5e avTOV TTepLT^CL GToa heKarrrj-^vs ro vipo?, dcopa- 

168 KLOL? re Kal Trpo^oXoLS OKeTTopievr]. fiearjv 8' 

VTTepOJKoSopL'qTO TTjV GTOOLV TTVpyOS €T€pOS, €?? 

re OLKOvs TToAureAets' Kal Srj Kal ^aXavelov 8t- 
TjprjfjLevos, (x)£ IjL7]8€v ivbeoL rep TTvpyco ^aGiXeiov 
hoKeZv. TO, 8 aKpa rols 77po/xa;^a>(7t Kal rats 

169 rvpG€GLV "I" 7^ TTepLavTOVj^ KeKOGfjLrjTO. TT-q-^cjjv 8' 
TjV TO 77dv Ui/fos" CO? ivevqKOVTa, Kal ro /xev o)(fipia 
TTapecpKei rep Kara ttjv Odpov eKirvpaevovri rols 
€ttI ^AXe^avhpeias rrXeovGL, rfj Trepioxfj Se ttoXv 
pLeit,cx>v -qv' rrjVLKavrd ye pLTjv rvpavvelov aTreheLxOr] 

170 Tov HlpLCovog. 6 8e rpiros TTvpyog r) MaptajLt^ry, 
Tovro yap r] ^aatAt? e/caAetro, P-^XP^ H'^^ clkogl 
7Tr]xo^v vaarog rjv, eiKoat 8e Trrjx^^'? ets" evpos 

171 Sue^aLve Kal p.rJKO£ lgov, TToXvreXeGrepav 8e Kal 
TTOiKiXwrepav rcov dXXojv ttjv olktjglv elx^v iirdvco, 
rod ^aGiXeoj? OLKelov vrroXa^ovros rov diro 
yvvaiKos ovopLaGdevra KeKOGpirjGdai TrXiov ?} rovs 
diT^ dvhpojv, (joGTrep eKeivovs rod rrjs yvvaiKos 
iGxvpordpovs. rovrov ro irdv vipos TrevrrjKovra 
Kal rrevre 7n]x<^^ tjv. 

172 (-i) TrjXiKovroi 8' ovres" ol rpels ro pieyedos 

173 TToXv pL€L^oves e<j>aivovro 8td rov roTtov avro re 
yap ro apxcilov relxo?^ iv (L rjGav, i(f)^ vip-qXco 
X6<f)cp hehop.'qro, Kal rov X6(f)OV Kadairep Kopv(f)TJ 
ris vijjr]Xorepa rrpoaveZx^^ ^^V rpidKOvra irrixeiSy 
virep Tjv ol TTvpyoL Keipievoi ttoXu St^ rt rov 

17-4 p-erecopov TTpoGeXdpc^avov . OavpidGLOV 8e Kal rcov 
Xidojv TjV ro pLeyedo?' ov yap i^ eiKaias x^p/xaSos" 
ovhk (f)op-qra)v dvOpujTTOis rrerpoiv ovveLGr^KeGav, 

^ PA: fxaWov ijvep 6 irpb aiToO the rest: om. Lat. 
250 



JEWISH WAR, V. 167-174 

cubits each ; forty cubits was also the height of its 
sohd base. Above and around this ran a cloister, ten 
cubits high, protected by parapets and bulwarks. 
Over this and rising from the centre of the cloister 
was built another tower, apportioned into sumptuous 
apartments, including a bath, in order that nothing 
might be wanting to impart to this tower the appear- 
ance of a palace. Its summit was crowned with 
battlements and turrets, and its total height was about 
ninety cubits. In form it resembled the tower of 
Pharos ° that emits its beacon hght to na\'igators 
approaching Alexandria, but in circumference it was 
much larger. It had now become the seat of Simon's 
tyranny. 

The third tower, Mariamme ^ — for such was the and 
queen's name — was soUd to a height of but twenty ' ^^^*™™®' 
cubits, its breadth being also twenty cubits and its 
length the same. But its upper residential quarters 
were far more luxurious and ornate than those of 
the other towers, the king considering it appropriate 
that the one named after a woman should so far 
surpass in decoration those called after men, as they 
outdid the woman's tower in strength. The total 
height of this last was fifty-five cubits. 

(4) But while such were the proportions of these 
three towers, they seemed far larger owing to their 
site. For the old wall in which they stood was itself 
built on a lofty hill, and above the hill rose as it were 
a crest thirty cubits higher still ; on this the towers 
stood and thus gained immensely in elevation. 
Marvellous, too, were the dimensions of the stones ; 
for these were not composed of ordinary blocks 
or boulders such as men might carry, but were 

• iv. 613. ^ Site unknown, apparently E. of Phasael. 

VOL. Ill I 251 



JOSEPHUS 

115 XevKT] 8e iidpjiapos irfi-qOrj- Kal to jxev fjLT]Kos 
iKaGTTjg TTTjxo^v Tjv eiKOGL, 8e/ca Se evpos Kal 
^ddos 7T€vre, (rvvqvojvro 8 in olXXtJXols, coj 
SoKetv eKaarov nvpyov pnav elvau irirpav dva- 
7T€<f)VKVLav, erretra Se TrepLe^eudai X^P^^^ rexyirwv 
els ^Xni^^ ^^^^ yojvias' ovtojs ovSapiodev rj ovvd- 

176 ^eta tt^s" dpyiovias Sie(/)atVeTO. Keifievois Se Trpog 
dpKTOv avTols €vho9ev -q rod jSacrtAeo)? avXrj 

177 TTpoGel^evKTO rravros \6yov KpeiGGiov ovre yap 
TToXvreXeias ovre KaraGKevrjs nvos eXeiirev vrrep- 
^oXrjV, dXXd rereix^'Oro [lev drraGa rpiOLKovra 
mjx^^^ '^^ ^4^'^? kvkXo), Kar lgov hiaGriqpLa KeKO- 
Gfir^fievoLS Se^ rrvpyoLS SteiA7]77ro drhpajGi re 

178 fieyLGTOLS Kai els ^evcjvas eKarovraKXivovs' ev 
ols dhiriyqros p-^v r] TTOiKiXla rcjv XlOojv rjv, GVvrJKro 
yap rroXus 6 rravraxov GTrdvios, davpLaGral S* 
6po(f>al fjLTjKeL re Sokcov Kal XapLTrpor-qn Trpo- 

179 KOGfjL7]p,drci)V, oXkcjjv Se ttXtjOos Kal Sta^opat 
GxrjpLdrojv rrepl rovrovs pLvpiai, TrdGiv ye [xr)v 
drroGKeval TrXrjpeis, Kal rd rrXeioj rcJov ev eKdGroLS 

180 K€LpLeva>v e^ dpyvpov re Kal ;;^puo-OL'. irepiGroa 
Se St' dXXrjXojv ev kvkXo) TToXXd, Kal GrvXoi npos 
eKdGro) SLd(f)opoL' ra ye pnqv rovra)v vnaiOpa 

181 Trdvra^ ;)(Aoepa, Kal TToiKiXaL pLev uAat pLaKpol Se St' 
avrojv TTepiTTaroL Kal Trepl rovrovs evpi—oi ^adels 
Se^apLeval re navraxov ;(aA/<:oupy7]/xaT6L>i^ nepu- 
rrXeoL, St' chv ro v8a>p e^ex^-lro, Kal TroAAot Tiept rd 

182 vdpLara rrvpyoL TreXeidhcov -qpuepajv. dXXd yap 
ovO^ eppLTjvevGaL Bvvarov d^Lcos rd ^aGiXeic, koI 

^ U seems out of place and should probably stand before 
(Niese) or after di.daTr]/j.a : L places it after 8ui\r]VTo. 
* PAM : iravTaxov the rest. 

252 



JEWISH WAR, V. 175-182 

cut out of white marble. The length of each 
block was twenty cubits, the breadth ten, and the 
depth five, and so nicely were they joined to one 
another that each tower seemed like one natural 
rock, that had later been pohshed by the hands of 
craftsmen into shape and angles ; so wholly imper- 
ceptible was the fitting of the joints. 

Adjoining and on the inner side of these towers, Herod's 
which lay to the north of it, was the king's palace, p^^^^®- 
baffling all description : indeed, in extravagance 
and equipment no building surpassed it. It was 
completely enclosed within a wall thirty cubits high, 
broken at equal distances by ornamental towers, and 
contained immense banqueting-halls and bed- 
chambers for a hundred guests. The interior fittings 
are indescribable — the variety of the stones (for 
species rare in every other country were here 
collected in abundance), ceilings wonderful both for 
the length of the beams and the splendour of their 
surface decoration, the host of apartments with their 
infinite varieties of design, all amply furnished, while 
most of the objects in each of them were of silver or 
gold. All around were many circular cloisters, lead- 
ing one into another, the columns in each being 
different, and their open courts all of greensward ; 
there were groves of various trees intersected by 
long walks, which were bordered by deep canals, and 
ponds everywhere studded with bronze figures, 
through which the water was discharged, and around 
the streams were numerous cots for tame pigeons. 
However, it is impossible adequately to delineate the 
palace, and the memory of it is harrowing, recalling 

253 



JOSEPHUS 

(f)€.p€i ^daavov rj fJLinjfjLT], ras rod XrjarpiKov TTvpo? 

183 SaTrdvag dva<^€povGa' ov yap ravra 'Pco/xatot 
Kare(/)X€^av, dAA' vtto tcov evhov eTTL^ovXajv, cv? 
7rpo€Lp'qKafJL€V, iv otpXTJ '^V^ dTTOGrdaecos^ aTTO 
fX€v rrjg AvTCovias TJp^aro ro TTvp, ptere^r] 8' irrl 
rd ^aalXeia Kal rojv rpiojv TTvpycov rds areya? 
eTTCvepL-qOr] . 

184 (v. l) To S' Upov IBpVTO fJL€V, ojGTTep e^Tjv , cttI 
X6(f)OV Kaprepov, arar* dp^dg 8e /xoAt? e^rjpKei to 
avcDrdraj "^dapiaXdv avrov ro) re vaw Kal rep 
^ojpLO)' rd ydp rrepi^ dnoKprjpLVOs tjv Kal KardvTrjg. 

185 Tov Se ^aGuXeajg ^oXojjlojvos, os Stj Kal rov vaov 
eKTiGev, TO Kar dvaroXds pLepos iKreLX^aavros, 
eTrereOr] /xta otoo. tw ;^aj/LtaTf /cat Kard ye rd 
XoLTrd pieprj yvpLVog 6 vaos "^v, rots S* i^ris alojGLV 
del TL rod Xaov rrpoGy^cuvvvvTOs dvLGOvpL€vo? 6 

186 X6(f)Os T^vpvvero. SiaKoipavres Se Kal to TrpoG- 

dpKTlOV T€LXO? TOGOVTOV TTpOGeXdfJL^aVOV OGOV 

vGrepov €7Telxev o rod ttovtos lepov Trepi^oXos. 

187 retxiGavres S' eK pi^rjg Tp^XV KVKXodev rov 
X6<j)OV /cat pLel^ov eATrtSo? iKTrovqGavres epyov, els 

^ L : + /cat {KarecpX^x^V^o-^ '^at C) the rest. 

" B. ii. 430-440 ; the rebels first set fire to Antonia and 
then besieged the Roman garrison in Herod's palace and 
burnt their camp (September a.d. 66). 

^ For comparison with this account of Herod's temple we 
possess a second partial description in the tractate of the 
Mishna entitled Middot{h) (=" measures" sc. of the 
temple), written c. a.d. 150. The two accounts are in many 
particulars inconsistent. Middoth on some points usefully 
supplements Josephus ; but its author, whose information 
comes to him at second hand, writes without the strict regard 
for accuracy of a mere antiquarian. Like Ezekiel, he has 
before him a picture of the ideal temple of the future. Of 

254 



JEWISH WAR, V. 182-187 

as it does the ravages of the brigands' fire. For it its con- 
was not the Romans who burnt it to the ground, but by°the 
this was done, as we have said ab-eady,'* by con- brigands. 
spirators within the Malls at the opening of the revolt. 
The conflagration beginning at Antonia passed to 
the palace, and spread to the roofs of the three 
towers. 

(v. 1) Though the temple,* as I said,*' was Description 
seated on a strong hill, the level area on its summit temple. 
originally barely sufficed for shrine and altar, the Gradual 
ground around it being precipitous and steep. But of the 
king Solomon, the actual founder of the temple, temple hiii 
having walled up the eastern side, a single portico 
was reared on this made ground ; on its other 
sides the sanctuary remained exposed. In course of 
ages, however, through the constant additions of 
the people to the embankment, the hill-top by this 
process of levelling up was widened. They further 
broke down the north wall and thus took in an area 
as large as the whole temple enclosure subsequently 
occupied.'* Then, after having enclosed the hill 
from its base "v^ith a Avail on three sides,* and accom- 
plished a task greater than they could ever have 

the two accounts, that of Josephus, who had seen the temple, 
is the more trustworthy ; but the discrepancies between 
Josephus, Middoth, and archaeological discovery are so 
great that in the opinion of the most recent editor of the 
tractate " the true picture of the Herodian temple can no 
longer to-day be drawn." See O. Holtzmann, Die Misclina, 
Middot (Giessen, 1913), p. vi, and especially pp. 15-44, 
" Der Traktat Middot und Josephus." 

" See §§ 138 f. 

^ According to Middoth ii. 1 the temple hill was 500 cubits 
square (a figure perhaps derived from Ezek. xlii. 16-20). 

* Solomon having already walled up the E. side, as stated 
above, § 185. 

255 



JOSEPHUS 

fiaKpoL fX€v €^avaXojOr]aav alowe? avroZs koX 

01 Upol 8e dfjuavpol rravres, ovs dveTTLfiTrXaaav ol 
TTapa rrjg OLKovfievrjg haapiOL irepLTTopLevoi toj Oecp, 
Tovs re avoj Trepi^oXovs kol to Kara) Upov ap,(^- 

188 eheip^avTo. rovrov to raTreivorarov airo rpia- 
KOCJLOJV averei'x^iaavTO TTrj^ow, Kara 8e nva? 
T07T0VS Kai^ 7rXeLovo£. ou pL€vroL TTav ro ^ddos 
€(f)aLV€ro rcov OepLeXtajv inl ttoXv yap ex^ocrav 
ras" (^dpayyag, dvLGOvv ^ovXcfievoi rovs arevcoTTovg 

189 rou dareo?. rrerpai Se reGGapaKovraTrrjX^i^? t-o 
fxeyedos rjuav rod SofnjpLaros' rj re yap SaiplXeia 
rojv ;^p7]^aTa)y Kal rod Xaov (^iXoripiia Xoyov 
fieL^ovas erroLelro rds eTn^oXd?, Kal ro p^'r]^^ 
eXTTiadev e^eiv rrepas imp^ovfj Kal xP^vols rjv dvv- 

GLpLOV. 

190 (2) *Hv Se afta row rrjXiKovrajv depLeXiajv Kal 
rd VTTep avTcov epya' StTzAat pLev yap at crroal 
TTaaaL, Kioves S' avrals elKoanrevre tttjxojv ro 
vi/jo? ecfieGT-qKeaav , p.ov6XidoL XevKordr-qs pLap- 

191 p-dpoVy Kehpivois Se (^arvojpLaaLV cLpocfxjuvro. rov- 
rojv Tj pLev <f)VGLKrj TToXvreXeia Kal rd ev^earov Kal 
ro appLOVLOv irapeZx^ deajpiav a^toXoyov, ovSevL S 
e^ojOev ovre tojypafhias ovre yXv(f)LBog ^PY^ 

192 TTpoG-qyXdLGro. Kal TrXarelai p,ev rJGav eirl rpid- 
Kovra vqx^i-S} o 8e Trd? kvkXos avrwv els e^ 
urahiovs (JVvep.erpelro TrepiXapL^avopievT]? Kal rrjs 

AvTCDVias" ro S' VTraiOpov drrav TreTTOiKiXro 

193 TTavrohaTTOj Xldo/ Karearpajpievov . 8td rovrov 
TTpo'Covrcxjv errl to hevrepov lepov hpv(l)aKros 



^ L Lat. (etiara) : iK the rest. 
' Destinon : iravTodairuiv Xidojp ms3. 



256 



JEWISH WAR, V. 187-193 

hoped to achieve — a task upon which long ages 
were spent by them as well as all their sacred 
treasures, though replenished by the tributes offered 
to God from every quarter of the world — they built 
around the original block the upper courts and 
the lower temple enclosure. The latter, where its 
foundations were lowest, they built up from a depth 
of three hundred cubits ; at some spots this figure 
was exceeded. The whole depth of the foundations 
was, however, not apparent ; for they filled up a 
considerable part of the ra\ines, wishing to level the 
narrow allevs of the to^^•Tl. Blocks of stone were Magnitude 

I . .1 ' 1 .^ T . r>, !•, n of the stoues 

used m the building measuring torty cubits; tor used in the 
lavish funds and popular enthusiasm led to incred foundations. 
ible enterprises, and a task seemingly interminable 
was through perseverance and in time actually 
achieved. 

(2) Nor was the superstructure unworthy of such The 
foundations. The porticoes, all in double rows, were and th?^ 
supported by columns five and twenty cubits high — °^^^^ court. 
each a single block of the purest white marble — and 
ceiled with panels of cedar. The natural magnifi- 
cence of these columns, their excellent polish and fine 
adjustment presented a striking spectacle, without 
any adventitious embellishment of painting or 
sculpture. The porticoes were thirty cubits broad, "> 
and the complete circuit of them, embracing the 
tower of Antonia, measured six furlongs. The open 
court was from end to end variegated with pa\'ing 
of all manner of stones. 

Proceeding across this towards the second court The second 
of the temple, one found it surrounded by a stone debarred to 

"^57 foreig°6"- 



JOSEPHUS I 

TTepL^e^XrjTo Xidivos, rpL7Trjxv9 /X€v vifjos, ttolvv 8e 

194 X^P'^^^'^^^ hieipyaayievos' €v avro) S' eLGT-qKeaap 
i^ Lcrov SiaGT-qfjLaros arrjXaL rov rrjs ayveia? 
TTpoarjfjLaivovaaL voptov, at [lev '^XX'qvLKols at he 

Paj/xatKots" ypdixpLaaiv, iirjSeva dXX6cf)vXov evros 
rod dyiov irapiivai' to yap hevrepov Upov dyiov 

195 eKaXelro. Kal reGoapeuKaiheKa /xev ^adfiois rjv 
dva^arov dno rod Trpcvrov, reTpdycovov he dvoj 

196 Kal retx^L irepLTTecfypayyievov Ihicn. rovrov ro puev 
e^ojdev vijjos KaiTrep reGoapdKovra tttj^oji^ VTvdpxov 
v7t6 twv ^adfiojv eKaXvTTrero, ro h evhov ecKOGL 
Kal TTevre TTTjxoiiv rjv Trpog yap viffqXorepoj heho- 
pL'qp.evov rod ^dQpov^ ovKer rjV airav ecGOJ Kara- 

197 (f)ave? KaXvTTropievov vtto rod X6j)OV. fxerd he rovs 
heKareGGapas ^adfiovs ro p-^XP^ "^^^ reuxovs 

198 hidGrrjfjLa Trr^p^cov rjv heKa, rrdv LGOTrehov. evSev 
aXXoi rrdXiv Trevre^aOpLOL^ KXipiaKes dvrjyov inl rds 
TTvXag, at drro pLev dpKrov /cat pLeGr]p.^pLag OKro), 
Kad^ eKarepov reGGapeg, hvo S' rJGav e^ dvaroXrjs 
Kar dvdyK-qv hiarereix^Gpievov yap Kara rovro 
ro KXlpLa rai? yvvai^lv Ihuov irpos OprjGKeiav 

* rod ^ddpov Destinon : rod ^ddixov (or rots ^dd/jiois) mss. 
2 hdeKd^adfxoi. PAML ; cf. § 206. 



" Hebrew soreg, Middoth ii. 3 a. 

* c. 4| feet : according to Middoth^ " ten handbreadths " 

= c. 2i feet. 

* One of these slabs was discovered in 1871 by M. Cler- 
mont-Ganneau, and is now at Constantinople ; the inscrip- 
tion on it runs /XTjOeua dWoyevT] elcnropevecrdai ivrbs tov wepi to 
lepbv rpvcpaKTOv Kal irepL^oXov. 8s 5' Slp \-q<p6r] iavru atrios iarat. 
Sid rb i^aKo\ovOe"Lv ddvarov. Josephus mentions it again in 

258 



JEWISH WAR, V. 193-198 

balustrade,** three cubits^ high and of exquisite 
workmanship ; in this at regular intervals stood slabs 
giving Avarning, some in Greek, others in Latin 
characters, of the law of purification, to wit that no 
foreigner was permitted to enter the holy place,'' 
for so the second enclosure of the temple was called. 
It was approached from the first by fourteen steps ; 
the area above was quadrangular, and screened by 
a wall of its own. The exterior height of this, 
actually forty cubits, was disguised by the steps, the 
interior altitude was but five and twenty ; for the 
floor being built on a higher level,'^ the whole was not 
visible from within, a portion being concealed by the 
hill. Beyond the fourteen steps there ^vas a space 
of ten cubits between them and the wall, forming a 
level terrace.^ From this again other flights of five 
steps led up to the gates. Of these there were eight 
on the north and south, four on either side, and two 
on the east ^ — necessarily ; since in this quarter a 
special place of worship was walled off for the M'omen, 

A. XV. 417 epKLOv \idivov 8pv(pdKTov ypacpfj KioXvov eicrievaL top 
dWoedyrj davaTLKrjs direLXov/j.ei'ris ttjs ^ri,uias ; cf. the allusion in 
Philo, Leg. ad Gaium, 31 {212 Cohn). St. Paul's arrest was 
due to a belief that he had brought Trophimus the Ephesian 
within the barrier, Acts xxi. 26 ff. 

•* Or (with the mss.) " the staircase being built against 
rising ground." 

» The steps, with the terrace above them, ran round three 
sides of the building ; at the west end there were no steps 
(§ 38). Middoth ii. 3 b mentions the terrace {Chel), 10 cubits 
(broad), but speaks of 12 steps only, instead of the 14 + 5 
of Josephus. In this and other discrepancies Josephus 
appears to be the more trustworthy authority. 

^ i.e. relatively to the vabs and the courts immediately 
surrounding it ; the two gates were in the centre of the east 
and west walls respectively of the Women's Court, which 
formed the main access to the inner courts. 

VOL. Ill 1 2 259 



JOSEPHUS 

)(OJpov, eSet Seurepav etvat TTvXrjv TCTfi-qro 8 avrrj 

199 TTjs TTpciJTTjs dvTLKpvg. KO-K TOW clAAcov Se KXijxdrajv 
fjLia fi€arjii^pLvrj TTvXrj Kal fiia ^opecos, St' rjg^ elg 
T7]v yvvaLKowlriv eiarjyov Kara yap rag aAAa? 
o'UK i^rjv TTapeXQelv yvvai^Lv, aXX ovhe Kara Ttjv 
G(i)€T€pav VTrep^rjvaL to Siaretj^tcr/Lta. dvelro ye 
fiTjV Tals t' iTTLXcopi-OLg Kat rat? e^coBev ofiocfivXoL? 

200 iv Igoj irpos 6prjcrK€Lav 6 x^^po?- to Se Trpog Svglv 
lidpog ovK €LX€. TTvXrjV, aXXd Si-qveKeg ihehofJLTjro 
ravrrj to Telxo?- at aroat Se jJLera^v tlov ttvXojv 
6.7:6 Tov T€Lxovs evhov iaTpajJijievai rrpo tojv 
yaLo(f)vXaKLOJV G(f)6hpa [lev KaXolg Kal fieyaXoig 
dveixovTO kloolv, rjcav h drrXaly Kal TrXrjV rod 
p.eyedovs tojv Karco Kar ouSev aTTeXeLTTOvro. 

201 (3) Ttov §e 7TvXa)v at fxev ewea XP"^^^ ^^^ 
dpyvpcp K€KaXvfifi€vaL TravraxoBev rjoav, ojxoiojs 
re at re TrapaGrddes Kal ra vrrlpdvpa, fiia S' 7] 
e^codev TOV vew J^opivOiov p^aA/cou, rroXv Trj TLfXTJ 
ra? KaTapyvpovg Kat TrepixpvGOvg virepdyovGa. 

202 Kal hvo jikv eKdGTov TTvXojvog Ovpai, TpidKovTa 
Se 7Ti'jxd)v TO vijjog eKaGTYjg Kal to irXaTog -qv 

203 TTevTeKatheKa. pterd fievTOL Tag etCToSou? IvhoTepco 
7rXaTVv6pL€V0L Trap eKdrepov rpta/covraTrry^ct? 
i^eSpas etxov evpos t€ Kal fjii^Kos TTvpyoethels, 

^ 01 ^s] quibus Lat. 

" Or " facing inwards from." 

^ These lay round the walls of the whole inner court and 
were used for the storage of temple property (Smith, Jeru- 
saUm, ii. 510 n., Hastings, I).B. iv. 714 a) ; they included 
perhaps the strong-rooms for private wealth deposited here 
for safety, B. vi. 282, cf. A. xix. 294 " the treasury." In the 
^-^^ N.T. (Mark xii. 41, etc.), on the other hand, " the treasury " 

260 



JEWISH WAR, V. 198-203 



rendering a second gate requisite ; this approach xiie 
opened opposite to the first. On the other sides ^\°1^"' ^ 
there was one gate on the south and one on tlie north 
giving access to the women's court ; for women were 
not permitted to enter by the others nor yet to pass 
by way of their own gate beyond the partition walL 
This court was, however, thrown open for worship 
to all Jewish women alike, whether natives of the 
country or \'isitors from abroad. The west end of the 
building had no gate, the wall there being unbroken. 
The porticoes between the gates, on the inner side 
of <* the wall in front of the treasury chambers,^ were 
supported by exceedingly beautiful and lofty columns ; 
these porticoes were single, but, except in point of 
size, in no way inferior to those in the lower court. 

(3) Of the gates'' nine were completely overlaid Tha gates. 
with gold and silver, as were also their door-posts 
and hntels ; but one, that outside the sanctuary, 
was of Corinthian bronze, and far exceeded in value 
those plated with silver and set in gold,*^ Each 
gateway had two doors, and each door was thirty 
cubits in height and fifteen in breadth. Beyond and 
within the entrances, however, the portals expanded, 
embracing on either side turret-hke chambers * 
measuring thirty cubits in breadth and length, and 

means the 13 trumpet-shaped receptacles for alms and 
offerings which stood in the Women's Court. 

' The 10 gates mentioned in § 198. 

** "The Corinthian gate "=" the gate of Nicanor " of 
MtddotJi (ii. 3 g, " All the gates were gilded except the gate 
of Nicanor," mentioning its bronze), and probably " the 
Beautiful gate " of Acts iii. 2, 10. From Josephus, though 
his language is difficult, it seems clear that it was in the east 
wall, not (as some have argued) in the west wall, of the ^ 
women's court. Corinthian bronze was famous. 

• Or " gate-rooms." 

261 



JOSEPHUS 

vipTjAas o VTTep T€GaapaKOvra tttjx^'-S' ovo 
avelxov eKaar-qv klov€?, ScoheKa 7rr]-)(a)V rrjv 

204 '^^pi-oxriv e)(0VT€£. Kai rcov jiev dXXojv tcrov rjv 
TO fieyedog, rj 8 VTrep t7]v Koptv^tav oltto rrjg 
yuvaiKajviTLhos i^ dvaroXrj? dvoLyoiJLevr] ttjs rod 

205 i^OLOv 77vXr]g dvriKpv ttoXv pLel^cov TTevrrJKovra 
yap 7Trj-)(^cx)v ovaa ttjv dvaGraGLV reaaapaKovra- 
7Trj-)(eLg ras Ovpag ct^^e Kat rov Koapiov ttoXv- 
reXearepov iirl SaipcXe? ird'^^os dpyvpov re Kat 
Xpvaov. rovTOV Se rats' ivvea Tri^Aat? eTrex^^v 6 

206 Ti^epiov TTarrjp ^AXe^avSpog. ^adfiol Se Se/ca- 

77€VT€ TTpog TT^V fJL€LL.OVa TTvX'qV djTO TOV TCJV 

yvvaLKOJV 8taTet;^t(7/j,aTOS" avi^yov' tcjv yap Kara 
rag dXXag Trevre ^adp-aJv rjGav ^pa^vrepoL. 

207 (^) Auto? 8 o vaos Kara y.€Oov KeLjievog, ro 
ayiov Upov, ScoScKa ^aQfiols tjv dva^aro?, xrat 
TO pev Kara rrpoGOJTrov vipos re Kai evpog lgop 
ava rr-qx^Ls eKarov, KaroTTiv Se reGGapaKovra 
TTrjxeGi Grevorepos' ep^TrpoGdev yap dtGTrep djpoL 

208 Trap eKdrepov elKOGarriq-x^eLs hii^aivov . rj Trpcorr] 
avrov ttvXt], rrrjxdjv i^doiJLiJKOvra ro vipog ovGa 
Kai evpog €LKOGL Kai 7T€vr€, Ovpag ovK €L-)(e- rov 
yap ovpavov ro a;)/ave?^ Kat aSta/cActCTTOv ivefbauve' 
KexpvGOJTO 8e rd plrojira Trdvra, Kai 8t' avrrjg 
o re TTpojrog OiKog e^coQev Trdg /<:aTe<^atV£TO fxd- 
yiGrog dw, Kai rd rrepl rr^v eiGw ttvXtjv Trdvra 

209 Xap— opera xp^^d) rolg opojGLV VTreTTiTrrev. rod 
vaov Se ovrog etGco hioreyov p,6vog 6 Trpdorog 

^ Lat. ; I'l/'TjXat MSS. ^ Bekker : d^aver mss. 



" i.e. west of. 

* i.e. forming the eastern approach to the sanctuary^ from 
the west end of the Women's Court. 



JEWISH WAR, V. 203-209 

over forty cubits high, each supported by two columns, 
twelve cubits in circumference. The dimensions of 
the other gates were all alike, but the one beyond '^ 
the Corinthian gate, opening from the Women's 
Court on the east,^ opposite the gate of the sanctuary, 
was far larger, having an altitude of fifty cubits, with 
doors of forty, and richer decoration, being overlaid 
with massive plates of silver and gold. The nine 
gates were thus plated by Alexander " the father of 
Tiberius. Fifteen steps led up from the women's 
compartment to the greater gate, these steps being 
shallower than the five at each of the other gates.** 

(4) The sacred edifice itself, the holy temple, in xh*- temple 
the central position, was approached by a flight of |^i"j^eVa«fde 
twelve steps. The facade ^ was of equal height and 
breadth, each being a hundred cubits ; ^ but the 
building behind was narrower by forty cubits, for in 
front it had as it were shoulders extending twenty 
cubits on either side.^ The first gate was seventy 
cubits high and twenty-five broad and had no doors, 
displaying unexcluded the void expanse of heaven; 
the entire face was covered with gold, and through it 
the first edifice was \isible to a spectator without in 
all its grandeur and the surroundings of the inner 
gate all gleaming with gold fell beneath his eye. 
But, whereas the sanctuary within consisted of two 

* Alabarch of Alexandria and brother of the philosopher / 
Philo,^.xviii. 259; forhisson,Tiberiiis Alexander, now a staff- r 
oflficer in the Roman army, see B. ii. 220, v. 45. '^ § 19S. J 

' One must imagine a great propylaeon or porch. 

^ So Middoth iv. 6. In Nero's time King Agrippa had 
made preparations for raising the height to 120 cubits, but 
the work was prevented by the outbreak of war, B. v. 3G f., 
cf. A. XV. 391. 

" Middoth, iv. 7 c : " The sanctuary was narrow behind 
and broad in front, like a lion." 

263 



JOSEPHUS 

oTko? 7TpovK€iTo Kai Sti^veAce? et? to vipo?, dua- 

T€Lv6fJL€VO? IXeV €7T* iveVTjKOVTa TTrjX^I-^y fJi'qKVVO' 

fievos he eirl Trevr'qKovra kol SiajSatvcoy £77' e'lKOGiv. 

210 Tj Se Sta rod olkov TrvXrj KexpvGcoro /xeV, (hs e(f)rjv, 
TTaua Kol oAo? o irepi avrrjv roZxos, et;^e Se kol 
rds ;)(puCTas' VTrep lavrrjs dfnreXovg, dcf)* ojv ^orpves 

211 dvSpojjLTjKeL? KareKpepiavro. [ovtos 8e rjhr] rod 
vaov SiGreyov, raTreivorepa rfjs e^codev oijjecos 
Tj evSov TjvY Kai Qvpas et^^ p^pucra? TrevrrjKovra- 

212 TTevre TTrix^ajv ro vipos, evpog 8 eKKauSeKa. irpo 
8e rovTOJv laopr^Kes KaraTreraGpLa TrerrXos rjv 
Ba^vXojvLog TTOiKiXrog i^ vaKLvdov Kai ^vggov 
KOKKov re Kai 7Top(f)vpag, OavpLaGrcog puev etp- 
yaGpevog, ovk adeajp-qrov 8e rrjs vXrj? ttjv KpaGLV 

213 ex(JOV, aAA' ajGrrep eiKova rwv oXojv ihoKet yap 
alvLTT€GdaL rfj kokkco pi€v TO TTvp, Trj ^vGGcp he 
rrjv yrjv, rfj S' vaKLvOqj tov depa, Kai Trj rropcfivpa 
Tiqv OdXaGGav, tojv pLev eK ttjs xP^''^^ opLOLovpLeva)V, 
rrjs 8e ^vggov Kai rrjs 7Top(f)vpas hid rr^v yeveGuv, 
erreLorj rrjv pLev avaoiocoGLV fj yrj, rrjV rj oaAaGGa. 

214 KareyeypaTTTO 8' o rrerrXos drraGav rrjv ovpdvLov 
deojpiav 7rXr]v row l,ajhLOJv. 

215 (5) HapLovras 8' ecGco ro errLTrehov rod vaov 
piepos e^ehex^TO. rovrov roivvv ro pLev vipos 
e^rjKovra Trrixo^"^ Kai ro pirJKOs lgov, eLKOGi^ Se 

^ See note d. ^ dKoaiTeacxap^ov L. 

" hlareyos must, from the context, here mean " with two 
chambers on the sayne floor,'" i.e. the Holy Place and the Holy 
of Holies ; not (as in § 211, note d below) " in two stories." 

» § 208 fin. 

* Cf. A. XV. 395. Tacitus, Hist. v. 5 alludes to the " vitis 
aurea templo reperta " and to the inference drawn by som<» 
that the Jews were worshippers of Father Liber (Baxichus) 

264 



JEWISH WAR, V. 209-215 

separate chambers," the first building alone stood 
exposed to \-iew, from top to bottom, towering to a 
height of ninety cubits, its length being fifty and its 
breadth twenty. The gate opening into the building 
was, as I said,'' completely overlaid with gold, as was 
the whole wall around it. It had, moreover, above it 
those golden vines,'' from which depended grape- The golden 
clusters as tall as a man ; ^ and it had golden doors th" veil. 
fifty-five cubits high and sixteen broad. Before 
these hung a veil of equal length, of Babylonian 
tapestry, Mith embroidery of blue and fine linen, of 
scarlet also and purple, AVTOught with marvellous 
skill. Nor was this mixture of materials Mithout its 
mystic meaning : it typified the universe. For the 
scarlet seemed emblematical of fire, the fine linen of 
the earth, the blue of the air, and the purple of the 
sea ; the comparison in two cases being suggested 
by their colour, and in that of the fine linen and 
purple by their origin, as the one is produced by the 
earth and the other by the sea. On this tapestry 
was portrayed a panorama of the heavens, the signs 
of the Zodiac excepted. 

(5) Passing within one found oneself in the ground- The 
floor of the sanctuary. This was sixty cubits in I'nterion^ ' 
height, the same in length, and twenty cubits in 

** Here the mss. add : " But, as the sanctuary was now 
in two stories, it appeared lower within than from without." 
This irrelevant parenthesis interrupts the sentence, gives to 
Siareyos a meaning different from that in which it has just 
been used, and is a premature reference to the interior of the 
building, the description of which begins only at § 215 ; the 
two stories are mentioned in § 221. I take the clause to be 
a gloss on the opening words of § 209, perhaps a correction 
of the author himself or of a avuepyos ; there are indications 
that the text has been worked over. 

265 



JOSEPHUS 

216 TT-qy^ojv ro TrXdros rjv. ro 8' i^rjKovraTTrjxv ttolXlv 
hiT^p-qro, Kal ro fxev Trpwrov fJLepog a-noTeriiriixevov 
€.TTL reGGapoLKovra TT-qx^^S ^^X^^ ^^ iavroj rpia 
TO, davpLacncoTara /cat Trept^orjra ttolglv dvOpcoTTOig 

217 epya, Xvxvlav rpdiret^av OvfiLarrjpLov. iv€(f)aLVov 
8' ol fiev €7Trd Xvx^oi rovg irXav-qTa?- togovtol 
yap OLTT^ a-urrj? Sirjprjvro rrjs Ai;;^vtas"" ol S em 
rrjs Tpa77€^r]s dprot ScoSeKa rov re ^cuStaKov 

218 kvkXov Kal rov eviavrov. ro dvfitar'qpiov 8e Sta 
TOJV rpLGKalheKa dvpnapidrojv, ols €K daXaGG-qs 
dveTTLpLTrXaro Kal yrj£ doiK-qrov re^ Kal OLKOVfiev-qs, 

219 eGrjfiaiV€v on rod deov rravra Kal rw 9ecp. ro 
8' ivhordroj yiipos eiKOGi jxkv TnrjX(^'^ rj^' hieLpyero 
8' 6fJLola)s KaraTTerdGfJiari Trpos ro e^ojBev. kKeiro 
8' ovhev oXoJS €V avrcpy d^arov 8e /cat axp^^vrov 
Kal ddearov rjp TraGiv, dyiov 8e dyiov e/caAetro. 

220 rrepl 8c rd TrXevpd rov Kdruj vaov 8t dXXrjXojv 
TjGav OLKOL rpiGreyoi ttoXXol, /cat nap eKarepov 

221 et? avroij? aTio rrjs 7TvXr]g etcroSot. to 8 vrrepwov 
fiepog rovrovs jjiev ovKer ^lx^v rovs oIkovs, 
rrapoGOV rjv Kal Grevorepov, vipr^Xorepov^ 8 em 
reGGapdKovra rrrix^^S /cat Xtrorepov rov /caroj' 
crvvdyerai yap ovrcos rrpds e^iJKovra rols tov 
imTreSov 7rr]xdi)v eKardv ro rrdv vifjos. 

^ yrjs doi.KrjTov re Xiese : ttjs re aoLKTjTov MSS. ^ v\J/r]\bv L. 

" So the Talmud (as quoted in Encycl. Bibl. ii. 2167). 
To the four ingredients prescribed in Exod. xxx. 34 (" stacte, 
onycha, galbanum, frankincense ") there were added in 
Rabbinic times nine more, viz. myrrh, cassia, spikenard, 
saffron, cosrus, mace, cinnamon, salt and a herb which had 
the property of causing the smoke to ascend vertically. An 
incense of seven ingredients is mentioned in Jubilees, xvi. 24, 
cf. Ecclus. xxiv. 15 

266 



JEWISH WAR, V. 216-221 

breadth. But the sixty cubits of its length were 
again divided. The first portion, partitioned off at The Holy 
forty cubits, contained ^\'ithin it three most wonderful p^^<^^- 
works of art, universally renowned : a lampstand, a 
table, and an altar of incense. The seven lamps (such 
being the number of the branches from the lamp- 
stand) represented the planets ; the loaves on the 
table, twelve in number, the circle of the Zodiac and 
the year ; while the altar of incense, by the thirteen " 
fragrant spices from sea and from land, both desert 
and inhabited, with which it was replenished, signified 
that all things are of God and for God.^ 

The innermost recess measured twenty cubits. The Holy 
and was screened in like manner from the outer °^ ^^o''^'"^' 
portion by a veil. In this stood nothing whatever : 
unapproachable, in\-iolable, invisible to all, it was 
called the Holy of Holy.'' 

Around the sides of the lower part of the sanctuary Priests' 
were numerous chambers, in three stories, communi- ^ '^^ ^^"^ 
eating with one another ; these were approached 
by entrances from either side of the gateway. The 
upper part of the building had no similar chambers, 
being proportionately narrower, but rose forty 
cubits higher in a severer style than the lower story. 
These forty cubits, added to the sixty of the 
ground-floor, amount to a total altitude of a hundred 
cubits. 

* To Philo the four Mosaic ingredients of the incense 
symbolize the four elements, Quis rer. div. heres, 197 (40). A 
similar " cosmical " interpretation of the tabernacle and of 
the priestly vestments (§ 231) is given by Josephus elsewhere 
{A. iii. 180 if. eKaara yap tovtcjv eis a.Tro/XL,ar)<np /cat dLaTVTrcjcni' 
T^v oXiou, cf. B. iv. 324 7/ KocTfj-LKri dp-qcTKeia) and by Philo, Vita 
Mosis ii. 117 Cohn (iii. 12) dTreLKOt^iaua Kal fxiixruxa tov koct/jlov. 

' The Hebrew names for it were d^bir (" hindmost 
chamber ") or " Holy of Holies." 

267 



JOSEPHUS 

222 (6) To 8' e^ojSev avrov npoawTTOV o-uSev out 
€L£ ipvxT]? ovT^ el? d/Xjuarojv eKTiX-q^LV aTreXeiTTev 
TrXa^l yap ;^pu(7ou OTL^apals KeKaXvjjLjjievo? Trdv- 
Todev, VTTO TOL? TTpwTag avaroXag TTvpajSearaT-qv 
arreTTaXXev avyrjV Kal rtbv ^ta^o/ieVcov iSetv ra? 

223 6xp€LS coGTTep -qXiaKaZs o-ktIglv 6.77 ear pecji^v. rolg 
ye fxr]v d(f)LKVoviJi€voL£^ ^evois TToppcodev opLOiog 
6p€L x^ovos TrXrjpeL Karecjiaivero' Kal yap Kada 

224 fJir] KexpvGOJTO XevKoraros tjv. Kara Kopv(f)rjv 8e 
Xpvaeovg o^eXovg dveZ^^v TeO-qyfievovg, d)S fiij rivi 
TTpooKadetopilvoj [jloXvvolto tcov opvicxjv. tcjv S 
ev avTO) Xldojv evioi [irJKog irevre Kat reaaapa- 
Kovra 7Tr])(ojv Tjuav, vifjog Trevre, evpos 8' €^. 

225 7Tp6 avrov 8' o ^oj/xo? TrevreKalSeKa p.€v vipog 
Tjv rr-qx^ojv y evpo? 8e Kat [irJKog eKreivcov luov 
dvd TTevri^Kovra rr-qxeis rerpdycovos Ihpvro, Keparo- 
etSet? TTpoavexo^v yojvias, Kal drro pL€Gr]p.^pLas 
€77 avrov dvohos rjpejjLa TrpooavrrjS VTrnaoro. 
KareoKevdadrj 8' dvev GLhrjpov, Kal ovSeiror 

226 eipavev avrov GiSrjpo?. 7T€pLeGr€(f)e 8e rov re 
vaov Kai rov ^ajpLov evXiOov ri Kal ^apiev yeiGiov, 
oGov TTTixvaZov vipo£, o hLelpyev i^corepco rov Syjfxov 

227 drro rcov lepecov. yovoppoloL? jiev Srj Kal XeirpoL? 

7j ttoXls oXf], TO 8' Upov^ yvvaiKCjjv ifipi'qvoLS 

^ elaa^iKuov/jievoLS LVRC. 

^ TO 8' iepbv Niese : to dieipyov or to dielpyov to iepbv most 
MSS. 

" Mid doth iv. 6 mentions a " raven-scarer " (scare-crow) 
one cubit high. 

* These blocks, of almost incredible length, must have 
been exceptional : A. xv. 392 gives the dimensions of the 
stones as about 25 cubits long, 8 high, and about 12 broad. 
Cf. the disciples' exclamation, " Master, behold what manner 
of stones ! " Mark xiii. 1. 

268 



JEWISH WAR, V. 222-22 

(6) The exterior of the building wanted nothing Exterior of 
that could astound either mind or eye. For, being ^^ ^^^ ^' 
covered on all sides with massive plates of gold, the 
sun was no sooner up than it radiated so fiery a flash 
that persons straining to look at it were compelled 
to avert their eyes, as from the solar rays. To 
approaching strangers it appeared from a distance 
like a snow-clad mountain ; for all that was not over- 
laid with gold was of purest white. From its summit 
protruded sharp golden spikes to prevent birds from 
settling upon and polluting the roof.^ Some of the 
stones in the building were forty-five cubits in length, 
five in height and six in breadth.^ 

In front of it stood the altar, fifteen cubits high, The altar. 
and with a breadth and length extending alike to 
fifty cubits, in shape a square ° with horn-like pro- 
jections at the corners, and approached from the 
south by a gently sloping acclivity.^ No iron was 
used in its construction, nor did iron ever touch it.* 

Surrounding both the sanctuary and the altar was 
a low stone parapet,-'' fair and graceful, about a cubit 
high, which separated the laity outside from the 
priests. 

Persons afflicted with gonorrhoea or leprosy were Areas pro- 
excluded from the city altogether ; the temple was particular 
closed to women during their menstruation, and even persons. 

* Middoth iii. 1 a likewise describes the altar as a square 
with horns at the corners, but gives smaller dimensions, the 
base being- a square of 3:? cubits, the highest portion a square 
of 24 cubits, and the height 8 cubits ; it mentions an older 
and still smaller altar. 

** So Middoth iii. 3 b (adding dimensions). 

• So Middoth iii. 4 a, b (no iron tool was used in cleaning 
it), adding the quaint explanation " for iron is created to 
shorten man's days and the altar is built to lensrthen man's 
days." ' Mentioned in Midd. ii. 7 b. 

269 



JOSEPHUS 

dn^KeKXeLGTO, napeXOelv 8e ravrais ovhk KaOapat^ 
e^rjv ov 7Tpo€i7TayLev opov. avhpujv h ol fJir] 
Kaddnav rjyvevKoreg etpyovro rrjs evhov avXrjg, 
Kal Tcov tepeojv TrdXiv ol^ KaOapevovreg etpyovro. 
22S (7) Tojv 5' drro yevovs Upecov ogol 8ta TTTjpcoGLV 
ovK iXeLTovpyovv Traprjadv re dfia rols oXoKXrjpoig 
ivdorepoj rod yeioiov Kal rds dno rod yevovg 
iXdpL^avov (jLeplSas, rats ye pLrjv eadrjueGLv^ Idtoj- 
TiKols ixpojVTO' TTjV ydp Lepdv o Xetrovpycvv 

229 r)fi6L€vvvTO jjlovo?. €7rt §€ ro OvGiaGr-qpiov /cat 
rov vaov dve^aivov ol rwv lepiojv djjLOJfJLOL, ^vggov 
jiev dfiTrexop-evoL, /zdAtcrra 8' avr* dKparov vrj(f)Ovr€s 
he€L TT]? 6pr]GK€Lag, (Ls fx-q tl -rrapa^aZev iv rfi 

230 XeLTOvpyLa. 6 Se dpxi-^p^vs dvQei /xev gvv avrols, 
aAA' OVK dec, rals 8' i^dofidGL Kal vovpLiqvLaLg 
Kal el' Tt? ioprrj Trdrpios tj Travqyvpis rfv^ Trdvh-qixos 

231 dyofievr) 8t' erovg. iXeirovpyei 8e rovs firjpovg fiev 
dxpi-S alhoiov hiatajGiiaTL KaXvTTrwv, Xivovv 8e 
VTTodvrrjv evdodev XapL^dvcuv Kai TTohijpr] KadvTrep- 
dev vaKLvOivov, evhvpLa GrpoyyvXov dvGavcorov 
TOW 8e OvGdvwv d7Trjprr]VTO Kojhojveg ;)(pi;CT60t Kat 
poal rrapdXX'qXoL, ^povrrjs p-^v ol KojSojves, a- 

232 GTpaTTrjg 8' al poal Grjixelov. tj 8e to evSvp^a rw 
GT€pvoj TrpoG-qXovGa raivia nevre ht'qvdLGp.evr] 

^ Destinon with Lat. : + ixri mss. ' ecrdrjcnv L. 

^ Destinon : 7) PAL: om. the rest. 

• § 199. 

* Cf. with this paragraph Ap. ii. 103 f. 

« A fuller description of the vestments both of the ordinary 
priests and of the high priest, based on Exodus xxviii etc., 
is given in A. iii. 151-178. Cjf. Ecclus. xlv. 7-12. 

270 



JEWISH WAR, V. 227-232 

when free from impurity they were not permitted 
to pass the boundary which we have mentioned 
above. ° Men not thoroughly clean were debarred 
from admission to the inner court, from which even 
priests were excluded when undergoing purification.^ 

(7) All who were of priestly lineage but were pre- The 
vented from officiating by some physical defect, M-ere pneltl!"^ 
admitted within the parapet, along vrith those free 
from any imperfection, and received the portions 
which were their birthright, but wore ordinary 
dress ; none but the officiating priest was clad in 
the holy vestments. The priests who were without 
blemish went up to the altar and the sanctuary 
clothed in fine linen, scrupulously abstaining from 
strong drink through reverence for the ritual, lest 
they should be guilty of any transgression in their 
ministrations. 

The high priest accompanied them, not on all The i.igh 
occasions, but on the seventh days and new moons, vestments, 
and on any national festival or annual assemblage 
of all the people. When ministering, he wore'' 
breeches'* which covered his thighs up to the loins, 
an under vest of hnen, and over that a blue robe* 
reaching to the feet, full and tasselled ; and from the 
tassels hung golden bells and pomegranates alter- 
nately, the bells symbohzing thunder and the pome- 
granates hghtning. The embroidered sash-'' which 
attached this robe to the breast consisted of five 

* "linen breeches" (miknesei bad), Ex. xxviii. 42, rbv 
fiavaxicrv^ y^eyo/mepop ji. iii. 152. 

« " the robe of the ephod all of blue," Ex. xxviii. 31-35, 
A. iii. 159-161 {/J-eeip K-a\etrat /card rr^v ijfieT^pav 'y\waaav = 
Heb. myil). 

' " A girdle the work of the embroiderer," Ex. xxviii. 39, 
A. iii. 159. 

271 



JOSEPHUS 

^ctjvats" TTeTroLKiXro, ;)^pucroLi re Kal nopcfyvpas Kal 
KOKKov, 77p6? Se ^VGGOV Kai vaKivOov , hi chv 
e^a/xev /cat ra rov vaov KaraTTeracrfxaTa oruvv(f)dvdaL. 

233 TOVTOLg Se Kal €776t)^tSa K€KpajjL€vrjv ^^x^v, iv fj 
rrXeLow -)(pvG6s rjv. Gxy^p-o. p.kv ovv evhvrov^ Oo)- 
paKos ^''■X^'^i ^^o ^ avTTjv everropTTOVV aamhiGKaL 
XpvGal, KareKEKXeiVTO 8' iv raurat? KaXXiGTol 
re /cat jxlyiGroi Gaph6vvx^9, tov£ eTTCovvpLOvg toji' 

234 rod edvovs (f)vXa}V eTityeypa^/xeVat. /caret 8e 
Odrepov aAAot TrpoGrjpriqvTO Xidoi SojSe/ca, /caret 
rpels €LS T€GGapa p-ipt] hirjprjpiivoL, Gaphiov 
TO—aLos GpdpayBog, dvSpa^ tacTTTt? Gd7T(f)eLpos , 
dxdrqs dpedvGTOs Xiyvptov, ovv^ ^rjpvXXog XP^^^' 

XlOoS, (hv i(f)^ €KdGTOV TTCtAtV 6t? TCOV eTTCOVVpLOJU 

235 iyeypanro. rrjv Se Ke(j)aX-qv ^VGGLViq pep €GK€7T€v 
Tidpa, KareGrerrro 8' vaKLvdoj, rrepl tjv ;)(pL'crous" 
dXXog TjV GT€(f)avog eKTVira (f)€pcov ret tcpa ypdp- 

236 p.ara' raura S' ecrrt (f)a)vq€VTa reGGapa. ravr-qv 

^ iirevovTov L. 

'' §§ 212 f. (excluding gold which is not mentioned in 
connexion ^ith the veilj. 

^ Ex. xxviii. 6 ff., A. iii. 162 ff. Epomis, the Greek 
rendering here and in the LXX of the Heb. ephod, means 
the upper part of a woman's tunic attached by shoulder- 
straps, a sort of " cape." * i.e. at the shoulders. 

** So A. iii. 165 : the gem intended in Ex. xxviii. 9 is 
uncertain, R.V. text " onj-x," margin " beryl," LXX 
ijiidpayoos (? " emerald "). * i.e. in front. 

' ■^ Ex. xx\-iii. 17-20, A. iii. 168. 

" A. iii. 16S " sardonyx." 

'^ In ^. iii. 168 the stones in the two last rows are named 
in another order, on which emphasis is laid : " The third row 
begins with jacinth, then amethyst, and thirdly agate, being 
the ninth in all ; in the fourth row chrysolite comes first, 
next onyx, then beryl — it is the last." 

272 



JEWISH WAR, V. 232-236 

bands of variegated colours, gold, purple, scarlet, 
fine linen and blue, with which, as we have said,^ the 
veils in the sanctuary were also interwoven. Of the 
same mixture of materials, ^\'ith gold preponderating, 
was the high-priest's epliod.^ In form like an ordi- 
nary cuirass, it was fastened^ by two golden brooches, 
set vnih very large and beautiful sardonyxes,'^ on 
which were engraved the names of those after whom 
the tribes of the nation were called. Attached to 
the other side* were twelve more stones,-^ in four 
rows of three each : sardius,^ topaz, emerald ; car- 
buncle, jasper, sapphire ; agate, amethyst, jacinth ; 
onyx, beryl, chrysolite ; ^ on each of which, again, 
was engraved the name of one of the heads of the 
tribes. His head was covered by a tiara* of fine 
linen, wTeathed Avith blue, encircling which was 
another cro\\Ti, of gold, whereon were embossed the 
sacred letters, to wit, four vowels.^ These robes were 

* The " mitre of fine linen " or (R.V. margin) " turban ot 
silk," Ex. xxviii. 37, 39 ; a fuller description of the head-dress 
is given in A. iii. 172-178, where it is compared to a cup-like 
flower. 

' i.e. the tetragrammaton YH\'H. That this was the 
inscription, and that the phrase in Ex. xxviii. 36 means " the 
sacred name Jahve," not " Holy (or ' Holiness ') to the 
Lord " is shown in two notes on Aaron's head-dress by 
Mr. J. E. Hogg and Prof. F. C. Burkitt in the Journal of 
Theol. Studies, vol. xxvi. 72, 180. The interpretation has 
the support of Philo, De vita Mosis ii. (iii.) 114 Cohn, rerrapas 
exop y\v(pas opo/xaros, Origen on Ps. ii. 2 and Bar Hebraeus ; 
cf. Jos. A. iii. 178 reXa/xwi' . . . iepols ypd/xfiaai. tov deov ttju 
Trpoarjyopiav iirLTer/XTjueyos, viii. 93 r; (jTe(pdvr] eis rju tov debv 
Mwrcj-v)? €ypa\pe. Why Josephus speaks of " four voicels " is 
uncertain. The first and third letters are probably "by 
nature vowels" {=i and w), though by usage consonants 
(Gesenius, Heh. Grammar, ed. Cowley, pp. 26, 45). He is 
perhaps thinking of a Greek form (laie). 

273 



JOSEPHUS 

fjL€v ovv rrjv eaOrjra ovk €(j>6pei )(p6vLov, Xtrorepav 
aveAap.pavev , oirore o etcrtot ets" to aovrov 

€LGT^€L S OLTTa^ KaT* ivLaVTOV fJ,6v09 €V fj VrjGT€V€LV 

237 €005 Tjiiepa rravras ro) dew. /cat to, /xev Trepl rrj? 
TToXecDs Kal rod vaov rcov re Trepl rovrov^ iOojv 
KaL vofjLojv au^t? aKpi^earepov epovfiev ov yap 
oXtyo? Trepl avrojv KaraXeiTreraL Xoyog, 

238 (8) 'H 8' ^Avrcjovia Kara yojviav /xev hvo 
GT0(JL)V eKeiTO rod Trpcorov lepov, rrjg re irpos 
ecTTTepav kol rrjg Trpos apKrov, heSopL-qro S VTrep 
rrerpas TrevrrjKovraTT'qx^'^^ H'^^ v^os, rrepLKp-qfjivov 
Se TrdarjS' epyov 8' tjv 'HpcoSou rod ^aatXeaJSy 
ev (L fidXiGra ro ^ucret fieyaXovovv eTrehei^aro. 

239 TTpaJrov p.ev yap eV pit^rjs r] Tterpa TrXa^l KeKaXvrrro 
Aetat? XWojv, ets re KaXXog Kal co? dTToXiaddvoL 

240 TTd? 6 TTpoG^aiveiv tj Karievai TreipwpLevos. eTreira 
TTpo rrj? rod TTvpyov hofi-qGecos rpiaJv tttjxoji^ 
relxo? TjV, evSorepoj Se rovrov ro Trdv dvaGnqpia^ 
rrjs AvrojVLas em reoGapaKovra TT-qx^f'S rjyeipero. 

241 ro 8* evhov ^aoiXeiajv elxe p^cupav Kal hiddeoiv 
jjiefieptGro yap els Trdoav oIkcov t8eav re /cat 
Xprjcri'V TTepiorod re Kal ^aAaveta /cat orparo- 
TTeBcou avXals TrAaretats-/ cos" rco fiev rrdvr exetv 
rd p^peiciSSTy TToAts" ett'at SoKelv, rfj TToXvreXeia 

^ Trepl TovTov L : eVt toitols the rest. 
^ L : dLd(jTr]fj.a the rest. ^ avXas TrXaret'as C. 

' " The Day of Atonement ; Lev. xv'i. 

* Doubtless in his projected work " On Customs and 

274 



JEWISH WAR, V. 236-241 

not worn by the high priest in general, when he 
assumed plainer attire, but only when he penetrated 
to the innermost sanctuary ; this he entered alone 
once in the year, on the day on which it was the 
universal custom to keep fast to God.° Of the city 
and the temple and of the customs and laws relating 
to the latter we shall speak more minutely here- 
after ^ ; for on these topics much yet remains to be 
told. 

(8) The tower of Antonia lay at the angle where The castle 
two porticoes, the western and the northern, of the 
first court of the temple met ; it was built upon a 
rock fifty cubits high and on all sides precipitous. 
It was the work of King Herod " and a croM-ning ex- 
hibition of the innate grandeur of his genius.^ For, 
to begin with, the rock was covered from its base 
upwards with smooth flagstones, both for ornament 
and in order that anyone attempting to ascend or 
descend it might sHp off. Next, in front of the 
actual edifice, there was a wall three cubits high ; 
and behind this the tower of Antonia rose majestic 
to an altitude of forty cubits. The interior resembled 
a palace in its spaciousness and appointments, being 
divided into apartments of every description and for 
every purpose, including cloisters, baths and broad 
courtyards for the accommodation of troops ; so that 
from its possession of all conveniences it seemed a 
town, from its magnificence a palace.* The general 

Causes," often referred to in the Antiquities^ but never 
apparently completed. 

« Built on the site of an older castle (/SSpis) erected by John 
Hyrcanus, A. xviii. 91, c/. xv. 403, B. i. 75, and named after 
Mark Antony, B. i. 401 ; it is the " castle " of Acts xxi. 34. ^ 

** The same phrase occurs in i. 408 (of Caesarea). 

• Cf. i. 421 (of Herodion). 

275 



JOSEPHUS 

242 

he ^aaiXeiov . irvpyoeihr^s Se oucra ro rrdv ax^fJL.a 

Kara yojviav riaoapGiv irepoLg hielX-qTrro TTvpyoL?, 

wv ol jxev aXXoL rrevTrjKovra to vipog, 6 8 iin rfj 

fjLecrrjii^pLvfj Kai Kara avaroX-qv yujvLa KeLjievo? 

€^do[nJKovra 7T'qy(_ajv -qv, cLs Kadopdv oXov arr 

avTOV TO lepov. Kada Se crvvrJTrre Tat? tov uepov 

GToals els dfJL(f)OT€pa£ etx^ Kara^aoeLSy St tuv 

Karrjeaav ol cf^povpoi' Kadrjaro yap det^ ctt' aurr)? 

Tayp.a PojfiaLOJi', Kat buGrafievoi rrepc ra? UToag 

_ /Lterd Toiv ottXojv iv rats' eoprals tov brjfJLOV, cos 

jjL-q TL vecDTepLGdelr], jrape^vXarTOV cf)povpLOV yap 

i7T€K€LTO TTj TToXeL jJiEV TO UpOV, TO) UpO) S 7] 

Wi'Tcuvla, KaTOL d€ TavT-qv ol tojv Tpiojv (^-uXaKes 
Tjoav Kal TTjs dvoj Se TToXeojs Idcov (f)povpLov 
TjV TO. 'Upcodov ^aoiXeia. rj Be^e^d^ Se Ao^o? 
hLTjprjTO jieVy ojs ecjuqv, diro Trjs WvTajvLag, Travrajv 
8' viprjXoTaros a)V [lepei ttjs Kaivqs TToXeojs 

TrpOGOJKLUTOy Kai flOVOS TO) Lepo)^ KaT apKTOV 

iTTeGKorei. Trepl fxev dr] tt]s rroXecos Kal tlov reix^v 
avOis el-elv aKpL^eGrepov eKaGTa rrporedeipilvois 

€7TL TOV TrapOVTOS aTTOXP'Tj' 
248 / ' ,\ "T^ ^ I ^'' >~ > ry 

(VI. 1) lo [layip-ov o ep avTTj Kat GTaGiaL^ov 
ttXtjOos rrepl Zt^cova fiev TjGav pLvpioi St;i^a tcjv 
^IdovpLalajv, TrevTrJKovTa d' -qyefioves rcov fJLvpicov, 
ecp OLS ovTOS Kvpios TOJV oAojv . loou/xatot O 
avTcp GVVTeXovvTes els TrevraKiGX^Xiovs dpxovTas 
et^ov SeKa' tovtojv Trpoup^etv eSoKovv o t€ tov 
ScoCTCL 'Idxco^os" Kal Hlfiajv vlos KaOXd.* ^lojdvvrjs 

1 om. P. * Bes'a^d P: B-ncrffadi] L Lat. (c/. § 151). 

• TO lepbv PA. * KaTdea L : Catiae Lat. ; cf. iv. i?35. 

276 



JEWISH WAR, V. 242-250 

appearance of the whole was that of a tower with 
other towers at each of the four corners ; three of 
these turrets were fifty cubits high, while that at 
the south-east angle rose to seventy cubits, and so 
commanded a view of the whole area of the temple. 
At the point where it impinged upon the porticoes 
of the temple, there were stairs '^ leading down to 
both of them, by which the guards descended ; for The Roman 
a Roman cohort was permanently quartered there, Auton^ia/^ 
and at the festivals took up positions in arms around 
the porticoes to watch the people and repress any in- 
surrectionary movement. For if the temple lay as a 
fortress over the city, Antonia dominated the temple, 
and the occupants of that post were the guards of all 
three ; the upper town had its o^^•n fortress — Herod's 
palace.* The hill Bezetha was, as I said,*^ cut off 
from Antonia ; the highest of all the hills, it was en- 
croached on by part of the new town and formed on 
the north the only obstruction to the vie^^^ of the 
temple. As I propose hereafter ^ to give a fuller "^ 
and more circumstantial description of the temple 
and the walls, these remarks shall for the present •* 
suffice. '' 

(vi. 1) The strength of the combatants and in- The 
surgents within tlie city was as follows. Simon had fjil^ftua- 
an army, exclusive of the Idumaeans, of ten thousand tion of the 
men ; over these were fifty officers, Simon himself factions. "^ 
being commander-in-chief. His Idumaean con- 
tingent numbered five thousand and had ten chiefs, 
among whom James, son of Sosas, and Simon, son of 

" From which St. Paul, when arrested, addressed the Jews, » 
Acts xxi. 40. 

" Described above, §§ 176 ff. 

• § 149. ^ See note 6 on § 237. 

277 



JOSEPHUS 

Se TO Upov Kar€LX'q(f)d>g e^aKto^tAtous" oirXiTas 
€i')(€V V(j)^ rjyefJLOvas eiKOGi. Trpooeyevovro 8' avrco 
rore kol ol l^TjXcDral TravudfjLevoi rod 'bia<f>epeGOai, 
Slgx^Xlol iikv 6vr€s koI rerpaKoatot, ■)(^pojp.evoi 
8' dpxovTL TO) Kal TTporepov 'EAea^apoj kol 

251 ^LJJLCDVL Tip TOV ^ KpiVOV } TToXepLOVVTOJV Sc TOVTCOV , 

(hs e(f)apL€v, dSXov 6 SrjpLOS rjv eKarepajv, kol to 
{jLTj GVvahiKovv rod Xaov piipos vtt api(f)olv Snqprrd- 

252 ^€ro. KareZx^v 8' o /xev Hlp^cov rrjv re dvco ttoXlv 
Kol TO /xeya tcIxos d^P^ "^ov KeSpajyos", tov re 
dp^aiov Tetxovs ogov 0,776 tt^S" StAoja? dvaKap^rrrov 
els dvaToXr]V p-^XP'' '^^ MovojSa^ou Kare^aivev 
avXrjS' ^auiXevs 8' ovros iuTiv^ tCjv virkp Eu(/>paT7^v 

253 'A8ta/S?]vcuv Kraretp^e 8e /cat Tr]v Trrjyrjv /cat tt^s" 
"A/cpas", avTTj 8' 7]v 77 /caret) TToAts", to, pi^xpi tcov 
'EAevT]? ^aGiXelajv ttjs tov Movo^dt,ov pL-qrpos, 

254 o o Itoain^T^S" to a tepov /cat Ta Treptg ctt ou/c 
oAtyoy, TOV tc ^0(f)Xdv /cat tt]v Ke8pa>va /caAou- 
pivTjv (f)dpayya. to /xera^u 8e tovtojv epLirp-q- 
GavTCS TO) Trpds ciAAt^Aous" TToAe/xoj ;^6L>pav dvelGav 

255 ouSe yap rrpos" Tots" Telx^GLV iGTpaTOTrehevpLevajv 
^PojpLalojv evSov tj GTaois rjpepieL, ^po-X^ ^^ rrpos 
rrjV TTpcoTTjv VTTOvqipavTes iKSpopLTjv dvevoGovv /cat 

^ 'Apivov LLat. (c/. 'Apt vi. 92, 148): 'Ap{€)idvov most mss., 
'laet'poi/ C. 

2 L Lat. : ^1/ the rest. 

" C/. iv. 235, where four generals of the original Idumaean 

army of 20,000. including James and Simon, are mentioned. 

-. From the present passage it appears that not more than half 

that force had withdrawn from Jerusalem ; iv. 353 implies 

that the whole body had retired in disgust. 

'^ § 27. * The third (or Agrippa's) wail. 

•* Simon manned the walls at the two points where they 

278 



JEWISH WAR, V. 250-255 

Cathlas, ranked highest." John, at the time when 
he seized the temple, had an army of six thousand 
men, commanded by twenty officers ; but now the 
Zealots also had joined him having abandoned theii- 
quarrel, to the number of two thousand four hundred, 
led by Eleazar, their former chief, and Simon, son o£ 
Arinus. These two factions, being, as we said,^ at ) 
war with each other, the citizens were their common . 
prize, and those of the people who discountenanced 
their iniquities became the prey of both. Simon 
occupied the upper toM'n, the great wall " as far as the 
Kedron, and a portion of the old wall,^ from the point 
where it bent eastward at Siloam to its descent to 
the court-house of Monobazus, king of Adiabene 
beyond the Euphrates ; he held also the fountain * 
and part of the Acra, that is to say, the lower to^\^l, 
as far as the palace of Helena, the mother of Mono- 
bazus.-^ John held the temple with much of the en- 
virons, Ophla and the valley called Kedron. The 
region between them they reduced to ashes and left 
as the arena of their mutual conflicts. For not even 
when the Romans were encamped beneath the walls, 
did the civil strife slacken within ; the brief return to 
comparative sanity when they made their first sally " 

were exposed to Roman attack, on the N.W. against the main 
army of Titus, on the S.E. against the tenth legion encamped 
on the Mt. of Olives (§ 70). 

• Siloam. The exhortation of Josephus a little later on '^, 
(§ 410) seems to imply that Siloam was extra muros and in 1 
Roman hands ; but the apparent inconsistency (Smith, / 
Jerusalem, i. 224) may be explained by supposing that the 
Romans held Gihon, the spring outside the walls, which fed -p 
the pool of Siloam within, and were thus virtually, though 
not actually, masters of Siloam as well. ! 

^ The positions of the palaces of Monobazus and Helena 
are unidentified. » §§ 71 ff. 

279 



JOSEPHUS 

Kara a(f)ds ttoKlv hiaaravres ifJidxovro, ra Kar 
ev^rqv re TTOvra toZs rroXiopKovoLv err parr ov. 

256 ovre yovv avroi n ■)(^€Lpov vtto Pco^aicov eTradov 
cLv dXXrjXovg eBpaaav, ovre {jLerd rovrovs r) ttoXls 
eTTCLpdO-q Kaivoripov rrddovg, dAA' rj pL€v )(aX€7Ta)- 
repov Tt TT/DO rod TreaeXv rirv-)(riGev , ol S' iXovres 

'261 avTTjv KaTcopdojordv tl [xei^ov. (jiTjpil yap ojs rrjv 
jjLev ttoXlv Tj orduLs, 'Pco^atot S' elXov rrjv ardaiv, 
rjrrep tjv ttoXv tcov recxow oy(vp(x>Tepa' koi to 
piev (jKvdpcoTTOv rots" olk€lols, to hiKaiov 8 dv 
Tts^ evXoyojs *Pa>/xatots" 7TpoGypd(f>OL. voeircj 8' 
OTTTj Tols rrpdypLaGLV eKaaros dyerai. 

258 {-2) Tcov ye pirjv evhov ovrcos SiaKeipLevcov 6 
Ttros" pL€T emXeKrajv LTmicuv Trepudjv e^ojQev ff 

259 TTpoa^dXXoL tols Teix^eGi KaT€orK€7rT€TO. drropov- 
p.€voj 8e TrdvTodeVy ovt€ yap Kara ra? (f)dpayyag 
Tjv rrpoGLTOv Kal /cara OdTepa to irpajTov TeZ^O'^ 
e(j)aiveTO tu)v opyavojv (jTepeojTepov , eSo/cet /card 
TO \cx>awov Tov apx^epeojs p.vrjp.€lov TTpou^aXeiv 

260 TavTT) yap to re TrpujTOV rjv epvp.a x^apLaXojTepov 
Kal TO hevTepov ov ouvfJTTTev, dp,eXr]advTa)v Kadd 
firj Xiav Tj KatvTj ttoXls ctuvojkloto Tet;^t^etv, dXX 

6771 TO TpiTOV TjV €VTreT€La, 8t* OV TTjV T£ dvOJ 

ttoXlv Kal Std TTJs WvTOJvlas to lepdv alprjGeiv 

261 €776^061. €V Se TOVTO) 7T€pLl6vTOS aVTOV TO^CVeTal 

TLs Tojv (f)lXajVy ovopLa ^LKdvojp, /card tov XaLov 

" Analogous phrases recur repeatedly in the Antiquities, 
e.g. i. 108 Trept p.kv TOVTUjv, us OLP eKaarois y (pi\ou, ovr<jj aKOirei- 
Twaap, ii. 348, iii. 81, etc. They are probably derived 
from Dionysius of Halicarnassus, who appends a similar 
formula to an expression of his personal opinion {e.g. Kpivero} 
5' eKa(7Tos ws /SouXerai iii. 35. 6, ixeTit) 5' ott-q tij avrbv reldei 
i. 48. 1). 

280 



JEWISH WAR, V. 255-261 

was followed by a relapse, and the parties divided 
and fell to fighting once more, doing all that theii' 
besiegers could have desired. Certainly, they 
suffered nothing worse at the hands of the Romans 
than what they inflicted upon each other, nor after 
her experience of them did the city meet with any 
novel calamity ; on the contrary, her more cruel 
disaster preceded her fall, and the rehef which her 
captors brought her outweighed the loss. For I 
maintain that it was the sedition that subdued the 
city, and the Romans the sedition, a foe far more 
stubborn than her walls ; and that all the tragedy of 
it may properly be ascribed to her own people, all 
the justice to the Romans. But let every one follow 
his own opinion whither the facts may lead him .^ 

(2) Such being the situation \^•ithin the walls, Titus, Titus select 
with some picked cavalry, made a tour of inspection point for 
without, to select a spot against which to direct his begins 
attack. Baffled at all other points, the ravines earthworks 
rendering access impossible, mMIc beyond them the 
first M^all seemed too solid for his engines, he decided 
to make the assault opposite the tomb of John the 
high priest ^ ; for here the first Hne of ramparts was 
on lower ground, and the second was disconnected 
with it, the builders ha\'ing neglected to fortify the 
sparsely populated portions of the new town, while 
there was an easy approach to the third wall, tlu'ough 
which his intention was to capture the upper town 
and so, by way of Antonia, the temple. In the mean- 
time, while Titus was riding round the city, one of his 
friends, named Nicanor,*' having approached too near 

" John HjTcanus (135-105 b.c), B. i. 54, etc. His monu- 
ment, often mentioned as a landmark (v. 304, 356, vi. 169), 
seems to have lain to the N.W. of the Jaffa gate. 

• A tribune and an old friend of Josephus, iii. 346. 

281 



JOSEPHUS 

wfiov, eyytov jiera rod ^Icog^ttov TrpocreXOojv Kai 
7T€Lp(X)ix€vos €lpr]VLKa Tol^ €7rl Tov Telxovs, ov 

262 yap ayvojGTOs rjv, hiaXiyeadai. 8ta rovrov ras 
oppLOLg avTOJV eTnyvovs Katcrap, et /xr^Se rujv Ittl 
aojTiqpia TrpoGiovrajv aTrexoivro, TTapo^vverau rrpos 
Tr)V TToXiopKLav, dfia re ovv^ rol? rdyjjLaGL hr)ovv 
TO, 77/30 rrjs TToXeoog ri(^Ui kol crupLcfyopovvras 

263 cKeAeucre rrjv vX-qv eyeipeiv ■y.^p.ara. rpLxrj 8e 
Biard^ag rrjv arparidv Trpos rd epya pLeaovg 
lanqGi rcJov ;)(6u/xaT6L)y rov£ re OLKovrLcrrds Kal 
ro^oras kol irpo rovrojv rovs S^v^eXels Kal 
KararreXras Kal rds XlOo^oXovs /LtT^^^ava?, d)S 
rds r eKhpopLOLS etpyoL rcbv TToXepLLOJV irn rd 
epya Kal rov? 0,776 rod retxov? KUjXveLV Tretpoj- 

264 p.evovs. KOTTrojievojv he rwv hevhpojv rd rrpo- 
dareia piev ev rd^^i yeyvpLvojro, ovpL(f>opovpieva)v 
8' eVt rd ;)(dj/i,aTa rcov ^uAcov /cat rij? arpands 
dTrdar}? errl ro epyov djppLr)pLevrig ovSe rd irapd 

265 rcov 'lofSatcov rjpepLei. rov pLev ovv hrjpLOV ev 
dpTTayals ovra Kal <f>6voLS cruve^aive rore dappelv 
dvaTTvevaeiv re ydp Trepio-TrajpLevajv irpos rovs 
e^codev VTTeXdpi^avov /cat XrjijjeGOai Trapd rcov 
alrlojv avrol St/ca?, et Pco/xatot Trepiyevoivro. 

266 (3) ^Ycodvvrjs he, Kairoi ;!(ajpetv eVt rovs e^codev 
TToXepLLOVs rojv TTepl avrov cvppLTjpLevcov, 8eet rod 

267 Hlpiojvo? epLevev. ov pLTjV 6 Hipaov -qpepiei, Kal 
ydp rjv eyyiojv rfj TToXiopKLa, rd 8' d^err^pta 
SiLGr-qoLV eirl rov relxovg, ocra YieGriov re a(l)-^pr]vro 
Trporepov Kal rr]v eirl rrjs ^ Avrcjvias (j^povpdv 

^ ody Holwerda: a-vv mss. : Kai Destinon, Niese. 
282 



JEWISH WAR, V. 261-267 

with Josephus, was wounded by an arrow in the left 
shoulder while endeavouring to parley with those 
on the wall, to whom he was not unknown, on the 
subject of peace. Caesar apprised by this incident 
of their animosity, since they would not refrain from 
assaulting even those who approached them for their 
welfare, was stimulated to undertake the siege. He 
at once gave the legions permission to lay waste the 
suburbs and issued orders to collect timber and erect 
earthworks. Forming his army into three divisions 
for these operations, he placed the javelin-men and 
archers in the intervals between the embankments, 
and in front of them the quick-firers," catapults, and 
stone-projectors,^ to check any sallies of the enemy 
against the works and any attempts from the ram- 
parts to impede them. So the trees were felled and 
the suburbs rapidly stripped ; but while the timber 
was being collected for the earthworks and the whole 
army busily engaged in the work, the Jews on their 
side were not inactive. The people who were 
victims or rapine and massacre now began to take 
heart, hoping to gain some respite while their 
oppressors were occupied with the external foe and 
to have their revenge on the culprits, should the 
Romans prove victorious. 

(3) But John, though his followers were impatient Jewish 
for an encounter M-ith the enemy outside, from fear o^^^e^ 
of Simon did not stir. Simon, however, being builders, 
nearer the besiegers, was not inactive, but posted 
his artillery upon the ramparts, both the engines 
which they had formerly taken from Cestius,^ and 
those captured when they overpowered the garrison 

° Op " scorpions." ^ hallistae. 

' In November of a.d. 66, ii. 554. 

VOL. Ill K 283 



JOSEPHUS 

268 iXovres lAa^ov. dXXa rovroyv iikv roZs ttoXXols 
dxp^Zos rj KTTjGis rjv 8t' dTTeipiav oXiyoL 8' vtto 
rojv avTOfJLoXojv SihaxOevreg expowro KaKws rolg 
opydvoLSy ;)(ep/Ltacrt Se koI to^ol^ rovg ;\;aj^Twras' 
e^aAAov OLTTO rov reixovs koI Kara cruvrd^ei? 

269 eKTpexovres a'drols cruveTrXeKovro. rots S ipya- 
^ofi€VOL£ dTTO fikv Tcov ^eXcov TjV GKeTTTj yeppa roju 
XapaKcofjidrajv VTreprerapievay rd 8' d<f>eTrjpia rrpos 
rovs eKdiovrag- davfiaard Se Trdcn fiev Kar- 
€GK€vaGro Tols rdyfiaGL, 8ta(/)opa)S" 8€ rco SeKdroj 
^laiorepoi re o^v^eXels Kal fJLCL^ova Xido^oXa, 
hi a)V ov jiovov rds eKBpofidg aXXd /cat rovs eVt 

270 Tov relxovs dvlrperrov. raXavrialoi fiev yap yaav 
at ^aXX6[i€vaL Trerpai, Svo he Kal TrAetoya? jjeaav 
arahiovs' rj TrXrjyr] 8' ov rols Trpoevrvxovai jiovov, 
eTTL TToXv he Kal rot? /xer' eKeivovs -qv dwrroararos* 

271 ol ye firjv 'louSatot ro rrpcorov ecjivXdrrovro r-qv 
TTerpav XevKT) yap 'qv, ware jxrj rco poil,co arj- 
fiaLveadai fiovov, dXXd Kai rfj XafiTrpor-qn Trpoopd- 

272 cr^at. gkottoI ovv^ avroZs errl rcov TTvpycov Ka6- 
el,6p.evoL 77 poefjLTivvov, oTrore Gxaadeirj ro opyavov 
Kal 7) TTerpa <f)€poLro, rfj Trarpico yXojacrri ^od)vreg 

o VLOS epxerai. OLiaravro oe Kau ovs f]ei 
Kal TrpoKareKXivovro , Kal Gvve^aive (f)vXarrofieva)v 

^ yovv Destinon (avoiding hiatus). 
' tot Niese. 

" In August A.D. 66, ii. 430. 

* Presumably from the ranks of the auxihary (Syrian) 
forces of the Roman army. 

« The tenth legion had its camp on the Mt. of Olives, E. 
of the city (§ 70) ; unless they had been moved, their attack 
must have been meant to divert the Jews from their assault 
on the earthworks being raised by the Romans on the W. 

284' 



JEWISH WAR, V. 268-272 

of Antonia.** The possession of these, however, was ^i 
for most of them useless owing to inexperience ; but 
some few, instructed by the deserters,^ made a 
blundering use of them. They also assailed the 
builders with stones and arrows from the wall, and 
dashing out by companies engaged them in close 
combat. The workmen were protected from the 
missiles by hurdles stretched over paHsades, and from 
the enemy's salHes by the artiller}'. Wonderfully The Roman 
constructed as were the engines of all the legions, ^^ ^ ^^^' 
those of the tenth" were supreme. Their quick- 
firers^ were more powerful and their stone-pro- 
jectors* larger, enabhng them to repel not only the 
sallying parties but also those on the ramparts. The 
rocks which they hurled weighed a talent-'' and had 
a range of two furlongs or more ; and their impact 
not only to those who first met it but even to those 
considerably in rear was irresistible. The Jews, and Jewisii 
however, at the first were on their guard against agaSu?'' 
the stone, for, being white, its approach was inti- 
mated not only to the ear by the whiz, but also to 
the eye by its brilHance. Watchmen were accord- 
ingly posted by them on the towers, who gave warn- 
ing whenever the engine was fired and the stone in 
transit, by shouting in their native tongue, " Sonny's ^ 
coming " ; whereupon those in the line of fire 
promptly made way and lay down, owing to which 
precautions the stone passed harmlessly through 

** Or " scorpions." * hallistae. 

f About three-quarters of a hundredweight (Attic 
standard) ; cf, iii. 167. -. 

" Probably, as Reland suggests, ha-ehen (" the stone '*) / 
was corrupted to habben (" the son ") ; compare similar > 
jocose terms, such as " Black Maria," " Jack Johnson," used 
in the Great War. 

285 



JOSEPHUS 

273 arrpaKTOV dieKTTLTTreLv rrjv Tterpav. avT€7Tivoovoi 
he 'PcofjLOLOL iJL€XaLV€LV avTTjV' TOTC yap ovkIO 
ofiOLOJ? 77 poo pojfieirqg evuro'x^ovv /cat ttoAAou? a/xa 

274 ^oXfj pita hUchd^Lpov. dAA* ovhe KaKovpLevot pier 
aScia? 7Tapei-)(ov 'Poj/iaiot? iyeipeiv ra ^ajpLara, 
Trdcrrj §' imvoia kol roXpLT] )(pci)pL€V0L /cat vvKTOjp 
Koi pLed* TjpLepav elpyov. 

275 (4) Ttx)V 8' epyojv cruvreTeXeGpevajv /xoAt^iSt pLev 
Kal Xlvo) hiapLerpovcTLv ol reKrove? to hcaGT-qpia 
TTpog TO Telxo?, o.'^o tojv ■)(cop.dT(jjv plipavTes' ov 
yap ivrjv aXXco? dvcudev jSaAAo/xeVots" • evpovTes d 
i^LKveLGdat hvvapievas tols eXeiroXeis Trpoarjyoi'. 

270 /cat Tlto£ eyyvTepoj to. d(f)€TrjpLa oLaGTrjaag, co^ 
puTj Toijs Kpioijs etpyoLev 6.7:6 tov Telxovg, eKeXevGe 

277 TV7TT€LV. Tptxodev 5' i^aiGLOV KTV7T0V 7T€pLr]xr]- 
GavTog ai(f)vihi(i>g ttjv ttoXlv Kpavyrj re Trapa tojv 

evhov TjpOrj /cat rots' GTaGUlGTalg LGOV epL7TL7TT€L 

Seo?. KOLvov 8' eKaTepoL tov Kivhvvov IhovTes 

KOLVTjV €7T€v6oVV TJSr] 7TOieiGdai KOL TTjV dpLVVaV . 

278 hia^ocijvTOJV 8e Trpos dXXriXovs tCjv 8ta<^opcov cu? 
TrdvTa TTpdTTOiev vTrep tojv TToXepLLcov, heov, et 
/cat puTj SiTjveKrj SlSojglv avTols opiovoiav 6 deos, 
iv yovv TO) TTapovTi ttjv rrpos" dXXrjXovg cjaXo- 
veiKiav vrrepdepevovs /caret 'Pojp.aLOJV GVveXdelv, 
KTjpvGGei p.€v dheiav 6 HcpLajv rot? a770 tov lepov 
77apeXdelv eVt to ret;^©?, iTTLTpirrei 8e /catrrep 

279 dmGTojv 6 ^Yojdwiqs. ol he tov pLLGOVs Kat tcov 
Ihiojv hia(^opcov XaQovTeg dp.vr]GTLav ev G(jjp.a 
yivovTai, /cat to pLev Telx^s TrepLGXovTeg aTT avTOV 
TTvpd re 77apL77Xrjdrj /caret rtuv pLrixcv-qpLaTcov 
leaav /cat tovs eTTi^pidovTas rds eAeTToAetj a8ta- 

286 



JEWISH WAR, V. 273-279 

and fell in their rear. To frustrate this it occurred 
to the Romans to blacken it ; when, as it was no 
longer equally discernible beforehand, they hit their 
mark and destroyed many with a single shot. Yet, 
though under this galhng fire, the Jews did not suffer 
the Romans to raise their earthworks unmolested, 
but by every resource of ingenuity and daring 
strove, night and day, to thwart them. 

(4) The works being completed, the engineers The batter- 
measured the distance to the wall with lead and line, bJ-ought^ 
which they cast from the embankments — the only i^^to action. 
practicable method for men under fire from above — 
and finding that the battering-rams could reach it, 
they brought them up. Titus then, after posting 
his artillery nearer the walls, to prevent the defenders 
from obstructing the rams, gave the order to strike. 
Suddenly, from three different quarters, a terrific din 
echoed round the city, a cry went up from the 
citizens within, and the rebels themselves were seized 
with a Uke alarm. Seeing themselves exposed to a The rival 
common danger, both parties now bethought them johS^orces. 
of a common defence. The rival factions shouted 
across to each other that they were doing all they 
could to assist the enemy, when they ought, even if 
God denied them lasting concord, for the present at 
least to postpone their mutual strife and unite 
against the Romans ; whereupon Simon proclaimed 
that all were at liberty to pass from the temple to 
the wall, and John, though mistrusting him, gave his 
permission. The parties, consigning their hatred ■ 
and private quarrels to oblixion, thus became one 
body ; and, lining the ramparts, they hurled from 
them showers of firebrands at the machines and kept 
those who were impelling the battering - engines 

287 



JOSEPHUS 

280 XeiTTTO)? e^aXXoVy ol roXixrjporepoi Se Kara GTL<f)rj 
TTpoTT-qhiovT^S ra yeppa tojv fi-qy^avrjfjLdrcov luTrd- 
parrov Kac rolg Itt* avrcjv TTpoGTTLTTTOvres eVt- 
GT-qjiTj p.ev oAtya, roXfjLT] Se rd TrAeto) rrepieyivovro, 

281 TTpoore^orjdeL Se rols ttovovglv avros del Tiros, 
Kai Trap eKarepov tojv opydvojv totjs re LTrrreag 
Kai rovg ro^oras hiaGrrjGas elpyev /xev rovs ro 
TTvp eTTLcjiepovra?, dveGreXXev Se rovs diro rojv 
TTvpycov ^dXXovras, evepyovs 8' enoiei rds eXeTTo- 

282 Xets. ov pLTjV rats rrX-qyals VTTiJKove ro rel)(os, 
eL p.-q KadoGov 6 rod TrevreKaiheKdrov rdypLaros 

283 Kpios yojVLav SieKLvrjGe TTvpyov. ro Se relx^S 
aKepaiov -qv ovhe yap evOecos GvveKLvhvveve ro) 
rrvpyoj TTpovxovrt ttoXu Kai iitj hvvafievco ovv- 
aTTopprj^ai ri paBlajs rod rrepL^oXov. 

284. (5) IlavGapLevoL he rojv eKdpopLow rrpos oXiyov 
Kai rovs PojfjLaiovs eTTirrjprjGavres eGKehaGfie- 
vovs em rd epya Kai Kard rd GrparorreSa, 
Kafiaroj yap avaxojprJGau Kai heei rovs "lovhaiovs 
Tj^Lovv, eKOeovGL Kard rov 'Ittttlkov rrvpyov 8td 
TTvX-qs achavovs Trdvres, TTvp re rots epyoLs em- 
(^epovres Kai p-^XP^ '^^■^^ epvfidrojv irrl rovs 

285 'Pcu/xatous" TrpoeXdelv djppLTjp^evoi. Trpos Se rrjv 
Kpavyr]v avrojv ol re ttXijglov GVVLGravro raxeoJS 
Kai Ol TToppojdev Gvvedeov. e(j)6ave S* -q ^lovhaiojv 
roXfia rr]v 'Pajfiaiajv evra^iav, Kai rovs rrpoevrvy- 
XO-vovras rpeipapievoi TrpoGeKeivro Kai rots gvX- 

286 XeyopievoLs. heivrj Se rrepl rds pirjxoL^ds GVpnriTrrei 
p-o-XV' '^^^ H'^'^ VTTOTTipLTTpdvaiy rcov Se KcoXveiv 
^laLopLevojv, Kpavyq re rrap dp.(f)orepojv aG-qp^avros 
TjVy Kai TToXXoi rcbv 7Tpoayojvit,opievojv eTTiTrrov, 

287 ^lovSaioi 8* vrrepeixov dirovoia, Kai roJv epyojv 
288 



JEWISH WAR, V. 280-287 

under incessant fire. The more venturesome, dash- 
ing out in bands, tore up the hurdles protecting the 
machines, and, falHng upon the gunners, seldom 
through skill but generally through intrepidity, got 
the better of them. Titus, however, invariably came 
in person to the relief of those who were hard pressed 
and, posting his horsemen and archers on either side 
of the engines, kept the incendiaries at bay, beat 
back assailants from the towers, and brought the 
battering-rams into action. For all that, the M'all 
did not succumb to the blows, save that the ram of 
the fifteenth legion dislodged the corner of a tower. 
But the wall itself was unimpaired ; for it was not 
involved in immediate danger along M-ith the tower, 
which projected far out and so could not easily bring 
down with it any of the main rampart. 

(5) The Jews, having desisted from their salhes The Jews 
for a while and watched their opportunity when the ^e?penite 
Romans had dispersed about the works and their attempt to 
several encampments, in the belief that from ex- Roman 
haustion and terror their enemy had retired, suddenlv repuise^d^ 
all dashed out together through a concealed gate near by Titus, 
the Hippicus tower, carrying firebrands to burn the 
works and determined to push their attack right up 
to the Roman entrenchments. At their shouts the 
legionaries near the spot instantly mustered and 
those further off came dashing up. But Jewish 
daring outstripped Roman disciphne, and having 
routed those who first encountered them they pressed 
on against the assembhng troops, A fierce conflict 
ensued around the engines, one side striving to set 
them alight, the other to prevent them ; confused 
shouts arose from both and many of the foremost 
fighters fell. Jewish desperation, however, was 

289 



JOSEPHUS 

7]7rT€ro TO TTvp, K'aTa(/)Aey7)vat t' ay iKLvSvvevae 
TTavra fxeTOL rcov opydvcov, el {jltj tcov 0,77' 'AAe- 
^avhpelag eTTtAe/crcuv OLvreGT-qaav ol ttoXXoI irapa 
TTjv (j(f)€T€pav VTToXrjifjLv avSpLGafievoL' Kal yap 
rwv ivho^oripwv hiiqveyKav Kara Tavrrjv rrjv 
jjidXT^v- fJidxpt' KatCTap rovs rcbv IttttIojv Svvarcx)- 

288 rdrovs dvaXa^ojv ifi^dXXei rols 77oAe/xtot?. /cat 
hojheKa jiev avros rojv rrpopLdxoJV dvaipei, Trpos 
he TO TOVTOJV rrdOos iyKXivavros^ rod Xolttov 
ttXtjOovs eTTOfievo? oruveXavvet Trdvras els Tr)v 

289 ttoXlv KaK rod irvpos Stacrat^et ret epya. GVve^T] 
8' iv ravrrj rfj fJ-dxi] Kal l,ojypr]6rjvaL riva rcov 
^lovSalojv, ov 6 Tiros dvaGTavpojoai rrpo rod 
relxovs eKeXevuev, el n Trpos rrjv orpiv evholev 

290 ol Xoirrol KararrXayevres ^ fierd he rrjv dva- 
Xojpr]GLv Kai Icodvvris 6 rwv 'ISou/xatcDV rjyeixd)v 
77/50 rod reixovs yvajplpLcp rivl arpanwrr) Sta- 
Xeyopievos vtto tlvos tcov Apd^cjv Kara rod 
orepvov ro^ever ai Kal TTapaxpyjjJLa BvqaKei, p-eyi- 
orov rols Te IhovfjiaLOLs Trevdos Kal Xvir-qv rols 
araaiaarals aTToXLTTcov Kal yap Kard re X^^P^ 
Kal (JvveGei hidarjiios rjv. 

291 ("^'ii. 1) Tfj S' eTTLovcrrj vuktI rapaxrj Kal rols 
^92 'Pco/xatot? ipLTTLTTreL TrapaXoyos. rod yap Tlrov 

TTvpyovs rpels KaraoKevdaaL KeXevaavros irev- 
rriKovra7rr]x^i'?, t,v eKaarov ;)(oj/xaTOS" erriGrrjGas 
0.770 roijrojv rovs irrl rod relxovs rpeTTotro, 
GVve^T] Treuelv avrofidrajs eva fxeoiqs vvKros. 

^ Bekker (after Zonaras ^j'e\-Xtvai') : iKK\ipoi'Tos {-avros) ass. 

" The first named of the four original Idumaean leaders, 
290 



JEWISH WAR, V. 287-292 

pro\'ing superior, already the fire was gaining hold 
upon the works, and the whole would probably have 
perished in the flames, along with the engines, had 
not the picked troops from Alexandria in the main 
stood firm, displaying a gallantry which exceeded 
their owti reputation (for indeed they surpassed on 
that occasion regiments of greater renown), until 
Caesar, bringing up the most stalwart of his cavalry, 
charged the enemy. A dozen of the foremost he 
slew Avith his own hand ; terrified at their fate the 
remainder gave way ; he followed, drove them all 
into the town, and rescued the works from the flames. 
One incident in tliis engagement was the capture 
of a Jewish prisoner, whom Titus ordered to cruci- 
fixion before the walls, in the hope that the spectacle 
might lead the rest to surrender in dismay. More- 
over, after the retreat, John,« the chieftain of the ^e^^iiiof 
Idumaeans, while talking before the wall to an general. 
acquaintance in the ranks, was pierced in the breast 
by an arrow from an Arab's bow and killed on the 
spot. This loss occasioned profound grief to the 
Idumaeans and sorrow to the Jewish insurgents ; for 
he was distinguished alike for gallantry and sound 
judgement. 

(vii. 1) On the ensuing night the Romans them- Anight 
selves were thrown into unexpected^ alarm. For R^Jnian" 
Titus had given command for the construction of ^^^i^- 
three towers, fifty cubits high, to be erected on the 
respective embankments, in order that from them he 
might repel the defenders of the ramparts ; and one 
of these accidentally fell in the middle of the night. 

iv. 235 ; he seems later to have been outshone by his brother 
James, v. 249 (where John is not mentioned). 
" Or " baseless." 

VOL. Ill K 2 291 



JOSEPHUS 

293 fJLeyLGTOV S* apdivros ip6(f)ov Seo? eyLTnTrrei rw 
arparoj, Kal roi)? TToXefiLovg iTTLX^ipelv G<f)Lcn 

294 ho^avres iirl rot OTrAa Travreg eOeov. rapaxr) 8e 
Tcov rayfiOLTCOv Kal Oopv^og tjv, Kai to avfjL^av 
ovSevos eiTTelv exovros IttI TrXelarov airopovixevoi^ 
hL€(f)€povTO, pL-qhevos re (f)aivopL€Vov TToXepiiov hi 

295 aXXriXajv ivroovvro, Kal ro ovvdrj pia /xera GTTovhrjs 
eKaoTOs Tov TrXTjuiov iTrr^pcora Kaddnep \ovhaux>v 
ipL^e^XrjKOTOJV els to, arpaTOTreha^ iraviKa) re 
Set^art KVKXovpLevoLg irapecpKeaav, oixP^ jua^wv 
TO arvpL^av Tiros StayyeAAetv iKeXevcre irdoiy /cat 
pLoXis irravGavTO rrjs TapaxT]S- 

296 (2) 'louSatou? ye pLTjv vpos ra Xolttol Kaprepois 
avrexovras eKaKtoGav ol TTvpyoi' Kal yap rcov 
opydvojv Tols Kovc^orepois oltt^ avrG)V i^dXXovTO 
Kal Tols aKovTiGTaZs Kal ro^orais Kal XlOo^oXols. 

297 ovre he rovrcov avTol hid to vipos ej>LKVovvTO 
Kal Tovs TTvpyovs rjv dpnqx^-vov iXelv, pLrjr dva- 
rpa—rjvai paStcD? Bid to ^pWos pi'^r epLTrprjad-qvaL 
Std TOV GiSrjpov hvvapLevovs, d> KaT€KaXv7TTOVTO. 

298 rpeTTopLCvoL 8* i^corepco ^eXovs ovKeT iKojXvov 
Twv Kpiojv Tas" ipL^oXds, OL aStaAetTTTO)? TTaiovres 

299 Tjwov Kar oXiyov. TJhrj Se tw iSt/ccovc tou tclxovs 
ivhihovTOs , avTOL ydp tovto lovSaloL rrjv pLeytaTTjv 
eKdXeaav 'Pco/xatojv IXeiroXiv diro tov TrdvTa 
VLKav, aTTEKapLvov pL€V rrdXai rrpos t€ Tas pidxas 
Kal Tas <f>vXaKds TToppcudev ttjs TroXecos hiavvK- 

300 TepevovTCs, dXXa>s 8 vtto paGTcovrjs Kal tov 
^ovXeveadat TrdvTa KaKcos TrepiTTOv avToZs ho^av 
TO T€Lxos eTepojv pL€T* avTO XeiTTopilvojv hvo, 

^ Holwerda with ms. authority: aTroSvpo/xevoL most mss. 
292 



JEWISH WAR, V. 293-300 

The crash was tremendous, and the terrified troops, 
supposing that the enemy were upon them, all 
rushed to arms. Alarm and confusion pervaded the 
legions. None being able to say what had hap- 
pened, they scattered far and wide in their per- 
plexity, and sighting no enemy became scared of 
one another, and each hurriedly asked his neigh- 
bour the password, as though the Jews had invaded 
their camps. In fact they behaved like men beset 
by panic fright, until Titus, having learnt what had 
happened, gave orders to make it generally known ; 
and thus, though with difficulty, was the alarm 
allayed. 

(2) The Jews, stubbornly though they held out The Jews 
against everything else, suffered severely from these ^^^^^^' 
towers ; for from them they became targets for the 
lighter artillery, the javelin-men, archers, and stone- 
throwers. Being so high up, these assailants were 
out of range, while there was no means of mastering 
the towers, their weiglit rendering it difficult to 
overturn them and their casing of iron impossible to 
set them on fire. If, on the other hand, they with- 
drew out of range of missiles, they could no longer 
check the impact of the rams, whose incessant 
battering was gradually taking effect. And now at 
length the wall began to succumb to Victor^ (so 
the Jews themselv^es called the largest of the Roman 
engines from its victory over all obstacles) ; they had 
long been exhausted with fighting and watching, on 
night duty at a distance from the city ; moreover, 
through indolence and their invariably misguided 
judgement, they decided that to defend this wall was 
superfluous, as two others remained behind it. Most 
« Greek " Nicon." 

293 



JOSEPHUS 

301 fiaXaKLGdevres dv€xojpovv ot ttoXXol. kol t(x)V 
'Pajfialajv im^dpTcov KaOo Trapepprj^ev 6 NtVcuv, 
KaraXiTTOvTeg rag (f)vXaKdg Travre? els to hevrepov 
relxos dva(f)€vyovGLv . ol 8' vrrep^avres to.? nvXas 

302 dvoi^avres Trdaav elodexovrai ttjv OTpandv. kol 

Poj/xatot pikv ovrcu rod rrpcorov relxovs rrev- 
reKaiheKdr-Q Kparrjoavres rjfJiepay i^dofir] he tjv 

AprefJiLGLov jjLrjVos, avrov re ttoXv KaraaKdirrovGi 
KOL rd TTpocrdpKTLa rrj? rroXeajg, a Kal rrporepov 

303 (S) Merao-TpaTOTreSeuerat Se Tltos eiGCxJ Kara 
Tiqv Aoovpiow TTapeii^oXrjV KaXovjiivqv, e7TLOxd>v 
rrdv TO piera^u p-^xpi- tov Is^edpowog, diro he rod 
Bevrepov relxov? ogov i^corepoj ^eXov^ elpat' 

304 TTpoG^oXds 5' evdeojg eVotetro. ififiepLGdevre?^ 

o [otj lovhaloL Kaprepdjg djT'qp.'uvavro rov rei- 

XOVSy 01 p.€.v Ttepi TOV lojdvvqv drro re ttj? 'Av- 

Tcovta? /cat TTJg TrpoGapKTLOv GTods TOV Upov 

/cat TTpo Tcov ^AXe^di'Spov [tov ^aoiXeajg avTcov]^ 

pLVTjiieLOjv piaxop-evoi, to 8e tov ^ljiojvos TdypLa 

TTji' Trapa to \ojavvov tov apxt-epeojgY p-viqp^^.Zov 

€.p.^oXrjv hiaXa^ovTes i(f)pd^avTO P-^XP^ ttvXtjs, 

KaO Tjv TO vbojp irrl tov 'Ittttlkov irvpyov eLGrJKTO. 

^ PAM : Kai /j.e()Ladei'T€S L: /xepicrdei'Tes the rest. 
^ oin. Lat. : om. o.vtQ)v L. 
^ om. L Lat. 

" Greek " Xicon." 

* From the Roman standpoint : previously called the third 
wall from the Jewish and chronoloarical point of view, § 147. 

" ii. 580. 
^ ^ The traditional site of the camp of Sennacherib's army, 

unidentified; see 2 Kings xviii. 17, xix. 35. The calamity 
which decimated his forces, though placed by Jewish tradi- 
tion within or on the outskirts of the city (Ps. Ixxvi. 2 f. " in 

294. 



JEWISH WAR, V. 301-304 

of them, accordingly, turned slack and retired ; and 
when the Romans mounted the breach which \'ictor ^ 
had made, all deserted their posts and fled back to 
the second wall. Those who had scaled the ram- and the 
parts now opened the gates and admitted the whole capture^ 
army. The Romans having thus on the fifteenth t^^fl'^st 
day (of the siege), being the seventh of the month wall. 
Artemisius, become masters of the first ^ wall, razed c. 25 May 
a large part of it along with the northern quarter of ^'^' '^' 
the city, previously destroyed by Cestius/ 

(3) Titus now shifted his camp Mithin the first Titus 
wall to the so-called Camp of the AssjTians,^ occupy- wiS^the 
ing all the ground between it and the Kedron, but outer waiu 
keeping far enough back to be out of bowshot from 
the second wall, which he forthwith proceeded to 
attack. The Jews, dividing their forces, maintained 
a stubborn defence from the ramparts : John's 
division fighting from Antonia, from the north 
portico of the temple, and in front of the tomb of 
King Alexander^; while Simon's troops occupied 
the approach-'' alongside the tomb of John the high 
priest ^ and manned the wall as far as the gate ^ 
through wliich water was conveyed to the Hippicus 

Salem "), probably befell elsewhere during his Egyptian 
campaign {-2 Kings xix. 9), according to Herodotus ii. 141 
at Pelusium. 

* Alexander Jannaeus, 104—78 b.c, B. i. So ff. The site '^ 
of his tomb is unidentified ; doubtless a conspicuous object, 
for, notwithstanding his unpopularity, the influence of his 
widow. Queen Alexandra, obtained for him a funeral more 
splendid than that of any of his predecessors, A. xiii. 406. 

/ Or " intercepted the assault," the brunt of which was 
here, § 259. 

" John Hvrcanus, 135-105 b.c, father of Alexander; for ^ 
his tomb cf. '§ 259. 

* Near the present Jaffa Gate. 

295 



JOSEPHUS 

305 TrpoTTTjhwvres re 7To)C^dKLs €K tojv twXcvv ovdTdSrjv 
eTToXeyiOVv Koi Gvvhi(x>xdevT£s €7n^ tov relxov? 
/caret fxev rds ovfiTrXoKas 'qrrajvro, ttjs 'Pcofxaiajv 
€7TLGTrj[Ji'qg ovres drteLpoL, Trepirjaav 8 iv rals 

306 reLXOfiaxLOLLs. Kal rovs fxev p.er lgxvo? e/X7retpia 
TTapcKporeiy 'louSatous" 8e roA/xa Sect rpe^o/xei/?^ 
/cat TO (f)VG€L KaprepLKov €V (TV p.(j)o pals' TTpoarjv 8' 
eATTi? eVt oajrrjpias ff /cat Poj^atots" rod rax^cos 

307 KparrjGeLv. ovherepcov 8' ^Trrero kottos, aAAd 
TTpoG^oXal /cat reLxopiax^oii' Kal Kara Xoxovs 
eKhpojial Gvvex^i? 8t' oXr]s rjfiepas rjGav, ouS* 

308 eGTLV 7]rL£ t8ea fJ-O-xi]? aTreAetTrero. toif 8* dveVaue 
pLoXts loj^ev dpxopL€vovs- -qv 8 duTrvo? dpL<f)OTepoLs 
Kal ;!^aAe77a>Tepa tt^s" rjp.ipas, 8eet rcDv ^ev ocrov 
ovTTOj KaTaXr](b6rjGeG9aL to Telxo?, tcjv 8* CTrt- 
6-qG€G6aL 'louSatous' rot? GrpaTOTrihois, €V re rot? 
oTrAots- c/cctrepot Stavu/crepeuovTes" i^tto rds" TrpojTas 

309 auyd? erot/xot Trpo? P-dx'^v rjGav. Kal rrapd pukv 
^lovhaloLs epi? r)v ogtls rrpoKLvhwevGas ;!(aptaatTo 
rots' rjyepLOGLV, jLtdAtcrra 8e rou ^ljiojvos alSdjg 
rjv Kal hios, ovtojs re TrpoGeZx^v e/caaro? aura) 
rcov vrroreTayiievwVy ojs /cat Trpo? avTox^Lplav 

310 iTOipLoraTOS elvau KeXevGavTOS' Poi/i-atots" 8' evr* 
dvhpeiav tjv Trporpovrrj tov re /cparety e^o? /cat ■v^rrr^s' 
d?]^eta cn;re;>(7^? re arpareia /cat 8t7]ye/cets" /LteAeVat 
/cat pieyedos -qyepLovLas, Trpo 8e TrdvTcov Ttro? 

311 det Trdaty navTaxov vrapaTvyxdvajv . to re ydp 

^ Hudson : dTro mss. 
^ After PA 77 : 77, ^ or ^ the rest. 

*• C/". Thuc. iv. 55 r^s Trpti' d77^etaj rou KaKOwpayelv. 
* In det Trdcrti' Trai'raxor, an underlying Latin is traceable; 
" quod semper, quod ubique, quod ab omnibus " (sc. 

296 



JEWISH WAR, V. 305-311 

tower. Often they would dash out from the gates 
and fight hand to hand, and though driven back on Desperate 
to the walls and defeated in these close combats, ^ ^°^' 
through lack of the Romans' military skill, they had 
the advantage of them in the battles from the ram- 
parts. Experience combined Mith strength was the 
Romans' mainstay : daring, fostered by fear, along 
with their innate fortitude under calamities, sustained 
the Jews. Moreover, they still cherished hopes of 
salvation, as did the Romans of speedy victory. 
Neither army felt fatigue : assaults, battles at the 
wall, salhes by companies continued incessantly 
throughout the day, and no form of warfare was 
omitted. Beginning at dawn, night scarcely brought 
them respite : its hours were sleepless for both 
and more terrible than day, one party dreading every 
moment the capture of the wall, the other a Je^^'ish 
invasion of their camps. Both armies thus passed 
the night under arms and at the first break of day 
were ready for battle. 

Among the Jews there was rivalry who should be Contrasted 
foremost in the fray and so win favour with his of the 
officers ; Simon in particular was regarded M'ith beiiigerenta 
reverence and awe, and such was the esteem in which 
he was held by all under his command, that each 
was quite prepared to take his very own hfe had he 
given the order. With the Romans, on the other 
hand, the incentives to valour were their habit of 
victory and inexperience of defeat,** their continuous 
campaigns and perpetual training, the magnitude of 
their empire, and above all Titus, ever and everywhere 
present beside all.^ For cowardice when Caesar was 

creditur), the definition of the Catholic Faith attributed to 
St. Vincent of Lerins (5th cent, a.d.), has older parallels. 

297 



JOSEPHUS 

fjLaXaKLGdrjvai Trapovrog Kal ovvayojviL^ojiivov Kat- 
crapos SeLvov iSoKei, /cat rco KaXcog dycovtcra/xeVoj 
lidprvg avTog 6 Kal TLfn]Gajv Traprjv KepSog 5* 
rjv rjhrj Kat ro yi'coGOrjvai Katcrapt yevvaXov ovra. 
8td rovTo TToXXoL TTJs KaTOL G(f)dg iGxvo£ djjLelvovs 

312 rfj 77po6vfiLa hie^aviquav . Trapara^ajJiivajv yovv 
Kara ravra? ras rjfiepas rcuv lovhaLOJV Trpo rod 
relxovg Kaprepoj arK^ei Kal hiaKovTit,op.iv(jjv €tl 
TToppcoOev rojv raypLarojv exarepojv, Aoyylvos 
TLS Tcov 17777 ecu v i^aXXofxevog rrjg 'PajjjLaiKrjg 
rd^eojg ep.77Tjhd. p-eGrj rfj tcov 'louSaicuv (j)d\ayyiy 

313 Kal hiaoKehaaOevTojv rrpog rrjv ipt^oXrjv Svo rovg 
yewaiordrovg dvaipel, rov fxev Kara aroiia 
TrX-q^ag VTravrLdaavra, rov 8 dvaarrdcrag eK rod 
TTporepov TO bopv Kara TrXevpdv Sta77etpet rpajTO- 
fxevov, CK fieacjv re rwv TroXepnajv drpojrog^ elg 

314 roijg cr^erepous" eSpa/xev. d jiev ovv hi dperrjv 
€.7TLGrijiog rjv, L-qXcoral Se rrjg dvSpecag^ iytvovTO 

315 TToXXoL. Kau lovdaloi fxev afieXovvreg rov TraOelv 
TO hiaOeivai jjlovov iaKOTTovv, 6 re ddvarog avrolg 
eSdaret Kov<f)6rarog €l fiera rov Krelvai riva rcov 

316 rroXejiLwy TrpoarreGOL' Tlrog 8e rrjg rojv or panto - 
TCOV aochaXeiag ovx r}rrov rov KpareZv rrpovvoeL, 
Kai r-qv fiev a—€pLUK€7Trov oppLrjv drrovoiav Xeycov, 
pi6v7]v d aperrjv ttjv p.erd Trpovotag Kal rod fjirjhev 
rov hpcovra Tradelv, iv dKLvhvvco rco Kara a(f)dg 
eKeXevGev aphplCeodaL. 

317 (4) YlpoodyeL S' avrog rov ^opeiov reixovg rco 
[jieGcp rrvpycp ttjv iXi—oXiv, iv co rcov ^\ovhaicov 
Tig dvi-jp y6r]g ovojia Kdcrrcop iXo^a jied^ ofioiajv 
BeKa, TCOV XoiTTchv (f)vy6vrcov 8td rovg ro^orag. 

^ Holwerda : irpun-os mss. * dvdpayadias L. 

298 



JEWISH WAR, V. 311-317 

with them and sharing the contest seemed monstrous, 
while the man who fought bravely had as witness of his 
valour one M'ho would also reward it ; nay, it was gain ^ 
already to be known to Caesar as courageous. Hence 
many in their enthusiasm displayed greater valour 
than their strength warranted. Thus when, in the 
course of these days, the Jews were arrayed in stout f^^^^fj,,., 
force outside the walls and both armies were as yet 
engaged in distant combat Mith javeHns, a certain 
trooper Longinus leapt out of the Roman lines and 
daslied into the midst of the Jewish phalanx. Break- 
ing their ranks by his charge, he slew two of their 
bravest, piercing one in front as he advanced to meet 
him, and transfixing the other through the side, as 
he turned to flee, with the spear which he drew from 
his comrade's body ; he then escaped unscathed to 
his OAvn lines from the midst of the enemy. His 
valour gained him distinction, and led many to 
emulate his gallantry. The Jews, for their part, 
regardless of suffering, thought only of the injury 
which they could inflict, and death seemed to them 
a tri\'ial matter if it involved the fall of one of the 
enemy. Titus, on the other hand, cared as much 
for his soldiers' safety as for success ; and, pronounc- 
ing inconsiderate impetuosity to be mere desperation, 
and valour only deserving of the name when coupled 
with forethought and a regard for the actor's security, 
he ordered his troops to prove their manhood without 
running personal risks. 

(4) He now brought up the battering-ram against p^gl^°^ 
the central tower of the north wall, where a certain the Jew. 
Jewish impostor, named Castor, lay in ambush with 
ten others of like character, the rest having been 
routed by the archers. Here for some time they 

299 



JOSEPHUS 

318 OVrOL fJL^Xpi' IjL€V TLVOS V7T€7TTrjXOT€? TOt? dcx)paKLOL? 

ripefiovVy Xvofj-lvov^ Se rov TTvpyov hLaviaravrai, 
Kal TTporeLvag o Kacrrcup ra? ;)^etpas' co? lk€T€v<jjv 
hrjdev eKaXec rov Kaicrapa /cat rfj (f)a>V7J Kar- 

319 oLKrLLojJLevos iXerjaaL ucbds TrapearaAet. Tnarevcras 
§' e£" dTrAoTT^TOs" o Tlto? /cat fieravoelv rjSr] rov? 
^lovSatovg eXrTiuas, erriy^ei jxev rod Kpiov ttjv 
ifjL^oXrjV KOjX'uei re ro^evetv rovg tVeVa?, Xiyecv 

320 3' €KeXevev 6 n ^ovXerat rw Kacrropt. roi; 5' 
€L7t6vtos €771 Se^-ioL KaTa^7]vaL diXeiv, 6 TtVos" 
Gvvrjhecrdai jiev avrw ttj? ev^ovXias ^^v], CTfv- 
TjdeGOaL 8e, et Trdvreg ravra TJhrj (^povovai, Kal 

321 ''■^ 77oAet didovaL re ttlgtlv eTot/xtu?. tcov 8e/<:a 
8e ot 7T€vre fxev avrcp cruvvTreKpLVOVTO ttjv iKer-qplav, 
ol XoLTTol 8' ovK av 7T0T€ SouAeucTetv Pco/xatots" 

322 i^ocov rrapov iXevdepovg arrodavelv. Kal p-^XP^ 
TToXXov hiacj^epop^evcov irpl^ero pLev r] TrpoG^oXij, 
77€pL77ajv 8' o KaaTcop Trpos" Tov Ydiiiiova (JxoXfj 
^ovXeveodai rrepl tojv iTreiyovrtov eAeyey, co? 
of/c €77 oAr/ov avTOs oiaTraiL^OL rrjv rcopiaiojv 
dpxT]v. dp-a he ravra rrejirrajv Kara(i>avrjs rjv 
Kal rovs aTTeiBovvras errl rrjV Se^tav TrapaKaXow. 

323 ot S' ojurrep dyavaKrovvres virep rd OojpaKia 
hi-Qpovv re rd ^L<prj yvpLvd Kai rovs dojpaKas 
avrojv TrXiTj^avres cvs d7T€G(l)aypLevoL Karerreoov. 

324 ddji^os he rov Tirov Kai rovs Trepi avrov eLGi^ei 
rov row dvhpojv rrapaGr-qpiaros , Kai pLTj hvvapLevoi 
KdrojOev dKpt^cbs rd yeyevrjiievov ibelv edavpLa^ov 
re rijs evroXpaas avrovs Kai rov Tradovs r^Xeovv. 

325 ro^evei he ns ev rovroj Trapd rrjv pZva rov Y^dGropa, 
KaKelvos evOeojs dvaGnaGas to ^eXos erreheiKw 

^ aaXevofi^pov L. * Staxat'^ei L Lat. (illudere). 

soo 



JEWISH WAR, V. 318-325 

remained motionless, crouching beneath the parapet, 
but when the tower began to rock they rose up, and 
Castor, stretching out his hands in supphant pose, 
called upon Caesar and in piteous tones implored him 
to have mercy on them. Titus, in the simplicity of 
his heart, believed him, and, hoping that the Jews 
were at length repenting, stopped the battering of 
the ram, forbade the archers to shoot at the sup- 
pliants, and directed Castor to state what he wanted. 
The latter replying that he desired to come do"v\Ti 
under pledge of protection, Titus said that he con- 
gratulated him on his sound judgement, and would 
congratulate the city, if all were now of the same 
mind, and gladly offer them security. But while 
five of Castor's ten companions joined in this feigned 
supplication, the rest cried out that they would 
never be slaves of the Romans, so long as they might 
die free men. During this protracted dispute, the 
assault was suspended, and Castor sent word to Simon 
to take his time in deUberating on the necessary 
measures, as he could fool the Roman command for a 
long while yet. While dispatching this message 
he was to all appearance urging his recalcitrant 
comrades to accept the proffered pledge. They, on 
the other hand, in seeming indignation, brandished 
their naked swords above the breastworks and, 
striking their own breast-plates, fell down as though 
slain. Titus and his staff, amazed at the men's 
intrepidity, and unable from below to see exactly 
what had happened, admired their courage and com- 
miserated their fate. Meanwhile, Castor was struck 
close to the nose with an arrow, which missile he 
instantly drew out and showed to Titus, complaining 



SOI 



JOSEPHUS 

roi Tlto) Kal ws ov StVata ttolgxojv Kar€iJL€fJL<f>€To. 
TTpos he rov ^aXovra (j^erXLaGas YLaiaap eVe/XTre 
TTapearajra rov ^lajcrrjrrov hovvai ro) Kacropt 

326 he^idv. aAA' o fiev ovr avro? €(f)T] TrpoeXevaeGdat,^ 
<j)pove'Lv yap ovdev uyte? rovs Seofxevov?, Kal rovs 
ojppirijiivovs Tojv (f)LXa)v Karia-xev' AtVeta? hi ns 

327 Ta)v avropLoXajv auro? ecfir] TrpoeXevoeaBai} Kac 
rov Kacrropos- KaXovvros, ottoj? Sefatrd rtg Kai 
TO dpyupiov o (f)€poL fieO avrov, OTTOvhaLorepov 
6 Alveias hLaTTerdaas rov koXttov Trpoaehpafiev. 

328 dpdpL€vos S' 6 Kacrrcop Trirpav €7Ta(l)LrjGLV avroj, 
Kal TOVTOV p-kv hiTjpapTe (f)vXa^apLevov, rtrpojcr/cet 

329 he GTpaTLcorrjV erepov irpoGeXdovra. GvivovGa^ 
he Katcrap Tr]v aTrdrrjV rrpog ^Xd^-qs p^ev eyvoj 
rov ev 7ToXep.OLs eXeov, to yap drr-qveGrepov rjrrov 
VTTOTTLTTTeLV TO) TTavovpycp , rd? 8' ip^oXds rrj^ 
eXeTToXeojs opyfj ttj? p^AeuT]? erroielro hvvarajrepag, 

330 VTrohLhovra he rov TTvpyov epLTTLTrpaGLV ol rrepi rov 
Kaaropa, Kal hid rrj? t^Xoyog elg rrjV vri' avroj 
Kpvrrrrjv dXX6p.evoi rrdXiv ho^av arhpecas Pcu/xatots' 
TTapeG^ov ojs" pLipavres G(j)ds avrovs ecs ro rrvp. 

331 (viii. l) Xlpel he Katcrap ravrrj ro relxos 
rjpLepa TrepLTrrrj pLerd ro Trpojrov, Kai rdjv lovhalajv 
(j)vy6vrojv drr^ avrov Trapep^^rai /xera ;\;tAta>v 
evhov OTrXircov Kal rcov Trepl avrov eTTtXeKrajv, 
Kado Kal rrjg KaivrjS rroXeojs epioTTcLXia re tjv Kai 
^aXKela Kal lp.arLOJv dyopd, Trpos re^ ro relxos 

332 TrXdyioi Karereivov ol GrevojTTOi. ei piev ovv rj 
rov rei^ovs evdecos TrXeov hieXvaev -^ TToXepLov 

^ P : TrpoffeXeva-eadai the rest. 
* Destinon : om. PA : 5e the rest. 

302 



JEWISH WAR, V. 325-332 

of being unfairly treated. Caesar sternly rebuked 
the archer and commissioned Josephus, who was at 
his side, to offer his hand to Castor, Josephus. how- 
ever, not only dechned to go himself, con^-inced that 
these suppliants meant no good, but restrained those 
of his friends who were anxious to step forward. 
However, Aeneas, one of the deserters, volunteered 
to go ; and Castor calhng out for someone to take the 
money which he was bringing with him, Aeneas ran 
forward the more eagerly with robes extended to 
receive it. Castor thereupon picked up a boulder 
and hurled it at him ; it missed Aeneas who manased 
to avoid it, but wounded another soldier who had 
come up. Caesar, now that his eyes were opened to 
the trick, decided that in warfare compassion was 
mischievous — severe measures affording less scope 
for artifice — and, indignant at this mockery, put the 
battering-ram more \'igorously into action. When 
the tower began to give way. Castor and his friends 
set fire to it, and, leaping through the flames into 
the vault beneath," again impressed the Romans, 
who imagined that they had plunged into the fire, 
with a sense of their courage. 

(viii. 1) At this spot,^ on the fifth day after the The Romans 
capture of the first wall, Caesar stormed the second ; second^van 
and, as the Jews had fled from it, he made his entry, c. 30 May, 
with a thousand legionaries and his own picked 
troops, in that district of the new tovm where lay 
the wool-shops, the braziers' smithies and the clothes- 
market, and where the narrow alleys descended 
obhquely to the ramparts. Now, had he either at 
once broken down more of the wall or, by right of 

" Cf. the similar escape of the Jewish general Niger, iii. 27. 
"" i.e. at " the central tower of the north wall," § 317. 

303 



JOSEPHUS 

vofici) TTapeXdojv erropBei to At^^^cV, ovk av otfiai 

333 Ti? ^P-^Y'l i^Aa^r] to* Kparei. vvv Se ^lovhaiovs 

{JL€V iXTTLGaS hv(7aJ7Trj(J€LV €^OV KaKOVV TOJ yiT] 

deXetv, Trpos [S']^ dvaxcop'f]cnv evpLaprj ttjv elcr^oXr^v 
OVK eTrXdrvvev ov yap im^ovXevGeiv ov£ evep- 

334 yerelv v-eXdp.^avev. TrapeXOow yovv ovre KreiveLV 
rivd rojv KaraXapLJ^avopLevajv eTrerpeipev ov9^ vtto- 
TTLpLTTpdvaL Tcx? OLKLag, aAA' tt/xa Tols [jLev ara- 
GLaGralg, el ^ovXolvto pLdxecdaL hiya ttjs rod 
Si^jiov ^Xd^rj£, aSetav i^obov, rep S-qpLco he rd? 
Krrjoei? v7ncr)(yeiro hojueiv Trepl rrXeLorov yap 
erroieZro GcoaaL rr]v /xev ttoXlv avro), rov 8e vaov 

335 rfi TToXei. rov p.ev ovv Xaov eroiy.ov et)(ev etV 
a rrpovrpeTrev Kal TrdXaL, rols pLaxlfioL? S eooKet 
TO (f)LXdpdpaj7rov dadeveLa, /cat rov Turov adwafiLO. 
rov rrjv dXXrjv ttoXlv eXelv ravra rrporeiveiv 

336 VTTeXdfif^avov. ScaTreLXovvreg he rols hrjp.6rais 6d- 
varov, el Trepl Trapahoaeajs fiviqadeirj rt? avraJv, 
Kal rovs TTapacfydeyyopLevovs eLprjvrjv a7roG(^dr- 
rovres, eTTiriOevrai Kal rols eioeXQovGi PcD/xatcov, 
ol fiev Kara rov? arevojTTOVs VTravridaavres y ol 
S' czTro rcov olklow, aAAot S' e^oj rov retxovs Kara 

337 rag dvoj TTpoTrrjhrioavreg TTvXas. rrpos ov? rapa^- 
Bevres ol (f)povpol rod relxov? KaQaXX6p.evoi rujv 

338 TTvpyojv dvexojpovv ei? ra arparoTreha. Kpavyrf 
8' rjV rcov pLev etcroj rrdvrodev 7ToXep.iois KeKV- 
KXojfJLevojv, row 8' e^codev Trepl rots dTroX-q(^deiGi^ 
hehoLKorojv. vXrjdvvovres 8* del 'louSatot Kal 
TToXXd TrXeoveKrovvres Kar ifiTreipuLV rcov arevoj- 
TTCJV erlrpojGKov re rroXXovg Kai TrpoGTmrrovreg 

^ om. C. * Destinon : airdX^KpOdat. mss. 

" Cf. his similar later offer, vi. 95. 
304 



JEWISH WAR, V. 332-338 

war, followed up his entry by sacking what he had 
captured, no loss, I imagine, would have attended 
his triumph. But, in fact, because he hoped to 
shame the Jews by his reluctance to injure when in a 
position to do so, he omitted to ^^iden the breach to 
facilitate a retreat, never supposing that after such 
treatment they would plot against their benefactor. 
Accordingly, on entering, he would not allow his 
troops to kill any persons caught or to fire the 
houses ; to the factions he offered a free exit from 
the city to fight, if such was their desire, without 
detriment to the people,** while to the people he 
promised restoration of their property. For his J 
paramount object was to preserve the city for liim- 
self and the temple for the city. The people indeed but are sooc 
had long been ready to act on his ad\-ice, but the ^^i^®^^^^- 
mihtants mistook his humanity for weakness and 
regarded these overtures as due to his inability to 
capture the rest of the to^\•Tl. Threatening, there- 
fore, to kill anv of the to\\Tisfolk who should mention 
surrender, and butchering all who let fall a word 
about peace, they attacked the Roman di\'ision that 
had entered. Some confronted them in the streets, 
some assailed them from the houses, while others, 
rushing outside the wall by the upper gates, caused 
such commotion among the sentries on the ram- 
parts that they leapt down from the towers and 
made off to their camp. There were cries from those 
within, surrounded by a ring of enemies, from those 
without, alarmed for their intercepted comrades. 
The Jews, constantly gro^\ing in numbers and 
greatly at an advantage through their knowledge of 
the streets, wounded multitudes of the enemy and 
with their charges thrust them before them. The 

305 



JOSEPHUS 

339 i^ojdovv. OL 8e /car' avayK-qv ro ttAcov avrelx^^'^y 
ov yap Tjv ddpoovg htac^vyeiv Std urevov rod 

TELXOV?, SoKOVGL T€ aV KaTaKOTTTJvaL 7Tavr€£ OL 

340 TTapeXdovre? pLT) TTpoGafivvavro? rod Tltov. 8ta- 
CTTT^cra? yap en aKpois rocs arevcoTTOLg tou? 
ro^oras Kal Kara rov /xaAtcrra TrXrjOvoPTa oraOeis 
avroSy dveWeAAe roZs ^iXeai roijs TroXepiLOvg, 
Kal (jvv avro) ^ofierLO? Y^a^vos, dvrjp dyaOos 

341 Kal Kara ravrrjv (^avel? Tqv fxdx''^^- TrapepLecve 
he (jvvey^ojs To^evojv Kataap Kal rov? louSaiou? 
kojXvojv TTapeXOetv, p-^XP^ Trdvres dvexo^pT)(^o.v ol 
OTpanajTai. 

342 (2) 'Poj^atot pikv ovtojs KparrjoavTes rov 8eu- 
ripov reixovs e^eojoB'qaav ^^ rcov S ava ro aurv 
jjLax^P-cov iTTrjpdrj rd (f}povqp.ara, Kal p^erecopoi 
TTpog rrjv evTrpaytav rjuav, ovr av Pco/xatou? et? 
rrfv ttoXlv roXp-ijcreiv eVt TrapeXdelv ovr avroc 

343 TrapeXdovrojv rjrr'qd'qGeadaL SoKovvres. eTreoKorei 
yap avrojv rat? yvajp-ai? hid rd? 7Tapavop.ia? o 
deos, Kal ovre rT]v 'VcopLaicov lgxvv octoj TrAetojp' 
KareXeiTTero rrj? e^eAacr^etO"/]? e^Xerrov ovre rov 

344 v^eprrovra Xtp-dv avrol?. en yap Trapi^v eadieLU 
eK rwv hrjpLOGLwv KaKoJv Kal rd rrj? TToXecos alfia 
TTLveiv evheia he rov? dyadovs erreZx^ TrdXat, Kai 

345 oirdvei rwv eTTirrjheLOJv hieXvovro ttoXXol. rrjv 
he rov Xaov (jidopdv eavrojv ol GraoLaarau kov- 
(f)Lop,6v vTTeXdfjL^avov p.ovovs ydp tj^lovv a(jjl,eodai 
Tovs fJLT) ^Tjrovvras^ elprjV7]v Kal Kard PojfxaLOJV 

^ Dindorf : i^eud-qaav or e^uad-qaav MSS. 
^ ^rjXovvras L. 

• Tribune of the fifteenth legion, who, again with Titus, 
306 



JEWISH WAR, V. 339-345 

Romans, on their side, mainly through sheer neces- 
sity continued to resist, as it was impossible for all 
to retire at once through the narrow breach ; and 
the entire invading force would probably have been 
annihilated, had not Titus come to their relief. 
Posting his archers at the ends of the streets and 
taking up a position himself where the throng was 
thickest, he with showers of arrows kept the enemy 
at bay, assisted by Domitius Sabinus,** a man who 
proved his gallantry in this as in other engagements, 
So Caesar stood his ground, incessantly shooting his 
arrows and stemming the advance of the Jews, until 
all his soldiers had retired. 

(2) Thus, after gaining possession of the second 
wall, were the Romans ejected. Within the city the 
spirits of the war party, elated at their success, rose 
high ; since they imagined that the Romans would 
never again venture into the city, or that, if they did, 
they themselves would prove invincible. For God 
was bhnding their minds because of their transgres- 
sions ; and they perceived neither how the forces 
still left to the Romans far outnumbered those which 
had been expelled, nor yet the stealthy approach of 
famine. For it was still possible to feed upon the 
public miseries and to drink of the city's life-blood ; 
but honest men had long since felt the pinch of want, 
and many were already failing for lack of necessaries. 
The factions, however, regarded the destruction of 
the people as a relief to themselves ; for they held 
that only those should be preserved who were enemies 
to peace and determined to devote their hves to 
resisting the Romans, and rejoiced at the wasting 

had been the first to enter Jotapata, iii. 324. The personal 
prowess of Titus the hero is, as often, emphasized. 

307 



JOSEPHUS 

^TJv 7Tpor]pr]fjL€vovgy ro 8 ivavriov TrXrjdog wanep 

346 ^dpos^ rjbovro haTravcop-evov. tolovtol /xev 817 
TTpos rovs €vhov Tjcrav 'PcopLatovs Sc TraAtv rrj? 
€lg6oov TTeipojpievovs eKojXvov (jipa^dfxevoi /cat to 
Karapptcbdev dvTir€L)(_iGavr€s rol? CTtu/xacrt rpial 
pL€V dvT€Gxov TjpepaL^ Kaprepo)? dpLVVopievoL, rrj 
rerdprr) 8e Trpocr^aXovra yevvaicos Tirov ovk 
TjveyKav, dXXd ^taadevre? fj koL Trporepov dva- 

347 (j)evyovaLV . 6 Se irdXiv rod relxov? Kpar-qaag 
TO TTpoaapKTiov pL€v evOecog Kareppupe rrdv, IttI 
8e rod Kara pL€(jrjp.^8pLav ^povpds roZs TTvpyois 
iyKaraGrrjGas raj rpiroj TTpoa^dXXeiv iTrevoet. 

348 (ix. 1) Ao^av 8' eTTavelvai rrpos dXiyov ttjv 
TToXiopKiav Kal hiojpiav ^ovXrjg toIs uraaiaGTaZs 
7TapaG')(elv , et ri rrpos rrjv KadaipeGiv evholev rov 
hevrepov relxovs rj Kal rov XipLOv VTToheiGavres , ov 
yap els ttoXu rds dpTrayds avTols e^ap/cecretv, etV 

349 heov KaT€XpT]TO ttjv dveGiv ivGrdGrjg yap rrjs 
7TpoBeGp.ias, Kad^ rjv ehei hiahovvai rots Grpa- 
TLcoraLs Tpo(j)dSi ^^ dTroTrro) roZs TToAe/xtot? exre- 
XevGe rovs rjyepiovas e/cra^avras" rr^v SvvajJLLV 

350 aTTapiBpieiv eKdGTCp rdpyvpiov. ol 8', wGTrep 
edos, drroKaXvijjavTes rd dirXa B-qKais eGKerra- 
GpLeva riios, KardcfipaKTOL TTpo-peGav Kal roug 

351 L7T7TOVS dyovres ol iTTTreZs KCKOGpL-qp^evovS' ctti 
ttXeZgtov 8e rd Trpo ttjs TToXecos dpyvpcp /cat 
XpvGo) TTepieXdyL—erOy Kal rrjs oipews eKeivrjs 
ovhev ovre roZg G(f)€repoLs eTTLTepireGTepov ovre roZs 

352 TToAe/xtot? TTapeGTTj (fyo^epwrepov. KaT€TrX-qGdrj 

* After Lat. onus quoddam : ^dp^apov {-wv) PAML: 
^apSapuv ^dpos C : virb ^ap^dpujv /Sd/3oj VR { ^dpos apybv 
Destinon. 

308 



JEWISH WAR, V. 34^352 

away of masses of their opponents who were only 
an encumbrance. Such were then* feelings towards 
those within ; while, having blocked and walled up 
the breach \viih. their own bodies, they were holding 
up the Romans who were again attempting to break 
through. For three days they maintained a stubborn 
defence and held their ground ; but on the fourth, The Romans 
unable to withstand a gallant assault of Titus, they the^Scond 
were compelled to fall back to their former refuge, wall. 
Titus, once more master of the wall, immediately 
razed the whole of the northern portion ; and, 
placing garrisons in the towers in the southern 
quarter, laid his plans for an attack on the third 
wall." 

(ix. 1) He now decided to suspend the siege for Suspension 
a while and to afford the factions an interval for and'jirade 
reflection, to see if the demolition of the second of Roman 
wall or haply dread of famine might lead to any Jerusalem. 
surrender, as the fruits of their rapine could not long 
suffice them ; and he turned the period of inaction 
to good account. For the appointed day ha\ing 
arrived for the distribution of the soldiers' pay, 
he ordered his officers to parade the forces and 
count out the money to each man in full \iew of the 
enemy. So the troops, as was their custom, di-ew 
forth their arms from the cases in which till now they 
had been covered and advanced clad in mail, the 
cavalry leading their horses which were richly capar- 
isoned. The area in front of the city gleamed far 
and wide with silver and gold, and nothing was more 
gratifying to the Romans, or more awe-inspiring to 
the enemy, than that spectacle. For the whole of 

* i.e. the first or " old " wall from the Jewish standpoint, 
§ 142. 

309 



JOSEPHUS 

yap d(f)opci)VTa>v to t€ apxo.lov rely^os dnav koI 
rod Upov TO ^opeiov xAtjU-a, rag re otVia? 
fjLearag tjv ttpokvtttovtojv VTrepihelv,^ koI rrjs 
TToXeojs ouSev o [jltj KeKoXvTTTO TrXrjdeL 8i£(/»atVeT0. 

353 KardrrX-q^LS 3e heLvrj Kal rols roXfi-qpordTOLs 
ev€7T€ue TTjV re ^vvapLLV errl ravTO irdoav opojoi 
Kal TO KaXXo? Tcov ottXojv Kol TTjV evra^lav tow 

354 avhpojv hoKovai re dv fioi irpos eKeivrjv ol crra- 
GiaGral ixera^aXeodaL ttjv oiJjlv, el pLTj St' virep- 
^oXtjv dw Tov bijiJLov ehpauav KaKUJv avyyvcoiirjv 

355 Trapd 'PajfiaioLs dTr-qXTTLlov. aTTOKetpLevov 8e tov 
/xera KoXdcrecug, €l rravoaivTO , ttoXv KpeiTTOva tov 
iv TToXepoj Odvarov rjyovvTO. Kal to ')(^p£djv 8' 
e/cparet tojjs re dvairiovs rots' atrtot? ovvaTTO- 
XeoOai Kal ttj Grdoei ttjv ttoXlv. 

356 (2) Teoaapcnv p.ev ovv rjpiepais ol 'Poj^atot 
Kad eKaarov ray/xa hiereXeaav rd? Tpo6dg 
KO[iiLopLevoL, TTJ TTepLTTTTj h d)s oi58ej^ aTnjvTa 
Trapd Tojv \ovhai.ojv ecprji-LKov, ^i-XV 8teAa»v Ta 
TdypaTa Tlrog rjpx^TO tojv ■/.^jp.dTOJV Kard re ttjv 

AvTOJviav Kal to tov ^\ojdvvov pivrjpLelov, TavTT] 
pL€V T'qv ai'aj ttoXiv aiprjueiv iTnvoojv, to 8 Upov 

357 Kara ttjv ^AvTOJViav' tovtov ydp pLT) Xrjc^devTOs 
ovde TO do-TV KaTex^eiv dKLvSvvov rjv Trpog e/carepoj 
8e pepeL hvo ;(CL»/x,aTa rjyelpeTO Kad^ ev eKduTov 

358 TdypaTog. Kal tov? pLev Trapd to pLvripLelov ipya- 
topevovs ol re 'I8ou/xatot Kal to perd tov ^IpLowos 
OTrXiTLKOv etpyov eTreKdiovT€s, tov? 8e Trpo Trjs 

AvTOjvLas ol Trepl tov ^lajdw-qv Kal to tcov 

359 t^TjXojTUJV ttXt^OoS' eTrXeoveKTOvv 8' ov /card X^^P^ 

^ KaTLdelu M : IBecv P. 

SIO 



JEWISH WAR, V. 352-359 

the old wall and the north side of the temple were 
thronged with spectators, the houses across the wall 
were to be seen packed with craning heads, and 
there was not a spot \'isible in the city which was not 
covered by the crowd. Even the hardiest were 
struck with dire dismay at the sight of this assemblage 
of all the forces, the beauty of their armour and the 
admirable order of the men ; and I cannot but think 
that the rebels would have been converted by that 
vision, had not the enormity of their crimes against 
the people made them despair of obtaining pardon 
from the Romans. But, death being the punish- 
ment in store for them if they desisted, they thought 
it far better to die in battle. Fate, moreover, was 
prevaihng to involve both innocent and guilty, city 
and sedition, in a common ruin. 

(2) In four days the several Roman legions had all The siege 
received their pay. On the fifth, no overtures for Earthwoika 
peace having come from the Jews, Titus formed the raised 

f . ... J' ' • J 1, • • .1, opposite 

legions into two divisions and began raising earth- Antonia 
works opposite Antonia and John's monument '^ tomb^^'^^ 
respectively ; his design being to carry the upper 
tovm. at the latter point, and the temple by way of 
Antonia, for unless the temple were secured, to hold 
even the to\\Ti would be precarious. The erection 
of two banks at each of these two quarters was 
accordingly begun, one being assigned to each 
legion. Those at work alongside the monument 
were impeded by sallies of the Idumaeans and the 
troops of Simon ; those before Antonia suffered 
obstruction from John's followers and the Zealots. 
Their adversaries, moreover, were successful, not 
only with hand - missiles, owing to superiority of 

• § 259. 

311 



JOSEPHUS 

fjLovov d(f)^ vxjjiqXoTipajv fjuaxofxevoi, /cat rot? opyavois 
8' rjhiq ^(priGO ai fxepiad -qKores' r) yap Kad^ rffiepav 
rpL^rj Kara fXLKpov edpeipe tt^v ejXTTeLpiav . el-^ov 8 
o^v^eXeis jjLev rpiaKOGiovSy rcGGapaKOvra 8e tojv 
XlOo^oXcov, 8t' djv ra ■)(^ujiiaTa roXs Poj/Ltatot? 

360 eTToiovv hvaepyaara} Tiros 8€ Gco^eaOai t€ rrjv 
ttoXlv /cat OLTToXXvaOaL elScbg iavrco, a/xa /cat rfj 
TToAtop/cta 7TpoaeK€Lro /cat rov Trapaivelv 'lou- 

361 Saiot? [xerdvoLav ovk rjjjLeXeL, rots' 8' epyois 
dvefxiuye avpL^ovXiaVy /cat TroAAa/cts" yiva^uKOJv 
dwTLKwrepov ottXcov rov Xoyov, avros^ t€ Ga>t,eaOai 
Trape/caAet TrapaSovra? tt]!^ TToAtv "^897' Trap- 
€iXr]fX[ievr]v /cat rov ^IcoGrjTTou KaOiei rfj Trarpvo) 
yXcoo-arj hiaXeyeaOai, rdx ap* evhovvai rrpos 
opio^vXov hoKOJV avrovs. 

862 (3) Ovros TTepuojv ro retxo? /cat Trctpcujacvo? 
e^-oj re^ ^eXovs etvai /cat ev €777] koco, TToAAa /car- 
rjvn^oXeL ^eioaodai jxkv avrojv /cat roiJ Stjijlov, 
^eLGaaOac 8c tt^s" TrarptSos" /cat tol» tepov jxr^Se 
yeveoOai 77 pos ravra rojv dXXo(f)vXa)v aTraSeore- 

363 pous". 'Poj/xatous" /xev ye tou? jLt?) fierexovras 
evrplrreodai rd rcov TToXepmov dyia /cat jJi^XP^ ^^ 
rag x^^P^^ e77e;^etv, rous" 8' ivrpa(f)€vras avrots 
/cay 7T€pLGcodfj pLovovs e^ovras djppLrjadai Trpos 

364 d77cuAetav avraav. rj pirjv rd Kaprepcorepa fjuev 
avrwv opdv reixT) 7re77Taj/coTa, XeiTTopievov Se ro 

1 dvaepyorepa LVRC (c/. § 496). 

^ Destinon : avrovs or aurols mss. 

' + <7rap 6Xt7o;'> Destinon (c/. § 369). 

* rd-x ci^ Destinon : rdxa mss. 

• e^oj re Nicsc (from Lat.) : ^^w or e^ur^pio mss. 

« §§ 267 f. . ^ Or " scorpions." 

312 



JEWISH WAR, V. 359-364 

position, but also with their engines, which they had 
now learnt to use,** daily practice having gradually 
fostered their skill ; and they possessed three 
hundred quick-firers,^ and forty stone-projectors,'' by t^ 
means of which they seriously retarded the erection 
of the Roman earthworks. Titus, conscious that the 
preservation or destruction of the city vitally affected 
himself, while pressing the siege did not omit to 
urge the Jews to reconsider their poHcy. Blending 
active operations with advice, and aware that speech 
is often more effectual than arms, he not only per- 
sonally exhorted them to seek salvation by the 
surrender of the city, already practically '^ taken, but 
also delegated Josephus to parley with them in their 
native tongue, thinking that possibly they might 
yield to the expostulation of a fellow-countryman. 

(3) Josephus, accordingly, went round the wall, Josephus u 
and, endeavouring to keep out of range of missiles skJuei'to 
and yet within ear-shot, repeatedly * implored them urge the 
to spare themselves and the people, to spare their surrender. 
country and their temple, and not to display towards !^g°i|,/;^,°ij 
them greater indifference than was shown by aliens, side." 
The Romans, he urged, though without a share 
in them, yet reverenced the holy places'^ of their 
enemies, and had thus far restrained their hands 
from them ; whereas men who had been brought up 
in them and, were they preserved, would alone enjoy 
them, were bent on their destruction. Indeed, they 
beheld their stoutest walls prostrate and but one 

* ballistae. 

^ The preposition in TrapetXrj/x/xip-qv possibly here has the 
force of Trap' 6X1701'," almost." 

* TToWd probably impHes numerous speeches at different 
spots rather than " at great length." 

^ Literally " things," including perhaps rites, etc. 

313 



JOSEPHUS 

rcov eaXcoKorojv dadevearepov yiv(jjoK€LV he Tqv 
*PcofiaLajv Ldxvv dvvTTOGrarov Kal to SouAeuetv 

365 TOVTOL£ 01) K (iTTeLpaGTOV^ avTolS' €L yap St] Kai 
TToAe/xetv VTTep iXevdeptas KaXov, XPW^^ '^° 
7Tpa>T0V' TO S' OLTTa^ VTTOTTeoovTas Kal fiaKpols 
ei^avras XP^^^''^ erretra aTTOGeLeudai rov t,vy6v 

366 hvaBavarovvTOJv , ov (^lAeAeu^epcov etvat. Selv /xeV- 
TOL Kal SeaTTorag dSo^elv raTTeLvoripovs , o^x ots" 
VTTOx^Lpia rd Trdvra. ri yap 'PcxjfxaLovs hiaTre^ev- 
yevai, rrXrjv et /xt] tl hid ddXiros tj Kpvog dxp'f](JTOV ; 

367 iJL€ra^rjvaL yap Trpos avrovs rravrodev rr^v rvx^'^, 
Kal Kard edvog rov Bedv ijjLTrepLayovTa rrjv dpx^]^ 
vvv cttI TTJs 'IraAta? etvai. vofiov ye fjLTjv ajpiodai 
Kai TTapd 6-qpalv laxvpoTarov Kal Trap dvdpcvTTOLS, 
€LK€LV TOLs Svi'arojTepoLs Kal TO KpaTeiv Trap ols 

368 aKpLTj Tcov ottXcov etvai. 8 to, tovto Kal tovs 
TTpoyovovs avTCJV jtoXvY Kal rat? ifjvxoLL? Kat toIs 
GajfiaGLv €TL Se Kal rat? aAAat? d(f)opiiaLs afieivovs 
ovTas, etfat 'PojjjLaLOL?, ovk dv el firj tov deov 

369 rjSeaav gvv avTols tovB^ V7Top.eivavTas. avTovs 
8e TLVL Kal TTeTToiSoTas dpTex^LV, iaXojKvtas piev 

CK TrXeLGTOV T7J£ TToXeCOS pilpOVS, TCOV 8 evhov, €L 

Kal TO, T€LXi] TTapepievev, dXojGecos ;!(etpov 8ta- 

370 K€LpL€vcov; ov ydp Xavdavetv 'Pajfialovs tov ev Tjj 

TToXcL XipOV, (1) vvv pLeV TOV Srjp,OV, pL€T^ OV TToXv 

371 Se hia(j}dap-qGeGOai Kal tov? pax^pov?. el ydp 
St] Kal rravGaiVTO 'Poi^atot tt^s" TToXiopKias 

^ dweipaToi' ML. 
2 L Lat. : om. the rest. 

• Josephus, here and in the sequel, repeats what he has 
314 



JEWISH WAR, V. 364-371 

remaining, weaker than those which had fallen ; 
they knew that the might of the Romans was irresist- 
ible and that to serve them was no new experience 
for themselves. Be it granted that it was noble to 
fight for freedom, they should have done so at first ; 
but, after having once succumbed and submitted for 
so long, to seek then to shake off the yoke was the 
part of men madly courting death, not of lovers of 
liberty.** To scorn meaner masters might, indeed, 
be legitimate, but not those to whom the universe 
was subject. For what was there that had escaped 
the Romans, save maybe some spot useless through 
heat or cold ? Fortune, indeed, had from all quarters 
passed over to them, and God who went the round 
of the nations, bringing to each in turn the rod of 
empire, now rested over Italy. There was, in fact, 
an estabHshed law, as supreme among brutes as 
among men, " Yield to the stronger " and " The 
mastery is for those pre-eminent in arms." That 
was why their forefathers, men who in soul and 
body, aye and in resources to boot, were by far their 
superiors, had yielded to the Romans — a thing in- 
tolerable to them, had they not known that God 
was on the Roman side. As for them, on what did 
they rely in thus holding out, when the main part 
of the city was already captured, and when those 
within it, though their walls still stood, were in a 
plight even worse than capture ? Assuredly, the 
Romans were not ignorant of the famine raging 
in the city, which was now consuming the populace, 
and would ere long consume the combatants as well. 
For, even were the Romans to desist from the siege 

previously put into the mouth of Agrippa at the opening of 
the war, ii. 355 flF. 

VOL. Ill L 3] 5 



JOSEPHUS I 

fJLTjS iTTLTriTTTOLeV^ rfj TToAct ^L(f)rjp€LS, aVTOLS ye TOV 

afiaxov TToXefMov eVSov TrapaKadijadai Kad^ eKaGTrjv 
ojpav rp€(l)6pievoVy el jjltj kol irpos tov Xifiov apai 
ra oirXa kol p.d\€udai hvvavrai, jxovoi re kol 

372 TTadcov eTTLKparelv. TrpoGertdei he oj? KaXov irpo 
avTjKeorov Gvii(j>opds pLera^aXeadai kol rrpos to 
(JOJT-qpLov eojs e^eari peifjai' /cat yap ovSe pLinqai- 
KaK-qaeiv avrols 'Pajfiacov? rwv yeyevqpLevcjov, el 
fXT] fJ.expi' reXov? aTTavOahiGaivro' (f)VGeL re yap 
ev ro) Kparelv rjiiepovs elvat /cat Trpo rcov dvfJLCov 

373 drjGeaBaL ro Gvp.(l>epov. rovro 8' etvat {I'qre rrjv 
ttoXlv dvSpa)V Kevrjv piT]re rrjv x^'jpav eprjpLov ex^LV. 
Sto /cat vvv KatCTapa ^ovXeGdat Be^tdv avrols 
TrapaGx^LV o^^ yap dv GWGai riva ^ca Xa^ovra rr)v 
TToXiv, /cat ptdXiGra fJ-rjS^ ev eGxdrats GviJL(f)opaXs 

374 VTTaKovGavrcDV TrapaKaXovvri. rod ye ixtjv raxecog 
ro rpirov relxo? dXajGeodai ra vpoeaXcoKora 
TTLGriv eivai' Kav dpprjKrov Se fj ro epvfia, rov 
Xljjlov VTrep 'PojfiaLOJV avrols pLax^iGOat.^ 

375 (4) Taura rov ^Icogtjttov Trapaivovvra rroXXol 
fj-ev eGKOJTrrov diro rod reixovs, rroXXol 8 e^Xa- 
G<pr]iiovv, evLOL 8' e^aXXov. 6 8' ojs rats" (f>avepals 
ovK errecde Gvp^^ovXiais, enl rag opLocJivXovs 

376 fierepaivev Loropias, a oeiAoL, pocop, /cat rcxjp 
LOLcop afjLvqf.ioves GvpLpidxoJv, ottXols /cat X^P^^ 
TToXepLelre 'PajpLalots; riva yap dXXov ovrco? 

311 evLKTjGapiev ; irore 8' ov deos 6 Krioas, dv d8t- 

^ iireLcririTrTOLev LV. 
* Niese from Lat.: ndxeadai ms9. 
' PA : deiXatoi the rest. 



" Cf, Xicanor's words to Josephus himself at Jotapata, 
316 



JEWISH WAR, V. 371-377 

and not fall upon the city ^\•ith dra^\^l swords, yet "it is 
tliey had at their doors a war with which none could S^Et'the^ 
contend, gaining strength every hour, unless indeed limine. " 
they could take arms and fight against famine itself 
and, alone of all men, master even its pangs. They 
would do well, he added, to repent ere irretrievable 
disaster befell them and to incline to salutary coun- 
sels while they had the opportunity ; for the Romans 
would bear them no malice for the past, unless they 
persisted in their contumacy to the end : they were 
naturally lenient in \'ictory," and would put above 
vindictiveness considerations of expediency, which 
did not consist in having on their hands either a 
depopulated city or a de\ astated country. That was 
why, even at this late hour, Caesar desired to grant 
them terms ; whereas, if he took the city by storm, 
he would not spare a man of them, especially after 
the rejection of offers made to them when in ex- 
tremities. That the third M'all would be quickly 
carried was vouched for by the fall of those already 
captured ; and even were that defence impregnable, 
the famine would fight for the Romans against tliem. 

(4) Josephus, during this exhortation, was derided 
by many from the ramparts, by many execrated, and 
by some assailed Mith missiles. Failing to move 
them by this direct advice, he passed to reminiscences 
of their nation's history. 

** Ah, miserable ^vTetches," he cried, " unmindful The lessom 
of your own true allies, would you make war on o<"h'^^o'"> 
the Romans with arms and might of hand ? What 
other foe have we conquered thus, and when did God Former 
who created, fail to avenge, the Jews, if they were ances^r 

iii. 347, and the Virgilian " parcere devictis " {Aen. vi. 853), 
doubtless familiar to the author. 

317 



JOSEPHUS 

Kiovrai, 'louSaicDv ckSlko^; ovk i7TLGrpa<f)€vr€s 
otpecrde TToOev opixcofievoL fidx^crOe Kal tttjXlkov 
eixidvare avjipiaxov ; ovk dvafivrjaeaOe Trarepajv 
epya Sat/xovta, Kal rov dyiov rovhe x^pov 'qXiKovg 

378 Tjpiv TTaXai TroAe/xou?^ KadelXev; iycb jiev ^ptrrcD 
TO, epya rod Oeov Xiyojv els dva^iovs d/coas" 
aKovere 8' oficog, Iva yvcore (jltj fjLOvov 'PajfialoL? 

379 TToXepiOvvres dXXd Kal rep deep. ^acnXevs 6 rore 
^e^acbs AlyvTTTLCov, 6 8' avrog eKaXeZro Kal 
Oapaco, fivpla X^^P^ Kara^ds yjpTTaGe Hdppav 

380 ^acrtAtSa, rrjv jJLTjrepa rod yevovs rjpcbv. ri ovv 
o ravr-qs dvrjp W^padjJL, TrpoTrdrcop 8' rjfJLerepo? ; 
dpa Tov v^pLGTTjv rjpvvaTO roXs OTrAot?, Kairoi 
OKTOjKaiheKa pikv Kal rpiaKOGLovs vrrdpxovs ex<J^v, 
hvvapLLv 8' u(/)'^ eKdorcp tovtwv direipov ; r] avrovs 
fxev iprjiiiav rjyqaaro pLi) avp^Trapovrog 9eov, 
KaOapds 8' dvareivas rds ;)(etpas' els ov vvv epudvare 
Xojpov Vfiels, Tov dvLKrjrov avrcp ^orjdov earparo- 

381 Xoyrjuev ; ov perd piav eairepav dxpavros p.ev r] 
^aaiXLuaa dveTrepcj^drj npos rov dvhpa, npoaKWcbv 
Se rov vcf)* vpcov alpLaxOevra x^P^^ 6pL0(^vXcp 
(f)6vcp Kal rpepwv dTTO rdjv ev vvKrl (^avracr/xdran^ 
e(f)evyev 6 AlyvTrnos, dpyvpco 8e Kal ;^/DU(7a) rovg 

382 deo(f)LX€LS 'E^patofs eha)pelro; etVcu rr^v eus 

^ TToXeatoi's Hudson (perhaps rightly). 
2 e0' ALR. 

* Or (with Hudson's text) " enemies." 

* Again recalling Virgil, " horresco referens." 

^ * Josephus here follows some strange version, doubtless 
derived from Jewish legend (Haggadah), of the story in 
Genesis xii. 10-20 {cf. the variant form of the story in xx. 1 ff.). 
In the Biblical account Abraham goes down into Egypt ; 
here Pharaoh invades Palestine. Necho, moreover, was the 

318 



JEWISH WAR, V. 377-382 

wronged ? Will you not turn your eyes and mark 
what place is that whence you issue to battle and 
reflect how mighty an Ally you have outraged ? 
Will you not recall your fathers' superhuman exploits 
and what mighty wars " this holy place has quelled 
for us in days of old ? For myself, I shudder at 
recounting ^ the works of God to unworthy ears ; yet 
listen, that you may learn that you are warring not 
against the Romans only, but also against God. 

" Nechaos, also called Pharaoh,^ the reigning king 0) Pharani 
of Egypt, came do\Mi with a prodigious host and sarah. 
carried off Sarah, a princess '^ and the mother of our 
race. What action, then, did her husband Abraham, 
our forefather, take ? Did he avenge himself on the 
ravisher \vith the sword ? He had, to be sure, three 
hundred and eighteen officers under him,^ each in 
command of a boundless army. Or did he not rather 
count these as nothing, if unaided by God, and 
uplifting pure hands towards this spot which you 
have now polluted enUst the invincible Ally on his 
side ? And was not the queen, after one night's 
absence, sent back immaculate to her lord, while the 
Egyptian, in awe of the spot which you have stained 
with the blood of your countrymen and trembling 
at his visions of the night, fled, bestowing silver and 
gold' upon those Hebrews beloved of God ? 

name of a Pharaoh of far later date, the conqueror of Josiah, 
2 Chron. xxxv. 20 ; no monarch of the name in patriarchal 
times is known. 

■* The name Sarah means " princess." 

* The 318 " trained men, born in his house " whom he led 
out to the rescue of Lot, Gen. xiv. 14. 

^ Abimelech in similar circumstances bestowed gifts upon 
Abraham, Gen. xx. 14-16 ; no gifts from Pharaoh are 
recorded in xii. 20. 

319 



JOSEPHUS 

AlyvTTTOV fieroLKLav raJv Trarepajv; ov^ rvpav- 
vov}jL€VOL /cat ^aaiXevGiv aX\o(f)vXoLs VTTorreTrroj- 
Kores rerpaKOGLOLs €T€gl, napov ottXois d/xu- 
veaBai Kai "x^epui, (j(j)8.'^ avrovs eTrdrpeipav rco 

383 deep; tls ovk olhev rrjv Travrog B-qpiov KaTaTrXrjGdel- 
aav Atyvrrrov Kal Trdar^ (^dapeloav vouco, ttjv 
aKapTTOV yrjv, tov iTTiXeLTTOvra ^eZXov, ras irraX- 
XrjXov? heKci rrX-qyag, rov£ Std ravra /xerd (jipovpds 
7rpo77efi77op.evovs rrarepas r^p.ow avacpLaKTOvg aKiv- 

384 hvvovs, ovs o Oeos avro) vewKopovg rjyev ; dAAd 
rr^v VTTO ^vpcDV ap—ayelaav ayiav -qplv XdpvaKa 
OVK eariva^e pLCv 7] IlaXaLGTLVi] Kai \ayujv to 
^oavov, iariva^e Se ttov to tojv aprraaajxeviov 

385 edvos, crrjrropievoL be to. KpvTTTOL tov oojp.aTO'? Kai 
hi avTOJv TO. GTrX6.y\vrx pLETa tojv gltlow KaTa- 
(j)€povT€£, X^P^^ Tais" XrjGap.ivaLs dvcKopAoav KVfi- 
^dXojv Kal TvpLTTavcjv ''7X<^J ^^^ rrdui pLeiXiKTrjp to is 

386 IXaGKopLCVOL to ayiov; Beos tjv 6 TavTa TraTpdoiv 
TjpeTepoLs GTpaTrjyojv, otl tol? x^ipas Kai rd OTiAa 

387 TTapevTeg avTOj Kplvai to epyov iTreTpeipav. ^a- 
GiXevg *AG(7vpLOjv TiewaxT^p^lp- ot€ ndGav ttjv 
'AcrtaV €7TLGVp6pL€V0£ TT^l'Sf TTepieGTpaTOTTehevGaTO 

388 TTjv ttoXlv, dpa x^polv dvBpcoTTLvais e—eGev; ovx o-t 
/xev aTTo Tujv ottXcov rjpepLOVGaL eV TrpoGevx^us 
TjGav, dyyeXos Se tov Beov pna vvktl t7)v aTreipov 
GTpaTidv iXvpLijvaTO, Kai p^eB^ rjpiepav avaoTas o 

AGGvpLos OKTOJKaiheKa pLvptaoas eTTt irevTaKiG- 
Xt-XiOLs veKpojv €vp€f pL€Td §€ Tojv KaToXeLTTopievojv 
1 AM : ol the rest. 

* The round number given in Gen. xv. 13 and followed 
in Jos. A. ii. 201- and in St. Stephen's speech, Acts vii. 6 ; 
Exodus xii. 40 more precisely " 430 years." 

320 



JEWISH WAR, V. 382-388 

" Need I speak of the migration of our fathers to (ii-) Tiie 
Egypt? Oppressed and in subjection to foreign Egyp^and 
monarchs for four liundred years,^ yet, though they ^^^ Exodus, 
might have defended themselves by resort to arms 
and violence, did they not commit themselves to 
God ? Who has not heard tell of Egvpt overrun 
with all manner of beasts and M-asted with every 
disease, of the barren land, the failing Nile, the ten 
successive plagues, and how in consequence our 
fathers were sent forth under escort,* without blood- 
shed, ^\^thout risk, God conducting them as the 
future guardians of his shrine ? 

" Or again did not Phihstia and the image Dagon (iii-) The 

rue the rape of our sacred ark by the Svrians r - the°ark^ ° 

Did not the whole nation of those raiders rue the 1'°!^. ^^® 
1 1 1 i 1 • ■ 1 • 1 . i'hiliatines. 

deed, ulcerated m their secret parts and excretmg 

their entrails along with their food,'^ until with the 
hands which stole it they restored it, to the sound 
of cymbals and timbrels,^ and with all manner of 
expiations propitiating the sanctuary ? God's leader- 
ship it was that brought our fathers this triumph, 
because, without resort to hand or weapon, they 
committed the issue to his decision. 

'• When Sennacherib, king of Ass}Tia, with all Asia (iv.) Over. 
follo\^-ing in his train, encamped around this city,^ semX°^ 
was it by human hands he fell ? Were not those cherib's 
hands at rest from arms and raised in prayer, while 
God's angel, in one night, destroyed that countless 
liost ? And when the xA.ssyrian arose next morning, 
did he not find 185,000 corpses, and with the re- 

* Cf. Wisdom xix. 2 /zera (77ror5-^j ir poire, a-^avres avTov?^ of 
the Egyptians speeding the Israelites on their way. 

•^ 1 Sam. v.-vi. "* Rhetorical ampHfication of i Sam. v. 6. 
' Another addition to the Biblical story. ^ See § 303 n. 

3'2l 



JOSEPHUS 

avoTrXov? /cat firj hiajKovras *K^paiov? €<j)vyev; 

389 tcrre /cat rrjv iv Ba^vXowL hovXelav, evda /.lera- 
vduT-q? o Xaos cov ereaiv e^So/xr^/covra oi) irporepov 
els iXevdeptav ave'xp.iriaev r) YsJjpov tovto X^P^' 
Gaadai rep deoj' TrpovTr€p.<f)OrjGav yovv v-n avTOV, 
/cat ttolXlv tov avrcov (TvpLixaxov eveojKopovv. 

390 KadoXov S' €L77€LV, ovK eoTiv 6 TL KaTcopdojcjav ol 
TTarepes rjpiojv rols OTrXoig ^ 8t;^a tovtojv hi-qpiap- 
rov emrpedfavres rep Oeo)' p^ivovres p,€V ye Kara 
"Xojpav evLKOJV co? eSo/cet rep KpLri], pLax6pL€VOL S 

391 €7TTai(jav deL rovro p.€v, rjVLKa ^aaiXev? Ba^u- 
XcovLOJV eVoAtop/cet ravrrjv ttjv ttoXlv, (JvpL^aXd)v 
^ebeKLa? 6 rjpierepos ^aauXevs napd rds 'Iepe/i,tou 
7rpo(f)r]T€las avros 6^ idXco /cat to aaru pL€rd rod 
vaov KarauKaTTTopLevop etde* Kairoi noacp p,€- 
rpiojrepos 6 pikv ^aatXevg eKelvos rcov vpLerepcDV 

392 Tjyepoi'ODV rjv, 6 8 vtt avrcp Aao? vpLOJV. ^ocovra 
yovv TOV 'lepepLLav, ojs dTr4-)(6oiVTO pikv rep dew 8ta 
ras" et's" avTov TrX'qpLp.eXeias , aXwaoivro 8 et ^t) 
rrapaholev r-qv ttoXlv, ovd^ 6 ^aatXevg ovd^ 6 SijpLOS 

o\)6 aveiAev. aAA u/xet?, iv eacrco ravoov, ov yap 
<dv> ^ ippnqvevaai hwaipL-qv rds vapavopLias vpiwv 
d^LOJS, e'/Lte rov napaKaXovvra rrpds aojrrjpLav 
vpids ^XaG(f)-qpL€lr€ /cat ^dXXere, Trapo^vvopLevoL 
TTpds rds VTrofLV-qcreis rdjv dpLaprrjpidrcjv /cat pLrjSe 
rovs Xoyovs (hepovres o)V rdpya Spare Kad 

394 TjpLepav. rovro 8', rjVLKa Avno^ov rov KXr]devros 

^ ins. Destinon. 

* 2 Kings xix. 35. 

* Literally " manes " ; the same metaphor occurs in 
Agrippa's speech, ii. 370. 

* 2 Kings XXV. 1-10. Zedekiah did not " see " the 
destruction of town and temple, which in the Biblical account 

322 



JEWISH WAR, V. 388-394 

mainder flee from the Hebrews who were neither 
armed nor pursuing ? ** 

" You know, moreover, of the bondage in Babylon, (v.) Cyras 
where our people passed seventy years in exile and rejtora«on 
never reared their heads ^ for liberty, until Cyrus f™™ e^'ie. 
granted it in gratitude to God ; yes, it was through 
him that they were sent forth and re-estabhshed the 
temple-worship of their Ally. In short, there is no 
instance of our forefathers having triumphed by arms 
or failed of success without them when they com- 
mitted their cause to God : if they sat still they 
conquered, as it pleased their Judge, if they fought 
they were invariably defeated. 

" Thus, when the king of Babylon besieged this Former 
city, our king Zedekiah ha\'ing, contrary to the the city ••'^ 
prophetic warnings of Jeremiah, given hirn battle, ^q\^.J ^^^^ 
was himself taken prisoner and saw the to\\Ti and the ians, 
temple levelled to the ground.'' Yet, how much 
more moderate was that monarch than your leaders, 
and his subjects than you I For, though Jeremiah 
loudly proclaimed that they were hateful to God for 
their transgressions against Him, and would be taken 
captive unless they surrendered the city, neither the 
king nor the people put him to death.*^ But you — 
to pass over those scenes within, for it would be 
beyond me adequately to portray your enormities — 
you, I say, assail with abuse and missiles me who 
exhort you to save yourselves, exasperated at being 
reminded of your sins and intolerant of any mention 
of those crimes which you actually perpetrate every 
day. 

" Or again, when our ancestors went forth in (ii.) by 

Antiochus 
occurred ten years after he had been taken, a blindea *^^^^ ^°®^' 
prisoner, to Babylon. <* Cf. Jer. xxvii. 12 ff. 

VOL. Ill L 2 323 



JOSEPHUS 

*^7n(f)avov£ TTpoGKaOetofievov rfj rroXei ttoXXcl 
Trpo? TO Oelov e^v^pLKorog, ol rrpoyovoi fiera tojv 
ottXojv TTporjXOov, avToi p.kv aTreGcfxiyqcrav ev rfj 
IxdxX), hirjpTrd^^ he to dorv tol? TToXepLLOL?, 
rjprjpLOjdr] §' ervj rpia koI firjvas i^ ro dyiov. 

395 KaL TL Set rdXXa Xeyeiv; aAAa PojfiaLOvg rt? 
euTparoXoyrjoe Kara rod edvovs ; ovx rj rojv 
i7n\(jjpL(jjv doe^eia; TToOev h rip^dj-ieda hovXeias ; 

396 dp ov^l €.K Gr6.G€OJS rcov Trpoyovojv, ore r) Apt- 
Gro^ovXov Kal 'YpKavov pLavia Kal Trpo? dXXijXovs 
epLS XlopLTrqiov eTrriyayev rfj rroXei Kal PcopLatoLs 
vrrera^ev 6 deo? rovs ovk d^lovs eXevOepuag; 

397 rpLGL yovv pLrjGL TToXiopK-qQevres iavrovg Trap- 
edoGav, ovd^ dpLaprovre? el? rd dyia Kal rovg 
vopiovs TjXLKa vpLelg KaL ttoXv pLeL^OGiv achoppidtg 

398 77pOb rov rroXeptov xpajpievoL. ro S Wvnyovov 
reXog rov ^ ApiGro^ovXov rraihos ovk "iGfiev, ov 
^aGiXevovros 6 deog dXojGei TrdXiv rov Xadv rjXavve 
TrXrjpLpLeXovvra, Kal 'Hpojbrjs pLev o Avrirrdrpov 
^OGGLOV, Zdacrtos" Se 'Poj/xaiojv Grpandv rjyayev, 
nepLGxeOevreg § errl pL-qvag e^ erroXLopKovvro, 
piexpi' hiKag rcLv dpLapriuiv hovreg edXojoav Kat 
hiTjpTrdyrj rolg 7ToXe}XLOig rj TToXig ; 

399 Qvra>g ovhe-rrore roj edveu rd orrXa SeSorat, rep 
he TroXep,€LG9aL Kal ro dXajGeodai Travrojg rrrpoG- 

400 cart. Set yap, oi/xat, rovg ;(c/jpto^' dyiov vepLO- 
fJLCPOvs eTTirperreiv Trdvra rw deqj hiKateiv Kal 

" Cf. 1 Mace. i. 20 ff., Jos. A. xii. :?46 ff., where, however, 
no contest is recorded ; according to the account in the 
Antiquities Jerusalem was twice captured by Antiochns. 
once without a battle {aaaxnTl, 246j, once by treachery 

(dTTClTTJ. 248). 

^ ' c. December 168-June 164 b.c, the 1290 davs of Dan. 

S24 



JEWISH WAR, V. 394-400 

arms against Antiochus,'* surnamed Epiphanes, Avho 
was blockading this city and had grossly outraged 
the Deity, they were cut to pieces in the battle, the 
toMTi was plundered by the enemy and the sanctuary 
for three years and six months^ lay desolate. 

" Why need I mention more ? But. pray, who en- ("'•) by 
listed the Romans against our country ? Was it not 
the impiety of its inhabitants ? Whence did our 
seryitude arise ? Was it not from party strife among 
our forefathers, when the madness of Aristobulus 
and Hyrcanus and their mutual dissensions brought 
Pompey against the city,*' and God subjected to the o3 &.c, 
Romans those who were unworthy of Hberty ? Yes, 
after a three months' siege ^ they surrendered, 
though innocent of such offences as yours against 
the sanctuary and against the laws, and possessing 
far ampler resources for war. 

"Or know we not the fate of Antigonus, son of(iv.)by 
Aristobulus, in whose reign God again smote the so^s^*?us^^^ 
people for their offences by the capture of this city ; 
M'hen Herod, son of Antipater, brought up Sossius,^ 37 b.c. 
and Sossius a Roman army, by whom they were for 
six ^ months invested and besieged, until in retribu- 
tion for their sins they were captured and the city 
was sacked by the enemy ? 

" Thus invariably have arms been refused to our Anns have 
nation, and warfare has been the sure signal for defeat. !!^n^^"to 
For it is, I suppose, the duty of the occupants of holy the Jews. 
ground to leave everything to the arbitrament of 

xii. 11. 1 Mace, i. 54 with iv. 52, reckons the period as 
3 years (to Dec. 165 b.c). " B. i. ISl f?. 

'" B. i. 149, ^. xiv. 66. ' B. i. 345, A. xiv. 468. 

f 5 months according to B. i. 351 ; under 2 months 
according to A. xiv. 476, the two walls being captured in 
40 and 15 days respectively. 

325 



JOSEPHUS 

Karaiipov^iv totc )(€Lp6g dvOpojTTLvrjg, orav avroL 

401 TTeiOajGi rov avco hiKaGTrji' . vyuv 8e rt rojv 
evXoyriOei'TOjv vtto tov voiioOerov 7T€TrpaKr at; ri 
he rcov V7T eKeivov Kari^pafxevcov TrapaXeXenrTai ; 
TTOGcp 8* £CTTe Tcuv ro-XLOv aXovTOJV dae^eGrepoi; 

402 ov rd KpvTrrd /xev rcov diiapT-qjidrcov rjdo^-qKare, 
/cAoTrd? Xeyoj /cat iveSpag /cat piOL-)(^eias , dpTrayals 
8 epiter€ /cat c^oi'ot? /cat ^evag Kaivoroyieire 
/ca/ct'a? oSoi;?, e/c8o;^etor Se Trayrajv to lepov yeyovev 
/cat ;Y^po-^^' ipLcj^vXiOLg 6 delos ixepaavrai )(ajpo?, 
ov /cat 'Poj/xatot TTopptoBev TrpoaeKvvovv, TToXXa 
rcov Ihlajv iOcJov et? rov vfierepov TrapaXvovres 

403 vofiov} etr eVt TOUTOt? rov dae^-qOevra aviipiaxov 
TTpoaboKare ; iraw yovv eare oi/catot t/cerat /cat 
;(cpCTt Kadapalg rov ^orjOov vp,cjjv TrapaKaXelre . 

404 TotauVats" o ^aGcXevg r)fjLOJv LKerevaev CTit rov 

Acrcjuptov, ore rov fieyav eKelvov Grparov fiia 

WKri KareGrpojGev 6 deos; ofioia he roj AGGvptco 

PojpLaloL hpcoGLV, Iva /cat dfivvav vfielg ofxoiav 

405 iXrrcGrjre ; ov^ d fJLev ^(prjiiara rrapd rod jSacrtAeojS" 
rjpLOJV Aa^oji^ eci* co fir] TropOrjoeL rrjv ttoXlv Kare^r] 
TTapd rovs opKovg ifjLTrprJGai rov vaov, 'Pco/xatot 
Be rov Gvvrjdr] haG/JLOV alrouGLV, ov ol irarepes 

^ et'j . . . v6jj.ov L (C similar, reading jjuerepoi') : irapaXuoi'Tes 
Kai vbfxoiv the rest. 

" Moses. 

* For Tdxiop = irpoTepov cf. e.g. B. i. 284 (where the 
parallel in A. has to -kpOitov). The rendering " more 
speedily defeated " would not be true, if the comparison 
were between the duration of previous sieges of Jerusalem 
alluded to and that of the present siege which had so far 
lasted only some two months ; though it might apply to the 
length of the war as a whole. 



JEWISH WAR, V. 400-405 

God and to scorn the aid of human hands, can they 
but conciliate the Arbiter above. But as for you, Your 
what have you done that is blessed by the lawgiver," deprive yoa 
what deed that he has cursed have you left undone ? of any hope 

1 • • ' 1 1 1 of deliver- 

How much more mipious are you than those who ance. 
have been defeated in the past ! ^ Secret sins — I 
mean thefts, treacheries, adulteries — are not beneath 
your disdain,^ while in rapine and murder you vie 
with each other in opening up new and unheard of 
paths of vice ; aye and the temple has become the 
receptacle '^ for all, and native hands have polluted 
those divine precincts, which even Romans reverenced 
from afar,^ forgoing many customs of their own in 
deference to your law. And after all this do you 
expect Him, thus outraged, to be your ally ? Right- 
eous supphants are ye, forsooth, and pure the hands 
with M-hich you appeal to your protector ! ^^'ith such, 
I ween, our king besought aid against the Assyrian,-^ 
when God in one night laid low that mighty host ! 
And so like are the deeds of the Romans to those of 
the Assyrian, that you may look for a like vengeance 
yourselves ! Did not he accept money from our 
king^ on condition that he would not sack the city, 
and then come down, in \'iolation of his oaths, to 
burn the sanctuary, whereas the Romans are but 
demanding the customary tribute, which our fathers 

' Or perhaps interrogatively, " Have not secret sins . . . 
been disdained by you . . . ?," i.e. become too trivial to 
satisfy you. 

■^ Or" sink "; cf. Sallust, Cat. 37, " omnes . . . Romam 
sicut in sentinam confiuxerant." 

• i.e. without passing tlie parapet marking the boundary 
of the court of the Gentiles, §§ 193 f. Cf. ii. 341, where 
Neapolitanus pays his devotions to the sanctuary " from the 
peraiitted area." 

' Sennacherib, § 387. » 2 Kings xviii. 14 f. 

327 



JOSEPHUS 

40G 77/xajv rots' iK€LVOJV rrarpoLGL TrapeG^ov ; koI tovtov 

TV)(6vT€£ OVT6 TTOpdoVGL TrjV TToXtV OVT€ ifjaVOVGL 

TOW dylcoVy StSoaCTt S Vfjuv ra aAAa, yevea? t' 
iXevdepag^ Kai KTijcreLg ras eavrojv vifxecrdau Kal 

407 Tovg Upovg vofjiovg gojL^ovgl. fiavta di] rov Oeov 

TTpOohoKaV €7TL SiKaiOLS 0L0£ €77 ddlKOLS i(l)dvrj . 

Kal 7rapa)(prj[JLa 8 dpivveiv oihev orav her]' rovg 
yovv ^ A.G(Jvpiov<^ Kara vvKra rrjv TrpcoTrjv napa- 

408 oTpo-OTTehevGajiivovs cK'Aaaev ojgt et Kal rrjv 
rjfjLerepav yevedv iXevOepcag tj Poj^atous" KoXaGeojg 
d^Lovg eKpive, ko.v TrapaxprjlJ-a Kadarrep rols 

AGGvpLOLS eveGK-qipev, ore rod edvov^ rjrrrero 
n 0/2 777^10?, ore pier avrov dvQei Zocrcrtos", ore 
OveGTTaGLavos eTTopBei r7]V TaXtXalav, ra reXev- 

409 rata vvv, ore rjyyLLe Tiro? rfj TroXeu. Kairoi 
Mayvos" l-iev Kal Soctctios" 77^0? roj fJLTjhev Tradelv 
Kai ava Kpdrog eXajiov r-qv ttoXlv, OveGTraGiavos 
b Ik rod Trpog rjixag voXepLov Kal ^aGiXeias rjp^aro, 
Tiroj pev ydp'" Kal TT-qyal TrXovGiojrepai peovGiv 

410 at ^TjpavdelGai Trporepov vplv Trpo yovv rrjg avrov 
TTapovGLas r-qv re ZtAtuav eTnXeinovGav tare /cat 
ras TTpo rov aGreos drraGas, oiGre Trpos api^opeas 
ojvelGOai ro vhojp' ro he vvv ovrojg ttX-qOvovgl rols 
rroXepiois vpLcov, ojg pLTj povov avrols Kai KriqveGLv, 

411 aAAa K:at ktjttols hiapKelv. ro ye pLiqv repas rovro 
rreTrelparai' Kal Trporepov e(f> dXcoGei rrjs rroXeajs 
yeyevrjpLevov, 66^ 6 Trpoetprjp.evog Ba/juAojvto? 
erreGrpdrevGev, og rr^v re ttoXlv eXojv everrprjGe Kai 
rov vaov, ovhev olpLau rcvv rore ■qae^'qKorajv 

^ fj^v yap] ixevroL or ye jxriv Niese. 
' Niese : TreTretpaorat or Tre-rrdpacrde {-daC) MSS. 

328 



JEWISH WAR, V. 406-411 

paid to theirs ? Once they obtain this, they neither 
sack the city, nor touch the holy things, but grant 
you everything else, the freedom of your families, the 
enjoyment of your possessions and the protection of 
your sacred laws. It is surely madness to expect 
God to show the same treatment to the just as to 
the unjust. Moreover, He knows how, at need, to 
inflict instant vengeance, as when He broke the 
Assyrians on the very first night when they encamped 
hard by ^ ; so that had he judged our generation 
worthy of freedom or the Romans of punishment, He 
would, as He did the Ass\'Tians. have instantly visited 
them — when Pompey intermeddled with the nation, 
when after him Sossius came up, when Vespasian 
ravaged Gahlee, and lastly now, when Titus was 
approaching the city. And yet Magnus ^ and Sossius, 
far from sustaining any injury, took the city by storm ; 
Vespasian from his war against us mounted to a 
throne : ^ while as for Titus, the very springs flow 
more copiouslv for him which had erstwhile dried up 
for you. For before his coming, as you know, 
Siloam and all the springs outside the to^\^l were 
failing, insomuch that water was sold by the amphora^ \ 
whereas now they flow so freely for your enemies as 
to suffice not only for themselves and their beasts 
but even for gardens. This miracle, moreover, has 
been experienced ere now on the fall of the city, 
when the Babvlonian whom I mentioned ^ marched 
against it and captured and burnt both the city and 
the sanctuary, although the Jews of that day were 

" 2 Kings xix. 35, " that night," but see § 303 note. 
* Pompey the Great. 

' iv. 604. ^ about 9 gallons. 

' § 391. The " miracle " in his day is imrecorded in 
Scripture. 

3^^y 



JOSEPHUS 

412 ttiXlkovtov -qXiKa vyieZs' war iyoj 7T€^€vyevai fiev 
€K ra)v ayiiov oljiai to Belov, ecrravat he Trap otg 

413 TToXefJLeXre vvv. dAA' dvrjp [lev dyadog OLKiav 
aaeXyrj (jyev^erai /cat rovs eV avTTj arvyrjaeL, tov 
he deov en Treldeade rol? OLKeiois KaKolg rrapa- 
ixeveiv, OS rd re Kpyrrrd Trdvra e(^opd. Kau tojv 

414 GLycojJLevojv d/couet; tl he oiydrai Trap" vjjuv t) tl 
KpvTTreraL; ri 3' ov)(l kol toIs e^Qpols <f)avep6p 
yeyove; TTOfXTrevere yap TrapavopiovvTe? /cat Kad 
rj[jLepav epiCere, tls x^'-P^^ yev-qrai, rrjs dSt/cta? 

415 ojGTTep dperrjs eTnhei^LV TTOiovpLevoL. KaraXenre- 
rat b 6p.ojg en GconqpLas oho?, edv deXrjre, /cat to 
Selov evhiaXXaKTOV e^ojioXoyovjievoLS /cat fiera- 

416 voovGiv. CO aihr^peioi, piipare rd? TravoirXias , 
Xd^ere ^hrj KarepeLTTopievq? alho) rrarpiho?, errt- 
orpachrjre /cat dedoauOe rd /cdAAo? -qs irpohihore, 

417 oiov durv, olov lepov, oorojv eOvcov hcupa. ein 
ravra ns 6hr]yel (f}X6ya; ravrd n? pL-qKer etvat 
OeXec; /cat rl awLeaOai rovrojv d^iojrepov, drey- 

418 >crot^ /cat XWcdv drradearepoL. /cat et pnq ravra 
yvT)OLOLs opLpLaau' ftXe—ere, yeved? yovv vpLerepa? 
OLKretpare, /cat Trpo 6(l)6aX[jia)v eKdarco yeveaOcu 
reKva /cat yvvri /cat yovels, ov? avaXwaei yuera 

419 pLLKpdv Tj At/XO? Tj TToXepLOS. Ot8' OTt fJLOL (JVyKLV- 

hvvevei piijrrjp /cat yvvrj /cat yevos ovk aGrjpiov Kal 
TrdXai XapLTTpo? olko?, /cat rdxci hoKOj hid ravra 
cruii^ovXeveLV. drroKreivare avrovs, Xd^ere pLioOoi^ 

*• After Aeschines (77. 25). 

* His father, Matthias, though not mentioned here, was 
still alive, his imprisonment being referred to below, § 533. 

330 



JEWISH WAR, V. 412-419 

guilty, I imagine, of no such rank impiety as yours. 
My belief, therefore, is that the Deity has fled from fl'^/^*!^^ 
the holy places and taken His stand on the side of Romans. 
those with whom you are now at war. 

" Nay, an honourable man will fly from a wanton 
house and abhor its inmates, and can you persuade 
yourselves that God still remains with his household 
in their iniquity — God who sees every secret thing 
and hears what is buried in silence ? And what is 
there veiled in silence or secrecy among you ? Nay, 
what has not been exposed even to your foes ? For 
you parade your enormities and daily contend who 
shall be the worst, making an exhibition of vice as 
though it were virtue. 

*' Yet a way of salvation is still left you, if you will ; Final 
and the Deity is easily reconciled to such as confess ^^^^ 
and repent. Oh ! iron-hearted men,^ fling away 
your weapons, take compassion on your country even 
now tottering to its fall, turn round and behold the 
beauty of what you are betraying : what a city ! 
what a temple ! what countless nations' gifts ! 
Against these would any man direct the flames ? Is 
there any who wishes that these should be no more ? 
What could be more worthy of preservation than 
these — ye relentless creatures, more insensible than 
stone ! Yet if you look not on these with the eyes 
of genuine aifection, at least have pity on your 
families, and let each set before his eyes his children, 
wife and parents, ere long to be the victims either of 
famine or of war. I know that I have a mother,^ a wife, 
a not ignoble family, and an ancient and illustrious 
house involved in these perils ; and maybe you think 
that it is on their account that my advice is offered. 
Slay them, take my blood as the price of your own 

331 



JOSEPHUS 

T^S" eavrcuv awTijpLag to e/nov at/xa* Kayoj dvqcTKeLV 
eroLyLOs, el fxer ifie ocoopovelv fieXkere." 

420 (x. l) ToiavTa rod 'Icuctt^ttoi; /xerd haKpvojv 
ifjL^OiovTOS ol GTaGLaGTal fiev ovr' evehoaav ovt^ 
d(T(f)aXrj rrjv fiera^oX-qv eKpivav, 6 Se BrjiJiog 

421 eKLv-qOi'i rrpos avTOjxoXiav. kol ol jiev ras Kri^aeis 
iXax^crrov rrcoXovvres , ol he to. TToXvreXeG-epa 
Tcov KeLjirjXLOJv, rovs fxev xpvGovg, ojg [jltj (f)Ojpa- 
detev VTTO TCOV Xt^gtcov, KaTeTTivov, eTreuTa Trpog 
Tou? 'Poj/xatous" hLahiSpoLGKOvTes, orroTe KaT- 

422 eveyKatev evTTopovv Trpos a SeoiVTO. hir](j)iei yap 
Tovs TToXXovg 6 Tlto? els rrjv ■)((jjpav ottol ^ouXolto 
eKauTog, kol tovt avTO^ fidXXov Tjpos avTopLoXiav'^ 
TTapeKaXei, tcov pLev e'low KaKcov OTeprjooiJievovs, 

423 p-^ hovXevGOVTas Se 'Pco/.tatots'. ol Se Trepl tov 

lojdvvTjv Kal TOV 1!.Lpojva 7Tape(f)vXaTTOv^ tols 
TOVTOJV e^oSovs rrXeov t) rd? 'PcvpiaLcov ecGodovg, 
Kal GKidv ng inrovoias napaGxcov pLovov evOecos 
aireGcjidTTeTO. 

424 (2) Tot? ye pLTjv evTTopois Kal to pLevecv Trpos 
aTTOjXeLav lgov Yjv rrpo(^dGei yap avTopLoXias 
avrjpelTo tls Std ttjv ovGiav. to) At/xoj S' tj 
aTTOvoLa Tojv GTaGiaGTUJV GvvrjKiJLaL,e, Kal KaO^ 

425 Tjpiepav dpL(f)6Tepa TrpoGe^eKaieTO to. Setva. (f)a- 
vepos pLev yap ovSapLov gltos tjv, eTreLGTTrjhcjVTes 
Se hirjpevvojv rds olKtas, eTreiO^ evpovTes p^ev d>s 
apvrjGapievovs j^kl^ovto, pLTj evpovTes S ojs eirt- 

426 pieXeGTepov KpvipavTas e^aadvii^ov. TeKpL-qpiov Se 
TOV T* exeiv Kal pLT) to. GcopiaTa tCjv dOXtajv, cbv 
ol pLev ert (TVveGTuJTeg evrropeZv Tpo<f)rjs eSoKovv, 

^ eos Lat. - M : -n-pos (+ to L) arroMoXetf the rest. 

3 Niese (cf. §§ 493-6) : irepiec^vXaTTo:' MS3. 

332 



JEWISH WAR, V. 419-426 

salvation ! I too am prepared to die, if my death 
will lead to your learning wisdom." 

(x. 1) Yet, though Josephus with tears thus loudly Desertion 
appealed to them, the insurgents neither yielded "^ xuu^-=. 
nor deemed it safe to alter their course. The people, 
however, were incited to desert ; and selling for a 
trifling sum, some their whole property, others their 
most valuable treasures, they would swallow the gold 
coins ^ to prevent discovery by the brigands, and 
then, escaping to the Romans, on discharging their 
bowels, have ample supphes for their needs. For 
Titus dismissed the majority into the country, 
whithersoever they would ; a fact which induced 
still more to desert, as they would be relieved from 
the misery within and yet not be enslaved by the 
Romans. The partisans of John and Simon, however, 
kept a sharper look-out for the egress of these 
refugees than for the ingress of Romans, and who- 
ever afforded but a shadow of suspicion was instantly 
slaughtered. 

(2) To the well-to-do, however, to remain in the The famine 
city was equally fatal ; for under pretext of desertion ^oiJe 
individuals were put to death for the sake of their search. 
property. The recklessness of the insurgents kept 
pace with the famine, and both horrors daily burst 
out in more furious flame. For, as corn was nowhere 
to be seen, they would rush in and search the houses, 
and then if they found any they belaboured the in- 
mates as having denied the possession of it ; if they 
found none they tortured them for more carefully 
concealing it. The personal appearance of the 
WTCtches was an index wliether they had it or not : 
those still in good condition were presumed to be 

° For the horrible nemesis which befell them see §§ 550 ff. 

333 



JOSEPHUS 

ot TTjKofjievoL 8c 97817 vapcoSevovro , Kal Kreiveiv 
dXoyov eSoxet rovs vtt^ ivSelag TeOvrj^ojJievovs 

427 avTLKa. TroAAot 8e Xddpa rag KTrjueis evos 
dvTTjXXd^avro jxlrpov, rrvpcov /xev et TrXovauorepoL 
rvyxdvoL€v ovres, ol 8e TrevearepoL Kpidrjg, CTretra 
KaraKXeiovre? avrovg ct? ra ixv)(aLTaTa tojv 
OLKLwv TLves jikv VTT^ aKpas eVSeta? dvipyaarov 

rOV GLTOV tJgOlOV, ol 8' €7T€GG0V d)S 1) T€ dvdyKTj 

428 Kal TO Seo? TTaprjvei. Kal rpaTre^a pikv ovSapLOV 
TTaperLOero, rov 8e irvpos v(f)eXKovr€s er cu/xd 
rd GL-ia hirjp7TaL,ov. 

429 (3) 'EAeeti'T] 8' tjv tj rpo<f)rj Kal SaKpvojv dfto? 
Tj dea, Tcjjv fiev hvvarcjrepojv rrXeoveKTOvvrcov , 
TcDy 8' dGdevojv ohvpopievojv. iravTiov jxev Srj 
TTadcov vrrepLGraraL Xiyios, ovSeu 8' ovrojg dir- 
oXXvGiv (jjs alho)' TO yap dXXa>s euTpoTrrjg d^iov iv 

430 TOVTO) KaTa(f)pov€LTai. yvvaiKeg yovv dvhpcnv Kal 
TTalhes TiaTepojv, Kal, to OLKrpoTaTOV, pLTjTepes 
mrjTrlow e^rjprra'C.ov i^ avrojv tcov GTopLdrcuv Tas 
Tpocf)d£, Kal Ta)V cf)LXTaTa)v ev X^P^^ pLapaivopievajv 
ovK TjV (j^eihoj Tovs Tov i,rjv d(f)eX€GdaL GraXayfJLOvg, 

431 TOtaura 8* eoOlovres ojiajs ov SieXdvOavov, rrav- 
Taxov 8' i(f)lGTavro [ol aracrtaaTat] Kal tovtcov 

432 rat? dpTrayals . oiroTe yap KarlSoiev dnoKeKXeL- 
Gfievqv oIkIov, GrjfjLelov r)v tovto tovs evhov irpoG- 
(f)6p€GdaL Tpo(f)rjV' €vdeajs 8' i^apd^avTeg Tag 
Ovpag €iG€7rrjSojv , Kal fiovov ovk €k tojv (bap-uyyojv 

433 dvadXl^ovreg Tag aKoXovg av€(j)€pov . €tv7ttovto 
8e yepovTeg dvTexop-^voL tojv gltlojv, Kal KOfirjg 
iGTrapdrrovTO yvvaiKeg GvyKaXviTTOVGai rd ev 
X^pGLV. ovbe Tig rjv ot/cro? TToXtdg tj vr]Tr lajv^ 
dAAd GVV€7TaLpovT€g Ta 7rat8ta tcov ipajpicjv €/c- 
334 



JEWISH WAR, V. 426-433 

well off for food, while those already emaciated were 
passed over, as it seemed senseless to kill persons 
so soon to die of starvation. Many clandestinely 
bartered their possessions for a single measure — of 
wheat, if they were rich, of barley, if they were poor ; 
then shutting themselves up in the most remote 
recesses of their houses, some in the extremity of 
hunger devoured the grain unground, others so 
baked it as necessity and fear dictated. Nowhere 
was any table laid ; they snatched the food half- 
cooked from the fire and tore it in pieces. 

(3) Pitiful was the fare and lamentable the spec- Horrors of 
tacle, the stronger taking more than their share, the and 
weak whimpering. Famine, indeed, overpowers all atrocities of 
the emotions, but of notliing is it so destructive as 
of shame : what at other times would claim respect 
is then treated with contempt. Thus, wives would 
snatch the food from husbands, children from fathers, 
and — most pitiable sight of all — mothers from the 
very mouths of their infants, and while their dearest 
ones were pining in their arms they scrupled not to 
rob them of the life-giving drops. Nor, though thus 
feeding, did they escape detection : everywhere 
the rebels hovered even over these wretches' prey. 
For, whenever they saw a house shut up, this was a 
signal that the inmates were taking food, and forth- 
with bursting open the doors they leapt in and 
forcing the morsels almost out of their very jaws 
brought them up again. Old men were beaten, 
clutching their victuals, and women were dragged 
by the hair, concealing what was in their hands. 
There was no compassion for hoary hairs or infancy : 
cliildren were actually lifted up with the fragments to 



335 



JOSEPHUS 

434 xpefJLajJLeva Kareaeiov elg ISac^o?. rots Se (J)9acraai 
TTjv elaBpojjLTjv avrchv xrat TTpoKaTamovGi ro 
dprrayrjGoiievov (Ls adiKrjdevres T^aav cjpiOTepoi. 

435 Setvas' Se ^aadvajv ohov? eirevoovv rrpos epevvav 
rpo(f>rjs, opo^oLs [lev iiJL(f)pdrTOvr€s rols dOXlois 
rov£ Tojv alSouoi' rropov?, pd^SoL? 8' o^etat? 
avaTTeipovres rag eSpas", rd (f)pLKTd be Kai aKoals 
€7TaGx^ TLS €LS i^opoXoyquLV evo? dprov Kai Lva 

436 iir^vvoTj hpdKa paav KeKpvpLp^evrjv d\<j)LTOJv. ol 
^aoavLorai h ovk €7T€lv(jjv, Kac yap tjttou av 
(hlMOV TjV TO /xer' dvdyK-qg, yv/jLvd^ovres Se ttjv 
arrovoiav Kai 7Tpo7TapaGKevd(^ovT€s avToZs €ls 

437 ras" €grj^ rjijiepas €<pooLa. tols o CTTt ttjv t^aj- 
jiaLCDP (f)povpdv vvKTOjp i^epTTVoraGLV CTTt Xaxdvcxjv 
orv?<Xoyrjv ayptcov Kai TToas VTravrcovres , or 7]0T] 
hiajrec^evyivai rovs TToXefxiov? ihoKovv, d<f>-qp7raL,oi' 

438 rd KOjiLGdevra, Kai TToAAaxrts" iKerevovrcov kol to 
(jipLKTOV iTTLKaXovfievcov 6vop.a rod deov p^erahovvai 
Tt [idpos a'UTols djv KLvhwevaavres TjveyKav, ovh 
ortovv pLereSoaav dyair-qrov 8' -qv to {jli) Kai 
TTpoGarroXeadai GeavXruilvov . 

439 (4-) Ot p.€v Srj raTreivorepoL roLavra Trpog tojv 

hopVC^OpOJV €7TaGXOV, OL 8' iv d^LCOfiaTL Kai 7tXovt(x) 

TTpo? Tovs Tvpdvvovs avTjyovTO . tovtcjov ol fjLev 
iTTL^ovXds iJjevSels eTTLKaXovpLevoi SLecfyOelpovTo, 
OL Se tu? TrpoStSotev 'PojjJiaLOLS ttjv ttoXlv, to 8 
eTOLpLOTaTov rjv p.rjvvTrjg rt?^ vno^XrjTog ws 

440 avTopLoXelv hLeyvcoKOTcov. 6 8' vrro ^Lj-Lcuros 

1 om. Tis PAL Lat. 
336 



JEWISH WAR, V. 434-440 

which they clung and dashed to the ground. To 
those who had anticipated their raid and aheady 
SM'allowed their expected spoil they were yet more 
brutal, as defrauded of their due. Horrible were the 
methods of torture which they devised in their search 
for food, blocking with pulse the passages in their 
poor victims' frames and driving sharp stakes up 
their bodies ; and one would shudder at the mere 
recital of the pangs to which they were subjected to 
make them confess to the possession of a single loaf 
or to reveal the hiding-place of a handful of barley- 
meal. Yet their tormentors were not famished : 
their cruelty would have been less, had it had the 
excuse of necessity ; they were but practising their 
recklessness and providing supplies for themselves 
against the days to come. Again, if any under 
cover of night had crept out to the Roman outposts 
to gather wild herbs and grass, they would go to 
meet them and, at the moment when these imagined 
themselves clear of the enemy, snatch from them 
what they had procured ; and oft though their 
victims implored them, invoking even the awful 
name of God, to return them a portion of what 
they had at their own peril obtained, not a morsel was 
given them. They might congratulate themselves 
if, when robbed, they were not killed as M'ell. 

(4) Such was the treatment to which the lower Persecution 
classes were subjected by the satellites ; the men jg^vs by^"^"^ 
of rank and wealth, on the other hand, were brought sunou and 
up to the tyrants. Of them some were falsely 
accused of conspiracy and executed, as were others 
on the charge of betraying the city to the Romans ; 
but the readiest expedient was to suborn an informer 
to state that they had decided to desert. One who 

3S7 



JOSEPHUS 

yvfivajdetg npo? ^Icodwrjv av€Tri^Tt€ro, kol rov 
V7t6 Yojdvvov aeavXr][ji€vov 6 Et/xa>y /xereAa/i-^avev 
ain-LTTpov7TLVov 8 dAAi^Aots- TO acfJLa tojv Stjijlotojv 

441 Kat ra irrcofiara tojv olOXlcov hieii€pil,ovTO. Kal 
Tov jjLev KpareZv orduLS i)v iv dii(f)OT€poLSt rcov 
o doe^-qiJidrajv 6p.6voia- Kal yap 6 firj /xcraSou? 
€/c rcov aXXorpioiv KaKcov Oarepoj p-ovorpoTTOi^ 
e8d/<:et TTOvqpo?, kol 6 pi-q peraXa^cbv co? dyadov 
TLUog rjXyet rov voG(f)LGp6v rrjs (hponqros. 

442 (5) Ka^' eKaarov pev ovv eVe^teVat t7]v rrapa- 
vopLiav avTOjp dSuVarov, cruveXovTL^ 8' elneXv, 
prjT€ ttoXlv dXXr]v roiavra TTeTTOvBlvai p-qre yevedv 

443 ef aL(x)vos yeyovevai KaKias yovLpwrepav, ol ye 
reXevratov Kal to yevos e^auAt^ov rcov 'E^/aatcuv, 
COS' rjrrov doe^eZs hoKolev irpog aXXorplovs, i^- 
ajpLoXoy-qcravro 8' orrep rjaav etvat SovXol Kal 

444 avyKXvSe? Kal voda rod eOvovs (f)6dppara. rrjv 
pL€v ye ttoXlv dverpeipav avrol, 'Pajpalov? 8 
a/covra? rfvayKaaav i7nypa(^rjvaL OKvdpcoTTO) Karop- 
9cL)p,arL Kal povov ovx elXKvaav errl rov vaov 

44') ^paSvvov ro TTvp. dpeXei Kaiopevov eV rrjs dvuj 
TToXeojs d(f)opcovre£ ovr^ rjXyqoav ovr^ iSdKpvaav, 
dXXd ravra ra Trddiq rrapd 'Pajp^aloLS evpedrj. 
Kai ravra pev Kara ^aypav vcrrepov /Lter' diro- 
861^60)? TOJV TTpaypdrcov epovpev. 

446 (xi. l) Tiro) 8e ra pev ^^copLara irpovKOTrrev 
Kairoi TToXXd KaKovpevcov dno rov reL)(ovg rcov 
arparLOJTOJV y rrepifjas 8' avros p,otpav rcov LTTrrecov 
€KeXevGev rovg Kara rds <f>dpayya£ inl GvyKopuhfj 

* Niese : (rweXovra ms3. 
S38 



JEWISH WAR, V. 440-446 

had been fleeced by Simon was passed on to John, 
and he who had been plundered by John was taken 
over by Simon ; they pledged each other in turn in 
the burghers' blood and shared the carcases of their 
unfortunate victims. As rivals for power they were 
divided, but in their crimes unanimous ; for the one 
who gave his comrade no share in the proceeds of 
the miseries of others was ranked a scurvy villain, 
and he M-ho received no share was aggrieved at his 
exclusion from the barbarity, as though defrauded 
of some good thing. 

(5) To narrate their enormities in detail is im- Degradatiot 

of the 

possible ; but, to put it briefly, no other city ever Jewish race 
endured such miseries, nor since the world began 
has there been a generation more prolific in crime. 
Indeed they ended by actually disparaging the He- 
brew race, in order to appear less impious in so treat- 
ing ahens," and owned themselves, what indeed they 
were, slaves, the dregs of society and the bastard scum 
of the nation. It was they who overthrew the city, 
and compelled the reluctant Romans to register so 
melancholy a triumph, and all but attracted to the 
temple the tardy flames. Verily, when from the upper 
town they beheld it burning, they neither grieved nor 
shed a tear,** though in the Roman ranks these signs of 
emotion were detected. But this we shall describe here- 
after in its place, M'ith a full exposition of the facts, 
(xi. 1) Meanwhile the earthworks of Titus were 
progressing, notwithstanding the galhng fire from Cmcifixi 
the ramparts to which his men were exposed. The ° ^^'"^ 
general, moreover, sent a detachment of horse with 
orders to lie in wait for any who issued from the town 

" Cf. vi. 364 Kaiofihrjv yovv d<popu)PT€i Tr]u ir6\ii> IXapols rotf 
wpoadjTTOis eCdv/xot. kt\. 

339 



on 
h 
prisoners. 



JOSEPHUS 

447 Tpo(f)rj? ef tovra? iveSpevetv. rjoav 8e rtve? Kai 
TOW ixay^Ljiajv , ovKen dLapKOvjievoL rat? aprrayal?, 
TO he TrXiov €K tov dijjiov rrevrjTes, ovg avroiioXelv 

448 aneTpeTTe to rrepi tojv olk€low 8eos' ovt€ yap 
X-qaeadai tov? crTaatacrras" rjXTTLL^ov p,€Ta yvvaiKaiv 
Kat TraiSLOJV StaStSpacr/covres' Kal KaraXirrelv tols 
XrjGTals TavTa ov)( vrrep.evov vrrep avrcov Gchayrj- 

440 aopieva' ToXpi'qpovs he Trpos tol? egohovs o At/xo? 
€7roL€ty Kai KaTeXelrreTo^ XavOdvovTas eis^ tov? 
TToXepLiovs aXiGKeuOrj.i. Xaiif^avofJLevoL he xrar 
dvdyKrjv r^pivvovTO ^^ Kal pLeTa pidxrjv LKeTeveiv 
dojpov eooKei. jiacTLyovpLevoL hrj Kal TTpoj^aoavL- 
^opLevoL TOV BavdTOV Trddav alKtav dvecjTavpovvTO 

450 TOV TeLXOVs avTiKpv. Tltoj pLev ovv OlKTpOV TO 
TrdOos KaTe(jiaLveTOy TrevraKOGLcov eKdoT-qs rjpLepas 
€GTL 8' OTe Kal TrXeLovojv dXiGKopievcov, oirre he 
rovs ^io. Xrj(f>6evTas dchelvai da<i>aXes Kal <j>vXdTTeiv 
TOGOVTOVs (jypovpdv TOW (bvXa^ovTOjv eojpa' to ye 
pLTjV irXeov ovK eKOjXvev Td-^ dv evhovvai Trpos 
T'qv oijjLV eXiTLGas avTovg <oj?>,* el pLTj Trapaholev, 

4')! opLota 7TeiGop.evovs. TrpoG-qXovv S' ot CTrpartajrat 
hi opyqv Kal pLLGos tov? dXovTas dXXov dXXcp 
GXT^lP^fiTL TTpos x^CL-ryi^, Kal hid to ttXtjOos X^P^ 
T eveXeiTTe tols oravpols Kau GTavpoi tols GcopLaGLV. 

452 (2) Ot GTaGLaGTal he togovtov drrehe-qGau tov 
p-eTa^aXeGdaL Trpos to TrdOos, tScrre Kal TovvavTLOv 

453 avTol CTO^icraCT^at vpos to Xolttov ttXtjOos. gv- 

^ + /x'q Bekker with one ms. 

' els (om. PA) is confirmed by the parallel in Plato, Fep. 
468 A els Tovs TToXepiiovs aXuvra, 

' + 5eei T^s KoXdaews L Lat. * ins. Destinon after Lat. 

340 



JEWISH WAR, V. 447-453 

into the ravines in quest of food. These included 
some of the combatants, no longer satisfied with 
their plunder, but the majority were citizens of the 
poorer class, who were deterred from deserting by 
fear for their families ; for they could neither hope 
to elude the rebels if they attempted to escape with 
their wives and children, nor endure to leave them 
to be butchered by the brigands on their behalf. 
Famine, however, emboldened them to undertake 
these excursions, and it but remained for them if 
they escaped unobserved from the town to be taken 
prisoners by the enemy. When caught, they were 
driven to resist,^ and after a conflict it seemed too 
late to sue for mercy. They were accordingly 
scourged and subjected to torture of every descrip- 
tion, before being killed, and then crucified opposite 
the walls. Titus indeed commiserated their fate, 
five hundred or sometimes more being captured 
daily ; on the other hand, he recognized the risk of 
dismissing prisoners of war, and that the custody of 
such numbers would amount to the imprisonment of 
tlieir custodians ; but his main reason for not stopping 
the crucifixions M-as the hope that the spectacle 
might perhaps induce the Jews to surrender, for fear 
that continued resistance would involve them in a 
similar fate. The soldiers out of rage and hatred 
amused themselves by nailing their prisoners in 
different postures ; and so great was their number, 
that space could not be found for the crosses nor 
crosses for the bodies. 

(2) The insurgents, however, far from relenting at 
these sufferings, deluded tlie remainder by inventing 
a contrary motive for them. Dragging the relatives 

" Some authorities add " from fear of punishment." 

341 



JOSEPHUS 



» > 



povT€S yap Tovg rwv avrofioXcDV oIk€lov? €7n to 
relx^? Kal rcov brjiiorow rov? em ttlcttlv wpfirj- 
fievovs, ota 7Ta.G)(ovGLV ol Poj^atot? TrpoGcj^evyovre? 
€7T€deLKwuav Kal Tovs KEKpaTTjiievovs^ LKerag 

454 eXeyov, ovk alyjiaXojrovs . rovro ttoXXov? tcov 
avTOjioXeiv ojpjJLTjiJLevcDV p-^XP^ ToX-qOks i^/vcvaOrj 
Kareux^v' eiaL 6 ol Kal vapaxp^jp^a hiehpaoav 
(jJS €771 ^d^aLov npajpiav, avaTravGiv rjyovpievoL 
TOP €K Tojv 7ToXep.LOJV ddvaTov iv XipLov avyKplaei. 

455 TToXXovs he Kal ;;^etpoK:o7r7^crat KeXevaas Titos 
Tujv iaXojKOTOJV, ojs pLTj hoKoZev avTopoXoL Kal 
marevoLVTo 8ta tt^v avpiSopdv, el(j€7T€pii^€ npog 

456 Tov ILipajva Kal tov ^lojdvvrjv, vvv ye rjhrj Trav- 
Gaadai irapaivajv Kal p.-q Trpo? dvalpeGiv Trj? 
TToAecos" a'UTOv ^laLeaOaL, KepSrJGaL S' eV ttjs iv 
VGTaTOis peTapeXeias Tas re avTojv ipvxd? Kai 
TrjXiKavT-qv TraTpiba Kai vaov aKoivojvrjTOV aAAot?. 

457 TTepuojv be ra x^^P-'^'^'^ tovs epyat,ojievovg a/xa 
KarrjTTeLyev, ojs ovk elg p.aKpdv dKoXovdy](7ojv 

458 epyoLS tlo Xoyoj. -rrpos raura avTov t e^XaG(l)-qpovv 
aiTO TOV TeLxovs Kaiaapa Kau tov TraTepa avTov, 
Kal TOV p,ev SavaTOV KaTacppovelv ef^oojv, fiprjaOaL 
yap avTov rrpo hovXeias KaXcog, epydaeGdaL 6* 
ocra dv hvvcjjvTai KaKa 'PcopLaLOvg ea>s ep7Tve(jj<TL, 
TTaTpihos S' ov pLeXeLV Tolg co? avTo? <f)r]cnv aTToXov- 
p.evoLS, Kal vaov^ dp^eivoj tovtov tw deep tov 

459 KoapLov eLvai. acoO-qaeudaL ye pLTjv Kai tovtov 
V7T0 tov KaTOLKovvTos, OV Kat avTOt crvpLpLaxov 

* Kpe/xa/jLevovs Destinon. 

• vaov Bekker with Lat. : vaov + diro\o{v)fx^vov (om. Lat. 
ed. pr.) Mss. 

342 



JEWISH WAR, V. 453-459 

of the deserters to the wall, together \viih any 
citizens who were anxious to accept the offer of terms, 
they showed them what was the fate of those who 
sought refuge ^\^th the Romans, asserting that the 
arrested victims were not captives, but suppliants. 
This, until the truth became known, kept back many 
who were eager to desert ; some, however, instantly 
fled, as to certain punishment, regarding death at 
the enemy's hands as rest in comparison with 
starvation. But Titus now gave orders to cut oflP 
the hands of several of the prisoners, that they might 
not be mistaken for deserters and that their calamity 
might add credit to their statements, and then sent 
them in to Simon and John, exhorting them now at Admoni- 
least to pause, and not compel him to destroy the xiuis° 
city, but by repentance at the eleventh hour to gain 
their own lives, their magnificent city, and a temple 
unshared by others. At the same time he Ment 
round the embankments, urging on the workmen, as 
if intending shortly to follow up his threats by action. 
To this message the Jews retorted by heaping abuse and retoru 
from the ramparts upon Caesar himself, and his jewiL 
father, crying out that they scorned death, which leaders. 
they honourably preferred to slavery ; that they 
would do Romans every injury in their power while 
they had breath in their bodies ; that men so soon, 
as he himself said, to perish, were unconcerned for 
their native place, and that the world was a better 
temple for God than this one.*^ But, they added, it 
would yet be saved by Him who dwelt therein, and 

"* Cf. Baruch ill. 24, " O Israel, how great is the house of 
God ! and how large is the place of his possession ! " etc. 
Writing after the tragedy of a.d. 70 the author of that work 
says in effect "The house of God is not the ruined Temple 
but the broad universe." 

343 



JOSEPHUS 

exovres iraaav x^evaaeiv dTrciXrjv vcrrepovcrav 
epycxjv TO yap reAos" elvai rod Oeov. roiavra 
rais XoiZoplais dvafitayovreg eKeKpayeaav. 

4C0 (3) 'Ey Se rovrco Kal 6 'ETrt^airj^S" ^Avtloxo? 
nap'qv dX\ov£ re OTrXiTas crvxyovs exojv Kal rrepl 
avTov Gr'L(f)05 Ma/ceSoi'cov KaXoTjp.€vov, -qXtKas 
TTavraSy vi/jrjXov?, oXiyov vrrkp avri-naihas, rov 
^aKehovLKov rpoTTOv djTrXiapievovs re /cat TTeirai- 
Sevfievovs, oOev Kal ttjv IttlkXt^glv elxov, vare- 

-iOl povvres ol ttoXXoI rov yevovs. evSaipLOvrjaai yap 
hrj p.dXioTa tCjv vtto Poj/xaiot? ^acnXeojv rov 
"KofjLjJLayrjvov avve^-q Trplv yevaaaOaL fjiera^oXrjg- 
aTreSfjve 8e KaKelvo? im yrjpojg d>s ovheva XPV 

4G2 XeyeLV irpo davdrov p.aKdpiov . aXX 6 ye Trals 
aKpdtovros avrov rrjViKavra Trapcbv Bavp-dteiv 
e^acr/ce, ri hrjTTore 'Poj/^atot KaroKvolev TrpoGievai 
ro) reixei' TToXefiLGrTjg he ns avrog rjv Kal (j)vaeL 
TTapd^oXog Kard re lTt^p*] aXKTjv roaovros, co? 

463 oXiyojv^ rd rrjs roXpLrjg hiajiaprdveiv. fxeihid- 
aavrog Se rod Tirov Kal " koivos 6 ttovos " 
eiTTovrog, cog ^^X^^ ajpiirjuev o Avrioxog puera 

464 Twv ^{aKehovcov rrpog ro ret^^os". adrog /xev ovv 
SiCL re LGXVP Kai Kar epireipiav e(f)vXdrrero rd 
rd)v louSatojv ^^X-q ro^evwv et? avroTjg, rd 
peipdKia 8' avro) avverpl^rj rrdvra ttXtjv oAtycuv 
8td ydp alSdJ rrjg VTroGxececog 7TpoGe(j>iXoveLKei 

^ Bekker : 6\iyio mss. 

•^ Son of Antiochus IV, King of Commagene; he appears 
again in B. vii. 232, with his brother Ephialtes, fighting in 
defence of his father's kingdom. 

^ Antiochus IV. He had previously sent supports to 
Cestius, B, ii. oOO, and to Vespasian in (Talilee, iii. 68. 

* A petty kingdom on the upper Euphrates, between 

344 



JEWISH WAR, V. 459-464 

while they had Him for their ally they would deride 
all menaces unsupported by action ; for the issue 
rested vriih God. Such, with invectives inter- 
spersed, were their exclamations. 

(3) Meanwhile there appeared on the scene Antiochus 
Antiochus Epiphanes," bringing Mith him, besides Epiphanes 
numerous other forces, a bodyguard calling them- valiant 
selves " Macedonians," all of the same age, tall, just jo^fa^n^ 
emerged from adolescence, and armed and trained 
in the Macedonian fashion, from which circumstance 
indeed they took their title, most of them lacking 
any claim to belong to that race. For of all the 
monarchs owning allegiance to Rome the king ^ of 
Commagene ^ enjoyed the highest prosperity, before 
he experienced reverse ; but he too proved in old 
age how no man should be pronounced happy before 
his death.^ However, the father's fortunes were at 
their zenith at the time when his son arrived and 
expressed his surprise that a Roman army should 
hesitate to attack the ramparts ; something of a 
warrior himself, he was of an adventurous nature 
and wdthal so robust that his daring was seldom un- 
successful. Titus replying with a smile, " The field 
is open," Antiochus, without further ado, dashed 
with his Macedonians at the wall. His o^^^l strength 
and skill enabled him to avoid the missiles of the 
Jews, while raining arrows upon them, but his young 
comrades with few exceptions were all overpoMcred. 
For, out of respect for their engagement, they 

Cilicia and Armenia, with Samosata for capital. Annexed 
by Rome under Tiberius, the king-dom was revived by 
Gaius, but was finally annexed to Syria by Vespasian, when 
Antiochus was accused of an intention to revolt from Rome, 
B. vii. 219 If. 

•* Allusion to Solon's saying, Herodotus i. 32. 

34-5 



JOSEPHUS 

465 jj,axofi€va' Kat reAo? avexcopovv rpau/xartat iroWoi, 
avvvoovvres on kol tols dXrjda)? Ma/<:e8ocrtv, et 
/xe'AAotev Kparelvy Set rrjg ^AXe^dvSpov rvx-qg. 

466 (^) ToLS" Se 'PcD/xatotS" dp^afiivoLs ScoSe/cari] 
fxrjvos ^ ApTefiiGLOV avvereXeadrj rd ;!^CL>^ara fioXis 
ivdrrj Kal etxaSt, rat? 8e;(e77Ta cri;j.'e;!^6tJS' ttovov- 

467 pLevcjv rfpiipais' pLeyiara yap ixcvcrOr] rd reGoapa, 
/cat Barepov fiev to errt tt]i' Avrcovtav U770 rou 
TTefnTTOv rdyfiaTos i^Xiqdr] Kard fidaov rrjs 
Hrpovdlov^ KaXovpLevrjS KoXvfji^rjOpag, rd S' erepov 
VTTO rod hioSeKdrov hiearajTos doov elg tttjx^^S 

468 eiKOUL. TO) heKdrto Se ray/xart hUxovn ttoXv 
TOVTOJV Kard to ^opeuov /cAt/xa to epyov rjv Kai 
KoXvjJL^ijdpav 'A/xuySaAov Trpooayopevofxev-qv rov- 
rov he TO TrevT€KaiheKaTOv dird rpidKovra ttyjxcj^v 

469 e;)(ou /caTct to tou dpxt-^pecos /JLvr^fxelov. rrpoo- 
ayojievcov 8 t^'St^ tcDv dpyavco^'^ o ^ev \ojdvvris 
evhodev VTTopv^as to Kard ttjv AvTcovlav P'^XP^ 
Tcbv ;>^cu^aTa;v Kat hiaXa^ojv oravpoZs tovs vtto- 
vopLOVs dvaKp-qiivqGLV rd epya, TTLcrarj Se Kal 
duc^dXrcp hLaKexpLcrjJievrjv [tt^v] vXr]^ eioKopiLaas 

470 eviiqai TTvp. Kal tojv OTavpcov VTTOKaivTWV rj t€ 
Sicopv^ iveSojKev dOpoa, Kal p^erd pLeyLorov ifjot^ov 

471 Kareoeiadri to, ;)^a»/>taTa els avr-qv. rd pikv ovv 
TTpuyrov pierd tov Kovioprov Karrvos rjyeipeTo ^advs 
TTViyopLevov tco TTTata/xaTt^ tol» TTvpos, ttjs Se 
dXi^ovG-qs vX-qs hia^L^pojGKopLeirqs rjhr] (f)avepd 

472 (j)X6^ eppriyvvTO. Kal toIs 'Pco^Ltatot? eKTrXrj^is 

^ C : TOV I.Tpovdiov L : tov deiov the rest. 
" Tuiv opydi'uv] avTojv PA. ^ wTijbfxaTi LC. 

• Identified by M. Clermont-Ganneau with the so-called 
346 



JEWISH WAR, V. 465-472 

emulously maintained the fight, until at length, 
mainly wounded, they retired, reflecting that even 
genuine Macedonians, if they are to conquer, must 
have Alexander's fortune. 

(4) Though the Romans had begun their earth- Completion 
works on the twelfth of the month Artemisius, they earthworks. 
were scarcely completed on the twenty-ninth, after c. 30 May 
seventeen days of continuous toil. For the four '^- 1*^^""® 
embankments were immense. Of the first two, that 
at Antonia was thrown up by the fifth legion over 
against the middle of the pool called Struthion,** the 
other by the twelfth legion about twenty cubits 
away. The tenth legion, at a considerable distance 
from these, was employed in the northern region and 
over against the pool termed Amygdalon ^ ; while, 
thirty cubits from them, the fifteenth were at work 
opposite the high priest's monument." But while 
the engines were now being brought up, John from John under- 

. mines and 

within had undermined the ground from Antonia i^,„rns iip 
right up to the earthworks, supporting the tunnels °f^}P^^'^'°" 
with props, and thus leaving the Roman works 
suspended ; having then introduced timber be- 
smeared with pitch and bitumen he set the whole 
mass alight. The props being consumed, the mine 
collapsed in a heap, and with a tremendous crash the 
earthworks fell in. At first dense volumes of smoke 
arose with clouds of dust, the fire being smothered 
by the debris, but as the materials which crushed it 
were eaten away, a vi\-id flame now burst forth. The 
Romans were in consternation at this sudden cata- 

Twin Pools, adjoining the N.W. corner of Antonia (G. A. 
Smith, Jerusalem, i. 116). 

^ Probably to be identified with the " Pool of the Palri- 
aroh's Bath," near the Jaffa Gate, ib. 115. " § 259. 

VOL. Ill M 347 



JOSEPHUS 

fl€V TTpOS TO atCpVLOLOV, aC/U^ta 0€ TTpog TTjV €771- 

voiav ejiTTLTTTeL, /cat Kpar-qaeiv OLOfievotg 77817 to 
ovpL^av Kal rrpos to fieXXov eipv^e ttjv iXTrlBa' 
TO 8e dpLVveiv o-xp^-lov ihoKeu irpog to rrvp, kol el 
o^eoOeiri tojv ^ojiidrcov KaraTTodivrajv . 

473 (5) Mera 8' 'qfiepas ^vo Kal rots aAAot? eTTt- 
TiSevraL ;\;oj/[xao"tv ot Trept Toy St/xcova* /cat yap 817 
77po(Tayayoi^€S' ravrrj rds iXerroXeLs ol 'PcD/xatot 

474 dtecretov 77877] ro Ter;(os'. T€<f)dalos^ 8e Tt? a770 
Fapis- 77dA6ajs' TTJg FaAtAatas", /cat Mayaao-apo? 
row ^aatXiKajv Mapia/x/LtT^S" depaTrajv, /xe^' cSv* 
^AbLa^Tjvos ns fto? Na^aratou, rovvofia KXr]d€Lg 
auo rrjs Tv-)(rj'; Keayipa?/ OTrep orniaLvei y^ojXog, 
dpTTOiGavTes XafXTrdSag 7:po€7Trjhr]aav ettl rag fir]- 

475 ;)(ams'. toutcov tcov av'8pa)v oure ToXfirjporepoL 
Kara rovhe rov 7T6Xep.ov €K T77? TroAeo;? icjiavrjaav 

476 ovre (f)0^epojr€poL' KadaTrep yap et? (f)iXov£ €K- 
rpexovre? ov TToXepiitov otZ(^os,^ ovr ifjLeXXrjaav 
ovr^ aTreGrrjaav,* dXXd Std pLeGa>v ivdopovre? tojv 

477 ^xOp^v v(l)TJipav rd? firj^avd?. ^aXXoyievoi he Kal 
roLs ^L(f)eGLV dvojdovfievoL Trdvrodev ov irporepov 
eK Tov KLvhvvov pLereKLVT^drjaav rj hpd^aaOai rcov 

478 opydvojv to rrvp. alpojjLevris 8 77817 rrjs <f)Xoy6g 
'PajfialoL fiev aTTO rcov GrparoTredajv GvvOeovres 
e^orjOovv, 'IoL'8arot 8' eV tou Teixovs eKojXvov 
Kal ToZs o^ewveLv TTeLpajjievois GwerrXeKOVTO Kara 

479 p.'qhev tojv Ihiojv (/)et8op,erot oo}p.dTaiV. Kal ol 



1 From vi. 148 (c/. 92) : TecpOalo^ mss. 

* With Lat, : /cai 'A^/tpaj or Kal 'Ayrjpa^ etc. MSS. : 'Kayeipai 
Hudson. 

' + oCT(e) eoeiaap some MSS. * Oin. oih' dir^aTrjffav L. 

348 



JEWISH WAR, V. 472-479 

strophe and dispirited by the enemy's ingenuity ; 
moreover, coming at the moment when they imagined 
victory within their grasp, the casualty damped their 
hopes of ultimate success. It seemed useless to 
fight the flames, when even if they were extinguished 
their earthworks were overwhelmed. 

(5) Two days later Simon's party launched a and Simon 

1 .< attacks 

further attack on the other earthworks, for the the oUier. 
Romans had there brought up the rams and were 
aheady battering the wall. A certain Gephthaeus, 
of Garis, a to^vTl in Gahlee, and Magassarus, a soldier 
of the king and henchman of Mariamme,* along with 
the son of a certain Nabataeus from Adiabene, called 
from his misfortune by the name of Ceagiras, signify- 
ing " lame," * snatched up torches and rushed forth 
against the engines. No bolder men than these 
three sallied from the town throughout this war or 
inspired greater terror ; for, as though racing for 
friendly ranks and not into a mass of enemies, they 
neither slackened nor turned aside, but, plunging 
through the midst of the foe, set hght to the machines. 
Assailed by shots and sword-thrusts from every 
quarter, nothing could move them from the field of 
danger until the fire had caught hold of the engines. 
The flames now towering aloft, the Romans came 
rushing from their encampments to the rescue ; 
while the Jew^s obstructed them from the ramparts 
and, utterly regardless of their o\\ti lives, struggled 
hand to hand with those who were endeavouring to 
extinguish the conflagration. On the one side were 

" Or " one of the royal henchmen of Mariamme." Mari- 
amme was daughter of Agrippa I and sister of Agrippa II 
" the king," B. ii. 220 ; the man must have been a deserter. 

" Aramaic h.aggera\ '\lame man." 

349 



JOSEPHUS 

fiev €lXkov eK rov irvpog rag iXenoXeig tojv vrrep 
avra? yippcov (jiXeyojievcov , ol 8 'lovSatot Kal 
Std Try? cbXoyo? avreXap.Qa.vovTO Kal rod GLhtjpov 
^eovTO? hpaaaofJLevoL tov? Kpiovs ov jxedUoav 
hie^aive 8' o-tto tovtcov em to. ;\;co^aTa to rrvp 

480 Kal Toijg dpLvvovra? TrpoeXdji^avev. ev rovro) 8' 
OL fiev P(jj[ialoL KVKXovfievoL rfj (f)Xoyl Kal rrjv 
GOJTqpLav Ta)v epytov diroyvovres dv€X<^povv €7tl 

481 ra orparoTreha, lovhaloi 8e TrpooeKeLvro TrXeiov? 
aet yLvofievoL tojv evhoBev TTpoG^orjdovvTcov Kai 
TO) Kparelv reOapprjKOTe? drajiLevroLg expoiivro 
Tals op/xats-/ TTpoeXdovres^ 8e /xe^pt tojv ipvfjidrojv 

482 7]dr] GvveTrXeKovTO rot? (i>povpols. rd^tg eonv 
€K biaooy(fj£ LGTap.evrj rrpo rod GrpaTonebov,^ Kai 
Setvo? €77* avTfi 'Poj/xaitov vopuo? rov VTrox^jopi]- 

483 Gavra KaB rjv h-qiror^ ovv alrlav OvqGKeiv. ovtol 
Tov fierd KoXdGeoj? rov p.eT* dperrjg ddvarov 
7rpoKpLvavT€9 LGTavraL, Kal Trpog Trjv toutcdv 
avayKTjv ttoXXoI rcov rpaTrevrajv e7T€GTpd(f)-qGau 

484 alSovjjievoL. Stadevres 8e Kal rov? o^v^eXel? errl 
rov T€LXOV£ etpyov to 7TpoGyLv6p.€vov rrX-qOog e/c 
rrjg TToXeo)?, ovSev elg dG(f)dXeLav rj (jivXaKr^v rcov 
GOJiidrajv rrpovoovpLevovg- GVveTrXeKOvro yap [ot] 

YovhaloL Tols TTpoGTV^ovGL Kol Talg alxfJ-al?* 
a(l)vXdKTajs €fi7TL7TrovT€£ avTOL? Tols GojjiaGi rovg 

^_ ixdpov? €7TaLov. ovT€ 8' epyoLs avTol rrXeov rj 
TO) 6app€Lv TrepLrJGav Kal 'Pco/xatot rfj ToA/xry 
nXeov cIkov iq rep KaKOvodaL. 

486 (6) Haprjv 8' rj8-q Titos' dno tt]s ^AvrcovLa?, 

OTTOV^ KeXCJOpLGTO KaTaGK€7TT6pL€VOS TOTTOV ClAAot? 

^ Cf. iv. 44, vi. 171 : 6p-yah PA. 
^ Niese with Lat. : irpocre\d6vTts MS3. 

350 



JEWISH WAR, V. 479-486 

the Romans striving to drag the battering-engines 
out of the fire, their wicker shelters all ablaze ; on 
the other, the Jews holding on to them through the 
flames, clutching the red-hot iron and refusing to 
rehnquish the rams. From these the fire spread to 
the earth-works, outstripping the defenders. There- 
upon the Romans, enveloped in flames and despairing 
of the preservation of the works, beat a retreat to 
their camps ; while the Jews, hotly pursuing, their The Jews 
numbers continually augmented by fresh reinforce- Roman 
ments from the city, and flushed with success, pressed camp. 
on with uncontrolled impetuosity right up to the 
entrenchments, and finally grappled with the 
sentries. There is a line of troops, reheved from 
time to time, M'ho are stationed in front of every 
camp and come under a severe Roman law that he 
who quits his post under any pretext whatsoever dies. 
These men, preferring an heroic death to capital 
punishment, stood firm ; and seeing the straits of 
their comrades many of the fugitives for very shame 
returned. Posting the " quick-firers " ^ along the 
camp-wall, they kept at bay the masses who, \\'ithout a 
thought for safety or personal defence, were surging 
up from the town ; for the Jews grappled with any 
whom they met, and all unguardedly flinging them- 
selves bodily upon the spear-points, struck at their 
antagonists. But their superiority lay less in deeds 
than in daring, and the Romans yielded rather to 
intrepidity than to injuries received. 

(6) But now Titus appeared from Antonia, whither Titus repels 
he had gone to inspect a site for fresh earthworks. 
* Or " scorpions." 

' -t- /xera tQ:v ottXujv LC Lat. Suid. 
■* L : cLKfj-ah tlie rest. * quo ( = 6'7roi) Lat. 

.S51 



JOSEPHUS 

^(wixaGiy Kai TToAAa rovs crrpaTLcLrag (f)avXiGag, ei 
Kparovvreg rwv TToXefxlajv t€lxojv KLvhvv€vovcn 

Tols IdloLS Kal TToXLOpKOVfJLeVCxJV V7TOlxivOV(7lV aVTOL 

TVX'Tjv, a)(J77€p €K heufJLOJTiqpiov Kad* avrcov 'lofSat- 
ovs av€VT€s, 7T€pL-j^€L fJLeTCL Tojv iTTiXeKTOjv Kara 

487 TrXevpa tov? TToXep-Lov? avros' ol he Kara UTOjxa 
77atd/i£i'ot Kal TTpos rovrov eTnuTpa^ivre? eKapre- 
povv. iiLyeiuTjs he ri]g Trapara^ecos o fiev KOVLop- 
Tos" Tcxjv opLfj-drajv, rj Kpavyrj he rcov oLKooav err- 
eKpdreiy Kal ovherepcn rraprjv en TeKp.-qpaadai to 

488 exOpov t] to (jiiXiov. 'louSatcov he ov togovtov 
eTL xrar' aXKr^v ogov aTToyvojGei GcoTTjpias Trapa- 
fjievovTOJV Kal 'Poj/xatous" eTovojGev alhojs hc^rjs 
Te Kal TOJV ottXojv Kal TrpoKivhwevovTos Katcrapos"" 

489 cuCTre /xot hoKovGi to. TeXeuTala 8t* virep^oX-qv 
dyfiajv Kav [oAov] dpTraGaO' to tojv lovhatwv 
TrXrjdos, el fir] ttjv pom)v tt^s" TrapaTa^ecos (f>da- 

490 GavTe? dvexcoprjGav etV ttjv ttoXlv. hLe(f)6apiieva>v 
he TcDv ;\;aj/xa7a)v 'Poj/xatot fxev rjGav ev ddvpnais 
Tov p-aKpov KafiaTOV errl pids ojpas drroXeGavTes' 
Kal rroXXol [xev rats' GvmjdeGL jji-qxaval? OLTT-qXTTL^ov 
dXajGeadai t7]v ttoXlv. 

491 (xii. l) TtVos" he /xera tcov rjyep.6vajv e^ovXeveTO, 
Kal ToZs fiev deppLOTepoLs TraGav ehoKei TrpoGcfiepeiv 
T-qv hvvapLLV aTTOTTeipaGdai Te tov Teixovs ^ta' 

492 piexpi p-ev yap vvv xard GTzaGpLa 'lovSatot? [Trjs 
GTpa-Lag ^ GvprreTrXexOaL, TTpoGLOVTOJV S' dOpoojv 
ovhe TTjv e(j)ohov oLGeiv KaTaxcocrOrjGeGOai yap 

493 VTTO TOJi^ ^eXojv. tcdv h aG(f)aXeGTepojv ol pLev 
Kal TO. ;^oj/xaTa TTOielv TrdXtv, ol he Kal St;^a tovtojv 
TTpoGKaSe^eGdaL pLovov Trapa(j>vXdTT0VTas ra? t€ 

^ avapTrdaai conj. Niese, cf. ii. 550 (some mss.). 
352 



JEWISH WAR, V. 486-493 

Severely reprimanding his troops for having, while 
mastering the enemy's fortifications, thus jeopardized 
their own, and put themselves in the position of the 
besieged, by letting loose the Jews upon them from 
their prison house, he then with his picked force, 
himself at their head, got round and took the enemy 
in flank ; but though attacked in front as well, 
they turned and resolutely withstood him. In the 
medley of the fight, bUnded by the dust and deafened 
bv the din, neither side could any lono;er distinguish 
friend from foe. The Jews still held out, though 
now less through prowess than from despair of 
salvation, while the Romans were braced bv a regard 
for glory, for the honour of their arms, and for Caesar 
foremost in danger ; insomuch that I imagine that, 
in the excess of their fury, they would have ended 
by wiping out the entire Jewish host, had not their 
enemy, anticipating the turn of the battle, retreated 
into the city. The Romans, however, \\'ith their 
earthworks demolished, were in deep dejection, 
having lost in one hour the fruit of their long labour, 
and many despaired of ever carrying the town by 
the ordinary apphances. 

(xii. 1) Titus now held a consultation with his Titus holds a 
officers. The more sanguine were of opinion that If^^^^ 
he should bring up his entire force and essav to carrv 
the wall by storm ; for hitherto separate sections 
only had been engaged with the Jews, whereas 
under a mass attack the Jews would be powerless to 
resist their onset, as they would be overwhelmed bv 
the hail of missiles. Of the more cautious, some 
were for reconstructing the earthAvorks ; others 
advised that they should dispense with these and 5 

resort to a blockade, merely guarding against the 

353 



JOSEPHUS 

i^oSovs avTcov Kal rag ctcr/co^iSa? Ta)v iTTiTTjheioJv 
TTaprjVOVv Kal tco Xljjlo) KaraXeLTreLV rrjv ttoAcv, 
/LtT^Se avfiTrXeKeadaL Kara X^^P^ '^^^^ TToXeynois' 

494 afiaxov yap elvat rrjv dnoyvcocrLV otg €VX'^ p-^v ro^ 
oihrjpa) TTCueZv, airoKeirai he Kac St;(a rovrov 

495 irddos x^^^'^^'^^P'^^- o-vro) he ro puev dpyeZv 
KadoXov pberd roaavTTjg hvvdp,eco£ ovk ihoKei 
TTpeireiv Kal ro pidx^cjOaL Trepirrov Trpos aXX-qXcov 

496 (f)6aprjGopL€VOLS , ^dXXeodai he ;)(6tj/xaTa hvaepyov 
aTTecjyaLvev vXrj£ dTTopia Kal ro TTapa^vXarreiv ras 
e^ohovs hvaepyorepov KVKXojoaGOai re yap rfj 
orparLa rr^v ttoXlv hid pieyedos /cat 8fa;)^a;/3tav 
OVK evpLapes elvai Kal a^aXepov dXXcDS npog ra? 

497 eTTiOeoeis. rcov he (fiavepdjv (fivXarropLevcov dcfiavei? 
eTTLvorjO-qaeadai^ 'louSatot? ohovg Kard re dvayKTjv 
Kal hi epLTTeLpLav et he n Xadpa rrapeioKopn- 
ud-qaoiro, rpL^rjV eoeodai TrXeioj rfj TToXiopKia. 

498 hehievai re pLTj rrjv ho^av rod KaropOwpiaros avrcp 
ro pLTJKo? eXarrwcrrj rod xpo^'^iJ' rovrco piev yap 
elvai TTav dvvGLpLOV, irpo? he rrjs evKXeias ro raxos. 

499 helv ye piTjv, el Kal rep rdx^i' /xcr' da^aXeias 
^ovXoLvro^ XpyjcraadaL, TrepcreLXi^eLV oXrjv rrjV ttoXlv 
pLovcxJ? yap ovrojs dv vdaas drrocj^pd^ai ras e^ohovg, 
/cat lovhalovs r) 77^0? dnavra drroyvovras rrjv 
oojrrjpLav Trapahojoeiv rrjv ttoXlv tj XipLcorrovras 

500 X^'-P^^V^^^^^'- po-hlo)?' ovhe yap r]pep.rjGeiv auro?" 
aAAojs", dXXd Kal rcov ;>^cu/xaTCov eTTLpLeXyjaeaOaL 
ndXiv p^poj/xep'os' rot? kcoXvovctlv arovajrepois- 

501 et he rep pLeya So/cet /cat hvori^vvrov ro epyov, 

^ L : TO) the rest. 

- After Lat. (excogitaturos) : eirivocicdat. MSS. 

^ L : ^oOXoiTo the rest. 

* Destinon : avrbv L : ai>Tovs the rest. 

354 



JEWISH WAR, V. 493-501 

egress of the besieged and the introduction of 
supplies, and that, leaving the city to the famine, 
they should avoid direct conflict \\ith the foe ; for 
there was no contending with desperate men whose 
prayer was to fall by the sword, and for whom, if that 
was denied them, a harder fate was in store. To 
Titus, however, to remain totally inactive with so 
large a force appeared undignified, while to contend 
with men who would soon destroy each other seemed 
superfluous. At the same time he pointed out the 
extreme difficulty of throwing up earthworks, owing 
to lack of materials, and the even greater difficulty 
of guarding against salhes ; for to encompass the city 
with troops would, owing to its extent and the obstacles 
presented by the ground, be no easy matter, and 
would, moreover, expose them to the risk of enemy 
attacks. They might guard the obvious outlets, but 
the Jews from necessity and their knowledge of the 
locality would contrive secret routes ; and, should 
supplies be furtively smuggled in, the siege would 
be still further protracted. He feared, moreover, 
that the glory of success Mould be diminished by 
the delay ; for though time could accomphsh every- 
thing, yet rapidity was essential to renown. If, Decision to 
however, they wished to combine speed and security, vonnd' ^^^ 
they must throw a wall round the whole city : only J'^™sai^"i- 
thus could every exit be blocked, and the Jews would 
then either in utter despair of salvation surrender the 
city, or, wasted by famine, fall an easy prey ; for he 
himself would not remain altogether inactive, but 
would once more turn his attention to the earth- 
works when he had an enfeebled foe to obstruct him. 
And if anyone considered this a great and arduous 
VOL. Ill M 2 355 



JOSEPHUS 

XprjyOLt' <JK07T€LVy COS" OVTe 'PojjJLaCoiS Tt jJLLKpOV 

evepyeiv TrpeVct, Kal Slx'^ rrovov Karopdovv tl twv 
lieydXcjv ovo€vl pahiov. 

502 (2) TovroLS TTelaag tov£ rjyefiovag 8tave/xetv 
eKeXevae ra? SvvdfjLei? iirl to epyov. oppLrj Se rt? 
i[jL7TL7rT€i Sat/xovto? Tots" GTpaTLcoTat^, /cat fJLepL- 
(jajjievojv Tov Trepl^oXov ov fjLOVOV rwv raypLarajp 
Tjv epiSy dXXd Kal Ta)V iv avroZ? rd^eojv Tvpog 

503 dAAr^Aas", ^at GrpaTLOjrt]s p-^v SeKaSdpxrjv, ScKaS- 
dpxi]? S* eKarovrdpxf]^, ovrog 8' iaTTOvba^ev 
dpeaaudai x^iXiapxov , rtuv he x'^XidpxoJV em rov? 
rjyepova? eretvev tj ^iXoripLa /cat rdv riyepovojv 
TTjV dpiXXav i^pd^eve Kalaap' Trepuojv yap 
avTOs eKdGrrjs rjfjLepag TroAAa/cts- eireaKOTreL to 

504 epyov. dp^dp€vos S' 0776 TT]g Aoovpicav napep.- 
^oXrjs, /ca^' rjv avro? earparoTTehevGaro, cttI rrjv 
Karojrepoj It^aivoTToXiv rjye ro relxo?, evOev hid rod 

505 Kedpoji'os" irrl to 'EAatoji^ opos" €lt avaKdpTrrojv 
Kara pLeorip^pLav TrepiXap^dvei to opos o-xpt- rrj? 
Uepidrepecovog KaXovp,€V7]s irirpag rov t€ i^rjs 
X6(^oVy OS eVt/cetTat tt] Kara rrjV SiAcua/x (f)dpayyL, 
KaKelOev e/c/cAtVa? rrpos Svglv et? rr^v ri^s Trrjyrjs 

506 KaTrj€L cf)dpayya. peS^ tjv dva^aivajv Kara to 
'Avavou rov dpx^^p^o^S pLvrjpLelov Kal StaXa^ajv 

" Probably a reminiscence of Soph. El. 945 opa irovov tol 
X^pij ovo(v ei'Ti'xe?, of which a similar paraphrase is put into 
the mouth of Titus elsewhere, iii. 495. Titus was familiar 
with Greek literature (" Latine Graeceque, vel in orando vel 
in fingendis poematibus, promptus," Suet. Tit. 3), and the 

S56 



JEWISH WAR, V. 501-506 

operation, let him reflect that it ill became Romans 
to undertake a trixial task and that without toil 
nothing great could lightly be achieved by any man.** 
(2) Having by these arguments con\'inced his 
officers, Titus ordered them to distribute the task 
among the forces. The troops thereupon were 
seized with a sort of preternatural enthusiasm, and, 
the circuit of the wall being respectively apportioned, 
not only the legions, but their component companies 
\ied with one another : the soldier studied to please 
his decurion, the decurion the centurion, and he the 
tribune^ while the emulation of the tribunes extended 
to the staff-officers, and in the rivalry betM'een the 
officers Caesar himself was umpire ; for he went 
round himself frequently every day and inspected 
the work. Beginning at the camp of the Assyrians ^ 
— the site of his own encampment — he directed the 
wall towards the lower region of the New Town and 
thence across the Kedron to the Mount of Olives ; 
then, bending round to the south, he enclosed the 
mount as far as the rock called Peristereon '^ together 
with the adjoining hill, which overhangs the Siloam 
ravine ; thence, inclining westwards, the line ^ 
descended into the Valley of the Fountain,^ beyond 
which it ascended over against the tomb of Ananus 
the high priest^ and, taking in ^ the mountain where 

Sophoclean phrase possibly in these two instances comes 
from the Emperor himself. 

" § 303. " = " Dovecote " ; unidentified. 

•* Literally " he descended " and so on. 

• Siloam is apparently meant. 

' Probably the elder Ananus, son of Sethi, the father of 
five high priests, A. xviii. 26, xx.l97 f., including the younger 
and more famous Ananus who was slain by the Zealots, 
iv. 315 f. 

• Or, perhaps, " cutting across." 

357 



JOSEPHUS 

TO opost ^yOa TiofXTrrjLos iarparoTreSevcraro, Trpog 

507 KXifia ^6p€Lov e7TeGTpe(^e, Kal ■ TrpoeXdow jiexpt' 
Ka)fjLT]s TLVog, F^pe^Lvdcov oIko? KoXeZraL, /cat 
/Lter eKeivTjV to HpcoSov fJLtrqiJieXov irepLGXcov xrara 
avaToXrjV to) tStco GTpaTOTr4hoj avvri7TT€v , odev 

508 rjp^riTO. to p.kv ovv Telxo? €v6s hiovTOS rea- 
uapaKOVTa GTahicuv rjv, e^codev S' avTO) rrpoa- 
ujKoSofiTjdr] TpiGKaiheKa (f)povpLa, Kal totjtojv ol 

509 kvkXol SeVa (ivvqpid p.ovvTO OTahlcov. Tpial S' ojko- 
SofjLTJdr] TO ndv -qiiepaLS, (hs to fxev epyov fjirjvaju 

[eivat] d^Lov, to Ta^os 8' rjTTdadai TTLdTeaJS. 

510 TTepLKXelaa? he tco ret^^et ttjv ttoXlv Kal hvvafJLLV 
TOls (f)pOVpLOLS iyKaTaUTTjGaS , TTjV fJLev TTpcoTrjv 
(f)vXaKr)V TTJ? VVKTO? TTepilOJV aVTOS €TT€GK€7TTeTO, 

TT]u hevTepav S' eTreTpeipev 'AAefav8pa>, ttjv TpiT-qv 

511 S eXaxov ol tojv ray/xarcoy riyeyLOves. hieKXrjpovvTO 
h ol (f)vXaK€£ Tovs VTTVovs, Kal St* oXtj^ vuktos 
TTepiTjeoav KaTO. [Ta~\ SiaGTajfiaTa tojv (jypovpiaiv. 

512 (3) lofSatots" Se /xera tcov i^oSojv aTreKOTrrj 
TTdua GOJTTjpLag IXttls, Kal ^aOvvas avTov 6 At/xo? 
/car oiKovs Kal yevea? tov hrjpiov iire^oGKeTO. 

513 Kat Ta pi€V reyr^ TreTrXrjpojTO yvvaiKCJV Kal ^pe(f)OJU 
XeXvfjLevcov, ol GTevojTTol Se yepovTOJv veKpow, 
TTalhes Se Kal veavlat StotSouvres" ojGTrep etScuAa 
KaTO. rds" dyopas dveiXovvTO Kal KaTeinTTTOV otttj 

514 TLvd TO nddog KaTaXajjL^dvoL. 6drTT€iv 8e rous" 

TTpOGrjKOVTaS OVT LGXVOV ol Kdp.VOVT€S Kal TO 

hievTOvovv a)KV€L Sid re TrXrjdos tujv veKpcov Kal 

TO KaTa G<f)ds dbrjXov noXXol yovv tols vtt avTCJV 

" According to A. xiv. 60 Pompey encamped "to the 
north of the temple " {cf. A. xiv. 466, B. i. 343, " before the 
temple ") ; the present passage appears to locate his camp 
rather to the west of the temple. 
358 



JEWISH WAR, V. 506-514 

Pompey encamped,^ turned northwards, and pro- 
ceeded to a \illage called " House of pulse," ^ after 
passing which it encompassed Herod's monument,* 
and so joined the east side of the general's own camp 
from which it had started. The wall wa"? thirty-nine 
furlongs in length and had attached to its outer side 
thirteen forts, whose united circumferences amounted 
to ten furlongs. The whole was built in three days, 
such rapidity, over a work that might well have 
occupied months, being well-nigh incredible. Ha\ing 
enclosed the city ^\'ithin this wall and posted garrisons 
in the forts, Titus went round himself during the first 
watch of the night and inspected everything ; the 
second watch he entrusted to Alexander '^ ; for the 
third the commanders of the legions drew lots. The 
sentries, too, had their allotted hours of rest and all 
night long patrolled the intervals between the forts. 

(3) For the Jews, along with all egress, every increased 
hope of escape was now cut off ; and the famine, mortality. 
enlarging its maw,^ devoured the people by house- 
holds and families. The roofs were thronged with 
women and babes completely exhausted, the alleys 
with the corpses of the aged ; children and youths, 
with swollen figures, roamed like phantoms through 
the market-places and collapsed wherever their 
doom overtook them. As for burying their relatives. Neglect of 
the sick had not the strength, while those with ^"^'^^• 
vigour still left were deterred both by the multitude 
of the dead and by the uncertainty of their owti fate. 

* Unidentified ; cf. the name Bethlehem (" house of 
bread "). « § lOS. 

•* Tiberius Alexander, § 45. 

* Literally " deepening itself " ; perhaps " deepening 
{i.e. tightening) its grip." Famine is pictured as a bird of 
prey. 

S59 



JOSEPHUS 

BaTTToyLevois €7Ta77edurj(7Kov, ttoXXol 8' inl ras 
olo BiqKas TTpiv iTTLurrjvai ro y^^p^ojv TrporjXdov. ovt€ 
he Oprji'o? iv rats' GvpL(f)opaLg ovr^ 6Xo(j)vpix6s rjv, 
aAA o Xtfio? rjXeyxe ra TrdOrj, ^rjpol? 8e rols 
ofifjLaaL Kat oecr-qpocn rot? UTopiacjLv ol hvadava- 
Tovvres €(f)€ojpcov rovs (f>OdGavras dvaTravaaudai, 
^aSela he Trepielxev Tqv ttoXlv aLyrj /cat vv^ Oavdrov 
ye/jLovaa Kat rovrcov ol Xrjaral ;\;aA€7rojTepot. 

516 rvfi^(jjpv)(ovvres yovv rds oiVta? eavXcov rovs 
veKpovs Kai ra KaXvfijiaTa tojv Gojpidrcov nepi- 
(jrrojvres fJLerd yeXioros e^rjecrav, rds re alxp-dg^ rcov 

.^Lfixjjv ehoKLfialov ev rols TTrojpiaGLV, Kai nvas 
row eppLpLjievajv en Ca)vras hii^Xavvoi' errl TTcipa 

517 rod aibrjpov rovg LKerevovrag ;^p7]CTat ae^tcrt 
he^idv Kai ^L(bo£ ro) Xifio) KareXeiTTOV v77epr](f)avovv- 
reg, Kai row eKrrveovrojv eKaarog drevioas els 
rov vaov a4)eojpa rovg orauiaords towras airo- 

518 Xlttcvv. ol he ro jJLev Trpojrov eK rov hrjjJLoaLOV 
drjaavpov rovg veKpovs Odrrreiv eKeXevov, r-qv oopirjv 
ov (jiepovres, erreid' (Ls ov hcqpKovv diTO rcov 
rei)(^ow eppiTTrov els rds (f)dpayyas. 

519 (i) HepLLOjv he ravras 6 Tiros o)S idedaaro 
TTeTrXriGfievas rojv veKpow Kai ^advv l)(0)pa pivhojv- 
rojv^ VTTOppeovra rcov aojpidrojv, eoreva^e re Kat 
rds X^^P^^ dvarelvas Karefiaprvparo rov 6eov, 

520 cos ovK el-q ro epyov avrov. rd fiev hi] Kara nqv 
ttoXlv elxev ovrojs, 'Pco/xatot he fJLTjhevos ert rcov 
oraoiaGrcbv eKrpexovros, TJhr] ydp Kat rovrojv 
ddvfila Kai Ai/xos" e^r^Trrero, Trpds^ evdvfxlais 
Tjuav GLrov re d(f)6ovlav Kat roiv dXXtov eTTirr\- 

^ Lkixo.% L Eus. ^ -r Tov Mss. (om. Bekker). 

» After L : H' the rest. 

360 



JEWISH WAR, V. 514-520 

For many fell dead while burying others, and many- 
went forth to their tombs ere fate was upon them." 
And amidst these calamities there was neither 
lamentation nor waihng : famine stifled the emotions, 
and M'ith dry eyes and grinning mouths these slowly 
dying \ictims looked on those who had gone to their 
rest before them. The city, wrapped in profound 
silence and night laden with death, was in the grip 
of a yet fiercer foe — the brigands. For breaking into 
habitations that were now mere charnel-houses, they 
rifled the dead and stripping the coverings from the 
bodies departed Mith shouts of laughter ; they tried 
the points of their swords on the corpses and ran them 
through some of the prostrate but still living wretches, 
to test the temper of the blade, but any who implored 
them to lend them their hand and sword they disdain- 
fully left to the mercy of the famine. And each 
victim expired with his eyes fixed on the temple and 
averted from the rebels whom he left alive. The 
latter at the outset ordered the bodies to be buried 
at the pubhc expense, finding the stench intolerable ; 
afterwards, when incapable of continuing this, they 
flung them from the ramparts into the ravines. 

(4) When Titus, going his rounds, beheld these 
valleys choked with dead and the thick matter oozing 
from under the clammy carcases, he groaned and, 
raising his hands to heaven, called God to witness 
that this was not his doing. Such was the situation 
within the city. Meanwhile the Romans, reheved 
from further salHes of the rebels (for now even 
these felt the grip of despondency and famine) were 
in the highest spirits, with abundant supplies of corn 

** i.e. hastened their own end by attending the funeral of 
others. 

361 



JOSEPHUS 

SeLOjv cV ri]s Supta? /cat row ttXtjctlov €7Tap\i(7)V 
521 €-)(^ovT€S' LGrdfievoL Se ttoXXoI rod r€L)(Ovs ttXt^ctlov 
Kat TToXv ttXtjOos t(jl)v iScxjSljjLOJv iTnhetKvvfjLevoi 
TO) Kara ac^ds Kopco rov Xljjlov rcov noXefilajv 
622 e^eKaiov. irpos he ro rrados ra)V Graaiaarajv 
pLTjOev ivhiSovrow, Tiros olKreipojv ra Xelipava 
rov hrjfiov Kal gttovSol^cov ro yovv Tvepiov i^- 
apTTaaat, TrdXiv rjp)(ero x^Jixdrcov ■xaXeTTOJS avroj 

523 rrjs vXrjs vopi'CoiiivriS' rj fiev yap Trepl rr^v rroXiv 
TTaaa rot? nporepots epyois €K€KOTrro, avi>e(f)6povv 
dXXrjv drr* ivevqKovra Grahiojv ol ar par icbr at. 
/cat 7Tpo£ fJLOVTjs vijjovv rTjS AvrojvLa? Kara, /^tepr^ 
reoaapa ttoXv p^elCova rcov Trporepojv )(a)p.ara. 

524 nepuow S o Katcrap ra rdyfiara Kal KareTTeiyojv 
ro €pyov €7TeheiK\ru roZs Xxjurals, ojs iv )(€pGLV 

525 eLTjGav avrov. p.6voLS S' eVetVoi? apa KaKUJV 
aTToXojXei pLerafieXeta, Kal rds ijjvy^^ds ;)(ajptcrap'T€S' 
a770 rcx)v Gcopidrojv dpicborepoLS ojs dXXorpioLs 

526 expoJvro. ovre yap rrddos avrow rjfxepov rrjv 
xjjvxTjv ovr dXyrjdow rjTrrero rov GcopLarog, ol ye 
/cat veKpov rov hrjpiov coGirep Kvves eGTrdparrov 
/cat ra oeGpLOjrr^pta rcov dppcoGrcov ev€7TLp,TrXaGav . 

527 (xiii. l) 'LlpLcov yovv ovde ^lardlav, 5t' ov 
KareG)(€ rrjv ttoXlv, d^aGdviGrov avetAe* BoTy^ou 
TratS" 7)v ovros Ik row dp)(Lep€cov, ev roZs fidXtara 

528 rep hrip-cp viGrog Kal ripaos' os vtto rols {^rjXcoralg 
KaKovpLevov rod ttXtjSovs, ols ijdrj Kal ^Icodvvrjs 
TTpoGTJv, TTeiSeL rov drjpLOv ctcrac^ietvat rov Hipicjva 



" i.e. becoming like brute beasts, they treated soul and 
body as of no concern to them, they did not care what 
happened to anyone's soul or bodv. I owe this suggestion 

362 



JEWISH WAR, V. 520-528 

and other necessaries from Syria and the adjoining 
proxinces ; and many of them would approach the 
ramparts and, displaying masses of victuals, inflame 
by their superabundance the pangs of the enemy's 
hunger. The rebels still remaining unmoved by 
these sufFerinffs. Titus, commiserating the remnants ^'^^^ 
of the people and anxious at least to rescue the begun. 
sur\ivors, recommenced the erection of earth-works, 
though timber was now procured with difficulty ; for, "; 
all the trees round the city ha\ing been felled for the 
pre\ious works, the troops had to collect fresh 
material from a distance of ninety furlongs. The 
new mounds were raised only opposite Antonia, in 
four sections, and were much larger than the former 
embankments. Caesar, meanwhile, making the 
round of the legions and expediting operations, 
plainly showed the brigands that they were now in 
his hands. In them alone, however, all remorse for 
e^ils was extinct ; and divorcing soul from body 
they treated both as ahens.** For neither could 
suffering tame their souls nor anguish affect their 
bodies, seeing that they continued, Hke dogs, to 
maul the very carcase of the people and to pack the 
prisons with the feeble. 

(xiii. 1) Simon indeed did not suffer even Matthias, Simon 
to whom he owed his possession of the city, to go >}an!XV 
untortured to his death. This Matthias was the son ^is former 
of Boethus, claimed high-priestly ancestry, and had others.' *° 
won the special confidence and esteem of the people. 
At the time when the multitude were being mal- 
treated by the Zealots, to whom John had now 
attached himself, he had persuaded the citizens to 

to Dr T. E. Page; but the meaning of this artificial passage 
is doubtful. 



JOSEPHUS 

^orjOov, ovhev ovre TrpoGwdefxevos ovt€ Trpocr- 

529 SoKijoas (f)avXov i^ avrov. vapeXdojv 8 €K€lvos 
(Lg €Kp(irr]G€ rrjg TToXecos, i^Opov ev tacp rots' 
aAAots" riyeZro koI tov vrrep avrov uvp.^ovXov 

530 COS" av ef aTrXoriqros ycyevqpiivov. axOevra Se 
nqvLKavra /cat Kar-qyopovp^evov to. tcjv 'Poj/xatCDV 
<f)povelv KaraKplvei /xev davdrco, /xt^S' aTToAoytas" 
a^iojoas, (Jvv rptolv vloZs' 6 yap Terapro? €(f)9rj 
Siahpag Trpos Tirov LKcrevovra 8* dvaipedrjvaL 
rrpo rwv reKvojv /cat ravrrjv airovpLevov ttjv X^P^^ 
av6 (hv dvoL^eiev avro) rrjv ttoXlv, rcXevralov 

531 dueXelv eKeXevaev. 6 piev ovv Iv 6ip€L (j)ov€vd€lGLV^ 
€7r€a(j)dyq rolg rraiGlv dvTLKpvs 'Pco/xatcov npoax' 
deis' ovTiO yap 6 Zt/xcov ^ Avdvco ro) BayaSaroL'^ 
TTpocrdra^ev, o£ r^v wporarog avro) rcov Sopv(f)6pa)v, 

€7T€LpCxJV€v6pLeV09, €i Tt ^Q-qd-qGOVGLV aVTO) TTpOS 

ovs i^eXdelv etXero, ddTrreiv r o-TretTre rd ocopara. 

532 pierd rovrovs lepevs ns ^Avavias vlos Macr^aAou^ 
rcJov eTTLGripajv /cat o ypappbarevg tt^S" ^ovXrjs 

ApLGT€vs, ylvos ef WpLpLaovSy /cat gvv tovtols 
Tret're/catSe/ca rcnv dnd tov S-qpLov Xapurpwv 

533 avaipovvraL. rdv he tov 'IcuCTT^Trou Trarepa Gvy- 
KXeLGavres €(f)vXaTT0V, K-qpvrrovGi Se p^-qhei x raJv 
Kard TTjV ttoXlv pnqTe Gvvop.iXeiv pL-qT €7tI rauro 
Gvva6poL^€GdaL 8eet TrpoSoGias, /cat tovs gvv- 
oXo<j)vpopLivovs TTpo e^eraaeajs" dvrjpovv. 



^ (poyevdeicriv Hudson from Lat. : <pov€vdeh mss. 

* PAM : yLayabdrov should perhaps be read, cf. vi. 229. 

' yiaffaix^aXov L Lat. 

* iv. 574. 
S64 



JEWISH WAR, V. 528-533 

admit Simon as an ally,** without making any pre- 
vious stipulation ^\'ith him or anticipating foul play 
on his part. But when Simon had once entered and 
become master of the town, he considered the very 
man who had advocated his cause an enemy, equally 
with the rest, as ha\'ing done so from pure simplicity. 
And now he had him brought up, accused him of 
siding with the Romans, and, M'ithout even granting 
him an opportunity of defence, condemned him to 
death, along with three of his sons ; the fourth 
ha\'ing already fled to Titus. Moreover, when 
Matthias entreated that he might be slain before 
his children, begging this favour in return for his 
having opened the gates to him, Simon ordered that 
he should be slain last. He was, accordingly, 
butchered over the bodies of his sons, who had been 
slaughtered before his eyes, after having been led 
out in \'iew of the Romans ; for such M-ere the 
instructions given by Simon to Ananus,^ son of 
Bagadates, the most truculent of his satelUtes, with 
the ironical remark, " Let him see whether his friends 
to whom he intended to desert will assist him." He 
moreover refused burial to the bodies. /Vfter these a 
priest named Ananias, son of Masbalus, a person of 
distinction, and Aristeus, the secretary of the coun- 
cil,*' a native of Emmaus, and along with them fifteen 
eminent men from among the people were executed. 
They further detained the father of Josephus in 
prison, issued a proclamation forbidding any tlirough- 
out the city to confabulate or congregate in one spot 
— for fear of treason — and put to death without in- 
quiry persons taking part in joint lamentation. 

* A native of Emmaus who afterwards deserted to the 
Romans, vi. 229. ' The Sanhedrin. 

S65 



JOSEPHUS 

534 (2) TaOra opwv 'IouSt]? ng vlog *IovSov, tojv 
V7rdp)(OJV rod Hljjlojvos €t? cov /cat 7r€7nGT€V[jL€V09 

V7T a-UTOV TTVpyOV (l)vXdTT€LV, TOL^a fl€V Tt Kai 

OLKTco TOJV (Lfia)s oLTroXXvjjLevojv , TO Se irXiov avTov 
TTpovoLciy ovyKaXeoas tovs TnoTOTarovs tojv vtt 

ocJo avTov o€Ka, P-^XP'' ''"t^'OS" avuegopi^Vy ^(p^> 
"toZs KaKolg ; rj TLva crojT'qpias e;^o/xev eXinba 

636 TTLGTol TTOvrjpcp pi€VOVT€5; ovx o p,ev AtjLtO? 'q^''^ 

KaO^ rjpLOJVy 'Pco/xatot 8e irapd puKpov evhov, 

^ipLOjv Se Koi TTpos evepyeras aTitcrros', Kai 

heog pL€V rjSr] Trap* avTOV KoXdueo)?, rj Sc irapa 

IPojpLaioLs Se^LOL ^e^aios; (l)€pe, irapahovTes to 

537 T€Z)(os GOJGOjpL€v eauTovs Kai ttjv ttoXlv, Tretcrerat 
8 ovbev heLvov Zt/xcov, idv oLTreyvoiKcos iavTOV 

538 Taxi-ov Sep SuK-qv." tovtol? tojv SeKa TreioOevTOJV 

V7T0 TTjV koj TOV? XoLTTOVS TCOV VTT OT€T ay pLeV OJV 

aXXov aXXa^oae SieTrepiTrev, cus" p^T) cfiOjpadeLrj tl 
TOJV ^e^ovXevptevojv , avTog 8e 7T€pl TpiTTjV ojpav 

539 aTTO Tov nvpyov tovs ^Vojp-aiovs e/caAet. tcop' 8 
OL pL€V VTTep-qcfidvovv, ol 8e tjttlgtovv, ol ttoXXol S 

COKVOVV d)S pLeTOL piiKpOV OLKivSvVOJS X-qipOpbeVOL TTjV 

540 TToXiv. iv oGcp 8e Ttro? /xe^' ottXltcov Trap'^et 
TTpos TO retp^os", eKJyd-q yvovs 6 ^ipLOJV, Kai pL€Ta 
Taxovs TOV re nvpyov rrpoKaTaXapL^dvei Kai tovs 
avSpas orvXXa^ojv iv oipei tojv 'PojpiaLOJV dvaipei 
Kai TTpo TOV T€i)(ovs Xoj^Tjudpievos eppcipe ra 
GojpiaTa. 

541 (3) Kav TOVTCp irepiiojv ^Yojgiqttos, ov yap dvUi 
vapaKaXcov , ^aAAerat ttjv KecjyaXrjV Xidco Kai 
7rapaxpT]p.a mTTTei Kapojdeis. eKhpopir] he etti to 

366 



JEWISH WAR, V. 534-541 

(2) A spectator of these scenes, Judes, son of Judes, not to 
one of Simon's lieutenants and entrusted by him with ^^""rppder 
the custody ot a tower, partly perhaps out or com- di<:covered 
passion for the victims thus cruelly slain, but mainly ^'^ S'"^o"- 
thinking of his own safety, called together ten of the 

men under him on Avhom he could most rely and 
said : " How long are we to tolerate these crimes ? 
Or M-hat prospect have we of escaping by keeping 
faith Avith this villain ? Is not the famine already 
upon us, the Roman army all but in the town, and 
Simon treacherous even to his benefactors ? Have 
we not reason to fear that he Mill soon punish us, 
while a RoiQan pledge can be trusted ? Come, let 
us surrender the ramparts and save ourselves and 
the city ! Simon will suffer no great hardship if, 
despairing of his Ufa, he is brought sooner to justice." 
The ten assenting to these proposals, early next 
morning he dispatched the rest of the men under 
his command in various directions, to prevent any 
discovery of the plot, and about the third hour called 
to the Romans from the tower. Of the latter some 
disdained him, others were incredulous, while the 
majority shrank from interfering, certain of taking 
the city ere long without running any risks. How- 
ever, while Titus was preparing to advance to the ^ 
wall with a body of troops, Simon, receiving timely 
intelligence, forestalled him by promptly occupying 
the tower, arrested and slew the men in full \iew 
of the Romans, and after mutilating their bodies 
flung them over the ramparts. 

(3) Meanwhile, Josephus while going his rounds — Josephus 
for he was unremitting in his exhortations — was Itpl^rted*^ 
struck on the head with a stone and instantly dropped killed. 
insensible. The Jews made a rush for the body, and 

367 



JOSEPHUS 

TTTOJ^a^ Tcov ^lovhalojv ylverac, kov ecfydrj crvpels 
et? rriv ttoXiv, et iirj ray^eojs Katcrap errefiipe tov? 

542 v7T€paG77Li,ovra£ . fiaxofievajv Se rovrojv 6 Icocr'q- 
770? [-L€v oXpercu fjpay^v n row TrparTOfievajv 
eTTatajv, ol GTaGLaaral 5 ojs" aveXovTe? ov eir- 

543 edvp.ovp p-dXiara fiera x^P^^ dve^ocov. 8tay- 
yeAAerat re et? tt^v ttoXlv, /cat to KaTaXenropievov 
7tX7]9o£ irreax^i^ dOvp^iay 7T€7T€iGpL€vovg otx^crOac 

'(44 to) ovTt dt' ov avTO/xoAety edappovv. aKovaaaa 
8' 7^ Tou 'Icocrr^TTOL' pL-qrrjp ev tco oeGpLOJTrjpLOj 
redvdvai tov vlov, irpos pi^^v rovg (f>vXaKas diro 'Ico- 
raTrdrajv rovr^ €(f)rj TrerreladaL- /cat yap ovoe 

545 ^(jjvTO£ drroXaveLV tota d 6Xo(l>vpopL€V7] rrpos ras 
depaTTaLvihag rovrov €LXrj(f)evaL T7]g evreKvlag eXeye 
Kaprrov ro p.rjd€ ddipai tov vlov, vcji* ov Ta(f)-q- 

546 aeadai vpoaedoK-qaev. aAAa yap ovre TavTrjv 
CTTt TrXiov (jjhvva to ipevdos ovre tovs Xr^GTag 
eOaXTTC- Tax^cos yap c/c tt}? TrXrjyrjs dviqveyKev 6 
^\ojo-q7Tog , /cat TrpoeXdcov Tovg p-kv ovk et? /xa/cpai' 
i^oa St/ca? avTO) hojaeiv tov rpaup-aro?, tov he 

547 hrip.OV €77t 7TLGTLV TidXiV TTpOVKaXeiTO . ddpGO£ 0€ 

TOJ Xao) /cat TOtS" GTacnaGTalg eKTrXrj^Ls efi7TL7TT€L 

TrpOS TTjV oxjjiv aVTOV. 

548 (4-) Tojv d' auro/xoAoii^ ot pL€v vtt^ dvayKi^g arro 
TOV T€LXOV£ eTT-qhcov Ta;(;ea)S', ot Se Trpo'CovTes cos 
irrl P-dxXj p-cra ;(eppa8a;v e77etTa 77pos" roi;? 
'Pcapatou? e(j)evyov. GweiTreTO 6e tovtoi? tvx'^i 
rwv etcro) ;(aAe77ajrepa, /cat rou Trapd G(f)lGL Xtpiov 

CrUVTOpi(x)T€pOV^ €VpLOKOV TTpOS oXcdpOV TOV TTapa 



^ TO TTTLbfJ-a] TU TTTijbfJ.aTl MVRC. 

* L Lat. (velociorem) : avvrovibrepov the rest. 



368 



JEWISH WAR, V. 541-548 

he would have been dragged into the city, had not 
Caesar promptly sent out a rescue party. During 
the ensuing conflict Josephus was borne away, little 
conscious of what was passing ; while the rebels, 
supposing that they had killed the man for whose 
blood they thirsted most, shouted with delight. The 
rumour spreading to the town, the residue of the 
populace were deeply dejected, believing that he 
who gave them courage to desert had really perished. 
The mother of Josephus, hearing in prison that her 
son was dead, remarked to her warders, " Ever since 
Jotapata^ I was sure of it ; indeed I had no joy of 
him in his lifetime " ; but in private lamentation to 
her handmaidens she said, " This, then, is the fruit 
that I reap of my blessed child-bearing that I am to 
be denied the burial of the son by whom I hoped to 
have been buried." Happily, however, neither the 
distress which this false report occasioned her nor 
the solace which it brought to the brigands was of 
long duration ; for Josephus, quickly recovering from 
the blow, came forward and, shouting to his foes 
that he would ere long be avenged on them for his 
wound, renewed his exhortations to the citizens to 
accept his assurances. The sight of him animated 
the people and filled the rebels \nth dismay. 

(4) As for the deserters, some, ha\in£r no alter- Horrible 

\ / ' ' o fate of 

native, hastily leapt from the ramparts ; others, Jewish 
starting out \vith stones, as for a skirmish, then fled r^p?,e^i^open 
to the Romans. Hither, however, a harsher fate by Syrians 
pursued them than that of their comrades within ; ^° 
and they found satiety in the Roman camp more 
rapidly ** fatal than the famine which they had left 

" Or perhaps " when the news came from Jotapata " ; 
c/. iii. 432 ff. * Or (with the other reading) " drastically." 

369 



JOSEPHUS 

549 *PojfiaCoLg Kopov. Trapeylvovro fjL€V yap oltto rrjs 
ivheias TrecbvcrqiievoL Kal wGTTcp vhpcoTTLwvres, 

€7T€LTa adpOOJS K€VOL£ V7T€p€p.7TL7TXdpL€V0L TOLS 

acLpLacTLV ipp-qyvvvTO, ttXtjv rwv 8t' e{i7T€Lplav 
TajJLLevGapLevojv rag opi^eis koI /car' oXiyov Trpoa- 
divrojv rpocbrjv aTTeiSLGfievoj ro) Gajfian (fjepeiv. 

550 /cat rovs ovroj 8e crajLopLevovs irepa TrXrjyrj pier- 
eXdpL^ave' tcjv yap Trapd rols Hvpois ns avro- 
pLoXow (jxjjparai tojv rrj? yaurpos Xvpidrajv p^pucrou? 
eVAeyojv KaraTTLovres^ S , OJS e^a/i.ev', avrovs 
7Tpor]€oav, iTreihrj hi-qpevvojv^ rravrag ol CTraatacrrat, 
Kal TToXv TrXrjBos tjv iv rfj TToXei -x^pvaov- hojheKa 
yovv ^Attlkcov (hvovvro Trporepov la-)(yovras^ rrivre 

651 Kal eiKooiv. dXXd rot ttjs eTTivoias eXeyxSeicrqs 
hi ivos, dvaTTLpLTTXarai pkv (j^-qpirjs^ rd arparoTreha, 
w? pL€GTol y^pvoLov TTapelcv ol avropioXoL, to he tojv 
^Apd^ojv ttXtjOo? Kal ol Hvpoc Tovg LKeras dva- 

652 TcpLVOvre? rjpevvojv rd? yaarepas- Kai rovrov 
rod Trddovs ovhev efioiye hoKel cruu^rjvaL lov- 
Satots" X'^^^'^^'^^P'^^' P-^9- yovv dv€axlGOy]Gav wktl 
irpds 8t(7;)^tAtoi;s'. 

653 (5) Kat yvovs ttjv TTapavop.iav Tiros dXiyov 
[JL€V iherjGe to lttttlkov TrepLGrrjGas KaraKovrLGac 
Tous" alriovs, et /xt] ttoXv ttXtiOos evecxero Kal 
TOJV dvr)pripL€vojv TToXXaTrXaGcovs rjGav ol KoXa- 

654 GdrjGopievoL. GvyKaXeGas he tovs t€ tojv Gvp.iidxojv 
TjyepLovas Kal tovs tojv ray/xarcov, ovvhie^aXXovro 
yap Kal tojv OTpaTiojTOJV Tives, rrpds eKarepovs 

^ Herwerden : KarairivovTes mss. 

* Destiiutn (avoiding hiatus) : a.p-qpevrun' wss. 

^ PAL : t'crxi. oj'Ta the rest. 

* Holwerda : (pr]fJ-rj els mss. 

S70 



JEWISH WAR, V. 549-554 

at home. For they arrived swollen from hunger, like 
persons afflicted with dropsy, and then, overcharging 
at a gulp their empty stomachs, burst asunder ; 
though some had learnt by experience to restrain 
their appetites and little by little administered 
nourishment to bodies unused to the load. But even 
those who thus escaped were overtaken later by 
another catastrophe. For one of the refugees in the 
Syrian ranks was discovered picking gold coins from 
his excrements ; these pieces, as we have said,** they 
had swallowed before their departure, because they 
were all searched by the rebels and gold was so 
abundant in the town that they could purchase for 
twelve Attic drachmas coin formerly worth five-and- 
twenty.'' This artifice being, however, detected in 
one instance, a rumour ran through the camps that 
the deserters had come full of gold, whereupon the 
Arab rabble with the Syrians proceeded to cut open 
the supphants and search their intestines. No more 
cruel calamity, in my opinion, befell the Jews than 
this : actually in one night no less than two thousand 
were ripped up. 

(5) On learning of this outrage Titus very nearly Titus 
ordered his horse to surround the culprits and shoot reprimands 
them down, being only checked by the multitude of his troops, 
persons implicated, those who would have to be 
punished far outnumbering their victims. Summon- 
ing, however, the commanders both of the auxiliaries 
and of the legions (for some of his own soldiers also 
were involved in the charge) and addressing both 

" §421. 

* Cf. vi. 317 (in consequence of the plunder of Jerusalem) 
" throug-hout Syria the standard of gold was depreciated to 
half its former value." 

371 



JOSEPHUS 

555 ayavaKreZv^ eXeyev, et roiv fiev crvv avrco arpa- 
revofievojv rives roiavTa Spcocnv Kephovs ev€K€v 
dSryAou, fiiqhk ra orrXa G<j)a)v avrwv atSou/xevot 

556 7T€7roLiiiJi€va dpyvpov re Kal ')(pvoov, roZs S 
"ApaipL Kal rot? Supot?, et npcoTov [jL€V iv aXXorpico 
TToXijjLcp Tol? TrdQeuLV avTe^ovGiojs XP^'^'''^^> ^Tretra 

rfl 7T€pl (jiOVOVS djfJLOTTjTL Kol TO) TTpOS 'lofSatOL'S" 

/xtcrct 'PcofiaLovs emypdj>ovui' Kal yap vvv ivtov? 
avTCJV^ Tcov (jrparLajTwv avvaTToXaveiv rrjs KaKO- 

557 Sottas'. TOVTOL? jiev ovv hi-qTretX-qGe davarov, et 
TiS" evpedeirj TrdXcv to avro toXjjlwv, rot? S arro 
TCOV rayiidrcov lireoTeXXev ipevvrjcavTas tovs 

558 VTTOTTTOVs dvdyeLV ctt' avrov. KaTa(l)pov€V h , 
d)S €OLK€, (l)iXo\pripLarLa TraGTjg KoXaaecos , Kai 

SeiVOS €IJL7T€(f)VK€V dvdpdjTTOlS TOV K€pSaLV€LV kpOJS , 

ovhev T€ ovrojs rrdOos <(!)?>* rrXeove^ia rrapa- 

559 ^dXXerai. i^ ravra /xev dXXojg /cat [lerpou cx^i 
Kal (j)6^oLs VTrordauerai, deos 8* 17V o rod Xaov 
Travro's KaraKpivas Kai rrdaav avrols Gojrrjptas 

560 686v et? aTTcoXeLav aTToar pe(j)(X)v . o yovv pier 
dTTeiXrjs aTTelrrev 6 Katcrap Xddpa Kara rojv 
avropLoXojv iroXfjidro, Kal rovs SLaScSpdaKovras 
TTplv rrdoLV 6(^6rjvaL TrpoaTravrajvres aTrea^arrov 
OL ^dp^apoL, TTepLaKOTTOVfievoi Se, /xt^ rt? emhoi 
'PwpalwVy dveGxt-^ov KaK rcjv arrXdyx^o^v ro 

561 fjLiapov KepSog elXKov. oAtyot? S ivevpiGKero, Kai 
rovs TToXXovs TTapavqXiGKev eXms pLovrj. rovro piev 
hr] ro Trddos ttoXXovs rcov avropLoXojv eTravqyayev . 

562 (6) ^Icxjdvirqs S' ojs eTreXenrov at dpnayal napd 

^ dyapaKTeiv Bekker : dyavaKTuv MSS. * a^roj VRC- 

^ Destinon with Lat. : KaTe<pp6vei mss. 
* ins. Hudson : Niese omits TrXeo^'e^io. 
372 



JEWISH WAR, V. 555-562 

groups, he said that he was indignant that soldiers 
in his service should be guilty of such acts for the 
sake of uncertain lucre, and did not blush for their 
own arms, made of silver and gold. To the Arabs and 
Syrians he expressed his \\Tath, first at the idea that 
in a foreign war they should give unrestrained licence 
to their passions, and next that they sliould induce 
Romans to lend their name to their o^^^l murderous 
brutahty and hatred of the Jews, seeing that some 
of the very legionaries now shared tlieir infamy. 
These foreigners he threatened with death, should any 
be found daring to repeat the crime ; the legionaries 
he directed to search for suspected offenders and to 
bring them up to him. But avarice, it seems, defies 
all punishment and a dire love of gain is ingrained 
in human nature, no other passion being so head- 
strong as greed ; though, in truth, in other circum- 
stances these passions observe some bounds and 
submit to deterrents, but here God and no other had 
condemned His whole people and was turning every 
avenue of salvation to their destruction. Thus what 
Caesar had prohibited with threats men still ventured 
furtively to practise upon the deserters : advancing 
to meet the fugitives before the troops had caught 
sight of them, these barbarians would massacre them, 
and then, looking round to see that no Roman eye 
was upon them, rip them up and extract the filthy 
lucre from their bowels. In few only was it found : 
the bare hope of finding it caused the wanton de- 
struction of most. This calamity in fact drove many 
of the deserters back. 

(6) John when the plunder from the people failed 

373 



JOSEPHUS 

rov hrjfiov, irpos UpocruXiav irpeTrero, Kal ttoAAq 
fiev Tcuv avadrjiidrajv Karexcoi^^vev eK rod vaov, 
TToAAa 8e Twv TTpos ras Aecroupyta? avayKaicov 
(TKevTj, Kparrjpas [re] /cat TrtVa/ca? /cat rpaTril^as' 
arricTx^ero 8' ovhe tCjv vtto rod He^aarov /cat 

563 T^S" yvvaLKCs avrov Tre^^^eVrcuv aKparo(^6pcov. ol 
fiiv ye 'PcujLtatcov /SaatAet? inpLrjcrdv re /cat rrpou- 
eKoufJL-qoav ro Upov del, rore §' d 'louSato? 

5t>4 /cat rd rcDy dAAo(^i;AcoP' Karearra. Trpos he rovs 
(jvvovras eXeyev, cos Set jier dSetas" Karaxp'qcro.(jOaL 
rols QeioLs vjrep rod Oeiov /cat rovs rat vaw arpa- 

565 revofievov? i^ avrov rpe'^ecr^at. Std rovro /cat 
Tov Upov olvov /cat TO e'Aatov, o TOt? 6XoKavrajp.aoLV 
ol lepels e(i>vXarrov [eVt;)(etv]/ e/c/cevcuo-as", ^v 
S' eV Toi evhov lepo), Steve/xe to) 7rA7]^et, KdKeZvoi 
hl^o. (f)pLKr]s^ TjXelchovro /cat eTTLVov [e^ avrcuv].' 

566 oi5/c dv V7TO(jreLXalp.riv elrreZv d fiOL KeXevei ro 
Trddos' ot/xat 'Poj/xatajy ^pahvvovrojv eTrl rovs 
dXirrjpLovs rj KararroQ-qvai dv vtto ;(d(7/i,aT0S' 'q 
KaraKXvadrjvai rrjv ttoXlv tj rovs rrjs ^ohofMTjvrjs 
pLeraXa^elv Kepavvovs' rroXv yap rdjv ravra 
vadovrcDV rjveyKe yevedv dOeajrepav rfj yovv 
rovrojv aTTovola irds 6 Xaos cwvaTTOjXero. 

567 (?) Kat rl hel Kara fiepos e/cStT^yeta^at rds 
(TV[ji(f)opds; dXXd Trpos Tlrov ev ravrais rals 
Tjiiepats Mata'atos" d Aa^dpoi; (f)vyojv Std fitds 
eXeyev eKKeKop^laOai nvX-qs, tjv avros eTreTrlorev- 

^ LVRC: iTre.axe'ti', eTretx^" or iirex^ev the rest: om. Lat. 

' PA Lat. Exc. : + trXeov rod Iv the rest. 

' ora. Lat. 

" Cf. 1 Cor. ix. 13. 

" According to the Mishna, Middoth ii. 6, the wine and 

874 



JEWISH WAR, V. 562-567 

him, had recourse to sacrilege, melting down many John's 
of the temple-offerings and many of the vessels re- p^uiidefing^ 
quired for pubhc worship, bowls and salvers and of the 
tables ; nor did he abstain from the vessels for pure 
wine sent by Augustus and his consort. For the 
Roman sovereigns ever honoured and added em- 
belhshment to the temple, whereas this .Tew now 
pulled down even the donations of foreigners, re- 
marking to his companions that they should not 
scruple to employ di\'ine things on the Divinity's 
behalf, and that those who fought for the temple 
should be supported by it.^ He accordingly drew 
every drop of the sacred wine and of the oil, which the 
priests kept for pouring upon the burnt-offerings and 
which stood in the inner temple,^ and distributed 
these to his horde, who without horror anointed 
themselves and drank therefrom." Nor can I here 
refrain from uttering what my emotion bids me say. 
I believe that, had the Romans delayed to punish 
these reprobates, either the earth would have opened 
and swallowed up the city,'^ or it would have been 
swept away by a flood,* or have tasted anew the 
thunderbolts of the land of Sodom. For it produced 
a generation far more godless than the \ictims of 
those visitations, seeing that these men's frenzy in- 
volved the whole people in their ruin. 

(7) But why need I severally recount the calam- xumbers of 
ities .' Why, indeed, when Mannaeus, son of Lazarus, V'^ '^''^'' ^^ 
who sought refuge in those days with Titus, reported 
that there were carried out through a single gate, 

oil were stored in a chamber at the S.W. corner of the 
Women's Court. 

" Some Mss. add " more than a hin." — 

"* Like Korah and his company. Numb. xvi. 32. , 

« Like the g-eneration of Noali. 

375 



JOSEPHUS 

TO, ixvpidbas evScKa v€Kpa)V eirl 7revra/cccrp(tAtot? 
OKraKoaioLS oyho-qKovra, dcf)* rjs avrols rjiiepag 
TrapeurpaTOTTehevGaro reacrapecr/catSe/caTT^ 'E.avOiKov 

568 pi-qvo? d-xpi Ylavepiov vovpL-qvcas. tovto 8 rjv 
TrXrjdos OLTTopajv' Kal ovSe avrog i(f)€OT(x>s, aAAa 
h-qpLOuia p.La66v ht^ovs i^ dvdyKTjs ripiOpLei. rovs 
8e XoLTTovg ot TrpoGrjKovres eOaTrrov ra(f)rj S' 

569 ■^v TO 77 poKO pi LGavras iK rou aGreo? piipai. pLerd 
Se TOVTOV hiahpdvTes ttoXXoI rcuv €7nGrjp.(jjv ras 
Tracras" rcov drropajv veKpcov dTT-qyyeXXov pLvpidSag 
i^rjKOVTa 8id tojv ttvXojv €KpL(f)rjvaL, rcov 8 dXXojv 

670 dve^epevvrjTOV etvai top dptdpLov. pLrjKeri 8 eu- 

TOVOVVTOJV TOVg 7TTOJ)(OVS €K(f)€p€l,V, [cAeyOV^^ GVG- 

Gcopevovra? et? rov£ pieyiGTOVs olkovs ra Trrajpiara 

571 dTTOKXeUiv. Kal rod pLev gltov to pierpov TTpadrjvai 
raXdvrov, pLerd ravra 8' (Ls ovSe TTorjXoyeXv e^' 
OLOV r rjv TrepLreixi-crOeLGT]? rrjg TToXeoJS, TrpoeXdelv 
TLvag €L£ roGovTov avayKTj'^y coGre ras ap.apas 
ipevvaJvras Kal TraXaidv ovdov ^oojv 7TpoG(f)ep€GdaL 
rd CK TOVTOJV GKv^aXa, Kal rd pirjS^ oipeL (f)oprjT6v 

572 TTCiAat t6t€ yeveGdai Tpo(l)rjv. ravra Pco/xatoi 
ptev dKovovre£ rjXerjGav, ol GraGiaGral 8e /cat 
^XeTTOvre? ov pLerevoovv, dXX rjvelxovro p^^xpi^S 
avrojv TrpoeXdelv 7T€7njpojvro ydp vtto rod xP^^^f 
6 rfj re iroXei Kal avrols tJot] Traprjv. 

1 ora. P Lat. 

« § 133. 

* i.e. between 1 May and 20 July, a.d. 70 (Niese). 

* Or " chambers." 

* These two rare words are Homeric (dftapd H. xxi. 259 ; 
tvdo'. xxiii. 775-7). 



376 



JEWISH WAR, V. 567-572 

which had been entrusted to him, 115,880 corpses, 
between the fourteenth of the month Xanthicus, on 
which the general encamped before their walls," and 
the new moon of Panemus ^ ? All these were of the 
poorer class ; nor had he undertaken this charge 
himself, but being responsible for the payment of 
public funds he was bound to keep count. The 
remainder were buried by their relatives, burial 
consisting merely in bringing them forth and casting 
them out of the to^vn. This refugee was followed 
by many eminent citizens, who reported that the 
corpses of the lower classes thrown out through the 
gates amounted in all to 600,000 ; of the rest it was 
impossible to discover the number. They added 
that, when strength failed them to carry out the 
poor, they piled the bodies in the largest mansions * 
and shut them up ; also that a measure of corn had 
been sold for a talent, and that later when it was no 
longer possible to gather herbs, the city being all 
walled in, some were reduced to such straits that 
they searched the sewers'^ and for old cow dung*^ 
and ate the offal therefrom, and what once would 
have disgusted them to look at had now become 
food. The tale of these horrors aroused the com- 
passion of the Romans ; yet the rebels who witnessed 
them relented not, but endured to go even to these 
extremes.* For they were blinded by Fate, which, 
ahke for the city and for themselves, was now 
imminent. 



* Or, taking avruif, as masculine, = avrQ^v with Hudson and 
others, " patiebantur ea usque ad ipsos progredi." For 
axiTwv neuter, as translated above, cf. e.g. A. xv. 182 yuexP' 

377 



BIBAION r 

1 (i. 1) Ta fiev ovv rcov 'lepoaoXvixojv TrdOrj 
TTpovKOTTrev KaO' Tjiiepav IttI to y^eipov, rojv re 
(jTaGLaGTOJv pidXXov 7Tapo^vvofJL€vojv ^ivY TOLs crvpL- 
(f)opaLg Kal rod Xip^ov /xera rov Srjp^ov tJBt] KaKeivovs 

2 V€p,OpL€VOV. TO ")/€ pLYjV TtXtJOo? TCOV G€Gajp€VpLCVa>V 

dva rrjv ttoXlv TTrajpLarajp oipei re (jypLKojSes r]V koI 
XoipLcoSrj TTpoae^aXXev ocrfi-qv, rrpos T€ rds e/cSpo/xas" 
ipLTTohiov roLS p^axoiievoLS' ojGTrep yap Sid rrapa- 
rd^eojs (f)ova) /xuptoj yeyvixvaapLevovs^ ;!(a)po ultras' 

3 e8et rd Gojp.ara Trareiv. ol S €7n^aivovTes ovr* 

e(f)pLTTOV OVT TjXeOVV OVT€ KXrjSova KaKTjV G(f)aJV 

avTOJV VTTeXdpi^avov rr^v et? rovs Karoiy^opivovs 
4: v^pLV, 7T€(f)vpp,€V0L 8 6p,0(f)vXa) 0ovc(j rd? Se^tas" 
irrl TOP Ttpos rovs aXXo(f)vXovs iroXepLov e^ideov, 
6veihit,ovr€s ep-oiye hoKelv rd delov els ^pahvrrjra 
rrjs €7r' avrcjv^ KoXdGecos' ou ydp cArrtSt vlkt^s 6 
TToXep^og, yjSrj Se aTToyvcoGei Gojrrjpias IdpaGvvero. 
5 PcD^atot 8e Kairoi TToXXa rrepl rrjv rrjs vXrjs 
GvyKop^ihr^v raXai7T(x>povp,evoL rd ;)(aj^aTa hi-qyeipav 
pLia Kal €LKOGLV rjpi€paLs, Kelpavres, cos" Trpoelp-qrau, 
rrjv TTepl rd acrru "x^ajpav eV ivevi^Kovra Grahiovs 
b €v kvkXo) TTaGav. r^v 8 eAeetn^ /cat rris yT]S 'tj dea' 
^ om. L Lat. Exc. 
» PALC: yty^fxuaa/Mpqs MVR (Lat). 
' PA : airroi/i L Exc. : ai/roh the rest. 

378 



BOOK vr 

(i. 1) The sufferings of Jerusalem thus daily grew New Roman 
worse, the inry of the rebels being intensified by the eompietei 
calamities in which they were involved, and the 
famine now extending its ravages from the people 
to themselves. The piles of corpses throujjhout the 
city, presenting a horrible spectacle and emitting a 
pestilential stench, were, moreover, an impediment 
to the combatants in their sallies ; for, Uke men 
inured to countless carnage on the battlefield, they 
were compelled on the march to trample over the 
bodies." Yet, they set foot on them without a 
shudder, \vithout pity, without a thought of any evil 
omen to themselves from this outrao'e to the de- 
parted. With hands imbrued with the blood of their 
countrymen they rushed forth to war with the 
foreigner, upbraiding the Deity (so I cannot but 
tliink) for His tardiness in punishing them ; for it 
was no hope of victory but despair of escape which 
now nerved them to the battle. The Romans, mean- 
while, though sorely harassed in the collection of 
timber, had completed their earthworks in one and 
twenty days, having, as abeady stated,^ cleared the 
whole district around the town to a distance of ninety 
furlongs. Pitiful too was the aspect of the country, 

" Or (with the other reading) " like men advancing over a 
battlefield strewn (Hterally ' exercised ') with countless carnage 
they were compelled to trample/' etc. * v. 52S. 

VOL. Ill N 379 



JOSEPHUS 

TO. yap TrdXai hivhpeai kol TrapaheLGOis KeKoafirj- 
fjLeva Tore Trayrap^d^ey rjp-qjicoTO koI 7T€pLK€K07TTO 

7 rrjv vXrjV, ovdels re riqv TtdXai lovhaiav /cat to. 
TTepLKaXXrj TrpodoTeia rrjs TToXeojs eojpaKOJS ciAAd- 
^vAob, eVctra tt^i^ rore ^XeTTOjv ipripLLav ovk 
ojXo(j)vpaTO Kai Kareureva^ev ttjv fiera^oXrjv Trap 

8 ooov yevoLTO' Travra yap eXufiTJuaTO ra arjpela rod 
KaAAovs" d TToXefios, /cat ovk dp rt? i^aTrivrjs im- 
CTras" rojp TrpoeyvcoKOTOJV eyvojpLoe rov tottov, d)Xd 
TTapojv e^vjret r'qv ttoXlv. 

9 (2) 'VcopaioLs he /cat 'louSatots" to reXos rcov 

10 X^H-^"^^^ LGTjv everroiei heovs dp)(rjv ol fiev yap, 
€t pLT] /cat ravra /caucretay, aXojoeodai T'qv ttoXlv 
TTpooehoKOJVy 'Poj/zatot 8 ovKed'^ aip-qGeLV KaKeivcov 

11 SLa(f)6apevrajv. vXr]£ re yap rjv aTTopia, /cat rwv 
p.ev TTovixjv TJBr] ro crctj/xa/ rcov S eTraXXrjXcov Trrai- 

12 Giidrojv at ijjvxal rols arparicorais eXeirtOvro. rds 
ye pLTjv Kara rr^v ttoXlv ovpicjiopds Poj^Ltatots" rrXeov 
eivaL ovve^aive rrpos ddvp^las t] rols ev avrfj' 
TTapd yap ra rrjXiKavra rrdOr] rols p-axofxevoLS 

13 ovbev expdi)vro paXaKOjrepoLS , dAA' eBpavovro 
iravrore rds eXrrLdas, rojv pukv p^oj/^arojv raty 
em^ovXals, r'jjv S' opydvojv arepporrjrL rov reixovs, 
rrjs be Kara X^^P*^ P-^XV^ rals rdjv avp-TrXeKop^evajv 
rdA/xat? TrXeoveKrovp-evoL , ro 8e fxeyiarov, ordoews 
re Kai XipLov /cat rroXepov /cat roGovrwv KaKcjv 
evpioKovres eirdvoj ro TrapdoriyjLa rrjs 4'^XV'^ 

1^ 'louSatous' exovras. vrreXdp^avov re^ rcbv aibpcuP 
dpidxovs jLtev rds 6pp.ds, dvdXcorov be rrjv errl 
(jvp,(f)opals evdvpLLav elvai' ri ydp dv p^r] VTroGrijvat 

^ oi'Kid' HerwerJen : olk Slv kd' >iss. 
* TO cTw/iara M Lat. ^ om. Lat. Syr. 

380 



the Romans, 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 6-14 

sites formerly beautified vrith. trees and parks now Judaea and 
reduced to an utter desert and stripped bare of Jj'/j.ecoSz- 
timber ; and no stranger who had seen the old ibie, 
Judaea and the entrancingly beautiful suburbs of 
her capital, and now beheld her present desolation, 
could have refrained from tears or suppressed a sigh 
at the greatness of the change. For the war had 
ruined all the marks of beauty, and no one who 
knew it of old, coming suddenly upon it, would have 
recognized the place, but, though beside it, he would 
have looked for the city. 

(2) The completion of the earthworks proved, to nejection o; 
the Romans no less than to the Jews, a source of 
apprehension. For, while the latter thought that, 
should they fail to burn these also, the city would 
be taken, the Romans feared that they would never 
take it, should these embankments too be destroyed. 
For there was a dearth of materials, and the soldiers' 
bodies were now sinking beneath their toils, and their 
minds under a succession of reverses. Indeed, the 
calamities of the city caused more despondency to 
the Romans than to the citizens, for they found 
their opponents in no wise chastened by their severe 
misfortunes, while their own hopes were continually 
dashed, their earthworks mastered by the enemy's 
stratagems, their engines by the solidity of the walls, 
their close combat by the daring of their antagonists. 
But worst of all was the discovery that the Jews 
possessed a fortitude of soul that could surmount 
faction, famine, war and such a host of calamities. 
They fancied the impetuosity of these men to 
be irresistible and their cheerfulness in distress 
invincible ; for what would they not endure if 



381 



JOSEPHUS 

Sc^ta Tvxj} XP^/^^'^ous" rovs vtto KaKOJV irpos olXktjv 
rpe—op.€vovs ; ol /xev ovv ippajfieveGrepas Sta ravra 
Tojv ^^ojiidrajv €7tolovvto ras (f>vXaKds. 
16 (S) 01 he 7T€pl Tov ^Icodwqv Kara ttjv * Avrcoviav 
a/xa Kal rrpos to fieXXov, et KarappicfideLr} to r€l)(OS, 
-qGc^aXit^ovTO Kal Trplv iTnGTrjvat rovs Kpiovs €7t- 

16 idevTO roZs epyoLS. ov [ir^v eKpanqGav ye rrjs 
€7TL)(€LpiQG€Cx)£, dXXd TTpoeXdovTes^ pL€rd XapLTrdhcDV 
TTpLV lyyiaai rols p^'oj^acrt ipvxporepoi rfjs iXTriBos 

17 VTreGrpeipav. Trpcorov /xev yap o-uh ojjLOVo€lv T] 
GKeipLS avTcov icvKei Kara fiepos eKTTiqh ojvtojv KaK 
hiaXei}JLpLdra>v Kal jLte/xeAAr^^eVco? pierd heovs, 
KauoAov r €L7T€lv ovk lovoaLKajs' ra yap iota rov 
edvovs vardprjro d/xa rj roXpia Kal opprj /cat 
Spo/xos" opLov rrdvrwv Kal ro p.'qbe Trraiovras 

18 dvaarpecbeLv. drovcorepoL S* iavrojv TrpoeXOovres 
Kal rovs ^^ojpaiovs evpov eppcopieveGrepov rod 

19 Gvvqdovs rrapareraypLevovs' rols piiv ye GojpaGi 
/cat raZs iravoTrXiais ovrcos i(f)pd^ai'ro ra )(ojpara 
TrdvroOev, ojs rep TTvpl prjSapLoOev KaraXiTrelv 
TTapdSvGLV, rrjv 8e ipvxr]^ irovwaav CKaaros pLrj 

20 pLeraKLvrjdrjvaL rrjs rd^etos rrpo Qavdrov. Trpos 
yap ro) rrdaas avrojv VTroKOTrreGdat rag eXmoas, 
€L KdK€Lva Kara(f)Xey€L'q ra epya, Seivq rovs 
Grpancoras ^^X^^ alScos, €t rrdvra Kparr^Getav 
TTavovpyia p.kv dperrjs, dTTOvota 8' ottXcjv, ttXtjOos 

21 8' epL7T€LpLas, 'louSatot Se 'Pco/xat'cov. dpLa 8e n 
Kai^ racberi^pia Gvvqpyei ra)v rrpo7T7]hojvrojv ecf^LKVov- 
p€va, Kal 7T€Ga}V ris rqj pLcO' avrov epLTroStov rjv, 
6 re KLvSvvos rov npoGO) x^P^^^ CTrotet pLaXaKoj- 



^ ed. pr. Heg. : irpoaeXdovres MSS. 
* Ti Kal C : en ^ai MVR : /cat L r om. PA. 



382 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 14-21 

favoured by fortune, who were impelled to valour 
by disasters ? For these reasons, then, the Romans 
strengthened yet more their guard upon the 
earthworks. 

(S) John and his party within Antonia, on the Jewish 
other hand, while taking precautions for the future, '^^e ^ara 
in the event of the demolition of the wall, also works, a 
made an attack on the works before the rams were '" "^^ 
brought up. In this enterprise, however, they did 
not succeed, but, having advanced with torches, re- 
turned with ardent hopes grown cold,'^ ere they had 
approached the earthworks. For, to begin Avith, 
there seemed to be no unanimity in their design : 
they dashed out in small parties, at intervals, hesitat- 
ingly and in alarm, in short not like Jews : the 
characteristics of the nation — daring, impetuosity, 
the simultaneous charge, the refusal to retreat even 
whenM'orsted ^ — were all lacking. But while their own 
advance was abnormally spiritless, they found the 
Romans dra^Ti up in stouter array than usual, with 
their bodies and armour so completely screening the 
earthworks as to leave no loophole for firebrands from 
any quarter whatever, and each man's heart braced 
to die rather than quit his post. For not only would 
all their hopes be cut off, should these works also be 
burnt up, but the soldiers felt it a dire disgrace 
that craft should invariably triumph over valour, 
desperation over arms, numbers over experience, 
and Jews over Romans. Tlie artillery, moreover, 
rendered assistance, reaching the sallying parties 
with their missiles ; each enemy who fell obstructed 
the man in his rear, and the risk of advancing damped 

" Literally "colder than their hope." 
* Or perhaps " the retreat without so much as a hitch." 

883 



JOSEPHUS 

22 repovg. rcov 8* ivhorepoj /SeAou? V7rohpa[i6vTCi)V 
OL fiev TTplv elg ;)(etpa? iXdelv ttjv evra^iav koI to 
rrvKvajjJLa row TToXepiLcov KaraTrXayevTes , ol oe 
vvrrojxevoi rols ^varols iTraXtvhpoiiovv Kal reAo? 
dXX-qXovs KaKiLovreg et? SetAtav di'€-)(ojpovv 6.77 pa- 
KTOL. voviXTjVia Ylavliiov fJLTjvo? T) ETTLX^Lp-qGLg rjv . 

23 dvaxo^pTJcrdvrcov he tCjv Yovhaiojv TrpoGrjyov ol 
'Poj/iatot rds eAeTToAet?, ^aXXofievoL irerpais re 
drro rrj? 'Avroji'ta? Kal TTvpl Kai aih-qpoj Kai Travn 
TO) x^prjyovfieva) lovdaLOcg vtto rrj? avayK-q? 

24 /SeAef KaiTrep yap ttoXv tuj reix^L TreTTOidores Kai 
Tcov opydvcov Kara(f}povovvT€£ ofjLOJS €kojXvov tovs 

25 'Pco/i.atOL'S" Trpoddyeiv. ol he rrjv GTTOvhrjv rcjv 
^Yovhaiajv rod fxr] TrXrjyrjvai rrjV Avrojviav vtto- 
Xaji^dvovres yiveaOai hC daSeveiav rod rei^ovs 
Kal GaBpovs eXiTLGavres elvai rovg dep-eXiovg avr- 

26 e(^iXoveLKOvv . ov firjv vn-qKove ro rvrrrofievov, aXA 
ol fxev Gvvex^s ^aXXofievou Kal rrpog ji-qheva rcov 
KadvTrepOev KLvhvvojv evhihovres evepyovg Trapetxov 

27 rds eXeTToXeis' d)S 8' rJGav eXdrrovs Kal rrepi- 
eOpavovro rat? rrerpais, erepoi rovg dvpeov? opo- 
(^xJjGavres VTrep rcov Gcofidrcov X^P^'- ^^^ p.oxXol? 
VTTcLpvrrov rovs deiieXtovg, Kal reGGapds ye Xidovs 

28 7rpoGKapreprjGavTe<i i^eGeiGav. dveTravGe he vv^ 
eKarepovs, Kdv ravrr] to relxos vtto rcov Kpicov 
GeGaXevfxevov, Kal^ KaO o rot? Trporepotg em- 
^ovXevcov ;)(;aj/i,aCTtv o ^Icodvvrj? VTTOjpv^ev ivhovGTjs 
rrjs hicopvxos, e^aTTiv-qs KarepeiTrerai. 

^ ora. Lat. 

" i.e. long range projectiles ; cf. iii. 212 tC^v 8k iroppw ^a\- 
\oix€vu;v (vborepw yivbtievoL TrpocreKetPro kt\. 

«> pila. * Iron arrow-heads : cf. iii. 240. 

384 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 22-28 

their ardour. Of those who did penetrate past the 
reach of these projectiles," some sped back, before 
coming to close quarters, dismayed by the admirable 
order and serried ranks of their antagonists, others 
only when pricked by the points of the javelins.'' 
Finally, reviling each other for cowardice, they all 
retired, their object unattained. This attack took c. 20 Jniy 
place on the new moon of the month Panemus. ^'^' '^' 

On the retreat of the Jews, the Romans brought The Romans 
up the siege-engines, being assailed from Antonia An"onia. 
with rocks, fire, iron ^ and every species of missile 
%Wth which necessity supphed the Jews, who, not- 
withstanding their confident reliance on their ram- 
parts and their contempt of the engines, yet strove 
to prevent the Romans from bringing them up. The 
latter, surmising that the anxiety of the Jews to save 
Antonia from assault arose from some weakness in 
the wall and hoping that the foundations were rotten, 
redoubled their efforts. Nevertheless it resisted the 
battering ; but the Romans, under an incessant fire 
and undeterred by the perils to which they were 
exposed from above, brought the siege-engines 
effectively into action. As, however, they were at a 
disadvantage and crushed by the boulders, another 
party, locking their bucklers over their bodies, with 
hands and crowbars started undermining the founda- 
tions and by perseverance succeeded in dislodging 
four stones. Night suspended the labours of both 
combatants, but in the course of it the wall, whose 
shaking by the rams was followed by the collapse of Coiiapsp of 
the mine, at the point where John in his designs on ^^6^311 
the former earthworks had dug beneath it,*^ suddenly 
fell to the ground. 

" V. 469. 

SS5 



JOSEPHUS 

29 (4) TovTOV crv[j.BdvTOS Trapaho^oj? eKarepoti 

30 Sieredrj ra cf)povrjp.ara' 'louSat'ous" /xev yoip, ovs 
aOvfielv ELKO? Tjv, TO) [iTj Trap eXmba yeveaOai ro 
TTTCJiia Koi 7TporjG<^aXLud ai rrpos avro OappeZv d>s 

31 fxevovcr-qs crvveBaive ri]£ AvrowLas' Poj/iatcuv Si 
ye TTjv Trap eXmha p^apar errt rw KaTappK^Blvn 
rax^ojs €G^€(J€v oipLs irepov relxovs, oTrep evSodei 

32 ol TTepl Tov lojdvmqv avrcoKodojiriKecjav . eu/xape- 
urepa ye /X7yv tt^S" rrporepov rj Trpou^oXi] Kare^ai- 
V€ro' TO re ydp dva^rjvai 8ta rcvv KarappL(f)B€VTQ}v 
paov ehoKei^ Kal to teI^os aodevioTepov re ttoXXoj 
Tr\s WvTOJvia? Kal Ta^ecos tco rrpoGKaipov etvat 
AuCTetv^ VTreXap-fjavov. ov jir^v eToXp-a tls dva^rjvaL' 

TTpOVTTTOS ydp TOLS dp^apL€VOL? TjP aTTOjXeia. 

33 (5) ^opLitixJV § o 1 iTOs eyetpeadaL pidXiGTa Ta? 
rojv TToXejiovvTCjjv TrpoOvpLLag iXrrlbi Kal Xoycp, Tds 

T€ TTpOTpOTrd^ Kal Tag V7T0G)(€G€L'£ TToXXdKLg fjiev 

Xrj6r]v ivepydieGdaL tow KLvhvvojVy €Gtl §' OTe Kal 
OavdTOV KaTaSpov'-qGiv , Gvvayayojv errl TavTO Tovg 

34 aXKLpiovs eVetpdro tow avdpow, 'oj ovGTpaTLco- 
TOL," XeyojVy " TO p.kv TrapaKeXevetv irrl ra firj 
(f)epovTa Kivhvvov avToOev tols napaKeXevop-evoig 
dxAees", dpieXeL Se /cat to* TrapaKeXevovTi chepeu 

35 KaTdyvojGLv dvavbpias. Set 8 , ot/xat, TrpoTpoTrrjg 
et's" piova ra oSaXepa tojv TrpaypLaTOJV, tu? eKelvd 

36 ye KaO^ avTOVS TrpdTTeiv d^iov.' ojgt eyojye to 
/xev vrrdpx^i-v xaAcTTT^y ttjv €7tl to Tel^os dvoBov 

aVTOS VpUV TTpOTtdlQpLL- TO 6 OTL pidXiGTa T:pOGrjK€L 
pidx^Gdai Tols bvGKoXoL? TO'U£ ap€T7Js €(f)i€p.evovs 
Kal OTL KaXov iv evKX^ia TeXevTTj /cat cLs ovk 
aKapTTov €GTaL TOLS KaTap^apLcvoLs TO yevvalov, 
* Bekker : Xvctlv L : Xi'-eti' the rest. * + fi** Destinon. 

386 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 29-36 

(4) The effect of this incident on the spirits of and dis- 
both beUigerents was surprising. For the Jews, who another°^ 
might reasonably have been disheartened by it, were, beiiind it. 
in consequence of their being prepared for this 
catastrophe and ha\-ing taken precautions to meet it, 

quite confident, as Antonia still remained ; whereas 
the unlooked-for joy of the Romans at the downfall 
was extinguished by the appearance of a second wall 
which John and his party had built ^^'ithin. True, 
the assault of this one looked easier than that of the 
first, as the ascent would be facilitated by the debris ; 
they also imagined the wall itself to be far weaker 
than that of Antonia and that, being a temporary 
structure, it would be rapidly destroyed. Still, none 
ventured to mount ; for manifest destruction awaited 
the first assailants. 

(5) Titus, believing that the ardour of troops in Titus 
warfare is best roused by hope and encouraging ^j^^^^e^.^^^ 
words, and that exhortations and promises often spondent 
induce forgetfulness of danger and sometimes even ^^°^^' 
contempt of death, called his stalwarts together and 

put to the proof the mettle of his men. " Fellow- 
soldiers," he said, " to deliver an oration inciting to 
enterprises involving no risk is to cast a direct slur 
on the persons addressed, while it assuredly convicts 
him who delivers it of unmanliness. Exhortation, 
in my opinion, is needed only for hazardous affairs, 
since in other circumstances men may be expected 
to act of their own accord. That the scaling of this 
wall is arduous I, therefore, myself grant you at the 
outset ; but that to contend with difficulties best 
becomes those who aspire to heroism, that it is 
glorious to die with renown, and that the gallantry 
of those who lead the way will not go unrewarded — 

VOL. Ill N 2 387 



JOSEPHUS 

37 8te^et/xi. Trpwrov jxev ovv VfjLOJV yeveudoj TrporpoTTT] 
TO TLvag LGCog aTrorpeTrov, tj lovhaLow jiaKpodvpiia 

38 Koi TO KaprepiKov eV of? KaKOTraSovGLv alaxpov 
yap 'PcD/iatoL'S" t€ ovrag Kai Grpariwras e/xou?, 
/cat hihaKTOV fiev iv elprjvr] ro TToXeiielv, eOifiov 8 
ev TToXefjLOJ TO KpaTelv exovTas, rjTTdadai Kara 
X^^P^ 'louSatcuv -^ KaTO. ijjvx'ijv, Kat TavTa rrpog to) 
reAct TT^S" VLK-qs kol avvepyovpLevov? vrro tov Oeov. 

39 TO. [p-^t^^^ yoLp TjiieTepa TrraiCT/xara rr^s" louSatcuv 
CCTTtv a—Qvoiag, to. d' eKelvcov Trddrj rats' re vpLCTC- 
pais dpETalg Kai tols tov Oeov ovvepyiais au^erat* 

4(1 GTaois yap Kai At/io? /<:at TToXiopKia Kai 8t;^a 
pLTixo-vrjiiaTcov TTirrTOVTa Teixf) tl dv aXX rj Oeov 

41 pL€v etrj jjirjVL? eKelvots, ^oyjOeca d rjp.€Tepa; to 
Toiwv [IT] LLoi'ov eXaTTovodai ;\;etpova>v, aAAa /cat 
Tr]v Oeiav Gvpp.axio.v Trpohihovai Trpos -qiicoi' ovk 

42 dv eiTj. 7701? S' ovk: aloxpov ^lovdatovg'^ jiev, ols 
ou" TToXXrjV aLGXvvTjv (hepeL to AetTrea^at fiadovoi 
SovXevecv, VTrep tov p^-qKiTL tovto TrdGx^i-^' OavdTov 
KaTa(f)povelv Kai noXXdKLg et? p,€Govs rjiJLdg €KTpe- 
X^f-^'y OVK eA77iSt TOV KpaTrjGeLV, aAAa 3ta ijjLXrjV 

43 €7TLhei^LV dvhpeias' vpdg Se tovs yfjg oXiyov heZv 
aTrdo-qg Kai daXdaa-qg KpaTOVVTas , olg Kai to pirj 
viKav dveihog, pi'i^^ drra^ et? tou? TroXeptovs -rrapa- 

44 ^dXXeaOaL, TrepLfieveLV he tov Xtp.6v /car' aurojv Kai 
TTjV Tvx'QV dpyovg KadeLofievovg /xera TotouTaiv 
OTrAojv, Kai TavTa St' oAtyou tov rrapa^oXov to 

45 TTav KaTopOdJaai Svvapevovg ; dva^dvTeg yovv em 
T-qv WvTOJVLav exop.ev rrjv ttoXlv Kai yap dv 
ylvrjTaL tl£ ert 77^6? rous" evBov, orrep ovk otpaL, 

^ ills. L: omit the rest. ^ L: 'loioaiois the rest. 

^ OL- L : oiii. PA: inbcrt before cpepei the rest. 

888 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 37-45 

on those points I would now dwell. In the first 
place, then, let that be an incentive to you which to 
some might perhaps be a deterrent, I mean the long- 
suffering of the Jews and their fortitude in adversity. 
For shameful were it that Romans, soldiers of mine, 
men who in peace are trained for war, and in war 
are accustomed to conquer, should be outdone, either 
in strength or courage, by Jews, and that when final 
victory is in sight and we are enjoying the co-opera- 
tion of God. For our reverses are but the outcome 
of the Jews' desperation, while their sufferings are 
increased by your vahant exploits and the constant 
co-operation of the Deity. For faction, famine, siege, 
the fall of ramparts \\'ithout impact of engines — what 
can these things mean but that God is wroth with 
them and extending His aid to us ? Surely, then, 
to allow ourselves not merely to be surpassed by 
inferiors but to betray a di'vine Ally would be beneath 
our dignity. It would indeed be disgraceful that 
Jews, to whom defeat brings no serious discredit 
since they have learnt to be slaves, should, in order 
to end their servitude, scorn death and constantly 
charge into our midst, not from any hope of victory, 
but for the sheer display of bravery ; and yet that 
you, masters of well nigh every land and sea, to 
whom not to conquer is disgrace, should never once 
venture into the enemy's ranks, but should wait for 
famine and fortune to bring them do^^^l, sitting idle 
\dth weapons such as these, and that though at a 
little hazard you have it in your power to achieve 
everything. Yes, Antonia once mounted, and the 
city is ours ; for, even if — and I do not expect it — 
any further battle awaits us with those within, 



389 



JOSEPHUS 

fidxT^, TO ye Kara Kopv(l)riv elvai /cat Tat? avaTTVoais 
iTTLKaOrjadai rchv TroXefilajv raxeco? rrjv oXoax^prj 

46 VLKTjv iyyvdrat. Kal eycoye to [jl€v vfivelv apn rrjv 
€V TToAe/xoj reXevTTjV Kal ttjv eTrl rots apeLjiaviois 
7T€G0VGLV aOavaoiav TrapaXirrajv eTrapauaLpiV^v av 
roZs aXXoJS exovoL rov /car eiprjvqv eK vocrov 
ddvarov, ols /xerd rod ucopiaros Kal t) ifjvxr) Td(/)aj 

47 KaraKpLverac. ris yap ovk olhe tojv dyaOcov 
dvbpcJov OTL rds pev iv Trapard^ei ipvxd? Gihrjpoj 
rwv uapKcov dTToXvB&LGas to KaOapcorarov gtol- 
X^iov aWrjp ^evoSox^J^ dorpois eyKaOihpvei, hai- 
pLOves 8* dyadol Kal ripcoes evpLevels ISlol? iyyovoLS 

48 e/x(/>avt^oyrat, rds S' iv vogovctl rols croj/xacrt gvv- 
raKeiGag, Kav rd pdXiGra K-qXihcov 7] piaGpdrojv 
(Lgi Kadapai, vij^ vrroyeios d(j>aviL,€L Kal Xrjdr] 
^adela Bex^rai, Xap^avovGas dpa rod re ^lov Acai 

49 Tcbv GOjpLdrojv, en be rrjg pLvqp.r]? Trepiypacfyi^v ; el 
Se Ace/cAcocrrat p-ev dvdpojTTOis dvayKaia TeXevrr], 
Kov^o-repov S' els avrrjv vogov 7TaGT]g Gcdi-jpos 
VTT-qpeT-qs , ttcos ovk dyevves p-'f] hihovai raXs XP^^' 

50 at? o TO) ;^pe6oy dirohajGopev ; /cat ravra pev oj? 
oi5 hvvapLevcxjv GOjdrjvaL rwv eTTLxeLprjGovrojv hte^- 
rjXdov eveGTL he GcoL^eGOai rot? dvhpilopevoLs KdK 

51 rajv G(f)aXepajrdTa>v. rrpojrov pev yap rd Karap- 
pL(f)dev eveTTLSarov, eTreira irdv to OLKobopL-qOev 
evhidXvTOV, vpels re TrXeiovs OapG-qoavTeg evrl ttjv 
TTpd^iv dXX-qXoLs TTpoTpoTTTj Kal ^oT^^cta yiveode, 
Kal Tols TToXepioLS TO vpieTepov Trapdonqpia Ta;(eajs 

52 /cAdcret rd cf)povrjpaTa. Kal rdx dv vplv dv- 
alpaKTOv TO KaTopdwpia yevoiro piovov Karap^a- 
390 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 45-52 

your position over their heads commanding the very 
air your enemies breathe would ensure a complete 
and speedy \'ictory. 

" I refrain on this occasion from an encomium on 
the warrior's death and the immortality reserved for 
those who fall in the frenzy of battle, but for any 
who think otherwise the worst I could Avish is that 
they may die in peace of disease, soul and body alike 
condemned to the tomb. For what brave man knows 
not that souls released from the flesh by the sword 
on the battlefield are hospitably welcomed by that 
purest of elements, the ether, and placed among the 
stars, and that as good genii and benignant heroes 
they manifest their presence to their posterity ; while 
souls which pine away in bodies wasted by disease, 
however pure they may be from stain or pollution, 
are obhterated in subterranean night and pass into 
profound oblivion, their life, their bodies, aye and 
their memory, brought simultaneously to a close ? 
But if men are doomed to an inevitable end and the 
sword is a gentler minister thereof than anv disease, 
surely it were ignoble to deny to the public service 
what we must surrender to fate. 

•• Thus far I have spoken on the assumption that 
any who may attempt this feat must necessarily 
perish. Yet the valiant may come safe through even 
the most hazardous of enterprises. For in the first 
place, the ruined wall will be easy to mount ; again, 
all that has been built up vn.\\ be easy to overthrow ; 
do you but summon courage for the task, with grow- 
ing numbers stimulating and supporting one another, 
and your determination v\ill soon break the enemy's 
spirit. Peradventure you may find the exploit blood- 
less, if you but begin ; for, though they will in all 

391 



JOSEPHUS 

fievoLS' ava^atvovras fJiev yap KcoXveiv TreLpdaovrai 
Kara to clko?, Xadovras he kol ^LaaafjLevovs dva^ 

53 ovK av VTTOGTalev en, Kav oXlyoL cjyddarjTe. top §e 
Karap^a/xevov alG-)(Vvoiiirjv dv el jjltj TrotT^crat/xt 
/^"qXajTOV iv rals eTTiKapTriais, koI 6 jjiev l^oiv dp^ei 
Tcjv vvv opLolajv, iiaKapLGTOL 8' OLKoXovOi^Gei Kal 
Tols TTeaovGi ra apLGrela." 

54 (6) Totaura rod Tltov Sue^LOVTOs ro /xev aAAo 
ttXtjOo? eSetcre rod klvS-uvov to [xeyeOos, rcov S' iv 
ralg OTreipais^ arparevofievajv Ha^vos rovvojia, 
yevog 0.770 Supta?, dvrjp Kal Kara X^^P^ '^^^ Kara 

65 ^vx'Qv dpiGTOS echdvq. Kairoi 7Tpo'Chd)V dv tls 
avrov ajTo ye rrjs GOJfjLanKrjg e^eojs ouS' eiKaZov 
CLvai GTpaTLOjrrjV eho^e' ^eAa? /xev yap r)v ttjv 
Xpoiav, LGx^o?, TTjv GapKa TreTnXrjiJLevog, dAA' 
evcvKei TLS rjpojLKrj 4'^XV ^^'^'^d) Gcofiari Kal rroXv 

66 rrjs iota? aXKrjg Grevorepco.^ Trpd)TO£ yovv dvaGrds 
" C7rtSt§a)/xt GOLy KatCTap/' ^^"f}) " TTpoOvfxwg 

57 efiavTov Trpajrog ava^atvo) ro reZxos- Kal evxofJLaL 
pLev pLOv rfj re lgxvl Kac rfj yvcvpLTj ttjv gtjv aKoXov- 
drJGai Tvx^v, el 3e vepLeGrjOelrjv Trjs eTTL^oXrjg, lgOl 
pLe pLrf TTraiGavra Trap* eXnlSa?, dAA' VTrep gov 

58 KpiGei Tov ddvarov fjpi]pL€vov." ravr elirdjv Kal 
rfj pLev apiGrepa X^^P'- '^^'^' ^^P^ov VTrep rrj? Ke(f)aXrjs 
TTpoavareivas * rfj Se^ta Se ro ^L(j)os GTiaodp^evos 
exojpei rrpog ro relxo£ rrepi copav pidXiora rijg 

59 -qpLepas eKrrjv. elrrovro S' avrw Kal rojv dXXojv 
kvoeKa pLovoL l^r]Xojral rijg dvopeias yevoptevoL' 

^ + Tis L Lat. (Zon. ut vid.). 

^ Lat. : yevvaiOTepu} (-Tepa) MSS. 

' Mf A"; LC : /jLTj fj.( the rest. 

* LVRC : dvareivas the rest. 

392 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 52-59 

probability endeavour to thwart your ascent, yet if 
unperceived you once force a way through, their 
resistance may well break down, though but a hand- 
ful of you elude them. As for him who leads the 
assault, I should blush were I not to make him an 
enviable man in the award of honours ; and while 
the sur\'ivor shall command those who are now his 
equals, the blessed meed of valour shall follow the 
fallen to the grave." " "^ 

(6) Thus harangued by Titus, the troops in general The hero 
were deterred by the gravity of the danger ; but scaies^the 
among those serving in the cohorts ° was one named '■'^'^^^' 
Sabinus, a native of Syria, who showed himself both 
in might of hand and in spirit the bravest of men. 
Yet anyone seeing him before that day and judging 
from his outward appearance would not have taken 
him even for a common soldier. His skin was black, 
his flesh shrunk and emaciated ; but within that 
slender frame, far too strait for its native prowess, 
there dwelt an heroic soul. He was the first to rise. 
" Caesar," he said, " to you I gladly offer myself; I 
am the first to scale the wall. x\nd I pray that my 
strength and resolution may be attended bv your 
good fortune.^ Yet, should some nemesis balk me 
of my intent, know that my failure will not surprise 
me, but that for your sake I have deliberately pre- 
ferred to die." Having spoken thus, with his left 
hand he extended his buckler over his head and with 
his right drew his sword and advanced towards the 
wall, almost exactly at the sixth hour of the day 
He was followed by eleven others, who alone were 
found to emulate his gallantry ; but the hero, ira- 



" Auxiliary troops. 
" For Titus as the favourite of Fortune cf. v. SS. 



893 



JOSEPHUS 

TTporjye 8e ttoAl' ndvrcjv 6 dvrjp opfifj tlvl SaLfiovicu 

60 XP^H'^'^O^' o^ (f)povpoL 8 aTTo rod reixov? Kar- 
rjKovrLLov re avrov? /cat ^eXeoi navrodev drreipois 
e^aXXov Kal rreVpas" i^aLGLOv? KareKyXiov, at eK 

61 T(Jov fjL€v evSeKa Trapeuvpav ivtovg, 6 he Ha^lvos 
OLTTavTcov TOLS dcjuepievois Kal Karayajvyvfievos vtto 
TcDv ^eXcov ov irporepov e7Tea)(e rrjv opjji-qv rj 
yeveadai re err^ aKpco Kal rpeipaadat rovs TToXe- 

62 fjLLovs' KararrXayevre? yap avrov r-qv re hvvapLiv 
OL 'lowSatot xat ro Trapdarr]iia rrjg ipvxT]?, dfia he 
Kal rrXeiovs dvaBe^rjKevaL ho^avres erpaTT-qaav. 

63 ev9a Srj KarafiefidiaLr dv rt? co? SOovepdv eiTL rats' 
dperals rrjv rvxrjv Kal KcoXvovoav del rd rrapddo^a 

64 rcjjv KaropOcofidrcov. 6 yovv dvqp ovrog, or 
€Kpdri](je rrj? eTn^oXrjS, eacfidX'q Kai Trraioa? rrpos 
rivL Tier pa TTprjvrjg eV avr-qv jjLerd pLeylarov ip6(f)ov 
Kare—eoev' eTTiGrpaSevres S' ol 'louSatot /cat Kar- 
ihovreg liovov re avrov Kal TreTrrojKora, rrdvrodev 

65 e^aXXov. 6 K es yovu Siavaordg Kal npoKaXvi/jd- 
fxevos rop dvpeov ro [lev rrpcorov TjiJLvvero Kal rroX- 

66 Xovs rcx)v TrX-qGLaodvrojv erptooev avdts S vtto ttXtj- 
dovs rpavpidrojv TraprJKe rr]v Se^cdv /cat reXos Trpiv 
dTTohovvai rrjv ijjvx'q^^ KarexoJGdi] rot? ^eXeoiv, avrjp 
d^LOS fxev dpeivovi ;^pr]0'^at St' dvhpeiav /cat rvxX}> 

67 TTeodiV he rfjs eTn^oXrj? dvaXoycu? . rcov he dXXcov 
r pel's p^ev rovs rjhr] Trpos rolg dKpotg ovras ovv- 
rplipavre? drreKreivav roXg Xldois, ol 8 o/crco rpavpua- 
Ttat Karaavpevres aveKopiodrjaav ets ro arparoTre- 
hov. ravra jjiev ovv Tplrr) pLTjvos Ilavep.ov ejrpdxQy]' 

68 (?) Merd S' r)[xepa£ hvo rcov TrpoKoirovvrcov 
rive's eTrl roZs ;)(oj^acrt ^vXdKcov eLKOGu GweXdovreg 
TT poGTTOLOVvr ai^ piev rov rod TrepLTrrov rdyp-aros 
394 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 59-68 

pelled by some preternatural stimulus, far outstripped 
them all. From the ramparts the guards hurled 
their javelins at the party, assailed them from all 
quarters with showers of arrows, and rolled down 
enormous boulders which swept away some of the 
eleven ; but Sabinus, facing the missiles and buried 
beneath the darts, yet never slackened his pace until 
he had gained the summit and routed the enemy. 
For the Jews, dumbfounded at his strength and in- 
trepidity and. moreover, imagining that more had 
ascended, turned and fled. And here one cannot His 
but censure Fortune as envious of feats of valour and untimely 
ever thwarting marvellous achievements. For at the 
moment when this hero had attained his object, he 
slipped and stumbling over a rock fell headlong upon 
it with a tremendous crash. The Jews, turning and 
seeing him alone and prostrate, assailed him from 
all sides. Rising upon his knee and screening him- 
self with his buckler, he for a while kept them at 
bay and wounded many of those who approached 
him ; but soon under his numerous wounds his arm 
was paralysed, and he was at length, before giving 
up his life, buried under the missiles : a man whose 
gallantry deserved a better fortune, but whose fall 
was in keeping \\'ith his enterprise. Of his comrades 
three after gaining the summit were crushed to death 
by the stones ; the remaining eight were drawn down 
wounded and conveyed to the camp. These events 
took place on the third of the month of Panemus. c. 22 July. 

(7) Two days later, twenty of the guards on 
outpost duty at the earthworks came together and 
enlisting the services of the standard-bearer of the 

* PA Syr.: irpoaKoKovvTai the rest. 



JOSEPHUS 

arrjfjLaiachopoy Kai bvo rwas tojv iu rat? tAats 
L7T77€aji' Kai GoXTTiKT-qv €va, Kara h ojpav ttjs 
WKTog ivdrrjv Trpoa^aivovGO' fxev tjctuxt] Std tojv 
epeiTTLcov €7TL TTjv AvTOJVLav, aTroG(i)d6avT€s be tov? 
TTpojTovg T(x)v <f)povpojv KOLfjLajfJLevov? KparovGL rov 
T€LXov? Kai rqj uaXTTLKTrj G-qpLaiveiv eKeXev'aav. 

69 TTpos o Tcov ixev aXXojv (f)vXdKOjv e^avaaraGLg t€^ 
ai(j>VLhios 'qv Kai (f^vyrj Trpiv riva ro rrXrjdos eTTiheZv 
TOJV eTTipep-qKorojv o re yap (popog Kau rj aaATnyg 
(^avraoiav avroZs rod ttXtjOos dva^e^rjKevai rroXe- 

70 p-Liov TTapeZ^e. Kataap he rov Grifxeiov KaraKovoas 
c^OTrAt^et r-qv re bvvafiiv did rdxovs^ Kai [lerd tojv 
■qyefiovojv Trpojrog dva^alvei rovg eTTcXeKrovg e-^^ajv. 

71 Kara—e(f)evy6rajv S' ^iovbalajv ci? ro lepov Kai 
avroL bid rrjg bicopvyog eiGeTTLTTTOv, t)v 6 lojdwiqs 

72 em rd x^jfiara rwv Poj/xatCDV vrrojpv^e. Kai 
btaGrdvreg* err " diiSorepcov ol GraGcaGral rwv 
rayfiarojv, rod re lojdvvov Kai rov ^ljjlojvo?, 
elpyov avrovg ovbep-iav ovre lgxvo? ovre rrpodvjiia^ 

73 eXXeirrovreg VTrep^oXijv rrepas yap dXojGeajg vrre- 
XdjJilSavov ro 'Pajfialovg rrapeXdelv et? ro dyiov, o br] 

74 KaKelvoi rod KpareZv dpxqv. ovpp-qyvvraL be -rrepl 
rds eLGobovg p-dx'q Kaprepd, rcov fiev KaraXaBeGOac 
Kai ro lepov eLG^LaLoiJLevajv, rcov 5' ^lovbalcov 

75 e^ojOovvrojv avrovg em rrjv AvrojVLav. Kai ra 
^eX-q fiev tjv dpi^orepois d^p'qora Kai rd bopara, 
GTraodfjievoL be rd ^L(^'q GvverrXeKovrOy Kai rrept riqv 
GVfL^oXT]v aKpirov -qv oTTorepcodev eKaGroL {jidxotvrOy 
TTe<f)vpjJievcov p.ev rwv dvbpwv Kai Trepi rrjv Grevo- 



^ irpoSaivoven Lat. (procedunt). ^ re L: om. the rest. 

^ Kara 'J-Xj? L- ^ 5La:a(jT-ivT€% L,. 

' iV L : d7r' ed. pr. (perhaps rightly). 

396 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 68-75 

fifth legion, two troopers from the squadrons " and a Another 
trumpeter, at the ninth hour of the night advanced part'v" 
noiselessly over the ruins towards Antonia. The c^2rjuiy!' 
first sentinels whom they encountered they cut down 
in their sleep and, taking possession of the wall, 
ordered the trumpeter to sound. Thereupon, the 
other guards suddenly started to their feet and fled, 
before any had noted what number had ascended ; 
for their panic and the trumpet-call led them to 
imagine that the enemy had mounted in force. 
Caesar, hearing the signal, promptly called the forces Fierce night 
to arms, and with the generals and his body of picked the Temple. 
men was the first to mount. The Jews had fled to 
the temple, into which the Romans also were pene- 
trating through the mine excavated by John to 
reach their earthworks.^ The rebels of both factions, 
those of John and of Simon, drawn up in separate 
divisions sought to stem their advance, with a pro- 
digious exhibition of strength and spirit ; for they 
held that the entry of the Romans into the sanctuary 
meant final capture, while the latter regarded it as 
the prelude to victory. So the armies clashed in 
desperate struggle round the entrances, the Romans 
pressing on to take possession also of the temple, 
the Jews thrusting them back upon Antonia. Missiles 
and spears were useless to both belligerents. Draw- 
ing their swords, they closed with each other, and 
in the melee it was impossible to tell on which side 
either party was fighting, the men being all jumbled 
" alae, auxiliary cavalry. " § 28. 

397 



JOSEPHUS 

•)(Copiav Sir^XXayiievajv, rrj? Se ^orj? dcrTjfidvTOV 
76 TTpodTTnTTOVUTjs 3td TO fxiyedos. (hovog re rjv 
eKarepajdev TroXvg, Kat rcov TreGovrcov ra re 
awfiara Kal rag TravoTrXlas Trarovvres eQpavov ol 
11 {jLaxofievoL. del S' €(/)' orrorepov ^pLoeiev peojv 6 
TToXepLos, rrapaKeXevGLS f-^ev -qv rcov TrXeoveKrovvrwv , 
olp.ojyal de rcov rperrofjieviov. ovre 8 at (f)vyaL 
rorrov etxov ovd^ at Stoj^et?, aAA ay;(c/j/xaAot 
pOTToi Kal ixeraKXiGets pLepLtypLev-qs iyivovro rrjs 

78 TTapard^ecDS ' 'i'ol? 8* epLTrpoaOev yivopievoL? tj rod 
dvi]GK€LV Tj rod Kreiveiv^ dvdyK-q Traprjv ovk ovgtjS 
dva(f)vyrj£' ol yap Kara vcorov rrpoGco ^latopLevoL 
Toijs acjjerepovs Trap' dp(i)olv ovbe rfj p-d^'Q p-er- 

79 aiXP-i-ov KariXeiTTOV. rrXeoveKrovvrcov he rcov 'lov- 
Salcov rots dvpLoT? tt^v 'PcD/xatojv epLTreupLav /cat 
KXivopuiviqs KaOdrrav -qbrj rrjs Trapard^ecos, 0.770 
ydp evdrrjs ojpag rrjs vvKros els e^bopirjv rijs 

80 TjpLepas e-oXe(Xovv yol p-ev ddpooL Kal rov rijs dXcooecos 
KLvhvvov exovres dvhpeias e^ooiov, VojpLaloL ok 
pLepeL rijs hvvdjiecos, ovrrco ydp eTrava^eBiJKeL rd 
rdyp-ara, KdKeivois erraveZxov ol p,axop.evoi rore, 
KpareZv rijs ^ Avrojvias diroxpij^ CTrt rod irapovros 
eooKei. 

81 (8) 'louAtai'os" he ns eKarovrdpxf]? rcov dno rrjs 
BidvvLas, OVK dcrrjpLOS cov dv-qp, c5v^ eyd> /car' 
eKelvov iGTop'qaa rov rroXepLov ottXcov r epLrreipia 
Kal dXKTJ Gcopiaros Kal fpvxi^ rrapaGrrjparL 

82 rrdvrojv dpiGros, opcov rovs 'PcopLaiovs ivSLhovras 
rjhrj Kal KaKcbs df-Lvvoptevovs, TrapetGr-qKeL he Ttrcp 
Kara rrjv ^Avrwvlav, rrponrjha Kal VLKcovras rjhr] 
Tovs 'louSatous" rpeVerat pLOVOs P-^XP^ '''V'^ '''^^ 

^ f} Tov KTeiV€LV fj Tov dvT](jKeiv L, Lat. 
398 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 75-82 

together and intermingled in the confined area, and 
their shouts, owing to the terrific din, falHng con- 
fusedly on the ear. There was great slaughter on 
either side, and the bodies and armour of the fallen 
were trampled down and crushed by the combatants. 
And always, in whichever direction rolled the veering 
tide of war, were heard the cheers of the victors, 
the wailings of the routed. Room for flight or 
pursuit there was none ; dubious turns of the scale 
and shifting of position were the sole incidents in 
the confused contest. Those in front had either to 
kill or to be killed, there being no retreat ; for those 
in rear in either army pressed their comrades forward, 
lea\'ing no intervening space between the combatants. 
At length, Jewish fury prevailing over Roman skill, Romans 
the whole line began to waver. For they had been ^ntonia! °" 
fighting from the ninth hour of the night until the 
seventh of the day ; the Jews in full strength, with 
the peril of capture as an incentive to gallantry, 
the Romans with but a portion of their forces, the 
legions upon whom the present combatants were 
dependent having not yet come up. It was therefore 
considered sufficient for the present to hold Antonia. 

(8) But one Julianus, a centurion in the Bithynian Fate of 
contingent, a man of some mark, and distinguished ^"o^^^r 
above all whose acquaintance I made during that Juiianus. 
war in the science of arms, strength of body and 
intrepidity of soul, seeing the Romans beginning to 
give way and offering but a sorry resistance, sprang 
forward — he had been standing beside Titus on 
Antonia — and single-handed drove back the Jews, 
already victorious, to the corner of the inner temple. 

2 C : 6^' the rest, the Lat. and Syr. versions apparently 
reading dpiaToy below. 

399 



JOSEPHUS 

ivSorepoj Upov yojvla?. echevye Se to TrXrjdos 
ddpovv, ovre rrjv lo-xyv ovre rrjv roXpiav avd pojir iv-qv 

83 VTToXapi^dvovTes • 6 Se hid fxeacov rcbv (TKeSavvv- 
piivcjv dXXore dXXrj hidrrajv e(j)6v€ve rovs KaraXafx- 
^avojjL€vov?, Kal ri]£ oifjeoj? iKelvrjs ovSev ovre to) 
KaiCTapt davjiaGLWTepov ovre rols dXXoLs Trapearr] 

84 (l)piKUjhiGrepov . idicoKero 8 dpa xat avros vtto 
Trj<^ eliJLappievrjs, "^v d[JLrjXOii^ov Siacfivyelv dvr]Tov 

85 ovra. rd ydp VTTobrjfiara TreTrapfieva ttvkvoZs Kai 
o^eoLv TjXois €XOJV, djGrrep rcov dXXojv arparioj- 
Tojv eKo.GTOs, Kal fcard XidoGrpcorov rpe^^cov vtt- 
oXiGddveL, TTCGcov S V7TTL0S fxerd fjL€yLGTOV rrjs TTav- 

86 orrXlag tJx^'^ rov? (l)€vyovras erriGrpec^ei. /cat rchv 
p.kv drro ttjS 'Avrcuvta? 'Poj^atcur ripdi] ^orj irepl 
rdvhpi SeLGavTCDV, ot Se louSatot TrepiGravres 
avrov dOpooL rots Te ^vgtois Kai ralg popi(^aiais 

87 Trdi'Todev eVatoy. o Se ttoXvv p.kv rep dvpeo) GtS-qpov 
l^eh^x^TOy TToXXaKLs Se dvaGrrjvai TreipdGas vtto 
rod ttXi^Oovs tojv TVirrovrajv averpaTrr], xrat /cet- 

88 jLtevos" S' dp.ojs evvrre toj ^L(f}€L ttoXXovs' ovhe ydp 
dvr^peOrj rax^-tos, toj re Kpavei Kai rw dwpaKL 
Tr€(f)paypiivos Trdvra rd Kaipia rtpos G<^ayriv Kai 
rov au;)(eVa GvveXKOJV p-^^p^ KOTrropevojv avrcp 
rcov dXXcov fieXcov Kal pLTjSevos 7TpoGap.vvai roX- 

S9 fiojvrog ividcoKe. heivov be Trddos etV/^et Katcrapa 
dvhpos ovrojs evaperov Kai ev oipet roGovrwv 
<f)Ovevopevov' Kal avrov fiev 6 roTTOS SteVAete 
^OTjdelv deXovra, rovs Bwap-evovs Se KaraTrXr^^Ls. 

90 ^lovXtavos p,ev ovv iroXXd hvGOavar-qGas Kal rojv 
KreLvovrojv dXiyovs aTrXrjyas KaraXirrcDV /xoAt? 
aTTOGcjidrrerai, p^eyiGrov ov Trapd Pcu/xatot? Kai 
KatCTapt pLOvov dXXd Kal Trapd rols TroXepLtoLs KXeos 
400 



JEWISPI WAR, VI. 82-90 

The multitude fled in crowds before him, regarding 
such strength and courage as superhuman ; while 
he, dashing this way and that through the midst of 
their scattering ranks, slew all whom he overtook, 
and no spectacle that met the eye of Caesar was 
more wonderful than that, nor more terrifying to 
Ms foes. Yet, after all, he too was to be dogged by 
Destiny, whom no mortal man may escape. For, 
wearing, like any other soldier, shoes thickly studded 
N\ith sharp nails," while running across the pavement 
he slipped and fell on his back, with a loud clash of 
armour, which made the fugitives turn. A cry of 
concern for the hero went up from the Romans in 
Antonia, while the Jev.s crowding round him struck 
at him from all sides with spears and swords. Many 
a weapon he parried with his buckler, many a time 
he tried to rise but was thrown back by the number 
of his assailants, and, prostrate though he was, many 
a one did he stab with his sword ; for, being pro- 
tected in ever}' vital part by helmet and cuirass and 
drawing in his neck, he was not quickly dispatched. 
At length, when all his other limbs were hacked 
and no comrade ventured to his aid, he succumbed. 
Caesar was deeply moved at the fall of so valiant a 
soldier, butchered too under the eyes of so many ; 
and though anxious personally to assist him, he was 
debarred by his situation, while those who might 
have done so were withheld by terror. Thus 
Julianus, after a hard struggle with death and letting 
few of those who slew him go unscathed, was with 
difficulty slaughtered, leaving behind him the highest 
reputation, not only with the Romans and Caesar, 

" " studded with nails " : the Greek phrase is Homeric, 
//. i. 246, xi. 633. 

401 



JOSEPHUS 

91 KaTaAiTTOJv lovhaloi 8e /cat tov v£Kp6v apTraaa- 
fievoi TraXih' rous 'Pojfiatovg rperrovraL Kal Kara- 

92 KXeiovGLV els rrjv WirojVLav. rjyojVLOivro he e^ 
avTcov eTTLCT-qiiajs Kara ravr-qv ttjv ixdyjiv 'AAe^d? 
jLter TLS Kai YvchdaXog rod ^lojdvvov rdypLaroSy eK 
oe Tojv rrepl ^Ifiajva MaAa;(tas" re Kal 6 tov 
^\.ep-(jDvos ^\ovhas, Kal Scoca vlos 'la/cojjSos" tojv 

IhovpLaicov rjyepLcov, tcov he t-qXojTOjv dheX(f)ol hvo, 
Traloes Apt, HipLajv Te Kal ^lovhrjs, 

93 (ii. Ij 1 tro? he rols fJiev cruv avro) orpaTLcvrais 
KaTaoKaTTTeLv Trpouera^e tovs dep-eXiovs tt^? 

\vTcovias Kal ttj hvvdp.eL Trdcrfj pahiav ttjv dvohov 

94 evTpeTTiCeiv, avTog he tov ^Icocr-qTrov TTapaoTTjcd' 
fievo?' erreTTvoTO yap err" eKeivqs rrjs -qpLepas, 
YlavepLOV 5' Tjv eTrraKatheKdTT] , tov evheXe^LopuOV 
KaXovpevov dvhpchv^ aTTopla htaXeXoLTTevai toj Oed) 

95 Kai TOV drjpLOV errl tovtoj heivajg dOvpLe'iv Xeyeiv toj 

lojdvvj) rrdXiv eKeXevaev a Kal npoTepov, ojs el Kal 
Ti£ avTov epojs KaKos ^X'^^ '^^^ p-dxeoBaL, rrpo- 
eXOovTL pLed^ OGOJV ^ovXeTai —oXepielv e^elrf hl^o. 
TOV GvvaTToXeoOai T-qv re ttoXlv Kal tov vaov avTco, 
jjLrjKeTL pLevTOL pLLalveiv to dytov pu-qhe els tov deov 
TTA-qpipieXelv , rrapelvai S' avTO) Tag eTTiXeXoirrvlas 
dvGias eKTeXelv St' cov dv eVtAe^Tyrat "lovhalojv. 

96 KaL o lojorjTros J OJS dv elrj p.rj tw 'lojavi^] piovov 
aXXa Kal toIs ttoXXoIs ev en-qKooj crrds'/ TCt re tov 

97 KatCTapo? hirjyyeXXev i^pat^ojv, Kal TToXXd npoa- 

^ Rea(] probably apvC.v. 

' i^riv PAML: ii^elvai De.stinon. 

^ om. P; for text cf. iii. 471. 

<> iv, 235. 

" Perhaps =Jaini=, as read by cod. C. 
* The daily, morning and eveninir sacrifice, Heb. Tamid -. 
402 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 91-97 

but even with his enemies. The Jews, after snatch- 
ing up the body, again routed the Homans and shut 
them up in Antonia. On their side those who dis- 
tinguished themselves in this engagement were, in 
John's army, a certain Alexas and Gyphthaeus ; in 
Simon's division Malacliias, Judas, son of Merton, 
A\'ith James, son of Sosas," commander of the 
Idumaeans ; and of the Zealots two brothers, Simon 
and Jude«:, sons of Ari.^ 

(ii. 1) Titus now ordered the troops that were Antonia 
with him to raze the foundations of Antonia and to [he^^cround. 
prepare an easy ascent for the whole army. Then, August 
ha\inff learnt that on that day — it was the seven- ^■^- '^• 

P r T^ ^ ^^' 1 • i -n r Cessation o 

teenth oi ranemus — the so-called contmuai sacrince ^ the daiij- 
had for lack of men ^ ceased to be offered to God -^acriiices. 
and that the people were in consequence terribly 
despondent, he put Josephus forsvard with in'^truc- 
tions to repeat to John ^ the same message as before. 
namely " that if he was obsessed by a criminal 
passion for battle, he was at liberty to come out 
with as many as he chose and fight, without involving 
the city and the sanctuary in his own ruin ; but that 
he should no longer pollute the Holy Place nor sin 
against God ; and that he had his permission to 
perform the interrupted sacrifices ^^ith the help of 
such Jews as he might select." 

Josephus, standing so that his words might reach Josephus 
the ears not only of John but also of the multitude, johlflnd 
delivered Caesar's message in Hebrew,-^ ^^'ith earnest the Jews. 

cf. Numb, xxviii. 6. The cessation of the dtiily offering was 
one of the five calamities associated by Jewish tradition with 
the 17th of the month Tammuz (Panemus in the Syrian 
calendar), Talm. Bab. Taanith, iv. 6. 

^ Or (with corrected text) "lambs." ' J. of Gischala. 

^ i.e. Aramaic ; cf. Acts xxi. 40, xxii. 2. 

403 



JOSEPHUS 

rjVTL^oXei <j>€LGaadaL rfj? Trarpihos /cat Stacr/ceSaCTai 
rov vaov yevo/jievov rjSrj to TTvp, rov? r' eVayt- 

98 ofJLOvs OLTroBovvai ro) Oeo). rrpo? ravra rov Brjfjiov 
fjLev Tjv Karij(f)€La Kal Giyq, ttoXXo. S' o rvpawos 
XoLdop-qdets re rqj ^IcocrrjTTCp Kal KaTapaGap.evos to 
T€XevTalov TTpoaidrjKev, cog ovk av rrore heioeiev 

99 aXojdLV deov yap VTrapx^-iv Tqv ttoXlv. Kai 6 

lojG-qTTog rrpos ravT dveKpayev " ttolvv yovv 
Kadapav ro) deep rerrjpijKa? avrrjv, dp.LavTov Se 
fjL€V€L TO ayiov, els ov r' iXTriLeis Gvp.p.ay(OV ovhkv 
r]G€^-qGaSy tols 8' iOlpLOVs dvGias aTToXauBdveL . 
1CM3 Kav fiev gov tls d(f)€Xr] rrjv Kad^ rffiepav rpo^r^v, 
aGe^€Grar€y rovrov ^yrjGaL^ rroXefiLov, avrov 8' 6v 
TTJs aiajVLOV dpr]GK€Lag eGreprjGa? deov eXTTL^etg 

101 Gv/jifiaxov ^X^^^ ^^ "^V TToXefjicp; Kal 'Poj/Ltatots" 
ra? afiap-rias avaTid-qs, ol P-^XP^ ^^^ K-qhovraL 
TUiv "qpierepajv vopLcov Kal rag vtto gov hiaKorreiGas 

102 OvGias dTTohihoGOaL rep deep ^idt^ovrai ; rig ovk dv 
Grevd^eie Kal KaroXo^vpairo rijg Trapaho^ov pLera- 
^oXrjg rrjv ttoXlv, el ye dXX6(f)vXoL p.ev Kal TToXepnoi 
Tr]v GTju dGe^eiav err av opOovvr at , gv h 6 \ovhaios, 
o rolg voptoLs evrpa(j)eLs, KdKelvcov Trpds avrovs 

103 y-^'TJ X'^^^'^^'^'^P'^^ > dXXd roL, Icodwrj, /cat p.era- 
vofJGat p.ev e/c /ca/cojv ovk acGXpdv ev eGxdroig /cat 
KaXov VTTobeiypLa ^ovXopievcp GojLeiv rrjv Trarpiha 

104 GOL rrpoKeirai ^aGiXevs \ovhaLOjv \exovias, 6s 
TTore GrparevGavTL rep Ba^vXcjvLcp 8t auroy e/ccov 
e^eGr-q Trplv dXchvat rrjs rroXeajs Kal pterd yeveds 
aixp-O-XiOGLav vrrepLeivev eOeXovGiov vrrep rov p.rj 
irapahovvai ravra TToXepiois rd dyia Kal rov oIkov 

^ rjyrjcrei C Lat. : rriy)<^'n VR. 
4()-i 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 97-104 

appeals to them " to spare their country, to disperse 
the flames that were already licking the sanctuary 
and to restore to God the expiatory sacrifices." " His 
words were received by the people in dejection and 
silence ; but the tyrant,^ after many invectives and 
imprecations upon Josephus, ended by saying that 
he " could never fear capture, since the city was 
God's." 

At this Josephus cried aloud : " Pure indeed 
have you kept it for God I The Holy Place too 
remains undefiled ! Your looked-for Ally has suffered 
no impiety from you and still receives His customary 
sacrifices ! Most impious ^\Tetch, should anyone 
deprive you of your daily food, you would consider 
him an enemy ; and do you hope to have God, whom 
you have bereft of His everlasting worship, for your 
Ally in this war ? And do you impute your sins 
to the Romans, who, to this day, are concerned 
for our laws and are trying to force you to restore 
to God those sacrifices which you have interrupted ? 
Who would not bewail and lament for the city 
at this amazing inversion, when aliens and enemies 
rectify your impiety, while you, a Jew, nurtured in 
her laws, treat them more harshly even than your 
foes ? 

" Yet, be sure, John, it is no disgrace to repent of 
misdeeds, even at the last ; and, if you desire to save 
your country, you have a noble example set before 
you in Jeconiah, king of the Jews. He, when of old 
his conduct had brought the Babylonian's army 
upon him, of his own free will left the city before it 
Mas taken, and with his family endured voluntary 
captivity, rather than deliver up these holy places 

« Of. i. 32 note. " John. 

4-05 



JOSEPHUS 

105 Tou deou TTcpuSetv (fyXeyofjievov. Std tovto Xoyos 
T€ avTOv rrpos arravrcDV lovSaiajv Upo? Vfxvel^ Kal 
fjLvrjfi-q peovaa 8t aiojvos dec vea rots' i7nyLvo[.L€i'Oi£ 

106 TTapaScSojcnv dOdvarov. KaXov, co ^Icodvvr], vrro- 
heiyiia, Kav TTpoafj klvSwos' iyd> Se uol Kal TrjV 

107 arro Vojjiaicov Gvyyva)fxr]v iyyvwpai. iJLeiJivr]ao 8' 
CDS' OLio^vXos ojv TTapaivo) Kal 'loL'Satos' cov irr- 
ayyeXXofjLai, Kai xp'^ GKOTrelv rts 6 avjji^ovXevcov Kal 
TTodev. [jiTj yap eycoye 7tot€ yevoLfjLTjv l^cov ovtcos 
aiXixdXajTO? , Iva rravucoyiai^ rod yevovs t) tcov 

108 TrarpLcov emXadajfiaL. TrdXtv dyavaKrels Kai KeKpa- 
yds fjLOi Xoihopovpievos, d^ioj ye Kal x^XeTTwrepatv , 
OS avTLKpvg elixapiievqs n rrapaiva) Kal rovg vtto 

109 rov deov ^idt,op.ai KaraKpiTOVs aojl^eiv. rts" ovk 
oloev ras rcov TraXaiajv TrpocjirjTOJV dvaypa(f)as /cat 
rov eTTipperrovra rfj rX-qpiovi iroXei XPV^H-^^ V^l 
eveGTcora; rore yap dXaja'iv avri]? TrpoelTTOv, 

110 orav 6iJLO(f)vXov rig dp^Tj (j)6vov. rcov vperepcjjv 
8e TTTCjOfidTajv ovx 'Q ttoXls Kal rd lepdv Se rrdv 
TTerrXi^pwrai; deds dpa, Beds avrds eVdyet [lera 

PojjjLaLOJv KaOdpcTLOv^ avro) TTvp Kal ttjv tooovtcov 
liiao jidrcxiv yepiOVGav ttoXlv dvapTrdt^ei." 

111 (2) Tavra Xeyojv d IworrjTTOS fJ^er ddvpfjLOV /cat 

^ dwuvel L. 

- ora. Lat. ; possibly corrupt. 

' C, cf. Lat. lustrationis : Kadapaiv the rest. 

" Amplification of the narrative in 2 Kings xxiv. 12, " And 

Jelioiachin the king of Jiidah went out to the king of Babylon, 
he and his mother and his servants and his princes and his 
officers : and the king of Babvlon took him," etc. ; cf, Jos. 
Ant. X. 100. 

* Reference uncertain, but cf. Orac. Sibyll. iv. 115 fl". 
ifj^et \at ^oXvfxoKTi kclkt] TroXejxoio ^i^eXXa j 'IraXdOey, njbv de dtod 

406 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 105-111 

to the enemy and see the house of God in flames.^ 
Therefore is he celebrated in sacred story by all 
Jews, and memory, in a stream that runs down the 
ages ever fresh, passes him on to posterity immortal. 
A noble example, John, even were it dangerous to 
follow ; but I can warrant you even pardon from the 
Romans. Remember, too, that I who exhort you 
am your countryman, that I who make this promise 
am a Jew ; and it is right that you should consider 
who is your counsellor and whence he comes. For 
never may I live to become so abject a captive as to 
abjure my race or to foi'get the traditions of my 
forefathers ! 

" Once again are you indignant and shout your 
abuse at me ; and indeed I deserve even harsher 
treatment for offering advice in fate's despite and 
for struggling to save those whom God has con- 
demned. Who knows not the records of the ancient 
prophets and that oracle which threatens this poor 
city and is even now coming true ? For they fore- 
told that it would then be taken whensoever one 
should begin to slaughter his own countrymen.^ 
And is not the city, aye and the whole temple, filled 
with your corpses } God it is then, God Himself, 
who with the Romans is bringing the fire to purge 
His temple and exterminating a city so laden with 
pollutions." 

(2) At these words, spoken with lamentation and 

jxeyav e^aXaird^ei. | rjULKa 8' acppoavvrjaL TreTroidores evae^iriv re | 
pi4/0vaiv aTvyepous re reXovai (povovs irepi vijov. I Kal tot air' 
'lTa\L7]s . . . (an allusion follows to Nero's flight and the 
Roman civil war). . . . j eV Zvpirjs 8' -rj^et 'Pw^t??? Trp',uos, 8s irvpl 
vribv ! aviii4j\e^as SoXp/xwc ktX. The fourth book of Sibylline 
Oracles dates from c. a.d. 80, and is therefore almost con' 
temporary with the Jewish War of Josephus. 

407 



JOSEPHUS 

112 haKpvojv Xvyfio) ttjv (f)ajvrjv iveKorrr]. Kal 'Pco/zatot 
fxev coKTCipdv re rod irddovs Kal rrjs TrpoaLpeaeajs 
avrov iOavpLaaav, ot Se nepL rov la)dvvT]v nap- 
(jj^vvovTO fiaXXop 6771 Tovs Pco/xatows" CTTidviiovvTes 

113 iyKparels yeveadai KaKeivov. rcbv ye /xTyv evyevcbv 
7ToXXov£ eKLV-qoev 6 \6yos, Kal rive? fxev oppcu- 
Sovvres rd? (/)uAa/<:a,s' rcbv uraGiaoTiJov Kara x^^P^-v 
efxevov, aTTcoXeiav [levroL G(f)(jijp re avrcijv Kal ttjs 
TToXeojs KareyvojKecjav y elul 8 ot KaipocfjvXaKTJ- 
oavres dheiav dvaxcop'qoews rrpos rovs 'PcofiaLovs 

114 Kare(^vyov . d)v r]Gav dp^^epeZs /xev lojorjTTOS re 
Kal ^IrjGovs, viol 8' dpxi-^peojv rpels p-ev 'Icr/xaT^Aou 
rod KaparoprjOevTos ev ¥s.vprjvrj, /cat reGGapes 
^[ardiov Kal els erepov Mar^tou, StaSpa? perd ttjv 
rov TTarpos drrajXeiav, ov 6 rov Tiojpa HipuDV 
dneKreLvev gvv rpiGLV viols, a>S irpoeiprirai. 
TToAAot 8c Kal rojv dXXa)vY evyevcov rols dp^i-epevGL 

115 Gvppere^dXovro . Kataap 8 avrovs rd re d'AAa 
(f)iXo(^p6vcos ehe^aro Kal yuvcvGKWv dXXocf)vXoLS 
ijOeGLv drjSrj rrjv hiarpt^r^v e^eiv drreTTepipev avrovs 
els T6<j)vav, rews eKel rrapaivcav peveiv aTTohcoGeiv 
yap eKdGrcp rds Kryjaeis Kara G^oX-qv arro rov 

116 TToXe/jLOV yevofxevos. ol pev ovv els to hodev 
rroXixvLOV jxerd TrdGTjs aa^aXeias avex^jpovv dapevof 
prj <f)aivopeva)v 8 avrcov hie<^rjpLiGav ol CTraotaorat 
rrdXiv d)s drroGc^ayelev vtto 'Pa)[jiaLa)v ol avropoXoi, 
Sr]Xov6rL rovs Xolttovs aTTorperrovres rep <f)6^a) 

^ om. C Lat. 

" Possibly Ishmael, son of Phabi, whose tenure of the 
high-priesthood and detention in Rome by Nero as a hostage 
are mentioned elsewhere, A. xviii. 34, xx. 179, 194 f. 

408 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 112-116 

tears, Josephus's voice broke down with sobs. Even Effect of 
the Romans pitied him in his emotion and admired deser?fou 
his resolution ; but John and his followers were only °^'^.^°y 
the miore exasperated against the Romans, being nobles 
eager to get Josephus also into their power. Many, 
however, of the upper class were moved by the speech. 
Some of these, indeed, intimidated by the rebels' 
guards, remained where they were, though convinced 
that they themselves and the city were both doomed 
to destruction ; but there were others who, watching 
their opportunity for escaping in safety, made off to 
the Romans. Among these were the chief priests 
Joseph and Jesus, and certain sons of chief priests : 
namely three sons of Ishmael " who was beheaded 
in Cyrene, four of Matthias, and one son of another 
Matthias ^ ; the last had escaped after the death of 
his father, who was slain with three of his sons by 
Simon, son of Gioras, as related above.*' Many otliers 
also of the aristocracy went over with the chief 
priests. Caesar both received them with all other '^ 
courtesy, and, recognizing that they Mould find life / 
distasteful amidst foreign customs, dispatched them i 
to Gophna,*^ advising them to remain there for the 
present, and promising to restore every man's pro- 
perty, so soon as he had leisure after the war. They J 
accordingly retired, gladly and in perfect security, 
to the small town assigned ; but when nothing more 
was seen of them, the rebels again ^ circulated a 
report that the deserters had been slaughtered by 
the Romans, with the evident intention of deterring 

" Matthias, son of Boethus. 

" V. 527-531. 

•* Jufna^ some 12 miles due N. of Jerusalem. 

« Cf. V. 1-5^^. 

40.Q 



JOSEPHUS 

117 OLaoLopa(7K€Lv. rjvvoro S' cu? Koi irporepov avrolg 
TO 77avovpyq[jLa- Trpog Kaipov €7T€G)(€0rjaav yap 
vrro rod deov? avrojioXelv. 

118 (S) AvOls d oj? avrxKaXeuas rovg avhpas arro 
T7]£ T6(!>va Titos' eVe'Aeucre p,€ra rod 'lojai^Trov 
TTepieXOovras ro t€L)(0£ 6(f)6rjvaL roj h-qyupy 7tX€lgtol 

119 npog rovs Poj/xatous" €(j>evyov. yivojjievoL' S' 
adpooL Kal TTpo TOW 'PajpLalajv LaTdp.€voL /xer' 
OLpLOjyrjs /cat daKpvcov LKeTCvov Tovg crTaataGrrd? 
TO fxev TtpcjjTOv oXrj tovs 'Pco/xatous- di^aadai rfj 

120 TToXet Kal ttjv jraTplSa acbaai [ttoXlvI,^ el be {jltj, 
rod ye lepov TiavTws VTre^eXdeZv Kal pvoaadaL tov 
vaov avTOLS' ov yap av ToXpLijaai 'Pco/xatou? ijltj 
fiera fieyLUT7]s avdyKiqs KaTa(f)Xe^aL to. dy la. 

121 TOUTOLS pidXXoV duTe(f)LXoV€LKOVV , Kal TToXXd ^Xd- 

G(prifia Tols avTOjjLoXoL? avTLKeKpayoreg irrl rcuv 
cepcov TTvXdjp Tov^ re o^v^eXels Kal KararreXTas 
KaL XlOo^oXovs fJLrjxavdg hieoTTfaav ^ ojs to kvkXu) 
ixev Lepov auo ttXiJOov? veKpow TrpooeoiKevat 

122 TToXvavdpLcp, tov 8e vaov avTov c^povpico. toZs S' 
aytots" Kal d^dTois /xera twv ottXcdv eLaemjSojv 
depfids eTL ra? ^elpas e^ 6iJiO(f)vXa)v e^ovTes 
(povojv, Kal TrpovKoifjav et? togoutov TrapavofJiias, 
ojg9 TjV dv elKos dyavdKTTjGLv yeveGdat ^lovdalcov, 
et PojjialoL raur' e^v^plloLev* etV aurous", TavT-qv 
eivat TTapa Pajp.aLOJV TOTe rrpos TouSatou? dae- 

123 ^ovvTas els Ta ihia. tojv p,ev ye GTpaTLOJTcbv ovk 

eGTLv OGTLS ov fjLeTa (f)pLKrjs ets" TOV vaov d(f)edjpa 

^ LC (cf. vi. 230, 321) : iravodpyov the rest. 
- "/evjjXivoL P. 

' om. Lat., probably rightly : ttoXlv was perhaps written 
as a gloss on Trarftioa and then corrected to TrctXiv. 
^ e^v^pL^ov P. 

4lU 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 117-123 

the rest from attempting to escape. The ruse, as 
before.^ was successful for a while, terror checking 
desertions. 

(3) Subsequently, however, Titus recalled these who appeal 
men from Gophna and ordered them to go round ,.ountrymen 
the ramparts with Josephus and let the people see ^° ^ 
them ; whereupon great numbers fled to the Romans. 
Grouped together and standing before the Roman 
lines, the refugees, with lamentation and tears, im- 
plored the rebels, as their best course, to admit the 
Romans freely to the city and to save the fatherland ; 
or, failing that, at all events to withdraw from the 
temple and to preserve the sacred edifice for them, 
since the Romans would never venture, except under 
the direst necessity, to set fire to the holy places. 
These appeals only excited fiercer opposition, and 
retorting by heaping abuse upon the deserters, they 
ranged their quick-firers,^ catapults, and halUstae 
above the holy gates, so that the surrounding temple- 
court from the multitude of dead resembled a common 
burial-ground and the temple itself a fortress. Into 
those hallowed and inviolable precincts they rushed 
in arms, their hands yet hot with the blood of their 
countrymen ; and to such lengths of crime did they 
proceed, that the indignation which the Jews might 
naturally have displayed had the Romans inflicted 
such wanton outrages upon them, was now mani- 
fested by the Romans against the Jews, for pro- 
faning their own sacred places. Of the soldiers, 
indeed, there was not one who did not regard the 
temple with awe and reverence and pray that the 

» Cf. V. 453 f. " Or " scorpions." 

VOL. Ill O 41] 



JOSEPHUS 

Kal 7TpOG€KVV€L TOUS" T€ XrjGTCLS r]V)(€TO TTplv OLV- 

■qKecjTOV TTadovs (JLeravorjaai. 

124 (i) Ttros" Se VTTepTradrjGas TraXiv e^ojveLhit,e rovs 
TTepl Tov ^lojOLVv-qv, Xeycxjv " dp ovx viiels, cL 
{jLLapcoraTOL, rov hpvcf)aKrov rovrov Trpov^dXeade 

125 Tojv aylcov ; ovx ^H-^^? ^^ '^cl? eV avro) GTTJXas 
StearrjcraTe, ypoLpLjiaGLV 'I^XXtjvlkoXs Kal -qpieripois 
Kexo.pa.ypevas t^ pLr^Seva to yeiaiov VTrep^aiveLv' 

126 TTapayyeXXcLV^ ; ovx VH'^^^ ^^ tov? vnep^avrag vpuv 
avaipelv eTrerpeipap-ev, Kav 'PcopLaLog ns fj ; ri ovv 
vvv, dXirrjpLOi, Kal veKpovs €v avrw KaraTTaTelre ; 
ri he rov vaov at/xart ^evto Kai iyx^jpiO) (fyvpere; 

127 [jLaprvpofiaL Oeov? iyoj Trarplovg Kal el ns i(f)eu)pa 
TTore rovhe rov ;(C(jpov, vvv jxev yap ovk olofiau, 
fiaprvpopai Se Kal arparidv [tt^vJ* efxr^v Kal rovs 
Trap" ipol ^lovhalov? Kal Vfids avrovg, d>s ovk iyoj 

128 ravd^ vp-ds dvayKdioJ piaLveiv. Kav dXXd^rjre rrjs 
TTapard^eojg rov rorrov, ovre tt poaeXe-ooer ai rts" 
'Pco/Lxatcuv rots' dylois ovr evv^pLaei, nqp-qaoj he 
rov vaov vpuv Kal prj OeXovat. 

129 (o) Taura rov ^Icoa-qTrov hiayyeXXovros eV rod 
Katoapos", ol XrjGral Kai 6 rvpavvos ovk arr 
evvolas dXXd Kara heiXlav yiveoOai rds rrapa- 

130 KXijaecs hoKovvres vrreprjcjidvovv. Tiros he ws ovre 
OLKrov eavrcov rovs dvhpas ovre (^eihoj" rov vaov 
7TOiovp.evovs eojpa, trdXiv Trpos iroXepiov aKOJv 

131 excopei. irdaav ptev ovv rrjv hvvapLLV eTrdyeiv avrols 
ovx oToy re rjv prj x^^povpevrjv rev roTTOJ, rpiaKovra 
S' eTTiXe^as d(f>^ eKaorrjs eKarovrapxlo-S rovs 

1 -f a MV2 rsj MViRC). 

* + dWoyevi) Destinon (cf. v. 194), 
3 7rapa77e\\ei MVKC. 

412 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 123-131 

brigands might relent ere it met with irretrievable 
calamity. 

(4) Titus, yet more deeply distressed, again up- unavailing 
braided John and his friends. "Was it not you," appeal of 
he said, " most abominable wretches, who placed this ''"^' 
balustrade ° before your sanctuary ? Was it not you 

that ranged along it those slabs, engraved in Greek 
characters and in our own, proclaiming that none 
may pass the barrier ? And did we not permit you 
to put to death any who passed it, even were he a 
Roman ? Why then, you miscreants, do you now 
actually trample corpses underfoot within it ? Why 
do you defile your temple with the blood of foreigner 
and native ? I call the gods of my fathers to witness 
and any deity that once watched over this place — 
for now I beUeve that there is none — I call my 
army, the Jews within my hnes, and you yourselves 
to witness that it is not I who force you to pollute 
these precincts. Exchange the arena of conflict for 
another and not a Roman shall approach or insult 
your holy places ; nay, I will preserve the temple 
for you, even against your ^vill." 

(5) This message from Caesar being transmitted Roman 
through Josephus, the brigands and their tyrant,^ attack 
attributing his exhortations rather to cowardice than watched 
goodwill, treated them with contempt. Titus, there- iron/ ^'^ 
upon, seeing that these men had neither compassion "^^ntonia. 
for themselves nor regard for the temple, once more 
reluctantly resumed hostilities. It was impossible "' 

to bring up his whole force against them owing to <,,' 
the confined nature of the ground ; he therefore- / 
selected thirty of the best men from each century, 
" V. 193 f. " John of Gischala. 

* L: cm. the rest. ^ 0ei5u) riva LVllC. 

413^ 



JOSEPHUb 

dpLGTOV? Kal rot? ;^tAtap;(ots' avd ;\;tAtous" Trapa^ov?, 
rovTOJV 8* €7nrd^as rj-yejioi^a YiepedXLOV, eTn^ioOai 
irpoa€ra^€ rat? (fivXaKol? Trepl ojpav rrj? vvktos 

132 ii'drrjv. ovra he Kal avrov iv rol? ottXol? Kal 
GvyKara^aiveLv TrapecTKevaafxevov ol re ^t'Aot 8ta 
TO fieyedog rod klvBvvov Kareaxov Kal rd rrapd 

133 Tojv -qyep-cvajv \ey6p.eva' TrXeiov yap avrov avvueiv 
€<f>aGav eVt rr^s" W^VTCovias KaOeLofxevov /cat rrju 
p.dxrjv dyajvoderovvra toIs GrparidjTais 7} €t Kara- 
/Sa? 7TpoKLv8vv€voL- TrdvTa? yap opojvros KatVapos" 

134 aya^ov? TToXefiLGrds eaeGdai. tovtol? TreLadeis 
Katcrap Kal 3t' ev rovro rot? crrpartajTats" utto- 
pL€V€LV €L7Tcoi>, Lva KpivTj rd? dp^rds avTcov Kal fx-qre 
rcov ayadwv rt? dyepaarog pi-qre rcbv evavTLOJV 
arLpLOjprjTO£ hiaXdOrj, yevrjrai S' avroTrrrj? /cat 
fiaprvs aiTavTwv 6 /cat roO /coAa^etv /cat rou 

135 rip.dv KVpLos, rovg pLev irrl ttjv Trpd^Lv €7T€p.7T€ KaO 
Tjv ojpav TTpoelprjraL, TrpoeXdojv 8' avros els to 
evKaroTTTov diro t^s *AvTa)VLas e/capa8o/cet ro 
p.4XXov. 

136 {Q) Ov pLTjv OL ye Tre/^^^eWe? rovg c^vXaKas evpov 
KOLpLOjpLevovs, d)£ 7]X7TLGav, dXX dvaTTTjhrjGacn p-era 
Kpavyrjs evdecxj? GwerrXeKovro- irpos 8e rr]V ^07]v 
Tojv eKKOLTOvvTOjv evSoOev ol XoLTTol Kard arZ(j)OS 

137 e^edeov. tojv pLev 817 Trpcorwv rd? 6pp.ds e£- 
eBexo^^o 'PojpLaLOL' TrepteVtTrrov 8' ol p-er eKeivovs 
r<2) or(f)€r€paj rdypLan, Kal ttoXXoI toIs olk€lol£ co? 

138 TToXepiioLS €)(pa)vro. rrjv p,ev ydp 8td ^orj? €7tl- 
yvujGLv Tj Kpavyrj avyxvOetaa Trap' d/>t(/)otv, rrjv 8e 8t 



• Sextus Cerealis Vettulenus, commander of Legion V, 
iii. 310, etc. 

414 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 131-138 

entrusted every thousand to a tribune, and appoint- 
ing Cerealius ° commander-in-chief gave orders to 
attack the guards about the ninth hour of the night. 
He was himself in arms and prepared to descend 
uith them, but was restrained ^ by his friends on 
account of the gravity of the risk and the observa- 
tions of the officers, who remarked that he would 
achieve more by sitting still in Antonia as director 
of the contest of his troops than by going down and 
exposing himself in the forefront ; for under the eyes 
of Caesar all would play the man. To this persuasion 
Caesar yielded, telling his men that his sole reason 
for remaining behind was that he might judge of 
their gallantry, so that none of the brave might go 
unnoticed and unrewarded nor any of an opposite 
character escape the penalty, but that he, who had 
power both to punish and to reward, might be a 
spectator and witness of all. At the hour mentioned 
he dispatched them upon their enterprise, while he 
himself advanced to a spot from which he could see 
all below, and from Antonia anxiously awaited the 
issue. 

(6) The force thus dispatched did not, however, find 
the guards asleep, as they had hoped, but, the latter 
springing up with a shout, they were instantly in- 
volved in a close struggle ; and at the cry of the 
sentries their comrades dashed out in a dense 
body from within. The Romans met the charge 
of the front ranks ; while those behind fell foul 
of their own party, and many treated their friends 
as foes. For recognition by the voice was rendered 
impossible for any by the confused din on either 

* Cf. 2 Sam. xviii. 2 if. (David restrained from going forth 
to war against Absalom). 

415 



JOSEPHUS 

oyijiaTcov tj vv^ eKacrov a.(^eiXero, /cat TV(j)XdjTT€iv 
a.X\oj<^ ovs fiev ol dvixol rrapeaKevaiov ovs 8' ol 
(f)6I^OL- Slol Tovro Tov 7TpoGrv)(6vra TrX'qrreLv rjv 

139 aKpirov. 'Pojfj.aLOVs jxev ovv orvvrjGTTLKoras /cat 
Kara cruvra^eLg TTporrrihcovras tjttov e^XaTrrev -q 
ayvota' /cat yap rjv rrap e/cacrroj pLvrniTj rov 

140 uvvQ-qpiaTos' 'louSatot §' det (JKebawvfievoL /cat 
rag re rrpoGJ^oXas /cat ras vrroxcopviGeis dveS-qv ttol- 
ovfxevoL TToXXaKLS (f)avraGLav rrapel-^ov aXXrjXois 
TToXealajv rov v770Grp€(f)Ovra yap eKaGros olKelov 
Sid GKorovs (JJS eTTiovra 'PojjJLalov i^ehix^TO. 

141 nXeiovs yovv vtto tojv Ihicov rj row TToXefiiajv 
erpojdv.GaVy ews rjp.€pas yevofievqs oipei ro Xolttov 
7j pidyrq Ste/cptVero, /cat Kara (j)dXayya hiaoravres 
rolg re ^eXeGiv evraKroig expojvro /cat rat? djivvatg. 

142 ovderepoL 8e ovr eiKOv ovr eKomajv, dAA ol /xev 
oj£ eSopowros Katcrapo?^ /car dvhpa /cat Kara 
GvvrdEeis TJpLL^ov dXX-qXoig, /cat TTpoKOTTrjs eKaGros 
eKeivTjV avroj rrjv rjiiepav dp^eiv vrreXdji^avev , el 

143 yewaLCj'^ dyojviGairo' 'lofSatots" 8' e^pd^eve rds 
roXfxas 6 re Trepl G(^ijjv avrcov /cat rod lepov (f)6^o^ 
/cat d rvpawog eSeGrojs kol rovs [lev rrapaKaXcov, 

144 rov? Se pLaGrcycov /cat hieyeipcov aTreiXals. gvv- 
e^Baive Se ro p.ev TrXelGrov Gradalav^ elvat rrjv p.dx'qv, 
ev oXiycp he /cat rap^eoj? avriGrpecf^eGOaL rds porrds' 
ovoerepoL yap ovre cpvyijs ovre hioj^eojs jJLrjKos 

145 et^ov. aet 8e rrpds ro Gvptf^alvov ot/cetos"^ drro rrjs 

A.vrajvLa? 6 dopv^os rjv, SappeZv he /cat KparovGi 

^ P Lat. (iraperatoris) : Ttroi the rest. ^ crabialav mss. 

^ C: om. L: oUeioLs (toIs oikclols M) the rest. 

* Or " was separated (or ' decided 'j by the eye." 
416 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 138-145 

side, as was ocular recognition by the darkness of 
the night ; moreover, some were so bhnded bv 
passion and others by fear as to strike indiscrimin- 
ately all who fell in their way. The Romans, Mho 
interlocked their shields and charged bv companies, 
suffered less from such ignorance ; each man, too, 
recollected the watchword. But the Jews, constantly 
scattering and alike attacking and retreating at 
random, were frequently taken by each other for 
enemies : each man in the darkness receiving a 
returning comrade as if he were an advancing Roman. 
Indeed more were wounded by their own friends 
than by the foe, until, with the dawn of day, the 
battle thenceforward was discernible to the eye ° and, 
parting into their respective lines, they could employ 
their missiles and maintain their defence in srood 
order. Nor did either side give way or relax their 
efforts. The Romans, as under the eye of Caesar, 
\ied man with man and company with company, 
each believing that that day would lead to his 
promotion, if he but fought with gallantry. The 
Jews had as arbiter of their own daring deeds their 
fear for themselves and for the temple and the 
looming presence of the tyrant,^ encouraging some, 
rousing others by the lash and by menaces into 
action. The contest was perforce for the most 
part stationary,*' the manoeu\Tes to and fro being 
limited to a narrow space and quickly over ; for 
neither side had room for flight or pursuit. And at 
every incident of the fight an appropriate roar went 
up from Antonia : were their comrades gaining they 

" John of Gischala. 

« The Mss. read " was perforce confined at most within 
a furlong." 

417 



JOSEPHUS 

TOtS" G(f)€T€pOLg eTTe^OOJV Kol fJ,€V€LV rp€7TOfJL€VOL^. 

146 T^y S' ojGTTep tl TroAe^ou dearpov ovhev yap ovr€ 
Tltov ovre rovs rrepl avrov eXdvdave rcov Kara ttjv 

147 fidxT^v. TO Se Tzipas, dp^dpL€voi rrjg wkto? ivdrrjg 
(jjpag TTepl^ TrefiTTT-qv rrj? rj[jL€pag hieXvO-qaav, dcf)^ 
ovTrep rjp^avro tottov rrjs ovjxjioXri^ firjSercpoL 
jSe/SatajS" KXlvavreg rous" irepovs, dXXd ttjv vlktjv 

143 fjLearjV iv dyxo^P-dXa/ KaraXiTTovTes . Kai Pajfialcov 
fxev eTTLGrjiiajg -qyajvlcravro ttoXXol, lovhalojv S' e/c 
/xev Tcov Trepl ILijiajva louor/? o rod Mapeajroi; kol 
^Lfxojv 6 rod 'Oaata, row be IdovfiaLajv Id/ccu^os" 
Kal aipLCOv, 'A/<:areAd^ /xev ovrog ttoIs, ^ojad Se 
o ^laKOj^os, Tujv he [xera Icoavvov Yechdalos Kal 
^AXe^dg, Tojv Se l,rjXa>rojv St/xcoy vlog 'Apt. 

149 (t) 'Ev tovtoj 8' 77 XoLTTTj Twv 'PcD/xatcDV Suva/Ltts" 
-qyiepais errrd KaraoTpeifjajievq rovg Trjg ^ Avrojviag 
dejieXiovs P'^XP'- '^^^ lepov TrXarelav dvobov* ev- 

150 rperrLGavTO. TrX-qGidaavra de to) TTpojTOj Trepij^oXq) 
TO. rdyp-ara Kari^px^TO ;>(aj/iaTa)v, to fxev dvTiKpvg 
Trjs Tov etuoj lepov yojvlas, tjtis tjv KaT* dpKTOv 
Kal hvaiv, to he Kara tt^v ^opeiov i^ehpav, rj 

151 fie~a^u TOW duo ttvXojv rjv tcov he Xolttojv hvo 
BdTepov p.ev Kara T-qv eorrepLov OTodv tov e^ojdev 
lepov, TO S' eTepov e^ojf KaTa ttjv ^opeiov. rrpov- 

KOTTTeV fJLeVTOL jJieTa TToXXoV KapidTOV Kal TaXatTTCD- 

pias avToZs Ta epya iKalf ttjv vXiqv d(f)^ eKaTOv 

152 GTahioJV OVyKOjlL^OVGLV, eKaKOVVTO h €od OTTT) Kal 

Kar' eTTL^ovXds, avTOi dta Trepiovoiav tov KpaTelv 

^ Niese : iVep mss. * P : + ry Trapard^et the rest. 

' PA: Xa-.-arf\a AIVR : Kar^ata L: KadXa C ; cf. v. 2i9. 
* 600V PM Lat. Heg. ; for text cf. \'u 93. 
' cm. Lat. * cm. C Lat 

4-18 



JEWISH WAR, VI. U5-152 

shouted to them to be of good cheer, were they 
falHng back, to stand fast. It was like a battle on 
the stage, for nothing throughout the engagement 
escaped the eyes of Titus or of those around him. 
At length, after an action which opened at the ninth 
hour of the night, they broke off about the fifth hour 
of the day, neither side ha\ing seriously repelled 
their adversaries from the very spot on which the con- 
flict began, and victory remaining undecided in this a drawn 
drawn battle. Of the Romans many distinguished ^ ° ^ • 
themselves ; the Jewisli heroes were, of the partv of 
Simon, Judes son of Mareotes, and Simon son of 
Hosaias ; of the Idumaeans, James and Simon, the 
latter the son of Acatelas," the former of Sosas ; of 
John's contingent, Gephthaeus and Alexas ; of the 
Zealots, Simon son of Ari. 

(7) Meanwhile the rest of the Roman army, having a road 
in seven days overthrown the foundations of Antonia, l^\ 
had prepared a broad ascent to the temple. The temple 
legions now approaching the first wall began to raise pm^bank- 
embankments : one facing the north-west angle of i^'^^Jitd 
the inner temple, a second over against the northern 
hall which stood between the two gates, and two 
more, one opposite the western portico of the outer 
court of the temple, the other outside ^ opposite the 
northern portico. The works, however, did not 
advance without causing the troops great fatigue 
and hardship, the timber being conveyed from a 
distance of a hundred furlongs ; ^ they also suffered 
occasionally from stratagems, being themselves 
owing to their overwhelming superiority less on their 

* The name elsewhere appears as Caathas or Cathlaci, 
iv. 271, V. 249. 

^ Perhaps " further out" « Cf. § 5. 

VOL. Ill o2 419 



sineered 
the 



JOSEPHUS 

6vT€£ aheearepot /cat St OLTroyvojOLV tJSt] ocurripLas 

153 XP^I^^^^^ roXyLTjpoTepois tols ^lovhaiois. tow yap 
LTTTTecov TLves OTTOTe 7TpoeX6oL€v eVt ^vXelav Tj 
Xoprov GvXXoyqv, rov rrj? oruyKOfJLLhTJs^ XP^^^^ 
avieaav ^oGKeaOai rov? lttttovs a77o;^'aAtyouvTes', 
ovs OL lovSoLOL Kara gtZ<J)o? eKm^hcxivres rjprrat^ov. 

154 '^o.t rovTOV crvvexo^? yivofievov vojiLGag Katcrap, 
07T€p rjv, apieXeia rcov cr^erepcov ttXeov t) rfj 'lou- 
Satcoy dvSpeta ylveaOai rag apirayds, eyi'co gkv- 

BpOJTTOTepOV TOVS XoLTTOV? 77/30$" ^vXaKTjV TlXiV 

155 Ittttojv^ eTTLGrpeipaL. /cat KeXevGas d7TaxOT]vai, ttjv 
€7TL Oavdrcp rcov aTToXeGavrajv GTpariojTcJQV eva, 
(f)6^cp TOLs aAAots" ir-qprjGe rovs Ittttovs' ovkItl yap 
eiojv vepeGdai, KaOdrrep he Gvp7recf)VK6r€£ avrols 

156 €7TL rd? ;^petas" i^rjeGav. ol p.€V ovv TrpoGeTToXepLovv 
TO) Lepo) /cat ra ;)(a)^aTa Stryyetpov.^ 

157 (8) Mera 8e pilav rjpepav avTcbv rrjs dvoSov 
TToAAot rdjv GraGiaGTCiiv, ols dprray at re eireXeLTTOV 
rjhrj /cat o At^o? TJireuye, GweXdovres rat? /caret to 

EAatojv opos PojpLalojv ^uAa/cat? eTTiTLBevTai Trepl 
copav evheKdr-qv rrjs rjpiepag, olopievoL Trpcorov pLev 
dhoKTjTOJv, eTTetra rrpos depaTrelais* yjSrj rov 

158 GcopLarog ovrcov paSlaJS Ste/cTratcetv.^ TrpoaiGBo- 
pL,evoi he rrjv e(j>ohov avrajv ol 'Poj/xatot /cat 
Ta;^eaj? e'/c rcov ttXtjglov cfipovplajv GVvhpapL,6vres 
etpyov VTrepTTTjhdv /cat Sta/coTiretv ro TTepireLX^Gpia 

159 ^LaL,opLevovs. yevopLevqs he Kaprepds rrjs Gvpi- 
^oXrJ£ dXXa re 77oAAa 77ap' eKarepcov yevvaiojs 

^ PA : KOfMidiis the rest. 
- A Lat. : lirireojv the rest, 
' L: SirD'eipai' the rest. ■* Xiese : Oepaweias MSS. 

^ Destilion : dieKTreaelv C : OieKirai.eLi' the rest. 

420 



JEWISH WAR. VI. 152-159 

guard, while they found the Jews through their 
present despair of escape more daring than before. 
Thus, some of the cavalry, whenever they went out Jewish 
to collect wood or fodder, used to take the bridles stealers. 
off their horses and turn them loose to graze while 
they were foraging ; and these the Jews, sallying 
out in companies, carried oif. This happening 
repeatedly, Caesar, correctly believing that these 
raids were due rather to the negligence of his own 
men than to the courage of the Jews, determined 
by an act of unusual severity to make the rest more 
attentive to the care of their horses. He accordingly 
ordered off one of the troopers who had lost his horse 
to capital punishment, and by that fearful example 
preserved the steeds of the others ; for they no 
longer let them graze, but went forth on their 
errands clinging to them as though man and beast 
were by nature inseparable. The assnult on the 
temple and the erection of the earthworks thus 
occupied the energies of the Romans. 

(8) The day after the ascent of the legions many Jewish 
of the rebels, who with plunder now failing them Roj^Jjfn°° 
were hard pressed by famine, j' ined forces and cnnp on 
attacked the Roman sentries on th= Mount of Olives " biivet. 
at about the eleventh hour of the day ; expecting 
firstly to find them off their guard, and secondly to 
catch them while taking refreshment, and thus easily 
to break through. The Romans, however, fore- 
warned of their approach, promptly rushed from the 
neighbouring forts to the spot and checked their 
forcible efforts to scale or to cut their way through 
the camp wall. A sharp contest ensued, in which 
many gallant feats were performed on either side ; 

" Where the tentli legion were encamped, v. 69 f. 

4.21 



JOSEPHUS 

€77 pdxOr), 'PcD/xaicov jicv fiera rrjg laxvos l^Treipia 
rod TToXejielv ;\;paj/LteVajv, ^lovSaiajv 8' ac^etSeat rats' 

160 opiials /cat rots' dvfioT? dKaraGxeroLs- iorrparijyeL 
Be Tujv fjLev atScos", tcop S' dvdyKTj' to re yap 
i^a^elvai ^lovSalovs ojcrTrep dpKVGLV eveiXriiiivovg^ 

Poj/xatots atcr;)i^tcrrov' eSoarei, KaKeZvoi ficav eArrtSa 
Uior-qpias ^l^ov , et ^LaadjJLevoL p-q^eLav to teIxos' 

161 Kat Tcov arro GTreipas rts" lttttIcov, IleSaytos" rovVo^a, 
rp€770fj.eva)v tJot] tujv lovBaLcov xat Acara rr^S" 
(^apayyos (jvvojdovjxevojv , podiov €k irXayiov irap- 
eXavvojv tov Ittttov dprrdtei TLvd (f)evyoPTa tcov 
TToXefiLojv, v€avLav OTi^apov re dXXcos to aoj/jLa 
/cat KaOajTrXiGpLevov, hpa^dpLevog €k tov Gchvpov' 

162 TOGOVTOV pL€V iaVTOV €K Tp€XOVTO£ e7T€KXlVe TOV 
LTTTTOV, TOGOVTOV S* iTTeSet^aTO TTjS^ he^lds TOV 

Tovov /cat TOV XoiTTOv GojpLaTOs ert S' e/irrctptav' 

163 LTTTTLKrjg. 6 (i€v ovv ojGTTep TL K€Lp.rjXiov apTTaoa- 
pL€vo£ rjK€ (^ipojv KatcTopt TOV aLXP-dXojTov Ttros" 
§€ TOV iL€v Xa^ovTa TTJs ^wdfiecos davp-doas, tov 
8e XrjSdivTa ttjs rrepl to t€Ixos i7nx€Lpt]G€OJS 
KoXdoaL KeXevoag, auros" iv rats' Trepl to lepov 
SiapidxcK'S rjv /cat ra ;)(oj/xaTa KaTrjTTeiyev. 

164 (9) 'Ev o) 'lovSatot KaKovpLevoL rat? Gvp.^oXaZs, 
aet /car oXiyov Kopv<f)Ovp.evov rod noXepLov /cat roj 

Vaa> 77 pOGepTTOVTO?, Kadd77ep Gr]770pL€VOV GOJpLaTOS 

a7T€K077TOV TOL 77poeiXrjp.p.€va pieXrj (^davovres tt^v 

165 ct? TO TTpoGOJ vopLTjV. TTjS ydp ^op€Lov Koi /cara 

hvGLV GTods TO GVV€X^S 77p6s TTjV ^AvTOJVLaV 

epLTTp-qoavTes CTTCtra drripp-q^av ooov 77rix€LS eLKOGi, 
rats' tStats' ;\;epcrtv dp^dpLevot /catetv rd dyia. 

^ e;'et\77,u^;/OL'j Destlnon : €V€L\rj/j./j.€POis 3ISS. 

* 4- re AVRC. ' Syr. Suidas : ifiweipias 3iss. 

422 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 159-165 

the Romans displaying military skill combined with 
strength, the Jews reckless impetuosity and unbridled 
rage. Shame commanded the one party, necessity 
the other ; for to let loose the Jews, now caught 
as it were in a net, seemed to the Romans most dis- 
graceful, while their enemy's one hope of safety lay 
in forcing their way through the wall. Among other Equestrian 
incidents, a trooper from one of the cohorts, named pedanius. 
Pedanius — when the Jews were at last repulsed 
and being driven down into the ravine — urging 
his horse at top speed along their flank, snatched up 
one of the flying foe, a youth of sturdy frame and 
in full armour, grasping him by the ankle ; so far 
did he stoop from his horse, when at the gallop, 
and such muscular strength of arm and body, along 
with consummate horsemanship, did he display. 
Carrying off his captive like some precious treasure, 
he came A\ith his prize to Caesar. Titus expressed 
his admiration of the captor's strength, ordered his 
captive to punishment for his assault on the wall, 
and then devoted his attention to the struggle for 
the temple and the acceleration of the earthworks. 

(9) Meanwhile the Jews, sorely suffering from Burning of 
their encounters, as the war slowly, yet steadily, porticoes^ 
rose to a climax and crept towards the sanctuary? ^uf'Vli^ 
cut away, as from a mortifying body, the limbs and con- 
already affected, to arrest further ravages of the the Romans. 
disease. In other words, they set fire to that portion 
of the north-west portico which was connected with 
Antonia, and afterwards hacked away some twenty 
cubits, their own hands thus beginning the con- 
flagration of the holy places. Tw^o days later, on the ^^2 August 

423 



JOSEPHUS 

166 fj-era 8' r^fiepag Suo, rerpdhi koI et/caSt rov irpo- 

€Lpr]fl€VOV [JLTjVOS, TT^V TtXtjGLOV GTOOLV VTTOTTipLTTpdGL 

PojfxaiOL, Kai f^^XP^ Trevrc/catSe/ca ttt^x^^ Trpo- 
Koipavro? rov TTvpos aTTOKOTrrovoiv ofiOLcos 'louSatot 
TT]!^ opodirjv, pLTjTe Kaddrrav^ e^LGrafxevoL ra)v epyojv 
Kai TO TTpo? rrjv Avrajviav Gvva(f)€g avrcov St- 

167 aipovvTe<s' Sto koI Trapov KcoXveiv VTTOTTLfX'npdvTag , 
OL Se TTpos" T'qv ijJL^oXrjv rod TTvpos rjpefjLrJGavre? 

168 r7]v vofjLTjv efierpr^Gav ro) g(^lgi -)(p-qGip.a),^ irepi 
pikv Srj TO Upov ov hieXeiTTOv at GVfi^oXai, Gvveyrjs 
8' Tjv Kara jilpos eKdeovTCjv iir* dXXrjXovs 6 
TToXepLog. 

169 (lo) TcDv 'lofSatcov Se rt? KaTO. TavTas Tag 
rjp.epas dvrjp to re Gcofxa ^pa^vs f<al ttjv bifjiv 
€VKaTa<j)p6v'qTos , yivovs 6^ eveKa Kai tojv dXXojv 
do-qfioSi "IcovdBviS eKaXelTO, TrpocXdojv Kara to 
rod dpx^epeojs ^Icodwov pLvqiielov dXXa re ttoXXol 
TTpos Tovg 'Pco/iaious- VTreprjchdvojg ecjydeyyeTo Kai 
Tov dpiGTOv avTOW els p.ovoixa-)(Lav vpovKaXelro. 

170 TcDv Se Tavrrj TrapaTerayjievajv ol ttoXXoI p.ev 
V7T€pT]cf)dvovv, rjGav 6' ot /cara to eIkos cSeSotKrecrav, 
T^Trrerd ye firjv tlvcov /cat Xoyiopios ovk aGvveTOS 

171 OavaTchvTi [irj GvpLTrXeKeGOar tovs ydp aTreyvoj- 
KOTas TTjV GUJTTjpiav dfia^ Kai tcls opiids ara/xteu- 
Tovs €X€iV Kai TO deXov evSvGOJTTiqTOi', ro re rrapa- 
^dXXeGOaL TTpos ovs Kai ro viKav ov p.eya koa f-ier 
aLGXvyrjS TO XeL(f)d-qvaL G<j>aXepQVt ovk dvhpeias 

1 Kaddira^ PAM. 

" Tc3 (TtfjiaL ypq<T. Niese : aurd; crcpiac XPV^'-P-'^^ MSS. 
^ oLfxa Destinon : dXXd PAL, perhaps rightly = " yet " : to. 
re dXAa (ravr dXXa) the rest. 

° i.e., to cut the connexion with Antonia. 
4*24 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 166-171 

twenty-fourth of the month above mentioned, the 
Romans set hght to the adjoining portico ; and 
when the flames had spread to a distance of fifty 
cubits, it was again the Jews who cut away the roof, 
and with no reverence whatever for these works of 
art severed the connexion thereby formed A^ith 
Antonia. For that reason,'^ though they might 
have prevented the building from being set ahght, 
instead when the fire attacked it they remained 
motionless and merely measured the extent of its 
ravages by their own convenience. Thus conflicts 
around the temple raged incessantly, and fights 
betwxen small parties sallying out upon each other 
were continuous. 

(10) In the course of these days a Jew, named single 
Jonathan, a man of mean stature and despicable jewand 
appearance, undistinguished by birth or otherwise, f^o'^aru 
coming forward opposite the tomb of the high-priest 
John,^ and addressing the Romans in much oppro- 
brious language, challenged the best of them to 
single combat. Of those in the adverse ranks at 
this point, the majority regarded him with contempt, 
some probably with apprehension, while others were 
influenced by the not unreasonable reflection that 
it was wise to avoid a conflict with one who courted 
death ; being aware that men who despaired of their 
lives had not only ungovernable passions but also 
the ready compassion of the Deity, ^ and that to risk 
life in an encounter with persons whom to defeat 
were no great exploit, while to be beaten would 
involve ignominy as well as danger, would be an 

^ John Hyrcanus ; the neig-hboiirhood of his monument 
was the point selected by Titus for his first attack, v, -2 J9. 

" Literally "had the Deity easily put out of countenance." 
i.e. "easily moved bj' entreaty." 

425 



JOSEPHUS 

172 aAAa dpaavTrjros etvat. /XT^SeP'os" S' im ttoXv 
npoLOvros kol rod Yovhaiov ttoXKo. KaraKepro- 
pLovvrog avrovs et? heiXiav, aAa^cuv yap tl<s rjv 
avrw a(f)68pa Kal rcov 'PojpLaLOjv vrrcpiqcjiavog, 
Ylovhrj? TLS ovopia row i^ lXtjs Imreajv ^SeXv^d- 
pL€vos avrov ra re pijpLara Kai ro au^aSes", et/co? 
Se Kal Tzpog rrjv ^paxvrrjra rod crctj/xaro? avrov 

173 acTKeTTro)? iTrapdrjvai, rrpoTT-qha, Kal ra ptev dXXa 
TTept-qv avpL^aXojv, Trpoehod-q 8' vtto rrjs rvx^]?' 
7T€Govra yap avrov 6 lojvddrjs a7T0G(f)drrei irpocr- 

174 hpapLcov. eVetra eTTi^ds roj v€Kpcp ro re ^L(f)OS 
7jpLaypL€vov dveaeie Kal rfj Aata rov Ovpeov, irr-qXd- 
Xa^e re rfj Grpana rroXjxd Kal upos rov rreoovra 
KOpLTTalojv Kal rovs opwvras 'Pco^atous" eTTiGKOj- 

175 TTrojv, eoj? avrov dvacrKLprcovra /cat ' pLaraCl,ovra 
YlplGKos ns eKarovrapx^j? ro^evaag StT^Aacre ^eXet' 
TTpog o row re louSatojF /cat rojv 'Pco/Ltatcov Kpavyrj 

176 Gvve^-qpdr] hid(^opos. 6 he SivrjOel? e/c rwv dXyrj- 
hovojv eirl ro acopia rov TToXepLLOv Kareneaev, 
ojKvrar-qv drrocjirivas ev noXepiOJ rrjv eVt rots 
aXoyojs evrv^ovGi^ vejieaLV. 

177 (iii. l) Ot S' ai'a ro lepov araGLaaral (fyavepojs 
re ovK avceGav rov? e—t rcov x^H-drojv Grpancoras 
apivvopievoi Ka9 eKaGrr^v rjpLepav, Kal rov Trpoeiprj- 
puevov pL-qvos e^SopLTj Kal eiKdhi hoXov evGKevd- 

178 l,ovraL roLovhe. rrj? eG—eptov Grodg ro pLera^v 
Td)v SoKow Kal rrjs vtt" avrals' 6po(f)rjs vXt^s 
avaTTLpLTrXaGLv avrj<?, Trpog he dG(f)dXrov re /cat 
TnGGTjS' erreid d>s KararrovovpLevoL hrjdev fTre^co- 

179 povv. rrpo? o row pLev daKerrrojv rroXXoi rat? 
oppialg (f)ep6pievoL rrpoGeKeivro rots VTTOXCopovGLV 

^ T(2 (to A) aXoyciis evrvxovvTL PA. 

426 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 172-179 

act, not of bravery, but of recklessness. For k 
no antagonist came forward and the Jcav continued 
to rail at them as cowards — for the fellow was 
supremely conceited and contemptuous of the 
Romans — until a trooper from one of the squadrons,'* 
named Pudens, disgusted at his language and 
arrogance, perhaps also thoughtlessly presuming on 
his puny stature, leapt forward, and Avas otherA^se 
gaining on his adversary in the encounter , when he 
was betrayed by fortune : for he fell, whereupon 
Jonathan sprang upon him and dispatched him. 
Then, trampling on the corpse, brandishing his 
bloody sword and with his left hand waving his 
buckler, he shouted lustily to the army, glorying 
over his prostrate foe and jeering at his Roman 
spectators ; until, in the midst of his dancing and 
buffoonery, Priscus, a centurion, bent his bow and 
transfixed him Avith an arrow, calling forth from 
Jews and Romans simultaneous cries of a contrary 
nature. The \ictim, A\Tithing in agony, fell upon 
the body of his foe, illustrating how swift in war is 
the nemesis that overtakes irrational success. 

(iii. 1) The rebels in the temple, while never a Jewish 
relaxing their undisguised daily efforts to repel the ^"eat^ ""^ 
troops on the earthworks, on the twenty-seventh Koman lo; 
of the above-named month contrived, moreover, the ponico. 
following ruse. They filled the space between the p\?^^^"" 
rafters of the western portico and the ceiling beneath 
them with dry tinder, along with bitumen and pitch, 
and then, as though utterly exhausted, retired. 
Thereupon many of the inconsiderate legionaries, 
carried away by impetuosity, started in pursuit of 
" Of the auxiliary cavalry {alae). 

* vir' airrah ed. pr. : utt' (ott' or ctt') oi't^s mss. 

427 



JOSEPHUS 

677t re rrjv crroav dveTTrjbcov Trpoodlfxevoi xrAi/ua/ca?, 
ol he cruvercorepoL rrjV dXoyov rpoTrrjV tcov 'lof- 

180 Satajv VTTOvo-qcravres efievov. KareTrX-qGdrj fievroi 
TCOV avaTT-qS-qaavrajv rj Grod, Kav tovto) 'louSatot^ 
Trdaav v—OTTLfXTTpdaLV avr-qv. alpoiievrjg 5' at(/)vt- 
OLOJS TrdvTodev rrjs (hXoyog rovs re e^oj rod 
KLvSvvov 'Poj/xa tous" €K—Xrj^L5 iireax^ hetirrj Kal 

181 rovg TTepiux^devras dprj-^avia. KVKXovfjLevoi 8' 
vrro rrJ£ SXoyOi ol p.kv elg rrjv ttoXlv ottlgoj Kar- 
eKpTjpLVLLov eavrovs, ol S' et's" rovs rroXejiLOVS, ttoXXol 
o iX—ldi Gajrrjpias els rovs G(f)erepovs KaraTTTj- 
hcoures eKXoJvro rd iieXi), TrXetGrajv S' e(f)dave rds 
opfxas ro rrvp Kal nves r-qv (hXoya GLOT]pcp. 

182 rrepielx^ 8' evdecog Kal rovs dXXoJS (f)deLpoiievovs 
ro TTvp errl rrXelGrov eKSepofievov. Kataapa he 
KaiTTep y^aXeTTaLvovra rols d—oXXv[ievoLS, erreLdr] 
OLxa TTapayyeXfJLaros dva^e^T^KeGav, ojjlojs oIktos 

183 €LGTJeL rdjv dvhpdjv Kal jJLTjSevos TrpoGajJUVveiv 
hvvap.evov , rovro yovv Trapap^vdiov rjv rols (j)deipo- 
fieuois ro ^Xerrecv vrrep ov ns r](i)Ui rrjv xjjvxr^v 
oSwcvfievov Bodjv re yap avrols Kal 77 poTrrjScov 
Kat rols Trepl avrov eK tojv evovrwv eTrapivveiv 

184 TTapiKaXcov hi^Xos ii)v. rds Se (^ajm? eKaGros Kai 
r-qv didOeGiv ojGTrep n XapLTrpov drro<f)epojv evrd(^iov 

185 €vdvp,os drredvrjGKev. evLoi ye jir^v e—l rov rol)(Ov 
rrjs GTods ovra TrXarvv dvaxojp-qGavres eK pev rov 
TTvpos hieGiod-qGaVy vtto he rcov ^Yovhalcov rrepi- 
G^edevres errl ttoXv pev drreG^ov hiarirpcoGKo- 

^ PL : ol 'lovoa'iot. the rest, 
428 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 179-185 

the fugitives and, applying ladders, sprang up them 
on to the portico ; the more prudent, however, 
suspecting the unaccountable withdrawal of the 
Jews, remained where they were. The portico, 
nevertheless, was packed with those who had 
mounted, at the moment when the Jews from below 
set the whole building alight. The flames suddenly 
shooting up on every side, those of the Romans who 
\vere out of danger were seized with dire consterna- 
tion, while those involved in it were utterly helpless. 
Surrounded by the flames, some precipitated them- 
selves into the citv behind them, some into the 
enemy's midst ; many in hope of saving themselves 
leapt down among their friends and fractured their 
limbs ; but most in their rush to escape were caught by 
the fire, while some with the sword anticipated the 
flames. The fire, moreover, spreading far and wide, 
instantlv enveloped even those already doomed to 
some other form of death. Caesar, though angry 
with his perishing soldiers for mounting the portico 
without orders, was yet filled with compassion for 
them ; and, impossible though it was for any to 
reheve them, it was at least a consolation to the 
doomed men to behold the grief of him in whose 
ser\ice thev were giving up their lives. For he was 
plainly visible, shouting to them and rushing forward 
and exhorting those around him to do their utmost 
to rescue them. And every man, can-ying with 
him, like some splendid obsequies, those cries, that 
emotion of Caesar, thus cheerfully expired. Some, 
indeed, got back to the wall of the portico, which 
was broad, and escaped the conflagration, but were 
there surrounded bv the Jews and, after n^.aintaining 



429 



JOSEPHUS 

186 fi€voi, TeAos" Se Travre? erreaov, (2) /cat reXevTolos 
Tig avTcov yeavta?, ovofxarL Aoyyos,^ oXov ettl- 
KOGji-qaas ro rrddos kol Kar dvSpa fxv^fJLrjg d^lajv 
ovroiv TTavTCOv tCjv a7ToXa>X6rajv dptarog <;6aret?. 

187 Gv OL fiev 'louSatot rrj? re dXKrjs dyajJievoL Kai 
dXXoJS dveXelv dadevovvres Kara^rjvai rrpos avrovs 
€771 he^ia TTapeKaXovv, 6 Be dSeA^o? VLopvrjXtog eK 
Oaripov [irj KaraiGXVvaL ro (7(f)€T€pov kXcos Kai 
r-qv 'Pcofiaiojv (j-pandv. rovrcp TTeLadel? /cat 
hiapdpievos <j)avepov €Karepois tols raypLaai to 

188 ^L(f)OS avTOV dvaLpel. tojv Se ro) TTvpl irepi- 
(JX^devTCjJv ^ Aprojpios^ ris Travovpyia hiaaajterai' 
TTpoGKaXeadjJLevos ydp nva tojv ovarpaTLCorcJov^ 
AovKLov, (h crvveaKijveLy pieydXr] ttj (f)a>vfj " kXtjpo- 
vofjiov," e(f)r], " KaraXeLTTOJ ere tojv efjiavrov KTiq- 

189 jjidTCov, el TrpoaeXO ojv pie Se^aio." tov Se eTOi- 
fjicos TTpoahpafiovTOs d p.ev ctt' avrdv KarevexOeLS 
el^rjcrev, 6 Se Se^dj-ievos vrrd tov ^dpovs ro) Xido- 

190 GTpojro) rrpoaapaxdels rrapaxp^jp-o. OvijGKeL. tovto 
TO Trddos TTpos Kaipov pev 'Pa>p.aLOL£ everroiqGev 
dOvpLiav, TTpos Be to p.eXXov dpicos dnapaKX-qrovs* 
KaracrKevdaav^ (hvXaKTLKCoTepovs Te^ Trpog Tag 
^lovBalajv dTrdras dxheX-qaeVy ev als Ta rroXXd St 
dyvoiav tojv tottojv Kai to tjOos tojv dvhpojv 

191 e^XaTTTOVTO. KareKdr] b^ -q OTod pLexpf' tov lojavvov 
rrvpyov, ov eKeh'og ev rep rrpog ^Ipiojva TToXepLco 
KaTeGKevaaev vrrep Tas e^ayovGas VTrep tov ^vgtov 
TTvXag- TO be Xoittov errl BiecfjOapj-Levoig -qht] 

^ Longinus Heg. Syr. * Zepribpios C. 

' ML Lit. : arparioj-^v the rest. * PAL : om. the rest. 
* Destinon : Karecrvfiacrfj' (TrpoKareaKeiaaev L) the rCFt. 
' PA : Kai the rest. 

430 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 186-191 

a prolonged resistance, riddled with wounds, all at 
length fell. 

(2) The last survivor of them, a youth named individual 
Longus, shed lustre on the whole tragedy, and, qIIi^ 



antrv 



memorable as was every single man that perished, of Longiis 
proved himself the bravest of all. The Jews, as well 
from admiration of his prowess as from their inabihty 
to kill him, besought him to come down to them, 
pledging him his life ; his brother Cornelius, on the 
other hand, implored him not to disgrace his own 
reputation or the Roman arms. Influenced by his 
words, he brandished his sword in view of both armies 
and slew himself. Among those enveloped in the and cunnin 
flames one, Artorius, saved his life by an artifice. "f^r<=°""^ 
Calling at the top of his voice to Lucius, a fellow- 
soldier with whom he shared a tent, " I leave you," 
he said, " heir to my property if you come and catch 
me." Lucius promptly running up, Artorius plunged 
do^vn on top of him and was saved ; while he who 
received him was dashed by his weight against the 
pavement and killed on the spot. 

This disaster, while it created for the time despond- 
ency in the Roman ranks, nevertheless had a beneficial 
effect for the future in rendering them less responsive 
to such invitations and more cautious against Jewish 
stratagems, their injuries from which were mainly 
due to their ignorance of the ground and the character 
of the men. The flames consumed the portico as 
far as the tower « which John, during his feud with 
Simon, had erected over the gates leading out above 
the Xystus ; the remainder, after the destruction 
of the troops that had mounted it, was hacked away 

" The second of four towers erected by John of Gischala, 
iv, 580 f. 

431 



JOSEPHUS 

192 'lovSatot^ rot? dva^daiv oLTreKoifjav. rfj 8 vorepala 
/cat 'PcofialoL r'qv ^6p€Lov aroav eveTrp-quav lie^pL 
TTj? avaroXiKTiS 6Xi]v, ojv rj GVvaTTTOvoa yojvla rrj? 
}\€dpowos KaXovpievq? (fxipayyog VTrepbedoijLrjTO, 
Trap o Kat wouepov tjv to pauos. Kai ra pLev rrepi 
TO iepov €v TovroL^ tjv. 

193 (s) Tow d' VTTO rod Xipov (j>Beipopi€va>v Kara 
rrjv ttoXlv aTreLpov pL€V €7tl77T€ to TTXrjdog, ahi'qyrjTa 

194 he (jvvi^aive to. Trddrj. KaO eKdaTTjV yap OLKLav, 
ei 7TOV Tpocp-q? 7T0.pa(f)aveL7] OKid, rroXepLos rjv, Kal 
Sta x^Lpcvv ixojpovv ol ^iXTaToi Trpog dXXi^Xovs 
i^apTrdCovTes Ta TaXaiTTOJpa ttj? ipvxT]? ec^oSta. 

195 TTLGTLs d aTToptas oi)de tols OvtjGkovgiv tjv, aXXd 
Kai Tous" iKTTveovTas ol XrjGTal hi-qpevvajVy fiij tls 
VTTO KoXrrov eyojv Tpo(jii]v gktjtttolto tov Bdvarov 

196 avTO). ol 8' VTT^ ivheias Ke-xrjvoTes ojGTrep 
XvGGchvTes Kvves eG^dXXovTO, Kai 7rape(^epovTO 
TOLS Te dvpais ivGeiopLevoL pLeSvovTcov Tponov /cat 
V7T dpirj-)(avLag et? Tovg avTovs oIkovs eLGTTTjhojvTes 

197 his ^7 Tpls ojpa pud. rrdvTa h vtt ohovTag rjyev 7] 
dvdyKTj, Kal to. irqhk toXs pvTTapajTdTois tcov dXo- 
ycov L^ojcov TrpoGcjyopa GvXXlyovTes iodUtv V7Te(^epov 
tojGT-qpujv yovv Kal VTrohrjiidTUJv to TeXeuTalov ovk 
dTTeoy^ovTO kgl to. Sep/xara tojv dvpewv dTrohepovTes 

198 epLaGOJvro . Tpocji-q h rjV Kal -x^oprov tlgl TraXacov 
G7Tapdyp.aTa^' rd? yap Ivas cvlol GvXXeyovTes 
iXd^LGTOv GTadpLov IttojXovv Ajttikojv TeGodpow. 

199 /cat Tt 8et ttjv err dxjjv-)(pis avalheLav tov Xljiov 

Xeyeiv; elpa yap avTOv hrjXcoGUJv epyov olov p.^T€ 

^ Hudson with Heg. Lat. : 'lovoaiocs 3iss. 
^ LC Ens. Lat. : cnr6.payiJ.a the rest. 

" Cf. the Psalmist's simile, " They snarl like a dog and 
432 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 192-199 

bv the Jews. The next day the Romans also burnt ".is August. 
the whole northern portico right up to that on the 
east, where the angle connecting the two was built 
over the ravine called Kedron, the depth at that 
point being consequently terrific. Such was the 
condition of affairs in the vicinity of the temple. 

(S) MeanM-hile, the victims perishing of famine Further 
throughout the city were dropping in countless the'famine. 
numbers and enduring sufferings indescribable. In 
every house, the appearance anywhere of but a 
shadow of food was a signal for war, and the dearest 
of relatives fell to blows, snatching from each other 
the pitiful supports of life. The very dying were 
not credited as in want ; nay, even those expiring 
were searched by the brigands, lest any should be 
concealing food beneath a fold of his garment and 
feigning death. Gaping with hunger, Uke mad 
dogs," these ruffians went staggering and reeling 
along, battering upon the doors in the manner of 
drunken men, and in their perplexity bursting into 
the same house twice or thrice within a single hour. 
Necessity drove the \'ictims to gnaw an}i;hing. and 
objects which even the filthiest of brute beasts would 
reject they condescended to collect and eat : thus 
in the end they abstained not from belts and shoes 
and stripped off and chewed the very leather of their 
bucklers. Others devoured tufts of withered grass : 
indeed some collectors of stalks sold a trifling quantity 
for four Attic drachmas.^ But why tell of the 
shameless resort to inanimate articles of food induced 
by the famine, seeing that I am here about to 

go round about the city : they wander up and down for 
meat," Ps. lix. 14 f. ** The coin is unexpressed in 

the Greek, as elsewhere (ii. 59:2). The Attic drachma was 
the ordinary day's wage for a labourer. 

433 



JOSEPHUS 

Trap" "EAAi^CTtv yi'Tjre irapa ^ap^dpoLS iGToprjTai, 

200 (^piKTOV fiev €L7T€LV, CLTTLGTOV S' aKOVGaL. Kal €ycjjy€. 

/xr) bo^aLpLL reparevEGdaL rot? au^t? avOpdjiroLSy 
Kav TTapiXeLTTOv rrjv cw[jL(f)opav r]0€ojs, €l fir] row 
Kar ijxavrov el^ov aueLpovs fiaprvpas. aAAaJS" re 
Kal ipv^pav dv KaradeLiirjv rfj rrarpihi X^P''^ 
Kadvcj^eiJievos rov Xoyov cLv TreTTOvQev ra epya. 

201 (4-) Tvvq TL£ Twv VTTep rov lophdvqv Kar- 
OLKOVVTOJV, Mapta rouvo/xa, rrarpos EAea^apou, 
KcvpL-qg Bry^e^ou^d/ G-qfiaiveu de tovto olkos 
VGGcoTTOV, Bid yevos Kal ttXovtov iTTiGrjpios, jJierd 
rod XoLTTov 7tXi]6ovs els rd 'lepoGoXvjjLa Kara- 

202 (^vyovGa GweTToXiopKelro . ravrrjs rr]v pLev dXXr]v 
KrrJGLv OL TijpavvoL hi-qpTTaGav , oGrjv Ik rrjs 
liepaia? dvaGKevaGapLevrj pLer'qveyKev els ttjv ttoXlv, 
rd 8e Xelipava tow KeipL-qXitov Kal el ri Tpo(f)fjs 
eTTLVorjdel'q Kad 'qp.epau eLGTTrjhowres rjpTra^ov ol 

203 Sopv(f)6poL. heLvq he to yvvaiov ayavaKTTjGis 
elGrjei, Kal TToXXdKis XoihopovGa Kai KaTapa)p.evrj 

204 Tovs dprrayas €</> avrr^v 'qpediL^ev. (Ls d ovTe 
Trapo^vvopLevos tls ovt eXecov avTrjv avfjpei, Kal 
TO pikv evpelv tl gltlov aAAot? eKOTTta, TTavTa^ddev 
8' d—opov rjv rjhrj Kal to evpelv, 6 XipLOs Se did 
GTrXdyxyojv Kal pLveXoju exojpeu /cat tov XipLOV 
pidXXov e^eKatov ol dvpLOL, GvpL^ovXav Xa^ovGa ttjv 

205 dpyjjv pLerd Trjg dvdyK-qs CTrt rrjv <j)VGiv exajpei, Kal 

^ L: Be^f<;-^vi M, BaBf^Lbp Eus., BaOix-^'P the rtbt, 

" Josephus strangely ignores the parallel incident at the 
siege of Samaria, recorded in 2 Kings vi. 28 f. Cf. Deut. 
xxviii. 57 and Baruch ii. 2 f. (" great plagues, such as never 
happened under the whole heaven, as it came to pass in 
Jerusalem . . . that we should eat . . . every man the flesh 
of his own daughter "). 

434 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 199-205 

describe an act unparalleled '^ in the histor}' whether 
of Greeks or barbarians, and as horrible to relate 
as it is incredible to hear ? For my part, for fear 
that posterity might suspect me ^ of monstrous 
fabrication, I would gladly have omitted this tragedy, 
had I not innumerable -svdtnesses among my con- -^ 
temporaries. Moreover, it would be a poor com- 
pliment that I should pay my country in suppressing 
the narrative of the woes which she actually endured. 

f4) Amonff the residents of the region bevond ^^ary, the 

\ / ~ 1 * /» !iiOLher who 

Jordan was a woman named Mary, daughter of devoured 
Eleazar, of the ^^llage of Bethezuba (the name means ^^r child. 
" House of Hvssop " ^), eminent by reason of her 
family and fortune, who had fled with the rest of the 
people to Jerusalem and there become involved in 
the siege. The bulk of her property, which she had 
packed up and brought with her from Peraea '^ to the 
city, had been plundered by the tyrants; while the 
relics of her treasures, ^^'ith whatever food she had 
contrived to procure, were being carried off by their 
satelHtes in their daily raids. With deep indignation 
in her heart, the poor woman constantly abused and 
cursed these extortioners and so incensed thera 
against her. But when no one either out of exaspera- 
tion or pitv put her to death, Aveary of finding for 
others food, which indeed it was now impossible 
from any quarter to procure, while famine coursed 
through her intestines and marrow and the fire of 
rage was more consuming even than the famine, 
impelled by the promptings alike of fury and 
necessity, she proceeded to an act of outrage upon 

* Or " I hope that I shall not be suspected by posterity 
. . . and indeed I would gladly," etc. 
' Heb. Beth Ezob : site unidentified. 
•* Transjordania, B. iii. -44 ff. 

435 



JOSEPHUS 

TO TEKvoVy rjv 8 auTT] Trdl? VTrofjiOLGTio?, aprra' 
(jafievrj " ^p€(f)o?," elrreVy "ddXiov, iv TToXijiw /cat 

206 At^o) Kol orrdcreL tlvl ere T-qpi^aoj; rd ficv rrapd 

PcDfjiaLOig SouAeta, Kav t^-qGajpiev eTi' avrovs,^ 
<f)ddvei Se Kol hovXelav 6 Xljxos, ol GraoiaGTal 8* 

207 apL<poT€pa)v y^aXeTTCjorepoi. Wl, yevov /xot rpocjirj 
Kai Tols GTaGiaGrals ipivvg Kal ro) ^lco p.vdos 6 

208 piovos iXXeLTTCov rals ^lovhaiojv GvpiSopaLS." Kal 
ravd dpLa XeyovGa Kreivei rov vlov, erreLT^ OTTT'q- 
oaoa TO pLev tJulgv KareGQiei, rd Se Xoirrov Kara- 

209 KaXvtpaaa echvXarrev. evOeco? 8' ol araatacrrat 
TTaprJGav, Kai rrjg ddepurov KVLG-qg GTrdGavres rjTret- 
Xovv, el pLTj SeL^ecev rd TTapaGKevaodei', d-noGcjyd^eLV 
avrrjv evOeco?. rj 8e Kal piolpav avroZs eirrovGa 
KaXrjV T€rr]prjKevaL rd Xelifjava rod tIkvov hi- 

210 eKaXvipev. rov? 8' evdeco? (f}pLKrj Kal rrapeKGraGig^ 
rjpei Kai napa rrjv oipLV erre—i^yeGav. rj o epiov, 
kcfyrj, "rovro ro reKvov yvrjGiov Kal rd epyov ipidu. 

211 (f>dyer€, Kal ydp iyd> ^€^pa)Ka. i^n) yevrjGde pii^re 
pLaXaKwrepoL yvvaLKog p^-qre GVi^cTradeGrepoL pLr]rp6s. 
€L 8' vpLelg evGe^eZs kol rrjv ipLTjv drroGrpecfieGOe 
OvGiav, iycb pLev vpXv ^eSpcoKa, Kal ro Xoiirdv 8' 

212 euot pLELvarco." puerd ravd^ ol /xev rpepuovres 
e^T^CGav, TTpds €v rovro SetAot Kal pLoXcs ravri]s rrjs 
rpocp-qg rfj pLTjrpl TrapaxcDprjGavres , dverrXiqGdq 8' 
evOeojs dXrj rov pvGov? i) rroXis, Kal Tipo 6pLp.dra)v 
eKaGTos ro rraOos XapL^dvojv wGirep^ avrcp roX- 

213 pLr]dev e<^pirr€.. OTTOvhrj 8e ra}v XipLa>rr6vro)v eVt 
rov ddvarov rjv, Kal piaKapiGpios rcov (^OaGavrcxjv 
TTpiv aKovGai Kai deaGaGOai KaKd rrjXiKavra. 

^ Text doubtfid : eir' auroh Hudson: vir' avrovs A*. 
^ A : TrapeK-aaLs P : (pptvCjv iKaracris the rest. 

436 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 205-213 

nature. Seizing her child, an infant at the breast, 
" Poor babe," she cried, " amidst war, famine, and 
sedition, to what end should I preserve thee ? With 
the Romans slavery awaits us, should we live till they 
come ; but famine is forestalling slavery, and more 
cruel than both are the rebels. Come, be thou food 
for me, to the rebels an avenging fury, and to the 
world a tale such as alone is wanting to the calamJties 
of the Jews." With these words she slew her son, 
and then, ha\-ing roasted the body and devoured 
half of it, she covered up and stored the remainder. 
At once the rebels were upon her and, scenting the 
unholy odour, threatened her with instant death 
unless she produced what she had prepared. Re- 
plying that she had reserved a goodly portion for 
them also, she disclosed the remnants of her child. 
Seized with instant horror and stupefaction, they 
stood paralysed by the sight. She, however, said, 
" This is my own child, and this my handiwork. Eat, 
for I too have eaten. Show not yourselves M'eaker 
than a woman, or more compassionate than a mother. 
But if you have pious scruples and shrink from my 
sacrifice, then let what I have eaten be your portion 
and the remainder also be left for me." At that 
they departed trembling, in this one instance 
cowards, though scarcely yielding even this food to 
the mother. The whole city instantly rang with 
the abomination, and each, picturing the horror of 
it, shuddered as though it had been perpetrated by 
himself. The starving folk longed for death, and 
felicitated those who had gone to their rest ere they 
had heard or beheld such evils. 

' L : ojj Tap' the rest. 

437 



JOSEPHUS 

214 (5) Tax^co? Se Kal 'Poj/iatots' SirjyyeXdr] to 
Trddog. rojv S' ol jJLev rjTTLcrrovv, ot he coKreLpov, 
rovs Se TToAAous" et? jjllgo? rod edvovs ocjjohporepov 

215 GVve^T] TTpoeXdelv. Katcrap 8' aTTeAoyetro /cat 77ept 
TOUTOU t6l> ^€60, (fidaKcov TTapd [lev avTOV lovSaioLS 
elprjvqv Kal avrovojiiav TrpoTeiveadai /cat rtavTCiiV 

216 djJiVT^GrLav rcov TeroXfirjjjLevoji', roijs S' avri [lev 
opLOVoias orduLVy dvTi 8 eip-qv-qs TToXefiov, rrpo 
Kopov Se^ Kal evOiqvLas Xipiov alpovjjievov?, tStats" §€ 
Xepcrlv dp^ajievovs Kaieiv to ovvTripovjievov v<f)^ 
TjiJicov lepov avrolSi elvai Kal roLavr-qs Tpo(f)rjs 

217 d^LOVS. KaXvipeLV fxevroL to rrj? reKvo(hayias [Jlvgos 
avTO) TOJ rrj? Trarpihos Trrco/xart Kai ov KaraXenpeiv 
€771 TTj? olKOVjJLevrjs tjXlo) KaBopdv ttoXlv, iv fj 

218 /XT^Tepe? ovrco rpecj^ovrai. TTpoorjKeiv jxevroi rrpo 
ixrjrepojv Trarpduiv rrjv rotavr-qv rpocp-qv, ol Kal 
[lerd T-qXiKavra Trddt] fievovGLV ev rols ottXols. 

219 ravd'' a/xa hie^Lcbv evevoei Kal ttjv diToyvajGLV rcJov 
dvBpojv ov yap dv en Ga)(f)povr]GaL rovg Trdvra 
TTporreTTOvdoras e^' ot? et/coj -qv fiera^aXeadat, firj 
TTaOovuiv.^ 

220 (iv. 1) "HS?^ Se TtDv hvo raypidrcov ovvreTe- 
XeKOTOJV rd p^oj/xara Awov [xr^vog oyhor] irpoudyeiv 
eKeXevae rovs Kpcov? Kard ttjv euTrepLov i^eSpav 

221 Tov e^cu^ev-^ lepov. irpo he tovtcov e^ -qpuepas*' 
dhiaXeLTTTOJS rj oreppo-drr] Traocov eXeTToXig tvtt- 
Tovaa TOV TOt;(oy ovhev ijvvcrev, dXXd Kal TavT-qg 
Kal T(x)v dXXojv TO jJLeyedos Kai tj apfiovta tcov 

222 Xidojv riv dp,eivajv. ttjs he ^opeiov ttvXtis VTTOjpvTTOv 

^ 5e TOi L. ^ irddojaiv Xaber. 

3 Lat. : ^udev PA^ : Icw^ev the rest; cf. §§ 151, 244. 

* PL : ijfxipais the rest 

438 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 214-222 

(5) The horrible news soon spread to the Romans. Protesta- 
Of them some were incredulous, others were moved xitus. 
to pity, but the effect on the majority was to intensify 
their hatred of the nation. Caesar declared himself 
innocent in this matter also in the sight of God, 
protesting that he had offered the Jews peace, 
independence, and an amnesty for all past offences, 
while they, preferring sedition to concord, peace to '' 
war, famine to plenty and prosperity, and having 
been the first to set fire with their own hands to 
that temple which he and his army were preserving 
for them, were indeed deserving even of such food 
as this. He, however, would bury this abomination 
of infant-cannibalism beneath the ruins of their 
country, and would not leave upon the face of. the 
earth, for the sun to behold, a city in which mofhers 
were thus fed. Yet, he added, such food was less 
meet for mothers than for fathers, who even after 
such horrors still remained in arms. While express- 
ing these sentiments, he had, moreover, in mind the 
desperation of these men, being convinced that they 
were past being brought to reason who had already 
endured all the miseries, to be spared the experience 
of which they might have been expected to relent. 

(iv. 1) Two of the legions having now completed Hams and 
their earthworks,'* on the eighth of the month Lous, prmiii^ 
Titus ordered the rams to be brought up opposite unavailing 
the western hall of the outer court of the temple. ' ' "^"^ 
Before their arrival, the most redoubtable of all the 
siege-engines had for six days incessantly battered 
the wall without effect, the massiveness and nice 
adjustment of the stones being proof against it as 
against the rest. Another party endeavoured to 

• Cf. §§ 150 f. 

439 



JOSEPHUS 

erepoL rovs OefieXiovs Kal ttoAAo, raXanrajprjaavres 
rovg efjLTTpocrOev XiOovs i^eKuXtaav. dvelx^ro^ 8' 
V7TO Tcov evhoTepco Kai diefieLvev rj ttvXt], fJ-^XP'' ''"^S' 
hi^ opydvcov Kal tojv fioxXcov eTTix^iprjoeLs oltto- 

223 yi'ovres KXlfiaKa? rats" gtooIs 7TpoGe(j)epov. ol 8e 
'loL'Satot KcoXvaaL fiev ovk k^Oaaav, dva^doL Se 
orvLnreaovres ifj-axovro, Kal rovs fiev dva)8ovPT€s 
els tovttLgco KareKprjfivLL,ov, rovs S' VTravTidLovras^ 

224 dvfipovv TToXXoijs he rcov KXcfiaKajv aTTO^aivovras , 
rrplv (ppd^aadaL ro'tg Ovpeols, Traiovres rat? pop.- 
<^atats" ecfiOavov, ivlag 8e yepovaas ottXltcov kXl- 

225 jJiiKas rrapaKXivovres dvojOev Kareaeiov rjv 5' ovk 
oXCyos Kal avTOJV (j)6vos. a Se dveveyKovres rd? 
aiipdiias rrepl avrujv erroXepovv, 8etv7]v iqyovpevoi 

226 KoX Trpos aloxv'^'QS tovtcxjv ttju dpTTayqv. reXos 
8e Kal row u-qpaiajv ol lovbaloL Kparovaiv xat 
Tovs dva^dvras SiacfiOelpovGLv ol Se Xolttol rrpos 
ro rdJv dTToXojXorcov Trddo? oppoohovvres ave^o^povv. 

227 TCOV pkv ovv 'PajpatCDV aTTpaKros ovSet? arreOavep, 
rojv Se Grauiaorojv ol Kara rds rrporepas pdy^as 
rjyoji'LGavro yevvaiojs Kal rore, koI EAea^apo? 

228 dSeXSiSovs rov rvpdvvov ^ipojvos . 6 Sc Tiros' to? 
iojpa rrjv errl rols dXXorpiois lepdls (f)eid(jj rrpog 
PXd^r]s rols Grpanwrais yivopevrjv Kal (f)6vov, rds 
TTvXas TTpooera^ev vcfjaTrreiv. 

229 (2) 'Ev Se rovroj Trpos avrdv avropoXovoLv 
"Kvavos re 6 d-r ^Appaovs,* rojv Htpajvos hopv- 

^ dveixovTo PA. ^ PM : Sia tQv the rest. 

^ VTravTid^oPTes Ij. 

* C : a.<pa/.Lfxaovs PA : d(p 'A/j./.Laov$ other MSS. 

440 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 222-229 

undermine the foundations of the northern gate, 
and by great exertions succeeded in extricating the 
stones in front ; but the gate, supported by the inner 
stones, stood firm. Finally, despairing of all attempts 
with engines and crowbars, the Romans appHed 
ladders to the porticoes. The Jews made no haste 
to prevent this, but as soon as they mounted vigor- 
ously attacked them. Some they thrust back and 
hurled down headlong, others who encountered 
them they slew ° ; many as they stepped oft' the 
ladders they cut down ^^'ith their swords, before 
they could shield themselves with their bucklers; 
some ladders, again, laden with armed men, they 
tilted sideways from above and dashed to the ground ; 
not, however, without suffering considerable slaughter 
themselves. The Romans who had brought up the 
standards fought fiercely around these, deeming 
theirloss a dire disaster and disgrace ; yet, eventually, 
these ensigns also were taken by the Jews, who "''' 
destroyed all who had mounted. The remainder, 
intimidated by the fate of the fallen, then retired. 
Of the Romans, not one had not achieved something 
ere he fell ; of the rebels, those who had gained 
distinction in pre\-ious engagements fought gallantly 
also in this, as did also Eleazar, nephew of the tyrant 
Simon. Titus, now that he saw that his endeavour Titus oider.- 
to spare a foreign temple led only to the injury and ga^esTo^be 
slaughter of his troops, issued orders to set the gates *'^ed. 
on fire. 

(2) Meanwhile tw'o deserters had joined him, Two 
Ananus of Emmaus, the most bloodthirsty of Simon's deserters! 

• Or, with the other reading, " they encountered and slew." 

441 



JOSEPHUS 

(hopcov 6 (^ovLKOJTaros y /cat 'Ap;\;€Aaos' vlos MayaS- 
ddrov, (jvyyvajjiTiv eXrrLGavres eVctSr) Kparovvrajv 

2o<t 'louSaioJV i)7Te-x^d>povv} Tiros he koI tovto^ rrav- 
ovpyr]iJLa Trpov^aXXero^ roJv drhpcov, /cat ttjv dXXrjv 
TTepl rovs lSlovs* ojiioTr]ra TreTTVcrpLevog ojpjJL'qTO 
KT€LV€LV €KaT€povs y VTT^ dvdyKT]£ Tj^OaL Xeyojv 
avTOvg, ovK EK TrpoaLpeaecDS TrapetvaL, Kat acoTT^ptas 
OVK d^iovs elvai rovs <f)X€yopievi-js rjhrj St avTOvg 

2oi '^V^ Trarpihos i^aXXopievovg. eKparei. d 6p.oJS rod 
OvpLov Tj TTLcrrLs, /cat dcf)L-qGL rov£ dvSpa?, ov pirjv iv 

232 LGT] fJLOLpa Kareraaue rots aAAot?. '^hrj Se rat? 
TTuAat? ol Grpariojrai Trpoarjyov ro TTvp, /cat 
TTepLrrjKopLevo? 6 dpyvpos hiehibov rax^ojs et? rrjv 
^vXeiav rrjv (f>X6ya, evOev ddpoojg iKcfjepopLevr] rtov 

233 crroajv irreXajif^dvero . rots S' lovhaloLS opojGi ro 
TTvp iv kvkXoj fierd rcbv oajfidrow TTapetdrjaav at 
i/fu^at, /cat Sta rrjv KardTTXrj^LV dpLVvetv puev rj 
oBewueiv cup/xr^crev ouSet's", auot 8' iarcLres acjieoj- 

234 pojv. OX) pLr]v rrpos ro SaTravojpLevov ddvpLovvres 
els yovv ro Xolttov iaojchpovovv, aXX cos rjorj /cat 
rov vaov /cato/xevof rovs Ovjjlovs ettI Pcu/xatou? 

235 edrr/ov. eKecvriv uev ovv rrjv rjpLepav /cat rrjv 
eTTLOvaav vvKra ro rrvp erreKparef Kara fiepos 
ydp, ovx ojjiov TrdvroOev taxvcrcv vcjidipaL rds 
arods. 

23G (S) Tfj S' irrLOvar) Tiros /xepet rijs hwdpieajs 

^ PAM : avex'^^'P^^^ L : drrex'^povi' the rest. 

- -f TO L. ^ TpoSdWeraL PA : Trpoi'/SaXero L. 

* 'loidaioi'j LC Lat. 

» Employed by him as executioner of the chief priest 
Matthias, Simon's former patron, v. 531. Ananus i.> there 
called son of Bagadatus, a name probably identical with 

44^2 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 229-236 

lieutenants,'' and Archelaus, son of Magaddatus, 
hoping for pardon because they were leaving the 
Jews at a moment of success. Titus, however, 
censured their action as a further knavish trick ; 
and, having heard of their cruelty in general to their 
countrymen, he was strongly minded to put them 
both to death, observing that they had been driven 
by necessity, not led by inclination, to come over, 
and that men who leapt from their native city only 
when enveloped in the flames, for which they were 
themselves responsible, did not deserve to hye. 
Nevertheless, his good faith overcame his animosity, 
and he let them go, though he did not put them on 
an equal footing with the rest. 

The troops were by now setting fire to the gates, Burning of 
and the silver melting all around quickly admitted porticoes 
the flames to the woodwork, whence they spread 
in dense volumes and caught hold of the porticoes. 
The Jews, seeing the fire encircling them, were 
deprived of all energy of body and mind ; in utter 
consternation none attempted to ward off or ex- 
tinguish the flames ; paralysed ^ they stood and 
looked on. Yet, though dismayed by the ravage 
being wrought, they learnt no lesson with regard to 
wliat was left, but, as if the very sanctuary were 
now ablaze, only whetted their fury against the 
Romans. So throughout that day and the ensuing 
night the fire prevailed ; for they could only set 
light to portions of the porticoes, and not to the Avhole 
range at once. 

(3) On the following day Titus, after giving orders o. 2S August. 

Magaddatus, here assigned to the father of the other deserter, 
Archelaus. 

" Literally " dry " (c/. i. 381. " dry with fright "). 

VOL. Ill P 443 



JOSEPH us 

a^€vvu€LV T€ Kal ra} irapa rds" TTvXas ohoTTOieiv els 

evfiapearepav rcov Tayfjidrcov avohov KeXevaag 

237 avTog Gvvrjye rovs rjyepLovas. Kal GvveXdovrcnv e^ 
Ton^ Kopv(j)aioTaT(x>v , Ti^epLov re AAe^avSpou rod 
TrdvTOJv rojv Grparevp^arajv eTrap^oPTOS , Kal He^rov 
"KepeaXiov rod to TrepLTrrov dyovros raypa, Kai 
AapKLOv Ae—idov to heKaTov, Kal Titov ^pvylov 

238 TO 7TevT€KaihiKaTOV y Trpos ols Opovrcoy -^v ATepios^ 
(JTpaTOTTeSdpxy]? tcov oltto AAe^arSpcta? hvo ray- 
pLOLTajv, Kal yidpKos ^AvTcovLos 'louAtavo? O TT]g 

'louSata? iTTLTpOTTO?, Kai peTa TOVTOV? eTTLTpOTTOJV 

Kal ^(^LXidpxfJ^v dOpoLGdivTcoVy ^ovXrjv Trepl tov 

239 vaov TrpovTidei, toIs p-ev ovv ihoKei ■x^prjuOai tco 
TOV TToXepov vopLcp' pLTj ydp dv 7T0T€ 'louSatous 
TTavaauOaL vecoTepit^ovTas tov vaov pLevovTog, e^' 

240 ov ol rravTa'x^odev GvXXeyovTai. TLves 8e rrapi^vovv, 
el pLev KaTaXiTTOiev avTov 'louSatot /cat pur^hels eV 
avTov Ta orrXa deir], Gojt,eLv, el he TToXepoZev^ eiri- 
^dvTeSy KaTa(f)XeyeLV' (f)povpLov ydp, ovKeTi vaov 
elvai, Kal to Xolttov ecrecr^at Tojv avayKaoavTOJV 

241 [TT^Vj aGepeiav, ovk avTOJV. o oe L ltos ovo av 
ijTL^dvTeg err* avTov TroXepLcoGLv^ lovbaloL ^i^cras"* 
dvTt Tcov dvBpcjv dpLVvelGOaC rd di/jvxci ovSe 
KaTacf)Xe^eLv noTe t-qXikovtov epyov 'PojpLalcov 
ydp eGeGdai ttjv ^Xd^rjv, ojGTrep Kai KOGpLov tt^s" 

242 TjyepLOVLag avTov puevovTOS' OappovvTes h rjorj 
TTpoGeTidevTO TYJ yvcopLT) ^povTOJv re /cat 'AAef- 

^ TO. L : om. the rest. 

' Renier (quoted by Xiese) : 'Erf'ptos PA, 'EWpvtos, etc., the 
rest. ' TToXefjLuiev MSS. 

* ins. L : om. the rest. * L Zon. : iroXefj-Qcu the rest. 

* Text doubtful : ?(pT] has weak ms. support : Niese sus- 
pects a lacuna. ' Niese : d/xwecr^at mss. 

444 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 236-242 

to a division of his army to extinguish the fire and Titus holds 
make a road to the gates to facihtate the ascent of with his 
the legions, called together his generals. Six of his ^taffcm the 
chief staff-officers were assembled, namely, Tiberius temple 
Alexander, the prefect of all the forces,^ Sextus 
Cerealius, Larcius Lepidus, and Titus Phrygius, 
the respective commanders of the fifth, tenth, and 
fifteenth legions ; Fronto Haterius, prefect of the 
two legions^ from Alexandria, and Marcus Antonius 
Julianus, procurator of Judaea ; and the procurators 
and tribunes being next collected, Titus brought 
forward for debate the subject of the temple. Some 
were of opinion that the law of war should be enforced, 
since the Jews would never cease from rebellion 
while the temple remained as the focus for concourse 
from every quarter. Others advised that if the Jews 
abandoned it and placed no weapons whatever upon 
it, it should be saved, but that if they mounted it for 
purposes of warfare, it should be burnt ; as it would 
then be no longer a temple, but a fortress, and 
thenceforward the impiety would be chargeable, 
not to the Romans but to those who forced them to ^ 

take such measures. Titus, however, declared that, 
even were the Jews to mount it and fight therefi'om, 
he would not ■v\Teak vengeance on inanimate objects 
instead of men, nor under any circumstances burn 
down so magnificent a work ; for the loss would - 
affect the Romans, inasmuch as it would be an orna- 
ment to the empire if it stood. '^ Fortified by this 
pronouncement, Fronto, Alexander, and CereaUus 

'^ Praefectus castrorum, a sort of quartermaster general, 
with control over all the camps : cf. v. 45 f. 

* V. 44. 

^ For a conflicting account of the verdict of Titus at this ^ > "—^ 
councO see Introduction to vol. ii. pp. xxiv f. 

445 



JOSEPHUS 

243 avSpo? Kal KcpeaAto?. rore jiev ovv StaAuet to 
(Tvvehpiov Kau ra? aAAas" SvvdfJL€Ls StayaTiaucrat 
KeXevaas tol? rjyefjiOGiv, ottcos ippcofieveGrepois^ 
iv rfj 7Tapard^€L ;)^pT]CTatTO, rots' ^.tto roiv OTreipojv 

€7nX€KT0LS oSoTTOielv StO, TCUV ipeLTTLCOV 7TpOG€.ra^€ 

Kau TO TTvp o^evvveiv . 

244 (4) Kar* eKeiv-qv pikv hr] rrjv rjjjiepav [tcjvY 
lovSaLcov KUfiaTos t€ Kal KaTanX-q^Lg eKpaT-qae 

ras opfias' rfj 8 emovGTj cryXXe^dpLevoL t€ t7]v 
LG^vv Kat dvadapG-qGavT€5 irTeKdeovGL 8td rrjs 
avaToXiKrjs ttvXtjs toIs (f>vXa^L rod e^coOev lepov 

245 7T€pl SevTepav ojpav. ol Se KapTepaJ? pLev ide^avro 
avToJv TTjv epi^oXrjV Kat (f)pa$dpievoL rols dvpeols 
KaTa p,€TOJTrov ojGTrep rel-)(os invKvajGav rriv 
<f)dXayyay h'qXoi 8' rjGav ovk inl ttoXv GvpipLevovvTes^ 
TrXrjdei re rwv eKrpey^ovrojv /cat dvpLolg r]rrojpLevoL. 

246 <j)6dGas 8e rrjS rrapard^eajs Tr]v poTrrjv Kataap, 
Kadewpa yap drro Trjs ^ Kvrwvias, iTTi^pLVve pLera 

241 Tix)V eTTtAeVrcDV t7777eajv. louSatot Se Tr]v ecj)- 

oBoV OVX V7T€pL€LVaV, dXXd TCOV TTpUJTWV TTeGOVTCOV 

248 erpaTT-qGav ol ttoXXoi' Kai V7Toy(ajpovGL /xev rot? 

PcD/xatot? iTTLGTpecfiopLevoL 7TpoG€K€iVTO, pL€Ta^aX- 
XopL€va>v 8' dve(f)€vyov TrdXtv, ews rrepl TrepLTrrrjv rrjs 
7]pL€pag ojpav ol pLev ^laGOevTes els to evhov 

249 GvveKXeLGdrjGav lepov, (o) Tltos 8 ave^^ajprioev 
€i,s rrjv 'Avrcovlav SLeyvojKcog rrjs irnovG-qs rjpiepas 
V7TO rrjv eo) /xera TrdG-qs epb^aXelv rrjs SvvdpLeojs 

250 Kat rov vaov TrepLKaraGxelv. rod 8' dpa Kar- 
eiprj(f)LGro pL€v ro TTvp 6 deos TrdXat, rraprjv 8' r] 
€LpLappL€vr} xpoycDV 7Tept,6hoLs TjpLepa BeKarrj Acoov 

^ Destinon from Lat. : ^ppu/jJvoa L : ippuixeviarepov the 
rest. 

446 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 243-250 

now came over to his view. He then dissolved the 
council, and, directing the officers to allow the other 
troops an interval of repose, that he might find them 
reinvifforated in action, he eave orders to the picked and gives 

o ■' o 1 orQ6rs to 

men from the cohorts to open a road through the extinguish 
ruins and extinguish the fire. the fire. 

(4) Throughout that day fatigue and consternation 
crushed the energies of the Jews ; but, on the follow- c. 29 August 
ing day, with recruited strength and renewed 
courage, they sallied out through the eastern gate 

upon the guards of the outer court of the temple, 
at about the second hour. The Romans stubbornly 
met their charge and, forming a screen in front with 
their shields hke a wall, closed up their ranks ; it 
was evident, however, that they could not long hold 
together, being no match for the number and fury 
of their assailants. Caesar, who was watching the 
scene from Antonia, anticipating the breaking of the 
line, now brought up his picked cavalry to their 
assistance. The Jews could not withstand their 
onset : the fall of the foremost led to a general 
retreat. Yet whenever the Romans retired they 
returned to the attack, only to fall back once 
more when their opponents wheeled round ; until, 
about the fifth hour of the day, the Jews were 
overpowered and shut up in the inner court of the 
temple. 

(5) Titus then withdrew to Antonia, determined Conflagra- 
on the following day, at dawn, to attack with his J^™ *J^ J|j® 
whole force, and invest the temple. That building, despite of 
however, God, indeed long since, had sentenced ^^^^^ 

to the flames ; but now in the revolution of the years 

had arrived the fated day, the tenth of the month c. 30(Nieso 

29) August. 

* om. AL. ^ Bekker with Lat. : avjiixevovres mss. 

447 



JOSEPHUS 

li'qvos, Kad* 7]v Kal Trporepov vtto tov tojv Ba^v- 

251 XojvLCDV ^aaiXeojs iveTrpT^adr]. Xafx^dvovGL 8' at 
(f)X6y€? €K TOJV oLKeLOJV TTjv ap^r^v Kai Tr)V atrtav 
VTTOxojpi^aavTog yap tov Tltov vpos oXiyov Aco- 
(f)'qGavT€£ ol GTacnacTTal ttolXlv toIs 'Pct>/xaiois' eVt- 
TidevTaLy Kai tCjv tov vaov (l)povp(jov ytverat crvpL- 
^oXrj TTpos Tovs o^evvvvTas to TTvp \tov evhodev 
tepou]/ ot TpeipdjJLevoL tov? ^lovSatov? p-^XP^ '^^^^ 

252 vaov TraprjKoXovOovv. evOa Stj tojv OTpaTiojTOov 
Tig, ovT€ TTapdyyeXpia 7T€pip,eivas ovt^ eTrl T-qXc- 
KOVTOJ heiuas eyx^eip-qpiaTiy SaLpLovlcp^ oppifj tlvl 
Xpci)fi€vo£ ap7TdL,€L p.€v €K TTJs (fiXeyopLevqs vXt]s,* 

avaKOV(f)LGd€LS S VTTO GVGTpaTLOJTOV^ TO TTVp eVLTjOL 

dvplSi xP'^^fly ^Q.^' Tjv el? TOVS irepl tov vaov olkovs 

253 €lolt6v rjv €k tov ^opeuov KXtpLaTog. alpop^evrjs Se 
TTjS (j>Xoy6s ^lovhaiojv pL€v eyelpeTai Kpavyrj tov 
ndOovs d^ia, Kal rrpos ttjv dfivvav avvedeov, ovt€ 
TOV 1,'fjv ert (^£t8cu Xap.^dvovT€s ovt€ Tapaevop^evoL 

TTJV Ig^VV, St' OV^ cf)vXaKTLK0L TTpOTCpOV T^GaV 
OL)(OpL€VOV. 

254 (6) ApapLOJV Se rt? dyyeXXei Ttroj' KaKelvos, 
eTvx^i^ Se /caro. gkijvtjv dvaTTav6p.€vos €k ttjs 
pidxrjS, CVS ^^X^^ dvaTT-qS-qaas e^€t Trpos tov vaov 

265 etp^ojv TO TTvp. KaTomv S' ot re rjyep.6v€s eiTTOVTO 
TTavTes, Kal TTTorjOevTa tovtols rjKoXovdeL Ta 

^ ora. Syr. ^ + evbodev A Syr. ^ + 5' Destinoii 

* (pKoyos PA (S^'r. ?) : text uncertain. 

' Bekker with Lat. : arpaTubrov mss. 

« 8l bv Destinon. cf. iii. 196, v. 543, vi. 32-2: oi ou or 5t' 5 

Kal MSS. 

" This is in accordance with Jer. Iii. 12 f., where the 
burning of the temple by Nebuzaradan, captain of Nebuchad- 
rezzar's guard, is stated to have occurred on the 10th day 

448 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 250-255 

Lous, the day on \vhich of old it had been burnt by 
the king of Babylon." The flames, however, owed 
their origin and cause to God's own people.^ For, 
on the withdrawal of Titus, the insurgents, after a 
brief respite, again attacked the Romans, and an 
engagement ensued between the guards of the 
sanctuary and the troops who were endeavouring 
to extinguish the fire in the inner court ; the latter 
routing the Jews and pursuing them right up to 
the sanctuary. At this moment, one of the soldiers, 
awaiting no orders and with no horror of so dread 
a deed, but moved by some supernatural impulse, 
snatched a brand from the burning timber and, 
hoisted up by one of his comrades, flung the fiery 
missile through a low golden door,'' which gave access 
on the north side to the chambers surrounding the 
sanctuary. As the flame shot up, a cry, as poignant 
as the tragedy, arose from the Jews, who flocked 
to the rescue, lost to all thought of self-preservation, 
all husbanding of strength, now that the object of 
all their past vigilance was vanishing. 

(6) Titus was resting in his tent after the engage- 
ment, when a messenger rushed in with the tidings. 
Starting up just as he was, he ran to the temple to 
arrest the conflagration ; behind him followed his 
whole staff of generals, while in their train came the 
excited legionaries, and there was all the hubbub and 

of the 5th month (Heb. Ab = Lous in the Syrian calendar). 
In 2 Kings xxv. 8, on the other hand, the day is given as 
the 7th Ab ; while, in Jewish tradition, the anniversary of 
the double burning has always been kept on the 9th Ab.' A 
fictitious symmetry between corresponding events in the two 
sieges has probably been at work. 

'' Or " to their own people." 

• Or " through a golden window," 

449 



JOSEPHUS 

rdyfiara' ^orj 8* rjv Kal dopv^os are rrjXiKavrrjs 

256 Swdfjieoj? draKrajs KeKLvrjfjLevqg. 6 fiev ovv Katcrap 
Tjj re (fxjovfj^ Kal rfj Se^ta Stecn^/xatve rot? /Lta;^o- 
yiivois TO TTvp G^evvveiv , ovre he ^ocovros ^kovov 
jjL€L^ovL Kpavyfj rds d/coas" TTpoKaTetXrjfifjLevoL /cat 
rots' vevjiaai rrjs X^'-P^^ °^ TrpooelyoVy ol pLev ro) 

257 TToAe/xety, ol S opyfj TrepiGTTOjpievoi. rcbv Se ray- 
pidrcov eladeovTOJv ovre Trapaiveois ovt aTretA?) 
Karelx^v rds oppids, dXX o Ovpios aTrdvrcov icrrpa- 
T'qyei' Kal Trepl rag elaohovg uvvojBovpievoL ttoXXol 
pL€v utt' aXX-qXcov KareTrarovvro , TioAAot Se deppiol? 

€TL Kal TV(l)Opi€VOL£ r0L£ ep€L7TLOLS TCOV OTOWV ipi- 

258 TTiTTTOVTes rjTT(jjpi.evcov ovpi<j)opaZs ixpcovro. 7tXi]glov 
be rod vaov yuvopievoL tojv piev rod Katorapo? 
TTapayyeXpidrcjJV TTpoaeTTOLOvvro pL'qhe KaraKovetv, 
rot? 77/30 avTOJV Se to rrvp evtevat TrapeKeXevovro. 

259 TOJV Se GTaGLaoTcLv dpirjxoLVLa pL€v T^y TJS-q tov 
^oi^delv, (j>6vos Se iravTaxov Kal TpoTTT]. to he 
irXeov a770 tov hrjpiov Xao? dadevT]? Kal dvoTrXos 
OTTOV KaTaX'r](f)deLr] tls aTreocfiaTTeTOy Kal Trepl pLev 
TOV ^copLOV ttXtjOos eoiopeijeTO veKpwv, /card he twv 
TOV vaov ^ddpojv alpid t eppeu ttoXv Kal Ta tojv 
dvoj (f)ovevopievojv ccu/xara KaTajXiadave. 

260 (?) Katoap S' (hs ovTe rds" opp-dg evdovoiaiVTWv 
TOJV GTpaTLOJTcov KaTaa^^^v clog T€ rjv Kal to nvp 
eTTeKpdTeiy TrapeXdwv pieTa to)V rjyepLovojv evhov 
ededuaTO tov vaov to dyiov xat ra ev avTO), ttoXv 
piev Trj£ TTapd rot? dAAo^uAot? (fyijpLTjg dpielvoj, tov 
he KopLTTOV Kal TTJs TTapd Tols oiKeiois ho^rjs ovk 

261 eAdrrco. ttjs (f)Xoy6s S ovhenoj huKvovpLevqs 

^ L (Lat. voce) : /Soj the rest, 
450 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 255-261 

confusion attending the disorderly movement of so 
large a force. Caesar, both by voice and hand, 
signalled to the combatants to extinguish the fire ; 
but they neither heard his shouts, dro^vned in the 
louder din which filled their ears, nor heeded his 
beckoning hand, distracted as they were by the fight 
or their fury. The impetuosity of the legionaries, 
when they joined the fray, neither exhortation nor 
threat could restrain ; passion was for all the only 
leader. Crushed together about the entrances, many 
were trampled down by their companions ; many, ""^ 
stumbling on the still hot and smouldering ruins of 
the porticoes, suffered the fate of the vanquished 
As they drew nearer to the sanctuary they pretended 
not even to hear Caesar's orders and shouted to those 
in front of them to throM' in the firebrands. The 
insurgents, for their part, were now powerless to 
help ; and on all sides was carnage and flight. Most 
of the slain were civilians, weak and unarmed people, 
each butchered where he was caught. Around the 
altar a pile of corpses was accumulating ; down the 
steps of the sanctuary flowed a stream of blood, and 
the bodies of the victims killed above went sUding to 
the bottom. 

(7) Caesar, finding himself unable to restrain the His 
impetuosity of his frenzied soldiers and the fire ffain- ^in-^vaiiing 

. ^1 -^ 1.11. 1-1.1 'ftoits to 

ing the mastery, passed with his generals within tlie ^^ave it. 
building and beheld the holy place of the sanctuary 
and all that it contained — things far exceeding the "^ 
reports current among foreigners and not inferior to 
their proud reputation among ourselves.*^ As the 
flames had nowhere yet penetrated to the interior, 

* Cf. the account of Pompey's similar visit to tlu- Holy 
Place, i. 152. 

VOL. TTI p 2 451 



JOSEPHUS 

ovhayioOev etcrco, rovs 8e nepl rov vaov oXkovs 
veiiojilvri's, yOjLttcras', oirep rjv, en Oixjl^euBai to 

262 epyov bvvacrdaL TTporr-qha, Kal avros re rrapaKaXelv 
Tovs crrpartajTas" eTTetpdro to rrvp o^€Vvv€lv Kal 
Ai^epaXiou €KaTOVTapxT]v tow Trepl avTOV \oy)(o- 
<f)6pojp fuAot? TTaiovTa tovs drreidovvTas eKeXevaev 

263 etpyetv. tojv Se Kal ttjv rrpos tov Kataapa atScu 
Kal rov OLTTO TOV KcoXvovTog (f)6^ov evLKOjv OL Ovfiol 
Kal TO TTpos 'lovSatous" p.l<Jos Kal rroXepLLKT^ ns 

264 opfiT) Xa^poTepa- tovs Se ttoXXovs ivrjyev dpTrayijs 
iX-nig, ho^av [re]^ exovrag co? tol €vSov drravTa 
XprjiiaTOJU p.€GTd etrj Kal rd Trept^ opojVTas xP^cro^ 

265 TTeTTOLTipiiva. (j)ddvei he ns Kal tojv etuoj irapeXrjXv- 
doTOJV, eKTTrjhrjGavTOS tov Katcra/30S" Trpos eTTOxy]^ 
TOJV GTpaTLOJTcop, TTvp els TOVS GTpo(f>eas ipL^aXdjv 

266 TJ]s TTvXris [ev gkotcoj^' rore ydp e^aTTLvrjs evhodev 
€K(f)aveLar)s (j>Xoy6s ol re -qycjioves /xera tov 
KatCTapos" dvexci)povv, Kal tovs e^codev ovSels 
V(f)d7TTeLv eKojXvev. 6 p,ev ovv vaos ovtojs aKovTOs 
Katcrapos" epirr irrpaT ai, 

267 (8) IloAAa S' dv tls i-rroXocfivpapevos ^pycp 
TrdvTOJV cLv oipeL Kal dKofj TTapeiXr](j)ap,ev 6avp,a- 
CTtajTCiTOj KaTaaKevrjs re eveKa Kal peyedovs, ert 
re rrjs Kad^ eKaarov TToXvreXeias Kal r-qs rrepi ra 
dyia ho^Tjs, p^eyiar-qv Xd^oi Trapapvdiav rrjv et/xap- 
pLevTjVy d(f)VKTOV ovuav ojGTtep epxpvxois ovtoj Kai 

268 epyoLS Kal tottols. davpLaoaL^ 5' dv tls ev avrij 
ri^S TTepiohov rr]v dKpi^eiav Kai pLrjva yovv, cog 
icpTjv^ Kal TjpLepav errjprjGev rrjv avTrjVy ev fj 

1 om. P Lat. 

' om. Lat. Zon. : h kovtu (" with a pole ") M margin. 

" davfj-daeie L Zon. 

452 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 261-268 

but were consuming the chambers surrounding the 
temple, Titus, correctly assuming that the structure 
might still be saved, rushed out and by personal 
appeals endeavoured to induce the soldiers to quench 
the fire ; while he directed Liberalius, a centurion 
of his bodyguard of lancers, to restrain, by resort to 
clubs, any who disobeyed orders. But their respect 
for Caesar and their fear of the officer who was 
endeavouring to check them were overpowered by 
their rage, their hatred of the Jews, and a lust for 
battle more unruly still. Most of them were further 
stimulated by the hope of plunder, believing that the 
interior was full of money and actually seeing that 
all the surroundings were made of gold. However, 
the end was precipitated by one of those who 
had entered the building, and who, when Caesar 
rushed out to restrain the troops, thrust a firebrand, 
in the darkness, ° into the hinges of the gate. At 
once a flame shot up from the interior, Caesar 
and his generals withdrew, and there was none 
left to prevent those outside from kindling a blaze. 
Thus, against Caesar's wishes, was the temple set 
on fire. 

(8) Deeply as one must mourn for the most mar- The 
vellous edifice which we have ever seen or heard of, of a^pi^e^fons 
whether we consider its structure, its magnitude, the ^onflagra- 
richness of its every detail, or the reputation of its 
Holy Places, yet may we draw very great consolation 
from the thought that there is no escape from Fate, 
for works of art and places any more than for living 
beings. And one may well marvel at the exactness 
of the cycle of Destiny ; for, as I said, she waited 
until the very month and the very day on which in 

" Text uncertain. 

453 



JOSEPHUS 

TTporepov VTTO IBa^vXajvLCxJV 6 vaos iveTrp-^aOrj. 

269 /cat OLTTO fiev rij? rrpojrr]? avrov Kriaeoj?, tjv 
Kare^dXero ZoAo/xcov o ^aoiXevs, [J-^XP^ '^V^ ^^^ 
dvaipeaeajg, t) yeyovev erec hevrepo) rrjs OveoTra- 
(jiavov r]y€p,ovLag, errj avvdyerat ;)(tAta eKarov 
rpLaKovra, rrpos Se firjveg irrrd /cat Trevre/catSc/ca 

270 rjjjLepaL' drro 8e rrjs varepov, tjv eret Sevrepoj 
Kupof ^aacXevovro^ erroi-qGaro Ayyato?, err] 
{J'^xp^ TT]S 1^770 OvecTTTaGLavov dXaxjeoJS rpiaKovra- 
€vvea rrpos e^aKoaioLs /cat rjiiepat T€ooapaKOVTa- 

7T€Vr€. 

271 (v. l) Kato/xeVou Be rov vaov rcov jiev TtpoG- 
TTLTTTOvTcov Tjv dpTTayrjy (j)6vos Se ra)V KaraXap,- 
^avojievcov /.Lvplog /cat ovre rjXiKLag rjv eXcog ovr 
evrpoTTr] uepLvorrjros, aAAa /cat rraihia /cat yepovres 
/cat ^e^-qXoi /cat Upelg opLolaJS dvrjpovvro, /cat 77av 
yivos erre^-QeL -rrepiG-x^ajv 6 noXepios, opLou rovs re 

272 LKerevovrag /cat rous" dpivvopevovs. Gvvrjy^ei S' t^ 
(j^Ao^ eVt TrAetCTTOt' iK(f>epop€v-q rots rwv ttltttovtcov 
arrevaypLOLS, /cat Sta pev ro vipog rov X6(f)ov /cat to 
TOL» (f)Xeyopei>ov peyedos epyov iraGav av tls 
cSofe KaieGOaL rr)v ttoXlv, rrj£ Se ^oijs iKeLvq<; 
ovhkv €7TLV07]drjvaL Swaur av rj pLelLov 7] <f)o^€poj- 

273 repov. twv re yap *Paj/i.aiK:a)v rayp.dra>v aXaXay- 
p,6s rjv avp(l)€popLeva)v, /cat tcov GraGiaGTOJV irvpl 
/cat Gihripcp K€KVKXa)pL€va)v Kpavyq, rod re diro- 
X7](f)devros dvo) Xaov rpoTrrj re pier eKTrX'/j^eo)? elg 
rovs rroXepiovs /cat rrpos ro irddos olpLajyai. 

274 crvve^oa 8e rot? e77t rov X6(f)0V ro Kara rrjv rroXiv 
ttXtjOos' rjBr] Se TroAAot rep XtpLco pLapatvopievoL /cat 
pLepiVKores djs el6ov ro rov vaov rrvp, els ohvppiovs 
454 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 268-274 

bygone times the temple had been burnt by the 
Babylonians .° From its first foundation by King 
Solomon up to its present destruction, which took 
place in the second year of Vespasian's reign, the 
total period amounts to one thousand one hundred 
and thirty years seven months and fifteen days ; 
from its rebuilding by Haggai in the second year of 
the reign of Cjtus until its fall under ^^espasian to 
six hundred and thirty-nine years and forty-five 
days.^ 

(v. 1) While the temple blazed, the victors Sounds 
plundered everything that fell in their way and at'temUn^ 
slaughtered wholesale all who were caught. No pitv the fire. 
was shown for age, no reverence for rank ; children 
and greybeards, laity and priests, alike were mas- 
sacred : every class was pursued and encompassed 
in the grasp of war, whether suppliants for mercy or 
offering resistance. The roar of the flames streaming 
far and vride mingled with the groans of the falling 
victims ; and, owing to the height of the hill and the 
mass of the burning pile, one would have thought 
that the whole city was ablaze. And then the din- 
nothing more deafening or appalling could be con- 
ceived than that. There were the war-cries of the 
Roman legions sweeping onward in mass, the howls 
of the rebels encircled by fire and sword, the rush 
of the people who, cut off above, fled panic-stricken 
only to fall into the arms of the foe, and their shrieks 
as they met their fate. With the cries on the liill 
were blended those of the multitude in the citv 
below ; and now many who were emaciated and 
tongue-tied from starvation, when they beheld the 

" § 250 note. " Chronological system uncertain. 

4.55 



JOSEPHUS 

ndXiv Kal Kpavyqv evrovrjaav GVvqy^eL h rj tie. 
riepata /cat ra Trlpi^ oprj (^apvrepav TTOiovvra rrjv 

275 ^OTjv. Tjv Se rov Oopv^ov ra TrdOrj cfio^epajrepa' 
rov jjLev ye rov lepov X6(f)OV Ik pit,6jv dv ns ^^o^e 
^pdrreadai TrdvroBev rov TTvpos KarayepLOvra, 
hadiiXeGTepov be to alfia rov rrvpog eivat Kai row 

276 (l)Ovev6vroju rrXeiovs rovs <f)Ovevoiievovs' ovSa/xou 
yap Tj yrj hie4>aivero rcov veKpwv, aXXd [/cai]^ 
GOjpoLS eTTepL^aivovres^ ol arparichrai Gojpdrojv 

277 errl rovs hia(f)evyovras eOeov. ro /xev ovv XrjorpLKOv 
TrX-qdos ojadfievoL rovs Pco/aat'ou? p-oXis els ro 
e^oj hieKTiirrrovuiv lepov KaKeldev eis rrjV TToXiVy 
rov hrjporiKov he ro XeL<j)dev eTil rrjV e^co oroav 

278 Karec^vye. rwv 8' lepeow rives ro pev Trpojrov 
aTTO rov vaov rovs re o^eXovs Kal rds ebpas avrojv 
poXi^ov TTerroLT] pevas dvaoTTOJvres ecs rovs Po)- 

279 palovs ri<^LeGav, avOis S' ojs ovr^ rjvvov ri Kai ro 
rrvp err avrovs aveppijyvvro, ern rov rolypv 
dvayLopr\Gavres i ovra OKrdn'ciyyv ro evpos, epevov. 

280 hvo ye p.rjv rojv eTTLGTipojv, Trapov GCjoOrjvai rrpos 
'Pco/xatofS" pLeraoraGiv rj hiaKaprepeiv Trpos rrjv 
pierd rcov dXXojv rvy^-qVy eavrovs eppcifjav ecs ro 
TTvp Kal ro) vaoj GvyKareSXeyrjGav, ^Irjipos re vlos 
BeAyd Kal ^la)Gr]7TOs AaXacov. 

281 (2) 'Pco/xatot 8e pidraiov rr]v IttI rols "^^V^^ 
(f)eibd) Kpivavres rov vaov (f)XeyopLevov rrdvra gvv- 
€7TLpL7TpaGav, rd re Xelipava row Grocov Kal rds 

^ om. LC Zon. * i-m^aipovTes PA. 

« Cf. the similar catalogue of horrible sounds, including 
456 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 274-281 

sanctuary on fire, gathered strength once more for 
lamentations and wailing. Peraea and the surround- 
ing mountains contributed their echoes, deepening the 
din.'' But yet more awful than the uproar were the 
sufferings. You would indeed have thought that the 
temple-hill was boiling over from its base, being 
everywhere one mass of flame, but yet that the 
stream of blood was more copious than the flames and 
the slain more numerous than the slayers. For the 
ground was nowhere visible through the corpses ; but 
the soldiers had to clamber over heaps of bodies in 
pursuit of the fugitives. The brigand crowd suc- 
ceeded in pushing through the Romans and with 
difficulty forcing their way into the outer court of 
the temple, and thence to the city ; while what was 
left of the populace took refuge on the outer portico.* 
Of the priests some, at the tirst, tore up the spikes 
from the sanctuary, with their leaden sockets, and 
hurled them at the Romans, but afterwards, finding 
their efforts unavailing and the flames breaking out 
against them, they retired to the wall, which was 
eight cubits broad, and there remained. Two per- 
sons of distinction, however, having the choice of 
saving their lives by going over to the Romans or of 
holding out and sharing the fortune of the rest, 
plunged into the fire and were consumed with the 
temple, namely Meirus, son of Belgas, and Josephus, 
son of Dalaeus. 

(2) The Romans, thinking it useless, now that the Burning 
temple was on fire, to spare the surrounding build- ^^easury 
ings, set them all alight, both the remnants of the and other 
porticoes and the gates, excepting two, one on the ^ '"^^ 

the mountain echoes, in the account of the siege of Jotapata, 
iii. 24:1-250. * Their fate is described below, §§ 283 f. 

4.57 



JOSEPHUS 

TTvXa? TrXrjv hvo, tt)? /xev eV rwv avaroXiKcov, ttjs 
bk fJL€G7]fi^pLvrj?- /cat ravra?^ vorepov KareGKaipav. 

282 ^Kaiov he koI ra 'yalo(f)vXdKLa, €V ols aTreipov p.ev 
XP'rjp-drojv 7rXr]6o5 dVetpot S' iadrjres Kal dXXa 
K€LijL-qXia, (JvveXovrt 8 etTTelv, Trdg 6 lovhaLOJv 

G€GOjp€VrO TtXoVTOS, aV€GK€VaG{JL€UCL)V CKel TOVS 

283 oIkov? rcov evrropajv. tjkov Se Kal eirl ttjv Xoltttiv 
GTodv Tov e^ojOev Upov' KaraTTecfievyeL^ 8' eV 
avTTjv OLTTO TOV Sijfiov yvvaia Kal Trachia Kal 

284 GVpLflLKTOS O^XoS €L£ i^aKLGX^'XiOV? . TTplv 8e Kat" 

Gapa KpZvai tl rrepl avTOJV rj KeXevGat rovs '^y^- 
fiovag, (f)€p6iJievoi rolg dvp.ols ol GrparLcoraL rT]v 
GTodv vc^drrrovGL, kgl Gvve^Tj rovg pL€v piTrrovvras 
avTOVs €.k rrjg (i)Xoy6g StacbdaprjvaL, tov? 8 eV 

285 avTjj' 7T€pL€Ga)0r] 8' e'/c togovtojv ovhecs. tovtols 
aLTLog TTJ? aTrajXela? ipevdonpocbrjTrjg t6? /carecTTT^ 
Acar' eKeiviqv K-qpv^as ttjv rjpLepav tol? €7tl ttjs 
TToAecos", d)? 6 deos eirl to Upov dva^rjvai KeXevet 

28<j Se^op-evovg ra Gruiela ttj? GCDT-qpla?. ttoXXoI 8' 
iqGav iyKaOeTOL rrapd rtuv Tvpdvvcov TOTe 77/30? tov 
hrjjJLOv 7Tpo(l)rjTai, rrpoGfJieveiV ttjv diro tov deov 
^orjOeiav KaTayyeXXovTes, djs tjttov avTOpLoXolev 
Kal TOVS eTTavoj ^€0vg Kal cf)vXaKrjs yevouevovs 

287 eXiTLS TTapaKpoTOLTj . TTetdeTaL oe Ta;(eajs"^ avdpojTtos 
€V GvpLcjiopals, OTav 8' 'rjdrj^ Kal tojv KaTexdvTCxJV 
Seivdjv aTTaXXayrjv 6 i^aTraTdJv V7Toypd(f)r], toO 
6 TrdGX^JV oXos ylveTai T-qg cAt? t8o?. 

288 (3) Tov yovv ddXiov SrjiJLOv ol fjiev aTraTedweg Kal 
KaTaipevSofMevoL tov deov TrjvLKavTa 7rap€7T€Ldov, 

^ + 5" Destinoii. 

^ Bekker with one iis. and Lat. (confugerant) : /cara^eiryet 
the rest. ^ 5' evditvs L. * oe 77077 L : oe 5t] most mss. 

458 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 281-288 

east and the other on the south ; these also they 

subsequently razed to the ground. They further 

burnt the treasury-chambers,^ in which lay vast sums 

of money, vast piles of raiment, and other valuables ; 

for this, in short, was the general repc^itory of Jewish 

wealth, to which the rich had consigned the contents 

of their dismantled houses. They then proceeded Destraction 

to the one remaining portico of the outer court, on ^f ^^^^^d 

which the poor women and children of the populace refugees 

and a mixed multitude had taken refuge, numbering 

six thousand. And before Caesar had come to any 

decision or given any orders to the officers concerning 

these people, the soldiers, carried away by rage, set 

fire to the portico from below ; ^^^th the result that 

some were killed plunging out of the flamc^. others 

perished amidst them, and out of all that multitude 

not a soul escaped. They owed their destruction to deluded by 

a false prophet, who had on that day proclaimed to prophet 

the people in the city that God commanded them to 

go up to the temple court, to receive there the tokens 

of their deliverance. Numerous prophets, indeed, 

were at this period suborned by the tyrants to delude 

the people, by bidding them await help from God, 

in order that desertions might be checked and that 

those who were above fear and precaution might be 

encouraged by hope. In adversity man is quickly 

persuaded ; but when the deceiver actually pictures 

release from prevailing horrors, then the sufferer 

wholly abandons himself to expectation. 

(3) Thus it was that the ^^Tetched people were Portents 
deluded at that time by charlatans and pretended °^ ^^^ ®°' * 

* V. 200 ; it was here that Herod Agrippa suspended the 
ffolden chain given him by Caligula on his release from 
imprisonment, A. xix. 294.. 

459 



JOSEPHUS 

rots S* evapyiai koL TrpocrrjfjLaLvovcTL ttjv fxeXXovcrav 
iprjfiLav repaaiv ovre Trpoaelxov ovr eTnarevov, 
dAA' COS" ifi^e^povr-qiJievoL /cat fnqr 6[JLfj.aTa lJLy]T€ 
ipvx'^v e^ovres tcov rod deov K-qpvyfiarojv rrap- 

289 T]Kovaav, rovro pL€v ore virep r-qv rroXiv aurpov earrj 
pofjL(l)aLa TTapaTrXrjGLOv Kai Trapareivas ^tt evtavrov 

290 KOfJL'qrrjs, rovro 8' rjvcKa rrpo rrjs aTTOGraaecos Kai 
rod rrpog rov TroAe/xov KLvqpiaro? aBpoit,op.evov rod 
Xaov rrpos rrjv rcov d^vjJLOJV ioprrjv, oySorj 8' rjv 
'E.avdiKov p.-qv6sy Kara vvKros ivarT]v ojpav rooovro 
(f)a)s TrepieXapupe rov ^cofiov Kal rov vaov, OJS 
hoK€LV rjfiepav elvai XapLTrpdv, Kai rovro rrapereivev 

291 €</>' rjjjLLoreLav ojpav o rot? jjiev aTreipotS" ayadov 
iSoKEL, roZs 8' lepoypapLfJiarevGL Trpos rtov aTTO^e^r]- 

292 Korojv evdeojs iKpidrj. Kal Kara rr^v avrrjv eoprrjv 
^ov? [X€v dySeiaa vtto rov Trpos rrjv Ovoiav ereKev 

293 dpva iv rev Upo) pLeaoj, rj 8' dvaroXiKT] nvXr] rov 
ivBorepcD vaov x^^^^V h*-^^ ovaa Kal GrLJSapajrarr], 

KX€iOp.€V7] 8e 7T€pl S€lXi]V jJLoXiS VTT avOpCOTTCxJV 

elKOGL, Kal fJLOxXols p-ev irrepeLSopLevrj uihripoheroLSi 
KaraTTTjyas 8' exovaa padvrdrovs ets" rov ovbov 
ovra Si-qveKovs Xidov Kadiep-dvovSy dj(f)drj Kara 

294 vvKros ojpav eKr7]v avropidrojs rjvoLyjJLevq^' Spa- 
jjLovres 8' ol rov lepov (f)vXaK€s rjyyeiXav r<h 
arparrjyu), KaKelvos dva^ds /xoAts" avrr]v iaxvaev 

295 /cAetcrai. TrdXiv rovro rols f^ev IhiojraLS KoXXiorov 

^ PA Eus. : ■qveajyuevT] the rest. 

° Tac. IJist. V. 13, "e%"enerant prodigia, quae neque hosHis 
neque voiis piare fas habet gens superstitioni obnoxia, 
religionibus adversa." "Tacitus means that the Jews were 
much under the influence of their religion (which he calls 
euperst it io ),hu\, unlike the Romans, did not feel that pro- 
digies involved any obligations {relifjiones) to avert them." 

460 



JEWISH WAR, \'I. 288-295 

messengers of the deity ; while they neither heedej 
nor believed in the manifest portents that foretold 
the coming desolation, but, as if thunderstruck and 
bereft of eyes and mind, disregarded the plain 
warnings of God." So it was when a star, resembling The star 
a sword, stood over the city, and a comet which ^^'-^ comet. 
continued for a year. So again when, before the The 
revolt and the commotion that led to war, at the iT^h^'i^ound 
time when the people were assembling for the feast -le altar. 
of unleavened bread, on the eighth of the month 
Xanthicus,^ at the ninth hour of the night, so brilliant 
a light shone round the altar and the sanctuary that 
it seemed to be broad daylight ; and this continued 
for half an hour. By the inexperienced this was 
regarded as a good omen, but by the sacred scribes 
it was at once interpreted in accordance with after 
events. At that same feast a cow that had been Amonstroaa 
brought by some one for sacrifice gave birth to a the temple. 
lamb in the midst of the court of the temple ; more- 
over, the eastern gate of the inner court — it was of SponUne- 
brass and very massive, and, when closed towards o-^t^e^^"'"^ 
evening, could scarcely be moved by twenty men ; brazen gute, 
fastened with iron-bound bars, it had bolts which 
were sunk to a great depth into a threshold con- 
sisting of a solid block of stone — this gate was observed 
at the sixth hour of the night to have opened of its 
own accord.'' The watchmen of the temple ran 
and reported the matter to the captain,'^ and he 
came up and Mith difficulty succeeded in shutting it. 
This again to the uninitiated seemed the best of 

" March-April ; " 25 April of the Julian year if Josephus 
follows his usual system, but here he seems to have used a 
more ancient Jewish reckoning " (Xiese). 

« Tac. ibid. " apertae repente delubri fores." 

** " The captain of the temple,'' Acts iv. 1, v. 24. 

461 



JOSEPHUS 

€^6k€l repas' avol^ai yap rov deov avrots rrjv rcbv 
ayada)v TrvXrjv ol XoyiOL Se Xvo[i€vriv avrofjidrcos 
Tov vaov rrjv a(j(j)aXeiav ivevoovv, /cat 7ToXep.ioLS 
"^^ hwpov avoiyeadaL rrjv ttvXtjv, SrjXcoTLKov t' ip-qjilas 
aTTecjiau'ov €V aurots" to arjfielov. iiera 8c rr^v 
eoprrjv ov ttoXXols rjjiipais vorepov, iilo. kol et/caSt 

297 ApreijLLcrtov {jltjvo?, <^a(7/j,a rt SaipLovLov ax^d-q 
pLel^^ov TTLGreojs' reparela he dv eSo^ev ot/xat ro 
prjdr]GopLevov, el jjlt) Kal Trapa rols OeaaafMevoig 

298 laroprjTO /cat ra eTraKoXovd-qoavra TrdOr] rcbv 
crqfieLOJV rjv d^ia' rrpo yap tjXlov Svaeco? a)(f)dr] 
fjL€Teojpa 7T€pl TraGav rr^v -)((x)pav apfiara /cat 

299 (j)dXayyeg evorrXoi hiarrovGai row vecfxjjp /cat kv- 
KXovjxevai rds TroAet?- /caret Se rr^v eoprrjv, rj 
TrevTTj KOGTT] KaXeZrai, vuKrcop ol Upelg TrapeX- 
oovres €1? TO evoov lepov, ojarrep avrois eUog 
Trpog rds" Xeirovpylas, Trpcorov [xev KLvqaeajs e^acrav 

^^ OLVTiXa^eudai Kal ktvttov, fierd Se ravra (jxxtvrjs 
adpoas " fJLera^alvojjLev^ evrevdev." to §e to-utujv 
(i>o^€pojT€pov, ^lr]Gov£ yap rt? vlos W.vavLov^ tCjv 
IhLOJToJi' aypoLKOs, irpo reacrdpajv ctcov tov TToXefjLOV 
ra jidXiGra rijg rroXeojs elprjV€Vop,€vrjs* Kal evdrj- 
I'ovarjs, €X9d)i' elg rrjv eoprrjV, iv f] GKrjVOTroLeLcrdaL 
Travras euos tcu tfew, Kara ro lepov egaTnvr^s 
ava^odv yjp^aro "(fxjoi'Tj om dvaroAT^S", (jicovrj oltto 

^ P (c/. ? 3'H)) : 4- V the rest. 
* fxerapaLViL'fjiev Lat. Zon. Eus. Dem. Ev. 

• PA Heir. Eus. : 'Az/di'or the rest. * eip-rjvevovarjs PL. 

" c. May (" S June," Xiese as above). 

^ Tac. ibid. " visae per caelum concurrere acies, nitilantia 
arma et subito nubium igne conlucere templum " (partly 
based on \'irgil, Aen. viii. 528 f.). 

* 7'ac. ibid. " apertae repente delubri fores et audita major 

462 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 295-301 

omens, as they supposed that God had opened to 
them the gate of blessings ; but the learned under- 
stood that the security of the temple was dissolving 
of its ovm accord and that the opening of the gate 
meant a present to the enemy, interpreting the 
portent in their own minds as indicative of coming 
desolation. Again, not many days after the festival, Celestial 
on the twenty-first of the month Artemisium,'^ there ^""^®^- 
appeared a miraculous phenomenon, passing belief. 
Indeed, what I am about to relate would, I imagine, 
have been deemed a fable, were it not for the narra- 
tives of eyewitnesses and for the subsequent calamities 
which deserved to be so signalized. For before 
sunset throughout all parts of the country chariots 
were seen in the air and armed battalions hurtling 
through the clouds and encompassing the cities.^ 
Moreover, at the feast which is called Pentecost, ;i'he voice 
the priests on entering the inner court of the temple temple. 
by night, as their custom was in the discharge of 
their ministrations, reported that they were con- 
scious, first of a commotion and a din, and after that 
of a voice as of a host, " We are departing hence." ^ 

But a further portent was even more alarming. The 
Four years before the war, when the city was enjoy- cdeso"^ 
ing profound peace and prosperity, there came to Jesus for 
the feast at which it is the custom of all Jews to before 
erect tabernacles to God,^ one Jesus, son of Ananias, ^^^ ^^r- 
a rude peasant, who, standing in the temple, suddenly 
began to cry out, " A voice from the east, a voice 

humana vox, excedere deos ; simul ingens motus exceden- 
tium." This supports the reading, ixeTo.Saivoixev, in the text, 
rather than the variant, "let us depart hence." 

■* The Feast of Tabernacles, Snkkoth, autumn of a.d. 62, 
as appears from § 308. Hostilities opened four years later 
with the defeat of Cestius in the autumn of a.d. Q6. 

463 



JOSEPHUS 

Bvcreojg, (l)CjL>vrj oltto tojv reaadpajv dvefxajv, Scovf) 
€77t 'lepocToXviJLa Kal Tov vaov, (f)Ojvrj e-m vviJL(f)Lovg 
Kal vviJL<f)ag, (i)Ojvrj eVt rov Xaov Travra." rovro 
(leO^ Tjiiepav Kal vvKrojp Kara rravras rovs arevoj- 

302 TToijs rrepLTjei K€KpayoJS- tcov 8e imoTJfiojv nve? 
hripiOTCjjv dyavaKTi]Gavres Trpos to KaKocj^-qpiOV 
cruXXapL^dvovcTL rov dvOpcoTTOv /cat TToAAats" aiKi- 
t,ovTaL TrX-qyois. 6 8' ovd^ vrrep avrov (f)6€y^d- 
fievos ovT* ihia Trpo? rovs Traiovras , as Kai Trporepov 

303 (jiojvds ^ocov hLereXeL. vojiiuavres 3' ol dpxovre?, 
orrep 7)1', h at p.ovL(l>Tepov to KLvr^pia ravhpos av- 
dyovGiv avTov errl rov Trapd Pco^atot? errap)(ov. 

304 evda fidarL^L fte^pt ocrrecov ^aLv6fjL€vos ovd' lkI- 
r€VGev ovr iddKpvaev, dXX cL? ivrjv /LtaAtcrra rrjv 
cl)a)vrjv 6Xo(f}vpTLKa}5 TiapeyKXivojv Trpos eKauT'qv 

305 aTTCKpLvaTO TrXrjyrjV " alal 'lepocroAu/xot?." rod 
8* WX^Lvov hi€pajT(2)VTOS, ovTOS ydp €7rapxo£ tjv, 
Tts" t' eiT] Kal rrodev, Kal hid tl ravra (f)d€yyoiTOy 
TTpos ravra jiev oud' onovv drreKpLvaro, rov 8' em 
TTJ TToXeL dprjvov elpojv ov hieXeLrrev, p-^XP'' '<^CLTa- 

306 yvovs puavLav 6 'AA^tros" aTreXvaev avrov. o oe rov 
P'iXP'- ~^^ TToXep-ov ^(^pov'ov ovre Trpoarjei rtvu rcov 
TToXiraJv ovre djc^d-q XaXd)v, dXXd Ka9 rjpepav 
ojG—ep e^X^^ pLepLeXerqKojs "alal 'lepoGoXvjioLs" 

307 lOp-qvei. ovre he rivL rcov tvtttovtojv avrov ogtj- 
piepau Kar-qpdro ovre rovs rpo(f)rjs pLerahihovras 
evXoyet, pila he rtpos rrdvrag rjv tj GKvdpojrrrj KXrjhojv 

308 diTOKpLGis- /xaAtcrra 8' ev ralg eopraZs eKeKpdyei- 
Kal rovr^ e^' eTrrd err] Kal pLTjvas Trevre etpojv ovr 
rjpL^Xvvev T7]v cfxjjvrjv ovr^ eKapLev, piixp^S ov Kara 

" Cf. the repeated refrain in Jeremiah, " Tbe-n will I cause 
464 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 301-308 

from the west, a voice from the four winds ; a voice 
against Jerusalem and the sanctuary, a voice against 
the bridegroom and the bride,** a voice against all 
the people." Day and niglit he went about all the 
alleys with this cry on his lips. Some of the leading 
citizens, incensed at these ill-omened words, arrested 
the fellow and severely chastised him. But he, 
without a word on his own behalf or for the private 
ear of those who smote him, only continued his cries 
as before. Thereupon, the magistrates, supposing, 
as was indeed the case, that the man was under some 
supernatural impulse, brought him before the 
Roman governor ; there, although flayed to the bone 
^^^th scourges, he neither sued for mercy nor shed 
a tear, but, merely introducing the most mournful 
of variations into his ejaculation, responded to each 
stroke with " Woe to Jerusalem ! " When Albinus,^ 
the governor, asked him who and whence he was 
and why he uttered these cries, he answered him 
never a word, but unceasingly reiterated his dirge 
over the city, until Albinus pronounced him a maniac 
and let him go. During the whole period up to the 
outbreak of war he neither approached nor was seen 
talking to any of the citizens, but daily, like a prayer 
that he had conned, repeated his lament, " Woe to 
Jerusalem ! " He neither cursed any of those who 
beat him from day to day, nor blessed those who 
offered him food : to all men that melancholy presage 
was his one reply. His cries were loudest at the 
festivals. So for seven years and five months he 
continued his wail, his voice never flagging nor his 
strength exhausted, until in the siege, having seen 

to cease from . . . the streets of Jerusalem . . . the voice 
of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride " (vii. 34, etc.). 
* Procurator a.d. 62-64, B, ii. 272-6. 

465 



JOSEPHUS 

rrjv TToXiopKiav €pya rrjs KXrjhovog ISojv dveTravcraro. 

Trepuojv yap oltto^ rod TeL)(ovs "alal ttciXlv rfj 

309 '\ ^ ^ \ ^ \ « ^>ic / 'O'' 
7ToA€L Kai rep Aao) Kai roj vaco OLavpvGLOv epoa, 

(1)9 de reXevralov TTpooidrjKev "alal 8e KapiOL," 

XlOo? Ik rov 7T€rpoB6Xov GxacrSelg Kai rrXrj^a? 

avrov 77apa)(prjpLa Kreivei, (f)deyyop.€V7^v § ert ras 

KXrjdova? e/cetVas" rrjV ijjvx^v d(/)i^x:e. 

(4) Tavrd ns ivvowv €vprjG€L rov pL€V Oeov 

310 ' n / o ' ^ ' ' 
avupojTTOJV K-qoopLei'ov Kai Travroicos TrpoarjpLaLvovra 

rep acherepcp yivei rd oojrTJpLa, rovs 8' utt' dvolag 

^11 /cat KaKujv avdaipercov dTToXXvpievovg, orrov ye 

lovdaloL Kai ro Upov pLerd rrjv KaOalpeaLV rrjg 

AvTOjVLa? rerpdycovov eTTOL-qaav, dvayeypapipLevov 

€v roZ? XoyioLs exovres dXajoeuOai rrjV ttoXlv Kai 

rov vaov, CTretSdv ro Upov yevqrai rerpdyojvov. 

312 TO 5 errdpav avrovg pdXtara Trpog rov TToXepLOV rjv 
XprjGpLOs dpL(j}L^oXo£ ojioLOJS €v roX? tepolg evprj- 
pievog ypapLpiaGLV, ojs Kara rov Kaipov eKelvov arro 

313 rris x^'-^P''^^ avrojv ri? dp^ei rrjs olKovp.evrjs- rov9 
OL pL€v CDS' OLKelov e^lXa^ov Kai ttoXXoI row GO(f)d)v 
€TrXavrjQr]Gav rrepl rr)v KpiGiv, eh-qXov S' dpa rr^v 
OveGTTaGLavov ro Xoyiov rjyepLOVLav diroheixOevros 

314 €77t lovSat'a? avroKpdropos. dXXd ydp ov hvvarov 

^ PA : em the rest. 



• Authority unknown. 

^ So Tacitus, Hist. v. 13 " phiribus persuasio inerat anti- 
quls sacerdotum litteris contineri, eo ipso tempore fore ut 
valesceret Oriens profectique Judaea rerum poterentur. 
quae ambages Vespasianum ac 1 itum praedixerat, sed vulgus 
more humanae cupidinis sibi tantam fatorum niagnitudinem 
interpretati ne adversis quidem ad vera mutabantur." Cf. 
the similar statement in Suetonius, Vesp. 4 " percrebruerat 
466 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 308-314 

his presage verified, he found his rest. For, while 
going his round and shouting in piercing tones from 
the wall, " Woe once more to the city and to the 
people and to the temple," as he added a last word, 
" and woe to me also," a stone hurled from the 
ballista struck and killed him on the spot. So with 
those ominous words still upon his lips he passed 
away. 

(4) Reflecting on these things one Mill find that 
God has a care for men, and by all kinds of pre- 
monitory signs shows His people the way of salvation, 
while they owe their destruction to folly and calamities 
of their o^\T\ choosing. Thus the Jews, after the Two 
demolition of Antonia, reduced the temple to a 
square, although they had it recorded in their oracles 
that the city and the sanctuary would be taken when 
the temple should become four-square." But what 
more than all else incited them to the war was an 
ambiguous oracle, likewise found in their sacred 
scriptures, to the effect that at that time one from 
their country would become ruler of the world. 
This they understood to mean someone of their o^vn 
race, and many of their ^\'ise men went astray in 
their interpretation of it. The oracle, however, in 
reality signified the sovereignty of Vespasian, who 
was proclaimed Emperor on Jewish soil.^ For all 

Oriente toto vetus et constans opinio, esse in fatis ut eo 
tempore Judaea profecti rerum potirentur. Id de imperatore 
Romano, quantum postea eventu paruit, praedictum Judaei 
ad se trahentes rebellarunt." For discussions on this (Messi- 
anic) prophecy and the relations between Josephus and 
Tacitus see E. Xorden in Neue Jahrbiicher fur das klassische 
Altertum. 1913, xxxi. 637 if., and P. Corrsen in Zdtschrift 
fUr die N.T. Wissenschaft, 1914, 114 ff. Tacitus is not ^ 
likely to have read Josephus : both are apparently dependent 
on a common source. 

467 



JOSEPHUS 

av6 pojTTOis TO ;)^peajy Siacfivyetv ovSe Trpoopojjjiivois. 

315 Oi hk Kat Tcov Grjfieiow a fxev eKpivav rrpos rjSovr^v a 
8 i^ovdevqaav, fiexpi^S ov rfj t€ dXcoaei rrjs Tra- 
rpibos^ Kai roj G(jia}V avrow oXeOpco SL-qXeyxdrjaav 
Tqv avoiav. 

316 (vi. l) Pco/xatot he tojv [lev oraGLaGTWv Kara- 
7r€(f)€vy6rojv el? rrjv ttoXlv, KCLOfxevov Se avrov re 
rod vaov /cat tojv rrepi^ arravTajv, KopLiGavres ras" 
G'qp.aias eis to lepov Kai dep.evoi Trjg avaToXiKrjg 
7TvXrj£ avTiKpv? eOvGav re avTois avTodi Kai tov 
TiTov pLeTOL pLeyiGTOJv ev(f)'qpiL(x)v a7Te(f>'qvav auro- 

317 KpaTopa. Talg he aprrayals ovtcos eveTrXrjGdrjGav 
OL GTpaTLcoTaL TTOiVTe?, ojGTe KaTo. T-qv HvpLav vpog 
TjpLLGV rrjs TrdXai TcpLrj? tov GTadjiov tov ;(puCTtot> 

ZIS 7TL7TpdGK€G6 at. TWV S' OLvd TOV TOLXOV TOV VaOV 

lepeojv hiaKapTepovvTOJV ttol? hiiJjrjGag LKeTeve tov? 
<l)vXaKa? TOJV ^Vojjiaiajv hovvai he^idv avTCo Kai to 

319 hiifjos e^cnpLoXoyeLTO. tojv he Trj? 7)XLKLas Kai Trjg 
avdyKrjg olktov Xa^ovTOJV /cat hovTOJV he^id? 
KaTa^ds avTos Te rrlveL /cat o (f)epojv rJKev ayyelov 
TrXrjGas vhaTO? oj^eTO (fyevycuv dvco rrpos tou? 

320 G(f)eTepovs. tojv he (^vXdKOJV KaTaXa^eZv puev 
ovhels LGXVGE, TTpos he TTjv dTTLGTLav e^XaGcl)rjpL0vv . 
KaKelvos ovhev e(j)rj TTapa^e^rjKevaL tcov GVvdr]Kcov 
Xa^elv yap he^idv ov tov p^eveiv Trap* avTois dXXd 
TOV KaTa^i]vaL piovov /cat Xa^etv vhojp, direp 

321 apLcjiOTepa TreTTOLTjKOJS ttlgtos eho^ev eLvat. to fiev 
hrj TTavovpyqpia hid ttjv rjXiKLav /xaAtcrra tov 
TTaihos aTTedavpLal^ov ol rrXavrjOevTes' TrepLTTTT] h 

* Havercamp quotes Tertullian's Apology, xvi. "sed et 
Victorias adoratis. . . . Religio Romanorum tota castrensis 
signa veneratur, signa jurat, signa omnibus diis praeponit." 

46s 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 314-321 

that, it is impossible for men to escape their fate, 
even though they foresee it. Some of these portents, 
then, the Jews interpreted to please themselves, 
others they treated v.ith. contempt, until the ruin 
of their country and their own destruction convicted 
them of their folly. 

(vi. 1) The Romans, now that the rebels had fled The 
to the city, and the sanctuary itself and all around ^crlfice 
it were in flames, carried their standards into the ^° ^'^^ 
temple court and, setting them up opposite the and hail 
eastern gate, there sacrificed to theni,*^ and \\ith ^^'^^'^ . 
rousing acclamations hailed Titus as imperator. So 
glutted with plunder were the troops, one and all, 
tliat throughout Syria the standard of gold was 
depreciated to half its former value. Among the Surrender 
priests still holding out on the wall of the sanctuary ^ a execution of 
lad, who was parched with thirst, confessed his the priests. 
condition to the Roman guards and besought them 
to pledge him security. Taking pity on his youth 
and distress, they promised him protection ; where- 
upon he came down and drank, and then, after filling 
with water a vessel which he had brought with him, 
raced back to his comrades above. The guards all 
failing to catch him and cursing his perfidy, he 
replied that he had broken no covenant ; for the 
accepted pledge did not bind him to remain with 
them, but merely permitted him to descend and 
procure water ; both these actions he had done, and 
therefore considered that he had been true to Ms 
word. Such cunning, especially in so young a boy, 
astonished the Romans whom he had outwitted ; 
however, on the fifth day, the priests, now famishing, 

For the practice here mentioned Josephus seems to be the — 

sole authority. " § 279. 

469 



JOSEPHUS 

Tjfiepa Xificorrovre? ol uepelg Kara^aLVovoi koX 
TTpos Tltov ava)(6evTes vtto tcov (f)vX6.KOJv LKerevov 

322 Tvx^'i^ GOJTTjpias. 6 he tov ptev rffs ovyyvajpL-qs 
Katpov auTot? 7Tap(x)'xr]K€vaL (f)7](ja£, otx^dOaL Se 
8t' ov evXoycxjg dv avrovs ecroj^e, TrpeTreiv he rolg 
UpevGL TO) vao) GvvaTToXiuOai, KeXevet KoXduai 
Tovs avhpas. 

323 (2) 01 he TTepl rovs rvpdwovs ws rco re TToXepni) 
TTOLvroOev eKparovvro /cat TreptTeretp^tcr/xeVoi? Sta- 
(f)vyeLv ovhajjLodev -qv, TrpoKaXovvraC' rov Tltov els 

324 Xoyovs. 6 he Kal hid to (jaXdvdpajTTOV (pvaei to 
yovv doTV TTepiGojaai rtpoaipovpievos Kal tcov 
^lXcov evayovTOJV y rjhrj yap peTpLdt,eiv rovs Xrjo-Tag 
VTTeXdp^avov ,^ luTaTai Kara to Trpog hvaiv ptepog 

325 TOV e^codev lepov' TavTT] yap VTrep tov ^vgtov 
Tjuav TTvXai, Kai yeSvpa awdTTTOVca to) lepcp ttjv 
dvco TToXiv avTTj TOTe pLearj tcov Tvpdwcov rjv Kal 

326 TOV Katcrapos". to he ttXtjOos eKaTepoLg ^vl,rjv 
e(l)eGTrjKeL, lovhaioL pLev irepL HcpLCova Kau Icoavvr^v 
pLeTecopoL GvyyvcopLTjS eXTTihi,, 'Pcu/xatot he Katcrapt 

327 KapahoKovvTes avTwv T'qv a^icoGiv, TrapayyetXag 
he Tols GrparicoTais TtVos" dvpLOV re Kal ^eXcov 
p.eveiv eyKpaTels, Kal tov epp.-qvea TrapaGTrjGdpLevos » 

OTTep TjV TeKpL-qpLOV TOV KpaTelv, TTpCOTOS rjp^aTO 

328 Xeyecv " dpd ye TJhrj KeKopeGde tujv rrjs TraTpihos 
KaKcov,^ dvhpes, ol p-'qTe ttjs rjpLeTepas hwdpLecos 
pLTjTe Ti]s eavTOJV aGdeveias ewoiav Xa^ovTes , opp,fj 
he aGKeTTTCp Kal pLavia tov re hrjpLov Kal T'qv ttoXlv 
Kal TOV vaov drroXcoXeKOTes, aTToXovp^evoi he Kal 

^ Nabcr witli Lat. : irpoaKokovpTai mss. 

* Hudson with Lat. : vireXafi^avev jiss. 

3 + i P Lat. 

470 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 321-328 

came dovrn and, being conducted by the guards to 
Titus, implored him to spare their Hves. But he 
told them that the time for pardon had for them 
gone by, that the one thing for whose sake he mii^ht 
with propriety have spared them was gone, and that 
it behoved priests to perish with their temple, and 
so ordered them to execution. 

(2) The t}Tants and their followers, beaten on all simon and 
sides in the war and surrounded by a wall ° prevent- fof pa^iL 
ing any possibihty of escape, now ln\'ited Titus to with Titus. 
a parley. Anxious, with his innate humanity, at 
all events to save the town, and instigated by his 
friends, who supposed that the brigands had at length 
been brought to reason, Titus took up a position on 
the west of the outer court of the temple ; there 
being at this point gates opening above the Xystus 
and a bridge ^ which connected the upper city with 
the temple and now parted the tyrants from Caesar. 
The multitude stood in crowds on either side : the 
Jews around Simon and John, excited by hopes of 
pardon, the Romans beside Caesar eagerly waiting 
to hear their claim. Titus, after charging his troops 
to keep a check on their rage and their missiles, and 
stationing an interpreter beside him, proceeded, in 
token of his conquest, to address them first. 

" Well, sirs, are you at length sated with your Titus 
country's woes : — you who, without bestowing a addresses 

/ -^ ' - ® the tyrants. 

thought on our strength or your own weakness, have 
through inconsiderate fury and madness lost your 
people, your city, and your temple, and are your- 
selves justly doomed to perish ; — you who from the 

« V. 502 flF. 

' For Xystus and bridge cf. ii. 344. This speech of Titas 
at the close is delivered almost on the same spot as that of 
Agrippa before the outbreak of war. 

471 



JOSEPHUS 

329 avTOL 8t/cat6DS", ol rrpcorov fiev acf) ov Yloinr-qLOS 
etXev vf-idg Kara Kpdro? ovk eTTavuaaOe V€co- 
TepoTTOilas, €7T€LTa Kal (j)av€p6v e^-qveyKare Trpos 

330 *^<x>}iaiovs TToXep^ov; dpd ye TrXrjOeL 7T€7tol66t€s ; 
Kal iJLTjV eXdxLGTOV vfjuv fxepos dvrrjpKecrev rod 
*Paj[j.aLa}v GrpanajTiKov. ttlgtcl roiyapovv crvpL- 
p.d-)^cov ; Kol ri rcov e^oj rrjg rjiierepa? "qyepLOViag 
edvwv ep^eXXev alp-qaeGOaL ^lovSalovs npo 'Pajuatajv; 

331 dAA' dXKT] Gojp.drojv ; Kal jjltjv tare Tepfxavovg 
SovXevovras r]ijLLV. oy^vporiqri oe retp^cuv; Kal tl 
fieliov d)K€avov relx^S^ KwXvjJLa, 6v rrepi^e^Xi-j- 
fievoi Bperravol rd 'Pcofialajv oirXa TfpoGKVvovaiv; 

332 Kaprepla xjjvxi]? Kai Travovpyia Grpanqycov ; aAAa 

333 (JLTjv fjheiTe Kal \\ap)('qhovLOVs dXovras. roiyapovv 
VfJids eTT-qyeipe Kara 'Poj/xatcov -q 'Pcofialoiv cfjiXav- 
BpojTTLa, ol TTpcoTOV fiev vp.Lv TTjV T£ )(^ajpav ehop.ev 
vepL€GdaL Kal ^aGiXels opbOcj^ijXovs IneGr'qGap.ev, 

334 CTTCtTa Tovs rrarpLovs v6p.ovs eTrjprjGapLev, Kal l,rjv 
ov pLOvov Kad' eavTov? dXXd Kal rrpo?^ rovs dXXovg 

335 e7T€Tp€ipapL€v cLg i^ovXeoOe- to Se pLeycGTOv, haGpLO- 
Xoyelv re vplv irn ro) deep Kai avadi^pLara gvX- 
Xeyeiv iTrerpeipap^ev, Kal rovs ravra (f)€povTas ovr 
ivovderrjGapiev ovre eKOjXvGapiev, Iv* riplv yevqGBe 
TrXovGLcvrepoL^ Kal TrapaGKevdGiqGde rols 'qp.erepoLs 

336 ;)(p7]/Ltacrtv Kad' -qpLcbv. eVetra ttjXlkovtwv dyadcov 
dTToXavovres inl rovs TrapaG^ovrag rjveyKare rov 
Kopov Kal Slktjv rojv dTL6aG€vra)i' ipTrerwv rolg 

337 GaivovGi rov lov iva(f)-qKaT€. earo) yovv, Kar- 
ecjipovr^Gare rrj? ^epcvvos padvpiias, Kal KaOdirep 
piqypLara t) GTraGpLara rov dXXov y^povov KaKOijdoJS 

^ PM : -r atque Lat. : tslxovs the rest, 
* L (" cum " Lat.) : om. the rest. 

472 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 329-337 

first, ever since Pompey reduced you by force never 
ceased from revolution, and have now ended by 
declaring open war upon the Romans ? Did you 
rely on numbers ? Nay, a mere fraction of the 
Roman soldiery has proved your match. On the 
fidelity of allies ? Pray, what nation beyond the 
limits of our empire would prefer Jews to Romans ? 
On physical strength, perhaps ? Yet you are aware 
that the Germans are our slaves. On the soliditv of 
your walls ? But what wall could be a greater ob- 
stacle than the ocean, encompassed by which the 
Britons yet do homage to the Roman arms ? On 
the determination of spirit and the astuteness of 
your generals ? Yet you knew that even Cartha- 
ginians were defeated. 

" No, assuredly you were incited against the Romans 
by Roman humanity. To begin with, we allowed 
you to occupy this land and set over you kings of 
your own blood ; then we maintained the laws of 
your forefathers and permitted you, not only among 
yourselves but also in your dealings ^\ith others, to 
Hve as you willed ; above all, we permitted you to 
exact tribute for God and to collect offerings, without 
either admonishing or hindering those who brought 
them — only that you might growricher at our expense 
and make preparations with our money to attack us ! 
And then, enjoying such privileges, you turned your 
superabundance against the donors, and like un- 
tameable reptiles spat your venom upon those who 
caressed you. 

"You held, be it granted, Nero's indolence in con- 
tempt, and, hke fractures or ruptures, remained for 
a time malignantly quiescent, only to show your true 

^ -\- TToXe'/xiot L Lat. 

473 



JOSEPHUS 

rjpefxovvres iv r^ fieclovL vocro) Biec^avrjre Kai npo? 
iXTTLdag dvaLbel?^ dfierpovs i^erelvare rag cttl- 

338 dvfila?. rJK€v 6 rrar-qp ovfjios el? t7]v ;)(<ujpav, ov 
TLjJLCop-qGoiJLevos Vfids rojv Kara l^eariov, aXXa 

339 vovSerrjGOJV Seov yovv, etrrep ivr^ dvaa-doei rov 
edvovg TrapTjv, CTrt t7]v pil^av vjicbv Spa/xety /cat 
ravTqv eKTTopdelv rr^v ttoXlv e-uddojs, o oe laAtAatav 
iS-^ov Kai rd TTepi^, eVtStSoL'S' vfilv xpo^ov €ls fiera- 

340 pieXeiav. dAA' vijllv dadeveia rd (hiXdvOpajTrov 
iboKEL KdK rrjg rjiierepa? TrpaorrjTOs rrjv roA/xav 

341 iTTeOpeipare. Nepojyos" olxoyievov rovO^ orrep ixprjv 
rovs TTOirqpordrovs eTrotrjcrare , rat? €i.l<I)vXlol5 rjfiojp 
rapaxols irTeOapprjaare, Kai ;^a;ptcr^ei'ra;j'' et? ttjv 
AiyvTTTOV ijjiov re /cat rov irarpos €ls rrapaGKevas 
Tov TToXepLOV Karexprjcroiade rolg Kaipols, /cat ovk 
rjSeadriTe rapdaaeLv avroKparopas yeyeirqiievov^ 
ovs Kol Grparrjyovg <^iXavBpd)7T0vs eTreipacraTC. 

342 rrpoa(f>vyovcrqs yovv 'qulv Trjg -qyepiovias , /cat tujv 
pL€V Kard ravT-qv rjpefxovvTCov Trdvrajv, Trpea^evo- 
pLevojv be /cat cruv-qdopLevojv rojv e^ojOev eOvcov, 

343 TTaXiv OL 'louSatot rroXepLOL, Kai TTpea^elai p.ev 
vp.6jv TTpog rov£ VTTep Kix^pdrrjv CTrt veajrepLGiioj, 
TTepi^oXoL he reixdov dvot/coSo/xou/ievot /catvot, 
ardaets" de Kai rvpdvvcov cbLXoveLKiaL Kai iroXepiOS 
ip,6vXL0£, fiova TOts" ovTco Trovrjpolg TrpeTTOvra. 

344 rjKov errl rrjV ttoXlv eydj Trapd rov Trarpos aKovTOS 
Aa/3djv GKvdpajTrd TrapayyeXpara. rov hrjpov aKov- 

345 Gas elprjVLKd (jypovelv rjcrO-qv. vpds rravaaadai rrpd 
TToXepiOV rrapeKaXovv , pexpi' ttoXXov TroXep.ovvrojv 

' di'tttSetaj P:+ 'cat MLC. 
474 



JEWISH WAR. VI. 337-345 

character on the outbreak of a more serious malady ,** 
when you let your ambitions soar unbounded to 
shameless expectations. My father came into the 
country, not to punish you for events under Cestius,^ 
but to admonish you. Had he come to extirpate the 
nation, his duty surely was to hasten to the root of 
your strength and to sack this city forthwith ; whereas 
he proceeded to ravage Galilee and the surrounding 
district, thus affording you time for repentance. But 
by you his humanity was taken for weakness, and 
upon our clemency you nursed your audacity. On 
Nero's decease, you acted like the basest scoundrels. 
Emboldened by our intestine troubles, when I and 
my father had departed for Egypt, you abused your 
opportunities by preparing for hostilities, and were 
not ashamed to harass those, now made emperors, 
whose humanity as generals you had experienced. 
Thus, when the empire found refuge in us, when 
throughout its length was universal tranquillity, and 
foreign nations were sending embassies of congratula- 
tion, once again the Jews were in arms. There were 
embassies from you to your friends beyond the 
Euphrates fostering revolt ; fortifications being built 
up anew ; seditions, contentions of tyrants, and civil 
war — the only things befitting men so base. I came 
to this city, the bearer of gloomy injunctions from 
my reluctant father. The news that the townsfolk 
were disposed to peace rejoiced my heart. As for 
you, before hostilities began I urged you to pause ; 
for a long while after you had begun them I spared 

" Roman internal disorders and turbulence in east and 
>vest after Xero's death, cf. the proem, B. i. 4 f. 
* ii. 499 ff. 

VOL. Ill Q 475 



JOSEPHUS 

C(^etSo/LtT]r, he^LCLS avTOfjioXoLs ehojKa, KaTa(f)vyovGL 
7TLGT€LS eTT^pT^cra, TToXXovs at;^/xaAajTOUS" rjXerjaaf 
rovs eTTeiyovras ^acravcaaL^ eKcoXvara,^ r€L\eGLV 
VfierepoLg fi-q^avas aKcov TrpoG-qyayov, del <f)OVcovTas 
Tovs arpaTLajTag i(f> v[jlXv Kareaxov , Kad eKaorrjv 
VLK-qv cus" r]TTa)fi€vo£ vp-ds els elpT^vqv TrpovKaXe- 

346 Gafi-qv. rod lepov ttXtjolov yevopievos TrdXiv eKOJv 
e^eXadopLYjv rajv rod rroXepiov vopcov, ^etcraa^at Se 
TrapeKaXovv rcbv Ihicov vp.ds dytcov /cat acoaai rov 
vaov eavroLS, StSoi)? dSeidv re e^ohov /cat TTtcrriv 
ocarripias, el 8' i^ovXeaOe, /cat p-dx^]? Kaipov ev 
dXXo) roTTcp' rrdvrojv vrrepeihere /cat rov vaov tStats 

347 xepcjiv everrp-qaare. eireira, p^iapcoraroL, rrpoKa' 
Xeiude^ pie irpos Xoyovs vvv; tva ri GcoGrjre roLovrov 
OLOV aTToXojXev ; Trota?* vp-ds avrovs a^Lovre puera 

348 Tov vaov Gcorrjpia?; dXXd /cat vvv /xera rojv ottXojv 
ear-qKare /cat oi}S' ev eaxdroig vrroKpiveode yovv 

349 t/ceras", cu raXainajpoi, rivi TreTTOiOores ; ov veKpos 
piev vpojv o or]pLO£, ot;^6Tat o o vaos, vtt epLOL o 7) 
TToXtg, ev X^P^^ ^^ rat? ep.als €X^t€ rds ipvxas; 
eld^ VTToXapL^dvere So^av dvSpelas ro Svodavardv ; 

350 ov pnqv ey<jj (f)LXoveLKrjGoj irpo? rrjv aTTOvoiav vpucov, 
piijjaot, he rd orrXa /cat TrapaSovoL rd acop^ara x^' 
piL,opaL ro Cw> ^cr77^P ^^ oIklo. Trpdos SeoTTorrjs ra 
pLev dv-qKeora KoXdoas, rd Se XoLrrd gcoI^cov epLavro). 

351 (3) Ilpos ravra dTTOKpivovrai Sc^tdv pikv /X7y 
hvvaGBai Trap' avrov Xa^elv, opicopLOKevaL yap 
pLTjTTore rovro TTOi-qGeiv, e^ohov S' r^rovvro hid rov 

^ Destinon (whom I follow with hesitation) : /Sacra^tVay 
Mss. * L: f\6\a(ra the rest. 

' ed, pr. with Lat. : irpoaKaXeTade 3iss. 
* Bekker : oias jtss. 

476 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 345-331 

you : I gave pledges of protection to deserters, I 
kept faith with them when they fled to me ; many 
were the prisoners whom I compassionated, forbid- 
ding their oppressors to torture them ; with reluctance 
I brought up my engines against your walls ; my 
soldiers, thirsting for your blood, I invariably re- 
strained ; after every victory, as if defeated myself, 
I invited you to peace. On approaching the temple, 
again in deliberate forgetfulness of the laws of war, I 
besought you to spare your own shrines and to pre- 
serve the temple for yourselves, offering you un- 
molested egress and assurance of safety, or, if you 
so wished, an opportunity for battle on some other 
arena." All offers you scorned and with your own 
hands set fire to the temple.* 

" And after all this, most abominable wretches, do 
you now invite me to a parley ? What have you to 
save comparable to what is lost ? What protection 
do you think you deserve after losing your temple ? 
Nay, even now you stand in arms and, at the last 
extremity, do not so much as pretend to be sup- 
j)liants. Miserable men, on what do you rely ? Is 
inot your folk dead, your temple gone, your city at 
my mercy, are not your very lives in my hands ? 
And do you yet deem it glorious bravery to die in 
the last ditch ? I, however, will not emulate your 
frenzy. Throw down your arms, surrender your 
persons, and I grant you your lives, like a lenient 
master of a household punishing the incorrigible and 
preserving the rest for myself." 

(3) To this they replied that they could not accept His offers 
a pledge from him, having sworn never to do so ; reje"aed, 
but they asked permission to pass through his line 

• V. 360 ff., vi. 128. * vi. 165. 

477 



JOSEPHUS 

7T€pLr€LXt<J^aro? fiera yvvaiKOjv koI tIkvow drr- 
eXevGeaOau yap ets rrjv ep-qfiov Kai KaraXetifjeiv 

352 avro) r-qv ttoXlv. irpos raura dyavaKr-qaas Tiros', 
€L T'ux'qv eaXcxjKOTOJV e')(OVTes atpeaet? avrqj rrpo- 
r€LvovGi vevLK-qKorojv, Krjpv^ai pikv eKeXevaev €ls 
avTov? P-'q'!'^ avTop-oXelv ert p.-qre he^idv iXm^eiv, 

353 (f)€L(TeG9aL yap ovhevo^, dX}.d Trdcrr] Swa/xet jJ-dx^- 
oBai Kal oojLeiv iavrovs ottojs av hvvojvraL' iravra 
yap avTOs ridrj Trpd^etv TToXepLOV vopLOJ' rolg Se 
arpariajTais iprrLrrpdvai K'ai hiapTrdteiv eTrerpeipev 

354 TTjv ttoXlv. ol d eKeivqv p.ev eireoy^ov ttjv r]p.epav, 
rfj S' VGTepaia to re dpy^eiov Kal rrjv aKpav /cat 
TO ^ovXevTrjpLOV Kal tov 0(j)Xdv KaXovp.evoi' 

355 V(l)rj^av Kal TrpovKoipe to TTvp p.^XP'- '^^^' 'EAev^S" 
^acnXelcvv, a h-q /card piio-qv ttjv aKpav -qv, eKalovTO 

8' OL GT€VC07Tol Kal at OLKLaL V€KpOJV VTTO TOV At/LlOU 

hL€(j)9app.eva)V TrXrjpeL?. 

356 (-i) Kara TavT-qv ttjv -qpLepav ol re I^drou 
^aaiXeojs viol Kal dheXchoi, rrpog ols ttoXXoI tojv 

^TTLG'qp.OJV hripLOTOJV eKelJ' GWeXOoVTe^i LK€T€VGaV 

Katcrapa Sovvat Se^idv avTolg. 6 8e KaiToi rrpog 
TrdvTas Tovs vttoXolttovs Situpyicr/xeVos" ovk yjXXa^e 

357 TO rjdos, dep^erat he tov£ dvhpas. Kai tot€ p.ev €v 
(j)povpa TrdvTas ^lx^> tovs Se tov ^aGiXlw? Tralbas 
Kal Gvyyevels SrjGas vGTepov els ^Vajp^-qv avqyayev 
ttIgtlv opLTjpwv irape^ovTas. 

358 (vii. l) Ot GTaaiaGTal S' eVt ttjv ^aGiXiK-qv 
opjjLTjGavTes auAryv, els rjv St' oxvpoTYjTa ttoXXol Tas 

^ om. Lat. : (KeivoLs Destinon (followed by avue^eXdoi'Tes). 

" The site of the building intended is uncertain. The 
" archives " themselves (rd apxiia^ money-lenders' bonds, etc.) 

478 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 351-358 

of circmnvallation with their wives and children, un- v 
dertaking to retire to the desert and to leave the 
city to him. Thereupon Titus, indignant that men 
in the position of captives should proffer proposals to 
him as victors, ordered proclamation to be made to 
them neither to desert nor to hope for tenns any 
longer, for he would spare none : but to fight with 
all their might and save themselves as best they 
could, because all his actions henceforth would be 
governed by the laws of war. He then gave his 
troops permission to burn and sack the city. For Titns 
that day they refrained ; but on the next they set destruction 
fire to the Archives,'* the Acra. the council-chamber,^ '^^ ^^^ ^l^y- 

11 • 11 1 /^ 1 1 ' 1 n T 5>eptember 

and the region called Ophlas, the names spreading a.d. to. 
as far as the palace of Queen Helena," which was in 
the centre of the Acra. The streets also were burnt 
and the houses, packed with the bodies of the \actims 
of the famine. 

(4) On the same day the sons and brothers of king Fate of the 
Izates,*^ who were joined by many of the eminent ^ii^sm^n of 
toNvnsfolk, entreated Caesar to grant them a pledge 
of protection. Though infuriated at all the survivors, 
Titus, with the unalterable humanity of his character, 
received them. For the present he kept them all in 
custody ; the king's sons and kinsmen he subse- 
quently brought up in chains to Rome as hostages 
for the allegiance of their country. 

(vii. 1) The rebels now rushed to the royal The rebels 
palace,* in which, owing to its sohdity, many had p^^lac^and 

had been burnt by the insurgents four years before at the ^^^i^n ° 
opening of hostilities, ii. 427. prisouers. 

^ The usual meeting-place of the Sanhedrin, v. 144 note. 

<= V. 263. 

** King of Adiabene and a convert to Judaism, iv. 567 note. 

• Herod's palace on the Upper City (c/. § 376). 

479 



JOSEPHUS 

/CTTyCTCoS" OLTTeOevro, rovg re 'Pco/xatou? citt' avrrj^ 
rpirrovrai /cat to GVvrjB poiap.€vov avroOc rod hrjiiov 
TTOv <j)ovev(javTe? y ovras et? OKraKLG)(LXLOvs Kal 

359 rerpaKOGLOVs, to. p^pr^/Ltara hi'qprraGav . itcoyprjaav 

€ Acat rcojJLaiCjJv ovo, rov fxev Lmrea rov be TreC^ov, 
Kai rov fjL€v 7T€^6v a7TO(7(^d^avT€s evdeojs 'iavpav 
nepL r7]v ttoXlv, wanep ivl Gaj/jLan iravras *Pa)- 

360 jLtatOf S" dfJLVVOjJLeVOL, 6 8* ItT7T€VS d)(f)€XLfJL6v Tt aVTOLS 

TTpog GOJTTjpLav VTroOrjCTeodaL Xeyojv dvdyerai irpos 
T.Lp,cx)va' 77ap' S fi-qSev elTreZv excov 'ApSaAa tlvl 

361 rcov rjyeiiovcDV TTapahihorai KoXaadr^croiJievo? . 6 8 
avTov^ OTTLGOJ Toj X^^P^ hi^Gas Kal raivia rovg 
0(f)daXiJLovg avTiKpv rcov PcjfiaLojv TTpo'qyayev cus" 
KaparopL-qaajv (f)9dv€L 8 eKelvos et? tovs 'Pco- 
liaiovs hLa(f)vywv iv oaco to ^L<f)os iaTrdaaTo 6 

362 'lovhalog. rovrov hia^vyovra eK tojv TroXefiiWV 
aveXelv fxev ovx vrrep^eivev Tiros, dvd^iov 8e 
'PajjiaLcov etvat Grparcojrrjv Kpivas, on l,a)v 
€Xri(f)Orjy rd re orrXa d^eiXero Kal rov rdyfxarog 
i^e^aXev, drrep rjv alaxwopiiva) Oavdrov x^' 
XeTTOjrepa. 

363 (;2) Tfj 8' e^rjg 'Pcu/xatot rpeipdjievoL rovg Xrjcrras 
€K rrjs Kdrco TToXeojg rd pi^XP^ '^^^ StAcua [rrdpraY 
ev€7Tpr]crav, Kal rod pLev dureos rjSovro baTravco- 
pievov, rcov 8' dprraycov SirjpLdpravov, eTrethr] TrdvQ 
ol oraoLaaral npoKevovvres dvexcopovv els rr)v 

364 dvoj ttoXlv. rjv yap avrolg pierdvoia piev ovhepaa 
rcov KaKcoVy dAa^oveta 8 cos eV ayaOois' Kaio- 
pLevrjv yovv d(f)opa)vres rrjv ttoXlv IXapois rots 
TrpoGcoTTOLS evdvp,OL TTpoGSex^GOai, rrjv reXevrrjV 
eXeyov, 7Te(f)OvevpLevov pLev rov S-^puov, KeKavpLevov 

^ Niese with Lat. : avrov mss. ■ om. PAM. 

480 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 358-364 

deposited their property ; and, having beaten off 
the Romans, they slew the whole mass of people 
who had congregated there, to the number of eight 
thousand four hundred, and looted the money. 
They also made prisoners of two Romans, one a 
trooper, the other a foot-soldier. The latter they 
slaughtered on the spot and dragged round the city, 
as though in the person of one they were "WTeaking 
vengeance on all the Romans. The trooper, who 
declared that he had a suggestion to make conducive 
to their safety, was brought up to Simon, but having 
nothing to tell him was handed over to Ardalas, one 
of the officers, for execution. Ardalas, having bound 
his hands behind his back and bandaged his eyes, 
led him forth in view of the Romans to be beheaded ; 
but the prisoner, at the moment when the Jew drew 
his sword, managed to escape to the Romans. After 
such an escape from the enemy, Titus could not 
bring himself to put him to death ; but judging him 
unfit to be a Roman soldier after being taken alive, 
he deprived him of his arms and dismissed him from 
the legion — a penalty to one with any sense of shame 
severer than death. 

(2) On the following day the Romans, having xiie Romans 
routed the brigands from the lower town, set the fo'Ier town 
whole on fire as far as Siloam ; the consuming of the 
town rejoiced their hearts, but they were disappointed 
of plunder, the rebels having cleared out evervthing 
before they retired to the upper city. For the latter 
showed no remorse for their evils, but rather bragged 
of them as blessings. Indeed, when they beheld 
the city burning, they declared with beaming faces 
that they cheerfully awaited the end, seeing that, 
with the people slaughtered, the temple in aslies, 

481 



JOSEPHUS 

§€ Tov vaov, (fiXeyofjidvov 8c rov acrrcos fJLrjBev 

365 KaraXeLTTOvres^ tols TToXejjLLOLg. ov fJLTjV 6 ye 
'laScTT^TTOS" iv ea-x^drois LKerevajv avrovg VTrep raJv 
Xeixpdvojv TTj? TToXecos e/ca/xvev, dXXa ttoXXol [lev 
TTpos TTjv (l)ii6ri]Ta Kol TTjv dae^eiav elrrcov, ttoXXol 
Se GvyL^ovXevGas Trpo? aajr-qplav ovhev rov )(X€va- 

366 adrji'aL ttXeov d—rjveyKaro. eTrel 8' ovre Trapa- 
hovvaL Sid rov opKov eavrovs vrrefievov ovre 
TToXcjielv 6^ taov 'Pco/xatots" e^' oIol re Tycrav, 
toGTTep eLpKrfj 7T€pL€LXr]p.fievoL, ro re rov <f)OveveLv 
edo? eKLvei rds Se^ids, (JKihydfievoi Kara rd 
eiirrpoadev r-qs rroXeoj^ rols epciTTiois VTreXo-x^ODV 

367 rovs avrofJLoXelv (l>p[jLrj(jL€V0V5. "qXiGKovro be ttoXXol, 
Kal Trdvras drroGcjidrrovres , vtto ydp evSeua? ovSe 
cf)€vyeLV 'iGXVOV, eppi-Trrovv avrcov kvgI rovg veKpovg. 

368 eSoKeL 8e Trds rp6—os drrajXeias rov Xljjlov kov- 
(j)6r€po?, oiGre Kal 'PcD/xatot? arnQXTTiKoreg -qSr] 
rov eXeov o/xojs" 7rpoGe(f)evyov Kal (f)ovevovGL^ rots' 

369 GraGLaGralg eKovres eveTnirrov. rorros r eirl 
rrJ£ rroXecos ovhelg yvfjLVO? rjv, aAAo. Traj XipLov 
veKpdv ei;s(ev t) GraGeaJS \^Kal TrenX-qpajro veKpcov r^ 
hid GraGLv T] hid Xifiov dTroAojAorcor] .^ 

370 {3} "KOaXTTe 8e rovs re rvpdvvovs Kal ro gvv 
avroL? XfjGrpLKov cAtti? eG^drt) irepl rcov vttovoixojv, 
els ov£ Kara(j)evyovres ov irpoGehoKajv epevvrjdij- 
GeoOai, fierd be rrjv TravreXrj rrjs TToXecug dXojGLV 
dvaL,€v^dvrojv 'PajjiaLcuv TrpoeXdovreg drrohpdGe- 

371 GOai eTTex^^povv. ro 8 rjv dpa oveipos avrols' 
ovre ydp rov Beov ovre 'PajpLaiovs XrjGeiv epieXXov, 

^ PA : /caraXtTToiTf J the rest, 

* (pov2(jL Herwerden. 

' The bracketed tautological clause, omitted in the 

482 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 364-371 

and the town in flames, they were lea\-ing nothing 
to their foes. Josephus, however, even at the last-, 
never flagged in his entreaties to them on behalf of 
the relics of the town ; yet for all his denunciation 
of their cruelty and impiety, for all the counsel offered 
to secure their salvation, the only return which he 
obtained was ridicule. Since they could not think xhe rebels 
of surrender, owing to their oath, and were now .Ye^g^g^Aers 
incapable of fighting the Romans on equal terms, 
being caged as in a prison-house, while their hands 
through habit yet itched for slaughter, they dispersed 
about the outskirts of the city and lay in wait among 
the ruins for any who were eager to desert. Many, 
indeed, were caught, and, the famine having deprived 
them even of strength for flight, they were all 
massacred and their bodies flung to the dogs. But 
death in any form seemed lighter than famine ; so 
that, though now despairing of mercy from the 
Romans, they fled to them nevertheless and, though 
the rebels were murderous, voluntarily fell into their 
hands. Not a spot in the city was left bare : every 
corner had its corpse, the victim of famine or sedition. 

(3) A last and cherished hope of the tyrants and The mines 
their brigand comrades lay in the underground hopeof^ 
passages, as a place of refuge where they expected escape, 
that no search would be made for them, intend- 
ing after the complete capture of the city and the 
departure of the Romans to come forth and 
make their escape. But this proved to be but a 
dream : for they were not destined to elude either 
God or the Romans. For the time, however. 



translation, and, according to Hudson, deleted in one ms., 
must be rejected as a " doublet." 

VOL. Ill Q 2 483 



JOSEPHUS 

372 rrjVLKavrd ye iir]v rot? VTToyeiois 7T€7tol06t€5 avrol 
TrXelova tCjv 'Pajfiatajv eveTTLfiTrpaGav, /cat rov^ Ik 
rcov Kaiojiivojv Karacfjevyovras et? rag 8taipu;^as' 

€KT€Lv6v T€ dv€hr]V Kal eOvXojV, Kai €L TLVOS €VpOL€V 

Tpo(f)rjv dpTrdl,ovT€S ai/xart 7T€(j)vpiilvriv Kariinvov. 

373 ^v he Kal rrpos dXX-qXovs ev rat? dprrayaZs rjhrj 
TToXepLOS ayrot?, Sokovgl re dv fiOL (jltj ^Oaodevres^ 
VTTO rrjs dXojGeojs hi vrrep^oX-qv ojiionqros yevua- 
adai Kal rcov veKpoJv. 

374 (viii. l) KatCTap h , a>? dixrjy^^avov rjv e^eXelv 
hixci x^H-^'''^^ "^W ^^^ ttoXlv TrepLKprjfjLvov ovoav, 
Stave/xet rols epyoug rrjv hvuajjLLV Awov iJL7]v6g 

375 eiKahi. xaXeTT-q S' -qv rrjs vXr]? tj KOfj-thrj vdyroiv, 
OJS ecfyrjv, tcov Trept rrjV ttoXlv ecf) eKarov urahiovs 

376 eijjLXcojJLevwv elg rd Trporepov ;\;coju,aTa. tcov jiev 
ovv reaadpojv raypLarajv rjyeLpero ra epya Kara 
rd TTpds hvoiv /cAt/xa ri^s rroXeojs dvriKpv rrjs 

377 ^aaLXiKrjs a-uXrjg, ro he crup.iia\iKdv ttXtjOos Kal 6 
XoiTTOS oxXos Kard rdv ^vardv e^ov^ Kal rrjv 
yec^vpav Kal rov ^ljjlwvos TTvpyov, ov cpKoh6iJL7]Ge 
rrpog ^lojdvvrjv iroXepLuyv eavro) (f)povpLOV. 

378 (2) Kara ravras rds rjfiepas ol rwv ^Ihovfiatajv 
rjyeiJLoves Kpv(f)a ovveXOovres e^ovXevaavro irepl 
TTapahoaecog o(j)<x>v avrdjv, Kai Trepupavre? dvhpas 
TTevre irpos TtVov iKerevov hovvai he^idv avrols. 

379 o he Kal rovs rvpdvvovs evhojaeiv eXirioas dno- 

^ So one (Berlin) MS. with Syr. Lat.: <f>dapdipT€s ot (pdapivres 
the rest. 

* Destinon : i^ov or et ov mss. : om. C Lat. 



Cf. iv. 541 (the same hyperbole). * C/. § 151. 

« Of Herod the Great. 



+84 



JEWISH WAR. VI. 372-379 

trusting to these subterranean retreats, they were 
more active incendiaries than the Romans ; all who 
fled from the flames into these trenches they merci- 
lessly slew and plundered ; and if ever they found 
a victim -vdth food, they snatched it from him and 
devoured it, all defiled with blood. At last they 
fought with one another over their spoils ; and I 
verily believe that, had not capture forestalled them, 
they would in their excess of savagery have tasted 
the very corpses." 

(viii. 1) Caesar, finding it impracticable to reduce The Romans 
the upper city without earthM'orks, o^\'ing to the atSck^the 
precipitous nature of the site, on the twentieth of upper town 

1 1 T • T . 1 . 1 1 . c. 8th Sep- 

the month Lous apportioned the task among nis tember. 
forces. The conveyance of timber was, however, 
arduous, all the environs of the city to a distance 
of a hundred furlongs having, as I said,^ been stripped 
bare for the former embankments. The works now 
raised by the four legions were on the west side of 
the city, opposite the royal palace ^ ; while the 
auxiliaries and the other units threw up embank- 
ments '^ adjoining the Xystus, the bridge and the 
tower which Simon, when at war ^^^th John, had 
built as a fortress for himself.^ 

(2) During these days the chiefs of the Idumaeans-^ Overtures 
met in secret to dehberate about surrendering jJJJjfaeans 
themselves, and dispatching five delegates to Titus to Titus 

11 fru'strited 

besought his protection. Titus, hoping that the by Simon. 
tyrants also would be induced to yield through the 

** To the east of the Upper City. 

* Cf. § 191 for the tower erected by John when at war 
with Simon ; if, as appears, the same tower is intended, the 
names have here been incorrectly transposed. 

■'' Some of whom had remained in Jerusalem when the 
main body withdrew, iv. 566. 

485 



JOSEPHUS 

(jTTaaSivTCxiv WchvY ISoviiaiajv, ot ttoXv tov TToXefjLOV 
fiepog rjGav, ^pahiojs fteV, dAA' ovv Karavevei re 
rrjv aojTr]pLav auror? /cat tous" ai'Spas aveTrepipe. 

380 7TapaGKeval,ofjL€vcov 8' OLTToxcopelv alodaverai St/icov, 
/cat irevre fiev tov? dTreXOovrag rrpog Tltov evdeoj? 
avaipeZy rovs S rjyepLova?, cLv iTTLor-qpLOTaro? i)^ 

381 o rod Hcoad 'la/cco^o?, GvXXa^cov elpyvvuL' to Se 
rrXridos twv 'ISoL'/xatojv d{JLr])(avovv Std tt]v d^- 
aipecTLv rcov r^yepLovcov ovk a.(f)vXaKTOV etp^e /cat 

382 TO Tet;)(os' cf)povpal£ iTniieXearepais hieXapL^avev . ov 
fn]v dvTex€LV ol (j)povpol Trpos rds avTopioXtas 
(.Gxvov, aXXd KaLTOL TrXeioTOJv <j)ovevoiJ.lv(x>v ttoXv 

383 TrXeiovs ol SLa(f)€vyovr€s -^Gav. iSexovro Se *Pa»- 
jiaZoL TTavras, rod re TtVou Std Trpaonqra rwv 
TTporepojv afieXr^aavrog TTapayyeXpLarajv, /cat auTOt 
Kopoj rod Kreiveiv a.77€x6jJLevoL /cat Kephovs IXrrihL- 

384 rovs yap Sr^/LZOTt/cous" /caTaAiTrovTe? jjlovovs rov 
dXXov o^Xov eTTcoXovv uvv yvvai^l /cat reKvots, 
eXax^crrvs rLfirj? eKacrrov TrXrjdeL re rojv TrnrpaGKO- 

385 jievcov Kal dAtyoT7]Tt rcov ajvovpLevcuv. Kalnep Be 
7TpoKT]pv^as fi-qSeva fiovov avropLoXelv, ottoj? /cat 
ras" yeveds e^aydyoiev, ojjlojs /cat rovrovs eSexero' 
eTTearrjae fievroL rovs hiaKpLvovvras drr avrchv, ei 

386 Tt? elrj KoXdaews d^to?. /cat rcov jxev dTrefj-TToXr]- 
devrcov drreipov tjv ro rrX-fjOos, ot hrifxoriKol he 
hieoojdrjGav vrrep rerpaKiapivpiovs, ovs hLa(j)rJKev 
KatCTap f] (f)LXov Tjv eKaarcp. 

387 (3) 'Ey Se Tat? auTats" rjpepais /cat rcov lepecov 
ns Qe^ovOel ttols, ^h]Govs dro/xa, Xa^chv Trept 
(jojrrjpias opKovs vapd Katcrapos" e^' cb TrapaScoaeL 

^ ins. L Zon. : cm. the rest. 

486 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 379-387 

defection of the Idumaeans, who formed an important 
factor in the war. after some hesitation consented 
to spare them and sent the men back. But as they 
were preparing to depart Simon detected the plot. 
The five emissaries to Titus he at once put to death ; 
the chiefs, of whom the most distinguished was 
James, son of Sosas,** he arrested and imprisoned ; 
while the rank and file of the Idumaeans, rendered 
helpless by the loss of their leaders, were narrowly 
watched by him and the walls manned with more 
vigilant guards. The sentries, hoAvever, were power- Numerous 
less to check desertion ; for, although multitudes ^.fsert^^rs to 

' '8 1 rp, tne Romans. 

were slam, a tar larger number escaped. Ihe 
Romans received them all, Titus out of clemency 
disregarding his former orders,^ and his men from 
satiety and in hope of gain abstaining from slaughter. 
For the citizens alone were allowed to remain : the 
rest with the women and children were sold, for a 
trifling sum per head, owing to the glut of the market 
and the dearth of purchasers. Moreover, notwith- 
standing his previous proclamation that none should 
desert alone, to the end that they should bring 
out their families with them, Titus yet received 
even such persons ; appointing, however, officers to 
discriminate from among them any who might 
deserve punishment. The number of those sold 
was prodigious ; of the citizens there were spared 
upwards of forty thousand, whom Caesar allowed to 
retire whither each one's fancy led him. 

(3) During those same days, one of the priests Temple 
named Jesus, son of Thebuthi, after obtaining a deitvered up 
sworn pledge of protection from Caesar, on condition by their 

custodians. 

'^ One of the leaders of the original expedition and often 
mentioned, iv. 235, etc. * § 352. 

487 



JOSEPHUS 

388 TLva row lepchv Kei^rjXLOJV , e^eiai koX TtapaStScoctv 
CLTTO rov TOLXov Tov vaov Xv)(VLa? bvo rwv Kara rev 
vaov KeifjLevojv^ TrapaTrXr^GLag, rparret,as re /cat 
Kparrjpas Kal (f)LdXag, ttolvO oXoxpvaa Kal ari- 

389 ^apa)rara, TrapahlSwaL Sc /cat ra KaraTrerdapLara 
/cat ra evhvpara row apx^^p^ojv aw rot? XiOots 
/cat TToXXd rojv rrpos rds lepovpyias <jk€VO)v a'AAa. 

390 cruXXr](f)6€is Se /cat o yat^ocfivXa^ rov lepov Otveas" 
ovopLa rovs re ;;^'CTOJva? /cat rds ^cLvas VTrlhei^e^ 
Tcov Upeojv, 7Top(l)vpav re ttoXXtjv /cat kokkov, a 
TTpog ras ;)(petas' aTre/cetro rod KaraTrerdoparos , 
ovv olg KLVvdpLOjpLov re ttoXv /cat Kauoiav /cat 
ttXt^Oos erepojv dpojpiarojv, d GvppLoyovreg edvpnojv 

391 oarjpepaL ro) deoj. TrapehoOiq he v'r avrov noXkd 
Kal ro)v dXXojv /cet/xr^Atcov Koopos 0^ lepos ovk 
oXiyos, drrep avrw Bla XrjcjiOevri rrjv rwv avro- 
p.6Xojv Gvyyvcoprjv cSoj/ce. 

392 (4') HvvrereXeapLevojv S rjhy] /cat row ;^aj^aTajv 
€v OKrojKaiSeKa rfpiepais e^hopr) TopTnalov pLrjvog 

PojpaloL p.ev TTpoGTJyov rag prjxavdg, rcov he 
GraGiaGrcov ol p.ev drreyvajKoreg TJhr] rrjv ttoXlv 
dvexo'jpovv rod relxovg els ri]v aKpav, ol 8 iyKar- 

393 ehvovro rots vrrovopois' ttoXXoI he hiaordvres 
TjpLvvovro rovs Trpoodyovr as rds eXeTToXeis. e/cpa- 
rovv he Kal rovrojv 'Pojpatot TrX-qOei re Kal ^la 
/cat TO pLeyiGrov, evdvpiovvres ddvpLOJV rjhri /cat 

394 TTapeipevcjv . d)S he Trapeppdyq^ p.epos n rov 
retxovs, /cat rtve? rcov TTvpyojv rvnropievoi rols 

^ rah Kara t. v. KeL/xefais C : Niese suspects a lacuna after 

K€lfJ.ei'iOl'. 

* PA : iireoei^e the rest. 

' Herwerden : irepuppdyri mss. 

488 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 388-394 

of his delivering up some of the sacred treasures, 
came out and handed over from the wall of the 
sanctuary two lampstands similar to those deposited 
in the sanctuary, along with tables, bowls, and 
platters, all of solid gold and very massive ** ; he 
further delivered up the veils, the high-priests' 
vestments, including the precious stones, and many 
other articles used in public worship. Furthermore, 
the treasurer of the temple, by name Phineas, being 
taken prisoner, disclosed the tunics and girdles worn 
by the priests, an abundance of purple and scarlet 
kept for necessary repairs to the veil of the temple, 
along ^^^th a mass of cinnamon and cassia and a 
multitude of other spices, which they mixed and 
burnt daily as incense to God. Many other treasures 
also were delivered up by him, with numerous ; 
sacred ornaments ; those services procuring for him, "^ 
although a prisoner of war, the pardon accorded to 
the refugees. 

(4-) The earthworks having now been completed The Romai 
after eighteen days' labour, on the seventh of the upper tow 
month Gorpiaeus the Romans brought up the engines. ';• 25th 
Of the rebels, some already despairing of the city 
retired from the ramparts to the Acra, others slunk 
down into the mines ; many, however, posting 
themselves along the wall, attempted to repel those 
who were bringing up the siege-engines. But these 
too the Romans overpowered bv numbers and force, 
but, above all, by the high spirits in which they faced 
men already dispirited and unnerved. And when 
a portion of the wall broke down and some of the 

" The table of shew-bread with incense-cups and two — 
silver trumpets are depicted on the Arch of Titus in Hoii:e 
as borne in the triumphal procession. 

489 



JOSEPHUS 

KpioZs ivehoaav, (f)vyrj fiev -qv evOecos rcov diivvo- 
fxivajv, Seo? Be Kal toIs rvpdvvoLs e/XTrtTrret (j(f)0- 

395 Sporepov rrjs dvdyKrjs' irplv yap VTTep^rjvai rovg 
TToXefjLLOv? ivdpKOJv re Kal jjLereajpoL irpos (f>vyrjv 
TjGav, TjV 8 Ihelv rov? ndXai ao^apovs Kai rot? 
aae^-qiiaGLv dXatovas t6t€ raTreivovs Kal rpe- 
fjiovTas, oj? iXe€Lvrjv etvat KaiTrep iv TTOvqporarois 

396 TTjv piera^oXrjV . ojpfj.-qGav fiev ovv errl to Tiept- 
reiXicrfxa hpapiovres ojoaadai re rovs (hpovpovs Kau 

397 SLaKoipavres i^eXdelv d)£ 8e tows' /xev TxaAat 
TTiGTOvs eojpojv ovSafJLOv, Ste(/)uyov yap otttj tlvl 
GVve^ovXevev rj dvdyKT], irpoGdiovres Se ol fiev 
oXov dvarerpdcfiOai to 77pos" Svglv rely^os riyyeXXov , 
OL S' ifi^e^XrjKevai tou? 'Pa)fialovs -rjSrj^ t€ ttXtjglov 

398 €(,vaL (^'qTovvra? avrovs, erepoi he Kal d(f)opdv dno^ 
Twv TTvpyojv TToXejXLOvs eXeyov rrXdc^ovros rds 
oipeis rod Seous", €7tI Grojia veGovres dva)ficot,ov 
TTjv eavTcov (f>p€Vo^Xd^€Lav Kal Kaddrrep vrroKeKOfi- 

399 fjLevoL rd vevpa rrj? (f)vyrj? rjTTopovv. evda hi] 
p-dXiGT dv TLS KarafiddoL Trjv tc tov deov hvvapLLV 
€7n Tols avoGLOL£ KaL TTjv PajfJLaLOJV rv-)(r]V' ol pev 
ye TvpavvoL rrjg aG(f)aXeiag iyvpLvojoav avrovs KaK 
ra)v TTvpyojv Kare^rjoav eKovreSy e<j>^ d>v ^ia fxev 

400 ovheTTod^ dXcJovaL, povco 8' ehvvavro At/xo). 'Poj- 

fxaloL Se TooauTa Trepl rols doOeveGrepoLs reixeoL 

KafjLoi'res rrapeXa^ov rvxfj rd p.rj Sward rols 

opyavoLS' rravrds ydp loxvporepoL p,rjXO.vrj pharos 

"qGav OL rpels rrvpyoL, rrepl Sv dva>repco heSrjXco- 

KapLev. 

^ Destinon after Lat. : oi 5' rjdri mss. 
^ Herwcrden with Heg. : i-rrl mss. 

• § 323. ^ Hippicus. Phasael, and Mariamme, v. 161 fF. 
490 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 394-400 

towers succumbed to the battering of the rams, 
the defenders at once took flight, and even the 
tyrants were seized ^^^th a needlessly serious alarm. 
For before the enemy had surmounted the breach The rebels 
they were paralysed and on the verge of flight ; ^^ 
and those men, erstwhile so haughty and proud of 
their impious crimes, might then be seen abject 
and trembling — a transformation which, even in 
such villains, was pitiable. They were indeed eager 
to make a dash for the wall enclosing them," repel 
the guards, cut their way through and escape ; but 
when they could nowhere see their old faithful 
henchmen — for these had fled whithersoever the 
crisis suggested — and when men came running up 
with tidings, some that the whole western wall was 
overthrown, others that the Romans had broken 
through and were even now at hand in search of 
them, while yet others, whose eyes were bewildered 
by fright, declared that they could actually see the 
enemy from the towers, they fell upon their faces, 
bemoaning their own infatuation, and as though 
their sinews had been cut from under them were 
impotent to fly. Here may we signally discern at 
once the power of God over unholy men and the ^ 
fortune of the Romans. For the tyrants stripped ' 
themselves of their security and descended of their 
own accord from those towers, whereon they could 
never have been overcome by force, and famine 
alone could have subdued them ; while the Romans, 
after all the toil expended over weaker walls, mastered 
by the gift of fortune those that were impregnable 
to their artillery. For the three towers, which we 
have described above, ^ would have defied every 
engine of war. 

491 



JOSEPHUS 

401 (5) KaraAtTTOvre? Stj tovtov?, fxaXXov S' vtto 
rod deov Karaf^XrjSevres o.tt' avrojv, Trapay^prjyia 
fji€v €L£ TTjv VTTO TTj ZtAcoS <f)dpayya Kara(j)evyovGiv f 
avSis S' oXiyov di'aKvifjavres e/c tov Seovg (Zpfirjaav 

402 em to rfjde 776ptret;(ta/Lta. ;)^p7]cra/xevo6 he rats' 
ToXfiatg ayeveorepais rrjs avdyK-qg, KaTedyqaav 
yap rjhrj rrjv Luy^uv dfia rco Seet Kal rat? avfi- 
^opalSi VTTO Tcov (Jypovpojv dviodovvrai Kal crKieSa- 
oOevres vtt* dXkr]X(jjv^ KareSvcrav el? rov? VTrovofiovs. 

403 PajpLaloL he tcov t£i\cx}V Kpar-qoravres rdg re 
crqpLaLag earrjaav eTrl rwv vvpycov Kal pLerd Kporov 
Kai -x^apds eTiaidvLt^ov Ittl rfj vlktj, ttoXv rrjg 
apxrjs Kovchorepov rod TToXepov to TeXos evprjKOTe?' 
avaipiOJTl yovv tov TeXevralov Teiy^ov<; eTTL^dvTeg 
rjTTiGTOvv, Kal pLrjSeva ^XeTTOVTes dvTLTraXov dXrjOws'' 

404 rjTToprjVTO. elcrxvOevTe? he toIs GTevcoTTo'ls ^icfirjpeLg 
Tovs Te KaraXapi^avopLeuovs i(f)6vevov dveh-qv /cat 
Tcov Gvp(j)evy6vT0JV ra? ot/cta? avrdvhpovs vtt- 

405 eTTLpLTTpaaav. TroAAa? he KepattovTes ottot* evhov 
TTapeXdoiev ecf) dpTrayjjv, yeveds oXag veKpojv Kar- 
eXdp^avov Kal ra hojfidTLa TTXrjprj tcjv tov 
XipLOV TTTtop.dTCx)v, eTTeiTa Trpds ti]v oijjiv TTe^piKOTes 

406 KevaZs x^P^'-^' ^'^?7^crat'. ov pLTjv OLKTeipovTe? tovs 
ovTcog dTToXojXorag Tavrd Kal rrpds tovs tdovTas 
eTTaaxov, dXXd tov ivTvyxdvovra hLeXavvovTeg 
dTTe(i>pa^av p.ev tovs GTevcorrovs veKpols, aipLaTL h 
oX-qv TTjV ttoXlv KareKXvcrav, ojs ttoAAol [/cat ^ tcov 

407 (f>Xeyopievcx)v a^eGOrjvai tw (j)6va). /cat ot /xev 
KTelvoures inavoavTO Trpds eurrepaVy ev he Trj 

^ cltt' clWtiXuv should perhaps be read with one jis. : "per 
di versa " Lat, 

492 



JEWISH WAR. VI. 401-407 

(5) Ha\ing then abandoned these, or rather and take 
been driven do%%'n from them by God. they found the'mines. 
immediate refuge in the ravine below Siloam ; but 
afterwards, having recovered a little from their 
panic, they rushed upon the adjoining section of the 
barrier. Their courage, however, proving unequal 
to the occasion (for their strength was now broken 
alike by terror and misfortune), they were repulsed 
by the guards and dispersing hitlier and thither 
slunk do^^^l into the mines. 

The Romans, now masters of the walls, planted Roman 
their standards on the towers, and with clapping of comp?ete. 
hands and jubilation raised a paean in honour of 
their victory. They had found the end of the war a 
much lighter task than the beginning ; indeed, they 
could hardly believe that they had surmounted the . 
last wall \\'ithout bloodshed, and, seeing none to 
oppose them, were truly perplexed. Pouring into 
the alleys, sword in hand, they massacred indis- 
criminately all whom they met, and burnt the houses 
with all who had taken refuge within. Often in the 
course of their raids, on entering the houses for loot, 
they would find whole families dead and the rooms 
filled with the victims of the famine, and then, 
shuddering at the sight, retire empty-handed. Yet. 
while they pitied those who had thus perished, they 
had no similar feelings for the living, but. running 
everyone through who fell in their way, they choked 
the alleys with corpses and deluged the whole citv 
with blood, insomuch that many of the fires were 
extinguished by the gory stream. Towards evening 
they ceased slaughtering, but when night fell the 

* AM (Lat. "pro certo ") : d-qdus, "unusually." the rest. 
' ins. A : om. the rest. 

1Q3 



JOSEPHUS 

WKTi TO TTvp iireKpareiy (fyXeyofxevoLs 8 eTravireiXev 
'lepoGoXvfioi,? Tjfidpa VopTnaiov fJL7]v6g oyhor], 

408 TToXeL Toaavrais XPV^^H-^^ (TVfi(f)opal£ Kara rrjv 
TToXiopKLav, oGOLs OLTTO [ttjsY KTLGeojs dyadois 
Kexp'qpLevTj Trdvrcos dv i7TL(f)dovog eho^ev, ov [irjv 
d^ia /car' aAAo rt rcjv Tr]XiKOVTCov dryx'^p-drajv rj 
TO)^ yevedv roiavrrjv eveyKelv, vcf) 7]? averparrr]. 

409 (ix. 1) I[ap€X9d>v 8e Tltos clgoj rd re aAAa 
TTjS dxypoTTjros TTji' ttoXlv Kat TOW TTvpyojv aTTedav- 
fiaaev, ovs ol rvpavvoi Kara (f)p€vo^Xd^€Lav air- 

410 eXiTTov. Karihdjv yovv to tc vaoTOV avrojv vifjog 
/cat TO pieyedos iKdarrjs Trerpas rrjv re dKpl^eiav 
rrjs appLovlas, Kal ogol pLev evpog tjXlkol 8e rjGav 

411 TTjv dvaGraGiv, "gvv deep y i7T0Xep.rjGap.ev," ecfyrj, 
" Kal deos Tjv 6 Ttuv'Se rcov epvp-drcov 'louSatou? 
KadeXow, errel x^lpe? dvBpojTTOJV rj pLr]xo.vaL n irpos 

412 ToiJTOL'S' Tous" TTvpyovs hvvavrai; rore pLev odv 
TToXXd TOLavra bueXexO'T] Trpos rov? (f)LXovg, rovs 8e 
Td)v rvpdvvojv SeGpLcoras, ogol KareX'q(i)drjGav ev 

413 TOLS" (f>povpLOL£, dvrJKev. avOcs 8e rrjv dXXr]v a(f)avL- 
^ojv ttoXlv Kal rd reixT) KaTaGKdiTTOJV rovrovg rovs 
TTvpyovs KariXiTTe pLvrjpelov elvai rrjS avrov tvx'T}?, 
fi GVGTpariOJTihi xp^l^^dpievos eKpdrrjGe tojv dXojvai 
pLT] hwafxevajv . 

414 (2) 'E77et 8' ol GTpaTLcoraL p.ev eKapLvov tJSt] 
(^ovevovres y ttoXv S' eri^ TrXrjdog tow TTepiovTOJV 
dve(j)aiveT0 y KeXevei Katoap p.6vovs pLev tovs 
ivonXovs Kal ;^erpa? ayTto';(oyTas' KTelveiv, to 8e 

415 XoiTTOV TrXrjdo? l,o)ypelv. ol he pLeTd tcov rrap-qy- 
yeXpLevojv to tc yrjpaLov Kal tovs dGdevels dvr]povv, 

^ ora. A. ' Niese : to mss. 

' 5' Iti L Lat. : bi ti the rest. 

4^4 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 407-415 

fire gained the mastery, and the da^v^l of the eighth ah 
day of the month Gorpiaeus broke upon Jerusalem ixf flames™ 
in flames — a city which had suifered such calamities ^- - -'^^ , 
during the siege, that, had she from her foundation 
enjoyed an equal share of blessings, she M'ould 
have been thought unquestionably en\'iable ; a city 
undeserving, moreover, of these great misfortunes 
on any other ground, save that she produced a 
generation such as that which caused her overthrow. 

(ix. 1) Titus, on entering the to\vn, was amazed Entry of 
at its strength, but chiefly at the towers, which the 
tyrants, in their infatuation, had abandoned. Indeed, 
when he beheld their solid lofty mass, the magnitude 
of each block and the accuracy of the joinings, and 
marked how great was their breadth, how vast their 
height, " God indeed," he exclaimed, " has been 
with us in the war. God it was who brought do^^Tl 
the Jews from these strongholds ; for what power 
have human hands or engines against these towers } " 
He made many similar observations to his friends at 
that time, when he also liberated all prisoners of the 
tyrants who were found in the forts. And when, at 
a later period, he demohshed the rest of the city and 
razed the walls, he left these towers" as a memorial 
of his attendant fortune, to whose co-operation he 
owed his conquest of defences which defied assault. 

(2) Since the soldiers were now growing weary of F'^te of the 

caDtives 

slaughter, though numerous survivors still came to 
light, Caesar issued orders to kill only those who 
were found in arms and offered resistance, and to 
make prisoners of the rest. The troops, in addition 
to those specified in their instructions, slew the old 

" Phasael, under the erroneous name of " David's tower," / 

still stands. 

493 



JOSEPHUS 

TO 8' OLKjidlov Kal "^p-qGiixov els to Upov crvveXd- 
aavTes ey/careVAetcrav to) tojv yvvaiKcov 7r6ptTet;^t- 

416 (T/xart. kol (f)povp6v fjLev eTreuTrjae Kataap eva tojv 
aneXevdepajv, Opovrcova Se t(x)V (jyiXajv iiriKpivovvTa 

417 T-qv d^iav eKaGTcp tl';^7]j\ o Se tov? jiev UTaoLojheis 
/cat XrjaTpLKoijg TrdvTag vtt* aXXi^-jXajv evheiKvv- 
fievovs a7T€KT€LV€, Tcov Se vdcov TOVg VtjjrjXoTdTOVS 

418 /cat KaXovs eVtAe^a? errjpei tw dpidfJL^a). tov Se 
XoLTTov TrXrjdovg Tovg vrrep eTrra/catSe/ca err^ Srycras" 
eTTepupev etV ra /car' AtyuTrror epya, 77AetcrTous' S' 
ets" Tas" eTTapxiOis SteSojpT^craTO Ttros" (f>daprjGo- 
fievovs eV rot? OedTpoLs Gihripcp /cat OrjploLS' ol S' 

419 eyros e77Ta/cat8e/ca ercuv iTrpdO-qaav. ecj^Oaprjoai' 
Se auToiv, ev at? Ste'/cptvey o Opoyroiv -qpiipais, vtt* 
evSetas" ;^tAtot Trpo? rot? jLtuptots", ot /Ltev utto jjllgovs 

tCjV <f)vXdKWV jJLTj IJL€TaXafJL^dvOVT€S TpO(f)i]?, OL S 
OV 7TpO<jL€p.€VOL hihoiieVTjV' TTpOS Se TO TtXtJOoS TjV 

evSeta /cat gltov. 

420 (3) Tojv /xev ouv alxp-O-XcoTajv TrdvTOjv, ocra /ca^ 
oAov €X'q(j)d-q TOV TToXepiov, dpiOpLOs ivvea pLvptdSes 

/cat €7TTaKLG)(LXLOL GVV1]X^V > '''^^ ^^ a7ToXopL€VOJV 

/cara Traaav tt)^ iroXiopKLav /LtuptaSes" e/carov /cat 

+21 Se'/ca. ToJrojy to ttXIov 6p.6(j)vXov piev dXX ovk 

em-x^ojpLOV ajro yap ttjs -)(^ojpas oXr]£ IttI t7]v tujv 

di,vpLajv iopTTjv GvveXrjXvOoTes i^aTTLvqs tw TToXdpLcp 

7T€pL€GxdOr]GaV , OJGT€ TO pLCV TTpWTOV aVTOLS TTjV 

GTevoxojplav yeveGdai XoipLcobrj (l)dopdv, avSis Se 

422 /cat XipLOV (jjKVTepov. otl S' e';)(ajpet too'outol'S' rj 

ttoXls, SrjXov e'/c tojv irrl KeoTtof GVvapLdpL-qdevTCxJV, 



• Perhaps " mines " (Whiston). Cf. the sending of 
496 



* 2- 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 415-422 

and feeble ; while those in the prime of life and 
serviceable they drove together into the temple and 
shut them up in the court of the women. Caesar 
appointed one of his freedmen as their guard, and 
his friend Fronto to adjudicate upon the lot appro- 
priate to each. Fronto put to death all the seditious / 
and brigands, information being given by them 
against each other ; he selected the tallest and most X 
handsome of the youth and reserved them for the 
triumph ; of the rest, those over seventeen years of 
age he sent in chains to the works ° in Egypt, Mhile 
multitudes were presented by Titus to the various 
provinces, to be destroyed in the theatres by the 
sword or by wild beasts ; those under seventeen '^ 
were sold. During the days spent by Fronto over 
this scrutiny, eleven thousand of the prisoners 
perished from starvation, partly owing to their 
jailers' hatred, who denied them food, partly through 
their own refusal of it when offered ; moreover, for 
so vast a multitude even corn failed. 

(3) The total number of prisoners taken throughout statistics oi 
the entire war amounted to ninety-seven thousand, ind dS. 
and of those who perished during the siege, from 
first to last, to one million one hundred thousand. 
Of these the greater number were of Jewish blood, 
but not natives of the place ; for, ha\'ing assembled 
from every part of the country for the feast of 
unleavened bread, they found themselves suddenly 
enveloped in the war, with the result that this over 
crowding produced first pestilence, and later the 
added and more rapid scourge of famine. That the 
city could contain so many is clear from the count 

X'espasian's prisoners to work on Nero's Corinthian canal, 
iii. 540. 

497 



JOSEPHUS 

OS" TTjv dKjjLrjV rrjs TToXeojg hiaSrjXojaaL rSepcuvi 
^ovXajievo? Karacbpovovvn tov edvovg TrapeKaXeaev 
Tov? a.pxLep€ls, el ttojs hvvarov etrj ttjv rrX-qdvi' 
■123 i^apiOpLrjaaadaL- ol S' ivardarjs eopr-qg, Trdaxo. 
KaXelraL, Kad^ rjv Ovovglv jikv drro ivdrr^s copas 
fiexpi-S ivSeKdrrjg, oja—ep 8e (^arpta^ rrepi eKaarrjv 
yiv€Tai dvuiav ovk iXdaoojv dvhpaJv heKa, pLOVov 
yap OVK e^eartv halvvadai, ttoXXol he /cat crvv- 

424 eiKOGLV ddpoiL^ovTai, tcov p.ev Ovpidrajv eiKOGLTTevre 
pLvpiddas rjpldpL-qGav, rrpos de TrevraKLGx^Xia e^a- 

425 KOGLa,^ yivovraL S* dvhpojv, Iv' eKdGrov SeVa haiTV- 
pLova? dcopLev, pLVpidSeg e^bopLrjKovra Kal Sta/coatai 

426 Kadapow dTrdvrojv Kal dyicjv ovre yap XeTrpois 
ovT€ yovoppouKolg ovre yvvai^lv e-Trep.p.-qvois ovre 
rols dXXojs pLepLLaGpievoig e^ov rjv TrJGSe rrjg OvGias 

427 pLeraXafiSdvetv , dAA' ouSe rots" dXXochvXoLg, ogol 
Kara OpTjGKeLav TTaprJGav, (-i) ttoXv be rovrojv 

428 ttXt^Oo? e^ojBev cruXXeyerai. Tore ye pLTjv ojGTrep 
els elpKrrjv vtto ri]? eip.app.evrjs irdv GVveKXeLGdr] 
TO eSvoSy Kal vaGrrjV 6 TroXepiog rrjv ttoXlv avhpojv 

429 eKVKXojGaro. Trdoav yovv dvdpco7TLvr)v Kal Sat- 
pLOviav (f)9opdv virep^aXXet ro ttXtjOos rwv aTToXaj- 
Xorcov eTTel yovv rtov c^avepcov ov? p.ev avelXov ovs 
8' fjXP-o.XajrLaavro 'Pta/iatot, rovs 8 ^ ev rols 
VTTOvopLOLg dvqpevvojv Kal rovha(j)OS avapprjyvvvres 

430 o(70L£ p.ev evervyxoLVOV eKreivov, evpedi]Gav 8e 
KaKel veKpol TrXelovg hioxf-Xiojv, ol pLev vtto a(f>a)v 
auTcov OL V7T aAArjAa)v, ro TvAeov o vtto rov 

^ So the Mss. : (pparpia Hudson. 

' TOL'S 5'] rous ML Zon. : ovs die) the rest. 

498 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 422-430 

taken under Cestius. For he, being anxious to 
convince Nero, who held the nation in contempt, Censns of 
of the city's strength, instructed the chief priests, uken^inder 
if by any means possible, to take a census of the Cestius. 
population. Accordingly, on the occasion of the 
feast called Passover, at which they sacrifice from 
the ninth to the eleventh hour, and a little fraternity, 
as it were, gathers round each sacrifice, of not fewer 
than ten persons (feasting alone not being permitted), 
while the companies often include as many as twenty, 
the victims were counted and amounted to two 
hundred and fifty-five thousand six hundred ; 
allo^^'ing an average of ten diners to each victim, we 
obtain a total of two million seven hundred thousand,** 
all pure and holy. For those afflicted with leprosy 
or gonorrhoea, or menstruous women, or persons 
otherwise defiled were not permitted to partake of 
this sacrifice, nor yet any foreigners present for 
worship, (4) and a large number of these assemble 
from abroad. But now the whole nation had been 
shut up by fate as in a prison, and the city when war 
encompassed it was packed \vith inhabitants. The 
\-ictims thus outnumbered those of any previous 
visitation, human or di\ine. For when all who search 
showed themselves had been either slain or made ^°^ tJiose 

, , T» 1 . . . , concealed 

prisoners by the Komans, the victors instituted a under- 
search for those in the mines, and, tearing up the -'"'■^^^'^• 
ground, slew all whom they met ; here too were 
found upwards of two thousand dead, of whom 
some had been destroyed by their own, and some 
by one another's hands, but the greater number by 

" Text or arithmetio is at fault ; the total should be 
2,556,000. 

^99 



JOSEPHUS 

431 Xiiiov hiecjidapfJLevoL. heivrj 5' VTTrjVTa rot? irreLG- 

7TLT7TOVGLV OdfJiTj T(X)V GOJliaTOJV, c6? TToXXoVg fJL€V 

ava-x^ojpeZv evdeajg, rovs S vtto TrXeove^ias ela- 

432 hveaOat veKpovs GecrojpevjJLevovs ifiTTarovvras* ttoXXo. 
yap Tojv KeLfjLrjXLCxJV iv rals hiojpv^iv evpiaKerOy Kal 
Trdaav defJLcrrjv oSov irroUi ro KepSos' avqyovro 
he Kai heGfJLOjraL ttoXXol tojv rvpdwcov, ovbe yap 

433 iv eG^arois erravGavro rrjs oj pLorr^TO?. aTrerLGaro 
ye p.rjv 6 deog aiK^oripovs d^lcos, Kal ^Iwdvvrjg p,ev 
XipLcorrajv fierd rcov dheXcjxjjv iv rols VTTOvofJLOLS 
rjv TToXXoLKLS V7Teprj(j)dvrjGe rrapd Pa>p.aLajv de^tav 
Xa^elv LKerevGe, Hipnav he ttoXXo. hiap^a^-qGa'S Ttpos 
rrjv dvdyKTjVy djg Std rcov e^rj? hrjXojGopLev, avrov 

4,34 TTapahihojGiv. icjivXdxOrj h 6 fiev ro) dpiduBa) G(f)a- 
ytov, 6 S' ^lojdvvrjg Secr/xots" alojvLOLg. 'Pco^atot he 
rds t' iGxands rod acrreo? everrpr^Gav Kal ra TeL)(T] 
KareGKaipav. 

435 (x. l) 'EaAco /xe;' ourcu? 'IcpoaoAu/xa eret 
hevrepcp rrJ£ OveGTraGuavov rjyepiovLas TopTTiauov 
pLTjVos oyhoTj, dXovGa he Kal rrporepov TrevrdKL? 

436 Tovro hevrepov -qp-qpLajdrj. Agoj^'^^^^S p-ev yap o 
TOJV AlyvTTTKDV ^aGiXev? Kai pier avrov Avnoyos, 
erreira Ylop-TT-qLO? Kai em rovroig gvv Upajhrj 

437 HoGGLOs eXovreg iri]prjGav r-qv rroXtv. rrpo he 
roijraiv 6 rcov Ba8vXa>vLcov ^aGiXev? KparrjGag 
-qp-qpiOJGev avrrjv pierd er-q rrjg KriGeajs x^^^^ 

43>> rerpaKOGia e^rjKovraoKrco p-rfvas e^. 6 he Trpcoro? 
KrLGas TjV yiavavalcov hvvd.Grr]s 6 rfj rrarpioj 

<• vii. 25-36. '' c. 26th September, a.d. 70. 

J. * i.e., the Biblical Shishak, who plundered Jerusalem in 

the reign of Ptehoboam, c. 969 b.c, I Kings xiv. 25 ff. In 

500 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 431-438 

famine. So horrible was the stench from the bodies 
which met the intruders, that many instantly with- 
drew, but others penetrated further through ayarice, 
tramphng oyer heaps of corpses ; for many precious 
objects were found in these passages, and lucre 
legalized eyery expedient. Many also of the tyrants' 
prisoners were brought up ; for eyen at the last 
they did not abandon their cruelty. God, howeyer, lelders.'^ * 
\isited both with fit retribution : for John, perishing 
of hunger with his brethren in the mines, implored 
from the Romans that protection which he had so 
often spurned, and Simon, after a long struggle with 
necessity, to be related hereafter,** surrendered ; 
the latter was reseryed for execution at the triumph, 
while John was sentenced to perpetual imprison- 
ment. The Romans now set fire to the outlying 
(piarters of the town and razed the walls to the 
ijround. „ . 

(x. 1) Thus was Jerusalem taken in the second captures of 
year of the reign of Vespasian on the eighth of the con^cUe^™" 
month Gorpiaeus.^ Captured on fiye pre\'ious occa- chrouo 
sions, it was now for the second time deyastated. record of 
Asochaeus,'' king of Egypt, and after him Antiochus,'^ '"^^ history. 
then Pompey," and subsequently Sossius in league 
with Herod-'' took the city but preseryed it. But 
before their days the king of Babylon ^ had subdued 
it and laid it waste, fourteen hundred and sixty-eight 
years and six months after its foundation.^ Its 
original founder was a Canaanite chief, called in the 

the Jeicish Antiquities the name appears as 'Icrw/coj ('lo-a/cos) 
or Zo((Ta\'oy. 

"* Antiochus Epiphanes, c. 170 b.c. 

' In 63 B.C., B. i. 141 fF. / 37 b.c, i. 345 S. 

' Nebuchadrezzar, in 587 b.c, 2 Kings xxv. 

* Chronological system uncertain. 

501 



JOSEPHUS 

yXwuG-Q kXtjOcls /SacrtAeu? SiKaios' rjv yap 817 
roiovTog. hiOL TOVTO L€paGaTo re to) deep npcoTos 
Kal TO Upov irpajros SeipdpLCVog 'lepoaoXvpia ttjv 
ttoXlv TTpoG-qyopevGev ^6Xvp.a KaXovp.evqv irporepov. 

439 Tov p,€v hr] Tojv Xavaratcov Xaov eK^aXojv 6 rojv 
'louSaiojv ^aoiXevs AavLbrjs^ /<aTOtKt^et rov lSlov, 
Kal fjLcra tovtov erecrt rerpaKoaiois i^^opnqKovra 
Kal eTTTo. pLTjcrlv €^ VTTO Ba^vXojvLCxjv KaraGKaTTTeraL. 

440 aTTO he AavtSoi; rod ^aGiXeaJS, os Trpcbros avri^s 
e^aoiXevGev 'louSato?, p-expi^ TrjS vrro Ttrou yevo- 
IxevTjs KaraGKa(f)rjs er-q p^tAta Kal eKarov e^ho- 

441 pirjKovraevvea . airo he rrjs irpcjjrrjs KriGeoJS err] 
p-exp'- TTj? eGXOLTTjs aXojGeojs hcGx^Xia eKarov e^ho- 

442 pL-qKovra Kal ejrra. aAAa yap ovd rj apxaiorrjs 
ovd^ 6 rrXovro? 6 ^aOv? ovre ro hLa7Tecf)Oir-qK6s 
oXrj? rrjs OLKOvpevrjg eOvog ovd 17 pieydXr] ho^a 
rrjS dprjGKetas rjpKeGe n rrpos aTTojXeiav avrfj. 
TOLOvro fiev hr] ro reXos rfjs ^lepoGoXvjJLCJV ttoXl- 
opKLas. 

^ C: ddS ( = AaitS) the rest, and so in § 440. 

-T- ^ Melchi-zedek. The name is similarly interpreted, "king 
of righteousness," in the Ep. to the Hebrews, vii. 2 ; in 



50« 



JEWISH WAR, VI. 438-442 

native tongue ' Righteous King ' ° ; for such indeed 
he was. In virtue thereof he was the first to officiate 
as priest of God and, being the first to build the 
temple, gave the city, previously called Solyma, the 
name of Jerusalem.^ The Canaanite population 
was expelled by David, the king of the Jews, who 
established his own people there ; and four hundred 
and seventy-seven years and six months after his 
time it was razed to the ground by the Babylonians. 
The period from king David, its first Jewish sovereign, 
to its destruction by Titus was one thousand one 
hundred and seventy-nine years ; and from its first 
foundation until its final overthrow, two thousand 
one hundred and seventy-seven. Howbeit, neither 
its antiquity, nor its ample wealth, nor its people 
spread over the whole habitable world, nor yet the 
great glory of its religious rites, could aught avail 
to avert its ruin. Thus ended the siege of Jerusalem. 

reality it apparently meant "my king is Zedek," Z. being 
the name of a Phoenician deity, cf. Adoni-zedek " my lord 
is Z.," Jos. X. 1. Melchizedek is "king of Salem" (Gen. 
xiv. 18), probably an archaic name for Jerusalem. 

" Greek " Hierosolyma " ; for the names Solyma, Hiero- 
solyma and the popular Greek etymology, uncritically taken 
over by Josephus, see G. A. Smith, Jerusalem, i. 2dl t'« 



503 



BIBAION Z' 

2 (i. l) 'Erret S' ovre <f>ovev€iv ovre SiapTrd^eiv 
^Ix^^ V o'Tparto, —dvTOJV rolg dvfiolg imXeiTrovTCov, 
ov yap §7^ ye ^eiSot rtvos" efxeXXov d(j)i^eadai, hpdv 
exovres, KeXevei Katcrap rj^T] rrjv re ttoXiv aTraaav 
Kal Tov veojv KaraoKaTrreLV, rrvpyovs /xev ogol 
Ta)v dXXojv V7T€pav€LGTrJK€aav KaraXiTTOvras , Oa- 
ad-qXov 'Ittttlkov ^lapidiJLfirjv, relxos 8' oaov rjv 

2 i$ ioTripas tyjv ttoXlv rrepLexov, rovro fiev, ottoj? 
etrj roLS VTToXeic^O'qaopievoLS (f)povpois GrparoTrebov, 
Tovs TTvpyovg Se, Lva rolg CTretra GripLaivojoiv olag 
TToXecos Kal riva rporrov oxvpa? ofxcx)?^ iKpdrrjGev 

3 tJ 'Pajfialajv dvdpayadla. rov S' dXXov drravra 
TTJs TToXeojs TTepi^oXov ovrojs e^wpidXioav ol 
KaraoKdiTTOVTes , cvs pL'qheTraj—OT 0LKr]9rjvaL ttlotiv 

■i av €TL TTapaaxelv tols TrpooeXdovai. rovro fiev 
ovv ro reXos eK rrjg rwv vecorepiuavrajv avolas 
'lepoaoXvfJLOLS iyevero, XajiTrpa re noXei Kal Trapd 
TTauiv dvdpojTTOLs hia^oTjOeicrrj. 

5 (2) KatCTap 8e cbvXaK-qv fiev avroOi KaraXiTrelv 
eyvco rdjv rayfidrojv ro heKarov Kai nvag t'Aa? 
LTTTTeajv Kal Xoxovg Tre^cov, rrdvra 8' Tjhiq rd rod 
TToXepLov hLOJKrjKOJS erraiveaai re avpLrraoav eTToOet 
TTjv arparidv IttI rols Karopdcop.aoiv Kat, rd 

* Niese and others : oltws mss. (om. L). 
504 



BOOK VII 

(i. 1) The army now having no victims either for jemsaiem 
slaughter or plunder, through lack of all objects on ^round"^^'' 
which to vent their rage — for they would assuredly i 
never have desisted through a desire to spare anv- ', 
thing so long as there was work to be done — Caesar 
ordered the whole city and the temple to be razed to 
the ground, leaving only the loftiest of the towers, 
Phasael, Hippicus, and Mariamme, and the portion of 
the wall enclosing the city on the west : the latter as 
an encampment for the garrison that was to remain, 
and the towers to indicate to posterity the nature of 
the city and of the strong defences which had yet 
yielded to Roman prowess. All the rest of the wall 
encompassing the city was so completely levelled to 
the ground as to leave future visitors to the spot no 
ground for believing that it had ever been inhabited. 
Such was the end to which the frenzy of revolution- 
aries brought Jerusalem, that splendid city of world- 
wide renoNvn. 

(2) As the local garrison Caesar decided to leave Titus com- 
the tenth legion, along ^vith some squadrons of Xxoo\ ^"^ 
cavalry and companies of infantry ; and having now 
settled everything relating to the war, he was anxious 
to commend the army in general for their achieve- 
ments and to confer the appropriate rewards on those 

505 



JOSEPHUS 

TTpoarjKOVTa ye pa toIs apLorevaaaLV oLTTohovvai. 
G TTOLrjOevros ovv avrcp pLeydXov Kara fiear^v ttjv 
TTporepov TTapejjL^oXr^v ^-qfiaros, Karaaras IttI 
rovTO fiera rajv rjyefJLOVojv^ ets" eTrrjKoov aTrdar] 
rfj crrparta, X^P^^ H-^^ ^4'''!^ ttoXXtjv ex^LV avrolg 
TTjS TTpog avrov evvoias, f) XP'^/^^^o'- StctreAoucTtv 

7 irrrivei he rrj? ev Travn <t<jj >^ TroAe/xoj rreLdapxicLSt 
Tjv ev TToAAot? /cat fieyaXoLS klvSvvols dfjLa rfj 
Kara a(f)ds dvhpeia irapeuxov , rfj jiev Trarpihi 
/cat St*, avrdiv rd Kpdro? av^ovres, <j>avepdv he 
TTaGLV dvdpojrroLS KaOtaravres, on firjre ttXtjOos 
TToXefiiajv {J-rjre ;s(ajptajv dxvporrjreg "^ jieyed-q 
TToXeojv Tj rojv avrLrerayfievcov aXoytaroL roXfxai 
Kal Orjpidjheis dypLor-qres hvvaivr dv Ttore rrjv 
*Paj/xata>v dperrjv 8ta(/)uyetv, Kav etS" ttoAAcl nves 

8 rT^v rvx'Tjv evpcovrat ovvayuL>vLt,op.evqv . KaXdv fxev 
ovv e(f)r] /cat ra> 7ToAe/xa> reXos avrovg eTTiSelvaL 
TToXXoj XP^'^V* yevofievoj- fir^he yap ev^aoOai n 

9 rovrcov dfieLvov, or* el? avrov KaOiaravro' rovrov 
he KdXXiOP avrol£ /cat XapiTrporepov VTrdpxetv, 
on rovg rjyrjuopevovs /cat rrjs 'Pco/xatcov dpxTjS 
eTTirpoTTevaovra? avrojv ;)^eipoTovr^craP'T6oy et? re 
rrjv TTarpiha rrpoTTepnljdvrajv dap^evoi Trdvres Trpocr- 
ievrai /cat rot? vtt* avrwv iyvojcrfievoL? ififievovai 

10 X^P'-^ exovres rots eXop.evois. 9avfjLdL,eLV fiev ovv 
ecf)rj Trdvras /cat ayaTrav, etSco? on rod hvvarov 

11 rrjv TTpoOvfitav ovhelg eax^ ^pahvrepav rols /xeV- 

^ 7}^/€/j.ovLKurrdTu>v L Lat. 

* Xo-pi-v fxkv ?<pT} Niese (avoiding hiatus) : fKeyev x°-P'-^ f^^" 
ftpTi L : i\€y€ xcp»' fj-eu the rest. 

• ins. Herwerden. * ttoXX^J xp^^'V] Tro\vxpovlu) Bekker. 

506 



JEWISH WAR, VII. o-ll 

who had specially distinguished themselves. A 
spacious tribunal ha\'ing accordingly been con- 
structed for him in the centre of his former camp, 
he here took his stand ^\'ith his principal officers, so 
as to be heard by the whole army. He expressed 
his deep gratitude to them for the loyalty which they 
had continuously sho\\'n him. He commended them 
for that ready obedience which, along \\-ith personal 
courage in many grave dangers, they had displayed 
throughout the war, thus bv their own actions 
enhancing the might of their country and demon- 
strating to all mankind that neither the numbers of 
the enemy, the strength of fortresses, the magnitude 
of cities, nor the reckless daring ^ and bestial savagery 
of antagonists could ever baffle the valour of Romans, 
however often some of their foes might have found an 
ally in fortune. Glorious, indeed, it was (he said) to 
have brought to a close a war of such long duration ; 
for they could never have prayed for any happier 
issue when they entered upon it.^ But a yet more 
glorious and splendid tribute to them than this was 
the fact that those <^ whom they had themselves elected 
to be the governors and administrators of the Roman 
empire, and had sent off to the capital, "svere being 
hailed \\'ith universal satisfaction, their rulings 
adhered to, and their electors regarded ^^•ith grati- 
tude. Therefore (he continued) he admired and held 
them all in affection, kno^^'ing that there was not one 
whose alacrity had fallen short of his abiUty ; but 

* d\67t<rToi rdXfjLai after Thuc. ill. 82. 3 {roXtxa oKbyicrTos). 

" et's avTov KadidTavTo : another Thucydidean phrase (iv. 23 
is iroXeuou KadicrTai'To). 

* The phiral of Vespasian and his party or the Flavian 
dynasty: the soldiers' choice included Titus, B. iv. 597. 

VOL. Ill R 507 



JOSEPHUS 

Tot SiaTrpeTTearepov dyojvLGafxevoLS vtto paypLT]? 

TrAetoi'o? /cat rov jiev avraJv ^lov aptCTreiat? k€ko- 

GfJL-qKOGL, TTjV 8 aVTOV GTpaT€Lai' e77L(f)aV€GT€paV 

Sta rcov KaropOojpidTCjLiv TreTTOi'qKOGU' e(f)-q rd yepa 
Kal rds Tijid? evOvs OLTToScoGeiv, koI jji-qSeva row 
TrXeov TTOvelv irepov deXrjGavTiov rrjs hiKalas 

12 dfjLOL^rjs dfiapT-qGEGOaL. TrXeLGrrjv yap avrcp rov- 
rov yevqGeGdai ttjv iTTtfJieXeLav , €7T€l /cat /xaAAov 
edeXeiv rds dperds rufidv rcov GVGrparevojjLevojv 
7) KoXdi^ELV rovs dfjLaprdi'Ovras. 

13 (3) Kvdecos ovv eKeXevGev dvayivojGKeiv roZs 
CTTt rovro rerayfj-evoLS ogol n XafiTrpov rjGav iv 

14 ro) TToXepiCp KarojpOojKores. /cat /car' ovoiia koXcov 
irrrjveL re Trapiovras djs dv VTrepevc^paLvopievos 
ns €77 ot/cetots" KaropddjjiaGL /cat Gre<^dvovs 
i—erldei xpvGovs, TrepLavx^vid re xP^^d /cat 
dopara fiLKpd^ xP^'^d /cat G-qpLaias eolbov TrenoLr]- 

15 {JLevas i^ dpyvpov, /cat r-qv eKaGrov rd^LV rjXXarrev 
et? ro Kpelrrov, ov pL-qv aXXd /ca/c rd)V Xa^-upcov 
dpyvpov /cat ;^pucrov iGOrjrdg re /cat rrjs dXXrjs 

16 avrols Aeta? SaipiXdJ? dTreveipLe. rrdvrojv he re- 
TipLrjpievajv ottojs [dvY avrog eKaGrov rj^LOJGe, rfj 
GvpLTrdGT] Grpand rroLTjGdpevos evxd? eTrl ttoXXtj 
Kare^aivev eix^Tjpla rpeTrerai re Trpos dvGtas 

iTTLVLKLOVg, /Cat TToXXoV ^OOJV TtXtjOoVS TOt? ^OJpLOLS 

TTapeGrrjKoros KaradvGas drravras rfj Grparia 

17 hLahibcoGLV els evojx^oLV. avros Se rols iv reXei 
rpels rjfjLepas Gweoprdoas rr)v pLev dXXrjv Grparidv 
hLa4>LrjGiv fi KoXdjs f^X^^ eKdGrovs dTnevat, ro) 
BeKdrcp he rdypLan rrjv rojv 'lepoGoXvpLWV eV- 

^ A : p.aKpa the rest. - om. Dindorf and Niese. 

508 



JEWISH WAR, VII. 11-17 

upon those who had more eminently distinguis 
themselves in the fight by superior energy, and . _ 
not only shed a lustre on their own Uves by deeds of 
gallantry but rendered his campaign more famous by 
their achievements, he would forth^\'ith confer their 
rewards and honours, and not a man who had chosen 
to exert himself more than his fellows should miss 
his due recompense. For to this he would devote his 
special attention, since he was more concerned to 
reward the valorous deeds, than to punish the de- 
linquencies, of his fellow-soldiers. 

(3) He accordingly forthwith gave orders to the and awards 
appointed officers to read out the names of all who 
had performed any brilliant feat during the war. 
CalUng up each by name he applauded them as 
they came forward, no less exultant over their exploits 
than if they were his own. He then placed crowns of 
gold upon their heads, presented them "sWth golden 
neck-chains, little golden spears and standards made 
of silver, and promoted each man to a higher rank ; 
he further assigned to them out of the spoils silver 
and gold and raiments and other booty in abundance. 
When all had been rewarded as he judged each to 
have deserved, after invoking blessings upon the 
whole army he descended amidst many acclamations 
and proceeded to offer sacrifices of thanksgiving for 
his victory. A vast number of oxen being brought 
up beside the altars, he sacrificed them all and 
distributed them to the troops for a banquet. Having 
himself for three days joined in festivities with his 
staff officers, he dismissed the rest of the troops to 
their several appropriate destinations ; the tenth Destination 
leffion,** however, he entrusted with the custody of f \^^ 

o ' ' J legions. 

* Fretensis, Mommsen, Provinces ii. 63 note. 

509 



JOSEPHUS 

€Tp€tp€ (f)vXaK'^v ovK€T* avTovs eVt rov Y^v(^pdrT]v 

18 aTTOGTeiXas , evda rrporepov rjuav. fJiepLinyjLepo? Se 
rov ScoSeKarov rdypLaTOs, on Keo-Tiou arpa- 
T-qyovvTOs evehwKav rols ^lovhaiois, rrjs fi€v 
Jlvplas avTO TTavraTTaGLV e^-qXauev, tjv yap ro 
iraXaiov €v 'Pa^ai^atats"/ et? Se rrjv MeAtrT^i^v^ 
KaXovfievr^v drreoreLXe' Trapd rov Kv(l)pdr'qv iv 
fjLeOopLOL? rrjs ^ ApjxevLas iurl koI KaTiTraSo/ctas'. 

19 Suo 8' rj^LOjaev avraj P'^XP'' '^V^ ^^^ AtyvTrrov 
a(f)L^€OJ?, TO 7T€p.7TTOV Kal TO TT€VTeKaiheKarov , 

20 7Tapap.€V€iv . Kal /Caracas' dp,a rep arparw rrpos 
rrjv iirl rfj daXdrrrj Yiaiadpeiav ct? ravrrjv ro re 
TrXrjOos rojv Xa(l}vpcov drredero /cat rovs at;^/xaAdj- 
Tovs TTpooera^ev iv avrfj (jiyXdrreadai' rov yap 
€LS rrjv 'IraAtav nXovv 6 ;)^et/xa)^' eKcLXve. 

21 (ii. l) Ka^' o Se Kaipov Ttros" Katcra/D rois 
\epoaoXvpLOi? rroXiopKajv Trpoat]Bpev€V, iv rovroj 

veojg (f)oprLSog OveorraaLavos iin^dg drro rrjs 

22 AXe^avSpeia? et? 'PoSov Siif^aLvev.^ ivrevdev Se 
TrXiojv iTTL rpiTjpcov Kal Trdaas ra? iv raJ TrapdnXcp 
TToXeug irreXOojVy evKraicos avrov he^ppiivas, diro 
rrjs IcovLa? et's" rrjv *EAAaSa Trepaiovrai, KaKeWev 
ano iXepKvpas err aKpav laTTvyLav, ouev -qorj 

23 Kara yrjv iTTOieZro rrjv jTopeiav. Tiros S' drro 
rrjs €7TL OaXdrrrj Kaicrapetas' dval,€v^as els rrjv 
OtAtTTTTOu KaXovp,evrjv Katcapetav rJKe uv^yov t' 
ev a'urfj ^povov errepLeLvev rravroias deajpias 

24 emreXcov' Kal 77oAAot ra)v alxP'O.Xojrojv ivravda 
hie(l>ddpriuaVy ol p.ev dr^pioLs Trapa^Xrjdevres , ot 
8e Kara nXrjdvv d/^XjjXoLs dvayKal^ofievoL xprjaaadaL 

^ 'Pa^ai-earj A. * After C (MeXiriVT?;') : ^ieXlrrjv the rest. 

• St^/SaXej/ L. 

510 



JEWISH WAR, VII. 17-24 

Jerusalem,** not sending them back to their former 
station on the Euphrates. Recollecting too that the 
twelfth ^ legion had under the command of Cestius 
succumbed to the Jews,*' he banished them from 
Syria altogether — for they had pre\-iously been 
quartered at Raphanaeae '^ — and sent them to the 
disti'ict called Mehtene, beside the Euphrates, on the 
confines of Armenia and Cappadocia. Two legions, 
the fifth « and the fifteenth/ he thought fit to retain 
\y\th. himself until his arrival in Eg}T)t. Then Jj^'^^j^p^^^^/^ 
descending A^ith his army to Caesarea-on-sea, he on-sea. 
there deposited the bulk of his spoils and directed 
that his prisoners should be kept in custody ; for the 
winter season prevented his saihng for Italy. 

(ii. 1) Now at the time when Titus Caesar was Vespasian's 
assiduously besieging Jerusalem, Vespasian, em- itaiy. 
barking on a merchant-vessel, crossed from Alex- 
andria to Rhodes. From there he sailed on triremes ; 
and touching at all towns on his route, and being 
everywhere received with ovations, he passed over 
from Ionia into Greece, and thence from CorcjTa to 
the lapygian promontory, whence he pursued his 
journey by land. 

Titus, removing^ his troops from Caesarea-on-sea, Titus 
now passed to Caesarea Philippi so called, where he shows at 
remained for a considerable time, exhibiting all ^^lesarea 
kinds of spectacles. Here many of the prisoners 
perished, some being thrown to \\ild beasts, others 
compelled in opposing masses to engage one another 

» § 5. " Fulminata. " B. ii. 500 ff. 

^ Or Raphanaea (§ 97) or Raphaneia ; in upper Syria, 
W. of Emessa {Horns), 

• Macedonica. ' Apollinaris. 

511 



JOSEPHUS 

25 TToXefiLOLs. ivravda Kal rrjv St/xajvo? rov Ticopa 
(JvXXruJjiv ETTvOero tovtov yevojJLevrjv tov rpoTTOV. 

26 (:2) ^LfMOjv ovTOs 'YepoGoXvfiojv TToXiopKovpiivajv 
€7TL rrjg di'oj TToXeojs ow, eTrel tojv reixojv ivrog 
Tj PojfiaLOJV Grpana yevopLevrj Trduav eTTopOei 

TTjV TToXlVy Tore TOJV (f)LXojV TOVS TnGTOTaTOVS 

TrapaXa^ojv Kal gvv avrols XtdoropLOVs re kol tov 
TTpos TTjV epyaacav eTrtT'qheLOV tovtols uih'qpov 
rpo^TjV re hiapKeZv els ttoXXols rjfiepas Swa/JLev-qv , 
GVV eKetvoLS airaGi KaQi-qGLv avrov els rtva rcov 

27 acj^avcov vttovojxojv. kol p-e)(pi p^ev -qv to iraXaLov 
opvypLa, npovxoopovv Sc' avrov, rrjs Grepeds 8e 
yrjs V7Tavra)G7]s ravrrjv VTrevopLevov, iXTTiSi rov 
TToppojrepoj BvviJGeGOaL rrpoeXdovres ev aGc^aXel 

28 TTOirjGapievoi rrjv dvdSvGLV d7TOG(x>t,eG9 ai. ifjevSrj 
Se rrjv eX—lSa Sit^Xeyxev tj ireZpa rojv epycov 
oXuyov re yap pLoXis Trpov^aivov ol pLeraXXevovres : 
Tj re rpo(f)7] KauroL rapnevopLevoLS epueXXev eTTiXei- 

29 ipeiv.^ rore S-q rolvvv, (x>s St' eKTrXrj^eoJS drrarrJGai 
rovs PcxjpLatovs SwqGopievos, XevKovs evSiSvGKei 
Xi'TcovLGKOVS Kai 7Top(f)vpdv epLTrepovr]Gdp,evos 
xXavL8a~ /car* avrov eKelvov rov tottov, ev oj ro 

30 lepov rjv Trpoadev, eK rrjs yrjs dve(f)dvr]. ro pLev 
ovv rrpdorov rots ISovgl ddpL^os rrpoGeireGe Kal 
Kara x^P^^ epLevov, eireira S' iyyvrepoj rrpoG- 

31 eXdovres OGns eGrlv rjpovro. Kal rovro pLev ovk 
eSrjXov HlpLajv avrois, KaXelv Se rov rjyepLova 
TTpoGerarrev. Kai ra^ecns Trpos avrov Spapiovrajv 
TjKev Tepevnos 'Povcf)OS' ovros yap dp^aw rrjs 
Gr par Las KareXeXeiTrro' TTvdopievos re Trap avrov 
irdGav rrjv dXijOecav rov pLev e(f)vXarre hehep^evov , 
Katcrapt S* ottojs etrj GVvecXrjpLpLevos iS-qXov. 
512 



JEWISH WAR, VII. 25-31 

in combat. Here, too, Titus learnt of the capture of 
Simon, son of Gioras, which was effected as follows. 

(2) This Simon during the siege of Jerusalem had Capture of 
occupied the upper town ; but when the Roman army Giora^ 
entered within the walls and were sacking the whole 
city, he, accompanied by his most faithful friends, 
along Math some stone-cutters, bringing the tools 
required for their craft, and proAisions sufficient for 
many days, let himself down with all his party into 
one of the secret passages. So far as the old excava- 
tion extended, they followed it ; but when sohd earth 
met them, they began mining, hoping to be able 
to proceed further, emerge in safety, and so escape. 
But experience of the task proved this hope delusive ; 
for the miners advanced slowly and with difficulty, 
and the provisions, though husbanded, were nearly 
exhausted. Thereupon, Simon, imagining that he 
could cheat the Romans by creating a scare, dressed 
himself in white tunics and buckling over them a 
purple mantle arose out of the ground at the very 
spot whereon the temple formerly stood. The 
spectators were at first aghast and remained motion- 
less ; but afterwards they approached nearer and 
inquired who he was. This Simon declined to tell 
them, but bade them summon the general. Accord- 
ingly, they promptly ran to fetch him, and Terentius 
Rufus, who had been left in command of the force, 
appeared. He, after hearing from Simon the whole 
truth, kept him in chains and informed Caesar of the 



^ C : airoXeixpeLu the rest. 
• X^a/M^ida L Zon. : " clilaniide " Lat. 



513 



JOSEPHUS 

32 ^LfJLOJva jJLev ovv etV Slktjv ttjs Kara rcov ttoXltcov 
ajjjLorrjroSy d)v TTiKpcog avros irvpawrjaev, vno 

33 Tolg fjidXiara ijllgovgl TToXeiiiois iTToi'qaev 6 deo?, 
ov ^la yevojievov avrots VTrox^lpLOV, aAA' avrov 
eKovjLOjg et's" TTjV TifJicopLav TTapa^aXovra, 8t' o^ 
TToXXoijs avros chfjLOJS aTreKreive ipevSeXs alrias 

34 eTTLchepojv rrjs Trpos 'PojpLatovs fiera^oXfjg. ovSe 
yap 8iaff)€ijy€i Trov-qpia Oeov x^Xov, ov8e dudevqs 
7] Slktj, ■x^povo) he piereiGi rovs et? avrrjv napa- 
vopL-qGavras Kai "^eipoj rr^v npiOjpiav e7n(j)ep€i rols 
TTOVTjpols, 6t€^ /cat TTpoaehoK-qaav avri]? aTT-qXJ^dxdai 
fiTj TTapavriKa KoXaudivres. eyvoj tovto /cat 

35 HcpLCov €LS ras Poj/JLatcjov opyds epLTTeowv. rj 8' 
€K€Lvov yrjdev dvohos ttoXv /cat tcov dXXojv crra- 
OLaGTOJV ttXtjOos V7T €K€Lvag rds TjfJiepas ev rols 

36 VTTOVofjLOLS (j)OjpadrjvaL 77apeGK€vaG€. Kataapt 8' 
et? rrjv TrapdXiov eTravrjKOVTL^ Katcrapetav HtpLOJV 
TTpoGTj'xdrj hehepAvos' KaKelvov {lev et? ov eTTiTeXeZv 
€v 'Poj^ry 7TapeaK€vdl,€ro dplap^^ov TrpoGera^e 

(f)vXdTT€LV. 

37 (iii. l) ALarpt^oju b avrodi rrjv rdheX(j>ov ye- 
veOXiov rffxepav im(j)ava}s iojpTat,€y ttoXv Kai ttjs 
TCOV \ovhaLa>v KoXdoeojs etV rrjv eKelvov rifJLrjv 

38 dvariOeis. 6 yap dptOfjLOS tojv ev re rats' Trpos 
rd d-qpla fidxatg ev re ralg aXXr]XoKTOV tais dvaipov- 
fievcuv Kai rcov KaraTTLfiTTpapevajv* rrevraKOGLOvs 
em rols Stcr^^tAtot? vrrepe^aXe. rrdvra fxevroi 

Poj/xatot? eooKet ravra pLvpiOLs avrcvv drr- 

^ f(L pr. (cf. Lat. "propterea quod"): oC ov or 5t' Cov 
wss. 2 After Lat. Xiese : on mss. 

^ A: i-rraueXdopTL MVR : irapeXdji'TL LC. 

* Kai tlIv Karairiixirpaiiivuiv in the 3ISS. stands after /idxai-i : 
transposed by Niese. 

514 



JEWISH WAR, VII. 32-38 

manner of his capture. Thus was Simon, in retribu- 
tion for his cruelty to his fellow-citizens, whom he had 
mercilessly t}Tannized, deUvered by God into the 
hands of his deadliest enemies ; not subjected to 
them by force, but spontaneously exposing himself 
to punishment — an act for which he had put many to 
a cruel death on false charges of defection to the 
Romans. For \'illainy escapes not the wrath of God, 
nor is Justice weak, but in due time she tracks down 
those M'ho have transgressed against her and inflicts 
upon the sinners a chastisement the more severe, 
when they imagined themselves quit of it because 
they were not punished immediately .° This Simon 
learnt when he fell into the hands of the indignant 
Romans. His emergence from the ground led, more- 
over, to the discovery during those days of a large 
number of the other rebels in the subterranean 
passages. On the return of Caesar to Caesarea-on- 
sea Simon was brought to him in chains, and he 
ordered the prisoner to be kept for the triumph 
which he was preparing to celebrate in Rome. 

(iii. 1) During his stay at Caesarea, Titus cele- Titns 
brated his brother's birthday ^ ^\'ith great splendour, Siuiiy^ ^' 
reserving: in his honour for this festival '^ much of the birthdays. 

o Oclober 

punishment of his Jewish captives. For the number a.d. to. 
of those destroyed in contests with wild beasts or 
\\ith one another or in the flames exceeded two 
thousand five hundred. Yet to the Romans, not- 
withstanding the myriad forms in which their victims 

» Cf. Horace, Odes iii. 2. 31 f. " raro antecedentem 

scelestum | deseruit pede Poena claudo." 

" Domitian was now eighteen, born 24th October, a.d. 52, 
* Or " dedicating to his honour," but the verb (like the 

verbal adj. dvadereov) doubtless connotes " postpone." 

VOL. in R 2 515 



JOSEPHUS 

39 oXXvjJLevcov rpoTTOLs iXdrrajv /cdAaatS" etrat. fiera 
rovro Katcrap etV ^-qpvrov rjKev tj 8' iarlv eV 
TTJ OoLVLKj] TToXcg 'Pcu/xatojy drroiKos' Kavravda 
')(^povLajTepav eTTOf^aaro rrjv iTnSrjiiLav TrXelovc 
)(pojfjL€vo£ rfj XaiirrpoTrjTi rrepi rrjv rod irarpos 
rjjjiepav yeveOXiov eV re rats' tojv decopLcov ttoXv- 
reXeiaig kol Kara ttjv dXXrjv eTTivoiav rchv JiXXajvY 

40 dvaXcopLdrajv. to Se Ta)v alxp-O-Xo'jTOjv TrXfjdos 
rov avrov rporrov cu? rrpoGUev aTrcoXXvTO. 

41 (2) TevecrdaL Se avve^rj irepl rov Katpov tovtov 
/cat rot? eV 'Ap'rto;)^e/a ra)V Yovhaaov vtto- 
XeLTTOjieroLS iyKXrjpLara Kal Kivhwov oXedpov, rrfs 
TToXecog err' avrov£ tojv W.vTiox^(Jjv iKrapaxOeiG-qs 
Sta re ra? eV rep Trapovri Sta^oXd? avrolg eVeve;^- 
delaas Kal hid rd Trpovrr-qpypieva^ XP^^'^ Trpoadev 

42 01) TToXXoj, 77€pl d)v dvayKOLOV ecrrt Sta avi'TOfiajv 
7Tpo€L7T€Lv, tva Kai TCxiV pL€Ta TavTa rrpaxOeurajv 
cvTTapaKoXovdrjTOV TTOi'qacop.ai r7]v OL-qyrjGLV. 

43 (3) To ydp ^lovhalojv yevos ttoXv p,ev Kard 
Trdcrav ttjv OLKOvpievrjv TrapeGrraprai tol£ em- 
Xojpiois, TrXelarov Se rfj Hvpia Kard ri]v yeLTviaotv 
dvaiJ.€[iLyp.€vov e^atpeVoj?^ errt rijs Avrioxeias 
Tjv TToXv hid TO TTjs TToXeoJS fjLEyeOos' fidXicrTa 5' 
ai^rots" adea T-qv e/cet KaTOLKrjOLV ol /leT Aptloxov 

4^ ^acrtAet? rrapeaxov. 'Avtloxos pL€V ydp 6 KX-qOelg 
^^mc^avrjs 'lepoGoXvfia TTopdrjGag rov vecbv cgv- 
X'r)G€v, ol be ^er' aurov ttjv ^aoiXeiav TrapaXa^ovres 
tCjv dvadrjfidrojv ocra ;(aAK:d rreTTOLrjTO TrdvTa rots' 

* Bracketed by Niese : the Lat, rather suggests the 
omission of dW-qv. 

2 LC [cf. §§ 56, 369) : vinifr,ijAva the rest. 
» + be (5- C) A\ RC. 

516 



JEWISH WAR, VII. 39-44 

perished, all this seemed too light a penalty. After 
this Caesar passed to Bervtus,^ a city of Phoenicia 
and a Roman colony. Here he made a longer so- 
journ, displaying still greater magnificence on the 
occasion of his father's birthday,^ both in the November. 
costliness of the spectacles and in the ingenuity of 
the various other items of expenditure. Multitudes 
of captives perished in the same manner as before. 

(2) It happened, moreover, about this time that The Jews 
the remnant of the Jews at Antioch were incriminated "^ p"rii?° ^ 
and in danger of extermination, the Antiochene 
community having been greatly excited against 

them in consequence not only of the false accusations 
now laid to their charge, but also of certain incidents 
which had taken place not long before. Of these a 
brief account must first be given, in order to render my 
narrative of the subsequent events more intelhgible. 

(3) The Jewish race, densely interspersed among Tiieir 
the native populations of every portion of the world, \!^l^^[ 
is particularly numerous in Syria, where inter- 
mingling is due to the proximity of the two countries. 
But it was at Antioch that they specially congregated, 
partly owing to the greatness of that city, but mainly 
because the successors of King Antiochus <^ had en- 
abled them to live there in security. For, although 
Antiochus surnamed Epiphanes ^ sacked Jerusalem 
and plundered the temple,^ his successors on the 
throne restored to the Jews of Antioch all such votive 

° Beirut. 

* Vespasian was now sixty-one, born 17th November, 

A.D. 9. 

« Antiochus I Soter (reigned 280-261 b.c.) is apparently 
meant. 

'^ Antiochus IV Epiphanes (175-164 b.c). 
« c. 170 B.C., B.i.31 f. 

517 



revious 
tory. 



JOSEPHUS 

€77* AvTto;^6tas" louSaiois" dneSoGav et? Trjv 
Gvvayoj^/riv avrojv avadevre?, /cat (Tvv€)(ojpi]aav 
avTol? i^ LGov TTjg TToXeoJS rots "EAATycri iierex^iv. 

45 rov avTOV 8e rpoTTOv Kal tojv /xcrd ravra ^a- 
aiXiojv avTols Trpoo^epoiievajv els re ttXtjOo? err- 
ihojKav Kal rfj KaraaKevfj Kal rfj TroXvreXeLO. tojv 
avad-qpidrojv ro lepov e^eXapLTrpwav , dec re rrpoa- 
ayofievoL rat? Opr^GKeiais ttoXv ttXtjOos 'EAAr^vcov, 
KaKeivovs rpoTTOj tlvI fiotpav avrwv 7T€7TOir)VTO . 

46 Kad ov he Kaipov 6 rroXejios dvaKeKTjpvKTO, 
veojGTL S' els TTjV Hvpiav OveGrtaGLavos Kara- 

47 TreTrXevKet, to Be Kara tojv *Iou8ata>v Trapd TraGcv 
TJKfia^e pXGoSi Tore S77 rt? 'Avrtoxo? €.ls €$ avrajv 
ra jidXiG-a hid rdv irarepa rL}iojp.evos, tjv yap 
apxojv Tcbv eV ^ Xvrio-)(eias ^lovhaiojv, rod S-qfiov 
ra)V AvTLOxeoJV eKKX-qGid^ovros elg to Oearpov 
TTapeXOdjv Tov re narepa rou avrov Kal rov? 
dXXov? eveSecKUVTO, Karrjyopojv on vvktI paa 
KaTaTTprJGai ttjv ttoXlv aVacrav hieyvajKeiGav, /cat 
TTapehihov ^evovs 'louSatous" nvas o^S KeKOivoj- 

48 VTjKoras tojv (^e^ovXev/jievctJV . ravra "^S']^ d/couoiv 
o hijfiog r-qv opyrjv ov Karelxev, dXX errl fiev 
rovs TTapahodevras rrvp evdvs eKeXevov K0fiLL,eLv, 
/cat 7Tapa-x_prjiia ndvres eVt rod dedrpov /car- 

49 echXey-qGav, errl he ro rrXrjOos (Lppirjro rojv 'louSata;^ 
ev ro) rax(-ov eKeivovs rLfjuopia Trept^aXelv rrjv 

50 avrdjp narplSa crdj^etv voiiLL,ovres. ^Avrioxo? he 

1 om. PM. 



" According to Ap. ii. 39 these rights were granted to the 
518 



JEWISH WAR, VII. 44-60 

offerings as were made of brass, to be laid up in their 
svnacrogue, and, moreover, granted them citizen 
rights on an equality Mith the Greeks." Continuing 
to receive similar treatment from later monarchs, 
the Jewish colony grew in numbers, and their richly 
designed and costly offerings formed a splendid 
ornament to the temple.^ Moreover, they were 
constantly attracting to their religious ceremonies 
multitudes of Greeks, and these they had in some 
measure incorporated ^^'ith themselves. Now just Antiochns 
at the time when war had been declared and Ves- ^JllJ.^.^^^'l' 
pasian had recently landed in Syria, and when hatred Antiochenp 
of the Jews was everywhere at its height, a certain jncendiar- 
Antiochus, one of their own number and highly i^m. 
respected for the sake of his father, M'ho was chief 
magistrate of the Jews in Antioch, entered the 
theatre '^ during an assembly of the people and de- 
nounced his OA\Ti father and the other Jews, accusing 
them of a design to burn the whole city to the 
ground in one night ; he also delivered up some 
foreign Jews as accomplices to the plot. On hearing 
this, the people, in uncontrollable fury, ordered the 
men who had been delivered up to be instantly con- 
signed to the flames, and all were forthwith burnt to 
death in the theatre. They then rushed for the 
JeA\ish masses, believins; the salvation of their native 
place to be dependent on their prompt chastisement. 

Jews of Antioch by Seleucus I Xicator, founder of the city 
and of the Seleucid dynasty (died 380 b.c). 

* Jews recognized but one " temple," at Jerusalem, and 
that must surely be intended ; Whiston and Traill render 
" their temple," meaning apparently the " synagogue " 
mentioned above. 

"= The theatre was frequently used as a meeting-place for 
the ecclesia in Hellenic cities ; cf. the scene in the theatre at 
Ephesus, Acts xix. 29. 

519 



r,.2 
3 



JOSEPHUS 

7Tpoae7TeT€LV€ T-qv opy-qv, 7T€pl fiev tt]? avrov 
fjLera^oXrj? Kal rov iieyLiGTjKevai tcl tow ^lovhalow 
edrj reKjJirjpiov epiTrapex^^^^ olopievos to eTndveLV 

51 a)(77T€p vopLog €GTL TOL? "KXXrjGLV eKeXeve Se Kai 
Tovg aAAof? TO avro 7tol€lv dvayKdt,€Lv (^avepovs 
yap yevrjaeadat Tcp pLrj OeXetv tovs im^ef^ov- 
XevKOTas. ;)(pco/x€V6fjy Se ttj rreipa tojv Avtlox^(j^^ 
oXlyoL p.€v VTrefietvav, ol he pLrj ^ovXrjdevres 

52 avrjpedrjGav. Kvtloxos Se GrpariojTas Trapa tov 

PajpLaLCjov rjyefxovos Aa^ojv ^^aAerro? ecbeLarrjKec 
Tolg avTOV TroXiraLS, dpyelv ttjv e^hopLTjv ovk 
iTTLTpeTTOJV, ttAAct ^LaC6pL€vos TTOVTa 7TpaTT€LV ocra 

53 Srj Kal rat? d'AAats- -qp.epais. ovtojs re ttjv 
avayKTjv LGXvpdv €77olt]G€v, chs fjLYj pLovov en 

AvTio^^ias KaTaXvdrjvai ttjv e^So^aSa apyelv 
rjpLepav, dXX eKeWev dp^ap.evov tov rrpdypiaTOs Kav 
rats' d'AAai? rroXeGLV oiiolajs jipa)(yv TLva xpovov. 

54 (4) ToLOVTCov h-q toZs errl TTJg* *Ai^Tto;^eta? 
lovSaioLs Twv /car' eKelvov tov Kaipov KaKow 

yeyevTjpievojv SevTepa TrdXiv avpichopd TTpoaerreae, 
TTepi -qs eTTixeipi^Gavres acbrjyeZGSai Kai raura 

65 die^-qXdofJiev. irrel yap avi-e^rj KaTa7Tpy]a6rjvaL 
TTjv TeTpaycjvov ayopdv dpxetd re /cat ypa/x/xaro- 
(f)vXdKLoi^ Kal Ta? ^aaiXiKd? , pioXi? re to rrvp 
eKOjXvOrj pceTa ttoXXt]? ^ias enl rrdaav ttjv ttoXlv 
TTepicjiepopievov , TavTTjv Wvtloxo? ttjv npa^Lv lou- 

56 Satojy KaTijyopei. Kal Tovg ^AvTLoxets, el Kai 
pLTj TTpoTepov elxov TTpo? av~ov£ dTTexOoj?, Tdx^^yT 
dv^ TTj Sia^oXfj rrapd ttjv eV tov Gvpi^e^rj kotos 
Tapax'qv vrraxOevTag ttoXv pLoXXov eV rtuv Trpo- 
vn-qpypLevajv tols utt* avTOV Aeyo/xeVot? TTLGTeveiP 

^ VRC : jJiev irap^x'^'-^ ^^ • Trapex"'' ^i-L. 
520 



JEWISH WAR, VII. 60-56 

Antiochus further inflamed their fury ; for, think- 
ing to furnish proof of his conversion and of his 
detestation of Jewish customs by sacrificing after 
the manner of the Greeks, he recommended that the 
rest should be compelled to do the same, as the 
conspirators would thus be exposed by their refusal. 
This test being applied by the Antiochenes, a few 
submitted and the recalcitrants were massacred. 
Antiochus, ha\dng next procured the aid of troops 
from the Roman general, domineered with severity 
over his Jewish fellow-citizens, not permitting them 
to repose on the seventh day, but compelling them to 
do everything exactly as on other davs ; and so 
strictly did he enforce obedience that not only at 
Antioch was the weekly day of rest abohshed, but 
the example having been started there spread for a 
short time to the other cities as well. 

(4) Such being the misfortunes which the Jews of The great 
Antioch had at that time experienced, a second Amfoch 
calamity now befell them, in endeavouring to describe ^^'"^ to their 
which I was led to narrate the previous history. 
For a fire ha\'ing broken out, which burnt do\\Ti the 
market-square, the magistrates' quarters, the record- 
office and the basilicae," and the flames having ^\'ith 
difficulty been prevented from spreading M*ith raging 
violence over the whole citv, Antiochus accused the 
Jews of the deed. The Antiochenes, even had they 
not been previously embittered against them, would, 
in the commotion produced by the accident, have 
readily been misled by the calumny ; much more, 
after what had previously occurred, were they now 
" Law-courts and Exchange in one. 

^ LC : dpyqu the rest. ' C: Kai the rest. 

* ^7ri T7]s] eir' PA. ^ ;(;a/3To0i'XdKtoi' L Zon, 

* PAL-: rdxtcTa the rest. 

521 



JOSEPHUS 

7rap€GK€vaG€Vi to? yiovov ovk avrovg ro nvp 

57 €VL€fj.€vov V7TO Tojv \ovbaLcov eojpaKorag, /cat 
Kaddrrep ipLfiavelg yeyevrjfjievoi fierd ttoXXov tlvo? 
OLcrrpov Travres i-TTi rovg Sia^e^X-qfievovs wppL-qvro. 

58 p^oXtg S' avrojv iSwijOr] rag opjias i7n(j)(€LV 
Tvalog^ KoAAi^yas" Tt? Trpea^evr-qs, d^Low CTn- 
rpeiliaL Kataapt hr]Xoj9rjvaL irepl rojv yeyovorcov 

59 Tov yap rjyeixovevovra rrjs Zupta? KataeVvtor 
YLalrov^ TJdrj {jl6v OveoTraGLavo? i^aTrearaXKeL, 

60 ovvefjaLve he rrapelvai pL-qheTroj. 7TOLovp.evo£ S' 
eTTLpLeXij TTjV dvaLriT-quLV^ 6 KoAAi^yas" e^eupe rr^v 
aXr'jdeLav, Acat row piev rrjv alriav vtt* ^ Avrio'x^ov 
Xa^ovTOJV ^lovhaiojv ouScJ? ouS' eKOivowquev , 

61 arrav be rovpyov eTrpa^av dvOpojTToi rives dXirr^piOL 
hid xpeajv dvay/ca? voiiiCovTes, el rrjv dyopdv 
KciL rd h'qp.oGLa Kararrpriaeiav ypdppara, rrjs 

62 arraiTTjaecos d—aXXayqv e^eiv. 'lordatot piev ovv 
€771 pLerecopoLS rals atrtat? to peX^.ov en Kapa- 
hoKovvres ev (hof^ois xaXeTrols drreudXevov. 

63 (iv, l) Titos' he Kataap rrjs rrepl rod rrarpos 
ayyeXias avrqj KouiaOeLG'qs, on TrdaaLs pev 
rrodeivos rats Kard rrjV ^IraXuav TroXeaiv iTrrjXdev, 
pdXiGra 8' -q 'PcopL-q* p,erd ttoXXtjs avrov ehecaro 
TTpoOvpLLas Kal XauTTporiqros, els TToXXrjV p^apav 
Kai dvpL-qhtav irpdnero, row jrepl avrov (fypovrldojv 

64 ojs 'qhiarov rjv aTT-qXXayfjLevos . OveoTTaoLavov yap 
en pev /cat paKpdv dirovra Trdvres ol Kara rrjv 

IraXcav dvdpojrroi rals yvajpcais Trepielrrov ws 
rjKovra, rrjv TrpouhoKiav €K rod rravv OeXeiv 

^ Rekker : vio^ or veos Cjv mss. : Xa?os Niese irf, A. xix. 
166). • Hudson: IHtov jdS'i. 

' P: '^-qr-qaLV the rest. * 'Vf^itialijiv M. 

522 



JEWISH WAR, VII. 5&-64 

inclined to believe the statements of Antiochus, and 
to imagine that they had all but seen vrith. their own 
eyes the Jews setting fire to the town. And so, like 
maniacs, in a wild frenzy they all rushed upon the 
accused. With great difficulty Gnaeus Colleo-a.'* the 
deputy -governor, succeeded in restraining their fury, 
requesting permission to lay the facts before Caesar ; 
for as it happened, the governor of Syria. Caesennius 
Paetus,^ already sent out by Vespasian, had not yet 
arrived. By careful investigation Collega then dis- 
covered the truth. Not one ot the Jews incriminated 
by Antiochus had any part in the affair, the whole 
being the work of some scoundrels, who, under the 
pressure of debts, imagined that if they burnt the 
market-place and the pubHc records they would be 
rid of all demands. The Jews, ^\-ith these charges 
hanging over them and still anxiously awaiting the 
issue, were thus in troubled waters and in grave 
alarm. 

(iv. 1) Meanwhile, Titus Caesar, having received Enthusi- 
news of the eagerness with which all the Italian cities reception of 
had greeted his father's approach, and that Rome in Vespasian 
particular had given him an enthusiastic and splendid '° °°^ ' 
reception, experienced heart-felt joy and satisfaction 
at this most agreeable rehef from anxiety on his 
behalf. For even while \'espasian was still far off, 
all the Italians were paying respect to him in their 
hearts as if he were already come, mistaking, in their 
keen desire, their expectation of him for his actual 

* Gn. Pompeius Collega, consul in a.d. 93 (Tac. Agr. 44). 

* C. Caesennius Paetus, consul in 61, diso:raced himself 
in a campaign against the Parthians in 63 and was deprived 
by Xero of his command ; as governor of Syria he made an 
inglorious attack on the innocent Antiochus, king of Com- 
magene, described below, §§ 219 flF. 

523 



JOSEPHUS 

d(f>L^Lv avTov voyLit^ovres Kal Trdorj^ dvdyKrjs 

65 eXevOepav rrjv Trpog avrov e)(OVTes evvotav. rfj 
re yap ^ovXfj Kara. fivrjiJ-qv rwv yey€vr]ii€va>v 
€V rats ra)v -qyejiovajv iiera^oXalg cru[i(f)opajv 
evKraZov rjv aTToXaBelv -qyepiova y-qpcos oefjLVorrjn 
Kat TTpd^ewv dK/jifj TToXepuKcjv KeKOGp.-qp.evov, co 
rrjv VTTepox'Tjv Trpog povqv rjTTiaravro rrjV rcuv 

66 dpxopLevQjv aojrrjplav eGop.evr)v. Kal pr-jv 6 Srjpos 
V7TO rojv epLcfivXlajv KaKojv rerpvxojpevos en 
p,dXXov eXdeiv avrov eaTrevhe, rore by) ^c^atoj? 
p.ev aTTaXXayr^aeaOai ra)v crvpi(f)op6jv V77oXap.^ava)v , 
d—oX-qipeadai 8e rrjV dheiav p.erd rrj? everrjpia? 

67 TTeTTLGrevKOJS. e^aiperojs Se ro GrpanwriKov et? 
avrov d(f)ecopa- paXiara yap ovroL row Karojp6a>- 
pLevwv avro) TToXepojv eylvaxTKOv ro p.eye6og, rijs 
aTTeipias he rcjv dXXa>v r)yep.6vcDV Kal rrjs av- 
avhptas TTerreipapevoi rroXXrjg pev aloxvvrjs avrov? 
e—edvpLOVv d—rjXXdxOaL, rov povov he Kal oajt,eiv 
avrov? KaL Koapelv hvvdp,evov aTToXa^eZv -qv^ovro. 

68 roLavrrjg 8' evvoca? e^ aTrdvrcov vrrap^ovorj? roig 
p.ev Kara rd? d^Lcvcreis Trpov^ovGL rcov dvhpojv 
ovKer aveKrov -qv dvap-evetv, dXXd rroppajraraj 

69 rrjg 'IPcoprjg avraj Trpoevrvxelv eairevhov. ov p,7]V 
ovhe row dXXojv ris rjvelxero rrj? evrev^eojg rrjv 
ava^oX-qv, dAA' ovroj? e^ex^ovro rrdvres dOpooL 
KaL TTaGLv evTTopcorepov Kal paov ehoKet rov 
pLeveLV ro dmevai,, cog Kal rrjv ttoXlv avrrjv rore 
TTpojrov ev eavrfj Xa^eZv oXiyavdpojrrlas aiGdrjGLv 
TjSelav^' TjGav yap eXdrrovg raJv drnovrojv ol 

70 pLevovres. inel he TrpoGiojv rjyyeXXero , Kal rrjv 
Tjpeporrira rijs evrev^eojg avrov rrjv Trpog eKaarovs 
ebrjXovv ol rrpoeXOovres," dnav rjhr] ro Xolttov 
524' 



JEWISH WAR, VII. 64-70 

arrival, and exhibiting an affection for him wholly 
free from constraint. For to the Senate, mindful of 
the calamities undergone in the changes of their 
rulers," nothing was more desirable than to gain once 
more an emperor adorned with the gravity of years 
and the finest fame for military achievements, whose 
exaltation they were assured would make only for 
the welfare of his subjects. The people, too, ex- 
hausted by civil disorders, were still more eager for 
his coming, expecting now at last to obtain perma- 
nent release from their miseries, and confident that 
security and prosperity would again be theirs. But 
above all the army had their eyes on him ; for they 
knew best the magnitude of the wars that he had 
won, and, ha\ing had proof of the inexperience and 
cowardice of the other emperors, longed to be rid of 
such deep disgrace and prayed that they might be 
granted him who alone could both bring them 
salvation and add lustre to their arms. Amidst such 
feelings of universal goodwill, those of higher rank, 
impatient of awaiting him, hastened to a great 
distance from Rome to be the first to greet him. 
Nor, indeed, could any of the rest endure the delay 
of meeting, but all poured forth in such crowds — for 
to all it seemed simpler and easier to go than to 
remain — that the very city then for the first time 
experienced with satisfaction a paucity of inhabitants; 
for those who went outnumbered those who remained. 
But when he was reported to be approaching and 
tliose who had gone ahead were telling of the affa- 
bility of his reception of each party, the whole re- 

" A.D. f)S-69 was the year of the four emperors — Nero, 

Galba, Otho, Vitellius. 

^ Hudson after Lat. iucundam : Idiap mss. 
^ L Lat. : Trpoae\d6vT€s the rest. 

525 



J05EPHUS 

TrXrjdog a/jLa yvvai^l /cat Traicnv irrl rat? TrapoSot? 

71 i^ehey(^eTOy kol Kad ov£ yevoiro rrapiajv ovtol 
Trpo? r-qv rjSovrjV rrj? Bias kol to [leuXlxiov avrov 
rrjs oipeoj? TravTOtas 7](f)L€Gav (f)OJvds, tov e-uepyer'qv 
Koi GOJTTJpa /cat fJLOVOV a^iov rjyeiJLOva rrj? PdjLLTjs 
dvaKaXovvT€£' drraGa S' rj ttoXls oj? vecu? ^jV 

72 urechavajjidroji' /cat dvp-iaixdratv dvdTrXeojs . fxoXis 
d' V7t6 ttXtjOovs row Trepl avrov LGrafievcov hvvrj- 
6eL£ els ro /SaatAetov iXdelv, avros p-ev rols evhov 
Oeols OvGtas rrjs dSi^eojs ;\;aptcrrT7ptous' errereXei, 

73 rperrerai^ Se rd ttXtjOtj Trpos evojy^iav /cat Kara 
(hvXds /cat yivTj /cat yeirovtas TTOLovpLevoL ras 
€GTLdG€LS rjvy^ovro ro) deoj GTrivhovres avrov r 
irrl rrXelGrov "x^povov OveGrraGLavov empLeZvai rfj 
*P(jj[j.aLCov -qyefiovla, /cat Tratatv avrov /cat rot? e£ 
iK€Lvojv aet yivop^ivois <f)vXaxOrjvaL ro Kparos 

74 dvavrayojvLGrov . rj fiev ovv 'PojpLaLOJV ttoXls 
ovrojs Ov€G7TaGLav6v eKhe^apilvrj TrpodvpLOJS €v6vs 
€LS TToXX-qv evhaiiiovLav irredlbov. 

75 (2) Ylpo he rovrcijv rojv ;!(porcov, ev ots Ove- 
GTTaGiavds p-ev irepl ^ AXe^dvhpeiav rjv, Tcros oe 
Tjj row 'lepoGoXvpLOJV rrpoGrjSpeve TToXiopKia, 

76 77oXv p.epos Tepp.avow eKLvqdrj Trpos drroGraGcv , ols 
/cat TaXarojv ol ttXi-jGlov^ Gvp.(^povriGavres KOLvfj 
fieyaXas eXTTibas avrols Gvvedeoav d>s /cat rrjS 

77 VojpLaiojv d—aXXa^6p.evoL SeGTTorelas. eTrrjpe Se 

^ Trpo-pewerai PAM. ^ irXetcrrot PAM^. 

*" The story of this revolt is narrated at length by Tacitus, 
Hist. iv. 13-37, 54-79, v. 14-26 (where the Uisti.ry breaks off j. 
The German leader, Julius Civilis, at the head of the Bata\-ians, 

526 



JEWISH WAR, VII. 70-77 

maining population, \\'ith wives and children, were 
by now waiting at the road-sides to receive him ; and 
each group as he passed, in their delight at the 
spectacle and moved by the blandness of his appear- 
ance, gave vent to all manner of cries, haihng him as 
"benefactor," " sa\'iour," and " only worthy emperor 
of Rome." The whole city, moreover, was filled, 
like a temple, %\'ith garlands and incense. Ha\'ing 
reached the palace, though with difficulty, o^ving to 
the multitude that throng-ed around him, he oifered 
sacrifices of thanksgi\'ing for his arrival to the house- 
hold gods. The crowds then betook themselves to 
festi\-ity and, keeping feast by tribes and famihes and 
neighbourhoods, N^ith Hbations prayed God that 
Vespasian might himself long be spared to the Roman 
empire, and that the sovereignty might be preserved 
unchallenged for his sons and their descendants 
throughout successive generations. And, indeed, 
the city of Rome, after this cordial reception of 
Vespasian, rapidly advanced to great prosperity. 

(2) However, before this period, wliile \^espasian a revolt of 
was at Alexandi'ia and Titus occupied with the siege aud™^u1s 
of Jerusalem, a large portion of the Germans had 
been incited to revolt ; and the neighbouring Gauls, 
sharing their aspirations, conceived, in partnership 
Adth them, high hopes of release from Roman 
domination." The Germans were instigated to 

who occupied the Delta of the Rhine, began by playing for 
Vespasian, but after the defeat of Vitellius (October 69 a.d.) — 
ended by playing for himself. His Gallic associate, Julius 
Classicus, a distinguished nobleman of the Treveri, aspired 
to set up an imperium Galliannn. " The Batavians and 
the Gauls had a common interest in their hostility to Rome, 
and so far they co-operated ; but Civilis had nothing to do 
with the imperium Galliarum " (Bury). 

527 



JOSEPHUS 

rov? Tepfiavovs difjaaOai rijs aTToaraueoj? Kai 
Tov TToXejiov i^€veyK€LV Trpojrrj jikv tj (f)VGis ovaa 
XoyLGjicjv epi^fios ayaOcov kol /xerd jjUKpas eXTtlSos 

78 €TOLp.ojs pixfjoKivhwos' eTTCLTa be Kai ploos to 
TTpos Tovs Kparovvras, errec pLovoug [aaai Poj- 
paloLS TO yevos avTOJV hovXeveiv ^e^iaapLevov. 
ov prjv dXXa. paXiGTa ye TrdvTOJV 6 Kaipos avTols 

79 Odpaos eveiroi-qoev opcovTes yap ttjv 'Pco/xatcov 
dp)^rjv TOis GvvexeGL tcov avroKpaTopcov aXXayals 
eV eavTTJ TeTapaypiivrjv , Trdv re pepog Trjg vtt 
avTOLS OLKOvpLevqs Trvvdavopevoi pL€Teojpov eivai 
/cat KpahaiveGdai, tovtov gc^lglv avTols apiGTOV 
vrro Trjg eKeivwv KaKorrpayias koI GTdGeojs Kaipov 

80 a)'qdr]Gav TrapaSeSoGdai. ivrjyov Se to ^ovXevpia 
/cat raurat? avTovs Tats iXTTLGiv iTV(f>ovv KXaGGCKos 
TLS /cat KtoftAtos"^ rdJv Trap* avrols [ovres"]^ 

81 rjyepLOVcuv , 61 Sr^Aop- pev d>s €k paKpov TavTTjs 

i(f)i€VTO TTJS V€COT€p07T0UaS , V7TO TOV KaipOV §€ 

dapGTJGaL 7Tpoa-)(9ivT€£ TTjv avTcov yvajpuqv e^- 
e(l>7]vav epLeXXov 8e rrpoOvpcos Sta/cet/xeVotS" ttjv 

82 TTeZpav rot? irX'^OeGL rrpoGcjiepeLv. ttoXXov he pLepovs 
tJStj ToJv Teppavojv ttjv dTTOGTaGiav dvajpioXoyr)- 
KOTOS /cat TCOV aAAojv ovk avScxoL (j^povqGdvTOJV , 
ojGTTep e/c haipLOviov Trpovotas OveGTraoLavos Trep,- 

^ Gelenius : O^tViWos ms3. ' om, P. 

528 



JEWISH WAR, VII. 77-82 

attempt this insurrection and to declare war, in 
the first place, by their natural disposition, which is 
devoid of sound judgement and ready to rush into 
danger with but slight hope of success ^ ; secondly, 
by hatred of their conquerors, kno\\'ing that none 
but the Romans have reduced their race to ser\'itude. 
But what most of all inspired them with confidence 
was this golden opportunity. For seeing the Roman 
empire internally disordered through the continuous 
change of its masters, and hearing that every quarter 
of the world beneath their sway was seething and 
quivering with excitement, they thought that an 
excellent opportunity was here presented to them- 
selves by their enemy's disasters and dissensions.^ 
The scheme was fostered and the nation inflated 
with these crazy expectations by a certain Classicus 
and Ci\ilis. leading men among them, who had 
notoriously long been meditating this rebellion, and 
who were now emboldened by the occasion to 
disclose their plans and were to test the mettle of 
those, masses so eager for rebellion. A large 
section of the Germans was, accordingly, already 
committed to the revolt, and their \'iews had met 
with no opposition from the rest, when Vespasian, 
as if by the guidance of providence, dispatched 

" Cf. the description of Tacitus : "si civitas, in qua orti 
sunt, longa pace et otio torpeat, plerique nobilium adoles- 
centium petunt ultro eas nationes, quae turn bellum aliquod 
gerunt, quia et ingrata genti quies, et facilius inter ancipitia 
clarescunt," Gerin. 14. 

^ Tac. Hist. iv. 54, adds a further reason for the enemy's 
elation : " Galli sustulerant animos, eandem ubique exer- 
citunm nostrorum fortunam rati . . . sed nihil aeque quam 
incendium Capitolii, ut finem imperio adesse crederent, 
inpulerat." 

529 



JOSEPHUS 

7r6t ypdfjLfiara XleriXia/ KepeaAtoj to* Trporepov 
rjyeiiovL Fep/xavia? yevoiievco, rr^v vrraTOV hihovs 
TLfXTjv Kal KeXevojv ap^ovra BperravLag arrUvai. 

83 ^opevofjLevos ovv eKelvog ottol TrpoueriraKTO /cat 
ra TTepi ttjv aTTouTaaiv row Tepfiavcov TTvdopLevoSy 
Tjhrj <jvveiXeyp.evois avroZs im—euajv Kal Trapa- 
ra^djJL€VO£ ttoXv re TrX-qOo? avrojv dvaipel Kara. 
TT^u piay^'qv Kai rrjg avotas Travcrafidvovs r^vayKacre 

84 aojcjipovelv. epieXXov he KaKeivov /xt) ddrrov etV 
Toijg TOTTOvg TrapaSaXovros biKrjv ovk elg pLaKpdv 

85 vcjii^eiv TjVLKa yap Trptorov rj ri^? aTTOG-aGeaJS 
avrcbv ayyeXia rfj Pojfirj TrpooirTeae, ^ofienavos 
Katcrap TTvdop.evo'^ ov)( d)S dv erepos ev tovtco 
rrfs TjXLKLag, vios yap rjv en TTavrdiracnv , rrj- 
ALKOVTOV dpauBai p-eyeOos Trpayixdrcov ajKinqaev, 

86 e';)^ajt' he TrarpoQev ep.(^VTOV rrjv dvhpayaOiav Kal 
reXeiorepav nqv daK-qaiv ttj? rjXiKLa? TTeTTorqpLevog 

S7 6771 rov? ^apBdpovg evOvs rjXavvev. ol he Trpos 
r-qv (fi-qjjLTjv rrj? i66hov KaraTrecrovTeg err* avrcp 
Gcjids avTOvg eTroL-qaavro fieya^ rod (l)6^ov Kephog 
evpdfJLevoL ro ^^copt? Gvpi(j>op6L)v vtto tov avrov 

88 TrdXiv t,vy6v \)7Ta)(QTivaL. iraGLv ovv emOels roZs 
TTepL rrjV TaXarlav rd^iv rrjv TTpoGTjKovGav Ao- 
fieriavog, ujg p^Tjh^ avBis dv irore pahitos en rdKel 
TapaxOrjvaL, XapLTrpos Kat Trepl^XeTTTOS ern Kpetr- 

* Lat. : BeiTiOitj mss. ' PM : tc^ the rest. 

' ^I : /jL€Ta the rest. 



■ Q. Petilius Cerealis, a near relative of Vespasian, and an 
energetic but rash commander, had been defeated in a.d. 61 
by the Britons under Boadicea. Espousing Vespasian's 
claim to the Empire in 69, he suffered another defeat beneath 

530 



JEWISH WAR, VII. 82-88 

letters to Petilius Cerealius,** previously in command 

in Germany, conferring upon him consular dignity 
and instructing him to set out to take over the 
governorship of Britain.^ He, while proceeding is crush&i 
accordingly to his appointed sphere, heard of the ^ ^^^^ ^^^ 
revolt of the Germans, fell upon them just when 
their forces were united, and, having in a pitched 
battle slain masses of them, forced them to abandon 
their folly and learn prudence. But, even had 
Cerealius not so promptly visited the spot, they were 
doomed ere long to suffer chastisement. For as 
soon as the news of their rebellion reached Rome, 
Domitian Caesar, on hearing of it, hesitated not, as and 
another at his age might have done — for he was still '^'^^"^^^^ 
a mere stripling — to shoulder such a burden of re- 
sponsibihty. Inheriting by nature his father's 
prowess and blessed Mith a training beyond his years, 
he forthvvith marched off against the barbarians. 
Their hearts faihng them at the rumour of his 
approach, they threw themselves on his mercy, find- 
ing it a highly advantageous relief from their terror 
to be again reduced under the same yoke without 
experiencing disaster. Domitian having therefore 
duly settled all affairs in Gaul, so as to prevent any 
disorder in future from lightly recurring in that 
quarter, returned to Rome, with brilUant honours 

the walls of Rome. His success in crushing the German and 
GalHc revolt was, according to Tacitus, not so rapid and 
unchequered as it is here represented by Josephus. Sent as 
consular legate, c. a.d. 71-7:?, to the government of Britain, ^ 
he was successful in defeating the Brigantes and called out 
the talents of Agricola. (Tac. Agr. S. 17.) 

^ Tacitus does not mention the previous command in 
Germany or the instruction given at this juncture to proceed 
to Britain. 

531 



JOSEPHUS 

Tocrt fi€u rrjs rjXLKiag, rrpeTTOVUL he ro) irarpi 
KaropO CO /xaatv etV rrjv 'Pc6jJLr]v dve^eu^e. 

89 (3) Tt^ Se 7Tpo€Lp7]iJ,€V7j Tepfiavow aTToaracrei 
Kara ras avrag rjfiepa? Kal 'LkvOlkov roXpL-qjia 

90 77 po£ 'Pco^atous" Gvvebpapiev. ol yap KaXo-ujxevoi 
TtKvOojv Zap/xarat, ttoAu ttXtjOos ovre?, ad-qXoL 
jU-ev TOP "luTpov errepaiiodrjaav elg rrjv iTrtrahe, 
TToXXfj Se ^la Kal ;)(aAe770t §td to 7Tavrd77aoLv 
dyeAmcTTOv tt]s i(f)6Sov TTpoaTTeuovres ttoXXovs 
fx€v Tojv eVt ri\s (^povpds 'PojfiaLOJV avaipovoi, 

91 Kal TOV 77p€G^€Vrr)V TOV V77arLK6v ^OVTrjLOV^ 

AypcTTTTav VTravTidaavTa \KaC\'^ Kaprepcos fJ.a)(o- 
ixevov KT€LvovGL, TrjV S' V770K€L{j.evrjv -)(^(x>pav 
aTTaaav Karirpexov dyovreg Kal (j>ipovTes orcp 

92 77€pL7TeaoL€v. OveuTTaGiavos he rd yeyevrjfjLeva /cat 
rrjv 776p6rjGiv ttjs Muatas" 77vQ6pievos ^Pov^piov^ 
FdAAop' eK77e}Ji77ei hlKrjv eTndiJGovTa tols Zap/xdrats". 

93 v<j)' ov 770XX0I fxev avrcov ev rats fidxcLi-? d77edavov, 
TO he TrepLGOjdev fxeTa heov? els ttjv oiKeiav 

94 hie(l)vyev. tovto* he tcu TToXejxoj tIXos eVt^et? 

6 GrpaTTjyos Kal ttjs els to p.eXXov aG<f)aXeias 

TTpovvorjGe- TrXeioGL yap Kal pLeil,0Gi (f)vXaKals 

^ ed. pr. : ^popr-rjiof mss. : Pompeiura Lat. 
2 om. VRC. 
' Lat.: T ov3pLov -y.iss. * P: roiVcf; the rest. 

° Josephus, the client of the Flavians, clearly exaggerates 
the share of Domitian in this campaign. Tacitus, Ilist, iv. 
85 f. gives a diflFerent story. The victory was won when 
Domitian, with Mucianus, reached Lugdunum ; " unde 
creditur Domitianus occultis ad Cerialem nuntiis fidem eius 
temptavisse, an praesenti sibi exercitum imperiumque 

532 



JEWISH WAR, VII. 88-94 

and universally admired for achievements surpassing 
his afire and befitting- his father.^ 

(3) Simultaneously \\-ith the above mentioned Simuitane- 
revolt of the Germans a daring Scythian outbreak of mSe^" 
as^ainst the Romans took place. ^ For the Scvthian by the 

^ t njc j_- 'j^'i_ Sannatians. 

people called harmatians, a very numerous tribe, 
stealthilv crossed the Ister '^ to its hither bank, and, 
falHng upon the Romans ^^'ith great \iolence. the 
more formidable because their attack was utterly 
unexpected, slew large numbers of the Roman guards, 
and among them the consular legate, Fonteius 
Agrippa,'^ who advanced to meet them and died 
fighting gallantly ; they then overran all the territory 
to the south, harr^'incr and plundering whatever fell 
in their way. \'espa$ian, on hearing of what had 
taken place and of the devastation of Moesia, 
dispatched Rubrius Gallus ^ to punish the Sarma- 
tians. Bv him multitudes of them were slain in the 
ensuing battles, and the sur\-ivors fled in terror to 
their o^^'n country. The general, ha\'ing thus brought 
the war to a conclusion, further took precautions for 
future security by posting more numerous and 

traditurus foret." Slighted by the older officers, Domitian 
withdrew into seclusion. 

^ Josephus seems to be the sole authority for the events 
described in this section. Tacitus, Hist. iv. 54, merely alludes 
to a rumour of such an invasion as one of the incitements to 
the Gauls to join Civilis in revolt : " vulgato rumore a 
Sarmatis Dacisque Moesica ac Pannonica hiberna circum- 
sederi : paria de Britannis fingebantur." 

<■ The Daiiuhe. 

** Proconsular governor of the province of Asia in a.d. 69, 
he had been recalled in 70 to take command of Moesia (Tac. 
Hist. iii. 46). 

' The part taken by him in the war of Otho against 
Vitellius and in subsequent events is mentioned bv Tacitus, 
Hist. ii. 51, 99. 

533 



JOSEPHUS 

Tov TOTTOV^ SUXa^eVy (hs etvai rols ^ap^dpois rrjv 

95 hia^auiv rcAecos" ahvvarov. 6 fiev ovv Tzepl rrjv 
Mvcrtai^ rroXefjLOS rax^'io.v ovtoj? eXa^e rrjv Kpioiv. 

96 (v. l) Tiros Se Kato-ap ^(^povov jxev riva 8t- 
irpi^ev ev J^rjpvrcp, KaOa TrpoeiprjKaiJLev, CKeWev 
8' dvaL,€v^ag /cat St' tSv rjei TToXeojv rrjs Zupta? 
iv TTOLGaLS deojplag re crvvreXcov TToXvreXels Kal 
Twv ^lovSaLOJV TOV? alj^iiaXajTOVS^ et? eTrihei^iv 
rrjs iavTCov dTTOjXelas arroxpcjofxevos, dedrai Kara 

97 rr]V rropeiav TTorajjLov <J>vglv d^iav Larop-qdi]vai. pel 
fiev yap fxeuos 'Ap/cea? rrjs AypLirrra ^aGiXeias 
Kal 'Pa(f)avaLas, exei Se OavjjLaarrjv Ihiorrjra- 

98 TToXvs ydp ojv, ore pel, kul Kara rrjv cf)opdv ov 
oxoXalos, erreira he vrd? €K rojv rrr^ycov eTnXeiTTOjv 
e^ rjpLepcov dpiBpiOV irjpov rrapahihojuiv opdv rov 

99 roTTOv cW wGTrep ovhepLLas yevofxevrjs pLera^oXrjs 
ofJLOLOS Kara rrjv i^bofjirjv e/cStScoat, Acat ravrrjv 
del rrjv rd^LV dKpi^cos reri^p-qrai Sia(f)vXdrra}V' 
odev Sr] Kal Ha^^ariKov avrov KeKXrjKaaiv drro 
rrjs Upas rwv 'louSaicuj^ i^hoiirjs ovrojs dvojj,d- 
oavres- 

100 (2) '0 Se Tcuv ^ Kvriox^o^v Stjjjlos eTrel ttXtjulov 
ovra Tirov eTTVvOdvovrOy fxeveiv jiev evros r€LX<JOV 
VTTO xapds ovx VTTepLevov, earrevhov 8' eVt rr^v 

^ TTOTaixov Destinon. 
' TOi>s aix/J-o-^^Tovs P {rf. V. 36) : rots alxP-o.\o:TOLS the rest. 

• § 39. " Beirut. 

' Arka, at the northern extremity of the Lebanon range, 
N.E. of TripoUs {'ApKjjv tt]v iv np Ai^dvu} A. i. 138) ; " the 
Arkite '" appears already in Gen. x. 17. 

•* Part of the additional territory conferred by Vespasian 
upon Agrippa II in reward for his loyalty during the war ; 
not mentioned as part of his realm in B. iii. 56 f., probably 

534 



JEWISH WAR, MI. 94-100 

stronger garrisons throughout the district, so as to 
render the passage of the river totally impossible to 
the barbarians. The war in Moesia was thus speedily 
decided. 

(v. 1) Titus Caesar, as we have already mentioned,'^ T.tus visits 
stayed for some time at Berytus.^ Departing thence, -sabbati- 
he exhibited costly spectacles in all the cities of ^^^""v^'"- 
Syria through which he passed, making his Jewish 
captives serve to display their ovm destruction. In 
the course of his march he saw a river, the nature of 
which deserves record. It runs between Arcea,^ a 
town within Agrippa's realm,*^ and Raphanea,^ and 
has an astonishing peculiarity. For, when it flows, 
it is a copious stream with a current far from sluggish ; 
then all at once its sources fail and for the space of 
six days it presents the spectacle of a dry bed ; 
again, as though no change had occurred, it pours 
forth on the seventh day just as before. And it has 
always been observed to keep strictly to this order ; 
whence they have called it the Sabbatical river, so 
naming it after the sacred seventh day of the Jews.-'' 

(2) The people of Antioch, on hearing that Titus Titus at 
was at hand, through joy could not bear to remain jerus^s the 
within their walls, but hastened to meet him and 'o'^'}'. 

pfiitinn to 
because Josephus there confines himself to regions with expt-l the 
Jewish residents, Schurer, G.J. V. (ed. 3 and 4) i. 594 f, Je^s. 

• § 18, 

' It is curious that the Jewish historian represents the 
river as a sabbath-breaker, working on one day in seven ; 
while the pagan Piiny makes it strictly Sabbatarian : "in 
ludea rivus sabbatis omnibus siccatur '' N.H xxxi. 11. The 
missionary, Dr. W. M. Thomson, claims to have identified 
this river in 1840 with the iW6a el Fuarr " now quiescent two 
days and active on a part of the third." For the explanation 
of these intermitting fountains as " merely the draining of 
subterranean reservoirs of water, on the principle of the 
siphon " see his The Land and the Book 264 f. 

535 



JOSEPHUS 

101 VTravrr^uLV Kol rpiaKOvra Grahiajv irrl irXiov 
TTporjXOov ovK dvbpes [jlovov dAAa /cat yvvaLKOJV 

102 ttXtjOos dfia Tratcrt ttJ? TToXeoJS iKX€6ji€V0L. kol- 
7T€Ldrj77€p IBeddavTO Trpocnovra, rrapd rrjv ohov 
iKarepcoOev Karaardvres tgl? t€ Se^ta? Trpovreivov 
TTpoaayopevovre^ /cat TravroLOLS eTnc^-qpLLGfiaaL 

103 xpajp.€voi (jvw7TeGTpe(j)0V Gvve-)(rjs 5 -qv avrojv 
rrapd rrdaas dp.a rds €V(f)r]pLLas SerjULs eK^aXclv 

104 rrJ5 noXeojs rov£ 'lot'datou?. TtVo? fiev ovv 
ov^ev ivedcoKev npo? ravr-qv rrjv Berjcriv, dAA' 
rjavxT] Tcov Xeyop-evajv erTrjKovev €7t ad-qXco 3e 

Toi T6 (f)pOV€l Koi TL TTOLlJGeL TToXvS Kol X^aXeiTOS 

105 rdls ^Yovhaiois 6 (ho^og rjv oude yap VTrlfieLvev 
€v AvTio;(eta 1 tros", aAA evovg €—l to /.evyfia 
TO Kara rdv Y^ixf^pdrriv cruvereive ttjv TTopetav, 
€v9a St] Kal napd rod YldpOojv ^aaiXews BoAoyeaou 
TTpos avrov tjKOV orecfiavop ;(pu<7o{;v errt rfj Kara 

106 Toir ^lovdalajv vlktj KopiiL^ovres. ov he^dpievos 
eloria rovg ^aGiXiKO-us, KdKeWev ct? rr]v 'Avrto- 

107 ;\;etat' eTravepx^rac. rrjs 8e ^ovX-qg /cat tou brjpLOV 
rdjv WvrLox^ojv TToXXds Trot'/ycra/ieVctjy SeT^aets" 
iXdelv €L£ ro Oiarpov avrov, €v cb Trdv ro TrXijdog 
rjdpoLGpidvov i^ehex^ro, (jiLXavdpojTTOJS VTrrjKovGe. 

108 TrdXiv S' avrcov G(f)6dpa Xirrapcos iyK€LpL€va>v Kal 
Gvvexdjs SeopLevcov e^eAdaat rrJ£ TToXeojg rov? 

lofSatou?, evGroxov €7TOir]Garo ttjv arroKptGLv, 

109 elrrojv " dAA ^ ye Trarpis avrcov, et? tjv eK^aXelv 
^XPW ovras lovdaLOvg, av^prjrat, Kac Se^atr' 

110 dv ovBels avrovs en r ottos." ^ttI Bevrepav ovv 
*Ai'rto;^6tS' rpeTTOvraL he-qoiv ttjs Trporepas drro- 
ordvres' rds ydp x^^^ds tj^lovv beXrovs dveAetz^ 
avrov, iv at? yiypaTrraL rd 3t/cata»/LtaTa rojv 
536 



JEWISH WAR, VII. 101-110 

advanced to a distance of over thirty furlongs, not 
only men, but a crowd of women and children also, 
streaming out from the city. And when thev beheld 
him approaching, they hned the road on either side 
and greeted him with extended arms, and invoking 
all manner of blessings upon him returned in his 
train ; but all their acclamations were accompanied 
by a running petition to expel the Jews from the 
toMTi. Titus, unmoved by this petition, listened in 
silence to what was said ; but the Jews, uncertain as 
to his opinion and intentions, were kept in deep and 
distressing alarm. For Titus, making no stav at 
Antioch, at once pushed on to Zeugma " on the 
Euphrates, where a deputation from Bologeses,^ 
king of Parthia, waited upon him, bringing him a 
golden croMTi in recognition of his \'ictory over the 
Jews. Ha\-ing accepted this and pro^-ided a banquet 
for the king's messengers, he returned thence to 
Antioch. The senate and people of that city having 
earnestly besought him to \isit their theatre, where 
the whole population was assembled to receive him. 
he graciously assented. Once more they persistently 
pressed and continuously entreated him to expel the 
Jews from the city, to which he pertinently replied : 
" But their ovm. country to which, as Jews, they 
ought in that case to be banished, has been destroyed, 
and no other place would now receive them." So 
relinquishing their first request the Antiochenes 
turned to a second, petitioning him to remove the 
brazen tablets on which were inscribed the privileges 

° On the right bank of the upper Euphrates, in the region 
of Samosata ; it took its name from its bridge of boats. 
" Vologeses I ( = Arsaces XXIIl) ; cf. §§ 237 ^ 24:2. 



537 



JOSEPHUS 

111 ^lovSaLcov. ov yLTjv ovhk rovro Ttro? €7T€V€V(J€v 
aiJTOLS, dAA eaaag Travra Kara xo'jpav roXs in 
*A.vrLox^^o.£ loudatots" ojs Trporepov etxov elg 

112 AtyvTrrov dTrqXXdrrero . /cat Kara. rr)v TTopeiav 
rots 'lepoGoXvpLOLS rrpoGeXOajv /cat tt^v Xvirpdv 
iprjpLLav ^XevropLevqi' avriTiOeLS rfj ttotc r-qg 
TToXeojs XapL—poTTjTL, /Cat TO fjLeyedos rcov ip- 
prjypiivajv /caracr/ceuaCT/xarcuv /cat to irdXai koXXos 
els iJ.vrjp.rjV ^aXX6p.evo?, w/cretpe rr^s" ttoAccos" 

113 Tov oXeOpov, ov)^ wajrep ~^d/\Xo£^ dv tls av)(^(jjv 
on Ti]XLKavTrjv ovaav /cat rooavrijv etAe Kara 
Kpdros, dXXd TToXXdKLS eTrapcopuevos rols atrtots" 
rrjs aTTOordoeajg VTrdp^aai /cat ravr-qv eVt rrj 
77oAet rrjv Tip.ajpiav yeveudai TrapaoKevdaaGLV 
ovTCos I/cSt^Ao? Tjv ovK dv OeXrjGas e/c rrjS Gvp.- 
(f)opd9 Tcbv KoXaodevrojv yeveadat Trjg dperrj? 

114 TTjV i7n(f)dv€Lav. rod Se ttoXXov ttXovtov rrj? 

TToXeOJS €TL Kdv TOt? ip€L7TL0LS OVK oXiyOV p.€pOS 

115 dvrjvpLOKero' to. p.€v yap rroXXd dvluKarrTOv ol 
'Poj/xatot, TO. TrXeloj S' e/c pLrivvaecos rcov aixpio-- 
XcvTOJV dvTjpovvrOy' ;;^pL'0'dv re /cat dpyvpov /cat 
r^? aAAv]? TOL TLpLLcjoraTa KarauKevqs, aTrep ol 
KeKrrjp.ivoL rrpos rag ddi]?\ov£ rov TToXifiov TV)(ag 
Kara yfjs dTTOTeO-qaavpLKeaav . 

116 (S) Ttro? Se tt^v rrpoKeLpievrjv 7TOLOvp.evos TTopelav 
67?' Atyi'77TOL'^ /cat tt);^ epy]p.ov fj rdxiara hiavvaas 

117 T7/cey et? 'AAefavS/Detav, /cat vrAetv eVt rr^s" IraAta? 
hieyvcoKajs hvolv avro) rayp.drajv avvrjKoXovdrjKo- 
rcxjv eKdrepov odevrrep dcJDLKTO iraXiv aTTeGreiXev, 
els p-^v rrjV Muatav to TrepLTrrov, et? Havvovlav 

118 he TO 7T€VT€KaLd€KaT0V. Tcov aL\p.aXojTaiV he 
Tovs /xev Tjyepiovas T^lpLcova /cat lajdvv7]v, tov h * 
538 



JEWISH WAR, VII. 111-118 

of the Jews. But this, too, Titus refused, and, lea\'ing 
the status of the Jews of Antioch exactly as it M'as 
before, he set out for Eg}^t. On his way he \'isited He revisits 
Jerusalem, and contrasting the sorry scene of desola- 
tion before his eyes \\'ith the former splendour of the 
city, and calling to mind the grandeur of its ruined 
buildings and their pristine beauty, he commiserated 
its destruction ; not boasting, as another might haye 
done, of ha\'ing carried so glorious and great a city 
by storm, but heaping curses upon the criminal 
authors of the reyolt, who had brought this chastise- 
ment upon it : so plainly did he show that he could 
neyer haye wished that the calamities attending- their 
punishment should enhance his o\\ti deserts. Of the 
yast wealth of the city no small portion was still being 
discoyered among the ruins. Much of this the 
Romans dug up, but the greater part they became 
possessed of through the information of the prisoners, 
gold and silyer and other most precious articles, 
which the owners in view of the uncertain fortunes 
of war had stored underground. 

(3) Titus, now proceeding on his projected march e;i roufe for 
to Egypt, trayersed the desert with all possible Egypt. 
dispatch and reached Alexandria. Here, haying 
determined to sail for Italy, he dismissed to their 
respectiye former stations the two legions which had 
accompanied him,^ the fifth to Moesia, the fifteenth ^ 
to Pannonia. Of the prisoners, the leaders, Simon 
and John, together with seyen hundred of the rank 

" § 19. 

1 om. PA. 

* a.v(]vpL<yKQv PAM : auferebant Lat. 
" Niese : kl-^fv-KTov mss. * Xiese : r (or re) mss. 

VOL. Ill s 539 



JOSEPHUS 

aAAoi^ dpidfjiov €7TTaKooLovs avhpas eTTike^as fJ-e- 
yedei re xat AcaAAet Gojfidrojv V7Tep^a.X\ovras , 
rrpoaera^ev els ttju IraXlav avriKa fidXa KopLL- 
L^eodai, ^ovX6pL€vos avToijs iv ro) dpidfji^cp irap- 

119 ayayeZv. rod ttXov S avro) Kara vovv dvvudivros 
opLOLOjg p-ev tj Vojp.rj Trepi nqv vttoSoxtjv et^^e Kal 
ra? vrTavTr]G€L? ojGTrep €ttl rod Trarpog, XapLTrpo- 
repov 8 rjV Tltco Kai avros o Trarrjp viravTcJjv 

120 Kol h^xop-^vos. TO) §e rrX-qdei rcjjv ttoXltcov 
SaipLOVLOv TLva rrjv "x^apdv napelx^ ro ^Xenetv 

121 avTOVS TjOTj Tovg rpels €v ravro) yeyovora? . ov 
TToXXow §' rjiiepojv hieXdovacov eva Kal kolvop 
eyvcooav rov em tols Karojp6ojp.€voLS TroLrjaaGdai 
Bpiap-^ov, KGLTTep CKarepqj rT]£ ^ovXrjg lSlov ip-qt^L- 

122 GapLevTj?. 7TpohiaGa(^t]deLGrj£ he ttjs rjp.€pa£ e(^' 
T^s" ep.eXXev rj rropLTTT] yevrJGeGdai row eTTiVLKLiDV, 
ovhels OLKOL KaraXeXeLTTTO rrj? dp-erpov ttXtjOvos 
ev rfj TToXeL, rrdvTes 3 otttj Kai Grrjvai p.6vov tjv 
olov <re>^ TTpoeXrjXvOoreg rovg rorrovs KaTeiXiq- 
(i>€Gav, oGov rols o(f)drjGop.evoLS pLoi^ov ets" Trdpohov 
dvayKaiav KaraXirrovTes . 

123 (4) Tou he GrparLcoTLKOv TravTos tn vvKrojp 
Kara Ao;(ou? Kal rd^ec? vtto rols rjyepLOGL 8t- 
e^ojhevKorog Kal rrepl dvpas ovrog ov rcjv avoj 
^aGiXeiajv dXXd ttXtjGlov rov rrjs "latSo? lepov, 
e/cet yap dverravovro rrjg WKros eKetpr^g ol 

124 avroKpdropes, rtepl avrrjV dp^opevr^v TJhr) rr)v 
eoj rrpotaGiv OveGTraGtavo? Kal riros hd(j)vrj pLev 
eGre(j>avojpLevoi, 7Top(f}vpds 8' eGQ-qras Trarptovs 

^ ins. Herwerden. 
540 



JEWISH WAR, VII. 118-124 

and file, whom he had selected as remarkable for 
their stature and beauty, he ordered to be instantly 
conveyed to Italy, \%-ishing to produce them at the 
triumph. After a voyage as favourable as he could His arrival 
have desired, Rome gave him such a reception and 
welcome as it had given to his father ; ^ but with 
the added lustre that Titus was met and received by 
his father himself. The crowd of citizens was thus 
afforded an ecstasy of joy by the sight of the three 
princes^ now united. Before many days had elapsed 
they decided to celebrate their acliievements by one 
triumph in common, though the senate had decreed 
a separate triumph to each. Pre\'ious notice ha\ing 
been given of the day on which the pageant of \ictory 
would take place, not a soul among that countless 
host in the city was left at home : all issued forth 
and occupied every position where it was but possible 
to stand, lea\dng only room for the necessary passage 
of those upon Mhom they were to gaze. 

(4) The mihtary, while night still reigned, had all The 
marched out in companies and di\isions, under their "}'^t™e"^^ 
commanders, and been dra^^'n up, not round the triumph, 
doors of the upper palace, '^ but near the temple of 
Isis ^ ; for there the emperors ^ reposed that night. 
At the break of da^\'n, Vespasian and Titus issued 
forth, cro^\^led \Wth laurel and clad in the traditional 

" §§ 63 fF. 

^ Inckiding Domitian. 

« On the Palatine hill. 

** The temple of Isis and Serapis, in the Campus Martius, 'i 
near the present Collegio Romano ; destroyed by fire in ^ 
A.D. 80, along with most of the buildings on the Campus 
Martius. 

* Or rather imperatores in the sense of victorious 
generals. 

541 



JOSEPHUS 

afjL7T€xoiJL€voi, Kal TTapiaGiv 6t? Tou? ^OKraovias 

125 TTepLTTarovs' ivravOa yap tj re ^ovXrj Kal ra riXt] 

Tcbv apXOVTOJV ot T€ OLTTO TOJV Tt^T^/XClTCDV L7T7T€LS 

126 TTjv d(f)L^Lv avTcijv avepievov. TreTTOLrjro Se ^T^p-o. 
rrpo TCx)v GTowv, SL(f)p(jjv avToZs eAe^avrtvcuv ctt 
avTov Keipievcov, c^' ovs rrapeXBovres iKadeudiqGav, 
Kai TO urpaTLcoTLKov evOeoJS i7T€V(f)-qpL€L TToXXas 
avToZs Trjs dperrjs p^aprvpias aTTohihovres aTTavres' 
KaKelvoL x^pls ottXcov '^aav [ei^]^ iaOrJGLV^ arjpLKals 

127 €aT€(l)avajpiivoi hdcfivais. he^dpL€vos 8* avroiv rrjv 
€V(f)r}piLav OveaTTaGiavos €Tt ^ovXop,evojv Xiyeiv 

128 TO TTjg GLyrjg irroi-qaaro avpL^oXov, Kal TToXXijg 
€K TTavrcjjv rjcrvx^OL? yevopiivqs dvaards Kat rw 
nepL^XTJpLari to nrXeov ttjs K€(f)aXrJ£ p^ipos €7Tl- 
KoXvifjdpL^vos^ ev^ds eTTotrjcraTO rds" vevopnupiivas- 

129 opLOLojs Se Kal Ttros" rjv^aTO. p,€Td 8e rds" €vxds 
€LS KOLVov aTTauiv Ov€G7TaGLav6s ^pax^oL SuaXexOeL?, 

TOUS" pL€V GTpaTLOJTaS d7TeXvG€V €7tI TO VeVO- 
pLLGpidvOV dpiGTOV aVTols VTTO TOJV avTOKpaTopojv 

130 €VTpe7nt,eudaL, Trpos he ttjv nvXr^v avTOS dve;)(c6pet 
T-qv aTTO Tov TTepuTreoOai hi avTrjs alel tovs 
dpidpL^ovs TTJs TTpo(jr]yopLa? 0,77' a-UTCov T€T€vxvtav. 

131 €VTavda Tpo(f)rj? Ij"^]* TrpoaTToyevovTai Kal ret? 
dpLap^iKas iadrJTag dpL<f)La(jdpL€voL rot? re nap- 
ihpvpiivois TTJ TTvXrj dvaavTes deoZs eVe/xTrov tov 

* C: om. the rest. * Xiese: ea-driaeaip y^S'^ 

^ Hudson : a.iroKa\v\p6.u.€vo% mss. 

* C Lat. : om. the rest. 

542 



JEWISH WAR, VII. 124-131 

purple robes, and proceeded to the Octa\'ian walks <* ; 
for here the senate and the chief magistrates and 
those of equestrian rank were awaiting their coming. 
A tribunal had been erected in front of the porticoes, 
with chairs of ivory placed for them upon it ; to these 
they mounted and took their seats. Instantly 
acclamations rose from the troops, all bearing ample 
testimony to their valour : the princes were un- 
armed, in silk robes and crowned with bays. Ves- 
pasian, having acknowledged their acclamations, 
which they wished to prolong, made the signal for 
silence ; then amidst profound and universal stillness 
he rose and, covering most of his head with his 
mantle, recited the customary prayers, Titus also 
praying in like manner. After the prayers, Vespasian, 
ha\ing briefly addressed the assembled company, 
dismissed the soldiers to the customar}^ breakfast 
pro\'ided for them by the emperors, and himself 
withdrew to the gate which, in consequence of the 
triumphal processions always passing through it has 
thence derived its name.^ Here the princes first 
partook of refreshment, and then, having donned 
their triumphal robes and sacrificed to the gods 
whose statues stood beside the gate, they sent the 

" The Porticus (or Opera Porticus) Octaviae, originally 
built by Metellus in 146 b.c, rebuilt by Augustus and named 
after his sister ; the portico enclosed two temples and a group 
of other buildings, destroyed in the fire of Titus. It lay to 
the W. of the Capitol near the Theatrum Marcelli. 

" The Porta Triumphal is, between the Capitol and the 
Tiber. 

543 



JOSEPHUS 

dpLajjL^ov 8ta Tcov Bearpcuv Ste^eAawovrcs", ottco? 
617] rots' TrX-qOeaiv -q dea pacov. 

132 (5) AiJLT]x<^'^ov 8e /caret rTyv a^iav eiTreZv rcbv 
dea/JLarcoi' eKelvojv to ttXtjOos /cat rriv /xeyaAo- 
TTpeTTeiav iv aTraaiv ols av tls €7nvorjG€i€v 7) 
re;(vcDv epyoLS rj ttXovtov pbipeoLv 7) cf)VG€a>s 

133 CTTraytdrT^orty crp^eSoi^ yap ocra rot? ttojttot dv- 
OpojTTOLs evhaipiOvrjGaoiv eKTTjdr] Kara fiepos dXXa 
Trap aAAots" Oaviiadrd /cat TroAureA?^, ravr^ eVt 
ri]? r}fj.€pa£ iKelvrj? ddpoa ttjs 'Pco^atcov -qyeyLOVLas 

134 ed€L^€ TO fieyedog. dpyvpov yap /cat -x^pvGOV /cat 
eAe^avros" ev Travroiais tSeat? KaraGKevaGixdrajv 
rjv opdv ov^ cJGTTep iv tto/jltiJ} Koin^opLevov TrXrjdos, 
aAA' COS" av etTTOt rt? peovra TTora/jLOV, /cat ra 
^er e/c 7Top(f)vpas U(/)ao'/xara rr^s" GTraviajrariq^ 
(i)€p6[ji€va, rd 8' et? dKpL^rj t,(jjypa(f>iav 7T€7tolklX- 

135 ^ei^a r?^ Ba^uAcovtojv Tex^Jj' Xldoi re Sta</)avets', 
ot /xet' xP^^olg epLTTeTrXeypLevoi GT€(^dvoiSy ol Se 
/car aAAas" TTOtT^crets', togovtol TTap-qvexO^jGav, 
ojGT€ fiadelv OTL fjLdrrjv elval rt rouroji^ GTrdviov 

136 V7teLX'q<j}aiJL€v . i(f)ep€TO Se K'at ^ecDv dydXfjLara 
rCiv TTO.p' aurot? fieyeOeGi dav/jLaGrd /cat /cara r?)!^ 
TexvTjv ov TTapepycos TTeiroi-qpLeva, /cat rourcov 
ozJSev' o rt /xt] rTy? vXiqs rrj? TToXvreXovs, t,ix)OJV 
re 77oAAat (pvGeis TraprjyovTO kog/jlov oIk€lov 

137 airavTCDv 7T€pLK€Lp,eva>v. -qv 3e /cat ro Kop.Lt,ov 
e/caara tovtojv nXijOog avSpojirajv dXovpyals eGdrJGL 
Kai OiaxpycroLs K€KOGp.rjfjL€vov, ol r et? auro to 
7T0ii7T€V€Lv hiaKpidlvTes l^aipeTOV el^ov /cat /cara- 

" The triumphs as a rule passed southwards from the 
Porta Triumphalis " through the Forum Boarium into the 

544 



JEWISH WAR, VII. 131-137 

pageant on its way, dri\'ing off through the theatres, 
in order to give the crowds an easier view." 

(5) It is impossible adequately to describe the The 
multitude of those spectacles and their magnificence trnimphai 

1 • ^ ^ 1 1 . -I /> procession. 

under every conceivable aspect, whether in Morks oi 
art or diversity of riches or natural raiities ; for 
almost all the objects which men who have ever been 
blessed by fortune have acquired one by one — the 
wondeiful and precious productions of various 
nations — by their collective exhibition on that day 
displayed the majesty of the Roman empire. Silver 
and gold and ivory in masses, ^\TOUght into all manner 
of forms, might be seen, not as if carried in procession, 
but flowing, so to speak, like a river ; here were 
tapestries borne along, some of the rarest purple, 
others embroidered by Babylonian art %\ith perfect 
portraiture ; transparent gems, some set in golden 
crowns, some in other fashions, swept by in such 
profusion as to correct our erroneous supposition that 
any of them was rare. Then, too, there were carried 
images of their ^ gods, of marvellous size and no mean 
craftsmanship, and of these not one but was of some 
rich material. Beasts of many species were led along 
all caparisoned with appropriate trappings. The 
numerous attendants conducting each group of 
animals were decked in garments of true purple dye, 
interwoven with gold ; while those selected to take 

Circus, and thence by the Vicus Tiiscus into the Forum, and 
along the Ma Sacra up to the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus " 
(Burn, Rome, 46). In this instance the triumph apparently 
began with a detour northwards through the three theatres 
on the Campus Martius, viz., those of Marceilus, Balbus,and 
Pompey. 

* Roman ; Josephus is writing for the Greek-speaking 
world at large. 

54.5 



JOSEPHUS 

TrXrjKTLKrjv Trepl avrovs rod k6g}Jlov ttjv ttoXv' 

138 reAeiav. eVt rovroig ovhe top alxiidXojrov rjv 
ihelv oxXov aKOGfi-qrov, dAA r) rcov iaOrjTCOv 
TTOiKLXia Koi TO KaXXos avrols^ ttjv o-tto rrjs 
KaKcoaeoJS row Gajjidrcov drjdiav eKXeTrre rrjs 

139 oijseojs- Oavfia S' iv rol? jidXiGra Trapelx^v rj 
TUiV (f)epofJL€rojv TT-qyfiaTOJV KaraGKevrj' Kal yap 
Sta jidyedo? tjv Setcrat ro) ^e^alcp rrjg <f)opd? 

140 a.TncTT'qcravTa, rpicopocfja yap avrcvv ttoXXo. KaL 
rerpojpocba 7Te770i-qro, Kal rfj TToXv-reXela rfj irepl 

141 rrjv KaraaKevqv rjv rjoOrivai pier eKTrXij^eajg. KaL 
yap vcfjdapLara ttoXXol? Sca^^puaa Trepu^e^X-qTO, 
Kal XP'^^^^ ^<^^ iXeSa? ovk aTToirjTOs ttolgl Trepi- 

142 €7T€7Trjy€i. 8td ttoXXojv be pLLpLrjpidrow 6 TrdAe/xo? 
dAAo? et? ciAAa pL€pL€pLGp,€V05 ivapyeGrdrrjv oipiv 

1-43 avTOV TTapelx^v rjv yap opdv ;;^ajpav fiev evSalpLOva 
Sr)ovfj.€vrjv, oXa? Se (bdXayyas KT€LvopL€vag ttoAc- 
pLLOJv, Kal Tovg pL€v (hevyovra? rovg S' et? aixp-OL- 
Xtooiav dyojjLevovg, reiXT) S' VTrep^dXXovra pLeyedei 
pL-qxaval? ip€i7r6p.eva Kal (hpovpiojv dXiGKop.eva<s 
oxvporrjTa? Kal rroXeajv TToXvavO pcoTTOVS TrepL^oXovs 

141 /car' aKpas ixofievovg, Kal orparidv evhov reix^v 
eiGX^opieviqv, KaL Trdvra (f)Ovov TrXrjdovTa^ tottov, 
Kal TOW dbvvdTOJv x^'^P^? dvTalpeLv t/cecrtas", rrvp 
T€ evL€p.evov Lepols KaL KaTaGKa(f)ds olkojv gttl 

145 Tolg heGTTOTaLs, Kal pLETO. TToXXrjv iprjpLLav KaL 
KaTrj(l)€Lav 7TOTap.ovs peovTas ovk iirl yrjv yeojp- 
yovp.evrjV, ouSe ttotov^ dvdpojTTOLS rj ^OGKrjpiaGLV 

^ Destinon : ai^rv-s mss. 
* Tr\ridvovTa or TrX-qOvpovTa inferior ms3. 

' iraTT}TT)v Destinon : Niese suspects a lacuna after 
^o<TKTifj.a<Tiv. 

546 



JEWISH WAR, VII. 137-145 

part in the pageant itself had about them choice 
ornaments of amazing richness. Moreover, even 
among the mob oi captives, none was to be seen 
unadorned, the variety and beauty of their dresses 
conceahng from view any unsightliness arising from 
bodily disfigurement." 

But nothing in the procession excited so much The 
astonishment as the structure of the mo\'ing stages ^ ; Fuse"^ 
indeed, their massiveness afforded ground for alarm (p^gmata), 
and misgi\"ing as to their stability, many of them 
being three or four stories high, while the magnifi- 
cence of the fabric was a source at once of delight 
and amazement. For many were enveloped in 
tapestries interwoven with gold, and all had a frame- 
work of gold and wrought ivory. The war was sho^vn 
by numerous representations, in separate sections, 
affording a very ^d\-id picture of its episodes. Here 
was to be seen a prosperous country devastated, there 
whole battalions of the enemy slaughtered ; here a 
party in flight, there others led into capti\ity ; walls 
of surpassing compass demolished by engines, strong 
fortresses overpowered, cities with well - manned 
defences completely mastered and an army pouring 
within the ramparts, an area all deluged ^^•ith blood, 
the hands of those incapable of resistance raised in 
supplication, temples set on fire, houses pulled do^^•n 
over their o\vners' heads, and, after general desola- 
tion and woe, rivers flowing, not over a cultivated 
land, nor supplying drink to man and beast, but 

" From wounds or the like ; they had been selected for 
their handsome figures, § 118. 

' Greek 7rf/-)ua, transliterated in Lat. pegma, Juv. Sat. iv. ^ 
122 ; translated in Low Lat. pagina, whence English pa^ean^ 
originally meaning " a movable scaflFold, such as was used 
in the representation of the old mysteries " (Skeat). j 

VOL. Ill s 2 547 



JOSEPHUS 

dXXa Slol rrj? en TravraxoOev^ cj^Xeyoiievrjs' ravra 
yap 'lovSatot Tretcro/xeVous" avrovs ro) 7roAe/xa> 

146 vapedocrav. r) rixyrj hk /cat rcjv KaraGKevacrfidrajv 
Tj pLeyaXovpyla rols ovk lSovgl yuvofieva tot 

147 id€LKVV€V (IjS TJapOVGL. T€TaKTO S' 60' eVaCTTOJ 

Tojv TTTiypLaTCOV 6 TTJs dXiGKopLevr]? TToXeojg GTpa- 
TTjyos ov TpoTTOV iXrj(l>6-q , TToXXai 8e /cat VTjes 

148 elrrovTO. Xd(f)vpa 8e rd jiev dXXa x^^W e'^^p^TO, 
SteVpeTre Se rrdvTOJV rd iyKaTaXrj(hOevTa' toj ev 
'lepoaoAu/xot? Upo), XP'^^V '^^ Tpdirel^a tyjv oXktjv 
TToXvTdXavTO? /cat Au;)(;i^ta XP'^^V M^^ ofioLcos 
7T€TTOLrjii€vr], TO S' €pyov e^TjXXaKTO T-qg /card tt^i^ 

149 r)lJi€T€pav XPI^''^ Gvvqdelag. 6 p-kv yap p.eGog -qv 
KLOjv €/c TTJ? ^daecos TreTTTjycijs , XeiTTol S' dir 
avTOV pLepLTjKVVTo KavXiGKOL TpiaLVT]^ axr]p.aTL 
TTapaTrXrjCJLav ttjv OeoLv exovTeg, Xvx^ov eKacTOs 
avrojv cV aKpov Kexo-XKevp-ivos' CTrrd S' -quav 
OVTOL T7]? rrapd rot? 'louSatot? e^Sopiadog TrjV 

150 Tipirjv €p.(^avit,ovTes. 6 re vopLOs 6 tojv lovSalcov 
€7tI tovtols i(f)epeTO tojv Xa(j}vpojv TeXevTaloS' 

151 67Tt TOUTOis- TTaprjeaav TroAAot ^lk7j£ aydXp.aTa 
KOfiLLovTes' i^ eXe4)avTOS S' r}v TrdvTOJV /cat ;\;puCToy 

152 77 KaTaaKevq. /xe^' d OueCTTracrtayd? i^'Aauve Trpw- 
TO? /cat TtVos" et77eTO, Ao/xertavos" Se ~apL7T7T€V€v, 
avTos re hiarrpeTTUJS KeKoopLrjpLevos /cat rov t7777ov 
TTapexojv deas d^iov. 

153 (6) ^Hv §6 TTjs 7Top.7TrjS TO tIXos irrl top peoj"^ 

^ In irafTax- ML\'Pt: iimravTaxodev PAC. 

^ ed. pr. : Ko.TaXrjcpdivTa mss. 
^ TOP veih AL : T(j5 1*611' P : top veujv the rest 

" Commemorating the naval action on the lake of Tiberias 
{B. iii. o22 ff. with note on 5ril). 

548 



JEWISH WAR, VII. 145-153 

across a country still on every side in flames. For 
to such sufferings were the Jews destined when they 
plunged into the war ; and the art and magnificent 
workmanship of these structures now portrayed the 
incidents to those who had not witnessed them, as 
though they were happening before their eyes. On 
each of the stages was stationed the general of one 
of the captured cities in the attitude in which he was 
taken. A number of ships also followed.^ 

The spoils in general were borne in promiscuous The spoils 
heaps ; but conspicuous above all stood out those Temple. 
captured in the temple at Jerusalem.^ These con- 
sisted of a ffolden table," manv talents in weie:ht, and 
a lampstand,*^ likewise made of gold, but constructed 
on a different pattern from those which we use in 
ordinary life. Affixed to a pedestal was a central 
shaft, from which there extended slender branches, 
arranged trident-fashion, a ^^TOught lamp being 
attached to the extremity of each branch ; of these 'j 
there were seven, indicating the honour paid to that 
number among the Jews. After these, and last of 
all the spoils, was carried a copy of the Jewish Law, 
Then followed a large party carrying images of 
victory, all made of ivory and gold. Behind them 
drove Vespasian, followed by Titus ; while Domitian 
rode beside them, in magnificent apparel and mounted 
on a steed that was itself a sight. 

(6) The triumphal procession ended at the temple ^f^gf^^^" 

* The Jewish spoils — table of shew-bread, incense-cups, 
and trumpets — as borne in the procession still figure on the 
inner side of the Arch of Titus above the Forum in Rome. 

* The table of shew-bread. 

"* Or " candlestick " as it is commonly, but erroneously, 
called. 

549 



JOSEPHUS 

TOV KaTTCTOjAtOL' AtO?, €(/)* OV iXB6vT€? ^aTTjCTaV' 

rjv yap TraXaLov Trdrpiov TreptiieveLV, jiexpi'S o.v 
TOV TOV Grpar-qyov rcjv TToXcfJLLOjv Bdvarov drr- 

154 ayyeiXr} ns. HipLcov ovros tjv 6 Ttc/jpa, rore 776- 
TTOfiTrevKOJ? iv toZs alxiJ-O-Xajroi?, ^po^ip Se nepi- 
^XrjOeis els tov irrl rrjs dyopds iovpero tottov 
aLKiiofievajv avrov a/xa tojv dyovTCOv vopLog 8' 
iarl 'PajfiaLOL? eKeZ kt€LV€LV rovg irrl KaKovpyia 

155 Bdvarov Kareyvcoaiievovs . eTrel S' dTTTjyyiXB-q reXos 
€;(cuv /cat irdpres ev(f)'qiir](jav, rjp)(ovro tojv Bvglcov, 
as €7TL rals voiiLt,o pilvais KaXXLeprjcravTes e-uxo-Ts 

156 aTTTjeGav els to ^aolXeiov. Kal tovs /xev avTOi 
npos evcox^^^ vrredexovTO, tols S' dXXoLs aTraoiv 
evTpeTTeZs^ Kara to olKelov at ttjs icTTidoews rjoav 

157 TTapaoKevaL TavTrjv yap ttjv -qptepav tj 'Pa)/xata;v 
ttoXls eojpTatev emvLKiov fiev ttjs Kara tojv 
TToXefjLLOJv GTpaTelas, Trepas Se tojv ejicjjvXiojv 
KaKOJVy dpx'^v be tojv VTrep ttjs evhaip^ovias 
eXTrlBojv. 

158 (7) Merd 3e tovs Bpidp.^ovs Kal tt]v ^e^atOTaTTjv 
TTJs *PojpLaLOjv rjyepLOVLas KardaTacnv OveoTraGtavos 
eyvoj TepLevos Y.Lp'rjvrjs KaraGKevdoac' Ta;)(u he 
hr] pdXa Kal Trdo-qs dvBpojTTLvrjs KpelTTOv imvoias 

159 erereXeLOJTO. Trj yap eK tov ttXovtov ;^op7^yta 
haipovioj ;)(p7]0'd^evos"j ert Kal tols eKTvaXac 
KarojpBojfievois ypacprjs re Kal TrXaGTLKrjs epyois 

160 avTo KareKOGurjGev TrdvTa yap els eKeZvov tov 

^ Niese from Lat. (instructi) : evTrpeireh mss. 

* The Mamertine prison at the X.E. end of the Forum. 
'' Or (with the other reading) " handsome provision had 
been made." 

550 



JEWISH WAR, VII. 153-160 

of Jupiter CapitoTinus, on reaching which they halted; 
for it was a time-honoured custom to wait there until 
the execution of the enemy's general was announced. 
This was Simon, son of Gioras, who had just figured 
in the pageant among the prisoners, and then, with 
a halter thro^^Tl over him and scourged meanwhile by 
his conductors, had been haled to the spot abutting 
on the Forum, where Roman law requires that male- 
factors condemned to death should be executed.** 
After the announcement that Simon was no more 
and the shouts of universal applause which greeted 
it, the princes began the sacrifices, which having been 
duly offered with the customary prayers, they \^ith- 
drew to the palace. Some they entertained at a 
feast at their own table : for all the rest pro\"ision 
had already been made ^ for banquets in their several 
homes. For the city of Rome kept festival that day 
for her \'ictory in the campaign against her enemies, 
for the termination of her ci\'il dissensions, and for 
her da\\Tiino- hopes of felicity. 

(7) The triumphal ceremonies being concluded and Erection 
the empire of the Romans established on the firmest ^f*^*^ 
foundation, Vespasian decided to erect a temple of Pais. 
Peace. <^ This was very speedily completed and in a ■^■^* '^' 
style surpassing all human conception. For, besides 
having prodigious resources of wealth on which to 
draw he also embellished it \^'ith ancient master- 
pieces of painting and sculpture ; indeed, into that 
shrine were accumulated and stored all objects for 

' The date of dedication, the sixth year of Vespasian's 
reign (a.d. 75), is known from Dion Cassiiis Ixvi. 15. The 
temple, surrounded by a forum, lay to the S.E. of the Forum 
Ilomanum, between the Via Sacra and the Carinae. Pliny 
and Herodian testify to its magnificence (Burn, RomBt 
140). 

551 



JOSEPHUS 

V€cb (jvvrjxdrj kol KareTedr), 8t' a)v ttjv deav 

avOpOJTTOL TTpOTepOV 7T€pL TTaGaV eTrXaVCOVTO TTJV 

OLKOVfievTjv, eoj? d'AAo irap^ aAAoi? rjv Keipi^vov 

161 ihelv 7To6ovvT€£. aved-qKe S evravda Kal ra ek 
Tov Upov Tojv ^lovhalojv XP'^^^ KaraGKevdafiara 

162 G€p.VVv6pL€V0g €7T aVTols - TOV 8e VOpLOV aVTOJV 

/cat TO. 7Top(f)vpd TOV arjKov KaraTreTaap-aTa 
7rpoG€Ta^€v iv Tols /SaatAetot? aTrodepLevovs (f)v- 
Aarrctv. 

163 (vi. l) Et? Se Tr]i' ^lovSaiav Trpea^evrrjg Aov- 
KiXiog^ BaCTcro? iKTreficjiOeLg Kai Tiqv OTpaT'qyiav^ 
napa KepeaAt'ou OuertAtavoi; TrapaXa^ojv to piev 
ev TO) Hpojdetaj (f)povpiov TTpoGTjyayeTO p,€Ta 

164 TOJV ixovTcov, p.€Ta raura Se rrdv ouov rjv UTpa- 
TLOJTLKov (jvvayayojv , rroXv §' r)v Kara p-^pf) 
Sirjpr^pLevov, Kal tojv TaypLaTcnv to SeKaTov, eyvoj 
GTpaT€V€LV €7Ti ^\axo.ipovvTa' ttolvv yap rjV avay- 
KaXov e^aipeOrjvai to (jjpovpiov, pLrj 8ta ttjv o^v- 
poTrjra ttoXXov? €ls aTroGTauiav eTrayayrjraL. 

165 Kai yap rolg KaTexovoi ^e^alav iXTnSa crojrr/pta? 
/cat TOts" eTTLOVGiv oKvov Kai Seo? f] tov p^ojptou 

166 (f>vGLg TjV TTapaGX^X^ LKavajraTrj . avTO p,€v yap 
TO TETeixi-^p-^vov TreTpajhrjs oxOos €GtIv et? p-T)- 
KLGTOV vijjos iyrjyeppievog, co? ett'at Kal Sta tovto 

hvGX^ipOJTOS y pLepLTjXOLl^TaL S' V7t6 TTJ? ^VG((X>S 

167 etyat piTjSe irpoGLTOs' (pdpay^LV yap iravrcOev 
davvoTTTOV ixovGai? to ^ddo£ Tr€pLT€Ta(j)p€V7 ai, 
p.rjTe TTepadrjvai paStoj? hvvap.ivais Kal ;)(a»a6'rvat 

168 TTavTaTTaaiv dpLTjxdvoLg. tj p,kv yap airo ttjs 

^ Lat.. ed. pr. : Aovkios mss. 
^ PAL Lat.: arpaTidv the rest. 

552 



JEWISH WAR. VII. 160-168 

the sight of which men had once wandered over the 
whole world, eager to see them severally while they 
lay in various countries. Here,, too, he laid up the A 
vessels of gold from the temple of the Jews, on which 
he prided himsell : but their Law and the purple 
hangings of the sanctuary he ordered to be deposited 
and kept in the palace. 

(vi. 1) Meanwhile, Lucihus Bassus had been i-uciiius 

T 1-1 T1 1 T . ^ ' ii, Bassus, seni 

dispatched to Judaea as legate, and, takmg over the to Judaea, 
command from Cereahus Vetihanus,« had reduced ii'^JalEBua 
the fortress of Herodium ^ with its garrison to sur- 
render. He next concentrated all the numerous 
scattered detachments of troops, including the 
tenth legion, ha\1ng determined to march against 
Machaerus.'^ This fortress it was absolutely neces- Description 
sary to eradicate, lest its strength should induce fortress. 
many to revolt ; since the nature of the place was 
specially adapted to inspire its occupants ^^'ith high 
hopes of security and to deter and alarm its assailants. 
For the site that is fortified is itself a rocky eminence, 
rising to so great a height that on that account alone 
its reduction would be difficult ; while nature had 
further contrived to render it inaccessible. For it is 
intrenched on all sides ^^•ithin ra\ines of a depth 
baffling to the eye, not easy to traverse and utterly 
impossible to bank up. The valley which hems it in 

" Sextus Vettulenus Cerialis (as he is named in an in- — 
scription) was commander of the fifth leofion during the war, 
B. iii. 310, etc., and after it was left by Titus in command of 
the armv of occupation, i.e. the tenth legion with other urits 
(§ 5). 

* Herod's fortress and burial place, 60 stades due S. of 
Jerusalem. 

* E. of the Dead Sea, near its northern end, 

553 



JOSEPHUS 

6(777 epas" TTepLTefivovaa TrapareiveL arahiovs c^'q- 
Kovra, TTepa? avTTJg Tqv Xu(l)aXrlTLv rroLovfJievrj 
Xifivrjv Kara rovro Se ttt] Kal avrog 6 Ma;^aipous" 
r-qv vifjrjXoTOLTrjv €-)(€l Kopv(f)rjv VTrepaviaxovcrav 

169 at S 6.770 rrjs dpKrov Kal pLea-qii^pias (f)dpayy€£ 
pi€yedei p.ev arr oX€ lttovt at ttjs TTpoeiprjpiivq^, 

170 opLOLcos 8' eiGLV ap.'fj-)(^avoi Trpog irrLX^LprjCTLv. rrjg 
§€ TTpos dvaroXrjv (fxipayyog to pkv ^ddos ovk 
eXarrov eKarov evpLGKerai tttjx^^^'^) Tcpfia Se 
yLveraL Trpog opos aTravrLKpi) KelpLevov Ma;(at- 

pOVVTOg. 

171 (2) Tavrrjv rov tottov /cartScov Tqv (f)VGLV 
^aaiXevg ^lovbaicov ^AXe^avh pog TrpaJro? in^ aurou 
reLXLC^i (hpo-upLov, o fierd ravra Ta^lvLo? WpLGTO- 

172 ^ovXcp TToXefiiov KaBeZXev. 'HpojSry 8e /3acrt- 
AeuovTt Travro? eho^e pbdXXov iTTtiicXeLas d^iov 
€LvaL Kai KaraaKevrjg o)(vpcorari-]?, pudXiGra /cat 
8ta TTjV row 'ApdySojv yetrvtacrtv Kelrai ydp ev 

eTTLKaipO) 77pO^ T7]V iK€LV<jJV yqV OLTTO^XeTTOV. 

173 jxeyav jiev ovv tottov T€i)(€GLv /cat rrvpyoL^ irepi- 
^aXojv ttoXlv ivTavOa KaTcoKiaev, i^ 7)? dvoSo^ 

174 ets" avT-qv echepe r-qv aKpojpeiav. ov prjv aAAa 
Acat Trepl avTrjv dvco Trjv Kopv(^rjV Tel)(05 iheipiaTO 
Kai TTvpyovg enl rat? ycDvlaig e/cacrrov^ e^rjKovTa 

175 TTTj-x^tov dveGT-quev . fieGov Se rod rrepL^oXov ^a- 
glXclov ojKohop-qGaro /xeye^et re Kal KaXXeu rajv 

176 OLKTjGewv TToXvreXeg , rroXXds de Kai Se^apeva? 
ets" VTToSox'qv vbaro? Kal y^op-qylav d(f)6ovov ev 
rots' e—LT-qBeiordroL? rcov tottcov KareGKevaGev, 
ojGTrep rrpos rrjv (I>vglv d/^t/V\7'y^6ts", lv auro? to 
Kar iK€Lvqv rod tottov hvGdXcorov VTTep^dXrjraL 

^ R : eKarov the rest. 
5.54 



JEWISH WAR. VII. 16S-176 

on the west extends to sixty furlongs, ending at the 
lake Asphaltitis** ; and somewhere in this direction 
Machaerus itself reaches its highest commanding 
peak. The ravines on the north and south, thoujrh 
less extensive than this, are equally impracticable for 
purposes of attack. That on the east is found to be 
no less than a hundred cubits in depth and is ter- 
minated by a mountain facing Machaerus. 

(2) Noting these natural advantages of the site, its history 
Alexander,'' king of the Jews, was the first to crown 
it with a fortress, which was subsequently demolished 
by Gabinius '^ in his war with Aristobulus. But 
Herod, on becoming king, regarded the place as Herod's 
supremely deser\ing of attention and of the strongest ^" '°^^' 
fortification, more especially from its proximity to 
Arabia, conveniently situated, as it was, with regard 
to that country, which it faces. He accordingly 
enclosed an extensive area with ramparts and towers 
and founded a city there, from which an ascent led up 
to the ridge itself. Furthermore, on the top, sur- 
rounding the actual crest, he built a wall, erecting 
towers at the corners, each sixty cubits high. In the 
centre of the enclosure he built a palace with magnifi- 
cently spacious and beautiful apartments ; he further 
pro\'ided numerous cisterns at the most convenient 
spots to receive the rain-water and furnish an 
abundant supply, as if he were ^ying with nature 
and endeavouring by these artificial defences to 
surpass the well-nigh impregnable strength which 

" The Dead Sea. '' Alexander Jannaeus, 104-78 b.c. 

' Leqatus of Pompey in the war with Aristobulus {B. i. 140) 
and from 57-55 b.c. proconsular governor of Syria {B. i. 
160 ff.). 

555 



JOSEPHUS 

177 rats "y^eipoTTOirjroLg o-xypajGeoiv en yap Kai 
^eXwv TrXrjOos Kal firj^^avr] fidrwv eyKaredero /cat 
TTdv i7T€v6rjGev iroLfiaGaadat ro 7TapaG\elv hvva- 
^evov TOLs ivoLKovGLv fjLrjKLGTrjs TToXiopKcas Kara- 
(f)povriGiv. 

178 (3) 'Erre^u/cet 8' €v roZs /SacrtAetot? 7T-qyavov 
d^Lov rod fjLeyedovs OavfioLGaL' gvktjs yap ovhefiids 

179 vipov? Kal TTaxovs eAetVero. Aoyo? 3' rjv ano 
Twv HpcijSou ;YPot'cur avro SiapKeaaL, Kav ein 

TrXeLGTOV IgOJS €fJL€LV€V, i^eKOTTTj 8 VTTO TWV 

180 TTapaXa^ovrcjv rov tottov 'louSatcov. ri^s (f>dpayyos 
Se rrjs Kara rrjv dpKrov rrepiexo'VG-qs rrjv ttoXlu 
Baapa? ovofid^erai rt? tot^o?, <og>^ (l>veL pii^av 

181 ofJLOJVVfJLW? Xeyojiiv-qv avrco. avrr] ^Xoyi jiev rrjv 
Xpoiav €OiK€, 7T€pl Sc rd? iairepas aiXas air- 
aorpdirrovGa rols imovGL Kal ^ovXofxevoL? Xa^eZv 
avrrjv ovk eanv evx^^pcorog, dAA' VTro(f)evy€L 
Kal ov rrporepov tararai, irplv dv ns ovpov 
yvvaiKos Tj ro efjLpLirjvov at/a a x^V '^^'^ avrrjg. 

182 ov pLTjv dXXd Kal rore rols dipafievoLS TrpoSrjXos 
ion ddvaros, €t p.rj rv^pi ns avrrjv eKeLvrju 
€7T€V€yKdiJL€vos rTjv pitav €K rrjs x^^P^^ dnrjprr}- 

183 fJievTjv. dXiCTKerat he Kai Kad erepov rpoirov 
aKLvSvvcos, OS eon roLooSe' kvkXco ndaav avrT]v 
TTepLopvaoovGiv , (jjs elvai ro KpvTTrofievou rrjs 

184 pi^rjs ^paxvrarov. etr* e$ avrrjs arroSovGL Kvva, 
KaKeivov rep hr^Gavn GvvaKoXovdelv opp-rjaavros, 
7j p.ev dvaGTrdrai pahiajs, dvqGKei S' evOvs o 

^ ins. Dcstinon. 



" Mentioned as a small garden herb in Luke xi. 42. 
Ruta graveolens is still cultivated in Palestine, while ruta 

55Q 



JEWISH WAR, VII. 177-184 

she had bestowed upon the site. For, moreover, he 
stocked it with abundance of weapons and engines, 
and studied to make every preparation to enable its 
inmates to defy the longest siege. 

(3) Within the palace once grew a plant of rue," Natur&i 
of an amazing size ; indeed, in height and thickness ^1'^^^'"^° 
no fig-tree surpassed it. Tradition said that it had ii 
lasted from the times of Herod ; and it would 
probablv have continued for ages, had it not been 
cut down by the Jews, who took possession of the 
place. In the ravine ^ which encloses the town on 
the north, there is a place called Baaras,*' which 
produces a root bearing the same name. Flame- 
coloured and towards evening emitting a brilliant 
hght, it eludes the grasp of persons who approach 
with the intention of plucking it, as it shrinks up and 
can only be made to stand still by pouring upon it 
certain secretions of the human body.'^ Yet even 
then to touch it is fatal, unless one succeeds in carry- 
ing off the root itself,^ suspended from the hand. 
Another innocuous mode of capturing it is as follows. 
They dig all round it, leaving but a minute portion of 
the root covered ; they then tie a dog to it, and the 
animal rushing to follow the person who tied him 
easily pulls it up, but instantly dies — a \'icarious 

bract eosa is a common wild plant (Tristram quoted in Encyd, 
Bihl. S.V.). 

' The Wady Zerka, running down to the Dead Sea 
(probablv = Nahaliel of the wilderness wanderings, Numb, 
xxi. 19).' 

" The warm springs (see below) of " Baaru " are men- 
tioned by Jerome (" iuxta Baaru in Arabia, ubi a(|uas calidas — " 
sponte humus eifert") and elsewhere, Schiirer, G.J. V. i. 414. 

" Cf. B. iv. 480. 

' IVieaning doubtful: perhaps "unless one happens to 
bring with one the self-same root." 

557 



JOSEPHUS 

Kvcov (x)G7T€p avTihodeig Tov fieXXovTO? TTjv ^ordvqv 
avaiprjaeaOai' (bofjos yap ovhels Tolg p-era ravra 
lg5 Xap.f3dvovGLi'. eari he p.erd togovtojv KLvhvvojv 
hid piiav Lcr)(vv TrepiGTTOTjhaoTO?' ra yap KaXovp.€va 
8ai[j.6vLa, ravra be TTOvripoJv eunv avdpojTTOJv 
TTvevpiara rols ttbaiv eiGhvopLeva /cat Krelvovra 
rovg ^orjOelas p-Tj rvyxavovrag, avrrj ra^eojs 
i^eXavvei, Kav TrpoaevexOi] piovov rots vogovgi, 

186 peovGL he Kal deppLOJV vharojv Trrjyai Kara rov 
'rorrov, ttoXv rrjv yevGLV dXXijXow Sta(/)epouCTaf 

TTiKpal pL6V yap avrojv rives ecGiV, at de yXvKvrrjros 

187 ovhev drroXeiTTOVGai . rroXXal he /cat xpvxpojv vhd- 
rojv dvahoGet? ov p.6vov ev rep 'x.^apiaXcorepoj ras 

188 rr-qyas TrapaXX-qXovs exovGai,^ dXX ojs dv Kal 
pLoXXov ris davp.dGeL€, Grr-qXaiov ydp n rrXrjGcov 
opdrai KOiXor-qri ptev ov ^aOv, rfj Trerpa he 

189 TTpovxovGTj GKerr6p.evov' ravrrjg dvcoBev wGavei 
pLaGrol hvo dve^ovGLV, aXX^jXcov dXiyoj hieGrcores, 
Kal ijwxpordrrjv piev drepo? Tn^yqv, drepos he 
6epp.ordrrjV eKhihojGiv, at /xtcryo/xevat ttolovgl 
Xovrpdv rjhiGrov rraiowiov re voGVifidrajv, rroXXcp 
he pdXiGra vevpcov aKeGiv. e;\;et 8' o roTzo? Kal 
Oeiov Kal Grvrrr-qpias p.eraXXa. 

190 (4) Bacrcros' he' 77epLGKeipdp.evos ro ;)(ajptov eyvw 
TTOieZGdai rrjv rrpoGohov x^'^^^ '^'^ (f)apayya rrjv 
TTpds rat? dvaroXaZs Kal rcov epycov eux^ro, 
GTTOvhrjV TTOLovpLevog t) rdxo? e^dpai ro X^/^^ 
Kal hi avrov pahiav Troi-qaai rrjV rroXiopKiav. 

191 ol S' evhov aTTeiXripipievoi rcov ^lovhalojv avroi 
Kad^ eavrovs dTTO row ^evojv hiaKpiOevres eKeivovs 
piev TjvdyKaGav, oxXov dXXojg elvai vopntovres , 
ev rrj Kara) TToXei TrapapieveLV Kal rovs Kivhvvovs 
558 ' 



JEWISH WAR, VII. 184-191 

\ictim, as it were, for him who intended to remove 
the plant, since after this none need fear to handle it. 
With all these attendant risks, it possesses one xirtue 
for which it is prized ; for the so-called demons — in 
other words, the spirits of kicked men which enter 
the H\-ing and kill them unless aid is forthcoming — 
are promptly expelled by this root, if merely applied 
to the patients. In this same region flow hot springs, 
in taste widely differing from each other, some being 
bitter, while others have no lack of sweetness. Many 
springs of cold water also gush up, nor are these 
confined to the low-lying ground where all are in 
a line ° ; but — what is still more remarkable — hard 
by may be seen a cave, of no great depth and screened 
by a projecting rock, above which protrude, as it were, 
two breasts, a Uttle distance apart, one yielding 
extremely cold water, and the other extremely hot. 
These when mixed provide a most delightful bath, 
possessing general medicinal properties, but parti- 
cularly restorative to the sinews. There are also 
sulphur and alum mines in the district. 

(4) Bassus, after reconnoitring the place on all sipge of 
sides, decided to approach it by filling up the eastern 
ra\-ine ; to this task he noM' apphed himself, labour- 
ing to raise with all speed the embankment Mhich 
was to facihtate the siege. The JcAnsh party shut 
up within now separated themselves from their ahen 
colleagues and, regarding the latter as a mere rabble, 
compelled them to remain in the lower town and to 

" Or " on one level." 

* PM : Ixoi"'''*' the rest. ■ + irdfTT] C. 

559 



ilachaerus. 



JOSEPHUS 

192 TTpoeKhiy^eadaL, to 8* avcu ^povpiov avrol Kara- 
Xa^6vr€s elxov Kai 8td rrjv Ig-)(vv rrjs o-xypoT'qros 
Kai TTpovoiq. rrj? GOjr-qpias avrojv rev^eaOai yap 
d(f)€G€Oj? vrreXdji^avoVy el ro ;^aj/3tov 'Pcu/xatots" 

193 €.y)(^eLpioeLav . Treipa Se rrporepov i^ovXovro rds 
VTTep Tov hiac^ev^eaOai ttjv TToXiopKLav iXirihas 
iXey^ai. Std rovro Kai Trpodvfiojs eTroiovvro rds 
i^oSov? dvd TTauav rjfjiepav, Kai toXs ;(o{i(7t^ 
avfiTrXeKOjievoL ttoXXol jxev edvqaKov, ttoXXovs hk 

194 TcDi^ 'Pco/Ltatcuv avrjpovv. ael he rov^ Kparelv 6 
Kaipos i^pd^evev eKarepois to ttXIov, rols p-ev 

Ioi;8atots", el irpo? d(f)vXaKTOTepov9 TrpoGTreaoiev, 
ToZs 8 €776 r(x)V -)(^ujpidTajv TTpo'ihopLevoLS, el rrjv 

195 eKbpopLTjv avTa)v he-)(oiVTO Tre^pay/xeVcos". dXX ovk 
ev TOVTOLs ep,eXXev yevrjaeaOai ro irepas rrjs 
TToXiopKLa?, epyov 8e rt TrpaxOev eK (jvvrv)(^ias 
TTapaXoyov rrjg irapahoGecos rod (f)povpLov ttjv 

196 dvdyKTjV eTTearrjae roc? ^lovSaLOL?. tjv ev rols 
TToXiopKovpievoLS veavla? roXp^rjaaL re dpaavg Kai 

197 Kara X^^P^ hpauT-qpLos, 'EAed^apo? ovopa- ye- 
yovet 8 ovTOs ev rats' eKhpopLois eTnc^ai^Tys', rovs 
TToXXovs e^LevaL Kai kcjoXv€lv ttjv ;!^ajcrtv rrapaKaXojv 
Kai Kara rds /xap^a? rroXXd Kai heivd rovs 'Pco- 
pLalovs hiarideis, rols 8e ovv avr aj roXpajcnv 
ejreKrpex^LV paSlav piev ttjv vpoG^oXr^v riOepevog, 
aKLVovvov 8e Trapexcov rrjv avaxojprjaiv rw reXev- 

198 ralos dmevaL. Kai StJ TTore rrj? pidx'Q? hiaKpi- 
deiG-qs Kai yeyovvtas dp,(f)OTepajv dvaxojpriaeojs 
a'UTOs, are hrj TrepLcbpovcov Kai vopLLl,ojv ovk dv 
en TCx)v TToXejiLOjv ovBeva rore pidx^]? dp^eiv, 
p,eLvas Twv ttvXojv e^to rols eirl rov reixovs 
hieXdXei Kai irds npos eKeivois rrjv Sidvoiav rjv. 
56Vi 



JEWISH WAR, VII. 192-198 

bear the first brunt ; wliile they themselves seized 
and held the fortress above, both on account of the 
strength of its defences and with an eye to their own 
safety, conceiving that they could obtain pardon, 
were they to surrender the fort to the Romans. 
However, they wished first to put to the test their 
hopes of escaping a blockade ; accordingly, they 
daily made spirited salhes and engaged in close 
combat with those at work on the mound, losing 
many of their o\mi men, but killing many of the 
Romans. It was, however, invariably the oppor- 
tunity which, in the main decided the victory in 
favour of either side : of the Jews if they fell upon 
their enemy Avhen off his usual guard, of those on the 
mounds if they foresaw and met their sally in a 
posture of defence. It was not, however, these 
encounters which were destined to end the siege, 
but a casual and surprising incident constrained the 
Jews to surrender the fortress. Among the besieged Tjie capture 

, . - , , "-^ "^^ of Lleazar 

was a youth ot darmg enterprise and strenuous energy 
named Eleazar. He had distinguished himself in the 
sallies by stimulating most of his comrades to come 
out and check the progress of the earthworks, and 
in the engagements by frequently making fearful 
havoc of the Romans ; besides easing the attack for 
all who ventured out with him and covering their 
retreat by being the last to withdraw. Now on one 
occasion, when the battle was over and both parties 
had retired, he, disdainfully assuming that none of 
the enemy would now resume the fight, remained 
outside the gates conversing with his coinrades on 
the wall and devoting his whole attention to them 

* Destinon : rvxovai mss. ^ to Niese with P. 

561 



JOSEPHUS 

199 opa Se rov Kaipov rod 'Pojiia'tKov tls arparoneSov 
'Pov(f)OS yevo? AlyvrrrLos, Kal firjSevos av Trpoa- 
hoK-qaavTOs e^ai<^vr]s emhpapLCJv gvv avrols dpd- 
pi€vos avTOV rol? ottXols, ecos" KaT€L)(e rovs oltto 
Tcov T&iyGiV IBovras eKrrXrj^LS, (f)ddvei rov dvSpa 

200 /JLeraOel?^ Tipos" to 'Poj/xatcuv urparoTrehov. rod 
he Grparrjyov KeXevaavros yvfjLvov hiaXa^eZv avrov 
Kal Karaarrjuavras els to (fiavepcorarov rots 
eK rrjg rroXeaJS dTTO^XeTTOVCL fidarL^LV at/ct^ea^at, 
G(f)6hpa rovs ^Yovhaiovs ro Trepl rov veaviav 
rrdOos Gvve-)(eeVy ddpoa re r) ttoXls avcppLOj^e, Kal 
dprjvos rjv ixeit^ajv tj KaO^ ivos dvhpos Gvp(f)opdv. 

201 rovro gvvlScov 6 BdGGos Kara rcov 7ToXep.La)v 
dpxT^y eTToiTjoaro GrparrjyrjfJLaros , Kal ^ovX-qdels 
avrcov imrelvaL ro TreptaXyes, t^a ^laGdcoGLv dvrl 
rrjS Gojrrjpias rdvhpos rroiiqGaGOaL rov (jipovpuov 

202 irapdhoGLV, rijs eXTTcSos ov hi-qjiaprev . 6 fiev 
yap TTpoGera^e KaraTTTjyvvv ai Gravpov d>s avriKa 
Kpepojv rov 'EAea^apov, rot? 8' drro rov (^povpiov 
rovro OeaGajievoLS ohvvq re TrXeiajv TTpoGerreGe, 
Kal SiojXvyLov dva)p.col,ov ovk dvaG^x^erov elvai 

203 ro Trddos ^ocovres. evravOa Srj roivvv 'EAea^apo? 
LKerevev avrovs /^"^t* avrov TrepLLhelv V7Top,eivavra 
davdrcov rov OLKnorov Kal G(f)iGLv avrols rrjv 
GCxjrrjpiav 7rapaG)(^elv ri] 'Pcjojialajv et^avras Igxvl 

204 Kal rvxD jierd irdvras TJBrj KexeLpajpLevovs. ol 
he Kal TTpos rovs eKeivov Xoyovs KaraKXojfievoL 
Kal rroXXojv evhov vrrep avrov heopLevcov, rjv yap 
eK pLeydX-qs Kal G(f)6hpa noXvavOpcoTTOv Gvyyeveias, 

205 napd rrjV avrcov (^vglv els OLKrov evehojKav, Kai 
rivas e^aTTOGreiXavres Kara rd^os hceXeyovro 
TTOielGOai rrjv TrapdhoGW rov <f>povplov d^iovvres, 
562 



JEWISH WAR, VII. 199-205 

Thereupon, spying his opportunity, a soldier in the 
Roman ranks named Rufus, a native of Egypt, made 
a sudden dash upon him, such as none could have 
expected, lifted him up, armour and all, while the 
spectators on the wall were paralysed with astonish- 
ment, and succeeded in transporting the fellow to the 
Roman camp. The general ha\-ing ordered him to 
be stripped and carried to the spot most exposed to 
the \'iew of the onlookers in the city and there 
severely scourged, the Jews were profoundly affected 
by the lad's fate, and the whole town burst into such 
wailing and lamentation as the misfortune of a mere 
individual seemed hardlv to iustify. Observing this, i^ads to the 

Bjj, ".. J.1, surrender of 

assus proceeded to practise a ruse upon the enemy, the lort. 

desiring so to intensify their distress as to compel 
them to purchase the man's life by the surrender of 
the fort ; and in this hope he was not disappointed. 
For he ordered a cross to be erected, as though 
intending to have Eleazar instantly suspended ; at 
which sight those in the fortress were seized with 
deeper dismay and with piercing shrieks exclaimed 
that the tragedy was intolerable. At this juncture, 
moreover, Eleazar besought them not to leave him 
to undergo the most pitiable of deaths, but to consult 
their own safety by yielding to the might and fortune 
of the Romans, now that all others had been sub- 
dued. Overcome by his appeals, which were backed 
by many interceders within — for he came of a dis- 
tinguished and extremely numerous family — they 
yielded to a compassion contrary to their nature and 
hastily dispatched a deputation to discuss the sur- 

* fxeraTideh PA. 

563 



JOSEPHUS 

tv' dSeet? aTTaAAaTTCovTat KOfjuGafjicvoL rov EAea- 

206 (^apov. he^afxlvcuv he rcov Pco/Ltatcov Acat tov 
orparrjyov ravra, to ttXt^Oos rcov iv ttj Karco 
TToAet T-qv yeyevrjfxivqv tSta rots" 'louSatots" rrv- 
dofievoL avfiBacTiv aurot Kara vvKra XaOovres 

207 eyvcjjaav arrohpavaL. ra? TTvXas 8' aurojv dv'ot^av- 
Tcoy irapa rcov rrjv opLoXoytav TTeTTOirjpievcov Trpos 
TOV BdcTcrov rjKev pnqwoLS, €lt ovv rrfs acorrjpias 
avroZs (f)6 ovr](jdvr ojv etre [/cat]^ Std Seos, [jlt] rrjv 
alrlav avrol XdQcoGi rrjg eK€Lvojv aTTohpdaeojg. 

208 ol jiev ovv dvbpeioraroi rcov e^iovrcov €(f>daaav 
hLeKiraiGaaOai Kal hiac^vyeZv, tcjjv S' evSov Kara- 
Xetdidevrojv dvSpeg pukv dvrjpfOrjcrav IttI toI? ;;^tAtotS' 
eTTraKOGLOi, yvvaia Se Kal 7rat8e? -qv^paTToSlcrdr]- 

209 Gav. rd? 8e Trpog rovg TrapaSovrag ro cfipovpiov 
opLoXoyias olofievog Selv 6 Bdcrcros" Siacj^vXarreLV 
avroijg r' d(f)Lr]Giv Kal rov EAed^apov aTreScoKe. 

210 [5) Taura Se hioiK-qGap^evos r^Treiyero rrjv orpa- 
Tidv dyojv IttI rov vpoGayopevofievov Idphrjv 
Spvfiov TToXXol yap et? avrov rjyyeXdrjGav rjdpolGdaL 
rojv Kara rag rroXiopKias rrporepov ek re Icpo- 

211 GoXvfxcjtjv Kal }*laxoLLpovvros drroSpdvrojv. eXdcbv 
ovv IttI rov rorrov Kal yvovs rrjv dyyeXiav ovk 
iijjevGfievrjv rrpcvrov fiev roXs nrrrevGiv airav 
KVKXovrai rd ')(^cjjpLov, ottcos rdls Ste/CTratccr^at 
roXpLcoGLv ra)v ^Yovhaicov aTTopos rj cf^vyr] yivqrai 
8td rovs Irrrreas' rovg he ne^ovs eKeXevoev SevSpo- 

212 rojJLclv rrjv vXrjv, ct? '^^ Kara7T€(f)€vy€Gav . Kad- 
iGravrai 8e 8td rovro rrpds dvdyKTjv ol 'lovSaXoL 
rov Spdv ri yevvalov, chs €K irapa^oXov^ aycovi- 

1 MLC : om. the rest 



JEWISH WAR, VII. 205-212 

render of the fortress, stipulating for permission to 
depart in safety, taking Eleazar with them. The 
Romans and their general having accepted these 
conditions, the people in the to^^•Tl below, hearing of 
the separate compact that had been made by the 
J CMS. determined on their part to make off secretly 
by night. But no sooner had they opened the gates 
than information was given to Bassus by those who 
had made the treaty with him ; whether grudging 
them their lives, or maybe from fear of being held 
answerable for their flight. The most courageous of 
the fugitives, however, contrived to cut their way- 
through and escape ; of those left in the town, the 
men, numbering seventeen hundred, were slain, 
the women and children were enslaved. Bassus, 
holding himself bound to observe his agreement with 
those who had surrendered the fortress, let them 
depart and restored Eleazar. 

(5) Ha\'ing settled affairs here, Bassus pushed on Battle of 
with his troops to the forest called Jardes,*^ it being of Jardes. 
reported that many who had pre\*iously fled from 
Jerusalem and Machaerus during the respective 
sieges had congregated in this quarter. On reaching 
the spot and finding the report correct, he began by 
surrounding the whole place with his cavalry, to 
prevent the escape of any Jews attempting to break 
through ; he then ordered the infantry to fell the 
trees among which the fugitives had taken cover. 
The Jews were thus reduced to the necessity of 
attempting some gallant feat, in the hope that by a 
desperate struggle they might possibly escape ; and 

" Unidentified. 



text doubtful : tov rrapa/SoXwj A^ : irapaXdyov P. 



565 



JOSEPHUS 

aaaSajL rdxo. civ Kal Stac^fyovres", adpooi Se^ koI 
fiera ^orj? a^avreg iveTnrrrov rol^ K€KVKXojfj.€VOL£. 

213 ol 8' avTOvg idexovro Kaprepoj?, /cat TToXXfj rcjv 
li€v drrovoLa rcov Se (fyiXoveiKla. ;!^/3a;/xera)v xP^vos 
fiev ovK oXlyog hid tovto rfj fidxi] Trpov^rj, reXos 
S' avTrjS ovx ofJLOLOV dTre^r] roZs dycovLGajxevois . 

214 'PoL>/xat'a»y p.ev ydp hwheKa rovs Trdvras avve^rj 
TTeoeZv oXiyovs re TpcodrjvaLy [rctjy]^ lovBaLcuv Sc 
e/c rrjg jidxt^S ravr-qs ouSet? hLe(f)vy€v, dXX* ovres 

215 OVK eXdrrovs rpiGXi^Xiojv Trdvres aTrddavov, Kal 6 
Grpar-qyos avrcov 'louSas o rov Apel rralg, nepl 
ov TTporepov elprjKaixev on rd^eojg rjyovpLevos 
TLvos eV rfj TToXLopKLo. Twv lepoGoXvfiojv Kara 
TLva? 8tadu? rcov vrrovopLCov kXadev drroSpds. 

216 (6) Ilept 5e rov avrov Kaipov eVearetAe Katcra/a 
BaGGco Kal Xa^^pio/ Ma^t/xcu, ovros S' rjv 
eTTLTpoTTOs, KcXe'VLov TTO-Gav yfjv aTToSoGdai rwv 

217 'louSaiojv. ov ydp KarcoKiGev eKel ttoXlv tStav 
avTO)^ TTjV ;)(C(jpay (^vXdrrojv, oKraKOGioLS Se 
fiovoLs aTTO rrj? Grpands hia(j}€ipL€vois x^P^^^ 
eScoKev et? KaroLKrjGLV, o AcaAetrat fxev 'A/x^aous", 
drrex^i Oe rcov 'lepoGoXvfJLOJV Gradiov? rpidKovra. 

218 (^opov he rols orrovhrjrrorovv ovglv 'louSatotS" 
eVe^aAev, hvo hpaxp-ds eKaGrov KeXevoa? dvd 
TTav eros els to Y^arrerajXiov (j^epetv, wGirep 
TTporepov eh tov ev 'lepoGoXvpLots ved)v GvvereXovv, 

^ re Xiese. ^ ora. P. 

^ Lat. : AiSfpi'oj or Xe^ep'nc mss. 

* Dindort": aLroJ L Lat. : avrwv the rest. 

• One of the leaders of the Zealots, who distinguished him- 
self during the siege, B. vi. 92 : his escape from Jerusalem 
has not been previously mentioned. 

5m 



JEWISH WAR, VII. 212-218 

so, in a mass and ^^'ith a shout, they dashed out and 
fell upon their surrounding foes. These met them 
stubbornly, and so, yviih prodioious efforts of despair 
on the one side and emulation on the other, the 
contest was loner protracted ; but the issue was 
^^'idely chfferent for the combatants. For the Romans 
lost in all but twelve dead and a few wounded, while 
of the Jews not a man emerged from that battle : 
all, to the number of no less than three thousand, 
perished. Among the slain was their general Judas, 
son of Ari, M'hom we have previously mentioned ^ as 
in command of a company at the siege of Jerusalem, 
whence he secretly escaped through some of the 
underground passages. 
-^ (6) About the same time Caesar sent instructions Jewish 
to Bassus and Laberius Maximus,^ the procurator, to '^^'T'tory 

r nr-i • -r^ i n ii' S >la and 

larm out ^ ail Jewish territory, ror he lounded no tax imposed 
city there, reserving the country as his private 
property, except that he did assign to eight hundred 
veterans discharged from the army a place for 
habitation called Emmaus,'^ distant thirty furlongs 
from Jerusalem, On all Jews, wheresoever resident, 
he imposed a poll-tax of two drachms,^ to be paid 
annually into the Capitol as formerly contributed by 

^ L. Laberius Maximus, mentioned in inscriptions. *^ 

« So or "lease" (" verpachten "j, not "sell," Schurer, 
G.J. V. i. 640, in reply to Mommsen. 

•* Probably to be identified both with the modern Kulonieh 
(Coloniaj, some four miles N.W. of Jerusalem, and with the 
Emmaus of the X.T., though St. Luke (xxiv. 18) double^ the 
distance to 60 furlongs. See the full discussion in Schurer, 
G.J. V. i. 640 flF. 

* So Dion Cassius Ixvl. 7 /cat d7r' itaiuov dtopax'^of erdx^y], 
Tovs TO. TTclrpta auTuv edtj TreptareWovras r^J KaTrirwXt'c^ Att \ar' 

€TOS a.TrO(p4p€iM, 

567 



oa all JewK 



JOSEPHUS 

Kal ra fJLev ^lovSaicvv rore roiavrrjv ei;^e Kara.' 
uraGLV. 

219 (vii. l) "Yihrj 8' €TOS reraprov OveaTraGtavov 
hi€7TOVTOS rrjv Tj-ycfjLOVLav ovve^-q rov ^acjiXia rrfs 
¥iofjL[jiayr]vrJ9 Wvtloxov fieyaXais GVix(l)opais rrav- 

220 OLK€GLa 7Tepi7T€Gelv 0.770 TOLavTrj? atrta?. Kat- 
GevvLos Ylalro?,^ 6 rrjs Sfpta? TjyepLojv rare 
KadeGTrjKcos, etr^ ovv dXrjdevojv €lt€ Kal Sta r-qv 
rrpog ^A.vtlo)(OV ex^pav, ov Gcfiohpa yap to Ga(f)€s 
rjXeyxOf], ypafi/JLara rrpos Katcrapa hieTTepajjaro, 

221 Xeywp rov Wvrloxov /xera rod Tratoos ^TTicfiavovs 
hieyvojKivai 'Vojp.aiajv aSiGraGdai, GvvQrjKas rrpog 

222 TOP ^aGiXea tojv Wapda>v TTeTTOLTjpLevov Selv ovv 
TTpoKaraXa^elv avrovs, piJ) (f)6dGavT€s rcov rrpay- 
fxarajv \dp^aGOai\^ Trdoav ttjv 'PojpLatwv dpxrjv 

223 TToXepLO) Gvvrapd^ojGiv . e/xeAAe Se^ Katcrap tolov- 
Tov pLrjvvpLaros aura) TrpoGrreGovros p.r] rrepLopdv' 
Kal yap tj yeirviaGis tojv ^aGiXeojv irroUi to 

224 Trpdypta pLel^ovog d^iov Trpovoias' ra yap ^ap.6- 
crara, tt]? ¥io[j.[JLay7]VT^s pLeyLGTrj rroXug, KeiTai 
napd Tov Kix^pdr-qv, ojgt etvaL Tolg YldpOoig, 

et TL TOLOVTOV Si€V€v6rjVTO , paGTrjV pikv TTjV hld^aGLV, 

225 ^e^atav he ttjv VTToSoxrjv . TTiGTevSels ovv 6 
Yialros Kal Xa^cov i^ovolav irpaTreiv a SoKel 
Gvp.(l)€p€iv ovK ipLeXXrjGev, i^aicjivqs Se TOiv irepl 
TOV ^ A.VTLOXOV ovoev rr poGOOKojVT ojv eis ttjv 
J^ojjLfjLayrjvrjV ive^aXev, tojv fiev Taypidrajv dyojv 
TO CKTOV Kal TTpos TOVTO) Xoxovs Kai TLvas tAa? 

226 LTTTTeojv GvvepLaxovv Se Kal ^aGiXeZs avro) ttjs 

^ Hudson: K.eacevLos (or K^aivvLOs) Hiroi MSS. and so (Il^ros) 
below. 

* ora. PAM : d-J^aadai Herwerden. ' om. P. 

568 



JEWISH WAR, VII. 218-226 

them to the temple at Jerusalem.** Such was the 
position of Jewish aiFairs at this date. 

(vii. 1) But while Vespasian was now for the fourth Misfortunes 
year holding imperial sway, Antiochus, king of Com- Intiochus 
maffene,^ became involved, ^\ith all his family, in ]^'"g ^^ 

. \. . 1.1 rii r- • Commagene 

serious disasters, wnicn arose as lollows. Caesennius a victim of 
Paetus,'' then gove.*nor of Syria (whether speaking "^ ^1 7^2-3. 
sincerely or out of enmity to Antiochus, was never 
clearly ascertained) sent letters to Caesar stating 
that Antiochus with his son Epiphanes had deter- 
mined to revolt from Rome and was in leag-ue \\'ith 
the king of Parthia ; it, therefore, behoved Caesar 
to forestall them, lest they should be beforehand 
in creating trouble and convulse the whole Roman 
empire with war. Such a report, thus conveyed to 
him, Caesar could not afford to overlook, seeing that 
the proximity of these princes to each other made 
the matter deser\'ing of special precaution. For 
Samosata, the chief city of Commagene, lying on the *^ 
Euphrates, would afford the Parthians, if they har- 
boured any such designs, a most easy passage and 
an assured reception. Paetus being, accordingly, Paetus 
accredited and empowered to act as he thought fit, territory!'^ 
did not hesitate, but suddenly, while Antiochus and 
his friends were expecting nothing of the sort, in- 
vaded Commagene, at the head of the sixth legion, 
supplemented by some cohorts and a few squadrons 
of horse ; he had the further support of two sove- 

" The temple tax, orifrinally a third of a shekel (Neh. X. 32), ' 
afterwards half a shekel (Ex. xxx. 13), =2 Tyrian drachms, 
was paid by all Jews of twenty years old and upwards. Cf. 
Matt. xvii. "24, Jos. A. xviii. 312. 

Mn N. Syria. " § 59 note. 

569 



JOSEPHUS 

IJL€V ^aXKiSiKrj? XeyojJLevrj? 'AptCTTO^ouAos", rrj? 

227 'E^ecTT]? Se KaXovfiev-qg Soac/xo?. tjv 3' avrot? 
ra TTepL rrjv elo^oXrjv avavTaycovLara' rchv yap 
Kara ttjv x^P^'^ ovSel? rjdeXe x^lpag avraip^LV, 

228 ^A.VTLQ-x^o'? he rrjg ayyeXias aSoKTjrojs TrpoGTreaov- 
crqs TToXejjLOV jxev ouS' eTrivoLav rrpos 'Pco/u-atous' 
eoTTauev, eyvco 8e Trdorav ttjv ^acrtActav' cLg €L)(€V 
€771 6-)(fjiiaTos^ KaraXnTOJV fiera yvvaiKos /cat 
reKvojv v—€^eXdeZvy ovrcos av OLOfievos KaOapov 
'PcofialoLg avTOV aTToSet^at rrjs iTTevrji/eypLevqs 

229 atrtas". Kal rrpoeXSajv 0,770 tt]? TToAecos" exrarov 
crraSlov? rrpos tols clkoglv €ls to TreSiov €v aura) 
KarauAti^erat. 

230 (2) IlatTOS' S* €7rt /x€v to. Sa/xoaara rous' 
KaraX-qipojievov? aTroareXXei Kal St' eKelvajv et^e 
TT^v TToAti^, auTO? Se /xera tt^s" aAAi]? Swdfieajg 

231 €77* 'Ai^Tto;^ov eTToieZro ttjv opjJLrjv. ov fJLTjV 6 
^aatXevs ovB^ vtto rijs dvdyK-qs 7Tporj)(6-q Trpd^ai 
TL TTpo? 'Pcufiatovs TToXepiLKOv, aXXoL rr]v avrov 

232 rvxT]i^ 6bvp6iievo£ 6 tl Seol TraOeZv VTrefieve- veoig 
8e Kal TToXlficov efi7T€Lpoi£ Kai pcofirj aaj/jLaTcov 
htaSipovGLV ov pahiov -qv rots Traialv avrov rrjv 
ovix(f)opdv dpLax^l Kaprepelv rpiirovrai ovv rrpos 

233 dXK-qv 'E77t(;^av')]S" t€ Kal KaAAtVt/cos". G(f)oSpds 
he rrjs jj.dx'i]? f<al Trap oXr]v rrjv rjjjLepav yevofieirqs 
avTol rrjv dvSpeiav SiaTTpeTTrj jrapeaxov Kai fi-qSev 
iXarrcvdelarj rfj o(^erepa Swdjiei ioTrepa^ hieXv- 

234 drioav. ^Avnox^ S' ovh irrl rfj p-dxn rovrov 

^ conj. Xaber: axn^'-^'^os mss. 
^ om. Lat. : dix ecnrepa Destinon. 

• The district of either (1) Chalcis { Anjar) in the Lebanon 
range, or (2) another Chalcis further X. in Syria. Herod, the 

570 



JEWISH WAR. VII. 226-234 

reigns, Aristobulus of the region named Chalcidice,'^ 
and Soemus of Emesa,^ as the other principality is 
called. Their invasion was unopposed, not a man 
throughout the country ^^'ishing to hft a hand against 
them. Antiochus, confronted ^^'ith the unexpected Flight of 
tidinsfs. never entertained a moment's thoug-lit of a ^ '^ ^°^ 
war ^vith Rome, but decided to quit the realm, leaving 
everything as it was, and to abscond in a chariot with 
his wife and children, hoping thus to clear him<^elf in 
the eyes of the Romans of the charge under which he 
lav. Proceeding, accordingly, from the capital one 
hundred and twenty furlongs into the plain, he there 
encamped. 

(2) Paetus sent a detachment to occupy Samosata, 
and through them held the toMn, while he with the 
rest of his force hastened in pursuit of Antiochus. 
Even in these straits, however, the king could not be 
induced to take any hostile action against the Romans, 
but lamenting his lot was content to submit to what- 
ever suffering might be in store for him. His sons, 
on the contrary, with the advantages of youth, 
military experience, and unusual physical strength, 
could not lightly brook this calamity without a 
struggle ; Epiphanes ^ and Callinicus, accordingly, had 
resort to arms. In the fierce contest which ensued, 
lasting the whole day, the princes displayed con- 
spicuous gallantry, and their troops had sustained no 
diminution of strength when night parted the com- 
batants. Yet, even after such an issue of the conflict, 

grandson of Herod the Great, was king of Chalcis in Lebanon 
and had a son Aristobulus, who may be the sovereign here 
mentioned. See Schiirer, G.J. V. i. 724. 

^ Horns. 

* He has appeared before in a foolhardy venture beneath 
the walls of Jerusalem, v. 460 ff. 

VOL. Ill T 571 



JOSEPHUS 

Kex^^pT^KVia rov rpoTTOv fxeveiv aveKrov eSo/cet, 
Xa^ojv Se TTjv yvvoLKa Kai rag dvyarepag fier* 
eKelvajv erroLelTO ttjv (f)vyrjv et? KiAi/ctav, Kal 
TOVTO TTpd^as ra c^povqiiara tojv olk€lojv orpa- 

235 TLOjrajv /careVAacrev oj? yap KareyvojGfievqs vtt* 
avTOV TTJg ^aaiXeias aireuTqaav /cat Trpos" rous" 
'Poj/xatous" jJLere^dXovTO, /cat iravrajv TrpoSrjXos 

236 T^y OLTToyvajGLg. rrplv ovv reXdojg iprjjjLcoOijvaL rcJov 
crvfipidxcoy Tols rrepl tov K7n(f)avrj Gco^etv avTOvg 
eK Tojv TToXepuLcov -qv dvayKolov, Kal yivovrai Se/ca 
ovpLTravre? t777rets" ol p.€r avrojv tov Y,v<l)pdrrjv 

237 Sta/SaAorre?/ evBev rjSrj fier^ dSelas Trpos tov ^aai- 
Aea TO)v YldpBojv BoAoyecrriv KOfiiodevTes ovx cu? 
(f)vydh€s v7T€prj(f)avridrjGav, dXX oj? €tl ttjv TraXaidv 
€XOVT€S €vhaLpiOviav Trdarj? TLfJLrjg rj^Lcodrjaav. 

238 (3) ^AvTLoxcp 8' etV Tapaov dchiyiilvoj ttjs 
YLiXiKLas eKaTOVTapx'']'^ YIoItos eTnTreinjjas 8eSe- 

239 fievov avrov et? 'PcopL-qv dTrecrre tAev. OwecrTra- 
crtavo? S' ovTOj? ovx VTrefxecvev Trpos avTov dvax- 
Orjvai TOV ^acrtAea, ttjs iraXaids d^LOJV (^tAta? 
^xaXXov aldo) Xa^elv -q hid ttjv tov rroXipLOV 

240 7rp6(f)aGLV aTrapaLTTjTOV opyrjv hia(j)vXdTTeLV . KeXevei 
07] Kau ooov er ovro? avTov tojv oeGjjLOJV acp- 
aLpedrjvai /cat TrapevTa t7]v et? J"']'^^/ Pcop.rjv d(l)i^Lv 
TO vvv iv AaKeSaLjjLOVL Stayetv, SlScogl re /LteyaAa? 

aVTO) TTpOGohoVS XPVH'^'''^^ > OITOJS fMTj jJLOVOV 

d(j)6ovov dXXd Kal ^aGiXiKrjv exoL Trfv]^ hiaiTav. 

241 TavTa Tols Trepl tov ^KjTLcfiavrj rrvdoiievoLS, npo- 
Tepov GcfioBpa Trepl tov TraTpos SeStoatv, dveidr^aav 
at ipvxo.1 iJL€ydXT]£ Kal hvGhiadeTOV (fypovTiSo?. 

^ Holwerda : 5ta\a,3o;/Tej most MSS. : dia^avres LC. 
2 orn ML. ^ om. PAML. 

572 



JEWISH WAR, VII. 234-241 

Antiochus could not bring himself to remain, but 
accompanied by his v.ife and daughters fled to 
Cilicia, thereby breaking the spirits of his o^^^l troops ; 
for, regarding him as ha\dng pronounced sentence 
on his realm, they mutinied and went over to the 
Romans, and despair was manifest in all faces. 
Epiphanes and his followers were consequently forced 
to seek safety from the enemy in flight, before they 
were entirely deserted by their alhes. Ten horse- 
men, in fact, were all that crossed the Euphrates 
\Wth the two brothers ; thence they proceeded un- 
molested to Bologeses," king of Parthia, by whom 
they were treated not with disdain, as fugitives, but 
v.'ith. every mark of respect, as though still enjoying 
their ancient prosperit\^ 

(3) Antiochus, on reaching Tarsus in Cilicia, was His recon- 
arrested by a centurion, sent after him by Paetus, with^°" 
who dispatched his prisoner in chains to Rome, ^'espasian. 
\'^espasian, however, could not suffer the king to be 
brought up to him thus, thinking it more fitting to 
respect an ancient friendship than, on the pretext of 
war, to cherish inexorable ^^Tath. He accordingly 
gave orders, while he was still on the road, that he 
should be released from his chains, abandon his 
journey to Rome, and remain for the present in 
Lacedaemon ; he, moreover, assigned him a revenue 
sufficient to maintain not merely an ample but a 
regal estabhshment. On hearing of this, Epiphanes 
and Calhnicus, hitherto in serious alarm on then- 
father's account, were reheved from their grave and 
disturbing anxiety. They had hopes, moreover, of 

• § 10.5. 

573 



JOSEPHUS 

242 eATTt? Se Kal avrolg tCjv irapa Katcrapos' hiaWayatv 

eyevero BoAoyecrof rrepl avrow eTTioTeiXavTOS' ovhe 
yap €vhaijjLOVovvres vrrepievov e^co rrjs 'PajpLalajv 

243 irjv -qyepLOvias. bovros 5e Katcrapo? rifxepcos 
avTols r7]v aheiav €is 'Pcofjurjv Trapeyevovro , rod re 
TTarpos (1)9 avTOvg eK rijg AaKeSalu.ovos €v9vg iX- 
66vTO? rrdcrr]? d^LovjievoL TLfirjs Kare/jLevov evravda. 

244 (4) To 8e Tcov ^ AXavoav eOvos on ptev elai 
'Z.Kvdrj.L 7T€pl rov Tai'atV Koi rrjv Matwrtv Xipvqv 

245 KaroLKOvvreg, Trporepov ttov he&qXojKap.€v , Kara 
rovTovg he rovs )(_p6vovs OLavorjdevre? ecs r-qv 
^Irjdiav Kal TTpoGojrepo) ravrrjs €tl Kad^ dpuayrjv 
epL^aXelv toj QaoiXel row 'YpKavujv hiaXeyovrav 
rrjs TTapohov yap ovrog decnroTrj^ earlu, rfv 6 
^acrtAeus" 'AAefavdpo? TTvXais ULd-qpaZs KXeiOTqv 

240 €7T0i'qa€. KOLKeLVOv rrjv etaohov aurots" rrapa- 
(JXdvTos adpooL Kai pnqhev TTpovTroTrrevaaGL rolg 
Mryfeots" imrTeaovres ^(^ojpav TToXvdvdpojrrov Kal 
TTavTOLOJv dvdfJLearov ^oaK-qpLdrojv dL'qp7raL,ov 

247 /XT^Scvos" auToi? toXjjlojvtos dvOiGTaaOaL. Kal yap 
o ^aGiXevojv r-fjg x^P'^^ YldKopo? vtto beovg els 
rag Sucr;^ajptas" dvacf^Evyojv rcov p.ev aXXojv drrdvrojv 
7TapaK€xojpiJK€L, /xoAi? he Trap avTOJV eppvGaro 
TTjv re yvvaZKa ko.l rag TraXXaKag aLXpaXajroug 

248 yevopievas CKarov Sous' rdXavra. pLerd TToXXrjg 
ow paGTOjvrjg dpa^^l noLOvpLevoL rag apnaydg 
P-expi rrjg 'AppLevtag TrporjXdov iravra XeiqXarovvreg . 

° This is the first mention of them in the War ; the allusion 
to a previous remark has possibly been carelessly taken over 
by Josephus from the source from which this section, 
irrelevant to Jewish history, has been derived. 

* The Don. ' Sea of Azov. ** S. of the Ca'^pian. 

' The " Caspian Gates " was the name given to a mountain 

574 



JEWISH WAR, VII. 242-248 

their oa\ti reconciliation Nnth Caesar, through the 
representations which Bologeses had addressed to 
him on their behalf ; for, however favourable their 
lot, the thought of li\ing outside the Roman empire 
was intolerable. Caesar ha\ing then graciously 
granted them safe conduct, they came to Rome, 
where they were promptly joined by their father 
from Lacedaemon ; and there they took up their 
abode, treated ^^'ith everv' mark of honour. 

(4) The Alani — a race of Scvthians.